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The design and execution of a painted mural for the juvenile library, Central State College, Edmond, Oklahoma

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THE DESIGN AND EXECUTION OF A PAINTED MURAL FOR
THE JUVENILE LIBRARY, CENTRAL STATE COLLEGE,
EDMOND, OKLAHOMA
A Thesis
Presented to
the Faculty of the Department of Fine Arts
College of Architecture and Fine Arts
University of Southern California
In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Master of Fine Arts
Ly
Anita Howard
February 19^1
UMI Number: EP57828
All rights reserved
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UMI
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UMI EP57828
Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author.
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unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code
uest
ProQuest LLC.
789 East Eisenhower Parkway
P.O. Box 1346
Ann Arbor, Ml 48106 - 1346
T h i s thesis, w r i t t e n by
ANITA HOWARD
u n d e r the d i r e c t i o n o f h.^.V. F a c u l t y C o m m it te e ,
a n d a p p r o v e d by a l l it s m e m b e r s , has been
presented to a n d accepted by the C o u n c i l on
G r a d u a t e S t u d y an d Research in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l ­
m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r th e d e g r e e o f
MASTER..OF..FINE .ARTS
S e c re ta ry
D a te
Pebranr£*X941
F a c u lty C o m m itte e
LIST OF PLATES
PLATE
I.
II.
PAGE
The Old North Tower, Central State College .
.
The Juvenile Library, Central State College,
Edmond, O k l a h o m a ............................
III.
42
Evans Hall Central State College, Edmond,
O k l a h o m a ....................................
IY.
4l
43
Legends of the Native Indians of San Fernando
Valley by Fletcher Martin, North Hollywood
High School, North Hollywood, California . .
V.
44
Detail of Map Makers of the World by Bessie P.
Heller, Virgil Junior High School, Los
Angeles, California
VI.
.......................
45
Entry of Gods into Valhalla by S. MacDonald
Wright, Santa Monica High School, Santa
Monica, California .........................
VII.
46
The Life of John Marshall by Althea Ulber,
John Marshall High School, Los Angeles,
California . . . .
VIII.
* .......................
47
Trip to the Jungle by Suzanne Miller, Jane
Addams Elementary School, Long Beach,
C a l i f o r n i a ..................................
IX.
The Life and Travels of Richard Dana by
Adrien Machefort, Richard Henry Dana
48
PLATE
Junior High School, San Pedro,
California ................................
Detail of Activities of Long Beach Harbor
by Jean Swiggett and Ivan Bartlett, Long
Beach Polytechnic High School, Long Beach,
California ................................
XI.
Detail of English Literature by Suzanne
Miller, Long Beach Library, Long Beach,
California ................................
XII.
Detail of Deep Sea Magic by Olinka Hrdy,
Will Rogers Junior High School, Long
Beach, California
XIII.
.......................
A Panel from Industrial Life of San Pedro
by Tyrone Comfort, San Pedro High School,
San Pedro, California
XIV.
...................
Detail of The Story of M a n ’s Conquest of the
Air by Arthur Ames and Jean Goodwin,
Charles Lindbergh High School, Long
Beach, California
.......................
XV.
View of Edmond, Oklahoma ...................
XVI.
A Farm Near Edmond, Oklahoma ...............
XVII.
An Oil Field Near Edmond, Oklahoma ........
XVIII.
XIX.
One-inch Scale Design in Pencil
. . . . . .
Drawing of a Child .........................
vii
PLATE
XX.
XXI.
XXII.
XXIII.
XXIV.
XXV.
PAGE
Detail Drawings
. . . . . .
Large Drawing on Csnvas
.........
...
60
. . . . . . . . . .
61
Two-Inch Scale Design In Color . . . . . . .
62
Under Painting of the Mural In Flat Tones
.
63
The Completed M u r a l .................
64
The Mural After Installation in the
Juvenile Library at Central State
College, Edmond, Oklahoma
...............
65
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I.
PAGE
THE PROBLEM AND ITS ORGANIZATION.............
1
The p r o b l e m ................................
1
Statement of the problem .................
1
Need for the m u r a l .......................
1
Organization of the remainder of the
thesis ....................................
II.
THE REGIONAL BACKGROUND FOR THE MURAL
. . . .
4
...................
4
Historical and social background ........
4
The local scene
III.
IV.
2
. .
THE FUNCTION AND ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER OF
THE R O O M ....................................
12
Function of the r o o m .......................
12
Architectural character of the room
12
. . . .
S i z e ......................................
12
L i g h t i n g ..................................
12
W a l l s ....................................
12
F u r n i s h i n g s ..............................
13
Relation to exterior architecture
13
. . . .
ANALYSES OF REPRESENTATIVE MODERN MURALS IN
PUBLIC SCHOOLS AND SOME LIBRARIES OF LOS
ANGELES AND V I C I N I T Y .......................
14
Background for the s t u d y ...................
14
ili
CHAPTER
PAGE
Analyses of selected murals... ..............
North Hollywood High S c h o o l .........
Los Angeles— Virgil Junior High School
17
. .
Santa Monica High S c h o o l .............
Los Angeles--John Marshall High School
17
IS
19
• .
20
Long Beach— Jane Addarns Elementary
S c h o o l ..........
21
San Pedro--Richard Henry Dana Junior High
S c h o o l ..............................
22
Long Beach Polytechnic High School . . . .
Long Beach L i b r a r y ...................
22
2k
Long Beach--Will Rogers Junior High
S c h o o l ..............................
25
San Pedro High S c h o o l ...............
25
Long Beach--Charles Lindbergh High
S c h o o l ..............................
V.
26
THE PROCEDURE FOLLOWED IN DESIGNING AND
PAINTING THE M U R A L ......................
28
M e d i u m ..................................
28
Oil on c a n v a s ........................
28
C o m p o s i t i o n .............• .................
28
Photographs and sketches .................
28
One-inch scale preliminary sketches
29
...
Two-inch scale drawing ...................
29
iv
CHAPTER
PAGE
Drawings of children .....................
29
Large drawing on c a n v a s .................
30
Color s t u d i e s ..............................
30
...........
30
Two-inch scale design in color ...........
30
One-inch scale color sketches
P a i n t i n g ....................................
31
Under p a i n t i n g ............................
31
Over p a i n t i n g ............................
31
Installation ................................
31
SUMMARY AND C O N C L U S I O N S .....................
33
S u m m a r y ....................................
33
C o n c l u s i o n s ................................
34
B I B L I O G R A P H Y ........................................
33
P L A T E S ...............................................
40
VI.
CHAPTER I
THE PROBLEM AND ITS ORGANIZATION
I.
THE PROBLEM
Statement of the problem.
The subject of this thesis
was the design and execution of a mural painted in oil on
canvas for the juvenile library and reading room at Central
State College, Edmond, Oklahoma,
This was accompanied by a
brief literary resume of procedures followed.
A regional
subject--Our Community, Past and Present--was chosen as a
theme especially appropriate and offering many design
possibilities.
A study was made of historical background
and the local scene.
Studies for the mural involved an
investigation of representative murals in public schools
and some other public buildings in Los Angeles and vicinity.
Need for the mural.
The space to be decorated was
one of two long spaces above bookcases which were built
against two sides of the room.
Decorations were limited
to posters and other objects of a transitory nature.
room was drab and lacking in color.
ate mural to enliven it.
The
It needed an appropri­
It was necessary for the mural to
have interest for the primary child as well as the one of
junior high school age.
2
II.
ORGANIZATION OF THE REMAINDER OF THE THESIS
Chapter Two deals with a brief account of the histor­
ical background and the local scene which was involved in
planning the mural.
Chapter Three contains a description of the room
and its function and also architectural features that were
considered In planning a mural for this room.
Size, light­
ing, walls, furniture, and fixtures were taken into con­
sideration when the mural wa,s planned.
In Chapter Four an analysis is presented of some
representative modern murals in public schools and librar­
ies of Los Angeles and vicinity.
Los Angeles abounds in
contemporary murals that have been painted in similar
buildings.
In order to keep the character of this study
as professional as possible a survey was made of those wall
decorations which seemed to be the nearest to the writer’s
problem.
The successful balance of subject matter, composi­
tion, and technique were given consideration as were their
suitability to the architecture and the space which they
occupied.
As a preparation for this study a review was
made of some of the most pertinent books on the subject of
murals.
Chapter Five is an account of the procedure followed
in planning and painting the mural.
The medium of oil on
3
canvas was chosen as being appropriate to this type of
small room.
Much attention was paid to composition.
Pre­
liminary sketches were followed by more ambitious ones in
black and white and then in color.
Children posed for the
figures in the murals, and detailed drawings were made.
sketch was enlarged on canvas panels 8nd painted.
A
The
mural was installed by skilled workmen, picture moulding
being used to separate the panels and to frame the murals.
Chapter Six contains a summary of the solution of
the problem from the standpoint of procedure followed and
conclusions regarding the outcome of the work.
CHAPTER II
THE REGIONAL BACKGROUND FOR THE MURAL
The community of Edmond was rich in subject matter
for a mural on industrial or farm life.
,10ur Community,
^ast and ^resent" was finally chosen as the theme for the
study.
The local scene.
The immediate environment contained
subject matter which when properly assembled made interest­
ing patterns.
Oil fields, the clock tower on the oldest
building on the campus, trees, farms, 66 highway, the
state capitol, and the skyline of Oklahoma City were all
visible from the town of Edmond.
Historical and social background.
The community of
Edmond was rich in historical and social background.
It
was a pe.rt of a pioneer state, a pioneer town, and a
pioneer school.
Accounts of the beginning and development
of the state of Oklahoma were found to be unique and inter­
esting.
The story of the founding of Oklahoma was differ­
ent from that of any other state in the Union.
No later than five hundred years ago Oklahoma was
peopled by prehistoric Indians.
They left traces of their
existence in the mounds of the eastern part of the state
and irrigation ditches and ruins of pueblos in the western
section.
By the time the colonists from Europe came, how­
ever, these people had disappeared and other historic
Indians were living there.
These historic Indian tribes
were the ones which the Spanish explorers and the French
trappers found when they came from Mexico and down the
rivers from the North into the western country.
When Louisiana was purchased and American settlers
moved West pressure was brought on the historic native
tribes so that they sold their land to the United States.
Other Indian tribes east of the Mississippi were forced to
leave their homes and migrate there.
Many of these Indians
were forced to give up good plantations in the Southern
states and go west under army escort.
Many died of the
privation on the way to their new home.
These eastern Indians, known as the Five Civilized
Tribes, established their own governments, patterned,
after the republican form of their protector, the
United States.
Each of these tribes called itself a
nation and had its own boundaries, laws, and officers.
Thus it was that the country now called Oklahoma had
its first political organizations.
It makes the
youthful state of Oklahoma a century old in its politi­
cal history and the influences of its early advance­
ment are still felt among the citizens of the present
State.
After the Civil war the Indian Territory came more
closely under the supervision of the Federal Government.
Muriel H. Wright, The Story of Oklahoma (Oklahoma
City: Webb Publishing Co., 1929*77 Introduction, Joseph
Thoburn, xvii.
Other developments which affected this territory were the
building of transcontinental railroads and the opening of
the West to American settlers.
Following the war, great
herds of cattle were driven north from Texas through the
territory into Kansas.
Land in the Indian territory was
leased to the cattle kings.
During this time the eastern
portion of this region was occupied by the governments of
the Five Civilized Tribes and the western part served as a
reservation for Indians from other parts of the United
States.
The Federal Government had left the center of the
country unallotted to Indian settlement, and this region
became known as ”Oklahoma Country."
There were no perman­
ent settlements of Indians in the Oklahoma Country.
These
lands belonged to the Creek Nation.
This country was a very fertile one and people re­
garded it as a region of great agricultural promise.
Over
a period of ten years there were attempts made by groups of
people to settle there.
Settlers, such as those under
David L. Payne were harassed by cattle men and ordered out
by soldiers.
These people, who were called "boomers,”
finally won their fight in Congress when the Oklahoma Bill
was passed and the first opening of public land In the
Indian Territory was made for white settlers.
A rule stated by the President was that no one
should enter the Unassigned Lands until the exact hour
of noon April 22, 1 8 8 9 . Then settlers could enter and
make their claims to the public land. Everyone was to
be given an equal chance, even the ’’boomers who had
worked so long for the opening.
Persons who entered
before that time could not have a claim anywhere in
the tract, covering nearly two million acres.
United
States cavalrymen were placed at intervals all around
the border of the Unassigned Lands as guards to see
that this rule was obeyed.
Great crowds gathered on the line.
When twelve o ’clock
came a bugle was heard, a guard fired his carbine into the
air, and a great shout arose as the people ’’made the run”
into Oklahoma in all types of conveyances and on foot to
stake a claim on 160 acre homesteads in the new country.
After the opening of Oklahoma country there fol­
lowed the openings of many Indian reservations to white
settlement so that two territories were formed known as
the Indian territory in the east and Oklahoma territory in
the west.
These were also known as the Twin Territories.
The population first attracted by the land openings soon
grew to over a million population.
A constitutional con­
vention was held, and at the expression of the desire of
the people, the Twin Territories were merged and Oklahoma
became the forty-sixth state of the Union, November 16,
1907.
The equable climate and fine soil have kept Okla­
homa in the front rank of agricultural states, but
2 Ibid., p. 247.
8
the discovery of its vast deposits of oil, gas, coal,
zinc, lead, and other minerals has made a state of
varied business pursuits, for a cosmopolitan people.
Life here is teeming with great possibilities-achievements only to be equaled in time to come with
the vivid history of its past, which will remain as a
spectacular panorama of the "last frontier.
The town of Edmond was one of the pioneer towns of
the state.
Edmond was named for an official of the Oklahoma
Division of the Santa Pe Railroad.
Although it was
not mentioned in the President’s Proclamation, Edmond
was not entirely unknown before April 22, 1 8 8 9 . Since
1 8 8 7 it had been a coaling and watering station on
the Santa Fe.
Some cattle were shipped from Edmond
and it was also -a distribution point for supplies
shipped from Arkansas City, 107 miles away, for the
ranches in the Iowa and Kickapoo lands and for
D. Turner’s store at Wellston.
The history of the
town may be said to begin with the construction of
the Santa Fe well.^
The well referred to was 128 feet deep and 30 feet in di­
ameter and the abundant supply of good water was one of the
features which attracted settlers to the district.
On April 22 , 1 8 8 9 , the run was made into Oklahoma
and a number of people arrived by train and in other con­
veyances to stake out claims for lots and farms.
Before
noon April 22 , 1889, the surveyors had made a survey of
Edmond.
By nightfall Edmond had one hundred and fifty
~z
Ibid., Introduction.
^ Stella Barton Fordice, '’History of Edmond, Oklahoma,"
(unpublished Master's thesis, University of Oklahoma,
Norman, 1 9 2 7 )* p. 6.
9
people, mostly men, who sent for their families as soon as
some shelter could be built.
They were a young and vigor­
ous people who were attracted by the adventure of pioneer­
ing a new country and the possibility of doing well with a
small capital.
It is interesting to note that neither the bill
providing for the opening of Oklahoma nor the Presi­
dent's Proclamation made any provision for the govern­
ment of the Territory nor the settlement of the towns.
The officers elected were without legal authority and
were backed only by public sentiment until the Organic
Act was approved by the President May 2, 1 8 9 0 . It
speaks well for the character of the early settlers
that only four or five lawsuits were brought in con­
nection with disputes concerning town lots in Edmond
and no violence resulted.5
Edmond has enjoyed a steady growth, and efficient govern­
ment.
It has always been a conservative town; there have
been few business failures; and there has never been a
murder committed there.
From the beginning the people of Edmond were inter­
ested in making the community a desirable place in which to
live.
The first Union Sunday School opened in a new store
building June 23, 1 8 8 9 .
of churches.
This was followed by the building
There was a wholesome community spirit.
While the men were starting the business and government of
the town, the women were interested in the cultural affairs
of a pioneer society centered around the home, church, and
5
Ibid., p. 14.
10
school.
Many of the women had come from progressive com­
munities and were impatient to improve their surroundings.
Edmond had the first school built in Old Oklahoma.
Of its beginning Fordice says:
The first ladies Aid, The School Aid society was
organized November 15 of 1889* • • • These ladies
were responsible for the building of the school and
raising funds to pay the first teacher.
They gave
socials and served dinners and suppers for various
occasions.
Older men and women seem to thrill with
enthusiasm when they tell of the wonderful game
supper given the first Thanksgiving which netted enough
to pay the year’s wages of the school teacher.
The
Edmond Sun first publicly suggested the idea and ar­
rangements were begun a month ahead for the Thanks­
giving game supper.
Committees of ladies were
appointed to plan and cook the supperrand committees
of men were to go out after the game.D
From this humble beginning Edmond has become a progressive
town with good educational facilities.
The townspeople
have always taken an active interest in the pioneer col­
lege which is the center of the town’s cultural life.
An early account of the Central State College was
published recently in their Quarterly Bulletin.
Central State College, the oldest state educational
institution in Oklahoma was established a.s the Terri­
torial Normal School by the Territorial Legislature on
December 24, 1890, and was located in Edmond, Oklahoma,
on the following conditions: that Oklahoma County
donate $5*000 in bonds; that Edmond donate forty acres
of land within one mile of town, the land to be divided
into lots, except ten acres for the campus; and these
lots to be sold the proceeds to be used for the benefit
of the school.7
6 Ibid., p. 19.
7 Quarterly Bulletin Central State College, Edmond,
Oklahoma, July, 1940, p. 12.
11
These conditions were promptly met and additional dona­
tions were made.
The first school opened on November 9s
1891, with twenty-three students meeting in the Epworth
League room of the uncompleted First Methodist Church.
Old North Tower was the first building occupied on
January 3, 1893 (PI. I, P* 41.).
The school was first oper­
ated as a normal school with two years college work and a
complete preparatory school.
In 1897 the first class of
graduates received their Normal School diplomas, and five
men and women were graduated.
In 1919 the State Board of Education passed a reso­
lution raising the rank of Central to a four-year teachers
college.
In 1939 the state legislature passed a law desig­
nating the school as Central State College and authorized
the granting of degrees without teaching certificates.
From
an institution of twenty-three students in 1891* the "normal
school" has become a standard four-year college.
The
material gathered showed the community to be one of which
the character was native American, progressive, and whole­
some.
CHAPTER III
THE FUNCTION AND ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER OF THE ROOM
I.
FUNCTION OF THE ROOM
The room was a juvenile library and reading room.
It contained children’s books and also served as a reading
room for the junior high school pupils
II.
Size.
(PI. II, p. 42.).
ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER OF THE ROOM
The room was thirty-five feet long; twenty-
one feet and eight inches wide; and twelve feet and two
inches in height.
Lighting.
The lighting was by means of eight win­
dows, five on the west and three on the north walls.
They
furnished sufficient lighting except on a few dark winter
days, when the ceiling lights were used.
noon sun was controlled by shades.
The bright after­
It was an adequately
lighted room.
Walls.
The walls were of plaster painted cream,
except above the picture mouldings where they were light
green.
They were conservative and restful; warm, but not
disturbing.
Book shelves were built against the south and
east walls.
There were no shining surfaces or disturbing
light reflections.
Furnishings.
The furniture and accessories were
strictly utilitarian and consisted of round oak tables with
chairs for the primary children and two large rectangular
oak tables with chairs for the older children.
A desk and
a card catalog cabinet completed the furnishings of the
room.
Relation to exterior architecture.
The room had no
particular character to suggest the Eclectic Renaissance
of the exterior of the building (PI. Ill, p. ^3*)*
Its
simplicity was unrelieved by any permanent decoration.
was a rather typical school reading room.
It
This building
was occupied in 1916 and was of red brick and white stone.
It was an adaptation of a historic style to modern use and
was of the same general type as many buildings erected in
the United States during this era.
CHAPTER IV
ANALYSES OP REPRESENTATIVE MODERN MURALS
IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS AND SOME LIBRARIES
OP LOS ANGELES AND VICINITY
I.
BACKGROUND FOR THE STUDY
Wall painting of various kinds has been practiced
in the United States since the eighteenth century.
Much
of the early work was of a provincial type painted by itin­
erant artists.
Until the latter part of the nineteenth
century the principal murals, such as those in the dome of
the National Capitol, were the work of European artists.
An important early mural by an American artist was
that painted by John La Parge in the Trinity Church at
Boston.
The World’s Columbian Exposition gave an added
impetus to mural painting.
Since that time there has been
considerable mural painting in this country, but until
recently it has shown a strong European influence.
Between 1920 and 1930 there was a renaissance of
mural art in Mexico, under the sponsorship of the Mexican
Government.
Two of the most prominent of the artists from
that country--Diego Rivera and Jose Clemente 0rozco--did
painting In the United States, and helped to stimulate
interest in mural design among the artists here.
This
15
Interest was furthered both among artists and the general
public by the Federal Government art projects which followed
a few years later.
Thus various murals have been painted
in this country since the time of La Farge, and American
artists have concerned themselves more and more with his­
torical or local subjects.
Of this tendency toward nation­
alism in art Blashfield has written:
I say again that we must be modern and we must be
American.
No matter how saturated we are with the
art of the past, and the more the better, we must
fasten our souvenir to the living present, no matter
how much we love the pale ideal landscape of the
primitive painters, of the noble, spacious, mythologi­
cal fairyland of Poussin the glory of Claude’s sun­
sets, we must use our memory of them as a frame to
some such happenings as live for Americans today.
It is then of the utmost importance that our artists
learn to treat decoratively the marking events of our
history past or contemporaneous of our Puritan and
Dutch, our Revolutionary heroes, our Argonauts of f49*
our pioneers and colonizers and soldiers of the Civil
War, our inventors and organizers, our men in the
streets and in the fields of today; and special kind
of celebration should find place in particularly suited
portions of our public buildings.^
More recently Cahill says of the subject matter at
the exhibition of mural art held in May, 1956, in the
Museum of Modern Art in New York:
The work here exhibited gives positive indication
^ Edwin H. Blashfield, Mural Painting in America
(New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 192b), pp. 196-99*
16
that American artists have a mural sense and that they
have gone about their work in this field with enthusi­
asm, independence and directness.
A variety of styles
has developed, but the murals have in common a feeling
for monumental construction, for design control for
rhythmic balance and inter-relation of parts.
The
treatment shows that many of the artists have achieved
a real mastery in this art which is relatively new to
them.
The handling of subject matter is usually both
imaginative and appropriate, the medium selected the
most sympathetic to space and the subject.
Throughout
the country one sees a spontaneous interest in local
source material.
This is true of the eastern group
and it is particularly true of the western and middle
western mural painters many of whom are unknown in
New York.
These artists may be called regionalists
in that they turn naturally to themes linked with the
life, landscape and history of their regions.
There
is however, nothing here of false localism or of a
romanticising of the p a s t .2
In addition to subject matter, there are certain
aesthetic and technical values to be considered in all
mural painting.
Concerning this technique, Cahill has
said:
No matter what the medium, whether fresco, secco,
tempera, or oil, the mural technique has certain pos­
sibilities and limitations which the painter must
respect.
The mural must have a definite relation to
its surroundings and be an integral part of an
architectural scheme.
The color, the scale, and the
character of the painting must harmonize with the
color, scale, and character of the surrounding archi­
tecture.
The composition as a whole must have clarity,
largeness, carrying power, and rhythmic order that
leads the eye easily through the whole space. Mural
art is suited to large simple forms and its color
schemes are much more severely limited than those of
an easel painter.-?
^ Holger Cahill, Introduction to New Horizons in
American Art (New York: Museum of Modern Art^ 1936), pp. 3031.
5 Ibid., p. 32.
17
II.
ANALYSES OF SELECTED MURALS
There have been many
neighboring towns under
jects.
murals painted In Los Angeles and
the direction
of government artpro­
Those visited and examined had been recently of the
Southern California Art Project unit of the W.P.A. Arts Pro­
gram and were listed among their thirty outstanding works.^
This brief survey was made in order to enable the designer
to observe how other artists had treated similar murals.
NORTH HOLLYWOOD HIGH SCHOOL
I.
Subject Matter
Legends of the Native Indians of San Fernando Valley
by Fletcher Martin (PI.
II.
Aesthetic
Composition.
IV, p. 4*}.).
and Technical
Considerations
The murals were placed in two long
panels on either side of the stage in the auditorium.
They
were arranged so that in design and color they are heavier
at the bottom and lighter toward the top.
Color.
The palette was that of limited fresco. Browns
and greens predominated.
The Indians as they ascended into
the heavens became pale in color.
Medium.
Blue was used for the sky.
This was a fresco mural in a conventional
handling of thin long brush strokes.
^ "Thirty Outstanding Works, Finished or in Process,"
pamphlet published by the Southern California Art Project
unit of the W.P.A. Arts Program (n. d . ).
Style.
Conservatism and realism were apparent.
There were no exaggerations in the drawing of the figures.
Harmony with architecture.
simple design.
The auditorium was of
The mural panels framed the stage without
detracting from it.
Some decoration was needed to relieve
the severity of the room.
The building was in modern mis­
sion style so the subjects were appropriate.
LOS ANGELES--VIRGIL JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL
I.
Subject Matter
Map Makers of the NorId by Bessie P. Heller (PI. V,
p. 45.).
This showed the explorers of history in a long
frieze on two sides of the room.
There were also two de­
corative maps which dealt with the origins and the routes
of the explorers.
II.
Aesthetic and Technical Considerations
Composition.
The figures were large and in groups
representing the explorers Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus
Ferdinand Magellan, Captain James Cook, and Admiral E. Byrd
Interest was carried on by vegetation from one group to
another.
Color.
The background was blue grey.
The figures
were warm in contrast.
Medium.
Style.
Oil on canvas was used.
This frieze was conservative, smooth, and
rather sculpturesque.
19
Harmony and architecture.
It was most suited to the
space and type of library it decorated.
The spaces over
the book cases were filled with the mural which was planned
to harmonize with the color scheme of the room and add
interest to the general atmosphere.
The scale of the
figures was good in relation to the space decorated.
SANTA MONICA HIGH SCHOOL
I.
Subject Matter
Entry of Gods Into Valhalla by S. MacDonald Wright
(PI. VI, p. 1)6. ).
II.
Aesthetic and Technical Considerations
Composition.
entire space.
Interest was well distributed over the
There was much movement and rhythm in this
mural.
Color.
Red, yellow, and blue were the colors.
Black outlined the group In the center.
Shading was from
dark to light colors which merged Into the grey of the cur­
tain.
Medium.
Casein on asbestos curtain was a new devel­
opment of mural medium.
Style.
Symbolism and abstraction characterized this
ultra-decorative approach.
The beauty was in the sweep of
line and composition.
Harmony with architecture.
It was a modern mural in
20
a modern auditorium.
The proscenium arches made an archi­
tectural frame for the picture.
LOS ANGELES--JOHN MARSHALL HIGH SCHOOL
I.
Subject Matter
The Life of John Marshall by Althea Ulber (PI. VII,
P. ^7.).
II.
Aesthetic and Technical Considerations
Composition.
In the center of the panel John
Marshall as Chief Justice of the United States Supreme
Court interpreted the Constitution of our country.
thirteen figures symbolized the original states.
The
In the
upper right, John Marshall was depicted as a student with
his law instructor, George Wythe.
In the lower right of
the panel John Marshall was shown as a minute man meeting
Mary Ambler whom he later married.
Color.
Parchment brown, greys and deep browns pre­
dominated.
Medium.
Style.
Tempera was used.
Robes were simplified.
Outlining was used.
The texture of the wall showed through the painting.
There
was careful painting of delicate detail.
Harmony with architecture.
ate Gothic.
The building was Collegi­
The panel between the two entrance doors to the
auditorium was chosen as the place for the mural and while
21
one could not get much distance in viewing the mural, yet
not much was required because of the careful workmanship.
It was suited to the space occupied and in harmony with its
frame of architectural tile.
LONG BEACH— JANE ADDAMS ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
I.
Subject Matter
Trip to the Jungle by Suzanne Miller (PI. VIII,
p. 43.).
II.
Aesthetic and Technical Considerations
Composition.
The center of interest was the three
children by a stream of water In a jungle.
It was simply
done, the vegetation making a natural frame for the composi­
tion.
Color.
Medium.
of casein.
A subdued color scheme was used.
Earth colors were employed with a medium
This was the first time this medium was used
on acoustic plaster.
Style.
executed.
This mural was carefully designed and crisply
The effect was realistic and illustrative.
Harmony with the architecture.
one end of the room over a bookcase.
The location was at
Much of the wall was
permitted to show through as background space.
for unity between the parts of the design.
was eclectic colonial.
This made
Architecture
22
SAN PEDRO
RICHARD HENRY DANA JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL
I.
Subject Matter
The Life and Travels of Richard Henry Dana by Adrien
Machefort (PI. IX, p. 49.).
II.
Aesthetic and Technical Considerations
Composition.
scale.
These canvases were on a monumental
Figures were in groups against a landscape back­
ground.
Color.
Harm browns and reds predominated.
The color
was too bright and heavy and dominated the large cafeteria.
Medium.
Style.
power.
Oil on canvas was used.
The artist seemed to wish to show great
Muscular development was exaggerated to show
strength.
Naves were conventionalized and suggestive of
Japanese prints.
Broad brush strokes and some divided
color were used.
Harmony with architecture.
The murals seemed out of
harmony with the room because they were too large and over­
powering and too dark and heavy.
LONG BEACH POLYTECHNIC HIGH SCHOOL
I.
Subject Matter
Activities of Long Beach Harbor by Jean Swiggett and
Ivan Bartlett (PI. X, p. 50.).
23
II.
Aesthetic and Technical Considerations
Composition.
The figures were on a large scale with
many accessories to show the occupations.
There was a good
geometric design in the harbor and buildings in the back­
ground.
Several of the figures were good portrait studies.
Interest was distributed throughout the composition.
Color.
There was simplicity of color.
The white of
the wall was utilized wherever possible and helped to give
a light, airy effect to the composition.
blues and greys used in the costumes.
There were many
The flesh tones were
warm browns.
Medium.
Style.
decorative way.
Egg tempera was used.
As a whole this was carried out in a flat
The figures were outlined.
There was some
modelling, however, it was not out of harmony with the
general spirit of the composition.
Harmony with architecture.
A good view was to be
had of the mura.l from the second floor hall.
It was on the
wall of a stairway which served as a fire escape.
It was
harmonious with the colors used in this section of the
building and the problem seemed to have been solved ade­
quately.
24
LONG BEACH LIBRARY
I.
Subject Matter
History of English Literature by Suzanne Miller
(PI. XI, p. 5 1 . ).
II.
Aesthetic and Technical Considerations
Composition.
Each compact little group had a cen­
tral theme of some English classic.
These were linked
together by landscape forms.
Color.
inate.
Conservative browns and greens were predom­
The blue used in the water was a little too con­
spicuous .
Medium.
Oil on canvas was used.
Paint was put on
flat, then brush strokes were put on top to give texture.
Style.
and poetic.
The panels were conservatively decorative
The trees were especially attractive.
The
figures were naturalistic and detailed.
Harmony with architecture.
The murals were placed
over the oak paneling of the wall and card catalogs.
The
oak paneling and this medieval subject harmonized to create
a modern medieval atmosphere.
The quiet setting was appro­
priate for this type of mural. The building itself seemed a
modern adaptation of the classic.
25
LONG BEACH--WILL ROGERS JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL
I.
Subject Matter
Deep Sea Magic by Olinka Hrdy (PI. XII, p. 52.).
II.
Aesthetic and Technical Considerations
Composition.
The panels were decorative and the
centers of interest were well spaced.
Schools of fish
crossing added variety to the undulating lines.
Color.
The colors were bright and many were used.
Metallic paints added interest to scales and eyes.
Medium.
Thinly applied oil paint was used on fine
textured canvas.
Style.
It was very designful.
The decorative shapes
of jellyfish, coral, electric eels, sea anemones, and sea
horses were outlined.
Fantasy and imagination were evident.
Harmony with architecture.
Because of the colors
used the murals were most harmonious.
either side of the entrance hall.
They were placed on
The walls were painted in
two values of blue-green, the darker area at the bottom and
the lighter at the top.
were not disturbing.
The doors which cut into the murals
The architecture of the building was
modern.
SAN PEDRO HIGH SCHOOL
I.
Subject Matter
Industrial Life of San Pedro by Tyrone Comfort
(PI. XIII, p.
53
.).
II.
Aesthetic and Technical Considerations
Composition.
sides of the room.
were of men at work.
and wood.
The murals were in nine panels on two
Each of the murals had a theme.
All
One was conscious of muscle, mets,l,
Landscape backgrounds were appropriate settings.
Color.
Coloring was cool with the exception of the
bodies of the men, which were in warm, live tones.
Style.
These panels were realistic.
Medium.
Oil on canvas was used.
Harmony with architecture.
against a warm beige wall.
The panels were cool
They attracted a good deal of
attention, as they were powerful and dominated the room.
LONG BEACH--CHARLES LINDBERGH HIGH SCHOOL
I.
Subject Matter
The Story of M a n ’s Conquest of the Air by Arthur Ames
and Jean Goodwin (PI. XIV, p.
II.
Aesthetic and Technical Considerations
Composition.
The murals were placed as a frieze
over book shelves In a library.
of the room.
They were on three sides
Episodes of man's conquest of the air from
mythological stories to the present-day realities were shown
by the grouping of figures separated from the next story by
some Intervening quiet space.
27
Color.
The color was especially pleasant.
harmonious tones were used.
Soft
There was a grey-green ground
and a lighter grey-green sky.
Subdued tones of blue, blue-
green, orange, and brown completed the color scheme.
Style.
The style was decorative and full of fantasy.
The figures were outlined; the landscape,
Medium.
simplified.
Tempera was employed.
Harmony with architecture.
The mural seemed an
integral part of the architecture of the room.
In this
respect it seemed the most successful of any of the murals
visited.
The mural painters employed on these projects seem
to have selected most often the legends and history of
California and local industry.
Exploration and the lives
of great men were other favored subjects.
The murals were
embellishments for the architecture and not propaganda.
They showed a cosmopolitan approach and were modern, in
this way resembling some of the buildings they decorated.
They were a little lacking in the force and vigor of the
more distinctly regional artists, such as Thomas Benton,
but were perhaps better decoration.
The painted murals
examined, as a whole, showed a high standard of aesthetic
and technical merit.
Each was a "page in a book of poetry”
and not a "chapter in a tome of history.1,0
^ Leon L. Winslow, The Integrated School Art Program
(New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1939)/ P» 222.
CHAPTER V
PROCEDURE FOLLOWED IN DESIGNING AND PAINTING THE MURAL
A study of appropriate subject matter was followed
by a consideration of the aesthetic and technical matters
involved in designing and executing this mural.
I.
Oil on canvas.
canvas.
MEDIUM
The medium chosen was oil on duck
This seemed suitable treatment for a comparatively
small room and was a medium often used in libraries.
As
the mural was to be painted and sent to another state for
installation, oil on canvas was a practical medium which
offered the fewest technical difficulties.
Turpentine was
used as a thinner for the paint.
II.
COMPOSITION
Photographs and sketches.
collected.
Pictorial matter was
Since distance prevented sketches being made of
the local scene, photographs were made by the college
photographer.
Of special help were ones of the town from
66 highway (PI. XV, p. 55* )> & farm at the edge of town
(PI. XVI, p. 56.), and one of the oil fields (PI. XVII,
p. 57.).
Chamber of Commerce bulletins were helpful as
were the recollections of the writer regarding the local
29
scene.
Some observations of farm buildings and oil fields
near Los Angeles were made.
One-inch scale preliminary sketches.
A number of
preliminary sketches were made with main motifs of subject
matter arranged in many ways to secure the most attractive
pattern.
The past was shown in two side panels.
An Indian
boy sympolized the Indian epoch in Oklahoma and a pioneer
girl Illustrated the "early days."
The larger central panel
suggested the present with farms, oil field, college town,
66 highway, and Oklahoma City In the background.
Many
changes were made to secure distribution of interest in
the mural, to make various parts of the mural coherent and
yet have certain centers of interest.
Great care was
taken with the shading so that the design pattern was not
destroyed and that no part was too dark in value (PI. XVIII,
p. 58.).
Two-inch scale drawing.
The one-inch scale drawing
was divided into one-inch squares.
Two-inch squares were
made on brown paper and the design was traced on a canvas
panel preparatory to painting it.
Drawings of children.
the figures of children.
A boy and a girl posed for
Sketches were made of each child
for section poses (PI. XIX, p. 59. ) and larger sketches of
30
details were made (PI. XX, p. 60.).
Large drawing on canvas.
used.
Three canvas panels were
The two side panels were 5' x 3 1 3 n and the central
panels were 1 5 1 2iu x 5 1»
These were divided into one-foot
squares and the two-inch scale drawing was enlarged on the
canvas (PI. XXI, p. 6l.).
The charcoal drawing was sprayed
with fixatlf.
III.
COLOR STUDIES
One-inch scale color sketches.
Preliminary color
sketches were made using a one-inch scale.
One was of
warm autumn colorings, contrasted with complementary blue.
Another was in yellow-green, green, and blue-green with
accents of red in the architecture and costuming of the
figures.
It was decided that the latter was more suitable
for a library because the colors
conducive to study.
were more restful and
As autumn was considered such a
transitory phase of nature it was thought that the summer
coloring was of more permanent interest.
Also, in summer,
the west sun made the room warm and too much warm color
was undesirable for this reason.
Two-inch scale design in color.
To ascertain more
completely how the finished mural would look, the two-inch
scale drawing was traced on an oil canvas and painted.
A
31
very simple color palette was used.
Zinc white, yellow
ochre, viridian, Indian red, and light red were the colors
chosen (PI. XXII, p. 62.).
IV.
Under painting.
PAINTING
Through experiments on the two-inch
scale it was found that a thin, flat underpainting of oil
paint diluted with turpentine made a good ground for
further painting.
Enough of the required color was mixed
to cover all parts of the design in that particular color.
The big spaces were covered.
Detail was not painted in at
this time (PI. XXIII, p. 63.).
Over painting.
Colors were mixed in a sufficient
quantity and kept in jars.
tone were studied.
Modeling and variation of
The big forms were considered of pri­
mary importance, but detail was added where it was needed.
The small oil composition was followed carefully.
Color was applied thinly in a manner which is
almost a tradition for oil murals, as thinly applied paint
does not destroy the unity of wall surfaces, nor does it
present the cleaning difficulties of rougher paint.
The
color scheme was in a high key (PI. XXIV, p. 64.).
V.
INSTALLATION
When finished the three panels were taken off their
52
stretchers, rolled on a tube, and sent to Central State
College where they were Installed by skilled workmen.
The
smaller panels were separated from the larger ones by thin
strips of picture moulding (PI, XXV, p. 65*)•
CHAPTER VI
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
I.
SUMMARY
The problem of the design and execution of the
mural was approached from the standpoint of suitability
to the room and its purpose by the choice first, of an
appropriate regional subject; second, by the making of a
simple interpretative design; and third, by the choice of
oil on canvas as a practical medium.
Some research was made on the chosen theme, Our
Community, Past and Present.
Elements which make up the
local scene were taken into consideration in planning the
mural.
Pencil designs were made, followed by those in color.
Most helpful was the two-inch scale composition in oil on
canvas, which was carefully planned and followed rather
closely in painting the large mural.
A restricted oil palette was employed.
The simpli­
fied color scheme in a high key was light and gay.
The
limited number of colors used made for greater harmony in
the mural.
Painting on canvas helped to overcome the
technical difficulties of long distance transportation.
III.
CONCLUSIONS
The problem did not contribute any new technic to
mural painting.
It was an application of a traditional
manner to the particular room, a juvenile library.
mural was decorative and symbolic.
The
It was also representa­
tional, to a certain extent, so that its meaning would not
be obscure and vague, but have definite significance for
the children.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
BIBLIOGRAPHY
A.
BOOKS
Blashfield, Edwin Howland, Mural Painting in America*
New York: Charles Scribnerfs Sons, 192*87 912 pp.,
47 111.
Bossert, Helmuth, An Encyclopaedia of Colour Decoration
From the Eerliest Times to the Middle of the XIXth
Century. Berlin: Ernst Wasmuth Ltd., 1928.
95 pp.*
pi.
Boswell, Peyton Jr., Modern American Painting.
Dodd Mead & Co., 1999.
200 pp., 86 ill.
New York:
Bruce, Edward and Forbes Watson, Art in Federal Buildings,
Vol. 1, Mural Designs, 1994-1998Washington, D. C. :
Art in Federal Buildings Incorporated, 1996. 909 pp.,
262 ill.
Cahill, Holger, New Horizons in American Art. New York:
Museum of Modern Art, 199*57 75 pp.* To4 ill.
Gatlin, George, The North American Indians. Philadelphia:
Leary, Stuart and Company, 1919. Vol. 1, 298 pp., 114
ill. Vol. 2, 298 pp., 912 ill.
Chesterton, G. K . , and Edith M. Cowles, Giotto--The Legend
of St. Francis as Depicted in the Asslssi Frescoes.
New York: E. P. Dutton and Co., Inc. 29 pp77 28 pi.
Doerner, Max, The Materials of the Artist and Their Use in
Painting. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co. , 199*47
492 pp.7 8 ill.
Eastman, Charles A . , Indian Boyhood. Boston: Little, Brown
and Company, 19247
28 9 pp., 74 ill.
Gittinger, Roy, The Formation of the State of Oklahoma.
Berkeley: University of California Press, 1917.
2 5 6 pp
5 maps.
Hall, W. S., Eyes on America. New York: The Studio Publica
tions, Inc., 19997
T W pp.
Jacobson, Oscar Brousse, Kiowa Indian Art. Nice, France:
C. Szwedzicki, 1929.
12 pp., 90 colored pi.
37
Neuhaus, Eugen, The Art of Treasure Island. Berkeley:
University of California Press, 1939*
185 pp., 51 ill.
Oliphant, Mrs. M . , The Makers of Florence. London: Macmil­
lan & Co., Ltd., 1 9 0 8 ”. 422 pp., 53 ill.
Revilla, Manuel G . , El Arte en Mexico. Mexico, D. F . :
Libreria Universal de Porrua Hermanos, 1923.
164 pp.,
119 ill.
Schmeckebier, Laurence, Modern Mexican Art. Minneapolis:
University of Minnesota Press, 1939*
190 pp.
Toor, Frances, Modern Mexican Artists. Mexico, D. F . :
Frances Toor Studios, 1937.
205 PP., 100 ill.
Winslow, Leon L . , The Integrated School Art Program. New
York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1939*
399 pt>.,
30 ill.
Wolfe, Bertrand D . , Portrait of Mexico.
Friede, 1937.
211 pp.
New York: Covici,
Wright, Muriel, The Story of Oklahoma. Oklahoma City:
Webb Publishing Co., 19307
542 pp.
B.
PUBLICATIONS OF LEARNED ORGANIZATIONS
Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smlthsonian
Institution, lBS5. Washington, D. C.: United States
Government Printing Office, 1886.
Donaldson, Thomas Corwin, The George Catlln Indian Gallery
in the U. _S. National Museum. 930 pp., 144 pi.
C.
ENCYCLOPEDIA ARTICLES
Brangwyn, Frank, "Mural-Painting," Encyclopedia Britannica,
14th edition, XV, 969-72.
Goulinat, Gabriel, "Oil Painting, Technique of," Encyclo­
pedia Britannica, 14th edition, XVI, 754-56.
Gittinger, Roy, "Oklahoma," Encyclopedia Britannica, 14th
edition, XVI, 75^-56.
58
D.
BOOKLETS
Enjoy Your Museum, Mural Painting by Charles Kassler II.
Pasadena: Esto Publishing Co., 1956.
16 pp.
Mexican Art Series, Ten interpretative guides to all the
Mexican frescoes. Critical art notes by Carlos Merida.
Mexico, D. P . : Frances Toor Studios, 1957.
1.
Frescoes in National Preparatory School by
Orozco, Rivera, and others.
15 pp.* 20 ill.
2.
Frescoes in Ministry of Education by Diego
Rivera.
15 PP., 20 ill.
5.
Frescoes in Chapingo by Diego Rivera.
16 ill.
4.
Frescoes in Salubridad and Hotel Reforma by Diego
Rivera.
5.
Frescoes in Cortes Pa.lace at Cuernavaca by Diego
Rivera.
15 pp., 16 ill.
6.
Frescoes in National Palace by Diego Rivera, 15 PP«>
16 ill.
7.
Frescoes in Primary Schools by Various Artists.
75 P P .> 16 ill.
8.
Frescoes in Palace of Fine Arts by Rivera and
Orozco. 15 pp., 16 ill.
9.
Frescoes in Rodriguez Market by Various Artists.
15 pp., 16 ill.
10.
E.
15 PP*>
Frescoes in Several Buildings by Various Artists.
15 pp., 16 ill.
BULLETINS, PAMPHLETS, AND UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS
"Edmond, Oklahoma," Quarterly Bulletin, Central State Col­
lege, July, 19*10.
39
Fordice, Stella Barton, ’’History of Edmond, Oklahoma.”
Unpublished Master’s thesis, The University of Oklahoma,
Norman, 1927.
71 PP*
"Thirty Outstanding Works, Finished or in Process.” Pam­
phlet published by the Southern California Art Project
unit of the W.P.A. Arts Program (n. d.).
PLATES
m
PLATE I
THE OLDr NORTH TOWER,
CENTRAL STATE COLLEGE
J '& n M ■
hi
rGSfm
iljltV r
PLATE II
THE JUVENILE LIBRARY, CENTRAL STATE COLLEGE,
EDMOND, OKLAHOMA
^
PLATE III
EVANS HALL CENTRAL STATE COLLEGE,
EDMOND, OKLAHOMA
PLATE IV
LEGENDS OF THE NATIVE INDIANS OF SAN FERNANDO VALLEY
BY FLETCHER MARTIN, NORTH HOLLYWOOD HIGH SCHOOL,
NORTH HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA
h5
PLATE V
DETAIL OF MAP MAKERS OF THE WORLD BY BESSIE P. HELLER,
VIRGIL JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL, LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA
46
PLATE VI
ENTRY OF GODS INTO VALHALLA BY S. MACDONALD WRIGHT
SANTA MONICA HIGH SCHOOL, SANTA MONICA, CALIFORNIA
*>1
PLATE VII
THE
life
OF JOHN MARSHALL K
ALTHEA SLBER, JOHN MARSHALL
HIGH SCHOOL, LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA
PLATE VIII
TRIP TO THE JUNGLE BY SUZANNE MILLER,
JANE ADD.AMS ELEMENTARY SCHOOL, LONG BEACH, CALIFORNIA
49
PLATE IX
THE LIFE AND TRAVELS OF RICHARD DANA BY ADRIEN MACHEFORT,
RICHARD HENRY DANA JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL,
SAN PEDRO, CALIFORNIA
50
PLATE X
DETAIL OF ACTIVITIES OF LONG BEACH HARBOR BY JEAN 3WIGGETT
AND IVAN BARTLETT, LONG BEACH POLYTECHNIC HIGH SCHOOL,
LONG BEACH, CALIFORNIA
PLATE XI
DETAIL OF ENGLISH LITERATURE BY SUZANNE MILLER,
LONG BEACH LIBRARY, LONG BEACH, CALIFORNIA
52
PLATE XII
DETAIL OF DEEP SEA MAGIC BY OLINKA HRDY,
WILL ROGERS JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL, LONG BEACH, CALIFORNIA
53
PLATE XIII
A PANEL FROM INDUSTRIAL LIFE OF SAN PEDRO
BY TYRONE COMFORT, SAN PEDRO HIGH SCHOOL,
SAN PEDRO, CALIFORNIA
54
PLATE XIV
DETAIL OF THE STORY OF MAN'S CONQUEST OF THE AIR
BY ARTHUR AMES AND JEAN GOODWIN, CHARLES LINDBERGH
HIGH SCHOOL, LONG BEACH, CALIFORNIA
PLATE XV
VIEW OP EDMOND, OKLAHOMA
ui
VJ1
56
PLATE XVI
i
A FARM HEAR EDMOND, OKLAHOMA
57
PLATE XVII
AN OIL FIELD NEAR EDMOND, OKLAHOMA
PLATE XVIII
ONE-INCH SCALE DESIGN IN PENCIL
VJ1
OD
PLATE XIX
DRAWING OF A CHILD
60
PLATE XX
DETAIL DRAWINGS
PLATE XXI
LARGE DRAWING ON CANVAS
H
PLATE XXII
TWO-INCH SCALE DESIGN IN COLOR
o\
ro
PLATE XXIII
UNDER PAINTING OF THE MURAL IN FLAT TONES
CT\
V>J
FLATS XXIV
THE COMPLETED MURAL
i*
Ch
-tr
BLATE XXV
cn
THE MURAL AFTER INSTALLATION IN THE JUVENILE LIBRARY
AT CENTRAL STATE COLLEGE, EDMOND, OKLAHOMA
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