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A study of mentally retarded pupils in the Sturgis grade schools

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This reproduction is the best copy available.
®
UMI
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This thesis, having been approved by the
special Faculty Committee, is accepted by
the Committee on Graduate S tu dy o f the
University o f Wyoming,
in partial fulfillm ent o f the requirements
fo r the degree
.........
^
Chairman o f the Committee on Graduate Study.
A2a Secretary.
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Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
A S tu d y o f M e n t a l l y R e t a r d e d P u p i l s
in th e
S t u r g i s G rad e S c h o o ls
by
R i c h a r d B. #W
il l ia m s
*•
T h e s i s s u b m i t t e d t o t h e C o l le g e o f
E d u c a t i o n a n d t h e C om m ittee on G r a d u a te Work
o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f Wyoming,
in p a r t i a l f u l ­
f i l l m e n t o f th e re q u ire m e n ts f o r th e d eg ree of
^ M aster o f A r ts .
U& ftA RY
O F THE
ONfVERSITY OF WYOMING?
EAR AM IE
L a r a m ie , Wyoming
1941
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U M I N um ber: E P 2 0 9 0 8
IN F O R M A T IO N T O U S E R S
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A nn Arbor, M l 4 8 1 0 6 -1 3 4 6
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Habard R o n
A cknow ledgm ent b
The w r i t e r f e e l s h i m s e l f u n d e r o b l i g a t i o n t o a
num ber o f p e o p l e f o r t h e i r f i n e c o o p e r a t i o n and a s s i s t ­
ance in t h i s stu d y .
¥.
S i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n g o e s t o Dr.
0. R e u s s e r , h i s a d v i s e r ,
f o r h i s tim e ly c o u n se l; to
Dr. L i l l i a n G. P o r t e n i e r f o r a s s i s t a n c e ,
e n c o u r a g e m e n t,
a nd t h e u s e o f h e r l i b r a r y .
The w r i t e r i s d e e p l y i n d e b t e d t o S u p e r i n t e n d e n t
E. E. G ru n w ald , S t u r g i s P u b l i c S c h o o l s , f o r h i s f i n e
c o o p e ra tio n d u rin g th e stu d y .
He i s a l s o g r a t e f u l t o
Mrs. R. B. W illia m s f o r h e r i n v a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e i n
ta b u la tin g ,
ty p in g ,
an d ab o v e a l l h e r a g g r e s s i v e en­
c o u ra g e m e n t.
L a stly ,
d e e p a p p r e c i a t i o n i s due t h e t e a c h e r s o f
th e S t u r g i s P u b lic S c h o o ls f o r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e in th e
s t u d y , a n d t o t h e b o y s an d g i r l s a b o u t whom t h i s s t u d y
re v o lv e s.
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iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
C hapter
I
II
Page
INTRODUCTION....................................................................................
1
B a c k g ro u n d o f t h e P r o b le m ............................................
S t a t e m e n t o f t h e P r o b le m ................
1
7
THE SURVEY OF LITERATURE IN THE FIELD........................
9
L i t e r a t u r e w h ic h S t r e s s e s t h e I m p o r ta n c e o f
t h e E d u c a tio n o f th e M e n ta lly R e ta rd e d
L i t e r a t u r e W hich D e a l s w i t h M ethods o f
C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f M e n ta lly R e ta rd e d P u p i l s . .
L i t e r a t u r e Tfiaich D e a ls w i t h t h e O b j e c t i v e s
f o r th e E d u c a tio n o f th e M e n ta lly R e ta rd e d . .
III
IV
V
VI
10
16
18
METHODS USED IN THE STUDY.....................................................
20
T e s t s o f I n t e l l i g e n c e .....................................................
S tu d y o f B e h a v i o r ...............................................................
S o c io - E c o n o m ic B a c k g r o u n d ............................................
A t t e n d a n c e , S c h o l a s t i c R a t i n g , and
R e t a r d a t i o n .............................................................................
H e a l t h .........................................................................................
R e a d in g C o m p re h e n s io n .....................................................
G e n e r a l I n f o r m a t i o n ..........................................................
20
24
25
26
27
27
27
ANALYSIS OF INTELLIGENCE TESTS, BEHAVIOR
RATINGS, SCALES, AND OTHER METHODS USED.................
29
I n t e l l i g e n c e ...........................................................................
B e h av io r
......................................................................
S o c io -E c o n o m ic S t a t u s o f Homes................................
A t t e n d a n c e ................
S c h o l a s t i c ................................................................................
H e a l t h ..........................................................................................
R e a d in g C o m p re h e n s io n .....................................................
29
34
39
44
44
48
51
CASE STUDIES....................................................................................
53
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
74
Summary a n d C o n c l u s i o n s .................................................
R e c o m m e n d a tio n s....................................................................
74
79
BIBLIOGRAPHY..........................................................................................................
85
APPENDIX...................................................................................................................
87
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iv
LIST OF TABLES
T a b le Humber
I
II
III
III-fA
III-B
IV
V
V-A
V-B
VI
V II
VIII
Page
C o m p ariso n s o f I n t e l l i g e n c e Q u o t i e n t s
Made b y S e v e n P u p i l s on Group T e s t s
w i t h I n d i v i d u a l T e s t s o f S o u th D a k o ta
M e n ta l S u r v e y ...........................................................................
23
Mean I . Q . ‘ s on t h e V a r i o u s I n t e l l i g e n c e
T e s t s a n d Mean C h r o n o l o g i c a l Ages f o r
t h e T h re e G ra d e L e v e l s ......................................................
30
C h r o n o l o g i c a l A ges, and I n t e l l i g e n c e
Q u o t i e n t s f o r P r i m a r y L e v e l ........................................
31
C h r o n o l o g i c a l Ages an d I n t e l l i g e n c e
Q u o t i e n t s f o r I n t e r m e d i a t e L e v e l ............................
32
C h r o n o l o g i c a l A ges, a n d I n t e l l i g e n c e
Q u o t i e n t s f o r U p p e r L e v e l .............................................
33
Means o f Group on H a g g e rty -0 1 so n -W ic k m a n
'B 1 a s Compared w i t h Norms.......................................
I n d iv id u a l S c o res on t h e H a g g e rty -0 1 so n Wickman S c a l e f o r B e h a v i o r R e c o rd , an d
B e h a v i o r R a t i n g s f o r P r i m a r y L e v e l .........................
I n d i v i d u a l S c o r e s on t h e H a g g e r t y - 0 1 s o n Wickman S c a l e f o r B e h a v i o r R e c o rd , and
B e h av io r R a tin g s f o r In te rm e d ia te L e v e l
I n d i v i d u a l S c o r e s on t h e H a g g e r t y - 0 1 s o n Wickman S c a l e f o r B e h a v i o r R e c o rd , a n d
B e h a v i o r R a t i n g s f o r U p p e r L e v e l ..............................
36
37
38
P e r c e n t a g e o f P a r e n t s a t Each L e v e l o f
t h e Sim s C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f O c c u p a t i o n s ............... 40
P e r c e n t a g e o f Homes I n t a c t a n d P e r c e n t a g e
B ro k e n b y D e a th o r S e p a r a t i o n .....................................
40
Socio-Economic Background as Shown by
R a t i n g s on Sims S o c io - E c o n o m ic S c a l e ,
P r i m a r y L e v e l ............................................................................
V III-A
35
S o c io - E c o n o m ic B a c k g ro u n d a s Shown by
R a t i n g s on Sim s S o c io -E c o n o m ic S c a l e ,
I n t e r m e d i a t e L e v e l ............................................ 1 .............
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41
42
V
TABLES
(c o n t.)
T a b le Number
V III-B
Page
S o c io -E c o n o m ic B a c k g ro u n d a s Shown
by R a t i n g s on Sims S o c io -E c o n o m ic
S c a l e , U pper l e v e l ........................................................
43
A t t e n d a n c e , S c h o l a s t i c R a t i n g , and
R e t a r d a t i o n f o r P r im a r y G r a d e s ...........................
45
A t t e n d a n c e , S c h o l a s t i c R a t i n g , an d
R e t a r d a t i o n f o r I n t e r m e d i a t e G r a d e s ...............
46
A t t e n d a n c e , S c h o l a s t i c R a t i n g , and
R e t a r d a t i o n o f U p p e r g r a d e s ..................................
47
X
H e a l t h C o n d i t i o n o f P r i m a r y G r a d e s ..................
48
X-A
H e a lth C o n d itio n o f In te rm e d ia te G r a d e s ...
49
X-B
H e a l t h C o n d i t i o n o f U p per G r a d e s .......................
50
XI
R e s u l t s o f R e a d in g C o m p reh e n sio n on
Iowa S i l e n t R e a d in g T e s t s f o r G ra d e s VI,
V I I , a n d V I I I ....................................................................
52
IX
IX-A
IX-B
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CHAPTER I
IFTHODUCTIOH
B a c k g ro u n d o f t h e P ro b le m
I t i s n o t uncommon t o d a y i n t h e c o u r s e o f e d u c a t i o n a l
rea d in g s,
o r in th e c o u rse of e d u c a tio n a l co n feren ces, to h e a r
m e n tio n o f S p e c ia l E d u c a tio n o r r e f e r e n c e s to S p e c ia l E d u c a t­
i o n i n synonymous t e r m s su c h a s :
c la ss e s,
e tc .
sp e c ia l c la ss e s,
ungraded
o p p o r t u n i t y room s, e d u c a t i o n f o r h a n d i c a p p e d c h i l d r e n ,
As a r e s u l t we a r e aw are o f t h e i n c r e a s i n g a t t e n t i o n w h ic h
i s b e in g p a id to th o se c h ild r e n ,
p h y sic a l,
who, f o r r e a s o n s o f m e n t a l ,
e m o t i o n a l a n d s o c i a l h a n d i c a p s m ust b e c o n s i d e r e d i n
a d i f f e r e n t l i g h t t h a n t h e i r m ore f o r t u n a t e a s s o c i a t e s .
th e r e i s an e v e r in c r e a s in g i n t e r e s t
Today
in and a t t e n t i o n to th e
f i e l d o f S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n , th o u g h s u c h i n t e r e s t a n d a t t e n t i o n
h a s n o t f o u n d i t s way i n t o n a t i o n - w i d e p r a c t i c e i n any s e n s e o f
t h e w ord.
F i f t e e n s t a t e s have e n a c te d s p e c i a l law s f o r th e p u r 1
p o s e o f e d u c a t i n g h a n d i c a p p e d c h i l d r e n ? A num ber o f t h e l a r g e r
c i t i e s a r e c a r r y i n g o u t o r g a n i z e d p r o g ra m s o f S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n .
The m ere f a c t t h a t t h e r e i s a g ro w in g t e n d e n c y t o c o n s i d e r
S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n i n t e r m s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d an d t h e r e ­
s u l t a n t e f f e c t on s o c i e t y shows p r o g r e s s .
T h is t h o u g h t i s w e l l
1.
The W h ite H ouse O o n f e r e n c e on O h i l d H e a l t h a n d
P r o t e c t i o n , S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n , The H a n d ic a p p e d a n d t h e G i f t e d ,
Hew York;
The C e n tu r y C o ., 1 9 3 1 . p . 439.
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2.
s u m m arize d by D o l l .
We a r e m aking r a p i d p r o g r e s s t o w a rd b e t t e r u n d e r ­
s ta n d in g o f t h e n a t i v e a b i l i t i e s and d i s a b i l i t i e s
of c h ild re n .
The im p ro v em en t i n t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e
p u b lio -s c h o o l e d u c a tio n w ith in th e l a s t g e n e ra tio n
is g ra tify in g .
We a r e s p e n d i n g l a r g e sums f o r pu b­
l i c e d u c a t i o n , an d n e v e r b e f o r e h a v e we h a d su c h a
h i g h r e t u r n fr o m o u r i n v e s t m e n t .
The p r o b le m s o f
S p e c ia l E d u c a tio n , t h e r e f o r e , sh o u ld n o t d is c o u ra g e
u s b u t s h o u l d r a t h e r b e c o n s i d e r e d a s one o f t h e
s t r i k i n g e v i d e n c e s o f t h e a l e r t n e s s w i t h w h ic h t h e
p u b l ic e d u c a tio n to d a y i s m e e tin g i t s r e s p o n s i b i l ­
itie s.
I t i s p e r h a p s n o t t o o much t o s a y t h a t t h e
m e a su re o f p r o g r e s s i n e d u c a t i o n t o d a y i s n o t t o
be f o u n d i n o u r c o s t l y b u i l d i n g s , o r i n o u r p e r
c a p i ta e x p e n d itu re s, o r in o u r te a c h in g p e rso n n e l,
b u t r a t h e r i n t h e e x t e n t t o w h ic h we a r e s u c c e s s f u l
i n m e e ti n g t h e n e e d s o f i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n .
I n my
judg m ent t h e b e s t i n d e x i n m odern e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g ­
r e s s i s t o b e f o u n d i n t h e e x t e n t t o w h ic h v a r i o u s
t y p e s o f S p e c i a l c l a s s e s h a v e b e e n d e v e l o p e d i n any
sc h o o l s y s te m .^
H ow ever, t h e w i d e - s p r e a d p r a c t i c e o f S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n
th ro u g h th e sc h o o ls o f th e U n ited S ta te s i s la c k in g .
One o f
th e c h ie f cau ses f o r t h i s la c k has been th e d e p re ssio n p e rio d
w h ic h h a s b r o u g h t a b o u t d e c r e a s e d f u n d s ,
sta ffs,
reduced te a c h in g
l o w e r e d e q u ip m e n t b u d g e t s , a n d n a rr o w e d c u r r i c u l a .
The r e s u l t s o f t h e d e p r e s s i o n a l o n e , t a k e n w i t h t h e f a c t t h a t
S p e c ia l E d u c a tio n had i t s b e g in n in g s l e s s th a n f o r t y y e a r s
a g o ,w o u l d e x p l a i n , p a r t i a l l y a t l e a s t , why we h a v e n o t gone
fu rth e r.
D u rin g t h i s f o r t y - y e a r p e r i o d we h a v e gone t h r o u g h
a w a r p e r i o d , a p o s t - w a r p e r i o d , and a d e p r e s s i o n s p a n n i n g
a fo u rth of th o se f o r t y y e a rs.
B u t, p e r h a p s , f r o m a l l o f t h i s
h a s em erged t h e i d e a o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d a s a n i m p o r t a n t
3.
D o l l , E d g a r A ., The S p e c i a l G l a s s a s a C l e a r i n g
H o u s e , E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h B u l l e t i n , O hio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y ;
V o l. V I I I , O c t o b e r 28. p p 3 0 2 -3 0 3
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
u n i t o f s o c i e t y ; a u n i t w h ic h g o e s d i r e c t l y i n t o t h e m aking
of so c ie ty ,
f o r so c ie ty .
and t h e r e f o r e a v e ry im p o rta n t c o n s id e r a tio n
We a r e "becoming more " c h i l d c o n s c i o u s " ,
and
w i t h t h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s we becom e more i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e
w holesom e e d u c a t i o n o f t h e w h o le c h i l d .
*2
The W h ite H ouse C o n f e r e n c e ^ r e p o r t i n g i n 1931 e s t i m a t ­
ed o v e r 3 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 c h i l d r e n i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s o f t h i s
c o u n t r y who n e e d e d s p e c i a l t r e a t m e n t o r t r a i n i n g t o make t h e
m ost o f t h e i r p o s s i b i l i t i e s .
Of t h i s number 4 5 0 ,0 0 0 e l e m e n t ­
a r y p u p i l s w e re e s t i m a t e d t o b e m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d .
The S t a t e o f S o u th D a k o ta i s one o f t h e t h i r t y - t h r e e
s t a t e s w h ic h h a s no p r o v i s i o n f o r S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n .
t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n sc h o o ls f o r th e fe e b le -m in d e d , b l i n d ,
a n d dumb a r e m a i n t a i n e d .
U nder
deaf,
A b o a r d o f C h a r i t i e s an d C o r r e c t -
i o n s » p r e s i d e d o v e r by t h e g o v e r n o r ,
s u p p l i e s t h e g e n e r a l ad-
m i n i s t r a t i o n o f th e s e and o th e r c h a r i ta b l e i n s t i t u t i o n s .
D u r in g t h e p a s t few y e a r s i t h a s b e e n i m p o s s i b l e t o e n l a r g e
f a c i l i t i e s t o c a r e f o r many i n s t i t u t i o n a l c a s e s .
In a re c e n t
c o n v e r s a t i o n b e tw e e n t h e w r i t e r an d a s t a t e m e n t a l e x a m in e r,
t h e w r i t e r was t o l d t h a t t h e r e w ere o v e r t h r e e h u n d r e d c a s e s
on t h e w a i t i n g l i s t f o r t h e f e e b l e - m i n d e d s c h o o l .
T h ese
c a s e s w e re b e i n g t a k e n c a r e o f i n homes o r p u b l i c s c h o o l s o f
th e s t a te .
Many o f them w o u ld b e on t h e w a i t i n g l i s t f o r a
l o n g p e r i o d u n l e s s C ounty E x a m in in g B o a rd s c o u l d show t h a t
—
c it
, ' pp. 6 - 7
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4.
t h e y c o u l d no l o n g e r be k e p t i n t h e com m unity.
Such c o n d i t i o n s p l a c e a h e a v i e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on t h e
p u b l i c s c h o o l s t h a n w o uld n o r m a l l y b e t h e c a s e .
th is ,
A long w i t h
t h e s t a t e i s n o t i n a p o s i t i o n t o p ro m o te o r s p o n s o r
a p l a n f o r t h o s e h a n d i c a p p e d c h i l d r e n who a r e n o t i n s t i ­
t u t i o n a l c a s e s , a n d who a r e b e i n g c a r e d f o r by p u b l i c s c h o o l s .
T h e i r w ork, h o w e v e r, i s l i m i t e d t o b u l l e t i n s w h ic h s u g g e s t
w h a t c o u l d a n d s h o u l d b e done i n t h e s c h o o l s .
an a d m in is tr a to r t h i s q u e stio n :
When one a s k s
"What do y o u do w i t h y o u r
m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n i n y o u r s c h o o l ? 11, h e g e n e r a l l y
answ ers,
"We j u s t r u n th em t h r o u g h . "
i m p o r t a n c e t o t h i s p r o b le m .
Many do n o t a t t a c h any
I t i s d o u b t f u l i f some r e a l i z e
t h e r e i s s u c h a p ro b le m .
The e d u c a t i o n o f t h e s e c h i l d r e n i s a c h a l l e n g e t o t h e
a d m i n i s t r a t o r s an d t e a c h e r s o f t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s .
R e g a rd ­
l e s s o f t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y r e m a in s w i t h u s .
We c a n n o t l a y i t a s i d e o n g r o u n d s t h a t we a r e s h o r t on f a c i l ­
itie s.
N or c a n we a w a i t t h e a r r i v a l o f a t i m e when s p e c i a l ­
i s t s may b e f u r n i s h e d f o r su c h w ork.
We a r e l i k e l y t o h a v e
t o p l a y t h e r o l e o f t h e s p e c i a l i s t f o r y e a r s t o come.
t h e w h i l e we a r e d o i n g l i t t l e
A ll o f
o r n o t h i n g a b o u t su c h p u p i l s .
T hey a r e g r a d u a l l y p a s s i n g t h r o u g h o u r s y s te m s a s i n d i v i d u a l s
who a r e m a l a d j u s t e d o r who a r e c o m p l e t e f a i l u r e s .
In th e lo n g
r u n , t h e comm unity b e a r s a h e a v y b u r d e n o f c o s t f o r a l l t h o s e
who f a i l t o a d j u s t t o com m unity l i f e .
T hese p u p i l s who f a i l
t o f i n d t h e m s e l v e s i n s c h o o l , b e s i d e s b e c o m in g a b u r d e n on
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
5.
s o c i e t y , l i v e m i s e r a b l e and, unhappy l i v e s .
I t i s w ith in th e
r e a l m o f t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l t o p r o v i d e t h e p r o p e r e n v ir o n m e n t ­
a l f a c t o r s a n d t r a i n i n g t o p r e v e n t much o f t h i s m a l a d j u s t m e n t ,
an d t h e y s h o u l d a c c e p t t h e c h a l l e n g e .
The p r o b le m f o r t h e p r e s e n t ,
due t o i t s
w i l l d o u b t l e s s a lw a y s be a l o c a l o n e .
on t h e f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s :
(l)
c h a ra c te r,
T h is a s s u m p t i o n r e s t s
to n y m e n ta lly h a n d ic ap p e d
p u p ils a re not i n s t i t u t i o n a l cases.
(2 )
Most o f t h e parent;:-:
o f s u c h c h i l d r e n p r e f e r t o h a v e them i n t h e home.
(3 ) T h e s e
p u p i l s w i l l become a p a r t o f t h e comm unity i n w h ic h t h e y a r e
e d u c a te d .
(4 )
I n s t i t u t i o n a l c a r e a n d e d u c a t i o n i s much more
c o s tly th a n p u b lic school e d u c a tio n .
(5 )
Such c h i l d r e n a r e
h a p p i e r i n t h e i r own home i f g i v e n p r o p e r t r e a t m e n t .
The S t u r g i s Grade S c h o o l , w h e re t h i s s t u d y was made,
o f f e r e d a somewhat d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n t h a n w o u ld b e t h e c a s e
i n many o t h e r s c h o o l s .
T h is was b r o u g h t a b o u t by t h e l a r g e
i n f l u x o f p o p u la tio n d u rin g th e p e r i o d o f d ro u g h t and de­
p r e s s i o n w h ic h i n c r e a s e d t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e town fro m 1700
±n 1932 t o 4 ,0 0 0 i n 19 40.
D u rin g t h i s p e r i o d t h e g r a d e s c h o o l
i n c r e a s e d by a b o u t 200 p u p i l s .
One w o u ld n o t make t h e sw eep­
i n g s t a t e m e n t t h a t a l l o f t h e s e p e o p l e w ere on t h e low end o f
th e s o c i a l o r m en tal s c a l e ,
y e t t h e y d i d r e p r e s e n t t o a m arked
d e g r e e those who w ere easily t o r n loose from their former com­
m u n itie s,
a f a c t w h ich m ig h t i n d i c a t e i n s t a b i l i t y .
Many o f them
came fro m d i s t a n t c o u n t i e s a n d s t a t e s t o t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f r e ­
lie f
ro lls .
T h e re y/ere some c a s e s w here f a m i l i e s o f low
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
s t a n d a r d s i n t e r e s t e d r e l a t i v e s t o come t o S t u r g i s t o b e w i t h
th em .
The s t a n d a r d s o f l i v i n g i n g e n e r a l w e re lo w , a n d p a r ­
t i c u l a r l y so w i t h t h i s c l a s s o f i n d i v i d u a l s .
T h is f a c t ,
to ­
g e t h e r w i t h b e i n g " t r a n s p l a n t e d " c a u s e d many p r o b le m s .
I n t h e s c h o o l many d i f f i c u l t i e s a r o s e w i t h t h i s i n ­
crease.
F a c i l i t i e s f o r t h e i r e d u c a tio n h ad t o be expanded a t
a tim e when f i n a n c i a l c o n d i t i o n s made e x p a n s i o n a p ro b le m .
L a r g e num bers o f t h e f a m i l i e s a d d e d l i t t l e
o r n o th in g to th e
l o c a l t a x , w h i l e t a x a t i o n was i n c r e a s e d t o c a r e f o r th em .
Rooms i n t h e s c h o o l w ere f i l l e d and t e a c h e r s w o rk ed u n d e r a
f u l l - t i m e sc h ed u le .
D e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s c h o o l h a d 500 p u p i l s and
b u t 14 t e a c h e r s o n t h e s t a f f ,
tio n e d ,
a n d d e s p i t e t h e p r o b le m s men­
a w e l l - r o u n d e d c u r r i c u l u m o f s u b j e c t s an d a c t i v i t i e s
h a s been p ro v id ed .
Slow l e a r n e r s an d m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d w ere
r e t a i n e d i n a g r a d e w h e n e v e r i t was f e l t t o b e t o t h e i r ad­
v a n ta g e .
E f f o r t was made t o k e e p t h e s e p u p i l s som ew here n e a r
t h e p r o p e r age g ro u p and g ro u p s o f s i m i l a r s o c i a l p a t t e r n .
t h e p a s t two y e a r s
*K* g r a d e s w e re g i v e n t o t h o s e who,
o f t h e i r good e f f o r t s ,
grade.
In
in s p ite
c o u l d n o t make t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l p a s s i n g
When t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s w ere r e t a r d e d a s l o n g a s i t was
f e l t t h a t t h e y c o u l d b e n e f i t fr o m t h e s c h o o l , t h e y w ere " p a s ­
s e d w i t h o u t re c o m m e n d a tio n " t o h i g h s c h o o l .
H igh s c h o o l w ork
was n o t d i s c o u r a g e d , b u t due t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y m ig h t move
t o a n o t h e r com m unity,
d i n a r y p r o m o ti o n .
i t was t h o u g h t u n w is e t o make t h e o r ­
Some o f t h e s e p u p i l s t o o k p a r t in v a r i o u s
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
7.
a c t i v i t y p ro g ra m s o f f e r e d by t h e s c h o o l .
Some managed t o
g a i n much f r o m t h e a c a d e m ic w ork, a n d many a p p e a r e d t o h a v e
g a i n e d much b y way o f s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t i n t h e i r c o n t a c t
w ith o th e rs ,
Y e t,
t h e r e w e re s i g n s o f l a c k o f a d j u s t m e n t i n
many c a s e s t o s c h o o l l i f e
an d w ork.
o v e r a p e rio d of s e v e r a l y e a r s ,
From t h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s
i t was f e l t t h a t s o m e th in g
s h o u l d be done t o h e l p t h e s e p u p i l s , who, b e c a u s e o f m e n t a l
in a b ility ,
w e re n o t g e t t i n g o f s c h o o l t h a t w h ich s c h o o l
s h o u l d g i v e them .
n o t,
L ack o f a t t e n t i o n t o t h e s e p u p i l s ,
a s i s o f t e n tim e s th o u g h t,
does
g i v e more t im e t o t h o s e who
a r e n o rm a l, b u t i n s t e a d — u n a t t e n d e d — t h e y s e r v e t o c l o g t h e
c h a n n e ls o f e f f e c t i v e e d u c a tio n f o r a l l .
S t a t e m e n t o f t h e P ro b le m
The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o a s c e r t a i n t h e i n ­
te lle c tu a l,
p h y s ic a l, em o tio n al,
so c ia l,
and o t h e r b e h a v io r
p a tt e r n s o f m en tally r e ta r d e d p u p ils in o rd e r to b e t t e r u n d e r­
sta n d t h e i r e d u c a tio n a l needs.
At t h i s p o i n t i t w i l l b e n e c e s s a r y t o d e f i n e t h e u s e
o f th e term 'm e n ta lly r e t a r d e d '
in t h i s stu d y .
M a r t e n s , 4 m e n t a l r e t a r d a t i o n i s o f many d e g r e e s ,
A cco rd in g t o
v a r y i n g fro m
a c o n d i t i o n s l i g h t l y b e lo w n o rm a l t o e x tr e m e d e f i c i e n c i e s ,
a n d f u r t h e r m e n tio n s t h a t I . Q .* s r e a c h i n g 7 0 -8 0 c o u l d s a f e l y
b e p la c e d i n t h i s group.
The low n o rm a l I .
i s p la c e d a t
4.
M a r t e n s , E l s i e H . , T e a c h e r ' s P ro b le m s w i t h E x c e n t i o n a l C h i l d r e n . I l l M e n t a l l y R e t a r d e d C h i l d r e n . W a sh in g to n ,
D . C . , U n i t e d S t a t e s G overnm ent P r i n t i n g O f f i c e . 1934. P a m p h le t
No. 4 9 , p p . 6 - 7 .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
90.
S in c e an I .
Q. o f 85 i s b e lo w n o r m a l,
i t was t h e p u r p o s e
o f t h i s stu d y to d e a l w ith a l l p u p i ls w ith an I.
b e lo w .
Q. o f 85 o r
The t e r m ’ m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d 1 i n t h i s s t u d y w i l l mean
a l l p u p i l s w i t h I . Q. ' s o f 85 an d b e lo w .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CHAPTER I I
THE SURVEY OF LITERATURE IN THE FIELD
S p e a k in g i n t e r m s o f t h e s p a n o f c i v i l i z a t i o n , we h a v e
come a l o n g way i n o u r a t t e n t i o n t o i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s .
Much o f t h e d i s t a n c e t r a v e l l e d h a s b e e n i n c o m p a r a t i v e l y r e ­
c e n t y e a r s when we m e a s u r e o u r p r o g r e s s a l o n g t h e l i n e o f r e ­
co rd ed h i s t o r y .
From m a n 's e a r l i e s t r e c o r d e d o b s e r v a t i o n s ,
we l e a r n t h a t he was a w a r e o f p h y s i c a l a n d m e n ta l d i f f e r e n c e s
b e tw e e n h i m s e l f a n d o t h e r s .
The n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y m arks t h e m odern p e r i o d i n t h e
tre a tm e n t o f d e f e c tiv e s .
F e e b l e - m i n d e d n e s s was d i f f e r e n t i a t e d
f ro m i n s a n i t y by I t a r d a s a r e s u l t o f h i s work w i t h t h e W ild
Boy o f A v e ry o n .
S eg u in , a p u p i l o f I t a r d ,
c o n tin u e d w ith
I t a r d ' s s t u d y , an d was s t i m u l a t e d t o h i s g r e a t w ork i n t r a i n i n g
th e fe e b le -m in d e d .
He a r o u s e d much i n t e r e s t i n t r a i n i n g t h e
f e e b l e - m i n d e d i n t h i s c o u n t r y d u r i n g a l e c t u r e t o u r i n 1848.
D u r in g t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y t h e r e a l movement f o r e d ­
u c a t io n o f t h e m e n ta lly d e f i c i e n t g a in e d r e c o g n i t i o n th ro u g h
t h e work o f s u c h men a s B i n e t an d Simon i n F r a n c e , an d G oddard
in th e U n ited S t a t e s .
S i n c e 1 9 0 6 , when t h e l a b o r a t o r y f o r t h e
s t u d y o f t h e m e n t a l l y d e f i c i e n t was e s t a b l i s h e d a t V i n e la n d ,
N e w Jersey,
the consideration of the mentally retarded in the
p u b lic school in cre ased .
The s u r v e y o f l i t e r a t u r e w h ic h d e a l t w i t h t h e p r o b le m
may b e d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e p a r t s :
( 1 ) l i t e r a t u r e w hich s t r e s -
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
10.
s e s t h e im p o r t a n c e o f t h e e d u c a t i o n o f t h e m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d ,
( 2 ) l i t e r a t u r e w h ic h d i s c u s s e s m eth o d s u s e d f o r t h e c l a s s i ­
f i c a t i o n of th e m en tally r e ta r d e d ,
(3 ) l i t e r a t u r e w h ic h s e t s
up o b j e c t i v e s f o r t h e e d u c a t i o n o f t h e m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d .
L i t e r a t u r e Which S t r e s s e s t h e Im p o r ta n c e
o f th e E d u o a tio n o f th e M e n ta lly R e ta rd e d
T h e re
a r e some e d u c a t o r s who f e e l t h a t no t i m e s h o u l d
be s p e n t w i t h t h o s e who a r e m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d .
s u c h t im e a s w a s t e d .
o f k n o w le d g e
They r e g a r d
T h is a t t i t u d e may r e s u l t fr o m t h e l a c k
a s t o how t o d e a l w i t h t h e m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d i n
t h e c l a s s - r o o m , o r i t may r e s u l t f ro m t h e t h o u g h t t h a t su c h
p u p i l s c a n n e v e r h o p e t o be o f v a l u e t o t h e m s e l v e s o r t o s o ­
c ie ty .
I f one d e f i n e s e d u c a t i o n i n t e r m s o f a c a d e m ic a c h i e v e ­
m e n ts o n ly ,m a n y o f t h e s e p u p i l s w o u ld n o t go f a r , b u t t h o s e
who r e a l i z e t h a t e d u c a t i o n t a k e s i n a much l a r g e r a r e a t h a n
m e r e ly t h e a c a d e m ic t r a i n i n g w i l l b e a b l e t o s e e t h a t much c a n
be done.
Our e x p e r i e n c e t e l l s u s t h a t e d u c a t i o n f o r t h e n o r ­
m al p u p i l s a n d t h e m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d p u p i l s c o v e r s much more
t h a n a c a d e m ic l e a r n i n g , a n d t h a t m o r a l , s o c i a l , p h y s i c a l ,
a n d e m o t i o n a l a d j u s t m e n t s p l a y m ost i m p o r t a n t r o l e s i n t h e
l i v e s of everyone.
A s t u d y was made by P o r t e n i e r 5 i n West H igh S c h o o l ,
5.
P o r t e n i e r , L i l l i a n G-. , P e r s o n a l i t y F a c t o r s i n t h e ~
A c h iev e m e n t o f H igh S c h o o l P u p i l s , L a r a m ie ; U n i v e r s i t y o f
Wyoming P u b l i c a t i o n s , V o l. 2 , No. 9 , S e p t . 1 , 1 9 3 6 . p p . 1 7 3 179.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
11.
D e n v e r, C o l o r a d o , o f s i x t y - s i x p u p i l s w i t h I . Q . ' s o f 85 a n d
le ss,
99.
an d a c o n t r o l g r o u p o f e i g h t y p u p i l s w i t h I . Q . ' s above
A f t e r s e l e c t i o n o f c a s e s by group i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s ,
t h e two g r o u p s w ere co m pared on r e s u l t s o f t h e New S t a n f o r d
A c h ie v e m e n t T e s t ,
by te a c h e rs '
Sims S c a l e f o r S o c io -E c o n o m ic s t a t u s ,
r a t i n g s on p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s .
and
A fo llo w -u p
s t u d y some y e a r s l a t e r t e n d e d t o show t h a t c o n s t r u c t i v e p e r ­
so n a lity t r a i t s ,
home b a c k g r o u n d , an d wholesom e a d j u s t m e n t
t o s c h o o l l i f e w e re f a c t o r s m ost i n f l u e n t i a l i n d e t e r m i n i n g
h ig h school su c c e ss.
In c o n c lu sio n th e a u th o r s t a t e s ;
F o r p a r e n t s a n d t e a c h e r s o f c h i l d r e n who a r e
a v e r a g e q r b e lo w a v e r a g e i n n a t i v e a b i l i t y , t h e s e
f i n d i n g s s h o u l d be e n c o u r a g i n g i n t h a t t h e y i n ­
d i c a t e t h e i m p o r t a n c e f o r s c h o o l a c h i e v e m e n t , and
p e r h a p s f o r v o c a t i o n a l s u c c e s s a s w e l l , o f con ­
s t r u c t i v e p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s w h ic h c a n be a c q u i r e d
and o f home b a c k g r o u n d w h ic h c an be im p ro v e d .
W ith r e f e r e n c e t o a b i l i t y o f t h e m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d t o
be o f s e r v i c e a n d t o become s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g , we may c i t e
Terman;
I t sh o u ld be c l e a r l y u n d e rs to o d t h a t i n d iv i d u a ls
o f i n f e r i o r i n t e l l i g e n c e a r e n o t n e c e s s a r i l y un­
d e s i r a b l e members o f s o c i e t y .
In d eed , th e w o rld h a s
a b u n d a n t u s e f o r them .
A la r g e p r o p o r tio n o f th e
t a s k s i n m odern o r g a n i z a t i o n o f i n d u s t r i e s c a n w e l l
b e p e r f o r m e d by i n d i v i d u a l s o f t h e 70 o r 75 I .Q .
c l a s s as by th o s e o f s u p e r i o r i n t e l l i g e n c e , and w ith
more s a t i s f a c t i o n i n t h e p e r f o r m a n c e .
M e n ta lity o f
e l e v e n y e a r s i s am ple f o r o r d i n a r y k i n d s o f un­
s k i l l e d l a b o r , an d many o f t h e s e m i - s k i l l e d t r a d e s
a r e w i t h i n r e a c h o f t h o s e who t e s t a y e a r o r so h i g h ­
er.
To make t h a m ost o f t h i s a b i l i t y , h o w e v e r, i t
must be t r a i n e d .7
6 . I b i d , p . 12
7. Term an, L o u i s W. , The I n t e l l i g e n c e o f S c h o o l C h i l d r e n,
B o s to n ; H o u g h t o n - M i f f l i n Company, 1 9 1 9 . p. 133.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
18.
A n d e rs o n 8made a s t u d y o f 500 s a l e s c l e r k s i n M a c y 's
d e p artm e n t s t o r e ,
and f o u n d t h a t f o r t y - s i x p e r c e n t o f t h e
c l e r k s w ere o f a v e r a g e o r s u p e r i o r i n t e l l i g e n c e , w h i l e f i f t y tw o p e r c e n t o f t h e
'b e s t ' s a le s c le rk s ,
an d o n l y t h i r t y - s i x
p e r c e n t o f t h e ' w o r s t 1 s a l e s c l e r k s w e re o f a v e r a g e o r
su p e rio r in te llig e n c e .
N i n e t e e n and s i x - t e n t h s p e r c e n t o f
th e e n t i r e s a l e s f o r c e w ere su b -n o rm al o r d e f e c t i v e in i n t e l ­
lig e n c e , w h ile t h i r t y - s i x p e r c en t of th e
and tw e lv e p e r c e n t o f th e
'b e s t '
'w o r s t'
s a le s c le rk s
s a l e s c l e r k s , w ere o f su b ­
n o rm a l o r d e f e c t i v e i n t e l l i g e n c e .
A n d e r s o n 's s t u d y i n d i c a t e s t h a t i n t e l l i g e n c e p l a y s a n
im p o rtan t p a r t in su c c e ss o r f a i l u r e
i n s e l l i n g ; h o w e v er, we
a l s o d i s c o v e r t h a t many s u b - n o r m a l c l e r k s w e re i n t h e ' b e s t '
group.
When we c o n s i d e r t h e n a t u r e o f t h e work t o be c a r r i e d
on by a s a l e s c l e r k , t h e p e r s o n a l i t y e le m e n t i n v o l v e d , and
th e a r i t h m e t ic a l a b i l i t y needed,
it
i s s u r p r is in g to d isc o v e r
t h a t s u c h w ork c a n b e d o n e by t h o s e o f s u b - n o r m a l m e n t a l i t y .
From t h i s s t u d y we b e g i n t o s e e t h a t t h e r e w o uld be q u i t e a
w id e o c c u p a t i o n a l r a n g e f o r t h e m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d i n v o c a t i o n s
r e q u i r i n g l e s s m e n ta l c a p a c i t y t h a n t h e s a l e s c l e r k s .
Such a
s t u d y w o u ld a l s o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e e d u c a t i o n o f t h e m e n t a l l y
r e t a r d e d g r o u p i s v e r y much w o r t h w h i l e , and seem s t o show t h a t
s u c c e s s i n a c a d e m ic w ork i s n o t t h e m a jo r c r i t e r i o n f o r s u c c e s s
in l i f e .
T h is i s a p o i n t w h ic h i s i m p o r t a n t , a n d a p o i n t w h ic h
8.
A n d e rs o n , V. V . , P s y c h i a t r y i n I n d u s t r y , New York:
H a r p e r & B r o t h e r s , P u b l i s h e r s , 193 9.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
13.
i s t o '"be c o n s i d e r e d when we t r y t o m e a su re p u p i l s who a r e
m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d by s u c c e s s i n s c h o o l s u b j e c t s a l o n e .
The
a u th o r s ta te d :
The common j o b f a i l u r e s a n d j o b m i s f i t s , t h e
l a y - o f f s , t h e d i s c h a r g e s a n d r e s i g n a t i o n s , t h a t we
d a i l y come i n t o u c h w i t h among t h e s e y o u n g p e o p l e
j u s t s t a r t i n g on t h e i r w ork c a r e e r s , a r e n o t
t r a c e a b l e to a l a c k o f i n s t r u c t i o n in g eo g rap h y ,
a r i t h m e t i c , E n g l i s h , e t c . , n o r t o some te m p o r a r y
s i t u a t i o n a r i s i n g i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e i r w ork,
a s o f t e n a s t h e y a r e t h e outcom e o f d e e p - s e a t e d
p e r s o n a l i t y d e f e c t s t h a t sh o h ld have been rec o g ­
n iz e d and i n t e l l i g e n t l y d e a l t w ith , in a l l j u s t i c e
t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l , much e a r l i e r i n t h e game an d a t
a tim e when t h e p r e v e n t i v e work g i v e s p r o m is e o f
s u c c e s s f u l a c h ie v e m e n t.^
A tw e lv e - y e a r stu d y o f d i f f e r e n t i a t e d g ro u p s o f h ig h
s c h o o l p u p i l s by P o r t e n i e r 10t h r o w s some l i g h t on t h e a d j u s t ­
ment o f p u p i l s who a r e b e lo w a v e r a g e i n i n t e l l i g e n c e .
A
g r o u p o f h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s c o m p r i s i n g s i x t e e n b o y s an d
f o u r t e e n g i r l s c o n s i d e r e d v e r y w e l l a d j u s t e d , an d a g r o u p o f
t w e n ty - t w o h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s c o m p r i s i n g t w e lv e b o y s an d
t e n g i r l s who w ere p o o r l y a d j u s t e d , a n d c o n s i d e r e d v e r y i n ­
f e r i o r , w ere s t u d i e d .
The I . Q . ’ s i n t h e ’ A* g ro u p showed a
m ed ian o f 130 f o r t h e g i r l s a n d 135 f o r t h e b o y s , w h i l e i n
th e
, BI g r o u p t h e m ed ian I .Q . f o r t h e g i r l s was 93 a n d f o r
t h e b o y s 93.
A lth o u g h t h e l a t t e r g r o u p h a d a h i g h e r l e v e l o f
i n t e l l i g e n c e t h a n t h e p r e v i o u s s t u d y c i t e d by t h e a u t h o r , t h e
r e s u l t s seem p e r t i n e n t t o t h i s
stu d y .
A f te r fo llo w in g th e
p r o g r e s s o f t h e two g r o u p s f o r a t w e l v e y e a r p e r i o d t h e a u t h 9. I b i d , p . 1 06.
10. P o r t e n i e r , L i l l i a n G . , A T w elve- Y e a r S tu d y o f D i f ­
f e r e n t i a t e d g r o u p s o f H igh S c h o o l P u p i l s , B a l t i m o r e : Warwick
& Y ork, I n c . , 1938.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
14.
o r s ta te s;
Of t h e n i n e t e e n p e r s o n s i n G roup B f o r whom
f a i r l y a d e q u a t e d a t a w e re s e c u r e d , f o u r seem ed
s t i l l to be p o o rly a d ju s te d in t h e i r v o c a tio n a l
an d s o c i a l l i f e , e i g h t h a d a t t a i n e d a b o u t a n a v ­
e r a g e d e g r e e o f a d j u s t m e n t , an d s e v e n m a n i f e s t e d
s e v e r a l s ig n s o f s u p e r io r a d ju s tm e n t.
On t h e
b a s i s o f t h e d a t a s e c u r e d , m ost o f Group B seem ed
t o be ab o u t as w e ll a d ju s te d v o c a t io n a l ly , s o c i a l ­
l y an d p e r s o n a l l y i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e e n v ir o n m e n t s
i n 1935 a s t h o s e o f Group A. T h u s, a l t h o u g h m ost
o f Group A w e re s t i l l s u p e r i o r i n a c h i e v e m e n t ,
m ost o f Group B a p p e a r e d t o h a v e made a b o u t a s
s a t i s f a c t o r y a d ju stm e n t to t h e i r s u r r o u n d i n g s .i l
Vanuxeml2made a s t u d y o f 181 c a s e s o f f e e b l e - m i n d e d
women i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a t L a u r e l t o n , P e n n s y l v a n i a .
It
was shown t h a t a num ber o f t h e c a s e s w ere t r a i n e d i n t h e
i n s t i t u t i o n an d s e n t b a c k i n t o comm unity l i f e a s s e l f su p p o rtin g in d iv id u a ls .
L o rd 13made a s t u d y o f 449 r e t a r d e d
c h i l d r e n i n two c i t i e s a n d two l a r g e to w n s i n M a s s a c h u s e t t s .
A g ro u p o f 330 m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d b o y s and g i r l s b e tw e e n t h e
a g e s o f 1 6 -3 1 who h a d l e f t t h e s p e c i a l c l a s s o f t h e p u b l i c
s c h o o l s and a s t u d y o f 319 i n t h e s p e c i a l c l a s s was made.
In
t h e s c h o o l g r o u p t h e a v e r a g e I .Q . was 70 w i t h 153 o f t h e 319
r a n g i n g fro m 6 0 - 7 9 .
F o r t h o s e o u t o f s c h o o l t h e a v e r a g e I .Q .
w as 66 w i t h 179 o u t o f t h e 330 w i t h a n I .Q .
range o f 65-79.
Of t h e 330 c a s e s o u t o f s c h o o l o n l y 3 . 9 p e r c e n t w ere f o u n d
11. I b i d . , p. 13
1 3 . Vanuxem, Mary. E d u c a t i o n o f F e e b le - M in d e d Women,
New York; T e a c h e r s O o l l e g e , C o lu m b ia U n i v e r s i t y , 1935.
13 .
L o r d , A r t h u r B . , 4 S u rv e y o f 449 S p e c i a l C l a s s
P u p i l s , J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , V ol.X X V II, No. 3
O c to b e r, 1933.
p p . 1 0 8 -1 1 4 .
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
15.
in a d e q u ate i n s o c ia l a d ju s tm e n t.
Of 95 em ployed i n i n d u s t r y
a n d commerce t h e a v e r a g e l e n g t h o f t i m e on t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r
j o b s was 1 . 1 y e a r s w h ic h w o u ld show t h a t p e r s o n s o f t h a t
m e n ta lity a re not ir r e s p o n s ib le .
Of t h e o u t - o f - s c h o o l g ro u p
o f 230 i t was fo u n d t h a t 142 h a d made 'g o o d 1 s o c i a l a d j u s t ­
m e n ts , 52 ' f a i r 1, 33 ' p o o r ' ,
a n d 3 unknown.
The a u t h o r
t o o k t h e f i n d i n g s t o p r o v e t h a t t h o s e w i t h I . Q . ' s o f fro m
6 0-79 a r e c a p a b le o f s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g c i t i z e n s h i p .
M a r te n s g i v e s u s a c l e a r p i c t u r e o f i n d u s t r i a l a c ­
t i v i t y an d s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y o f t h e m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d i n t h e
fo llo w in g :
O ases a r e known i n w hich a c h i l d o f low g e n e r a l
i n t e l l i g e n c e h a s some s p e c i a l i z e d t a l e n t t h a t a c ­
t u a l l y b r i n g s him m ore incom e t h a n many o f h i s more
i n t e l l e c t u a l c o m p a n io n s r e c e i v e .
A boy s i x t e e n was
a n u t t e r f a i l u r e i n s c h o o l w o rk , b u t h e showed g r e a t
s k i l l i n d ra w in g an d c a r t o o n s , a n d b e f o r e many y e a r s
h e was e a r n i n g more money t h a n t h e i n s t r u c t o r who
h a d d e s p a i r e d o f e v e r t e a c h i n g him a n y t h i n g .
B ut e v e n i f t h e r e i s no t a l e n t t o b e d e v e l o p e d ,
t h e r e a r e s t i l l f i e l d s i n w h ic h t h e r e t a r d e d c h i l d
may b e s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g .
G ir ls a s w e ll as boys f in d
o p e n in g s s u i t e d t o t h e i r c a p a c i t i e s .
Boys who h a d a t t e n d e d s p e c i a l c l a s s e s i n one o f
o u r l a r g e c i t i e s w e re f o u n d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g o c c u ­
p a t i o n s : f a c t o r y w o rk , m e s s e n g e r s e r v i c e , r a i l r o a d
l a b o r , t r u c k d r i v i n g , a u to r e p a i r , a p p r e n tic e s h ip s
i n b u i l d i n g t r a d e s , f o u n d r y w o rk , m in o r j o b s i n
b a k e r i e s , t a i l o r ' s e s t a b l i s h m e n t s and s t o r e s .
In
r u r a l d i s t r i c t s th e r e a re a d d it i o n a l o u t l e t s o f th e
f a r m , t h e o r c h a r d , t h e t r u c k g a r d e n , t h e d a i r y and
o t h e r a g r i c u l t u r a l p u r s u i t s . •■•■•■14
14.
M a r t e n s , E l s i e H . , T e a c h e r ' s P ro b le m s w i t h
E x c e p tio n a l C h ild r e n , I I I M e n ta lly R e ta rd e d C h ild re n ,
W a s h in g to n , D. C . , U. S. Governm ent P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 193 4.
P a m p h le t BTo. 4 9 , p . 33.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
16.
L i t e r a t u r e Which D e a ls W ith M ethods o f
C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f M e n ta lly R e ta rd e d P u p i l s
T h e re i s much l i t e r a t u r e a v a i l a b l e on t h e s u b j e c t o f
c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of th e m e n ta lly re ta rd e d .
Much o f i t ,
how­
e v e r , d e a l s w i t h s i t u a t i o n s i n w h ic h s p e c i a l i s t s w ere a v a i l ­
a b le .
T h is i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e o f m e n t a l t e s t i n g .
The
p u r p o s e o f t h e f o l l o w i n g p a r a g r a p h s w i l l t e n d t o show i n ­
s ta n c e s o f th e u se o r su g g e stio n s f o r th e use o f v a rie d
g r o u p t e s t s f o r m e a s u r i n g m e n t a l a b i l i t y by s p e c i a l i s t s .
15
P o r t e n ie r 's
s t u d y made o f 1500 West D e n v e r H igh
School s t u d e n ts u se d g ro u p t t e t s to f i n d m en tal a b i l i t y .
The
O t i s S e l f A d m i n i s t e r i n g T e s t o f M e n ta l A b i l i t y ,
an d t h e
Terman G roup T e s t o f M e n ta l A b i l i t y w e re u s e d .
S t u d e n t s w ere
a l s o g i v e n p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s by t e a c h e r s , a n d t h e s o c i a l
a n d eco no m ic b a c k g r o u n d s o f t h e p u p i l s w ere m e a s u re d b y Sims
S c a l e f o r S o c io -E c o n o m ic S t a t u s .
I n a T w e lv e -Y e a r s t u d y o f d i f f e r e n t i a t e d g r o u p s o f
1g
h ig h sc h o o l p u p i l s in L in c o ln , N ebraska, P o r t e n i e r u sed
t h r e e g r o u p t e s t s o f m e a su re m e n t o f m e n t a l a b i l i t y :
Terman
Group T e s t s o f M e n t a l i t y , Form A; t h e O t i s Group I n t e l l i g e n c e
S c a l e , Form B; an d t h e I l l i n o i s G e n e r a l I n t e l l i g e n c e S c a l e I I .
T eachers r a t e d p u p ils f o r in d iv id u a l c a p a c i t i e s ,
a p titu d e s,
an d i n t e r e s t s .
T h e re a r e t h o s e who h o l d t h a t i n d i v i d u a l t e s t s f o r
’
1 5 .' Op. c i t , p p . 1 7 3 -1 7 5
16 . Op. c i t , pp . 1 7 3 -1 7 5
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
17 .
i n t e l l i g e n c e s h o u l d a lw a y s h e u s e d , y e t i t i s g e n e r a l l y
a g r e e d t h a t i n d i v i d u a l t e s t s , f o r t h e most p a r t ,
t r a i n e d e x a m in e r s .
It
re q u ire
i s a l s o known t h a t t h e g i v i n g o f i n ­
d i v i d u a l t e s t s r e q u i r e s more t im e t h a n t h e g i v i n g o f g ro u p
te s ts .
T h e r e f o r e , w h ere l a r g e num bers o f p u p i l s a r e t o be
te ste d ,
t h e g r o u p t e s t s a r e more p r a c t i c a l .
17
Morgan-1- s a y s ,
"They a r e v a l u a b l e i n s e l e c t i n g fro m a l a r g e g ro u p o f i n ­
d i v i d u a l s t h o s e who may n e e d s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n . "
I f g r o u p t e s t s a r e u s e d f o r m e a s u r i n g m e n ta l a b i l i t y
it
i s g e n e r a l l y h e l d t h a t two o r t h r e e c o m p a r a b le t e s t s
sh o u ld be u sed in o r d e r t o a llo w f o r v a r i a t i o n s t h a t a r i s e
when t e s t i n g i n l a r g e n u m b ers.
I t w o u ld seem u n n e c e s s a r y t o d i s c u s s f u r t h e r t h e
l i t e r a t u r e on t h e s u b j e c t o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s i n c e a l l l i t ­
e r a t u r e a g re e s in p r i n c i p l e and p r a c t i c e c o n c e rn in g t h a t
w h ic h s h o u l d b e d o n e , nam ely:
te s ts fo r in te llig e n c e ,
r a t i n g s f o r b e h a v i o r , p e r s o n a l i t y , f a m i l y b a c k g r o u n d , an d
so c ia l l if e .
I t is a g re ed t h a t a l l th e in fo rm a tio n t h a t
can be found about each in d iv id u a l p u p il i s v a lu a b le in a
w ork o f t h i s k i n d .
I t i s n e c e s s a r y t o make a s c o m p le te a
c a se stu d y o f each i n d iv id u a l as p o s s ib l e ,
m en tal,
so c ia l,
in c o rp o ra tin g
e m o t i o n a l , p h y s i c a l , a n d m o ral i n f o r m a t i o n .
17.
M organ, J . B . , The P s y c h o l o g y o f A bnorm al P e o p l e ,
New York: L o n g m a n 's, G re e n & Company. 1936.
p . 336.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
18 .
L i t e r a t u r e Which D e a ls W ith t h e O b j e c t i v e s
f o r th e E d u c a tio n o f th e M e n ta lly R e ta rd e d
The o b j e c t i v e s t h a t a r e s e t f o r t h f o r t h e e d u c a t i o n
o f t h e m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d a,re, f o r t h e m ost p a r t ,
a s t h o s e t h a t a r e s e t u p f o r n o rm al s t u d e n t s .
t h e same
The v a r i a ­
t i o n may b e b r o a d l y s t a t e d t o be i n t h e e x p e c t e d d e g r e e o f
a tta in m e n t reach ed in e i t h e r c a se ,
i t b e i n g g e n e r a l l y co n ­
s i d e r e d t h a t t h e r e t a r d e d c a n n o t r i s e so h i g h on t h e s c a l e
o f a c c o m p lis h m e n t on t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s .
T h e re may be some
o b j e c t i v e s t h a t s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d more b e n e f i c i a l t o t h e
r e t a r d e d th a n o t h e r s due t o t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r v a lu e , o r p o s­
s ib ly of a tta in m e n t.
I n g ra m r e f e r s t o o b j e c t i v e s f o r t h e
r e ta r d e d a s fo llo w s:
O b j e c t i v e s f o r t h e m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d may b e s a i d
t o d i f f e r fro m t h o s e f o r t h e n o rm a l o n l y t o t h e e x ­
t e n t t h a t t h e y a r e n a rr o w e d down t o p r e p a r e t h e i n ­
d iv id u a l to f u l f i l l th e s p e c i f i c a d ju stm e n ts in a
l i m i t e d i n d u s t r i a l an d s o c i a l s p h e r e .
I n o t h e r w o rd s
t h e m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d c a n n o t a c h i e v e so many an d so
v a r i e d a d j u s t m e n t s , h e c a n n o t p a r t i c i p a t e i n l i f e so
f u l l y , h e c a n n o t l i v e a t so h i g h a l e v e l a s t h e n o r ­
m al; b u t a c c o r d i n g t o h i s m e a s u re h e c a n a c h i e v e t h e
a d j u s t m e n t s w i t h i n h i s r e a c h , h e can c o - o p e r a t e i n
an d c o n t r i b u t e h i s s h a r e t o t h e a c c o m p lis h m e n t o f t h e
t a s k s o f l i f e , an d h e c a n e n jo y l i f e a t h i s own l e v e l
o f i n t e r e s t an d a c c o m p l i s h m e n t........................................................
The o b j e c t i v e s f o r t h i s g r o u p , t h e r e f o r e , w i l l n o t
c o v e r t h e w h o le s c o p e o f t h o s e s e t up f o r t h e n o rm al
c h ild , but th ey w i l l tak e in to acco u n t th e c o n d itio n s
specific t o t h i s group, a s described i n previous chap­
te rs .
T h ese i t may b e w e l l t o r e v i e w h e r e .
1.
M e n ta l d e v e lo p m e n t w i l l b e s lo w .
2 . Horm al s t a n d a r d s w i l l b e more
n e a rly a t t a i n e d in p h y s ic a l and so ­
c i a l t h a n i n m e n ta l d e v e lo p m e n t.
3.
Home e n v ir o n m e n t p r o v i d e s g e n e r a l ­
l y in ad e q u ate o p p o r tu n itie s f o r
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
19 .
4.
5.
f o r e x p e rie n c e .
Hand s k i l l s a r e t h e s p h e r e
of g re a te s t lik e ly success.
A d j u s t m e n t s m ust u l t i m a t e l y
h e made c h i e f l y i n t h e r a n k
o f s e m i- s k il l e d and u n s k i l le d
in d u stry .
M a rte n s sums up t h e o b j e c t i v e s f o r t h e e d u c a t i o n o f
th e m e n ta lly r e ta r d e d in th e fo llo w in g p ara g rap h :
H a p p i n e s s i s t h e f i r s t r i g h t o f e v e r y c h i l d an d
w h a t e v e r c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e g e n u in e h a p p i n e s s o f t h e
r e ta r d e d p u p il c o n tr ib u te s to h i s e d u c a tio n .
What­
e v e r c a u s e s him t o become d i s c o u r a g e d , d i s c o n t e n t e d ,
s u l l e n o r r e b e l l i o u s makes f o r t r o u b l e .
Thus t a s k s
t h a t a r e b e y o n d h i s a b i l i t y , h o w e v e r w o r th w h i l e i n
t h e m s e l v e s , h a v e no p l a c e i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p r o ­
gram .
He n e e d s a c t i v i t y t h a t i s b o t h i n t e r e s t i n g
t o him a n d p o s s i b l e f o r him , a n d t h a t w i l l g i v e him
th e s a t i s f a c t i o n of su c c e ss.
He n e e d s s o c i a l con ­
t a c t s t h a t w i l l s a t i s f y h i s c r a v i n g f o r com p anio n­
s h i p a n d g i v e him t h e f e e l i n g o f ' b e l o n g i n g ' .
He
n e e d s a l i f e a n d sy m p a th y t h a t w i l l make him con­
fid e n t of re a l frie n d sh ip .
The p r e s e n t h a p p i n e s s o f
t h e c h i l d i s t h e im m e d ia te o b j e c t o f o u r q u e s t a s we
p l a n h i s s c h o o l w o r k . 19
?n
In g ra m W1 i s t s a s o b j e c t i v e s t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s i n
w h ic h t h e m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d a r e m ost l i k e l y t o t a k e p a r t :
h e a lth , to o l-s u b je c ts ,
com m unity l i f e ,
fa m ily l i f e ,
le isu re ,
and v o c a tio n .
The o b j e c t i v e s u n d e r l y i n g t h e e d u c a t i o n o f a l l c h i l ­
d r e n , t h e n , a r e f u n d a m e n t a l l y t h e sam e.
The e d u c a t i o n f o r
t h e r e t a r d e d p u p i l w o u ld b e more s p e c i f i c ,
and s t r e s s w o uld
need, t o b e p l a c e d on some p h a s e s and d i m i n i s h e d i n o t h e r
18.
In g ra m , C h r i s t i n e P . , E d u c a t i o n o f t h e S lo w L e a r n i n g C h i l d . Y o n k e r s - o n - H u d s o n , Hew York: W orld Book Co.
19 35.
pp . 6 2 - 6 3 .
19.
Op. c i t , p. 63
20.
Op. c i t , p. 63
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
30.
phases.
The m ain p o i n t t o he k e p t i n mind by t h o s e r e s p o n ­
s i b l e w o u ld b e a s t u d y o f t h e t o t a l i n d i v i d u a l p u p i l i n t h e
l i g h t o f o b je c tiv e s b e s t s u ite d to th e in d iv id u a l.
The m eth o d s o f e d u c a t i n g t h e m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d v a r y
g r e a t l y fr o m t h o s e u s e d i n e d u c a t i n g t h e n o rm a l.
The r e ­
t a r d e d p u p i l a p p e a r s t o be more o b j e c t o r t h i n g - m i n d e d t h a n
th o u g h t-m in d e d .
F a c ts and e x p e r ie n c e s l e a r n e d a r e no t
r e a d i l y t i e d up w i t h new f a c t s an d e x p e r i e n c e s .
In o t h e r
w o r d s , a d j u s t m e n t t o new s t i m u l i t h a t may a p p e a r i s s l o w e r
w i t h t h e r e t a r d e d t h a n w i t h t h e n o rm a l p u p i l .
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CHAPTER I I I
METHODS USED IK THE STUDY
T e s ts o f I n t e l li g e n c e
S in ce t h i s stu d y i s t o in c lu d e o n ly p u p i ls w ith in ­
t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s o f 85 an d b e lo w , t h e s e l e c t i o n o f c a s e s
was b a s e d on i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s .
The u s e o f g e n e r a l o r
g r o u p t e s t s f o r t h i s p u r p o s e i s known a s
' s c r e e n i n g 1.
In
o t h e r w o r d s , b y g i v i n g t h e s e t e s t s we f o u n d fro m t h e e n t i r e
s c h o o l t h o s e who f e l l w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s o f t h e s t u d y .
it
S in ce
i s g e n e r a l l y a g r e e d t h a t t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e m ost v a l i d
g r o u p i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s g i v e n u n d e r t h e m ost f a v o r a b l e c i r ­
c u m s ta n c e s , an d by one who i s w e l l q u a l i f i e d a r e n o t w h o lly
re lia b le ,
t h r e e g r o u p t e s t s w ere u s e d w i t h t h e h o p e o f s e ­
c u r i n g more r e l i a b l e r e s u l t s .
W ith r e f e r e n c e t o g r o u p i n ­
t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s Ade s a y s :
. . . A p p r o p r i a t e group i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s s h o u ld be
g i v e n t o a l l p u p i l s n o t o n l y a s a means o f g e t t i n g
some i n d i c a t i o n a s t o w h ic h o f them may b e m e n t a l l y
r e t a r d e d , b u t a l s o a s a means o f g e t t i n g some i d e a
a s to th e m e n tal c a p a c i t i e s o f th e r e s t o f th e c h i l ­
d r e n i n o r d e r t h a t t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p ro g ra m may b e
more a d e q u a t e l y a d j u s t e d t o t h e i r c a p a c i t i e s .
T h is
s h o u l d n o t b e i n t e r p r e t e d a s m ea n in g t h a t su c h men­
t a l m e a s u re m e n ts c a n n o t b e made w i t h o u t e r r o r s .
That i s no t p o s s i b l e , and, i n a s t r i c t s e n s e , p ro b ­
a b ly n e v e r w i l l be p o s s ib l e .
I t i s p o s s i b l e , how ever
t o make s u c h m e a s u re m e n ts w i t h s m a l l e r e r r o r s t h a n
was t r u e h e r e t o f o r e .
T h ese p o i n t s s h o u l d b e k e p t i n
m ind i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h i s p r o c e d u r e :
1.
T h is group t e s t i n g o f i n t e l l i ­
g ence i s o n ly a 's c r e e n i n g 1
m etho d.
2.
Some c h i l d r e n w i l l s c o r e l o w e r
t h a n t h e y r e a l l y s h o u l d , due t o
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
22.
su c h t h i n g s a s e m o t i o n a l co n­
d i ti o n , t h e i r p h y sic a l c o n d itio n ,
and o th e r a d v e rse c o n d itio n s .
3. Few, i f a n y , w i l l s c o r e h i g h e r
th a n th e y r e a l l y sh o u ld u n le s s
t h e r e h a v e b e e n some e r r o r s i n
th e c o n stru c tio n , a d m in is tra tio n ,
o r sc o rin g of t e s ts .
4 . A l l c h i l d r e n s c o r i n g lo w , o r
lo w e r t h a n h a v e b e e n e x p e c t e d
s h o u l d b e e x am in e d i n d i v i d u a l l y
by a p r o p e r q u a l i f i e d p e r s o n . 21
I n s e l e c t i n g p u p i l s f o r t h i s s t u d y one s t a n d a r d t e s t
was u s e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e s c h o o l s y s te m .
S i n c e t h e K uhlm ann-
A n d e rs o n t e s t s h a d b e e n g i v e n d u r i n g t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r i n
a l l th e g rad e s b e g in n in g w ith th e t h i r d ,
i t was t h o u g h t a d ­
v i s a b l e t o g i v e t h e K u h lm an n -A n d e rso n p r i m a r y fo rm t o g r a d e s
I,
II,
and I I I f o r t h e c u rr e n t y e a r.
The r e s u l t s o f a l l t h e
t e s t s w e re c h e c k e d f o r t h o s e p u p i l s w hose I . Q . ' s f e l l a t 85
o r l o w e r , o r who by p o o r a c a d e m ic w ork , l a c k o f s o c i a l a d ­
j u s t m e n t , o r r e t a r d a t i o n i n s c h o o l w ere f e l t t o b e l o w e r t h a n
th e f i r s t in te llig e n c e t e s t
in d ic a te d .
A few w eeks f o l l o w i n g t h i s s u r v e y , t h e O t i s Q u ic k S c o r i n g B e t a A t e s t was g i v e n t o a l l p u p i l s who came w i t h i n
th e b o u n d a rie s s e t f o r stu d y .
Any c a s e s who s c o r e d h i g h e r
t h a n 85 i n t h i s a n d t h e p r e v i o u s t e s t w e re d r o p p e d .
L a te r in
t h e s e a s o n t h e D e t r o i t A dvanced F i r s t G rade t e s t was g i v e n t o
th e p u p ils in g rade I,
III,
a n d ITT.
a n d t h e D e t r o i t P r im a r y i n g r a d e s I I ,
The H enm on-H elson t e s t s w e re u s e d i n g r a d e s V,
21.
Ade, L e s t e r K . , M e e tin g t h e H eeds o f t h e M e n t a l l y
R e t a r d e d , H a r r i s b u r g : D e p a rtm e n t o f P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n ,
Commonwealth o f P e n n s y l v a n i a , 1 939 .
p. 6
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
23.
V I, a n d V I I ; a l s o i n g r a d e V I I I t o t h o s e who h a d n o t a l r e a d y
h a d s c o r e s on th em d u r i n g p r e v i o u s y e a r s .
S i n c e t h e Henmon-
N e l s o n t e s t s h a d b e e n u s e d p r e v i o u s l y i n t h e s y s te m ,
p u p i l s h a d a s many a s t h r e e s c o r e s on i t .
some
A ll o f th e s e r e ­
s u l t s w ere u s e d a n d w e r e c o n s i d e r e d v a l u a b l e f o r t h e y r a n g e d
o v e r s e v e r a l y e a r s i n some c a s e s a n d t h e r e f o r e a l l o w e d f o r a
more c o m p le te s t u d y and c o m p a r is o n .
D u r in g t h e y e a r o f 1939
s e v e n o f t h o s e who came u n d e r t h e s t u d y h a d b e e n g i v e n i n ­
d i v i d u a l t e s t s by t h e s t a t e e x a m in e r f o r t h e m e n t a l h o s p i t a l .
S i n c e t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e u s e o f g ro u p t e s t s f o r i s o l a t i n g
c a s e s i n a stu d y o f t h i s ty p e f r e q u e n t l y a r i s e s , th e f o llo w ­
i n g c o m p a r is o n s a r e i n t e r e s t i n g .
TABLE I
C o m p a riso n s o f I n t e l l i g e n c e Q u o t i e n t s Made by
S ev en P u p i l s on Group T e s t s w i t h I n d i v i d u a l T e s t s
Of S o u th D a k o ta M e n ta l S u rv e y
Case
HenmonS felso n
K uhlm annA n d e rs o n
O tis
D e tro it
P r im a r y
In d iv id u a l
S o u th Dakota.
M e n tal
11 -6
_ _
52
—
57
58
IV -1
—
78
73
69
58
IV- 6
74
82
71
77
75
IV—8
—
72
74
65
72
V-4
65
61
65
—
57
V I1 -1 4
73 , 63
65
51
—
76
V I I 1 -3
74 , 67
70
57
—
64
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
24.
F o r t y - f i v e c a s e s w ere in c lu d e d , i n t h e o r i g i n a l s t u d y ,
b u t s i n c e o n l y t h i r t y - e i g h t r e m a in e d i n t h e s y s te m f o r t h e
e n ti r e school y e ar,
s t u d y o f t h e o t h e r t e n was d i s c o n t i n u e d .
A l l o t h e r p h a s e s w e re c a r r i e d o u t d u r i n g t h e p a s t s c h o o l y e a r.
A num ber o f t h e p u p i l s h a d b e e n u n d e r o b s e r v a t i o n f o r s e v e r a l
y ears.
D a ta on b r o t h e r s an d s i s t e r s o f some c a s e s who w ere
f o r m e r s t u d e n t s a l s o w e re c o m p ile d .
S tu d y o f B e h av io r
S in c e i t h a s b e en n o ted t h a t s u c c e s s does n o t depend
e n t i r e l y u p o n m e n t a l i t y , b u t upon p h y s i c a l ,
t i o n a l a d ju s tm e n ts to s o c ie ty ,
s o c i a l an d emo­
a b e h a v io r r a t i n g sc h ed u le
was e m plo yed f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f s t u d y i n g e a c h c a s e .
The
H a g g e rty -O lso n ^ W ic k m a n R a t i n g S c a l e u s e d was e x p l a i n e d i n a
t e a c h e r s ' m e e tin g .
D i s c u s s i o n on t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e s c h e d u l e ,
a n d m e th o d s em p loy ed i n r a t i n g w e re s t u d i e d .
g i v e n c o p i e s o f t h e m a n u a l.
in g t h i s ,
T e a c h e r s w ere
Some tw o o r t h r e e w eeks f o l l o w ­
t h e a c t u a l p u p i l r a t i n g s w e re made.
w e re s e r v e d i n t h e r a t i n g s :
T h ree p u r p o s e s
( l ) a b e t t e r u n d e rsta n d in g of
t h e i r p r o b le m s a n d n e e d s (3 ) t h e im m e d ia te s t u d y and i n f o r ­
m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e c a s e s i n t h e s u r v e y (3 ) a c l e a r e r
p i c t u r e o f a l l s t u d e n t s t h r o u g h t h e r a t i n g e x p e r i e n c e , and
i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g b e h a v i o r p r o b le m s .
Yfaenever p o s s i b l e
e a c h p u p i l was r a t e d by t h r e e o r more t e a c h e r s .
H ow ever, no
p u p i l was r a t e d by any t e a c h e r who h a d n o t h a d s u f f i c i e n t co n ­
t a c t w i t h h im .
In t h i s stu d y g ra d e s I ,
II,
an d I I I w ere
r a t e d by one t e a c h e r ; g r a d e s IV, V, and VI by f i v e t e a c h e r s ,
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
a n d g r a d e s V II an d V I I I by two o r t h r e e t e a c h e r s .
w e re made on i n t e l l e c t u a l , p h y s i c a l ,
so c ia l,
R a tin g s
and e m o t i o n a l
b e h a v i o r , a l o n g w i t h a r e c o r d o f i te m s o f u n d e s i r a b l e b e ­
h a v io r.
The b e h a v i o r r e c o r d was f i l l e d o u t by t e a c h e r s
a f t e r t h e y h a d made a r e v i e w o f t h e i r e n t i r e e x p e r i e n c e s
w ith a c h ild .
A v e r a g e s w ere made w h ere two o r more t e a c h e r
r a t i n g s w ere a v a i l a b l e .
The a v e r a g e s a l o n g w i t h a v e r a g e s
o f b e h a v i o r r e c o r d s w e re t h e n r e p o r t e d .
F u r t h e r b e h a v i o r i n f o r m a t i o n was g a t h e r e d fro m t h e
c o u n ty n u r s e who was i n f r e q u e n t c o n t a c t w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n
a n d w i t h t h e homes o f t h e c h i l d r e n .
A d d itio n a l in fo rm a tio n
was g a t h e r e d by t h e w r i t e r t h r o u g h c o n t a c t w i t h t h e p u p i l s
ab o u t sc h o o l, and in i n d iv i d u a l c o n fe re n c e s .
I n g r a d e s V II
a n d V I I I a p u p i l i n f o r m a t i o n s h e e t w hich h a d b e e n u s e d f o r
two s e a s o n s , g a v e a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n on u s e o f l e i s u r e
t i m e , m em bership i n c l u b s , h o b b i e s ,
s c h o o l s u b j e c t s m ost
i n t e r e s t i n g t o th e m , v o c a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t ,
a t t i t u d e s a n d gen ­
e r a l s t a t e o f m ind.
S o c io -E c o n o m ic B a ck g ro u n d
To g a i n i n s i g h t
u n d er stu d y ,
i n t o t h e home b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e c a s e s
i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e s t a t u s o f t h e home was g a i n ­
ed th ro u g h n u r s e 's v i s i t s ,
p u p il q u e stio n n a ire in th e upper
g r a d e s , a n d t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f t h e Sims S o c io - E c o n o m ic s c o r e
c a r d f o r g r a d e s IV a n d a b o v e .
In s e v e r a l cases in fo rm a tio n
on t h e s c a l e c o u l d be u s e d f o r y o u n g e r b r o t h e r s an d s i s t e r s .
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26.
I n t h i s m an n e r home c o n d i t i o n s w ere s t u d i e d an d r a t e d . A lon g
w ith t h i s ,
t h e e d u c a t i o n a l and c u l t u r a l l e v e l o f t h e p a r e n t s
c o u l d be f o u n d , a l s o t h e f a c i l i t i e s w h ich t h e home o f f e r e d
i n t h e fo rm o f e n t e r t a i n m e n t ,
space, h e a lth ,
re a d in g , tr a v e lin g , liv in g
c le a n l i n e s s , o c c u p a tio n of f a t h e r ,
e tc .
A tte n d a n c e , S c h o la s tic
R a t i n g and R e t a r d a t i o n
A t t e n d a n c e f o r t h e t e r m 1 9 4 0 -4 1 was t a k e n fro m t h e
a t t e n d a n c e r e c o r d s a n d was u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e p a r t t h a t
a t t e n d a n c e was p l a y i n g i n t h e s c h o o l l i f e
of th e c ases.
It
was a l s o f e l t t h a t some c o n n e c t i o n b e tw e e n t h e i r h e a l t h and
a t t e n d a n c e c o u l d be s t u d i e d .
The s u p p o r t o f t h e home to w a r d
s c h o o l a t t e n d a n c e , o r t h e c o n d i t i o n o f t h e home m ig h t be
b e t t e r u n d e r s t o o d i n t h i s m anner.
W ith t h e p u r p o s e o f l o c a t i n g m e n ta l c a s e s , t h e S t a t e
D e p a r tm e n t o f C h a r i t i e s an d C o r r e c t i o n s o c c a s i o n a l l y s e n d s
b l a n k s t o s c h o o l s t o r e p o r t t h o s e c h i l d r e n who show r e t a r d ­
a t i o n o f two o r more y e a r s .
R e ta rd a tio n , th e r e f o re , has
b e e n c o n s i d e r e d by t h e s t a t e a s one r e a s o n a b l e m e a s u re o f
m en tal d e f ic ie n c y .
In t h i s stu d y an av erag e o f each y e a r 's
g r a d e s was made f o r e a c h o f t h e c a s e s .
W ith t h i s a r e c o r d
o f y e a r s r e t a r d e d was l i k e w i s e made.
H e alth
P h y s i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n s w e re g i v e n t o a l l c a s e s i n an
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
27.
a t t e m p t t o l o c a t e a n y im p a i r m e n ts w h ic h w ou ld a f f e c t academ ­
i c ach iev em en t.
t h e c o u n ty n u r s e .
eyes,
ears,
T h is p h a s e o f t h e s t u d y was c a r r i e d on by
The e x a m i n a t i o n c o v e r e d h e i g h t , w e i g h t ,
nose, t h r o a t ,
te e th , g lan d s, n u t r it i o n , p o stu re ,
sp eech , hone s t r u c t u r e and g e n e r a l a p p ea ra n c e.
A ll i n f o r ­
m a t i o n was r e c o r d e d b y t h e c o u n t y n u r s e an d e a c h c a s e was
d is c u s s e d w ith th e w r i t e r .
E yes w ere c h e c k e d by t h e u s u a l
c h a r t m e th o d , and e a r s w ere c h e c k e d by t h e
m etho d.
'w a tc h - tic k '
A lth o u g h t h e s e two m e th o d s a r e n o t a s a c c u r a t e a s
o t h e r s now em p lo y ed , t h e y a r e s t i l l
re c o g n iz e d by m ed ical
a u t h o r i t i e s as a c c e p ta b le f o r a l l p r a c t i c a l purp o ses.
R e a d in g C o m p reh e n sio n
A lth o u g h t h i s s t u d y d i d n o t go i n t o a c h ie v e m e n t t e s t s ,
o r in to rea d in g t e s t s ,
t h e r e w e re a v a i l a b l e d a t a on some o f
t h e c a s e s i n r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s io n g a i n e d fro m t h e u s e o f
t h e Iowa S i l e n t R e a d in g S c a l e .
S i n c e t h i s m a t e r i a l was a v a i l ­
a b l e , a n d s i n c e i t d e a l t w i t h a num ber o f t h e u p p e r g r a d e
cases,
i t was t h o u g h t w e l l t o i n c o r p o r a t e i t
in t h i s stu d y .
I n some c a s e s two s e p a r a t e r e s u l t s on r e a d i n g c o m p re h e n s io n
w e re on r e c o r d .
G eneral In fo rm a tio n
Much h a s a l r e a d y b e e n s t a t e d a b o u t g e n e r a l i n f o r m s / t i o n
w h ic h was c o l l e c t e d .
How ever,
in fo rm a tio n of a l l k in d s p e r­
t a i n i n g t o c a s e s was g a t h e r e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r i n many
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
d i f f e r e n t ways.
S a m p le s o f t h e w ork o f some c a s e s was c o l ­
l e c t e d by t e a c h e r s an d t u r n e d i n t o t h e w r i t e r .
V i s i t s w ere
made t o c l a s s r o o m s t o w a tc h t h e r e a c t i o n o f c h i l d r e n t o
o t h e r s and t o t h e i r s c h o o l w o rk.
Inform al v i s i t s w ith te a c h ­
e r s w e re c a r r i e d on t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r , and s u c h re m a r k s
w ere o f t e n h e a rd :
"My hoy drew a p i c t u r e t o d a y , " o r "----------
p r i n t e d h i s name f o r t h e f i r s t
little
tim e t h i s y e a r " , o r " t h e
g i r l we w e re t a l k i n g a b o u t s a i d
'w hen s h e grew u p sh e
w a n te d t o b e a l a d y ' " .
A l l s u c h i n f o r m a t i o n was r e g a r d e d a s v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t
t o t h e s t u d y an d t o t h e i n t e r e s t c r e a t e d by t h e s t u d y .
Now
a n d t h e n c a s e s w ould b e s e e n o n Main S t r e e t u n t i l l a t e h o u r s
a t n ig h t.
A d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n was g a t h e r e d fro m t h e
J u v e n i l e C o u r t , S o c i a l S e c u r i t i e s O f f i c e and fr o m t h e c o u n ty
o ffic ia ls.
By no means a l l o f t h e s e f i n d i n g s w e re i n c l u d e d
i n t h i s w r i t i n g , b u t th e y s e rv e d as p ie c e s in a gro u p p a t t e r n
w h ic h o f f e r e d d e t a i l an d p e r s p e c t i v e a s t im e w ent on.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
C H A PTER I V
ANALYSIS OF INTELLIGENCE TESTS, BEHAVIOR
RATINGS, SCALES, AND OTHER METHODS USED
In te llig e n c e
The r e s u l t s o f a l l i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s g i v e n d u r i n g
t h e s e a s o n o f 1 9 4 0 -4 1 a l o n g w i t h t h e r e s u l t s o f t e s t s g i v e n
d u r i n g p r e v i o u s s c h o o l y e a r s w ere r e c o r d e d f o r e a c h i n d i v i d ­
u a l case.
I n t h e e v e n t t h a t t h e s c o r e s i n any one c a s e r a n
c o n s t a n t l y abo ve 85, t h e c a s e was d r o p p e d .
If,
h o w e v er,
s c o r e s r o s e ab ove 85 an d a l s o f e l l b e lo w t h a t num ber, t h e y
w ere r e t a i n e d f o r s t u d y .
F o u r o f t h e c a s e s show one t o t h r e e
p o i n t s above 85, b u t s i n c e t h e d e v i a t i o n was s l i g h t ,
an d
t h o s e c a s e s h a d b e e n r e t a r d e d one t o t h r e e y e a r s i n s c h o o l ,
t h e y w e re l e f t
in th e group f o r f u r t h e r stu d y .
F o rty -fiv e
c a s e s w e re i s o l a t e d i n t h i s m an n er, b u t o h l y t h i r t y - e i g h t r e ­
m a in e d i n s c h o o l d u r i n g t h e e n t i r e s c h o o l y e a r .
The mean c h r o n o l o g i c a l a g e f o r t h e p r i m a r y g r o u p was
f o u n d t o b e 9 - 1 j f o r t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e gra.de 1 3 - 3 , and f o r t h e
u p p er g ra d e s 1 4-8.
T h i s shows o l e a r l y t h a t t h e e n t i r e g r o u p
was s c h o l a s t i c a l l y r e t a r d e d .
to th re e y e a rs.
The r e t a r d a t i o n r a n g e d fro m one
The mean I . Q . 1s a s shown by t h e means on
each o f th e t h r e e t e s t s
e m plo yed i n e a c h o f t h e t h r e e l e v e l s
g i v e s c l e a r e v i d e n c e o f t h e d e f i n i t e m e n ta l r e t a r d a t i o n f o r
t h e group.
The c e n t r a l t e n d e n c y o f t h e c a s e s f a l l s
b o rd e rlin e area.
in th e
(T ab le I I )
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30.
TABLE I I
Mean I . Q . ' s on t h e V a r io u s I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t s
a n d Mean C h r o n o l o g i c a l Ages f o r t h e T h ree G rade L e v e l s
G rade l e v e l s
Mean
C.A.
P rim ary
9-1
HenmonH e ls o n
K uhlm annA n d e rs o n
O tis
—
77
78
74
D e tro it
I n t e rm e d ia te
1 3-3
75
81
74
—
J u n i o r h ig h
14-8
80
72
74
—
I n d i v id u a l r e s u l t s o f th e i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s a lo n g w ith
c h ro n o lo g ic a l ag es a r e found in t a b l e s I I I ,
T h ro u g h o u t t h i s
II I - A and I I I - B .
c h a p te r d a ta a re reco rd ed s e p a ra te ly f o r th e
t h r e e g rad e l e v e l s .
P rim ary in c lu d e s g ra d e s I ,
I I and I I I ,
i n t e r m e d i a t e , g r a d e s IV, V a n d VI; and u p p e r g r a d e s V II a n d
V III.
T e s t s w e re g i v e n a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s d u r i n g t h e s e a s o n
an d w ere s p a c e d i n s u c h a way t h a t e f f e c t i v e n e s s w o u ld n o t be
l o s t by g i v i n g them t o o c l o s e t o g e t h e r .
H eads o f colum ns i n d i c a t e y e a r i n w h ich t e s t s w ere
g iv en .
R e c o rd s o f p r e v i o u s t e s t s
on h a n d w ere a l s o u s e d i n
th e stu d y .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
31.
TABLE I I I
C h r o n o l o g i c a l A ges, an d I n t e l l i g e n c e
Q u o t i e n t s f o r P r im a r y L e v e l
Case
C. A.
K uhlm annA n d e rs o n
O tis
Det r o i t
A dvanced
F irst
D e tro it
P r im a r y
S o u th
D a k o ta
M e n ta l
1 -1
7-9
—
—
—
76
—
1 -3
8-1
71
—
—
72
—
1 -2
7 -2
84
83
88
—
—
II-l
1 0 -1
77
76
—
77
—
1 1 -2
9-2
86
81
—
—
—
11-4
9 -4
86
88
86
—
—
1 1 -6
9-8
52
—
—
57
58
1 1 -8
81
61
—
78
—
1 1 1-2
E x - p la n a t i o n . Roman n u m e r a ls i n d i c a t e g r a d e l e v e l .
Odd
n u m e r a ls f o l l o w i n g Roman n u m e r a ls i n d i c a t e g i r l s , e v e n n u m e r a l s ,
hoys.
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32.
TABLE I I I —A
C h r o n o l o g i c a l A g es, a n d I n t e l l i g e n c e Q u o t i e n t s
f o r I n te r m e d ia te L e v e ls
C ase
C. A.
HenmonH e ls o n
K uhlm annA n d e rs o n
O tis
D e tro it
P rim ary
*39
*40
*41
Sotith
D a k o ta
M e n ta l
*39
IV -1
1 2-9
—
78
63
69
58
IV -5
1 0 -1 1
—
81
80
—
—
IV -2
12-4
8 3 - '3 8
88
74
—
—
IV -4
1 3-1
74-* 38
82
71
77
75
IV- 8
1 2 -1 1
—
74
72
76
—
IV -6
13-1
—
72
74
65
72
7-1
13-0
8 3 - ’38
78
78
82
—
7 -3
14-2
7 2 -* 3 7
7 5 -* 3 8
74
70
—
—
7 -2
1 1-5
8 6 -* 3 8
86
70
—
—
7-4
13-5
6 5 -* 3 8
61
65
—
57
71-1
14 -4
7 8 -* 3 6
85
76
—
—
7 1-3
13-8
7 8 -* 3 6
8 3 -* 3 8
90
77
—
—
71-2
1 3-2
7 3 -* 3 6
85
77
—
—
71 -4
13-8
8 3 - '3 6
8 9 - '3 8
92
85
—
—
71-6
1 4 -1
7 9 -* 3 6
8 2 - '3 8
78
73
—
—
71-8
1 4-5
7 7 -* 3 6
86
82
—
—
See T ab le I I I f o r e x p la n a tio n .
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33.
TABLE I I I - B
C h r o n o l o g i c a l A g e s, and. I n t e l l i g e n c e Q u o t i e n t s
f o r U pper L e v e l s
C ase
C. A.
HenmonU e ls o n
K uhlm annA n d e rso n
O tis
'3 9
'4 0
S o u th
D a k o ta
M e n ta l
'3 9
V II-1
15-1
7 4 -» 3 6
7 3 - ’ 38
67-* 41
75
69
—
V I1 -3
1 4 -1
8 3 - '3 6
9 1 - '3 8
76
81
—
V II-5
16-1
7 6 - '3 5
8 4 - '3 6
81
53
—
V I1 -2
1 4-8
8 4 - '3 8
77
91
—
V I1 -4
16 -2
8 5 - '3 7
85
88
—
V I1 -6
14-1
7 3 - '3 6
8 1 -» 3 7
9 0 - '3 8
81
88
V II- 8
14-8
8 5 - '3 8
81
69
V II-10
14-5
8 5 - '3 6
8 4 - '3 7
9 3 - '3 8
87
85
''
V I1-12
1 3 -1 1
8 6 - '3 6
S 3 - '3 8
85
77
—
V I1 -14
14-8
7 3 - '3 6
6 3 - '3 8
65
51
76
V III-1
15-1
8 4 - '3 5
8 7 - '3 6
7 5 - '3 8
85
84
— —
V III-3
1 6-2
7 4 - '3 6
6 7 - '3 8
70
57
64
V III-2
1 5 -1 1
8 1 - '3 8
92
76
—
V I I 1 -4
15-7
7 2 - '3 5
6 3 - '3 6
8 2 - '3 8
85
78
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•
'1
—
34.
B e h av io r
The H a g g e rty -O lso n ^ W ic k m a n S c a l e was e m ploy ed t o s t u d y
th e i n t e l l e c t u a l ,
th e p u p ils.
te a c h e r,
p h y sic a l,
s o c i a l and e m o tio n al s t a t u s o f
I n t h e p r i m a r y l e v e l e a c h p u p i l was r a t e d by one
i n t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e g r a d e s p u p i l s w ere r a t e d by f i v e
te a c h e rs,
an d i n t h e u p p e r g r a d e s by two t o t h r e e t e a c h e r s .
In a l l f o u r d i v i s i o n s o f th e r a t i n g s c a l e th e group
h a d s c o r e s abo ve t h e means u s e d a s a s t a n d a r d by t h e a u t h o r s .
A h ig h io o r e
in d ic a te s a poor b e h a v io r p a tte r n .
R e su lts
show t h e c l o s e s t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n t h e t o t a l a v e r a g e s c o r e s
o f t h e g ro u p and t h e s t a n d a r d mean on D i v i s i o n I I , p h y s i c a l ,
w i t h a s c o r e o f 1 7 . 6 0 f o r t h e g r o u p a s com pared t o t h e norm
o f 1 3 .6 3 .
The m ost m arked d e v i a t i o n was f o u n d on i n t e l l e c t u a l
s t a t u s , w i t h a t o t a l a v e r a g e s c o r e f o r t h e g ro u p a t 2 7 .5 9 ,
a s co m pared w i t h t h e s t a n d a r d mean o f 1 7 .6 3 .
( T a b le IV)
The p o o r e s t a d j u s t m e n t on a l l f o u r o f t h e d i v i s i o n s
was f o u n d i n t h e p r i m a r y l e v e l w i t h a t o t a l a v e r a g e s c o r e on
a l l f o u r o f t h e d i v i s i o n s o f 1 1 0 . 1 8 a s c o m p a red t o t h e mean o f
6 9 .3 0 .
S l i g h t l y l o w e r was t h e s c o r e f o r t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e l e v ­
e l , 1 0 6 .1 8 .
The l e a s t m a l a d j u s t m e n t was n o t e d i n t h e u p p e r
l e v e l w i t h a t o t a l a v e r a g e o f 8 9 .5 9 a s com pared t o t h e s t a n d ­
a r d mean o f 6 9 . 2 0 .
T h ese f i g u r e s w o u ld t e n d t o show t h a t t h e
sc h o o l h a s h e lp e d to q u i t e an e x te n t th e a d ju s tm e n t o f th e s e
p u p ils.
T hose a d j u s t m e n t s a r e m ost m arked i n t h e s o c i a l ,
p h y s i c a l and e m o t i o n a l d i v i s i o n s .
The p u p i l s i n t h e i n t e r ­
m e d i a t e l e v e l show a s l i g h t l y b e t t e r p h y s i c a l a d j u s t m e n t t h a n
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35.
do t h o s e o f t h e u p p e r g r a d e l e v e l .
T h is may h a v e "been due t o
a d o l e s c e n t p r o b le m s i n t h e u p p e r g r a d e s .
(S e e T a b l e s V, V-A,
a n d Y-B)
TABLE IV
Means o f G roup on H a g g e rty -O lso n -W ic k m a n *B *
a s Compared w i t h Norms
D iv isio n
P r im a r y
In te r­
m ed iate
Ju n io r
H igh
Av. o f
T o ta l
* S ta n d .
Means
I.
In te ll.
3 8 .3 3
2 8 .5 0
2 6 .2 3
2 7 .5 9
1 7 .6 3
II.
Phys.
2 0 .6 6
1 6 .8 1
1 7 .1 6
1 7 .6 0
1 3 .6 3
III.
Soc.
3 0 .5 0
3 0 .4 4
2 5 .1 5
2 8 .4 9
2 2 .2 9
IV.
Emo.
3 0 .3 3
3 0 .5 0
2 3 .3 0
2 7 .7 8
1 9 .2 0
1 1 0 .1 8
1 0 6 .1 8
8 9 .5 4
9 8 .1 1
6 9 .2 0
T o ta l S cores
The b e h a v i o r r e c o r d o f t h e H a g g e rty -O ls o n -W ic k m a n S c a l e
c o n s i s t s o f f i f t e e n ite m s t h a t i n d i c a t e u n d e s i r a b l e b e h a v io r .
I t e m s a r e c h e c k e d w here s u c h m i s b e h a v i o r h a s b e e n n o t e d . H igh
s c o r e s i n d i c a t e t h e g r e a t e s t num ber o f u n d e s i r a b l e p a t t e r n s
o f b e h a v io r.
The a v e r a g e s c o r e f o r t h e p r i m a r y l e v e l was 55; f o r
t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e l e v e l 56; f o r t h e u p p e r g r a d e s 4 2 . 4 .
H ere
a s i n t h e b e h a v i o r r a t i n g s t h e u p p e r g r a d e s showed t h e m ost
s a t i s f a c t o r y a d ju stm e n t.
A l l t h r e e l e v e l s , h o w e v e r, g i v e
e v i d e n c e o f v e r y p o o r b e h a v i o r p a t t e r n s , a s t h e s t a n d a r d me­
d i a n f o r b e h a v i o r r e c o r d on t h e s c a l e i s 8 . 6 .
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
36,
The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s ,
V, V-A, an d V-B, g i v e t h e i n d i v i d ­
u a l s c o r e s on b e h a v i o r r a t i n g s ,
an d on t h e b e h a v i o r r e c o r d .
TABLE V
I n d i v i d u a l S c o r e s on t h e H a g g e rty -O lso n -W ic k m a n
S c a l e f o r B e h a v i o r R e c o rd , an d B e h a v i o r
R a tin g s f o r P rim ary L ev el
Oase
B e h av io r
R e c o rd
In te lle c tu a l , D iv . I
P h y sic a l S o c ia l
D iv. I I D i v . I l l
E m o tio n a l
D iv. IV
I "1
43
28
19
22
35
I-3
80
27
22
32
36
1 -2
33
25
26
26
26
II-l
43
28
19
34
31
11-6
77
34
19
35
35
I I I-2
43
28
19
34
31
11-2
I I-4
E x p l a n a t i o n . A l l r a t i n g s i n t h e p r i m a r y l e v e l s w ere
made by t h e home room t e a c h e r i n e a c h c a s e .
Each p u p i l was
r a t e d by one t e a c h e r .
The h i g h e r t h e s c o r e , t h e p o o r e r t h e
b e h a v io r a d ju stm e n t.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
37
TABLE V-A
I n d i v i d u a l S c o r e s on t h e H a g g e rty -O lso n -W ic k m a n
S c a l e f o r B e h a v i o r R e co rd and B e h a v i o r
R a tin g s f o r In te r m e d ia te L evel
Oase
B e h av io r
R e c o rd
In te lle c t­
u a l , D iv. I
P h y sic a l,
D iv . I I
S o c ia l,
D iv .Ill
E m o tio n a l
D i v .I V
IV -1
67
34
26
42
41
IV -3
109
32
20
42
42
IV -2
17
22
13
25
30
IV -4
95
32
21
21
40
IV- 6
48
32
14
29
32
IV- 8
65
27
17
33
31
V -l
65
29
21
31
28
V-3
78
29
17
36
32
V-2
44
29
12
28
27
V-4
94
34
26
37
40
V I-1
23
27
14
24
25
V I-3
46
24
15
28
27
V I-2
31
26
13
25
22
V I-4
40
29
13
30
29
VI- 6
20
25
12
23
21
VI- 8
53
24
15
33
31
E x p l a n a t i o n . E ach p u p i l was r a t e d hy f i v e t e a c h e r s .
The h i g h e r t h e s c o r e t h e p o o r e r t h e b e h a v i o r a d j u s t m e n t .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
38.
TABLE V-B
I n d i v i d u a l S c o r e s on t h e H a g g e rty -O ls o n -W ic k m a n
S c a l e f o r B e h a v i o r R e c o rd and B e h a v i o r
R a t i n g s f o r U p p e r G rade L e v e l
C ase
B e h av io r
R e c o rd
In te lle c t­
u a l , D iv. I
P h y sic a l,
D iv. I I
S o c ia l
D iv .Ill
E m o tio n al
D i v .I V
V II-1
30
24
20
25
22
VI I - 3
23
25
11
19
18
VI I - 5
34
29
16
27
22
V I 1 -3
22
24
14
24
17
V I1-6
34
24
15
25
28
V II-8
32
38
20
29
29
V I1*10
38
18
12
12
20
V I1-12
28
30
17
26
24
V I 1 -14
90
29
16
33
29
V III-1
75
28
20
28
28
V III-3
21
23
20
25
16
V I I 1 -2
90
25
18
30
28
V I I I —4
34
24
14
35
22
E x p l a n a t i o n . E ach p u p i l was r a t e d by two t o t h r e e
te a c h e rs.
The h i g h e r t h e s c o r e t h e p o o r e r t h e b e h a v i o r ad­
ju stm e n t.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
39.
S o c io - E c o n o m ic S t a t u s o f Homes
R e s u l t s w ere r e c o r d e d f o r a l l
E conom ic S c a l e .
ite m s 011 t h e Sims S o c i o -
The r e s u l t s gave a r a t i n g o f ' l o w 1 f o r t h e
home b a c k g r o u n d s a v e r a g e d f o r t h e g r o u p when t h e n o r r s e c u r e d
by Sims f o r Hew H aven, C o n n e c t i c u t , a r e u s e d .
t h a t t h e s e norm s a r e f o r Hew H aven,
Sim s w a rn s
C o n n e c tic u t,
and f u r t h e r
s t a t e s t h a t c o m p a r i s i o n o f s c o r e s w i t h i n t h e g r o u p , and
s c o r e s w i t h o t h e r g r o u p s g i v e s a c l e a r e r m ea n in g .
w e l l t h e home b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e s e c a s e s ,
it
Knowing
i s c e r t a i n in
t h e w r i t e r * s m ind t h a t a s c o r e o f t h r e e w i t h w h ic h t h e au­
t h o r h a s u s e d t h e t e r m *low* i s n o t a n e x a g g e r a t i o n f o r t h e s e
cases.
T h re e homes r a t e d f i v e ,
(See T ab les V III,
o r *m ed iu m 'o n t h e Sims S c a l e .
V III-A and V III-B )
By u s i n g t h e Sims c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f o c c u p a t i o n s a s em­
p lo y e d in th e s c a l e ,
i t was d i s c o v e r e d t h a t 7 6 .3 2 p e r c e n t o f
t h o s e m aking t h e l i v i n g f o r t h e f a m i l y w e re u n s k i l l e d l a b o r ­
ers.
( T a b l e VI)
On t h e Sims S c a l e t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n r e ­
c e i v e s a r a t i n g o f 'O ' w h ic h ,
no o c c u p a t i o n s .
t h e o r e t i c a l l y sp e a k in g ,
meanB
On t h e o t h e r h a n d , 110 p r o f e s s i o n a l o c c u -
p a t i o n s w ere r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e g r o u p .
From t h i s s u r v e y i t
was f u r t h e r n o t e d t h a t crow d ed hom es, l a c k o f f a c i l i t i e s f o r
c le a n lin e ss,
la c k of p riv a c y ,
re a d in g m a te ria l, le is u r e - tim e
f a c i l i t i e s a n d m e d i c a l a t t e n t i o n w e re a l l v e r y p r e v a l e n t .
By u s e o f i n f o r m a t i o n fro m t h e Sims S o c io -E c o n o m ic
S c a l e a l o n g w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h e c o u n ty n u r s e and p u p i l
q u e stio n n a ire s,
a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n was o b t a i n e d .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
T h is
40.
i n f o r m a t i o n shows t h a t o n l y 7 .8 9 p e r c e n t o f t h e homes o f f e r e d
a f a i r l y f a v o r a b l e e n v ir o n m e n t f o r n o rm al d e v e lo p m e n t.
For
t h e m ost p a r t ,
t h e p a r e n t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p i n t h e u n b r o k e n homes
was v e r y p o o r .
A num ber o f t h e homes w ere b r o k e n b y d e a t h o r
se p a ra tio n .
( T a b l e 711)
TABLE 71
P e r c e n t a g e o f P a r e n t s a t E ach L e v e l
o f t h e Sims C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f O c c u p a t i o n s
O c c u p a tio n
P e rce n tag e
I.
P r o f e s s i o n a l men
.0 0
II.
C om m ercial S e r v i c e
2 .6 3
III.
A rtisa n s
2 .6 3
17.
S k ille d la b o re rs
1 8 .4 2
7.
U n sk ille d la b o r e r s
7 6 .3 2
TABLE 711
P e r c e n t a g e o f Homes I n t a c t ahd
P e r c e n t a g e B ro k e n b y D e a th o r S e p a r a t i o n
S o c io -E c o n o m ic D a ta
P e rce n tag e
M o th e r d e c e a s e d
2 .6 3
F a th e r deceased
1 5 .7 9
M o th e r d e s e r t e d home
7 .9 0
F a t h e r d e s e r t e d home
7 .9 0
S te p -fa th e r
2 .6 3
Home i n t a c t
6 3 .1 5
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
41.
TABLE V I I I
S o c i o - E c o n o m i c Background, a s Shown by R a t i n g s
on Sims S o c i o - E c o n o m i c S c a l e .
Prim ary L evel
Case
Socio-Economic
R ating
Home S t a t u s
C orresponding to R ating
1 -1
0
u n d e t e r m i n a t e l y low
1-3
3
low
1 -2
5
medium
II-l
4
medium l o w
11 -2
4
medium l o w
11-4
4
medium l o w
1 1 -6
3
low
1 1 1 -2
0
u n d e t e r m i n a t e l y low
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
TABLE T I I I - A
S o c i o - E c o n o m i c Background, a s Shown hy R a t i n g s
on Sims S o c i o - E c o n o m i c S c a l e .
I n te r m e d ia te Level
Case
Socio-Economic
Rat i n g
Home S t a t u s
Corresponding to R ating
IV-1
3
low
IT-3
3
lOYT
IT-4
3
lo w
IT-6
4
medium lo w
IT-8
4
medium l o w
IT-10
4
medium low
T-l
0
u n d e t e r m i n a t e l y low
T-3
4
medium l o w
T-2
3
low
T -4
3
low
TI-1
3
low
TI-3
4
medium lo w
TI-2
2
v e ry low
TI-4
4
medium low
TI-6
2
v e ry low
TI-8
3
lo w
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
TABLE V I I I - B
S o c i o - E c o n o m i c B a c k g r o u n d a s Shown by R a t i n g s
on Sims S o c i o - E c o n o m i c S c a l e
Upper L e v e l
Case
Socio-Economic
Rat i n g
Home S t a t u s
C orresponding to R ating
v ii- i
4
medium low
V I1 -3
1
low est
V I1 - 5
5
medium
VI1-2
4
medium low
VI1 -6
4
medium low
VII-8
4
medium low
V II-10
2
v e r y low
V I1 - 1 2
1
low est
VI1-14
4
medium low
V III-1
4
medium low
VI11 - 3
4
medium l o w
V I I 1-2
0
u n d e t e r m i n a t e l y lo w
V II1-4
5
medium
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
44.
A ttendance
The a v e r a g e d a i l y a t t e n d a n c e f o r t h e g r o u p , 1 5 8 . 5
d a y s , a s c o m pared t o t h e a v e r a g e d a i l y a t t e n d a n c e f o r t h e
s c h o o l w h i c h i s 167 d a y s , f o r a t e r m o f 176 d a y s ,
poor a tte n d a n c e o f the r e ta r d e d group.
in d icates
T h i s a v e r a g e , how­
e v e r , was b r o u g h t down by s e v e n c a s e s who w e r e a b s e n t some
f o r t y days each.
T h i s p o o r a t t e n d a n c e was due t o p a r e n t s
a l l o w i n g t h e c h i l d r e n t o r e m a i n o u t o f s c h o o l when t h e y ex ­
p r e s s e d a d e s i r e t o do s o .
sal facto r.
I l l h e a l t h was n o t a m a j o r c a u ­
I n some c a s e s o u t r i g h t t r u a n c y was t h e c a u s e ,
b u t t h e p a r e n t s t o o k no i n t e r e s t ,
o r w ou ld u p h o l d th e m d i ­
rectly .
‘h e l p a t home’ .
A number r e m a i n e d o u t t o
O thers
a p p e a r e d t o d e v e l o p some p h y s i c a l u p s e t w h i c h t h e y u s e d a s
a n e x c u s e a t home.
I n t e r e s t i n s c h o o l was h a r d t o h o l d f o r
a number o f th em , e x p e c i a l l y d u r i n g t h e s e c o n d s e m e s t e r a s
s p r i n g came on*
The l a c k o f home i n f l u e n c e on a t t e n d a n c e
c o u ld be se en c l e a r l y th r o u g h o u t.
A ttendance re c o rd s a re
shown i n T a b l e s IX, IX-A a n d IX-B.
S ch o lastic
The y e a r l y a v e r a g e s i n a c a d e m i c work made i n t h e l o ­
c a l s c h o o l by t h e s e p u p i l s w e r e l a r g e l y D ' s a n d F ' s ,
th e l a t t e r predom inating.
A few a v e r a g e s o f 0 a r e n o te d ,
b u t most o f t h o s e w ere e a r n e d by r e p e a t e r s .
a n d IX-B)
given to
w ith
( T a b l e s IX,
IX-A,
I n some c a s e s i t w o u l d seem t h a t g r a d e s o f D w ere
'p a s s th e p u p i l o n ', though i t
i s n o t to be under­
s t o o d t h a t a l l o f t h e s e c a s e s w e r e i n c a p a b l e o f m aking lo w
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
p a s s i n g g r a d e s , o r i n some c a s e s , low 0 ’ s w i t h e f f o r t .
45.
As
a w h o l e , t h e g r o u p h a d a v e r y lo w s c h o l a s t i c r a t i n g , w i t h a
s e r ie s of y e arly f a i l u r e s ,
u l a r averages.
( T a b l e s IX,
r e p e titio n of grades, or ir r e g ­
IX-A, IX-B)
I t was o b s e r v e d
w h i l e s t u d y i n g p e r m a n e n t r e c o r d s t h a t most c a s e s showed
h i g h e r a v e r a g e s in penm anship, m usic, draw ing and p h y s i c a l
education.
The h i g h e s t a v e r a g e s w e re f o u n d i n m u sic a n d
d ra w in g , and t h e lo w e s t a v e r a g e s were found in r e a d i n g .
In
t h e u p p e r g r a d e s some a c h i e v e m e n t was shown i n o r a l E n g l i s h .
TABLE IX
A ttendance,
Case
S c h o l a s t i c R a t i n g , and R e t a r d a t i o n
f o r Prim ary Grades
Y early Averages
R
2
R
3
Days
Absent
1
1 -1
58k
F
1
1-3
0
F
1
1 -2
4
F
0
II-l
7
F
F
F
1 1 -2
0
F
D
F
1
11-4
18
F
D
D
1
F
2
1 1 -6
1 1 1 -2
F
40
F
F
F
Y ears R etard ed
2
D
D
R
D
2
E x p l a n a t i o n . L e t t e r g r a d e s a r e made f r o m y e a r l y a v ­
erages in a l l s u b je c ts .
*R * i s f o r r e p e a t e d g r a d e .
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
46.
TABLE IX-A
A t t e n d a n c e , S c h o l a s t i c R a t i n g , and R e t a r d a t i o n
f o r I n t e r m e d i a t e Grades
Case
17-1
Days
Absent
20
1 7-3
oh
1 7 -4
1
R
2
F
D
F
F
D
F
Y e a r l y Grade A v e r a g e s
R 3 R 4 R 5 R
F
C
F
G
6
R
Years
R etarded
F
F
2
F
F
1
D
F
2
F
3:
20
F
D
D
I7“ 8
5
F
D
F
F
F
F
3
1 7 -1 0
25
F
0
F
0
B
F
2
7-1
16-2
7-3
50
7-2
17
7-4
—
71-1
71-3
D
F
D
1 7 -6
F
0
D
F
D
0
F
F
3-g45
2
D
F
3
F
F
0
2
F
F
F
F
D
D
D
D
F
F
2
D
0
0
D
F
F
2
F
D
D
D
F
F
2
D
D
D
F
F
2
F
71-2
6*
71-4
8
0
0
71-6
15
D
F
71-8
0
E xplanation.
F
D
F
0
D
F
D
0
G
0
2
D
Se e T a b l e IX
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
2
47 .
TABLE IX-B
A ttendance,
Case
7II-1
Days
Abs. 1
R
2
22
F
C
F
F
F
0
D
F
n-
711-3
S c h o l a s ti c R ating,
f o r Uppe r G r a d e s
711-5
46
7II-2
14§-
711-6
33
7II-8
22
R
3
D
F
0
3
D
D
F
7 1 1 - 1 4 10
F
D
B
7 I I I - 1 10&
7 1 1 1-3
R
6
F
F
D
F
F
2
F
F
0
C
F
1
F
F
F
3
D
F
F
2
D
F
F
1
F
F
2
D
D
1
D
F
1
F
F
1
C
D
F
F
D
F
D
D
R
F
D
D
D
F
0
D
F
F
F
0
0
D
0
4^
F
D
F
F
7 I I I - 3 41
7 1 I 1 - 4 16
Abs.
Yrs,
Ret,
5
D
0
0
711-12
4
F
0
711-10
R
R etard atio n
D
F
F
R
7
R
8
F
F
F
R
D
2
F
F
F
2
F
D
2
E x p l a n a t i o n . Same a s T a b l e IX w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n t h a t
i s u se d f o r a b s e n c e , and R et. f o r r e t a r d e d .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
1
48.
H ealth
The c o u n t y n u r s e e x p r e s s e d s u r p r i s e t h a t t h e s e p u p i l s
a p p e a r e d no w o rs e p h y s i c a l l y t h a n t h e g e n e r a l r u n o f g r a d e
s c h o o l p u p i l s w i t h whom s h e came i n c o n t a c t .
Most o f th e m
l o o k e d p h y s i c a l l y s o u n d , a n d se em ed a v e r a g e i n a p p e a r a n c e . T h e r e
w e r e no c r i p p l e s , weak, o r d i s t o r t e d f i g u r e s .
usual th ro at,
teeth ,
and eye c o n d i t i o n s .
t h r o a t and g l a n d u l a r c o n d i t i o n s .
cu lties.
Four case s had sev ere
T h r e e h a d some h e a r i n g d i f f i ­
Seven had d e f e c t s o f v i s i o n .
h e a lth records.
There were t h e
T h i r t e e n showed c l e a r
S e v e n showed d e f i n i t e r e s u l t s o f r i c k e t s .
( T a b l e s X, X-A, X-B)
A ccording to t h e n u rs e o n e .c o u ld not say
t h a t th e y were i n p o o r e r p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n t h a n t h e a v e ra g e run
o f pupils.
T h e r e was n o t e d , h o w e v e r , a l a c k o f c o r r e c t i o n o f
th e p h y sic a l d e fe c ts th a t did e x is t.
TABLE X
H e a l t h C o n d i ti o n o f Prim ary Grades
Case
Throat
Glands
Teeth
X
X
X
0
X
P
0
0
0
0
0
0
F
X
0
0
0
0
X
X
P
1 1 -2
0
0
0
X
0
0
X
G
11-4
X
X
0
X
X
X
0
F
1 1 -6
X
X
0
X
0
X
X
P
1 1 1 -2
0
0
0
X
0
0
0
P
Eyes
Ears
1-3
0
0
1 -2
0
II-l
Hose
R ickets
Posture
1 -1
E x p l a n a t i o n . B l a n k s i n d i c a t e no e x a m i n a t i o n , z e r o s no
s e r i o u s d e f e c t s , X s e r i o u s c o n d i t i o n . G, g ood; P, p o o r ; F, f a i r .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
49.
TABLE X-A
H e alth C ondition of In te rm e d ia te
Grades
C ase
Eyes
Ears
Nose
Throat
Glands
Teeth
R ickets
P osture
IV-1
0
0
0
X
0
0
0
P
17-3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
F
17-4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
G
IV -6
0
X
0
0
0
0
0
F
17-8
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
P
17-10
0
0
X
0
0
0
0
F
7-1
0
0
X
0
X
X
0
F
7-3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
G
7-3
0
0
0
0
X
0
0
G
71-1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
G
71-3
X
0
0
X
0
0
X
G
71-2
X
0
0
0
0
0
0
F
71-4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
P
71-6
0
0
0
X
0
0
0
F
71-8
0
0
0
0
0
0
X
F
7-4
E xplanation.
Same a s T a b l e X.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
50.
TABLE X-B
H e a l t h C o n d i t i o n o f U p pe r G r a d e s
Glands
Teeth
R ickets
Pos.
0
0
0
X
p
0
0
X
0
0
F
0
0
0
0
0
0
G
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
G
V I 1 -4
0
0
0
X
X
0
0
F
VII-6
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
P
V I 1 -8
0
0
0
X
0
0
0
P
VII-10
X
0
0
0
X
0
0
F
V I 1-12
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
F
V I 1-14
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
G
V III-1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
G
V I I 1 -3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
F
V I I 1-2
0
0
0
X
0
0
0
F
V I I 1-4
X
0
0
0
0
0
0
P
Case
Eyes
Ears
V II-1
0
0
0
V II-3
0
0
V I 1 -5
X
V I 1-2
Pos.
Hose T h r o a t
E x p l a n a t i o n . Same a s T a b l e X, w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n t h a t
in d ic a te s posture.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
51.
Reading: C o m p r e h e n s i o n
R e s u l t s o f t h e Iowa S i l e n t R e a d i n g t e s t s w h i c h w e r e
a v a i l a b l e f o r a number o f c a s e s i n g r a d e s VI, V I I and V I I I ,
showed a l l p u p i l s , w i t h one e x c e p t i o n ,
m e d i a n and t h e s t a n d a r d norm.
low t h e s e norms.
to be below th e c l a s s
Most o f t h e c a s e s were f a r b e ­
( T a b l e XI)
As was p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d ,
read­
i n g a p p e a r s t o be t h e w e a k e s t p o i n t i n t h e g r o u p .
C lu b s, O r g a n iz a tio n s , Hobbies,
L e i s u r e Time a n d M i s c e l l a n e o u s I n f o r m a t i o n
From a s t u d y made o f p u p i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s ,
d i x , p a g e 88)
u se d in t h e u p p e r g r a d e s t o g e t h e r w ith inform ­
a t i o n d i s c l o s e d by t h e Sims S o c i o - E c o n o m i c S c a l e ,
t h a t t h e s e p u p i l s had l i t t l e
tio n s.
(Se e Appen­
i t was n o t e d
c o n t a c t w i t h c l u b s and o r g a n i z a ­
A t t e n d a n c e a t c h u r c h a n d Sunday s c h o o l was r e p o r t e d i n
m o st c a s e s .
H obbies,
reading,
radio lis te n i n g ,
and g e n e r a l
p l a n n i n g f o r l e i s u r e tim e a c t i v i t y were r a r e l y n o te d .
Much o f t h e l e i s u r e t i m e o f t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e a n d u p p e r
g r a d e s , w i t h b u t few e x c e p t i o n s ,
c o n s i s t e d o f roaming a b out
t h e main s t r e e t s o r a t t e n d i n g show s.
T w enty-six of th e c a se s
moved i n t o S t u r g i s d u r i n g r e c e n t y e a r s ,
by farm s.
most o f them f r o m n e a r ­
T h i s c h a n g e i n e n v i r o n m e n t may h a v e a f f e c t e d t h e i r
ad ju stm en t and t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
52.
TABLE XI
R e s u l t s o f R e a d i n g C o m p r e h e n s i o n on
Iowa S i l e n t R e a d i n g T e s t s f o r
G r a d e s VI, V I I , a nd V I I I
Cs.se
Standard
Norm
C lass
M edi an
VI-1
74
45
VI-3
74
VI-2
VI-4
Pupil
Score
Standard
Norm
C lass
Me dian
44
98
70
26
45
41
98
70
22
74
45
40
74
45
27
98
54
40
VI-6
98
58
32
VII-1
98
54
8
Pupil
Score
V I 1-3
74
45
34
98
54
39
VII-2
74
45
39
98
54
7
V I1-6
74
45
56
98
54
42
VI I - 8
98
70
19
VII-10
98
54
48
V I1 - 1 2
98
70
31
V II-14
98
54
5
V III-3
98
92
40
98
11
42
V III-2
98
92
60
98
115
31
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CHAPTER V
CASE STUDIES
Thus f a r i n t h i s s t u d y a n a n a l y s i s h a s b e e n made o f
th e d a t a c o l l e c t e d f o r t h e s u b j e c t s in each group o r of
t h e means o f t h e g r o u p .
la te d f o r discussion.
No s e p a r a t e c a s e s h a v e b e e n i s o ­
Much i n f o r m a t i o n w h ic h was g a i n e d
f o r t h e s t u d y c o u l d n o t b e p l a c e d i n an y m e a n i n g f u l t a b u ­
l a t e d form.
There i s ,
therefore,
f o r each of th e c a se s
much i n f o r m a t i o n o t h e r t h a n t h a t t a b u l a t e d .
This case
s tu d y m a t e r i a l a f f o r d s i n f o r m a t i o n which sh o u ld prove h e l p ­
f u l to c la ss ro o m t e a c h e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s .
In th e pages
w h i c h f o l l o w , t w e n t y - f o u r c a s e s w i l l b e d i s c u s s e d a t some
leng th .
Cases which r e v e a l e d i n f o r m a ti o n p a r t i c u l a r l y
v a l u a b l e i n t h e g u i d a n c e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l were c h o s e n .
Cases o f c l o s e f a m ily r e l a t i o n s h i p , b r o t h e r s ,
first
cousins,
e t c . , w e r e u s e d t o show t h e p o s s i b l e e f f e c t s o f h e r e d i t y and
environm ent.
R e a s o n s f o r s e l e c t i o n may be l i s t e d among
o t h e r c a s e s o f v e r y p o o r home e n v i r o n m e n t .
Such f a c t o r s
suggest reaso n s f o r m aladjustm ent.
O ases 1 - 1 , I I - 3 , b r o t h e r a n d s i s t e r .
o l d e r b r o t h e r s a re heavy d r i n k e r s .
F a t h e r a n d two
The m o t h e r i s h i g h l y
n e r v o u s a n d i n c l i n e d t o w a r d i m a g i n a r y i l l n e s s on t h e p a r t o f
h e r s e l f and fa m ily .
The home i s one o f e x t r e m e p o v e r t y w i t h
c ro w ded a n d u n s a n i t a r y c o n d i t i o n s .
wood f o r a l i v i n g .
The f a t h e r c u t s a nd s e l l s
An o l d e r b r o t h e r , when i n s c h o o l , showed
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
54.
I . Q . ' s o f 68 a n d 63 o n t h e He nm on -Nelson t e s t s .
Another
D r o t h e t h a d a b o u t t h e same s c o r e s .
Case 1 - 1 , g i r l . 0. A. 7 - 9 ,
T h i s c a s e made a s c o r e
o f 0 on t h e O t i s t e s t a n d 76 on t h e D e t r o i t Advanced P r i m a ­
ry.
She i s i n c l i n e d t o he n e r v o u s a n d i r r i t a b l e w i t h s u d ­
den a t t a c k s o f i l l n e s s under s t r e s s a t school.
Her p a r e n t s
13b n o t s t i m u l a t e t h e c h i l d r e n t o s c h o o l a t t e n d a n c e ,
ag in ary sic k n e ss, along w ith
a g re a t deal.
'w o rk a t home' k e e p s them o u t
The g i r l seem s so much l i k e a b a b y t h a t
t e a c h e r s h a v e f e l t t h a t s h e was n o t y e t s i x ,
re c o r d s s u b s t a n t i a t e t h e age g iv en .
g irl
a n d im­
in th e fam ily,
however b i r t h
S i n c e sh e i s t h e o n l y
a n d much y o u n g e r t h a n t h e r e s t ,
it
is
p o s s i b l e t h a t sh e h a s b e e n d e p r i v e d o f n o r m a l e x p e r i e n c e s .
Her m o t h e r i s c o n s t a n t l y a f r a i d t h a t s h e w i l l b e i n j u r e d on
the playgrounds.
of f iv e ,
T h i s c a s e r e a c t s v e r y much l i k e a c h i l d
but lack s i n te r e s t,
c u rio sity ,
or physical a c tiv ity
to q u ite a degree.
Case I I I - 3 ,
b o y . C. A. 1 1 - 8 .
I . Q . ' s show 81 on
K u h lm a n n - A n d e r so n , 61 on O t i s , a n d 78 on D e t r o i t P r i m a r y .
The b o y i s n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n s c h o o l and i s r e s t l e s s and
f i d g e t y m ost o f t h e t i m e .
d eceit,
He i s i n c l i n e d t o w a r d l y i n g a nd
e s p e c i a l l y w h e re s c h o o l a t t e n d a n c e i s c o n c e r n e d a n d
i s r e t a r d e d two y e a r s .
The boy h a s some d i f f i c u l t y
in g e t­
t i n g a l o n g w i t h o t h e r s on t h e p l a y g r o u n d .
Oases 1 -3 .
sisters.
II-6,
I V - 1 , V-4, V I I - 5 , b r o t h e r s a n d
T h es e c h i l d r e n come f r o m a f a m i l y o f t e n ,
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
inclu­
d i n g m o t h e r an d f a t h e r ,
who a r e m e n t a l l y d e f i c i e n t a c c o r d ­
i n g t o t h e n u r s e a n d o t h e r s who a r e i n c l o s e c o n t a c t w i t h
them .
They moved t o town f r o m a f a r m d u r i n g t h e e a r l y d a y s
of the depression.
The f a t h e r works on W. P. A. an d t a k e s
odd j o b s f r o m t i m e t o t i m e .
b i r t h two y e a r s a g o ,
The m o t h e r l o s t an i n f a n t a t
and has b e e n b e d r i d d e n s i n c e — s u f f e r ­
in g from e x tre m e ly h i g h b lo o d p r e s s u r e .
Two s m a l l ' rooms
p r o v i d e d by t h e c o u n t y h o u s e t h e f a m i l y .
An o l d e r s i s t e r who a t t e n d e d s c h o o l t h r e e y e a r s ago
h a d I . $ . ' s o f 58 a n d 63 on t h e He nmon-N elson t e s t .
She
was p a s s e d f ro m t h e g r a d e s a f t e r h a v i n g b e e n r e t a r d e d t h r e e
years.
S h o r t l y a f t e r l e a v i n g s c h o o l sh e m a r r i e d a young man
who came f ro m a f a m i l y o f lo w m e n t a l i t y .
A b ro th e r of h e r
h u sband had b een com m itted t o t h e s t a t e r e f o r m a to r y f o r
s e r io u s sex d e lin q u e n c ie s .
An o l d e r b r o t h e r who d i s c o n t i n u e d s c h o o l a t t h e a g e
o f f i f t e e n h a d I . Q . ' s o f 60 a n d 56 on Henm on-Nelson, a nd
s c o r e s o f 46 a n d 54 o n K u h lm an n -A n d e rso n a nd S o u t h D a k o t a
M ental r e s p e c t i v e l y .
He l e f t
s c h o o l when i n t h e f i f t h
grade a f t e r having been re ta r d e d fo u r y ears.
He, l i k e a l l
members o f t h e f a m i l y , w i t h one e x c e p t i o n , h a d some s p e e c h
d iffic u lties.
cigar,
H i s s p e e c h was v e r y c h i l d i s h ,
eg:
•garo' fo r
a n d he o m i t t e d many w o r d s , p a r t i c u l a r l y c o n j u n c t i o n s ,
from h i s s e n te n c e s .
f o r p etty th e f t.
The b o y was i n t r o u b l e s e v e r a l t i m e s
H i s l e i s u r e t i m e was s p e n t on t h e s t r e e t s
o r i n s e a r c h i n g t h e dumps a n d g a r b a g e c o n t a i n e r s i n t h e a l -
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
leys.
When h e d i s c o n t i n u e d s c h o o l h e wor ke d a s a p i n -
s e t t e r in a how ling a l l e y ,
h u t he d i d n o t c o n t i n u e a t a ny­
th in g ste ad ily .
W ith on e e x c e p t i o n ,
a l l of th e c h ild re n are spare
i n p h y siq u e and have c o a rs e f e a t u r e s .
T heir heads appear
t o he out o f p r o p o r t i o n and l a r g e f o r t h e i r b o d i e s .
T heir
e y es, which a r e d e e p ly r e c e s s e d i n o v e r l y l a r g e s o c k e t s a re
c o l o r l e s s w i t h s h a p p - a p p e a r i n g p u p i l s w h i c h g i v e s them a
very h lan k s t a r e .
B o d i l y movements o f t h i s g r o u p a r e g r o s s
a n d l u m b e r i n g w i t h u n c e r t a i n t y a s t o t h e o b j e c t i v e t o he
reached.
Most o f t h e t i m e o f a l l members i s s p e n t a b o u t
the s t r e e t s .
The s t a t e h a s gone t h r o u g h t h e l e g a l p r o c e ­
d u r e t o commit them t o t h e s t a t e h o s p i t a l , b u t t h e y w i l l
n o t t a k e th e m u n l e s s t h e y become more s e r i o u s p r o b l e m s , b e ­
c a u s e o f c ro w ded c o n d i t i o n s .
Case 1 - 5 , g i r l . 0. A. 8 - 1 .
I . Q , ' s a r e 71 on K u h l -
m an n -A n d e rso n a n d 72 on D e t r o i t Advanced F i r s t Grade T e s t s .
She was t a k e n f r o m s c h o o l d u r i n g t h e s e a s o n o f 1 9 3 9 - 4 0 on
t h e a d v i c e o f t h e s t a t e p s y c h o l o g i s t i n hope t h a t s h e m ig h t
g a i n some e x p e r i e n c e b a c k g r o u n d d u r i n g t h e y e a r .
Her grad e
a v e r a g e f o r t h e y e a r 1 9 4 0 - 4 1 was F, a l t h o u g h s h e made g r a d e s
o f 0 and B in m usic, and D i n a r t .
shows g l a n d ,
th ro at,
Her p h y s i c a l e x a m in a tio n
and n a s a l t r o u b l e ,
t u r e shows d e f i n i t e r e s u l t s o f r i c k e t s .
and h e r bo ne s t r u c ­
She c a n n o t h o l d
h e r s e l f t o w o rk , a n d l o o k s a b o u t t h e room much o f t h e t i m e .
Her r e a c t i o n s a r e v e ry d u l l and v e ry i n f a n t i l e .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
57.
Case 1 1 - 6 , b o y .
C. A. 9 - 8 .
I . Q . *s a r e 52 on K u h l -
m a n n - A n d e r so n , a n d 57 on D e t r o i t P r i m a r y .
M e n t a l showed a n I . Q .
o f 57.
The S o u t h D a k o t a
Like h i s s i s t e r ,
out o f scho ol d u r in g t h e se a s o n 1939-40.
he was s e n t
This case r e p r e ­
s e n t s t h e most d i f f i c u l t p r o b l e m o f t h e f a m i l y i n t h a t he
can s c a r c e l y v o c a liz e .
I t i s i m p o s s i b l e f o r h im t o r e p e a t
a f t e r t h e t e a . c h e r t h e f i r s t n u m e r a l i n a s e r i e s o f 1 , 2, 3.
On o c c a s i o n s he s a y s a few w o r d s , b u t much o f t h e t i m e
t h e r e i s a movement o f t h e m u s c l e s o f t h e f a c e an d l i p s
w i t h no s o u n d .
He shows a r e t a r d a t i o n o f two y e a r s a n d h a s
an a v e ra g e o f F i n a l l s u b j e c t s w i t h t h e e x c e p ti o n o f music,
i n w h i c h h e r e c e i v e d a D, t h o u g h h e f a i l e d i n t h a t
th e p a st year.
course
H i S d r a w i n g i s c r u d e , and o n l y once n e a r t h e
e n d o f t h e s e a s o n was he a b l e t o p r i n t h i s f i r s t name so one
c o u l d make o u t w h at h e m e a n t.
tratio n ,
He h a s no p o w e r s o f c o n c e n ­
and c o n s t a n t l y l o o k s about t o g a in t h e a t t e n t i o n of
oth er p u p ils.
On t h e p l a y g r o u n d h e p l a y s a l o n e , b u t f r e ­
q u e n t l y d a s h e d i n a n d o u t o f a p l a y g r o u p w i t h o u t b e c o m in g
any p a r t o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n .
Case I V - 1 , g i r l . 0. A. 1 3 - 9 .
K u h lm a n n - A n d e r so n ,
73 on O t i s ,
on South Dakota M ental.
I . Q . ' s a r e 78 on
69 on D e t r o i t P r i m a r y , a n d 58
She h a s b e e n r e t a r d e d two y e a r s and
h a s made g r a d e s o f F w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e r e p e t i t i o n o f
t h e f i r s t g r a d e wh e re s h e shoxved a n a v e r a g e o f D.
p e n m a n s h i p were p a s s i n g f o r t h e most p a r t ,
s t r o n g C a v e ra g e i n m usic.
Grades in
a n d she made a
I n d r a w i n g h e r a v e r a g e was D.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
58.
Her a p p e a r a n c e i s v e r y g r o s s w i t h what a ,ppears t o b e a n
o v e r - s iz e d head.
She i s v e r y u n t i d y ,
and o t h e r c h i l d r e n
t e a s e h e r a. g r e a t d e a l .
Oase V—4, b o y . 0. A. 1 3 - 5 .
U elson,
61 on K u h lm a n n - A n d e r so n ,
South Dakota M ental.
I . Q . ’ s a r e 65 on Henmon65 on O t i s ,
and 57 on
He i s r e t a r d e d two y e a r s a n d h a s F
averages f o r a l l y e a rs in school.
The boy shows l i t t l e
or
no s u c c e s s i n m u s i c , p e n m e n s h i p , d r a w i n g o r p h y s i c a l ed u­
cation.
On t h e p l a y g r o u n d he t a k e s no p a r t i n a c t i v i t y ,
a n d c h o o s e s t o be a l o n e s a v e f o r t i m e s when he may go i n t o
a g r o u p t o make r e m a r k s w h i c h a r e r a r e l y p e r t i n e n t t o what
i s g o i n g on.
T h i s c a s e h a s a v e r y h i g h b e h a v i o r r e c o r d on
t h e H a g g e r t y - O l s o n - W i c k m a n s c a l e w h i c h shows him t o be an
extrem e c a s e of m a la d ju s tm e n t.
He l i e s t o q u i t e a n e x t e n t
a n d h a s some t e n d e n c y t o w a r d w r i t i n g o b s c e n e n o t e s .
His
s p e e c h i s p o o r — v e r y i r r e g u l a r w i t h b r o k e n an d i n c o m p l e t e
th o ug h ts.
D u r i n g t h e s e a s o n o f 1939-4-0 he t o o k a s t r o n g
fancy to the g i r l s .
He b r o u g h t them f l o w e r s an d c an dy ,
a n d l a t e r h a d t h e u r g e t o p l a c e h i s arms a b o u t th em .
A fter
d i s c u s s i o n w i t h him a b o u t t h e m a t t e r , h e d i s c o n t i n u e d t h e
p r a c t i c e and h a s n o t b e e n known t o h a v e r e p e a t e d i t .
b o y h a s no i n t e r e s t s
i n o r ou t o f s c h o o l .
The
Most o f h i s t i m e
i s s p e n t a b o u t t h e s t r e e t s and a l l e y s a s a s c a v e n g e r o r b e g ­
gar.
Oase V I 1 - 5 , g i r l . 0. A. 16-1..
I . Q . ' s a r e 76 a n d 84
o n Hen m on-N elso n, 81 on K u h lm a n n - A n d e r so n , and 53 on O t i s .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
59,
T h i s member o f t h e f a m i l y d o e s n o t r e s e m b l e t h e o t h e r s i n
p h y s i c a l a p p e a ra n c e , and h a s t h e h i g h e s t m en tal r a t i n g o f
th e group.
She h a s some s e m b l a n c e o f a p e r s o n a l i t y ,
i s somewhat more a t t r a c t i v e t h a n t h e o t h e r members.
and
Grade
a v e r a g e s f o r h e r f o u r y e a r s i n t h e s y s t e m a r e F, b u t h e r
g r a d e s i n m u s i c , p e n m a n s h i p , a n d d r a w i n g w ere b e t w e e n 0 an d
D.
H e r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n g r a d e s w e re D.
a b i l i t y to express h e r s e l f ,
She shows more
b u t i s by no means q u i c k t o
respond o r to put id ea s to g e th e r.
The g i r l i s v e r y s e x
c o n s c i o u s and s p e n d s h e r f r e e h o u r s a b o u t t h e s t r e e t a n d
f r e q u e n t i n g t h e wom en 's r e s t room a t t h e c i t y a u d i t o r i u m .
S in ce t h e m iddle of t h e s e a s o n she h as been i n i n c r e a s i n g
com panionship w i t h s o l d i e r s from t h e n e a r - b y m i l i t a r y p o s t .
C ase I I - l ,
m a n n - A n d e r so n ,
g i r l . G.
A. 9 - 5 .
I . Q . ' s a r e 77 on E u h l -
76 on O t i s , a n d 77 on D e t r o i t P r i m a r y .
She
h a s b e e n r e t a r d e d two y e a r s a n d shows a n a v e r a g e o f F f o r
three years of
s c h o o l work w i t h a D f o r r e p e t i t i o n o f g r a d e
two.
neat,
She i s a
clean l i t t l e g i r l .
A s i s t e r who f i n ­
i s h e d s c h o o l two y e a r s p r e v i o u s l y was v e r y d u l l ,
r e c o r d s a r e a v a i l a b l e c o n c e rn in g h e r I.Q.
d e a d a n d t h e m o t h e r l i v e s on a p e n s i o n .
t h o u g h no
The f a t h e r i s
The f a m i l y b e l o n g s
t o a r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n w h ic h w o rk s on e m o t i o n a n d t h e
m other i s a f a n a t i c .
The g i r l
no a p p r e c i a b l e d e f e c t s .
i s slo w i n s p e e c h , b u t shows
H e r p h y s i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n shows
t r o u b l e w ith g la n d s and eyes as a r e s u l t of r i c k e t s .
O a s e s I V - 5,
17-8, 711-14, f i r s t
c o u s i n s . M o t h e r s come
f r o m a l a r g e f a m i l y w h e r e a l l c h i l d r e n w ere v e r y d u l l t o
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
60
m oronic.
ly.
.
G i r l s i n t h e f a m i l y t e n d e d t o he v e r y l o o s e m o r a l ­
G r a n d f a t h e r on m o t h e r s '
side a p p aren tly average or
a h o v e , t h o u g h t h e g r a n d m o t h e r on t h i s s i d e seems t o he v e r y
stupid.
The m o t h e r s o f t h e s e t h r e e c h i l d r e n a r e s i s t e r s .
The m o t h e r o f 1 7 - 8 a n d 7 1 1 - 1 4 i s immoral and w i t h a n o l d e r
d a u g h t e r who r a t e d low m e n t a l l y ,
a t t e n d e d d a n c e s w here t h e y
were p r o m i s c u o u s i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h men.
The m o t h e r
f i n a l l y d e s e r t e d t h e home a n d l e f t f i v e c h i l d r e n .
The
f a t h e r h a s . ' k e p t t h e two h o y s an d w o rks on W. P. A. an d d o e s
odd j o b s a h o u t town.
The o l d e r s i s t e r m a r r i e d an d a s s i s t s
some i n t h e home, a l t h o u g h s h e i s n o t c a p a b l e o f s t a b i l i z i n g
t h e home e n v i r o n m e n t .
Oase 1 7 - 5 , g i r l .
K u h lm an n -A n d e rso n ,
0. A. 1 0 - 1 1 .
80 on O t i s ,
I . Q . ‘ s 'show 81 on
a n d 85 on D e t r o i t P r i m a r y .
She h a s b e e n r e t a r d e d on e y e a r w i t h g r a d e s o f F f o r a l l
y e a r s w i t h a n e x c e p t i o n o f D f o r r e p e t i t i o n o f g r a d e one .
She h a s e i g h t b r o t h e r s a n d s i s t e r s , who, a l o n g w i t h t h e
f a t h e r and m other, l i v e
d u l l to m oronic.
i n two s m a l l rooms.
The m o t h e r i s
The f a t h e r i s n e r v o u s and t e m p e r a m e n t a l ,
an d h a s n e v e r b e e n a b l e t o h o l d s t e a d y employment e v e n on
W.P.A. b e c a u s e o f f a i l i n g t o g e t a l o n g w i t h o t h e r s .
a r e l i g i o u s f a n a t i c and i s h i g h ly em otional.
He i s
A nephew o f
h i s who a t t e n d e d s c h o o l h e r e f o r a y e a r was f o u n d t o be a
lo w g r a d e moron, a a p a b l e o f d o i n g o n l y t h i r d g r a d e w o r k
when i n g r a d e s e v e n .
He was a h a r e - l i p p e d boy and was ex­
trem ely nervous.
The g i r l h a s b e e n much o f a b e h a v i o r p r o b l e m .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Her
b e h a v i o r r e c o r d shows h i g h e s t o f a l l t h e c a s e s , -which
p l a c e s h e r in t h e e x tre m e ly m a la d ju s te d group.
f i r s t g r a d e on,
From t h e
sh e h a s b e e n s u b j e c t o f s p e l l s o f t e m p e r
an d c r u e l t y d u r i n g w h i c h t i m e sh e w o u ld f l y i n t o h e r c l a s s ­
m a t e s and s c r a t c h t h e m f e r o c i o u s l y .
Although t h i s c o n d i t i o n
h a s im p r o v e d a g r e a t d e a l ,
r e s o r ts to s c ra tc h in g
an d r o u g h h a n d l i n g .
she s t i l l
She b i t e s h e r n a i l s t o a g r e a t e x t e n t ,
an d h e r h a n d s a n d arms seem t o b e r e s t l e s s .
Much o f t h e
t i m e s h e t r i e s t o c a u s e t r o u b l e f o r o t h e r s by l y i n g o r t a t ­
tlin g .
H e r p h y s i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n showed no a p p a r e n t weak­
nesses.
A b r o t h e r and s i s t e r a l s o i n school d i d n o t f a l l
i n to t h i s group f o r stu d y ,
and t h e i r b e h a v i o r a p p e a rs to
be s a t i s f a c t o r y .
Oase I V - 8, b o y . 0. A. 1 3 - 1 .
I . Q . ' s a r e 72 on Kuhl­
m a n n - A n d e r so n , 74 on O t i s , a n d 64 a nd 72
on D e t r o i t P r i ­
mary an d S o u t h D a k o t a M e n t a l r e s p e c t i v e l y .
He h a s b e e n r e ­
ta rd e d th r e e y e ars w ith grades of F f o r a l l y e a rs w ith the
e x c e p t i o n o f a D f o r r e p e t i t i o n o f g r a d e one.
The boy i s
v e r y q u i e t a b ou t, s c h o o l an d d o e s n o t h a v e much r e a c t i o n t o ­
ward t h o s e a b o u t him.
He h a s c a u s e d no t r o u b l e a t
school
d u r i n g r e c e n t y e a r s , a l t h o u g h d u r i n g h i s f i r s t y e a r s he was
in an o c c a s i o n a l f i g h t .
lad ,
T his c ase i s a c le a n ,
so u n d l o o k i n g
and t h e n u r s e commented s e v e r a l t i m e s on t h a t p o i n t .
h a s no home l i f e
s i n c e h i s m other l e f t ,
He
a n d t h e r e i s good
e v i d e n c e t h a t i t may h a v e b e e n e v e n w o r s e b e f o r e h e r d e ­
parture.
He s p e n d s much o f h i s l e i s u r e t i m e on t h e s t r e e t a
The boy h a s done p a s s i n g work i u p e n m a n s h i p , m u s ic and d r a w -
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
62.
Case V I1 - 1 4 , b o y . G. A. 1 4 - 8 .
I . Q . ’ s show 73 a n d 63
o n Hen m on-N elso n, 65 on K u h lm an n -A n d e rso n , 51 on O t i s ,
76 on S o u t h D a k o t a M e n t a l .
and
Hff h a s b e e n r e t a r d e d two y e a r s ,
a n d shows a v e r a g e s o f F f o r a l l y e a r s w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n
o f g r a d e o ne.
This boy h a s b e en a b e h a v i o r problem i n
s c h o o l a nd h i s r a t i n g shows a h i g h s t a t e o f m a l a d j u s t m e n t ,
a lth o u g h he has b een im proving a g r e a t d e a l.
he used to f i g h t ,
h ig h tem per,
steal,
a nd l i e
a g rea t deal.
and c h i l d r e n t e n d t o p i c k on him.
At one t i m e
He h a s a
The boy
h a s a t e n d e n c y t o w a r d s p e l l s o f m o o d i n e s s a nd i l l n a t u r e .
Like h i s b r o t h e r ,
lad.
he i s a c l e a n ,
c le a r - c u t looking
R e c e n t l y he h a s t a k e n more p r i d e i n h i s d r e s s ,
and
h a s become s e x - c o n s c i o u s — a t r e n d w h i c h was b r o u g h t o u t i n
a n o r i g i n a l v a l e n t i n e b a s e d on l o v e .
He makes c o l l e c t i o n s
o f p i c t u r e s o f movie s t a r s .
T h i s s e a s o n h e Was p l a c e d on t h e S a f e t y P a t r o l ,
d id .v ery w ell.
and
I t seemed t o g i v e h im s o m e t h i n g t o work f o r ,
a n d he t o o k much s e r i o u s p r i d e i n i t .
He r e c e i v e d a c e r ­
t i f i c a t e o f m e r i t f r o m t h e S t a t e Highway D e p a r t m e n t f o r h i s
services.
The boy w a n t s t o b e a c a r p e n t e r l i k e h i s f a t h e r ,
a n d w o r r i e s a l o t b e c a u s e he i s
Oase s IV -4 ,
V -l,
’ n o t s m a r t 1.
V I I I —2 . f i r s t
c o u s i n s . These c a s e s
come f r o m a l a r g e f a m i l y g r o u p o r p a t r i a r c h y a t whose h e a d
i s an aged g r a n d f a t h e r .
The g r o u p h a s b e e n moving i n f r o m
K a n sa s s i n c e t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e d e p r e s s i o n .
members l i v e on a v e r y low s t a n d a r d ,
A ll of th e
and work on 7/.P.A. o r
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
63.
c u t wood, f o r a l i v i n g .
t h e group.
T h e r e i s much m o r a l l a x i t y w i t h i n
The h a v e h e e n a h e a v y 'burden on t h e c o u n t y
w h i c h comes t o t h e i r s u p p o r t f o r m e d i c a l a t t e n t i o n ,
and
g e n e r a l w e l f a r e from tim e t o tim e .
Oase I V - 4 , b o y . 0. A. 1 3 - 1 .
I . Q . ' s a r e 74 on Hen-
m o n - H e l s o n , 82 on K u h lm a n n - A n d e r s o n , 71 on O t i s ,
75 on
D e t r o i t P r i m a r y , a n d 75 on S o u t h D a k o t a M e n t a l .
The hoy
has heen r e ta r d e d th re e y e a rs.
He h a s a v e r a g e s o f F f o r
th ree y ears,an d D fo r th ree years.
in h er l a t e tw enties,
s t a n t i a l l y hraced.
H i s m o t h e r , a woman
i s a c r i p p l e and h a s h o t h l e g s sub­
The f i r s t m a r r i a g e , w h ic h gave h i r t h
t o t h i s hoy a n d a s i s t e r , was t o a man h i s l a t e s i x t i e s .
The f a m i l y l i v e d i n a cro w d ed o n e - r o o m s h a c k w i t h a d i r t
floor.
The a g e d f a t h e r became b e d - r i d d e n and r e m a i n e d i n
t h a t s t a t e f o r th re e y e ars b efo re h is death.
The m o t h e r
r e m a r r i e d s h o r t l y a f t e r w a r d a n o t h e r man i n h i s l a t e
six­
t i e s who had d e s e r t e d a w i f e an d f a m i l y o f grown c h i l d r e n .
He r e c e i v e s a p e n s i o n f r o m t h e s t a t e .
The boy h a s b e e n a d i f f i c u l t p r o b l e m i n s c h o o l .
He
h a s a p e r s o n a l i t y which c a u se s o t h e r c h i l d r e n to d i s l i k e
him.
Coupled w ith l y i n g and d e c e i t , he a l s o had t h e h a b i t
of s te a lin g .
Two t e r m s p a s t ,
he s t a r t e d on a b i c y c l e -
stealing orgy that lasted for several weeks.
Although he
was c a u g h t e a c h t i m e a nd a d m i t t e d , u n d e r p r e s s u r e , w h at he
h a d d o n e , h e w o u ld r e p e a t t h e a c t w i t h i n a da y o r so .
He c a u s e d l i t t l e
tr o u b le t h i s season, u n t i l n ear
s p r i n g when h e w r o t e an d s e n t among t h e b o y s a n o b s c e n e
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
n o t e a b o u t one o f t h e g i r l s i n c l a s s .
He t r i e d t o b lam e i t
on o t h e r h o y s , h u t c o n s t r u c t e d so many e x c u s e s t h a t h e f i n a l l l
became c o n f u s e d .
He t h e n b la m e d i t on c o u s i n s o f t h e g i r l s
who h a d j u s t moved t o to wn h u t h a d n o t y e t e n t e r e d s c h o o l .
The e n t i r e s t o r y was f a l s e a n d s u c h c h i l d r e n d i d n o t e x i s t .
There have h een s e v e r a l i n d i c a t i o n s o f sex i r r e g u l a r i t i e s
in
t h is case.
He i s n o t a f r a i d o f p h y s i c a l p u n i s h m e n t f o r h e s a y s
t h a t he r e c e i v e s much o f i t a t home.
He c l a i m s t h a t much o f
h i s t r o u b l e a t home comes b e t w e e n h im a n d h i s y o u n g e r s i s t e r .
When i n t r o u b l e , h e d r i e s t e a r f u l l y w i t h no a c c o m p a n y in g
emotion.
The b o y s t a t e d t h a t M s home l i f e was d u l l a n d
t h a t he d o e s n o t c a r e f o r h i s s t e p - f a t h e r .
w h at h e d i d a t home, he s a i d ,
i n t h e wood.
til
On b e i n g a s k e d
" I go home f r o m s c h o o l a nd g e t
Then me a nd my f a t h e r a n d m o t h e r p l a y c a r d s un­
my s t e p - b r o t h e r comes a t <7:30, t h e n we a l l g e t up a n d g e t
supper.
We g e t t h r o u g h s u p p e r by 8 : 3 0 , t h e n we p l a y c a r d s
u n t i l 9 : 0 0 a n d go t o b e d .
We c a n ' t r u n t h e r a d i o b e c a u s e my
s t e p - d a d r u n s i t d u r i n g t h e d a y a n d s a y s we c a n ' t a f f o r d t h e
ju ice at n ig h t."
T h i s c a s e l e f t s c h o o l t h i s s p r i n g , a n d was r e p o r t e d t o
be h e r d i n g sheep i n t h e c o u n try .
Oase Y— 1, g;irl. 0. A. 13-0.
I.Q. 's are 83 o n Henmon-
W elso n, 78 on K u h lm a n n - A n d e r s o n , 78 on O t i s ,
t r o i t Prim ary.
tio n ed .
a n d 82 o n De­
She i s a f i r s t c o u s i n o f t h e c a s e j u s t men­
The g i r l i s r e t a r d e d two y e a r s an d h a s g r a d e a v e r ­
a g e s o f 0, D, a n d F.
T h i s g i r l i s somewhat t a l l f o r h e r a g e ,
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
65.
w ith re g u la r fe a tu re s .
She i s a c o n s t a n t p e s t a n d t a t t l e r ,
and annoys th e t e a c h e r s w i t h such m a t t e r s , and c o n s t a n t l y
a c ts as a p r o te c to r o r m ediator f o r o th e rs.
Her p h y s i c a l
ex am in atio n r e v e a ls t h r o a t t r o u b le , bad t e e t h ,
and r e s u l t s
of rick e ts.
Oase V I I I - 3 . bo y.
0. A. 1 5 - 1 1 .
I . Q ’ s show 81 on
He nmon-Nelsbn, 92 on K u h lm a n n - A n d e r so n , a nd 76 on O t i s .
He
i s r e t a r d e d two y e a r s w i t h g r a d e a v e r a g e s o f D f o r o n e y e a r ,
and F f o r t h r e e y e a r s .
T h i s boy h a s b e e n a p r o b l e m b e c a u s e
o f h i s extrem e d i s t a s t e tow ard sc h o o l and t e a c h e r s .
ers,
he f e e l s ,
Teach­
a r e a l w a y s w o r k i n g a g a i n s t him , and h e r e f u s e s
t o a d m i t h i s own m i s b e h a v i o r .
I t has been d i f f i c u l t to keep
h im i n s c h o o l a s h i s p a r e n t s a g r e e w i t h him, a n d f e e l t h a t
he h a s v e r y p o o r h e a l t h .
He m i s s e d f o r t y - o n e d a y s o f s c h o o l
t h i s y e a r a n d was c a l l e d i n t o J u v e n i l e C o u r t o n t r u a n c y
charges.
His p a r e n t s blam ed t h e s c h o o l f o r h i s t r o u b l e .
Last
y e a r h e m i s s e d n e a r l y t h r e e month due t o r h e u m a t i s m , w h i c h
was t h o u g h t t o b e c a u s e d by b a d t o n s i l s .
Ih en he r e tu r n e d t o school l a t e t h i s season,
c o u r t e x p e r i e n c e , h i s a t t i t u d e was b a d .
jo b s and e r r a n d s a b o u t sc h o o l.
a fte r his
He was g i v e n odd
L a t e r , h e was g i v e n t h e t a s k
o f h e l p i n g t o p l a n t t r e e s a n d s u p e r v i s i n g t h e c a r e o f th e m .
He c o o p e r a t e d w e l l ,
a n d t o o k much p r i d e i n h i s work.
b o y was a l s o g i v e n some j a n i t o r i a l work t o do.
im p r o v e d and h i s a t t e n d a n c e was p e r f e c t .
The
His a t t i t u d e
He was p a s s e d f r o m
t h e g r a d e , b u t was n o t recommended f o r h i g h s c h o o l e n t r a n c e .
O t h e r members o f t h e f a m i l y now i n s c h o o l i n c l u d e a
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
66.
s i s t e r i n g r a d e s e v e n w i t h I . Q . 1s o f 98 on Henm on-lJelso n,
a n d 105 o n K u hlm an n -A n d e rso n .
years.
She h a s b e e n r e t a r d e d two
A n o t h e r b r o t h e r a n d s i s t e r h a v e I . Q . ' s o f n e a r 100.
The e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r i s h a d .
m i n a t e l y low on t h e Sims S c a l e .
and u n s a n i t a r y c o n d i t i o n s .
The home r a t e s u n d e t e r The f a m i l y l i v e s i n c ro w ded
The p a r e n t s a r e i g n o r a n t and
h a v e made v e r y p o o r a d j u s t m e n t s t o t h e community.
O a s e s IV -8 , 7 - 3 , b r o t h e r a n d s i s t e r . The f a t h e r o f
t h i s f a m i l y i s a l i k e l y a nd h a r d - w o r k i n g man who a p p e a r s t o
b e above a v e r a g e i n i n t e l l i g e n c e .
The m o t h e r i s a n i n t e l ­
l i g e n t woman, t h o u g h n o t h i n g o f h e r b a c k g r o u n d i s known.
The f a t h e r 1 s s i d e o f t h e f a m i l y he.s a number o f members
w i t h v i o l a t i o n s o f l a w a nd m o r a l s a g a i n s t them .
Two o f
t h e o l d e r b r o t h e r s h a v e b e e n i n c o u r t on l a r c e n y c h a r g e s ,
and one was c o m m i t t e d t o t h e r e f o r m s c h o o l .
An o l d e r s i s ­
t e r o f low m e n t a l i t y d i s c o n t i n u e d sc h o o l w h ile in g ra d e
s e v e n and was m a r r i e d .
O n e'o f th e o l d e r b r o t h e r s w h ile i n
s c h o o l was a s t r o n g s t u d e n t ,
cousins,
and very w e ll a d j u s t e d .
Two
one now i n t h e r e f o r m s c h o o l a nd a n o t h e r i n t h e
p u b l ic sch o o l have been in j u v e n i l e c o u rt f o r larcenjr a
number o f t i m e s .
The y o u n g e r , a p u p i l i n g r a d e f o u r , was
b r o u g h t i n t o c o u r t on a n o t h e r c h a r g e l a t e t h i s s e a s o n . He
h a s b e e n on p r o b a t i o n t o t h e j u v e n i l e c o u r t f o r two y e a r s .
Case I V - 8 , b o y . 0. A. 1 2 - 1 1 .
K u h lm a n n - A n d e r so n ,
72 on O t i s ,
I . Q . >s a r e 74 on
a n d 76 on D e t r o i t P r i m a r y .
He shows a r e t a r d a t i o n o f two y e a r s w i t h a n a v e r a g e o f F
fo r three years,
a n d 0, 0, B, f o r t h r e e y e a r s .
He i s an
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
67.
lad. w i t h a p l e a s i n g p e r s o n a l i t y ,
o f th e tim e.
influenced.
h u t a c t s i n t i m i d a t e d much
He seems t o h a v e l i t t l e
w i l l - p o w e r a.nd i s e a s i l y
T h i s was shotra. when h i s y o u n g e r c o u s i n s , m e n t i o n -
a b o v e , a l o n g w i t h h i m s e l f a n d two o t h e r b o y s w e re t r u a n t f o r
a h a l f day an d b r o k e i n t o a c o n f e c t i o n e r y s u p p l y i n t h e b a s e ­
ment o f t h e C o u n t r y C l u b .
brazen a t f i r s t ,
b u t t a n g l e d h i m s e l f so many t i m e s t h a t he
became v e r y t i m i d .
tru th ,
U n d e r q u e s t i o n i n g , h e was r a t h e r
On b e i n g t o l d t h a t h e s h o u l d t e l l
he e x p l a i n e d v e r y t h o r o u g h l y a l l
the event.
the
s t e p s l e a d i n g up t o
I t was c l e a r t h a t h e knew i t was w rong, b u t f e l t
t h a t he c o u l d n ' t t u r n down h i s f r i e n d s .
poor adjustm ent in school.
He h a s made a v e r y
I t appears t h a t re g a rd le ss of
how t h e f a t h e r t r i e s t o c o o p e r a t e w i t h t h e s c h o o l ,
som ething
a t home b r e a k s down h i s i n f l u e n c e .
Case 7 - 3 , g i r l . C. A. 1 4 - 2 .
I . Q . ' s a r e 72 a nd 75 on
Hen m on-N elso n, 74 on K u h l m a n n - A n d e r s o n , a nd 70 on O t i s .
A
r e t a r d a t i o n o f t h r e e y e a r s i s shown, w i t h a v e r a g e s o f F f o r
t h r e e y e a r s and D f o r t h r e e y e a r s .
extrem e m ala d ju stm e n t.
vo u s c o n d i t i o n .
Her b e h a v i o r r e c o r d shows
P h y s ic a l exam inations re v e a l a n e r ­
Since
she f r e q u e n t e d n ig h t c lu b s a
great
deal u n t i l l a t e hours,
t h i s c o n d i t i o n may h a v e b e e n
a resu lt.
H e r f a t h e r came t o s c h o o l t o s e e i f sh e m ig h t n o t b e s e n t
straight home after dismissal,
for often she would not appear
a t home u n t i l a f t e r m i d n i g h t .
He a d m i t t e d t h a t t h e f a m i l y
h a d no c o n t r o l o v e r h e r .
S h o rtly afterw ard,
s h e r a n away
f r o m home, an d was l o c a t e d b y a u t h o r i t i e s se vere d, weeks l a t e r
i n a n e a r b y town where
sh e s u p p o s e d l y was em p lo yed.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
68.
Case V I - 4 , b o y .
Henm on-H elso n,
C. A. 1 3 - 8 .
I . Q . ' s show 83 a n d 89 on
92 on K u h lm a n n - A n d e r so n , and 85 on O t i s .
He ..
i s r e t a r d e d two y e a r s a n d h a s p a s s i n g g r a d e s f o r a l l y e a r s
w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e l a s t two.
The ho y i s a wholesome
l o o k i n g l a d and h a s a p l e a s a n t p e r s o n a l i t y , h u t a t t i m e s i s
in c lin e d to stubbornness,
a nd l a z i n e s s .
Because o f h i s l a z i ­
n e ss he f r e q u e n t l y g e t s i n t o t r o u b l e th r o u g h m i s c h i e f .
i s v e r y n e r v o u s and h i s i n t e r e s t
i s hard to h o ld ,
He
although i t
was d i s c o v e r e d t h a t h e was g r e a t l y i n t e r e s t e d i n s c i e n c e .
He h a s a b r o t h e r and s i s t e r ,
two who w e r e r e t a r d e d t h i s y e a r .
b o t h s c o r e d w e l l o v e r 1 0 0.
id e n tic a l tw ins,
in grade
I n two i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s ,
They a p p e a r e d t o h a v e l i t t l e
r e a c t i o n a n d seem ed t o be s t u p i d .
In a c o n v e rsa tio n w ith
t h e f a t h e r one d a y , he a d m i t t e d t h a t h e was s h e l l - s h o c k e d i n
t h e World War a n d t h a t he was u n s t a b l e a t home, a n d s o m e t i m e s
mean t o h i s f a m i l y .
He s t a t e d t h a t he c o u l d n o t h e l p h i m s e l f
b u t a t t h e same t i m e a d m i t t e d t h a t h e d r a n k o c c a s i o n a l l y .
A f t e r m aking a s t u d y o f t h e f a t h e r a n d m o t h e r ,
i t was f e l t
t h a t t h e t w i n s were more i n t i m i d a t e d t h a n t h e y were d u l l .
Case V I - 8 , b o y . C. A. 1 4 - 5 .
I . Q . ' s show 77 a n d 71 on
Hen m on-N elso n, 86 on K u h lm a n n - A n d e r so n , a n d 82 on O t i s .
i s r e t a r d e d two y e a r s , b u t g r a d e s show p a s s i n g .
He
The b o y h a s
a r a t h e r h i g h b e h a v i o r r e c o r d w h i c h comes from c l a s s m i s c h i e f .
He h a s t u r n e d t o w a r d b e i n g somewhat c r u e l t o s m a l l e r c h i l d r e n
t h i s s e a s o n , t h o u g h f o r t h e most p a r t i s w e l l - b e h a v e d .
T his
c a s e seems t o h a v e a g r e a t d e a l o f i n t e r e s t i n s c i e n c e o f a l l
k i n d s , a n d h a s done some c o m p l e t e a n d w e l l - o r g a n i z e d work on
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
69.
a irp la n e scrap-books.
He t e l l s t l i a t he d i d w e l l i n s c h o o l un­
t i l h e was b i t t e n b y a r a t t l e s n a k e .
says,
" I h a v e b e e n dumb."
"From t h a t t i m e , " he
H is p r e s e n t r e c o r d i s c l e a r , w ith
th e e x c e p tio n of sig n s o f r i c k e t s in infancy.
He h a s no
f a t h e r and t h e m other r e c e i v e s a p e n s io n .
Case VI 1 - 1 . g i r l . 0.
67 on
A. 1 5 - 1 .
I . Q . ' s a r e 74,
73, a nd
Henm on-H elso n, 75 on K u h lm a n n - A n d e r so n a n d 69 on O t i s .
She i s r e t a r d e d two y e a r s w i t h an a v e r a g e o f F f o r a l l y e a r s ,
w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e two w h i c h w ere r e p e t i t i o n s .
i s very l a r g e and w ears a c o n s ta n t g r i n .
w e i g h t ¥ e r y r a p i d l y a n d became h u g e ,
She
The g i r l g a i n e d
c a u s i n g r u m o rs among
s t u d e n t s t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t s h e was p r e g n a n t .
The a u r s e ' s
e x a m i n a t i o n showed h e r i n c r e a s e i n s i z e t o be a t h y r o i d c o n ­
d itio n .
She d i d , h o w e v e r , d i s c o n t i n u e s c h o o l b e f o r e t h e
s e a s o n e n d e d an d t h e f a m i l y moved o u t o f town.
was i n t h e V e t e r a n ' s 0.
t e r n i t y home.
0.
The f a t h e r
Camp, a n d t h e m o t h e r r a n a ma­
An o l d e r s i s t e r was p a s s e d f r o m t h e g r a d e s
a f t e r th re e years of re ta rd a tio n .
The l a t t e r h a d I . Q . ' s o f
68 an d 72 on H e n m o n - I e l s o n t e s t s .
i
T h i s c a s e seemed t o
had a
h a v e no i n t e r e s t s o r h o b b i e s .
go o d b e h a v i o r r e c o r d a n d was v e r y g o o d - n a t u r e d .
She
Her
s i s t e r h a d a v e r y b a d d i s p o s i t i o n , was an h a b i t u a l l i a r a.nd
th ief,
and was c o n s t a n t l y t r y i n g t o c a u s e t r o u b l e among t h e
students.
Qase V I I - 3 ,
g i r l . 0. A. 1 5 r 3 .
I . Q ' s a r e 83 a n d 91 on
H e nm on-N elson, 76 on K u h lm a n n - A n d e r s o n , and 81 on O t i s .
She
shows a r e t a r d a t i o n o f t h r e e y e a r s w i t h an a v e r a g e o f F f o r
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
70.
f i v e y e a r s an d C, D, 0,
0, f o r f o u r y e a r s .
Her m other d ie d
l a s t s p r i n g , a n d s h e h a s b e e n l i v i n g w i t h a n a u n t who was
much w o r r i e d o v e r t h e f a c t t h a t sh e c o u l d n o t c o n t r o l t h e
g irl.
T h i s g i r l was m e e t i n g men a f t e r s c h o o l a nd a r r i v i n g
home a t l a t e h o u r s .
g irl.
She i s a v e r y o v e r - s e x e d ,
sex-conscious
The g i r l p a y s no a t t e n t i o n t o s c h o o l m a t e s o f t h e
o t h e r s e x , b u t d o e s h a v e two g i r l c om p a nion s who a r e h i g h
ty p es of stu d e n ts .
She h a s l i t t l e
in terest
i n s c h o o l work.
A b r o t h e r w i t h I . Q . ' s o f 89 a n d 96 o n Henm on -N elson d o e s
good a v e r a g e wchool work a n d i s a v e r y w e l l a d j u s t e d bo y.
Case 1TII-2, b o y . 0. A. 1 4 - 8 .
I . Q. 1s show 85 on
Hen m on-N elso n, 77 on K u h l m a n n - A n d e r s o n , a n d 91 on O t i s . He
i s r e t a r d e d two y e a r s w i t h g r a d e s o f 2), D, a n d F f o r t h r e e
y ears in S tu rg is .
His b e h a v i o r r e c o r d and r a t i n g s c h e d u le
shows n e a r l y n o r m a l a d j u s t m e n t .
H i s m o t h e r l e f t home two
y e a r s ago a n d t o o k two g i r l s w i t h h e r .
m a in e d w i t h t h e f a t h e r .
The t h r e e b o y s r e ­
The o t h e r boy shows a n I . Q .
some­
what h i g h e r .
The b o y s h a v e r e m a i n e d u n d e r t h e r a t h e r p o o r c a r e o f
the f a th e r,
supervision.
who w o rk s on ¥. P.A. a n d c a n n o t g i v e t h e home much
As a r e s u l t some s c h o o l was m i s s e d .
much t i m e h u n t i n g a n d h i k i n g .
They s p e n d
On t h e p u p i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e
t h i s c a s e w r o t e t h a t h e was u n h a p py s i n c e t h e m o t h e r went away.
He t a k e s a go od d e a l o f i n t e r e s t i n c l a s s ,
e s p e c ia lly in o ra l
E nglish.
Oase Y I1 - 1 3 , b o y . 0. A. 1 3 - 1 1 .
I . Q . ' s show 86 a n d 93
on Henm on-Nelson, 85 o n K u h lm a n n - A n d e r so n a n d 77 on O t i s . One
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
71.
y e a r o f r e t a r d a t i o n i s shown w i t h g r a d e a v e r a g e s o f C, D, D,
F,
0, D, F.
H i s b o d i l y movements a r e g r o s s — h e e i t h e r w a l k s
on t h e f e e t o f t h e p e r s o n t o whom h e i s t a l k i n g ,
o r rushes
a n d humps i n t o p e o p l e a l m o s t e v e r y t i m e he comes t o t h e o f ­
fic e fo r c o n su ltatio n .
occasionally,
His a c t i o n s in g e n e r a l a re q u e er—
d u r in g h i s h a b i t u a l p r e o c c u p a tio n , he w i l l ta k e
p a r t in c l a s s d is c u s s io n lo n g a f t e r th e s u b je c t has been
clo sed.
He a p p e a r s d u l l i n a c t i o n a nd s p e e c h .
T h i s c a s e h a s a n u n c l e who i s a moron, an d who d o e s
odd j o b s a b o u t town f o r a l i v e l i h o o d .
lig en t,
and l i k e w i s e h i s f a t h e r .
His m other i s i n t e l ­
A s i s t e r has a splendid
r e c o r d i n s c h o o l a n d shows I . Q . ' s o f 129 a nd 130 on HenmonH e l s o n , a n d a y o u n g e r b r o t h e r shows a n I . Q .
H e l s o n , a n d 129 on K u h lm a n n - A n d e r so n .
o l d e r boy w i t h h i s s c h o o l work.concerned about t h i s c ase ,
o f 119 on Henmon-
T his b r o t h e r h e lp s t h e
The m o t h e r , who i s v e r y much
s a y s t h a t i f seems i m p o s s i b l e f o r
him t o c o n c e n t r a t e on h i s w o rk, a n d t h a t h e w o r r i e s a g r e a t
deal about school.
He f e a r s t h a t h i s . s i s t e r ,
y o u n g e r , w i l l g e t a h e a d o f him.
who i s a y e a r
When s h e c a u g h t up w i t h h im
i n s c h o o l , h e was h i g h l y d i s t u r b e d .
The m o t h e r s t a t e d t h a t
t h e s i s t e r and y o u n g e r b r o t h e r t e a s e d him a g r e a t d e a l .
T h i s boy h a s a hobby o f b u i l d i n g and d o i n g m e c h a n i c a l
work.
T h is, h i s m other s a y s ,
is his g reatest in te re s t.
He
w a n t s t o be a l a w y e r , p o s s i b l y b e c a u s e o f a n u n c l e who ha,B
been very s u c c e s s f u l i n t h a t l i n e .
tim es, b e c a u se ,h e sa y s,h e i s
He f e e l s v e r y u n h a p p y a t
' t e a s e d a t home a b o u t h i s s c h o o l
w ork'.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Case V I I I - 1 ,
g irl.
a n d 75 on Hen m on-H elso n,
O tis.
0. A. 1 5 - 1 .
I.
72.
Q . ' s show 84, 87,
85 on K u h lm an n -A n d e rso n , a n d 85 on
She i s r e t a r d e d one y e a r w i t h p a s s i n g g r a d e s a l l y e a r s
u n t i l sh e a r r i v e d a t g r a d e e i g h t .
A b r o t h e r a n d two s i s t e r s
who p r e v i o u s l y a t t e n d e d s c h o o l w e r e a v e r a g e t o good s t u d e n t s .
T his g i r l
i s s h o r t an d s t o c k y — v e r y awkward a n d o v e r - s i z e d
w ith a mannish a p p e a ra n c e .
She i s unkempt and i s i n c l i n e d
t o be v e r y u n c l e a n i n a p p e a r a n c e .
During t h e p a s t t h r e e
y e a r s s h e h a s b e e n v e r y t r o u b l e s o m e — o u t o f s c h o o l a n d on
p r o b a t i o n i n J u v e n i l e C o u r t f o r r u n n i n g away f r o m home and
fo r petty th e ft.
fam ily,
The m o t h e r , who makes t h e l i v i n g f o r t h e
adm its t h a t she cannot h a n d le th e g i r l ,
and h a s
made f r e q u e n t t r i p s t o t h e p r i n c i p a l ' s o f f i c e f o r d i s c u s s i o n .
The g i r l l i e s a g r e a t d e a l , a n d most o f h e r e x c u s e s a r e
t e l e p h o n e d by h e r m other.
l a s t year.
She was t r u a n t a num ber o f t i m e s
Her m o t h e r s t a t e s t h a t o f t e n sh e d o e s n o t come
home a f t e r s c h o o l , b u t p i c k s up men a n d d o e s n o t g e t home
u n til l a t e a t nig ht.
T h e r e i s no q u e s t i o n b u t w h at sh e i s
v e r y im m oral a nd p r o m i s c u o u s .
tim e, b u t wants t o
She h a s no p l a n s f o r l e i s u r e
'g o o n a d v e n t u r e s a nd h a v e t h r i l l s ' .
The
g i r l i s v e r y u nh a p p y b e c a u s e s h e c a n n o t do t h e t h i n g s whe
would l i k e t o do.
In t h e p u p i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e she s a y s ,
" I ' d l i k e t o be an a i r p l a n e s t u d e n t ,
o r a m otorcycle r i d e r ,
o r a r i c h p e r s o n a n d h u n t i n A f r i c a a nd a l l th e m p l a c e s .
c a n ' t do h a l f o f t h e t h i n g s I want t o do.
I
I would l i k e t o
h a v e t h e r i g h t t o do a b o u t a n y t h i n g I ? /a n te d t o . "
Case V I1 1 - 3 , g i r l .
C. A. 1 6 - 2 .
I . Q . ' s a r e 74 and 67
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
on H enm on -N elso n, 70 on K u h lm a n n - A n d e r so n , a n d 64 on S o u t h
Dakota M ental.
F.
She i s r e t a r d e d two y e a r s w i t h a n a v e r a g e o f
The g i r l h a s shown some a b i l i t y
i n penmanship and m usic.
She i s e s p e c i a l l y n e a t a b o u t h e r p e r s o n a n d i n h e r w o rk ^ a n d
i s p o l i t e and p l e a s a n t ,
th in g s about h er.
a l t h o u g h she h a s l i t t l e
re a c tio n to
Her sp e e c h i s p o o r and h e r s e n t e n c e s a r e
i n c o m p l e t e a nd f r a g m e n t a r y much o f t h e t i m e .
B ehavior rec o rd s
a n d r a t i n g s c a l e s show a n a d j u s t m e n t w h i c h i s n e a r t h e s t a n d ­
a r d median.
A s i s t e r g r a d u a t e d from h ig h sc h o o l w ith a very
l o w a v e r a g e and w o u l d n o t b e c a p a b l e o f d o i n g a n y t h i n g b a s e d
on a c a d e m i c work.
T h i s g i r l d o e s n o t b e l o n g t o any c l u b s , b u t s h e a t ­
t e n d s Sunday S c h o o l .
very fond of s c ie n c e .
th e care o f h er h a i r ,
beauty o p e ra to r.
She h a s no h o b b i e s , b u t s a y s s h e i s
She t a k e s a g r e a t d e a l o f i n t e r e s t i n
an d h a s e x p r e s s e d a d e s i r e t o b e a
On h e r i n f o r m a t i o n s h e e t , h o w e v e r ,
s h e h a s no i d e a what s h e w a n t s t o d o .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
sh e s a y s
CHAPTER VI
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Summary a n d C o n c l u s i o n s
I n t h i s s t u d y s t r e s s h a s "been p l a c e d on t h e m a j o r
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f p u p i l s o f low m e n t a l i t y .
was t o know t h e w h o le p u p i l .
The p u r p o s e
By way o f summary t h e most
im portant f in d in g s are l i s t e d .
1.
lev elj
The mean c h r o n o l o g i c a l a g e f o r t h e p r i m a r y
g r a d e s o n e , two, and t h r e e ,
was 9 - 1 .
Since t h r e e
o f t h e p u p i l s w ere i n t h e f i r s t g r a d e , f o u r i n t h e s e c o n d
g r a d e , a n d h u t one i n t h e t h i r d g r a d e ,
the r e t a r d a t i o n i s
more m arked t h a n i s i n d i c a t e d b y t h e mean.
A mean r e t a r ­
d a t i o n o f 1 - 5 i s shown.
2.
In the in te rm e d ia te g rad e s,
t h e mean c h r o n o l o g i c a l a g e was 1 3 - 2 .
four, fiv e ,
and s i x ,
S i x o f t h e p u p i l s w ere
e n ro lle d in th e fo u rth grade,
f o u r w e re i n t h e f i f t h ,
and
s i x were i n t h e s i x t h g r a d e .
The mean r e t a r d a t i o n o f t h i s
g r o u p was f o u n d t o be 2 - 6 .
3.
The mean c h r o n o l o g i c a l a g e f o r t h e u p p e r g r a d e s ,
seven and e i g h t ,
shown.
was 1 4 - 8 .
Here a r e t a r d a t i o n o f 1 - 6 i s
The d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e r e t a r d a t i o n o f l o w e r
g r a d e s , a n d i n t e r m e d i a t e g r a d e s a s com pa red t o t h e u p p e r
g r a d e s may b e e x p l a i n e d i n two ways.
During t h e p a s t t h r e e
y ears th e tendency has been to r e t a i n m entally re ta rd e d
p u p i l s in th e lo w er and in te r m e d i a t e g ra d e s in o r d e r t h a t
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
75.
t h e y g a i n t h e most f r o m b e g i n n i n g f u n d a m e n t a l s , w h i l e t h e r e
h a s b e e n a t e n d e n c y t o p a s s on u p p e r g r a d e p u p i l s i n o r d e r
to avoid discouragem ent.
Hence t h e p u p i l s i n t h e l o w e r
g r a d e s a r e more m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d t h a n a r e t h o s e i n t h e u p ­
p er grades.
One f a m i l y i n t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e a n d p r i m a r y
g r a d e s h a s a d d e d much t o t h e r e t a r d a t i o n .
4.
The g r e a t e s t v a r i a t i o n i n t h e i n t e l l i g e n c e quo­
t i e n t s f o r any o n e i n d i v i d u a l was t h i r t y - o n e p o i n t s .
d i f f e r e n c e was f o u n d b e t w e e n g r o u p t e s t s .
T his
The l o w e s t s c o r e
f o r t h i s was 53 a n d t h e h i g h e s t s c o r e was 84.
The mean d i f ­
f e r e n c e betw een the v a r i o u s s c o r e s f o r i n d i v i d u a l p u p i l s i n
g r a d e s on t o t h r e e was f i v e p o i n t s ; f o r g r a d e s f o u r t o s i x ,
eig h t p o in ts;
and f o r g r a d e s sev en and e i g h t ,
tw elve p o i n t s .
The d i f f e r e n c e i n mean v a r i a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e l o w e r a n d t h e
i n t e r m e d i a t e g r a d e s a s co m pa red w i t h t h e u p p e r g r a d e s ma.y be
due t o t h e e l e m e n t o f e x p e r i e n c e a n d a d j u s t m e n t i n t h e u p p e r
grades.
G ro up t e s t s ,
a l t h o u g h t h e y show some v a r i a t i o n ,
s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n work o f t h i s k i n d .
th a n t h r e e sta n d a rd t e s t s should be given.
are
Ho l e s s
Individual t e s t s
s h o u l d b e u s e d i n any d e f i n i t e , f i n a l a n a l y s i s ,
or f o r in­
d iv id u al diagnosis.
5.
On. behavior rating the mean of the group was be­
low t h e s t a n d a r d mean, a s l i s t e d b y H a g g e r t y - 0 1 s o n - W i c k m a n .
I t must b e n o t e d t h a t t h e h i g h e r t h e s c o r e s on t h e b e h a v i o r
reco rd , th e low er th e b e h av io r p a tt e r n .
The mean o f b e h a v i o r
r a t i n g s f o r t h e g r o u p was 9 8 . 1 1 , a s c om pared t o a s t a n d a r d
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
76.
norm o f 6 9 . 2 0 .
T h i s shows t h e g r o u p t o h e p o o r l y a d j u s t e d .
The most n e a r l y s a t i s f a c t o r y a d j u s t m e n t was f o u n d i n t h e
p h y s i c a l d i v i s i o n where t h e g r o u p u n d e r s t u d y made a s c o r e
o f 1 7 . 6 0 a s compared t o t h e s t a n d a r d norm o f 1 3 . 6 3 .
The
p r i m a r y a nd s e c o n d a r y g r a d e s showed means o f t h e c o m bined
d i v i s i o n s o f t h e b e h a v i o r r a t i n g s c a l e o f 1 1 0 . 1 8 an d 1 0 6 . 1 8
r e s p e c t i v e l y a s c o m pared t o t h e mean o f 8 9 . 5 4 f o r t h e u p p e r
grades.
A more n e a r l y n o r m a l mean f o r t h e u p p e r g r a d e s
would seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e s c h o o l i s h e l p i n g t h e s e p u ­
p i l s t o im p r o v e t h e i r b e h a v i o r p a t t e r n s .
The i n t e r m e d i a t e
l e v e l showed an a v e r a g e s c o r e o f 1 6 . 8 1 i n p h y s i c a l a d j u s t ­
ment a s com pa red t o 1 7 . 5 0 i n t h e u p p e r l e v e l .
Physical
c h a n g e s a c c o m p a n y i n g t h e o n s e t o f a d o l e s c e n c e may h a v e b e e n
r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e mean o f
these le v e ls .
6.
On t h e b e h a v i o r r e c o r d t h e p r i m a r y l e v e l showed
th e low est score w ith th e in te rm e d ia te le v e l s l i g h t l y h ig h er.
The u p p e r l e v e l showed a s u b s t a n t i a l l y h i g h e r s c o r e .
The
m ed ian f o r t h e g r o u p was 5 0 . 1 a s com pared t o t h e s t a n d a r d me­
d ian of 8.6.
T h i s i s a marked v a r i a t i o n ,
and a l t h o u g h t h e
g r o u p u n d o u b t e d l y h a s a p o o r b e h a v i o r r e c o r d , t h i s may be an
exaggeration.
I t i s f e l t t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s t e n d t o m inim ize
some of the behavior situations, and to magnify others.
This
i s l i k e l y t o be t r u e i n t h e c a s e o f m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d o r
u n d er-p riv ileg ed pupils.
B ehavior p a t t e r n s of t h e m en tally r e t a r d e d are low er
th a n th o s e of th e g e n e ra l run of school p u p i l s .
T his i s
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
77.
l i k e l y due t o home e n v i r o n m e n t t o q u i t e an e x t e n t .
As t h e
p u p i l s advance th ro u g h sch o o l t h e i r b e h a v i o r p a t t e r n s
im­
p r o v e g r a d u a l l y , w i t h m arked improvement i n t h e u p p e r l e v e l s .
This i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e s c h o o l i s a v i t a l f a c t o r in a s s i s t i n g
th e s e p u p ils to adjustm ent.
7.
The s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s o f t h e homes
d i c a t e d b y a mean o f 3 , o r ‘l o w ’ , f o r t h e g r o u p .
is in­
Of t h o s e
making
t h e l i v i n g f o r t h e f a m i l y 7 6 . 3 2 p e r c e n t w ere i n t h e
low est
o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p w h i c h r e c e i v e s a r a t i n g o f 'O'
on t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l s c a l e .
Only 7 . 8 9 p e r c e n t o f t h e homes
o f f e r e d a f a v o r a b le environm ent.
37 p e r c e n t o f t h e homes
w ere b r o k e n b y d e a t h o r d e s e r t i o n .
8.
The a v e r a g e d a i l y a t t e n d a n c e f o r t h e s e p u p i l s
was 1 5 8 . 5 d a y s a s c om pared w i t h t h e a v e r a g e f o r t h e s c h o o l
o f 167 d a y s .
these f a c ts ,
The d a y s t a u g h t n um bered 176.
it
In face of
i s se e n t h a t t h e a tte n d a n c e f o r th e group i s
d e c id e d ly low er th a n f o r th e school in g e n e r a l.
T h i s seems
t o b e due t o l a c k o f home s u p p o r t a nd s t a b i l i t y .
9.
ords.
vision.
T h i r t e e n o f t h e c a s e s showed n o r m a l h e a l t h r e c ­
Many o t h e r s h a d s l i g h t d e f e c t s o f t h r o a t ,
On t h e w h o l e ,
pu p ils d i f f e r 'l i t t l e
glands o r
i t seem s t h a t t h e s e m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d
i n p h y s i c a l h e a l t h from t h e p u p i l s i n
the school g e n e r a lly .
T h ere may b e a l a c k o f c o r r e c t i o n f o r
p h y s ic a l d e f e c t s in t h i s group.
With t h e e x c e p t i o n o f two
c a s e s , none seemed t o b e h a n d i c a p p e d t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t work
i n s c h o o l was a f f e c t e d .
10.
Academic a v e r a g e s f o r t h e g r o u p w e r e f o u n d t o b e
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
78 .
v e r y lo w .
grade.
Some o f t h e s e p u p i l s h a v e n e v e r made a p a s s i n g
Many D a v e r a g e s a r e f o u n d .
h e r o f D a v e r a g e s were g i v e n t o
I t i s known t h a t a num-
1 p ass the p u p il o n '.
In
some c a s e s a v e r a g e s o f C w e r e f o u n d , h u t most o f t h e s e
p u p i l s were r e p e a t i n g t h e g ra d e .
made i n p e n m a n s h i p , a r t ,
The h i g h e s t g r a d e s w ere
m usic, and p h y s i c a l e d u c a ti o n , and
t h e l o w e s t g r a d e s w ere made i n r e a d i n g .
In the in te rm e d iate
g r a d e s t h e l o w e s t a v e r a g e s w e r e made i n r e a d i n g a n d a r i t h ­
m etic.
I n t h e u p p e r g r a d e s t h e l o w e s t a v e r a g e s were made
i n a r i t h m e t i c a n d grammar, w i t h t h e h i g h e s t g r a d e s i n s c i e n c e
and o r a l E n g lis h .
W ith t h e e x c e p t i o n o f f i v e c a s e s , a l l s t u d e n t s h a v e
l e a r n e d som ething in academ ic s u b j e c t s .
Some o f t h e p u p i l s
a r e a b l e t o do c e r t a i n p h a s e s o f some c o u r s e s w i t h f a v o r a b l e
resu lts.
11.
six ,
Reading com prehension t e s t r e s u l t s f o r g r a d e s
s e v e n and e i g h t ,
i n d i c a t e t h e p u p i l s t o b e f a r below
t h e s t a n d a r d norm s, a n d a l s o b e l o w t h e c l a s s m e d i a n s .
T his
r e a d i n g d e f i c i e n c y w h i c h i s shown b y t e s t s a n d y e a r l y a v e r ­
ag es would n a t u r a l l y c a u s e d i f f i c u l t y i n o t h e r s u b j e c t s .
13.
T h e r e was a n o t e d l a c k o f m em b ersh ip i n c l u b s
and o r g a n i z a t i o n s among t h e m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d p u p i l s .
L ike­
wise there was little organized leisure time activity.
seemed t o b e l i t t l e
There
home r e a d i n g o r o t h e r home p a s t i m e s .
T his u n d o u b te d ly i s a d d in g t o t h e d e lin q u e n c y p roblem s which
a r e on t h e i n c r e a s e .
1 3.
Few o f t h e u p p e r g r a d e p u p i l s r e g i s t e r e d f u t u r e
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
79.
am bitions.
Many who d i d l i s t v o c a t i o n s i n w h i c h t h e y w ere
i n t e r e s t e d l i s t e d t y p e s out o f l i n e w ith t h e i r a b i l i t i e s .
14.
T w e n t y - s i x o f t h e t h i r t y - e i g h t c a s e s moved t o
S tu rg is during th e past ten years.
T h i s would t e n d t o i n ­
d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e was i n s t a b i l i t y
i n t h e f a m i l i e s , and t h a t
t h e y may b e f i n d i n g i t d i f f i c u l t t o a d j u s t t o a d v e r s e c i r ­
cum stances.
R eco m m e n d a tio n s
From t h i s s t u d y t h e w r i t e r w o u ld c o n c l u d e t h a t
s c h o o l s a r e n o t d o i n g what c o u l d a n d s h o u l d b e d o ne f o r t h e
m entally re ta rd e d .
S i n c e t h e l a r g e s t p e r c e n t a g e o f them
a re not c a s e s f o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l c a r e , t h e s c h o o ls have t h e
r e s p o n s i b i li t y o f t h e i r education.
The s c h o o l s h a v e t h e
r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f h e l p i n g them t o s t a b i l i z e t h e m s e lv e s ,
and
t o f i n d h a p p i n e s s t h r o u g h some y/ork w h i c h t h e y may b e a b l e
t o do.
They a r e t o become a p a r t o f t h e community, an d must
be a i d e d i n m ak in g some s o r t o f a f a v o r a b l e a d j u s t m e n t t o
community l i f e .
1.
S c h o o l s s h o u l d n o t w a i t f o r a day t o come when
p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n a nd i n t e r e s t w i l l c a l l f o r s p e c i a l i s t s an d
p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k e r s t o a s s i s t th e m w i t h t h e d e l i n q u e n c i e s
o r o t h e r f o r m s o f maladjustments o f t h e mentally retarded.
Schools,
b y m akin g g e n e r a l s t u d i e s s u c h a s t h i s o n e ,
may
l o c a t e and a n a l y z e i n a p r a c t i c a l way t h e n e e d s o f t h e s e
pu p ils.
The s c h o o l s t h a n c a n do much more
doing a t
p resen t f o r .these p u p ils.
th an they
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
are
80.
2.
G eneral i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s ,
r a t i n g s c a l e s , health
r e c o r d s , p u p i l s i n f o r m a t i o n b l a n k s , home s t u d i e s ,
an d i n ­
d iv id u a l conferences are a l l v alu ab le in c o lle c tin g n ecessary
inform ation.
T h i s s h o u l d b e done f o r a l l p u p i l s i n a s c h o o l .
D ata s h o u ld be r e c o r d e d on l a r g e co m posite i n d i v i d u a l r e c ­
ord s h e e t s in o r d e r t h a t a c u m u lativ e h i s t o r y o f each p u p i l
may b e a v a i l a b l e t h r o u g h o u t h i s s c h o o l c a r e e r .
3.
S c h o o l s s h o u l d c o m p i l e s u c h d a t a a nd s e e k f u r t h e r
d e v ic e s and a id s b e g in n in g w ith th e f i r s t grade l e v e l th ro u g h ­
out high school.
Too f r e q u e n t l y s u c h i n f o r m a t i o n i s n o t cdL -
l e c t e d u n t i l p u p i l s have rea ch e d th e t h i r d o r f o u r t h grade
lev els.
An e a r l y u n d e r s t a n d i n g i s v i t a l .
4.
B e h a v io r r a t i n g s c a l e s a r e v a lu a b le not o n ly from
th e s ta n d p o in t of th e study of b e h a v io r p a t t e r n s ,
but also in
a i d i n g t e a c h e r s i n knowing what a s p e c t s o f p u p i l b e h a v i o r
s h o u l d be c a r e f u l l y o b s e r v e d .
5.
S i n c e t h e home b a c k g r o u n d s o f t h e s e
the low est type,
c h i l d r e n i n s u c h homes c a n b e
g a in very l i t t l e
i n t h e way o f i n t e l l e c t u a l ,
c ia l,
o r em otional a d ju stm en t.
t h e p l a c e o f t h e home.
p u p ils are of
expected to
physical,
so­
The s c h o o l w i l l n e e d t o t a k e
T e a c h e r s must r e a l i z e t h a t t h e y must
supply th e s t a b i l i z i n g in flu e n c e in th e l i v e s of th e s e p u p ils .
G r e a t c a r e s h o u l d be t a k e n i n t h e manne r i n w h i c h t h e s e p u ­
p i l s are t r e a t e d o r they w ill lo s e f a i t h
th e school.
i n t e a c h e r s and i n
The r e s u l t w i l l b e a p r o b l e m w h i c h i s l i k e l y t o
end i n d e l i n q u e n c y .
6.
Schools cannot expect th e s e p u p i ls to be s u c c e s s -
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
f u l i n a l l academ ic s u b j e c t s .
T h e r e may b e p a r t s o f a l l
j e c t s i n which t h e y w i l l show some p r o g r e s s .
81.
sub­
Most o f th e m
w i l l g a i n some w o r t h w h i l e k n o w led ge d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e i r
school c a re e r.
I n many s c h o o l s t h e y w i l l n e e d t o p a s s t h r o u g h
th e r e g u la r channels w ith o th e r p u p i ls .
I f they are re ta in e d
i n c l a s s e s i n which th e y a r e o v e r - s i z e d ,
and i n w h i c h t h e y do
not f i t
in to the
s o c i a l p a t t e r n , t h e y may become d i s s a t i s f i e d ,
a n d grovf
to be a problem .
a t i o n in
a g r a d e may b e o f v a l u e t o them i n o r d e r t h a t t h e y
may g a i n some f u n d a m e n t a l s
ing.
T h e r e w i l l b e t i m e s when r e t a r d ­
w h ic h t h e y may be c a p a b l e o f l e a r n ­
The s o c i a l c o n t a c t w i t h o t h e r s m ust be c o n s i d e r e d o f
p r i m e i m p o r t a n c e , f o r c h i l d r e n w i l l b e s t l e a r n i n s c h o o l how
to ta k e t h e i r p la c e w ith o th e r s .
7.
Yftien c e r t a i n c o u r s e s ,
or p a r ts of courses,
b e y o n d m a s t e r y f o r them i t w o uld be w e l l t o a l i o ? / them t o
t a k e p a r t i n c o u r s e s i n w h i c h t h e y may b e a b l e t o show a
d e g r e e o f m a s t e r y , namely;
s h o p , homemaking, h a n d work, o r
doing ta s k s f o r te a c h e rs.
The w r i t e r h a s u s e d a number o f
t h e s e c a se s m entioned i n t h i s stu d y t o run e rr a n d s .
way t h e y f e e l t h a t t h e y a r e o f some u s e .
i n t e r e s t and c o n f i d e n c e .
In t h i s
They b u i l d up some
In running e rra n d s th e y l e a r n to
make c o n t a c t s w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e , and a t the. same t i m e l e a r n
how t o e x p r e s s t h e m s e l v e s .
O t h e r s w ere p l a c e d on t h e S a f e t y
P a t r o l where t h e y l e a r n e d r e s p e c t f o r law , p e r s o n a l s a f e t y ,
d e s i r e t o b e n e a t a n d c l e a n , and a f e e l i n g t h a t t h e y h a d
b e e n g i v e n s o m e t h i n g w o r t h w h i l e t o do.
Some o t h e r c a s e s w ere
g i v e n t i m e o f f f r o m c l a s s e s an d s t u d y p e r i o d s t o h e l p p l a n t
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
are
t r e e s an d s h r u b b e r y .
about th e b u ild in g ,
Some o f t h e b o y s h e l p e d t h e j a n i t o r
^ne g i r l ,
ed i n a b o o k l e t o f l e t t e r s
who was a good w r i t e r ,
in E nglish.
The l e t t e r s were
n e a t and i n b e t t e r t h a n a v e ra g e h a n d - w r i t i n g .
t o make a s c r a p book i n s c i e n c e .
deeply in to sc ie n c e ,
turn­
She w a n t e d
W h ile o t h e r s d e l v e d more
s h e made a v e r y p r e s e n t a b l e s c r a p b o ok
o f s c i e n c e w h ic h was f i l l e d w i t h many good d r a w i n g s .
many t i m e s we t e a c h b o o k s a n d t h i n g s ,
Too
r a th e r than l i f e
and
ch ild ren .
T h i s i s e v e n more t r u e o f t h o s e who a r e m e n t a l l y
retarded.
We must f o r g e t t h e a c a d e m i c s i d e o f a c h i e v e m e n t
and c o n s i d e r p e r s o n a l i t i e s ,
manners,
clean lin ess,
safety,
an d t h e d o i n g o f t h i n g s t h a t c a n b e done an d t h a t w i l l h a v e
c o n stru ctiv e r e s u lts .
A b oy who i s d a i l y hammered i n f r a c ­
t i o n s when h e h a s no p o s s i b i l i t y o f g e t t i n g th em ,
v e lo p in g a d i s t a s t e f o r t e a c h e r s and s c h o o l,
some a l t i t u d e s t o w a r d s o c i e t y i n g e n e r a l .
i s de­
and unwhole­
He m i g h t b e t t e r
b e h e l p i n g on t h e l a w n w h e r e he c a n l e a r n s o m e t h i n g t h a t
some day may h e l p him t o b e s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g ,
whe re h e c a n
l e a r n t o l o v e g r o w i n g t h i n g s a n d s c h o o l a t t h e same t i m e .
8.
S c h o o l s s h o u l d e n c o u r a g e t h e s e p u p i l s i n ways o f
manners, p e r s o n a l i t y b u i l d i n g ,
and p e r s o n a l c l e a n l i n e s s .
T h es e a r e o f p r i m e i m p o r t a n c e .
Many b r i l l i a n t p e o p l e f a i l
because t h e y laclt some o f t h e s e
q u alities.
Many o f t h e s e
m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d p u p i l s may s u c c e e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e s e
q u a l i t i e s alone.
They s h o u l d become who lesom e, c o n s t r u c t i v e
citizen s.
9.
Schools should t r y t o develop w ith in th e s e p u p i ls
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
t h e w ise use of l e i s u r e through h o b b ies,
itie s,
and t h e a p p r e c i a t i o n o f n a t u r e .
organized, a c t i v ­
They w i l l n e e d t o
a v o i d t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s w h i c h w i l l come f r o m r e s t l e s s n e s s
and l o a f i n g , f o r i f t h e y do n o t t h e y may become t o o l s f o r
t h e i r more f o r t u n a t e b r o t h e r s .
n e e d t o be b u s y t o b e h a p p y .
in som ething,
10.
L ike a l l of u s, th ey w i l l
They w i l l n e e d t o f e e l s e c u r e
s m a l l a s i t may b e .
V o c a tio n a l g u id a n c e i s e s s e n t i a l i n such c a s e s .
I f t h e s e p u p i l s c a n be g u i d e d i n some k i n d o f work w h i c h
t h e y w i l l b e c a p a b l e o f d o i n g , a n d w h ic h t h e y w i l l b e ha p py
i n d o i n g , much w i l l h a v e b e e n a c c o m p l i s h e d .
11.
The w r i t e r h a s f o u n d t h a t o r a l E n g l i s h o f f e r s
in v alu ab le h elp f o r th e m entally re ta rd e d p u p ils .
c o n versation,
sations,
in tro d u ctio n s,
Th rou g h
m eetings, telep h o n e conver­
a n d o t h e r s p e e c h e x p e r i e n c e s t h e y g a i n much i n t h e
way o f s e l f e x p r e s s i o n ,
and c o n fid e n c e i n d e a l i n g w ith o t h e r s .
Such e x p e r i e n c e s h a v e m arked v a l u e i n p e r s o n a l i t y b u i l d i n g .
I t was f o u n d t h a t most o f t h e p u p i l s were much i n t e r e s t e d i n
such a c t i v i t i e s ,
a n d i n a number o f c a s e s c o u l d m aking p a s ­
s i n g t h o u g h low g r a d e s .
12.
C e r t a i n p h a s e s o f s c i e n c e work was f a i r l y w e l l
m a s t e r e d b y some o f t h e s e p u p i l s .
safety,
ap p re cia tio n of n ature,
F ir s t aid,
clean lin ess,
a nd a number o f e x p e r i m e n t s
a p p e a re d t o be q u i t e e f f e c t i v e .
13.
one f a m i l y .
Cases 1-3,
II-4,
I V - 1 , V-4, a nd V I1 - 5 a r e f r o m
Dr. H a r m s ^ a f t e r s t u d y i n g t h e c a s e h i s t o r y o f
t h e s e c h i l d r e n f e l t t h a t th e y s h o u ld be i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d .
R eproduced with permission o f the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
84.
14.
The i m p o r t a n t p a r t p l a y e d by h e r e d i t y i s n o t e d
i n t h e a b o v e f a m i l y a n d some o t h e r c a s e s o f t h e s t u d y .
It
i s noted th a t:
F i v e i n o ne g r o u p w e re b r o t h e r s a n d s i s t e r s .
Two o t h e r c a s e s w e re b r o t h e r and s i s t e r .
T h r e e c a s e s were f i r s t
cousins.
T h r e e a d d i t i o n a l c a s e s w ere f i r s t c o u s i n s .
Two c a s e s w ere b r o t h e r and s i s t e r .
T h i s w o u ld i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e s e d e f i c i e n c i e s t e n d t o
be t r a n s m i t t e d t h r o u g h t h e f a m i l y s t o c k .
Along w ith t h i s
t h e p o o r home e n v i r o n m e n t s make t h e s i t u a t i o n more d i f f i c u l t .
T h es e c a s e s h a v e l i t t l e
c h a n c e i n g a i n i n g much f r o m t h e home
e n v i r o n m e n t by way o f e x p e r i e n c e , o r t h r o u g h m e n t a l , p h y s i c a l ,
social,
o r em otional a d ju stm en t.
S o c ie ty w i l l need t o f a c e
su c h f a c t s s q u a r e l y a n d f a i r l y f o r t h e f u t u r e w e l f a r e o f o u r
country.
15.
methods
Much l i e B a h e a d i n t h i s f i e l d o f s t u d y .
Many
a n d t e c h n i q u e s f o r t h e c l a s s i f y i n g an d e d u c a t i n g o f
t h e s e u n f o r t u n a t e c h i l d r e n a w a i t t h o s e who a r e i n t e r e s t e d
e d u c a ti n g t h e whole c h i l d .
sm all as w e ll as l a r g e ,
in
Much c a n b e done by a l l s c h o o l s ,
r u r a l as w e ll as urban.
ing f i r s t a i d to t h e i n ju r e d .
I t is giv­
We do n o t w a i t f o r someone
e l s e to do t h e j o b — we cannot await t h e arrival o f special­
i s t s on t h e s c e n e .
T his i s o u r c h a lle n g e .
Are t h e p u b l i c
sch o o ls ready to a c c e p t th e c h alle n g e?
32.
Harms, H e r b e r t , M .D ., P s y c h i a t r i s t , D i r e c t o r ,
C olorado S p r in g s C h ild Guidance C l i n i c , C olorado S p r i n g s ,
Colorado.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
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Ade, L e s t e r K.
M e e t i n g t h e Needs o f t h e M e n t a l l y R e t a r d e d ,
H a r r i s b u r g , D e p a r t m e n t o f P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n , Commonwealth
o f P e n n s y l v a n i a , 1939.
A n d e r s o n , V. V ., M. D. , M. A . - P s y c h i a t r y i n I n d u s t r y , Hew
York, H a r p e r & B r o t h e r s , p u b l i s h e r s , 1929.
B i n e t , A l f r e d , S c . D . , a n d Simon, T. H . , M.D.
The D e v e l o p ­
ment o f I n t e l l i g e n c e i n C h i l d r e n , B a l t i m o r e , W i l l i a m s &
W i l k i n s C o . , 1 91 6 .
D o l l , E d g a r A.
The S p e c i a l C l a s s a s a C l e a r i n g House , ,
E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h B u l l e t i n , Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , Vol.
VII, O ctober.SB .
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S o c i a l C o m p eten c y , L a n s i n g , Vol. 6, Ho. 4, J a n u a r y , 1940.
God d ard, Henry H. S c h o o l T r a i n i n g o f D e f e c t i v e C h i l d r e n ,
Hew Yor k, World Book Company, 1915.
Good, C a r t e r V.
P r o b l e m s a n d T e a c h i n g s of E d u c a t i o n a l
D i a g n o s i s an d A d j u s t m e n t , S c h o o l a n d S o c i e t y , Vol. 48,
A u gu s t 27, 1938 .
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York, The M a c M illa n Company, 1923.
I n g r a m , C h r i s t i n e P.
E d u catio n o f th e Slow-Learning C h ild ,
Y o n k e r s - o n - H u d s o n , Hew York, World, Book Company, 1935.
L o r d , A r t h u r B.
"A S u r v e y o f 449 S p e c i a l C l a s s P u p i l s " ,
J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , V o l. XXVII, Ho. 2, O c t o b e r
mx
M a r t e n s , E l s i e H. T e a c h e r ' s P r o b l e m s w i t h E x c e p t i o n a l
C h i l d r e n I I I , M e n t a l l y R e t a r d e d C h i l d r e n , W a s h i n g t o n , D. C . ,
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M a r t e n s , E l s i e H. "Some Have S p e c i a l H e e d s " , Hat i o n 1s
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McCooey, M a r g a r e t J . S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n f o r H a n d i c a p p e d
C h ild r e n , A b s tr a c t, n a t i o n a l E d u catio n A s s o c ia tio n , Address
a n d P r o c e e d i n g s , W a s h i n g t o n , D. C . , Vol. 76, 1938.
M e r e d i t h , G. H.
"Fortunate 'U n fo r tu n a te s '" ,
S c h o o l E x e c u t i v e , Vol. 58, Ho. 8.
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(C ont.)
86.
Morgan, J . B. The P s y c h o l o g y o f Abnormal P e o p l e , Hew York,
Longman’ s , Green & Company, 1936.
P i n t n e r , R u d olp h.
I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t i n g Methods and R e s u l t s ,
Hew York, H e nry H o l t a n d Company, 1923.
P o r t e n i e r , L i l l i a n G.
A Tw elve-Y ear Study o f D i f f e r e n t i a t e d
Groups o f High S c h o o l P u p i l s , B a l t i m o r e , Warwick & Y ork, I n c .
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P o r t e n i e r , L i l l i a n G.
P e r s o n a l i t y Fact o r s i n t h e Achievement
o f H ig h S c h o o l P u p i l s , L a r a m i e , U n i v e r s i t y o f Wyoming Pub­
l i c a t i o n s , Vol. 2, No. 9, S e p t e m b e r 1 , 1936.
S h o l t y , C o r a l Maude.
The E n l a r g e m e n t o f S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n
i n Wyoming, L a r a m i e , Wyoming.
M. A. t h e s i s .
Terman, L e w i s M.
The I n t e l l i g e n c e o f S c h o o l C h i l d r e n ,
C h i c a g o , H o u g h t o n - M i f f l i n Company, 1919.
T r e d g o l d , A. F.
& Company, 1915.
M e n t a l D e f i c i e n c y , Hew York, W i l l i a m Wood
Vanuxem, Mary, Ph.D .
E d u c a t i o n o f F e e b l e - M i n d e d ?fomen,Hew
York, T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , C olu m b ia U n i v e r s i t y , 19 25.
W i t t y , P a u l A . , a n d S k i n n e r , C h a r l e s E.
M e n ta l H y g i e n e i n
Modern E d u c a t i o n , Hew Y ork, F a r r a r & R i n e h a r t , I n c .
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W h ite House C o n f e r e n c e on C h i l d H e a l t h a n d P r o t e c t i o n ,
S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n , The H a n d i c a p p e d a n d t h e G i f t e d , Hew Y ork,
C e n t u r y Company, 1931.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
APPENDIX
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
88.
M e n t a l T e s t s , R a t i n g S c a l e s , and I n f o r m a t i o n a l
Sources
In tellig en ce
Prim ary Level
1.
K u h lm an n -A n d e rso n I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t .
2.
D e tr o it B eginning F ir s t- G r a d e I n t e l l i g e n c e T est.
3.
O t i s Quick S c o r i n g M e n t a l A b i l i t y T e s t .
I n t e r m e d i a t e a n d U pp e r Grade L e v e l
1.
K u h lm a n n - A n d e r so n I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t .
2.
Henm on-Nelson T e s t o f M e n t a l A b i l i t y f o r G r a d e s 3 - 8 .
3.
O t i s Quick S c o r i n g M e n t a l A b i l i t y T e s t .
4.
D e t r o i t Prim ary I n t e l l i g e n c e T est.
B ehavior
1.
H a g g e r t y - 0 1 son-Wickman B e h a v i o r R a t i n g S c h e d u l e s .
S o c i a l a n d Economic B a c k g r o u n d
1.
Sims S o c i o - E c o n o m i c S c a l e — G r a d e 5 and up.
2.
Below g r a d e 5 i n f o r m a t i o n was g a t h e r e d f r o m o l d e r
b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s ,
t e a c h e r s , an d s c h o o l n u r s e .
H e a lth and A ttend ance In fo rm a tio n
1.
H e i g h t and w e i g h t r e c o r d s .
2.
A ttendance re c o rd s.
3.
N u rs e 's exam ination.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
S o c i a l a nd O u t - o f - S c h o o l L i f e
1.
P upil Q uestionnaires.
(U p p e r g r a d e s )
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
STURGIS PUBLIC SCHOOL
PUPIL INFORMATION SHEET
Grades 7-8
Gra de
__
D a t e _________ _
L a s t name_____________________
^______ Boy__ G i r l ________
( F i r s t name;
(Day a n d "month)
(Year of b i r t h )
(lam e o f p a r e n t ' o r g u a r d ? )
N a t i o n a l i t y _____________ F a t h e r l i v i n g ____ M o th e r l i v i n g _________
O c c u p a t i o n o f F a t h e r ____________________
______________
Number o f c h i l d r e n i n y o u r f a m i l y ________ Number o f g i r l s _______
Number o f b o y s ________
Have y o u r p a r e n t s a l w a y s l i v e d i n t h i s community?,________ ______
Uhere d i d t h e y l i v e b e f o r e coming h e r e ?
Member o f w hat c h u r c h ?
Are y o u a member o f Boy S c o u t s ?
_______________
(Town)
(S tate)
Do y o u a t t e n d Sunday S c h o o l - __
G i r l S c o u t s ? ___ _4-H G l u t
L i s t a ny o t h e r c l u b s t h a t y o u b e l o n g t
o
_________
L i s t any a c t i v i t i e s y o u t a k e p a r t i n i n s c h o o l __________________
L i s t any i n t e r e s t i n g h o b b ie s which you may have
Do you rea.d books (a g r e a t d e a l) (average ) ( v e r y l i t t l e )
(none)
I read newspapers ( a l l t h e tim e) (some of th e tim e) ( j u s t t h e
f u n n i e s ) (none)
L i s t t h e magazines and p a p e r s which you have a t home___________
Do you have a r a d i o ? ______ Do you have any id e a a s to what you
wish to become when you grow up?,___________________________ ____
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
91.
L i s t p r e s e n t s c h o o l s u b j e c t s t h a t i n t e r e s t yo u m o s t ____________
I s t u d y a t home (much)
(some)
(little )
(no n e)
Many p e o p l e f e e l t h a t e x c e p t f o r one o r two t h i n g s t h a t b o t h e r
t h e m t h e i r l i f e w o u ld be p e r f e c t an d t h e y w o u ld be h a p p y .
L i s t a n y t h i n g t h a t p r e v e n t s y o u f r o m b e i n g p e r f e c t l y h a p p y ____
Do you f o l l o w a s t u d y s c h e d u l e ? ____________________ _______________
I f y o u h a d y o u r c h o i c e o f any r e a s o n a b l e g i f t o r s o m e t h i n g y o u
s h o u l d l i k e t o own w h a t w ou ld i t beT^JL.___________________________
3.
3 . __________________
A g r e a t many p e o p l e make m i s t a k e s , b u t a s a g e n e r a l r u l e t h e y
want t o do t h e r i g h t t h i n g .
Do y o u f e e l t h a t yo u c a n h o n e s t l y
s a y t h a t you h a v e t h e r i g h t a t t i t u d e ? _____________________________
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
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