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A CLINICAL VALIDATION OF THE RORSCHACH INK BLOT TEST AS A MEASURE OF PERSONALITY OF PROBLEM CHILDREN

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.KS
Ivrugman, J u d i t h I
A c l i n i c a l v a l i d a t i o n of the Rorschach
i n k b l o t t e s t as a measure o f p e r s o n ­
a l i t y o f prob lem c h i l d r e n . . .
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l Ti s 3 i «
accep ted
A CLINICAL VALIDATION OF THE RORSCHACH INK BLOT TEST
AS A MEASURE OF PERSONALITY OF PROBLEM CHILDREN
JUDITH I . KRUGUAN
Subm itted in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f th e
req u irem en ts f o r th e degree of D oetor o f
P h ilo so p h y i n th e School o f E d u catio n o f
New York U n iv e rs ity
1941
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PLEASE N O TE:
Some pages may have
in d istin c t p rin t.
Filmed as r e c e i v e d .
U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s , A Xerox Educati on Company
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PREFACE
This in v e s tig a tio n m s made p o s s ib le by th e o o o p e ra tio n and a s ­
s is ta n c e o f a number o f p erso n s*
The w r i t e r ones a s p e c ia l d e b t o f
g r a titu d e to Dr* B rian E* Tom linson, Chairman o f th e sponsoring com m ittee,
f o r h i s co n tin u o u s guidance, c o n s tr u c tive^ s u g g e s tio n s , and s tim u la tin g
c r i t i c i s m s , d u rin g th e p ro g re s s o f th is w ^ ^ H a a h *
To th e o th e r members
o f th e com m ittee, Dr* Rhea K. Boardman and Dr* A lio e V, K e lih e r, a p p re c ia ­
t i o n i s due f o r t h e i r i n t e r e s t , encouragem ent, and h e lp f u l su g g estio n s*
The p ro ced u res employed in t h i s in v e s tig a tio n would n o t have been
p o s s ib le w ith o u t th e generous a s s is ta n c e o f th e ex p erie n c e d Rorschach
w orkers who p a r tic ip a te d in th e m atching and r a t i n g experim ents and gave
u n s p a rin g ly o f t h e i r tim e*
For t h i s , th e w r i te r i s under g re a t o b lig a ­
t i o n t o Dr* J e s s ic a J* C a rlso n , H iss C lara C a r r o ll, Miss M arion Cowin,
and Miss Alma P a u lse n , P s y c h o lo g is ts , Bureau o f C h ild G uidance, Board o f
E d u c a tio n , New York C ity j Dr* M orris Krugman, C hief P s y c h o lo g is t, Bureau
o f C h ild G uidance; Dr* Bruno K lo p fe r, Teachers* C o lleg e, Columbia U niver­
s i t y ; and Dr* Zygmunt A* P io tro n sk L , Columbia U n iv e rs ity and New York S ta te
P s y o h ia tr io I n s t i t u t e and H o sp ital*
The w r i te r i s e s p e c ia lly in d eb ted t o Dr* Frank J* O 'B rien , A sso ci­
a te S u p e rin te n d e n t o f S ch o o ls, Board o f E d u o a tio n , New York C ity , who was
U ir e o to r o f th e Bureau o f C h ild Guidanoe when t h i s r e s e a r c h was b egun, f o r
p e rm issio n t o use th e case s tu d ie s *
A6 7 8 7 5
ii
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter
Page
PREFACE................................................................................................................... i i
I.
PURPOSE OF THE INVESTIGATION..........................................................
1
'S tatem en t o f th e P r o b l e m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
S ig n ific a n c e o f th e P ro b le m ..• • « • • • • • . . . . . « . . . . . . . . . . . .
B asic A s s u m p t i o n s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • • « • • • • • • • • • • • .
'D e lim ita tio n o f th e P r o b l e m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.D e f in itio n o f T e r m s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ••
II.
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND................................
8
G eneral Background and S ta tu s o f P e r s o n a lity
M easurem ent.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • .
P re Rorschach Use o f In k B l o t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rorschach’ s W o r k . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
G eneral Survey o f Work w ith th e Rorsohach
T e c h n i q u e ................................
--P rev io u s S tu d ie s R e la te d t o th e P r o b l e m .
I I I .....POPULATION AND PROCEDURE.
IV.
...............................................
1
2
3
4
5
8
13
15
22
24
.5 9
D e s c rip tio n o f P o p u l a t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . • • • • • . . . . . . . . . . . .
. - /D e s c r ip tio n o f D a t a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • • • « • • • . .
^ T re atm e n t o f D a t a . . . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sample C a s e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • « • « . . . . . . .
59
61
70
77
PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS..............................
95
M atching and R atin g Twenty P a ir s o f Rorschach
I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . . . . • • • • • • • • • • . • • • • • • • • • • • « • • • • . « . . . . « 95
M atching Rorschach Response R ecords w ith P e r­
s o n a lity I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . . . • • • • • • • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
M atohing Rorschach P e r s o n a lity I n te r p r e ta tio n s
w ith Case Study A b s t r a o t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 2
R atin g Agreement betw een th e Rorsohaoh P e r­
s o n a lity I n te r p r e ta tio n s and Case Study
A
b
s
t
r
a
c
t
s
.
.
.
.
. . . 107
iii
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TABLE OF CONTENTS (Concluded)
Chapter
Y.
Page
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS............................................112
Summary . . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1 1 2
C o n clusions• • • • • • • • • • • . , . . • , , « . . . • • • • • • • • • • • • . • • . • • • • • • • 1 1 7
Im p lic a tio n s and S u g g estio ns f o r F u rth e r R esearo h .,.• • • • 1 1 8
BIBLIOGRAPHY,
............
122
APPENDIX A.................................................
Case Study C h a r t s , , , , , • • • • • • , • • • • • » • • .
132
APPENDIX B...........................
• • • • ...• • ..2 3 8
Sample Record B lank f o r th e Rorschach w ith Ex­
p la n a tio n o f Symbols Used
Sample Sheet o f Reduoed B lack and White Photo­
graphs o f th e B lo ts
iv
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LIST OP TABLES
Table
Page
I*
Cases Used b y Rorsohaoh in S ta n d a rd iz in g h is
F in a l Series************.• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • * . • • • • • • • • • • 18
II*
R e p re se n ta tiv e S tu d ie s o f the Rorsoh&oh Method
in V arious Fields************************************** 25
III.
S t a t i s t i c a l S tu d ie s o f th e R e l i a b i l i t y o f th e
Rorsoh&oh R eported i n th e Literature******************* 27
17*
S tu d ie s o f Validity************************************** 35
V* Age D is tr ib u tio n o f Population********.***.**********.*** 59
VI*
Grade D is tr ib u tio n o f P o p u la tio n * .• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 60
V I I.
D is tr ib u tio n o f I n te llig e n c e Q u o tien ts Based upon
S ta n fo rd B in e t R esults***************.***.* . • • • • • » • • • • • 60
V III*
Problem s f o r "Which C h ild ren W©re R eferred f o r
Study*• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • * • • • • • • • • • 62
IX.
R atin g s o f Agreement between Twenty P a ir s o f In ­
dependent Rorschaoh I n te r p r e ta tio n s A ssigned
b y Three Judges***** ..........• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 96
X.
Summary o f R e s u lts o f M atching Tw enty-five P a ir s
o f Rorsohach Response Records w ith Rorsohaoh
P e r s o n a lity Interpretations**************************** 98
X I.
Summary o f R e s u lts o f M atehing Tw enty-five P a ir s
o f Rorsohaoh P e r s o n a lity I n te r p r e ta tio n s w ith
Case Study Abstraots***********************************103
XII*
X III*
Comparison o f P e rc e n ta g e s C o rrect o f Four Judges in
Two M&tohing E x p e r i m e n t s * .
.
104
R atin g s o f Agreement betw een Tw enty-five Rorsohaoh
P e r s o n a lity I n te r p r e ta tio n s and Case S tu d ies
A ssigned b y F iv e Judges********************************107
v
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CHAPTER I
PURPOSE OP THE INVESTIGATION
S tatem en t o f th e Problem
The p r e s e n t re s e a ro h i s an in v e s tig a tio n o f th e o l i n i o a l v a l i d i t y
o f th e Rorsohaoh P sy o h o d iag n o stio Technique i n th e in v e s t ig a ti o n o f th e
p e r s o n a l i t y o f problem c h ild re n *
I t i s concerned w ith th e e v a lu a tio n o f
th e p e r s o n a lity i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s d e riv e d from th e Rorsohaoh re o o rd s .
One phase o f th e s tu d y i s th e in v e s tig a tio n o f t h e r e l i a b i l i t y
o f th e s e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s b y ( l ) m atohing th e resp o n se reo o rd s w ith th e i n ­
t e r p r e t a t i o n s , (2 ) m atohing independent i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f th e same re o o rd s ,
and (S ) r a t i n g th e deg ree o f agreem ent betw een th e in te r p r e ta tio n s *
The aeoond p a r t o f th e stu d y in v e s tig a te s th e v a l i d i t y o f th e p e r­
s o n a lity i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s b y eomparing them -with d a ta d e riv e d from complete
o l i n i o a l s tu d i e s by ( l ) a n a ly s is o f th e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s
o f o lin io a l
d a ta i n t a b u l a r form , (2 ) m atohing t h e p e r s o n a lity i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s w ith ab­
s t r a c t s o f th e o l i n i o a l d a t a , and (5 ) r a t in g th e amount o f agreement*
The m atching and r a t i n g i n b o th p hases o f th e experim ent were
done by e i g h t o l i n i o a l p s y o h o lo g is ts , in c lu d in g th e e x p e rim e n te r, a l l o f
whom a r e reo o g n iced a s com petent Rorsohaoh w orkers w ith a t l e a s t f iv e y ea rs
o f e x p erien o e i n th e u se o f th e technique*
a u t h o r i t i e s i n th e f ie ld *
Three o f them a re reco g n ized
The e x te n t t o v h io h each p a r tic ip a te d i s d i s -
o ussed i n C hapter I I I *
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2
S ig n ific a n c e o f foe Problem
The Rorsohaoh te c h n iq u e i s one o f -foe m ost w id ely used and b e s t
s ta n d a rd iz e d o f p r o je c t i r e mefoods f o r th e s tu d y o f p e r s o n a lity , and i s
re c e iv in g in c r e a s in g a t t e n t i o n from p s y c h o lo g is ts .*
I t has been e x te n ­
s iv e ly employed i n o l i n i o a l psychology and i n many f i e l d s o f r e s e a r c h .
There has been much d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y among o l i n io a l
p s y c h o lo g is ts , w ith paper and p e n o il t e s t s as mefoods o f in v e s tig a tin g p e r 1
s a n a l i t y . Agreement i s lo o k in g a b o u t t h e i r v a l i d i t y . R eoent s tu d ie s o f
seme o f th e m ost w id e ly used t e s t s o f t h i s ty p e r e p o rt d o u b tfu l v a l i d i t y in
th e l i g h t o f l i f e d a ta and a c t u a l b e h a v io r.
On tu e o th e r hand, th e re i s a l ­
m ost u n iv e r s a l agreem ent among th o se who have employed th e Rorsohaoh me­
th o d , t h a t i t i s a v a lu a b le and p ro m isin g t o o l i n foe stu d y o f p e r s o n a lity .
Most u s e r s would ag ree w ith Beok t h a t , " th e y i e l d o b ta in e d seems t o be f u l l y
i n p ro p o rtio n t o fo e tim e and th o u g h tfu l e f f o r t i t demands o f fo e i n v e s t i 2
g a to r ."
However, th e r e have n o t been adequate s c i e n t i f i c s tu d ie s to e s ­
t a b l i s h i t s r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y o o n o lu s iv e ly .
H e rts i n a re o e n t s tu d y
o f th e s e problem s s a y s , "There i s seme d isag reem en t a s t o i t s r e l i a b i l i t y .
S
I t s v a l i d i t y , t o o , i s f a r from e s ta b lis h e d ao o o rd in g to s c i e n t i f i c p r i n c i p l e s . "
*
1.
2.
3.
G* B. M atson i n New Trends i n C lin ic a l P ro ce d u re s and P sychotherapy,
J o u rn a l o f C o n su ltin g P sychology . 17, (1 9 4 0 ), p p . 81-95 devotes
th e " l i o n ’s siia re o f *tfe«rfciom"om p e r s o n a lity t e s t s t o th e Rorsohaoh.
D. 0 . F ed er and D. R. M a l l e t t t , V a lid ity o f C e rta in M easures o f P e r­
s o n a lity A djustm ent, J o u rn a l o f A m erican A s s o c ia tio n o f C ollege
R e g is tr a r s . 15, (1 9 8 7 ), p p . 5 -1 5 .
L . X*. J a r v ie and A. A. Jo h n s, Does t h e B e m re u te r P e r s o n a lity In ­
v e n to ry C o n trib u te t o C oun seling?, Bduoatlom&l R esear ah B u lle tin .
17, (1 9 3 8 ), p p . 7 - 9 .
S . J . Beok, The Rorsohaoh T e st a s A pplied to a Feeble-m inded Group.
New Y orkt Columbia U n iv e r s ity . 1952. A rchives o f Psychology, n o .
136, p . 7 0.
M. R. H e rts and B. B. R u b en stein , A Comparison o f Three "B lind" R orsahaoh A n a ly se s, American J o u rn a l o f O rth o p sy o h la try . IX. (A p ril,
1 9 3 9 ), p . 295.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
3
There have b een a number o f s tu d ie s on r e l i a b i l i t y and a v e ry
la r g e number o f s tu d ie s o f v a l i d i t y b u t t h e i r r e s u l t s a re in c o n c lu siv e and
n o t comparable*
H ost o f th e e a r l i e r s tu d ie s mere n o t s u f f i c i e n t ly o b je c tiv e .
I n a ttem p ts t o make th e method more o b je c tiv e , American and B r i t i s h i n v e s t i ­
g a to r s , t r i e d t o ap p ly psychom etric s t a t i s t i c a l tech n iq u es t o i s o la t e d
o a te g o rie s on th e t e s t a
However, t h i s d id n o t le a d t o more com parable r e ­
s u l t s , sin c e d i f f e r e n t te c h n iq u e s w ere used and even among th o se who ap ­
p l i e d th e same s t a t i s t i c a l te c h n iq u e s th e r e w ere d iffe re n c e s i n th e method
o f a d m in is tra tio n o f th e t e s t , i n th e s o o rin g , i n th e a s p e o ts o f th e t e s t
s tu d ie d , and i n th e o r i t e r i a and a s p e o ts o f r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y
stu d ie d a
Moat Rorsohaoh w orkers now c o n s id e r th e s t a t i s t i c a l tre a tm e n t
o f is o la te d o a te g o rie s o f th e t e s t in ad eq u ate a s a measure o f v a l i d i t y and
u rg e th e o l i n i o a l v a l i d a t i o n o f th e method by com parison o f "b lin d d ia g ­
n o s is ” p e r s o n a lity p ic tu r e s d e riv e d from th e Rorsohaoh w ith p e r s o n a lity
1
p ic tu r e s o b ta in e d from o th e r o l i n i o a l sources*
This i s th e method f i r s t
2
su g g ested by Rorsohaoh and a v a r i a t i o n o f t h i s method i s t o be used i n th e
p r e s e n t study*
B asic Assumptions
The b a sio assum ption o f t h i s method o f s tu d y in g th e v a l i d i t y o f
th e Rorsohaoh i s t h a t th e d e s o r ip tiv e d a ta ab o u t th e s u b je c t1s p e r s o n a lity ,
d e riv e d in d ep en d en tly f r a n th e t e s t , ag ree in e s s e n tia ls w ith d a ta d e riv e d
from o l i n i o a l s tu d y , th e n th e Rorsohaoh method h a s o l in io a l v a lid ity *
1*
2*
H erts and R u b en stein , op* e i t * , p* 295*
H. Rorsohaoh, PgyohodiagnoB t i k . p . 128*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Fur­
4
t h e r , i f d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f th e seme re c o rd ag ree in e s s e n t i a l s ,
th e o b j e c t i v i t y o f th e p e r s o n a lity p ic tu r e s d e riv e d i s dem onstrated*
C lin ic a l d a ta a re u sed a s th e v a lid a tin g o r i t e r i a , s in c e a t th e
p r e t e n t s ta g e o f s o i e n t i f i o developm ent, th e s e d a ta y ie ld th e m ost com­
p le te in fo rm atio n a v a ila b le on an in d iv id u a l*
W ells s a y s , "The m ost im­
p o r ta n t o r ig in s o f sy ste m a tic methods f o r p e r s o n a lity stu d y a r e examina­
tio n s o f p s y c h ia tr ic o a se s, f o r h e re th e m ost com plete reo o rd s a r e p o s s i-
b le * * * ,n and he d e sc rib e s o lin io a l stu d ies aS " p e rso n a lity B tudies having
1
a b road fo u n d a tio n i n dynamic psychology*"
He c o n s id e rs t h i s ty p e o f d a ta
2
n e cessary f o r th e " e v a lu a tio n o f a r e a l l y sea rc h in g c h a r a c te r te s t * "
D e lim ita tio n o f th e Problem
There i s need f o r stu d y o f th e Rorsohaoh among v a r io u s o l i n i o a l
groups*
The p r e s e n t stu d y w i l l be lim ite d to th e d e te rm in a tio n o f th e
o l i n i o a l v a l i d i t y o f th e Rorsohaoh p e r s o n a lity i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f one group,
t h a t o f problem c h ild re n who have been r e f e r r e d t o a o h ild guidance o lin io *
The t e s t h as b een w id ely used i n o h ild guidance, and m ost p u b lish e d r e p o r ts
claim th a t i t has been a v aluable adjunot to o th er c li n i c a l d a ta and th a t
3
i t h as shown o l i n i o a l v a lid ity *
However, th e se c laim s a r e n o t u s u a lly
s u b s ta n tia te d b y adequate o b je c tiv e evidence*
The re o e n t tre n d i s to stu d y th e problem o f o l i n i o a l v a l i d i t y in ­
te n s iv e ly w ith a sm all number o f o ases r a th e r th a n t o make s u p e r f ic ia l
1*
2*
3*
F* L* W e lls, M ental T e sts in C lin ic a l P ra c tic e * p* 263*
p* 272*
S* J* Beok, The Rorsohaoh T est i n Problem C h ild re n , American Jo u rn a l o f
O rth o p sy o h ia try * 1, (1 9 3 1 ), pp* 501-509* M* K err, She Rorsohaoh
T e st A pplied t o C h ild ren , B r i t i s h Jo u rn a l o f Psychology* 25,
(1 9 3 4 ), p p . 170-185*
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
5
s tu d ie s o f la rg e numbers o f oases*
The p re s e n t i n v e s tig a tio n i s oonceraed
w ith tw e n ty -fiv e c h ild r e n , who were s tu d ie d in te n s iv e ly by p s y c h o lo g is ts ,
s o o ia l w o rk ers, p e d i a t r ic ia n s , and p s y c h i a t r i s t s .
1
A r e o e n t stu d y d e a l t w ith th e o l i n i o a l v a l i d i t y o f th e Rorsohaoh
w ith problem c h ild r e n , a p p ly in g th e m atohing te c h n iq u e .
That stu d y was
lim ite d to boys o f feeblem inded o r b o rd e rlin e i n t e l l i g e n c e .
The p re s e n t
i n v e s tig a tio n d e a ls p r im a r ily w ith c h ild r e n above th e s e le v e ls o f i n t e l l i ­
gence*
D e f in itio n o f Terms
To make o l e a r th e meaning w hich was a tta o h e d t o c e r t a i n term s i n
t h i s s tu d y , th o se term s a re d e fin e d .
P r o te c tiv e Techniques a r e methods f o r th e stu d y o f p e r s o n a lity , -which ”i n ­
duce th e in d iv id u a l t o re v e a l h i s way o f o rg a n is in g e x p e rie n c e by g iv in g
him a f i e l d ( o b je c ts , m a te r ia ls , e x p e rie n c e s) w ith r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e s tr u c ­
tu r e and c u l t u r a l p a tte r n in g
bo
t h a t th e p e r s o n a lity oan p r o je c t upon t h a t
p l a s t i c f i e l d h i s way o f s e e in g l i f e , h i s m eanings, s ig n if ic a n c e s , p& t2
t e r n s , and e s p e c ia lly h i s f e e l i n g s *”
The Rorsohaoh P sy o h o d iag n o stic Teohnique, v a r io u s ly r e f e r r e d t o a s th e
Rorsohaoh M ethod, th e Rorsohaoh In k b lo t T e s t, th e Rorsohaoh T e s t, or sim ply
th e R orsohaoh, i s n o t a t e s t i n th e u su a l sense o f th e te rm , b u t i s e s se n ­
t i a l l y a p r o je c tiv e teo h n iq u e f o r in v e s tig a tin g p e r s o n a lity by means o f te n
1.
2.
M. P a tte r s o n and D* C. Magaw, An I n v e s tig a tio n o f th e V a lid ity o f th e
Rorsohaoh Teohnique as A pplied t o M en tally D efeo tiv e Problem
C hildren* P ro ceed in g s o f th e American A s s o c ia tio n on M ental Def io ie n o y . 43, (1 9 3 8 ), p p . 179-185*
—— — ——
—
L. K. J?Yank:, P r o je o tiv e Methods f o r th e Study o f P e r s o n a lity , J o u rn a l
o f Psychology. 8 , (1 9 3 9 ), p p . 402-403.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
6
s ta n d a rd iz e d in k b l o t s on card s*
From an a n a ly s is o f th e s u b je c t's r e -
sponses t o th e se b l o t s a d e s c r ip tio n o f h i s p e r s o n a lity i s desired*
This
d e s c r ip tio n i s u s u a lly r e f e r r e d t o as th e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f th e Rorsohaoh*
Problem ch ild re n * i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a tio n , a re c h ild r e n who have been r e ­
f e r r e d t o a o h ild guidance e l i n i o f o r a v a r i e t y o f problems o f m a la d ju s t­
ment*
Since feeblem inded c h ild r e n a r e g e n e r a lly r e f e r r e d to a n o th e r o l i n i o ,
th e group does n o t have any c h ild r e n w ith i n te ll ig e n c e q u o tie n ts below 70*
V a lid a tio n i s th e pro o ess o f d e te rm in in g w h eth er an in stru m en t m easures
w hat i^r p u rp o rts t o m easure b y e v a lu a tin g i t i n term s o f independent
c rite ria *
C lin io a l V a lid a tio n u ses a s i t s c r i t e r i a d a ta o b ta in e d from th e o l i n i o a l
study*
C l in i c a l stu d y in c lu d e s a p h y s ic a l exam ination by an experienced p e d i a t r i o ia n , p s y c h ia tr ic examina t i o n by a n ex p erie n c e d p s y c h i a t r i s t , p sy c h o lo g i­
c a l exam ination by a q u a l i f i e d p s y c h o lo g is t, and a s o c ia l h is to r y by a
t r a in e d p s y c h ia tr ic s o o ia l w orker*
R e l i a b i l i t y i s a measure o f an in s tr u m e n t's c o n sisten cy *
I f th e r e s u l t s
o b ta in e d by th e same in d iv id u a l ta k in g a t e s t under s im ila r c o n d itio n s a t
d i f f e r e n t tim es a re s im ila r and do n o t show wide d is c r e p a n c ie s , th e t e s t i s
r e lia b le *
O b je c tiv ity , as used i n t h i s s tu d y , i s a fbria o f r e l i a b i l i t y *
I f q u a lita tiv e
r e s u l t s o b ta in e d by s e v e r a l in v e s tig a to r s a r e s im ila r th ey have o b je c tiv ity *
B lin d D ia g n o sis, o r b lin d a n a l y s i s , i s th e term a p p lie d t o a p e r s o n a lity
i n t e r p r e t a t i o n d e riv e d from a Rorsohaoh re c o rd by a person who has n o t seen
th e s u b je e t and who i s given no o th e r in fo rm a tio n ab o u t th e s u b je o t exoept
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
7
1
h i s age and sex*
H ertz
o a l l s an i n te r p r e t a t i o n " p a r t i a l l y b lin d " i f th e
i n t e r p r e t e r has a d m in iste re d th e t e s t b u t has no o th e r in fo rm a tio n about
th e su b je c t*
P e r s o n a lity i s a term t h a t does n o t r e a d ily lend i t s e l f t o d e f i n i t i o n , b u t
i s a bro ad oonoept t h a t in c lu d e s w hatever we know about th e t r a i t s , b e­
h a v io r , r e a o tio n s , a t t i t u d e s , f e e lin g s c h a r a c t e r is t i c o f a n in d iv id u a l*
1*
H ertz and R u b en stein , op* p i t * , p* 312*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CHAPTER I I
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
G eneral Baokground and S ta tu s o f P e r s o n a lity Measurement
Most o f th e e a r l y methods o f p e r s o n a lity measurement i n th e U n ited
S ta te s had t h e i r Background in th e m en tal t e s t movement and ex p erim en tal
psychology te c h n iq u e s , and employed th e aooepted s c i e n t i f i c methods o f
c a r e fu l s t a t i s t i c a l s ta n d a r d iz a tio n , c o n tr o lle d s tim u li, and c o n tr o lle d
responses*
T h eir prim ary use was t o e s ta b lis h norms and t o id e n tif y d e­
v ia te s from th e se norms i n v a rio u s a re a s o f s o o ia l b eh av io r r a th e r th a n t o
in q u ire i n t o th e p e r s o n a lity o rg a n iz a tio n o f th e in d iv id u a l p e r se *
These
p e r s o n a lity t e s t s were developed d u rin g and im m ediately a f t e r th e W orld War
a t a tim e -when o b je c tiv e te c h n iq u e s o f s ta n d a rd iz in g in te llig e n c e t e s t s
had assumed d e f i n it e form*
The fo rm , p h ilo so p h y , and a p p a re n t suooess o f
th e s e in t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s in flu e n c e d th e n a tu re o f p e r s o n a lity t e s t s t o
suoh an e x te n t t h a t th e l a t t e r o f te n proved, t o a g r e a t e x te n t , to be
m easures o f a p e rs o n 's knowledge o f s o c ia lly d e s ir a b le t r a i t s r a th e r th a n *
o f h is p e rs o n a lity *
S tan d ard iz ed q u e s tio n n a ire s and s e l f in v e n to rie s which a re among
th e m ost numerous and w id ely used p e r s o n a lity t e s t s to d ay a re e s s e n t i a l l y
re fin e d v a r ia tio n s o f suoh e a r ly t e s t s a s th e Woodworth P e rso n a l Data
S h eet, and o fte n r e f l e c t th e p e rso n 1s knowledge o f d e s ir a b le b e h av io r r a ­
th e r th a n h i s own p e r s o n a lity p a tte rn *
I t has been shown t h a t i t i s p o s s i-
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
9
t i e t o in flu e n o e so o tes o f th e B e m re u te r P e r s o n a lity in v e n to ry in th e de­
s ir e d d i r e c t io n by i n s t r u c t i n g th e s u b je c ts t o mark th e t e s t , i n suoh a way
1
as t o make a fa v o ra b le o r u n fav o rab le so o re .
Same a tte m p ts were made t o d is g u is e o r p a r t i a l l y d is g u is e th e
purpose o f t e s t s , so a s t o o b ta in more v a l i d d a ta an p e rs o n a lity *
New
paper and p e n o il t e s t s , ex p erim en tal t e s t s i t u a t i o n s , and r a tin g s o a le s ,
p u rp o rte d to do t h i s su o o e ssfu lly *
Examples o f th e f i r s t type were th e
Downey Wi 11-Temperament T e s t, th e P ressey X-0 T e s ts , and more r e o e n tly th e
Terman and M iles A t t i t u d e - I n t e r e s t A n aly sis Test*
The seoond ty p e c o n s is te d
o f a v a r i e t y o f ex p e rim en tal t e s t s itu a tio n s s tu d ie d by th e C h aracter Edu­
c a tio n In q u iry under th e d ir e o tio n o f E arshorae and May*
More e x te n s iv e ly
used were th e t h i r d ty p e , th e r a t i n g s o a le s on whioh th e s u b je c t was r a te d
by one o r more o b serv ers*
A ll o f th e s e a tte m p ts were lim ite d to th e stu d y
o f o e r t a i n s p e o ifio re a c tio n s o r a re a s o f b e h a v io r and d id n o t ta k e cog­
n izan ce o f o th e r a s p e o ts o f p e r s o n a lity whioh may be im p o rtan t i n some sub­
je c ts *
Because o f t h i s l i m i t a ti o n some p erso n s have advooated q u a l i t a t i v e ,
a n e o d o ta l reoords i n p re fe re n c e t o q u e s tio n n a ir e s , t e s t s , o r r a t in g sc a le s*
However, suoh reo o rd s a ls o have lim ita tio n s *
The newer tre n d i n p e r s o n a lity measurement stem s n o t from m ental
t e s t i n g o r from ex p erim e n tal psychology b u t from o l i n i o a l so u rces whose
param ount concern i s th e stu d y o f th e in d iv id u a l*
T his tre n d h a s broken
q u ite sh a rp ly from th e a c t u a r i a l te c h n iq u es o f q u e s tio n n a ire m ethods, and
1*
I* A* F osberg, An E xp erim en tal Study o f th e R e l i a b i l i t y o f th e Rorschach
P sy o h o d iag n o stic Technique, U npublished Ph.D . T h e sis, New York Uni­
v e r s i t y , Ju n e , 1940*
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
a tte m p ts t o stu d y th e p e r s o n a lity o r g a n is a tio n o f th e in d iv id u a l*
It
a tte m p ts t o make th e in d iv id u a l r e v e a l h im s e lf w ith o u t h i s b e in g aware
o f th e s ig n if ic a n c e o f what he i s re v e a lin g so t h a t a t r u e r p io tu re o f
h is in d iv id u a lity may be o b tain ed *
For* " • • • • a s Henry A* Murray has ob­
serv ed th e most im p o rtan t th in g s ab o u t an in d iv id u a l a re t h a t he cannot or
1
w i l l n o t say*"
In o l i n i o a l work w here s o lu tio n o f th e i n d iv i d u a l 's problem s a re
o f immediate concern* in stru m e n ts o f p e r s o n a lity s tu d y developed under th e
in flu e n o e o f m en tal t e s t s and ex p erim en tal psychology n e re found t o be o f
l i t t l e value*
Frank* one o f th e exponents o f th e s tu d y o f th e in d iv id u a l
o r i t i e i s e s th e o th e r methods* th u s :
I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o s e e how th e s tu d e n ts o f p e r s o n a lity
have atte m p te d t o m eet -the problem o f in d iv id u a lity w ith
methods and p ro ce d u re s designed f o r stu d y o f u n ifo rm i­
t i e s and n o m s t h a t ig n o re o r su b o rd in a te in d iv id u a lity *
t r e a t i n g i t a s a troublesom e d e v ia tio n * ••
th e s ta n d a rd iz e d t e s t does n o t t e l l v e ry much a b o u t th e
in d iv id u a l* a s an in d iv id u a l, b u t r a t h e r how n e a r ly he
approxim ates t o a norm al perform ance o f c u l t u r a l l y p re ­
s c rib e d ta s k s f o r w hich a more o r l e s s a r b itr a r y * b u t
in t e r n a l l y c o n s is te n t* seheme o f q u a n ti ta ti v e r a t in g s i s
u tiliz e d * *
C lin io a l p s y c h o lo g is ts f e l t t h a t th e s e w e ll s ta n d a rd iz e d in stru n ex rts sub5
s t i t u t e d s t a t i s t i c s f o r In s ig h t* and t h a t th e y y ie ld e d p re o is e m easure-
1*
2*
3*
L* K* Frank* P r o je o tiv e M ethods f o r th e Study o f P e rs o n a lity * J o u rn a l
o f Psychology. 8* (O ctober* 1939)* p* 395*
Ibid** pp* 392—393*
F* L* W ells* P e r s o n a lity T ra its * Appendix D* Conference on in d iv id u a l
D iffe re n c e s i n th e C h a ra c te r and R ate o f P sy o h o lo g io al Develop­
ment*
— — — .
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
m enti t h a t c o n trib u te d l i t t l e t o th e u n d e rsta n d in g o f th e f u n c tio n in g p e r­
s o n a lity and th e s o lu tio n o f th e i n d i v i d u a l 's p r e s s in g problems*
More
co nfid en ce u&s p la c e d i n in fo rm a l, u n s ta n d a rd is e d in te rv ie w s t h a t e l i c i t e d
dynamic m a te r ia l to e x p la in th e s u b j e c t 's b eh av io r*
However* t h i s c o n fi­
dence mas n o t com plete, and th e re mas d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w ith th e la c k o f ob­
j e c t i v i t y o f th e s e in te rv ie w s*
C lin io ia n s sought some teohnique t h a t mould
oombine th e adv an tag es o f a n o b je c tiv e in strtm tsn t and th o se o f th e i n t e r ­
view* a teo h n iq u e t h a t mould n o t s a c r i f i c e th e f r e e e x p re ss io n o f th e sub­
j e c t 's p e r s o n a lity t o s t a t i s t i c s and r i g i d l y c o n tr o lle d responses* y e t
would approaoh o b je c tiv ity *
Even b e fo re th e development o f th e s ta n d a rd is e d t e s t s d eso rib ed
above* th e r e had been a tte m p ts t o develop suoh a o l i n i o a l teohnique*
1
Jung* a t th e b e g in n in g o f th e oentury* had a tte m p te d t o ex p lo re em otional
ocmplexee by means o f f r e e a s s o c ia tio n s t o s ta n d a rd is e d stim u lu s words*
2
In th e U n ited S ta te s th e Kent H osanoff A s s o c ia tio n Test* a s e r i e s o f words
s ta n d a rd is e d on an American p o p u latio n * mas p u b lish e d i n 1910*
The fre e
a s s o c ia tio n t e s t i s more o lo s e ly r e l a t e d t o p r e s e n t p r o je c tiv e tech n iq u es
th a n a re th e o th e r p e r s o n a lity t e s t s * b u t i t mas n o t used a s e x te n s iv e ly
a s th e l a t t e r *
The newer p r o je o tiv e te c h n iq u e s which have been re c e iv in g
3
in c r e a s in g a t t e n t i o n and use i n t h i s country* u t i l i s e mare f le x ib le * odu­
p le x m a te r ia l th a n th e o ld word a s s o c ia tio n t e s t s * and th e s u b je o t can r e -
1*
2*
3*
F* L* W ells* M ental T e sts i n C lin ic a l P ra o tio e * p* 193*
G* H* f o n t and A* J* Hosanoff* A Study o f A s s o c ia tio n in I n s a n ity *
B a ltim o re t Lord B altim ore P re ss * 1910*
E. H orow its and L* B* Murphy, P r o je o tiv e Methods i n th e P sy o h o lo g io al
Study o f C hildren* J o u rn a l o f E xperim ental E d u catio n , VII* (1958),
pp* 135-140*
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
12
spand w ith fe v e r r e s t r i c t i o n s *
These p r o je o tiv e teo h n iq u ee do n o t l i m i t th em selv es t o d a ta
m easurable i n q u a n tita tiv e t e r n s , and th e y o f te n n e c e s s ita te th e in c lu ­
s io n o f q u a lita tiv e d ata*
The exponents o f suoh te c h n iq u e s claim t h a t
q u a n tita tiv e d a ta g iv e an im p re ssio n o f e x a c titu d e h u t i f p e r tin e n t q u a li­
t a t i v e d a ta a r e ig n o re d , t h i s e x a o titu d e becomes f a lla c io u s * Many
1
p s y c h o lo g is ts a re ad o p tin g t h i s p o in t o f v ie* * Murray o f H arvard says
t h a t he and h i s c o lle a g u e s p r e f e r r e d to in v e s tig a te th e more oomplex,
m ean in g fu l p a tte r n s o f p e r s o n a lity even though i t m eant le s s p r e c is io n ,
and th e y were aware t h a t many o f t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s mere p io n e e r
th e o r ie s and hyp o th eses t h a t m ust be f u r th e r v a lid a te d b e fo re th e y oould
be ao o ep ted as s o i e n t i f i o f a c t s , o r b e fo re th e y should be d iscard ed *
2
Gordon A llp o r t, i n h i s p r e s i d e n t i a l a d d re ss b e fo re th e American
P sy o h o lo g io al A s s o c ia tio n i n 1959,warned p s y c h o lo g is ts a g a in s t beocming l o s t
i n an in f in itu d e o f p re o is e m eth o d o lo g ical d e t a il*
He surveyed th e d ir e c ­
t i o n th e study o f psychology had ta k e n in th e U nited S ta te s and made some
p r e d ic tio n s on th e d ir e c tio n i t would have to ta k e in th e f u tu r e to main­
t a i n i t s e l f a s a soienoe*
H is e v a lu a tio n le d him t o make a p le a f o r th e
s o i e n t i f i o s tu d y o f more oomplex p a tte r n s o f d i r e c t experience o f in d iv i­
d u a ls r a t h e r th a n o f o nly th o s e is o l a t e d d e t a i l s o f experienoe t h a t p e r­
m it th e employment o f p r e s e n t p r e o is io n tech n iq u es*
He n o ted th e need
f o r th e in v e n tio n o f new methods o f researo h t o make th e stu d y o f person­
a l i t y s e rv ic e a b le in term s o f in d iv id u a l p r e d ic tio n and c o n tr o l r a th e r th a n
1*
2*
H* A* M urray, E x p lo ra tio n s i n P e r s o n a lity *
Gordon A l lp o r t, The P s y c h o lo g is t' s fW ae o f R eferen ce, P sy o h o lo g io al
B u lle tin * 5^7, 1, (Ja n u a ry , 1940), pp* 1-29*
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
13
o f a o t u a r l a l p re d ic tio n *
The r i s i n g i n t e r e s t i n p r o je o tiv e methods i s probably a r e f l e c ­
t i o n o f t h i s change o f em phasis in th e g e n e ra l f i e l d of psychology (w hich,
1
i n t u r n i s a r e f l e c t i o n o f th e tre n d i n th e o th e r so ien o es ) tow ard a
g r e a te r i n t e r e s t i n th e t o t a l in d iv id u a l and th e dynamic a f f e o tiv e re a c ­
t i o n s in flu e n c in g p e r s o n a lity , and tow ard a g r e a te r i n t e r e s t in th e frame
o f re fe re n c e f o r a l l problems*
Among th e s e p r o je o tiv e m ethods, "th e b e s t
2
developed and m ost w id ely used" i s th e Rorsohaoh in k b l o t t e s t , a method
o f p e r s o n a lity i n v e s tig a tio n t h a t a tte m p ts to be s e rv ic e a b le i n term s o f
in d iv id u a l p re d ic tio n *
P re Rorsohaoh Use o f In k B lo ts
S in ce th e e a r l y days o f ex p erim en tal psychology, in k b l o t s had
been used i n p sy o h o lo g io al s tu d ie s , u s u a lly as a t e s t o f v is u a l im agina­
tio n *
Many o f th e in v e s tig a to r s n o ted t h a t t h e b l o t s had wide p o s s i b i l i t i e s
i n e l i c i t i n g in d iv id u a l d if f e r e n c e s , b u t none o f them envisaged th e p o s s i -
^
b i l i t i e s t h a t Rorsohaoh l a t e r developed, and t h e i r work b o re l i t t l e r e l a ­
t i o n t o th e s e l a t e r developm ents*
Vernon s a y s , " • • • • th e Rorsohaoh t e s t
owes b u t l i t t l e t o th e work on in k b l o t s t h a t h a s been c a r r ie d out by p re 3
v io u s i n v e s tig a to r s suoh a s B in e t, D earborn, and W hipple*n
W hipple f i r s t summarized th e e a r ly use o f in k b lo t s in a c h a p te r
1*
2*
3*
F rank, op* o it*
G* W atson, Hew Trends i n C lin ic a l P ro ced u res and Psychotherapy,
J o u rn a l o f C o n su ltin g P sychology. IV, (May-June, 1940), p* 87*
P* V ernon,
The Rorsohaoh
In k b lo t T e s t,
I , B r i t i s h Jo u rn a l o f M edical
P sy ch o lo g y , 13, (1933), p* 90*
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
14
on T esta o f Im ag in atio n and in v e n tio n in h i s Manual o f M ental and P h y s ic a l
1
2
T e s ts * He m entions B in e t and H enri as f i r s t su g g e stin g , i n 1895, th e use
o f a s e r i e s o f in k b l o t s i n stu d y in g im agination*
Independent s tu d ie s were
3
p u b lish e d by Dearborn o f H arvard in 1897 and 1898* Follow ing th e se p io n e e r
4
5
s tu d e s oame th e work o f Sharp i n 1899, K ir p a trio k i n 1900, and P yle i n
6
1913 and 1915*
Ylhipple p u b lish e d a s ta n d a rd s e r i e s o f tw enty b lo ts
7
whioh he d eso rib ed i n h i s manual*
These w ere p robably th e f i r s t uniform
b l o ts a v a ila b le f o r e x p e rim e n ta tio n , b u t th e y were u n stan d a rd ized i n any
8
9
o th e r way* Two B r i t i s h w o rk e rs, B a r t l e t t (1916) and P arso n s (1917)
th e l a t t e r u sin g T O iipple's b l o t s , made advances in th e use o f in k b lo ts *
They weirs c a rry in g on t h e i r ex p e rim e n ta tio n in d ep en d en tly , a t th e same tim e
t h a t Borsohaoh was w orking on h i s s e r i e s , and t h e i r e f f o r t s were o lo s e r th a n
1*
2*
G* M* W hipple, Manual o f M ental and P h y s ic a l T ests* Chapter XI*
A* B in e t and V. H e n ri, La P syohologie I n d iv id u e lle , L'Annee P syohologique,
2, (1895-1896), p p . 411-465.
3* G* V* D earborn, B lo ts o f In k in E xperim ental P sychology, P sy o h o lo g io al
Review* 4 , (1 8 9 7 ), pp* 390-391* G, V* D earborn,
A stu d y o f
Im ag in atio n , Amsrioan J o u rn a l o f P sychology* 9 , (1 8 9 8 ), pp* 183190*
4* S* E* Sharp, I n d iv id u a l Psychology* A Study i n P sy o h o lo g io al M ethod,
Amerioan J o u rn a l o f Psychology* 10, (1 8 9 9 ), p p . 329-391*
5* E* A* K irk p a tric k , I n d iv id u a l ife sts o f Sbhool C h ild re n , P sy o h o lo g io al
Review* 7 , (1 9 0 0 ), pp* 274-280*
6* W. H* fcyie. The E xam ination o f School C h ild re n .
Idem* The Mind o f th e Negro C h ild , Sohool and Society* 1* (1 9 1 5 ),
pp* 557-360*
Idem* A P sy o h o lo g io al Study o f B rig h t and D u ll P u p ils , J o u rn a l
o f B d u o atlo n al Psychology, 6 , (1 9 1 5 ), pp* 151-156*
7 * Ylhipple, lo o * o i t *
8* F* C* B a r t l e t t , An E xperim ental Study o f Some Problem s o f P e rc e iv ­
ing and Im aging, B r i t i s h J o u rn a l o f Psyohology* 8 , (1916), pp*
222-266*
9* C* J* P arso n s, C h ild r e n 's I n te r p r e t a tio n o f In k -B lo ts* (A stu d y an
same o h a r a o t e r i s t i o s o f c h i l d r e n 's im a g in a tio n s* ), B r i t i s h
J o u rn a l o f Psyohology* 9 , (1 9 1 7 ), p p . 74-92*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
15
th e e a r l i e r stu d le e t o tb s Boraohaoh approach in th e ty p e o f stim ulus*
( B a r t l e t t 's use o f o o lo r and shading in th e b l o t s ) , in a d m in is tra tiv e
procedure* and in some o f th e a n a ly a is o f r e s u lts *
The work o f th e s e p s y c h o lo g is ts rem ained u n co o rd in ated and f r a g ­
m entary •
H ost o f them u sed d i f f e r e n t b l o t s and d i f f e r e n t prooedures*
th e n analyzed th e d a ta from d i f f e r e n t a sp e o ts*
She s ta t u s o f th e s e in k
b l o t s tu d ie s b e fo re Rorsohaoh i s a p tly summarized by H e lls in h is p re fa c e
t o Beok'* manual*
In k b lo ts had b een used in e x p e rim e n ta l psychology f o r
many y e a rs b e fo re Borsohaoh* t h e i r f u n c tio n b e in g to
in d io a te * i n a lim ite d tray, f e r t i l i t y o f im agination*
The s i t u a t i o n i s eom parable to t h a t whioh e x is t e d in
t e s t s o f th e 'h ig h e r m ental p r o c e s s e s ' b e fo re B in et
sy n th e s iz e d them i n to a t e s t o f 'i n t e l l i g e n c e * ' A ll
th e te c h n iq u e s n e c e ssa ry to th e o a n s tru o tio n o f a
v e ry e f f i c i e n t i n te llig e n c e t e s t e x is te d long b e fo re
th e b eg in n in g o f th e p re s e n t oentury* To see in them
th e f u r t h e r m eanings whioh B in e t saw i n them and th o se
whioh Rorsohaoh saw i n in k b lo ts , a r e a p t examples o f
t h a t o r e a tiv e th in k in g whioh i s o a lle d genius****
He (Rorsohaoh) had l e s s fo u n d a tio n t o b u ild on, h is
ta s k was h ard er* and he was g iv en le s s tim e * l
R orsohaoh's Work
I t was n o t a n e x p e rim e n ta l p sy ch o lo g ist* then* who f i n a l l y de­
velo p ed in k b l o t s i n t o a sy ste m a tic teohnique o f p e r s o n a lity study*
Borsohaoh was a Swiss p s y c h i a t r i s t who saw th e v a lu e o f an in k b l o t
1*
S* J* Beok* I n tr o d u c tio n t o th e Rorsohaoh Method* a manual o f p e r ­
s o n a lity s tu ty * p* x i*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
16
s e r i e s i n p ro b in g p e r s o n a lity a s a n a id in p s y o h ia tr io d ia g n o s is , and p ro ­
ceeded t o s ta n d a rd is e th e use o f b lo ts f o r o l i n i o a l purposes*
Thus he
1
c r e a te d a "new p sy o h o lo g io al in stru m e n t f o r ifce study o f p e r s o n a lity * w
I t i s q u e stio n a b le -whether he knew o f th e work b e in g c a r r i e d an by Amerioan
and B r i t i s h e x p e rim e n ta l p s y c h o lo g is ts (W hipple, P y le , B a r t l e t t , P arso n s)
a t th e same tim e he was p u rsu in g h i s in v e s tig a tio n s *
A t any r a t e , he makes
no m ention o f them*
Rorsohaoh f i r s t began t o in v e s tig a te th e o l i n i o a l s ig n if ic a n c e o f
in k b l o t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s i n 1911*
A t th e same tim e he was p u b lis h in g papers
on v a r io u s n e u r o lo g ic a l and p s y o h ia tr io problem s, b u t h i s name h a s beocme
synonamous w ith th e in k b l o t teo h n iq u e whioh he developed*
A fte r te n y e a rs
o f e x p e rim e n ta tio n , d u rin g whioh he t r i e d out a v a r i e t y o f b l o t s made w ith
b la o k and o o lo re d in k , he p u b lish e d h i s fin d in g s to g e th e r w ith a f u l l de­
s c r i p t i o n o f th e method and sample oase s tu d ie s in h is P sy o h o d iag n o atik .
2
in 1921.
H is work was o u t s h o r t by h i s untim ely d e a th in 1922* A
posthumous a r t i c l e on th e f u r t h e r a p p lic a tio n o f th e method was p u b lish e d
S
by O berholser*
This a r t i o l e and R orsohaoh's manual a r e th e b a s io t e x ts
on th e method*
The T e st
The t e s t a s f i n a l l y o o n stru o te d o o n s is ts o f t e n in k b l o t s p r in te d
1.
2*
3*
Beok, The Rorsohaoh T e st a s A pplied to a Feeblem inded Group, fep, o i t *,
p* 16*
H* Rorsohaoh, P syohodiagnostik*
H* Rorsohaoh and B* O b e rh o lse r, Zur Auswertung des F om deutversuoh
f u r d ie P sy ch o an aly se, Z e it s o h r i f t f u r d ie gesamte N eurologic und
P s y o h ia tr io , l x x x i i , (1 9 2 3 ), p p . 240-274, T ra n s la te d , The A p p lio a tio n o f th e I n te r p r e t a t i o n o f Form t o P sy c h o a n a ly sis, J o u rn a l
o f Nervous and M ental D is e a se s , l x , (1924), pp* 225-248; 359-379*
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
17
o e n t r a l ly on w h ite she a t a m easuring ap p ro x im ately 9 3 /4 by 7 inohe s , p a s te d
on oards o f t h a t siz e * *
Five o f th e b l o t s a re b la o k and g re y , tyro in clu d e
some re d s p lo tc h e s , and th r e e a re m u lti-c o lo re d *
A d e ta ile d d e s c r ip tio n
o f th e s i z e , o o lo r s , and form o f each b l o t may be found in B ook's stu d y
1
on th e feeb lem in d ed , and a d e s c r ip tio n o f th e type o f resp o n ses e l i o i t e d
2
by each c a rd i s g iv en i n R o rsch ach 's P syohodiagnostik*
The f i n a l s e r ie s
o f b l o t s was s e le c te d from a la rg e number o f p re lim in a ry p la te s *
Eaoh.
p ic tu r e had t o f u l f i l l c e r t a i n c o n d itio n s o f s p a t i a l rhythm or i t would
la o k p i c t o r i a l q u a lity and s u b je o ts would r e j e c t th e o a rd a s m erely a b l o t ,
3
n o t a tte m p tin g t o make any in te r p r e ta tio n *
I n a d d itio n , eaoh p ic tu r e i n
4
th e s e r i e s h as a s p e o ifio fu n ctio n *
As a r e s u l t , "eaoh p ic tu r e a s w e ll
a s th e whole s e r i e s m ust be t e s t e d many tim e s b e fo re a s e rv ic e a b le t e s t i n 5
strum ent i s a r r iv e d a t* "
Hence, a lth o u g h th e c o n s tr u c tio n o f b l o t s i s
sim p le, th e o o n s tr u e tio n o f a s a t i s f a c t o r y t e s t s e r ie s was d i f f i o u l t and
tim e oonsuming*
S t an d ar diz a t io n P o p u la tio n
I n s ta n d a rd iz in g h is f i n a l s e r ie s o f te n b l o t s , Rorsohaoh used
f o u r hundred and f iv e (405) a d u lts ; one hundred and se v e n te e n (117) norm al,
two hundred and e ig h ty - e ig h t (288) abnormal*
Table I shows an a n a ly s is
o f the o a e ss he used*
*
1*
2*
3*
4*
5*
The f i r s t e d i t i o n o o n s is te d o f th e s h e e ts t o be p a s te d on cards*
L a te r e d itio n s a r e p r in te d on th e cards*
Beok, op* p i t * * pp* 31, 32*
R orsohaoh, op* o i t * , p* 56*
Ib id * , p* 15*
i PP*
56 •
I b id * , p* 15*
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
18
1
TABLE I
Cases Used by Rorsohaoh in S ta n d a rd iz in g h i s F in a l S e rie s
Norm als, ed u cated
Norm als, uneduoated
P sych o p ath ic p e r s o n a l i t i e s
A lo ah o lio s
Morans, Im beoiles*
S ohizophrenios
M an ic -d ep ressiv es
E p ile p tio s
P a r a ly tic s
S en ile dements
A r te r i o s a f l e r o t i o s
K orsakoffs and s im ila r
o rg an io m en tal d is o rd e rs
1.
*
Men
35
20
12
8
10
105
4
17
7
7
3
3
231
Women
20
42
8
-
2
83
10
3
1
3
2
174
T o tal
55
62
20
28
12
188
14
20
8
10
5
3
405
Rorsohaoh, o p . p i t . , p . 19.
There i s no m ention o f any i n te llig e n c e t e s t r e s u l t s .
Rorsohaoh r e a l i z e d t h a t th e numbers in same o f th e s e groups mere
to o sm all f o r c o n c lu siv e r e s u l t s , b u t he f e l t t h a t h i s r e s u l t s mere sug­
g e s tiv e o f d e f i n i t e d ia g n o s tio d iffe re n o e s and should be t e s t e d o u t by
a p p lic a tio n t o a la rg e number o f o ases and by f u r t h e r e x p e rim e n ta tio n .
Throughout, h i s a t t i t u d e tow ard h i s work mas t h a t i t mas ex p erim en tal and
t h a t h i s r e s u l t s mere te n ta tiv e *
Rorschach* s F indings
He w rote t h a t " o r i g i n a l l y th e p la n o f in v e s tig a tio n follow ed along
th e o r e t io a l lin e s *
T hat th e ex p e rim en tal r e s u l t s showed th e y had d ia g ­
n o s tio v a lu e mas re v e a le d on a p u re ly e m p irio a l b a s i s , q u ite unsought.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
It
19
1
was th u s t h a t a ' t e s t ' developed from an 'e x p e rim e n t.^
He olaim ed th a t
th e r e s u l t s o b ta in e d by means o f h i s te c h n iq u e , y i e l d , in th e hands o f an
ex p erien ced exam iner, an in te n s iv e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f a s u b je c t's person­
a l i t y b o th i n re g a rd t o th e l e v e l and q u a lity o f i n t e l l e o t u a l and a f f e c tiv e
f a c t o r s and th e in t e r a c t io n betw een th e s e fa c to rs *
Some o f th e g en eral
f a c t o r s in v e s tig a te d a re th e le v e l o f in te l l i g e n c e , a b i l i t y t o fu n c tio n
a t i n t e l l e o t u a l l e v e l , o r i g i n a l i t y , s te r e o ty p y , em otional s t a b i l i t y o r i n ­
s t a b i l i t y , th e e f f e c t o f th e em o tio n al s t a t e on i n t e l l e o t u a l f u n c tio n in g ,
a b i l i t y to a d a p t t o s o c ia l demands, tendenoy t o make s o c ia l c o n ta c ts or
tend en cy t o w ithdraw from s o c ia l o o n ta o ts , e g o o e n trio ity *
o f th e g en e ral f a c to rs *
These a re a few
I n a d d itio n , i t i s olaim ed th a t th e t e s t a id s in
th e d ia g n o sis o f d i f f e r e n t m en tal d is o r d e r s sin c e o h a r a o te r is tio ty p es o f
psyohograms a re o b tain ed from d i f f e r e n t o l i n io a l groups*
Rorsohaoh pub­
li s h e d ta b le s o f th e a v erag es he o b ta in e d f o r v a rio u s groups*
However,
he in d io a te d t h a t th e r e was wide v a r i a b i l i t y in in d iv id u a l oases and t h a t
a v a l i d d ia g n o sis could n o t be o b ta in e d by a m echanical com parison o f
n u m erical r e s u l t s w ith th o se o f h i s t a b l e s , b u t re q u ire d s k i l l f u l i n t e r ­
p r e t a t io n s and em p irio al in fe re n c e b ased upon th e s u b tle i n te r r e la t io n s h ip s
o f a l l th e d a ta and ‘the q u a l i t a t i v e a s p e c ts o f th e perform ance*
He was
c a r e f u l to s t a t e t h a t th e av erag es g iv en in h i s t a b l e s were o n ly "rough
average r e s u l t s , " and t o em phasize th e need f o r f u r t h e r s u b s ta n tia tio n o f
h i s data*
Y et, "th e ty p i o a l s c o re s o f v a rio u s o l i n i o a l groups whioh he
2
ta b u la te d have i n th e m ain been s u b s ta n tia te d by subsequent in v e s tig a to r s * "
1*
2*
Rorsohaoh, 0£* p i t * * p* 128*
P* E . V ernon, The S ig n ific a n c e o f th e Rorsohaoh T e st, B r i t i s h Jo u rn a l
o f M edical Psychology, XV, (O otober, 1935), p* 208*
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Rorsohaoh s ta t e d :
The experim ent i n tim e w i l l perhaps p r a c t i c a l l y always
p erm it one t o d e c id e w hether a s u b je c t i s m e n ta lly
h e a lth y o r n e u r o t ic , sch iz o p h ren ia or o r g a n ic a lly i l l .
In m ost o ases to d a y th e r e i s a lre a d y a v ery d i f f e r e n ­
t i a t e d d ia g n o sis o f m e n ta l p a t i e n t s , and among th e
h e a lth y and n e u r o tic a d i f f e r e n t i a t e d p e r s o n a lity
d ia g n o sis i s lik e w is e p o s s i b l e .1
Rorsohaoh d id n o t make ex ag gerated o la im s.
YJherever h is fin d in g s
were t e n t a t i v e he em phasized th e need f o r f u r t h e r in v e s tig a t io n .
p o s s ib le he attem p ted t o ap p ly s t a t i s t i o a l methods and
as o b je c tiv e as p o s s ib le .
"Wherever
t o make th e t e s t
He d e riv e d h is c o n clu sio n s and oheokad t o see i f
s t a t i s t i o a l , o l i n i o a l , and t h e o r e t i c a l co n clu sio n s a g re e d .
In d is c u s s in g
h i s sta n d a rd s f o r good form re s p o n s e s , he s ta t e d :
To exolude th e s u b je o tiv e e v a lu a tio n a s muoh a s pos­
s ib le o o u ld only be done s t a t i s t i c a l l y . . . . In s p it e
o f th e s t a t i s t i o a l d e te rm in a tio n o f th e normal ran g e,
in th e judgment o f th o se responses which a re b e t t e r
or worse th a n th e good normal answ ers, s u b je c tiv e
judgment s t i l l h a s f r e e p l a y .2
R orsohaohfs S u g g estio n s f o r F u rth e r R esearch
Throughout ih e monograph he made a p e o ifio su g g e stio n s f o r f u r ­
t h e r re se aro h t o improve th e m ethod.
H is g e n e ra l a t t i t u d e tow ard t h i s need
f o r f u r th e r re s e a ro h i s w e ll e x p ressed in h i s d is c u s s io n o f one a s p e o t o f
h i s experim ent.
He w ro te , " th e s u b je o t i s so e x te n s iv e and th e q u e stio n s
a re so numerous, th e m a te r ia l so r e l a t i v e l y s m a ll, t h a t a g r e a t many s e r ie s
3
o f experim ents a re s t i l l needed t o prooeed any f u r th e r w ith i t . "
1.
2.
3.
Rorsohaoh, op. o i t . , p p . 128-129.
I b id ., p . 23.
I b i d . , p . 123.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
He su g g e sted s tu d ie s to d eterm in e age and sex d if f e r e n c e s , com parisons o f
r e s u l t s o f whole f a m ilie s , o f members o f d i f f e r e n t v o c a tio n s , n a tio n s ,
rao es*
O ther su g g estio n s mere f o r f u r t h e r o o n tro l experim ents t o t e s t
f o r s p e o ia l f a c to r s *
c a r r i e d on*
To i l l u s t r a t e , he o ite d a few experim ents whioh he
One ingenious experim ent to check th e symptomatic v a lu e o f
o o lo r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s i n e p i l e p t i o s was t r i e d o u t a f t e r th e r e s u l t s in th e
o r ig i n a l s e r i e s showed t h a t e p i l e p t i o s responded p r im a r ily t o o o lo r, over­
lo o k in g th e form on th e o o lo re d b lo ts *
He oheoked t h i s f in d in g by con­
s t r u c t i n g th r e e c a rd s w ith c o n v e n tio n a lly drawn anim als p a in te d in th e
c o lo r s o h a r a o t e r i s t i o o f o th e r a n im a ls, and found t h a t only th e e p i l e p t i o s ,
and e s p e o ia lly th e feeblem inded e p i l e p t i o s , overlooked
th e o a t a f r o g , etc*
th e form and c a lle d
He su g g ested many o th e r c o n tr o l e x p e rim e n ts, some t o
d eterm in e th e e f f e c t o f lim itin g freedom o f ohoioe on c e r t a i n asp eo ts*
He
a ls o o a r e f u lly o u tlin e d th e pro ced u re f o r o o n s tru o tin g a p a r a l l e l s e rie s *
He f e l t such a s e r i e s was n e c e s sa ry f o r th e g r e a te r u s e fu ln e s s o f th e t e s t
i n exam ining th e same p a tie n ts a t d i f f e r e n t tim es and f o r f u r t h e r experim en­
ta tio n *
nTo answer many s p e o ia l q u e s tio n s would n a t u r a l ly re q u ire much
1
co rresp o n d in g m a te r ia l o b ta in e d from d i f f e r e n t p a r a l l e l s e r ie s * " Some o f
h i s su g g e stio n s f o r f u r th e r re se a ro h have been in v e s tig a te d , b u t th e work
on many o f them i s s t i l l t o be done.
I t i s a rem arkable t r i b u t e t o th e g en iu s o f th e man
t h a t i t has been found n e c e s sa ry t o ohange so few o f
h i s o r ig i n a l concepts* U ndoubtedly Rorsohaoh had more
evidence f o r h is c o n c lu sio n s th a n was p re s e n te d i n th e
P sy o h o d iag n o stik — he h i n t s a t i t in s e v e ra l p l a c e s . . . .
1*
R orsohaoh, op* o i t », p* 71*
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22
In a few in s ta n c e s norma have been revised, f o r lo c a l
u s e , and o r ig in a l co n cep ts have been e la b o r a te d b u t,
i n th e m ain, R orsohaoh’ s s ta n d a rd s a re g e n e ra lly em­
ployed i n th e s e r e v is io n s and h i s s u g g e stio n s f o r ob­
ta in in g them a re used*-*-
G eneral Survey o f Work w ith th e Rorschach Technique
A fte r th e p u b lic a tio n o f R orsohaoh's r e s u l t s , oontinued e x p e ri­
m e n ta tio n w ith h i s te ch n iq u e was a t f i r s t m ost e x te n s iv e in S w itzerla n d ,
where he had worked*
By 1933, acco rding t o V ernon, th e Rorsohaoh was
"w idely used i n c o n tin e n ta l c o u n trie s a s a p s y o h ia tr io d ia g n o s tic m ethod,
2
b u t * • • • s t i l l l i t t l e known i n England and A m erica."
In 1935 Vernon s ta te d
t h a t t o h i s " c e r ta in knowledge th e t e s t i s a lre a d y u sed in a t l e a s t f i f 3
te e n d i f f e r e n t c o u n trie s and in n e a rly a dozen d i f f e r e n t languages*"
The m ost re o e n t su rv ey o f th e l i t e r a t u r e shows a b ib lio g ra p h y o f
over 250 t i t l e s in o v er a dozen lan g u ag es, a s w e ll as a jo u rn a l devoted ex­
c lu s iv e ly t o s tu d ie s o f th e Rorsohaoh* In th e work p u b lish ed up to June,
4
1940, th e r e a re t h i r t e e n languages and se v en teen o o u n trie s rep resen ted *
The g r e a t m a jo rity o f 251 p ap e rs a re i n German o r E n g lis h , and the la r g e s t
pero en tag e o f re o e n t p ap e rs a r e in American jo u rn a ls *
Very l i t t l e was done
in th e U n ited S ta te s w ith th e Rorsohaoh b e fo re 1931, b u t from t h a t y e a r to
1940 more th a n h a l f (59/2) o f th e p ap ers an th e Rorsohaoh tech n iq u e were pub-
1*
M* Krugman, Out o f th e In k W ells The Rorsohaoh Method, C haracter and
P e r s o n a lity , IX, 2 , (Deoember, 1940), p* 93*
2* V ernon, The Rorsohaoh In k B lo t T e s t, op* o l t » , p* 89.
3* Idem, Reoent Work on th e Rorsohaoh T e st, Jo u rn a l o f M ental S cien ce,
lx x x i, (O cto b er, 1935), p* 916*
4* Krugoan, op* o i t » , p p . 97-98*
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23
lish e d in th e United S tates*
The f i r s t im portant p u b lic a tio n on the Rorsohaoh t e s t in th e
United S ta te s was th e tr a n s la tio n o f th e Rorsohaoh and Oberholzer a r t i c l e
1
in 1924.
Dr* David Levy introduced th e method here a t t h a t tim e, and
influenced Beck to do rese a rc h on th e instrum ent*
Beok d id h is e a r ly work
2
on the Rorsohaoh t e s t under th e guidance o f Levy, W ells, and Oberholzer*
3
His f i r s t stu d ie s appeared in 1930.
Following t h i s he made many im portant
and d iv erse c o n trib u tio n s on th e Rorsohaoh method and i t s a p p lic a tio n to
v ario u s groups,
and beoame an o utstanding a u th o rity on th e Rorsohaoh method
in the U nited S tates*
The in c re a sin g a tte n tio n the Rorsohaoh t e s t has received in the
l a s t few y ears i s due to a number o f c o n trib u to ry oauses*
The e a r ly
workers were impressed w ith i t s o lin io a l u se fu ln e ss, and t h e i r p u b lic a tio n s
and o ra l p re s e n ta tio n s stim u la te d i n t e r e s t in the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f t h i s
new teohnique of p e rs o n a lity study*
However, sinoe m astery of th e com­
plex technique was d i f f i o u l t and the manual was no t t r a n s la te d , i t was a
sm all, e s o te ric group who attem pted to use the Rorsohaoh*
I t s use beoame
more widespread a f t e r th e a r r i v a l in t h i s oountry o f a la rg e number o f
European w orkers, who had m igrated as a r e s u lt o f the d ep lo rab le p o l i t i o a l
s itu a tio n abroad*
These workers gave courses in the method, published
a r t i o l e s , and stim u la te d o th ers to do researoh*
1*
2*
3*
Among them was Dr* Emil
Rorsohaoh and O berholzer, op* p it*
S. J* Beok, In tro d u c tio n to th e Rorsohaoh Method, p* i x .
Idem. P e rso n a lity Diagnosis by Means o f th e Rorsohaoh T est, American
Jo u rn a l of O rthopsychiatry, 1, (1930), pp* 81-88,
Idem. The Rorsohaon Method and P e rso n a lity D iagnosis. I .
The Feebleminded, American Jo u rn a l of P sy c h ia try , 10, (1930),
pp* 9-52*
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
24
O berholzer, mho had c o llab o ra ted w ith Rorsohaoh*
A nother, Dr* Bruno
K lp fer, has been most a ctiv e in e s ta b lis h in g courses in u n i v e r s it i e s , and
introduoing the method in o lin io s , h o s p ita ls , and researo h o e n ters*
He
founded th e Rorsohaoh Exohange in 1936 and the Rorsohaoh I n s t i t u t e in 1939*
The Rorsohaoh Researoh Exohange, from i t s founding to June, 1940, has pub­
lis h e d 62 % o f th e Rorsohaoh a r t i o le s appearing in jo u rn a ls in th e United
S ta te s , and has undoubtedly had a marked influenoe on the e x ten sio n of the
use o f th e Rorsohaoh method*
I t i s n o t w ith in the soope o f t h is study to summarize th e extensive
work th a t has been o a rrie d on in t h i s oountry and abroad*
The Rorsohaoh
t e s t has been used in c l i n i c a l p ra c tio e and in researo h w ith th e most v a rie d
groups fo r d iv erse purposes*
Table I I gives some in d io a tio n o f the v a rie ty
o f populations and soope of problems stu d ied w ith the Rorsohaoh te s t*
This l i s t in inocmplete in resp ect to both the soope o f stu d ie s and the
number o f in v e s tig a to rs publishing fin d in g s on th ese problems*
I t is in -
oluded m erely to in d ic a te the extensive a p p lic a tio n of th e te s t*
Previous S tudies R elated to the Problem
Sinoe the l i t e r a t u r e is so v a rie d and as t h is study i s a o lin io a l
v a lid a tio n o f th e technique w ith problem c h ild re n of normal in te llig e n c e ,
only th o se stu d ie s o f r e l i a b i l i t y and v a li d i ty , which seem to be r e la te d
to t h i s in v e s tig a tio n w ill be summarized*
Rorsohaoh seems to have worked
p rim a rily w ith a d u lts b u t he did mention r e s u l ts to be expected frcm. c h il ­
dren, and th e t e s t ha6 been w idely used w ith o h ild ren o f v arying types and
ages*
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TABLE II
R epresentative Studies of the Rorsohaoh Method i n Various F ie ld s
Types or F ie ld s Studied
♦
In d iv id u als Making These S tudies
C hildren and Adolesoents
D ubitsoher, Schneider, L o o sli-U ste ri,
Leopfe, H ertz, M ira, K err.
A dults, Normal and Abnor­
mal
Gardner, Levy and Beok, Guirdham,
Vernon.
Feebleminded
P f i s t e r , Beok, P a tte rs o n and Magaw.
Problem C hildren
Beok, K err, P a tte rso n and Magaw.
Delinquents
Z u llig e r, E lv in , Endara.
V o catio n al, E duoational,
and College Guidanoe
Vernon, Schneider, Z u llig e r,
Munroe.
Neurosis
O berholzer, P io tro w sk i, Miale and
H arrower-Eriokson.
Schizophrenia
Skalw eit, Beok, Dimmick, R ickers,
K elley & K lopfer, P io tro w sk i.
Use o f In s u lin Treatment
P io tro w sk i.
M anio-depressive Psyohoses
Levy and Beck.
M a larial Treatment in
General P a re s is
Monnier
E pilepsy
Guirdham, Borges, A rluok, P iotrow ski,
K elley, Kelley and M argulies.
Organic and N eurological
D isturbances
V e it, P io tro w sk i, Harrower-Eriokson,
Schenk.
Alcoholism
Weber, Jast& k, K elley and B a rre ra .
Drugs
Wertham and B le u le r, Kelley and
Levine.
H eredity
B le u le r, Saudek, V erschuer, K err.
Raoe and C u ltu ra l D if­
ferences
L o o sli-U ste ri, B le u le r, H unter,
H allow ell.
* See B ibliography fo r sp e o ifio s tu d ie s .
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R e lia b ility
R e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y o f t h i s method have been co n sid e red
c lo s e ly r e l a t e d p roblem s, and sane i n v e s tig a to r s have su g g ested t h a t b o th
problem s sh o u ld b e s tu d ie d to g e th e r*
There have been a number o f s tu d ie s
o f th e r e l i a b i l i t y o f th e Rorsohaoh b u t most o f t h e r e s u l t s have been i n ­
c o n clu siv e o r o a n f lio tin g *
I t i s p ro b ab ly t h a t th e s e r e s u l t s have been
p oor beoause t h e methods u sed t o s tu d y r e l i a b i l i t y have been inadequate
mhen a p p lie d t o a complex q u a l i t a t i v e in stru m e n t l i k e th e Rorsohaoh*
V arious methods have b een used*
The f i r s t s tu d ie s mere n o m - s ta ti s tio a l ,
1
and each u sed a d i f f e r e n t approaoh* M ira (1925) re p e a te d th e s e r ie s
2
a f t e r a f o r t n i g h t . Wortham and B le u le r (1932) a p p lie d th e t e s t f i r s t
u nder normal c o n d itio n s , th e n under th e in flu e n c e o f m eaoaline* Behn3
S8ohenburg (1921) u sed a p a r a l l e l s e r i e s w ith o h ild re n and olaim ed r e ­
s u l t s mere th e same a s i n th e o r ig i n a l s e rie s * *
E a rly S t a t i s t i o a l T reatm ent
im e rio a n and B r i t i s h i n v e s tig a to r s m anted more a b je c tiv e d a ta on
th e r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y o f th e method and attem p ted t o s tu d y r e l i a b i l i t y
b y means o f s t a t i s t i c a l methods*
Table I I I summarizes th e types and main
r e s u l t s o f th e s e s tu d ie s *
1.
2*
3*
*
E* M ira , Sob re e t v a lo r d e l P s io o d ig n o s tio o de R orsohaoh, Los P ro g re s ­
s e s de l a C lin ic a , (1 9 2 5 ), 30, pp* 808-845.
F* Wortham and 3* B le u le r, In co n stan cy o f t i e Formal S tru c tu re o f th e
P e r s o n a lity ! E x p e rim en tal stu d y o f th e in flu e n c e o f m esoaline
an th e Rorsohaoh T e st, A rohives a f Hetiro logy and P s y c h ia try , 28,
(1 9 3 2 ), p p . 52-70.
H* Behn-Ssohenburg, P syohlsohe Sohuleruntersuohungem m it dam t o m deutversuoh*
There mere s e v e r a l o th e rs mho u sed d i f f e r e n t s e r i e s (Roomer, S tru v e ,
W eil, Gordon and Norman) b u t th e r e i s no evidence t h a t th e s e mere
a c tu a lly e q u iv a le n t t o th e o r ig i n a l s e r i e s .
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
TABLE I II
S t a t i s t i o a l S tudies of the R e lia b ility of th e Rorsohaoh Reported in the L ite ra tu re
In v e s tig a to r
Date
Method
Number
Vernon*
1933
S p lith a lf*
90
Hertz*
1934
S p lith a lf*
300
Kerr
1936
R etest
1 y ear
Thornton ^nd
G uilford*#
1936
Troup
1938
Fosberg
1939
P opulation
Faotors C o rrelated
E nglish and
American o o llege
v a rie ty
,33 to
.91
r
.54
Ju n io r high
sohool s tu ­
dents
v a rie ty
,6 0 to
,94
r
«83
50
E nglish o h ildren
v a rie ty
.001 to .74
S p lith a lf*
53
58
College s tu ­
dents
e rle b n isty p u s
.919 and .938
•768 and .655
R e te st
a y °a r
20
10-14 y ear
tw ins
v a rie ty
.56 to
r
.74
20
10-14 y ear
twins
matohing ocmplete
psychogram
C .88 (5*5)
.94 (10*10)
66
A dults — a t
l e a s t 1 year
psychology
M iscellaneous
from l i t e r a ­
tu re
c o rre la tio n s fo r
p a rts and t o t a l
t e s t — on t h is
ta b le t o t a l t e s t
r .855 to .917
R e te st
v a rie d
d ire c tio n s
26
R esu lts
Range of r s
Average
.82
r ,807 to .914
* Eaoh o f these in v e s tig a to rs used d if f e r e n t oards to make up t h e i r h a lv e s:
Vernon — I , I I I , V, V I, X, a g a in st I I , IV, V II, V III , IX,
Hertz — I , I I I , V, V II, IX a g a in st I I , IV, VI, V III, X,
Thornton — I , I I I , V, V III, IX a g a in st I I , IV, VI, V II, X,
and G uilford
# These r e s u l ts are f o r the same ite a * w ith both groups. The d ire o tio n s given th e groups were v ery d if f e r e n t.
28
I t should be noted th a t th e r e s u l ts o f these in v e s tig a tio n s oannot
be ocmpared d i r e c tl y because o f d iffe re n c e s in s t a t i s t i o a l m ethods, in
th e v a ria b le s c o rre la te d , in types o f p o p u latio n , and in the a d m in istra tio n
1
2
and so o rin g o f the te s t* Vernon (1933) and Hertz (1934) r e a liz e d th a t
th e u su al s t a t i s t i c a l methods th a t th ey a p p lie d were n o t e n ti r e l y adequate
b u t th ey f e l t t h a t s t a t i s t i o a l a n a ly sis mas n ecessary .
Since th e re mas no
p a r a l le l s e r ie s they re so rte d to the s p l i t - h a l f method, attem pting to oampute r e l i a b i l i t i e s fo r the various response c a te g o rie s , and a ls o -working
out in te r o o r re la tio n s between v a rio u s c a te g o rie s to fin d out i f Rorsohaoh1s
o rig in a l a s s e rtio n s were valid*
Both in v e s tig a to rs , attem pting to get
mare o r le s s eq u iv a le n t h a lv e s, s e le o te d d if f e r e n t oards t o make up these
h a lv e s, and both re a liz e d t h e i r h alv es were n o t tr u ly e q u iv a le n t.
r e s u l ts were c o n tra d ic to ry .
Their
H ertz’ s fin d in g s showed f a i r l y good r e l i a b i l i ­
t i e s f o r most item s, while Vernon’ s showed low and varying r e s u lts w ith
h is th re e groups t o ta lin g 90 s u b je c ts .
The only c o e ff ic ie n t he found above
• 90 was f o r th e number of resp o n ses. A ll the others were below .7 4 .
3
K e rr's r e s u l t s , using the r e t e s t method, were more lik e V ernon's. Thornton
4
and G uilford in v e stig a te d only a lim ite d a sp e c t of the Rorsohaoh, the
1.
2.
3.
4.
P . E . Vernon, The Rorsohaoh Ink B lot T e st, op. p i t .
M. R. H ertz, The Rorsohaoh Ink-B lot T est: H is to ric a l Summary,
Psychological B u lle tin , 32, (Jan u ary , 1955), p p . 33-66.
M. K err, Temperamental D ifferenoes in Twins, B r itis h Journal o f
Psychology, 27, (1936), pp. 51-59.
G. R. Thornton and J . P . G uilford, The R e lia b ility and Meaning of
E rleb n isty p u s Soores in th e Rorsohaoh T est, Jo u rn al o f Abnormal
and S ocial Psychology, 31, (1936), pp. 324-330.
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29
erleb n isty p u s* using two groups o f oollege stu d e n ts and using d if f e re n t
in s tr u c tio n s fo r each group*
One group showed high r e l i a b i l i t y * the other
low*
Sinoe th e v a ria b le s c o rre la te d by th e se in v e s tig a to rs were the
numerioal soores o f various categ o ries*
sinoe d if f e r e n t in stru c tio n s*
sco rin g schemes, and oards fo r th e halves were used* one would expeot d is ­
crepan cies in th e re s u lts *
There i s fu rth er* a more fundamental e rro r
t h a t makes t h i s type of study o f r e l i a b i l i t y o f questionable value when
a p p lied to th e Rorsohaoh*
In using is o la te d soores and in d iv id in g the
s e r ie s th e in te r r e la tio n s h ip s and c o n fig u ra tio n s o f a l l th e responses*
which a re th e e s s e n tia l c o n trib u tio n of the Rorsohaoh are n e c e s s a rily ig ­
nored*
Piotrow ski* in c r i t i c i s i n g th e work o f Thornton and G uilford,
Hertz* and Vernon, on th e e rleb n isty p u s* say s:
No r e lia b le and unequivooal conclusions can be drawn
from any sin g le Rorsohaoh component* This i s a
fundamental m ethodological p rin c ip le o f the Rorschach
method* No in v e s tig a tio n which i s not c o n s is te n t w ith
t h i s p rin c ip le can have any bearing upon the problem
o f th e r e l i a b i l i t y of th e Rorsohaoh m ethod.*••
A ll th e statem ents which Rorsohaoh made about h is
method were based on experim ents w ith th e te n ink
b lo ts as one undivided s e r ie s * •*• I t i s an in c o r r ig i­
b le e rr o r to s p l i t the s e rie s in to halves and t r e a t
idie h alves as two d if f e r e n t b u t eq u iv a le n t forms of
th e whole se ries* * * .
The u su a l s t a t i s t i o a l methods are q u ite inadequate fo r
th e purpose.1
*
1*
The experience or p e rs o n a lity type*
Z* Piotrow ski* The R e lia b ility o f Rorsohaoh’a 6 rle b n isty p u sv Journal
o f Abnormal and Sooial Psychology* 52* (1937)* pp. 439-441*
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30
As noted above, Vernon and Hertz expressed some doubts about th e
a p p lic a b ility of the s t a t i s t i o a l methods t h a t th ey employed, in d ic a tin g
t h a t th e procedures of d iv id in g th e s e r ie s in to two halves and o f c o r­
r e la tin g is o la te d soores were both questionable*
Vernon, in th e same s e r ie s
o f a r t i o l e s in which he re p o rts h is c o rre la tio n s of r e l i a b i l i t y sa y s, "To
apply s t a t i s t i o a l standards to each se p a ra te soore i s unsound sinoe th e
sig n ific a n c e of eaoh soore i s deemed to be dependant on th e whole o f th e
1
psydhogram#"
The Matching Technique
To otreroflme t h i s problem o f u sin g is o la te d soores, Vernon sug­
g ested the a p p lic a tio n of th e m&tohing method to- problems of the Rorsohaoh*
This s t a t i s t i c a l method w i l l be disoussed below**
Troup used th e m atching
method in h e r study of th e r e l i a b i l i t y o f th e Rorsohaoh method in her stu d y
o f Idie p e rso n a lity o f tw ins*
Her r e s u lts confirmed Vernon’s im pression
t h a t th e matching method was more a p p lica b le to t h i s type of d ata than c o r­
r e la tio n a l techniques*
She found muoh b e tte r r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f ic ie n ts With
th e matching method th an w ith c o rre la tio n techniques applied t o in d iv id u a l
sooring categ o ries*
The contingency c o e f f ic ie n ts obtained were high,
(•88 and *94) and in view o f th e f a o t th a t th e judges were given only th e
sooring summaries and were not given the s u b je c ts ' a o tu a l responses "be­
cause of th e fao to r of id e n tic a l answ ers," even higher r e s u lts might be
expected i f the judges had a l l of th e inform ation av aila b le on the t e s t p e r-
1* Vernon, op» c i t *, p* 90*
*
See pages
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
formanoe*
Troup concluded:
• •••'When the degree o f resemblance between th e two
perfonnanoeB i s based upon a c o n sid eratio n o f th e
t o t a l p e rs o n a lity p io tu re a s seen in the Rorsohaoh
psyohogram, th e degree of r e l i a b i l i t y of the t e s t
appears t o be s ig n if ic a n tly g re a te r th an th e e s t i ­
mates o f th e r e l i a b i l i t y based upon the average o f
c o rre la tio n c o e f f ic ie n ts obtained on the sep ara te
categ o ries*^
These d a ta would in d io a te t h a t when th e r e l i a b i l i t y
of th e Rorsohaoh t e s t i s stu d ie d by th e matching me­
th o d , the degree o f co n sisten cy between the two p e r­
formances o f th e t e s t i s g re a t enough to meet th e
standard o f adequate r e l i a b i l i t y of a m easuring in ­
strument* 2
The Chi Square Test and V aried In s tru c tio n s
3
Fosberg u t i l i z e d an ingenious method of r e t e s t s to study r e ­
lia b ility *
He ad m in istered the t e s t fo u r tim es to the same su b je o ts w ith
v a rie d in s tr u c tio n s , f i r s t g iving Book's standard in s tru c tio n s f o r h e a lth y
a d u lts o f average or above average in te llig e n c e , then asking the s u b je c ts
to "make th e b e st im p re ssio n ,n then in s tru c tin g them t o "make th e w orst
im p ressio n ," and f i n a l l y t e l l i n g them to look fo r c e r ta in sp e o ifio fac to rs*
With an o th er group th e f o u rth a d m in istratio n was again under sta n d ard con­
d itio n s*
He olaimed th a t th e r e s u l ts obtained by applying th e o h i square
t e s t in d io a ted high r e l i a b i l i t y *
A l a t e r e la b o ra te stu d y , using ex ten siv e
1* E* Troup, A Comparative Study by Means of the Rorsohaoh Method of
P e rso n a lity Development in Twenty P a irs of Id e n tic a l Twins,
Genetio Psychology Monographs* 20, (1938), p* 538.
2* ^ b ld i , p* 535*
3* I* A* Fosberg, Rorsohaoh R eactions under V aried I n s tr u c tio n s , Rorsohaoh
Researoh Exchange, 3 , (1938), pp* 12-31; I* A* Fosbergf An Ex­
perim ental Study o f th e R e lia b ility of the Rorsohaoh Psyohodiagn o stio Technique, Unpublished Ph*D» T hesis, ifew York U n iv e rsity ,
June, 1940, pp* 24-29*
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
32
s t a t i s t i c s a ls o showed high r e l i a b i l i t y .
The psyohograms obtained with
in s tru c tio n s t o males the b e s t im pression and to make th e w o rst im pression
remained reco gnizably lik e the o rig in a l psyohograms obtained under standard
conditions*
The su b je c ts could n o t change t h e i r o rig in a l p e rs o n a lity p ic ­
tures*
D irec t Comparison and B lind Diagnosis
Another re o e n t study o f r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y , im portant f o r
i t s method ra th e r th a n i t s fin d in g s attao k sd th e problem from a d i f f e r ­
e n t angle*
The s tu d ie s mentioned th u s f a r have t r i e d to d e te m in e the
r e l i a b i l i t y of th e s u b je c t’ s scores*
However, not the soores as such
b u t a d e so rip tiv e p e rs o n a lity p ic tu re derived from the s u b je o t’s soores
and responses are th e data used in o lin io a l p rao tio e* H ertz and Ruben1
s te in attao k ed th e problem of the r e l i a b i l i t y of th ese p e rs o n a lity p ic ­
tu re s derived by d if f e r e n t in v e stig a to rs*
They dem onstrated t h e i r mode
of a tta c k w ith one o a se , using R orschach's method of b lin d diagnosis*
The oamplete response re c o rd , w ith no other inform ation was se n t to ex­
p e rts f o r in te r p r e ta tio n , and th e p e rs o n a lity p io tu re s th ey derived were
compared w ith each o th e r and w ith o lin io a l data*
This d e so rip tiv e m a te ria l
was analyzed on a o h a rt, w ith th e sequenoe o f some o f th e sentences r e ­
arranged in o rder to plaoe s im ila r ideas sid e by side so th a t the e x te n t
of agreement or disagreem ent m ight be observed easily *
the e x te n t of agreem ent was q u a lita tiv e *
The e v a lu a tio n of
Sinoe the d e ta ile d d a ta were
1* M* R* Hertz and B* B* R ubenstein, A Comparison of Three “B lind”
Rorsohaoh A nalyses, American Jo u rn a l of O rthopsychiatry. 9. (1939).
pp* 295-315*
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
33
p re se n te d , the read er oan a ls o ev alu ate the e x te n t o f agreement*
Hertz
thought th e r e s u lts shoved remarkable agreement in e s s e n tia ls *
The most reoent study of th e problem o f r e l i a b i l i t y by Douglas
M* K elley, Helen M argulies, and S* E. B arrera uses r e p e titio n of the
t e s t in g eniously in p a tie n ts who s e r e given e le o tr io convulsion therapy*
Twelve o f t h i r t y oases showed a complete amnesia f o r the period p re­
ceding th e shook, b u t no oonfusion and no o lin io a l p sy o h ia trio changes*
The r e s u lts of Rorsohaohs
given th ese twelve oases during t h i s period
o f amnesia showed no fundamental changes fra a th o se given b efore treatm ent.
In g e n e ra l, in every t e s t , th e psyohogram produoed was
e s s e n tia lly unchanged before and a f t e r th e e le o tr io
shook and the diagnosis made from th e Rorsohaoh was in
exaot aooord w ith the o lin io a l im pression*1
I t seems j u s t i f i e d , th e re fo re , to assume th a t the
method i s b a s ic a lly sta b le and th a t i t m easures the
same a re as of an in d iv id u a l eaoh tim e t h a t i t is ap­
plied*^
These stu d ie s have been discussed in some d e t a i l beoause the
problem o f r e l i a b i l i t y i s o lo se ly re la te d t o t h a t o f v a l i d i t y , and in
same in stan ces s im ila r methods have been used to study th ese problems
3
4
H ertz now agrees w ith Piotrow ski th a t the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a lid ity
o f th e Rorsohaoh must be stu d ied together*
1.
2*
3*
4*
The S ta b ility of the Rorsohaoh Method as Demonstrated in E le o trio
Convulsive Therapy Cases, Rorsohaoh Researoh Exchange* V, 1,
(January, 1941), p* 36*
I b i d ., p* 41*
Hertz and Rubenstain, op* p i t ** p* 296*
P io tro w sk i, op* o it* , pp* 443-44*
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
34
V a lid ity
Studies o f v a lid ity o f th e Rorsohaoh may be d ivided in to th ree
main ty p e s t ( l ) group com parisons, ( 2 ) Pearson o o rre la tio n s w ith other
t e s t 8 , r a tin g s , or sdhool m arks, and (3 ) case study v a lid a tio n ,
Rorsohaoh
1
The most commonly used method has
used the f i r s t and t h i r d m ethods.
been th e f i r s t , th a t of e s ta b lis h in g d iffe re n c e s between s p e c ifie d o l in i ­
o a l groups, or groups w ith sp e o ia l p e rso n a lity p a ttern s* *
This method
serv es to emphasize the sig n ific a n c e o f p a rtic u la r symptoms, b u t sinoe
r e s u l ts show marked in d iv id u a l v a ria tio n s w ith in the same o lin io a l groups,
i t does n o t v a lid a te in d iv id u a l diagnoses.
r e la tio n has been le s s w idely used.
The method of s t a t i s t i o a l c o r­
The o o rre la tio n s c a lo u la te d have
u su a lly been w ith other t e s t s , and have been o f d o u b tfu l value in re a lly
a tta c k in g th e problan o f the v a lid ity of t h is method, p a r tly because of
the questionable a p p lic a b ility of the u su al s t a t i s t i o a l methods to the
complex d a ta y ie ld e d by the Rorsohaoh method.
The t h i r d method is con­
cerned w ith th e v a lid a tio n o f in d iv id u al oases and attem p ts to detenuine
th e value o f the
t e s t in term s of in d iv id u a l p rediotion*
Table IV l i s t s a sampling of th ese stu d ie s aooording to th e
th re e main methods d e sc rib e d .
Studies using th e f i r s t two methods are
divided in to those in v e s tig a tin g in te lle o tu a l ih o to rs , and th o se in v e s ti­
g atin g n o n -in te lle c tu a l f a o to r s ,
Sinoe same stu d ie s in v e s tig a te both fa o -
1* P . E, Vernon, The S ignificance of the Rorsohaoh T e st, B r itis h Journal
o f Medioal Psyohology* XV, (October, 1935), p , 212*
* This has a lso been a p p lied fo r o e rta in aspects o f th e t e s t t o groups
divided aooording to v a rio u s ty p o lo g ie s, lik e K retsohm er's
p y k n io-asthenio, Jung*s in tr o v e r t- e x tr a v e rt, Jaensoh'B e id e tio
ty p e s, form -color ty p e s , e to .
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
S tudies o f V a lid ity
I n te lle o tu a l Faotors
V a lid a tio n by Group Comparison
Group Average iDiffercnoes
Subjeots
F urther Data on Popula­
tio n or Method
R esults
In v e s tig a to r
Date
Number
Munz
1924
91
A dults
63 average vs* 28 u n iv e rs ity p ro fe s s o rs etc*
Mira
1925
63
A dults
19 superior* 31 average* 13 unedu- Rorsohaoh's r e s u l ts su b s ta n tia te d
oated
P fls te r
1925
59
D efectives
Ju a rro s and
Soriano
1927
550
D efectives
o r problem oases
o h a ra o te r is tio responses
Sohneider
1929
45
Children
27 good* 18 poor p u p ils
c h a r a c te r is tic responses
Beok
1931
69
D efectives
Ganz
1931
43
C hildren
43 10-14 y ear re ta rd e d boys*
m ainly d e fe c tiv e
o h a ra o te ris tio d iffe re n c e s ; some
confirm R orschach's
L inares
Maza
1931
C hildren
feeblem inded and su p e rio r
o h a ra o te ris tio d iffe re n c e s
Beok
1932
39
A dults
su p e rio r
o h a ra o te r is tio responses
D ubitsoher
1932
90
A dults
su p e rio r and i n f e r io r
o h a ra o te ris tio d iffe re n c e s
c h a r a c te r is tic d iffe re n c e s olaimed
c h a r a c te r is tic responses
g e n e ra lly o o n fim s P f i s t e r
w
cn
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
V alid atio n by Group Comparison
Group Average D ifferences
In v e s tig a to r
Date
Number
Subjects
Further Data on Popula­
tio n or Method
Hertz
1932
300
A dolescents
Ju n io r high sohool p u p ils , divided d iffe re n c e s n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y reon b a sis o f IQ in to 30 low-average, lia b le exeept fo r F4 %
115 average, 79 su p e rio r, 73 very
su p e rio r
Kerr
1934
365
C hildren
100 norm als, 9-12 years
40 g i r l s 7-8 years
50 g i r l s over 13 years
100 d e fe c tiv e s
75 problem c h ild re n
d iffe re n c e s o h a ra o te ris tio
R iooi
1939
130
Boys
100 norm al, 30 feebleminded
d iffe re n c e s o h a ra o te ris tio
R esu lts
Ci»
V a lid a tio n through C o rre la tio n Methods
Mira
1925
112
C hildren
Schneider
1929
87
C hildren
Beck
1932
69
D efectives
a>
In te llig e n c e t e s t
c o rre la te d w ith W,
v is u a l im agination w ith 0
r + .5 2 ±*06
r + ,3 8 i.0 5
num erical soore based on 4 p o in t
ra tin g s of W,M* F%t 0% on Ror­
sohaoh c o rre la te d w ith B inet
and group t e s t r e s u lts and w ith
sohool marks
r -t-*42 to +*53
r -f .64 t .04
ages 5 years 10 months to 65
y ears 10 months* 9 Rorsohaoh
fa o to rs c o rre la te d w ith B inet
m ental ages
r -.3 9 to +.64
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
V a lid a tio n through C o rre la tio n Methods
I n v e s tig a to r
Date
Hertz
1932
Vernon
1933
Vernon
Vernon
Kerr
1933
1935
1934
F u rth er Data on Popula­
tio n or Method
Number Subjects
300
25
48
20
365
Adolesoents
College
stu d e n ts
College
stu d en ts
Children
C hildren
C hildren
R esu lts
Rorsohaoh f a c to r s o o rre la te d w ith
r -*42 to +.46
IQ on O tis S elf-A d m in isterin g , I n te r ­
m ediate
freshmen aged 17-19. 9 Rorsohaoh
fa o to rs o o rre la te d w ith composite
soore f r a a v a r ie ty o f in te llig e n c e
t e s t s and r a tin g s .
M ultiple c o rr e la tio n fo r
3 Rorsohaoh fa o to rs
4 Rorsohaoh fa o to rs
aged 16^-25 y e ars 5 Rorsohaoh fao ­
to r s o o rre la te d w ith in te llig e n c e
t e s t s , r a tin g s , s c h o la s tic
grades
o h ild
o ld .
gence
B inet
guidance oases 12-15 years
gen eral estim ate of i n t e l l i ­
from Rorsohaoh oonelated w ith
r e s u lts
r -.1 1 to -+.26
R+.21
R+.19
«-4
r -.1 5 to +.43
r +.78 ±.062
norm al, m e tta l d e fe c tiv e , and prob­
lem ohildren* Rorsohaoh fa o to rs
w ith IQ.
r -.1 4 to +.57
s t u t te r e r s M. A w ith v ario u s fao ­
t o r s , W. Dr. R, M, F t, A % , 0 %
r - .1 5 to + .3 0
M eltzer
1934
64
Vernon
1935
(u sin g r e s u lts o f Sohneider, Beok,
H ertz, Vernon, K err, M eltzer)
o a lo u la te d average r o f 26 o f
t h e i r o o e ff io ie n ts , and a lso a
m u ltip le R.
R+.556
average r«f»25
R +'•40
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
V a lid a tio n through C o rre la tio n Methods
Number Subjeots
F urther Data on Popula­
tio n o f Method
In v e s tig a to r
Date
P a tte rso n and
Magaw
1938
30
D efeotives
d e fe c tiv e and b o rd e rlin e i n s t i t u ­
t io n boys aged 14 y ears 8 months to Chi square 2*828
26 y ears
B*50 to *70
Chi square 17*613P*01
Hunter
1939
47
C hildren
su p e rio r group* 5 soale ra tin g
based on Rorsohaoh o o rre la te d -with
B in et IQ, P o rteu s Mazes IQ
Average o f th e se IQs
R esu lts
76$ c o rre o tly placed -within 5
p o in ts
C ,69
C *
c *sr 7g
N o n -in te lle o tu a l Faotors
V a lid a tio n by Group Comparison
Behn-Escheribuig 1921
C hildren
R ealsohuler vs V olksohuler
olaimed d iffe re n o e s (no s t a t i s ­
tic s )
D efeotives
P responses w ith s o c ia l a d ju s t­
ment o f groups
P
A dults
ages 16-70 years — 111 psyohotio — oyoloid vs* sohizophrenio
o h a ra o te ris tio d ifferen o e s
r e la te d to so o ia l adjustm ent
P fis te r
1925
59
Bnke
1927
1928
192
V eit
1927
28
p o ste n o ep h a litio
olaimed d iffe re n o e s
L o o sliU ste ri
1929
84 Children
21 orphan asylum vs* 63 sohool
o h ild re n 10-13 years
olaimed d iffe re n o e s , c h a ra c te r­
i s t i c t r a i t s o f orphans
L o o sliU s te ri
1932
63 problem boys vs* 63 normal
boys 9-14 years
o h a ra o te ris tio d iffe re n o e s
126 Boys
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
V a lid a tio n by Group Comparison
In v e s tig a to r
Beok
Beok
Levy and Beok
Boss
Date Number Subjeots
1931
1931
1931
1931
29
19
D efeotives
D efeotives
F urther Data on Popula­
tio n o f Method
R esults
16 o f 69 considered d e f in ite ly
u n sta b le on b a s is of s t a f f no tes
v s . 13 oonsidered d e f in ite ly stabfe
on b a s is o f seme d a ta oanpared on
C responses
found d iffe re n o e between median§
d iff.
1.34
P .E . d i f f .
19 o f 69 se le c te d as s o o ia lly
adapted and u s e fu l in the in ­
s t i t u t i o n v s . the r e s t o f th e
group on P responses
found d iffe re n o e s
d iff.
raraifTr
3.15
15
M ental
p a tie n ts
m anio-depressive
o h a ra o te ris tio
re sponses
75
A dults
c rim in als
sim ila r to nom s f o r psyohop ath io
s ta b le and u n sta b le on b a s is o f
te tra o h o rio r .66
Woodworth-Matthews v s . those groups
on b a s is of Rorsohaoh
ascendant v s . subm issive
d if f e r in g p a tte rn s and r e lia b le
u n sta b le v s . s ta b le and subnormal
d iffe re n o e s on some items
v s . m aladjusted v s . psyohoneurotio
H ertz
1932
D ubitsoher
1932
340
A dults and
o h ild re n
norm als, psyohopaths, h y s te rio s
(se v e ra l in v e s tig a tio n s )
rep o rted group d iffe re n o e s b u t
many v a ria b le fa o to rs
Binder
1932
271
A dults
51 norm al, 61 p syohotio, 58
n e u ro tio . 111 psyohopathio on
ohiarosouro responses
found d iffe re n o e s
E yrich
1932
C hildren
e p ile p tio
olaimed
c h a r a c te r is tic s responses
Salas
1933
C hildren
norm al, n e u ro tic
found d iffe re n o e s
210
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
V a lid a tio n by Group Comparison
In v e s tig a to r
Date
Kerr
1934
365
C hildren
norm al, d e fe o tiv e , o h ild guidance;
oases
found group d iffe re n o e s
M eltzer
1934
64
C hildren
s t u t te r e r s
summarized types o f responses
Guirdham
1934
232
E p ile p tio s ,
Normals
132 i n s t i t u t i o n a l e p ile p tio s ,
100 normals as c o n tro ls
sane o h a ra o te r is tio e p ile p tio
responses b u t v a ria tio n s
Dimmiok
1935
85
Mental
p a tie n ts
30 hebephrenic, 25 paran o id , 30
simplex types o f dementia praeoox
18 organic oases w ith involvement
of the o e re b ra l o o rtex , 10 w ith
o th er involvement o f th e c e n tr a l
nervous system, 5 oases of conver­
sion h y s te ria
found d iffe re n o e s between these
types
found d i f f e r e n tia tin g fa o to r s ,
organic in d io a to rs
.L ater (1940) found percentage
showing p o s itiv e organio in ­
d ic a to rs depends upon degree of
p e rs o n a lity d e v ia tio n and upon
age
abnormal: u n s ta b le , high grade
d e fe o tiv e s v s . sohizophrenios
showed d iffe re n o e s
psyohotios, n e u ro tic s , normals
on MiC r a tio
M:C d id not d i f f e r e n t i a t e but
o th er q u a lita tiv e c h a r a c te r is ­
t i c s showed d iffe re n o e s
Mental
p a tie n ts
alooholio psyohotios aged 28-68;
29 re-examined a f t e r psyohotio
episode
a lo o h o lio s o le a r ly d i f f e r e n t i ­
a te d — ta b le s o f s t a t i s t i o a l
fin d in g s
Mental
P a tie n ts and
Normals
81 sohizophrenios, 31 nonpsyohotio p a tie n ts , 33 normals
a few d i f f e r e n tia tin g fa o to rs
P a tie n ts
oases w ith organic involvement
p o s itiv e fin d in g s
Piotrow ski
Number Subjects
1936
33
Mental
p a tle n t8
1940
82
P a tie n ts
P iotrow ski
1937
26
C hildren
Cardona
1937
Weber
1937
45
Beok
1938
145
Sohenk
1938
9
Further Data on Popula­
tio n o f Method
R esults
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
V a lid a tio n by Group Comparison
In v e s tig a to r
Date
Number
Subjects
F urther Data on Popula­
tio n of Method
R esults
P iotrow ski
1938
94
Mental
P a tie n ts
sohizophrenios, 27 from 14 to 20
y e a rs, 67 from 20 to 41 years
can p ro g n o stica te response to
in s u lin treatm en t
R iokersOvsiankina
1938
57
Mental
P a tie n ts
and Nor­
mals
37 sch izo p h ren ics, 20 normals
matched fo r age, edu catio n , sex
some group d iffe re n o e s , in d iv i­
dual oases o fte n gave clu es to
s u b je c t's preoooupations
Vaughn and
Krug
1938
43
52
P a tie n ts
College
stu d e n ts
H ertz, H*
1939
18
Adoles­
c e n ts
b e s t v s . l e a s t a d ju ste d g i r l s in
a tr a in in g sohool
olaimed sane o h a ra o te ris tio
d iffe re n o e s
P iotrow ski
1939
60
P a tie n ts
schizophrenics befo re and a f t e r
inB ulin treatm en t
d iffe re n o e s between reoords
p a r a l le l o lin io a l changes
Miale and
HarrowerEriokson
1940
63
Adults
ages 15-55 y e a rs , 43 diagnosed
as n e u ro tic s o f v ario u s ty p e s , 20
normals as o o n tro ls
d e f in ite d if f e r e n tia tin g neurotfc
in d io a to rs .
Arluok
1940
40?
C hildren
ages 10-21 years* 20 e p ile p tio s
and Young and o o n tro l s ib lin g s
A dults
Ja sta k
1940
10
Adult
P a tie n ts
some rel ia b le d iffe re n o e s ,
m ostly d iffe re n o e s in degree
a lc o h o lic s
d iffe re n o e s in same fa o to rs
o h a ra o te ris tio d iffe re n o e s —
none had a normal Rorsohaoh
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
V a lid a tio n through C o rre la tio n Methods w ith Other T ests
Date
Number
H erts
1952
164
Woodworth Matthews s ta b le , u n sta b le
w ith Rorsohaoh oo lo r soore
te tra o h o rio r +.66
H erts
1932
164
te tra o h o rio r +.86
Vernon
1935
73
College
Student8
Brush m o d ific a tio n o f A llp o rt A. S.
T est w ith Rorsohaoh M tC
Neymann-Kohlstedt Q uestionnaire
f o r Intrcrver sio n -E x trav ers ion
w ith Rorsohaoh MtC
Vernon
1933
73?
College
Students
Woodworth P.D . S h eet, Willoughby
Eknotional M aturity Soale, w ith
Rorsohaoh fa o to rs in d ic a tiv e o f
pedantio and d ep ressiv e tenden­
c ie s
no r e la tio n
A llp o rt and Vernon S^-udy o f
Values ocmposite soore f o r a r t i s t i o ten d en cies w ith 5 Rorsohaoh
fa o to rs
r -.3 2 t o +.34
rep o rte d no r e la tio n
co
1933
Vernon
1933
25 College
Students
same a s above w ith 48 stu d e n ts
r - .3 4 to-f.55
Vernon
1935
25 College
Students
A llp o rt A-S w ith Rorsohaoh
M and C
r +.47
Vernon
1935
25 College
Students
speed o f flu o tu a tio n o f s t a i r oase fig u re w ith Rorsohaoh i n tr o ­
v e rs iveness
1936
58
&
53
College
Students
R esults
Vernon
Thornton and
G uilford
48
S ubjects
F u rth er Data on Popula­
tio n o r Method
In v e s tig a to r
College
Students
Nebraska P e rs o n a lity Inventory
w ith Rorsohaoh
±.11
r +.42
rep o rte d no r e l a ti o n
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
va-naa-cxon -cnrougn c o rre la tio n jaevaoas w ith Uther T ests
In v e s tig a to r
Date
Number
Vaughn and
Krug
1938
95
S ubjects
F urther Data on Populat i o n o r Method
R esu lts
M ental P a tie n ts 43 paranoid 19«*68 y e a rs, 52 o o lleg e
s tu d e n ts , 19-27 y ears
and Nom als
o e rta in t e s t s im il a r it i e s
B em reu ter and Rorsohaoh fo r o o l­
r +*78 i*04
lege group* In tro v e rsio n on b o th
te s ts * Color soore vs* B em reu ter
r -.5 2 ±.08
n e u ro tio index
V a lid a tio n by Case Study Method*
Rorsehaoh**
and
Oberholzer
1922
1
A dult
R orsohaoh's a n a ly s is o f t e s t ocmpared K ith O berholzer's psycho­
a n a ly sis o f n e u ro tio p a tie n t
found t e s t o f d iag n o stio valw
Oberholzer**
1931
1
Adult
t e s t in te r p r e ta tio n o f oase o f
oonoussion w ith psyohologioal
co m p licatio n s. K ith p sy o h ia trio
in te r p r e ta tio n
found i t v alu ab le in d i f f e r ­
e n ti a l d iag n o sis
te a c h e r 's re p o r ts fo r 42 o f h is
120 10-13 y ear boys ocmpared K ith
Rorsohaoh p e rs o n a lity in te r p r e ta ­
tio n
s u b s ta n tia l agreement, approxi­
m ately one h a lf,d isag reem en t
on main p o in ts-ap p ro x im ately
l / 3 complete disagreem ent,
l/5 ;o o n o lu d es i t i s n o t r e ­
lia b le b u t i s o f value as
p e rs o n a lity probing in s t r u ­
ment as p a r t of a ocmplete
exam ination
Loepfe
1925
42
Boys
* Q u a lita tiv e p e rs o n a lity p io tu re derived from th e Rorsohaoh compared K ith p e rs o n a lity p io tu re derived from
o th e r sources suoh as t e a o h e r O r e p o r t s , behavior n o te s , p sy o h ia trio exam inations, eto*
** Many in stan c es o f attem pts a t v a lid a tio n by p re s e n ta tio n o f analyses o f sin g le oases (e*g* M u ller, Baenz ig e r, F u rre r, Prados and L in a re s , Endars),as w e ll as those o itin g only a few i l l u s t r a t i v e oases are
om itted sinoe they would make t h i s l i s t unduly long* A ll o f them claim ed th e t e s t p io tu re agreed
w ith o th e r fin d in g s and was u s e fu l in d i f f e r e n t i a l diagnosis*
09
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
»axj-uH-pxan py case o-cuqy xaetnoa
In v e s tig a to r
Date
Number
Sohneider
1929
21
Beok
1930
S ubjects
F urther Data on Populat ia n or Method
R esults
C hildren
sp e o ia l o la s s c h ild re n se le o te d
because o f c o n flic tin g scores on
te s ts * Ages 10-16* Rorsohaoh
in te r p r e ta tio n compared w ith
te a c h e r s ' re p o rts and case
stu d ies*
olaim ed the t e s t was v alu ab le
in ex p lain in g th e d e v ia tio n s
4
Mixed
feeblem inded g i r l , su p e rio r
adult* behavior problem case*
paranoid sohlzophrenio* Ror­
sohaoh compared w ith oase h is ­
t o r ie s
s u b s ta n tia te s te s t* o la 1ms good
agreement
C hildren
problem o h ild re n , p rim a rily study
of d ila te d and o o n s trio te d p a t­
te rn s of response* and comparison
w ith c l i n i c a l d ata
claim s untrue p io tu re in only 3
oases (does n o t p re se n t muoh of
th e c li n i c a l d ata)
Beok
1931
37
BehnEsoheriburg
19^1
209
A dolescents
ages 13-15* ocmpared Rorsohaoh
w ith te a c h e rs ' s h o rt sketches and
w it~ re p o rts in l i t e r a t u r e on
o h ild development a t t h a t age
claim s-good agreement w ith th ese
c rite ria
D ubitsoher
1932
100
M ental
P a tie n ts
p a tie n ts w ith d iv e rse m ental d is ­
orders* Rorsohaoh ocmpared w ith
oase stu d ies*
agreement in a m a jo rity o f oases
Kerr
1934
75? C hildren
o h ild guidance oases* Rorsohaoh
in te r p r e ta tio n w ith case h is to r ie s
end opinions of o lin io workers
olaim s agreement b u t does not
give s u b s ta n tia tin g data*
Harriman
1935
100? Collage
Students
Rorsohaoh p e rs o n a lity p io tu re com­ Claims good agreement
pared w ith own knowledge of s tu ­
dents* had stu d en ts t r y to id e n tify
o th ers from Rorsohaoh
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V a lid a tio n by Case Study Method
Subjects
F urther Data on Popula­
tio n or Method
R esults
I n v e s tig a to r
Date
Number
Vernon
1935
45
Sohneider
1937
1
A dult
b lin d a n a ly sis of Rorsohaoh reoord
o f a n e u ro tio woman
in d ic a te d sig n ific a n c e of
shading responses
P iotrow ski
1938
1
A dult
d e ta ile d a n a ly sis o f Rorsohaoh
reoord and i t s in te r p r e ta tio n
(b lin d d iag n o sis) and o lin io a l
reoord o f a n e u ro tio oase
in d ic a te d v a li d i ty of
th e Rorsohaoh in te r p r e ta tio n
f o r t h is oase
Clapp, M iale,
and Kaplan
1938
1
A dolescent
Rorsohaoh d e so rip tio n compared in
d e t a i l w ith oase h is to r y of a 16
year old g i r l , ta b u la r summary
o f ocmparison a t end
in d ic a te d v a l i d i t y of the
Rorsohaoh in te r p r e ta tio n
Benjamin and
Ebaugh
1938
50
Mainly
A dults
1 o h ild of 8, 4 o f 17-18, o th e rs
20-67 y e a rs , ta b u la r ocmparison
o f d iag n o stio c la s s i f i c a t i o n on
b a s is o f Rorsohaoh, and t h a t de­
riv e d from o lin io a l d a ta
complete agreement in 8 4,7^
o f o ases, p a r t i a l agreement
in 10.9/2 o f o ases, o th e rs
did n o t d isa g ree b u t were i n ­
adequate
P a tte rs o n and
Magaw
1938
30
D efectives
males o f moron or b o rd e rlin e in ­
te llig e n c e , problem o a se s , matched
p e rs o n a lity sketohes based on
Rorsohaoh w ith those based on
opinion o f a s s i s t a n t su p e rv iso r and
n o tes of te a o h e rs , p s y c h ia tr is ts ,
e to , V ernon's matching method w ith
2 judges
C hildren and matched Rorsohaoh p e rs o n a lity sketches average o f contingency ooefw ith sketohes based on perso n al ac­
f io ie n ts +.833 '*.032
A dults
quaintance or h o s p ita l oase n o tes
55 m atohings ~ 3 Rorsohaoh i n t e r ­
p r e te r s
average C fo r eaoh 4 .4 5 *.16
judge:—
+.80 *.05
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V a lid a tio n by Case Study Method
In v e s tig a to r
Date
Number
Hunter
1939
50
H irning
1939
H ertz and
Rubenstein
Subjects
F urther Data on Popula­
t io n o r Method
R esu lts
C hildren
Rorsohaoh p e rs o n a lity sketohes
matched w ith teaohers* sketohes
— su p e rio r p u p ils
r e s u l ts poor* Abandoned th e
method as inadequate because o f
lao k o f h e te ro g e n e ity o f group
2
A dults
Rorsohaoh responses and in te r p r e ­
ta tio n s of 2 sohizophrenios —
eaoh a ls o given l a t e r Rorsohaoh —
1 discharged
g en eral agreement
1939
1
A dult
ta b u la r comparison o f 3 Rorsohaoh
in te r p r e ta tio n s o f th e same reoord
w ith oase h is to r y and p h y s ic ia n 's
opinions
olaim s g e n erally good agreement
on e s s e n tia ls
K elley and
M argulies
1940
2
Adults
d e ta ile d d e so rip tio n s o f RorsohaahA. w ith responses and b lin d
i n te r p r e ta tio n s , and oase h i s t o r ie s
o f e p ile p tio s aged 20 y ears
olose correspondence between Ro»
sohaoh and o lin io a l fin d in g s and
Rorsohaoh a ls o gave p re d io tiv e
d ata
P io tro w ski
and K elley
1940
1
Adult
2 Rorsohaohs on male e p ile p tio
w ith psyohoneurotio m an ifesta­
tio n s
Rorsohaoh helped in d iag n o sis
and b o th Rorsohaoh agreed w ith
o lin io a l fin d in g s
Munroe
1940
6
A dolescents
oollege freshmen — te a c h e rs
asked to id e n tify g i r l s from
Rorsohaoh in te r p r e ta tio n
id e n tif ie d a l l su c c e ss fu lly —
inform al d iso u ssio n s w ith much
la r g e r number o f oases showed
olose agreement
K elley,
Levine,
Pemberton,
and Katz
1941
14
Mainly
A dults
h o s p ita l p a tie n ts — ocmpared.
Rorsohaoh d iagnosis a f t e r sodium
am ytal, w ith o lin io a l diag n o sis
13 oases 21-51 y ears
1 o h ild o f 10 y ears
agreed in 12 o f 14 o a ses, o th e r
2 had d o u b tfu l o lin io a l d iag ­
noses
47
ors and may use more than one method th e re i s same r e p e titio n in th e tab le*
A ll s tu d ie s using th e oase method are summarized together* sinoe p r a c tic a lly
a l l s t r e s s p e rs o n a lity as a whole, and inolude i n te l le c t u a l fa c to rs as p a rt
o f th e -whole*
The d isc u ssio n o f th e ta b le w ill be lim ite d t o main trends* w ith
emphasis on th o se stu d ie s using the case study as the c r ite r io n of
v a lid ity *
General Trends o f S tudies o f I n te lle c tu a l Factors
In drawing conclusions from th e stu d ie s of i n t e l l e c t u a l fao to rs*
i t must be remembered t h a t the in v e s tig a to rs worked in d if f e r e n t countries*
w ith p o p u lations o f d if f e r e n t ages and types* and based t h e i r s e le c tio n
o f d if f e r e n t in te llig e n c e le v e ls upon d if f e r e n t c r i t e r i a *
Only a lim ite d
number used standardized in te llig e n c e t e s t s as t h e i r c r i t e r i a * and those
who d id employed d if f e r e n t te s ts *
A survey o f th e ta b le leads t o th e f o l ­
lowing g e n e ra liz a tio n s : (1) a l l in v e s tig a to rs agree th a t groups o f d i f ­
f e r e n t i n te l le c t u a l le v e ls give c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a ll y d if f e r e n t psyohograms;
(2) however* th e s t a t i s t i c a l r e l i a b i l i t y of th ese d iffe re n c e s i s not a l ­
ways mentioned and is sometimes q u e stio n ab le; (3) those who attem pted to
apply s t a t i s t i c a l methods to the study of in te llig e n c e by c o rr e la tin g th e
sep ara te Rorschach c a te g o rie s found g e n erally low c o rr e la tio n s ; (4) th o se
applying s t a t i s t i c s to g eneral e stim ate s based on t o t a l t e s t performance
r a th e r than on is o la te d scores found b e tt e r re s u lts * and th e p resen t tre n d
1
i s toward s tu d ie s o f th e t o t a l t e s t performance* Vernon c o rre la te d re ­
s u l t s obtained on in d iv id u a l Stanford B inet exam inations w ith gener­
ic
Vernon, op* o it* , pp* 212-214*
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
48
a l e stim a te s o f in te llig e n c e derived from a survey o f th e Rorsohaoh re su lts*
His c o r r e la tio n c o e f f ic ie n t,
methods*
*78, was h ig h er th an had been found by other
Sinoe th e re were only twenty o h ild re n (ages 12-15 y e a rs) in h is
group, and se v era l were n eu ro tio oases whose in te llig e n c e le v e ls were d i f ­
f i c u l t to judge on the Rorsohaoh, he f e l t t h a t a la r g e r , more normal
1
group, should show equal or g re a te r agreem ent. H unter, studying f o r ty seven p riv a te school o h ild re n in Honolulu, (a su p erio r group w ith average
I.Q , o f 120), a lso found good agreement between her e stim ates of i n t e l l i ­
gence based upon the Rorsohaoh perform ance, and th e IQs obtained on th e
S tanford-B inet and the Porteus Mazes (C
,7 8 ) ,
As p a r t of t h e i r study
2
of v a lid a tio n , P a tte rs o n and Magaw ocmpared ra tin g s according to IQ
w ith th o se based on estim ates from the Rorsohaoh, fo r t h i r t y boys o f de­
fe c tiv e or b o rd e rlin e in te llig e n c e (IQs 37-39),
The boys were ra te d as
below average, av erag e, or above average fo r t h e i r group.
The fin d in g s
were c o n tra d ic to ry , one in v e s tig a to r 's e stim a te s showing no s ig n if ic a n t
r e la tio n s h ip , the o th e r’ s showing good agreem ent.
v e s tig a to r s
The ta s k of these in ­
was d i f f i c u l t since they t r i e d to d if f e r e n t i a t e w ith in a group
showing v ery l i t t l e v a r i a b i l i t y ,
cluded a l l b u t th re e c a s e s .)
s t r i c t e d groups.
(A range of twenty-two p o in ts in IQ in ­
Both they and Hunter used s t a t i s t i c a l l y con­
One m ight expeot b e tte r r e s u lts w ith more norm ally d is ­
tr ib u te d p o p u latio n s.
1,
2.
M* H unter, The P ra o tio a l Value o f the Rorsohaoh Test in a Psychological
C lin ic , Amerioan Journal of O rthopsychiatry, 8, (1939), p . 290.
M, P a tte rs o n and D, 0, Magaw, An In v e s tig a tio n o f th e V a lid ity of the
Rorsohaoh Teohnique as Applied to M entally D efeotive Problem Chil­
dren, Proceedings of th e Amerioan A sso ciatio n on Mental D eficiency,
13, (1938), pp. 179-185.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
49
In a d d itio n to g e n eral in te lle o tu a l le v e l, sp e o ia l a p titu d e s and
t a l e n t s , and v o c a tio n a l i n te r e s ts have been studied*
These are more
c lo s e ly r e la te d to seme o f the p e rs o n a lity fa c to rs e l i c i t e d on the te s t*
General Trends of Studies o f N o n -in te lle o tu a l Faotors
In v e s tig a tio n s of n o n -in te lle o tu a l f a c to r s are a lso d i f f i c u l t to
compare because of wide d iv e r s ity of p o p u la tio n s,se le c te d on the b a sis of
varying o r i t e r i a , w idely d iffe rin g
in methods.
c r i t e r i a o f v a l i d i t y , and v a ria tio n s
‘S
Seme workers used a v a rie ty of Rorsohaoh f a o to r s , others a
lim ite d a sp ec t of th e t e s t , and s t i l l others the t o t a l d e so rip tiv e p io tu re
derived from the te s t*
The r e s u l t s , in g e n eral, o f a l l th ese varied stu d ie s
in d io ate th a t ( l ) th e t e s t does d if f e r e n tia te v a rio u s c l i n i c a l groups; (2)
c o rre la tio n s w ith most t e s t s suoh a s the Woodworth P ersonal Data Sheet,
Willoughby Emotional M aturity S oale, Neyaann-Kohlstedt Q uestionnaire fo r
In tro v e rsio n , show no r e la tio n ; (3) c o rre la tio n s of c e r ta in fao to rs w ith
the A llp o rt A-S Test show inoonolusive r e s u l ts ; (4) most comparisons of
the d e so rip tiv e p e rs o n a lity p io tu re w ith oase stu d y m a te ria l show good
agreement, while those o f the p e rso n a lity p ic tu re s w ith teachers* sketohes
show c o n flic tin g r e s u l t s ; (5) f i n a l l y , the tre n d i s away from stu d ie s of
is o la te d f a o to rs on th e Rorsohaoh t e s t and toward the o l i n i c a l v a lid a tio n
of in d iv id u a l p e rs o n a lity p ic tu r e s ,
Vernon and Hertz who had f i r s t ap p lied the u su a l psychometric
s t a t i s t i c a l procedures fo r studying r e l i a b i l i t y and -v alid ity relin q u ish ed
those procedures f o r o th ers th a t th ey consider more meaningful*
Vernon
adapted th e matohing teohnique. Hertz the method o f d i r e c t comparison*
Vernon o r itio iz e d s t a t i s t i c a l stu d ie s of is o la te d fa o to rs most stro n g ly in
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
50
d isc u ssin g v a lid ity *
We would hold****that the stook c o rr e la tio n a l techniques
a ffo rd the w orst p o ssib le means of v a lid a tio n , (a) be­
cause th e Rorsohaoh t e s t does not s e t out t o measure the
kind o f e n t i t i e s w ith which th e p sy c h a a e trist d e a ls, and
which can be measured by h is t e s t s and ra tin g s , (b) be­
cause th e psyehogram or ta b le o f soores is v ery f a r from
a complete account o f the s u b je c t's responses to the
t e s t , (o) because no sin g le symptom or score from t h is
psyehogram should be considered in is o la tio n from the
t o t a l p attern * I t i s tru e t h a t Hertz has re o e n tly a r­
riv e d a t some u se fu l r e s u l ts by c o rre la tin g Rorsohaoh
soores w ith th e Woodworth Psyohoneurotio Inventory and
th e A llp o rt Asoendanoe Submission Soale* But even t h is
achievement i s e x cep tio n s; fu tu re work along these lin e s
i s more lik e ly t o lead t o negative re s u lts * *
R elated Studies of C lin ic a l V a lid atio n
There are a number o f stu d ie s th a t are o f p a rtic u la r in te r e s t to
the problem of c l i n i c a l v a lid a tio n of in d iv id u a l oases*
Rorsohaoh f i r s t
used t h is method and inoluded some c li n i c a l data in h is sample oases*
Oberholzer l a t e r published Rorsohaoh's d e ta ile d a n a ly sis of an in d iv id u al
oase and ocmpared i t w ith th e p sy o h ia trio fin d in g s of th e p a tie n t who was
being psyohoanalyzed*
S tudies p resen tin g extensive c lin ic a l evidenoe
have u su a lly been lim ite d to one or a few oases*
Those in v e s tig a to rs who
have claimed v a lid ity o f th e t e s t , on the b a sis o f o lin io a l d a ta , with
f a i r l y larg e numbers o f s u b je o ts , u su a lly have n o t presented adequate oonf im a to r y data*
Most o f those who have used many subjeots have ocmpared
t h e i r d ata w ith more s u p e r f ic ia l, less extensive inform ation than i s a v a il­
able in a o lin io a l study*
They have o fte n used b r i e f sketches by teaohers
1* Vernon, op* o it» , p* 210*
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51
or acquaintances
Several stu d ies d e al w ith th e v a li d i ty of th e Rorsohaoh teohnique
1
w ith problem ohildren* S. J* Beok, in 1931, f i r s t p resen ted a study o f
th ir ty - s e v e n (37) problem o h ild ren , aged 8 years 2 months to 18 years 7
months (average, 14 y e a r s ) , w ith m ental ages from 7 y e ars 6 months to 17
y e ars 1 month (average 12 y e a rs ), re fe rre d fo r d iv e rse problems*
He found
c e r ta in c h a r a c te r is tic p a tte rn s which he claim ed were su b s ta n tia te d by the
oase stu d ies*
He s ta te d th e re were only 3 oases in which th e Rorsohaoh r e ­
s u l t s oould n o t be considered su b s ta n tia te d by o l i n i c a l findings*
Although
th ese were h is oonolusions, he did n o t, in h is b r i e f p re s e n ta tio n , publish
s u f f ic ie n t confirm atory d a ta for th e rea d er to oheok h is c o n te n tio n s.
In
2
h is l a t e r work, Beok
included sample oases of a dozen problem o h ild ren
under f i f t e e n years jOf.agd.* Howetrqrjhft merely s t a te d the problems and did
n o t give any supplementary m a te ria l from the oase h is to r ie s *
3
Another study o f problem o h ild re n was th a t o f K err, b u t her data
were tr e a te d o u rso rily *
In a paper in whioh she d isc u sse d h e r findings*
on n o m a l o h ild re n , m ental d e fe ctiv es and o h ild guidanoe o a ses, she men­
tio n e d th a t the Rorsohaoh in te r p r e ta tio n s o f the o h ild guidanoe oases were
v a lid a te d a g a in s t inform ation from the o lin lo oase stu d ies*
Two extremely
b r i e f oases and the Rorsohaoh in te r p r e ta tio n s were o ite d , and th en no f u r -
1*
The Rorsohaoh Test in Problem C hildren, American Journal of Ortho­
p sy c h ia try , 1, (1931), pp* 501-509.
2* S. J . Beok, In tro d u c tio n to th e Rorsohaoh Method*
3* M. K err, The Rorsohaoh Test Applied to C hildren, B r itis h Journal o f
Psychology, 25, (1934), pp* 170-185.
*
The type o f change in her in s tru c tio n s to the su b je o t makes ocmparison
o f h er fin d in g s w ith those o f most other in v e s tig a to rs question­
able*
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52
th e r mention -was made of how many oases were ocmpared in how muoh d e t a i l ,
and w ith how muoh agreement*
Yet she concluded, nIn te rp re ta tio n s made by
the in v e s tig a to r w ith o u t any knowledge o f the o h ild re n were found t o agree
1
w ith th e oase h i s t o r ie s and opinions o f the c lin io workers*"
The con­
firm ato ry evidence fo r t h i s statem ent i s n o t t o be found in the published
paper*
The Matching Technique
2
Vernon,
a p p lie d an a d a p tatio n o f th e m atching teohnique to the
study of in d iv id u a l oases*
He used f o r ty - f iv e s u b je o ts , among whom he men­
tio n ed a group of e ig h t o h ild guidanoe oaBes*
Three experim enters i n t e r ­
p rete d th e Rorsohaoh t e s t s of d if f e r e n t s u b je o ts , and th ese in te rp re ta tio n s
were matohed w ith p e rs o n a lity sketohes, based on e ith e r oase study notes
or p erso n al acq u a in tan c e , and w ritte n by fo u r o th er observers*
One in fe rs
th a t th e l a t t e r p e rs o n a lity sketohes fo r -the c h ild guidance oases were ob­
ta in e d from o lin io a l records*
There were e ig h t m atching experiments w ith
groups of fiv e to te n su b je o ts eaoh, and a t o t a l o f f i f t y - f i v e matohings*
The average contingency c o e ffic ie n t was -f.,833 +*032, a highly s ig n if ic a n t
c o rre la tio n *
Vernon claim ed th a t -the Rorschach i n te r p r e te r s were n o t
h ig h ly s k i l le d , and t h a t most of the p e rs o n a lity sketches obtained from
o ther sources were n o t e x te n siv e , so t h a t one m ight expect even b e tt e r re ­
s u lts w ith more s k i l l f u l in te r p re ta tio n s and more ex ten siv e o lin io a l d a ta
on p e rso n ality *
He considered th e method a prom ising s o ie n tif io teohnique
fo r h an d lin g th e complex, q u a lita tiv e d ata of the Rorsohaoh, and thought
1.
2.
M. K err, The Rorsohaoh Test Applied to C hildren, B r itis h Journal of
Psychology* 25, (1934), p*.182*-n
Vernon, op* o i t * , pp* 210-214*
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53
t h a t i t would rep lace th e o ld er techniques o f c o rr e la tin g th e is o la te d
numerioal d a ta on th e v a rio u s sco rin g categories*
The method of o o rre o t m atchings is of co n sid erab le im­
portance in th e in v e s tig a tio n o f p e rs o n a lity , in th a t
i t o ffe rs a means fo r comparing complex wholes or
g e s ta lte n in c o n tra -d istin c tio n to c o rr e la tio n a l methods
which a re g e n e ra lly a p p lie d only to the comparison of
q u a n tia tiv e oontinua — e ith e r unidim ensional v a ria b le s
or oamposite c o n stru c ts of v a ria b le s *1
However, th e re p o rts on th e u se fu ln ess of th e matching method in
2
stu d ie s o f th e Rorsohaoh are c o n flic tin g * Vernon found i t u se fu l in the
3
study of v a lid ity * Troup found i t v a lu a b le in a study of r e l i a b i l i t y ,
bu t f e l t th a t in the study of p e rs o n a lity development the d a ta were too
oomplex fo r th e method to give m eaningful results®
There are c e r ta in weaknesses in herent in the matohing teohnique,
(1) I t is a teohnique t h a t gives only a very rough general m easure, so
t h a t i f the d a ta are oomplex i t i3 d i f f i c u l t to in te rp re t*
(2) F u rth er,
i t v a rie s g re a tly sis a r e s u l t of fh c to rs outside th e t e s t i t s e l f , such as
the h etero g en eity and s i r e of the group, and the a b i l i t y of th e judges*
Vernon say s, nThe a o tu a l siz e o f th e c o e f f ic ie n t depends very la rg e ly upon
th e degree o f h etero g en eity or d is tin c tiv e n e s s o f th e subjeots in each
4
5
group*’1 H unter, whose work is d isc u sse d below on pages 55 and 56 had to
1*
P , E* Vernon, The E valuation o f th e Matohing Method, Jo u rn a l of Educa­
tio n a l Psychology, x x v il, (January, 1936), p , 1,
2* P. E, Vernon, The S ig n ifican ce o f the Rorsohaoh T est, B ritis h Journal
o f Medical Psychology. XV, (O ctober, 1935), pp. 210-214*
3* Troup, 0 £* o i t * . p* 542.
4, P, E, Vernon, The S ig n ifican ce o f th e Rorsohaoh T est, B r itis h Journal
o f Medial Psychology. XV, (O ctober, 1935), p* 213*
5, Hunter, op. p i t . , pp* 289-290*
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54
d is c a rd the method in studying v a lid ity because her d ata were n o t su f­
f i c i e n t l y heterogeneous.
(3) The s iz e of th e c o e f f ic ie n t a ls o probably
depends upon th e s iz e of th e group matched,
. . . i t is reasonable to a s ­
sume t h a t t ; (number of elem ents to be matched) possesses an optimum size
1
f o r eaoh type of m a te r ia l."
(4) The experienoe, in s ig h t, or inform ation
o f th e judges i s im portant in determ ining the siz e of th e c o e f f ic ie n t,
as is dem onstrated by the v e ry d if f e r e n t r e s u lts t h a t may be o btained by
2
two judges
on th e same m a te ria l.
When the matohing teohnique is applied to the study o f th e v a li d i ty
o f th e Rorsohaoh p e rs o n a lity in te rp re ta tio n s by matohing th e se in te r p r e ­
ta tio n s w ith independent o l in i c a l d a ta , and th e r e s u lts show a low o oeff i o ie n t o f oontingenoy, i t i s im possible to determ ine frcsa th e s t a t i s t i c a l
r e s u l ts w hether th e laok of re la tio n s h ip is r e a l , or whether i t i s due to
any of th e extraneous fa o to rs mentioned in th e preceding paragraph.
Suoh
r e s u l ts a ls o do not perm it an a n a ly sis of the type of agreem ent or d i s ­
agreem ent, and do not in d ic a te whether th e matohing e rro rs are ’’poor” or
3
"good."
Many e rro rs are "good"
in t h a t the matohing i s with a p e rs o n a lity
s im ila r in many re sp e o ts to the o o rre o t one.
There are se v e ra l stu d ie s whioh show same of th e d i f f i c u l t i e s th a t
4
may be encountered in applying the matohing teohnique.
1. P . E. Vernon,
s o n a lity ,
2 . P a tte rs o n and
3 . P . E. Vernon,
s o n a lity ,
4 . P a tte rs o n and
P a tte rso n and Magaw
The Matohing Method Applied to In v e s tig a tio n s o f P e r­
p sy c h o lo g ic al B u lle tin , 33, (March, 1936), p . 156.
Magaw, op. p i t . , pp. 179-185. A lso, see below, page 55.
The Matohing Method Applied t o In v e s tig a tio n s o f P er­
Psychological B u lle tin . 3 3 ,(March, 1936), p . 162.
Magaw, op. o i t .
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55
a p p lied t h i s technique to th e ir study of 30 problem boys of d e fe ctiv e or
b o rd e rlin e in te llig e n c e *
The boys* ages ranged from 14 y ears 8 months
to 26 years 10 months (median, 17 years 1 month), and IQs from 37 to 79
(median, 67.)*
The Rorsohaoh t e s t s were a l l ackninistered and in te rp re te d
by one in v e s tig a to r who had no other co n ta ct w ith th e bo y s.
These i n te r ­
p r e ta tio n s were matched a g a in st p e rso n a lity sketches w ritte n by the other
experim enter from h is personal knowledge o f th e boys as t h e i r a s s i s t a n t
supervisor, and from oase study notes by s o o ia l w orkers, te a c h e rs, psychia­
t r i s t s , and co ttag e w orkers.
each*
The oases were divided in to groups o f fiv e
An attem pt was made to have each group c o n s is t o f members who were
q u ite d if f e r e n t frcm one another*
The average c o e f f ic ie n ts fo r a l l the
oases were d if f e r e n t fo r the two experim enters, one o b tain in g a C o f
+.45 i .1 6 , th e o th e r +*80
+.89.)
-.0 5 ,
(Highest p o ssib le C fo r groups o f 5 is
They e x p la in the discrepancy between t h e ir r e s u l ts as due to th e
fa o t t h a t the su p erv iso r in v e s tig a to r had muoh more inform ation about the
boys th a n he oould include in h is sk etch, and so had more oues th an the
t e s t e r , upon whioh to base h is judgnent*
Furtherm ore, he was a ls o fa m ilia r
w ith th e Rorsohaoh teohnique and oould make a d d itio n a l in fe re n c e s.
1
Hunter also t r i e d the matohing method w ith h e r f i f t y su p erio r
Honolulu c h ild r e n .
She and th ree te a c h e rs , independently, t r i e d to mat oh
Rorsohaoh in te rp r e ta tio n s w ith teachers* p e rs o n a lity sketohes, tak in g
o la sse s of 10-16 a t a tim e , b u t abandoned th e method as in ap p lic a b le be­
cause o f the lack of s u f f ic ie n t h ete ro g en e ity in h e r population*
She s ta te s
t h a t th e re were a t l e a s t a dozen l i t t l e g i r ls whose p e rs o n a lity sketohes of
1.
Hunter, op* p i t . , pp. 287-295.
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56
e ith e r type showed so aro ely any d iffe re n c e s when plaoed sid e hy side*
Reoords of o h ild re n showing d ev ia tio n s were matched more re a d ily *
nI t is
s ig n if ic a n t t h a t in oase o f th e o h ild re n who were very d u ll* or very s ta b le ,
1
or very u n sta b le , th e re was the g r e a te s t agreement o f th e judges*"
There
i s a ls o th e p o s s ib i l i ty th a t the groups were to o la rg e fo r matohing th is
type of m a te r ia l.
Method of D irect Ocmparison
Another type of reoent study has bean a v a r ia tio n of th e d e ta ile d
ocmparison of th e Rorsohaoh in te r p r e ta tio n and oase h is to ry inform ation*
Items from th e in te r p r e ta tio n and oase study d e alin g w ith s im ila r fa o to rs
a re plaoed in t a b u la r form so th a t lik e n e sse s may stand out more o le a rly
th an when a lengthy Rorsohaoh in te r p r e ta tio n is follow ed by an even more
lengthy oase h isto ry *
Examples of t h i s method a re t o be found in the work of Hertz and
2
3
R ubenstein, and of Clapp, M iale, and Kaplan.
The re p o rt o f th e former
was discussed under stu d ie s of r e l i a b i l i t y *
In the comparisons w ith o l i n i ­
o a l d ata. H ertz found considerable agreement along w ith some disagreement*
The disorepanoies were m ainly on statem ents of the p s y c h i a t r is t ’s judgment,
and in some in sta n c e s , she s ta te d , th e d a ta from the p a t i e n t 's h is to r y
confirmed th e Rorsohaoh in te r p r e ta tio n r a th e r than th e p h y sio ia n 's im­
pression*
These oonolusions were, o f oourse, based upon h e r own in fe re n c e ,
1.
2.
Hunter, op. o i t * . p . 290.
M. H ertz and B* B. Rubenstein, A Ocmparison of Three "Blind" Rorsohaoh
A nalyses, •ttmerioan Journal of O rthopsychiatry, IX, (A p ril, 1939),
pp. 295-315.
3* H. Clapp, A* H. Kaplan, F* R* M iale, C lin io a l V a lid a tin g o f a Rorsohaoh
I n te r p r e ta tio n , Rorsohaoh Research Exchange. I I , (1938). pp* 153163.
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57
b ut the d a ta -were p resented so t h a t the re a d e r, to o , oan make h is own de­
ductions .
Clapp, M iale, and Kaplan d ivide t h e i r paper in to fo u r p a rts*
The
f i r s t is a p re s e n ta tio n of the a o tu a l responses on the Rorsohaoh obtained
by Clapp from a six te e n y e ar old oolored g irl*
This is follow ed by M ia le 's
in te r p r e ta tio n of the g i r l ' s p e rs o n a lity based upon these responses*
The
t h i r d se c tio n i s a summary by Kaplan of the oase h is to ry and r e s u lts of
p sy o h ia trio and psychological exam inations*
F in a lly , d i r e c t ocmparison
between th e seoond and t h i r d p a rts i s made by p lacin g in a d ja c e n t oolumns
m a te ria l o btained from the Rorsohaoh and m a te ria l dealing w ith sim ila r
fa o to rs from th e c l i n i c a l reo o rd , so t h a t one oan see agreement or d is ­
agreement a t a glance*
Each of th ese stu d ies d e a ls w ith only one oase, and, of c o u rse,
does not prove the v a li d i ty of the t e s t , even i f one oonsiders the r e s u l ts
fo r each of th e oases valid*
H ertz and Rubenstein r e a liz e t h i s and s t a te
t h a t "Many more suoh stu d ie s must be made befo re f in a l conclusions oan be
1
sta te d * "
The importance o f th e se stu d ie s l i e s in t h e i r a d a p ta tio n o f
R ar8ohach's o rig in a l method of b lin d diagnosis*
The only published study u sing t h i s method w ith a larg e number of
o a se s, a p p lie s i t t o only one asp eo t o f th e Rorsohaoh, th a t of the psychia2
t r i o d ia g n o stic c la s s if i c a t io n ,
Benjamin and Ebaugh
consider t h i s method
of d ir e c t comparison of o l in i o a l fin d in g s and Rorsohaoh oases in an unse-
1.
2*
Hertz and R ubenstein, op* o i t *, p* 512*
J* D. Benjamin and F* G* Ebaugh, The D iagnostic V a lid ity of the Rorsohaoh
T est, Amerioan Journal of P sy o h ia try , 94, (March, 1938), p , 1165*
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58
le o te d group of oases p re fe ra b le to Vernon’s matching teohnique.
The method
o f d ir e o t ocmparison perm its o f sep ara te e v a lu a tio n of the v a li d i ty of
th e t e s t in regard to d ia g n o s is , g en eral p e rs o n a lity estim ate , in te llig e n c e
le v e l, and s p e c ia l a p titu d es*
They proposed to study a l l of th e s e a s p e c ts ,
b u t a t th e p resen t time have p u b lish ed only an in v e s tig a tio n o f d ia g n o stic
v a lid ity *
In comparing th e d ia g n o s tic c la s s if ic a tio n s of f i f t y oases th ey
found complete agreement in 84.7/2 o f th e o ases.*
1
D. M. K elley, K. Levine, W. Pemberton, and K. L. Katz a ls o used
t h i s method of oomparing diagnoses in a study o f fo u rte e n oases who had
been given sodium amytal*
fo u rtee n oases*
They found p e rfe c t agreement in twelve o f the
In the other tw o, where th e re was disagreem ent, the
o lin io a l diagnoses were considered d o u b tfu l.
One of th ese doubtful oases
was a o h ild of ten y e a rs , the only c h ild in th e stu d y .
Both the matohing method and th e method o f d ir e o t comparison w ill
be used in the p re se n t study.
* F o rty -fiv e o f these p a tie n ts were between twenty and six ty -sev en years
o ld . Four were between seventeen and e ig h te e n . There was one
o h ild of e ig h t* In the l a t t e r , no d iag n o stic c la s s if ic a tio n was
made on the b a sis o f th e Rorsohaoh but the aggressive behavior of
the o h ild was o o rre o tly e v a lu a te d .
1 . Intravenous Sodium Amytal M edication as an Aid to th e Rorsohaoh Method,
P sy o h iatrio Q u a rte rly , XV, (January, 1941), pp. 68-73.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CHAPTER I I I
POPULATION AND PROCEDURE
D escrip tio n o f P opulation
The su b je c ts of t h i s in v e s tig a tio n were tw enty-five o h ild ren of
vario u s ages ranging from fiv e y ears and th re e months to eig h teen years
and two months, who were re fe rr e d f o r d iv erse problems to one branoh of
th e Bureau of Child Guidance of th e Board of Education of th e C ity o f New
York*
The o h ild ren sle e o te d fo r study were consecutive oases seen by the
p s y c h ia tr is t in May and June, 1939; a l l cases seen by him had complete case
stud ies*
No s e le c tio n was made as to age, se x , in te llig e n c e , type o f prob­
lem, or s ta tu s o f the oase*
Seme o f th ese o h ild re n were a tten d in g the
o lin io f o r th e f i r s t time*
Others were re tu rn in g fo r treatm ent or r e ­
examination*
There were twenty-two boys, and th re e g irls *
About h a lf o f
th e o h ild re n were between nine and twelve years o ld , and th e re were more
o h ild re n a t th e lower age le v e ls th an a t the upper le v e ls .
This is shown
in d e t a i l in Table V*
TABLE V
Age D is trib u tio n o f Population
5-6
Number
4
A ge
in
Y e a r s
7-8
9-10
11-12
13-14
4
7
5
2
T otal
15-16
17-18
2
1
25
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60
TABLE VI
Grade D istrib u tio n o f Population
1A-1B 2A-2B
Number
*
4
G r a d e s
3A-3B 4A-4E 5A-5B
4
1
4
6A-6B 7A-7B
3
3
2
High School
10A-10B
Total
3
24*
One o h ild was refused readm ission t o th e kin d erg arten because o f
behavior*
The numbers were f a i r l y evenly d is trib u te d through th e grades*
There
were th re e o r four oases a t each of the grade le v e ls rep resen ted except the
t h ir d and seventh*
seventh*
There was one o h ild in th e th ir d grade, two in th e
Thera were two o h ild ren above the seventh grade, both in th e
te n th grade o f high sohool*
TABLE V II
D istrib u tio n of In te llig e n c e Q uotients Based Upon
S tanford-B inet R esults
70-79
Number
2
In te llig e n c e Q uotient
100-109
80-89
90-99
8
0
3
T otal
110-119
120-129
7
5
25
The d is tr ib u tio n of in te llig e n c e q u o tie n ts, l i s t e d in Table V II,
showed a very larg e peroentage of su p erio r and d u ll normal ohildren*
Tables V, VI, and V II, have been included t o show the d iv e r s ity
of th e group in regard to age, grade, and mental a b ility *
♦
inform ation w i l l be given in analyses o f eaoh oase*
*
More d e ta ile d
See Appendix*
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61
This group o f problem o h ild re n a ls o showed a wide v a rie ty of
problems.
In a l l b u t two oases th e oh ild ren were re fe rre d because they
presented se v e ra l problem s.
The exoeptions were a oase of severe stam­
m ering, and one w ith a severe reading d i s a b i l i t y .
Both of these showed
no o ther d i f f i c u l t y aooording to the r e f e r r a l sta te m e n t.
A fter o lin io a l
stu d ie s were made, i t was found th a t many of th e o h ild re n p resented a d d i­
t io n a l, sometimes more se rio u s problems than th o se fo r whioh they were o rig ­
in a lly r e f e r r e d .
A l i s t o f some o f th e problems s ta te d in re q u e sts f o r
study of th e se o h ild re n shows t h e i r d i f f i c u l t i e s a re in many spheres.
(See
Table V III, page 62)
The problem most fre q u e n tly rep o rte d i s t h a t of poor school work.
Sinoe th e Bureau o f Child Guidance i s p a rt o f the p u b lic sohool system , one
would expect a la r g e r percentage of problems re fe rre d beoause of sohool
m aladjustm ent and m ild d e v ia tio n s from normal b ehavior, and a sm aller p er­
centage o f extrem ely d istu rb e d and psyohotio o h ild re n , than one would ex­
p e c t in a h o s p ita l o h ild guidanoe o l in i c .
D escription o f Data
The d a ta fo r t h is study a re the independent in te rp r e ta tio n s of
the Rorsohaoh t e s t s , and th e fin d in g s of c l i n i o a l oase s tu d ie s .
The Rorsohaoh Tests
The Rorschaoh t e s t s were adm inistered t o each of these o h ild re n
by p sy c h o lo g ists, experienced in th e
ubc
o f th e Rorschaoh teohnique.
te e n of the tw en ty -fiv e t e s t s were adm inistered by the in v e s tig a to r.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Four­
A ll
62
TABLE V III
Problems fo r Whioh C hildren Were R eferred fo r Study-
Problem o f R e fe rra l
Poor sohool work
F ig h tin g , h i t t i n g , or aggressive w ith o h ild ren
Daydreaming o r unable to oonoentrate
Severe reading d i s a b i l i t y
Lives in a dream world
Nervous
P h y sical com plaints although in good h e a lth
Temper tantrum s
Crying s p e lls
D isobedient a t home
Lying
Too q u ie t
Withdrawn, v ery shy
D oesn't g e t along w ith o h ild ren
E n uresis
S o ilin g
Irre sp o n sib le or u n re lia b le
S tu tte rin g
Nightmares
Insomnia
Laok of su sta in e d in te r e s ts
Fidgety
O veractive
B ullying
Very dependent and whining
D efiant and n e g a tiv is tio
Stubborn
Uno c n tro lla b le
S ullen
F a n ta s tic im agination
D oesn't p lay w ith o h ild ren o f own age
Running away from home
Staying out la t e
Truancy
Damaging sohool pro p erty
Babyish speeeh
Number of C hildren
P resen tin g Problem
11
6
5
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
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65
o f th e teB ts were given during the c h il d r e n '6 i n i t i a l in te rv ie w s a t the
o lin io , when th e p relim in a ry m edical, p s y o h ia trio , p sy ch o lo g ical, and
s o o ia l stu d ie s were made.
In seme oases the p sy ch o lo g ist made both the
p sychological and Rorsohaoh s tu d ie s , w hile in o th ers onepsychologist con­
ducted th e re g u la r p sy ch o lo g ical exam ination and the o th e r d id an ly the
Rorsohaoh study*
I t may have been p re fe ra b le t o have th e l a t t e r prooedure
in a l l th e c a se s, b u t th a t was im p ra ctica b le .
In order to c o n tro l th is
f a o to r in prooedure, a s w e ll a s in d iv id u a l v a ria tio n s in in te r p re ta tio n s
o f th e rec o rd s, a l l th e reoords were re in te rp r e te d by th e examiner, and
"b lin d in te r p r e ta tio n s " were made by a t h ir d person.
These in te r p re ta tio n s
w ill be disoussed in d e t a i l below, follow ing a d isoussion o f th e t e s t ad­
m in is tr a tio n .
Admini s t r a t i on
The method of a d m in istra tio n was e s s e n tia lly t h a t used by Rorschach,
L o o s li-U s te ri, Beck, and K lopfer.
A fte r ra p p o rt was e s ta b lis h e d , the sub­
j e c t was se ate d w ith h is baok to the exam iner, and w ith no f u rn itu re in
f r o n t o f him, to preolude th e p o s s ib i l i ty of h is s e ttin g th e oards down to
look a t them from a d is ta n c e .
Rorsohaoh s ta te d the oards were to be seen
, a t a d istan c e no g re a te r th an arm 's le n g th .
Theoards were th en handed to
th e s u b je c t in th e p re sc rib e d order and p o s itio n , and he was asked, "What
oould t h is be?"*
*
He was perm itted t o hold the oard a s long a s he lik e d ,
V arious in v e s tig a to rs have made changes in th e in s tru o tio n e • These have
c o n siste d o f very s l i g h t changes in wording (Ju a rro s and Soriano,
P fa h le r, V ernon), marked ohanges in wording, in oluding suggestions
whioh m ight in flu en ce th e type of response (O eser, Kerr, Thornton
and G u ilfo rd ), use o f a t r i a l b l o t (H e rts), lim ita tio n of time or
number o f responses per oard (H erts, Loepfe, Line and G riff in ).
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64
and to tu rn i t in any d ir e o tio n .
Rorsohaoh s ta te d t h a t the experim enter
should t r y , in so fa r as p o s s ib le , to e l i o i t a t l e a s t one response fo r each
o ard , and Beok's suggestions fo r doing th is were follow ed.
" I f th e su b je c t
is unresponsive or shy i t i s perm issible to encourage him t o th e e x te n t of
1
say in g , 'B ut most people see som ething.' n
I f th e su b je o t gave only one
response on the f i r s t oard he was encouraged t o give more w ith , "Most people
2
see more than one th in g ."
This encouragement was given only on th e f i r s t
o a rd .
"When the su b je o t asked questions about the type o f response he was
to g iv e , the examiner was nonoommital and enoouraged him to respond f re e ly .
A fter th e s u b je c t had responded to a l l th e c a rd s, he was ques­
tio n e d t o a s o e rta in the lo o a tio n o f h is responses and th e fa o to rs d e te r­
mining th e responses.
To e l i o i t th e most complete inform ation w ithout
S
4
in flu e n cin g the su b je ct, th e suggestions of Beok and K lopfer were followed
in t h i s in q u iry .
Klopfer suggested two degrees o f questio n in g ; the in ­
q u iry , and, follow ing t h a t , " te s tin g the lim its " by in q u irin g fo r sp e o ifio
f a o to r s .
The re p o rts obtained from o h ild ren during th is in q u iry are u su a lly
le s s adequate and r e lia b le than those obtained from a d u lts .
The younger th e
o h ild , th e more vague a re h is ex p lan atio n s lik e ly t o b e.
Although th e t e s t seems sim ple to a d m in iste r, "A s a tis fa c to ry in ­
quiry is impossible w ithout a thorough acquaintance w ith th e sooring sy s5
tern and i t s in te rp r e ta tiv e v a l u e . . . . "
S .J . Beok, The Rorschaoh Test as Applied to a Feebleminded Group* New
York* Columbia U n iv e rsity . Arohives o f Psychology. 10, No. 136,
1932, p . 33.
2 . Loo, o i t .
3. Loc. o i t . , and S .J . Beok, In tro d u ctio n to th e Rorsohaoh Method, p . 191.
4. B. K lopfer, The Teohnique of th e Rorsohaoh Perform ance, Rorsohaoh Researoh
Exchange, Il(Septem ber, 1937), pp. 6-12.
5* I b id ., p . 6.
1.
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65
Reoords
The s u b je o t's responses were recorded verbatim along w ith notes
on any s ig n if ic a n t rea o tio n s suoh as g ig g lin g , b lu sh in g , frowning, g e stu re s,
flu c tu a tio n s in speech, expressions of p leasu re or o ritio is m o f th e b lo ts
or resp o n ses, or any other c lu es to th e s u b je c t's a ttitu d e *
In a d d itio n ,
th e tim e taken to respond to in d iv id u a l oards and to th e whole s e r ie s was
noted*
The tim e preoeding the f i r s t response to each oard, and any unusual
delays a t other tim e s, were recorded*
A ll responses were c la s s if i e d aooording to the general scheme
whioh Rorsohaoh devised*
as th e scoring*
This c la s s if ic a tio n system i s u su a lly re fe rre d to
F i r s t , th e manner of apperoeption was analyzed.
This con­
cern s the p o rtio n of th e design se leo ted fo r in te r p r e ta tio n , whether the
w hole, a common d e t a i l , ra re d e t a i l , or white spaoe response.
Rorsohaoh
mentioned s ix p o ssib le types of responses under t h i s , and Klopfer*
tended t h is number*
ex­
Seoond, the q u a lity of response was determined*
This
in d ic a te s whether th e response i s determined by form, k in e s th e s is , c o lo r,
shading, or a combination of th e s e .
content*
T hird, the response was analyzed fo r
Although oontent v a r ie s , th e re are c e r ta in o lasses of oontent
whioh reour fre q u e n tly enough to make a standard s e t of symbols p o ss ib le .
F ourth, the o r ig in a lity or commonness o f the response was considered*
Symbols d e sc rip tiv e of the o la s s if ie a tio n under the f i r s t th ree asp ects
were given to each response, and when a p p lic a b le , th e fourth a sp e c t was
considered*
The sooring symbols used were p rim a rily those o f K lopfer,
b u t th e suggestions o f Beok were a ls o follow ed in some instanoes*
"Where
* A sample of th e sooring blank published by B. K lopfer and H* Davidson
w ith th e symbols of c la s s if ic a tio n and t h e i r d e fin itio n s , and a
sh e e t w ith reduoed photographs of th e b lo ts to f a c i l i t a t e lo o atin g
th e responses, a re appended*
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
1
sooring
was doubtful the sco rin g samples
o f Rorsohaoh were consulted*
of v ario u s in v e s tig a to rs and
I t is im possible to have a p e rfe c tly
stan d ard , o b jectiv e sooring scheme since th e re are d iffe re n c e s of opinion
among in v e stig a to rs*
a re the
However, since the d a ta to be used in t h i s study
p e rs o n a lity in te r p r e ta tio n s , derived from th e sooring and o th er
o bservations on th e perform anoe, the e c le c tic approaoh to sc o rin g does
n o t p resen t r e a l d if f ic u lt i e s *
Sooring i s not o b je c tiv e and m echanical both fo r the
above reaso n s, and because some doubtful responses
oan only be soored by referen o e to th e g en eral tre n d
of th e r e s t o f th e responses* The same response
might be determ ined s o le ly by th e shape or form of
the b lo t in one s u b je c t, and by ohiarosoure fe a tu re s
in another su b jeo t who m anifested a strong o h ia ro souro tendency toward o th e r b lo ts* Since sooring is
m erely a ra th e r unim portant stage and a means t o in ­
te r p r e ta tio n , n o t an end, t h i s s u b je c tiv ity and the
f a c t t h a t d if f e r e n t sc o re rs may sometimes d isa g re e ,
do not r e a lly m atter* They are disadvantageous
so le ly because experim enters a re unable to communi­
cate t h e i r r e s u l ts to one another i f they do not work
w ith caumon s ta n d a rd s .2
The d a ta in th e p re se n t study a re the d e so rip tiv e p e rs o n a lity
p ic tu re s*
The d e riv a tio n o f th e s e p e rs o n a lity p ic tu re s is th e most d if ­
f i c u l t p a rt of th e technique*
I t presupposes wide c l i n i c a l experience and
1. M. R ickers, Rorsohaoh Sooring Samples*
* Changes in sooring sohemes have c o n siste d p rim a rily of attem p ts to
stan d ard ize and r e f in e the sooring and have not made any major
changes in th e a sp e c ts fo r whioh each response i s studied* Beck
and Hertz have been p a r tic u la r ly a c tiv e in try in g to e s ta b lis h
b e tte r norms and standards fo r each type of response* Klopfer
has been most ao tiv e in attem pting to re fin e the sooring by
adding new symbols*
2* P . E* Vernon, The S ig n ifican ce
of the Rorsohaoh T e st, B r itis h Journal
of M edical Psychology* XV, (O ctober, 1935), p . 207*
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67
understanding o f the dynamic psyohologioal fa o to rs of b eh av io r.
"A
Rorsohaoh in te r p r e ta tio n is not an *autom atic' t r a n s la tio n o f t e s t fao­
t o r s in to d e so rip tiv e v e rb ia g e , b u t ra th e r a prooess of reasoning from
1
a s e t of experim ental f a c ts to a s e rie s of c o n clu sio n s."
The Rorsohaoh In te rp re ta tio n s TJsed in This Study
The in te rp r e ta tio n s used in t h i s in v e s tig a tio n were in fluenced
by an e o le o tio background in b o th o lin ic a l psychology and th e Rorsohaoh
tec h n iq u e.
The o rig in a l work o f Rorsohaoh and Oberholzer was a funda­
m ental in flu e n c e .
The sugg estio n s of Beck, K lopfer, P io tro w sk i, and
o th e rs were used wherever th ey seemed a p p lic a b le .
An inform al seminar
and a long p erio d of work to g e th e r led to th e use o f sim ila r standards
by p sy ch o lo g ists of the Bureau o f Child Guidance.
Rorsohaoh I n te r p r e ta tio n I
In te rp re ta tio n s o f p e rs o n a lity p ic tu re s from the Rorsohaoh reoord
were u su a lly derived by th e p sy ch o lo g ist who ad m inistered th e t e s t .
Fre­
q u e n tly , th e p sy c h o lo g ists, who were in te r e s te d in in cre asin g t h e i r s k i l l
in d e riv in g th ese in te r p r e ta tio n s , had conferences w ith eaoh o th e r.
As
a r e s u lt o f th e se and o f the inform al sem inar, s im ila r methods of i n te r ­
p r e ta tio n and sim ila r phraseology in d e scrib in g p a r tic u la r co n fig u ra tio n s
were a rriv e d a t .
The o ritio is m might be r a is e d t h a t , n e v e rth e le s s , th e re may be
1.
J . D. Benjamin and F. G. Ubaugh, The D iagnostic V a lid ity of the
Rorsohaoh T est, Amerioan Jo u rn a l of P sy c h ia try , L II, (May, 1939),
p . 130.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
marked in d iv id u a l v a ria tio n s in th e se p e rs o n a lity in te r p r e ta tio n s .
Fur­
therm ore, sin ce same of th e examiners had a lso given th e complete
psyohologioal exam inations, th ey may have been in flu en ced in t h e i r in ­
te r p r e ta tio n s by other d u e s th ey had about th e subjeot*
An attem pt
was made to overoome th ese p o ssib le weaknesses in th e d a ta , by having th e
reco rd s r e in te rp re te d by th e in v e s tig a to r , and by one o th e r person*
The
in v e s tig a to r re in te rp re te d the reoords in order to hold th e p erso n al fa c ­
t o r constant*
The d isc rep a n cies between the l a t e r in te r p r e ta tio n s , made
a t le a s t one year and h a lf a f t e r th e o rig in a l t e s t , were very s l i g h t and
o o n siste d m ainly o f v a ria tio n s in v e rb a l ex p ressio n , more or le s s emphasis
on c e r ta in f a c t o r s , or em ission in one o r the o th er re c o rd of same t r a i t ,
b u t th e re were no major o o n trad ib tio n s*
Sinoe th e in v e s tig a to r had
o r ig i nal ly done more than h a lf o f th e o ases, t h i s may n o t be considered an
adequate t e s t of the r e l i a b i l i t y of th e in te r p r e ta tio n s , b u t does make
th e p erso n al f a c to r oonstant*
Rorsohaoh I n te r p r e ta tio n I I
To o b tain com pletely ’’b lin d in te rp re ta tio n s " as a more objectiv e
t e s t o f th e r e l i a b i l i t y of th e in te r p r e ta tio n s , twenty Rorsohaoh re ­
sponse reo o rd s were in te rp re te d by th e Chief P sychologist o f th e Bureau
o f Child Guidanoe, who had not adm inistered any of th e t e s t s o r seen any
o f th e ch ild ren *
He was given th e response reoords and sco rin g ta b u la ­
t io n s , w ith no other inform ation about th e ohild ren exoept age and sex,
and was asked to make a b r i e f in te r p r e ta tio n o f th e most o utstanding
i n t e l l e c t u a l , p e rs o n a lity and em otional, and d iag n o stic f a c to r s shown by
th e te s t*
These d ire c tio n s were given so th a t the approach to th e i n t e r ­
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
p r e ta tio n would be the same a s t h a t used In th e in v e s tig a to r 's in te r p r e ­
t a t i o n s , and the r e s u l ts ocmparable.
These "b lin d analyses" were made in
December, 1940, a t l e a s t a y e a r and a h a lf a f t e r the o rig in a l t e s t s were
given.
C lin io a l Case Studies
A ll of th e c h ild ren in th e stu d y had been given m edioal, psycho­
lo g ic a l, and p sy o h ia trio exam inations, and so o ia l stu d ie s of th e
fa m ilie s and c h ild re n had been made.
th e c h ild re n .
th e o a se s.
each c h ild .
The same psyohi& trist*exam ined a l l
The p sy ch o lo g ists end p sy o h ia trio case workers v a rie d with
Each o f the workers wrote a complete re p o rt on h is stu d y of
The p s y c h i a t r i s t 's re p o rt o o n sisted of inform ation and
statem en ts obtained d ir e o tly from th e c h ild in h is i n i t i a l in te rv ie w , or
o f the p s y c h i a t r is t's im pressions o f th e o h ild based upon h is observa­
tio n s during t h is in te rv ie w .
The so o ia l w o rk er's re p o rt oantained in ­
form ation from v a rie d so u ro e s, suoh a s interview s w ith th e c h il d ’ s
p a re n ts , p a s t and p re se n t te a c h e rs , o th er sohool personnel, re c re a tio n
w orkers, s o c ia l agency w orkers, and re p o rts from sch o o ls, o th e r c l i n i c s ,
h o s p ita ls , o th e r agenoies now or prev io u sly ao tiv eo n th e case, and p riv a te
fam ily physioism s.
The souroes fo r each oase depended upon t h e i r a v a il­
a b i l i t y and p e rtin e n c e .
The p s y c h o lo g is t's r e p o r t contained r e s u l ts of
o b jec tiv e t e s t s and an in te r p r e ta tio n o f these r e s u l t s , a s w e ll a s a
*
The p s y c h ia tr is t in th e branch from which th e s e oases were ohosen was
very much in te r e s te d in th e Rorsohaoh Method and s k ille d in in ­
te r p r e tin g Rorsohaoh re o o rd s. His p sy o h ia trio exam inations were
done independently a f t e r reading the so o ia l h i s t o r ie s .
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70
d e s c rip tio n of the o h ild 's b e h av io r, c o n v ersa tio n , and re a o tio n s during
th e psychological examination*
A m edical re p o rt contained a summary of
phyaioal fin d in g s and a b r i e f n o ta tio n on th e o h ild 's a tt i tu d e and r e ­
a c tio n during t h i s examination*
Following the so i n i t i a l s tu d ie s a oonferenoe was h eld fo r each
c a se , with a l l th e w orkers, and any sohool personnel who wished to p a r­
t i c i p a t e , to discuss th e fin d in g s , a rriv e a t a d iag n o sis, and o u tlin e a
plan of treatm ent*
In some oases th e treatm ent was t o be c a rrie d on by
th e sohool or a cooperating agenoy, w hile in o th e rs psychological or
p sy o h ia trio treatm ent waB t o be c a r r ie d out by the o lin io *
La th e l a t t e r
oases d e ta ile d notes on trea tm e n t were included in th e oase record* w ith
a l l th e o th e r data*
There were follow -up notes in other reoords as w e ll,
fo r any supplementary inform ation subsequent to the o rig in a l examinations*
These oase reoords were c a re fu lly a b stra c te d by th e in v e s tig a to r,
and s p e c ia l care was taken to include f u l l d e ta il s on any data t h a t might
be d e sc rip tiv e of p erso n ality *
th e end of t h is ohapter*
Samples of th ese a b s tra o ts are inoluded a t
These a b s tra o ts were then o u lle d and s k e le ta l ab­
s t r a o ts were made in ta b u la r form*
This form is described below in de­
t a i l under treatm ent o f d a ta ; th e se ta b u la r o h arts a re inoluded in th e ap­
pendix*
Treatment of Data
Following th e p relim in ary p re p a ra tio n of data th ere were six p a rts
*
Some o f th ese reoords were voluminous and oontained 80-100 or more pages
o f c lo se ly typed m ateria l*
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
to th e stu d y , the f i r s t concerned -with r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y , the
second, t h i r d , and f o u r th , -with the r e l i a b i l i t y of th e p e rs o n a lity in ­
te r p r e ta tio n s , and the f i f t h and s ix th w ith th e c li n i c a l v a l i d i t y o f th e
in te r p r e ta tio n s .
The methods a p p lied were d ir e o t comparison o f d a ta by
ta b u la r a n a ly s is , th e matching teohnique, and a r a tin g technique*
E ig h t
p sy c h o lo g ists, experienced in th e Rorsohaoh te c h n iq u e , p a rtic ip a te d in
the m atching and ratin g *
D ireot Comparison by Tabular A nalysis
C harts were prepared f o r each o a s e , p lacin g the d ata obtained
from th e d if f e r e n t stu d ie s in p a r a l le l oolumns.
The c h a r t form used was
1
an a d a p ta tio n o f t h a t given by Hertz and R ubenstein.
The two Rorsohaoh
in te r p r e ta tio n s , and a b s tra o ts of the v a rio u s p a rts o f the o lin io a l
stu d ie s were o u tlin e d in ad ja ce n t oolumns*
A ll o f th e d a ta on th e Rorsohaoh
i n te r p r e ta tio n s were induded, b u t the m a te ria l was n o t placed in th e same
order as in th e o rig in a l r e p o r t, sinoe, in s o fa r a s p o s s ib le , data d eal­
ing w ith s im ila r fa o to rs were placed sid e by side*
This was done to make
the s i m il a r it i e s and d iffe re n o e s stand out more o le a rly *
The d a ta were
d iv id ed in to th re e main s e o tio n s : ( l ) i n t e l l e c t u a l a s p e c ts , (2) person­
a l i t y c o n fig u ra tio n and em otional a s p e c ts , and (3) diagnosis*
Any d ata
p e rta in in g to th e se a apeots in the Rorsohaoh, the p s y o h ia trio examina­
tio n , th e so o ia l h is to r y , th e psyohologioal exam ination, were plaoed in
the a p p ro p ria te oolumns*
In a d d itio n to oolumns fo r e aoh of th ese
1* 12* R* H ertz and B* B* R ubenstein, A Comparison o f Three "Blind”
Rorsohaoh A nalyses, American Jo u rn a l o f O rthopsychiatry, IX,
( A p ril, 1939), pp* 299-309,
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
souroes of th e d a ta , a f i n a l m iscellaneous column was inoluded f o r d ata
from the m edioal exam ination, the conference r e p o r t, treatm en t o r fo llo w up notes*
The o h a rts f o r th e tw en ty -fiv e oases a re presen ted in the
appendix*
Matching Rorsohaoh In te rp re ta tio n s
The f i r s t matching experiment c o n siste d of matching the two s e ts
of independent Rorsohaoh in te r p r e ta tio n s , t h a t o f the in v e s tig a to r and
th a t of the o h ie f psychologist*
Three judges p a rtic ip a te d *
They were
given the two s e t s o f fiv e in te rp re ta tio n s and to ld to match the c o rre c t
p airs*
P ersonal pronouns or o th er refe ren o e to the sex of th e su b je c ts
were d eleted to e lim in a te the p o s s ib ility o f m atching on the b a s is of
t h is extraneous olue*
Four groups of fiv e suoh p a ir s were matched by
eaoh of th e th r e e judges* making a t o t a l o f s ix ty matchings*
Throughout the matching experiments* groups of fiv e p a irs were
used*
In d isc u ssin g m atching w ith Rorsohaoh m a te ria l Vernon suggested
1
"A sm all group of su b je o ts i s ta k e n , u s u a lly about five****”
E* Troup
s ta te s th a t t h i s siz e may be too ocmplex in m atching reoords o f twins*
" I t is r a th e r d o u b tfu l i f even a s k ille d judge oan grasp a t one time fiv e
suoh involved s e t s of m a te ria l as th e Rorsohaoh reoords plus t h e i r in 2
te r p r e ta tio n s o f th e t o t a l p e rs o n a lity p io tu re* "
"Most Im portant of a l l th e fa c to rs whioh influence a matching ex3
perim ent i s the h e te ro g en e ity or d iv e r s ity o f th e m a te ria l in eaoh s e t , "
1* Vernon, oj>* o it* * p* 213*
2* A Comparative Study by Means o f the Rorsohaoh Method of P e rs o n a lity
Development in Twenty P a irs of Id e n tio a l Twins, Genetic Psychology
Monographs* 20, (1938), p* 541*
- - , -3* P* E* Vernon* The Matching Method Applied to In v e stig a tio n s o f P er­
so n ality * Psyohologioal B u lletin * 33, (March, 1936), p . 158*
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73
and I f m a te ria l i s to o homogenous the technique Is inap p licab le*
" • • • in
m atching, th e d iffe re n c e s between th e sub jeo ts in any one s e t o f m a te ria l
are q u a lita tiv e , so th a t no measure o f d isp e rsio n comparable to th e S*D*
(which can be used in determ ining the random h e te ro g en e ity of th e popula1
tio n f o r r ) i s a t p re se n t a v a ila b le * "
The tw enty-five oases in t h i s
study were somewhat homogeneous in t h a t th ey were a l l problem o a ses, and
same of th e p e rs o n a lity p a tte rn s shown on th e Rarsohachs were sim ila r*
In
order to eq u alize th e fiv e m atching groups and make eaoh s e t roughly
heterogeneous th e groups were d iv id ed an th e b a s is of th e in v e s tig a to r 's
Rorsohaoh in te r p r e ta tio n s , by choosing fiv e in te rp re ta tio n s t h a t showed
s u f f ic ie n t d iffe re n c e s so t h a t th ey would not be m istaken f o r eaoh other*
I t was n o t p o ssib le to group th e o ases in t h is way fo r a l l the s e t s , and
in same in sta n c e s th e re were two in te rp re ta tio n s in th e same group th a t
were very sim ila r*
th e l a s t set#
The grouping was e sp e c ia lly weak in t h is re s p e c t fo r
The data fo r th e case stu d ie s did not e n te r a t a l l in to
the s e le o tio n o f th ese groups*
Group
Group
Group
Group
Group
The groups were d ivided as fo llo w st
I*
Cases 1,
2 , 3 , 7 , and 24*
I I : Cases 5,
9 , 11, 20, and 23*
III:
Cases 4 ,
6, 10, 14, and 18*
17: Cases 8 ,
13, 21, 22, and 25*
V:
Cases 12, 15, 16, 17, and 19*
R ating Agreement between the Independent
korsohaoh I n te rp re ta tio n s
The th re e judges who p a rtic ip a te d in the matching of th e i n te r -
1*
P* E* Vernon, The Matching Method Applied to In v e s tig a tio n s o f P er­
s o n a lity , P sychological B u lle tin , 33, (Maroh, 1936), p* 158*
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p r e ta tio n s -were asked to r a t e them f o r fo u r a sp e c ts, ( l ) i n t e l l e c t u a l a s ­
p e c ts , (2) p e rs o n a lity c o n fig u ra tio n and em otional a sp e c ts, (3 ) d iag ­
n o s is , (4) t o t a l p e rs o n a lity p ic tu re *
The r a tin g mis to be done an a fiv e
p o in t so ale o f agreement as follow s t
1* E s s e n tia l agreement
2* F a ir agreement
5* Approximately eq u al
4* S lig h t agreement
5*
No agreement
— roughly 80-100/S agreement*
— roughly 60-80 % agreement*
amount o f agreement and disagreement*
— roughly 20-40^ agreement, more d i s ­
agreement th an agreem ent, o r inade­
quate and does not mention many
im portant fa c to rs*
- - roughly 0-20/2 agreement, d isa g re e s
on most e s s e n tia ls *
Baoh oase th e n , was given fo u r r a tin g s , and a t o t a l of 240 ra tin g s was
made by th e s e judges*
Matohlng Rorsohaoh Reoords w ith In te rp re ta tio n s
A seoond matching experiment c o n siste d of matohing th e Rorsohaoh
response reoords and t h e i r scoring ta b u la tio n s w ith th e p e rs o n a lity i n te r ­
p re ta tio n s*
Seven judges p a rtic ip a te d in making one hundred and seventy
(170) matchings*
Six of th e judges matched tw en ty -fiv e reoords w ith
tw e n ty -fiv e in te rp r e ta tio n s in groups of fiv e p a irs*
tw enty reoords*
The seventh matched
Four judges had been w ith the Bureau o f C hild Guidance a t
l e a s t fo u r y ears and had developed t h e i r standards of Rorsohaoh in te r p r e ­
ta t i o n to g eth er*
One judge had been a t th e Bureau of Child Guidance le s s
them a year and had developed her standards o f in te rp re ta tio n independently*
Two judge8 , outstanding ex p erts in th e Rorsohaoh technique, had n o t worked
a t the Bureau a t any time*
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75
Matching Rorsohaoh lu te rp re ta tio n e w ith
A batracts o f Case Studies
The f i n a l matching experim ent c o n siste d o f matching th e Rorsohaoh
p e rs o n a lity in te r p re ta tio n s w ith th e a b s tra o ts o f th e oase s tu d ie s o u tlin ed
on the o h arts*
Five judges did t h i s matching*
Eaoh was f i r s t given a
group o f f iv e Rorschach in te rp r e ta tio n s and f iv e o h a rts of oase study
a b s tr a c ts , containing m a te ria l under p s y c h ia tric exam ination, so o ial h i s ­
to ry , psychological exam ination, and m iscellaneous d a ta , and asked to
p a ir th e in te rp re ta tio n s and case a b stra o ts c o rre o tly *
As in th e o th er
matohing experim ent, th e personal pronouns and re fe re n c e s to the sax of
the su b je c ts had been d e le te d from the Rorsohaoh in te rp re ta tio n s *
Each
judge matched fiv e suoh groups of fiv e p a ir s , making a t o t a l of one hun­
dred and tw enty-five matchings for a l l th e judges*
R ating Agreement between the Rorschach In te rp re ­
ta tio n s and A b strao ts o f Case S tudies
The judges who d id th e matching of th e in te r p r e ta tio n s and case
stu d ie s ra te d t h e i r matchings fo r four a sp ec ts on a fiv e p o in t ra tin g
scale as described above under p a rt 3 o f th e prooedure, Rating the
Independent Rorschach In te rp re ta tio n s *
They ra te d t h e i r i n i t i a l m atohings,
whether th ese were c o rre c t or n o t, and then were given th e o o rreo t match­
ings to r a te i f th e y had made e rro rs in matching*
The t o t a l number of
ra tin g s fo r c o rre c t matohings was fiv e hundred, one hundred fo r eaoh judge*
S t a t i s t i c a l Procedure
I t was p ossible to apply s t a t i s t i c a l procedures t o th e matohing and
N E W YORK UNIVERSITY
SOHOOL OF EDUCATION
o
IIBRARY
o
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76
ra tin g experiments*
S t a t i s t i c a l Procedure in Matohing
The form ula used fo r obtaining & contingency c o e f fic ie n t of
1
matohing is th a t used by Vernon*
(S t-lV
(t- 1 ) -+- (S t-1)
P*E. - 0*6745 E
C
E - (t-1 )
---------------
(st-D C(t-i)2-nH +t Q t-i) - (st-i)!]
t t(t-l) - K S t - l ) ^
w
t - th e number o f elem ents t o be matched*
N-the t o t a l number o f judgments or matches*
S-athe p ro p o rtio n o f judgments th a t are oorrect*
The formula fa r fo re c a stin g e ffio ie n o y
contingency is
o f the c o e ffic ie n t o f
(S -i)
v
3
The fo m u la fo r fo re c a stin g e ffio ie n o y
fo r a Pearson c o e ffic ie n t
o f c o rre la tio n i s 1-K, or 1- J l - r 2.
S t a t i s t i c a l Prooedure in Rating
At f i r s t i t was planned to compare the r e s u lts o f th e ra tin g s
w ith those t o be expected by chance by applying th e ohi square technique*
However, th e r e s u l ts were so markedly skewed in favor o f th e p o sitiv e
r a tin g s , and the d is tr ib u tio n d iff e re d so markedly from th e normal curve
1* P* E* Vernon, The Matching Method Applied to In v e stig a tio n s of P e r­
s o n a lity , P sychological B ulletin* 33, (March, 1936), p* 151*
2* Ib id ** p* 154*
3* H* E. G a rre tt, S t a t i s t i c s in Psychology and Eduoaticn, p . 123*
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77
t o be expected by chance, t h a t a p p lic a tio n o f th e ohi square t e s t -was n o t
inoluded in th e f i n a l procedure*
The r a tin g s fo r the d if f e r e n t a sp eo ts
are compared b u t any re fin e d s t a t i s t i c a l techniques f o r th e s e comparisons
seem in ap p licab le*
Sample Cases
The complete case study a b s tr a o ts , the responses on th e Rorschach
t e s t s , and th e Rorschach p e rs o n a lity in te r p r e ta tio n s o f th re e sample oases
are appended in t h is se c tio n ; th e c h a rt oase stu d ies of a l l the oases
appear in th e appendix*
The f i r s t sample oase (Group I I , Case 1 1 ), is
one which p resented no d i f f i c u l t y in m atching e it h e r th e response record
•with the p e rs o n a lity in te r p r e ta tio n , or th e p e rs o n a lity in te r p r e ta tio n
■with th e case study, and idiich was given ra tin g s of 1 fo r a l l aspeots by
a l l th e judges*
The seoond oase (Group I I I , Case 10) is one which gave
no d i f f i c u l t y in th e matching of the response record w ith th e p e rs o n a lity
in te r p r e ta tio n but d id presen t d i f f i c u l t y in th e matching o f th e i n t e r ­
p r e ta tio n w ith th e oase study*
th ese o o rrectly *
Two of th e fiv e judges f a i l e d t o match
The th ir d oase (Group V, Case 19) presented d i f f i c u l t y
in th e m atching of th e response record w ith th e p e rs o n a lity in te r p r e ta tio n ,
Five o f seven judges f a ile d to match th e s e , y e t only one o f f iv e judges
f a ile d to match th e in te r p r e ta tio n w ith th e oase study*
The judges ex­
p ressed doubt in t h e i r matohings beoause th e re were two ra th e r s im ila r
Rorschach reoords in the group*
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78
Group I I , Case 11
Case Study
S. is an e ig h t year o ld boy; in th e 2A, who was re fe rre d f o r
study because he " is nervous, has temper tan tru m s, doesn’t g e t along w ell
w ith o th e r c h ild re n . He h i t s c h ild re n tw ioe h is s i z e , has tru a n te d from
so h o o l, and does n o t seem to be p ro g ressin g a t sc h o o l.n The problem f i r s t
came to th e a tte n tio n of a fam ily s o c ia l se rv io e agency when the mother
came th e re to plaoe th e c h ild . The m other s ta te d she did t h i s to th re a te n
him.
Sooial H isto ry
His mother s ta te d th a t he was always cranky and i r r i t a b l e , even
as a b ab y . He would slap and sc ratc h h is s ib lin g s . He q u a rre ls con­
s ta n tly w ith h is s ib lin g s non, and h i t s them . He plays w ith h is younger
s i s t e r b u t is ag g ressiv e toward the other s ib lin g s . He does n o t p la y w ell
w ith o th er c h ild re n . In a few minutes he oernes baok c ry in g , com plaining
t h a t th e y h i t him, idien u su a lly he h i t them . He p re fe rs to play a lo n e ,
and is q u i e t , and w e ll behaved when playing a lo n e .
His p a re n ts s ta te they are unable t o handle him although they have
had no d i f f i c u l t y w ith any of the o th e r c h ild r e n . He screams and y e lls i f
he doesn’t g e t h is way, and h is mother u s u a lly gives him what he wants
when he makes a f u s s . He was e s p e c ia lly d i f f i o u l t when he began to go to
sch o o l. He re fu s e d to go. How he g e ts h is mother to b rib e him, re fu sin g
t o go u n less she gives him money. He laughs when spanked. He is a r e s t ­
le s s s le e p e r, sometimes asks the mother to sle ep w ith him. He makBs h is
mother give him m ilk in a b o t t l e . He was nursed u n t i l tw en ty -six months,
and then was weaned w ith g re a t d i f f i c u l t y . He i s a ffe c tio n a te toward
th e m other, f e a r s the f a t h e r .
He went to oamp when he was 7jg-, was re p o rte d a "normal, m isohievous boy w ith wholesome i n t e r e s t s , n o t d i f f i o u l t t o h a n d le ." His
fa th e r re p o rte d t h a t he was a l i t t l e le s s troublesom e f o r a w h ile, a f t e r
re tu rn in g from camp, b u t now picks on o th er c h ild re n , and i s again tro u b le ­
some.
He a tte n d s a boys’ clu b and i s rep o rte d "n o isy , a c tiv e ."
His te a c h e r s ta te d he is d i s t r a o t i b l e , w i l l not o o n o e n tra te , pro­
vokes q u a rre ls by pushing or h ittin g o th e r o h ild re n . He seems d u l l .
Psychological Exam ination
Revised S tan fo rd -B in et, Form M
Goodenough Drawing Test
A rthur P o in t Scale, I
C.A. 8-1
M.A. 6-3
M.A. 6-6
M.A. 7-9
IQ 82
IQ 96
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79
M etropolitan Achievement T ests,
Prim ary I Pom A
Word P ic tu re
Word R ecognition
Word Meaning
Numbers
Grade
E*A*
l7
1®
l7
1®
6-9
6-8
6-9
6-9
The c h ild was very immature, dependent, lacking in spontaneity*
He was phlegmatic* Speech was in d ic a tiv e o f fo reig n background* There
is a language handicap* He was much more a t ease w ith m anipulative than
w ith v e rb a l m aterial*
He probably has d u ll normal general a b i l i t y w ith somewhat b e t t e r
a b i l i t y w ith performance m aterial* Although h is sohool achievement is
below h is grade he i s probably working up t o h is cap acity in sohool work*
P sy o h iatrio Examination
Boy's comprehension was slow* His immediate complaint was about
h is s is te r * nI hate her* We always fig h t* " He complained t h a t she was
given more th in g s than he was, and, "Sometimes I th in k th a t my mother
lik e s h er b e st* " He blamed h is s itte r as being responsible f o r h i s re c e iv ­
ing many spankings* He a ls o oanplained about h is older b ro th er* He r e ­
pressed h is anger toward h is parents*
He was ashamed o f having sucked a b o t tl e u n t il recently*
He rep o rted many fe a rs — o f a bogeyman, snakes, lio n s , t i g e r s ,
and a kidnapper — f e a r s th e y might k i l l him* He has s lig h t i n i t i a l in ­
somnia* He sometimes dreams th e y are going to k i l l h is mother b u t he saves
her*
Im pressioni Boy i s probably d u ll normal in te lle c tu a lly * Behavior
prohlem w ith stro n g n e u ro tio c o lo ra tio n , m ainly phobio* Weaning and s ib ­
lin g r iv a lr y problems unresolved* Marked rep ressed h o s t i l i t y toward th e
mother*
P h y sio al Examination
S* was q u ie t, co o p erativ e, b u t slow to respond*
s lig h tly myopio*
His v is io n is
Conference
The n o tes c o n ta in a summary o f other m aterial* Mother has probably
a lte r n a te ly indulged and thw arted th e boy* His d if f ic u lty i s m ainly on a
behavior level* He h a te s h is s i s t e r openly*
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80
Follow-up
The p a re n ts attem pted to follow th e reocmmendations an handling*
Beatings were stopped, disparaging comparisons w ith the sib lin g s were
a ls o stopped* The b h ild was tr e a te d by th e p s y c h ia tris t* He was given
o u tle ts fo r h i s h o s t i l i t y by means of p lay th e ra p y , and most o f h is
aggression was d ire o te d tow ard h is mother and th e baby, not toward th e
s i s t e r w ith whom he has h is o v ert d if f ic u lt i e s * G u ilt fre q u e n tly appeared
in h is need t o punish h im s e lf, as th e c h a ra c te r who had attaoked th e
others* A fte r a few months he seemed h a p p ie r, more se cu re , was making a
b e tt e r adjustm ent* He s t i l l had occasional f ig h ts with th e s is te r *
Rorsohaoh Examination
C.A. 8-1
Responses
In q u iry
I* /V
24" 1 .A pumpkin
33" A head
51" 2* A dog too
A pumpkin's got t h is
(spaces in oenter)
The pumpkin'8 head
Here’ s h is e a rs — two
dogs — (vaguely points
to whole — a f t e r
prodding, says lower
p a rt is pumpkin)
WS F+ Obj*
UN
F- A
II
24" 3* A dog-then th ey chop
h is head o ff
4* Cut h is head 'cause
they got blood
48" 5* A p ig (p o in ts to
edge o f blaok)
III* M/\
C an't even see t h i s
9" 6* A ohioken (Right
blaok)
31" 7* A b ir d (L eft
blaok)
No, I mean one pig and
one dog (p o in ts vaguely)
because th e p ig 's got
t h i s — i t 8 body
D F?
Ad
D CF
Blood
D F- A
'Cause a ohioken's got
D F? A
these
head, le g s , body
(P o in ts vaguely to v a r i - D F— A
ous p la c e s , f i n a l ly l e f t
red) A b ir d i s lik e th is
I t looks lik e a dopey man
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81
Responses
17. MJ /\V
11” 8 . A dog
9. A f is h
In q u iry
F i r s t p o in ts to lower
W F- A
c e n te r, th en t o whole)
head (c e n te r) t a i l (lower
o e n te r)
A f is h is lik e th a t
W F- A
V. f\
6” 10. A h ir d
I see h is f e e t — V
How do you c a l l t h o s e ~
(snaps fin g e rs ) —
ohioken? — h e r e 's
f e e t , h is head
(p o in ts vaguely to
o en ter)
W?F? A
those th in g s f ly — one
h a l f 's th e f l y — and
th e r e ’ 8 th e hug
W?F- A
Upper p a rt-h e a d , hody
and f e e t
D F? A
One here and one here —
a t i g e r I mean — se e,
h e 's a s t a tu e , see how
they stand — these a re
th e rooks th e y stand on,
'cause th e th in g s are
standing them up
D F+ A
v i. I\V
6" 11. S p ir t- ( ? ) I mean
a fly
30” 12. A hug - - a hug has
th a t (P o in ts to top
c e n te r)
v ii.
v i i i
Q V /w
25" 13. A h a lf a dog
dYTCF- A
. M ?-
8” 14. A lio n -tw o lio n s
IX. Av a v
12” 15.
38” 16.
Cat (pink) Here’s
th e o a t. Here’s
the f e e t ( tin y exten­
sio n s c e n ter pink)
end h e re ’s th e hody
A h e a rt
A h e a rt looks lik e
th a t
D F? A
J u s t looks lik e i t
D F- At
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
82
Responses
Inquiry
x. A
5" 17. A snake. I t shakes.
12" 18. A h a lf a head o f a f is h
V
25" 19. A h a lf a ohioken
(grey)
A ohioken — a duck,
M y 20.
I mean (o e n te r b lu e)
A snake i s lik e th a t
Fishes got the p o in ty
th in g over here
A c h ic k e n 's lik e th a t
Duok’ s got th a t and h is
neck and h is body
D FIJI A
D F+ Ad
D F? Ad
D F? A
R: 20
W:
WS:
DW:
dW:
D:
4 (271?)
1
1
1
13
M: 0
FM: 1
F: 18
( a t l e a s t 8 F -,
only 3 F,
7F?)
FC: 0
GF: 1
H:
A:
Ad:
Anat:
Blood:
Obj:
0
14
3
1
1
1
90
15? form
to o vague
to d e te r ­
mine
Afot 85
App. Type:
W-,DVf,D
F%t
M;0 0:1
FM:o 1:0
P e rs o n a lity I n te r p re ta tio n I
I n te lle c tu a l A speots: Low d u ll normal in te llig e n c e . C h ild ish , un­
c r i t i c a l , ste reo ty p ed . His a sso c ia tio n s are m eagre, crude, u n elab o rated .
Gives th e im pression o f being even d u lle r than he i s .
P e rso n a lity and Emotional A spects: C o n stricted p e rs o n a lity . He
i s very immature, shows poor a ff e c tiv e a d a p ta b ility . He is probably
c h ild is h ly eg ooentrio, and sometimes u n co n tro lled in h is re a c tio n s . He
probably has occasional em otional o u tb u rsts and temper tan tru m s. There i s
evidenoe of h o s t i l i t y and negativism , which a re u su a lly kept under c o v er.
He probably fe e ls inad eq u ate. A djusts poorly t o a group and to new s i t u a ­
t io n s .
D iagnosis: Beouase o f the d u lln e ss and ag e, r e s u lts are t e n t a t i v e .
The record suggests a behavior problem w ith neurotio co lo rin g r a th e r than
n e u ro s is .
P e rs o n a lity I n te rp re ta tio n I I
I n t e l le c tu a l A spects: D ull, b o rd erlin e in te llig e n c e . Marked
p a u c ity o f a sso c ia tio n s and lack of o r itio is m . Extremely ste re o ty p e d .
Very lim ite d i n t e r e s t s . Extremely immature and d u l l, u n d isc rim in atin g ,
u n o r itio a l.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
83
P e r s o n a l i t y a n d E m o tio n a l A s p e o ts : H as l i t t l e o a p a o i ty f o r good
i n t r o v e r s i v e o r e x t r a t e n s i v e d e v e lo p m e n t; p e r s o n a l i t y i s o o n s tr io t e d *
He i s a n x io u s , i n s e c u r e , f e e l s in a d e q u a te * U s u a l b e h a v io r i s p r o b a b ly
d o o ile -with o o o a s io n a l te m p e r o u tb u r s ts *
T h ere i s a l a c k o f s p o n t a n e i t y
an d a la o k o f a f f e o t i v e a d a p t a b i l i t y *
C o n ta c t -with p e o p le i s p o o r . He
i s i n f a n t i l e , h o s t i l e * He i s slo w i n a d a p t in g t o new t a s k s an d t o new
s i t u a t i o n s * He i s u n d is c r i m i n a t i n g an d u n o r i t i c a l i n h i a s o o i a l a n d
e m o tio n a l r e a c t i o n s a s he i s i n t e l l e c t u a l l y *
D ia g n o s is : D u ll b o y , w ith some d i s t u r b a n c e ~ i s p r o b a b ly t r o u b l e ­
some b e c a u s e o f h i s s lo w n e s s i n a d j u s t i n g a n d i n a b i l i t y t o g e t a lo n g w e l l
w ith o th e r s * B e h a v io r p ro b le m .
Group I I I * C ase 10
Case S tudy
S* i s a tw e lv e y e a r o ld b o y who was r e f e r r e d b y a f a m ily s e r v i c e
a g en cy b e c a u s e o f d i u r n a l and n o o t u r n a l e n u r e s i s a n d d i u r n a l s o i l i n g *
I n s o h o o l he i s q u i e t , w ith d ra w n , d a y d re a m in g , la c k in g i n en erg y * T h ere
h ave b e e n p e t t y t h e f t s *
S o o ia l H i s t o r y
The o h i l d ' s m o th e r d ie d when he w as a b o u t one y e a r o ld* F o r a b o u t
one y e a r a f t e r h e r d e a t h , t h e c h i l d r e n w ere ta k e n o a r e o f b y an e l d e r l y
woman, h i r e d b y t h e f a t h e r *
Then t h e y w e re p la c e d o u t w ith t h e i r m a te r n a l
a u n ts * T hree y e a r s l a t e r th e f a t h e r r e m a r r ie d and t h e o h i l d r e n came t o
l i v e w ith t h e s te p m o th e r* T h is b o y was th e n a b o u t s ix * The s te p m o th e r
s t a t e d t h a t h e was e x tr e m e ly f r a i l a n d t i n y , an d sh e q u e s tio n e d w h e th e r
t h e a u n ts h a d g iv e n a d e q u a te o a re * The a u n ts a r e r e p o r t e d t o h av e low
m o ra l s ta n d a r d s a n d t o h av e h ad a b a d i n f l u e n c e on t h e c h i ld r e n * They h ad
r e q u e s te d com m itm ent o f th e c h i l d r e n , c la im in g t h a t t h e f a t h e r d id n o t
c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e i r s u p p o r t , b u t t h e f a t h e r r e f u s e d c o n s e n t, and t h e n
to o k th e o h i l d r e n b a c k when hh r e m a r r ie d * The f a t h e r d o e s show l i t t l e
i n t e r e s t i n t h e o h i l d r e n an d t a k e s l i t t l e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r t r a i n ­
in g * H is w ork h a s b e e n v e r y i r r e g u l a r f o r t h e l a s t f i v e y e a r s , an d he
sp en d s muoh o f h i s f r e e tim e d r i n k i n g . The s te p m o th e r h a s alw ays h ad a
d i f f i o u l t l i f e , b u t alw ay s m anaged t o s u p p o r t h e r s e l f , a n d i s now d o in g
j a n i t o r i a l work* She t r i e s t o b e n i c e t o t h e o h i l d r e n an d i s h u r t when
th e y do n o t r e s p o n d . She h as t r o u b l e i n h a n d l in g a l l b u t o n e , who i s
f r e e r i n t a l k i n g t o h e r * The o t h e r s a r e n o t r e s p o n s iv e * A f te r v i s i t i n g
th e a u n t s , t h e y a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y s u lle n * The a u n ts a r e o p e n ly c r i t i c a l
o f t h e s te p m o th e r and e n c o u ra g e th e o h i l d r e n t o d e f y h e r .
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
84
The s te p m o th e r s t a t e s t h a t th e b o y ’ s c h i e f d i f f i c u l t i e s a r e t h e
s o i l i n g and w e ttin g * As f a r a s sh e know s, t o i l e t h a b i t s w ere n e v e r e s ­
t a b l i s h e d * She a t t r i b u t e s i t t o l a z i n e s s , s in c e h i s p h y s ic a l e x a m in a tio n
ivas n e g a t i v e , an d s in c e he d o es n o t w et when he sp en d s a n i g h t a t th e
a u n t ’ s* She t h i n k s he i s n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y asham ed o f t h i s h a b i t , and
u s u a l l y d o e s n o t b o th e r t o ohange o r b a t h e u n le s s sh e m akes h im . He r e ­
f u s e s t o d r i n k l e s s a t n i g h t and r e s e n t s b e in g aw akened d u r in g t h e n i g h t .
He d o e s n o t s o i l o r w e t a s f r e q u e n t l y d u r in g th e summer a s d u r in g th e
s o h o o l y e a r . She sa y s he d i s l i k e s sc h o o l* He i s s n e a k y , i s g u i l t y o f
p e t t y t h e f t s o f money fro m h e r p u r s e a lth o u g h he knows he can g e t i t , i f
he a s k s .
S te p m o th e r t r i e d ' s p a n k in g him t o c u r e h i s e n u r e s i s a n d s o i l i n g ,
b u t fo u n d t h a t t h i s was u n s u c c e s s f u l . She f i n d s he re s p o n d s b e t t e r t o
p r a i s e , b u t she becom es d is c o u r a g e d a t h i s r e l a p s e s , a n d h e r h a n d lin g i s
n o t c o n s is te n t*
The s i s t e r s r e s e n t h e r p u n is h in g h im . He g e t s a lo n g w i t h
b o y s o f h i s own ag e i n th e s t r e e t , a n d seams t o h av e p l e n t y o f e n e rg y
t h e n , b u t h e u s u a l l y p ic k s o u t m is c h ie v o u s b o y s o f whom t h e s te p m o th e r
d is a p p r o v e s * She t h i n k s h e i s a f o l l w e r . He p la y s b a s e b a l l , g o e s b i c y c l e
r i d i n g , hooks r i d e s on b u s e s . He r a r e l y r e a d s . He l i k e s W e ste rn m o v ie s .
S e ttle m e n t h o u se a c t i v i t i e s do n o t i n t e r e s t h im .
She t h i n k s he may n o t b e v e r y b r i g h t , an d t h a t th e s o h o o l p ro m o tes
him t o o e a s i l y when h e h a s n o g r a s p o f s u b j e c t m u t t e r . F o r s e v e r a l m onths
he d i d n o t b r i n g h i s r e p o r t c a r d home* She th i n k s t h i s was b e o a u s e sh e had
t o l d him t o g e t a b e t t e r g ra d e when sh e saw h i s p r e v io u s r e p o r t o a r d w ith
C.
T e a c h e r s a y s he i s a "good c h i l d , " la c k in g i n e n e r g y , w ith o u t
f r i e n d s . He seem s t o daydream a l o t . H is s o h o o l r e c o r d shows C and D i n
1A, a n d a f t e r t h a t B o r b e t t e r i n c o n d u o t, B o r C i n w o rk , t h r o u g h t h e 5B.
P s y c h o lo g ic a l E x a m in a tio n :
C*A. 1 2-1
S t a n f o r d - 3 i n e t : R e s u lt s u n r e l i a b l e , i r r e g u l a r .
40$ i l e
IQ 85
P i n t n e r Non Language M e n ta l T e s ts
A r th u r P o i n t S o a le , I
M .A .10-3 IQ 85
M e tr o p o l ita n A ch iev em en t T e s t s ,
Grade
E.A*
I n t e r m e d i a t e , Form A
9 -1
S p e ll in g
39
45
9-8
R ead in g
A r ith m e tic F u n d am e n tals
9 -4
S . was im m ature lo o k i n g , f r a i l , t h i n , l i s t l e s s , la c k in g i n e n e r g y .
He was good n a t u r e d , b u t n o t s p o n ta n e o u s * H is r e p l i e s w ere m o n o s y lla b lic *
He w as e x tre m e ly d o o ile a n d showed n o i n t e r e s t o r a f f e c t . He seemed p r e o o o u p ie d . V o o a b u la ry w as v e r y l i m i t e d . H e s u lts on t h e B in e t w ere u n r e ­
l i a b l e , e x tre m e ly i r r e g u l a r w ith s u c c e s s e s on more d i f f i o u l t t e s t s , f a i l u r e s
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
85
on e a s i e r t e s t s o f th e same ty p e # N o n v e rb a l t e s t s i n d i o a t e d he p r o b a b ly
h a s d u l l n o rm a l t o low a v e ra g e a b i l i t y * H is l i m i t e d v e r b a l a b i l i t y a s
w e l l a s h i s e m o tio n a l d i f f i c u l t y p r o b a b ly h a n d io a p p e d h im i n s o h o o l work*
H is s o h o o l a c h ie v e m e n t w as a b o u t tw o y e a r s b elo w t h e a v e r a g e o f h i s g r a d e ,
t h r e e y e a r s b elo w t h e a v e ra g e f o r h i s age* A d ju stm e n t o l a s s p la c e m e n t was
s u g g e s te d *
P s y c h i a t r i c E x a m in a tio n
2* a p p e a re d q u i e t , d e j e c t e d , w as u n p r o d u c tiv e , n o t s p o n ta n e o u s .
A f f e c t w as r a t h e r f l a t * He n e v e r r e f u s e d b u t n e v e r g av e m ore th a n w as
s p e c i f i c a l l y a sk e d * He stam m ered o c c a s i o n a l l y . He s t a t e d h i s d i f f i c u l t i e s
w ere sta m m e rin g , a n d e n u r e s i s an d s o ili n g * He w o r r ie s a b o u t s ta m m e rin g .
He s a i d he w e t th e b e d , a n d he stam m ered b a d l y a s h e s a i d h i s m o th e r b e a t
him f o r i t . He s a y s he i s asham ed o f i t .
I f i t o c c u r s d u r in g th e d ay he
i s made t o w ash h i s c l o th e s * R e c e n tly h e h a s had m o st d i f f i c u l t y w i t h f e c a l
in c o n tin e n c e * He beoom es a p p r e h e n s iv e i f a n y d i s t a n c e fro m a t o i l e t *
He s a y s h i s m o th e r l i k e s him i f he d o es r i g h t , y e l l s a t him i f he
d o e s wrong* When h e i s m ad, he s i t s s i l e n t l y an d w o n 't t a l k *
"She j u s t
g e t s mad a t me an d t h e n I d o n ’t f e e l l i k e d o in g w h a t sh e w a n ts • "
He beoom es f r i g h t e n e d i n t h e d a r k , f e a r i n g he w i l l stu m b le and
h u r t h i m s e l f b ad ly # He i s a f r a i d t o g e t " f r e s h ” w i t h h i s m o th e r b e o a u s e
sh e w ould " h o l l e r " a t him o r w hip h im . He s a i d he was h a p p i e s t a t oamp*
I m p r e s s io n s p s y o h o n e u r o s is , c o m p u ls io n n e u r o s i s — s t u t t e r i n g ,
c o m p u lsiv e i n c o n t i n e n c e , u r i n a r y an d f e o a l j w ith d r a w in g p e r s o n a l i t y #
P h y s io a l E x a m in a tio n
He w as s i l e n t , t r i e d t o c o o p e r a te b u t c o m p re h e n sio n was slow*
w as u n d e r w e ig h t, a n d a l s o n eed e d d e n t a l c a re *
He
C o n feren ce
The n o te s c o n t a i n a summary o f th e o a s e m a t e r i a l a n d d i s c u s s i o n
o f t h e problem * T h ere w as g e n e r a l ag ree m en t t h a t t h e c h i l d r e p r e s s e s h i s
h o s t i l i t y i n o r d e r t o r e t a i n h i s s te p m o th e r ’ s lo v e , and t h a t r e p r e s s i o n o f
t h i s a n g e r a n d h i s a n x i e t y i n f e e l i n g i h a t he i s f a i l i n g t o r e c e iv e h e r lo v e
le a d t o h i s n e u r o t i o symptom fo rm a tio n *
F o llo w -u p
The s te p m o th e r was g iv e n h e lp i n h a n d lin g th e b o y , was l e s s p u n is h -
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
86
i n g , a n d became more a f f e c t i o n a t e to w a rd him* He becam e m ore r e s p o n s iv e *
S o i l i n g o e a s e d , e n u r e s i s s t i l l c o n tin u e d * He was p la c e d i n an o p p o r tu n i ty
c l a s s and b e g a n t o l i k e s o h o o l* He w as v e r y p ro u d o f h i s a cc o m p lish m en ts
i n m an u al t r a i n i n g * He w as re s p o n d in g v e r y w e l l t o i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t i o n ,
an d h i s t e a o h e r r e p o r te d t h a t he w as m ix in g w e l l w i t h t h e o h i l d r e n , a n d
w as w e l l a b l e t o d e fe n d h im s e lf * H is s t u t t e r d ro p p e d o u t an d h e seemed
m ore a t e a s e , an d sp o n ta n e o u s *
R o rso h ao h E x a m in a tio n
C .A , 12-1
In q u iry
R esp o n ses
I .A
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a s o o t t i e , h e lo o k s l i k e
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th e h e a d , n e o k , b o d y ,
and h e r e ' s th e le g s
B u t t e r f l y lo o k s l i k e
t h a t — t h e s e a r e th e
w in g s , i t ' s n o t c o lo r e d
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and i s n o t in o lu d e d i n t h e t o t a l s c o r in g t a b u l a t i o n .
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Inquiry
R e sp o n se s
V. A<AVA
3 5 ” 7 . A b i r d (T hen t u r n s h e a d
on one s i d e a n d o a r d a t
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T h e r e ’ s h i s tw o f e e t
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c a u s e t h e y 'r e s to n y
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P e rs o n a lity I n te r p r e ta tio n I
I n t e l l e c t u a l A s p e o ts t I n t e l l i g e n c e i s p r o b a b ly a b o u t a v e r a g e , b u t
he p r o a b ly o a n n o t f u n c t i o n a t t h i s l e v e l b e c a u s e o f m arked p e r s o n a l i t y d i s ­
t u r b a n c e . He i s r e p r e s s e d i n b o t h th e a f f e c t i v e a n d i n t e l l e c t u a l sp h e re *
He i s r i g i d , s t e r e o t y p e d , h a s e x tr e m e ly l i m i t e d i n t e r e s t s * H is r e s p o n s e s
a r e s lo w , g e n e r a l l y m e a g re , o b v io u s , a n d u n o r i g i n a l *
P e r s o n a l i t y a n d S n o t i o n a l A s p e c ts * P e r s o n a l i t y i s s t r o n g l y o o a r te d *
T h e re i s s e v e r e r e p r e s s i o n a n d f l a t n e s s o f a f f e c t *
C o n flic t i s p re s e n t
a n d s e a u s t o o a u s e a n a p a t h y i n a l l s p h e r e s , a n d a la c k o f d r i v e , am bi­
t i o n , o r e n th u s ia s m * He i s i n o l i n e d t o be som ew hat d e p re s s e d * He i s
a n x i o u s , i n s e c u r e , a n d f e e l s in a d e q u a te * R e l a ti o n s w ith p e o p le a r e p o o r
b e o a u s e o f h i s l a c k o f a f f e o t i v e r e s p o n s e , h i s h o s t i l i t y , n e g a t iv is m , an d
g e n e r a l la c k o f a d a p t a b i l i t y * He i s a f r a i d t o oammit h i m s e l f an d t r i e s
t o s h u t o u t a n y s t i m u l i t h a t m ig h t a r o u s e a n e m o tio n a l r e a c t i o n *
D ia g n o s is : The r e c o r d shows a s e v e r e l y r e p r e s s e d , d i s t u r b e d b o y
w ith o b s e s s i o n a l t r a i t s *
T h ere i s m arked a n x i e t y , i n s e c u r i t y , h o s t i l i t y ,
a n d n e g a tiv is m * He r e a c t s t o h i s o o n f l i o t b y beoom ing a p a t h e t i o an d
w ith d ra w n , a n d may g iv e t h e im p r e s s io n o f b e in g a s o h iz o id p e r s o n a l i t y i n
h i s b e h a v io r*
P e rs o n a lity I n te r p r e ta tio n I I
I n t e l l e c t u a l A s p e o ts : I n t e l l i g e n c e i s p r o b a b ly low a v e r a g e , b u t
S* i s p r o b a b ly f u n c t i o n i n g a t a muoh lo w e r le v e l* T here i s n o v a r i e t y
o f c o n te n t* T h e re i s a p a u c i t y o f i n t e r e s t s an d a la c k o f a m b itio n * The
s u b j e o t i s v e r y s t e r e o t y p e d an d la c k in g i n o r i g i n a l i t y *
In te llig e n c e is
n o t a c t i v e , a l e r t , f l e x i b l e , b u t i s s lo w , c a u t i o u s , r i g i d , a n d i n f l e x i b l e *
P e r s o n a l i t y a n d E k a o tio n a l A s p e c ts : T h ere i s e v id e n o e o f f l a t n e s s
o f b o th i n t e l l e c t a n d a f f e c t * P e r s o n a l i t y i s s t r o n g l y o o a r te d * A f f e c t i v e
r e a c tio n s a re s e v e re ly re p re sse d *
T here a r e some i n d i c a t i o n s o f i n t r o v e r s i v e p o s s i b i l i t i e s , b u t t h e s e , t o o , a r e l i m i t e d and r e p r e s s e d a t
p r e s e n t* The s u b j e c t a t t e m p t s t o m a in ta i n r i g i d c o n t r o l o v e r h i s r e a c t i o n s
b y d is r e g a r d i n g s t i m u l i t h a t m ig h t a r o u s e a n e m o tio n a l r e a c t i o n s *
S. i s
e x tre m e ly i n s e c u r e , f e e l s h i m s e l f in a d e q u a te a n d i s a f r a i d t o commit h im ­
s e l f * M arked a n x i e t y i s p r e s e n t*
T h is i n s e c u r i t y an d a n x i e t y p r o b a b ly
e x p l a in t h e o t h e r r e a c t i o n s , t h e g e n e r a l la c k o f r e s p o n s iv e n e s s and a l e r t ­
n e s s * S* i s p r o b a b ly v e r y w ith d ra w n * H is r e l a t i o n s w ith p e o p le a r e p o o r
b e o a u s e o f t h e l a c k o f a f f e o t i v e f l e x i b i l i t y a n d r e s p o n s iv e n e s s , t h e
h o s t i l i t y to w a rd p e o p l e , p r o b a b ly r e s u l t i n g fro m h i s own s e n s e o f i n a d e ­
q u a c y , and h i s a n x ie ty *
D ia g n o s is : The r e c o r d i n d i c a t e s a v e r y r e p r e s s e d s u b j e c t who i s
p r o b a b ly s u f f e r i n g fro m a n e u r o t i o d is tu r b a n c e * T here i s s e v e r e a n x i e t y
a n d i n s e c u r i t y , w ith some c o m p u ls iv e f e a t u r e s * H is o u tw ard a p p e a ra n c e i s
p r o b a b ly t h a t o f a v e r y w ith d ra w n , s o h i z o i d p e r s o n a l i t y *
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
89
Group 7 . Case 19
Case S tu d y
T h is i s a b o y o f s i x y e a r s and f i v e m o n th s , i n t h e 1A, who w as
r e f e r r e d b e c a u s e o f d i f f i c u l t i e s h e p r e s e n t e d a t home* H is n ig h tm a r e s ,
c r y in g s p e l l s d u r in g th e d a y , a n d h i s s h y n e s s , gave h i s p a r e n t s c o n c e r n .
He was f i r s t ex am in ed d u r in g a p s y c h o lo g i c a l s u r v e y o f h i s g r a d e .
S o o i a l H is to r y
S . w as a p re m a tu re b a b y , and s in c e h e was s i o k l y he w as c o d d le d .
U n t i l l a s t y e a r he was a n o n ly c h i l d , t h e n a b a b y b r o t h e r w as b o r n . H is
d i f f i c u l t i e s i n c r e a s e d a f t e r t h e b i r t h o f t h i s b a b y . He d o es n o t m in g le
w i t h o h i l d r e n , h a s o n ly one f r i e n d . TNhen h e was s e n t t o p r i v a t e s o h o o l
a t f i v e y e a r s , h e was a f r a i d he was u n w an ted b y th e g r o u p , a n d w as u n ­
a b l e t o p l a y w i t h t h e o h i l d r e n . He d i s l i k e d f i g h t s a n d o r i t i o i s m . A l­
th o u g h h e i s n o t a good m i x e r , h e a lw a y s w a n ts t o b e w ith h i s f r i e n d
o r h i s m o th e r an d t o show w h a t h e i s d o in g . S o h o o l h a s h e lp e d t o
s o c i a l i z e him t o same e x t e n t . He i s b o ld w i t h o h i l d r e n w hen h i s m o th er
i s w i t h h im , b u t o th e rw is e i s n o t . He becom es e n r a g e d w i t h o l d e r c h i l ­
d r e n an d ru n s t o h i s m o th e r t o f i g h t f o r h im . He an n o y s y o u n g e r c h i l ­
d re n .
He w as alw ay s slo w i n d r e s s i n g a n d d o in g t h i n g s b u t t h i s slo w ­
n e s s i s now e x a g g e r a te d . I n p l a y , h e i s h y p e r a c t i v e , th e n becom es e x ­
h a u s t e d . He o a m p la in s o f f e e l i n g t i r e d , e s p e a h l l y a b o u t t h e e y e s . He h a s
d a i l y c o m p la in ts o f v a r i o u s a c h e s , a n d he f h t i g u e s e a s i l y . S in o e th e
b a b y ’ s a r r i v a l he h as h ad t o be f e d a n d d r e s s e d . He r e f u s e s t o e a t . H is
m o th e r h a s a lw a y s h o v e re d o v e r him t o g e t him t o e a t . He h a s same fo o d
f a d s a n d i s n o t fo r o e d t o e a t a n y d i s l i k e d f o o d s . He h a s a n e rv o u s h a b i t
o f p ic k in g h i s n o s e .
He i s e x tre m e ly s e n s i t i v e , s e n s e s t h e l e a s t o r i t i o i s m o r change
o f mood i n e i t h e r p a r e n t . He n e e d s much a p p r o v a l , e s p e c i a l l y fro m t h e
f a t h e r . He o r i e s e a s i l y , b u t h a s a good s e n s e o f hum or. He u s e d t o h av e
c r y in g s p e l l s and te m p e r ta n tr u m s i f h i s m o th e r s to p p e d t o t a l k t o a n y o n e .
"When he i s s c o ld e d he h a s n ig h t m a r e s . H is n ig h tm a r e s d a t e from t h e b a b y ’ s
b i r t h , a n d he h a s th em s e v e r a l tim e s a w eek . P r e v i o u s l y , h e u s e d t o b e
te n s e a n d j i t t e r y a f t e r h e a r i n g e x c i t i n g s t o r i e s , e t c . , b u t d id n o t have
n ig h tm a re s a s h e now h a s a f t e r su o h e x p e r i e n c e s .
He lo v e s t o t a l k , s i n g , r e a d , p la y w i t h b o a ts a n d t r a i n s .
d o in g good so h o o lw o rk and i s b e g in n in g t o v o l u n t e e r .
He i s
He h a s a num ber o f f e a r s . A t b e d tim e , h e w an ts t h e l i g h t i n th e
h a l l , a n d w a n ts h i s p a r e n t s t o s i t w i t h h im . He i s a f r a i d o f t h e d a r k
a n d o f c e l l a r s . He lo v e s p e t s b u t f e a r s w ild a n im a ls an d a n y th in g r e f e r ­
r i n g t o th e m . H is m o th er a llo w s him m ore fre e d o m an d in d e p e n d e n c e , b u t
h e i s s t i l l a f r a i d t o go t o s o h o o l a l o n e .
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90
His mother rep o rte d th a t she was being tre a te d by a p s y c h ia tr is t,
beoause o f te n se n e ss, the same fe a rs a s th e o h ild e x h ib its , and n ig h t­
mares*
E a r l i e r P s y c h o lo g ic a l E x a m in a tio n
R e v ise d S ta n f o r d B i n e t , Form L
Goodenough D raw ing T e s t
C*A* 6 -1
M*A* 7 -6 I.Q * 121
M,A* 5-3
D u rin g t h i s e x a m in a tio n w h ic h t o o k p la c e a s p a r t o f a p rogram o f
t e s t i n g a l l th e 1A o h i l d r e n a t h i s s o h o o l, t h r e e an d a h a l f m onths b e f o r e
h e w as r e f e r r e d f o r s t u d y , S . seemed im m ature an d t e n s e * He spoke w ith
a s l i g h t l i s p * H is g e n e r a l i n t e l l i g e n c e was s u p e r i o r , b u t i n v ie w o f
h i s im m a tu rity , p o o r m o to r c o o r d i n a t i o n , p o o r s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t , p la c e ­
m ent w ith a n a v e r a g e g ro u p ( i n t h i s s o h o o l , a v e ra g e I .Q , 110) was recom ­
mended*
P s y c h o lo g ic a l E x a m in a tio n d u r in g S tu d y
A r th u r P o i n t S o a le , I C.A. 6 - 5 M.A. 6 -9 I.W . 105
B e t t s R eady t o R ead T e s t , K in d e r g a r te n Form , V ary h ig h so o re s*
T h is e x a m in a tio n was c o n d u o te d when t h e o h i l d was r e f e r r e d f o r
s p e c i a l s tu d y * He seem ed v e r y i n f a n t i l e , hung on t o h i s m o th e r , b u t
w hen she l e f t becam e o o n f id e n t and c o o p e r a tiv e *
I t was n o t e d t h a t when
he becam e d i s t u r b e d , a n d when t e s t m a t e r i a l was d i f f i c u l t , h e would p ic k
h i s n o s e . H is r e a c t i o n s w ere v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h o s e n o te d a few m onths
e a rlie r*
H is m o to r c o o r d i n a t i o n w as s t i l l p o o r* R a tin g s on p e rfo rm a n c e
t e s t s w ere low er th a n th o s e on t h e S ta n f o r d B in e t e x a m in a tio n * H is r a t ­
in g s on t h e B e t t s t e s t a l l i n d i c a t e d he s h o u ld h av e no d i f f i c u l t y i n
re a d in g * He was a b l e t o p r i n t h i s nam e, w r i t e d i g i t s , a n d r e a d a l i t t l e *
P s y o h i a t r i o E x a m in a tio n
A t f i r s t , h e was t i m i d a n d d e f e n s i v e , l a t e r became f r e e r ,
s p o n ta n e o u s and f r i e n d l y w hen g iv e n t o y a n im a ls t o p l a y w ith * He b e g a n
t o t a l k o f h i s dream s o f a n im a ls g o in g a f t e r t h e m aid an d b a b y , and some­
tim e s h im s e lf * " H e 's g o in g t o come up and b i t e and e a t t h e b a b y a l l up*
I ’m m ost a f r a i d f o r t h e b a b y * ” A t n i g h t he i s a f r a i d o f a n im a ls and
ro b b e rs *
He t a l k e d o f th e b a b y 's t a k i n g h i s th in g s *
" I h a t e h im , h e 's so
bad* Somebody a lw a y s h a s t o b e w a tc h in g him *" S . w an ts t h e m aid t o ta k e
him w ith th e b a b y , b u t "Mama h a s t o ta k e o a re o f me b e o a u s e nobody e l s e
d o es* "
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
91
He t a l k e d o f h i s fo o d f a d s an d s a i d h i s m o th e r d id n o t f a r o e him
t o e a t d i s l i k e d f o o d s . He s a i d he d i d n o t l i k e t o e a t much* He d e n ie d
f a t i g u e and p a i n s .
H is daydream s an d dream s showed h i s h o s t i l i t y t o th e f a n i l y .
T here i s s i b l i n g r i v a l r y w ith c o n s e q u e n t h o s t i l i t y t o th e p a r e n t s . He
daydream s h e i s a cowboy and s h o o ts ev e ry b o d y i n th e h o u s e , o r t h a t he
i s an e le p h a n t an d e a t s them a l l u p . ” Sam etim es I w is h I was a b a b y l i k e
b r o t h e r . ” Yhen he was a s k e d . ”Why?” , he r e p l i e d . " I o n ly h av e tw o r e a s o n s .
One o f t h e r e a s o n s i s he g e t s to o muoh a t t e n t i o n . My m o th e r and t h e
m aid a n d my f a t h e r — t h e y d o n 't p a y much a t t e n t i o n t o m e. T h at m akes
me m ad. I l i k e t o k i c k them o v e r and h u r t t h e m .”
I m p r e s s io n : C h ild h o o d p s y o h o n e u r c s is ; p h o b ia s , n ig h t m a r e s , i n ­
f a n t i l e re g re s s iv e r e a c tio n t o b i r t h o f s i b l i n g .
P h y s i c a l E x a m in a tio n
The c h i l d was o v e r a c t i v e . He was somewhat u n d e r n o u r is h e d , end
showed s l i g h t o o u la r m u sc le im b a la n c e .
C o n fe re n c e
I n a d d i t i o n t o a summary o f t h e f i n d i n g s , t h e r e was a summary o f
t h e d i s o u s s i o n . The g e n e r a l c o n s e n s u s o f o p in io n was t h a t th e m o th e r
h ad b e e n o v e r p r o t e c t i v e , an d t h a t t h i s i n c r e a s e d h i s d i f f i c u l t i e s i n a d ­
ju s tm e n t a f t e r t h e b i r t h o f a s i b l i n g . The f e a r s and n ig h tm a r e s seam
d e f i n i t e l y due t o t h e s i b l i n g r i v a l r y * A t p r e s e n t he i s u n a b le t o e n t e r
c o m p e titiv e a c t i v i t i e s w ith o th e r c h i l d r e n . The m o th e r s h o u ld b e s e e n
r e g u l a r l y b y t h e s o o i a l w o rk e r, a n d th e o h i l d s h o u ld b e g iv e n tr e a t m e n t
b y th e p s y c h i a t r i s t , u s in g p la y t e o h n i a u e .
Follow-up
I n th e tr e a t m e n t o f th e o h i l d b y m eans o f p l a y t e c h n i q u e , he was
g iv e n o u t l e t s f o r h i s h o s t i l i t y . O ver an d o v e r a g a i n h e e x p r e s s e d h i s
j e a l o u s y o f t h e b ab y an d h i s a n g e r a g a i n s t t h e p a r e n t s f o r g iv i n g a t t e n ­
t i o n t o t h e b a b y . A t f i r s t , he r e f u s e d t o l e t t h e p a r e n t s go o u t a t
n i g h t a n d w ould hav e c r y in g s p e l l s , o r c o m p la in he was i l l t o k e e p them
hom e. A f t e r a l i t t l e tim e he t o l d th e p s y c h i a t r i s t t h a t same o f h i s
f e a r s w ere n o t r e a l , b u t w ere r u s e s t o k eep t h e p a r e n t s home. He t a l k e d
t o a n im a g in a ry co m p an io n .
A f t e r same tr e a tm e n t he became m ore in d e p e n d e n t a n d a g g r e s s i v e ,
h i s f e a r s , n ig h tm a r e s , a n d c r y i n g s p e l l s s to p p e d . He b eg an t o w an t t o
p l a y w ith c h i l d r e n b u t was s t i l l sh y w i t h sem e, a n d o r d e r e d s u b m is s iv e
o h i l d r e n a b o u t . He b e g a n t o e a t b e t t e r , f e e d an d d r e s s h i m s e l f a g a i n ,
a nd t o l d t h e p s y o h i a t r i s t he w as g la d t o be a b i g b o y . H is p a r e n t s r e -
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
92
m arked on h i s g e n e r a l in o r e a s e d m a t u r i t y .
A summer i n t e r v e n e d a f t e r t h i s s h o r t p e r io d o f t r e a t m e n t (17 i n ­
t e r v i e w s ) . D u rin g th e summer he im p ro v ed i n s o o i a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h c h i l ­
d r e n . A lth o u g h h e m a in ta in e d h i s g e n e r a l im provem ent i n g r e a t e r m a t u r i t y ,
in d e p e n d e n c e , a n d l e s s r e s e n tm e n t o f t h e b a b y , a f t e r t h e summer, h i s n i g h t ­
m a re s and f e a r s b e g a n t o r e c u r . The p a r e n t s th o u g h t i t m ig h t b e m a lin g e r ­
in g t o keep th e m hom e. They w a n te d t o h a v e t r e a t m e n t re s u m e d .
R o rs c h a c h E x a m in a tio n
C .A . 6 -5
R esp o n ses
I n q u ir y
I.
9 ” 1 . A f lo w e r
I t ' s a fa o e — a f e l l o w ’ s .
H ere a r e t h e e y e s , m o u th ,
an d e a r s * F lo w e r - o f f th e
s te m - t h i s w h o le p i e c e .
dW F - P
(INS F Hd)
I n e v e r saw s a n e th i n g l i k e
th is .
(L ooks h e l p l e s s l y a t t h e
e x a m in e r)
1* P u ts c a r d down
"Wait a m in u te . V These a r e
tw o a n im a ls . They lo o k
lik e re in d e e r beoause o f
th e se .
And t h i s i s a f lo w e r b e ­
o a u se I saw t h e ste m
Com plete
re fu sa l
3 ” 2 . Two dogs
T h is i s one dog an d t h i s
D
i s a n o t h e r , a l l g o in g a f ­
t e r t h i s bone — c o u ld t e l l
dogs b y t h e i r t a i l , an d bone
b y th e way i t i s s h a p e d ,
an d t h e s e two a r e d o g s ~
c o u ld t e l l b y t h e i r f a o e s
HI
A
(D
F O bj)
S ta n d in g on h i s tw o fe e t,a n d W
h i s n o s e . I t lo o k s v e r y
much l i k e him d o in g a
s o m e r s a u lt .
FM A
On tw o s t i c k s , n o I m ean a
t r e e stu m p , b e o a u s e i t
lo o k s ro u n d a n d t h e o o lo r
o f a t r e e stum p
FM- A
II.
(dD F - A)
(dW F - P l)
III.
IV .
8" 3 . A dog — on a t r e e .
T h is lo o k s l i k e a dog
d o in g t r i c k s
V.
I d o n 't know w h a t i t c o u ld b e
27" 4 . I t lo o k s l i k e so m e th in g
ly in f i down — a dog
*
V.r
(W
S c o rin g i n p a r e n t h e s e s i s f o r new r e s p o n s e s g iv e n d u r i n g t h e i n q u i r y ,
a n d i s n o t in c lu d e d i n t h e t o t a l s c o r in g t a b u l a t i o n .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
FC' P I )
93
R e sp o n se s
In q u iry
V I.
5” 5 . A v i o l i n
T h is w hole
h e r e ’ 8 th e
th e v i o l i n
lo o k s l i k e
b u tte rfly
t h i n g . And
b u t t e r f l y on
~ ’cause i t
w in g s o f a
W F
Obj,
(d F+A)
V II.
3" 6 .
Two dogs
F a o e , e a r s , b o d y . On to p
o f a g a te an d t h a t ’ s a
d o g 's f a o e b u t I c o u ld
s e e o n ly t h e ey e
D
F
A
(DS F Ad)
V III.
4" 7 . A f lo w e r
I know t h i s i s a f lo w e r
W CF P I
b e c a u s e I o o u ld t e l l b y
th e c o l o r s o f i t , a n d
t h i s lo o k s l i k e a r o s e
(D C P I )
b e c a u s e i t ' s r e d an d
o ra n g e , and t h i s i s a
t u l i p b e o a u s e th e s te m .
(D F - P l)
No. i t ' s a l l one p l a n t
and t h e s e a r e m ice c lim b ­
in g up t h e p l a n t — 'c a u s e (D FM A)
i t g o t t h e same s te m an d
th e c o l o r s
4 " 8 . T h a t 's a n o t h e r one —
a n o t h e r f lo w e r
B eoause o f t h e c o l o r s , an d W CF P I
t h i s t h i n g s t i c k i n g way
up f o r t h e w hole f lo w e r
IX .
X.
10" 9 . A n o th e r f lo w e r ~
l e t '8 se e —
ohI
2 0 " 1 0 . Two b e l l s on a t r e e stum p
an d a f lo w e r
vv\
These a r e a l o t o f
f lo w e r s — 'c a u s e o f
th e s e c o l o r s /\
B e l ls an d -th in g s t h a t
make th e b e l l s r i n g
17 CF P I
D Fin Obj
And h e r e ’ s a f r o g —
(D F A)
c o u ld t e l l b y i t s e a r s
an d le g s and e y e s . And
t h i s lo o k s l i k e a b ra n c h
o f a tr e e , n o , I th in k i t
lo o k s l i k e a b e e b e o a u se
i t ' s so n e a r t h e p l a n t —
a n d h e r e a r e tw o more b e e s
— b e o a u s e t h e y 'r e g re e n ard
s i t t i n g on t h e f lo w e r .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
94
R: 10
W: 6
dW: 1
D: 3
M: 0
FM: 3
Em: 1
(F+0
F :3 (F 2
(F -l
FC: 0
CF: 3
C: 0
M:C
Pl!,Fm: c
H:
A:
O b j:
P I:
0
4
2
4
r /<>i im p o s s ib le t o
d e te rm in e — to o
vague.
A/o: 40
A pp. t y p e : W D
0 :3
4 :0
R o rsc h a c h I n t e r p r e t a t i o n
I n t e l l e c t u a l A s p e c ts : I n t e l l i g e n c e i s p r o b a b ly s u p e r i o r , b u t he
i s v e r y im m ature an d i n f a n t i l e a n d c a n n o t u t i l i z e h i s p o t e n t i a l i t i e s *
He c a n n o t g iv e s u s t a i n e d a t t e n t i o n *
P e r s o n a l i t y and E m o tio n a l A s p e c ts : S . i s a h y p e r a c t i v e , e x tre m e ly
v o l a t i l e , s u g g e s t i b l e y o u n g s te r* He i s v e r y o h i l d i s h , f l i g h t y , d i s o r ­
g a n i z e d , and i n c l i n e d t o b e p e r f u n o to r y * He i s v e r y s u s c e p t i b l e t o
e m o tio n a l s t i m u l i , an d i s u n a b le t o c o n t r o l h i s r e a c t i o n s * He i s p r o b a b ly
v e r y s e n s i t i v e , an d h a s f r e q u e n t e m o tio n a l o u t b u r s t s * He i s v e r y d e ­
p e n d e n t, a n x io u s t o p l e a s e , and a n x io u s t o e s t a b l i s h r a p p o r t , b u t i s u n ­
a b l e t o do s o , and t h i s i n a b i l i t y a g g r a v a te s h i s i n s e c u r i t y * He con­
s t a n t l y s e e k s a t t e n t i o n an d a p p ro v a l* He i s p r o b a b ly h o s t i l e y e t a n x io u s
t o b e l i k e d b y p e o p le *
D ia g n o s is : P o s s i b l y c h ild h o o d n e u r o s i s . S e r io u s b e h a v io r p ro b le m
— d i s t u r b e d — n e u r o t i c sym ptom s• H is o v e r t b e h a v i o r i s e x tre m e ly im­
m a tu r e , u n c o n t r o l l e d , e g o o e n tr io *
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CHAPTER 1 7
PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS
M a tc h in g an d R a tin g Twenty P a i r s o f R o rsc h a c h I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s
To d e te rm in e t h e o b j e c t i v i t y o f th e R orsohaoh p e r s o n a l i t y i n t e r ­
p r e t a t i o n s , th e in d e p e n d e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s w ere m atch ed an d r a t e d .
In
m a tc h in g t h e tw e n ty p a i r s o f R o rso h ao h i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s a l l t h r e e ju d g e s
o b ta in e d p e r f e o t s c o r e s .
A l l o f them s t a t e d t h a t th e m a to h in g was e x ­
c e s s i v e l y e a s y , s in c e th e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s w ere v e r y s i m i l a r .
For t h i s
r e a s o n i t was c o n s id e r e d u n n c e s s a r y t o h av e any o th e r ju d g e s f o r t h i s e x ­
p e rim e n t.
The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t th e tw o in d i v i d u a l s who made th e
R o rs c h a c h i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s h ad v e r y s i m i l a r s ta n d a r d s o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ,
and i n s p e c t i o n o f th e s e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , a n a ly z e d w ith s i m i l a r m a t e r i a l
p la c e d s i d e by s i d e , * shows t h e c l o s e n e s s o f th e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s .
The r a t i n g s a s s ig n e d t o t h e a g re e m e n t b etw ee n t h e s e i n t e r p r e t a ­
t i o n s w ere n a t u r a l l y h i g h , s in c e th e y w ere m atch ed w i t h su ch e a s e .
O nly
t h e u p p e r end o f t h e f i v e p o i n t r a t i n g s c a l e was u s e d , w ith th e p r e p o n d e r ­
a n t num ber o f ju d g m en ts a t th e h i g h e s t r a t i n g p o i n t , " I . "
T h is i s shown
i n d e t a i l i n T ab le IX.
*
See i n d i v i d u a l c a s e c h a r t s i n t h e a p p e n d ix .
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
96
TABLE IX
R a tin g s o f A greem ent "between Tw enty P a i r s o f In d e p e n d e n t
R o rso h ao h I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s A s s ig n e d b y T h ree J u d g e s
In te lle o tu a l
A sp e o ts
R a tin g s
P e r s o n a l i t y , Emo­
t i o n a l A sp e o ts
Ho.
$
N o.
$
1
2
3
48
12
0
8 0 .0
2 0 .0
0
57
3
0
9 5 .0
0 5 .0
0
T o ta l
60
100
60
100
D ia g n o s is
No.
$
T o ta l
P io tu re
Sum o f
R a tin g s
No.
N o.
$
$
52 8 6 .6
7 1 1 .7
1 1 .7
58 9 6 .7 215 8 9 .6
2 0 3 .3 24 1 0 .0
0 0
1 0 .4
60100
60100
2 40 300
R a tin g s 4 and 5 w ere o m itte d from th e t a b l e s in o e t h e r e w ere no o a s e s
a s s ig n e d t h e s e r a t i n g s .
The sum o f a l l t h e r a t i n g s showed 8 9 .6 $ f o r " I , " 1 0 .0 $ f o r ”2,** a n d l e s s
th a n one h a l f o f 1 $ f o r '* 3 ."
On th e t o t a l p i o t u r e o b ta in e d from th e
R o rso h ao h 9 6 .7 $ o f t h e r a t i n g s w ere " I , ” d e f in e d a s e s s e n t i a l a g r e e m e n t,
r o u g h ly 8 0 -1 0 0 $ a g re e m e n t; 3 . 3 $ o f t h e r a t i n g s w ere " 2 , ” w hioh was d e ­
f i n e d a s f a i r a g r e e m e n t, r o u g h ly 6 0 -8 0 $ a g ree m en t*
b elo w t h i s .
T h ere were no r a t i n g s
A g la n o e a t t h e t a b l e w i l l show t h a t h ig h e r r a t i n g s w ere
a s s ig n e d t o th e a g re e m e n t on p e r s o n a l i t y c o n f i g u r a t i o n a n d e m o tio n a l a s p o o t s , and on t h e t o t a l p i c t u r e , th a n on t h e i n t e l l e o t u a l a s p e c t s an d
d ia g n o s is .
H ow ever, e v e n on t h e l a t t e r , th e r a t i n g s w ere v e r y h i g h .
The
o n ly '‘3'* r a t i n g , d e f in e d a s a n e q u a l am ount o f a g re e m e n t and d is a g r e e m e n t,
was g iv e n b y one o f t h e t h r e e ju d g e s t o t h e d i a g n o s i s on one o a s e .
The
o t h e r tw o ju d g e s h a d a s s ig n e d t h i s r a t i n g s o f ,,2 . M
O r i g i n a l l y i t was p la n n e d t o a p p ly th e o h i- s q u a r e t e s t t o th e s e
r a t i n g s , b u t s in o e th e y w e re so m a rk e d ly skew ed an d d id n o t show a n y a p ­
p ro a c h t o a n o rm a l, o h anoe d i s t r i b u t i o n , i t w as u n n ecessary t o do t h i s .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
It
97
i s o b v io u s -w ith o u t r e f i n e d s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s , t h a t t h i s e x p e rim e n t
showed v e r y c l o s e a g re e m e n t b e tw e e n t h e tw o R o rso h ao h i n t e r p r e t e r s *
T h is
i n d i c a t e s t h a t tw o p e r s o n s , e x p e r ie n c e d i n th e u s e o f t h e R o rso h ao h
m e th o d , c a n d e v e lo p s i m i l a r s ta n d a r d s o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , an d t h a t t h e s e
i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s p o s s e s s a h i g h e r d e g re e o f o b j e o t i v i t y th a n h a s b e e n
a s c r i b e d t o th e R o rso h ao h b y m any p s y c h o l o g i s t s .
M a tc h in g R o rso h ao h R esp o n se R eco rd s w i t h P e r s o n a l i t y I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s
The n e x t e x p e r im e n t was t o d e te r m in e t h e o b j e c t i v i t y o f t h e i n ­
t e r p r e t a t i o n s b y s e e in g w h e th e r a num ber o f o th e r R o rsc h a c h w o rk e rs
c o u ld m atoh t h e R o rsc h a c h r e s p o n s e r e c o r d s and t h e i r t a b u l a t i o n s w ith
t h e R o rsc h a c h i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s .
The r e s u l t s o f t h i s e x p e rim e n t a r e p r e ­
s e n te d i n T a b le X,
I t i s e v i d e n t fro m th e s e r e s u l t s t h a t t h e ju d g e s w ere a b l e t o
m ato h m o st o f th e r e c o r d s c o r r e c t l y , t h e a v e ra g e p e r c e n ta g e s c o r r e c t f o r
e a c h ju d g e v a r y in g fro m e i g h t y t o one h u n d re d p e r c e n t .
e f f i c i e n t o f c o n tin g e n c y w as v e r y h i g h ,
,8 7 2 ,
The a v e r a g e c o ­
T h is i s i n d i c a t i v e o f
c l o s e r r e l a t i o n s h i p th em a P e a r s o n c o e f f i c i e n t o f c o r r e l a t i o n o f s i m i l a r
m a g n itu d e w ould b e , s in o e th e h i g h e s t p o s s i b l e G f o r a g ro u p o f f i v e
is
.8 9 4 ,
V ern o n d e m o n s tr a te d t h a t ,
• • • t h e c o n tin g e n c y te c h n iq u e f o r e v a l u a t i n g m a to h in g
p r o b a b ly y i e l d s r e s u l t s w h ich a r e o f th e same o r d e r
a s , b u t i n g e n e r a l a l i t t l e l e s s f a v o r a b l e th e m ,
t h e r e s u l t s w h io h m ig h t b e e x p e c te d i f c o r r e l a t i o n
t e c h n iq u e s c o u ld b e a p p l ie d t o t h e same d a ta ,^ -
1,
P , S . V e rn o n , The E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e M atohing M eth o d , J o u r n a l o f E d u ca­
t i o n a l P s y c h o lo g y , XXVII, 1 , ( J a n u a r y , 1 9 3 6 ), p* 1 7 ,
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
98
TABLE X
Summary o f R e su lts o f M atohing Tw enty-five
F a ir s o f Rorsohaoh Response Reoords w ith
Rorsohaoh P e r s o n a lity I n te r p r e ta tio n s
Group
Judge
Judge
Judge
Judge
Judge
Judge
Judge
A
C
D
E
F
G
H
Average
P erc e n ta g e s o f P a ir s C o rre c tly Matched
m x t : t = 5 x 5i5
IV
I
III
V
II
Average
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
60
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
60
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
94
94
100
.880
..894
C o e ffi­
c ie n t o f
.894 .880
Contingency
100
60
60 **
(40)**
100
40
60
C o e ffic ie n t
of
Contingency*
100
92
92
80
100
80
92
.894
.875
.875
• 832
.894
• 832
.875
66
91
.872
.754
.872
Average C o e f f ic ie n t o f C ontingency
.872
P .E .m .015
P *S.q .012
F o re c a stin g E ff ic ie n c y o f C 11%
r w ith e q u iv a le n t f o r e c a s tin g
e f f ic ie n c y
.957
Notes
*
**
In t s t m atohing, i f th e r e i s one e r r o r , th e r e a r e n e c e s s a r ily tw o.
In a group o f f iv e p a i r s , th e n , i f th e r e i s any e r r o r made, th e
h ig h e s t p e rc e n ta g e o f o o r re o t m atchings p o s s ib le i s 60.
The maximum o o e f f io ie n t o f oantingenoy p o s s ib le i f t i s 5 i s .8 9 4 .
T his judge m atched o n ly fo u r g ro ups. Sinoe Group V was a more d i f ­
f i c u l t group t o m atoh, i t was f e l t t h a t i f th e average o b ta in e d
by t h i s judge f o r th e fo u r groups w ere u se d , th e peroentage
m ight be s p u rio u s ly h ig h . For t h i s re a so n , th e low est r a t in g
o b tain ed b y any o f th e ju d g e s was a r b i t r a r i l y a ssig n e d f o r t h i s
group. I t i s p la c e d in p a re n th e se s t o show t h a t i t i s i n t e r ­
p o la te d . The r e s u l t s may be s l i g h t l y lowered b y t h i s w e ig h tin g ,
sin o e i t i s p o s s ib le t h a t a h ig h e r p eroentage m ight have been
o b ta in e d b y a c t u a l m atching.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
99
He s t a t e d t h a t w h en ev er t i s 9 o r l e s s , t h e o o e f f i o i e n t o f c o n tin g e n c y
i s somewhat s m a l le r th a n th e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t o f th e same f o r e 1
c a s tin g e ffio ie n o y .
In t h e p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n i t was d e f i n i t e l y
s m a lle r.
The f o r e c a s t i n g e f f i c i e n c y f o r a C o f .8 7 2 i s 71/2,
The r
t h a t w o u ld g iv e a n e q u i v a le n t f o r e c a s t i n g e f f i c i e n c y i s .9 5 7 .
These r e s u l t s c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e t h e o b j e c t i v i t y an d r e l i a b i l i t y
o f th e s e p e r s o n a lity i n t e r p r e ta tio n s .
I t w as th o u g h t t h a t th o s e ju d g e s who h a d w orked t o g e t h e r a s
c l i n i c a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s f o r a num ber o f y e a r s and d e v e lo p e d s i m i l a r
s ta n d a r d s o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f th e R o rsc h a c h m ig h t show good m a to h in g
r e s u l t s , b u t t h a t o th e r R o rso h ao h w o rk e rs m ig h t h av e o th e r s ta n d a r d s o f
i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w hich w ould a f f e c t t h e m a to h in g .
p ro v e t o b e th e o a s e .
T h is , h o w e v e r, d id n o t
The r e s u l t s o f th e ju d g e s who h ad w o rk ed t o g e t h e r
a t th e B u reau o f C h ild G uidance f o r a lo n g tim e , (8 0 $ , 92/2, 92>2, 1 0 0 $ ,
o f one ju d g e who h ad b e e n i n th e B u reau o f C h ild G uidance l e s s th a n a y e a r
a n d h a d d e v e lo p e d s ta n d a r d s o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n e ls e w h e r e , (1 0 0 /2 ),an d o f
tw o o u ts id e e x p e r t s , (80/2, 92/2), d id n o t show a n y c o n s i s t e n t d i f f e r e n c e s .
The c o e f f i c i e n t s o f c o n tin g e n c y c a l c u l a t e d f o r e a c h ju d g e r a n g e d from
•832 t o .8 9 4 , t h e h i g h e s t p o s s i b l e C.
The num bers f o r eao h o f t h e s e
w ere s m a ll b u t s in c e th e y showed s u c h h ig h c o n s i s t e n c y , t h e t r e n d i s c l e a r .
C o e f f i c i e n t s o f c o n tin g e n c y w ere a l s o d e te rm in e d f o r eao h o f th e
f i v e g ro u p s o f m a t e r i a l .
f i r s t fo u r g ro u p s,
1.
.8 9 4 ,
They showed e x tr e m e ly c lo s e r e s u l t s f o r th e
.8 8 0 ,
.8 8 0 ,
.8 9 4 , r e s p e c t i v e l y , i n d i c a t i n g
P . E . V e rn o n , The E v a lu a tio n o f t h e M ato h in g M ethod, J o u r n a l o f E du­
c a t i o n a l P s y c h o lo g y , RXVII, 1 , ( J a n u a r y , 1 9 3 6 ), p . 1 7 .
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
100
t h a t t h e s e f o u r g ro u p s w e re e q u i v a le n t *
was lo w e r ,
,7 5 4 ,
The r e s u l t f o r th e f i f t h g roup
I n th e l a t t e r s e t t h e r e w ere tw o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s t h a t
w ere q u i t e s i m i l a r , ( o a s e s 16 a n d 1 9 ) , t h a t o a u s e d m o st o f th e ju d g e s
d iffic u lty *
S in o e t h e s e s e p a r a t e o o e f f i o i e n t s w e re b a s e d on su o h s m a ll
n u m b e rs , no d e f i n i t e c o n c lu s io n s c a n b e d raw n , b u t i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g
t h a t when t h e g ro u p s w ere s e l e c t e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e R o rsch ach i n t e r ­
p r e t a t i o n s th e f i f t h g ro u p was c o n s id e r e d th e w e a k e s t*
The P*E, o f th e
g ro u p s was ,0 1 5 w h ile t h a t o f t h e ju d g e s was .0 12*
The a v e ra g e r e s u l t s w ere h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t , and in d i c a t e d t h a t
t h e R o rso h ao h p e r s o n a l i t y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f p ro b le m c h i l d r e n d e r iv e d b y
e x p e r ie n c e d R orso h ao h w o r k e r s , show a h ig h d e g r e e o f r e l i a b i l i t y , and
c o m p rise s i g n i f i c a n t d a t a t o u se i n a s tu d y o f t h e o l i n i o a l v a l i d i t y o f
t h e m ethod*
The o n ly p r e v io u s p u b lis h e d s tu d y c o n c e rn e d w ith t h i s a s p e c t
1
o f r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e R o rso h ao h m eth o d i s t h a t o f H e rtz and R u b e n s te in *
In t h e i r s tu d y o n ly one o a se was p r e s e n te d and t h e r e s u l t s were d i s c u s s e d
q u a l i t a t i v e l y , f o ll o w i n g a t a b u l a r p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e d a t a ,
A v a ria ­
t i o n o f t h i s t a b u l a r a rra n g e m e n t was u s e d i n t h e o a s e s tu d y o h a r t s i n
th e p r e s e n t s tu d y ,*
Ho p r e v io u s s tu d y o f r e l i a b i l i t y o f th e R o rso h a o h ,
t o t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r ’ s k n o w led g e, h a s u s e d t h e m eth o d s t h a t w ere em p lo y ed
i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , th o s e o f m a to h in g and r a t i n g th e R orsohaoh i n t e r -
1,
*
la* R , H e rtz an d B , B, R u b e n s te in , A C o m p ariso n o f T h ree " B lin d ” R o r­
sc h a c h A n a ly s e s , A m erican J o u r n a l o f O r th o p s y c h ia tr y , 9 , ( A p r i l ,
1 9 3 9 ), p p , 2 9 5 -3 1 5 ,
See a p p e n d ix .
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
101
p r e t a t i o n s , an d o f m a tc h in g t h e R o rso h ao h r e s p o n s e r e o o r d s w i t h th e
R o rso h ao h i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s *
The o n ly p u b li s h e d s tu d y o f r e l i a b i l i t y u t i l i z i n g t h e m a tc h in g
te c h n iq u e i n v e s t i g a t e d a d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t o f t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e R o r­
s c h a c h m eth o d , th e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e in s tr u m e n t f o r r e t e s t i n g p u rp o s e s *
The c o n tin g e n c y c o e f f i c i e n t o b ta in e d f o r t h i s ty p e o f r e l i a b i l i t y was
a l s o h ig h ; i t was o f a p p r o x im a te ly t h e same m a g n itu d e a s t h a t fo u n d i n
1
t h e p r e s e n t s tu d y f o r th e r e l i a b i l i t y o f th e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s *
Troup r e ­
t e s t e d t e n p a i r s o f tw in s o f a v e r a g e i n t e l l i g e n c e (IQ s 9 3 -1 0 7 ) a f t e r s i x
m onths*
The s o o r in g t a b u l a t i o n s o f t h e i r o r i g i n a l r e o o r d s w ere m atch ed
w i t h th o s e o f t h e i r r e t e s t s b y s i x ju d g e s *
The r e s u l t s f o r t h e 5 :5 m a to h ­
in g o f t h e s e ju d g e s g a v e a n a v e r a g e o o e f f i o i e n t o f c o n tin g e n c y o f
.8 8 *
The e a r l i e r s t a t i s t i c a l s t u d i e s o f r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e R o rsc h a c h
u s e d i s o l a t e d f a c t o r s o r g ro u p s o f f a c t o r s o f th e t e s t , b u t a s i n d i c a t e d
on p a g e s
2 8 -3 0
, t h e w o rk e rs u s i n g t h e s e s t a t i s t i c a l te c h n iq u e s w ere
n o t e n t i r e l y s a t i s f i e d w i t h them a n d r e a l i z e d t h a t "they d id n o t g iv e a n
a d e q u a te m e asu re o f t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f th e R orsohaoh m ethod*
They r e a l i z e d
t h a t t h e y d id n o t h av e a d e q u a te s t a t i s t i c a l te c h n iq u e s f o r h a n d lin g th e
com plex d a t a o f t h e t o t a l R o rs c h a c h p i c t u r e a n d a tte m p te d t o d e v is e o r
a d a p t o t h e r m ethods o f s tu d y in g r e l i a b i l i t y , and d is c a r d e d th e s e o l d e r
p ro c e d u re s *
The m o st r e c e n t s t u d i e s o f r e l i a b i l i t y w h ich a t te m p t t o d e ­
te r m in e th e r e l i a b i l i t y o f "the t o t a l p i o t u r e b y r e t e s t s , u s in g d i f f e r e n t
p ro c e d u r e s an d te c h n iq u e s o f h a n d lin g t h e d a t a th a n th e e a r l i e r s t a t i s t i c a l
1*
E , A , T roup, A C o m p arativ e S tu d y b y Means o f th e R o rsc h a c h M ethod o f
P e r s o n a l i t y D evelopm ent i n Tw enty P a i r s o f I d e n t i c a l T w in s,
G e n e tic P s y c h o lo g y M o n o g rap h s, 2 0 , ( 1 9 3 8 ) , p , 5 3 6 ,
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
s t u d i e s , y i e l d m ore m e a n in g f u l an d i n t e r e s t i n g r e s u l t s *
T roup showed
t h a t t h e o l d e r m eth o d s a p p l i e d t o t h e same d a t a t o w h ich sh e a p p l i e d th e
m a to h in g te c h n iq u e y i e l d e d in a d e q u a te r e s u l t s *
F o s b e r g 's s tu d y o f th e
s t a b i l i t y o f t h e R o rso h ao h p e r s o n a l i t y p i o t u r e i n s p i t e o f a t te m p t s t o
m a n ip u la te i t i n r e t e s t s , an d K e l l e y 's s tu d y o f i t s
s ta b i lit y in r e te s ts
d u r in g a p e r io d o f e x p e r i m e n t a l l y in d u o e d a m n e s ia , a r e e x am p les o f t h e
in g e n io u s n ew er p r o c e d u r e s t h a t seem t o y i e l d p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s *
M ato h in g R o rso h ao h P e r s o n a l i t y I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s w ith Case S tu d y A b s t r a c t s
V a l i d i t y was t e s t e d b y a m a to h in g an d r a t i n g e x p e r im e n t.
The
r e s u l t s o f th e m a to h in g o f R o rso h ao h p e r s o n a l i t y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s w ith
o h a r t s t u d i e s o f o a s e a b s t r a c t s a r e shown i n T ab le XI*
The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d a h ig h d e g re e o f v a l i d i t y *
Even when c o ­
e f f i c i e n t s w ere c a l c u l a t e d f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l ju d g e s a n d g r o u p s , w h ere
th e num bers w ere s m a l l , th e lo w e s t c o e f f i c i e n t s w ere i n th e s e v e n t i e s .
These c o e f f i c i e n t s i n d i c a t e a much h ig h e r d e g re e o f r e l a t i o n s h i p them
r 's
o f t h i s m a g n itu d e s in o e th e maximum p o s s i b l e C i s * 8 9 4 ,
c a s t i n g e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e a v e r a g e C, .8 5 0 , i s 64/2,
y i e l d t h a t d e g re e o f f o r e c a s t i n g e f f i c i e n c y i s .9 3 5 *
The r
The f o r e ­
t h a t w o u ld
These r e s u l t s
a r e u n u s u a ll y h ig h f o r a n y s tu d y o f v a l i d i t y .
C o e f f i c i e n t s c a l c u l a t e d f o r th e i n d i v i d u a l ju d g e s show ed v a r i a ­
t i o n s fro m
.7 4 0 t o
*894.
f o r th e f i v e ju d g e s was 84^2.
The a v e ra g e p e r o e n ta g e o f c o r r e c t m a to h in g s
I f t h e r e was one m is ta k e i n m a tc h in g i n
one g ro u p , th e h i g h e s t p o s s i b l e p e r o e n ta g e o o r r e c t f o r th e w h o le s e r i e s
w as 92/2, a n d i f t h e r e was one m is ta k e i n eao h o f tw o g ro u p s i t w as 84/2.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
103
TABLE XI
Summary o f R e su lts o f M atohing Tw enty-five P a ir s o f
Rorsohaoh P e r s o n a lity I n te r p r e t a tio n s
w ith Case Study A b s tra o ts
P e rce n ta g es o f P a ir s C o rre c tly Matohed
m x t i t =5 x 5*5
Group
I
II
III
17
V
Average
C o e f f ic ie n t
of
Contingency*
A
B
C
D
E
100
100
100
100
60
100
100
100
60
60
60
100
100
60
40
100
60
100
100
60
100
40
100
100
100
92
80
100
84
64
.875
• 832
.894
.850
•740
Average
92
84
72
84
88
84
.850
C o e ffi­
c ie n t o f
.875
C ontingency
•850
.793
.850
.863
• 850
Judge
Judge
Judge
Judge
Judge
Average C o e ffic ie n t o f C ontingency .850
P .E .m .022
P .B .£ .022
F o re c a stin g B ffio ie n o y o f C 64/£
r w ith e q u iv a le n t f o re c a s tin g
e f fio ie n o y
.933
N ote: In t : t m atohing, i f th e r e i s one e r r o r , th e r e a re n e c e s s a r ily
two* In a group o f f iv e p a i r s , th e n , i f any e r r o r i s made,
th e h ig h e s t peroentage o f o o r re e t m atchings p o s s ib le i s 60*
*
The maximum c o e f f i c i e n t o f o an tingenoy p o s s ib le i f t i s 5 i s
•894.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
104
The r a n g e o f p e r c e n ta g e s c o r r e c t f o r f o u r o f th e ju d g e s was 80/o t o
100/S, t h e same ra n g e t h a t was fo u n d f o r a l l th e ju d g e s on th e r e l i a b i l i t y
m a tc h in g e x p e rim e n t a l r e a d y r e p o r t e d .
The m a to h in g s c o r e o f t h e f i f t h
ju d g e w as b e lo w t h i s ra n g e , a s c a n b e s e e n from T ab le XI#
F o u r o f th e f i v e ju d g e s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n m a tc h in g t h e R o rso h ao h
p e r s o n a l i t y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s w ith th e o a s e s t u d i e s , had a l s o done th e
m a tc h in g o f t h e R orsohaoh r e c o r d s w i t h th e R o rsc h a c h p e r s o n a l i t y i n t e r ­
p re ta tio n s #
A l l a g re e d t h a t th e l a t t e r m a tc h in g t a s k was a c h a l le n g i n g
b u t much e a s i e r t a s k th a n th e m a tc h in g o f t h e c a s e s t u d i e s , an d t h a t i t
was done w ith a g r e a t e r im m ediate s e n s e o f c e r t a i n t y .
In m a tc h in g w ith
t h e c a s e s t u d i e s , i t was d i f f i c u l t t o k eep i n m ind a t one tim e f i v e s e t s
o f su c h co m p lex d a t a a s th e c a se s tu d y a b s t r a c t s and t h e R o rso h ao h i n t e r ­
p r e t a t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y when t h e r e w ere some s i m i l a r i t i e s b e tw e e n some o f
th e cases#
A c o m p a riso n o f t h e m a tc h in g s c o r e s o b ta in e d b y t h e s e f o u r
ju d g e s i n m a to h in g t h e re s p o n s e r e c o r d s v /ith t h e p e r s o n a l i t y i n t e r p r e t a ­
t i o n s , an d th o s e o b ta in e d from m a to h in g t h e c a s e s t u d i e s w ith t h e p e r s o n ­
a l i t y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s i s p r e s e n t e d i n T ab le X I I .
TABLE X II
C om parison o f P e r c e n ta g e s C o r r e c t o f
F o u r Ju d g es i n Two H a tc h in g E x p e rim e n ts
Ju d g e A
P e r C ent C o r r e c t
Judge C Ju d g e D
Judge E
H a tc h in g R o rso h ao h R eoords w ith
R o rs c h a c h P e r s o n a l i t y I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s
100
92
92
80
H a tc h in g Case S tu d ie * w ith
R o rs c h a c h P e r s o n a l i t y I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s
92
100
84
64
64
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
105
Lower s c o r e s w e re shown f o r th e seoond ty p e o f m a to h in g h y t h r e e
o f th e f o u r ju d g e s *
One o b ta in e d
a h ig h e r r a t i n g *
H is s o o re on th e
seco n d e x p e rim e n t w as p e r f e c t , w h ile on th e f i r s t h e h ad made one e r r o r
i n t h e l a s t group*
The c o e f f i c i e n t s o f c o n tin g e n c y f o r t h e f i v e g ro u p s o f c a s e s
ra n g e d frc m
*793 t o
.875*
The t h i r d g ro u p seem ed t o g iv e th e g r e a t e s t
d i f f i c u l t y i n m a tc h in g , w i t h 12% m atch ed o o r r e o tl y *
H ow ever, e v e n i n
t h i s g ro u p tw o o f th e ju d g e s w ere a b l e t o m a tc h a l l o f th e r e c o r d s p e r ­
fe c tly * *
The r e s u l t s o f t h e p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n a g r e e w ith th o s e o f
1
V e rn o n ’ s
m a tc h in g e x p e r im e n ts i n w h ic h th e R o rso h a o h p e r s o n a l i t y i n t e r ­
p r e t a t i o n s w e re m a tch ed w i t h p e r s o n a l i t y s k e t c h e s , b a s e d upon e i t h e r c a s e
s tu d y n o te s o r p e r s o n a l a c q u a in ta n c e *
H is a v e r a g e c o e f f i c i e n t o f con­
ti n g e n c y w as + * 8 3 3 -i0 3 2 a s oam pared w i t h th e p r e s e n t c o e f f i c i e n t o f
+w850i*022*
V ern o n s t a t e d t h a t , w i t h more o c m p le te r e c o r d s an d more
h i g h l y s k i l l e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , m a tc h in g r e s u l t s s h o u ld c e r t a i n l y be a s
h ig h a s th o s e h e h ad found*
H is p o p u la tio n w as d i v e r s e w ith one group o f
e i g h t c h i l d g u id a n c e c a s e s *
2
The p o p u la tio n s t u d i e d b y P a t t e r s o n and Magaw
l e c t e d group*
was a m ore s e ­
I t d e a l t w ith p ro b le m b o y s o f d e f e c t i v e o r b o r d e r l i n e i n ­
t e l l i g e n c e , and th e R o rsch ach i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s w e re m a tch ed w ith p e r s o n a l i t y
*
1.
2*
The i n v e s t i g a t o r was n o t one o f t h e s e .
P , E . V ern o n , The S ig n i f i c a n c e o f th e R o rs c h a c h T e s t ,
Br i t i s h J o u r n a l
o f M e d ic a l P s y c h o lo g y , XV, (O o to b e r, 1 9 3 5 ), pp* 2 1 0 -2 1 4 .
H* P a t t e r s o n a n d D. C, Magaw, An I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f th e V a lid ity o f th e
R o rs c h a c h T ech n iq u e a s A p p lie d t o M e n ta lly D e f e o tiv e P ro b lem
C h il d r e n , P r o c e e d in g s o f t h e A m erican A s s o c i a t i o n on M e n ta l De­
f i c i e n c y , 1 3 , (1 9 3 8 )# pp* 179-185*
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
106
s k e tc h e s b a s e d upon p e r s o n a l knowledge o f th e boys a s w ell a s t h e i r
o ase re c o rd s#
The m atohing p ro c e d u re w as s i m i l a r t o t h a t u s e d in th e
p r e s e n t s tu d y i n t h a t th e same s i z e o f m a tc h in g g ro u p was u s e d , b u t o n ly
tw o ju d g e s p a r t i c i p a t e d #
The r e s u l t s o f one o f t h e s e ju d g e s a p p ro a c h e d
th e a v e ra g e r e s u l t s o f V ernon a n d o f th e p r e s e n t s tu d y #
H is a v e r a g e c o ­
e f f i c i e n t o f c o n tin g e n c y f o r t h i r t y o a s e s w as + # 3 0 j# 0 5 .
The r e s u l t s o f
th e s e c o n d ju d g e w ere v e r y much lo w e r , w i t h a n a v e r a g e c o e f f i c i e n t o f
c o n tin g e n c y o f +,# 45i'#16 f o r th e same d a ta #
They e x p l a in e d t h i s d i f f e r ­
e n ce a s due t o th e f a c t t h a t th e ju d g e who knew th e b o y s h ad many more
c lu e s #
I n th e p r e s e n t s tu d y , t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r h ad had c o n t a c t 7 ji th t h e
c a s e m a t e r i a l o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n a f t e r t h e c a s e s tu d y c h a r t s w ere p r e ­
p a r e d , b u t fo u n d t h a t t h i s d id n o t h e lp i n th e m a to h in g , b e o a u s e t h e i n ­
d i v i d u a l c a s e s h ad b e e n f o r g o t t e n , and th e r e s u l t s o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r
w ere lo w er th a n th o s e o f one o f t h e o th e r ju d g e s #
T here a r e w ide i n d i ­
v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n m a tc h in g a b i l i t y , and t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s , as w e l l
a s th e v a l i d i t y o f t h e t e s t , a f f e c t th e c o e f f i c i e n t o f c o n tin g e n c y .
In
th e p r e s e n t s tu d y o f v a l i d i t y , an a t te m p t ivas made t o c o n t r o l t h i s
s p u r io u s f a c t o r b y s e l e c t i n g e x p e r t ju d g e s who h a d had a s i m i l a r b a c k ­
g ro u n d , i n t h a t th e y h a d a number o f y e a r s o f e x p e r ie n c e i n th e R o rso h ao h
m ethod a n d i n c h i l d g u id a n o e#
T h ere w ere s t i l l some i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n ^
b u t , i n g e n e r a l , t h e r e was q u it e d o s e a g ree m en t b e tw e e n t h e r e s u l t s o f
ju d g e s #
T here was one ju d g e , w hose r e s u l t s d e v i a t e d more th a n th o s e
o f t h e o t h e r s , b u t t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s o f c o n tin g e n c y o f a l l o f them i n ­
d i c a t e d v a l i d i t y o f t h e R o rso h ach p e r s o n a l i t y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s i n te r m s
o f t h e c a s e s tu d ie s #
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
107
R a tin g A greem ent b e tw e e n t h e R o rso h ao h P e r s o n a l i t y I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s
and C ase S tu d y A b s t r a c t s
The m a j o r i t y o f r a t i n g s o f a g re e m e n t b e tw e e n th e R o rso h ao h p e r ­
s o n a l i t y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s a n d th e c a s e s tu d y a b s t r a c t s , w e re h ig h f o r
a l l cases#
T h ere w ere some c a s e s t h a t w ere r a t e d b e lo w ” 1 , " f o r one
o r tw o a s p e c t s b y some o r a l l o f t h e ju d g e s , b u t fe w r e c e iv e d r a t i n g s b e ­
low "1 " f o r th e t o t a l p i c t u r e #
T ab le X I I I shows th e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f
r a t i n g s f o r t h e t o t a l number o f c a s e s f o r t h e v a r i o u s a s p e c t s r a te d #
TABLE X I I I
R a tin g s o f A greem ent b e tw e e n T w e n ty -fiv e R o rsc h a c h P e r s o n a l i t y
I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s a n d C ase S tu d ie s A ssig n e d b y F iv e Ju d g e s
R a tin g s
In te lle o tu a l
A sp e o ts
Ho#
P e r s o n a l i t y , Emo­
t i o n a l A sp e o ts
/«
1
No#
/
1
2
3
4
5
106
15
1
3
0
8 4 .8
1 2 .0
0 .8
2 .4
0
95
23
7
0
0
7 6 .0
1 8 .4
5 .6
0
0
T o ta l
125
1 0 0 .0
125
1 0 0 .0
T o ta l
D ia g n o s is P i c t u r e
1
No.•
No.
Sum o f
R a tin g s
69
40
15
1
0
365
106
25
5 5 .2
3 2 .0
1 2 .0
0 .8
0
125 100.0
95 7 6 .0
28 2 2 .4
2 1 .6
0 0
0 0
125
ro.o
No.
A
0
/£>
7 3 .0
2 1 .2
5 .0
0 .8
0
500 1 0 0 .0
The a v e ra g e o f a l l t h e r a t i n g s showed 7 3 . 0 / a t '" l , " :2 1 . 2 / a t "2
5 . 0 / a t " 3 ," and 0 . 8 / a t " 4 . ”
T here w ere no r a t i n g s o f
"s.” T hese r a t '
in g s w ere som ew hat lo w e r t h a n th o s e a s s ig n e d f o r t h e a g re e m e n t b e tw e e n
t h e R o rsc h a c h i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s #
T h is w ould b e e x p e c te d , s i n c e t h e l a t t e r
w ere
i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s / b a s e d upon t h e same m a t e r i a l , w h e re a s t h e o a s e s tu d y d a t a
and t h e R o rs c h a c h i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s w ere d e r iv e d d i f f e r e n t l y #
Even s o , a l -
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
108
m o st 75;'2 o f th e r a t i n g s w ere p la c e d a t t h e t o p o f t h e s c a l e , a lm o s t 95;2
a t t h e u p p e r tw o s t e p s , a n d no o a s e s a t th e lo w e s t en d o f th e f i v e p o i n t
s c a le .
F o r th e t o t a l p i c t u r e o b ta in e d fro m t h e R o rso h ao h com pared w ith
t h a t o b ta in e d from th e o a s e s t u d y , th e r e s u l t s showed 16%> r a t e d " 1 ,"
22.4/2 r a t e d " 2 , ” and 1 .6 /2 r a t e d " S ."
In c o m p arin g th e r a t i n g s a s s i g n e d th e s e p a r a t e a s p e o ts o f th e
R o rso h ao h i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , o e r t a i n d i f f e r e n c e s s ta n d o u t .
In te lle c tu a l
f a c t o r s have th e l a r g e s t p e r o e n ta g e o f ” 1" r a t i n g s (8 4 .3 /2 ).
A lth o u g h th e
l a r g e s t p e r c e n ta g e o f "1 " r a t i n g s w ere a s s ig n e d t o i n t e l l e o t u a l f a c t o r s ,
t h e y a l s o r e c e iv e d th e l a r g e s t p e r o e n ta g e o f p o o r r a t i n g s , " 4 . 11 H ow ever,
a l l o f t h e s e p o o r r a t i n g s w ere f o r one o a s e (C ase 1 7 ) , w hich showed a
m arked d is c r e p a n c y b etw ee n t h e e s t i m a t e o f i n t e l l i g e n c e b a s e d upon th e
R o rsc h a c h and t h a t b a s e d upon t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l e x a m in a tio n .
The e s ti m a t e
b a s e d upon th e p s y c h o lo g i c a l e x a m in a tio n h ad b e e n q u a l i f i e d b e o a u s e t h e r e
was a m arked la n g u a g e h a n d ic a p , and th e c h i l d ’ s b e h a v i o r i n d i c a t e d emo­
tio n a l in s ta b ility .
I n g e n e r a l , t h e n , t h e ag re e m e n t b e tw e e n t h e e s t i m a t e s
o b ta in e d from th e R o rsc h a c h an d th o s e o b ta in e d from p s y c h o lo g i c a l ex am in a­
t i o n s was o l o s e , b u t one o a s e showed a w id e d is c r e p a n c y .
These r e s u l t s
c o n firm th e f i n d i n g s o f V ern o n a n d H u n te r , who a t t a c k e d th e p ro b lem
d i f f e r e n t l y a n d fo u n d good a g re e m e n t b e tw e e n e s t i m a t e s o f i n t e l l i g e n c e
1
on t h e R o rsch ach an d th o s e o f p s y c h o lo g i c a l t e s t s .
1.
V ern o n
re p o rte d a
P . E . V e rn o n , The S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e R o rsc h a c h T e s t , B r i t i s h J o u r n a l
o f M e d ic a l P s y c h o lo g y , XV, ( O c to b e r , 1 9 3 5 ) , p p . 2 1 2 -2 1 4 .
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
109
1
c o e f f i c i e n t o f c o r r e l a t i o n o f .7 8 f o r tw e n ty c h i l d r e n an d H u n te r
fo u n d
a o o e f f i o i e n t o f c o n tin g e n c y o f .7 8 f o r 50 c h i l d r e n . The r e s u l t s o f
2
P a t t e r s o n an d Magaw’ s s tu d y showed d i s c r e p a n c i e s b e tw e e n t h e tw o j u d g e s .
On p e r s o n a l i t y a n d e m o tio n a l a s p e o t s , 7 6 $ o f t h e r a t i n g s w ere
a s s ig n e d " I , ”
A lm o st 9 5 $ w ere r a t e d " I " o r M2 , "
an d no o a s e s w ere r a t e d ,,4 1’ o r " S ."
5 ,6 $ w ere r a t e d " S ,"
I n g e n e r a l , t h e n , th e s e r a t i n g s
w ere somewhat lo w e r th a n th o s e o f i n t e l l e c t u a l a s p e o t s , b u t t h e y showed
t h e r e was a l s o good a g re e m e n t b e tw e e n t h e p e r s o n a l i t y p i o t u r e o b ta in e d
fro m t h e R o rso h ao h an d t h a t o b ta in e d fro m t h e o a se s t u d y .
No p r e v io u s
s t u d i e s have i s o l a t e d t h i s a s p e c t o f t h e t e s t fro m t h e o th e r t e s t f a o 3
t o r s , J , D, B en jam in a n d F , G. E baugh p la n n e d t o do t h i s , b u t th u s f a r
t h e y h av e n o t p u b li s h e d a n y r e s u l t s .
The lo w e s t r a t i n g s fo u n d w ere f o r a g re e m e n t b e tw e e n d ia g n o s e s ,
b u t e v e n h e r e , m ore t h a n h a l f t h e r a t i n g s ( 5 5 ,2 $ ) w ere ” 1 , ” an d 8 7 .2
w ere "1 " o r ” 2 , ”
’’S .”
T h ere w ere 1 2 ,0 $ r a t e d " 3 ," 0 .8 $ r a t e d " 4 ," none r a t e d
The c l i n i c a l d ia g n o s e s o f c h i l d r e n ’ s d i f f i c u l t i e s a r e u s u a l l y l e s s
o l e a r o u t th a n t h o s e o f a d u l t s , a n d o f te n c a n n o t be c l a s s i f i e d r e a d i l y
i n t o th e u B u a l c l i n i o a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s .
T h is w ould b e p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e
o f c h i l d r e n r e f e r r e d t o a c l i n i c t h a t i s c o n n e c te d w ith a s o h o o l sy ste m
r a t h e r t h a n w ith a h o s p i t a l .
1,
2,
3,
F o r t h i s r e a s o n , one w ould e x p e o t m ore d i s ­
M. H u n te r , The P r a c t i c a l V a lu e o f th e R o rso h ao h T e s t i n a P s y c h o lo g ic a l
C l i n i c , A m erican J o u r n a l o f O r th o p s y o h ia tr y , 9 , ( A p r i l , 1 9 3 9 ),
p , 290,
M, P a t t e r s o n an d D. C, Magaw, An I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f th e V a l i d i t y o f
t h e R o rso h ao h T ech n iq u e a s A p p lie d t o M e n ta lly D e f e c tiv e P ro b lem
C h il d r e n , P r o c e e d in g s o f th e A m erio an A s s o c i a ti o n on M e n ta l De­
f i c i e n c y , 1 3 , ( 1 9 3 8 J , p p , 1 7 9 -1 8 5 .
The D ia g n o s ti c V a l i d i t y o f t h e R o rso h ao h T e s t , A m erioan J o u r n a l o f
P s y c h i a t r y . 9 4 , (M arch , 1 9 3 8 ), p p , 1 1 5 5 -1 1 5 6 .
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
110
1
a g re e m e n t on t h i s a s p e c t *
In tw o p r e v io u s s t u d i e s
i n w h io h R o rso h ao h
and c l i n i c a l d ia g n o s e s o f 50 a n d 14 h o s p i t a l p a t i e n t s r e s p e c t i v e l y , w ere
co m p ared , t h e r e s u l t s showed 84*7/2 an d 8 5 ,7 % a g re e m e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y *
e a o h o f t h e s e s t u d i e s th e s u b j e c t s w ere m a in ly a d u l t s *
In
T here was one
c h i l d i n e a c h o f th e s t u d i e s , an d i n b o th o a s e s t h e r e w as a d i f f e r e n c e
i n th e d ia g n o s is *
I n one o f t h e s e t h e R o rsc h a c h i n t e r p r e t a t i o n d i d n o t
y i e l d a d e f i n i t e d ia g n o s i s a l th o u g h th e p e r s o n a l i t y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was
c o r r e c t ; i n th e o t h e r th e c l i n i c a l d ia g n o s i s w as c o n s id e r e d d o u b t f u l .
A lth o u g h th e s e s t u d i e s show t o o few c h i l d r e n t o make an y g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s ,
t h e i r r e s u l t s a g r e e w ith w h at m ig h t b e e x p e c te d , i n v ie w o f t h e p r e s e n t
s t a t u s o f th e d ia g n o s i s o f c h i l d r e n ’ s p ro b lem s*
The lo w e r a g re e m e n t
fo u n d i n th e p r e s e n t s tu d y f o r d ia g n o s i s may be tim e o n ly f o r c h i l d r e n
o r p ro b le m c h i ld r e n *
The h i g h e s t r a t i n g s , t h e r e f o r e , w e r e a s s ig n e d t o i n t e l l e o t u a l
a s p e o t s ; n e x t i n o r d e r w as th e t o t a l p i o t u r e ; t h e n came p e r s o n a l i t y a s ­
p e o ts an d , f i n a l l y , d ia g n o s is .
A c o m p a riso n o f t h e r a t i n g s a s s ig n e d t h e em ployed a s p e o t s i n t h e
s tu d y o f v a l i d i t y , (T a b le X I I I ) , i n w h io h t h e R o rsc h a c h p e r s o n a l i t y i n ­
t e r p r e t a t i o n s w ere com pared w ith t h e ca se s tu d y a b s t r a o t s , a n d o f th e
r a t i n g s a s s ig n e d i n t h e s tu d y o f r e l i a b i l i t y , (T a b le I X ), i n w h io h th e
tw o in d e p e n d e n t R o rso h ao h i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s w ere co m p ared , show ed some
d if f e re n c e s *
1*
The r a t i n g s i n t h e v a l i d i t y s tu d y w ere lo w e r f o r a l l a s -
The D ia g n o s tic V a l i d i t y o f t h e R o rsch ach T e s t , A m erioan J o u r n a l o f
P s y c h i a t r y , 9 4 , (M arch , 1 9 3 8 ), pp* 1166-1176*
D. M. K e lle y , K* L srvine, Yi, P e m b e rto n , a n d K. L* K a tz , I n tr a v e n o u s
Sodium A m ytal M e d ic a tio n a s a n Aid. t o t h e R o rsc h a c h M ethod,
P s y c h i a t r i c Q u a r t e r l y , 1 5 , ( J a n u a r y , 1 9 4 1 ) , p p . 68-73*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
p e o ts e x c e p t th e i n t e l l e o t u a l .
A lth o u g h th e l a t t e r showed s i m i l a r q u a n t i­
t a t i v e v a l u e s i n b o th t h e r e l i a b i l i t y a n d v a l i d i t y e x p e r im e n ts , i t s
r a n k o r d e r was f i r s t i n t h e v a l i d i t y e x p e r im e n t, an d l a s t i n t h e r e l i a ­
b i l i t y e x p e rim e n t*
The r a n k o r d e r s f o r t h e d i f f e r e n t a s p e o ts i n th e
r e l i a b i l i t y s tu d y w e r e , i n d e s c e n d in g o r d e r , t o t a l p i o t u r e , p e r s o n a l i t y
c o n f i g u r a t i o n and e m o tio n a l a s p e o t s , d i a g n o s i s , and i n t e l l e c t u a l a s p e o ts *
In t h e v a l i d i t y s tu d y t h e o r d e r was i n t e l l e o t u a l a s p e o t s , t o t a l p i c t u r e ,
p e r s o n a l i t y c o n f i g u r a t i o n and e m o tio n a l a s p e o t s , an d d ia g n o s is *
One more c o m p a riso n re m a in s*
The ju d g e s w ere a s k e d t o r a t e t h e i r
i n c o r r e c t m a tc h in g s b e f o r e th e y w ere g iv e n th e c o r r e o t p a i r s t o m atch*
T h ere w ere tw e n ty su o h i n c o r r e c t m a to h in g s , o u t o f one h u n d re d and tw e n ty f i v e m a tc h in g s *
S in o e th e e r r o r s i n m a to h in g w e re made b e o a u s e th e c a s e s
h a d s i m i l a r i t i e s one w ould n o t e x p e c t muoh ohange i n t h e r a t i n g s b etw een
t h e i n o o r r e o t an d c o r r e o t p a i r s * The r e s u l t s show ed f o u r o a s e s r a t e d th e
ra te d s l i g h t l y h ig h e r,
sam e, e l e v e n o a s e ^ a n d f i v e c a s e s r a t e d s l i g h t l y lo w e r, on th e c o r r e o t
p a irs *
I n g e n e r a l t h e n , t h e r e was a s l i g h t te n d e n c y t o r a t e th e c o r r e o t
o a s e s h ig h e r *
A l l o f th e r e s u l t s te n d t o i n d i c a t e th e c l i n i c a l v a l i d i t y and
r e l i a b i l i t y o f th e R o rso h ao h p e r s o n a l i t y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s *
They f u r t h e r
show t h a t , i n g e n e r a l , t h e r e i s h ig h e r r e l i a b i l i t y th a n v a l i d i t y f o r th e
d a t a on p e r s o n a l i t y a n d e m o tio n a l a s p e o t s , d i a g n o s i s , a n d t o t a l p i c t u r e ,
and a p p r o x im a te ly e q u i v a l e n t r e l i a b i l i t y an d v a l i d i t y f o r d a t a on i n t e l ­
le o tu a l fa c to rs *
The l a t t e r y i e l d th e lo w e s t r e l i a b i l i t y r e s u l t s b u t
th e h i g h e s t v a l i d i t y r e s u l t s i n t h i s r a t i n g e x p e rim e n t*
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CHAPTER V
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND IMPLICATIONS
Summary
I n a s tu d y t o d e te r m in e t h e c l i n i c a l v a l i d i t y o f t h e R o rsc h a c h
P s y c h o d ia g n o s tic T e c h n iq u e i n th e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e p e r s o n a l i t y o f
pro b lem c h i l d r e n , t w e n t y - f i v e c h i l d r e n who h ad b e e n r e f e r r e d f o r d i v e r s e
pro b lem s t o one b r a n c h o f t h e B u reau o f C h ild G u id an ce o f t h e B oard o f
E d u c a tio n o f th e C it y o f New Y o rk , and who h ad b e e n s e e n b y t h e p s y c h i a t r i s t
i n Hay o r J u n e , 1 9 39, w ere s e l e c t e d f o r s tu d y *
Ages r a n g e d from f i v e
y e a r s , t h r e e m onths t o e i g h t e e n y e a r s , tw o m o n th s , a n d g r a d e s ra n g e d
from k in d e r g a r t e n t o f o u r t h te rm h ig h s c h o o l*
E ach o f t h e s u b j e c t s h ad a
co m p le te c l i n i c a l s tu d y an d t h e r e p o r t s o f t h e p s y c h i a t r i s t , p s y c h i a t r i o
s o c i a l w o r k e r s , p s y c h o l o g i s t s , a n d p e d i a t r i c i a n s , f o r e a o h c h i l d , w ere
s tu d ie d *
R o rso h ao h e x a m in a tio n s w ere a d m in is te r e d t o t h e s e c h i l d r e n , a c ­
c o r d in g t o t h e s t a n d a r d R o rso h ao h p r o c e d u r e , b y q u a l i f i e d p s y c h o l o g i s t s ,
e x p e r ie n c e d i n t h e R o rso h ao h M ethod*
f o u r te e n o f t h e tw e n t y - f i v e *
The i n v e s t i g a t o r a d m in is te r e d
A t l e a s t a y e a r an d a h a l f a f t e r t h i s a d ­
m i n i s t r a t i o n , a l l th e r e c o r d s w ere r e i n t e r p r e t e d by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r ,
and tw e n ty " b lin d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s " w e re made b y t h e C h ie f P s y o h o lo g i6 t
o f th e B u reau o f C h ild G uidance*
F o r e a o h c a s e , t h e d a t a o f t h e R o rsch ao h i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , a n d
a b s t r a c t s o f th e d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f -the c a s e s t u d y , w e re a n a ly z e d on
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
113
o h a rts , w ith sim ila r d a ta plaoed side by side*
The d a ta were o u tlin e d
under in te l le o tu a l a sp e o ts , p e rs o n a lity c o n fig u ra tio n and em otional a s­
p e c ts , and diagnosis*
A p relim in ary experim ent to determ ine the o b je c tiv ity o f th e
p e rs o n a lity in te r p r e ta tio n s obtained from th e Rorsohaoh c o n sisted o f two
p a r t s , a matching and a r a tin g experiment*
Three judges matohed th e two
Rorschach in te rp re ta tio n s fo r tw enty oases in groups of fiv e p a ir s , and
th e n ra te d the degree o f agreement fo r th e in te lle o tu a l f a c to r s , person­
a l i t y c o n fig u ratio n and em otional a s p e o ts , d ia g n o sis, and t o t a l p io tu re ,
on a fiv e p o in t scale of agreem ent.
The r e l i a b i l i t y of th e in te r p r e ta tio n s was fu rth e r te s te d by
a matohing experim ent, in which seven judges matohed tw enty-five Rorsohaoh
response records and th e Rorschach p e rs o n a lity in te r p re ta tio n s in matching
groups of fiv e pairs*
The c li n i c a l v a l i d i t y of th e method was te s te d by a matohing and
a r a tin g experiment*
The Rorschach p e rs o n a lity in te rp re ta tio n s were
matohed w ith the tw en ty -fiv e c h a rts of th e oase study a b s tr a c ts , in
matohing groups of f iv e , by fiv e judges, and then rate d on a fiv e p o in t
scale o f agreement f o r th e fo u r aspeots used in the o th er r a tin g e x p e ri­
ment.
The r e s u l ts of a l l th e experim ents to study th e o b je o tiv ity and
r e l i a b i l i t y of th e Rorsohaoh p e rs o n a lity in te rp re ta tio n s in d ic a te a high
degree of r e l i a b i l i t y o f th e in te r p r e ta tio n s used in the p re se n t study*
The f i r s t experim ents on the o b je o tiv ity of these in te r p r e ta tio n s
showed:
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114
1.
The twenty p a ir s of independent Rorsohaoh in te rp r e ta tio n s were
matohed p e r f e c tly hy th e th re e ju d g es.
This in d ic a te d t h a t the two
in te r p r e te r s had sim ila r standards of in te r p r e ta tio n and th a t the Ror­
schach p e rs o n a lity in te rp r e ta tio n s possess o b je o tiv ity .
2.
The ra tin g s assigned the agreement between th ese in te r p r e ta ­
tio n s on th e four aspeots were a l l very h ig h .
The average peroentage of
wl w r a tin g s was 89.6$, of ”2n r a t i n g s , 10.0$, "3” r a tin g s , 0.4/6.
No
ra tin g s o f "4” or ”5” were assig n ed .
3.
There were d iffe re n c e s in the percentages of high ra tin g s
assigned the d if f e r e n t a s p e c ts .
peroentage w ith 96.7/6 a t nl , "
The t o t a l p io tu re reoeived the h ig h e st
Z » Z%
a t "2;" p e rs o n a lity c o n fig u ratio n and
emotional asp eots came next w ith 95.0^6 a t ”1," 5.0/6 a t ”2 ; n d iag n o sis
was next w ith
8 6 . 6;6
a t ”1 ,” 11.7/6 a t n2 ; n and i n te l le o tu a l asp eo ts was
lowest w ith 80.0 % a t " I , ” and
2 0 . 0/6
a t n2.11
The t e s t of r e l i a b i l i t y by matohing the Rorschaoh response records
w ith the Rorsohaoh p e rs o n a lity in te rp re ta tio n s showed:
1.
w ith
The average o o e ffio ie n t of oantingenoy was
.872, a o o e ffio ie n t
a fo re c a s tin g e ffic ie n c y (71/6) which is eq u iv alen t to th a t of a
Pearson o o e ffio ie n t of c o rre la tio n o f .957.
This in d ic a te s unusually
good r e l i a b i l i t y fo r th e in te r p re ta tio n s for in d iv id u a l oases.
2.
Ihe judges were able to matoh most of the records c o rr e c tly .
The average peroentage c o rre c tly matohed by th e judges was 91/6.
3.
There was some v a ria tio n of r e s u lts among the seven judges,
b u t i t was s l i g h t .
The percentages c o rre o tly matohed by eaoh of the
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115
judges v a rie d fra n 80 to 100$,
o f th e judges ranged from
4•
The c o e ffic ie n ts o f contingency fo r eaoh
*832 to
*894*
The r e s u l ts o f four judges -who had irorked to g eth er f o r a
number of y ears and developed sim ila r standards of Rorsohaoh in te r p r e ta tio n ,
of one judge -who had -worked w ith these judges fo r alm ost a year b u t had
developed stan d ard s of Rorsohaoh in te r p r e ta tio n independently, and of
two o u tsid e e x p e rts , showed no d e fin ite d ifferen ces*
The percentages
c o rre c t fo r the f i r s t four judges were 100$, 92$, 92$, 80$ re s p e c tiv e ly ,
fo r th e f i f t h 100$, and fo r th e l a s t two 80$ and 92$*
5*
The separate r e s u lts f o r th e fiv e matching groups showed
fo u r were v e ry sim ila r and one was more d if f io u lt*
The c o e ffic ie n ts fo r th e
f i r s t fo u r were ,894, *8 8 , *8 8 , *894, w hile th a t fo r the l a s t was ,754*
The l a s t group eantained two oases w ith sim ila r p e rs o n a lity p ic tu res*
The r e s u lts o f the t e s t s o f v a li d i ty showed the follow ing:
1*
The average o o e ffio ie n t of contingency was
*850, o f which
th e fo re c a s tin g e ffio ie n o y (64$) i s eq u iv alen t t o t h a t o f a Pearson
o o e ffio ie n t o f o o rr e la tic n of
*953*
This in d ic a te s unusually high
v a lid ity *
2*
The judges matohed a la rg e peroentage of the oases oorreo tly *
The average peroentage matohed o o rre o tly was 84$*
3*
There were some v a ria tio n s o f r e s u l ts among th e judges, th e
o o e ffio ie n ts ranging from
*740 t o
*894*
This range i s g re a te r th an
th a t found in matohing the Rorsohaoh reoords w ith th e Rorsohaoh person­
a l i t y i n te r p r e ta tio n s .
o f 80$ t o
100$
Only one judge showed a d e v ia tio n from the range
o o rre o t matohing found in the l a t t e r experiment*
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116
4*
The r e s u l ts fo r th e fiv e matohing groups showd same v a r ia ­
tio n s , w ith o o e ffio ie n ts from
.793 to
.875.
Group I I I gave the most
d i f f i c u l t y , w ith 72/Sraa.tohed o o rre o tly .
5.
This matohing experim ent was rep o rted by th e judges to be
more d iff'io u lt than th a t o f m atching the Rorsohaoh records with the in ­
te r p r e ta tio n s .
Three of fo u r judges who took p a rt in both matohing ex­
perim ents had b e tte r r e s u lts on the l a t t e r .
6.
The ra tin g s o f agreement assigned were g e n erally high but
lower than th e ra tin g s assigned in comparing th e two Rorsohaoh in te rp re ta ­
t io n s .
The average of a l l th e ra tin g s showed 94.2/2 of th e ra tin g s assig n ed ,
”1” and "2 ."
”3” was
The peroentage ra tin g " 1 ,” was
75%;
th a t ra tin g "2,, was 21/2;
5/o}
"4” was 0.8>'{,
No r a tin g of "5" was assigned.
7.
There were d iffe re n c e s in the peroentage o f high ra tin g s as­
signed the d if f e r e n t a s p e c ts .
I n te lle o tu a l fa c to rs were h ig h est w ith
84.8;2 ra te d " I , ” 12.0^2, "2;" t o t a l p io tu re oame next w ith
22.4/2 rate d
then
w ith 76.0^ ra te d ”1 ,"
76*0%
ra te d " I , ”
came p e rs o n a lity c o n fig u ra tio n and em otional aspeots
18.4/2 r a te d M2 ; ndiagnosis was l a s t w ith
55,2%
rated
" l , n 32.0/2 ra te d ',2 .',
8.
These d iffe re n c e s in ra tin g s among the employed c ateg o rie s
v a rie d from those found in th e comparison of the two Rorsohaoh in te rp re ­
t a t i o n s , where t o t a l p io tu re was h ig h e s t, w ith p e rs o n a lity c o n fig u ra tio n
and emotional asp eo ts n e x t, follow ed by d iag n o sis, and f i n a l l y , in te lle o ­
t u a l aspeots.
9.
The r e s u lts in d io a te higher r e l i a b i l i t y then v a lid ity fo r
the Rorsohaoh data on p e rs o n a lity c o n fig u ratio n and em otional asp eo ts,
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
d ia g n o sis, and t o t a l p io tu re , and approxim ately the same degree o f r e ­
l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y fo r in te lle o tu a l f a c to r s .
The l a t t e r y ie ld the
low est r e l i a b i l i t y b u t th e h ig h e st v a l i d i t y r e s u lts in th is r a tin g e x p e ri­
m ent.
Conclusions
The fin d in g s of the presen t in v e s tig a tio n seem to w arrant the f o l ­
lowing con clu sions:
1.
The u sefu ln ess o f th e Rorsohaoh Method w ith problem o h ild re n
in a c h ild guidance c lin ic is dem onstrated.
2.
based
The p e rs o n a lity in te r p r e ta tio n s of these childreny'upon
t h i s method, possess a high degree of o b je o tiv ity , r e l i a b i l i t y , and
o l in i c a l v a l i d i t y .
3.
The Rorsohaoh in te r p r e ta tio n s of the same records by two
psy ch o lo g ists who have worked to g e th e r in developing standards of Ror­
sohaoh in te r p r e ta tio n , are v ery sim ila r and can be matohed p e rfe o tly .
4.
P sychologists experienoed in the Rorsohaoh Method are able
to matoh the Rorsohaoh response records w ith th e Rorsohaoh in te r p r e ta ­
tio n s w ith a very high degree of success.
5.
Competent Rorsohaoh w orkers, re g a rd less of d iffe re n c e s in ex­
p e rie n ce , a re able to match th ese response records and in te r p re ta tio n s
w ith an equal degree of suooess.
6.
The Rorsohaoh in te rp re ta tio n s possess a higher degree of
r e l i a b i l i t y than v a li d i ty .
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7.
P sychologists experienced somewhat more d i f f i c u l t y in n o tch ­
ing Rorschach in te r p r e ta tio n s w ith o lin ie a l oase s tu d ie s , than in match­
ing Rorsohach response records w ith in te r p r e ta tio n s .
However, they were
a lso able to match the oase stu d ie s w ith a high degree o f success*
8*
The method has n o t only group r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y , but
shows r e l i a b i l i t y and o l in i e a l v a lid ity fo r in d iv id u a l u se .
9.
The r e l i a b i l i t y of each o f the c a te g o rie s employed in sin
a n aly sis of th e in te r p r e ta tio n s ra n te d in the follow ing order* t o t a l
p ic tu r e , p e rs o n a lity c o n fig u ra tio n and em otional a s p e c ts , d ia g n o sis, in ­
t e l l e c t u a l a s p e c ts .
10.
The v a li d i ty of each of these c a te g o rie s ranked in the follow ­
ing o rd er: i n te l le c t u a l f a c to r s , t o t a l p ic tu r e , p e rs o n a lity c o n fig u ra tio n
and emotional a s p e c ts , d ia g n o s is .
11.
The matohing technique can be used su c c e ssfu lly in th e study
of th e o b je o tiv ity , r e l i a b i l i t y and c l i n i c a l v a l i d i t y of the Rorsohach
in te r p r e ta tio n s •
12.
The r a tin g technique is a u se fu l procedure in p erm ittin g a
sep arate e v a lu a tio n of th e r e l i a b i l i t y and v a lid ity of the t e s t in reg ard
to i n te l le c t u a l asp eo ts, p e rs o n a lity c o n fig u ratio n and em otionalaspeots,
d ia g n o sis, and t o t a l p ic tu r e .
Im plications and Suggestions f o r F urther Research
C ertain im p lica tio n s about the usefulness o f th e Rorschach Method,
th e types of procedures n ecessary f o r studying th e r e l i a b i l i t y and
v a li d i ty of complex, p ro je c tiv e tech n iq u es, and o th e r problems of ob-
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
je o tiv e stu d ie s of p e rs o n a lity , can be drawn from t h i s study*
The Rorschach Method i s a valuable adjunot to th e usual c l i n i c a l
methods in c h ild guidance -work*
I t s use i s p ra c tic a b le in the c li n i c
s itu a tio n , since b r i e f in te r p re ta tio n s of outstanding p e rs o n a lity p a t­
te rn s y ie ld good r e s u l t s , and i t is not necessary to make the time con­
suming, e la b o ra te analyses th a t are o ften made by workers who have more
tim e th an i s a v a ila b le in a c lin ic *
I f th e s e b r i e f Rorschaoh p e rs o n a lity
in te r p r e ta tio n s , t h a t have been made w ithout any inform ation about -the
s u b je c t, agree so w ell w ith c l i n i c a l d a ta , such in te rp re ta tio n s used in
conjunction w ith o th e r o lin ie a l d a ta , should y ield h ig h ly s ig n if ic a n t re ­
su lts*
The method should be e s p e c ia lly v aluable in e ith e r confirm ing the
r e s u lts of other fin d in g s , or giving suggestions fo r f u rth e r in v e s tig a ­
t io n , and may be of value in determ ining treatm ent p o s s ib ilitie s *
Its
purpose is to supplement "these o th er methods, not to supplant them*
I f th e r e s u l ts w ith problem c h ild re n were so s ig n if ic a n t, i t
seems probable t h a t the r e s u l ts fo r a d u lts and for more s e rio u s ly d is ­
tu rb ed oases would be a t l e a s t as high as th e s e , since th e t e s t was not
o r ig in a lly stan dardized f o r o h ild ren , sin ce le ss o lea ro u t r e s u l ts are ob­
ta in e d fo r c h ild re n , and sin c e those workers vho have given the t e s t to
both a d u lts and c h ild re n , f e e l th a t the r e s u lts of a d u lts give more d e fin ite
p io tu res*
F u rth er stu d ie s w ith a d u lts and with various c li n i c a l types of
o ases, using th e procedures employed in t h i s study, should be made to de­
term ine whether t h i s assum ption is tru e*
I t i s p o ssib le t h a t , in th e f u tu re , th e Rorsohach Method w ill show
even c lo s e r agreement w ith other approaches than i t does now* At p re se n t
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120
th e term inology used in o l in i e a l stu d ie s is not e n tir e ly o b jeo tiv e.
The
■various soienoes c o n trib u tin g to oase stu d ie s, psychology, p sy c h iatry ,
s o c ia l work, and m edicine, developed independently, and, as a r e s u l t,
each produced i t s own p ro fe ssio n a l terminology#
In the ch ild guidance
c lin ic th e re has been some merging of these p ro fe s sio n s, and a more com-^
mon term inology has resu lted #
However, in the p re se n t s ta tu s o f s c i e n t i f i c
knowledge on p e rs o n a lity , many concepts are not as yet c le a r ly or ob­
j e c tiv e ly form ulated, and the diagnoses of c h ild r e n 's d i f f i c u l t i e s are
o ften n o t y e t c la s s if ia b le in c le a r c u t terms#
I t is p o ssib le th a t as th e se
soienoes avolve and develop a uniform term inology, th e Rorsohach in te r p r e ­
ta tio n s could be made in terms of t h i s common vocabulary, and might show
even o lo se r agreement th an a t present#
The s im ila r ity of th e Rorschach in te r p re ta tio n s by independent
workers in th e p resen t in v e s tig a tio n in d ic a te s th e p o s s ib i l i ty of de­
veloping o b jectiv e term inology in the Rorschach in te r p r e ta tio n s , and
p o in ts to th e d e s i r a b i li t y of uniform standards of tr a in in g in t h is method#
I t is p ossible to study such a complex instrum ent as the Rorschach
o b je c tiv e ly and s t a t i s t i c a l l y , and erven more re fin e d s t a t i s t i c a l proce­
dures may y e t be devised to study t h i 3 type of p e rs o n a lity te s t#
E a rlie r
stu d ie s showed the inadequacy of th e usual s t a t i s t i c a l procedures in de­
term ining the r e l i a b i l i t y and m l i d i t y of the Rorschach since they could
not co n sid er th e t o t a l complex p a tte rn obtained £m th e t e s t , b u t had to
deal w ith is o la te d categ o ries#
New s t a t i s t i c a l and experim ental procedures
have had to be devised to overcome the d i f f i c u l t i e s presented by the
measurement of t h is q u a lita tiv e d a ta , and the newer s tu d ie s applying
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121
such procedures which study the t o t a l p a tte r n , y ie ld p o s itiv e r e s u l ts .
These stu d ie s and the presen t in v e s tig a tio n show th a t o b jectiv e and
s t a t i s t i c a l procedures can be applied to the study of a complex, p ro jec ­
tiv e technique fo r the in v e s tig a tio n of p e rs o n a lity .
The sp e c ific s t a t i s t i c a l procedures employed in the p resent study
should b eu sefu l in the study of r e l i a b i l i t y and v a li d i ty in in v e s tig a ­
tio n s of p e rso n a lity in g e n e ra l.
The matching technique proves to be
a valuable procedure in studying complex p a tte r n s .
The ra tin g technique
is a procedure th a t perm its more d e ta ile d e v alu atio n of q u a litia tv e d ata,
and i s e sp e c ia lly u se fu l i f employed in conjunction w ith m atching.
Fur­
th e r stu d ie s using th ese s t a t i s t i c a l procedures w ith a v a rie ty of groups
of s u b je c ts , normal and abnormal a d u lts , normal and abnormal c h ild re n ,
c h ild re n re fe rre d to h o s p ita l m ental hygiene c l i n i c s , c h ild re n under ob­
se rv atio n or treatm ent in sp e c ia l h o s p ita l c la s s e s fo r problem c ase s,
and c h ild re n and a d u lts of s p e c ific c l i n i -al c a te g o rie s , should be made,
to determ ine whether the Rorseh&ch method is e q u ally r e lia b le and v a lid
w ith d if f e r e n t types of su b je c ts.
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A llp o r t, G., The P sy o h o lo g lst>s Frame of R eference.
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Psyohologioal B u lle­
A rluok, E . W., A Study o f Some P e rs o n a lity D ifferences between E p ile p tic s
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B a r t l e t t , F. C ., An Experim ental Study o f Some Problems of Peroeiving
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Beck, S. J . , P e rs o n a lity Diagnosis by Means of th e Rorsohach T est.
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___________ The Rorsohach Method and P e rs o n a lity D iagnosis. I . The
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Yorks Ccmmonwealth Fund, 1931, pp. 222-261.
__________ The Rorsohach Test in Problem C hildren.
O rthopsychiatry, I , (1931), pp. 501-509.
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_ _ _ _ _ _ _ Die P ersonliohkeits^ntw icklung des Sohulkindes im Formendeutversuoh. Z e its o h r if t fu r K inderforsohung, XLI, (1933), pp. 485494.
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_ _ _ _ _ _ _ Simple Psychological Data in Melancholia*
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________ Responses o f Comparable White and Negro A dults to th e Rorsohaoh
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L ine, W*, and G r if f in , J* D, M., Some He s u it 8 Obtained 'with the Rorsohaoh
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P a rso n s, C* J * , C h ild re n 's I n te r p re ta tio n s of Ink B lo ts .
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____________ The Mind of the Negro Child*
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________ Bine Diagnostisohe Untersuchung Rorsohaohs a u f Grand d e r
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Company, 1927,
New Yorks World Book
P e rso n a lity T r a its , Appendix D, Conferenoe on In d iv id u al D iffe r­
ences in th e C haracter and Rate o f Psyohologioal Development,
Washingtons N atio n al Researoh Council, 1931,
Wertham, F«, and B le u le r, M,, Inconstancy of th e Formal S tru c tu re of the
P e rs o n a lity , Experim ental study o f the Influence o f M escaline on
the Rorsohaoh T est, Arohives o f Neurology and P sychiatry# XXVIII,
(1932), pp. 5 2 - 7 0 . ----------------------------- ------------- ---------Whipple, G. M,, Manual of M ental and P h y sio al T ests.
B altim ore: Warwick and York, 1924, Pp. 336,
Complex P rooesses.
Z u llig e r , H ., De Rorsohaohtest Ten D ienste van den Opvoedkundige en de
beroepskeuze, (The Use of th e Rorsohaoh T est in E ducation and
V ocational Guidance.) Ned. T ijd so h r, P sy ch o l., V, (1937), pp. 5088
.
_________ Jugendlisohe Diebe im Rarsdhaoh-Formdeutversuoh. Bine Seelenkundliohe und B rzieherisohe S tu d io . Bern: Haupt, 1938. Pp. 166.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
APPENDIX
)
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CASE 1
Sex:
Female
Age:
15 years 1; months
Grade: High School - 10th
In te lle o tu a l
Aspects
Problem o f R e fe rra l:
Found s te a lin g a t school on two
depended upon to t e l l th e tr u th
Mother w orried took her to Bell
worry about her* Child did not
Rorschach In te rp re ta t i o n
II
Rorschach In te rp re ta tio n
I
D iff io u lt to determine
in te llig e n c e because
o f severe re p re ssio n
which in te r f e r s w ith
i n te l le c t u a l fu n ctio n ­
ing* At l e a s t average*
p o ssib ly higher* but
fu n ctio n in g on a much
lower le v e l.
I n t e l le c tu a l fu n c tio n ­
ing d istu rb e d to such
an e x te n t by em otional
distu rb an ce th a t i t i s
d i f f i c u l t to e stim ate
in te llig e n c e * Prob­
ab ly su p e rio r i n t e l l i ­
gence* Probably ambi­
tio u s but unable to
fu n c tio n w e ll or work
c o n s is te n tly to a t t a i n
am bitions and e a s ily
discouraged.
R igid, s t i l t e d ,
stereotyped in th in k ­
in g .
A fraid to commit s e l f
u n less a b so lu te ly
c e r ta in .
I n te r e s ts very l i ­
m ited.
P sy c h ia tric Exsmin a tio n
I n te r e s ts probably v e ry Rides b ic y c le , swims,
reads.
lim ite d now as a re ­
s u l t o f h er disturbance.
Probably im p ra c tic a l,
u n in te re s te d in prac­
t i c a l d e ta ils
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
d s te a lin g a t school on two occasions* Denied i t fo r a tim e. Mother says she cannot be
nded upon to t e l l th e t r u t h — " i s lik e her f a t h e r ."
Stole from home about 5 years ago.
e r w orried took her to B ellevue, was to ld the c h ild was a l l r ig h t and t h a t she need n o t
y about h e r. Child did n o t s te a l a t home a f t e r th a t.
P sy c h ia tric Examin a tio n
S o cial H isto ry
Psychological Examin a tio n
M iscellaneous Data
Reading a t grade
Spelling adequate.
Arithm etic sp o tty .
Has progressed regu­
l a r l y in school.
Jides b ic y c le , swims,
reads.
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132
Superior in te llig e n c e
Revised Stanford-B inet
Form L. I Q 113
HenmonSelson I Q 113
D e tro it Advanced I Q 9 6
I.E .R . > Assembly very good.
CASE 1
Rorsohaoh Interpre­
t a tio n
II
Severe re p re ssio n of
both a ffe c tiv e and
in tra p sy c h ic poten­
tia litie s .
Person­
a lity
Configu­ Functioning on a
v e ry immature
ra tio n
and
le v e l.
Emotional
Aspects
Rorsohaoh Interpre­
ta tio n
I
P sych iatric Exami­
n ation
P e rso n a lity i s con­
s t r i c t e d now. Re­
p ressio n in both
a ffe o tiv e and i n t r a ­
psychic sp h e res. Has
p o t e n t i a l it i e s fo r
both e x tra te n siv e and
in tro v e rsiv e a d ju s t­
ment, b u t unable to
use them w ell now.
In c lin e d to be de­
p ress iv e ly toned
b u t, w ith people,
t r i e s to hide t h is
and to cover up
fe e lin g s and d is ­
turbance and i s
probably successful
in giving im pression
o f o u te r poise and
conform ity; adapting.
Constant c a re fu l con­
scious c o n tro l.
P r o b a b ly i n c l i n e d to
b e somewhat d e p r e s s e d .
P r o b a b ly a d j u s t s w e l l
s u p e r f i c i a l l y and
seems w e l l p o is e d b e­
cause o f c a u tio u s ,
c o n s t a n t c o n s c io u s
c o n tro l.
Yery s e n s itiv e , cau­
tio u s has fe e lin g s of
inadequacy
C a u tio u s , s e n s i t i v e ,
d is c o u ra g e d *
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Mot
tern
12
lo s
bea
tru
way
agi
P sychiatrio Exami­
n ation
S ooial H istory
Mother sa id c h ild had
temper o u tb u rsts u n t i l
1 2 years when mother
lo s t her temper and
b eat her — no ta n ­
trums since then# Al­
ways had a v iv id im­
a g in a tio n .
P sychological Examin ation
M iscellaneous Data
No sp o n tan eity o r enjoyment.
P o lite but e v asiv e .
Outwardly a p p aren tly
w ell poised b u t r e a l ly
d istu rb ed .
Shy, incommunicative,
but cooperativ e, dur­
ing physical exami­
n a tio n .
Seemed on the de­
fen siv e .
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CASE 1
Rorsohaoh Interpre­
ta tio n
II
G enerally passive*
self-doubting* d iss a t i s i f e d w ith s e l f .
Rorsohach Interpre­
ta tio n
I
Lacking in s e l f c o n fi­
dence, fin d s i t d i f f i ­
c u l t to a d ju s t to new
s itu a tio n s and make
d e c isio n s.
P sy ch ia tric Exami­
n ation
"I don’t lik e th a t
school. I never did
want to go to th a t
school anyway. I
didn’t want to be a
dressm aker.”
F
s
Ifl
w
c
b
d
w
s
w
Extremely anxious
and m arkedly d is­
tu rb ed by a ffe c tiv e
stim uli* i s over­
whelmed* unable to
make any response a t
f i r s t — then t r i e s
to avoid them.
There is evidence of
severe a n x ie ty .
Showed marked a g i­
t a t i o n playing w ith
hands and f in g e r s .
Frequent b lu sh in g .
Very embarrassed
when asked about day
dreams. "D on't
know.”
M
a
w
s
p
w
i:
d
s
At f i r s t lie d de­
fensively* adm itted
she did not want to
rev e al her m ental
c o n te n t. Only p ar­
t i a l l y c o o p erativ e.
m
f
b
li
o
V
C.
i
o
t.
T
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
rchiatrio Exami­
n ation
>n’t lik e th a t
>1. I never did
to go to th a t
)1 anyway# I
' t want to he a
m a k e r."
#
It
i r s t l ie d deLvely, adm itted
did n o t want to
a l h er m ental
ent# Only par­
l y cooperative#
F e a rfu l, lack in g in
s e lf confidence.
Mother knew g i r l
wanted to go to a
commercial high school
b ut se n t her to in ­
d u s t r i a l , thought she
would a d ju s t, since
seme ttoLtig happened
w ith o ld er s i s t e r .
Mother says c h ild was
always nervous - would wake up and
scream* had poor ap­
p e tite * In creased
when she was involved
in a c c id e n t. (Acci­
d e n tly h u rt younger
s ib lin g who was p er­
m anently s c a rre d . At
f i r s t p a tie n t was
blamed se v e re ly —
l a t e r was to ld i t
oould n o t be h e lp e d ).
Very r e s t l e s s sle e p e r.
P sychological Exami­
n ation
M iscellaneous Data
Took course only to
L ater mother says she
s a t is f y m other. Nega- r e a liz e s i t was m istiv e a ttitu d e toward
take to send her to
p resen t course but
p resen t school, b u t
undecided about what
w ill n o t allow h er to
she r e a l l y wants to d o .tra n s fe r to another
V a c illa te s about
trad e school— must
changing to commercial s tic k i t through
co u rse.
and n o t be u n sta b le .
In inform al conversa­
tio n blushed and
grinned in embarrassed
manner.
Unable to c o lle c t her
th oughts.
Can’t sta n d up to an
is s u e . Lies to g e t
out of th in g s . Lied
to mother and te a c h e r.
Truanted from school.
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134
id marked a g im play in g w ith
3 and fin g ers#
le n t b lu sh in g ,
embarrassed
asked about day
as. "Don’t
S o cia l History-
CASE 1
Rorsohaoh In te rp re ta tio n
II
Rorsohaoh In te rp re ta t i o n
I
Although outward adjustm ent i s p assiv e ,
th e re are probably
h o s t i le , aggressive
f e e lin g s .
Evidence
of h o s t i l i t y .
Social r e la tio n s ess e n tia lly poor because of t h is re pressed h o s t i l i t y .
Her ra p p o rt i s
r e a l l y poor (a lthough gives imp re s sio n of
adapting - see
above)•
P sy o h iatrio Examin a tio n
Defensive about home
s itu a tio n , says she
and s i s t e r f i g h t,
f e e ls s i s t e r is p re f e r r e d . F i r s t defen siv e about mother
— then sa id re se n te d
being punished. One
type of s te a lin g —
h o s t i le , s p ite f u l.
Ci
t
r:
Mi
g:
mi
Q1
H:
Says she has both boy
and g i r l f r ie n d s .
Pi
f:
a-
One type o f ste a lin g
compulsive — from
mother and s i s t e r —
" I t i s n 't th a t I
want them. I j u s t
g e t the fe e lin g I
have to take them."
Once had the fe e lin g
in 5 and 10 and had
to walk out to con­
t r o l h e rs e lf and
would lik e to g e t r i d
of th is but n o t i f i t
involves discussing
her mental co n ten t.
R eproduced with permission o f the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
(I
\vj
we
sj
f<
S ocial H isto ry
fen siv e about home
tu a tio n , says she
d s i s t e r f i g h t,
e ls s i s t e r is p re r r e d . F i r s t den siv e about mother
th en s a id resen ted
in g punished. One
pe of s te a lin g —
s t i l e , s p ite fu l.
Counselor a t school
th in k s th e re is
r iv a lr y w ith s ib lin g .
Mother re p o rts both
g i r l s jea lo u s of
m other’s a f f e c tio n .
Quarrel much.
H its out in sle e p .
.ys she has both boy
.d g i r l f r ie n d s .
Popular — has many
frie n d s ; a ffe c tio n ­
a te .
ie type o f ste a lin g
impulsive — from
>ther and s i s t e r —
!t i s n ’t th a t I
n t them . I j u s t
it the fe e lin g I
ive to take them."
ice had the fe e lin g
t 5 and 10 and had
> walk out to con•ol h e rs e lf and
>uld lik e to g e t r id
’ th is but not if i t
lvolves discussing
>r m ental c o n ten t.
(Father has not liv e d
w ith them since p a tie n t
was seven* Was i r r e ­
sponsible — imprisoned
fo r la rc e n y .)
Psychological Examin a tio n
M iscellaneous Data
Very q u ie t, passive
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135
P sy o h ia trie Examin a tio n
Case 1
Rorschach Interpre­
t a tio n
II
Severe re p re ss io n th a t
i s neurotic* Anxiety
Diagnosis n eurosis -with obses­
sio n a l symptoms, s e lf doubting, in d e c isio n ,
depressive to n e .
Rorschach. Interpreta tio n
I
Severe disturbance th a t
i s probably n e u ro tic .
O bsessional and oomp u lsiv e symptoms, anx­
i e t y and d epression.
Because of constant
c o n tro l conforms super­
f i c i a l l y , but severe
re p re ss io n in te r f e r e s
w ith fu n ctio n in g in
a l l sp h eres.
P sych iatric Examin ation
Compulsion
Neurosis — k lep to ­
mania.
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s y c h ia tr ic Examin ation
p u lsio n
r o s is — k la p to 1
ia .
S o c ia l H istory
P sych ological Examin ation
M iscellaneous Data
Conference — com­
p u lsiv e n e u ro tic —
kleptomaniac te n ­
den cies. Mother v e ry
dom inating. P a tie n t
re a c ts by passiv e re ­
sista n c e and s te a lin g .
136
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CASE 2
Sex:
Female
Age:
9 y ears 9 months
Grade: 3B
Problem of R eferrals
Poor work in school; walks aroun
su p e rv isio n . Parents concerned <
i n t e r e s t s , o v e ra c tiv ity * Truant
R eferred a t re q u e st
o f social service
agency.
In te l­
le c tu a l
Aspects
Person­
a lity
Configu­
r a tio n
and Eknotio n a l
Aspects
Rorsohach In te rp re ­
ta tio n
II
Rorschach In te rp re ­
ta tio n
I
D if f ic u lt to estim ate
probably low average
b u t fu nctioning on a
lower le v e l.
Probably a t lee.st
average but fu n ctio n ­
ing i s badly d is ­
turbed#
Performance irre g u ­
l a r , in te lle c tu a l
fun ctio n in g d istu rb ed .
M ixture of m atu rity
and im m aturity. Re­
sponses unpredictable.
Thinking stereotyped#
Range of in te r e s ts
f a i r fo r a b i l i t y .
F a ir range of i n te r ­
e s ts .
(See below)
Poor h a b its o f a p p li­
c a tio n and concentra­
tion#
P rim arily e x tra te n siv e but poor a f­
fe c tiv e a d a p ta b ility .
E gocentric.
P resent adjustm ent on
e g o c e n tric , e x tra te n siv e le v e l.
P sy c h ia tric Exami­
n a tio n
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Po<
T ea
low
pei
gro
in school; walks around th e room; rumors o f d elinquent behavior; question of poor home
a . P arents concerned over poor school adjustm ent, stubbornness, lack o f su sta in ed
o v e r a c tiv ity . Truants from school; has nan away from home sev eral tim es.
o h ia tr io Examin a tio n
Psychological Examin a tio n
Poor work in school
Probably low average
but can*t be measured
a c c u ra te ly now and
c a n 't fu n c tio n up to
c ap a city .
Revised S tanford-B inet,
L, I Q 83 but t h is is
too low. Performance
e r r a t i c — m ixture of
good and poor responses;
on achievement t e s t s
(M etropolitan) reading
and s p e llin g a t grade;
a rith m e tic - 1 year
below grade.
Is re ta rd e d one year
fo r ag e. Probably
c a n 't work in school
a t le v e l o f t e s t re ­
s u lts .
M iscellaneous Data
Teacher says — f o l ­
lows own in te r e s t to
p o in t o f d istu rb in g
group.
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137
S o c ial H istory
CASE 2
Rorschach Inte'rpreta tio n
II
Rorschach In te rp re ta tio n
I
P sy ch iatric Examin a tio n
H yperactive, d is tr a c Extremely h y p eractiv e, Throughout
kept playing
t i b l e poorly c o n tro lle d , v o la tile # Control
w ith ty p ew riter and toys
e a s ily d istu rb e d .
in room.
H asty, im p a tie n t, i r r i t a b l e , v io le n t re H asty, im pulsive, i r a c tio n s .
r ita b le , in fa n tile ,
u n c o n tro lle d , v io le n t
Tends to give up
emotional re a c tio n s .
e a s ily . Unable to
o o n cen trate.
Tends to work p e rf u n c to r ily . Gives up
e a s ily .
I n te re s te d in people
but unable to get
along w ith them.
Some negativism ,
some fa n ta sy and
phobic m a te ria l.
Some in te r e s t in
people but too ego­
c e n tric to e s ta b lis h
la s tin g ra p p o rt.
Negativism e v id e n t.
P o s s ib ility fo r in ­
tro v e r sive develop­
ment.
Mo
ac
co:
s i1
to:
ah
le
no
te:
re
FI
Tei
ao
co
to
Became frie n d ly and
a ffe c tio n a te . S.
w orries th a t mother
does not love h e r.
F eels lik e h ittin g
parents when they
b eat S.
No
As
At f i r s t p e tu la n t
and h o s tile .
ti
ch
do
le
Te
bi
Is
Apprehensive of
dark- of d e n tis t.
Phobias — ghost w ill
choke h e r, cut th r o a t,
and a tta c k fam ily.
Daydreams about k i l l ­
ing mother and s ib lin g .
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
hi
c k ia tr ic Examin ation
S ocial H istory
e fr ie n d ly and
t io n a t e • S.
,es t h a t mother
no t love her*
; lik e h i tt i n g
t s when they
S.
r s t p e tu la n t
10 s t i l e .
h ensive o f
of d e n tist*
M iscellaneous Data
H yperactive, r e s t l e s s ,
f i ^ e ty - had to leave
room fre q u e n tly .
Im patient, stamped
f e e t , pretended to ory
when work was too d i f ­
f ic u lt.
Temper tantrum s. In­
f a n t i le speech. Short
a tte n tio n span.
138
ghout k e p t playing Mother re p o rts hyper­
ty p e w rite r and toys a c tiv e , nervous, un­
om.
c o n tro lla b le , aggres­
s iv e , stubborn - doc­
to rs and d e n tis ts un­
able to t r e a t h e r, re s t­
le s s s le e p e r, only time
n o t a c tiv e i s when l i s ­
ten in g to radio or
reading comios.
F lig h ty i n t e r e s t s .
Teacher re p o rts hypera o tiv e , e a s ily d is ­
couraged, must succeed
to oontinue a c tiv ity *
P sych ological Examin ation
No sp e c ia l fr ie n d s .
A ssociates w ith a l l
c h ild re n but i f S.
doesn’t get own way,
le a v e s.
Craved a tte n tio n .
L ater expressed
pleasure in t e s t s .
Seemed deprived emo­
tio n a lly .
Teacher says S. makes
bids fo r a d u lt a tte n ­
tio n .
When kept to a ta s k ,
whined, but then co­
operated.
Is jealo u s o f b ro th er
— t r i e s to d istu rb
him (he i s f a v o r ite ) .
as — ghost w ill
h e r, cu t th r o a t,
.tta ck family*
■earns about k i l l lother and s ib lin g .
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CASE 2
Rorschach Interpreta tio n
II
Would have d if f ic u lty
in a d ju stin g to school
ro u tin e and to c h il­
dren*
"Rorschach In terp reta tio n
I
Would c e rta in ly have
d i f f i c u l t y in making
a s o c ia l adjustm ent
to a group and a d ju s t­
in g to the reg u lar
classroom s itu a tio n .
P sych iatric Examination
At f i r s t refu sed to go
w ithout mother — la te r
wanted to stay —
checked up once to
make sure mother was
th e re .
Di
me
sc
Te
di
sc
tt
C£
bi
t£
oi
Fecal and urinary
urgency.
Me
oc
i]
sc
ar
he
pe
pe
nc
mmm
si
ti
Te
si
be
sc
me
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
y o h ia tric Examin ation
i r s t refu sed to go
out mother — la te r
ed to stay —
iced up once to
sure mother was
e.
S o cia l H istory
D islik es school —
mother c r i t ic i z e d
school*
Teacher says Sub­
j e c t d is tu rb s c h il­
dren — h i t s ,
s c ra tc h e s, s tr ik e s
them.
P sych ological Examin a tio n
M iscellaneous Data
Refused to come w ith- U ncooperative, r e o u t mother a t f i r s t *
s i s t i v e in m edical
Frequent t r i p s to make examination*
sure she was s t i l l
th e re .
L ater wanted to r e ­
m ain.
1 and u rin ary
ncy.
Mother says c h ild
complains of being
i l l to g e t out of
school and mother i s
annoyed, school sends
her home* Both
p aren ts sh o rt tam­
pered, e a s ily an­
noyed a t her behavior
— use t h r e a ts ,
s tr ik in g , depriva­
t io n , re p u lse her*
Teacher f e e ls home
s itu a tio n responsible
— says c h ild is
beaten, i s s e n t to
school when i l l , and
mother i s uncooperative.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
139
Cannot tak e responsi­
b i l i t y fo r a group
ta s k - - d istu rb s
o th e rs .
CASE 2
Rorschach In te rp re ­
ta tio n
II
Diagno s is
..
E x c ita b le , uncon­
t r o l l e d , e p ile p to id
p e rs o n a lity . P o ssi­
b i l i t y o f organic
involvement should
be in v e s tig a te d .
Rorschach In te rp re ­
ta tio n
I
E p ilep to id or psycho­
p ath ic p e rs o n a lity .
P o s s ib ility of o r­
ganic involvement
should be in v e s ti­
gated.
P sy c h ia tric Examin a tio n
Behavior problem vrith
marked n e u ro tic c o lo r­
in g . There are
phobias, marked a f­
f e c t hunger, compul­
siv e fe c a l and u rin ­
a ry urgenoy.
Would have frequent
d i f f i c u l t i e s on an
o v e rt behavior
l e v e l.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
;
i t r i c Examiitio n
problem w ith
m ro tic co lo r »re are
marked a f;e r, compulil and u rin Loy.
S ocial H istory
Psychological Examin a tio n
M iscellaneous Data
See above — seems de- Mother unable to give
prived em otionally.
c h ild a ffe c tio n .
Child re a c ts by be­
coming h o s tile , has
aggressive fa n ta s ie s
and becomes f e a r f u l.
140
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CASE 3
Sex:
Female
Age:
18 years
Grade: 3r(l te rn I n d u s tria l High School
Rorsohach In te rp re ta tio n
II
In te lle c tu a l
Aspects
In te llig e n c e probably
d u ll norm al. Somewhat
irre g u la r in function
so d i f f i c u l t to e s t i mate w ith c e rta in ty .
Immature, childlike*
unduly engrossed in
d e ta il .
L it t le o r ig in a lity
Limited in te r e s ts
Problem of R e fe rra l:
Rorschach In te rp re ta t i o n
I
Severe reading di:
re a d e r.
P sy ch iatrio Examin a tio n
In te llig e n c e probably
average b u t d i f f i c u l t
to determine because
of i r r e g u l a r i t y of re sponse.
Undue i n t e r e s t in det a i l s . Conorete r a th e r than a b s tr a c t
th in k in g . Not much
o r i g in a li t y .
Limited range of in te re s ts .
Ho'
be
re
ar:
al
ab
Tr
yo
gr
ra
th
th
Mo
tu
Ea
ef
re
be
to
sh
Ha
00
at
wh
re
hi
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
1:
Severe reading d is a b ility *
re a d e r.
h i a t r i o Exam in a tio n
18 years o ld b u t unable to read above a 3rd grade
S o o ia l H i s t o r y
Eager to t r y and her
e f f o r t s to le a rn to
rea d were p a th e tic
because she seemed
to fo rg e t everything
she learned*
Has bean l e f t back
con stan tly * Gradu­
a te d ju n io r high
when almost 18 and
re c e n tly e n tered
high school to
M is c e lla n e o u s D ata
Probably has d u ll nor­
m al, p o ssib ly low
average in te llig e n c e
- measure on language
t e s t s and on Stanfo rd -B in e t, Test Form
L, no t a v a lid index
of her a b i l i t y be­
cause she was handi­
capped by reading
d i s a b il i ty and d is­
tu rb ed a sso c ia tio n s .
Very f lu s te r e d and
anxious on t e s t s .
I Q o f 70 much too
low. Revised Beta
I Q 9 6 . A rithm etic.
Fundamentals (Metro­
p o lita n Achievement,
Advanced, Form B)
6 b . Reading - 3A —
o ra l reading - 2-3
grade. S p ellin g 3B. Monroe Diagnos­
t i c word and l e t t e r
t e s t s - 2-3 grade.
I.S .R . Assembly Good. L a te ra lity :
9 ^ 1 e ft.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
141
Mother w orried S. might
be s tu p id , beoause of
rea d in g , b u t could do
a rith m e tic and g e n erally
a l e r t . Unable to read
above 3rd grade reader*
T ries to study in
younger b ro th e r’s 5 th
grade re a d e r. Was in
rem edial c la ss e s
throughout school but
t h is d idn’t h e lp .
Mother a lso t r i e d
tu to r in g .
P s y c h o lo g ic a l Exam in a tio n
CASE 3
Rorschach In te rp re ta tio n
II
Rorschach In te rp re ta tio n
I
P sy c h ia tric Examin a tio n
le
Se
ba
Persona lity
Configur a tio n
and
Etaotional
Aspects
G enerally in tro v e rs iv e . Attempts to
confonn but breaks
down under s tre s s
— u su a lly cont r o ll e d , quiet*
Strong d e sire to
conform, and de­
s ir e fo r human re ­
la tio n s b u t in fan ­
t i l e in approach.
Has enough con­
form ity and common
in te r e s ts to make
co n tacts but awk­
ward, lacking easy
a ffe c tiv e adapta­
b ility .
E s s e n tia lly q u ie t, in ­
tro v e r te d , conforming
— strong d e sire to
have good human con­
t a c t s . Probably has
few in te n siv e con­
t a c ts ra th e r than
many. A djusts so c ia l­
ly on an immature
le v e l. Welcomes and
r e ta in s sug g estio n .
Emotional development
immature.
S e n sitiv e , anxious,
very in se c u re . Oc­
casio n al o u tb u rsts.
Extremely s e n s itiv e ,
u n c e rta in , in se c u re .
Marked anxierty and
" I t didn’t make me
hate read in g . I got
discouraged about my
work. "
Good re la tio n s h ip
w ith parents and
s ib lin g .
A1
lo
sc
Ge
br
"s
is
He
cl
me
of
he
i!
c«
Pi
Would fe e l h u rt and
cry when mother c a lle d
her stu p id . ” The word
R eproduced with permission o f the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
M<
i]
ii
h ia tr ic Examin ation
S o c ia l H istory
le a rn d ress making.
Sews n ic e ly . Loves
b a s e b a ll, a th le tio s -
P sy ch o lo g ica l Examin a tio n
M iscellaneous Data
D if f ic u lty in c o l­
le c tin g thoughts and
in expressing s e l f —
d e f in ite ly handicapped
on t e s t s re q u irin g
c o n tro lle d a sso c ia ­
tio n s .
dn’ t make me
eading. I got
raged about my
Always t r i e d hard,
loved to go to
school.
e la tio n s h ip
a re n ts and
Gets along w e ll w ith
b ro th e r• Has a
"sweet p e rs o n a lity "
i s h e lp fu l.
f i ­
T ried to be v e ry coo p e ra tiv e .
Simple, c h ild is h ,
n a iv e .
Has f r ie n d s , goes to
church and s e t t l e ­
ment dances and one
o f p a re n ts c a lls fo r
h e r.
Cooperative but poor
comprehension on
p h y sic a l.
Responding w ell to
in d iv id u a l tu to rin g
by tea ch e r who has
sp e c ia liz e d in
psychology and read ­
ing d i s a b i l i t i e s
working in coopera­
tio n w ith the Bureau.
I s an honor g i r l a t
camp — won swimming
p r iz e s .
fe e l h u rt and
len mother c a lle d
tu p id . " The word
Mother t r i e d tu to r ­
ing but would become
im p atien t and th e g ir l
E a sily f lu s te r e d and
anxious on t e s t s a l­
though f r i e n d l y When
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
142
A uditory le a rn in g b e t­
t e r than v is u a l on
Gates D iag n o stic.
CASS 3
Rorschach Interpre­
ta tio n
II
Rorschach Interpre­
ta tio n
I
d istu rb a n c e . Although
u s u a lly w e ll behaved,
occasional periods of
i r r i t a b i l i t y as r e s u l t
of h y p e rs e n s itiv ity .
P sych iatric Exami­
nation
i s c le a r but I can’t
say i t and i t would
g e t me very angry."
" I t embarrasses me
w ith my frie n d s ."
wc
"Vi
or
Sc
WE
Whan i t was time to
read would become
sc are d . Wants to
le a r n , fe e ls badly.
Vomits foods she
d is lik e s .
Simple, n a iv e ,
c h ild lik e fan­
ta s y
Some dep ressiv e e le ­
m ents, and evidence
of esoape in to fan­
ta s y .
G irl says " I have so
many fe a rs I j u s t
couldn’t t e l l them
a l l to y o u ....T h ey
tro u b le me a l o t . I
would lik e to g et r id
of them ." Fears
corpse w ill k i l l her
by sta rin g a t her
( liv e s near under­
ta k e r) th a t man i s
sta rin g a t h e r, w ill
k i l l or rape h er.
Fears lig h tn in g e tc .
Daydreams about hav­
ing job as a machine
o p e ra to r, meeting a
boy.
Sex c o n f lic t.
(See diagnosis)
Probably some
phobic m a te ria l.
Marked sex d is ­
turbance.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
SC
hi
h ia tr ic Exami­
n ation
a r but I can’t
; and i t would
very a n g ry .”
.barrasses me
.y frie n d s* ”
,t was time to
e u ld become
L. Yfants to
f e e ls badly.
S o cia l History-
would c ry , so stopped
”When l e f t back she
c rie d and cried * ”
So discouraged she
wanted to leave
school a fte r junior
high.
P sychological Examination
M iscellaneous Data
asked to elaborate
became confused and
gave poorer response
than o rig in a lly .
Says she was always
ashamed to read.
;ays ”1 have so
‘ears I j u s t
l’t t e l l them
i y o u ....T h e y
.e me a lo t* I
lik e to g e t r i d
>m.” Fears
» w ill k i l l her
iring a t her
5 n ear under) th a t man i s
lg a t h e r, w ill
>r rape h e r.
lig h tn in g e tc .
jams about havjb as a machine
bor, m eeting a
liagnosis)
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
143
i foods she
:es*
CASE 3
Rorschach Interpre­
ta tio n
II
Diag­
n o sis
Rorschach Interpre­
ta tio n
I
P sychiatric Exami­
nation
Language disturbance
e ith e r language handi­
cap or i f no foreign
language ,an aphasic
distu rb an ce.
D if f ic u lty in naming
sim ple o b je c ts may
in d ic a te an aphasio
c o n d itio n .
"When I used to say
something, in ste a d of
saying a word I wanted
t o , another word would
come o u t. I f I wanted
to say where are you
going? I*d say How did
i t happen? The word is
c le a r in my mind b u t I
c o u ld n 't say i t . "
I f she sees a word she
has learned th e day be­
fo r e , remembers she has
seen i t but does n o t
know what i t i s . Has
d if f ic u lty in naming
th in g s — gets around
th is by naming t h e i r
use.
"I also n o tic e th a t I
th in k one thing and I
w rite another. I oc­
c a sio n a lly w rite a
d iffe re n t word from
what I'm th in k in g ."
Not n e u ro tic — a
v e ry immature personal­
i t y who shows anxiety
and sex disturbance.
Language disturbancei f no fo reig n language
p o s s ib ility of aphasio
c ondition should be
in v e s tig a te d .
Not n e u ro tic - d is ­
tu rb e d , anxious.
S u p e rfic ia lly appears
to a d ju s t because of
stro n g d e sire to con­
form. Depressive e le ­
ments and escape in
fa n ta s y . P o s s ib ility
of aphasic co n d itio n
should be in v e s tig a te d .
Congenital mixed aphasia^
p a r tia l word b lin d n e ss,
p a ra le x ia , m ild motorap h asis, m ild word deaf­
n e ss. Mild psychoneurosis
w ith phobic fe a tu r e s ,
m ainly sexual d istu rb ­
ance.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Latrio Examila tio n
used to say
lg , in s te a d of
i word I wanted
bher word would
I f I wanted
vhere a re you
I*d say How did
an? The word is
a my mind b u t I
b say i t . ”
S ocial H istory
See above — i n a b i l i t y
to remember in read­
ing although she t r i e d
h ard.
P sych ological Examination
M iscellaneous Data
See above under i n t e l ­ B etts t e s t showed no
le c tu a l aspects d if­
v is u a l d istu rb a n c e .
f i c u l t y in a sso c ia tio n s
and in expression.
Rapid b ir th — convul­
sions sev eral tim es a
week fo r 3 to 1+ months
— none sin c e .
144
3ees a word she
raed th e day beaaembers she has
but does n o t
i t i t i s . Has
Lty in naming
— g e ts around
naming t h e ir
n o tic e th a t I
ae thin g and I
ao th e r. I ocLly w rite a
at word from
n th in k in g . '*
t a l mixed aphasiaword b lin d n e ss,
La, m ild motor, m ild word deafi l d psychoneurosis
obic f e a tu r e s ,
sexual d istu rb -
Mixed aphasia possi­
b ly due to hemhorrage of b ra in f o l ­
lowing ra p id b i r th
p o ss ib ly in d ic a te d
by convulsions. But
no p ro o f. A uditory
are a n o t as in ju re d
as v is u a l and m otor.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CASE 1*
Sex: Male
Age: 10 years 8 months
Grade: 1+B
Problem o f R e fe rra ls
Rorschach In terp re­
ta tio n
II
In te l­
le c tu a l
Aspects
In te llig e n c e probably
average# Seems ambi­
tio u s beyond h is a b ility
but une.ble to function
w e ll.
Probably more concerned
w ith form than with
meaning o r content.
Mother d istu rb ed by d i f f i c u l t i e s
late# In school te a ch e r re p o rts
Seoas com pletely unaware of resp
Rorschach In te rp re ­
ta tio n
I
P s y c h ia tric Exami­
n a tio n
In te llig e n c e probably
average# Probably
am bitious.
Te
pr
be
en
wo
Unable to a t t a i n h is
i n te l le c t u a l ambi­
tio n s .
Content shallow and
ste reo ty p ed .
Thinking i s s te r e o ­
typed and s u p e rfi­
c ia l.
Attempts to be d if­
f e r e n t and o rig in a l
b u t w ithout success.
T ries to be d if f e r ­
e n t but o r i g in a li t y
i s weak.
No
Bs
wo
fo
an
Likes to p lay on
s t r e e t and draw.
Likes c r a f t shop a t
church.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
•bed by d i f f i c u l t i e s w ith boy — i s d iso b ed ien t, chooses poor companions, sta y s out
te a c h e r re p o rts he seems to la c k d e sire to work, alm ost continuously daydreaming.
;ely unaware of r e s p o n s ib ilitie s or too lazy to do anything he doesn*t w ish to do*
100 I
Lat r i e Examila tio n
Social H isto ry
Note school changes.
Bs m conduct and
work t a ipV, exoept
fo r one D, then Cs
and Ds*
5 p la y on
and draw.
r a f t shop a t
M iscellaneous Data
Average g e n e ra la b ility
Revised S tan fo rd -B in et,
Form L, I Q 102*
Good on performance
m a te ria l.
-g- year reta rd ed f o r
age in grade place­
m ent, but schooling
irre g u la r — has had
9 school changes, 8
d iffe re n t schools in
the
year since he
began.
S pelling and reading
above grade, about
up to age. A rith­
m etic a t p resen t
grade, about 1 year
below M.A.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
145
Teacher th in k s he i s
probably capable of
b e tte r than h is p res­
ent b a re ly p assab le
work*
Psychological Examin atio n
CASE
1+
Rorschach In terp reta t i o n
I
I
P e rso n a lity ra th e r
c o n s tric te d .
Both a f f e c t and fanfa s y are repressed.
Person­
a lity
Configu­
ra tio n
and
Emotional
Aspects
C o n flic ted , anxious
b u t unable to face
h is a n x iety and
seeks to escape h is
problem s•
Rorschach In te rp re ta tio n
____________ I
P sy c h ia tric Examin a tio n
P e rso n a lity c o n s tric ­
te d w ith l i t t l e capa­
c it y
fo r a ffe c tiv e
liv in g . N either
strong i n tro v e r sive
nor e x tra te n s iv e tend­
encies a t p re s e n t.
A fter sh o rt time beoame warm, respo n siv e,
frie n d ly .
Evidence of marked
re p re ssio n and d is ­
turbance •
Many fe a rs fo r s e l f ,
mother and s i s t e r .
Has i n i t i a l period
o f insomnia because
of f e a r s .
In c lin e d to be
evasive and to d i­
v e r t h is anx iety
in to impersonal
ohannels, charging
impersonal th in g s
w ith h is own emo­
tio n a l a f f e c t .
R eacts w ith strong
h o s t i l i t y and marked
n e g a tiv is a , a t the
same tim e showing
marked a n x ie ty and a
tendency to run away
from h is problem s.
P e d a n tic, lacking
in a ffe c tiv e f l e x i ­
b ility
Probably not v e ry
fle x ib le •
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Teac
ta lk
a tt e
prob
te a r
eyes
spee
Crie
c h il
frie
sh ia tr ic Exami­
n a tio n
S o cia l H istory
sh o rt time berarm* resp o n siv e,
lly .
[“e ars fo r s e l f ,
: and s i s t e r ,
l i t i a l period
somnia because
irs .
Psychological Examin ation
Friendly* o h e e rfu l,
responsive#
M iscellaneous Data
Q uiet, p le a s a n t,
cooperative during
ph y sical exam.
Teacher says he doesn’t
t a l k much. When an
attem pt is made to
probe h is d i f f i c u l t y
te a rs come to h is
ey es, and he remains
sp eech less.
Cries i f he th in k s
c h ild re n are n o t h is
f r ie n d s •
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CASE
l\
Rorschach Interpre­
ta tio n
II
P r o b a b ly m akes a su p er­
f i c i a l a d ju s tm e n t to
p e o p le b u t a c t u a l l y
h a s p o o r r a p p o r t , is
h o s t i l e , a n ta g o n is tic ,
v e ry n e g a tiv is tic .
Rorsohach In terp reta tio n
I
P r o b a b ly m akes s u p e r ­
f i c i a l c o n ta c ts w ith
p e o p le , b u t r e l a t i o n ­
s h ip s a r e e s s e n t i a l l y
p o o r now b e c a u s e o f
h i s h o s t i l i t y . P ro b ­
a b l y shows s tu b b o r n ­
ness.
P sy ch ia tric Exami­
nation
P a s s i v e n e g a tiv is m
B e tts - a t f i r s t poor
r e s u l t s - w hen ch eck ed
c o u ld do i t .
Much d ay d ream in g ab o u t
r o o k e t s h i p s , M ars,
e t c . " I d o n 't do t h i s
an d I d o n 't do t h a t to
g e t e v e n . Som etim es
I w r i t e s lo w ly , some­
tim e s I d o n 't do my
homewo r k . " Sa y s
t e a c h e r r e p o r t s home
and h e g e t s i t .
I s je a lo u s o f s i s t e r .
D is lik e s te a c h e r , f a ­
t h e r . S ays f a t h e r
w as m o s tl y b a d , some­
tim e s n i c e , d o e s n 't
w a n t him b a c k .
Slow i n a d j u s t i n g to
new s i t u a t i o n s and
p r o b a b ly h a s d i f f i ­
c u l t y i n m aking de­
c is io n s .
Slow i n a d j u s t i n g to
new s i t u a t i o n s , p o s s i ­
b l y due to h i s co n ­
flic t.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
S<
Teacl
beha'
Moth*
pays
h e r,
th in /
a gr<
abou'
Tant:
se re
bang
th e r
c h il
Once
boy'
fo r
b eh a
and
them
to s
is h
p la y
Moth
s is t
Moth
s u re
easi
back
Teac
to g
i s -t
diva
As £
not
dayc
L&tric Examilation
negativism QP
a t f i r s t poor
- -when cheoked
) it*
^dreaming about
ships* Mars*
E d o n 't do t h is
>n’t do th a t to
i* Sometimes
slowly* somed o n 't do my
c." Says
re p o rts home
^ets i t .
ous of s i s t e r ,
s te a o h e r, f a 3ays fa th e r
bly bad* someLce* doesn’t
n back*
S o cia l H istory
Teaoher sayB no o v e rt
behavior d iffic u lty *
Mother complains he
pays no a tte n tio n to
her* disobeys* puts
th in g s off* He c rie d
a g re a t deal u n t il
about ij. years o ld .
Tantrums - -would
scream* l i e on floor*
bang h is head. (Fa­
th e r always punished
c h ild re n severely*
Once caused gash in
boy’s h ead). Chooses
fo r frie n d s boys w ith
behavior d i f f i c u l t i e s ,
and i s su b serv ien t to
them. At school t r i e s
to seek one f rie n d and
is h u rt i f t h a t c h ild
plays w ith others*
M other’s f a v o r ite is
s is te r*
Mother says he is un­
sure of him self* i s
e a s ily le d , lacks
backbone•
Teaoher says only way
to g e t him to wor±
is to give him un­
divided a tte n tio n .
As soon as t h i s is
n o t done, begins to
daydream*
P sych ological Examin a tio n
M iscellaneous Data
Conference: mother re ­
je c ts boy and handles
him in p u n itiv e man­
ner* Spends time in
school fan tasy in g r e ­
venge on te a c h e r.
A lert* s e lf -c o n fid e n t,
good s e l f c ritic is m .
U sually attem pted only
t e s t s he f e l t he could
do. (R eactions d if f e r ­
en t from c h a ra c te ris ­
t i c re a c tio n s in school
p o ssib ly becuase o f un­
divided in d iv id u a l a t­
tention*)
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CASE
k
Rorschach Interp eta tio n
II
May be a sex oonfl:[ct
b u t i t i s not clea:rcu t from these re ­
s u lts .
Rorschach Interpre­
ta tio n
I
Evidence of possible
sex c o n flic t*
P sych iatric Exami­
n ation
M asturbation - 11some­
tim es I worry about
it* My mother would
whip me ...s h e was mad*”
Gets whipped fo r sta y ing out la te * Kicks
so mother can’t h i t
him*
(See above - insomnia)
Moth
time
fron
out
u n ti
Teac
not
- fr
Quec
defe
(Mot
age
te s t
Adu]
tolc
sto i
caus
rea]
w itl
irr«
h is
trac
him
yeai
at i
brui
r a ti
fine
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
l i a t r i c Exami­
n ation
S o cia l H istory
P sych ological Examin ation
M iscellaneous Data
bation - "someI worry about
y mother would
3 * . .sh e was mad."
lipped fo r stay b la te * Kicks
tier can’t h i t
bove - insomnia)
Question o f v is u a l
d e fe c t.
(Mother o f low aver­
age in te llig e n c e on
t e s t s given by Vf.P.A.
Adult guidance. Has
to ld c o n flic tin g
s to r ie s probably be­
cause she was n o t
r e a l ly m a rrie d . L ife
w ith c h il d ’ s fa th e r
irre g u la r* much moving,
h is w ife a t tim es
tra c e d them and forced
him back. Mother 25
years younger. Father
a t f i r s t good, re o e n tly
b r u t a l . Several sepa­
r a tio n s , re c e n tly a
f i n a l s e p a ra tio n .)
Physical fin d in g s:
Poor n u tr itio n a l
s ta tu s . S lig h t re ­
duction in h earin g ,
m ild i r r i t a t i o n of
e y e lid s , p o stn asal
d rip , poor body
hygiene.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
148
Mother says he some­
tim es doesn’t r e tu rn
from sch o o l. Stays
out w ith o u t dinner*
u n t il 9 o r 10 o ’clock.
Teacher th in k s he may
not get enough sleep
- freq u e n t la te n e s s .
CASE
k
Rorschach Interprtjf
ta tio n
'
II
-tr
Rorschach Interpre­
ta tio n
I
P sy ch ia tric Exami­
nation
H abits - n a il b itin g
nose p ic k in g , u rin ­
ary urgency w ith oc­
casional incontinenceDiagno s i s
D isturbed, c o n stric te d
in d iv id u a l who is prob­
ab ly neurotic# Type
o f n e u ro sis i s lik e ly
to be compulsive#
Very rep re ssed , d is ­
tu rb e d , probably
n e u ro tic w ith ob­
se ssio n a l t r a i t s #
Show s m ark ed h o s t i l i t y
an d n e g a tiv is m a t
Some p o s s ib i l i ti e s for
h ealth y p e rs o n a lity
p re s e n t b u t i s o v e rtly
development but be­
w e l l c o n t r o l l e d an d
cause o f h is evasive­
p r o b a b ly m akes a
s u p e r f ic ia l a d ju s t­
ness and i n a b i l it y to
face h is problems i t
m ent#
i s questionable whether
F u n d am en tal p e r s o n a l ­
he would respond to
p s y c h ia tric treatm ent
i t y shows good p o s s i ­
r e a d ily .
b i l i t i e s f o r h e a lth y
Behavior problem n e u ro tic coloring phobias fo r s e l f and
o th ers accompanied by
i n i t i a l insom nia.
Passive negativism .
D isturbed emotional
re la tio n s h ip w ith
m other, s ib lin g
r iv a lr y .
d e v e lo p m e n t, b u t h i s
e v a s io n o f h i s p ro b ­
le m s , d i f f i c u l t y i n
a d j u s t i n g t o new
s i t u a t i o n s , an d n e g a ­
t i v e a t t i t u d e t o su g ­
g e s t i o n now m ig h t
make tr e a tm e n t d i f f i ­
c u lt#
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Latric Examila tio n
■ n a i l b itin g
sking, u rin mcy w ith ooL incontinence.
P sych ological Exami­
n a tio n
M iscellaneous Data
Mother had v ery d if ­
f i c u l t pregnancy and
’’couldn’t love the
baby# ”.
Conference: I f mother
can change ways of
handling, d ire c t
p sy c h ia tric t r e a t ­
ment should be given.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
149
‘ problem » colo rin g f o r s e l f and
iccompanied by
insomnia#
negativism .
}d em otional
iship w ith
s ib lin g
»
S o c ia l History-
CASE 5
Male
Sex:
Age:
12 years 2 months
Grade: 6a
In te lla c tu a l
A spects
Problem o f R e fe rra l:
Mother took boy to h o sp ita l c lin i
cording to p rin c ip a l -who says moi
in school, i s too q u ie t, does noi
•
Rorschach In te rp re ­
ta tio n
II
Rorschach In te rp re ­
ta tio n
I
In te llig e n c e probably
average b u t irre g u la r
in perform ance. Prob­
ably does n o t liv e up
to h is p o t e n t i a l it i e s .
D isturbed, cannot func­
tio n w e ll. Probably
s t a r t s out am bitiously
but i s unable to main­
ta in t h is le v e l.
In te llig e n c e d i f f i c u l t
to e stim a te because
fu n ctio n in g is in te r ­
fe re d w ith by an emo­
tio n a l d istu rb an c e.
Probably high average,
o r p o ss ib ly su p e rio r,
b ut he is unproductive
a t p re s e n t. Irreg u ­
l a r i t y o f performance.
Some attem pt a t o rig i­
n a l i t y but i s pedantic,
r i g id , unproductive.
Shows some p o s s ib ilitie s
fo r c o n stru c tiv e th in k ­
in g .
P s y c h ia tric Examin a tio n
£
Teac
in f c
is £
gent
Mot!
s i 01'
done
it 1
Moti
him
drav
plai
doii
Very lim ite d in te r e s ts
fo r a boy of h is a b ility .
Persona lity
Configur a tio n
and
Emotional
Aspeots
Appears to be p r i m arily in tro v e rs iv s
but has good p o te n tia l i t i e s fo r e x tra te n sive adjustm ents* Howev er, severely repressed
a t p re se n t.
At p resen t i s a d ju s t­
ing on in tro v e rsiv e
b a s is . A ctu ally he has
good p o t e n t i a l it i e s fo r
developing good e x tra te n siv e c a p a c itie s but
th ese are repressed a t
p re s e n t.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
(Moi
tu rl
son.
tim<
a c<
OCCi
Did
: boy to h o sp ita l c l i n i c , where he was re fe rre d to th e Bureau. No school problem acp rin c ip a l who says m other’ s a n x ie ty i s th e problem. Mother says he does not do w ell
i s too q u ie t, does not p lay w ith c h ild re n h is own age.
l i a t r i c Examin a tio n
S o cial H isto ry
Teaoher says general
inform ation is good,
i s ap p aren tly i n t e l l i ­
gent b u t works slow ly.
M iscellaneous Data
Superior general i n t e l ­
lig e n c e . Has n o t been
fu n ctio n in g up to
a b i l i t y . Revised Stanfo rd -B in e t, L* I Q 112.
O tis Interm ediate I Q
11 0 .
Reading, s p e llin g , and
a rith m e tic problems
above grade, bu t one to
two years below M.A.
A rithm etic Fundamentals
1 year below grade, 3sl
years below M.A.
(M etropolitan Achieve­
m ent). F a ir to good
ra tin g s on performance
and mechanical t e s t s .
■Wants to become an
a v ia to r .
(Mother a v e ry d is Shy, in h ib ite d , pastu rb ed , unhappy p e rsiv o .
son, w o rries a l l the
time • Her m arriage
a c o n stan t b a ttle w ith
occasional se p a ra tio n s.
Did n o t want c h ild re n .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
150
Mother claim s he is
slow, doesn’t g e t work
done on time because
i t takes him so long.
Mother t r i e s to help
him — but he w ill
draw and b u ild aero­
planes in ste a d of
doing homework.
Psychological Examin a tio n
CASE 5
Rorschach In te rp re Rorschach In te rp re P sy ch iatric Examita tio n
t a tio n
n a tio n
__________ I I _______________________ I
________________________________
Gel
Severe a n x iety conSevere a n x ie ty .
dr«
s t r i o t s h is re a c tio n s
bee
and makes f o r a lack
al]
of f l e x i b i l i t y , lack
wai
of p ro d u c tiv ity and
wi1
of rich n e ss o f a sso c iwoi
a tio n .
ha:
am
Strongly c o n flic te d .
Behavior unpredictable,
Probably nonconforming
n e g a tiv is tic , although
he has a strong tendency to conform - th is
probably in creases his
c o n f lic t.
D epressively toned
now - "but t r i e s n o t
to show t h i s in
presence of others*
Is d e lib e ra te ly slow,
- e s p e c ia lly when coeroed or angry. "She
always expects me to
do th in g s f a s t .
Sometimes she c a lls
me and I don’t come
so f a s t . The eatin g
also - I don’t e a t
f a s t because I ’m mad
a t h e r." Complains
mother coerces him
in e a tin g , scolds
and h i t s . Curses
her to s e lf then,
bu t then fe e ls guilty.
Is
woi
sti
a
ea(a
no
Te
di
op
'Ho
ti
fi
of
mo
bo
le
In d e c isiv e . Sensit i v e , in c lin e d to
avoid unpleasant
s itu a tio n s by w ithdrawing in to fan­
ta s y . Probably has
in trap sy ch ic d if f i c u l t i e s . Evidenoe o f some phobic m a te ria l and of
sex c o n f lic t.
Very s e n s itiv e . Extram ely cautious in
re a c tin g l e s t he be
h u rt,
S elf-conscious about
appearance ( is unatt r a c tiv e lo o king),
Te
un
Seeks escape from
his problems by
withdrawing in to
fa n ta sy .
Sometimes a fra id in
the dark - marked fea r
of ghost to rtu rin g
him.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
.ia tr ic Exami­
n ation
.b erately slow,
a l l y when co­
ir angry* "She
expects me to
igs fa s t*
les she c a lls
I don’t come
The eatin g
I don’t e a t
icause I ’m mad
Complains
coerces him
.ng, scolds
i t s • Curses
s e lf th en ,
m f e e ls guilty.
•nscious about
mce ( is u n atre lo o k in g ).
S o cia l H istory
Psycholo g ic a i Examination
Gets such tempers a t c h il­
d ren , y e l l s , scolds and
b e a ts , t i l l she is shaking
a l l over and a f r a id a f t e r ­
w ards. Took c h ild re n to liv e
w ith another man,returned,new
w o rries about sex as s in fu l
has nightm ares. Involved in
own problem s).
Slow, c o n scien tio u s,
Is nervous, f id g e ts ,
good e f f o r t and a t­
won’t e a t (mother
te n tio n .
stands over him w ith
a s tic k to make him
e a t ) , has food fads
(always t h in , under­
nourished) •
Teacher says he i s
d iso b e d ie n t, no t
openly d e fia n t but
'doesn’t h e a r” d ire c ­
tio n s* Slow, never
f in is h e s any piece
of work. (See
m other’s re p o rt above under i n te l ­
le c tu a l a sp e c ts).
M iscellaneous Data
Q uiet, cooperative
during physical exam.
(M alnutrition secondary anem ia).
Teacher says sneaky,
underhanded.
es a fra id in
k - marked fe a r
t to rtu rin g
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CASE 5
R o rs c h a c h I n t e r p r e ­
ta tio n
II
Some i n t e r e s t i n hu­
m ans an d some d e s ir e
t o a d j u s t b u t la c k s
t h e f l e x i b i l i t y and
h a s l i t t l e c a p a c it y
to a d a p t a t p r e s e n t.
R o rs c h a c h I n t e r p r e ­
ta tio n
I
P s y c h i a t r i c Exami­
n a tio n
T r ie s t o e x e r t c o n s t a n t
c o n s c io u s c o n t r o l an d
h id e h i s f e e l i n g s so a s
t o g iv e a n o u tw a rd im­
p re s s io n o f p o is e .
P la;
chi!
ohi!
to ;
caui
muc:
B i t s s n a i l s - p ic k s
n o s e - p h y s ic a l com­
p la in ts *
C om pulsive d e f e c a t i o n
•w ith u rg e n c y an d oc­
c a s i o n a l in c o n tin e n c e *
M ild c o m p u lsio n - i f
he to u c h e s p la c e on
one arm he m u st r e ­
p e a t movement o n t h e
o t h e r arm w ith o th e r
hand#
D ia g n o s is
D is tu r b e d s u b j e c t w ith
s t r o n g a n x ie ty * who
a lth o u g h n o t n e u r o t i c ,
i s u n a b le to a d j u s t
beoause o f a n x ie ty .
D is tu r b a n c e i n p e r ­
s o n a l i t y t h a t i s p ro b ­
a b ly n o t n e u r o ti c .
Shows c o n f l i c t and
a n x i e t y -which i n t e r ­
f e r e w ith i n t e l l e c t u a l
f u n c t i o n i n g an d s o c i a l
a d ju s tm e n t.
Good b a s i c p e r s o n a l i t y
t r a i t s a n d gpod p o s s i ­
b i l i t i e s f o r d e v e lo p ­
m e n t.
»<
C om pulsion n e u r o s i s
w i t h m ark ed p e rs o n ­
a l i t y t r a i t s . N ega­
t i v i s m - co m p u lsiv e
d e fe c a tio n w ith u r­
g e n c y a n d o c c a s io n a l
in c o n tin e n o e • Touo h in g c o m p u lsio n .
P h o b ia s • E a tin g p ro b ­
le m . H o s t i l i t y to
p u n i t i v e m o th e r .
R eproduced with permission o f the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
h ia tr ic Exami­
n ation
S o o ia l H istory
P la y s w ith y o u n g er
c h ild r e n * As young
o h i l d was n o t a llo w e d
t o p la y w i t h p e e r s b e ­
c a u s e he f o u g h t to o
much*
P sych ological Examin ation
M iscellaneous Data
S m iled some#
n a i l s - p ic k s
p h y s i c a l com;s .
so m p ulsion - i f
iche8 p l a c e on
m he m u s t r e lovem ent o n t h e
arm w i t h o th e r
s io n n e u ro s is
a rk e d p erso n tra its *
N egal - c o m p u ls iv e
.tio n w ith u rand o c c a s io n a l
;in en o e* Touohm p u lsio n *
is • E a tin g probH o s t i l i t y to
.ve m o th er*
R eproduced with permission o f the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
152
.s iv e d e f e o a t i o n
irg en oy a n d o c­
ta l in c o n tin e n c e *
CASE 6
S ex :
M ale
Age:
10 y e a r s 1 m o n th
G rade: 5A
R o rs c h a c h I n t e r p r e ­
ta tio n
II
In te l­
le c tu a l
A s p e c ts
I n t e l l i g e n c e p ro b a b ly
s u p e rio r. I n te lle c tu ­
a l l y m a tu re f o r a g e .
P r o b a b ly i n t e l l e c t u a l l y
a m b itio u s b u t u n a b le to
r e a l i z e h i s a m b itio n s
b e c a u s e o f l a c k o f emo­
t i o n a l d r i v e an d la c k
o f s e l f c o n f id e n c e .
I n te r e s ts lim ite d fo r
a b ility .
P e rs o n ­
a lity
__
/'iU
_O_-LLXgjU—
U
ra tio n
and
S n o tio n e l
A s p e c ts
S tr o n g ly i n t r o v e r s i v e .
R e p re s s e d b u t o u tw a rd ly
■well p o is e d a n d w e ll
c o n t r o l l e d o n th e s u r ­
fa c e .
E x e r ts s t r o n g c o n s c io u s
c o n tro l o v e r h is re ­
a c tio n s •
P ro b lem o f R e f e r r a l :
M other c o n c e rn e d a b o u t c h i l d ’ s po
s t a t e s c h i l d i s l a z y b u t o th e r w is
s tu d y .
R o rs c h a c h I n t e r p r e ­
ta tio n
I
P s y c h i a t r i c Exami­
n a tio n
I n te llig e n c e s u p e rio r
b u t i n c l i n e d t o g iv e
le s s r ic h re sp o n se s
th a n he i s c a p a b le o f
In
b ri
hoi
tri
P r o b a b ly m ore i n t e r ­
e s te d in a b s tr a c t
g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s th a n
i n c o n c r e te d e t a i l s .
L ik e ly to be i m p r a c t i ­
c a l.
In te re s ts ra th e r l i ­
m ite d f o r bo y o f h i s
a b ility .
Mot
la c
s tu
m ot
Res
(No
han
P e rs o n a lity n o t c le a rc u t b ecau se o f se v e re
re p re s s io n o f a f f e c tiv e
r e a c t i o n s . M arked i n ­
tro v e rs io n a t p re s­
e n t.
L ik e s m o v ie s , swim­
m in g . W ould l i k e to
j o i n cub s c o u t s .
A t f i r s t d e f e n s iv e ,
d e n ie d an y d i f f i ­
c u l t i e s . L a te r d is ­
c u s s e d p ro b lem s
f r e e l y . I f d u tie s
n o t d o n e , i s pun­
is h e d . M o th er
r i g i d i n demands
f o r o b e d ie n c e .
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Fon
(Bot
him
him
have
Trav
S e ll
fe a r
>erned about ch ild * s poor a p p lic a tio n to school work — and noctural enuresis* School
Ld i s la z y but otherw ise not a problem* F eels mother i s o v e r s o lic ito u s in requ estin g
j h i a t r i c Exami­
n a tio n
S o c ia l H is to r y
P s y c h o lo g ic a l Exam in a tio n
M is c e lla n e o u s D ata
In s o h o o l i s i n v e r y
b r i g h t g ro u p an d can
h o ld h i s own w hen he
trie s *
m o v ie s , swimW ould l i k e to
cub s c o u ts *
•s t d e fe n s iv e ,
I an y d i f f i >s. L a t e r d i s 1 p ro b le m s
r* I f d u t i e s
m e, i s pun. M o th er
i n demands
c e d ie n c e *
V ery s u p e r i o r i n t e l l i ­
gence* O u ts ta n d in g
on p e rfo rm a n c e m a t e r i a l
(A rth u r P o i n t S c a l e ) .
R e v ise d S t a n f o r d - B i n e t ,
M other s a y s h e d a l l i e s , Form L* I Q 126 m in i­
m a l.
la c k s good h a b i t s o f
s tu d y * T e a c h e r th i n k s
R ead in g a n d a r i t h m e t i c
m o th e r i s o v e r s o l i c i t o u a a d e q u a te f o r g ra d e b u t
R esponds t o m o tiv a tio n * b elow m e n ta l a b i l i t y .
S p e ll in g 1 y e a r b elo w
(No a t te m p t s t o change
g ra d e •
h andedness) .
Fond o f good m u sic*
l e f t h a n d e d on
H u ll l a t e r a l i t y it e m s .
R ig h t ey e d o m in a n t)
P rim a ry d i f f i c u l t i e s
not in te lle c tu a l.
(B o th p a r e n t s c o a c h
him - u s e d to le a v e
him home d u t i e s b u t
have l i g h t e n e d t h o s e . )
T r a v e ls a l l o v e r a lo n e .
S e l f c o n ta in e d * N ever
fe a rfu l.
S e l f - p o s s e s s e d , p o i s e d , M o th e r 's m eth o d s o f
m a tu re * P ro u d o f h i s
p u n ish m e n t h u m i lia te
in d e p e n d e n c e .
th e b o y .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CASE 6
Rorschach Interpre­
ta tio n
II
H is d i f f i c u l t y w ould
be a f f e c t i v e w ith ­
d r a w a l. He p r o b a b ly
s e e k s some e s c a p e i n
fa n ta s y .
Rorsohach In terp re­
ta tio n
I
P sych iatric Exami­
nation
P ro b a b ly f o r c e d b y c i r ­
cu m stan ce to r e a c t i n
i n t r o v e r s i v e m an n er
an d t o e s c a p e i n f a n ­
ta s y .
No f e a r s .
Has t o ta k e p a p e rs
home e a c h n ig h t t o be
s ig n e d . I f below
c e r t a i n m ark i s pun­
i s h e d . Has t o s t a y
in to s tu d y . " I g e t
s tu b b o r n , I w o n 't e a t .
I do w o rse i n s c h o o l
i f sh e p u s h e s m e. I
t h i n k to m y s e lf I ’l l
g e t w o rse an d I w on’t
do i t . ”
P r o b a b ly co m p en sates
f o r i n a b i l i t y to
a d a p t a f f e c t i v e l y by
a s t r o n g te n d e n c y to
co n fo rm o u tw a r d ly .
Is €
Mott
te c i|
as 1
th r e
and
menl
Mot*
fre e
how
S lij
ta e l
ease
w itl
ad rc
I n t e r e s t e d i n d e v e lo p ­
in g human r e l a t i o n ­
s h ip s b u t h a s l i t t l e
c a p a c i t y f o r fo rm in g
an y r e a l e m o tio n a l
r e l a t i o n s h i p s now.
E i s r e l a t i o n s a r e on
an i n t e l l e c t u a l lareh
He h a s l i t t l e emo­
tio n a l c o n ta c t, but
do es h av e th e c a p a ­
c i t y f o r d e v e lo p in g
b e tte r a ffe c tiv e
a d a p ta b ility .
W ould l i k e t o make good Says he p la y s w ith
human c o n t a c ts b u t i s
f r ie n d s in p ark ,
n o t v e ry s u c c e s s f u l, a l ­
th o u g h s u p e r f i c i a l l y i s
a b l e t o make some con­
ta c ts .
Teac
u su a
a lo r
d r on
d is g
c a re
. . . b u t p r o b a b ly h as
s tr o n g e x t r a t e n s i v e
p o s s i b i l i t i e s t h a t a re
now r e p r e s s e d .
M ott
soci
c h il
s e lf
Up €
adul
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
h ia tr ic Exami­
n ation
S ocial H istory
I s e v a s iv e .
M o th er say s h e h as b ad
te m p e r , b u t n o t a s b ad
a s h e r s . P u n is h e d by
t h r e a t s to b e s e n t away
an d c o r p o r a l p u n is h ­
m e n t.
3 p l a y s w ith
s in p a rk .
T e a c h e r s a y s c h a rm in g ,
u s u a lly happy, g e ts
a lo n g w e ll w ith c h i l ­
d re n , t u t o c c a s io n a lly
d i s g r u n t l e d , d o n 't
c a re a t tit u d e .
n
M iscellaneous Data
A3a*t, s p o n ta n e o u s ,
t a l k e d f r e e l y . E n jo y ed
te s ts .
I n g r a t i a t i n g , ch arm in g
m a n n e r.
P le a s a n t, c o o p e ra t i v e , a l e r t d u r in g
p h y s ic a l ex am in a­
tio n .
M o th er say s he i s c a r e ­
f r e e , c h a rm in g , knows
how t o woo p e o p le .
S lip s out o f q u a rre ls
t a c t f u l l y . "He can
e a s e o u t o f a fa u x p a s
w i t h a lm o s t a d u l t
a d r o itn e s s ."
M o th er sa y s he i s
s o c i a b l e , p la y s w ith
c h i l d r e n y o u n g er th a n
s e l f , (h a s b e e n b ro u g h t
up e n t i r e l y w ith
a d u lts ).
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
154
rs.
ta k e p a p e r s
a c h n i g h t t o be
• I f b elow
n m ark i s p u n Has t o s t a y
s tu d y * " I g e t
m , I w o n 't e a t .
o rse in school
p u s h e s m e. I
to m y s e lf I ' l l
r s e a n d I w o n 't
P sych ological Examin ation
CASE 6
Rorschach Interpre­
ta tio n
II
Rorschach Interpre­
ta tio n
I
Is s e n s itiv e to h is
e n v iro n m e n t a n d t o
p e o p le b u t i s sh y and
c a u t io u s i n h i s r e ­
sp o n se.
D ep en d en t, s e n s i t i v e ,
v e ry c a u tio u s i n h is
e m o tio n a l r e a c t i o n s .
P sych iatric Exami­
nation
Vei
h i:
nei
Do<
th]
in;
P r o b a b ly im m atu re
e m o tio n a lly a l ­
th o u g h m a tu re f o r
age i n t e l l e c t u a l l y .
E m o tio n a l d ev elo p m en t
v e r y im m atu re i n con­
t r a s t to m a tu re i n t e l ­
l e c t u a l d e v e lo p m e n t.
M arked a n x i e t y an d
p a s s iv e n e g a t iv is m .
B it e s n a i l s , p ic k s
n o s e , e n u r e s i s . (S ee
above r e a c t i o n i n
p u n ish m e n t an d co ac h ­
in g ).
( C o n tr a d i c ts m o th e r ’ s
r e p o r t ) Says he w as
unhappy i n b o a r d in g
s c h o o l. T e a rs r o l l e d
down h i s c h e e k s a s he
t a l k e d o f c o u n s e lo r
t h e r e who p u n is h e d
him r i g i d l y .
In:
wo:
in No'
ev<
Ph;
re 1
fo:
(L :
mowh
te :
faval i ]
mo1
Bo;
de^
bo;
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
i a t r ic Examin ation
S ocial H istory
P sych ological Examination
M iscellaneous Data
V ery s e n s i t i v e a b o u t
h i s e n u r e s i s a lth o u g h
n e v e r sham ed a b o u t i t .
Does lo o k w o r r ie d w hen
t h r e a t e n e d w i t h b o a rd ­
in g s c h o o l.
155
t a i l s , p ic k s
m u r e s is * (S ee
■ e a c tio n i n
te n t a n d c o a c h -
id ic ts m o th e r’s
Says he w as
■ i n b o a r d in g
T e a rs r o l l e d
.s c h e e k s a s he
o f c o u n s e lo r
rho p u n is h e d
;id ly .
I n i t i a l r e s i s t a n c e to
w ork b u t o n ce he g e t s
i n t e r e s t e d g o es a h e a d .
N o c tu r n a l e n u r e s i s i n
e v e r y e n v iro n m e n t.
Phys i c a l e xam ina t i o n s
r e v e a l no o r g a n ic b a s i s
f o r th e e n u r e s i s .
(L iv e d w i t h f r i e n d s o f
m o th e r who lo v e d him
when m o th e r w o rk in g a f ­
t e r s e p a r a t i o n fro m
fa th e r*
Then i n p r i ­
v a t e s c h o o l w h ere h e
lik e d i t .
Then w i t h
m o th e r w hen r e m a r r i e d .
Boy was t o l d 1 s t f a t h e r
d e a d . S e p a r a t io n when
boy was b o r n . )
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CASE 6
Rorschach I n t e r p r e - R o r s c h a c h Interp reta tio n
t a tio n
II
I
D iag n o s is
Some d is tu r b a n c e and
r e p r e s s i o n b u t no
m ark ed p a th o lo g y .
Some o b s e s s i o n a l
tra its .
P a th o lo g y i f i t
d e v e lo p e d / w o u ld be
d e p r e s s iv e i n c h a ra c ­
te r.
Boy o f s u p e r i o r i n t e l l i ­
g en ce who i s u n a b le t o
fu n c tio n w e ll a t p re s e n t
becau se o f a p e r s o n a lity
d is tu rb a n c e .
N ot n e u r o t i c .
E m o tio n a lly im m atu re/
r e p r e s s e d / a n x io u s .
P sych iatric Examination
P e r s o n a l i t y d is tu r b a n c e /
p ro fo u n d r e p r e s s i o n /
p a s s iv e n e g a tiv is m ,
e n u re s is .
Good p o s s i b i l i t i e s
f o r d e v e lo p m e n t.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
l i a t r i c Exam i­
n a tio n
i l i t y d is tu rb a n c e ,
id r e p r e s s i o n ,
) n e g a t iv is m ,
Ls.
S o c ia l H is to r y
P s y c h o lo g ic a l Exami­
n a tio n
M is c e lla n e o u s D ata
M o th e r 's c o n s t a n t
c r i t i c i s m an d r i g i d
h a n d lin g a n d u r g in g
f o r p e r f e c t i o n con­
t r i b u t e t o h i s la c k
o f p r o d u c ti v e n e s s .
Boy i s e m o tio n a lly
b lo c k e d .
156
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CASS 7
S ex: M ala
Ages 8 y e a r s 6 m o n th s
G ra d e : 2B
P ro b lem o f R e f e r r a l :
R o rsc h a c h I n t e r p r e ­
ta tio n
II
In te lle c tu a l
A s p e c ts
I n t e l l i g e n c e s u p e r io r
b u t p r o b a b ly u n a b l# to
f u n c t i o n up to a b i l i t y .
P e rs o n a lity f a c to rs
i n t e r f e r e w ith a b i l i t y
to r e a l iz e in t e ll e c t u a l
p o te n tia litie s •
Exam ined f o r p o o r v i s i o n a n d p o o r
t i o n r e v e a l e d he was n o rm a l p h y s ic
i n s c h o o l i n s p i t e o f Kuhlmann-And
R o rsc h a c h I n t e r p r e ­
ta tio n
I
P s y c h i a t r i c Exami­
n a tio n
S u p e r io r i n t e l l i g e n c e
b u t p r o b a b ly d o e s n o t
f u n c t i o n up to t h i s
l e v e l b e c a u se o f h is
e m o tio n a l d i f f i c u l t y .
I r r e g u l a r p e rfo rm a n c e .
L im ite d i n t e l l e c t u a l
in te r e s ts in s p ite o f
a c t i v e , a l e r t m a n n er.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
p o o r v i s i o n a n d p o o r h e a l t h — made num erous p h y s i c a l c o m p la in ts # H o s p i t a l ex a m in a . he was n o rm a l p h y s i c a l l y and s u g g e s te d r e f e r r a l t o c h i l d g u id a n c e b u reau # B ackw ard
s p i t e o f K uhlm ann-A nderson I Q 109#
; y c h i a t r i c Exami­
n a tio n
S o c ia l H is to r y
Backward i n s c h o o l
i n s p i t e o f Kuhlmann
A nderson I Q 109#
M other w o rrie d # s c o ld s
him to do h i s w o rk .
M is c e lla n e o u s Dab
S u p e r io r g e n e r a l a b i l i t y #
R e v is e d S ta n f o r d E in e t#
Form L# I Q 1 2 2 , b u t
e d u c a tio n a l a c h ie v e m e n t
much b elow p o t e n t i a l
c a p a c i t y . ( M e tr o p o lita n
A ch iev em en t# F rim a ry LL#
Form A)
R e a d in g C om prehension
an d S p e l l i n g — 1 y e a r
r e t a r d e d f o r g ra d e m ore
t h a n 3 f o r m e n ta l age#
A r ith m e tic Fundamen­
t a l s — 1 t e r n re ta rd e d
f o r g ra d e # a b o u t 3 y e a r s
f o r m e n ta l a g e . 1 y e a r
r e t a r d e d f o r age i n g rad e
p la c e m e n t.
( L a t e r a l i t y - r i g h t hand#
l e f t ey e ).
Many r e v e r s a l s i n r e a d ­
in g an d w r i t i n g - some­
tim e s c o r r e c t s them
s p o n ta n e o u s ly .
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
157
M other s a y s t e a c h e r
c a l l s him dumb# clown#
t h r e a t e n s to le a v e him
b a c k . L e f t b a c k tw ic e
a lre a d y #
P s y c h o lo g ic a l Exam in a tio n
CASE Y
Rorsohaoh Interpre­
ta tio n
II
Personal­
i t y Config u ra tia a
and
Eknotion&l
Aspects
P rim a rily an outgoing
p e rs o n a lity but has a
good m ixture of both
in tro v e rs iv e and extrate n s iv e p o te n tia litie s .
Has e s s e n tia lly good
a b i l i l i t y fo r rap­
p o r t, but t r i e s to
re p re ss a f f e c t and
h o s t i l i t y unsuc­
c e s s f u lly and re ­
a c ts in poorly con­
t r o l l e d fash io n .
Control i s e a s ily
d is tu rb e d . Is
a c tiv e , probably
ra th e r v o l a t i l e .
I n f a n t i l e , makes
b ids f o r a tte n tio n .
D is tr a c tib le , probably
gives up e a s ily .
F atig u es e a s ily ,
cannot m aintain sus­
ta in e d i n te r e s t and
unable to concentrate
w e ll.
Rorschach Interpre­
ta tio n
I
Expanded, warm in d i­
v id u a l, w ith good
p o s s i b i l i t i e s fo r
developing h e alth y
r e la tio n s h ip s , but
a t p re se n t is se­
v e re ly d istu rb e d .
Res passive to stim u li
arousing both a f ­
f e c tiv e and fa n ta sy
re a c tio n s bu t too
s e n s itiv e to stim u li
now and lik e ly to r e ­
spond in u n c o n tro lled
fa s h io n . Shows
d e fin ite h o s t i l i t y a t
p re s e n t. T ries to
suppress h is v io le n t
re a c tio n s but a t tim es
has v io le n t o u tb u rs ts ,
temper tantrum s.
Fantasy probably con­
ta in s ag g ressiv e ma­
t e r i a l . Is insecure
and craves rea ssu ran c e.
S e n s itiv e , i r r i t a b l e ,
r e s t l e s s . Probably
i r r e g u l a r in a tte n tio n ,
lik e ly to give up ra ­
th e r e a s i l y , unable to
c o n c e n tra te .
P sych iatric Exami­
n ation
Expansive, ta lk a tiv e .
H yperactive - played
w ith ty p e w rite r w h istle d .
At n ig h t a fr a id bear
is chasing him - gets
under covers.
"When mother b eats him
"I f e e l lik e murder­
ing h e r, shooting h e r,
but I love her too
much, so I fo rg e t i t .
I t makes me maddest
when she y e lls a t me."
"I lik e to g et sic k .
She gets e x cite d i f I
g e t sic k and gives me
t e a ." — but his
symptomatology is n o t
m alingering.
Wouldn’t go to school
i f he was b ig . Doesn’t
lik e school — f e e ls
teach er picks on him.
P at
In
tro
say
be
Bee
whe
ing
"I
die
At
rit
H ovj
Sta
le r
h
son
mot
bod
hou
tri
Tur
- r
Can
and
fin
bee
him
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
■chi&tric Exami­
n ation
S o cia l H istory
a c t i v e - p la y e d
ty p e Y /rite r ;led«
n ’ t go t o s c h o o l
i vras b i g . D oesn’t
sch o o l — f e e ls
ter p ic k s on him .
P a tie n t li k e s p e o p le .
I n s t r e e t i s u n co n ­
t r o l l e d . P o lic e m a n
s a y s h e w i l l some d ay
be ru n o v e r .
Becomes v e r y n e rv o u s
when m o th e r h a s f a i n t ­
in g s p e l l s .
C r ie s
" I d o n ’t w a n t y o u t o
d ie ."
A t 2 p a t ie n t had t e r ­
r i b l e ta m p e r ta n tr u m s .
Now a n sw e rs b a c k .
Stam ps h i s f e e t . H ol­
l e r s . V falks i n s l e e p
- h as b a d dream s t h a t
some one k i l l i n g
m o th e r . S h o u ts "No­
body l i k e s me i n t h i s
h o u s e ." Then s o r r y
t r i e s t o p e t m o th e r .
T u rn s , t w i s t s , t o s s e s
- r e s tle s s s le e p e r.
Can’t s i t s t i l l . S la p s
and p in c h e s s e l f , d ig s
f i n g e r s i n t o f l e s h ynothbecom es u p s e t an d s la p s
h im ).
158
m o th e r b e a t s him
e l l i k e m u rd e r­
e r , s h o o tin g h e r ,
! lo v e h e r to o
so I f o r g e t i t .
k e s me m a d d e st
sh e y e l l s a t m e."
ke to g e t s ic k .
;e ts e x c i t e d i f I
i c k an d g iv e s me
~ b u t h is
;om atology i s n o t
.g e r in g .
M iscellaneous Data
A le r t lo o k in g ,
P le a s a n t, c o o p e ra frie n d ly , c h e e rfu l,
t i v e , c u r io u s d u rin g
r e s p o n s iv e , t a l k a t i v e , p h y s ic a l e x a m in a tio n .
.s i v e , t a l k a t i v e *
ght a fra id bear
a s i n g him - g e ts
c o v e rs.
P sych ological Examin ation
C u r io u s , h y p e r a c t i v e .
T r ie d t o c u d d le up t o
e x a m in e r. A nxious f o r
a f f e c t i o n . N eeded
c o n s ta n t a t t e n t i o n and
s u p e rv is io n . R e s tle s s ,
k e p t c h a n g in g h i s
p o s itio n .
U nable to c o n c e n tr a te
a lth o u g h a t t e n t i o n f o r
s h o r t p e r io d s was ex ­
c e lle n t.
P a s s i v e ly u n c o o p r a tiv e
on s c h o o l a c h ie v e m e n t
t e s t s , t r i e d to a v o id
them - seem ed to f e a r
t a c k l i n g them - f i n a l l y
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CASS 7
Rorschach Interpreta tio n
II
Rorschach Interpret a tio n
X
Somev.iiatan x io u s*
D is tu r b e d when form
i s n o tc l e a r .
H y s te r o id r e a c t i o n s .
(S ee d i a g n o s i s )
P sych iatric Exarnin ation
” l h av e so many
t r o u b l e s I c a n ’t
remember them a l l . ”
V ery
c le a
tu rb
d irt
C o m p la in ts o f v a r io u s
p a i n s . " I g e t them
a lw a y s . One m in u te
I 'm h ap p y en d th e
n e x t m in u te I have a
h e a d a c h e . . . my h e a d
i s k i l l i n g m e ...
My m o th er g e t s w o rse
h e a d a c h e s th a n m e .”
"When I g e t d iz z y
s p e l l s my mommy g e t s
w o rrie d .
Has
ach e
m ont
fo il
frig
'T ants t o know i f he
w o u ld go c r a z y i f
he m a s t u r b a t e s .
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Occa
M ast
s to p
en ed
p la c
5s y
lo v e
th a n
and
of i
g irl
work:
danc
Moth
year
tim e
home
her i
re sp
h is
5-tric Examiation
S o cia l H istory
P sych ological Examination
M iscellaneous Data
o p e n ly a s k e d n o t to
do them b e c a u se he
f a i l s them i n s c h o o l.
V ery f u s s y a b o u t
c le a n lin e s s , d is ­
tu rb e d a t s ig h t o f
d irt.
bs o f v a r i o u s
I g e t them
One m in u te
y a n d th e
a te I h av e a
. . • my h e a d
og me . . .
r g e t s w o rse
s t h a n m e ."
g e t d iz z y
y mommy g e t s
Has t e r r i b l e h e a d ­
ach es, 1 o r 2 a
m onth - alw ay s one
f o llo w in g a n y
frig h t.
know i f he
c ra z y i f
rb a te s .
O c c a s io n a l e n u r e s i s .
M a s tu r b a tio n s to p p e d when t h r e a t ­
e n e d . (C h ild w as
p la c e d o u t fro m 3"
5’g y e a r s , h ad no
lo v e i n f o s t e r home,
th e n ta k e n b y m o th er
a n d p u t u n d e r c h a rg e
o f irre s p o n s ib le
g i r l s w h ile m o th e r
w o rk in g — m o th e r a
d a n c e r an d s i n g e r .
M other r e m a r r ie d two
y e a r s a g o , an d f o r f i r s t
tim e c h i l d h ad a r e a l
home. M o th er th i n k s
h e r own n e r v o u s n e s s i s
r e s p o n s i b l e f o r m any o f
h i s p ro b le m s . M other
P o s i t i v e p h y s ic a l
f i n d i n g s , p h im o sis
- in d ic a te s need
o f c irc u m c is io n ,
an d p o o r d e n t a l
h y g ie n e .
( L a te r m o th e r sa y s
sh e knows sh e d o e s n 't
gise him enough a f ­
f e c t i o n . I s w o r r ie d
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
159
so many
I c a n 't
them a l l . "
CASE 7
Rorschach In terp reta tio n
II
Rorschach In terp reta tio n
I
P sych iatric Examin ation
ht
sc
si
P<
ai
Me
ii
b!
P!
M<
aj
Asked whom he would
lik e to be, " I 'd lik e
to be my mommy*"
Diagn o sis
Childhood n e u ro sis
in c h ild o f superior
in te llig e n c e *
N eurosis l ik e l y to
show obsessional
and h y s te ric a l
symptoms•
P o t e n ti a li t ie s fo r
wholesome person­
a l i t y development
in d ic a te good t r e a t ­
ment p o s s i b i l i t i e s .
Probably s u ffe rin g
from a n e u ro sis th a t
i s obsessio n al w ith
h y s te rio a l symptoms*
Is sev erely d is ­
tu rb ed and emotional
d isturbance i n t e r ­
fe r e s w ith i n t e l l e c ­
tu a l functioning*
Conversion h y s te r ia mixed type - p a ra sth e t i c fe a tu re s - som­
nambulism - phobiccontamination* Many
h y ste ro id p e rs o n a lity
t r a i t s - marked iden­
t i f i c a t i o n w ith h y ste ri­
c a l mother*
R eproduced with permission o f the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
h ia tr ic Examin a tio n
S o cia l H istory
has fa in tin g s p e lls sometimes, a t home, on
s tre e t* H ospital re ­
p o rt in d ic a te s these
are n o t e p il e p t i c .
Mother seems d u ll,
immature* F i r s t hus­
band disappeared when
p a tie n t was bom*
Mother thinks a l l men
are w ild .
Psychological Examin ation
M iscellaneous Data
about her own
tro u b le s and re ­
pu lses him)
(L ater mother brought
th is husband to co u rt
on d iso rd e rly con­
duct charge - and
separated)
160
whom he would
» b e, ' ' I ’d lik e
my mommy* n
sio n h y s te ria type - p ara sth e iatures - somism - phobiclin a tio n . Many
■oid p e rs o n a lity
: - marked idenition w ith hys te li­
th e r*
I f m other’s a ttitu d e s
and handling could be
changed, d ir e c t
p sy c h ia tric t r e a t ­
ment would help the
boy* Mother prob­
ably h y s te ric a l
n e u ro tic .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CASE 8
Sex:
Male
Age:
13 years 8 months
Grade: 7A
Rorschach In te rp re ­
ta tio n
II
In te lle c tu a l
Aspects
Problem of R e fe rra l:
R eferred by p rin c ip a l as a very
I s knovm to have had a head in ju
Rorschach In te rp re ­
ta tio n
I
Probably high average
in te llig e n c e #
Probably high average
in te llig e n c e #
But does n o t give the
im pression of being
t h a t b r ig h t, and may
n o t be able to do
him self ju s tic e on
te s ts #
Probably functions
on a lower lev el and
gives impression o f
being poorer in
a b ility #
Lim its him self to ob­
vious responses when
he a c tu a lly has much
ric h e r associations#
Very conforming in ­
te lle c tu a lly # In­
c lin e d to give only
th e obvious even
though h is asso cia­
tio n s are richer#
Y»ould ra th e r lim it
h im self to the obvious
than take a chance
and say the wrong
thing#
A fraid to commit
him self except on
th e obvious l e s t he
be wrong#
Probably am bitious,
to make a good im­
p re ssio n but in ­
secure#
Anxious to make a
good im pression and
somewhat ambitious
b u t in se cu re .
P s y c h ia tric Exami­
n a tio n
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Ent
rep
now
A ll
w ri
tid
by p rin c ip a l as a very severe problem, "insane m aim er,"u n co n tro llab le, climbs on s ills *
to have had a head in ju ry about a year ago.
e h ia tr ic Examin a tio n
Social H istory
A ll work poor and
w ritte n work un­
tid y .
M iscellaneous Data
Average general in ­
te llig e n c e . Revised
S tan fo rd -B in et, Form L,
I Q 101.
Very su p erio r mechani­
c a l a b i l i t y (Minnesota
Mechanical)
Is a year re ta rd e d in
grade fo r age. Read­
ing up to grade,
s p e llin g lg years be­
low, a rith m etic
fundam entals, 3 years
below grade. A ll be­
low M.A. Lack o f in ­
t e r e s t and m astery of
a rith m e tic fundam entals.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
161
Entered 1A a t 5§- repeated 2d grade,
now rep e atin g 'Jk*
Psychological Examin a tio n
CASE 8
Rorschach Interpre­
ta tio n
II
Person­
a lity
Configu­
r a tio n
and
Emotional
Aspects
Rorschach Interpre­
ta tio n
I
In tro v e r s i r e , but
has some e x tra te n siv e
p o s s ib ilitie s *
H ere, to o , has b e tte r
p o s s ib i l i ti e s than he
uses* Evidence of re ­
p re s sio n , e sp e c ia lly
o f a f f e c t.
Probably q u ie t, w ell
c o n tro lle d , laconio
much of the time but
c o n tro l i s e a s ily
upset* Is very much
d istu rb e d by emotional
stim uli*
T ries to keep h is emetio n a l re a c tio n s under
c o n tro l and probably
p resen ts an outward
appearance of control
and poise most of th e
time* G enerally
q u ie t, p a ssiv e . How­
ever a t times i s over­
whelmed by emotional
stim u li and responds
by e v e r-re a c tin g .
U sually t r i e s to
avoid emotional s t i ­
muli* Because of his
p e rs o n a lity h is d if­
f i c u l t y . would be
p rim a rily i n tr a ­
psychic w ith occasional
o v e rt o u tb u rsts*
To m aintain h is poise
he attem pts to avoid
and ignore them when­
ever p o s s ib le . 7fhen
th ey are too strong
fo r him he becomes
u p set and has oc­
casio n al o u tb u rsts.
P sych iatrio Exami­
nation
M<
d<
t]
C heerful, a l e r t , co­
o p e ra tiv e .
ki
me
hi
’//hen mother punishes,
thinks o f running
away so sh e'd s u ffe r
and get sic k but then
changes mind. Some­
tim es fe e ls lik e
smacking her - she
g ets him so mad.
fi
oJ
me
Re
se
tj
me
he
Both parents beat him*
le
Daydreams while being
whipped — some maso­
c h i s t i c , some revenge
in which c h ild ren boss
and whip parents*
Me
CE
re
ve
At
Some obsessive thoughts,
about which he is em­
b arrassed " I t 's e v il
s tu f f " about ste a lin g
and robbing*
D oesn't do i t but
thinks about it*
pe
fe
Fears of being slashed
and out up - also fe a rs
fo r s is te r*
wa
de
on
st
br
Ha
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
st
ia t r io Exami­
nation
S o c ia l H istory
P sychological Examin ation
M iscellaneous Data
Mother says he is un­
dem onstrative* so is
th e whole family*
1*
a le r t* co­
re •
re n ts b eat him.
ms w hile being
— some maso, some revenge
h c h ild re n boss
p parents*
se ssiv e thoughts,
hich he is emed nI t ' s e v il
about ste a lin g
bing*
do i t but
about i t .
f being slashed
up - also f e a r 8
ter*
F rie n d ly , spontaneous
enjoyed te s ts *
S to lid , p le a s a n t,
cooperative during
m edical examination*
R e s tle s s , n o isy , up­
s e ts c la s s bu t some­
tim es le th a r g ic ,
moody* Mother says
he was always r e s t ­
l e s s , hard to manage.
Mother d istu rb e d be­
cause he shows l i t t l e
re a c tio n to her se­
v ere punishment*
At school - lo se s tem­
per fre q u e n tly - stamps
f e e t - m u tte rs - when
demoted a f te r f a ilin g
on t r i a l , picked up a
s tic k and in rage
broke i t in to sm a llb its .
Has v io le n t q u arrels
v/ith s i s t e r , c a n 't
stand h e r.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
162
th er punishes,
of running
sh e 'd su ffe r
s ic k but then
mind* Somee els lik e
g h er - she
n so mad*
At school proud of
m o n ito ria l d u tie s handles them f a i t h ­
f u l l y (use withdrawal
o f th ese as punish­
m ent).
CASE 8
Rorsohach Interpre­
ta tio n
II
I s in o lin e d to be de­
p ressed but t r i e s to
cover th is up#
F eels in se cu re ,
laoking in s e lf con­
fidence#
Rorschach Interpreta tio n
P sych iatric Exami­
n ation
I
I s depressed.
F eels insecure and
lack in g in co n fi­
dence#
(Se<
let!
Says fa th e r d o e sn 't
lik e him, d o e sn 't
know why, but r e a lly
d o e s n 't have as much
tro u b le w ith him as
w ith mother#
Say,
aga
is
Hot!
not
Family te a se s him about
u n tid in ess#
Some negativism
th a t i s probably
passive#
Shows some passiv e
negativism #
Stubborn but does n o t
r e b e l, WI ju s t keep on
being bad, not doing
what she t e l l s me#”
Has
cl
por
but
res
ret
I n te re s te d in mak­
ing co n tacts and
has some p o s s ib ili­
t i e s fo r good a f­
f e c tiv e re la tio n s
b u t cannot adapt
now.
Would lik e to make
human co n tacts but
i s too d istu rb ed now
to make them.
P re fe rs male teach ers
Enjoys n a u tic a l cadets.
Likes b a ll playin g ,
swimming, attending
a th l e t i c games.
At
gar
o ft
h it
Described accid ent on
sle d says behavior
is no d iffe r e n t but
has occasional head­
aches.
Mot
hav
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
yea
has
Has
acc
i a t r ic Exami­
nation
S o cia l History-
P sych ological Examin ation
M iscellaneous Data
(See above - sometimes
le th a r g ic , moody).
th e r d o e sn 't
m, d o e sn 't
y, b u t r e a lly
have as much
w ith him as
th e r .
Says tea ch e rs are
a g a in st him, somebody
i s picking on him.
Mother s ta te s she does
n o t t r u s t him.
te a se s him about
ess.
n but does n o t
" I ju s t keep on
ad, n o t doing
e t e l l s me.”
Has cut c la s s . D oesn't
climb on s i l l s as re ­
p o rted by p rin c ip a l
b u t leans f a r out and
r e s i s t s when c a lle d to
re tu rn to s e a t.
male teaah ers
n a u tic a l cadets,
a l l p lay in g ,
g , attending
c games.
At school: q u ite gre­
g a rio u s, has p a ls , but
o fte n rep o rte d fo r
h i t t i n g o th er c h ild re n .
ted accid en t on
,ys behavior
L ifferent but
a s io n a l head-
Mother a tt r ib u t e s be­
havior to head in ju ry
year ago but sa id "he
has always been w ild .”
Has headaches since
a c c id e n t.
P hysical:
Question of p o st con­
cussion syndrome had c ereb ra l concus­
sion - was in hospi­
t a l I4. days.
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CASE 8
Rorschach Interpre­
t a tio n
II
Rorschaoh Irrfcerpreta tio n
I
P sy ch ia tric Exami­
n ation
Says mother beats him
fo r m isbehavior a t
school, disobedience
e tc • Father beats
him too* Would pre­
f e r to liv e w ith
aunt.
Nails badly b itte n .
S lig h tly obese*
Diag­
n osis
Mild n eu ro tic d is ­
turbance which may- ■
be a tem porary
adolescent d is ­
turbance. I f i t
should develop
in to a fu llfle d g e d
neurosis th ere
would probably be
depressive and ob­
se ssio n a l symptoms*
D isturbed boy w ith
n e u ro tic elements
b u t probably not a
tru e neurosis* There
are obsessio n al symp­
toms • The g eneral
tone is probably de­
pressed*
Primary behavior
problem, obsessive
coloring; obsessions,
phobias; perverse sado­
m asochistic t r a i t s ,
m ainly p sychic.
Mild endocrine d is­
turbance of the
F ro e lic h type w ith
delayed p uberty.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Mot
ho
Say
ing
con
get
Bea
kee
day
Mot
nau
pun
ing
Latric Examiration
fcher b e ats him
behavior a t
disobedience
ather beats
• Would pre­
liv e w ith
adly b i tt e n ,
y obese.
docrine d is e of the
h type w ith
p uberty.
Mother seems very
h o s tile to boy Says he needs b eat­
in g s . Says " I can
conquer him when I
g e t good and mad.M
Beats him se v e re ly ,
keeps in house fo r
days as punishment.
Mother becomes
nauseous a f te r
punishing o r argu­
ing w ith him.
P sych ological Examin ation
M iscellaneous Data
Physical fin d in g s:
Mild o b e s ity - m ild
p i tu i t a r y dystrophy,
poor d e n ta l hygiene.
Overweight - glandular
d istu rb an ce.
164
behavior
, obsessive
g; ob sessio n s,
; perverse sados tic t r a i ts ,
psychic.
S ocial H istory
Conference: In v e s ti­
gations of p rin c i­
p a l’s re p o rt showed
d i f f ic u lt i e s to be
le s s pronounced.
P rin c ip a l had re ­
ceived in d ir e c t r e ­
p o rts .
Mother r e je c ts boy,
tr e a t s him h a rsh ly .
Adm inisters severe
corporal punishment,
c r i t i c i z e s him se­
v e re ly . P a tie n t
g e n e ra lly responds
subm issively a t home
- i s h o s tile a t
school. Always- was
re s tle s s , d if f ic u lt,
no evidence o f any
r e a l change in be­
havior since accid en t
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
P ro b le m o f R e f e r r a l :
CASE 9
S ex: M ale
Age: 15 y e a r s
G rade :Lpth te rm . I n d u s t r i a l H igh S c h o o l
Rorschach In te rp re ta t i o n
II
In te lle o tu a l
A spects
In te llig e n c e d i f f i c u l t
to determine because of
emotional disturbance
and p a th o lo g ica l pre­
occupation w ith complex
m a te ria l•
Probably d u ll normal
but has in te l le c t u a l
am bitions and s tr iv e s
beyond h is a b ility #
Probably t r i e s h ard ,
b u t is u n c r i t i c a l .
A ssociations a re ex­
trem ely stereo ty p ed .
Poverty o f a sso c ia ­
tio n s and la c k o f
in te l le c t u a l f l e x i ­
b ility .
I n te r e s ts lim ite d .
Rorschach In te rp re ta tio n
I
S e v e re s t u t t e r i n g
b e e n m ore o b v io u s
P sy c h ia tric Examin a tio n
In te llig e n c e probably low
average b u t strong re ­
p re ssio n o f both i n t e l ­
le c tu a l and em otional
fa c to rs# P a th o lo g ical
ste re o ty p y and p ersev era­
t io n .
Pro
in
(a l
no
Probably i n te l le c t u a l l y
am bitious beyond h is
a b i l i t y , but unable to
work even up to h is own
le v e l.
(Cooperative - see
below) Likes school#
I n te r e s ts extrem ely
lim ite d because o f
p resen t preoccupation
w ith c o n f lic t.
Likes making a irp la n e
m odels, mechanical
drawings, plans fo r
planes and autos#
Daydreams of being
tra n s p o rt p ilo t#
Enj
sch
Chj
mal
one
civ
in
Doe
gaa
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
a ls
S e v e re s t u t t e r i n g w h ic h d a te s b a c k t o 6 b . M o th er b e l i e v e s i t b e g a n a t l | f b u t h a s
b e e n m ore o b v io u s d u r in g t h e l a s t few y e a r s * B o th boy an d p a r e n t s c o n c e r n e d .
o h i a t r i c Exami­
n a tio n
S o c ia l H i s t o r y
P ro g re sse d r e g u la r ly
i n e le m e n ta r y s c h o o l
(a lw a y s l e f t h an d ed
no a tte m p t t o ch an g e)
E n jo y s shop w o rk a t
s c h o o l.
s m aking a i r p l a n e
I s , m e c h a n ic a l
i n g s , p la n s f o r
es and a u to s ,
ream s o f b e in g
sp o rt p ilo t.
C h ie f i n t e r e s t i s i n
m ak in g a i r p l a n e s o n ce P r e s i d e n t o f
c lu b in t e r e s t e d
in t h i s .
D o esn ’t l i k e a c t i v e
gam es.
M is c e lla n e o u s D ata
P r o b a b ly low a v e ra g e
b e t t e r on no n v e r b a l
an d p e rfo rm a n c e t e s t s .
R e v is e d B e ta ,K o h s)
R e v is e d S ta n f o r d - B in e t ,
Form L, I Q 87*
F u n d am e n tal t o o l sub­
j e c t s o f re a d in g *
s p e ll in g , a rith m e tic
- 1+ y e a r s r e t a r d e d f o r
g ra d e an d a g e , 1 y e a r
f o r M.A. F a i r o n me­
c h a n i c a l assem b ly t e s t
(M in n e s o ta )
W orked p e r s i s t e n t l y .
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
165
p e r a tiv e - see
w) L ik e s s c h o o l.
P s y c h o lo g ic a l Exami­
n a tio n
CASE 9
_________________________________________________________________________________
Ro"r¥chach I n t e r p r e R o rsc h a c h I n t e r p r e P s y o h i a t r i c Exam ita tio n
ta tio n
n a tio n
II
P e rs o n a lity
C o n fig u ra tio n
an d
Q n o tio n a l
A s p e c ts
I
E x tre m e ly c o n s t r i c t e d
a t p r e s e n t, b u t th e re
i s u n d e r ly in g u n co n t r o l l e d , e x p lo s iv e
a ffe c tiv ity .
E x trem e r e p r e s s i o n b u t
w hen h e d oes b r e a k
th r o u g h t h i s shows an
u n d e r ly in g e x p l o s i v e ,
e g o o s n tric p e r s o n a lity ,
E x tre m e ly c o o p e r a tiv e !
a lth o u g h u n d e r t e r r i f i c h a n d ic a p b e c a u se o f
s tu tte rin g *
" I alw ays
b eh av e i n sc h o o l*
You’ r e su p p o se d t o . "
(S ee f e a r s b e lo w ).
DU
coi
rei
inj
tri
soi
V e ry p o o r r a p p o r t
w ith p e o p le now b e c a u s e o f n e g a t iv is m ,
h o s t i l i t y , p re o c c u p a tio n w ith c o n f l i c t .
P ro b a b ly some i n t e r e s t i n human o o n ta c ts
b u t i n a b i l i t y to
make an y good s o c i a l
a d ju stm e n ts.
Shows p oor r a p p o r t w i t h
p e o p le now a lth o u g h
t h e r e i s e v id e n c e o f
some d e s i r e to make
c o n t a c ts * H ow ever, i s
e x tr e m e ly h o s t i l e a n d
n e g a tiv is tic •
"The k i d s la u g h a t me,
an d t h a t makes me s o re *
I f e e l l i k e p o k in g
them b u t I d o n ’t
f i g h t . * . . I ’m u s e d to
b e in g e m b a r r a s s e d . . . .
I ’m a f r a i d o f them* I
c a n ’ t f i g h t so w e l l
anyw ay. Sometimes I
make b e l i e v e I p la y a
t r i c k o n them f o r r e v e n g e ." S ib li n g s g e t
him a n g r y .
Qnl
dr<
sp<
s il
Coi
maj
Ob;
tu :
E x tre m e ly im m a tu re ,
n a iv e , e g o c e n tric
f o r h is a g e .
M other u s e d to h i t him
when s m a l l e r , "'/.hen
I g e t mad I c o u ld
choke h e r t o d e a t h . I
u s e my h an d s and c u rs e
them a l l .
I th in k
v e r y d i r t y w ords b u t I
c o n 't u s e them i n th e
h o u s e ."
”My f a t h e r ' s no g oo d .
I d o n ’t l i k e h im ."
S ays f a t h e r alw ays
fin d s f a u l t .
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Fr:
ol
spi
sw:
hii
Mo'
fei
sh<
h ii
Faqu:
pa-
i a t r ic Exami­
nation
S ocial H istory
D i f f i c u l t t o c a r r y on
c o n v e r s a t io n w ith o u t a
r e a l s tru g g le - to s s in g h e a d , b l i n k i n g ,
t r e m b lin g , a n d su c k in g
so u n d .
ds la u g h a t m e,
t m a te s me s o re *
l i k e p o k in g
t I d o n ’t
. . I ’m u s e d to
a b a rr a s s e d .. . .
a i d o f them* I
i g h t so w e l l
Som etim es I
lie v e I p la y a
n them f o r r e S ib lin g s g e t
E m b arrasse d when c h i l ­
d re n make f u n o f h i s
speech * C o n s id e rs h i s
s i b l i n g s a n u is a n c e .
C om plains t h e r e a r e to o
many c h i l d r e n i n f a m ily .
O b je c ts to t h e i r d i s ­
t u r b i n g him*
ry*
u s e d t o h i t him
a lle r.
"When
ad I c o u ld
e r t o d e a th * I
h an d s an d c u r s e
1 . I th in k
r t y w o rd s b u t I
s e them i n th e
h e r ’ s no g o o d .
l i k e him *"
t h e r alw ay s
a u lt*
E x c e l l e n t c o o p e r a tio n
in s p ite of d if f ic u lty
i n e x p r e s s in g s e l f - in te r e s te d , p e rs is te n t,
S h y , s u b m is s iv e on
p h y s i c a l e x a m in a tio n ,
T re a tm e n t shows lin­
d e rly in g e x p lo s iv e ness*
U nable to make a good
a d ju s tm e n t w i t h p eo ­
p le .
F e llo w s h ip - w a n te d
to q u i t s c h o o l and
g e t a j o b . When
f a t h e r w as away w as
b e tte r.
" I f ev ery ­
b o d y ’ s aw ay i t ’ s
s t i l l b e tte r."
F r ie n d s a r e h i s age o r
o ld e r — t h i s y e a r
s p e n t tim e h o m e ;in
swimming b oys duck
him .
T re a tm e n t b r in g s o u t
h o s t i l i t y to w a rd
f a t h e r an d s i b l i n g s
e v en m o re . " I g e t
mad a s a n y t h in g . I
f e e l lik e b itin g . I
h o ld b a c k b u t I w a n t
to do i t . "
M other s a y s he i s a f ­
f e c tio n a te to h er she i n t e r c e d e s f o r
him w i t h f a t h e r .
F a th e r g e n e r a l l y
q u i e t , beoom es im­
p a t ie n t w ith bo y ’ s
s tu tte rin g *
M iscellaneous Data
Im m ature lo o k in g
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
166
l y c o o p e ra tiv e ,
h under t e r r i d ic a p b e c a u s e o f
in g * " I alw ay s
i n s c h o o l*
su p p o se d t o . "
a r s b e lo w ) .
P sychological Examin ation
CASE 9
Rorschach Interpre­
t a t io n
II
P a th o lo g ic a l i n t e r e s t
i n an d p r e o c c u p a tio n
w i t h th e b o d y .
Rorschach Interpre­
ta tio n
P sy ch ia tric Exami­
n ation
I
P r e o c c u p a tio n w i t h th e
body.
C om plains o f v a r io u s
p a in s , b ite s n a ils
b a d ly ~ f e e l s s ic k
i f h e e a t s f o o d s he
d o e s n 't l i k e . Be­
gan t o m a s tu r b a te 2
y e a rs ago.
Mo
fa
F ears - in d a rk ,
g h o s t c h o k in g h im ,
d ru n k e n m en. F ear
o f k n iv e s - f e a r s
h e m ig h t s t i c k i t
i n t o h i s m o th e r .
A fra id o f o th e r
c h i l d r e n . F a n ta s y
m a t e r i a l m a in ly
m a s o c h is tic .
Dreams - g h o s ts
h u n tin g , k i l l i n g
h im , b u r g l a r s k i l l
fa m ily .
No
SI
S ay s w hen h e 's a f r a i d
can n o t sa y w o rd s.
Som etim es ca n t a l k
c le a r ly . S tu tte rs
w o r s t w i t h m o th e r .
Mo
in
at
fr
ne
tw
fa
sh
Mo
ab
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
liia tr ic Examin a tio n
in s o f v a r i o u s
b ite s n a ils
— f e e ls s ic k
e a t s fo o d s he
t l i k e . B em a s tu r b a te 2
ago.
S o c ia l H istory
P sych ological Examin ation
M iscellaneous Data
M o th er s a y s no fo o d
fa d s.
F e a r s a p p e n d ix m ig h t
b u r s t , h e r n i a , m ig h t
d ie in c r a s h .
- g h o s ts
g , k illin g
u rg la rs k i l l
No n i g h t t e r r o r s .
S le e p s c o m f o r ta b ly .
hen h e’s a fra id
s a y w o rd s ,
mas can t a l k
y . S tu tte rs
w i t h m o th e r .
M o th er s a y s s t u t t e r ­
in g b e g a n s l i g h t l y
a t 1-g- a f t e r s e v e r e
f r i g h t when he w i t ­
n e s s e d q u a r r e l b e­
tw e e n p a r e n t s —
f a t h e r b e a t m o th e r sh e b i t f a t h e r e t c .
M ore s e T e re s in c e
a b o u t 6B
S p eech s l i g h t l y
s lu rre d b u t s tu tt e r ­
in g a lm o s t a l l c l e a r e d
up a f t e r t r e a t m e n t ,
b u t when h e becom es
en rag e d and cannot
d is p la y h is an g e r,
s t u t t e r s ag& in. <
167
- in d a rk ,
c h o k in g h im ,
n m en . F e a r
ves - fe a rs
h t s tic k i t
i s m o th e r ,
o f o th e r
e n . F a n ta s y
a l m a in ly
is tic .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CASE 9
R o rs c h a c h I n t e r p r e ­
ta tio n
II
R o rsc h a c h I n t e r p r e ­
ta tio n
I
P s y c h i a t r i c Exami­
n a tio n
S a id ho w a n ted t r e a t ­
m e n t ev en i f i t m eant
a lo n g u n c o m fo rta b le
p e rio d *
D iag­
n o s is
S e v e re n e u r o s i s .
M ix e d -p ro b a b ly ob­
s e s s i o n a l an d com­
p u l s i v e sym ptom s ,
a ls o h y s te r i c a l
w i t h p o s s i b l e co n ­
v e r s i o n sym ptom s.
S e v e re r e p r e s s i o n t h a t
i s n e u r o t i c w i t h ob­
s e s s i o n a l a n d com­
p u ls iv e f e a t u r e s .
H y p o c h o n d ria c a l
symptoms p r o b a b le .
T here may b e some
h y p o c h o n d ria c a l
symptoms.
(S ee ab o v e)
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
sh ia tr ic Examin a tio n
ho w a n te d t r e a t 3ven i f i t m e an t
I u n c o m fo rta b le
i.
S o cia l H istory
P sych ological Examination
M iscellaneous Data
C o n feren c e - t r e a t ­
m e n t a t t h i s tim e may
re lie v e th e h o y 's a n x ­
i e t y , th o u g h i t m ay
n o t c u r e th e s t u t t e r ­
in g .
168
above)
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CASE 10
S ex:
M ale
A ge:
12 y e a r s 1 m o n th
G rade: 6 a
In te l­
le c tu a l
A sp e c ts
P ro b lem o f R e f e r r a l b y S o c ia l A gency:
R o rs c h a c h I n t e r p r e ­
ta tio n
II
R o rsc h a c h I n t e r p r e ­
ta tio n
I
I n t e l l i g e n c e p r o b a b ly
below a v e r a g e b u t i s
p r o b a b ly f u n c ti o n in g
a t a much lo w e r l e v e l .
I n t e l l i g e n c e p r o b a b ly
a b o u t a v e ra g e b u t p ro b ­
a b ly cannot fu n c tio n a t
t h i s l e v e l b e c a u se o f
m ark ed p e r s o n a l i t y d i s ­
tu r b a n c e •
In te llig e n c e n o t a c tiv e ,
a l e r t , f l e x i b l e . Is
s lo w , c a u t i o u s , r i g i d
in fle x ib le .
R e s p o n s e s , s lo w , gen­
e r a l l y m e a g re . R e p re s s e d
i n b o th i n t e l l e c t u a l and
a ffe c tiv e sp h eres.
V e ry s t e r e o t y p e d and
la c k in g i n o r i g i n a l i t y .
R ig id , s te re o ty p e d .
R esp o n ses o b v io u s , un­
o rig in a l.
No v a r i e t y o f c o n t e n t .
P a u c ity o f i n t e r e s t s
E x tre m e ly l i m i t e d i n ­
te re s ts .
D iu r n a l and n o o t
daydream ing* la c
P s y c h i a t r i c Exami­
n a tio n
Lack o f a m b itio n .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
S te
may
Thi
him
doe
g ra
Sch
B»s
R ar
wes
bal
in g
bus
sy:
D iu r n a l and n o c t u r n a l e n u r e s i s and d i u r n a l s o i l i n g .
d a y d re a m in g , la c k in g i n e n e r g y . P e t t y t h e f t s .
i a t r i c Exam in a tio n
S o c ia l H i s t o r y
I n so h o o l q u i e t , w ith d ra w n ,
P s y c h o lo g ic a l Exam in a tio n
P r o b a b ly d u l l n o rm al to
low a v e ra g e a b i l i t y .
R e s u l t s on S ta n f o r d B in e t u n r e l i a b l e , i r ­
r e g u l a r . Non v e r b a l
t e s t s on d u l l n o rm a l ^
t o lo w a v e r a g e l e v e l .
( P i n t n e r Non la n g u a g e ,
A r th u r P o i n t S c a l e ) .
E x tre m e ly l i m i t e d
v e rb a l a b i li t y .
Is \
y e a r re ta rd e d fo r age.
S ch o o l a c h ie v e m e n t i n
to o l s u b je c ts about 2
y e a r s b elo w g r a d e .
( M e tr o p o li ta n A ch iev e­
m ent ).
R a re ly r e a d s , li k e s
w e s te r n m o v ie s , b a s e ­
b a l l , b y c ic y le r i d ­
i n g , books r i d e s on
b us.
P r o b a b ly l i m i t e d v e r ­
b a l f a c i l i t y p e n a l iz e d
him i n s c h o o l . A lso
p r o b a b ly e m o tio n a l
d iffic u lty .
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
169
S tep m o th er th i n k s he
may n o t be v e r y b r i g h t .
T h in k s s c h o o l p ro m o te s
him to o e a s i l y , t h a t he
d o e s n ’t h av e a d e q u a te
g rasp o f s u b je c t-m a tte r.
S ch o o l r e c o r d shows
B’ s an d C’ s .
M is c e lla n e o u s D ata
CASE 10
Rorsckack Interpreta tio n
II
P e rso n a lity
C o n fig u ra tio n
and
B n o tio n s i
A s p e c ts
E v id en ce o f f l a t n e s s
o f b o th a f f e c t and
i n t e l l e c t * P e rs o n a l i t y s tr o n g ly c o a rte d .
A ffe c tiv e re a c tio n s
s e v e re ly re p re sse d *
Same i n d i c a t i o n s o f
i n t r o v e r s i v e p o s s i­
b i l i t i e s b u t th e s e *
to o * a r e l i m i t e d and
r e p r e s s e d a t p re s e n t*
A tte m p ts t o m a in ta in
r ig i d c o n tro l over
r e a c t i o n s by d i s r e ­
g a r d in g s t i m u l i t h a t
m ig h t a r o u s e an emo­
tio n a l re a c tio n .
Rorsckack Interpreta tio n
I
(S e e ab o v e)
P e r s o n a lity s tro n g ly
c o a r te d * S e v e re r e ­
p r e s s i o n an d f l a t n e s s
o f a ffe c t*
T r i e s to s h u t o u t a n y
s t i m u l i t h a t m ig h t
a r o u s e an e m o tio n a l
re a c tio n *
P sy ch ia tric Exami­
n ation
A p p eared q u ie t* de­
je c te d * u n p ro d u c tiv e *
n o t sp o n ta n e o u s* A f­
f e c t ra th e r f la t*
N ev er r e f u s e d b u t
n e v e r g av e more th a n
w as s p e c i f i c a l l y
ask ed *
Te
la
er
Pi
Pi
D3
PC
me
C£
dc
P1
Is
tl
E x tre m e ly in s e c u r e *
f e e l s s e l f in a d e q u a te *
a f r a i d t o commit him­
s e lf*
M arked a n x i e t y a t
p re s e n t•
A n x io u s a n d i n s e ­
c u r e , an d f e e l s i n ­
a d e q u a te * A f r a id
to com m it h im s e lf*
Stammers and w o r r ie s
a b o u t i t * W ets b e d i s asham ed* Has m o s t
d i f f i c u l t y now w i t h
f e o a l in c o n tin e n c e *
A p p re h e n siv e i f a n y
d i s t a n c e fro m t o i l e t *
Becomes f r i g h t e n e d
i n d a rk t h a t he w i l l
f a l l an d h u r t h im se lf*
Si
nc
ar
nc
si
SI
b:
he
v:
s<
n:
lc
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
h ia t r ic Exami­
n a tio n
S o cia l H istory
P sych ological Examination
T e a c h e r s a y s "good c h i l d "
la c k in g i n p h y s ic a l
e n e rg y # M o th er s a y s h a s
p l e n t y o f e n e r g y w hen
p la y in g i n s t r e e t #
L i s t l e s s , la c k in g i n
e n e rg y # E x tre m e ly
d o c i l e , no i n t e r e s t
o r a ffe c t#
re fu se d bu t
g av e m ore th a n
> e c ific a lly
D id n ’t b r in g home r e ­
p o rt ca rd f o r s e v e ra l
m o n th s# She t h i i t e b e­
c a u s e sh e t o l d him t o
do b e t t e r when sh e saw
p r e v io u s m ark o f C#
H ot s p o n ta n e o u s , re^
p l i e d i n m o n o sy l­
l a b l e s , b u t goodn a tu re d #
I s sneaky#
th e fts •
?rs and w o r r i e s
i t # ’.Vets b e d iamed# Has m o s t
j u l t y now v d .th
in c o n tin e n c e #
le n s iv e i f a n y
ic e fro m t o i l e t .
is f r i g h t e n e d
•k t h a t h e w i l l
m d h u r t h im s e lf #
S i l e n t , co m p re h en sio n
Slow d u r in g p h y s i­
c a l ( 1 5 % u n d e r­
w e ig h t# )
170
ed q u ie t* deL, u n p r o d u c ti v e ,
o n ta n e o u s # l e ­
a th e r fla t#
M iscellaneous Data
P e tty
S te p m o th e r s a y s he i s
n o t asham ed o f w e tt in g
a n d s o i l i n g an d w o u ld
n o t b a th e o r ch an g e i f
sh e d i d n o t make him#
She a t t r i b u t e s h i s h a ­
b i t s to l a z i n e s s s in c e
h e does n o t w e t when he
v i s i t s a u n t , a n d he r e ­
s e n t s b e in g w akened a t
n i g h t , o r made to d r in k
le s s #
P h y s ic a l e x a m in a tio n
shows no o r g a n ic b a s i s
f o r e n u r e s i s an d
s o ilin g #
6 m onths l a t e r
s t u t t e r h a d d ro p p ed
ou t#
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CASS 1 0
Rorschach Interpreta tio n
II
Rorschach Interpre­
ta tio n
I
I n s e c u r i t y an d an x ­
i e t y p r o b a b ly e x p l a in
g e n e r a l l a c k o f re s p o n ­
s iv e n e s s and a l e r t n e s s .
C o n flic t i s p re s e n t
an d seem s to c a u s e an
a p a th y i n a l l s p h e r e s ,
a l a c k o f d r i v e , am­
b i t i o n , o r e n th u s ia s m .
I n c l i n e d to be somewhat
d ep re sse d .
P sych iatric Exami­
n ation
I s a f r a i d to g e t f r e s h
w ith m o th e r b e c a u se she
w ould p u n is h h im .
S ays he w as h a p p i e s t
a t cam p.
He
so
in
tr
to
wh
li
P r o b a b ly v e r y w i t h d raw n . R e l a ti o n s
w i t h p e o p le p o o r b e cau se o f la c k o f a f fe c tiv e f l e x i b il ity
an d r e s p o n s iv e n e s s ,
en d h o s t i l i t y to w a rd
p e o p le p r o b a b ly r e s u i t i n g fro m h i s own
s e n s e o f in a d e q u a c y
and a n x i e t y .
R e l a ti o n s w i t h p e o p le
p o o r b e c a u se o f la c k
o f a ffe c tiv e resp o n se,
h o s t i l i t y , n e g a t iv is m .
an d g e n e r a l la c k o f
a d a p ta b ility .
M other l i k e s him i f
he does r i g h t , y e l l s
i f he does w ro n g .
When he i s mad s i t s
s i l e n t l y and w o n 't
t a l k . When m o th e r
g e t s mad a t him " I
d o n 't f e e l l i k e d o in g
w h at sh e w a n ts • M
Te
wi
se
a
S.
ge
on
is
in
me
St
tr
hi
it
re
pr
di
he
si
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Ltrio Examiitio n
S o cia l H istory
1 to g e t f r e s h
i e r b e c a u se she
l i s h him*
He do es n o t w e t o r
s o i l as f r e q u e n tly
i n summer* She a t ­
tr ib u te s re c u rre n c e
t o r e t u r n t o so h o o l
w h ich he d o e s n 't
lik e .
Ik e s him i f
r ig h t, y e lls
3S 'w rong,
i s mad s i t s
and w o n 't
hen m o th e r
a t him " I
e l l i k e doing
■wants *M
T ea ch er s a y s he i s
w ith o u t f r i e n d s ,
seam s t o daydream
a lo t*
S* m o th e r s a y s he
g e t s a lo n g w i t h boys
on s t r e e t *
T h in k s he
i s a f o l l o w e r . N ot
in te re s te d in s e ttle ­
m ent*
M iscellaneous Data
(See ab o v e)
R e p r e s s io n o f h i s
h o s t i l i t y and anx­
i e t y , f e e l i n g he i s
f a i l i n g l e a d to
sym ptom s. 6 m onths
l a t e r i n an opportur
n i t y c l a s s - ta k e s
p r i d e i n m anual
t r a i n i n g - i s p ra is e d
f o r i t - R esponds
w e l l t o i n d i v id u a l
i n s t r u c t i o n . M ixes
w e ll w ith c h ild re n
now - c a n d e fe n d
s e lf.
Seemed p r e o c c u p ie d .
6 m o n th s l a t e r
m o th e r h a s b een m ore
a f f e c tio n a te , le s s
p u n is h in g an d he
i s m ore r e s p o n s iv e s o ili n g has ceased
b u t e n u r e s i s con­
tin u e s *
S te p m o th e r s a y s she
t r i e d s p a n k in g to c u re
him o f h i s s o i l i n g , b u t
i t d id n o t h e lp * He
re s p o n d s b e t t e r to
p r a i s e b u t sh e becom es
d is c o u r a g e d an d h e r
h a n d lin g i s n o t con­
s is te n t*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
171
m s h a p p ie s t
Psychological Examin ation
CASE 1 0
R o rsc h a c h I n t e r p r e ­
ta tio n
II
R o rs c h a c h I n t e r p r e ­
ta tio n
I
P s y c h i a t r i c Exami­
n a tio n
(Cl
whe
o le
w it
to
mot
que
ga-M
boj
lov
ope
s te
cot
del
tri
ch i
th e
Chi
su l
au r
in g
fa t
d ri
nei
neg
D ia g n o s is
V e ry r e p r e s s e d - p r o b a b l y s u f f e r i n g fro m a
n e u r o t i c d is tu r b a n c e *
S e v e re a n x i e t y and
i n s e c u r i t y w i t h some
c o m p u lsiv e f e a t u r e s .
O utw ard a p p e a ra n c e i s
p r o b a b ly o f a v e r y w i t h ­
draw n s c h i z o i d p e r ­
s o n a lity *
S e v e re ly re p re sse d # d is ­
tu r b e d b o y w i t h o b s e s ­
s io n a l t r a i t s *
M arked a n x ie ty # i n s e ­
c u r i t y h o s t i l i t y and
n e g a t iv is m .
R e a c ts t o c o n f l i c t by
b ecom ing a p a t h e t i c and
w ith d ra w n # and may g iv e
im p r e s s io n o f b e in g a
s c h iz o id p e r s o n a lity in
h is b e h a v io r.
P sy ch o n eu ro s i s ; com­
p u ls io n n e u r o s is s t u t t e r i n g # com pul­
s iv e in c o n t i n e n c e j
w ith d r a w a l•
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
x tric Examiit io n
S o cia l H istory
P sych ological Examin ation
M iscellaneous Data
ro s i s j coma u ro s is g , co m pula tin e n c e ;
1.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
172
( C h i l d ’ s m o th er d ie d
w hen h e w as one y e a r
o l d . A t 3 b o y p la c e d
w ith a u n t s . A t 6 came
to l i v e w i t h s t e p ­
m o th e r . S te p m o th e r
q u e s ti o n s w h e th e r a u n ts
gave a d e q u a te c a r e b oy w as f r a i l . A u n ts
low m o ra l s ta n d a r d s o p e n ly c r i t i c a l o f
s te p m o th e r a n d en­
c o u ra g e c h i l d r e n to
d e f y h e r . S te p m o th e r
t r i e s t o b e n i c e to
c h i l d r e n - i s h u r t when
t h e y do n o t r e s p o n d .
C h ild r e n p a r t i c u l a r l y
s u lle n a f te r v is itin g
a u n t s . S te p m o th e r do­
in g j a n i t o r i a l w o rk ,
f a t h e r w o rk s i r r e g u l a r l y ,
d r in k s - L iv e i n crow ded
n e ig h b o rh o o d - few o t h e r
n e g ro e s .)
CASE 11
S ex :
M ale
A ge:
8 y e a r s 1 m onth
G rade: 2A
Problem of R e fe rra l:
R o rs c h a c h I n t e r p r e ­
ta tio n
II
In te l­
le c tu a l
A s p e c ts
P e rs o n a lity
C o n fig u ­
ra tio n
an d
Q notionaL
A s p e c ts
I s n e r v o u s , h as te m p e r tan iru m s, d
h is s iz e * Has t r u a n t e d fro m scho
R o rso h a c h I n t e r p r e ­
ta tio n
I
D u ll, b o r d e rlin e i n t e l ­
l i g e n c e . E x tre m e ly im­
m a tu r e , d u l l , u n d i s c rim in a tin g , u n c r i t i c a l .
E x tre m e ly s t e r e o t y p e d .
Low d u l l n o rm al i n t e l l i ­
gence* G ives im p r e s s io n
o f b e in g e v e n d u l l e r .
C h ild is h , u n c r i t i o a l ,
s te r e o ty p e d .
M arked p a u o i t y o f a s s o ­
c ia tio n s and la c k o f
c ritic is m .
A s s o c i a ti o n s m e a g re ,
c ru d e , u n e la b o ra te d .
P s y c h i a t r i c Exami­
n a tio n
Slow c o m p re h e n sio n .
Boy i s p r o b a b ly d u l l
n o rm al i n t e l l e c t u a l l y .
Tei
du
Mo
go
be
Has l i t t l e c a p a c i t y
C o n s tric te d p e r s o n a lity .
f o r good i n t r o v e r s i v e
o r e x t r a t e n s i v e ^ '^ r ^ 1
s o n a lity is c o n s trio te d .
U n d is c r im in a tin g and u n c r i t i o a l in h is s o o ia l
a n d e m o tio n a l r e a c t i o n s
a s he i s i n t e l l e c t u a l l y ,
Does n o t seem t o be aw are
o f a n y d i f f i c u l t y * No
e v id e n c e o f d e s i r e to a d ju s t*
A n x io u s , i n s e c u r e , f e e l s E v id e n c e o f h o s t i l i t y a n d C om plains o f s i s t e r .
n e g a tiv is m * U s u a lly k e p t MI h a t e h e r* We a l in a d e q u a te *
u n d e r c o v e r . P r o b a b ly
7/ays f i g h t * n F e e ls
In fa n tile , h o s tile .
c h ild is h ly e g o c e n tric ,
m o th er p r e f e r s s i s and so m etim es u n c o n t e r . R ep re sse s anger
t r o l l e d i n h i s r e a c t i o n s , to w a rd p a r e n t s . I s
P r o b a b ly f e e l s in a d e q u a te .
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
At
no
At
Wb
ch
in
hi]
th
pn
s te m p e r ta n tru m s, d o e s n ’t g e t a lo n g w e l l w i t h o th e r c h i l d r e n . H its c h i l d r e n tw ic e
i t r u a n t e d fro m s c h o o l and d o es n o t seem t o b e p r o g r e s s in g a t sc h o o l*
a t r i c Exam in a tio n
m p reh e n sio n *
p r o b a b ly d u l l
in te lle c tu a lly .
S o c ia l H is to ry
T e a c h e r s a y s h e seems
d u ll*
M is c e lla n e o u s D ata
P r o b a b ly d u l l n o r m a l.
R e v is e d S ta n f o r d - B i n e t,
Form M, I Q 8 2 . A r th u r
P o in t S c a le I Q 96.
S c h o o l; 1 y e a r r e ta r f e d
f o r a g e , \ y e a r ad ­
v a n c e d f o r M.A. R ead in g
an d num ber w ork s l i g h t l y
below g r a d e , a t M.A.
W orking up t o c a p a c i t y .
173
M other s a y s r e f u s e s to
go t o s c h o o l - h a s to
be b r i b e d .
P s y c h o lo g ic a l Exam in a t io n
A t camp m is c h ie v o u s ,
n o t d i f f i c u l t to h a n d le .
At c lu b n o is y .
ns o f s i s t e r ,
» h e r* We a l , g h t . n F e e ls
p re fe rs s is te p r e s s e s a n g e r
p a re n ts . Is
When p l a y i n g w i t h o t h e r
c h i l d r e n comes b a c k c r y ­
i n g , s a y in g th e y h i t
him - u s u a l l y h e h i t s
them* T e a c h e r sa y s
V e ry in r o a tu r e , d e p e n d e n t•
p ro v o k e s q u a r r e l s b y
F o llo w u p - p a r e n t s
h av e s to p p e d b e a t­
in g s , and d is ­
p a r a g in g co m p ari­
so n s w i t h s i b l i n g s .
Boy seem s m ore se ­
c u re , h a p p ie r, s t i l
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CASE 11
Rorschach In ierp reta tio n
II
U su al b e h a v i o r . P ro b ­
a b l y d o c i l e w i t h o c­
c a s io n a l te m p er
o u tb u rs ts .
Rorschach Interprota tio n
I
P ro b a b ly h as o c c a s i o n a l
e m o tio n a l o u t b u r s t s an d
te m p e r ta n tr u m s .
P sy ch ia tric Exami­
n ation
asham ed d £ h a v in g su ck ed
b o ttle .
Many f e a r s - bogey man*
s n a k e s* l i o n s , t i g e r s *
s l i g h t i n i t i a l in s o m n ia dream s m o th e r i s b e in g
k i l l e d an d he sa v e s h e r .
i
L ack o f s p o n t a n e i t y and P o o r a f f e c t i v e a d a p ta ­
b ility .
o f a f f e c t i v e a d a p ta ­
b i l i t y . C o n ta c t w ith
p e o p le i s p o o r .
J
1
I
]
Slow i n a d a p t in g to
new t a s k s an d ad ­
j u s t i n g t o new
s itu a tio n s *
I
A d ju s ts p o o r ly to
a g ro u p an d to new
s itu a tio n s .
<
E v id en ce o f an emo­
t i o n a l d is tu rb a n c e .
D ia g n o s is D u ll b o y w i t h some
d i s tu r b a n c e ■ P r o b a b ly
tro u b le s o m e b e o a u se o f
slo w n e ss i n a d j u s t i n g
an d i n a b i l i t y t o
g e t a lo n g w i t h o t h e r s .
B e h a v io r p ro b le m .
B eoause o f d u ll n e s s
an d age r e s u l t s a r e
te n ta tiv e .
B eh av io r p ro b lem w i t h
n e u ro tic c o lo rin g
r a t h e r th a n n e u r o s i s .
B e h a v io r p ro b le m s tr o n g n e u r o t i o c o l o r a ­
t i o n m a in ly p h o b ic .
7«re a n in g an d s i b l i n g
r i v a l r y p ro b lem s un­
re s o lv e d .
M arked r e p r e s s e d h o s­
t i l i t y to w a rd m o th e r .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
it r ic Examiitio n
'j£ h a v in g suckBd
•s - b ogey man*
Lions* t i g e r s *
l i t i a l in s o m n ia j t h e r i s b e in g
id he s a v e s h e r .
S o cia l H istory
P sych ological E x a m i - M i s c e l l a n e o u s Data
n ation
f ig h ts w ith s i s t e r ,
b u t m ak in g b e t t e r
g en era l a d ju s t­
m e n t.
p u sh in g * h i t t i n g c h i l ­
d r e n . Makes m o th e r
g iv e him m ilk i n b o t t l e •
R e s tle s s s le e p e r .
Always w as c r a n k y , i r ­
r i t a b l e , s ip s * q u a r­
r e l s w ith s ib lin g s *
la u g h s when s p a n k e d .
Scream s a n d y e l l s i f
he d o esn ’t g e t h is
w ay.
P h le g m a tic , n o t spon­
ta n e o u s •
Q u ie t , c o o p e r a tiv e *
slow to r e s p o n d on
p h y s ic a l exam ina­
tio n .
T ea ch er s a y s d i s tr a c tib le , w ill n o t
c o n c e n tra te .
p ro b le m a u r o ti o c o l o r a a ly p h o b io .
and s i b l i n g
p ro b lem s u n e p re sse d hos;oward m o th e r .
(M other d u ll * d i s ­
tu r b e d )
M o th er h a s p r o b a b ly
a lte r n a te ly in ­
d u lg e d a n a th w a r te d
h im . R e a c tio n t o
o ld e r s i s t e r i s o n
an o v e r t b e h a v io r
to o t h e r s o n a
n e u ro tic le v e l.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
174
M other say s he p r e ­
f e r s to p la y a lo n e q u i e t , w e l l beh av ed
when a l o n e . D oesn’ t
p la y w e ll w i t h o t h e r
c h i l d r e n . A f f e c ti o n ­
a t e to w a rd m o th e r .
P ro b lem o f R e f e r r a l :
CASE 1?
SEX:
M ale
Age i
10 years 9 months
Grade: 5A
R o rsc h a c h I n t e r p r e t a t i o n
In te l­
le c tu a l
A s p e c ts
R e f e r r e d a y e a r e a r l i e r b u t bei
c i d e d n o t t o h a v e stu d y # Had <
t o r e p e a t IpA.* M other was d i s t i
in s o m n ia . W ith p ro m o tio n and £
d r e n b u t t h e y do n o t l i k e him*
a t s c h o o l a g a in * P a r e n ts requ<
P s y c h i a t r i c E x a m in a tio n
I n t e l l i g e n c e i s p r o b a b ly
s u p e r i o r b u t h e d oes n o t
f u n c t i o n u p to t h i s l e v e l
c o n s is te n tly *
A le r t# c u r i o u s , a m b i t i o u s ,
b u t in c lin e d to be s id e ­
tr a c k e d b y d e t a i l s *
Shows
m arked i n t e r e s t i n o b s e r v ­
in g t i n y d e t a i l s *
Some o r i g i n a l i t y *
U nsure o f s e l f and a n x io u s
to do w e l l .
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
S o c ia l H isto ry
F a th e r sa y s boy
b u t i s n o t stu d :
e r rem oved him i
v a t e s c h o o l beer
seam ed u n d is c ip ]
n o t p r o g r e s s in g
M other s a y s he ]
b i t i o n * Work hs
b een g o o d . Shov,
te re s fc i n school
P r iv a te school i
c a p a b le o f good
la c k s e n e r g y , pi
a b i l i t y to conc«
P u b lic s c h o o l te
r e p o r t s he i s di
th o u g h w ork i s r
A t p r i v a t e sohool
b u te d o r i g i n a l s
w ere g o o d , had g
im a g in a tiv e *
M o th er say s he I
g u m p tio n and no
s c h o o l work*
j a r e a r l i e r b u t b e f o r e s tu d y w as b e g u n , s c h o o l and. m o th e r saw im provem ent an d d e h a v e stu d y * Had oome t o p u b l i c s c h o o l a f t e r s i x te rm s i n p r i v a t e s c h o o l a n d h a d
> M o th er was d i s t u r b e d b y f a i l u r e , and t h i n k s h e i s to o r e p r e s s e d , f i d g e t y an d h a s
Lth p ro m o tio n and good h a n d lin g b y t e a c h e r b eg an t o show im provem ent* He l i k e s c h .il{ do n o t l i k e him* Y,ra s v e r y d e p e n d e n t, w h in in g b u t im proved* N ex t y e a r d i f f i c u l t y
iin * P a r e n ts r e q u e s t stu d y *
S o c ia l H is to r y
F a th e r s a y s boy i s b r i g h t ,
b u t i s n o t s tu d io u s * M oth­
e r rem oved him fro m p r i ­
v a t e s c h o o l b e c a u se he
seam ed u n d i s c i p l i n e d and
n o t p r o g r e s s in g w e ll*
M other s a y s he la c k s am­
b i t i o n * 'York h a s n e v e r
b e e n g o o d . Shows no i n ­
t e r e s t i n s c h o o l*
P r iv a te sch o o l r e p o r ts
c a p a b le o f good w ork b u t
la c k s e n e rg y , p u s h ,d r iv e ,
a b i l i t y to c o n c e n tr a te *
P u b lic s c h o o l t e a c h e r
r e p o r ts he i s b r ig h t
th o u g h 'work i s m e d io c re *
P s y c h o lo g ic a l E x a m in a tio n
M is c e lla n e o u s D ata
I n te llig e n c e su p ed o r p o s s ib ly
v e r y s u p e r io r * A verage on
p e rfo rm a n c e m a t e r i a l * Re­
v i s e d S ta n f o r d - B i n e t Form L,
I Q, 1 2 2 .
I n G rade p la c e m e n t -g- y e a r
r e t a r d e d f o r age* R ead in g 1
y e a r above g r a d e , b u t s p e l l ­
in g and a r i t h m e t i c 1 y e a r
b elo w g r a d e , a b o u t 3 y e a r s
below M*A*
7/as i r r e g u l a r i n p e rfo rm a n c e *
L a t e r w orked c o n s c ie n ­
tio u s ly ,q u ie tly * A fte r 1 s t
6 m onths o f t u t o r i n g im­
p ro v e d i n a t t i t u d e , showed
no im provem ent i n a c h ie v e ­
m ent o v er r e s u l t s on t e s t s
o f a y e a r p re v io u s * N ex t
te rm b egan to show im­
p ro v em en t i n a c h ie v e m e n t
a s w e l l , g a in e d one y e a r .
A t p r i v a t e so h o o l c o n t r i ­
b u te d o r i g i n a l s t o r i e s th n
w ere g o o d , had good i& a s ,
im a g in a tiv e *
M o th er say s he te. s no
g u m p tio n and no p r i d e i n
s c h o o l 'work*
I n s e c u r e , n e e d e d e n c o u ra g e —
m ent*
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CASE 1 2
R o rs c h a c h I n t e r p r e t a t i o n
Shows a good ra n g e o f
in te re s ts #
P e rs o n a lity
C o n fig u ra tio n
and
E m o tio n a l
A sp e c ts
A d ju stm e n t a t p r e s e n t
i s more on a n i n t r o v e r s iv e th a n e x t r a n t e n s i v e
t a s i s b u t h a s good p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r d e v e lo p in g
a r ic h p e rs o n a lity in
b o th d i r e c t i o n s # A t p r e s ­
e n t# how ever# t h e r e i s
m ark ed r e p r e s s i o n w ith
e s p e c ia lly se v e re d is ­
tu r b a n c e i n t h e e m o tio n a l
sp h e re #
P s y c h i a t r i c E x a m in a tio n
Swimming# h o rs e b a c k r id i n g #
b a s e b a l l# f o o t b a l l , h o c k e y ,
stam p c o l l e c t i n g #
S o c ia l H isto ry
L ik e s to l i s t e n J
a t h l e t i c s # Takes
l e s s o n s - i s mus:
lo s in g i n t e r e s t #
swimmer# 17a n t s t<
b a s e b a l l p la y e r #
Showed no p e r s o n a l r e a c t i o n s M other says he ii
d e m o n s tra tiv e af:
d u rin g in te r v ie w s #
a t e , b u t i s to o :
F a th e r sa y s he ii
w ith o th e r teach<
h a s a t e a c h e r wh<
Becomes e x c i te d # n a u s e o u s
v i o u s l y l e f t him
i f he g o es to a new p la c e #
T each er i s n erv o i
u p s e t by sc h o o l#
G ets h e a d a c h e s when he i s
a b o u t i t th o u g h ■
y e lle d a t#
on o th e r n a t t e r s ,
vo m ited# F a th e r i
him to f a c e th e :
M other say s h e u;
p h y s ic a l com plai:
s t a y o u t o f scho<
t o r say s h e i s p]
w e ll) # '.Yakes up ■
E a ts w e ll e x c e p t
on sch o o l days#
S c h o o ls a ls o notc o m p la in ts and m
f a ti g u e #
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
S o c ia l H is to r y
,
,
P s y c h o l o g i c a l E x a m in a t io n
M i s c e l l a n e o u s D a ta
E m o tio n a l b lo c k in g *
P h y s ic a l E x a m in a tio n s W e ll n o u r is h e d , h e a lth y *
g a t i g u e may be diB to
g e t t i n g t o s le e p l a t e ,
d i s t u r b e d s l e e p , and may
b e p a r t l y p s y c h o lo g ic a l*
L ik e s to l i s t e n t o r a d i o ,
a t h l e t i c s * Takes p ia n o
l e s s o n s - i s m u s ic a l - i s
l o s i n g i n t e r e s t * Good
swimmer* W ants t o be a
b a s e b a l l p la y e r *
176
n s M other say s he i s v e r y
d e m o n s tr a tiv e a f f e c t i o n ­
a t e * b u t i s to o r e p r e s s e d *
F a th e r s a y s he im p ro v ed
w ith o t h e r t e a c h e r , now
h a s a t e a c h e r who h a d p r e ­
v i o u s l y l e f t him back*
T e a c h e r i s n e rv o u s * Boy i s
u p s e t by s c h o o l , m a lin g e r s
a b o u t i t th o u g h t r u t h f u l
on o t h e r n a t t e r s , o n ce
v o m ited * F a th e r w a n ts
him t o f a c e th e s i t u a t i o n ,
i b t h e r sa y s h e u s e s
p h y s ic a l c o m p la in ts t o
s t a y o u t o f s c h o o l (d o c­
t o r says he i s p h y s ic a lly
w e l l ) * 'Wakes up t i r e d *
E a ts ’w e ll e x c e p t b r e a k f a s t
on s c h o o l d a y s •
S c h o o ls a ls o n o te p h y s i c a l
c o m p la in ts and m o rn in g
f a tig u e *
C ould n o t t e a r h im s e lf away
fro m f a t h e r a t f i r s t k e p t k i s s i n g him*
T re a tm e n t - i n d i c a t e s
t h a t h i s p a in s a r e
n e u r o t i c , n o t m a lin g e r ­
i n g . 'W ith t r e a t m e n t ,
fe w e r p h y s ic a l com­
p l a i n t s , m o rn in g r o u t i n e
im p ro v e d . 3oy sa y s no
m ore n a u s e a , h e a d a c h e s
ra re .
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CASE 12
R o rsc h a c h I n t e r p r e t a t i o n
P s y o h i a t r i c E x a m in a tio n
S o c ia l H is tc
R e a c tio n s a r e i r r e g u l a r ,
a t tim e s b e in g q u i t e a d u l t ,
a t o th e rs v e ry in f a n tile *
A t f i r s t a p p e a r a n c e , gave im - M other say s h e i
p r e s s i o n o f e m o tio n a l mab i n a t i o n o f a bt
t u r i t y , b u t t h i s w as b e l ie d * a n a d u l t*
F em inine m an n erism s*
Y ery d e p e n d e n t an d p ro b ­
a b ly does n o t u t i l i z e h i s
p o t e n t i a l i t i e s u n l e s s g iv e n
cons t a n t s u p p o r t p ress s u r a n o e ,a n d en co u rag em en t*
P riv a te sch o o l i
c a p a b le o f good
needs c o n s ta n t c
r e s p o n s iv e to pr
en o o u r ag em ent •
A t p u b l i c sehoo]
c r a v e d c o n s ta n t
v e ry d ep en d en t*
say s e n jo y s a t h l
b u t w on’ t p la y v
can do w e ll*
Shows dependence
o f p r a i s e , w orks
when a l l goes h i
B obably s e n s i t i v e ,
c a u tio u s , f e a r f u l .
C om plains t e a c h e r i s n e r ­
vous* " I ’m a l i t t l e n e r ­
v o u s m y s e lf* " I s a f r a i d
te a c h e r m ig h t do s o m e th in g ,
d o e s n ’t know w h a t, " I d o n ’ t
know w h at I am a f r a i d o f* "
A lso a f r a i d o f to u g h b o y s ,
a f r a i d to f i g h t *
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
M other s a y s v e r y
c r i e s e a s i l y , w hi
p o u ts * A t p r i v a t e
r e p o r t s t a t e s he
ta k e c r i t i c i s m * A
school a t f i r s t w
F a th e r sa y s he i s
o f a l l new th i n g s
S o c ia l H is to r y
eh-
•
M o th er sa y s he i s a comp*
b i n a t i o n o f a b ab y and
a n a d u lt*
P s y c h o l o g i c a l E x a m in a t io n
M is c e l l a n e o u s D a ta
T a lk e d i n a d u l t f a s h io n * odd
m ix tu r e o f m a t u r i t y and im m a tu r it y * P r o b a b ly a s s o c i a t e s
m a in ly w i t h a d u l t s *
1 £lC lclll£L
M o th er s a y s v e r y s e n s i t i v e * Seemed r e p r e s s e d and a p p re h e n c r i e s e a s i l y * w h in in g *
s iv e a t f i r s t *
p o u ts * A t p r i v a t e s c h o o l
r e p o r t s t a t e s he c a n ’t
ta k e c r i t i o i s m * A t p u b lic
s c h o o l a t f i r s t w hined*
F a th e r sa y s he i s a f r a i d
o f a l l new th i n g s *
T u to re d i n a r ith m e ­
t i c an d s p e l l i n g was alw ay s a n x io u s
a b o u t c u r r e n t home­
w ork - showed m a rk e d
ch an g e i n a t t i t u d e "as
th o u g h a lo a d had
b e e n ta k e n o f f h i s
mind"* r e p o r t s th e
p rin c ip a l*
M other g iv e s f u r t h e r
in d ic a tio n s o f h is
i n s e o u r i t y * D u rin g
tr e a tm e n t becom es
le s s dependent s t i l l some w h in in g
and p o u tin g - l o s s
h y p e r a c tiv e a t
sc h o o l*
(M other s a y s sh e
to o i s h y p e r s e n s i­
ti v e * c a n ’t ta k e
c r i t i c i s m , becom es
annoyed when o r d e r s
a r e r e p e a te d ') .
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
177
P riv a te sch o o l r e p o r ts
In s e c u r e * "in s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e *
c a p a b le o f good w ork b u t
F i r s t r e a c t i o n w as t o sa y
n e e d s c o n s t a n t c h ec k h e w as p o o r i n w h a te v e r h e
r e s p o n s iv e to p r a i s e and
w as a s k e d t o do*
en co u rag em en t*
S m iled q u i e t l y when p r a is e d *
A t p u b l i c s c h o o l a t f i r s t N eeded en c o u ra g e m e n t m ost
c r a v e d c o n s ta n t p r a i s e *
on a r i t h m e t i c and s p e l l i n g *
v e r y d ep en d en t* F a th e r
I n s p i t e o f i n s e c u r i t y * d id
say s e n jo y s a t h l e t i c s *
show some en jo y m e n t and
b u t w on’t p la y u n l e s s he
s p o n ta n e ity •
can do w e ll*
Shows d ep en d en ce an d n e e d
o f p r a i s e , w orks w e ll
when a l l goes h i s way*
CASE 1 2
Rorschach In terp reta tio n
P sy ch ia tr ic Examination
I s a n x io u s to make a good
a d ju s tm e n t a n d c o n fo rm , b u t
f i n d s d i f f i c u l t y i n m aking
r a p p o r t , and i s h e s i t a n t
an d c a u t io u s a b o u t ta k in g
th e i n i t i a t i v e f o r t h i s
re a so n .
A n x ie ty i s s e v e re *
T here a r e p r o b a b ly ob­
s e s s i o n s a n d p h o b ia s*
S o cia l H istory
T ea ch er r e p o r t s hi
c h i l d r e n b u t th e y
l i k e him*
F a th e r sa y s he usi
p la y s w i t h younge:
d r an*
M other r e p o r t s re!
w ith c h i l d r e n a re
good - a n d he i s ■
s e n s i t i v e a b o u t ru
in g a s p o p u la r a s
w is h e s * P la y s w i'
y ou n g er c h ild r e n *
t o h av e c h i l d r e n ■>
i s g e n e ro u s*
Always a s k s p a r e n
I s a f r a i d m o th er w i l l go
th e y lo v e h im , es]
o u t a t n ig h t * W ants h e r
a f te r s c o ld in g .
home b e c a u s e o f f e a r s .
Has to c a l l mo the:
C a l ls h e r up when s h e i s
o t have h e r c a l l ]
o u t b ecau se o f fe a rs *
she g o es o u t*
F e a r s someone w i l l k i l l
m o th er ( e x p la in s one o f
h e r c l i e n t s once t h r e a t e n e d M other s to p p e d h ii
t e n in g to r a d io d<
h e r) •
T h in k s she may be h i t by
s t o r i e s b e c a u se oj
o a rjw h e n s h e i s s i c k th i n k s d i f f i c u l t y i n g e t
s h e ’ l l d i e . U s u a lly d o e s n ’ t s l e e p ,
l i s t e n t o m y s te r ie s b e c a u s e
th e y u p s e t him , a ro u s e f e a r s .
I f he l e a v e s c l o s e t d oor opai,
f e a r s someone w i l l come o u t
of it*
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
S o c ia l H istory
Always asks parents i f
th ey lo v e him, e s p e c ia lly
a f t e r soold in g*
Has to c a l l mother up
ofc have her c a l l him when
she g o es out*
Mother stopped h is l i s ­
te n in g to radio d e te c tiv e
s t o r ie s because o f h is
d i f f i c u l t y in g e t t in g to
t slee p *
s*
Mi scallaneous Data
Later became fr e e r and
ta lk e d spontaneously*
Mother during t r e a t ment says he i s shy
as she used to be*
A fter treatm ent t o l d
te a o h e r , "1‘m glad to
l i v e now* I lik e
sch ool and I lik e
everybody*"
178
Teaoher r ep o rts he lik e s
c h ild r e n but th ey do n o t
lik e him*
Father says he u s u a lly
p la y s w ith younger c h i l ­
dren*
Mother r e p o r ts r e la t io n s
w ith c h ild re n are not
good - and he i s v ery
s e n s it iv e about n o t be­
ing as popular as he
w ish es* P lays w ith
younger ch ild ren * Loves
to have c h ild r e n v i s i t *
i s generous*
P sych ological Examination
A fte r treatm ent fe a r
s u b sid in g ,n o t so much
g e ttin g up to se e i f
p a ren ts are home, le ts
them go out*
Boy h im s e lf, a t t e r ­
m ination o f treatm ent
says fe a r s are gone,
no lo n g er kept awake
by a n x ie ty , can l e t
mother go out 'without
f e a r , has no fe a r s
fo r s e lf *
at
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Rorschach In terp retation
Evidence o f h o s t i l i t y and
marked p a ssiv e n egativ ism
which breaks through h is
con trol* Probably too re­
p ressed to exp ress h is
h o s t i l i t y or any anger
o v e r t ly , but u se s p a ssiv e
n e g a tiv ism in stea d *
P sy ch ia tric Examination
U su a lly a fr a id o f boys* "When
I r e a l l y g e t mad, th ey run#
I go a f t e r them#"
Spends much tim e w ith grand­
mother who i s v e r y fu ss y
about c l e a n li n e s s , etc# She
makes him mad, he f e e l s lik e
hot^ doing i t , b u t in th e
end always does i t because
he knows he can*t g e t away
w ith it #
S ocial H istory
Father says mothe
problem i s more s
than i t r e a l l y i s
Mother wants him t
p e r f e c t , i s annoy
h is dawdling over
sons# At tim es i
o b e d ie n t, a t tim e
no a tte n tio n # Mot
te n lo s e s temper
him# At sch ool da
a t f i r s t # Mother
i s ir r e g u la r - so
behaves w e ll# Ha
g e t him to do rou
Dawdles t i l l she
a t him then resen
R esents her worki
Mother says she t
to nag him, bu t d
cause sometimes i
a t n ig h t because
tu rb ing s itu a tio n
job#
At p r iv a te sch ool
a r t work alw ays c
w ith shootin g and
Former te a c h e r sa
was in c o n s is te n t
h a n d lin g , was in s
worried#
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
S ocia l Historyn
Psychological Examination
At p r iv a te sch o o l play and
a r t work always concerned
w ith shootin g and war#
Former te a c h e r sa id mother
■was in c o n s is te n t in her
h a n d lin g , was in se c u r e and
w orried#
Treatment in te r v ie w s
- bring ou t h o s t i l i t y
to p aren ts and g u i l t
about i t , and p a ssiv e
r e s is t a n c e "even
though I know my
mother i s r ig h t I g e t
mad anyhow# I'm mad
a t them and I don’ t
want to do anything
th e y s a y .'1 "To make
them s u f f e r , to g e t
back a t them, be­
cause I d o n 't g e t my
way# I alm ost never
g e t my way#" No
dawdling s in c e he
r e c e iv e d m onitorship#
and has to be in ear]y
to r e t a in it # Works
fo r te a c h e rs o n ly
i f he l ik e s them# Pre­
fe r s men tea ch ers#
I d e n t i f i e s women
te a c h e r s w ith h is
mother#
A fte r treatm ent began
to show some tem per,
g e ts over i t q u ic k ly .
P r e v io u sly showed no
fe e lin g #
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
179
Father says mother th in k s
problem i s more se r io u s
than i t r e a l l y is #
Mother wards him to be
p e r f e c t , i s annoyed by
h is dawdling over l e s ­
sons# At tim es i s
o b e d ie n t, a t tim es pays
no a tte n tio n # Mother o f­
te n lo s e s temper w ith
him# At sch ool dawdled
a t f i r s t # Mother says he
i s ir r e g u la r - sometimes
behaves w e ll# Hard to
g e t him to do rou tin e#
Dawdles t i l l she shouts
at him then r e s e n ts her#
R esents her working#
Mother says she t r i e s not
to nag him, but does be­
cause sometimes ir r i t a b le
a t n ig h t because o f d is ­
tu rb in g s it u a t io n s on her
job#
M iscellaneous Data
Rorschach In terp retation
Diag­
n o s is
P syoh iatric Examination
I n t e l l e o t u a l l y su p erio r
O b sessio n a l n e u r o s is - phobias
boy s e v e r e ly d istu rb ed a t
r e p r e s sio n o f marked h o s t i l i t y
p resen t* He i s probably s u f-a g a in s t mother oonverted in to
fa r in g from a n e u r o sis w ith phobic r e a c tio n s*
o b s e s s io n s and phobias*
M ixture o f mature and in ­
f a n t i l e r e a c tio n s*
B asic p e r s o n a lity shows
some good p o s s i b i l i t i e s
fo r a h e a lth y p e r so n a lity
i f h is n e u r o sis i s overcome*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
S o cia l Histor;
S o cia l Historyas
ty
o
P sy ch o lo g ical Examination
M iscellaneous Data
A fte r treatm ent g a in in r e s o lu t io n
o f n e u r o tic f a c t o r s ,
some g a in in m a tu rity
o f behavior* S ch olas­
t i c improvement, but
s t i l l n o t up to
a b il it y *
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
180
C onference: To meet
grandmother’ s and
m other’ s demands has
developed a techniq ue
o f p a s s iv e r e s is ta n c e
r e s u lt in g f n dawdling
e tc *
In te n se h o s t i l i t y to
mother showsn in
phobias fo r h e r , and
g u i l t i n h is phobias
about s e l f w hich cau®
s le e p disturbance*
Problem o f R e fe r r a l:
CASE 13
Sex: Male
Age: 6 years 10 months
Grade:IB
Rorschach In terp ret a t i on
II
I n te lle c t u a l
A spects
I n t e llig e n c e su p erior
but ir r e g u la r in fu nct io n .
Mother came to sch ool fo r help bee
m ischievous* d efia n t* n e g a t iv is t ic
Rorschach In terp re­
t a t io n
I
P sy c h ia tr ic Exami­
n a tio n
I n t e llig e n c e v e r y su­
perior* I n t e l l e c t u a l l y
mature fo r a g e.
A m bitious, c u r io u s ,
i n t e l l e c t u a l l y a le r t
but i s unable to
r e a liz e h is p o t e n t ia li­
tie s .
A le r t , o u r io u s , r e sp o n siv e ,
am b itio u s.
Wide range o f f le e t in g
in te r e sts.
F a ir ly w ide range o f in ­
te r e sts.
Tea(
goo<
Most ou tsta n d in g i s con­ •T H is u a lly m a tu re f o r
t r a s t between i n t e l ­
ag e i n p h y s ic a l a p p e a r­
le c t u a l and em otional
an ce b u t t h i s i s un­
developm ent. Extremely t r u e o f h i s e m o tio n a l
immature and i n f a n t i l e s t a t u s .
e m o tio n a lly .
Has fo o d fad& . Says he
r o c k s , p la y s w i t h h a i r ,
How
has
thui
h is
he 1
Tea<
nor<
Probably cannot work up
to h is a b i l i t y now because
o f in s e c u r ity and d is ­
tu rb an ce.
Poor a b i l i t y to con­
c en tr a te now.
Person­
a lity
Configu­
r a tio n
and
Emotional
A spects
E m otionally extrem ely
immature in c o n tr a st
to mature i n t e l l e c t .
i
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
s c h o o l f o r h e lp b e c a u se he i s so tro u b le s o m e a t home*
e f ia n t, n e g a tiv e s tic .
a t r ic Examia tio n
S o c ia l H istory
At sch ool i s d i f f i c u l t ,
P sy c h o lo g ic a l Examin a tio n
M iscellan eou s Data
18 1
I n t e llig e n c e a t l e a s t
s u p e r io r .
R ev ised S ta n fo rd -B in et,
Form L, I Q 115.
Arthur P oint S cale I ,
P Q 122.
Probably unable to
7/ork up to h is tru e
c a p a c ity on t e s t s be­
cause o f in s e c u r ity
(s e e b elo w )•
m a tu re f o r
y s ic a l ap p ea rt h i s i s un ­
i s e m o tio n a l
Cad&.- Says he
ays w ith h a i r ,
Teacher says "work i s
good.
E ducational achievem ent
(M etrop olitan Ach. P r .l )
up to or s l i g h t l y above
grade though below men­
ta l a b ility .
Now sucks h is thumb,
has to be f e d . I f
thumb i s takBn out o f
h is mouth a t n ig h t,
he has insom nia.
Teacher s t a t e s she i g ­
nores thumb su ck in g.
Problem in em o tio n a l,
not in te lle c tu a l
sphere »
(P h y sica l exam,
shows assym etry o f
t e e t h due to thumb
sucking) .
3 months la te r
te a c h e r rep orts thumb
sucking stopped.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CASE 13
Rorschach Interpre­
t a tio n
II
Rorschach Interpre­
ta tio n
I
P sych iatric Exami­
nation
an d su ck s h is thum bj
c o u ld s to p b u t t h i n k s ,
"No - b e c a u se s h e 's a l ­
w ays mean t o m e."
Shows p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r
b o th i n t r o v e r s i v e an d
e x t r a t e n s i v e d e v e lo p ­
m e n t, b u t i s i n c l i n e d
to o v e r - r e a c t .
E s s e n t i a l l y h as p o s­
s i b i l i t i e s f o r d ev elo p ­
in g i n t r o v e r s i v e ,
s ta b iliz in g t r a i t s .
V e ry s e n s i t i v e to emo­
tio n a l s tim u li - r e a c ts
i n u n i n h i b i t e d , un­
c o n t r o l l e d m a n n er.
V ery s e n s i t i v e , v o la ­
t i l e , i s i n c l i n e d to
o v e r r e a c t to e m o tio n a l
s t i m u l i , i s e x tre m e ly
s e n s i t i v e t o th e m .
S u g g e s tib le , s e n s itiv e ,
h y p e ra c tiv e •
E s s e n t i a l l y a warm,
l i k e a b l e y o u n g s te r b u t
b e h a v io r i n a g roup
s i t u a t i o n i s l i k e l y to
b e a n n o y in g b e c a u se o f
h is la c k o f c o n tro l,
P ro b a b ly h as d i f f i c u l ­
t i e s o n a b e h a v io r
l e v e l b e c a u se o f
h i s h y p e r a c t i v i t y and
u n c o n tro lle d r e a c tio n s .
Motl
aff«
E x tre m e ly t a l k a t i v e .
Moti
h is
nig]
somi
Im m e d ia te ly t e l l s o f
b e a t i n g s by m o th e r
an d f a t h e r , " b u t th e y
alw ay s f o r g i v e m e ."
M other demands u n ­
r e a s o n a b le o b e d ie n c e
Kot]
obe;
w it]
def:
pun:
and
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
.atrio Exami­
nation
S o cia l History-
P sychological Examin ation
M iscellaneous Data
s h i s thum b;
op b u t t h i n k s ,
cause s h e ’ s a l n t o m e."
F rie n d ly , re s p o n s iv e .
y ta lk a tiv e .
M o th er c o m p la in s o f
h is r e s tle s s n e s s a t
n ig h t # i n i t i a l i n ­
s o m n ia .
s ly t e l l s o f
b y m o th e r
s r , " b u t th e y
> rg iv e m e ."
jmands u n Le o b e d ie n c e
M oth er sa y s he d o e s n ’t
o b ey - u s u a l l y e a s y
w i t h him b u t w hen he
d e f ie s o r b o th e rs h e r
p u n is h e s him s e v e r e l y
an d th e n i s s o r r y she
182
M other sa y s he i s v e r y
a ffe c tio n a te .
A le rt, ta lk a tiv e ,
c u r i o u s , n o t h y p e r­
a c t i v e d u r in g ex­
a m in a tio n .
D u rin g p h y s i c a l ex­
a m in a tio n o v e r a c t i v e ,
ta lk a tiv e .
A t b e g in n in g o f
t r e a t m e n t m o th e r com­
p l a i n s he i s h y p e r­
a c tiv e , n erv o u s,
s tu b b o r n . A f te r
some t r e a t m e n t she
n o te s im p ro v em en t.
M o th er i s n e r v o u s ,
has f e a r s , o c c a s io n a l
in s o m n ia , n e v e r
r e a l l y happy, t r i e d
to ch an g e h a n d lin g
b u t fo u n d i t v e r y
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CASE 13
Rorschach Interpre­
ta tio n
II
Rorschach Interpre­
ta tio n
I
an d b o y r e a c t s w ith
ha
n e g a t iv is m t o a u t h o r i t y , he
f a n t a s i e s s e l f a s a n im a l i s
e a t i n g h e r u p . A lso
s e e k s r e f u g e in r e g r e s ­
s io n .
h i s h y p e r a c t i v i t y , an d
e g o c e n tric ity .
Shows no m arked h o s­
t i l i t y an d w ould l i k e
to make a d ju s tm e n ts
b u t u n d o u b te d ly a d ­
j u s t s p o o r ly i n a
g ro u p , 'n'ould p r o b a b ly
make demands f o r a t ­
te n tio n .
P syohiatrio Exami­
n ation
E s s e n t i a l l y a warm,
r e s p o n s iv e p e r s o n who
shows no h o s t i l i t y and
w o u ld l i k e to make
s o c i a l a d ju s tm e n ts b u t
i s u n a b le to do so a t
p r e s e n t . P ro b a b ly
la c k in g in s e l f c o n fi­
d en ce a n d w o u ld make
b i d s f o r a p p r o b a tio n
an d a t t e n t i o n .
S ay s " I lo v e my m o th er
m o s t b u t I 'm m ost
a f r a id about h e r." In
r e s p o n s e to p u n ish m e n t
h o p es s h e ' l l d i e .
Mo
bu
fi
Sc
fi
ne
in
nc
ur
Mo
fc
A t p r e s e n t a n x io u s , i n ­
s e c u r e , d e p e n d e n t, i n
need o f re a ssu ra n c e .
E v id e n c e o f m arked
a n x ie ty , in s e c u r ity ,
dependence, need fo r
c o n s ta n t re a s s u ra n c e .
A t n i g h t th i n k s o f
m o th e r lo v in g h im . " I
d o n 't know i f she
lo v e s m e . I t h i n k she
lo v e s my f a t h e r b e t t e r .
T h at m akes me t e r r i b l e
m ad."
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
;rio Exami;ion
S ocial H istory
P sych ological Examin ation
d i f f i c u l t to c o n t r o l
a n g e r , an d w ould
a g a i n b e a t him .
G r a d u a lly sh e im­
p ro v e s i n h a n d lin g
an d he d o es to o b u t
t h e n sh e h a s a n o u t ­
b u rst •
ja c ts w ith
h as done s o . He d e f i e s
i t o a u t h o r i t y , h e r t o p u n is h him* He
s e l f a s a n im a l i s f r a n k , o p e n , h o n e s t*
: up* A lso
ig e i n r e g r e s -
th i n k s o f
r in g h im . "I
v i f she
I t h i n k she
fa th e r b e tte r ,
s me t e r r i b l e
In p s y c h ia tric
tre a tm e n t boy b ro u g h t
o u t h o s t i l i t y a g a in s t
m o t h e r 's r i g i d han d ­
li n g * A f te r 6 m onths
o f tr e a tm e n t p la y in g
w e l l w ith c h i l d r e n .
M other s a y s he i s a
b u l l y , alw ay s p ic k in g a
fig h t*
S ch o o l r e p o r t s he i s de­
f i a n t , m is c h ie v o u s ,
n e g a tiv is tio , d if f ic u lt
i n gro u p * T e a c h e r say s
no r e a l t r o u b l e - s u l l e n
unhappy, t i r e d lo o k in g .
M other s a y s he c la m o rs
fo r a tte n tio n .
P h y s ic a l exam shows
f a t i g u e syndrom e.
A l t e r n a t e d b etw een ex<
p re s s io n s o f s e l f ­
d o u b t, an d a t tim e s
s e l f p r a i s e , w h ich
seem ed m ore a n a t ­
te m p t to c o n v in c e
h im s e lf an d th e ex­
am in e r th a n s e l f con­
fid e n c e .
V ery i n s e c u r e , i n
R e a s s u ra n c e con­
s ta n tly n e c e ssa ry dur
in g p h y s ic a l exam i­
n a tio n .In p s y c h ia tric
t r e a t m e n t ( p la y
te c h n iq u e ) n e e d e d
c o n s ta n t re a s s u ra n c e
t h a t he w as d o in g
t h i n g s c o r r e c t l y , was
a f r a i d to make n o i s e ,
b r e a k d o l l s g iv e n him
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
183
jve my m o th er
[*m m o st
>ut h e r . " I n
bo p u n ish m e n t
'1 1 d i e .
M iscellaneous Data
CASE 13
Rorschach Interpreta tio n
II
T here i s p r o b a b ly p h o b ic
m a te ria l.
Rorschach Interpreta tio n
I
P sychiatric Examin ation
T h ere may b e f e a r s *
and a p o s s i b l e s e x
c o n flic t*
F e a r s o f d a rk - c a l l s
m o th e r b u t she w o n 't
answ er* A f r a id a lo n e *
S e v e re d is tu r b a n c e
t h a t i s n e u r o t i c . P ro b ­
a b ly o b s e s s io n a l, se­
v e r e a n x i e t y , and
h y s t e r i c a l symptoms*
Shows good p o s s i b i l i ­
t i e s f o r w holesom e de­
v e lo p m e n t i f t r e a t e d .
P s y c h o n e u ro s is - form
n o t f u l l y e s ta b lis h e d
b u t th e dynam ics te n d
more to w a rd o b s e s s i o n a l
fe a tu re s - n e g a tiv is tic
and h o s t i l e b e h a v io r ,
p s v c h o s a d is m , p h o b ia s*
P o s s ib ly sex c o n f lic t*
D iag­
n o s is
N e u ro sis* a n x i e ty ,'
m a in ly h y s t e r i c a l
w i t h some o b s e s s i o n a l
symptoms •
P ro b a b ly c o u ld be
s ta b iliz e d by tr e a t­
m e n t.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
i a t r ic Examin a tio n
S ocial H istory
P sych ological Examination
M iscellaneous Data
n e e d o f c o n s ta n t r e a s s u r - f o r t h a t p u r p o s e ,
an ce t h a t h i s m ethod o f
e tc .
w o rk in g and r e s p o n s e s
are c o r r e c t.
Has d i f f e r e n t f e a is
la te r.
.e u r o s is - form
ly e s ta b lis h e d
dy nam ics te n d
w a rd o b s e s s i o n a l
is - n e g a t i v i s t i c
t i l e b e h a v io r,
a d is m , p h o b ia s#
B oth boy and
m o th er s h o u ld be
tr e a te d .
184
f d a rk - c a l l s
b u t she w o n’t
A f r a i d a lo n e #
A f te r some t r e a t ­
m ent an d p a r t i a l
a d ju s tm e n t, f o r
b e tte r re s u lts
n e c e ssa ry fo r
m o th er t o have
p s y c h ia tric
tr e a t m e n t .
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CASE U+
S ex:
M ale
A ge:
13 y e a r s 2 m onths
G rad e: 7B, J u n i o r H ig h S ch o o l
R o rsc h a c h I n t e r p r e ­
ta tio n
II
In te lle c tu a l
A sp e o ts
Problem o f R e ferra l:
R o rsc h a c h I n t e r p r e ­
ta tio n
I
Damaging s c h o o l p r o p e r ty ,
o t h e r boys*
P s y c h i a t r i c Exami­
n a tio n
I n t e l l i g e n c e p r o b a b ly
I n t e l l i g e n c e p r o b a b ly
d u l l n o rm al b u t a f f e c t i v e l y d u l l norm al* P ro b a b ly
i s ev en m ore im m ature*
f u n c t i o n s on a n even
lo w e r le v e l*
P oor pow ers o f a p p l i ­
c a t i o n an d c o n c e n tr a ­
tio n * H a s ty , p e r ­
f u n c t o r y , u n a b le to
t h i n k a n y th in g th ro u g h *
P r o b a b ly w ould show
v e ry poor a p p lic a tio n ,
c o n c e n t r a t i o n an d i n ­
t e r e s t i n s c h o o l work*
O b s e rv a tio n s a r e h a s t y ,
c r u d e , la c k in g i n p r e -
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Is :
juru
eaui
ela r
can
abi!
ave:
is ■
him
gra<
goo<
(Pr<
pow<
ng s c h o o l p r o p e r t y .
b oys.
No pow er o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n , u n r e l i a b l e , ta k e s t h i n g s b e lo n g in g to
i a t r i c Exam in a tio n
S o c ia l H i s t o r y
I m p o s s ib le t o o b t a i n a
r e l i a b l e r a t i n g . P ro b a b l y has a v e ra g e a b i l i t y
b u t i n t e l l e c t u a l fu n c tio n in g i s d is tu r b e d .
I Q on r e c o r d c a r d may
h av e been an e r r o r . C erta in ly h is a b i l i t y is
n o t above a v e r a g e .
S h o u ld b e i n a v e ra g e
c l a s s . R e v is e d S ta n f o r d - B i n e t , Form L ,
I Q 8 5 (? ) D e t r o i t A lp h a
I Q 1 0 7 . V e ry p o o r on
p e rfo rm a n c e m a t e r i a l .
Is
y ea r re ta rd e d
f o r a g e . A ch iev em en t
in to o l s u b je c ts
above g ra d e i n s p e l l ­
in g and a r i t h m e t i c
f u n d a m e n ta ls , a t
g ra d e i n r e a d i n g .
M is c e lla n e o u s D ata
School f e e l s p re s e n t t e s t re s u lts
a r e m ore i n l i n e
w i t h h i s demons tra te d a b ility .
A tte n tio n ir r e g u l a r .
R esponded b e f o r e
d i r e c t i o n s w ere com­
p le te d w ith l i t t l e
th o u g h t o r p l a n f u l n e s s . T r i a l and
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
185
Is in ra p id s e c tio n in
j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l b e c a u se o f I Q o f 132 o n
e le m e n ta r y s c h o o l r e c o r d
o a r d . T e a c h e r f e e l s h is
a b i l i t y i s n o t ab o v e
a v e r a g e , t h a t th e w ork
i s to o d i f f i c u l t f o r
h im . I s r e p e a t i n g
g ra d e a n d n o t d o in g v e r y
good w o rk .
(P ro b lem ab o v e - no
power o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n )
P s y c h o lo g ic a l E xam in a tio n
CASE li+
Rorschach Interpreta tio n
II
Rorschach Interp reta tio n
I
P sych iatric Exami nation
c is io n .
S te r e o t y p e d , u n im a g i­
n a t i v e , u n p r o d u c tiv e #
I n t e r e s t s m eagre#
Thinking s te r e o ty p e d ,
la c k in g in any o r i g i ­
n a lity #
I n te r e s ts - b a s e b a ll,
s t i c k b a l l , swimming,
b i c y c l e r id in g #
I f f a t h e r f i n d s he
d o e s n ’ t do homework.
"he s t a r t s h o l l e r i n g
and g iv e s me th e
s t r a p 'w ith a l l h is
m i g h t."
P e rs o n ­
a lity
C o n fig u ­
ra tio n
and
ESnotionaL
A s p e c ts
E s s e n t i a l l y a con­
s tr ic te d p e rs o n a lity
w ith l i t t l e c a p a c i t y
f o r an a d e q u a te i n t r o v e rs iv e o r e x tra te n s iv e
a d ju s tm e n t a t p r e s e n t#
P e rs o n a lity r a th e r
r i g i d , la c k in g i n
f l e x i b i l i t y # C a p a c ity
f o r i n t r o v e r s i v e an d
e x tra te n s iv e a d ju s t­
m ent lim ite d #
A c ts s l i g h t l y to u g h
e x p a n s iv e m u so u la r
b e h a v i o r , ex p anded p e r ­
s o n a lity .
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Fai
ey t
dr<
so
wo:
Is
bo;
hir
scl
(P£
ver
Fat
fii
hai
- 1
goc
La t r ie
Exami-
S ocial History-
oation
P sych ological Exami­
n ation
M iscellaneous Data
e r r o r , d u l l , c o n fu s e d
a t t a c k o n p e rfo rm a n ce
te s ts *
ts - b a s e b a ll,
a l l , swimming,
rid in g *
L ik e s shopwork* W ants
to become t y p i s t * No
s tr o n g a m b itio n s now*
F a th e r/w ith te a r s in
e y es* s a y s w a n ts c h i l ­
d re n to h av e e d u c a tio n
so th e y w on’t h av e to
w o rk a s h a r d a s he does.
I s c o n c e rn e d a b o u t
b o y ’ s f a i l u r e * W ants
him t o go t o h ig h
sc h o o l*
L g h tly to u g h
r e m u s c u la r
r , ex p an d e d p e r -
( P a r e n ts a b le to g iv e
v e r y l i t t l e in f o r m a t i o n .
F a ttie r w as d e f e n s iv e a t
f i r s t - s a i d he c o u ld
h a n d le t h e b o y a t home
- he was g e n e r a l l y a
good b o y . M other
y*
F a m ily h a s p ro b a b ly
b e e n p u s h in g him to
a t t a i n acad em ic
s ta n d a r d s beyond h i s
a b ility *
F a t h e r came u p i n
d is tr e s s b ecau se o f
b o y ’ s p o o r m arks
la te r.
T eacher d id n o t c a l l
f o r f a t h e r b e c a u se
o f h is p u n itiv e a t ­
t i t u d e t o boy*
T eacher say s h is
a ca d em ic w o rk i s
poor but has tr ie d ,
a p p e a ra n c e b e t t e r ,
e tc * an d sh e w i l l
t r y t o p ro m o te h im .
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
186
e r f i n d s he
do homework,
r t s h o lle rin g
e s me th e
i t h a l l h is
CASE U +
Rorschach Interpreta tio n
II
Rorschach Interpreta tio n
I
P sy ch ia tric Exami­
n ation
spo
sai
hap
Vfant s t o make a n ad­
ju s tm e n t w i t h o u t e r
r e a l i t y an d t r i e s to
c o n tro l re a c tio n s but
fin d s d i f f i c u l t y in
d o in g t h i s .
O p en ly c o o p e r a tiv e b u t
e v id e n o e o f n e g a tiv is m
i n r e p e a t e d f a i l u r e to
re s p o n d to s p e c i f i c
d i r e c t i o n s and s u b s t i ­
t u t e h i s own m ethod o f
a c tio n .
I s i n o l i n e d t o be im­
p a t i e n t , u n a b le to
c o n c e n t r a t e , h a r d to
p i n down.
P r o b a b ly i n c l i n e d to be B e h a v io r u n r e p r e s s e d h a s ty , im p a tie n t, i r w a lk e d a b o u t th e room ,
r i t a b l e , e g o c e n tric .
fu s s e d w ith o b je c ts in
room .
Is s u g g e s tib le ,
f l i g h t y , p r o b a b ly ego­
c e n tric .
Becomes e a s i l y d i s ­
c o u ra g e d end i s i n ­
c l i n e d to g iv e up
ra th e r e a s ily .
I s e a s i l y d is c o u r a g e d ,
g iv e s up e a s i l y .
S om etim ss t h i n k s h e ’ l l
ru n array .
A nxious and in s e c u r e
and r e a c t s by b e in g
h o s t i l e . R a p p o rt v .lth
p e o p le p o o r a s a r e s u l t .
U s u a lly t r i e s to k eep
h i s f e e l i n g s u n d er
c o v e r b u t a t tim e s
R a p p o rt p o o r b e c a u se o f
h o s t i l i t y an d la c k o f
a ffe c tiv e a d a p ta b ility .
S e v e r e l y r e p r e s s e d now
b u t t h e r e i s e v id e n c e
o f u n d e r ly i n g a g g r e s ­
s iv e n e s s and e x c i t a -
Says m o th er smacks him
f o r e n u r e s i s . F e e ls
m o th er f a v o r s s i s t e r s .
Says he l i k e s h is
p a r e n t s and no one e ls e .
H o s t i l i t y to w a rd s c h o o l.
L ik es p r e s e n t t e a c h e r s .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Has
nal
pun
par
ash
lia t r ic Exami­
n a tio n
S o cia l H istory
P sych ological Exami­
nation
M iscellaneous Data
spo k e l i t t l e E n g lis h s a i d b o y w as a h e a lth y *
h ap p y b a b y ) .
T r ie d to b e c o o p e r a tiv e
b u t was v e r y im p u ls iv e
(s e e ab o v e)#
c o o p e r a tiv e b u t
>e o f n e g a t iv is m
>ated f a i l u r e to
1 to s p e c i f i c
.ons and s u b s t i Ls own m eth od o f
>r u n r e p r e s s e d a b o u t th e room*
v /ith o b j e c t s i n
R e s tle s s in a q u ie t
w ay, c o n s t a n t l y p la y in g
w i t h s o m e th in g . S p eech
v e ry ra p id .
nes t h i n k s he ’ 11
ly*
> ther smacks him
i r e s i s . F e e ls
fa v o rs s i s t e r s .
i lik e s h is
; and no one e l s e .
Lty to w a rd s c h o o l,
jre s e n t te a c h e r s .
Has o c c a s i o n a l n o c t u r ­
n a l e n u re s is . Is not
p u n is h e d b e c a u se
p a r e n t s f e e l he i s
asham ed o f i t .
R esponded much b e t t e r
w ith t h i s t e a c h e r .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CASE li+
Rorschach Interpreta tio n
II
Rorschach Interpreta tio n
I
b r e a k s o u t i n u n co n ­
t r o l l a b l e fa s h io n .
b i l i t y • P ro b a b ly
u s u a l l y a b l e to k eep
h is fe e lin g s under
c o v e r b u t a t tim e s
g iv e s v e n t to h i s h o s ­
t i l i t y . P r o b a b ly h a s
t h e s e r e a c t i o n s b e­
cause o f f e e lin g s o f
i n s e c u r i t y , in a d e q u a c y ,
and a n x i e t y .
E v id e n c e o f s e x
c o n flic t•
E v id e n c e o f p o s s i b le
sex c o n f l i c t .
(S ee d ia g n o s i s b e lo w ).
P sy ch ia tric Examin ation
Has d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h
t e a c h e r s he d o e s n ’t l i k e .
Cnee h i t a t e a c h e r .
F e e ls lik e h i t t i n g b o ssy
p e o p le i n th e ja w . Some­
tim e s f e e l s l i k e d o in g
th e o p p o s ite o f w h a t h e ’ s
s u p p o se d t o .
Some f o o d f a d s . Oc­
c a s io n a l p a in in le g s .
Beoomes b r e a t h l e s s * h a s
h e a r t p a in s when ru n ­
n in g f a s t an d th e n
d ro p s f e a r i n g he i s dy­
in g o f a h e a r t a t t a c k .
B lu r r in g o f e y e s when
r e a d i n g . (E x a m in a tio n
shows m ild m y o p ia, d i s ­
tu r b e d f u s i o n f u n c t i o n ) .
Daydream s o f b e in g a b ig
s h o t , s h o o tin g b ad g u y .
Same ty p e o f dream s and
some f e a r d re a m s.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
U'.tric Examiaat ion
S o c ia l H istory
P sych ological Examin ation
M iscellaneous Data
P ic u ltie s w ith
3 he d o e s n ’t l i k e .
; a te a c h e r.
Ike h i t t i n g b o s s y
Ln t h e ja w . Somes e ls l i k e d o in g
) s ite o f w hat h e ’ s
1 to •
>d f a d s . OcL p a in in le g s ,
b r e a t h l e s s , h as
p ain s w hen r u n s t an d t h e n
p a rin g he i s dyi h e a rt a tta c k .
; o f e y e s when
> (E x a m in a tio n
Lid m y o p ia , d i s itis io n f u n c t i o n ) .
as o f b e in g a b ig
lo o t in g b a d g u y .
3e o f dream s and
i r d re a m s.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
,
188
D is h e v e le d l o o k i n g , u n - P h y s ic a l e x a m in a tio n
c le a n o d o r.
m ild l o r d o s i s ,
p o o r body h y g ie n e ,
d is e a s e d t o n s i l s ,
g r a n u la r p h a r y n g i­
tis .
CASE 1k
Rorschach Interpre­
ta tio n
II
D iag n o s is
D is tu r b e d , c o n f l i c t e d
p e r s o n a l i t y . May be
te m p o r a r y a d o l e s c e n t
d is tu rb a n c e o r p o s s ib ly
a m ild n e u r o s i s .
Rorschach Interpreta tio n
I
S e v e r e ly r e p r e s s e d boy
who i s p r o b a b ly n e u r o t i c *
The d is tu r b a n c e may b e a
te m p o ra ry a d o l e s c e n t d i s ­
tu r b a n c e r a t h e r th a n a
f u l l f le d g e d n e u r o s i s .
S o c ia l a d a p t a t i o n i s
p o o r a n d he p r o b a b ly
t r i e s t o w ork o u t h i s
c o n f l i c t by w ith ­
d raw al .
T here i s a s e x con­
f l i c t and p o s s ib le
h y p o c h o n d ria c a l
symptoms ■
P sych iatric Exami­
nation
Im p r e s s io n : P e r s o n a l i t y
d is o rd e r; n e u ro tic
c o l o r i n g ; stro n g w is h
f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w ith
f a t h e r ; s tr o n g n e g a ­
t i v i s m a n d o p p o s iti o n
to a u t h o r i t y .
T h ere a r e p r o b a b ly com­
p u l s i v e f e a t u r e s . T here
i s e v id e n c e o f se x con­
flic t.
T re a tm e n t w o u ld p r o b a b ly
be d i f f i c u l t b e c a u se o f
d u l l i n t e l l i g e n c e , h is
im p a tie n t i r r i t a b i l i t y ,
and la c k o f a f f e c t i v e
a d a p ta b ility .
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
a t r ie Examia t io n
sio n : P e r so n a lity
erj n e u r o tic
ng; strong w ish
e n t i f i c a t i o n w ith
; stron g nega. and o p p o sitio n
h o r it y •
S o c ia l H istory
P sy c h o lo g ic a l Exami­
n a tio n
M iscella n eo u s Data
Conference - n o t
enough data to make
a d ia g n o s is -p o s s ib ly
even p r e p sy c h o tic .
189
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CASE 15
S ex:
Male
Ages
9 y e a r s 6 m o n th s
G rades 1+A
Problem of R e ferrals
Rorschach In terp retation
In te lle o tu a l
A s p e c ts
I n t e l l i g e n c e p r o b a b ly s u p e r i o r b u t tb s r e i s s e v e r e
d is tu r b a n c e w h ich i n t e r f e r e s
w ith i n t e l l e c t u a l fu n c tio n ­
in g *
Yery poor arith m etic in s p ite of
being tu to re d in reading#
P sy ch ia trio Examination
S o cia l H istor
T ea ch er say s he i s
d u ll* W*P*A* r e a d
Boy s a y s "R ead in g i s th e
f e e l s he h a s made
g r e s s - w i l l remem
b ig t r o u b l e * # . « I w a n t to
le a r n to read * "
d ay and n o t a n o th e
Says m o th e r h a s b e e n h e lp ­ tim e s h as b la n k pe
in g him s in c e h e e n t e r e d
he w i l l s t a r e i n t o
20 m in u te s * On t h
sc h o o l*
h a n d w ritin g i s poo
On B e t t s t e s t - m ild e s o p h o r ia
w h ic h c a u s e s some d e l a y i n
f u s i o n a t r e a d in g d i s t a n c e
b u t i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t to ex­
p la in boy’s d iffic u lty *
P e rs o n a lity
C o n fig u raicri P e r s o n a l i t y r e p r e s s e d * c o n As p ecvts 0n s t r i c t e d , w i t h s l i g h t l y
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
(M other seem ed dul'
g iv e l i t t l e i n f o n
■tfrmetic i n s p i t e o f h ig h I Q*
. i n r e a d in g *
S o c ia l H istory
T ense and d i s t u r b e d i n c l a s s - m ind w an d ers - i s
P sych ological Examination
M iscellaneous Data
(M other seem ed d u ll* c o u ld
g iv e l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n ) .
D u rin g B in e t e x a m in a tio n s ,
a l e r t , r e s p o n s i v e , q u ic k *
Q u ick , c o o p e r a tiv e oh
p h y s ic a l exam ination*M o-
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
190
T e a c h e r say s he i s v e r y
S u p e r io r i n t e l l i g e n c e o n i n d u ll* W*P*A* r e a d i n g t u t o r d i v i d u a l e x a m in a tio n b u t r e ­
f e e l s h e h a s made no p r o sp o n d s p o o r l y t o g ro u p t e s t s
g r e s s - w i l l rem em ber one
and s e l f - a d m i n i s t e r i n g t e s t s *
d ay and n o t a n o th e r * Some- A v erag e o n p e rfo rm a n c e t e s t s *
tim e s h a s b la n k p e r io d s when R e v is e d S t a n f o r d - B i n e t , Form
h e w i l l s t a r e i n t o sp a c e f o r L , a t S c h o o l 9 m o n th s b e f o r e
20 m in u te s * On t h e s e d ays
t h i s s t u d y , ! Q lll+* A c h ie v e h a n d w r itin g i s p o o rj je r k y * m en t 1 y e a r - lg - y e a r s r e t a r d e d
f o r g rad e*
R e v is e d S t a n f o r d - B i n e t , Form
II, I Q 110* i n t h i s stu d y *
S ch o o l a c h i s v a n e n t i n t o o l
s u b j e c t s ( M e tr o p o li ta n A c h ie v e ­
m e n t) l - |- 2 y e a r s r e t a r d e d f o r
g ra d e * A p p r o x im a te ly 3 y e a r s
r e t a r d e d i n a c h ie v e m e n t f o r
na
M*A* A r ith m e ti c fu n d a m e n ta ls
b e t t e r th a n r e a d i n g a n d s p e l l ­
in g i n s p i t e o f p ro b le m i n r e ­
f e r r a l . I n g rad e o y r. re ta rd e d fcr age .
In d iv id u a l tu to r in g
T e s ts showed l i t t l e im p ro v e­
showed 1 te r m ’ s g a i n on
m en t i n r e a d i n g , c o n firm in g
t e s t s i n 1 te rm . Sub­
t u t o r ’ s im p r e s s io n g a in e d 1
te rm i n 3 te rm s * L ack o f i n ­ j e c t i v e l y , im provem ent
seem s e v e n b e t t e r * Shows
t e r e s t * P r o b a b ly a a o t i o n a l
p o o r r e a c t i o n to t e s t s *
f a c t o r s a r e i n t e r f e r i n g w ith
le a r n in g *
CASE 15
Rorschach In terp reta tio n
P sy ch ia tric Examination
S ocial Histo:
s t r o n g e r te n d e n c y to w a rd
e x t r a v e r s i o n th a n i n t r o ­
v e rs io n .
T h ere i s i n s e c u r i t y and im m a tu ritv .
F e e ls f a t h e r buys m ore th i n g s
f o r b r o t h e r t h a n f o r h im ,
an d g e t s m ad.
T r i e s t o ev ad e h is p ro b lem s
and h a s v a r i o u s e s c a p e
m e ch an ism s.
(S ee b e lo w ) .
A p p eared t e n s e , r e s t l e s s ,
s ig h e d f r e q u e n t l y , t w i s t e d
h a n d s , w as d e f e n s iv e w ith
r e g a r d t o home s i t u a t i o n .
Spends much tim e daydream ­
in g v a r i a t i o n s o n them e o f
h a v in g a h o r s e an d c h a s in g
b a n d i t s , o r b e in g a b a n d i t
an d b e in g c h a s e d . A b so rb ed
i n d ay d rea m s.
C h ild i s t o t a l l y unaw are o f
h is h o s t i l i t y to p a r e n t s .
T ense end d is tu rb *
m ind w a n d e rs .
T h ere i s p a s s i v e n e g a t iv is m . Says m o th e r i s u p s e t b y h i s
p o o r s c h o o l m a rk s .
V ery d i s o b e d i e n t •
slo w i n d o in g a n y
ask ed - c a r e le s s ,
j u s t d o e s n ’t resp<
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
S o o ia l H istory
P sych ological Examination
M iscellaneous Data
When f i r s t s e e n a t B ureau*
t h e r s a y s he i s slo w a t
tim e s * a t o t h e r s i s
and g iv e n p e rfo rm a n c e * and
d i a g n o s t i c t e s t s r e a c t e d v e ry q u ic k , r e s p o n s iv e *
d iffe re n tly *
W ith p s y c h o l o g i s t who
A t f i r s t r e s e r v e d * u n f r i e n d l y * to o k him on f o r i n d i v i d u a l
th e n became r e s p o n s iv e i n
t u t o r i n g an d tr e a tm e n t
b a b y is h f a s h io n * r e s t l e s s
f i r s t d o c i l e , shy* I n e g u d u r in g acad em ic t e s t s * n eed e d l a r i n r e a c t i o n s *
much en co u rag em en t*
gs
J-*
CO
w
T ense end d i s t u r b e d i n c l a s s
m ind w an d ers*
V ery d i s o b e d i e n t - v e r y
slo w i n d o in g a n y th in g h e 's
a s k e d - c a r e l e s s . Som etim es
j u s t d o e s n 't resp o n d *
Dawdled daydream ed* p u t
f o r th l i t t l e e ffc r t in
l a t e r ch eo k on a c h ie v e ­
m e n t, r e s u l t s we r e n o t
r e l i a b l e * Checked a g a in 3
m onths l a t e r b e t t e r e f f o r t
b u t s t i l l poor re a c tio n
to t e s t s *
M other l a t e r s a y s h e i s
n o t c o n fid in g .
W ith p s y c h o l o g i s t a t t e n ­
t i o n w an d ers e a s i l y * F an­
ta s ie s *
S in g s and t a l k s
to h im s e lf when he p la y s *
W ith p s y c h o lo g i s t l a t e r *
E x p re s s e d n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e
irr e g u la r * At tiie s in d i f to w a rd r e a d in g an d t u t o r i n g
p e r io d s * D u rin g s e l f a d m in is ta f f e r e n t, r e s i s t a n t ( u s u a l l y
in g and s c h o o l t e s t s was
i f r e g u l a r te x tb o o k was
p re s e n te d ), a t tim e s ,
s lo w , d id n o t m a i n t a i n i n ­
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Rorschach In terp retation
Diag­
nosis
P sy ch ia tric Examination
S ocial H isto
O vertly he probably
i s g e n e ra lly q u ie t, pas­
s iv e , and. evasive.
Says mother h o lle rs a t him,
Tutor says he
but he never g ets mad a t h e r.
unpopular w it
Has frie n d s but c h ild re n
c h ild ren - ez
in school tea se him nI get so
g re s s iv e . Mot
mad I h ate th a n . I t j u s t
frie n d s chang
s t a r t s a fig h t most of th e tim e ,”- lik e s to go
Evidence o f severe d is ­
tu rb an c e.
Complains of headaches, vomit­
in g , f a in tin g s p e lls follow ing
vom iting. Vomits when given
food he d o e sn 't l ik e .
Record in d ic a te s n eu ro sis
P e rso n a lity disturbance w ith compulsive and p o ssib ly c h ild i s stro n g ly rep ressed h y s te ric a l symptoms,
shows passive negativism and
Im m aturity, in s e c u rity ,
probably some h y s te ric a l
evasiveness and passive n e g a -fe a tu re s,
tiv ism are o u tstan d in g .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Boy has alway
d e lic a te - po
has food fads
f a s t , re s tie s
S o c ia l H istory
P sych ological Examination
M iscellaneous Data
t e r e s t 4ong - a t tim es good
a l e r t , in te r s te d , sponconoentration - a t tim es s l i p - taneous. A lte rn a te s beshod, irre g u la r*
tween responsive and alocf
a ttitu d e •
A fter 3 months treatm en t
tea ch e r says he i s more
sofiiable, tu to r says
a ttitu d e o f c h ild re n has
changed - they now lik e
him*
n itving
en
A fter summer v a ca tio n
7 months l a t e r boy de­
n ie s p h y sical symptoms,
and d i f f ic u lt y w ith
parents*
i ad
Boy has always been s ic k ly ,
d e lic a te - poor e a te r has food fa d s , e ats very
f a s t , r e s t le s s sleeper*
192
Tutor says he i s very
er*
unpopular w ith the o th er
c h ild re n - extrem ely ag­
so
gressiv e* Mother says
frie n d s change fre q u e n tly
tim e.
lik e s to go wandering*
>
Conference: No diagnosis i m ­
p o ssib le a t t h i s time*
Should have a t r i a l
period o f treatm ent*
Boy ra p id ly l o s t th e few
n eu ro tic symptoms but
th e re was l i t t l e modi­
f ic a tio n o f behavior p a t­
te rn s - s t i l l unable to
apply him self sucoessfu l|r
in a ls a m in g s itu a tio n .
Tutoring to be con­
tin u e d .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CAS^ 16
Sexj Male
Ages 6 years 9 months
Grade; 1A
Problem o f R e ferrals
Rorschach In terp reta tio n
In te lle c tu a l
Aspects
D ifficult in school, v icio u s towa
throws things* Mother disturbed
school -g day because of rheumati
P sy ch ia tric Examination
S o cia l Histo
In te llig e n c e probably average - but unable to work
up to th is lev el*
Mother t r i e d to
reading b u t he t
ing nightm ares,
soon as she stop
th ese ceased*
Unable to give su stain ed
a tte n tio n , flig h ty *
Persona lity
Configu­
ra tio n
and
E m o tio n a l
Aspects
I n f a n tile
Immature, has bee
je a lo u s o f babybaby f a l l o ff bed
begun thumbsuokin
H asty, impetuous,egocen­
t r ic *
Never had o th er c
p la y w ith (always
where th e re were
dren)* Alien he do
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
ih o o l, v icio u s toward o th e r children* At home severe temper tantrum s, kicks m other,
» Mother d istu rb ed - weeps. F ather asked p r in c ip a l’ s advice. Child a tten d s
)ecause of rheum atio h e a r t.
S o cia l H istory
Immature, has been very
je a lo u s o f baby- once l e t
baby f a l l o f f bed - has
begun thumbsueking a g a in .
M iscellaneous Data
Average general ..a b ility ,
somewhat b e tte r w ith ver­
b a l th an vriih non verbal and
performance t e s t s but a l­
though -g- year below grade
fo r age, school work is
p r a c tic a lly n i l ; ir r e g u la r
attendance ,
Revised S ta n fo rd -B in e t, Form
L, I Q 10l+.
Below norms on standard
achievement t e s t s .
Poor v is u a l p ercep tio n on
E etts Ready-to-Re&d T ests,
193
Mother t r i e d to help h is
reading but he began hav­
ing nightm ares, and as
soon as she stopped,
th ese ceased.
P sych ological Examination
Fatigued e a s ily and became
pB rfunctory a t such tim e s.
(See below).
Very in f a n t il e in speech and
conversation a t tim es.
During 3 months tu to rin g
period showed ir r e g u la r
response. Very coopera­
tiv e a t f i r s t , then a
distu rb ed period i n which
he showed babyish re a c tio n
Never had o th e r c h ild ren to Responded ra p id ly , pleased
w ith p ra is e but in c lin e d to
p lay w ith (always liv e d
where th e re were no c h il­
give up e a s ily .
d re n ). T«hen he does fin d
One month a f t e r tre a tm e n t,
teacher rep o rte d him im­
p o ss ib le , r e s t l e s s , negat i v i s t i o - 2 months l a t e r
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CASE 1 6
Rorschach In terp retation
F lig h ty , u n co n tro lled ,
explosive*
Occasional temper out­
bu rsts*
P sy ch ia tr ic Examination
S o c ia l Hist<
playm ates wants !
way - d o e sn 't km
g e t along w ith o'
H its c h ild re n in
Cried h y s te ric a l
p a re n ts tu rn ed o:
address on rad io
Says he f e e ls w orst "When
f a i r y ta le * thou,
she puts me to bed and leasresbeen explained b
the baby sta y up#
He becomes annoy
Evasive about school*
he has to go to
About h ittin g ch ild ren says* baby - kicks sor
"They d o n 't do nothing* I
comes n e g a tiv is t
j u s t lik e h ittin g them*"
and woke baby an
naughty in schoo
- mother thre&im
stra p and he scr
(See statem ent o
of r e f e r r a l abov
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
S o cia l H istory
P sych ological Examination
M iscellaneous Data
playmates wants h is own
re p o rts improvement way - doesn’t know how to
•will s i t on se a t now,
g e t along w ith other children#
doesn’t poke children#
H its ch ild ren in school#
3 months l a t e r (6 months
Cried h y s te r ic a lly when
a f te r o rig in a l re p o rt)
p are n ts tu rn ed on p re s id e n t’ s
tea ch e r says he now gets
address on rad io in stea d of
along w ith c h ild re n , is
(See above - fa tig u e d e a s ily ) in te r e s te d , v o lu n te e rs,
f a i r y t a l e , though i t had
re s tle s s #
o c c a sio n ally backslides#
•esbeen explained before#
He beoomes annoyed because
M other's handling changed
he has to go to bed before
some - a t f i r s t s t i l l
s, baby - kicks screams, be­
comes n e g a tiv is tic # Shouted
complaina o f disobedience,
etc# then two months l a t e r H
and woke baby and was
naughty in school re c e n tly
says he i s n o t so demand- ^
- mother th re aimed him w ith
in g , has improved# Father
stra p and he screamed#
a t th a t time sees g re a tly
(See statem ent o f problem
improved r e la tio n s with
of r e f e r r a l above)#
baby, no sleep d iffic u lty #
Two months l a t e r (6 months
a f te r 1 st re p o rt) re p o rts
he now gets along w ith
baby, expresses open d is ­
lik e fo r m other, though,
t e l l s her he h ates her#
During one d istu rb ed
period in tu to rin g showed
some apprehension and nega
tivism # G enerally appre­
hensive of any new m ater­
ia l# Heeds much encourage­
m e n t^ end o f 3 month
period in te r e s te d in read­
in g , spontaneous, had over
come fo m e r apprehension#
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Rorsohach In terp retation
Extremely dependent and anxious*
P sy ch ia tric Examination
Expressed h o s t i l i t y to mother
and jea lo u sy of baby* "She
lik e s the baby best*" "She's
h o rrib le * " O ccasional fe a rs
o f being attacked* In dreams
same animals* etc* tftS baby*
Suggestible but unable
Uneasy but q u ite suggestible*
to r e ta in suggestion be­
cause of extreme v o l a t i l i t y .
Shows negativism but t r i e s
to cover i t up*
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
S ocial H ist
Dependent • V
any a tte n tio n
show baby* Ge
when baby c r i
mother to tak
Is tire d -to o
fu ssy e a te r t
feeding d i f f i
When mother t
began crying
waking up scr
stopped w ith c
tu to rin g * but
g e t enough si
Mother says h
s e l f w illed*
t h e r 's indulg
him worse* Fo
days refused
throws clo th e
Child has alw
- now has rhe
Was only c h il
then baby was
ago* Behavior
w ith m other's
came in c re a s i
Family physic
d istu rb ed by
w ith jealo u sy
S o cia l H istory
Psyc ho lo g ic a l Examination
M iscellaneous Data
(See re a c tio n s to t r e a t ­
ment and tu to rin g above
and below ).
ter
i
s
s
ms
•
e#
Mother says he i s stubborn
s e l f w illed * Thinks fa ­
t h e r 's indulgence makes
him worse# For past few
days refu sed to d re s s ,
throws c lo th e s on f lo o r .
Child has always been sic k ly
- now has rheum atic heart#
Was only c h ild t i l l 6 y e a rs,
then baby was born 9 months
ago# Behavior problem began
w ith m o th e r's pregnancy, be­
came in c re a s in g ly serious*
Family p h ysician says boy is
d istu rb e d by baby, re a c tin g
w ith jealousy# P aren ts had
P a th e tic , t i r e d , w orried
looking# O vertly respon­
siv e but th e re seemed to
be an undertone o f ap­
prehension# Quite anxious.
■Khan given much re a ss u r­
ance, would tr y and o fte n
succeed on item s a t f i r s t
refused#
195
Dependent# Very je a lo u s of
any a tte n tio n r e la tiv e s
show baby# Gets nervous
when baby c rie s# Has asked
mother to tak e baby away#
Is tir e d - to o t i r e d to e a tfu ssy e a te r though no
feed ing d i f f i c u l t y easier#
When mother tu to re d him
began crying in h is sle e p ,
waking up screaming# That
stopped w ith c e ss a tio n of
tu to r in g , but now d o e sn 't
g e t enough sleep#
(See above)
P hysical - underweight
p o ssib le rheum atic h e a rt
co n d itio n .
F ather seems to have in ­
s ig h t in to bo y 's problem
and i s a ffe c tio n a te (Moth­
e r c a n 't understand boy)
F ather says he noted
je a lo u sy of baby inmedia te ly and h o s t i l i t y to
mother# F ather says moth­
er cuddles baby, c en ters
a l l her a ff e c tio n on baby,
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CASE 1 6
Rorschach In te rp re a tio n
P sy c h ia tric Examination
Child describes s t r i c t #
r ig id handling by mother*
Diagn o sis
Behavior problem unable to ad ju st w ith
a group#
Behavior problem n eurotic ooloring#
I n te r p r e ta tio n te n ta tiv e
because of boy's age#
Need d ir e c t th erap y fo r
c h ild through play
technique and treatm en t
and education of mother
in handling#
Social H istory
always given him n
te n tio n since he v,
sickly# Mother saj
happy, good nature
her pregnancy# Phj
s ta te s mother hanc
very rig id ly #
A dditional l a t e r d a ta : Mother was tre a te d by 1
s ta b iliz e d he was taken on by th e ps;
the p s y c h ia tris t# Most o f the mater:
column M iscellaneous Data# He showei
ship w ith the baby, was le s s demsndi:
f i c u l ty w ith h is mother# expressing ’
but re tu rn e d to school a month la te :
and temper tantrum s again a t school#
scream when put to bed# A fter some '
is g e n e ra lly improved but s t i l l bad 1
cleared up# b u t behavior s t i l l u n sta
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
S ocial H istory
P sych ological Examination
always given him much a t ­
te n tio n since he was
sickly* Mother says he was
happy, good natured u n t i l
h er pregnancy* Physician
s ta te s mother handles boy
very rig id ly *
M iscellaneous Data
doesn’t th in k she ever
f e l t toward t h i s boy as
she does toward baby*
(When brought by fa th e r
to tu to rin g sessions a l­
ways seemed q u ie te r,
h a p p ie r, le s s tense then
when brought by m other).
Responding to poor hanalin g on j a r t of mother*
Jealousy of mother i s
producing re g re ssiv e be­
h a v io r. Thumbsueking*
Too d istu rb ed for lea rn ­
ing now* Tutoring ad­
v is a b le a f t e r p sy c h ia tric
treatm ent fo r some time
i f he quiets down*
Tutoring began a fte r a
few months o f treatm ent*
fcher was tre a te d by so c ial worker* child', by p s y c h ia tris t* "When he was s u f f ic ie n tly
s taken on by th e psychologist f o r tu to rin g * w hile he was s t i l l being tr e a te d by
■ Most of the m ate ria l o f th e 6 months follow ing h is r e f e r r a l i s included in the
eous Data* He showed much b e tte r school a ttitu d e s a t th a t time* a b e tte r r e la tio n ty* was le s s demanding a t home* had b e tte r sleep and food h a b its , but had more d ifmother* expressing h is d is lik e to her openly* During th a t summer he got along well*
school a month la t e , because o f i l l n e s s , was discouraged* u p s e t, showed h o s tility *
urns again a t school* h i t c h ild re n , l o s t i n te r e s t in tu to rin g * began to shout and
to bed* A fter some treatm en t again improved* Mother says he plays w ith children*
roved but s t i l l bad a t home* P s y c h ia tris ts im pression: n e u ro tic elements in behavior
behavior s t i l l unstable* re la tio n s h ip s insecure*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
196
Disturbance may continue
to in te r f e r e -with h is
learning*
CA SE 1 7
Sex:
M a le
A ge:
7 y e a r s U m o n th s
G r a d e : 2A
P ro b le m o f R e f e r r a l :
Rorschach In terp reta tion
In te llo o tu a l
A s p e c ts
S eem s to l i v e i n a d re a m w o rld o f
r e l e v a n t th i n g s . G ru n ts , g ro a n s
P sych iatric Examination
S ocial Histo
I n te llig e n c e v e ry s u p e r io r ,
w e l l ro u n d e d .
A tte n d e d p a r o c h i a l
a s h o r t tim e .
Good a b s t r a c t and c o n c r e te
in te llig e n c e .
F a th e r say s boy ha
th a n a v e ra g e i n t e l
Shows a c o m b in a tio n o f
m a t u r i t y an d im m a tu r ity .
A c ti v e , a l e r t , im a g in a tio n
and f l e x i b l e r i c h a s s o c i a ­
tio n s .
P ro b a b ly a r t i s t i o .
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
P ro g re sse d re g u la r
s c h o o l w ith Cs i n
an d c o n d u c t.
i n a dream w o r ld o f h i s own# I n m id d le o f l e s s o n w i l l jump u p an d c a l l o u t i r .g s. G r u n ts , g ro a n s a n d t a l k s a good d e a l .
S o cia l H istory
A tte n d e d p a r o c h i a l s c h o o l
a s h o rt tim e .
F a t h e r sa y s boy h as b e t t e r
th a n a v e ra g e i n t e l l i g e n c e .
P sych ological Examination
M iscellaneous Data
B oth e x a m in a tio n s i n d i c a t e d
boy w as h a n d ic a p p e d b y d i f ­
f i c u l t y i n co m p reh en d in g
v e rb a l in s tr u c tio n s b ecau se
o f f o r e i g n la n g u a g e b a c k ­
g ro u n d . H ig h e r on p e rfo rm a n c e
te s t.
P ro g re sse d r e g u la r ly in
s c h o o l w ith Cs i n w ork
an d c o n d u c t.
R ead in g an d num ber w o rk 1
te rm below g r a d e , b u t f a i r
c o n s id e r in g h i s h a n d ic a p s .
Poor w r i t i n g - i s a m b id e x tr o u s .
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
197
I n te llig e n c e p ro b a b ly a v e r­
a g e . P re v io u s e x a m in a tio n
a t a h o s p ita l c lin ic , 1
y e a r 9 m o n th s b e f o r e t h i s
s tu d y - sh o w ed S ta n f o r d B in e t I Q 85* M e r r ill P a l­
m er I Q 103* P re s e n t Ex­
a m in a tio n sh o w s R e v is e d
S t a n f o r d - B i n e t , F o rm L ,
I Q 8 6 , A rth u r P e rfo rm a n c e
P ij, 1 0 1 . R e s u lts a r e m in i­
m a l.
CASE 17
Rorschach Interpretation.
P e rs o n ­
a lity
C o n fig u ­
ra tio n
and
E h io tio n a l
A s p e c ts
P sych iatrio Examination
S ocial Histc
S u p e r f i c i a l l y a d j u s t i n g on
a n e x t r a v e r t e d l e v e l now b u t
e s s e n t i a l l y p r o b a b ly m ore
in tro v e rs iv e •
R ic h f a n t a s y l i f e # P r o b a b ly
much o f th e c o n te n t o f h i s
fa n ta s ie s i s v io le n t,
h o s t i l e , a g g r e s s iv e #
D aydream ing - a t tim e s
s c a t t e r e d th o u g h t p r o c e s s e s #
A l i t t l e in c o h e re n c e #
on
Much o f f a n t a s y f i r e s - t i g e r
b e in g b u r n e d , b u rn in g t h e
w o r ld , s a i l o r on a b o a t an d
a m a tc h w a lk s i n and s e t s i t
on f i r e , e tc #
S ch o o l r e p o r t s in
seem s t o l i v e i n
w o r ld o f h i s own#
m id d le o f le s s o n
up and c a l l o u t i
th in g s #
G r u n ts , g r o a n s , a
a g r e a t d e a l#
(S ee b elo w h o s p i t
m i s s io n 1)#
P ro b a b ly a ls o h as b e h a v io r
d iffic u ltie s #
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F u s s y e a t e r - mus
be g iv e n u n d iv id e
w h ile e a t in g # Ha
f o r c e d to go to s
e a t , go to s c h o o l
S o cia l H istory
Psychological Examination
M iscellaneous Data
E a r l i e r e x a m in a tio n s t a t e d
he w as c o o p e r a tiv e * b u t
f i d g e t y w hen a p p r e h e n s iv e *
D uring se c o n d i n t e r v i e w o f
p r e s e n t e x a m in a tio n w as
f r i e n d l y , a t ea se *
es*
ig e r
G r u n ts , g r o a n s , and t a l k s
a g r e a t d e a l.
P re o c c u p ie d - a t t e n t i o n
v e r y p o o r d u r in g p h y s i c a l
exam ina tio n *
C o n fe re n c e : g r o a n s ,
g r u n ts e tc * p r o b a b ly
a r i s e fro m h i s p re o c c u p a ­
t i o n w i t h f a n ta s y *
(S ee b elo w h o s p i t a l a d mi s s io n $ •
F u s s y e a t e r - m u st be f e d o r E r r a t i o
be g iv e n u n d iv id e d a t t e n t i o n
w h ile e a t in g * Has to be
f o r c e d to go to s l e e p , d r e s s ,
e a t , go to s c h o o l
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
198
nd
it
S c h o o l r e p o r t s i n p ro b le m , I r r e l e v a n t and a t tim e s i n seem s t o l i v e i n a dream c o h e r e n t c o n v e r s a t io n
w o r ld o f h i s own* I n
m id d le o f l e s s o n w i l l jump
(S ee below )*
up an d c a l l o u t i r r e l e v a n t
th i n g s *
CASE 1 7
Rorschach In terp retation
P sy ch ia tric Examination
S o c i a l Ha
E x tre m e ly im p u ls iv e , h y p e r ­
a c t i v e , and a t tim e s u n ­
s ta b le .
N e rv o u s, jumpy,
ways b e e n r e s t ]
a c tiv e , never s
Asks many quesi
fo r a tte n tio n •
i n f o r m a tio n . C
a b o u t p o s s e s s ic
V ery e g o c e n t r i o , h o s t i l e ,
and n e g a t i v i s t i c , and g iv e s
e x p r e s s io n t o h i s c o n f l i c t
b o th i n b e h a v io r and i n
fa n ta s y .
Im m e d ia te ly b eg an w ith
J e a lo u s o f babj
c o m p la in ts a g a i n s t b r o t h e r ■ n o t know a b o u t
op en r i v a l r y and h o s t i l i t y . he r e tu r n e d frc
home and fo u n d
two u n f o r tu n a te
away from home,
ta k e s b a b y ’ s tl:
on b a b y 's c r i b ,
no good - p a re r
w i l l h a m baby,
f i g h t a good de
c h ild re n .
Was r e f e r r e d tc
t e r sw a llo w in g
B reaks and th r c
w reck s th e hous
t o y s . G lo a ts 3
p o s i t e o f w h at
q u e s t ( a t tim es
M other s i c k as
l o s t 30 pounds
y e a r s • R ed en t!
money fro m home
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
S o cia l HistoryN e rv o u s , jum py. Has a l ­
w ays b e e n r e s t l e s s , h y p e r­
a c tiv e , never s its s t i l l .
A sks many q u e s ti o n s - some
f o r a t t e n t i o n - some f o r
i n f o r m a t i o n . C a r e le s s
ab o u t p o s s e s s io n s .
P sych ological Examination
M iscellaneous Data
I n t e r e s t sp a sm o d ic , f l u c ­
M ild o v e r a o t i v i t y d u rin g
t u a t i n g . U nable to g iv e
p h y s ic a l e x a m in a tio n . Fa­
c o n c e n tr a te d a t t e n t i o n .
t h e r s a y s c h i l d c r i e s and
T a lk e d to h im s e lf w h ile
la u g h s i n o r d i n a t e l y a t
w o rk in g . Sometimes i r r e l e ­
m o v ie s .
v a n t an d a t tim e s i n c o h e r e n t .
Sometimes w o u ld r e p e a t o v e r
and o v e r . Work h a p h a z a rd .
P o s s i b le e m o tio n a l i n s t a b i l i t y .
A t f i r s t s u l l e n , n e g a t i v i s t i o , S ib lin g r i v a l r y an d h o s­
J e a lo u s o f b a b y . Boy d id
r e f u s e d t o accom pany e x a m in e r. t i l i t y a g a i n s t p a r e n t s
n o t know a b o u t b a b y t i l l
b r o u g h t o u t a g a in i n
he r e t u r n e d fro m te m p o ra ry D u rin g seco n d i n t e r v ie w when
home and fo u n d i t .
He h ad he was f r i e n d l y , gave e v id e n c e t r e a t m e n t .
CO
to
two u n f o r t u n a t e p la c e m e n ts o f n e g a tiv is m - w henever g iv e n
away fro m home. H i t s b a b y , a c h o ic e o f d o in g so m eth in g im­-M other s t a t e s , a f t e r some
ta k e s b a b y ’ s t h i n g s , jum ps m e d ia te r e s p o n s e was n o . vfhen- tr e a t m e n t , t h a t h e h a s ia t
e v e r t o l d to do so m eth in g made provedocm e b u t f a t h e r to o
on b a b y 's c r i b , c a l l s him
h ig h s tr u n g , b e a t s him
no good - p a r e n t s a f r a i d he no o b j e c t i o n ,
and boy becom es d e f i a n t .
w i l l h a m b a b y . U sed to
R e c u r r e n t c o m p la in ts t h a t
f i g h t a good d e a l w i t h o t h e r
he f i g h t s w ith c h i l d r e n ,
c h ild re n .
i s c o n tra ry .
Was r e f e r r e d to h o s p i t a l a f ­
t e r sw a llo w in g m a tc h e s .
B reaks and th ro w s t h i n g s ,
w re c k s t h e h o u s e , b r e a k s
t o y s . G lo a ts i n d o in g op­
p o s ite o f w hat p a re n ts r e ­
q u e s t ( a t tim e s i s s p a n k e d ) .
M other s i c k as a r e s u l t l o s t 30 pounds i n l a s t two
y e a r s . R e d e n tly s t e a l i n g
money fro m home - some l y i n g .
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CASE 1 7
R orsch ach I n t e r p r e t a t io n
P s y c h ia tr ic
E x a m in a t io n
S o c i a l H is t o r ;
M arked a n x i e t y . P r o b a b ly
p h o b ic m a t e r i a l .
Showed h e s i t a t i o n i n le a v in g N ig h t t e r r o r s - fei
f a t h e r # th e n h e l d o n t o
p s y c h ia tr is t* s hand.
P o s s i b le h y p o c h o n d r ia c a l
symptoms •
S ay s h e c a n 't e a t much# " I
g o t to o much i n m e .”
V ery s e n s i t i v e and i r ­
r i t a b l e # becom es e a s i l y
u p s e t.
Has n e rv o u s spasm
c le n c h e s h a n d . No
h a b its above.
E x tre m e ly s e n s i t i v
f r e q u e n t te m p e r ta
F a th e r d a te s e x tre
v o u s n e s s fro m c irc
a t 2g-. C rie d a l l
h o s p i t a l , h a d n ig t
D ia g n o s is
M arked b e h a v io r d is tu r b a n c e
(S ee ab o v e)
w i t h some n e u r o t i c sym ptom s.
H y p e ra c tiv e # u n a b le t o ad­
j u s t w i t h p e o p le . N a r c i s s i s ­
t i c . A c tiv e f a n t a s y and p ro b ­
a b l y p h o b ia s .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
S o cia l H istory
Lng N ig h t t e r r o r s - f e a r f u l *
P sy c to lo g ic a l Examination
F u ll o f f e a r e x h ib ite d as
b ra v a d o •
200
I t was fo u n d n e g a t iv is m a t
f i r s t i n t e r v i e w was due to
ex tre m e a p p r e h e n s io n t h a t
f a t h e r w o u ld le a v e him t o
b e p la c e d o u t a g a in * Was
r e a s s u r e d * becam e m ore a t
e a se * b u t p e r i o d i c a l l y
w ould become a n x io u s an d ap­
p r e h e n s iv e a g a in * C r ie d
an d h a d to b e ta k e n t o s e e
f a th e r p e rio d ic a lly *
T e s t­
in g was p o s tp o n e d f o r a
seco n d i n t e r v i e w when he was
a t e a se *
M iscellaneous Data
Has n e rv o u s spasm o f e y e ,
c le n c h e s hand* N ote fo o d
h a b i t s above*
P h y s ic a l fin d in g s m y o p ia - (H a s g l a s s e s )
b o rd e rlin e n u tritio n *
E x tre m e ly s e n s i t i v e , h a s
f r e q u e n t te m p e r ta n tru m s *
R esp o n d s r e a d i l y to
p ra is e , e a s ily d is ­
c o u ra g e d * s e n s i t i v e t o
c ritic is m *
F a t h e r d a te s e x tre m e n e r ­
v o u s n e s s fro m c ir c u m c is io n
a t 2g* C r ie d a l l w eek a t
h o s p ita l, had n ig h t te rro rs *
E a r lie r h o s p ita l re p o rt
s ta te d c h ild ’ s d if f ic u l­
t i e s w ere p s y c h o g e n ic . He
w as sh ow ing r e g r e s s i v e b e ­
h a v i o r f o llo w in g b i r t h o f
b r o t h e r - showed im p ro v ed
b e h a v io r i n c o n v a le s c e n t
home •
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CASE 1 7
R o rsc h a c h I n t e r p r e t a t i o n
P s y c h i a t r i c E x a m in a tio n
S o c ia l H is to r
P o s s i b l y h y p o c h o n d ria c a l
symptoms .
P s y c h i a t r i c r e - e x a m in a tio n
1 y e a r l a t e r : no n e u r o s i s b u t
p o s s i b l e p sy c h o p a th y #
A d d iti o n a l L a t e r D a ta : A f t e r some p s y c h i a t r i c
t u t o r i n g an d th e r a p y w i t h t h e boy*
m ant a t home* He b e g a n to s a t b e t t
m en t s to p p e d p a r e n t s w ere u n a b le to
S ch o o l t h r e a t e n e d to p la c e him. b e c a
m ant a g a in th o u g h r e s u l t s m ig h t be
t h e boy* w a n te d him p la o e d # F a th e r
o n ly becom es m ore d e f ia n t# M o th er
i r r i t a b l e when a t t e n t i o n i s p a id t o
vrent t o d o c to r - w a n ts boy p la c e d o
l a t i o n s w ith c h i l d r e n im proved* g e t
fears#
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
S o cia l H istory
Psychological Examination
M iscellaneous Data
C o n feren c e - p s y c h i a t r i s t
f e e l s t h e r e may be
s c h i z o i d e l a n e n t s i n th e
p e rs o n a lity *
n
but
f t e r some p s y c h i a t r i c s o c i a l w ork w i t h p a r e n t s , p s y c h i a t r i o t r e a t m e n t an d p s y c h o lo g ic a l
h e r a p y w i t h t h e b o y , h e becam e l e s s u n p r e d i c t a b l e i n s c h o o l, and showed g r e a t im p ro v eHe b e g a n t o s a t b e t t e r , w as n i c e r to th e b a b y , s t e a l i n g c e a s e d . H owever, w hen t r e a t a r e n t s w ere u n a b le t o h a n d le him c o n s i s t e n t l y a n d n e x t te rm he was a g a in r e f e r r e d ,
n e d to p la c e him b e c a u s e o f s h r i e k i n g , h i t t i n g c h i l d r e n . I t w as d e c id d d to t r y t r e a t ug h r e s u l t s m ig h t be q u e s t i o n a b l e . F a th e r b e g a n se n d in g r e c u r r e n t c o m p la in ts a b o u t
d him p l a o e d . F a th e r u n a b le t o c o n t r o l te m p e r w i t h boy and when c h i l d i s p u n is h e d , he
o r e d e f i a n t . M o th er s t a t e s b o y i s good w hen a lo n e w i t h h e r , e x o e p t t h a t he becom es
, a t t e n t i o n i s p a id t o b a b y . M other r e p o r t s f a t h e r on v e r g e o f n e rv o u s b reakdow n - w a n ts boy p la c e d o u t , b u t a g r e e s to t r y t r e a t m e n t a g a i n . A f t e r some t r e a t m e n t r e h i l d r e n im p ro v e d , g e t s a lo n g w i t h b r o t h e r , s l e e p s w ith o u t t e r r o r s , seems t o haire l o s t
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
201
P a r e n ts d i s g u s t e d - w an t
to p la c e c h i l d - n e e d
f o r w ork w ith p a r e n t s ,
b o th o f whom a r e h ig h s t r u n g , i m p a t i e n t w ith
him - b e f o r e t r e a t m e n t
o f c h ild .
CASE 18
S ex :
H a le
A ge:
8 y e a r s 1 m onth
G rade: 2B
P roblem o f R e f e r r a l :
R o rsc h a c h I n t e r p r e ­
ta tio n
II
In te lle o tu a l
A s p e c ts
L iv es i n a w o r ld o f h i s own; fo l"
i n a fog* T r i e s , b u t d o es v e r y j
to g e t o u t o f d i f f i c u l t i e s # F ig l
Rorschach In terp re­
t a t io n
I
P s y c h ia tr ic Exami­
n a tio n
I n t e l l i g e n c e p r o b a b ly
I n t e l l i g e n c e s u p e r io r *
s u p e r io r b u t p e rfo rm a n ce
B ecau se o f im p u is iv e i r r e g u l a r an d u n p r e d ic ta b le , n e s s and e m o tio n a l d is ­
tu r b a n c e i s n o t alw ay s
a b le t o f u n c t i o n up to
t h i s le v e l*
Shows a m ix tu r e o f ma­
t u r i t y and im m a tu r ity .
Shows a m ix tu r e o f ma­
t u r e and i n f a n t i l e r e ­
a c tio n s .
Is a l e r t , c u rio u s , b u t
somewhat d is o r g a n i z e d .
Is a l e r t , curious
F in d s i t d i f f i c u l t to
a tte n d to d e t a i l s .
I s i n c l i n e d to be some­
w h at im p a ti e n t and
w ould p r o b a b ly be
c a r e l e s s i n w o rk in g on
d e ta ils *
S u stained in t e r e s t s
rath er lim ited *
L ik e s to make a i r ­
p la n e s an d b o a ts *
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Dr I d o f h i s own; f o llo w s h i s own i n c l i n a t i o n s * w a lk s a ro u n d th e c la s s ro o m a s th o u g h
r ie s * b u t does v e r y p o o r w o rk . S t e a l s t r i v i a l a r t i c l e s fro m o t h e r c h i l d r e n . L ie s
C d i f f i c u l t i e s . F i g h t s w i t h o th e r c h i l d r e n .
t i i a t r i c Exami­
n a tio n
S o c ia l H i s t o r y
F a th e r e x p r e s s e d f e a r
boy w as d u ll* oom pared
him u n f a v o r a b ly w ith
s i s t e r - b r ig h t * good
m a rk s .
s to make a i r 3S an d b o a t s .
M is c e lla n e o u s D ata
S u p e r io r a b i l i t y - b e t ­
t e r on p e rfo rm a n c e * and
non la n g u a g e th a n on v e r ­
bal te s ts .
R e v is e d S t a n f o r d - B i n e t ,
Form L* I Q 1 1 1 .
(A r th u r P o i n t - S c a l e , I ,
h i g h e r ) C o r r e c t g ra d e
f o r ag e b u t a c h ie v e m e n t
in to o l s u b je c ts
year
to 1 y e a r b e lo w g r a d e ,
a lm o s t 2 y e a r s below
B in e t M.A.
R a p id , a l e r t , i n t e r ­
e s t e d an d c h a lle n g e d
by a l l b u t s c h o o l
a c h ie v e m e n t t e s t s .
In te re s te d in a i r ­
p l a n e s , guns* w a n ts
to be a G man (See
t e a c h e r 's r e p o r t
b e lo w ) *
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
202
R e p e a te d IB
M o th er c o n s id e r s
sch o o l f a ilu r e p a ra ­
m ount .
P s y c h o lo g ic a l Exam in a tio n
CASE 18
Rorschach Interp re-
P e rso n a lity
C o n fig u ra tio n
an d
E m o tio n a l
A s p e c ts
F a i r l y e x p an d e d p e r s o n a li ty w ith l o t h
in tr o v e r s iv e an d ex tra te n s iv e p o s s ib ilitie s .
Rorschach In terp re-
P sych iatric Exami-
Expanded* warm* a l e r t
p e r s o n a l i t y w ith b o th
e x t r a t e n s i v e an d i n tr o v e r s iv e re a c tio n s *
In c o n g ru o u s m ix tu r e
o f m a t u r i t y and im m a tu r it y #
Is
buabi
he
ch:
cu
fu
wh
E v id en o e o f s t r o n g
c o n f l i c t an d a n x i e t y
a t p r e s e n t*
E v id e n c e o f i n s e c u rity *
In
ho
cl
te:
an
fe
th
Som etim es w e l l c o n t r o l l e d b u t h is anxie ty d is tu rb s h is
c o n t r o l * C o n tr o l i s
e a s i l y d i s t u r b e d and
t r i e s to c o v e r up h i s
d is tu r b a n c e b y e v a s io n
o r h y p e ra c tiv ity .
E m o tio n a l s t i m u l i o v e r whelm him a t f i r s t *
T r ie s to s u p p r e s s h i s
e m o tio n a l r e a c t i o n s
a n d a t tim e s i s s u e c e s s f u l i n d o in g s o ,
b u t m ore o f t e n he i s
c o m p le te ly o v e r w helm ed b y e m o tio n a l
s t i m u l i an d i s u n a b le to a d j u s t * Cont r o l is e a s ily d is t u r b e d . E n o tio n a l
r a r e l y w e ll i n t e g ra te d w ith i n t e l l e c t u a l f u n c tio n in g *
Te
no'
wh
in
ge
of
ab
Us
ha
Pi
pa
th
is
Says he t a k e s th in g s *
h id e s th em , ' ' I t seems
t h a t I g o t to ta k e i t * "
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
a tr ic Examia tio n
S o cia l History-
I s v e r y d e m o n s tr a tiv e
b u t f a t h e r t e a s e s him
a b o u t i t . M other s a y s
he was a c t i v e , m is ­
c h ie v o u s b a b y . D i f f i ­
c u lty ( r e s tle s s n e s s ,
f u s s i n e s s , e t c . ) b eg a n
vrhen he e n t e r e d s c h o o l.
A t f i r s t tim id b u t
r a p i d l y becam e v e r y
r e s p o n s iv e .
M iscellaneous Data
T im id , f e a r f u l d u r­
in g m e d ic a l exam i­
n a tio n .
(See b elo w p a r e n t s d r i v e to w a rd
academ ic a c h ie v e ­
m en t c o n t r i b u t i n g
to p r o b le m ) .
I n 13 w as r e f e r r e d to a
h o s p i t a l m e n ta l h y g ie n e
c l i n i o by - v i s i t i n g
te a c h e r b u t p a re n ts
a n t a g o n i s t i c and r e ­
f e r r a l w as n o t c a r r i e d
th r o u g h .
R ep re sse d , f e a r o f
shov/ing a n y h o s ­
t i l i t y l e s t he l o s s
p a r e n ts ' lo v e •
L a te r f a th e r c i t e s
ex a m p le , t o show
boy i s a n x io u s, r e ­
p re sse s h is f e e l­
in g s .
T ea ch er r e p o r t s he i s
n o t d e f i a n t , m i l do
vrtiat he i s a s k e d , b u t
i n a few m in u te s f o r ­
g e t s and i s a g a i n o u t
o f s e a t , w a n d e rin g
a b o u t.
Used to g r u n t b u t t h i s
has ce a se d .
P ic k s up s m a ll a r t i c l e s
- p e n c ils , sc ra p s o f
p a p e r , e t c . and h id e s
th e m . I f a s k e d f o r them
i s a p t t o c r y . M other
I s s e n s i t i v e to
c r i t i c i s m an d e a s i l y
d is c o u r a g e d .
I n m o v ies becom es
o v e r e x c ite d - g ra b s
w hoever i s n e x t to
him an d h u g s h im .
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
203
bakes t h i n g s ,
3m, " I t seems
> t to t a k e i t . "
P sych ological Examin a tio n
-CL-
CASS 18
Rorschach Interpreta tio n
II
Rorschach Interpreta tio n
I
P sy ch ia tric Examin ation
P r o b a b ly becom es h y p e r­
a c t i v e whan d is tu r b e d #
H y p e r a c t i v i t y an d
u n c o n t r o l l e d b e h a v io r
a r e p r o b a b ly due to
h i s c o n f l i c t and t e n ­
s io n s *
says
th in
and !
R e s e n ts t u t o r i n g s e s ­
s io n w ith f a t h e r .
P r o b a b ly h a s n i g h t m a re s an d much p h o b ic
m a te ria l.
Fath<
c e ra
VOUSl
Says he g e t s l i c k i n g
from f a t h e r when he has
p o o r m a rk s , o r i s pun­
is h e d b y d e p r i v a t i o n .
Som etim es d o e s n ’ t c a r e .
Sometimes s c a r e d and
lo c k s s e l f i n b a th ­
room .
P ro b a b ly h a s o c c a s io n a l
ta m p e r ta n tr u m s .
E v id e n c e o f muoh
a c t i v e f a n ta s y *
S
sa y s
h ard
re s t!
tria i
chil<
tria i
it.
p u n i,
” 1 dc
Llothc
p u n i;
When
t o b<
g e ts
" I dc
P ro b a b ly a b s o rb e d i n
r i c h f a n t a s y w ith much
h o s t i l e an d a g g r e s s iv e
m a t e r i a l , an d p r o b a b ly
p h o b ic m a t e r i a l .
P la y w ith p e n c i l s i n
s c h o o l acco m p an ied by
f a n ta s ie s o f a irp la n e
f i g h t s - s h o o tin g a t
b a d p la n e , e t c . Fan­
t a s i e s p u n is h in g h i s
f a t h e r . Som etim es
th ro w s b l a n k e ts a ro u n d ,
f a n ta s y i n g them a s mem­
b e rs o f fa m ily .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
(S ee
in a
Teacf
s e r ic
drean
ness
say s
O casj
i n t<
li& tric Exami­
n a tio n
S ocial History-
P sychological Examin ation
s a y s he ta k e s l i t t l e
t h i n g s a t home to o
and h id e s them*
! tu to rin g se s.th f a t h e r *
Boy r e s e n t s h a n d lin g
b u t does h a v e p o s i ­
t i v e f e e l i n g to w a rd
p a re n ts .
On a c h ie v e m e n t t e s t s
t r i e d to c o o p e r a te
b u t o b v io u s ly u n in ­
t e r e s t e d , t r i e d to
g e t ex a m in e rs h e l p ,
to ev ad e them - com­
p l a i n e d o f b e in g
t i r e d - b u t a s soon
a s p e rfo rm a n c e ma­
t e r i a l p r e s e n te d
a g a i n , became a l e r t
a g a in .
204
» g e ts lic k in g
;her when ha has
irk s , or i s pun>y d e p r iv a tio n *
les d o e s n 't c a re *
©s s c a r e d and
ie lf in b a th -
F a th e r e x p r e s s e d con­
c e rn o v e r b o y ’ s n e r ­
v o u s n e s s* M other
sa y s he i s n e r v o u s ,
h a r d to h a n d l e ,
r e s t l e s s * F a th e r
t r i e s t o h e l p him and
c h i l d g e t s u p s e t , and
t r i e s to g e t o u t o f
it*
Used to c r y when
p u n i she d , now s a y s ,
" I d o n ’t c a r e . "
M other h as s to p p e d
p un ishm ent*
M iscellaneous Data
When f a t h e r t e l l s him
t o b eh av e i n sch o o l
g e t s u p s e t an d y e l l s ,
"I do .”
th p e n c ils in
a cco m p an ied by­
es o f a irp la n e
- s h o o tin g a t
n e , e t c • F an p u n i s h in g h i s
Som etim es
b l a n k e t s a ro u n d ,
i n g them a s mem1 f a m ily *
(S ee p ro b lem - l i v e s
i n a w o rld o f h i s own)
T each er r e g a r d s m o st
s e r io u s symptom i s d ay ­
d ream in g an d unaw are­
n e s s o f c l a s s . M other
say s r e s t l e s s in s le e p .
O c a s io n a lly w akes up
in te rro r*
L a te r p s y c h i a t r i c
b r in g s o u t n i g h t
f e a r s , and h o s t i l i t y
to w a rd and r i v a l r y
w ith s i s t e r .
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CASE 18
Rorschach Interpre­
ta tio n
II
Rorschach Interpre­
ta tio n
P sy ch ia tr ic Exami­
nation
I
Many f e a r s f o r s e l f
an d f a m i ly . Sometimes
h a s to 20 i n t o t h e i r
room to make s u re
t h e y 'r e s a f e . A lso dreans
a n d daydream s o f t h i s
ty p e .
P r e o c c u p a tio n w ith
t h e body may be
n e u ro tic .
P r e o c c u p a tio n w i t h
a n a to m ic a l m a t e r i a l
may i n d i c a t e hypo­
c h o n d r ia c a l t r e n d s .
C om plained o f b r e a t h i n g .
■Wants a d e n o id s rem oved.
F e a r s i f he e a t s from
u t e n s i l s u s e d by o t h e r
m em bers o f f a m ily h e 'd
g e t s i c k an d d i e .
Ve:
fo
fu
si
of
On
s c ]
hy
coi
Cl
spt
Poor r e l a t i o n s w ith
p e o p le a t p r e s e n t .
I n t e r e s t e d b u t h o s­
tile .
Some i n t e r e s t i n de­
v e lo p in g good con­
t a c t s b u t to o d i s ­
t u r b e d a t p r e s e n t to
be s u c c e s s fu l in r e ­
l a t i o n s h i p s w ith
n e o o le .
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Sc:
th
Cl:
re;
in
in
ini
Mofii
- 1
in
tii
Latric Examioation
S ocial H istory
P sych ological Exami­
n ation
M iscellaneous Data
led o f b r e a t h i n g ,
le n o id s removed*
i* he e a t s fro m
3 u s e d by o t h e r
o f f a m i ly he 1d
z an d d ie *
V ery f u s s y a b o u t w ay
fo o d i s s e r v e d - c a r e ­
f u l l y w ash es a n y u t e n ­
s i l u s e d b y a n y member
o f fa m ily *
On w ay home fro m
s c h o o l w e t h i s p a n ts
- came home c r y in g
h y s te r ic a lly - be­
comes v e r y u p s e t i f
c lo th in g g e ts even a
s p o t*
Heavy m outh b r e a th in g *
P h y s io a l ex am in a­
t i o n showed b o r d e r ­
lin e n u tr itio n ,
p o o r d e n t a l h y g ie n e
a d e n o id s , m y o p ia .
(S ee r e a c t i o n
a b o v e )•
S c ra p s w ith s i s t e r b u t
th e y make up* I n
c la s s is s o lita r y d is ­
re g a rd in g c h ild r e n i n h a l l an d y a r d s g e t s
i n t o t r o u b l e f o r p u sh ­
in g o r p o k in g them*
M other say s he h a s d i f ­
f i c u l t y w ith c h i l d r e n
- h as to to u c h c h i l d r e n
i n t h e s t r e e t - some­
tim e s he seem s u n aw are
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
SOS
irs f o r s e lf
L ly. Sometimes
50 i n t o t h e i r
make s u r e
s a f e * A lso dreans
iream s o f t h i s
CASE 18
Rorschach Interp reRorschach InterpreP sy ch ia tric ExamiI
ta tio n
t a tio n
n a tio n
_________ II________________________ I____________________________________________
he 1
th e j
h o si
fig *
F i g h t s w i t h s i s t e r who
s q u e a ls #
S is t
re p c
behs
fe ll
and
F a th
d e fe
Stud
spon
th e n
F a th
youn
good
so h
d iff
had#
him#
Teac!
repo;
th a t
k n if
p ro b
ch ari
Ther<
tu s s !
o f 3b
open.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
a tr ic Examiiation
S o cia l H istory
Psychological Examination
M iscellaneous Data
h e h a s done i t , b u t
th e y c o n s id e r i t a
h o s t i l e g e s tu r e an d
fig h t.
ith
s i s t e r who
F a th e r was a t f i r s t
d e f e n s iv e i n B ureau
S tu d y (h ad n o t r e ­
spon d ed to l e t t e r s )
th e n became f r i e n d l y .
F a t h e r k eep s t e l l i n g
y o u n g s te r he m u st do
good w o rk i n s c h o o l
so he w o n 't have th e
d i f f i c u l t l i f e fa th e r
h a d . T rie s to co ac h
h im , p u n is h h im .
206
S i s t e r u s e d to b r in g
r e p o r ts o f h is school
b e h a v io r b u t t e a c h e r
f e l t sh e w as to o b o s s y
a n d s to p p e d t h i s .
P a r e n t s ' s t r o n g d r iv e
to w a rd acad em ic
a c h ie v e m e n t, t h e i r
a n x i e t y an d e x a c t­
in g dem ands, and th e
s i b l i n g r i v a l r y ag­
g ra v a te d by t h e i r
h a n d lin g c o n t r i b u t e
to t h e p ro b le m .
T e a c h e r sa y s i n c i d e n t
r e p o r t e d by p r i n c i p a l
t h a t c h i l d drew a
k n i f e a t a n o th e r was
p r o b a b ly an e r r o r . Not
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f h im .
T here was p r o b a b ly a
t u s s l e f o r p o s s e s s io n
o f i n i f e and i t was
open.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CASE 1 8
Rorschach Interpre­
ta tio n
II
D ia g n o s is
S e v e r e ly d i s t u r b e d and
c o n f l i c t e d a t p r e s e n t*
S u f f e r in g fro m c h i l d ­
hood o r p o s s i b l y f u l l
f le d g e d n e u r o s i s o f a
m ix ed ty p e *
O b s e s s io n a l, n e u r a s ­
t h e n i c , and hypo­
c h o n d r ia c a l symptoms*
R o rs c h a c h I n t e r p r e ­
ta tio n
P sy ch ia tric Exami­
n ation
T
I n t e l l e c t u a l l y s u p e r io r
b o y who i s u n a b le to f u n c ­
t i o n up t o t h i s l e v e l be­
c a u s e o f a s e v e re d i s ­
tu r b a n c e t h a t i s p r o b a b ly
n e u r o t i c i n n a tu re *
N e u r o s is i s a m ixed ty p e
w i t h o b s e s s i o n a l , oomp u l s i v e a n d h y p o c h o n d ri­
a c a l symptoms*
P s y o h o n e u ro s is m a in ly o b s e s s i o n a l ,
p o s s i b l y some h y s t e r i ­
c a l f e a t u r e s * P h o b ia s ,
m ild k le p to m a n ia ,
p r e o c c u p a tio n w ith
f a n t a s y l i f e , em o tio n a l
im p a irm e n t o f work
c a p a c ity *
Boyfe r e a c t i o n s an i n ­
co n g ru o u s m ix tu r e o f
m a t u r i t y an d im m a tu rity *
B a s i c a l l y good p e r ­
s o n a l i t y * S h o u ld be
a good tr e a tm e n t
ris k *
E s s e n t i a l l y r e s p o n s iv e
p e r s o n a l i t y - shows
good p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r
h e a l t h y developm ent*
S h o u ld b e r e s p o n s iv e to
p s y c h i a t r i c tr e a tm e n t*
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
i a t r i c Examin a tio n
honeurosis ily o b se ssio n a l.
ib ly some h y s te r ifea tu res* Phobias,
. kleptom ania,
ccupation w ith
;asy l i f e , emotional
.irment o f work
c ity *
Social H isto ry
w
Psychological Exami­
n atio n
M iscellaneous Data
Boy should be re ­
fe rre d fo r treatm ent
i f p are n ts can change
methods o f handling
( d e ta ils given in
re c o rd ).
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
207
P arents clanged
h an d lin g , showed im­
provement but w ith
new te a c h e r who was
n o t sym pathetic, re ­
peated bad re p o rts
from school* Father
had d i f f ic u lt y keep­
ing from (caching
him* More responsive
but s t i l l has tend­
ency to poke c h il­
dren*
CASE 19
Sex:
Male
Age:
6 years 5 months
Grade: 1A
Problem of R eferral*
Rorschach In te rp re ta tio n
In te l­
le c tu a l
Aspects
Nightmares; crying s p e lls by day;
P sy c h ia trio Examination
S o cial H isto r
In te llig e n c e probably su p e rio r.
b u t he i s very immature and
in f a n t il e and cannot u t i l i z e
h is p o te n tia litie s *
Cannot give sustained a t ­
te n tio n .
Person­
a lity
Configu­
r a tio n
and
Eknotional
A spects
Hyperactive* extrem ely v o l a t i l e ,
su g g e stib le . Very c h ild is h .
Is h y p eractiv e, th
comes exhausted. H
of fe e lin g t i r e d , :
e a s ily .
P reviously was te n
j i t t e r y a f te r ex cr
s to r ie s (see below
to t a l k , sin g , rea
F lig h ty , disorganized, in ­
c lin e d to be perfunctory.
Very su sc e p tib le to emotional
stim u li and unable to c o n tro l
h is re a c tio n s .
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Cries e a s ily . Has
sense o f humor. L
but fe a rs w ild anil
of dark, and cel la:
had p sy c h ia tric t r
cause of ten sen ess
; crying s p e lls by day; shyness*
S o c ia l H istory
P sych ological Examination
M iscellaneous Data
S uperior in te llig e n c e * Re­
v ise d Stanford-B inet* Form
L, I Q 121*
I n f a n tile - would not be able
to fu n ctio n w ith a su p e rio r
group*
80S
l
Poor motor coordination*
I s h y p e ra c tiv e , then be­
comes exhausted* He complains
o f fe e lin g t i r e d , fa tig u e s
e asily *
P rev io u sly was ten se and
j i t t e r y a f t e r e x c itin g
s to r ie s (see below) Loves
to t a l k , s in g , re a d . .
Tense
Overactive during
p h y sical examination*
S lig h t l i s p .
C ries e a sily * Has good
sense o f humor* Loves p e ts
b ut fe a rs w ild animals* A fraid
o f d ark , and c e lla r s (Mother
had p s y c h ia tric treatm ent be­
cause of te n s e n e ss, crying
Admitted same fe a rs n o t
r e a l ,t o get p aren ts to
s ta y w ith him. A fter
tre a tm e n t, p arents l a t e r
re p o rt recurrence o f
f e a r s , but suspect i t is
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CASE 19
Rorschach In terp retation
Probably i s very se n sitiv e
and has freq d e n t emotional
o u tb u rsts#
Very dependent* anxious to
p le a se , and anxious to es^ ta b lis h ra p p o rt but i s un­
able to and th is aggravates
h is in se c u rity #
C onstantly seeks a tte n tio n
and approval# Probably hos­
t i l e y e t anxious to be
lik e d by people#
P sy ch ia tric Examination
Nightmares of anim als a t tacking the baby and maid#
S o cia l Histoi
s p e lls * f e a r of de
unlocked doors* aj
mares) Senses the
c ritic is m o r chan<
in e ith e r parent#
have temper ta n tn
crying s p e lls i f i
stopped to t a l k t<
Yi/hen scolded* has
(since baby’s b in
At f i r s t timid* defensive#
L ater f r e e r , spontaneous,
frie n d ly #
Has had to be drei
fed sinoe a r r iv a l
Doesn’s e a t much#
lows him more fre<
but he i s s t i l l aJ
to school alone#
in h a ll bedtime* i
to s i t w ith him*
At 5 in p riv a te si
not mingle* was aJ
unwanted# D isliki
c ritic ism # Does ru
w ith c h ild re n (wai
s ic k ly c h ild t i l l
Has only one frie ]
has helped to soc:
to some extent#
S ib lin g r iv a lr y and conse­
quent h o s t i l i t y to parents#
"Sometimes I wish I was a
baby lik e brother#" Asked
Needs much approvi
i t from the father
w ith c h ild re n whei
around n o t otherw
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
*
•
>•
P sych ological Examination
M iscellaneous Data
sp ells* f s a r of dark c e lla rs *
unlocked doors* and n ig h t­
mares) Senses the l e a s t
c ritic is m o r change of mood
in e ith e r parent# Used to
have temper tantrum s and
crying s p e lls i f mother
stopped to t a l k to anyone.
When scolded* has nightm ares
(sin ce baby’s b i r t h ) .
m alingering#
In sohool very se n s itiv e
about f a ilu r e and
c ritic ism #
A fter treatm en t (17 in ­
terv iew s) no more n ig h t­
m ares, fears* crying
s p e lls . 3 months a fte r
treatm ent nightm ares
re c u r. P arents request
resum ption o f tre a tm e n t.
Has had to be dressed and
Hung on to mother but -when
fed sin c e a r r iv a l of baby#
she l e f t became confident
Doesn’ s e a t much# Mother a l - and cooperative#
lows him more freedom now,
but he i s s t i l l a f r a i d to go
to school alone# Wants lig h t
in h a ll bedtim e, and p aren ts
to s i t w ith him#
At 5 in p riv a te school could
not m ingle, was a fr a id he was
unwanted# D islik ed f ig h ts and
c r itic is m . Does n o t m ingle
w ith c h ild ren (was an only
sic k ly c h ild t i l l last y e a r).
Has only one frien d # School
has helped to s o c ia liz e him
to some extent#
P h y sical: s l i g h t l y un­
dernourished. A fter t r e a t ­
ment e a ts b e tte r* feeds
se lf* dresses s e l f . Talks
to im aginary companion.
A fte r treatm en t allows
p a re n ts to go o u t; parents
see improvement in g re a te r
independence, general in ­
creased m aturity#
Needs much approval and wants
i t from the fath er# Is bold
w ith c h ild re n when mother is
around n o t otherw ise* Annoys
Unable to e n te r compe­
t i t i v e a c t i v i t i e s w ith
o th e r c h ild re n . In t r e a t ­
ment over and over again
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
60S
S o cia l History-
CASE 19
Rorschach In terp reta tio n
P sych iatric Examination
why* " I only have two reasons#
He g e ts too much a tte n tio n # My
mother and th e maid and my
fath e r# That makes me mad#
I*d lik e to kick them over and
h u rt them#”
Re baby ”1 h a te him# h e ^ so
bad#"
Daydreams and dreams a lso show
th e ir h o s t i l i t y to fam ily now#
S o cia l H istory
younger c h ild ren
enraged a t o ld er
dren and wants m
f ig h t fo r him#
Though not a goo
always wants to
mother or frie n d
what he is doing
D aily complaints
vario u s aches# 0
Picks h is nose#
Has food fads fo rced to e a t un
foods (mother a l
hovered over him
him to e a t ) .
Was an only c h il
a year ago • Had
coddled because
sickly #
Diag­
n o sis
P o ssib ly childhood
neurosis# Serious behavior
problem - d istu rb ed neurotic
symptoms#
Childhood psychoneurosis
phobias# nightmares# in fa n t
t i l e # reg re ssiv e re a c tio n s to
b ir th of sib lin g #
Overt behavior ext sanely im­
mature# uncontrolled# ego­
c e n tric •
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
S o cia l History-
P sych ological Examination
ons# younger children# Becomes
,« My enraged a t o ld e r c h il­
dren and wants mother to
•
f ig h t f o r him#
and Though not a good mixer
always wants to be w ith
so
mother o r frie n d to show
what he is doing#
show
now#
c h ild brings out
jea lo u sy o f b ro th er and
anger a g a in st p a ren ts f o r
the a tte n tio n th ey give
baby# S t i l l o rd ers sub­
m issive c h ild re n about#
A fter treatm ent le s s
babyish resentm ent, sulk­
ing and riv a lry #
P h y sical: shows o cu lar
muscle; imbalance#
S t i l l picks nose#
Was an only c h ild t i l l
a year ago• Had been
coddled because he was
sick ly #
l-
; to
Mother was o v e rp ro te c tiv e .
D if f ic u ltie s in creased wiih
b i r th o f sib lin g # Fears
and nightm ares probably
d e f in ite ly due to sib lin g
riv a lry #
Treatment of c h ild by play
technique#
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
210
D aily complaints of
When d istu rb e d a t beginning
v ario u s aches, of eyes# and when t e s t s became d i f f i Picks h is nose#
c u l t , picked h is nose#
Has food fad s - not
fo rced to e a t undesired
foods (mother always
hovered over him to g et
him to eat)#
M iscellaneous Data
CASE 20
Sex:
Male
Age:
11 y ears 0 months
Grade: I4.B
Rorschaoh In te rp re t a tio n
II
In te lle c tu a l
Aspects
Problem of R e fe rra l:
Stammerer# Feels he i s superior
Has a f a n ta s tic im agination and a
Rorschach In te rp re ta tio n
I
In te llig e n c e probably
su p e rio r but unable to
u t i l i z e it*
In te llig e n c e probably
su p e rio r but unable
to fu n c tio n up to t h is
le v e l.
In c lin e d to be per­
fun cto ry in h is ap­
p lic a tio n and h is
p o t e n t i a l it i e s are
b e tte r than h is
achievement would
w a rran t.
In c lin e d to be per­
fu n c to ry , unable to
give su sta in e d a t­
te n tio n . Irre g u la r in
perform ance. S ta rts
o u t am bitiously but
unable to liv e up to
e x p e c ta tio n .
P s y c h ia tric Examin a tio n
"Not
do g
trie
te r e
(Boy sa id th e re was an
attem pt to change him to
rig h t handedness - was
angry when forced) •
(Hull L a te r a lity Ques­
tio n n a ire 70% l e f t ,
20% r i g h t ) .
Person­
a lity
Configu­
r a tio n
and
Emotional
Aspects
E x traten siv e w ith
poorly developed
in tro v e rs iv e capa­
c ity .
E x tra te n siv e , ego­
c e n tr ic , u n sta b le .
(S tu tte re d badly
th ro u g h o u t)•
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Fathe
a te .
F eels he i s su p e rio r to other children# th e re fo re does not g e t along w ith them*
s tio im agination and appears effem inate in h is a c tio n s .
i a t r i c Examin a tio n
S ocial H istory
’’Not stu p id ” - could
do good work i f he
trie d # but lacks in ­
te r e s t# daydreams.
■ed badly
»ut).
Father says a ffe c tio n a te .
M iscellaneous Data
Very su p e rio r i n t e l l i ­
gence e s p e c ia lly good
reaso n in g . Revised
Stanford-B inet# Form L
I Q 126. School work
adequate fo r grade in
to o l subjects# 3 to 1+
years re ta rd e d f o r
H.A. Is one year re ­
ta rd e d in grade p lace­
ment fo r C.A. Reading
1 year above p resen t
grade, a rith m e tic a t
grade, sp e llin g almost
a t grade.
(L eft handed fo r most
a c t i v i t i e s but much
confusion. )
(S tu tte re d se v ere ly ).
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
211
d th e re was an
to change him to
ndedness - was
en fo rc e d ).
t e r a l i t y Quese 70% l e f t ,
t).
Psychological Examin a tio n
CASS 2 0
Rorsohach Interpreta tio n
II
Rorschaoh Interpreta tio n
I
P sy ch ia tric Examin ation
P o o r s o c i a l a d ju s tm e n t
( S o c ia l a d ju s tm e n t b e c a u s e o f e g o c e n t r i c i t y s e e b elo w )
an d h y p e r a c t i v i t y #
H y p e r a c tiv e , r e s t l e s s #
P r o b a b ly n a r c i s s i s t i c #
E s s e n ti a ll y in s e c u re
and a n x io u s b u t t r i e s
to c o v e r t h i s up# I s
f l i g h t y and e v a s iv e
as p a r t o f h is a t te m p t to e s c a p e h i s
a n x ie ty .
E s s e n tia lly s e n s itiv e .
i r r i t a b l e , in s e o u re ,
and f e e l s in a d e q u a te
b u t t r i e s to c o v e r
t h i s u p . I n com pens a t i n g f o r th e s e
f e e l i n g s o f in a d e q u a c y
he p r o b a b ly a p p e a r s
a f f e c t e d and g u sh in g #
E v asiv e#
Seemed a f r a i d o f
dam aging o r u p s e t t i n g
a n y th in g i n p s y c h ia t r i s t s o ffic e #
M e ti c u lo u s , e f f e m i n a t e ,
S t u t t e r i n g m o st i n t e n s e
a t home#
(S ee f e a r s b elo w )
M arked h o s t i l i t y and
la c k o f i n t e r e s t in
humans now# E s s e n t i a l l y
a n t a g o n i s t i c b u t can
c o v e r up an d g iv e a
s u p e r f i c i a l im p re s ­
s io n o f e a s y r a p p o r t .
Poor r a p p o r t# Too h o s­
t i l e , e g o c e n t r i c , and
l a c k in g i n a f f e c t i v e
a d a p t a b i l i t y t o make
an a d e q u a te s o c i a l
a d ju s tm e n t.
"When I ’m a n g r y I ’m
mad a t ev ery b o d y # I
w on’ t ev en t a l k to them#
I th in k o f th in g s t h a t
I ’ d l i k e to s a y b u t I
c a n ’ t # I w is h I c o u ld
t e l l p e o p le t o s h u t u p ."
D oesn’t l i k e t e a c h e r C ould choke h e r#
P r o b a b ly t r i e s to g iv e
im p r e s s io n o f s e l f a s ­
s u ra n c e #
T r ie s t o g iv e a s u p e r f i c i a l p ic tu re o f adju s tm e n t#
S u p e rfic ia l a ttitu d e o f
a s s u r a n c e an d c o n c e i t
b u t r e a l l y f e e l s in a d e -
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Has
acc
alw
Tee
sup
d re
p ic
tre
c ri
c ri
a ft
ing
(Fa
noj
Fus
anc
Pra
s is
is
of
fo i
Lei
Eaj
exj
Te;
deJ
Ci]
de:
dr<
au _
moi
Tei
inj
Latric Exami­
nation
a fra id o f
g o r u p s e ttin g
g i n p s y c h ia D f f ic e .
o u s , e f f e m in a t e ,
in g m o st i n t e n s e
•
c.rs b elo w )
S o cia l H istory
Has some f r i e n d s who
a c c e p t h im . A t home
alw ay s p ic k in g a f i g h t .
T each er s a y s f e e l s
s u p e r io r t o o th e r c h i l ­
d r e n , c o m p la in s th e y
p ic k o n h im . Ex­
tr e m e ly s e n s i t i v e ,
c rie s a t s lig h te s t
c r i t i c i s m . L e f t c lu b
a f t e r s h o r t tim e say ­
in g boys la u g h a t him .
( F a th e r becom es an­
n oyed when he s t u t t e r s )
F u s sy a b o u t h i s a p p e a ra n c e . E f f e m in a te .
P r i n c i p a l sa y s he i s a
s is s y , a rro g a n t, l i e s ,
i s c o n c e ite d (Took some
o f h i s p o s i t i o n s away
fo r th is re a so n . )
P sychological Examination
C o o p e r a tiv e , c o n s c ie n
t i o u s , e x c e s s iv e ly
p o l i t e , e ffe m in a te ,
g u s h in g , spoke o f
e v e r y th in g i n su ­
p e rla tiv e s .
C o n s ta n tly d i s ­
p a ra g e d s e l f .
M iscellaneous Data
T ea ch er ch an g ed
h a n d lin g - no
c r i t i c i s m an d n o te s
change i n p e rs o n ­
a l i t y - f r e e r in
e x p r e s s i o n , no m ore
ly in g .
M o th er a l s o n o te s
f r e e r re a c tio n .
•m a n g r y I ’m
e v e ry body• I
v en t a l k to them*
o f th i n g s t h a t
e to say but I
I w is h I c o u ld
o p le t o s h u t u p ."
li k e te a c h e r ho k e h e r .
L e ts p e o p le s t e p on him .
E a s i l y h u r t b u t d o e s n ’t
ex p re ss h is a n g e r.
T e a c h e r s a y s he i s n o t
d e f i a n t , i s e a s i l y d is ­
c i p l i n e d , b u t i s con­
d e s c e n d in g to th e c h i l ­
d r e n , assum ed to o much
a u t h o r i t y w hen g iv e n
m o n ito ria l d u tie s .
T re a tm e n t b r in g s
o u t h o s t i l i t y to
s i s t e r , w h ic h i s a t
f i r s t d is g u is e d a s
over s o lic itu d e .
A lso h o s t i l i t y to
b r o t h e r . nI ’m a l ­
w ays mad a t th e m .
I d o n 't know w h y .”
c ia l a ttitu d e of
ce and c o n c e i t
l l y f e e l s in a d e -
T e a c h e r s a y s he i s to o
i n g r a t i a t i n g , s a c c h a r in e .
H o s t i l i t y to
t e a c h e r s an d boys f e e l s th e y d o n ’t
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CASE 20
Rorschach In terp reta tio n
II
Rorschach Intorpreta tio n
I
P sych iatric Examin ation
q u a te an d u n lo v e d .
S u p e r f i c i a l l y sug­
g e s tib le b u t is
u n p re d ic ta b le •
Teac
do x
tro i
S u g g e s tib le b u t does
n o t r e t a i n s u g g e s tio n
w e ll*
I s p r o b a b ly d i f f i ­
c u l t t o h a n d le #
(S ee d i a g n o s i s )
(S ee d ia g n o s i s )
C om plains o f some
p a in s * Had num ber o f
t i c s * Has b e e n to
sp e e c h c l a s s e s and
c lin ic s but s tu tte rin g
d id n o t im prove*
Can w h is p e r w ith o u t
s t u t t e r i n g - sa y s he
h a r d ly s t u t t e r s w hen
w ith c h i l d r e n o th e r
th a n h i s s i b l i n g s * He
th i n k s h i s s t u t t e r im­
p ro v e d a l i t t l e when he
b eg an w r i t i n g w i t h l e f t
h an d a g a in *
F a tl
Natl
Spe<
ent<
c la i
Stu"
yea:
mas"
Food fad s«
F e a r s - w i l l be s t r a n g l e d
o r s h o t b y d ead man o r
woman* S ankes w i l l
choke o r p o is o n him*
A lso a p p r e h e n s iv e f o r
p a r e n t s - o b j e c t s o n w a ll
w i l l f a l l and s t r i k e them*
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
h ia tr ic Examin ation
S ocial H istory
an d u n lo v e d #
M iscellaneous Data
l i k e him#
T e a c h e r and
do n o t l i k e
tro u b le s o m e
p la y in g f o r
p rin c ip a l
him# I s
- alw ay s
a tte n tio n .
F a th e r h ad ta k e n him to
N a tio n a l H o s p i ta l f o r
S p eech D is o r d e r s jfchen
e n te re d sch o o l speech
c la ss #
S t u t t e r i n g b e g a n l|.
y e a r s ago a f t e r
m a s to id o p e r a t i o n .
*ads#
- w i l l be s t r a n g l e d
>t b y dead man o r
> S ankes w i l l
o r p o is o n him#
a p p re h e n siv e f o r
;s - o b j e c t s o n w a l l
’a l l and s t r i k e them#
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
215
.in s o f some
Had num ber o f
Has b een t o
l c l a s s e s and
s but s tu tte rin g
it im prove#
li s p e r w ith o u t
srin g - sa y s he
r s t u t t e r s w hen
i h i l d r e n o th e r
d s s i b l i n g s # He
i h i s s t u t t e r im L a l i t t l e when he
w r i t i n g w ith l e f t
ig ain #
P sy ch o lo g ica l Examin ation
Rorschach Interp ret a tio n
II
Rorschach Interpreta tio n
I
P sy ch ia tric Examin ation
P h o b ia - w a te r - a f r a i d
h e ’ l l drow n o r "sw allo w
a d i s e a s e " . G re a t f e a r
o f d i s e a s e f o r s e l f and
f a m i ly .
C om pulsion to r e t u r n to
h o u se to exam ine lo c k
b e fo re le a v in g .
D ream s: f a m i ly a l l
drow n, i n a l o s t tu n ­
n e l, e tc .
D iag­
n o s is
N e u r o tic - p r o b a b ly
h y s te r ic a l w ith
some c o m p u lsiv e
sym ptom s.
N e u ro s is - h y s t e r i c a l
and co m p u lsiv e sympto m s,
C om pulsion n e u r o s i s ;
stam m erer> t i c s ; pho­
b ia s re g a rd in g s e lf
an d o t h e r s .
S in g le c o m p u ls io n .
E f f e m in a te . C onfuse d
d o m in an ce.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
h is.tr ie Examin a tio n
Social H istory
P sychological Examination
M iscellaneous Data
- v ra te r - a f r a i d
drow n o r " sw allow
a s e " # G re a t f e a r
e a s e f o r s e l f an d
s i o n to r e t u r n to
to exam ine lo c k
le a v in g #
.s io n n e u r o s i s ;
irer> t i c s ; ph o ■ egarding s e l f
;h e r s .
i co m pulsion#
,n ate» C onfused
.nee#
214
f a m i ly a l l
in a lo s t tu n tc #
P h y s ic a l c o n d i tio n
good - no o r g a n ic
ca u se f o r s p e e c h d e­
fe c t.
(T re a tm e n t i n t e r ­
r u p te d when boy
moved to O h io ) .
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CASE 21
S ex:
M ale
Age:
10 y e a r s 8 m onths
G rade: b k
R o rsc h a c h I n t e r p r e ta tio n
II
In te lle o tu a l
A sp e o ts
P ro b lem o f R e f e r r a l : R e a d in g d i s a b i l i t y and b e h a v io r pr
w as p u t a h e a d i n s p i t e o f ex tre m e
R o rs c h a c h I n t e r p r e ta tio n
I
P s y c h i a t r i c Exam in a tio n
I n te llig e n c e s u p e rio r
b u t e x tre m e r e p r e s s i o n
in t e r f e r e s w ith i n t e l l e c t u a l f u n c tio n in g *
P r o b a b ly s u p e r io r b u t
p r o b a b ly g iv e s im p re s s i o n o f b e in g l e s s b r i g h t
I s e x tre m e ly r e p r e s s e d
now an d u n a b le t o f u n c ­
tio n
P rin
s p le
era!
poor
A chievem ent i s p r o b a b ly ir r e g u l a r .
Sonebimes s u c c e e d s
w i t h d i f f i c u l t m at e r i a l and f a i l s w ith
much s im p le r m a t e r i a l .
P e rfo rm a n c e i s
irre g u la r. Is
f a i l on s im p le
a n d s u c c e e d on
fic u lt.
Cone
schc
Moth
c u lt
fere
fere
Irre
sp e r
fre i
and
Is £
re a d
A tte
to c
ty in
at h
e x tre m e ly
lik e ly to
m a te ria l
m ore d i f -
R i g i d , la c k in g i n
f l e x i b i l i t y now.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
b i l i t y an d b e h a v io r p ro b le m . I n p r e s e n t s c h o o l one y e a r . B ecause o f good i n t e l l i g e n c e
.d i n s p i t e o f e x tre m e r e t a r d a t i o n i n r e a d i n g . I s s u l l e n , h i t s o t h e r c h i l d r e n .
l i a t r i c Exam in a tio n
S o c ia l H is to ry
P s y c h o lo g ic a l Exam in a tio n
M is c e lla n e o u s D ata
P ro b a b ly s l i g h t l y s u - A b o u t l |f y e a rs l a t e r
p e r io r . S ta n fo rd R ev . S ta n fo rd -B in e t,
B i n e t 2§- y e a r s e a r l i e r ,
F o rm L , I Q 1 1 3
I Q 107* S ta n fo rd B in e t, I Q 1 1 1 .
C onduct an d w o rk i n 5
s c h o o ls D an d C.
M o th er b la m e s d i f f i ­
c u l t y on u s e o f d i f ­
f e r e n t m e th o d s i n d i f ­
f e r e n t s c h o o ls .
I r r e g u l a r s c h o o lin g —
s p e n t one y e a r on
f r e i g h t e r t r i p to H a iti
an d B r i t i s h G u in ea.
I s g e t t i n g r e m e d ia l
re a d in g i n s c h o o l.
A tte m p ts h ad b e e n made
t o ch an g e h a n d e d n e ss byt y i n g h a n d . A tte m p ts
a t home a n d s c h o o l.
E d u c a tio n a l m i s f i t i n
p r e s e n t c l a s s . In
g r a d e 1\ y e a r s , r e ­
t a r d e d f o r a g e , w ork
e v e n p o o r e r . A r ith ­
m e tic 1 y e a r r e ­
t a r d e d f o r g r a d e , 3i"
y e a rs re ta rd e d fo r
M .A ., r e a d i n g and
s p e llin g 2 s y e a rs r e ­
ta rd e d f o r g rad e,
a b o u t 5 y e a r s below
M.A. (o n M e tr o p o li­
t a n A) (P o o r on d i s ­
c r i m i n a t i n g w ord
fo rm s on B e t t s an d
q u e s ti o n a b le f u s i o n s lig h t e s c p h o ria .)
L e f t h an d ed (now am­
b i d e x t r o u s ) . R ig h t
eyed.
A ch iev em en t 8 m o nths
l a t e r (o n M e tr o p o li­
t a n , Form B) showed
p r a c t i c a l l y no g a i n
in s p ite o f tu to r ­
in g .
P o o r e s t w o rk on
B in e t on v i s u a l mem­
o r y . On G a te s D iag­
n o s tic p o o r e s t on
v is u a l p e rc e p tio n .
See p r e v io u s B e t ts
re s u lts .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
215
P r i n c i p a l s a y s he h a s
s p le n d i d f u n d o f g en ­
e r a l know ledge b u t does
p o o r s c h o o l w o rk .
CASE 21
Rorschach Interpre­
tation.
II
P e rs o n ­
a lity
C o n fig u ­
r a t i o n and
B n o tio n a l
A s p e c ts
P e r s o n a l i t y i s ex ­
t r e m e ly c o n s t r i c t e d .
A tte m p ts t o e x e r t
c a r e f u l c o n s c io u s
c o n tro l.
B oth a f f e c t an d f a n ­
ta s y a re re p re sse d .
I s a n x io u s b u t does
n o t w ant to fa c e h is
p ro b lem s* P r o b a b ly
v e r y e v a s iv e an d h a s
m any e s c a p e m echan­
is m s .
B ecau se o f c a r e f u l
c o n s c io u s c o n t r o l he
p r o b a b ly m akes a su ­
p e r f i c i a l a d ju s tm e n t
but i t is re a lly d if­
f i c u l t t o g a in h i s
c o n f id e n c e and e s t a b ­
l i s h good r e l a t i o n s
w i t h h im .
Rorschach Interp reta tio n
P sy ch ia tric Exami­
n ation
I
E xtrem e r e p r e s s i o n .
P e r s o n a l i t y e x tre m e ly
c o n s t r i o t e d now and
l a c k in g i n f l e x i b i l i t y
n e c e s s a ry fo r h e a lth y
a d ju s tm e n t. Does h av e
p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r de­
v e lo p m e n t b u t i s ex­
tr e m e ly i n s e c u r e and
a n x io u s a t p r e s e n t .
A p p eared e a s y g o in g , a f ­
f a b l e , s m ilin g b u t
showed B tro n g e v id e n c e
o f re p re s s io n .
Does n o t f a c e h i s
p ro b le m s b u t i s i n ­
c l i n e d t o a v o id th e m ,
has v a rio u s escap e
m ech an ism s and
e v a s io n s •
Somewhat d e f e n s iv e
i n d is c u s s in g sch o o l
w o rk an d t e a c h e r .
" S h e ’ s a l i t t l e mean
so m e tim e s . I alw ays
g e t t h e b la m e .”
B ecause o f good i n ­
te lli g e n c e re p re s s io n ,
and c a r e f u l c o n s c io u s
c o n t r o l , he i s a b l e
t o make s u p e r f i c i a l
c o n ta c ts b u t i s ac­
t u a l l y v e ry e v a s iv e ,
d oes n o t h av e good
ra p p o rt.
D e f e n s iv e a b o u t h i s
f e a r s * D id n o t w a n t
t o go i n t o d e t a i l s .
Fa
ta
en
Mo
at
en
No
th
of
me
al
Fa
se:
fa
is
si
ex
hi
Is
ab
ol
D aydream s o f t r a v e l ­
i n g . ”1 a lw a y s j u s t
g e t aw ay ," a l l i n d i ­
c a te d e s ir e to g e t
aw ay fro m h i s d i f ­
fic u ltie s
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Te!
c i)
w it
cl)
h ia tr ic Exami­
n ation
S o cia l H istory
P sychological Examin ation
F r i e n d l y , r e s p o n s iv e
b u t c h i l d i s h an d d e p e n d e n t. (Seemed i n co n g ru o u s b e c a u s e o f
M o th er s a y s he i s a c t i v e , h i s s i z e ) . C o n v ersaa t h l e t i c , in d e p e n d e n t,
t i o n m ix tu r e o f m a tu re
e n e r g e tic , n o t tim id .
an d b a b y is h .
N ot d e m o n s t r a tiv e , b u t
th a t is c h a ra c te ris tic
o f f a m i l y . Says h e i s
m e r r y . F a th e r c o n firm s
a ll th is .
Lat d e f e n s iv e
c u s s in g s c h o o l
n d te a c h e r *
i a l i t t l e m ean
m e s. I alw ay s
te b la m e .”
F a th e r th in k s boy i s
s e n s itiv e about school
f a i l u r e (m o th e r s a y s he
i s s e n s itiv e about h is
s i z e an d f e e l s t e a c h e r s
e x p e c t to o much fro m
him b e c a u s e o f i t . )
iv e a b o u t h i s
D id n o t w a n t
in to d e t a i l s .
iams o f t r a v e l I a lw a y s j u s t
a y ,” a l l in d iL esire t o g e t
'rom h i s d i f ;ie s
F a t h e r s a y s he d o es n o t
ta k e l i f e s e r i o u s l y
en o u g h .
I s t e a s e d a t home
a b o u t b e in g dumb b y
o ld e r b ro th e r
T e a c h e r s a y s he a s s o ­
c ia te s v e ry l i t t l e
w ith o h ild re n in
c la s s ( is b ig g e r).
Seemed t o a s k q u e s­
t i o n s t o g a in ex­
a m in e r 's a t t e n t i o n .
U nable t o g iv e s u s ­
ta in e d a tte n tio n .
I n c l i n e d t o g iv e up
e a s i l y . L ac k in g i n
p e r s is te n c e u n le s s
g iv e n c o n s t a n t en­
c o u ra g e m e n t.
T a lk e d t o h im s e lf a s
he w o rk e d .
A le r t, p le a s a n t,
a t t e n t i v e d u r in g
p h y s ic a l. A ttitu d e s s i m i l a r on
p s y c h o lo g i c a l to
p r e v io u s exam ina­
tio n s .
(See b elo w u n d e r d ia g ­
n o s i s ) Good hum ored
e v a s io n when s e e n
f o r l a t e r p s y c h ia tric
a n d when s e e n a t
s c h o o l by s o c i a l
w o rk e r show ed no i n ­
s i g h t i n t o p ro b le m s .
R esp o n d s t o f r i e n d l y
i n t e r e s t b u t a s soon
as th e re i s o r itic is m
r e v e r t s to o ld p a t­
t e r n s o f b e h a v io r.
Camp r e p o r t s n o t r e ­
s p e c tfu l to le a d e rs .
T eacher r e p o r ts
s n e e rin g , b u lly in g .
" D i s c i p l i n e d ” him .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
216
e d e a s y g o in g , a f s n ilin g b u t
; s tr o n g e v id e n c e
r e s s io n .
M iscellaneous Data
SEES
CASE 21
Rorschach In terp reta tio n
II
korschaoh Interp reta tio n
I
I s h o s tile * b u t p ro b Shows m ark ed h o s t i l i t y
a b l y n o t a g g r e s s iv e
a n d n e g a tiv is m b u t
about it*
P ro b a b ly
c o v e r s th e s e up* P ro b g e t h i s w ay i n a
a b l y i s n o t o p e n ly u n p a s s iv e * n e g a t i v i s t i c w ay c o o p e r a tiv e b u t i s
a lth o u g h o v e r t l y he
p a s s iv e ly n e g a t iv is t ic
t r i e d to appear coa n d stu b b o rn *
o p e r a t i v e . P r o b a b ly
s tu b b o r n i n a q u i e t
w ay.
P sych iatric Examination
S ays he f i g h t s w i t h
b r o t h e r , who alw ay s
w i n s , l i k e s him i n a
w ay .
M o th er b e a t s h im ,
fa th e r ra re ly but
s e v e r e l y . G ets mad
a n d g o es t o p a r k f o r
a lo n g tim e an d w o n 't
come home.
I n dream s i s c h a s e d
b y co p — i n h a u n te d
h o u se w i t h s k e l e t o n .
Mo
no
wi
wh
se
pu
Wa
co
Gu
Fa
tr
be
(m
fe
ha
Fa
oc
oi
pr
cc
ha
na
me
ga
Wa
sc
de
qu
te
Te
le
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
lia tr ic Exami­
n ation
i f ig h ts w ith
who alw ay s
.ik e s him i n a
b e a t s him.*
ra re ly but
,y . G ets mad
is t o p a r k f o r
tim e a n d w o n ’t
une.
M o th er s a y s he d o es
n o t g e t a lo n g w e ll
w ith o ld e r b ro th e r
who i s q u i e t an d r e ­
s e r v e d — f i g h t an d
punoh e a c h o t h e r .
Was p o p u la r w i t h
c o u s in s i n B r i t i s h
G u in ea.
F a th e r sa y s when he
t r i e s t o h e lp h im , b o y
becom es r e s i s t i v e
(m o th e r sa y s b o th b o y s
f e a r f a t h e r b e c a u se o f
h a rsh d is c ip lin e ) .
F a th e r knows s c h o o l
o c m p la in s he h u r t s
o th e r c h ild r e n — s u r­
p r is e d b ecau se t h i s
c o n t r a s t s w i t h home b e­
h a v i o r w h ere h e i s good
n a tu re d , f r ie n d ly n o t
m ean . I s s o c i a b l e ,
gs-y.
Yfhen r e p r o v e d a b o u t
sch o o l f a i l u r e i s n o t
d e f i a n t , l i k e l y t o be
q u i e t a l l e v e n in g a f ­
te r.
P sych ological Examin ation
M iscellaneous Data
C o n fe re n c e : r e p r e s s ­
in g a g r e a t d e a l o f
h is f e e l in g w ith oc­
c a s io n a l o u tb u rs ts
o f a n g e r.
P r o b a b ly u n d e r ly in g
fe a r o f fa th e r.
P ro b a b ly d i s p l a c e s
s i b l i n g a n g e r on
y o u n g er p la y m a te s .
Camp r e p o r t s b a b y is h .
a b u l l y , p ic k s on
y o u n g er b o y s .
L a te r p s y c h ia tr ic
c o n firm s d i s p l a c e ­
m en t o f h o s t i l i t y .
M o th er s a y s when
p u n is h e d n e v e r s a y s
a w o rd o f d e f ia n c e
b u t n ev er says h e ’ s
so rry .
R e s e n t f u l o f p u n is h ­
m en t a t s c h o o l i n
b e i n g p la c e d i n
’’dumb c l a s s ” f o r a
few days b u t r e l u o t a n t to d is c u s s i t .
T e a c h e r s a y s he i s s u l ­
l e n , an d p u sh e s c h i l -
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
217
ims i s c h a s e d
- - i n h a u n te d
rith s k e le to n .
S o c ia l H istory
Rorschach Interpreta tio n
II
Rorschach In terp reta tio n
I
P sy ch ia tric Examin a tio n
drei
deaj
is i
( te t
agaf
P r ii
v ic i
in g .
at ]
L ik e s swimming,
h o rse b a c k r id i n g .
A m b itio n s - s o l ­
d ie r in c a v a lry ,
oop, d e te c tiv e
(S ee m is c e lla n e o u s
d a ta ).
Diag­
n o sis
R e p re sse d , c o n f lic ­
t e d , a n x i o u s , h o s­
t i l e , In te lle c tu a l
f u n c t i o n i n g and ad­
ju s tm e n t i n human
r e la tio n s a re in t e r ­
f e r e d w ith by jiis
d is tu rb a n c e .
A lth o u g h t h e r e i s
m ark ed d i s t u r b a n c e
R e c o rd i n d i c a t e s a
re p re sse d boy, b u t
d o es n o t i n d i c a t e
n e u r o s is *
T h ere i s a n x i e t y an d
c o n f li c t th a t i s se­
v e r e en o u g h t o i n t e r ­
f e r e w ith i n t e l l e c t u a l
f u n c t i o n i n g an d g en ­
e r a l a d ju s tm e n t.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
i s t r i e Exami­
nation
S ocial H istory
P sych ological Examin ation
M iscellaneous Data
d r e n , g ig g l e s a g r e a t
d e a l, is u n tid y , la z y
i s to o b ig f o r c l a s s
(te a c h e r p re ju d ic e d
a g a i n s t h im ).
P r in c ip a l says n o t
v ic io u s b u t annoy­
i n g , and h a n d lin g
a t home i n c o n s i s t e n t .
Now w a n ts t o become
v e te rin a ria n .
218
cam m ing,
ck r id i n g ,
as - s o l c a v a lry ,
te c tiv e
s c e lla n e o u s
P h y s ic a l f i n d i n g s
n e e d in g c a r e g e n e ra liz e d o b e s ity
p r o n a te d f e e t
v is io n - fu s io n
R e p re s s e d — s l i g h t
n e u ro tic c o lo rin g .
D e f i n i t e te n d e n c y t o
e s c a p e fro m s i t u a ­
tio n s o f p a r tic u la r
i n s e c u r i t y t h u s a v o id ­
in g a n x i e t y .
U su a l n e g a t iv is m
to w a rd r e a d i n g n o t a
f a c to r in th i s c a s e .
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CASE 2 1
Rorschach Interpreta tio n
II
Rorsohach Interp reta tio n
I
P sych iatric Examin ation
w h io h may be n e u r o t i c ,
t h e R o rsc h a c h does
n o t in d ic a te a c le a r c u t n e u r o s is *
S u p p le m e n ta ry D ata on F o lic
A t f i r s t showed im proi
b u l l y i n g , f i b b i n g , snc
p o r ts * M other gave n<
f a t h e r had been a r r e s t
a b o u t i t . N ext te rm 1
d i f f i c u l t i e s a g a in —
T u to r in g showed no imj
s c h o o l w h ere p r in c ip a ]
h ad v d t h o t h e r t u t o r s :
th e n s k ip p e d t u t o r i n g ,
p a l s u g g e s te d c o rp o ra ]
p r in c ip a l r e f e r r e d to
f e r r e d t o a H arlem scl
m a s tu r b a tin g o p e n ly ai
f e r r e d t o s c h o o l down
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h ia tr ic Examin ation
Sooi&l H istory
P sych ological Examin ation
M iscellaneous Data
S c h o o l ab sen ce # f r e ­
q u e n t t r a n s f e r s # con­
f u s i o n o f e y e -h a n d
dom inance* p a t t e r n
o f ru n n in g aw ay fro m
t h i n g s when t h e y g e t
u n p le a s a n t a r e a l l
o p e ra tiv e .
L a te r e x a m in a tio n (9 m on th s ’’ a t e r )
f i n d s b eh - o r b a s e d
l a r g e l y on n e g a t i v i s in g an d r e v e n g e .
sm en tary D a ta on F o llo w Up.
i.t f i r s t show ed im proved a n t , th e n r e p o r t s fro m s o h o o l o f m is b e h a v io r* h i t t i n g c h i l d r e n ,
ju lly in g * f ib b in g * s n e e r in g a t t e a c h e r . C h ild w as c h e e r f u l l y e v a s iv e a b o u t th e s e r e > o r ts . M o th er gave no e x p l a n a to r y in f o r m a t i o n . L a t e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s r e v e a le d c h i l d * s
f a t h e r had b een a r r e s t e d * was a w a it in g t r i a l , an d f a m i ly w as u p s e t , b u t v e r y d e f e n s iv e
ib o u t i t . N ex t te rm had s y m p a th e tic te a c h e r * f i r s t r e p o r t s showed im provem ent* th e n
l i f f i c u l t i e s a g a i n — u s i n g o b so en e la n g u a g e - t h r e a t e n e d w i t h p r o b a t i o n a r y s c h o o l.
P u to r in g showed no im provem ent o n s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t o Was t r a n s f e r r e d t o a n o th e r
sch o o l w h e re p r i n c i p a l t u t o r e d him h e r s e l f — g o t a lo n g w e l l w i t h h e r a l o n e , a s he
la d w i t h o t h e r t u t o r s , b u t n o t i n c l a s s . T alk ed im p u d e n tly , d id n ’t s t a y i n l i n e , e t c . ,
th e n s k ip p e d t u t o r i n g . A f t e r one m o n th t r a n s f e r r e d b a c k t o o l d s c h o o l, w h ere p r i n c i ­
p al s u g g e s te d c o r p o r a l p u n ish m e n t an d m o th e r w o n d ered w h e th e r t h a t w ere b e s t , and
p r i n c i p a l r e f e r r e d t o p r o b a ti o n a r y s c h o o l . M other# th e re u p o n # moved an d h a d him t r a n s ­
f e r r e d t o a H arlem s c h o o l. Soon i n t r o u b l e t h e r e t o o , d e f i a n t * q u a r r e l i n g w i t h o t h e r s ,
n a s t u r b a t i n g o p e n ly and t r y i n g t o in d u c e o t h e r s t o do s o . M o th er th e n h a d him t r a n s ­
f e r r e d t o s c h o o l down s o u t h .
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219
L ittle s e lf-c o n fi­
d en ce b e c a u se o f
home* sc h o o l* a n d
c o l o r p ro b le m .
CASE 22
Sex; Male
P roblem o f R e f e r r a l ;
Age; 5 y e a r s 3 m o n th s
G rad e:U o t i n s c h o o l,
in k in d e rg a rte n
l a s t te rm
R o rs c h a c h I n t e r p r e ­
ta tio n
II
In te lle c tu a l
A s p e c ts
Was i n k i n d e r g a r t e n l a s t term * P r
B ureau* F r e q u e n tl y s o i l e d s e l f * ,
aro u n d *
R o rsc h a c h I n t e r p r e ­
ta tio n
I
I n t e l l i g e n c e p r o b a b ly d u ll
n o rm al o r p o s s i b l y low
a v e ra g e *
I n te llig n e c e d u ll n o r­
m al o r p o s s i b l y low
a v e ra g e b u t d i f i f c u l t
t o d e te rm in e b e c a u se
o f la c k o f norms and
i r r e g u l a r i t y o f fu n c ­
ti o n *
U n c r i t i c a l , u n d is c r im in a t i n g s a t i s f i e d w ith a
p o o r p e rfo rm a n c e *
U n c r i t i c a l , e q u a lly s a t i s f i e d w ith a poor
a s v /ith a good p e r­
form ance*
F l i g h t y , u n a b le to con­
c e n tra te *
P ro b a b ly c u r i o u s , b u t
la c k in g i n c a p a c it y
f o r s u s ta in e d a tte n ­
ti o n *
P s y c h i a t r i o Exami­
n a tio n
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r g a r t e n l a s t t e r n * P r i n c i p a l r e f u s e d to r e g i s t e r him t h i s te rm u n t i l ex am in ed b y
q u e n tly s o i l e d s e l f * A tta c k e d o t h e r c h i l d r e n w i t h s c i s s o r s # Yfas d a n g e ro u s t o have
h i a t r i o Exami­
n a tio n
S o c ia l H i s t o r y
P s y c h o lo g ic a l Exami­
n a tio n
(S ee b elo w ) R e s u l t s
c o n s is te n t.
2j=r y e a r s l a t e r i n
2A S ta n f o r d - B i n e t
Form L , I Q 8 1 .
A r th u r P o in t
S c a l e , P .Q .8 0 .
E d u c a tio n a l achieve
m en t - ^ y e a r
o v e ra g e f o r
g ra d e .
( M e tr o p o lita n
A ch iev e m en t) ap­
p r o x im a te ly up to
g ra d e i n r e a d i n g ,
■g- y e a r r e t a r d e d
i n s p e l l i n g and
a r i t h m e t i c . P rob­
a b l y w o rk in g up
to c a p a c i t y . Work
a t o r ab o v e M.A.
A ll r e s u l t s con­
s is te n t.
U n c r itic a l but
anxious about per­
formance in la t e r
exam.
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220
P r o b a b ly d u l l n o rm a l i n ­
i n t e l l i g e n c e . S ta n f o r d
B in e t I Q 89.
Showed l a c k o f c r i t i c i s m .
M is c e lla n e o u s D ata
CASS 22
Rorschach Interpre*
ta tio n
II
Person­
a lity
C o n fig u ­
ra tio n
and
Rorschach Interpre­
ta tio n
I
B a b y is h , t r u s t i n g #
P r o b a b ly v e r y su g ­
g e s tib le , tru s tin g ,
in fa n tile #
H y p e r a c t iv e , e g o c e n tr ic , u n s ta b le ,
an d u n i n h i b i t e d i n
re a c tio n s #
E x tra te n s iv e , egoc e n t r i c , h y p e ra c t i v e p e rs o n a lity #
L i t t l e c o n t r o l to
k e e p i n ch ec k h i s e x tr e m e ly l a b i l e emoti o n a l re a c tio n s #
P sych iatric Exami­
n ation
In fa n tile speech.
Agenc
he is
g e s ti
fa n ti
to si
c h a ii
p o r ts
to ile
Emotional
A sp e c ts
'•
O c c a s io n a l s t u t t e r i n g #
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Sc
Mothe
re s t'
a tte i
d iffi
to ile
not 3
Vfas :
betwe
montl
Agen<
n o te ;
tiv e ,
preo:
Schot
Does
c ip l:
lia tr io Examin ation
,le s p e e c h .
S ocial H istory
P sychological Examin ation
Agenoy c a s e w o rk e r n o te s
he i s r e s p o n s iv e t o su g ­
g e s tio n s - is v e ry in ­
f a n t i l e a t home - l i k e s
to s i t i n b a b y 's h ig h
c h a i r , e tc * S c h o o l r e ­
p o r t e d he was n o t
t o i l e t tra in e d *
M iscellaneous Data
In n u rso ry scho o l
crav e s a f f e c tio n .
I n f o s t e r home w an ted
r e a s s u r a n c e VBS tored.
I n s c h o o l k e p t a s k in g
t e a c h e r i f sh e lo v e d
h im .
>nal s t u t t e r i n g .
M other r e p o r t s b o y i s
r e s t l e s s , a c t i v e , w a n ts
a t t e n t i o n , t e a s e s , w as
d i f f i c u l t to t r a i n i n
t o i l e t h a b i ts * Does
n o t r e s e n t p u n is h m e n t.
Was i n a f o s t e r home
b etw een a g e s 5 -1 5
m o n th s •
A gency c a s e w o rk e r
n o te s he i s h y p e ra c ­
t i v e , i m p u ls iv e , r a p i d ,
p re c ip ito u s in a c tio n s .
S ch o o l c o r r o b o r a t e s t h i s .
Does n o t re s p o n d to d i s ­
c ip lin e *
I n te r e s te d , c u rio u s ,
■anxious t o to u c h
e v e ry th in g .
S u g g e s tib le - i n t e r e s t and a t t e n t i o n
e a s i l y re g a in e d f o r
s h o r t s p a n s . Showed
l i t t l e p la n fu ln e s s .
S t u t t e r e d when ex­
c ite d .
W orked r a p i d l y a s k e d f o r com­
m e n d a tio n . I n n u r ­
s e ry sch o o l r e s t ­
l e s s , n o i s y , scream s
r u n s w i l d l y , w e ts
bed.
O n ly o c c a s i o n a l
s lig h t s tu tte r .
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221
S i m i l a r r e a c t i o n s both
e x a m in a tio n s 1 and 2 .
1 . A p p ro ach v e r y i n ­
f a n tile , frie n d ly ,
tr u s tin g . In fa n tile
s p e e c h som etim es d i f ­
f i c u l t t o u n d e r s ta n d .
2* Im m ature f o r a g e ,
d e p e n d e n t, s p e e c h im­
p ro v e d b u t s t i l l
p o o r.
CASS 2 2
R orsch ach In te r p r e ­
ta tio n
II
Not y et developed
a b i l i t y fo r good so c ial
co n ta cts w ith peers or
fo r s e lf c o n tro l.
Would probably get in to
d i f f i c u l t i e s w ith them.
R orsch ach I n te r p r e ­
ta tio n
P s y c h i a t r i c E xam i­
n a tio n
Sc
I
A djusts poorly s o c ia lly
and gets in to behavior
d i f f i c u l t i e s because of
e g o c e n tric ity , hyper­
a c t iv i t y , impetuous re ­
actio n s , siid lack of
c o n tro l. Em otionally too
immature to have good
so c ia l re la tio n s
Probably ag g ressiv e.
Probably ag g re ssiv e .
(See above under in­
t e l l e c tu a l - un­
c r i t i c a l e tc .)
(See above under in ­
t e l l e c tu a l - u n c r itic a l
e tc .)
T attl
chile
them,
he is
chile
him.
Put c
te r g
withe
wield
In s ib lin g r iv a lr y
s e t up showed d ire c t
h o s t i l i t y to mother
and strong sib lin g
r iv a lr y - c a lle d the
d o lls by names - ’’I'm
c u ttin g the mama up
e tc . beoause sh e’s
too bad."
Agenc
he is
other
?iothe
ing h
beara
in fu r
C areful not to break
what he had been asked
not t o .
A lso, because o f sh o rt
a tte n tio n span and
f lig h tin e s s could not
a d ju st to school
ro u tin e .
I f r e s u lts are v a lid ,
they would in d ic a te
th a t he would not be
able to a d ju s t to a
group s itu a tio n a t
p re se n t.
D istra c tib le -
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In ki
unabl
s h i a t r i o E x a m i­
n a tio n
S o c ia l H is to r y
P s y c h o l o g i c a l E x a m in a tio n
M i s c e l l a n e o u s D a ta
T a ttle s about o th e r
Wanted to take t e s t
c h ild re n . Is d is lik e d by m a te ria ls home but ae
them. Teacher re p o rts
oepted re fu s a l w e ll,
he is very a n ti- s o c ia l,
c h ild ren are a fr a id of
him. Did n o t jo in games.
Put out of school a f­
t e r grabbing s c is s o rs
w ithout a u th o rity and
w ielding them dangerously.
Agency case worker re p o rts At f i r s t lacking in
s e lf confidence i n ­
he is d e s tru c tiv e , h u rts
dependent, then
other c h ild re n .
became very cock­
Mother says behavior dur­ su re , lacking in
ing her pregnancy was un­ s e lf - c r itic is m .
b e ara b le , he t r i e s to
in f u r ia te h e r.
L ater in v e s tig a tio n
shows more h o s t i l i t y
between mother and
c h ild than a t f i r s t
apparent - mother
f u l l o f com plaints
about him. Only
negative re a c tio n s
about him. In nur­
se ry school shows
h o s t i l i t y to g i r l s ,
h i ts them.
L ater school re p o rts
h o s tile to c h il­
dren.
In k in d erg arten re p o rte d
unable to a d ju s t.
Responded re a d ily to
l a t e r psychological
but d i s t r a c t i b l e .
I n te r e s t e a s ily r e -
D ad."
E\il n o t to break
hs k d been asked
to.
• a c tib le .
Very d is tr a c tib le req u ired constant
a tte n tio n .
Would have d if ­
f i c u l t y w ith regu­
l a r school program.
g&ihdd#
In n u rsery school
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222
Lbling r iv a lr y
ip showed d ir e c t
L lity to mother
strong s ib lin g
Lry - c a lle d the
3 by names - " I ’m
Lng th e mama up
because s h e 's
CASE 2 2
R orsch ach I n te r p r e ta tio n
II
Diagn osis
A dditional
Follow-up
Data
R orsch ach I n te r p r e ta tio n
I
P s y c h i a t r i c E x a m in a tio n
U nstable. Behavior
problem who is hypera o tiv e . A djusts
poorly s o c ia lly ,
shows poor learn in g
p o te n tia lity be­
cause of mediocre
cap a city and i n a b i l it y
to u t i l i z e even t h a t
c a p a c ity .
H yperactive, unstable
younger who would fin d
d i f f ic u lt y in a d ju s t­
ing in a group.
R esults te n ta tiv e beoause of lack of
norms and standards
of in te r p r e ta tio n
a t t h i s le v e l.
Im possible to in te r p r e t (See a d d itio n a l follow -up
re s u lts a t t h is le v e l data fo r l a t e r diagnosis
w ith any c e r ta in ty .
alm ost 3 y ears l a t e r ) .
Following conference was plac
above under m iscellaneous da-t
where he had been w ell lik ed j
bed e t c . a t f i r s t and asked f
s ta n t reassu ran ce th a t she lc
a few months showed remarkab]
he s ta r te d school again enure
Teacher was seen , was handlir
w ith c h ild re n , good behavior,
A year l a t e r re f e r r e d again f
once in a w hile when mad. Qt.
"Boy shows an emotional chang
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h i a t r ic Examin a tio n
S ocial H isto ry
Psychological Exami­
n a tio n
Probably w ill n o t be
ready fo r f i r s t grade
before 7*
M iscellaneous Data
d i f f i c u l t to handle*
Imnature c h ild who
w ill have d i f f ic u lt y
i n a d ju stin g to
school fo r another
year*
id itio n a l follow -up
ar l a t e r diagnosis
3 y ears la te r ) *
Lng conference was placed in n u rse ry school but behavior was too d i f f i c u l t (see
onder m iscellaneous d ata) and he was removed# Was then placed in former f o s te r home
be had been w e ll liked* and a t same time was receiving p s y c h ia tric treatm ent* Wet
s . a t f i r s t and asked fo s te r mother why she d id n ’t spank him f o r i t , asked fo r conreassurance th a t she loved him, was je a lo u s of fo s te r b ro th e rs , aggressive* A fter
nonths showed remarkable improvement, showed no u ndesirable behavior* However, when
rte d school again en uresis re c u rre d , he was r e s t l e s s , annoying o th e r children*
c* was seen, was handling s itu a tio n w ell* A fter few months more se cu re , g e ttin g along
l i l d r e n , good b eh av io r, no more d i f f i c u l t y , and case was closed*
l a t e r r e f e r r e d again fo r s te a lin g and ly in g - enuretic* He says he swipes money
a a w hile when mad* Q uieter th an he used to be, doesn’t f i g h t , but s t i l l d e stru ctiv e *
bows an em otional change over h is co n d itio n when l a s t seen* At p re se n t th e re i s
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223
Profound sib lin g
r i v a l r y - arousing
h o s t i l i t y which i s
taken out on oth er
ohildren*
CASE 2 2
rep re ssio n o f muoh of the fo r
t r a i t s have taken the place o
a l l h is behavior conforming a
of own mother# although previ
was bad* Now v a c illa te s some
Wants to stay w ith her but wo
begged f o s t e r mother n o t to 1
in te n tio n a lly l e f t them to g et
more r i g id handling*
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ssion o f much of th e former motor a c t i v i t y and th ere i s anxiety* Some n su ro tic
have taken the place of motor discharges*” F oster mother has been try in g to make
.s behavior conforming and h4s become r ig id in handling* As r e s u lt boy no\v th in k s
l mother* although p rev io u sly he sa id he never -wanted to see her again because she
id* Now v a c illa te s some says* ”1 know t h is mother lik e s me* I know about th a t* ”
to stay w ith her b u t would lik e o th er mother to come and see him. E a rlie r had
L f o s te r mother n o t to l e t h is ”o ld m other” ever see him alone again (when she had
;io n a lly l e f t them to g eth er a lo n e .) This i s probably r e s u l t o f re a c tio n to the
•igid handling*
3
224
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CASE 23
Sex:
Male
Age:
12 years
Grade: 5B
Problem of R e fe rra l:
Child i s re ta rd e d in school# Last term
h is p eren n ial f a ilu r e s in sp e llin g and p
in school*
R eferred by Sohool
Rorschach In te rp re ­
ta tio n
II
I n te l­
le c tu a l
Aspects
Rorschach In te rp re ­
ta tio n
I
Dull normal or low
average.
Low average or dull
norm al.
Ambitious but un­
able to work up to
own sta n d ard s, and
becomes discouraged.
Probably functioning
below a b ility *
S tereotyped, p erse v era tin g lacking
i n te l le c t u a l
f l e x i b i l i t y and
o r i g in a li t y .
Stereotyped*
I n te r e s ts immature
but f a i r fo r
a b ility *
Immature, lim ited
in te re s ts * F a ir fo r
a b ility *
P sy c h ia tric Exami­
n a tio n
Boy s ta te s "I d o n 't
know my work. I d o n 't
know my s p e llin g , I
g uess." Both parents
help him with sp e llin g
and w ritin g *
Soh
y
spe
Mot:
him
tu t
cam
at
Hockey, f o o tb a ll, w ith
frie n d s* Plays w ith
to y s a t grandm other's.
Lov
horn
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
2
n school* L ast term he was the d e sp a ir of h is te a c h e r. Responds to pid.se but when
re s in sp e llin g and penmanship a re ta c k le d he r e s o r ts to te a r s a t home and "nerves"
.ia tr ic Exami­
n a tio n
Sooial H istory
Psychological Exami­
n a tio n
M iscellaneous Data
te s " I don’t
• work* I don’t
■s p e llin g , I
Both parents
m w ith s p e llin g
t in g .
f o o t b a l l, w ith
• Plays w ith
grandmother ’ s .
Sohool complaints fo r
2 years about w ritin g ,
s p e llin g , rea d in g .
Mother t r i e s to tu to r
him* When teach er
tu to re d him, he be­
came "nervous," c rie d
a t home*
Loves to tin k e r a t
home.
Spelling - 2 years be- S lig h t improvement
low g rade, 1 year below when given individuM.A. Reading oaaprehex* a l sym pathetic
*
sio n > at JtiA*, l y a a r - - tu to rin g .
below grade, scans fo r
meaning, o ra l reading
inaccurate*
A rithm etic - a t grade
Handwriting - poor.
Motor C oordination tapping t e s t
m echanical t e s t
average. Expressed
in te r e s t in going to
tra d e school - be­
coming an e l e c t r i ­
c ia n .
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
225
Dull norm al. Rev.
S tan fo rd -B in et, L, I Q
83, Average Mechanical
A b ility .
CASE 2 3
Person­
a lity
Configu­
ra tio n
and
Q notional
R orsch ach I n te r p r e ta tio n
II
R orsch ach I n te r p r e ta tio n
I
In tro v e rsiv e and e x tra te n siv e p o s s i b i l i t i e s .
Has a drive fo r more
a ff e c tiv e re la tio n s*
but f e e ls insecure and
inadequate.
Both in tro v e rsiv e and
e x tra te n siv e p o s s ib ilitie s .
Probably more outgoing,
good p o s s i b i l i t i e s fo r
ra p p o rt, but a f f e c t
now rep re sse d .
Marked anxiety and in­
s e c u rity w ith need fo r
reassu ran ce.
Extremely s e n s itiv e ,
in c lin e d to be cautious
and evasive in r e la ­
tio n s w ith people,
a fr a id to commit him­
s e lf.
S e n sitiv e , i r r i t a b l e ,
Immature, dependent•
Wrhen he meets w ith
a d i f f i c u l t situ a tio n is in c lin e d to withdraw
on an immature le v e l.
Immature.
U sually q u ie t and out­
w ardly w ell c o n tro lle d
but has occasional
v io le n t outbursts*
C rie s, (see above).
Says when he i s kept
in to stu d y , beoomes
d istu rb e d , ’’Sometimes I
say I d o n 't c are ,w h a t's
th e u se , so I d o n 't put
H o s tility and passive
my mind to i t anymore.”
negativism - u su a lly
w ell c o n tro lle d and he The boy has a b so lu te ly
i s probably unaware of no r e a liz a tio n of h is hos­
t i l i t y in re a c tio n to th is
h is h o s t i l i t y .
home p re s su re .
Aspeots
Shows some negativism
and h o s t i l i t y but t h is
is u s u a lly under con­
t r o l and is p assiv e .
P s y c h i a t r i c E xam in a tio n
Boy s ta te s he has a lo t
o f f r ie n d s . ”1 know everybody from X to Y Avenue and
A to B S tre e ts."
C ries to g e t what he
wants* ”7fhen I cry
my mother slap s me but
she d o e sn 't h u r t. "
U sually outwardly con­
t r o l l e d but has occas­
io n a l o u tb u rsts and
tantrum s•
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
1
1
1
1
<
r c h i a t r i c E x a m i­
n a tio n
S o c i a l H is t o r y -
sta te s he has a lo t
riends. ”1 know everyfrom X to Y Avenue and
B S tre e ts."
Plays w ith group of
boys o f own age.
Loves to v i s i t
grandm other.
Teacher says he
responds w e ll to
a p p re c ia tio n , shows
d i f f i c u l t i e s when
aware of f a i l u r e s .
;• (see above),
when he i s kept
' study* becomes
irbed, ’’Sometimes I
! don’t care,w h at’s
ise, so I don’t put
,nd to i t anymore.”
o y has a b so lu te ly
> alizatio n of h is hosy in re a c tio n to th is
p re s s u re .
M is c e lla n e o u s
D a ta
Very t a lk a tiv e , fr ie n d ly . Talks a g rea t
Rapidly a t ease w ith ex- deal about grandam iner.
m other, aunts and
Responsive to in d iv id u a l uncles - good re ­
a tte n tio n and p r a is e .
la tio n s h ip w ith
Seemed to crave a tt e n t i o n .a l l o f them.
I f n o t allowed to
go to grandmother’ s
eyes f i l l w ith te a r s ,
but i s o b ed ien t.
I f he lo s e s a t games,
c rie s w ith ra g e . Has
severe temper tantrums
th a t began a t 7* Cries Seemed immature - showed
and holds on to a
c h ild is h pleasure on
c h a ir as though he
some t e s t s .
would lik e to throw i t .
but knows he can’t get
away w ith i t .
Obedient about staying
home to do work, but
l i s t l e s s , a p a th e tic ,
and i t doesn’t help .
At f i r s t re b e llio u s
about h elp in s e l l i n g
and w r itin g . Father en­
couraged him, and now
he doesn’t re s e n t work­
ing so much.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
22 6
i to g e t what he
;• "When I cry
ither slap s me but
b e s n ’t hurt* "
P s y c h o l o g i c a l E x a m in a tio n
CASE 23
Rorschach Interpreta tio n
II
Rorschach Interpreta tio n
I
P sy ch ia tric Examination
B ecom es m ild ly a n g ry a t
s i s t e r b u t n e v e r a llo w s
h i s a n g e r t o com e o u t
d ir e c tly a g a in s t fa th e r
o r m o th e r.
S u m m a ry
Im p re s­
s io n
No n e u ro s is .
Im m a tu re b o y w i t h
fe e lin g s o f anx­
i e t y , a p p re h e n s io n
a n d in a d e q u a c y .
N ot n e u ro tic .
P e rs o n a lity d is ­
tu rb a n c e •
P e r s o n a l i t y p ro b le m ;
p a s s iv e n e g a tiv is m .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
h ia tr ic Exami­
n ation
S o cia l H istory
P sychological Examination
M iscellaneous Data
s m ild ly a n g ry a t
b u t n e v e r a llo w s
g e r t o com e o u t
ly a g a in s t fa th e r
h e r.
a l i t y p ro b le m ;
9 n e g a tiv is m .
R e s p o n d in g t o d e ­
m a n d in g a n d r i g i d
p a re n ts w ith p a s s iv e
n e g a tiv is m .
227
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
C A S E 2k
Sex:
H a le
P ro b le m o f R e f e r r a l ;
V e ry r e ta r d e d in s o h o o l a lth o u g h he
fe o t - baby ta lk .
Age:
9 y e a r s 1 m onth
G rade: IB
In te l­
le c tu a l
A s p e c ts
P e rso n ­
a lity
C o n fig u ­
ra tio n
and
E m o tio n a l
A s p e c ts
R o rsc h a c h I n te r p re ­
ta tio n
II
R o rsc h a c h In te r p re ­
ta tio n
I
In te llig e n c e in f e r io r .
S u b j e c t i s s i m p l e , im ­
m a tu re .
A s s o c ia tio n s m e a g re
an d s te re o ty p e d .
I n te llig e n c e o b v io u s ly
lo w . O b s e r v a t i o n s im ­
p le , c ru d e , v ag u e.
S te re o ty p y , la c k o f
o rig in a lity .
I n te r e s ts e x tre m e ly
lim ite d .
L im ite d ra n g e o f a b i l i ­
t i e s . A m b itio n b e y o n d
h is a b ility .
E m o tio n a lly im m a tu re .
I n fa n tile p e rs o n a lity .
E g o c e n tric - e x tr a ­
v e rte d b u t a ffe c f;
p o o rly c o n tr o lle d .
H as o v e r t b e h a v io r
P s y c h i a t r i c E x a m i­
n a tio n
So
Im p re s s io n o f m e n ta l
re ta rd a tio n .
Se
sc
E m o tio n a lly im m a tu re
In fa n tile sp eech w hen a s k e d c o u ld
sp eak c le a r ly . Says
h e lik e s to t a l k
b a b y t a l k lik e h is
baby.
A lw
ped
to '
M ot
dep'
E g o c e n tric , e x tr a ­
v e r te d , u n c o n tro lle d .
P o o r a f f e c tiv e a d a p ta ­
b ility , v o la tile .
R e s tle s s .
E x p re s s e s a n ta g o n is m
to f a th e r .
S a y s h e h a s som e
V e r;
fa t
h it
and
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
1 i n s c h o o l a l t h o u g h h e h a s a n I Q, o f 9 3 on t h e P i n t n e r - C u n n i n g h a m t e s t .
b a lk .
S o c ia l H is to ry
P s y c h o l o g i c a l E x a m in a tio n
d o n o f m e n ta l
itio n .
S eem s u n a b le to g ra s p
sc h o o l w o rk .
L im ite d I n t e l l i g e n c e ,
S u b n o rm a l.
R e v . S ta n fo rd -B in e t ,
F o rm L , I Q 7 2 . G o o d e n o u g h D ra w in g a n d
A rth u r P o in t S c a le
lo w t o o . B e g a n s o h o o l
la te now a b o u t 2 y e a rs
re ta rd e d f o r ag e in
g ra d e p la c e m e n t, b u t
n o t fo r a b ility and
a c h ie v e m e n t. U n a b le
to r e a d . K now s
s i m p l e s t n u m b e r com ­
b in a tio n s •
,le s p e e c h k e d o o u ld
le a r ly . Says
is t o t a l k
.lk li k e h is
A lw a y s h a d s p e e c h im p e d im e n t, d i f f i c u l t
to u n d e r s ta n d .
M o th e r k e e p s c h i l d r e n
d e p e n d e n t•
Speech in fa n tile b u t
a t tim e s sp o k e c l e a r l y ,
is .
is s a n ta g o n is m
te r.
i h a s som e
V e ry a n ta g o n is tic to
f a t h e r (w h o d r i n k s ,
h its c h ild re n ) te a s e s
a n d a n n o y s m o th e r
M is c e l la n e o u s D a ta
M anner a p a th e tic e x T im id - r e s p o n s e s
c e p t o n p e rfo rm a n c e
s lu g g is h d u rin g
t e s t s - se e m e d f a t i g u e d , m e d ic a l e x a m in a gave good a tte n tio n .
tio n (v a rio u s
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
228
l i a t r i c E x a m in a tio n
Speech de­
CASE
2k
Rorschach Interpre­
ta tio n
II
d iffic u ltie s .
U n c ritic a l
Rorschach Interpre­
ta tio n
I
P ro b a b ly h a s v io le n t
te m p e r ta n tr u m s .
P sy ch ia tr ic Exami­
n ation
tr o u b le w ith c h ild re n
o n b lo c k an d f ig h ts
w ith b ro th e r an d
s is te r.
No
SE
pr
Go
Hi
ca
se
la
ch
PI
ch
to
al
PI
M akes ra p id s u p e r­
f i c i a l c o n ta c ts
b u t ra p p o rt is
e s s e n tia lly p o o r.
oh
re
at
F e e ls in a d e q u a te an d
i s som ew hat in s e ­
c u re an d e v a s iv e .
S u g g e s tib le b u t
d o e s n 't r e t a i n s u g ­
g e s ti o n w e ll#
T rie s to ev a d e d is ­
t u r b i n g e m o tio n s
ra th e r th a n fa c e
th e m . P r o b a b ly s u g ­
g e s tib le b u t does n o t
r e t a i n s u g g e s t i o n lo n g «
F re q u e n tly e m b a rra sse d .
D o e s n 't l i k e s c h o o l i t 's a l l rig h t b u t I
d o n 't l i k e i t v e r y m u c h .
I f he f a i ls he fe e ls
"a l i t t l e b a d .”
L a c k in g c a p a c ity f o r
in n e r c r e a tiv ity o r
o rg a n iz e d f a n ta s y .
Few s ta b i liz in g f a c ­
to rs
Som e d re a m s a n d f e a r s
o f b e in g b it te n b y a
r a t . D a y d re a m s h e i s
a n a n im a l a n d b it e s
f a th e r , te a rs a p a rt
b a b y , a n d h i t s p e o p le
h e 's m ad a t .
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Se
in
Do
tr
ve
is
Of
nc
Latric Examim tio n
S o cia l H istory
■ w ith c h i l d r e n
c and fig h ts
a th e r a n d
No ta n tru m s o r c ry in g
s p e l l s . No b e h a v io r
p ro b le m i n s c h o o l.
G ood in c la s s .
H its b ro th e r w hen h e
c a l l s h im d u m b , b u t
seam s to b e good r e ­
l a t i o n b e tw e e n th e
c h ild re n .
P sych ological Examin ation
M iscellaneous Data
p h y s ic a l d if f ic u l
tie s ,
tly e m b a rra sse d ,
lik e sc h o o l L rig h t b u t I
Ik e i t v e r y m uch.
a .ils h e f e e l s
Le b a d ."
S e n s itiv e a b o u t be­
in g "dum b#"
D o e sn ’t l i k e s c h o o l,
t r i e s to ch a n g e co n ­
v e r s a tio n w hen i t
i s m e n tio n e d .
e a rn s a n d f e a r s
5 b itte n by a
a y d re a m s h e i s
a .1 a n d b i t e s
te a rs a p a rt
i d h i ■fas p e o p l e
d a t.
O fte n s i t s
n o th in g •
d o in g
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
229
P la y s w ith o th e r
c h ild r e n b u t seem s
to e n jo y p la y in g
a lo n e a s w e ll.
P la y s w ith y o u n g e r
c h i l d r e n . T im id b u t
re sp o n d s r a p id ly to
a tte n tio n .
CASE
2k
Rorschach Interp reta tio n
II
D ia g n o s is
Rorschach Interpre­
ta tio n
P sy ch ia tric Exami­
n a tio n
I
S u b je c t o f in f e r io r in ­
B e h a v io r p ro b le m i n a
b o y o f in f e r io r i n t e l l i ­ te llig e n c e lik e ly to b e
a b e h a v io r p ro b le m - h a s
g e n c e w ho i s p o o rly
c o n tr o lle d e m o tio n a lly . f re q u e n t o v e rt d if f i c u l­
t i e s w ith h is e n v iro n ­
I n f a n tile p e rs o n a lity
m
e n t. E k n o tio n a l r e a c t i o n
w ith f e e l in g s o f in a d e ­
v e r y im m a tu re .
q uacy and in s e c u rity .
P ro b a b ly s l i ^ i t n e u r o tic
c o lo rin g .
M e n ta l r e t a r d a t i o n
in fa n tile fix a tio n
l a l l i n g n ig h tm a re s
s ib lin g je a lo u s y .
s
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
s h i a t r i c E x a m i­
n a tio n
;a l r e ta r d a tio n u a tile f ix a tio n .in g n ig h tm a r e s .in g j e a l o u s y .
S o c ia l H is to ry
P s y c h o l o g i c a l E x a m i­
n a tio n
L im ite d i n t e l l i g e n c e .
M i s c e l l a n e o u s D a ta
(A d ju s te d b e t t e r to
u n g ra d e d c l a s s .)
230
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
C A SE 2 5
A ge:
11 y e a r s 1 0 m o n th s
S e x : M a le
G ra d e : 6b
R cr s c h a c h I n te r p r e ­
ta tio n
II
In te lle c tu a l
A s p e c ts
I n te llig e n c e p ro b a b ly
s u p e r io r b u t p ro b a b ly
d o es n o t fu n c tio n b ec au se
o f a f f e c tiv e d is tu rb a n c e
an d e x c e s s iv e fa n ta s y *
P ro b le m o f R e f e r r a l ;
C o o p e r a t i v e a n d a g r e e a b l e b u t It
o f c o n c e n tr a tio n e s p e c i a l l y m a rl
in g l a s t y e a r o t h e r s u b j e c t s a l£
h e a d a c h e s, d iz z in e s s , n a u se a . I
R o rsc h a c h In te r p re ­
ta tio n
I
P s y o h i a t r i c E x a m i­
n a tio n
I n te llig e n c e is s u p e rio r.
A c tiv e , a l e r t , a m b itio u s ,
b u t u n a b le to f u n c tio n up
to h is p o te n tia litie s
b ecau se o f p e rs o n a lity
d is tu rh a n o e *
In £
in n
c la i
wooc
peni
A c t i v e , a l e r t m in d
b u t im p ra c tic a l and
u n in te r e s te d in con­
c re te d e ta ils •
I m p ra c tic a l, fin d s d if ­
f i c u l t y in a tte n d in g
to d e ta ils #
M ix tu re o f m a tu re
a n d im m atu re r e a c t i o n s *
P ro b a b ly u n a b le to c o n - (S e e b e lo w ).
c e n tra te b e c a u se o f ex­
c e s s iv e fa n ta s y *
I n te r e s ts are v e ry
I n te re s ts a re ra th e r
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
(S e e
(S e
p rc
fc iv e a n d a g r e e a b l e b u t l a c k i n g i n p o w e r t o c o n c e n t r a t e e x c e p t i n s i l e n t r e a d i n g . L a c k
a n t r a tio n e s p e c i a l l y m a rk e d i n a r i th m e t ic . C o n s is te r tly d e f i c i e n t i n a r i th m e t ic . D u rfc y e a r o t h e r s u b j e c t s a l s o s e e m d i f f i c u l t * A p p e a r s n o t t o h e a r . C o m p l a i n s o f s e v e r e
as* d iz z in e s s * n a u s e a . A g g re s s iv e to w a rd c la s s m a te s *
y c h i a t r i c E xam in a tio n
S o c ia l H is to r y
M is c e lla n e o u s D ata
R ev* S ta n fo rd -B in e t*
F o rm L j I Q 1 1 3 * o th e r
t e s t s s u p e rio r;p e r­
fo rm a n c e a n d m e c h a n ic a l t e s t s s u p e rio r*
In c o r r e c t g ra d e f o r
a g e * R e a d in g 1 y e a r
ab o v e g rad e* s p e llin g
above g ra d e , a rith ­
m e tic fu n d a m e n ta ls
a n d p ro b le m 1 y e a r
b e lo w g ra d e * m o re
th a n 2 y e a rs b e lo w
M.A.
(S e e b e lo w ).
(S e e b e lo w ).
(S e e s ta te m e n t o f
p ro b le m o f r e f e r r a l ) .
(See above)* Ex­
p r e ss e s keen in -
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
231
In sc h o o l d o es p o o rly
in m an u al tra in in g * b u t
c la im s to h a v e u s e d
w o o d b u rn in g a n d c a r ­
p e n t e r 's s e t*
P s y c h o lo g ic a l E xam in a tio n
CASE 2 5
R o rs c h a c h i n t e r p r e ­
ta tio n
II
R o rsc h a c h I n t e r p r e ­
ta tio n
I
P s y c h i a t r i c Exami­
n a tio n
lim ite d f o r h is a b ility # lim ite d j e s p e c ia lly f o r
h is a b ility #
P e rs o n ­
a lity
C o n fig u ­
ra tio n
an d
E m o tio n a l
A sp e o ts
S e v e r e ly d i s t u r b e d A ffe c t i s re p re sse d #
F a n ta s y i s v e r y ac­
tiv e # P a th o lo g ic a lly
i n t r o v e r t e d g iv in g
im p r e s s io n o f a
s c h iz o id p e r s o n a lity
a lth o u g h he s t r i v e s to
make s o c i a l c o n t a c t s
an d c o n t a c t s w ith
re a lity #
I s m a rk e d ly i n t r o v e r t e d
a t p r e s e n t , a b s o rb e d i n
a r i c h fa n ta s y l i f e th a t
i n t e r f e r e s w ith h is in ­
t e l l e c t u a l f u n c ti o n in g
and a d ju s tm e n t#
te re
chem
on m
geog
Showed d is tu r b a n c e o f
a f f e c t - g r in n e d ev en
w hen d is c u s s in g h i s
fe a rs#
Has a d a p te d p o o r ly to
h i s e n v iro n m e n t be­
c a u s e o f la c k o f good
a ffe c tiv e l a b i l i t y
a n d i n a b i l i t y to
c o n fo rm r e a d i l y to
g e n e r a l l y a c c e p te d so­
c i a l p a tte rn s #
Is g
soho
a b le
Seem
Is a
when
w ill
re a d
re a d
W ith d ra w a l so m arked
a s t o make him a p p e a r
a s c h iz o id p e rs o n a lity #
I s r e a l ly v e ry s e n s it i v e to e m o tio n a l s t i m u li fro m t h e e n v ir o n rrent b u t beoom es
P r o b a b ly d o es make a tte m p ts
to a d ju s t to r e a l i t y b u t
i s g a s i l y h u r t and th e n
w ith d r a w s .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
VIher
on £
te re
v e ry
c h ia tr ic Examin a tio n
S o cia l H istory
P sychological Examin ation
M iscellaneous Data
t e r e s t i n m e c h a n ic s a n d
c h e m is try * L ik e s b o o k s
o n m e c h a n ic s , a ir p la n e s ,
g e o g ra p h y .
e d d is tu rb a n c e o f
c t - g rin n e d e v e n
, d is c u s s in g h is
s.
Is good
s c h o o l,
a b le to
Seem s n o
Is a
w hen
w ill
re a d
read
h u m o re d i n
b u t n e rv o u s. Ih -.
o o n o e n tra te .
t to h e a r.
lo n e w o lf . E ven
a tte n d in g c lu b s
w ander o f f and
, i s a n a v id
e r.
W as j o v i a l , r e s p o n s iv e
•b u t o v e r r e a c te d . In ­
c o n g ru o u s m ix tu re o f
aw a re n e ss an d re sp o n ­
s iv e n e s s a lo n g w ith
c o m p le te la c k o f s e l f
c o n s c io u s n e s s a n d com ­
p le te a b s o rp tio n .
A lo r t to w h a te v e r w a s
p re s e n te d , re sp o n d e d
b e f o r e d i r e c t i o n s com ­
p le te d b u t th e n b e ­
cam e c o m p le te ly a b ­
s o rb e d i n p ro b le m .
Y /h e n r e a d i n g i n w a i t i n g
ro o m , s o a b s o rb e d h e
d id n o t h e a r w hen h is
nam e w a s c a l l e d .
G ood e f f o r t , a t te n t io n ,
c o o p e ra tio n , an d s e lf c ritic is m .
7 /h e n h e d i s c u s s e s b o o k s
o n s u b je c ts he is in ­
te r e s te d in beoom es
v e ry e x c ite d and r e -
Seem ed m uch le s s r e s e rv e d
a n d s e l f c o n s c io u s th a n
boys o f h is ag e .
O v e r r e a c te d m a k in g e x -
R e produced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
w
w
CASE 2 5
Rorschach Interpreta tio n
II
Rorschach In terp ret a tio n
I
P sych iatric Examin ation
o v e r w h e lm e d b y th e m
an d s in c e h e ca n n o t in t e g r a t e th e m i n t o h i s
e x p e rie n c e * becom es
v e ry d is tu rb e d and
t r i e s t o a v o i d th e m #
I s e a s i ly h u rt#
m a rl
and
V e ry s e n s itiv e * e a s i ly
h u rt#
T o ld o f d e p r i v a tio n s
i f he does n o t g e t good
m a rk s o r f a i l s to do
c h o re s# A sk ed i f h e
g e ts a n g ry "T h at
w o u l d n 't g e t m e a n y ­
w h e re . I t i s n 't good
to g e t a n g ry a t y o u r
m o th e r# I d o n 't . "
P ro b a b ly v e r y h o s til e
b u t re p re s s e s hos­
tility
I s a n x io u s to h av e g o o d
hum an r e la tio n s b u t b e c a u se o f th e s e re a c tio n s
i s u n a b le t o do so a t
p re s e n t#
Shov
b e ta
m a te
th e j
cau£
M anj
c ry 5
th is
Is in te re s te d in p eo p ie a n d w o u ld l i k e to
c o n fo rm b u t c o n ta c ts
w ith p e o p le a r e p o o r#
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Thrc
ju st
jo ir
y o h ia tric Exami­
n a tio n
S o c ia l H istory
m ark s a r e i m a g in a t iv e
and f a n t a s t i c *
P sychological Examin ation
M iscellaneous Data
a g g e r a te d body m o tio n s *
g rim a c e s a n d rem ark s*
K ept up s t e a d y s tr e a m
o f comments o n p e r ­
fo rm an ce t e s t s b u t
w o rk ed q u i e t l y on
a c h ie v e m e n t t e s t s *
o f d e p riv a tio n s
i d o es n o t g e t good
: o r f a i l s to do
is* A sked i f he
a n g r y "T h a t
n ' t g e t me a n y i* I t i s n ’t good
it a n g ry a t y o u r
r*
I d o n 't* "
T hrough t u t o r s o c i a l ad­
ju s tm e n t im p ro v ed some j o i n e d c lu b s *
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
233
Shows a g g r e s s i v e
b e h a v io r to c l a s s ­
m a te s * Boy c o m p la in s
th e y d e r id e h im b e­
c a u s e o f h i s name*
Many tim e s com es home
c r y in g b e c a u s e o f
t h i s o r f i g h t s w i t h th a »
CASE 25
Rorschaoh Interp reta tio n
II
F e e l s very i n s e c u r e a n d
a n x io u s a n d b e c o m e s im p a t ie n t a n d d is c o u ra g e d
v d th h im s e lf.
H is s o l e r e l e a s e i s
e v id e n tly in h is fa n ­
ta s y .
F a n ta s ie s p ro b a b ly
f u ll o f v io le n c e .
P r o b a h ly h a s p h o b ic
m a te ria l, fe a rs ,
p r o b a b ly n ig h tm a re s *
Rorscliach In terp ret a tio n
I
Psychiatrics Examination
H as f e e lin g s o f in a d e q u a c y , i s h a s t y * im ­
p a t ie n t w ith h im s e lf*
Yifhe]
th a
v e r;
S e e k s e s c a p e i n f a n t a s y . D ay d ream s o f d u e llin g
P ro b a b ly a tte m p ts to
” 1 w is h I c o u ld d u e l
s o lv e h is d i f f i c u l t i e s
v d th t h e b o y s a n d g iv e
n o t th r o u g h o v e r t b e h a g io r ,th e m a g o o d b e a t i n g .”
b u t o n ly th ro u g h f a n ta s y
and v d th d ra w a l.
F i r s t d e n ie s f e a r s th e n
s a y s u s e d t o h a v e th e m .
A s h e d e s c r i b e s th e m
s a y s ” S o m e tim e s n o w I
s e e th i n g s go p a s t m e .”
D e s c r i b e s w h a fc m i g h t b e
a h a l l u c i n a t i o n th o u g h
he i s a w a re o f i t s p ro b ­
a b le la c k o f r e a lity * ” I
u s e d t o t r y t o c a t c h i t t<
se e w h a t i t s m ade o f .”
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
In 1
a di
seei
M o t]
n ig ]
lo u i
to 3
lo u i
her
sh ia tric Exami­
nation
S o cia l H istory
When d is c u s s i n g m a t e r i a l
t h a t i n t e r e s t s him sp eech
v e r y r a p i d an d ju m bled*
M iscellaneous Data
W orked r a p i d l y .
Became v e r y an n o y ed
a t h im s e lf o n ite m s
o n p e rfo rm a n c e o r
m e c h a n ic a l t e s t s t h a t
he f a ile d *
S p eech
extrem ely r a p i d ,
p o o r ly e n u n c i a t e d ,
som etim es incom ­
p r e h e n s ib le * Says
i f he d o e s n 't s p e a k
r a p id ly f o r g e ts w hat
he w as g o in g to say*
234
reams o f d u e l l i n g
I n s c h o o l d e s c r i b e d as
Lsh I c o u ld d u e l
a day d ream er - d o e s n 't
t h e b oys and g iv e seem t o h e a r*
sm a good b e a tin g * "
M o th er w as w o r r ie d a b o u t
n ig h tm a r e s - scream ed
lo u d ly , som etim es f a i l e d
to r e c o g n iz e h e r* C a lls
l o u d l y f o r h e r a n d b eg s
d e n ie s f e a r s t h e n h e r to le a v e him unharm ed
is e d t o have them*
d e s c r ib e s them
1Som etim es now I
lin g s go p a s t m e .”
Lbes w h at m ig h t be
L u c in a tio n th o u g h
aw are o f i t s p ro b Lack o f r e a l i t y * " l
bo t r y to c a tc h i t t o
l a t i t s made o f * ”
P sychological Exami­
n ation
L a s t y e a r m o th er
becam e aw are o f h is
fa n ta s tic s to rie s ,
u s u a l l y w is h f u l day­
dream s*
M o th er s a i d n i g h t ­
m a re s w o r s t w hen she
w o rk ed l a t e and he
w as a lo n e much o f th e
tim e * Has n o t had
a n y s in c e sh e h a s
b e e n home.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CASE 25
Rorschach Interp reRorschach Interp reP sych iatric Examit a tio n
t a tio n
n ation
_________ II________________________ I______________________________________
A lw a y s o n d a r k n i g h t s
o n c e o r tw ic e a m o n th l
B egan 3 y e a rs ago* " I t
m ig h t b e m y im a g in a tio n
b u t I d o n ’t th in k so * ’
C a r r i e s k n i f e w i t h h im
so he " c a n ’t be a f r a id ."
D e n ie d n ig h tm a r e s *
P o s s ib le s e x d is ­
tu rb a n c e •
E m o t i o n a l l y v e r y im ­
m a tu re i n c o n t r a s t
to i n t e l l e c t u a l
m a tu rity , v
C o m p la in s o f h e a d ­
a c h e s w ith o c c a s io n a l
n a u s e a an d v o m itin g .
S ay s h ad a b lin k in g
t i c b u t s to p p e d i t a t
m o th e r’s re q u e s t*
A ls o u s e d t o s c r a t c h
h e a d , o n ly o c c a s io n a lly
now *
At :
bab
d is
fee
te c
vou
Com
hea<
nau
d iz
to
Io n
M ot
bee
sev
vom
in c
N er
at
th a
b li
tw i
hea
w it]
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
a t r i e Examia tio n
S o cia l History-
P sychological Exami­
nation
M iscellaneous Data
n d a rk n ig h ts
tw ic e a m o n th l
y e a rs ago* " I t
m y im a g in a tio n
n ’t t h i n k so * "
k n i f e w i t h h im
a n ’t be a f r a id ."
ig h tm a re s *
s of headth o c c a s io n a l
n d v o m itin g .
d to s c ra tc h
ly o c c a s io n a lly
M o th e r b e in g t r e a t e d
b e c a u se sh e h a s v e ry
se v e re h ead ach es and
v o m itin g c o m p le te ly
in c a p a c ita tin g h e r .)
N e rv o u s m a n n e ris m s
a t tim e s m o re m a rk e d
th a n a t o th e rs b lin k in g o f e y e s , body
tw itc h in g s c ra tc h in g
h e a d u n ti l c o v e re d
w ith s o re s *
P h y s ic a l fin d in g s :
E x tm e ly in f a n tile ,
e n d o c rin e ex am ,
d i f f i c u l t to th in k o f
h im o s 1 2 . C o n s id e r e d re c o m m e n d e d b e c a u s e
t e s t s gam es* O u ts ta n d - o f o b e s ity a n d r e i n g i s t h e d i s c r e p a n c y b e - s u -'-‘*: s
basal
m e ta b o lis m t e s t .
tw e e n h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l
d e v e lo p m e n t a n d e m o tio n a l
Y is io n : fu s io n
re a c tio n s *
f a i l u r e , m ild
l e f t h y p e rp h o ria ,
p ro b a b le v e r t ic a l
a s tig m a tis m .
H o s p ita l re p o rts
s in u s t i s m ay h av e
c o n tr ib u te d to
headaches but
w o u ld n o t e x ­
p la in th e ir
s e v e r ity * L a te r
M o th e r s t a t e d
b o y h a d c o n v u l­
s io n s fro m te e fh in g p e r io d to 7
y e a r s - a lw a y s
a s s o c ia te d w ith
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
235
a b lin k in g
s to p p e d i t a t
re q u e s t.
A t hom e i s a lte r n a te ly
b a b ie d a n d r ig o r o u s ly
d is c i p l i n e d * (m o th e r
f e e ls she m u st p ro ­
te c t b o y . She is n e r­
v o u s, irrita b le * )
C o m p la in s o f s e v e r e
h a a d f t c h b & '. w i b i i
n a u s e a an d v o m itin g ,
d iz z in e s s ,w h ic h te n d
to in c r e a s e i f h e i s
lo n e ly o r d e p riv e d *
CASE 25
Rorschach Interpreta tio n
II
Rorschach Interp reta tio n
I
P sy ch ia tr ic Examin a tio n
Me
li
bo
he
wi
■wo
Sh
gr
fa
ab
He
po
in
sa
Pi
he
is
ou
mu
th
uns
fet
li]
D ia g n o s is
S e v e re d is tu rb a n c e - n e u ro tio
d is tu rb a n c e w ith ob­
s e s s i o n a l s y m p to m s p h o b ia s an d o b s e s s iv e
f a n t a s i e s . S c h iz o id
p e r s o n a l i t y . Som e g o o d
p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r w h o le ­
som e d e v e lo p m e n t i f d i s -
S e v e re d is tu rb a n c e n e u r o tic p ro b a b ly ob­
s e s s i o n a l s y m p to m s *
E x c e s s iv e f a n ta s y s h ie o id .
E v id e n c e o f p r e v io u s
n e u r o s is . Som e o f
p r e s e n t s y m p to m a to lo g y
m ay b e o rg a n ic o r p sy ­
c h o tic .
S h o u ld b e o b s e r v e d i n i n ­
p a tie n t c lin ic and
h a v e e n d o c rin e a n d
n e u ro lo g ic a l ex am s.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
>hiatric Examin a tio n
S o c ia l H istory
Psychological Examin ation
M iscellaneous Data
illn e s s *
ce o f p re v io u s
i s • Som e o f
b s y m p to m a to lo g y
o rg a n ic o r p sy •
b e o b s e r v e d i n in *
b c lin ic and
a d o o rin e a n d
o g ic a l exam s#
236
M o th e r d i s t u r b e d ,
liv e d w ith f a th e r o f
b o y w hen h e to ld h e r
h e w as s e p a ra te d fro m
w ife f o r y e a rs a n d
w o u ld g e t d iv o r o e *
S h e w a s a l o n e l y im m i­
g ra n t* W hen p re g n a n t
f a th e r s u g g e s te d an
a b o rtio n * S he re fu s e d *
H e l e f t * M o th e r s u p ­
p o rte d c h ild u s u a lly
in liv in g i n jo b s an d
says c h ild had no re a l
p la c e in th e s e h o m e s, f e l t
h e w a s n o t w a n te d * B oy
i s h e r o n ly e m o tio n a l
o u tle t*
She f e e ls she
m u s t p r o t e c t h im f ro m
th e r e s u l t s o f h e r ow n
u n w is e e x p e r i e n c e a n d i s
f e a r f u l l e s t h e beoom e
lik e h is fa th e r*
W as i n h o s p i t a l
u n d e r o b s e rv a tio n b u t
th e n re m o v e d b y
m o th e r b e f o r e h o s ­
p i t a l c o m p le te d o b ­
s e r v a tio n a n d m o th e r
m oved w ith o u t le a v ­
in g a d d re s s *
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CASE 25
Rorschach Interpret a tio n
I I
Rorschach Interpret a tio n
P sy ch ia tric Examin a tio n
I
tu r b a n c o i s o v e rc o m e .
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
c h ia tr ic Examin a tio n
S ocial H istory
Psychologic a l Exami- M iscellaneous Data
n ation
9 m o n th s l a t e r r e ­
f e r r e d to a n o th e r
h o s p ita l by ag e n cy .
B oy seem s w o rs e .
I s c o n v in o e d a l l th e
c h ild r e n a r e la u g h ­
i n g a t h im .
237
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
APPENDIX B
258
:ORD BLANK FOR THE RORSCHACH METHOD OF PERSONALITY DIAGNOSIS
Bruno Klopfer and H elen H . Davidson
......................................................................... Sex..................... D a te.......................... Examiner................................
te.............................................................................
School....................................................................................
................................................................................................................................................
Grade.,
Occupation.........................
T o the E xam iner
litate recording of responses, divide your record sheets into three parallel columns: one for the performance proper,
the inquiry, and one for the scoring.
• the responses to each card separately.
• each response in the inquiry to correspond w ith the main response if it is an elaboration or an addition to it. I f a new
is given in the inquiry, list it as an additional response.
dequate space after each response in case the inquiry should require more space than the original response,
ition of card, use symbols V A >
< the apex indicating the top of the card.
ie, start stop w atch when each card is presented and note time when each response is given. Note total tim e for each
i total time for the performance proper.
: on the blots pictured on the Separate sheet the deta il chosen
as the response. If the w h ole blot is chosen, w rite ( W ) next
the inquiry.
by encircling the part and numbering it
to the number of the response. This can be
w ith the same
done during
11 additions to the main responses and new additional responses separately and indicate them as additional.
te all additions to the main responses and new additional responses in the column headed additional responses on
d side o f the tabulation sheet.
S U M M A R Y O F P E R S O N A L I T Y D E S C R IP T IO N
•ence
I
P ublished by
T H E RORSCHACH IN ST IT U T E , Inc.
Secretary of the Folder Committee,
H elen H . Davidson, 601 W est 115th Street, N ew York City
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
the
DISTRIBUTION OF DETERMINANTS
V.'
- . 1
£ E
o|
8* >,
«u -S'
Ou "2
U
>M. 8
a^
I*
s
M
EM
m
M and Tendency
to M
K
Chiaroscuro
FK
Fc
FC
Texture, W hite
Gray and Black
Form
CF
Bright Color
RELATIONSHIPS B ETW EEN FACTORS
Manner of Approach: W
Total Responses (R ) =
D
d
Dr
Total Time ( T ) =
Indicate p roportion oi each category as fo l
Average time per response
w
Average time up to 1st response to Cards I, IV, V, VI, V II=
Average time up to 1st response to Cards II,III,VIII,IX,X =
F%
=
fA + AdA
:A* ( - R - I =
T*
(i) =
D
< 1 0 # ((W))
10-20 (W)
<30#
d
((D))
<10#
(d)
30-45 (D)
10-20
d
< M.
1>
20-30 W
45-55 D
20-30
d
1
30-45 W
55-65 D
30-40
d
- 2i
45-60 W
65-80 D
40-50
d
>2:
>60
W
>80
D
>50
d
° * (-i) =
Estimate of Intellectual Level
(H+A) : (Hd+Ad) =
sum C = (.5 x . . .FC ) + (1.0x . . .C F) + (1.5x . . .C ) :
Very superior
..D.
Superior
.Fc
M : sum C —
.Average
(FM+m) : (Fc+c+O) -
'
N um ber of rcsponses'to
Cards V III, IX , X
W : M —
Succession
........Rigid
Orderly
Loose
.Confused
........High
••••••••Low
%
Noto th a t th is estim ate is based on the f<
' number and q u a lity ‘of W
;f
number and quality of M
I
number of P on popular level (P)
^
number of P more accurate than pop <
number of P less accurate than populf
number of original responses (0 ) |
variety of content
|
succession
**
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
IAL
SCORING
I
in
N U M BER O F CARD
IV
I
V
vi 1 v n
PER­
CENT
TOTAL
1 VI I I |
IX
X
3F R e s p o n s e
w
wW ws
DW
O
D D(w)
OS
d
dd
de
Dd di
dr
•
1
s
so
nts o f
Total Responses
Respo n se
1
M
FM •
m
k
K
m
mF
Fm
F.m
k
kF
Fk
K
KF
1
i
FK
F
F
F+
F—
Fc
c
c
CF
6
C’
FC
CF
C
f
C 'F
C’
FC
F/C
CF i
C 'F
C
Cdes
Cn
Csvm
1
I
1
1
I
1
f '
I
!
i
■
Total Responses «•
Respo n se
H
Hd
A
Ad
AAt
Aobi
At & Sex
PI
Obi
N
Geo
Arch
Art
Food
Fire
Blood
Clouds
Smoke
Mask
Miscell.
jj
I
i
1
1
1
I
1
1
1
.............. _ L ...........
...........L ...........
P o p u l a r it y
of
R espo n se
Total Responses <
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
EXPLANATION OF SYMBOLS USED
LO CA TIO N
W
--
Whole Blot Used fo r Interpretation
W
v f
no part of blot omitted except white space
intended use of whole blot but part or parts
omitted or cut off
WS whole blot and white space used
(tabulate as main W and additional S)
D W a detail interpreted, with meaning assigned to the1
whole blot without justification (confabulation)
D
D E TE R M IN A N T S
M
(human, superhuman, or animal)
FM
m
large detail (first grade normal)
detail interpreted and remainder of blot used
as background
(tabulate as main D and additional W)*
white space used in addition to D
(tabulate as main D and additional S)
DS
d
Dd
k
form disregarded
kF form secondary
Fk fusion of form and k
K
Rare or Very Small D etail Usrd for
Interpretation
dd
de
di
dr
S
tiny detail
edge detail (only contour used)
inside detail
normal or small detail combined with rare adjacent
parts
Shading Used as Diffusion (smoke,
K
KF
FK
F
W hite Space Used fo r Interpretation
S
only white space used
SD a detail used in addition to S
(tabulate as main S and additional D)
inanimate movement, form disregarded
inanimate movement, form secondary
fusion of form and inanimate movement
expressions of human or animal figures
(tabulate as main F and additional m)
Three Dimensional Expanse Project.
TnoDimensionalPlane(x-ray, topograpl
Small D etail Used for Interpretation
(second grade normal)
Animals in Animal-Lihe Action
Inanimate Movement or Expression
m
mF
Fm
F,m
Large D etail Used fo r Interpretation
D
D (W )
Figures in Human-Like Action
form disregarded
form secondary
Shading Used as Three Dimensional.
in Vista or Perspective
F orm Only Used fo r Interpretation
F
form on level of popular response
F-f- form more accurate than popular
F— form less accurate than popular
Fc
Shading Used as Surface Texture of a
Seen Form
CONTENT
Shading Used as Texture (fur, y.
c
'
i
H*
Human Figures
Hd
P am of Human Figures, not Anatomical
A*
Animal Figures
Ad
Parts of Living Animals
A At
Animal Anatomy
Aobj
Fur Skins, Skulls, and the like
At
Human Anatomy (dissected parts, x-rays,
anatomical charts)
Obj
All Kinds of Man-Made Objects
N
Nature (landscapes, mountains, sunsets, rivers, and
other scenery)
Geo
Topographical and Outline Maps and Geographical
Concepts like Wands, Gulfs, Channels, not seen
'm vista.''
•Caricature* and mythological figures indicated by
parentheses as ( H ) or (A)
Note: Other symbol* like Arch (architecture) PI (plant)
are self-explanatory.
O
Original Response* Found Not More Than Once tn
100 Random Records
P
Popular Responses Found In At Least 20 ) OUqt
qt of
160 Random Records
. 4
Ir
c
cF
C
form disregarded
form secondary
Black, White, or Gray Used as C
FC’ fusion of F and C*
C F form secondary
C
form disregarded
FC
Fusion of Form and Bright C
Both Determinants Indispensoi
F /C
CF
combination of F and C where the for
nitc and the color arbitrary (a colored ch
Bright Color Determines Respo
Form Secondary
C /F
C
combination of C and F where the
arbitrary and the form indefinite (a
chart, political map)
Color Only Determinant %
concrete association to bright color, I f
context disregarded (blue sky or water |
or blood)
'"
|
Cdcs color description ,
|
Cn
color naming
|
Csym color symbolism—abstract association to I
color (Spring, Fall, Gayety)
!
C
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
:h : Psychodiagnostik
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Printed In Sw itzerland
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