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Flavor development in unsalted butter

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flAtm CSmOPMSHf in tJSSALfBD BBtf®
fhftA^Ai*A
4^00^rtr00ap0 lauii Sarfi'iak
4 fiiooi* Sabmlttot to th« 0roiuoio Paoulty
for tb* Bogro# of
m m
of m i w m m r
Major Subjooi tolry Bacteriology
ApfroroAt
Soafsof m j o r Bepartaoat
low*, State College
l M
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UMI N um ber: D P 12749
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.a TABLE Of COETIfTS
Pag*
k
-----
2 S S B Q B V B f ! Q a U .
.....
iBfoiim...................
Diacetyl and aeetylaethyloarbinol m flayer eoastltuents
ef butter..
....
Formation of dlaeetyl sad aoetylmethylearbinol
Insulted batter*
MALTTICAL METHODS....
EXPERIMEHTAL.
fart 1.
....
.......
r
T
11
1|
15
.......
.....
17
Preliminary Churnings................................
If
tester*! procedure........................................
17
Presentation of results..................................
19
Effect of the percentage of eeli developed in cream on
the dlaeetyl and aoetylmethylearbinol o o n t e n t a St
Sffeet of the. addition of oltrio acid on dlaeetyl and
aoetylmethylearbinol contents of ripened orearn......
27
Effect of agitation during ripening m dlaeetyl and
.....
aoetylmethylearbinol oontenta of cream.
35
Sffeet of ripening temperatures on dlaeetyl and
aoetylmethylearbinol contents of cream..............
ff
Influence of different butter cultures on dlaeetyl and
aeetylaethyleftrblnol contents of oream.......
I#
Sffeet of various percentages of fat In oream or milk
on dlaeetyl and aoetylmethyloarbiaol eontente.....
k7
gatlo of the dlaeetyl and aeetylmethyloarbinoi eontente
of ripened oream to those of the corresponding
unsalted butter.....,......*......*.........
57
T7207
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3
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Page
■ Part IX*
Plant C h u r n i n g s ,...... ............ ........... . ff
General prooeduro. .... ..........*.....................59
Kffeot of the percentage of aoid developed in ©ream on
the diaoetyl and aeetylmethyloarbinol contents.....
Bffeot of the addition of eitrio aoid on diaoetyl and
aeetylmethyloarbtnol contents of ripened cream
6$
Kffeot of agitation during ripening on diaoetyl end
aeetylaethylcarblsol ©ontants of ©ream.
....
67
Sffeet of rifOeing t©*peratures ©a dlaeetyl and
aeetylaethylcarbinol oontents Of ores*. ............
#
Influeno® of different hatter ealtures on dlaeetyl and
aoetylmethylearbinol oontenta of oream...........
JZ
Kohl© of the dlaeetyl or aeetylmethyioarbliiol oontenta
of ripened ©ream to those of the oorreopeadiag
unsalted butter.....................................
75
Changes In dlaeetyl and aeetylmethyloarbinol oontenta
during holding of aaaalted butter.................
77
■ Bffeet of varlem procedures during ripening of ereaa
on the flavor of unealted butter*...................
8$
©ISCUSSIOK OF H8T3LfS........
•rawttnr*....
Part X*
Part II,
96
101
.....
f e e l l a d a w y f l f c e r a f a g s . . . ' 1 © 1
Plant ©burnings#.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10|
ap p m o x . .
..........
MIKWJMnBRt...
xsvttiini c i t s b .
105
....
.......
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Ui3
1U4,
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INTRODUCTION
«•»*»JlXSar <S«p*
High-flavored tmsalted butter bet Increased greatly la commercial
importance during recent years, the principal area* of production being
the mid-western states. This type of butter Is sometimes sailed sweet
butter and Is made from either sweet or neutralised tour oream that bat
been ripened by the addition of butter culture.
Distinct from this type
of batter is the unsalted butter 'used in lee cream nines and other
produets f this Is nade without butter culture froa oreaa haring a low
aeldity at the tlae of ehumlag.
In the absence of salt it is necessary that the baiter hare a high
flaeor if it is to satisfy consumers.
Accordingly, the prebleas with
unsalted table butter differ froa those of salted butter.
She lack of
salt permits acidities to be developed during, ereaa ripening and holding
of butter that would be prohibitive with salted butter because of the
probability of fishiness developing* unsalted butter rarely becomes
fishy*
Development of acidity favors the production of flavor and also
limits bacterial deterioration.
Since dlaeetyl is considered the most important compound contributing
to the desirable flavor and aroma of butter, the amount of dlaeetyl was
determined and used as an index of flavor development.
The common
assumption that dlaeetyl is formed by the biological oxidation of acetyl*
methylearblnol prompted the determination of aeetylmethylcarblaol also*
'Shore may be other materials, for example, volatile acids and esters of
fatty acids, contributing to butter flavor, but they are of minor
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InpertssMHS,
fh© results reported herein ©over a study of the effect* ef earlea*
factors on the contents of dlaeetyl end it* probable precursor, acetyl*
methylearbinol, in ripened ores® end in hotter churned froa the ripened
creami the effect* of the factor*, ©a the flavor 'end keeping quality of
batter ale© were considered.
Preliminary investigations were conducted under laboratory eondl*
tions on the following factors that might influence the content* of
diacetyl and acetylaethylcarbinol in sweet or neutralised soar oream
ripened to relatively high acidities and in the corresponding butter i
■(a) Effect of the percentage of acid developed in ©ream on the
diacetyl and acetylmethylearbteol contests.
(b) Effect ©f the addition of citric acid on diacetyl and acetylmethyloarbinol oontente of ripened cream.
(©)
Iffset of agitation during ripening on dlaeetyl and acetyl*
methylearbinoi contents of ©ream.
(i)
Iffcot of ripening temperature* on dlaeetyl and aeetylmethyl-
oarbinol contents of oream.
(e)
Influence of different butter cultures on diaoetyl and acetyl*
methvloorbinol
iMr^wsiesimamwirm* eontente
wwaswwssvs. of eream.
ues.wwassew©
(f)
Effect of various percentages of fat in oream or milk on
dlaeetyl and acetylmethyloarbinol contents.
these studies were then used as a basis for trials under commercial
conditions.
In addition to determining the dlaeetyl and aoetylmethyl*
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earbinol contents of the cream $*st before churning m i of the fresh,
butter, * sample of butter was analysed for these oeapeuada after holding
1 week at 36 to I|0%,, 1 month at 36 to I*©0?,, and 5 day* at 6©®F.
followed by 4 daya at ?6 to l#®f , Samples of hotter were Seeped for
flavor «fter.holdiagi1 week at 36 to- &0°IV, after 1 month at 36 to iiO°F.#
and after 4 Booths at *10 to 0°F.
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*
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*
Dlaeetyl and aoetylmethylearbinol at
flavor constituents of tetter
the importance of dlaeetyl as a flavor constituent of k l l w was
indicated by the work of van Vial* Kluyver and Berx (29), la 1929.
tea
Vial observed that specific •train* of propionic aali bacteria, which
apparantly ylaldad aeetylaethyloarbinol, produced aa odor similar to
that of tetter with a high flavor*
Samples of high-flavored butter gave
poaitivo reactions to aootylaethyloarbinol testa*, However, purified
aoetylmethylearbinol aa* odorless.
It was^ concluded that dlaeetyl,
oxidised from earbinol, gave the eharaoteristio aroma to tetter*
Analyse*
revealed that f'la# butter eoataiaed from 0.0002 to G.GOQi*. per cent
diaoetyl. and, by the addition of a similar amount to tetter which lacked
flavor, a desirable flavor mas produced.
Studies concerning the source
of tetter flavor indicated that culture* of certain organisms, used in
tee cream before manufacturing, produced a desirable flavor, but meet
organisms did not appear to have tee ability be produce this flavor,
this latter fact had previously tern suggested by several investigators*
Conn (6), as early as 1889, suggested that proper cream ripening was tee
result of tee action of bacteria, several specie* being involved*
Boekhout and Ott do fries (J*), Hammer and Bailey (9) and Storch (26)
announced, about tee same time, that tec types of bacteria are present
la tetter cultures, tee lactic acid producers and another type which
produced a desirable flavor and aroma,
the formation of volatile acid
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«. 8 •»
by the latter type was «trecced by Mama0r and Bailey.
Hammer (0 ) later
indicated the importance of citric acid aa a source of volatile aoid
production by the too epaeiae of this type, which he named Streptoeoeeu*
paraeitrovorus and Streptococcus ©itrovorus.
tehmalfuss (1$) noted the odor of dlaeetyl In a milk culture of
gtreptooeecus acldl laetlel and Strepteooeeug oremoris and confirmed
ite presenoe.
Xe considered dlaeetyl to be aa assimilation product of
the organisms.
la studying butter cultures It was ©hserrod by Miehaeliaa, Parmer#
and Hamer (12) that most of the aeetylmethyloarbinol plus dlaeetyl was
produced la the latter stages of ripening*
there seemed to be a definite
pi limit of l+*0 to k*3 fer rapid production of flavor.
It alee appeared
that the butter culture organisms might eause a destruction of acetyl*
aethyloarbinol plus dlaeetyl.
High acidities helped to retard the dec*
traction and neutralisation accelerated the action.
It is generally conceded that any process which add* oxygen to a
ripening butter culture will eause larger yields of the flavor constit­
uent*.
frill and lamer (20) aerated cultures by shaking and obtained
large imereese# in dlaeetyl on holding.
Tlrtanen (|0) observed "feat, if
the ripening process were conducted in thin layers, the production of
dlaeetyl and aoetylmethylearbinol was more active, while the opposite was
true under mere anaerobic conditions.
Is also reported that bubbling air
through cream gave high-flavored batter, bat the flavor diminished during
storage.
Brewer et al. .(5) greatly increased the production of acetyl*
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«*
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methylearfelnol and diacetyl fey deration of batter cultures under preseuro,
Wiley et a U (33) reported investigations m
the effect of temperature
end starters on the diacetyl end flavor (taste) of ripped oreaa end tfee
resulting hotter*
Starters wpth no "ferightness"imparted at mueh flavor
t# hotter'as those having much "brightness”. • "Brightness" correlated
m i l with the dlaeetyl content,
However, the dlaeetyl contest of cream
did sot correlate with the dlaeetyl content of the starter, .and gtrcpte*
coccus cremorls produced the same amount #f dlaeetyl at h5°F. (7°C,) as
at TO®!1* (tl®C#) hat less aoid at th# lower temperature* .
Mohr (16) considered the optimum temperature and acidity for growth
of butter culture organisms was hot the best for the formation of
dlaeetyl*
lie data indicated one-fourth of the dlaeetyl and one-fifteenth
of the acetylmethylearfelmol present in the oream were retained la hotter,
the washing operation eliminating muoh dlaeetyl and acetylmethylearfeinol.
During storage of hotter at 5® %, (1®%*) th# dlaeetyl increased up to
h days and after 10 to 12 days It decreased* At U* to |2®f, (-10 to 0°0.)
th# dlaeetyl of hotter underwent no change*
Mohr and Bella (17) eon-
eluded that dlaeetyl seemed to behave the same in the storage of un­
salted or salted butter*
they reported that first-fuality Seraan butter
showed little relationship between the dlaeetyl content and flavor*
Baraleoat (1) (2) (3), In reviewing the work of others, stated that
the variation reported' la literature for butter was froa 0,05 to 5 p*p*»#
in dlaeetyl contenti sweet ereaa butter averaged about 0*05 p.p.®*,
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* m *
alii starter batter from
butter 1.5 p.p.®.
to G,k p.p.®. and high-flavored starter
He reported that the percentage of dlaeetyl retained
by butter ta the manufacturing process varied from 0 to 39 for oeat and
averaged 15 por «#»t.
la storing salted butter at ij0®F. the dlaeetyl
content Increased for several day* after manufacture.
change la batter atorod at
there aa* littlo
to 17°F, for 6 months, exempt la butter
containing largo quantities and the loss then was considerable.
frill .and Hamer (21) emphasised that aeration of butter oultaros
increased the dlaeetyl content*
there seemed to he a general relation
between the diacetyl content of the cream before ©burning sad that of
th# butter, but the relationship was not elose.
Prom hie studies 'dairies (?) concluded that high-flavored butter did
not keep well,
this was not because of the dlaeetyl content but because
of other constituents or conditions of manufacture associated with this
type of batter.
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X* II •
Formation of dlaoetyl and acetylmefchylearbina1
Attempts bare boon made by various investigators to explain the
formation of diacetyl froa eltrie acid ia butter cultures* . the moat
widely accepted Ida* ia that dlaoetyl is formed from its precursor*
aeetyimethylcarbirtol, by a biological oxidation.
It ia assumed that
aoetylmethylearbinol ia one of the products of th® breakdown of oitrio
aeld la aa aoid medium.
fapernoux (t?)# I» 193&» suggested th® development of dtaeetyl at'
follow** lexote sugar from last©#® breaks down to yield mcthylglyoxal.
A molecule of water is taken up to giro methylglyoxal hydrate which forma
leetie aoid by hydrogen rearrangement.
She leetle sold then breaks down -
to aeetaldehyde, earboa dioxide, aad hydrogen.
A condensation of two
molecules of aeebaldehyde results ia the formation of 2*hydroxy butalde*
hyde which changes into another compound haring the same empirical formu­
la, acetylmethyloarbiaol.
the aeetylmethylcarbin©1 is either oxidised to
dlaeetyl or reduced to 2#3«butylone glycol, depending upoa the
eoaditiona•
Michaelian and Hammer (13) ('Hi,) showed that the production of
dlaeetyl from- acetylmethylearbinol ia not a simple chemical oxidation.
Dlaeetyl was not formed after th® eltrle aoid fermenting organisms were
killed with formalin, chloroform, or heat*
Suspensions of dead organisms
failed to produce dlaeetyl,'although provided with the usual temperature
and pi conditions*
Purified aoetylmethylearbinol added to sterile skim
milk which m s adjusted for fl failed to yield dlaeetyl when oxygen was
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* It bubbled through the milk,
fan Beymaa and Petto (26) concluded froa seeeral studies on th*
decomposition of citric acid that ictaoooeus cremorle produced aoctic
acid and ethyl alcohol in sweet milk and dlaeetyl* acetylmethyloarbiaol,
acetic acid, carbonic acid, and 2,3-butylene glycol In aoidifiod milk.
The scheme proposed la at follows*
(a) Citric acid breaks dean to acetic
acid* carbon dioxide, and pyrurio aoid*
to carbon dioxide and aoetaldohyde.
(b) Pynrrle M i d deearboxylstes
(c) In a neutral medium the
aeetaldehyde undergoes a Cannizzaro reaction and yields aoetie acid and
ethyl alcohol, while In an aoid aedium there Is a condensation to acetyl*
aethyloarbinol if conditions are anaerobic and dlaoetyl If eondltiono are
aerobic.
Both diacetyl and acetylmethylearbinol also may be reduced to
2,3-butylone glycol*
In support of the scheme the authors could obtain
no sectylaethyiearbiao1 from a citric acid free medium, and the addition
of synthetic aoetylmethylearbinol to cultures of betacoool failed .to
produce increases la dlaoetyl.
They beliere that dtaeetyl is not. the
result of a chemical or biological oxidation of acetylmethylearbinol but
is formed from some intermediate product, probably aeetaldehyde.
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bflttW*
Investigations of unsalted batter usually have:bees confined to
baeteriologioal deterioration and to keeping quality.
Sutter made with­
out salt develops flavor defects tern the notion of microorganisms very
reflily at the common holding temperatures. Kelson aid lamer (18)
obtained surprisingly large increase# of 'butter culture organisms, by
both th# flat# and aioroeeopio counts, in unsalted butter held at 70°F.
Organisms ether than streptococci sometimes developed in large nunber*.
The baeterial count deereaeed ia uasalted butter held at ~I*°P.
Buasiker (11) abated that ia the tJnited States unealted butter does
not turn fishy, whieh he attributed to the abeeaee ef the solvent action
of ealt on protein and lecithin.
Defects arising f*«a baeterial action
result in a limited keeping quality and unealted butter must be held at
©old storage temperatures.
may occur la succession.
Stale, cheesy, raneld flavors, and aoid growth
W k m made without salt, deterioration is acre
rapid in unripened than In ripened cream butter.
Wiley (ft) concluded froa hie investigations that fat oxidation was
greater in salted than unsalted batter,
He (31) also reported that
deterioration by baeterial action was not delayed by the presence of
aeld in uasalted butter held at either 65 or hO°F,
At temperatures of
0 or li*°P. the greatest deterioration was observed in butter made froa
oream ripened to a pH of £«$«
Bat of ripened oreaa (0 5.©)- displayed
noticeable oxidation after cold'storage, but this was net true of the
butterfat froa oreaa acidified to the same pH.
The pf had little effect
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* j4 *
m the flavor of unsalted tatter, Hinstsr (15) regarded the presence
ef a few genuine lactic aoid bacteria la tetter a* beneficial; they
tended to retard the growth of objectionable organisms.
Slatter {Slk) and Slatter and Hammer (85) indicated teat at suitable
temperatures unripened eream tetter made mite, culture increased in acetylmethylearbinol plus dlaeetyl end decreased markedly In pH.
tee. increases
in aoetylmethylearbinol pine dlaeetyl varied mite different lots of tetter
held under tee seas conditions, tat tee largest increases usually occurred
with long holding periods and. low pH development. ' S m s lets, of tetter
decreased in dlaeetyl on holding and remained low, telle otter# Increased
after am Initial decrease*
There also mere samples teat Increased from
tee beginning of tee holding.
Although tee tine required mas variable,
all samples eventually dooreased on holding.
Prill and Hammer (22) studied tee changes ia dlaoetyl and aeetyl*
methyloarbinol plus' dlaoetyl contents in unsalted tetter manufactured in
a manner similar to teat employed mite salted tetter in which culture is
used,
leaky#
tee unsalted tetter mas only partially merited, but it mas not
tee changes in dlaeetyl .and acetylmoteyloarbinol plus dlaeetyl
contents of unsalted tetter manufactured from sweet or sour ereaa mere
negligible at -1® to 0®P#
Significant changes in dlaeetyl and esetyl-
methylearbino1 plus dlaeetyl ooeurred at 56 to U5°P* and at 7®°F.
Changes in bote compounds included Increases, deerease# rad increases
followed by decreases; increases ooeurred in most trials and the authors
believe these increases mere an important factor in flavor development.
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* 15 *
AHALTflCAL MlfBOBS
Aelii dstsralDAttos
11a# grama of oreaa m » weighed on a balance and titrated, without
diluting, using 0,1 normal sodium hydroxide* phenolphthaleia m e need aa
aa Indicator.
Hie reaulte were calculated aa laetie aoid to the neareet
0,01 per cant*
pH determination
f« determination# on ©ream and on aarum obtained froa butter by
melting and centrifuging were made with a Leeds -and lertbrup potentioaetar» modified <plnhydron© ©leotrodo and a calomel half-oell,
from the
0,01
of a pH unit.
Fat determination
then necessary, the peroentage of butterfat in the oream waa deter*
mined aooording to the official Babooek method.
Maeetyl and acetylmethylearbinol determination
Cream and butter were analysed for dlaoetyl and aoetylmethylearbinol
by the colorimetric method of frill and Hammer (If)* with a few minor modi*
fioations used by Hoeeker (I®)*
Fifty grams of butter waa weighed into a
500 ml, flask for the dlaoetyl analysis .and the air displaced with earbon
dioxide by allowing a' email stream to flew into the flask for 5 minutes:.
The sample waa refluxed for 5 minutes by boiling with steam.
The dlaoetyl.
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l& *
m s dlgtillsd into a tabs containing 1 ml. of hydrcxylamine acetate
solution {19)» allowing 5 bo 6 ml* of distillate to collect in about 15
minutes*
th® diacetyl in th* distillate was converted into tbs amono-
ferrous salt, a rose-red colored compound, with ammonium hydroxide and
ferrous sulphate and made up to IS ml. with distilled water*
fhe Intensity
of the eolor « w measured with a Klett-Suamerson photoelectric oolori*
meter*
Seadtogs were obtained with standard solutions of known strength
and used to calculate the amount of dlaeebyl, whieh mat expressed in parte
per million (p.p.m.).
'fhe aoetylmethylearbinol analysis mas essentially the same,
fire grams of butter mas weighed into a 50© *1. flask,
twenty*
thirteen *1, of
a 1*0 per cent ferric chloride solution m t added, and the mixture refluxed
for 10 minutes with steam to oxidise the aeetylaethyloarbtool to dlaoetyl.
Allowing approximately 15 minutes, the distillate was collected to 1 ml.
of hydroxylamtoe acetate solution (19) until the volume was It ml.
One
ml. of the 10 ml. of distillate was transferred into another tube, con­
verted into the asBtoma—ferrous salt with ammonium hydroxide and ferrous
sulphate and made up to 10 ml. with distilled water*
The intensity of
the eolor was measured with the photoelectric colorimeter.
The results
were calculated as parte per million of aoetylmethylearbinol but actually
represwat aoetylraeihyloarbtool plus dlaeetyl.
Since the amount of
dlaeetyl was Insignificant compared to the amounts of aoetylmethylearbinol,
this procedure did not materially affect the aoetylmethylearbinol results.
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» Vf <*
EXPERIMESTAL
fart X.
Preliminary Churnings
Preliminary studies were conducted i» the laboratory on the feetor®
influencing th® formation of diaoetyl end aoetylmethylearbinol la oream
ripened to relatively high acidities for the produotion of high-flavored
unsalted butter.
Xa thee® studies only small amounts of ores* sere used.
Crete was pasteurised ia a JOO-galion vat at 150°F. for JO minutes
ia the butter laboratory,
32 to JT per ©eat,
fhe butterfat content ©f the eresa ranged froa
fhe sweet eresa had aa original aeidity of 0.20 per
cent or less, sad after pasteurisation it was neutralised (at 120®?,) to
approximately 0.10 per cent aeidity with sodium sesqui-earbonate. fhe
sear oreaa bad m
original aeidity of 0,1*0 t® 0.50 per sent.
Before
pasteurisation this was redused {at 90°F.) to 0*29 per eeat with "Alkali
fpeelal* and after pasteurisation (at 120°F.) to 0.15 per ©eat with
sodium sesqui-oarbonat#.
.After eeeling th# ere** to j6°F.# a portion was removed to a steamed
milk can,
Five per eent culture by weight 'was added and 800-gram per*
tloas ®f the mixture were transferred te sterile quart glass jars with
glass tops,
fhe portions were warmed to the desired ripening temperatures
and ineubatei until the preper aeiditie# had developed,
f# avoid agitat­
ing the 800-gram pertleii# during the ripening period .and thus influencing
the production of dlaeetyl by incorporating air# a 250-grem portion of
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•» 3*0 —
th® mixture in a fiat tattle.was hold at eaeh of the ripening temperatures*
the aeidity of thi# portion was determined occasionally and used a* an
indication of the aeidity of th® 000-gra® portion*
On completion of the ripening* 300 gram of .oreaa wee removed from
each 800-gram portion and the aeidity*.pi* diaoetyl, and aoetylsiethylearblnol mere determined immediately*
Ihe remainder of the oream was
Churned to large granules In the Jar (at the ripening temperature), using
a special experimental churn that agitated six jars at a time,
fhe hotter*
milk mat drained and' the hatter trashed twiee in cool distilled water hy
shaking for approximately 1 minute eaeh time,
fhe butter was worked in
a small sterile dish' hy hand until all free moisture disappeared.
It was
held in parehme&t wrappers at |l» to liO°F. until the pi, diaoetyl, and
aoetylmethylearbinol could be determined (within 2k hours).
Sxoept ia ihe trials oomparlag different butter cultures, the cul­
tures employed in ripening the oream were prepared by inoculating skim
milk, pasteurised at 180*?. for 30 minutes and then tooled* with a
selected mother culture• fhe incubation temperature m s 70®F.
Ike* .
firmly coagulated the cultures were cooled* they were used the same even­
ing*
Xe citric acid was employed in preparing the cultures.
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* 19 *
'
ftsa ■»amdmmi■#*4***** j
*#■WW9i*mv9
utmmit drm
ITOS^IamIvawE
w*
la presenting recultsof the preliminary churnings, the various
factors studied were generally divided late two or nore division* depend*
lag upon the number of condition* that were varied*
fables ea eaeh division were prepared and placed ia the Appendix,
the tables contain the ripening temperature, per eeat aeidity, pH,
dlaeetyl, and aeetylasmylearblncl values of.m e ripened oreaa Just before- churning, and ia most eases contain the pi* diaoetyl, and aeetyl*
methyloarbiaol values of m e corresponding butter*. Ia a few tables
additional information is included.
She values on me.batter were
determined as sooa as- possible after m e completion ef m e churning
process (within
h e w s),
fhis was necessary to. prevent changes froa
■
feaiHwg place*
Many of m e tables are longi therefore, a summary for eaeh table hat.
beta prepared and is used In giving the results*
only m e results on m e ripened cream.
fhe summaries include
pH, dlaeetyl, and aoeiylmethyl-
oarbinol contents of the unsalted butter will be .discussed later la m e
paper under a separate division.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
* 20 ***'
Iffeot of the percentage of ©old developed la cream m
the dlaoetyl and aoetylmsthyloarMBol eontente
Acidity i» oao of the Important footer# la Hie production of lari#
amounts of diaoetyl and aoaiylmethyloarbinol la tatter cultures.
lew
ever, la ripening oreaa for the manufacture of unsalted butter, it la
not feasible la develop aa high aeidlMee mi m m m n l y .are developed In
butter culture*#
Hie data m
the production of dlaeetyl and aeetyl-
methylearbinol In oreaa ripened to different aeldltie# Involve both
sweet and sour cream} trials also were carried out with skim milk.
fe study the effect of aeidity on the production of dlaeetyl and
aoetylmethylearbinol during the ripening of oream or ski® milk, a sample
was prepared for each aeidity desired.
Hie general procedure consisted
of preparing three or four samples and thus obtaining a number of
acidities by ripening various period#*
the llsiits of 0.J0 and 0.55 per cent.
'lb# aeldltie# usually were within
Occasionally, the oream plus
culture also was held in lee water to-■prevent changes by the culture
organisms1 presumably, the diaoetyl and aeetylmethylaarbinol contents
'then represented the amounts added; by the butter culture and quantities >
already present fro® fermentations prior to pasteurisation*
A.
Sweet oreaa ripened to various acidities
Results of 36 trials on sweet cream ripened to various acidities are
recorded.3m Summery 1.
Hie dlaeetyl increased with the development of a
higher aeidity in the cream in 9$ (80.5 pea? cent) of th# trials, while
the aestylmethyloarbiao1 increased in ft (88*9 per cent} of the trials*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
- 21 -
Suwnary I.
Comparative dlaeetyl (Aog ) and acetylmethyloarbinol (iso)
content*. of *w»®t oreast ripened to Yarioa* aeiditlo*
Froa fable 1
AShg
Mm
Kttabor of trial* showing as. inorea** Is
Aog or A»® with aa iaoroa*# ia aeidity
99
m
Suabor of trials showing a deoroaee ia '
Ju*g or A m with aa inorea*® ia acidity
2
£
Number of trial* showing aa inoroaso and
th*» a dooreaao ia £ % or Aa® with m
Increase la acidity
3
1
l«wb®r of trial* showing aa inorea**, a
deerease nm* than aa iasifos*® is
or A m with an increase la acidity
a
1
36
36
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
» 22 *»
Of th© 29 diaoetyl increases, 20 were significant, while aine inoreased
less than 0.1 p.p.m. la diaoetyl with a substantial decrease ia p8 (0.10
©f a watt froa a pH of 5,00 to 6.00).
Most ©f th© aoetylmethylearbinol
increases war© significant considering th© decrease ia pH.
fh© data ia Table 1'indicate that generally the diaoetyl inoreaaa was
small in the pH rang© ©f 6.5 to 5,5, while at a lower pH the increase in
diaoetyl was aneh greater per unit deerease in pH.
Aaetylmethylearbinol
yields displayed similar trend© under th* same eonditiona.
She dlaeetyl decreased in two (5,5 par cent) ©f th© trial* with an
increase in acidity, the first analyst* being mad© at approximately 0.J0
per ©ant acidity*
One of these ■•dlaeetyl decreases was slight,, fro® 0*57
to OJM* p.p.*.
The ether deerease wa* greater and presumably caused by
a peer culture,
the acetylmethylcarbincl, likewise, decreased in tee
trlala (5.5 per cent) with an increase in aeidity, the decrease being
large in both eases.
On* ef the decreases was in the trial that shewed
a deerease in dlaeetyl.
in increase ha dlaeetyl followed by a decrease ooeurred in three
(S.| par ©eat) ©f the trial*.
On© ef th* deerease* was snail,
the remain­
ing two decreases ooeurred at high acidities, one being ©specially high*
In the 'three trials corresponding changes in aeetylmethyloarbimol did sat
occur, but in another trial (2.8 per cent) tie earbinol content increased
and' then decreased slightly, froa 29*7 t@ 29*0 p.p.»,| the deerease
probably Is within 'the limits ef experimental error.
there m s an increase in diaoetyl, then a deerease and finally an*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
• 85 V
ether increase in two trials (5.5 per cent). and a similar series of
changes in earblnel in one trial (2.8 per osat).
The decrease* were
small with th® final increase being much larger than th® first In all
cases.
Th® diaoetyl contents ®f th* sin lots ®f or**® fins butter culture
held during the animal ripening period at llty*---ranged fro® 0.12 to 8.23
p.p.m. with -an average #f O.tt p.p,m.§ the aeetylmethylearblnol contents
■varied fro® f.5 to 16.5 p.p.m, and averaged 10.6 p.p.m.
the ratio ©f
diaoetyl to aeetylaethylcarbincl ranged from lilg.2 in 1»116.6.
9.
Sear cream ripened to various aeiditie*
Summary g gives the results ©f three trials cm neutralised sour ore*®
ripened to various aeiditie*:. -the diacetyl increased in three (10G.0 per
©ant) of the trials with the development of a higher acidity,
these in®
creases regularly were large -considering the decrease in pi.
the acetyl-
meihylearbiaol content* also increased in the three trials with an In*
crease in acidity.
On© ©f the increases was small but the other two- were
large*
She amount #f diacetyl or aeetylaethylcarbinol in the neutralised
sour cream plus starter held at ft*F. for the normal ripening period was
generally greater than in sweet oream plus starter, the average diaoetyl
eentont being 0#lj2. p.p.m* (range from 0.55 to O.ff p.p.m.) compared to
0.82 p.p.*. for the sweet ores*,
the average earbinol eentont was tt.l
p.p.*. (range from 20.9 t@ 2f.f p.p.m.) compared to 10.6 p.p.m. for the
sweet ©ream.
This relationship probably is explained by the development
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-
Sunsuury 2.
24
-
Cosiparativo diaoetyl (Aeg) and aoetylmethylearblnoi (iw>)
A
M kdb
1 41 .Ofe.afcdl
OOOTlMPOtwO O r OOOmmtO w
a OOO1
*®ni i
H M
i«l i l illim nMi
JMft.jd aift;m i n
A
® © wmr O rO w Bfc rrJ M R B O O
dfejlh.
wO
tFOw »
0 t* 0
^ S d A * 2 «Md8>
O O rO w w lO O
Wrm Table f
Aog
Aim*
Wmrnhmm of
trial* »twt«» m> InArSUS ilk.
Aeg or Jm» with an imrwm* in aoidity
Wumbor of trial* ehowine a deerease ''la
Ae<l or lam with an inereae* 'la aoidity
tom,
1
1
f
—
©
-~
1
>
■
t
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
of tfe® two ooapoimd®
during the original Booring.
to eorbinol «»« from
1*3®.# to
C.
Swe«t *ki® milk ripened to
Eeeulte of four
glren -is Summary f*
trial# on
Th#retie ofdiaoetyl
1*66.6.
wartime acidities•
skin milk
ripened towarloueaeidiileoero
Both diaoetyl and aoetylmeihylearbinol inereoeed with
an lnereae® in acidity in the four trialo (100.0 per cent).
Table | shooe
that in moot oases the inereaeee in the compound# ware eeaparati-rely
email deepite large increases in the eolditlee.
the presence of butt#rf*t
my
fh# result# suggest that
cause larger iwounte of the two compound®
to be produced.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
* §6 *
©unwary f.
Camparativo dlaeotyl (Acg ) and aeotylmothylcarblnol (das)
contents of akin milk ripened to rarloua acidities
From fable 3
dOg
date
Somber of trial* showing an increase In
Aog or Jnss with m o increase In acidity
It
k
Humber of trials showing a doorcase in
Aog op dmo with an increase la acidity
©
©
—
tom
It
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
•**
It
* t? #
Iffeet of the addition of oltrio aoid on diaoetyl and
metylaethyleerbinoi contents of ripened eream
Citrie aoid lo the principal source of the flavor constituents of
uncalled bettor#
Accordingly, trials were conducted to determine the
offset of adding small amounts on diaoetyl and aeetylmethylearbiaol oon~
tents of ripened ores®.
Citrio aoid mis added to the eream at the sane
time as the batter culture, 'in the fora Of a 50 per sent sterilised
eefaeeue solution, with agitation of the orooa to avoid coagulation.
Since citrio aoid offsets a small dooroaso in pi* it was neoossary to
ripen the eoatral* longer than like orooa with added citric aoid mien
approximately the same $8 was desired,
trials were carried out with
sweet and soar oreami in seas of the trials with sweet cream the ripen*
ing period was the same with and without the aided eltrie aoid so that
there m s a difference in p8,
A.
Sweet eream ripened with added eitrio aoid
Sines sweet eream contains some oltrio aoid or citrate* only 0,05
per sent of the aoid was added to the oresm.
the ereaa with' and without
added oltrio aoid m s ripened 'to the seats pH.
Results of 111 trials with sweet eream are given in Summary I*. In all
the'trials the produetien of diaoetyl was greater with citrie aoid added.
The aoetylmethylearbiaol contents were greater with eitrie acid added in
It (®5*T p«r cent) of the li+ trials, ©f the increases in diaoetyl that
resulted from the addition of eltrte aoid, half wore rather largo despite
the fast that sweet eras* contains sens citrio aoid*
Approximately one*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
- 28 -
Smeary 1*. CmparatiTe diaoetyl (A©g) and aeetylaethyloarbinol (Ase)
content* of eweet oream* with and without added oitrie aoid,
ftttlWliHw*l "tree
fell
ejw^fcB^r
eafwae* a
Jf
cicgg'
**2
Umber of trial* *Howiag a greater froduction
of Aeg or Am© with added eitri© m i d
Umber of trial* not chewing a greater pro*
duotion of' A©g or- Aae with added citrio
aoid
*
f0»
A bo
Hi
12 '
2
0
#MMU»
—
Hi
Hi
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
wMnthytnayW j*w%1m slss WST« large*
half ef the increase®,in
B. ■ Sour ores® ripened with added citrio acid
the trials with neutralised soar cream involved the addition of three
amounts of oltrio sold since soar eream m y b© deficiont in this compound
as a result of bacterial action in It*
la six trials the Amttnni-.* used
wars 0 .05, 0 .10* and 0.15 per o«nt| la two trials only 0*10 per cent was
employed.
Samples within each trial were ripened to the same pH.
The resalts ef eight trials with sear area* are presented la
Sm u p v *5. Semnles in cavtn of the tiitt trials centsinaid diustvl eon*.
aS 1saswsss^eNS ^ y
^*r * v
w s^ese sysaa ^w sw
acMee
w r^ w w ^ w a a
a rs i
*fp -s
ew * a g g ^ e a e s
e r a ■w .^^ae*^w
s w s w a a s f^ ^*< a *a a w sw a
s a < a ^ w ie w w rs s jp p a
a rw rs a - *
tents that were equal or larger with increased mounts of added citrie
aoid.
In one trial the diaoetyl content of the sample with 0.05 per east
added citric sold m s slightly less than that of the sample with no added
citrie acid*
However, this say have been due to the fact that the pH of
the former was higher, 5.20 compared to 5 ,00* the remaining two samples
In the same trial increased In diaoetyl in the usual way*
The acetyl'1
1
,
methylearbinol contents were increased hy the additions of citric aoid
in all th® trials*
The diaeetyl .inmeases were large la. most ef the
trialsi the oarhinol increases were large in all eases,
C.
Sweet cream ripened with end without added citric sold for equal'
periods
The trials consisted ef ripening sweet eream wits sad without 0,05
p m cent' added eitris acid for equal periods of lime.
The results of 12.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Swmmpf 5* OoppMottT# Mmtfafl (Mg) M t
0OiJ(&*fe03S%0 Of1
(Am)
iOO^i sour orooa, with various amounts of
added oltrio '0014, ripened to tho sows pH
AOg
.AM
?
8
1
§
i
8
Btttbor of trials showing m ofual or groator
produotlon of Aoo or A m with added sjMferio
m M
Bunbw of ,fci*lsli
.^aue
300%ik0vii|
swo vwwwaviF
oltrio aoid
191*6
-
m oyfftt. oir
fiaef ^^oaevfla
4m*, marsfm ^^oseeoa
4mm ' gtik
^as
*vee a*ee
flMil
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
- ntrtsl* are preeeatod la Summary 6* In all trials the addition ef ©itrle
©old resulted la a greater production of diaoetyl.
diaoetyl generally were not large,
the Increases la
la ail th# trials the ssaplee con­
taining added eltrlo aeld had larger yields of aoetylaethylcarbinal.
©i# amount ef laureate was generally mill*
fbe difference la production
ef diaoetyl aad aoetylaethylearbincl between th# ores* with added eltrlo
aoid and that without added eltrlo aeld wat net entirely the result of
oltrio aoid #©rvlag as a source of flavor substances.
Citrio aoid also
tended to decrease th# pH to some extent which should slightly favor
diaoetyl and aeeiylmethylearMno I production.
Comparative j® values on
the saaplos of ripened oroas with and without the addition of 0.05 for
©eat oltrio 'sold sure as fellows*
5,10* 5.1?* 4*90# 5.051 4*?®# 4 .8?*
5*57# 5.8O 1 5.41* 5*6ii 5*5®. 5*4«l 5*51.
5 *m» 5*15* 5 *W* 5*f6| aad 5.54* 5*#*
f.4t* 5*5®i 5*61. 5.ti*
Probably all the decrease la pH
was aot dlreotly caused by the addition of 0.05 for ©sat eltrlo soldi
part nay hare been th# result of laereased activity of ©altars organisms.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
* f t *
Suanaury 6. Comparative diaoetyl (Aeg) and aoetylaethyloarbinol (Amo)
eoatent* of *«»*t or©*®, with aad without added eitrio aoid,
ripened for ©%ual period*
From fable 6
Sttafeer of trial* ahowiag a greater produotlon
of Aeg or A»e with added oltrio aoid
2
j6i83i8jl
It
it
0
o
12
it
Somber of trial* aot ohewiag a greater produetion of doe or Am® with added oltrio
aoid
—
TUXAL
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-33Effect of agitation daring ripening on diaoetyl ■
and aeetylmebhylearbinol content* of erscm
Biological oxidation probably io one of tho reaction* involved la
tho break-down of oltrio aoid to diaoetyl.
fherefore, various procedure*
la.ro been used la attempting to laereas* tho oxygon content ef batter
eultare* and thus obtain a greater production of diaoetyl*
Agitation of cream to Ineorporate oxygen was accomplished by shaking
the glass Jars vigorously for 10 seeoads at 'regular intervals. 'Cream
-
ripened at 70*F. -tad a short ripening period and consequently was
imitated every hour for 3 to 4 'hours.
Ores* ripened at 60®P. was agi*
tated three times during.the development of aeld.' trials were oondueted
with sweet end sour eream end with eream containing added eltrie aoid.
A.
Effeet of agitating sweet or neutralised sour eream during the ripen*
lag' period
Approximately the same pi was developed in cream ripened with agi* >
tation and in the corresponding eream ripened without agitation.
Of 'the
nine trials* seven ware with sweet eream -and 'two with sour cream.
the data are presented In Sumaary 7.
Diaoetyl and aeetylmethyl-
carbinol contents of the agitated cream were mush larger than the contents
of the wnagltated eream In nine trials (100.0 per cent).
Diaoetyl eon*
tent# generally doubled or tripled* while the aostylmethylcarbinol con­
tents were frequently twice as large* indicating>that the incorporation
of air by agitation is definitely beneficial for the production of
diaoetyl and aeetylmethylearbinol,
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
ianarjr 7*
..
Coagaratlv* dl«u»*tyl (Atg) *»4 A®«tyla»ikyle*rfclaol (Amo)
.. .
W m 1M)i%$ 7
® *2
S dmAnh^ o f ■ferlstle show ing o gpoafcot* pi*oduotilQ £i
A# Aa_ a p ■*■»* In •.rl'kw bed. e r t u
2
^
fcti^O0M
l U IW K B | A g
jA'WA
AifeWiF
kWfcJWA&OW Wkttfr
aWSBf* 01 '4
'W
r^w
w^fattS ^prOtHIBviwD
-w*
a #' «
Ao_
a
i
*
A
sia
I
ja
u
n
&
^
ittts
d
■»««»
g
*- « » * * *
wrvnw
f
t
&
0
—
fOTAL
A#o
9
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
— .
9
* » >
B. .Effect of agitating cream fins oltrio asid during tho ripening period
trials were conducted to determine if' the agitation of oreaua, to whleb
citric aoid had been added, would cause th© production of largo amounts
of diaoetyl sad aeetylmethylearbinolj citric Cold would provide the sub*,
strata and agitation would increase the air content for th# oxidation of
aeetylmethylearbiaol t# diaoetyl.
the agitated samples and the corres­
ponding unagitated samples were ripened to approximately the-Sews pH, '
f e w were sweet cream and too wer® sour cream trials*
Summary 8 shows the results of the six trials*' Maeetyl and acetyl*
methyloarblaol contents ef the agitated cream with added citrie m i d were
much larger la all trials than, the unagitated. cream with added citrie
•eld.
fables 7 and i show that the combination of agitation and the
addition ef eltrlo aeld seems slightly to increase the yields of diaeetyl
and aoetylmethylearbiaol, as oomparod to the agitation of eream to which
citrie aeld was net added.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Sxmsmrj S *
Coafaratlvo dlaeotyl (A.0g ) m & aeotyteothyXoarfeiaol (Am)
ooatoat* of or(nub containing 0*1 par oont addod oi'fepio aoid
riponod aith and without agitation
_
_
.. Wftm fa%lo 8
twnWw nf ■fcrlal® ohowrlng a groator prod^tios
#1* Alfa at &Mm ia agitatad orm & plow eltrlo
aoid *
<1*2
Am*
#
$
f
0
6
6
Wmkmt At trial* *hewizig a greater production
At Affg or ifflft la oaagitated oreoa. plus
oltrio aoid
fdciic
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
* If *
Xffeet of ripening temperature# on diaoetyl
and aoetytaeteyloarbinol oontents of cream
Since temperature affect# tee growth of tetter culture organieme
trial# were eonduoted to determine tee.effect of tee eream ripening
temperature on tee production of diaoetyl and aeetylaethylearblnol.
file ripening temperature* used ware 50®* 60°, aad ?O0F.
Cream with
5 per cent culture m e warmed to the#© temperatures and ripened to eon*
etant temperature incubator# to- approximately th# acme pi*
the ripening
tine varied from 5 to k5 hours, depending on tee temperature and tee
degree of acidity deeired*
Determination# of tee diaoetyl aad aeetyl-
aethyloarbinoi ia tee oream were made soon after the deeired pH wae
reached.
Sweet eream wae need in -all tee trial#.
tee result# of IS trial# are give® in Summary 9.
In Ik trial* (ff.f
per cent) tee largeet amount of diaoetyl m e produced in the eream ripened
at 50°F., tee next largeet la tee orecm ripened at 60°P., and th* lowest
.in tee cream ripened' at fO®F.
In U
trials' (61.1 per cent) tee acetyl-
meteyloarbinol intent# ranked la tee same order (50°, 60°, and 70®F.)|
included in this ranking are equal contents between the oream ripened at
70°P. and at 60°P. In two oases and between 50®F* and 6o°P. in one case*
In two trials (il*l por cent) -tee production of iiaoetyi wae largest in
tee oream ripened at 50°F., next largeet-In eream ripened at fO°P., and
lowest in the cream ripened at 6o°P.
In two trial# (11*1 per cent) tee
aoetylmeteyloarbino 1 yield#- varied in the same order (50°, fO0, and 60®?.),
In one trial (5*5 per cent) tee yield of diaoetyl was greatest at a
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
* |S *
Suaaary 9, .iegpwrntiw diaoetyl (A«g) a»d aoetylmethyloarbiiiol (Aao)
ooBtent# of sweat cream ripened at Jfl*# 6©°, laid ?0®P.
Wrm, Table f
Ao 2
'Ante
Hi
11
1fumbftr <1#
thowi&g the highest
daotiom of Aog or M o 1m ereaa ripened
at 50°?.* and Hit lowoot production at
dO°F.
2
8
Huaber of trial*, showing th# highest pro*
duatlan a# I*, or i n in »»«»■ rinened
at I#9?** and the lowest production at
707*
1
f
Humber #f trials titswia£ the highest w?-®**duotion of A*g or #—# la ereaa ripened
at 70°f. * (Mid th# loweat prodaotioa at
do9?*
1
0
11
18
Sassber of trials showing th# highest -pro*
duetlon of Aoo or .Afw* III orA m ripened
Ot 50®?** and the lowest produetioa at ’
fWd
# f *s>
*##»
newweF
*■►*#
ws#
w
SMUkiflhs#
TOTAL
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
** | 9
**
ripening teaporatnre «f 60®F., was next groateat at p®f » # aad lowest at
70°F.. I» fit*' trials (17.7 per eeat) the aeetylaethylearfcinol yields
» w W
in tha seme order (6o°# 50®, aad 7#®?,)*
One triad (f*f per eent)
•tewed the largest diaoetyl content in oream ripened'at 7©°F., the next
largeet ©oateat at 5©®F., wad the lowest eontent at 60®F.
Hone ef the
trials showed aeotylsethyioarbiaol ooatents aooording to the sea© order
(?0°# ff®, and 6©°F.).' la nearly all trial© the differeaee in diaoetyl
and aoetyimethyicftrhlnol oontents among the three ripening temperatures
was very email.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
• Il0 *.
Influence of different butter oulture* m
diaoetyl
end aoetytoeihylcarbiaoi content* of cream
to* amount of diaoetyl aad acetytoetoylcarbinol la a butter ealture
▼aria* greatly*
Trial* were conducted to doteraiao the influenee of
various butter culture* on toe diaoetyl aad aoetylwetoylcarbiaol content*
wl riJMHEMMl SFWSI*
Butter culture* from several ersaaerie* making uasalted butter were
carried until aetlve (two transfer*} aad then used la preparing bulk cultures for the trial*#
After being used three time* la the preparation
of bulk cultures they were discarded to eliminate the feasibility that
transferring under the sane conditions would tend to cause uniform results*
Sweet cream was employed to all trial*.
A.
Cream ripened with different 'butter culture* from the sane source
A desen cultures were obtained from Bebraska creameries, which wire
originally from the seme commercial aouroe.
Three trials were conducted,
of which two contained eight sample* and one contained six •ample*. 'the
sample*' of each trial were ripened to toe same approximate pH with a
different culture.
toe ranges to diaoetyl and aeetylaethylcarbtool content* ere presented
to Summary Id and toe ether diaoetyl and acetylmethylcarbtool values are
given to Table 10.
to trial 1 toe diaoetyl oontents of toe eight samples
ranged from 0*1*1 to 0.00 p*p.m.
tome other diaoetyl content* to toil .trial were 0.?g, G,?0, and
0.?® p.p.®. aad toe remaining content* were 0.52, ®*§6, and 0Jt5 p.p.m*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
* ill *
I§*
Sang® in diaoetyl (A®g) and ao©tyImoihyle&rblnoI (Amo)
®ont*nti *f oroaa ripened with hatter eultttro®
from tho **»® mother ©ulturo
from fall# 1®
trial
1®.
Vo* of
•aaplM
Bang® in AOg
f.JMfe "
Bang® in
1
8
®4fi t® ®*s@
1®,I* to |%*®
3
3
& M to ®*ft
11*3 to 1&*®
1
4
3*|@ to G.?4
18*1 to 2b.l
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
f
Th© earbinol contents varisA from 19.it to %*0 p.p.m.* contents of th®
six samples within the*® extremes wer# 29,1, 26#©, 20,6# 20*5, 20.5, and
20.1 p.p.m.
lH Trial 2 th© diaoetyl content* were from 0.14 to 0.92 p.p.m.
and th© ©th«r contents wer* 0 ,88. 0.78# 0 .78, 0 .7%# 0*#* aad 0*55 p.p.m.
'the lowest aoetylmethylearhinol content vat- 11*2 p.p.m# and th® largeet
14*8 p.p.m*
Content* between the*© extreme® were If »§, 11.2, 20.3, IBM,
i|0.2, and. 3^.8 p.p.m#
In Trial f the production varied from O.fO to 0.76
p.p.m. and th* remaining four samples had contents of 0.53, 0*62, O.63,
and 8*67 p.p.m.
teetylmethyle&rbinol content® of thi® trial, ranged from
12.1 to 2^.1 p.p.®. and the other four content* war© lii.l, 15*8, 20,8, and
22.it p.p.m.
The differeno® in dlaeetyl content between the highest and
lowest samples in Trial 1 and Trial t is rather large while the difference
in trial f i* rather small#
However, the dlaeetyl oontents of eeveral of
idie samples within the extremes in all three trials were nearly the'same.
The extreme* in aeatylmathylearbinol content* were rather large .in all
three triale, bat some of the differences among th# sample* of eaeh trial
were very small#
B,
Cream ripened with different tetter cultures
Several cultures were obtained from various Iowa creameries for the
trials, whielt were eriglaaily from mother cultures ©f eeveral eommereial
concerns.
Sweet eream was used in all trials and samples of ©ash trial
ware ripened to the same approximate pi.
Two trials contained six samples
and one trial contained five samples*
Summary 11 gives the extremes ef tee dlaeetyl and aoetylaethyloarblnol
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
*
10 m
$m m # ¥ 11, _ Range in dlaeetyl (iuOg) and aoetylmethyloarbinol (Jam)
©entente of ©ream ripened with different
©bill 1
tee4e6»^*e wW*
©111**14wpUrwW
Sl1IfftMa©
wWBpRWeTwA^Wt
®»w¥®r
from frill© 11
_ ________
Trial
Ho,
No. of
Ha g © in Acp.p.m.
1
5
0.4? to 0.86
5*1 t© 26,1
2
6
1.04 to 2 .1?
1?,® t© 60.4
%
6
0.91 to 1.46
11*5 8* 20.0
Range ia
p.p.m.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
.«* ljl| 4.
contents ©f three trial©, and tho other diaoetyl and aoetylaethylearblaol value© are given in Table 11.
0.1# to 0.86 p.p.m,
la. Trial 1 the range was from
fh© other three ©ample©.ef ©ream in the trial# oon-
tala#d 0.6?, 0*75, and 0*75 p.p.*.
fh© aoetylmethyloarhlnol content©
varied from f,7 to 26.1 p.p.m., ©fell# the remaining rain## ©ere l4 .$»
16,0, and 25.9 p.p.m*
la Trial i dlaeetyl yield© varied from 1*04 to
2*17 p.p.m. aad the other mine* were 1.10, 1.16, 1.35, aad 1.66 p.p.m.
In the ©am© trial th# aeetylmethylearbiaol yield# were between 17*8 aad
60.4 p.p.m. with the remaining four yield© being 16*1, 86*2, 57.1, and
41*4 p.p.m.
Trial 5 contained ©ample# that varied in dlaeetyl content
from 0.91 b© 1.46 p.p.m.
fh© dlaeetyl eontent© ©f the other ©maple© were
1*05, 1.04, 1.14. and 1*40 p.p.m.
Aeetyiaethylearblnol eontent© ef the
•am© trial ranged from 11,5 to 20.0 p.p.m.
wore 12*4, 14,2, 16*0, and 16.3 p.p.m,
The four remaining eontent©
Th© different© in both diaoetyl
and aeetylmethylearbtnol production between the highest ©ample and th©
lowest ©ample of all three trial© was large.
The difference in produetion
of diaoetyl and aeetylmethylearbinol among ©ample© within the extreme©
wae frequently ©mall,
C.
Cream ripened with different butter ©ulture© carried under the same
condition©
The trial eenaiated of ripening eight samples ef sweet ©ream with
different butter eultare© regularly tarried by th# Dairy Bacteriology
Laboratories ef lean State College,
•ample© to the ©am© pi.
in attempt was made to ripen all
As the*# ©ulture© war© earried under th# ©am©
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
• 111! -
©omditioas, a difforonoo 1% diaestyl and aeetylmethyloarbiaol produetioa
should ho duo to differs*®©* la tho aulturos.
Summary 11 gtvii tho rang© of dlaootyl and aoetylmothylQarbiaol produotloa la oao trial, while tho other diaeotyl aad aoetylmethyloarbinol
▼aluea are.given la fahlo 12.
fh# range la' dlaootyl ooatoat of tho
ripened ©roam was froa ©#71 to ©,ff p.p.*.
'fh# ©oateaha of flvo other
samples wor© fro* 0.74 to 0.76 p.p.*. aad tho remaining ooatoat was 0.8?
p.p.*. of dlaootyl.
Th© aootylaothyloarbinol contents of tho same samples
varied fro* 26.4 to 1*0.0 p.p.m,
J0.7. 31*4* and |4*7 p.p.*.
fh© other ooatoat© ©or© 28.3, 19.1* 30.6,
Th© difforonoo la dlaootyl ooatoat between
aay too of th© eight samples m o small.
Tho difforonoo la aootylmothyl*
©arbinol oontents of tho same samples was aot wary largo.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
IfomwBMwr 18. Range in dtefatyl.
and ao^'kvlwofcliylempM n o l (Amo)
eonteaie of ©ream ripened with different batter cultures
earried under the same conditions
._ _ _ _ _
...... *»°* febie 12
trial
No.
So, of
samples
Range is Ae„
p.p.w*
Range is Awe
p.p.m.
1
$
®,?l t® 0.93
26.4 te l+o.o
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
m kf *
iffeet ©f various percentage# of fat is cream or milk on
dlaootyl and aeetylmsthyloarbiaol oontents
The results of previous trials on dlaootyl and aoetylaethyloarbinol
eontonte of oklm milk reported in tbis paper suggested that butterfat in­
fluenced dlaeetyl and aeetylmethylearbiso 1 production.
Skim milk and -
oream with various amounts of butterfat were ripened to approximately the
turn pi and then the dlaeetyl and aeetylmethylcarbino1 oontents deter*
mined.
Trials with skin milk containing various amounts of 'added mineral
oil or added butter oil also''were conducted,
4*
Comparison of dlaeetyl and aoetylmethyloarbinol contents of skin
milk and cream
Cream and skla milk were obtained at the same time during the sepa­
ration of fresh, high fanllty milk*
Butterfat content 'of the oream.was
approximately ho per cent -and that of the skim milk was G.02 per cent,
the samples plus. 5 per eottt butter culture were, ripened to approximately
the same S®*
Summary 13 show* the results of IS trials*
la IS trials (100*® per
cent) the diaoetyl and aaetylmethylearblnol contents of the eream were
larger than the contents'of the skim silk*
The diacetyl content was.
about 25 to 50 par cent higher Is the oream and aeetylmethyloarbinol
oontents were nearly as large, indicating that butterfat has a beneficial
effeot ©a the production of these two compounds,
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
» !iB •
t m m r , iJ. 0«(«r»tlT. 4 U w t y l Ut,) « 4 M . t y l M t i y W H n o l <*~»)
oJT
y
'Ss
imhsmi hk&I
from fabla If
AOg
.Awl
I M m v of trial* atltowing a greatar produotioa
of Ao2 or As» 1m ereaa
It
11
Svaabor of trial#' showing a groator proiuetloa
of Aog or Mm la *kim ailk
©
0
fOfU,
•—
—
It
12
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
* fa -
»*
Comparison of dlaoetyl and aeetylmethylo&rblnol contents of skim milk
M i ©ream with various percentages of butterfat
Fresh skim milk and ©ream were used to prepare sample* with various
percentages of butterfat*
Two trials consisted of comparisons on skin
milk* 5, 10, 20, J0, and irf) per east butterfata la the ©ream,
cent butter culture was aided m the beet* of total weight*
five per
Ja elx trial*
the sample with 5 per ©eat butterfat was omitted and ale© the ©ultare waa
added at the rate of 5 per ©eat of the serum weight (fat free}*
The
samples of each trial were ripened to approximately the same pH.
lesults of eight trials are recorded in Summary lh.
the dlaoetyl and
aoetylaethyloarblnol ©entente increased with increasing peroentages of
butterfat in the samples of seven of the eight trials*
In Trial 5 the
sample with fa per seat butterfat failed to yield- as much diaeetyl and
also aoetylmethyloarbinol as the Maple with J0 per east*
However, the
four other samples in this trial contained larger quantities of dlaoetyl
and aoetylmethyloarbinol with increased butterfat content*
la Trial 6 the
sample with 10 per seat butterfat yielded less aoetylmethyloarbinol than
the sample with 0 per sent fat*
Bible Ik indleates that eaeh 10 per seat
increase in butterfat causes about the same amount of increase in dlaoetyl
and aoetylaethylearbinol production! the increases of the two ooapounds
ware small and gradual with ©ash 10 per seat fat Increase.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
« _ r r ik.
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O m m n U M d H M t y i <*>,) « 1
.a lk J tt
taMfc
MKAft ^1
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--- '-**■ ~Q -*■■■— — —
©4E8@0^MM9iwtF ©* ©JE3U© ©U'J*JC ®B42l ©iNpfiBSt ©n»©tt ©©PiMMi© j^89^©©S^wB^©© ©JT
lWSHfe%©fN?©%
,_ _ _ _ _
%li© ©©Mi pit
From fotlo lU
•1^1
kmm
INafeor of trlo.lo chowlng o (grootor ^podsstiss ■
of Aeg Of Amo in orooai with on taoroov• la
T
6
X
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8
M b # of trials not showing o grootor pro*
duetlon of Acg or Aaw la oreoa wit*, on
f%
to
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oHdMkOa.* or
fOtAL
d0||.Ofa a
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^ j k a h O l A M W
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
I
B.
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94
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1
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1 %
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Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
a
t
Bmamtf If,
Coaparatlro diaootyl (A«g) aad aootylaoihyleaftilBol (dao)
©ontonts of sleSs allk aed oroa® with tariost poroontagos of
from fable If
A0g
Mm
2
&
0
0
2
2
I W W ®* will!' faO'flBg i g r i i W fr®a«6 e*9S
Of Allgt Oi# AffK^ IB &TQ&M WltJl *B l&0I*€MMI0d
mouum or wader atjaoapkerie preaaur©
Susbwr of trials not ehoariag a greater pro*
duotlon of Jms a or A”te In oroasu with aa
Inereaeed tutl#rf*t content ripened
wader partial raouuBt or under ataoo*
pherio preeiwro
TOTAL
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
* 53 *
of mineral oil*
fhe samples of each trial were ripened to approximately
the same pi.
le#«lt# obtained from the tee trial* are presented lit Summary X6 »
la two trial* {100*0 per oeat) the dlaoetyl content laereaeed la. the
sample* with increased addition* of mineral oil*
la the sane trials the
aoetylaethylearbincl eoateats likewise showed a similar tread*
Dlaoetyl
liter***** were small for each 1® per seat iaoreate la mineral oil added
to the skit* milk*
lowwer, the dlaoetyl content was nearly twice a*
large i» the *ampl* with 1*0 per ©eat mineral oil a* it wa* !» the *ampl#
with no mineral oil*
the difference in aoetylmethylearhinol content*
under the same condition* was much smaller.
X*
Comparison of dlaoetyl -and aeetyliaethylearbinol contents of skim milk
with Tariou* amount* of added hatter oil
to seeare additional information on the nature of the effect of
butterfat on dlaoetyl and aoetylmethylearhinol production, hatter oil at
100°?. was aided to skim milk in T&rious amounts,
The hatter oil wa*
prepared by melting sweet cream hatter at 120°F. and by filtering through
a high .grad# filter paper.
Skim milk with 0, 10,. 20, $Q» and 1*0 per cent
additions of butter oil was employed in the trial*
to rise and solidify at the top of the mixture.
fhe butter oil tended
Con*#<iu#»tly, some
difficulty wa* encountered la obtaining a uniform portion of the mixture
after the ample* were ripened ewer might at 60*f* to approximately the
same pB*
The result* of one trial are glwem la Summary 17.
fhe dlaoetyl
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
a m m r f 16.
eeaaparatlTe dloeotyl (AOg) ftod ♦©•tylawtfej^.eaurblBol (Am i }
ooTffrOTrtit of
willV with. Tftrlous onfitnrtfo of odtloft
aiaorol oil rifoaod to tho so®# yH
from Tafelo 16
Ao0
Aae
XOnbOf #1 trial* showing * grootoi* ^radMtioi
' of top of a«« la pif'fw iir wlt-K oa iaeroaso
la tfulol alaoral oil
4
f
Kuaber of trtftli not «h<Mrin> « erootor w o »
dopofop of
of ***** la
o<ttF with oa
ItMfoooo la addod
oil
0
0
M*
f
t
mo*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
• W
m
gWMMUPV 17. Camo&r&tive dinaetmrl tk m \ m mM
(km*)
contant* of «kta milk with T«*iott» oammts of addod
*11 rittMMd 4>n tlia *>*■** nlf
A
O
g
M
xotM
N
f of 'tolol* «howing o
>g
p
tM
M
M
O
* production
of Jiff#ox* ah
>qin *v4m
»ailk v i ^ mi iooron**
ia addod tattw oil
.
1
1
i
0
'1
1
Rtatbor of tnrfala w t showing a grantor prodxotlxs
of Aonof Q
o
*nla
la adfad latta* oil
tom.
wiiir mill aa law
sfooso
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
* $6 *■
content increased la the samples eoatalaing increased additions of batter
oil*
Aeetylaethylearbiiiol contents of the same samples shoeed similar
results.
The diaeetyl increase* were fairly largo for each 1® per east
increase in the amount of butter oil added to' the sample, bat -the aootylmethyloarbinol inoroasos wore ©amparatlroly smaller.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
• 57 Batio of the diacetyl and aeehylmethylcarbinol oonteat*
of ripened cream to those of the
corresponding uasalted hotter
was manufactured fro® the ripened cream In many of
the trials, and the results of the pi, diaeetyl, end aoetyljnethylcarbiBol
determination* ea the hotter were recorded in Table* 1, 2, and i* to 12,
Inclusive, along with the data- on the orearn. M
an indication of the
retention of diaeetyl or aoetylmethylearhinol in the butter, the ratio
of the diaeetyl or aeetylaethylearbinol content of -the eream to the
diaeetyl or aeetytoethylcarbiaol content of the corresponding hotter was
calculated.
In the 309 comparisons of cream and- hotter, the ratios of the
diaeetyl content of the ripened oream to the diaeetyl content of the
hatter varied from 1*0,111 to 1*2,000, the average rati# being I 1O.725.
la the same comparisons the ratios of the aeetylsiethylearbinol content
of the cream to the aoetylmethylearhinol content of the butter varied
from 1*0,051* t@ 1*0.961, and the average ratio m e 1*0.339.
The ratios of dlaoetyl and aoetylmethyloarbinol contents in ripened
cream and in the corresponding hatter were grouped according to the pro­
cedure employed in ripening the cream, from etileh the batter m s manu­
factured,
In 107 comparisons in the studies ®» the effect of acidity of
the eream, the overage diaeetyl ratio m s 1*0,857 and the average acetylaethylcarhinol ratio m s 1*0.366*
In 73 comparisons in the trials with
added citric acid, the average dlaoetyl ratio was 1*0.61*2 and the
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
* 5®
aeetylsaethylcarbino1 rail© m e 1*0,302.
In, p
comparison* la which the
effect of agitation during ripening wa* studied, the average diaeetyl
ratio wa* 1*0.6361 the average aoetyImathy1oarbin©I ratio wa* 1*0 .262.
There were 53 comparisons in the trial* on the offeet ■of various ripen*
ing temperature* for cream* In these the average diaeetyl ratio m s
1*0.700 and the average aeetylaethylearbinol ratio 1*0*323, la 1*7 com­
parison* in which the influence of different butter culture* was
investigated, the average dlaoetyl ratio wa* 1*0.63%* and the average
aoetylmethyloarbinol rati© wae ltO*575«
Data la fables 1* 2, and I* to 12, ineluaive, show that In many of
the trials the ripened eream with the highest content of diaeetyl did
not necessarily have the highest content of aeetyImethylcarbine1.
How­
ever, there was a rather general tendeaey for sample* with high diaeetyl
contents also to have high aeetylmsthylaarbinol content*, the same
general relationship applied to the diaeetyl sad aoetylmethyloarbinol
eoatents of the corresponding unaalted butter.
The relationship of
diaeetyl to aoetyImethylcarbine 1 in the ripened oream did not seem to
affect the relationship in the butter.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
*
Part |I»
99
•
Plant Churning#
The results obtained la tbs laboratory studio# were used a# a basis
for larger aoale trial* under plant condition#♦ E w of the factor# that
affeotod the development of diaeetyl and aeetylaethylearbinol l» the
laboratory trials were investigated.
These were a# follow#i
(a) offeot
of the percentage of acid developed la eresm on the diaoetyl aad aoetyl*
methyloarbinol eontent#i (b) offoet of the addition of oltrlo acid m
diaeotyl and aeehylmebhyloarblnol eontonts of ripened oreaaj (o) offset,
of agitation during ripening on diaeotyl and aoetylaethylearbiiiol content#
of eroaai (d) offoot of ripening temperatures ©a diaeotyl and aootylawthyl*
earbinol eeatoat# of eresmi and (e) influence of difforant batter oulturo#
os diaeotyl and aeetylaethylearbinol contents of cream.
teneral procedure
fhe cream employed for the churnings either wa# pasteurised at 150% .
for |0 minute# In a 300-gallon rat or was run through a Taereator u#ing
a temperature of 19®%* and a vacuum of 28 inch## of mercury.
fat content of the cream varied from 32 to 3? per cent.
She batter*
The original vat
acidities of the sweet cream were 0.20 per east or
oour cream were 0*1$ to 0.50 per cost#
the onset eroan was neutralised
(at 120%.) altar pasteurisation to 0*10 per cent acidity-with sodium
•esqui-oarbonate. fhe sour oream was neutralised (at 90%.) before
pasteurisation to
per seat acidity with *4110111 Special* and then
-after pasteurisation (at 120%. ) to 0.15 per cent acidity with sodium.
#e#qui*earbonat«. fhe cream was seeled to 36% . and held at that
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
* 10 •
temperature until it we* used ill the trial®,
for eaeh ohurning Ifi pound* of oream wa* drawn into 10-gallon can®
and dumped into a small rat.
Butter culture was added at th® rat® of 5
per eent of th® weight of th®
oream.finally th® mixture of oroam and
oultur® wa® heated to the ripening temperature* wlileb generally wa* between
51® and 55®f*# and h*ld over night* but in th® trial® on th# ®ff#ot of
temperature the ripening period wa® variable.
fit# oream commonly would
rise 10*P* In temperature Airing th® ripening period because of th® small
sis# of th® vat®.
Ihen th# ripening prooes# wa# oomplete the temperature
was lowered for ohurning to approximately i|8®F., using iee water a® a
oooling medium,
A sample of cream was taken from each rat for immediate
pi* diaeetyl* and aeetylmethylcarblnQl determinations. ■ laeh lot of cream
was then transferred to a Cherry Junior single roll Model AS ehura#
The
ohurn was of 50 pound ©apaaity and was known to yield result® comparable
to those obtained with a larger churn.
The eream wa® churned until the
butter granules war# about the #i*e of a .pea*
drained and th® granule® war#
without a milky appearaae®.
fhe buttermilk than wa®
rinsed until the water ran from th# drain
two 'washing® with water about 5°f * ©older
than th# buttermilk were employed,
the free' moisture wa® drained and m
attempt was mad® to Incorporate approximately 17,0 par sent molatur® in
the finished 'butter*
$0 salt wa# used*
Several 1-pound ample® of butter war® taken from eaeh churning and
wrapped in parchment paper.
These samples were used a* follows*
(a) one
sample was analysed immediately for pi* dlaoetyl* and aoetylmethyloarbinolt
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
m 41 -
fa) m m sample was held for f days eh |4 to Uo°P, before soaring for
fleTor end analysing tOf pi# dlaoetyl, and aoetylmethyloarbinol *
■
fa) & m
sample wa# held f days at 60®F. followed by I* -days at 36 to l|0®p. and
then the pH, diaeetyl, and aeetylmethylearbinol were determined* (d) erne
sample we# 'held 1 month at |6 te l|G®F.» scored fer f later and the pH,
diaeetyl, end aoetylmethylearbinol were determined* and {«) one sample
wa# frosen immediately end held at approximately -10 te 0°F. for 6 months
before scoring. .
'fhe results were presented la the same general meaner at &tese ob­
tained in the preliminary churnings,
'the manner was described under the
head, Presentation of results.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
* 62 m
iffeoi of th* poroentag* of acid developed is cream on the
diaeetyl and aoetylmethylearhinol contents
In studying the effeet.of th* percentage of eeid developed■In oream
©a the dlaoetyl and aeetylmethyloarblno1 contents, ©are was taken to
maintain as many of th# conditions alike in each trial ae m i possible*
iAn drbsmpt «ae smde to develop acidities between O.JG and 0*1# per eont
(in a few oaeee the acidity was higher) and to have a difference of at
least 0*05 per cent between th* acidities of each vat of cream in a
comparison.
Occasionally th* pH, diaeotyl, and aoetylmethylearbinol
contents war® determined on th* pasteurised oream both before and after
the butter culture had been added*
Saeh of the first thre* trials eon-
*lst*d of throe churnings at different acidities, and *aeh of th* remain*
ing eeven trials *©asist#d of two churnings at different acidities*
Sweet oream sms used in seven trials and neutralised sour oream In three
trials*
Seoults of th* 10 trials are presented in Summary 16*
fh* production
ef dlaoetyl was greater Is sins (90*0 f*r cent) of th* trials as th#
acidity increased,
th# increase was.small la four of these trials# being
0*1 p.p.m. or less for 0*1 or mere unit* deer*### in pi*
In one trial
(10*0 per e*nt) th# diaeetyl content decreased as th* acidity increased,
fable 18 shows th* decrease was from 1*68 to 1*1# p.p.m* with acidities
of 0*37 end 0*1# per seat# respectively*
In seven trial# (70*0 per cent)
th# aoetylmethyloarbinol content# increased as th# acidity developed.
One increase wa# swill*, from 11*8 te 11.9 p.p.m.
In three trials (30*0
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
SunOffiU’-V' IS* ComoaratiTe diustvl
t*» A »nA «m*4vu-lm«4rW1a»t»Mn«l (Am*\
eoat«»t* of orean rip#a«a to various aoiditio#
,from. ffcM,o IS
. _____
... _____
Mm
$>&!$»$ tftrHttg -^jei
Mm with m
ft firm
inoreaao la acidity
9
7
ltinnW m# trial* chowine a £001*0000 ia
M * aod fen# with aii taOPoaso ill aoidity
i
1
M g and
w
mm
—
|t.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
it
#»'
<1*
per oeat) there -were rather large decrease* la ae©tylmethylearbiaa1
contents as the aoidity increased. ■ two of these trials Involved sear
oream with which there w
a possibility of a depletion of eltrie acid
and, -eeasefneatly, a destruction of diaeetyl and aoetylmethyloarbinol
by the eltrie acid fermenting organism**
this is substantiated by th*
feet that la these two trials the ereem before the addition of culture had
relatively high diaeetyl and aoetylmethylearbinol content** la one trial
the oream showed a dlaoetyl content of 0.21 p.p.*. and m
aoetylmethyl*
earbiaol content of 21*7 p.p.®. and in the other trial the values war*
0*56 p.p.®. end 29.S p.p.®.. respectively.
In producing high diaeetyl
end aoetylmethyloarbinol eoateats during natural souring much of the
citric acid content of the oream m s probably utilised#
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
• £$ »
gffeet ®f th® addition of eitri© acid ©a diaeetyl and
aoetylmethyloarbinol contests of ripened ereaa
la studying th® effeot of added■oitrio aeld oh dlaoetyl and acetylsaethylcarbinol content# of cream, sample® of ©ream were ripened with and
without 0.05 P«** cent added oitrio acid*
fhe detired amount ©f oitrio ■
aoid, at a 5© per ©sat aqueous solution, wet diluted with sterile water
and added to the ©ream along with the 5 per seat culture,
fhe ©ream was
agitated with th© ©oils of th# vat during th® addition of th® oitrio
aoid,
Sweet ©ream wa® employed 1» four trial# and neutralised sour ore©*
In three trials*
Summary If gives th# results of the seven trials.
Diaeetyl production
was increased by the addition of oitrio a«id in six of the seven trials*
fhe Increases in diaeetyl varied from 0.12 to 2.12 p.p.m., but three in*
creases were 0.20 p.p.m. or less,
the dlaoetyl content was decreased
0.13 f*p*a. by the addition of ©itrle aeld In one trial (ll*.3 per ©eat),
la three of the seven trials the aoetylmethyloarbinol contents were In­
creased by the addition of eltrie aeld# the increases varied frens 12.8
to 3h*8 p.p.m.
la ©ae trial (lk*3 per cent) the aoetylmethylearbinol
values were the same in the eresn with and without added eltrie aeld and
in three trials (1*2.8 per sent) the aoetylmethylearbinol eontents la the
oream with added oitrio aeld were lower,
fhe decrease la aeetylraethyl-
©arblnol ranged from 1**0 to 15.8 p*p*a«
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
«. 66 -
19* Q m g m n N b n diaeetyl (Mg) and aeetyMethyiearblnol (Am)
content# af oream, with and without added eltrie aeld,
■Hnfmifht ‘fed Isli# imiftft ib8
oia-u.^-....
en^viia ■iei
............. jywi yaeie *y
Am
%
Bhnber ot trial# shewing a greater production
oitrio M U
Sumber of trial# not showing a greater pro­
duction 9t Ae0 er A*”* with ad#®# eltrie
eel*
1
99MI»
$
%
+mm
3
h
*—
?
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
?
* #'*■
Iffeet of agitation during ripening on diaeetyl and.
. aoetylmethyloarbinol content* of cream
to study the offeet of agitating ereaa during ripening on the prodoetlea of diaeetyl and aeetylmethylcarbine!, ereaa pine better culture
was placed in rat* late in th# afternoon and ripened over night,
fhe
next moraine approximately J hour* before the ripening mac complete the
cream was agitated by revolving the -rat coils for one-half hoar,
fhe
rata mere only one-third full} thus the agitation was more vigorous than
if the -vats had been full,
fe® controls mere not agitated but the other
conditions mere maintained as nearly alike as possible, including the pS.
there were five trials of whleh three were with sweet cream and two with
neutralised sour oream,
Sunsaary 10 give* the results,
fh® dlaoetyl yield* were increased in
all five trial* by agitating the ©ream daring ripening,
fh# increase* in
fee yields were large, frequently being 15 to 100 per eeat.
fee acetyl*
methylcarbinol yields likewise were greatly increased by agitation in all'
five trial*,
fee agitated samples commonly contained twice as much acetyl-
methylcarbinol as the unagitated samples. -
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
• £8 m
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TOTAL
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Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
■
■
* ^9 •
Effeot of ripening temperature* on diaeetyl and
aoetylaethylcarbiaol contents of ©roam
trials war* conducted to study th# dlaoetyl and aoetylmethylearbinol
contents of areas ripened at various temperatures, Sine® it wa# impossible
to control adequately the ripening temperature In the small vats, areas
plus batter culture was earned to the desired ripening temperature and then
drawn into ten-gallon cans*
fhe eons were placed in coolers, which wore
refrigerated to about the sane temperature as that used for ripening and
held until the desired pi was attained*
A uniform temperature of 5*5°?.
required to© long a ripening period under the conditions used and was
discontinued after one attempt,
fhe comparisons consisted of ©ream
ripened at 70®?. and at 6l®F.* It was attempted to ripen th# ©ream in eaoh
trial to the seme pi.
On roaohiag th# desired pH, oream -ripened at ?0°F.
was oooled by placing the eans In lee water and stirring,
fhe temperature
of the ©ream was lowered to- 1*5°?* and then the oream was 'hold over night
in a eooler at 36 to 1*0%,
1*8®?, it was ©horsed,
fhe next morning after warning the oream 'to
fhe ©ream ripened at 61®?. reached the desired
pH after ripening over night,
fhe earns were plowed la ice water, cooled
to i*8°P. and. the churning prowess earriod out as usual.
Four trials were
conducted of which three were with sweet cream and one with neutralised
sour oream.
In throe trials a special vat of oream was ripened along with the
oream used for the temperature comparisons.
The treatment of the special
vat of cream consisted of adding 0*1 per cent oitrio sold and agitating
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
. fo .
during the ripening over night to about 0.45 P®*" ®««h aoidity.
fhe results of the temperature comparisons ere given la Summary SI.
fhe diaeetyl production la th# oream ripened et 6l°F. m e larger 1® te©
trlelt (50.O per oenfc),while in the other two trial*It wee larger
in
the eretai ripened at f@®f * fh# dlfferen.ee generally m e very alight la
the comparisons,
resnlt*.
Th* aoetylmethyloarbino1 production showed similar
la tw® trial*(50.0 per cent) the content# were larger in the
ereaa ripened at 6l°F, and la two they were larger'ia the ereaa ripened
at 70°F.
fhe diaeetyl and aoetylmethylearhinol oontents of th# ereaa
from th# spatial vat* were much larger ia all three trial# than the
diaeetyl and aoetylmethylearhinol ©entente ©f the ereaa ripened either
at 70°F. or at 61®F.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
** T l *
SwoMury 21.
(Jonparatlw# diaeotyl (Aeg) and aeotylaethylearhinol (Amo)
eontento *f «*•*«* ripoaed at 6X&F. wad at fo*?»
From fatlo 2 1 .......
..
Jk&&
"m
Xnaber of trial# showing a greater prodaetloa
of A#g or Ako in ©ream ripened at 70°F.
$
2
Humber of trial* showing a greater produetion
of A«2 or A m in ereaa ripened at $WF*
i
2
h
k
m m
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
1
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& £
M $ t
try
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Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
%
is
I
1
* ?! -
Summary 22.
Range in dlaoetyl (he^) and acetylmethyloarbinol (An®)
contents of er*«n ripened with different butter ottltare*
Front fable it__________ __
friel
Ho#
Ho. of
simple*
JH. M
LM. MJt a
singe
in
p.p.m.
1
I
1.68 t® M M
2
I
3»U0 to 4*90
86.4 to 122.2
I
3
1.07 to 1.4|
22.0 to 28.6
4
3
l . p to 1.1*9
9.2 to
24.6
$
3
■t.|6 to 2.40
41.6 to
72.6
■
Range in Ayo
p.p.*.
■ 39.3 to 4l.f
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
• tu *
The remaining trial# showed differences of 0,1+1, O.36, and 0.19 p.p*au
between the- highest sad lowest values,
Trial 2 also showed the largest
difference in aeetylaathylcarbine! content# among the three soapiest it
was 35*8 p.p.m. (86.^ to 122.2).
She smallest difference in aeetyl-
methyle&rbinol oontent# was 2,6 p.p.m, (39*3 t© 1*1,9 p.p.a«) an# occurred
in Trial 1.
In the other trials the differences in acetylmethylearbinol
contents were 6 *6* 15.1*, and |1«0 p.p.a.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
*75 •
Eatio of the diaeetyl rad aoetylmethyloarbinal content*
of ripened cream to those of the
corresponding unsalted butter
The eream studied In the trials under .plant conditions m s aanufaetured into unsalted butter.,
fee results of the pH* diaeetyl, -and
aoetylmethyloarblnol determinations oa the butter are recorded ia Table*
18 to 22* inclusive* together with the data, oa the oreaa.
fee retention
of diaeetyl or aeetylmethyloarblnol ia the butter is indicated by the
figure* representing the rati® of the eeateat of the ripened arena to fee
content of fee eorreaponding fetter*
la fee ?k comparisons of. cream and fetter* fee ratio* of fee
diaeetyl contents of fee cream to fee contents of fee fetter varied from
1.
10,11#' te 1*0,70Sf fee average ratle wa* l*0«|fl,. fee ratio* of fee
aoetylmethylcarblnol content* ia fee same oompariaoa* ranged from 1*0,059
to 1»0,679* fee average ratio being 1*0.216.
fee ratio* of diaeetyl and aeetylmefeylearbinol eoateat* in ripened
ore** and in fee corresponding fetter were grouped according to fee proeedure used ia ripening fee ere*®,
'In fee studlea on fee effect of acidity
of fee cream*
25
comparisons of oreamand fetter were involved! fee average
of fee ratio*
of
fee.diaeetyl content* of fee oreaa to fee content* of fee
fetter was 1*0.589* fee average aeetylmefeylcarbinol ratio wa* 1*0*215,
In fee trial*
on
fee effect of addingcitric acid to fee oreaa* there were
lit eomparieon*. She average diaeetyl ratio m s 1*0,327* and fee average
aeetylaefeyloarblnol ratio wa* 1*0 .21^,
fern eomparl*ona were made in fee
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
» f& trials m th© effect of agitation of ©ream,
fhe average diaeetyl ratio
« M i*G.500 and the average aoetylnethyieurbinoi ratio wa* 1*0,178.
ta
trial* ©a the offmot of ripening temperature of ereaa the It comparisons
showed an average diaeetyl rati# of 1*0.587 and an average aeetylaethylearhinol rati© of liO*£t0*
la trial* involving the influence of hutter
cultures, 15 comparisons had an averse diaeetyl ratio of liO.ffli the
average aoetyljaethyloarbinoi rati© wa* It0*227,
fable* 1® to 22, inclusive, show that there mat a rather general
relationship between the diaeetyl and the aeetylmethylearblnol content*
of th© ripened eream.
However, ia a few trial* th* sample* with high
diaeetyl contents did not have high aeetylmethyloarbinol content* and
vie* versa.
In the butter the relationship *1*# was very general,
fhe
relationship of the diaeetyl and aoetylmethyloarbinol contents in the
ripened cream did not ism to influenee the relationship in the corres­
ponding butter*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
- 77 Change* la diaeetyl end aeetylaethylearbinol content#
during holding of nasalted hatter
After churning the oreem ripened with the various procedures, samples
of the unsalted butter were obtained for studies on the bhangs# in diaeetyl
and aoetylmethylearbino1 contents during holding at different temperatures
for various period**
A*
Changes ia diaeetyl and aeetylmethyloarbinol contents of tetter during
holding for I week at 36 to 1*0®?.
Summary 23a give* the results on the tetter ia 56 trial#! wore detail­
ed data are la table 23* In 1*7 trials {83.9 per sent) there were increases
in th* diaeetyl content* of the tetter during 1 week at 36 to
iaerease# varied, from 0.02 to 0.70 p.p.m.
the
la 11 trial* th* increase* were
between 0*02 and 0*10 p.p.m.* in 9 between 0.11 -and 0*20 p.p.m.* in 17
between 0.21 and 0*|0 p.p,a*y. and ia 10 above 0*30 p.p.m. ■la tee trial*
(3*5 per seat) th# diaoetyl eontents were the same before ate after hold­
ing*
In seven trials |li.f pie* cent) the diaoetyl eontents decreased
during the holding* the decreases being small in several eases*
One de­
crease was 0.01 p.p.m. 1 terse 'were between 0.10 and 0.11 p.p.m.f and
three* involving tee same tetter culture, were 0 ,55, 0.68, and 0.1*7 p«p.m,
la |i trials (67.8 per cent) the aoetylmethyloarbinol content# increased
during 1 week, at 36 to koPf,
p.p.m.
The range of iaerease* wa* tnm 0.1 to 7*3
la seven trial* tee. aeetylaeteylearbiaol content* increased less
than 1.0 p,p«m#i in 21 between 1.1 ted 3*0 p.p.m.* and in 10 between 3*1
and 7*3 p*p*»*
la 18 trial* (32.1 per seat) there were deorease* ia
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Sumwury SJa.
e<s»|>aratir* diaeotyl (tog ) w®& aeotylaathyloarMBol (toe)
holding I woek at 36 to i*0«F.
________
Froa Tablef
XMmkf of trial# with a higher too or too
am
tK
<h*a
>w
iliip 3
Aw
m
it't t«.
«*a BPAfl
'L^ia \
-.P
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i» >»aaa1ftw^aPtS
0»»til^5^r^ie
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at |6 1 # J*©*f% •
j
§
___________
AOo
.... ,.... M.........
too
kf
1®
Ktsabor of trial® with a highar too or to#
eoatont ia wwalta# butter before holdtog
1
u
g u aW of trial* with bo difference to .toa
or toe eoatoat
t
0
56
ft
mm
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
aeetylmethylearbinol oontenta ranging from 0 .| to h*7 p.p.m. during the
holding.
Fir# of th® deereasea nor# 1*0 p.p.m. or least 11 war® 1.1 to
3*0 p.p.a.y and i were larger than 3.0 p.p.m.
In fir® of' th® ••wen
trial® in which there were decrease# in diaoetyl oontenta during the
holding for 1 week at 36 t@ 14© % . there also were deereasea in acetyl*
aethyloarbinol.
In the ether two trial® the samples showing deereasea in
diaeetyl gar# wary small increases ia aoetylmethylcarbinol, 0.9 and 0.1
p.p.®.
leither the addition #f oitric aeid nor agitation of eream during
ripening consistently prerented deereasea la diaeetyl and aeeiylmethylearbinol in hatter made fro® tit® orea®.
I.
Comparative ehaagee in diaeetyl and aeetylmethylearbinol oontenta of
butter daring holding for 1 Week at 36 to 1(0% , and for 5 days
at 60®P. followed ty % days at $6 to 1*®%.
Summary 2ltb glees the results 1 more detailed data are giren in
fable 23. She diaoetyl eontents la 1*2 trials (75.0 per seat) were higher
in batter held for 3 days at 60% . aad then k days at 36 to JS|0®P* than In
the butter held 1 week at 36 to kQPf*
0. # p.p.®.
fhe differs®®®® ranged from 0.01 to
la 19 trials th# differences were between 0.01 aad 0,10
p.p.®. I ia tea between 0,11 aad 0.20 p.p*a,i ia eight between 0,21 aad
0.30 p»p,m»t aad la fir# abore 0,30 p.p.».
'la 13 trial# (23,2 per seat)
the butter had lower diaoetyl contests after 3 days at 60% , .end 1* days
at 36 to 1(0%. than after 1 week at 36 to i(0oP.
from 0.01 to 0.6U p.p.m.
fhe differences varied
In seres trials the differences were 0.1 p.p.®,
or leas| in three between 0*11 and 0 .20* and in three abore 0.30 p.p.®.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
m §@ «•
SuaBBwy 8$h.
eaaparatlre diaoetyl (Aeg ) and aeetyteethyloarblaol (Aae)
contents of unsalted butter held I week at 56 to
ha*¥. end
held 5 day* at d W . then 4 day* at 36 to ljB®f*
km/ti
XMkwr of tfiftli with n
dMtttlt 1« waeaHa^
at 36 to 1*0®F.
W W < *
eeipitew****1 * w ■*
* e w w
qi* Aaio
h§ll 1 wmmk*
w e e n p
ee*
w w w w
IS
11
Somber of trial* with a higher A«g or Aae
content t” unealted hutter hold 3 day*
at 60®f. aad then ^ days at 3$ to IjS®?.
10
1«Q
Humber of trials with no difference In Aeg
or Awe oontent
%
h
Wif e
*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
&
* SI *
la on# trial {1,8 per seat) the diaeetyl contents ware the M a e after both
holdings.
fhe acetylmethyloarblaoi eoatomt* la ko trials■(?2*7 per eent)
were higher ia the butter held 3 days at 60°P. and then k days at 56 to
1*0°F.
fhe differences were from ©*2 to 18.2 p.p.*.
In S triale the
differences ware from 0.2 to 1,0 p.p.m.j ia It trials from 1,1 to 3*0
p»p*m,i and ia 20 trials free 3*0 to 18.2 p.p.*.
la four trials (7*3 per
eent) the aeetylmethylearbinol eontents -were toe sane with toe different
holding, conditions.
In 11 trial* (20.0 per eent) th# aeetylmetoyloarbinol contents were
lower in to# butter held 3 days at 6g°P. and k days at 36 to J*0®P,
differences -ranged fro® 1.4 to 12.8 p.p»au
toe
Poor of the different#* were
between 1*4 and 3*0 p,s.a.j tore# between 3,1 and 4*8 p.p.*. j aad four
between 4,1 and-12,8 p.p.m.
C,
Changes in diaoetyl and aoetylaetoylearfelnol eontents of butter daring
holding for 1 .month at 34 to i*0°P.
Itanary 23# presents the results and fable 23 gives more detailed
data,
Maoetyl eontents is 39 trials (90.7 per eent) stowed inereases
during 1 month at 36 to 1*0®?.
p.p.m.
toe Inereases varied from 0*02 to 0,8®
Si* increases were between 0.02 aad ©-.If p,p,®,j 13 between 0*11
and 0,50 p.p.m.i and toe remaining 20 between 0*31 and 0.88 p*p,m,
la
fear trials (9*3 per ©eat) toe diaeetyl eontents deereased during heldiag.
toe deereasea ware 0.03, 0,11, 0,16, .and 0.27 p.p.®.
toe aeetylaethyl- .
oarblnol ©entente in 29 trial# (65.9 per cent) stowed iaerease# during 1
month at 36 to 1*0°?.
toe iaerease# varied fro® 0*1 to 10*6 p.p.m.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
tea
- m
Summary 23®.
-
Comparative diao®iyl (A®g) and aeetylmethylearbinol (dm®)
content* of uasalted butter before and aft®p
bolding I month at 56 to
.
From fable
fpao
te
k—
e'
o
wa
Somber of trials with a higher Ao 2 or A m
eontont ia butter held $ month at |6 to
l|0°F*
IP
»
Sumber of trials with a hieher Ao <5or
ooatont la uasalted butter before holding
u
W
lumber ef trials with no difference in A®g
or d
m
®eoatesh
0
1
♦
fOtU*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
.
m
-
83 -
iaoreases ranged from 0.1 to 2*$ p.p.®,* 11 from 2.1 to 4*0 p.p.®. j and
8 from 4.1 to 10,6 p.p.m.
la lli trials (31.8 per ©eat) th© tetter do- '
creased la aeetylmethylearblno1 oontent during th# holding.
were from 0*2 to 6.0 p.p.m*
Th# decreases
'la ala# trials th# increases were- between
0.1 and 2,0 p.p.m.f in two between 2.1 and 4.0 p.p.s.i and la three
between 4.1 and 6.0 p.p.m.
Data ia fable 2| show that 72*0 per eeat of th# sample* held 1 month
at 36 to 4o°P. had slightly higher diaoetyl contents than corresponding
samples held 1 week at 36 to 1*0*?,
About 50 per cent of the aoefcylmethyl-
earblaol eontents were higher in the butter held 1 month,
D.
pH values of ripened eream and of the corresponding butter
pi values of the ripened'eream aad of the corresponding butter are.
given in fable 23. The. pH of the butter immediately after churning
generally was higher than the 0
©burned,
of -the ripened ©ream from which it wa#
la 55 commercial trials §1 lots (90.9 per eeat) of unsalted
butter were higher ia pH than the ©ream.
The difference in pi was not
uniform, varying from a few hundredths to several tenths of a unit.
Pour
lot#' (7*3 per cent) of tetter -were lower la pH than the ripened cream,
but the differences were very small, 0.04 of a unit or less,
'One lot
(1.8 per sent) showed tee same pH ia the oreaa aad ia the tetter,
fhe
decreases in pH of tee tetter during holding varied aooordlng to tee
temperature aad time of holding, sad with say of the terse holding periods
studied (1 week at 36 to 4#P., 1 monte at 36 to iiO°F., and 3 days at
6ohp. aad the® 4 days at -36 to If#?,) the final pi of tee tetter seemed to
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout permission.
correlate sere eloeely wito toe gi ef to® freeli totter thea wito to®' gi
ef to# ripened eream from toleh it «*» ehurned*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
* if *
Effect of w i e a i procedures dnrlas ripening of oreaa
on the flavor el" uasalted better
After ehurniag the oreaa that wa# ripened wife various procedures*
samples of fee butter were taken to determine fee effect of these pro* ■
coheres on fee flavor in fee butter that was held at various temperatures
for different periods* 'A sample of butter from eash churning m s scored
for flavor after holding 1 week at $6 to l*G°F., 1 month at fee same
temperature and 6 months in cold storage at »10 to 0°P.
One or two
experienoed butter Judges soared fee unsalted butter without knowledge
of it# identity.
It should be noted feat fee scoring of uasalted butter
is not as well standardised as is the scoring of salted butter,
fhe
Judges scored fee uasalted butter to 0.25 of a point*
A.
Uasalted butter from cream ripened to various acidities
iuamary 2l*a shows fee results ©a fee butter ia seven trials*
When
the butter was held 1 week at 36 to i*0°P. feat from fee eream ripened to
fee higher acidity scored from 0,25 t® O .75 ef a point higher than feat
from fee eresa ripened to fee lower acidity ia five (71*1* per eeat) of
fee seven trials*
there was no difference in score in one trial (ll*.|
par sent)) fee difference la fee acidities ef fee two lots of eream was
only 0*01*.per eeat (o*jil and 0*35 per cent),
lefe lots of butter were
criticised as tallowy
and this off-flavor probably tended to mask fee
desirable flavor*
In
one trial {ik»3 P«r sent) both lots of butter were
from cream relatively
high in acidity sad fee butter from fee eream wife
fee higher acidity scored 0,25 of a point lower than feat fro® the cream
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
- 86 -
Summary 2|*a. ComparatiY# aoorea m
the flavor of uaealted butter
ft'am Apangi *4nillls^ 4a 4»a teiltlMat
pff an^O
aOO'
4pf P4jft4'^Pneapnm
UMP
'V.Wnr
WP0P 04^004
from Table 2h
Butter held,
i week «%
|6 to I*§®».
Batter held
I. month at
|6 t® ld3®F.
Butter held
6 moatha at
-10 to 0°P.
father of higher aeoraa Is
uaealted batter from cream
that wea ripened to th#
higher ooldity
f
i
7
lumber of higher toore* in
uasalted batter from eream
that wa* not ripened to the
higher aeldity
I
t
o
liumber of aoorea with no
difference
1
i
§
T
7
7
m m
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
with th© lower acidity.
th© acidity spread In this trial was mot large,
from 0,1)8 t© G.5I f©i* ©eat, and was th® smallest la. any of th« trials*
la the two trials la which th© lot® of cream ha# th® largest difference®
la acidity, 0.08 f#r e«»t (0*38 to 0.1)6 for cent) and 0,12 per eeat (0.37
to 0.h9 for cent) th® difference® la the seoree of the butter wore th#
largest, being 0.75 Of a foint.
Batter from the same ©burning#- also m e hoi# 1 meath at 38 to hO°F.
la three trial® (1)2.9 f®r ©eat) hatter from the higher acid eream gave
the higher score hy 0.25 to 0,50 of a point.
In two trial® (28,6 per
©eat) hatter from hath acidities scored the same and in two trials
(28.6 per eent) th# hatter from the eream ripened to th© higher acidity
neared 0.50 of a point lower.
Comparisons between .hatter held 1 week' at |6 to hD^F. and 1 month
at 36 to l)0°F, tt m the same churnings showed that th® samples after 1
month had generally deereaee# ia eeore fro® 0,25 to 1,50 points.
fhe hatter from the seme churnings also was held approximately 6
month® at -10 to 0®F* before scoring.
Butter from eream ripened to higher
acidity scored from 0.25 to 0.75 of a point •ere 'in all trials.- indicating
that- the butter from th# higher acid cream kept equally well or 'hotter
than the butter from cream with the lower acidity when held fro sen for 6
months.
fhe butter that wee held frosea generally seared from 0.7$ to 2.00
points lee® than th# same butter held 1 week at 36 to 1)0°?., indicating
a definite deterioration in.. flavor.
R eproduced with perm ission o f the copyright owner. F urther reproduction prohibited w itho ut perm ission.
1*
©naalted butter from ©ream ripened with added eitrl© aold
Summary Si#' presents the reunite ef seven trials on butter.' After
holding 1 week at 36 to
butter from oream to which eitrie aeld had
been added scored from O .25 to 0*5© ef a point higher than the butter from
oream without added eitrie 'aeld In fear trials (57.1 per eent).
In three
trials {1*2.9 per cent) both samples ef butter seared the same) in two of
these trials seer eream' was need end the desirable flavor was masked by
tallowy and metallie off«flavors» .In the other trial, the flavor sms
slightly better In the batter tram oream plus eitrie aeld,. bat not enough
to be given a higher seers.
fhe butter was held 1 month'at |6 to 1# % * and in si* ef the seven
trials butter from oream plus, eitrie aeld soared 0.25 to 0.75 of a paint
mere.
In a m trial (lit.3 per eent} the butter seored the same.
Butter held 1 month usually decreased in sears from ®*25 to 2.00
points sompared to its sears after' holding 1 week at 36 to L0 >f,
Sutter in the trials held frosen («10 to ®°F.) for 6 months, resulted
In six of th© seven samples ef butter from oream having added eitrie acid
showing higher seeret than the butter from eream without.added eitrie
aoidi the iaerease In score was from ©.29 to ©.75 ef a point.
In one
trial (11**5 per emit) th# seers was 0.5© ef a point lower in butter from
eream with added eitrie aold.
Most Of the butter fro*' areas with added eitrie aeld seared 0.50 to
8*19 points less after $ month# than after holding 1 week at 36 to I*®0?.
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<* iigt **-
Summary 2kb»
Comparative «©ore# ©a the flavor of uasalted butter fro»
cream ripened with aad without 0,05 for cent added cltrio aold
From Table ftj.
Butter held
1 week «t
0 to kO°F.
Sutter 'held
1 month at
0 to
.
Sutter held
4 month# at
*10 t® 0®F»
Bomber of higher score# ia
uaealted butter from ©ream
ripened with added citric
acid
h
6
6
Bomber of higher score# la
unsalted butter from cream
ripened without added eitrie
aeld
$
0
1
lumber ef scores with ae
difference
I
1
0
7
?
7
tom
R eproduced with perm ission o f the copyright owner. F urther reproduction prohibited w itho ut perm ission.
C.
Bhsalted batter frem. «re*» ripened with agitation
Summary 2i*o presents th© results ©a th© hatter.in flv© trials,
Th©
batter m s s w a t after holding I mote at 56 to 1*0®F, The butter fro*
eream that m s agitated daring ripening seored from 0.25 t« 0.75 ®f ©
point higher in thr©* of th© fir© trials than th© buttor from uaagltated
•ream.
la th# remaining two trials (b&»0 per ©oat) the hotter from both
lots of or©** ©cored th© ©a*©) this m * probably caused by pronounced off**
flavors ia th© butter.
'Ia comparisons held for 1 month at JJ4 t© ii0°F. th© butter from the
agitated ©res® showed higher scores in t m of th© fire trial©'.
ereas©* ia score w»r# from 0,50 to 0.75 ®f a point.
The ia*
In on© trial (20.0
per ©eat) butter from ©ream that m s agitated had th© lower seer© by
0*25 ®f a peiat.
la two trial* (J40.O per ©eat) butter fro® both let* of
©ream scored th© as*©.
There seemed to b© a tendency for some ef the
butter from agitated ©ream to h a w a slight oxidised flavor aad thus to
soere lower ia flavor.
Th© butter held I month..at 56 to i|0®F. generally deteriorated from
0.25 be 1.2$ points in ©core# compared to the same butter soorei after
I week at 56 to l|0®F.
.
■'She butter ia five trials held 6 month# at *10 to 0°F. resulted in
that from th© agitated ©ream scoriag higher ia four trials (80.0 per
cent).
Three of th© ©cores were on© point higher aad th* other score
wa# 0.25 higher. -la one trial (20.0 per cent) batter from both let# of
©ream showed ©fuel scores.
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• 91 »
Summary Hie,
Comparative scores m
the flavor of uasalted butter
from eream ripened with and without agitation
from fable Ife
Butter held
1 week at
|6 to l*0®F,
Butter held
1 month at
36 to
Butter held
6 months at
-10 to 0°F.
Itamfeer of higher eeore« la uasalted butter'from oreaa
ripened with agitation
J
t
k
Somber of higher score* ia tar*
eelted butter from ereea
ripened without agitation
0
1
0
Humber of scores with no
differ®®®#
t
t
1
***—
TOIAL
5
5
R eproduced with perm ission o f the copyright owner. F urther reproduction prohibited w itho ut perm ission.
f
• 92 •
Th# butter from agitated ©ream declined from 0.85 to 8.00 points,
compared to th#ir scores after holding 1 week at 36 to l*0®F»
0* Bnsalted butt#r fro® cream ripened at various temperatures
Data on the#* trial# are presented la Summary H*d.
fatter la the
four trials was held 1 week at 36 t© 1*0®?*» la two trials (50*0 per eeat)
the hotter fro® ere*® ripened at 61®?* seered 0.85 and 0.75 ®? a point
higher than hatter from orea® ripened at 70%, . la on* trial (25*0 per
eeat) the hatter from ©ream ripened at 70®?* scored O .50 of a point higher
aad la one trial (25.Q per eeat) hatter from heth let# of cream scored
the seme, although th© flaeer was very slightly tetter in tee butter from
eream ripened at 6l°P,
Only three comparisons were conducted by holding the butter 1 monte
at 36 be 1*0®?. and in ail ter*# trials th© seer# ©f tee butter from tee
eream ripened at 6l®P. was ©*5© t© 0*75 ®f a point higher than batter frees
cream ripened at 70®?.
Host of te© batter deteriorated 0.85 to 0*75 ef a point la score
daring holding for 1 monte at 36* to 1*0®F.
Butter ia four trials was held fro sen («10 to 0®?.) for 6 month*
before aeoriag*
la two trials (50.0 -per cent) tee butter from te# eream
ripened at 6o®F. scored 0 *f© higher and also la te# trials (50.0 per eeat)
te# butter from eream ripened at 7© % * seared 0*75 and 1*0© point higher.
the samples of butter deteriorated fro® 1,8$ to 2*50 la score
during tee holding period of 6 months at -10 te 0®?* compared to their
score at the end of holding 1 week at 36 to 1*0®F.
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- 9jSf *
Suaatary
Comparative score# an the flawor of nasaltad butter
fra® eras® ripened at tea temperatures
from fable 2k
Butter held
1 week at
56 to Ij.O°F.
latter held
S* te 0
f,
Butter held
6 maths at
-10 tO 0°P.
Humber of higher snores in. tin­
selted hatter from oreaa
ripened at ?0°F.
1
0
i
Humber ef higher seore# ia ua­
salted butter from oresa
ripened at 6l°f,
i
. I
t
Humber ef seores with as
difference
1
0
0
k
5
k
f§m
R eproduced with perm ission o f the copyright owner. F urther reproduction prohibited w itho ut perm ission.
* uk ■*
I*
Unsalted butter from oream ripened with various butter cultures
Summary g^e presents the results of the trials.
After holding 1
week at 36 to hO°T, the three samples of butter from eream ripened with
different butter cultures did not'score the same in any of the fire
trials*
fh© difference ia score was at least 0*2$ of a point.
In one
of the five trials two of the samples scored th® same and the third wa*
three-fourths of a point lower,
Ia the remaining four trials (80*0 per
cent) the three samples all scored differently* ranging la difference
fro® 0*2$ to 0*75 of a point*
In th* only trial the batter held 1 month at 36 to l*#f. showed two
samples with the same score and th© third sample with, a score of 0,25 of
a point less.
The batter in five trials was held for 6 months at -10 to CPF.
In
on© trial (20,0 per ©ent) th© thro® samples of butter from eream ripened
■with different batter ealtur** soared th® same* this may h# explained by
th© development of a pronounced stale flavor*
In four trials (80*0 per
oent) the three samples of butter were each given a different seor© which
did not vary mor® than on® point in any ef the four trials,
.Vearly all samples of butter held 6 months at -10 to (PF. decreased
in seore compared to their scores after 1 week at 36 to JjfiPF* Th* de­
crease la score varied from 0.$0 to 2*2$ points*
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* 99 •
Swamary Mk»*
Comparative scores on the f l a w y of uasalted tetter
from ©ream rlpeiaei with different hatter cultures
Prem TaMe MU
Butter held
1 weak at
36 to J|0*F.
Butter held
1 month at
36 te 1#F*
Butter held
6 months at
*1© t© 0®F.
'Baahei* ©f trial© ia which te©
three samples of uasalted
butter from cream ripesed
with different culture#
©cored the seme
0
©
1
dumber ef trial* ia which two
ef th® three sample* ef
uasalted butter from eream
ripened with different
culture* scored the same
1
1
©
lumber of trial* la which acne
of th# three samples ef an*
•alted 'tetter from oreaa
ripened with different
culture# scored the s m m
k
©
h
5
I
5
'tom
R eproduced with perm ission o f the copyright owner. F urther reproduction prohibited w itho ut perm ission.
HEtensxot w
A b with many other biological changes, tee results obtained 1b the
various trials showed pronounced tendencies hut wore not entirely con­
sistent.
from the studies e» butter culture by various investigators it would
be expected that diaeetyl and acetyiaeteylearbino1 contents would increase
as aeld dereloped duriag the ripening of cream.
Shis was true is nest
trials under both preliminary and plant conditions,
fhe range of
aelditie# generally studied was from ©*t$ to ©*ff per east,
Kora&lly, the -
higher the aeldity of the ripened eream (sweet or neutralised sour), the
more offset oath unit Iaerease in aeldity seemed to hare on diaeetyl and
aeetylmethylearbinol greduotiom.
In a few preliminary trials deereasea in
diaeetyl aad aeetylmethylearbinol contents occurred, or inereases were
followed by deereasOs, or (more rarely) increases, deereasea, and then
inereases were observed.
In a few plant trials deereasea were observed,
fhe results deviating from the usual trend may have been eauaed by a
depletion of tee eitrie aold teat was available to the flavor produolng
organisms, with a ecasefueat reduotioa of diaoetyl and aoetylmeteylearblaol
to 2,3-butylene glyeei.
Keutrallsed sour eream frequently has a low
eitrie acid content beeause of the amount utilised during tee natural
souring process.
Very small changes in diaeetyl and aeetylmethylearbinol
eontents may have' been within tee limits of experimental error,
De­
fective ©mlturea -aad tee operation of unknown factors also may have'
contributed to tee unusual tread#.
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Similarly te it*' effect ia butter cultures, th* addition ef small
amounts of eitrie aold to cream prior to ripening generally resulted in
increased yields of diaoetyl and acetylaethyloarblBC 1 when the sane
aeldity m s developed a* ia the controls,
liainary trial* aad plant trial*.
fill* was true in both pro*
Besides serving a* a substrate, the
added eitrie aeld probably caused a slight decrease ia pB which tended
to favar diaeetyl aad aeetylaethylcarblBOl produetion,
this would apply
particularly when comparative let* ef eream were ripened *%ual period*
rather than to the sane aeldity.
fhe amount ef eitrie aeld aided to
cream probably should be limited te 0.1 per seat,
larger addition* caused
m objectionable curdy condition In the ripened oreaa, especially when
high acidities were developed.
la. the preliminary trial* th# large increase* in diaeetyl aad aoetylmethyloarbinol oontenta ef eream ripened with agitation (shaking)
probably were earned by the incorporation ef air* the additional oxygen
supplied by th# air would enhance biologies! oxidation of aoetylmethylearbinol to diaeetyl*
In trial* in which the cream had citric sold
added a* a substrate for the flavor producing organism* aad ales was
agitated te iaerease oxidation, the results indicate that there was only
a slightly increased yield of diaeetyl and aeetylmethylearbinol compared
to sample# that were agitated without added eitrie aeld*
Oxygen seemed
to be much more important than citric acid in increasing the diaeetyl and
aeetylmethylearbinol eontents under the condition# studied,
the diaeetyl
and aeetylmethylearbinol content# of eream agitated (revolving the coils)
R eproduced w ith perm ission o f the copyright owner. F urther reproduction prohibited w ith o u t perm ission.
* m
*
'
in the plant trials also increased, but the contents were not as large as
la ths preliminary trials* ■ If the rats bad been full probably the agi­
tation by revolving tbs cells weald bar* bean even less effectIts* ■ la
most plants there is m
night shift and consequently agitating the cream
.would involve additional labor 'expense or automatic equipment.
fits ripening temperature of cream had only a small offset on the
amount of diaoetyl and aoetylaethyloarbinol produced.
In preliminary
trials .the amounts were decreased as the temperatures increased .from 50°
to 60%, and then te 70%*
It is known that the eitrie acid fermenting
organisms grow well below 70%*
In a few trials one or more unknown
factors caused a greater production of diaoetyl and aoetylmethyloarbinol
at 60% . or at' 70%. than at |@%*
70%. and at 61%,
la plant trials cream was ripened at
the results were Inconsistent, favoring eaeh ripening
temperature in approximately half of the comparisons.
An explanation is
the difference between the two procedures of handling the cream from the
time of obtaining the desired acidity to the time of churning. With cream
ripened at 70%* the agitation during cooling and subsequent holding over
night before churning probably incorporated air into the ereaa and re­
sulted is slightly larger yields of diacetyl and aoetylmethyloarbinol thas
would hare occurred if the cream .had been churned 'immediately* With cream
ripened over night at 61%. the desired esldity had developed by morning
and the churning process was carried cut at once.
he would be expected from the reports of numerous studies on butter
cultures, the production of diaoetyl and aeetylmethylesrblaol in cream
R eproduced w ith perm ission o f the copyright owner. F urther reproduction prohibited w ith o u t perm ission.
•
99 *
ripened with different batter cultures frequently varied, especially with
culture* that previously had been carried under different conditions,
this was true of preliminary trial* end of plant trials.
Contamination
with other'organism* «ad unfavorable growth condition* which resulted ia
the partial elimination of the eitrle eeid fermenting organism* are
poseible explanation*.
la the preliminary trials Increased amounts of hutterfat resulted .in
larger yields of diaoetyl and acetylaethyloarbinol ia the ripened cream.
Mineral ell er butter oil added bo skim milk caused similar results,, in*
dieating that the effect of fat may be physical, probably by the retention
of air*
Cream ripened under partial vacuum produced less diaoetyl and
aoetylmethylcarbino 1 ttea ©ream ripened under atmospheric pressure, un­
doubtedly because of the removal of air.
the difference m s greater with
an increase ia the butterfat content of the ©ream which may have been due
to the tendency of the fat to retain the air.
Obviously, there i s .no advantage ia developing large amounts of
diaoetyl and aoetylmethyloarbinol la ripened cream if the corresponding ■
unsalted butter does sot retain satisfactory amounts or develop satis­
factory amount* on holding*
for reasons m b yet known the correlation
between the diaoetyl and aoetylmethyloarbinol content* of the ripened
cream and the fresh butter m s only very general is both preliminary and
plant trials.
Although large amount* of diaoetyl and aoetylmethyloarbinol
in the cream usually are necessary for large amounts in butter, relatively
large amounts of the two compounds in ripened cream did not necessarily
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* is® •
mean that relatively large amounts would be retained to toe butter.
to pleat trials uasalted totter m e held at different temperature*
for various period*• toe correlation in diaoetyl and aeetylmathyle&rbino1
contents between toe ripened areata and toe totter after holding seemed
to be eleeer than toon toe butter m e froth.
It 1* possible 'that if toe
determination of diaoetyl and aeetylaethylcarbino 1 could be made at the
time of maximum production during toe holding.* toe correlation mould be
very eloee.
However, toe length of time 'required for maximum produotion
of diaoetyl and aeotylmetoyloarbinol during holding varies irito different
cultures and also, with toe seme culture under different conditions, toe
increases in diaoetyl and aoetylmethyloarbinol contents during holding
of unsalted totter, probably depend on temperature, period of holding and
oharaeteristies of toe butter culture organisms.
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*
M
Part I,
101
*
W
Preliminary Churnings
Waeetyl and aeebylsftothylearbtnol contents of sweet or neutralised
soar ©ream and of skim milk generally increased as acid developed during
the ripening.
Infrequently, the .diaoetyl end acetylmethylcarbinol ©en­
tente ieereased or other trends- occurred.
Diaoetyl and acetylmethylcarbino1 ©entente of ripened sweet or
neutralised sour ©ream generally were slightly increased by adding small
aj&euate of citric a®id at the time of' inoculation.
Diacetyl and acetylmethylcarbinol contents of sweet or neutralised
sour ©ream were greatly increased by agitating (shaking) during the
ripening.
In temperature comparisons the highest diaoetyl and aeetylaethylearbinol eosteats generally developed ia the sreast ripened at 5G®F.f
the nest highest in. the cream ripened at 60°P. j and the lowest in .the
©ream ripened at ?0°P.
There were a few variations from this order.
Ordinarily, the differeaees among the 'three temperatures were small with
both the diacetyl -and acetylmethylcarbinol contents.
Ihea different butter cultures were used to ripen cream, the differ­
ences between the extremes in diaoetyl aid acetylmethylcarbinol contents
generally were rather large, but several of the values within the
extremes were much the same*
In general, diaoetyl and acetylmethylcarbinol contents of ripened
cream iaereased with an Increase la bwtterfat content.
Similar results
R eproduced with perm ission o f the copyright owner. F urther reproduction prohibited w itho ut perm ission.
. lot *
were obtained la trials with yearlows amounts of mineral ail or batter oil
added to sweet skim milk.
Sweet cream ripened under partial vacuum produced loss diaoetyl and
aoetylmethyloarbinol than cream ripened under atmospheric pressure,, and
the higher the butterfat content of the cream the greater the difference.
la 309 ohurnings of unsalted butter, the retention of diaoetyl as
indioated by the ratio ef the amount ia cream to the amount in butter'
showed an average of 1*0 .?25« la the same samples the ratio of acetylmethylcarbinol "was li0.339.
R eproduced w ith perm ission o f the copyright owner. F urther reproduction prohibited w ith o u t perm ission.
*w*'.
Part II*. Plant Churning*
Diaoetyl and acetylaethylearbiaol contents of moot or neutralised
•our area® generally Increased as acid developed during the ripening*
Diaoetyl and aoetylmethyloarbinol contents of ripened sweet or
neutralised sour cream generally were slightly increased by adding email
amounts of eltrl® aeld at the time of lnooulatlon.
Diacetyl and acetylmethylcarbinol contents ware Increased in .sweet
or neutralised sour ores® by agitating (revolving the colli) periodically
during the ripening*
Diacetyl and acetylmethylcarbinol contents of sweet or neutralised
tour cream ripened at 70°F, and at #I®F. showed only email differences.'
the differences between the extremes in diaoetyl and aoetylaethyloarbinol contents of tweet.or neutralised sour cream ripened with
different butter cultures were large ia some trials and very small la
others.
fhe ratios of diaoetyl to acetylmethylcarbinol in the
of area* ripened with different procedures varied extensively,
samples
the
ratios of diaoetyl to ao©tylmethylearbino1 la the corresponding butter
also varied* but the variation m s smaller than occurred in the ©ream.
In jk samples the average ratio of the diacetyl in the cream t o .
the diaoetyl in the corresponding unsalted butter m s 1*0.351 and the
average aeetylmethylcarbino1 ratio in the seme samples was 1*0.216.
Biaeetyl and aoetylmethylcarblao1 contents of most samples of
butter were higher after holding 1 week at 36 to l*0°F. or 1 month at
R eproduced with perm ission o f the copyright owner. F urther reproduction prohibited w itho ut perm ission.
* lo ij. *
56 t© l*0°F. than before holding.
■
Holding 3 days ah 6t®F* and the re­
mainder of the vtdc at 36 to 2(0*9. was superior to holding 1 week at }6 to
idJ°F. from the standpoint of the washer* of Increases la diaestyi and
acetylfflothyloarhinol contents.
After holding 1 week at 36 to 4 # F . # 1 month at 36 to I*@®F., or -6
month* at -1® to 0®F.# hatter manufactured from oroaa ripened to higher
acidities (0.03 to 0.12 per cent higher), from ©ream with oitric sold
added previous to ripening or fro* cream agitated daring ripening
generally scored higher than the control churnings,
there were some
eariations from these ^relationships. 'the scores on the hotter from cream
'ripened at 70®F. end at 61®F. differed eery little.
Using different
butter cultures to ripen cream resulted in the corresponding butter
differing in score as much as 0.15 of a point.
Unsalted butter that was
held 1 month at 36 to 2*0®F. generally decreased ia flavor score from 0.5
to 1*5 points, and unsalted butter that was. held 6 months at *1# to 0°F.
decreased la flavor seers from 1.0 to 2.5 point**
R eproduced with perm ission o f the copyright owner. F urther reproduction prohibited w ith o u t perm ission.
- m
a p i®
*
© ix
tkWIM 1«
DEAGBTTL (ieo) AS© AGSfYliMBfHtLGABBHIOL {Asm) CQSTBRfS
OP SWiEf CREAM, SZPHBSD fO VARIOUS ACXUIflES, AS©
OF U S CGStBSPOJtOIM OSSALTSO BUffIR
L>boratery 7rt*l»
Or#**
Am
trial StjNMtftg Par oant
So.
*©18
V®Bip*
w .
ft
0.5
7
f]
W
7®
f: ii
i|< -it
4.67
7#
7®
0.84
1.49
2.28
55*6
S.t
*27
24*8
*94
2 5 .9
*39
27.®
5*6®
5
5
.52
59.6
41*5
41*7
5*69
5.46
5*5®
•4®
9.®
♦59
14*1
8.4
5 7 .6
38 *5
4 2 .®
5*68
.20
f.lf
*36
5*34
.26
4*94
4*8®
4*57
*98
16.6
37*7
f®*4
,8 1
86.7
89*6
25*9
5*®3
5*®t
.12
.66
18.9
18*6
•6®
It*©
.6®
7®
7®
*51
5.65
M
.65
5.49
5*34
■1
7®
*35
*4®
*49
f.*t4
5*18
4*48
1*®5
1*67
7®
7©
•4l
5*4®
5*12
k m
*•31
.5®
5.54
*5®
5.32
5*09
*57
.7®
J9
7®
7®
70
*55
:S
•44
1 5 .7
.74
a
.44
7®
7®
12.4
5 .4 6
5*71
5*45
5*15
at
0.76
t.&
♦3W
3@.f
14.1
4®.?
7®
70
7®
70
{*•95
p*p.»*
a
2S
ft
*35
*«a
p.p.m.
'52.4
5*6®
5.5®
5*45
7®
7®
5
p.p.®.
.46
7®
2
p.p.a.
*75
*1
3 4 *8
Si.®
29.0
33*8
82
32
5.28
5*®9
4*98
9*96
5*06
4.88
27.5
lt*4
.18
*®4
*45
1.23
5*2
6*9
5.®
f .f
9*9
7*3
1.08
22.7
1*13
23*2
23*4
1.30
R eproduced with perm ission o f the copyright owner. F urther reproduction prohibited w itho ut perm ission.
•106 «
TABLE 1.
Continued
Cream
Trial
No.
11
12
16
0.90
4.81
4.77
4*73
1,05
1.65
1.75
36,8
39.4
42.4
55.4
.74
.72
.75
19*4
17.3
12.0
12,0
5.JO-
o.42
.4?
p.pSa.
Amo
p.p.m.
4.76
4.8e
4.77
4.75
1.46
1.33
1.13
1,81
17.4
27.1
20.4
27.4
5.46
.42
.74
.68
.80
6.7
7.5
7.4
10.9
1.77
1,|5
1.46
34.8
24.5
18,5
26.2
65
s
i
.56
65
65
m
m
.56
.46
.44
5.47
5.23
5.15
5*66
65
65
65
65
•46
.5©
*53
*59
4.77
4.75
4.71
4.6?
1,14
i,|6
2.78
2.32
6©
6©
.34
.36
5.61
.4©
*47
23.7
25*9
27.3
5*73
5,59
5.53
,20
.20
.29
3.9
5.2
5*4
5.57
5.12
4.98
.57
26,8
29,8
29.0 .
5*58
5.12
4.95
*56
.59
.54
12.9
9.8
10.1
5.78
5.45
5*28
.58
43,8
44.9
47.3
5.87
5.56
5*39
.22
•23
.25
5.6
6.4
7.2
4.98
4,94
4,78
1.67
20.1
10.4
1.39
30,6
4.91
4.81
4.72
.98
.99
.55
16.2
17.7
14.8
6o
6©
60
15
5.62
6§»f.
60
14
iS
pB
60
If
Amffi
p.p.m.
far eeat
Mid
m
i©
AV
p.pTm.
Ripening
temp.
9
latter
.lit
•ft
•m
•5k
•33
5.55
5*50
.71
,32
,56
.44
60.0
61.2
68.6
85.8
6o
6o
♦39
*45
6o
60
*18
60
.49
4.84
1.45
1,70
34.9
38.I
52,4
60
60
6o
.58
.46
.52
5*12
4.89
4.70
1.62
1,52
1*77
36*3
||1^||
52.5
5.22
5
,06
.59
.60
1.40
5.15
5.67
4.64
4,63
4.63
4.62
1.90
1.06
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
* 10?
TABLE 1*
Continued
Butter
Cream
Trial
lo.
Ripening
tjRHp*
Per eeat
aold
pH
J
r**
AOg
P«p«lia
Arne
p.p.jn.
pi
Aea
p.p.m.
Amc
P.p.IB.
0.35
17
6o°P.
6o
0.62
.84
.9®
28.0
28.5
32.6
5.42
5*14
5*03
0.72
.98
.84
10.2
«*(►
14*.4
15*0
5.42
44*4
44.6
4®*4
5*38
5*06
5*00
1.04
21,9
.99
1.05
23.6
5.09
•84
.85
.97
18.9
$.82
*3©
5.8
5*6?
5,5®
.27
.30
6.3
5.43
5.30
5.14
5.08
.33
.35
.38
.52
10.6
6.6
4.4
7.4
4.81
4.84
4.85
4.84
1.80
1.84
1.62
1.69
30.2
29.8
4.63
4.65
1.58
24.5
1®
60
.1*6
5*4®
5.29
5.01
6o
.36
•w
c dc
7»is7
60
60
60
19
20
21
22
23
#)jl>
60
60
.32
*33
.44
5.?®
5.52
5.3®
.66
*70
.72
44*4
45.4
52.1
32
35
■35
55
- 33
*14
.2®
.34
.39
.44
6.46
5.49
5*34
5.21
5*09 ■
.28
16.5
52
55
55
55
55
.19
•4l
.44
.51
.54
5.62
5.11
5.05
4,86
4.80
.27
.87
.97
l.®3
1.17
40.8
55
55
55
55
*44
.49
.53
.5®
4.91
4.79
4.77
4.73
1,44
59.1
55
55
55
55
.2?
5.65
5.33
5.03
4.82
£
•44
.56
.82
.86
.60
19.9
13.I
15*2
15.5
5.2
10.0
31*4
31*4
39*5
1.34
60.6
8.06
1.73
65.7
74.1
*59
.69
.72
♦84
21.6
24.9
26.9
34.0
4*6l
4.62
1,42
1.5?
1.53
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
26.4
27.6
24.0
21.4
23*6
* 108 -
TABLE X.
Continued
Butter
Cream
Trial
Ho«
Ripening
temp*
Per cent
acid
pi
Aflw
p.p«ra.
Arne
p.p.m.
flU
32°F.
55
55
55
55
0,18
.89
.55
.45
.48
6,43
5*55
5.58
5.81
4.98
0.88
*68
.7X
,75
.84
9.9
89.2
51*8
51.2
58*4
25
52
55
55
55
55
,10
.36
.42
.48
*52
6,54
5.06
4.97
4.84
4.78
.25
,90
1.11
1*20
1.84
i.5
34.5
57.7
46.7
52*3
86
|8
55
35
55
55
.80
.41
.50
.55
6.|9
5.15
4.85
4*75
4.69
.81
1*13
1.78
2.02
3.86
9.4
59.9
51.3
69.6
81,0
52
55
ge
77
6.57
5.85
gr
55
55
.18
.30
t|,
*3*4.42
.45
5*67
5.56
*12
.46
ifif
.24
.19
14.1
2.5
0*5
c
fi
2.3
2.2
55
55
55
55
.88
.33
.36
.43
5*80
5.61
5.42
5.19
*59
.65
.72
.74
25,9
25.9
30.6
35.0
55
55
55
55
.35
.45
.51
.56
5.17
5*05
4.87
4.74
.57
.67
.56
1.12
81.9
22.4
23.9
55.8
87 ■
m
89
M
pH
'AOg
p.p.m.
Amc
p.p.m.
5*86
5*07
4,97
4.80
1.04
1.28
1.10
.99
17.0
11*3
12,1
10.0
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
* 109 -
TABLI 1.
Continued
Creaan
trial
*0.
For oent
aoid
pH
55®*.
55
55
55
0-35
.39
.43
.1*5
50
50
50
&m
Ac*
p.pf®.
p.p.®.
5.7®
5.56
5.35
5.36
0*56
.59
.60
.61
45.4
46.0
1*7.0
50,4
*33
.39
46
5*62
5.1*2
5.17
.89
.90
1.12
sa
50
50
50
.1*0
.51
.58
5*36
5.02*
4.90
33
50
50
50
.33
.1*0
.14
3k
50
5®
50
15
16
30
Ripening
t«ap,
Butter
pB
Am
A©2
P'P*W»
p.p.m.
5.55
5.22
5.10
5.12
0.14
.51
.1*3
.31*
12.9
13.5
10.8
7.6
1*2.9
24.0
1*5-7
5.76
5.65
5.20
.27
.31*
47
12.0
7.3
7.6
.60
.82
1*04
27.1*
|2.t
35.2
5.31*
5.06
4.92
.51*
.1*1
.69
10.2
54
12.6
5*66
5.1*0
5.20
.79
.85
1.00
1*0.2
1*2.7
14.8
5.76
5.51
5.21
.20
.32
,52
6.1
6.1
8.9
.37
.1*5
.50
5.13
1**99
1**85
1.12
1.11*
1*85
35.6
|8.6
58.8
3.03
4.89
4.77
1.08
1.49
1.94
144
21,6
56.4
50
50
50
.33
.39
43
5.68
5.52
543
.55
.62
*61*
25*8
27.9
30.5
5.75
5.77
5.66
.31
.33
.33
4*8
4.8
2.6
50
50
50
40
*14
.50
1**96
i*.82*
i*.7t
I.32
I.63
2.03
37.2
1*6.6
53.7
4.83
1.23
14.1
4.70
1.72
18,8
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
* 110 *
tabls 2 . D i A C E m (aa2 ) aij> AcEmstiratLCMaiioi. -Cams)' oostmts
OF UStJtRAUZED SOBB 0BIAK, K M
fO TMIOOS ACIDITIES, M B
Of THE 0GER1SPOMB ISO iSSAl»fSi BOTTIR
W
*S.
W* ^ W M I P W #
<P^*WF
«||l npMSgjg
L»borftt®ry trial*
gf, ||A||t|. II-IH,.
trlol
Sd*
1
2
3
Jug
p.p.st.
Ripening
Per cent
HOid
jfi
3®°F.
Si
62
62
62
©*H
6.89
5.25
5.1©
5.00
6.95
0.57
1.35
I.85
8.11
2.57
59.8
55.6
75.3
6.75
5.70
5*16
6*8§
.35
1.61
1.81
1.90
6s. 1
66.2
50.6
*55
to*9
1.60
1.73
2.11
23.8
2U.0
26.3
*16
.56
*39
.68
it
60'
60
,1k
6o
*68
Si
58
.16
58
58
•ST
.91
•60
.66
6,69
5.96
6.99
6.79
**2
£>.p.m.
Mg
P*P.».
In.
p.p.*.
0.68
.61
1.11
*9®
5.6
7.6
12.1
16.7
5.69
46
5.6
6.97
.63
pH
22.2
sry»8
5.16
> f.01
6.82
6.78
6.86
*58
5.26
•66
6.83
*68
: 6*83
•66
:
R eproduced with perm ission o f the copyright owner. F urther reproduction prohibited w itho ut perm ission.
7*7
6.8
3.9
6.0
6.3
- Ill *
vmm 3 .
m m m (a**)m mmmmmmmnm, (i m )wmmm
m ii« mis mmm m wmm$ mimnm
Laboratory Trial*
Skim ffiPlf
trial
SO.
Xlpo&iag
1
.
t«ap*
oont
aoid
ff8!**
0.1*1
WP
m
, 55
2
55
55
55
55 ■
3
k
55
55
55
55
55
55
99
55
for
M
.41
.71
.34
M
•99
.65
:S
5.5#
•4 4
28
Ao2
p.p.m.
Am©
p.p.m.
5.5U
5 *5 0
5 .0 3
o.«
•49
•57
•57
1 8 .0
14.62
18.8
'.23.®
86.3
•36
.3®
18.1
5*4 9
5.34
.4 6
1**92
.50'
20.0
23*5
5.75
5.34
.30
*35
1 5 .9
1 6 .8
1**92
I%3
17.4
20.0
5.75
5.40
:£
10.5
11.5
5 .0 5
4 .7 5
.31
5.75
5.H*
1 9 .?
1 2 .9
R eproduced with perm ission o f the copyright owner. F urther reproduction prohibited w itho ut perm ission.
18.1
* IIS' -
TABLE k. DIACETYL (Aoj») AID ACETYLMETHYLCARBINOL (Am) COWOTfS OF
SWEET CREAK, RIPIW§ U T S AID WITHOUT ADDED CITRIC ACID TO THE
SAME pH, AND OF THE CQRRESPOSDIM UKSALTSD BUTTER
■Laboratory Trlale
Cream
Par o«nt
citric
Ripening Per oent
Trial
No. aoid added
acid
temp.
1
0
0,05
55 F.
55
S
0
0.05
3
Sutter
I®
ACg
Amo
p.p.m. p.p.m.
pE
A*»g
An*
p.p.m. p.p.a.
0.36
.35
5.06
5.15
0.90
1.01
3k.5
38.6
1.20
1.61
30.7
30.6
55
55
»ks
.ko
k,97
5.02
1.11
i.k5
37.7
36.5
1.30
2,10
31.2
26.9
0
0.05
55
55
,k8
M
k*85
k.91
1,20
l.k9
1*6.7
1*9.2
1.80
1.30
1*2.1
28.k
h
0
0.05
55
55
.52
.50
k .?8
k.81
1.8k
S.52
52.3
55.2
1.20
l.kO
27.8
27.6
5
0
0.05
55
55
.3©
.32
5.85
5.73
*k7
.98
12.5
18.5
5.90
5.68
.09
.13
.7
.9
6
0
0.05
55
55
.3k
.35
5.81
5.6k
.27
.98
2.5
13.1
5.80
5.6k
.07
.07
.7
.7
?
0
0,05
55
55
,36
,36
5.6?
5.61
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5.52
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9
0
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55
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k.72
1,19
1.27
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* 115 m
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Butter
Par omit
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trial
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5*2
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TABLE 5* DIAOITTL (A®g) AD® ACIfTyilfB^CASBlHOL (Am) COMTEBTS OF
mefr^Al.TZEO sot® GBIAM, EIPiSEB WITH VARIOUS AMO0STS OF
ADDED CITE1C ACID TO T H SAMI pH, ADD OF THE
C0HRISP0HBIIG 0H8ALTIB BUTTER
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9
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4.69
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9*5
TAILS 6. DIACSfTL (Aoo) AID ACSTTIAIET8TLCMBIS0I. (Abo ) GGBTMTS OP
8BHf CREAM, H i m WITH JJffi WIT1O0T ADPBD CITRIC AC IP FOR
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- 1X8 -
«ible % DiAcsm (ao2 ) A m M W f m m m w M B i w o L (Ame) § m m m m
op swot
MPStlP At DIPPE8IMT TEMPSKArUtBS, AHD
Of fHS CCSBRISPGTOIHS W$ALtW0 WffM
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8*4
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♦ 180 -
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10.1*
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- t i l ’ -
TABLE 11. DIACETYL (A#g> AHD ACimMITHYLCASBXlfGL (Am) COITISTS
OP CREAM, 1IF8B1B WITH BI?F®SMT CQ8MSSCIAL BUTTES CULTURES,
AID OF THE COISISPOIDIIO UISALT1D BUTTES
laboratory Trials
Craaa
TriAt
Ho.
Culture
Ho.
Ripening
temp.
1
60% .
60
60
60
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a
1
3
4
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5.82
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7.9
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41.4
28.2
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11.5 4.90
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4.83 1.10
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5.01 1-03
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13#
BIACITYL (A%) A M AOITTUSlTlILCASnilfOL (in) COSTSSfS
©f SKIM TffMT AHD
tlFiMlU fO TIE
98
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•*14 .
pfi
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5.33 0.62
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5*49
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19.2
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5.21
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26.5
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table 14.
mmmth (a%) mb r n w r t m m M m m * {*» ) ® m m m
m m m m m m vaiioss f » w « of
wmrntrn am m to the m m 0
Lalaor&tsrytrial*
of * e » m e
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TABLE 15.
D I A C i m <Asg ) AND ACETtlMETSfLCASBIHOL <A*e) C0HTBRT8
or cream witi w m m $ t w m m u m m w m m w t
RIPENED MIDI® PARTIAL ?ACtJO« AIB fflM
H I M i i e PRESSORS TO THI SAMB p H
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TABLE 16. B I A C S m (A©g) AMD ACBTIMlOTYbCARBIMOL (Am) COHTSSTS
OF I I S K I M RXTKSED WITH VARIOUS AMOUBTS OF ADDED
MINERAL OIL f0 THE M » « pH
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or CREAM, XXHUft TO YARIOW ACIDITIES, AND OF TIE
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fhe mtfkm alneerely appreciates the advice and valuable direction
of Dr* l« W* Wrnmr la conducting theee studies and M e helpful «ig*
gestiaa* la writing the masuecriptj the facilities and opportunities
provided by Dr. H. 1# Fabrici«s for conducting the commercial ohuraiagci
aai many helpful suggestions frm colleagues i» the Department of Dairy
Industry at Iowa State College.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
** llffy *
LITERATURE fI f ®
1.
iamiteai, C. 8*
1935* iiaeetyl' 4* eeld-stored butters*
Jour, Dairy Rea., 6097-ko6,
a*.' Baraiooat, 0, 1,
1935. Determination of dlaeetyl and aeetylmethylearMnol,
Analyst, 601653-662.
larnieeat, C. 1, ■
193?* Biaeetyl in eold-siered butters. II*
dour* Dairy tea,, §»15»3®*
k, Boekhout, F. »* J. and Ott i» triea, 4. J.
1919* Aromabildaer bei dor lahmaduemag.
ii9*373-382.
QawtMU Bakt, 2 Abt.
5*
Brower, C. I** Werkman, 0* H., Miehaeliaa, X. B., and Hammer, B. W,
1938* Effect of aeration tinder pressure ©a diaeebyl production
in butter ©altar#* lew# Agr, Rxp. Sta., tea* Sul. 233*•
6*
Conn, 1, W.
' 1889. Baoteria in milk, ©ream, and tatter.
Conn. (Storra) Agr* Bap* Sta., Seoond Anaaal leport, 1889*62.
7*
Davies, W* L.
1937* ft# development of aroma in tatter*
XI.Milehwirtaehaftlieher Welikongreaa, Berlin, Has. Bar.
tiTi-80.
■
8*
Hammer, B. V.
1920. F@la.tlle aald production of J, lacfcicuB and the organisms
aaaoeiated with it in starters. lorn 'agr. lap. Sta., lea* Bui,
^5*
9.
Hammer, B. W* and Bailey, 1* I*.
1919* ■Tte volatile aoid production of starters and of
organisms Isolated fro® them. Iowa Agr* Exp* Sta., lea* Bui.
55.
10. Hoeeker, W, 1*
19|8* Biacetyl and aeetylmethyloarhinol oontents of butter
made from ©ream ripened with various Streptococci.
Steels, lawn State college*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
* u# II.
Hun*iker, 0. F.
1927• The butter industry, page 2ji+.
Published by the Author, 1st Srange, Illinois.
It,
Miahaeliaa, 1, I „ Parmer, R. S., and Hammer, f, W.
If||* She relationship of aoetylmethyloarbinQl end diseetyl
to butter eultures, lows Agr. Sep. Ste., tee. Bui. 155,
if*
MiehselisB, M. I, and Htomer, 1, 'V.
1915* Studies on aeetylaethylearbinol sad diseetyl in dairy
products. lews Agr. Sip* its,, Res. Bui, Iff,
III. Michaelian, 1, B. sad Hammer, B. W.
1956. the oxidation of ftoirfcyiaethylearbinol to diseetyl is
butter oulture*. lews Agr. Ixp. Sts., Res. Bui. 205.
15*
Minster, 3* f#
lf|2. teste for the keeping quality of unsslted butter.
Analyst, 571615*621.
16*
Mohr, W,
’19|8.
Be l * « m » du bsurre,
l*lt, I§ffl*3-75®,
17*
Mohr, W* sad Bell®,
1937, Ber Blaeetyigehalt In deutsoher Butter und Binfluse dee.
Herstellungsyerfnhren* wet dsn Biaeetylgehalt der Butter*■
II.Milohwirtsehsftlieher Weltkeagrese* Berlin, Vise, Bar.
2*89-97.
IS*
lolsea, J. A. sad Bmaaer, B. W.
1935. Studies on butter culture organisms in butter,
dour, Baity Sei., l6t375-3®5*
If,
Prill, I* A. end asweer, B* W*
193®.' A eolorimetrio method for the miorodeterminstioa of
diseetyl. lews State College dour, of Sei., 12*385-395*
t@,
frill, .S, -A. .sad Hammer, >B. V*
If|9. Production of diseetyl fro® oltrio sold in butter
eultures. dour. Dairy Sei., 22*67-77*
21.
Brill,- S. A. and Hammer, B, W.
1939. Cfcsage* in the diseetyl sad aeetyiaethylcarbinol
contents during the manufacture of butter,
dour, Entry Sol,, 22*79-88,
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-
146 -
22.
Prill, 8* A. and Sammer, B. W#
194®. Change* in diaeetyl and aeetylaethylearBiaol contents of
Butter at earioua temperatures. dour. Dairy Sol., 231159-168.
13«
Sehmalfuss, 8.
1928* Diaeetyl ©in Steffweoheelprotofct,
Zteohr. Angeir. Chom., 1*1*847 •
2k. Sletter, V* U
1936* Ohangee la the aoetylmethyloarBinol pine diacetyl content
Of Butter. Hat. Butter and Cheeee dour.* Ho, 20*2O-24l
lo, 21tl8-i6.
25.
Slatter, W* 1. and lamer, 1* W.
1937* Change* In the aeetylaethylearBinol flu* diaeetyl oontent
of Butter. •Sana Agr. Bxp. Sta*, See* Bui. til*
26.
8toroh, f.
1919* Forteatte underepgelser ©ear from*tillIngen af
syrevaekkere. 1* ?©t©rt»a©r-©f laadBoh^dekol#, tandj«con©rai*k*
forsogelaBoratoriu®, Copenhagen, toretalag let*
27*
fapernoux, A.
Ifft. 1# diaeetyl#, parfum to Buerre at to la margarine.
Bait, 12*1045-1055.
22,
tea Beyaua, d. and Petto, J* W.
1939. the toooapoeltion of eitri© acid By totaoooene oreaorl*.
dour* Dairy lee*,. 10*250-266,
29*
wm
30*
Tirtaaen, A*
■ 1937* The laflmeae# of oxygen ©» the formation of Butter aroma.
21 .Milehwirteehaftlioher Weltkoagrese, Berlin, Wtee. tor.
8 »121-123*
liei, G*..B«, Kluyrer, A. d., and tors, 1, f*
1929. fBer toe Butteraroma. lioohem. Ztsohr., 210*234-251.
|1, Wiley, W. d.
1937* Iffeet of aeldity on keeping quality of Butter*
dour* Council Sei* 2nd, lee*, Australia, 10*327-332.
32# Kliley, Wm d*
19|9* fhe oxidation of the tot of Butter- during cold-storage.
- dour* ialry lee-*, 10*300-309.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
*
33*
*
Wiley, W, J., Cox, 0. A., and TShliehead, 1, I, ■
1939. Ike formation of diaeetyl %y etarier oultttpee.
Jour. Council Sei* lad* ten., Auetralia, 12*232-238.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
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