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The status, policies, and objectives of Minnesota state teachers' colleges

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THE STATUS, POLICIES, AND OBJECTIVES
OF MINNESOTA STATE TEACHERS’ COLLEGES
A Dissertation
Presented to
the Faculty of the School of Education
University of Southern California
In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Doctor of Education
by
Archie 0* Clark
August 1941
UMI Number: DP25695
All rights reserved
INFORMATION TO ALL USERS
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In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript
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a note will indicate the deletion.
Dissertation Publishing
UMI DP25695
Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author.
Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC.
All rights reserved. This work is protected against
unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code
ProQuest LLC.
789 East Eisenhower Parkway
P.O. Box 1346
Ann Arbor, Ml 48106- 1346
T h is d is s e rta tio n , w r i t t e n u n d e r the d ir e c t io n
o f the C h a ir m a n o f the c a n d id a te ’s G u id a n c e
C o m m itte e a n d a p p r o v e d by a l l m em bers o f the
C o m m itte e , has been p resen ted to a n d accepted
by the F a c u lt y o f the S c h o o l o f E d u c a t io n in
p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f the re q u ire m e n ts f o r the
degree o f D o c t o r o f E d u c a t io n .
Guidance Committee
?..
J
sing
Chairman
D. Welty Lefever
Osman R. Hull
Irving R. Melbo
Louis P. Thorpe
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
PART ONE*
I.
II.
PAGE
THE STUDY
THE PROBLEM . . ...................
1
Significance of the study . . . ..........
1
Literature related to problem .............
2
PROGEDURE OF THE INVESTIGATION...............
PART TWOS
1?
The student personnel survey...............
17
The study of conditioning f a c t o r s ........
19
FACTORS CONDITIONING THE PRESENT STATUS
OF TEACHERS 1 COLLEGES IN MINNESOTA
III.
THE GROWTH OF-THE MINNESOTA TEACHERS1
COLLEGES...........................
22
Establishment of the six colleges . . . . .
22
Change in character of the institutions . .
23
Relations with other state-supported
. . . .
25
AND TEACHER DEMAND.........................
28
General decline of population growth.
28
institutions of higher education.
IV.
POPULATION TRENDS, SCHOOL ENROLLMENTS,
...
29
Causes of the d e c l i n e .....................
Lowered birth and death r a t e s ..........
.
33
Change in the trend in 1 9 4 1 ...............
36
Changing character of the population.
37
...
iii
CHAPTER
PACE
Changes in public school enrollment in
M i n n e s o t a ..........
V.
42
Teacher supply and d e m a n d .............. . •
44
Summary . . . . . ...................* • • .
55
MINNESOTA*S ABILITY AND WILLINGNESS TO
FINANCE PUBLIC EDUCAT I O N . .................
57
Financial support of public education in
M i n n e s o t a ................................
salaries.........................
61
S u m m a r y ....................................
63
Teachers*
VI.
57
LEGISLATION AND LEGAL CONTROL OF STATE
TEACHERS* COLLEGES.....................
64
Legal control of state teachers* colleges
in Minnesota..........
64
Legislation concerning teachers* colleges .
68
The purpose of teachers* colleges as
defined by law. •
70
..........
Establishment of tuition charges...........
71
Legislative assaults on thecolleges.
72
...
The report of the Interim Committee on
E d u c a t i o n ..............
S u m m a r y ..............
74
79
iv
CHAPTER
PAGE
PART THREE:
PRESENT CONDITION OF THE TEACHERS 1
COLLEGES AS REVEALED BY A SURVEY OF THE STUDENT
PERSONNEL
VII.
A N ANALYSIS OF STUDENTS ENROLLED IN A
TYPICAL YEAR .
...........'. .
. ........
83
Technique of obtaining the data.............
83
Personal data.
87
.....................
Sex............
87
A g e ............. . .........................
89
Place of r e s i d e n c e .......................
91
Race, parentage, nationality . . . . . . .
94
Data concerning the families of students . .
97
Family status.................... .........
Income and expenditures.
.........
Religious affiliations ...................
Educational d a t a ..............
97
105
Ill
113
113
Educational background
Extra-curriculum participation
High school achievement.
.........
116
...........
120
Continuity of study..........
125
Educational and professional goals . . . .
127
Classification and fields of
specialization
...................
129
V
CHAPTER
PAGE
Summary ...............
. . . . . . . . . . .
135
Tabulation of detailed data regarding
students enrolled during 1935 .............
vixi.
139
.............
234
The problem of withdrawals.
...........
234
Source of information
...........
235
an'analysis of withdrawals.
Personal data regarding students who
withdraw.........................
235
Sex
235
............................
235
Age
Parentage
236
..............
.............
238
Educational data. . ..........................
240
Parental occupation . . . . .
High school attended............
High school achievement
240
...........
240
.................
243
Academic failure............................
243
Financial problems..............
245
Other causes................................
246
Causes for withdrawal
S u m m a r y ...............
249
Tabulation of detailed data regarding
w i t h d r a w a l s .................
DC.
A N ANALYSIS OF GRADUATES.......................
Graduates of the four-year course ...........
251
267
267
Vi
CHAFFER
PAGE
Source of training of public secondary
school t e a c h e r s ...........................
267
Personal and background data.................
270
Fields of concentration.....................
271
Four-year curricula of Minnesota
teachers' colleges.........................
Patterns of work taken by graduates . . . .
272
281
Success in college measured by grades
290
received................................
Post college service:
employment and
unemployment................................
Post college service:
291
types of
communities served by graduates . . . . .
296
Types of educational positions held . . . .
299
Graduates of the two-year course............ *
303
Sources of training of Minnesota
elementary t e a c h e r s .....................
303
Source of data ............................. *
305
Review of personal and background data.
305
♦ .
Sex and a g e ..................................
305
Residence
306
.....................
3 O6
P a r e n t a g e ...............................
Occupations of parents.......................
Pattern of work in high school. . . . . . .
306
307
vii
CHAPTER
PAGE
Two-year curricula in Minnesota teachers1
c o l l e g e s ................................
307
Pattern of work taken by two-year
graduates................................
After college experience
.........
310
318
Preparation and placement.................
322
Types of communities served.
............
326
Summary.......................................
326
Graduates of the four-year course. . . * .
326
Graduates of the two-year course . . . . .
330
Tabulation of detailed data regarding
graduates..................................
PART FOUR*.
333
IMPLICATIONS FOR THE FORMULATION OF
POLICIES AND OBJECTIVES
X.
SUMMARY.........................................
381
Establishment and growth of teachers*
colleges
381
..........
Population trends, school enrollments,
and teacher demand • • • • • • . « • . . .
Financial support of public education.
. . .
38I
382
Legislation.........................
383
The student personnel.................
383
Employment of graduates.
384
• • * • • « • • • •
viii
CHAPTER
XI.
PAGE
PROPOSED OBJECTIVES FOR MINNESOTA TEACHERS *
' COLLEGES AND CHANGES REQUISITE TO THEIR
385
F U L F I L L M E N T ..........
More rigid standards for teacher
certification
3
.....................
Function of the teachers’ colleges.
. . . . .
387
389
Admission policy...........................
Curriculum proposals# . . . .
Extra-curriculum proposals*
...............
. . . . . . . . .
392
394-
Uniform records and r e p o r t s .................*
395
Teaching combinations in small high schools .
395
Scholarships and student loan funds . . . . .
396
Summary .
BIBLIOGRAPHY .
3
...........................
...................................
398
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE
PAGE
I.
Race and Parentage of the Population
of the United States and Minnesota
1920 and 1930 ............................
II.
Age Groups In Minnesota Population
1910-1920-1930............................
III.
.............
. . . . .
47
Number of Qualified Teachers Graduated
by Minnesota Schools in 1934-1938 * . . .
VII.
45
Teacher Turnover in Minnesota Public
Schools for the Years 1935-1939 ........
VI.
43
Teachers Employed In Minnesota Public
Schools .......................
V.
41
Enrollment In Public Schools of
Minnesota . . . . . . . . .
IV.
38
50
Preparation of Minnesota Public School
Teachers 1935-1936, and Rural Teachers,
1940.................
VIII.
53
Rank of Minnesota Among the States in
Measures Ability to Support and in
Support of Public Education . . . . . . .
IX.
58
Median Annual Salaries of Teachers in
Various Types of Communities.
. . . . . .
62
TABUS
PAGE
X.
Enrollment of Minnesota Teachers’
Colleges, Spring Quarter, 1935 and
Number and Percentage of Replies to
Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ....................... . . . .
XI.
Glassification Class Membership
1935 P o p u l a t i o n ............................
XII.
. . . . . . .
XVII.
92
Parental Occupations of Indicated Groups
of Minnesota Teachers* College Students . .
XVI.
90
Residence of Designated Groups of Students
Minnesota Teachers’ Colleges............ *
XV.
88
Age of Designated Groups of Students
Minnesota Teachers’ Colleges...............
XIV.
85
Sex of Designated Groups of Students
Minnesota Teachers’ Colleges.
XIII.
84
Occupational Distribution in Minnesota.
. . .
101
103
Participation in Extra-Curriculum
Activities Minnesota Teachers’ Colleges
1935 P o p u l a t i o n .............................. 118
XVIII.
Interrupted College Attendance
Minnesota Teachers’ Colleges
1935 P o p u l a t i o n ...........................
XIX.
126
Field of Specialization Minnesota
Teachers* Colleges 1935Population............ 132
xi
TABLE
PAGE
XX-
Fields of Major and Minor Interest
Minnesota Teachers' Colleges
1935 P o p u l a t i o n ..........................
XXI.
Placements hy Fields of Major Training
Minnesota Teachers' Colleges. . . . . . .
XXII.
Personal Data!
Sex and A g e ................
to
Personal Data:
Place of Residence.........
149
Personal Data:
Family Background,
Income, and Expenditures..................
XLII.
XLIII.
to
LIII.
LIV.
143
to
XXVIII.
to
140
142
to
XXIX.
134
to
XXIII.
XXIV.
133
151
to
166
Coefficientof Mean SquareContingency
Between Parental Occupation and
College Success ........
Personal Data:
. . . . . . . .
Religious Affiliation . . .
167
to
181
182
to
to
LVI.
187
LVII.
to
LXII.
Educational Data:Secondary School
Background................................
188
to
195
xii
TABLE
PAGE
LXIII.
to
Educational Bata:
Extra-Curriculum
Pa r t i c i p a t i o n ...........
LXXVIII.
LXXIX.
to
XCIII.
XCIV.
196
to
216
Educational Data:
High School Achievement
Educational and Professional Goals
Classification and Specialization . . *
217
to
233
Comparison of Parentage of Withdrawal
and Graduating Groups, Minnesota
Teachers* Colleges 1931-1935...........
XCV.
237
Occupations of Parents of Withdrawal
and Graduating Groups of Minnesota
Teachers* Colleges.
XCVI.
...................
239
location of the High School Attended by
the Withdrawals as Compared with the
Graduating G r o u p s .....................
XCVII.
241
Quartlie Placement in High School
Graduating Class in College Aptitude
Test, and in College Aptitude Rating
of 1935 Population and Withdrawals
1931-1935 Minnesota Teachers* Colleges.
XCVIII.
242
Reasons for Withdrawal of Students from
Minnesota Teachers* Colleges 1931-1935*
244
xiii
TABLE
PAGE
XCIX.
Personal D a t a ........................... . .
252
to
to
CIV.
259
CV.
Educational Data.
.........
.
to
to
CX.
CXI.
260
266
Employed Secondary Teachers In Minnesota
Schools, 1931-1932 and 1936-1939
Classified as to Source of Training . . .
CXII.
268
Graduates Minnesota Teachers* Colleges
1931-1935 Classified as to First Major
Field of Concentrat ion...............
CXIII.
273
Hanking of Opportunities for Placement
Compared with Ranking of Fields of
Preparation of Students Enrolled in
Minnesota State Teachers’ Colleges.
CXIV.
. . •
274
Quarter Hours Required in Majors Offered
Four-Year Degree Course, Minnesota
Teachers* Colleges 1935 .................
CXV.
275
Quarter Hours and Courses Required for
Degree, Minnesota Teachers* Colleges
1935..................................
CXVI.
Quarter Hours and Courses Required for
Elementary Education Major, Minnesota
277
xiv
TABLE
PAGE
Teachers 1 Colleges 1935 ............ * •
CXVII.
279
Comparison of Pattern of Work in College
Between Graduates of the Minnesota
Teachers’ Colleges, Other Teachers1
Colleges, and Universities and Colleges
not Including First Major Field of
C o n c e n t r a t i o n .................
CXVIII.
282
Employment of Students Graduating from
Four-Year Course Minnesota Teachers1
Colleges 1931-1935............
CXIX.
293
Unemployed Secondary Teachers in
Minnesota 1931-1932 Classified as to
Institutions of Training. . . . . . . .
CXX.
295
Rank Distribution of Unemployment In
Minnesota Compared to Employment in
Minnesota and Difficulty of Placement
Reported by National Placement
Association •
CXXI.
..........
297
Percentage of Four-Year Graduates
Minnesota Teachers1 Colleges 1931~1935
In Various Types of Communities at the
End of the Specified Years After
Graduation..............................
298
xv
PAGE
TABLE
CXXII.
Percentage of Four-Year Graduates
Minnesota Teachers1 Oolieges 1931-1935
Known to be Teaching Classified by
Type of Position at the End of Specified
Years After Graduation . . . .
CXXIII.
........
300
Institutions Training the Elementary
Teachers Employed in Minnesota 1931-1932
and 1938-1939.
CXXIV.
.......................
304
Fields of Concentration Offered in TwoYear Curriculum Minnesota Teachers’
Colleges 1935. • * ......... . . . . . .
cxxv.
Quarter Hours and bourses Required for
Two-Year Diploma 1935> All Fields.
CXXVT.
CXXVTI.
308
. . .
311
Required for Specified Fields 1935 * * •
312
Addition Quarter Hours and Courses
Comparison of Pattern of Work Taken in
College Between Two-Year Graduates of
Minnesota Teachers1 Colleges and
Twenty Other Teachers' Colleges........
CXXVIII.
313
Employment of Students Graduating from
Two-Year Course Minnesota Teachers1
Colleges 1931-1935 .....................
CXXIX.
319
Known Employment of Two-Year Graduates of
Minnesota Teachers’ Colleges 1931-1935 -
321
xv i
TABLE
PAGE
CXXX.
Percentage of Individuals Preparing for
Teaching in Specific Fields Who were
Placed in Educational Positions • . * .
CXXXI.
Comparison of Field of Preparation and
Position Obtained . . ................
CXXXII.
323
325
Type of Community Served by Students
Graduating From Two-Year Course
Minnesota Teachers1 Colleges in
Specified Years After Graduation.
CXXXIII.
to
Four-Year Graduates:
Background Data
. . .
Personal and
334
.............
to
CXL.
CXLI.
347
Four-Year Graduates:
Employment Data . .
to
to
354
Two-Year Graduates:
Personal and
355
Background D a t a ...............
to
CLII.
CLIII.
to
CLVI.
348
to
CXLIV.
CXLV.
327
363
Two-Year Graduates:
Employment Data.
. .
384
to
379
LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE
PAGE
Changes in Minnesota
Population 1910-1920 . . .
30
2 . Changes in Minnesota
Population 1 9 2 0 - 1 9 3 O . . .
31
3.
Changes in Minnesota
Population 1 9 3 0 -1 9 4 0
32
4.
Birth and Death Rates Per 1,000
1.
...
Population, Minnesota 1920-1939
5•
•
35
Percentage of Total Enrollment of Teachers 1
Colleges hy Counties..........
95
FART ONE:
THE STUDY
Chapters I and II are concerned with orienting the
reader to the investigation.
In Chapter I the problem is
defined and justified, and a number of studies relating to
the problem are reviewed.
investigation is set forth.
In Chapter II the method of
CHAPTER I
THE PROBLEM
It was the purpose of this investigation to make a
comprehensive study of the present condition of statesupported teachers* colleges in Minnesota and of the factors
and Influences from which this present condition has
resulted#
To this end, the study will consider certain
primary factors which are directly responsible for the
status of the teachers* colleges:
the historical background
of teacher training in Minnesota, the nature and trend of
the population, economic conditions within the state, and
legislation relating to teacher-training institutions*
To
reflect the condition of the teachers* colleges, an ex­
tensive survey and analysis of the student personnel is
reported*
From these data, implications are derived as to
what are valid policies and objectives for the statesupported teachers* colleges of Minnesota.
I*
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Since i860, teacher education in Minnesota has de­
veloped rapidly, and has in each of the various phases of
the development of the state, adapted Itself to the needs
and conditions of the era and the segment of population
which It served.
Minnesota is a relatively new state
which has had during most of its history a high proportion
of foreign-born white settlers.
Only recently has the
population become relatively static and preponderantly
native.
Moreover, certain religious denominations have
long played a dominant role in education in Minnesota.
Only within the last decade has the state given to its own
tax-supported teachers' colleges an equality with churchrelated colleges in matters of teacher-training.
These
changes together with a falling birth-rate and a dis­
proportionate ratio of legally qualified teachers to avail­
able positions make imperative a re-orlentation of the
teachers' colleges with regard to their dominant alms and
policies*
In this section a selection of the more Important
surveys made in the field of teacher education, studies of
control of tax-supported colleges, studies in the effect
of socio-economic status on educational opportunity, and
studies dealing with phases of pupil personnel under con­
sideration in the present study are reviewed.
They are
presented in chronological order of publication.
II.
LITERATURE RELATED TO PROBLEM
Of the voluminous literature dealing with the
3
problems of teacher education and teachers' colleges and
the relations between secondary and higher education, only
those that have been used in some aspect of this study will
be mentioned*
In 1922, Counts in his work on the Selective
Character of American Education.1 showed that there was a
close relation between parental occupation and the privilege
of a secondary education*
He also found that the children
of the laboring class exhibited ability of practically as
high grade as other occupation groups.
In his study he
developed a classification of parental occupations by socio­
economic levels rather than by the large occupational
divisions used by the census bureau.
2
S** ■kk® National Survey of Secondary Education
Kefauver, Noll, and Drake used this scale with some refine­
ments and found a decided increase of the democratization
of secondary education in this country both on the basis of
socio-economic level and on the basis of intellectual
ability.
Hill in 1927 published his Decade of Progress In
1 G. S. Counts, Selective Character of American
Secondary Education (Chicago: University of Chicago Press,
1 9 2 2 ).
2 a. N. Kefauver, V. H. Noll, and C. E. Drake,
National Survey of Secondary Education (Bulletin No. 17>
Monograph No• 4. Washington, D-d.; Office of Education,
Teacher Education.3 a study of the progress made In the
state of Missouri over a decade following the report of the
Carnegie Foundation on the Institutions of higher learning
in that state*
This study has "been used particularly for
comparisons of student personnel*
In the study of withdrawals from the teachers*
colleges, comparisons have heen made -with the data gathered
by Pope in her investigation of the Factors Affecting the
Elimination of Women Students From Selected Co-educational
h
Colleges of Liberal Arts *
summarised as follows:
.
Her findings may be briefly
the rate of withdrawal tended to be
higher among students living in the city of the college’s
location; size of the city of residence or size of high
school graduated from had no effect on the withdrawal rate;
there was no variation of rate in relation to parental
occupation; but rank in high school achievement and in
native Intelligence caused a decided variation in with­
drawals*
Financial difficulties were the prime reason for
leaving college before completion of work causing about a
3 Clyde M. Hill, A Decade of Progress In Teacher
Training (Contributions to Education No* 2 3 3 . New Yorks
Bureau of Publications, Teachers’ College, Columbia
University, 1927).
^ Ruth V* Pope, Factors Affecting the Ellmlnation
of Women Students From Selected Co-educational Colleges of
Liberal Arts (ContrIbutions to Education No. £3 5 . Uew York
Teachers1 doliege, Columbia University, 1931)*
third of the withdrawals.
Academic failure, desire for
another type of school, and failure to adjust socially were
responsible for approximately ten per cent each of the
withdrawals, and health, marriage, and discipline accounted
for the 'remainder'*
Crutsinger1s Survey Study of Teacher Training in
Texas and a Suggested P r o g r a m .5 like Hill's Missouri study,
has been used for comparative purposes throughout the
present Investigation, especially in the student personnel
survey.
He reports tiiat Texas at that time had no real
state system of public education, but rather numerous
autonomous school districts and fourteen institutions of
higher learning operating under several boards of regents.
State support of public and collegiate education was un ­
certain and progressively harder to obtain.
The study
revealed nearly half of the teachers of the state to be
"substandard* in preparation and nearly twice as many teach­
ers certified each year as were needed to fill positions
available.
He proposed a gradual upgrading of the teaching
personnel through certification requirements to be adopted
by the State Department of Education, a selection of
5 George M. Crutsinger, Survey Study of Teacher
Training in Texas and a Suggested "Program (Contributions to
Education No. 537* New York* Teachers * College, Columbia
University, 1933)*
candidates on the basis of need as determined by a
continuing study of demand and supply*
The outstanding study in the field of control of
tax-supported institutions of collegiate rank is Hill's
Control of Tax-Supported Higher Education in the United
States^ made for the Carnegie Foundation in 1934*
His find­
ings showed that one-haIf of the states used different
boards for various types of colleges, one-quarter had a
distinct board for each institution, and eleven of the
states used a centralized system where all educational
matters of the state were controlled by one board*
clusions may be briefly summarized as follows:
His con­
we cannot
expect nation-wide uniformity in matters of control because
of our federal system of government; control of educational
institutions should not be too deeply submerged in state
executive systems or subject to the authority of too many
other agencies of the state, such as financial adminis­
trators, purchasing agents, or similar officials; when the
control is too closely subject to the will of the chief
executive or his Immediate appointees, politics are in­
variably the result.
The position was taken that a
^ David S. Hill, Control of Tax-Supported Higher
Education in the United States. Carnegie Foundation, 193^.
unification of control was not incompatible with democracy
and advocated one unified board for all higher education
and eventually all state educational activities though it
would be unwise at present to place the control of state
colleges and universities under existing state departments
of education.
National Survey of the Education of Teaehers.^
completed in 1935, is the most exhaustive study of teacher
education made in the United States.
It is the third of a
series of survey studies planned by Cooper, former United
States Commissioner of Education.
The survey was designed
to present a picture of existing conditions and practices
in teacher education, to discover the major problems in­
volved, to Indicate trends, and to propose solutions to the
problems or to make suggestions for Improvements.
The three major problems the survey disclosed were,
the problem of raising the level of education of American
teachers, the problem of making the preparation of teachers
more distinctly professional, and the problem of better
adjusting the supply of teachers to the demand.
The first problem resulted from the finding that
National Survey of the Education of Teachers
(Vol. 1-6, Bulletin No. 10, 1933* Washington, D.G* :
United States Printing Office, 1935)*
teachers in all levels of education were inadequately
prepared; a quarter of the elementary teachers were found to
have less than two years of collegiate preparation, nearly
40 per cent of the junior high school instructors had less
than four years of college, and 13 per cent of the senior
high school teachers had less than four years training
beyond high school*
The proposed solution of this problem
was to secure the upgrading of the country's teaching per­
sonnel through certification laws that demand more training,
an immediate minimum of two years for elementary teachers
and four years for secondary teachers with an eventual
minimum of four years for elementary and five years for
secondary teachers*
To supplement this raising of certi­
fication requirements, a program of public enlightenment.
as to the necessity of well trained teachers, a nation­
wide campaign to reduce Interstate differences, and a plan
of better equalising educational opportunity were recommend­
ed.
The second problem arose from the finding of a large
variance in the amounts of professional education given by
different institutions and a decided difference in the
handling of the professional elements of the teacher's
education.
That this was not alone a-problem of the
teachers' colleges but of vital concern to liberal arts
colleges and universities was shown by the fact that
approximately one-half of the supply of new teachers in
this country were receiving their training in institutions
other than those designated as teacher training colleges.
One-third of the prospective elementary teachers, seventenths of the junior high school, and four-fifths of the
new supply of senior high school teachers were being trained
by liberal arts colleges, universities and Junior colleges.
In the field of general education prospective teach­
ers were-found to have many blank spots in their contacts
with the major fields of human learning and too little
contact with more specialised fields of fine and applied
arts.
Provisions were made for many varieties of extra-
curriculum experiences but many prospective teachers failed
to take advantage of these opportunities.
The survey
recommended the prescription of amounts of general education
to bring the teaching profession to the level of that en ­
joyed by other professions.
This would include surveys of
the major fields of learning, authoritative scholarship in
the field of the teacher's choice, a social education which
would give the student a background for the understanding
of present day social developments, an Intellectual
avocation, and an integrated philosophy of life.
The
necessity of better guidance into those extra-eurriculum
experiences which would provide leadership and the develop­
ment of a well rounded personality was emphasized*
In the field of professional training the survey
staff leaned strongly to the belief that the profession­
alized treatment of all subject matter was the best means
of giving the prospective teacher training that would be
functional*
The professional elements should include an
orientation course, acquaintance with professional tools,
an understanding of the persons to be taught, methods and
techniques of presenting subject matter, organization and
management of classrooms for instructional purposes, a
^safety minimum11 of teaching skill, and to cap the profes­
sional training, the acquisition of an integrated philosophy
of education*
The third major problem arose from the oversupply of
prospective teachers which was estimated by the survey to
be some thirty thousand for the country as a whole*
The
position was taken that both an under supply and an over­
supply of candidates was harmful to the profession*
A
formula was provided which would make it possible for the
various states to make a reasonable estimate of the number
of teachers which would be required in any given year*
This
formula was predicated on the belief that with proper
statistical records a state could determine the approximate
shrinkage in the teaching force due to all causes, the
additional numbers who would be available for all reasons,
except further certification, and the difference in these
two estimates would give the number of new certificates
that should be issued in any given year.
On the supply
side, the survey rec ommended the allocat ion among the
various institutions of the state proportions of the total
number of newly certificated prospective teachers.
The survey concludes with the formulation of a group
of principles for teacher education which Include the
following main ideas:
it la the duty of the state to
establish standards for teacher preparation and to maintain
them by balancing demand and supply? a system of selective
admission and selective recruiting to secure proper students
should be followed by wise guidance and a rigid elimination
of those found unfit; curriculum construction should•proceed
on the basis of producing competency in the service to be
rendered rather than on the major-minor system, and
graduation should depend on mastery of content and skills
for work to be performed; general education should be com­
parable with other professions, and professional education
should provide the prospective teacher with an orientation
to the profession, a knowledge of the tools and techniques,
a safety minimum in teaching skill, and an integrated
12
philosophy of education; the personality of the prospective
teacher should he strengthened through a strong guidance
and student welfare program, including opportunity for
extra-curriculum experience, social and religious experi­
ences, and a chance to develop creative talents; the
prospective teacher should realize the importance of edu­
cation in the development of social, political, and economic
stability and the public should be educated to the under­
standing that education for teaching is the most Important
of all services rendered by the state*
In 1936 the Carnegie Foundation published a report
dealing with comparisons of tested achievement of prospective
teachers and other college students in Pennsylvania*^
This
study showed that in available academic knowledge prospective
teachers in both teachers1 colleges and liberal arts
colleges were definitely inferior to students not intending
to enter the teaching profession.
The men students were
found to be generally superior to the women*
It was also
shown that over 10 per cent of the high school seniors made
scores on the tests given which were above the median of the
prospective teacher group, and that 7 per cent of the
® W* S. Learned, “Tested Achievement of Prospective
Teachers in Pennsylvania,M Thirty-First Annual Beport of the
Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, 1936,
PP* 29*51*
13
teacher group made lower scores than did 36 per cent of
the high school seniors*
In 1940 Goetsch showed In her study, Parental Income
and Co liege Opportunity.^ that at least half of the gifted
high school seniors in Milwaukee were not going further with
their education mainly because of financial limitations♦
She reported that as family income decreases, collegiate
attendance decreases.
In the upper income groups the
professions most often chosen were law, medicine, dentistry,
journalism, and engineering, while in the Income groups
below the median the professions selected were education,
commercial work, and nursing.
there are at present two studies in progress which
are of outstanding interest, one directly relating to teach­
er education and the other to the relationship between
colleges and secondary schools,
the later, the study of
the Progressive Education Association,
10
over an eight-year
9 Helen B. Goetsch, Parental Income and College
Opportunity (Contributions to Education Ho. 795* Hew York:
Bureau of Publications, teachers* College, Columbia
University, 1940).
•**° Burton P. Fowler, "An Appraisal of the Eight-Year
Study of the Progressive Education Association,11 Education
R e c o r d 22:supplement. 106-21, January, 1941.
Guy 3). Hawke s and Bean Chauneey, "Eight-Year Study
of the Progressive Education Association." Horth Central
Quarterly. 15:253~64, January, 1941.
14
period of the effect of discarding the more formalized and
rigid secondary school curriculum for a progressive type,
will soon be completed.
The preliminary reports indicate
that the students who have passed through the progressive
curriculum in secondary schools succeed in college work as
well or better than those from the formalized systems*
The
outcome of the study will doubtless have a marked effect on
existing matriculation systems*
The second study, dealing more directly with the
problem of teacher education, is the cooperative study in
teacher education which is being carried on under the
auspices of the American Council on Education under the
direct control of the Council's Commission on Teacher
Education.
At a conference held in Bennington in 1939, the
plans for the cooperative attack on various problems were
laid.^
The study is to be a cooperative affair, enlisting
the help of thirty-four schools and colleges.
problems to be investigated ares
The major
the organization of
curricula for teacher education, especially the problem of
general and professional education, the means of development
American Council on Education, Bennington Planning
Conference for Cooperative Study of Teacher Education. 1939*
15
of a teaching personality, studies in child development and
teacher understanding of the child, the role of the school
in a democratic society and the place of the teacher in the
total picture, and the better development of the teacher as
an influential member of the community; the problem of
recruitment, selection, and guidance with particular
emphasis on articulation with the public schools; and the
problems involved in securing more trustworthy evidence of
what constitutes a potentially effective teacher, of growth
in teaching ability, of competence in teaching, of effect­
iveness of various procedures or total programs for promoting
teacher education*
Plans were developed which would permit the co­
operating Institutions to attack such problems as they wished
under the guidance and assistance of the Commission*
there Is little-.or no literature dealing directly with
the problem of the teachers’ colleges in Minnesota*
What
information is available is buried largely in statistical
reports of the Minnesota State Department of Education and
in the records of the various colleges,
the Interim
Committee on Education appointed by the Minnesota Legislature
in the spring of 1939 issued a report in January, 1941,12
Report of the Interim Committee on Education.
St. Paul, January, 1941*
16
in which they made two proposals affect ins ^he teachers *
colleges directly; that the colleges be limited to the
training of elementary and junior high school teachers with
major emphasis on the training of rural teachers, and that
the State Teachers * Goliege Board be abolished and the
colleges be placed under the control of the State Department
of Education*
CHAPTER II
PROCEDURE OF THE INVESTIGATION
The Investigation falls Into two rather distinct
parts:
a study of the present condition of the six state-
supported teachers* colleges in Minnesota as revealed
through a survey of the student personnel, and an examin­
ation of those factors from which this present condition
has evolved and upon which it is dependent.
The student personnel survey.
entirely fact finding.
The survey was
The data on socio-economic status
and family background were obtained by a questionnaire
filled out by students in attendance at an assembly in each
of the colleges.
A total of 1,956 responses was obtained.
This information was supplemented by a study of the
transcripts of high school work on file in the registrars*
offices.
The record of each individual in this group who
had participated in the state-wide testing program conducted
by the University Testing Bureau of the state university was
obtained through the cooperation of this bureau.
An un­
selected 10 per cent sampling of students entering the
colleges in 1920, 1 9 2 5 , and 1930, totaling 479 was taken to
furnish comparative data.
These data were obtained from
the permanent records of the colleges.
The method of
18
sampling was to take the record of each tenth student.
In
five of the colleges the student list was arranged
alphabetically, in one the records were arranged by means
of a permanent numbering system which assigned a number to
each student in order of registration*
In the analysis of withdrawals from the colleges,
1931 to 1935 inclusive, a student was considered as a with­
drawal if he had not completed the course registered for or
was not in attendance at the college during the quarter the
study was made.
A total of 3,063 Individual personnel,
high school transcript, and permanent college records were
used.
Again the results of the University testing Bureau
were used if the student had participated in the testing
program.
The portion of the study dealing with the graduates
of the six colleges during the years 1931 to 1935 inclusive,
was based on all available college records, personnel,
high sohool transcript, and placement office records for
the entire group of 1,196 degree graduates.
Because of the
great similarity of college work done by the two-year
graduates a selected 10 per cent samp ling was used covering
458 individual students.
The basis of selection was sex,
course registered for, and placement or no placement
following graduation*
19
Official reports of the Minnesota State Department
of Education were used as sources of Information concerning
teaeher demand, supply, and turn-over In the state and for
statistics concerning the pupil enrollment In the public
schools*
In the survey then of over six thousand students of
the Minnesota teachers* colleges a comprehensive picture
of the background, the educational experience in high
school and college, and the post-college record has been
drawn, and It is hoped that from this picture certain
details stand out with sufficient clearness when viewed
from the perspective of the general educational situation
in the state to serve as the basis for policy determination.
The study of conditioning factors.
The other phases
of the problem were attacked through examination of primary
sources as*far as possible.
In studying the historical
growth and legal foundation of the teachers* colleges,
M ason’s Minnesota Statutes and of Minnesota laws for various
years were consulted.
Occasional reference was made to
Corpus J u r i s , and to the records of hearings of various
state legislative committees which are on file with the
Secretary of State in St. Paul.
In reviewing population
trends, the data gathered by the United States Census
Bureau were used, together with such interpretative
20
materials as the report of the National Resources Committee,
Problems of a Changing Population.* and Thompson and
Whelpton, Population Trends in the United States.2
The use
of interpretative material was kept at a minimum and the
great bulk of the data were derived directly from the
reports of the Census Bureau.
1 National Resources Committee. Problems of a
Changing Population (Washington, B.C. s United States
Government Printing Office, May, 1958).
2 W* S. Thompson and P. K. Whelpton, Population
Trends in the United States (New Yorks McGraw Hill
Company, 1935)*
PART II:
FACTORS CONDITIONING- THE PRESENT STATUS
OF TEACHERS' COLLEGES IN MINNESOTA
Before attempting to determine the condition of the
teachers* colleges by a survey of students enrolled,
graduated or withdrawn, attention will be given to certain
factors basic to the system of teacher training In
Minnesota*
The following are considered in Part Two of
the investigation:
the growth and development of state-
supported teachers* colleges since i860: population trends;
the economic condition of the population in relation to the
training requirements and the supply of teachers; and legal
control as reflected by various legislative measures
enacted concerning teacher training*
CHAPTER III
THE GROWTH OF THE MINNESOTA TEACHERS* COLLEGES
The history of the Minnesota State Teachers’ Colleges
has followed, in general, the same trend as state institu­
tions for the training of teachers throughout the United
States.
The six institutions were established over a period
of sixty years and followed closely the growth and spread
of population through the state.
Establishment of the six colleges.
The first college,
established in Winona in 1860, was the result of action
started but a few days after the first meeting of the
Legislature of the newly admitted state.
The location was
determined by one of the early centers of population.
Eight
years later the second school was opened at Mankato to serve
the needs of what was at that time the Western part of the
state and the following year the college at St. Cloud opened
to serve the northern part of the state.
Some twenty years
elapsed before the opening of the college at Moorhead.
During these years the population had spread to the western
boundary of the state and was moving north into the fertile
lands of the Red River Valley.
With the opening of the
iron range and the concentration of population In the north
eastern section of the state and the increasing Importance
23
of Duluth as an inland port, the Legislature authorized the
establishment of a fifth college at Duluth to serve this
section.
This school opened its doors in 1902, some twenty
years after the establishment of the Moorhead Institution*
As the north-central section of the state was cleared of
timber and an agricultural population moved into the cut­
over area, the Legislature again was faced with a demand
for a sixth college to train teachers for this section, and
the opening of Bemidji in 1919 marked the completion of the
system.
Change in character of the Institutions*
The insti­
tutions were originally designated as '’Normal Schools14 in
common with the training Institutions of other states and
retained this name until 1921 when, by act of the Legis­
lature, the term “Teachers* College11 was made official.
The ever present need for teachers with some training for
the rapidly s t a n d i n g school system was reflected in the
admittance of students completing the eighth grade of the
common schools and the establishment of sub~colleglate
. curricula of two and five years to train these enrollees.
The three-year course was continued until 1911 and the
five-year course was still in existence in some of the
colleges until the twenties*
During the earlier period
the moat advanced course consisted of two years beyond
high school, which was later extended to include a third
year and finally in 1921 a full four-year course was
authorized.
Admission standards were raised, first by the
older institutions and later by the newer ones until by
1920 only high school graduates were admitted unless the
requisite of successful teaching experience was met in its
lieu.
Following legislative authorization of a full four-
year course in 1921, the State Teachers* College Board in
1 9 2 5 , gave the colleges permission to proceed on the new
basis, and in 1927 and 1928 the first degrees were granted.
In 1929 the legislature revised the certification
law and ineluded the degree graduates of the teachers*
colleges among those who were eligible to receive certi­
fication for secondary teaching positions.
The year 193^
marked the last step taken in the changing curriculum, when
the State Teachers* College Board abolished the one-year
course for the training of rural teachers.
In a relatively short period of time, then, the
Minnesota Teachers* Colleges have passed from the status
of Normal Schools to colleges, sub-collegiate curricula
have been abandoned, admission standards have been raised
to the level of high school graduation, and training for
any position in the public school system has been provided.
25
Relations with other state-supported institutions
of higher education*
The relations between the teachers*
colleges and the University of Minnesota have been uniformly
friendly*
As far as ascertainable from the public press and
from committee hearing minutes, neither the administration
nor the University Alumni Association have taken any part
in trying to force legislation unfavorable to the teachers*
colleges.
Degree graduates of the teachers* colleges are
admitted to graduate work in the university if undergraduate
prerequisites for graduate work have been completed and if
at least 7 5 per cent of the undergraduate work has been
completed in strictly academic fields or 60 per cent is
academic and divided so that at least forty quarter hours
is presented in each of two major fields. 1
Students
completing two years of work In the teachers* colleges are
admitted to the third year of the University*s School of
Education. 2
The administration, has, however, taken a very
definite stand against the establishment of junior colleges
as branches of the University and has advocated the
1 Regulations of Administrative Committee of Senate
of University of Minnesota, February 26 , 1940.
2 State Teachers1 College Bemld.1l Catalogue, 19391941, p. Wl
retention of a single institution located at the center of
the state's population as being better able to serve the
educational needs of the state.^
In line with this policy
the administration opposed the establishment of a state
college at Duluth.
As only one of Minnesota's thirteen Junior colleges
is located in the same city as a teachers' college, that
at Duluth, as the Junior colleges are supported entirely
from tuition and local taxes, and as the Junior colleges
have never attempted to train teachers, there has been
little contact between these two types of institutions.
Students transfer from one type to the other with full
credit for work accomplished.
Minnesota also maintains a system of high school
teacher training departments which offer one year of work
beyond high school for the training of rural teachers*
In
1940 there were thirty-four such teacher training depart­
ments, each with one teacher, and a total enrollment of 486.
The state provides approximately 95 per cent of the total
cost which averages some fifty thousand dollars a year,
#50,997 being distributed in 1940.
These departments were
L. D. Coffman, Youth and Tomorrow* s Education.
University of Minnesota, 1934* pp. 49-56*
27
first authorized by the Legislature in 1895
4
and a subsidy
of five hundred dollars was offered to each local board of
education providing such a department*
This subsidy was
increased to $7 5 0 under legislative enactment of 1903^
and in 1921 when the state was faced with an acute shortage
of rural teachers the state assumed a total obligation of
$225,000 for the support ©f these departments*^
With the
disappearance of the emergency this sum was gradually
reduced to the present amount, not to exceed sixty thousand
dollars per year and not to exceed fifteen hundred dollars
for each department. ?
Because both the colleges and the high sehool train­
ing departments train teachers for the rural schools and
because the two-year graduates of the colleges are thrown
into direct competition with the graduates of the depart­
ments with a single year of training, it is natural that
there should not be the best of feeling between the two.
A
Minnesota State Laws, 1895, Chapter 186.
^ Minnesota
Laws of 1903. Chapter 359*
^ Minnesota
Laws of 1921, Chapter 467*
^ Minnesota
Laws of lg4l« Chapter 523*
CHASTER IV
POPULATION TRENDS, SCHOOL ENROLLMENTS,
AND TEACHER DEMAND
In the determination of teacher education policy the
Import ant taotor is the demand, Immediate and po tentla1 , for
teachers.
In turn, one important factor In determining
teacher demand is the trend of the population which directly
affects school enrollment.
In this chapter the trend of the
population in Minnesota, the effect of that trend on school
enrollment, and the resulting effect of these changes on
teacher demand will be considered.
Minnesota exhibits the same population trends as the
country at large, namely:
a slower rate of increase, a
lower birth and death rate, a trend toward a native white
population of native parentage, increased urbanization, and
an increasing percentage of the population in the older age
groups•
general decline of population growth.
During the
last four decades the rate of population growth has dropped
sharply.
From 1900 to 1910 the rate of increase was 18.5
per cent; from 1910 to 1920 it was 15 per cent; from 1920 to
1930 the rate of growth was 7.4 per cent, and in the last
decade it rose slightly to 8.9 per cent.
For the past two
29
decades the rat© of increase has heen roughly half that of
the two earlier decades.
The distribution of population within the state has
shown a tendency to vary greatly over the past twenty years
in spite ©f the small difference in percentage growth for
the two decades.
Of the eighty-five counties unchanged in
area between 1920 and 1930, forty-seven showed an increase
in population while thirty-eight showed an absolute loss.
In the past decade only four counties showed a loss while
elghty-three registered gains*
In both periods the gains
and losses were greatest in the typically rural areas,
especially in the northern portion of the state*
The
relative prosperity of the industrial centers caused a flow
of population from the rural sections during the decade
1920 to 193®, and industrial stagnation during the past
decade caused the stoppage and a reversal of this flow.
The
1935 Census of Agriculture found 49,676 persons on farms in
Minnesota that reported a non-farm residence five years
earlier.
Maps on pages 30, 31, and 32 show the detail of
these shifts.
Causes of the decline.
The decrease of population
growth suffered by Minnesota since the 1 9 1 0 -1 9 2 0 decade is
attributed to two factors, a change from a heavy net
MINNESOTA
CHaNjZo X?: MINH1S0TA rOFULATIOt!
xcmrT ™ ” * <PM*B
1910-1920
' '
L
ju
WBf
[+4S.T
+33.0
+ 14-/
i
+ if.*L +9.+
+ 17.0
+jeo.*
+S.O
+to.&
|
J
Gain
31
MINNESOTA
CHANELS IN MINNESOTA POPULATION
1920-1930
*WB
scau
P
%
m ,
m .
+9.5
*6.3
♦<2 6 .5
^6-e
C
□
■mmv.
rain
Loss
0 - 10#
Loss
10 - 205S
Loss
Over 20%
32
MINNESOTA
CHANGES IN MINNESOTA POPULATION
1930-1940
SCALE
10 20
■f10.4
j
5
1
32
*4.4
+13.9
+/0.1
■*/0.o
a
♦^es.7
C H
G^dln
loss
Fig-1"2 3 11
53
immigration to a loss through migration and a lowered birth
rate.
Biile no figures are available to show the effect of
immigration on the earlier rates of growth it is evident
that the rapid increase of population of the state prior to
1910 was due in part to this fact.
During the decade from
1920 to 1930 there was a net migration from the state of
approximately 110,000 persons.
Between I93O and 1936 it
was estimated that the net loss was some 55fOGO persons,
but as the estimated gain of 3*^ P^** cent in the population
of the state made by the Bureau of the Census in 1937 must
have been too low as the final 1940 figure was 8 .9 per cent,
the movement of people from the less fortunate agricultural
states of North Dakota, South Dakota, and Montana must have
been underestimated.
The rapid shifts in population both Interstate and
intrastate indicate how quickly people move in the face of
adverse economic conditions and the experience of the decade
I92 O-193O indicates that Minnesota may expect to lose rather
than gain from a nation-wide resumption of normal or supranormal Industrial activity.
lowered birth and death rates.
From 1920 to 1933 the
birth rate showed a decrease of 6 .2 per thousand while the
death rate dropped one per thousand.
Since 1933 the birth
34
rat© has increased by 1 *9 and the death rate has decreased
by one.
As a birth rate of seventeen per thousand is
considered necessary to hold the population at a constant
level, it seems evident that there can be little natural
\
increase in the population unless there Is a decided
change in the present birth rate, which authorities
consider improbable.
Figure 4 shows the changes in birth
and death rates for specified years.
Thompson and Yftielpton in their volume, Population
Trends in the United States. say, "Considering how birth
rates have fallen in the past, it seems more probable
that a fair-sized decline will occur in the future."
The
Katlonal Resources Committee states:
According to the mortality and fertility conditions
prevailing in 1930 in the white population of the
United States, the survivors from one thousand new b o m
females would be expected to give birth during their
life time to 1 ,0 7 9 daughters.
This reproduction rate,
if continued would result in a nearly stationary
population, Increasing at a rate of only 7 * 9 per cent
per generation (about 28.5 years) or about .3 per cent
per year.
The large disparity between the present crude rate
and the intrinsic rate of Increase of the population of
the United States is due to the large immigration and
high birth rate of the preceding fifty years, which
have resulted in a temporary bunching of the population
at the reproductive ages.
The Influence of these
3* W. S. Thompson and P. K. Whelpton, Population Trends
in the United States (New York: McG-raw Hill Company, 1933).
35
BIHTH AMD DEATH RATES PER 1000 POPULATION
MINNESOTA
1920-1939
20
15
DEATH
10
5
0
1920
1925
1930 1931
1932
1933
Figure 4.
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
36
factors will soon vanish. . . . Except in rural areas,
fertility among native white (and Negro) women is
already well below that necessary to maintain the
population permanently.2
Smith in an article says:
in 1929 the depression made marriage financially
hazardous and the number of births declined even more
abruptly.
Temporarily a return to prosperity,
coinciding with the large class of 1921 now reaching
into the marriageable age, may cushion the decline,
even give a slight movement upward in births for a
few years, but so far this increase in marriage has
not resulted in enough additional births to offset
to any marked degree other factors bringing about a
further declime.3
And Dublin states in a popular article, w!n 1930 our
fertility was barely sufficient to balance mortality and
»4
now we are one or two points per thousand in the red. "
This authority looks for a further lowering of the birth
rate as knowledge of contraception becomes wider spread.
Change in the trend in 1941.
in spite of these
predictions changing conditions, especially the selective
draft act, has increased the marriage rate and in turn the
birth rate.
The Census Bureau recently announced that 1941
National Resources Committee, Problems of a Chang­
ing Population (Washington. B.C.: United States Government
Printing Office, May, 1938), pp. 120-2.
—f
J R. D. Smith, P o p u l a t i o n Curve Hits the Schools,11
Survey Graphic. 27*445-9, September, 1938.
^ Louis Dublin,
127:68, June, 1939*
^Balances,11 American Magazine.
37
would show the highest birth rate in a generation, 18.5
per thousand inhabitants which is .5 points below that of
Minnesota.^
As stated above there seems little chance that the
former rate of Immigration will be again reached, as farm­
ing has been notoriously unprofitable in recent years and
Minnesota industry suffers handicaps of long distances to
markets with consequent high transportation costs.
On the
whole, it seems safe to predict that the days of large
population growth are over and that the state is likely to
have a very moderate growth in the future.
Changing character of the Population.
Minnesota
exhibits the tendency, in common with the country as a
whole, toward a native white population of native parentage.
Table I shows the trend from 1920 to 1930.
The proportion of foreign born in Minnesota is
rapidly approaching the percentage of foreign born for the
country as a whole but the second generation group is still
nearly twice that of the United States because of the
comparative newness of the state and the heavy immigration
from foreign countries in the early population.
5 Time, 37:17
The native
38
TABLE I
RAGE AMD PARENTAGE OF THE POPULATION
OF THE UNITED .STATES AND MINNESOTA
1920 AND 1930
Race
Nnited States
1920
1930
Per cent Per_ cent
Minnesota
1920
1930
,..Per cent Per cent
Native White
Nat ive parent age
55*3
64.4
34.9
43.9
Native White
Foreign parentage
14.8
1 5 -6
29*9
25*3
6.6
7.7
14.6
15.0
20.5
ISO
1 .1
1 .0
Native White
Mixed parentage
Foreign horn White
13*0
12.3-
Other races
IO. 3
1 0 .0
39
whites of native parentage are growing in about the same
proportion as In the entire country hut the group is still
over 20 per cent smaller.
That the state has no racial
problem Is shown by the very small percentage of persons
other than whites, one-tenth that of the United States as
a whole*
Minnesota's population showed a rapid trend toward
urbanisation between 1920 and 193°*
In contrast with the
state's 7*4 per cent Increase, Minneapolis showed an in­
crease of 22*0 per cent and St. Paul 15*7 per cent.
Duluth
alone of the larger cities showed an Increase lower than
the state, gaining only 2.6 per cent.
The three elties of
20,000-3 0 ,00© gained 3 0 * 5 per cent and the eight of 10,00020,000 Increased on the average of 14.6 per cent.
These
figures portray better this trend than does the change In
the state as a whole which was 5 per cent, a gain from 44
per cent urban dwellers In 1920 to 49 per cent in 193° and
a corresponding loss In rural residents from 56 per cent
in 1920 to 51 per cent in 1930*
This trend halted in the decade between 1930 and
1940 for the state as a whole, the population being
practically evenly divided between rural and urban areas.
During this decade the Twin Cities gained but 6 per cent
and Duluth suffered a slight absolute loss; however, the
40
smaller cities still showed a gain of nearly double the
state as a whole, the three over 20,000 gaining 16.8 per
cent and those between 10,000 and 20,000 15*6 per cent.
The relatively poorer showing of the Twin Cities in this
decade may be due to the movement of city dwellers into
suburban areas as the percentage increase in the two
counties was approximately that of the entire state*
This change over the two decades is of particular
importance because of the lower birth rates of the urban
groups and the smaller percentage of individuals found in
the younger age groups*
The shift to an older population group is shown in
Table II.
While the major change is found in the group
over forty-five, it is to be noted that the group under
five years of age lost 2 per cent in the decade 1920-1930.
This is of Importance because of the effect this loss will
have on the school population of the early grades which Is
discussed below.
Also of importance is the fact that the
urban areas which are growing more rapidly have a smaller
proportion of the first two age groups than has the rural
non-farm group and the farm group which exhibits the
smallest gain or even absolute loss in total population
has the largest percentage in these two age groups*
The
urban population has 7*9 per cent under five years of age,
4l
TABLE II
AGE GROUPS IN MINNESOTA POPULATION
1910-1920-1930
1910
Per cent
1920
Per_ cent
Under 5 years
10.9
1 1 ,0
9.0
Between 5-20
31*3
29*4
29*3
Between 20-45
3 9 .O
3 8 .7
35.6
Over 45
18.5
20.8
24.1
Age groups
1930
Per cent
42
the rural non-farm 9*3 Pe** cent, and the rural farm 10*4
per cent-
Between five and twenty years of age, urban
areas have 26*2 per cent, rural non-farm 28#3 per cent and
rural farm 34-1 per cent-
These facts indicate a trend to
an aging population which is likely to be speeded over the
next decade.
Changes In public school enrollment in Minnesota*
The effect of these changes In total population and the age
composition of that population is directly reflected in the
public school enrollment in Minnesotaresult.
Table III shows the
The complete reports from which this table was
constructed show the total school enrollment increased from
1920 to 1933 but has declined each year since with the
exception of 1937 when a small increase over the previous
year was registered.
Since 1933, when the total enrollment
reached 546,672, the loss has been 28,016-
Still more
significant is the rapid decrease in the number of children
in the first eight grades.
Since 1930 each year except
1937 has seen a smaller number of children entering the
first grade and this loss has spread through the eight
grades with the result that 69,134 fewer children were
enrolled in these grades in 1940 than in 1 9 3 0 .
This
constitutes a loss of 1 3 -5 per cent.
This loss has been partially offset by increasing
TABLE I I I
ENROLLMENT IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF MINNESOTA*
1920*^
1925
1930
1935
1940
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Kindergarten
9 ,0 3 5
10,365
13,776
19,612
14,947
17,083
21,406
26,659
44,783
45,336
48,9§9
51,962
54,439
53,831
55,144
72,561
17,481
20,998
27,038
33,159
48,338
48,131
49,249
48,711
50,507
52,117
52,408
62,339
24,379
28,980
33.571
39,252
50,311
48>214
47,783
48,795
4 7 ,6 7 3
47,974
47,627
53,044
30,330
34,855
40,091
42,359
44,600
43,836
42,986
42,468
43,252
43,290
43,185
45,133
Total Grades
450,809
448,123
436,281
413,768
367,147
52,788
80,095
9 8 ,6 1 3
126,182
147,635
Total Enrollment 503,597
528,218
534,894
539,950
514,782
Total High
School
♦State Board ©f Education Reports* Unclassified,
Defectives, and Spring Primary omitted*
♦♦Enrollment figures for the Grades are reported only as a
total*
secondary enrollments but whether this can continue for
long is dubious*
Increases in the high school enrollment
has been dependent upon better transportation facilities
for the rural areas and upon a broadened curriculum that
has a greater appeal for the children of both rural and
urban communities.
However, it will be noted that even
if all the present eighth grade enrollment eould be in­
duced to attend high school, the total possible increase
would be approximately 2 ,3 0 0 in each of the four years or
about a quarter of what the elementary school has lost in
the past ten years.
It is evident that unless there is a
large increase in the birth rate or unless there is a
population gain through a migration of persons to the
state, neither of which seems probable from the evidence
at hand, Minnesota public school enrollments will continue
to decrease.
Teaeher supply and demand.
Table IV shows the number
of teachers employed in Minnesota public schools for the
indicated years.
From 1920 to 1939 there was an increase of 2,357
employed teachers or some 12 per cent.
However, from the
high point of 1930 the 1939 figure shows a decrease of 233
or 1*1 per cent*
As shown in the study of school
45
TA B LE IV
TEACHERS EMPLOYED IN MINNESOTA PUBLIC SCHOOLS*
Year
Total
1920
1925
1930
1931
1932
1933
193^
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1 9 ,5 7 5
21,544
22,169
21,944
21,996
21,655
2 1 ,6 0 6
21,679
2 1 ,6 6 8
21,859
21,897
21,936
Ungraded Rural
8,450
8,541
8,427
8 ,1 8 0
8,263
8,251
8,224
8,251
8,149
8 ,0 3 7
7,874
7,658
Graded
6 ,8 9 6
7,824
6,867
7,070
7,207
6,957
6,805
6,756
6,486
6 ,3 5 8
6,295
6 ,2 3 1
Secondary
4,239
5,779
6,871
6,744
6 ,5 2 6
6,449
6,577
6 ,6 6 2
7 ,0 3 3
7,444
7,728
8,047
*The figures for the total of teachers employed and ungraded
rural were taken from Code XVIII-B-7# Minnesota State
Department of Education, which is compiled from County
Superintendents * reports*
The graded and secondary figures
are from Code XVIII-B-25* which Is compiled from City
Superintendents* reports.
Added to the secondary report
are special teachers not Included therein*
Discrepancies
of one or two per cent in reports are common*
,
enrollments, the heavy loss In the elementary grades was
almost Biade up hy the Increase In secondary enrollment.
This factor has kept teacher employment relatively constant.
The loss in the lower grades is reflected in a loss in
teacher employment of 593
the ungraded schools in the
last five years and a loss of 525 in elementary schools
over the same period.
increased 1,385*
Employment in secondary schools has
The same total increase in employment
from 1935 to 1939 indicates, too, generally better economic
conditions and possibly reflects the state's assumption of
a larger proportion of local school costs.
As long as the
secondary enrollment gains in somewhat the same proportion
as the elementary enrollment declines, little change, or
perhaps a slight increase in teacher employment may be
expected.
been shown.
That this increase is apt to be temporary has
Still further decreases may be expected in
employment in the rural ungraded schools because of pressure
to close those with small enrollments and efforts to con­
solidate others.
The employment trend may be summarized as follows:
a slow but rather constant decrease in the ungraded and
graded elementary fields, and a slight increase in the
secondary field for the next few years.
Teacher turnover in Minnesota is shown in Table V
TABLE V
TEACHER TURNOVER IK MIENESOTA PUBLIC SCHOOIS
FOR THE YEARS 1935-1939*
Classification
Total
1939
1938
1937
1936
1935
Total
number
Employed
New to district
with experience
Number Per cent
New to district
and teaching
profession
Number Per cent
Total new to
district
Number Per cent
21,936
21,897
21,839
21,668
21,482
3,954
4,721
4,072
3,644
3,106
18.0
21.6
18.6
16.8
14.4
1,566
1,624
2,089
2,016
1,823
7.1
7.4
9.6
9.3
8.5
5,520
6,345
6,161
5,660
4,929
25.1
29.0
28.2
26.1
22.9
Secondary
1939
1938
1937
1936
1935
8,047
7,728
7,444
7,033
6,475
840
1,012
918
719
468
10.4
13.1
12.3
10.2
7.2
528
524
523
484
311
6.6
6.8
7.0
6.9
4.8
1,368
1,536
1,441
1,203
779
17.0
19.9
19.3
17.1
12.0
Graded Elementary
1939
1938
1937
1936
1935
6,231
6,295
6,358
6,486
6,756
501
667
592
525
434
8.0
10.6
9.3
8.1
6.4
147
161
186
197
186
2.4
2.5
2.9
3.0
2.8
648
828
778
722
620
10.4
13.1
12.2
11.1
9.2
Ungraded Elementary
1939
1938
1937
1936
1935
7,658
7,874
8,037
8,149
8,251
2,613
3,042
2,562
2,400
2,204
34.1
38.6
31.8
29.4
26.7
891
939
1,380
1,335
1,326
11.6
11.9
17.2
16.4
16.1
3,504
3,981
3,942
3,735
3,530
45.7
50.5
49.0
45.8
42.8
*Code miI-B-25, p. 5.
State Department of Education, St. Paul,,Minnesota, December, 1939.
4s-
which summarizes the situation for the last five years for
which figures are available.
These data reveal a total turnover in the teaching
profession in the state ranging from 22.9 per cent in 1935
to 25*1 per cent in 1939 with an average of 25*1 per cent
for the five-year period*
Of this total group an average
of 8.4 per cent were inexperienced teachers.
From the
viewpoint of employment of teachers without experience the
years 1935 to 1937 were better than the last two.
The
ungraded rural field shows the least stability of employ­
ment, there being an average change of 46.7 per cent in the
teaching personnel of these districts.
The opportunity for
Inexperienced teachers was likewise greater than in the
other fields, an average of 14.6 per cent of this group
being without previous experience.
The graded elementary
field has the smallest turnover, averaging 11.2 per cent,
and this field offers the least chance for the inex­
perienced teacher, only 2.7 per cent are new to the profes­
sion.
The secondary field stands between the ungraded and
graded elementary fields in both turnover, 17*1 per cent,
and in opportunity for the beginning teacher, 6*4 per cent
being without experience.
The profession absorbed a yearly average during the
five-year period the following numbers of inexperienced
49
teachers?
in the rural field, 1,114; in the graded
elementary field, 175; in the secondary field, 472.
Tahle VI shows the number of qualified teachers
graduated by the various training agencies In the state to
meet this demand for new teachers.
These figures would indicate, if taken literally,
that for each of the five years an average of 1,172
students were trained to fill 474 vacancies in the second­
ary field, 9 3 0 possessed the technical qualifications to
fill the 175 available jobs in the graded elementary
schools, and that 1,504 were legally qualified to fill the
existing 1,114 vacancies in the ungraded rural schools.
In this compilation there is the obvious duplication of
individuals legally qualified to teach either graded or
ungraded schools, but after combining these two there is
still a great excess.
be mentioned?
Three other considerations should
first, In the compilation no attempt was
made to "estimate actual employability or number entering
other professions11; second, it is not known how many of
these graduates had previous experience in the profession
which would qualify them for the larger number of positions
open to those with experience; third, the number absorbed
by the school systems of other states is unknown.
Further, it will be noted that If a minimum of two
TABLE 71
HUMBER m QUALIFIED TEACHERS GRADUATED BY
MINNESOTA SCHOOLS IN 1934-1938*
Institutions and
date of graduation
Total
Secondary
Four-Year
Total
1938
1937
1936
1935
1934
2,555
2,470
2,816
2,929
3,292
1,208
1,207
1,152
1,149
1,142
186
136
130
106
127
425
92
44
33
30
60
University* of Minnesota
1938
1937
1936
1935
1934
390
444
370
333
400
357
414
310
Private Colleges
1938
1937
1936
1935
1934
620
552
539
534
618
602
541
537
519
606
969
955
1,003
1,010
1,316
263
258
252
216
226
State Teachers1 Colleges
1938
1937
1936
1935
1934
AAA
Elementary
Four-Year
Two-Year
683
678
702
767
945
One-Year
478
449
832
907
1,078
18
11
2
15
12
94
92
97
76
67
612
605
654
713
860
5
163
vn
o
TABLI 71 (continued)
HUMBER OF QUALIFIED TEACHERS GRADUATED BY
MINNESOTA SCHOOLS IN 1934-1938*
Institutions and
date of graduation
Special Schools
1938
1937
1936
1935
1934
High School Teacher
Training Departments
1938
1937
1936
1935
1934
Total
Secondary
Four-Year
Elementary
Four-Year
Two-Year
One-Year
'
63
70
52
39
73
478
449
832
902
915
10
8
6
53
62
46
39
73
478
449
832
902
915
^Adapted fromCode X7III-B-25,’p. 7. Department of Education, St. Paul, Minnesota,December,
1939.
ui
H
52
year9 of training were required for the rural schools and
four years for graded elementary schools the number of
candidates would not have been great enough to fill the
vacancies.
The opportunities for employment on the second­
ary level were obviously discouraging.
That Minnesota is still far from any realization of
the ideal of suitably trained teachers for her schools is
shown in Table VII.
The outstanding facts revealed by these data are
first, that in 1936 over 10 per cent of the secondary
teachers of the state still lacked four years of pre­
paration, certainly a most modest minimum requirement;
second, that only 12 per cent of the graded elementary
teachers had four years of training and that nearly a third
had a bare two years; third, that in the rural field where
the poorest conditions prevail, 56 per cent had but a
single year of preparation*
The slowness of advance in
this field is shown by State Department records which
reveal that not once for the past fifteen years has the
percentage of rural teachers with one year of training In
high school departments fallen below 5 0 , and that the
number of teachers with four years of preparation serving
in the rural schools was as great fifteen years ago as
today.
The only bright spot in this situation is the
53
T A B LE V I I
PREPARATION OF MINNESOTA PUBLIC SCHOOL TEACHERS
1 9 3 5 - 1 9 3 6 * ............
AND RURAL TEACHERS, 1940
Years beyond
High School
Secondary Graded Elementary
1935 .1936
1935
1935 1936
5 or more
Over 4
4
Under 4
1 7 *8
43*5
25.7
10*7
15.2
40*5
28.7
12*7
3
Over 2
12 *2
13.3
10.4
8 .8
42.5
43.4
2 or more
2
Under 2
1 (Teachers1
College}.
30.4
2 6 .2
1*3
5.1
1 (High School
Department)
Examination
Unknown
2 .3
Rural
1936 1940
2*9
3.2
3.2
1.7
1.4
1 .8
27.4
2 8 .8
38.3
15-4
12. 9
5.7
51.0
5 2 .8
50.3
4.1
3.3
.8
3.6
.4
•3
♦Adapted from Code XVIII-B-25, State Department of Education,
St* Paul, Minnesota, July, 1935* April, 1936; and Code XVIIIB-ll, February, 1941*
No report is available later than
1936 except for rural teachers*
54
Increasing number of teachers with two years of Teachers'
College preparation, the percentage Increasing from 1*4 per
cent to 33.3 P®** cent since 1920.
Thus, while Minnesota has an apparent over supply of
teachers who are legally qualified to teach, requirements
for certification are so low as to allow a n undue pro­
portion of inadequately trained Individuals to enter and
to continue in the profession.
In terms of competency
oversupply is fanciful except in the secondary field.
The implications ©f these data for a teacher edu­
cation policy are considered in the final chapter of this
study but may be briefly stated at this point.
With the decline in population growth, the urban*
ization of the population, and the increase of those in the
older age groups, the school enrollment has dropped
sharply.
This drop, particularly noticeable in the element­
ary grades, has caused a decline in the demand for element­
ary teachers.
In the secondary field the enrollment is
still increasing but 1940 showed fewer children in the
seventh and eighth grades than there were five years
earlier.
While more teachers have been demanded in the
secondary field the increase is slowing down.
The total supply of teachers has decreased but not
so greatly as the demand resulting in an over supply of
legally qualified candidates.
The training of many of the
55
teachers employed In Minnesota is meager.
From these facts it is evident that the state stands
in a most strategic position to demand more training for
the teachers of her public schools.
Summary.
1.
Population growth in Minnesota is rapidly
declining due to lowered birth rates and more especially
to a larger emigration than immigration.
2.
The population is becoming increasingly urban­
ized, more native in character, and older.
3.
School enrollments have decreased 13»5 per cent
in the elementary grades in the last ten years and these
decreases are affecting the enrollment in the early years
of the secondary school.
4.
Teacher employment reached a high point
and decreased each successive year until 1935*
in 193O
Since
1935
there has been a reversal of this trend but it is doubtful
if this reversal will persist for many more years.
Losses
in teacher employment were greatest in graded elementary
schools and ungraded rural schools.
employment
5*
Gains In secondary
helped to offset these losses.
Teacher turnover averaged approximately
cent from 1934 to 1939*
25 per
Under 10 per cent of the employed
teachers were inexperienced.
Rural schools have the
56
largest turnover and employ the largest proportion of
inexperienced teachers, secondary schools are next, and
graded elementary schools have the smallest turnover and
employ the smallest percentage of inexperienced teachers.
6.
Minnesota institutions trained Individuals who
are legally qualified to teach in numbers far in excess
of the placements of inexperienced teachers in the second­
ary field and slightly in excess of the placements ©f
inexperienced teachers in the elementary field.
7*
Employed teachers in Minnesota have -low training
qualifications.
Fifty-five per cent of the rural teachers
have hut one year of training beyond high school.
Three-
quarters of the graded elementary teachers have more than
two but less than three years of college preparation.
per cent of the secondary teachers have less than four
years of college work.
8.
There is an ©versupply of legally certified
teachers but rather a shortage of teachers with even a
modest degree of training.
Ten
CHAPTER V
MINNESOTA’S ABILITY AND WILLINGNESS TO
FINANCE PUBLIC EDUCATION
In Chapter IV Minnesota was shown to h© In a
strategic position to demand an upgrading of teachers*
qualifications.
Better trained teachers would require an
Increased expenditure for the state's educational system
caused by the expense of a longer training period and by
the necessity of higher salaries to induce individuals to
spend a longer time In training.
In this chapter the
ability and probable willingness of Minnesota to finance
such a proposal is examined.
Financial support of public education In Minnesota
The state expends some sixty millions of dollars annually
for educational purposes, of this amount forty-seven
millions is spent for elementary and secondary schools,
eleven millions for higher education other than teacher
training, and on© and a half millions for teacher train­
ing. *
In Table VIII certain evidences of Minnesota's
ability and willingness to support public education are
presented in relation to other states*
It will be noted
1 National Education Association Research Bulletin
19*145, No. 3*
56
tabu ; viii
RANK OF MINNESOTA AMONG THE STATES IN MEASURES
ABILITY TO SUPPORT A N D IN SUPPORT OF PUBLIC EDUCATION*
Measure
Rank
Estimated wealth per pupil enrolled in elementary
and secondary schools
32
Income per pupil enrolled in elementary and
secondary schools
20
Per cent income spent on public education
18
Expenditure per pupil enrolled in elementary and
secondary schools
20
Total expenditure for public education
13
Total expenditure for teacher training
11
Total expenditure for other higher education
Per cent school expenditure is of expenditures for
alcoholic beverages, tobacco* soft drinks and
chewing gum, toilet preparations and beauty parlor
expenditures
5
37
**State expenditure for public education
6
State expenditure for health, hospitals, and
institutions for handicapped
5
State expenditure for relief
10
State expenditure for highways
10
C o m p i l e d from tables in Research Bulletin of the National
Education Association. Vol. 19* No# 3# May, 194l»
**A11 state expenditures are ranked in relation to forty-two
states for which data were given*
from this table that Minnesota ranks relatively low among
the states In estimated wealth per pupil enrolled but that
its position in income per pupil enrolled is much higher
than estimated wealth per pupil*
Minnesota ranks
twentieth among the states in expenditure per pupil e n ­
rolled and the same in Income per pupil*
The state ranks
eighteenth in the per cent of income spent on public
schools.
Only four states in the union spend more on
general higher education than does Minnesota, only ten
spend more for teacher training, and only twelve have a
greater total educational budget*
From these facts it would seem as though the
willingness of Minnesota to support a system of education
was as great or greater in comparison with their ability
than the willingness of the peoples of other states.
How­
ever, when the expenditures of Minnesota for alcoholic
beverages, amusements, soft drinks and chewing gum, and
toilet and beauty parlor expenses are compared with the
total expenditures for her educational system, certainly
a legitimate question of willingness is raised as the
total cost of the educational system is only 3 0 * 6 per cent
of the cost of these non-essentials*
Minnesota expends 108 millions of dollars on
alcoholic beverages, forty millions on tobacco, twenty-
four millions on amusements, fifteen millions on soft
drinks and chewing gum, and ten millions on toilet preparations and beauty parlos expenditures*
Sixty millions
was the total cost of the educational system*
The public educational system of only eleven of the
forty-eight states receives a lower percentage of the costs
of these non-essentials than does Minnesota's system*
Hfhen it is seen that the state ranks thirty-seventh among
the forty-eight states in the comparison between educational
and these non-essential expenditures it is not too much to
assume that the people of Minnesota without undue hardship
could expend much more than it does on its system of edu­
cation.
To take but one illustration, if the people of
Minnesota drank one-half as much as they apparently do,
and the money thus saved were expended for school purposes,
expenditures for public education could be nearly doubled.
Because of varying proportions of state and local
contributions to total expenditures in the different states
the remaining items in Table VIII, page 58, are not so
significant.
Minnesota, through state appropriations only,
provides a total of thirty-two millions of dollars for
educational purposes, thirty-three millions for the state
2 Ibid. . p. 137
61
highway system, and thirty-four millions for the oare of
the indigent, sick, and handicapped.-*
Again these com­
parative expenditures Indicate that Minnesota is certainly
not overburdened with school expenditures.
Teachers1 salaries.
Whether upgrading of teacher
qualifications in Minnesota would require larger salaries
to induce a sufficient number of individuals to put in
longer periods of training would depend among other factors
upon the relative opportunities in other occupations and
the amount of unemployment in the teaching profession.
It
is reasonable to assume that if these factors were constant,
a longer period of training should command a higher salary.
In Table IX is shown the median annual
salary paid
to Minnesota teachers of rural schools and of graded
elementary and secondary teachers in communities of various
sizes.
The very low salary scales may be the result of the
meager training the state demands of its teachers which was
pointed out in the previous chapter.
It may help to e x ­
plain the problem of securing candidates for the profession
with a degree of competence at least equal to that of other
professions, a matter considered In Chapter VII.
Certainly
the rewards for more adequate training should be Increased.
5 It)Id., p. 138.
TABUS IX
MEDIAN ANNUAL SALARIES OF TEACHERS IN VARIOUS
.TXFES OF COMMUNITIES*
.
Community
Median annual salary
Elemeniary
Secondary
1936
1938
1936
1938
,
| 540
| 630
Population under 500
716
766
# 865
# 955
Population 500-30,000
963
1,046
1* 191
1,271
Rural
(ungraded school)
^Compiled from Facts and Figurea on Teachers 1 Salaries
1929-19*58« Minnesota Education Association, St. Baul,
Minnesota, March, 1939*
63
In the light of the evidence presented Minnesota
could well afford the expense involved in a better program
of teacher education and could well afford to offer
financial rewards to compensate prospective teachers for
longer periods of training.
Summary.
1*
Minnesota stands high among states in amount of
money spent on higher education, teacher training and the
total educational budget.
However, the amount of money
expended on education is small in relation to the sums
spent for non-essentials.
2.
Salaries paid to teachers are low, particularly
in the rural and elementary fields.
3*
Minnesota has the financial ability to support
a more highly trained teacher personnel.
CHAPTER V I
LEGISLATION AMD LEGAL CONTROL OF
STATE TEACHERS* COLLEGES
In the preceding chapters of this study the historic­
al development of the Minnesota teachers' colleges has been
briefly traced, the immediate and potential effects of
changing trends in population have been considered in
relation to teacher demand, and the ability of the state to
support a more adequately trained teacher personnel has
been examined.
To give a picture of the present legal
position of the colleges and to show certain phases of
public opinion concerning the colleges, this chapter
presents a review of laws passed affecting the colleges
and recent proposed legislation which public opinion, as
expressed through the medium of the state legislature,
refused to support#
Legal control of state teachers * colleges in
Minnesota#
The legal control of the Minnesota state
teachers' colleges rests on a constitutional provision
found in Article Eight of the Minnesota constitutions
The stability of a republican form of government
depending mainly upon the intelligence of the people,
it shall be the duty of the legislature to establish
65
a general and uniform system of education.
1
This clause gives the Legislature complete authority
over the system of education for the state and in pursuance
of this authority the teachers1 colleges were established
to provide the teachers necessary to operate the public
school system.
To control the colieges, the Legislature
early created a Normal School Board consisting of six
members, appointed b y the Governor and confirmed by the
Senate, who serve for a term of four years, one member to
be chosen from each county where a Normal School is located
and not more than one member from a single county.
p
Sub­
sequent legislation in 1889 increased the number from six
to eight, and under the general statutes of 1905, the State
Superintendent of Public Instruction became an ex-officio
member and secretary of the board.
This form of organ­
ization has been retained to the present without change
other than a change in name to State Teachers* College
Board in 1921.
The major functions of the board listed in the
general statutes of 1927 were as follows s
The board shall have the educational management,
1 Mason*s Minnesota Statutes. 1938 Supplement.
Section 2900-6.
2 General Statutes of Minnesota 1887. Chapter 1 3 0 .
66
supervision and control of the normal schools, and of
all property appertaining thereto.
It shall appoint
all presidents, and other necessary employees therein
and fix their salaries.
It shall prescribe courses
of study, conditions of admission, prepare and confer
diplomas, report graduates of the normal department,
and adopt suitable rules and regulations for the
schools.
It shall as a whole or by committee, visit
and thoroughly inspect the grounds, buildings, modes
of Instruction, discipline and management of each
school, at least once a year.
It shall report to the
governor on or before December 1 in every even numbered
year the conditions, wants and prospects of each school,
with recommendations for its improvement.3
Outside of the supervision over construction of new
buildings which was delegated to the State Board ofControl,
the Teachers* College Board under this broad grant of
authority had entire control over the colleges.
This
authority has been restricted by laws of 1925 and 1939
centralizing financial control in a State Department of
Administration.
Under the 1925 act,^ the Department of
Administration and Finance was given supervision and control
over all accounts and expenditures; over construction con­
tracts; over all purchasing, rental, or furnishing of
supplies and equipment.
Approval of all proposed expendi­
tures must be given in advance of the expenditure.
5
Under the 1939 law these controls were strengthened
■5
Mason*a Minnesota Statutes 1927. Section 3 0 7 2 .
^ Minnesota Laws of 1925. Chapter 426.
Minnesota Laws of 1222, Chapter 44l.
67
and the Department of Administration was given the further
authority to cut legislative appropriations to the colleges,
when, in the judgment of the Commissioner of Administration,
state revenues were not likely to meet legislative appro­
priations*
This authority of the department to cut legis­
lative appropriations applied not alone to the teachers*
colleges hut to all institutions and state departments
established by statutory law, the University of Minnesota
being specifically exempted by reason of a court decision
declaring the University to be a constitutionally
authorized institution*
Also during the legislative session of 1939 a civil
6
service law was passed which placed the clerical and
maintenance staffs of the colleges under the classified
service of the state*
The Director of the Department of
Civil Service was given the authority to establish salary
schedules for these employees which, when approved by the
Commissioner of Administration were effective unless
changed by legislative action*
As a result of these laws the legal control over
the state teachers* colleges is at present divided, the
Board still has power to appoint the presidents and
^ Minnesota Laws of 1959* Chapter 441*
faculties, the clerical and maintenance staffs, hut these
latter appointments must he made from civil service lists;
it has the authority to fix salaries of the administrative
and instructional staffs hut-not those of clerical and
maintenance staffs; it has authority over general deter­
mination of policy, supervision, and inspection; its
authority over budgets and buildings is subject to review
and control by the Department of Administration; and
authority over purchasing of equipment and supplies has
passed to this same agency*
As in the final analysis
financial control may force the determination of policy
it can be seen that the Department of Administration Is
in the strategic position if major disagreement arises*
Fortunately, to date, no major disagreement has arisen*
Legislation concerning teachers1 colleges* The
....
7
original statement of the purpose of the colleges is
found in the law of 1858 creating the institutions and
reads, MTo educate and prepare teachers for teaching in
the common schools of this state*M
This purpose was re ­
peated in the revised statutes of 1866 and 1 8 7 3 *
In the
1905 revision the purpose was expressed as being the
^ Much of the original research concerning purpose
was done by a committee of which the author was a member.
Acknowledgement is made to the Chairman of the Committee,
L* W. Case of Duluth, Minnesota*
69
"training of teachers for the public schools."
This was a
change in wording only, not in meaning as:
. . « the terms “common school" and "public school11
are inter-changeable and synonomous • • • including
graded and ungraded elementary schools, grammar
schools, and high schools.“
With the change in designation of the "formal
Schools" to "Teachers* Colleges” in 1921, the 1905 statute
was repealed but the legislature clothed the newly
designated Teachers* College Board with "the same powers
and duties as heretofore."^
The certification law ©f 1929,
passed after legislative authorization of the four-year
curriculum in 1921 and Teachers* College Board regulation
of 1 9 2 5 , gave degree graduates of teachers’ colleges the
same status as to qualification to teach in secondary
sohools as graduates of the state university and liberal
arts colleges.
The following excerpt is taken from the
recodified school law of 194-1*
The h igh school standard certificate shall qualify
any holder thereof to teach in any secondary school
those academic subjects or related subjects for which
adequate training has been received.
The holder of a
high school general standard certificate shall also
be qualified to teach in the seventh and eighth grades
of an eight-year elementary school*
Such certificate
shall be Issued to any person holding the degree of the
college of Education of the University of Minnesota, or
® Qorpus J u r i s . 5 6 :16?.
^ Minnesota Laws of 1921. Chapter 260.
TO
of a Minnesota State Teachers' College granted by
virtue of the completion of a-course, balanced as to
academic and professional content and designated by
such college for the training of high school teachers.
The high school standard general certificate may be
issued to any person holding the degree of an
accredited liberal arts college or university in
Minnesota, together with such professional training as
shall be required by the state board of education. * 0
The purpose of teachers' colleges as defined by law.
Thus, from the earliest legislation in 1858 to the recodification of school laws in 1941, the purpose of the teachers'
colleges has remained unchanged, to train teachers for the
public schools of the state.
Because the certification
requirement for secondary teachers specified a degree and
because no degrees were granted by the teachers' colleges
prior to 1 9 2 5 , it has been assumed by many that the
original purpose of the colleges was to train elementary
teachers only, and that the right to train secondary teachers
has been a comparatively recent acquisition.
The review of
legislation shows this to be a mistaken assumption based
partially on a misunderstanding of the term "common school"
and partially on falling to distinguish between authority
to act and action.
Two other pieces of legislation and an opinion of the
Attorney General of Minnesota may further Indicate the
10
Minnesota laws of 1941. Chapter 169*
71
direction of thought concerning the purposes of the colleges.
In 1927 a rider was attached to the appropriation hill for
the support of the colleges which stated that no part of the
appropriation for the biennium should be paid to any teachera' college maintaining the equivalent of a Junior college
course unless a tuition charge of one hundred thirty dollars
(#13°) Pe** year was charged each person taking such course.11
This rider was adopted to prevent the colleges from giving
any general college work.
Establishment of tuition charges.
In 1933 it was*
made obligatory for the Teachers* College Board to make a
tuition charge of from five to fifteen dollars per quarter
per student plus a n additional charge of five dollars per
quarter for out of state residents attending the colleges*
12
This reversed a practice that had stood since the founding
of the colleges, of allowing free tuition for all who in­
tended to teach.
Under a ruling of the attorney general's office of
January 31# 1939# the colleges were given a much wider
latitude:
Administrative authorities (i.e. of teachers'
colleges) may permit students to make course selections
^ Minnesota Laws of 1927. Chapter 442.
12
Minnesota Laws of 1933. Chapter 294 .
72
which are not directly related to teaching enabling
them to get full credit for two years work if they
transfer to other colleges or the university.
Naturally the rapid development and widening scope
of the teachers' colleges caused opposition and the course
of this opposition may be traced through legislation either
suggested or actually introduced but failing of passage.
Legislative assaults on the colleges.
In 1933 the
opponents of the teachers 1 colleges., placed in a strategic
position by the financial difficulties of the period,
opened a determined attack on the colieges, which ranged
from a resolution to turn the colleges over to the State
Board of Control to be used to house defectives and
delinquents, to a bill which would have reduced the
colleges to normal schools and prevented them from giving
more than two years of instruction.
Hearings on these
proposals were held between January 2 5 and March 8 of that
14
year.
The records of the Senate Finance Committee
to
which the proposals were referred make no reference to
^
Mason's Minnesota Statutes. 1940 Supplement,
Filed in Secretary of State's Office, St. Paul.
These records are not verbatim reports of hearings, some
hearings are apparently not reported, those that are are in
summary form, the amount depending on the diligence of the
committee clerk.
73
hearings or committee action, hut the public press reported
at least two hearings where the presidents of five of the
church related colleges appeared to urge curtailment of the
teachers1 colleges*
The reported arguments may he summarized as follows:
privately endowed colleges and the state university are
amply equipped to prepare teachers for high schools,
private colleges cannot compete with teachers* colleges
with their expanded programs and low tuition rates and may
have to close,
^normal schools11 should limit their train­
ing to teachers in the elementary grades, and Mideals of
higher education must he safeguarded— there is too much
tendency to develop colleges, we even have *barber
colleges.*
The chairman of the committee spoke of "putting. tax
money in competition with privately endowed institutions*116
and the senator who was author of the bill, and incident­
ally a member of the board-of trustees of one of the church
related colleges, spoke of safeguarding our colleges (i.e.
church related colleges) by reducing the number of teachers
educated at public expense.
"We should cut out three of
our six teachers* colleges*~we should make a start and
15
Minneapolis Journal. February 2, 1933•
16 Ibid., January 26, 1933-
74
eliminate one anyway.”
17
The records of the House Committee to which the
proposals had been referred indicate a hearing on March 1,
where three of the teachers* college presidents spoke
against the hill.
One week later the record indicates the
passage of a recommendation for indefinite postponement of
the hill.
Public sentiment against the proposals was
strong enough to defeat attempt at drastic curtailment or
closing of the teachers' colleges and the passage of a
tuition hill was all the opposition accomplished at this
session.
In the 1939 legislative session a hill to enlarge
the functions of the Duluth Teachers' College hy trans­
forming it into a State College was defeated on the floor
of the House.
The Report of the Interim Committee on Education.
The 1939 legislature also established an Interim Committee
on Education, among whose duties were s
. . . to assemble information relative to the
educational system of the state Including all types
and levels of educational institutions and agencies
. . . to study existing distribution of higher edu­
cational institutions in the state of Minnesota,
public and private, and to consider the functions
they perform together with the relations between
17
Ibid.. February 2, 1933*
75
their programs and the occupational and professional
trends within the state. 18
The committee was composed of three members to be
selected from the membership of the state Senate by the
Committee on Committees, three members from the membership
of the state House of Representatives, and a seventh
member to be selected by the Governor.
The Governor!s
representative was president of a church related college
and one of the group who appeared before the Senate
Finance Committee in 1933 urging the limitation of the
"normal schools” to the training of elementary teachers.
This committee:
. . * concentrated its main efforts upon an attempt
to solve the highly complicated problems of state
financial aid to public schools, and of the teaeher
training needs of Minnesota.1^
After many meetings, including hearings at four of
the teachers* colleges, the committee made the following
recommendations concerning the colleges:
1.
The state teachers* colleges be specifically
limited to the training of teachers for elementary
and junior high schools with major emphasis on the
adequate training of rural school teachers.
2.
The State Teachers* College Board be dis­
continued as a separate board, and its powers and
IQ
January,
Report of the Interim Committee on Education.
194-1.
19 Ibid. . p. 8 .
76
duties. be transferred to the State Board of Education.
3* Adequate provision be made within the state
department of education for the effective coordination
of the teacher training program* 2 0
The first of these two recommendations was based on
statistical evidence of an ©versupply of secondary teach­
ers, upon the committee*s belief that the teachers*
colleges had neglected the field of rural teacher pre­
paration, and upon 11expensive changes in physical
facilities, in curriculum, and in teaching personnel
«21
necessitated by the training of secondary teachers.
The second recommendation was based on the belief
of the committee that the present administrative system
was inefficient because six of the eight Teachers* College
Board members were residents of the county in which the
colleges were located, in practice of the city of location,
thus becoming spokesmen of local Interests; that their
professional advisers, the presidents of the colleges, were
rendered incapable of giving impartial advice because their
views were colored by their immediate Interests and desires,
and hence the system lacked the means for the adoption of
a long term, state-wide policy based on impartial pro22
fessional advice and free from local pressure groups.
20 Ibid. . p. 14.
2 1 Ibid.. p. 103.
2 2 Ibid., pp. 106-7.
While it is not the purpose of this review to
discuss the entire report, two or three excerpts may he
quoted, the emotionally colored phrasing of which serve to
illustrate the point of view ©f the committee relative to
the teachers* colleges.
In discussing the preparation
of high school teachers the report stated, "With the
previous limitations thus partially removed the teachers*
colleges were free to Invade the special fields of second­
ary teacher t r a i n i n g . A s
a result of this "invasion**:
"The teachers* colleges were forced to abandon the strength
which lies in judicious gearing of an institution to single­
ness of purpose.,,2if
Although the committee made no special study of the
church related colleges, the strong bias of the group may
be seen by comparing the above unfavorable language with
the following praise of these institutions:
To educate the mentally gifted to assume far more
than thelir proportionate share of responsibility for
the betterment of society is the chief purpose and
function of the college of liberal arts . . .
These
independent colleges are a part of a great tradition.
During the most of the years of our nation*s existence
the Independent college has been almost the only type
of institution to provide a liberal arts education
. . . Throughout the years the college of liberal arts
has been pledged to the inculcation and dissemination
25 Ibid. , p. 103.
24 Loe. clt.
78
of Christian principles.
Today, perhaps more than ever
before, democracy is in need of these influences. 5
Public reaction to the portion of the committee
report dealing with the teachers' colleges was even more
pronouncedly favorable to the colleges than in the 1935
fight.
Protests against curtailment of the services of the
colleges and against placing the colleges under the State
Department of Education from farm, civic, service, and
educational organizations flooded the committee until
finally the chairman of the committee in a meeting of
interested groups stated that no legislation would be
introduced which tended to limit the offerings of the colleges.
26
Legislation seeking to abolish the Teachers*
2*7
College Board was introduced but died in committee.
The Interim Committee on Education was continued
by the legislature for the succeeding biennium with the
former legislative membership and two additional members
from the senate and two from the house.
The Governor*s
representative was dropped.
ibid. , pp. 108-9»
Meeting at State Capitol Building, February 27,
1941.
07
House File 915, Legislative Session, 1941.
pQ
Minnesota Laws of 1941» Chapter 528.
79
Summary*
The State Legislature of Minnesota has
complete authority over the teachers* colleges under the
provision of the state constitution which places the entire
responsibility for the maintenance of a system of public
education in its hands*
In the exercise of this authority
the legislature established the six teachers* colleges and
gave to the© the duty of educating and training teachers
for the public schools of the state*
The change from ’•normal schools” to "teachers*
colleges” brought with it a recognition in the certifi­
cation law of 1929 of the equality of all collegiate insti­
tutions in the state in the training of secondary teachers*
That the teachers* colleges had held this privilege from
their inception is evident from an examination of all
legislation bearing on this question*
The possible e x ­
tension of the service of the teachers* colleges to the
people of Minnesota has been indicated by the ruling of
the S t a t e ’s Attorney General permitting individuals to
enroll for courses not directly related to teacher train­
ing*
There has been a trend toward reducing the author­
ity of the State Teachers’ College Board, charged with
control over the colleges, by transferring a large measure
of their power over financial matters to the Department of
86
Administration*
Control over salaries and qualifications
of all employees who are not engaged in teaching or in
administering the educational program of the institutions
has heen transferred to the Department of Civil Service*
It is evident that the teachers* colleges in
Minnesota have had to withstand the activities of a pressure
group composed of individuals interested in the success of
church-related colleges who were supported by smaller groups
representing tax payers who profess to see in the teachers’,
colleges Institutions creating unnecessary expense for the
state*
Likewise it is evident from the failure of these
attempts to curtail the colleges that public opinion has
supported the extension of their work and not looked with
favor on granting the church-related colleges, along with
the school of Education of the State University, the
exclusive right to train secondary teachers*
The colleges should continue to oppose the activities
of these pressure groups by assisting the development of a
public opinion which would preserve and extend the services
of the teachers* colleges to the citizenry of the state and
keep Intact the right of the state’s own tax-supported
institutions to train teachers for all levels of public
school service.
In the light of the findings of H i l l ’s study on
81
control of tax-supported colleges in the United States,2 ^
any attempts at further curtailment of the authority of
the State Teachers’ College Board or any attempts to
abolish the Board and place the control of the colleges
in the hands of the State Department of Education should
he opposed until evidence is at hand which would indicate
the desirability of such changes*
29
*
Supra, p. 6 *
PART THREE;
PRESENT CONDITION OF THE TEACHERS * COLLEGES
AS REVEALED BY A SURVEY OF
THE STUDENT PERSONNEL
In the study of an educational system there is
probably no more satisfactory way of determining the present
condition and the success it has in fulfilling its purposes
than through a survey of its student personnel.
In order to
determine the present status and the success of the
Minnesota teachers* colleges in educating and training teach­
ers for the public schools of the state, a study was made
of a typical cross-section of students enrolled at a given
time, an analysis was made of that group of students who
dropped out of college before completing their course, and
a study was made of graduates of both the four-year
year courses over a period of five years.
and two-
CHAPTER V I I
A H ANALYSIS OF STUDENTS ENROLLED IN A TYPICAL YEAR
As tiie work of the teachers* colleges and the success
or failure of their produce in the teaching profession is
dependent to a great extent on the type of student who is
drawn Into the colleges* a study was made of various elements
in the background of the students to furnish a picture of
personal, family, socio-economic and pre-college educational
status.
Table X reveals the enrollment of Minnesota
teachers’ colleges, spring quarter of 1935, and number and
percentage of replies to the questionnaire.
Table XI, page
85* gives the classification of class membership,
1935
population.
Technique of obtaining the data.
The information was
obtained for the 1935 college population from a questionnaire
filled out by the students. 1
For comparative purposes, similar items of information
were obtained from the permanent records of the colleges for
a sampling of students entering the Institutions in 1 9 2 0 ,
1925, and 1930.
The incompleteness of information kept by
the colleges in the earlier years and the destruction of the
1 See detailed tables end of chapter.
84
TA B LE X
ENROLLMENT OF MINNESOTA TEACHERS' COLLEGES,
SPRING -QUARTER, 1935 A N D NUMBER A N D PERCENTAGE
OF REPLIES TO -QUESTIONNAIRE
Per cent
Sample la of
enrollment
School
Enrollment
Bemldji
214
214
1 0 0 .0
Duluth.
408
268
6 6 .0
Mankato
495
328
6 6 .2
Moorhead
4l4
340
8 2 .0
St. Cloud
707
473
67.0
Winona
364
353
91.5
2,602
1,956
75*2
total
Sample
TABLE XL
CLASSIFICATION
CLASS MSSIRSHIP - 1935 POPULATION
Bemidji
Num­ Per
ber cent
Duluth
Num­ Per
ber cent
Mankato
Num­ Per
ber cent
Moorhead
Num­ Per
ber cent
St. Cloud
Num- Per
ber cent
Winona
Num­ Per
ber cent
Total
Num­ Per
ber cent
Freshman
88 41.0
108 40.3
158 48.1
144 42.3
166 35.0
131 39.3
795 40.6
Sophomore
74 54.6
80 29.8
107 32.6
119 35.0
179 37.8
99 29.7
658 33.6
Junior
84 11.2
50 18.6
36 11.0
37 10.9
64 13.6
48 14«4
259 13.2
Senior
88 13.2
28 10.5
25
7.7
37 10.9
61 12.9
44 13.2
223 11.4
•8
1
.3
1
.3
Classification
Unknown
Post Graduate
Unclassified
2
3
.9
3
.7
6
1*8
15
.8
5
1.6
6
•4
oo
vjn
records of one institution by fire made it impossible to
obtain this information In some oases.
Also throughout this portion of the study comparisons
are made between the Minnesota students and those covered
in three other studies, Hill*s Missouri survey,
Crutsinger*s
Texas survey,^ and the National Survey of the Education of
4
Teachers.
These three studies have been chosen for com­
parative purposes because of the consecutiveness of
publication, 1 9 2 7 # 1933# and 1 9 3 5 # the first two are state­
wide studies of more or less typical agricultural states,
and the last is the only nation-wide study available.
This analysis of students enrolled in a typical year
is divided into the following sectionss
personal data, data
concerning the families of the students, data concerning the
educational background and extra-curriculum experiences of
the students, and their college experience.
O
Clyde M. Hill, A Decade of Progress in Teacher
Tr a ini ng (Contributions to Education No* 2 3 3 . New Yorks
Teachers* College, Columbia University, 1927), p. 31*
•at
George M. Crutsinger, Survey Study of Teacher
Training in Texas (Contributions to Education, No. 537*
New Yorks
Teachers* College, Columbia University, 1933)*
4
E. S. Evenden, G. C. Gamble, and H. G. Blue,
National Survey of the Education of Teachers (Bulletin 1933,
No. 1 6 ♦ Washington, D . C . : United States Office of
Education, 1935).
87
I.
Sex*
PERSONAL BATA
The Minnesota teachers' colleges since 1920
have changed from girls' schools into co-educational insti­
tutions •
Table XIX summarises this shift*
The 1920
enrollees show hut 8*4 per cent of the enrollment men and
91*6 per cent women*
By 1925 the percentage of women had
dropped to 86.4, in 1 9 30 the proportion was only 1 per cent
lower, hut the 1935 figures showed 7 0 per cent women and 3 0
per cent men.
In two of the six colleges the men in 1935
comprised over 35 per cent of the student hody.
Among the factors causing the large increase in the
proportion of men students are the introduction of the four
year c ourse, increased incentive to enter teaching as
chances for employment in other fields diminished* and the
breaking down of the Idea that the teachers' colleges are
"female seminaries *"
Comparisons with other studies show the Minnesota
situation to he quite normal in this respect.
Thirty-four
per cent of the enrollment in Missouri teachers' colleges
in 1926 were men,
1930 were men,
34*9 per cent of the Texas students in
and the National Survey in 1933 showed the
5 Hill, g£. o l t . . p. 31.
6 Crutsinger. pp. elt.. p. 47.
T A B LE X I I
SEX OF DESIGNATED GROUPS OF STUDENTS
MINNESOTA TEACHERS-’ COLLEGES
Per cent
. Male
Per cent
Female
Students enrolling In
1920
8*4
91*6
Students enrolling In
1925
13*6
86*4
Students enrolling In
193©
14*5
85*5
30*0
70*0
Student Body 1935
Comparative Data
Missouri Teachers* Colleges
34.0
66.0
34*9
65*1
33*©
67* 0
Texas Teachers* Colleges
National Survey
Teachers Colleges-1933
National Survey
Liberal Arts Colleges
51*06
48.94
89
proportion of men and women about two to three*
Among the
liberal arts colleges participating in the later study
51*06 per cent were men and 48.94 per cent were women.^
The
liberal arts colleges still enroll decidedly more men in
proportion to the total college population than do the
teachers’ colleges but the teachers’ colleges have shown a
decided increase in male enrollments in the past two decades.
Age.
Table XIII shows in summary form the ages of
the various groups of students enrolling in the colleges in
1 9 2 0 , 1 9 2 5 , and I9 3 O and of the entire student body of 1935.
The median age of the 1935 college population was 20.2
years, as this is compared with those enrolling in the
earlier years It is evident that the median age has decreased
gradually in the last fifteen years.
In the earlier years a
larger proportion of the students were twenty-five years or
older indicating the presence of a larger group of students
with teaching experience entering the colleges for further
training.
In the 1935 student population approximately one-
half were under twenty years of age and half over twenty.
Comparative data show the median age of the Missouri
Q
group of 1926 to be 1 8 .6 years,
the Texas group of 1933
^ Evenden, Gamble, and Blue, o p . eit., Vol. 2, p. 1 2 0 .
8 Hill, o£. o l t , , p. 1 5 .
90
TABLE XXII
AGE OF DESIGNATED GROUPS OF STUDENTS
MINNESOTA TEACHERS1 COLLEGES
Median
age
Per cent
25 years
or over
Students enrolling in 1920
19* 9
12.9
5*3
Students enrolling in I923
19.6
7 .9
2 .8
Students enrolling in 1930
19*5
4.1
1 .2
Student Body 1935
2 0 *2
8 .8
1.9
Groups
Comparative Data
Missouri-1926
18.6
Texas-1930
21.02
National Survey
Teachers* Go liege s-1933
2 0 .6 3
National Survey
Liberal Arts Colleges
20.04
Per cent
30 years
or over
91
showed a median age of 21.02 years,
g
and the national Survey
population a median age of 2 0 *6 3 in the teachers* colleges
and 20*04 in the liberal arts schools*
10
Hence the student
population of the Minnesota teachers' colleges do not vary
greatly from other student groups.
Place of residence.
Minnesota colleges,
Table XIV shows that the
in common with most colleges in this
country, draw the majority of their student body from the
immediate district in which they are located.
In 1920,
16 per cent of the group resided in the city of the colleges'
location.
This varied but 1 per cent from the 1925 figure,
and in 193° the percentage stood at 1 6 *3 .
In the 1935 group
24*4 per cent were either local residents or obtained their
high school education in the local system.
The Missouri study showed 3 0 per cent from the same
11
county,
the Texas study showed 25*5 per cent from the same
10
county,
and the National Survey found 55 per cent of the
teachers' college students and 42 per cent of the liberal
arts students living within fifty miles of the location of
9 Crutsinger, o p * c i t ♦, p. 51*
10 Evenden, 0-amble, and Blue, o£. cit. * p* 120*
Hill, o£. c i t * * p. 22.
12
Crutsinger, o p * cit* , p. 6 7 .
table
mr
RESIDENCE OF DESIGNATED GROUPS OF STUDEHTS
MINNESOTA TEACHERS1COLLEGES
Groups
Per cent with
residence in same
County as College
Per cent with
residence in
other Counties
Per cent
residence
Out of State
Students enrolling in 1920
24.4
72*4
3.1
Students enrolling in 1925
22.7
74.9
1.7
Students enrolling in 1930
26.2
68.0
5.8
Student Body 1935
24.4
67.7
7.9
Comparative Data
Missouri-1926
30.0
Texas-1930
25.5
National Survey
Teachers1 Colleges-1933
Within 50 miles 55.0
National Survey
Liberal Arts Colleges
Within 50 miles 42.0
vo
K>
93
the college attended.1-*
From the above comparisons it is
seen that the Minnesota colleges do not vary greatly from
the schools in other states as regards the residence of
their students*
14
Over 90 per cent of the students lived in Minnesota.
The 7.9 per cent of the 1935 group living without the state
was found to be chiefly due to the large percentage, 24.4,
in one of the colleges located on the border of the state.
These proportions are small, except in the case noted,
when it is remembered that of the six Minnesota teachers'
colleges, three are located in border cities.
That the
other two colleges are not affected more is due to the
presence of teacher training institutions so close at hand
in Wisconsin.
Of the eighty-seven counties in Minnesota, St. Louis
alone furnishes any considerable proportion of the total
student enrollment.
The counties in which the colleges are
located naturally furnish a larger percentage than do the
others.
St, Louis leads with 12*5 P©z* cent of the entire
student body, Winona county furnishes 5.5 per cent, Stearns
and Beltrami 4.4 per cent each and Olay, 3 . 8 per cent.
rest of the student population is spread somewhat evenly
Evenden, Gamble, and Blue, o£. c i t .. p. 128.
^
Detailed tables, pages 143-9.
The
94
over th© remainder of the state as is shown in Figure 5*
R a c e , parentage. nationality. 15
The present student
body is largely native Minnesotans, 80 per cent being born
in the state*
The bordering states were the birthplace of
12*9 P®** cent more, North Dakota leading with 5*8 per cent,
Iowa second with 3*0 per cent, South Dakota, 2*2 per cent,
and Wisconsin with 1*9 per cent.
The only other states
above 1 per cent were Montana with 1.2 per cent and Illinois
1.0 per cent.
The other five per cent of native born came
from widely scattered states and 1 . 5 per cent were foreign
born.
The parentage of the students follows the parentage
of the population of the state as a whole with some devi­
ations*
The native whites of native parentage in the student
body exceed those in the state as a whole, the proportion
being 6 6 . 3 per cent for the students as compared to the 4 3 . 9
per cent found In the general population.
The student
population exhibits some 10 per cent fewer native whites of
foreign parentage than does the general population and while
only 1.4 per oent of the students are foreign born, 15*3 Per
cent of the whole population are so classed.
Races other
than white are rarely represented In the student body.
*5 Detailed tables, PP* 151-60.
4 5
I'.lUBHBlOll-.MnttflHBMIWUnWUinM""*""1"
iiiniiuinnrnnwu*
M innesota
_D
1 2*4
Winom
5
PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL MROLTMENT
OF TEACHERS' COLLEGES BY COUNTIES
96
On the whole the college population exhibits much the
same tendency as the general population, gradually changing
to one of native white of native parentage, hut still
having a liberal proportion of students drawn from the
children of foreign born.
A more detailed study of national backgrounds was
possible with the 1935 group.
16
Of this group, 7 2 . 8 per
cent were children of native born fathers and 7 8 * 3 per cent
had native born mothers.
The great majority of lib© students
were of North European origin, 96 per cent of the fathers
and 95*5 per cent of the mothers were from this stock.
The
three important national groups were the Scandinavian, the
English and the German.
Approximately one-third of the
student body were of Scandinavian origin, nearly 3 0 per cent
were of English descent, and about a quarter were of German
origin.
Other North European nationalities furnished
slightly under 10 per cent.
The background of some 4 per
cent was Southern and Eastern Europe.
Again the college
population is representative of that of the state.
19hlle
the national origins of the entire population is not known
it is believed that the Southern and Eastern Europeans show
a slightly higher percentage in the state*s population than
^
Detailed tables, pp. 151-60.
97
in the college population.
Comparing the Minnesota teachers1 college population
with the population of the colleges in the national Survey,
we find a higher percentage of students with foreign horn
parents.
This survey showed 84.26 per cent of the fathers
and 87*19 per cent of the mothers of teachers* college
students and 88.86 per cent of the fathers and 91*51 per
cent of the mothers of liberal arts college students to be
17
native born.
The Minnesota figures are some 10 per cent
lower than the teachers* college population and 14 per cent
lower than arts colleges.
The Missouri study does not give
comparative data beyond saying that 54 per cent of the
students were of 11American ancestry.11
The Texas study
showed from 94 to 99 per cent of the students were the
children of American b o r n parents in spite of the fact that
the census of 1920 showed 82.7 per cent of the total
population of Texas were either foreign born or the children
of foreign born.1^
II.
DATA CONCERNING THE FAMILIES OF STUDENTS
Family status.
A detailed study of the families of
^
Evenden, Gamble, and Blue, ££. cit., p. 129*
^
Hill,
^
Crutsinger, o p . cit., p. 51*
op
. cit., p. 17*
the Minnesota college population was possible only with
PQ
the 1935 group.
Of the group, 81*5 per cent reported
both parents living,
11.0 per cent only the mother, 5*5 per
cent only the father and 1*9 per cent neither the father
nor the mother living.
The majority of the students come
from homes with many children; 28.8 per cent reported over
five children in the family, 12 per cent with five, 16.?
per cent with four, 20 per cent with three, 16 per cent
with two, and only 7.? per cent reported themselves the
only child.
The median number of children were 4.12.
In
about one-third of the families the student was the eldest
or only child and in 27*7 per cent cases the student was
the youngest.
The remaining had either brothers or sisters
both older and younger than themselves.
A measure of family guidance into the profession was
indicated by the fact that 27*8 per cent of the group had
brothers or sisters in the teaching profession and nearly
one-third of this group had more than one other member of
the family in the profession.
21
The parents of the students exhibit a most meager
educational background;
on
54*9 per cent of the fathers and
Detailed tables, pp. 151-60.
Detailed table, p. 164.
49*5 per cent of the mothers received an eighth grade
education or less*
H i g h school graduation was reported for
17-8 per cent of the fathers and 22.6 per cent of the
mothers.
Some college work was taken h y 10 per cent of the
fathers and 14.7 per eent of the mothers, while only 5*5
per cent of the fathers and 4.5 per eent of the mothers
were reported to he college graduates and 3 . 5 per cent of
the fathers and 1.0 per cent of the mothers had had some
post graduate work*
pp
The largest single group of students, 35*7 per cent
come from farm h o m e s . T h e
second most numerous group,
20*3 per cent of the total, are from homes located in cities
of from five thousand to twenty-five thousand in population.
This is to he expected as five of the six colleges are
located in cities of this population range.
The group r ank­
ing third in slse, 17*2 per cent come from small towns of
under one thousand population, and 10.6 per cent are from
cities of over twenty-five thousand.
This latter figure is
due in the main to the fact that ahout half of the student
population of the one school located in a large city are
from the immediate locality.
Of the remainder, 9«9 per cent
Detailed t a h l e , p. 158.
Detailed tahle, p. 161.
live in towns with a population range of one thousand to
twenty-five hundred and 6.3 per cent from those ranging from
twenty-five hundred to five thousand.
Corresponding data from the 1920, 1925, and 1930
students show f arm homes most numerous*
In each case the
percentage from the small towns was greater than that from
the cities of five thousand to twenty-five thousand.
last mentioned group run third in each case*
This
This is again
indicative of the noticeable tendency of the colleges to
draw students from the cities of their location*
In the study of parental occupations* the National
Survey of Secondary Education with the classification'was
24
used with the addition of a bracket for agriculture.
Table XV shows occupations of students’ parents listed in
the following numerical order:
professional, semi-
professional, skilled, semi-skilled, unskilled, and
agricultural.
Farming, recorded by an even 50 per cent of
the 1920 group, dropped to 37*1 per eent in 1925 and has
not deviated to any extent in any of the groups since then.
Skilled labor is listed by about 25 per cent of the four
general groups.
24 G. N. Kefauver, V. H. Noll, and C. E. Drafce, The
Secondary School Population (Monograph 4, National Survey of
Secondary Education, Bulletin 1932, No* 17* Washington, B.C.
Government Printing Office, 1933), PP* 40-8.
X01
TA B LE XV
PARENTAL OCCUPATIONS OF INDICATED GROUPS OF
MINNESOTA, TEACHERS'- COLLEGE STUDENTS -
Occupation
1920
Per cent
1925
Per cent
1930
Per cent
1935
Per cent
Professional
4*5
10.5
6 .8
7.3
Semi~Profesaional
8 *9
9.7
8 .6
1 0 .8
23*2
25* 8
24*7
2 5 .6
Semi-Skilled
8 .0
12.9
15.4
14.6
Unskilled
5.4
4*0
4*9
3.2
5 0 .0
37-1
39.5
37.6
Skilled
Agricultural
102
The semi-skilled group is represented by 14.6 per cent
of the present population, nearly twice the figure of 1920.
The present group has the largest percentage of the semiprofessional group recorded, 10.8 per cent of the total.
With
the exception of the 1925 group the professional classification
shows a slow but constant increase.
The general trend in parental occupation, as seen from
the above, may be summarized as follows:
farming is declining,
the skilled and unskilled groups remain constant, the semi­
skilled and professional groups show a slow increase.
Occupational trends in the entire state’s population following
the same classification are not available but Table XVI gives
a basis of comparison.
The farming population furnish college students in
nearly twice the proportion to their percentage in the entire
state.
The professional and semi-professional groups are
found in somewhat the same proportion in the college and the
entire population.
The other groups are not comparable.
A further sidelight on the agricultural group was
obtained from the 1935 group.
Of this group 87*6 per cent
from farms were the children of farm owners; 26.4 per cent
reported farms of over 320 acres and over three-quarters of
the farms were 160 acres or more.
These facts indicate
students are drawn to a large extent from the more prosperous
103
TABLE XVI
OCCUPATIONAL DISTRIBUTION IN 'MINNESOTA
-
1910
Per cent
1920
Per pent
1930
Per cent
Farm laborers
1 6 .8
11.7
11.9
Farmers
l8 e6
2 0 .1
1 8 .7
Proprietors and
Officials
5*5
8 .2
8 .8
Professional
6.4
7*8
8 .3
10.7
14.2
14.9
5*3
4.0
4.0
3 1 *6
2 9 .O
2 9 *0
5.0
4.9
4.9
Occupation
low salaried workers
Servants
Industrial workers
Unclassified
104
farming class*
PR
Many studies have "been made of the relationship
between the intelligence of children and parental occupation.
The earlier studies seemed to point to the fact that there
was considerable correlation between the two factors, the
later studies are more dubious*
A few studies have been
made of the real relationship between parental occupation
and success in college of which two may be quoted.
Potthoff, in 1 9 2 9 , found little relationship between the
two in a study of University of Chicago students*
Harris,
In 193 1 9 in a study of college success at the City College
of Hew York reported negative findings*2^
As both of these studies were made in large univer­
sities in large cities, the present study attempted to find
whether the results would be the same in small colleges
spread over an entire state.
The classification outlined
above served as the occupational distribution and the
average honor point rating was used as a measure of college
success*
25
The results were in harmony with the studies
Detailed table , p. 1 6 3 .
26
E. F* Potthoff, "Effectiveness of Certain Require­
ments in the Selective Admission of College Students,11
School Review. 375519-30, September, 1 9 2 9 *
Daniel Harris, Relation to College Crades of Some
Factors Other Than Intelligence, Columbia University Press,
1931.
105
quoted.
The Individual colleges showed coefficients of
28
mean square contingency
of from •!! to #24, and the entire
group combined resulted in a correlation of *0 3 indicating
PQ
no relationship between the two factorsCounts has stated the case from another viewpoint as
follows :
Occupation is the central fact in the lives of the
great masses of people . * * If pursued for years, it
will set its mark on his physical nature and will
stamp his mind with its special pattern.
It will deter­
mine to a considerable degree what he does, what he
thinks, and his outlook on life.30
Granted that occupational background has little or no effect
on college success as measured by grades, the problem still
remains as to whether this background does not effect the
attitudes, beliefs, habits, and general patterns of thinking.
If it does and if society wishes a full representation of
these differences in its teaching force, it is unfortunate
If teachers are selected from any one occupational group in
undue proportion*
Income and expenditurea ♦
Either reticence or lack of
28
A full discussion of the coefficient of mean square
contingency is found In MA n Analysis and Interpretation of
Correlation Techniques,M by D. Welty Lefever.
^
■x q
Detailed table, pp* 168-71*
G-. 3 . Counts, The Selective Character of American
Secondary Education (Chicago: University of Chicago Press,
1 9 2 2 }, p. 2 1 *
knowledge prevented 40 per cent of the 1935 student body
from filling out the portion of the questionnaire dealing
with family income.
Of the number reporting, 1 3 .8 per cent
had incomes of three thousand dollars or more, 2 0 .7 per cent
between two thousand dollars and three thousand dollars,
✓
42*1 per oent between one thousand and two thousand, and
23*4 per cent under one thousand dollars.
With two-thirds
reporting incomes of under two thousand dollars it is
evident that the student population is not of the "country
club" type.
Two-thirds of the students report one member
of the family furnishing the entire Income, 17*5 per cent
report two, 1 5 * 5 per cent report three or more contri­
buting. ^ 1
Because of the small family incomes, low expendi­
tures per student may be expected; 1 2 .9 per cent report
expenditures per year of under one hundred dollars, 2 0 . 3
per cent between one hundred and two hundred dollars,
26.4 per cent between two hundred and three hundred dollars.
Some 3 0 per cent report expenses ranging from three to
four hundred dollars, and 10 per cent spend over four
hundred dollars each year.
Obviously many in the lower
expenditure bracket live at home and count as expense only
^
Detailed table, p. 180.
107
the very moderate school fees, but many others through
deprivation and a monetary acumen bordering on financial
wizardry keep themselves in college at an unbelievably
small cash outlay.
Comp11aton of sources of student income shows that
in 29 P@r cent of the cases all funds are furnished by the
parents and in almost the same percentage of instances they
furnish nothing.
Approximately a quarter of the students
have income from work done during the school year aside
from national Youth Administration or other work relief
funds and another quarter received assistance from work done
under these auspices*
Other sources listed are, borrowing,
own savings, and help by brothers or sisters-^2
Comparing the above data with the three studies
already quoted, the Minnesota families represented by
teachers1 college students are slightly larger than the
Missouri families, 4.12 c h i l d r e n ^ as compared with 4.0 and
slightly smaller than the Texas families which run from 4*2
74
to 5*9 in different Texas institutions*
The National
Survey does not give the median number of children but the
data assembled show that the families of teachers* college
^2 Detailed tables, pp*173-9*
^
Hill, qp. c l t . ■ p. 23*
54 Grutsinger, o£* cit., p. 56*
108
students are larger than those of liberal arts students*
In
this summary 1*6 per cent of the teachers' college students
and *48 per cent of the liberal arts students were from
families with nine or more children,
while the Minnesota
figures show 6*7 per cent of students from families with
nine or more children.
In the Missouri study 33 per cent of the students
reported brothers or sisters who were t e a c h e r s ^ and in the
Texas study the percentage was 34.5 .3*^
The Minnesota group
as noted was 2?.8 per cent some 6 per cent lower than the
other studies reported.
In the matter of parental education the Minnesota
group is lower than either the Texas study or the National
Survey.
In Texas 31.1 per cent of the fathers and 3 0 . 9 per
cent of the mothers were high school graduates, and 9.1 per
cent of the fathers and 5.9 per cent of the mothers were
college graduates.
From the National Survey the figures
given for the teachers'
colleges are, father high school
graduation, 36.88 per cent, mother high school graduate,
Evenden, Gamble, and Blue, o£. c i t . . p. 122.
36 Hill, 0£. c i t . , p. 23.
3^ Crutsinger, o p . c i t .. p. 80.
58 Ibid. . p. 76.
109
42*2? per cent.
College graduates among the fathers, 15*73
per cent, among the mothers, 11*89 per cent.*^
ponding figures for the liberal arts group are:
Corres­
high school
graduation fathers 56*71 per cent, mothers 62.22 per cent;
college graduation fathers 27*04 per cent, mothers 18.41 per
40
cent.
Figures on parental occupations from the three studies
used for comparison are not exactly comparable due to differ­
ences in classifications used.
In each study, agriculture
4l
In Missouri, 31
cent,
was the leading occupation.
42
in Texas, 48*3 per cent,
and in the National Survey 31*6
per eent45 0 f the teachers* college students were children
of farmers.
In contrast to this only 13*1 per cent of the
liberal arts students in the latter study were from farm
homes.
The unskilled labor group is low in each case,
45
the Texas study showing 3*2 per cent
and the National
Survey 3*7 per cent for the teachers’ college population and
46
2.2 per cent for the liberal arts group.
59 Evenden, Gamble, and Blue, o p . cit*, pp. 126-7*
40
w Ibid.
41 Hill, 0£. C i t .
AO
Crutsinger, o£* cit.
^5 Evenden, Gamble, and Blue, o£. c i t .
44 Ibid.
4 ^ Crutsinger, o p . cit.
^
Evenden, G-amble, and Blue, o p . c i t *
110
The family incomes reported by the Missouri and
Texas studies, the National Survey gives no data on this
point, are low hut decidedly higher than the Minnesota
figures*
Because of the varying economic conditions at the
time the studies were made t h e s e .incomes are not directly
comparable but in each case the large proportion of families
in the low income brackets indicate that the economic class
from which teachers * college students are drawn do not vary
greatly from state to state.
The Missouri study reports
28 per cent of the families with incomes less than fifteen
hundred dollars and 14 per cent less than one thousand
dollars.^
The Texas study shows a variation in median
income among the seven colleges of from $1,041 to $2 ,7 9 0 ,
with from 3*9 per cent to 13•6 per cent receiving less than
Afi
one thousand dollars a year. ^ The Missouri study shows
26 per cent of the families with incomes of over three
thousand dollars and the Texas study from 17*9 Per cent In
one college to 45.3 per cent in another.
figures,
These latter
it will be remembered, were for 1929 incomes while
the Minnesota figures were for 1934 incomes.
A greater number of the Minnesota students were
partially or entirely self-supporting than those reported
^ Hill, gjd. cit., p. 19*
48
Crutsinger, o£. cit., p. 54.
in the other studies.
The National Survey showed 67*39 per
cent of the liberal arts students and 56.53 Per cent of the
teachers1 college students and 39 per cent of the Missouri
students were likewise entirely dependent while but 2 9 per
cent of the Minnesota students receive all of their assist­
ance from their parents.
This again is indicative of the
low incomes of the Minnesota group and partially a reflection
of the increased opportunities for self-support under the
student work program.
Religious affiliations.
The religious background of
the students in the Minnesota teachers* colleges is largely
fundamentalist in character.
Of the 1935 group, 33*8 per
cent were communicants of various branches of the Lutheran
church, 18.2 per cent were Gatholic, and 37*4 per cent
belonged to various newer Protestant sects.
The earlier
groups did not vary markedly from these figures.
In the
National Survey the Methodist group comprised approximately
one-fourth of the total, the Presbyterian group comprised
about one-tenth of the teachers* college students and nearly
one-fifth of the liberal arts students.
The greatest
variation between the two types of schools was represented
by the Catholic denomination with a tenth of the teachers*
49 Hill, o£. c i t . , p. 20.
112
college students and only a twentieth, of the liberal arts
group*50
This study of family background reveals that the
students of the Minnesota teachers1 colleges are being drawn,
in the main, from homes in the open country and small towns,
from homes where the formal education of the parents has been
decidedly sketchy, from homes with small incomes, from homes
where industry and frugality are necessities*
From a third
to a half come from homes where either the father, the mother,
or both are foreign born, and in half or more where the
national background is Scandinavian or German*
These homes
in over half of the cases represent the more fundamentalist
religious viewpoint*
The students of necessity spend little
money, over one-half work during the school year and nearly
three-fourths depend on other sources of assistance than the
parents*
It does not require much imagination to see that the
teachers1 colleges represent to this group the only oppor­
tunity for collegiate training, for what cultural attainment
that is possible for them, and the means of raising them in
the socio-economic scale*
for the colleges.
These findings raise many problems
The problem of supplementing the evident
lack of cultural background, the problem of keeping expense
50
Evenden, Gamble, and Blue, o£* cit., pp. 121-2.
113
*
to til© lowest possible point consistent with good training,
the problem of taking this group, doing everything In their
power for them and at the same time protecting the standard
of the teaching profession*
III.
EDUOATIONAL BATA
Educational background*
In a study of the high school
background of the 1935 students the following points were
considered:
location of the high school, size of the
graduating class, pattern of work pursued, extra-curriculum
activities, success in h i g h school work as measured by grades
and honors received, and indications of leadership as seen
by offices held and participation in community affairs*
The location of the high school graduated from has
been detailed above in the findings o n residence but may be
summarized again*
Of the group studied, 24.4 per cent were
graduated from the local high school, 8*6 per cent were from
other high schools located in the same county as the college
attending*
A total of 64.4 per cent attended high school in
the same, in adjoining counties, or within fifty miles of
the colleges, and 7*9 per cent attended high schools in
other states than Minnesota but the majority of these were
still close to the college*
This indicates, as mentioned
above, the local character of the college p o p u l a t i o n * ^
51 Detailed table, p. 191*
1X4
The size of the high school attended was felt to he
Important for a number of reasons*
Although the instruction
may be as good or better in a small school as in the larger
systems, most suffer from lack of adequate equipment, low
salaried teachers, teaching a large variety of subject
matter, and from a more restricted curricula*
A small proportion, 4.9 per cent, came from very
small high schools where there were less than ten in the
graduating class.
Another 22*4 per cent reported between
ten and twenty-five in the graduating class, and 19*5 per
cent from twenty-five to fifty.
Thus, nearly half of the
enrollment is drawn from very small systems.
Of the remain-*
ing half, 14.8 per cent were from high schools with from
fifty to one hundred in the senior class, 21.4 per cent were
from graduating classes of one hundred to two hundred, and
2*5 per cent reported over two hundred.
This latter group
is found largely in the college located in a first class
52
city.
The pattern of work pursued in high school was quite
53
constant for the entire group.
The average student spent
about 25 per cent of his time in English, 9*4 per cent in
Detailed table, p. 19°*
^
Detailed tables, pp. 192-4*
other languages; 20 per cent in the social sciences, more time
being spent in world history than American and a smaller
amount of time being spent in social studies other than
history;
12.7 per cent of the time was devoted to mathematics,
algebra and geometry; the same proportion to practical arts,
with commercial work being given twice the time devoted to
domestic science, and industrial arts and agriculture trail­
ing; the physical sciences were given 11.9 per cent, general
science leading with chemistry in second place slightly ahead
of physics, and geography with but 1.3 per cent; the b i o ­
logical sciences accounted for but 5*1 Per cent of the total
time, biology being the subject widely offered In this field#
Music, art, physical education, and miscellaneous offerings
took the remaining 3*0 per cent of the time.
The small
proportion of students whose records indicate any time spent
in music or physical education is due to the fact that while
these subjects are offered in nearly every high school and
the latter is generally required, they are non-credit courses
or extra-curriculum activities and in either case are not
offered for college entrance.
The small proportion of
students having any contact with art indicates its status as
a high school subject in Minnesota.
As stated above there is little differentiation
between patterns of high school work of students in the
116
different colleges*
More students in the older parts of
the state have had contact with foreign languages, more have
had world history.
General science and general social
science are offered more often in the newer portions of the
state and in the smaller high schools, the older parts of
the state and the larger schools show more of a tendency to
offer separate subjects in these fields.
Art, too, is found
more often in the older sections and in the larger schools.
Algebra and geometry are holding their own as 95 per cent
was the lowest percentage of students in any college offer­
ing algebra for entrance and geometry was offered by from
86 per cent to 93 Per cent of the entrants.
In general we can say the teachers* college entrants
present the usual standardized subjects offered in the great
majority of American high schools, with perhaps a little less
emphasis on language other than English.
The high school
background of the four-year graduates is summarized in the
section dealing with them and shows little variation from
the above.
Extra-curriculum participation.
Interest and ability
along lines represented by extra-curriculum activities are
indicative of well rounded individuals.
These activities
often provide more opportunity for group work, for leader­
ship, than do the purely classroom activities.
Because
117
these qualities are important in prospective teachers, a
section of this study is devoted to the activities the 1935
population engaged in high school and the carry over of
these to college*
Each of the colleges recognize the importance of
extra-curriculum activities and a wide variety of activities
representative of the various fields are made available to
the students*
As a general policy, there are no national social
sororities or fraternities o n any of the campuses*
Most of
the colleges have one or more chapters of national honorary
societies.
W o m e n ’s inter-collegiate athletics are likewise
frowned upon but the W o m e n ’s Athletic Associations usually
hold a state-wide nplay day.11
The one field of activity
usually fostered which has little representation in the
teachers’ colleges is forensics.
Only one of the 1935
college catalogues made any reference to this activity and
no organized group in this field was mentioned by this one.
The small percentage of students taking part in this activity
in college as compared to the large proportion in high school
is indicative of the lack of opportunity for participation*
Table XVII shows that 95# 9 P@r cent of the m e n and
93*7 per cent of the women participated in some extracurriculum activity in high school; 82 per cent of the men
and 67*6 per cent of the women were engaged In some activity
118
TABLE X V II
PARTICIPATION IN EXTRA-CURRICUV M ACTIVITIES
MINNESOTA,T E A C H E R S C O I X B G E S 1935 POPULATION
Activities
Per cent Men
participating
High School College
Per cent Women
participating
High School College
Athletics
80.2
57.4
61.5
26.0
Forensica
39.4
5.6
40.1
1.0
Dramatics
4l.l
18.9
42.3
10.0
Journalism
31-6
17.9
41.1
12.8
Music
53.9
33.5
6 7 .6
31.6
9-3
5.8
14.2
9.4
12.6
15.6
24.7
22.4
Hobby Clubs
7*3
5*4
7.6
3.6
Subject Matter Clubs
9*0
8.6
13*3
8.7
36.4
18. 3
34.3
10.6
Literary Clubs
Social Clubs
Student Government
(officers)
1X9
in college-
Men engaged in an average of 3*2 different
activities in nigh, school and 1.9 In college; women 3 . 5
in high school and 1*4 in college.
Athletics, music, dramatics, forensles, offices in
student government, and journalism were participated in more
often, and in the order named, by men in high school.
The
order in college remains the same with the exception of
forensic© whioh drops to the bottom of the list.
athletics, dramatics,
Music,
journalism, forensics, and student
government, in the order named, were reported by the women
for high school-
Hence those activities engaged in high
school tend to carry over to college.
In college the order
is slightly changed, music, athletics, social clubs,
journalism, student government, and dramatics with forensics
again dropping to the bottom.
Also those who have no record
of participation in high school have a tendency to non­
participation in college, only twenty-seven of the 110 men
and women reporting non-participation in high school have
any record of college participation.
Comparable figures for Minnesota high school and
college groups are not obtainable but participation is much
more general than reported in the Texas study where from
33 Per cent to 60 per cent of the students reported taking
part in these a c t i v i t i e s . ^
54 Crutsinger,
o p
.
These findings indicate a very
cit., p. 77-
120
general participation in the life of the school and the
community.
There is naturally a decided decrease in parti­
cipation on the college level due to a tendency to specialize,
the greater burden of class work, the necessity of working,
and the fact that in the h igh school summary the entire four
years are behind the student while in the college summary
that obviously was not the case.
The men and women students
who do not participate in these activities present a problem
for the guidance authorities of the college.
H igh school achievement.
Of the numerous scathing
indictments of the ability of prospective teachers one of
the most vitriolic is found in the Thirty-First Annual Report
of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching
concerning the results of the Pennsylvania study:
In so far as those expecting to teach are concerned,
the results of the Pennsylvania examinations are
disappointing, and there is no good reason for believing
that the conditions described are confined to
Pennsylvania.
The majority of the group are most at
home in the lower half of the total college distri­
butions; they exhibit inferiority in contrast with the
non-teachers in nearly every department of study; and
they show up badly when compared in the same tests with
students four years below them who represent the ed u ­
cational problems with which they must be prepared to
deal.
The ability and attainments of those selected
and prepared in special centers for that purpose (i.e.
teachers1 c o l l e g e s ) is consistently and conspicuously
below the level of the group as a whole . . . the
situation is deplorable.55
55 w. S. Learned, Thirty-First Annual Report of the
Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching
(New Y o r k : The Foundation, 193^), P* 4-8.
121
It was beyond the limits and resources of this study
to make a detailed investigation into this question.
available data are presented.
Certain
The high school percentile
rank of 1,606 of the 1,956 students replying to the question­
naire was found from their permanent records.
In percentile
placement they stood as follows*
7 5th-100th
45.9 per cent
50th- 75th
28.9
H
"
25th- 50th
17.3
"
M
1st- 25th
7.9
*
”
Thus, approximately three-quarters of the students
ranked above the 49th percentile and 45.9 per cent above
the 74th.
Also 7*9 per cent were found below the 2 5 th p e r ­
centile.
Through the cooperation of the University of Minnesota
Testing Bureau, the records of 1,191 teacher* college
students who had taken the College Aptitude Test were tabu­
lated.
The percentile placement stood as follows*
7 5th-100th
12.2 per cent
50th- 75th
21*2
11
H
2 5 th- 50th
25.2
"
"
1st- 25th
41.4
11
w
The marked skewness of the distribution toward the
lower end is caused in part by the method used by the Bureau
In establishing these rankings*
The test results for each senior are reported to the
school m e n in terms of percentile ranks, baaed upon
college freshmen who have taken the same test given to
the h i g h school .seniors * . . For example, a percentile
of 50 indicates that this individual has answered more
questions correctly than 50 Per cent of college fresh­
men. 55
So 33*^ Per cent of the high school seniors who later entered
the Minnesota teachers* colleges ranked above the average
college freshman, 6 6 *4 per cent below, in this College Aptitude
Test.
The Bureau reports that of all high school seniors
examined 31 per cent exceeded the average college freshman
indicating that the seniors entering the teachers* colleges
are the approximate equal of the entire group tested.
The reasons for the wide divergence between the results
of this test and the percentile placement in high school
achievement given above are not known.
influences it.
One factor doubtless
Bureau reports indicate that students of
smaller high schools make consistently poorer scores on the
test than do those in larger schools; none of the schools of
under four hundred students reached the average of the entire
group.
As approximately half of the teachers* college students
are from small schools this undoubtedly has its effects, but
^ E* G* Williamson, College Guidance Tests - A Report
of the 1935 Testing Program of the Association of Minnesota
Colleges, University of Minnesota (Mimeographed, January 31,
1935)7 P* 2 *
123
as no data are available as to the numbers from small schools
entering other institutions, the amount of this effect is
conjectural.
The College Aptitude Hanking as determined by the
Bureau is the average of the high school percentile standing
and the percentile rank in the aptitude test.
rankings, 1,171 were available for tabulation.
Of these
The percent­
ile placement was as follows:
75th-100th
18.7 per cent
50th- 75th
34.8
n
w
25th- 5 0 th
35.1
11
11
1st- 25th
11*4
"■
••
In this average of the two measures we find 53*5 per
cent of the high school seniors entering teachers* colleges
above the 50th percentile and 46.5 per cent below.
At what
point the probability of successful college work becomes so
small as to warrant exclusion is doubtful, the Bureau simply
says,
wIn previous studies for liberal art college students
this college aptitude ranking has been shown to have a fairly
satisfactory general predictive value for large groups of
students*11^
A study conducted by the Bureau of the scholastic
57 Ibid.. p. 3
124
aptitude of 5 ,1 3 7 freshmen, including 692 teachers* college
freshmen, entering Minnesota institutions in the fall of
1935 gives us a comparison between these two groups.
The
mean high school percentile of all entering freshmen was
6 5 .9 6 with a standard deviation of 27-21.
The mean high
school percentile of teachers1 college freshmen was 64.49,
standard deviation 2 6 .0 9 , which is slightly higher, and
statistically significant, than the means of freshmen enter­
ing junior colleges, liberal arts colleges, and all univer­
sity freshmen, but lower than freshmen entering the College
of Science, Literature, and Arts of the State University.
Again the entering freshmen in the teachers* colleges
fall lower in the tests than entering freshmen of other
Institutions.
In the Cooperative Vocabulary Test of the
Bureau, the mean of the teachers* eollege group is 4.33
points lower than the m e a n of the entire group of entering
freshmen of all Institutions, and each of the other groups
rank higher.
In the Cooperative Usage Plus Spelling Test
the mean of entering teachers* college freshmen is 2 . 5 6
points below the entire group and in combining of the two
scores they fall 8.04 points,
standard deviation of .18,
below the entire group.
These data bear out the general conclusions of the
percentile placement study for the teachers* college fresh­
men given above.
In terms of high school rank they are
125
slightly superior to other college freshmen of the state
with the exception of those entering the College of Science,
Literature and Arts of the University, but on the basis of
comparative scores in the tests given they are distinctly
lower*
As the Pennsylvania study compared students remaining
in colleges, these studies of entering freshmen are not
analagous*
Whether the rate of elimination is as great in
teachers’ colleges as in other Minnesota institutions is not
known*
On the basis of entering groups the Minnesota
teachers’ college population cannot be said to be as bad as
the Pennsylvania study Indicates*
That these colleges have
a definite problem of raising the standards of entering
groups is likewise true.
Continuity of stu d y .
Table XVTII shows the proportion
of students who enter college directly upon completion of
high school and who maintain an uninterrupted residence in
comparison with those who are delayed in entrance or whose
58
work is interrupted*
The National Survey shows 75*11 per cent of teachers’
college freshmen enrolling immediately upon finishing high
school, and 8 2 * 8 per cent of liberal arts college freshmen.
58
Detailed table, p # 1 9 5 .
126
T A B LE X V I I I
INTERRUPTED COLLEGE ’ATTENDANCE
MINNESOTA,TEACHERS ' COLLEGES 1935 POPULATION
•
Entrance direct
from Hig h School
and uninterrupted
attendance
Per cent
1-4
Years
Per
eent
Delayed
5-9
.
Years
Per
cent
10 years
or more
Per
cent
Freshman
70.4
2 8 .2
1.4
♦2
Sophomore
54*2
37.1
7*3
1*4
Junior
46* 2
39*8
1 0 .0
3*9
Senior
37*6
41*6
•L ♦ 1
6 .8
127
Their findings also indicate that students in liberal arts
colleges are more likely to continue through college w i t h ­
out Interruption than teachers* college s t u d e n t s . ^
While
no data was obtained as to the reasons for delay in
entrance or Interruptions in attendance, the larger pro­
portions of students in the junior and senior years whose
work has been delayed is Indicative of the size of the
group who teach before completion of their degree require­
ments.
It is more than likely that the main reason for
this is financial difficulty and in some cases it may be a
desire to obtain experience.
Educational and professional goals.
Of the 1935
group, 84.7 per cent expect to graduate from the Institution
they were attending and 9 . 8 per cent expected to transfer
to other schools.
Of this latter group 43.2 per cent were
undecided as to where they would complete their formal
education, 3 7 * 5 per cent were planning to transfer to the
University of Minnesota, and 6 . 8 per cent to special
technical schools; 1 1 * 5 per cent planned to transfer to
liberal arts colleges or universities other than Minnesota,
and 1 per cent to tea c h e r s ’ colleges other than the one
attending* ^ 0
59 Evenden, (ramble, and Blue, o p * cit., p. 1 2 5 .
60
Detailed table $ P* 229*
128
Nearly a fifth, of the group contemplating transfer
were going to remain in the teaching profession, 40 per
cent were scattered among various professions, and a like
number were undecided as to their future work-
A
Of the total group about one**fifth did not commit
themselves on the question of how long they expected to
teach and a small percentage were uncertain-
Only 6-1 per
cent definitely stated they did not expect to teach;
17#3
per cent were desirous of teaching between one and four
per cent between five and nine years; and 2 9 .6
years;
82
per cent ten or more y e a r s -
These findings Indicate that the student population
as a whole are interested in graduating from the institution
they were attending, and are primarily interested in teach­
ing as a profession.
While approximately one-third were
evidently looking forward to a life of service in the pro­
fession, the large proportion desirous of a limited tenure
gives credence to the oft repeated statement of the teach­
ing profession being a Mmoblle mob of maidens meditating
matrimony.w
In the Missouri study 66 per cent of all the te a chers’
6 1 Detailed table, p. 2 3 2 .
^
Detailed table, P* 233«
college population were planning on teaching and 2 9 per cent
indicated a desire to teach ten or more years*
In the
Texas study more wom e n were planning on teaching than men
and more of the upper class students than freshmen and
sophomores-
As high as TO per cent of the freshmen men in
one of the colleges covered in this study and as many as
30 per cent of the senior men in another college indicated
54
they were not Interested in teaching as a profession.
Apparently in Texas the teachers* colleges have a much
larger proportion of students interested in fields other
than education.
In the National Survey six out of seven
teaehers* college students intended to enter the profession
and three out of every seven of the liberal arts s t u d e n t s . ^
Comparing these findings with those of the present study it
is seen that the Minnesota teachers* colleges have retained
their original purpose to a greater degree.
Classification and fields of special!zation.
The
classification of students enrolled in 1935 and answering
the questionnaire was as follows:
Freshmen
^
40.6 per cent
Hill, o£. c i t ., p. 24.
^ Crutsinger, o p . cit., pp. 74-5.
gc
Evenden, Gamble, and Blue, q£. c i t .. pp. 1 3 8 -9 .
130
Sophomores
33*6 P©r cent
Juniors
13.2
i
t
n
n
m
Seniors
11.4
6
6
1 .2
M
n
Unknown and
unclassified
Of the group studied, 51*8 per cent were enrolled
in the two-year course and 46.7 per cent in the four-year
course, the remaining 1 . 5 per cent being unknown or
unelassifled
66
The proportion of students in the upper two years in
Minnesota is exactly the same as was found in the Texas
institutions and both of these are about 10 per cent lower
than the teachers*
colleges covered by the national Survey.
This latter study found that the liberal arts colleges had
some 2 per cent more in the upper classes than the
teachers* colleges had.
While the Minnesota teachers*
colleges are decidedly above the requirements of the
American Association of Teachers* Colleges, which requires
at least 15 per cent in the upper classes, the lower class
enrollment is still rather high.
This is due to the fact
that only about half of the 1935 group were planning on
four years of work, that the certification requirements in
Minnesota are still low, and that the colleges have been
^
Detailed table , p. 226.
131
four-year institutions over a relatively short period of
time*
Table X I X shows the classification by field of
preparation of the two and four-year groups.
In this 1935 population, 817 students in the fouryear curriculum reported their field of major interest
and 6 8 6 their field of minor interest.
The results are
tabulated in Table XX, page 133*
In the study of placement made in 1935 by the
Minnesota State Department of Education, the placements by
fields of major training are given, as shown in Table XXI,
page 134.
Prom this summary it is seen that the secondary field
has the greatest attraction for the four-year group and the
intermediate grades for the two-year group.
Only 17*8 per
cent of the four-year people are interested in elementary
education and but *7 per cent in the rural field.
This is
understandable from the point of view of the four-year
students when comparative salaries and working conditions
are considered, but hardly from the standpoint of the twoyear group when only 2 8 . 5 per cent indicated their major
preparation for rural school work where the great majority
of placements are made.
This condition points to a problem
of guidance for the colleges which is being met in part by
132
TABU S X IX
FIELD O F SPECIALIZATION
MINNESOTA TEACHERS * COLLEGES 1935 POPULATION
Four--Year
Per cent
Per cent
of
of
Four-Year
Total
.7
.4
1 1 .©
8 *6
4*3
36.4
17.©
9.2
4*9
7 1
3.3
17*0
9.1
47.©
25.0
6*9
3.7
Administration
4.1
to
•
to
Field
' Two*-Year
Per cent Per cent
of
of
‘Two-Year
Total
Supervision
1.3
*7
Special
1.4
.8
3.6
2*4
Rural
28*5
130
KindergartenPrimary
23 .6
Intermediate
Junior HighUpper Grades
Senior High
Junior College
Unknown
2.3
2 *2
1 .1
1 .0
133
TA B LE X X
FIELDS O F MAJOR A M D MINOR INTEREST
MINNESOTA.TEACHERS; COLLEGES 1935 POPULATION
Subject field
Major interest
Per cent
Minor interest
Per cent
Social Science
25.2
3 0 .8
English
1 9 -0
14 . 6
Science
14.0
1 6 .0
Mathematics
1 1 .8
9.6
Physical Education
9-1
9*8
Music
8 .2
3.9
Industrial Arts
4.8
.6
Geography
3.5
6 .1
Art
1 .6
e>
•
CVI
Education
1 .6
2.9
French
1 .2
2.5
German
0
1 .0
TABU XXI
PLACEMENTS BY FIELDS OF MAJOR TRAINING
MINNESOTA TEACHERS' COLLEGES*
Subject field
English
Social Science
Science
Mathematics
Foreign Language
Commercial
Home Economics
Industrial Arts
Agriculture
Physical Education
Music
Art
Others
No report
Total
employed
Num­ Per
cent
ber
981
856
640
374
359
328
405
362
110
215
199
98
508
1,040
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
New to district
with experience
Num­ Per
ber
cent
92
85
72
28
30
26
34
16
15
10
18
2
33
7
9.4
9.9
11.3
7.5
8.3
7.9
8.4
14.4
13.6
4.7
9.0
2.0
6.5
.7
New to district
and profession
Num­ Per
ber cent
66
48
31
20
20
16
31
11
7
17
21
1
9
13
6.7
5.6
4.8
5.3
5.6
4.9
7.7
3.0
6.4
7.9
10.6
1.0
1.8
1.2
Total new
Num­ Per
ber cent
158
133
103
48
50
42
65
27
22
27
39
3
42
20
16.1
15.5
16.1
12.8
13.9
12.8
16.1
7.4
20.0
12.6
19.6
3.0
8.3
1.9
tr£l
*State Department of Education, Minnesota Public School Teacher Turnover, Training,
Experience, and Supply, 1934-35, p. 3, Code X7III-B-25, St. Paul, Minnesota, July, 1935*
135
a trend toward insisting on some work in rural education of
all two-year people and which will in all likelihood
eventually develop into requiring practical rural experience
of all members of this group*
Comparing these two tables, X X and XXI, pages 133 and
134, it will be noted that with the exception of Commercial,
Home Economics, and Agriculture, which are not offered in
the teachers* colleges, and Foreign languages, a field that
has b e en relatively neglected by the colleges, the fields
in which teachers are placed and the fields of choice of
prospective teachers are nearly parallel.
This indicates
a much better balance between demand and training than is
found in the two-year group.
IV.
1.
Sex:
SIMAHY
A rapidly increasing proportion of men
students, especially In the four-year course, but women
students still outnumber men approximately seven to three.
2.
Age:
Present population somewhat younger than
earlier groups but a large percentage of the four-year
group mature.
3.
Residence:
majority of students.
Local or immediate vicinity for
Tendency for larger proportions of
/?»7
This regulation has since been adopted*
136
the four-year group to come from Immediate locality than
two-year group*
4.
Race, parentage, nativity:
All white, 80 per
cent h orn in Minnesota, more of native horn of native
parentage in the present group and the two-year graduating
group than in the population at large, more of the native
horn of mixed and foreign parentage in the four-year
graduating group and the withdrawal group than expectancy*
National backgrounds, one-third Scandinavian, one-third
English, and one-quarter German.
5*
homes.
Family status:
large majority from unbroken
Large families are the rule.
About half of the
parents have eighth grade education or less.
farm homes or small towns.
Half are from
Farming is the leading
occupation in all groups hut has a tendency to decrease in
importance.
Skilled labor group is second, professional
and semi-professional next, and a very low percentage of
unskilled labor.
No relation was found between occupation
of parents and college success.
Family incomes were very
low, two-thirds under two thousand dollars a year.
6.
Student expenditures:
two hundred dollars a year.
Forty per cent under
Half of the students earn
some money during the year and only 3° P©** cent are entirely
dependent on parents.
7.
Religious affiliations:
About half are from
137
decidedly fundamentalist churches.
8.
High school experience:
Approximately one-half
are from h igh schools with less than fifty members in the
graduating class.
The pattern of work pursued is consist­
ent, one-quarter of time is devoted to English, one-fifth
to social studies, one-eighth each to mathematics and
practical arts, one-tenth to foreign language, and about
3 per cent to fin© arts.
9*
Participation in extra-curriculum and community
activities:
Over 90 per cent in high school and about 75
per cent in college.
Colleges have well rounded program
except in the field of forensics.
10.
H igh school achievement:
Three-quarters of
students are from the upper half of their high school
graduating class.
On the state-wide college aptitude test
they rank about the same as the average of all high school
graduates.
In college aptitude ranking about half above
and half below the state-wide average.
11.
Interrupted college attendance:
Rather a small
proportion enter college directly from high school and
continue without interruption to the end of their college
course.
This is especially true of the four-year graduating
group.
12.
Professional ambition:
Many uncertain but only
6 per cent definitely stated they did not intend to teach.
138
One-third were looking to life tenure and one-half to
five years or less.
13-
Classification:
Three-quarters were in the
first two years, one-quarter in senior college.
14.
Field of specialization:
In the two-year group
preparation for intermediate grades was most common.
30 per cent were preparing for rural teaching.
About
In the four-
year group 80 per cent were selecting the secondary field
and 20 per cent the elementary.
About three-quarters of the
secondary group were majoring in the general academic field
and one-quarter in the special fields of music, art,
industrial education, and physical education.
TABULATION OF DETAILED DATA
REGARDING STUDENTS ENROLLED
DURING 1935
140
PERSONAL DATA:
SEX A N D AGE
TABLE XXII
SEX DISTBIBUTICK - 1935 KJHJLAIICN
Sex
Bemidji
N\m- Per
ber cent
Duluth
Num- Per
ber eent
Mankato
Num- per
ber eent
Moorhead
Num- Per
ber eent
St. Cloud
Num­• Per
ber eent
Winona
Nun- Per
ber eent
Total
Num- Per
ber eent
Men
76 35*5
63 23.5
110 33.5
96 28.2
125 26.4
119 35.8
589
30.0
Women
138 64.5
205 76.5
218 66.5
244 71.8
348 73.6
214 64.2 1,367
70.0
Total
214 100*0
268 100.0
328 100,0
340 100.0
473 100.0
333 100.0 1*956 100.0
141
TABLE XHII
AGE DISTRIBUTION - 1935 POPULATION
Age
~16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
Ora
Unto
Bemidji
Num- Per
her cent
3
13
46
49
31
24
8
9
10
6
3
3
3
1
1
4
0
1.4
6.05
21.45
22.8
14.5
11.2
5.8
4.2
4.7
2,8
1.4
1.4
1.4
•5
♦5
1.9
0
Duluth
Num- Per
her cent
1
3
40
73
59
32
19
13
3
2
5
2
1
2
1
3
9
.37
1.1
15.0
27.5
22.2
12.0
7.1
4.9
1.1
.7
1.8
.7
.37
.7
.37
1.1
3.3
Mankato
Num- Per
her cent
Moorhead
Num­ Per
ber eent
1
11
65
86
54
38
22
17
8
6
5
4
1
0
3
4
3
0
14
61
86
59
37
29
14
10
9
1
3
3
1
0
7
6
.3
3.3
19.8
26.2
16,5
11.6
6.7
5.1
2.4
1,8
1.5
1.2
.3
0
.9
1.2
.9
0
4.1
17.9
25.3
17.4
10.8
8.5
4.1
3.0
2.6
.2
.9
•9
.3
0
2.0
1.8
St. Cloud
Num­ Per
ber cent
Winona
Num­ Per
ber cent
8
25
94
99
67
59
31
21
17
8
7
4
7
2
2
16
6
1
17
76
70
50
33
34
13
8
5
4
4
2
3
0
4
9
Median Age - 20*2 years
1.7
5.3
19.9
20.9
14.2
12.4
6.5
4.5
3.6
1.7
1.5
♦9
1.5
.4
•4
3.4
1.3
.3
5.1
22.8
21.0
15.0
9.9
10.2
3.9
2.4
1.5
1.2
1.2
.6
.9
0
1.2
2.7
PERSONAL DATA:
PLACE OF RESIDENCE
TABLE x m
RESIDENCE 0? STUDENTS ENTERING
MINNESOTA. TEACHERS COLLEGES 1920-1925-1930
Residence
Mankato Moorhead St. Cloud
Winona
Bemidji
Duluth
Total
Num­ Per Num­ Per Num- Per Num- Per Num­■Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber eent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber eent ber cent
1920
Local
Same County as
College attending
Adjacent County or
within 50 miles
Other Counties
in State
Out of State
Unknown
1 10.0
3 12.0
1
4.0
4 40.0
4 16.0
1
4.0
2 20.0
6 24.0
7 28.0
19 41.3
5 20.0
39 29.8
3 30.0
12 48.0
14 56.0
2 8.0
16 34.8
9 36.0
2 8.0
54 42.6
4
3.1
10 12.3
6 20.7
27 15.3
10 21.7
1
2.2
6 24.0
21 16.0
1
11
4.0
8.4
1925
2 11.JL
6 37.6
3
9.4
...
3 16.6
3 18.8
5.6
5 31.2
11 34.4
16 19.8
8 27.6
41 23.3
12 66.7
2 12.5
15 46.9
1 3.1
48 59.3
2 2.5
14 48.4
91 51.6
3 1.7
•6
1
1
2
6.3
5
6.2
13
3.4
7.4
w
Local
Same County as
College attending
Adjacent County or
within 50 miles
Other Counties
in State
Out of State
Unknown
TABLE XXXV (continued)
RESIDENCE OF STUDENTS ENTERING
MINNESOTA,TEACHERS COLLEGES 1920-1925-1930
Residence
Bemidji
Duluth
Mankato Moorhead St. Cloud Winona
Total
Num- Per Num- Ber Num- Per Num- Per Num- Per Num- Per Num- Per
ber cent ber cent ber eent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent
1930
Local
Same County as
College attending
Adjacent County or
within 50 miles
Other Counties
in State
Out of State
Unknown
2 18.2
9 47*4
4 12.1
3 27.3
7 36*8
3
2 18.2
2 10.5
10 30.3
8 32.0
16 24.3
3 16.6
41 23.8
5.3
14 42.4
2 6.1
10 40.0
6 24.0
38 53.5
1 1.5
9 50.0
1 5.6
76 44.2
10 5.8
1
4.0
7 10.6
4
9.1'
5 27.8
6.1
28 16.3
17
9.9
-
4
36.4
1
H
ui
TABLE 2X7
LOCATION OF HOME GF STUDENTS ENTERING
MINNESOTA TEACHERS COLLEGES 1920-1925-1930
Farm
Under 1,000
Towns 1,000-2,500
Towns 2,500-5,000
Cities 5,000-25,000
Cities over 25,000
Farm
Under 1,000
Towns 1,000-2,500
Towns 2,500-5,000
Cities 5,000-25,000
Cities over 25,000
Unknown
Farm
Under 1,000
Towns 1,000-2,500
Towns 2,500-5,000
Cities 5,000-25,000
Cities over 25,000
Unknown
8
2
3
2
3
44.5
11.1
16.6
11.1
16.6
5 31.2
1 6.2
1 6.2
1 6.2
2 12.5
6 37.6
7 63.6
1 9.1
1 9.1
6 31.6
1 5.3
2 10.5
2 18.2
1 5.3
9 47.4
11
7
7
1
4
1925
34.4
21.8
21.8
3.1
12.5
2
6.3
9
5
4
1
8
3
3
1930
27.2
15.1
12.1
3.0
24.2
9.1
9.1
10 40.0
5 20.0
5 20.0
2 8.0
1 4.0
2 8.0
12
27
6
4
16
16
14.8
33.4
7.4
4.9
19.8
19.8
7
8
3
2
6
3
24.1
27.6
10.3
6.9
20.7
10.3
43
45
20
10
31
25
2
24.4
25.6
11.4
5.7
17.6
14.2
1.1
15
16
11
3
14
7
22.7
24.3
16.7
4.5
21.2
10.6
6 33.4
6 33.4
1 5.6
1 5.6
4 22.2
53
34
24
7
30
21
3
30.8
19.8
14.0
4.1
17.4
12.2
1.7
9^1
Location of home
Bemidji
Duluth
Mankato Moorhead St. Cloud Winona
Total
Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­- Per Num­ Per Num­• Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent
1920
7 ‘70.0 10 40.0 14 56.0
19 41.3
4 16.0 44 33.6
5 20.0
7 28.0
1 10.0
9 19.6
3 12.0 25 19.1
1 10.0
7 28.0 11 8.4
3 12.0
2 8.0
6 13.0
3 12;0 11 8.4
2 8.0
1 10.0
3 12.0
10 21.7
6 24.0 22 16.8
2 4.3
2 8.0
3 12.0
8 6.1
1 4.0
TABLE XXVI
LOCATION AT HOME - 1935 POPULATION
Bemidji
Hum­ Per
ber eent
Duluth
Hum­ Per
ber eent
Mankato
Hum­ Per
ber eent
Moorhead
Hum­ Per
ber eent
St. Cloud
Hum­■Per
ber eent
Winona
Hum­ Per
ber cent
Total
Num­ Per
ber eent
Farm
99 46.4
57 21.2
130 39.6
118 34.7
183 38.7
111 33.3
698 35.7
Under 1,000
35 15.4
23
8.5
48 14.6
88 25.9
88 18.6
56 16.8
336 17.2
Type
conmunity
1,000-2,500
8
3.6
22
8.2
39 11.9
31
9.1
46
9.8
47 14.1
193
9.9
2,500-5,000
4
1.8
21
7.9
29
8.9
29
8.5
27
5.7
13
3.9
123
6.3
66 30#@
21
7.9
71 21.6
5,000-25,000
Over 25,000
Unknown
4
1.8
124 46.2
11
3.3
51 15.0
22
6.4
1
.3
102 21.6
27
5.7
86 25.8
397 20.3
6.0
208 10.6
20
1
j
.05
table
a m
STATE OF RESIDENCE MINNESOTA TEACHERS’ COLLEGE STUDENTS 1935
St&t6
Minnesota
California
Illinois
Iowa
Ohio
Massachusetts
Michigan
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
New Mexico
North Dakota
South Dakota
Washington
Wisconsin
Total out of state
Foreign
Unknown .
Duluth
Bemidji
Mankato
Moorhead St. Cloud
Winona
Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­- Per Num­ Per
ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent
Total
Num­ Per
ber cent
207
97.0 262 97.7 316 96.4 258 75.8 461 97.5 311 93.4 1,815 92.8
1
.3
1
.3
.3
2
.6
.15
1
3
4
.6
1
.3
1
.3
3
11
2
.7
•6
1.9
.3
1
.05
1
.5
1
1
.05
.3
12 3.5
.2
1
1
•4
1
15
.8
.3
1
.05
1
2
•3
1
.3
6
.3
1
•4
.6
.2
1
1
.2
.05
1
1
1
.05
1
•4
.2
1
.3
63 3.2
1
.6 58 17.0
•5
2
1
10
5 1.5
1
.3
.5
.4
.9
1
3
.2
4
.4
.3
1
2
.3
1
.2 14 4.2
18
.7
1
.9
2
.5
1
7
.3
6
2.3
11
3.3
1
.3
80 23.5
2
...6
10
2.1
1
1
.2
»2
22
6.6
136
2
3
6.35
1.
1.5
TABLE X m i l
BIRTHPLACE OF 1935 POPULATION IX* STATES
State
Minnesota
North Dakota
Iowa
Wisconsin
South Dakota
Michigan
Illinois
Montana
Kansas
Missouri
Nebraska
Pennsylvania
Indiana
Texas
Unknown
Colorado
Foreign
Massachusetts
Washington
New Jersey
Oregon
Oklahoma
Alabama
Idaho
Connecticut
New York
Ohio
Bemidji
Num­ Per
ber eent
164 76.7
10 4.7
12 5.6
2
.9
1.8
4
0 0
3 1.4
5 2,3
•9
2
0 0
2
,9
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
.5
1
6 2.8
1
•5
0 0
1
.5
0 0
•5
1
0 0
0
0
0 0
0 0
0 0
Duluth
Num­ Per
ber eent
225 83.7
7 2.6
3 1,1
8 2.9
3 1.1
7 2.6
2
.7
1
•4
2
.7
.4
1
0 0
.4
1
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
4
1.5
0 0
0 0
1
.4
0 0
1
•4
0 0
1
•4
1
•4
0 0
0 0
Mankato
Num­ Per
ber eent
263 80.3
14 4.2
16 4.9
3
.9
12 5.6
0 0
9 2.7
3
.9
0 0
1
.3
0 0
0 0
0 0
G 0
0 0
0 0
5 1.5
0 0
•6
2
0 0
0 0
0 ©
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
Moorhead
Num­ Per
ber cent
233 68.5
61 17.9
9 2.6
2
•6
10 3.0
8 2.3
1
.3
4
1.2
0 0
0 0
0 0
2
.6
0 0
1
.3
0 0
© 0
5 1.5
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
1
.3
1
.3
0 0
0 0
1
•3
1
.3
St. Cloud
Num­ Per
ber eent
421 89.0
10 2.1
10 2.1
6 1.3
.7
3
.7
3
2
,4
4
.9
.7
3
0 0
.7
3
.2
1
0 0
.2
1
0 0
0 0
5 1.1
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
.2
1
0 0
0 0
0 0
Winona
Total
Num­ Ber
Num­ Per
ber eent ber eent
262 78.6 1,568 80.0
12 3.6 114 5,8
59 3.0
9 2.7
38 1.9
17 5.1
42 2.2
10 3.0
0 0
18
.9
3
20 1.0
.9
23
1.2
6 1.8
1
♦3
8
•5
2
•6
4
.2
0 0
5
.2
.3
2
.6
6
.3
1
.05
1
0 0
2
.1
.5
1
1
.05
0 0
1
•05
4
1.2
29 1.5
0 0
1
.©5
0 0
2
.1
0 0
2
.1
1
1
.3
.05
.15
3
0 0
0 0
1
.05
2
0 0
.1
0 0
1
.05
2
1
.3
.1
2
•3
1
.1
PERSONAL DATA:
FAMILY BACKGROUND
INCOME A N D EXPENDITURES
TABLE XXIX
EAumcffi OF STUDENTS MEERING
MINNESOTA TEACHERS* COLLEGES 1920-1925-1930
Mankato Moophead St. Cloud
Bemidji
Duluth
Total
Winona
Num- Per Hum- Per Num- l>er Num- Pep Num- Pep Num- Per Num- Per
ber cent her cent her cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent
1920
Native bora native
white parentage
Native born mixed
parentage
Native born foreign
parentage
Foreign born white
Other race
Unknown
6 60.0
5 20.0
12 48.0
2 20.0
3
12.0
5 20.0
17 68.0
8 32.0
1 10.0
1 10.0
36 78.3
16 64.0
75 57.2
4
8.7
5 20.0
19 14.5
5
9.8
2
2
33 25.2
2 1.5
1
2.2
8.0
8.0
2
1.5
72.5 125
71.0
1925
72.4
69 85.2
21
6 33.4c
6 37.6
2 11.1
3 18.8
5 15.1
3
3.7
3 10.3
16
9 50.0
7 43.6
3
1
9.4
3.1
6
1
7.4
1.2
5 17.3
30 17.0
2 1.1
2
2.5
1
5.6
23
3
9.1
1.7
TSt
Native born native
white parentage
Native born mixed
parentage
Native born foreign
parentage
Foreign born white
Other race
Unknown
TABLE 2 Z U (continued)
PARENTAGE OP STUDENTS ENTERING
MINNESOTA TEACHERS COLLEGES 1930-1925-1930
Winona
Total
Bemidji
Duluth
Mankato Moorhead St. Cloud
Hum- Per Hum- Per Hum- Per Num- Per Hum- Per Num- Per Num- Per
ber eent ber cent ber eent ber eent ber cent ber cent ber cent
1930
Native b o m native
white parentage
Native bom mixed
parentage
Native b o m foreign
parentage
Foreign b o m white
Other race
Unknown
5 45,5
7 36.8
23 69.8
23 34.9
15 83.3
73 49.6
9.1
2 10.5
5 15.1
23 34.9
2 11.1
33 22.4
4 36.4
7 36.8
3 15.8
5 15.1
20 30.3
1
36 24.5
3 2.0
1
1
9.1
1
5.6
2
1,4
152
TABLE XXX
NATIVITY OF STUDENTS - 1935 POPULATION
Bemidji
Num­ Per
ber eent
Duluth
Num­ Per
ber eent
Mankato
Num­ Per
ber eent
Moorhead
Num­ Per
ber cent
St. Cloud
Num- Per
ber eent
Winona
Num­ Per
ber eent
Native White
Native parentage 124 58.0
122 45.5
253 77.2
206 60.6
325 68.7
266 79.8 1,296 66.3
37 17.3
46 17.1
48 14.6
78 22.9
81 17.1
39 11.7
329 16.8
Native White
Foreign parentage 44 go.e
93 34.7
22
6.7
48 14.1
61 12.9
24
7.2
292 14.9
5
1.5
4
1.2
Nativity of
students
Native White
Mixed parentage
Foreign horn
White
5
2.3
4
1*5
4
1*8
3
1*1
5
1.5
5
1.1
3
.9
1
.2
Total
Num­ Per
ber eent
28
1*4
11
.6
Other race
Unknown
TABLE
xm
NATIVITY OF PARENTS - 1935 POPULATION
Nativity of
parents
Bemidji
Num­ Per
ber cent
Duluth
Num­ Per
ber cent
Mankato
Num­ Per
ber eent
Moorhead
Num­ Per
ber eent
St. Cloud
Num- Per
ber cent
Winona
Num­ Per
ber cent
Native bora
father
144 67.4
134 50.0
272 82.8
235 69.1
354 75.0
285 85.5 1,424 72.8
Foreign bora
father
70 32.6
131 48.8
56 17*2
105 30.9
U3
Native bora
mother
157 73.4
156 58.2
285 86.8
265 77.9
376 79.5
57 26.6
109 40.5
43 13,2
72 21,1
96 20,3
Foreign bora
mother
Nativity unknown
father
3
1.2
Nativity unknown
mother
3
1.2
3
.9
24,8
48 14.5
Total
Num­ Per
ber cent
528 27.0
294 88.2 1,533 78.3
39 11.8
416 21.3
1
*2
4
.2
1
,2
7
.4
COMPARATIVE DATA: Missouri 1926, 54 per cent nAmerican ancestry”; Texas 1930, 94 to 99 per
cent native white of native parentage; National Survey 1933, Teachers’ College 84,26 per cent fathers
native born, 87*19 per cent mothers native born, Liberal Arts, 88.86 per cent fathers native bom,
91.51 per cent mothers native bora.
H
ui
-f=-
155
TABLE x m i
NATIONALITY Of PARENTS OF MINNESOTA
Nationality
Bemid j1
Father
Mother
Num- Per
Hum- Per
her cent her cent
Manlcato
Duluth
Father
Mother
Father
Mother
Num- Per
Num- Per Num- Per
Num- Per
her cent her cent her eent her cent
TEACHERS' COLLEGE STUDENTS-1935
Winona
Moorhead
St. Cloud
Father
Mother
Father
Mother
Father
Mother
Num- Per
Num- Per Num- Per
Num- Per Num- Per
Num- Per
her cent her cent her cent her cent her cent her cent
Total
Father
Mother
Num- Per Num- Per
her cent her cent
31.7
60
18.1
80
29.6
81
30.2
113
34.4
124
37.8
85
25.0
67
19.7
128
27.1
114
24.2
109
32.7
113
33.9
583
29.7
559
28.6
Scandinavian
83
38.7
83
38.7
80
29.6
89
33.2
98
29.8
81
24.7
160
46.9
167
49.0
156
33.1
158
33.5
82
24.6
63
18.9
659
33.7
641
32.6
German
39
18.2
43
20.2
36
13.4
26
9.7
93
28.4
96
29.2
67
19.7
71
20.9
131
27.1
138
29.2
111
33.3
104
31.2
477
24.4
478
24.4
Other North
European
21
9.9
26
12.2
41
15.2
41
15.2
22
6.6
23
6.9
18
5.4
23
6.9
37
8.0
45
9.7
19
5.7
36
10.8
158
8.2
194
9.9
3
1*5
2
1.0
27
10.0
26
9.5
2
.6
2
.6
8
2.4
11
3.3
21
5.6
17
3.5
11
3.3
16
5.8
62
3.6
64
3.8
Jewish
2
.7
2
.7
1
.3
1
.3
3
Chinese
1
.4
1
.4
1
Unknown
1
.4
2
.7
4
South and East
Europe
2
.6
1
.3
1
.2
i
3
.15
ID
O.
68
to
H.
English
1
.05
.2
4
•2
table
m m
NUMBER OF CHILDREN IN FAMILIES OF 1935 POPULATION
Humber in
family
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
i 11
12
13
14
15
Unknown
Bemidji
Num­ Per
ber cent
13 6*1
31 14*5
37 17.3
35 16*4
32 15*0
19 8.9
5.1
11
14
6.5
14 6.5
6 2.8
2
Duluth
Hum­ Per
ber cent
26
42
50
44
34
33
11
14
7
4
9.3
15.6
19.0
16.4
12.6
12.3
4 .1
5.2
2.6
1.5
1
•3
Moorhead
Mankato
Num- Per
Hum­ Per
ber cent - ber cent
27
53
62
61
31
27
34
10
n
2
3
1
2
8.2
16*0
18.9
18*6
9.4
8.2
10.3
3.1
3.3
.6
.9
.3
.6
22
45
78
50
35
39
19
24
13
4
3
5
1
6.4
13.2
22.9
14.7
10.2
11.4
5.6
7.1
4.0
1.2
.9
1.5
•3
1.2
1
1
.3
.3
.9
St. Cloud
Hum­-Per
ber cent
31
75
91
80
56
48
25
31
16
11
4
1
4
*
2
.7
4
6.5
15.8
19.3
16.9
11.8
10.2
5.3
6.5
3*4
2.3
.9
.2
•9
Winona
Num­ Per
ber cent
32
68
72
57
47
13
12
17
8
4
3
9.6
20.4
21.6
17.1
14.1
3 .9
3.6
5.1
2.4
1.2
.9
Combined
Hum­ Per
ber cent
151
314
390
327
235
179
112
110
69
31
13
8
7
2
1
7
7.7
16.0
20.0
16.7
12.0
9.2
5.7
5.6
3 .5
1.6
.7
•4
*4
.1
.05
.4
Median 4*12
156
TABUS XXXIV
POSITION OF STODHJT IN FAMILY - 1935 POPULATION
Position
Bemid.1l
Num­ Per
ber eent
Duluth
Hum­ Per
ber eent
Mankato
Num­ Per
ber cent
Moorhead
Hum­ Per
ber eent
St. Cloud
Hum­- Per
ber eent
Winona
Hum­ Per
ber eent
Combined
Hum­ Per
ber eent
Only child
13
Oldest
65 30.3
57 21.2
87 26.4
80 23.6
107 22.6
110 33.0
506 25.9
youngest
36 23.0
57 21.2
113 34.4
111 32.6
142 30.0
75 22.6
534 27.2
Between
100 40.6
126 47.0
97 26.6
126 37.1
193 40.9
116 34.8
758 38.8
Unknown
6*1
26
2
9.3
.7
27
4
8.2
1.2
22
1
6.4
.3
31
6.5
32
9.6
151
7
7.7
.4
158
i
TABLE XXXV
EDUCATION OF PAEHWS
Manfcato
Father
Mother
Num- Per
Num- Per
ber cent ber cent
St. Cloud
Moorhead
Mother
Mother
Father
Father
Num- Per
Num- Per
Num- Per
Num- Per
ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent
Winona
Mother
Father
Num- per
Num- Per
ber cent ber cent
50.7
182
55.6
143
43.6
174
51.1
159
46.8
286
60.5
272
57.5
165
49.5
157
3
1.1
7
2.1
10
3.0
1
.3
1
.3
9
1.9
11
2.3
3
.9
4
1.2
19.7
63
23.5
61
13.6
76
23.1
66
19.4
73
21.5
57
12.0
82
17.3
75
22.5
86
16
5.9
26
9.6
46
14.0
63
19.2
29
8.5
51
15.0
47
8.3
61
12.9
36
10.8
4.2
11
4.1
10
3.7
11
3.3
23
7.0
29
8.5
19
5.6
18
3.8
16
3.4
29
8.7
1
.5
7
2.6
2
.7
11
3.3
3
.9
8
2.3
7
2.0
24
5.1
6
1.3
10
3.0
13
6.1
34
12.7
28
10.4
10
3.0
10
3.0
33
9.7
30
8.8
32
6.7
25
5.3
15
4.5
17
214 100.0
268
99.7
268
99.7
328
99.9
328
99.9
340
99.8
473 100.0
333
99.9
333
Bemidji
Father
Mother
Num.- Per
Num- Per
her cent bar cent
Duluth
Father
Mother
Hum- Per
Num- Per
ber cent ber cent
121
56.5
98
45.8
144
53.6
136
3
1.4
2
.9
3
1.1
37
17.3
63
29.4
53
More than twelfth
Less than four years
college
SI
9.9
28
13.1
Four years college
9
4.2
9
Post Graduate
8
3.7
15
7.0
Education of
parents
Eighth grade
or less
More than eighth
Less than twelfth
Twelfth grade
Unknown
Total
214 100.0
- 1935 POPULATION
340 100.0
473 100.0
Total
Father
Mother
Num- Per
Num- Per
ber cent
ber eent
54.9
965
49.5
26
1.3
31
1.6
25.8
349
17.8
443
22.6
58
17.4
195
10.0
287
14.7
11
3.3
107
5.5
88
4.5
68
3.5
19
1.0
139
7.1
123
6.3
47.1 1,072
5.1
99.9 1,956 100.1 1,956 100.2
TABLE m n
OCCUPATION OF PARENTS OF STUDENTS ENTERING
MINNESOTA TEACHERS COLLEGES 1920-1925-1930
Professional
Semi-Professional
Skilled
Semi-Skilled
Unskilled
Agriculture
Unknown
Mankato Moorhead St* Cloud Winona
Bemidji
Duluth
Total
Num- Per Num- Per Num- Per Num- Per Num- Per Num- Per Num- Per
ber eent ber eent ber cent ber eent ber cent ber cent ber eent
1920
3 6.5
1 4.0
1 4*0
5 3.8
2 8.0
4 16.0
10 7.6
1 10.0
3 6.5
6 24*0
2 8.0
7 28.0 26 19.9
11 23.9
2 4.3
2 8.0
2 20.0
2 8.0
1 4*0
9 6.9
2 8.0
1 2*2
6 4.6
3 12*0
21 45*6
7 70.0 10 40.0 14 64*0
4 16.0 56 42.7
3 12.0
8 32.0 19 14.5
3 12.0
5 9.8
Professional
Semi-Professional
Skilled
Semi-Skilled
Unskilled
Agriculture
Unknown
2
2
2
4
11*1
U*1
11*1
22.2
2 12*5
1 6.2
4 25*0
3 18.8
8 44*5
5 31*2
1 6.2
Professional
Semi-Professional
Skilled
Semi-Skilled
Unskilled
Agriculture
Unknown
1
1
1
1
2
2
4
2
2
7
9.1
9.1
9.1
9.1
7 S3.6
10.5
10.5
21.1
10.5
10.5
36.8
2
2
8
2
1
12
5
1925
6*3
6.3
25.0
6.3
3.1
37.5
15.1
1930
2 6.1
1 5.0
12 36.4
4 12.1
1 3.0
10 30.3
3 9.1
4 4*9
6 7*4
12 14.8
5 6.2
2 2.5
14 17.3
38 46*9
3
2
4
1
11
4
12.0
8.0
16.0
4*0
44*0
16*0
6
7
15
12
2
23
1
9.1
10.6
22.7
18.2
3.0
34*9
1.5
3
1
6
2
2
7
8
6
2
2
6
2
10.3
3*4
20.7
6.9
6.9
24.1
27.6
7.4
13
12 6.8
32 18.2
16 9.1
5 2.8
46 26.1
52 29.6
33*4
11.1
11.1
33*4
11.1
11 6.4
14 8.1
40 23.3
25 14*5
8 4.7
64 37.2
10 5.8
159
TABLE X m i l
PARENTAL OCCUPATION - 1935 POPULATION
Oceupation
Duluth ‘ Mankato
Bemidji
Winona
Moorhead St. Cloud
total
Nrn- Per Hum­ Per Num­ Per Hum­ Per Hum­•Per Hum­ Per Hum­ Per
^er cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent
I. Professional
1.Large owners
2.Professions
3.Executives
IX. Semi-Professional
4.Middle owners
5.Semi-Professional
6.Managerial
3.7
3.7
4.8
•4
3.7
.7
26
1
19
6
8.9
2.3
.9
5.7
23
1
6
16
8.6
•4
2,2
6.0
41 12.3
15 4.6
9 2.7
17 5.1
40 11.7
6 1.8
18 5.4
16 4.7
51 10.8
21 4.5
11 2.3
19 4.0
38 11.4 212 10.8
13 3.9 61 3.1
8 2.4
2*8
17 5.1 97 4.9
79 23.7 500 25.6
7.5
8
8
19
5
2
12
7.9
.3
5.9
1.8
29
1
20
8
8.5
.3
6.0
2.3
29
4
24
1
6.1
.8
5.1
.2
29
8.7 142
7
8.1 108
.6 27
13
1
10
2
16
27
2
7.3
.4
5.5
1.4
III. Skilled
7.Skilled
small owner
8.Supervisory
9.Commercial
10.Clerical
11.Building trades
12.Machine trades
13.Printing trades
14.transportation
and communication
48 22.4
77 28.8
60 18.3
92 27.0 144 30.4
15
14
7
3
3
3
7
16
13
10
12
8
2
2.6
6.0
4.9
3.7
4.5
3.0
.7
6
7
15
9
12
6
1.8
2.1
4.6
2.7
3.7
1.8
2
7.0
6.5
3.3
1.4
1.4
1.4
.9
55 10.3
25 7.3
7 2.1
5 1.5
6 1.8
6 1.8
1
.5
9
3.4
5
1.5
8
2.3
6
1.3
IT. Semi-Skilled
15.Manufacturing
16.transportation
and communication
17.anall owner
35 16.4
2 ..9
75 28.0
14 5.2
48 14.6
7 2.2
26
3
7.6
.9
46
9.8
57 17.1 287 14.6
7 2.1 33 1.7
9
18
7
13
7
3
2.1
.9
11
11
2.3
2.3
10
22
11
4
5.1
1.9
3.4
6.7
2.2
4.0
47 10.0
15 3.2
6 1.3
31 6.5
16 3.4
23 4.9
18
12
11
11
12
7
1
7
5.4 131
3.6 @9
3.3 59
3.3 69
3.6 61
2.1 53
5
.3
6.7
4.5
3.0
3.5
3.1
2.7
.3
2.1
1.8
3.0
6.6
36
55
71
2.8
3,6
TABLE XXXVII (continued)
PARENTAL OCCUPATION - 1935 POPULATION
6
3
9
2*8
1.4
4.2
V. Unskilled
VI. Agriculture
VII. Unknown
96 44.9
1
18.Managers
19.Public service
20.Personal
Moorhead St. Cloud
Total
Mankato
Winona
Per Hum- Per Hum- Per Hum- Per Hum­ Per
cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent
II
Occupation
Duluth
Bemidji
Hum­ Per Hum­ Per
ber cent ber cent
7
12
15
2.6
4.5
5.6
6
7
8
1.8
2.1
2.4
1
10
2
.3
3.0
•6
2
14
8
•4
3.0
1.7
1
9
8
•3
2.7
2.4
23
55
50
1.2
2.8
2.6
18
6.6
7
2.1
15
4.4
12
2.5
10
3.0
62
3.2
57 21.2 142 43*3 134 39.4 189 40.0 117 35.1 735 37.6
5
1.8
4
1.2
4
1.2
2
.4
3
.9
18
.9
161
TABLE X m i l l
LAND OWNERSHIP - AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATION GROUP
Bemidji
Hum­ Ber
ber cent
Duluth
Hum­ Per
ber cent
Mankato
Hum­ Per
ber eent
Moorhead
Hum­ Per
ber cent
St. Cloud
Num­ Per
ber cent
Winona
Hum­ Per
ber cent
Total
Hum­ Per
ber eent
Qnner
82 85*5
49 85.9
125 @8.0
114 85.1
160 84,5
99 84.6
629 85.5
Tenant
10 10.4
7 12.2
15 10.5
16 11.9
24 12.7
16 13.7
88 12.0
Land
ownership
Unknown
4
4.1
1
1.7
2
1.4
4
3.0
5
2.7
2
1.7
18
2.5
TABLE X m i
SIZE OF FARM - AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATION GROUP
Size of
farm
Bemidji
N\m- Per
ber cent
Duluth
Num­ Per
ber cent
Mankato
Num­ Per
ber cent
Moorhead
Num­ Per
ber cent
Under 40 acres
3
3.1
4
7.0
5
3.5
40 acres
4
4.1
6 10.5
7
4.9
4
3.0
18 18.6
9 15.7
15 10.5
6
2
80 acres
5
180 acres
ISO acres
840 acres
48 50.0
8.7
84 42.1
62 43.4
Total
Num­ Per
ber eent
8
4.2
4
3.4
24
3.3
1
.5
4
3.4
26
3.5
4.5
41 21.6
8
6.8
97 13.5
1.5
12
6.3
3
2.6
22
40 29.8
7
Winona
Nua- Per
ber cent
3.0
60 31.8
57 48.7
5.2
18
9.6
11
14 12.0
90 12.2
8
3.5
10
380 acres
11 11.4
8
3.5
21 14.7
27 20.1
15
7.9
Over 380 acres
10 10.4
1
1.7
19 13.3
35 26.1
18
9.6
9
7.9
92 12.5
4
7.0
13
16
8.5
7
6.0
43
Unknown
3
2.1
9.7
9.4
291 39.6
8.4
8
7.0
St. Cloud
Num- Per
ber cent
50
6.9
5.8
TABLE XL
NUMBER
No
PERCENTAGE OF STUDMTS HAVING BROTHERS OR SISTERS TEACHING ...
1955 POPULATION
St. Cloud
- Per
cent
Winona
Num- Per
ber cent
Total
Num- Per
ber cent
113 33.2
144 30.4
73 21.9
544 27.8
227 66.8
329 69.6
Bemidji
Num- Per
ber cent
Duluth
Num- Ber
ber cent
Mankato
Num- Ber
ber eent
Moorhead
Num- Per
ber cent
66 50*8
55 20.6
93 28.5
148 69.2
213 79.4
235 71.5
in
Yes
m
260 78.1 1,412 72.2
164
TABLE ELI
mmm m
percentage of brothers or sisters of 1935 students iho have brothers
OH SISTERS 3SGAGED IN TEACHING, AND PERCENTAGE 0? TOTAL POPULATION HATING
THAT NUMBER ENGAGED IN TEACHING
. .
Number of
brothers
or sisters
teaching
Bemidji
Duluth
Mankato
Moorhead St. Cloud Winona
Total
Per
Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­• Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
cent
ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber eent ber eent ber cent total
popu­
lation
1
46 69*8
43# 78*1
70 75*2
70 61.9 103 71.5
49 67.1 381 70.0
19.5
2
16 24.2
9 16*3
15 16.1
25 22.1
24 16.7
14 19.2 103 19.0
5.2
12 10.6
14
9.7
6
8.2
44
8.1
2.3
3
2.7
2
1.4
2
2.7
10
1.8
.5
5
2
1.8
1
.7
1
1.4
4
.7
.2
Unknown
1
.9
1
1.4
2
.4
.1
3
4
4
6.0
2
3.6
6
6*4
1
1*8
2
2*1
165
table x l h
PAHEKTAL
STATUS-- 1935 POPULATION
Parental
status
Bemidji
Num­ Per
ber pent
Duluth
Num­ Per
ber eent
Mankato
Num­ Per
ber eent
Moorhead
Num­ Per
ber eent
St. Cloud
Num- Per
ber eent
Winona
Num­ Per
ber eent
Parents both
living
177 82.7
214 79.8
268 81.8
271 79.7
386 81.7
278 83.4 1,594 81.5
Mother only
living
22 10.3
27 10.0
37 11.3
46
13.5
53 U.2
30
9.0
215 11.0
Father only
living
15
Neither living
Unknown
7.0
Total
Num­ Per
ber eent
14
5.2
16
4.8
19
5.6
23
4.9
16
4.8
103
5.3
13
5.0
5
1.5
3
.9
11
2.3
6
1.8
38
1.9
2
.6
1
.3
3
.9
6
•3
166
COEFFICIENT OF MEAN SQUARE CONTINGENCY
BETWEEN PARENTAL OCCUPATION A N D COLLEGE SUCCESS
168
TABLE XLIII
COEFFICIENT O F ’MEAN SQUARE CONTINGENCY
CORRELATION. BETWEEN PARENTAL OCCUPATION*
(HORIZONTAL) A N D COLLEGE HONOR POINT RECORD**
IN QUARTILE PLACEMENT (VERTICAL)
1
• "2
3
4
5
6
1
17
43
Total
4
3
1
Bemid.1I
10
11
3
2
6
12
7
1
31
59
2
2
3
15
11
1
23
55
1
3
9
12
10
2
19
55
10
19
49
39
5
90
212
Total
X
2 ” 12.78
C= J
= .24
12.73
212 .* 12.78
Dulutk
4
4
2
19
6
6
13
50
3
4
10
33
18
9
12
86
2
3
6
21
14
6
11
61
1
2
10
22
9
8
10
61
13
28
95
47
29
46
258
Total
0= / 10-59
2 5 8 ^ 10. 59
o
CVl
•
II
X 2 = 10.59
^Parental Classification following C o u n t s classification,
1 Professional and Large Executives, 2 Semi-Professional and
Small Executives, 3 Skilled Workers, 4 Semi-Skilled Workers,
5 Unskilled workers, 6 Agricultural.
**Honor Points determined as follows: A grade, 3 points; B
grade. 2 points; C grade, 1 point; D grade, 0 point; E grade,
—1 point.
169
TABLE XL1II (continued)*
COEFFICIENT OF MEAN SQUARE CONTINGENCY
CORRELATION BETWEEN PARENTAL OCCUPATION
(HORIZONTAL) A N D COLLEGE HONOR POINT RECORD
. IN QUART IIS PLACEMENT (VERTICAL)
1
2
3
4
5
6
Total
Mankato
4
6
9
14
5
0
23
57
3
3
5
20
8
4
37
77
2
10
11
18
11
0
37
87
1
4
12
21
14
3
39
93
25
37
73
38
7
136
314
Total
X 2 = 14.90
0= /
i4.9b
.2 1
314 * i4. 90 ~
Moorhead
4
3
12
15
9
5
28
72
3
8
6
12
11
1
35
73
2
3
6
20
18
3
30
80
1
9
6
18
22
6
35
96
23
30
65
60
15
128
321
0 = / 20.13
3 2 1 * 2 0 .13
.24
Total
X 2 = 2 0 .1 3
*See footnote, page 168, for explanation.
170
TABLE XLIII (continued)*
i
COEFFICIENT OF MEAN SQUARE CONTINGENCY
CORRELATION BETWEEN PARENTAL OCCUPATION
(HORIZONTAL) A N D COLLEGE HONOR POINT RECORD
. IN. QUARTILE PLACEMENT (VERTICAL)
1
2 ;
3
A
5
6
Total
St. Cloud
4
10
9
35
12
3
35
104
3
5
15
19
19
2
32
92
2
5
9
27
15
5
39
100
1
7
12
29
19
4
47
118
27
45
11 0
65
14
153
414
c= y i4.iS
414 4* 14. 18
.1 1
Total
X 2 = 14*18
Winona
4
5
10
18
12
4
19
68
3
7
9
26
8
1
27
78
2
8
7
32
15
1
22
75
1
9
11
21
25
4
43
113
29
37
87
60
10
111
334
Total
X 2 r 1 6 .8 8
G- J 16.86
•2 1
334 + 1 6 .88 ’
*See footnote, page 168, for explanation.
171
TABLE XLIII (continued)*
COEFFICIENT OF KEA N SQUARE CONTINGENCY
CORRELATION BETWEEN PARENTAL OCCUPATION
(HORIZONTAL) A N D COLLEGE HONOR POINT RECORD
. IN. QUART ILE PLACEMENT (VERTICAL)
2
3
4
5
6
Total
Total Minnesota Teachers ' Colleges
4
31
43
111
55
19
135
394
3
29
51
122
71
18
174
465
2
31
42
123
84
16
162
458
1
34
60
123
99
27
193
536
125
196
479
309
80
664
1,853
Total
C= / 12.53
1,853 ♦ ■12.53
•See footnote, page 168, for explanation.
O
•
11
o
X 2 = 12.53
TABLE XLIV
FAMILY INCOME - 1935 POPDLATICH
Income
Under 500
Bemidji
Num­ Per
ber eent
8
5*5
Duluth
Num­ Per
ber eent
8
5.1
Mankato
Num­ Per
ber eent
3
1*8
Moorhead
Num­ Per
ber eent
8
4*4
St. Cloud
Num- Per
ber eent
21
7.0
Winona
Num­ Per
ber cent
8
3*9
Total
Num­ Per
ber eent
56
4.8
500-1,000
32 21.9
24 15.3
23 13.6
29 15.9
70 23*4
38 18.3
216 18.6
1,000-1,500
31 21*2
47 29.9
48 28.4
53 29*1
82 27.4
49 23.6
310 26.8
1,500-2,000
21 14*4
22 14.0
27 16.0
23 12.7
49 16.7
36 17.3
178 15.3
2,000-3*000
36 24*6
36 22.9
36 21.3
50 27.4
44 14**7
38 18.3
240 20.7
3,000-4,000
13
8*9
13
8.3
20 11.8
13
7.1
19
6.3
19
9.1
97
8*4
4,000-5,000
4
2.7
2
1.3
5
3.0
3
1.6
6
2.0
10
4.8
30
2.6
5,000-Qver
1
.7
5
3.2
7
4.1
3
1.6
7
2*3
10
4.8
33
2.8
Total known
Unknown
146 64.2
157 58.6
169 51.5
182 53.5
298 63.0
208 62.5 1,160 59.3
68 35.8
111 41*4
159 48*5
158 46.5
175 37.0
125 37.5
796 40.7
*Pereentages shown are the per eent of number reporting, except unknown, which per cent Is of
total group.
TABUS XLY
SOURCE OF INCOME OF STUDENTS 1935 POPULATION
FATHER OR MOTHER
0
8 g
i
Percentage
Duluth
Mankato Moorhead
St. Cloud
Total
Winona
Bemidji
Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
Per Num­• Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber cent ber cent ber cent
cent ber cent ber cent ber cent
52 24*4
83 31.5
83 25.9
87
26.1 139 30.5 108 32.4 552 28.8
1-10
2
.9
5
1.9
6
10-20
19
8.9
9
3.3
13
20-30
19
8.9
12
4.5
18
30-40
10
4.7
7
2.7
40-50
5
2.3
5
1.9
50-60
16
7.5
25
9.5
36 11.2
37 11.1
60-70
8
3.8,
5
1.9
11
3.4
14
70-80
12
5.6
18
6.8
15
4.7
80-90
6
2.8
11
4.2
7
90-100
7
3.3
22
8.3
14
100
57 26.8
12
3.6
10
2.2
4
1.2
39
2.0
20
6.0
15
3.3
18
5.4
94
4.9
5.6
19
5.7
34
7.5
18
5.4 120
6.3
5
1.6
10
3.0
16
3.5
9
2.7
57
3.0
7
2.2
4
1.2
7
1.5
4
1.2
32
1.7
25 . 5.5
36 10.8 175
9.1
4.2
18
3.9
13
3.9
69
3.6
12
3.6
24
5.3
11
3.3
92
4.8
2.2
13
3.9
10
2.2
5
1.5
52
2.7
4.4
12
3.6
13
2.9
12
3.6
80
4.2
1.9
62 23.5 105 32.6
93 27.9 145 31.8
95 28.5 557 29.0
173
TABLE XLTI
SOURCE OF INCOME OF STUDENTS 1935 POPULATION
BORROWING
Percentage
0
Mankato Moorhead St. Cloud
Duluth
Winona
Bemidji
.
p©r
Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­
Num­ Per
ber eent ber eent ber cent ber eent ber cent ber eent
Total
Num­ Per
ber eent
174 81.9 251 95.0 281 87.8 252 75.6 370 81.0 294 88.2 1,622 84.9
4
1.2
4
1.2
8
1.8
6
1.8
26
1.4
.4
6
1*9
9
2.7
11
2.4
4
1.2
39
2.0
2
.8
4
1*2
18
5.4
16
3.5
9
2.7
60
3.1
1.9
3
1.1
2
*6
12
3.6
10
2.2
3
.9
34
1.7
3
1*4
0
0
5
1.6
6
1*8
0
0
4
1.2
18
.9
50-60
5
2*3
3
1.1
8
2.5
14
4.2
14
3.1
4
1.2
48
2.5
60-70
0
0
2
.8
2
.6
5
1.5
11
2.4
4
1.2
24
1.3
70-80
3
1.4
1
.4
2
•6
3
.9
6
1.3
2
.6
17
.8
80-90
0
0
0
0
1
*3
2
.6
2
.4
1
.3
6
.2
90-100
0
0
0
0
1
*3
4
1.2
2
*4
1
.3
8
.4
4
1.2
4
1.2
6
1.3
1
.3
17
.8
1-10
4
1*9
0
10-20
8
3*8
1
20-30
11
5*2
30-40
4
40-50
100
1
.5
1
0
.4
1
*N
TABLE XLVII
SOURCE OF INCOME OF STUDENTS 1935 POPULATION
c m SAVINGS
Percentage
0
Duluth
Bemidji
Moorhead St. Cloud
Winona
Mankato
Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­. Per Num­ Per
ber eent ber eent ber eent ber eent ber cent ber cent
151
1-10
70.9 204 77.5 227
70.9 241 42.3 332 72.8 253
Total
Num­ Per
ber cent
75.9 1,408 73.4
3.3
5
1.9
7
2.2
12
3,6
7
1.6
10
3.0
48
2.5
8
3.0
13
4.1
9
2.7
17
3.7
12
3.6
67
3.5
4.2
16
5.0
19
5.7
23
5.3
11
3.3
89
4.7
10-20
8
3.8
20-30
9
4.2
30-40
1
.5
7
2.7
3
1.2
9
2.7
16
3.5
7
2.1
43
2.2
40-50
4
1»9
4
1.5
2
.6
3
.9
1
.2
4
1.2
18
.9
50-60
6
2.8
12
4.5
23
7.1
13
3.9
15
3.3
11
3.3
80
4.2
60-70
4
1.9
1
.3
3
.9
2
.6
6
1.3
3
.9
19
1.0
70-80
6
2.8
3
1.1
6
1.9
3
.9
7
1.5
4
1.2
29
1.5
80-90
4
1.9
1
.3
4
1.2
3
.9
3
.7
2
.6
17
.8
90-100
1
.5
0
0
1
.3
4
1.2
4
.9
3
.9
13
.7
12
5.6
8
3.0
15
4.6
15
4.5
25
5.5
13
3.9
88
4.6
100
U
175
TABLE XLVIII
SOURCE Of INCOME OF STUDENTS 1935 POPULATION
BROTHER OR SISTER
Percentage
0
Mankato Moorhead St. Cloud
Duluth.
Bemidji
Winona
Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num- Per Num­ Per
ber cent ber cent ber Cent ber cent ber cent ber eent
Total
Num­ Per
ber cent
175 82.0 223 84.7 290 90.6 277 83.1 392 85.7 300 90.0 1,657 86.5
1-10
3
1.4
3
1.1
4
1.2
7
2.1
3
.7
4
1.2
24
1.2
10-20
8
3.8
2
.8
4
1.2
9
2.7
9
2.0
7
2.1
39
2.0
20-30
5
2.3
14
5.3
7
2.2
9
2.7
14
3.1
3
.9
52
2.7
30-40
1
.5
5
1.9
3
.9
3
.9
8
1.8
2
.6
22
1.1
40-50
4
1.9
1
.3
2
.6
2
.6
4
.9
2
.6
15
.8
50-60
7
3.3
8
3.0
5
1.6
8
2.4
12
2.6
7
2.1
49
2.5
60-70
1
♦5
1
.3
1
.3
3
.9
1
.2
0
0
7
.3
70-80
4
1.9
1
.3
1
.3
5
1.5
6
1.3
2
19
1.0
80-90
0
0
0
.2
0
1
.1
90-100
3
1.4
2
2
.9
4
100
•6
0
0
0
0
1
.8
0
0
6
1.8
0
0
2
•6
11
.6
1.5
3
4
1.2
6
1.3
4
1.2
23
1.2
0
.9
0
176
TABLE XLIX
source of income of students 1935 population
WORK
Percentage
0
Duluth
Mankato Moorhead St. Cloud
Bemidji
Winona
Num­
Num­
Num­
Per
Num­
■
Per
Num­
Num­ Per
Per
Per
Per
ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber eent
Total
Num­ Per
ber cent
148 69.5 163 61.9. 242 75.6 252 75.6 385 84.5 221 66.3 1,411 73.6
4.2
7
2.2
10
3.0
6
1.3
11
3.3
48
2.5
6.1
16
6.0
6
1.9
6
1.8
9
2.0
16
4.8
66
3.4
14
6.6
17
6.4
19
5.9
17
5.1
10
2.2
27
8.1
104
5.4
30-40
5
2.3
7
2.7
8
2.5
7
2.1
4
.9
6
1.8
37
1.9
40-50
2
.9
6
2.2
1
.3
8
2.4
6
1.3
7
2.1
30
1.6
50-60
10
4.7
18
00
•
20
6.2
15
4.5
11
2.4
12
3.6
86
4.5
60-70
3
1.4
4
1.5
1
.3
1
.3
9
2.0
13
3.9
31
1.6
70-80
6
2.8
7
2.7
3
.9
7
2.1
5
1.1
4
1.2
32
1.7
80-90
0
0
2
.8
3
.9
2
•6
2
.4
3
.9
12
.6
90-100
2
.9
4
1.5
2
.6
4
1*2
0
0
4
1.2
16
.8
7
3.3
9
3.3
8
2.5
4
1.2
9
2.0
9
2.7
46
2.4
3
10-20
13
20-30
100
<0
1.4 ” 11
1-10
177
TABLE L
SOURCE OF INCCM OF STUDMTS 1935 POPULATION
WORK RELIEF
Percentage
0
Bemidji
Moorhead St. Cloud
Mankato
Duluth
Winona
Num- Per Hum­ Per Num­ Per Hum­ Per Hum­•Per Hum­ Per
ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber eent ber cent
159
74.6 210 79.7 238 74.3 259 77.7 332
Total
Hum­ Per
ber cent
72.9 248 74.4 1,446
75.3
1-10
2
.9
3
1.1
4
1.2
2
.6
1
.2
0
0
12
.6
10-20
5
2.3
6
2.2
4
1.2
8
2.4
4
.9
6
1.8
33
1.7
20-30
11
5.2
9
3.3
21
6.5
21
6.3
20
4.4
17
5.1
99
5.2
30-40
18
8.5
6
2.2
14
4.4
14
4.2
36
7.9
25
7.5
113
5.9
40-50
4
1.9
4
1.5
8
2.5
9
2.7
10
2.2
11
3.3
46
2.4
50-60
5
2.3
11
4.2
14
4.4
13
3.9
21
4.6
14
4.2
78
4.1
60-70
0
0
2
.8
7
2.2
3
.9
12
2.6
4
1.2
28
1.5
70-80
4
1.9
7
2.7
4
1.2
1
.3
6
1.3
5
1.5
27
1.4
80-90
1
.5
2
.8
1
.3
1
.3
5
1.1
2
.6
12
.6
90-100
3
1.4
3
1.1
5
1.5
1
.3
4
.9
1
.3
17
.9
1
.5
1
.3
0
0.
1
.3
5
1.1
0
8
•4
100
0
178
table li
SOURCE OF INCOME GF STUDMTS 1935 POPULATION
OTHER SOURCES
Percentage
0
Mankato
Bemidji
Duluth
Moorhead St. Cloud
Winona
Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­• Per Num­ Per
ber cent ber eent ber eent ber cent ber cent ber cent
206 96,6
1-10
0
10-20
1
20-30
251 95*0 302 94.3 315 94.5 435 95.5 284 85.2 1,793 93.6
1
.3
3
*9
2
.6
5
1.1
2
*6
13
.7
.5
1
.3
1
.3
3
.9
3
*7
7
2.1
16
.8
1
.5
1
.3
4
1.2
1
.3
3
.7
8
2.4
18
.9
30-40
1
.5
0
0
2
.6
4
1.2
0
0
7
2.1
14
.7
40-50
1
.5
0
0
0
0
1
.3
0
0
2
.6
4
.2
50-60
0
5
1.5
4
1.2
1
.2
5
1.5
16
.8
60-70
2
1
.3
2
.6
1
.2
3
.9
9
.5
70-80
0
0
2
.8
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
.6
4
.2
80-90
0
0
1
.3
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
.3
5
.2
90-100
0
O'
1
.3
0
0
1
0
0
4
1.2
6
.3
5
1.9
2
5
1.1
8
2.4
21
1.1
100
1
0
Total
Num­ Per
ber cent
0
.9
.5
1
.3
0 '.0
.6
0
.3
0
179
TABLE LXI
NUMBER IN FAMILY CONTRIBUTING TO INCOME - 1935 POPULATION
Number in
family
Bemidji
Num­ Fer
ber cent
Duluth
Num­ Per
ber cent
Mankato
Num­ Per
ber eent
Moorhead
Num­ Per
ber eent
St. Cloud
Num­*Per
ber cent
Winona
Num­ Per
ber cent
Total
Num­ Per
ber cent
One
108 65*0
145 72*1
161 73.9
128 62.4
237 65.6
162 63.5
941 67.0
Two
27 16.4
31 15.4
26 11*9
36 17.5
69 19.6
56 22.0
245 17.5
Three
19 11.4
15
7.5
9
4.1
24 11.7
20
5.4
22
8.6
109
7.7
Four
8
4*8
4
2.0
16
7.3
11
5.4
20
5.4
7
2.7
66
4.7
Five
2
1*2
3
1*5
3
1.4
4
2.0
n
3.0
7
2.7
30
2.1
Over five
2
1.2
3
1.5
3
1.4
2
1.0
1.1
1
.5
15
1.0
255 76.6 1,406
71.8
Known
Unknown
4
166 77.5
201 75.0
218 66.5
205 60.5
361 76.3
48 22.5
67 25.0
110 33.5
135 39.5
112 23.7
78 23.4
550 28.2
^Percentages are of number reporting except unknown which is percentage of total*
180
TABLE LIXI
EXPENSE OF STUDBHT PER SCHOOL YEAR - 1935 POFOLATICN
Bemidji
Num­ Per
ber cent
Duluth
Num­ Per
ber eent
Mankato
Num­ Per
ber cent
18.8
71 30.2
43 13.5
11
100-200
42 20.2
83 35.4
63 19.8
66 20.6
71 16.2
200-300
73 35.0
48 20.2
67 21.1
83 25.8
300-400
46 22.1
21
8.9
97 30.6
110 34.2
Expense
Under 100
39
Moorhead
Num­ Per
ber cent
3.4
St. Cloud
Num- Per
ber eent
Winona
Num­ Per
ber cent
Total
Num­ Per
ber eent
36 11.8
235 12.9
15.0
371 20.3
132 30.0
79 25.8
482 26.4
147 33.4
118 38.6
539 29.4
35
7.9
46
400-300
4
1.9
a
3.4
37 11.7
41 12.8
41
9.3
18
5.9
149
8.1
500-Over
4
1.9
4
1.7
10
10
14
3.2
9
3.0
51
2.8
Known
Unknown
208 97.2
6
2.8
235 89.0
29 11.0
3.6
317 96.7
U
3.3
3.1
321 94.4
19
5.6
440 93.0
33
7.0
306 91.9 1,827 93.6
27
8.1
125
6.4
PERSONAL DATA:
RELIGIOUS AFFILIATION
TABLE LOT
CHOBCH AFFILIATION OF STTO1NTS ENTERING
MINNESOTA. TEACHERS COLLEGES 1920-1925-1930
Duluth
Bamidji
Mankato Moorhead St* Cloud Winona
Total
Num- Per Hum- Per Nam- Per Nua- Per Hum- Per Hum- Per Hum- Per
ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber eent ber cent ber cent
Lutheran
Catholic
Methodist
Congregational
Episcopalian
Presbyterian
Evangelical
Baptist
Christian Science
Brethem
Swedish Mission
Church of God
Protestant
Unknown
2 20*0
2 20.0
2
1920
11 44.0
4 16.0
4 16.0
10 40.0
2 8.0
4 16.0
20*0
3 12.0
4
1 10.0
1
2 20.0
1 10.0
2
5 20.0
9 50.0
1 5.6
6 33.4
1
5 31.2
1 6.2
5 31.2
5.6
4 25.0
1
6.2
8.0
1925
9 28.2
4 12*5
7 21.8
2 6.3
1 3.1
4 12.5
2 6.3
1 3.1
12.0
16.0
28.0
20.0
12.0
4.0
5
9.8
3
4
7
5
3
1
1
2.2
1
4.0
3
2.3
1
4.0
2
1
1
2
10
1.5
•8
.8
1.5
7.6
4.0
-
Lutheran
Catholic
Methodist
Congregational
Episcopal
Presbyterian
Evangelical
Baptist
16.0
13 28.3
13 28.3
7 15.2
3 6.5
1
1
2.2
2.2
2
4.3
39 29*8
25 19.1
22 16.8
10 7.6
3 2*3
13 9.9
-
23 28.4
21 25.9
14 17.3
5 6*2
4 4*9
5 6.2
10 34*5
2 6.9
10 34.5
2 6.9
1
2
2.5
3.4
56 31.8
29 16.5
42 23*9
9 5.1
6 3.4
7.4
13
1.7
3
4
2.3
TABLE LIV (continued)
CHURCH APFILIATION 07 STUDENTS ENTERING
MINNESOTA TRAflHTOS COLLEGES 1920-1925-1930
Moorhead St. Cloud
Winona
Duluth
Manteto
Total
Bemidji
Num­ Ber Num­ Per Num­■Per Num­ Per Num- Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent
Christian Science
Brethem
Moravian
Jewish
Universalist
Protestant
Swedish Mission
Christian Friends
Unknown
1 . 1.2
1
5.6
2
1
1*2
1
1
2
2
1.2
1.2
2.5
2.5
1
1
1
1
3.4
3.4
3.4
3.4
4
3
5
2
1
22.2
16.6
27.8
U.l
5.6
6.3
2
1
2
1
1
1
2
2
3
1.1
.6
1.1
.6
.6
.6
1.1
3*.1
1.7
1930
Lutheran
Catholic
Methodist
Congregational
Episcopal
Presbyterian
Evangelical
Baptist
Christian Science
Brethern
Moravian
Jewish
Universalist
Swedish Mission
6 54.5
1 9.1
2 18.2
1
1
9.1
8 42.2
4 21.1
3 15.8
1 5.3
1
5.3
8 24.2
5 15.1
10 30.3
1 3.0
4 12.1
1 3.0
2 6.1
17 68.0
1 4.0
2 8.0
2 8.0
1
1
9.1
1
4.0
16 24.3
19 28.8
5 7.6
3 4.5
1 1.5
7 10.6
1 1.5
3 4.5
4.0
1 5.6
2 11.1
59 34.3
33 19.2
27 15.7
9 5.2
2
1.2
14 8.1
3 1.7
7 4.1
2 1.2
1
1.5
1
1
•6
.6
2
3.0
2
1.2
5.3
184
TABLE LIT (continued)
CHURCH AFFILIATION OF STUDENTS ENTERING
MINNESOTA TEACHERS COLLEGES 1980-1925-1930
Bemidji
Duluth
Total
Mankato Moorhead St. Cloud
Winona
Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­- Per Num- Per Num­ Per
ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber eent &®r cent ber cent
Seven Day Adventist
Protestant
Unknown
1
5.3
1
1.3
1
4.0
1
2
5
1.5
3.0
7.6
1
2
8
.6
1*2
4.7
185
table lv
cmmm
participation
m
worn, church hWlSKttiJSHIP - 1935 POHJUTION
Duluth
Total
Mankato Moorhead St. Cloud
Winona
Bemidji
Huea- Per Hum- Per Hum- Per Hum- Per Hum- Per Hum- Per Hum- Per
ber eent ber eent ber eent ber eent ber eent ber eent ber eent
Lutheran
Methodist
Presbyterian
Catholic
Christian Seientist
Episcopal
Christian
Seven Day Adventists
Baptist
Congregational
Brethren
Protestant
Jewish
Mennonite
Evangelical
Nazarene
Swedieh Mission
Mormon
Non-Members
54 39.2
18 13.
SI 15.2
13 9.4
.7
1
5 3.6
S 1.4
.7
1
.7
1
3
3
1
62
22
27
33
3
7
30.5
10.7
13.2
16.1
1*5
3.4
2
8
4
1.
3.8
1.9
9
1
4.4
.5
3
5
2
6
6
31.6 130 55.* 109 31.4
12.4 16 6.6 40 11.5
13.3 20 8.2 31 8.9
24.3 24 9.8 80 23.
.3
1
8 2.3
1.4
6 2.5
2.3
1
.4
2
•6
1
.9
•4
7 2.9
2.7
9 2.6
2.7 18 7.4 15 4.3
2.2
2
9
2.2
.7
2
15
69
27
29
53
10.9
.9
4.1
1.
25 12.2
1
6
•5
2.7
1
.4
7
2.
4
1.6
9
2.6
3
1.2
3
.9
13
5.3
34
9.8
69 32.2 493
40
i 18.7 163
3.3 145
38 13.7 241
4
1.9
9
8 3.7 37
10
6
5 2.3 36
14 6.5 57
3
4
1.9 21
1
2
8 3.7 33
1
8
1
17 8.
100
36.
11.9
10.6
17.6
.7
2.7
.7
.4
2.6
4.2
.2
1.5
.1
.1
2.4
.1
.6
.1
8.
TABLE LVI
ornmm
participation of m * s chproh membership
1935 POPULATION
Mankato
Bemidji
Moorhead St* Cloud
Total
Duluth
Winona
Num- Per Hum- Per Hum- Per Hum- Per Num- Per Num- Per Him- Per
ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent
Lutheran
Methodist
Presbyterian
Catholic
Christian Scientist
Episcopal
Christian
Seven Day Adventists
Baptist
Congregational
Brethren
United
Jewish
Mennonite
Evangelical
Swedish Mission
Non-Members
28 36*8
18 23*7
10 13*2
7.9
6
1 1.3
1 1*3
1 1.3
1 1.3
2 2.6
1 1.3
1 1.3
6
7.9
14 22.2
4 6.4
7 11.2
10 15.9
2 3.2
2 3.2
1
1*6
3
1
4.8
1.6
19 30*2
31
18
17
17
1
4
3
28.2
16.4
15.5
15.5
*9
3.6
2.7
39 40.6
6 6.3
4 4.2
16 16.7
3
6
2.7
5.5
1 1.
13 13.6
1
1
.9
.9
8
7.3
1
1
3
1.
1.
3.1
12 12.5
33 26.4
20 16.
7 5.6
42 33.6
1
•8
3
4
2.4
3.2
3
2.4
3
1
8
2.4
.8
6.4
23 19.3 168 28.6
16 13.4 82 13.9
2 1.6 47 8.
25 21.
116 19.7
1
•8
5
.8
3 2.5 11 1.9
5 4.2
11 1.9
1
.2
3 2.5 12 2.
8 6.8 33 5.6
3 2.5
4
.7
6 1.
.2
1
.2
1
2 1.6
9 1.5
I .2
28 23.6 81 14.
EDUCATIONAL DATA:
SECONDARY SCHOOL BACKGROUND
TABLE m i
EDUCATIONAL STATUS GE STUDENTS ENTERING
MINNESOTA TEACHERS COLLEGES 1920-1925-1930
Bamidji
Num- Per
ber cent
Duluth
Num- Per
ber cent
Manlsato
Num- Per
ber cent
Moorhead
Num- Per
ber eent
St. Cloud
Num- Per
ber cent
Winona
Num- Per
ber cent
Total
Num- Per
ber cent
44 95.7
25 100.0
122 93.1
1920
High School
graduate
5 50.0
Not a graduate
5 50.0
23 92.0
2
8.0
25 100.0
2
0
4,3
0
9
6.9
173
98.3
2
1.1
1
*6
1925
High School
graduate
16 88.8
Not a graduate
1
5.6
Unknown
1
5,6
16 100.0
31
96.9
1
3.1
81 100.0
0
29 100.0
0
1930
High School
graduate
Not a graduate
11 16.0
0
19 100.0
0
53 100.0
0
25 100.0
0
66
0
18 100.0
172 100.0
0
H
00
VO
TABLE W I U
NUMBER AND PMCMTAGE OF STUDENTS FROM BIGS SCHOOLS
CLASSIFIED AS TO SIZE OF GRADUATING CLASS - 1935 POPULATION
Size of
graduating
class
Bamidji
Num­ Per
ber cent
Duluth
Num­ Per
ber eent
Mankato
Num­ Per
ber eent
Moorhead
Num­ Per
ber eent
St. Cloud
Num­ Per
ber eent
4
1.5
18
10- 05
48 22,4
24
9.1
72 21.9
104 30.6
115 24.3
25- 50
30 14.1
27 10.3
71 21.6
74 21.8
4.2
42 15.9
68 20.8
105 49.2
31 11.7
50-100
100-200
Over 200
Unknown
13
9
9
4.2
125 47.3
n
4.2
5.5
27
7.9
20
4.2
6.9
1- XO
Winona
Num­ Per
ber eent
Total
Num­ Per
ber eent
3.9
95
4.9
74 22.2
437
22.4
95 20.1
83 25.
380 19.5
59 17.4
87 18.4
24
7.2
289 14.8
81 24.7
52 15.3
66 14.
84 25.2
419 21.4
11
3.4
21
6.1
75 15.8
43 12.9
284 14.5
7
2.1
3
.9
15
3.2
13
12
3.6
48
2.5
190
TABLE LIX
LOCATION OF HIGH SCHOOLS STUDENTS GRADUATED FRCH
IN REFERENCE TO COLLEGE ATTENDED ~ 1935 POPULATION
Bemid.1l
Num­ Per
ber cent
Duluth
Num­ Per
ber cent
Mankato
Num­ Per
ber cent
Moorhead
Num­ Per
ber eent
St. Cloud
Num­• Per
ber eent
Local
72 33.6
139 52.7
73 22,3
39 11.4
Same County
10
5.7
42 12.3
Location
4.7
48 18.2
19
Out of State
Within 50 miles
Adjacent Counties
or within 50
miles
85 39.8
Winona
Num- Per
ber cent
Total
Num­ Per
ber eent
74 15.6
81
24.3
478 24.4
30
18
5.4
167
8,6
59 17.4
13
3.9
72
3.7
6.3
36 13.6
113 34.5
70 20.6
120 25.4 113
34.0
537 27.7
167 78.1
223 84.5
205 62.5
210 61.9
224 47.3 225
67.6
ly254 64.4
Other Counties
36 16.8
30 U.3
107 32.6
105 30.9
234 49.5
27.9
605 30.9
Out State
U
Total within
50 miles
5.1
7
2.7
Foreign
Unknown
4
15
4.6
1
.3
♦83 24.4
1.5
1
.3
13
93
2.8 **26
1
♦2
1
•2
2
7.8 ♦**1§5
7.9
2
.1
8
.4
.6
♦♦includes 13 from Wisconsin within fifty miles*.
♦♦♦includes 72 from Out State but within fifty miles*
191
Comparative data: Missouri 30 per cent same county, Texas 25.5 per eent same county, National
Survey teachers college, 55 per cent within 50 miles, liberal arts, 42 per cent within 50 miles,
TABLE LX
PATTERN OFWORK TAKEH IH HIGH SCHOOL BY STUDSOTS
. XH MINNESOTA TEACHHiS COLLB3ES - 193S
Bemidji
Per Per
eent cent
tak­ total
ing time
English
100
Duluth
Per Per
eent eent
tak- total
lag time
85.1 100
Mankato
St.
Moorhead
Per
Per Per
Per Per
eent eent
eent
eent eent
tak­ total tak­ total tak­
ing
ing time
ing time
24.1 100
25.8 100
25.
45
35
5.8
4.2
54.6 6.7
21.2 2.5
46.2 5.5
28
3.3
Fine Arts
Music
Art
11.1
4.4
.7
.2
37
17
2.3
.8
11.4
3.8
•9
.2
34.2 1.8
4.
.1
Mathematies
Algebra
Geometry
Trigonometry
98.6 6.9
87.
5.6
3.
.1
99
93
8
6.9
5.7
.3
98.7 7.1
86.4 5.6
2.9
.1
Social Studies
American
History
Other History
Social Seienee
dries
Economics
Sociology
96.7
79.2
42.2
35
10.2
45.6
77
81
36
42
31
42.5
4.5
6.3
3.1
2.2
1.
1.3
99
6.
97.4 8.4
86.6 5.6
12
.5
.2
5.4
.3
6.6
5.8
6.9
2.6
1.6
.4
2.5
100
26.
Winona
Total
Per Per
Per Per
eent eent
eent eent
tak­ total tak­ total
ing time
ing time
100
24.3 100
25.2
50
5.9
23.8 2.9
59
7.1
30.2 4.1
50.1 6.1
27.6 3.3
.6
.5
39.2 2.4
12.2 1.
23.4 1.4
7.7
.3
96.5 6.6
84.3 5.4
3.3
.1
7.
95
86
5.6
3.1
.1
97.5 6.9
89.9 6.5
.3
10.
96.9 6.8
87.6 5.7
.2
5.2
99.5
98.5
66.1
19.4
10.5
7.1
96.5
94.3
33.8
19.8
11.8
52.6
5.9
9.
4.2
1.
♦5
.4
9.6
5.6
100
6.1
6.
7.4 90
6.5
2.1 88
5.5
.7
.9 17.9
.5 12.5
•4
3.5
3.5
.1
95.5
91.3
54.
22.6
13.1
25.5
5.8
7.5
3.8
1.
.5
1.4
192
Foreign Languages
Classioal
43,4 4.9
20.1 2.7
Modern
Cloud
Per
eent
total
time
TABLE LX (continued)
PATTERN OF WORK TAKEN IN HIGH SCHOOL BT STUDENTS
IN MINNESOTA TEACHERS COLLEGES - 1935
Physical Seienee
General Seienee
Physios
Chemistry
Geography
Bemidji
Per Per
eent eent
tak- total
Uhl time
Duluth
Per Per
eent cent
tak* total
ing time
Mankato
Moorhead
Per Per
Per Per
eent eent
eent eent
tak* total tak* total
ing time
time
80.6
41.7
59.7
26.2
44
51
42.5
24
73
46
61
24.4
4.7
2.6
3.6
1.5
2.6
3.
2.5
1.1
4.5
2.8
3*8
1.4
83
38.4
66.8
27.1
5.1
2.4
4.1
1.5
St*
Per
eent
tak*
lng
89.1
40.4
58.1
29.
Cloud
Winona
Total
Per Per
Per
Per Per
cent cent eent
eent cent
total tak- total tak* total
time JHL time
ing time
5.6
2.5
3.3
1.7
72.1 4.3
40.5 2.5
49.8 3.
16.6
.8
76.3
42.5
54.5
24.4
4.6
2.6
3.4
1.3
Biological Seienee
Biology
87.5 5.4
Physiology
6.
Botany
1.
Zoology
.5
68
4.1
17
.5
1.5
.1
1.5 .1
75.
4.6
3.1
.1
1.9
.1
•6
83.5 5.1
7.4
.3
3.
.1
.3
76.6 4.8
.2
3.9
3.7
.2
.8
76.6 4.6
4.1
.1
3.5
.2
•8
77.4 4.8
•2
6.4
2.7
.1
.7
Practical Arts
Industrial Arts 17.
Domestic Seienee 34.4
Agriculture
11.7
Comer eial
73.5
1.7
3.5
1.5
9.2
15.
38
4
71
2.
3.4
.4
9.3
15.5 1.7
35.2 3.3
4*7
•4
59.3 6.8
13.2 1.2
28.
2.8
5.2
.3
64.3 6.9
11.8 1.4
36.9 4.1
4.1
.4
6.2
64.6
16.8 1.6
25
2.4
3.3
.4
69.6 6.8
14.6 1.6
32.8 3,3
.5
4.9
7.3
66.4
2.9
.2
11
1.3
7.9
17.5
.6
23.5 1.7
28.
17.4 1.
Physical Mueatlen 2.4
.1
18
.8
.3
17.9
.8
Miscellaneous
.6
2.1
1.3
.1
.6
.3
TABIE LXI
amiAHY
OF PATTERN OF WORK TAKEN IN HIGH SCHD01 BY STUDENTS
IN MINNESOTA TEACHERS COLLEGES - 1935
Bemidji ' Duluth
Manh&to
St. Cloud
Total
Moorhead
Winona
Per eent
Per cent
Per eent
Per eent
Per eent
Per cent
Per eent
total time total time total time total time total time total time total time
25.1
English
Foreign languages
Fine Arts
7.6
34.1
10.
25.8
25.
26.
24.3
35.2
9.2
6.8
8.8
11.2
9.4
.9
3.1
!♦!
1.9
1.1
3.4
1.7
Mathematics
12.6
12.9
12.8
12.1
12.7
13.7
12.7
Soeial Seienee
19.8
18.4
21.
21.
20.4
19.3
20.
Physical Seienee
13.4
9.2
12.5
13.1
13.1
10.6
11.9
5.4
4.8
4.8
5.5
5.2
4.9
5.1
15.9
15.1
12.2
11.2
13.1
11.2
12.7
Miscellaneous
•3
1.3
.6
.6
1.7
1.3
1.
Physical Education.
•1
.8
Biological Seienee
4
Practical Arts
.8
.1
.3
H
*
TABLE LXII
training m > T E m s m m m c m G E o f students
before w m i m a Minnesota teachers colleges 1920-1925-1930
Bemidji
Duluth
Mankato Moorhead St. Cloud
Winona
Total
Num- Per Num- Per Num.- Per Num- Per Num- Per Num- Per Hum- Per
ber eent ber cent ber eent ber cent ber. cent ber cent ber cent
1920
Graduate of Teacher
Training Department
Transferred from other
Colleges
Held Teaching Certificate
Had teaching experience
1 10.0
3 30.0
2 20.0
2 20.0
1
4.3
5 20.0
36- 78.3
6 13.0
6 13.0
8 32.0
13 52.0
13 52.0
58 44.3
48 36.6
49 37.5
13 16.1
6 20.7
22 15.4
14 17.3
18 22.2
17 21.0
4 15.8
7 24.1
7 24.1
27 15.3
37 21.0
34 19.3
6 24.0
20 30.3
6 33.4
34 24.4
4 16.0
8 32.0
7 28.0
12 18.2
26 39.4
23 34.9
4 22,3
7 24.1
7 24.1
29 17.5
51 29.6
47 27.3
4.0
8 32.0
15 60.0
16 64.0
2
3 12.0
12 48.0
12 48.0
9
8.5
1925
Graduate of Teacher
Training Department
Transferred from other
Colleges
Held Teaching Certificate
Had teaching experience
6.2
2 11.1
1
3 16.6
5 27.8
5 27.8
1 6.2
2 12.5
1 6.2
5 15.1
5 15.1
4 12.5
1930
Graduate of Teacher
Training Department
Transferred from other
Colleges
Held Teaching Certificate
Had teaching experience
1
9.1
1 9.1
3 27.3
3 27.3
1
5.3
2 10.5
1 5.3
1 5.3
6 18.2
6 18.2
6 18.2
195
EDUCATIONAL DATA:
EXTRA-CURRICULUM PARTICIPATION
197
TABLE I X I 1 I
PARTICIPATION IN COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES
M I N N E S O T A .T E A G H E R S ' COLLEGES 1935 POPULATION
Men
Per cent
Women
Per cent
Church Membership
8 6 .0
92.0
Young People's Religious Groups
39.8
63.2
Taught Sunday School
21.9
31.9
Community Fraternal Groups
14.3
6 .8
Community Musical Groups
33.2
18.0
Other Community Organizations
26.6
31.8
Activity
198
TABU S LX X V
SPECIAL HIGH'SCHOOL AWARDS EARNED
BY STUDENTS I N M I N N E S O T A .TEACHERS’ COLLEGE 1935
. POPULATION
Awards
Men
Per cent
:
■’:Wdmen ’* " ;" :^
Per cent
Scholarship
Valedictory
Other
2*7
7*3
4-3
13-9
Citizenship
3*8
3.7
National Honor Society
6.7
6.4
Special Fields
Music
Athletics
Forensics
Commercial
Agricultural
2 .0
2*3
1*0
.4
*7
1.9
3.6
.5
.3
*7
TABLE I M
EXTRA CURRICULUM PARTICIPATION OF MBS - 1935 POPULATION
Bamidji
Num- Per
ber. cent
No high school
participation
1
1.3
Duluth
Hum- Per
ber cent
Mankato
Num- Per
ber cent
10
15.9
6
5.5
20
18.2
16 20.
16
25.4
High school
participation
75 98.7
53
84.1 104 94.5
College
participation
60
47
74.6
o
e
CO
No college
participation
90 81.8
Moorhead
Num- Per
ber cent
St, Cloud
Num- Per
ber eent
4
12
3
2.5
Total
Num- Per
ber eent
24
4.1
24 19.2
18 15.1
106 18.
121 96.8
116 97.5
565 95.9
87.5 101 80.8
101 84.9
483 82.
12.5
96 100.
84
3.2
Winona
Num- Per
ber cent
199
TABUE LOT
CLASSIFICATION OF EXTRA CURRICULUM PARTICIPATION OF MEN
1935 PQPIILATION
Mankato
Bemldji
Duluth
Moorhead - St, Cloud
Total
Winona
Num- Per Nun- Per Hum- Per Hum- Per Num- Per Hum- Per Hum- Per
ber eent her eent ber cent ber cent ber eent ber eent ber cent
Athletics
High School
64 84.1
44 69.9
83 75,4
88 91.9
99
79.2 94 79.
472 80.2
Athletics
College
46
60.6
28 44.5
54 49.1
62 64.6
72
57.6 75 63.
337 57.4
Forensics
High Sehool
32 42.1
13 20.6
44 40.
44 45.9
46
36.8 53 45.4 232 39.4
5.2
9
Forensics
College
1
1.3
1
1.6
10
9.1
5
7.2
7
5.9
33
5.6
35 46.
19 30.2
43 39.1
30 31.2
72
57.6 49 41,2 248 41.1
Dramatics
College
13 17.1
12 19.1
27
24.6
20 20.8
20
16.
19 15.9 111 18.9
Journalism
High School
22 28.9
16 25.4
35 31.8
30 31,2
45
36
38 31.8 186 31.6
Journalism
College
9 11.8
10 15.9
16 14.5
24 25.
29
23.2 17 14,3 105 17.9
Music
High Sehool
39 51.2
20 31.8
56 50.8
62 64.6
63
50.4 77 64.6 317 53.9
200
Dramatics
High School
TABLE LOTI (continued)
. CLASSIFICATION OF EXTRA CUHRICULBM PARTICIPATION OF MBS
1935.POPULATION
Bemidji
Duluth
Mankato
Moorhead St. Cloud
Total
Winona
Num- Per Num- Per Num- Per Num- Per Num- Per. Num- Per Num- Per
ber cent her cent ber cent ber eent ber cent ber eent ber cent
Music
College
S3 30*3
21 33.4
31 28.2
35 66.6
36 28.8
51 42.8 197 33.5
16 12.8
10
6.4
57
9.3
3
2.5
34
5.8
Literary Societies
High School
9 11.8
5
7.9
7
6.4
10 10.4
Literary Societies
College
10 13.2
5
7.9
3
2.7
10 10.4
9.5
12 10.9
10 10.4
13 10.4
27 22.7
74 12.6
30 31.2
23 18.4
26 21.8
92 15.6
12
14 11.8
43
7.3
4
3.4
32
5.4
8
6.8
53
9.
Social Societies
High School
6
7.9
6
Social Societies
College
1
1.3
7 11.1
5
4.5
Hobby Societies
High School
4
5.3
5
7.9
7
6.4
Hobby Societies
College
2
2.$
1
1.6
5
4.5
Subject matter
Societies
High School
8 10.5
7 11.1
10
9.1
1
1.
3
2.4
9.6
20 16.
8
8.3
12 9.6
TABLE M I
(continued)
CLASSIFICATION OF EXTRA CURRICULUM PARTICIPATION OF 1 0
1935 POPULATION
Bemldji
Mankato
Duluth
Moorhead St* Cloud Winona
Total
Hum- Per Hum- Per Hum- per Hum- Per Hum- Per Hum- Per Hum- Per
ber eent her eent her eent her cent her eent her cent ber cent
Subject matter
Societies
College
8 10*5
Student Government
High School
*
29 38*2
Student Government
College
15 19*8
4
6*4
17 27*
8 12*7
4*2
7.3
14 14*6
12
34 30.9
47 48.9
48 38*4
39 32*8 214 36*4
14 12*7
13 13*5
26 20*4
32 26*9
8
9.6
5
51
8.6
108 18*3
TABLE LXVII
AVERAGE HQSBER OF DIFFEEMT CLASSES OF EXTRA CURRICULUM ACTIVITIES
PARTICIPATED IH BT MS® - 1935 POPULATI®
Bamidji
Num- Per
ber cent
Duluth
Num- Per
ber cent
Mankato
Num- Per
ber cent
Moorhead
Num- Per
ber cent
St. Cloud
Num- Per
ber cent
Winona
Num- Per
ber eent
Total
Num- Per
ber cent
High School
3.3
2.
3.
3.4
3.4
3.4
3.2
College
1.7
1.5
1.6
2.2
2.
2.
1.9
TABLE LX7III
G O m m m PARTICIPATION OF MEN - YODNO PEOPLE’S SOCIETIES
1935 POPULATION
Bemidji
Moorhead St. Cloud
Duluth
Manloato
Winona
Total
Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num- Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber cent ber eent ber eent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber emit
Lutheran
Methodist
Presbyterian
Catholie
Christian Scientist
Episcopal
Christian
Seven Day Adventists
Baptist
Congregational
Brethren
Evangelical
Protestant
Non-Members
16 21*1
9 11*8
6 7.9
1 1.3
11 17.5
2 3*2
3 4.8
2 3*2
1
1
1.3
1
1*3
1
1.3
1
13 11.8
6 5.5
11 10.
7 6*4
1.6
1
.9
1.6
1
2
•9
1.8
21 21*9
3 3.1
4 4*2
4 4.2
1
9
1
4
10 8*4
6 5.
•8
1
13 10.9
*8
3*2
-
3
41 54.
1.
9*4
16 12.8
8 6*3
4 3.2
12 9.6
.8
1
43 68.2
69 62.8
3.1
51 53*1
3 2.4
2 1.6
74 59.2
1
3
*8
2*5
2
4
1.6
3.4
.8
*8
87 14.8
34 5.8
29 4.9
6.7
39
1
.2
3
.5
4
.7
6
1.
20 3.4
x
2
.3
7 1.2
1
2
.3
77 64.6 355 60.2
10
2
TABLE T O X
COMMUNITY PAHTICIPATION OF VSM - 1955 POPULATION
SUNDAY SCHOOL TM0HING
Bemidji
Rim- Per
ber cent
Duluth
Num- Per
ber eent
Mankato
Num- Per
ber cent
Moorhead
Num- Per
ber eent
St* Cloud
Num- Per
ber eent
Winona
Num- Per
ber cent
Total
Num- Per
ber cent
Yes
23 30*3
11 17.5
* 20 18.2
27 28.1
26 20.6
22 18.5
129 21.9
No
53 59.7
5E 82.5
90 81.8
69 71.9
99 79.4
97 81.5
460 78.1
205
SAHLB m
OTHER C O M R O T PAmCIPATIGNS OF MEN
1935 POPULATION
Bemidji
Hum- Pep
ber cent
Duluth
Hum- Pep
her oent
Mankato
Hum- Per
ber cent
Fraternal
Societies
25 32*9
9 14.3
16 14.5
Musical
Organisations
36 47.4
12 19.1
36 32.8
Other Community
Organizations
2? 35.6
13 20.6
42 38.2
Moorhead
Hum- Per
ber cent
St. Cloud
Hum- Pep
ber cent
Winona
Hum- Per
bar cent
Total
Hum- Per
ber cent
23 18.4
11
9.2
84 14.3
25 26.1
35 28.
51 42.9
195 33.2
16 16.7
27 21.6
31 26.
156 26.6
TABLE LXXI
SPECIAL AIAHDS FROM HIGH SCHOOL AND COMMUNITY V
1935 POPULATION
Bemidjl
Num- Per
her cent
Duluth
Rum- Per
her cent
Mankato
Num- Per
her cent
Moorhead
Rum- Per
her cent
St. Cloud
Winona
Him-Per
Rum-Per
her cent her cent
Total
Rum-Per
her cent
Valedictorian
High School
2
2*6
2
3*2
3
2.7
4
4*2
Other
Scholarships
6
7.9
4
6*4
7
6*3
3
3.1
Citizenship
3
3*9
3
4.8
5
4*5
Music
2
2*6
1
1*6
1
.9
2
2.1
1
.9
5
5.2
6
1
1.
4
Forensics
Agriculture
3
3*9
3
2*4
2
1.6
16
2.7
14 11.2
9
7.6
43
7.3
6
4*8
5
4.2
22
3*8
3
2.4
2
1.6
U
1.9
1.
.7
207
TABLE m i l
EXTRA CURRICULUM PARTICIPATION OF WOMEN - 1935 POPULATION
Bemidji
Num- Ber
ber cent
No high school
participation
No college
participation
High school
participation
College
participation
8
Duluth
Num- Per
ber cent
Mankato
Num- Per
ber cent
Moorhead
Num- Per
ber cent
5.9
24 11.7
8
3.7
46 33.4
56 27.3
70
32.1
181 88.3
210
96.3
232
148
'
67.9
170
130
92
94.1
66.6
149 72.7
12
St. Cloud
Winona
Num- Per
Num- Per
ber cent ber cent
7
3.3
Total
Num- Per
ber cent
4.9
27
7.7
74 30.4
155
44.5
95.1
321
92.3
207 96.7 1,281 93.7
69.6
193
55.5
171 79.8
43 20.2
86
6.3
444 32.4
923 67.6
TABLE L m i l
CLASSIFICATION OF EXTRA CURRICULUM PARTICIPATION OF WOMEN - 1935 POPULATION
Mankato
Bemidji
Duluth
Moorhead St. Cloud
Winona
Total
Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num- Per Num- Per Num­ Per
ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent
Athletics
High School
93 67.4 107 52.3 134 61.5 149 61.1 231 66.4 126 58.9 840 61.5
Athletics
College
43 31.2
57 27.8
40 18.4
70 28.7
Forensics
High School
46 33.3
48 23.4
95 43.6
96 39.4 164 47.2 100 46.8 549 40.1
3
2
1.5
.8
4
1.1
Dramatics
High School
48 34.8
66 32.2
64 38.6
98 40.2 167 46.
Dramatics
College
12
22 10.7
27 12.4
23
Journalism
High School
40 29.1
62 30.3 104 47.8
Journalism
College
19 13.8
28 13.6
Music
High School
80 58.
8.7
29 13.3
9.4
29
8.3
99 40.6 163 46.9
29 H.9
117 57.1 171 78.5 166 68*
30
8.6
94 43.9 355 26.
4
1.9
13
1.
114 53.4 577 42.3
23 10.7 136 10.
93 43.4 561 41.1
40 18.7 175 12.8
235 67.5 154 72.
923 67.6
60s
Forensics
College
51 14.7
TABLE LXXIII (continued)
CLASSIFICATION OF EXTRA CBRRICOLOH PARTICIPATION OF WOMEN - 1935 POPULATION
Mankato
Winona
Duluth
Moorhead St. Cloud
Bemidji
Total
Hum­ Per Hum­ Per Hum­ Per Hum­ Per Hum­•Per Hum­ Per Hum­ Per
ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent
Music
College
35 25*3
49 23.9
87 39.9 106 43.5 112 32.2
Literary Societies
High School
13
9*4
23 11.2
27 12.4
Literary Societies
College
13
9*4
15
Social Societies
High School
15 10.9
69 33.6
Social Societies
College
19 13.8
Hbbhy Societies
High School
Hobby Societies
College
42 19.7 431 31.6
53 21.7
62 17.8
16
20
8.2
71 20.4
3
71 31.1
41 16.8
69 19.8
72 33.7 337 24.7
50 24.4
53 24.3
61 25.
44 12.6
78 36.4 305 22.4
14 10.1
17
8.3
17
7.8
11
4.5
29
3.3 . 16
7.5 104
7.6
4.3
4
1.9
3
1.4
6
2.5
22
6.3
3.7
3.6
6
7.3
6
2.7
Subject matter
Societies
High School
26 18.8
31 15*1
17
7.8
30 12.3
54
15.5
Subjeet matter
Societies
College
25 18.1
20
9.3
10
4.6
37 15.1
11
3.2
8
7.5 194 14.2
1.4 128
49
9.4
22 10.3 180 13.3
16
7.5 119
8.7
TABLE LXXIII (continued)
CLASSIFICATION OF EXTRA CURRICULUM PARTICIPATION CO? WCMHI - 1935 POPULATION
Moorhead St. Cloud
Winona
Bemidji
Duluth
Manlcat©
Total
Num­ Per Num­ Per Hum- Per Hum- Per Num- Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent
Student Government
High School
45 32.6
Student Government
College
11
8.
37 18.1
8
3.8
90 41.3 104 42.6 134 38.5
21
9.6
17
7.
29
8.3
59 27.6 469 34*3
52 24.3
138 10.1
211
TABLE I2XCV
-AVERAGE HUMBER OE DIFFERENT CLASSES OF EXTRA CURRICULUM ACTIVITIES
PARTICIPATED IN BT.WaOH - 1935 POPULATIQH
Bemidji
Num- Per
ber cent
Duluth
Num- Per
ber cent
Mankato
Num- Per
ber cent
Moorhead
Num- Per
ber cent
St. Cloud
Num- Per
ber cent
Winona
Num- Per
ber cent
Total
Num- Per
ber cent
High School
3*
2*8
3.7
3.3
3.8
3.6
3.5
College
1*3
1.2
1.3
1.5
1.2
1.7
1.4
212
TABLE LXXF
COMMUNITT PAHTXCrPATIOK OF WOMEN, YOUNG PEOPLE'S SOCIETIES
1935 POPULATION
Mankato Moorhead St. Cloud
Winona
Bemidji
Duluth
Total
Hum- Per Hum­ Per Hum­ Per Hum­ Per Hum­* Per Hum- Per Hum­ Per
ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent
Lutheran
Methodist
Presbyterian
Catholic
Christian Scientist
Episcopal
Christian
Seven Pay Adventists
Baptist
Congregational
Brethren
Protestant
Jewish
Mennonite
Evangelical
Naaarene
Swedish Mission
Mormon
Non-Members
44 31.9
16 11.6
9 6.5
4 2*9
3
1
1
1
2.2
•7
.7
.7
2
1.4
40 19.5
13 6.3
14 6.S
10 4.9
2 1.
1.9
4
2
6
1
1.
2.9
.5
4
1
1.9
•5
51 23.4 112 45.9
17
7.8 12 4.9
19 8.7
10 4.1
34 15.6
15 6.1
2
.9
2
•9
4 1.6
•4
4
1
1.6
1
.5
1.8
6 2.5
3 1.4 18 7.4
9
1
4.1
99 38.4
34 9.8
17 4.9
47 13.5
7
1
2.
.3
8
9
2.3
2.6
1
•4
4
1.1
2
.8
8
2.3
1
\4
3
.9
.7
1
.5
56 40.6 107 52.2
1
.5
71 32.6
62 25.4 111 31.9
45 21.
391 28.6
11.2
116 8.5
24
6 2.8 75 5.5
129 9.4
19 9.
4
.3
6 2.8 26 1.9
7
.5
4
•3
5 2.3 30 2.2
5 2.3 36 2.6
2
.1
2
.9 11
•8
1
.1
6
2.8
25 1.8
1
.1
5
•4
1
.1
96 44.9 503 36.8
213
Tmu ix m
ornmm: participation op'mas - 1935 popolaticn
Bemidji
Him-. Per
ber cent
Duluth
Hum- Per
ber cent
SUNDAY SCHOOL TEACHING
_ . ,,
Moorhead
Mankato
Hum- Per. - Hum- Per
ber cent ber cent
St. Cloud
Hum- Per
ber cent
Winona
Hum- Per
ber cent
Total
Hum- Per
ber cent
Yes
80 58,
96 46.8
120 55.1
155 63.5
159 45.7
101 47.2
711 51.9
No
38 42.
109 53.2
98 44.9
89 36.5
189':54.3
113 52.8
656 48.1
TABLE LOTII
OTHER COMmiTY HRTICIPATim OF W C M
1935 POPULATION
Bemidji
Duluth
Mankato Moorhead St» Cloud
Total
Winona
Hum- Ber Hum- Per Hum- Per Num- Per Hum- Per Hum- Per Num- Per
ber cent bar cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent
Fraternal
Societies
13
9.4
13
6.3
Musical
Organizations
42 30.4
33
16.1
59 28.
118 48.4 120 35.5
Other Community
Organizations
47
66 32.2
96 44.
69 28.3 101 29.
34.1
15
6.9
14
5.7
15
4.3
24 11.2
94
6.8
73 34.2 245 18.
55 25.7 434 31.8
215
TABEE LXXVIII
SPECIAL AWARDS FRO! HIGH SCHOOL AHD COMMUNITY, WOMEN - 1935 POFULATIOH
Bemidji
Num- Per
~berj cent
Valedictorian
Other
Scholarships
6
4.3
30 21.7
Duluth
Num­ Per
ber cent
5
2.4
31 15.1
Mankato
Num­ Per
ber cent
7
3.1
29 13.3
Moorhead
Num­ Per
ber cent
11
St. Cloud
Num- Per
ber cent
Winona
Num­ Per
ber cent
4.5
19
5.5
11
34 13.9
27
7.8
39 18.2
5.1
Total
Num­ Per
ber cent
59
4.3
190 13.9
Citizenship
4
2.9
8
3*8
9
4.1
7
2.9
16
4.6
6
2.8
50
3.7
Music
4
2.9
6
2.9
8
3.6
3
1.2
5
1.4
1
.5
27
2.
3
1.4
3
1.2
1
.3
3
1.2
3
.9
forensics
Agriculture
2
1.4
1
.5
7
.5
9
.7
2X7
EDUCATIONAL DATA:
HIGH SCHOOL ACHIEVEMENT
EDUCATIONAL A N D PROFESSIONAL GOALS
CLASSIFICATION A N D SPECIALIZATION
TABLE IfflX
QUARTH E PLACEMENT IK HICB SCHOOL m m k T W Q CLASS
OF STUDENTS IN MINNESOTA TEACHERS COLLEGES, 1935
Quartile
Bemidji
Num- Per
her eent
Duluth
Num- Per
her cent
Mankato
Num- Per
her eent
Moorhead
Num- Per
her cent
St* Cloud
Num- Per
her eent
Winona
Num- Per
her cent
Total
Num- Per
her cent
75-100
88 44*
99 43.2
135 45.
121 45*6
157 51.1
138 45.1
738 45.9
50- 75
50 25*
76 33*2
84 28*
64 24.2
91 29.6
100 32.7
465
25- 50
45 22.5
33 14*4
51 17.
53 20.
49 15*9
46 15.
17
21
9*2
29 10.
27 10**2
10
22
1- 25
@•5
3*3
7.2
28*9
277 17.3
126
7*9
218
TABLE Lffl
QUARTILE PLACEMENT IN COLLEGE APTITUDE TEST
OF STUDBSTS IN MINNESOTA TEAOHEHS COLLEGES, 1935
^uartlla
Bemidji
Num­ Per
ber cent
Manteto Moorhead
Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber eent ber eent
St. Cloud
Num- Per
ber cent
Winona
Num­ Per
ber cent
Total
Num­ Per
ber eent
6*9
24 14.7
26 11.3
12
7*6
45 14.1
32 13.7
145 12.2
to
8
1
o
21 24.2
43 26*4
49 21*4
27 17.1
62 19.4
50 21.4
252 21*2
25- 50
26 29*9
42 25*6
59 25*8
36 22.6
81 25.3
57 24*4
301 25*2
3d 39.
54 33.1
95 41*5
83 52.5
132 41.2
95 40*5
493 41.4
75-100
1- 25
6
Duluth
Num­ Per
ber eent
2X9
table
m n
QUARTHE PLACEMENT IN COLLEGE APTITUDE RANKING
OF STUDENTS IN MINNESOTA TEACHERS COLLEGES, 1935
^uartile
Bemidji
Num­ Per
ber eent
Duluth
Num­ Per
ber cent
Mankato
Num­ Per
ber cent
Moorhead
Num­ Per
ber cent
St. Cloud
Num­- Per
ber cent
Winona
Num­ Per
ber cent
Total
Num­ Per
ber cent
75-100
15 17*7
31 19.7
40 17.5
22 14.3
72 22.8
39 16.8
219 18.7
50- 75
28 33.
62 39.5
80 35.1
45 29.2
105 33.4
87 37.5
407 34.8
25- 50
32 37.6
50 31*9
77 33.8
62 40.3
108 34.3
83 35.8
412 35.1
1- 25
10 11.7
14
8*9
31 13.6
25 16.2
23
133 11.4
30
9.5
9.9
10
o
TABLE LXXXII
BELAY IK COLLEGE HJTRANCE, FRESHMAN - 1933 POPULATION
Total
Bemidji
Duluth
Mankato
Moorhead St. Cloud Winona
Hum- Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num- Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber cent ber cent ber eent ber eent ber eent ber eent ber eent
Year
college
entrance
Year
entrance
delayed
1935
0
67 76.1
72 67.3 109 69.0 107 74.3 102 61.5 100 76.3 557 70.0
1934
1
14 15.9
30 28.0
1933
2
5
5.7
1
.9
14
8.9
7
4.9
10
6.0
6
4.6
43
5.4
1932
3
2
2.3
2
1.9
8
5.0
8
5.6
6
3.6
3
2.3
29
3.7
1931
4?
2
1.9
3
1.9
5
.6
1930
5
4
.5
1929
6
2
1.3
3
.4
1928
7
1
•6
1927
8
1926
9
Before
1926
10 or over
21 13.2
19 13.2
1
.7
1
.7
1
.7
43 25.9
2
1.2
20 15.3 147 18.5
1
.8
1
•6
2
.3
1
.6
2
•3
1
.6
2
.3
1
.8
221
TABLE u m n
DELAY IN ENTRANCE OR BREAK IN COLLEGE ATTENDANCE, SOPHOMORE! - 1935 POPCLATION
Year
college
entrance
Year
entrance
delayed
Duluth
Bemidji
Manfc&to
Moorhead St. Cloud Winona
Total
Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num- Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent
1934
0
44 59.5
46 58.2
61 57.1
62 52.0
88 49.1
55 55.5 356 54.2
1933
1
10 13.5
18 22.7
12 11.2
28 23.5
25 13.9
18 1B.2 111 16.9
1932
2
8 10.8
7
8.8
8
6.7
21 11.7
9
9.1
68 10.3
1931
3
1
1.4
6
7.6
1930
4
4
5.4
1925-1930
5-9
6
8.2
Before
1925
10 and over 1
1.4
2
2.6
15 13.9
5
4.7
8
6.7
15
8.4
4
4.1
39
5.9
2
1.9
6
5.1
7
3.9
7
7.1
26
4.0
12 U.2
5
4.2
17
9.5
6
6.0
48
7.3
2
1.7
6
3.4
9
1.4
TABLE LH2OT
DELAY IN ENTRANCE OR BREAK 3N COLLEGE ATTENDANCE, JUNIOR - 1935 POPULATION
Year
Year
oollege
entrance
entrance
delayed
1933
0
10 41.7
22 44.
1932
1
4 16.7
11 22.
1931
2
2
1930
3
1929
4
1
1924-1929
5-9
Before
1924
10 and over 1
Unknown
Bemidji
Duluth
Mankato
Num- Per Him- Per Hum- Per
her cent her cent her cent
Moorhead St. Cloud
Winona
Num- Per Num- Per Num- Per
her cent her cent her cent
Total
Num- Per
her cent
26 54.2 118 45.5
17 47.3
17 45.9
26 40.6
3
8.3
8 21.6
10 15*6
4
8.3
40 15.4
7 14.
4
11*1
4 10.8
9 14.1
8
16.7
34 13.2
3 12.5
3
6.
4
11.1
2
5.4
6
9.4
2
4.2
20
7.7
4.2
2
4.
2
5.4
2
3.1
2
4.2
9
3.5
3 12.5
4
8.
5 13*8
2
5.4
7 10.9
4.2
1
2.
3
2
5.4
3
4.7
1
1.6
8.3
8.3
5 10.4
1
2.1
26 10.
10
3.9
2
•8
223
TABLE m Z 7 _
DELAY TS ENTRANCE OR BREAK IK £SOUEGE ATTENDANCE, SENIOR - 1935 POPULATION
Year
college
entrance
Year
entrance
delayed
Bemidji
Duluth
Mankato
Moorhead St. Cloud
Winona
Total
Hum- Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­■ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent
1932
0
6 21.4
11 42.2
12 48.
16 43.2
22 36.1
16 36.4
83 37.6
1931
1
8 28.6
4 15.4
5 20.
9 24.3
7 n;s
13 29.5
46 20.8
1930
2
4 14.3
2
7.7
4 16.
2
5.4
7 n. §
2
4.5
21
9.5
1929
3
3 10.7
1
3.8
4 10.8
7 11.5
2
4.5
17
7.7
1928
4
1
3.6
1
3.8
2
5.4
3
1
2.3
8
3.6
1923-1928
5-9
2
5.4
Before
1923
10 and orer 2
2
5.4
Unknown
4 14.3
7.1
3 11.3
4 15.4
4
16.
4.9
10 16.4
3
4.9
2
3.3
6 13.6
29 13.1
4
15
6.8
2
.9
9.
table
SM1AEY OF
Bemidji
Num- Per
ber cent
No delay
Freshman
Sophomore
Junior
Senior
Total
67
44
10
6
76.1
59.5
41.7
21.4
Delayed 1-4 years
Freshman
21 23.9
23 31.1
Sophomore
10 41.7
Junior
Senior
16 57.2
Total
Delayed 5-9 years
Freshman
Sophomore
Junior
Senior
Total
72
46
22
11
67.3
58.2
44.
42.2
DELAYED BY CLASSES
Mankato
Num- Per
ber eent
Moorhead
Num- Per
ber eent
St. Cloud
Num- Per
ber cent
Winona
Num- Per
ber cent
109
61
17
12
107
62
17
16
74.3
52.
45.9
43.2
102
88
26
22
61.5
49.1
40.6
36.1
100
55
26
16
76,3
55.5
54.2
36.4
557
356
118
83
1,114
70.4
54.2
46.2
37.6
57.6
29.
31.7
30.5
36.
34
50
16
17
23.7
42.
43.2
45.9
59
68
27
24
35.5
37,9
42.2
39.4
29
33
16
18
22.2
38.5
33.4
40.8
224
244
103
92
663
28.2
37.1
39,8
41.6
34.4
3 1.9
12 11.2
5 13.8
4 16.
3
5
2
2
2.1
4.2
5.4
5.4
69.
57.1
47.3
43.
Total
Num- Per
ber cent
f
'
•
35
31
23
8
32.7
39.1
46.
50.7
2 4.
4 8.
3 11.3
46
34
11
9
4 2.4
17 9.5
7 10.9
10 16.4
.8
1
6 6.
5 10.4
6 13.6
11 1.4
7.3
48
26 10.
29 13.1
114 5.9
♦2
2
1,4
9
1 1.4
10 3.9
1 2.
3 8.3
1 4.2
15
4
9.1
2 7.1
4 15.4
36
table does not include six Post Graduates and 19 unrecorded as to classification.
2
2
2
1.7
5.4
5.4
1
6
3
3
•6
3.4
4.7
4.9
1
.8
H
J
-
225
Delayed 10 years
or more
Freshman
Sophomore
Junior
Senior
Total
NOTE: This
6 8.2
3 12.5
4 14.3
Duluth
Num- Per
ber cent
Yms
n n n
TABLE IXOTII
NUMBER.ARD PEHCMPAGE OF 3T0DEHTS CLASSIFIED BT COIXEGE COURSE TAKING
1935 POFUIATIOH
Course
Bemidji
Hum-? Per
ber cent
Duluth
Num­ Per
ber cent
Mankato
Hum­ Per
ber eent
Moorhead
Hum­ Per
ber cent
St. Cloud
Hum­•Per
ber cent
Winona
Hum­ Per
ber eent
Total
Hum­ Per
ber
cent
2-year
104 48.5
102 58.7
143 43.6
170 50
249 52.5
145 43.5
913
51.8
4-year
110 51.5
145 54.8
184 56.1
170 50
224 47.5
177 53.2 1,010
46.7
8
.4
Unknown
7
2.8
Undecided
Special
Unclassified
10
3.9
1
♦3
6
1.8
6
.3
5
1.5
15
.8
226
table d q o t i i i
STUDENTS EXPECTING TO GRADUATE FROM COLLEGE ATTENDING, NOT INTENDING TO, AND UNCERTAIN
1935 POPULATION
Expect to graduate
171
33 15.4
40 15.1
Uncertain
9
4.3
18
6.8
Unknown
1
•4
£
.8
e
Do not
£04 77.3 262
o
CO
Mankato
Bemidji
Duluth
Winona
Moorhead St. Cloud
Total
Num­ Ber Num­ Ber Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Ber Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber eent ber cent ber cent ber eent ber cent ber eent ber cent
♦
o
CO
From
college
attending
34 10,3
32
9.7
£86 84.1 447 94.5 283 84.6 1,652 84.7
37 10.9
17
5.
14
3.
33 10.
191
9.8
12
2.5
17
5.1
105
5.4
1
.3
4
.1
TABLE U m x
T i m or INSTITOTICUS TO WHICH STOEENTS EXPECT TO TRANSFER
Transfer to
University of
Minnesota
Bemidji
Num­ Per
ber cent
24 57.1
Duluth
Num­ Per
ber cent
18 31.
Mankato
Num­ Per
ber cent
Moorhead
Num­ Per
ber cent
St. Cloud
Hum- Per
ber cent
27 40.9
18 33.3
11 42.4
Other
universities
4
9.5
4
6.9
3
4.5
Liberal Arts
Colleges
3
7.1
5
8.6
4
6.1
1
1.7
3
5.2
5
7.6
6 11.1
27 46.6
27
40.9
26 48.1
Other Teachers
Colleges
Special Technical
Schools
2
Undecided
4.8
9 21.5
3
1
5.6
Winona
Num­ Per
ber eent
Total
Num­ Per
ber eent
13 26.
111 37.5
2
7.7
2
4.
18
6.1
2
7.7
2
4.
16
5.4
1
2.
3
1.
2
4.
20
1.9
2
7.7
9 35.5
30 60.
6.8
128 43.2
TABLE XC
STUDENTS ENROLLED IN VARIOUS FIELDS OF TWO AND FOUR TEAR COURSES
1935 PGFUL&Tm
Mankato
Moorhead St. Cloud
Bemidji
Winona
Duluth
Total
Hum­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num--Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber eent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent
Two-year course
Rural
Kindergarten Primary
Intermediate
Junior High School
Junior College
Unknown
Four-year course
Rural
Kindergarten Primary
Intermediate
Junior High School
Senior High School
Junior College
Administration
Supervision
Special
Unknown
34 15.9
22 10.3
30 14.
18 8.4
37 14.1
24 9.1
34 12.9
1*5
4
1
•4
2
.8
29 8.9
21 6*4
50 15.2
6 1.8
19 5*8
18 5.5
.5
1
6 2.8
2
.9
9 4*2
62 29.
21 9*8
4
1.9
5 2.3
5 1.9
9 3*4
8 3.
21 7.9
76 28.8
6 2*3
1.5
4
1
.3
12 3.7
26 7.9
7.
23
96 29.5
8 2*4
6 1.8
1
•3
10
23
3*8
8.7
12
3.7
66 19*4 59 12*4
39 11.5 71 15.
62 18.2 113 23*9
.9
5 1.1
3
•2
1
23 6.8
13 3.8
26
7.6
82 24.1
14 4.1
5 1.5
.6
2
5
1.5
27 5.7
24 5.1
55 11.6
97 20.5
2
•4
15
.9
3.2
4
35 10.5 260 13.3
38 11*4 215 11.
43 12.9 332 17.
29 8.7 65 3.3
21
1.1
20 1.
12 3.6
22 6.6
43 12.9
75 22.6
21 6*3
9 2.7
.3
1
5 1.5
7
.4
89 4.3
95 4.9
177 9.1
488 25.
72 3.7
43 2.2
13
.7
15
.8
40 2.1
TABLE W l
FIRST AND SECOND MAJORS OF STODMTS IN MINNESOTA TEACHERS COIXEGES, 1935
Winona
Bemidji
Moorhead St. Cloud
Duluth
Mankato
Total
Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num- Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent
Art 1
2
3
1
3*3
1,4
2
3
1.6
3.
1
3
.8
2.9
1
3
.8
2.7
2
3
1.1
1.9
4
1
2.5
.7
13
14
1.6
2.
Education 1
2
3
4
3*3
5.5
1
2
.8
2.
1
2
•8
1.9
4
3.6
8
6
4.3
3.7
2
1.5
13
20
1.6
2.9
English 1
2
16 17.4
8 11*
French 1
2
21 16.9
14 14*
1
6
.8
6.
Geography 1
2
2
3
2.2
4.1
12
9
9.7
9.
German 1
2
4
5.5
2
2.
History 1
2
6
7
6.5
9.6
Industrial Arts 1
2
3
1
3.3
1.4
9 9.8
12 16.4
14 11.3
5 5.
33 26.4
12 10.7
38 20.4
30 18*5
2.4
1.
3
5
2.4
4.5
2
3
1.1
1.9
7 5.5
13 12.4
6
10
4.8
8.9
2
5
1.1
3.1
1
.6
3
1
35 27.6
24 22.8
7
1
5.5
1.
8
5
6.3
4.8
26 20.8
17 15.2
8
1
6.4
•9
18 14.4
11 9.8
32 17.1
34 21*
8
1
4.3
.6
26 13.9
17 10.5
27 16.7 155 19*
25 18.7 100 14.6
1
2
2
.6
1.5
10
17
1.2
2.5
1.5
29
42
3.5
6.1
7
1.
29 17.9 145 17.7
22 16.3 115 16.8
13
8.
22 13.6
17 12.7
39
4
4.8
•6
97 11.8
67
9.8
230
Mathematics 1
2
17 13.7
11 11*
20 15.7
11 10.5
TABLE XCI (continued)
FIRST AND SECCKD MAJORS OF STUDHJTS IN MINNESOTA TEACHERS COLLEGES, 1935
Bamidji
Mankato Moorhead St. Cloud
Winona
Total
Duluth
Num­
Per
Num­
Num­
Per
Num­
Num­
Num­ Per
• Per
Per Num­ Per
Per
ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent
Music 1
2
5
1
5*4
1*4
12
6
9.7
6.
9
6
7*1
5.7
9
8
7.1
7.6
22 18.3
22 20.9
Physical Education 1
2
11 12.
9 12.3
8 6.5
11 11.
Science 1
2
18 19.5
7 9.6
21 16.9
12 12.
Social Science 1
2
16 17.4
16 21.9
15 12.1
19 19.
5
9
3.9
8.6
9.6
1*2
14
7
8.7
5.2
67
27
8,2
3.9
6 4.8
13 11.6
26 13.9
14 8.6
14
12
8.6
9.
74
67
9.1
9.8
12 9.6
21 18.7
21 11.2
27 16.7
20 12.3 114 14.
21 15.7 110 16.
3
10
4 2.1
19 11.7
18 11.1
23 17.2
9
5
7.2
4.5
2.4
8.9
18
2
61 7.5
96 14.
231
TABLE XCII
TYPE OF W M EXPECTANT TRANSFERS WILL TAKE
Duluth
Mankato
Bemidji
Total
Moorhead St. Cloud
Winona
Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­•Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent
Teaching
Scientific
Heme Economies Dietetics
library
Business
Social Welfare
Medical
Medical Technician
Pharmacy
Nursing
law
Art
Music
Theatre
Engineering
Journalism
Undertaking
Agriculture
forestry
Ministry
Aviation
General Education
Undecided
13 25.
5 11.9
4
1
9.6
2*4
1
1
1
2
2.4
2*4
2.4
4.7
2
3
3
1
6 10.3
2 3.4
1 1.7
4 6.9
6.9
4
3 5.2
1 1.7
3 5.2
3
2
4
1
2
5.2
3.4
6.9
1.7
3.4
4.7
7.1
7.1
2.4
15 22*8
1 .1.5
1
1
6
9.1
2
2
3.
3.
4
6.1
1
1.5
4
1
6.1
1.5
1
1
5 11.9
22 38.1
11 20.
1.5
1.5
28 42.4
1.9
1.9
5 19.2
1
3.8
3
1
1
1
6.
2.
2.
2.
6 23.
1
2
1.9
3.7
1
1
1.9
1.9
1
2
2
1
1
1.9
3.7
3.7
1.9
1.9
2 3.7
1 1.9
26 48.1
1
3.8
1
1
3.8
3.8
3
3
6.
6.
3.8
2
1
1
4.
2.
2.
4
1
2
8.
2#
4.
1
10 38.6
27 54.
53 17.9
9 3.
4
1.3
6 2.
16 5.4
8 2.7
7 2.4
5 1.7
1
.3
5 1.7
12 4.1
10 3.4
2
.7
2
.7
9 3.
7 2.4
7 2.4
2
.7
6 2.
2
.7
4
1.4
.3
1
118 39.9
232
TABLE 2CIII
TEARS STUDENTS EXPECT TO TEACH- 1935 POPULATION
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
10-15
Over 15
Uncertain
Unknown
Mankato
Hum- Per
ber cent
Moorhead
Hum- Per
ber cent
St. Cloud
Hum- Per
ber cent
Winona
Hum- Per
ber cent
Total
Hum- Per
ber cent
6.8
22 6.4
.3
1
28 8.2
30 8.8
35 10.3
72 21.2
15 4.4
1.2
4
7 2.1
.3
1
20 5.9
3
.9
22 6.5
4 1.2
76 22.3
9 1.9
3
.7
26 5.5
28 5.9
27 5.7
118 24.8
27 5.7
12 2,5
25 5.3
29 8.7
2
.6
15 4.5
13 3.9
21 6.3
53 15.9
18 5.4
8 2.4
120 6.1
10
.5
94 4.8
96 4.9
7.1
139
401 20.7
107 5.5
38 1.9
59 3.
5
.3
135 6.9
37
1.9
213 10.8
60 3.
438 22.6
Bemidji
i W - For
ber cent
Duluth
Hum- Per
ber cent
9 4,2
4
1.9
7 3,3
8 3,8
22 10.3
50 23,4
14 6.5
5 2,3
5 2,3
2
•9
8 3.8
8 3.8
18 8.4
13 6.1
41 19.2
31 11.7
20
7 2.6
7 2.6
13 4.9
37 14.1
15 5.7
6 2,3
6 2.3
1
.4
19 7.2
2
.7
29 11.
7 2,7
84 31.9
11 3,3
10 3.
21 6.6
71 21.6
18 5,5
3
.9
16 4.8
25
7.6
6 1.8
34 10.3
8 2,4
85 25.9
35 7.4
15 3.2
65 13.8
23 4.9
60 12.7
1
•3
26 8.4
3
.9
45 13.5
5 1.5
92 27.7
235
CHAPTER V I I I
A N ANALYSIS OF WITHDRAWALS
In this chapter are considered the findings of a study
of the students withdrawing from the Minnesota teachers1
colleges before the completion of their course, during the
years 1931-1935•
Personal data, data concerning family bac k ­
ground, high school achievement, and causes for withdrawal
are presented*
The problem of withdrawals»
One very serious problem
confronting every college is the large number of students who
do not persist until the finish of their college course.
Studies in this field Indicate that from one-third to onehalf of all entering freshmen withdraw before completing the
course registered for.*3-
Whether these withdrawals represent
a complete waste of time and money on the part of the indi­
vidual and the institution concerned, or whether, as In the
ease of the teachers*
colleges, when public opinion and law
insist that anyone graduating from h igh school has a right
to matriculate, the time these individuals spend in college
^ Ruth V* Pope, Factors Affecting the Elimination of
Women Students From Selected Co-educatlonal Colleges of
Liberal Arts (Contributions to Education, N o . 485V Bureau of
Publications, Teachers* College, Columbia University, 1931),
Chapter I.
235
should he looked upon as a probationary period,
is
problematical.
Source of information.
In this study an examination
of registrars* records revealed that 3$063 individuals e n ­
rolled in the six colleges, 1931-1935 inclusive, withdrew
before completing either the two or the four-year course.
Information was tabulated from the records and the reasons
for withdrawal,
if not indicated by the records, were
checked by college officials acquainted with the case.
The
findings are summarized in the accompanying tables to be
found on the following pages and at the end of the chapter
and comparisons are drawn between this group and others to
see If the withdrawal group varies in any Important respects.
I.
PERSONAL DATA REGARDING- STUDENTS WHO WITHDRAW
Sex.
Of the withdrawal group, 66.6 per cent were
women, 3 3 «4 per cent men.
As the total graduating group of
the same period was composed of 83*6 per cent women and
16.4 per cent men, the men showed a more pronounced tendency
to withdraw before completing their course.
Age.
2
The age of the individuals withdrawing does not
2 Detailed table, P* 255*
236
seem to vary greatly with the general run of the college
*5
population.
In the study of Pope, previously quoted,
it was
found that the older the individual was at the time of
entry the greater the tendency to withdraw before completion.
If anything, the reverse is true of the teachers' colleges.
Graduation from teachers* college carries with it a definite
professional qualification giving a definite goal for the
older student while further general education In a liberal
arts college may not lead to an immediate seen advantage.
Parentage.
Table XCIV shows the parentage of the
withdrawal group in contrast to the graduation groups.
A decidedly lower percentage of native white of
native parentage was found among the withdrawals than among
the two-year graduates, 45.2 per cent as compared with
58*7 per cent.
On the other hand, the four-year graduates
show a slightly lower proportion in this classification,
42*1 per cent.
The native whites of mixed parentage are
approximately the same In the three groups,
of the withdrawals,
18.1 per cent
14.8 per cent of the two-year graduates,
^ Detailed table, p. 256.
4
Pope, o p . c i t . , p. 31*
4
237
T A B L E X C IV
COMPARISON OF PARENTAGE OF WITHDRAWAL
A N D GRADUATING GROUPS .MINNESOTA TEACHERS* COLLEGES
1931-1935
Withdrawals
Per cent
Two-year
Per cent
Four-year
Per cent
Native White of
Native parentage
45.2
58*7
42*1
Native White of
mixed parentage
18* 1
14.6
21*8
Native White of
foreign parentage
36.0
25*8
350
Foreign horn
.4
0
.5
Other race
•2
0
•3
238
and 21*8 per cent of the four-year graduates belonging in
this category*
The native whites of foreign parentage
comprise 10*2 per cent more of the withdrawal group than
of the two-year graduating group and only *7 per cent more
than is found in the four-year graduating group.
Parental occupation.
A comparison of parental
occupation of the withdrawal group with the two and fouryear graduates and the present population is given in
Table XCV.
These data present little evidence of a factor of
selectivity of parental occupation.
While the professional
and semi-professional groups are smaller among withdrawals
than among the four-year graduates and the present popula­
tion, they rank higher than among the two-year group.
The
skilled occupations furnish a larger group of the withdraw­
als than is found among the present population or the twoyear graduates but a slightly smaller percentage than is
found in the four-year graduating group.
The semi-skilled
occupations are represented in about the same proportion
in the graduating and withdrawal groups, likewise little
variation is found in the proportion of unskilled occupations
in the various groups*
The farming group is smaller among
the withdrawals than among the present population or the two-
239
T A B IE XC V
OCCUPATIONS OF PARENTS OF WITHDRAWAL A N D GRADUATING GROUPS
. O F MINNESOTA TEACHERS' COLIEGE 1931-1935..
Parental
occupation
Withdrawal
TwoYear
Fouryaar
Present
Professional
6.3
4.6
9.5
7.3
Semi-Professional
6*9
5.6
8.6
10.8
Skilled
29-6
20.2
31.4
25.6
Semi-Skilled
19-1
20.4
18.3
14.6
4*6
5.6
5.6
3.2
33.4
43*6
26.6
37.6
Unskilled
Agricultural
•
240
year group tout larger than among the four-year graduating
group.
IX*
EDUCATIONAL DATA
H i g h school attended.
Tatole XCVI shows the location
of the h i g h school attended toy the withdrawals as compared
with the graduating groups*
Because of the much larger group of two-year
graduates, five times as many as the four-year group, it
is evident that the local high schools furnish a much
larger numtoer of withdrawals than they do of graduates, and
a much smaller numtoer of withdrawals occurs among those
whose h igh school experience was had at a distance from the
college.
High school achievement *
The high school and test
achievement of the withdrawals is compared in Tatole XCVII,
page 242, with the achievement of the 1935 college
population*
While this comparison is not as valid as a
comparison with the graduating group would have been, it is
made because of the very small numtoer of graduates whose
records were obtainable from the University Testing Bureau
which started its state-wide testing program too late to
^ Detailed tatole , P» 263*
241
TABLE X C V I
LOCATION OF THE HIGH SCHOOL ATTENDED
BY THE WITHDRAWALS AS COMPARED WITH
THE. GRADUATING GROUPS . . .
Location
Local
Withdrawals
P e r cent
Two-year
Per cent
Four-year
Per cent
29*6
13.2
38.6
8.1
7*9
5*2
Adjacent Counties or
within 50 miles
27.9
30.1
19*9
Other in State
26.6
42.5
27.4
7.8
6.3
8.3
Sam© County
Out of State
242
TABLE XCVII
QUART ILE PLACEMENT IN HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATING CLASS
.IN COLLEGE APTITUDE TEST, A N D IN COLLEGE
APTITUDE BATING OP 1935 POPULATION.AND
..WITHDRAWALS 1931-1935 MINNESOTA
TEACHERS’ COLLEGES
•
■ ::
-
■-
•
-
1st
Per cent
Quartlie placement
2nd
3rd
Per cent
Per cent
4th
Per cent
H igh School
1935 population
Withdrawal group
7.9
17.3
28.9
45.9
22.8
2 5 .6
27*4
24.3
•
College Aptitude Test
1935 population
41.4
2 5 .2
21.2
12.2
Withdrawal group
59.0
22.6
11.1
7.3
College Aptitude Rating
1935 population
11.4
3 5 .I
34.8
18.7
Withdrawal group
31.6
38.5
22.8
7.1
have data on any great number of the graduating group*
This comparison shows the withdrawal group definitely
lower in ability as measured by hig h sehool achievement and
by the College Aptitude Test, than the present population*
While 74*8 per cent of the 1935 college population was drawn
from the upper half of their graduating classes only 52*5
per cent of the withdrawals ranked in this group*
The same
general condition is shown by the test, 33-4 P©** cent of
the present population is found in the upper two quart lies
and only 18*4 per cent of the withdrawals*
Combining these
measures in the college aptitude ranking the withdrawal
group furnishes three times the number found in the lowest
quartlie as does the present group of students, and only
half as many are found in the upper half.
While top ranking
does not Insure against withdrawal, the very limited achieve­
ment of a large proportion of these students indicate a
guidance problem for b oth the high schools and the colleges.
III.
CAUSES FOR WITHDRAWAL
Academic f a i l u r e .
6
The principal cause for withdrawal
was academic failure as stated in Table XCVIII.
As indi­
cated in the findings above, the group as a whole is
6
Detailed tables, pp. 2 5 8 -9 .
244
T A B L E X C V IIX
REASONS FOR WITHDRAWAL OF STUDENTS
FROM MINNESOTA TEACHERS' COLLEGES 1931-1935
Major reason
Per cent
Academic failure
Finances
30*6
'
Supporting causes
Per
cent
Academic failure
Poor high school work
6.1
.8
5*7
7*3
Finances
Health
Health
Desire to transfer
2*7
6.2
Discipline
Desire to transfer
Home conditions
1.1
General dissatisfaction
Failure social
adjustment
5*1
2.2
Teaching position
Other position
Marriage
Discipline
Other causes
Nothing known
No record
5*1
14* 1
*7
1.4
9*7
1 3 .8
*3
*5
5.9
*9
Other causes
No supporting cause
given
79*9
245
definitely lower In achievement than the student group as
a whole so It is not surprising to find 3 0 *6 per cent
eliminated by the colleges or leaving of their own volition
because of failure.
Financial problems.
The second major cause for w i t h ­
drawal was to accept a position, this accounting for 21*4
per cent of the cases;
14.1 per cent of these were teaching
positions and the remainder other work:*
Financial diffi­
culty which was given as the primary factor for only 5*1
per cent of the cases was undoubtedly present in many of
the other instances.
The lenient certification laws of
the state allowing individuals to teach with less than a
two-year course must be looked upon as a factor of
significance.
In comparison w ith the above findings, Pope's find­
ings may be summarized.
A higher withdrawal rate among
students living in the city of the college's location, no
variation in withdrawal rate when students are compared as
to size of city of residence or size of high school
graduated from, no variation on basis of parental occupation,
decided variation on the basis of high school rank, and
native intelligencefound to be:
The major causes for withdrawal were
finances, 31 per cent; academic failure,
cent; desire for other type of school,
11 per
10 per cent; failure
246
to adjust socially,
9 per
marriage, 7 per cent; and
These findings are
cent; health., 7 per cent;
discipline, 6 per cent.^
comparable to those of the present
study except in the relative importance
and finances*
of academic failure
It was not feasible in the present study to
attempt to carry the analysis further and so it is not
known,
for example, h o w many of the 21*4 per cent withdraw­
ing to accept a position did so primarily for financial
reasons, or to what extent various other factors may have
Influenced class work to produce academic failure.
It
would seem from the general findings regarding the economic
background of the students that the financial cause for
withdrawal as Indicated is much too low.
Other causes*
Among the reasons of minor Importance
it is significant and highly typical of the student
population that only *7 per cent were disciplinary cases.
That the personnel officers and departments have an
unsolved problem is evidenced by the fact that nothing
definite was known as to the reason for the withdrawal of
nearly a quarter of the entire group*
Further evidence of
this is seen in that nearly 80 per cent of the cases no
^ Pope, o p . c l t .. pp. 47-9-
247
supporting reasons were given.
Of the entire withdrawal group 14*1 per cent were
admitted by transfer from other institutions, 85*9 per
cent were admitted without previous college experience,
13*3 pe*1 cent were issued transcripts for transfer purposes
after their t e a c h e r s 1 college experience while 86.7 per
cent either had no further college work or were willing to
forego any credit earned, for no transcripts were issued
for this percentage.
Just over one-fifth of the withdrawals occur during
or immediately after the first quarter of college work and
74.3 per cent take place by the end of the first year.
Another fifth occur during or at the end of the second
year leaving only some 5 per cent who drop out during the
third and fourth years.
This same fact has been noted in
Q
other studies.
Elimination for academic failure, with­
drawal for reasons of dissatisfaction, and desire to
transfer are usually operative early in the college
experience, and there seems to be a greater incentive to
hang on in the face of financial difficulty the nearer the
student comes to the end of his training period.
While a statistical study of withdrawal leaves much
Ibid., p. 21
248
*
to be desired as the very nature of the problem is indi­
vidual in character, the findings show one very definite
condition that needs further study, the large number of
students in this group of low achievement.
The basic
problem is one of policy, whether the teachers* colleges
should continue to matriculate large numbers of incom­
petents and look upon the first year as a period of testing
and selection or whether a more careful policy of selection
should be adopted before allowing matriculation.
At
present, the colleges must accept any and all high school
graduates but undoubtedly many of those in the lower p e r ­
centiles could be discouraged and dissuaded from entrance.
Fortunately or unfortunately there Is never perfect cor­
relation between hig h school achievement or test result and
college work.
Some who place in the lowest quartlie do
manage to graduate from college and do acceptable teaching
while many in the upper quart lies do not finish.
Because
of this one school of thought Insists the democratic
procedure is to allow matriculation to all who finish high
school, the other holds that restriction to those of
demonstrated ability is more truly representative of the
philosophy of the greatest good to the greatest number.
As
long as the public insist on confusing the size of a college
with excellence of its work and as long as the state
24 9
legislature increases appropriations only with increased
enrollments and lias a tendency to curtail financial support
with any decrease in numbers the colleges are not going to
have great difficulty in maintaining belief in the prior
school of thought*
IV.
1*
SUMMARY
M e n show a greater tendency to withdraw before
completing a course of study than do women.
2*
Ages of students withdrawing are comparable
with other groups*
3*
The parentage of the students of the withdraw­
ing group tend to more nearly resemble the parentage of the
four-year graduates than the two-year graduates.
Larger
proportions of mixed and foreign parentage are found than
in the present college population.
4.
Local residence and graduation from local high
school is found more often in the withdrawal group than in
the groups completing their work.
5-
Agriculture and skilled trades lead in parental
occupations of the withdrawal group*
There is no evidence
of selectivity o n this basis*
6.
The withdrawal group is definitely inferior in
educational achievement as measured by high school rank
250
and college aptitude teat than the present population.
7*
Academic difficulty was the cause for withdrawal
of 3 0 per cent,
leaving to accept a position caused the
withdrawal of 20 per cent more.
8.
The colleges had no information as to the reason
for withdrawal
9-
of 2 3 per cent.
The remainder withdrew for other causes,
financial difficulty, desire to transfer toanother school,
and general dissatisfaction being the more important.
TABULATION GP DETAILED DATA
REGARDING WITHDRAWALS
PERSONAL DATA
TABLE 303IZ
SEX OF STODSOTS WHHDRAWINO FROM
MMTESOTA. TEACHERS C0LLB5ES 1931-1935
Sex
Bemidji
Hum- Per
ber cent
Duluth
Hum- Per
ber cent
Mankato
Nam- Per
ber cent
Moorhead
Nam- Per
ber eent
st« cloud
Nam- Per
ber eent
Winona
Nam- Per
ber eent
Male
108 39a0
143 38*6
186 36.3
177 28.6
201 29.7
209 32.6 1,024 33.4
Female
163 61.0
828 61.4
326 63.7
443 71.4
469 70.3
410 67.4 2,039 66.6
Total
271
371
512
620
670
619
Total
Nam- Per
ber cent
3,063
TABLE C
AGE AT COLLEGE ENTRANCE OF STUDENTS WITHDRAWING
FROM MINNESOTA TEACHERS COLLEGES 1931-1935
Bemldji
Hum- Per
)er cent
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
0v<
TTnl
11
41
71
52
36
13
9
1
5
2
2
3
5
1
4*1
15.1
26.2
19.2
13.3
4.8
3.3
.4
1.8
.7
.7
1.1
1.8
.4
4
15
1.5
5.5
Duluth
Hum- Per
her cent
Manlcato
Hum- Per
her cent
Moorhead
Hum- Per
her cent
St. Cloud
Hum- Per
ber cent
Winona
Hum- Per
her cent
3
51
95
90
46
21
10
15
4?
4
.8
13.7
25.6
24.2
12.4
5.7
2.7
4.0
1.1
1.1
4
1
1.1
.3
1
3
23
.3
.8
6.2
25 4.9
97 18.9
149 29.1
101 19.7
48 9.4
25 4.9
13 2.5
7 1.4
5 1.0
3
.6
5 1.0
2
•4
.2
1
1
.2
2
•4
12
64
137
95
55
34
15
5
12
6
2
3
6
1
5
7
161
4
85
122
150
71
40
17
21
6
2
2
1
3
3
2
10
131
10
82
173
128
68
30
21
4
5
5
5
4
1
4
1
9
69
28
5.5
1.9
10.4
22.1
15.3
8.9
5.5
2.4
•8
1.9
1.0
.2
•5
1.0
.2
.8
1.1
26.0
.6
12.7
18.4
22.4
10.6
5.9
2.5
3.1
.9
.3
.3
.1
.4
•4
.3
1.5
19.6
1.6
13.3
28.0
20.7
11.0
4.9
3.4
.6
.8
.8
.8
.6
.2
•6
.2
1.5
11.1
TABLE Cl
mm
PARENTAGE OF STUDENTS WITHDRAWING
MINNESOTA TEACHERS COLLEGES 1931-1935
Bemidji
Num­ Per
ber eent
Duluth
Num­ Per
ber cent
Mankato
Num­ Per
ber cent
Native white
native parentage 155 57.1
159 42,9
364 71.0
80 15.6
Parentage
Native white
mixed parentage
42 15,5
64 17.2
Native white
foreign
parentage
63 23,2
123 33.2
Foreign bom
white
1
A
Other race
Unknown
10
3.7
2
.5
1
.3
22
5,9
Moorhead
Num­ Per
ber cent
St. Cloud
Num­- Per
ber cent
60
9.7
82 12.2
13
2.1
225 33.6
73 11.8
261 39,0
51
8.2
4
.6
12
*4
3
.5
6
.2
67 10.8
315
10.3
35
6.8
459
74.0
3
•6
2
.3
2
30
5.9
86 13.9
.3
100 14.9
Winona
Num­ Per
ber cent
Total
Num­ Per
ber cent
421 68.1 1,271 40,5
497
16.2
992 32.4
255
mATiTTP
r»TT
XiM«3«Uy O
il
occupation op eabents
of students withdrawing
I. Professional
1.Large owners
2.Professional
3.Executive
4.8
11
4.8
13
3
4.1
.9
37
1
33
3
11. Semi-Professional 16
4.Middle owners
5.Semi-Professional 9
6.Managerial
7
6.9
38 12.0
1
.3
15 4.7
22 7.0
26
2
19
5
in .
Skilled
7.Skilled
small owner
8.Supervisory
9.Commercial
10.Clerical
ll.Building trades
12.Machine tirades
13.Printing trades
14.Transportation
IV. Semi-Skilled
11
3.9
3.0
16
5.0
7.2
8.8
.2
7.9
.7
18
18
3,8
36
3
6.7
.5
6.2
.5
4.5
1.2
27
5.7
15
12
3.2
2.5
33
1
17
15
6.1
.2
3.1
2.8
3.8
39
•
Total
Per
cent
3 1l
Occupation
Bemidji
Mankato Moorhead St. Cloud
Winona
Duluth
Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num- Per Num­ Per
ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent
o' tsS
m m mmssm. teachers colleges 1931-1935
36
1
7.2 158
1
7.0 147
.2 10
5.9
.4
33
2
18
13
6.4 173
•4
6
3.5
93
2.5 74
6.9
.2
3.7
3.0
37
6.3
.0
59 25.5 100 31.6 138 32.8 134 28.0 169 31.0 140 27.4 740 29.6
18
15
10
5
5
4
7.8
6.4
4.3
2.2
2.2
1.7
2
.9
50 21.6
15.Production and
2
.9
manufacturing
16.Transportation and
couxaunication
7 3.0
32 7.7
17 4.1
46 10.9
10 2.4
17 4.1
12 2.9
•2
1
.5
3
31
24
28
8
15
19
2
7
162
103
176
58
79
107
.6 13
1.6 42
6.5
4.1
7.0
2.3
3.2
4.3
.5
1.7
69 21.8
78 18.5
69 14.4 113 20.8 100 19.5 479
19.1
6.5
5.0
5.9
1.7
3.1
3.8
•4
1.6
38
27
43
9
15
28
4
5
7.0
5.0
7.9
1.6
2.8
5.1
.7
.9
6.4
2.9
6.3
2.2
2.5
4.9
3.2
1.6
5.4
4.7
4.4
6.0
♦9
5.4
10
5
17
15
14
19
3
17
33
15
32
11
13
25
3
8
7
2.2
11
2.6
5
1.0
19
3.5
18
3.5
62
2.5
22
7.0
21
4.9
22
4.6
32
5.9
23
4.5 127
5.1
TABLE CIX (continued)
OCCUPATION OF PARENTS OF STUDENTS WITHDRAWING
FROM MINNESOTA TEACHERS COLLEGES 1931-1935
Occupation
Bemidji
Mankato Moorhead St. Cloud
Winona
Total
Duluth
Hum­ Per Hum­ Per Hum­ Per Hum­ Per Hum­- Per Hum­ Per Num­ Per
ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber eent
17.£taall owners
18.Small managers
19 .Public service
20.Personal service
V.
Unskilled
VI. Agriculture
8
4
16
13
3.5
1.7
6.9
5.6
14
3
6
17
4.4
.9
1.9
5.4
11
6
17
12
2.6
1.4
4.1
2.9
10
5
18
9
2.1
1.0
3.8
1.9
13
3
25
21
2.4
.5
4.6
3.9
23
4
15
17
4.5
•8
2.9
3.3
79
25
97
89
3.1
1.0
3.9
3.5
13
3.6
43 13.5
6
1.4
16
3.3
19
6.1
19
3.7 116
4.6
82 35.6
51 16.1 136 32.3 214 44.8 171 31.4 183 35.8 837 33.4
TABU c m
MAJOR CAUSE OF STUDENTS
WITHDRAWING FROM MINNESOTA TEACHERS COLLEGES 1931-1935
Cause
Bemidji
Duluth
Mankato Moorhead St. Cloud
Winona
Total
Num­ Her Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­• Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent
Academic failure
65 24*0
79 21*2 212 41.4 220 35.5 132 19.7 229 37.0 937 30.6
Finances
27
9.9
43 11.6
7
2.6
12
Other position
16
5.9
Health
10
Transfer
7
1.4
23
3.7
5.7
18
3.2
36
7.0
49
7.9 119 17.8
8
25
6.5
50
9*8
15
2.4
89 13.3
31
5.0 224
7.5
3,7
22
5.9
7
1.4
7
1.1
12
1.8
26
4.2
84
2.7
16
5.9
60 16.2
64 12.5 110 17.8 106 15.9
35
5.7 191
6.2
3
1.1*
4
1.1
1
.2
4
•6
19
2.8
2
.3
33
1.1
General dissatis­
faction
13
4.8
30
8.1
10
1.9
5
.8
94 14.0
4
.6 156
5.1
Marriage
14
5.2
11
3.0
3
.6
9
1.5
23
3.4
8
1.3
68
2.2
Discipline
1
*4
3
.8
4
.8
2
.3
7
1.0
4
•6
21
.7
Other causes
1
.4
3
.8
5
1.0
1
1.1
32
5.2
42
1.4
Nothing known
3
1.1
4.3
8
1.3 297
9.7
Teaching position
Heme conditions
No record
95 35.0
72 19.4
9
2.4
38
91 17.7
94 15.2
29
4.3
82 13.2
1
22
2.9 156
5.1
1.3 431 14.1
.1 214 34.6 423 13.8
TABLE CIV
SUPPORTING CAUSES OFSTUDEWTS
WITHDRAWING FROM MINNESOTA TEACHERS COLLEGES 1931-1935
Cause
Mankato Moorhead St. Cloud
Bemidji
Duluth
finona
Hum­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num- Per Num­ Per
ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent
Academic failure
18
6.6
28
7.5
14
2.7
28
4.5
Poor High School
preparation
4
1.5
4
1.1
5
1.0
3
.5
31 11,4
29
7.8
4
.8
7
.7
1
.3
Finances
Health
1.0
1.1
187
6.1
24
.8
2
.3
174
5.7
4
.6
3
•5
10
.3
14
.5
182
5.9
29
.9
1
.0
170 62.8 270 72.9 464 90.5 540 87.1 395 59.0 603 97.4 2f442
79.9
2
Desire for different
type of school
35 12.9
Failure in social
adjustment
11
Ho supporting cause
given
8
6
1.1 101 15.1
Discipline
Other causes
93 13.9
Total
Num­ Per
ber cent
4.1
37 10.0
1
.3
1
.3
1
.2
2
•3
11
1.6
23
4.5
36
5.8
46
6.9
1
.2
4
.6
12
1.8
5
.8
259
EDUCATIONAL DATA
TABLE GY
LOCATION OF HIGH SCHOOL FROM WEIGH STUDENTS
WITHDRAWING FROM MINNESOTA TEACHERS COLLEGES 1931-1935 GRADUATED
Location of
High School
Winona
Mankato Moorhead St. Cloud
Duluth
Total
Bemidji
Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num- Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent
Local
101 57.2 206 55.5 154 30.0
Same County as
College attending
6
2.2
62 16.7
50
9.8
90 14.5 129 19.3 166 26.8 846 27.6
34
5.5
48
7.2
31
5.0 231
Adjacent Counties or
within 50 miles in
Minnesota
79 29.2
48 12.9 152 29.7 121 19.5 184 27.5 195 31.6
Other Counties in
Minnesota
58 21.4
23
Within 50 miles but
out of State
Out of State
21
7.8
Foreign
Unknown
6
2.2
7.5
779 25.4
6.3 112 21.8 203 32.7 234 34.9 128 20.7 758 24.7
3
.8
9
2.4
1
•3
19
5.1
28
5.6
55
8.9
20
3.2. 40
5.9
21
3.4
79
2.6
38
6.1 156
5.1
3
.1
6.1 211
6.9
2
16
3.1
97
8.9
35
5.2
38
♦3
261
TABLE GVI
OUASTILE PLACEMENT IN-HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATING GLASS
OF STUDENTS WITHDRAWING FRCEi MINNESOTA TEACHERS COLLEGES 1931-1935
Duluth
Num­ Per
ber cent
Mankato
Num­ Per
ber cent
Moorhead
Num­ Per
ber cent
St. Cloud
Num- Per
ber cent
Winona
Num­ Per
ber cent
Total
Num­ Per
ber cent
Quartlie
Bemidji
Num­ Per
ber cent
75-100
44 19,4
49
23.0
94 22.2
88 29.3
109 25.6
131 24.8
515 24.3
50- 75
61 26*9
55 25.8
118 27.8
86 28.7
118 27.7
142 27.0
580 27.4
25- 50
60 26*4
61 28.6
115 27.2
62 20.7
105 24.6
139 26.4
542
1- 25
62 27.3
48 22.6
97 22.8
64 21.3
94 22.1
115 21.8
480 22.8
25.6
262
TABLE CHI
QUARTH E PLACEMMT IN COLLEGE APTITUDE TEST
OF STUDENTS WITHDRAWING FROM MINNESOTA TEACHERS COLLEGES 1931-1935
Quartile
Bemidji
Num­ Per
ber cent
Duluth
Num­ Per
ber cent
Mankato
Num­ Per
ber cent
Moorhead
Num­ Per
ber cent
St* Cloud
Num­-Per
ber cent
Winona
Num­• Per
ber cent
Total
Num­ Per
ber cent
4.1
11
8.5
34 10.2
21
6.8
28
6.4
30 7.3
131
7.3
50- 75
19 11.2
11
8.5
40 12.0
24
7.8
44 10.0
61 14.8
199
11.1
25- 50
38 22.4
34 26.2
81 24.3
63 20.5
105 23.8
85 20.6
406 22.6
1- 25
106 62.3
74 56.8
178 53.5
199 64.9
263 59.8
237 57.3
1*057 59.0
75-100
7
ro
Q\
v>i
TABLE C1TIII
quarthe m m m r in college aptitude ranking
OF STUDENTS WITHDRAWING FROM.MINNESOTA TEACHERS COLLEGES 1931-1935
Quartlie
75-100
Bemidji
Num­ Per
ber cent
9
5.5
Duluth
Num­ Per
ber cent
4
3.5
Mankato
Num­ Per
ber cent
29
8.S
Moorhead
Num­ Per
ber cent
18
6.0
St. Cloud
Num­■Per
ber cent
31
7.3
Winona
Num­ Per
ber cent
33
8.2
Total
Num­ Per
ber cent
124
7.1
50- 75
32 19.4
33 27.1
70 21.1
76 25.3
90 21.1
97 24.0
398 22.8
25- 50
59 35.7
M
XT
36.0
131 39.6
120 40.0
169 39.7
150 37.2
673 38.5
1- 25
€5 39.4
41 33.6
101 30.5
86 28.7
136 31.9
124 30.6
553 31.6
264
TABLE CIX
TRANSFERS AMONG STUDENTS WITHDRAWING
FROM MINNESOTA TEACHERS COLLEGES 1931-1935
Transfers
Transfer from
other colleges
First college
enrollment
Transfer to
other college
Unknown or no
transcript issued
Mankato Moorhead St. Cloud
Winona
Bemidji
Duluth
Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Hum- Per Num­ Per
ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent
47 17*3
59 15.9
70 13.7
91 14.7
83 12.6
80 13.0
Total
Num­ Per
ber cent
430 14.1
224 82.7 312 84.1 442 86.3 529 85.3 587 87.4 539 87.0 2,633 85.9
6
265
2.2
52 14.0
64 12.5 121 19.5 103 15.4
61
9.9
407 13.3
97.8 319 86.0 448 87.5 449 80.5 567 84.6 558 90.1 2,656 86.7
10
0\
VJl
TABLE OX
QUARTERS COMPLETED BY3TUDENTS BEFORE WITHDRAWAL
m m MINNESOTA TEACHERS COIXEUES 1931-1935
Quarters
completed
Bemidji
Num­ Per
ber cent
4.2
Duluth
Num­ Per
ber cent
7
Mankato
Num­ Per
ber cent
3.5
Moorhead
Num­ Per
ber cent
3
St. Cloud
Num­.Per
ber cent
Winona
Num­ Per
ber cent
11
.5
Total
Num­ Per
ber cent
50
1.6
0
11
1
48 17.7
117 31.6
84 16.3
85 13.7
94 14.0
93 15.0
521 17.0
2
58 21*4
67 18.1
66 12.9
100 16.1
83 12.4
63
457 14.9
3
72 26.6
101 27.2
162 31.8
265 42.7
331 49.5
4-6
60 22.1
53 14.3
118 23.0
134 21.6
131 19.6
7-9
16
5.9
19
5.1
50
9.8
22
3.5
17
2.5
13
2.1
137
4.5
10-12
1
•4
2
.5
12
2.3
3
.5
1
.1
4
.6
23
.7
1
•2
2
.3
3
.1
1
.2
11
1.6
224
7.3
1*9
Over 12
Unknown
5
1*8
5
1.3
18
8
1.3
1.8
13.4
146 23.6 1,077 35.2
75 12.1
194 31.4
571 18.7
266
CHAPTER I X
A N A N A L Y S IS
OF GRADUATES
In the present chapter, facts are presented concern­
ing students graduating from both the four-year and the twoyear course during the years 1931-1935 inclusive.
The
personal and background data are reviewed, the two and
four-year curricula of the colleges are examined, the
pattern of work taken by students majoring in various sub­
ject fields is examined, and the post-college experience
of the graduates Is discussed.
I.
GRADUATES OF THE FOUR-YEAR COURSE
Source of training of public secondary school
teachers.
Table CXI,
summarized from the study of the
Minnesota State Department of Education,
shows the-pro­
portions of secondary teachers employed In the state
trained by various agencies.
It will be noted that in 1932
the t e a chers* colleges trained only T per cent while the
State University and the private colleges each were the
source of 27 per cent.
The small percentage receiving
their education from the teachers* colleges at that time is
accounted for by the fact that these institutions have been
training for secondary work only a few years.
Following
268
TABLE OXI
EMPLOYED SECONDARY TEACHERS IN MINNESOTA SCHOOLS,
1931-1932* AND 1938-1939**
CLASSIFIED AS TO SOURCE OF TRAINING
-
1 9 3 1 -1 9 3 2
Per cent
62.0
Trained in Minnesota
1 9 3 8 -1 9 3 9
Per cent
■'
■ '■
1
7 0 .0
27.0
28* 9
7.0
13.9
Private Colleges
27.0
26.1
High School only
1.0
University
State Teachers’ Colleges
Bemidji
.2
Duluth
•5
Mankato
.8
Moorhead
Winona
0
•
OJ
S t • Cloud
1.6
1 .9
Trained out of State
27*0
28.0
No report
11.0
1.9
#A Study of Unemployed Secondary Teacher a in Minnesota,
1 93 3 1 State of Minnesota, Department of Education, St* Paul,
Minnesota, May, 1933*
fr^Teacher Turnover, Training, and Experience, State of
Minnesota, Department of Education, St. Paul, Minnesota,
D ecember, 1939•
269
authorization of a four-year curriculum In 1921 by the
State legislature, the Teachers* College Board In 1925 gave
the colleges the authority to establish such a curriculum
and grant appropriate degrees.
The first of the four-year
graduates received degrees in 1927, 1928, and 1929 at the
six colleges.
Not until the certification act of 1929 was
passed by the Legislature were the graduates of the
teachers* colleges certified for senior high school work.
Hence at the time these statistics were gathered only four
years had elapsed since the first degree was granted, and
only two years had passed since the first degree in secondary
education was given.
That in two years the teachers*
colleges were furnishing some 7 per cent of the total second­
ary teaching force shows a consistent and rapid growth.
growth is further shown by the figures for 1938-1939*
This
In the
seven years from 1931 to this latter date the proportion of
secondary teachers trained in the teachers’ colleges had
doubled.
It will be noted that this increase was not at the
expense of the university or liberal arts colleges which
continued to train about the same proportion as they had in
1931During the five-year period, 1931 to 1935, the
Minnesota teachers* colleges graduated 1,196 students from
the four-year course.
Tflhile this number was only about a
2?0
quarter of the number of two-year graduates, it represents
a considerable total when it is remembered that the colleges
have been four-year institutions for only a short time*
The registrar records of each of the colleges, and
the placement records were examined to try to get a picture
of what these individuals had done during their college
career and what they were doing since graduation*
Personal and background d a t a *
The group was divided
as to sex in the ratio of 44*2 per cent men and 55*8 per
cent women, the men forming a larger proportion of this
group than any of the others studied.
The outstanding fact
in connection w ith the age of the graduates is the large
number who were over twenty-five, 35*2 per cent of the known
ages being in this .group*
over thirty.
Gf these, 11*5 per cent were
This mature group is composed for the most
part of Individuals who have had teaching experience.
Nearly
half of the group are residents of the county in which the
college attended is located and the great majority of these
are from the immediate locality of the college.
Nearly 40
per cent of the group graduated from the local high school
and about two-thirds received their high school training
within the immediate locality of the college attended.
but 7 per cent were residents of Minnesota.
All
Of this group,
42.1 per cent were native white of native parentage, 21#8
271
per cent of mixed native and foreign parentage, and the
surprisingly large proportion of 35*3 P©r cent were of
foreign parentage. 1
The largest number of this group were from the
skilled worker and the middle owner class, 31*4 per cent;
and the second largest number from the agricultural class,
26.6 per cent.
The semi-skilled worker and small owner
class was third w i t h 18.3 per cent, and the professional and
semi-professional classes fourth and fifth, with 9 . 5 per
cent and 8 . 6 per cent respectively.
Unskilled labor account­
ed for the remaining 5 * 6 per c e n t . 2
Fields of concentration.
Of the group 87 per cent
took their work in the field of secondary education and
13 per cent in the elementary field.
This desire for the
secondary field is doubtless partly due to the larger
salaries and greater prestige of the high school field and
partly to the fact that many of the graduates were formerly
qualified to teach in the elementary field and wished to
protect themselves by also qualifying for the secondary
grades.
Nevertheless,
the failure of the colleges to enlist
1 Detailed table, p. 3 3 8 .
2 Detailed table, p. 339.
272
and train more elementary teachers for a four-year period
and the failure of society to recognize a more adequate
preparation hy a more generous salary remuneration remains
one of the serious problems for solution.
Table GXII shows the distribution in fields of major
concentration according to the first major indicated on
the permanent records of the various colleges.
The opportunities for placement as ranked by numbers
employed and the fields of preparation ranked by number
preparing for that field in the teachers1 colleges are given
in Table CXIII, page 274.
From this comparison it is evident that the colleges
are preparing students for positions in somewhat the same
order as the opportunities for placement occur.
F o u r -year currleula of Minnesota teachers1 colleges.
Table OXIV", page 275, shows the fields in which majors are
offered in the various Minnesota teachers* colleges and the
number of hours required for a major in the several fields.
The general academic fields are covered by each of the
institutions, the special fields in music, art, and
industrial education are likewise offered by each school,
but no attempt had been made to 1935 to train for the
special fields of home economics, agriculture, or commercial
education.
In other words Minnesota has followed the plan
sable
cm
GRADUATES MMffiSOTA TEACHERS' COLLEGES 1931-1935
CLASSIFIED AS TO FIRST MAJOR FIELD OF CONCENTRATION
field
Art
Education
English
french
Geography
History
Industrial Arts
Latin
Mathematics
Music
Physical Education
Science
Social Science
Total
Winona
laz&ato
Moorhead St. Cloud
Bemidji
Duluth
N\m- Per Hum- Per Hum- Per Hum- Per Hum- Per Hum- Per
ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent
1
1.2
4
4.8
10
12.1
2
8
2.4
9.7
2.4
7 8.3
39 47.0
2
73
6
3.2
38
20.1
2
1.0
2
1.0
23 11.7
1
.5
10
5.3
20
8
4.2
39 19.9
25 12.7
12
6.3
3.2
7 3.7
76 40.1
6
163
Secondary Majors
Hot recorded
5
13
73
Elementary Education
10
Total four-year
83
163
12.1
26 13.8
189
2.5
6.6
6
3.1
26 13.2
162
6
Total Secondary
10.2
3.1
28 14.3
3 1.0
39 12.9
43 14.2
14 4.6
39 12.9
25
8.3
8.0
8.0
20
20
10
22
4.2
9.3
'3.8
39 12.9
31 10.5
6
1.9
9
1
6.6
6.6
17
39
3.2
9.0
20.6
41 21.7
13
6.9
.5
1
15 7.8
10
5.3
8
4.2
4
2.1
23 12.4
177
276
53 22.4
25 2.1
69 5.8
184 15;5
8
•4
55 4.6
159 13.3
74 6.2
1
74 6.2
51 4.3
78 6.5
77 6.4
179 15.0
1,034
.4
184
237
6
....
19
19
183
168
196
7 3.0
7 3.0
31 13.1
7 3.0
9 3.8
40 16.9
3 1.3
Total
Hum- Per
ber cent
7
26
302
1,041
177
276
8.6
12
189
.6
6.3
155 12.9
1,196
273
TABLE C X I I I
RANKING OF OPPORTUNITIES FOR PLACEMENT*
.COMPARED WITH RANKING-OF FIELDS
OF PREPARATION OF STUDENTS ENROLLED
IN.MINNESOTA.STATE TEACHERS' COLLEGES
Subjeet
Opportunities
for placement
‘ Rank
"
Fields of
preparation
Rank
1 .0
Social Science
(and History)
0
•
01
.
English
1
Science
3.0
4
Home Economics
4.0
Foreign language
5.0
9
Mathematics
6 .0
6
Commercial
7*5
"All others"
7.5
Music
9.0
8
Physical Education.
10.5
3
Industrial Arts
10.5
5
^Compiled from data in Teacher Turnover, Training.
Experience, and Supply, Code XVTII-B-25. State Department of
Education, St. Paul, July, 1935*
TABLE C U V
QUARTER HOURS REQUIRED IN MAJORS OFFERED FOUR-YEAR DEGREE COURSE
MINNESOTA TEACHERS’ COLLEGES 1935
Elementary Education
Secondary Education
Education
English
Fine Arts
Foreign Language
French
German
Industrial Arts
Mathematics
Music
Physical Education
Science
Biological and Physical
Biological
Physical
Geography
Social Studies
History
Social Science
Bemidji
Hours
Duluth
Hours
Mankato
Hours
Moorhead
Hours
192
192
192
192
192
192
32
48
48
36
32
40
48
44
48
44
40
32
40
48
36
32
40
43
36
36
36
48
40
32
48
36
48
36
48
48
45
32
45
45
48
48
40
40
40
40
48
32
48
48
36
36
48
32
48
48
48
48
48
48
64
32
40
40
40
40
32
48
48
52
40
32
40
40
St* Cloud
Hours
Winona
Hours
275
276
of giving the same work in each of the colleges rather than
concentrating certain areas of preparation at each of the six
institutions.
Table CXV indicates the requirements common to all
majors in the various colleges, and the years in which these
courses are offered.
These requirements, as seen from the table, do not
vary greatly from college to college and represent a unified
attack on the problem of the curriculum by a state-wide
faculty committee.
Minimum requirements were set by the
action of this committee and individual institutions are
permitted to extend these requirements to meet the specific
needs of the college.
It will be noted these required
courses occupy more than half of the 192 quarter hours
prescribed for graduation.
When required work in the fields
of concentration are added to this,
it is evident that the
colleges are following the recommendation of the National
Survey of the Education of Teachers for highly prescribed
curricula.
Table CXVI, page 279 and 280, showing the require­
ments for a degree in elementary education shows the same
^ E. U. Rugg, and others, Teacher Education Purr leu la
(National Survey of the Education of Teachers.
Washington,
D . C . : United States Government Printing Office, 1935),
Vol. 3, P* 118.
SABLE CX7
QUARTER HOURS M D COURSES ESQUIRED FOR DECREE
M3MSSOTA TEACHERS’ COLLEGES 1935.
Subject
Art
Year
offered
1
2
Bemidji
Hours
Duluth
Hours
Mankato
Hours
4
Geography
12
16
3
4
8
4
4
4
4
4
4
3
4
1
3
Library Reference
1
2
Mathematics
1
4
1
2
Science
1
2
4
4
8
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
8
4
4
4
4
4
3
Physical Education
8
12
8
12
4
1
2
--
4
2
Music
4
4
8
8
8
3
Winona
Hours
4
2
2
St* Cloud
Hours
4
4
3
Education (includes
psychology*)
Moorhead
Hours
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
16
16
20
16
4
16
12
277
TABLE COT (continued)
QUARTER HOURS AM) COURSES REQUIRED FOR DEGREE
MBJHESOTA TEACHERS' COLLEGES 1935
Tear
offered
Subject
Social Science
Student Teaching
...
Total Required
Elective
Bemidji
Hours
1
12
2
12
3
4
3
4
Duluth
Hours
Mankato
Hours
12
20
Moorhead
Hours
8
8
8
4
4
15
St# Cloud
Hours
Winona
Hours
4
16
8
12
12
12
4
12
8
8
138
100
120
54
92
72
‘
107
85
104
88
100
92
278
TABLE C m
QUARTER HOURS AND COURSES REQUIRED
FOE ILMENTARY EDUCATION MAJOR MINNESOTA TEACHERS* COLLEGES 1935
Subject
Art
Year
offered
1
3
4
4
4
4 ****
2
8
3
4
8
12
1
2
12
12
3
4
2
Education (includes
psychology)
English
■
Bemidji
Hours
Duluth
Hours
4
0 **
1
2
Mathematics
1
4
Music
3
4
4
4
8
4
4
16
8
8
8
12
16
4
( 4#
(2 «
8
4
8
8
12
12
12
4
4
8
6
12
8
4
4
12
12 *
4
4
8
4
8
4
4
4
4
8
4
4
4
4
Winona
Hours
8
8
1
2
8
4
St. Cloud
Hours
•
2
3
Moorhead
Hours
4
Industrial Arts
Library Reference
Manfcato
Hours
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
279
TABLE CXVI (continued)
QUARTER HOURS AMD COURSES REQUIRED
for
Subject
Physical Education
Science
Student Teaching
Total Required
Elective
-Emmmtx education major Minnesota teachers*
Bemidji
Hours
Duluth
Hours
Mankato
Hours
1
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
16
3
4
4
Year
offered
3
4
2
20
2 2 ***
4*
2
16
4
colleges 1935
Moorhead
Hours
2
2
20
St, Cloud
Hours
Winona
Hours
2
2
2
2
4
16
12
8
6
4
4
4
12
8
3
15
174
140
180
167
170
140
18
52
12
25
22
52
12
12
^Except Kindergarten-Primary and Upper
**Except Kindergarten-Primary
***Upper only
****Choice
#Except Kindergarten-Primary
|#Kindergarten-Primary only
280
281
trends.
Tables CXV and CXVI, pages 277 to 280, also give
evidence of two other principles of curriculum construction
followed in the colleges.
First, the securing of a balance
of training between the various fields of human learning
and the placement of this general education in the first two
years*
Secondly, the restriction of specialization to the
last two years of the course, both specialization in subject
matter fields and specialization in professional work and
student teaching.
Patterns of work taken by graduates.
To obtain a
more detailed picture of the work actually taken by the
graduates,
an analysis of the permanent records of all
graduates between 1931 and 1935 was made.
From this
transcript analysis of Minnesota teachers* college students
and from like analysis of the data of the National Survey
Table CXVII has been assembled.
It shows that in the group
preparing for h i g h school teaching the students in the
Minnesota teachers* colleges spent 1.1 per cent more time
in English, 2.3 per cent more time in science, 5*4 per cent
more time in social science, 2 . 3 P©r cent more time in fine
arts, and . 8 per cent more time in practical arts than did
prospective teachers trained in colleges and universities
TABLE C X m
c c m h i s o n of pattern of wore: in college bbzioeen graduates
Of m e MINNESOTA TEACHERS’ COLLEGES, OTHER TEACHERS* COLLEGES,
AND UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES NOT INCLUDING .
FIRST MAJOR FIELD OF CONCENTRATION
Subject
Per cent of total time
spent by Minnesota
teachers’ college
students
Per cent of total time
spent by other
teachers* college
students
Per cent of total time
spent by college and
University students
Secondary field
13*4
12.0
12.3
Foreign Language
1.5
4.6
11.4
Mathematics
1*6
2.5
2.6
Science
13*1
10.2
10.8
Social Science
15.6
10.6
10.2
Fine Arts
3.7
2.5
1.4
Practical Arts
2.0
4.2
1.2
Professional
30.0
24.5
16.2
Average of first major
23.4
31.1
34.1
English
282
TABLE CXVII (continued)
CCMBARISQN CF PATTERN OF WORK IN COLLEGE BETWEEN GRADUATES
OF THE MINNESOTA TEACHERS’ COLLEGES, QTBSR TEACHERS’ COLLEGES,
AND UNIVERSITIES-AND COLLEGES NOT INCLUDING
FIRST MAJOR FIELD OF, CONCENTRATION .
Subject
English
Per cent of total time Per cent of total time
spent by Minnesota
spent by other
teachers’ college
teachers’ college
students
students
Elementary field
14.5
16.2
Per cent of total time
spent by college and
University students
13.8
Foreign Language
.8
3.3
7.2
Mathematics
.5
2.4
*6
Science
14.2
14.1
7.9
Social Science
15.5
12.1
15.6
Fine Arts
7.6
10.2
4.0
Practical Arts
2.5
3.5
3.2
37.4
35.7
35.4
Professional
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: Among the students preparing for secondary
teaching, the Minnesota teachers’ college students not majoring in English spent 13.4 per cent
of their total time in the field of English, students of teachers’ colleges covered in the
National Survey of Education of teachers spent 12.0 per cent of their total time in the field
of English.
284
covered by the National Survey of the Education of Teachers.
They spent 9*9 P©** cent less time in foreign languages and
1.0 per cent less time in mathematics than did this group.
The differences between the contacts the students of the
Minnesota t e a c h e r s 1 colleges and the students trained by
other teachers* colleges covered in the National Survey
are, 1*4 per cent more time in English, 2.9 per cent more
time in scienee, and 5 per cent more time in social sciences.
They spent 3*1 P©r cent less time in foreign language,
per cent less time in mathematics,
.9
1.2 per cent less time in
fine arts, and 2.2 per cent less time in practical arts.
The students majoring in elementary education in the
Minnesota teachers* colleges devoted 2.4 per cent more time
to English, 6*3 per cent more time to science, and 3 .6 per
cent more time to fine arts.
They devoted 6.4 per cent
less time to foreign language and .1 per eent less time to
mathematics and social science, and .7 per cent less time
to practical arts.
When compared with the graduates of
other teachers* colleges covered in the survey the
elementary education majors were found to have 1.7 per
cent more time in English,
.1 per cent more tine in science
and 3.4 per cent more time in, social science.
2.5 per cent less time in foreign language,
They spent
1*9 per cent
less time in mathematics, 2.6 per cent less time in fine
285
arts, and 1 per cent less time in practical arts.
From these data certain similarities and dis­
similarities concerning general education may be pointed
out.
First is the fact that in each of the curricula the
students of the Minnesota teachers1 colleges received less
contact with languages,
and slightly less contact with
mathematics than did the other groups*
In the light of the
opinions expressed In the National Survey of Education of
Teachers concerning the lack of contribution of these two
fields to non-majors,
it is advisable to continue minimizing
their importance.
Second, more contact is had with the
fields of English,
science, and social science by the
Minnesota students than by the other prospective teachers
with the single exception of social science In the element­
ary curriculum where it falls .1 per cent below that of the
college and university group.
Third, in the field of fine
arts, the Minnesota teachers* college group has more contact
than prospective teachers trained in the colleges and
universities in both secondary and elementary curricula,
more than other teachers* college students in the secondary
curricula but less in the four-year elementary curricula.
Minnesota students have less contact with practical arts in
the elementary four-year curricula than either of the other
two groups,
less in the secondary curricula than the other
286
teachers*
colleges, more contact than do the college and
university students.
Iffhen the cultural background of the
Minnesota students is considered, the amount of time spent
in both the fine and practical arts fields is pitifully
small.
In the first major field of concentration the
students of both the other teachers* colleges and the col­
leges and universities spend more time than do the Minnesota
teachers* college students.
Differences of less than 10 per
cent of the total time spent in college were found in the
case of English and history majors, between 10 and 15 per
cent difference in industrial arts, science, and social
science, and more than 15 per cent difference was found in
the case of art, language, and music majors.
The average
of all fields showed the students of the Minnesota teachers*
colleges to have spent 2 3 . 4 per cent of their total college
course time in the field of the first.major, prospective
teachers trained in colleges and universities 34.1 per cent,
and those trained i n other teachers* colleges 31*1 per cent*
In view of the facts presented in this chapter concerning
the placement of Minnesota teachers* college graduates in
small systems where teaching service in several fields is
the rule it seems advisable to continue the policy of
spreading the students* time rather than allowing them to
287
concentrate too much attention on a single field or subject.
In professional courses the Minnesota students
preparing for h i g h school teaching spend 3 0 . 0 per cent of
their total time in comparison to 16.2 per cent spent by
students in colleges and universities, and 24*5 per cent
spent by students in other teachers* colleges.
In the four-year elementary curricula the time does
not vary more t han 2.0 per cent but Minnesota has the
highest time allotment.
The amount of professional work
taken In each of the groups is nearly the same*
Certain proposals of the national Survey dealing
with quantitative aspects of curricula may be compared with
4
Minnesota practices.
The Survey recommends that each
field of specialization be restricted in scope so that a
better balance may be had In other fields of general e d u ­
cation.
The Minnesota practice follows this closely.
General education should occupy the greater proportion of
the first two years,
but the student should be conscious
of professional needs through this period.
Minnesota
practice devotes the first two years entirely to general
education but, as far as can be ascertained, does not
4
Ibid., p. 85-
5 Ibid. , p. 9 5 .
288
ascribe to the second part of this proposal.
The Survey
doubts the justification of the amount of time spent in
mathematics and foreign language
6
by non-majors.
In
Minnesota the amount of time spent in these fields by n o n ­
majors is very low*
The Survey points out the relative
neglect^ in college curricula of the fine arts.
While
Minnesota requires more work in this field of the non-majors
than the schools covered by the Survey, the amount is still
pitifully small.
The Survey recommends three fields of specialization
o
rather than the traditional major and minor plan.
Minnesota
teachers* colleges require two majors or one major and two
minors for graduation.
In general, the majors offered tend
toward the broad field type rather than the restricted
subject type.
The Survey believes that when adequate
professionalization of subject matter is obtained, the total
of time spent in professional course can be much lower than
at present.
M any of the present special professional and
technical courses should be given in summer school or placed
on a graduate level. ^
6 Ibid. . p. 210.
7
. P* 211.
8 Ibid. . p. 96.
Loo. clt.
As Minnesota students generally spend
289
from 4 to 6 per cent more time in professional courses than
do other teachers*
college students and nearly twice the
time that college and university students do, it is evident
that this practice is far removed from the recommendation.
While it may be argued that 30 per cent of time spent in
professional training is small in comparison to the amount
demanded by other professions,
it is likewise true that the
expenditure of this amount of time restricts opportunity
in other fields*
While the qualitative part of the recom­
mendation dealing w ith the professionalization of subject
matter is not under discussion, it goes without saying that
few subject matter courses are professionalized to anywhere
near the degree recommended b y the Survey.
In summary it may be said that the work taken by the
graduates of Minnesota teachers* colleges exhibits somewhat
the same balance in the fields of general education except­
ing foreign languages, a smaller proportion of time spent in
the field of the major, a larger proportion of time devoted
to appreciations! fields, and a larger proportion devoted to
professional work than prospective teachers of the Insti­
tutions covered by the National Survey.
It Is encouraging
to note, that in the period of transition from normal
schools to teachers*
colleges, much of the work of curriculum
construction has been in the hands of a state-wide faculty
committee
Success in college measured by grades received.
Success in college work was measured by the honor point
ratings of the graduates.
following basis?
Honor points are granted on the
A grade, 3 honor points; B grade, 2
honor points; 0 grade,
points; and E grade,
1 honor point; D grade, O honor
-1 honor point.
On this basis 44.3 per cent of the graduates m ai n ­
tained less than a 1*5 honor point rating, 76*3 Per cent
maintained less than a 2.0 honor point rating or straight
B average, and 96.4 per cent maintained less than a 2.5
honor point rating.
Only *8 per cent of the students
succeeded in maintaining an honor point rating ranging from
2.75 to 3-0.
10
Considerable variation is noticed in the proportion
of students placed in the different groups.
One college
consistently places a lower proportion of their students
in the groups above the general average and a higher p r o ­
portion of their students in the groups below the general
average.
Two of the colleges place approximately 14 per
cent of their students in the groups representing a grade
level of B or better, two place approximately 22 per cent
Detailed table , p. 347 .
291
In tliis-grade level, and the remaining two slightly over
25 per cent*
In other words, students graduating from two
of the colleges had nearly twice the chance of maintaining
a B or better average than did students enrolled in two
other colleges*
While there is some probability of differ­
ences in student ability between the institutions it is
extremely doubtful that this wide variation exists and in
all probability the wide variation indicates a difference
in grading concepts and presents a problem for the consider­
ation of the faculties of the colleges*
Post college s ervice:
employment and unemployment*
Tables GXLI to CXLIV, pages 348
to 356 , give the detail of
the findings of the portion of the study devoted to the
post college career of the graduates*
This portion of the
study was the most difficult in which to obtain satisfactory
information*
The records of the college placement bureaus
form the basis for the majority of the findings; these were
supplemented wherever possible by other sources.
In the
case of the 1935 graduates a fairly complete record was
obtainable but for the earlier years it was an impossibility
to obtain complete information*
T h i s ’is not in any sense
a criticism of the bureaus as the difficulty of keeping
track of former graduates is insurmountable.
292
Table GXVIII summarizes the general situation in
regard to employment of the four-year graduates.
It was
impossible to determine the exact amount of unemployment in
the group for the reasons stated above, and it should be
remembered In reading this summary that the amount of
employment recorded includes only those for whom definite
records were obtainable and the unemployed or unknown
classification includes not only those known to be u n ­
employed but also all those for whom definite information
was not obtainable.11
This placement record may be compared with the figures
of the National T e a c h e r s ’ Placement Association for graduates
of 1934.
The total reported placement in educational
positions was 73 per cent divided as follows:
State and
Land Grant Institutions 53 P©r cent, teachers’ colleges 64
per cent, Municipal colleges 81 per cent, private colleges
73 per cent, denominational colleges under five hundred
enrollment, 6 5 per cent, over five hundred enrollment 63
per cent.
11
12
'
1939 placement reports indicate 73-4 per cent of
the 1938 graduates employed in teaching and 4.6 per cent
otherwise employed.
12 J. G. Umstattd, ’’Placement Success of the 1933“
1934 Graduates of 374 Gollegiate Institutions,” Bullet ins of
the National Institutional T e a chers’ Placement.Association,
l i r c H 15; 1535, "Vol. T.---------- -------------------
293
TABLE C X V III
EMPLOYMENT OF STUDENTS GRADUATING
FROM FOUR-YEAR COURSE MINNESOTA TEACHERS* COLLEGES
1931-1935
Employment
^ er cent
Employed
In regular teaching positions
In emergency teaching
positions
In other work
Married
Deceased
Unemployed*or unknown
Post graduate work
78.0
64*6
3*3
10,0
4,4
.3
1 6 .6
.7
294
THhile these figures are not exactly comparable to
the present study, they are indicative of the fact that
the Minnesota teachers1 colleges are above average in their
suceess in finding employment for their graduates.
Comparison may also be made with the State Department
study previously quoted, ^ which is the latest available.
A summary of this study is given in Table CXIX.
Comparing this summary with that of employed teach­
ers, the following may be deduced.
IShile only 27*0 per
cent of the total employed secondary teachers in Minnesota
at this time were trained by the University of Minnesota,
40.0 per cent of the total unemployed were trained there.
Private colleges furnished another 27 per cent of the
total employed and 39 Per cent of the unemployed.
The
teachers* colleges trained 7 per cent of the total employed
secondary teachers at the time of this study and 5*2 per
cent of the unemployed.
Comparisons may likewise be made
for the Individual teachers* colleges.
Again the teachers’
colleges are above the average of all Minnesota institu*
tions in the placement of their graduates*
No attempt was made in the present study to classify
^ A Study of Unemployed Secondary Teachers in
M innesota, op. c i t . , p. 13,
295
T A B L E C X IX
UNEMPLOYED SECONDARY TEACHERS IN MINNESOTA 1931-1932
CLASSIFIED AS TO.INSTITUTIONS.OF TRAINING
Institutions of
training
1931-1932
Per cent
84.2
Trained in Minnesota
40.0
University
State Teachers? Colleges
o
H
-•
Bexnidjl
5.2
Duluth
1 .3 0
Mankato
1 .2 0
Moorhead
Private Colleges
Trained Out of State
Ho Report
•-
Winona
O
00
St. Cloud
.80
1 .1 0
39-0
15.6
.2
296
the four-year graduates who were employed and unemployed hy
field of major training.
Table CXX shows a rank distri­
bution of unemployment in Minnesota and difficulty of place­
ment as reported by the National Placement Association.
These two estimates agree in some fields and vary
widely in others.
M u s i c , which in Minnesota showed the
highest percentage of unemployment to employment, showed
the next to the highest percentage of placement in the
National Association figures.
History, physical education,
and science a variance of five ranks, and social science a
variance of four ranks.
close resemblance.
The remainder of the fields show
In the figures of the National Place­
ment Association both science and social science placements
were made more difficult by the small proportion of positions
obtained by those reporting a highly specialized major.
This
accounts for part of the variance in these two fields.
Post college services
by graduates.
types of communities served
Table QXXI, page 298, summarizes the findings
of the study as to the type of community in which the four14
year graduates serve.
Placement of four-year graduates in rural schools is
a distinct depression phenomenon* in Minnesota and indicates
for some the willingness to obtain experience in any
^
Detailed tables, pp. 350-1.
297
T A B L E CXX
RANK DISTRIBUTION OF UNEMPLOYMENT IN MINNESOTA
COMPARED T O ,EMPLOYMENT IN MINNESOTA.A N D
DIFFICULTY O F .PLACEMENT REPORTED BY
.. NATIONAL PLACEMENT ASSOCIATION
Rank, per cent
unemployed in 1953
are of employed
1931-1932,
Minnesota*
■' Rank, difficulty
of placement,
National Placement
As soeiat ion**
4
5
10
11
English
6
6
French
2
3
History
9
4
11
9
Mathemat ics
8
?
Music
1
10
Physical Education
3
8
Science
7
2
Social Science
5
1
Art
Education
Industrial Arts
*De tailed tables, p. 3&5*
'
**J. G-. Umstattd, "Placement Success of the 1933-1934Graduates of Three Hundred Seventy-Four Collegiate
Institutions, H Bulletins -of the National Institutional
Teachers Placement Association. Vol* 1, March 15, 1935*
298
TA B LE O X X I
PERCENTAGE OF FOUR-YEAR GRADUATES
MINNESOTA T E A C H E R S 1 COLLEGES 1931-1935
IN VARIOUS TYPES OF COMMUNITIES AT THE END OF THE
. SPECIFIED YEARS AFTER GRADUATION .
Years after graduation
2
3
4
’
5
Per
Per
Per
Per
cent
cent
cent
cent
Type of
community
1
Per
cent
Ungraded Rural
10.7
7.7
7.1
7.6
7*7
3*0
2.6
2*1
1*9
3*1
Towns under 1,000
29.7
2 9 .2
27.8
24.4
9*2
Towns 1,0 0 0 -2 ,500
22.3
24.3
21.7
19.1
20.0
Cities 2,500-5,000
12.2
15.1
16.1
1 7 .1
16.9
Cities 5»000-25#000
13.4
1 0 *5
13.5
19.1
23*1
8.5
1 0 *5
1 1 .6
12.4
2 0 .0
G-raded Rural
Cities 2 5 #000 and
over
299
position and for others the return to teaching conditions
they had hoped to escape through further preparation.
The majority of the graduates obtain their first
positions after graduation in the smaller towns and cities
of the state.
There is a distinct trend for them to move
to the larger cities after some years of experience.
Approximately half of the graduates employed in the cities
of over twenty-five thousand are placed in Duluth by the
local college.
Although no data are available from this
study to substantiate it, there is common agreement that
there is decidedly leas tendency for teachers to move from
one position to another during depression years, hence
these figures indicating movement to larger centers would
probably be larger in normal years.
Types of educational positions h e l d .
The type of
educational service rendered by the four-year graduates is
summarised in Table CXXII.
While only some 13 per cent of the four-year gradu-*
ates of the Minnesota teachers * colleges between 1931 and
19 35 specialized in elementary education, the proportion
of the group known to be teaching in the grades reaches
nearly three times that percentage during the first year
after graduation.
Employment in junior and senior high
schools has a tendency to Increase w i t h experience and
300
TA B U S C X X I I
PERCENTAGE OF FOUR-YEAR GRADUATES
MINNESOTA TEACHERS' COLLEGES 1931-1935
KNOWN TO BE TEACHING CLASSIFIED BY TYPE
OF POSITION AT THE END OF SPECIFIED YEARS
AFTER GRADUATION
Years after graduation
'"'T' ...
2
5
3
Per
Per
Per
Per
cent
cent
cent
cent
Type of
position
1
Per
cent
Grad©s
3 6 .6
32.4
24.1
17.5
28.6
Junior High School
17.1
17.9
13.5
19.4
20.6
Senior H igh School
26.9
31.6
43.3
38.4
20.6
Superintendent
2.0
2.2
2.8
4.3
6.4
Principal High School
3.1
3*9
4.2
5.2
9.5
Principal Grade School
3*2
2.9
2.8
4.3
1.6
Supervisor
3.2
2.9
2.5
3.3
6.3
Special Work
7.9
6.6
6.7
7.6
6.3
301
there is a noticeable increase with the passage of time in
the percentage of graduates serving as superintendents and
principals*
After five years of experience the proportion
serving In administrative capacities as superintendents or
high school principals is trebled*
As indicated above, there has been considerable
placement during the depression period in positions other
than those for which the graduates were preparing*
While
7 0 * 6 per cent were placed in positions corresponding to
their final training, 29*4 per cent were found to be hold15
ing positions differing from their most recent preparation.
About half of this group were teachers trained for high
school positions who were teaching in the elementary grades.
Comprising the majority of this group were individuals who
had taught elementary schools before completing their degree
work and who were forced back into the elementary school
through lack of available positions in the secondary field*
Others were individuals without previous experience who had
received an elementary certificate at the end of two years
of training and then had shifted to secondary education*
About a fifth of the group were teaching in rural schools
after being trained for high school positions.
15 D e t a i l e d
table,
PP-
368- 9 .
Again the
302
same reasons apply.
Of the misplacements,
15 per cent were
occupied in emergency or regular adult education.
While
this group may he considered not to be misplaced, none of
the colleges give training in adult education and hence
are so considered in this study.
Only a few per cent of
these students receiving a degree in elementary education
were outside this field,
some 3 per cent of the total group
being employed in rural schools and another 3 per cent in
high schools.
Employment may have been found by this
latter group in Junior high schools where the state laws
still allow individuals to teaeh on either a secondary or
elementary certificate.
Incomplete data on the question of the relation
between fields of major preparation and classes actually
being taught make it impossible to say more than that
considerable evidence pointed to the fact that some eightytwo per cent of the students completing work in specific
fields for high school teaching were doing the majority of
their work in fields other than that of major preparation.
This factor is explainable under the state law which gives
a "general high sohool” certificate in the academic fields.
It was possible to get definite information from
but two of the colleges concerning further education of the
degree students.
In each of these colleges about one-third
303
of the graduates continued their education after receiving
their degree.
Summer school and extension work accounted
for the majority of the work done.
Such information as was available concerning noneducational, employment Indicated that clerical and sales
positions accounted for the most of it.
II.
GRADUATES OF THE TWO-YEAR COURSE
Sources of training of Minnesota elementary teachers.
A study of the Minnesota State Department of Education gives
a convenient picture of the training of the elementary
teaching force of the state.
16
Table CXXIII summarizes the
findings.
By legislative act, high school teacher training
departments are restricted to the training of teaehers for
rural schools and liberal arts colleges are not allowed to
train elementary teachers.
Rural ungraded schools employed 56 per cent of the
i
total elementary teaching force, graded systems the remain­
ing 44 per cent which were divided between the three cities
of the first class, Minneapolis, St. Paul, and Duluth,
per cent, and the remainder of the state, 28 per cent.
4 Study of Unemployed Elementary Teachers in
Mi n n e s ota, o p . c i t . , p. 1 3 .
16
304-
TABLE C X X I I I
INSTITOTIONS TRAINING THE ELEMENTARY TEACHERS
, EMPLOYED.IN.MINNESOTA 1931-1932
. A N D 1938-1939
1931-1932
Per cent
Institutions
Teachers* Colleges
51*9
Bemldji
3*3
Duluth
5*3
Mankato
Moorhead
St. Cloud
Winona
1938-1939
Per cent
50*7
10*2
7*7
16.4
9*0
H i g h School Departments
29*5
28.8
All others*
18.6
21.5
*The "All Other" classification Includes, the University
of Minnesota, a private school for the training of kinder­
garten teachers, and teachers trained hy out of state
Institutions who comprised shout 10 per cent of the total.
305
While these figures may vary slightly from year to
year, they may he taken as typical of the period dealt with
in this study.
Source of d a t a *
For the purpose of studying the two-
year graduates of the Minnesota teachers1 colleges between
1931 and 1 9 3 5 inclusive, a 10 per cent sample was used.
The sample was a selected one based on sex, field of
specialization, and whether employed or unemployed during
the year following graduation; 458 individual records, thus
selected, were studied for background, family and education,
college work, and type of work after college.
Review of personal and background d a t a *
The major
differences in personal and background data between the
four-year and the two-year graduates are summarized in the
Sex and a g e *
The first noticeable difference is
found in sex distribution.
While nearly half of the four-
year graduates were men, only 9 * 2 per cent of the two-year
graduates were men, 90*8 per cent women.
There does not
seem to be a noticeable difference in age at graduation
when the two-year shorter training period is taken into
17 Detailed tables , pp. 370-9
306
account, except that a smaller proportion of the two-year
graduates fall In the older age groups.
The median age of
the two-year graduates at graduation is 21.1 years, while
the median age of the four-year graduates at the completion
of their course is 2 3 .9 6 years and this difference of .86
years when the two-year longer period of training is taken
into account, Is caused mainly "by the large number of
students among the four-year group who are over thirty.
Residence.
Only about one-third as many of the two-
year .graduates claim local residence as do four-year
graduates, and about twice as many are drawn from counties
other than that in which the college is located or adjacent
thereto*
Approximately the same differences are noted in
respect to location of high schools In whleh they took their
secondary work.
Parentage.
The two-year group contains a much larger
proportion of native whites of native parentage and a smaller
proportion of native whites of mixed and foreign parentage
than the four-year graduating group.
Occupations of parents.
Agriculture was the occupa­
tion of 42.1 per cent of the parents of this group as
compared to 26.6 per cent of the four-year group.
The
skilled trades and semi-professions furnished a third less
307
of the two-year group, and the professions about half as
many as of the other group.
In short, the two-year graduates are largely girls
from farm homes distributed across the state more evenly
than the residences of the four-year graduates, and whose
parents are more often native born Americans.
Pattern of work in high school.
The pattern of work
pursued in h igh school Is uniform with other groups and
consists of about one-quarter of the time devoted to English,
another quarter to mathematics and foreign language, 20 per
cent to social science,
10 per cent to physical science,
5 per cent to biological science, and special subjects
comprising the remainder, usually in the ratio of three
times as much practical arts as fine arts.
Two-year curricula in Minnesota teachers * colleges.
Table CXXIV lists the two-year curricula offered in the six
Minnesota teachers* colleges.
Several circumstances have operated to change the
emphasis of these courses in the past few years.
The
abolition of the one-year course by the State Teachers*
College Board in September, 1934, following the virtual
abandonment of it by several of the Institutions previously;
the Increased difficulty of placement of graduates of the
TABLE 0XXI7
FIELDS OF CONCENTRATION OFFERED IN TIO-IEAR CURRICULUM
MIMESOm TEACHERS* COLLEGES 1935
Bemidji
Rural
X
Duluth
Mankato
Moorhead
X
Kindergarten-Primary
X
St. Cloud
Winona
X
X
X
X
Primary
X
X
X
X
Intermediate
X
X
X
X
Upper
X
X
X
X
General Elementary
X
Rural-Primary
X
Rural-Intermediate
X
308
two-year course In town and city lower elementary grades;
and the rapid change of the town and city systems from th©
eight-year grade school to the six-year grade and threeyear Junior h i g h school, or the six-year grade and six-year
high school, which made more difficult placement of
graduates without a degree in these upper grades, caused
the colleges to place the major emphasis in the two-year
course on rural education.
This tendency had resulted hy
1935 in the establishment in one college of but two offer­
ings, called intermediate-rural and primary-rural.
The
older upper grade field had b e e n abandoned by two colleges
and two had dropped the more specialized kindergartenprimary offering.
These tendencies were also reflected
by requiring courses In rural management and problems of
all two-year graduates and the eventual requirement, not
mad© until after 1 9 3 5 in all institutions, that part of
the student teaching be done in rural schools.
The expectation then of the two-year graduate at the
beginning of the period under study was placement in a
graded system but b y the end of the period it was the
exception rather than the rule.
Graduates were still
legally qualified to teach in either graded or ungraded
systems, but placements were mainly in the latter.
The distribution of the two-year graduates, 1931 to
310
1 9 3 5 1 by field of specialization and the totals show an
even distribution between the primary, intermediate, and
upper, w i t h a very small percentage of the total, 5 *7 , in
rural courses*
Table CXXV gives the requirements of all the various
fields in terms of quarter hours and subject matter courses
and Table GXXVI, page 312, gives the addition courses
required for specified fields.
A quarter hour is defined
as from fifty to fifty-five clock minutes over a twelveweek period.
As in the case of the degree course there is little
variation between the individual colleges, the requirements
being agreed upon by the administrative authorities of the
schools.
These requirements take almost all of the ninety-
six quarter hours required for graduation except in the
upper grade field where the student is allowed a little
leeway to take work in a major field of his own choice.
These electives run from four hours in one college to twenty
in another.
Pattern of work taken by two-year graduates.
Table
CXXVII, page 313 $ shows a comparison between work done in
18
Detailed tables, pp. 368-9*
TABLE CXXV
^UiffiTER HOURS AND COURSES REQUIRED FOR TWO-YIAE D U M A 1935
ALL FIELDS
Subject
Bemidji
,Hours
Art
4**
Duluth
Hours
4**
Mankato
Hours
Moorhead
Hours
4
4
4
St4 Cloud
Hours
Winona
Hours
4 **
Education (includes
psychology)
30
12
16
16
20
16
English
30
16
12
20
16
16
4
4
8*
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
8
4
4
4 **
4
Geography
Industrial Arts
Library Reference
3
Mathematics
4
Music
4*
Physical Education
3
4
4
4
4
Science
8
8
8*
8
12
Social Science
12
12
12
16
16
12
Student Teaching
12
8
8
8
8
10
4
8*
*Except Kindergarten-Primary
**Except Upper
3X1
table
crar
ADDITION QUARTER HOURS AND COURSES REQUIRED FOR
SPECIFIED FIELDS 1935
Subject
Bemidji
Hours
Duluth
Hours^
Mankato
Hours
Moorhead
Hours
St* Cloud
Hours
Winona
Hours
Kindergarten-Prhoary
Education
English
Music
Physical Education
Student Teaching
8
8
24
4
4
4
2
4
Primary
4
Art
Industrial Arts
Physical Education
Physical Education
Education
Science
2
4
Intermediate
4
4
2
4
4
4
Seek
2
Elementary
4
4
51 £
English
Physical Education
Social Science
4
TABLE GXXYII
COMPARISON OF PATTERN GF WORK TAKEN IM COLLEGE BETWEEN
TiO-IEAR GRADUATES OF MINNESOTA TEACHERS* COLLEGES
AND TUNTT OTHER TEACHERS * COLLEGES*
Subject
English
________
Percentage of all work taken
Intermediate
Kindergarten-Primary*
Sural
Minnesota Other
Minnesota Other
Minnesota Other
teachers* teachers*
teachers* teachers*
teachers* teachers*
colleges
colleges
colleges
colleges
colleges
colleges
19.3
22.9
17.3
13,6
16.3
13.3
Foreign Language
.1
,8
•5
1.1
.3
.5
Mathematics
*3
2.3
.3
1.0
Science
13.2
11.6
12.2
10.8
14.1
10.8
Social Science
16,7
11.2
13.5
8.5
15.3
13.4
Fine Arts
6.4
8.4
8.3
9.8
6.8
5.5
Practical Arts
3.1
2.5
3,2
1.8
3.1
4.9
35.4
42.3
38.9
45.8
38.7
44.6
Professional
2.1
*Data summarized from Earle U. Rugg, national Survey of the Education of Teachers, Supplementary
Report, Curricula in Teachers* Colleges and normal Schools, United States Department of the
Interior, Office of Education, June, 1933, p. 45. (mimeographed)
314
the intermediate, primary, and rural fields by the graduates
of Minnesota t e a c h e r s 1 colleges with those of other teachers*
colleges used in the National Survey.
The comparison shows a larger proportion of total
time spent In the general academic fields in Minnesota than
in the other t e a c h e r s ’ colleges, excepting mathematics
where the time spent is less, and in the case of English
in the intermediate field where the Minnesota time is
slightly less.
Foreign languages occupy but a fractional
percentage of the total time spent by all groups.
A
slightly smaller amount of time is spent in the fine arts
and a slightly greater amount in practical arts by the
Minnesota students.
In professional study the Minnesota
groups spend some 7 per cent less of the total time than in
the other colleges.
While the differences are not large
the general tendency is for the Minnesota students to spend
more time on general education and less on the professional
education than the other students.
This is in contrast to
the findings of the four-year secondary curricula study
where It was noted that the Minnesota colleges consumed
more time in the professional studies than did the other
institutions and approximately the same amounts of time
were spent in professional studies in the four-year
elementary curriculum.
3X5
Certain proposals made by the National Survey of
Teacher Education may be compared with Minnesota’s
practices:
For elementary and rural teachers the field of
specialization should be determined by the nature of
elementary or rural teaching*
(a) These elementary and rural curricula demand broad
general courses in essential sequences of the
subject matter to be taught.
(b) To prepare such teachers adequately for the several
.. main subjects of instruction on the elementary
level these sequences in art, music, English,
science, and history should be thoroughly profes­
sionalized.
While there is an attempt made by the Minneosta
t e a c h e rs’ colleges to give instruction in these fields,
and as has b e e n shown, more time is devoted to general
education t h a n in the colleges covered by the National
Survey, the majority of this work is still decidedly
academic in character.
A n attempt is made to cover the
aspects of professional treatment in technique and methods
and material courses rather than in a professionalization
of the subject matter courses.
Rural Education:
(a) Each state should adopt its teacher education
program to the composition of its population.
In sparsely settled regions teachers' colleges
have a peculiar responsibility for direction of
rural education.
Rugg, p£. c i t .. p. 85
316
(b) Each child in a rural area is as fully entitled
to Instruction at the hands of an educated,
professionally prepared teacher as is a child in
a city*
Hence, rural curricula should he
comparable in length and depth of content to
curricula organized with the city child in mind.
(c) Due to difficulties of determining where teachers
will locate, but knowing that first placements
are most likely to be made in rural schools, each
teacher should be informed concerning rural
problems and equipped to make necessary adapta­
tion in techniques and in materials of instruction.
(d) Adaptation in limited certificate curricula where
initial placement is usually in rural areas should
be made to include preparation in agriculture,
nature study, rural sociology and economics, and
in further adaptations of the course sequences in
health, civics, and the appreciations1 subjects. 2 0
The first point above is particularly true in
Minnesota as the county superintendency is primarily a
political official,
elected by popular vote, and without
professional qualifications of any kind.
Each of the
Minnesota teachers* colleges have qualified directors of
rural education who work in close contact with their re s ­
pective rural areas.
Experimentation in the adaptation of
curriculum materials for use in rural areas, supervision of
student teaching in rural areas and of the regular teachers
in these affiliated schools, and as much in service training
as is possible with the limited staff available, are
constantly carried on.
hoc. cit
317
The second point presents a situation that will
never he reached in Minnesota until there is a radical
reorganization of the entire rural system and a radical
departure from the present methods of financing education.
At present low salary schedules, difficult working
conditions, and the low prestige attached to rural positions
serve to make the rural position one to be left at the
earliest possible moment.
The fact mentioned elsewhere that
over half of Minnesota*s rural teaching force are still
trained by one-year high school training departments is
ample testimony to this condition.
The Minnesota teachers* colleges were beginning to
see the logic of the third point above and definite improve­
ment has been made in relation to this fact since 1933 by
requiring work in rural education and experience in rural
schools during the period of student teaching.
The fourth
point has not been covered to the same extent.
No agri­
culture is offered.
Nature study is generally required.
Rural sociology is listed by four of the six institutions
and rural economics by but one, and as neither are required
courses what rural slant the prospective teacher has in
these fields comes from applications that may be made of
principles considered in general courses.
The same situ­
ation is true of the other subjects mentioned in this fourth
318
point.
After eollege experience.
The attempt to study the
after college work of the two-year graduates was even more
difficult than the study of the four-year graduating group.
The larger number involved made it more difficult for the
colleges to obtain records of the individual members of
this group and the records of one college were not useable
for the study of after college experience.
To check this
portion of the survey the summarized placement records of
the college placement officers were used.
Table CXXVTII
presents the data on the after graduation experience of
21
the two-year graduates of five of the six colleges.
In interpreting this table it will be remembered
that only those for whom definite information was obtain­
able are included in the first categories and the 2 3 * 2 per
cent in the unknown or unemployed group contains both those
who were either known to be unemployed and those for whom
no information was available.
Also It was not feasible to
trace the Individuals of this unemployed or unknown group
beyond the year following graduation, hence if they were
employed or returned to school at a later date these facts
do not appear In the summary.
21
Detailed tables, pp. 370^9*
319
T A B L E C X X V T II
EMPLOYMENT OF “STUDENTS GRADUATING FROM
. TWO-YEAR C O U R S E .........
MINNESOTA TEACHERS' COLLEGES 1931-1935
Employment
Per cent
Employed
6?.0
Regular Teaching
62.0
Emergency Teaching
1.0
Non-Teaching
4* 0
Returned toColleges
7*9
Married
1.9
Unemployed or unknown
23*2
320
A summary of the placement officers * records covering
all two-year graduates is shown in Table CXXIX.
Table
C X X V I I I, page 319, and Table OXXIX, as explained above,
represent an attempt to arrive at the true state of employ­
ment during this period.
trustworthy.
Neither set of data are absolutely
The known average placement in educational
positions is 63 per cent in the sample group and 53*4 per
cent in the placement officers’ reports.
Known placement in educational positions, then,
accounted for possibly 60 per cent of the two-year graduates.
Non-educational work accounted for 3*0 per cent of the total
group according to the placement figures and 4.1 per cent of
the sample, the variance in terms of the total being negli­
gible.
Of the graduates,
12.2 per cent returned to college
according to the total figures Instead of the 7*9 per cent
of the sample.
The former figure is likely to be more
accurate because of the possibility of including those who
returned after the lapse of a year.
The number returning
to school because of inability to obtain a position is not
known.
The employment figures show a definite decrease In
placement for the years 1931-1932 and 1932-1933 over the
preceding year.
The decided betterment noted in the last
two years of the period has continued until reports for
1939 indicate a placement of 91*7 per cent of the two-year
TABLE C m X
KNOWN EMPLOYMENT OF TWO-YEAR GBADtJATES OF
MINNESOTA TEACHERS* COLLEGES 1931-1935* .
Bemidji
Per cent
Duluth
Per cent
Mankato
Per cent
Moorhead
Per cent
St. Cloud
Per cent
Winona
Per cent
Total
Per cent
1930-1931
69.6
60.5
61.9
59.8
58.8
53.9
60.0
1931-1932
62.2
48*5
17.0
50.0
45.6
45.0
43.0
1932-1933
53.0
48.1
50.0
27.6**
46.0
32.4**
42.4
1933-1934
63.8
56.1
63.9
52.1
50.2
45.5
55.3
1934-1935
84.6
75.9
71.2
64.4
62.2
51.5
66.2
Tear
*Source of data is placement officers* records.
tec
**These figures are undoubtedly inaccurate. Correspondence with one placement official
indicates the figure of 52 per cent rather than the one given. The figures have been included
in the table as the count made from material furnished the author by the colleges.
322
graduates-
The upturn in general conditions, the distri­
bution of emergency aid from the federal government, and
the assumption of a larger portion of educational expenses
. by the state were major factors in bringing about this
betterment.
Known placement for the Minnesota colleges does not
vary markedly from the figures given by the National
Institutional T e a c h e r 'Placement Association for 1934
graduates.
This association reports a 65 per cent placement
of two-year graduates divided as follows:
state and Land
Grant institutions, 67 per cent, teachers1 colleges and
normal schools, 65 per cent, municipal colleges, 40 per
cent, private colleges, 64 per cent, denominational colleges
under five hundred enrollment, 58 per cent, over five
22
hundred enrollment, 67 per cent.
Preparation and placement.
preparation is shown in Table GXXX.
Placement by field of
The individuals pre­
paring for rural positions had the best chance for placement
and the individuals in the upper grade field the poorest.
While the sample group gives the intermediate students a
much better chance than the primary, the total placement
figures reverse this position by a fractional percentage.
Umstattd, o p . c i t .
323
TABLE CXXX
PERCENTAGE OF INDIVIDUALS PREPARING FOR TEACHING
IN .SPECIFIC FIELDS.
WHO WERE PLACED IN.EDUCATIONAL POSITIONS
Sample group
Per cent
Total placement
figures
Per cent
Rural
89.0
78.1
intermediate
79.5
51.1
Primary
52.7
52.0
Upper
51.0
46.5
324
The State Department of Education in its latest study
of unemployment conducted in 1932 reported the following
percentages of unemployment for the fields of training.
Rural, 31 P©r cent; intermediate, 25 per cent; primary, 23
per cent; upper, 21 per oent.2^
These figures include not
only prospective teachers trained in the teachers* colleges
hut also those from all other institutions in Minnesota
and those from outside the state.
It is interesting to
note that the two fields with the highest proportion of
placement by the colleges were also those with the highest
proportion of unemployed.
The rural situation is accounted
for by the fact that the high school teacher training
departments of the state account for some 80 per cent of
the total unemployment among rural teachers while only
about one-half of the total rural teaching force is trained
by these departments.
In a comparison of the field and position obtained,
Table CXXXI shows a situation far from desirable.
While some discrepancy exists between the two sets
of figures, they b o t h point to the fact that from a half
to two-thirds of the placements were in positions other than
the major preparation of the individual.
A Study
M inn e s ota, o p . cit
Almost all of
Secondary Teachers in
, „
TABLE C X m
COMPARISON OF FIELD OF PREPARATION AND POSITION OBTAINED
Field of
preparation
Teaching in field of preparation
Total Placement
Sample Group
Per cent
Per cent
Teaching in field other than that
of preparation
Sample Group
Total Placement
Per cent
Per cent
Rural
79,2
96.0
20.8
4.0
Primary
49.0
44.6
51.0
55.4
Intermediate
31.0
24.6
69.0
75.4
Upper
34.8
31.0
65.2
69.0
325
32 6
these placements in fields other than that of specialization
were in the ungraded rural schools.
To the extent that the
candidate had been prepared for these positions by work in
rural education along with the field of choice, the situation
would be less drastic than the figures indicate.
The obvious
remedy of requiring rural training and rural student teach­
ing of all two-year graduates was not applied in all colleges
until after 1935.
Types of communities served.
The type of community in
which the graduates were serving in the years following
graduation is shown in Table CXXXII.
As in the case of the four-year graduates there is a
tendency for the two-year graduates to move from the less
desirable positions to the more desirable ones after experi­
ence in the field.
About half the proportion are found in
rural schools at the end of the five-year period as obtain
their initial experience there, and over twice as many find
employment in the larger towns and cities after experience
as are originally placed there-
It may be assumed that the
rate of movement will normally be greater than was found
during this depression period.
III.
SUMMARY
Graduates of the four-year course.
327
TABLE C X X X II
TYPE OF COMMUNITY SERVED BY STUDENTS
GRADUATING FROM TWO-YEAR COURSE
MINNESOTA TEACHERS' COLIEGES IN
SPECIFIED YEARS AFTER GRADUATION
Type of
community
1
Per
cent
Years after graduation
4
2
3
Per
Per
Per
cent
cent
cent
5
Per
cent
Ungraded Rural
I.• hl
59*4
52.7
37*5
32.6
Graded Rural
3*4
2.0
4.9
7*3
4.3
Town under 1,000
2 3 .2
24.1
27.1
37*5
3 2 .6
Town 1,000-2,500
^•3
5*5
6 .9
7*3
15-2
Town 2,500-5,000
1.7
2.5
1.0
2.2
01ty 5,000-25,000
2.6
3*0
4.9
5*2
6.5
City over 25,000.
3*2
3*5
2.8
4.2
8.7
.7.
328
1*
The Minnesota teachers1 colleges were first
authorized to grant degrees upon the completion of four
years of work in 1925-
Not until 1929 were their graduates
certified for senior h i g h school teaching.
2.
Some 14 per cent of the secondary force of the
state have "been trained by the teachers’ colleges since
that time.
3*
Of the students graduating between 1931 and 1935,
approximately one-quarter were four-year graduates and threequarters two-year graduates.
4.
M e n and women were found in this group in almost
equal numbers:
the group was decidedly mature Indicating
the presence of a large number who returned to take their
degrees after experience; a larger proportion of local
students was found among the four-year, graduates than among
the two-year graduates; the skilled labor-middle owner
occupational group was the largest followed by agriculture;
half of the group had fathers or mothers, or both, foreign
born.
5*
Only 13 per cent of the group graduate from the
elementary curriculum.
Of the secondary education majors,
three-quarters select academic fields of concentration,
English, history, social science, and science predomination,
and one-quarter are graduated with their first major in
329
special subject fields*
6.
In comparing the patterns of work of this group
covered in college with similar groups it was found that the
secondary group spent more time in general education with
the exception of mathematics and foreign language, less time
on the field of concentration, more time but still a small
proportion of the total in the field of the special subjects,
and decidedly more time in professional education.
In
elementary education the pattern of work was more nearly
uniform for all groups*
7*
Of the group, 78 per cent were known to be
employed, the actual proportion of employed was in all
probability larger.
unemployment
There was a smaller percentage of
in comparison to the percentage employed in
secondary positions in Minnesota among teachers* college
graduates than among graduates of other Minnesota institu­
tions*
8*
Some 10 per cent were employed in rural schools,
over 50 per cent in towns under twenty-five hundred
population the first year after graduation.
This pro­
portion falls to a little over a third by the end of the
fifth year after graduation.
There was a slow but distinct
trend to move to larger centers of population after a few
years of experience.
330
9*
Of the graduates, 36 per cent were employed in
grade school, including rural, the first year after
graduation.
This proportion had a tendency to fall as
experience was gained; 40 per cent were employed in
secondary positions, the remainder in administrative,
supervisory, and special educational capacities.
Too large
a proportion were employed in fields other than that of
their final training and many instances were recorded of
major teaching being done outside of the field of major
training.
10.
Sales and clerical work led in non-educational
positions*
Graduates of the two-year course.
1.
Ninety per cent of the two-year graduates were
women, 10 per cent men.
2.
Fewer of this group claimed local residence than
in the other groups studied.
3*
The parents of the two-year graduates were more
often native born than the parents of other groups.
4.
Farming was the leading parental occupation.
Smaller proportions were drawn from the professional and
skilled classes.
5.
The pattern of high school work was uniform with
that of the other groups.
331
6.
Fifty-two per cent of the elementary teachers
employed in Minnesota were trained by the teachers'
colleges.
7*
There was a trend toward decreasing the number
of curricula in the two-year course and toward placing
emphasis on rural training*
8.
In the five-year period studied, only 6 per cent
definitely prepared for rural teaching, the remainder were
divided rather evenly between upper, intermediate, and
primary fields.
9*
The pattern of work taken in college when
compared to other teachers'
colleges showed a greater pro­
portion of time spent in general education,
less time in
professional work, and about the same in special subjects.
10.
Nearly 70 per cent were known to be employed,
all but a few in educational positions.
The true p e r ­
centage of employment was in all probability higher than
this.
Placements decreased the first three years of the
study and increased the last two*
11.
More of the graduates with field of concentra­
tion in rural education were employed than graduates with
other fields of concentration.
12.
From one-half to two-thirds of the graduates
in fields other than rural were holding positions other
than their field of major concentration.
13.
The great majority of the graduates get their
first experience in rural communities or small towns#
There was a trend to move to larger centers as experience
was gained.
TABULATION OF DETAILED DATA
REGARDING GRADUATES
33*
FOUR-YEAR G R A D U A T E S :
PERSONAL AND BACKGROUND DATA
TABLE CHXIII
SEX OF STUDENTS GRADUATING FROM FOUR-YEAR COURSE
MINNESOTA TEACHERS COILBSES.1931-1935
Bemidji
Nina- Per
bar cent
Duluth
Hum- Per
her cent
Manhato
Num- Per
ber cent
Moorhead
Num- Per
ber eent
St. Cloud
Num-- Per
ber eent
Winona
Num- Per
ber eent
Total
Num- Per
ber eent
Male
48 57.8
60 31.8
82 41.8
100 42.2
155 51.4
84 44.5
529 44.2
Female
35 42.2
129 68.2
114 58.2
137 57.8
147 49.6
105 55.5
667 55.8
Sex
335
TABLE GXJDCI7
AGE AT GRADUATION OF STUDMPS COMPLETING FOUR-TOR COURSE
MINNESOTA TOCHERS COLLEGES 1931-1935
Age
Under 20
20
21
22
23
24
25-30
Over 30
Unknown
Bemldil
Num­ Bar
ber cent
1
1
9
10
8
10
22
12
10
1.2
1.2
10*8
12.1
9*6
12.1
26.5
14.5
12.0
Duluth
Num­ Per
ber cent
2
1
21
39
35
19
34
13
25
1.1
.5
11.1
20.6
18.5
10.0
18.0
6*9
13.2
Mankato
Num­ Per
ber cent
1
5
23
37
16
20
51
33
10
.5
2.6
11.7
18.9
8.2
10.2
26.0
16.8
5.1
Moorhead
Num­ Per
ber cent
2
10
30
40
28
13
53
32
29
•8
4.2
12.7
16.9
11.8
5.5
22.4
13.5
12.2
St. Cloud
Hum- Per
ber cent
2
6
20
56
45
33
77
31
32
.7
2.0
6.6
18.6
14.9
10.9
25.5
10.3
10.6
Winona
Num­ Per
ber cent
7
29
28
33
17
46
17
12
3.7
15.3
14.8
17.5
9.0
24.3
9.0
6.4
Total
Num- Per
ber cent
8
30
132
210
165
112
283
138
118
.7
2.5
11.0
17.5
13.8
9.4
23.7
11.5
9.9
Median Age 23.96
VjJ
v>i
o\
TABLE CXXX7
RESIDENCE 09 STUDENTS GRADUATING FROM F0UR-7EAR COURSE
MINNESOTA TEACHERS COLLEGES 1931-1935
Residence
Local
Same County as
College attending
Bemidji
Mankato Moorhead St. Cloud
Duluth
Winona
Total
Num­ Ber Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­• Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent
47 56.6 132 69.9
2
2.4
39 20.6
82 41.8
11
5.6
47 19.8 112 37.1
7
3.0
19
6.3
69 36.5 489 40.9
3
1.6
81
6.8
Adjacent Counties or
within 50 miles
14 16.9
4
2.1
50 25.5
46 19.4
75 24.8
29 15.3 218 18.2
Other Counties in
State
19 22.9
13
6.9
48 24.5
70 29.6
90 29.8
74 39.1 324 27.1
1.2
1
.5
3
1.5
57 24.1
2
1.0
Out of State
foreign
1
5
1.7
11
5.8
78
6.5
1
.3
3
1.6
6
.5
Unknown
337
TABLE CXXXV1
PARENTAGE GF STUDENTS GRADUATING FROM FOUR-TEAR COURSE
MINNESOTA TEACHERS COLLEGES 1931-1935
Parentage
Bemidji
Duluth
Mankato Moorhead St. Cloud
Total
Winona
Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­*Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent
Native white
native parentage
45 54.3
53 28.0 142 72.5
28 11.8
59 19.5 121 64.0 448 37.4
Native white
mixed parentage
19 22.9
35 18.5
26 13.2
47 19.8
91 30.1
Native white foreign
parentage
12 14.5
85 44.9
17
8.7
.5
1
♦5
1
.5
9
4.6
Foreign bom white
1
Other race
Unknown
7
8.4
15
8.0
98 41.4 119 39.4
1
•4
63 26.6
1
32
.3
10.6
13
6.9 123 19.3
44 23.3 375 31.4
1
.5
5
.4
2
1.1
3
.3
8
4.2
134 11.2
338
TABLE CXXXVII
OCCUPATIONS OF PARENTS OF STOEENTS GRADUATING FROM FOUR-YEAR COURSE
, MINNESOTA TEACHERS COLLEGES 1931-1935
Occupation
Professional
Semi-Professional
Total
Bemidji
Duluth
Mankato Moorhead St. Cloud “ Winona
Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num- Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent
11 13.2
3
3.6
5
2.6
U
5.6
12
5*1
25
8.3
24 12.7
88
7.4
4
2.1
13
6.6
23
9.7
20
6.6
17
80
6.7
Skilled
25 30.1
72 38.1
28 14.3
Semi-Skilled
14 16.9
AA
23.3
43
34 14.3
87 26.8
46 24.3 292 24.4
21.9
16
6.7
32 10.6
21 11.1 170 14.2
4
2.0
3
1.3
10
14
3.3
7.4
52
4.4
3.6
18
9.5
Agriculture
13 15.7
15
7.9
57 29.1
70 29.6
53 17.5
38 20.1 246 20.6
Unknown
14 16.9
31 16.4
40 20.4
79 33.3
75 24.8
29 15.3 268 22.4
Unskilled
3
TA
9.0
339
TABLE 030X7111
LOCATION OF HIGH SCHOOL ATTENDED BY STUDENTS GRADUATING FROM FOUR-YEAR COURSE
MINNESOTA TEACHERS COLLEGES 1931-1935
Location of
High School
Local
Same County as
College attending
Bemidji
Duluth
Mankato Moorhead St. Cloud
Winona
fotal
Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num- Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent
36 43.4 124 65.6
2
2*4
32 16.9
77 39.2
7
3.6
49 20.7
8
3.4
98 32.4
8
2.7
61 32.3 445 37.2
3
1.6
60
5.0
Adjacent Counties or
within 50 miles
22 26*5
4
2.1
52 26.6
60 25.3
70 23.2
22 11.6 230 19.2
Other Counties in
State
12 14.5
12
6.4
52 26.6
52 21.9 103 34.2
86 45.5 317 26.6
5
2.6
53 22.4
Out of State
5
6.0
Foreign
1
1.2
Unknown
5
6.0
12
6.4
4
2.0
2
1.0
2
1.0
15
6.3
14
4.6
15
7.9
96
8.0
1
.3
2
1.1
6
.5
8
2.7
42
3.5
vjl
4>
O
t
table
cxmx
COMPARISON OF PATTERN OB' WORK TAOT IN COLLEGE BETWEEN GRADUATES
OF MINNESOTA TEACHERS1 COLLEGES, GRADUATES OF TWENTY TEACHERS’ COLLEGES*
AND GRADUATES OF COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES**
PERCENTAGE OF ALL WORK TAKEN
Subject
Minnesota
teachers1 colleges
Other
teachers1 colleges
Colleges and
universities
Majoring in Art
English
Foreign Language
Mathematics
Science
Social Science
Fine Arts
Practical Arts
Professional
14.7
1.2
1.0
U.4
13.2
19.9
2.5
30.7
11.3
2.7
.7
6.3
6.6
36.4
5.7
26.4
11.9
7.3
1.2
7.7
7.7
35.9
2.4
19.6
Majoring in Education
13.8
1.3
1.7
14.0
16.7
6.1
2.1
39.6
14.4
10.6
3.9
11.1
15.5
1.9
2.9
26.6
Ti?£
English
Foreign Language
Mathematics
Science
Social Science
Fine Arts
Practical Arts
Professional
TABLE CXXXXZ (continued)
COMPARISON OF PATTERN OF WORK TAKEN IN COLLEGE BETWEEN GRADUATES
OF MINNESOTA TEACHERS' COLLEGES, GRADUATES QF TWENTY TEACHERS' COLLEGES*
AND GRADUATES OF COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES**
PERCENTAGE QF All WORK TAKEN
Subject
English
Foreign language
Mathematics
Science
Social Science
Fine Arts
Practical Arts
Professional
English
Foreign Language
Mathematics
Science
Social Science
Fine Arts
Practical Arts
Professional
Minnesota
teachers’ colleges
Other
teachers’ colleges
Colleges and
universities
24.2
2.6
.8
12.3
16.3
6.0
1.3
31.8
Majoring in English
25.9
9.4
2.9
7.3
15.0
3.8
2.2
25.6
31.0
16.3
3.3
7.3
13.2
2.7
.8
15.5
15.5
20.6
1.7
8.7
21.6
3.7
1.1
23.4
Majoring in French
15.1
28.5
3.8
8.6
10.0
3.0
3.4
21.9
15.8
37.2
3.3
11.0
8.5
2.2
•3
13.7
Vo4
4sfO
TABLE CXXKEX (continued)
COMPARISON OF PATTERN OF WORK TAKH5 IN COLLEGE BETWEEN GRADUATES
OF MINNESOTA TEACHERS' COLLEGES, GRADUATES QF TWENTT TEACHERS' COLLEGES*
AND GRADUATES OF COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES**
PERCENTAGE OF AIL WORE TAKEN
gubject
English
Foreign Language
Mathematics
Science
Social Science
Fine Arts
Practical Arts
Professional
English
Foreign Language
Mathematics
Science
Social Science
Fine Arts
Practical Arts
Professional
Minnesota
teachers' colleges
14.0
1.3
1.2
16.0
25.2
4.0
1.9
30.5
10.6
1.6
15.1
15.9
1.8
18.8
30.1
Other
teachers' colleges
Majoring in History
14.3
4.3
2.5
6.1
33.0
1.7
3.6
26.2
Colleges and
universities
14.8
14.7
3.0
9.1
33.4
1.9
.2
14.7
Majoring in Industrial Arts
9.0
2.5
3.3
10.4
10.9
1.8
31.9
25.0
VA
-t5-
VA
TABLE CHOCK (continued)
COMPARISON 0? PATTERN OF WORK TAKEN IN COLLEGE BETWEEN GRADUATES
OF MINNESOTA TEACHERS' COLLEGES, GRADUATES OF. WHOT, TEACHERS' COLLEGES*
AND GRADUATES OF COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES**
PERCENTAGE OF ALL WORK TAKEN ..
Subject
English
Foreign Language
Mathematics
Science
Social Science
Fine Arts
Practical Arts
Professional
Minnesota
teachers1 colleges
13.1
2,3
12.0
17.6
14.3
2.6
2.3
30.5
Other
teachers’ colleges
Majoring in Mathematics
12,1
7.6
19.8
15.8
10.7
2.1
3.5
24.9
Majoring in Music
11.5
4.6
1.0
8.5
5.9
42.1
1.5
23.4
Colleges and
■universities
10.3
14.3
23.7
14.2
10.0
1.3
.3
16.1
m m m m mmmmrnmmnmmm
English
Foreign Language
Mathematics
Science
Social Science
Fine Arts
Practical Arts
Professional
14.5
2.4
.5
10.5
15.3
21.3
.8
31.2
10.8
9.3
1.0
4.3
4.9
45.1
.2
17.2
Kji
$
TABLE CXXXIX (continued)
COMPARISON of pattern of wor k taken in coelsqe between graduates
OF MINNESOTA TEACHERS' COLLEGES, GRADUATES QF W W P T TEACHERS’ COLLEGES*
AND GRADUATES QF COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES**
PERCENTAGE OF ALL WORK TAKEN
Subject
Minnesota
teachers* colleges
Other
teachers1 colleges
English
Foreign Language
Mathematics
Science
Social Science
Fine Arts
Practical Arts
Professional
Majoring in Physical Education
(wcsaen)
(men)
13.0
10.6
11.1
14.3
2.3
1.8
.7
1.7
8,2
15.3
14.5
20.4
10.2
15.2
13.2
3.6
2.8
.8
8.4
3.7
3.9
26.4
29.1
21.7
English
Foreign Language
Mathematics
Science
Social Science
Fine Arts
Practical Arts
Professional
Majoring in Science***
11.2
6.6
3.8
30.9
11.0
3.5
5.3
24.1
12.3
1.4
4.6
28,1
14.2
2.7
2.1
30.2
Colleges and
universities
(men)
9.9
5.4
2.1
17.7
12.3
.9
1.2
14.6
(women)
10.9
7.7
1.1
17.2
9.2
1.6
1.8
16.8
10.7
9.4
4.7
39.2
9.9
1.0
.7
15.6
TABLE CXXXIX (continued)
COMPARISON OF PATTERN OF WCEK TAKBJ IN COLLEGE BETWEEN GRADUATES
OF MINNESOTA TEACHERS' COLLEGES, GRADUATES OF TOTTr TEACHERS' COLLEGES*
AND GRADUATES OF COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES**
PERCENTAGE OF ALL WORK TAKEN
Subject
English
foreign Language
Mathematics
Science
Social Science
fine Arts
Practical Arts
Professional
English
foreign Language
Mathematics
Science
Social Science
fine Arts
Practical Arts
Professional
Minnesota
Other
teachersf colleges
teachers1 colleges
Majoring in Social Science
14.3
1.2
1.2
15.0
24.4:
3.2
2.5
31.9
Majoring in Elementary Education
Intermediate
16.2
14.2
.8
2.6
2.8
.5
14.2
16.2
13.0
15.5
7.5
10.3
2.5
4.2
33.7
37.4
Primary
14.9
4.0
2.0
12.0
11.2
10.1
2.9
37.7
Colleges and
universities
14.1
9.7
2.8
8.8
34.4
1*2
2.2
16.2
*
13.8
7.2
.6
7.9
15.6
4.0
3.2
35.4
*Data summarized from S. U. Rugg, National Survey of the Education of Teachers, Supplementary
Reportst Office of Education, June, 1933. (mimeographed)
**Data summarized from W. E. Peik, National Survey of the Education of Teachers, Supplementary
Reports, Office of Education, June, 1933. (mimeographed)'
***Biology majors in colleges and universities were selected as typical of science majors.
TABLE CXL
SUCCESS IS COILEGEAS MEASURED BI AVERAGE HONOR FOISTS 07 STUDENTS
ORAIIUATIHG FROM FOUR-TEAR COURSE, MINNESOTA TEACHERS COLLEHES 1931-1935
Average
Honor Points
Below 1.00
Winona
Bemidji
Total
Duluth
Mankato Moorhead St. Cloud
Hum­ Ber Hum­ Per Hum­ Per Hum­ Per Hum- Per Hum­ Per Hum­ Per
ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber eent ber cent
2
2.4
5
2.6
4
2.0
15
6.3
5
2.6
31
2.6
1.00-1.25
21 25.3
31 16.4
39 19.9
62 26.2
45 14,9
68 36.0 266 22.2
1.25-1.50
14 16.9
29 15.3
41 20.9
46 19,4
65 21,5
38 20.1 233 19.5
1.50-1.75
21 25,3
46 24.3
39 19.9
35 14.8
86 28.5
35 17.5 260 21,7
1.75-2.00
13 15.7
29 15.3
23 11.7
27 11.4
40 13.2
18
9.5 150
23 11.7
25 10.5
40 13.2
15
7.9 136 11.4
12.6
2.00-2.25
e
7.2
27 14.3
2.25-2.50
3
3.6
12
6.4
18
9.2
23
9.7
14
4.6
7
3.7
77
6.4
2.50-2.75
2
2,4
6
3.2
8
4.1
3
1.3
10
3.3
4
2.1
33
2.8
2.75-5.00
1
1.2
4
2.1
1
.5
1
.4
2
.7
1
•5
10
.8
01
4
FOUR-YEAH GRADUATES:
EMPLOYMENT DATA
table cxli
muPLowf
and n c n -e m k »
oyment of students after gradbaticn
FROM FOUR-YEAR COURSE
MINNESOTA TEACHERS COLLEGES 1931-1935
Snployment
Mankato Moorhead St. Cloud
Duluth
Bemldji
Winona
Total
Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num- Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent
Employed
70 84*5 125 66.1 135 68.9 187 78.9 274 90.7 142 75.1 933 78.0
Teaching
51 61#5
Emergency teaching
Other work
5
6*0
14 16*9
82 43.4 111 56.6
10
5.3
33 17.4
Graduate School
1
1.2
1
•5
Married
3
3.6
11
5.8
Unemployed or unknown
9 10.8
Deceased
49 25.9
5
1.6
161 67.9 247 81.8 122 64.5 774 64.6
2.0
2
.8
16
5.3
3
20 10.2
24
1.1
11
3.6
17
1
.3
5
2.6
8
.7
5.1
8
2.7
12
6.4
52
4.4
37 15.6
19
6.3
30 15.9 199 16.6
4
6
3.0
55 28.1
12
1
.4
1.6
40
3.3
9.0 U 9
10.0
4
.3
4s*
vo
TABLE CXLII
TIPE QF COMUNITT
IN WHICH CmADUATES FROM FOUR-YEAR COURSE
MINNESOTA TEACHERS COLLEGES 1931-1935 ARE SERVING
AT THE END OF SPECIFIED YEARS AFTER GRADUATION
Years after
graduation
1
2
3
4
5
Bemidji
Humber
4
1
2
1
Duluth
Humber
15
11
8
4
3
Mankato
Humber
Moorhead
Humber
Ungraded Rural
5
18
5
8
1
6
2
2
St. Cloud
Humber
Winona
Humber
18
13
7
Total
Number
69
54
27
16
5
8
Graded Rural
1
2
3
4
5
4
4
3
1
4
3
3
1
1
5
4
1
19
15
8
4
2
Town under 1J)00
1
2
3
4
5
189
170
105
48
6
57
63
39
19
1
16
15
9
5
2
142
142
82
40
13
19
13
85
8
8
1
86
1
5
4
1
1
2
1
1
Town 1,000-2,500
47
17
50
9
30
1
14
1
5
4
350
1
2
3
4
5
48
20
2
31
30
22
14
2
24
23
17
TABUS CXLII (continued)
TYPE OF OOmUNITr IN iffllCH GRADUATES FROM FOUR-YEAR COURSE
MINNESOTA TEACHERS COLLEGES 1931-1935 ARB SERVING
AT THE a ® OF SPECIFIED YEARS AFTER GRADUATION
Years after
graduation
Beraidji
Number
4
5
4
1
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
Duluth
Number
7
4
5
3
2
2
1
4
4
4
2
1
27
25
17
11
5
Mankato
Number
Moorhead
Number
st« cloud
Number
Winona
Number
Total
Number
City 2.500-5,000
40
9
42
6
3
28
2
16
2
3
16
25
20
10
5
9
11
6
7
1
78
89
61
36
11
City 5,000-25.000
21
15
17
8
4
11
7
1
2
4
25
20
19
18
5
13
8
8
9
1
85
61
51
40
15
City over 25,000
6
5
6
4
3
4
1
1
1
14
23
16
10
3
2
3
4
2
2
54
61
44
26
13
351
TABLE CXLIII
TYPE OF TEACHING P05ITIGNHEID BY GRAnnATOS
FROM FOUR-YEAR COURSE, MINNESOTA TEACHERS COLLEGES 1931-1935
AT END OF SPECIFIED YEARS AFTER GRADUATION
Years after
graduation
1
2
3
4
5
Bemidji
Number
14
12
9 ~
4
4
Duluth
Number
Total
Number
58
51
31
15
2
22
19
10
5
1
239
193
104
37
18
38
29
14
4
3
8
6
4
5
3
Junior High. School
15
15
15
7
11
3
1
11
5
2
62
64
34
17
2
9
12
6
6
1
112
106
58
41
13
Senior High School
28
43
52
18
31
11
15
5
3
55
69
57
41
9
21
19
17
12
176
187
135
81
13
6
6
7
4
1
1
1
1
1
13
13
12
9
4
1
2
3
4
5
3
2
1
2
3
4
5
22
20
12
5
1
7
9
7
3
1
2
3
4
5
1
1
2
2
2
1
1
Winona
Number
Mankato
Moorhead
Number
Number
Grade School
51
56
38
43
27
13
4
5
3
5
Superintendent
4
5
2
2
1
St. Cloud
Number
352
TABLE CXLIII (continued)
TYPE OF TEACHING P0S3TIGN HELD W GRADUATES
FROM FOUR-YEAR COURSE, MINNESOTA TEACHERS COLLEGES 1931-1935
AT M ) OF SPECIFIED YEARS AFTER GRADUATION
Baaidji
Number
Duluth
Number
Mankato
Moorhead
Number
Number
Principal High School
2
1
fH
1
3
4
5
C
O
2
1
1
C
O
2
1
1
CO
1
2
3
4
5
CM
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
2
2
1
Principal Grade School
6
3
3
2
St. Cloud
Number
Winona
Number
Total
Number
13
14
8
2
1
3
3
2
3
20
23
18
2
6
4
4
1
1
5
3
4
3
1
21
15
8
6
3
1
4
4
2
2
2
21
27
11
12
9
1
Supervisor
r-i
1
2
r-1
3
4
5
11
7
4
Special Work
X
^
2
r|
3
4
5
M
14
11
6
1
-
10
13
M
10
8
H
1
52
39
29
16
4
VjI
Ul
VjI
TABLE OZZ.IT
COMPARISON OP PREPARATION AND TEACHING POSITION HELD
BY GRADUATES OF FOUR-YEAR COURSE
MINNESOTA TEACHERS COLLEGES 1931-1935
Comparison
Position and
preparation same
Elementary
High School
Administration
Rural
Other
Bemidji
Number
Duluth
Number
Mankato
Number
33
5
25
3
48
16
29
1
79
16
59
Preparation
High School
Teaching Rural
Teaching Elementary
Mult Education
Special
St* Cloud
Number
2
1
3
7
192
12
163
11
1
5
44
36
35
71
3
5
1
3
2
2
5
8
5
2
14
15
10
Position and pre­
paration not the same 23
Preparation
Elementary
Teaching Rural
Teaching High
School
Special
Moorhead
Number
6
30
128
33
78
10
9
17
2
12
39
16
3
Total
Per cent
Winona
Number
Total
Number
95
16
70
3
6
575
98
424
28
2
23
70.6
17.1
73.6
4*9
.3
4.0
30
239
29.4
9
3.8
1
1
8
1
3.3
•4
5
19
3
1
51
128
36
6
21.4
53.5
15.0
2.5
VjJ
¥
TWO-YEAR GR A D U A T E S :
PERSONAL AND BACKGROUND DATA
TABLE CXL?
SEX OF GRADUATES OF TWO-TEAS COURSE
MINNESOTA TEACHERS CQLLEGES1931-1935
Sex
Mai®
Female
Bemidji
E m - Per
her cent
Duluth
Hum- Per
her cent
11.8
5 10.2
30 88.2
49 89.8
4
Mankato
Sum- Per
her cent
5
6.1
77 93.9
Moorhead
Num- Per
her cent
7
St. Cloud
Num­- Per
ber cent
8.1
19 11.7
79 91.9
144 88.3
Winona
Num- Per
her cent
Total
Num- Per
her cent
4.5
42
9.2
42 95.5
416
90.8
2
VjJ
Ul
0\
TABLE CXLYI
AGE AT COMPLETION OF TWO-YEAR COURSE OF GRADUATES
MINNESOTA TEACHERS COLLEGES 1931-1935
Age
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
Over 25
Unknown
Bemidji
Num­ Per
ber eent
1
9
4
11
3
3
1
2
2.9
26.4
11.8
32.4
8.8
8.8
2,9
5.9
Duluth
Num­ Per
ber eent
2
5
18
6
10
1
4,1
10.2
36.7
12.3
20,4
2.0
1
4
2
2.0
8.2
4.1
Mankato
Num­ Per
ber eent
1 1.2
3 3.7
23 28.0
18 21*9
7 8.5
5 6.1
4 4.9
3 3.7
3 3,7
10 12.2
5 6.1
Moorhead
Num­ Per
ber eent
1
1
3
22
19
5
7
3
5
9
11
1.2
1.2
3.5
25.6
22.0
5.8
8.1
3.5
5.8
10.4
12.8
St, Cloud
Num- Per
ber cent
5
22
34
22
12
10
9
1
19
29
3.1
18.5
20.8
13.5
7.4
6.1
5.5
.6
11.7
17.8
Winona
Num­ Per
ber eent
3
9
12
8
5
1
6.8
20,4
27.3
18.2
11.4
2.3
1
2
3
2.3
4.5
6.8
Total
Num­ Per
ber eent
2
15
71
108
73
40
26
16
13
44
50.
A
3.3
15.5
23,6
15.9
8.7
5.7
3.5
2.7
9.6
10.9
Median Age 21,1
357
TABLE CXLVII
PAEEKTAGK OF GRADUATES OF TWO-YEAS COURSE
MINNESOTA TEACHERS COLLEGES 1931-1935
Parentage
Native white
native parentage
Native white of
mixed parentage
Native white of
foreign parentage
Mankato Moorhead St. Cloud
Bemidji
Duluth
Winona
Total
Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num- Per Num- Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber eent ber eent ber eent ber cent ber eent ber eent ber cent
14 41.2
17 34.7
57 69.5
8 23.5
8 16.3
11 13.4
4
13 35.3
24 49.0
12 14.6
6 13.7
34 77.2 122 58.7
9.1
31 14.6
HA.
25.8
Foreign b o m white
Other race
Unknown
2
2.4
2
.9
358
TABLE GXLYIII
RESIDENCE OF GRADUATES OF TWO-YEAR COURSE
MINNESOTA TEACHERS COLLEGES 1931-1955
Residence
Mankato Moorhead St. Cloud
Bemidji
Winona
Total
Duluth
Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num- Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber cent ber cent ber cent ber eent her cent ber cent ber cent
Local
3
5.9
32 44.9
Same County as
College attending
3
8.8
13 34.5
Adjacent Counties or
within 50 miles
30 58.9
Other Counties
in State
8 33.5
Out of State
1
3.9
11 13.4
4
4.6
9.7
5
5.8
8
20 12.3
8
4.9
3
6.8
62 13.5
1
2.3
37
8.1
8.2
20 24.4
32 37.2
48 29.4
11 25.0 135 29.5
11 22.4
40 48.8
34 39.6
80 49.1
25 56.8 198 43.2
3.7
11 12.8
4
3
3
1.8
4
2.4
4
9.1
22
4.8
4
.9
Foreign
Unknown
359
TABLE CXLIX
OCCUPATION OF PARENTS OF GRADUATES OF TOO-YEAR COURSE
MINNESOTA TEACHERS COLLEGES 1931-1935
Occupation
Bemidji
Num­ Per
ber cent
Duluth
Num­ Per
ber cent
Professional
Mankato
Num­ Per
ber cent
6
7.3
Moorhead
Num­ Per
ber cent
2
2.3
St. Cloud
Num- Per
ber cent
Winona
Num­ Per
ber cent
4
2.4
5 11.4
17
3.7
9
5.5
2
21
4.6
Semi-Professional
2
5*9
6 12.3
2
2.4
Skilled
8 23*5
6 12.3
15
18.3
11 12.8
28 17.2
7 15.9
75 16.4
Semi-Skilled
2
5.9
10 20.4
8
9.7
14 16.3
32 19.6
10 22.7
76 16.6
Unskilled
Z
5.9
7 14.3
7
8.5
18 52.9
16 32.6
34 41.5
40 46.5
43 26.4
11 25.0
162 35.4
8.2
10 12.2
19 22.0
43 26.4
8 18.2
86 18.8
Agriculture
Unknown
2
5.9
4
4
2.4
1
4.5
Total
Num­ Per
ber cent
2.3
21
4.6
360
T A B U CL
LOCATION OF HIGH SCHOOL FROM WHICH GRADUATES OF TWO-TSAR COURSE
MINNESOTA TEACHERS COLLEGES 1931-1935 GRADUATED
Location of
High School
Bemidji
Duluth
Mankato Moorhead St. Cloud
Winona
Total
Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­- Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber cent ber cent ber cent ber eent ber cent ber cent ber cent
Local
5 14.7
25 51.0
7
8.5
3
3.5
17 10.4
2
4.5
59 12.9
Same County as
College attending
a
5.9
7 14.3
7
8.5
8
9.3
10
1
2.3
35
Adjacent Counties or
within 50 miles
16 47.1
5 10.2
20 24.4
31 36.1
50 30.7
12 27.3 134 29.3
Other Counties in
State
10 29.4
12 24.5
42 51.3
28 32.6
73 44.7
24 54.5 189 41.3
7.3
10 11.6
Out of State
Unknown
i
2.9
6
6
6.9
6.1
7.6
7
4.3
4
9.1
28
6.1
6
3.7
1
2.3
13
2.7
SABLE CLI
FIELD OF SPECIALIZATION OF GRADUATES OF TWO-YEAR COURSE
MINNESOTA TEACHERS COLLEGES 1931-1935
Field of
specialization
Bemid.il
Mankato Moorhead St. Cloud
Winona
Total
Duluth
Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­- Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber eent ber eent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber eent ber cent
10 39*4
31 42.8
33 40*3
24 28.0
43 26.4
13 29.5 144 31.4
Intermediate grades
9 36.4
20 40*8
13 15*8
29 33.7
51 31*3
16 36.4 138 30.2
Upper grades
9 36*4
6 12*3
28 34*2
26 30.2
66 40.5
15 34.1 150 32.8
Rural
6 17.7
2
Kindergarten
4.1
8
9.7
7
8.1
3
1*8
26
5.7
v>i
on
to
TABLE CLII
SUCCESS IN COLLEGE AS MEASURED BT AVERAGE HONOR POINTS
OF GRADUATES OF TWO-TEAS COURSE
MINNESOTA TEACHERS COLLEGES 1931-1935
Average
Honor Points
Bemidji
Num­ Per
ber eent
Belov 1.00
Duluth
Num­ Per
ber eent
1
2.0
Mankato
Num­ Per
ber cent
1
1.2
Moorhead
Num­ Per
ber cent
2
St. Cloud
Num- Per
ber cent
Winona
Num­ Per
ber cent
1
2.3
2.3
Total
Num­ Per
ber cent
5
1.1
1.00-1.25
16 47.1
9 18.4
23 28.0
AA
51.1
61 37.4
1.25-1.50
6 17.7
10 20.4
23 28.0
15 17.4
34 20.8
4
9.1
92 20.1
1.50-1.75
3
9 18.4
20 24.4
12 13.9
25 15.4
5 11.4
74 16.1
1.75-2.00
5 14.7
6.1
9 11.0
7
8.1
13
7.9
3
6.8
40
8.7
4
3
3.5
17 10.4
3
6.8
37
8.1
1
1.2
8.8
3
10 20.4
2.00—2*25
2.25-2.50
2
5.9
2
4.1
2.50-2.75
2
5.9
1
2.0
2.75-3.00
2
4.1
Unknown
2
4.1
2
4.9
IV
2.4
2
2.3
25 56.8
178 38.9
3
1.8
1
2.3
9
2.0
3
1.8
1
2.3
9
2.0
2
.4
12
2.6
7
4.3
1
2.3
TWO-YEAR GRADUATES:
EMPLOYMENT DATA
table cliii
POST-COLLEGE EMPLOYMENT OF GRADUATES OF TWO-YEAR COURSE
MINNESOTA TEACHERS COLLEGES 1931-1935
Employment
Bemidji
Num- Per
her cent
Duluth
Num­ Per
ber cent
Mankato
Num­ Per
ber cent
Moorhead
Num­ Per
ber cent
St. Cloud
Num­-Per
ber cent
Winona*
Num- Per
ber eent
Total
Num­ Per
ber cent
Employed
34 100.0
29 59,1
65 79.3
56 65.1
93 57.0
277
Teaching
33
21 42.8
59 72.0
55
63.9
88 54.0
256 62.0
1
1.2
97.1
Emergency
teaching
Other work
2.0
1
1.2
7 14.3
5
6.1
1
1
2.9
In College
8 16.3
Married
5 10.2
Unemployed or
unknown
7 14.3
3
1
.6
4
1.0
4
2,4
17
4.0
25 15.4
33
7.9
8
1.9
3.7
14 17.0
30 34.9
67.0
45
37.6
96 23.2
Winona report not available.
o\
or
TABLE GLUT
TYPE OF COMMIT! SERVED BY GRADUATES OF TWO-YEAR COURSE
MINNESOTA TEACHERS COLLEGES 1931-1935
Years after
graduation
Bemidji
Number
Duluth
Number
1
2
3
4
5
22
16
7
3
19
15
11
4
3
1
2
3
4
5
1
1
1
3
5
6
6
1
2
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
2
1
1
Mankato
Number
Moorhead
Number
Ungraded Rural
34
31
2Q
21
19
7
4
16
7
2
Graded Rural
3
1
3
5
5
1
Town under 1.000
15
14
13
9
9
9
9
7
2
3
2
1
2
2
1
Town 1.000-2.500
2
4
2
4
2
1
1
2
2
2
St. Cloud
Number
37
38
23
15
6
2
1
1
1
1
22
21
15
14
8
1
2
2
1
2
Winona*
Number
Total
Number
143
118
76
36
15
8
4
7
7
2
54
48
39
36
14
10
11
10
7
7
366
TABUS C U T (continued)
O T OF COMMUNITY SEEVED BY GRADUATES OF TWO-YEAR COURSE
MINNESOTA TEACHERS COttEGBS 1931-1935
Years after
graduation
Bemidji
Number
Duluth
Number
Moorhead
Number
City 2*500-5*000
1
1
2
Mankato
Number
2
1
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
2
1
1
1
1
City 5,000-25,000
1
3
2
1
3
1
3
1
2
1
St. Cloud
Number
3
2
1
1
1
1
2
Winona*
Number
fotal
Number
4
5
1
1
1
6
6
7
5
3
City over 25,000
1
2
3
4
5
3
3
1
1
1
4
4
3
3
3
7
7
4
4
4
*i?inona report not available.
367
TABLE CLV
COMPARISON OF POSITION HELD AND m i S l S ' OF GRADUATES OF TWO-YEAR COURSE
MINNESOTA TEACHERS COLLEGES 1931-1935
Comparison
Mankato Moorhead St. Cloud
Duluth
Winona*
Total
Bemidji
Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­• Per Hum- Per Num­ Per
ber cent ber cent ber cent ber eent ber eent ber cent ber cent
Preparation and
position same
Primary grades
Intermediate grades
Upper grades
Rural
16 48.5
4
4
5
3
11 50.0
Preparation and
position different
17 51.5
11 50.0
Preparation Primary
Grades
Position Rural
Position Upper
Position Music
Position Mult
6
Preparation Intermediate
Grades
4
Position Rural
Position Primary
Position Upper
2
5
2
2
9
34 40.0
9
6
4
5
34 43.9
9
5
4
6
33 35.9
10
10
9
3
107 41.3
34
30
34
19
36 60.0
33 57.1
57 64.1
153 58.8
5
3
13
5
6
1
1
1
31
3
1
3
35
1
1
65
1
1
13
368
TABLE CLV (continued)
COMPARISON OF POSITION HELD AND TRAININS OF GRADUATES OF TWO-VEAR COURSE
MINNESOTA TEACHERS COLLEGES 1931-1935
Comparison
Duluth
Mankato Moorhead St. Cloud Winona*
Total
Bemidji
Hum- Per Hum- Per Num- Per Num- Per Num- Per Huai- Per Num- Per
ber -cent ber cent -ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent
Preparation
Upper Grades
Position Hural
Position Primary
Position Intermediate
4
Preparation Rural
Position Primary
Position Mult
3
1
15
1
1
10
2
9
1
3
39
3
3
3
2
*Wlnona report not available.
369
TABLE CLVI
DATA CONCERNING AFTER COLLEGE EXPERIENCE OF MO-TEAR GRADUATES
MINNESOTA TEACHERS COLLEGES 1931-1935
SOURCE: COLLEGE PLACEMENT RECORDS
Experience
Number graduated
School placement
Other work
Heturn to College
Unemployed or unknown
Preparation
Upper Grades
Position in Upper
Grades
Position in Hural
Grades
Position in Inter­
mediate Grades
Position in Primary
Grades
Bemidji
Duluth
Mankato* Moorhead St. Cloud
Winona
Num­■ Per Num­-Per Num­■ Per Num­• Per Num­-Per Num­* Per
ber cent ber cent ber cent ber eent ber cent ber cent
86
60
3
10
13
100,0
69*9
3.5
11.6
15.1
99 100.0
60 60.5
9 9.1
1 1.0
29 29.4
26 30.2
17 17.2
3 11.5
3 17.6
6 23.0
9 53.0
1930-1951
207 100.0 174
128 61.9 104
1
17 8.1 20
62 29.9 49
47 22.7
5 19.2
Preparation Intermediate
Grades
2? 31.4
Position in Inter­
mediate Grades
5 18.5
Position in Bural
Grades
16 59.3
89 43.0
-
100.0 332 100.0 156 100.0 1,054 100.0
59.8 195 58.8 84 53.9
631 60.0
1
14 1.3
.6
.6
11.5 39 11.7
14 9.0
101 9.6
28.2 98 29.5 57 36.5
308 29.2
56 31.8 124 37.4
55 35.2
325 30.8
14 25.0
40 32.3
17 30.8
77 23.7
12 21.4
25 20.2
11 20.0
63 19.4
5
35 35.3
Total
Num­ Per
ber eent
8.9
7
5.6
2
1.6
51 29.3 120 36.1
2
3.6
19
5.8
2
6.2
40 25.6
362 34.3
5 14.3
@ 15.7
34 28.3
11 27.6
63 17.4
19 54.4
16 31.4
21 17.5
8 20.0
80 22.1
370
TABLE CLVI (continuedJ
BATA CCMCERHDJG AFTER COLLEGE EXPERIENCE OF TWO-YEAR GRADUATES
MINNESOTA TEACHERS COLLEGES 1931-1935
SOURCE: COLLEGE ELACBIENT RECORDS
Experience
Bemidji
Duluth
Mankato* Moorhead St* Cloud
Winona
Hum- Per Num- Per Num- Per Hum- Per Hum- Per Hum- Per
ber cent ber eent ber eent ber cent ber cent ber cent
Position in Upper
Grades
Position in Primary
Grades
Preparation Primary
Grades
Position in Primary
Grades
Position in Rural
Grades
Position in Inter­
mediate Grades
Position in Upper
Grades
Preparation Rural
Grades
Position in Rural
Grades
Position in Upper
Grades
5
30 34.9
AA
Tw
44.4
70 33.8
9.8
5
4.2
6
5.0
3
7.5
Total
Hum- Per
her cent
5
1.4
14
3.9
63 36.2
88 26.5
58 37.6
253 33.5
7 23.3
10 22.7
24 38.1
41 46.5
18 31.0
100 28.4
13 43.4
14 31.8
17 27.0
13 14.8
9 15.5
66 18.7
2
6.2
3
3.5
3 100.0
3
3.3
1
.5
3
4.8
4
2.3
2 50.0
1
1.1
1
1.7
7
2.0
3
1.9
14
1.3
2 66.7
7 50.0
371
TABLE CLVI (continued)
DATA CONCERNING AFTER COLLEGE EXPERIENCE OF TWO-TEAR GRADUATES
MINNESOTA TEACHERS COLLEGES 1931-1935
SOURCE: COLLEGE PLACEMENT RECORDS
Experience
Mankato* Moorhead St. Cloud
Bemidji
Duluth
Winona
Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­•Per Num­ Per
ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent
Total
Num­ Per
ber cent
1931-1932
1.003
327
111
176
188
32 17.0 88 50.0 149 45.6 50 45.0 430 43.0
.9
21 2.0
7 3.7
1
1
.6
58
131
7 4.0
13.0
24 12.8
17.7 17 15.3
125 66.5 80 45.4 120 36.7 43 38.7 421 42.0
—
Number graduated
School placement
Other work
Return to College
Unemployed or unknown
98
103
61 62.2 50 48.5
3 3.1
9 8.7
7 6.8
18 18.4
16 16.3 37 36.0
-
*
47 48.0
11 10.7
61 32.4
61 34.6
118 36.1
50 45.0
348 34.7
9.2
5 10.0
37 11.1
27 22.9
18 36.0
72 20.7
•
6 12.8
5 45.5
10 16.4
14 29.8
4 36.4
9 14.7
3
6.4
2
4.3
Preparation Intermediate
17 17.3
Grades
Position in Inter­
1 5.9
mediate Grades
Position in Rural
8 47.1
Grades
Position in Upper
Grades
11
6
2
40 38.8
59 31.4
5.1
2
1.0
3.3
62 35.2 114 34.9
6 15.0
7 11.3
14 12.3
16 40.0
24 38.7
40 35.1
1
.9
36 32.4
1
2.8
11 30.6
1
2.8
11
3.2
4
1.1
328 32.7
29
8.8
99 30.2
2
.6
si
s.
Preparation Upper
Grades
Position in Upper
Grades
Position in Rural
Grades
Position in inter­
mediate Grades
Position in Primary
Grades
TABLE CLVI (continued)
DATA CONCERNING AFTER COLLEGE EXPERIENCE OF TWO-YEAR GRADUATES
MINNESOTA TEACHERS COLLEGES 1931-1935
SOURCE; COLLEGE PLACEMENT RECORDS
Position in Primary
Grades
Preparation Primary
Grades
Position in Primary
Grades
Position in Rural
Grades
Position in Inter­
mediate Grades
Position in Upper
Grades
Preparation Rural
Grades
Position in Rural
Grades
Position in Primary
Grades
Position in Upper
Grades
2 11.8
5
3.0
24 21.6
292 29.1
7 14,3
12 26.1
24 25.3
6 25.0
52 17.8
15 30.6
11 23.9
21 22.2
5 20.8
59 20.2
3 16*6
7 38.7
60 31.9
2
2
5.6
12 75.0
10
2.7
95 29.0
49 47.5
16 16.3
3
46 26.2
18 18.4
1
8.1
Total
Hum­ Per
ber cent
.3
2.9
1 33.3
8
4.3
7
4.0
6 85.7
2.1
1
.9
1 100.0
5
1.7
35
3.5
20 57.2
1
8.3
1
2.9
1
8.3
1
2.9
<LL<L
Experience
Mankato* Moorhead St. Cloud
Bemidji
Duluth
Winona
Num­ Per Num- Per Hum­ Per Hum­ Per Hum­• Per Hum­•Per
ber eent ber eent ber eent ber cent ber eent ber eent
TABLE CLVI (continued)
DATA CONCERNING AFTER COLLEGE EXPERI&lCE OF TWO-YEAR GRADUATES
MINNESOTA TEACHERS COLLEGES 1931-1935
SOURCE: COLLEGE H A C 9 0 T RECORDS
Experience
Number graduated
School placement
Other work
Return to College
Unemployed or unknown
Mankato* Moorhead St. Cloud
Winona
Bemidji
Duluth
Num­■ Per Num­>Per Num­* Per Num­• Per Num- Per Hum- Per
ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber eent
98
52
7
23
16
Total
Hum- Per
ber cent
1932-1933
100.0 108 100.0 196 100.0 199 100.0 324 1Q0.0 139 100.0 1.064 100.0
53.0 52 48.1
98 59.0 55 27.6 149 46.0 45 32.4 451 42.4
4
51 4.8
7.1 14 12.9
2.0 18 5.6
2 1.4
6 3.1
10.2
8
5.5
68
22
152
20
20.9
15.8
14.3
23.5
7.4
11
16.3 34 31.5 72 36.7 129 64.9 89 27.4 70 50.4 410 38.5
%
Preparation Upper
Grades
Position in Upper
Grades
Position in Rural
Grades
Position in Inter­
mediate Grades
Position in Primary
Grades
41 41.8
1
6.5 103 52.6
3 42.7
2.4
Preparation Intermediate
Grades
20 20.4
Position in Inter­
mediate Grades
1 5.0
Position in Rural
Grades
7 35.0
Position in Upper
Grades
Position in Primary
Grades
2 10.0
54* 27.1 120 37.1
3
2.4
9 21.8
1
7
5.6
16 13.3
7 12.9
33 27.5
3
15 12.5
5.6
1
41 38.0
1
2.4
14 34.1
4.0
12 16.0
1
1.3
8
4
7.1
11 19.7
.8
75 37.7 122 37.6
3
56 40.3
47 33.8
6.6
5 10.6
27 22.1
11 23.4
5
4.1
6
4.9
2 -4.3
381 35.8
8.3
•
63 22.6
24
19
6.8
1
•4
305 28.6
18
5.9
71 23.2
6
2.0
10
3+3
TABLE CLVI (continued)
DATA. CONCERNING AFTER COLLEGE EXPERIENCE OF TWO-TEAR GRADUATES
MINNESOTA TEACHERS COLLEGES 1931-1935
SOURCE: COLLEGE PLACEMENT RECORDS
Experience
Preparation Primary
Grades
Position in Primary
Grades
Posit ion in Rural
Grades
Position in Inter­
mediate Grades
Position in Upper
Grades
Preparation Rural
Grades
Position in Rural
Grades
Position in Upper
Grades
Duluth
Mankato* Moorhead St. Cloud
Bemidji
Winona
Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­■ Per Num­ Per
ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent
17 17.3
49 45.4 **79 40.3
Total
Num­ Per
ber cent
53 26.6
82 25.3
34 24.5
314 29.5
5 29.4
5 10.0
6 11.3
12 14.6
6 17.6
34 14.5
3 17.6
14 28.6
13 24.6
25 30.5
4
59 25.0
3 17.6
1
1
5.9
20 20.4
11 10.2
12 90.0
9 81.9
1
1.9
5.0
14
7.1
17
8.5
1
11.8
1.2
5
1
2.9
2
2
1.4
64
2.1
6.0
32 64.0
5 29.4
1 50.0
2
4.0
375
TABLE CLVI (continued)
BATA CONCERNING AFTER COLLEGE EXPERIENCE OF TWO-YEAR GRADUATES
MINNESOTA TEACHERS COLLEGES 1931-1935
SOURCE: COLLEGE PLACEMENT RECORDS
Duluth
Mankato* Moorhead
Bemidji
Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
Experience
ber cent ber eent ber cent ber eent
1933-1934
94
Humber graduated
73
177
115
School placement
60 63.8 41 56.1 113 63.9 60 52.1
Other work
.9
7 7.4 14 19.2 11 6.2
1
11.3
Return to College
8 4.5 13
9 12.3
17 18.1
Unemployed or unknown 10 10.7
9 12.3 45 25.4 41 35.7
Preparation Upper
Grades
Position in Upper
Grades
Position in Rural
Grades
Position in inter­
mediate Grades
Position in Primary
Grades
43 45.7
4
9*4
16 37.2
2
8 10.9
39 33.9
6 75.0
Total
Num­ Per
ber cent
243
122 50.2
77
45 45.5
37 15.2
84 34.5
8 10.4
34 44.1
779
431 55.1
33 4*2
92 11.8
223 28.7
63 26.0
29 37.6
256 32.9
5.1
11
13 33.3
4
2.6
7
2
4.7
Preparation Intermediate
Grades
16 17.0
Position in Inter­
mediate Grades
1 6.3
Position in Rural
7 42.7
Grades
Position in Primary
Grades
1 6.3
Position in Upper
Grades
74 41.9
St. Cloud
Winona
Num-- Per Num­ Per
ber cent ber cent
1
17
8 27.6
1
3.8
14 53.9
32 27.8
93 38.2
47 25.8
10
1
26 35.6
9.3
3.4
1
.6
27 35.1
194 24.9
6.3
11
5 18.5
20 10.3
14 43.7
33
7 25.9
75 28.6
2
2
2
1
3.7
3
1.6
3
1.6
376
TABLE CLVI (continued)
DATA CONCERNING AFTER COLLEGE EXPERIENCE 07 TWO-YEAR GRADUATES
MINNESOTA TEACHERS COLLEGES 1931-1935
SOURCE: COLLEGE PLACEMENT RECORDS
Saq?erienee
Preparation Primary
Grades
Position in Primary
Grades
Position in Rural
Grades
Position in Inter­
mediate Grades
Position in Upper
Grades
Preparation Sural
Grades
Position in Sural
Grades
Position in Primary
Grades
Duluth
Mankato* Moorhead St. Cloud
Winona
Bemidji
Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­- Ber Num­•Per
ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent
Total
Num­ Per
ber eent
—
18 19.2
B 11.1
11 61.1
27 37.0 **ei 45.7
32 27.8
59 24.2
19 24.7
236 30.3
3.7
5 15,6
16
5 26.3
29 18.7
9 33.3
10 31.3
14
5 26.3
49 31.6
1
1
17 18.1
12 16.5
16 94.2
10 83.5
22 12.4
3.1
1
,6
12 10.5
28 11.5
2
2.6
93 11.9
10 83.5
20
2 100.0
58 81.6
2
2
2.8
377
TABLE CLVI (continued)
DATA CONCERNING- AFTER COLLEGE EXPERIENCE CJT WO-YEAR GRADUATES
MINNESOTA TEACHERS COLLEGES 1931-1935
SOURCE : COLLEGE PLACIMENT RECORDS
Mankato*
Bemidji
Duluth
Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
Experience
ber cent ber eent ber cent
1954-1935
75
118
Number graduated
65
School placement
55 84.6 57 75.9 84 71.2
2 3.1
9 12.0
Other work
6 5.1
6 5.1
Hetura to College
6 9.2
4
5.3
Unemployed or unknown
2 3.1 5 6.7 22 18.6
Moorhead St. Cloud
Winona
Num­ Per Num­-Per Num­ Per
ber cent ber cent ber cent
Total
Num­ Per
ber cent
115
201
103
74 64.4 125 62.2 53 51.5
1 1.0
12 10.4 38 18.9 17 16.5
29 25.2 38 18.9 32 31.0
677
448 66.2
18 2.6
83 12.3
128 18.9
.
Preparation Upper
Grades
Position in Upper
Grades
Position in Hural
Grades
Position in Inter­
mediate Grades
Position in Primary
Grades
12
18.4
6
8.0
45 38.1
14 12.2
54 26.9
1 16.7
2
2
16.8
1 16.7
7 50.0
21 33.9
16.8
1 16.7
1
7.1
7 13.0
1 16.7
2 14.3
21 28.0
53 46.1
4 19.0
10 18.9
9 42.7
24 45.3
Preparation Intermediate
22 33.9
Grades Position in Inter­
3 13.6
mediate Grades
Position in Hural
16 72.8
Grades
Position in Primary
Grades
1 4.5
Position in Upper
Grades
4
7.4
3 25.0
42 40.7
3
7.1
11 26.2
173 25.6
U
6.4
42 32.8
1
2.4
12
9.4
1
2.4
4
3.1
96 47.6
26 25.2
218 32.2
9.4
5 19.3
31 14.2
36 37.5
10 38.5
95 43.5
9
12 12.5
1
3.8
14
6.4
4.2
1
3.8
5
2.3
4
378
TABLE CLVI (continued)
BATA CONCERNING AFTER COLLEGE EXPERIENCE OF TIO-Y1AR GRADUATES
MINNESOTA TEACHERS COLLEGES 1931-1955
SOURCE: COILEGE PLACEMENT RECORDS
Experience
Preparation Primary
Grades
Position in Primary
Grades
Position in Rural
Grades
Position in Inter­
mediate Grades
Position in Upper
Grades
Preparation Rural
Grades
Position in Rural
Grades
Position in Primary
Grades
Bemidji
Duluth
Manloato* Moorhead St. Cloud
Winona
Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­•Per Num­ Per
ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent
22 53.9
28 37.4 **63 53.4
26 22.6
46
Total
Num­ Per
ber cent
22.9
24 23.3
209 30.9
10 45.5
9 32.1
9 34.6
15 32.6
6 25.0
49 33.6
50.0
14 50.0
6 23.0
12 26.1
7 29.2
50 34.3
9 13.8
20 26.7
7 77.8
18 90.0
U
10
8.5
22 19.1
5
2.5
11 10.7
77 11.3
17 77.3
5 100.0
7 63.7
54 80.7
1
4.5
1
1*5
*Detail placement for Mankato not available.
**Listed as "lower.*
379
PART FOURS
IMPLICATIONS FOR THE .FORMULATION OF
POLICIES AND OBJECTIVES
In the course of the present investigation, there
have heen reviewed those factors on which conditions in
the six teachers’ colleges in Minnesota are based, and
the services of the institutions to the educational system
of the state as revealed by a survey of the student per­
sonnel has been presented.
From these data certain impli­
cations for the formulation and implementation of policies
and objectives for the teachers' colleges become apparent.
These will be presented in the concluding chapter of the
study (Chapter XI), while Chapter X is devoted to a summary
of the data from which these recommendations are derived.
CHAPTER X
SUMMARY
Eatabliahment and growth of teachers * colleges.
T e a c h e r s ’ colleges were established in Minnesota over a
period of sixty years, beginning with the Winona State
T e a c h e r s ’ College in 1860*
At first designated "Normal
Schools," by 1920 the title was officially changed to
"Teachers’ Colleges," and in 1927 the granting of degrees
was inaugurated.
Sub-collegiate curricula, originally
an important phase of normal school training, were dropped,
and teachers* colleges were accredited to prepare students
for secondary, as well as elementary, positions.
For the
most part other tax-supported institutions of higher
learning accepted teachers’ college training at face value
and friendly relations between the two types of institu­
tions were maintained.
The relations with church-related
institutions have, unfortunately, not been so friendly.
Population trends,
demand.
school enrollments, and teacher
Coincident with the development and expansion of
the teachers* colleges certain basic changes in population
have occurred.
In line with the general trend in the
United States up to the present year, population growth
in Minnesota has declined gradually but consistently.
A
382
marked tendency toward urbanization is apparent and the
migration of persons from the state greatly exceeds
immigration.
The proportion of young persons to the total
group has become smaller and smaller, and elementary school
enrollments have declined sharply and secondary enrollments
will soon feel the effects of these population shifts.
The result of declining enrollments in the elementary
schools and the declining growth of secondary enrollments
has produced a decrease in demand for teachers in the
elementary field and forshadows a potential decrease in
demand for secondary teachers.
As legal certification requirements are extremely low
and as opportunity for other employment was at a low level
during the period under study, the supply of potential
teachers was in excess of the actual and potential demand.
On the other hand, a modest raising of certification
requirements would wipe out this oversupply.
Financial support of public education.
While
Minnesota ranks among the first twelve states o n money
spent on total educational budget, support of general higher
education, and on money spent for teacher training, a
relatively small amount is spent on public education as
compared to expenditures for such non-essentials as
alcoholic beverages, tobacco, and similar items.
Minnesota
383
can well afford the increase In school expenditures that
would he required to support a better trained teacher
personnel for her public schools.
legislation.
Legislative proposals have been such
as to discriminate in favor of church-related Institutions
at the expense of state-supported teachers’ colleges.
A
number of attempts have been made to curtail the services
of the teachers’ colleges, but public opinion has resisted
these efforts.
However, the legal situation is such that
the t e a chers’ colleges by no means control the training of
teachers, particularly in the secondary field.
The student personnel.
The student personnel of the
teachers’ colleges is becoming younger, less predominantly
female, almost entirely native white from large agricultural
families or from families which derive their income from
skilled labor.
Most students are drawn from the immediate
vicinity of the college, and expend very little money.
are semi-self-supporting.
Most
The majority of students are
drawn from the upper half of the graduating classes of
small high schools w ith a limited and inflexible curriculum.
Hot by any means all of them plan to become teachers, and
of those who do, the greater portion do not look forward
to life tenure.
Few of the students enrolled in four-year
384
courses are preparing for elementary teaching.
A significant number withdraw before completing the
course in which they are enrolled.
Of those who withdraw,
there is a preponderance of men and of students whose
homes are in the college community.
The most common
reasons for dropping out are academic difficulty and
financial stress.
Employment of graduates.
Of the students who com­
plete the two or four-year course, more than TO Per cent
are gainfully employed, many in rural schools, the majority
in communities under twenty-five hundred population.
With
the acquisition of experience, there appears to be some
opportunity for movement into larger communities or into
administrative positions.
Most of the graduates do not,
at least immediately, find work in the area of their
specialized training.
A small but significant proportion
drift into non-educational employment.
Thus, while teachers* colleges in Minnesota have
contributed signifleantly to the establishment of a sound
system of public education in the state, the time is now
ripe for marked modifications in policies, objectives, and
practices.
CHAPTER X I
PROPOSED OBJECTIVES FOR MINNESOTA TEACHERS* COLLEG-ES
AND CHANGES REQUISITE TO THEIR FULFILLMENT
More rigid standards for teacher cert ificat ion.
Studies in the trend of gross population, composition of
the population by age groups, and public school enrollment
in Minnesota all point to the fact of a decreasing number of
children to be served by the public schools of the state.
Studies in unemployment in the teaching profession point to
an oversupply of teachers with qualifications based on short
periods of training.
Training qualifications of employed
teachers are likewise low.
Minnesota is presented an oppor­
tunity to insist on higher standards of training for the
teachers of the public schools of the state.
It is proposed, therefore, that all one-year
curricula for the training of rural teachers be abolished
immediately and that a two-year minimum of training be
required for all rural positions.
Three years of training
beyond high school should be required of all graded
elementary teachers within the next three years and there­
after a four-year minimum of training should be established
for all graded elementary certification.
The present four-
year minimum of training for secondary teachers should be
retained but applied only to temporary certification.
3 86
Permanent certification should be baaed on five years of
training.
While these proposals are outside of the immediate
jurisdiction of the teachers* colleges, they can assist
materially in securing their adoption in the following
manner.
The colleges should inaugurate and carry through
a publicity program covering the entire situation of teacher
demand and supply to the end that the general public and,
more particularly, school officials will appreciate the
opportunity presented of obtaining better trained teachers
for the schools of the state.
The colleges should definitely
restrict matriculation of students in the two-year course to
those who w i s h to prepare for rural teaching.
The colleges
should adopt a policy of guiding a larger proportion of the
student body into the four-year elementary curriculum.
The
teachers* colleges have a virtual monopoly over the train­
ing of graded elementary school teachers, and the failure of
the colleges to further interest among their students for
this field of service must be looked upon as a severe indict­
ment •
If these policies were adopted by the colleges, the
students in the two-year courses would be better served in
terms of their eventual employment, the graded elementary
schools of the state would derive a greater benefit from
the monopoly the colleges have in the training of graded
387
elementary teachers and the oversupply of secondary
candidates would he reduced.
It has heen shown that the state could well afford
the added expense that would he Involved in these proposals
for requiring more training for the teachers of the public
school system.
Function of the teachers1 colleges.
The teachers1
colleges of Minnesota in establishing the longer periods of
training have followed the common practice of reserving
the first two years for general education and placing the
professional aspects of the student’s training in the final
two years.
This longer period of training has necessitated
expansion of physical plants, of educational facilities
such as libraries, laboratories, and gymnasia, and the
recruiting of a faculty personnel adequate to administer
this new curriculum.
The expansion of offerings has likewise attracted
many students who are not primarily Interested in the
profession of teaching, and as public recognition of this
change becomes wider spread there will be a greater demand
for the right of matriculation on the part of students who
are not interested in teaching on exactly the same basis
as they would he matriculated in other tax-supported
institutions of higher learning.
588
While the primary purpose of the colleges as
evidenced by legislation, by the statements of the official
publications of the colleges, and by the statements of the
administrative officers, has been that of teacher education,
the right of the public to use these tax-supported institu­
tions for other than purely teacher training has been
indicated by the opinion of the Attorney G-eneral of Minnesota,
which has been referred to in Chapter VI.
It is proposed, therefore, that the teachers* colleges
definitely assume the functions of a regional junior college,
and that the senior college of the teachers* colleges be
specifically a school of education for the training of
teachers.
reasons.
These proposals are based on the following two
First, it is sound teacher education policy because
it would make possible the selection of a better personnel
for the senior college.
At the period of high school gradu­
ation few students have definite occupational choices.
Through the junior college years he will have an opportunity
to demonstrate his ability to do academic work, there will
be an opportunity for the personnel department to make a
careful study as to whether he has the personality required
in the teaching profession, he will have an opportunity
through the observation of teachers in the laboratory and
training schools and through the sampling of the various
fields of human endeavour that are covered In program of
389
general education to bring his professional ambitions much
more sharply in focus.
Thus, the college will have a much
better opportunity of determining whether the student
should become a teacher and the student will have a better
opportunity of determining whether he wishes to enter the
profession*
Second, the adoption of these proposals would give
the teachers* colleges the opportunity of being of even
greater service to the people of the state.
Evidence has
been presented to show that a higher education would be out
of the realm of financial possibility for many of those now
attending the teachers* colleges and it is reasonable to
expect that many more would attend under the proposed
arrangement.
It would have the effect of establishing in
six widely separated areas in the state, only one of which
is now served by a tax-supported institution of higher e d u ­
cation, centers where collegiate training could be obtained
that is in reach of the financial possibility of a large
group.
Admission policy.
In the portion of the study deal­
ing with withdrawals, evidence was presented that Indicates
the teachers* colleges have been admitting many who cannot
hope to profit by college training.
Evidence presented in
the study of employment and unemployment showed an oversupply
of legally qualified teachers.
If the proposal concerning
junior college work is adopted an admission policy would,
of necessity, require two phases, admission to the institu­
tion and admission to the senior college.
The following
proposals are offered.
1.
That a cooperative, continuing study he conducted
by the colleges to determine the reliability of various
measured of academic competence, including those of the
state-wide testing program, high school records, and psycho­
logical tests in determining ability to carry work In the
colleges.
2.
College officials in charge of admissions should
cooperate with high school guidance officials in a full and
frank exchange of information regarding the likelihood of
the success of prospective students.
3*
The colleges and the high schools should cooperate
H
in a selective recruiting campaign based on the findings of
the above studies *
4.
In the case of prospective students who are
legally qualified by high school graduation to enter the
colleges, and whose academic competence is questioned,
they should be admitted only after an interview with the
student and his parents.
5-
Admission to the senior college should be based
391
on satisfactory achievement in the major academic fields
as demonstrated by comprehensive examinations, the possession
of a satisfactory level of attainment in the mechanics of
English and mathematics, and the possession of those traits
of personality which, in the Judgment of the personnel d e ­
partment, would make for success in the profession of teach­
ing.
Absolute selective admission standards are not
proposed because experience with and studies of attempts to
set absolute standards should make us exceedingly humble as
to our ability to apply them with fairness to candidates
for matriculation.
Studies of the predictive value of
various measures of academic competence, while indicating
the possibility of eliminating a considerable number of the
more obviously unfit,
show disappointingly low correlations
with later performance.
Likewise, while there is a
possibility of eliminating candidates on the basis of the
more obvious personality defects, little is known as to
the effect of the more subtle personality traits.
Criteria
of greater reliability can be established between individual
high schools and individual colleges.
Numerical restrictions on admission to the senior
colleges is not considered feasible for Minnesota at present
because:
first, if the proposals for the upgrading of
$
392
teacher personnel and entrance to senior college are
adopted there would be no necessity; second, in periods
of emergency estimates of both supply and demand are likely
%
to be little better than educated guesses; third, numerical
#
restriction in the teachers* colleges would be of no avail
if private and church-related institutions were not included
in the plan, which is at present a legal impossibility.
Curriculum proposals.
While the qualitative aspects
of the curriculum were not studied, the quantitative study
of both the high school and college experience and the
study of backgrounds indicate important problems for con­
sideration.
The necessity for as large an amount of work in
general education as is possible is evidenced by the meager
educational background in the homes from which the students
are drawn.
The colleges devote more time to this field of
general education than do other institutions covered in
this study and this tendency should further be reinforced.
One very definite lack was found in the small amount of
time students spend in the fields of fine and applied arts.
A second problem is indicated by the similarity of
high school and college patterns of work.
Whether this
represents some duplication of effort or whether the college
experience definitely reinforces and is in advance of the
393
high school educational experience should be a matter for
most careful study.
The amount of professional work taken by students
in Minnesota teachers1 colleges is in excess of that taken
by students in other institutions, and while not excessive
when compared to the requirements of other professions, the
question is raised as to whether the Minnesota institutions
are right and the others wrong in their policy, or vice versa.
Minnesota is primarily an agricultural state, yet in
the training of teachers for her schools there is little
evidence of requirements or even offerings that will serve
to interpret this basic economic and social fact to them*
In the examination of individual transcripts, one
is struck by the large number of more or less unrelated
short courses.
While accurate judgment could not be passed
without a detailed analysis of the material each course
covered, the indications are that a reorganization of subject
matter courses and professional offerings into longer
sequences would be a decided advantage.
Likewise, on the
basis of transcript examination alone, there seems to be
little in the way of attempts to individualize instruction.
In view of these facts and in view of the questions
that have been raised in connection with the curriculum,
it
is proposed that the existing state-wide faculty organization
394
undertake a continuing study of all curricula offered by
the colleges*
Research studies should he made by the various
subject matter divisions and the results pooled by a state­
wide faculty curriculum committee.
Extra-curriculum proposals.
The importance of extra­
curriculum activities in the education of the individual has
long been recognized.
This element in the education of a
teacher is especially important as it has both vocational
and avocational importance.
The teacher as a community
leader needs the training in group activities and group
leadership that these extra-curriculum activities furnish.
The development of avocational interests and the opportunity
for a better rounded social life on the campus are likewise
important considerat ions.
In view of the important contributions these acti­
vities give prospective teachers the following proposals
are made.
1.
The
colleges should develop
activities to round out
2.
The
a program of forensic
an otherwise well rounded program.
colleges should develop
a program of guidance
to better acquaint the students with the value of these
activities and take measures to induce participation of all
students.
3*
The
colleges should conduct
studies among their
395
alumni to determine the relative value of different types
of activities to the teacher in the field and these findings
should he used as a basis for further development of the
program.
Uniform records and report s .
The wide divergence in
records kept by the Individual colleges and the incomplete­
ness of some of vital importance is a decided handicap to
study of the problems facing the colleges.
Therefore, it is
proposed that the colleges establish a uniform system of
registrar, personnel, and placement records, and a uniform
system of reports.
Teaching combinations in small high schools.
The
majority of the graduates in the secondary field find their
first employment in the small high schools of the state.
Before the-colleges can do the best possible work in the
training of these prospective teachers the problem of the
division of labor among the faculties of the small high
schools must be solved.
This is primarily a problem for
the State Department of Education.
Until this department
outlines a plan for the solution of this difficulty and
enforces it through proper certification procedure, the
present chaotic condition will continue.
Until definite
subject matter combinations are required the present
396
practice of trying to fit prospective teachers into existing
combinations will continue.
It is proposed, therefore, that
the colleges and the State Department of Education cooperate
in a study of the existing situation and in planning a
solution.
Scholarships and student loan funds.
The large number
of students from families with meager financial resources,
the high proportion of students who are partially selfsupporting, the number withdrawing to accept positions before
completing the course registered for, and the high degree
of Interrupted college attendance indicate that the colleges
should be vitally concerned in the financial ability of the
student to keep himself in school and to maintain a standard
of living that will allow him to make the most of his
abilities.
1.
It is, therefore, proposed:
That the colleges should continue their policy
of keeping costs to the absolute minimum consistent with
approved standards of training.
2.
That vigorous efforts be made to increase the
amount of student loan funds available, and that a deter­
mined effort be made to secure a larger number of scholar­
ships than are now available.
Summary.
In this chapter a series of proposals have
397
been set forth which would serve as a basis for the
establishment of a teacher education policy for the teachers1
colleges of Minnesota.
1.
These include the following:
Proposals for the upgrading of teacher personnel
in Minnesota.
2*
The function of the teachers* colleges in a
program of general and professional education.
3*
Proposals for a n admission policy.
4.
Recommendations concerning the curriculum.
5.
Proposals for changes in the extra-curriculum
activities.
6.
Miscellaneous proposals including, those concern­
ing a system of uniform records and reports, the problem of
teaching combinations in small high schools, and proposals
relating to student assistance.
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