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Analyses of representative works of outstanding English, German and Russian Modernists

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This thesis, having been approved by the
special Faculty Committee, is accepted by
the Committee on Graduate S tu dy o f the
University o f Wyoming,
in partial fulfillm ent o f the requirements
fo r the degree oflO Q A& f& i,
Chairman o f the Committee on Graduate Study.
Secretary.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
ANALYSES OF REPRESENTATIVE YORKS
OF OUTSTANDING
ENGLISH, GERMAN AND RUSSIAN MODERNISTS
by
Anna M a r i e S m ith
T h esis subm itted t o the
D e p a r t m e n t o f Music and t h e
Com mittee on G r a d u a t e S t u d y
a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f Wyoming,
in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t of the
r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e d e g r e e of
M aster of A rts
L a r a m i e , Wyoming
1941
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UMI N um ber: EP23761
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rl«bt.rc Irfucw
V
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I.
II.
III.
IV .
ft
■ PAGE
THE PROBLEM, PROCEDURE, AND REVIEW OF
PERTINENT LITERATURE ..........................................................
1
The P r o b l e m ..................................................................................
1
The P r o c e d u r e .............................................................................
1
Review o f P e r t i n e n t L i t e r a t u r e
..................................
3
MODERN ENGLISH COMPOSERS ....................................................
5
D e l i u s ...........................................................................................
5
Vaughan W i l l i a m s ...................................................................
17
MODERN GERMAN COMPOSERS.........................................................
28
H i n d e m i t h .......................................................................................
28
S c h o e n b e r g ............................
JA
S t r a u s s ...........................................................................................
40
MODERN RUSSIAN CO-POSERS ....................................................
6l
P r o k o f i e v .......................................................................................
61
S t r a v i n s k y ................................
66
CONCLUSION......................................................................................
80
BIBLIOGRAPHY ................................................................................................
81
V.
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CHAPTER I
THE PR OPT EH, PROCEDURE, AND REVIEW OFPERTINENT LITERATURE
I .
THE PROBTEW
The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o p o p u l a r i z e modern
f o r e i g n m u s i c i n t h i s c o u n t r y and t o make more u n d e r s t a n d a b l e
t h e most r e p r e s e n t a t i v e works o f t h e c h o s e n c o m p o s e r s by s h o r t
analyses.
T h i s s t u d y was d e s i g n e d f o r t h e u s e o f t h o s e who
h a v e some k n ow led ge o f m u sic or an a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r m u s i c .
It
was n o t t h e i n t e n t t o compare t h e s e l e c t e d c o m p o s e r s w i t h t h e
styles
of t h e i r m u s i c a l p r e d e c e s s o r s or w i t h t h e i r m u s i c a l
c on t e mp o r a r i e s .
II.
THE PROCEDURE
A l l m u s ic i s made u p o f e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same t h i n g ,
t h a t i s , t h e e l e m e n t s o f m u sic w h i c h a r e r h y t h m , melody and
h a rm o n y .
T h e s e e l e m e n t s a r e combined i n t o t h e m a t i c m a t e r i a l
w h i c h i n t u r n e v e n t u a l l y r e s u l t s i n some t y p e o f for m , a l t h o u g h
s o m e ti m e s i n d i s c e r n a b l e
on f i r s t h e a r i n g .
E a c h com p o ser h a s
h i s own s t y l e i n u s i n g t h e s e m u s i c a l e l e m e n t s .
We ha ve come t o u n d e r s t a n d and become a c c u s t o m e d t o
the consonant s t y l e
o f M o z a r t , and t h e s e m i - c o n s o n a n t s t y l e
o f B e e t h o v e n and F r a n c k ; b u t t h e m u sic o f d i s s o n a n c e i s s t i l l
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2
t o some l i s t e n e r s u n i n t e l l i g i b l e end h a s b e e n d i s c a r d e d by
them e n t i r e l y .
S i n c e i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e m ain r e a s o n
for th is a ttitu d e
o f t o l e r a t i o n or c o m p l e t e d i s c a r d i n g of
modern m u s i c l i e s i n t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e i s a l a c k of u n d e r ­
s t a n d i n g , t h e w orks o f t h e m o s t o u t s t a n d i n g c o m p o s e r s of t h i s
t y p e h ave b e e n c h o s e n i n an a t t e m p t t o make them more u n d e r ­
standable .
T h e r e a r e two a p p e a l s i n l i s t e n i n g t o m u s i c .
One a p ­
p e a l i s t o t h e p h y s i c a l and e m o t i o n a l , t h e o t h e r a p p e a l i s t o
the i n t e l l e c t .
An a t t e m p t t o l i s t e n fro m o n l y one o f t h e s e
aspects is f a ta l to f u ll a p p re c ia tio n .
T herefore, th ere
should
be some c o m b i n a t i o n of a p p e a l s b e t w e e n t h e p h y s i c a l and t h e
in te lle ct.
It
i s r a r e t o f i n d a l i s t e n e r who d o e s n o t r e a c t
i n some manner p h y s i c a l l y t o m u s i c ; b u t i t i s n o t i m p o s s i b l e
t o f i n d one who d o e s n o t r e a c t i n t e l l e c t u a l l y .
I t i s to help
th o s e of th e l a t t e r case t h a t t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a n a l y s e s of
t h e s e c o m p o s e r s h a s b e e n m ade.
By l e a r n i n g w h a t t o l i s t e n
f o r , i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h l i s t e n i n g p h y s i c a l l y and e m o t i o n a l l y ,
a f a r b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g and a p p r e c i a t i o n o f m u s i c i s g a i n e d .
The a n a l y t i c m a t e r i a l g i v e n h e r e d o e s n o t c o m p r i s e
the e n tir e
o p e r a o f any c om po s er b u t t h e most r e p r e s e n t a t i v e
’works h av e b e e n s e l e c t e d w i t h t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t by t h e
aid
of t h e s e few a n a l y s e s t h e l i s t e n e r w i l l d e r i v e some know­
ledge of th e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s
of t h e s e c o m p o s e r s .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
III.
REVIEW OF PERTINENT LITERATURE
L ite r a tu r e p e rtin e n t to the present su b je c t i s p a r­
t i c u l a r l y s c a r c e i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h e amount o f m u s i c a l
lite ra tu re
on t h e same s u b j e c t .
The l a c k o f t h e s e l i t e r a r y
works may be due i n p a r t t o t h e e x t r e m e l y c o n t e m p o r a r y n a ­
t u r e of the s u b j e c t .
More a n a l y s i s and c r i t i c i s m h a s b e e n b r o u g h t t o b e a r
on t h e s u b j e c t o f modern F r e n c h cornoosers and c o m o o s i t i o n s
t h a n on any o t h e r f i e l d o f mod ern m u s i c ; b u t t h e s e m a i n l y
c o m p r i s e a n a l y s i s and c r i t i c i s m s o f t h e " o l d e r " moderns a s
F r a n c k , d ' I n d y and D ebuss y and t h e i r f o l l o w e r s .
H u l l , who h a s t a k e n a p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n modern
m u sic and m u s i c i a n s , sa ys:^The whole o f m u s i c a l h i s t o r y - - t h e i n i t i a l r e j e c t i o n and
l a t e r t r i u m p h of M o n t e v e r d i and G lu ck , o f Bach and B e e t h ­
ov en, Wagner and S t r a u s s — w a r n s one a g a i n s t t h e t o o e a s y
a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e n e a t l y t u r n e d e p i t h e t s of p e r s o n s who
a r e t o o i n d o l e n t t o u n d e r s t a n d , or t o o i n d i f f e r e n t t o
a p p r e c i a t e , a new k i n d o f m u sic w h i c h c l a i m s a t once wide
s y m p a t h i e s and c o n s i d e r a b l e p o w e rs of c o n c e n t r a t i o n .
Music w h i c h c a u s e s p e o p l e t o " h i s s " and " bo o " must c o n ­
t a i n a t any r a t e some v i t a l i t y , and i s p r e f e r a b l e c o n s e ­
q u e n t l y t o t h a t w h ic h s p e e d i l y r e d u c e s t h e a u d i e n c e t o
a somnolent p a s s i v i t y .
M ario n B a u e r ^ h a s w r i t t e n on t h e s u b j e c t
o f modern
composers b u t h e r r e v ie w s l a c k c o n v in c in g a n a l y t i c e v id e n c e
o f t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g of m a j o r n e e d s o f s t u d e n t s a n d mere a p A. E a g l e f i e l d H u l l , Modern Harmony. London: Augene r L td . , p . 1 .
2 M a rio n B a u e r , T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y ~Tu s l c . Mew York ,
L ondon: G . P . P u t n a m ' s S o n s , 1933> x i i * 3 3 9 p .
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4
p reciativ e lis te n e rs .
T his s c a r c i t y of l i t e r a t u r e
l e a d s one t o b e l i e v e t h a t
t h e r e must b e l a c k o f e i t h e r i n t e r e s t o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of
t h e E n g l i s h , German and R u s s i a n s c h o o l s o f modern m u s i c a l
thought.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CHAPTER I I
MODERN ENGLISH COMPOSERS
F re d e ric k D elius
( 1863- - ) ,
one o f t h e most o u t s t a n d ­
i n g c o m p o s e r s of h i s t i m e , i s a s o l i t a r y
o f modern m u s i c .
f i g u r e i n t h e world
He was b o r n o f German p a r e n t s who s e t t l e d
i n E n g l a n d , and was d e s t i n e d f o r a n u n i n t e r e s t i n g m e r c a n t i l e
career.
The p r o s p e c t became s o d i s t a s t e f u l t o him t h a t he
l e f t home a t t h e age o f t w e n t y and became a n o r a n g e p l a n t e r
in F lorida.
I n t h i s e n v i r o n m e n t and w i t h t h e a i d o f a n o r g a n ­
i s t f r i e n d , he became f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e r u d i m e n t s o f m u s i c a l
theory.
Due t o t h i s
s e l f - t e a c h i n g , he owes b u t l i t t l e
men who h a v e done m o s t t o g u i d e modern m u s i c t o i t s
developm ent.
to the
present
From t h e l a t e r d e v e l o p m e n t s o f Wagnerism a s r e ­
p r e s e n t e d i n t h e w orks o f S t r a u s s , he i s a s r e m o t e a s from
t h e " a t m o s p h e r i c " e x p e r i m e n t s o f Debussy and h i s f e l l o w s .
One can d e t e c t t r a c e s o f t h e i n f l u e n c e o f G r i e g i n some o f
h i s e a r l i e r com positions, but i t
i s only i n t h e most g e n e r a l
s e n s e t h a t h i s m a t u r e r w orks c a n b e s a i d t o owe a n y t h i n g t o
the i n i t i a t i v e
o f o t h e r men.
I t i s the b le n d in g of the psy­
c h o l o g i c a l w i t h t h e p i c t o r i a l e l e m e n t t h a t g i v e s h i s m u sic
i t s p ecu liarly c h a ra c te ristic q u a lity .
"A m u s i c i a n s o k e e n l y a l i v e t o e x t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e s h a s
n a t u r a l l y b e e n p r o f o u n d l y a f f e c t e d by t h e v a r i e d s c e n e s i n
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
6
which h i s l i f e h a s been p a s s e d .
His e a r l y f a n t a s i a - o v e r t u r e ,
' O v e r t h e H i l l s an d F a r A w ay,' was o b v i o u s l y i n s p i r e d by t h e
m o o r la n d s c e n e r y o f h i s n a t i v e Y o r k s h i r e .
H is e x p e r i e n c e o f
th e t r o p i c a l lu x u ria n c e of F lo rid a i s r e f l e c t e d i n h i s opera
' K o s n g a , ' a work i n w h i c h t h e n e g r o e l e m e n t p l a y s a n i m p o r t a n t
p a r t ; and t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t i n ' A p p a l a c h i a , '
t h a t rem arkable
work i n w hich t h e v i r g i n f o r e s t s and m ig h t y w a t e r s of A m e ric a
seem t o s p e a k .
'P a ris '
i s a m usical p ic tu r e
i m p r e s s i o n s of t h e g r e a t c i t y by n i g h t .
of t h e c o m p o s e r ’ s
I t i s no mere e x e r ­
c i s e i n m u s i c a l r e a l i s m , t h o u g h i t d i s p l a y s a k e e n s e n s e of
p icto rial effect.
R ather i s i t a p e rs o n a l re c o rd
of t h e f e e l ­
i n g s en gen dered, by t h e c o n t e m p l a t i o n o f t h e s l e e p i n g c i t y .
It
i s a s t u d y o f e f f e c t s r a t h e r t h a n o f c a u s e s , a nd i s t h u s a p e ­
c u l i a r l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ex am p le o f D e l i u s ' s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s
m u s i c , and o f h i s employment of i t s r e s o u r c e s .
In D e l iu s ' a r t , th e o r c h e s t r a l tone c o lo r of every
c h o rd i s a s i m p o r t a n t a s t h e a c t u a l n o t e s c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n
t h a t chord.
Fo r t h e most p a r t t h e t o n e c o l o r s a r e o f a s o f t
and mellow q u a l i t y ; and e v e n when a p a s s a g e i s
orchestrated
f o r t h e h i g h r e g i s t e r of t h e t r u m p e t , t h e a c c o m p a n y in g s c o r i n g
i n s u r e s t h e e f f e c t of a g l o w i n g q u a l i t y r a t h e r t h a n a h a r s h
s h r i l l tone.
P e r h a p s one o f t h e m o s t o u t s t a n d i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s
1 R.A. S t r e a t f i e l d , E s q . ,
3rd e d i t i o n , I I , p . 4 4 .
of
"D elius," d ro v e 's D ic tio n a ry .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
7
D e l i u s ' work I s h i s l a c k o f one b i g c l i m a x .
c lim a c tic , as i t
H is m u sic i s
f l o w s from one q u i e t c l i m a x t o a n o t h e r , b u t
n e v e r becomes o b t r u s i v e l y b o m b a s t i c .
T h i s e a s y , r e s t f u l flow
i s a d i s t i n c t i v e mark o f D e l i u s .
L ik e m o st modern c o m p o s e r s , D e l i u s i s h a p p i e r w i t h t h e
o r c h e s t r a t h a n w i t h t h e v o i c e , w h i c h i n some i n s t a n c e s he i s
a p t t o t r e a t i n what may be c a l l e d t o o i n s t r u m e n t a l a f a s h i o n .
"A Mass o f L i f e , " b a s e d on N i e t z s c h e ' s famous b o o k , s u f f e r s
from a d i s c o n n e c t e d l i b r e t t o .
T his i s not th e f a u l t of D e liu s
b u t r a t h e r t h e a u t h o r , H e r r C a s s i r e r , who seemed t o h a v e a b a n ­
do ned t h e i d e a o f r e d u c i n g t h e bo o k t o m a n a g e a b le l i m i t s ,
and
t o have c o n te n te d h i m s e l f w ith c h o o s in g th o s e p a s s a g e s t h a t
seemed t o l e n d t h e m s e l v e s m o st r e a d i l y t o m u s i c a l t r e a t m e n t
w i t h o u t p a y i n g much a t t e n t i o n t o p h i l o s o p h i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t .
"A Mass of L i f e " c o n t a i n s much s t r i k i n g and I m p r e s s i v e m u s i c ,
b u t t h e g e n e r a l e f f e c t o f t h e work, a t any r a t e a t t h e f i r s t
hearing, is
somewhat i n d e f i n i t e . ^
I n " S e a - D r i f t , " h o w e v e r , D e l i u s i s a t h i s b e s t and
stro n g est.
The same may be s a i d o f t h e "Song o f t h e High
H i l l s , " i n w h ic h t h e w o r d l e s s c h o i r i s t r e a t e d a s a s e c o n d
and more s p i r i t u a l i z e d o r c h e s t r a .
"The v o i c e s , a s i t w e r e ,
c a r r y t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e m e l o d i c m a t e r i a l up above t h e
snow l i n e .
2 I b i d . , d . 45.
3 I b i d . , p. 45.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
8
His a t t i t u d e t o w a r d form i s b e s t shown i n t h e c o n ­
certo s.
H e r e , i n t h e p i a n o f o r t e c o n c e r t o s , he i s found t o
adopt the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s
of L i s z t i n t h a t he r e l i e s e n o r ­
m ously on c o n t r a s t s , a l t h o u g h t h e s e c o n t r a s t s a r e d r a w n
more n e a r l y t o g e t h e r t h a n i n t h e c l a s s i c a l c o n c e r t o form of
s e p a r a t e d m ovem ents.
In the th re e l a t e r co n certo s, i . e . ,
t h e d o u b l e c o n c e r t o , t h e v i o l i n and t h e v i o l o n c e l l o c o n c e r ­
tos,
c o n t r a s t s a re l e s s e s s e n t i a l t o th e d e s ig n ; Indeed in
the v i o l i n c o n certo , th e f i n e s t of th e th re e according to
m ost a u t h o r i t i e s , t h e w ho le d e s i g n seems t o grow o u t o f a n
e x p a n s io n of t h e i n i t i a l i d e a .4
W a g n e r i a n is m b u t i t i s i n r e a l i t y
Some p e o p l e m i g h t c a l l t h i s
f a r from i t .
The t h e m a t i c
m a t e r i a l of th e V i o l i n C o n c erto i s comparable t o W agner's
l e i t m o t i v e s o n l y i n t h a t t h e number and s h o r t n e s s of t h e s e
t h e m e s i n v o l v e s a c o n t i n u o u s p r o c e s s of s t a t e m e n t , r e s t a t e ­
ment and c o m b i n a t i o n u n t i l ,
alm ost im p o ssib le t o i s o l a t e
for a n a ly tic purposes,
one fro m a n o t h e r .
it
is
However,
t h e t h e m e s f o l l o w i n a n a t u r a l s e q u e n c e , i n h i b i t i n g any t e n ­
dency toward d i s j o i n t e d n e s s .
Though t h e f e a t u r e s of t r a d i ­
t i o n a l form a r e d i s c o v e r a b l e by a n a l y s i s , t h e h e a r e r g a i n s
an im p r e s s io n of c o n tin u o u s e v o l u t i o n i n which t h e harm onic
c o n s t r u c t i o n d e p e n d s s o l e l y upon r e g a r d i n g i t
as to n e-sen -
s a t i o n s , unanalyzable in the c l a s s i c a l se n se .
4 Ib id .,
p. 45.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
9
I am i n d e b t e d t o Donald F r a n c i s 'Tovey f o r t h e a n a l y s i s
of the V io lin C oncerto.^
V i o l in Concerto
The f u n c t i o n o f t h e s o l o v i o l i n i s t o s i n g a nd t o d e ­
corate; ch iefly to decorate.
a rises en tirely
The d i f f i c u l t y
of i t s
part
from t h e a l m o s t c o m p l e t e a b s e n c e o f f a m i l i a r
h a r m o n i e s and i n t e r v a l s , and a t no p o i n t i s t h e d i f f i c u l t y
connected w ith t e c h n i c a l d i s p l a y .
A f t e r two i n t r o d u c t o r y b a r s f o r t h e s t r i n g s ,
the so lo
v i o l i n p o u r s out t h e t h r e e f o l l o w i n g t h e m e s i n a wayward
s tre a m of m e d i t a t i o n .
1
To t h e s e may be a d d ed a m a j e s t i c o u t b u r s t o f t h e b r a s s .
Ex. 4
5 Don ald F r a n c i s T ovey,
A n a ly s is . I l l , pp. 204-5.
" D e liu s ," Essays in M usical
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
10
The m i d d l e s e c t i o n ( i f one may u s e t h e t e r m o f s u c h u n s e c ­
t i o n a l m u s i c ) i s i n a s l o w e r t i m e , and c o m p r i s e s tw o i m p o r ­
t a n t c a n t a h i l e them es.
A. s h o r t c a d e n z a l e a d s t o a r e c a p i t u l a t i o n o f t h e f i r s t
t h e m e s w i t h a c hang e i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f k e y .
p e c t e d l y a q u a i n t new s e c t i o n ,
four
Very u n e x ­
i n a n a iv e d a n c in g rhythm,
c r e a t e s a d i v e r s i o n from t h e r u m i n a t i n g mood o f t h e w h o l e .
I t a l t e r n a t e s , h o w e v e r , w i t h a v a r i a t i o n of E x. 5 i n t h e
f o llo w in g form.
Ex. 8
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
11
F i n a l l y t h e f i g u r e s o f E x . 1 c o n c l u d e t h e work on a c h o r d
once known t o t h e o r i s t s a s t h e " a d d e d 6 t h " — one o f t h e v e r y
few names i n m u s i c a l t h e o r y t h a t f i t
the f a c t s .
Ex. 9
1^
<
-------------<
y j
o
J
^
_
--------------_ _ _ _ _
^
| &
y
)
h
j =
r
H
[ |
_ _
____^
------------------------------ &
—
..........................
s
—
—
a
L .- p _
—
J
M
One o f t h e s i m p l e s t o f most w i d e l y u s e d i m p r e s s i o n ­
i s t i c m eth o d s employed b y m o d e r n i s t s i s t h a t o f t h e open
f i f t h s — u s u a l l y i n slo w moving p a r t s and t r e m e l o .
D elius
i s n o t an e x c e p t i o n .
E x . 10
i
£
1
I n h i s s o n g "Autum n," D e l i u s shows a t e n d e n c y t o w a r d
t h e use of t h e dodecuple s c a l e .
T h i s i s i l l u s t r a t e d more
c l e a r l y i n t h e melody l i n e .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
12
E x . 11
Brigg F a ir
" B r i g g F a i r , " t e r m e d by t h e c o m p o s e r a s a n " E n g l i s h
R h a p s o d y , " was w r i t t e n i n 1907*
The work, b a s e d on a them e
o f a n E n g l i s h f o l k - s o n g i n t h e D o r i c mode, i s d e d i c a t e d t o
P e r c y G - r a in g e r , t h e B r i t i s h c o m p o s e r , t o whom i t i s b e l i e v e d
D e l i u s was i n d e b t e d f o r t h e kn o w le d g e of t h i s n a t i o n a l s o n g .
The work r e a l l y c o n s i s t s o f a n i n t r o d u c t i o n , a s e r i e s of s e ­
v e n t e e n v a r i a t i o n s on t h e m ain t h e m e , f r e e m i d d l e s e c t i o n ,
t r a n s i t i o n a l p a s s a g e s and Coda.
ly in the s t y le
The v a r i a t i o n s a r e f r e q u e n t ­
of a p a s s a c a g l i a . 6
The t e x t o f t h e f o l k - s o n g
fo llo w s.
BRIGG FAIR
I t was on t h e f i f t ' o f a u g u s t
The w e a t h e r f i n e and f a i r
Unto B r i g g F a i r I d i d r e p a i r
For Love I was i n c l i n e d .
I r o s e up w i t h t h e l a r k i n t h e m o r n in g
With my h e a r t s o f u l l of g l e e ,
Of t h i n k i n g t h e r e t o meet my d e a r
Long t i m e I w i s h e d t o s e e .
6 F.E .C . L euka.rt, B rig g F a i r . W ien-L eip zig:
P h i l h a r m o n i s c h e r V e r l a g A .G . , 1925, p . i»
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
W ie ner
13
I lo o k e d o v e r my l e f t s h o u l d e r
To s e e whom I could s e e ,
And t h e r e I s p i e d my own t r u e l o v e
Coming t r i p p i n g down t o me.
I t o o k h o l d o f her l i l y w h i t e hand
And m e r r i l y was her h e a r t ,
And now w e ’r e met t o g e t h e r
I hope we n e ' e r s h a l l p a r t .
For i t ' s m e e t i n g i s a p l e a s u r e
And p a r t i n g i s a g r i e f ,
But an u n c o n s t a n t l o v e r
I s worse t h a n a t h i e f .
The g r e e n l e a v e s t h e y s h a l l w i t h e r
And t h e "branches t h e y s h a l l d i e
I f e v e r I prove f a l s e t o her
To t h e g i r l t h a t l o v e s me.
The s e l e c t i o n b e g i n s w i t h a s h o r t i n t r o d u c t i o n , t h e
theme b e i n g c a r r i e d by t h e f l u t e s a t f i r s t .
sounds j u s t a l i t t l e
The theme i t s e l f
l ik e th e ch aracterized Indian fo lk -tu n e s
o f America.
E x . 12
7 ft
’ "
1 "
' X J
The theme upon w h ic h t h e v a r i a t i o n s a r e made i s a s f o l l o w s :
E x . 13
ejn
/ "v: f .. ..i.if . h , ,, I-?—
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
14
D e l i u s seems t o h a v e a n a f f e c t i o n f o r s u c c e s s i v e s e ­
venth chords.
sevenths,
By t h i s i s n o t m ean t a s e r i e s o f d i m i n i s h e d
o r d o m i n a n t s e v e n t h s , "but v a r i o u s s e v e n t h s on v a r ­
ious scale d e g re e s.
I n ’’B r i g g F a i r " he makes a g r e a t u s e of
t h e m , a s w i l l a l s o be n o t i c e a b l e i n "On H e a r i n g t h e F i r s t
Cuckoo i n S p r i n g . "
The theme o f t h e f r e e m i d d l e s e c t i o n i s p l a y e d a g a i n s t
t h e o r i g i n a l i n t r o d u c t o r y t h e m e , w h ic h s t i l l a p p e a r s i n t h e
flu te .
(E x. 12)
E x . 14
1
A l t h o u g h one n e v e r f e e l s t h a t i n t h i s number D e l i u s
i s v e r y r h y t h m i c , t h e f o l l o w i n g e x a m p le w i l l i l l u s t r a t e how
i n t r i c a t e a d e s i g n he h a s wo rk ed o u t , y e t r e t a i n i n g t h a t f e e l ­
in g of u n o b tr u s iv e n e s s .
I t i s fo u n d t o be t h e acc o m p a n im e n t
o f t h e theme i n one o f t h e v a r i a t i o n s .
E x . 15
J J J.J J
y 3
r J v J 't J
J
J , J,
.J J .
O r J - r J ’ y J ’ 1J -5 J 1y-j iJ *
T h i s number i s
o r c h e s t r a t e d f o r s t r i n g s , woodw inds,
b r a s s e s , h a r p and a p e r c u s s i v e s e c t i o n c o n s i s t i n g o f t y m p a n i ,
(Iran C a s s a , T r i a n g o l o ,
3 Campani a c i l i n d r o i n S i , Do, Re.
Such a l a r g e p e r c u s s i v e s e c t i o n i s u n l o o k e d f o r i n t h i s n u m b e r .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
15
On Hearing: t h e F i r s t Cuckoo I n S p r i n g
"On H e a r i n g t h e F i r s t Cuckoo I n S p r i n g " i s q u i t e s im ­
i l a r i n mood t o " B r i g g F a i r . "
t r a c o n s is tin g of f l u te ,
It is
scored f o r sm all o rc h e s­
oboe, c l a r i n e t , b a s s o o n , h o rn s i n
F, V i o l i n s , V i o l a s , V i o l o n c e l l o s , and C o n t r a b a s s .
The s e l e c t i o n c o n s i s t s o f a number o f m e l o d i e s , no
one more p r o m i n e n t t h a n a n o t h e r .
E x . 16
E x . 17
j
^
f
f t r T if r t (
E x . 18
I n t h e Cuckoo n u m b er, a s i n t h e " B r i g g F a i r , " s e v e n t h s
p rev ail.
I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t t h e r e a r e no c h o r d s
t h r o u g h o u t t h a t c a n n o t be c l a s s i f i e d a s some k i n d o f s e v e n t h
ch o r d .
E x . 19
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
16
I n t h i s c o m p o s i t i o n D e l i u s r e l i e s upon c o n t r a s t s a s
he d o e s i n h i s c o n c e r t o s .
Fo r i n s t a n c e , t h e f u l l o r c h e s t r a
has been p la y in g b u t suddenly a l l in s tru m e n ts drop out e x ­
c e p t t h e c l a r i n e t , b a s s o o n s , and h o r n s , p r o d u c i n g a s t r a n g e
effect
of p l a i n t i v e e m p tin e s s .
The p a r t o f t h e cuck o o i s a lw a y s g i v e n t o t h e c l a r i n e t .
At t h e t i m e t h i s number was w r i t t e n ,
b l i n d , d e a f and p a r a l y z e d .
t h e com poser was
I t i s rem arkable t h a t such a
q u i e t , p e a c e f u l p i e c e o f m u s i c c o u l d be w r i t t e n u n d e r a d v e r s e
circu m stan ces.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
17
R a l p h Vaughan W i l l i a m s was h o r n i n 18 72, a n d i s c o n ­
s i d e r e d one of t h e few c o m p o s e r s of E n g la n d who h a s p u t n a ­
tiv e
f o l k - s o n g m a t e r i a l t o good u s e .
I t was a b o u t 1900 t h a t
he b e g a n t o d i s c o v e r t h e l a n g u a g e o f t h e E n g l i s h f o l k - s o n g
and t o make i t h i s own medium.
His s o n g s w r i t t e n a t a b o u t
t h a t t i m e show c l e a r l y t h e modal and r h y t h m i c i n f l u e n c e s
the folk -so n g .
But more t h a n t h a t ,
of
from t h e f o l k - s o n g h a s
s p r u n g t h a t s t y l e w h ic h Vaughan W i l l i a m s h a s e v o l v e d f o r
h i m s e l f , a s t y l e i n w h i c h v o c a l m e l o d i e s a r e woven i n a p o l y ­
phony w h i c h a t t i m e s seems r e c k l e s s l y o b l i v i o u s o f h a r m o n i c
consequences.
I n h i s s e a r c h e s f o r f o l k - s o n g s , Vaughan W i l l i a m s l i v e d
i n t h e c o u n t r y an d among t h e p e o p l e .
The o r c h e s t r a l "Im­
p r e s s i o n , " " I n t h e Fen C o u n t r y , " and t h e t h r e e
"N orfolk
R h a p s o d i e s " f o r o r c h e s t r a w ere t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s l i f e .
The l a t t e r t a k e t h e i r t h e m a t i c m a t e r i a l from some of t h e
fin ­
e s t f o l k - t u n e s he g a t h e r e d , b u t w h e r e a s i n many c o m p o s i t i o n s
o f a s i m i l a r n a t u r e by h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s t h e f o l k - t u n e s have
t h e c h a r a c t e r o f q u o t a t i o n s amongst more or l e s s e x t r a n e o u s
m atter,
i n Vaughan W i l l i a m s ' r h a p s o d i e s t h e i d i o m o f t h e
t u n e s s e l e c t e d p e r m e a t e s t h e whole m e l o d i c o u t l i n e , and i s
t h e d i r e c t d e c i d i n g p o i n t f o r t h e harmonic s t r u c t u r e .
"In
t h e Fen C o u n t r y " c l a i m s no f o l k - s o n g o r i g i n ; b u t i t most
c e r t a i n l y claim s th e f e e l of th e fo lk -s o n g idiom .
He d i d
n o t a d o p t t h e f o l k - s o n g m ann e r a s a c o n s c i o u s n a t i o n a l i s t i c
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
18
p o s e ; b u t a s a mode o f e x p r e s s i o n . ^
Among h i s w o rk s w r i t t e n f o r t h e C o m p e t i t i o n F e s t i v a l s
are:
"A Sea S ym phony,” "Toward t h e Unknown R e g i o n , ” "The
E x p l o r e r s , ” and o t h e r s , l e s s known i n t h i s c o u n t r y .
The q u e s t i o n h a s b e e n r a i s e d a s t o how f a r "A London
Symphony” s h o u l d b e l o o k e d u po n a s programme m u s i c .
The com­
p o s e r h a s c l a i m e d a p u r e l y s u b j e c t i v e i n t e n t i o n , b u t he i n ­
c l u d e s a number o f o b j e c t i v e d e t a i l s ,
such as th e W estm inster
chim es, t h e cry of a la v e n d e r s e l l e r ,
the jin g le
o f b e l l s on
a hansom c a b , and t h e s u g g e s t i o n o f a mouth o r g a n o r c o n c e r ­
tin a.®
S i n c e t h e r e i s no a v a i l a b l e l i t e r a t u r e o f Vaughan
W illiam s f o r p e rs o n a l a n a l y s i s ,
I h ave b e e n o b l i g e d t o t a k e
t h e f o l l o w i n g a n a l y z a t i o n s from Tovey *s v o l u m e s on m u s i c a l
analysis
O v e r t u r e t o "The W asps”
The p l a y s o f A r i s t o p h a n e s g i v e t h e com p o ser a b u n d a n t
o o o o r t u n i t i e s f o r m u s i c ; and Vaughan W i l l i a m s h a s made b r i l ­
l i a n t u s e o f t h o s e a f f o r d e d by The Wasns.
B esides the c h o ru s e s ,
w h i c h a r e r e s t r i c t e d an d i n s p i r e d by t h e e l a b o r a t e p r e c i s i o n
o f Greek m e t r i c a l f o r m s , t h e r e i s m a t e r i a l i n t h e i n c i d e n t a l
m u s ic f o r a n e f f e c t i v e o r c h e s t r a l s u i t e .
Of t h i s , t h e o v e r ­
t u r e , t o be p e r f o r m e d on t h e p r e s e n t o c c a s i o n , i s t h e l a r g e s t
7 ’’Vaughan W i l l i a m s , ” G r o v e ' s D i c t i o n a r y .
3rd e d i t i o n ,
V, p . 4 5 9 ® I b i d ., p. 4 6 l .
9 Donald F r a n c i s T o v e y , "Vaughan W i l l i a m s , " E s s a y s i n
IV, p p . 1 6 4 - 5 .
M u s i c a l A n a l y s i s , I I , p p . 1 2 9 - 3 3 and 2 0 5 - 8 :
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
19
and most d e v e l o p e d movement.
The A t h e n i a n s , a c c o r d i n g t o
t h e p l a y , w e re g o i n g t h r o u g h a p h a s e o f l i t i g i o u s m a n i a , f o r
w h i c h t h e demagogue C l e o n was l a r g e l y t o b l a m e .
L aw -suits
h a v e b e r e f t p o o r o l d P h i l o c l e o n o f w h a t e v e r w i t s he once h a d ,
and he makes h i s e n t r y up t h r o u g h t h e c h im n e y , e x p l a i n i n g
t h a t he i s t h e smoke.
H is s o n B d e l y c l e o n c a n k e e p him q u i e t
o n l y by o c c u p y i n g him w i t h t h e t r i a l
of a d o g , w ith c o u n s e l
f o r p r o s e c u t i o n a n d d e f e n c e , a p a t h e t i c e x h i b i t i o n of t h e w a i l ­
i n g a b o u t - t o - b e d i s p o s s e s s e d or o r p h a n e d p u p p i e s , e t c . ,
com plete.
a ll
The c h o r u s , a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e A t h e n i a n t e m p e r ,
i s a c h o ru s of w asps.
The f i r s t
o c c u r r i n g theme i s a rowdy c o u p l e of d a n c e -
m e a s u r e s , w i t h a t e n d e n c y t o combine i n p r i m i t i v e c o u n t e r ­
point .
E x . 20
E x . 21
k
BE
(XU
T
L a s t l y , a g e n t l e , b r o a d m elody f i r s t
s t a t e d by i t s e l f i n E
f l a t a n d , i n t h e f i n a l s t a g e o f t h e movement, combined a s
fo llo w s w ith Ex.
20.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
20
E x . 22
! JJ * *
m
C o n c e r t o A c c a d e m i c o , i n D m i n o r , f o r V i o l i n and S t r i n g O r c h e s t r a
The " C o n c e r t o A c ca d em ico " b e g i n s w i t h a s p i r i t e d r i t o r n e l l o theme
E x . 23
i n which th e s o l o v i o l i n p l a y s w ith t h e o r c h e s t r a , em erging
i n a h i g h f i f t h h e r e and t h e r e .
Soon t h e s o l o makes i t s
o f f i c i a l e n t r y w i t h a new theme d e r i v e d by d i m i n u t i o n from
the fo u rth bar
E x . 24
------------
( a ) o f t h e main t h e m e .
1
g » L :y = y
A f t e r a s h o r t c a d e n z a Ex. 23 i s r e s u m e d .
W ith s u d d e n c h an g e
o f k e y a new th em e e n t e r s , a l s o d e r i v e d from (a)
E x . 25
- i f c : -L±. J.
y ip
j
\
r il n
and l e n d i n g i t s e l f t o d e c o r a t i o n by t h e f i g u r e o f E x. 23*
An i n c i d e n t i n c r o s s - r h y t h m a d d s a n o t e of r o m a n t i c m y s t e r y
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
21
to the Bach-like,
imperturbable amble of the whole.
E x . 2i
i
2
Then t h e f i g u r e s o f E x .
23 an d 24w a r e d e v e l o p e d one a f t e r a n ­
o t h e r and com bined i n new s e q u e n c e s ,
o v e r w h i c h a new them e
e m e r g e s a s a c o u n t e r p o i n t i n one p a r t a f t e r a n o t h e r .
E x . 27
1 y.
_
- 7*------- 1*
..
--- r 35 '
-T
T his development le a d s t o a r e c a p i t u l a t i o n of th e p re v io u s
themes in th e t o n i c ,
f o l l o w e d by a c o d a i n w h i c h Ex. 26
plays
its part.
The slo w movement i s a n o t h e r B a c h - l i k e scheme, i n w h ich
a solo v io lo n c e llo jo in s w ith the solo v i o l i n .
The m ain
t h e m e , i n a D o r i a n G- m in o r
E x . 28
*
a l t e r n a t e s w i t h a "S oft Lydian Air"
E x . 29
1 ^.H '7 j,.
T
r
,
.pj-r u
UjJi \■
..........
V Lj" f
w h i c h e v e n t u a l l y m o d u l a t e s w i d e l y i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h E x . 27 >
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
22
and f i n a l l y s e t t l e s i n t h e o r i g i n a l D o r i a n mode.
The f i n a l e i s a J i g ,
features
o f w h ic h t h e main th em e b o r r o w s
from a them e i n t h e o p e r a Hugh t h e D r o v e r .
E x. 30
p — r~3 :
------------
£
?67 r — j
7E 7
■r
P^
A n o t h e r t u n e i n t r i p l e t i m e co m b in es w i t h t h i s d u p l e j i g m easure.
E x. 31
4 4 -
j
i - t
/
-J— i - 4 4 -
i
T~ U1*
1—
U
t p "
----
In a kind of leolian-Mix olydian do minant key a new j i g-theme
forms t h e s e c o n d e l e m e n t i n a t e r s e b i n a r y scheme
E x . 32
p - f1 f 1f P
ia=fa.i-V : " 1 " F ' - t II '
f r ^ ,r J
fr
F
Above i t a c o u n t e r p o i n t i s a d d e d .
E x . 33
ip }
* 1^
&
g*
X
I
The e x p o s i t i o n i s r e p e a t e d from t h e b e g i n n i n g .
The d e v e l o p m e n t s e c t i o n a d d s a new c o u n t e r p o i n t
E x . 34
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
23
which i s a f t e r w a r d s u sed t o weld t h e r e c a p i t u l a t i o n t o t h e
c o d a , i n which t h r e e themes are combined (Ex. 3 1 , 3 3 , J>h);
t h e Dorian mode g i v i n g p l a c e t o D major, i n -which key t h e
c o n c e r t o comes t o th e q u i e t e s t and most p o e t i c a l l y f a n t a s ­
t i c and c o n v i n c i n g end i m a g i n a b l e .
P a s t o r a l Symphony
In Vaughan W i l l i a m s ’ P a s t o r a l Symphony t h e l i s t e n e r
c a nnot m i s s t h e s e n s e o f power behind a l l t h i s m a s s iv e q u i e t ­
n e s s ; i t i s a s m a n i f e s t i n t h e m usic a s i n a b r i g h t sky w i t h
tow ering, s u n l i t ,
cumulus c l o u d s — and as l i t t l e
r o u s e us t o a c t i o n .
lik e ly to
A c ro s s t h i s l a n d s c a p e o f s a t u r a t e d c o l -
l o r s t h e r e f l o a t t h e sou nd s o f m e l o d i e s o l d e r th a n any f o l k ­
song.
These m e l o d i e s a r e harmonized on t h e p l a n f i r s t r e ­
duced t o formula by Debu ssy:
wh ateve r chord t h e melody b e ­
g i n s w i t h i s t r e a t e d a s a mere s e n s a t i o n , and t h e chord f o l ­
lo ws t h e melody up and down t h e s c a l e , i n s t e a d o f d i s s o l v i n g
i n t o threads o f independent m elodic l i n e .
But Vaughan W i ll i a m s
adds t o t h i s p r i n c i p l e a n o t h e r , which i s t h a t two or e v e n t h r e e
m e l o d i c t h r e a d s may run s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , each loaded w i t h i t s
own chord, u t t e r l y r e g a r d l e s s of hos t h e i r c h o r d s c o l l i d e .
The c o l l i s i o n s w i l l n o t o f f e n d t h e n a i v e l i s t e n e r i f t h e y o c­
cur only b e tw e en sounds on p l a n e s o f to ne s o d i f f e r e n t t h a t
t h e y do n o t b l e n d .
As a p p l i e d t o c l a s s i c a l c o u n t e r p o i n t t h i s
p r i n c i p l e i s a s o ld a s Bach; but t h e s y s t e m a t i c a p p l i c a t i o n
o f i t t o t h e a n t i c o n t r a p u n t a l method o f Debussy i s new.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
24
B i - p l a n a r or t r i - p l a n a r harmony i s what t h e t h e o r i s t s c a l l
It;
and i t I s b o t h more s c h e m a t i c and more f r e e i n t h i s work
t h a n i n most o f t h e e x a m p le s t h a t h ave b e e n d i s c u s s e d and
q u o t e d by a u t h o r i t i e s i n t h e p a s t t w e n t y y e a r s .
E a r l i e r ex­
a m p l e s have g e n e r a l l y had one o f t h e p a r t s s t a n d i n g c o m p a r­
a tiv ely s t i l l ,
l i k e a n o r n a m e n te d o r g a n - p o i n t ; b u t s u c h a
p a ssa g e as Ex.
37 shows r i g i d c h o r d s moving q u i t e
fre e ly in
t h r e e p l a n e s of ha rm o n y .
The symphony b e g i n s w i t h a s o f t , w a v i n g f i g u r e b e lo w
w h i c h a theme a p p e a r s i n t h e b a s s .
E x . 35
-------- 4-4 71-- 1----~
* 1
---7- ■% ~ ---------
*Pf=
Ul l
The h a r p s u p p l i e s a f u l l c h o rd t o e a c h n o t e .
A
i m i t a t e d by an o b o e , a n s w e r s w i t h a n o t h e r f i g u r e .
Ex.
36^
✓
r-^-nrrr mr (~7
$
^ 1
H
^
L k l ( 4 L J J l N " p f a f
The f i r s t them e i s t h e n g i v e n a n i m i t a t i o n b e t w e e n t r e b l e
and b a s s .
E x . 37
_
,
f . p
m
........i
w■f-tfj:
r>
T h e r e f o l l o w s a n exam ple o f " t r i - p l a n a r " h a rm o n y .
\
t
?
f
>
f ------l - 1t—4J
t —
= 1
1 1
t
1 —
t
4J - J= p—= j
P P
■t
—
f
1
1
f
1
f
s t =4 = .
f
-------
f
H
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
25
O t h e r t h e m e s , some l e s s s e r e n e ,
fo llo w ; of which i t w i l l s u f ­
f i c e t o q u o t e t w o ; t h e one a m y s t e r i o u s p a i r o f c h o r d s , t o
which a c o r a n g l a i s adds a p l a i n t i v e q u e s t i o n
Ex. 33
E
.
r
v * T '
and t h e o t h e r a s a l i e n t ex am p le o f t h e p e n t a t o n l c m e l o d i e s
w i t h w h ic h t h e whole symphony a b o u n d s .
T h e s e and s i m i l a r m a t e r i a l s a r e wor ke d up q u i e t l y a nd com­
b i n e d , coming a t l a s t t o a c l i m a x from w h i c h t h e movement
d e s c e n d s t o a p i a n i s s i m o end on t h e f i r s t n o t e s o f E x . 3 5 .
The s e c o n d movement i s b u i l t from tw o p e n t a t o n i c m e l o ­
d ies
E x . 40
a nd
E x . 41
i t n l
T -r*- '
V
'
( ’ Ij
-0-
± ~ 7~
) . n
b o t h of w hich s ta n d out a g a i n s t t h e d a rk background of a
chord of F m in o r.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
26
L a t e r on a t r u m p e t i s h e a r d , p l a y i n g i n t h e n a t u r a l
h a r m o n i c s e r i e s of E f l a t .
T h i s n a t u r a l s e r i e s , w h ic h i s
t h a t o f t h e o v e r t o n e s o f a p i p e , e x t e n d s of c o u r s e ad i n f i n i ­
tum , but b e fo re i t has reached i t s t e n t h n o te i t has a lr e a d y
i n c l u d e d one n o t e w h ic h h a s n e v e r b e e n a b s o r b e d i n t h e c l a s ­
s i c a l s y s t e m o f h a rm o n y .
I n t h e s c h e r z o a r u s t i c human e l e m e n t seems p r e s e n t ,
r a t h e r a t work t h a n a t p l a y .
E x . 42
1 y 43 \?
— I t^ n H 1 r —
T h i s a l t e r n a t e s w i t h a n o t h e r them e i n l i v e l i e r t i m e .
E x . 43
T
: 'J 4 n
4
V -W
ir ,
if
A w arbling fig u re ,
g i v e n o u t by t h e f l u t e ,
f o l l o w s and com­
bines w ith th e s e .
L a t e r a s p i r i t e d tu n e i n a M ixolydian
s c a l e d a n c e s i t s way i n t h e b r a s s and t h e f u l l o r c h e s t r a ,
c o n s t i t u t i n g the t r i o
of t h e s c h e r z o .
Ex. 44
f t
$
=
^
=
e
»
—
i
j =
J
I - *
1—
t —
1
t —
1
1
i ,
h
r
i
> i
1
- h
—
V
r
4
I
-
i
T
^
-
f =
*
The s c h e r z o r e t u r n s , r e s c o r e d ; and l i k e w i s e ,
t h e theme of t h e t r i o .
-
f o r a few l i n e s ,
The movement u n e x p e c t e d l y s u b s i d e s i n
a m y s te r io u s fugue
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
27
E x . 45
i
w h ic h e x p l a i n s i t s e l f by c o m b i n i n g f i r s t w i t h a v a r i a n t
of
the
44.
( u n q u o t e d ) w a r b l i n g t h e m e , and t h e n w i t h i t and Ex.
The f i n a l e
i s a s l o w movement.
I t b e g in s w ith a deep
s o f t r o l l o f t h e drum, o v e r w h i c h e d i s t a n t c l a r i n e t s i n g s a
w o rd less rhapsody i n a p e n ta to n ic s c a l e .
T h en , a f t e r some i n t r o d u c t o r y b a r s , t h e f o l l o w i n g t u n e
i s announced.
E x . 46
R X U ..P I t
An a g i t a t e d u t t e r a n c e o f t h e c o r a n g l a i s , t a k e n up by t h e s o ­
lo v i o li n ,
g i v e s r i s e e v e n t u a l l y t o one of t h e s e r e n e s t p a s ­
s a g e s i n t h e w h o l e work.
Ex. 47
The s o l o v i o l i n i n t e r v e n e s p a s s i o n a t e l y , and l e a d s t o a c l i ­
max i n w h i c h a l l t h e s t r i n g s d e c l a i m t h e v o c a l o p e n i n g .
They
d i e away i n t o a f i g u r e o f a cc o m p a n im e n t belo w w h ic h Ex. 47
r e tu rn s in a l l i t s solem nity.
The symphony en d s w i t h t h e
d i s t a n t c l a r i n e t no l o n g e r o v e r a d r u m - r o l l , b u t u n d e r a
su sta in ed , high n o te.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CHAPTER I I I
MODERN GERM&.N COMPOSERS
P a u l H i n d e m i t h , v i o l a - p l a y e r and c o m p o s e r , was b o r n
i n 1895*
I t i s a s a c o m po s er, h o w e v e r , t h a t h i s fame h a s
become w i d e s p r e a d , e s p e c i a l l y
trie s,
i n th e G erm an-speaking coun­
w h e re he i s r e g a r d e d a s t h e most p r o m i n e n t o f t h e
younger m oderns.
"An u n u s u a l l y v a r i e d e x p e r i e n c e a s an e x ­
e c u t a n t on s e v e r a l i n s t r u m e n t s h a s e q u i p p e d him w i t h a n e x ­
c ep tio n al f a c ili ty
for h is y ears.
i n w r i t i n g , and h i s o u t p u t i s r e m a r k a b l e
T h i s f a c u l t y i s n o t -without a c e r t a i n d a n g e r ,
bu t Hindem ith, w h ile e x e r c i s i n g i t t o th e f u l l ,
c l e a r s t a n d a r d o f v a l u e s , and t h e r e i s l i t t l e
retain s a
in h is lengthy
opus l i s t t h a t d o e s n o t r e p r e s e n t a p r o g r e s s i v e s t a g e i n h i s
developm ent.
At f i r s t he i s e c l e c t i c ,
do t o a v a r i e t y
subm itting as stu d en ts
of a n o t a l w a y s r e c o n c i l a b l e i n f l u e n c e s .
Then he e n g a g e s i n a d v e n t u r e s among modern t e c h n i c a l
n o v atio n s.'
'in ­
P r e s e n t l y i t becomes c l e a r t h a t h i s n a t u r a l
t r e n d i s c o n t r a p u n t a l , and i n p u r s u i t o f ' l i n e a r ' m e th o d s he
g r a d u a l ly abandons t o n a l p r i n c i p l e s of c o n s t r u c t i o n in f a ­
v o u r of a t o n a l i t y , a t f i r s t t a c i t ,
and t h e n avowed.
But t h e
c o n t r a p u n t a l a p p e t i t e i s n o t t h e r e b y s a t i s f i e d , and b e f o r e
l o n g he i s
f o u n d , l i k e s o many c o m p o s e r s o f h i s g e n e r a t i o n ,
c a r r i e d a l o n g by a c u r r e n t w h i c h h a s s e t d e f i n i t e l y t o w a r d s
neo-classicism .
T his
' b a c k t o B ach ' t e n d e n c y i s c l e a r l y
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
29
evident in h is
1Kammermusik' No. 2 ( o p . 3 6 ) , w h i c h i s a c o n ­
c e r t o f o r p ian o w i t h tw elve s o lo in s tr u m e n ts
. . .
" A p a r t from i t s t e c h n i c a l d e x t e r i t y and e v o l u t i o n a r y
in te rest,
H i n d e m i t h ’ s s t y l e i s r e m a r k a b l e f o r a b o u ya n cy t h a t
i s n o t common w i t h h i s c o m p a t r i o t s , and a t t i m e s e v e n f o r a
pronounced sense of fu n .
The l a t t e r ,
however, i s n o t in d u lg e d
i n t h o s e works on w h ic h h i s r e p u t a t i o n c h i e f l y r e s t s . " !
V i o l o n c e l l o S o l o , On. 2fj, No. 2
I n t h e V i o l o n c e l l o S o l o t h e r e i s an o p p o r t u n i t y t o
study H indem ith’s w r itin g f o r s t r i n g s .
T h i s u n a c c o m p a n ie d
c o n c e r t o demands a t e c h n i q u e w h i c h a p o o r a r t i s t
l i v e up t o .
could not
Even t h o u g h t h e r e i s no a c c o m p a n y in g i n s t r u m e n t
t o k e e p t h e r h y th m or g i v e o u t a s u b t l e b a c k g r o u n d , H i n d e m i t h
keeps t h i s c o n c e rto u n iq u ely rhythm ic i n c e r t a i n s e c t i o n s .
One n e v e r l o s e s s i g h t o f t h e b e a t t h r o u g h o u t .
A c r a s h i n g c h o rd b e g i n s t h e f i r s t s e c t i o n and a f t e r a
few b a r s o f w h at seems t o be i n t r o d u c t o r y m a t e r i a l , a r h y t h ­
mic f i g u r e a p p e a r s .
E x . 48
The s e c o n d m a i n d i v i s i o n i n c o r p o r a t e s a theme w h i c h s o u n d s
a s t h o u g h i t were d e r i v e d from some o l d German d a n c e w i t h
! Edwin E v a n s ,
e d itio n , I I , p. 636.
" H i n d e m i t h , " Grove *s D i c t i o n a r y .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
3 rd
30
th e e x c e p tio n of the co m p lete ly u n expected s k i p of a major
seventh.
E x . 49
i
j
T T u
t n / i
1
H i n d e m i t h s t a t e s and r e s t a t e s t h i s theme i n a s u c c e s s i o n o f
k e y s and f i n a l l y i n v e r t s t h e e n t i r e
figure.
A c h r o m a t i c a s c e n d i n g p a s s a g e f i n a l l y comes t o a c l i ­
max and a new th em e
E x . ^0
M
- 1 -
m
V
—
ls stated .
U
.
— i ff
-----------------------------------------------
T h i s theme i s a l t e r n a t e d ,
f i r s t appearing as
s t a t e d , t h e n an octave h i g h e r , w ith a w andering stre am of
notes.
The s o l o f i n a l l y comes t o a s i m p l e c l o s e .
There i s th r o u g h o u t t h e e n t i r e s e l e c t i o n a use of
s t r a n g e harmonic s t r u c t u r e as
Ex.
51
r
<v.
3 - -----------------
- - - - - &- - - - - - —V a' ' - - :
—- i s - - - - - :
.........
1 _ E L :
t£
E =
and a tendency to w a r d t h e
u s e o f s e c o n d s , b o t h m a j o r and
m inor.
Since no s c o r e i s a v a i l a b l e
f o r t h i s nu m b er, f u r t h e r
an aly sis is im p ractical.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
31
Chamber Music N o . 1 , f o r S m a ll O r c h e s t r a , Op. 2 4, No. 1_
1
q u i c k and w i l d . 2 M o d e r a t e l y q u i c k minims i n
very s t r i c t tim e.
3 Q u a r t e t : v e r y slow and w i t h e x ­
p r e s s i o n . 4 F i n a l e . 1921:
extrem ely l i v e l y .
Mr. T o v e y ' s r a t h e r a m u s i n g d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h i s s e lectio n is
g iv e n i n red u c ed form.
p
The w ork r e q u i r e s e l e v e n p l a y e r s ,
one o f whom, t h e
p e r s o n i n ch arg e of t h e S c h lag z eu g or p e r c u s s i o n , i s t o
" se rv e ” nine in stru m e n ts.
The o t h e r i n s t r u m e n t s a r e :
a
f l u t e , who s o m e tim e s t u r n s i n t o a p i c c o l o , a c l a r i n e t , a
b a s s o o n , a t r u m p e t, two v i o l i n s , a v i o l a , a ' c e l l o , d o u b le b a s s , p i a n o f o r t e , and h a rm o n iu m .
The " s e r v a n t " o f n i n e h a s
t o d e a l w i t h a x y l o p h o n e , a s i d e - d r u m , a H o l z tr o m m e l ( a C h i n e s e
bloek-drum ;
o r t h e h e a d o f a p r o f e s s o r ) , a s m a l l p a i r o f cym­
b a l s , a tam bourine, a t r i a n g l e , a t i n c a n i s t e r f u l l of sand,
a s i r e n , and one n o t e of a g l o c k e n s p i e l .
The l i s t e n e r m u st n o t e x p e c t t o o much h e l p from an
analysis.
The f i r s t movement i s a s h o r t o n e , a l t e r n a t i n g
betw een a s h r i l l b i c k e r i n g m otive i n a t r e b l e r e g i o n around
F s h a r p , a nd d e e p e r p e n t a t o n i c
o b j u r g a t i o n s a r o u n d and a b o u t
C on t h e f o u r t h s t r i n g o f t h e v i o l i n s .
I t ends w ith a u n i ­
v e r s a l g l i s s a n d o and a bump, and s e r v e s a s a s h o r t i n t r o ­
d u c t i o n t o t h e s e c o n d movement, w h i c h i s a k i n d o f m arch
w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g m ain t h e m e :
'
2 D on ald F r a n c i s T o v ey , " P a u l H i n d e m i t h , " E s s a y s i n
Mu s i c a l A n a l y s i s . IV, p p . 1 7 4 - 6 .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
T h i s q u o t a t i o n w i l l s u f f i c e f o r t h e w h o le movement, w h i c h ,
though n o t lo n g , c h e e r f u l l y marches th ro u g h a c o n s i d e r a b le
range of p ic tu r e s q u e m usical sc en e ry , w hile s t i c k i n g c lo s e l y
t o i t s them e.
The t h i r d movement i s a q u a r t e t f o r f l u t e ,
b a s s o o n , and one n o t e o f a g l o c k e n s p i e l .
c larin et,
H indem ith allo w s
h i s q u a r t e t t o be n o t o n l y " s e h r l a n g s a m " b u t " m it A u s d r u c k , 11
and e v e n p r e s c r i b e s ” s e h r z a r t M ( v e r y t e n d e r ) f o r t h e d e ­
l i v e r y o f h i s m ain t h e m e :
E x. 53
The F i n a l e b e g i n s w i t h e x c i t i n g and m y s t e r i o u s crowd n o i s e s over a p i a n o f o r t e b a s s which g r a d u a l l y a c c u m u la te s
broken rhythms i n t o a p a t t e r n .
The f o l l o w i n g t h e m e s e m e r g e :
E x . 54
ittr 'ff fo r ? r
_____
4
pB
^ , < 7 11 f t -
Reproduced with permission o f the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
33
E x. 55
and a r e p i l e d up by c u m u l a t i v e s e q u e n c e i n a c r e s c e n d o .
W ith v a r i o u s u p s and downs t h e whole movement i s ,
in fa c t,
a c r e s c e n d o , w h i c h , p u n c t u a t e d by t h e f o l l o w i n g r h y t h m i c
f i g ure
E x . 56
j w D
v_ r n
j j d
jf5 >
c u l m i n a t e s i n t h e e n t r y o f t h e t r u m p e t w i t h a f o x - t r o t by
Wilm Wilm.
H e r r Wilm Wilm p r o b a b l y n e v e r i m a g i n e d h i s f o x ­
t r o t i n G- a c c o m p a n ie d by m a j o r s c a l e s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y on a l l
t h e o t h e r e l e v e n keys o f t h e o c t a v e .
The ^ i n a l e e n d s w i t h a s t r e t t o i n q u i c k e r t i m e ,
in
w h i c h t h e f o x - t r o t looms up from t h e b a s s u n t i l i t r e a c h e s
the t r e b l e .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
A r n o ld S c h o e n b e r g was b o r n i n V i e n n a i n 1874 b u t du e
t o p o l i t i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t s , he i s now l i v i n g i n t h e U n i t e d
S tates.
He b e g a n h i s m u s i c a l c a r e e r a s a R o m a n t i c i s t o f t h e
W agnerian s t y l e .
D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d he w r o t e many s o n g s
w h i c h h ave become o u t s t a n d i n g .
I n 1906 he t o o k h i s f i r s t
s t e p t o w a r d s m o dernism a n d b y 1909 a l l t r a d i t i o n a l l a w s were
gone .
Schoenberg, as a p o s t - i m p r e s s i o n i s t , a b o lis h e s a l l
key s i g n a t u r e s t o g e t away from a f e e l i n g o f t o n a l c e n t e r ,
b u t i t i s n o t i m p o s s ib le t o f in d examples of h i s use of a
key s i g n a t u r e .
T h i s l a c k o f s i g n a t u r e h a p p e n s m a i n l y when
he i s a s t o n i s h i n g t h e w o r l d w i t h h i s t w e l v e - t o n e s c a l e s y s ­
tem .
E x . 57 i s a n i n s t a n c e w h e r e i n he d e c i d e s on t h e u s e of
o n e , Ex. 58 a n d 59 b e i n g i l l u s t r a t i o n s
of t h e employm ent o f
a c c i d e n t a l s i n s t e a d of t h e o l d k e y s i g n a t u r e .
E x . 57
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Some e x a m p l e s o f h i s u s e o f t h e d o d e c u p l e s c a l e i n
p i a n o f o r t e m u s i c , w h i c h , i n c i d e n t a l l y , c a n n o t be e n t i r e l y
a p p r e c i a t e d u n l e s s one i s t h o r o u g h l y a c c u s t o m e d t o p u r e d i s ­
s o n a n c e , a r e t h e f o l l o w i n g , and s u c h e n d i n g s a s t h e s e a r e
used:
E x . 60
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
36
I t has been said
t h a t nt h e s o - c a l l e d c h r o m a t i c s c a l e
i s n o t a mode, t h e c h r o m a t i c n o t e s b e i n g o n l y m o d i f i c a t i o n s
of d ia to n ic n o te s .
The "new s e m i t o n a l , " o r " d o d e c u p l e "
s c a le , th r u s ts t h i s idea asid e a lto g e th e r .
The f o l l o w e r s of
t h e o ld e r system e x e r c i s e c o n s id e r a b le c are w ith t h e i r n o t a ­
t i o n , w h e r e a s a d o d e c u p l e s c a l e c o m po s er m i g h t p r e f e r t o w r i t e
t h e f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e , a s a t B:
E x . 62
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The th em e (Ex. 6 3 a ) use d i n t h e f i r s t
1
of t h e F i v e L i t t l e
O rchestra P ie c e s, i s a sso c ia te d w ith a popular c h il d r e n 's
i n vo g ue t h r o u g h o u t t h e R u s s i a n S t a t e s .
ity ,
the p e d a l- f ig u r e in the f i r s t
game
But f o r s h e e r m od ern ­
o f t h e S c h o e n b e r g e x a m p le
stands u n riv a lle d .
63a.
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E x . 63 b
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A. E a g l e f i e l d H u l l , Modern Harmony.
L t d . , p. 150.
L ondon:
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Augener
37
An o u t l i n e
i n E i s given,
of S c h o e n b e r g ' s i n t e r e s t i n g K a m m e r - S i n f o n ie
f o r , even w ith a l l i t s m o d ern ity , i t
t h e o ld e r " s o n a ta " form.
follow s
A f te r a s h o r t i n t r o d u c t i o n of vague
t o n a l i t y , we h a v e t h e f i r s t
s u b je c t given o u t .
The f o l l o w i n g
e x t r a c t s s u p p l y some i n t e r e s t i n g , d o d e c u p l e s c a l e - w r i t i n g ,
w h ile t h e accompanying a r p e g g i o t o t h e e e r i e second s u b j e c t
shows what t r o u b l e t h e modern c o m p o s e r w i l l t a b e t o s e c u r e
to n e-co lo r.
N o t i c e i n E x . 65 t h e p e r f e c t f o u r t h p r o g r e s s i o n
in the s trin g s .
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38
E x. 66
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The n e x t two p a s s a g e s a r e u n t h i i f - b l e on t h e p i a n o ­
f o r t e b u t w i l l show how S c h o e n b e r g w i l l g e t t o n e c o l o r i n
his
o r c h e s t r a l works.
Ex. 67
IP f
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39
S c h o e n b e r g makes u s e o f c h o r d s c o n s t r u c t e d on t h e p e r ­
fe c t fourth p a tte rn :
E x . 69
I t seems t h a t S c h o e n b e r g d o e s e v e r y t h i n g i n p a t t e r n .
I n t h e n e x t p a s s a g e from h i s s e c o n d S t r i n g Q u a r t e t , n o t i c e
how a l l p a r t s move i n p a t t e r n .
fo u rth , then t h i r d , e t c .
The b a s s moves f i r s t i n a
To l o o k a t t h i s m u s ic seems v e r y
i n t e r e s t i n g , b u t perhaps i t
i s t o o m a th e m a tic a l and c o n s t r u c t ­
ed t o o much by p a t t e r n .
E x . 70
-u . fry-
11 vi L r,j|
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In *
*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
40
R i c h a r d S t r a u s s , e m i n e n t c om poser and c o n d u c t o r , was
b o rn in 1864.
He came from a m u s i c a l f a m i l y — t h a t i s , h i s
f a t h e r was t h e l e a d i n g h o r n p l a y e r i n t h e Munich O p e r a Or­
chestra .
He was i n f l u e n c e d by Wagner and L i s z t , e s p e c i a l l y t h e
f o r m e r from t h e b e g i n n i n g o f h i s l i f e .
His f a t h e r i s a c ­
c r e d i t e d w i t h h a v i n g b e e n r e q u e s t e d by Wagner h i m s e l f t o r e ­
d u c e t h e famous h o r n - c a l l i n " S i e g f r i e d " t o i t s p r e s e n t p l a y ­
a b l e s t a t e , and R i c h a r d was p r o b a b l y n e v e r a l l o w e d t o f o r g e t
it.
A f t e r a n a v e r a g e e d u c a t i o n , Von Biilow o b t a i n e d f o r
S t r a u s s a p o s i t i o n a s A s s i s t a n t Music D i r e c t o r a t M e i n i n g e n .
Here he met A l e x a n d e r R i t t e r , a n a r d e n t a d h e r e n t o f Wagner
h
and L i s z t .
S t r a u s s says of R i t t e r :
H is i n f l u e n c e was i n t h e n a t u r e o f a s t o r m w i n d .
He
u r g e d me on t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e p o e t i c , t h e e x ­
p r e s s i v e i n m u s i c , a s e x e m p l i f i e d i n t h e works o f L i s z t ,
Wagner, and B e r l i o z . My sym phonic f a n t a s i a "Aus I t a l i e n , " i s t h e c o n n e c t i n g l i n k b e t w e e n t h e o l d and t h e
new m e t h o d s .
At t h e t i m e when S t r a u s s f i r s t came u n d e r t h e i n f l u ­
e n c e o f A l e x a n d e r R i t t e r and p r o f e s s e d h i m s e l f a " m u s i c i a n
o f e x p r e s s i o n , " t h e w o r l d had h a r d l y be g un t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e
tru e
f u n c t i o n s and s c o p e o f programme m u s i c , and many w i l d
e x p e r i m e n t s w ere b e i n g made.
The f i r s t of S t r a u s s ' r e a l l y
modern works was " M a c b e t h , " i n w h i c h ,
h o w e v e r , he d i d n o t
c a r r y t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e sym ohonic poem be y on d t h e p o i n t
^ A. H a l i s c h , E s q . ,
3 r d e d i t i o n , V, p . 16 1 .
" S t r a u s s , " G-rove *s D i c t i o n a r y .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
41
w h e r e L i s z t ha d s t o p p e d .
He had r e a l i z e d t h e t r u t h o f what
Wagner s a i d i n w r i t i n g o f L i s z t ' s w o r k s , t h a t , u n d e r t h e
g u ise of d e s c r i b i n g th e i n d iv i d u a l, they r e a l l y helped t o
in te r p r e t the u n iv e rs a l.
E ac h s u c c e s s i v e symph onic poem of
S tr a u s s c a r r i e d th e e f f o r t t o e n la rg e the d e s c r i p t i v e
scope
o f m u s ic beyond t h e d e p i c t i n g o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y e m o t i o n s .
I t was n o t e n o u g h f o r him t o a s s o c i a t e w i t h "Don J u a n " one
o r two th em es e x p r e s s i v e o f v i o l e n c e and r e s t l e s s n e s s .
He
a t t e m p t e d t o d e p i c t t h e v a r i o u s p h a s e s of Don J u a n ' s m e n t a l
d e v e l o p m e n t .5
I t w o uld a l m o s t a p p e a r t h a t a t t h i s p e r i o d , p e r h a p s
u n c o n s c i o u s l y , t h a t a f e e l i n g grew on him t h a t t h e symphon­
i c poem, w h ic h i n i t s b e g i n n i n g s i n t h e hand s o f L i s z t had
b e e n a p r o t e s t a g a i n s t t h e f o r m a l i s m i n t o w h i c h t h e symphony
was d e g e n e r a t i n g , was i n i t s
its
own.
turn c re atin g r ig id ru le s
A very la rg e percentage
th e y a tte m p te d m erely t o t e l l
of
of sym ph onic poems, w h e t h e r
s t o r i e s i n m u s ic — an e r r o r which
S t r a u s s h a s n e v e r c o m m i t t e d — or n o t , b e g a n t o conform t o an
unvarying p a tte r n ,
of w h i c h t h e c h i e f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c was t h a t
t h e c o m p o s i t i o n must end w i t h a c o d a b a s e d on a g l o r i f i c a t i o n
o f t h e m e s of t h e c h i e f c h a r a c t e r .
self
from t h e s e r u l e s , u n t i l ,
S t r a u s s t r i e d t o f r e e him­
in "T il E u le n sp ie g e l," the
h i g h e s t s p l e n d o u r of t h e t h e m e s o f " T i l " i s t h e c e n t r a l ,
not the f i n a l ,
f e a t u r e o f t h e w o rk, and a t t h e e nd t h e r e i s
5' I b i d . , p . 1 6 3 .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
42
a r e t u r n t o t h e s i m p l i c i t y w ith which t h e c o m p o s itio n beg an —
zr
t h a t i s t h e j u s t i f i c a t i o n of i t s r o n d o form .
The v a r i a t i o n form of ’’Don Q u i x o t e " i s ,
re a s o n s , e q u a lly a p p ro p ria te t o the su b je c t,
fo r analogous
f o r t h e m a in
o b j e c t o f t h e w h o l e work i s t o show t h e m o d i f i c a t i o n s which
t h e k n i g h t ' s mind and t e m p e r a m e n t u n d e r g o t i l l he r e t u r n s
t o s a n i t y and r i s e s t o a h i g h e r s p i r i t u a l i t y .
In evitably,
in h is e f f o r t s t o en large th e ex p ressiv e
s c o p e o f h i s m u s i c , S t r a u s s wandered i n t o f i e l d s h i t h e r t o
deemed i n a c c e s s i b l e t o m u s i c , or a t l e a s t I n a p p r o p r i a t e t o
m u s i c o f h i g h a i m s — t h a t i s t o s a y , t h e r e a l m s o f humor and
sa tire .
T h e r e i s r e a l humor i n a l l t h e s e w o r k s , e x c e p t
"M acbeth," a lth o u g h t h e r e i s ,
and p r o b a b l y w i l l b e f o r a
l o n g t im e t o come, much c o n t r o v e r s y a s t o t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e
hum or.
S t r a u s s r e f u s e s t o r e c o g n i z e t h e d i s t i n c t i o n betw een
a b s t r a c t m u s i c and programme m u s i c ; t h e o n l y two c a t e g o r i e s
he r e c o g n i z e s a r e good m u sic and b ad m u s i c , and he d e f i n e s
good m usi c a s t h a t w h i c h e x p r e s s e s m o s t .
S t r a u s s s a y s o f h i s method of c o m po s in g s o n g s .
some t im e I w i l l h a v e no i m p u l s e t o compose a t a l l .
"For
Then
one e v e n i n g I w i l l be t u r n i n g t h e l e a v e s o f a volume of p o ­
e t r y ; a poem w i l l s t r i k e my e y e .
g r e e s w i t h t h e mood I am i n :
I read i t through; i t a -
an d a t once t h e a p p r o p r i a t e
6 I b i d . , p . 163.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
43
music i s i n s t i n c t i v e l y
f itte d to i t .
I am i n a m u s i c a l frame
o f mind, and a l l I w ant i s t h e r i g h t p o e t i c v e s s e l i n t o w h ic h
t o p o u r my i d e a s .
I f good, l u c k t h r o w s t h i s i n my wa y, a s a t i s ­
f a c t o r y so n g r e s u l t s . "7
His t e x t s a r e m o s t l y t a k e n from mo­
d e r n German p o e t s , w i t h whom he i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s y m p a t h e t i c , and
h i s c h o i c e i s h a p p y , b u t s o m e ti m e s h i s l i t e r a r y
judgement f a i l s
him .
H is o p e r a "S alome" c r e a t e d a g r e a t d e a l o f comment
when i t a p p e a r e d b e f o r e t h e p u b l i c .
".Apart from t h e r e l i g ­
i o u s o b j e c t i o n s t o t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e o p e r a , i t was c r i t i c i z ­
ed when i t
f i r s t a p p e a r e d on t h e gro u n d t h a t i t m i s i n t e r ­
p re te d the archaism of W ild e's s t y l e w ith i t s
cold g l i t t e r ,
b u t t h e r e a l o p p o s i t i o n i s b e t w e e n Wilde and t h e s u b j e c t .
I n "Sa lome" S t r a u s s 1 s h o r t s h a r p th e m e s a r e
f u l l e s t developm ent.
found i n t h e i r
The u s e o f t h e l e i t m o t i v e i s c a r r i e d
t o t h e u t m o s t e x t e n t , and. t h e e x c i t e m e n t i s worked up t o t h e
h i g h e s t p i t c h by t h e a l m o s t p h y s i c a l v i o l e n c e o f t h e u n u s u ­
a lly large o rch e stra.
I t s g r e a t d e f e c t i s t h e a l m o s t inhuman
demand w h i c h S t r a u s s makes on t h e v o i c e , and t h e b r u t a l i t y
o f t h e denoument, w hich, however, i s b r o u g h t ab o u t w ith
lig h tn in g ra p id ity .
The r e a s o n s o f i t s u n d o u b t e d s u c c e s s
a r e t h e gorgeous c o lo r of th e i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n , t h e v i v i d
c o n t r a s t b e t w e e n t h e m u sic o f S a l o m e , H e r o d i a s a nd Herod
” I b i d ., p. 165.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
44
an d t h a t of J o c h a n a a n , w h ic h comes a s a r e l i e f a f t e r t h e
h y s t e r i c a l e x c ite m e n t which p r e c e d e s h i s e n t r i e s .
The Dance
o f t h e Se ven V e i l s and S a l o m e ' s a d d r e s s t o t h e h e a d of J o a c h a n a a n a r e s t i l l t o be h e a r d on t h e c o n c e r t p l a t f o r m . ' ®
In S t r a u s s ' b e a u t i f u l song " A l l e r s e e l e n , " a l y r i c
p i e c e o f s h e e r h a r m o n i c and m e l o d i c b e a u t y , we h a v e a n e x ­
am p le o f c h o r d c o n s t r u c t i o n by m e r e l y a movement i n c o n t r a r y
m o t i o n of t h e o u t s i d e p a r t s .
E x . 71
fp
m
r
-J.
/
I n t h e t o n e - p o e m "Don Q u i x o t e " t h e us'e”'o f s e v e n t h
chords fo r r e a l i s t i c purposes i s e v id e n t.
E x . 72
«v.
r n .H
t
0
i
7 ' *; i n-777 h - , t r t
I n t h e f i n a l c a d e n c e of t h i s t o n e - p o e m one f i n d s a n exam ple
o f c o n s e c u t i v e s e v e n t h s and n i n t h s .
-
8 Ib id .,
-
p . 166.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
E in H eldenleben
" E in H e l d e n l e b e n ” h a s r e a l l y two m ain s u b j e c t s ,
the
h e r o and h i s m a t e , an d t h e r e a l t e x t o f t h e work i s t h e d e ­
v e l o p m e n t o f t h e two c h i e f c h a r a c t e r s .
An ex am p le of S t r a u s s ’ t y p i c a l l y modern c h o r d c o n ­
stru ctio n is
found i n t h e f o l l o w i n g e x t r a c t s .
N otice the
W a g n e r i a n e f f e c t o f t h e f i r s t c h o r d of t h e l a s t exam ple f o l ­
lowed by d i s s o n a n t on t h e r a i s e d
subdom inant.
E x . 74
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
46
E x . 75
m
35 rj 1—
S. __ . £_
ih
£
i
£
>
sss
£
k
i(7r'.r ^■p^ffgn
1
S t r a u s s , l i k e W agner, t o some e x t e n t , h e l d h i s m u sic
t o g e t h e r by t h e u s e o f p e d a l p o i n t .
In th e next i l l u s t r a ­
t i o n i t i s e v id e n t ths-t t h i s h e l d chord i s the only t h i n g
t h a t holds th e o u te r p a r t s t o g e t h e r .
E x. 76
H
* H
. \ ,i
*' > t
"fjb-b
> h 'W k t* ?
3
2
4l
&
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
47
M o d e r n i s t s do n o t r e s o l v e a t t i m e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e
old r u l e s o f o r c h e s t r a t i o n .
For i n s t a n c e n o t i c e t h e f o l l o w ­
i n g r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e D f l a t i n t h e v i o l a r e s o l v e d by t h e
’ c e l l o w h ic h s k i p s a l m o s t two o c t a v e s t o d o t h i s .
E x . 77
I n S t r a u s s ' " E in H e l d e n l e b e n , " a s i n t h e "Tod und
V erklarung"
(E x.
78 ) ,
one s e e s w h at i s d o n e w i t h t h e h o r i ­
z o n t a l m e t h o d s of modern w r i t i n g .
f u l clim axes in th e l a t t e r ,
At one of t h e m o st po w e r ­
th e r e are th r e e d i s t i n c t
stream s,
t h e b r a s s h o l d i n g on c a d e n c e c h o r d s a g a i n s t t h e downward
s c a l e of e i g h t horns i n u n is o n , w h ile th e v i o l i n s t a k e an
upwa rd p r o g r e s s i o n i n n o t e s o f h a l f v a l u e .
C lashes occur a t
a , b , and c , b u t a r e h a r d l y n o t i c e d by t h e i n t e l l i g e n t l i s t e n e r .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
E x. 79
>
>
iSL
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
49
The f o l l o w i n g a r e two e x a m p l e s of melody l i n e i n t h i s
t on e-p oem .
E x . 80
A ------------------ ------------- -- —
>■)
4
l"i
m g
3E
hi ./ f
B E dE 3
JLZ.
t
/
I ■
i=
x W
*
E x . 81
& EE
* , - 7^.
fo tk . g _
■y
) w
* ' ..
..i- .- z
n
—
— | n ij
- d ______1 t-U4
f
\-ra=-~\ m
lo ^ t
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
50
Don J u a n
T h i s t o n e - p o e m i s w r i t t e n i n a r o n d o - l i k e fo rm o f a
free sonata s t y l e .
R u l i n g e v e r y t h i n g a r e t h e two "Don J u a n "
them es.
E x . 82
^
)
YU vl*
E x . 83
K
^ i l E g
i u
|»j[i
v<y\\iy\
t
1
1
a s— 1? !
Hns.
~Z
<"
1
X 1£P
The f i r s t a p p e a r s a f t e r a s h o r t i n t r o d u c t i o n , w h i l e t h e s e ­
cond e n t e r s r i g h t i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e sym phonic s t r u c t u r e .
Then t h e r e a r e t h e t h e m e s of f e m i n i n i t y .
E x . 84
rr
y U
E x . 85
■=*........ _
'
j '
-1
»
—
" i * * / M -1 1 . 1 ) _ t -
r ^
—
li
M
n
4 -----------
P
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
51
These p r i n c i p l e them es, e n ric h e d w i t h s e v e r a l c h a r ­
acteristic
secondary m otives,
for instance,
"an i m p l o r i n g
g la n c e ,"
a re b ro ad ly developed i n th e f i r s t p a r t ,
c o n d and t h i r d .
At t h e t h i r d r e p i t i t i o n t h e y a r e a l l combin­
ed and a f t e r a t r e m e n d o u s c l i m a x ,
trag ic,
rep eated in the s e ­
sound out i n a s h o r t , b u t
coda.
T i l E u l e n s p i e g e l * s M erry P r a n k s
T i l E u l e n s p i e g e l ' s c o n s t a n t l y r e p e a t e d merry p ran k s
c o u l d n o t be p u t i n a more s u i t a b l e m u s i c a l form t h a n t h a t
o f t h e r o n d o w i t h i t s e v e r r e c u r r i n g p r i n c i p l e m o t i v e and a l l
i t s v a r i a t i o n s and a r a b e s q u e s .
At t h e same t i m e t h e r o n d o
form o f t h i s w ork i s new in a s m u c h a s i t no t o nly b r i n g s t h e
m e rry -g o -ro u n d of th e c o n s t a n t l y r e t u r n i n g p r i n c i p l e theme,
b u t a l s o b r i n g s many new th em es w h ic h a r e g r o u p e d a r o u n d t h e
r a s c a l l y masked p r i n c i p l e m o t i v e , and a r e d e v e l o p e d i n t o a
s i n g l e c o l o s s a l coda w h i c h a b s o r b s t h e sum t o t a l
them es.
of a l l t h e
The e n t i r e s e l e c t i o n i s i n t r o d u c e d by a " P r o l o g u e "
(a v a r i a t i o n on t h e s e c o n d m o t i v e of T i l ) a n d c l o s e d by a n
" E p ilo g u e ."
A summary o f t h e t h e m a t i c m a t e r i a l i s
given w ith th e
a pp rop riate t i t l e s .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
52
E x . 88 T i l ' s F i r s t Theme
u f i
^
^
i '.ii
f
E x . 89 T i l ' s Second Theme
Ex. 90
O n s e t of -New P r a n k s
1
; 2—I |f >«-■
/
J
#
-A
f
j
»
- - m
a -.
\ j J - y-
Fl
E x . 91 Ma s q u e r a d e Theme
£ J.
> i Ui-4
i fog
i
Ex. 92 F l i g h t Theme
i / 1
i
f
s
fie.
j / f
o
U j
M
i
W
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
53
L x . 93 Amorous Theme
^
/ 'y f l
E x . 94 Love Theme
wn>t3.LLjfT71T—
fl,c l,
ff--g
v / a,
E x . 95 Removal Theme
Ex. 96 S t r e e t Song Theme
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
54
Ex. 97 P r i e s t Theme
E x. 98 P r e m o n i t i o n of a Bad End
Ex. 99 P h i l i s t i n e Theme
E x . 100 P h i l i s t i n e Theme ( c o n c l u s i o n )
E x . 101 J u s t i c e Theme
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55
Mr. Tovey h a s g i v e n - a v e r y t h o r o u g h d i s s e r t a t i o n up on
th e follow ing s e l e c ti o n .^
P arerg o n t o th e "S in fo n ia D om estica," fo r P ia n o f o r te w ith
O r c h e s t r a . Op. 75
The r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h i s work and t h e
D om estica" i s ,
"Sinfonia
a p a r t from a few a l l u s i o n s t o f i n e d e t a i l s
of m e l o d i c f i g u r e , b a s e d on t h e a l l - p e r v a d i n g p r e s e n c e of
a theme w h i c h i n t h e " S i n f o n i a " r e p r e s e n t s t h e Baby.
" S in f o n ia Dom estica" i s
one o f S t r a u s s '
poems, and r e p r e s e n t s a day i n t h e l i f e
w i f e , and h i s i n f a n t s o n .
The
l a r g e s t sym phonic
of h i m s e l f , h i s
The s o n i s now a d o c t o r i n a
l e a r n e d p r o f e s s i o n and h a s e d i t e d h i s f a t h e r ' s p r o f o u n d l y
i n t e r e s t i n g correspondence w ith h i s o p e ra tic c o a d ju to r, th e
d r a m a t i s t H ofm annsthal.
Paul W ittg e n ste in ,
f o r whom t h e
P a r e r g o n was composed, p r o b a b l y knows any number of d e l i g h t ­
f u l and w i t t y i n n e r m e a n i n g s i n e v e r y d e t a i l o f t h e wo rk ;
but great a r t i s t s ,
e v en when t h e y g i v e t h e i r w orks d o m e s t i c
t i t l e s , do n o t r e a l l y i n v i t e us t o exam ine a n y o f t h e i r
p r i v a t e a f f a i r s e x c e p t t h o s e , m o st p r i v a t e
of a l l , which
t h e y r e v e a l by s i m p l y e x p r e s s i n g u n i v e r s a l t r u t h s w i t h o u t
speaking in a b s t r a c ti o n s .
A t r a g i c a nd f e v e r i s h C s h a r p ( w i t h m uted h o r n s and
trumpets)
starts u s with reluctant
^ Dona ld F r a n c i s T o v e y ,
A n a l y s i s . I l l , pp. 206-9.
steps.
" S t r a u s s ," Essays in M usical
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
56
E x . 102
z m
u
i r n
u
)
-
The p i a n o f o r t e s o o n i n t e r v e n e s d r a m a t i c a l l y , e v i d e n t l y a s
convinced as i t s
own t u n e r t h a t t h e
o f f e n d i n g n o t e w i l l be
b e t t e r fo r r e i t e r a t e d em phasis.
declam atory fig u re
be com es i m p o r t a n t I n t e r .
The m a in theme d e v e l o p s I t s e l f ,
r e f r a c t e d t h r o u g h many k e y s , b u t a l w a y s r u t h l e s s l y b r o u g h t
back to the in exorable C sh arp .
F in a lly the s tru g g le i s
a b a n d o n e d , and i n t r i u m p h a n t F s h a r p m a j o r a new theme b u r s t s
out i n f u l l sw ing, w i t h n o t h in g i n t r o d u c t o r y i n i t s manner.
E x . 104
t f v * -----
A n o t h e r f i g u r e looms l a r g e i n t h e b a s s
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
an d soon a new t u n e i s
E x . 106
s a i l i n g g r a c e f u l l y over i t .
3 * = --------------- ‘
The e n t h u s i a s t i c c l i m a x of t h i s e n d s i n s u d d e n c a t a s t r o p h e
w i t h a p l u n g e i n t o F n a t u r a l ..
Dr. S tr a u s s J r . ' s
theme shows a d e e p and w o r r i e d
s e n s e of i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and s o do t h e o t h e r t h e m e s
i n c o m b i n a t i o n (and s o m e ti m e s i n c o n f l i c t ) w i t h i t .
The
a g i t a t i o n grows a s t h e s e q u e n c e s r i s e and crowd one on a n ­
oth er, u n til a t la s t the p ian o fo rte,
finding C n a tu ra l
(the
d o m i n a n t of F) w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d , d e c l a i m s w i t h more c o n f i ­
d e n c e and c a l m .
The f a t a l C s h a r p h a s b e e n e x p l a i n e d a s
D flat.
Then t h e p i a n o f o r t e s t a t e s a happy melody i n t h e most
innocent F m ajor.
E x . 107
_______________ _
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58
t h e woodwinds r e s t a t e
the o rchestra,
it,
and t h e p i a n o f o r t e ,
fo llo w s w ith an a d a p t a t i o n of Ex.
m e d i a t e l y t h e t im e c h a n g e s t o a q u i c k 2 / 4 ,
is
i m i t a t e d by
transform ed in a r a p i d rhythm .
104.
Im­
i n which Ex.
Dr. S t r a u s s J r .
107
jo in s the
game i n s e m i q u a v e r s ,
E x . 108
a n d new t h e m e s , s u c h a s
E x . 109
-------------
s —
i —
y
r-£ -------n
i --------\— i—
4 ------- 1—4 —
/ ^A >-r -(
Ex. 110
¥
v'-
T
t
s w i n g g a i l y i n and e n t e r i n t o v a r i o u s c o m b i n a t i o n s .
In short,
a l l t h e p r e v i o u s t h e m e s j o i n t h e d a n c e a t f u l l s p e e d , E x . 105
r i s i n g t o th e s u r f a c e i n a s h i g h s p i r i t s as th e r e s t .
The
f a t a l C s h a r p r e a s s e r t s i t s e l f ; b u t t h e o n ly r e s u l t i s t h a t
E x . 107 d a n c e s b a c k i n a s t i l l
f a s t e r 2/4 m ea su re .
E x . 106
a l s o s w i n g s a l o n g o v e r a d o u b l e - t r o t v e r s i o n o f E x . 104.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Then,
59
w h i l e E x . 109 i s r o a m i n g i n b a s s s e q u e n c e s u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t s
o f E x . 10 5 , i t b ecom es e v i d e n t t h a t t h e r e i s n o g r e a t d a n g e r
in r e v i s i t i n g F sharp a g a in .
I n t h a t hey t h e f o l l o w i n g com­
b in atio n in terv en es.
Ex. I l l
f - H -
*
I t r e t u r n s t o F n a t u r a l w i t h o u t t r o u b l e and t h e work c o n c l u d e s
b rillian tly
in th e 2/4 tim e .
The a r t
o f t h e l e f t hand p i a n o f o r t e s o l o w r i t i n g i s
great a e sth e tic in te r e s t,
of
and p r e s e n t s t h e modern i n s t r u m e n t
i n a s p e c t s a t t r a c t i v e by c o n t r a s t w i t h t h e o r d i n a r y t e n d e n c y
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
60
t o e x p l o i t t h e i n s t r u m e n t i n v o l u m i n o u s harmony w h i c h em­
u l a t e s t h e o r c h e s t r a w i t h o u t a c h i e v i n g any c h a r a c t e r o f i t s
own.
The s p e c i a l r e s t r i c t i o n s a r e a s t i m u l u s t o t h e com­
p o s e r ' s i n v e n t i o n , and t h e r e i s a w i d e f i e l d o f e x p l o r a t i o n
i n t h i s medium w h e re t h e com pass o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t i s p r a c ­
t i c a l l y u n l i m i t e d , w h i l e t h e hand c a r r i e s i t s
own compass
w i t h i t t h r o u g h o u t t h e w h o le f i e l d .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CHAPTER IV
MODERN RUSSIAN COMPOSERS
S e r g e S e r g e i e v i t c h P r o k o f i e v was b o r n i n 1 8 9 1 .
Like
S t r a v i n s k y he w r o t e b a l l e t s f o r D i a g h i l e v ' s R u s s i a n B a l l e t
Company.
" C h o u t , " one of h i s b a l l e t s ,
i s a n e xam ple w h e r e i n
he seemed t o r e v e l i n c o m b i n a t i o n s o f d i s p l e a s i n g s o u n d s .
The s c e n a r i o o f t h i s i s b a s e d on a f o l k - t a l e
from t h e Govern
m en t o f Perm o f "a b u f f o o n who hoodwinked s e v e n o t h e r b u f ­
fo o n s."1
B e i n g a f i n i s h e d p i a n i s t h i m s e l f he w r i t e s e x t r a o r ­
d in a r y p ian o m usic.
Among h i s o p e r a f o r t h i s i n s t r u m e n t a r e
5 S o n a t a s (Opp. 1 , 14 , 28, 2 9 , 33)
T o c c a t a (Op. 11)
S u i t e o f 10 p i e c e s (Op. 12)
" S a r c a s m s " (Op. 17)
" V i s i o n s F u g i t i v e s " (Op. 22)
" C o n t e s de l a V i e l l e G r a n d ' m e r e " (Op. 31)
3 P i a n o f o r t e C o n c e r t o s (Opp. 1 0 , 16 , 26)
P r o k o f i e v i s n o t a p o p u l a r c om po s er b e c a u s e he d e l i b ­
e r a t e l y a v o i d s a l l e m o t i o n a l and r o m a n t i c f a c t o r s i n h i s mu­
sic.
H is m u sic " i s d e s i g n e d t o p l e a s e s o l e l y a s a k i n d of
d e c o r a t i v e p a t t e r n and t o a v o i d c o n v e y i n g e x t r a m u s i c a l i d e a s
of any k in d .
W h atev e r i t s
i n t r i n s i c v a l u e may b e , i t ftas
t h e m e r i t o f r e f u s i n g t o f o r c e i t s e l f on t h e l i s t e n e r ' s
E r i c Blom, E s q . ,
3 r d e d i t i o n , IV, p . 258.
2 I b i d . , p . 25 9.
" P r o k o f i e v , " G r o v e 1s D i c t i o n a r y .
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62
a t t e n t i o n o r t o c a p t u r e h i s a f f e c t i o n by an y means w h i c h a r e
n o t l e g i t i m a t e l y and a b s o l u t e l y m u s i c a l .
Even t h o u g h P r o k o f i e v w i l l n e v e r q u i t e compromise w i t h
t h e s e n t i m e n t a l and w i l l n e v e r t r y t o i n d u c e t h e sy m p ath y
o f h i s h e a r e r , h i s m u s i c d o e s p r o d u c e "a p h y s i c a l e x h i l e r a t i o n ”
which i s im p o s s ib le t o d e n y .
The 3 r d C o n c e r t o ,
"The S y t h i a n
S u i t e " and t h e 4 t h P i a n o f o r t e S o n a t a may be c a l l e d t y p i c a l
examples of h i s a r t .
3rd Concerto
I n t h e 3 r d C o n c e r t o he u s e s t h e p i a n o f o r t e more a s
an o r c h e s t r a l i n s t r u m e n t t h a n a s a s o l o i n s t r u m e n t .
In
some p a s s a g e s he m i g h t b e s a i d t o u s e i t m e r e l y a s p a r t o f
th e percussion s e c tio n , allow ing i t
th m .
t o b e a t o u t o nly a r h y ­
I n o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e c o n c e r t o , t h e f i r s t movement e s ­
p e c i a l l y , th e d e s ig n i s so com plicated t h a t t h i s in stru m e n t
seems t o d u p l i c a t e t h e e n t i r e s c o r e t h a t t h e s t r i n g s e c t i o n
has j u s t play ed .
I n t h e c o n c e r t o he w r i t e s
E x . 112
p l a y e d i n t h e r i g h t hand w h i l e i n t h e " I m p r e s s i o n s D i a b o l ique" the design is reversed i n the hands, as t h e m elod y r u n s
c o n t i n u a l l y i n m in o r n i n t h s i n t h e b a s s , t h u s :
-------------3“ iT>r<r:7 p . 2 5 8 .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
63
E x . 113
B rj
.
i j
I n t h e s e c o n d movement, Theme and V a r i a t i o n f o r m ,
P r o k o f i e v shows o f f h i s r h y t h m i c i n c l i n a t i o n s q u i t e w e l l .
The o r c h e s t r a b e g i n s a l o n e , t h e woodwinds s t a t i n g t h e t h e m e .
I n t h e f o u r t h s e c t i o n ( v a r i a t i o n ) t h e melody i s combined
w ith a syncopated rhythm ic p a t t e r n ,
giving an e f f e c t t h a t
s o u n d s a l m o s t " G e r s h w i n e s q u e '* t o a n American e a r .
In an­
o t h e r p a r t o f t h e Theme and V a r i a t i o n s , D e b u s s y i s m , a l t h o u g h
p ro b a b ly u n i n t e n t i o n a l i n t h e case of P r o k o f i e v , i s prom in­
en t.
T h i s i s i n d i c a t e d p a r t i a l l y by t h e u s e of t h e w h o l e -
tone s c a l e .
However, s i n c e D e bu ss y p r e s u m a b l y d e r i v e d h i s
k n o w le d g e of t h e w h o l e - t o n e s c a l e from R u s s i a , i t
i s more
p r o b a b l e t h a t P r o k o f i e v was o n l y sh o w in g o f f h i s n a t i v e t e n ­
dencies.
I n t h e s i x t h s e c t i o n m inor seconds a r e as prom in­
e n t a s t h e m i n o r n i n t h s o f t h e f i r s t movement.
They a p p e a r
i n t h e p i a n o a s a r h y t h m i c b a c k g r o u n d f o r t h e theme w h i c h
i s t a k e n by t h e o r c h e s t r a .
At t h e l a s t , t h e o r i g i n a l theme
i s r e s t a t e d i d e n t i c a l l y w ith the ex cep tio n t h a t the p ian o ­
f o r te plays w ith the o r c h e s tr a .
k
The movement e n d s on g*
i n t h e p ia n o which has no a p p a r e n t r e l a t i o n w i t h th e f o r e ­
going chord.
^ Sin ce t h e p h o n o g r a p h c a n n o t be t u n e d e x a c t l y t o t h e
w r i t t e n k e y o f t h e m u s i c , t h i s n o t e may be e i t h e r a n " a M
o r Hf # " .
I do n o t h a v e a c c e s s t o t h e s c o r e s o c a n q u o t e
only r e l a t i v e n o t a t i o n .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
64
In t h e t h i r d movement P r o k o f i e v makes u s e of th e
h a lf step p rogression.
E x . 114
The e n t i r e o r c h e s t r a p l a y s t h i s p a t t e r n c h o r d a l l y f o r a s e c ­
t i o n a l o n e and t h e n w i t h t h e p i a n o .
T h is a l t e r n a t e s f o r a
s h o r t p a s s a g e and t h e n r e t u r n s t o t h e o r i g i n a l them e.
A
m u s i c a l d e c l i n e o f t h e t h i r d movement i s i n t h e f a c t t h a t
any one a s s k i l l f u l a s P r o k o f i e v i n w r i t i n g c l i m a x e s co uld
s o a n t i - c l i m a x t h e e n d i n g o f t h i s movement.
He b u i l d s one
c l i m a x which would make a f i n e e n d i n g — but d o e s n ' t s t o p .
He w r i t e s a n o t h e r — and s t i l l d o e s n ' t .
A fter several attem pts,
he f i n a l l y g e t s t h e job done b u t t h e h e a r e r has a te n d e n c y t o
f e e l r a t h e r e x h a u s t e d from l i s t e n i n g f o r t h e end.
O ver tu re on Y i d d i s h Themes
S t a r t i n g w i t h a rhythmic f i g u r e , g i v e n out by th e
p i a n o f o r t e and b a s s i n s t r u m e n t s
E x . 115
t h e Overture sw in gs a l m o s t im m e d ia t e ly i n t o a l i v e l y f i g u r e .
E x . 116
Reproduced with permission o f the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
65
A f t e r much r e i t e r a t i o n o f t h i s
f i g u r e , b o t h a s a w ho le and
i n s h o r t m o t i v e s , t h e r e i s a t r a n s i t i o n b a s e d u p o n ( a ) of
E x . 116,
E x . 1 1 7 ____________
£>
\
p Q ___________
i
n
t—
w h i c h l e a d s i n t o a new theme o f q u i e t e r n a t u r e
E x . 118
Again a new m u s i c a l i d e a i s s t a t e d
Ex. 119
and r e a c h e s t h i s c a d e n c e .
E x . 120
^
ZT
*
From h e r e t h e m usic g o e s i n t o v a r i a t i o n s of a l l t h e s e
them es,
f i n a l l y a r r i v i n g a t an i n t e n s i f i e d r e s t a t e m e n t of th e
r h y t h m i c f i g u r e , and e n d s w i t h c l a s h i n g c h o r d s .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
66
I g o r S t r a v i n s k y was born i n 1 8 8 2 .
I t was n o t u n t i l
a y ou n g man t h a t he became p r o f e s s i o n a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n mu­
s i c an d r e c e i v e d h i s f i r s t s y s t e m a t i c t r a i n i n g from R im sk yKorsakov.
T his p ro b ab ly acco u n ts in p a r t f o r h i s p r o f i c i e n ­
cy i n o r c h e s t r a t i n g .
The d o m i n a t i n g p r i n c i p l e t h a t g o ve rn s t h e a r t o f
S t r a v i n s k y from "Petroushka" onward, i s h i s b e l i e f t h a t mu­
s i c sh ould make a p u r e l y p h y s i c a l a p o e a l t o t h e h e a r e r , and
s h o u l d be f r e e from any l i t e r a r y and p i c t o r i a l a s s o c i a t i o n s
w h ic h a d d r e s s t h e m s e l v e s t o t h e i n t e l l e c t .
S t r a v i n s k y ' s a r t i n i t s l a t e r s t a g e s obeys no r u l e s
bu t t h o s e o f i t s
own making, and t h e s e a g a i n are s u b j e c t t o
no d e f i n i t e s y s t e m .
Kis music i s f a r from s h a p e l e s s , bu t
q u e s t i o n s o f form are i n v a r i a b l y d e t e r m in e d by t h e n a t u r e
o f t h e work i t s e l f .
r u l e s and h a b i t s .
Nor d o e s S t r a v i n s k y s e t c e r t a i n harmonic
He sh un s no d i s s o n a n c e and a v o i d s no o r ­
t h o d o x chord i f i t happens t o s e r v e h i s p u r p o s e .
No mode
o f e x p r e s s i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d i l l e g i t i m a t e by him, s o l o n g as
a d e s i r e d e f f e c t can be g ain e d by i t , but t h e e f f e c t i t s e l f
must always be a means t o an end.^"
E v e r y t h i n g S t r a v i n s k y w r i t e s i s s u i t e d t o t h e med­
ium f o r which i t
I s w r i t t e n and t h a t one o n l y .
His o r c h e s ­
tra ,! s c o r e s a r e n o t o n ly f u l l of c o l o r and b r i l l i a n c e , but
t h e y have a t h e m a t i c v a r i e t y t h a t i s t h e d i r e c t outcome of
^ E r i c Slom , " S t r a v i n s k y , " g r o v e ' s D i c t i o n a r y .
e d i t i o n , V, p . 1 6 9 .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
3rd
67
h is fe e lin g for the p e c u l ia r i ti e s of each instrum ent.
T h i s c om poser a c h i e v e d t h e a r t o f w r i t i n g i n a h o r ­
i z o n t a l manner i n a p e c u l i a r way.
He found t h a t a c h o rd
p l a y e d by a number o f i n s t r u m e n t s o f v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t t i m ­
b r e s h a s a f a r g r e a t e r p l a s t i c i t y t h a n one g i v e n t o a g r o u p
o f c l o s e l y .r e l a t e d
ones, th e e a r b e in g enabled i n th e f o r ­
mer c a s e t o h e a r e a c h sound s e p a r a t e l y and t o f o l l o w t h e
m e l o d i c t h r e a d o f e a c h p a r t more e a s i l y .
zontal w ritin g , c o lo r c o u n te rp o in t,
T herefore, h o ri­
o r a n y t h i n g e l s e i t may
be c a l l e d i s more e a s i l y a c h i e v e d .
Ex. 121
7 V
r ) '' y -
£2.
The f i r s t work o f i m p o r t a n c e f i g u r i n g i n t h e l i s t
of
S t r a v i n s k y ' s w orks was a s o n g - c y c l e "Faun and S h e p h e r d e s s , "
f o l l o w e d by " F i r e w o r k s " and " S c h e r z o F a n t a s t i a u e . " .
I t was
a f t e r t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e s e t h a t D i a g h i l e v a p p r o a c h e d him
on t h e s u b j e c t o f w r i t i n g a b a l l e t , w h i c h en ded i n t h e p r o -
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
d u c t i o n o f "The F i r e b i r d S u i t e . "
A l t h o u g h many c r i t i c s d e n y t h a t S t r a v i n s k y e v e r s u r ­
p a s s e d " P e t r o u s h k a , " w h ic h was s u p p o s e d t o b e t h e f i n a l u n ­
f o l d i n g o f S t r a v i n s k y ' s c h a r a c t e r and p e r s o n a l i t y , a l l a r e
a g r e e d t h a t he w e n t on d e v e l o p i n g w i t h d i s c o n c e r t i n g r a p i d ­
ity .
I n 1913 a p p e a r e d a t h i r d b a l l e t ,
"Le S a c r e du P r i n t e m p s , "
w h i c h c r e a t e d a s e n s a t i o n a t i t s p r o d u c t i o n by i t s d e l i b e r a t e
p r i m i t i v e n e s s and u n c o u t h n e s s o f r h y t h m and o r c h e s t r a l c o l o r .
Some a u t h o r i t i e s avow t h a t S t r a v i n s k y d i d n o t want i n ­
t e r e s t i n g w ords t o s e t t o m u s i c b e c a u s e one a r t ,
c o u l d n o t b e e n h a n c e d by t h e a d d i t i o n o f a n o t h e r .
perfected,
However,
i n t h e "Symphony o f P s a l m s , " w h i c h w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r ,
one f e e l s t h e g r e a t n e s s of t h e m u sic a l o n g w i t h t h e g r e a t n e s s
of th e t e x t of th e l a t i n l i b r e t t o .
The F i r e b i r d S u i t e
I n K a s t c h i e ' s Dance we f i n d r a t h e r i n t e r e s t i n g c h o r d
m aterial.
N o t i c e t h e empty f i f t h c o n c s t r u c t i o n i n t h e f i r s t
m e a s u r e o f E x . 122 an d t h e d o u b l e c a s e of m i n o r s e c o n d s i n
th e fo llo w in g m easure.
The s u c c e e d i n g exam ple (E x . 123) shows
a c o n s t r u c t i o n o f f i f t h s and f o u r t h s , p e r f e c t i n t e r v a l s ,
c o n tra s t to those
in
o f some o f t h e o t h e r modern c o m p o s e r s , a s
S c r i a b i n , who p r o b a b l y would h a v e c o n s t r u c t e d t h e same c h o r d
i n d i m i n i s h e d f i f t h s and f o u r t h s .
T h e s e e x a m p le s w i l l b e
found on t h e n e x t p a g e .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
The r h y t h m i c p a t t e r n i n K a s t c h i e ' s Dance c a n n o t be
ignored.
B e g i n n i n g w i t h f u l l o r c h e s t r a f o r one n o t e , t h e r e
i s i m m e d i a t e l y a d r o p t o Tympanl and C o n t r a b a s s i :
E x . 124
f f lr i h
c o n f v e bdsvi
\_ \j d L -
ni i.\
,• +
t l f
i
rrrm
,« f
■■
cALr wILj' lJlL'
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A s y n c o p a t e d melody e n t e r s i n t h e h o r n s and b a s s o o n s , a g a i n s t
t h e ab o ve r h y t h m :
E x . 125
~z>
>
The s e c o n d theme o f t h i s s e c t i o n i s s t a t e d by t h e f i r s t
v i o l i n s w h i l e t h e a c c o m p a n y in g r h y t h m i s so c o m p l i c a t e d t h a t
no s e c t i o n of th e o r c h e s t r a i s
f o l l o w i n g t h e same p a t t e r n a t
t h e same t i m e .
I n t h e B e r c e u s e s e c t i o n one f i n d s t h e u s e o f a ground
bass.
A l t h o u g h changed o c c a s i o n a l l y , w i t h r e g a r d t o n o t e s ,
th e steady b eat is never e n t i r e l y a b s e n t.
E x. 126
|, j -
}
: fej = = ] a J
W-
The g r ou n d b a s s g i v e s t h e e f f e c t o f a slo w c h a n t i n g
o r w a i l i n g a l o n g w i t h a sw a y i n g m o t i o n foun d i n some Hebrew
m u s i c and i n t h e m u sic o f t h e n e g r o e s .
i t y b e tw e e n E x .
N otice the s i m i l a r ­
126 a n d one o f t h e o r i g i n a l n e g r o b a s s e s w h ic h
h a v e now come i n t o p o p u l a r i t y a s f a s t m ovin g " b o o g i e - w o o g i e "
basses.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
71
E x . 127
V'f' P
l
l
E ven t h o u g h t h e n o t e s a r e n o t q u i t e t h e same, t h e f e e l i n g
and g e n e r a l p a t t e r n a r e .
An e x a m p le o f S t r a v i n s k y ' s s i m p l e o r c h e s t r a t i o n i s
found i n t h e B e r c e u s e .
The ' c e l l o s c a r r y a p e d a l p o i n t
t h r o u g h o u t , t h e v i o l a s c a r r y t h e gro u n d h a s s , t h e h a r p
p l u c k s t h e same n o t e s a s t h e v i o l a s h u t a n o c t a v e l o w e r ,
w h i l e t h e b a s s o o n c a r r i e s t h e m e l o d y , r e l i e v e d f o r o n l y two
b a r s by t h e ob o e .
E x . 128
jj- l- b
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Hi f t ---------H - r - 1 1 )
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1
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‘
72
W a g n e ri a n ! s m i s
o u t s t a n d i n g i n t h e f o l l o w i n g exam ple
t a h e n from t h e t r a n s i t i o n "between t h e B e r c e u s e and F i n a l e of
th is Suite.
E x . 129
tv ».
__CL
a
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|yo
2 :
’I
(i
■
j j: £?- -if £?
£
S 3
Vi:
# -k ^r
fO ijp
1
►
S cale p a ssag es a re used i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y in t h i s s e ­
l e c t i o n an d a c c i d e n t a l s a r e t h r o w n o v e r e v e r y t h i n g .
stance :
E x . 130
i
m
I P
m
l>
F»*— |
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For i n ­
73
E x . 131
fef-u
^
g e l
■*,»—"" f gi
1
p 3
E x . 132
k-» fry fey t e f r - C . y
y y fry
Ex.
133
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
74
The F i n a l e s o u n d s more l i k e t h e t r i u m p h a l end o f a
c o r o n a t i o n scene or a R u s s ia n c h u rc h anthem.
E x . 134
Here S t r a v i n s k y shows o f f t h e e n t i r e
r u n s , rhythm ic f i g u r e s ,
o rc h e s tra w ith
" m i s p e l l e d c h o r d s , ” and e v e r y o t h e r
orchestral tric k p o ssib le.
He e n d s on a r e l a t e d m a j o r c h o rd
i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e e n d in g s e x p e c te d of Schoenberg and S c r i a ­
b in ,
Symnhonie d e Psaumes
The "Symphonie d e P s a u m e s , " one of S t r a v i n s k y ' s l a t e r
w o r k s i s b a s e d up o n t h e P s a l m s o f D a v i d .
The Symphony i s
d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e s e c t i o n s and e a c h s e c t i o n i s b a s e d on a n
e x c e r p t or e n t i r e p s a l m .
The m a t e r i a l u s e d f o r t h e l i b r e t ­
t o i s given in the E n g lis h v e r s i o n .
Psalm 2 7 .
13.
14.
I had f a i n t e d , u n l e s s I had b e l i e v e d
t o see the goodness of Je h o v ah .
I n t h e lan d of th e l i v i n g .
Wait f o r J e h o v a h
Be s t r o n g , and l e t t h y h e a r t t a k e c o u r a g e ;
Ye a, w a i t t h o u f o r J e h o v a h .
Psalm 39
2.
3«
I was dumb w i t h s i l e n c e ,
I h e l d my p e a c e , e v e n from g o o d ;
And my s o r r o w was s t i r r e d .
My h e a r t was h o t w i t h i n me;
W hile I was m u s i n g t h e f i r e b u r n e d ;
Then s p a k e I w i t h my t o n g u e ;
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
75
4.
J e h o v a h , make me t o know mine e n d;
And t h e m easu re o f my d a y s , what i t
L e t me know how f r a i l I am.
is;
Psalm 1 5 0 .
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
P r a i s e ye J e h o v a h .
P r a i s e God i n h i s s a n c t u a r y :
P r a i s e him i n t h e fermament o f h i s p o w e r .
P r a i s e him f o r h i s m i g h t y a c t s :
P r a i s e him a c c o r d i n g t o h i s e x c e l l e n t g r e a t n e s s ,
P r a i s e him w i t h t r u m p e t s o u n d :
P r a i s e him w i t h p s a l t r y and h a r p :
P r a i s e him w i t h t i m b r e l and d a n c e ;
P r a i s e him w i t h s t r i n g e d i n s t r u m e n t s a nd p i p e .
P r a i s e him w i t h l o u d c y m b a l s :
P r a i s e him w i t h h i $ i s o u n d i n g c y m b a l s .
Let e v e ry th in g t h a t h a th b re a th p r a is e Jehovah.
P r a i s e ye J e h o v a h .
T h i s number i s s c o r e d f o r e n t i r e o r c h e s t r a w i t h t h e
e x ce p tio n of the c l a r i n e t .
S t r a v i n s k y , h o w e v e r , makes up
f o r t h e l a c k o f t h i s woodwind i n s t r u m e n t by g r e a t e r u s e o f
th e E nglish horn.
S t r a v i n s k y , l i k e s o many of t h e modern c o m p o s e r s ,
changes tim e s i g n a t u r e w i t h d i s r e g a r d f o r system :
E x . 135
f
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XS1 s
W W &
$
m
(J 2
w i U ^ *y§
The f o l l o w i n g p a t t e r n i s u sed f o r the accompaniment
t o the v o i c e s , which make u s e o f t h e h a l f s t e p p r o g r e s s i o n
up and down*
N o t i c e t h e s i m i l a r i t y between t h e accompani­
ment f i g u r e and t h e p i a n o Etude (Ex. 1 3 7 ) :
Ex. 136
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77
E x . 137
I n t h e Symphony, S t r a v i n s k y a g a i n makes u s e of a g ro u n d
bass:
E x . 178
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78
N o t i c e t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n of c h o r d s , u n l i k e
t h e exam ple o f t h e F i r e b i r d .
The f i f t h and f o u r t h c o n s t r u c ­
t i o n h a s g i v e n way t o more a c t u a l d i s s o n a n c e i n t h i s e x a m p l e .
E x . 139
The se co n d s e c t i o n o f t h i s number i s made up m a i n l y
of th e development of a fu g ue.
su b ject,
I n Ex.
140 i s g i v e n t h e f u g u e
f i r s t s t a t e d by t h e oboe and t a k e n up by t h e f l u t e
i n the answ er.
T h i s fugue i s n o t , a c c o r d i n g t o some common b e l i e f ,
a w ild,
d i s o r d e r l y a r r a n g e m e n t o f n o t e s , w h i c h f o l l o w s t h e form o f
a fugue i n o n l y t h e v a g u e s t m a n n e r .
g a l form a s a n y t h i n g
J.s.
I t i s as s t r i c t t o fu -
Bach m i g h t h a v e w r i t t e n .
The voices in the next example
follow this subject
w i t h a few c h a n g e s o f melody b u t c a r r y i n g on t h e o r i g i n a l
idea.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
79
E x. 141
I n t h e f o l l o w i n g p a s s a g e t a k e n from an o r c h e s t r a l
Interlude,
s ound."
one h a s t h e f e e l i n g of " P r a i s e him w i t h t r u m o e t
E x . 142
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V ' ■ 1
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4 - 4 --------* —
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Towards t h e end o f t h e t h i r d p a r t , t h e v o i c e s and
o r c h e s t r a combine i n a slow s t e a d y c l i m b t o a t r e m e n d o u s
clim ax.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CHAPTER V
CONCLUSION
From t h e above s h o r t a n a l y s e s I t i s hoped t h a t t h e
r e a d e r w i l l be a b l e t o d e r i v e g r e a t e r a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e s e
r e p r e s e n t a t i v e works d i s c u s s e d .
the sty le s
From t h e b r i e f s u r v e y o f
of th e d i f f e r e n t composers s t u d i e d , a p p l i c a t i o n
s h o u l d be made n o t o n ly t o t h o s e w ork s a n a l y z e d i n t h i s t h e ­
s i s , b u t t o o t h e r works of t h e s e c o m po sers a s w e l l .
fac ilitie s
Lim ited
f o r a n a l y s i s made i m p o s s i b l e a b r o a d e r f i e l d
of
i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o t h e o p e r a o f any one c o m p o s e r , b u t by i n ­
t e l l i g e n t study and l i s t e n i n g i t
s h o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o t u r n
the in fo rm a tio n i n t o channels fo r p r iv a t e a n a l y s i s .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
61
BIBLIOGRAPHY
1.
B a u e r , M a r i o n , T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y Yu s i c . New York, London:
G . P . P u t n a m 1s S o n s , 1933» x i i - 3 3 9 p .
2.
C o l l e s , H . C . , e d i t o r , Grove *s D l c t i o n a r y . V o l s . I I , IV, V;
New Yor k: M a c m i l l a n Company, 3 rd e d i t i o n , 19 3 2.
3.
H u l l , A. E a g l e f i e l d , Modern Harmony.
Ltd., x i i i - 2 3 5 p.
4.
L e u k a rt, F .E .C ., e d i t o r , B rig g F a i r . Y /ien-Leipzig:
P h i l h a r m o n i s c h e r V e r l a g A . G . , 19 2 5, i i i - 4 8 p .
5.
T ovey, Dona ld F r a n c i s , E s s a y s i n M u s i c a l A n a l y s i s . V o l s .
I I , I I I , IV; London:
Oxf or d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 19 3 6 .
London:
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
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