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A partial analysis of the general education of seniors in the Teachers College of the University of Nebraska

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A PARfZAZ. AHALTSIS 07 THS OKHBRAL BDUOASIOIf 07 SBZUOHS
Bt THE TMOHXHS 00LUDB 07 THE W SF m Sm 0? HKBRASKA
w
Srl«h & Grttiag
A *wntar*
Pr*MBt«A to tli* Faculty of
The Gr&fluat* Oollog* la th* Balr*r*ity of Bchruht
in P artial I W ills a e t of Raquir«a*nt*
for th* D*gr«* of Doetcr of Fhiloaophy
D*p*rt»*nt of agliohl Adad.ni*tr«tiea
Linaola, Habra*kn
July, 1941
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UMI N um ber: D P 13883
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A8KS0!$.E8(Hfl@TS
la the task of planning th is study and in co llecting , organising,
treating and interpreting the data, the author received generous a ssis­
tance from a number of individuals, including a ll lunbcrs of h is advisory
committee* Be is under special obligation to Saps* Frank 5* Eenalik and
Ralph C. Bedell of the Teachers College facu lty and to Mr. H. M* Oooc of
the Bureau of Instructio nal Beeeereh of the U niversity of Nebraska.
Dr. Oeeil Winfield se o tt served as chairman of the advisory eea~
ndttee and in th a t capacity gave eoatinnous and effectiv e guidance over
a period
of
may months. Isp eeial thanks is das bin fo r h is consistent
effo rts to make th is study a success.
F inally, though not le a s t in importance, the author wishes to
acknowledge a debt of gratitu d e to h is w ife, A lias M. G etting, whose
assistasee in detailed n atte rs was unstiatiiigly given and whose w illin g ­
ness and a b ility to be breadwinner fo r th e family made the study possible.
!• S« 0*
385823
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TABUS Of CONTORTS
PADS
GBAPTBt
888
?
tzsuk
Th* High SOhooX Sows* to rk of th* Sorters
Th* OelXog* Goeroe Work o f th* Sorter* •
ShBBsoapjr
Ill
TOST 800KBS AMD IRTTOPMSSITIO* Of THEM • • •
P*aertption of Tooto TT**d
Meaner of Presentation . . . . . . . . .
Oeatonpererf A ffair* Toot . . . . . . . .
S*0B*0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I n t « v n k iil« •
GoaeraX Otator* T o o t ..................* • • * •
Seoroo
In terpretatio n . . . . . . . . . . .
SngXiOh T o o t ................................................
Sooroo
In te rp re ta tio n .....................................
0-8 Opinionair* . . . . . . . . . . . . .
soooroo.................................... ...
Interpretation . . . . . . . . . . .
C alifornia Toot of Mental M aturity . . .
Scot* * . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
In te rp re ta tio n ....................... *. • .
Soaaery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IT
t
HXUTZORSHZPS AMOMO TBS TARZABLS8 9TUDZJB> •
Summary •
sw m stY m ) K m m sm m m m
. . . . . . . .
Soar*** of Data and Method* o f B«**areh •
Pindlaoo aad M o o io U tiO H . . . . . .
finding*
................................. ...
Reootraemlatlon* . . . . . . . . . .
GBBBUL UBUOORAEST................................
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
88388
or osrorr i s m
9
*3*3*33*81*3**8*188
shibsti!r bocrs
1
5
83
n
ZNTSOilUGTIOH
GobovoI Bftaoation Boflmoft .
Th* ProtX*« . . . . . . . .
Soureoo of Bat* • • • . . .
Method of ProooAwr* . • • .
Limitation* of th* S ta ir •
SBESS
Z
XX?
f m i op mrram (coat.)
*AM
AFPS8BXZ . . . . . . . . . . . ......................... . . . . . . . . .
A Inf conation About tha Toot* Uaai ia th a Stady • * • • •
S Major and A aor P lait* o f Study of tbo 1940 Sartor*
Aaoortlng to Thai? Quart*r Standing oa th* C alifornia
Taat of H n to l M aturity . .
................
0 High School a r t Oollag* Saaaatar Hoar* of O ratlt BaraaA
by tbo 1940 aartara la tfcra* Subjaat Plaid* a r t th a
Quality of Xhadr work la fhaaa I ta lia aa Maaaurai by
Marini * • * • • • « • • • • » • • • • • * • * » • *
D S ta tis tic a l aigalfloaaoo of Biffaranaa* Batwaaa HaAlaa
Taat Sooraa Mad* by tha 1940 Saaior* of faaahami Oollag*,
O rtraraity of Hafevaaka* and thaa* Mad* by tha Kora
O&GVpB
s s ta tia tia a l s n ra i'/ of tb a s—wrtar Boa** of O rrttt la
Yarlou* High Sahool aad OoXlaga Subjaat P i old* of th*
1940 Soalora of th a Saaahar* Collage, B rtra rrtty of
Mabraflka* u ith Zara thlna* X artaiai
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
I ll
X«L
1X6
1*8
Id
188
T.tflff
07 TABLES
TAOS
I
PASS
B istrlb*tioa of 1940 Saniors of tbo Tsaobars Oollogo,
TJniv arsity of K ite u lo , According to Mnostov m om
of High MMd, QroAit in ibvioas i k j u l nolA o • • * *
11 D istribution of 1940 Sartors of tbo Taaobow OeUago,
UtolToroity of N o u li, Aooordiag to asMWtor BMos
of Oollogo flroftit la Various Subjoet TloUa . . . . . .
88
88
III
D istribution of aoorto Mad* by tbo 1948 Soaioro of tha
Taashars Oollog*, Dfcivorslty of 84braska, oa th*
floepssatlvo flontasyorsry A ffairs Toot fo r Oollago
S M m iy form 1940 * . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IT
D istribution of soon* M tft by tbo 1941 AwOm b of tbo
Taaohans Coilago, O hivarsity of SoftvaOha, oa tbo
Gooporativs float mg ar any A ffair* Toot fo r flollogo
Students, fo ra 1940 •
41
D istribution of 8ooros lfato by 14m 1940 Ooaloro of tbo
Tanaharo College, Dhiv arsity of Bairaaka, oa fhroo Parti
of tbo Sooporatlv* General Guitar* Toot, Bovlsoft Tam Q,
and oa tbo flollforaU Skavt Tom Toot of Koatal
M aturity, Advanced H o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
58
D istribution of Soorto Med* by tbo 1941 Tr ottn oa of tbo
Toaobors Collage, TM varslty of Habraska, oa Thro*
p arts o f tbo Cooperative General Culture T ost, Xavisod
Tom Q
..................
»
T
T1
7IX
T ill
IX
D istribution of Saoros Koto by tbo 1940 Sorters of tbo
Teaohors Oollago, flrt v arsity o f Befcraaka, oa tbo
Cooperative Xnglisb Toot aad tbo 0-8
Opinionair* •
••99
D istribution o f Sooroo bad* ky tbo 1941 Xrostaoa of tbo
T*aob«rs Oollago, university o f M hraaka, oa tbo
Goopsvativo Ssglisfe Toot and tbo fl*ft
Opt ininostro .
*. 40
Correlations Batman Soaootor Sears of Credit la Tarioa*
fitibjoot 91olds burned by tbo 1940 Soaioro of tbo
Toaobors Collaga, university of Bobraeka, aad sooroo
Solo by tbo Sorters oa Seleeted standardised Toots and
P arts o f Toots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
79
t
u s r or v m s s (ocat*)
PA01
table
X
Loaal Poroantil* Banks o f tbo Moans of Soorao ted* m Iadi*
oatod Standardinod fa st* by tbo 1140 Soulcar* of tbo
foasbors Oollago, t« l v arsity of Xafenote, Saving fwanty
Sanostor Hour* of Orodit o r Mors i s a bpoolflad Subjoet
TlaU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ................... . . . . . . 99
XX
Qarrolation* Botwoon Walgbtod Mutes Barnad by tbo 1940
Soniara of tbo ?**ah«ro Oollog*' te iv o ra ity of Bateaafca,
la o il subjoets S i t e o t tbo tte v m ity of S t e u k t , and
Saoros Mad* by tbo Soniara on SalottoA Standardised foots 90
XXX
xxxx
Qkarolotlooo Aaong Soars* Mad* by tbo 1940 Soniara of tbo
fooabom Oollogo, te iv a rs lty o f Xofejrook*, on Saloatod
Stan&ordiaod fo o ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
te ja r and Minor Hold* of Study of tbo 1940
foaohars Oollago, univ arsity of MSteaska,
t o tbo Qoartar Standing of tbo Seniors on
f a s t of Mastal M aturity
99
Saniar* of tbo
Sboan Aaoordlng
tha O allfornia
..................... .19?
XX?
S ta tis tio a l sign lfleaase of Siffaronsao Botwaan tbo Median
fo o t Soara* Mado by tbo 1940 Saniar* of tbo fooobora
Oollogo* U niversity of Haferaaka, an tbo Qooyarativo Contenpem ry A ffair* fo o t and fbooo MMo by tbo 1941 Trash*
non of th* Oollag* and by Too Standard Groups • • • * • *198
X?
s ta tis tio a l SignlflaanB* of Diffarenas* Botwoaa tbo Madi na
f a s t aeoras te io by tb s 1940 Sonior* of te a faasbars
Oollag*, U niversity of Habnaa ta , oa tho L ltaratura, fin *
A rts aad m a n s* Posts of tbo SoayoMti’fe flknaral Oultaro
f a s t aad fhoaa Mado by tea 1941 PraStean of tb s Oollago
aad by fno Standard Group* . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .184
XIX
S ta tis tio a l Signifioano* of B iffsransas Between tbo Madlan
T**t Soorao Mad* by tha 1940 Senior* of th a Toaabars
Oollago, Univ arsity of Kabraatea, on tbo Cooperative
English fo o t and Tho** Mado by tbo 1941 Xfeoafenen of tbo
Oollag* and by fhroo Standard Oroupa * . . . . • • • « *198
rm
S ta tistio a l Sigalfloano* of D iff aranoo* Botooaa tha Modian
f a s t Saoro Mods by tbo 1940 Soaker* of te a Taaohor*
Oollago, Univ a n ity of Habraska, on tbo 0*8 Opinion*!**
and fhoso Mado by tbo 1941 Prooteon of tbo Oollogo and
by a standard Orouy
. *181
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LXflV OF V M M (*ont.)
TAHT.Tt
X9XXX
XXX
PAOS
S ta tis tic a l Slgnlfioane* of 10m D iff****** 8*9*9** th*
lrtdl*n X, (U Had* by th* 1940 S**lor* of th* T*a«h«r*
Cell***, Volrvrmlty of 8«fcv**fco, on th* C alifornia f* * t
of IBK*t*X M atwttjr, sNN**t s a t th * t ■*&• fegr * S trata*!
9*o*p
Uf
S ta tis tic a l flrawary of th* 8«n**t*r Hour* of 0r*4it I*
?talo*« High aohoftl *at Oellcg* SubJ**t Y ltils «f th*
1949 Sanlor* of th* f***h«r* Oollag*, M w i t i j of
Nebraska, id th Zmro Tala** In*lai«d
191
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
lis t
or mom
g ra s *
1
t
9
4
8
4
7
PASS
Soares oa th* F a lltls a l Fronts Station of tbo Cooperative
0ant«*?orajry A ffairs * e st, Fera 1940, Mats by 1941
FVeetaen aad 1940 S to lo n of tb s Taaebers College,
O bivarsity of Ktteooloi • • * * * • • • ■ • • • « * • • •
44
Stores on tbo Soeial and Xeeaoale Svante Sootion of tbo
Cooperative Oonlwiporury A ffairs ¥ 00 %! Fern 1940, Mado
by 1941 fFesbmn and 1940 Soaioro of tbo Tesebars
College, university of Nebraska . . . . . . . . . . . .
40
Soorao on tbo Solanos and Nedlelno Sootion of tbo Coopera­
tiv e Contaapsrary A ffairs T ost, tom U K , Mado by 19431
FreShaen and IMO Soaioro of th e Taaebers Oollogo,
TMv arsity of Nebraska • • # » • * • • * • • • * • • « •
40
Soorao on tbo L itaratnro S tation of tbo Cooperative
CGntenparery A ffairs f a s t, torn 1940, Made by 1941
Frosfaaaa and 1940 Soaioro of tbo Toothers Oollogo,
U niversity of M b n u ti « * • * • • * • * • • • » • • * •
47
Soorao on tbo U na A rts Sootion o f tbo Cooperative Contem­
porary A ffairs f a s t, Mats by 3941 Frasraen and 1940
Seniors of tbo fs a p o rs Oollogo, university o f Nebraska'
40
sooros on tbo AaasoMsts Sootion of tbo Cooperative
Oontesparary A ffairs Tost fan s 1940, Mads hr 1941 Freebson and 1940 Seniors of tbo Tsnshem College, U niversity
..................* • • • • • • • • » « • • • •
of Nebraska
40
Soorao on tbo Cooperative Contemporary A ffairs T ost, fans
1940, )M s by 3941 Freofcnan and 1940 Samara of tb s
Teaohors Oollago, U niversity of Nebraska . . . . . . . .
80
8
Soorao on tbo L iteratu re Sootion of tbo Cooperative
Oonorsl Culture fo n t, Revised Sories foam 0., Mala by
1941 frasbnon and 1940 Soaioro of tbo Toasters Oallago,
U niversity of Habraska
9
soorao on tbo Fins A rts Sootion «f tbo Oooporatiyo general
Culture Tost, Revised Sorias Fora q, Mads by 1941 fVosb*
non aad 1940 Seniors of tbo Toaobars Oollogo, tW varsity
of Nebraska . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18
Ssere* on tbo Ssionaa Sottien of tb s Cooperative Central
Oulturo Tost, Revised aeries fora q , Mads by 3941 Xrssb»
ran and 1940 Seniors of tb s Tsaobora College, U niversity
of Nebraska •
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
87
LIST 07 GHAHTS ( a o n t.)
m um
11
18
13
14
18
16
If
18
U
80
*L
PASS
Saoraa on th a Usaga Saatlon of tha Oooparatlto Xngllah
T aat, Tom 0M, Mada toy UNI TTMNuhi and 1640 Saalora
of tha Taaaham Oollago, lhA m ratty of M v ta la . • * •
68
sncaraa on th a Spoiling sootion at tha Oooparatira Hngllah
Taot, Team OX, Mada hy IN I Tmahaan and UNO soniara
of tha Taaaham Oollago, TtolToralty of Kofcraaka . . , .
68
saoraa on th a Taaathnlary Saatlon o f th a Cooparativa
Sogllah Taat, 7am OK, Mada hy I N I feaahm i aaft 1N0
Soniara of tha Taaaham Oollago, f ttr a m lty of
TffaitvwaVa v 6 v a o a a m x x x x 0 4 A x x x a x x x
x
64
seoroa on th a Oooparati-ra Sagliah T aat, 7om OX, Mala hy
1941 Franhnan m l 1940 soniara at th a Taaohara Oollago,
U hiTtralty of K ttaad a * « • • « • • * • • • » • * • »
18
Saoraa on th a Xaaga saatlon of tha Ooayapatlya Sngliah
Taat, Tom OK, Mada hy 1941 IMafenan aal 1940 Soniara
of tha Taaaham Oollago, tM T aralty of Mahmaha * . . .
66
soorao on th a SfpalUag saatlon of tha Oaopomtim Soglioh
Toot, Tom OX, Mada hy 1941 froahaan aad 1940 Soniara
of th a Taaohara Callaga, flhirarolty o f Mdhraafca • « . •
6f
aaama on tha lhenbalnry naatlon at th a OecnoratlT a
xagliah T aat, Tam mi, Mada hy 1941 ixaafcaan and 1940
Sanlom of th a Taaaham OoUaga* Ohlaavalty at Habranlea
68
saoraa on tha Oooparotlaa NgUdh N a t, Tom OX, Mada h r
1941 Traahnaa aad 1940 Soaioro of tha Taaohara OeLlaga,
MhlTamlty of Hafcraaka .
,
69
saoraa on th a 0«* O plnlaaalm , Tam 7, Mada hy 1941
ITaahaan aaft 1949 Sandora of th a Taaohara Ooilaga,
tfeiram lty of MAaaihi •
n
In talllg aaaa qaotlanta Ohtalnad fron N orm on tha Oali*
farn ia Taat of Maatal M aturity, AdvmnaaA 8-T«m, Mada
hy 1940 Soniara of th a Taaaham Oollago, N lra m lty
of Ratraaka •
n
Manna of Saar ammo on th a F e litia a l Mranta saatlon of
tha Oooparatlya Contaaporary A ffalra Taat fa r Gtollaga
Studanta, Tam 1940, Mada hy tha 1940 Soniara a t th a
Taaaham Golloga, tM ram lty of Sofcraakn, aad fllnaatMXI
Aaeerdiag to tha Marhar of sonoa tar Homra in Soalal
Stndlaa Inroad hy tha Saaiam in High Sahool and in
Oollago ..................* . • # » * # • • * # • * • # « * •
88
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
hot
o r charts (o o n t.)
CHART
AS
PASS
Moana of Ear Soaroa oa th a Salaaao aaft Medielae Sootion
of the Cooperative Contatgararr A ffairs Toot fa r Collage
sta&onte, 7om 1948, Mada by 1940 Soniara of Taaohara
Collage, ttolvaraity of lM bniki, aal Claeaifiod AeooaNgag
bo th* Amber of S*N»tar Hoar* la Solano* Horned by th*
Saalora la High 3*hool aad la College . . . . . . . . . .
99
88
Henna of Ban 8oer*a on tbo L iteratu re Sootion of tbo
Cooperative Qonteoporary A ffalra Toot fo r Collage atndonr,
For* 1940, Mode by tbo 1940 Soniara o f th* Toaohare
Oollag** TJnivoraity of INferaaba, and O laaelfled Aooordlag
to th* Blather of Sneoator H orn la Bagli*h Burned Ily tbo
Saalora la High sobool and ia Oollos* • ..................... * 01
M
Xaaaa of tbo Raw Seoroa oa tbo Cooperative Qont«np®rary
A ffalra Toot fo r Oollogo Student*, Fora 1940, Made by tbo
1940 Saalora of tbo Taaohara Coll ego, Ohlveoralty of
Hebraaka, and CGLaaalfled Aooordlag to tbo HMbev of
Sm astar Beat* la Soolal Stnftloa Burned by tbo Soaioro
la High Sehool aad la Oollogo . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
86
85
Bean* of Baa soorao oa tbo lib erato r* Sootion of tbo
Cooperation Qoaoral Colter* Toot, Sovlood Sorloo fo ra Q.,
Mado by tbo 1940 Sonloro of tbo Toaahor* Oollago,
Bhivaralty of Hebraaka, aad O laaaifiod Aeeardlng to tbo
llaabor of SoMWtar Hoara la &agllah lam ad by tbo Send ora
In High Sobool and In Oollago •
88
89
Vaasa of Baa Soorao oa tbo Solonoo Sootion of the Coopera­
tiv e Coaoval Coltar* Toot, Revleed Soarloo fo n t Q, Mado
by the 1940 Soaioro of tbo Taaohara Oollogo, cnlvoraity
of SObraOba, aad O laaaifiod Aooordlag to tbo M b o r o f
Soaootor Booro la Solonoo Haraod by tbo Soaioro la High
Sobool and la Oollogo
89
if
Mean* of Raw floor** on th e Solonoo Sootion of th e Oeopara*
tir o Ooaoral Gnitar* Toot, Bovlood Sorloo Foma q, Mado
by the 1940 Senior* of tbo Toaoboro Oollogo, Ohiveraity
of Hebraaka, and Claoalfiod Aooordlag to the Hoabor of
Seawater Hear* la Wbtboootloo Xanwd by tbo Sonloro la
High Sobool and la Oollogo
88
Hoana of Sealod Sooroa on tbo Cooperative Hngllah Toot,
form OH, Made by th* 194C Soedor* of 4ka Taaobors 001108%
T&dvoralty of Hobvaaka, aad O laaalfled Aooordlag to th*
Humber of 8*M»atar Hour* la BagUih Barnod by tbo Soniara
In High School and la Oollogo • • • * • • • • • . • • * « 89
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
IIS? 0? CHASES (oont.)
m m
n m
¥
19
Manna of the Baev Soorao on the 0-R Ojpiaionaira, Tom y#
)U « fey tfeo 1®40 Seatora of tha feaefeara Collt**,
tJtaiw eity of HObyaaka, and O laeaified Aeeoedlng to
tfeo Baabnr of Saaeoter Bourn in Soeinl Stodioe Baraad
fey tha Sanlora in Mgfe Safeool and in College . . . • • *0
Haans of Haw Sooraa oa tha C alifornia Toot of Mental
M aturity, Moaneed S-Fom, M o fey tha 1940 Soniara
of tha Toaefeacm Oollago, T M taralty of Baferaaka,
and O laaaifia* According to tfeo Hoafear of Seurater
Hoorn in unclaaaified Credit Burned fey tfeo Seniors
in High Safeool and In Oollago . » « . » . * # • < • «
91
Means of Volgfeted Marks Banned in Bagliefe Coareee fey
tfeo 1940 seniors of tfeo toaafesrs Oollago* U nirarsity
of Nafendca, and Olaaaifiod Aeeordiag to tfeo Banker of
Saaoster Bourn of Credit Burned in Sngliah fey tfeo
Soniara in Ugh Sehool and Oollago • • « • • • • • • 109
naano of wa&gRtoa uams nunxoa in foyojgn juangnages oy
tfeo Seniors of tfeo Vaaofeaara Oollago, tM eersity of
Nebraska, and Glaoalflod Aeeordiag to tfeo SMber of
Saaaetop Hours of C redit Burned in TOraign Tangwigoo
fey tfeo Sealers la High eehool and Oollago • * * • • •
198
Haase of Welgfebeft Marks Burned in Science fey tha 1940
Sanlora of tfeo feaefeers College, University of
Haferaska, aad O laaaifiod Aeeordiag to tfeo SMber of
Saoanter Honrs of C redit Baaed in Seloaoe fey tfeo
Soniara in High safeool and in College » » . « « • • *
Ul
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
0HMPT3* I
ZKffiODTOTXai
Xb
i t s far-r*e«hing effeets
on
soeiety, toaehiag la probably
unsurpassed by any other profession, Th* eooial ord*r of th* naart
generation w ill evolve to • oonsidarabl* arten t from th* fa e ts , th*
habit*, th* id*** and th* attltnd** th a t children and youth develop
undar th* direction ef th e ir t*aah*ro| therefore, a *«holarly aaft
ou ltu ral baelsground th a t touohao a l l pha*** of human a c tiv ity should
b* an in teg ral p art of th* t*a*h«r.'s equipment.
A t*aeh«r needs to b* a well-informed person fo r a number of
reason** H* must bar* a wid*, soholarly knowledge of as aany fie ld s as
possible in ord«r th a t what h* t*aoh*s nay b* accurate, in terestin g ant
stim ulative of mere learning, S* mast m erit r**ognition among th e in­
formed parsons in h is eoananity i f hs is to b* among the leaders of th a t
eoamunltyt and a hr«adth of in te re sts and information is essen tial to
him i f h* is to work understandingly with th* divers* person* who oak*
up a sehool eossnmlty* H* needs a variety of in te lle stu a l and other
ou ltu ral in te re sts as a basis fo r a f u ll, satisfy in g l i f t as an individual.
This study attem pts to disoover the extent to whi«h th* 1940 Seniors
of the Teachers Oollago a t the U niversity of Habvasha, near the date of
th e ir graduation, had had experience in various sab£eet fie ld s and had
enquired both a knowledge e f o ertain elements o f gsneral edueation and a
so* tally lib e ra l a ttitu d e .
I t also attem pts to dlselose seas possible
reasons fo r the strengths sad weaknesses of th e ir general edueation.
- 1 »
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Th* probles 1* of p artio u lar iat*r* *t a t th is tla * beeaase th*
tJaiTersity 1b a cooperating in stitu tio n la th* feer-year prograa ending
la 1948 of th* Ocesals*loa on T«a«h«r Education of th* Aaerioaa Oooaoll
oa Edueation. Aaong th* aaaerou* obJ**tiT*s of thi* eaamiesion 1* th a t
of stla n la tia g taaeher train in g la * tlt« tlo a* to appraise aad eealaat*
eontinuouely th e ir teashor *duoatlon programs , with a v l* i toward
iroproring than*
A number of studios har* shown th a t th* general education of th*
arerag* teaching oandldat* aad t*aeher 1* woefully weak* Oa* of th*
most Important of sueh studies l* th* Peaasyleasla investigation of th*
knowledge of oollogo students, aad* under th* eusplo** of th* Carnegie
Foundation fo r th* Advene*nant of Teaehing aad report*d by Learned aad
wood* This study was ba**d oa th* r**alt* of a ecsqsrehensiv* group of
t* s ts la goaoral *dtt*atlon whl«h war* given la 1908 to 4,412 seniors
at Pennsylvania oollag**, 1,422 of whom « m pro*p**tlT* teachers aad
again la 1938 to 8,830 seniors, 1,410 of when wore planning to teaoh*
Th* te s ts la*t«d fo r twelve hours and were generally inclusive, severing
the following subjeotsi
The Physleal World
Xathomtio*
Seieao*
Physi**
Chesdstry
Sol«ao* of U f*
Th* Social World
languag*
Psyohology
Anthropology
Sooiology
Anolent Oulturo
Western C iv ilisatio n
Contemporary Western C ivilization
Non-Western C ivilization*
le a rn e d ,' William Satchel aad Boa Belfclb* Wood, "Student aad Bis Ihe«a.*dc*,"
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3
To provide a basis foe comparison of the knowledge of th a soilage
seniors with th a t of high aahool seniors, th* ta a ta were also admin­
istered to th a sealers of three larg e Pennsylvania high schools. Ac la
Indicated hy tha following statem ent, tha prespeetlve taaahara ranked
law la general aehlevanent.
In ao fa* aa thaaa is$*etlag to taaah are ooueemad, th*
re su lts of tha Pennsylvania esam! nations ara disappointing...
Tha m ajority of tha group ara a s s t a t heme la th a lewor h alf of
tha to ta l college d istrib u tio n s; thay es&ibit in fe rio rity la
contrast with th a nea»tea*hars la aaarly every department of
study; and thay show up badly whan compared in tha same ta a ta
with students four years balow than who represent tha adnsi*»
tlo a a l problem* with whlah they must ba prepared to d eal. Tha
a b ility aad attainment of thoaa aalaotad aad praparad in special
oaatara fo r th a t purpoaa ara aeaalataK tly aad conspicuously
below th a lav al of th a group aa a whole.*
learned aad Wood appropriately aad* tha fallowing eemmeat <no>
earning tha knowledge a taaahar should possess*
Whatever a taaahar** knowledge, th a f lr a t c rite rio n of h i *
effectiveness aa a taaahar lia s naturally In th* re la tio n of bl*
knowledge to tha knowledge of hi* pupils* I t w ill aoareely b*
disputed th at a taaeher Should a t le a s t know nor* of the n a tte r
ha
to teaeh than his pupils kaowf and th at h is general
outlook as an eduaatad parson should equal th e irs , if not surpass
it* Best parents and e ltissn s p refer th a t i t ba d istin c tly
superior, and ara perhaps aooustesiad to eupeet i t to ba superior*^
A national surrey of tha so elal inform ation and attitu d e s of
American sacondary sehool taaeher* made by Hartmann fo r tha John Dewey
Society fo r th* Study of Bdueatlon In 1986 revealed th a t, in general,
taaohars ware w ell informed on th e eulture of the p ast, weak in knowledge
about soelal Issues of the present and unfavorably disposed toward soelal
change. Forty-three sta te s ware represented in th* study whleh employed
a soelal infonaatloa ts s t of 100 tru e -fa lse question* and an a ttitu d e te s t
% bid.. p. u i
%bjd», p . 89.
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4
of 106 m ultiple eholee (luaationa. Aa compared to taeehere of other
s ta te s , Nobraake taaohara rankad next to tha batten oa aooial infom etio n and tw enty-firat on aooial attitude*#
In giving a summation of tha resu lt* of tha aooial information
survey, B ntaaoa says
...teao h ara toad to ha wall informed in tha fie ld of eemvantionalinad and h lato rlaal knowledge and re la tiv e ly weak in
th a lr graap of v ita l contemporary iasaaa« thare th* pact la
concerned thay appcewimata th a atatua of au th o ritie s, hat where
current aooial for*** ara involved thay rev ert to th a lowed of
tha layman*
la reviewing tha reeu lta of tha a ttitu d e ta a t, Hartmann c la ssifie s
American secondary aohool taaohara in to tfaraa major a ttltu d e -p a tte rn s.
At oat extrema la the proneuaaad eouservativa p attern , comprised of on*
tenth to one-third of tha en tire group* At tha othar extrema la tha
advanced pregreaelve type* into vhieh p attern from cm a-fifth to no more
than one-fourth of tha group fa ll*
Somewhere hetman theae two eact r em—
la a large group of "middla-of-the-road teachers" who ara w illing to have
reforms occur, hut who prefer th a t thay acme gradually,8
Tha 1999 Report of tha Sophomore Taating Program of tha American
Council on Education8 ahewa tha aahievenant of aollega atudanta with
major* in ednoatlon and of theae with tha professional goal of "educator”
to ha oonaidarably below th a average* Thia raport presents la graphia
form tha mean aooraa of man and woman atudanta on In gliah , General Culture
and Contemporary A ffaire ta a ta , aooor&ing to th a ir profaaaional goals*
^Hartmann, George V*, ”Soeial Information and A ttitude* of American
Secondary School Taaohara,” Tha Taaeher and Sealatv. T in t Yearbook of
tha John Dewey Soelety fo r tha siudy of Sdaaatlon, (ifee York* Tha John
Day Ooapany, 1987, pp* 210-880).
PP* 213-414.
®Curetca, Hftward S*, "Evaluation or Guldens*," Tha Report of th a 1999
Sophomare Testing Program. Cooperative Teat Service, Amerioan lo uno ll
on Education. Hew Yorkt Haroh, 1940, pp. 16-17.
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Student* with edueation as a aa je r M ated eighth of 11 la English, aarauth
of 11 in general su ito rs aad f if th of 11 la eontwnporary affalra*
Preseo-
ta tlo a o f eShlevaBent aooordlag to tha various professional goala of tha
atudaata showed th a adueatore to ba sixth of alaa la English aad sefwath
of nine la both general suitor* aad eontewpsrery affalra*
Tha investigations altad point to a oewparatira dafleianey oa
tha p art of proapaetiT* taether* la kaoadadga of a gaoaral nature*
General Xdueation Defined
Tha broad knowledge and a ttitu d e s daaarlbad bp tha tazn "genaral
edueation* la usually distinguished frcaa professional train in g , and fro*
knowledge aad attltu d aa la apaelal fields*
Tha tarn doaa not, however,
have tha saae atoning fo r everyone, Tha d iffio u lty of aaaurlag agraanant
oa tha asset aeeaing of tha tana la illu a tra te d by tha resu lt* of tha
1934 seating of tha In s titu te fo r A dalnistrativw Offloor* of HigMr
In stitu tio n s, whieh was held a t tha D aiversity of Chicago aad wee eallad
to aoaaldar *A Maw D efinition of Oanersl Education"* In tha preface to
tha published proceeding* of th is in s titu te , Ota? atate* th a t "This
toplo was ahoaan aa a ro au lt of suggestion* received fre s sore than a
hundred of fle e rs of higher in stitu tio n s, soneeralng problem* and treads
which s s r l t intensive study and a v ltia a l discussion a t th la tia s* ” MO
now d efin itio n was fonm lated, and tha t i t l e of the preeeedl&gs was
ehangad to Oaaaral M uoatlont I ts Mature. flaone sad Baawstlal m**aata*y
D efinitions of g a a m l edueation vary widely and range from idea*
sueh a* those of Deway who w rites th a t gaoaral edueation i s ”**«*sp*riaaM
with present soelal ami personal problaas, no sp o iial train in g fa r
7Qray, w, 3, (E ditor). General Edusatleat I ts Batura. soon* and E ssential
glaneata, (Chieagot T ftiv w lty o? Chicago P ress, 1to4 ,£ I b pp.)
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taaorrew , but OKperienc* w ith th* problem of
to tho*e of
HbtehiaaP and Barr*® who la e le t upon a form of general eduoation ha*«d
upon t h * * 01* 8* 1* books e f tb o w * * to r n w o r ld " .
F airly general egr oanoat do** ex ist th a t general edueation m y
b* oonaidorod a* being
Broad
I t ooneeam* ita e lf with knowledg*, ranging fw » kn*«a«dg*
of th* progree* wad w tiv ttiM of *oat«*p«r*xy ao«l*ty to
knowledge of tb* fuadMMBtol* of SagHeh, m thaaatlo*
and Ml*oo*«
Soelal
I t train * youth to b*» net o ily w illing *ubj*et« la a
detaooraey, but a stir* partielpent* la tb* d—aaratl*
prea*ea*
Integrated
I t o a t * uroM *ubj*et l l a o * fr**ly t o * * * * * tb * mjtgt
•n d o f a ev a X o p m a t o f tb * w h o !* jM sreG n a lity .
Culture!
I t uphold* tb* b«*t la a r t, «u*ie, Kngll*h# lite ra tu re ,
eelace*, B*tb«*atlo* aaft relig io n , aad eapha*l**e p arti*
eipotion, se t *•*• baealedg**
lib e ra l
I t build* fo r 9*ogr***« If bhang* 1* |rogreoe, i t than
favor* ebaage*
C rlti**!
I t do** not oooept tb* tra d itio n a l booaao* I t 1* tra d itio n a l,
but M*k*o I t stand th* t* « t of e rltltta l thought*
P*r*onal
I t eaphaelaoe health, Rental, phjraieal aad aooial* I t
eopha*!*** dsrelesssaat of «aoh p*r*aa to hi* groat**t
oapaalty,
Oeaeral Education O har*et*rietie* Considered B**i*wbl*
fo r a Paraoa Preparing to Tmak
th a t th* quality a* w*ll a* tb* quantity ef tb* general education
poM*s»*d by t*a*h*r* 1* generally deficient ba* been ooaraenly reeognisod.
®D*w*f, John, "Pre*i4«ab Batebla** Pregooal* to fteesak* Higher M ueatioa,*
?he a o e ia l^ o n tle r. (May* 19*?), 9tl0S»10d.
%ut*hla*» 8* K«, "Oreanimatioa and sabj«*t Ito tter *f Oeaeral M ueation,*
® 8*rr, StringfeUow, "President Barr Boeoaaeais tb* Study ef aia*ale*t”
sobool aad S o o ltr . 91tJW9, (Harsh S3, 1940}.
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On tb* basis of fa c ts revealed by careful examination of tb* records of
* thousand graduate* of teeehare oolleges, Bugg and others made the
following statement concerning the typical nature of general eduoatlont
General edueatloa has in the conventional college implied
study of trad itio n al aoadesdc subjaota sash as English,
a sth m atics, foreign languages, Miens# and h istory , while i t
has neglected th e soelal studiM* the fin s a r ts , h ealth and
physical education, and hens aad fondly relationships*11
This seetlon w ill identify the type of general edueation which a l l
teachers should possess*
A v astly d ifferen t product than Is now being produced hy teacher
train in g in stitu tio n s Is pictured as needed by th e National Education
Association in a recent Besearoh Bulletin*
• ••today society needs teachers who are needful and capable
students of social problems* I f In the fu tu re, train in g agendas
hare fewer* sore carefu lly selected students, they should find
new opportunist m to improve th e so cial understanding of teachers
now in service aad to help school system to heap pace with an
advancing social order* There f a lls upon th* individual teacher
the obligation to hasp abreast of social trends and to p artic ip ate
actively in l i f e outside of school* At the s s m time he w ill
need to perform h is professional duties la aeeerdans* with good
taste* high standards of scholarship* and respect fo r ecammity
opinion*1*
Counts describee the desired new teacher in an apt way when he
says
Re should Indeed be a thorough sa ste r of his craft} but he
should also knew to what la rg e r cads h is craftsmanship Is directed*
He should be a M helar she has/command of the knowledge of h is
specialty* a s itu s * who takes a respoeaibl* p art m the U f* of
th* eoam nity, a democrat who id e n tifie s hln self with tha in te re sts
and fortunes of the many* a p a trio t who la deeply concerned over
the future of h is country and h is people, a friend of eanklad
Ragg* I* U*, W. S* polk, F, E* Foster* 1* 0 . John* and R» B* Beep*
National Survey of the Education of Teachers. Ted* XXX, (Sashlngtoa*
D* 0*i XrT S. Oovernment w fjs tis g ^ m ^ V lN 104)*
^^Rational Muoation Association* "Modern Social and Educational Treads,4*
Research Bulletin* Vol. XII, Wash., D. 0*t November, 1034, pp* 284-J8F*
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9
who cherishes the values of world peace aad huoan brotherhood,
a poat who feels tbo tragedy, tbo pathos, tbo glorious hopes
of tba tin e , a wise oounseler of tbo young oho kaoao tbo
conditions aad problens of liv in g in tbo proaoat confused aad
challenging epoch*1*
la tho auasaary of a reoent report of tbo conclusions aad gensralisatio n s of tbo oawaitboo of tbo Sortb Central Association m Subjeot
Matter Preparation of Secondary Sohool Teachers, Beaslik aakoo th la
statssaantj
Breadth of outlook aad undora tending are important q m lifl­
eatlosu of tbo good eltisen* fhoy are, therefore, amn were
indlaponaablo qualifications of prospective elomentary and high
sobool taaohara oho w ill bo expeoted to contribute la oa import­
ant way to the dOTclopwerrt of good eitlsens***
B1geloir refers to the same general seed when ho oayo
Teachers share the general needs of other individuals who
are members of a society* But, la addltlon, tho very faot th at
they are to beeaae toaohors wakes i t iaportant th at they should
be helped to a tta in those ends for idiiah general education la
lntended.lf
These statements lend support to the following outline of general
educational oharaetorletieo uhleb a person preparing to teach should
have* Be should bo
9011 infovwod
doe who has a broad knowledge of eeateaperary aoeiety, of
reading, speaking aad w ritin g , of solonoo, wathenatios, and
English, aad aa appreelati on of th o fine a r ts *
Soelal
Osse who understands soelal relation sh ip s, and has a aooial
paint of M.ew«
**Couttta, deergs S»* The Prawoeete of Awerloaa Deaoermey> Bow Torki
John Bay 6ewpany, lS H p# » I "
“
^ S sa slik , F. S ., "Subject H atter Props ra ti on of Secondary Sehool Tea­
chers, Conclusions aad 9eaereli*atiens»* The Berth Central Aso*>
Q uarterly. Tel* X H I, Is* t , (October,
“
B ig elo w , X* W«, "The M aterials of General Education." Bduoatiooal
Booord. Tol. XIX, (A pril, 1998), pp* 189-TT
—
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f
vall~intagratad
Ona who la m entally morally, phyaloally, aad aoolally
adjuatad to Ma anYlronaaat and adaptiro to ethara*
Oulturad
Ona who haa an in ta ra a t In and appraaiataa th a fin a r
t hinge of U fa , bath vocational and avooatlonal.
Liberal
Ona who praotlaaa a great daal of talarana* aa waU aa
saln tain a a broad outlook an U fa*
O ritloal
Ona who la trillin g and ready to quoatlon, but not too
w illing to aondanu
The Prohiar
Tha primary purpoaa of tha atady la to analyse In a p a rtia l
manner aartaln eXamasta of tha gaaagntl adnaatlon yaaaaaaa i hy tha 1M0
Seaiore of Taaohara College of the ttfclveralty of H A audi, Tha alanaata
to ba analysed u a :
1« Tha aactant to whlah th a aanlora wbila In high aehoel and In
collage had aontaat w ith various fie ld s o f study,
8, Tha knowladga of aalaotad ganaral adnaatlon fla ld a poaaaaaad
by tha aanlora naar th a data of th a lr graduation,
H ild a to ba atndleft ara
a* Praaant a c tiv itie s and progress of aaalaty (i.e*»
eontaqpomry a ffa lra )
b* hngllah fnndaaantala
e» L iteratu re
d, Tina Arta
a. Salerno*
3. Tha aooial llb a ra lla n of th a aanlora# Thla la not a knmdedga
aspect of general adnaatlon, bat I t la hold th a t a taaahar m a t fa a l
aooial prohlaaa aa w ill aa know thay ax lat. I f a taaahm la to keep
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
10
pcoe with an advancing and cvor-ohanging social order, he m at be a
so cially lib e ra l person, ana aha la w illin g ta make changes a fte r
c r itic a lly examining and studying social problem s
8*eondary purposes of the problem are
Is So find possible explanations for the general education
ch aracteristics of the sealers*
2*
To in te rp re t findings and im plications and to
m ake
reoem-
mentations for Improvement of the gamers! education provided Teachers
College students.
fypetheses to be tested in the e ffo rt to find possible explana­
tio n s for the general education ah araeterlsties of the sealers are
1* She amount of course work taken in a given H old of study*
e*g»* English is po sitively related to knowledge of the fie ld and of
related fie ld s as revealed by te s t scores*
2* Social liberalism is p o sitiv ely related to amount of work
taken in certain subject field* e*g»* soeial studies*
I* The aafcke earned by students in a given fie ld of study or in
general are positiv ely related to knowledge in the fie ld , to social
liberalism and to scholastic aptitude*
4* Scholastic aptitude bears a higher relationship to knowledge
of a subject fie ld as shown by te s t scores, than anount of work taken
in the fie ld or in related fields*
6* Social liberalism is positively related to knowledge of any
subject fie ld as revealed by te s t scores*
S* Knowledge of oms subject fie ld is positively rela te d to
knowledge of any other field * e*g*, lite ra tu re to English or fin e a rts
to eontemporary affairs*
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7* Soholaatic aptitude la positiv ely related to soeial-llbexellsa*
In order to got eoae of the data required fo r te stin g tho atatod
hypotheses, i t was necessary to determine
(a) tho scholastic aptitude of tho seniors
(b) th s weighted narks3,0 of the seniors la the various subject
fields*
Sources of Seta
General education lite ra tu re , of wbleh thoro io aueh both Is hook
and periodical fo ra , and otttotandlag toaohor education otudioo were
seed la identifying tho elesent* of gonoral education upon which thoro
la rath er n a a n agreeswat and la fom nlatlng tho atataaont re la tiv e to
the eh araeto risties considered desirable fo r a person
p re p a rin g
to teach.**
Tho fllo o of te a R egistrar of tho U niversity of Nebraska furnished
roeorda of high aehool and university courses pursued and the university
narks earned by th e Teachers College seniors*
The following te s ts were given to tho seniors approrinataly oae
nonth before the date of th e ir graduation!
jk*
' ..... "r ........"n [" 1
A weighted nark Is th e mm of a group of aayka a u ltlp lie d by the e re d lt
hows fo r eaeh nark and divided by the to ta l neater of ered lt hours,
Secondary aehool Teacher s .* tom fai
of the John Dewey Society fo r the w
The John Bay Co., 1987, pp. 810-80.)
385823
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X*
Tho OooporatiTo Contasporsry A ffairs Tost fo r Oolltgo students,
Fora 1940*
Tho Cooperative General Culture T est, Fora q, Part* XXX, I? and V,
Tho Cooperative Bnglish T est, Fora OH 1936.
Tho Lents 0-8 Opinions!re .
Tho Californio Toot of Moatal M aturity, A4vaneed S-Forau
Tho f i r s t three to o ts yielded soar so indicative of knoaledfo i t s u r e s t
fie ld s, tho fourth provided a measure of aoalal liberalism and tho f if th
a measure of aoholaatlo aptitude.
national noras to r tho Xngliah, tho oplaioaalro and tho mental
m aturity to o ts wars available is p rlstod sources whoa tho study was
is itia to d . Tho Cooperative Tost Serrioo*® had puhlishod sim ilar nozas
fo r tho ooatsspcgrasy a ffa irs and coastal oulture to o ts hr tho time they
were noodod. Anothor so t of noras was obtained as a re s u lt of tho admlaistra tio n of a ll to s ts ineluded la th is stadyt except tho one of noatal
m aturity, to 816 freshmen who ontorod tho Toaohors Collogo of tho U niversity
of Nebraska la Septmabar 1940.** Soares oaraod hy tho troshaon woro asod
mainly fo r comparative purposes aad woro laslolod la tho study coly a fte r
consultation with tho au th o r's advisory eesu lttee, mow representatives of
tho Gcasalssion oa Toaohcr Bdueation of tho American Qouneil oa Sduoatioa
aad with tho hoad of tho Salvorsity of Xebraska*s Bursas of Instructional
Research. 10
^Tho address of tho Oooporativo Tost Sorvlao i s 18 Amsterdam Avenue,
SO* Task, K» Y*
“ f te author I s lndohtod to tho Bopartmant of M uoatloaal Psyoholosy aad
Measurements, undar whose ausploos tho to o ts woro adm inistered, fo r per­
mission totoo tho sooros*
^C onsultations woro hold with Drs. Danial A. P resco tt, Haurloo X. Troyor
aad X. 6 . Williamson of tho Comalsalon oa Toashor B&neatlon of tho American
Couneil on XdmeatiaB, with Hr. HU S . (tax o f tho Bureau of Instructional
Hosoarsh of tho Shi v arsity of Nebraska, with tho imvewblfCbarU advisory
committee as a wholo and with some muBbcrs of th is ottadttoo individually.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
IS
Although comparisons of the scores of freshmen and seniors eannet
be interpreted as actu ally ahowing the effeets of college train in g , i t
la f e lt th a t they should ho regarded as d efin itely ittg g w tiiii Presunably the Freshmen af 1941 and the 1940 Seniors are ty pical groups*
In tran et requirements te the a d v e rsity hast changed last l i t t l e in the
past four yearsi there have been no major ohanges in social and eoonesde
conditions th a t would s a te ria lly a ffect the make-up of freshaan or senior
classes) aad the population of these elasses has reaained about the sane*
Khile the facts c ite d are n et conclusive evidence, they do support the
assunptleu th at the taro groups ineluded in the study are typloal class
group and thus the position th a t comparisons of te s t scores should be
suggestive of eertain effects of undergraduate teaeher trainings
I t is believed th at the seniors, not only as a re su lt of approxi­
mately four years of university education aad greater m aturity, but also
because they are a acre se le c t group, should have generally superior
te s t sooress One real evidence of selection is that the 1940 Seniors of
Te&ahers College sta rted with a group of 994 in 1996 aad ended with a
group of 146 in 1940, of vhieh 69 were tran sfer students fron other col­
leges* Since the tran sfer students esne naialy from the area th a t sup­
p lie s the bulk of the Tcachere C ells gs student body and since th e ir
scholastic records are sim ilar to these of students who took a l l of
th e ir work a t the U niversity of Xebraaka, i t was assumed th a t th e ir
acquisition did not ehaags the composition of the group m aterially*
Formulas for a ll sta tistic a l procedures were found in Henry X*
Garrett’s S ta tistics in Psychology end Idaostlsn***
^Sew ToikV ’ legm ans, Green aad Company,, 1999
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H
Method ef Procedure
Researoh studies , teacher education surreys aad the lite ra tu re «f
general education were studied to find points of agreeaent oa the
moaning of general education aa v a il aa to determine the elements of
general education deeasd desirable fa r a person preparing ta teach*
The elements ef general education to bo analysed and the teete
to ba uaad were aeleeted a fte r thorough end careful consideration of
tha p o ssib ilities*
la the oouraa of th ia process* tha w riter conferred
with uewbers of th e Department of Kdneatisaal Psychology and lieasureaenta of the Teaehare College, w ith the D1rooter of the ttaiversity
Bureau of Inatruetianal Research, w ith repneaentatlvea o f tha Coned ssion
an Teaohar Xdueatiea of tha Aaerioae Ceuneil aa Education aad with hie
•a
advisory eeendttee*
The oharaotorletiaa to bo analysed were ehoaea
baoauao fa irly geaoral agreement aa to th e ir nature aad iapartanee aaaaai
to ex ist aad boaaueo they oould bo p a rtia lly neaaured by tho group of
atandardised ta a ta lie tad in tha eourooa of data (page 12)*
Measures of tho amount* of hij£i aohool aad aollage experience ia
the various aubjjoot field s aad of the q uality of experience as shown
by narks earned ia courses a t tho Bttivereity o f Bsbraeka, were obtained
fr<a the reeorda of the University Registrar* Transcripts were aade of
a ll eredita and mark* to fa e ilita te tabulation and use of the data*
**lndiTlduals conferred w ith other than the eaandttee Beabers were Dra*
D* A* Waressta r and Warren R« B ailer of tho Department ef Educational
Psychology and MeasurwaoBts* Mr* 1* X* dan ef the Bureau of in stru c­
tio n a l Research e f the university of Bebraska aad the following
representatives of the Coaesission oa Teaeher Edueatloni Dra* Daniel
A*Prescott* Kaurioe B* Troyer, and X* 0* H U iaasan*
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IS
The fis e te a ts liste d la the w w « « of I t t a wore sire n tho
seniors*® ia May 1940* The toota ware scored, frequency d istrib u tio n
tab les se t up and measures ef cen tral tendency end T eriab llity deter­
mined. Data obtained by adm inistering the saao battery of firo to ata
to the 1941
of Teachers College 1b October 1940, sere treated
la the same manner.
To f a c ilita te in terp retatio n of the te a t eeorea, oharte of th e
reaa ite of a l l ta a ta were drama aad photographed. The oharte fo r a ll
knoi&edge ta a ta eeagare la aaah moo tho aoerea of tho 141 eeniore with
standard wane fo r sophomores, standard norma fo r seniors aad eeorea fo r
Teachers College freshmen. Only one standard norm group and the senior
and freshmen scores appear on the ehart fo r tho 0-8 Oplnionalre, and hot
one standard norm group and senior scares on the ehart fo r the scholastic
aptitude teat*
Reasonable relation sh ips sere explored mainly by the preduet*
moment method e f co rrelatio n . A fter computing eoae eorrelatlOBe and
m rtM n g a n the soattergrem s, the attention arose aa to whether a ll
regroaaiona sere lin e a r. Aa a to s t of lin e a rity , eta ra tio s fo r tho
nine p airs ef regroaaiema which appeared to ho tho le a s t lin e a r sere
computed. A ll hut four o f th e regreeatona in theme nine p airs were
d efin itely lin e a r according to Blakeman*s te a t.* 8 Of these fou r, th ree
-jar ■
»•"»'■11
A ll hat f ir e of the 14A seniors took the teats* Of th e 141 taking the
te s ts , £6 sere men and 118 soman*
®*Qf a to ta l of 888 freahmen registered in Teachers College, 218 took the
taata* Of these 818, 88 sere men and 165 semen*
^"According to th is te a t when Xf** —■ r* ) < 11.87 the regreselon la
linear** — G arrett, Hoary >*, a te tla ila a In Parcholaar end jdacatioa.
(Leagwana, Green and 8e«, Hew l ,ea«t if ll7 9* 4M ). (The symbol
r
means ”1«m than**)
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If
wore p a in d with lin ear n g n ssien s*
The produotmsi—n t jr n » th at
found to be clearly tho boot weasun of relationship in o il but four
ooooo* G arrett at^ppoorU tho uoo of thio measure even in ouch eases,
ot is ohora by thio statement*
• * * i f the eo rrelatien io low, ond tho n g n s s is n not
sig n ifican tly eurveilnear, r w ill give ot adequate o nt&turo
of relationship ot w ill n (tSt)**®
Two other mesas of shewing relationships won used*
I* Throw variable ohorto
Thoto ohorts thow by noont of lin o graphs tho relationship
of too separate variables to o third* Out to t of tho ohorts
was u ttd to show tho extent to which mounts of high school
and t t l l t g t orodit in given subject field s a n n la to d to
to o n s on standardised toots in tho sans or n la to d fields*
Another to t was employed to indicate the rolatioaship
botwson amounts of wash on the two levels in sped fie
subject H elds tad narks earned a t tho U niversity ef Bebraska
in thoto fields*
l a developing oaeh ef tin f ir s t ef those ten sets of
ch arts, tho seniors won divided in to throe groups cm tho
basis of amounts of h ig t teheed o n d lt in a subject fie ld
and then m an aeons fo r each ereup oa a to s t in the fie ld
or a elesely related one won p lotted w ith respect to aa x
m is th a t n p n se n ts amounts o f e e lle p work and to a y
axis th a t represents to s t too ns* Thus oaeh lino graph
shoos tho mean to s t stores of a group ef individuals with
a n la tiv e ly fixed amount of high tehee! semester hours in
a subject fie ld , «*g*, 12*16, and varying amounts of
ooUogs work in the sans field* Sash of the cherts in the
attend sot was sim ilarly constructed*
86J b id ., p* 402
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t.
A SCMl«graphle ta b le
This tab le shoue the relatio nship between re la tiv e ly
lave* axounts e f or ed it la n r lm a subject fie ld s and knew*
ledge of these or closely related fie ld s as revealed by
standardised te s t scores, All the te s t scares of the seniors
having sore than SO scnester hours la certain subject fie ld s
sere iso lated , the aeons fo r then deteralned aad the per­
cen tile ranks ef these aeons ia the respectiv e d istrib u tio n s
of lo cal scores eenpatcd sad p lo tted .
A fter findings and im plications ted aa ergsd, reesnasodatioas fo r
lapredBg te e geaoral education prograa of the Teachers College vers nade,
U nltationo of the Study
No new d efin itio n of general edusatlon Is developed la te e study,
hat a group of eleaents of general edosotlea upon teich rath er general
agreaoaat ex ists is se t fo rte , The position is held te a t say subject o r
study nay bo general education regardless of i t s la b e l, Thus Saglieh Is
a highly speolalixed and professional subject fo r a jo u rn alist or a
teaeher of epeeeh, though te e seas subject fo r a sc ie n tist or an engineer
Is considered general education, Even a study as highly specialised as
Education sig h t conceivably be general la I ts eo stest, depending en tirely
upon tee nature of th e course or the ted to te l eh i t is put.
The analysis of the general education ch aracteristics of tee sealers
of tee Teachers Gollegs i s U nited to the cicaaats selected, san d y , can*
temporary a ffa irs , English fu ad astetals, lite ra tu re , fin e a r ts , seleaee
and social U berallaa*
The te s ts given to aeesure knowledge, aa u e ll as
te e one used to neseure social U b aralisn , ere also llndted in th e ir sen-*
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1*
prohOUSlVUBOSS. Far Instenee, the English te s t employed i s lim ited to
tho fundamentals of usage, spelling and veeabulaiy* Obviously thoro «ro
othor English a b ilitie s rush as effectiveness of ero l expression, quality
of w ritten composition and reading comprehension th a t «ro not measured by
the to s t given tho seniors. Tho suttscaeats section of tho obntraperary
a ffa irs to o t is sim ilarly lim ited, covering only throo areas, movies,
radio and oporto*
I t i« p lain to aoo th a t thoro aro many othor forms ef
amusement. Such lim itations hold fo r tho othor to o ts oo ro ll*
However,
tho to o ts aro standardised instruments which aro commonly reeonsMsaded
and widely used and whisk* fo r comparative proposes* appear to ho good
OUM
measuring devices*
Though aero than ISO correlations aro isolsdod ia tho study, tho
p o ssib ility of relationships among tho variables Investigated i s much
groator*
Only tho hypotheses lis te d In tho statement of tho problas vara
tooted. Those aero ohosoa because they sowed the seat reasonable and
because i t a ss f e lt th a t information rovoalsd by w plerlng th w might bo
put to p m stio al roe by tho Toaohors Oollogo*
Tho stady is farth er lim ited to g o ttlsg fa s ts about tho 1940 Seniors
of tho Toaohors Oollogo, to finding the a sst lik e ly im plications ef these
fa sts and to asking suggestions. No e ffo rt is node to determine whether tho
fa sts revealed fo r tho group studied are representative of seniors in
trackers eolleges the eountry evro or to plan a speoifio program fa r la proving tho general odnratlen provided students in the Toaohors Oollogo
of tho U niversity of Nebraska. I t i s f e lt, however, th a t the findings and
reeesaw datlens e l 11 have suggestive value fo r teaeher train in g In stitu tio n s
in general and th a t they should prove d istln e tly helpful lo c a lly ,
**For fu rth er Information about the te s ts , see Chapter XXI, pp. 3M B , and
A.
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OEAPTJR XX
m trn m hours
07
om m m sohjsot im o s
Introduction
One indioation of the strengths and m toM SM of tho general
education of prospeetiTe teachers ia tho nuabcr of scnestar hours o f
c red it thoy have had in tho Tarioua subject fie ld s . Aa 0 port of tho
analysis of tho oolootod gonoral education oharaetorlsties of tho 1940
oonloro of tho Teachers Oollogo a t tho U hieseslty of Nebraska, th is
M otion prosaists a sunoary of tho octant to vhieh tho seniors had oontast
with various subject flo ld a in high aehool and in oollogo, High school
courses aro Included booauao tho production of toaohors of tho typo
dosorlhad in tho pronriouo ohaptor i s obviously not a four-year proposition,
Tho sonostor hour i s usod as a nsaanro of tho extant to Which tho
soniora had oontaot with various subject areas, Whatever m y ho said ia
eondomation ot th is as a measure o£ tho degrM to which a parson i s
educated, i t i s s t i l l the a s s t oossoon moasuro th a t ml hare and ono th a t
is employed almost nniTorsally, Though i t nay not follow th a t ono hating
a groat number of o red it hours in a fie ld ef study has a hroad knowledge
in th a t f ie ld , i t i s elear th a t gush a person has had tho opportunity
or tho oontaot th a t sig h t have brought development and growth in
knowledge of tho f ie ld , Tho fotmula—the ra re ered lt hours the sears
lmowleige~~eught to hold i f our system of graduation by ero d lts i s
sound* This hypothesis is tested in Chapter XT, where 43 correlations
- It w
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m
are presented showing the relatio nsh ip between sanest** hours earned 1*
field* e f study and knowledge in th e field * or supposedly related field *
a* rerealed by standardised tests*
In the R egistrar*s retard* e f the University ef Kebraska the
following c la ssific a tio n of high aehool eredlt* ia foundi English, foreign
language, aath asatles, science, aeelal studies aad "others*.* Credit*
ere shorn in tense ef unit* e f eoursa work, one u n it of high teheed, ered lt
being equal to one year of university work in a subject, or six canaster
hour*.
The o laseifieatio n of eollege subjects into field * wa* and* nainly
oa the ha*l« of the soheae need by the R egistrar ef the university fo r
reeordiag the eredlt* earned by ctudaa&s. These reeerd* shew eredlt*
by course snaber aad ia aany instance* aaae the field* in Which they
were earned, oaeh as n o ta tio n and fin e Art*. In ease* where the e la ssifisa tlo n an* net c lear, recourse was had to th e university catalog*
which li* t* geaaral eubjeet requirements fo r degree* aad specific re*
quiranants for subject najors and K iners.
Plasaaent of one subject, geography, wa* fin a lly se ttle d by
studying the selenee and eoeial studies aeetlon* of the te sta given to
deteamin* th e ir geography content. There ra re no questions in th e eel ease
and aedleiae section of the eoatespernry a ffa irs te s t and only a fo r
la the seienee section of the general ealtu re te s t th a t eould be clas­
sifie d a* geography, while the social and eeeaenie event* seetloa and
The t « n "unclassified" I s used in th is stady to signify a l l high seheel
and eollege course* not otherwise designated.
%he B ulletin ef the U niversity ef Kobreeka. Oataleg Zesne 1981*40,
XIxMola, K e w u s k a t^ tihiv arsity, pp. 89§»801.
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and the p o litio e l events section of the contemporary a ffa irs ta s t and
tha history and so eial studios section of tha general cu lture ta s t bad
numerous questions on tho subject* Geography aas therefore c lassifie d
in tho aoeial stad ias fie ld , though i t frequently is lis te d under th a
head of science la tha Registrar* a reseeds*
The following olaealfieation of collage subjects w o usedi
English*
English composition
lite r a tim
jo u rn alist
Foreign languages
Oreek
Latin
Oaswen
Rom m s
Slavia
Katheaatiaei
u ts o a s y
soisneat
physics
biology
physiology
geology
botany
Soeial Studies*
history
p a lltls a l aalaass
philosophy
sociology
seonaales
geography
Fine A rtsi
drawlag
painting
ausic
draws
speaeh
P ractical a rts i
nnrimaitital
business
buainass erg.
woodworking
home eoonomiea
Educationi
aleasntagy
eeeondory
sehool adaw
naroholoc?
history
p ractise teaching
G hclasslficdt
physiaal ad
m ilitary sat
freshman 1«
Tha High Sehool Course *aotk e f the Sanies*
Aa is revealed by tha suaauuy data la la b ia 1, the ty p ical student
who took work in tha various subject fie ld s had from about one and tw o-thirds
to agppreslnataiLy three years of study in aaeh ef tha subjects? The media*
semester hours in subjects n s g a fsen 10*18 in Sadansa to 18*39 in English.
The probable reason fa r the unclassified group's having the saeoad highest
la that I t inaliidas
vocational subjects as s a il as the **»■» asts
Median
sabjeets aid physical edueatien. Soeial stad ias Is east uMt *Jat 14.98 beans. Hi
^For s ta tis tic a l summary of the same distributions with the zeros ineluded
see Appendix E, p. 139.
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22
TABLB I
SXSIBZBDfZOK 07 3*40 2KX09S Of TH8 TXA0BOKR8 0OU3SB*
TBKVIMQETT 07 28884884, A0OOHDXB0 TO SSOSfM 8B8MP
07 BIOS SCHOOL OKHttT IB VARIOUS S0BJB0T JESLDS
raab &
8 * afttn ts ia 8t& 4srfc<h * U *
s a l a w w y S at* fo r Thoso H an** 07*410
07*410
Hows
SagHfh
itaNKga
Xsb08*2*
M attea a tls s
SoiSBSS
S o aial
sta d lo s
Otoslso-
«m «t
*0*46
i
m -aa
2
teW"*9ilw
»
1
1
10
23-88
24
0
1
1
18
80
16-20
88*
20
4
4
41
21*
11*48
29
m*
88
•9*
88
•-10
8f
84*
48
mik9i
77
14
88
1* 0
1
S ttb -ts ta l
0
Tofesl
Msaa
l i n t Q n srtil*
MsAlsa •
T h irt QHHrttilO
S tsatarA dor*
8
9
0
128
10
141
128
0
188
188
0
a
»
3)41
141
141
141
141
141
10.88
10*84
18.98
20.98
12.69
8.04
11.97
18.87
4.78
10.78
10.19
18.08
2.94
0*81
18.88
12.48
14.98
18.48
8.40
0-27
17.10
11*88
18.28
28.00
7.10
8*88
10.70
7.99
10.18
18.10
9.48
8*87
m
8.00
12-84
*M«aii*a w «b«r o f s m a l w te w * o f
8.00
om I I I
I s ia th is la t« r ta l.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
8-88
23
th r e e subject fie ld s , Balance, matheraatlea and foreign language tha
seniors hare approximately the same median number of semester hours,
10.18, 10.19 and 11.97 re s p e c tiv e ly .
Though practically a ll seniors had same experience in the six
subject fie ld s, 16 seniors had no credit in foreign language, six no
eredlt in solenee, three no soeial studies credit and three no work ia
•unclassified*subjects. Of those who had eredlt In the six subject
fie ld s, some had insignificant amounts. One senior had only three
semester hours of foreign lenguage, three had only three semester hours
eaeh of solenee and fir e had only three semester hours eaeh of "unclas­
sified" subjests.
Although the
medians in the six subject field s represent
a variation, whan the fractions are dropped of from one and two-thirds
years of work in solenee to three years In Xnglish, smirked variations in
amounts of credit earned are evident. Seme of the seniors earned as
l i t t l e as three semester hours of unclassified credit, or a half year
of work in a single subject, while others had as much as 36 semester
hours, or six years. The variation in foreign language i s from three
semester hours to 30, in science from three to 87 aad in soeial studies
from six to 87. A ll the students had at lea st 18 semester hours of
English in high school and 84 of them had mere than 80 hours.
Possible explanations for the fa st that there is no greater varia­
tion in the amounts of high school work taken by the seniors are that
muoh of the work in the academic subject f i elds probably was considered
essential or desirable for college entrance, that many students attended
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24
high schools with U nited curricula, and th at trad itio n la strong fo r
English, foreign language, mathematics, science and aoeial studies.
The greatest variation in oredit hours ooours in the unclassified
fie ld which le a conglomerate of vocational and general courses, Tradition
and lim ited course offerings in the high schools have probably leapt those
students who have few cred its in th is fie ld free taking more work, while
those who have a large number of oredits in the fie ld have eith er special­
ised in non-oolle^e curricula, e .g ., ocmaaaroial or have had more freedom
in th e ir choice of subjects,
The College Course Work of the Seniors
According to Table 11, the median semester hours of credit earned
by the seniors who hud contact with the different subject fie ld s vary e
great dealt Social studies heads the l i s t of medians with 2S.51 semester
hours, education is a close second with 25,34 and English is th ird with
20,37, The three subject fie ld s with the lowest medians are physical
education, "uneluacified" and science with 3,93, 4,49, and 6,07 semester
hours, respectively. Fine a rts with 8.01, mathematics with 9.57, p ractical
arts with 10.44 and foreign language with 15,82 semester hours are the
remaining subject fie ld medians.
Many seniors had no contact in college with three of the subject
fie ld s and a smaller number had no oontaot with four of the fie ld s , while
a l l the seniors had experience in only two of the 10 fie ld s .
Since the
"unclassified" fie ld represents only m ilitary soieace and freshmen lectu re,
the former of which is open only to men and the la tte r of which was in
1936-37 intended only fo r freshnen in the Arts and Science College, i t is
^For s ta tis tic a l summary of the same distributions with the zeros included
see Appendix 2, p. 139.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
25-
v m s ii
m m a sm o n or i m &m<m or m s m m m ooll»sis,
UNI7XRSTTY OT HUSRASSA, ACCORDING TO SUBOB&JBt EOTBtS
OF COLtSffl CREDIT HI TABXODB SUBJECT FIXLDS
9 u b er of Student* la Sa^Jeet Field#
and Submit Bata fo r Shea# Saving Credit
For#i*n lllatheSoeial |fta « Frae, Xtaoa- piiar*. TTnalaa
aatl a* Solano# S tall #a|Ar*a Art# tlo a 86. #lfl#d
Credit
Howra
a1-96
76-80
71-75
66-70
61-65
86-60
51-36
46-50
41-48
86-40
SL-5S
86-80
81-88
16-86
U -1 5
6-10
1- 8
Sab-totel
6
Total
Mean
F ire t Q oartile
Third Q tlartil#
Standard Dar,
1
8
8
8
8
8
1
8
1
8
10
17
80
88*
30
8
141
1
8
8
84
14*
40
6
1
8
7
1
7
14*
18
6
4
8
8
87
47*
81
8
8
6
11
80
87*
88
14
17
8
1
8
6
13
6
a*
188
18
44
87
187
14
146
0
141
141
141
141
141
80.48
16.08
*0.37
84.44
14.76
6.88
16.8*
18.80
7.88
8-86
6 .8 6
8-88
18.08 10.86
6.88 4.46
8*87 4.67
16.40 14.16
8.80 10.00
1-88 8-06
I
8
8
14
9
18
a
80*
87
46
1
8
7
10
9
8
7
9
9*
88
117
84
98
49
141
0
186
18
141 141
141
ia
87.78 6.88 6.48 88.86
80.87 4.17 4.08 flU H
89.81 9*0116*46 96 * 8 6
34.84 10.18 89.66 86.88
11.06 88.88 16.84 10.88
6-66 1-86 1*46 16*00
*M«dlan marter of a#aaat«r fecnsra of e re d lt la in th is Iste rM l.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
1
8
1
4
1
8
7
1
7
107*
80*
48
99
4
141
6.40 6.71
8.48 8.74
8*98 4.49
7.86
8.a
6.49 8.64
1-46 1-19
86
not surprising that 99 of th* seniors had no eredlt ia th is field*
It
is noteworthy, though, that 97 of the 141 senior* had no mathematics,
49 no practical arts, i t no fin e arte, 18 no foreign language, 15 no
physical education, 14 no seleneo except that classified in the catalog
of the Shivarsity of Nebraska as geography and one no soeial studies*
Saglish and education were th* only field s in Mioh a ll seniors parti­
cipated ‘M ile in college,
One hundred and seven of then evidently took
only the required maaber of hours in physical education and m ilitary
solenee, M ile 46*88 aad 81 had lese than a year of work in fin e arts,
practical arts and science, respectively.
Not only is there great variation among the medians, but also
within the subject field s themselves* though 46 of the 117 seniors Mo
took fine arts courses had le ss than six semester hours of oredit, 18
of them had more than 80 semester hours and two had more than 80 hours,
Che rang* in semester hours of the 140 seniors takiBg soeial studies i s
six to 64 and of the 187 taking science and th* 183 taking foreign
language, two to 86,
Although the median college oredit in education i s not high, only
5.34 more than the minimum for certifica tio n ,9 i t is quite possible that
the twenty-two seniors Mo had more than 40 semester hours of under­
graduate credit in education and Me one who had 50 hours, could well
have broadened their programs to Include more general education at the
expense of professional education courses,
^Learned and Wood (reference 1, Chapter I ) , p, 347, found the Pennsylvania
average to be SO semester hours.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Possible explanation* for sorae of th* deficiencies In amount* of
course work are found in th* outline* of course requiremants which appear
in the
Announcement of Teeaher*
College, 1940-41. The fe e t that many seniors took l i t t l e or no work i s
certain fie ld s, e .g ., fin* art* end practical arts, nay hate bean dee
to th e rigidnes* of sours* requirements in their major departments*
One good enable of th is is requirements whiah must he met hr hh*
men majoring ia physical eduoation and ath letle coaching, mhos* prescribed
eourae* are as follows*
Coarsest
Semester hours!
Physieal edueatioa
Military seisms*
Bdnoatien
Aeadenie
41
4
80
Jtk
99
A ll of the 26 semester hours of eleetires mist he taken in academic sub­
jects aad six of these hours ere allotted to a group requirement* Th*
prescribed eourses in biological selencee and four elective tours in
eduoation meet the requirements for a minor in biology,
students usually
take th is minor and shoes* another asademie fie ld for a seeond minor,
partly in order to avoid adding tours to the required 185 for graduation*
The requirements for th* BashSler of Musis la Bdasatlsm, an outline
of sh ieh is atoms halos, present a s t i l l greater problem*
Coarsest
Musis
Education
Aaadsmi*
Physieal edueatioa
or Military science
semester tow st
S3
89
57
4
187
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
These required hours are tec in excess of the minimum number of hotrrs
required for graduation, henae a oandidate for th is degree has no electives*
A candidate for the B, T. A. in Muoatlon has only 86 hours of
nlactlvss I f he submits a substitute for foreign language, otherwise he
has a maximum of 10 hours:
Courses:
Semester hours:
Art
Mueation
Acadoralo
rhyaieal edueatioa
or TUlitarjr n im o i
43
£0
90
In elementary education, the requirements are 58 semester hour*
of professional education, 60 academic hours, four hours of physical
eduoation or m ilitary solones and four hours ef publio sehool srusie and
art* Hue semester hours of elective work complete the minima* required
for the Bachelor*s degree*
The simplest solution, i f the point is accepted that some students
at present have too li t t l e experience in some of the subject fie ld s,
mould appear to be revision of the major, minor and group requirements
in various areas of work and then counseling of students la such a m*jr
as to lead the* into courses that m ill give them the experiences the?
need* The suggestion that course requirements be realigned brings up
a question that i s answered ia a later chapter of th is study* Is the
amount of work in a subject fie ld positively and aignifioantly related
to knowledge of that field ?
If the answer is "yes", then simple reor­
ganisation and affective counseling should do the trick*
I f the answer 1*
"no", then the Teachers College w ill need tc follow one of two courses of
action:
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
a* th* various dapartaanta m y ba reorganised to supply * broad
and functional eurrleulutt,
b.
um Collage aay aid proapeetive taaehers through ita am
ourrlaulua to saeure tha daairad ta M itl training*
Data ara presented i s th la chapter th a t show th a extent to which
tha 1940 Seniors of th# Taaohsra Oollage had contact with various mb*
Jeet fla ld a la high school aad la collet**
Sabjaata m m grouped la ta
fla ld a mainly according to tha sake** u n d by th a 3hiv*ralty R egistrar,
la doubtful aaaaa reference was aada to tha 1940*41 B o llatla of th*
Taaohars Collsge aad la th a aaaa of ona subject, geography, related
ta a ta m ra aaalyacfl to detem ine I ta jdaaaaMMt*
Generally speaking, tha sealers a lth experience ia th a various
subject flald a bad fron oa# aad tw>-thlrda yaara to three yaaro of work
in th a six high aohool flald a and fro* tae*thlxda of a year to f it* yaara
of work in tha several eollag# flalda* Th# range of tha aedlan aoaaatar
hour# fo r high aohool work la frm 10*18 In aeienee to 18*99 In SogUah|
Martian aaaaatar hour# fo r tollag* work rang# fron 8*93 in physical
education to 89*81 in aooial studies*
Though tha uaeunts of work tha aanlora had ia tha aaaasal high
aohool subjacta varied considerably, th a v ariatio n was anch greater for
aaounts ia aollag* subject flalda*
floss aanlora had aa l l t t l a aa thraa
aaaaatar hour* of high aohool arad it la oa* or atora of tha six fla ld a
and aany had only six to nln# hours In oartaln flalda* At the aaaa tin #
aaaa haft aa aaoh as 90 hours* or fiv e yaara, of feralg s language rad
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
so
96 hours, cr six yoa.ro, of unclassified '.?ork* The greatest variation
in collsge credit hours occurred in the fie ld of fin e a r ts , where tho
renge was from one to $4 semester hours* Soeial studies has a range of
six to $4 while solenee and foreign language each ranged from two to
56 semester hours* In fin e a r ts , social studies and eduoation scaas
seniors accumulated a large number of credits*
fifte e n seniors had
more than 50 semester hours in fin e a r ts , 17 more then 40 hours in
social studies and 31 more than 35 in eduoation*
Most seniors had some contact with eaeh ef the high sehool subjest
fie ld s, but many had no contest a t a l l with several of the eollege fields*
0o il age fie ld s in which seniors wore moat deficient were mathematics,
fine a r ts , practical a rts and physical eduoation*
Ihcplanatloas fo r some of these lim itations may be found in the
outline o? course requirements for certain courses, such as physical
eduoation, elementary education, music and art*
fcaqtuiremanta fo r majors
lit scroe subject fie ld s leave l i t t l e opportunity fo r experience la the
neglected subject fields*
The solution may l i e in revision of the course requirements fo r
rajors nru minors and careful counseling of students in the choice of
th eir courses.
Another possible solution is reorganisation of the
curricula of the varicue departments and of the Teachers College I ts e lf
bo a e t o
provide th is training*
I t i s well to re®amber th at th is chapter i s d istin c tly limited
to the contact seniors bad with various fie ld s of general education.
The data presented do not give a measure of the general eduoation of
the seniors,they merely indicate that the seniors were or were set
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
a
exposed to courses that might hare provided than valuable learning
experiences. Test results presented In the next chapter w ill reveal
the knowledge possessed by the seniors of certain elements of general
education.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
T sa p
mmm Mm vmsmamstm
o?
rsm
Perhaps a b e tte r indication of tha general education of a perse*
than the cred it hours ha baa la various high sehool and college courses
ta tb s amount of knowledge and th a attitu d e s ha baa la fla ld a Into which
hla ao ttT itlaa w ill ean y hi*. Presw ably tha *ore knowledge a person
has, the greater w ill be hla Insight ia to problcns of tha physical and
aooial world, aad tha more ha w ill ha w illing to accept resp o n sib ility
to do something about aueh problems* The purpose of th is chapter la to
ra re a l by weans of eeorea on etaadar&ised ta a ta tha knowledge of certain
general eduoation fie ld s possessed by the 1940 Sealers and the 1941
Freshmen of the Teaeherw Oollsge and the attitu d e* of these two groups
toward soeial ehaage*
•Hie eleateata of the general eduoation of the seniors to be
investigated and tha te s ta to be used were presented la Chapter I , along
with the aethod of selecting the te a ts and the reasons fo r choosing theau
A fu lle r description of the te s ts follows*
Description of the Tests Bead
1* The Cooperative Qontemporary A ffairs Test fo r College Students,
Font 1940*
This te a t, adm inistration of which takes appraadnataiy 109
nlnatee, is N pages in length* I t ia designed to te s t
general knowledge and to provide an indication of a stu d en t's
in te re st In the a c tiv itie s and progress of present society*
Six stms of current affairs are covered!
- 32 -
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
88
(1)
(8)
(8)
(d)
(8)
(6)
P o lltlo a l ivant*
Soeial aad Xoonmlo Braata
Selcnet and H*di*ln*
U taratw r*
Jin* Art* ( a r t, anal*, dram )
Amiseaent* (iBOTiaa, radio, apart*)
Each part of th* ta a t m naaraa tha indlT ldual'a fra ilia o ritj
a lth itoat haa baan going on ia tha world daring th* paat
f ar in tha p artic u la r f t aid ecrarad* th a aaora* oa tha
ta a t au a p at th* aaaaat a f infom atloa poaaaaaad by tha pupil
and ar* aottawhat auggaatlT* of hla lataraata*
S« Tha Cooparatlr* dancomi Cultur* foot* Tara 4* Part* XXX* XT
aad T*
Tha purpoa* of tha an tlra ta a t la to provide a aaaaara of th*
general cu ltu ral taibgrannd of atadoat** Th* following part*
of tha ta a t vara uaadt
P art XXX - L iteratu re
Thia aaation ineluda* gueatlona on tha lite ra tu re of th a
world* th* raphaaia being on th a lite ra tu re of Araariaa
and faglawd* Thar* ar* 188 %waetioa* of tha notching
and m ultiple ahaia* type* Tha tin * U n it ia SO ninvta*«
P art XT - Tina Art*
Taat aaona on th ia aaatian ravaal kaowladg* of th a a r t,
m ale and draaa of th* world* Thar* ar* 180 taaatieaa
of tha aatahing and m ultiple ahoiaa type* Th* tin * lim it
la 80 a ia ita a *
P art T - saiaaa*
All flald a of aaiaaaa ara aaplerad and th* information
aought la of a general or cu ltu ral aaian tifl* nature*
Sixty tnM tiana of th* n u ltlp l* ahelaa type eafflprio*
th ia part* I t la H alted to 80 adnatoa*
8* Th* Oooperatir* Bogliah Taat* Tom OK, 1888*
Th* adainlatratlon of th ia ta a t ef id pagaa takaa TO ®lnutaa.
I t aovera the fie ld of oo rtala Xngliah ahillU a* quit* ade­
quately* w ithin th* Undtatdan* af objective tooting* Th*
three part* of th a ta a t aad tha tAa* lia d ta oral
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
94
y.m4
* tKMaA
Bffljllift
PMm
S « H i« X. mwwnor ftad M otion 40 i t m
AWtttB I* POMtalllflK
40 ItSM
Tultlim ft*
t*»M—
90 l t w
S tation 4. Sastanao Strwcturo
2ft lto ss
Sp^U ng
49 ita sa
iM M if tr
100 Ita sa
Tho ta a t oastalna 3i0 oontrallad raapensa, w altiplo ohaioo
itaSO*
4* to o ts (HR Opinionsiro, Yam 7*
This ta a t la daalgnod to saaaura aoaioX aeaaarratlam or
radlaollaa* I t sonatina 40 ltona of tk» trsa-fala o rsrlo tjr,
a l l af whiah ova a ts t w ants of oooUl altaatlaB a w ith w ith as?*
asa w ill noat UftNftr a**aa o r dlaograa* ftaoraa cm th a ta a t,
tharafarav rapraaast agraanast a r iiaagrawaaat w ith to u a p ittiT i
a r rad io sl atataoonta* Tha tiffw a a a a is tha aosaarfatla**
m dloslU n of p an aas has ta a s aaqplsfsat fty th a author i s th ia
■ajmari
Tha a a sa a tisl prinoiplo i s tha aosoarw t I w «rat In altas
dlffaraeaa asang parsons la th a ftiffaraaaa i s tagraa af
apposition a? fa ra r towarta ahasfo* Tlawad fro* th a aos*
aaawatlww asg la, th ia ilffa ra sa a say aacpraM ita a lf s a t
only i s opposition to th a saw hot aloe is afeapttola* as
to tha n rata h U itrf not to ooy p o a o ib ilitr, a f Ohasca
and ttm ilH acnaaa to ls ra a t tis a ar anargjr i s a s attaa p t
to hviss shaact
Ha iw ta ta i s nhkiss w oaraaa
alawir* Tha ra tio s ! oograrooly haliaawa i s hath tha
d o s lr a tllltr oat th a po aalb llitjr af ahugo, hath tra a tia
ant apoaty.
Tha la o fth af tha ta a t la two p r is ta t pagaa a s t i t ordinarily
ia aospXatad i s 90 sisntaa* tlsNgh thara ia no tis a H alt*
ft* C alifornia Short Yam Taat a f Moots! Matwrity, MmksoaA S-Yowu
Thia ta a t a f aifllht potto whiah o r d in a r ily ia odsinlatarod i s
ahowt 4ft s is a ta a , ia a group ta a t Oaoignai by th a asthara sa
« saaattra o f aaholaatia aptitwda* Tha s a n s aaatiosa a f tha
tw l arai
P rataat Jk
Taat 1
Toot 9
Taat 9
ftftauadb tA
Tim
Taat ft
Taat 4
Yiaaal Aaulty
Appagoaptiro proaaaoaa
sp aaial B alatlasa
Baaaonlag (aim ilaritioa)
T
ftai^aM
M&
ai mi
mMuH4inaaf
aH
W
C iM
n W l|■
Raaaoning (isfarasaa or jwdgpont)
Toasholssr
^Lents, Thaodora F*# "Mnnnal f a r 041 Opinionairo Yora 7 ft X,” Charastar
Raaaarah In a titu ta , (St* tw is t ftsahiogtan tta ita ro ity , IM S, p* 1 ).
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
3mm of the part* are verbal auod other* are in noa*language
fo ra. The te a t, though tla ed , la a power rath er than opted
teat* Xt yields a non-language, language and to ta l M» A*
Manner of Presentation
The re su lts obtained by adm inistering the te s ts to the 141 seslora
and the 188 fyeateen are presented la six tables* The tab les show die*
tributio na of the stores la convenient elass Intervals as well as measures
of oentral tendency and variab ility*
To f a s illta t# in terp retatio n of the data, a group of 80 charts* i s
presented. Oharts itoieh show the re s u lts of the soatsapsrary a ffa irs ,
general culture and English te s ts Mh» I t easy to oospare the seores of
Teachers College Seniors with soras fo r standard Sftphonores, standard
Seniors and with the scores of the 1941 freshmen ef the Tsashars Oollage*
Koras representing the standard Sophomore group are presented on the le f t
M rgin of eash shart in the fem of a d istrib u tio n of raw seores and a
d istrib u tio n of eorr espo rtding pero e n tile values* The pare e n tile seals
has been adjusted to correspond roughly to a signs seals so th at v e rtic a l
distances are approximately equal.
On the rig h t MrgiA of eash shart
is a sim ilar percentile scale representing scores of th e standard Senior
group* These wake possible tran slatio n of any raw seers Into the nearest
percentiles on the sepheaore and senior sealee* Between these two scales
Is a v e rtic a l figure outlined by solid white lin es which represents the
scores of the 141 Seniors of 1940, and another such fig ure aaA* of dotted
white lin es th a t deplete the seores of the 818 Jfeeshscn of 194L* The heavy
whit® lin e cutting the so lid -lin e figure and the dotted lin e cutting th e dottad -lin e figure represent the medians of the two distributions*
*Fer a ty p ical ch a rt, see p* 44*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Crossing the
whole ohart a ra tfcaaa H um , a hasty to ll* U m rapreoeatl&e th a nedlui
of tin standard Stophamra group ojsA two dotted H aas reproaaatla* tha
X5th and W h poraeatilos ot the mm group*
Charts ahowlng the reau lta of th e 0-8 Oplnioaeire and the
C alifornia Taat of Kaatal Katwrity or* e la ils r In type to these jtest
deeoribed, hat d iffe r Importantly la mom th a t w ill he saqplainsA* The
O^R cpinionaire ehart showa only mm standard nont group and th is great
la representative of oollage student# la general, R atarally, th« three
h&rlao&t&l H aas
asross th e ehart rugreseaa ta t ratta n ,a * Mia
q u artilee of Mm standard group* Tha sh a rt fo r the lalifo cat* fo o t off
Mental M aturity presents only standard aoana fo r tha geaayal population
oroaa lia s* showing tha aedian and qtaurtlle raise* to r th la group a&d th a
usual f Igare rapreeaotattre of aaaraa aads by tha 1940 Seniors*
Ideally* eama5 fa r stud ante In teaehars eellsgaa eonatltw t* th a
aost areitefcl# aaayarlaoa fo r a taaahara soils*# group* B ufartanatsly,
euoh noma ara avallabl* only is tha fla ld of English f a r Mm ta a ta aaad
la th la study* oth#r soma aaad fo r interpreting aaoraa cm toun&edg*
ta a ta ara r eprsasntatlv e of sophomores and settlor* la a l l typaa o f #«lleg##*
and tha fraaham aaoraa already daaarSfcet* of thoaa th raa typaa of name
^A fu lle r daaorlptlon of th a noma aaad t i l l ha fotoai la Appendix A, pp. US-24.
^SEorsss of thla typo for tha Bagttait taat wort obtained fro® Ouraton* SCwerA
S*» "K-mluation or Qaldajise*” Tha Ksoort of tha 193B 3opfaoBara Taatlaa
UauM
aMy M
fYjcweavtaMttmfet
rCSaaaSSWP*^awi(i^
R SW
2H
SMlJllMa^^^
3^S^S^ <¥I<mnbW
tJ
ro nM
gW
v U ^ IV lN m
Vatl EMmenfe
IW w iJttmmmlsaS*
i n V 499f^iuitoaSSfehmae
a R V I I V h iw
w tw m « ■ J83
W
* —ll
mwm
U X»Ia
w rahV ltdO , pp* 4»10* Thoaa norm om fo r a eeMpsrable fo ra of th a t« a ty
they appear to ha om applieefcl* aa any others and, wallha noma f a r Mm ta a t
aaad* sir* tales* fo r aaslora aa w all aa f^ssr 'tOjpSiflooam^*
Soma fo r tha oo&toa^arary o ffa lra ta a t end th e general su iter# ta a t
aaro Mia *«aala r sreantlla * fo r Qollagss Using .separate Answer Sheets* aad
th a "Pandwaned PareentU es fo r S a d w f ohtalnad hran Mynas* S n U 0*, "The
F ir s t Steps in lEJaldsase® g a lf Appraisal.*
J32&SSS2LJ&2.L
T esting Program, The Cooperative Test Service of the American Countil on
Education, New York* January, 1941, pp. 3 1 -3 5 .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
m
those far sophomores are based on a large sample* ara rathar similar to
nonaa for Taaeher* College Seniors and ara eonsidarad sore suitable for
th is study than either o f tha other two. Tha saaior naans ara repress**
tatira of as appreciably higher lev el of parfom asa than that eharastaCMI*
of teachers college saniers and tha somber of m m i on whioh they are
based is , i s every instanoe, either udcaoni or undesirably snail* Iran
though United in value* these some rare used i s tha interpretation of
a ll knowledge te st stores* since, with tha exoeption a t tha English test*
no other norms for saniers ware available*
Tha English norms referred to near the beginning of the preceding
paragraph are sailed Type i n and have bean described as representative
of tha type of student in many junior colleges and teaehars colleges?
This set of seres ess used in preparing a saeond series of SngUUfe te st
results*
Tha norms used for the G-R Opinionaire represent seores made by
380 men and woman students of a ll elaaaes and ages who ara described i s tha
te st manual as being typical of aid*wast«m soilages** The sample mentioned
is questionably small, but tha norms based thereon ara tha only ones
available* For the California Test of Mental Maturity* S-Fcwm* norms
representing 10,000 members of tha general population were used*
Seores for the 1941 Teaehars Callage Freshmen* though perhaps
the lea st valuable of the nomas, are included to show how the te st records
of supposedly typical seniors d iffer from those of prestmably typical
freshmen* The results w ill not shew d efin itely changes in general eduea*
tlon due to four years of college training* but they may be indicative
of what takes place*
^Uoop'arative.Test Service* "English worms," (Hew York! June 1938* p* 1)*
*lents* Theodore F«* on* a it* , pp. 4-4«
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Tha fa s t Sears* of Seniors and freshman sad fhedr le t «ppr«latlon
The soat«egxar«ry Affairs feet
Aoeording to th e data la Tables XXX and IT, both tb s sealers sad
freshman earled greatly la th s ir pOl'fCVMUMI# oa the emnteapeaary a ffa irs
taat* This la illn a tra ta d by tha ranges of th e total, seores, I .e ., M
to 169 and 17 to X3B, raspeetiraljr, ant also by th a reariability of tha
aaoraa an tha section* of tha taat*
fo r example, aaoraa earned by tha
senior* on tha p o litic a l aran is, aealaX and aeoneaie tre a ts , lite ra tu re ,
fin * a rte and aelanse aad M dieina aaatlaoa began a t 0 In sash aaaa and
extended to 48, S3, 94, Ml aad 14, reepsotiTSly.
Iren aa tha smsemsets
aaatlan, vhieh eat ers aa area th a t on* night empeet senlera to ba s a il
Informed about, th ere vers th ras stndanta she asarsd aa law aa four and
fir* idm seared aa high aa dS* ITsalamm aaoraa on thane ta a t seedless
m ao au ita
to these of sealers la moriabllltaF*
Tha M aras of tha seniors and fr**h»ea tand to e le ste r a t th a
bottom of tha d istrib u tio n in U t a n t m , fin a a rta aad asianoa, and
freshman stores ara also grasped a t th a bottom la so slal and aaanands
osanta* In
*11
saaaat th a aamaamaata a a a tla i of th a taat* nhara th a
freshman asdlan la higher by 1*10 soars p oints, the medians of tha
seniors are ju st a l i t t l e higher than th ese of th a freshman, Toying
from *10 of a sto re point in lite ra tu re to 5**3 paints in se eia l and
oeenBmle areata* Tha statio n on vhieh bath seniors aad freshmen soar ed
Invest la lite ra te * * , tha semises haring a to ta l of SL and tha freshmen
of #9 fee th a 1mm seores sere and one*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
39
*JU£X I I I
DifframrcoH or a m m m m sr rm 1940 wagons m w t Tsvm sm 00m m t
W &1XR8 SSZ O f M M A SX & t ON THE 000F2 RAT18B OONTMPORARY i JFA IH S TSB f
vsr oq&ukek 0 m a m t m m i m
s«Q*m» ky Twt SwrUosa ud ifetl** T«rt
U t« *8894
840*4
P o u u m
B fW l#
A a tts* * * B t*
8 *4 * 4
iAmda
1
8
84
1
4N I
4
10
88
0
1
IM I
4
19
88
1
9
3 0 -8 4
IS
88
81
0
1
88*89
IS
88*
80
0
1
80*84
S4
88
19
0
8
1W J
SO*
as
18
10
18
0
18
0
0
1
10*44
S tiM N *
4 1 4 *
tin *
A r t*
8* 9
it
9
18
1
1
0* 4
4
8
19
8
8
14
1
0
8
18
8
8
0
18
4
8
11
8
»
4
10
4
8
8
9
8
4
9
8
9
9
18
8
8
18
8
8
18
S
IS *
19
18
88*
4
18
18
18
8
18
18
18
8
18
8
IS
1
18
8
0
18
8
8
8
.f t a a L : : ...1...'......... .
M— «
liS c ?
1 1 * * 4 Q m u rtll*
18*88
M o tio n
1 8 * VS
T feln d J t a K r t i l o
88*44
« % / SOVlOwlQO '
8*98
R « f* . .
.
___ __________
M l,.,
9*
" " T il" " "
” - M u......
• 0*81
88 * 8 8
84*88
10*08
■'
x ffi
8*88
4*88
8*98
4*48
- f l r "
8*80
8 .8 6
9*»4
441
J J U
in' S C
2
8*61
9*48
8*88
3 .G1
■ J tf i* - .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
40
TABUS ni(® ontlm i*d)
m s o q r s s mm n r mm m& ssm m o f tub m m m mxmm,
m xm m n m mmmk, ok t h k c o o p s a A r r o eom m m m a ffa irs t m
f o r m m m m m m , mm vm
D Jsrara a p x cM
9 m m fcy Ta»* saatioaa o d Sutir* Taat
smt*
mm
mm
90*31
mm
mm
mm
aww'^apaa
mm
1
S oaiui
'aad
8
1
1
0
8
9
1
90*11
19-19
10
1«-17
14*18
18-13
11
U
18*
10*U
8* f
8* 7
4- 8
81
18
8* 9
0- 1
f a ta l
ii—
F la a t fraa rtU a
M aftlia
T M M J#6a8tlle
S ta ^ a r ta tia a
Baaga
'
9
14
ft
8
a w i1*
lftO-8
180-9
140-9
190-9
, :;
t* i
i
. v . *
4
120-9
■; *
8
9
9
81
81*
19
119-9
100-9
90-9
90-9
70-9
ftO-9
80-9
84
10
7
3
40-0
80-9
80-9
4
141
141
19+89
9+98
11*80
17+97
7.18
0*99
77+94
84+08
74.94
98+91
89+99
89-149
*MadjUui ta a t «eer« la la ta is lo t a n a l.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
41
v m x rr
mammmm or aeons? msmm rax xm mmm m rax mmm college,
u n iv srsitt of wmmsk, ox m s co o m A fm cohtbkporasy a ffa irs m te
FOR COIXEOS SHBSWTS, 7(301 1940
Seers* fcjr ?«*t S sstloas sa l X atir*
Seort
pouuoai
Jfwata
Soeiai A Is.
Krsnta
fe a t
Sol S M S
fcM*a.
iite ra tu r*
if liA
4M f
44*41
88*89
80*81
1
38*89
38*87
8
38*38
3
38*39
3
30*31
9
1
88*39
88*87
7
8
10
8
88*81
18
1
88*83
13
7
8 0 -8 1
18
9
38*49
81
10
18*17
80*
7
1
18*18
80
17
1
3
13*13
81
88
8
7
10*11
it
88
U
17
8* t
13
89*
89
18
8* 7
IS
8
88
38
90
88
38*
39*
8
88
98
81
8
17
89
80
818
818
818
818
7 .9 8
8*13
9 ,3 7
8 .1 8
8 ,8 7
3*38
1 .8 1
4 .4 0
8* 8
8* S
0- 1
f e ta l
S an
F irs t Q nsvtll#
1 7 .8 8
11*31
Hs A Is b
1 8 .7 9
8 8 ,7 1
1 3 ,8 8
W A sm a*
S W ^ew atiea
7*9#
8 ,3 8
Saas*
0*80
0*90
*Xsdian ts s t mov* Is in O tis tn tsrv a l.
8 .7 3
7 .8 8
8 ,9 8
0*13
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
7 .8 8
3 .3 8
0 -1 6
42
TABLE r v (a o n tin u a d )
DISTRIBUTION OF SCORES MADE BY THE 1941 FRESHMEN OF THE TEACHERS QOLLBQX,
UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA, OR THE COOPERATIVE CONTEMPORARY AFFAIRS TEST
FOR COLLEOI STUDENTS, FORM1940
Seoras toy Tast Saotloaa and Eatira Twl
01
M
£
£
3
3
a
£4
17
48
46*
48
23
i
48-49
46*4?
44-45
42-43
40-41
38-39
36-3?
34-38
32-33
30-31
28-29
£6-2?
£4-25
££-£3
80-81
18-19
16-1?
14-18
12-13
10-11
8- 9
6- 7
4—5
8—3
Flue Arts
1
Soor*
1
£
3
£
9
13
18
17
18
£1
18*
£4
9
9
11
6
13
8
6
6
1
3
5
Total
£18
£18
6.3?
27.68
Kama
First Quart11b
3.30
£1,78
5.64
88.77
Madias
ThljdJOiartila
8.88
34.6?
sW uarlatloa
9.88
4.0?
0-20
5-48
Rang*
♦Kadian ta a t boot a 1b In th is in terv al.
3ooro
Total
138-139
130-134
188-129
180-184
115-119
11Q-U4
108-109
100-104
98- 99
90- 94
85- 90
80- 84
78- 79
70- 74
65- 69
60- 64
85- 59
80- 54
45- 49
40- 44
35- 39
30- 34
£5- £9
80- 84
£
0
4
1
4
6
7
4
8
9
10
18
15
£1
16*
18
14
16
11
12
10
11
3
3
£18
64.06
53.30
69*49
88.09
£7.60
17-138
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
48
In te r a c tio n
Generally speaking, Chart* 1 to 7 show the feM hera Collage Seniors
to bo slig h tly pooror than tbo standard Sophomores, somewhat b e tte r than
th« Teaehars College freshman tad deeldedly poor*p than the standard
Seniors la knowledge of soatMpot arj) affairs*
th e M ilan eeere of the
M alar* oa th a en tire boat la approximately eight p arsen tlle p alata b aler
the median tm standard Sopboaoroa, d x pereentil* point* above the M ilan
fo r Teeshare Soilage iraehatea aad 80 points below th a t of the standard
Senior noarms,
Saoraa earned by the Teaohara doling* Sealer* oa the fln a a rte aad
amusements Beetles* and oa the e n tire te s t d iffe r laore than any other*
from the standard Sophomore norms. Oa these tM ts the median seores of
the Seniors are about ta n , alas and eight pereectU e p o in ts, respectively,
below those of tha saphMor* group* seniors peered meat superior to fresh*
mb
in th e Mae of th e te a t seetlone whleh d ea lt with eoelal and eeoaMle
events and eel sees and medlelne, the approximate d lfferease between medians
fo r the f i r s t of these seetlone being 81 p o in ts, sad fo r the seeond, 10
point*, freshmen eaceeeded the seniors by sheet fiv e p areen tlle points aa
the amusement* section, Seores fo r Teaehers College Sealers f a ll fa rth e st
below those of staadard S a i n s oa th e fin e a r ts seetlon of the te s t, the
aediaa mots being approximately 84 p ercentile p ain ts below th a t of th e
standard group* In no m m does th e median value fo r f Mahers Collage
Seniors exeeed the 98th pero e n tile fo r staadard Seniors*
Kin* of the dlffereaSM between th e wedlsM of the 1840 Sealer* aad
those of the 1841 Freshmen and of the two staadard group* ware eosg&obai?
relia b le! s&r were h iah lr sim nifleant. th e otwuiSM o f th e ir belna sweater
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
yy
Chart 1
■t ‘T ,
TYT 1940, ! 1 ) r; YY 1941 I T U Y ' T ” A’13 194C YYTCYY Cl 111 TYACY
E x p l a n a t i o n : The h o r i z o n t a l d o t t e d l i n e s cross!rift t h e e n t i r e o'
s e n t t s e 2oth and 7 5 t h p e r c e n t i l e s and t h e s o l i d l i n e t h e 50 th noroe.
s t a n d a r d Sophomore n r o u p . The 50 t h r a r e e n t i l e o f t h e T e a c h e r s CYTTc o r r e s p o n d s n p p r o x i n a t e l y t o t h e 4 5 t h o f t h e s t a n d a r d Sophomore f r o u
o f t h e Freshman nr o u p and t h e 27 t h o f t h e s t a n d a r d S e n i o r norms.
The s t a n d a r d Sophomore p e r c e n t i l e s c a l e h a s b e e n a d j u s t e d t o co:
ro u p h lv to a sip n a s c a l e sc t h a t v e r t i c a l d i s t a n c e s a re approximate!;
S t a n d a r d Group
So rh or. or es
3T
>emors
c-Stl
Haw lercenscore t i l e
Freshr.en
lenders
1-141
' -°1°
ICC%^4
-1°
7S%eft
- ■
is %d,
5
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
C h a r t V,
SCORES OR TEE SCCI.'J
T) ECfl’c n c EVERTS SECTION CF TEE COOPERATIVE COrTSTRCRAHX
AFFAIRS TEST, FOR!.' 1940, MADE J?Y 1941 FREGEE;"! AST) 1940 SE’SIORS OF TRE TEACEER5
COLLEGE, ITTVEEEITY CF TEBKA3KA
E x p l a n a t i o n : The h o r i z o n t a l d o t t e d l i n e s c r o s s in g t h e e n t i r e c h a r t r e p r e ­
s e n t t h e 2 5 t h arid 7 5 t h p e r c e n t i l e s and t h e s o l i d l i n e t h e 5 0 t h p e r c e n t i l e o f the
s t a n d a r d Sophomore c r o u p . Tire 50 t h p e r c e n t i l e of t h e T e a c h e r s C o lle g e S e n io r s
c o r r e s p o n d s a p p r o x i m a t e l y t o t h e 4 9 t h o f t h e s t a n d a r d Sophomore g r o u p , t h e 7 1 s t
of t h e Freshman gro up and t h e 2P t h of t h e s t a n d a r d S e n i o r norms.
The Sophomore p e r c e n t i l e s c a l e h a s been a l t e r e d t o c o r r e s p o n d r o u g h l y t o a
sigma s c a l e so t h a t v e r t i c a l d i s t a n c e s a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y c o m p a r a b l e .
S t a n d a r d Group
Sophomores
Raw R e r c e n sccre t i l e
Freshmen
N-218
Seniors
N-141
tOO 'j., , ;
ft; rfzeb
90id
-5~o
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
S t a n d a r d Group
Seniors
K-521
F ere en­
tile
A X p le n a t io n : o n e nc, r-i r e n t e i c l c t t c c l i n e n c r c s i m n t e e e n t i r e n n n r e p r e ­
s e n t t h e 2 5 t h and 7 s t h r . c r c e n t i l e r . and f e e s o l i d l i n e t h e r>0tb ] o r c c n t i i e c f t h
s t a n d a r d Go: home-re p r c u r .
11.e l e t ! p e r c e n t i l e c f t h e T e a c h e r s C' l l e - e T e n i e r s
c o rr e s p onds ap p r o a i r a t e l y t o t h e ;30th c f t l . e s t a n d a r d S o p h - c o r e r r o n i , t h e GOth
o f t h e Freshman ,-rco; and t h e S e t h o f t h e sta in nrd T e n i o r norms.
The Scrhomere p e r c e n t i l e c o l e hns h'-e-n . f r e d t o c o r r e s p o n d r c i i f h l y t o a
sipnia s c a l e so t h a t v e r t i c a l d i s t a n c e s r e appro;: i r a t e l y c o m p a r a b l e .
S t a n d a r d Group
SoDhcmores
Raw l e r c e n
score t i l e
S t a n d a r d Grou;
Seniors
Seniors
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
47
Shart 4
SCOPES 07 T^TF TJATT'ASFS SRCTICN ('7 T7S SC FhA.-FTF-'. C H T ? ' : ORAF.Y AFFAIR 7 TF7T,
:7}R7 19 40, BLADE BY 1941 FRESH!*ER AFD 1940 SEIFIORS 0? TTFI
? : ’,AC,TER3 CCLLFFE, tST/FFSITY OF IFF:’I F F A
E x p l a n a t i o n : The h o r i z o n t a l d o t t e d l i n e s c r o s s i n g t h e e n t i r e c h a r t r e p r e ­
s e n t t h e 2 5 t h and 7 5 t h p e r c e n t i l e s and t h e s o l i d l i n e th e 5Cth p e r c e n t i l e of
t h e s t a n d a r d Sophomore g r o u p . The 50th p e r c e n t i l e of t h e T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e
S e n i o r s c o r r e s . onds a p p r o x i m a t e l y t o t h e 4 9 t h of t h e s t a n d a r d Soi honor© g r o u p ,
t h e 5 4 t h o f t h e Freshman group and t h e 2 4 t h c f t h e s t a n d a r d S e n i o r norms.
The Sophomore p e r c e n t i l e s c a l e lias beer, a l t e r e d t o c o r r e s p o n d r o u g h l y
t o a sigma s c a l e so t h a t v e r t i c a l d i s t a n c e s a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y c o m p a r a b l e .
S t a n d a r d Group
Sophomores
N-4230
Raw Percenscore t i l e
S t a n d a r d Group
Seniors
Freshmen
r ere entile
i:-2ie
7S % &
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
f •v ■T.
F/DF BY 1941 FRbSOiW: ."ID 1940 31EICR3 Or H D 7T-D:F,ID CCLI.ESh,
UNIVERSITY CF IDRIiASrD
E x p l a n a t i o n : The h o r i z o n t a l d o t t e d l i n e s c r o s s i n g t h e e n t i r e e h a r t r e p r e ­
s e n t t h e 2 5 t h and 7 5 t h p e r c e n t i l e s and t h e s o l i d l i n e t h e 5 0 t h p e r c e n t i l e o f t h
s t a n d a r d Sophomore p-roup. The 50 t h p e r c e n t i l e o f t h e T e a c h e r s Coll ere .'Seniors
c o r r e s p o n d s a p p r o x i m a t e l y t o t h e 40th. of t h e s t a n d a r d Sophomore pr oa: ., t h e 52nd
o f t h e Freshman pro up and t h e 1 6 t h o f t h e s t a n d a r d S e n i o r norms.
The Sophomore p e r c e n t i l e s c a l e ha s been a l t e r e d t o c o r r e s p o n d r o u p h l y t o a
sipma s c a l e so t h a t v e r t i c a l d i s t a n c e s a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y c o m p a r a b l e .
,w<bo
T iib f i t e
S t a n d a r d Group
Sophomores
K-4230
Rav; P e r c e n score t i l e
~ rvTrC
Freshmen
1-7-218
Seniors
K-141
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
S t a n d a r d Grcu
Seniors
K-521
Percentile
.Jii'iru G
s o c reg c:: t i e ; xixsiT-TiTrs s e c t i c :: of t f f c -.o p s x / r i V E c c r x r v e x j i Y a f f a i r s
TFST,FCRF
1940, MJjF BY 1941 F R O T l ii : X T 1940 3FFICR3 (:? THE TEACHERS CCI.LSS
TXTV ITS ITT CF FPTRA3FA
’'E xplanation: The h o r i z o n t a l d o t t e d l i n e s c r o s s i n g t h e e n t i r e c h a r t r e p r e ­
s e n t th e
25th and 7 5 t h p e r c e n t i l e s end
t h e s o l i d l i n e t h e 50 th p e r c e n t i l e o f
t h e s t a n d a r d Sophomore p r o up. The 50tl. p e r c e n t i l e c f t h e T e a c h e r s C o lle g e
S e n i o r s co r re sp o n d s a p p r o x i m a t e l y t o th e 4 1 s t o f t h e s t a n d a r d Sophomore nroup,
the
4 5 th o f t h e Freshman prouj and t h e 2 4 t h o f t h e s t a n d a r d S e n i o r norms.
Ti e Sophomore p e r c e n t i l e s c a l e h a s been a l t e r e d to c o r r e s p o n d r o u p h l y to a
sipma s c a l e so t h a t v e r t i c a l d i s t a n c e s " r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y c o n o a m b le .
S t a n d a r d Group
Sophomores
N-4230
Raw P e r c e n score t i l e
Freshmen
F -2 18
Seniors
N-14L
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
S t a n d a r d Grou]
S
oeniors
F-521
P e r c e n ­tile
Chart 7
SCORES Oh THE COCPHIH.TIYH CCHTK'HORARY AFFAIRS TEST, FCRId 1940, • ;J)E BY 1941
FRE3:nrHH ATTC 1940 5Hr K T 3 0? THE TEACHERS COLLEGE, UHIVHRSITY CE HEiR-AKA
E x p l a n a t i o n : The h o r i z o n t a l d o t t e d l i n e s c r o s s i n g t h e e n t i r e c h a r t r e p r e ­
s e n t t h e l o t h end 7 5 t h p e r c e n t i l e s or.d t h e s o l i d l i n e t h e 5 0 t h p e r c e n t i l e o f ' t h
s t a n d a r d Sophomore p r o u i' . The 5 0 t h p e r c e n t i l e o f t h e T e a c h e r s C o l l e r e S e n i o r s
c o r r e s p o n d s a p p r o x i m a t e l y t o t h e 42nd o f t h e s t a n d a r d Sophomore r r c u r . , t h e 5 6 t h
of t h e Freshman p ro a; ' and t h e 2 0 t h of t h e s t a n d a r d S e n i o r no rm s.
The Sophomore p e r c e n t i l e .scale has been a l t e r e d t o c o r r e s p o n d r o u c h l y t o a
siprna s c a l e so t h a t v e r t i c a l d i s t a n c e s ' . r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y c o m p a r a b l e .
S t a n d a r d Group
soph omo re s
S t a n d a r d Orcu
i:- 52 i
Freshmen
. -er.icrs
H-218
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
a
than aero ranging treat 90 to 99 la 1001 aad tha r —lining alx were «f
laaaen l«portnw>e, there ta la* tail 78 to 89 ebaaaea la 100 th a t th q r
did not ariaa by ehanee. I t ahould 9a noted, however, th a t U of th a H
differeaaee ware ao aaall th a t they ware of l l t t l a oar aa laportaaee,
regardlees of th a tr a ta tla tia a l algnlfleaaee.7
Freeuaebly, Teaehare College Seciore ehoold anaeaft ataadard noma
fo r aophooeree aa a a ll aa acaqwra farcrably with standard Senior naaaa*
Thata raraalad on thaaa ehart* ahov th a t they do nat« Many Teacher*
College Senior* appear to ha too poorly lo foraad In tha araa of eontettporary a ffa ira to ha affaettT * guide* fa r pupil* la th a aahoola of a
oonataatly whanging world th a t aaada 1 aad ara aad fo llower* who ara w all
Interned*
Tha data praaantad aaaa to euggeat a aaad fa r en rrien lar aapfeaala
aa eontaaqperary a ffa ira la Taaaher* Oollag*. Moat w rltara an taaahar
education agraa th a t a wlda knowledge o f tha praaant a e tiritle * and problam of nan aa wall aa wUllsgnea* to ahara raaponalfcllity fo r aolwiag
thaa ahould ha a p art of tha general education of taaahara. To know th a
Aoarlean aaa&a, to fo al th a t ona la a p art o f I t , to a r ltla is a aad in ter*
p rat and wndarataad I t , aa wall aa to want to lapsere I t ahould ha anwag
th a aaln eonoaraa of teacher*• Tha proaaaa of general education ahould
help to arowae thaaa daalraa and to aatlafp thaa*
Tha General Guitar* T aat,
Part* XIX, XT aad T
Aa la rewaaled by data In Table* T and TX, tha aaaraa of th a Madera
mwA trmghmm who took tha aaaaaal aw ltnra ta a t ara d*n1 flail ¥ hatanaanaoua*
? -----------------------
*phi> slcniflaaiasa ef dlffareaeea hwiwuB aadlaaa waa ewqpntii aaoerdlag
to fonnXae found la Henry ft, Garrett** Statietla* la
■
*M.
Bduaatiea. Saw Tcrkt Leapftaa, draea and 8o» t u l l , pp*iOd, tSl-Sfik
saa Appendix 9, pp. 185-187, for datallad data toMMwUg differ*®*** aad
thair atatlatiaal algalflaaaaa*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
52
m m rs
nmrnmmon cr sooras kaox i t thx 2140 a ssess or tbs m m m collboi,
wsr mm.tr or bsbrassi, tsr th ru pasts car tbs cooperative
oulturs t e o t .
RK9ISXD FORM <*, AND OB TBS GAUTORHIA SHORT FORM TS3T OF MSOTA1 MATGRITT,
itnUBB) S-taW*
R*w Sootm by T ssts sa t Tsat Part*
8m m
Coopsratir* Osaaral Guitars
Literature
f la t Arts
SttlMMS
105-109
100-104
98* 99
90* 94
85- 89
80* 84
98* 99
90* 94
68* 49
40* 44
88* 89
80* 84
46* 49
40* 44
36* 39
8
1
1
4
4
3
8
3
19
IS
1
3
10
S
9
10
19
1
9
SO* 34
28- 89
80* 84
16*
19
19
88*
18
18
3
3
19
18* 19
10* 14
8
10
13
11
41*
39
8* 9
4
8
1
81
9
0* -'4
Total
Km
f ir s t OatrUlt
X«di«&
ThLriLOuartno
8ta/I)<rrUttQn
Bane*
t« « t Mor*
3
I
8
19
18
31*
88
16
11
8
8
1
1
1
1
4
141
141
84.66
38.16
88.91
88,84
38,83
88,88
44,63
44.89
16.10
18.00
0*99
9*101
i» ia th i* latarW l.”
Gallformla Tost of Ms*,
ta l Maturity
141
18.48
10,90
18.48
19.98
8,30
0*41
141
80.34
93.19
80.98
89,91
11.10
41-109
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
53
TAliy.HI VI
DISTRIBUTION OF SCCRIES XADS BY TBS 1941 FHKSBKSH OF TBS TXA0SBR3 GOIUOS,
UNIVERSITY OF KBKASR, ON THRSK PASTS OF TBS OOOPSBATIfS CBOBSAL OULTBSS TS8T,
HETISSD FG8JS O
So* aeorea by Tent F aria
Soora
L iteratu re
Fine Aarte
SM 9
1
8
80-64
8
8
55-99
1
4
50-54
5
6
3
9
40-44
9
13
55-38
18
17
30-94
m
83
38-99
98
91
5
80-94
81
88*
16
15-19
49*
36
99
10-14
SO
90
80
5- 9
90
18
74*
Q- 4
90
4
44
fvtad
IBaui
F lra t <2oartUe
Median
Tbixd Q nertlle
Stan5w laii<»
Han«e
919
91,81
19,41
19,68
99,44
13,87
0-46
919
96,47
16,78
94,98
88.90
13.90
0-67
"Itadlau te n t BOOT* la in tb la in ta re n l.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
- 9ei«tee
918
10,08
8,68
9.88
14,64
6.89
0-98
8i
This 1* p a rtiw ls rly Dare* of the m ores of both gjroupii on th e lite ra tu re
and fin e art* s e ttle * #
fiesp ettlts ranges f«* tbe seals** a * 0-9? aad
9-101, th e * fa r fresfceett 0-09 end CM?* She sa le * * seores a * also
sa rlsd , ssnicn m ures ranging fw u a s * to i l and these of freehaan,
tem. warn to as,
fo r a l l three seetlens of the te a t, lite ra tu re , f t * art* sad
soleaee, hath Senior and fresJmen w orse elm ster a t th e hotton of the
d istrib u tio n s. Oa the th ree reepeetlwe eeetioaa, aadlan eooree of seniors
were 38*88, 20*80 and 15*48 w hlls those of fre sh * * were 19.43, SM S e a t
9.36, Thsse sodlsns represent i s no ease a th ird sf th e possible * * * * *
S eien * 1* th e sw tle a with the nest lew m eres, there being a t * saute*
stores a * 44 freshsaa o a * la th e 0-4 in terv al of the distribution*
la ta ra rsta tla a
In lite ra tu re , fin e art* aad release, the general teoflsney le fe r
Teaehere College Sealers to he slig h tly poorer than standard Sophomores,
•onsidarably b e tte r than ?sashers Collage Freehnea and considerably poorer
than standard Sealers* T he* fa s ts are presented graphically la Cherts 8,
9 and 10* Median wore* of the sealers d iffe r le a s t f t * th e standard
Sephoaeres in the lite ra tu re , fin e a rts and M ien * seetleas of th e te st*
being fre e approxiBately fe a r to six p sro e stlle points la se r la eash la stanee* dealers are se a t superior to ftreehaen in the llte ra te re and
M ienee se etle as, th e ir aadlaa w are* fe r th e * reepestlve seetlons being
about 81 and 88 p ain ts higher than th e * of f»esha*i« The Mores show
Teaehars College Seniors to he p arttealavly la fa rle r to th e staadard
Seniors in the seetlon on fin e a rts and lite ra tu re , reep eetlre aadlaa
ralne* being a®p*mi»ately 3£ aad 8? points below th e * of th e standard
Seniors*
Six of the differences between th e asdlans of the 1910 aeslors end
those o f the 1941 freshmen and ef the two standard groups w e* easpietely
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
•55
ct’
r:’:n
:r i
COChhR.-
h r ;'l '< r. e t i e r . : 7h;e t o r 1:0 o t o l
r.l t h e h o t .
7:)t h : o r e e o t i l e :rros:.c:.;h; o ■■■r \ i :■.•>t o ] t o t h e hreohroo. r r c r "oh the
t h e he; 01 o,re ore o u t: 1 ■
. i T:e r c o l e r.o t h " t v e r t i r v 7
rm rlo rd Group
Sophon creo
■'-4 779
i e rc e n ­
se o r e t i l e
70
::-n i
(CO
?C
ff
g°
it
iX
tr
to
. roorr.e:;
yt
y/
/a
P/
^7
‘/V
ry
7s
73
it
rX
50
-/i
34
>\
if
iL
if
iz
to
H
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
c o r r e s p o n d s a p p r o x i m a t e l y t< ■ t h e -1•'tli o f t h e s t a n d a r d Gcphonore
o f t h e Freshman n r o u p ^nd t h e I P t h o f t h e s t a n d a r d S e n i o r norms
The Gophonore p e r c e n t i l e r e a l * h a s bee n a l t e r e d t<- c o r r e s p '
s i p p a s c a l e so t h a t v e r t i c a l d i s t a n c e s a r e n p n r o x i r . n t e l v comrar
S t a n d a r d Group
Sophomores
H-477?
Rav;
i'ercenscore
tile
ndnrd Grou;
Seniors
T-717
Treslven
r-M n
Seniors
IT—14.1
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
i-'ercentile
^7
correspond c
0° t h e hre:;
T‘H f*rouj'.
.'.he
f t i f-rc^-nti
o z l r / i t e l y t o t V - 'Ihth c f t h e
,5"<J tfo 'J t
it
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
relia b le ) th# other throe ware eith er considerably « h ig ily algal*
flo a a t, th s ohansss of tfcslr being greiiter than saro rouging froo 89 %o
98,3 la 100* Too of tha aln* d ifftro N M esre «o sn a il that they warn
of l i t t l e or no laqpertanse r egardle ss of th e ir e ta tls tle a l slgnlfleenoe**
I f I t bo aastaaeft tb o t with roopoot bo sash tu ltu ra l aabjeot® a*
lite ra tu re , fin e a rts aad eolenee, Teaehsrs Oollege Seniors should, m
tha average, bo eosMMbat b e tte r Inf owed than standard Sophcaores, deelde&ly bottor in f anted than Teachers College Freetaeea and should sceptre
feTcsrebly ndth standard Seniors, tha data prosaatod la th is ssatten of
th a report a r t disappointing
There i s atm hops, though, in tho taat
th a t seniors eonslderebly surpass tho nedlaa aamem at Teeeber* College
Freshmen* I t say bo th a t tho gain M ts i s a fse**yeer pariod by any
group of students la tho Toaohsm Collage is slg aiflssn t* though proof
of th is is not inherent in tho data* As sea previously stated , however,
thoro is sonsthiag suggestive In those eenpsrlseas* A b a tte r indication
of tho o ffse ts of U niversity train ing oan and should bo obtained by
adm inistering the sana group of te s ts to the 1941 fbsshasn when they
bosons seniors in 3944*
Tho IbgUsfc f a s t
Zt I s apparent fra* tho d istrib u tio n of tho sealed seores® In
Tables 9ZX and YZXX th a t both aenlero and fneshasn seared re la tiv e ly
high on the throe oeetloBS of tho English te s t. Median sooras for ssn isrs
on tho usage* spoiling and vooabulary seotloas were 41*4* 44*9 and 44*9*
respectively, while those for freshmen f o il in the 98*89 in terv al oa a l l
sections.
In eonftraat s lth the eonteapeswsy a ffa irs and general culture
soar os, which are groped a t the bottom of the d istrib u tio n s, tho English
*8ee Appendix D, p . 184* fo r details*
*An explanation of *«oalod seoros* Is found In Appendix A* p* 122-128*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
59
TAHL3 VII
D ia B B an ffic a i o f s o o k s o
mm b y
ths
1940 s e s s io r s cor t h s
ONIVEBSITY 0? HHBRASKA, OS TBS COOPHamVS w
n
mums s o
9m 1«6 8eor**i
Goop«rc.tlv« n g iitii tm% fom 0 X
aoww
Raw n<riT<li
0-a Oplnlcmair*
% «U laf
fOMlmlNtr
to te l
1
1
4
1
80-84
0
0
0
0
fo-fo
9
If
19
10
f0-f4
IS
10
90
19
If
89
90
99
00-64
a*
90*
98*
89*
55-59
31
19
91
89
00-04
19
If
19
11
46-49
9
4
0
f
0
9
4
9
0
f
9
9
19
90-94
1
•0*
90-99
1
08*
35-89
o»a®*
c c llb js ,
TSSP AHD TH2 0-B GPlHKattIRS
90-94
90
10-19
18
10-14
9
0
B-yf
0- 4
T otel
T*tl»H
Flrat QMurOU*
TMsA Quart!!*
Bcsca
U«& t««t eoor«
1
141
66.6
01.4
08.4
f .f
141
08.1 1
00.0
64.9
fO.f
10.9
.J f c J l -
141
63.5
00.6
04.0
T9.1
10.9
-
141
“■"lacf—
Of*8
’
.
64.4
fO .f
9.8
____ J k f t _
141
. | | , | ™-.r
28.3
88.f
34.4
8.0
______ Jd& ____
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
60
TABLS V III
nsmmmt&s of scorns kads bt *eeb m i mmm o f tbs mmm oollsos,
wtrmsm or hbbrasbl, os ths coqperativb wmim rm aso ths o- r opikiohairb
S e a le d S e o re e i
C o o p e r a tiv e X n g lle h f e e t F o ra 0 M
S e o re
O eag e
s p a lila *
V o e a ta la x y
9 5 -9 9
1
9 0 *94,
1
. B u r s e o re e t
0-R C p in io n a lr e
f e ta l
8 5 -8 9
1
8 0 -8 4
1
1
8
3
7B*79
4
4
11
7
7 0 -7 4
14
18
88
17
65*69
80
89
19
88
6 0 -8 4
54
84
8?
87
55*89
85*
89*
88*
46*
80*84
54
48
48
48
0
48*49
88
88
86
88
48
—f^Ww
16
85
81
80
68*
55*91
11
8
4
6
01
90*84
8
8
5
9
89
1
0
8
85*89
80*84
U
8
1
15*18
1
10*14
1
f e ta l
818
8 18
11T 'H O W "l1"
iia a a
f i r e t Q u * r tile
49*49
taHTtaw
86*89
68*86
S
f tW
A lS
1 0 ,3 8
&99/
i U SWi *I
l m s L __________
t M t SOOT*
____
,r . n
4 8 .4 7
0 7 .9 1
65*41
10*87
......
8 18
818
8 18
0 7 ,7 3
49*70
06*71
6 6 .7 0
1 8*88
B T 4?
00*98
86*40
69*97
10*57
5 9 ,0 4
40*61
46*75
7*18
..... . ..........
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
si
assess o f seals** s a l freetaen M l be a lu stsr toward th e I«p sod iH ft%
311X1
i t sm
b. w ta W U ty wm
$th e m
m
mmth e
tsab as th e ranges mi th e tiaras sestlo as steam SaaXaea tax ied turni f
to 87, 88 to 06 an t 18 tc 88, re sp e e tite lr* mth e M s s sseU oast naaga,
sp ellin g end seesivlsiy*
Oct’Tsapanfllng ranges foe feashsaua seoares w t
1»*«7# 88»41 and 19-96.
Xa taro s of type XXX w
m
m
*ehioh lav s already bssa Id en tified
as Id eally the te s t fo r M s atafty (pp. 88-87), (Shafts XX, IS , 18 s a l 14
Show th e Teashers OoXXags ffsnl n rt to i s highly aoperte* to th e etentaad
aepteenessa
also d is tin c tly sap srlsv to th t Teashsvs OolXega ffesM m i
y it %
,h
»standard Seals* gpsap# The —**»» see*a of th e seniors c® th e
steels te s t i s apprsaiesieX ir SI p ercen tile points higher th a t D ad of th e
standard oeptenseses,' 88
mmh* th a t s i th e ftsilaM sa sad 84 shore the
jaedian of th e standard Senior*.
f easterns College Seaiore d iffe r a s s t ttm the th ree asm groups on
the apalX M section of tb s te s t, AseevdXng to Chart XI, tb s stadia*
epe&llng sears fa r the sealers I s apjTnal mat >1jr 80 psreeatblle points
than th a t s f th e standard (tegdiassfs grasp, 88 points highs* Ham Hms median
fa r Teashers Gellag* Drughssa y»s 83. pM rts steers the standard deader ( ts f s s t
Oa the saag* P«rt «* tb s te s t, as I s ahem ty M a t XX, His aedlen seer* of
tb s send©** la ep jro n issteiy 80 p ercen tile p ain ts eteoes lb s standard aapteanone MsatsB se ars, a* asses w as w «<» yssssmsw vw* t age xrssansR ana as
shoes the standard naatnr endian, la eos^bsXaey, as i s rsrsa lsd tey Ohanb
13, th s wedtan asm s of th e seniors awesods M a s of the M a s nom c ro p s
w f HH CTaJiffWMg mWBBBmMMmmm wHPWMf 9 9 | mm W
# 9 y P i H l l l i i p m iK i
Data ware sa t arm ilabl* to seayats th e atg alfisaaee o f th e d iffereaees hstssen tits nedians of th e 1949 se ale rs and tb s Type XXX standee*
^Ctesse warns ass dessrtbsft la Apysadlac A* »* 184.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
r;-'.u t.v :
■
1 ' 7 t :. ; ••roe:
■ .'' 7'; lli .
'’
p-J
lti
Type I I I i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e t . ' ^ e of
and t e a c h e r s * c o l l e g e s .
io r.a)
5
ro d en ts fo un d i n j u n i o r c o l l e r e s
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
H H
H
|
^B B
^B B
^ B fl
H I
^^B
BBS
^^B
7aw
^^B
■ 1
^ B fl
^^B
4
^^B
^^B l
3
t
^^B
Type I I I i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f th e ty p e o f s tu d e n ts found in j u n io r c o l l e g e s
and t e a c h e r s ’ c o ll e p .e s .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
L*
:r-' 1 ^ 4 1 i?
-o v i n o
sent the hsth
7hth ; e rs o n ti 1
stan d ard hopLeriore r r co i . Vhe h
c o r r e s n o n d r: o ; ] ro:v i v - t e l ; ' i; t h o f t i e lroohir.no yrou: and th"
The
hr>no>>o e r rccT.'* i ] *•
li:-;
’
- ■•
t h - e n t i r e ah'>rt ’'■-r.reoho lo t h r or'cooti l e of th
C- .! ] -*•- h-ijj.■ rs
: -■ • • -
•••>••
'*T.
• >•
•- t V.-V, ' r-•* \ - Q
T l'|
nro-.! to (’■r o o ; c o i r c u r h l y t o a
"’hr score.
't.vndnrd f r o u
1’;-: r. I l l *
. i'.'Tii c r s
■i : :t e l s oo: . a m b l e ,
?T-fF
v>v.i
t
\i\e.
N-141
"I
9^ -3.
*Type I I I i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f th e ty p e o f s tu d e n ts found in ju n io r c o l l e g e s
and t e a c h e r s ’ c o l l e g e s .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
LZ
Chart 14
SCORES Oi: TITS COOPERATIVE ENGI.ISN TEST, FOR!' 0!', NADE BY 1941 ERFSNTITN ATT)
1940 SENIORS OF TI!K TEACHERS COLLEGE, TTT7ERSITY 07 NEBRASKA
E x p la n a tio n : The h o r iz o n t a l d o tte d l i n e s c r o s s in g th e e n t ir e c h e r t r e p r e ­
s e n t th e 2 5 th and 7 5 th p e r c e n t i l e s and th e s o l i d l i n e th e 5Cth p e r c e n t i l e o f th
stan d ard Sophonore grou p . The 50th p e r c e n t i l e o f th e T each ers C o lle g e S e n io r s
c o r re sp o n d s a p p r o x im a te ly t o th e Both o f th e stan d ard Sophonore grou p , th e 76 th
o f t h e Freshman {-roup and th e 74th i f th e stan dard S e n io r norm s.
The Sophonore p e r c e n t i l e s c a l e has been a lt e r e d to corresp on d r o u g h ly to a
sigm a s c a l e so t h a t v e r t i c a l d is t a n c e s a r e a p p r o x im a te ly com p arab le. The score;
a r e s c a le d s c o r e s .
Standard Group
Standard
Grcui
Standard Orcui
TYPe 111
nType
,,,p m
I
i rh
Sophomores
•) S e n io r s
N -6242
P e r ce
s eenn io
Raw P e r c e n Freshmen
S
io r s
c e n ­N-141
tile
score t i l e
N -218
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
<■7
Chart i t
SCORES ON THE SPELLING SECTION OF THE COOPERATIVE ENGLISH TEST, FORM OK,
MADE BY 1941 FRESHMEN AND 1940 SENIORS OF THE TEACHERS COLLEGE,
UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA
E x p la n a tio n : The h o r iz o n t a l d o tte d l i n e s c r o s s in g th e e n t i r e c h a r t repre^
s e n t th e 2 5 th and 75th p e r c e n t i l e s and th e s o l i d l i n e th e 50 th p e r c e n t i l e o f th<
stan d ard Sophoraore grou p . The 50th p e r c e n t i l e o f th e T each ers C o lle g e S e n io r s
c o r re sp o n d s a p p r o x im a te ly t o t h e 83rd o f th e stan d ard Sophomore grou p , th e 8 0 th
o f th e Freshman group and th e 6 9 th o f th e stan d ard S e n io r norm s.
The Sophomore p e r c e n t i l e s c a l e has been a lt e r e d to corresp on d r o u g h ly t o i
sigm a s c a l e so t h a t v e r t i c a l d is t a n c e s are a p p r o x im a te ly com p arab le.
Standard Group
Sophomor es
N-6242
Raw P e r ce n score t i l e
Freshmen
N - 218
S e n io r s
N-141
Standard Grou®
S e n io r s 1
P ercen- I
tile
I
S3
,L
n
ft
13
7*
S'"
Li
14
73
7°
LI
Lv
Co
51
si
34
34
7''
Li
is
43
30
i-S
i.0
S3
/i
£a
i4
4i
7
4t
4;
2.
s'
31
4
3L
3
33
Oj
*7
iL
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
•■
l lsg :
i'resfui'-n r r o u
nndar
a re r e e l e d n core
d t a n d a r d Oroir
O1- - ji Clid.OX’ G o
Raw t ercensecre t i l e
Reproduced with permission o f the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
C h a r t ix
SCORES ON THE COOPERATIVE ENGLISH TEST, FCRN ON, HADE BY 1941 FRESI3.32I AND
1940 SENIORS OF THE TEACHERS COLLEGE, UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA
E x p l a n a t i o n : The h o r i z o n t a l d o t t e d l i n e s c r o s s i n g t h e e n t i r e c h a r t r e p r e ­
s e n t t h e 2 5 t h and 7 5 t h p e r c e n t i l e s and t h e s o l i d l i n e t h e 5 0 t h p e r c e n t i l e o f t h
s t a n d a r d Sophomore g r o u p . The 5 0 t h p e r c e n t i l e o f t h e T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e S e n i o r s
c o r r e s p o n d s a p p r o x i m a t e l y t o t h e 7 1 s t o f t h e s t a n d a r d Sophomore g r o u p , t h e 7 6 t h
o f t h e Freshm an g ro u p and t h e 6 1 s t o f t h e s t a n d a r d S e n i o r n orm s.
The Sophomore p e r c e n t i l e s c a l e h a s b e e n a l t e r e d t o c o r r e s p o n d r o u p li ly t o a
sigm a s c a l e so t h a t v e r t i c a l d i s t a n c e s a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y c o m p a r a b l e . The s c o r e s
a r e sc ale d s c o re s .
S t a n d a r d Group
Sophomores
N-6242
Raw P e r c e n ­
se o r e t i l e
Freshm en
N-218
se n io rs
IT-141
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S t a n d a r d Group
S en io rs
P ercen­
tile
n
senior group. A ll of th* eight difference* tasted w*r* eemplsts&y
ra lla b l* .10
w ith r*ap*«t to th * bosks f o r «oll*g«* in general, seers* of th*
T*aeh*r* OeUsg* Senior* soapsr* som shat le ss fm m M f with th* thro*
standard group*. However, Chart* IB, 16, IT and 18 *h<nr th a t they a r*
generally superior* A* *oapar*d to a*dlan sear** of th* thro* bosk
groups fo r th* *ntlr* t* * t, th* median. soar* of th* senior* is higher by
approximately Blt 86 aai 11 p«re«atll* polot*, n y w liT d f *
Of th* 18 diff*r*n««* b*tw*«n median **or**, nin* m s* *cfflpl*t*ly
r« ll* h l* , <me was highly »i*nifi**nt a a i th* r —lining two war* of sesa*
eidsrahl* lspertane** fa© of th* diff*r*ne«e war* so sn a il th a t they
war* of l i t t l e or no iapertaa**, regardless of th e ir s ta tls tle a l slf*
nifieano*,11
V tatsvar th* reason i s , th*s« «harts show th* seniors to h* a
d istin c tly superior group la Sagllsh as a*asar*d by th* Cooperative Bngllsh
f a s t.
Sob* of than ar* d*fioi«nt in koev&*ftg* of fanilaaoatal* of XngllSh,
but a big m ajority ar* iis tin o tly abov* th* arwrag* ls rS l of p«rfesn*a*a
of the four standard nara group* and aleo d**ii*ily superior to th* 1941
(NR Optnionair*
Seor** fo r th* **nior* on th is to s t ar* p r m a ted in fs h ls HX
and ar* rath er nornally d istrih a tid s ta r th* saag* of posslhl* soor*»|
thos* fo r frssfeHMi ar* shown la Tabl* f i l l and ar* sonaidmt aa*s*i a t th*
top of th* d ls ts itu tis a . Th* median of the **nior seor** is 88*7, th a t
of th* frsshaan sears* i s 40.61, or 11*9 point* higher*
This d lffsraas#
is latorostin g in view of th* fao t th a t a low aoor* 1* a sign of so sial
liberalism whil* a high seor* r*pr*s*sh* *oaa*rvntlaa. That th* seniors
and fr**ha*n vary greatly In so sial a ttitu d e s is * rid ia t from the rang**
^8** Appendix D, P* 388, fo r d e ta ils .
^ S ee Appendix 8 , p» 186, fa r d e ta ils .
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n
of
n w m oa th li te s t, these being trm 5 to 48 and 13 to 54,
respectively*
Intw rprstatloa
Chart 19 shews graphleally th a t the sealers on th is te e t ere m m »
what more lib e ra l then the standard groop end d la tla e tly more lib e ra l then
the Tsasher* College Frestoten* The dlffereas* ia median* between the
senior* end the standard group le approximately flUt p eresn til* point**
while th a t between senior* and freshmen of Teaebera College la about 41
p ereeatile points* This diffsrene* is noteworthy ia wise of a statement
by the sohhes^* of th e te s t, whieh appears ia the te s t musmI , to th *
affeot th a t seoses of seniors avarags only f ir e per* e n tile point* lees
than those of freshmen. Whatever the reason few i t aay be* the te s t sears*
olearly Indisat* a re a l d iffereas* la th s attttw dee of the seniors and
freshmen toward so sial shaat*« with th* seniors favoring the aev and th e
freshnea laoU aiag toward conserving th e eld*
The d iffareas* between the mediaa sow s of th* 1940 Senior* and
th a t of the 1941 freshmen is completely re lia b le , and th* d iff areas*
between th* aediaa of the 1940 Seniors and th a t e f th* standard grotqp i s
highly sig n ifio a a t.1*
C alifornia Test of Mental ltotinrt.tr
Th* d istrlb a tio a of th* row snores on the asn tal m aturity te s t
Whieh is prasemtsd la T*bl* ▼, point* to a sid e v srie tle a among th s 141
seniors* The rang* ia sears* i s from 81 to 1£9 and th s aediaa is 90*79*
Th* a s st able senior soored wore than twie* as high a* th e le a st ab le, sad
1,4 time* as high as th e average fo r th s gret&»
This te s t was not given the Toasters Collage freshmen sino* th*
re su lts were to be ased only fo r investigating the relationship bitw ise th s
op* P it* , p* 8.
Appendix D, p* 136, fo r details*
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7X
30rI ? ” r"’r'-: c-r <:. r'lciv.iRh
.'V '- /<?
^cif .t , ’'V. ■ '!V io n 7Rn~f:'"
h 1940 Sv'IORS
re chert repreo rc e n tile of t h 1
lo re correspond
}: g /rf- o\i t n
Txpleneticn:
? h e h o r i u c n t e l d o i t e d lino: : c r n u u h r ' t h e
s e n t t h e “i n t i , and 7 ;th ; -“ r e e n t i l e s end ifr.e s o l i d l i n e t h e
standard croon.
I’he oGth p e r c e n t i l e of t h e Te-'Chern
1 1 e ■->;
n p p r o x ir r. n t e ly t o t h e -14th of t h e s h n e h s r " oi’oie or/- hoe f t :
croup.
The s t a n d a r d p e r c e n t i d e s c n l e heo i e e n a l t e r - : ! e corrc
s i p m s c a l e no t h a t v e r t i c a l h i h- usa e a r e e; ren in .a t elp a ; :
a
S t a n d a r d Group
11-580
Ravi i e r c e n sco re t i l e
hr- •ninei!
It
h -oh r.
’ -It :
O
e rf . A
/ a t * '/
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Iv tc o
n
scholastic aptitude of the seniors and th e ir knowledge in certain areas of
general education o r th a tr a ttitu d e toward social change*
Interp retation
In preparing Obart 80, i t was necessary to tran alate raw saorea ea
the C alifornia Teat of Mental M aturity la te I* <t*'s, alnee norss ware
not available fo r war stores* The ohart shews th e aediaa I . (i. of the
seniors to be 1SS* This eoaparaa favorably w ith the general awcrage lev
collage atadaata which, aacoarding to f t w d n ,^ la between 180 and 188*
Another noteworthy fe a t ia th a t a l l ta t about four par cent of th e aaniara
are abort th e average I* d* of the general population.
The difference between th e aediaa I* <%« of the 1940 Seniors and th a t
of the etaadari group ia completely reliable***
H th the exception of the Xngliah te a t, on ahioh d e fin ite superi­
o rity la ahowa, the Teacher* College Seniors are generally a l i t t l e b ale*
the standard Sophomore group, considerably higher than the Teachers Oellege
freshmen end d istin c tly below the standard Senior group on a ll knowledge
testa*
On the 0*8 O piaioneire, they display considerably sore eeelal
lih e m llsn than the frashnen and a l i t t l e mow than the standard group.
With respect to eebalaetif aptitude, they prove to be Markedly superior
to the general population and appear to be
of eallege
students In general*
Although, generally speaking, the seal era are a l i t t l e lower than
standard nnphnmrircc on nine p arts and sections of the knowledge te s ts , they
are equal to or b e tte r than standard Sophcaaeres in four* On th e aslcnee
and aedieine seotlon of the eomtes^esasy a ffa irs te s t, th e ir nadlan sta re
i s equal to th a t of standard Stophoaareai on e l l three sections of th e teg llah
^OaiwdnsV w. B .- F rln a l^ a* of Idasatloiw l
Ronald P ress, 1937,y* lie } ,
**See Appendix D, p. 18f, fo r details*
(Hdw Terks The
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sc
IX*
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76
ta a t th r tr aadlan aooro aonaidarably ;-**jaaaan th a at of tha two d iffa ra n t
groupa of atardard Sophaaoraa « u i fo r tfcia ta a t ala&a*
With a faw «sa§>tiona, tho aadlan w m m of faadhara OoXXaft Sanicra
« t aoaaidarafcXy hi«har than thoao of th* 1*41 fhaahnau oa a ll tho kBm&adga
taata*
Ga tha fin* a rt* a action o f tha aaeAeapaeaegr affalaa ta a t, th o ir
sadian aocra ia only a t r l f l a higher, aaft an th a aaan eaeta aaatloa of
tha aaaa ta a t ia ia aoaaaha t lowor* Tha tyyiaaX aw io r ia
tm
aora aoataXiy
lib e ra l than th a typiaal freahaan, th a diffaraoaa being aaah greater than
th a t oo&aldered normal by tha author of th a ta a t aaad fo r meaaoriag aoaial
lib e ra lim and oonaar»etiaa*
Teaahaya Collage Saulore equal or axaa1 ata&dard Samara la
knoaledge aa revealed by ta a t eeorea only ia tha fie ld of Xagllah, bat
th e ir superiority ia th ia area ia unqueationable.
In the sa in , dlffaranoaa between th a wadi ana of tha 1940 Saniora
and thoaa of tha 1941 fraahaan and of tha standard groups ware a ith a r aa*»
pletoly re lia b le or highly alg n ifiean t. fifte e n of tha 83 differeaees
tested aaaa ao anaXl th a t thay aaaa of XittXa oa no iaportenee, regardless
of th aia a ta tia tla a l eignificanoe*
Croat v a ria b ility ia ahaaaatcriatio of tha seeres aa tha mAmm
ta a ta aads by hath tha Sealers and tha f^ahhaaa of Taaahara College*
Tha seat anrfcrewe oaaaa are tha seores oa tha lite ra tu re and fla a a rt*
section* of tha general cu lture ta a t, which fo r seniors range frcaa 0-97 and
9-101, reapeetlvaty, and fo r fraalana, from 9*4* aad 0-47, reepeetiw ly*
Sim ilar hut ooaaahat laaa pra&ouaaad heterogeneity ia evident ia tha
re su lts fo r aXX other ta a ta and ta a t aaatiaaa*
In aartain areas, aarioua deficiencies ara alao eharaeteriatie of
hath Teaehare Gollege Saniora and freahaan aonaldarad aa group*. Oa tha
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n
p o litic a l events, fin® art® and anmsments section* of ooatenporarjr
a ffa irs, as wall as oa th s te s t as a uholc, and oa tha lite ra tu re , fin e
a rts and scieno# asetions of th s generol su ito rs to s t, Bedian seores
fo r the too groups are eonsiderubly bsAaw standard group medians, Bather
larg e numbers of both fraehnan sad seniors aaaa to know l i t t l e or aothlag
about tha areas named. lo r laataaaa, 81 seniors and 80 freshman earned’
aaoraa of scarp or one oa tha lite ra tu re sta tio n of tha eontanpararf
a ffa irs test*
I t mould appear th a t more emphasis shoulA be pissed upon tautenporary a ffa irs , lite ra tu re , flu e a rts and salens* in th e adusatlo& of
preapeetlr* tanchors a t th s Chi varsity of Nebraska. feath ers Gollaga
students should be ae&e aora eonsslous of the ealtu re of Shiah they are
a p art la order th at they tmy lir a sera affectiv ely as prefassloaal seekers,
individuals and e ltise e e .
fh s neat phase of tha study id ll tmoover seas p assible actplamtio n s of the strong ant mask aleansts of th a general edueatlon of tha
1940 Sealers, fhese explanations, though 1m s aoneluaiT* than night be
desired, Mould add f sash are College to su rra i t s students baiter®
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CHAPTER IT
RELATI0NSHIP8 AMOHG THE TAHIABUB8 STUDIED
Facts th a t have been revealed oonoerning th* train in g and knowledge
of tho Teachers Collage Saniora w ill beoeme nore valuable i f explanation*
fo r than oan be found* To supply possible explanations through exploration
of hypothecated relationships ia the ain of th is chapter* Such answers as
are found w ill be somewhat inconclusive, fo r relationships discovered stay
not be causal in character and, furtherm ore, there are obviously many
faators not considered in the study th a t may bring about knowledge or
attitu d e s of the types investigated*
the stain method used ia the study to determine existing relationships
among the several variables is the produot-moment method of correlation .
This i s one of the most widely used methods of representing the extent
to which two variables tend to ooour together* A second method used is
the three variable-ohart which shows by means of lin e graphs the
relationship of two separate variablesto a th ird . The only other method
used is a semi-graphic table whioh w ill be explained when i t is presented
(p . M ).
The hypotheses th is chapter w ill te s t are*
1* The amount of eourse work taken in a given fie ld of study,
e .g ., English, is positively related to knowledge of the fie ld
and of related fie ld s , as revealed by te s t Seores*
2. Social liberalism is positively related to amount of work
taken in certain subject fie ld s , e*g*, soeial stud ies.
-77-
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Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
80
relationships with te s t soores w«s*e found ar* foreign language and sal
tha fie ld fo r whioh th* highest negative relationships war* obtained ia
education.
Table IX eontalas 18 correlations th a t represent p airs of ta a t M ere
and subjeat boar v a ria b le not o rig in ally thought to be re la te d ,
six at
these ware obtained p artly to complete tha picture of diffarencM la tha
extant to which work la tha several field * ia ralatad to Xnglish ta a t saoraa
and p artly to check tha investigator1* judgment th a t obviously ralatad
fie ld s vara the only ones positively assoeiated with Sngllsh knowledge.
Four of th a l i j la question are negative aad th* other too ar* not signi­
ficant*
Six of th* ra—lwtng r Ta th a t rep rm m t p airs of rariabla* originally
aonsidarad nnralatad show th a relationship ef semester hevrs ia education
to saoraa on th* eontasperafy a ffa irs te s t and th* various seatiens of
th is te s t. A ll of those zip ar* negative.
I t was thought th a t some, o r
area a l l, of the £±p ia th is group night be p o sitiv e, sine*, owing to tha
soelal objectives of adaaatioa, taaahar train in g should stim ulate in te re st
in aontanporary affairs*
Of tha other six y !s whleh represent variables orig inally thought
to ba unrelated, three show the asseslatlea batman aaores on the e n tire
aontanporary a ffa irs tM t and sm aster hours in seianee, fin* a rts aad
p raetieal a r ts , respectively.
Th* remaining three Indicate the relatio n *
ship between sanester hours in p raetiea l a rts and scores cm th e lite ra tu re
seetion of the aontanporary a ffa irs te s t, work in soaial studies and saaras
on the Mlaoea seetion of the general ealtu re tM t and sanester hours la
eduojatien and scares on th* fia s a rts seetion ef tha general culture test*
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81
The only sig n ifican t r in th is group of six , o il of which were obtained
aainly to to s t the investigator *a judgment as to variables th a t might to
positively re la te d , is a negative ono fo r p ractical a rts and knowledge of
eontcqperary affairs*
The assumption th a t social liberalism i s positively related to
amount of work taken in certain subject field * ia net prerod by th s four
r*s presented In Table XX* Two of those r±§ are po sitiv e and too negative,
but nano is sig n ifican t • Sines th e eorrelation between saeestcr hours of
so cial studios and so sial liberalism , ths two facto rs in th e tab le th a t
wight be expected to be most closely re la te d , was only *f*17|*08S i t appeared
useless to tM t the hypothesis further*
Charts 81 to so are three-variable graphs which shew wean te s t scores
ef the seniors on specified te s ts according to the sensster hours of high
school and college work the seniors had I s given fields*
I t is possible
to to ll a t a glance th e cactest to which amount e f week on each lev el la a
given fie ld is related to scores on a selected test*
Since the th ree lin o
graphs on each chart represent groups who had d ifferen t awounts of high
school work in a subject field* th s relatio nship betwean high school
semester hours and te s t scores i s Mown en tirely by the re la tiv e positions
of the lines* The slope of each lin e indicates fbr a given group the
of
relationship between amount/ college cred it and te s t scores*
n atu rally , these charts corroborate the g le presented in Table XX
which have to do with the same collage work aad te s t score variables aad
tha conclusion already se t fo rth th a t amount ef college work in a subject
fie ld tends to be associated with knowledge of the seas fie ld or of
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X2~
C hart 21
KEANS OF RAVI SCORES OR THE POLITICAL EVENTS SECTION OF THE COOPERATIVE
CONTEMPORARY AFFAIRS TEST FOR COLLEGE STUDENTS, FORI' 1 9 4 0 , MADE BY
THE 1940 SENIORS OF THE TEACHERS COLLEGE, UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA,
AND CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO THE NUMBER OF SEMESTER HOURS IN SOCIAL
STUDIES EARNED BY THE SENIORS IN HIGH SCHOOL AND IN COLLEGE
E x p la n a tio n : Kean t e 3 t s c o r e s and se m e ste r hours o f s o c i a l s t u d ie s earned
in c o l l e g e a r e p l o t t e d by th e t h r e e l i n e s , each o f w hich a l s o r e p r e s e n t s a d i f ­
f e r e n t amount o f h ig h s c h o o l c r e d i t in s o c i a l s t u d i e s . The d o t te d l i n e r e p r e ­
s e n t s S e n io r s h avin g 0 -9 se m e ste r hours o f h ig h s c h o o l c r e d i t i n s o c i a l s t u d ie s ,
t h e broken l i n e th o s e w ith 1 2 -1 6 and th e s o l i d l i n e 1 8 -2 7 . The c h a r t i s read as
f o ll o w s : o f th e 54 S e n io r s h avin g 1 8 -2 7 se m e ste r hours o f h ig h s c h o o l c r e d i t in
s o c i a l s t u d ie s t h o s e h a v in g 3 5-39 se m e ste r hours o f c o l l e g e c r e d i t in s o c i a l
s t u d ie s have a mean p o l i t i c a l e v e n ts s c o r e o f 1 5 .
■ 0- 9
12-16
18-27
Sem. H r s . H . S . S o c . S t . N - 1 7
Sen.. H r s . H . S . S o c . S t . N - 7 0
S e in . H r s . H . S . S o c . S t . N - 5 4
ie i r 2C 2;
14
1:
24
2;
S e m e s t e r i i o u r s C o l l e~*e S o c i a l
4C
42
44
49
Studies
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
2C
*-
l h a r t 22
'::: t o ; r i i r h c k .y d i ' cD IC itr : s b c t ic n
T i ’HRATIVE
SO’TTO'i’CIUKY .VFFATRG TEG? FCP Cill.YOY STUDT-TS, FCRI* 1 9 4 0 , FADE BY 1940
GKHIfPG Or TYACHYR3 CCLIYOY, ’TIVYR.GI7Y •' ? YOBPJl'KOv, ,'JY) ILASSIrTSD
.'OdChTT'C
TOY TPtvVSR i F "H'TIGTIR iK Uli-S 10 OOIOT'OO 'liY'TR; BY
f'"Iirv ‘~'vr>'T r'r.^ 7'' i:]'';;! ../->■--^.T **tt.
-t-»t o'
m u s cr ily.v gccres
ro '.R in r.u tic n :
t e n t .'o._res ana o e r .e s t e r h o u r s of s c i e n c e e a r n e d in
c o lle g e
; l o t t e o h r t v ? t h r e e 1 i : n n ; , e a c h .,f v’h i c h a l s o r e p r e s e n t s a d i f ­
f e r e n t a r.e n n t i f !OrO s c h o o l c **e 1 i h In s c i e n c e .
Ihe .: '. b t * l l i n e r o r . r e s e n t ?
o e u i r i 'o !::<•/in.* 0-0 s r e e i e ' ho i r s o f hi;-h s c h o o l s c i e n c e , t h e b r o k e n l i n e t h e s e
v.’i t h 9 - l f and t h e s o l i d l i n e 1 0 - 0 7 . n he c h a r t i s r e a d <as
fo llo w s:
o f t h e 71
S e n i o r s h a v in g 0-9 s e n e s t e r h o u r s o f h i f h s c h o o l s c i e n c e , t h o s e h a v ir.n 0-7
s e m e s t e r h o u r s o f c o l l e r e s c i e n c e have a n e a n t e s t s c o r e o f 7.
-------------------------
0
1
- 0 - 6 Serr, . H r s . H . S . S c i e n c e I,' - 7 1
S - 1 2 Sem. H r s . H . S . S c i e n c e N- 55
1 5 - 2 7 Sem. H r s . H . S . S c i e n c e N - 1 2
2
4
6
8 10
12 14
16
3
5
7
9 11
13 15
20
S e m e s t e r Hours C o l l e g e S c i e n c e
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
21
Chart 23
MEANS OF RAW SCORES ON THE LITERATURE SECTION OF THE COOPERATIVE CONTEMPORARY
AFFAIRS TEST FOR COLLEGE STUDENTS, FCRI' 1 9 4 0 , MADE BY THE 1940 SENIORS
OF THE TEACHERS COLLEGE, UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA, AND CLASSIFIED
ACCORDING TO THE NUMBER OF SEMESTER HOURS IN ENGLISH EARNED
BY THE SENIORS IN HIGH SCHOOL AND IN COLLEGE
E x p la n a tio n : Mean t e s t s c o r e s and s e m e s te r hours o f E n g lis h earned in
c o l l e g e a r e p l o t t e d by t h e t h r e e l i n e s , ea ch o f w hich a l s o r e p r e s e n t s a d i f ­
f e r e n t amount o f h ig h s c h o o l c r e d i t i n E n g lis h . The d o tte d l i n e r e p r e s e n t s
S e n io r s h a v in g 12-16 s e m e s te r hours o f h ig h s c h o o l E n g lis h , th e broken l i n e
t h o s e w it h 18 and th e s o l i d l i n e 2 1 - 2 4 . The c h a r t i s rea d as f o l l o w s :
o f th e
87 S e n io r s h a v in g 18 se m e ste r hours o f h ig h s c h o o l E n g lis h , t h o s e h avin g 2 3 -2 4
se m e s te r hou rs o f c o l l e g e E n g lis h have a mean t e s t s c o r e o f 8 .
-
------------- - - - - 1 2 - 1 6 Sem. H r s . H . S . E n g l i s h N - 3 0
18 Sem. H r s . H . S . E n g l i s h N- 8 7
- n — ----------------------- 2 1 - 2 4 Sem. H r s . H . S . E n g l i s h N - 2 4
6.' o61!' i.jurr> v o
.1.
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u
WBk
B B
to
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B I
II
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5 10 15 20 25 30
55 70
45
3
14 l o 24
2y 54
3 5 44
45
Deri. ester Hours J o l l e . ^ e S o c i a l S t u d i e s
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
50
Si
Chart 25
HIT o OF RAW SCORES OF THE LITERATURE SECTION OF THE COOPERATIVE GENERAL
CULTURE TEST, REVISED SERIES FORT 0 , LADE BY THE 1940 SSIHCRS CF THE TEACHERS
COLLEGE, UNIVERSITY CF NEBRASKA., AND CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TC THE NUMBER CF
SEMESTER HOURS III ENGLISH EARNED BY THE SENIORS IN HIGH SCHOOL AND IN COLLEGE
E x p la n a tio n : Mean t e s t s c o r e s and se m e ste r hours o f E n g lis h earned in •
c o l l e g e a r e p l o t t e d by th e t h r e e l i n e s , each o f w h ich a ls o r e p r e s e n t s a d i f ­
f e r e n t amount o f h ig h s c h o o l c r e d it i n E n g lis h . The d o tte d l i n e r e p r e s e n t s
S e n io r s h a v in g 1 2 -1 6 se m e ste r hours o f h ig h sc h o o l E n g lis h , t h e broken l i n e
t h o s e w ith 18 and th e s o l i d l i n e 2 1 - 2 4 . The c h a r t i s re a d a s f o ll o w s : o f th e
24 S e n io r s h avin g 2 1 -2 4 s e m e s te r hours o f h ig h s c h o o l E n g lis h , t h o s e havin g
1 5 -1 6 se m e ste r hours o f c o l l e g e E n g lis h have a-mean t e s t s c o r e o f 3 3 .
1 2 - 1 6 Sem.
18 S e m .
2 1 -2 4 Sem.
9
LC
11
12
19
14
S e m e s t e r Hours
H r s . H . S . E n g l i s h 11-30
H r s . H . S . E n g l i s h N-87
H r s . H . S . E n g l i s h N- 2 4
24
26
C olle-e English
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cs 11 e-j-e ;;re j . i o t t o l by t h e t h r e e l i n e s , •. .oh of v.hi h. el.
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: 1;
S e n i o r s bovine 1-1 semes*-.r
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c s o uoli s c iieenr coe , t -.■ ;
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1C U! lOe
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f
S e n i o r s heviny 9-1.1 s o n m c te r hours of hi
s c h o o l r o i one- -, v . s , >
s e m e s t e r hours o f c o l l e r e s c i e n c e l e v o s r ^ r , to-’t s c o r e ; 1 ::r’.
0 - 6 Se:;, . iirc . H . S . S c i e n c e K-71
- 9 - 1 2 Sem. Ur n. H . S . S c i e n c e 11-58
■15-27 Sem. H r s . U . S . S c i e n c e i l - 1 2
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
8
7
9
S e m e s t e r Hours
14 1C
13 15 20
College Science
10
12
11
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
21
a
Chart 27
MEANS OF RAN SCORES 017 THE SCIENCE SECTION OF THE COOPERATIVE GENERAL
CULTURE TEST, REVISED SERIES FORM Q,, MADE BY THE 1940 SENIORS CF
THE TEACHERS COLLEGE, UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA, AND CLASSIFIED
ACCORDING TO THE NUMBER OF SEMESTER HOURS IN MATHEMATICS
EARNED BY THE SENIORS IN HIGH SCHOOL AND IN COLLEGE
E x p la n a tio n : Mean t e s t s c o r e s and se m e ste r hours o f m ath em atics earned
i n c o l l e g e a r e p l o t t e d by t h e t h r e e l i n e s , each o f w hich a l s o r e p r e s e n t s a d i f ­
f e r e n t amount o f h ig h s c h o o l c r e d it i n m a th e m a tic s. The d o tte d l i n e r e p r e s e n t s
S e n io r s h a v in g 6 se m e ste r hours o f h ig h s c h o o l m a th em a tics, t h e broken l i n e
t h o s e w it h 9 -1 2 and t h e s o l i d l i n e 1 5 - 2 1 . The ch a r t i s rea d a s f o ll o w s :
of
' t h e 64 S e n io r s h a v in g 9 -1 2 se m e ste r h ou rs o f h igh s c h o o l m a th e m a tic s, t h o s e
h a v in g 1 0 -1 2 se m e ste r hou rs o f c o l l e g e m athem atics have a mean s c i e n c e t e s t
sco re o f 35.
6 Sem.
9 - 1 2 Sem.
1 5 - 2 1 Sem.
H r s . H . S . Ivlath. N - 6 8
H r s . H . S . Ma t h. N - 6 4
H r s . H . S . Ma t h. N- 9
45
cn
a) 40
U
o 35
A
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25
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CD
20
F-<
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c
1C
CD
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Sen.este r
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%1
Chart 28
KEANS OF SCALED SCORES OH THE COOPERATIVE ENGLISH TEST, FORI,: OK, LIADE
BY THE 1940 SENIORS OF THE TEACHERS COLLEGE, UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA,
AND CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO THE NUMBER OF SE!.!E3TER HOURS IN ENGLISH
EARNED BY THE SENIORS IN HIGH SCHOOL AND IN COLLEGE
E x p la n a tio n : Kean t e s t s c o r e s and s e m e s te r hours o f E n g lis h earned i n
c o l l e g e a r e p l o t t e d by th e t h r e e l i n e s , each o f w hich a l s o r e p r e s e n t s a d i f ­
f e r e n t amount o f h ig h s c h o o l c r e d i t i n E n g lis h . The d o tte d l i n e r e p r e s e n t s
S e n io r s h a v in g 1 2 -1 6 se m e ste r h ou rs
o f h ig h s c h o o l E n g lis h , th e broken l i n e
t h o s e w ith 18 and th e s o l i d l i n e 2 1 -2 4 . The c h a r t i s read a s f o ll o w s : o f th e
87 S e n io r s h avin g 18 se m e ste r hours
o f h ig h sc h o o l E n g lis h , t h o s e h a v in g 2 1 -2 2
se m e ste r hou rs o f c o l l e g e E n g lis h have a mean t e s t s c o r e o f 6 6 .
1 2 -1 6 Sem .
18 S em .
2 1 - 2 4 S e n :.
H r s . H .S . E n g l i s h N -3 0
H r s . H .S . E n g l i s h N- 8 7
H r s . H .S . E n g l i s h N -2 4
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
10
Chart 29
KEANS OF THE RAW SCORES ON THE C-R OPINIOKAIRE, FORK J , KADE BY
THE 1940 SENIORS OF THE TEACHERS COLLEGE, UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA,
AND CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO TIE NUKBER OF SEMESTER HOURS
IN SOCIAL STUDIES EARNED BY THE SENIORS IN HIGH SCHOOL AND IN COLLEGE
E x p la n a tio n : Kean t e s t s c o r e s end s e m e s te r hours o f s o c i a l s t u d i e s earned
in c o l l e g e a r e p l o t t e d by t h e t h r e e l i n e s , each o f w hich a l s o r e p r e s e n t s a d i f ­
f e r e n t amount o f h ig h s c h o o l c r e d it in s o c i a l s t u d i e s . The d o t te d l i n e r e p r e ­
s e n t s S e n io r s h a v in g 0 -9 se m e ste r hou rs o f h ig h s c h o o l c r e d i t in s o c i a l s t u d i e s ,
th e broken l i n e th o s e w ith 12-16 and th e s o l i d l i n e 1 8 -2 7 . The c h a r t i s read
a s f o ll o w s :
o f th e 70 S e n io r s h avin g 1 2 -1 6 se m e ste r hou rs o f h ig h s c h o o l c r e d it
i n s o c i a l s t u d ie s t h o s e h a v in g 2 5-29 s e m e s te r hours c r e d i t i n c o l l e g e s o c i a l
s t u d ie s have a mean C-R O p in io n a ir e s c o r e o f 3 1 .
0 - 9 S e m.
1 2 - 1 6 Sem.
1 8 - 2 7 Sem.
0
4
Hrs. H.S.
Hr s. H.S.
Hrs. H.S.
Soc.
Soc.
Soc.
S t . N-17
S t . N-70
S t . N-54
5 1C - o
2G 2m
3m 6 1 4C
43
r
24 26
43
3 14
li
34 31 44
S e m e s t e r Hours 3 o l l e - e S o c i a l S t u d i e s
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Chart 30
MEANS OF HAW SCORES ON THE CALIFORNIA TEST CF MENTAL MATURITY,
ADVANCED S-FORK, MADE BY THE 1940 SENIORS CF THE TEACHERS COLLEGE,
UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA, AND CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO THE NUMBER
OF SEMESTER HOURS IN UNCLASSIFIED CREDIT EARNED BY THE SENIORS
IN HIGH SCHOOL AND IN COLLEGE
E x p la n a tio n : Lean t e s t s c o r e s and se m e ste r hou rs o f u n c l a s s i f i e d c o ll e g e
c r e d i t a r e p l o t t e d by th e t h r e e l i n e s , each o f w hich a l s o r e p r e s e n t s a d i f f e r e n t
amount o f h ig h s c h o o l u n c l a s s i f i e d c r e d i t . The d o tte d l i n e r e p r e s e n t s S e n io r s
h a v in g 3 -9 se m e ste r hours o f u n c l a s s i f i e d h ig h s c h o o l c r e d i t , th e broken l i n e
t h o s e w ith 1 2 -1 8 and th e s o l i d l i n e 21 or m ore. U n c l a s s if ie d c r e d i t s in h igh
s c h o o l a r e u s u a lly la b e le d " g en era l" and in c lu d e s u b j e c t s n o t c o n sid e r e d
a cad em ic. U n c la s s if ie d c r e d i t in c o l l e g e a r e m il it a r y s c i e n c e , freshm an l e c t u r e
and th e l i k e . The c h a r t i s read a s f o ll o w s :
o f th e 58 S e n io r s h a v in g 12-13
s e m e ste r hours o f u n c l a s s i f i e d h ig h s c h o o l c r e d i t t h o s e h avin g 6 se m e ste r hours
o f u n c l a s s i f i e d c o l l e g e c r e d i t have a mean t e s t s c o r e o f 9 2 .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
92
kindred field* * Chert >6 i« typioal of the** th*t show * relatively strong
relationship between college semester hours and teat scores* Chart 18 is
the only one that shear* no relationship of any kind* Only two of the
charts, i*e«, 26 and 88, shew a relationship between amounts of high school
credit and soores on related tests*
The te st soores used in constructing two of the three-variable
graphs are for non-subject tests*
Chart 89 shows a tendency for mean
soores on the C-R Opinionaire to decrease as the anount of college work
in the social studies fie ld increases* Since a low soore on th is te st
means social liberalism , the relationship is interpreted to mean that
those seniors who had the most social studies work in eollege are the
most socially liberal* Chart SO was prepared to determine whether the
seniors who took relatively large amounts of "unclassified* work in high
school and eollege tend to have lower mental maturity scores than the
others* This seems to be the oase for those with large amounts of
"unclassified* high school work, and there is some evidence in the chart
that i t also holds for those with relatively large amounts of "unclassified"
college work* It should be noted in th is connection, however, that verylit t le eollege work f e ll in the "unolassified" category*
to show the relationship between relatively large amounts of eollege
credit in various subject field s and mean te st soores in the same or
closely related fie ld s, the seniors having more than 20 semester hours
in Certain subjest field s mere identified, their scores on selected te sts,
isolated, the moans for these soores determined and the pereentll* ranks
of the means in the respective distributions of local soores computed*
These relationships are presented in Table X*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
TAILS X
93
LOQAL PSRCKWTILE RAHXB 07 THE HKAH3 OF SCOKSS MADS OH IJfclOAT® SfrAHMIffilZSD TESTS
I f THE 1940 aggOBB 07 TBS TUfflMBBS GOLUBS, W m ag g f 07 HS8RASXA,
HA1X70 TWNTY 8 H R 9 HQQK8 07 <9883X7 C® MOTS IH A SPMXTUD SSBJBOT 7XBJ^
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m onm go ooevo of 87*1, oteloh t iw rtj f —*< To th* 98 jfULt of «Ao oaatlvo diotrlfevtlon of
o w n on tho ooloooo oootloa of tho goauuml oultonro tool*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
94
I t Is apparent th a t s to le n with neve than SO scnectsr hours la
selease, aathematlce and foreign language* respectively, rank re la tlv c ly
high la th e ir groups oa related te s ta , while those with considerably
more thaa a swan ancunt of erad lt la x&gllsh aad aoelal studies t e n
approxiaately en rag e seores fo r thdl r groups ea m a te d tests*
The low p ercen tile rankings of
sobs
of the seal ora having larg e
amounts of a re d lt la given fie ld s nay he due to the fa c t th a t they did
not get fro a the courses they took In th e fie ld s the Infosaatien sailed
fo r by the teste*
la te e fie ld of Bagllsh, fo r cn a p le , sealers with
sere than SO sw eeter hears of course soak scored Si p ercentile pelade
higher on te e lite ra tu re p art of te e general culture te s t than on te e
English test*
This would lead one to hclleve th a t acre etw ee Is placed
on lite ra tu re thaa on English fundamentals la te e SagUah courses of te e
U niversity, Another p e s slb lllty Is th at the sere capable students teed
to take aajo rs aad ainors la sol cnee, n atew atle* and forelga language*
Srldease presented la Appendix B supports te le suggested explanation
without refle c tin g la a y way on the other*
Although, as has te rn shown, quantity of course work la n given
fie ld aad knowledge of the fie ld or related fie ld s as shown by standardised
t a t scares appear to be associated, te e relationship i s too weak to war*
rant placing dependence on ex lstiag courses to provide desired profi­
ciencies, This conclusion holds more strongly fo r social lih s ra liw than
fo r fie ld s of knowledge, th ere being no f ie ld , study of which appears to
be sig n ifican tly related to social lib eralise*
Two possible explanations fo r tee conditions fo o d aret
1* The eurrlettlua provided Teachers Oellege students does net
provide the elements of general education called f a by te a t a t s .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
«•
1* fho slsnoats at gswwml oftttoftlot or* net sffe stiv sly pot*
SOWttft t# tb t ObOftOOftfltw
DeterwLnatioe of tbo wrtwrt to whlsh tfeot* o r other footer* or* tbo to o l
OOtOOS M u tt bo achieved
caly I f *W *m rOQOOfOti
t u t qwality of ooofc la a g if ts fis lft of staftr o r Ik g sn srsl, a s
■snowed by sorbs* i t poalbi'voftip sw# sotoohsi slg o lflo eatljr rela ted t t
taiiwl edge is tb t fie ld otf rela te d fields* mi v d l Ml to MholsOtlO
tafto, sod has • s lttb t tenftonoy to to so relateft to ao slsl H bem llea* i t
shows i s
vx 0 # tk a i s •#* between iiafes i s sebJeeta ****** h r Mm
seniors tuft s to ts s soda os th s selsobeft koowloftso te sts* 10 bsva to s t tit *
o lfie a ste w blis th s etboss m
maogUglhla* bhe to ta l mwgo f a t a l l eaob
t ^ t i t ftoM a h i # o f -#*#« to sa 1weftgeftrt earn low of **00ft* f t# la tte *
la tb s only ■f o tlro > I t t b t Mm&s «****
Sorfco I t Itg U th and foreign IfgM igo anew to b t a o tt highly to t»
the same or
rolatsft w ltt to o t tto to t l«/r«la%eft flslfts o tllo m fca i t atloot* tswft i t
bo taoooteteA iso o t with ksgwlsftgo I t
' such" flslfts* fb o tg t only two t * t
between eofoolaotie aptttwfte toft wolghbaft ta o b t wots obtoisoft* they aro
both po sitiv e onft rslstlw oly high fo r t b i t otwfty* they tooft to show th a t
so o lo tt with high o o b o la ttlt ex it bafto b ats t b t boat M ats* tb s h t# o o t j t
btfewosa welahteft taaftoi soft ooswws on tb s 0*S oaftMMwMsw I s -f*ffti i t ronra*
ooato tbo relatleaah ly botwoon otsloi I t
otoftlto soft oplniMMlro
t oowot* 9bo other tbtoo f*§ of tbo type la ta o s tle s boftng p o sitiv e thoagh
not elepifieant* ib **q sotfiott to Mm toatlMOftot tb s t a tBdgh)I p o sitiv a
rslstlosM klp e x ists bobwooa weighted to tb t imh* ooolal llb o ta lio t*
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96
TABU XI
OOHIOBUffitOWS BEnraSN IIIQ8CTP BA1K8 WXtBBt BT THE 1940 SSHXCRB
or THE TBAC10E88 OOIXMB, UHXTKR8ITY CF HBSBASX&, TV AXX 88N M 8 TAD®
AT TBS UVTVBVKTY OF BHBHaiA, AH) 80QBX8 VftBt BT THE SBJIORfl
OH SEUJOTS0 STAHDASBXESD TEBSS
JBra888SSSNMMOSSPHnnSOSNSMOMSNOOBtMMNSnSSSSMSNHnSflNBSMSSiONSiSSSNSBHtOnSISSMOSMRSi
O orralatloao t f flofejoot F Io ld * '■
8taa4ar4&so4 Tost
■*llafe voroicft Boioass lia s
La&gsaso
A rts
.189
1.041
Total Soero* Oooj>«ratiTo
•480
sagUait foo t w m wrnrnm 1«040
Calif* Tost o f Hosts!
*484
M aturity aBmbma s» Feast 1*049
L ita rtta ro , OooparatiTo
.SIB
Oaaorsl Oaltoro foot*
1*044
Font <1 Part I I I
•090
1*081
Loots CMI Opiaionalro
Total Soaro, Oooparatito
Post top orarr A ffairs
Toot Fes* 1M0
F ia t A rts, Cooparatiir#
Control Oallwro fast#
Font 0 r a r t IT
F o litlo a l I m l t , Coopaxa*
tir o Coattnporary Affslop
Tost wmm 1940, 9oo. x
boo* 4 *»# V«oati,c«©issiCoaOaHMMftaO' A ffalra
Tost FaanalH© m * t t
L itoratoro, Oooporatlvo
Pont ipp nwoty A ffairs Toot *188
1*084
Font 1940, soo« XT
Fiao Arts* Qooparatlvo
Contaqporaif Affa lts f is t
I o n 1940, Boo# T
soioaoo, Oooporatiro
Control Oultaro Toot,
Fora 4 n o t T
SeloBOo aad Kodiolao
Cooperative Oaatanporaty
A ffairs Tost Tom 1940
Boo. XXX
*804
1*044
A ll
m sto sr
*«4 ■
sa tlo o ts
Boo* OfcoA*
•889 ..."
*801
1*098
1*088
*884
1*884
•440
1*048
•884
•nss
1*041
•*#008.
1*089
i BftT
m
1*041
•489
I f 044
«ait8i
+mm
1*090
*081
1*049
*008
1*041
•044
1*041
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•848
1*088
•?
staalliy* of «ork 4oao la a d f w t flo ift mla «aw«nl» aa w
m
m
m
A
tar worts onhmI la taU roraltir aearaoaB aaaaa to la unirw ffla a ttr tnrlotai
to taMwAalaa oa noMMBnai tar sfffi^iinl I —rt fcmrta ***»■ ammmt of oowmhk
work *oaa» o f 14 e** la ftftS* XX ohtoh twva to 4a with 40011ty o f wortt
awl fcM alatpe 10 ora total iMMittaa f * alfn lftaaah tn i throa of th a
raoalolwg fa« r ami yooitUa* I t a lU to to ta U o l th a t o f tfc* 43 t l # la
XMhla XX fa* ft} th a t rasvaaoal saaotltar o f *"— * nook a a t kaoatoAaOk
oaljr as at* imattiwa a a t t a t alao o f tfcaaa m
malgrtfSaawt* Stotawaawe*
tha pooltltr* E lf la tfcla oraa? ta a l to to a a a ll* tta a tto 19 po aitlaa
»*■ agdah Pronioooiit
otBjBo^^RaRPPlitr
B^^FO
^O
®
BBBM
p aaft haaa&alaa*
R
R
P*^R
^P^R
PPBFim
P^^^^H
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P^^p
$tahla XXX sroaoato oofoolattoaa aH aa laftaatai th a t
(a} oofcolaatlo «putta&* too** a staoitlto ro lo tlau talp to kaealoito
of ai^a itf a o ti^o ^*
flo
l4
oat i^ahoao
to a t^^aaaooaoa
noww
io^^o am
pa^ar^^^p* tar ^oa^aaoo
^rowr*
( t | aotaAaatta a p tlta l* la paalttta& y roU to* to oooioi UfcorwHaat
(o) oootai U tanaU oa la paoltU aly ro U to t to taxndaa** of any
aohjaet fla id aa moontnI tar to a t aooroai
Iff} w aaaatao of a a a o a ja it fio ia la gaoititM ur foiatao to «aa»*
m JL t
4 iM b ^ u 4
*k*
A jO
X .A < * a
OOaA i*4fe J ta
01 jms
JffO lB B M ^tt t *
u t ^ h <m>A
t m
i— r t
Xatta of ttadaao flotfto*
Of tto 14 oamroUtlona la fo tlo XXX oaioh otooo tto yalatlaaoM y
tahaooB ataMloatio anM tala *«»o naBtaoa to a t aoopoa«
aaa eoa4tlaa«
thro* ora hleh* alao or* law t a t o laain o o at *a4 o alr tow tanra aa
I ----------------------to aoaaaoUaa o itlt t t o otatar o f aoalltw of aoofek tto aaootlatt aoa xodaaS
00 to okothow ta o a lltr o f aaili la iPtSMkal to tp o ttltf aa aaaoaoaf ty aaotco
oom
moK tar tto
ombIami oaaw
Iff o»11mmi oooomooa
ttaLo
u Bw*ww^^^^^raaoP^w^wo^^w
laoootftj^toO
^^^oaao^^^mo
^r^oFoa w^wwiwo^miaaa
a^^^^maiotaoitawta
^*^^0*0® ttnoaOtlffB m
^*mo^a
t r tha aoaataaatioB o f tto ao t taroo »oarU tlo « ro ^ o a t ia t la two aaaoa otaw
th a t ootak a fo ia tlo a a tto owlatw «m l a aaa tamt I t «ooa oat* ?hooo 100^0
or* Bffoaaabat oa laaaHBV 0 •
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
TABLBZZZ
ooRRSUTinna jomm soobxs rum m w x 1940 s m ma car yhs
TEACHERS COULBGB, WStVSSBJTT Of H8BRASKA, Oil aOBUKTOTO SYAHDAKDIZH) TESTS
O arralationa by Taata*
StaM ardlaad Taat
1.
c a l f . Taat 0 t Mmtal
Maturity My* 8-Fcrai
S. Lants CNR Oplnionatra
8.
4*
8*
8*
7,
*88
£*081
Coop. Xngllah Pom CM .71
v o ta
£*«•
Coop* f e f tttk FoamOK .78
P art n i , Too*bul«ry £.889
Coop* Oan*l Ctlfe* UNO .47
HP ort m , L ltam tara £.844
Coop* Con*! (felt* San
•81
%F art IT, F itt Arta £.081
Coop* 0aa*l ObtlUFam .88
% F art 7 , Solano*
£.888
8* Coop* Cost* At, lam
1940* Y ota
9* Coop* Oont. Af.Forw
1940* F art I.P al.B r.
10* Coop* Oont* Af*Fora
1940 F art IX, Social
4 Saoaaalt Btanta
11* Coop* Cost* Af.Foam
1940 F art XXX, Sal.
tu t,
18* Coop* Oont. Af»Fam
1940 Part IT, lit*
IS* Coop* Coat* At,
Foam 1949 F art T,
Fin* Arta
14* Coop* Oont. At*
Worn 1940 F art TX,
rtinnnan ant a
23, OMo Payohologioal
XqnatoA
*80
£.084
,38
•88
£•048 £.041
*48
•78
£.047
£*®**
*88
£*048
*89
,89
•48
•87
•47
4.099
£.044
£•049 £.047
£*03*
l* vaf
•88
•78
*88
£*088
£,849 £.080
♦79
£*088
•89
•48
£.048 £.048
.88
*87
£.088 £.081
.78
•88
£•041
,81
•84
.86
•88
£.088 £.048 £.081 £.048
*88
•18
£.088 £•081
•86
£.088
•80
•88
.19
£*088 £.084 £.088
.79
£.088
.71
£.088
*87
£048
'*¥& mmtbera a t th a iop
tk* •oitama rap:raaant tha ia a ta aa snatbarad in tk#
ooltvm haa&ad «8tanAarAiaaA Yaat»*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
99
slgnlfioanss*
The highest eorrelation is -f.79 and I s fo r mental n atu rity
to st scorss aad equated ssorss oa the Ohio Psyehelogleal Snalnatlea**’
Bnglish to s t ssorss bear ths highest relationship to ssh o lastis aptitude
aad soorss oa th s fiats a r ts ssetlon of th s eont«q>orarjr a ffa irs ts s t th s
lo v n t*
Further
/evidense th a t th s too sobolastie aptitude te s ts agree alosely i s
shown by th s fa s t th a t ii* of eaah with ssorss ia two subjeet fie ld s ass
almost identisal*
By comparing the data ia fa h ls IX (p . 79} with those of ooluna one
la Table X II, i t Is easy to sss th a t seholaatle apt!tads tsads to te a r a
higher rULatloateip to knowledge as measured by ts s t seerss thaa amount of
work taken ia sabje s t fields*
A sash g reater proportion of th s j£*f th a t
hare to do w ith ssh o lastis aptlts& e and knowledge are aigalfioant te as
i s th s sass with those whleh represent amount of work and knowledge*
Moreover, there is a general tendeney fo r s l i of ths f i r s t type to hs
higher.*
Ths r of -KM between ssorss oa th s seholastls aptitude ts s t and
th s <J~R Opinionalre shows a tendanay fo r the able student to te so sially
lite ra l*
^Bata oa the Ohio ts s t were assured frost th s Scteaslon Division a t th s
University of SfSbrasfca* Ssorss are based oa te s ts taken by th s 1949 Seniors
when they wars high ashool seniors o r teen they steered th e university of
Nebraska as frsteasa* Bata wars available fo r lOd of the 141 seniors*
*As seholastlo aptitude was being studied* aa Interestin g g astelsa arose
soassralng the sabjeet fie ld s ohossa as Majors end a lse rs by seniors of
d ifferen t ssh o lastis a b ility levels* This tu etelsa was investigated by
d istrib u tin g the sealers aoeordlng to th e ir ssorss on th s C alifornia Test
of Msafeal M aturity aad then identifying th s major wad ni nor sub je sts of the
individuals in eaeh quarter of the distribution* I t was found th a t ssrta in
sabjeet fie ld s tend te a ttra e t th s more able students, others th s I sm
eapable. A ll data asssablsd are prsM tesd in Table XXII in Appendix B» p. 127.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
xoc
Tea of th e el area tip representative of seelal liberalism and te s t
scores ere leer yet sig n ifican t; they reveal * alig h t hut inportnnt ten*
deucy for the socially lib e ra l yoreou to be well Interned i s the arm *
tested*
other n il. in fab le &X* most of which ere high* represaat relm.Uai~
ships eisoBfi te s t eceree*
Son* of these ere high heeense they ere r fs
between scares os whole te a ts sad p a rts of te s te or betwoeu related ta a t
ports* a u of these *♦«. hswevwr* tend to shoe th a t Jtaoeledge of ear
fie ld as Measured hr eeores oa te a ts ia aaseeieted with knowledge of
related fields*
aw eary
By use of the prodaet-aoaent aathed o f correlatio n, three-variable
graphs aad a ewd-grsphio table* relationship* ea»ag th e data presented
ia Ihapters II end H I wscre investigated ia ea e ffo rt to deteendaa possible
reason* fo r the conditions shows by th e data* The hypotheses orig in ally
se t up ia the study ware tested end oaly one was f s a i to he waives* flea*
elusions rose had eeesem iag then eve d e fin itely H alted* however* haseesa
the relationship* feand are la general law* She west impendent findings
are as fellows*
1* (a} Amount of course work taken la a given fie ld of study teed*
to be pe*IU*«ay related to knowledge of th e fie ld end of related fields*
Of m tip which rep reesit p a irs of variables o rig isa lly considered to he
re la te d , a l l are poolt i r e end alas are sig n ific an t, hut a l l are a ith a r
n*g llgjbie «* lew* Aaeaab of high eeheel ered it ia a subject fie ld
appears to hear hat l i t t l e ralatloeakly he toweled*# of the field* Mi
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
101
relationship ex ists fo r six of the eight fie ld s Investigated and only s
slig h t positive relationship fo r the other two*
(b) Seniors with more than the average amount of cred it in
science, asth m atics and foreign language, respectively, rank re la tiv e ly
high in th e ir group* aa related te s ts , while those with considerably
acre than a mean amount of c red it in Boglish and social studies have
approximately average scores fo r th e ir groups on related tests*
2.
Soolal lib e ra lis e appears to be unrelated to mount of c red it
in subject fie ld s .
Chr the four correlations th a t represent these
variables, two are p o sitiv e, two negative and none sig n ific a n t.
3.
(a) Quality of work la a given fie ld of study or in general,
as measured by marks, is po sitiv ely and sig n ifican tly related to knee*
ledge in the fie ld or related fie ld s . Of the 14 tlM between marks in
subjects taken by the seniors and soores made os the selected knowledge
te s ta , 13 are p o sitiv e end 10 of these have significance. The to ta l
range fo r a l l such r^s i s frc a a high o f *86 to aa in sig n ifican t le v of
-*008*
(b) Quality ef work in a given fie ld or in general, ae
measured by marks earned, seems to be mere closely related to knowledge
of specific fie ld s as measured by standardised te sts than amount of
course work done i s th e respective fie ld s . The correlations between
quality and knowledge tend ia general to be higher than those between
amount of cred it aad knowledge*
<e) Quality of work in a given fie ld of study or in general,
as measured by marks, is positively aad somewhat sig n ifican tly related
to scholastic ap titu d e. Only two *!* were obtained but both are positive
and re la tiv e ly high fa r th is study*
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lot
(d) Quality of work ia a given fie ld of study or in general
has a slight tendency to he p ositively related to social lib erallsa*
All r^s obtained are positive, but only the one representing social
studies and social liberalism is significant.
4.
(a) Scholastic aptitude hears a positive relationship to
knowledge of a subject fie ld as aeasured by te s t mores*
Of the 14
correlations which show the relationship between seholastie aptitude
and various te s t scores, a l l are p o sitiv e, three are high, nine are leer
but sig n ifican t and only two have no significance*
{b} scholastic aptitude is considerably more highly related
to knowledge of a subject fie ld as measured by te s t m ores than amount
of cred it in the field *
9« Scholastic aptitude is p ositively related to social liberalises,
the correlation being 4*S£*
6* Social liberalism is p ositiv ely though not highly related to
knowledge of any subject fie ld s as aeasured by te s t scores* A ll of the
U r»s r epresenting them variables are p o sitiv e, though lowland te a
are significant*
?• Knowledge of one subject fie ld i s positiv ely related to
knowledge of kindred fields*
Most of th e correlations representing th is
relationship are high*
Though the data la th is chapter contain no patent answer s to the
problem of teacher education, i t would appear th a t acre (aphasia should
be plm ed upon the selection of prospective teachers with high scholastic
aptitude* An e ffo rt also should be nade to fiaft whether th e d m ea ts of
general education in which seniors are deficient are provided in the
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
currioula of the stodents o f Teachers College*
I f research rereela th at
th e / are lack in g, rerlelo n o f the curriculum should fo llo w .
In any ease,
Teachers College should present the desired elements o f general education
so e ffe c tiv e ly that they s i l l became e pert o f the students who experience
then*
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CHAPTER T
shkaht aid
nconnvDATiaii
A scholarly and cu ltu ral taskgreond th at tonstos a ll phases of
towia a e tiv ity aad sh lsh la usually knean aa general education should
ha aa in teg ral f a r t af tha taaahar*s equipment* la tha past w riw i
studios have revealed th a t tto general education af tha average teach­
ing candidate aad teasher la v sefu lly mask* Baaant years have witnessed
aa laaraaaa af la ta ra a t la tha general adaaatlea phasa af taaahar
train in g aad aara emphasis has haaa given th is element a f toaohar pre­
paration* At th is time tha problem la af p artic u lar la ta ra a t lo cally
toeau** the faaahara College a f tha Buiv arsity af Hsbraska la a eooperatlag in s titu tie a ia a four-year pragraa aadlag ia 194* af tha Oemnlssien
an Taaahar Sdueatisa af tha Aaartaaa Council aa Xdueatiea* par evalu­
ation purposes, tto College aaada data!lad iaferm atlea shout tto
general aduaatiaa haekground af i t s advanced students*
This study arms dasi gaad to reveal tha axtant to which tto 1940
Saalora a f the Ta&otors College aaar tha data a f tto lr graduation had
had experience la various subject fluid s aad had acquired hath a knar*
ladga of eartaln elements a f general adaoatlaa aad a sa a ia lly lito r a l
attitude* i t also aimed to dlsalesa sans poasibia raassns fa r tto
strengths and weaknesses a f tto lr status*
Tto problem resolved I ts e lf la ta four phases t
1* Finding agreement an elements th a t eonparlse gsaaral education
and determialag what alaansts to latastlg ate*
- 104 -
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im
8 . Determining to what extent tha seniors had contact with
various fie ld s of study while la high aohool aad ia eollege*
9* Determining the knowledge of th e eeleeted general edaeatlea
fie ld s possessed by the seniors and th e ir a ttitu d e toward soolal ehange*
4* Finding possible explanations fo r th e general education
oharaotarloties of the seniors*
Sources of Data and Methods of Research
To find seme agreansnt on the nature of general education aad
on the elements th a t should eomprlse the general education of teachers*
a search was made in the lite ra tu re of both general and teasher education*
A fter careful analysis of mush lite ra tu re i t was found th a t general
education i s considered as being
Sread
I t eonearas its e lf with knowledge, ranging from knowledge
of the progress and a e tiT ltia s of contemporary society
to knowledge of the fundamentals off English, mathematics
and science*
Soolal
I t tra in s youth to be, not only w illing subjsets in a
demeeraay, but active p articip an ts in th e democratic
Integrated
I t cuts across subject lin e s freely to a n t i the major eat
of development of the whole personality*
Cultural
I t upholds the best in a r t, music, English, lite ra tu re ,
science, mathematics aad relig io n and emphasises p a rtic i­
pation, not mere knowledge*
Liberal
I t builds fo r progress* I f ehange is progress, i t them
favors ehange*
C ritica l
I t does not accept the trad itio n al because i t is tra d itio n a l,
but makes i t stand the te s t of e r itie a l thought.
Personal
I t emphasises health, mental, physical and social* I t
emphasises development of each person to h is g reatest
capacity*
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10#
Anther1tie s almost universally agree th a t a teacher, i s order
to f u l f i l l h is obligation to society should possess tho following
general education c h a ra c te ristic s. Ha should ha
Wall informed
One who has a broad knowledge of eomtcmsmrme? society,
of reading, spooking and w riting, of sal anas, mathematics
and English, and an appreciation of tha fin s arts*
Social
Ona who undarstands social relatio nsh ips, aad has a social
point of view.
W ell-integrated
Ona who ia m entally, m orally, physleally, and so cially
ad justed to his environment aad adaptive to others*
Cultured
Ona who has an la ta ra a t in and appreciates th e fin e r
things of li f e , both vocational and avocational.
Liberal
One who p ractises a g reat deal of tolaransa as wall as
maintains a bsroad outlook on lif e .
C ritica l
One who Is w illing and ready to question, but not too
w illing to condemn*
Tha elements of general education selected fo r analysis from
th is broad fie ld of ch aracteristics were chosen because fa irly general
agreement as to th e ir nature and importance seems to e x ist and because
they can be p a rtia lly measured by a group of standardised tests* A
l i s t of the elcmente selected follow s;
Present a c tiv itie s aad progress o f society, i . e . , contemporary
affairs*
English fundamentals*
L iterature
Fine a rts
Seienac
Social liberalism
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m
tto f ir o t largo phaoo of tlno otudy wao diroetod toward rouoallag
hm
iaport&at foots about tbo statu* of tbo ooalor* with rospoot to
thooo oloM R tit Sows*tor bouro la subjoot field* uoro used to dotondao
tho oxtont to uhiob tbo 1940 Somiors of Toaobors Coll* go bad oxporioaeo
ia tbo various oubjoot fioldo ufail* ia high oobooi aad eollogs, on*
yoar of work ia a oubjoet oa oitbor lovol boiag iatorprotod oo ola
•oasstor bouro* bo a aoaouro of tbo q u ality of oollogs oxporloaoo, aanbo
oantod a t tho Bbiv*r*ity of Sobraoba uoro uood* Hlg* oobooi oad oollogs
subjoot* uoro c la ssifie d in to fioldo aaialy aooordlag to tho system uood
by tbo Qaioorolty Registrar# tto follcoriag olaooifloatioa of b l^ i oobooi
subjests was aoodt Eaglloh, foroica language, matboaatles, ooioaoo*
ooeial studio* oad *uoola#sifi*d** Oollogo aubjoots uoro olasslfio d ia
tbo sons aswaor with tbo fioldo of ftao a r ts , p ractical a r ts , oduoatloa
aad physical oduoatloa boiagaddod# 1 complete tran sc rip t of tbo orodito
aad aarks of 141 of tto 149 soaloro of foasboro College* woo aad*, tto
data uoro put ia tabular fom oad suaaarisod oad aoaouroo of oontral
tendency oad v a ria b ility uoro obtained*
ttoulodgs oad gpaeral attitudoo la a flo ld aro perhaps bottor
aoaouroo of tto oxto at to ubiob oao boo bad s i golflean t oxporioaooo ia
tto fio ld than tto orodlt bouro bo hao ia it*
l a aa of fa rt to dotondao
tbo amount of kaovlodgo tto 1949 Soaioro of Toaoboro Collogo bad of tto
oloaoata of general oduoatloa oolootod fo r aaalyolo and to Had tto lr
attitu d o tooard general oooial preblooo , four standardised tooto uoro
^tb* five s o ^ o n ae t laoladod ia tto study uoro oliainatod booauoo tto y
fouad I t impossible to tabo tto several otoadardiood tooto th a t uobo
uood*
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109
given them# Tha te ats were chosen on the basis af th e ir fitn e ss far
measuring tha selected elements o f general edneatlom aad were administo rad to tha 141 aonioro ju st before th a lr graduation in May, 1940*
Tha toata salaatod were
Tho Cooperative Contemporary A ffairs Taat for Cel leg s Students,
Form 1940
Tho Cooperative aaneral Culture Toat, Fora Q, F arts i n , IV, aad
Tho Cooperative English Toat, form OK, 1999
Tha Lenta C-& Qpinisnaire
In a d d itia i to thoee to a ta , a measure o f seholaatio a p titu d e, i ,
o « , Tha C alifornia fo o t o f Mmtal M aturity, Advanced ft*Fem, was given
tha aonioro in order to provide a b asis for exploring tha relation sh ip
o f seh o la ttle a b ility to tho statue factors stu d ied ,
Seeraa node by the 1941 Freshmen of Toaohora eo n o g i on tho sane
battery of te a ts ware secured aad used aa aa additional norm group in
tha in terp retatio n of tho eeeree earned by the seniors* These tooto
were given in October 1940 to S it of tho Si9 individual# in tho froehann
group#* Although i t was recognised th a t eompaiisons of tho sooroe of
freshmen and aonioro oould not bo interpreted ae actually shooing tho
o ffsets of eollege train in g , i t was f e lt th a t they oould bo regarded
aa d efin itely suggestive of certain o ffsets of undergraduate schooling*
I t was believed th a t Mss sen io rs, act coaly as a resu lt s f approximately
four years of university education and greater m aturity, but also bocause
they were a more select group, should have generally superior te s t scores*
Tho two groups were considered typ ical elaaa groups*
*The author i s indebted to ths Department o f educational Psychology aad
Measurements, under whoso auspices the te s ts were adm inistered, for
permission to use Mbs soores# For various reasons, 41 freshman fa ile d
to take one or mete o f ths te s ts in Mia battery#
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190
In addition to presenting distribution* of tho sooroa of both
•o n io n and freshmen and sumary s ta ti stio s In tabular
eharts
were eonatruotod fo r a ll to o ts. Those devised fo r tho knowledge to o ts
eoopare in sash ease the sto res of th e sealers with too standard Beam
groups and with the Mores of the 1941 Freshmen of Teaohers College.
The ehart showing the re s u lts of th s 0*41 Oplnioaalre has only one
standard norm group and the freshmen and sealer M ores, while the ehart
for the C alifornia Test of Mental M aturity presents only standard s o n s
fo r the general population and sm io r escrow.
Standard
/nones used ia the study were the nest su itab le available.
Ideally , norms representative o f students la tm shers soilages eo n stitu te
the best basis of ecaparison fear a tsaehers eollege group, unfortunately,
sush norms were available fo r the te s ts used ia th is study only ia the
fie ld of English.* Other norms used fo r latm p retln g aocrea oa knowledge
te s ts are representative of sophomores sad sealers ia a l l types of
eollegss* and the freshmen sear as already d mer i ted . Of thM e th ree
types of norm , those fo r sophomores are based oa a larg e e a g le , ere
rath er sim ilar to norms fo r Teaehars College Seniors aad are eonsldered mem
suitable fo r th is study than e ith er of the other two. Although th e senior
®The name referred to are the Cooperative Test Serviee*s Type I I I n o n * ,
wfaieh appear la A Booklet of Httms. Mkjr 1986.
*ttognss of th is type fo r the English te s t wire obtained from Ouretam,
Edward jS., "Evaluation or Guidons*,” The Report of the 1989 Sophomore
TestingPresaesu Cooperative Test S ern ee, Ameriean Connell an Education,
llow Vorkt Marsh, 1940, pp. 4*10. Them asoms are fo r a oomparable foam
of the te s t, they appear to be as appltsable as any others aad, unlike
noms fo r the te s t used, give values fo r seniors as well as fo r sophomores.
Norms fo r the eontenperary a ffa irs tm t and the general culture te s t
ware the "Basle Peroentiles fo r Colleges Using Separate Answer Sheets'* aad
the "Condensed P ercentiles fo r Seniors* obtained from Syans, David S ., "The
F irs t Steps ia ®uidanse* S elf A ppraisal,
"
U
M
JS ^ S K S i
Testins Prosrssu The Cooperative Tm t Serviee of the Aaenean Oeaneil on
MuoaUon, Hew York I January, 1941, pp. Sl*86.
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m
noma mre baaed upon an undesirably anall mmber of eases, they vara used
because, except in th e oaao of the English to o t, no others war# available.
The standard nonas uaad In Interpreting the 9-8 Opinionaire raau lta a r t
based on aooraa nade by 580 am and wcaan college students of a ll ages who
are daaorlbed In the te a t wannal aa being typioal of aid-western soilages.
Seorea nade by the Teachers College Freshaen on th ia tw it were ale© used
as noma* Only noma representing 80,000 aenbers of the general population
aero used in interp retin g the seal ora* aaoraa on the G alifom le Teat of
Mental M aturity.
A aeeond aspeat of the study was planned to discover poasible c&»
plasationa fo r the faeta revealed by the analysis of the fom al train in g
of the sealers ami the p a rtia l analysis of th e ir knowledge o f the seleeted
e l m eets of general sdueatlon and th e ir soelal attitudes* The fie ld of
exploration was eonfined to the following seven hypotheses mil eh sesned
to he the most reasonable of aU posaihle ones and whieh appeared to
Involve only faetevs over whieh th e sellag s has eone eontrol*
1* The aaeunt of eourse wo*de taloea in a given fie ld of study,
e*g«, English, is p o sitiv ely related to knowledge of th e
fie ld and of related fie ld s as revealed by te s t eeoras*
8* Soeial llb e ra llm is positively related to aaeunt of vork
taken In oertain sub je s t fie ld s , e .g ., so eial studies*
3. The narks earned by students in a given fie ld of study or
in general are positively related to knowledge in the fie ld ,
to so eial llb e ra llm and to seholaatie aptitude.
4* Seholastle aptitude bears a higher relationship to knowledge
of a subject fie ld as shown by te a t secwes, than aaeunt of
work taken in the fie ld or In related fields*
5. Soeial lib e ra lis e la positiv ely related to knowledge of any
subject fie ld aa revealed by te s t seorea.
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I ll
6.
Knowledge o f one subject f ie ld i s p o sitiv e ly related to
knowledge o f any other f ie ld ,
lite ra tu re to koglish
or fin s a r ts to contemporary a ffa irs*
?•
Scholastic aptitude I s p o sitiv e ly r sla tsd to so s ia l
lib er a lise*
Largely by use o f the preduet-awment so e ffio ie n t o f correlation*
tu t a lso by oieens o f three-variable charts and s swti-graphio ta b le ,
the p ossib le relation sh ip s in d iested in the hypotheses were explored.
The product-soment method o f eorreletio n i s one of the most widely used
methods o f representing the
together*
extent to which two variables tend to occur
The three-variable charts show by swans o f lia s graphs the
relation sh ip o f two separate variab les to a third*
One s e t o f th ese
charts was used to show th e extent to whieh amounts o f high school and
co lleg e course work la given subject fie ld s are related to seorea on
standardised t e s t s la the seats or related fie ld s*
Another sa t was
employed to show the relation sh ip between amounts of work on the two le v e ls
in sp e c ific subject fie ld s and marks earned a t th e U niversity of Nebraska
in these fie ld s*
The seed-graphic ta b le was used to show the relation sh ip
between r e la tiv e ly large amounts o f cred it la various subject f ie ld s and
, knowledge o f th ese or c lo se ly related fie ld s as revealed by t e s t stores*
For
a ll seniors having more than to semester hours in certain subject field s*
the seorea made by th ese ind ividu als on selected te s ts wave iso la te d , the
means for them determined, the p c r e e stile ranks o f th ese means la the
resp ective d istrib u tio n s o f lo c a l scores computed and a l l r e su lts arranged
in tabular form.
Findings and Recommendations
i m m
Generally speaking, the seniors that had contact with the various sub­
je c t fie ld s had from about one and tw o-thirds years to approximately three
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11*
years of work la the six high school fie ld s , ant frem tw o-thirds of a
year to f ir e years of work in the various college fields*
Their median
semester hours of high school e red lt ranged from 10*18 In selenae to
18.55 In Sngllsh, th e ir median sm aster hours of sollege work from 3.93
in physioal education to £9*51 in so eial studies*
There Is eonslderahle variation in the amounts of ered lt the
seniors had in the various high sshool subjects, but the v ariation is
mush greater fo r amounts in college subject fields*
Of those seniors
oredited with experience in the high sehoel fie ld s , some had as l i t t l e
as three semester hours in one or more of the six fie ld s and many had
only six to nine hours*
On the other hand, some had as rash as 30 hours,
or fiv e years, of foreign language and 38 hours, or six years, of unelae*
slfle d work. Far seniors or edited with experience in the various soilage sub­
je c t fie ld s , the g reatest variation in semester hours occurred in th e fie ld
of fin e a r ts , where the range was from one to 84 semester hours* Social
studies had a range of six to 44 while science and foreign language each
ranged from two to 86 semester hours* Zn fin e a r ts , soeial studies sad
education, seme seniors accumulated questionably large numbers of collage
c re d its. F ifteen seniors had more than 80 semester hours each in fin e
a rts , 17 mere than 40 hours in social studies end H more than 38 hoars
in education*
Most seniors had same contact with each of the subjeot fie ld s in
high school, but many had no contact a t a ll with several of the college
fields*
College fie ld s in whieh seniors were nest d eficien t are aathm tttios,
fin e a r ts , p ractical a rts and physical education.
Scores made by the seniors on the various te s ts indicated great
v a ria b ility of individual performance and revealed serious group deficiencies
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
u*
la tlM ftalA o f *onta»p<w»rr affalM •»# in tfct following cmmaA «t&t«r§
ft«U «i U tK K tara, turn «rt« and afttftaaa. Xa ecrrtraat to th is , th*
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«itii«r ftoaplofcftljr ro llab io or tlghljr t l f i f lifcftW
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Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
1X4
Assent of high school ered it la a subject fie ld appears to
boar bat l l t t l o relationship to amount of knowledge i s tbo sane ear
related fields*
Kb relationship ex ists fo r d a of tho eight fie ld s
investigated and only a • lig h t pool tir o relationship fo r tho other too.
Seniors w ith aw a than tho average sanest of college e re d it la
selense, Bathewetios and foreign language, respectively, rank re la tiv e ly
high la th e ir groups on related te sts* while thoao with considerably aero
than average e red it la English and so cial studies hare approximately mean
•core* fo r th o ir groups oa related toots*
8* Soeial lib c ra lls a appears to bo wareXeted to aaownt of erodit
In aobjoet fields*
3.
Quality of work la a given fie ld o f study or la general, as
Measured by aerks, is po sitiv ely and im portantly related to knowledge la
tho fie ld or related fie ld s as ahem by to s t aseres*
Quality of work la a given fie ld ear la gaBond* as aoasarod
by narks earned, sow s to bo more elesSXy related to kneadadge as Measured
by to s t stores than amount of eottrse eredlt earaed*
Quality of work la a given fie ld of stedy or l a general, as
measured by narks, i s positiv ely and re la tiv e ly highly asseelated with
so holes tie aptitude*
Quality of work la a given fie ld of study or la general has
a slig h t tend easy to be p o sitiv ely related to aoolal lib e ra l! m .
4* Seholastie aptitude bears a p ositive and lopertaat relation ­
ship to fcaotdedge of a subject fie ld as Measured by te s t seoras*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
us
Scholastic aptitude Is considerably wore highly related to
kneaiedge i s a subjeot fie ld ae measured by te a t scores than amount e f
cred it in the field*
8* Scholastic aptitude la positively b at se t highly sedated
to aoelal liberalism .
6* Soeial liberalism ia p ositively though so t highly related
to tassledge at say subject fie ld aa measured by te a t scores.
?• KhOTdedge of one subject fie ld ia p o sitiv ely and re la tiv e ly
highly aasoeiated uith knowledge of kindred fie ld s .
Recommendations
A problem so far-reaching and aany-aldcd aa th a t at th e general
eduoatlan ef teeehera cannot be aolTed by a single research uhleh has
a tte s te d only to p e lst out fasts*
The evidence In the study, however,
seems to warrant the feUeudag suggestions fear iwprovmaent e f the
program of the Teachers College a t the U niversity of Hebraska.
sin es seholastle aptitude i s ra th e r olesely aasoeiated with
knoeledge e f various subject fie ld s , i t aeens th a t sq u e a ls should bo
plaeed upon the pre-training selection ef prospective teeehera w ith high
seholastle ap titu d e.
To aid in reaedyiag the situ atio n represented by what appears
to be overemphasis and asdmrcmphasis, even to the point of emapiete
neglect, of some fie ld s by large w h e re of students, i t i s suggested th a t
requirements fo r eertain degrees be m revised aa to allow the student
more elective semostsr hours and th a t more effectiv e counseling bo pro­
vided students. Seas of the present course requirements, e*g., those fo r
the Major course in A thletic Coaching and physical Education fo r Mon,
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
lid
allow l i t t l u or no opportunity fo r studwats with asjo rs in tho eowrooo
to whlsh thojr apply to ohtaia through argaalssd olassas sa rta ln general
eduoation expertanoas eonsidared daairahlo fo r all*
Mata oBtphaaio should, i t seans, ha plaasd upon eontswparaxy
a ffa irs and tha gsnaral su ltu ra l aspsots o f lite ra tu re , fin s a rts and
ssiasos* Tha sanlors Insludsd ia th is study wars p artieu larly d sfio iaat
ia tha a n a s naated* Successful praasK tatioa of thssa alawents of gaasral
oduoatioa might M il fo r roviaioa of prM oat ourrisula and tha organisation
of aw ooursss* These posslbla approashss aro not reeeawsaded, hat i t ia
strongly propound th a t sarKraa a ffo rt ho put fo rth to Japsrovs instm otion
in th s subjeot flu id s ia question and related m ss, as w all as in a ll
athar fluids*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
BXBLXOORAPHT
Barr, stria g fe lle a , "PreaiAent Barr Reeaeaendi th e study ef G lassies,"
School sad aoelety,. (ifareh 83, 1940), 811573.
Barr, S trlag fallov , sad o thers, "Bads and Heaas e f General M asstisa,*
Middle S tates Aesoalatlon of Collages sad Saseadarr 8shoola. 1939,
PP* 41*®*
B lgelw , K. W», "The M aterials of Qeasral Bdaoation," B tnsatloaal BeoorA.
(A pril, 1 9 » ), 19*1*9-99.
* "future e f Teashsv Bdueatlon la A asntse," School asd S od star.
TW m em t , 1940), 5 ii4 4 i-4 U ,
* *Whit Xe Oeaeral Btuoatloa?" The School acseu tlre, (ifey* 1939),
88t9-10, I f ,
Beushsr, (OaiaMjr, auntel (Bern h r a m h e e ^ i, A, jr.), The Ohioans Collage
Plea, Ghieagai The tfoiTerslty of Ohleago P ress, 19357
Brogan, l . , "Recant Major Treads la Tssshsr Proporetioa," BtesatloBal
■areola. (January, 1941), 9 tf-3 .
BooUogfcao, Gejr X.f "This B atter ef Oultured Teaohers,"
School Joursal. ( Iim riw , 1939), 84»n-94.
Bures, Oeeer felseci, p ie 1938 Mental Msosarsoagfes Yearbook. 9m Brtmselokt
Rutgers BaiTersltjr Preee, 1933,
Ohertere, V« W, eat Douglas tu p les, The Occuameealth TeaehwMBraialiuc
study. Chicago i The D totrereltr e O y i« i ^ Pr««B, M19,
Counts. Oeeree 8 ,. The Preeaeete e f Aaarleea i weiraey. Her Yorkt The
John Day OaaMuay.'TiBf,
Oureton, BftuarA S ., "Bualoatloa e r Quldanoe," The Report of the 1939
Sopheaare Testing Prearea. Goopaoretire T est in V le ^ AwNrteaa SoaZeil
March, 1940,
Deeer, John, "President Hutehlas* Proposals to Beaake Higher B tesaticn,”
The aeeiai fro n tie r. (Bar, 1939}, 3*108-104,
Bekart, Buth x#, "tho Are the Cultured la Our Colleges?"
Beeert, (January, 1989), 80tlSl~138,
- 119 -
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
118
KVOUden, X* 9 ., "Contribution* of Jteeeereh to the Education Of Teaohare,"
S cien tific jjeveaeat la Blaoatlca. ThirtjM tevaath Yearbook ef th e Rational
Society *W the &udy o? siueation, l> v t 11* Bloaaiagteft, I ll* t Public
school Publishing O o o p a a y , 1989, pp. SHMUU
o r te r , K
ow y, !The
# pftttare
tg r e of
o f th
F soareter,
ROmaa,
the liboxal
lib e ra l O&lcao.
OqUflSfi* Be* Yorkt
D. Appleton-Oe&tury Ocapaay, 1998.
F raaler, 8*
•Relation, of the Teaoher to Anarioa** Changing Beoaoale
P attern ," Rational M uoatloa Aeaoolatioa Freeoodlnga. 1938, pp. 174*489,
flray, V, 8, (Editor}, ttepcral Btooatloat Xta Batigo. aeooe and Beeogtlal
neaottto. Ohieage* lE W tM ly o ? O la w n R f f i, ifllL
Qullek, Luther, MxmMm fo r Aaerloan U fa . Bepart of th e Bogota*
Inquiry Into ^ e C h ta e W a t c o t of P t l i e JHu*ati«i, Beer Yorkt
XtkMNBOl Gaapany, 1899.
, W llliaa 7«, "Current Xasuee la foneral Bftaeatlea," W te d Ratio*.
September, 1999), 4«t497-914.
-r-rm Harper. M, B«, "Social A ttitude* of Educator*." fioolal F ron tier. (February,
1 9 9 7 ),3il45-l47.
Hartaaan, Ooorge
**900101 Information cad A ttitude* of Amrlooa
Secondary School Teeehore," Tho Teacher aal Society. H a t Yearbook ef
the John Baaoy Society to t t h e ;mmff «* m u w S R r Bo* Yorkt Tha John
Bay Cenyeay, 1937, pp. 810-B80.
Hanallk, F* X«, "Subjeot B atter Preparation ef Secondary School Teacher*,
Coneloaloae and G etw raliaatioae," Tha Berth Oeatral Aaaoelotion
Q uarterly. (October, 1999), lS t* £ S lC ^
Blggine, Bath L , "Meant Treafta la Higher B toeatioa," Journal ef Ktrfu*
(M ae, 1940), llt304"»18«
Botohlna, B* M., "Organisation and Stibjeet H atter of Oeneral Bftaeatlea,"
The B ulletin of the B etteaal Aeaoelatloa of fleotmlorr School P rincipal*.
Tl&reh, i i i l } , M tl-S i,
E tlp atriek , W illiaa H. (E ditor), The Toaahar and floeletr. The F lra t
Yaarbook of the John Dewey SoeieSy I S r w a Study of M uoatlon. Bear Yerict
J». Appl*tou-C*atury Ooapany, 1957,
Johaaon, Elisabeth P ., "Soda and Xoaae o f B iaeatles fro* the Point e f tie *
of the P rivate School fo r <Hrla." Biddle Statea Aeaoelatloa of Oollaeaa
and Secondary flohoola. Proceeding*. 1 9 il. OT. Vl»W'.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
319
Jones, V. A ., "A ttitudes o f College Students ftad the Chang** 1* Such
A ttitudes Boring four Teer* la Oollage,* Journal of Sduaational
Psyeholoar. (January, 1 9 8 8 ), 89 f1 4 * 8 5 ) (F*Wttftiy,"T936), 89 tU4»184.
Judd, Q« H ., "Organisation of • Program ef General Sftueatlen la Seecndary
Schools and C olleges,” Middle S tates Asaoalation of College* and
Sooondary Sohools. Proceedings. i t # .' m* vihlffi
learned, WiHUm Setehal and Ben BeKhlhe Wood, "Student and EL* Kneededge,"
A Report to the Oarneale Foundation f«? the AdfansMant of Teaehlng.
l& dletla 13V ikanioai B. i 7 M U M . lr a l .
Moftmth, S w l 7 ., *A Bibliography la (Nm m O, Bftueatlon,"
(January, 1«40J* lit9 3 -ilB .
Mathematics la f lw a il Bftaeatloa, ProgresslT* Bdneatlon Aaaoelatlon
W i a n osTsotMdary 3*Wol Currlealtsft, (ksm ittee oa the Function
e f Mathematics la 8m «m 1 Bduaatioa. Boer Torkt 8. Appleton-Century
S a p a y , 1940*
Rational Bftueatlon A ssociation, "Modem Soeial and M ueational Treads,*
Research B olletln. Vol. XZZ, KidUt 8 . O.t Ifereefeer, 1934.
Keilson, v. A ., "Bftueatlon (3ea*t Bo B ettor Than Teaoher*,* Senear (h tiM i,
(October, 1939), 88t610*413.
Saloon, S ., "Attitude* Sought By Colleges," Sohool and S oelotr. (Oetoher 8,
1937), 461444*447.
Paul, Joseph B ., "Placement Test Soares Verams Oollego Aoadeal* A ttalaaM t,*
School sad Society. (Oetoher 18, 1988), 48i804*808.
J?etk, «* l . t "Preparation of Tmehers,* Reel** of H aeatloaal Bmearoh.
(Jen*, 1940), 10i191-198.
Begg, 8* 8 ., end other*, national server of tho Education of f m ehsm .
9 eoluae*. M u , B« O.t united sta te* Oeeemmeat M m g B l H ,
1988.
studehakar, J . v«, *Fut*r* of Higher Bftaeatlea,* Sohool and society.
(July 83, 1938), 48t93«4t.
w«pt, yeas* 8 ., "Teacher Bftusatien," Journal at Higher Bftueatlon. (January,
1940), UiUMLg.
Whipple, Chqr Montrose, (B ftltor), general BtueaUon ia the Aasrleaa Colics*.
Thlrty-Bigkth Tearhook of tho Hatioaal S e e le d f« r ti e Study ^B dum tlM i,
P art IX. Bloonington, I l l . i Public sohool Publishing fl—gaigr, 1989.
Reproduced with permission o fth e copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
%20
W ritten, H. M., M a»w of » Ufeoml OoHoho. Appleton, Wio.t Collogo
P m t i 1957#
Twg«r, Tr— o 0 .,
!«Mfe«rs Collogo, QwatiA* Ufcdrortity, 19SB,
I3S
Reproduced with permission o fth e copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Apwaraxe**
Reproduced with permission o fth e copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
APPENDIX A
E«KJ»MKCR ABOUT THE TESTS TEED IS THE STUDY
Cooperative Oontffl^ogary A ffairs and General Culture T ests, 1940
Intearoorreletiona ef scores on sections ef each of these te s ts and
between sim ilar sections of the two te s ts , as well ae the controls used
to sake the te s ts valid end re lia b le in stru aen ts, »ay be found in a
b u lletin published by the Cooperative Test Service.*
Cooperative
(m
m>mm «nm»mmmmBaalish Test . Form
*mS»«wC
mM
«*.h»1958
R e lia b ility co efficients fo r th e Cooperative English Test obtained
by correlating th e scares on th e odd-nuabered it«ns with the evan~nu»b«re&
ones and the standard error* of measurement follow!**
Standard Error
cf Measurwaent
R eliab ility O oefficient
(standard group)
English Usage
2.07
.937
Spelling
1.91
.946
Vocabulary
1*94
.962
T o ta l
1*22
.9 0 S
Teat
Styens, David 0 ., The F irst Step injfaidaneat Self A ppraisal. A Report
of the 1940 Sophonore t'esting ira ip ^ C to o p e ra tlra T eirtSarvfce, Asarlcan
Oouneil on M uoatien, Hew York* Jamnary 1941.
2
Cooperative Aehievraent Test* £ Booklet j£ Beta s . The Cooperative Test
Service of th e After!sen Council on B tasatiea, Bee Yer&i May 1932, p . 10*
• }21 -
Reproduced with permission o fth e copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
IS*
s & sbl
! l» jf e u * s * i*
The following re lia b ility eoeffleient* baaed open 9
0
0
Peraena wort obtained by the split-halve# xtathod and eorreoted
by tha Speafaan Broun Fomula
B oU ability C oefficient F* l i to t*
X* Q**a
I* *• fain ta
Total Mental Factors
*BM
9*9
Language Taata
*982
8.9
Xon-languaga Taata
*984
8*0
Standard Deviation
1« I . Q* Paint*
CHRjGpiniemire
Tha eeirelatian s of f u n * n i K whan adninlatered aa a
p art of I and p ia *888 m 910 college atudenta*
The pradi oted re iia b ili by of fo ra J (baaad an tha Bandy
fornula)* ia ilU h * (I* * • Pam 9 aaa aaad ia tha atudy«)
Sealed Saoraa
Standard norne for the Cooperative taata aaka poaaibla tran alatloD of nor aaoraa in to both aaalad aaoraa and atandard pereentllaa*
Sinee aone aaa one auida of aaalad aaoraa in preaenting tha reaulta of
the taata adniaiatered in tfcia study, an explanation ef thaao aooroa
la in order* Tha following d eeerip tlai of ae&led aaoraa waa issued
by tha Cooperative foot *orviee»8
•Quotation fron the to o t annual* Tho O allfornia Toot of Mental M aturity
la d iatrib e tod by tho C alifornia Teat Burean, *989 Beverly Boulevard,
Loa Jtagelea, California*
a Bhndy, U*, and Lents, T* F*, * lte« thine wad Teat
R eliability** Journal o f Bdnoational Psyaholonr.
(Deeeaber, l t i dT’^ gi W W --------- *............. ***
Q uotation flroa tha te a t annual* Tha C«B Oplnionairo ia diatributod by
tho Charaotor Boaoaroh In s titu te , Washington U niversity, St* Louis, Mo*
•Coaperatlve Aohievenent Taata, eg* a it* , p* 1
Reproduced with permission o fth e copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
i* s
The principal oh&raoterietios of * * * Sealed Sooroa arai
1* le g a lity of u n its thrwiifrout tha scale* Tha u n its ara "equal*
In tae sense WaVUble <3S.airit>tttie5a*ef asires fa r atudents a t
various levels tand to ha sim ilar and approximately "normal*"
t* A iw a n aoaia fa r a ll taata> A aoara af f if ty an th ia aaala
repim cnta l&Sa m i l a t i n Wa avara^i ahlld would make the and
af tha p articu lar aouraa I f ha had attended an average aehool and
had taken tha usual amount af tha aubieot in question* Tha aiaa
ef the u n it ia sim ilar for a ll taata** Thia definitio n of tha
fifty -p a in t seals would not ha ooaplete without apeoifio in feraatla n regarding what ia ecnaidarad tha "usual amount a f tha subject"
and alaa tha grades in whieh th ia utual mount ia taken* An
attempt waa anda to se le c t, in aaah subject, tha number a f years
of study and tha grades in whieh th ia study aaaurrad whioh ara
neat ty pical of secondary school practice throughout tha country*
Thcac aalaotiona are apaoi fled bclowt * * * (Thera follova a l i f t
of the aubjsata , tha yaara of atudy and tha gradaa in whioh atudicd)*
8* Interpretation* tha naa af them Scaled Soarea aakac poaaihla
a t la act a lim ited ocaaparisen of te a t re su lts fTm d ifferen t sub­
je c ts , in addition to providing cm parabla aaoraa fear tha various
feraa in a p articu lar subject* Became e f th e ir nature, the
Sealed Seorea provide in thenaelvee information concerning the
comparative a tending of a p artic u lar individual or group and th a t
of tha ty p ical "waseleoted" individual or group*
Daaoriptiaa of fom a
C m t^ o i a r y ftijw j^ ja n a x ^ l C ^tui^Tee t*#
A to ta l of 188 aollagaa p a rti oi pa tad in tha H ath Annual
Colloga Sopbenaro Teatin g Program* Of th ia am ber 118 returned
diatributianc of th e ir reaulta fo r Inoluaicn in the data upon
whieh th ia report ia baaed* In a l l , 8018* atudenta were teeted*
Since tha examinations administered in d ifferen t eollagao varied
with tho naada and raaouraaa o f p artic u lar in stitu tio n s, the
*The aica aolootad is one -te nth e f tha standard dav iatica
Of tho d istrib u tio n of seorea for an uaselectod group* par
tha specific procedures wood ia defining th ia uasalactad
group, see Chapter ? of "The Cooperative Aohievenent Testa,
A Handbook describing Their Purpose, Content, and Interpre­
tation**
®A desexlpfeien of tha noras baaed on the re su lts of tha 1940 Rational
College Sophomore Testing Program praaadaa ties complete tables of norm
in the back e f the booklet e n title d the f ir s t Step in OuldsttCOi Self
A ppraisal. A Ssport e f tho 1940 SepESmre fasting; rfFegram, fey DavIT"
Reproduced with permission o fth e copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
124
to ta l nwkber of atufteata f i t not taka aaah teat* Therefore 10m
peraaahlle table* ara kaaat on varying w h aaa of aaaaa. Tha
reru lt* a r t
to q m M * « » < |t th a t greater
aeoumay aslata fo r the tab les W a t on th a larg er in h e re af
eaaaa. ...T ab le D glYee tha beaie par aaa tU aa f a r tha Gaaaral
Culture and W taaperary a ffa ire Taata fa r eoliagea aslae
eeyerete anavar abaata* . . . Those paraantlla a ara W aft on eepho*
aero returna fre» 91 eeXligaa using separata am eer sheets, ln ro lring 1S ,W stafteata*
ISWBWiSai j^yurist Taat
Type I I . Theae eolleges ara objeetln& y ftaflnaft aa thaaa la
utoiefe tha entering freshaen a tta in an ererage sta re of I f f can tha
Aateriean Oouneil oa Sdueation Payeholegleal W adaatioa (Tom
193?} ehieh eorreaponfta to a Sealaft S a ra of 5?, and to a par*
een tile of 30 fo r reporting college*. Tha arerega aollaga la tha
H a t of college* approved by tha Aaaealation af Anarlaaa ttalirera ltia a la fa irly rtpraaaatatlY t of th is olanaifiaatlo n. Thia
type aay ha thought af aa m a t appropriate fo r tha ty p laal
"lib e ra l arts* aollec*. (SU B« Typa XX suaw* fo r sephemrea
and aanlora aw a used la tha study*}
Typa XXX. Thaaa ara o b jattlv ely daaarihad aa thoaa in stitu tio n s
In ahiah tha typlaal a n ta rla t fra s W a ahtalaa a aaora of 190
on tha 193? for® of the American Couneil on Education Fsyehologlaal Xxaadnation, a perfnraanss dhiah la equivalent to a Sealed
Snore of 50, and to a peoroentile of 96 fo r reporting collage*.
The students ia nany junior soilages aaft teeehera soilages belong
in th le e la a a ifle e tio n .7 {9. B. Type I I I noma for sophcnerag
anft aenlera ware uaaft in the a tufty.)
0-8 OplalqgBftly t
The percentile ratin g s used in th is te a t are found on the th irft
page of tha "Manual fo r tha 0-8 Opinioaairo". They ara W aft aa aaoraa
aafte hy W0 aollaga student* of e ll age* mad both ease*, representative
of ty plaal midwestera aollaaea end u n iv e rsitie s.
The authors of th is ta a t fteearlbe tha aoma fo r i t aa being
7
cooperative Aehievanent Taata* op. e i t.
Reproduced with permission o fth e copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
125
...oomparabla to thoaa ragularly obtained by aaa of individual
payohologiaal axsslnstiens and wall-ataadardiaad group taata*
Taat data to r 20*000 aaaaa ara available fo r tha C alifornia
Taat a f Mental M aturity, Thia in fem n tlsa aaa u tllla a d ia prepara­
tio n of tha aaana fa r th a ahart-foa* of aaah a f th a aartaa. Alae
ta a t data frcn athar etan&ardiaed ta a ta sere u tilis e d In establishing
tha aaama* The mental ages and in tellig en t# quotients aaovrad bjr
aaa of thaaa ta a ta provide fa r tha desired v a ria b ility represented*
fo r eacenple* bjr a.standard deviation of I f paints X* q« in a
soraal sanpllng*
S uh ta a t heeftlet provides a ataadard p araaatila seals aa th a
fro st sever a f tha haalAat, nhaeefcy 1* Q«*a aan ha aaaily eoaverted
in to peroentlle rankings*
O'
This dseeriptlon ia found in tha te s t wanual.
Reproduced with permission o fth e copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
JJV5VX2X B
majoe avd m *m m sM o f study o f thk m o sssio&s
ACCORDUtO fO TS2XB QUAHIXR 8XAXSKVO 01 IHE
CALIFOSWA SSST CT MEITAL MATUJUTY
In Table X III, the m o Seniors of the Teaehers College of tho
U niversity o f Hebraska aro divided in to quarters aooerdins to tho
aoeroo they earned on tha C alifornia foot of Mental M aturity and aro
alao elaooiflod according to th o ir —liege —ja r and miner subject
fields#
Thus tho rel«tl<mshlj> of ooholastio aptitude to ohoioo of
major and minor field s i t shcem. Though distinction s e s le t among tho
quarters, a h o tter ganoral picture la presented mhea tho too upper
and tho too lemer quarters a r t considered as tad to*
Of tho seniors oho oh—o majors and ainora la foreign language,
mathematics, sol—
and fine a r ts , a d istin c t m ajority la eaeh sa­
l s la tho upper h alf of the distribution*
Of the— th e oho— majors
or minors la English, physl—1 education and soeial studios, tho
opp—i t s ooadLtion d efin itely holds*
- 1*« -
Reproduced with permission o fth e copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
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HI® SCHOOL ASJ2 collsce SWB8 TSR HOC® or 0 « E tr* RAJMED
BT IBB 1*40 SXXIO® XX TRKR SUBJECT KIMS ABB f » ^UlLXff
or THEIR VOS IX TBX8S FIXU3B M WASCUD BT XKIMSIfT MUSS
Charta 91 and SS indicate th a t aaouata of h i^ i aehoel and eellesa
conroe work tend to bo poeitlveljr aaaoeiatod w ith w ai#ted narico la
tho fiolda of Bagllah aad fo ra l 91 language* while Chart W ohom th a t
th is i* not the oaoo fa r aaaovbe af watk oad aartca la aalaaeo*
* lit -
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'JO
op rpr:; T.-v.i''rioi a 111:0 ':,
m hH
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s
I b . p l a n n t i o n : F e e n s o f v."i>-hted ;
p u e r e s earned i n c c l l e r e - r e : l o l l e d
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d o tte d l i n e r e p r e s e n t s S en io rs h'-vinr
l a r p u n p e s , t h e b r o k e n l i n e t h o s e v .l th
c h a r t i s read as follow s:
c f t h e 37 :
h i f h s c h o o l c r e d i t i n f o r e i g n lenpur-pi
c o l l e p e c r e d i t have n r ea r; v . e i p h t e d rn;
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'3/
C h a r t 32
lEAFS OF LFICYF'FD "ARKG 1 AFInD I F FOREIGN IAFOFAOF3 BY Too SXFICR3
p i n e r r r T F O O i r O R S O C T I i-f,' , UhrOCRSITY CF :0-jI3P_.o:n, .YD CI,AFCI:X3D
A3CCPDIr O
THE EU*" -3 OF GD'F.TTIR TrCIrRG CF CREDIT FAPILED
I i: FCREIGII LAFOITAOES BY TlfE GjlFIORS I " FT Oh GOT CL ATw COLLEGE
E x p l a n a t i o n : I'eans o f ? ; e i r h t e d n a r k s and s e m e s t e r h o u r s o f f o r e i g n l a n p u a p e s e a r n e d i n c o l l e r e '’r e p l o t t e d by t h e t h r e e l i n e s , r.?1<jh o f w h ic h a l s o
r e p r e s e n t s a d i f f e r e n t amount o f hi<~h s o h o o l c r e d i t i n f o r e i y n l a n a u a r o s .
The
d o t t e d l i n e r e p r e s e n t s S e n i o r s h a v i n r l-:- 6 s e m e s t e r h o u r s c f h i r h s c h o o l f c r e i r r
l a r c u a p e s , t h e b r o k e n l i n e t h e s e v .lth 9 - 1 5 , and t h e s o l i d l i n e 1 3 - 3 7 .
The
c h a rt i s re a d as fo llo w s:
c f t h e 37 S e n i o r s h a v in g 1 3 -3 7 s e m e s t e r h o u r s c f
h i f 'h s c h o o l c r e d i t i n f o r e i y n l e n p u a p e s t h o s e Slaving 13—14- s e m e s t e r L o u rs ch’
c o l l e p e c r e d i t h a v e a mean v e i p h t e d n a r k o f 8 6 .
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J09RP9B9QC 9
STATISTiaAL S398E7SCUU&B Of KFFHUBBBS BMW** KEDXAH TEST 88CRJ55
MADS sr fSS IMD 988098 OF ¥8998998 SOLUS®,
m m a m ff or whsaska* akd those made s r th e norm cnows
• 198 *
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WBMtrt
Ct
MUM ST TBS I960
09 tBS OOOPBSATm
ttafwtAAtAte
1 . P o litic a l S tart#
8*
A ^ftT^in t T
S tart#
8 a SBLMMMI Ik
4. L iterature
C. Tin* Art*
6*
f * Total
I* PolltloaX S tarta
2. Social Ik SeonoBdo
8*
4*
6.
6*
9*
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16*96
1.66*
*6821
8*80
60
12.60
8*45
4*86
8*66
6*66
94.66
9.89
6*98
4*66
8*66
6*88
66*46
ttti
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*66*
1*10*
4*98
*886
*868
•869
*898
8*64
8*88
6*80
1*66
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1*16
1*98
100
86
60
68
99
61
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9*68
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8*68
100
6*60
1*88*
6.18
6.14
8*88
86*96
.800
*888
•486
*896
*681
6*66
8*99
8*80
24*89
18*69
20*08
24*18
100
100
100
100
100
100
1*619
*981
1*91
87
*66*
.40*
.11*
1*16*
8*88
9.98
*866
•686
*081
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8*61
1.68
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86
99*6
100
68*8
99.6
16.60
8*48
4.88
8.66
6.96
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1940
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1 . P o litic a l S tarta
2 . Social A Seattade
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3« Saiaoaa A Madid*a
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9. Total
16*98
16*10
8.46
4.88
8*86
6*98
96.66
19
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209
SqpA tm J1
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8*86
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a ta tla tia a l alcolfieanee.
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S elf App*eieel,» a
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Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
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1940
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1940
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100
100
100
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100
100
100
100
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40.61
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