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A comparative study of in season and out of season scholarship of selected athletes in Fresno High School

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A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF IN SEASON AND
OUT OF SEASON SCHOLARSHIP OF SELECTED ATHLETES
IN FRESNO HIGH SCHOOL
A T h e sis
P re se n te d to
th e F a c u lty o f th e S ch o o l o f E d u c a tio n
U n iv e r s ity o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a
In P a r t i a l F u lf illm e n t
o f t h e R e q u ire m e n ts f o r t h e D eg ree
M a ste r o f S c ie n c e in E d u c a tio n
*>y
G eorge C, H o l s t e i n
A u g u st 1941
UMI Number: EP54228
All rights reserved
INFORMATION TO ALL USERS
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UMI EP54228
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This thesis, written under the direction of the
Chairman of the candidate's Guidance Committee
and approv ed hy all members of the Committee
has been presented to and accepted by the Faculty
of the School of Education of The University of
Southern California in partial fulfillment of the
requirements fo r the degree of M a ster of Science
in Education.
,
...............
D ean
G uidance C om m ittee
'Paul P is h e r
Chairman
C. C. Crawford.
D. W elty L e fe v e r
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I.
PAGE
THE PROBLEM AND DEFINITION OF TERM USED . . . .
1
T he p r o b l e m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
S ta te m e n t o f t h e p ro b lem
Im p o rta n c e o f th e s tu d y
. . . . . . . . .
1
. . . . . . . . . .
1
.........................................
L im ita tio n s o f th e stu d y
D e fin itio n
.........................................................
.
A t h l e t e ..................................................................
III.
.
2
.
.
2
.
.
. . .
3
RELATED S T U D I E S ........................
4
METHOD OF PROCEDURE
..............................
15
S e l e c t i o n o f t h e g r o u p .........................
C o lle c tio n o f th e d a ta
IV .
V.
V I.
V II.
2
. . .
O rg a n iz a tio n o f re m a in d e r o f th e t h e s i s
II.
1
15
.........................
.
18
C o m p i l a t i o n o f t h e d a t a ....................................................
21
STUDY DURING PARTICIPATION
.
...................................
26
STUDY DURING N O N -P A R T IC IP A T IO N ...................................
39
COMPARISON OF THE TWO STUDIES
49
...................................
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS .
.........................
60
C o n c l u s i o n s ..................................................................................
60
R e c o m m e n d a tio n s .
65
.
.
.
.
.
.........................................
B IB L IO G R A P H Y .................................................................................
68
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE
I.
PAGE
S c o r e s on S t a n d a r d i z e d T e s t s o f M e n t a l A b i l i t y
a n d A c h i e v e m e n t Made b y 1 1 6 A t h l e t e s a n d 2 0 6
. N o n -A th le te s
II.
♦ .
.
.
................................................
5
C o m p ariso n o f t h e S c h o l a s t i c A tta in m e n t o f
In tra m u ra l P a r tic ip a n ts , N o n -P a rtic ip a n ts
a n d A l l Men E n r o l l e d
III.
IV .
V.
V I.
V II.
V III.
IX .
X.
T e a c h e r s Form S h e e t
.
* ...............................
..................................
I n d i v i d u a l G ra d e C a r d I n - S e a s o n
X III.
X IV .
• • • •
22
25
S c h o la r s h ip A ll S u b je c ts In Season • • . . . .
28
S c h o la rs h ip in S o c ia l S tu d ie s
. . .
30
S c h o la rs h ip in E n g lis h In S eason « • • • • • «
31
S c h o l a r s h i p i n M a t h e m a t i c s I n S e a s o n ....................
33
In S eason
S c h o la r s h ip in F o re ig n L an g u ag es, S p a n ish 3 0 ,
,
G erm an 3 , F r e n c h 10 I n S e a s o n . . .
35
S c h o la r s h ip in S c ie n c e s , P h y s ic s 1 1 , C h e m istry
1 8 , B io lo g y 1 0 , Z o o lo g y 9 In S e a so n
X II.
.
7
20
. . . . . . .
I n d i v i d u a l G rade C a rd O u t - o f - S e a s o n
L a tin 5
X I.
. . . .
S c h o l a r s h i p in A r t In S e a so n
.
. . . .
36
..............................
37
S c h o l a r s h i p A l l S u b j e c t s Out o f S e a so n . . . .
40
S c h o l a r s h i p i n S o c i a l S t u d i e s Out o f S e a so n
41
.
XV.
S c h o l a r s h i p i n E n g l i s h Out o f S e a s o n . . . . .
43
X V I.
S c h o l a r s h i p i n M a th e m a tic s Out o f S e a s o n . . .
44
V
TABLE
X V II.
PAGE
S c h o l a r s h i p i n F o r e ig n L an g u a g es Out o f
Season
X V III.
X IX .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
..................... .
S c h o l a r s h i p i n S c i e n c e s Out o f S e a s o n
S c h o l a r s h i p i n A r t O ut o f S e a s o n
.
.
46
* • • •
47
....................
48
C h a n g e o f P r o g r a m s ............................................
50
X X I.
Change o f P rogram 1 s t S e m e s te r
•
....................
52
X X II.
Change o f P ro g ram 2 n d S e m e s te r
•
....................
53
XX.
X X III.
XXIV.
XXV.
Means a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s
• • • • * • • •
55
S t a n d a r d E r r o r o f t h e Means
....................................
57
R e l i a b i l i t y B e tw e e n t h e D i f f e r e n c e B e tw e e n
t h e M eans .
..............................
58
CHAPTER I
THE PROBLEM AND DEFINITION OF TERM USED
F o r many y e a r s a d i f f e r e n c e o f o p i n i o n h a s e x i s t e d i n
re g a rd to th e
r e l a t i v e v a lu e s o f a t h l e t i c s
w h ic h h a v e b e e n
r e c e i v e d by boys i n t h e s e c o n d a ry s c h o o l s .
T he s t a t e m e n t s
m ade b y t h o s e who r e a l i z e
its
im p o rta n c e h a v e o f f s e t th e a d ­
v e r s e v i e w s o f t h o s e who w i s h t o c u r t a i l t h e a t h l e t i c
H ow ever, t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e c o n t e n t i o n s
p ro g ram .
o f b o th g ro u p s o f
th o u g h t have been b a se d upon l i m i t e d o b s e r v a tio n and e x p e r i ­
m e n ta tio n ; v e ry l i t t l e
a c tu a l s c ie n tif ic
d a ta have been p re ­
s e n te d to s u p p o r t th e c la im s o f e i t h e r s i d e .
I.
THE PROBLEM
S ta te m e n t o f th e p ro b le m .
The p u r p o s e o f t h i s
was t o d e t e r m i n e t o w h a t e x t e n t a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n
a th le tic s
a ffe c ts
t h e m arks o f h i g h s c h o o l a t h l e t e s .
stu d y
in
A group
o f a t h l e t e s w as s e l e c t e d a n d a c o m p a r i s o n made o f t h e i r m a rk s
m ade d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f a c t i v e
p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h t h e m a rk s
m ade b y t h e sam e g r o u p d u r i n g t h e i r p e r i o d o f n o n - p a r t i c i p a ­
tio n .
Im p o rta n c e o f th e s t u d y .
b e e n m ade c o n c e r n i n g t h e a t h l e t e
P re v io u s s t u d ie s t h a t have
in re la tio n
to h is p la c e in
t h e s c h o o l c u r r ic u lu m h a v e b e en c o m p a riso n s o f t h e a t h l e t e
2
and n o n - a th le te .
T h e s e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s h a v e b e e n made i n r e ­
la tio n to th e s c h o la rs h ip ,
c h o ic e o f o th e r s t u d i e s ,
in te llig e n c e , p e rs o n a lity , age,
o r I n t e r e s t in h ig h e r e d u c a tio n .
Each o f t h e f o r m e r s t u d i e s h a v e c o v e r e d to o l a r g e a f i e l d .
T hus, i t h as n o t been p o s s ib le to o b ta in a c c u r a te and r e l i a b l e
d a ta .
B efo re one can g a in a t r u e p i c t u r e
n e c e s s a r y t o s tu d y each m in u te p a r t .
l a r a im o f t h i s
L im ita tio n s o f th e s tu d y .
g e n e r a l s t u d y w as d e s i r e d
th e s is
S c h o o l.
is
T h e re fo re , th e p a r tic u ­
s t u d y w as t o d i s c o v e r t h e
of season sc h o la rsh ip o f a th le te s
o f t h e w h o le i t
in seaso n and o u t
i n F r e s n o H ig h S c h o o l .
An i n t e n s i v e
r a t h e r th a n a
i n a p p ro a c h in g t h e p ro b lem o f t h i s
s o o n l y o n e s c h o o l was c h o s e n ; n a m e l y , t h e F r e s n o H ig h
T h i s was d o n e i n o r d e r t h a t a l l t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a n d
d a t a n e e d e d c o u ld be o b ta in e d by t h e w r i t e r h i m s e l f , w ith o u t
h a v i n g t o d e p e n d o n some o n e e l s e .
F o r t h e sam e r e a s o n t h e
s t u d y d i d n o t i n c l u d e a l l s p o r t s b u t was l i m i t e d t o f o o t b a l l .
T h e s e l i m i t a t i o n s made i t
II.
A th le te .
p o s s ib le to o b ta in d e f in ite
DEFINITION
Many o f t h e s t u d i e s made i n t h i s
n o t g iv e n a c o n c is e d e f i n i t i o n
to be a b le to m easu re th e
re s u lts .
f i e l d have
o f t h e w o rd a t h l e t e .
re s u lts
c le a rly
g a in a c l e a r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f th e w ord.
it
In o r d e r
is n e c e ssa ry to
In t h i s
stu d y any
b o y who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n f o o t b a l l a n d r e m a i n e d a c t i v e
fo r a
p e r i o d o f a t l e a s t e i g h t w e ek s was c o n s i d e r e d t o b e a n a t h ­
le te
even th o u g h h e d i d n o t e a r n a l e t t e r .
III.
ORGANIZATION OF REMAINDER OF THE THESIS
The r e m a i n d e r o f t h i s
th e s is
Is d iv id e d in to
th e
fo llo w in g c h a p te rs :
C h a p te r I I in c lu d e s a rev ie w o f th e r e l a t e d
a b r i e f sum m ary o f p r e v i o u s
re la te d stu d ie s
is
lite ra tu re ;
g iv e n .
I n C h a p t e r I I I t h e m eth o d o f p r o c e d u r e em p lo y ed i n t h e
p r e s e n t w ork i s p r e s e n t e d .
I n C h a p t e r IV t h e
re s u lts
o f a stu d y o f a th le te s *
a c h ie v e
m ent r e c o r d s i n a c a d e m ic s u b j e c t s d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f p a r t i c i ­
p a tio n
In f o o t b a l l i s
d isc u sse d .
In C h a p te r V i s
d is c u s s e d th e a c h ie v e m e n t re c o rd s o f
t h e sam e g r o u p c o n s i d e r e d i n C h a p t e r IV d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f
n o n -p a rtic ip a tio n
in f o o tb a ll.
In C h a p te r VI i s
su lts
th e c o m p a riso n o f th e t a b u l a t e d r e ­
f o u n d i n C h a p t e r s IV a n d V.
C h a p t e r V I I i n c l u d e s a s u m m a ry , c o n c l u s i o n s a n d r e c o m ­
m e n d a tio n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h .
CHAPTER I I
RELATED STUDIES
A c o n s id e r a b le num ber o f books a n d p e r i o d i c a l a r t i c l e s
h a v e b e e n w r i t t e n w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e e f f e c t w h ic h p a r t i c i ­
p a tio n in a t h l e t i c s h as upon s c h o l a s ti c
a ch iev e m e n t*
H ow ever,
o n l y a b r i e f sum m ary o f e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n a n d i n v e s t i g a t i o n s u p ­
on p ro b le m s r e l a t e d t o t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y a r e g iv e n i n t h i s
c h a p te r.
S n o d d y a n d S h a n n o n 1 made a c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d y o f a t h l e t e s
and n o n - a th le te s
o f h ig h sc h o o ls
i n G-reene C o u n t y ,
o r d e r t o o b t a i n s t a n d a r d i z e d a c h ie v e m e n t d a ta *
who h a d b e e n a w a r d e d l e t t e r s
th is
su rv ey *
T he t e s t s
m ea su re m e n ts w e re :
th e
In d ia n a in
O n ly t h e b o y s
w ere c o n s i d e r e d a s a t h l e t e s
e m p lo y ed t o
in
d e te rm in e th e a c h iev e m e n t
O tis S e l f - A d m in i s t e r i n g T e s ts o f M e n tal
A b i l i t y , H i g h e r E x a m i n a t i o n , Form D; a n d t h e M y e r s - R u c h H ig h
School P ro g re ss T e s t,
Form A.
1 1 6 o f whom w e r e a t h l e t e s
T he s u r v e y i n c l u d e d 3 2 2 b o y s ,
and 206 n o n - a t h l e t e s *
T he r e s u l t s
w ere a s f o l l o w s :
T he m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t d a t a o f t h e s u r v e y a r e sh o w n i n
T ab le I .
T he d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e m eans i n t h e m e a s u r e
o f b o th m e n ta l a b i l i t y and h ig h s c h o o l p r o g re s s b e in g as
s l i g h t as th e y a re and th e c r i t i c a l r a t i o s b e in g sm a ll
(0 .4 0 7 f o r t h e m e n ta l a b i l i t y s c o r e s an d 0*417 f o r t h e
1 M a r v i n L . S n o d d y a n d J* R* S h a n n o n , ‘’S t a n d a r d i z e d
A c h ie v e m e n t M easu rem en ts o f A t h l e t e s a n d N o n - A t h l e t e s , ” S c h o o l
R e v ie w . 4 7 : 6 1 0 - 1 2 , O c to b e r , 1 9 39.
5
TABLE I
SCORES OH STANDARDIZED TESTS OF MENTAL ABILITY
AND ACHIEVEMENT MADE BY 116 ATHLETES
AND 2 0 6 NON-ATHLETES
Mean
S core
S ta n d a rd
D e v ia tio n
M e n tal A b i l i t y S c o re
A th le te s
N o n -A th le te s
D iffe re n c e
3 8 .6 5
3 9 .0 0
0 .3 5
.6 9 5
• 508
.8 6
1 1 .1 0
1 0 .8 0
.4 9 1
.3 5 9
A c h ie v e m e n t T e s t S c o re
A th le te
N o n -A th le te
D iffe re n c e
5 4 .2 5
5 4 .7 0
0 .4 5
.8 5 2
.6 7 0
1 .0 8
1 3 .6 0
1 4 .2 5
.6 0 2
.4 7 4
6
a c h ie v e m e n t-te st s c o r e s ) , i t is c le a r t h a t n e ith e r th e
a t h l e t e n o r th e n o n - a t h l e t e can he s a i d t o he s u p e r i o r
t o th e o t h e r gro u p in e i t h e r i n t e l l i g e n c e o r a c h ie v e ­
m en t. 2
A shke
, made a s t u d y t o d e t e r m i n e w h a t e f f e c t ,
if
i n t r a m u r a l s p o r t s p a r t i c i p a t i o n h a d on t h e s c h o l a s t i c
m ent o f c e r t a i n
any
a tta in ­
men s t u d e n t s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f O r e g o n .
i n v e s t i g a t i o n w as c o n d u c t e d o v e r a p e r i o d o f f i v e y e a r s .
The
Any­
o n e who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a n y i n t r a m u r a l p r o g r a m was c o n s i d e r e d
as a p a r tic ip a n t.
In tra m u ra l p a r tic ip a n ts , n o n - p a r tic ip a n ts ,
a n d a l l men e n r o l l e d
av erag e
in th e u n iv e r s ity as to
th e g rad e p o in t
( U .P .A .) a t t a i n e d hy e a c h g ro u p w ere co m p ared hy
W ashke.
W ashke a r r i v e d a t t h e
fo llo w in g c o n c lu s io n s :
d a t a sh o w s t h a t t h e i n t r a m u r a l p r o g r a m , a s i t
is
“th a t th e
fu n c tio n in g
a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f O regon a t l e a s t , h a s no d e l e t e r i o u s
f e c t on t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s 1 s c h o l a s t i c
a tta in m e n t.
on t h i s
p ro b lem w i l l u n d o u b te d ly p ro v e v a l u a b l e t o
w o rk ers
in th is
fie ld ,
F u rth e r stu d y
research
o f w h i c h t h e r e h a v e b e e n fe w t o
B u r tt and N ic h o ls^ gave i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s
ef­
d a te ." ^
to v a r s i t y
2 I b i d . , p . 612.
3 P a u l H. W a s h k e , “A S t u d y o f I n t r a m u r a l S p o r t s P a r t i ­
c i p a t i o n a n d S c h o l a s t i c A t t a i n m e n t , 11 T he R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y ;
H e a l t h a n d P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . 1 1 : 2 2 - 7 , May, 1 9 4 0 .
4 Ib id . , p. 27.
^ H. E . B u r t t a n d J . H . N i c h o l s , " I n t e l l i g e n c e i n V a r s i t y
A t h l e t e s , “ A m e r i c a n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n R e v ie w , 2 9 : 1 2 5 - 8 , M a r c h ,
1924.
7
TABLE I I
COMPARISON OF THE SCHOLASTIC ATTAINMENT
OF INTRAMURAL PARTICIPANTS, NON-PARTICIPANTS
AND ALL MEN ENROLLED-*
In tra m u ra l
P a rtic ip a n ts
NonPa r t i c i p a n t s
A l l Men
E n ro lle d
1931-32
1 ,2 7 2
1 .2 2 2
1 .2 2 5
1 9 32-33
1 .2 3 5
1*291
1 .2 5 6
1933-34
1 .3 6 3
1 .3 3 0
1 .2 1 1
1 9 3 4 -3 5
1 .2 2 3
1 .1 4 8
1 .2 9 9
1935-36
1 .3 0 2
1 .2 8 2
1 .2 9 8
T o ta l
6 .3 9 5
6 .2 7 3
6 .2 8 9
Y ear
*T h e f i g u r e s i n T a b l e I I sh o w t h a t t h e i n t r a m u r a l
p a r t i c i p a n t s s c o r e d a c c u m u l a t i v e & .P .A . f o r t h e f i v e y e a r
p e r i o d o f 6 ,3 9 5 a s c o m p a r e d w i t h 6 ,2 7 3 f o r n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s
a n d 6 , 2 8 9 f o r t h e “A l l Men11; t h i s i s a m a r g i n o f 0 . 1 0 6 o v e r
" A l l Men" g r o u p .
8
sq u a d s com posed o f n i n e d i f f e r e n t ty p e s o f a t h l e t e s
a t th e
O h io S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , a n d c o m p a r e d t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n
a t h l e t e s w ith th e g e n e r a l s tu d e n t body.
o f th e
In p e r c e n tile
ran k
t h e a t h l e t e s w e re e i g h t p o i n t s b e lo w t h e a v e r a g e u p p e r c l a s s ­
m an , m o re b e c a u s e o f t h e s m a l l n u m b e r o f a t h l e t e s
i n t e l l i g e n c e th a n b e c a u se o f an e x c e s s of' a t h l e t e s
in te llig e n c e .
in in te llig e n c e
o f h ig h
o f lo w
T he c r o s s - c o u n t r y a n d t r a c k g r o u p s s c o r e d h i g h e r
th a n d id th e b a s e b a ll, b a s k e tb a ll,
and w r e s tlin g g ro u p s.
fo o tb a ll,
T he c r o s s - c o u n t r y g r o u p a l o n e s u r p a s s e d
th e g e n e ra l s tu d e n t body.
B a i l y ^ made a s t u d y o f t h e i n t e l l i g e n c e
a c h iev e m e n t o f a t h l e t e s
and th e e n tir e
and s c h o la s tic
stu d e n t body.
He
fo u n d t h a t in h i g h s c h o o l t h e a t h l e t e s w ere an a lm o s t n e g ­
lig ib le
am ount lo w e r i n
in te l lig e n c e , b u t th e y exceeded th e
g r a d e a v e r a g e o f t h e s t u d e n t body b y a c o n s i d e r a b l e a m o u n t.
F i t z m o r r i s ? made a n i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n b e ­
tw e e n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n g r a d e s and a t h l e t i c
o f o th e r h ig h sc h o o l s u b j e c t s .
le tte rs
to c h o ic e
He f o u n d t h a t t h e g r e a t e s t
^ D o n a l d W. B a i l y , MA C o m p a r a t i v e S t u d y o f t h e I n t e l l i ­
g e n c e a n d S c h o l a s t i c A ch iev e m e n t o f A t h l e t e s ,
(u n p u b lish e d
M a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , L os
A n g e le s, 1 928).
7 A r t h u r E . F i t z m o r r i s , “ T he R e l a t i o n o f P h y s i c a l E d u ­
c a t i o n G-rades a n d A t h l e t i c L e t t e r s t o C h o i c e o f O t h e r H ig h
S c h o o l S u b j e c t s , ” ( u n p u b lis h e d M a s te r 's t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y
o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , L os A n g e l e s , 1 9 3 1 ) .
9
i n f l u e n c e u p o n c h o i c e o f h i g h s c h o o l s u b j e c t s was i n t e l l i ­
gence, th a t is ,
t h e m ore i n t e l l i g e n t a t h l e t e s
s t u d i e s w h ereas th e l e s s
chose d i f f i c u l t
i n t e l l i g e n t chose e a s i e r c o u rs e s ,
J o n e s ^ co m p ared 100 a t h l e t e s w i t h 448 n o n - a t h l e t e s t o
le a rn
la tio n
i f th e s c h o la s tic
r e c o r d s o f t h e tw o g r o u p s h a d a n y r e ­
to t h e i r c h o ic e o f s u b j e c t e l e c t i v e s .
was t h a t t a k i n g a l l i n t o
H is c o n c lu s io n
c o n s id e ra tio n , th e a th l e t e ,
a gro u p as w e ll as a t h l e t e s
b o th as
c o m p e tin g in i n d i v i d u a l s p o r t s ,
e l e c t e d p r a c t i c a l l y t h e sam e s u b j e c t l o a d f o r e a c h s e m e s t e r
o v e r a p e r i o d o f tw o y e a r s d u r i n g w h i c h t i m e t h e s t u d y was
m ade,
K e en e s t a t e d t h e e f f e c t w h i c h a t h l e t i c
on s c h o l a s t i c
c o m p e titio n has
c o m p e titio n as fo llo w s :
We h e a r much c o m p l a i n t f r o m some p a r t e o f t h e c o u n t r y
t h a t boys en g ag e d s e r i o u s l y in a t h l e t i c c o m p e ti t io n m ust
t h e r e b y n e g l e c t t h e i r s c h o l a s t i c w ork.
U n d o u b te d ly t h i s
is o fte n th e c a se .
W here i t o c c u r s , h o w e v e r , i t i s d u e
t o p o o r m an ag em en t, r a t h e r t h a n t o an y i n h e r e n t n e c e s s i t y
o f th e p ro b le m .
I n t h e b e s t s c h o o l s , t h i s e m p h a s i s on
t h e p h y s i c a l t o t h e d e tr i m e n t o f t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l no lo n g e r
ta k e s p la c e .9
I n a s t u d y o f I n t e r - H i g h S c h o o l C o n t e s t s , C l i n e 10
® H. S . J o n e s , “C o m p a r i s o n o f t h e S u b j e c t E l e c t i o n s
an d t h e S c h o l a s t i c R ecord s o f A t h l e t e s and N o n - A t h l e t e s , “
R esearch Q u a rte rly o f H e a lth and F h v s ic a l E d u c a tio n . 5 :1 0 1 -1 0 ,
D ecem ber, 1954.
9 C. H . K e e n e , " A t h l e t i c a n d S c h o l a s t i c C o m p e t i t i o n , "
M ind a n d B o d y . 3 1 : 3 9 9 , - F e b r u a r y , 1 9 2 5 .
1 0 E a r l C l i n e , " A d v i s a b i l i t y o f I n t e r - H i g h S c h o o l C on­
t e s t s i n A t h l e t i c s , " A m e ric a n P h y s i c a l E d u c a ti o n R e v ie w , 1 5 : 2 2 - 5 1 ,
Ja n u a ry , 1910.
10
lis te d
tw o o f h i s m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s :
p a r t i c i p a t i o n m o n th ly f a i l u r e s
(l)
d u rin g
w e re r e d u c e d f r o m s i x t y t o
t w e n t y - o n e i n s c h o l a r s h i p ; a n d f r o m s i x t e e n t o tw o i n d e p a r t ­
m e n t w h i c h h e c o n c l u d e d g a v e a m p le p r o o f o f t h e v a l u e o f
a th le tic s .
^
S w a n so n
11
c o n d u c te d a su rv e y in f o u r h ig h s c h o o ls in
K ansas C i t y a s t o t h e
' tio n
in v a r io u s
re la tio n
stu d e n t a c t i v i t i e s .
b u t one o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s
a th le te s
A th le tic s
c o n stitu te d
s t u d i e d , and th e t o t a l num ber o f
i n v o l v e d was t w e n t y - t w o b o y s a n d s e v e n t e e n g i r l s .
The c o n c l u s i o n
r e a c h e d was t h a t t h e s m a l l n u m b e r o f c a s e s
ren d ered r e s u lts u n r e lia b le ;
tio n
o f s c h o la rs h ip to p a r t ic ip a -
in a t h l e t i c s
th e p u p ils to
it
w as t h o u g h t t h a t p a r t i c i p a ­
p ro b a b ly d is tu r b e d th e norm al c a r e e r s
some e x t e n t .
of
S c h o la r s h ip f o r boys and g i r l s
was d i s c o v e r e d t o b e s l i g h t l y h i g h e r d u r i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n .
I t was b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e d e s i r e t o
p o n sib le
f o r th e h i g h e r a c h iev e m e n t r e c o r d s .
B eu^
a th le te s
H is
r e m a i n e l i g i b l e was r e s ­
and
re p o rte d th e r e s u lts
o f a n i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f 1 ,1 0 0
n o n - a t h l e t e s in s e v e r a l I l l i n o i s h ig h s c h o o ls .
f i n d i n g s show ed e q u a l a b i l i t y
in t e s t s
o f sp e c ific
m e n ta l
^ W. M. S w a n s o n , "T he E f f e c t on H i g h S c h o o l S c h o l a r ­
s h i p o f P u p il P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n E x tr a C u r r i c u l a r A c t i v i t i e s ,"
S c h o o l R e v ie w . 3 2 : 6 1 3 - 2 6 , O c t o b e r , 1 9 2 4 .
F . A . B e u , "T he M e n t a l A b i l i t y o f A t h l e t e s i n Com­
p a r i s o n w i t h N o n - A th l e t e s i n H ig h S c h o o l , " A m e ric an S c h o o l
B o ard J o u r n a l . 7 3 :4 5 ,1 5 5 , A u g u s t, 1926.
11
fu n c tio n s,
e q u a l s c o r e s on g e n e r a l i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s ,
equal
tim e r e q u i r e d t o c o m p le te th e h ig h s c h o o l c o u r s e , and e q u a l
ages.
In a c o m p a ra tiv e s tu d y o f a t h l e t e s
w ith
r e s p e c t t o m en tal a b i l i t y
H a l l drew t h e
and n o n - a th le te s
an d e d u c a ti o n a l a c h ie v e m e n t
fo llo w in g c o n c lu s io n s :
1 . A th le te s s l i g h tl y d e c re a se th e s c h o la s tic e f f i ­
c ie n c y o f s tu d e n ts .
I f we c o n c e d e t h a t m o r a l s a n d h e a l t h
a r e t o a r i s e fro m a t h l e t i c p r a c t i c e , h o w e v e r , i t i s
p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e a t h l e t e w i l l g e t much m o re f r o m s c h o o l
th an th e n o n - a th le te ,
2.
B o y .a th le te s a re e i t h e r e le c te d o r e ls e c h o o s e m o re e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s t h a n t h e n o n - a t h l e t e s ,
w h i l e t h e r e v e r s e i s t r u e am ong t h e g i r l s .
3*
Boy a t h l e t e s a r e o n t h e a v e r a g e a b o u t a h a l f y e a r
o ld e r th a n n o n - a t h l e te s , w h ile th e g i r l a th l e t e s a re
a b o u t tw o m o n th s y o u n g e r t h a n t h e n o n - a t h l e t e .
4.
Boy n o n - a t h l e t e s r a n k c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r i n i n ­
t e l l i g e n c e th a n th e boy a t h l e t e , w h ile g i r l n o n - a th le te s
r a n k s l i g h t l y l o w e r t h a n t h e g i r l a t h l e t e s ♦ B o th t h e s e
c o n d i t i o n s re m a in t r u e i f age i s c o n s i d e r e d a s a f a c t o r .
5 * The b o y n o n - a t h l e t e s r a n k c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r i n
a ch iev e m e n t in sc h o o l th a n th e a t h l e t e s w h ile th e g i r l
n o n - a th le te s ran k s l i g h t l y h ig h e r th a n th e g i r l a t h l e t e s .
H u l l made a s t u d y t o
y e a r 1922 -23 t h e a t h l e t e s
d isc o v e r i f ,
d u rin g th e sc h o o l
o f th e S u lliv a n ,
.
I n d i a n a , H ig h
S c h o o l a c c o m p l i s h e d a s much i n p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e i r n a t u r a l
le a rn in g c a p a c itie s
th e s e
as d id th e n o n -a th le te s *
He s e t f o r t h
fin d in g s :
^ R o b e r t H a l l , uHow A t h l e t e s a n d N o n - A t h l e t e s C o m p a re
i n M e n ta l A b i l i t y , and i n E d u c a t i o n a l A c h ie v e m e n t,n A m e ric an
P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n R e v ie w . 3 3 : 3 8 9 , J u n e , 1 9 2 8 .
^
12
1.
The n o n - a t h l e t e s d i d b e t t e r s c h o o l w o r k t h a n t h e
a th le te s .
H o w e v e r , t h e a t h l e t e s w o r k e d m o re i n a c c o r d a n c e
w ith t h e i r c a p a c itie s th a n th e n o n - a th le te s .
T h is i s
b e c a u s e many n o n - a t h l e t e s w i t h lo w I . Q . * s made h i g h
g rad es.
2 * The a t h l e t e s seem t o b e a s l i g h t l y s e l e c t e d g r o u p .
T h ere i s no d i f f e r e n c e i n g r a d e s , b u t th e I .Q .* s o f th e
a t h l e t e s a re a t r i f l e h ig h e r th an th e I .Q .* s o f th e o th e r
m em bers o f t h e c l a s s e s .
3.
The a t h l e t e s , b o t h b o y s a n d g i r l s , d i d b e t t e r
s c h o o l w o rk w hen t h e y w e r e n o t p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a t h l e t i c s
t h a n t h e y d i d w h ile t h e y w ere p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a t h l e t i c s .
4,
The g i r l s , b o t h a t h l e t e s a n d n o n - a t h l e t e s , d i d
b e t t e r s c h o o l w ork t h a n t h e b o y s . - ^
In 1928 a f t e r e n g a g in g i n a n u m b er o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n s
of a th le te s
a n d n o n - a t h l e t e s C o ok a n d T hom pson s a i d :
“Much
o p in io n h a s been e x p re s s e d c o n c e rn in g t h e i r s c h o la r s h ip ,
r e g u la r ity o f sch o o l a tte n d a n c e ,
c a tio n ,
age,
and i n t e r e s t i n h ig h e r edu­
b u t v e r y fe w a c t u a l d a t a h a v e b e e n c o l l e c t e d .
T he f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s w e r e g i v e n i n t h e i r s t u d y :
U n t i l h e i s a S e n i o r a b o y s e e m s t o make a l o w e r
s c h o l a r s h i p a v e r a g e on e n t e r i n g a t h l e t i c s .
In th e s e d a ta th e re is l i t t l e to in d ic a te t h a t a
p u p il* s a t h l e t i c a m b itio n and a b i l i t y a re n o t f u l l y
m a t c h e d b y h i s a b i l i t y a n d w i l l i n g n e s s t o do h i s c l a s s
w ork.
^ J . D. H u l l , “A C o m p a r i s o n o f t h e G r a d e s a n d I n t e l l i ­
g e n c e Q u o t i e n t s o f A t h l e t e s a n d N o n - A t h l e t e s i n H ig h S c h o o l , “
A m e ric an S c h o o l B o a rd J o u r n a l . 6 9 : 1 0 7 ,1 0 9 , A u g u s t, 1 9 2 4 .
W i l l i a m A. C ook a n d M a b el T h o m p s o n , “C o m p a r i s o n o f
L e t t e r B oys a n d N o n - L e t t e r B oys i n a C i t y H i g h - S c h o o l , “
S c h o o l R e v i e w . 3 6 : 3 5 0 - 3 5 8 , May, 1 9 2 8 .
13
The a v e r a g e a d v a n ta g e o f t h e l e t t e r boy i s
p o in ts.
seven
T h u s , i t s e e m s t h a t a t h l e t i c - e l i g i b i l i t y r u l e s may
e x te n d a f a v o r a b l e e f f e c t on bo y s n o t e x p e c t i n g t o c o n ­
t in u e th ro u g h h ig h s c h o o l; n o n - l e t t e r boys n o t i n t e r e s t e d
i n a t h l e t i c s a r e o f te n o f an a m b itio n le s s ty p e s t i r r e d by
n o th in g .
A t h l e t e s a r e n o t , i n t h e H ughes H ig h S c h o o l a t l e a s t ,
i n c l i n e d t o ch o o se t h e i n d u s t r i a l c o u rs e o r th e co m m erc ial
c o u r s e an d t o sh u n t h e a c a d e m ic s u b j e c t s , a s h a s o f t e n b e e n
su sp e c te d .
In g e n e r a l , one m ig h t c o n c lu d e t h a t a t h l e t i c i n t e r e s t
c a u s e s a p u p i l t o b e l e s s w i l l i n g t o m is s s c h o o l b e c a u s e
o f th e n e c e s s ity o f r e g u la r p r a c tic e .
On t h e w h o l e t h e r e se e m s t o b e n o j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e
a s s u m p t i o n t h a t l e t t e r - b o y s a r e n a t u r a l l y much d i f f e r e n t
i n a b i l i t y from o t h e r h i g h s c h o o l b o y s .
In e d u c a ti o n a l
r e s u l t s th e l e t t e r boy f a l l s a t r i f l e s h o r t o f m e a s u rin g
up to th e s ta n d a r d and in r a t e o f p r o g r e s s he i s j u s t a
t r i f l e s l o w . 16
I n 1 9 3 1 J a c o b s e n r e v i e w e d s e v e n t e e n s t u d i e s made i n
th is
fie ld
from 1910 t o 1929 a n d r e p o r t e d :
Much t h a t h a s b e e n w r i t t e n h a s b e e n o f a c o n t r o v e r s i a l
n a tu re .
A la r g e num ber o f p e rso n s have been and s t i l l
a r e opposed to th e i n c l u s i o n o f a t h l e t i c s , in i t s p r e s e n t
form a t l e a s t , i n t h e h i g h s c h o o l p ro g ra m .
In su p p o rt o f
t h i s p o s i t i o n , some h a v e p o i n t e d o u t t h e i l l e f f e c t s o f
a t h l e t i c s p a r t i c i p a t i o n on t h e h e a l t h o f t h e g r o w i n g y o u t h ;
o t h e r s h a v e d w e l t on t h e d e g r a d i n g r o ? / d i n e s s w h i c h a t h l e ­
t i c s f o s t e r s ; b u t by f a r t h e g r e a t e s t n u m b er h a v e d e p l o r e d
th e t o l l t h a t th e y b e lie v e a t h l e t i c s i s bound to ta k e o f
t h e s c h o l a r s h i p o r a c a d e m ic a c h ie v e m e n t o f t h e p a r t i c i ­
p a n ts .
E q u a lly vehem ent have been th e d e f e n d e r s , n o t o n ly
have th e y d e n ie d th e i l l e f f e c t s o f a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s
on t h e h e a l t h , t h e c h a r a c t e r , a n d t h e s c h o l a r s h i p o f t h e
p a r t i c i p a n t s , b u t , assu m in g th e d e f e n s i v e , th e y have
c la im e d f o r t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s e d u c a t i o n a l o u tc o m e s , w h ich
a r e h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e a n d w h ich c a n n o t be a t t a i n e d by t h e
re g u la r s u b je c ts of stu d y .
E x a c t l y how much o f a l l t h a t
^
Loo, c i t .
14
h a s b e e n w r i t t e n on b o t h s i d e s o f t h e c o n t r o v e r s y i s p u r e
s p e c u l a t i o n a n d p r e j u d i c e d o p i n i o n a n d how much i s t r u t h
h a s n o t y e t been d e te rm in e d f i n a l l y *
A g r e a t many c a r e ­
f u l l y c o n t r o l l e d and c a r e f u l l y c o n d u c te d e x p e rim e n ts and
s t u d i e s o f e v e r y p h a s e o f t h i s q u e s t i o n m u s t b e m ade b e ­
fo re d e f i n i t e c o n c lu s io n s as to th e v a lu e o f a t h l e t i c s
a r e w a r r a n t e d . 3-7
Ja co b sen s t a t e d t h a t th e w eaknesses o f th e
in v e s tig a tio n s
w ere:
(2 ) t h e a u t h o r s
(l)
t h e y d i d n o t d e f i n e an a t h l e t e ;
f a ile d to t r e a t
re s u lts
re a lis tic a lly ;
a n d (3 ) t h e r e w e r e n o
c o n tr o l g ro u p s.
In 1939 R e als an d R eess w r o te :
I n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f t h e r e l a t i o n b e tw e e n s c h o l a r s h i p
a n d a t h l e t i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n h a v e b e e n made o v e r a p e r i o d
o f t h i r t y y e a r s o r m o re a n d i n m o re t h a n tw o h u n d r e d
p u b lic and p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s .
The r e s u l t s , h o w e v e r ,
sh o w s u c h d i s a g r e e m e n t t h a t n o a b s o l u t e l y f i n a l d e c i s i o n
h a s b e e n made a s t o w h a t t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s .
B ecause
i n m any s t u d i e s i n s u f f i c i e n t a n d i n a d e q u a t e d a t a h a v e
been u s e d , c o n f l i c t i n g c o n c lu s io n s have been re a c h e d .
T h e s e d i s c r e p a n c i e s w ere p o i n t e d o u t i n 1931 by J a c o b s e n .
V a lid and c o n s i s t e n t c o n c lu s io n s a re no n e a r e r , a p p a r e n tly ,
t h a n t h e y w e r e a t t h a t d a t e . 3.8
***7 J o h n M. J a c o b s e n , " A t h l e t i c s a n d S c h o l a r s h i p
H i g h S c h o o l , 11 S c h o o l R e v ie w . 3 9 : 2 8 0 - 7 , A p r i l , 1 9 3 1 .
in
^8 w . H. R e a l s a n d R. G-. R e e s s , “H ig h S c h o o l L e t t e r
Men, T h e i r I n t e l l i g e n c e a n d S c h o l a r s h i p , 11 S c h o o l R e v i e w .
4 7 :5 3 4 - 9 , S e p te m b e r, 1939.
CHAPTER I I I
METHOD OF PROCEDURE
S e le c tio n o f th e g ro u p .
s t u d i e s m ade i n t h i s
d e fin ite n e c e ssity
fie ld
it
From t h e
re v ie w o f r e l a t e d
can be se e n t h a t t h e r e
fo r fu rth e r research .
th e s e have been c o m p a ra tiv e s tu d ie s
to d is c o v e r th e e f f e c t o f a t h l e t i c
in o th e r a c t i v i t i e s
had o u tsid e
o f tw o g r o u p s
in o rd e r
p a r t i c i p a t i o n upon I n t e l l i ­
T he f a c t
in a t h l e t i c s m ig h t be e n g ag ed
w as i g n o r e d .
in te re s ts
I f any o f t h i s
se c o n d gro u p
w h ic h t o o k t h e p l a c e o f a t h l e t i c s
r e s u l t s w ere n o t a c c u r a t e .
a
T he m a j o r i t y o f
g e n c e , a ch iev e m e n t, o r c h o ic e o f o t h e r s u b j e c t s .
t h a t th e g roup n o t p a r t i c i p a t i n g
is
th e
F u rth e rm o re , th e i n v e s ti g a t o r s
m e a s u r e d m o re t h a n o n e f a c t o r a t a t i m e .
I n o r d e r t o m ake t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y a s s p e c i f i c
p o s s i b l e a n d t o o m it a l l g e n e r a l i t i e s
as
o n ly one g ro u p w ere
c o n s i d e r e d , n a m e ly , a l l boys g o in g o u t f o r f o o t b a l l i n one
h ig h s c h o o l.
T h i s w as d o n e I n o r d e r t h a t t h e e x p e r i m e n t o r
m ig h t c o l l e c t a l l d a t a p e r s o n a l l y .
q u e stio n o f a th l e t i c
p a r t i c i p a t i o n was c o v e r e d ,
sc h o la rsh ip of a th le te s
been s t a t e d ,
th e
O n ly o n e p h a s e o f t h e
in s e a s o n and o u t - o f - s e a s o n .
th e
As h a s
i n v e s t i g a t i o n was a c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e g r a d e s
m ade b y t h e s e l e c t e d g r o u p o f a t h l e t e s
i n t h e i r a c a d e m ic
s u b je c ts d u rin g th e p e rio d s o f p a r t i c i p a ti o n
p a tio n .
th a t is ,
In te llig e n c e
and n o n - p a r t i c i ­
o r a n y o t h e r t y p e o f a c h i e v e m e n t was
n o t ta k e n in to
c o n sid e ra tio n .
T he w r i t e r i s
w ith J a c o b s e n 's o p in io n t h a t :
tro lle d
stu d ie s
b efo re d e f in ite
in ag reem en t
“A g r e a t m any c a r e f u l l y c o n ­
o f ev ery phase o f t h i s
q u e s t i o n m u s t h e made
c o n c lu sio n s as to th e v a lu e o f a t h l e t e s
are
-i
w a rra n te d .
The g r o u p s t u d i e d c o n s i s t e d o f a l l b o y s t h a t w e n t o u t
f o r f o o t b a l l i n t h e F r e s n o H ig h S c h o o l , a S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l
o f t h e 10t h ,
11th ,
and 12t h g r a d e s , w ith an e n ro llm e n t o f
1 ,4 0 0 p u p i ls
lo c a te d in F resn o , C a lifo rn ia .
F r e s n o H ig h
S chool h as a V a r s ity Y e llo w -J a c k e t squad and a lig h tw e ig h t
squad.
The f o r m e r i s c o m p o s e d o f t h e l a r g e r a n d h e a v i e r
boys in s c h o o l , w hereas t h e l i g h t w e i g h t sq u a d in c lu d e s t h e
s m a lle r and l i g h t e r b o y s.
p ra c tic e s
The V a r s i t y Y e l l o ? / - J a c k e t s q u a d
as one u n i t b u t p la y s
i n tw o f o o t b a l l s c h e d u l e s .
The b e s t t w e n t y - t w o m em b ers p l a y i n t h e v a r s i t y
w h ile th e
gam es o n l y ,
re m a in d e r o f th e boys p la y a s c h e d u le w ith th e s m a lle r
s c h o o l s i n t h e c o u n ty on T h u rsd a y o r F r i d a y a f t e r n o o n s .
r u l e o f t h e c o a c h in g s t a f f
A
i s t h a t e v e ry boy m ust be a llo w e d
to p la y a t l e a s t one q u a r t e r in t h i s
s ta n d in g boys a re s e l e c te d to
d ress
i s p la y e d F rid a y o r S a tu rd a y n i g h t.
gam e.
T he e i g h t e e n o u t ­
f o r th e v a r s ity
W ith t h i s
game w h i c h
sy ste m a l l th e
b o y s w ork z e a l o u s l y i n o r d e r t o b e a b l e t o d r e s s
f o r th e
•** J o h n M. J a c o b s e n , “A t h l e t i c s a n d S c h o l a r s h i p i n H i g h
S c h o o l , 11 S c h o o l R e v ie w , 3 9 : 2 8 0 , A p r i l , 1 9 3 1 .
IT
v a r s i t y game*
I f th e y a re i n e l i g i b l e
f o r t h e game o n e w e ek
t h e y h a v e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o becom e e l i g i b l e
th e n e x t w eek.
The b o y s i n t h e l i g h t w e i g h t s q u a d p l a y o t h e r l i g h t w e i g h t t e a m s
a n d c o m p e te f o r t h e c o u n t y c h a m p i o n s h i p .
T h ese boys w ork
j u s t a s h a r d i f n o t h a r d e r t h a n t h o s e on t h e o t h e r s q u a d .
In th e p re v io u s s tu d ie s
w ere t e s t e d ,
b u t in t h is
T h is p ro c e d u r e gave t h e
o n ly th e h e av y w e ig h t a t h l e t e s
s tu d y b o t h g ro u p s w ere m e a s u re d .
re s u lts
a g re a te r re lia b ility *
At
t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e s e a s o n t h e r e w e r e 102 o u t f o r t h e V a r s i t y
Y e l l o w - J a c k e t s q u a d a n d 63 o u t f o r t h e l i g h t w e i g h t s q u a d ,
m a k i n g a t o t a l o f 165 c a s e s .
A ll a th l e t e s
t h a t cam e o u t f o r f o o t b a l l a t t h e b e g i n n ­
i n g o f t h e s e a s o n w e re c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s
d id n o t s ta y
out f o r th e
c la s s e d as a th l e t e s .
a th le te .
s t u d y b u t 2 0 who
r e q u i r e d e i g h t w eeks i n o r d e r t o be
See C h a p te r I f o r t h e d e f i n i t i o n
o f an
H e n c e , t h e y w ere d r o p p e d from t h e s t u d y .
T h e r e w e r e f i v e b o y s who w e r e o u t f o r f o o t b a l l b u t
w e r e o f t h e t y p e who s p e n d l i t t l e
tim e s tu d y in g and a tte m p t
m e r e l y 11t o g e t b y ; fl t h e y a r e c l a s s i f i e d a s t y p i c a l a t h l e t i c
“b u m s 11 b y t h e
in stru c to rs.
T h e s e b o y s ? /e re a l s o d r o p p e d f ro m
th e stu d y .
T h e r e w e r e 3 4 b o y s who c o m p e t e d i n som e o t h e r v a r s i t y
s p o r t d u r i n g t h e s c h o o l y e a r who w e r e a l s o d r o p p e d , a s i n
th is
in v e s tig a tio n
fo o tb a ll,
o n ly boys t h a t w ent o u t f o r t h e one s p o r t ,
d u r i n g t h e s c h o o l y e a r , w ere c o n s i d e r e d as c a s e s .
18
T h e r e w e r e s i x h o y s who m oved t o o t h e r s c h o o l s d u r i n g
t h e s c h o o l y e a r a n d t h e y h a d t o h e d ro p p e d from t h e s t u d y .
A f t e r s u b t r a c t i n g t h e 20 d r o p - o u t s ,
t h e s i x who m o ved t o
c o m p e tito rs,
le te s
From t h i s n u m b e r o f a t h ­
d a t a c o u ld be o b t a i n e d .
C o lle c tio n o f th e d a ta .
re v ie w e d in C h a p te r I I o f t h i s
In a l l o f th e p re v io u s s tu d ie s
th e s is
th e g rades
w ere c h e c k e d a t th e end o f e a c h s e m e s te r .
th e d iffe re n c e
of th e second se m e s te r.
o f th e f i r s t
2
in n o tin g
as f o o t b a l l i s
first
as a g a in s t
se m e s te r a g a in s t
T h is m eth o d o f c h e c k in g
th e g ra d e s c o u ld n o t g iv e a t r u e p i c t u r e
in v e s tig a to r,
H u ll,
o f th e p u p ils
in a c h ie v e m e n t d u rin g p a r t i c i p a t i o n
n o n - p a r t ic i p a t i o n u se d th e g rad e s o f th e
th e g rad es
"hum s” ,
o th e r s c h o o ls , and th e 34 o th e r s p o rt
100 c a s e s w ere l e f t .
som e r e l i a b l e
th e f iv e
o f c o n d itio n s to any
c o n d u c te d o n ly th e
f i r s t h a lf
s e m e s te r and o n e - h a lf o f th e g ra d e g iv e n f o r th e
tim e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n
i s e a r n e d when t h e a t h l e t e
is not
p a rt ic ip a t in g .
The g r a d e s f o r t h i s
i n v e s t i g a t i o n w ere t a k e n a p p r o x i ­
m a t e l y e v e r y t h r e e w eeks f o r t h e e n t i r e
1941.
Due t o t e a c h e r s
in stitu te .
sc h o o l y e a r o f 1940-
T h a n k s g iv in g a n d C h ristm a s
v a c a t i o n s , t h e p e r i o d s b e tw e e n t h e tim e g r a d e s w ere c h e c k e d
in th e f i r s t
se m e s te r v a rie d a t r i f l e .
2 J . D. H u l l , "A C o m p a r i s o n o f t h e G-rades a n d I n t e l l i ­
g e n c e o f A t h l e t e s a n d - N o n - A t h l e t e s i n H ig h S c h o o l , ’1 A m e r i c a n
B oard J o u r n a l . 6 9 :4 4 , A u g u s t, 1924.
19
T h e i n - s e a s o n g r a d e s w e r e t a k e n on O c t o b e r 4 a n d 2 5 ,
N ovem ber 1 2 , a n d D ecem ber 2 .
T he f o o t b a l l s e a s o n e n d e d t h e
l a s t w e e k - e n d i n N o v e m b e r.
T he o u t - o f - s e a s o n g r a d e s w e r e t a k e n on D e c e m b e r 1 3 ,
J a n u a r y 15 a n d 3 1 , F e b r u a r y 2 1 , M a rc h 1 4 , A p r i l 1 1 , May 2
and 2 3 , and Ju n e 1 3 , th e end o f th e s c h o o l y e a r .
F r e s n o H ig h S c h o o l i s
sc h o la s tic
th e ru le s
F e d e ra tio n
(C .I.F .)
of th a t body.
o r d e r t o be e l i g i b l e
a m em ber o f t h e C a l i f o r n i a I n t e r a n d t h e r e f o r e c o m p e te s u n d e r
One o f t h e C . I . F .
P h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n
su b je c ts.
re sp e c t.
is th a t in
t o c o m p e te i n a n y i n t e r - s c h o o l a c t i v i t y
e v e r y boy m ust e a r n p a s s i n g g ra d e s
w ork.
ru le s
in th r e e
su b je c ts
of c la s s
i s n o t c o n s i d e r e d as one o f t h e t h r e e
T hus, each s c h o o l checks th e
e lig ib ility
in t h i s
A t F r e s n o H ig h S c h o o l t h e g r a d e s o f a l l a t h l e t e s
a re ch eck ed e v e ry th r e e w eeks.
th e te a c h e rs
The g r a d e s
are c o lle c te d
e v e r y t h r e e w e ek s o n a fo r m s h e e t w h i c h i s
in T ab le I I I ,
f ro m
sh ow n
page 20.
The form s h e e t I s p l a c e d in e a c h t e a c h e r * s b o x i n t h e
m a in o f f i c e
tw o d a y s b e f o r e
it
is
due.
T he n am es o f t h e
f o o t b a l l p l a y e r s who t a k e a s u b j e c t f r o m a t e a c h e r a p p e a r i n
t h e f i r s t c o l u m n , w h i l e t h e name o f t h e s u b j e c t t a k e n b y t h e
a th le te
is lis te d
i n t h e s e c o n d c o lu m n .
T he t e a c h e r m e r e l y
h a s t o e n t e r t h e g r a d e , a n A, B, G, D, o r F .
n o t re c o rd e d f o r as f a r as e l i g i b i l i t y
In c o m p le te s a re
in a t h l e t i c s
c e r n e d , t h e y s i g n i f y t h e sam e g r a d e a s a n F .
is
con­
20
TABLE I I I
TEACHERS FORM SHEET
F r e s n o H i g h S c h o o l A t h l e t i c E l i g i b i l i t y Form
D a te d u e
O ct . 4
T e a c h e r * s Name
U s e A -B -C - D -F
S tu d e n t
S u b je c t
A dam s, J .
B a i l y , B.
J o n e s , R.
R o b e rts, F.
S m i t h , T*
H ist. 5
C iv ic s
H ist* 8
H ist. 7
H ist* 6
T h i s Form S h e e t i s
G-rade
8J- x 11 i n c h e s
R e m a rk s
21
A new f o r m s h e e t i s
s e n t to th e te a c h e r a t each p e rio d
o f g ra d e r e c o r d i n g an d s h o u ld any boy be d ro p p e d from t h e f o o t ­
b a l l s q u a d h i s nam e i s c r o s s e d o f f of. t h e l i s t .
A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f e a c h s p o r t new l i s t s
a r e m ade u p
w i t h a l l t h e n a m e s o f b o y s t a k i n g a s u b j e c t fr o m a t e a c h e r
a p p e a r i n g on h i s
lis t.
D u rin g t h e s e a s o n nam es c a n be a d d e d
o r d ro p p ed as th e o c c a sio n
re q u ire s.
D u rin g t h e y e a r 1 9 4 0 -
1 9 4 1 t h e n am es o f t h e f o o t b a l l m em bers b e i n g t e s t e d w e r e a d d e d
to th e l i s t
o f b a s e b a ll and tr a c k .
In t h i s m anner th e p r e s e n t
i n v e s t i g a t i o n w as c a r r i e d on w i t h o u t t h e k n o w l e d g e o f t h e
o th e r in s tru c to rs
in th e s c h o o l, o n ly th e P r i n c ip a l and th e
R e g i s t r a r b e in g aw are o f t h i s
fa c t.
C o m p ila tio n o f th e d a t a .
fro m t h e t e a c h e r s
it
A f te r re c e iv in g th e g ra d e s
was n e c e s s a r y t o t a b u l a t e
g r a d e s on a s e p a r a t e c a r d .
For th is
each boy*s
p urp o se a th r e e by f iv e
c a r d w as u s e d .
T he c a r d f o r r e c o r d i n g t h e g r a d e s d u r i n g t h e
f o o tb a ll season
is
A ll s u b je c ts
c a l e d u c a tio n .
show n i n T a b l e I V , p a g e 2 2 .
are
re c o rd e d w ith th e e x c e p tio n o f P h y si­
In F r e s n o H ig h S c h o o l a l l b o y s c o m p e tin g i n a
m a j o r s p o r t do n o t t a k e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n d u r i n g t h e t i m e t h e
sp o rt is
in t h i s
tim e .
i n s e a s o n b u t go t o
a stu d y h a l l .
A ll o f th e boys
g r o u p r e c e i v e a n MA I! i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n d u r i n g t h i s
A f te r th e
c o m p le tio n o f t h e i r s p o r t th e y r e tu r n t o th e
p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n c la s s
a n d a r e g r a d e d t h e sam e a s t h e
rest
22
TABLE IV
INDIVIDUAL GRADE CARD IN-SEASON
In S eason
Name
S u b je c t
U n its
O c t. O c t.
4
25
Nov.
12
D ec.
2
G-ra&e
100
60
20
70
H isto ry
E n g lish
B io lo g y
G-eom.
10
10
10
10
A
C
D
B
B
B
C
C
B
C
C
B
A
B
D
B
T o ta l
40
60
60
60
70
1 .5
1 .5
1 .5
1 .7 5
A verag e
2 .5
1 .5
0 .5
1 .7 5
1 .56
23
o f th e h o y s.
Some do n o t r e c e i v e a n MAH w h i l e t a k i n g p h y s i c a l e d u ­
c a tio n ,
so in o r d e r to have
tig a tio n ,
re lia b le
re s u lts
in t h i s
in v e s­
p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n g r a d e s w e re n o t r e c o r d e d .
T he c a r d i n T a b l e IV sh o w s t h a t t h e b o y c a r r i e d t h e
s u b ^ e c t - l o a d o f ‘h i s t o r y , E n g l i s h , b i o l o g y , a n d g e o m e t r y *
c o u rses g iv e te n u n its
fo rty u n its
of c re d it,
so t h i s
A ll
p u p i l w as c a r r y i n g
o f c r e d i t , n o t c o n s id e rin g h is p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n
w h ich a l s o h a s a v a lu e o f t e n u n i t s .
g ra m o f a F r e s n o H i g h S c h o o l p u p i l ,
T h is i s
an a v e ra g e p r o ­
f o r w ith th e f o u r c o u rs e s
a n d p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n h e w o u ld h a v e o n e s t u d y p e r i o d a d a y ,
a s F r e s n o H ig h S c h o o l i s
In t h i s
o p e r a t e d on s i x o n e - h o u r p e r i o d s a d a y .
i n v e s t i g a t i o n t h e A, B, C , D, a n d F g r a d e s
g i v e n by t h e t e a c h e r s w ere c h a n g e d t o
c a l reaso n s.
fig u re s,
fo r s ta tis ti­
E a c h u n i t o f MAM was g i v e n t h r e e p o i n t s , e a c h
u n i t o f mBm was g i v e n tw o p o i n t s , e a c h u n i t o f "C" was g i v e n
on e p o i n t ,
e a c h u n i t o f MDn was g i v e n t h e v a l u e o f z e r o , a n d
e a c h u n i t o f HF H was g i v e n a m in u s o n e v a l u e .
in th e
F o r e x a m p le ,
c a r d show n i n T a b l e IV t h e s t u d e n t on O c t o b e r 4 r e ­
c e i v e d a n ,fAri i n h i s t o r y ,
o r 30 p o i n t s ,
10 p o i n t s , a "D” i n b i o l o g y o r z e r o
o r 20 p o i n t s .
a ”0 ” i n E n g l i s h o r
(0 ) and a "E ” in g e o m e try
T h is g iv e s t h e p u p i l a t o t a l o f 60 p o i n t s
O c t o b e r 4 , w h i c h d i v i d e d by t h e t o t a l n u m b e r o f u n i t s
by th e s t u d e n t
h is s tu d ie s .
on
c a rrie d
( 4 0 ) , gave h im a g r a d e p o i n t a v e r a g e o f 1 .5
The sam e s y s t e m was u s e d e a c h t i m e t h e g r a d e s
in
24
w ere r e c o r d e d .
T h is h o y , d u r in g f o o t b a l l ,
re c e iv e d th e
g r a d e s o f 1 . 5 , 1 . 5 , 1 . 5 , &nd 1 ,7 5 w h i c h g a v e h i m a n a v e r a g e
g r a d e o f 1 .5 6 d u r i n g t h e e n t i r e
fo o tb a ll season.
I f t h e g r a d e a v e r a g e f o r a n y on e s u b j e c t f o r t h i s
p e rio d is
d e sire d i t
may b e f o u n d i n t h e sa m e m a n n e r , e x c e p t
t h a t th e c h a r t m ust be r e a d c r o s s w i s e ,
i n s t e a d o f u p a n d dow n.
F o r e x a m p le , t h e boy r e c e i v e d 100 p o i n t s
In t h i s
way, e a c h b o y ’ s s c h o l a s t i c
a c q u ire d .
o r 2 ,5 in h i s t o r y .
r e c o r d d u r i n g f o o t b a l l was
The sam e m e t h o d was e m p l o y e d d u r i n g t h e
n o n -p a rtic ip a tio n .
The o u t - o f - s e a s o n c a r d
is
tim e o f
sh o w n i n T a b l e V ,
page 2 5 .
C o m p a r in g t h e g r a d e s
it
was f o u n d t h a t t h i s
i n T a b l e IV w i t h t h o s e i n T a b l e V,
s t u d e n t made a n a v e r a g e o f 1 .5 6 f o r a l l
g ra d e s d u r in g p a r t i c i p a t i o n and an a v e ra g e o f 1 .6 9 f o r a l l
g rad es d u rin g n o n - p a r tic ip a tio n .
se p a ra te ly ,
T a k in g t h e f o u r s u b j e c t s
i t was n o t e d t h a t h e d i d b e t t e r i n h i s t o r y d u r i n g
p a r t i c i p a ti o n , b u t d u rin g n o n - p a r tic ip a tio n
he d i d b e t t e r i n
E n g li s h , b i o lo g y , an d g e o m e try .
By c h e c k i n g e a c h s u b j e c t s e p a r a t e l y ,
w h e th e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n
o n e may l e a r n
a f f e c t s c e r t a i n s u b j e c t s m ore t h a n o t h e r s .
TABLE V
INDIVIDUAL GRADE CARD 0UT-0F-SIA80N
O u t-o f-S e a so n
Name
S u b je c t
U n its
D ec.
13
Jan.
13
Jan.
31
Feb.
21
M ar.
14
A pr.
11
May
2
May
23
June
13
G ra d e
220
150
60
180
H isto ry
E n g lish
B io lo g y
G e o m e try
10
10
10
10
B
C
D
B
A
C
D
B
B
B
C
B
B
B
0
B
A
C
C
B
B
B
C
B
B
B
D
B
A
B
C
B
A
B
C
B
T o ta l
40
50
60
70
70
70
70
60
80
80
1 .2 5
1 .5
1 .7 5
1 .7 5
1 .7 5
1 .7 5 1 . 5
2 .0
2 .0
A verage
2 .4 4
1 .6 7
.6 7
2 .0 0
1 .6 9
*\>
vn
chapter
IV
STUDY DURING- PARTICIPATION
The f i r s t
ste p in th is
o a s e s w ere a v a i l a b l e ,
s t u d y was t o
f i n d o u t how many
As h a v e b e e n e x p l a i n e d i n C h a p t e r I I I ,
t h e r e w e r e 1 65 b o y s o u t f o r f o o t b a l l a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e
f a l l s e m e s te r,
A c a r d w ith t h e b o y ’ s nam e, t h e s u b j e c t s he
was c a r r y i n g , a n d t h e t e a c h e r s h e h a d , w as made o u t .
card is
show n i n T a b l e I V , p a g e 2 2 .
f o r m s h e e t show n i n T a b l e I I I ,
each te a c h e r.
From t h e s e c a r d s t h e
p a g e 2 0 , was m ade u p ,
T h e se form s h e e t s w ere s e n t t o
one f o r
th e te a c h e r
e v e ry th r e e w eeks, as e x p la in e d in C h a p te r I I I .
r e c e i v e d from t h e t e a c h e r s
T h is
The d a t a
e v e r y t h r e e w eeks w ere r e c o r d e d
o n t h e b o y ’ s c a r d a n d by t h e t i m e t h e f o o t b a l l s e a s o n was
o v e r , t h e b o y f s s c h o l a r s h i p f o r th e tim e d u r in g h i s p a r t i e i p a
t i o n was r e c o r d e d .
Of c o u r s e , a s t h e b o y s d r o p p e d o u t o f f o o t b a l l , t h e i r
c a r d s w ere d i s c a r d e d .
When t h e b a s k e t b a l l s e a s o n s t a r t e d ,
some o f t h e b o y s e n t e r e d t h i s
draw n fro m t h e s t u d y .
s p o r t so t h e i r c a r d s w ere w i t h ­
The sam e t h i n g h a p p e n e d a t t h e b e g i n n ­
in g o f b a s e b a ll and t r a c k In th e
m oved t o
sp rin g .
As som e o f t h e b o y s
o t h e r s c h o o l s , t h e i r c a r d s w ere a l s o w ith d ra w n a s
w ere t h o s e
o f t h e b o y s who w e r e c l a s s e d a s t h e bum s who j u s t
b a re ly re c e iv e d p a ssin g g ra d e s.
w ere w ith d ra w n fro m t h e s t u d y ,
A f te r a l l th e above c a se s
j u s t one h u n d r e d c a s e s w ere
27
le ft,
w h ic h w ere s u f f i c i e n t t o
g iv e good, r e l i a b l e
re s u lts .
I n t a b u l a t i n g t h e g r a d e s made b y t h e b o y s i n s e a s o n
in a l l s u b je c ts ,
i t w as f o u n d t h a t t h e
l o w e s t a v e r a g e made b y
o n e b o y was 1 0 6 , a n d t h e h i g h e s t a v e r a g e made b y o n e b o y was
2 .8 7 .
In o r d e r to a t t a i n
fo r th is
t h e m ean a n d t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n
g ro u p , th e g rad es o r sc o re s
s e t u p i n T ab le V I, page 2 8 ,
o f a l l th e boys a re
F o r c o n v en ien c e
in ta b u la tio n ,
t h e d e c i m a l p o i n t was d r o p p e d a n d l a t e r a d d e d i n t h e f i n a l
re s u lts
of th is
ta b le .
W ith o u t th e d e c im a l, t h e
was 6 a n d t h e h i g h e s t 2 8 7 o r a r a n g e i n s c o r e s
s e t t i n g up T ab le V I, a c l a s s
mean o f 1 1 2 .5 w e r e u s e d .
th e s is
lo w e st sc o re
o f 281,
In
i n t e r v a l o f 25 a n d a n a s s u m e d
In a l l th e
fo llo w in g ta b le s o f t h i s
t h e s t a n d a r d f o r m u la e w ere u s e d i n
o b ta in in g th e
fin a l
re s u lts.
U s in g t h e
f o r th e a th le te s
fig u re s
i n T a b l e V I t h e m ean s c h o l a r s h i p
I n s e a s o n f o r a l l s u b j e c t s was 1 , 1 9 w i t h a
s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f ,6 4 f o r t h i s g r o u p .
In o r d e r to d e te rm in e i f a g r e a t e r d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t s
i n som e s u b j e c t s
th a n o th e r s ,
t h e s c o r e s made b y t h e b o y s
i n t h e v a r i o u s s u b j e c t s w ere t a b u l a t e d .
ta b u la tio n s
In a l l o f th e s e
25 w as u s e d a s t h e s i g n o f t h e c l a s s
1 1 2 .5 w as u s e d a s t h e a s s u m e d m e a n .
i n t e r v a l and
In e ac h c a s e th e d e c im a l
p o i n t was r e m o v e d f r o m t h e s c o r e s a n d t h e y w e r e t a b u l a t e d a s
w h o le n u m b e r s .
in i t s
T hen a t t h e e n d t h e d e c i m a l p o i n t was a d d e d
p ro p e r p la c e a g a in .
28
TABLE V I
SCHOLARSHIP ALL SUBJECTS
In S e a s o n
S tu d e n t
S u b je c t
f
d
G-rade
fd
fd 2
275
250
225
200
1 75
-
299
274
249
224
199
2
0
3
10
6
7
6
5
4
3
14
0
15
40
18
98
0
75
160
54
150
125
100
75
50
- 174
- 149
- 124
99
74
9
9
19
15
12
2
1
0
-1
-2
18
9
0
-15
-2 4
36
9
0
15
48
25 49
0 - 2 4
10
5
-3
-4
-30
-2 0
90
80
1 0 0 (N)
S iz e o f C la s s I n t e r v a l = 25
A s su m e d Mean - 1 1 2 . 5
25r fd
6 6 5 r fd^
29
T ab le V I I , page 3 0 ,
by a th le te s
is
a ta b u la tio n
in th e s o c ia l s tu d ie s .
c lu d e d a n c i e n t ,
o f t h e s c o r e s m ade
In t h i s
g r o u p was i n ­
m odem , and U n ite d S ta te s h i s t o r y ;
e c o n o m ic s , an d s o c i o l o g y w ere a l s o
in c lu d e d .
c iv ic s ,
I n F r e s n o H ig h
S c h o o l,
lo w s o p h o m o r e s e n t e r i n m i d - y e a r a n d a g r o u p o f
se n io rs
a ls o g ra d u a te
in m id -y e a r.
S i n c e s t u d e n t s do e n t e r
h i g h s c h o o l i n m i d - y e a r , som e f i n i s h t h e i r U n i t e d S t a t e s
h isto ry
in th e
f i r s t s e m e s te r o f a sc h o o l y e a r and ta k e c iv ic s
th e second se m e s te r.
first
O th e r s t a k e s o c i o l o g y o r e c o n o m ic s t h e
s e m e s te r and c iv i c s
c iv ic s th e f i r s t
th e se c o n d , w h ile s t i l l
o th e rs
ta k e
s e m e s t e r a n d s o c i o l o g y o r e c o n o m ic s t h e
second se m e s te r.
For th is
re a s o n th e above s o c i a l s t u d i e s
w e re i n c l u d e d i n o n e g r o u p .
S ix ty -se v e n a th le te s
t h e y e a r i n w h ic h t h i s
t o o k one s o c i a l s t u d y o r a n o t h e r
s t u d y was c a r r i e d
on.
The l o w e s t s c o r e
r e c e i v e d b y o n e b o y was - 7 5 a n d t h e h i g h e s t s c o r e
re c e iv e d by
o n e b o y was 3 0 0 .
From t h e
th e a th l e t e s
d e v ia tio n
fig u re s
i n T a b l e V I I a m ean s c h o l a r s h i p
of
i n t h e s o c i a l s t u d i e s w as 1 . 4 4 w i t h a s t a n d a r d
o f .8 2 f o r t h i s
T ab le V I I I ,
by t h e a t h l e t e s
gro u p .
page 3 1 ,
re v e a ls th e sc o re s
d u rin g p a r t i c i p a ti o n .
i n E n g l i s h made
Due t o t h e
fac t th a t
some s t u d e n t s e n t e r e d t h i s h i g h s c h o o l i n t h e m i d - t e r m , a l l
of th e n in e ty - s ix s tu d e n ts
f o r th e e n tir e
y ear.
d id n o t c o n tin u e th e E n g lish c o u rse
D u rin g th e f i r s t
s e m e s t e r some o f t h e
30
TABLE V I I
SCHOLARSHIP IN SOCIAL STUDIES
In S eason
S u b je c t
f
d
fd
300
275
250
225
200
**
-
324
299
274
249
19 9
1
1
5
2
11
8
7
6
5
4
8
7
30
10
44
64
49
180
50
176
175
150
125
100
75
~
-
199
1?4
14 9
124
99
6
8
4
10
4
3
2
1
0
-1
18
16
4
0
-4
54
32
4
0
4
50
25
00
-0
~ 25
74
49
- 24
- •24
49
6
5
2
0
0
-2
-3
-4
-5
-6
-1 2
-15
-8
0
0
24
45
32
0
0
1
1
-1
-8
-72
-8
49
64
-50 -7 5 -
74
99
6 7 (N)
S iz e o f C la ss
I n t e r v a l - 25
A ssum ed Mean s 1 1 2 .5
83^ f d
fd 2
827^fd:
31
TABLE V I I I
SCHOLARSHIP IN ENGLISH
In S e a s o n
fd 2
S u b je c t
f
d
fd
300
275
250
225
200
~
-
324
299
274
249
224
1
2
0
0
14
8
7
6
5
4
8
14
0
56
64
98
0
"
224
175
150
125
100
75
“
-
199
174
149
124
99
5
7
4
23
11
3
2
1
0
-2
15
14
4
0
-2 4
45
28
4
0
48
50 25 0 -0 ~25 -
75
49
24
24
49
12
5
7
2
0
-2
-3
-4
-5
-6
-2 4
"15
"28
-1 0
0
48
45
112
50
0
-5 0 74
99
-7 5 - 1 0 0 ~ 124
0
0
3
-7
-8
-9
0
0
27
0
0
243
-4 * fd
972 ^ f d :
96
C la s s I n t e r v a l " 25
A ssu m ed Mean - 1 1 2 * 5
mm
32
p u p i l s to o k sophom ore E n g l i s h a n d t h e s e c o n d s e m e s t e r t h e y
to o k ju n io r E n g lis h ,
O th e rs to o k j u n i o r E n g lis h th e
first
s e m e s te r and a s p e c i a l E n g lis h c o m p o s itio n c o u rs e th e . se co n d
s e m e s te r , w h ile s t i l l
co u rse th e f i r s t
te r.
o th e r s to o k th e s p e c i a l c o m p o s itio n
s e m e s te r
S e v e n ty -fiv e o f th e
t o o k t h e sam e E n g l i s h t h e
The E n g l i s h s c o r e s
i n T a b le V I I I .
and s e n io r E n g lish th e seco n d
n in e ty - s ix p u p ils
sem es­
in t h i s stu d y
f u ll y ear.
f o r sc h o la rsh ip
in season
are
lis te d
The l o w e s t E n g l i s h s c o r e w as made b y t h r e e
b o y s w i t h a s c o r e o f - 1 0 0 a n d t h e h i g h e s t s c o r e o f 3 0 0 was
m ade b y o n e b o y .
The m ean a n d t h e
sh ip
sta n d a rd d e v ia tio n
f o r th e s c h o la r ­
i n s e a s o n f o r E n g l i s h w e re 1 . 1 4 a n d . 8 0 r e s p e c t i v e l y .
The s c h o l a r s h i p
i n m a th e m a tic s d u r in g p a r t i c i p a t i o n
t a b u l a t e d i n T a b le IX , pag e 3 3 .
m a tic s th e
e n tire
S e v e n ty -tw o boys to o k m ath e ­
y e a r d u rin g th e tim e o f t h i s
due t o th e m id -te rm e n t r a n c e
e ig h t d id n o t ta k e th e
of s tu d e n ts ,
stu d y .
s e m e s te r,
se m e s te r.
th e
and th e
sam e m a t h e m a t i c s t h e e n t i r e
first
A g a in
seven o f th e
fo rty -
y ear.
th e se v e n , th r e e to o k th e second s e m e s te r o f a lg e b r a ,
first
is
Of
th e
s e m e s te r o f g e o m e try t h e
second
The o t h e r f o u r t o o k t h e s e c o n d s e m e s t e r o f g e o m e try
f i r s t se m e s te r, and advanced a lg e b ra th e second se m e s te r.
The l o w e s t s c o r e
h ig h e s t sco re
i n m a t h was - 7 5 a n d f i v e b o y s r e c e i v e d t h e
of 300.
f o r th e s c h o la rs h ip in
The mean a n d t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n
s e a s o n i n m a th e m a tic s t a k e n from
33
TABLE IX
SCHOLARSHIP IN MATHEMATICS
In S eason
• S u b je c t
f
d
fd
fd 2
300
275
250
225
200
-
324
299
274
249
224
5
1
5
1
14
8
7
6
5
4
40
7
30
5
56
: 320
49
18 0
25
224
17 5
15 0
12 5
100
75
-
199
17 4
149
124
99
4
8
5
9
3
3
2
1
0
-1
12
16
5
0
-3
36
32
5
0
3
50
25
0
-0
-2 5
74
49
- 2 4
24
49
12
1
3
0
0
-2
-3
-4
-5
-6
-2 4
-3
-1 2
0
0
48
9
48
0
0
0
1
-7
-8
0
-8
0
64
-5 0 -75 -
.
74
99
7 2 (N)
S iz e o f C la s s
I n t e r v a l - 25
A ssum ed Mean = 1 1 2 *5 .
121£fd
1043S fd 2
34
T a b l e IX w e r e 1 , 5 5 a n d . 8 6 r e s p e c t i v e l y .
T he s c h o l a r s h i p
f o r th e f o r e ig n lan g u a g es
was i n c l u d e d u n d e r o n e g r o u p .
th irty
p u p ils ;
L a tin ,
fiv e
in seaso n
T h i s was c o m p o s e d o f :
p u p ils ;
G-erman, t h r e e p u p i l s ;
F r e n c h , t e n p u p i l s , m ak in g a t o t a l o f f o r t y - e i g h t .
p u p i l s a l l c a r r i e d t h e sam e f o r e i g n
T he t a b u l a t i o n
o f t h e i r sco res
is
S p a n ish ,
and
T hese
la n g u a g e th e e n t i r e
y ear.
f o u n d i n T a b l e X, p a g e 3 5 .
T he l o w e s t s c o r e o f - 1 0 0 was made b y t h r e e b o y s , a n d
t h e h i g h e s t s c o r e o f 3 0 0 w as made b y t h r e e b o y s .
The m ean a n d t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n
fo r th is
group
w ere 1 .1 6 a n d 1 .2 2 r e s p e c t i v e l y .
The t a b u l a t i o n
in c lu d e d :
f o r th e s c h o la rs h ip in th e sc ie n c e s
p h y s ic s , e le v e n p u p i ls ;
b io lo g y , te n p u p ils ;
F o rty o f th e f o r t y - e i g h t p u p ils
t h e sam e s u b j e c t t h e e n t i r e
p u p ils ,
la tio n
e ig h te e n p u p ils ;
a n d z o o lo g y , n i n e p u p i l s , m ak in g a t o t a l
of fo rty -e ig h t p u p ils .
one t o b i o l o g y tw o .
c h e m istry ,
y ear.
to o k
E ig h t c h a n g e d from b io lo g y
T he l o w e s t s c o r e o f - 1 0 0 was made b y tw o
w h i l e o n e p u p i l made a h i g h s c o r e o f 3 0 0 .
o f a l l th e s c o re s
is
fo u n d in T ab le X I.
T a b l e X I r e v e a l t h e m ean a n d t h e
The t a b u ­
F ig u re s
sta n d a rd d e v ia tio n
from
f o r th e
g ro u p i n t h e s c i e n c e s w ere 1 .3 3 a n d .9 1 r e s p e c t i v e l y .
The t a b u l a t i o n
a r t p u p ils
is
f o r th e
sc h o la rsh ip
fo u n d in T ab le X I I , page 3 7 .
one p u p i l s t a k i n g c o u r s e s
.d ra w in g , s t a g e c r a f t ,
in se aso n f o r th e
T h ere w ere t h i r t y -
i n a r t w h ic h i n c l u d e d p a i n t i n g ,
and l e a t h e r c r a f t .
35
TABLE X
SCHOLARSHIP IN FOREIGN LANGUAGES
SPANISH 3 0 , LATIN 5 , GERMAN 3 , FRENCH 10
In Season
S u b je c t
f
d
fd
fd 2
300
275
250
225
200
-
324
299
274
249
224
3
1
1
0
4
8
7
6
5
4
24
7
6
0
16
192
49
36
0
64
175
150
125
10 0
75
-
199
174
149
124
99
1
4
0
6
1
3
2
1
0
-1
3
8
0
0
-1
9
16
0
0
1
50
25
Q
-0
-2 5
-
74
49
24
24
49
8
1
5
0
2
-2
-3
-4
-5
-6
-1 6
-3
-2 0
0
-12
32
9
80
0
72
-50 74
-75 99
•100 - 1 2 4
7
1
3
-7
-8
-9
-49
-8
-27
343
64
243
48 (N)
S iz e o f C la s s I n t e r v a l s 25
A ssu m ed Mean = 1 1 2 .5
- 72 rfd
02X0 £fd2
36
TABLE XI
SCHOLARSHIP IN SCIENCES
PHYSICS 1 1 , CHEMISTRY 1 8 , BIOLOGY 1 0 , ZOOLOGY 9
In Season
S u b je c t
f
d
fd
fd 2
300
275
250
225
200
- 324
- 299
274
- 249
- 224
1
1
1
1
12
8
7
6
5
4
8
7
6
5
48
64
49
36
25
192
175
150
125
10 0
75
-
199
174
149
124
99
0
5
4
9
4
3
2
1
0
-1
0
10
4
0
-4
0
20
4
0
4
50
25
0
-0
-2 5
-
74
49
24
24
49
4
0
3
-2
-3
0
-5
-6
-8
-0
-12
-0
-0
16
0
48
0
0
74
-5 0 99
-75 - 1 0 0 - 124
1
0
2
-7
-8
-9
-7
-0
-1 8
49
0
162
4 8 (N)
S iz e o f C la ss
I n t e r v a l = 25
A ssu m ed Mean = 1 1 2 .5
-»/|i
39*fd
669£f<
37
TABI£ XXI
SCHOLARSHIP IN AR3?
In S e a s o n
S u b je c t
f
d
fd
fd 2
300
275
250
225
200
-
324
299
274
249
224
2
0
1
0
8
8
7
6
5
4
16
0
6
0
32
128
0
36
0
128
175
150
125
100
75
-
199
17 4
1 49
124
99
0
0
1
6
1
3
2
1
0
-1
0
0
1
0
-1
0
0
1
0
1
50
25
0
—0
-2 5
—
-
74
49
24
24
49
2
0
6
0
1
—2
-3
-4
-5
-6
-4
0
-2 4
0
—6
8
0
96
0
36
«50 74
- 7 5 “ 99
- 1 0 0 - 124
0
0
3
-7
-8
-9
0
0 *
-2 7
31(N)
S iz e o f C la s s I n t e r v a l - 25
A ssum ed Mean - 1 1 2 * 5
-T Z S&
0
0
243
6 7 7 £ fd 2
38
The m ean a n d t h e
sta n d a rd d e v ia tio n
a r t w ere 1*18 a n d 1 .1 7 r e s p e c t i v e l y *
fo r th is
group in
CHAPTER V
STUDY DURING NON-PARTICIPATION
T he s c h o l a r s h i p d u r i n g n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n
seaso n f o r a l l s u b je c ts as w e ll as th e
in d iv id u a l f ie ld s
la n g u a g e s,
or out of
s c h o la rs h ip o f th e
o f s o c i a l s t u d i e s , E n g li s h , m a th , t h e
th e sc ie n c e s
and a r t a r e c o n s id e r e d in t h i s
fo re ig n
c h a p te r.
The sam e s t a t i s t i c a l m e t h o d s a s w e r e u s e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s
c h a p te r are used h e re .
The s i z e
o f th e c la s s
in te rv a l, 25,
a n d t h e a s s u m e d m e a n , 1 1 2 . 5 , w e r e t h e sam e a s i n t h e o t h e r
stu d ie s.
In th e stu d y d u rin g n o n - p a r tic ip a tio n th e
a l l su b je c ts
are l i s t e d
in T a b le X I I I ,
page 40.
sco res
fo r
The l o w e s t
s c o r e m ade b y a n y . I n d i v i d u a l was 6 ,. t h e sa m e a s d u r i n g p a r t i ­
c i p a t i o n , b u t t h e h i g h e s t s c o r e was t e n p o i n t s h i g h e r b e i n g
297 a g a i n s t 287 d u r i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n .
F ig u re s
f r o m T a b l e X I I I i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e m ean s c o r e
and th e s ta n d a r d d e v ia tio n
fo r th is
g ro u p w e re 1 .2 8 a n d .6 2
re s p e c tiv e ly .
In ta b u la tin g th e sc o res
th e s o c ia l s tu d ie s ,
th e
th e
f o r t h e s c h o l a r s h i p m ade I n
l o w e s t s c o r e r e c o r d e d was - 7 8 a g a i n s t
lo w e st sc o re o f -7 5 d u rin g p a r t i c i p a t i o n ;
tw o p u p i l s
made a s c o r e o f 3 8 ° a g a i n s t o n e s c o r e o f 3 0 0 d u r i n g p a r t i c i ­
p a tio n .
T a b l e X IV , p a g e 4 1 , sh o w s t h e t a b u l a t i o n
s tu d ie s d u rin g n o n - p a r tic ip a tio n o r out o f seaso n .
fo r so c ia l
40
TABLE X I I I
SCHOLARSHIP ALL SUBJECTS
Out o f S e a so n
S u b je c t
f
d
fd
fd2
275
250
225
200
175
-
299
274
249
224
224
2
1
3
8
9
7
6
5
4
3
14
6
15
32
27
98
36
75
128
81
150
125
100
75
50
- 174
- 149
- 124
99
74
13
15
16
15
7
+2
1
0
-"1
-2
26
13
0
-15
-1 4
52
13
0
15
28
11
2
-3
—4
-33
-8
99
32
25 0 -
49
24
1 0 0 (N)
S iz e o f C la ss
I n t e r v a l “ 25
A s su m e d Mean - 1 1 2 . 5
3 £ fa
657 £ fd 2
41
TABLE XIV
SCHOLARSHIP IN SOCIAL STUDIES
O u t Of S e a s o n
S u b je c t
f
d
fd
fd 2
500
275
250
225
200
-
324
299
274
249
224
2
2
2
6
10
8
7
6
5
4
16
14
12
30
40
128
98
72
150
160
175
150
125
100
75
-
199
17 4
149
124
99
1
7
7
13
3
3
2
1
0
-1
3
14
7
0
-3
9
28
7
0
3
50
25
0
-0
-2 5
-
74
49
24
24
49
5
2
6
0
0
-2
-3
-4
-5
-6
-1 0
-6
-2 4
0
0
20
18
96
0
0
-5 0 -7 5 -
74
99
0
1
-7
-8
0
-8
0
64
6 7 (N)
S iz e o f C la ss
I n t e r v a l s 25
A ssu m ed Mean = 1 1 2 .5
85 ^ fd
8 55*fc
42
From f i g u r e s
d e v ia tio n
i n T a b l e X IV , t h e m ean a n d t h e s t a n d a r d
f o r t h i s g ro u p w ere 1 .4 4 an d .8 4 r e s p e c t i v e l y .
In t a b u l a t i n g th e s c o re s
f o r E n g lish d u rin g n o h - p a r ti-
c i p a t i o n , i t was f o u n d t h a t t h e l o w e s t s c o r e m ade b y o n e
p u p i l w as - 1 0 0 w h i c h was t h e sam e s c o r e m ade b y t h r e e p u p i l s
d u rin g p a r t i c i p a t i o n .
p u p ils
T he h i g h e s t s c o r e was 3 0 0 made b y tw o
w h i c h w as t h e sam e s c o r e m ade b y o n l y o n e p u p i l d u r i n g
p a rtic ip a tio n .
T a b l e XV, p a g e 4 3 , sh o w s t h e t a b u l a t i o n o f
t h e s c o r e s made i n E n g l i s h o u t o f s e a s o n .
A c co rd in g to th e
f i g u r e s f r o m T a b l e XV, t h e m ean s c o r e
and th e s ta n d a rd d e v ia tio n
of th is
g ro u p w ere 1 .1 8 an d .8 5 .
I n t a b u l a t i n g t h e s c o r e s m ade o u t o f s e a s o n b y t h e
p u p i ls t a k i n g m ath ,
i t was f o u n d t h a t t h e l o w e s t s c o r e made
was - 5 6 b y o n e p u p i l a g a i n s t t h e s c o r e o f - 7 5 m ade b y o n e
p u p il in
season.
The h i g h e s t s c o r e o u t o f s e a s o n was 3 0 0
made b y t h r e e p u p i l s
season.
T a b l e X V I,
s c o r e s made i n m a t h
F ig u r e s fro m
d e v ia tio n o f th is
a g a i n s t 3 0 0 m ade b y f i v e p u p i l s
p a g e 4 4 , sh o w s t h e t a b u l a t i o n
in
o f th e
out of season.
T a b l e XVI g a v e t h e m ean s c o r e a n d s t a n d a r d
g ro u p as 1*42 a n d . 9 4 .
I n t a b u l a t i n g t h e s c o r e s m ade b y t h e p u p i l s o u t o f
seaso n f o r th e
f o re ig n la n g u a g e s,
it
was f o u n d t h a t t h e l o w e s t
s c o r e w as - 6 7 m ade b y tw o p u p i l s a g a i n s t t h e s c o r e o f - 1 0 0
m ade b y t h r e e p u p i l s
in se aso n .
T he h i g h e s t s c o r e - o u t o f
s e a s o n w as 3 0 0 m ade b y tw o p u p i l s w h i c h was t h e sam e s c o r e
43
TABLE XV
SCHOLARSHIP IN. ENGLISH
O ut o f S e a s o n
S u b je c t
f
d
fd
fd 2
300.
275
250
225
200
-
324
299
274
249
224
2
0
1
2
15
8
7
6
5
4
16
0
6
10
60
128
0
36
50
240
175
150
125
100
75
-
199
174
149
124
99
10
8
6
15
8
5
2
1
0
-1
30
16
6
0
-8
90
32
6
0
8
50
25
0
-0
—2 5
—
—
74
49
24
24
49
7
4
10
4
2
-2
-1
-4
-5
-6
-14
-12
-4 0
-20
-1 2
28
36
160
100
72
-5 0 - 74
-75 99
1 0 0 - 1 24
1
0
1
-7
-8
-9
-7
0
-9
49
0
81
96 (N)
S iz e o f C la ss
I n t e r v a l - 25
A ssu m ed Mean - 1 1 2 .5
23r fd
1 1 1 6 £f<
44
TABLE XVI
SCHOLARSHIP IN MATHEMATICS
Out o f S e a s o n
f
d
fd
fd 2
300
275
250
125
200
-
324
299
274
249
224
4
2
2
3
13
8
,7
6
5
4
32
14
12
15
52
256
98
72
75
208
115
150
125
100
75
-
199
174
149
124
99
7
7
4
6
4
3
2
1
0
—1
21
14
4
0
-4
63
28
4
0
4
50
25
0
-0
-2 5
- 74
- - 49
- 2 4
- 24
- 49
6
3
5
4
1
-2
-3
—4
-5
-6
-1 2
-9
-2 0
-2 0
-6
24
27
80
100
36
1
-7
-7
49
1
0
1
S u b je c t
7 2 (N)
S iz e o f C la s s I n t e r v a l - 25
A s su m e d Mean - 1 1 2 , 5
86x f d
1 1 24 *fd :
45
made "by t h r e e p u p i l s
in seaso n .
T he t a b u l a t i o n
fo r th e
fo r­
e i g n l a n g u a g e s a r e show n i n T a b l e X V I I , p a g e 4 6 .
T a k in g t h e f i g u r e s
f r o m T a b l e X V I I , t h e m ean a n d
s ta n d a rd d e v ia tio n f o r th e
f o r e i g n la n g u a g e s w ere 1 .4 0 a n d
.9 5 .
In ta b u la tin g th e s c h o la rs h ip f o r th e p u p ils
sc ie n c e s out o f se aso n , i t
in th e
was f o u n d t h a t t h e l o w e s t s c o r e
was 3 3 , made b y tw o p u p i l s a g a i n s t a s c o r e o f - 1 0 0 m ade b y
th re e p u p ils
in se a so n .
T he h i g h e s t s c o r e
out o f season
was 3 0 0 made b y t h r e e p u p i l s w h i c h was t h e sam e s c o r e m ade
in s e a s o n by one p u p il*
of season are ta b u la te d
F ig u re s
T he s c o r e s made i n t h e s c i e n c e s
in T a b le X V III, page 4 ? .
f r o m T a b l e X V I I I r e v e a l e d t h e m ean a n d t h e
sta n d a rd d e v ia tio n
f o r th e g ro u p w ere 1 .4 0 and .7 9 .
I n t a b u l a t i n g t h e s c o r e s made b y t h e a r t p u p i l s
of season,
it
out
was f o u n d t h a t t h e l o w e s t s c o r e was 3 3 m ade b y
o n e p u p i l a g a i n s t a s c o r e o f - 1 0 0 m ade b y t h r e e p u p i l s
season.
out
in
T he h i g h e s t s c o r e was 3 0 0 m ade b y o n e p u p i l o u t o f
s e a s o n w h i c h was t h e sam e s c o r e m ade b y tw o p u p i l s
in se a so n .
The t a b u l a t i o n o f t h e s c o r e s m ade o u t o f s e a s o n b y t h e a r t
p u p ils
is
f o u n d i n T a b l e X IX , p a g e 4 8 .
The m ean a n d t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n e v o l v e d f r o m t h e
fig u re s
I n T a b l e XIX f o r t h i s
g ro u p w ere 1 .6 9 and .7 5 .
46
TABLE X V II
SCHOLARSHIP IN FOREIGN LANGUAGES
Out o f S e a so n
S u b je c t
f
d
fd
fd 2
300
275
250
225
200
-
324
2 99
274
249
224
2
2
0
1
1
8
7
6
5
4
16
14
0
5
4
. 128
98
0
25
16
175
150
125
100
75
-
199
174
149
124
99
1
1
5
11
3
3
2
1
0
-1
3
2
3
0
-3
9
4
3
0
3
50
25
0
-0
.2 5
-
74
49
24
24
49
4
5
5
3
4
-2
-3
-4
-5
-8
-15
-2 0
~ 15
-24
16
45
80
75
14 4
-5 0 -
74
2
-7
-14
98
4 8 (N)
S iz e o f C la s s I n t e r v a l - 25
A ssum ed Mean - 1 1 2 .5
-52* fd
744s:f<
47
TABLE X V III
SCHOLARSHIP IN SCIENCES
Out o f S e a so n
S u b je c t
f
d
fd
fd2
300
275
250
225
200
-
324
299
274
249
224
3
1
1
2
6
8
7
6
5
4
24
7
6
10
24
19 2
49
36
50
96
175
150
125
100
75
-
199
174
1 49
124
99
3
1
3
13
2
3
2
1
0
-1
9
2
3
0
-2
27
4
3
0
2
50 25 -
74
49
9
4
-2
-3
-•18
-1 2
36
.3 6
4 8 (K)
S iz e o f C la ss
I n t e r v a l * 25
A s su m e d Mean - 1 1 2 * 5
53*fa
5 3 1 * fd2
48
TABLE XIX
SCHOLARSHIP IN ART
Out o f S e a so n
S u b je c t
f
d
fd
300
275
250
225
200
-
324
299
274
249
224
1
3
2
1
6
8
7
6
5
4
8
21
12
5
24
64
147
72
25
96
175
150
125
100
75
-
199
174
149
1 24
99
1
1
3
9
1
3
2
1
0
-1
3
2
3
0
-1
9
4
3
0
1
50 25 -
74
49
2
1
-2
-3
-4
-3
8;9
31(H )
S iz e o f C la ss
I n t e r v a l - 25
A ssu m ed Mean = 1 1 2 .5
7 0 rfd
fd2
4 3 8 ^fd 2
CHAPTER V I
COMPARISON OF THE TWO STUDIES
I n m ak in g a c o m p a r is o n o f t h e s c h o l a r s h i p s
a th le te s
sh ip s
o f th e
i n s e a s o n a s s h o w n i n C h a p t e r IV a n d o f t h e s c h o l a r ­
o f th e a th le te s
o u t o f s e a s o n a s sh ow n i n C h a p t e r V,
i t w as n e c e s s a r y t o s u m m a r i z e t h e
fin d in g s
o f t h e tw o
stu d ie s•
O ne-hundred a t h l e t e s
a n d e a c h one c a r r i e d
hu n d red c a se s
to o k c o u rses
w ere e n v o lv e d i n t h e f i n a l s t u d y
f o u r s u b j e c t s , so th e r e
in th e s i x s u b je c t f i e l d s .
s h o u ld he f o u r -
S ix ty -se v e n p u p ils
in th e s o c i a l s t u d i e s , n i n e ty - s ix
in E n g lis h ,
s e v e n ty - tw o i n m ath , f o r t y - e i g h t i n t h e f o r e i g n la n g u a g e s ,
f o r ty - e ig h t In th e s c ie n c e s , and th ir ty - o n e
t o t a l o f th r e e hundred and s ix ty -tw o
T h is
is
in a r t ,
m ak in g a
su b je c t r e g is tr a tio n s .
t h i r t y - e i g h t s h o r t o f t h e f o u r h u n d re d m ark.
n in e o f t h is
T w en ty -
f i g u r e w e r e p u p i l s who f i n i s h e d a s u b j e c t
term and to o k a s u b j e c t
i n some o t h e r f i e l d .
I n T a b l e XX,
p a g e 5 0 , t h e c h a n g e o f p r o g r a m m ade b y t h e s e s t u d e n t s
No s t u d e n t c h a n g e d h i s p r o g r a m
th e
is
i n m o re t h a n o n e s u b j e c t ,
f i r s t tw o c o l u m n s , t h e s u b j e c t a n d t h e
p u p il f o r th e
i n m id ­
f i r s t se m e s te r is
show n.
lis te d .
In t h i s
ta b le ,
a l l u n d e r U n ite d S ta te s h i s t o r y ,
In
s c o r e m ade b y t h e
In th e
th ird
and fo u rth
c o lu m n s t h e s u b j e c t a n d s c o r e m ade b y t h e p u p i l f o r t h e
se m e s te r is
sh o w n .
th e s o c ia l s tu d ie s
t h e s c i e n c e s w ere a l l
second
w ere
TABLE XX
CHANGE OF PROGRAMS
F i r s t S e m e s te r
S co re
S u b je c t
Second S e m e ste r
S u b je c t
S co re
T y p in g
T y p in g
3 .0 0
2 .0 0
S o c ia l S tu d ie s
S o c ia l S tu d ie s
2 .3 3
2 .7 3
S o c ia l S tu d ie s
S o c ia l S tu d ie s
1 .5 0
1 .5 0
T y p in g
T y p in g
.4 4
2 .0 0
S o c ia l S tu d ie s
S o c ia l S tu d ie s
S o c ia l S tu d ie s
2 .5 0
2 .0 0
1 .5 0
S c ie n c e s
S c ie n c e s
Fo r e i g n L a n g u a g e s
.7 8
2 .0 0
.7 5
F o re ig n
F o re ig n
F o re ig n
F o re ig n
.0 0
1 .0 0
.5 0
2 .0 0
S o c ia l S tu d ie s
S o c ia l S tu d ie s
S o c ia l S tu d ie s
S c ie n c e s
1 .2 2
.0 0
2 .0 0
.0 0
1 .5 0
.5 0
S c ie n c e s
E n g lish
M ath
.4 4
1 .6 7
S o c ia l S tu d ie s
M ath
S o c ia l S tu d ie s
1 .5 0
1 .8 9
1 .2 2
F o re ig n L anguages
S o c ia l S tu d ie s
M ath
F o re ig n Languages
.1 1
2 .1 1
2 .0 0
2 .1 1
L an g u ag es(L )
L an g u ag es(L )
Language
Languages
F o re ig n Languages
F o re ig n L anguages
F o re ig n Languages
A rt
A rt
A rt
S c ie n c e s
M u s ic
Mus l c
M u s ic
.5 0
-1 .0 0
2 .5 0
2 .0 0
2 .0 0
1 .5 0
2 .0 0
S o c ia l S tu d ie s
S c ie n c e s
S c ie n c e s
h jl
§ TT
0
)\f hr
1 .0 0
- .3 3
2 .0 0
M ath
M ath
M ath
2 .0 0
- .5 0
2 .5 0
M ath
M ath
2 .0 0
.5 0
S c ie n c e s
H isto ry
3 .0 0
.3 3
E n g lish
E n g lish
E n g lish
1*50
.0 0
1 .0 0
S c ie n c e s (Z o o l)
S o c ia l S tu d ie s
S c ie n c e s (P h y s ic s )
.0 0
1*44
2 .0 0
51
c h e m istry ,
and th e f o r e ig n
o th e rw ise n o te d .
to o k ty p in g th e
w h ic h i s
h isto ry
In th e
first
la n g u a g e s w ere S p a n is h u n l e s s
f i r s t c a se in t h i s
ta b le ,
a boy
s e m e s t e r a n d m ade a g r a d e p o i n t o f 3 *0 0 ,
e q u a l t o a n ,fAu .
D u rin g t h e s e c o n d s e m e s te r h e to o k
i n s t e a d o f t y p i n g a n d m ade a g r a d e p o i n t o f 2 . 3 3 ,
w h ic h i s t h i r t y - t h r e e
p o in ts
a b o v e a nBM.
A stu d y o f th e
t a b l e w i l l sh o w t h a t i n c h a n g i n g f ro m t y p i n g t o h i s t o r y
one c a s e , t h e p u p i l d i d b e t t e r w ork t h e
th e second c ase a p u p il d id b e t t e r h is
h i s t o r y th a n he d id th e
first
first
in
se m e s te r b u t in
seco n d s e m e s te r in
s e m e s te r in ty p in g .
T h is h a p ­
p e n e d i n many c a s e s a s c a n b e s e e n f r o m a c a r e f u l s t u d y o f
T a b l e XX.
T a b l e X X I, p a g e 5 2 ,
is
a ta b u la tio n
o f a l l th e sc o re s
i n t h e o n e s u b j e c t made b y t h e t w e n t y - n i n e s t u d e n t s who
ch an g e d t h e i r p ro g ram s
page 53,
f o r th e
first
se m e s te r.
T a b le X X II,
I s a t a b u l a t i o n o f t h e s c o r e s m ade b y t h e sam e
tw e n ty - n in e p u p i ls d u r in g t h e s e c o n d s e m e s te r in t h e one
su b je c t.
T h i s g a v e a m ean s c o r e o f 1 .2 5
a n d a m ean s c o r e
o n ly
o f 1*23 f o r t h e s e c o n d s e m e s t e r ,
.0 2 d i f f e r e n c e .
th e t a b l e ,
f o r th e f i r s t
As e a c h
a d iffe re n c e
.0 1 i s
in d ic a tin g
e q u a l t o one p o i n t in
i n t h e m ean o f tw o p o i n t s w i t h a
r a n g e from -1 0 0 t o 3 0 0 o r a t o t a l o f 400 p o i n t s ,
s a id th a t th e d iffe re n c e
se m e s te r
it
can be
is n e g lig ib le .
S i n c e t h e d a t a i n T a b l e XXI i n c l u d e d , t h e s c o r e m ade
52
TABLE XXI
CHANGE OF PROGRAM
1 s t S em ester
S u b je c t
300
275
250
225
200
175
150
12 5
100
75
—
-
-
—
-
50
25 0 rm
-0 —
-2 5 -50
-7 5
-1 0 0
—
-
f
d
fd
324
299
274
249
224
1
0
3
0
8
8
7
6
5
4
8
0
18
0
12
64
0
10 8
0
48
199
174
149
12 4
99
0
6
0
2
-
3
2
1
0
-1
0
12
0
0
0
0
24
0
0
0
74
49
24
24
49
4
0
3
0
0
-2
-3
-4
-5
-6
-8
0
-1 2
0
0
16
0
48
0
0
74
99
124
1
0
1
-7
-8
-9
-7
0
-9.
49
0
81
29
S i z e o f G la s s I n t e r v a l - 2 5
A ssu m ed Mean - 1 1 2 . 5
-l4 s fd
fd 2
4 3 8 z fd 2
53
TABLE X X II
CHANGE OF PROGRAM
2nd S e m e s te r
S u b je c t
f
a.
fd
fa.2
300
275
250
225
200
-
324
299
274
249
224
1
1
0
1
8
8
7
6
5
4
8
7
0
5
32
64
49
0
25
128
175
150
125
100
75
-
199
1 74
149
125
99
1
1
2
2
2
3
2
1
0
-1
3
2
2
0
-2
9
4
2
0
2
50
25
0
-0
-2 5
74
- 49
- 2 4
24
- 49
1
5
3
0
1
-2
—2
-15
-12
0
-6
2
45
48
0
36
29
S iz e o f C la s s
I n t e r v a l 3 25
A ssu m ed Mean 3 1 1 2 .5 .
-4
-5
-6
-1 2 s:fd
4 lA * fd 2
54
i n e a c h s u b j e c t w h i c h was t h e a v e r a g e
fo r th e
s e m e s t e r an d t h e bo y s w ere o n ly p a r t i c i p a t i n g
th e f i r s t
e n tire
in
first
a th le tic s
tw e lv e w eeks o f t h e e i g h t e e n w eeks o f t h a t s e m e s t e r ,
i t was n e c e s s a r y t o s e e
i f t h e r e was a n y d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n
t h e t w e lv e w eeks p e r i o d in c o m p e t i t i o n a n d t h e s i x w eeks
p e rio d out o f c o m p e titio n .
th e se su b je c ts
it
In c h e c k in g o v e r th e g ra d e s
was f o u n d t h a t :
t h r e e w ere .0 9 p o i n t s b e t t e r ;
th e se
fig u re s
it
in
tw e n ty - tw o w ere i d e n t i c a l ;
a n d t h r e e v /e re
.8 5 p o o r e r .
From
c a n b e n o t e d t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e a g a i n was
n e g lig ib le .
The f a c t t h a t n i n e p u p i l s t o o k m u s i c a s o n e o f t h e i r
s u b j e c t s a c c o u n ts f o r th e t o t a l o f f o u r h u n d re d s u b je c ts
g istra tio n s.
In s e a s o n , t h e n i n e p u p i l s h a d a s c o r e
o f 2 .7 5 , 2 .5 0 , 2 .2 5 , 2 . 2 5 , 2 . 0 0 , 2 .0 0 ,
1 .7 5 ,
or a to ta l
o f 1 8 .2 5 f o r an a v e r a g e o f 2 . 0 3 .
th e
f o r t h e sam e p u p i l s
sco res
2 . 2 2 , 2 . 0 0 , 2 . 0 0 , 1 .7 8 ,
re­
i n m u s ic
1 .5 0 , an d 1 .2 5
O ut o f s e a s o n ,
i n m u sic w ere 3 . 0 0 , 2 . 8 9 , 2 . 4 4 ,
1 . 5 6 , a n d 1 .0 0 o r a t o t a l o f 1 8 .8 9
f o r an a v e ra g e o f 2 . 0 9 .
In o r d e r to g iv e th e
r e a d e r a com plete p i c t u r e
p a g e o f a l l t h e means a n d t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s
groups,
lists
T a b l e X X I I I , p a g e 5 5 , was s e t u p .
th e v ario u s
groups by s u b j e c t s ,
th e number of p u p ils
t h i r d colum n i s
on o n e
of the various
The f i r s t
colum n
t h e s e c o n d colum n i s
in each group, ta k in g t h a t s u b je c t,
t h e mean o f t h e g r o u p i n s e a s o n ,
c o l u m n i s t h e mean o f t h e g r o u p s
out o f seaso n ,
the
th e fo u rth
th e f i f t h
55
TABLE X X I I I
MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS
S u b je c t
No. o f
p u p ils
ta k in g
su b je c t
Mean
_______________
In
Out o f
Season
Season
S ta n d a rd
__________________
D e v ia tio n
In
Out o f
Season S eason
' 100
1 .1 9
1 .2 8
.6 4
CM
VO
•
S o c ia l S tu d ie s
67
1 .4 4
1 .4 4
.8 2
.8 4
E n g lish
96
1 .1 4
1 .1 8
.8 0
.8 5
M a th
72
1 .5 5
1 .4 2
.8 6
.9 4
F o re ig n Languages
48
1 .1 6
1 .4 0
1 .2 2
.9 5
The S c i e n c e s
48
1 .3 3
1 .4 0
.9 1
.7 9
A rt
31
1 .1 8
1 .6 9
1 .1 7
.7 5
A ll S u b je c ts
56
c o lu m n I s t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f t h e g r o u p i n s e a s o n , a n d
th e s ix th
c o lu m n i s
th e sta n d a rd d e v ia tio n
of season.
From t h i s
ta b le
th e v a rio u s
groups
s lig h tly
i n tw o c a s e s .
h ig h e r out o f season except
t h e m ean i n s e a s o n a n d
t h e s a m e , 1 . 4 4 , w h i l e t h e m ean f o r m a th e m a ­
in season is
o r 1 .4 2 ,
i t may b e n o t e d t h a t t h e m ean o f .
In th e s o c ia l s tu d ie s
out o f season is
tic s
is
o f th e group o u t
1 .5 5
The g r e a t e s t
and o u t o f seaso n
it
i s .1 3 p o i n t s
d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e m ea n s
is
lo w e r
fou n d
in a r t .
B efo re i t
tio n
c o u ld be d is c e r n e d w h e th e r o r n o t c o m p e ti­
e ffe c te d th e s c h o la s tic
n e ce ssa ry to
b ility
fin d th e
reco rd s
re lia b ility
of a th le te s ,
it
was
o f t h e m ea n s a n d t h e r e l i a ­
o f a d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e tw o m ean s o f a n y o n e o f
th e above g ro u p s.
To f i n d t h e
re lia b ility
o f th e m eans, th e s ta n d a rd
e r r o r o f e a c h m ean was
found.
o f each g ro u p in T a b le
XXIV, p a g e 5 7 .
T h e n e x t s t e p w as t o
T hese a re
fin d th e
sh ow n w i t h t h e m ean
re lia b ility
d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n t h e m eans o f e a c h .
b e tw e e n t h e
A f te r o b ta in in g th e
s t a n d a r d e r r o r o f a d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e tw o m e a n s o f e a c h
g ro u p ,
i t was d i v i d e d
in to
m eans t o n o t e t h e p o s s i b l e
b e t w e e n t h e tw o m e a n s .
C olum n o n e l i s t s
t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e tw o
sig n ific a n c e
in th e d if f e r e n c e
T h i s was d o n e i n T a b l e XXV, p a g e 5 8 .
th e s u b je c ts ,
c o lu m n tw o l i s t s
b e t w e e n t h e tw o m e a n s , c o lu m n t h r e e l i s t s
th e d iffe re n c e
th e s ta n d a rd e r r o r ,
57
TABEE XXIV
STANDARD ERROR OF THE MEANS
S u b je c ts
In Season
Out o f S easo n
128 i
.0 6 2
A ll S u b je c ts
1*19 ± .0 6 4
S o c ia l S tu d ie s
1 .4 4 ± .1
E n g lish
1 . 44 ±
M a th
1.55 ± .1
F o re ig n Language
1 .1 6 + .1 ?
1 4 0 ± .1 3
S c ie n c e s
1 . 3 3 ± .1 3
140 ±
A rt
1 .1 8 i
.
o
CO
1 .4 4 ^
1 .1 8 + .0 8
1* 42 ± . 1 1
.
H
H
.2 1
.1
1 .1 7 ± .1 3
58
TABLE XXV
R E L IA B IL IT Y BETWEEN THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE MEANS
S u b je c ts
D iffe r e n c e
b e tw e e n
M ean s
S ta n d a rd
error
S ig n ific a n c e
o f th e
D iffe r e n c e
1 .0 1
.0 8 9
S o c ia l S tu d ie s
.0
.1 4
.0
E n g lish
.0 4
.1 1
.3 6
M a th
.1 3
.1 5
.8 6
1 .1 4
F o re ig n L anguages
•
.0 9
CVJ
A ll S u b je c ts
.2 1
S c ie n c e s
.0 ?
.1 7
.4 1
A rt
.5 1
.2 4
2 .1 2
59
a n d c o lu m n f o u r t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e .
e x a m p le , a f t e r a l l
o f t h e m ea n s i s
su b je c ts
lis te d
as
i n c o lu m n t w o , t h e d i f f e r e n c e
.0 9 .
t w e e n t h e mean f o r a l l s u b j e c t s
m ean f o r a l l s u b j e c t s
For
T h i s was t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e ­
in s e a s o n o f 1 .1 9 an d t h e
out of season o f 1 . 2 8 .
I f t h e q u o t i e n t i n c o lu m n f o u r i n T a b l e XXV i s 3 o r
m ore,
i t may b e i n f e r r e d t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e
In th e p r e s e n t i n s ta n c e
*09 7 *089 y i e l d s
s ig n ific a n t d iffe re n c e e x is ts .
1 .0 1 .
e x is ts .
H e n ce , no
To b e s i g n i f i c a n t , t h e o b ­
t a i n e d d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e m ean s w o u l d h a v e h a d t o b e
th re e
tim e s
.0 8 9 .
T he u s e o f t h e n u m b e r 3 , o f c o u r s e ,
due to th e f a c t t h a t a n o rm al d i s t r i b u t i o n
e x h a u ste d a t th r e e
e rro r u n its
sta n d a rd d e v ia tio n s
fro m t h e m ean.
is
is
p ra c tic a lly
o r th re e
sta n d a rd -
CHAPTER V I I
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
I.
CONCLUSIONS
T h i s s t u d y w as l i m i t e d i n t h a t o n l y o n e s c h o o l , t h e
F r e s n o H i g h S c h o o l , was c h o s e n i n w h i c h t o make t h i s
stu d y .
T h i s was d o n e i n o r d e r t h a t t h e w r i t e r m i g h t c o l l e c t a l l t h e
d a ta h im s e lf i n s t e a d o f h a v in g to
c o lle c tin g th e d a ta .
f i r s t hand.
sp o rt,
In th is
r e l y o n so m e o n e e l s e
way a l l t h e d a t a was c o l l e c t e d
The s t u d y was f u r t h e r l i m i t e d
i n t h a t o n ly one
f o o t b a l l , was c h o s e n i n o r d e r t h a t a m o re m i n u t e
s tu d y c o u ld be c o n d u c te d o f th e g e n e r a l p ro b lem ,
le tic
p a r tic i p a tio n a f f e c t th e s c h o la s tic
i n h i g h s c h o o l ? 11
an i n t e n s i v e
By l i m i t i n g t h e s t u d y i n
tim e d u rin g p a r t i c i p a t i o n ,
p a tio n ,
tfD oes a t h ­
s ta n d in g o f boys
t h e s e tw o w a y s ,
r a t h e r th a n a g e n e r a l s tu d y c o u ld be o b ta in e d .
In c o n tr a s t in g th e d if f e r e n c e
i n t h e mean f o r t h e
in se aso n , v s.
tim e no i n p a r t i c i ­
o u t o f s e a s o n , i t w as f o u n d t h e m ean f o r s c h o l a r s h i p
fo r a l l su b je c ts
sh ip
in
i n s e a s o n was 1 . 1 9 a g a i n s t a m ean f o r s c h o l a r ­
fo r a l l su b je c ts
m ea n s o f . 0 9 .
out of season o f 1 . 2 8 , a d iffe re n c e
T he r e l i a b i l i t y
b e tw e e n t h e d i f f e r e n c e
in
b e tw e e n
t h e s e m e a n s , was o n l y 1 . 0 1 , n o t e n o u g h t o b e o f a n y s i g n i f i ­
cance.
I n F r e s n o H i g h S c h o o l , a l l b o y s who a r e o u t f o r a n y
s p o r t a r e e x c u s e d from p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s a n d i n s t e a d
61
o f p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n ,
th ey a re s e n t to stu d y h a l l as th e y
a r e su p p o sed to g e t enough p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n a f t e r s c h o o l
i n p r a c t i c i n g w i t h t h e s c h o o l te a m *
sp o rt is
A fte r th e seaso n o f th e
o v e r , th e hoys g iv e up t h e i r s tu d y h a l l and r e t u r n
to t h e i r p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n c la s s e s .
In seaso n th e n , th e
h o y s h a d a n e x t r a s u p e r v i s e d s t u d y p e r i o d a n d how much d i f ­
feren ce th is
e x t r a s t u d y p e r i o d m ak es i n t h e i r s c h o l a r s h i p
w i l l n o t h e known u n t i l a s c i e n t i f i c
F rom t h e a b o v e d a t a
it
s t u d y i s m ade.
can he s a i d t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n
in f o o tb a ll does n o t cause a s i g n i f ic a n t d if f e r e n c e
in th e
s c h o l a r s h i p o f c o m p e ti t io n b e tw e e n i n s e a s o n an d o u t o f s e a s o n .
S in c e th e r e l i a b i l i t y
b e tw e e n t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n
t h e tw o m ea n s f o r t h e s c h o l a r s h i p f o r a l l s u b j e c t s
a n d o u t o f s e a s o n was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t ,
m ig h t b e i n t e r e s t i n g t o
in th e m a jo r s u b je c ts
a th le te s
ta k e n by t h e a t h l e t e s .
n i n e t y - s i x to o k c o u rs e s
la n g u a g e s,
In th e v a rio u s
s ix ty - s e v e n to o k c o u rse s
in m a th e m a tic s,
The n u m b er o f
s u b j e c t s w ere a s
in E n g lis h , se v e n ty -tw o to o k c o u rs e s
in th e fo re ig n
in th e s c ie n c e s , and t h i r t y - o n e
In th e s o c i a l s tu d ie s
t h e m ean s c h o l a r s h i p
in a r t .
In se aso n
w as 1 . 4 4 a n d o u t o f s e a s o n 1 . 4 4 , n o d i f f e r e n c e .
From t h i s
it
in th e s o c i a l s t u d i e s ,
f o r t y - e i g h t to o k c o u rse s
fo rty -e ig h t
was t h o u g h t t h a t
f i n d o u t w hat t h e d i f f e r e n c e w o u ld be
t h a t to o k c o u rses
fo llo w s:
it
in seaso n
d a ta i t
c an be s a i d t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n
f o o t b a l l does n o t a f f e c t th e s c h o la r s h ip o f a t h l e t e s
in
in th e
62
s o c ia l stu d ie s.
I n E n g l i s h t h e mean s c h o l a r s h i p
and o u t o f seaso n 1 .1 8 , a d if f e r e n c e
of
i n s e a s o n was 1 * 1 4
.0 4 .
The r e l i a b i l i t y
b e t w e e n t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e tw o m e a n s w as . 3 6 , v e r y
in s ig n ific a n t.
F ro m t h e a b o v e d a t a i t
can be s a id t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n
in f o o tb a ll d id n o t a f f e c t th e s c h o la rs h ip o f a th l e t e s
in
E n g lish .
I n m a t h e m a t i c s , t h e mean s c h o l a r s h i p
1 .5 5 and o u t o f s e a s o n o n ly 1 .4 2 ,
o n ly stu d y in t h i s
i n s e a s o n was
a d i f f e r e n c e o f .1 3 , th e
g ro u p t h a t show ed h i g h e r s c h o l a r s h i p
se a so n th a n o u t o f s e a s o n .
The r e l i a b i l i t y
in
b e tw e e n t h e d i f ­
f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e s e tw o m ean s was . 8 6 , n o s i g n i f i c a n t d i f ­
feren ce.
In t r y i n g t o
f i n d o u t why i n t h i s
stu d y th e s c h o la r ­
s h i p seem ed t o b e s l i g h t l y h i g h e r in s e a s o n , t h e w r i t e r a sk e d
t h e h e a d o f t h e m a th d e p a r t m e n t i f
she c o u ld a c c o u n t f o r i t .
A f te r c o n s u ltin g th e stu d y h a l l te a c h e r s ,
th a t th e m a jo rity of th e a th le te s
stu d y h a l l p e rio d .
it
w as f o u n d o u t
s t u d i e d m ath i n t h e i r e x t r a
T he s t u d y h a l l t e a c h e r s
t h e m a th d e p a r t m e n t a c c o u n t e d f o r t h i s
and th e h ead o f
w ith th e f a c t t h a t in
m a th t h e w o rk w as t h e w o r k i n g o f p r o b l e m s , a n d a t t h e
end o f
t h e s t u d y h a l l p e r i o d , t h e boy w o u ld h a v e t o
stu d ie s,
sto p h is
b u t w hen h e w o r k e d on t h e s e p r o b l e m s , l a t e r on h e w o u l d n o t
h a v e t o go b a c k o v e r h i s w o r k .
A l l h i s m a th w o r k w as d o n e
s te p by s te p and he c o u ld s t a r t
from t h e p o i n t h e l e f t
o ff.
63
T h i s c o u l d n o t h e d o n e i n many o f t h e o t h e r s u b j e c t s ,
fo re,
th e re ­
t h e y p r o b a b l y p r e f e r r e d t o w o r k on m a th i n s t u d y h a l l .
From t h e
boys
who go
above d a ta
i t can be s a id t h a t sin c e th e
o u tf o r a t h l e t i c s r e c e i v e an e x t r a s tu d y h a l l
p e rio d th a t p a r tic ip a tio n
i n a t h l e t i c s h e l p e d th e m r a i s e
th e ir
s c h o la r s h ip a v e ra g e in m a th e m a tic s.
In th e
fo re ig n
la n g u a g e s,
t h e mean s c h o l a r s h i p
s e a s o n was 1 . 1 6 a n d o u t o f s e a s o n
of
.2 4 .
The r e l i a b i l i t y
i t w as 1 . 4 0 , a d i f f e r e n c e
b e tw e e n t h e
d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n t h e
m ea n s w as 1 . 1 4 , t h e g r e a t e s t d i f f e r e n c e
o f th e p re v io u s s tu d ie s
in
s o f a r show n b y a n y
b u t n o t enough to be o f any s i g n i f i ­
cance.
From t h e
above d a ta i t
can be s a id t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n
in f o o t b a l l does n o t a f f e c t th e s c h o la r s h ip
of
a th le te s
in
f o r e i g n la n g u a g e s enough to be o f any s i g n i f i c a n c e .
In th e s c ie n c e s
t h e mean s c h o l a r s h i p i n s e a s o n was 1 . 3 3
a n d o u t o f s e a s o n i t w as 1 . 4 0 , a d i f f e r e n c e o f
lia b ility
o n ly
.0 7 .
The r e ­
b e t w e e n t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e s e tw o m e a n s was
.4 1 , n o t enough t o be o f any s i g n i f i c a n c e .
From t h e a b o v e d a t a i t c a n b e s a i d t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n
in f o o t b a l l does n o t a f f e c t th e s c h o la r s h ip o f a t h l e t e s
th e sc ie n c e s
enough t o be o f any s i g n i f i c a n c e .
I n a r t t h e m ean s c h o l a r s h i p
o f season i t
In
w as 1 . 6 9 , a d i f f e r e n c e
d if f e r e n c e o f a l l th e s t u d i e s .
i n s e a s o n was 1 . 1 8 a n d o u t
o f . 5 1 , th e g r e a t e s t
In tr y in g to
fin d th e answ er
’
t o t h e q u e s t i o n , why s h o u l d t h e d i f f e r e n c e h e g r e a t e r i n a r t
th a n
in th e s u b je c ts t h a t a re g e n e ra lly c o n sid e re d as
su b je c ts o r
th e h a rd e r
s u b j e c t s , w hen a r t
e le c tiv e
one o f t h e
e a s i e r s u b j e c t s , th e w r i t e r w ent to
or
"th e a r t t e a c h e r s
so lu tio n
to
f o r an a n sw e r.
th e q u e stio n
q u ire d a g re a t d e a l o f
fo o tb a ll,
it
is
so lid
c o n sid e re d as an
A ll o f th e te a c h e rs
gave th e
i n t h a t a r t was a s u b j e c t t h a t
re­
tim e and s i n c e th e boys w ere o u t f o r
t o o k a l l o f t h e i r t i m e f r o m 3 *3 0 , t h e c l o s e o f
s c h o o l, u n t i l a f t e r t h e i r d in n e r h o u r, th e boys d id n o t have
enough tim e t o
do t h e i r o u t s i d e w ork*
p a rtic ip a tin g ,
th e y h a d no t r o u b l e
c o n se q u e n tly ,
When t h e b o y s w e r e n o t
in d o in g t h i s
o u t s i d e w ork
t h e i r s c h o l a r s h i p i n a r t was h i g h e r w hen n o t
c o m p e tin g i n a t h l e t i c s .
H o w ev er, t h e r e l i a b i l i t y
d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n t h e s e
tw o m ea n s was o n l y 2 . 1 2 , h i g h e r t h a n
any o f th e
above d if f e r e n c e s
it
s till
la c k e d
b e tw e e n t h e
.7 8 o f a p o i n t
from b e i n g g r e a t e r t o be o f s i g n i f i c a n c e .
F ro m t h e a b o v e d a t a , p a r t i c i p a t i o n
n o t a f f e c t th e s c h o la rs h ip
in f o o t b a l l does
in a r t enough t o be o f a n y s i g ­
n ific a n c e .
C o n s id e rin g th e above s t u d i e s ,
p a rtic ip a tio n
la rs h ip
it
can be s a i d t h a t
in f o o t b a l l p ro b a b ly does n o t a f f e c t th e sc h o ­
of a th le te s
enough to be o f any s i g n i f i c a n c e .
How­
e v e r , ev en th o u g h n o t g r e a t enough t o be o f any s i g n i f i c a n c e ,
it
a ffe c ts
som e s t u d i e s
m ore t h a n o t h e r s .
65
II.
RECOMMENDATIONS
From t h e a b o v e s t u d y i t
H ig h S c h o o l, p a r t i c i p a t i o n
g rad es
of th e a th le te s
H ow ever, i t
in
can be s a i d t h a t in th e F resn o
f o o tb a ll d id n o t a f f e c t th e
enough t o be o f any s i g n i f i c a n c e .
c an n o t be s a id t h a t t h i s w i l l be th e c a se in a l l
h ig h s c h o o ls .
I t can o n ly be s a i d t h a t th e
re s u lts
of stu d ie s
i n o t h e r h i g h s c h o o l s p r o b a b l y w i l l b e t h e sam e o r v e r y n e a r l y
t h e sam e.
B efo re i t
can be a p p lie d to
can be s a i d t h a t
th e r e s u l t s
in t h i s
stu d y
a l l s c h o o l s s i m i l a r s t u d i e s m u s t b e made
in o th e r sc h o o ls.
F irst,
siz e
s t u d i e s m u s t b e made i n
o t h e r s c h o o l s , t h e sam e
a s F r e s n o H i g h S c h o o l , w h i c h a r e t h e sam e t y p e o f s c h o o l .
F o r e x a m p l e , s t u d i e s m u s t b e made i n s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s
F r e s n o H ig h S c h o o l i s
a s e n io r h ig h sc h o o l.
A lso t h e s e
fo r
sc h o o ls
s h o u l d h a v e m i d - y e a r t u r n o v e r s i m i l a r t o F r e s n o H ig h S c h o o l
and th e le n g th o f p r a c tic e
f o r f o o t b a l l sh o u ld be as n e a r as
p o s s i b l e u n d e r t h e sam e c o n d i t i o n s .
fo o tb a ll p ra c tic e
is
g e n e ra lly h e ld
d i s m i s s e d a t 3 :3 0 , u n t i l
Second, s tu d ie s
it
is
I n F r e s n o H ig h S c h o o l ,
from t h e tim e s c h o o l i s
to o d a rk to p r a c t i c e .
s h o u l d b e made i n s c h o o l s t h e sa m e s i z e
a s F r e s n o H ig h S c h o o l t h a t d o n o t h a v e a m i d - y e a r t u r n o v e r
an d i n w h ic h p r a c t i c e
T h ird , s tu d ie s
i s h e l d u n d e r t h e sam e c o n d i t i o n s .
s h o u l d b e made i n s c h o o l s t h a t a r e s m a l l e r
66
t h a n F r e s n o H i g h S c h o o l , "but i n w h i c h t h e r e
tu r n o v e r and in sc h o o ls
o v e r i n w h ic h p r a c t i c e
i n w h ic h t h e r e
is
a m id -y e a r
is no m id -y e a r t u r n ­
i s h e l d u n d e r t h e sa m e c o n d i t i o n s
t h a t t h e y a r e h e l d i n F r e s n o H ig h S c h o o l.
F o u rth , s tu d ie s
s h o u l d h e m ade i n f o u r y e a r h i g h
s c h o o ls u n d e r th e above c o n d itio n s and u n d e r d if f e r e n c e
d itio n s.
con­
Many f o u r y e a r h i g h s c h o o l s a r e u n i o n h i g h s c h o o l s
a n d i n many o f t h e s e t h e p r a c t i c e
p e r i o d i s h e ld - a f t e r s c h o o l
a s i n F r e s n o H ig h S c h o o l , a n d i n o t h e r s p r a c t i c e
in g th e s c h o o l day and th e
a th le te s
is h e ld d u r­
g o home on t h e s c h o o l
b u sse s w ith th e o th e r p u p i ls .
A f t e r t h e s t u d i e s h a v e b e e n made i n t h e
o f sc h o o ls u n d e r d i f f e r e n t c o n d itio n s ,
to t h i s
d i f f e r e n t k in d s
th e n s tu d ie s
o n e s h o u l d b e made i n t h e o t h e r s p o r t s
sim ila r
as b a s k e t b a ll ,
b a s e b a l l , t r a c k , a n d e v e n som e o f t h e m i n o r s p o r t s a s s w im m in g ,
and t e n n i s .
I t w o u l d a l s o b e i n t e r e s t i n g t o make s t u d i e s
w here t h e a t h l e t e s
in sc h o o ls
ta k e a .r e g u l a r p e rio d o f p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n
a lo n g w ith th e o th e r boys in s c h o o l, b e sid e s t h e i r p r a c tic e
f o r th e
a th le tic
n o t be g iv e n th e
sp o rt.
In t h i s
e x tr a stu d y h a l l d u rin g th e day and t h i s
p r o b a b l y w o u l d h a v e som e e f f e c t
I f many s t u d i e s
th e
d iffe re n c e s
c a s e , t h e b o y s c o m p e tin g w o u ld
on t h e i r s c h o l a r s h i p
in se a so n .
o f t h e a b o v e ty p e w ere c o n d u c te d a n d
sh ow n b e t w e e n s c h o l a r s h i p
in s e a s o n and o u t
o f s e a s o n w e r e n f t a n y g r e a t e r t h a n t h e d i f f e r e n c e s sh o w n i n
67
th is
s tu d y , th e n and o n ly th e n c o u ld i t be s a i d t h a t p a r t i ­
c ip a tio n
in a t h l e t i c s
c o m p e tito rs.
From t h e
does n o t e f f e c t th e
re s u lts
o n ly be s a i d t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n
th e
sc h o la rsh ip
of th e above stu d y ,
it
can
in f o o tb a ll d id n o t e f f e c t
o f th e c o m p e tito rs
enough to be s i g n i f i c a n t .
s c h o la r s h ip o f th e
in F re s n o H ig h S c h o o l
BIBLIOGRAPHY
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B a i l y , D o n a l d W ., "A C o m p a r a t i v e
an d S c h o l a s t i c A ch iev e m e n t
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61 p p .
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o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a ,
'
B e u , P . A , , “T he M e n t a l A b i l i t y o f A t h l e t e s i n C o m p a r i s o n
w i t h N o n - A th l e t e s i n H ig h S c h o o l , " A m e ric a n S c h o o l
B o a r d J o u r n a l . 7 3 : 4 * 5 ,1 5 5 , A u g u s t 19237
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A t h l e t i c s , " A m e r i c a n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n R e v ie w , 2 5 : 1 2 5 - 2 8 ,
M arch , 1 9 2 4 .
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_________, S c h o o l A t h l e t i c s i n M o dern E d u c a t i o n .
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a n d N o n - L e t t e r B o y s i n a C i t y H i g h S c h o o l , " S c h o o l R e v i e w.
3 6 : 3 5 0 - 8 , May, 1 9 2 8 .
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F i t z m o r r i s , A r t h u r E . , “T he R e l a t i o n o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n
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o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , L os A n g e l e s , 1931*
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