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Business education in the large public high schools of California

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BUSINESS EDUCATION IN THE LARGE. PUBLIC
HIGH SCHOOLS OF CALIFORNIA
A Thesis
Presented to
the Faculty of the School of Education
University of Southern California
In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Master of Science in Education
by
Caroline Adell Schrader
June 1941
UMI Number: EP54121
All rights reserved
INFORMATION TO ALL USERS
The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted.
In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript
and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed,
a note will indicate the deletion.
Dissertation Publishing
UMI EP54121
Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author.
Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC.
All rights reserved. This work is protected against
unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code
ProQuest LLC.
789 East Eisenhower Parkway
P.O. Box 1346
Ann Arbor, Ml 48106- 1346
T h i s thesis, w r i t t e n u n d e r th e d i r e c t i o n o f th e
C h a i r m a n o f th e c a n d id a te ’ s G u i d a n c e C o m m i t t e e
a n d a p p r o v e d b y a l l m e m b e r s o f th e C o m m i t t e e ,
has been p r e s e n te d to a n d a c c e p te d b y th e F a c u l t y
o f th e S c h o o l o f E d u c a t i o n in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t
o f th e r e q u ir e m e n t s f o r th e d e g re e o f M a s t e r o f
S c ie n c e in E d u c a t i o n .
..........
D ean
Guidance Com m ittee
__
__B1 ac ks ton e
C hairm an
F. J. Weersing
0. R. Hull
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I*
PAGE
THE PROBLEM..................... . . . * * . * . / "
Statement of the problem . • • .
Importance of the study
.........
i
.
5
..........
3
Scope of the investigation * * * • • * • • • « *
5
Analysis of the problem
7
• « * * • * * * « # • •
Review of related literature and investigations"
9
Sources of data and methods of procedure * * * *
19
Organisation of the study
BO
• • • • * • • • • • .
II.BUSINESS CURRICULA IN THE LARGE PUBLIC HIGH
' ' ' SCHOOLS OF CALIFORNIA*
I.
II*
S3
Business curricula or majors offered • • • .
Specific business curricula offered
S3
....
25
Stenographic curricula • • * • * » • • • *
25
Bookkeeping curricula
. . . . . . . . . .
27
. . . . . . .
29
Merchandising curricula. . . . . . . . . .
31
General businesscurricula..............
31
Clerical curricula
III* Specific business subjects offered * * * * *
35
Specific business subjects offered * • * *
35
Length of business subjects offered
38
* * *
X\T* Provision for remedial instruction and for
certain subject information in other
courses;
41
ii
CHAPTER
PACE
II.''BUSINESS CURRICULA IN THE LARGE PUBLIC HIGH
SCHOOLS OE CALIFOENIA (Continued)
Provision for remedial in struct ion. in
handwriting and arithmetic * , , » • « •
41
Courses in which filing instruction was
included •
4£
Courses in which machine calculation
was included
4Z
Courses in which adding machines were
included . . . . . . . . . . .
........
43
Courses in which personal development
was included . . . » • • • • .........
43
Training for specialised types of jobs
and job application
Y*
. . . . . . . . . .
44
Standards of accomplishment for sldLll
offerings
. ......................... *
45
Standards of accomplishment for
. . . . .........
typewriting
45
Standards of accomplishment for shorthand
47
YX# Requirements for graduation from business
curr iculum
YII.
III*
Summary
..............................48
* . . .
.......................... 53
DEPARTlv/ENTAL ORGANIZATION AND ENROIIJMENTS.IN THE
"LARGB PUBLIC HICS SCHOOLS OP CALIFORNIA
. t . .
58
CHAPTER
III.
PAGE
'
DEPARTMEHTAL ORGANISATION AND ENROLLMENTSIN
** ’' ’ LARGE PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOLS OF CALIFORNIA
I*
.. .
Departmental orga n i s a t i o n........ . .
THE.
. 58
. 58
Titles given the departments offering
business s u b j e c t s ..............*. .
. 58
Time scheduled for supervision of
,instruction by the chairman or head of
the department . . . . . . . .........
60
Time scheduled for business contacts by the
chairman or head of the department
II*
60
* • * *
61
Enrollments In fifty~three schools • •
61
Enrollments in all business curricula
64
Enrollments of business majors . . . .
64
Enrollments in specific business subjects
66
Enrollments in business subjects
Grade enrollments of pupils in business
courses
•
70
Grade location of business subjects
III* Summary
IF.
. * *
. . . . ..........
78
80
TEACHER. PERSONNEL AND TEACHING LOAD IN THE; LARGE
PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOLS OF~CALIFORNIA
. . . . . . .
87
I*. Description of teacher personnel . . . . . .
87
Age of business teachers
Degrees held by business teachers
87
* * . . 88
iv
CHAPTER
IY.
PAGE
TEACHER PERSONNEL AMD TEACHING LOAD, IN THE LARGE
PUBLIC. HIGH SCHOOLS OF CALIFORNIA (Continued)
Types of institutions attended by
business teachers
.................... 92
Institutions in which training in
business subjects was received . . • . .
94
Majors and minors of business teachers * .
98
Business subjects in which training was
received . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10£
Training experience of business teachers * 104
Certificates held by business teachers . . 112
Teaching experience of business teachers
11£
Business teaching experience of business
teachers . . . . . .
..........
....
115
Experience as supervisor in all subject
fields of business teachers
. . . . . .
118
Experience as supervisor in business
subjects of business teachers
.....
119
Experience as school administrator of
business t e a c h e r s .........
1ZZ
Total educational experience of business
teachers
1£4
Total experience in business education of
business teachers
.IS 6
CHAPTER
PAGE
It, ' TOCTOR PERSONNEL AND TEACHING LOAD IN THE LARGE
PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOLS OF CALIFORNIA (Continued) '
Business experience of business teachers
II♦ Grade levels and subject assignments
III*
128
. . . 133
Subject assignments of business teachers
134
leaching preferences of business teachers
136
leaching load
« • • • . , . • * * • • , • •
Method of reporting teaching load
136
. • . . 138
leaching load indices of business teachers 140
Distribution of enrollments in business
classes as compared with other classes
taught by business t e a c h e r s ........... 144
Number of daily preparations of business
teachers , ..........
. . . . . . . . .
147
Other types of classes taught by business
teachers
. . 147
Two subjects taught in one class period
• 150
Number of business teachers having
extracurricular activities •
158
Types of extracurricular activities of
business, teachers
•
154
. lime spent on extracurricular activities
by business teachers * .............. . 159
IV.
Summary
.
.....................
161
vi
CHAPTER
PAGE
Y. ' EQUIPMENT FOR TEACHING BUSINESS SUBJECTS IN THE
LARGE. PUBLIC 'HIGH SCHOOLS OF'CALIFORNIA
. . .'. 171
Equipment for instruction in typing
. ♦ . 171
i*
IX.
lii.
Equipment for instruction in duplicating • . 173
Equipment for instruction in machine
calculation
IY.
...
» * . ♦ .....
...........
Yli*
YI.
177
Other machines for instruction in business
classes
YI.
175
Equipment for instruction in bookkeeping
and accounting
V*.
.
. . . . . . . .
............
Equipment for instruction in filing
Summary
. . 179
....
181
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
181
PIAGEMENT AMD RELATED ACTIVITIES IN THE LARGE
'PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOLS OF CALIFORNIA
I.
11.
Organization of placement s e r v i c e ......... 187
High school pupils who entered business
occupations
III.
Y*
YI.
YIX*
•
190
High school pupils placed in business
occupations
IY.
187
♦ . .........
. . . . . . . . 19R
High school pupils secured jobs in or near
local community
194
Follow-up service
................. . . . 1 9 6
Cooperative class organization . . . . . . .
196
Summary
197
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
vii
CHAPTER
PAGE
VII* ' FINDINGS, GGMGLIJSIONS, AND EECQMMEHD ATXGNS . . . . 201
I#
Findings, conclusions, and recommendations
in regard to business curricula
.....
201
Business curricula offered............ 201
Specific business curricula offered
IX*
. • . 202
Specific business subjectsoffered. . . .
203
Provision for remedial instruction . . . .
203
Findings, conclusions, and recommendations
in regard to departmental organization
and enrollments
. * ................. .. 204
Time scheduled for supervision by head or
chairman of the department.........
Enrollments in specific business subjects
XXI*
. 204
204
Findings, conclusions, and recommendations
in regard to teacher personnel and
teaching load
* . . . • • • . • • • . . .
205
Business subjects in which training was
received * * . . . . • • . • • . . . • •
205
Certificates held by business teachers . * 206
Teaching preferences of the business
teachers
.........
206
Teaching load of business teachers * » • .20 6
Distribution of enrollments in business
classes as compared with other classes
taught by business teachers
......... .207
viii
CHAPTER
PAGE
YII. ’ FIMMNGS, C'GHGLUSIOES , AM) REGOMMENDATXOHS
(Continued)
IY.
Findings, conclusions, and recommend at ions
in regard to equipment for teaching
business subjects
. . . . . . . . . . . .
Equipment for typing instruction * ••
EOS
.. £08
Equipment for instruction in duplicating
EOS
Equipment for instruction in mac bine
calculation
. . . . . .
. . . . . . . .
£09
Equipment for instruction in bookkeeping
and accounting . . . . . . . . . . . . .
£09
Other machines for instruction in
business classes. • • • • • . . .
Y.
..
.. £10
Equipment for instruction in filing .
.• £10
Findings, conclusions, and recommendations
in regard to placement and related
activities
. . ............. Ell
Organization of placement service
Follow-up service
....
Ell
• • • . • • , . . • . •
Ell
Gooperative class organization . . .
. . . E1E
BIBLIOGRAPHY.............
APPEEDIX '.
...................
Eli
. ., ...............
ZZZ
XX
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE
PAGE,
X*
Business Curricula (Majors Offered! in FiftyTiree Large Public High Schools of California
December 15, 1936
XI*
XXXi
IY*
Y*
YX*
YXX*
............... . . . ,
£4
Subjects Comprising Stenographic Curricula . • .E 6
Subjects Comprising Bookkeeping Curricula
. .
£8
Subjects Comprising Clerical Curricula . . . .
30
Subjects Comprising Merchandising Curricula
•
3E
Subjects Comprising General Business Curricula
34
Specific Business Subjects Offered in FiftyThree Large Public High Schools of California 36
YXXX.
Length of Business Subjects Offered in Semester
Periods
IX*
**♦
. . . . . . . . . .
Standards of Accampllshment for Typewriting
X.
Standards of Accomplishment for Shorthand
XX*
Requirements for Graduation from Business
.
39
•
46
*
49
Curriculum
51
XXX 4 Titles of Departments Offering Business
Subjects . . . . . . . . . .
XXIX*
...
Enrollments In Fifty-Three Large Public High
Schools of California December 15, 1936
XIY*
59
. .
6£
Humber of Pupils Enrolled in One or More
Business Courses . . .
. . . . . .
65
X
PAGE
TABLE
Humber of Pupils Above tbe Tenth Grade 'Who
Are Talcing Business Courses as Preparation
for Business Employment December 15, 1936
•
6?
* *
68
x
v
x
i
* Grade Enrollment of Pupils in Business Classes
74
x
?
i
* Enrollments in Specific Business Subjects
x
v
n
i
* Grade Location of Business Subjects as Indi­
cated by Enrollments in Fifty-Three High
Schools
. . . . . . .
....................
79
Ages of 312 Business Teachers in Large Public
High Schools; of California . • . . . . . . .
XX.
89
Degrees Held by 311 Business Teachers in FiftyThree Large. High Schools of California . . . 90
XKX.
Types of Educational Institutions Attended by
365 Business Teachers
XXXI*
•
93
Institutions in which Training in Business
Subjects was Received by 361 Business
Teachers ♦ . . . * . * * • *
XXIII*
•
*
95
* * • . .................. 99
Business Subjects in Ihich Training fas
Reported by 377 Business Teachers
XXF.
«
Major and Minor Subjects Reported by 251
Business Teachers
XXIY*
•.
. . . . .
Months of Business Subject Instruction Received
In High Schools, Evening Schools, or Business
and Private Schools by 365 California High
103
XX
TABLE
PAGE
School Teachers
XXVI.
. . . . . . .
....*.•105
Certificates Held "by 320 Business Teachers in
California High Schools
. . . . . . . . . .
113
1 X ¥ H * Experience as Classroom Teacher in All Subject
Fields Reported by 360 Business Teachers in
California High Schools
XXVIII.
. . . . . . . . . .
116
Experience as Classroom Teachers of Business
Subjects Reported by 364 Business Teachers
in California High Schools •
XXIX*
117
Experience as Class room Supervisor in Any and
All Subject Fields Reported by 83 Teachers
in California
XXX*
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
120
Experience as Classroom Supervisor of Business
Teachers Reported by 80 Teachers in Cali­
fornia High Schools
XXXI*
......... * ♦ 121
Experience as School Administrator of 65
Business Teachers In California High Schools 123
XXXII*
Total Educational Experience of 324 Business
Teachers in California High Schools
XXXIII*
* . * * 125
Total Experience in Business Education of 344
Business Teachers in California High Schools 127
XXXI.1T* Business Jobs Formerly Held by California
High School Business Teachers
XX30T.
*•••••-«
Grade Levels in Which 374 Teachers in
129
xii
SABLE
Galifornia High Softools Teach Business
Subjects . . . . ........................... T35
XXXYI.
Subjects Which 358 Galifornia High School
Business Teachers Prefer to Teach
XX27II*
. . . . .. 137
Teaching Load Indices for 340 Business
Teachers in the Galifornia High Schools
XXX7III.
• * 141
Distribution of Enrollments in Business Edu­
cation Glasses as Compared with Enrollments
in Academic Subjects, Hon-Academic Subjects,
and Study Halls or Home Rooms Taught by
Business Teachers in Galifornia High Schools 145
HXH.
Humber of Daily Preparations Reported by 390
Business Teachers in Galifornia High Schools 148
XL.
Other Types of Glasses Taught and Frequency of
Mention by 61 Business Teachers in Galifornia
High Schools ........
XLI+
. . . . . . . . . . .
149
Humber of Galifornia High. School Business
Teachers Handling More than One Subject
During Class Period
. . • • • • • • • • • •
151
XLIX. Extracurricular, or Out-of-School, Activities
Handled in Connection with Regular Teaching
Schedules, Reported by 394 California High
School Business Teachers . . . . . . . .. . . 153
XLIII.
Types of Extracurricular Activities Listed by
xiii
PAGE
TABLE
ESI California High School Business Teachers 155
XLIY.
Time Spent on Extracurricular Activities by
193 California High School Easiness Teachers 160
■2EV,
Typewriters in Use for Instruction Purposes in
Business Classes of Fifty California High
Schools
XL¥I.
• ••«««
• • • • • • • • • • • «
172
Duplicating Machines in Use for Ins tract ion
Purposes in Business Classes of Forty-Three
California High Schools
XLYII.
. . • ♦ ......... . 174
Calculating and Adding Machines in Use for
Instruction Purposes in Business Classes of
Forty-Five California High Schools ♦ . .. .176
XLVIII*
Bookkeeping, Posting, and Statement Machines
in Use for instruction Purposes in Business
Classes of Eighteen California-High Schools
XLXX*
178
Miscellaneous Equipment In Use for Instruction
Purposes in Business Classes of Thirty
California High Schools
L*
* * * . ...........180
Equipment in Use for Instruction Purposes in
Filing Classes in Twenty-Seven California
High Schools •
XI*
IQS
Types of Placement Organization Reported by
California High S c h o o l s ......... ..
189
xiv
page:
TABLE
LXX*
Number of Pupils Graduating from Higft Softool
in Galifornia During 1935-36 Iho Entered
Some Business Occupation f
.
191
mi. California Higft Softool Pupils Placed in
Business Occupations Between July, 1935 and
December, 1936, By District or Softool
Placement Service
LIT*
193
Number of Pupils Wfto Secured Jobs in Business
Occupations in or near tfte Local .Community
Between July 1, 1935 and December, 1936
195
GH&PTER I
TE£E PROBLEM
The task of business educators has been to build and
offer business courses that will help pupils to understand
the place of business in social-economic life, and what
responsibility is placed on them in solving the problems
of business*
Educators must justify each business edu­
cation course in the high school by making it contribute to
the need and to the understanding of social-economic life*
Business demands that everyone have a command of
certain fundamental economic principles.
Everyone must
learn these as a basis for general well-balanced economic
living.
The value of knowing these fundamental economic
principles can be realised when it is considered that life
is established on an economic basis, and that one now lives
in a business age; that every daily activity performed
involves business.
Thus in general, business education is
education for the numerous daily business activities in
which every individual is involved.
Business educators are reorganising the business edu­
cation program in terms of actual contacts and activities
of the pupil in his own environment.
New ways of pre­
senting fundamental economic principles in life situations
2
are being pursued by educators#
It is believed tbat funda­
mental economic principles form the educational background
for any life activity, regardless of station in life*
Edu­
cators can combine their common experiences and choose
guides to practices that will aid in pointing the way to
progress#
As conditions change in social-economic life,
new guides in regard to practices in business education are
introduced*
Educators have come to realise that these
practices require constant readjustment to harmonise with
the changed social life of which every individual is a part*
Progressive educators believe that present educational
practices do not equip the pupil for an intelligent life in
a democracy*
Ihey believe that the pupil should be guided
through living experiences that will aid him in the solution
of his own individual problems of social and vocational
nature*
By centering experiences around the pupil*s environ­
ment, he will better understand the social and economic
problems that face him today*
Due to social changes, new guides or practices are
being developed in business education*
It Is of interest to
educators to learn of guides along with patterns or programs
of business education in every high school in California, so
that they can advise this program as a basis for advising
principals on how to better their own programs*
3
GF THE PROBLEM
The problem was to investigate the general status of
business education in the large public high schools of
California* as a part of a statewide survey of the public
secondary schools, made by the Bureau of Business Education,
California State Bepartment of Education*
The data secured
through this investigation will serve as a basis for evalu­
ating conditions existing in business education in the State
of California at present, and will also serve as a basis for
recommendations for general improvement as may seem to be
warranted*
From the tabulations of the survey, it was the
purpose to set up guides pointing the way for revising and
maintaining business education for the administration by the
Bureau of Business Education throughout California, in the
secondary schools*
IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of this study of business education is
emphasised by the increased attention given by educators to
business courses in public secondary schools*
At the
present time, the pupils enrolled in the business education
curricula constitute one of the largest enrollment groups
in secondary schools*
In city schools, approximately fifty
percent of the pupils are probably enrolled in one or more
business subjects*
Since tbe traditional college entrance requirements
are becoming less rigid, tbe bigh school curricula, and in
turn, business courses are being evaluated on the basis of
pupil needs*
In fitting the pupil to meet his needs in life,
business education occupies a fundamental place regardless
of vocation, because of the present social-*economic structure*
Business education cannot be an active force in the lives of
the pupils without well-trained teachers in well-planned
curricula*
The findings of this study should be of value to
business teachers, to administrators responsible for the
training of teachers, to educators who plan business cur­
ricula, and to business men who will employ pupils trained
in commercial departments of public secondary schools*
This
investigation should also be of vital interest to school
boards and trustees who make budgets to cover expenses; and
to taxpayers who support the schools*
A record of enrollment
and business courses taught will indicate curriculum content
and the demand made on the teachers for each subject.
Training institutions may use this information as a guide in
training prospective teachers*
Information concerning age, teaching experience,
business experience, and training will give a picture of
teacher personnel at the present time*
An interpretation
5
of tiie findings and points of information will serve as a
basis of comparison for tbe future*
In analysis of courses taught will aid in the con­
struction of well-planned curricula, whereas an analysis of
teaching personnel, and curricula will aid training in­
stitutions in providing well-trained teachers for business
education in public secondary schools*
scops op t h e
This study was a part of a statewide survey made by
the California State Department of Education of business
education in California secondary schools.
The Bureau of
Business Education, California State Department of Edu­
cation, sent out an inquiry blank to investigate the status
of business education in general, and the status of teacher
load, and personnel.
Four divisions of this survey were made on the basis of
grade level, which includes:
public junior high schools,
public senior high schools, public junior colleges, and
public continuation schools.
In each of these divisionsf
inquiry was made concerning the status of business curricula,
departmental organization and enrollment, teacher personnel
and teaching load, equipment for teaching business subjects,
and placement.
After the inquiry blanks had been returned by the re-
spondents, they were placed in the hands of the members of
the thesis group at the University of Southern Galifornia
far tabulation*
The data for the high schools were suf­
ficient to make three studies, which were divided on the
basis of enrollment, as follows:
small high schools, high
schools of medium size, and large high schools*
The small
high school study included all high schools with an en­
rollment under four hundred*
High schools with an enrollment
from four hundred to one thousand comprised the study of
high schools of medium size*
The large high schools include
those with an enrollment of one thousand and over •
The inquiry blanks supplied enough data for six studies
under the following titles:
1.
Business Education in the Public Junior High
Schools of Galifornia. by Dorothy 8* Gooke;
S*
Business Education in the Small Public High
Schools of Galifornia* by iian B. Lucas;
3*
Business Education in the Public High Schools of
Medium Size of Galifornia* by Florence Blevins
Faull;
Business Education in the Large Public High
Schools of Galifornia* by Caroline A* Schrader;
Business Education in the Public Junior Colleges
of Galifornia» by Thelma Engstrom Koldrige;
6*
Business Education in the Public Continuation
Schools of California,, by John H* Dixon*
The present investigation was devoted to tbe fourth
of the group of studies taken from the data of the state­
wide survey, which is entitled Business Education in the
Large Public High Schools of California*
It confines it­
self to business curricula, departmental organisation and
enrollment, teacher personnel and teaching load, equipment
for teaching business subjects, and placement in the large
public high schools of California*
ANALYSIS OF TEE PROBLEM
The problem of determining the general status of
business education in the large public high schools of
California, may be analysed by a series of questions, as
follows:
1*
Ihat are the business curricula with reference to:
a*
Business curricula or majors offered
b*
Specific business subjects offered, and
provision for:
Cl)
Remedial instruction in handwriting, and
arithmetic
(2)
Filing, machine calculation, and
personal development
(3)
Instruction in how to find and apply for
8
a job
e.
Standards required for passing students talcing
typewriting for personal and vocational uses
d#
Standards required for passing pupils talcing
shorthand
e#
Requirements for graduation from “business cur­
riculum#
2*
lhat are the departmental organisations and en­
rollments as indicated by:
a#
Titles of departments
b# Time scheduled for supervision of instruction
e.
Enrollments in business subjects
d.
Grade enrollments of pupils in business
subjects
e.
3#
Grade location of business subjects.
What is the picture of teacher personnel and
teaching load in regard to:
a#
Age
b#
Education and training
c,
Humber of years of experience in teaching
and administration
d#
Teaching preference
e.
Regress or certificates held
f#
Type and amount of business experience of
teachers
4#
g.
Grade levels and subject assignments
h.
Humber of daily preparations
i.
Extracurricular activities of teachers#
What is the equipment used for teaching business
subjects expressed in number and make:
5.
a*
Typewriters
b#
Duplicating machines
e.
Calculating and adding machines
d#
Bookkeeping, posting, and statement machines
e#
Other machines
f#
Equipment for the teaching of filing.
What is the placement in terms of:
a#
Organization of placement service
b.
Humber of students entering business
occupations
c.
Follow-up service#
When the above questions have been investigated and
developed, the findings should provide a clear picture of
the general status of business education for the teachers,
administrators, school board, and taxpayers#
REVIEW OF RELATED LXTKRATURF AND IHVESUGATIOHS
During the past decade a number of statewide investi­
gations of the status of business education were made in
various states.
Investigations for Arizona, California,
Idaho, Kansas, Minnesota, Montana, and Washington were
studied for a survey of the status of business education in
the large public high schools of California*
In reviewing
these investigations, only the high points relative to cur­
ricula, departmental organisation and enrollments, teacher
personnel and teaching load, equipment, and placement are
given insofar as they were related to the present study*
Rockwell1s survey of business education in Ari­
zona-*-.
This evaluation showed that forty-six percent of
all the high school pupils were enrolled in business courses*
A study of the curriculum revealed that over sixty percent
of the schools offered courses in typewriting, bookkeeping,
shorthand, junior business training, business arithmetic,
and economics*
It was significant to note that typewriting
courses had a larger enrollment than any other business
course*
An analysis of the teaching load indicated a wide
variation*
Bata relative to teacher personnel showed that
the men outnumbered the women as business teachers; fiftyfive percent being men and forty-five percent, women*
Idxile
the average age of the men was thirty years, the average age
of women was thirty^-three • With reference to educational
^Xrene Schut Rockwell, rtThe Present Status of Business
Education in the Public Secondary ..Schools of Arizona,”
(unpublished Master's thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, 1933)* 115 pp*
11
background, over eighty percent.of the business teachers held
the bachelor's degree and fifteen percent held the Master's
degree.
More than three-fourths of the business teachers
reported some experience in a business office.
This study
paralleled the present survey in nearly all phases.
£•
Lane's study of business teachers of California^.
This investigation revealed that little more than fifty per­
cent of the business teachers were teaching business subjects
primarily.
Among the wide variety of courses taught by
business teachers, social science, English, and mathematics
were the three subjects that appeared most frequently in the
widely varied teaching loads.
An analysis of teacher person­
nel showed that seventy-two percent of the teachers were
women, and twenty-eight percent were men*
The age of the
teachers ranged from twenty-one to seventy years, with a
median age of thirty-seven.
Bata relative to the educational background of the
teachers indicated that approximately ninety-nine percent
had taken courses in the field of business education, and
more than one-half of them had from twenty to forty semester
hours credit in this field.
Then too, more than fifty
percent of the business teachers had at least one year of
% b h n R. Lane, "The Present Status of Business Teachers
in the-High Schools of California," (unpublished Master's
thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles,California, 1933). 81 pp.
-
IE
of graduate work in some institution of higher learning#.
Apropos to experience, it was found that the median
years was twelve, with fifty percent showing more than ten
years of experience#
This study was important, because it
coincided with three chapters of the present investigation#
Probst*s study of business education in Los Ange3
les#
-
This study showed that the tendency was to place
social-business subjects early in the curriculum#
The
importance of business education was emphasised by the fact
that the enrollment in business courses in the public high
schools exceeded the enrollment in other departments; and
it was predicted that public business education will not
only enroll the majority of the pupils, but will also set
the aims that will dominate the entire field of secondary
education#
This study was significant, because a number of
the Los Angeles schools were also investigated in the present
study#
Watkin*s survey of fifty-six California High
Schools# 4
This study dealt with the business curricular
3Ruth Ann Probst, “Development of Business Education in
the public schools of Los Angeles,” (unpublished Master* s
thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, ~
California. 19&4).« 113 Tm*
^Ina-fiee Watkins, “Svaluating Business Education Cur­
ricula in terms of a Survey and the Curricular Practices of
Fifty-Six California High Schools,” (unpublished Master* s
thesis, University of. Southern California, Los Angelas, California, 1934)# 18£ pp*
.
13
practices of all senior and four year high schools with an
enrollment of over one thousand pupils#
it was emphasized
by the large number of schools offering shorthand,
bookkeeping, and typewriting, that these subjects formed
the basic curricula#
The combined enrollments of these
three subjects more than doubled the combined enrollments
for the five leading social-business subjects, namely,
business English, junior business, economic geography,
salesmanship, and business law#
The grade placement of business subjects has not
received much attention#
There was a lack of uniformity of
length of the large variety of business courses offered in
the large California high schools*
it was concluded that
the adoption of uniform, practices in all schools were
necessary for improving the functioning of business edu­
cation in the state#
5#. Ihite* s study of business education in the small
high schools of California#5
This study was concerned with
securing data regarding the problems of presenting business
education in the small public high schools of California#
Business education occupied an important place in the
curricular organization of the rural high schools, as
^Charlotte Cecilia Ihite, nA Survey of Business Edu­
cation in the Small Public High~Schools of California,tl
^(unpublished Master* s the sis, University of. Southern
California, Los Angeles, California, 1934)# 18$ pp*
14
revealed by twenty-nine different, business subjects offered*
However, the business curriculum was not well-organized
in respect to a definite plan of training year by year*
The
importance of business education was again emphasised by the
fact that the total business education course enrollment
represented seventy-*two percent of the total rural school
enrollment*
There were approximately twice as many girls as
boys enrolled in business courses*
Apropos to educational status of the business teacher,
eighty-one percent held general secondary credentials, while
only twenty-eight percent held commercial special secondary
credentials*
Bata relative to experience showed that fifty
percent of the business teachers had less than two years of
actual business experience*
In spite of the importance of business education as
shown by the large enrollment, the equipment was very
meager.
This investigation of the small schools paralleled
the present study of the large schools*
6*
Barringer9b investjgation of the business teachers
g
Idaho*
This study revealed that nearly sixty percent
of the business teachers increased their professional
training by attending summer school: and engaging in
cArthur G * Barringer, "The Status of Teaching Business
Subjects in the Public High Schools of Idaho,* {unpublished
Master *s thesis, University of Southern-California, Los
Angeles, California, 1935)* 101 pp*
-
15
extension work.
The data showed that more than fifty-five
percent of the business teachers had one and one-half years
of business experience.
The teaching experience ranged from
no experience to twenty-seven years#
In Idaho, typewriting
also led the wide variety of courses taught in the business
field.
With reference to teaching load, the average business
teacher taught six classes per day, made four preparations,
and had one hundred pupils enrolled in his classes.
Besides
the heavy teaching load, the men spent one and one-half hours
per day with extracurricular work, while the women reported
an average of less than one hour.
It was recommended that
care should be taken in assigning extracurricular work to
business teachers, because of their heavy teaching load and
peeular subject combinations.
7*
OtBrients study of business courses in Kansas.7
Uhls study showed that slightly less than one-half of the
pupils enrolled in business courses were boys.
The teaching
load of business teachers varied from less than thirty-one
to more than one hundred fifty pupil-hours of instruction
per day, and the number of classes taught per day varied
from one to eight.
^Francis P. O fBrien, rtThe Status of business courses in
the high school,* Bulletin -of Education. of Kansas, Bureau of
School Service and- Research, 19 £8. B5pp.
16
Apropos to the educational status of the business
teachers, thirty percent had no college degrees, thirteen
had a master’s degree and seventy-five had some graduate
credit.
A study of the teacher personnel revealed that the
average experience of the teachers In the teaching of
business subjects was five years in the larger schools and
two years in the smaller schools,
The data also indicated that forty percent of the
teachers who were offering business courses had not special­
ised in college in the type of work which they were teaching.
Yet, the teachers who had apparently received no training
for the type of work which they were teaching were usually
teaching two or more business classes.
This study was
significant for comparison*
8.
Weersing’s inve stiga tion of commercial teachers in
Minnesota.8
This investigation showed that about seventy-
three percent of the teachers were women, and twenty-seven
percent were men.
An analysis of their training indicated
that 1he actual experience of the typical business teacher
was a combination of business college and university or
normal school and university training, and yet, only about
^Frederick J. Weersing, *A Study of Certain Aspects of
Commercial Education in the Public High Schools of Minne­
sota ,n (Doctor’s dissertation, University of Minnesota.
Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1927) . 527 pp.
17
fifty-six percent of the business teachers held Bachelor* s
degrees#
The median years of training beyond high school
was little over four years for both sexes#
The business
teachers showed a decided preference for social science as
opposed to natural science and language.
The data revealed that the women teachers had far less
contact with the business world than the men, because many
of the latter held part time Jobs in bookkeeping and
accounting, and also a considerable proportion held regular
business positions, whereas, the positions held by women
were largely stenographic and secretarial#
Xt was concluded
that a good beginning has been made in the profess ionisation
of commercial teachers#
9#
Bradshaw* s study of business education in Montana.^
This study indicated that the most frequently-offered
business subjects were the skill subjects, typewriting,
bookkeeping, and shorthand with economics, business law,
business arithmetic, and junior business training next in
order of importance#
Xt was also pointed out that junior
business training was added more frequently than any other
business subject and was followed by the skill subjects*
^Leora Frances Bradshaw, "The Status of Business Edu­
cation, in Montana," (unpublished Master*s thesis, IXniversity
of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, 1936) •
143 pp#
-
18
Beginning typewriting, shorthand, and bookkeeping were more
frequently offered during the eleventh year with their
sequences offered during the twelfth year, as there was no
definite standard for prerequisites to business subjects
other than the sequential subjects*
Bata relative to teacher personnel revealed that
business teachers formed an important element in the person-*
nel of the secondary schools as they represented about onethird of the entire teaching force*
A conclusion was reached
that the business teachers carried a heavier load, both in
outside preparation and number of classes taught than other
teachers on the secondary level#
10 ♦ McCarthyys study of business education in Washing?in
ton*
This study showed that during 1930, more than threefifths of the pupils were enrolled in some business subjects,
and in the entire enrollment by various subjects, business
subjects ranked third, with thirty-two percent of the en­
rollment in typewriting, commercial arithmetic, bookkeeping,
and shorthand in order of rank#
All of these subjects to­
gether constituted approximately two-thirds of the business
enrollment•
Bata relative to business experience, indicated that
i°Marie McCarthy, "Commercial Education in the State of
Washington," The journal of Business Education, 7: 19,S8,
April, 1932*
19
seventy percent of the business teachers had practical
business experience, ranging from six months to five years,
with approximately one-half of the teachers having had more
than two years.
This brief review of ten related investigations in
seven states showed the extent of investigation in business
education that has been carried on in the last decade.
These investigations were concerned with the business
curricula, departmental organisation and enrollments,
teacher personnel and teaching load, equipment, and
placement *
SOURCES OF DATA AND METHODS OF PROCEDURE
Ten related investigations of business education were
studied to serve as a background for this investigation.
The review of surveys of business education made it possi­
ble to obtain a view of the field of business education to
be considered in this study.
Xra W. Kibby, Chief, Bureau of Business Education,
California State Department of Education, proposed that a
careful study be made of all the programs of business edu­
cation in the secondary schools of California to give a
eonqplete picture of business education of California.
As
a result of this proposal, double post cards (see Appendix)
were sent out to tfehe principals of all the secondary schools
EO
of California, asking if they were willing to cooperate with
the State Department of Education on a statewide survey of
business education#
To those who expressed willingness to
cooperate by returning attached post card, an inquiry blank,
(see Appendix) with a letter of instruction was sent*
Of the 360 inquiry blanks sent, E41 or 66*94 percent
were returned, which was 59*50 percent of the total 405 high
schools of California*
Apropos of the E41 blanks returned,
153 were complete, and 88 were incomplete*
by letter and 99 failed to return blanks*
twenty replied
This information
was not available for the large high schools alone, because
the figures were taken before the division of the study was
made *
After the division of the study was made, there were
fifty-three inquiry blanks acceptable for use in the present
study*
The data from the inquiry blanks were tabulated into
master sheets from which tables were set up for interpret
tation in the solution of the problem of this investigation*
ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
The study has been developed according to the five main
questions considered in the section on the analysis of the
problem.
Chapter XI deals with the business curricula* and
includes business curricula offered, specific business
subjects offered, standards for typewriting and shorthand*
21
and requirements for graduation*
Departmental organization and enrollments toe presented
in Chapter III*
It is comprised of titles of departments,
enrollments in business subjects, grade enrollments of pupils
in business subjects, and grad© location of business
subjects*
The age, training, teaching and business experience,
certificates and degrees, grade level and subject as­
signments, teaching preference, and extracurricular
activities are given in Chapter IV*
In Chapter ¥ the equipment for teaching business
subjects is surveyed#
Data on organization of placement service, placement
officers, number of pupils entering business occupations,
and follow-up service are tabulated in Chapter VI#
The findings, conclusions, and recommendations are
given in Chapter V O *
The bibliography follows Chapter V O *
A copy of the
double post card, letter of instruction, and inquiry blank
sent to the large high schools for data to be used in the
survey, are placed In the Appendix following the bibliography*
Through this organization of chapters the data secured
from the survey were tabulated and Interpreted In the
solution of the problem of determining the status of
business education in the large public high schools of
California#
CHAPTER XX
BUSINESS CURRICULA
IK THE LARGE HJBLXC HIGH SCHOOLS OF CALIFORNIA
In the survey of the general status of business edu­
cation in the California high schools made by the State
Department of Education, one of the main purposes was to
compare the business curricula or majors offered*
This is
the problem to which this chapter is devoted, and includes
business curricula offered, specific business subjects
offered, standards for typewriting and shorthand, and
requirements for graduation*
X*
BUSINESS CURRICULA OR MAJORS OFFERED
The replies relating to business curricula offered
were compiled under specific curricula in Table X.
The
stenographic and bookkeeping curricula were offered by
forty-two* or 79.2 percent of the fifty-three large public
high schools of California*
The clerical major was listed
by nineteen, or 35*8 percent, while the merchandising major
was reported by sixteen, or 30*1 percent, and nine, or 16*9
percent, of the schools offered a general business curricula*
From these five business curricula offered, the
subjects comprising each curricula were tabulated for com­
parison of uniformity or variability of content in fifty-three
24
TABLE X
BUSINESS CUimiGULA (MAJORS GFFEREB) IN J O T T - T B S m
- LARGE PUBLIC HIGH -SCHOOLS OP .CALIFORNIA .. - - DECEMBER- 15, 1956 ....
m
............. . . - .........j
r.'aa.s::1
Curricula
Stenographic
Bookkeeping
Clerical
Merchandl sing
General Business
*4
HigH Schools
offering curricula
42
42
19
16
9
large high school a#
II.
SPECIFIC BUSINESS CUHBICULA OFFERED
Stenographic curricula*
Specific subjects of all
schools offering the stenographic curricula were tabulated
in Table II, with the semester periods required for each
subject given*
Shorthand was required by forty-two, or
100 percent, of the schools offering the stenographic
curricula*
The semester periods ranged from two to six,
with thirty-six, or 85*7 percent, of the schools, requir­
ing four semester hours of shorthand*
Typing ranked
second, with thirty-nine, or 9S*8 percent, of the schools,
and the range in semester periods was also from two to six
with twenty-nine, or 69*0 percent requiring four semester
periods*
In analyzing the uniformity of the semester periods
of all the specific courses, shorthand and typing showed
the greatest range of four semesters, while the other
courses ranged from one to two semesters, except business
law, business correspondence, salesmanship, business
principles, economic geography, and office experience,
which were each offered one semester.
The fifteen
specific courses revealed a fair degree of uniformity with
seven, or 46.6 percent, agreement in the requirements
for the stenographic curricula*
With eight, or 55.3
TABLE. IX
SUBJECTS COMPRISING- STENOGRAPHIC CURRICULA
Subject
1
Shorthand
Typing
Office Practice
Bookkeeping
Business Law
Business Correspondence
Junior Business Training
Business English
Salesmanship
Arithmetic
Secretarial Training
Business Principles
Economic geography
Office Experience
Transcription
a
10
7
1
3
5
1
1
1
1
1
Z
4
Z
19
9
Number of schools>
requiring
Semester periods Total
3
4
5
6
1
36
1
4B
7
B9
1
39
E
5
1
a
S
z
z
1
10
10
7
7
5
5
3
3
1
1
1
1
percent , of the courses varying in the semester requirements,
the stenographic curricula showed a greater variability than
uniformity in semester requirements#
Bookkeeping curricula#
Subjects comprising the
bookkeeping curricula were tabulated in Table III#
Bookkeeping was required by forty-two, or 100 percent, of
the schools offering the bookkeeping curricula#
The range
in semester periods was from two to six, with thirty-three,
or 78#5 percent, of the schools, requiring four semester
periods of bookkeeping#
Typing was second in ranking, with
twenty-six, or 61*9 percent, of the schools, and the range
in semester periods was also from two to six, with twentythree, or 54.7 percent, of the schools requiring two
semesters of typing#
in examination of the uniformity of the semester
periods of all the specific subjects, showed bookkeeping
and typing with the greatest range of four semesters, while
business practice, junior business training, office
practice, office machines, business principles, salesmanship,
accounting, business English, and economic geography ranged
from one to two semesters#
The schools agreed on the
semester requirements for business law, business corre­
spondence, business mathematics, electives, banking,
comptome try, and merchandise#
Hence, the bookkeeping curricula showed a low degree
28
table
rrr
SUBJECTS COMPRISING BOOKKEEPING GUREIGULA
Subject
1
Bookkeeping
Typing
Business Law
Business Practice
Business Correspondence
Junior Business Training
Business Mathematics
Office Practice
Office Machines
Business Principles
Electives
Sale smanship
Accounting
Business English
Economic geography
Banking
Gomptometry
Merchandise
Number of schools
requiring
Semester periods
' •'*Total
2
3
4
5
6
,4
23
14
2
8
1
2
3
3
3
1
1
1
1
1
7
7
7
4
2
1
4
1
2
2
2
1
2
33
2
2
1
1
42
26
14
9
8
8
7
6
5
4
4
4
3
3
3
1
1
1
29
of uniformity, with seven, or 38.8 percent, agreement on the
semester requirements#
With eleven, or 61*1 percent, of the
courses varying in the semester requirements, the bookkeeping
curricula revealed a greater variability than uniformity, in
subject and semester requirements•
Clerical curricula*
A tabulation of the specific
subjects of all schools offering the clerical curricula was
presented in Table XV#
Typing was required by fifteen,
or 100 percent, of the schools offering the clerical cur­
ricula#
The semester periods ranged from two to four, with
eleven, or 75*3 percent, of. the schools, requiring two
semesteriperiods of typing*
Bookkeeping ranked second,
with thirteen, or 86*6 percent, of the schools, and the
range in semester periods was two, with twelve, or 80.0
percent, of the schools requiring two semesters of
v bookkeeping*
Apropos to uniformity of the semester periods of all
the subjects, typing showed the greatest range of three,
while the other subjects ranged two semesters, with two
exceptions, business law and advertising were required one
semester, and elective and junior business training were
required for two semesters*
The fifteen specific subjects
showed a low degree of uniformity, with four, or 26*6
percent, agreement on the semester and subject requirements
for the clercial curricula*
On the whole, the requirements
30
TABLE IV
SUB JESTS COMPRISING CLERICAL CURRICULA
Subject
1
Typing
Bookkeeping
Business Law
Office Practice
Business Correspondence
Elective
Business English
Economic Geography
Office Machines
Sale smanship
Business Mathematics
Business Practice
Business Principles
Junior Business Training
Advertising
1
5
1
3
B
S
1
a
i
i
i
i
Number of schools
reauiririR
Semester periods
E
3
4
5
11
IE
4
1
4
1
1
a
i
i
i
i
a
1
3
fetal
6~
15
13
5
5
4
4
3
3
3
3
a
a
a
a
i
31
for the clerical curricula varied greatly , with eleven,
or 73*5 percent, variability#
Merchandising curricula#
In Table IT, the specific
subjects of all schools offering the merchandising cur­
ricula were tabulated#
Salesmanship was required by
thirteen, or 100 percent, of the schools offering the
merchandising curricula#
The semester periods ranged from
one to two, with seven, or 53#8 percent, of the schools,
requiring two semesters, and six, or 46*1 percent, re­
quiring one semester of salesmanship#
Merchandise ,ranked
second, with eight, or 61 #5 percent, of the schools, and
the range in semester periods was also from one to two,
with four, or 50*0 percent, of the schools each requiring
one and two semesters of merchandising#
In the matter of the uniformity of the semester periods
of all the subjects, salesmanship, merchandise, advertising,
retail selling, and business mathematics ranged from one to
two semesters, while the schools agreed on the semester
requirements for bookkeeping, typing, business law, business
correspondence, business English, store practice, electives,
and office practice*
The thirteen specific subjects of the
merchandising curricula revealed a high degree of uniformity,
with eight, or 61*5 percent,, agreement on the semester re­
quirements for the merchandising curricula*
General business curricula*
The subject offerings;.
TABLE
IT
SUBJECTS GOMPRXSXNG MEBCHAHD1SING CUBBXCULA
Subject
1
Salesmanship
Merchandise
Advertising
Bookkeeping
Typing
Business Law
Betail Selling
Business Correspondence
Business English
Business Mathematics
Store Practice
Electives
Office Practice
6
4
6
4
Z
Z
Z
1
dumber of Schools
requiring
Semester periods
Total
Z
3
4
5
6.
7
4
1
6
5
S
1
,a
1
1
13
8
7
6
5
4
4
Z
Z
z
z
1
1
33
of the general business curricula were tabulated in Table
YX*. Bookkeeping, business law, and typing were required
by six, or 100 percent, of the schools offering the general
business curricula*
The semester periods ranged from two
to four for bookkeeping and typing, while business law was
required only one semester*
Business principles ranked
second, with five, or 83*3 percent, of the schools, and the
range in semesters was from one to two*
Xn regard to the uniformity of the semester periods of
all the subjects, bookkeeping and typing ranged from two to
four, while business principles, junior business training,
and office practice ranged from one to two semesters#
All
the schools agreed on the semester requirements for business
law, economic geography, business correspondence, business
English, business mathematics, business practice, and office
machines + Hence, the twelve specific subjects showed a fair
degree of uniformity, with seven, or 58#3 percent, agreement
on the semester requirements for the general business
cur­
ricula*
Specific subject offerings of the curricula listed in
Table X were tabulated under the exact title given by the
high schools reporting*
These tabulations made possible a
further analysis of the uniformity and variability of all
the business curricula of the fifty-three high schools*
34
TABLE VI
SUBJECTS COMPBISING GENERAL BUSINESS CURRICULA
Subject
Bookkeeping
Business Law
typing
Business Principles
Junior Business Training
Economic Geography
Office Practice
Business Correspondence
Business English
Business Mathematics
Business Practice
Office Machines
1
0
Z
1
1
1
1
1
1
Number of schools
requiring
1Semester periods
a
3
4
5
1
5
3
1
Z
Z
1
1
5
£otal
6,
a
a
a
5
3
z
z
l
i
i
l
l
35
XII* - SPECIFIC BUSINESS SUBJECTS OFFERED
Besides an evaluation of tlie specific business cur­
ricula, an analysis of the specific business subjects
offered was made to reveal the frequency of each business
subject offered in the fifty-three high schools*
In
addition to an evaluation of the specific business subjects
offered, the length of each subject in semester periods
was determined by the highest frequency of schools offering
each subject*
Specific business subjects offered*
All subjects
offered were listed in Table TCI in the order of their
frequency*
First-semester typing ranked first, with forty-
eight, or 90*6 percent, of the schools reporting*
First-
semester shorthand ranked second, with forty-seven, or 88*7
percent , of all schoolst
Second-semester typing was third,
with forty-five, or 84*9 percent, of the schools offering
the course*
First-semester bookkeeping and third-semester
typing ranked in the fourth and fifth positions, with fortythree schools each reporting, or 81*1 percent, of the total*
The sixth position was held by the third-semester shorthand,
with thirty-nine, or 73*6 percent, of the schools offering
the subject*
Of the eighty specific business subjects reported,
twenty-eight, or 35*0 percent, were offered by only one
36
T A B LE . V H
SPECIFIC BUSINESS SUBJECTS OFFERED IN FIFTT-THREE
. LARGE PUBLIC H I ® SCHOOLS OF CALIFQHNIA^ No* of
Course
Se- schools
________ mest&r offering
Typing
1
Shorthand
1
Typing
3
Bookkeeping
1
Typing
3
Shorthand
3
Bookkeeping
3
Office Practice
1
z
Shorthand
Typing
4
Elementary
Business. Junior
Business
Training, or
Everyday Businessi
Bookkeeping.
3
Business Law
1
4
ShorthandBookkeeping
4
Elementary
Business, Junior
Business
Training, or
Everyday Business#
Sale sman ship
1
Secretarial
Practice
1
Business Corre­
spondence
1
Business English
1
Business Mathe1
- maties
Office Practice
3
Principles of
Business
48
47
45
43
43
59
36
34
33
33
31
30
30
34
31
19
19
19
16
15
14
14
14
Course
.
Semaster
Consumer
. Education
Machine
Calculation
Commercial or
Economic
Geography
Secretarial
Practice
Shorthand and
Transcription
Shorthand and
Transcription
Business English
Business Mathe, maties
Sale smanship
Advertising
Merchandising
Bookkeeping
. Practice
Office Machines
Accounting
Accounting
Commercial or
. Economic
Geography
Other Cooperative
Retail_Selling
School Store
Practice
General Economics
Machine
.I- Bookkeeping
Machine
Calculation
No. of '
schools
offering
1
13
1
11
1
10
3
9
1
9
3
3
9
8
3
3
1
7
7
6
6
I
1
1
3
5
5
4
4
3
4
4
4
1
1
4
3
3
3
3
TABLE VII {Continued)
SPECIFIC BUSINESS SUBJECTS GFFEBED IN FIFTY-THREE
. LARGE PUBLIC HICK SCHOOLS OF CALIFORNIA.
Course
Business Law
a
Consumer .
Education
a
Merchandising
a
Offices Machines
a
Penmanship
Betail Selling
a
School Store
Practice
a
Applied Economics
Bookkeeping
Practice
a
Business
Gorre spondence
a
Business IfcgllsL
Business Etiquette
Business
Organization and
Management
Business Problems
Commerce and
i
Industry
Store Clerk
Vocations
-Se­
mester
No* of
schools
offering
Z
1
1
a Everyday Business 3
a Foreign Trade
1
1
1
Bo* of
Se*
schools
master offering
■■ UJ
Course
a Commerce and
, Industry
a Comp tome try
a Economics,
a
, Business
Machine -
a .. Calculation
3
Machine
. Calculation
4
i Multigraphing
Occupations
i Office Service
i Personal
i _ Planning
Personal Typing
Physical
l . Geography
i Spelling
Special Accounting
1 Special „
Mathematics
1
i lhat About Jobs
A
i lhat About Jobs
1
i
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
38
school each*
Twenty-six subjects, or 32*5 percent, were
offered by ten or more schools*
Length of business subjects offered*
The length of
business subjects offered, determined by the highest
frequency of the schools offering each subject, was
tabulated in Table ¥111*
Four semester periods of typing
was offered by thirty-two, or 65*3 percent, of the schools
offering the course*
Shorthand was offered four semesters
by twenty-three, or 46*9 percent, of the schools*
Nine of
the ten schools, or 90*0 percent, offered two semesters of
shorthand and transcription#
Of the nineteen schools
offering secretarial practice, ten, or 52,6 percent, offered
one semester, and nine, or 47*4 percent, offered two se­
mesters.
Business English and business mathematics were each
offered one and two semesters by seven schools, or 50*0
percent*
Fifteen of the sixteen schools, or 93*8 percent,
offered one semester of business correspondence.
Of the
forty-four schools offering bookkeeping, twenty-one, or 47*7
percent, offered four semesters, nine, or £0*5 percent, each
offered two and three semesters, and five, or 11 #4 percent,
offered one semester*
Twenty of the thirty-four schools, or 58*8 percent,
offered one semester of office practice, and fourteen,
or 41*2 percent, offered two semesters*
Salesmanship was
39
TABLE VIII
LENGTH OF BUSINESS SUBJECTS OFFERED IN SEMESTER PERIODS •
Subject
. Number of schools
offering
Semester periods
I
S
3 * 4
typing
1
Shorthand
4
Shorthand and Trans crip tIon 1
Secretarial Practice
10
Business English
7
Business Correspondence
15
Bookkeeping
5
Accounting
Machine Bookkeeping
1
Bookkeeping Practice
4
Office Practice
SO
Office Machines
3
8
Machine Calculation
14
Salesmanship
E
Retail Selling
Merchandising
5
Advertising
6
a
School Store Practice
Other Cooperative
4
1
Business Etiquette
E9
Business Law
Business Organization and
Management
1
Business Mathematics
7
Commercial or Economic
6
Geography
Commerce & Industry
Consumer Education
10
General Economics
3 .
1
Economics, Business
Applied Economics
1
Elementary Business, Junior
Business Training, or
Everyday Business
12
Foreign Trade
1
a
Penmanship
4
4
9
9
7
1
9
4
i
a
1
6
21
1
14
a
a
1
7
a
a
a
a
7
4
a
2
1
8
1
' :
5
1
-
6
-
32
23
1
9
-
>
-
-
1
TABLE VIII (Continued)
LENGTH OF BUSINESS SUBJECTS OFFERED IN SEMESTER PERIODS
,
, «_
Subject
1
Principles of Business
Special Mathematics
Special Accounting
Occupations
lhat About Jobs
Multigraphing
Office Service
Spelling
Toeations
Personal Planning
Store Clerk
Personal 'Typing
Physical Geography
Business Problems
Humber of schools
offering
Semester periods
2
3
4
5
14
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
6
41
offered one semester by fourteen , or 66*6 percent, and two
semesters by seven, or 35*3 percent, of the schools*
Twenty-
nine of the thirty-one schools, or 93*5 percent, offered one
semester of business law*
Consumer education was offered
one semester by ten schools, or 83*3 percent, and two se­
mesters by two schools, or 16*6 percent, of the schools
offering the course*
Of the thirty-one schools offeilng elementary business,
junior business training, or everyday business, eighteen,
or 58*1 percent, offered two semesters, twelve, or 38*7
percent, offered one semester*
Principles of business was
offered one semester by fourteen, or 100 percent, of the
schools offering the subject*
IV* PROVISION FOR. REMEDIAL INSTRUCTION AND FOR
. CERTAIN SUBJECT INFORMATION IN OTHER COURSES
In addition to specific business subjects, a section of
the questionnaire was set up to include provision for and
position of Instruction in remedial arithmetic and
handwriting, filing, machine calculation, adding machines,
personal development, and training for specialised jobs and
job application*
Provision for remedial instruction in handwriting and
and arithmetic *
Eight schools, or 15*1 percent, reported
remedial instruction in handwriting, while forty-two schools,
4E
or 79*2 percent, stated that they did not give any in­
struction for those pupils deficient in handwriting*
Two
schools required that the handwriting be neat and legible*
Three schools reported the use of the Ayres scale*
Twenty-one schools, or 39*6 percent, reported remedial
instruction in arithmetic, while twenty-nine, or 54*7 percent,
reported no remedial instruction given*
Courses in which filing: instruction was included*
Fifty schools, or 94*3 percent, reported filing instruction
given as a part of some other course*
Thirty-six schools,
or 67*9 percent, included filing instruction as a part of
their office practice course *
Filing instruction was given
in the junior business training course by nine schools,
or 16*9 percent*
Six schools, or 11#5 percent, each offered
filing instruction in* bookkeeping practice and stenography*
In the transcription course, three schools, or 5*7 percent,
offered filing instruction*
Two schools, or 3*8 percent,
reported the inclusion of filing in their bookkeeping course*
Three schools, or 5*7 percent, stated that they did not offer
any filing instruction*
Courses in which machine calculation was included*
Twenty-three schools, or 43*4 percent, reported offering
instruction in machine calculation in some other course*
Eighteen schools, or 33.9 percent, included machine calcu­
lation as a part of their office practice course.
In the
43
bookkeeping course, six schools, or 11*3 percent, included
instruction in machine calculation#
Two schools *each, or 3#8
percent, offered machine calculation in bookkeeping practice
and office machines#
Twenty schools, or 37#0 percent,
reported no machine calculation instruction#
Courses in which adding machines were included«
Thirty-six schools, or 67#9 percent, listed adding machine
instruction as a part of some other course#
The office
practice course in twenty-one schools, or 39#6 percent,
included adding machine operation#
Instruction in the use
of the adding machines was included in courses in bookkeeping
by eighteen schools, or 35*9 percent, in bookkeeping practice
by six schools, or 11 #3 percent, and in office machines by
two schools, or 3*7 percent#
Eleven schools, or SO#8 percent,
replied as giving no instruction in the operation of the
adding machines#
Courses in which •personal development was included #
Business etiquette or personal development was offered by
forty-seven schools, or 88#8 percent, as a part of six other
courses#
Twenty-three schools, or 43#4 percent, reported
the inclusion of personal development in the office practice
course#
inother course listed as offering instruction in
personal development was salesmanship with thirteen schools,
or B4#5 percent#
Personal development was included in courses
In Junior business training by eleven schools, or BO#7
44:
percent, in business Knglish by six schools, or 11#3 percent,
in secretarial training by five schools, or 9.4 percent, and
in bookkeeping practice by two schools, or 3.7 percent.
Three schools, or 5.7 percent, reported that personal develop­
ment was given in all courses, while five schools, or 9.4
percent, did not offer personal development.
Training for specialized types of jobs and .lob
application.
Special training was offered for grocery
clerks, machine calculator operator and retail selling by
one school each.
Two schools listed bookkeepers and
general clerks each.
Forty-six schools, or 86.8 percent, reported instruction in how to apply and how to find Jobs.
Instruction
in job application was included in courses in office
practice by twenty-one schools, or 39.6 percent, in salesman­
ship by thirteen schools, or £4.5 percent, in business
English by twelve schools, or 22.6 percent, in secretarial
training by eleven schools, or 20.7 percent, in junior
business training by five schools, or 9.4 percent, in
bookkeeping practice by three schools, or 5.7 percent,
and in bookkeeping by two schools, or 3.7 percent.
Three
schools, or 5.7 percent, reported that job application was
given in all courses, while seven schools, or 15.2 percent,
did not offer job application.
45
¥•
STANDARDS OF AOaOMPLXSHMEHT FOE SKILL OFFEBIMGS
One section of the questionnaire asked what standards,
other than a grade of "B1* or better, are required for
passing pupils taking typewriting for personal and voW
cational use, and shorthand•
Standards of accomplishzaent for typewriting
A
tabulation of replies was made in Table XX, giving the
number of schools requiring the standards for each se­
mester of both vocational-use and personal-use typewriting#
By vocational-use typewriting was meant typewriting in­
struction to meet the needs of business#
By personal-use
typewriting was meant sufficient typewriting skill for
typewriting school and private papers.
In every standard by semesters of instruction, Table
XX showed that the vocational-use and personal-use courses
were identical in median and highest frequency#
The median
for the first semester was in the 15-word-per-minute
standard for both vocational-use and personal-use
typewriting#
Of the twenty-five schools reporting
vocational-use standards for the first semester, sixteen,
or 64#0 percent, required the median of 15-word-per-minute
standard#
Eighteen of the twenty-two schools reporting,
or 81 #8 percent, required the same median for personal-use
typewriting#
46
IX
STANDARDS OF AGO OMPLISHMENT FOE TYPSWHXTXHG
Standard
a
O 0
*H 02
cd
o
£
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
words
words
words
words
words
words
words
words
per
per
per
per
per
per
per
per
minute
minute
minute
minute
minute
minute
minute
minute
16
6
2
1
-
.Personal
Use
H
Vocational
Use
Number of schools reauirink standard
.Se-.,
Se­
Se8e~.
master 1 master 2 mester K£ mester 4
H
—1
cd 0
D£>
CO
a
I„
-4
o © cd 0
03 d 03
0't>
6J 03
O
-4
i
o e <rf 0
sH 0i
o
03
*4
*2
»=*
*4
I
13 p
o
0
IS
2
2
18
5
3
1
2
17
2
1
1
18
3
4
1
2
10
2
1
1
6
12
6
6
7
1
For second semester, the median was in the 25-word-perminute standard for both courses*
Eighteen, or 66*6 percent,
of the twenty-seven schools reporting vocational-use
standards, required the median*
Of the twenty-two schools,
seventeen, or 77*3 percent, required the median tor personaluse typewriting#
The median for the third semester was in the thirtyfive-word-per-minute standard for both courses*
For
vocational-use standards, nineteen, or 70*4 percent, of the
twenty-seven schools, reported the median#
Ten of the
fifteen schools, or 66*6 percent, required the median for
personal-use typewriting*
For fourth semester, the median was in the 45-wordper-minute standard for both types of uses*
Eighteen,
or 72*0 percent, of the twenty-five schools reporting
voseational-use standards, required the median, while seven,
or 50*0 percent, of the fourteen schools reporting personaluse standard, required the median#
This tabulation showed
an increase of ten words per minute in the median standard
for each semester beyond the first semester of instruction*
Standards of accomplishment for shorthand*
In reply
to the section of the questionnaire inquiring about the
standards other than a grade 6f "B* or better for shorthand,
all the standards given were in terms of dictation rate*
A tabulation of the dictation rates required by the schools
48
reposing standards for each semester* was given in Table X.
For first semester, the dictation rates ranged from
forty to sixty words per minute, with twelve, or 80*0
percent, of the fifteen schools requiring forty words per
minute#
The dictation rates for the second semester ranged
from fifty to seventy-five words per minute, with nineteen,
or 82*6 percent, of the twenty-thrae schools requiring sixty
words per minute#
In the third semester, the dictation rates ranged from
sixty to eighty-one hundred words per minute, with twenty,
or 85#3 percent, of the twenty-four schools requiring eighty
words per minute*
For fourth semester, the dictation rates
ranged from eighty to 120 words per minute, with twenty,
or 80*0 percent, of the twenty-five schools requiring one
hundred words per minute#
This tabulation showed that the
dictation rate increased twenty words per minute for each
semester beyond the first semester of instruction*
vi.
raqiHRBEEKTS for (mmJJMSLoh
FROM. HJSIHESS ,CURRICULUM.
In determining the requirements for graduation from
the high school business curriculum, an inquiry into grades,
semester periods, and specific business and academic subjects
required, was made*
Apropos to grades, twenty-four schools,
or 45*3 percent, indicated that the requirements were listed
TABLE
X
s m m s m s of accomplishment for shorthand
Standard
(Dictation Rate)
Humber of schools requiring standard
Se­
Se­
SeSe­
mester 1 mester S mester 3 mester 4
40 words per minute
50 words per minute
60 words per minute
60-70 words per minute
75 words per minute
75-100 words per minute
80 words per minute
80-100 words per minute
100 words per minute
1Q0-1SG words per minute.
ISO words per minute
IS
1
Z
S
19
1
1
1
1
SO
s
s
so
s
1
for grades 9-12, inclusive, while nineteen schools, or 35.8
percent, indicated grades 10-12, inclusive, and one scliool,
or 1.9 percent, indicated grades 11-12, inclusive.
With reference to the total number of semester periods
required, five schools, or 9.4 percent, required five to
sixteen semester periods, four schools, or 7.5 percent,
required thirty to forty semester periods, one school, or 1*9
percent, required eighty semester periods, three schools,
or 5.7 percent, required 120 semester periods, four schools,
vf
or 7.5 percent, required 150 semester periods, two schools,
or 5*8 percent, required 160 semester periods, and one school,
or 1.9 percent, required 190 semester periods for graduation
from the high school business curriculum.
Specific subjects, both business and academic, required
of all pupils for graduation from business curriculum were
tabulated in doable ZX in the order of their frequency with
the semester periods required for each.
2*nglish ranked first,
with thirty-seven schools reporting, or 69.8 percent, of which
twenty-five schools, or 67*6 percent, required six semesters
of Knglish«
Physical education ranked second, with twenty-
one schools reporting, or 39.6 percent, of which fifteen
schools, or 71.4 percent, required eight semesters of physi­
cal education.
United States history was third, with
twenty-one schools reporting, or 39,6 percent, of which
seventeen schools, or 80.9 percent, required two semesters of
51
tobbe
XL
REQUIREMENTS FOB GiUBUATXOIST FBOM BUSINESS GURBIOTUJM
" — .....
Subject
Number.of schools re auiring :
Semester periods
4
1
2
5
5
7
8 Total
3
English
Physical Education
3
Jim Sm History
Typing
Science
Bookkeeping
S
Practical Arts
Art
11
Business Law
11
Junior Business
. Training
2
Music
n
Civics
10
Social Science
Business
- Correspondence
a
Chosen Major
Office Practice
2
Um Sm History & Civics
Mathematics
Business Arithmetic
l
Business English
2
Social Living
Sale smanship
3
Biology
Geography
2
1
Social Problem
Business Principles
1
Modern Times
Occupations
1
Shorthand
12
1
1?
14
15
12
5
1
1
4
1
4
*
25
4
15
1
9
7
11
11
10
10
3
1
1
6
8
5
3
2
7
1
4
2
1
1
1
37
21
21
19
17
16
13
11
11
9
9
8
8
5
4
4
4
3
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
52
United States history*
Xn fourth place was typing, with nineteen schools,
or 35*8 percent, of which fourteen, or 73*7 percent, required
two semesters of typing*
Science ranked fifth, m t h fifteen
schools, or 88*2 percent, of the seventeen schools reporting,
or 32*1 percent, required two semesters of science*
Sixth
position was held hy bookkeeping, with sixteen schools,
or 30*2 percent, of which twelve schools, or 75*0 percent,
required two semesters*
Of the thirteen schools, or 24*5 percent, requiring
practical sorts, eight schools, or 61*5 percent, required one
semester*
Art, music, and business law were required hy
eleven schools, or 20*8 percent, each for one semester*
Of
the eleven schools, or 20*8 percent, requiring junior
business training, nine, or 81*8 percent, required two
semesters*
Civics was required by ten schools, or 18*9
percent, for one semester*
Social science was required by
ten schools, or 18*9 percent, of which seven schools, or 70*0
percent, required two semesters*
Of the twenty-nine specific business and academic
subjects required, thirteen, or 44*8 percent, were required
by ten. or more schools, while sixteen, or 55*2 percent, were
required by less than ten schools, and four, or 13.8 percent,
were- required by only one school each*
53
7X1.
SUMMARY
In this chapter was preseated a detailed analysis of
business eurricula, which included business curricula •
offered, specific business subjects offered, standards
for typewriting and shorthand, and requirements for
graduation.
The results of the tabulations on business
eurricula were briefly summarised.
The tabulation revealed that five specific business
curricula or majors were offered by the fifty-three large
high schools of California.
offered were:
The business curricula
stenographic and bookkeeping hy forty-two
schools, or 79*2 percent, clerical by nineteen schools,
or 35.8 percent, merchandising by sixteen schools, or 30.1
percent, and general business by nine schools, or 16.9
percent, of the total.
The specific subjects comprising each curricula, were
v
analysed for comparison of uniformity or variability
content.
of
With eight, or 53.3 percent, of the fifteen
courses varying in the semester requirements, the steno­
graphic curricula showed a slightly greater variability than
uniformity in semester requirements.
The bookkeeping
eurricula also revealed a greater variability than uni­
formity in subject and semester requirements, with eleven,
or 61.1 percent, of the eighteen courses varying in semester
54
requirements*
The requirements for the fifteen subjects of
the clerical eurricula varied greatly with eleven,' or 73.3
percent variability.
The thirteen specific subjects of the merchandising
curricula revealed a high degree of uniformity, with eight,
or 61.5 percent agreement on the semester requirements.
The
general business curricula showed a fair degree of uni­
formity, with seven, or 58.3 percent, of the twelve specific
subjects in agreement.
in analysis of the specific business subjects was made
to reveal the frequency of each.
Of the eighty specific
business subjects tabulated, twenty-eight, or 35.0 percent,
were offered by only one school each, while twenty-six,
or 32,5 percent, were offered by ten or more schools.
Besides the specific business subjects offered, an
inquiry into provision for remedial instruction, and other
subject information,- was made,
light schools, or 15,1
percent, reported remedial instruction in handwriting, and
twenty-one schools, or 39.6 percent, reported remedial
instruction in arithmetic.
Fifty schools, or 94.3 percent,
reported filing instruction given as a part of some other
course.
Instruction in machine calculation was offered by
twenty-three schools, or 43.4 percent, as a part of some
other course.
Thirty-six schools, or 67.9 percent, replied
as giving instruction in operation of the adding machine as
55
a part of some other course*
Business etiquette or personal
development was offered hy forty-seven schools, or 88*8
percent, as a part of six other courses*
Forty-six schools,
or 86*8 percent, reported instruction given in how to apply
and how to find a job*
A tabulation of the standards of accomplishment for
both vocational-use and personal-use typewriting courses,
revealed that both courses were identical in median and
highest frequency*
courses were:
The median standards for both typewriting
for the first semester 15-words-per-mimite,
for the second semester 25-words-per-minute, for the third
semester 35-word.s-per-minute, and for the fourth semester
45 -wo r& s-p er-minut e •
Hence, an increase of ten words per
minute was required in the median standard for each semester
beyond the first semester of instruction*
An analysis of the standards of accomplishment for
shorthand revealed the standards were expressed in terms
of dictation rate.
The dictation rates determined by highest
frequency for shorthand by semesters were:
for first
semester forty words per minute, for second semester sixty
words per minute, for third semester eighty words per minute,
and for fourth semester one hundred words per minute.
Thus,
the dictation rate increased twenty words per minute for
each semester beyond the first semester of instruction.
Apropos to specific subjects, both business and
56
academic, required of ail pupils for graduation from business
curriculum, the tabulation revealed the six highest subjects
in the order of their frequency to be:
Bnglish, physical
education, United States history, typing, science, and
bookkeeping*
Of the twenty-nine specific business and
academic subjects required, thirteen, or 44.8 percent, were
required by ten or more schools, while sixteen, or 55*2
percent, were required by less than ten schools, and four,
or 13*8 percent, were required by only one school each*
The business curricula offered, indicated that over
three-fourths of the schools were concentrating on the
stenographic and bookkeeping curricula*
From conferences
with-employers it was gathered that the work done in these
fields is adequate for a high school graduate*
Fvery large
school should offer these two curricula for the pupils
fitted for this type of employment*
Greater emphasis should
be placed on the clerical, merchandising, and general
business eurricula where a larger number of the pupils fit
and are employable when trained*
These curricula should be
offered in all schools for the large number of pupils who
are not adaptable to the stenographic and bookkeeping
curricula*
The lack of uniformity of subjects and semester
requirements in each curricula makes transferring difficult,
and the employer has no assurance of an employable product
57
when the requirement s vary;#
Filing was offered by almost all of the schools which
is excellent considering the amount of time spent in filing
in the office#
Nearly all of the schools have seen the
need for instruction in business etiquette or personal
development and how to apply for a job#
More stress should be placed on remedial instruction
in arithmetic and handwriting to meet the constant demands
of employers for people who can write legible and figure
accurately#
Hie pupils should be taught that errors in
figures 'may cost them their job#
The replies to the questionnaire concerning business
curricula were tabulated and discussed in the present
chapter*
An investigation of the departmental organization
and enrollments is presented in the next chapter#
CHAPTER XXX
DEPARTMENTAL ORG-ANXZAXIDH AM) ENROLLMENTS
IN THI LARGE. HJBLIG HXGS.SCHOOLS.OF_CALIFORNIA
After a detailed analysis of tee business curricula
offered was ascertained in tee last chapter, the departmental
organisation and enrollments of the business curricula were
investigated*
tee replies to the sections of the question­
naire concerned with this investigation are tabulated for
consideration in this chapter*
The questionnaire inquired
into separate department organization and the titles of each,
time scheduled for supervision of instruction and business
contacts by the chairman or head of the department, en­
rollments in high schools, business subjects, and by grades.
X.
DEPARTMENTAL ORGANIEATI ON
An examination of departmental organization included
titles given departments, and time given the chairman or
head of the department for supervision of instruction and
business contacts*
tee courses in business education were ,
offered in a separate department by forty-six schools,
or 86*8 percent, while five schools, or 9*4 percent, did
not offer business courses in a separate department.
Titles given the departments offering business
subjects*
tee department titles with the number of schools
having title were listed in Table X U *
Of the forty-six
59
TTT
TITLES OF DEPARTMENTS OFFERING BUSINESS SUBJECTS
Humber of schools
Bepartinent Title_______________having title
Commercial Department
Commercial Studies
Department of Commerce
Commercial Education
Business Education
Total
40
a
a
i
i
46
60
schools reporting separate departments, forty schools,
or 86*9 percent, titled their department the "Commercial
Department," two schools each gave the titles of "Commercial
Studies" and "Department of Commerce," and "Commercial
-r
^
-**•
Education" and "Business Education" were the titles given
by one school each*
Time scheduled for supervision of instruction by the
chairman or head of the department*
Forty-seven schools,
or 88*7 percent, reported having a chairman or head of the
department*
Six schools, or 11*3 percent, stated that they
did not have a chairman or head of the department*
Of the
thirty schools, or 56*6 percent, reporting periods for
supervision of instruction by the chairman or head of the
department, five schools, or 16*7 percent, scheduled from
one to five periods per week, seventeen schools, or 56*7
percent, gave five periods per week, seven schools, or £3*3
percent, allowed ten periods per week, and one school,
or 3*5 percent, scheduled fifteen periods per week*
Six
schools, or 11*3 percent, reported that no time was allowed
the chairman or head of the department for supervision of
instruction*
Time scheduled for business contacts -by the chairman
or head of the department*
Of the five schools, or 9*4
percent, reporting time scheduled for business contacts,
four schools allowed five periods per week, and one school
61
scheduled six periods per week#
Thirty-seven schools,
or 69.8 percent, reported that no time was scheduled the
chairman or head of the department for ‘
business contacts*
ii*
m B o u M s m s in business subjects
In considering the enrollments in business subjects,
an investigation was made of the total enrollments,
enrollments in business subjects, enrollments of business
majors, enrollments of specific business subjects, grade
enrollments in business courses, and grade location of
business subjects as indicated by enrollment*
This analysis
of enrollments, together with the evaluations of the business
curricula in Chapter H ,
should serve to indicate the
present status of business subjects in the large public high
schools of California*
Enrollments in fifty-three schools*
The fifty-three
schools of the present study were listed with the en­
rollments by grades in TableHII to show location and sise
of the schools studied and for comparison of total en­
rollments with business course enrollments*
The enrollment
figures are for December 15, 1936, when the questionnaires
were sent to the respondents*
order of their ranking are:
The first ten schools in the
Los Angeles, Kern County Union,
Sacramento, Alhambra, Balboa in San Francisco, Oakland,
Stockton, Roosevelt in Los Angeles, Washington in Los Angeles,
table
m x
ENROLLMENTS IN FIFTI-mRSE LARGE PUBLIC
. HIGH SCHOOLS OF. CALIFORNIA.
December 15,.1956
School
Grade enrollments
7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th So. 13th 14th Total
-
Los Angeles
Kern,G o. Union
:1055
Sacramento
Alhambra
96S
Bhlboa (S.F.)
75S
Oakland.
. 348 414 470
889
Stockton
Roosevelt (L.A.)
Washington, (L.A.)
350
Fairfax (L.A.)
167
Garfield -(L.A. )315 338 347
Mission {SfF.) .
Hollywood
Lincoln (L.A*)
753
Galileo (S.F.}
S56
Franklin -(L.A.)
355
Fullerton .Union
376
Inglewood Union
591
7
Technical (Oak)
Marshall (L.A*)
S98
Huntington- Park
553
Alameda
538
Fremont (Oak)
University High (Oak)
Van Nuys (L.A*)284 315 353
Hoover (S.D.)
South Gate t - 1 9 2 SO 7 370
Whittier Union
5S4
Eagle Rock
S33 231 341
Castlemount (Oak)
Bell (L.A.) , 197 SSI 330
Jefferson (L*A .)
64
Modesto *,~ *450
University High
129 290
Phineas BanningS71 S7B S93
Iordan
430 365 262
1690
974
1471
935
10S3
7S7
829
1106
1058
1045
673
1175
958
699
843
7S7
355
597
8S7
706
579
566
809
681
3S6
681*
421
456
321
684
350
670
469
477
293
224
1249
743
1179
875
795
634
675
1072
755
834
522
805
906
536
671
739
289
577
782
624
466
499
622
689
286
587
291
420
304
563
525
410
437
366
234
135
1062
605
1068
614
621
573
576
725
492
592
426
631
628
424
574
494
272
438
568
515
414
405
540
567
207
436
216
284
244
410
235
375
315
281
148
72
30
523
293
623
396
20
6
36
17
4
8
3
22
22
16
36
5
22
7
10
12
3
15
7
4
4
97
12
17
1
4001
5933
5718
3406
3191
3182
3005
2903
2670
2638
2625
2611
2500
2412
2347
2337
2333
2219
2219
2148
2034
2008
1971
1944
1781
1716
1700
1699
1681
1661
1660
1614
1581
1555
1534
1489
63
TABLE XLIX (Continued)
W R Q L I M & m S IM FXFTY-THREE LARGE PUBLIC
• - - HIGH SCHOOLS OF- CALIFORNIA . . . „
December 15,. 1936
School
_____ »
Grade enrollment s
7th 6th 9thf 10 th 11th l£th Si3> 15tb 14th Total
Palo Alto
£69
Sequioia Union
Richmond Union
£59
San Leandro
Santa Barbara
Santa Anna
Point Loma
£63
Mair Technical
Redondo Union
Roosevelt (Oak)
H Monte
Fresno
Lodi
Edison Tech*
361
Pomona
Hayward Union
Monrovia
194 £77
£76
£43 £88
£76 £34
97
438
403
394
£55 £55
36£
307
£59
388
6££
£47
538
538
£11
180
3£1
453
34£
448
318
1£3
355
318
3£3
£59
351
450
17£
378
403
155
567
£70
447
£39
395
£49
115
£97
££6
£49
£01
363
317
116
306
341
143
395
£01
3£5
198
348
199
50
£35
£Q£
£17
8
£6
6
101
9
3
35
30
9
££
7
17
14£ 1£0
£0
15
1467
1404
1395
13£5
13£3
1£91
1£85
1£74
1£60
1£34
1£04
1198
1177
1159
1149
11£8
1111
105410
64
and Fairfax in Los Angeles*
litis tabulation revealed that
twenty schools, or 37*7 percent, were in southern California
outside of Los Angeles, fourteen schools, or £6*4 percent,
were in the Oakland and San Francisco Bay area, and six
schools, or 11*3 percent, were in the valley*
The total
enrollment for the fifty-three schools was 105,410*
Enrollments in all business curricula*
The inquiry
made into the total number of pupils enrolled in one or
more business courses, was tabulated in Table XLV to
compare the number of pupils taking business courses with
the total enrollment of the schools*
Of the 105,410 pupils
enrolled in the fifty-three high schools, 35,461, or 33*6
percent, were enrolled in one or more business courses*
By
grades, the tenth grade showed the largest enrollment
with 13,139, or 37*1 percent, of the total*
The respondents
were asked to classify the sex in giving the enrollments*
In giving the enrollments, a number of schools failed to
observe the classification of the pupils by sex, these
enrollments are listed under heading of "unclassified" in
the table*
Of the 30,550 classified boys and girls
enrolled, 20,706, or 67*8 percent, were girls, and 9,806,
or 32*0 percent, were boys*
Hence, Table XLY revealed that
oneathird of the pupils were enrolled in one or more business
courses, and over two-thirds of them were girls*
Enrollments of business majors*
Besides determining
65
TABLE JXV
NUMBER OF PUPILS ENROLLED IN ONE OH MORE BUSINESS COURSES
Enrollment
Per­ Unclassi­ Per­
PerPer­
Bovs cent Girls cent
cent Total cent
fied
•
Grade
Ninth
Tenth
Eleventh
Twelfth
Special
Sub-total
1324 3.8 2803
3734 10*6 7488
2013 5*7 5674
2690 7*6 4658
7*9
21*2
16.1
13.2
9761 27.7 20623 58.4
641
1917
1023
891
437
4909
1.8 4768 13*5
5.4 13139 37*2
2.9 8710 24.7
2.6 8239 23.4
437 1.2
1.2
13*9 35293100*0
4909
168
35461
Total enrollment
reported by:
San Leandroa
11th-and lath
grad© combined
65
9826
103
20726
-
agan Leandro High School reported combined figures for
tbe eleventh and twelfth grades#
66
the number of pupils taking one or more business courses,
investigation was made Into the number of pupils above
the tenth grade who were taking business courses as
preparation for business employment*
This investigation
excluded those pupils who took only an occasional
course*
business
The number of pupils taking business courses for
employment is summarised by grade and sex in Table XV #
Of the 17,554 pupils above the tenth grade reported as
taking one or more business courses in Table XXV, 7,869,
or 44*8 percent, were taking business courses for business
employment*
By grades, the eleventh grade showed the largest
enrollment with 4,010, or 50*9 percent, of the total*
The
twelfth grade enrollment was 5,508, or 44*6 percent, and
the "special" including the postgraduate enrollment was 351,
or 4*5 percent*
Of the 6,293 classified boys and girls
enrolled, 4,755, or 75*2 percent, were girls, and 1,576,
or 25.0 percent, were boys taking business courses for
business employment*
Thus, an analysis of Table XV indicated that one-half
of the business majors were in the eleventh grade, and that
three-fourths were girls*
Enrollments in specific business subjects*
In Table
XVX is indicated the enrollment by sex for each semester
of all business subjects in the order of size of enrollment*
First-semester typing ranked first, with 8,426, or 23*8
67
XV
NUMBER OF PUPILS ABOVE HESS TENTH GRADE TOO ARE TAKING
.BUSINESS COURSES AS PREPARATION. FOR
. .*
BUSINESS EMPLOYMENT.
Beeember 15, 1936
; _:
Enrollment
Per­
Per­ Unclassi­ Per­
PerBoys cent Girls cent
cent Total cent
fied
-
Grade
Eleventh
Twelfth
Special
Totals
683 8*7
- 793 10*1
8 2 1*1
1558 19*8
2497 31.7
1979 25*1
259 5.3
4735 60*2
830
736
10
1576
10.5
9*4
•1
20*0
4010 50*9
5508 44* 6
351 4*5
7869100*0
68
TABLE XVI
ENROLLMENTS IN SPECIFIC BUSINESS SUBJECTS
Subject
Semester
Typing
Typing
Bookkeeping
Elementary Business, Junior
Business, or Everyday Business
typing
Shorthand
Bookkeeping
Business Mathematics
Shorthand
Business-Law
Elementary Business, Junior
Business * or Everyday Business
Typing
Business English
Salesmanship
Shorthand
Office Practice
Principles of Business
Bookkeeping
Business Correspondence
Business Mathematics
Business English
Salesmanship
Machine Calculation
Secretarial Practice
Commercial or Economic Geography
Shorthand
Bookkeeping
Consumer Education
Shorthand and Transcription
Office Practice
Betail Selling
Office Machines
Shorthand and Transcription
Advertising
Secretarial-Practice
Penmanship
linrolliaents
Boys' Girls Total
1
2
1
3280
1358
1364
5146
2903
2876
8426
4261
4240
1
3
1
Z
1
z
1
979
579
283
605
568
95
686
2037
2317
2601
1338
763
1189
580
3016
2896
2889
1943
1331
1284
1266
821
938
741
541
871
665
497
417
532
329
431
342
347
440
289
388
184
169
340
264
140
143
175
70
156
95
1153
1067
1066
1062
953
857
2
4
1
1
3
1
3
1
a
a
a
i
l
l
4
4
1
1
2
1
1
2
a
332
129
325
521
82
192
283
344
121
263
154
237
140
45
173
15
190
190
13
87
98
86
2
101
11
71
7ao
761
653
592
585
579
487
485
462
403
374
359
353
351
238
229
177
171
167
166
69
TABLE X7I {Continued}
ENROLLffiHOB IK SPECIFIC BUSINESS SUBJECTS
Subject
Semester
Merchand I sing
School Store Practice
Commercial or Economic Geography
Commerce and Industry
Other Cooperative
Business Law
Office Service
Bookkeeping Practice
Accounting
General Economics
Business Correspondence
lhat About lobs
locations
Merchandising
Commerce and Industry
lhat About Jobs
Accounting
Machine Calculation
Retail Selling
School Store Practice
Consumer Education
Applied Economics
Business Etiquette
Business Organisation and
Management
Business Problems
Personal Planning
Economics, Business
Everyday Business
Occupations
Special Mathematics
Foreign Trade
Physical.Geography
Special Accounting
Spelling
Business English
Personal Typing
Machine Bookkeeping
1
1
2
1
z
1
1
z
1
z
2
Z
z
z
z
z
z
3
Enrollments
,
Boys Girls Total
51
SB
56
90
SB
61
. 49
41
50
55
IS
33
34
22
19
28
28
15
32
13
21
14
15
78
65
67
87
81
50
55
60
50
41
65
27
20
30
30
21
15
27
8
24
15
21
19
129
127
123
117
113
111
104
101
100
96
81
60
54
52
49
49
43
42
40
37
36
35
34
22
8
18
9
23
13
13
12
25
24
4
9
10
12
17
12
11
31
31
31
26
25
25
25
22
21
21
21
19
17
15
1
18
12
11
9
2
5
4
70
TABLE X¥X (Continued)
1TOQLLMENTS JM SPECIFIC BUSINESS SUBJECTS
Subject
Machine Calculation
Bookkeeping Practice
Multigraphing
Office Machine
Machine Calculation
Store Clerk
Semester
3
Z
Z
4
Boys
3
4
8
8
3
1
Iktrollments
Girls Total
11
9
3
3
3
6
14
13
11
11
8
■77
71
percent', of the 35,461 pupils reported as taking business
courses in Table XPT*
Seconds semester typing ranked second,
with 4,061, or 10*0 percent, of the total pupils taking
business courses*
First-*semester bookkeeping was third,
with 4,240, or 1E*0 percent, of the total pupils*
Fourth
position was held by elementary business, junior business,
or everyday business, with 3,016 pupils, or 8*6 percent, of
the total*
Third-semester typing ranked fifth, with 0,896,
or 8*0 percent, business pupils*
The sixth position was
held by first-semester shorthand, with 0,889, or 8*1 percent,
of the pupils*
The combined enrollment of typing, bookkeeping, and
shorthand was 09,497, or 83*0 percent, of the total*
Therein,
typing, bookkeeping, and shorthand remain the most popular
subjects in the business curricula*
Of the seventy-nine
business courses, the enrollment of the girls exceeded the
boys in fifty-height, or 73*4 percent, of the courses.
The
enrollment of the boys exceeded the girls in twenty-one
courses, or 06*6 percent, which were:
first and second-
semester business’law, fourth--semes ter bookkeeping, first
and second-semester consumer education, advertising,
commerce and industry, general economics, first and second-*
semester what about jobs, vocations, second-semester
accounting, retail selling, business organisation and
management, personal planning, everyday business, foreign
trade, physical geography, special accounting, multigraphing,
and office machines*
-Judging from the 8,426 pupils enrolled in first-semester
typing, 4,261, or 50*6 percent, continued in second**semester
typing, 2,896, or 54*4 percent, continued in third**semester
typing, and 1,067, or 12*7 percent, continued in fourth-*
semester typing*
By inference of the 4,240 pupils enrolled
in first-semester Bookkeeping, 1,943, or 45*8 percent,
continued in second-semes ter "bookkeeping, 761, or 17.9
percent, continued in third-semester bookkeeping, and 374,
or 8*8 percent, continued in fourth-semester bookkeeping*
Deducting from the 2,889 pupils enrolled in first-semester
shorthand, 1,284, or 44*4 percent, continued in secondsemester shorthand, 953, or 33*0 percent, continued in
third - seme ster shorthand, and 403, or 14*0 percent, continued
in fourth-semester shorthand*
The enrollment by sex showed
that the boys did not tend to be as interested in the **skill”
or ^technical** business subjects as were the girls*
Hence,
the boys exceeded the girls in the general business subjects,
such as business law, advertising, general economics, and
retail selling*
Grade enrollments of pupils in business courses*
The
grade enrollments in business courses are summarized in
Table XVIX in the form used in the questionnaire*
First
and second-semester elementary business, junior business,
73
or everyday business, and penman skip bad tkeir largest
enrollments in tke nintk grade.
For first and second-semester typing, business mathe­
matics, commercial or economic geography, first and secondsemester bookkeeping, and vocations tke heaviest enrollment
was in tke tenth grade*
Eke entire enrollment for first
and seconds semester commerce and industry was in the tenth
grade*
For third and fourth-semester typing, first and secondsemester shorthand, business English, applied economics;,
office service, third and fourth-semester bookkeeping, and
first and second-semester machine calculation the heaviest
enrollment was in the eleventh grade*
Third and fourth-semester shorthand, shorthand and
transcription, secretarial practice, first-semester consumer
education, principles of business, third-semester everyday
business, spelling, business correspondence, office practice,
office machines, salesmanship, retail selling, advertising,
and business law had their heaviest enrollment in the
twelfth grade*
The entire enrollment for general economics,
second-semester consumer education, economic business,
foreign trade, what about jobs, third and fourth-semes ter
machine calculation, multigraphing, school and store practice,
merchandising, and business etiquette was in the twelfth
grade*
TABLE X ¥ H
GRADE EKRQLLMEHT OF HJPILS IK HJSIK1SS COURSE
Subject
Grade Enrollment
:
9tii
IQth
lltk
lath . .. Total
Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls
typing 1
875
Typing 2 '
89
Typing 3
Taping 4
Shorthand 1
Shorthand 2
Shorthand 3
Shorthand 4
Shorthand and Transcription 1
Shorthand and Transcription Z
Secretarial Practice 1
Secretarial Practice a
55
Business English 1
Business English 2
34
Business Mathematics 1
72
Business Mathematics a
44
Commercial or Economic
Geography 1 ,
1
Commercial or Economic
Geography Z ,
Commerce and Industry 1
Commerce and Industry a
Consumer education 1
Consumer Education a
338 a m 3833
184 839 8047
97 460
37 193
10 185
80
- 7
445
878
357
57
175
74
11
13
205 1358
863 579
168 129
379 888
95
148
726
92
343
15
203
135
387
142
183
13
5146
2903
2317
938
2601
1189
871
388
61
53
39
4
14
19
2
173
289
1
3
1
56
161
114
19
190
21
15
21
67
87
30
169
15
14
ia s
84
496
aoo
118
88
5E
57
19
346
119
3
149
870
53
90
65
87
30
8
3
18
967
145
45
389 3280
47
14
328
886
63
6
19
8037
443
158
125
35
103
14
69
8
a
31
8
95
19
89
47
5
108
70
93
586
‘467
1594
583
137
40
: ..m
38
385
154
568
263
340
175
440
156
741
431
763
389
51
2
45
11
90
11
47
TABLE XVII (Continued)
~
- , . ■*
*
o •
'•’»
grade W R Q w m m of pupils m
Subject
General Economics
Economics, Business
Applied Economics
Elementary Business,
Junior Business, or
Everyday Business 1
Elementary Business,
Junior Business, or
Everyday Business £
Foreign Trade
Penmanship
Principles of Business
Special Mathematics
Everyday Business 3
Special Accounting
Occupations
lhat About Jobs 1
lhat About Jobs £
Business English 3
Machine Calculation 3
Machine Calculation 4
Multigraphing
Office Service
Spelling
business courses
tirade BtoolImeirE
■
9th
10 th .
11th "
l£th..... Total
Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls
55
8
13
-II
£6
6
8
'55
41
£6
14
£1
865
1884
47
59
11
5
56
89
979
£037
£95
770
16
14
;i6
£5
65
77
4
50
14
13£
I
87
£
135
15
18
1
146
1£
4
£
£30
1
3
13
9
33£
18
71
£83
1
13
11
33
£8
£7
£1
3
3
8
£3
3
11
5
3
17
7
8£i
4
95
497
£4
12
10
£5
£7
£1
17
11
5
3
55
1£
8
£
5
3
18
4
33
£
33
£8
£
3
3
8
49
9
TABLE X V H [(Continued)
GRADE EmQLIMENT 01 PUPILS IN BUSINESS COURSES
. Grade Enrollment :.....
9th
10th
11th
' .IStb .. Total
Bovs Girls Bovs Girls Bovs Girls Boys Girls Bovs Girls
Business Correspondence 1
387 -121 •532
i - 27
144 - 94
Business Correspondence 2
16
65
65
16
Bookkeeping 1
881 2138 291
465 192
273 1364 2876
Bookkeeping 2
409 1098 115
96 605 1338
144
81
Bookkeeping 3
57
417
357
60 344
287
Bookkeeping 4
190
184
61
123
40
150
Accounting 1
50
21
25
50
2
23
m
1
Accounting 2
28
18
10
4
11
15
Machine Bookkeeping
4
11
2
4
9
Bookkeeping Practice 1
21
41
60
20
30
30
Bookkeeping Practice B
4
4
9
9
Office Practice 1
5
665
41
101 146. 551 192
13
Office Practice 2
87
264
67
242
1
20
21
Office Machines 1
86
133
143
1
11
10
74
8
Office Machines 2
8
3
3
Machine Calculation 1
191
35
126 140
347
30 103
2
Machine Calculation 2
9
15
6
11
27
16
Salesmanship 1
238 310
2 209
541
301 521
a
Sale smanship Z
342
92
40
111 105
131 237
100
29
58
Retail Selling 1
69
82
98
140
Retail Selling Z
32
18
14
1
8
7
Merchandising 1
51
51
78
78
Merchandising 2
22
30
30
22
Advertising
28
22
73
48 101
70
School Store Practice 1
62
65
62
65
Subject
TABLE m i
(Continued)
GRADE ENROLLMENT OE HJPILS IH HJSHffiSS COUHSES
Subject
School Store Practice 2
Other Cooperation
Business Etiquette
Business Law 1
Business Law Z
Business Organization
- and Management
Comptometer
locations
Personal Planning
Store Clerics
Personal Typing
Physical Geography
Business Problems
Grade Enrollment
9th
10th . . 11th
,..12th,. _ .total
B o y s Girls B o y s Girls B o y s Girls B o y s Girls B o y s Girls
2
2
23
20
11
8
9
23
5
8
41
8
6
6
5
4
1
15
2?
15
645
61
24
73
19
572
50
13
32
15
686
61
24
81
19
580
50
14
1
22
9
6
12
18
1
5
12
8
9
6
20
15
6
12
9
23
11
15
1
5
SA
U
T
Grade location of business subjects#
In fable XVXXI
the figures are given for eacb. business subject in terms of
number of schools teaching each subject in each grade as
indicated by enrollment#
Forty-three of the forty-eight
schools* or 89.6 percent, taught first-semester typing in
the tenth grade#
First-semester shorthand was taught in
the eleventh grade by forty-one of the forty-seven schools,
or 87*£ percent, of the schools#
Forty of the forty-five
schools, or 88*9 percent, offered second-semester typing in
the tenth grade#
In the tenth grade, thirty-five of the forty-three
schools, or 81*4 percent, enrolled pupils in first-semester
bookkeeping.
Third-semester typing was taught in the
eleventh grade by thirty-five of the forty-three schools,
or 81*4 percent, of the schools#
Thirty-three of the thirty
nine schools, or 84*6 percent, enrolled pupils in thirdsemester shorthand in the twelfth grade#
In twenty-eight
of the thirty-six schools, or 77*8 percent, pupils were
enrolled in second-semester bookkeeping in the tenth grade#
In the twelfth grade, thirty of thirty-four schools, or 88 *S
percent, enrolled pupils in. office practice*
Thirty of .
thirty-two schools, or 93*8 percent, enrolled pupils in the
second-semester shorthand in the eleventh grade*
In ele­
mentary business, junior business, or everyday business,
twenty-nine of the thirty-one schools, or 93*5 percent,
79
TABLE X7XEI
Cm
LOCATION Off BUSINESS SUBJECTS AS INDICATED
.BY ENROLLMENTS IN fflffTY-THEEE HIGH SCHOOLS. .m
Subject
______
master
9r
Typing
Shorthand
Typing
Bookkeeping
Typing
Shorthand
Bookkeeping
Office Practice
Shorthand
Typing
Elementary Business, Junior
Business, or Everyday
Business
Bookkeeping
Business Law
Shorthand Bookkeeping
Elementary Business, Junior
Business, or Everyday
Business
Bale smanship
Secretarial Practice
Business Correspondence
Business English
Business Mathematics
Office Practice
Principles of Business
Consumer Education
Machine Calculation
Commercial or Economic
. Geography
Secretarial Practice
Shorthand and Transcription
Business English
Business Mathematics
SeGrade Location
10- 11 IS offering
1
1
13
a
i
3
3
9
,
a
1
g
4
43
9
40
35
00
30
41
08
09
35
9
08 19
0
9
.4 30
IE
06
07
04
04
03
33
17
30
16
18
48
47
45
43
43
39
36
34
30
30
10
7
13
08
31
30
30
04
01
*.
1
3
1
4
4
09
Z
1
1
1
1
1
z
18
1
1
i
1
i
10
i
0
7
5
3
a
i
1
a
a
la
X
4
a
i
a
X
a
a
a
Total
schools
5
04
7
3
16
10
3
15
4
5
11
9
4
8
6
7
10
18
15
10
7
10
9
IX
8
19
19
19
16
15
14
14
14
10
11
5
3
3
7
6
4
8
6
4
6
10
9
9
8
7
SO
a
80
TABLE XVXII (Continued)
GRADE LOCATION OF BUSINESS SUBJECTS AS INDICATED
BY ENROLLMENTS IN FIFTY-THREE HIGH SCHOOLS. ..
Subject
Sale sman ship
Advertising
Merchandising
Bookkeeping Practice
Office Machines
Accounting
Accounting
Commercial or Economic
Geography
Other Cooperative
Retail Selling
School Store Practice
General Economics
Machine Bookkeeping
Machine Calculation
Business Law
Consumer Education
Merchandising
Office Machines
Penmanship
Retail Selling
School Store Practice
Applied Economics
Bookkeeping Practice
Business Correspondence
Business English
Business Etiquette
Business Organisation and
Management
Business Problems
Commerce and Industry
Commerce and Industry
Comptometry
Economics, Business
Everyday Business
Se­
mester
Grade Location
0
10. 11
IB
2
1
5
3
1
1
1
I
2
1
1
1
3
1
1
2
A
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
2
2
3
2
A
6
A
3
3
3
7
6
6
5
3
A
A
1
A
2
A
3
3
2
2
1
B
1
1
I
2
1
A
A
A
A
3
3
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
I
1
1
1
1
1
3
Total
schools
offering
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
81
TABLE X V T H (Continued)
GRADE LOCATION GE BUSINESS SUBJECTS AS INDICATED
BY ENROLLMENTS IN EIETY-THREE HIGH SCHOOLS- ..
Subject
Foreign Trade
Machine Calculation
Machine Calculation
Multi graphing
Occupations
Office Service
Personal Planning
Personal Typing
Physical Geography
Spelling
Special Accounting
Special Mathematics
Store Clerh
Vocations
lhat About Jobs
lhat About Jobs
Se­
mester
Crags Location
9
10- 11
IS
1
1
1
1
3
4
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
X
1
1
1
Total
schools
oftaring
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
88
enrolled pupils in the ninth, grade*
Twenty -eight of the
thirty schools, or 93*3 percent, taught first-semester
business law in the twelfth grade*
Salesmanship was taught in the eleventh grade by fifteen
of the nineteen schools, or 78*9 percent, and in the twelfth
grade by twelve schools, or 63*E percent, of the schools* In
the twelfth grade, eighteen of the nineteen schools, or 94*7
percent, taught secretarial practice*
Fifteen of the sixteen
schools, or 93*8 percent, enrolled pupils in business corre­
spondence in the twelfth grade*
Of the seventy-nine business subjects, eleven subjects,
or 13*9 percent, were taught in all grades, thirty subjects,
or 38*0 percent, were taught in the tenth, eleventh, and
twelfth grades, forty-nine subjects, or 68*0 percent, were
taught in the eleventh and twelfth grades, and sixty-seven
subjects, or 84*8 percent, were taught in the twelfth grade*
In eleven subjects, or 13*9 percent, the pupils were able to
enroll at any time during their high school career*
Hence,
Table XVIII showed that in a large number of the schools the
particular grade in which a pupil enrolled In any one of the
business subjects was largely a matter of chance*
III.'
SHMM4BY
This chapter was devoted to departmental organization
and enrollments, and culminated the investigation of the
Easiness curricula*
The results of tills investigation were
briefly reviewed*
In analysis of departmental organization showed that
forty-six schools, or 86*8 percent, offered business courses
in a separate department*
Of the schools reporting separate
departments, forty schools, or 86*9 percent, called their
department the "Commercial Department*"
Forty-seven schools,
or 88*7 percent, reported having a chairman or head of the
department*
Of the thirty schools, or 56*6 percent, report­
ing periods for supervision of instruction b y .the chairman
or head of the department, seventeen schools, or 56*7 percent,
scheduled five periods per week*
Only five schools, or 9*4
percent, reported time scheduled for business contacts by
the chairman or head of the department*
In examination of enrollment revealed that twenty
schools, or 37*7 percent, were in southern California outside
of Los Angeles, fourteen schools, or £6*4 percent, were in
the Oakland and San Francisco Bay area, and six schools,
or 11*3 percent, were in the valley*
Of the 105,410 pupils
enrolled in the fifty*three high schools, 35,461 or 33*6
percent, were enrolled in one or more business courses*
The
tabulation also revealed that one-third of the pupils were
enrolled in one or more business courses, and over two-thirds
of them were girls*
Of the. 17,554 pupils above the tenth
grade reported as taking business courses, 7,869, or 44*8
84
percent, were talcing business courses for business em­
ployment*
The analysis also indicated that one-half of the
business majors were in the eleventh grade, and that threefourths were girls*
Apropos to the enrollments in specific business subjects,
the combined enrollment of typing, bookkeeping, and shorthand
was 29,497, or 83*0 percent, hence, they remain the most
popular subjects in the business curricula*
Of the seventy-
nine business subjects, the enrollment of the girls exceeded
the boys in fifty-eight, or 73*4 percent, end the boys
exceeded the girls in twenty-one, or 26*6 percent , of the
subjects*
The girls exceeded the boys in nskill*1 or
"technical1* business subjects, while the boys exceeded the
girls in the general business subjects, such as business
law, advertising, and general economics*
In regards to grade location, eleven subjects, or 13*9
percent, were taught in all grades, thirty subjects, or 38*0
percent, were taught in the tenth, eleventh, and twelfth
grades, forty-nine subjects, or 62*0 percent, were taught in
the eleventh and twelfth grades, and sixty-seven subjects,
or 84*8 percent, were taught in the twelfth grade*
Hence,
in a large number of the schools the particular grade in
which a pupil enrolled in any one of the business subjects
was largely a matter of chance*
In over three-fourths of the large high schools, the
business courses are offered in a separate department* which
implies that the large high schools have seen the need for
an organised department in business education to give unity
to the business courses offered the pupils for employment*
Again over three-fourths of the schools reporting a separate
department* call their department the "Commercial Department",
and have a head or chairman to supervise the work of the
department*
This type of organisation is satisfactory for
the large high schools* and the schools that did not report
such organisation, are recommended to take steps to organise
into a separate department*
However, the head or chairman
of the department should be releaved of a few more classes
to allow more time for supervision, business contacts* and
follow-up on employment of pupils*
The enrollments in specific business subjects very
definitely pointed out the fact* that the pupils enroll in
the technical, both fundamental and skill* subjects, such as
typing, bookkeeping* and shorthand* and pass up the background
subjects* such as economics, law, and consumer education*
More emphasis should be placed on the background subjects
for occupational intelligence and personal living*
By sex* the enrollments indicated that the girls were
concentrating on the technical subjects* and the boys were
concentrating on the general business or background subjects*
The girls should be required to take the background subjects
86
la addition to the technical subjects*
Probably enough
boys are taking the technical subjects to fill the positions
that are open for them*
The boys should continue to take
the general business or background subjects for employment*
Since grade location of subjects, as indicated by
enrollments, is large a matter chance with the pupil, it is
recommended that a study be made to determine the proper
location of the subjects*
For example, consumer education
is offered in one school in the ninth grade, and in another
school, it Is offered in the twelfth grade where It probably
belongs*
The technical and general business subjects
probably should be taken in the ninth, tenth, and eleventh
years, leaving some of the background subjects such as law,
economies, and consumer education for the twelfth year*
The status of the business curricula in offerings,
departmental organization, and enrollments was set forth in
Chapters II and I H *
The status of teacher personnel and
teaching load will be expounded in the ensuing chapter*
GHAPTSR IV
TEACHER PERSONNEL AND TEACHING LOAD
IN THE,LARGE HJBLIG HIGH SCHOOLS. O F .CALIFORNIA
In view of the status of the business curricula set
forth in the preceding chapters, it is important to consider
the educational and professional qualifications of the
teachers in charge of the business curricula*
Hence, this
chapter will present a picture of teacher personnel and
teaching load in regard to:
age, education and training,
number of years of experience, teaching preference, degrees
or certificates held, types of business experience, grade
levels and subject assignments, number of dally preparations,
and extracurricular activities of teachers*
I*
DESCRIPTION OF TEACHER PERSONNEL
The personal data concerning business teachers is of
primary interest in the evaluation of business instruction*
Thus, in considering the teacher personnel, replies were
compiled on age, education and training, experience,
teaching3preference, degrees, certificates, and business
experience*
Age of business teachers*
The age of teachers Is of
interest for retirement, and supply and demand*
The age
distribution for 31Z business teachers is presented in
Table XIX*
The ages range from twenty-one years to seventy
years, while the median group Is thirty-six to forty years*
Of the 512 teachers, fifteen, or 4.8 percent, were under
twenty-six years of age, forty, or 12*8 percent, were in the
age group of twenty-six to thirty, fifty-three each, or 17*0
percent, were in the age groups of thirty-one to thirty-five
and thirty-six to forty, forty-one, or 15*1 percent, were in
the age group of forty-one to forty-five, forty-nine, or 15.7
percent, were in the age group of forty-six to fifty, thirtytwo, or 10*3 percent, were in the age group of fifty-one to
fifty-five, fourteen, or 4*5 percent, were in the age group
of fifty-six to sixty, eleven, or 3*6 percent, were in the
age group of sixty-one to sixty-five, and four, or 1.3
percent, were in the age group of sixty-six to seventy*
Two hundred thirty-six, or 75*6 percent, of the teachers
were within the age limits of twenty-six to fifty years*
Degrees held by business teachers.
In Table XX the
degrees held by 311 business teachers were tabulated.
Of
the 511 teachers, 119, or 38*2 percent, had received a
Bachelor’s degree, fifty-six, or 18.0 percent, held both a
Bachelor’s and Master’s degree, forty-three, or 13*8 percent,
held a Baehelor of Science degree, thirteen, or 4.2 percent,
held a Bachelor of Education degree, thirteen, or 4*2 percent,
held both a Bachelor of Science and Master of Science degree,
and ten, or 3*2 percent, did not hold any degree.
89
“
SABLE XDC
AGES 03? 312 BUSINESS TEACHERS IN LARGE
. HJBLIC HIGH SCHOOLS OF- CALIFORNIA
Number of
Age Group_______________________________ Teachers
21-25
26-30
31—35
36-40*
41-45
46-50
51-55
56-60
61-65
66-70
(Medlar Group)
.
'
'.
15
40
53
53
41
49
32
14
II
4
90
. X&BC5 XX
DEGREES HELD BY 311 BUSINESS TEAQBmS IN FIFIY-IHHES
LARGE HIGH SCHOOLS OF -GALXFOBM1A.......
Degrees
Humber of teachers
119
R. A. 56
B. A* and M. A.
B. S. .
43
B* E.
13
B. S. and M. S.
13
None
10
?
B. S. and M * A.
M. A.
6
B. A* and M. S.
5
R. EL* and M. E.
3
B. L.
3
B. A* and B. E.
a
B. B. A*
B
A. Ed..
1
B* A * , B. S., L. L. B. , M« A. , B. P. E., J. B. p Ph. B. 1
B. A * , M. A., E d . B .
. .
- 1
B. A. t M. A. ^ M. Acchs.
1
B. A*, M. A., M. Ed.
1
B. A* and M. Bl.
1
B. Accts* and B. Ad.
1
B. R. A*
1
B. B. A. ahd M. A#
1
B. B. A* and M. S.
1
B, E . t Bi A . . M. A.
1
B. E. , M. E.
1
B. E. and Ivl* S.
1
B. L. and M. L.
1
B. of Music
1
B. of Phil.
1
B. S., B. A. f M. A.
1
B. S.* M. A. p M. S.
1
B. S. and M. B. A.
1
B. S. and Ph. D .
1
Ed. B,
1
L. L. B.
1
Me.,3.. and M. S .
1
91
KEX 2a DEGREES LISTED IN 'TABLE XS
A*
M. A #
B. s.
b . el*
M. 3*
b ; L.
B # B. A.
L. L. B.
B« P. E. a:
I • B.
PL • -D.
Ed . D.
M. Aects
M. Ed.
b ; Accts
M. E.
M* L.
B. of Mtisle
B # of Phil.
M. B. A.
m , » B. .
Me,• S.
Bachelor of Arts
Master of Arts
Bachelor of Science
Bachelor of Education
Master of Science
Bachelor of Law
Bachelor of Business Administration
Bachelor of Laws
; Bachelor of Political Economy
Doctor of Laws
Doctor of Philosophy
Doctor of Education
Master of Accounts
Master of Education
Bachelor of Accounts
Mining Engineer
Master of Law
Bachelor of Music
Bachelor of Philosophy
Master of Business Administration
Bachelor of Education
Master of Commercial Science
98
Of the 311 teachers, 844, or 78*4 percent, held five
degrees and combinations, namely:
Bachelor, Bachelor and
Master, Baciielor of Science, Bachelor of Education, and
Bachelor of Science and Master* s degree.
Bight degrees and
combinations were held by less than ten teachers, and twentythree were held by one teacher each.
A hey to degrees listed in Table XX follows the table*
This .hey should be read as follows:
B* A* in Table XX stands
for Bachelor of Arts, M. A. stands for Master of Arts, B* S*
stands for Bachelor of Science, B* B. stands for Bachelor of
Education, and M* S. stands for Master of Science*
The 311 business teachers held twenty-two different
degrees, which indicates that the degrees and certificates
should be standardised* as there a number of certificates
that do not mean anything to the teacher after he has received
than*
Types of institutions attended by business teachers.
The types of educational institutions attended by 565
business teachers were summarized in Table XXX*
The at­
tendance in high school ranged from one to six years,
with 565 teachers, or 100 percent, attending high school.
Three hundred nine teachers, or 84*7 percent, reported the
median of four years attendance in high school*
Twenty-three
teachers, or 6*3 percent, attended high school for three
years*
95
TABLE XXI
TYPES OF EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS ATTENDED
BY 565. BDSSSBSS.TEA0HEH8 ...
Tsars of
Attendance
Number of teachers reporting attendance in:
Graduate /
Special
High
School
School
(College
School
1/4
1/3
1/2
2/3
3/4
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
A
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
6
6
6
8
a
1
4
1
6
1
8
25
1
1
1
3
23
1
.20
12
1/4
1/3
1/2
3/4
7
1/4
1/3
1/2
2/3
3/4
1/4
1/2
3/4
10
309*
1/4
i/a
a/s
5/4
5
8
1/4
i/a
1
1/4
i/a
15
4
IB
1
11
75*
4
-
3
3_
223*
4
20
1
8
30
2
6
1
1
1
1
2
7
15
8
85
U
2
53*
7
m
4
11
1
13
1
3
5
1
1
6
I
JL
1
Indicates^ number of teachers reporting on the median
number .of years* attendance for each type of school; i # e. 75
teacher s reported 1 year of attendance in special school *
94
Attendance in college ranked from three-fomrths year to
eight years* with 341 teachers, or 93*4 percent, attending
college*
Of the 341 teachers, two hundred twenty-three,
or 65.4 percent, reported the median of four years, thirty,
or 8.8 percent, reported five years, and twenty each, or 5#9
percent, reported three years and four and one-half years
attendance in college*
The attendance in **special** school ranged from one-fourth
year to five years, with 182 teachers, or 49*9 percent,
attending ""special”' school*
Seventy-five of the 182 teachers,
or 41.2 percent, reported the median of one year attendance
in **special** school*
Twenty-three of the 182 teachers, or 12#6
percent, attended ”special** school for two years*
Two hundred fifty-eight teachers, or 70*7 percent,
attended graduate school ranging from one-fourth year to five
and one-half years*
Of the 258 teachers, eighty-five,
or 32*9 percent, attended one year, forty-nine, or 19*0 percent,
attended two years, and thirty-three, or 12.8 percent,
reported the median of one and one-half years attendance in
graduate school.
Institutions in which training: in business subjects
was received*
The institutions were listed with the number
of teachers having attended in Table XXII*
Of the 361
teachers reporting, 101, or 28*0 percent, attended the
University of California, sixty-eight, or 18.8 percent,
95
TABLE XXII
INSTITUTIONS IN WHICH TRAINING JM BUSINESS SUBJECTS
WAS RECEIVED BY 561 BUSINESS TEACHERS
Institution
Number ot teachers
having attended
University of California
High School
Business College
University of Southern California
University of California, Los Angeles>
Armstrong* s College
Heald*s Business College
Stanford University
Gregg School
Woodbury *s Business College
Oregon State College
San Jose State College
Los Angeles Normal School
College of Commerce
Columbia University
Merritt School of Business
Sawyer* s Business College
University of Washington
Southwestern University
Bryant Stratton, Si* Louis
Burrough* s School
Elliott Fisher School
Evening High School
Junior College
La Salle Extension School
Munsen Institute
Mansion? s School for Secretaries
Palmer School
Prince School of Store Service
Simmon*s College, Boston
Standard Business College
University of Oregon
California College of Commerce
Campbell Business College
Ferris Institute
Felt and Ferrant
Fresno State College
Kansas State College
101
68
67
66
XX
32
25
20
19
11
8
8
7
6
5
5
5
5
4
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
5
3
3
3
3
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
TABU? TOTTT
INSTITUTIONS IN WHICH TRAINING IN BUSINESS SUBJECTS
WAS RECEIVED BT 361 BUSINESS TEACHERS
Institution
Number of teachers
Hairing attended
MaeKay Easiness College
None
Pott*s Business College
Secretarial School
Simpson College
University of Arizona
University of Minnesota
University of Montana
University of New York
University of Ohio
University of Valparisa
Washington State College
Western Business College
We stern Iowa College
Accountancy Institute
American Institute of Banking
Augustana College
Barnes Business College
Bluff Grove
Burdett*s College
California Secretarial School
Cogwell College
College of Business Administration, Boston
College of Pacific
Comptometer School
Durham’s Business School
Gallagher Marsh School
Ganzaga University
Greenville College
Greer College
Griffin~Mhrphy School
Harvard University
Hastings College of Law
Idaho College of Commerce
Institute of Filing
Iowa College of Commerce
Kansas College of Commerce
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
i
i
i
l
i
i
i
l
i
l
i
i
i
l
l
l
i
i
i
i
i
i
1
TABLE: 2XII (Continued)
INSTITUTIONS IN WHICH TRAINING IN BUSINESS SUBJECTS
. WAS RECEIVED BY. 561 BUSINESS TEACHERS - .-
Institution
Kentucky Teacher's College
Lindenwood College
Little *s Business School
Margaret Place Business College
Mills College
Miller*s Business College
Minnesota State College
Monroe School
Montana State College
Park College
Parker Goddard School
Penn College
Pitaiam Business College
Pre-normal School
San Diego State College
School of Store Service, Boston
Spokane Expert School
Sprague Law School
Strayer's Secretarial School
Tempe State College
University of Chicago
University of Colorado
University of Dayton
University of Florida
University of Idaho
University of Iowa
University of Nebraska
University of New Mexico
University of South Dakota
University of Texas
fakeman Secretarial School
William Jewell College
Number of teachers
having attended
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
i
i
i
i
i
l
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
98
attended high school, sixty-seven, or 18*6 percent, attended
business college, sixty-six, or 18*3 percent, attended the
University of Southern California, forty-four, or 12.2
percent, attended the University of California at Los
Angeles, thirty-two, or 8.9 percent, attended Armstrong* s
College, twenty-f ive, or 6*9 percent, attended Heald*s
Business College, twenty, or 5*5 percent, attended Stanford
University, nineteen, or 5*5 percent, attended Gregg School,
and eleven, or 3*0 percent, attended Woodbury*s Business
College*
Of the 106 institutions reported, ten, or 9*4 percent,
were attended by more than ten teachers*
Thus, this tabu­
lation. showed that the business teachers attended a wide
range of institutions, of which the universities, high
schools, and business colleges were among the first ten
institutions attended for business training*
Two teachers
reported that they did not attend any institution for
business training*
Ma.iors and minors of business teachers*
The teaching
majors and minors of 051 business teachers were given in
Table XfcXXX.
Of the majors, commercial ranked first, with
seventy teachers, or 27*9 percent, reporting*
English
ranked second, with forty-eight, or 19*1 percent, of the
teachers*
Economics held third place, with forty-six,
or 18*5 percent, teachers reporting*
History was fourth,
99
TAHOV YTTTT
MAJOR ARB MINOR SUBJECTS REPORTED
BY 251- BUSINESS TEACHERS ’ . -
Major
inbject
Number'd
Number of
teachers Per- Minor
teachers
Perreporting eent sub ject_______ reporting _cent
Commercial
English
Economics
History
Education
Social Science
Mathematics
German
Latin
Spanish
Accounting
Political Science
Bookkeeping
French
Science
Physical Education
Shorthand
Biological Science
Secretarial Science
Chemistry
Greek
Music
Phili sophy
Psychology
Sociology
Typing
Zoology
Agriculture
Art
Botany
Geography
Home Economics
Italian
Merchandi sing
None
Penmanship
70
48
46
59
26
26
17
16
19
9
8
7
6
6
6
5
5
4
4
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
27*9 Eaglish19 *1 History
18.3 Goipmercial
15.5 Economics
10.4 Social Science
10.4 Education
6.8 Political Science
6.4 Mathematics
4.0 French
3.5 Science
3*2 Spanish
2*5 German
2.4 Physical Education
2.4 Botany
2*4 Public Speaking
2*0 Geography
2.0 Latin
1.6 Typing
1*6 Psychology
•8 Art
•8 Shorthand
*8 Zoology
.8 Geology
•a Hygiene
•8 Philosophy
•8 Physics
•8 Sociology
*4 Banking
*4 Bookkeeping
•4 Chemistry
*4 Greek
*4 Italian
.4 Journalism
•4 Music
*4 Natural Science
*4 Office Practice
55
44
42
33
28
23
17
14
13
9
9
7
7
6
6
5
5
5
4
3
3
3
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
21.9
17*5
16.7
13.1
11*2
9.2
6*8
5.6
5*2
3.5
3.5
2.5
2*5
2.4
2*4
2.0
2.0
2.0
1.6
1*2
1*2
1.2
*a
.8
.8
*8
.8
*4
*4
.4
*4
*4
♦4
*4
*4
100
TABUS XXIII (Continued)
MAJOR AND MINOR SUBJECTS REPORTED
BY 251 BUSINESS TEACHERS - .
Major
subject
Number of
teachers
renorting
Plant Science
Public Speaking
Reading
Salesmanship
Shop
1
1
1
1
1
Per­ Minor
cent subject
Number of
teachers
reporting
*4 Secretarial Practice 1
*4
*4
*4
.4
Percent
.4
101
with thirty-nine, or 15 ♦5 percent, of the teachers*
Education and social science ranked in fifth and sixth
position, with twenty-six teachers each reporting, or 10*4
percent, of the total*
Seventeen teachers, or 6*8 percent, reported mathe­
matics* . German was reported by sixteen teachers, or 6*4
percent, of the total*
Ten teachers, or 4*0 percent,
reported Latin*
Of the forty major subjects, thirty-one, or 7.7*5
percent, were reported by less than ten teachers, and nine,
or EE*5 percent, were reported by more than ten teachers*
Hence, there was a wide range of teaching majors reported*
One teacher reported that he did not have a teaching major*
Of the teaching minors, English ranked first, with
fifty-five, or 21*9 percent, of the teachers reporting*
History was second, with forty-four, or 17*5 percent* of
all the teachers*
Commercial was third, with forty-two,
or 16*7 percent, of the teachers reporting*
Economics
ranked fourth, with thirty-three teachers reporting, or 13*1
percent, of the total*
The fifth position was held by
social science, with twenty-eight, or 11*2 percent, of the
teachers*
Education ranked sixth, with twenty-three teachers
reporting, or 9*2 percent, of the total*
Of the thirty-seven teaching minors, twenty-eight,
or 75*7 percent, were reported by leas than ten teachers,
x
o
z
- and nine, on £4:*3 percent, were reported by more than ten
Commercial, English, economies, history, education,
teachers.
and social science were the first six teaching majors and
minors#
This tabulation showed a wide range of teaching
majors and minors*
Business subjects in which training was received*
The business subjects in which training was reported
by 377 business teachers are given in Table XXXY.
Typing
ranked first, with £77, or 73*5 percent, of the teachers
reporting#
Shorthand was second, with 161, or 4£*7 percent,
of all the teachers#
Bookkeeping was third, with 141,
or 37*4 percent, of the teachers*
Junior business training
ranked ifcmxrth, with fifty-five teachers reporting, or 14#6
percent, of the total*
The fifth position was held by
commercial law, with forty-nine, or 13*0 percent, of the
teachers#
Of the forty-eight business subjects, thirty-two,
or 66*7 percent, were reported by less than ten teachers,
and sixteen, or 33*3 percent, were reported by ten or more
teachers#
This analysis showed a wide range of business
subjects in which “training was received*
The three most
popular subjects in the business curricula, namely:
typing,
shorthand, and bookkeeping, were also the most popular
subjects in which training was received by business teachers*
Three teachers reported that they did not receive any
103
TABLET XXIV
b u s i n e s s s u bj ec ts i n w h i c h t r a i n i n g w a s r e p o r t e d
. BY. 377 BUSINESS TEACHERS .
Subject
Number ot
teachers
reporting
Typing
£77
Shorthand
161
Bookkeeping
141
Junior Business
. Training
55
Commercial Law
49
Business Mathematicsi 37
Accounting
33
Office Practice
31
Salesmanship
31
Business English
£8
Economic Geography
£3
Business .:
..
Correspondence
19
Law
16
Penmanship
16
13
Economics
Advertising
10
Business Machines
8
Business Principles
8
English
8
8
Machine Calculation
Merchandising
8
Consumer Education
5
Filing
4
Retail Selling
4
,
Number of
teachers
reporting
Percent
Subject
73.5
4£*7
37.4
Stenotype
Business Organisation
Commercial
Commercial Problems
Machine Bookkeeping
None
Office Appliance
Advanced Business
„ Mathematics
Arithmetic
Business Practice
Bur rough Machine
Comptometer Machine
Occupations
Secretarial Training
Social Studies
Auditing
14.6
13.0
9.8
B .8
8 .£
8.2
7 *4
6.1
5.0
4.£
4.£
3 .4
£.7
2.1
2.1
2.1
£.1
£.1
1.3
1.1
1.1
.
Business
Administration
Business Education
Business Management
Buying Education
Commercial Curriculum
Elliott Machine
Monroe Machine
Per­
cent
4
3
3
3
3
3
3
1.1
.8
.8
.8
.8
.8
.8
£
£
£
£
£
a
£
£
♦5
.5
♦5
.5
.5
.5
.5
.5
.3
.3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
I
1
.3
.3
.3
.3
.3
.3
.3
104
training in business subjects*
Training experience of business teachers*
Months of
business sub ject instruction received in high school or
evening school, business college or private school, college
semester units, and methods course instruction were tabu­
lated in Table HIT,
In typing thirty-two, or 8*8 percent,
of all the teachers received twenty months of training in
high school and evening school*
Seventy-one, or 19*5
percent, of the teachers reported from six to twelve months,
and twenty-six, or 7*1 percent, of the teachers reported
under six months training in typing in business find private
school*
Fifty-six, or 15*3 percent, of the teachers
reported from six to twelve months of training in shorthand
in business and private school*
In bookkeeping, thirty-four,
or 9.5 percent, of the teachers received from six to twelve
months of training in business and private schools*
This analysis showed a wide range of from one to thirtysix months of business subject instruction received in high
school and evening high school, and a range of one to sixty
months in business and private schools.
Apropos to college semester units of instruction in
business subjects, twenty-four teachers, or 6.6 percent,
received from three to four units in typing.
Twenty-three,
or 6*3 percent, of the teachers received under six college
semester units of instruction in bookkeeping*
In shorthand,
105
table
xxir
MONTHS OF BUSINESS SUBJECT INSTRUCTION RECEIVED IK
HIGH SCHOOLS, EVENING SCHOOLS, OH BUSINESS AND PRIVATE
SCHOOLS BY 565 CALIFORNIA HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS ~
Subject
Number of teachers reporting
months of training in:
High School and
Business, and
Evening School
Private Schools
Months of dumber of Months of Number of
teachers
training
teachers
training
Accounting
5—10
SO—30
36
3
S
IS
1
Advertising
Arithmetic
Auditing
Banking
Bookkeeping
Under 5
5-10
11-SO
21-36
Business Administration
Business Correspondence
Business English
Business Machines
Business Management
Business Mathematics
Business Organization
Business Principles
Burrough Machine
Commercial
5
5
SO
36
1
5
18
15
10
Under 6
6—IE
13-S4
42-48
Under 6
16
81
3
6
8
Under 6
6—IS
13-24
25-3?
60
1
6
3
3
2
1
1
1
1
1
15
34
15
6
1
s
4
a
Under 6
2
6-12
5
1
10
3
20-36
Under 6
SO
40
1
1
6-12
20
4
2
2
5
10
I
12
1
1
1
5-10
SO
10
1
Under 6
7
36
6—12
6
13-20
3
6
1
1
1
1
IS
4-5
a
2
106
TABLE (Continued)
MONTHS OF BUSINESS SUBJECT INSTRUCTION RECEIVED IN
HIGH SCHOOLS , EVENING SCHOOLS» OR BUSINESS AND PRIVATE
SCHOOLS BY 365 CALIFORNIA H I ® SCHOOL TEACHERS .
Number at teachers reportingmonths of training in:
High School and
Business and
Subject
Evening Sobool
Private School_____
Months of Number of Months of Number of
_______ :______ training
teachers
training
teachers
Commercial Law
Under 6
6-1E
Comptometer
Commercial Education
Economic Geography
Economics
Ehglish
Filing
IE
8
Under 6
6—IS
13-84
36-48
I
E
6
5-10
6
Under 6
84
E
5
1
1
Under 6
6-18
84
15-18
60
18
3
IE
Junior Business
. Training
Under 6
10
3
6
Law
Machine Bookkeeping
Machine Calculation
Merchandising
Monroe Machine
Occupations
Office Appliances
Office Practice
6-10
10
10
4
E
7
E
Under 6
6-18
18
6-18
1
6
8-6
1
S
1
10
4
Under 6
E
6
-9
E
4-18
81
18
IE
If
18
3
7
Under 6
6 -1 S
18
4
11
6
8
8
1
1
8
1
8
1
1
1
1
6
a
i
4
E
5
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
4
9
1
107
TABLE (0 ontlimed)
MONTHS OF BUSINESS SUBJECT INSTHUCTION RECEIVED XN
H I ® SCHOOLS, EVENING SCHOOLS, OB BUSINESS AND PRIVATE
SCHOOLS BY 565 CALIFORNIA H I ® SCHOOL TEACHERS^ Number of teachers reporting
months of training in:
High School and
Business and
Evening School
Private School
Months of Number of Months of Number of
training
teachers
teachers
Penmanship
5-6
8
5
10
Shorthand
36
5
9
Under 6
6-12
13-18
20
30
Stenotype
Typing
5
12
20
2
1
1
1
4
Retail Selling
Sales
4-6
Under 6
3
4
1
1
7
7
4
13
3
20
19
15
9
32
21-30
2
6-10
11-18
10
Under 6
6-12
4
5
15-25
2
2-6
Under 6
6-12
4
16
56
13-18
20-30
36-42
3-4
Under 6
10
11
6
2
6-12
13-18
20-30
31-41
26
71
16
13
7
108
TABLE, XXV (Continued)
COLLEGE SEMESTER UNITS AND METHODS c o u r s e i n s t r u c t i o n
IN BUSINESS.SUBJECTS HECEI¥ED BY 365 CALIFORNIA HIGH SOEOOL BUSINESS TEACHERS
Subject
Number of teachers reporting:
College semester
units of Ins trust Ion
- Methods :
Number of
course
Units
teachers
instruction
Accounting
20
11-20
6
7
6
30
1
0
a-6
ao
4
3
Under 6
23
17
17
8
4
3
Under 6
6-10
Advanced Business
Mathematics
Advertising
Auditing
Boolckeeping
Business
Business
Business
Business
1
6-10
,
Administration
Correspondence
Education
English
Business Machines
Business Management
Business Mathematics
Business Organization
Business Principles
11-15
16-ao
ai-30
31-40
80
6
2-6
2-4
Under 6
6-12
9
1
£-3
4-6
6
2-5
12
Buying Education
Commercial
Commercial Law
1
65
2-4
a
Under 6
6—10
11-15
40
120
1
2
7
2
10
81
1
8
2
11
4
1
1
6
6
2
3
0
8
3
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
18
14
21
3
1
1
109
TABLE XXV (Continued)
COLLEGE SEMESTER UNITS AND METHODS COURSE INSTHUGTION
IN BUSINESS.SUBJECTS RECEIVED BY 365 .
CALIFORNIA HIGH SGHOOL BUSINESS TEACHERS
Number of teachers reporting:
College semester
units of instruction
Methods
Number of
course
Units
teachers______instruction
Commercial Education
Economic Geography
Economics
Ecglish
-2
1
12
Under „6
6—10
11-15
24
2-
5
2
1
6
10-15
52
4
10
50-36
Filing
Junior Business
. Training
1
0
6
4
4
1
2
5
7
3
4
2
Under 6
16
6—8
Law
Machine Bookkeeping
Machine Calculation
Merchandising
Monroe Machine
Office Appliances
Office"Practice
Penmanship
15-20
50-40
5
2
86
2
1
1
1
1^6
3
0
1
4
2
8-10
2
3-6
Under 6
6-10
13-20
1-3
4-8
20
4
7
1
2
24
6
3
4
5
1
12
110
TABLE ZCT (Continued)
COLLEGE SEMESTER UNITS AND METHODS COURSE INSTRUGTTON
IN BUSINESS_SUBJECTS RECEIVED BT 365
CALIFORNIA HIGH SCHOOL BUSINESS TEACHERS
Subject
Retail Selling
Sales
Secretarial Training
Shorthand
Number of teachers reporting:
. College semester
.
units of instruction
Methods
Number “of
course
Units
teachers______inst-niGti on
6
20
Under 6
6-10
1
1
12
11-15
2
Under 6
SS
19
14
2
X
2
105
5
24
19
19
183
19
4
1
6-10
11-15
SO— 30
4:6
Social Studies
Stenotype
typing
1
11-12
Under S
3-4
5-6
8-10
11-18
20-30
12
5
1
2
1X1
twenty-two, or 6#0 percent, of the teachers received under
six college semester units of instruction#
The college
semester units of instruction in business subjects ranged
from one to eighty f which. Indicates a high degree of
variability of instruction received in college in the
business subjects#
Methods course instruction was received in typing
by 183 teachers, or 50#1 percent, of the total#
One hundred
five teachers,
or 28#8 percent, reported methods instruction
in shorthand#
Methods instruction was received in bookkeeping
by eighty-one,
or 22#2 percent, of the teachers#
or 6#6 percent, of the
in office practice#
Twenty-four,
teachers received methods instruction
Methods instruction was received in
commercial law by twenty-one teachers, or 5 #8 percent, and
in aceo\inting by twenty teachers, or 5#5 percent, of the
total#
Methods course instruction was received in thirty-five,
or 89#7 percent, of the thirty-nine business subjects, in
which college semester units of instruction was reported#
The four business subjects in which no methods course
instruction was received, were advanced business mathematics,
business management, commercial education, and machine
calculation*
This indicates that some instruction in the
methods of teaching almost all of the business subjects was
received #
11S
Certificates held by business teachers*
Xn Table XX7X
the certificates held by 320 business teachers were tabu­
lated#
Of the 320 teachers, 170, or 53.1 percent, had
received a General Secondary certificate, seventy-one,
or 22.2 percent, held a Special Secondary in Commerce,
twenty-seven, each, or 8.4 percent, held a Special Secondary
certificate and a General Secondary and Administration, and
twenty-six, or 8*1 percent, held a General Secondary and a
Special Secondary in Commerce*
Of the forty combinations of certificates, thirty-five,
or 87*5 percent, were held by less than ten teachers, of
which twenty-one combinations, or 52.5 percent* were held
by one teacher each.
Eleven types of certificates were held
by the business teachers, which were in the order of their
frequency:
General Secondary, Special Secondary in Commerce*
Special Secondary* Administration, General Elementary,
Junior High* Supervision, Junior College, Special Secondary
and English* Special Secondary and Physical Education, and
Special Music.
This analysis revealed that more than one-half of the
business teachers held General Secondary certificates, and
that less than one-fourth of the teachers held a Special
Secondary in Commerce*
Teaching experience of business teachers*
In Table
XXrai is indicated the years of experience as a classroom
115
tabu :x n x
CERTIFICATES HELD BY 320 BUSXMESS TEACHERS
XH CALIFORNIA HXCH SCHOOLS, , .
Certificates
Number of teachers
General Secondary
170
Special Secondary in Commerce
71
27
Special Secondary
General Secondary and Administration
27
General Secondary and Special Secondary in
26
Commerce
General Elementary and Special Secondary in
Commerce
6
Special Secondary in Commerce and Administration
6
5
Special Secondary and General Secondary
General Elementary, General Secondary, and
4
Special Secondary in Commerce
General Elementary, Junior High, and Special
4
Secondary in Commerce
4
Special Secondary in Commerce and Supervision
4
Special Secondary and Supervision
5
General Secondary and Junior College
General Secondary and Life
3
General Secondary, Special Secondary in Commerce,
2
Supervision, and Administration
General Secondary, Special Secondary in Commerce,
2
and Supervision
General Secondary, Supervision, and Administration 2
Special Secondary and Junior High
2
Special Secondary and General Elementary
2
General Secondary, Life, and Special Secondary in
1
Commerce
General Secondary, Life, and Special Secondary in
1
Commerce, Life
1
Special Secondary and English
General Elementary, Special Secondary in
1
Commerce, and Physical Education
Special Secondary in Commerce, Junior College,
1
and Administration
Special Secondary and Supervision
1
General Elementary, Special Secondary in
Commerce, and Administration
1
114
TABLE 2XVT (Continued)
CEBTIKGASEES HELD BY 320 BUSINESS TEACHERS
. . IN CALIFORNIA HIGH SCHOOLS.
Certificates
Number at teachers
Special Secondary in Commerce, and
Physical Education
Junior High and General Elementary
Special Secondary, General Secondary, and
Junior High
Special Secondary in Commerce, and Supervision
General Secondary, Special Secondary in
Commerce, and Administration
Special Secondary in Commerce, and Junior High
General Secondary and Supervision
.
General Secondary and General Elementary
* Junior High
General Elementary, Physical Education, and
Administration
Special Music and General Secondary
General Secondary, General Elementary, Special
Secondary in Commerce, and Administration
General Elementary, Special Secondary, and
Special Secondary in Commerce
Special Secondary in Commerce and Junior High
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
teacher in all subject fields as reported by three hundred
sixty business teachers#
The experience ranged from one-half
year to fifty years, with fourteen years as the median#
Of the 560 teachers, forty-nine, or 14*1 percent, had
less than fire years teaching experience, eighty-seven,
or B4*£ percent, had from five to ten years, sixty-four,
or 17#8 percent, had from eleven to fifteen years, sixtyone, or 16*0 percent, had from sixteen to twenty years,
forty-nine, or 14#1 percent, had from twenty-one to twentyfive years, twenty-eight, or 7 #8 percent, had from
twenty-six to thirty years, fourteen, or 3*9 percent, had
from thirty-one to forty years, and two, or *6 percent,
had from forty-one to fifty years of experience as class­
room teachers in all subject fields*
One hundred fifty-one
teachers, or 41*9 percent, had from five to fifteen years
of experience*
This tabulation revealed that the business teachers
had a wide range of experience as classroom teachers in
all subject fields*
Since the compulsory retirement at
the age of sixty-five, no teacher will teach fifty years
any more*
Business teaching, experience of business teachers*
The experience as classroom teachers of business subjects
reported by 364 business teachers was tabulated in Table
2X711*
The experience ranged from one-half year to fifty
116
TABLE. 2XVXI
EXPERIENCE AS CLASSROOM TEACHER IN ALL
SUBJECT FIELDS REPORTED BT 360.BUSINESS TEACHERS
„. XN CALXFGBNXiL HXGK SCHOOLS
- -■ ■
' *■
Years of
experience
i
1
5
8
X*
2
Si
3
3i
4
4i
5
5i
6
6i
7
7i**
5
(Q,uartile 1)
8
8i
9
10
10i
11
Hi
12
12f
13
14*** (Median)
15
15i
16
isi
17
17i
Number of
teaciiers
15
3
5
1
5
2
7
5
12
3
7
2
8
5
13
2
20
3
10
3
15
1
8
18
7
2
lO
l
11
2
Years of
experience
Number of
teaebers
IS
18%
19
19%
13
3
4
eq
15
£G§
El
Elf
23** (Quartile 3)
EE% ,
E3
E4
E5
E5%
E6
E7
B7%
E8
E8 %
E9
30
31
3E
33
35
37
38
38%
40
44
50
1
1
9
3
11
E
8
5
10
1
4
4
1
7
1
1
10
1
E
3
1
3
S
•
1
1
1
1
11?
T A B LE X X V T II
EXPERIENCE AS CLASSROOM TEACHERS OF BUSINESS
SUBJECTS REPORTED BY 364 -BUSINESS TEACHERS
IN CALIFORNIA HIGH SCHOOLS.
Years of
experience
4
Number of
teachers
13
U
7
15
X
1*
a
1
3
9
a
9
a
13
5
4
4k
5
i/o
gW
6*
(Quartlle l)
3
8
7
7*
9
**£
10
lof
11
1X4
12 *** (Median)
12i
o i
-
13
11
a
14
4
14
a
ai
a
9
i
18
a
14
Years of
experience
Number of
teachers
14
15
15§
16
16*
1?
18
18*
19
X9.J** (Quartlie 3)
ao
ai
21*
aa
as*
as
E4
as
E6
B6*
as
30
sa
35
38
50
18
ia
a
15
a
9
14
3
6
3
18
4
3
7
1
7
a
7
a
i
4
9
a
i
l
i
1X8
years, with twelve years as the median*
The median for
business teaching experience was two years lower than the
median of fourteen for teaching experience in all subject
fields as repealed in Table XXVXI*
This indicates that the
teachers teaching in all subject fields have two more years
of teaching experience than those who
teach only business
subjects#
Of the 364 teachers, sixty-nine, or 19*0 percent, had
less than five years business teaching experience, ninetynine, or 37*3 percent, had five to ten years, seventy-six,
or 30*9 percent, had eleven to fifteen years, sixty-eight,
or IS#7 percent, had sixteen to twenty years, thirty-one,
or 8#5 percent, had twenty-one to twenty-five years,
sixteen, or 4*4 percent, had twenty-six to thirty, four,
or 1*1 percent, had thirty-one to forty years, and one had
fifty years of experience as classroom teacher of business
subjects*
One hundred seventy-five teachers, or 48*1
percent, had from five to fifteen years of experience.
This analysis revealed that over one-fourth of the
business teachers had five to ten years, and one-fifth of
the business teachers had eleven to fifteen years of
experience teaching business subjects*
Twenty-four, or 6*6
percent, of the teachers were teaching their first year*
Experience as supervisor in all subject fields of
business teachers*
in Table 2XEX is summarized the
119
experience as classroom supervisor in any and ail subject
fields as reported by eighty-three * or BE. 7 percent, of all
the teachers#
The experience as supervisor included
chairman, head of department, and supervisor#
The experience
ranged from one-half year to twenty-eight years, with five
years as. median#
Of the eighty-three.teachers, twenty-five, or 50#1
percent, had from one-half year to two years of experience
as supervisor, sixteen, or 19#3 percent, had from three to
five years, twenty, or S4#l percent, had from six to ten
years, eleven, or 13*5 percent, had from eleven to fifteen
years, four, or 4 #8 percent, had from sixteen to twenty
years, and five, or 6.0 percent, had from twenty-one to
twenty-eight years of experience as supervisor in any and
all subject fields#
Forty-three teachers, or 51.8 percent,
had from one-half year to five years of experience as
supervisor.
Hence, almost one-third of the teachers had from onehalf year to two years, over one-half of the teachers had
five or less years, and almost one-fourth of the teachers
had from six to ten years of experience as supervisor#
Experience as supervisor in business subjects of
business teachers#
Xn Table XXX is indicated the experience
as classroom supervisor of business subjects reported by
eighty business teachers* . The experience ranged from
120
T&Em H E
EXPERIENCE AS CLASSROOM SUPERVISOR
IK ART AKX> ALL SUBJECTS FIELDS REPORTED BY
S3 TEACHERS IK CALIFORNIA
, Years of experience
4s
1
2 **(QuartUe 1}
2* .
3
4
5*** (Median)
6
„
.
7
7i
a
8i
9
10**(Qnartlle 3)
11
.
12
13
14
15
17
IS
20
22
25
2S
: Number of teachers
•
l
1
9
14
1
6
7
1
4
4
5
i
i
1
4
4
1
2
1
3
3
1
2
1
1
1
2
2
XEX
TAKLS m
SXPERXSHOE AS QLASSROOM SOPERYISGR
OF B03INESS.SOBJESTS RSFORTSB BY SO TEACHSB IN
..
CALIFORNIA HIGSH SCHOOLS.
Years of experlence
§
X
B**
(QaartXla X)
3
4:
4i
5***{Median)
Number of "teacher’s
X
XX
XE
X
7
4
X
5
_
6
-
3
4
X
7
7i
8
3
B|
B
3
4
x
3
XX
XE
13
X4
X5
X5f
X7
X8
ao
El
EE
£5
BQ
^
1
£
X
X
X
E
X
X
x
X
E
2
12B
one-half year to twenty-nine years , with live years as tlie
median#
Experience as supervisor Included chairman or head
of department.
Of the eighty, or SS#0 percent, of all the teachers,
twenty-five, or 31*3 percent, had from one-half year to two
years of experience as supervisor, seventeen, or 21*3
percent, had from three to five years, twenty, or 25.0
percent, had from six to ten years, seven, or 8*8 percent,
had from eleven to fifteen years, four, or 5*0 percent, had
from sixteen to twenty years, and seven, or 8*8 percent,
had from twenty-one to twenty-nine years of experience as
supervisor of business subjects*
Forty-two teachers,
or 52*5 percent, had from one-half year to five years
experience as supervisor*
Thus, almost one-third of the teachers had from onehalf year to two years, over one-half of the teachers had
five or less years, and one-fourth of the teachers had from
six to ten years of experience as supervisor of business
subjects*
Experience as school administrator of business teachers*
In Table X O X is given the experience as school administrator
as reported by sixty-five business teachers*
The experience
as school administrator included principal, vice-principal,
and superintendent of schools*
The experience ranged from
one-half year to thirty-two years, with four years as the
123
table
xrenc
EXPERXEMCE AS SCHOOL ADMH1XSTHATOR OF 65
BOSIWSSS TEACHERS IN CALIFORNIA HI®: SCHOOLS
Years of experience_______
i
I
Z
5
4 *** (Median)
5
Number ot teachers
.
*
15
11
Q
5
4
7
4
3
10
11
4
1
is
13
14
16
20
a
X
X
g
1
26
32
1
1
1
6
124
median#
0f the sixty-five, or 17#9 percent, of all the teachers,
twenty-seven, or 41*5 percent, had from one-half year to
two years of experience as school administrator, sixteen,
or 24.6 percent, had from three to five years, eleven,
or 16*9 percent, had from six to ten years, five, or 7*7
percent, had from eleven to fifteen years, three, or 4*6
percent, had from sixteen to twenty years, and three, or 4*6
percent, had from twenty-two to thirty-two years of
experience as school administrator*
Forty-three teachers,
or 66*2 percent, had from one-half year to five years of
experience as school administrator*
therein, over one-third of the teachers had from onehalf to two years, two-thirds of the teachers had five or
less years, and one-fourth of the teachers had from three
to five years of experience as school administrator*
Total educational experience of business teachers *
The experience as school administrator, supervisor, and
teacher in all subject fields, was tabulated in Table
XXXIX for 524 business teachers*
The experience ranged
from one-half year to fifty years, with fifteen years as
the median*
The median for total educational experience
was one year higher than the median of fourteen for
teaching experience in all subject fields as revealed in
Table X X 7 H #
125
TABLE
TOTH. EIXTGATIONAL KXPSBXSNQS OF 334 BUSINESS
TEACHERS. IN CALIFORNIA HIGH SCHOOLS.
Years of
experience
Number of
teaekers
A
«
1
1*
3
3
4
44
5
54
6
si. .
7
(Qjiartile l)
7*
,
S
8*
9
§*
10
10*
11
ui
12
13
14
14*
15 *** (Median)
15*
16
ia|
17
x?*
4
5
7
11
1
5
1
3
2
4
7
3
3
6
2
9
6
12
1
13
3
7
3
13
10
18
1
a
i
9
i
10
2
Years of
experience
Numb er of
te ackers
18
is*
19
19*
20
20*
21 ** (Ouartile 3)
21*
22
23
23*
24
25
25*
26
27
27*
28
29
30
31
32
35
54
35
37
38
40
41
44
45
. 48
50
12
2
6
1
14
1
8
3
14
10
2
3
10
1
9
5
3
5
3
11
1
5
1
4
1
3
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
126
0f the 324 teachers, thirty-nine, or 12*0 percent, had
less than five years of educational experience, sixty-nine,
or 21*3 percent, had from five to ten years, sixty-one,
or 18*8 percent, had from eleven to fifteen years, fiftyeight, or 17.9 percent, had from sixteen to .twenty years,
fifty-one, or 15*7 percent, had from twenty-one to twentyfive years, thirty-four, or 10*5 percent, had from twenty-six
to thirty years, eighteen, or 5*6 percent, had from thirtyone ?to forty years, and five, or 1*5 percent, had from
forty-one to fifty years of educational experience*
One
hundred thirty, or 40*1 percent, had from five to fifteen
years of educational experience*
Hence, one-eighth of the teachers had less than five
years of experience, and over one-fifth of the teachers
had from five to ten years of experience as school adminis­
trator, supervisor, and teacher In all subject fields*
Total experience in business education of business
teachers*
In Table XXXIII is given the experience as
supervisor or head of department and as teacher of business
subjects for 344 business teachers*
The experience ranged
from one-half year to fifty years, with twelve and one-half
years as the median*
The median for total experience in
business education was two and one-half years lower than
the median of fifteen for total educational experience as
shown In Table XXXIX*
This implies that the business
xe?
TABLE.
TOTAL IXPS&IENCE IN BUSINESS EDUCATION OF 344:
.BUSINESS TEACHERS IN CALIFORNIA.HIGH SCHOOLS
Years of*
experience
i •
X
li
E
24
3
ccX
Og
4
4§
5
5§
a
6§. ^
7 ** (Quartile X)
7i
8
.
ai
9
xo
xo §
XX
xxi
XE
XEi *** (Median)
X3
X4
15
X5i
Number of
teachers
XX
XX
a
XX
X
7
E
9
Z
XX
5
5
3
6
3
9
E
15
E
EO
E
8
E
EE
X
X3
16
10
X
'Years of
experience
Number o f ;.
teachers
16
16*
17
18
18*
19
19*
EO
EX
Eli
EE
EE* ** (Quartlie 3)
E3
E4
E5
E6
E7
£7*
£8 '
£8*
E9
30
5E
33
34
35
40
4E
50
8
E
XX
16
E
XO
E
14
5
3
7
1
8
4
4
4
E
1
3
X
X
9
E
X
X
3
X
3
X
128
teachers teaching in all subject fields have more experience
than tkose who teach only business education*
Of the 344 teachers, sixty, or 17*4 percent, kad less
tkan five years of experience in business education, eightyone, or 23*5 percent, kad from five to ten years, seventythree, or 21*2 percent, kad from eleven to fifteen years,
sixty-five, or 18*9 percent, kad from sixteen to twenty years,
thirty-two, or 9*3 percent, had from twenty-one to twentyfive years, twenty-one, or 6*1 percent, kad from twenty-six
to thirty years, eight, or 2*3 percent, had from thirty-one
to forty years, and four, or 1*2 percent, had from forty-one
to fifty years of experience in business education*
Thus, almost one-fifth of the teachers had less tkan
five years, almost one-fourth of tke teachers kad from five
to ten years, and one-fifth of tke teachers had from eleven
to fifteen years of experience as supervisor or head of
department and as teacher of business subjects*
This
connotes that the business teachers vary greatly in the
number of years of experience in business education*
Business experience of business teachers*
Business
jobs formerly held by 340 business teachers were tabulated
in Table XXXXY.
Of tke 388 business teachers reporting,
forty-eight, or 12*4 percent, did not have any business
experience*
The months of experience in business jobs
ranged from three months to 246 months, with tke highest
139
BUSINESS JOBS FORMERLY HELD BY 340
CALIFORNIA HIGH. SCHOOL BUSINESS TEACHERS
Business job
Bookkeeper
S tenographer
Secretary
Store Clerk
Office Clerk
F U e Clerk
Salesman
Accountant
Sales Clerk
Months
6-13
18-34 .
30-48
54-96
136 -180
6—13
18-34
50-48
54-96
144—180
6-13
18-34
30-48
60-96
108-193
6-13
18-34
30-48
54r»66
130-133
6-13
18-34
36-60
73-96
6-13
34-66
130-136
6-13
18-36
43-84
346
6-13
34-48
60-96
130-144
6-13
18-36
60-96
Number of
teachers
68
30
31
Total
Percent
151
44*4
138
37*6
133
55*9
64
18*8
63
18.5
35
10.3
33
9*4
31
9il
37
7.9
a
6
81
18
16
13
3
55
36
35
13
6
43
13
5
3
3
59
14
7
3
38
5
3
18
a
5
1
15
7
6
3
11
13
5
130
TABLE XXXIV (Continued)
BUSINESS JOBS FORMERLY HELD BY 340
CALIFORNIA HIGH. SCHOOL BUSINESS TEACHERS
Business job
Months
6-12
18-36
48-96
120-156
Cashier
6-12
18—36
72^144
typist
6-12
*
18-36
42-66
Auditor
6-12
18-56
96-144
Office Manager
12-36
54-72
192
Bill Clerk
6-24
126
Stock Clerk
6-18
Store Manager
6—84
72-108
General Office Work
6-56
General Clerk
6—30
72-78
Director of Personnel 12-36
Insurance Agent
6-48
Beportef
6-36
Statistieian
6-24
Director of Education
. and Store
12-96
Factory
6-18
Telephone Operator
6-12
Sales Manager
18-42
Superintendent
3-48
Timekeeper
6-24
Advertising Copy Writer 6-24
Advertising Manager
84-42
Manager-
Humber of
teachers
Total
Percent
23
6*8
21
6*2
21
6*2
7
7
6
3
12
5
4
14
4
2
7
6
3
5
5
1
6
1
9
4
5
5
3
8
4
4
4
4
15
4*4
11
3*2
9
2*6
9
7
2*6
2*1
6
5
1*8
1*5
4,
4
4
4
1*2
1*2
1*2
1*2
5
3
3
3
3
3
2
2
3
5
5
5
5
3
2
2
*9
*9
.9
*9
.9
*9
♦6
•6
TABLE i m f
(Continued)
BUSINESS JOBS FORMERLY HELD BY 340
CALIFORNIA HIGH SCHOOL BUSINESS TEACHERS
Business job
Months
Dictaphone
6-18
Head of Department
6-12
Machine Bookkeeping
6-18
Office Assistant
6-24
P* B. X # Operator
6-54
Heal Estate
12-48
Service Study
12-30
Treasurer
30-36
IB
Assistant Buyer
Assistant Editor
12
Banking
12
Bank Teller
72
Builder
12
* 78
Business Broker
Business Research
12
Civil Service
30
Civil Service Coaching
12
Delivery Clerk
24
Demonstrator and Teacher
of Comp tome try
48
Demonstrator and Teacher
of Shorthand
6
Deputy and County
Superintendent of
Schools
36
Director of Store
Training
60
Editor
84
24
Editorial Staff
Foreman
24
Inve stigator
12
Librarian
12
Library Assistant
18
Newspaper Advertiser
12
Newspaper Writer
12
Normal Trainer of
Stenotype
IS
Number of
teachers
Total
Percent
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
!►
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
I
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
*6
♦6
♦6
*6
*6
*6
*6
♦6
.3
•3
•3
•3
«3
*3
.3
*3
.3
*3
1
1
*3
1
1
43
1
1
•3
1
1
I
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
43
*3
43
•3
43
43
•3
43
♦3
1
1
.
43
132
TABLE ZXXIV (Continued)
BUSINESS JOBS FORMERLY HELD BY 340
CALIFORNIA HI®; SCHOOL BUSINESS TEACHERS
Business job
Pasrmaster
Placement Assistant
Scenario Writer
Store Floor
Superintendent
Title Searcher
Training Department
Tutor in Business
Months
dumber ot
teachers
Total
Percent
6
£40
IS
1
1
1
1
1
1
♦3
•3
6
6
IS
6
X
1
1
1
1
X
1
1
43
43
.3
.3
•3
frequencie s at six and twelve months*
01* the sixty-nine
business jobs bald by business teachers,
fourteen, or EO.3
percent, were held by more than ten teachers, and twenty-f our,
or 34*8 percent, were held by less than ten teachers, and
thirty-one, or 44*9 percent, were held by one teacher each*.
therein, the business teachers held a wide range of
business jobs*
As indicated by the length of experience,
the business teachers obtained their experience by parttime office work: while in college, by office work during
the summer, and by full-time office work*
Shis tabulation of business experience revealed the
first hand knowledge of clerical and commercial activities,
the business teachers had received to successfully train
the girls and boys through demonstration to perform these
same activities in the business world#
IX.
GRADE IOTELS AUB SUBJBBT ASSIGNMENTS
Apropos to grade levels, each business teacher was
asked to report each grade in which he taught a business
subject*
Under subject assignments the business teacher
was asked to indicate whether he was teaching business
subjects because he preferred to teach such subjects, or
because he was Assigned by his principal to teach such
subjects*
Then the teaching preferences will be considered.
Grade levels of business teachers*
In Table XXXV were
summarized the grade levels in which 574 business teachers
teach business subjects*
Of the 374: teachers, eighty,
or El*4 percent, reported classes on the ninth grade level,
two hundred thirty, or 61*5 percent, reported classes on
the tenth grade level, ££6, or 60*4 percent, reported
classes on the eleventh grade level, and £97, or 79*4
percent, reported classes on the twelfth grade level*
Thus, the business teachers taught one-fifth of their
business classes on the ninth grade level, three-f if th s
of their classes on the tenth and eleventh grade levels,
and over three-fourths of their classes on the twelfth
grade level*
Subject assignments of business teachers*
Of the three
hundred eighty-one business teachers reporting on subject
assignments, 353, or 9£*7 percent, stated that they were
teaching business subjects because they preferred to teach
such subjects, £3, or 6*0 percent, indicated that they did
not prefer to teach business subjects, 59, or 15*5 percent,
were teaching business subjects because they had been
assigned by their principal to teach such subjects, and 9£,
or 24*1 percent, were not teaching business subjects because
their principal had assigned such subjects to teach*
Hence, nine-tenths of the business teachers were
teaching business subjects because they preferred to teach
such subjects, and over one-eighth of the business teachers
TABLE XXXY
GRADE LEVELS IN TOEIGH 374 TEACHERS IN
CALIFORNIA HIGH- SCHOOLS -TEACH BUSINESS SUBJECTS
Grade
Ninth
Tenth
Eleventh
Twelfth
Number of teachera
reporting classes
on grade level
80
230
226
297
Percent
21.4
61.5
66.4
79.4
136
were teaching business subjects because they were assigned ,
by the principal to teach such subjects#
Teaching preferences of business, teachers#
The
subjects which 35S business teachers; preferred to teach
were listed in Table XXXVI*
Of the forty-one subjects
which the business teachers preferred to teach, twentythree, or 56*1 percent, were business subjects, and
eighteen, or 43*1 percent, were academic subjects#
Nine
subjects;, or 2S#G percent, were preferred by more than ten
teachers, seventeen, or 41 #5 percent, were preferred by
less than ten teachers, and fifteen, or 36#6 percent, were
preferred by one teacher each#
Thus, the business teachers reported a wide range of
teaching preferences*
Over one-half of the teachers reported
business subjects as their first choice, sand over two-fifths
of the teachers stated academic subjects as their choice*
This implies that a number of the teachers should be teaching
academic subjects by their choice*
Almost one-fourth of the
teachers perferred to teach shorthand, and over one-fifth
of the teachers reported bookkeeping and typing as their
preference*
. .
HI.
TEACHING LOAD
Consideration was given to the size and variety of the
teaching load of those teachers charged with the Instruction
137
TABLE x r a r
SUBJECTS 1HXGH 358 CALIFORNIA HIGH SCHOOL
BUSINESS TEACHERS. PREFER TO TEACH .
Subject
Number of Perteachers cent
Shorthand
Bookkeeping
Typing
Business Law
Office Practice
Sales
Accounting
Junior Business
Secretarial Science
Business
Corre spondence
Economics, Business
Business English
Economic Geography
Ma thematic s
Business Mathematics
Consumer Education
Merchand ising
Office Machines
English
Machine Calculation
Advertising
86
80
77
El
18
18
17
14
11
9
8
7*
7
a
u
tr
O
4
4
4
3
3
E
E4*0
EE.3
El #5
5*9
5*0
5*0
4*7
3*9
3*1
Subject
Mumber of Perteachers cent
Algebra
Business Principles
History
Retail Selling
Spanish
Art Design
Comptometer
Creative Literature
Latin
Italian
a.5 Music
E*B Penmanship
Personal Develop­
R*0
Wr#V
ment for Girls
E*0
Physical
-i-♦ f PoliticalEducation
Science
1*4 Public Speaking
1*1 Science
1*1 Shop
1.1 Spelling
.8 Transcription
*8
*6
E
a
E
B
a
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
*6
*6
*6
.6
*6
*3
*3
*3
*3
*3
*3
♦3
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
*3
*3
*3
*3
*3
*3
*3
*3
138
offered in the business courses#
This section of the
questionnaire made inquiry into the number of daily prepa­
rations made, other types of classes taught, number of
teachers handling more than one subject during class period,
types of extracurricular activities, and the amount of time
spent in extracurricular activities#
Of the 377 business
teachers who replied to some section of the questionnaire,
three hundred forty, or 90#S percent, rendered complete
reports on the teaching load#
tabulations were made of
this data for interpretation of the teaching load#
^Method of reporting teaching load#
Ihe principal
factors determining the teaching load were the number of
classes taught daily or weekly, the number of different
preparations required, the number of pupils taught, the
amount of time required for study halls and other activities,
and the length of the class periods*
The other activities
included supervision, counselling: during school hours, and
the extracurricular activities after school hours*
Harl R#
Douglas si has worked out a formula for measuring the
teaching load of teachers in the junior and senior high
schools*
His formula takes the principal factors of the
teaching load into consideration#
T
L
—
C
P- aDup , (
H
P- a
o
)PC
'
.
10
100
■+ a
His formula is as follows:2
P
D5
5* TL stands for the units
100
1-Harl R# Douglass, Organization,and Administration Of
Secondary Schools (Boston: Ginn and Company, 193&) , p# 115#
&ibid# p# 115•
159
of teaching load per week*
CP stands for class periods
spent in the classroom, per week*
Bup means the number of
classes In which tke preparation is the same for both
sections not including tke original section*
tke number of pupils in classes per week*
HP stands for
PC means tke
number of class periods spent per week in supervision of
study kail,
teackers meetings, committees, and
activities*
PL stands for tke gross
lengtk
otkerpupil
in
minutes of
class periods*
Ike application of tkis formula to one of tke teackers
of tkis study will make tke formula better understood*
Ibis
teacher kad tkree sections of typing I and two sections of
shorthand I daily, enrollment was tkirty-seven, thirty-six,
forty-four, tkirty, and fourteen respectively*
Five kours
per week were spent for conference, and tke class periods
were fifty-five minutes long,
Thus,
TL= 125
- 2 x 15I
•—
10
'
805 - 20 x 25 , 5l [55 SSL [25 - 5+5*05*2.51 ti.il, TL** 50.51*
100
2 p00j
-J L -J _
Tkis teaching load index gives a measure of tke teaching
load of tkis teacker as compared to a normal load based upon
twenty pupils in each class period of forty-five minutes.
Hence, a normal index would be twenty*
When a schedule contained a double period in which two
or more classes were taught, tke factor(Qp x NEPr x 2)
2____________
10
was added#
NEPr stands for the number of extra preparations
OP mean's the number of class periods per week that require
£
preparations tbsr each class in a double period, only one
preparation for the two hours, was required; E/10 means the
twenty percent of the value of one regular class given for
extra preparation#
In this additional factor, the factors
cancel themselves and the double period has the same value
as two single periods:
5 x 1 x 2#
When schedule contained two preparations for one
period, the factor B Pup was added instead of subtracted*
10
Each double period was counted as two class periods.
Douglass *s formula was used to measure the teaching load
for the 540 teachers who reported on this section*
Teaching load indices of business teachers*
In Table
X X X V H the teaching load indices for 340 business teachers
were summarised *
Of the 540 teachers, E30, or 67.6 percent,
were women, and 110, or 52*4 percent, were men*
The
teaching load indices for the men ranged from frrty-six and
fifty-eight hundredths to ten and seventy-eight hundredths,
with the median of thirty and twenty hundredths.
The
teaching load indices for the women ranged from fifty-two
and fourteen hundredths to twelve and forty-three
hundredths, with thirty and thirty-one hundredths as the
median*
Of the 110 men, one hundred one, or 91*8 percent, had
141
m B m xxxvrx
TEACHING- LOAD INDICES FOR 340
CALIFORNIA HIGH SCHOOL _BUSINESS TEACHERS
Teaching load Index
^jen
46.53
44.00
42 *44
42 .09
41 #86
41 #69
41 #09
40.00
39 #27
37.46
36.46
36.41
35.64
35.31
35.09
34.87
34.44
34.27
34.21
34.19
33.87
33.80
33.77
33.66
33.63
33.55 S
33.44
33.44
33.28
32.73 L
32.45 32.45
32.29
32.15
32.06
31.74
31.63
"TfC
31.62
31.57
31.52 L
31.52
31.35
31.25
31.19
51.1931.13
31.10
30 .99
,30^97
•30.86
>30.75
30.55
30.47
•30:.36 L
;30 #20 ;:30.03
29..77
;29'.70 L
29.70
29 i-65
29>45
29# 26
29 .25
29.10
29.04
28 #99
28.50
28.59
28.38
28.28
28.16
28*05
28.00 S
27.66
Median
27.56 S
27.50
27.39
27.27
27.23
27.23
26.84
26.79
26.79
26.29
25.91 S
25.80
25.74 s
25.19
24.80
24*70
24.42
24.25
24.09
23.38
23 .32
23.23
23.20
22.66
22*33
22.25
21.84
20.76
19.90
16.94
16.28
15.93
15.57
14.85
13.75
10.78
Teaching load index
~
Women
52.14
47.93
46.48
45.30
42.80
42.13
42.09
40.48
39.90
39.66
59.46
58.56
38.55
56.95
36.88
36.74
56.74
36.44
56.14
36.05
36.03
55.97
35.92
35.86
35.59
35.59
35.59
35.42
35.31
35.31
35.31
35.31
35.15
34.95
34.76
34.76
34.63
L
-
L
-
34.60
34.49
34.45
34.32
34.27
34.16
34.14
33.94
33.94
33.85
33.83
33.72
33.65
33.29
33.28
33.23
32.95
32.83
52.85
32.80
32.78
32.78
32*73
32.49
52.45
32.40
32.40
32.32
32.20
32.18
32.12
32.12
32.12
31.86
31.85
31.77
31.74
L
S
L
-
31.74
31.68 L
31.64 ,
31.63 S
31*63
31.62
31.46
31.46
31.41
31.35
31.28
31.24
31.24
31.19
31.18
31.13
31.11
31.08
31.08
31.08
31.08
31.02
31*01
30.92
30.86
30.86
30 .86
30.86
30.78
30.69
30 .67
30.64
30 .64
30.64
30.59
30.58
30.57
142
TABUS XXX7IX (Continued)
teaching load indices for 340
CALIFORNIA HI OB SCHOOL.BUSINESS TEACHERS
Teaching' load index
.
Women
30*53
30*4?
30.40
30*31 L
30*31 *
30*30
30*25
30*20
30*20
30.14
30*14
30*09
30*05
30*05
30.03 L
30*03
30*03
29 *93
29*98
29.92
29*92
29*81
29.80
29*70
29*70
29*59
29*55
29*54
29.54
29*54
29*48
29*45
29.45
29*43
29*40
29*39
29*32
29*25
29*21
29.10
Median
29*10
29*10
29*04
28*89
28*78
28*75
38.66
28.55
28*55
28*49
28*44
28.38
28*27
28.27
28*22
28*16
28.16
28*05
28*00 L
28.00 -
Teachingloaa "index
~
Women
27*95
27*94
27*89
27*78
27*78
27*72
27*61 S
27*61
27.40
27*40
27*34
27.34
27.34
27.23
27*01
26*95
26*95
26.79
26*62
26.51 S
26*45
26*42
26.28
26*18
26*14
25.96
25*85
25.74
25.55
25*52
25.37
25.36
25*30
25*30
25.25
24.75
24*75
24.42
24*15
23.94
23*94
23*71
22.70
21*28
21.12
20*96
20*96
20.57
19*91
19*72
19*71
19*36
18.76
17*77
17*37
17.27
16.45
16*12
15.57
14*80
12*43
143
teaching load indices above twenty, the normal index, and
one was normal, while eight, or 7*3 percent, were below
normal*
Of the £30 women, £14, or 93*0 percent, had teaching
load indices above normal, three were normal, and 13, or 5*7
percent, were below normal*
As indicated by the range and the medians, the women
had slightly heavier teaching loads than the man.
Xn
comparing the teaching load indices of the largest school
with the smelliest schools, as indicated by the capital
and the capital ttSn in the table, the largest school showed
a heavier average teaching load index*
Los Angeles, the
largest school with 4,001 enrollment, had an average
teaching load index of thirty-one and ninety-one hundredths
for the twelve teachers*
Pomona, Hayward, and Monrovia,
the three smallest schools with a little over 1,000 en­
rollment, had an average teaching load index of twenty-six
and twenty-four hundredths for the twelve teachers of the
three schools together*
These schools also showed that there was no marked
consistency of loads in regards to the size of the school,
as shown by the heavier -load of one of the teachers in the
small schools than any of the teachers of the largest school*
The heaviest load of all the teachers was in a small school
with 1,661 enrollment, while the lightest load was in a
larger school with two thousand three hundred thirty-three
enrollment•
As indicated by the large school pointed out in the
table, there was no degree of consistency in teaching load
among the teachers in the same school#
Xn the same school,
one teacher had a heavy load while another had a light load#
Bistribution of enrollments in business classes as
compared.with other classes taught by business teachers#
The sizes of the business, academic, and study hall or home
room classes were tabulated in Table XX3CYXXX for 338 business
teachers#
to 179#
The size of the classes ranged from twenty or less
The median for the business classes was in the size
group of thirty-one to thirty-five, with 260 teachers,
or 76,9 percent, of the teachers reporting classes in this
size group*
One hundred seventy-nine teachers, or 53*0 percent,
reported business classes of twenty or less pupils*
Xn the
size group of twenty-one to twenty-five, 157 teachers,
or 4:6*4 percent, reported classes, 314 teachers, or 92*9
percent, reported classes of twenty*-six to thirty, 252
teachers, or 74#6 percent, reported classes of thirty-six
to forty, 110 teachers, or 32*5 percent, reported classes of
forty-one to forty-five, and fifty teachers, or 14#8 percent,
reported classes of forty-six to fifty#
Xn all cases, the
classes with large enrollments were typing classes#
The academic classes were smaller than the business
145
TABLE 2 O T H I
DISTRIBUTION OF ENROLLMENTS IK BUSINESS EDUCATION GLASSES
AS COMPARED 11031 EKROLLMEKTS IK -ACADEMIC SUBJECTS
AND STUDY HALLS, OR.HOME ROOMS TAUGHT BY. 338.
BUSINESS TEACHERS IN. CALIFORNIA ’HIGH SCHOOLS
Sise of
class
20
21
26
31
36
41
46
51
56
61
66
or
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
less
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
179
Number of teachers reuortin^
Business*
Academic
Study hall or
home room
classes
classes
179
157
314
260 *!
252
110
50
12
15
11
17
6
18
51 *
19
13
3
7
1
0
0
1
5
6
4
4
11
10 *
1
0
2
2
16
♦Median number of teachers reporting; each type of
class; i* e., 260 teachers reported business classes of
thirty-one to thirty-five pupils*
146
classes as indicated by the median in the size group of
twenty-six to thirty, whereas the median for the business
classes was in the group of thirty-one to thirty-five*
Eighteen
teachers, or 5.3 percent, reported classes of
twenty-one to twenty-five, thirty-one teachers, or 9.2
percent, reported classes of twenty-six to thirty, nineteen
teachers, or 5.6 percent, reported classes of thirty^-one to
thirty-five, and thirteen teachers, or 3.8 percent, reported
classes of thirty-six to forty.
The median enrollment for the study hall and home room
classes was forty-one to forty-five*
Sixteen of the sixty-
one teachers reporting, or 26.2 percent, had classes of
sixty-six to 179, eleven teachers, or 18*0 percent, reported
classes of thirty-six to forty, and ten teachers, or 16*4
percent, reported classes of forty-one to forty-five*
In comparing the median enrollments in business classes
with other classes, the study hall and home room classes
were the heaviest, with forty-one to forty-five, the
business classes ranked second, with thirty-one to thirtyfive, and the academic classes ranked third, with twenty-six
to thirty*
-Of the classes with an enrollment over fifty, the
business classes were first, with fifty-five, the study hall
and home room classes were second, with twenty, and the
academic classes were third, with two*
147
Humber of dally -prepa rations of business teacbers*
The
number and the nature of the daily preparations reported
by 590 business teachers were tabulated in Table XXXXX*
number of preparations ranged from one to eight*
The
One hundred
ninety-eight teachers, or 50*8 percent, reported five
business class preparations only, fifty-six teachers, or 14*4
percent, four business class preparations only, thirty-seven
teachers, or 9*5 percent, reported six preparations for
business classes only, twenty-nine teachers, or 7*4 percent,
reported three preparations for business classes only, and
ten teachers, or 2*6 percent, reported five preparations for
three business classes and two academic classes*
Hence,
over one-half of the business teachers reported five prepa­
rations for business classes only*
As the number of
preparations increased, the academic preparations also
increased*
Other types of classes taught by business teachers*
Xn Table XL were listed the other types of classes taught
by sixty-one business teachers*
The eighteen subjects
reported by the sixty-one teachers were listed in the order
of their frequency*
Social science ranked first, with
twelve, or 19*7 percent, of the teachers reporting*
Mathe­
matics, including algebra and geometry, ranked second, with
eleven teachers, or 18*0 percent, of the total,
Xn third
place was English, with eight, or 15*1 percent, of the
148
T
A
B
L
E
X
X
X
T
X
NUMBER OF DAILY PREPARATIONS REPORTED BY 390
BUSINESS TEACHERS IN. CALIFORNIA HI CM .SCHOOLS
Number of
preparations
1
Z
Z
3
3
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
5
6
6
6
5
7
7
7
8
Nature of
preparations
Business class only
Business classes only
1 Business class; 1 academic
Business classes only
£ Business classes; 1 academic
Business classes only
1 Business class; 3 academic
Z Business classes; Z academic
3 Business classes; 1 academic
Business classes only
1 Business class; 4 academic
E Business classes; 3 academic
3 Business classes; £ academic
4 Business classes; 1 academic
Business classes only
1 Business class; 5 academic
3 Business classes; 3 academic
5 Business classes; 1 academic
Business classes only
Z Business classes; 5 academic
6 Business classes; 1 academic
Business classes only
Number of
teachers
1
9
E
S9
1
56
E
5
E
198
6
6
10
9
37
5
E
1
5
Z
1
1
149
TABLE XL
OTHER TYPES OF CLASSES TAUGHT AM) FREQUENCY OF
. MENTION.BY, 61 BUSINESS „TEACHERS IN
. .CALIFORNIA HIGH SCHOOLS
Type ot class
Social Science
Mathematic s (algebra , ge canetry , etc.)
English.
Physical Education
Science
Spanish
United States History
Civics
German
Italian
Music
Orientation
Art
Education
French
Library
Practical Arts
Shop
18 subjects
Frequency of mention
IE
11
8
4
4
3
3
E
E
a
E
E
1
1
1
1
1
1
61
150
teachers reporting*
Physical education and science was reported by four
teachers each*
Three teachers each reported Spanish and
United States history*
C i v i c G e r m a n , Italian, music,
and orientation were reported by two teachers each*
Six
subjects, namely, art, education, French, library, practical
arts, and shop were mentioned by one teacher each*
Thus,
almost one-fourth of the teachers that reported other types
of classes, taught social science*
Two subjects taught in one class period*
Xn considering
the fact that the inquiry blank sought to determine the
number of different classes that were taught during one
class period, a tabulation was made of the reports of fiftyseven teachers*
Table XL1 showed the combinations of
subjects taught during one period, the number of classes
handled in this manner, and the number of teachers handling
each combination*
Of the eighty double classes, thirty-two, or 40*0
percent, were two typing classes, with eighteen teachers,
or 51*6 percent, of the fifty-seven teachers handling
combinations*
Fifteen, or 18*8 percent, were two
bookkeeping classes, with eleven, or 19*3 percent, of the
teachers handling this combination.
Nine double classes of
shorthand were handled by nine teachers*
Three teachers taught the combination of bookkeeping
151
TABLE XL!
NUMBER OF CALIFORNIA EECH SCHOOL BUSINESS
TEACHERS HANDLING.MORE THAN ONE SUBJECT
DURING CLASS- PERIOD
-.
Comb iixations of
sub jacts taught
Number of
classes
Number of
teachers
3E
18
15
11
9
Two classes of typing
Two classes of bookkeeping
Two classes of shorthand
Bookkeeping and accounting
Two classes of office practice
Two classes of bookkeeping
practice
Machine bookkeeping and
machine calculation
Typing and office practice
Shorthand and transcription
and office practice
Bookkeeping and bookkeeping
practice
Bookkeeping practice and
office practice
Business correspondence
and bookkeeping
Retail selling and merchandising
Two classes of secretarial
. practice
Fourteen combinations
9
5
5
3
3
3.
a
3
a
a
a
a
a
a
i
i
i
i
l
1
i
i
aa
i
57
152
and accounting.
Five double classes of office practice were
bandied by three teachers*
Two teachers taught three double
classes of bookkeeping practice*
Three combinations of
machine bookkeeping and machine calculation were taught by
two teachers*
Two teachers each taught combinations of
typing and office practice, shorthand and transcription and
office practice*
One teacher handled two combinations of
bookkeeping and bookkeeping practice*
The combinations of bookkeeping practice and office
practice, and business correspondence and bookkeeping were
handled by one teacher each*
One teacher handled a combi­
nation of retail selling and merchandising, and another
teacher taught a double class of secretarial practice*
Humber of business teachers having: extracurricular
activities*
Since the extracurricular activities were an
important factor in measuring the teaching load, a tabu­
lation was prepared showing the number of business teachers
handling extracurricular activities in connection with
regular schedules*
Table XLXI compared the number of classes
on teachers’ schedules with and without extracurricular
activities*
One teacher reported eight classes without any extra­
curricular activities*
Of the eight teachers having a
schedule of- seven classes, five had additional duties, and
three did not*
Twenty-three, or 48*9 percent, of the
155
x l h
EXIRAOTBRIGIILAR, OH GtTI-OE-SCHGOL, ACTIVITIES
HANDLED IN CONNSGTION.WITH REGULAR TEACHING
SCHEDULES, REPORTED BY 394 CALIFORNIA •HIGH SCHOOL BUSINESS TEACHERS Number ot
classes on
teachers*
schedules
Number having
extracurricu­
lar duties
8
7
6
5
4
3
3
1
5
E3
IB?
50
8
6
1
Totals
aio
Number without
extracurricu­
lar duties
1
3
34
104
35
18
Total
teachers
reporting
1
1
8
47
331
75
36
6
3
174
394
154
forty-seven teachers who taught six classes reported
additional responsibilities , and twenty-four, or 51*1
percent, reported none.
Of the £31 teachers who had a schedule of five, classes,
one hundred twenty-seven, or 55,0 percent, were assigned
out-of-class duties, and 104, or 45*0 percent, were not
assigned any*
Fifty, or 68*5 percent, of the seventy^three
teachers who taught four classes had added duties, and
twenty-three, or 31,5 percent, did not have extra duties.
Of the twenty-six having a schedule of three classes, eight
had additional duties* and eighteen did not,
Six teachers
who taught two classes reported extracurricular activities*
One of the two teachers teaching one class had out-of-school
activities, and the other did not*
Of the 394 teachers
reporting, ££0, or 55,8 percent, had extracurricular duties,
and 174, or 44,£ percent, were without extracurricular
duties.
Types of extracurricular activities of business teachers.
The types of activity with the frequency were listed in
Table XLXII,
Forty-two types of activity were listed by 281
business teachers*
Committee membership was first, with
eighty-one teachers, or 36,7 percent, of the teachers serving
on committees*
Forty-seven teachers, or 81,3 percent, were
advisors,
Student body activities received the services of
155
TABLE TT.TTT
TYPES OF EXTRACURRICULAR ACTIVITIES LISTED BY SSI
CALIFORNIA HIGH SCHOOL BUSINESS TEACHERS
Type of activity
Committee
member ship
Advisor
Student Body
Sponsor
Frequency
General
78
1
Secretarial
Student Social
1
Pep
1
General
45
Yearbook
a
Ticket sales
7
Paper
5
Store
4
Usher Patrol
4
Advertising
3
Business Manager, Annua}. 3
Accounts
a
Auditor of accounts
a
Finances
a
Selling Yearbook
a
Birector of Finance
a
Affairs
i
Assistant Yell Leader
i
Awards
i
Business Manager, Hews
i
Charge of election
i
Concessions
i
Bank Depositor
i
Sales -Coordinator
i
i
Aid Fund
Board Control
i
Scholarship
i
i
Social Activities
30
General
Club
3
Typing Club
a
i
Scholarship
Yearbook
i
Stamp Club
i
Total
81
47
45
38
156
TABLE XLXXI {Continued)
TYPES OF EXTRACHRRrCXTLAE ACTIVITIES USTED BY 221
CALIFORNIA H I ® SCHOOL BUSINESS TEACHERS
Type of activity
Clubs
Supervisor
Meetings
Athletics
Frequency
Girls* League
Commercial
General
Courtesy
California Scholastic
Parent-Teachers
Teachers Association
Advertising
Balboa Business
Boy Scout Troop
Faculty
Girl Beserves
Girl Scouts
Honor Society
International
Japanese
Secretarial
Stamp
Thrift
Writers
General
N. X. A.
Typing.
Athletic Contests
Chaperone.of Dances
Dance
Department
Games
Room
Store Practice
Student Body Finance
Student Teaching
Assistant Supervisor of
Games
General
Faculty
Baseball Coach
Coaching _
5
3
3
a
a
a
a
i
i
i
i
i
i
l
l
l
i
i
i
i
IE
3
a
i
l
l
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
E5
Total
30
as
Z7
a
4
4
ZO
157
TABLE XLIXI (Continued)
TYPES OF EXTRACXJHRXG1XLAR ACTIVITIES LISTED BY £21
CALIFORNIA HIGH SOHOOL BUSINESS TEACHERS
Type of activity
Frequency.
-
Chairman
Preparation
Department Work
General
2
Archery
1
Assistant Baseball Coach 1
Equipment .
1
1
Football
. Golf Team
1
Swimming
1
Tennis
1
Charge of Stadium
1
Wrestling Coach
1
Timekeeper.
1
S
General
Commercial Typing
.2
Council
1
Federation of teachers
1
I* 0* A* Roll Call
1
5
General
Correcting Papers
4
Planning
2
Professional Study
1
Head of Department
5
General .
3
After school olass
Council
Lookers
Clerical work
Curriculum , I* Q; Testing
Curriculum Reorganisation
Detention
Employment service
Home room records
Office practice
Placement
Professional growth
Supplies
Typing activity
Business contacts
Board
Backroom
.
Total
w
14
10
S
3
3
3
Z
z
z
2
Z
Z
Z
2
Z
Z
z
z
1
1
158
TABLE XLITI (Continued)
-TYPES OF EXTRACURRICULAR ACTIVITIES LISTED BY S&l
GALXFGBNIA HIGE SCHOOL BUSINESS TEACHERS
Type of activity
Chaperone
Charge of lost and found
Charge of public address system
Conference with merchants
Counselling
Custodian of all funds
Debating Coach
Extension courses
Girl activities
Instruction of speech
Rehearsal for programs
Test measurements
Typing practice
Total
Frequency
•
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
159
forty-five, or SO*4 percent, of the teachers*
The activity
of .sponsor'was reported by thirty-eight, or 17*2 percent,
of the teachers*
Glubs was reported by thirty, or 13.6
percent, of the teachers*
Twenty-eight, or 12.7 percent,
of the teachers were supervisors.
Twenty-seven, or 12*2
percent, of the teachers listed meetings as one of their
activities.
Twenty, or 9*0 percent, of the teachers
reported athletics.
The duty of chairman was reported by
fourteen, or 6*5 percent, of the teachers.
Preparation
was reported by ten teachers, or 4.5 percent, of the total*
The remaining thirty, or 71*4 percent, of the activities
were mentioned by less than ten teachers* which indicated
that the extracurricular activities of the business teachers
varied greatly.
Time spent on extracurricular activities by business;
teachers*
Xn addition to listing the extracurricular
activities on the inquiry blank, the teachers were requested
to give the approximate number of hours so engaged each week*
The hours per week spent on extracurricular activities were
given in Table XLXY with the frequency.
The hours per week
ranged from one-fourth hour to thirty hours, with the median
of four hours.
The first quartile was at two, and the third
quart lie was at six, which indicated that one-half of the
teachers spent more than two hours per week, and less than
six hours per week on extracurricular activities#
160
T/tRTJR XT,TV
TIMET SPENT ON EXTRACURRICULAR ACTIVITIES BY 198
_. CALIFORNIA HXG-H SCHOOL. BUSINESS.TEACHERS
Hours per week
Frequency
1/4
1/2
2/3
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
4
5
6
7
7
8
9
9
10
10
12
15
16
18
20
25
30
1/2
(Quar tile )
1/2
1/2
(Median)
1/3
1/2
(toartlle 3)
1/2
1/2
1/2
Total
1
13
1
27
2
30
2
19
1
19
1
1
27
9
1
1
5
1
1
18
1
4k
4
2
1
3
2
1
198
163.
Seventy-six, or 38*4 percent, of tine 193 teachers,
spent two or less hours on out-of-school duties, while
sixty—eight, or 34,3 percent, of the teachers spent from
three to five hours, thirty-seven, or 18*7 percent, spent
from six to ten hours,
fourteen, or 7,1 percent, spent
eleven to twenty hours, and three, or 1*5 percent, spent
from twenty-one to thirty hours per week*
Hence, 144
teachers, or 72*7 percent, spent five or less hours at
extracurricular activities*
17*
SUMMARY
The description of teacher personnel, grade levels
and subject assignment^, and the important factors of
teaching load were presented in this chapter*
The analysis
of this investigation was briefly summarised*
Apropos to the age of the business teachers, the age
range was from twenty-one to seventy years, while the median
group was thirty-six to forty years*
Three-fourths of the
teachers were within the age limits of twenty-six to fifty
years•
An analysis of the degrees held by the business teachers
revealed that over one-third of the teachers had received
a Bachelor's degree, and less than one-fifth of the teachers
held both a Bachelor's and Master*s degree*
Over three-
fourths of. the teachers held five degrees and combinations,
162
namely:
Bachelor, Bachelor and Master* Bachelor of Science,
Bachelor of Education, and Bachelor of Science and Master*s
degree*
An examination of the types of institutions attended
by business teachers showed that over three-fourths of the
teachers reported the median of four years attendance in
high school*
Attendance in college ranged from three-fourths
year to eight years, with 93.4 percent, attending college*
The median of four years was reported by 65.4 percent of the
teachers.
The attendance in ^special** school ranged from
one-fourth year to five years, with one-half of the teachers
attending ^special** school*
The median of one year at­
tendance in **special** school was reported by 41*2 percent,
of the teachers.
The attendance in graduate school ranged
from one-fourth year to five and one-half years, with 70.7
percent, of the teachers attending*
One-eighth of the
teachers reported the median of one and one-half years of
attendance in graduate school*
In regard to the institutions in which the training in
business subjects was received, 28.0 percent, of the teachers
attended the University of California, 18.B percent, attended
high school, 18*6 percent, attended business college, 18.3
percent, attended the University of Southern California,
and 12.2 percent, of the teachers attended the University
of California at Los Angeles*
A wide range of institutions
were attended, as indicated by tlie 106 institutions reported
Xn the matter of" majors and minors of business teachers
commercial ranked first of the majors, with 27.9 percent, of
the teachers reporting*
Commercial, English, economics,
history, education, and social science were the first six
teaching majors and minors*
In connection with the business subjects in which
training was received, typing ranked first, with 73*5
percent, of the teachers reporting*
Shorthand was second,
with 42*7 percent, and bookkeeping was third, with 37*4
percent, of the teachers reporting*
Hence, the three most
popular subjects in the business curricula, namely:
typing,
shorthand, and bookkeeping, were also the most popular
subjects in which training was received by business teachers
In training experience of business teachers, typing
again was first, with twenty months of training reported
by thirty-two, or 8*8 percent, of the teachers in high
school and evening high school, seventy-one, or 19*5
percent, of the teachers reported from six to twelve months
in business and private schools, and 183 teachers, or 50*1
percent, received method course instruction in typing*
Methods course instruction was received In thirty-five of
the thirty-nine business subjects, or 89*7 percent, in which
college units of instruction was reported*
With reference to the certificates held by business
164
teachers, more than one-half of the teachers held a General
Secondary Credential, and less than one-fourth of the
teachers held a Special Secondary In Commerce*
In regard to the teaching experience of "business
teachers, the range was from one-half year to fifty years,
with fourteen years as the median#
One-fourth of the
teachers had from fire to ten years experience, and 41*9
percent, of the teachers had from five to fifteen years of
experience as classroom teachers in all subject fields*
In respect to the business teaching experience of
business teachers, the median was twelve years of experience.
Over 6ne-fourth of the business teachers had five to ten
years, and one-fifth of the business teachers had eleven
to fifteen years of experience teaching business subjects*
The experience as supervisor Included chairman, head
of department, and supervisor +
Almost one-third of the
teachers had from one-half year to two years, over one-half
of the teachers had five or less years, and almost one-fourth
of the teachers had from six to ten years of experience as
supervisor#
Experience as supervisor in business subjects ranged
from one-half year to twenty-nine years, with five years as
the median*
Almost one-third of the teachers had from one-
half year to two years, over one-half of the teachers had
five or less years, and one-fourth of the teachers had from
165
six to ten years of experience as supervisor of business
subjects#
Experience as school administrator of business teachers
ranged from one-half year to‘thirty-two years, with four
years, as the median#
Over one-third of the teachers had
from one-half to two years, and one-fourth of the teachers
had from three to five years of experience as school adminis­
trator#
In regard to total educational experience of business
teachers, one-eighth of the teachers had less than five years
of experience, and over one-fifth of the teachers had from
five to ten years of experience as school administrator,
supervisor, and teacher in all subject fields#
As to the total experience in business education of
business teachers, almost one-fifth of the teachers had less
than five years, almost one-fourth of the teachers had from
five to ten years, and one-fifth of the teachers had from
eleven to fifteen years of experience as supervisor or head
of department and as teacher of business subjects*
With reference to the business experience of business
teachers, the position as bookkeeper ranked first of the
jobs formerly held by the business teachers#
The first five
positions in the order of their frequency were:
bookkeeper,
stenographer, secretary, store clerk, and office clerk*
most frequent length of these positions was six to twelve
The
166
months*
In the matter of grade levels of business teachers, the
business teachers taught one-fifth of their business classes
on the ninth grade level, three-fifths of their classes on
the tenth and eleventh grade levels, and over three-fourths
of their classes on the twelfth grade level*
On subject assignment, S&.*? percent, of the business
teachers stated that they were teaching business subjects,
because they preferred to teach such subjects, and over oneeighth of the business teachers were teaching business
subjects, because they were assigned by the principal to
teach such subjects*
As to teaching preferences of the business teachers,
almost one-fourth of the teachers preferred to teach
shorthand, and over one-fifth of the teachers reported
bookkeeping and typing as their preference*
Apropos to teaching load, the median for the women was
thirty and thirty-one hundredths, while it was thirty and
twenty hundredths for the men*
The teaching loads ranged
freak ten and seventy-eight hundredths to fifty-two and
fourteen hundredths*
There was no degree of consistency in
teaching load among the teachers in the same school*
The
large schools showed a heavier average teaching load than
the small schools.
In comparing the median enrollments in business classes
167
with other classes, the study hall and home room classes were
the heaviest, with forty-one to forty-five, the business
classes ranked second, with thirty-one to thirty-five, and
the academic classes ranked third, with twenty-six to thirty.
Of the classes with an enrollment over fifty, the business
classes were first, with fifty-five, the study hall and home
room classes were second, with twenty, and the academic
classes were third, with two#
In regard to the number of daily preparations of
business teachers, over one-half of the business teachers
reported five preparations for business classes only#
As
the number of preparations increased, the academic prepa­
rations also increased#
As to the other types of classes taught by business
teachers, almost one-fourth of the teachers that reported
other types of classes, taught social science.
Mathematics
and English were second , and third in order of mention, of
the eighteen subjects reported.
In the matter of two subjects taught in one class period,
eighty classes of fourteen combinations were handled by
fifty-seven teachers.
Of the double classes, forty percent
were typing, and 18.8 percent were bookkeeping classes.
In respect to the number of business teachers having
extracurricular activities, 55.8 percent, had extracurricular
duties, and 44.2 percent, were without such duties.
168
As to tlie types of extracurricular activities of
business teachers, 36*7 percent, of the teachers served on
committees, HI*3 percent, were advisors, 17*2 percent, were
sponsors, and IS*2 percent, of the teachers lisrted meetings
as one of their activities*
Sixty-eight types of activities
were listed by 221 teachers*
In connection with the time spent on extracurricular
activities by business teachers, the hours per week ranged
from one-fourth hour to thirty hours, with the median of
four hours*
One-half of the teachers spent more than two
hours per week, and less than six hours per week on extracurricular duties*
Almost three-fourths of the teachers
spent five or less hours on out-of-school duties*
Apropos to teacher personnel, the university led in
type of institution attended for business training, which
is adequate, because professional growth is given along
with the business training*
The majors and minors reported,
indicated the practical nature of the varied interests of
the business teachers*
The teachers received training in
the subjects to be taught, but lacked instruction in the
background subjects, such as business
organization and
management, economics, and consumer education.'
The business teacher teaches his first year in a small
school, as indicated by the small number teaching their
first year, which is probably satisfactory*
The average
169
■feeaching experience of twelve years reported, is sufficient
for business teaching*
Six to twelve months of actual
■business experience is probably adequate to acquaint the
teacher with the business routines and jobs for teaching
business education*
Subject assignments and teaching preferences indicated,
that a large number of the teachers should be teaching
academic subjects by preference*
Teachers should teach-
busi ness subjects by choice far the best interest of the
pupil.
The certificates should be studied and standardized,
as indicated by the large number of different certificates
granted to the business teachers*
In regard to teaching load, it is recommended that the
heavy loads of the business teachers should be normalized
for the best interests of the pupil*
Xn comparing the
enrollments of business classes with other classes, the
business classes were heavier than the academic.
The pupils
of the business classes need just as much individual
attention to understand the subject, as the pupils in the
academic classes*
The mass instruction of the pupils in the
business classes is not desirable, nor profitable for the
individual*
The double subject periods should be abolished
for the best interest of the pupil*
Over one-half of the teachers have extracurricular
170
duties, which indicates that due to training, tlie Business
teacher in addition to classes, is given the responsibility
of managing and keeping the school finances*
The status of teacher personnel and teaching load was
presented in this chapter*
This study of the status of
business education would not be complete without consider­
ation of the equipment used far teaching business subjects.
Such will be the subject of the investigation in the
sub sequent chapter.
CHAPTER ¥
EQUIPMENT FOR TEACHING BUSINESS SUBJECTS IN
THE-LARGE PUBLIC .HIGH SCHOOLS OF CALIFORNIA
In the preceding chapter an investigation was made of
the personnel and teaching load of the teachers of business
subjects.
In view of the large number of pupils enrolled,
the amount of equipment for use in teaching business subjects
presents an important item In the status of business edu­
cation.
The section of the inquiry blank concerning
equipment, sought a report by checking or listing such
equipment as typewriters, duplicating machines, calculating
and adding machines, bookkeeping, and other office machines.
This chapter will,present an analysis of the business
equipment reported by the fifty-three high schools.
I.
EQUIPMENT FOR INSTRUCTION IN TYPING
Each sehool was requested to report the number of each
make of machine in the space indicated on the inquiry blank.
A tabulation of the machines used for instruction in typing
was given in Table ZL¥.
The typewriters were divided into
two groups, standard machines and noiseless machines.
Of the 4,889 standard machines used for instruction in
typing in fifty California high schools, 1,749, or 35.8
percent, were Underwoods, 888, or 18.1 percent, were Royals,
TABLE XLV
TYPEWRITERS IN USE FOR INSTRUCTION PURPOSES IN
.BUSINESS .CLASSES OF FIFTY CALIFORNIA HIGH SCHOOLS
Machines
Standard machines
Underwood
Royal
L. G. Smith
Remington
Woodstock:
Total
Noiseless machines
Remington
Underwood
Total
Grand totals
Standard machines
Noiseless machines
Grand totals
Member in use
’ Percent
1,749
888
855
790
629
4,889
35.8
18.1
17*0
16.2
14.9
100.0
123
28
Til
81.5
lSf5
100.0
4,889
151
5,040
97.0
3.0
100.0
173
eight hundred thirty-three, or 17*0 percent, were L # G *
Smiths, 790, or 16.2 percent, were Remingtons, and 629,
or 14.9 percent, were Wood stocks#
Over one-third of the
standard machines used for instruction, were Underwoods, and
less than one-fifth of the machines were Royals#
The noiseless machines used for instruction in typing
numbered 151 for fifty California high schools, of which 123,
or 81.5 percent, were Remingtons, and twenty-eight, or 18.5
percent, were Underwoods.
Hence, over three-fourths of the
noiseless machines used for instruction were Remingtons, and
less than one-fifth were Underwoods#
XI.
EQUIPMENT FOR INSTRUCTION IN DUPLXGATXNG
Ninety-two duplicating machines were reported by fortythree schools#
Nine different types of duplicating machines
were listed In Table XLVI.
The most widely used duplicating
machine, namely the A# B# Dick Mimeograph totaled sixtythree, or 69#2 percent, of the machines, of which thirty-six
were hand-operated, and twenty-seven were electric.
or 13#1 percent, ditto machines were reported#
hand-operated duplicating machines were:
Twelve,
The remaining
five Standard
Rotary machines, four mimes copes, two multi stamps, two
standard rotary, new process machines, two? tempographs, one
Gel S'ten, and one Niagara#
Of the ninety-two duplicating
machines, sixty-five, or 70*7 percent, were hand-operated,
174
TABLE XLYI
OTPSLICATING MACHINES IN USE FOR INSTRUCTION PURPOSES
. - - IN BUSINESS GLASSES OF FORTY-THREE
.CALIFORNIA HIGH SCHOOLS
Duplicating macHine
Number of
Number of
Hand-operated electric Total
A. B. Dick Mimeograph
Ditto .
Standard Rotary
Mime scope
Miltistamp
Standard Rotary, New Process
Tempograph
Gel Sten
Niagara
Totals
36
IB
5
4
B
B
Z
1
_JL
65
E7
63
IB
5
4
a
a
z
W
1
1
9
a
Percent
69 «a
15*1
5.5
4*4
a
.
a
a
*
a
a
*
a
i.i
lii
100*0
175
and twenty-seven, or £9*3 percent, were electric#
Almost
seven-tenths of tlie duplicating machines were A# B# Dick
Mimeographs, and over one-eighth or the machines were ditto
machines.
Ill#
EQUIPMENT FOR INSTRUCTION
... IN MACHINE. CAICUIATION _.
A tabulation was made of the calculating and adding
machines used for instruction in Table XLYII.
The calculators
were divided into two groups, the crank-operated, and the
key-driven calculators#
The Monroe machine, a crank-operated
calculator, totaled sixty-eight, or 19.6 percent, of which
fifty-five were hand-operated, and thirteen were electric*
The Merchant, another crank-operated calculator, numbered
twenty, or 5*8 percent, of which eighteen were hand-operated,
and two were electric.
Burroughs, a key-driven calculator,
totaled 1H7, or 56*6 percent, of which 1£4 were hand-operated,
and three were electric#
The G omptometer, also a key-driven
calculator, totaled fifty-seven hand-operated machines,
or 16#4 percent, of all the machines*
Those machines whose main function was addition, were
considered separately on the check list of the inquiry blank#
Fifty, or 14,4 percent, were Burroughs adding machines, of
which forty-one were hand-operated, and nine were electric.
Twelve adding machines were Daltons, which were hand-operated.
176
TABLE XLVIX
GALGULATING AND ADDING MACHINES IN USE
FOE mSTHUGTIQN PURPOSES IN BUSINESS.GLASSES
. OF FORTY-FIVE CALIFORNIA HIGH SCHOOLS
Machine
Number
hand-operated
A* Crank-operated calculators:
Monroe
Merchant
Total
B, Key-driven calculators:
- Burroughs
Gamp tome ter
Total
C* Adding machines;
Burroughs
Dalton
Sunstrand
Victor
Gardiner
Total
Total.of all machines
05
18
Number
electric
68
ao
13
a
75
15
ISA
5?
~
181
41
ia
5
5
1
3
3
9
a
64
518
~
Total
ii
bb
88
ia?
5?
‘
184
50
ia
?
5
1
. 75
347
177
01 the seven Sundstrand adding machines, five were handoperated, and two were electric*
There were five hand-operated
Victor adding machines, and one Gardiner adding>machine#
Of the 347 calculating and adding machines, 318 , or 91 #6
percent, were hand-operated, and twenty-nine, or 8*4 percent,
were electric*
Thus, over nine-tenths of the calculating
and adding machines were hand-operated, almost one-fifth of
the machines were Monroe calculators, over one-third of the
machines were Burroughs calculators, and over one-eighth of
the machines were Comptometers and Burroughs adding machines*
These 347 machines were used in forty-five schools, or 84*9
percent, of all the schools*
IV* F^UIPMENT FOR INSTKCJCTION
,IN BOOKKEEPING -AMD .AGCOUNTING
The machines used f or instruction in bookkeeping and
accounting were bookkeeping, posting, and statement machines*
These machines were used in the office practice and office
machines classes as well as the bookkeeping and accounting
classes*
In Table XLVIII is presented a list of the different
machines used by eighteen California high schools*
Thirty-
seven, or 78.4 percent, of the machines were Burroughs
bookkeeping machines*
Three, or 6*6 percent, were Sundstrand
posting and statement machines*
were reported*
Three Remington machines
Two, or 4*2 percent, were Elliot-Fisher
178
TABLE XLVXII
•BOOKEEEPIHO, POSTING, AND STATEMENT MACHINES IN USE
FOR INSTRUCTION HJRPOSES.IN BUSINESS GLASSES
.OF .EIGHTEEN CALIFORNIA HIGH SCHOOLS
Machine
Burroughs bookkeeping;
Sundstrand bookkeeping
Remington bookkeeping
EUiot-FIsher bookkeeping
Underwood bookkeeping
Total
Number
reported
37
3
3
2
2
47
Percent
78*4
6*6
6*6
4*2.
4.2
l
o
o
.
b
179
posting and statement machines.
There were also two
Underwood bookkeeping machines reported.
In the eighteen schools, forty-seven machines were used
for instruction.
Over three-fourths of the machines were
Burroughs bookkeeping machines.
Of the fifty-three schools
in this study, eighteen, or 34.0 percent, of the schools had
equipment for Instruction in bookkeeping and accounting, by
machines.
Hence, thirty-five schools, or 66.0 percent, did
not report equipment for instruction in bookkeeping.
v.
other m a m m a for instruction
IN BUSINESS GLASSES
A report of the other machines listed in the check list
of the inquiry blank was made in Table XLIX.
Thirty Cali­
fornia high schools reported eighty-six machines for use in
office practice and office machines classes.
Seventeen,
or 19.6 percent, of the machines were Cash .registers.
The
number of Dictaphone, transcribing machines reported was
fifteen, or 17.4 percent, of the machines.
percent, were Dictaphone dictating machines.
Fourteen, or 16.3
Also fourteen,
or 16*3 percent, were Ediphone transcribing machines.
Ten,
or 11.6 percent, were Dictaphone record shaving machines.
Eight Multigraphs were reported.
were reported numbered six.
The Addressographs that
Five Ediphone dictating machines,
and five Ediphone record shaving machines were reported.
180
TABLE XLXX
BELSGELLANEQUS EQUIPMENT IN USE FOB
INSTRUCTION PURPOSES.IN BUSINESS GLASSES
. OF THIRTY CALIFORNIA HIGH SCHOOLS
Machine
Cash registers
Dictaphone transcribing machine
Dictaphone dictating machine
Ediphone transcribing machine
Dictaphone record shaving machine
Maltigraph
Addressograph
Ediphone dictating machine
Ediphone record shaving machine
Tempo scope
Todd check protsciagraph
Total
Number reported
17
15
14
14
10
8
6
5
5
1
I
85
Percent
19*6
17*4
16.3
16*3
11.6
9.0
7*0
5*8
5.8
1*1
1.1
100.0
181
Almost one-fifth of the machines were cash registers*
More than one-eighth of the machines were Dictaphone
transcribing and dictating machines* and Ediphone transcrib­
ing machines*
Thirty, or 56*6 percent, of the schools
reported machines for office practice and office machines.
‘VI.
EQUIPMENT FOE INS THUG TEON IN FILING
In reporting the equipment in use for the teaching of
filing, each school was requested to list the equipment
giving the name of manufacturer and the number.
The
equipment reported by twenty-seven California high schools
was tabulated in Table L.
Four hundred fifty-seven Library
Bureau filing practice sets manufactured by the Remington
Rand Company were reported.
cabinets were listed.
Ninety Yawman & Erbe filing
The J. A* Winston Company filing
equipment numbered fifty-three pieces.
Two Globe files were
reported*
Since the description of the filing equipment was
vague and varied, a comparative tabulation could not be made *
Twenty-seven schools, or 50*9 percent, of the schools,
reported equipment for instruction in filing.
VII.
SUMMARY
An investigation of the amount of equipment available
for teaching business subjects, was rendered in the present
182
TABLE L
EQUIPMENT IN USE FOR INSTRUCTION PURPOSES
IN FILING GLASSES IN TTONIT-.SBVEN
..CALIFORNIA HIGH SCHOOLS
Equipment
Library Bureau Filing Practice Sets
(Remington Rand)
Filing Cabinets (Yawman & Erbe)
A* Y/inston Company
Globe File
Number reported
457
90
53
2
183
chapter*
A review of tlie outcome of this investigation will
he presented#
Apropos to typewriters for instract Ion in typing, the
machines ware divided into two groups, standard and noiseless
machines#
Over one-third of the standard machines used for
instruction, were Underwoods, and less than one-fifth of the
machines were Royals*
Over three-fourths of the noiseless
machines were Remingtons, and less than one-fifth were
Underwoods*
As to equipment for instruction in duplicating, the A*
B# Dick Mimeograph was the only electric operated duplicating
machine reported*
Almost seven-tenths of the duplicating
machines were A# R* Dick Mimeographs, and over one-eighth of
the machines were ditto machines*
Forty-three, or 81*1
percent, of the schools reported equipment for instruction
in duplicating.
in regard to equipment for instruction in machine
calculation, over nine-?tenths of the calculating and adding
machines were hand-operated, almost one-fifth of the machines
were Monroe calculators, over one-third of the machines were
Burroughs calculators, and over one-eighth of the machines
were Comptometers and Burroughs adding machines*
Forty-five,
or 84*9 percent, of the schools reported equipment for
instruction in machine calculation*
In connection with equipment for instruction in
184
bookkeeping and accounting, over three-fourths of the
machines were Burroughs bookkeeping machines#
Only one-third
of the schools reported equipment for instruction in
bookkeeping and accounting*
In respect to other machines for instruction in business
classes, almost one-fifth of the machines were cash registers#
More than one-eighth of the machines were Dictaphone tran­
scribing and dictating machines, and Ediphone transcribing
machines*
Over one-half of the schools reported equipment
for office practice and office machines#
Xn the matter of equipment for instruction in filing,
four hundred fifty-seven Library Bureau filing sets manu­
factured by the Remington Rand Company were reported*
One-
half of the schools reported equipment for instruction in
filing#
The number of typewriters in use for instruction purposes
in business classes is adequate, as it averages one hundred
machines for each of the fifty schools that reported*
Xt is
recommended that every large high school have one dozen or
more noiseless machines for instruction purposes, so that
all pupils may become accustomed to using this type of
machine before using in the office#
Every school should have duplicating equipment for
instruction in duplicating.
reported is sufficient*
Xhe number of mimeographs
Every large school should have a
185
ditto and a mimescope for instruction purposes before
entering business occupations*
Xt.is recommended that every large high school should
have at least twenty calculating and adding machines, instead
of the average of seven reported*
With t¥?enty or more
machines the pupils may be given class instruction and speed
drills to develop skill on the machines*
Each make of
machine found in an office should be available for instruction*
In regard to bookkeeping, pasting, and statement machines, it
is recommended that each school be equipped with six or more
machines, so that the; bookkeeping majors will not be handi­
capped for machines as is usually the situation in the
schools*
Since almost one-half of the schools were without
dictaphone machines, it is urged that every school be
equipped with at least two dictaphone rand transcribing
machines, and one shaving machine for the training of
die taphone operators *
Almost every school reported instruction given in filing,
but only one-half of the schools reported equipment for such
instruction*
More emphasis should be placed on the equipment
used for the instruction in filing to adequately train the
pupils In the different kinds of filing systems*
Xhe important item of equipment for the teaching of
business subjects was considered in this chapter, and was
found to to inadequate in every phase except typewriting*
A description of the organisation of placement service,
follow-up service, and cooperative class organisation will
be presented in Chapter VX#
CHAPTER YX
PLACEMENT AND RELATED ACTIVITIES IN
THE LARGE PUBLIC .HIGH. SCHOOLS..OF CALIFORNIA
In view of the status of business education In the
large public high schools of California, ascertained in the
phases of curricula, departmental organization and en­
rollments, teacher personnel and teaching load, and
equipment, one measure of the outcomes can be determined by
the placement service*
The sections of the inquiry blank
devoted to placement and cooperative classes were not well
reported*
The replies were tabulated for interpretation In
the present chapter.
In regard to the question of whether a study had been
made recently of occupational outlets for boys and girls in
the community, thirty-one reported that no study had been
made, and ten reported that such a study had been made*
Four schools reported that a study was made at Merritt*s
Business College for the San Francisco and the Oakland area*
Six schools contemplated such a study in the near future*
Surveys were being made by the Continuation High School in
San Francisco, and the Los Angeles City central office of
the district.
I.
ORGANISATION OF PLACEMENT SERVICE
188
The schools were requested to check one or more, types of
placement service listed on the inquiry blank to indicate
the organisation of placement service for business pupils,
Eleven, or SO,8 percent, of the schools reported that no
placement service was maintained#
Forty-two, or 79,S percent,
of the schools reported some type of placement organisation
for the business pupils.
The types of placement service
reported were tabulated in Table LI#
Nineteen schools, or 45#S percent, reported the head or
chairman of department of business education as the placement
officer,
A central placement office with a separate business
placement officer was reported by seventeen, or 40,5
percent, of the schools#
Sixteen schools, or 38,1 percent,
indicated central placement office with full time business
placement officer#
Over three-fourths of the schools reported some type of
placement for the business pupils.
Over two-fifths of the
schools reported the head or chairman of department of
business education as the placement officer, and a central
placement office with a separate business placement officer#
This implies that the: chairman or head of the department has
done some work on the placement of pupils, but complete .
records were not kept in most casesj as indicated by the
small number of teachers responding to this section of the
inquiry blank#
189
m B L E LI
TYPES Of PLACEMENT ORGANIZATION REPORTED
BY 4£ .GALIFORNIA.HIGH SCHOOLS
Type of placement, service
Number of schools
Head or chairman of department of business
education as the placement officer
,
Central placement office with separate
business placement officer
Central placement office with full time
business placement officer
School placement office with part time
business placement officer
Placement by business teachers during
school hours
School placement office with placement as partial
responsibility of placement officers
Placement by business teachers during after
school hours
Principal as placement officer
Handled by Merritt School
Handled by Continuation High School
Central placement office with part time business
placement officers
School placement office with separate business
placement officers
Placement handled by general office
Placement handled byDean of boys
Placement handled byYice-Principal
Placement handled by Boy* s advisor
Placement handled byGIrlfs advisor
Placement handled byEmployment supervision
19
17
16
9
8
6
6
5
5
3
Z
2
1
1
1
I
1
1
190
XX*
HIGH SCHOOL PUPILS IHO ENTERED
. BUSINESS DC CUPJLfIONS -
Ihe schools were asked to give the number of pupils
graduating from the High scLoo 1 during the school year 1935thirty-six who did not enter higher institutions, and who
entered a business occupation with and without high school
business training*
The replies were tabulated in fable LIX*
Of the 289 high school graduates who entered some business
job, 227, or 78*5 percent, of the pupils had high school
business training*
One hundred forty-three, or 63.0 percent,
of the pupils having jobs with business training were girls,
and 84, or 37*0 percent, were boys*
Of the; forty-two,
or 21*5 percent, having jobs without high school business
training, twenty-five,.or 59.5 percent, were boys, and
seventeen, or 40*5 percent, were girls.
Altogether, of
the 289 pupils having business Jobs, 160, or 55*4 percent,
were girls, and 109, or 44.6 percent, were boys*
Since
these figures are not complete for all the schools, because
no record was kept in many instances, so estimates were
made.
Hence, these figures are not reliable.
Over three-fourths of the high school graduates who
entered some business occupation, had high school business
training.
Over one-fourth of the pupils entered business
jobs without high school business training, of which onehalf were boys*
Also over one-half of the pupils having
191
TABLE LXI
NUMBER OF PUPILS GRADUATING FROM HIGH SCHOOL
IN CALIFORNIA DURING.1935-36 IHO ENTERED . . -SOME BUSINESS OCCUPATION
Training of
pupil
Per­
cent
Number of Pergirls
cent
Per­
Total cent
84
37*0
143 63.0
227 78.5
25
im
59*5
17 40*5
i m
42 21.5
2UU
Number of
boys
Pupils with High
school business
braining
Pupils without high
school business
training
Total
192
business Jobs, were girls•
This tabulation revealed that the
business training received in high school did help the high
school graduate enter a business occupation.
ui.
m m
m
school pupils placed
BUSINESS OCCUPATIONS .
In the inquiry blank, the schools were requested to
report haw many pupils were placed in business occupations
between July 1, and December, 1936, by the district or
school placement service*
Table L I U .
These reports were summarized in
0f the 526 pupils placed, one hundred, or 19.0
percent, were Fairfax High School pupils in Los Angeles, of
which seventy-five, or 75.0 percent, were boys, and twentyfive, or 25.0 percent, were girls*
Fifty, or 9.5 percent,
of the pupils of the Garfield High School in Los Angeles were
placed.
Also fifty, or 9.5 percent, of the Inglewood Union
High School pupils were placed.
Thirty-five, or 6.7 percent,
of the Modesto High School pupils were placed, and twelve,
or 2.3 percent, of the Phineas Banning High School pupils
were placed*
The Sacramento High School placed 150, or 28*5
percent, of its pupils, of which 125, or 83.3 percent, were
girls, and twenty-five, or 16*7 percent, were boys.
Of
the 124, or 23.6 percent, Santa Barbara High School pupils
placed, 73 were girls, and 51 were boys.
Over one-fourth of the pupils placed by district or
193
TABLE T.TTT
CALIFORNIA HIGH SCHOOL HIPI1S PLACED
m BUSINESS' OCCUPATIONS BETWEEN-JULY, 1935 AND
BEOEMBBR,*1936, BY DISTRICT. OR SCHOOL. PLAGHMF.HT SERYIOR
High, school
Fairfax: High School
Garfield High School
Ingelwood Hoi on High School
Modesto High School
Phineas Banning High School
Sacramento High School
Santa Barbara High School
Hayward Union High School
Totals
Boys
placed
dirIs
placed
75
2
5
14
15
4
£5
51
36
1
im
a
o
8
125
73
4
1
9
X
Total
placed
1
0
0
50
50
35
IE
150
1E4
5
H
S
B
*
194
school placement service, were Sacramento High. School pupils,
of which four-fifths were girls*
Almost one-fifth of the
pupils placed were Fairfax High School pupils, and almost
one-fourth of the pupils, were Santa Barbara High School
pupils*
Eight schools, or 15*1 percent, of the schools
reported placement by district or school placement service*
Of the 526 pupils placed, 291, or 55*3 percent, were girls,
and 185, or 44*7 percent, of the pupils were boys*
This
implies that more girls are placed in business jobs from
high school than boys*
IV* HIGH SCHOOL FOFXLS SEOUBEB
JOBS IN OR m i m . LOCAL- COMMUNITY
The schools who reported pupils entering a business
occupation, were also to indicate the number of pupils who
secured jobs in or near the local community*
were tabulated in Table LTV*
These replies
Of the 190 pupils placed in
or near the local community, sixty-seven, or 35*3 percent,
were Inglewood" Union High School pupils, and fifty, or 26*3
percent, were Garfield High School pupils in Los Angeles*
Twenty-eight,each, or 14*7 percent, were Balboa High School
pupils In San Francisco, and Stockton High School pupils*
In or near Monrovia, seventeen, or. 8*9 percent, Monrovia
High School pupils secured jobs*
Five schools, or 9*4 percent, of the schools, reported
195
TABEE: LUT
HUMBER OF PUPILS WHO SECURED JOBS IH BUSINESS
OCCUPATIONS IN OR NEAR THE LOCAL. COMMUNITY
BETWEEN JULY 1, 1935. AND -DECEMBER,' 1S36
.
.
.
,
.1.1
II
1
.
.1
I . . I ,
.
High school
Balboa High School
OarfieId High School
Inglewood Union High School
Monrovia High School
Stockton High School
Totals
Boys
placed
Girls
placed
14
12
28
9
39
8
51
W
Total
placed
28
50
m
.1?
28
190
196
pupils securing jabs in or near the. local community*
Of the
one hundred ninety pupils securing jobs in or near the local
community, fifty-nine, or 31.1 percent, were girls, and
fifty each, or £6*3 percent, were boys, and unclassified
boys and girls*
Y.
3TGLL0W-UP SERVICE
In regard to the question of whether or not each school
maintained a follow-up service for pupils placed, five
schools, or 9*4 percent, of the schools reported that such
service was maintained*
Thirty-one, or 58*5 percent, of the
schools replied that follow-up service was not maintained
for the pupils who were placed*
Less than one-tenth of the schools maintained follow-up
service for the pupils placed in business occupations*
Over
one-half of the schools reported no follow-up service*
Seventeen, or 3£*1 percent, of the schools failed to reply
on the question*
YI*
COOPERATIVE. GLASS 0R0AHI2ATI0K
The section of the questionnaire dealing with cooper­
ative classes, inquired if cooperative part-time business
classes were maintained for high school pupils*
The
schools reporting cooperative classes were to list the
several business occupations for which such training was
197
provided*
Six schools, or 11.3 percent, of the schools
reported cooperative classes*
Four schools reported that
training was provided for the occupation of retail selling,
and two schools reported training for stenographers*
One
school each, reported training for machine operator and
banking*
Two schools replied that five school hours, and
one school reported one-half hour per week was scheduled for
cooperative part-time business classes*
Of the after school
hours scheduled for cooperative part-time business classes,
one school reported ten hours, another reported four hours,
another reported three hours, and still another reported
one-half hour per week.
little over one-tenth of the schools reported.cooper­
ative classes.
Training was provided for the occupations of
retail selling, stenographer, machine operator, and banking.
The total hours scheduled per week for cooperative part-time
business classes ranged from one hour to fifteen hours.
¥11.
SUMMARY
An examination of the organisation of placement service,
follow-up service, and organization of cooperative classes,
was made in this chapter.
The results of the reports will be
summarized.
Apropos to the organization of placement service, over
three-fourths of the schools reported some type of placement
198
service for the business pupils.
Over two-fifths of the
schools each, reported the head or chairman of department of
business education as the placement officer, and a central
placement office with a separate business placement officer.
In regard to the high school pupils who entered
business occupations, over three-fourth's of the high school
graduates who entered some business, occupation, had high
school business training#
Also over one-half of the pupils
having business Jobs, were girls#
Over one-fourth of the
pupils entered business occupations without high school
business training*
Thus, this tabulation revealed that the
business training received In high school did help the high
school graduate enter a business occupation.
In connection with the high school pupils placed in
business occupations, over one-eighth of the schools
reported placement by district of school placement service.
Over one—fourth of the pupils were Sacramento; High School
pupils, and almost one-fourth of the pupils were Santa
Barbara High School pupils placed by district or school
placement service.
With reference to the high school pupils who secured
jobs in or near the local community, less than one-tenth of
the schools reported pupils securing jobs in or near the
local community.
With respect to the follow-up service, less than one-tenth
199
of the schools maintained follow-up service for the- pupils
placed in business occupations*
reported no follow-rup service*
Over one-half, of the schools
Almost one-third of the
schools failed to reply on the question*
In the matter of cooperative class organization, little
over one-tenth of the schools reported cooperative classes*
Ihe pupils were scheduled to spend from one hour to fifteen
hours per week i n .training for the occupations of retail
selling, stenographer, machine operator, and hanking*
In regard to placement organization, it is recommended
that the head or chairman of the department he releaved of
a few classes to make business contacts, follow-up on pupils
placed, and keep an up-to-date record of each pupil placed*
Every large high school should render this service for Its
pupils*
An occupational survey should he conducted in each
community for Its pupils*
Every large high school should maintain follow-up service,
hecause it is profitable to the pupils placed, and to the
teacher preparing pupils to enter business occupations*
In
follow-up work, the teacher in charge, sees his former pupils
actually putting their training into practice, and he can
advise them for advancement*
All large high schools are urged to establish cooper­
ative classes for the pupils in their twelfth year*
In these
cooperative classes the pupils will become familiar with the
a
o
o
different Jobs and office routine: under the supervision of
their teacher*
The cooperative part-time business classes
also help the pupils get placed after graduation*
This chapter completed the investigation of the general
status of business education in the large public high schools
of California, as a part of a statewide survey of the public
secondary schools, made by the Bureau of Business Education,
California State Department of Education in December, 1936*
A review of the important findings of the study, with
conclusion and recommendation for each, are given in Chapter
¥IX*
CHAPTER ¥11
FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, AND HSDOMEENDA1IONS
The Bureau of Business Education of the California
State Department of Education made this survey of the
general status of business education in the large public
high schools to evaluate the conditions existing in business
education in the State of California,
On the basis of the
evaluation, the Bureau of Business Education sought to
determine what recommendations should be made for improvement
and revision of curricula, organization, teacher personnel
and teaching load, equipment, and placement organization.
In summarizing the findings of these phases, recommendations
will be given.
This final chapter will follow the organisation of the
foregoing chapters in giving the findings under each phase of
the study.
Each finding wili be followed by a conclusion
marked "A", and a recommendation marked "B1*,
X.
FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, AND BECOMMSNDATXONS
. .IN REGARD TO BUSINESS -CURRICULA....
Business curricula offered.
offered were:
The'five business curricula
stenographic and bookkeeping by forty-two
schools, or 79.Z percent, clerical by nineteen schools,
or 35,8 percent, merchandising' by sixteen schools, or 30,1
EOS
percent, and general 'business by nine schools, or 16*9
percent, of the total*
A.
Over three-fourths of the schools offered steno­
graphic and bookkeeping curricuXa, and over one-third of the
schools offered clerical curricula, which indicated that
the schools were concentrating on the first two curricula in
training business pupils*
B.
Greater emphasis should be placed oa the clerical,
merchandising, and general business curricula where a larger
number of the pupils fit and are employable when trained.
These curricula should be offered in all the schools for the
large number of pupils who are not adaptable to the steno­
graphic and bookkeeping curricula*
Specific business curricula offered*
An analysis of
the specific subjects comprising each curricula revealed a
greater variability than uniformity in subject and semester
requirements for the stenographic, bookkeeping, and clerical
curricula*
The merchandising and general business curricula
showed a greater degree of uniformity than variability*
A*
The lack of uniformity of subjects comprising each
curricula throughout the state makes transferring from one
school to another, and placement difficult.*
B*
The Bureau of Business Education should outline the
basic requirements for each curriculum for all schools to
follow*
The employer would gain more confidence in the
£03
employable product, because of tbe uniformity of training*
Specific business subjects offered*
An analysis of the
specific business subjects to reveal the frequency of each,
showed that of the eighty subjects tabulated, twenty-eight,
or 55*0 percent, were offered by only one school each, while
twenty-six, or 32*5 percent, were offered by ten or more
schools*
A*
Almost one-third of the business subjects were
offered by ten or more schools, which revealed a lack of
uniformity of business subjects offered in the California
high schools*
B*
The adoption of a basic outline of requirements for
each curriculum would produce a greater frequency of specific
business subjects offered*
Provision for remedial instruction*
Bight schools,
or 15*1 percent, reported remedial instruction in handwriting,
and twenty-one schools, or 39.6 percent, reported remedial
instruction in arithmetic*
A* Over one-eighth of the schools offered remedial
instruction in handwriting, and over one-third of the schools
offered remedial instruction in arithmetic, which indicated
that over one-third of the schools offered remedial *
instruction*
B* More stress should be placed on remedial instruction
in arithmetic and handwriting to meet the constant demands
204
of the employers for people who can write legibly and use
figures accurately.
The pupils should be taught that errors
in figures may cost them their job,
XI.
FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS , AND BSCOMMSNDATIONS
. ..IN REGARD *T O .DEPAETMEINTAL
ORGANIZATION.. AND ENROLMENTS
Time scheduled for supervision by head or chairman of
the department.
Of the forty-seyen. schools, or 88 .7 percent
of all the schools, reporting a chairman or head of the
department, thirty schools, or 56.6 percent, reported periods
for supervision of Instruction, of which seventeen schools,
or 56.7 percent, scheduled five periods per week, and only
five schools reported time scheduled for business contacts.
A.
Less than one-tenth of the schools reported time
scheduled for business contacts, which revealed that this
important phase of business training was neglected.
B.
Each chairman or head of the department should be
releaved of a few more classes to allow more time for
supervision, business contacts, and follow-up on employment
of pupils.
Enrollments in specific business subject s.
The combined
enrollment of typing, bookkeeping, and shorthand was 29,497,
or 83.2 percent, of the total.
Of the seventy-nine business
courses, tie enrollment of the girls exceeded the boys in
fifty-eight, or 73.4 percent, and the boys exceeded the girls
EOS
in ‘twenty-one, or 26.6 percent, of the courses*
The girls
exceeded tlie Soys in "skill" or "technical" business subjects,
while the boys exceeded the girls in the general business
subjects, such as business law, advertising, and general
economics*
A*
By sex, the enrollment indicated that the girls were
concentrating on the technical subjects, and the boys were
concentrating on the general business or background subjects.
B*
More emphasis should be placed on the background
subjects, especially with the girls, tor occupational
intelligence and personal living.
III. FUNDINGS, GQNCLIJSIONS, AMD KEGOMMEMDATIOHS
........ IN regard to teacher personnel . .. AND TEACHING LOAD
.
Business subjects in which training was received.
The
three most popular subjects in the business curricula,
namely:
typing, shorthand, and bookkeeping, were also the
most popular subjects in which training was received by
business teachers*
A*
The business teachers were trained in the three
most popular subjects that form the "backbone" of the business
curricula*
B*
In the training of business teachers, more emphasis
should be placed on the background subjects, such as business
organisation and management, economics, and consumer
SOS
education, where instruction was definitely lacking#
Certificates held by business teachers#
Forty combi­
nations of certificates, and eleven types of certificates
were held by the business teachers#
More than one-half of
the teachers held a General Secondary Credential, and less
than one-fourth of the teachers held a Special Secondary
in Commerce.
A# - Since more than one-half of the teachers held a
General Secondary Credential, they were qualified to teach
academic subjects as well as business subjects#
B.
The certificates should be studied and standardised,
as indicated by the large number of different certificates
granted to the business teachers#
teaching -preferences of business teachers#
Over one-
half of the teachers reported business subjects as their
first choice, and two-fifths of the teachers stated academic
subjects as their choice#
Almost one-fourth of the teachers
preferred to teach shorthand, and over one-fifth of the
teachers reported bookkeeping and typing as their preference#
A#
The teaching preferences indicated that a large
number of the teachers should be teaching academic subjects
by preference*
B#
Teachers should teach business subjects by choice
for the best interest of the pupils#
Teaching load of business teachers *
The median teaching
ao?
load for the women was thirty and thirty-one hundredths,
while it was thirty and twenty hundredths for the men#
The
teaching loads ranged from ten and seventy-eight hundredths
to fifty-two and fourteen hundredths.
There was no degree
of consistency in teaching load among the teachers in the
same school.
The large schools showed a heavier average
teaching load than the small schools.
A.
The teaching load of thirty for both men and women
was a heavy median considering the ^normal'* load as twenty.
B*
The heavy loads of the business teachers should be
normalized for the benefit of the individual.
Bistrlbution of enrollments in business classes as
compared with other classes taught by business teachers#
In
comparing the median enrollments in business classes with
other classes, the study hall and home room classes were the
heaviest, with forty-one to forty-five, the business classes
ranked second, with thirty-one to thirty-five, and the
academic classes ranked third, with twenty-six to thirty.
A.
The business teachers had heavier enrollments in the
business classes than in the academic classes.
B#
The pupils of the business classes need just as
much individual attention to understand the subject, as the
pupils in the academic classes.
The mass instruction of the
pupils in the business classes is not desirable, nor profit­
able for the individual.
Also the double subject periods
ZOQ
should "be abolished*
TV.
FINDINGS, GONCniSXGNS, AND RECOMMENDATION'S
IK REGARD TO EQUIMENT FOR XEAGHING.
BUSINESSSUBJECTS
Equipment for typing; instruction*
Over one-third of
the standard machines used for instruct ion, were Underwoods*
and less than one-fifth of the machines were Royals*
Over
three-fourths of the noiseless machines were Remingtons, and
less than one-fifth were Underwoods#
.A*
Ninety-seven percent of all the typewriters in use
for instruction were standard machines, and only three
percent were noiseless machines, which indicated that the
pupils had very little opportunity for instruction on the
noiseless machines*
B*
Every large school should have a dozen or more
noiseless machines to give the pupils ah opportunity to
become familiar
before
entering an office using noiseless
machines*
Equipment for instruction in duplicating *
The A* B*
Dick Mimeograph was the only electric operated duplicating
machine reported*
Almost seven-tenths of the duplicating
machines were A. B* Dick Mimeographs, and over one-eighth
of the machines were ditto machines*
Forty-three, or 81*1
percent, of the schools reported equipment for instruction
in duplicating*
SO9
A*
A little over eighty percent of the schools had
equipment for instruction in duplicating*
B*
Besides the mimeograph , every school should have a
ditto and a mime scope available for instructing the pupils
in duplication work, so that they will be familiar with that
type of work before entering business occupations*
Equipment for instruction in machine calculation*
Over
nine-tenths of the calculating and adding machines were handoperated, almost one-fifth of the machines were Monroe
calculators, over one-third of the machines were Burroughs
calculators, and over one-eighth of the machines were
Comptometers and Burroughs adding machines*
A*
Almost eighty-five percent of the schools reported
equipment for instruction in machine calculation, which
revealed that fifteen percent of the schools did not have
equipment for instruction in machine calculation*
B*
All large schools should have at least twenty
calculating and adding machines available for instruction for
pupils entering business employment.
With twenty or more
machines, the pupils may be given class instruction and
speed drills to develop skill on the machines.
Bach make of
machine found in an office should be available for instruction*
Equipment for instruction in bookkeeping and accounting*
Over three-fourths of the machines were Burroughs bookkeeping
machines, and only one-third of the schools reported
equipment for instruction in bookkeeping and accounting*
A*
Only one-third of the schools had equipment for
instruction in bookkeeping and accounting, which indicated
that two-thirds of the schools did not have equipment for
instruction in bookkeeping and accounting*
B*
Each school should be equipped with six or more
bookkeeping, posting, and statement machines for instruction
purposes, because the bookkeeping majors are seriously handi­
capped without the use of a machine*
Other machines for instruction in business classes*
More than one-eighth of the machines were Dictaphone trans­
cribing and dictating machines, and Bdiphone transcribing
machines*
Over one-half of the schools reported equipment
for office practice and office machines*
A*
Over one-half of the schools had equipment for
dictaphone work, which showed that almost one-half of the
schools were without such equipment*
B*
It is urged that every school should be equipped
with at least two dictaphone and transcribing machines, and
one shaving machine for the training of dictaphone operators*
Equipment for instruction in filing*
Almost every
school reported instruction given in filing, but only onehalf of the schools reported equipment for such instruction*
A*
One-half of the schools are teaching filing without
equipment for instruction in filing.
ail
B*
More emphasis should be placed on the equipment used
for the instruction in filing to adequately train the pupils
in the different kinds of filing systems*
F* FINDINGS, CONCHTSIONS, AND HBCOMMENDAIIONS
IN REGARD 10 PLACEMENT A N D .RELATED ACTIVITIES
Organisation of placement service*
Over three-fourths
of the schools reported some type of placement service for
the business pupils*
Over two-fifths of the schools each,
reported the head or chairman of department of business
education as the placement officer, and a central placement
office with a separate business placement officer*
A*
Over three-fourths of the schools reported some
type of placement service for the business pupils, but few have
time scheduled for placement service*
B*
In every large school, the head or chairman of the
department should be releaved of a few classes to make
business contacts, and keep up-to-date records of each pupil
placed*
Follow-up service*
Less than one-tenth of the schools
maintained follow-up service for the pupils placed in
business occupations*
Over one-half of the schools reported
no follow-up service*
A*
Less than one-tenth of the schools maintained
follow-up service for the pupils placed in business occu­
pations, which Indicated that this phase of the business
Eia
training is seriously neglected in the California high, schools#
B#
Every large high school should maintain follow-up
service for the pupils placed in business occupations,
because it is profitable to the pupils placed, and to the
teacher preparing pupils to enter business occupations*
in
follow-up work, the teacher in charge, sees his former pupils
actually putting their training into practice, and he advises
them for advancement#
Cooperative class organization#
Little over one-tenth
of the schools reported cooperative'classes#
The pupils were
scheduled to spend from one hour to fifteen hours per week
in training for the occupations of retail selling, steno­
grapher, machine operator, and banking#
A*
Little over one-tenth of the schools reported
cooperative classes, which showed thatthis type of training
for business has just begun in the high schools#
B#
All large high schools are urged to establish cooper­
ative classes for the pupils in their twelfth year#
In these
cooperative classes the pupils will become familiar with the
different jobs and office routine under the supervision of
their teacher#
The cooperative part-time business classes
also help the pupils get placed after graduation#
In this chapter was presented a summary of the findings
of each phase of the study, followed by a conclusion and a
recommendation for each finding, in the order of discussion
E13
in the preceding chapters*
A bibliography containing a list
of books, periodical materials, government, publications,
bulletins, monographs, publications of learned organizations,
unpublished materials, and addresses, follows this chapter*
The appendix which follows the bibliography, includes
a copy of the double post card making inquiry about the
questionnaire, an explanatory letter to the secondary school
principals expressing willingness to cooperate in the survey
of business education, and a copy of the questionnaire sent
to the high schools by the Bureau of Business Education of
the California State Department of Education*
B I B L I O G R A P H Y
£15
A.
BOOKS
Atkinson, lari W . , and Elmer Spanabel, Workbook. Principles
and Problems in Business Education* New York: South**
Western Publishing Company, 1935* £31 pp.
Douglass , Harl R *, Organization and Administration of
Secondary Schools# Boston: Ginn and Gampany,.1952.
579 pp*
Haynes, Benjamin B . , and Jessie Graham, Research in
Business Education* Los Angeles: d . G * Crawford,
1932* 232 pp*
~
Jones, Conner Thome, Teaching Business Subjects in the
Secondary Schools# New York City: The Ronald Press
Company, 1924* -374 pp*
,
Kilpatrick, William Heard, Education for a Changing
Civilization * New York: The Macmillan Company,
1926. 143 pp*
Kit son, Harry B * , Commercial Education in Secondary Schools*
..Boston: Ginn and Company, 1929* 347 pp*
Lomax, Paul S., Commercial Teaching Problems* New York:
Prentice Hall, incorporated, 1928 * 200 pp#
Lyon, Leverett S*, Education for Business* Chicago:
University of Chicago Press, 1922. 586 pp.
Marvin, Cloyd Heck, Commercial Education in Secondary
Schools» New York City: Henry Holt and Company,
1922* 216 pp.
,
McKown, Harry C*, Extracurricular Activities *
The Macmillan Company, 1928. .606 pp*
New York:
Nichols, Frederick G* *, Commercial Education in the High
School* New York: B* Appleton-Gentury Company,
Incorporated, 1933* .514 pp.
Tonne, Herbert A., and M. Henrietta Tonne, Sooi.al-Busi.ness
Education in .the Secondary Schools* New York! Hew
York University Press' Book Store, 1932. 288 pp*
Walters, B. G* , High School Commercial Education* New York
City: Xssae Pitman and Sons Publishing Company, n. d*
261 pp*.
316
leer sing, Frederick: J#, Re organization of Commercial
Education In Public High. Schools# Cincinnati* Ohio:
The Southwestern Publishing Company, 1939# 154 pp# ,
Welch* Arnon Wallace, Some Qbs ervations on Secondary
Commercial Educatxon* Hew York City: Gregg Publishing
Company, 1934# 308 pp•
B#
PERIODICAL MATERIALS
Abercrombie, Boland K # , ’’The Next Step In Business Edu­
cation,** Journal of^Business Education* 9: 15-16,
January, 1954#
Atkinson, E.* W * , "Trends in business education.in the
secondary schools,** Balance Sheet, 14:57, October, 1931#
Cubberley, Ellwood P * , "Commercial Education— Its Past
History and Present Status, and Prospects.for Future
Development," The Balance Sheet,. 7:4-5, May, 1936#
Garbutt, Irving R*, "Education for Business,, Its Social
Aims ,and Relationships in the General Program of
Education," The Balance Sheet*. 13:3-6, September, 1931*
Garbutt, Irving R * , "Some Things to Think about in Modern
Education," The.Balance Sheet * 14:51, October, 1933#
Haynes, Benjamin R# , "Trends in Business Education," The
Balance Sheet * 13:383, April, 1931*
^ .
Koos Leonard ¥*, "Business education: the present status,"
Junior College Journal* 3:191-98, January, 1933#
Kunze, Claire, "Survey of Goinmercial Subjects in High
Schools of.North Dakota," The Balance Sheet, 14:165-66,
December, 1935* .
...
r■ .
Douglass, Harl R#, "Measuring the Teaching Load in the High
School," The Rations Schools*.3:33-34*~October, 1938#
Heims tad ter, G* ¥*, "Some trends in commercial education,"
Educational Research Record * ¥11:99-103, February, 1933#
Johns, Ralph Leslie, "The Place of Commercial Education in
Secondary Education," The Balance Sheet * 13:365-68,
April, 1931*
Exbby, Ira W* , "What Is Business Education?," Tocational
Education Hews Notes* 5:31, March, 1939*
217
Lomax, Paul S., “A Vital Decision Paces Business Educators,®
Journal of Business Education* 9:7,-February, 1934*
Lomax, Paul S . , “What is a Sound Philosophy of Business
Education?®.The Business Education World* 16:195-98;
291-92, November, Bee ember, 1935 ♦
McCarthy, Marie, Commercial Education in the State of
Washington»**UThe Journal of Business Education* 7:19,28,
April, 1932♦ \
.
Moore, Wert E#, Commercial education reorganization needs,**
Journal of Business Education* 7:17-18,June, 1932#
Nichols, Frederick G., “Important commercial education
problems,** Vocational Education Magazine* 1:97-98,
October, 1922#
Nichols, Frederick G., “Readjustment of Business Education,1*
Journal of Business Education* 9:8, 14, 20, March, 1934#
Nichols, Frederick G., “What is a Sound Philosophy of
Business Education?** The ~Business Education World*
16:761—66, June, 1936* . .
0*Hearn, John P., “The History and present tendencies of
commercial education,® Balance Sheet, 14:407, 410-411,
426, May, 1933.
- Reid, Helen Pearson, “New Mexico Commercial Surrey,*
Balance Sheet* 13:177-178, January, .1932#
Rice, Louis A., “New Problems in Business Education,®
Junior-Senior High School Clearing House , 8:198*205 ,
December, 1933.
Shields, H* G., “Major issues in the new business education,®
Balance Sheet* 14:340-342, April, 1933.
Sorenson, Alfred, “Serious defects in public commercial
education,® Education* 53:15-20, September, 1932.
Studebaker, M. E.., “Need of State Guidance in Business
Education,® Journal of Business Education* 9:8-9,
April, 1934. .
.
Strumpf, B. E * , “The Future of Commercial Education,®
High. Points * 15:5-14, December, 1933.
aia
Tonne, Herbert A* , "Business education in 1931," Journal
of. Business Education. 7:20, December, 1931.-.
Tonne, Herbert A*, "Resume of Business Education in 1933,”
Journal of .Business Education. 9:7, January, 1934*
Trant, James B*, "The changing curriculum in commercial
education,** The Balance Sheet, 12:227-229, March, 1931#
Weersing, Frederick: J., "Some fundamental problems in the
improvement of commercial education,** California
Quarterly of Secondary Education. 3:327-36, iTun'e, 1928#
leersing, Frederick J., "The Future of Secondary Commercial
Education,** The .Balance Sheets 10:161-81, February, 1929#
c#
c m E E M m m publications, bulletins , monographs ,
AND PUBLICATIONS OF LEARNED ORGANIZATIONS .
Blacks tone, Earl G., "Research studies in commercial
education," Monographs in Education. No*4, University of
Xowa, Iowa -City , Iowa, 1929 * 240 pp*
California School Directory. Berkeley, California: Society
of Secondary Education, October, 1932, Pamphlet, 298 pp*
California State Department of Education, Biennial Report.
1930, Parti,.Sacramento, California: State Printing
Office, 1931. p. 89.
California State Department of Education, "Secondary
Education in California," Report of a-,Preliminary
Survey, Sacramento, California: Galifomia State
Printing Office, 1929* 128 pp*
California State Department of Education, Principals* 1932
October Report. Part XIX, "Enrollment in 'business and
related subjects," Sacramento, California: Mimeographed
leaflet, April 27, 1933.
Commercial Education* Bulletin No,. 26, United States De­
partment of the Interior, Office of Education, 1929, p. 2*
Commission for Vocational Education. "Its organisation and
functions," Report for 1932, California State Department
of Education monograph, Sacramento: 1932# 37-pp*
ai9
Jones, Lloyd L * , "Commercial subjects in the changing
curriculum of the high school," Addresses and Proceedings
of the Seventy-first Annual Meeting of the National Edu­
cation Association, "Vol. L2QCI, Chicago: July 1-7, 1933*
P *
500*.
.
McCLesney, J. B., "Secondary Education in California,"
Monographs on-Education in Califomia, 1904* pp* 3-28*
O ’Brien, Frances P*, "The Status of business courses in the
high school," Bulletin of Education* of Kansas, Bureau
of School Service and Hesearch, 1928* 25 pp*
United States Office of Education, "Biennial survey of
education in the United. States,. 1928-1930 - - Commercial
education*" Bulletin 1931* No* 20; Washington* ,B. C*:
1931.
. ----D.
UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS
Barringer, Arthur 0., "The Status of Teaching Business
Subjects in the Public High Schools of Idaho." Un­
published Master* s thesis, University of Southern
Califomia, Los Angeles, 1935* 101 pp*
Bradshaw, Frances Leora, "The Status of Business Education
in Montana." Unpublished Master’s thesis, University
of Southern-California, Los Angeles, 1936. .136 pp.
Corrie, Eugene, "An Analysis of Some of the Factors of the
Teaching-Load with Special Reference to-the PupllTeacher Ratio." Unpublished Masterfs thesis, University
of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1928. 56 pp*
Davidson, Mildred L., "Recent Trends in Business Education."
Unpublished Master’s thesis, University of Southern
California, Los Angeles, 1936. 133 pp*
Fishel, Carl Tillet, "The Evolution of Business in the
Public High School.** Unpublished Master’s thesis,
University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 98 pp.
Graham, Jessie, "The Evolution of Business Education in the
United States and Its Implication for the Preparation of
Secondary Teachers.of Business Subjects." Unpublished
Doctor*s dissertation, University of Southern California,
Los Angeles, 1933. 564 pp.
220
Jackson, Harry Peacod, "A History of Business Education in the
United States." Unpublished Master* s thesis, University
of Southern California, Los Angeles,, 1933*
Jolmson, Edith Dailey, "A Philosophy of Business Education*”
Unpublished Master’s thesis, University of Southern
California, Los Angeles, 1934* £51 pp*
Kibby, Ira ¥., "Our Changing Pattern in Business Education*"
Address‘given at State Conference on Business Education,
.Fresno, Californa, April 4, 1936* In typewritten form*
Article In files o f .the investigator*
Lane, John R* , "The Present Status of Business Teachers in
the High Schools of California*Tt Unpublished Master’s
thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles,
1933* 81 pp*
Probst, Ruth Ann, "Development of Business Education in the
public schools of Los Angeles*" Unpublished Master’s
thesis, University.of Southern ..California, Los Angeles,
1934* 113 pp*
Rockwell, Irene Sc hut9 "The Present Status of Business
Education in the Public Secondary Schools of Arizona*"
Unpublished Master’s thesis, University of Southern k
California, Los Angeles, 1936. 115 pp*
Shaw, Dorothy Pierpont, "A Study to determine the Status of
Cooperative Business.Education in the Public Secondary
Schools of the United States." Unpublished Master’s
thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles,
1935* 81
p
p
*
-
Watkins, Ina-Ree, "Evaluating Business Education Curricula
in terms of a-.Survey and the Curricular Practices of
Fifty-Six California High Schools.” Unpublished
Master’s thesis, University of Southern California, Los
Angeles, 1934. 182 pp*
?/eersing, Frederick J*, "A Study of Certain Aspects of
Commercial Education in the Public High.Schools of
Minnesota*" Unpublished Doctor’s dissertation,
University-of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 1927* 527 pp*
White, Charlotte, C * , "A Survey of Business Education in the
Small Public High -Schools of California*" Unpublished
Master’s thesis, University of Southern California, Los
Angeles, 1934* 186 pp.
sal
E.
ADDRESSES
Dana,? F. M . , The State Conference on Business Education,
April 4, .1936, Fresno, California* Talk by P. M. Dana
on "The Employable Product."
Heffernan, Helen, Chief , Division of Elementary Education
and Rural Schools, State Department of Education. Talk
by Miss Heffernan at the California Conference on
Business Education, Fresno, April 13, 1935, held under
the auspices of the California State Department of
Education and the California Commercial'Teachers
Association.
Kibby, Ira ¥., "Our Changing Pattern in Business Education."
Address given at State Conference on Business Education,
Fresno, California, April 4, 1936* In typewritten form.
Article in files of the investigator.
APPIHDII
E&5
B0CBU1 POST CARD.
To Secondary School Principals:
The Bureau of Business Education, in cooperation with
the Federated Business. Teachers Association of the State of
California, has planned a study to determine the status of
husiness education in the State* The study will involve the
gathering of a considerable amount.of information pertaining
to enrollments, placement of subjects, placement of students,
and teaching personnel in California secondary schools* A
section will be devoted to consumer education*
Xt is proposed that the information gathered will be
compiled and analysed and the results sent to all principals*
Most of the information can be. gathered by the Chairman of
your Commercial Department* Are you willing that a copy of
the questionnaire be sent to you so that information may be
obtained from your school? Kindly answer on the attached card*
r
m
Cordially yours,
VTEBLING KERSEY
Superintendent of Public
Instruction
Vierling Kersey
Superintendent of Public Instruction
State Department of Education
Sacramento, California
Dear Sir:
You may send a copy of the questionnaire asking for
information pertaining to business education to me* I will
see that the information is compiled and forwarded to.you.
Principal
High School
_________
Address.
_
'
.. .
224
December 15, 1936
TO SECONDARY SCHOOL PRINCIPALS:
We appreciate your willingness to cooperate with the
Department of Education in making a study of business Edu­
cation in the secondary schools of the state. This study is
being made by the State Department of Education in cooper­
ation with the Federated-Business Teachers Associations of
California, Such a study Is needed in order to have reliable
information upon which to base judgments for the improvement
of the program. The information requested herein Is vitally
needed in order that a coordinated program for the develop­
ment of secondary school business education may be undertaken.
As soon as the information can be compiled it will be
released to school officials so they may study the trends In
this field. It is hoped the data collected may aid you in
making curriculum adjustments and improvements.
Separate report forms have been developed as follows:
I,
.2,
For separate junior high schools
For high schools, including four-year , senior,
•junior-senior, and branch high schools
3* For continuation high schools
4, For junior colleges, whether maintained separately
or in conjunction with a high school
The study is divided Into eight parts, as follows:
Part
Part
Part
Part
Part
Part
Part
Part
I:
II:
III:
IY:
Y:
YI:
YII:
YHI:
General Information
Placement
f
Cooperative Glasses
Equipment for Teaching Business Subjects
Enrollment in Business Courses
Consumer Buying
Teacher Load In Business Subjects
Teacher Personnel
In the report forms for the high schools and junior
colleges Parts I to Y inclusive are bound together. Parts
YI, YII and YIII are separate.
In the report form for separate junior high schools,
Part I to- Y, Inclusive, have been consolidated into a single
unified report form, Part YI being omitted, and Parts YXI
and YIII are Included as separate parts*
ZZ5
To high schools and junior colleges we are sending two
capias of Parts I to YI inclusive. To junior high schools
we are sending two copies of the consolidated report form*
One copy of each form is to be used as a work copy and
retained for your files. The other copy is to be filled in
and mailed to the Bureau of Business Education, State
Department of Education, Sacramento, California.
We are also sending to all schools copies of Parts VII
and VXXX for each instructor teaching a business subject...
Have each instructor teaching one or more business subjects
fill out a copy of Parts VII and VXXX. These should be
returned by the teachers to -the principal to be mailed to the
Bureau of Business Education with the other forms. You will
note that Part XXXI does not have to be signed by the teacher.
If we are not enclosing enough copies of Part XXX and YXXX to
provide one copy of each for each teacher of business subjects
in your school, kindly write us asking for the number of
additional copies you need.
Xt is suggested that the principal read over the
questions in the general report forms and answer such as he
can from the information he has at hand, then give the blanks
to the teacher or department chairman who has general charge
of business education in the school, with the request that he
or she take charge of gathering and compiling the needed
information and completing the general report for the school*
If there is not sufficient space on a blank to answer
any question, use the reverse side of the sheet. In so doing,
be sure to number the answer in accordance with the question
answered.
Your cooperation in assisting us to secure an early
report will be sincerely appreciated.
Cordially yours,
YXEBLXHG KEBSEY
Superintendent of Public Instruction
By
Ira W . Kibby, Ghie f
Bureau of Business Education
BB6
CALIFORNIA 'STATS DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
Sacramento, California
December 15, 1936
REPORT ON BUSINESS EDUCATION IN CALIFORNIA HIGH SCHOOLS
PART I
GENERAL INFORMATION
Name of School .................................... ‘.............................
District
....................................................
7th
; 8th
Co u n t y ...
1.
Check each grade in this school;
; Qth
; 10th
; 11th
; 12th
2.
Is the school divided into two semesters?
3.
Does the program of the school provide for semester p r o m o t i o n ? ........... Y e s.....; N o ....
4.
Are the courses in business education offered in this high school organized in a separate
................... . Yes.,,,.... ; No..,,,........
d e p a r t m e n t ? ................. . . . » ..........................
Yes. ; N o .
a.
If they are so organized give the official title of the department:
b.
T s there a chairman or head of this department?
c.
How many periods per week is the chairman or head of this department scheduled for super­
........... T e s
.; "No..... „.
vision of instruction in classes in business education?................... periods per week.
d.
How many hours per week isthe chairman or head of this department scheduled for
contacts?
e.
. .
,
hours per week.
If the courses in business
education are not organized in a separate
other department are they included?
department, in what
_________...,________
Comment:
5.
6.
business
Number of persons teaching one or more high school courses in business education:
a.
In high school classes only:
. . . .
.. . M e n .......
b.
In high school classes and junior college classes:
;.Women.......
Men
; Total......
,
; Women...... ; T o t a l ...
Requirements for graduation from the high school business curriculum:
a. If this is a separate senior high school, check to indicate whether the requirements
listed below are for:
(1) Grades 9-12, i n c l u s i v e ........................................... .......... .......
(2) Grades 10-12, i n c l u s i v e .................................................... ... ....
(3) Grades 11— 12, i n c l u s i v e .................................................... ........
b.
c.
Total number of semester periods r e q u i r e d ......................... ..
Specific subjects, both business and academic, required of all students for graduation
from business curriculum:
Subject
H.S.
Semester periods
required
Subject
(1 ) ___
(5)
(2)
(6 ) _
(3)
(7) _
(4)
(3 )
Semester periods
required
ZZl
Specific business courses and number of semester periods required for business majofs:
(1)
Stenographic
Sem. Per.
(3-) .
(2)
(3)
(4)
___ ..
Merchandising'
(a)
,
(b) ________________ ________ ___________
(b)
(c) _____ ..
(c) .......
—
(d)___
Bookkeeping
_ ____
f a ) _______ ________ __________
__ _____
(d) ..._________________________ __________
Clerical
(a)
.
Sem.Per;
..... .........
■ ________
__ ______________________ _________
— ...............
—
.
d*
( d ) _____________
(5 ) Other
„
(a) __ ___ ___ ________ __________ _______
(d)______________ ___________ __________
(6)
(a)
_ ________
<o) _____________________ __ __ _________
(b)__ __________________________ _______
(o)
(c)
________________ _________
___________ ___ ___________ ________
Comment:
7.
List any specialized types of business jobs such as hotel managers, secretaries for lawyers,
or grocery clerks for which a definite program of training is offered to high school students.
8.
Is remedial instruction provided for high school business students who are deficient in
Yes...... ; No. .
h a n d w r i t i n g ? ........................................................
a.
Are vocational business students required to attain a specified score in
h a n d w r i t i n g ? ......................................................... Yes..... .; N o ... .
Indicate score required.
9.
10.
(1)
Quality
...................
(2)
Rate
...................
(3)
Name of scale used
.............................................................
Is remedial instruction provided for high school business students who are deficient.in
a r i t h m e t i c ?............
Y e s .... ; No....
If filing is not given as a separate course, is instruction in filing given as part of
some other c o u r s e ? .....................................................
Y e s .. ; No...
.11.
What course?
.................................................. .........................
If maohine calculation is not given as a separ -.te course, is instruction in machine
calculation given as part of some other course?
............... Y e s ......; No..... .
12.
What course?
If instruction in the use of adding machines is not given as a separate course, is it given
as a p a r t of some other c o u r s e ? .........................................Y e s ..... ; N o ..... .
13.
What course? .....................................................................................
If personal development (business etiquette) is not offered as a separate course, is it
.
given as a part of some other course? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Yes
; No
14.
What course?.......................... .............
.......................
Do you offer instruction in how to apply for and how to find jobs? . . Y e s
; No
.
What course or courses? ............................................... .........................
H.S.— 2
228
15.
What standards, other than a grade of D or better*
are required for passing students
taking typewriting?
a.
For Personal Use
1st semester
.................................................................
2nd semester
3rd semester
4th semester
b,
For Vocational Use
1st semester
2nd sernester
3rd semester
4th semester
16.
What standards, other than a grade of D or better,
taking shorthand?
1st semester
2nd seiaes'oer
3rd semester
dt h s ernest or
H. S. —
3
are required for passing’ students
.................................
£&9
PART II
PLACEMENT
NOTE:
17.
If the junior college is maintained with a high school, questions 14 ..uid 15 of the
iunior college report can be omitted if answered for tne combined institution in this
(high school) report.
In such case, please write in the margin opposite numbers 17 and
IS of this (high school) report, "Junior college included."
Has a study been made recently of occupational outlets for boys and girls in your
community? ,
..............
, ............
Yes...,... j N o ...
*
a.
If so, please furnish a copy of the study if available; if not available give title
of study and, advise where a copy of the results of the study may be secured.
b.
18.
If such a study has not been made is such a study contemplated in the near
f u t u r e ? ......................
Y e s ..... N o ....... .
c. By whom? _____ ,
_____________ _________ ____________________ ________ _____ __ _____________
Check one or more of the following to indicate the organization of placement service
for business students:
...........
a. No placement service is m a i n t a i n e d ............. ...........................
b.
Central placement office for entire district:
(1) With separate business placement officex*.
............. ..
...........
(a) Number of full-time business placement o f f i c e r s ...........
..........
(b) Number of part— time business placement officers
. . . ...........
c. Placement office maintained by the school:
(1) With separate business placement o f f i c e r s .............................. ....... .....
(a) Number of full-time business placement officers . . . . . . . . .
..........
(b) Number of part-time business placement o f f i c e r s ................... ..........
(2)
With business placement a partial responsibility ox general
placement officers only . . . . .
. ............
d.‘ Head or chairman of Department of Business Education serving' as placement
officer . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . ........ ...
e.
Principal serving as placement officer
...................... ............
f.
placement' assigned to business teachers as aresponsibility to
be performed:
(1)
After school hours
...................................................... ..........
(2) During' school h o u r s ................... .................................. ...........
g. Other types of organization for placement:
Comment
19.
If d b a are available, give number of students graduating from the high school during the
school year 1935— 35 wno did not enter higher institutions, and who entered a business
occupatioxf:
a. With high school business training:
........Boys
..... ; Girls....... ;.. Total......
b.
Without high school business training:
Comment: ___________ _
H.S.—
4
....
B u y s ......
;
Girls......
;
Total......
230
3D.
If data are available, give number of students who entered a business occupation between
July 1, 1935 and the present, without having graduated from high school:
a.
With high school business training':
b.
Without high school business training:
B o y s .... ;
.. Boys ..
;
Girls..... ;
Total.... .
Girls..... Total........ .
Comment: _____
31.
Of the total number of students reported in Items 19 and 20 as entering a business
occupation, how many secured jobs in or near the local community?
.
..............
Boys..... ;
Girls
;
Total.....
; Girls ...... ;
Total....
H o w many secured jobs at a distance from the local community?
..................
Boys
Comment:
22.
How many students were placed in business occupations between July 1,
present by the district or school placement service?
23-
Boys .... ; G irls
3935 and the
j Total...
Does this school maintain a follow up service for pupils who are placed? Y e s
H. S.— 5
; No.
231
PART III
COOPERATIVE a ASSES
24.
If cooperative part-time business classes are maintained for high school students* list the several
business occupations for which such training is provided and give the in formation requested for
each.
Occup ation
Lowest and highest wages paid
{Hours per week spent
jcredlt {NO
by students
j.hours wage. students per hour in cooperative
jpai d
part-time employment
In
'‘I n ’techirrca|(
BoysfGirlsrrotal saqployment land related }Slven
Lowest wage paid Highest wage paid
instru cticnf
Enrollment
Dec, 15, 1933
Check in this column if airy student receives no wages for services in cooperative employment,
25«
Report total d o c k hours per week scheduled for coordination services in connection with cooperative
part-time business classes.
a. During school hours
. .
b. After school hours
.....
. . ...
c. Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
H.S.-Q
E3E
PART IV
EQUIPMENT FOR TEACHING BUSINESS SUBJECTS
NOTE:
2.5.
In combined high, schools and junior colleges, include in this report for the high school
such equipment as is used in common by high school and junior college classes as well as
equipment used by high school classes.
Include in the junior college report only such
• equipment as is used only for junior college classes (grades 13 and 14).
Indicate here whether the equipment checked or listed in this report is also used by the
; No
... .
junior c o l l e g e : ................................................... Yes
Number of typewriters in use for instruction purposes:
a.
Standard Machines
Number
(1) Remington................. .......
(5) L.C. Smith
b.
£55.
(2)
Underwood
.. .....
(3)
Royal
.......
(4)
Woodstock
.......
Noiseless M'achines
Number
(1) Remington................. .......
...
........
....................................
Others (List makes)
Number
.........
(2) Underwood.................. .......
Make and number of duplicating machines and equipment in use for iiistruction purposesi
Han d
a.
A.B. Dick Mimeograph
b.
Others
Electric
Total
Number of calculating and adding machines in use for instruction purposes:
a.
b.
c*
28.
Others (List makes)
(3)
Make
27.
(6)
Number
.........
Crank Operated Calculating Machines
(1)
Monroe
(2)
Mar chant
(3)
O t h e r s _______________
Key Driven *CaI cul at
Hand
.................... .......
(1)
Burroughs
..... .........
(2)
horaptometer
.................. ...........................
(3)
Others
..
___________ ,_____ _________ ..............................................
Adding Machines
(1)
Burroughs
(2)
Dalton
(3)
Suns t rand
(4)
Others
.............................................
;..............................
and statement machines in use for instruction purposes:
Number
H.S.-7
Total
._________
achlnes......................
Number of bookkeeping, posting,
a.
b.
c.
d.
Electric
Underwood
Elliot Pisher
Suustraud.................. ...........
..... ......
,=.-.nington
Number
e.Burroughs
f.
National
Others
,
.......... ...........
£33
29.
Number of other machines in use for instruction purposes:
Number
30.
a*
Addressograph
b.
Dictaphone Dictating M a c h i n e
.
c.
Dictaphone Transcribing M a c h i n e .....................................
.
d.
Dictaphone Record Shaving Machine
e.
Ediphone Dictating M a c h i n e ............. ................................
f.
Ediphnne Transcribing M a c h i n e ..........................................
g.
Ediphone Record Shaving M a c h i n e ........................... * .
h.
Casn Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
i.
Multi grapn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
...............................
. . . .
.........
.........
.........
.........
. . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . .
..
.........
Equipment in use for the teaching cf filing;
Equipment
Name of Manuf acturer
Number
3.#
... ..... ................... ........................................................................................................
...........
b.
...............................................................................
......
c.
H.'S. -8
•
................
...................................................
PART V
ENROLLMENT ON DEC.
15,
234
1936 IN BUSINESS COURSES IN HIGH SCHOOLS
Total number of students enrolled in one or more business courses as of December 15, 1936:
31.
Grade
7
Boys
......
Girls
Total '
......
Grade
Boys
Girls
Total
11.............. ....................
......
8
12
9
............................
Special
H. S.
10
..........................
.....................
Total enrollment
33.
Number of students above the tenth grade who are now taking' business courses as preparation
for business employment:
Boys
Grade
Girls
Total
11
13
Special including
P. G.
T o ta l
33.
Give in the following table the number of students enrolled in any of the listed courses
given by this high school.
Classify students by sex and grade of registrations. Leave
blank any semester or any course not offered in this school.
Write under "others" any
course offered in this school which is not listed and give the requested information.
Include information on all courses listed that are offered in this high school whether
offered in the Department of Business Education or in other departments. Place an
asterisk (*) after any of the courses which in this institution are considered to b'._ in a
field other than business.
STUDENTS IN B U S IN E S S COURSES-
GRADE ENR OLLM ENT O F
Do n o t i n c l u d e
7 th
SUBJECTS
c o o p e r a tiv e
8 th
T
>
c o u rs e s p r e v io u s ly
9 th
10 th
re p o rte d
in
1 1 th
P a rt I I I
12 t h
Speci al
In c lu d e
P . G.
T o ta l
B oy s ' p i T T ^ y s p T r l i jB o y b . G i r l s jB o 'y s T o i r ls jB o y s j G i r l s jB o y s j G i r l s |B o y s j G i r l s jB o y s j G i r l s
TYPING —
1 s t Sera,
a id
Sem.
3 rd
S an.
4 th
Sem.
5 th
Sem.
6 th
Sem.
7 th
Sem.
8 th
Sem.
!...I
SHORTHAND
lit
Sem.
a id
San.
3 rd
Sem.
4 th
San.
5 th
Sera
6 th
San.
■4......... 1-
SHORTHAND
TRANSCRIPTION
1 s t Sem.
a id
Sera...............
STENOTYPY
1 s t San.
a id
Sera,
3 rd San.
4 th
Sara ,
I
235
ENROLL!:ENTS IN BUSINESS COURSES IN HIGH SCHOOLS
. ^ r.r_ TTr,
r~—.nn-p..
GRADE ENROLL! 1 S IT O F'S1UDENTS
Do n o t in c L u d e
c o o p e r a tiv e
c o u rs e s p r e v io u s ly
re p o rte d
in
P a rt I I I
Speci a i
In c lu d e
!
7 th
SUBJECTS
!
i
SECRETARIAL
PRACTICED
s B o y s j Gi r l s | B o y s
!
j
........ i
S id
Sera.
i
F IL IN G
!
......LSiLjSSBU.................... i
.. ,i
BUSIN ESS o';
■ ' ENGL I SB ^
!
1 s t Sem..................... .
r .... ................
................ j
•
1st
Sem.
a id
Sem.
j
i
j
j
...............i .... ......i L,„.....
•j
1
i
........if.....i™
i
|
1s t S a n .
1
a id
San.
|
3 rd
Sem.
I
1 2 th
to y s j f e lr ls J B o y s ; G1 r l s B o y s | G i r l s
... t
1
.......
|
i
I
f
f
......... ............~..........
j
.......... i
.
:I
f ............
i
.............
5 th
S e m .................. i
6 th . San.
^
ACCOUNTING
j
------ ■...........— ......*■
(
..........i
_
...........
......1
Sem.
B o y s ] Gi r f s
i
1
.............
4t h
T o ta l
i
.............. ! ............ ! ............
BOOKKEEPING
G ill'S
i
!
■
1 1 th
l
. . j. .i
j
10 th
G i r l s j 3oys
i
BU SIN ESS
p:
' CORRE £P0N D EN CE •;
'
9 th
8 th
:.... ....... —
i
zzi
i ..........
r. 1
..... ......j
—
;
>•;"....... -
..........
----
l
1 s t S e m ................
a id
.
Sem. ..................
............. •.
■ .......
3 r d Sem.
4 th
San.
MACHINE
BOOKKEEPING
1 s t Sem.
1
i
.............. i
..... ^ d jS e m .
BANKING
PRACTICE.
a id
t
_j
" " — .........
i
....,.J
--- ------- 1
j
;
.......—
.............
i
Sem.
O FF IC E
*
PRACTICE
1
1 s t San.
a id
j
Sem.
■
_j
11 ...
S e c r e t a r i a l P r a c t ic e r e f e r s to a c o u rs e o f i n s t r u c t i o n in te n d e d to g iv e s t u d e n ts d ir e c t e d p r a c t ic e in s h o r t ­
h a n d a n d t y p i n g as w e l l as i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e u s e o f o f f i c e m a c h in e s a n d i n g e n e r a l o f f i c e p r a c t i c e , i n
p r e p a r a t i o n f o r e m p lo y m e n t a s s t e n o g r a p h e r s o r s e c r e t a r i e s .
I n c l u d e w i t h t h e a c t u a l e n r o l l m e n t i n s e p a r a t e c o u r s e s i n s e c r e t a r i a l p r a c t i c e t h o s e s t u d m t s who a r e en­
r o l l e d i n c o u r s e s d e s ig n a t e d as o f f i c e p r a c t i c e c o u r s e s , b u t Who h a v e a s t h e i r v o c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e e m p lo y m e n t a s s t e n o g r a p h e r s o r s e c r e t a r i e s e n d f o r vhom a d i f f e r e n t i a t e d p r o g r a m o f I n s t r u c t i o n i s p r o v i d e d i n t h e
o f f i c e p r a c t ic e c o u rs e b a se d upon t h i s v o c a tio n a l o b je c t iv e .
See f o o t n o t e u n d e r 0 f f i c e P r a c t i c e , b e lo w .
2I f
B u s in e s s
C o rre s p o n d e n c e i s
O f f i c e P r a c tic e
m a c h in e s a n d i n
r ie s .
I f th e re
s e c r e t a r ie s a n d
v o c a t io n a l o b je
S e c r e ta r ia l P r a
H.s, - 10
o ffe re d
as
a p a r t o f B u s in e s s
E n g lis h
lis t
such
e n r o l l m e n t u n d e r B u s in e s s
Eng.
r e f e r s t o a c o u r s e o f i n s t r u c t i o n I n t e n d e d to p r o v i d e g e n e r a l t r a i n i n g i n t h e u s e o f o f f i c e
g e n e r a l o f f i c e p r a c t i c e f o r s t u d e n t s who do n o t i n t e n d to b e co m e s t e n o g r a p h e r s o r s e c r e t a ­
a r e e n r o l l e d i n o f f i c e p r a c t i c e c o u r s e s s t u d e n t s vh o do i n t e n d to b ecom e s t e n o g r a p h e r s o r
f o r whom a d i f f e r e n t i a t e d p r o g r a m o f i n s t r u c t i o n i s p r o v i d e d i n s u c h c o u r s e s b a s e d u p o n t h i s
c t iv e , r e p o r t such s tu d e n ts u n d e r S e c r e t a r ia l P r a c t ic e and n o t u n d e r O f f ic e P r a c t ic e .
See
c tic e fo o tn o te , a b o ve.
£36
ENROLLMENTS IN BUSINESS OOURSES IN HIGH SCHOOLS
GRADE ENROLLMENT OF STUDENTS
Do n o t
in c lu d e
S th
7 th
c o o p e r a tiv e
9 th
|
c o u rs e s p r e v io u s ly
10 t h
j
11 :h
re p o rte d
|
in
P a rt
III
Sped al
I n e lu d e
P .G .
1 2 th
T o ta l
SUBJECTS
B oys G ir ls
B oys j a i r l s
31 r l s B o y s " G i r l s
Boys
.. ■
:B oys
|fir ls
Boys
G ir ls
Boys b i n s
B oys f u r l s
;i
1 s t Sen,
j
2 n d Sem.
L
MACHINE
P
CALCULATION
. i
..ii.
......
.
,.............
i
j
1 s t Sen,
fcr , ,■ ,r,
2n d S a n .
■
SALESMANSHIP
1st
i
*
O F F IC E M AC H IN E S1
Sen.
j
j—
it
........
-4
......... r-
,,....
;
>
|
2n d S e n .
RETAIL
SE LLIN G
,,0T
i
1 s t Sem.
a id
■
Sen.
t
j
|
i
;
,
A N D !H N G
'i
1
1 s t Sen.
2nd Sen.
.d ARKETINGr ‘
1 s t Sen.
2n d Sem.
ADVERTISING
....
j
1s t Sem.
.
..
r:
2nd Sen.
...
..
j
!
SCHOOL s f lt f S lL
P R AC TICE
°
|
“
1 . . .
.........
„
■i
j
1 s t Sem.
2nd
i
t 11 irr
.........
L
.......
J
------------ ---
Sem.
OTHER '
.COOPERATIVE
CLASSES
1
■
!
..........
;
•j
L r
.r r r ...
BUSINESS
E T IQ JE T T E
1st
Sem.
a id
Sem.
.
i
......
,
b u s i n e s s ' T aw
1st
San.
a id
Sen.
p^ii imy^i ,/*nrww"$•■jv.v**’ *
... 7... ,n
BUSINESS MAN­
AGEMENT AND
O R G A N iz a tlo n
1 s t Sem,
a id
1
i
I
........
, |
j
Sen.
.
.-■■NTT.
■rin,
^ O f f i c e M a c h in e s r e f e r s to a c o u r s e i n \ h i c h i n s t r u c t i o n i n v a r i o u s t y p e s o f o f f i c e m a c h in e s i s o f f e r e d
o n e c o u r s e , t h e p u r p o s e o f w h ic h i s to g iv e t h e s t u d e n t a f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h , a n d som e s k i l l i n o p e r a t i n g
v a r i e t y o f m a c h in e s f o u n d i n b u s in e s s o f f i c e s .
M a c h in e
m a c h in e s
^S ch oo l
s to re ,
C a lc u la t io n r e f e r s to a c o u rs e th e p u rp o s e
a s t h e M n n r o e , M a r c h a n t , a n d C o m p to m e te r.
o f vvhiCh i s
to
tr a in
e x p e rt o p e ra to rs
o f s u ch
S t o r e P r a c t i c e r e f e r s t o s t o r e e x p e r ie n c e s o b t a i n e d i n a s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n s u c h a s a s c h o o l
a s c h o o l c a f e t e r i a o r a c la s s o r g a n iz e d i'o r t h e p u r p o s e o f o f f e r i n g s u c h p r a c t i c e .
H.S. - 11
1, 1.
in
a
c a lc u la tin g
book
337
ENROLLMENTS IN BUSINESS COURSES IN 'HIGH SCHOOLS
«
_
Do n o t i n c l u d e
" o p ^ Y 'f f i O L L l - f E N f 'S F '' STUDENTS
c o o p e r a tiv e
c o u rs e s p r e v io u s ly
^
'
“
re p o rte d
in
■..................“ ' " I r ----------------
"
“
P a rt I I I
- — ........ .—
•
j
9 th
8 til
7 th
SUBJECTS
:
1 2 tn .
1 1 th
1 0 th
■
— ■
—^
S p e c ia l
. In c lu d e
P »G .
T b ta i
1
Boys
B oys G i r l s ; B oys G i r l s
G i r l s ' 3oys G i r l s
3oys G i r l s ’ B o ys
BUSINESS
MATH EMAT IC S
J i r i . s jB o y s
G ir ls
3 o ys
G ir ls
■
1 s t Sem.
a id
Sem.
__________
COMMERCIAL
ECONOMIC
GEOGRAPHY
1st
San.
S id
Sem.
or
-
COMMERCE. AND
INDUSTRY '
1 s t Sem.
____
-------- -
----------- •
2 n d Sem.
______
— -
.. —
COMMERCIAL
H I STORY
1st
San.
a id
S an.
s.. . .
foH'EOHER
EDUCATION
1st
Sem.
a id
Sem.
— —
GEN N.tAL
ECONOMICS
i
1 s t Sem.
j
and S a n .
ji
-........... 4...........
ECONOMI CS,
BUSINESS
1st
{
Sem.
i—
2nd San.
!
j--::
A P P L IE D
ECONOMI CS
^
?
■■ i .....•••■■
|
1 s t Sem.
a id S an.
........... j
EL EM. B U S .,
J R . BUS. TR.
OR EVERYDAY
BUSINESS
'
1st
Sem.
3 id
Sem.
ro
I
f
1
1
1
f ..........
|
i
t
t
;
f
.........
'I
!
r e ig n
TRADE
1 s t Sem.
«“ **—
-—
ii
—
i
*
MONEY&BAMKING
1st San.
a id
Sam.
........... : .........
PENMANSHIP
1
1 s t San,
a i d Sem.
_ ..
3 rd
Sem.1
4 th
San.
H.S.-12
i
i
........... ! .
,
1
| ............. i
1
J
i
„
-
,'
. ,...... ■
I
J
—-------------
£38
ENROLLMENTS IN
BUSINESS COURSES IN HIGH
SCHOOLS
GRADE ENROLLMENT OF ' STUDENTS
Do n o t I n c l u d e
7 th
SUBJECTS
B oys G i r l s
c o o p e r a tiv e
8 th
B oys G i r l s
c o u rs e s p r e v io u s ly
re p o rte d
In
P a rt I I I
SP e e l a l
In c lu d e
9 th
B oys G ir ls
1 1 th
1 2 th
B oys | G i r l s
Boys G ir ls
T o ta l
B o ys G i r l s
Boys G i r l s
P R IN C IP L E S
OF BUSINESS
1st
Son.
2 n d Sera.
OTHER SUBJECTS
34.
H
M a k e a l i s t o f a n y b u s in e s s
te a c h e r h e lp .
S o -
13
s u b je c ts ln
W iic h
s tu d e n ts
a re
a s s ig n e d
to
p r a c tic e
p e r io d s w it h o u t
£39
CALIFORNIA STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
Sacramento, California
December 15,1956
REPORT OF BUSINESS EDUCATION IN CALIFORNIA SECONDARY SCHOOLS
PART VII
TEACHING LOAD
Each teacher giving instruction in one or more business subjects should fill
out one of these blanks, to be returned with the Report of Business Education in
Secondary Schools. Each teacher making out the blank should read it over carefully
before filling it in. If any question is not understood, write the Bureau of
Business Education, State Department of Education, Sacramento, for further informa­
tion.
School
________________ _
___
District ________________________________
___
County
Name of Teacher
Instructions to Teachers
1.
In the attached teachers schedule enter your complete daily schedule of assigned
activities.
Include all subjects taught in day classes only, regardless of
whether or not they are business subjects.
Include also any other scheduled
activities such as counseling, study hall supervision, supervision of student
activities, clubs, etc., and clerical or administrative functions assigned.
£. For each period enter in the second line the .length of the period in minutes,
exclusive of time allowed for passing between classes.
5. In each line representing a day of the week enter the names of the subjects
taught or designate other types of assigned activities for each period of the
day.
Each line representing a day of the week is divided into 'two sections, one for
the report of high school classes or activities and enrollment, the other for
the report of junior college classes or activities and enrollment. Teachers
in high schools not administered with junior colleges should report all data
in the high school sections only. Teachers in separate junior colleges should
report in the junior college sections only. Teachers in combined, high school
and junior colleges should report in both sections, or in one section or the
other dependent upon whether their activities are in both high school and junior
college or in only one level.
In combined high school and junior college
classes, write the name of the subject in the high school line, entering "do"
in the junior college line, and reporting high school and junior college enroll­
ment separately.
4.
5.
After the name of each subject taught enter the number of pupils enrolled on
December 15, 1956 for each period.
Count each semester of a subject as a separate subject; thus typing given for
four semesters or two years will be designated as Typing I, Typing II, Typing H i
and Typing IV.
-1-
240
6.
7.
If you teach more than one subject during any period list in that period on
separate lines the several subjects taught during the period, giving the enroll­
ment 'in each. Thus, if you teach a class in typing in which some pupils are en­
rolled for first semester typing, some for second semester typing, etc., desig­
nate each semester of typing in which pupils are enrolled as a separate class,
giving the enrollment in each'; e.g., Typing 1 - 1 2
Typing II- 8 e^c *
Indicate classes meeting for a double period (two consecutive periods) by enter­
ing data for such classes in a single line across the two columns representing
the consecutive periods during which such classes are held, and drawing a line
across both columns under the name of the subjects taught during such double
period.
8.
Indicate any class meeting during two non-ccnsecutive periods during any day by
an asterisk (*) before the name of the subject so taught in both columns repre­
senting the periods during which the class meets.
9.
If any class meets during the same period on two or more consecutive days
write "do" in each successive day in the same column following the first entry
for that class.
An example of a single day's schedule is entered in the attached teachers
schedule form for your guidance.
Part VII
-2-
ail
TEACHERS SCHEDULE
2nd per. 5rd per. 4th per. 5th per. |6th per. 7th per.
.Length
Length
!Length
Length
Length
|Length
__ min.
min. !___ min.
min.
min j
__ min.
\
1
Subjects Subjects Subjects Subjects [Subjects 1Subj ects
D A Y
taught
taught
taught
taught \ taught 1 taught
1
Example
i
H.S. Bbaickeeping 11-5
Shorthand Stadyihll *Bkkpg.I Eng.I
■25
46
IV-10
| 50
jTyping I Com. Arith.
MON.
5
i 10
J.C.
Short­
hand 1-20
.... ... "1 ■... . 1" ■
ilst 1
per.
1
[Length
inin.
j
i
ISubj ects
1 taught
.
________
8th per.
Length
min.
Subjects
taught
t
*Bkkpg.I
25
" V
H.S.
MON.
J.C.
H.S.
TUES.
i
J.C.
.
H.S.
LED.
J.C.
H.S.
THURS.
J.C.
H.S.
FRI.
J.C.
J.C.
SAT.
i
List school activities in which you take part after regular hours;
_____________
1.
2.
tj* •
,
,
___
_
_
4.
Give approximate number of hours so engaged each w e e k
Part VII
-
' _________________________
-3-
.............. hours.
242
CALIFORNIA STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
Sacramento, California
December 15, 1936
REPORT OF BUSINESS EDUCATION IN CALIFORNIA SECONDARY SCHOOLS
PART VIII
TEACHER PERSONNEL
To be filled out by any teacher teaching one or more business subjects.
To Teachers of Business Subjects:
The State Department of Education, in cooperation with the California Federa­
tion of Commercial Teachers Associations, is making a study of the training of
teachers of Business subjects.
We are not interested in individual teachers or particular situations, but in
the picture as a whole.
It is not necessary for you to identify yourself with the
information you give on this blank. You are requested not to sign it, but to hand
it to your principal. If you desire, you can place it in a sealed envelope. We
do want accurate information from every instructor teaching a business subject so
that our compilations will give us a true picture of this part of our study. Please
help by filling in and handing the blank to your principal immediately.
1.
School _________ ________ ________________________________________________________
District_____________________________ C o u n t y____________________.
______________
2.
Check each grade in which you teach a business subject:
7th __ ; 8th __; 9th_;
10th__; llth_j 12th_; 13th_j 14th_; Special,H. S. __ ; Special,
C.
.
J .
3.
Teacher’s age as of nearest birthday:
4.
Number of years of educational experience:
a. As School Administrator (Principal, Vice-Prin., .r tGupt.ofSchools ___ years.
b. As Supervisor (Chairman, Head ofDepartment, orSupervisor)
__________
"
c. As T e a c h e r ..................... a ____________________
.________
"
d. Total years of experience .........................................
5.
6.
........ ............. ....... years.
Number of years as teacher or supervisor of business subjects:
a. As Supervisor or Head of Department ........................
b. As Teacher .................................................
c. Total years of experience in business e d u c a t i o n .................
Are you teaching business subjects because you prefer to teach
such subjects? ........................................ Yes
Because you have been assigned by your principal to
teach such subjects? .................................. Yes
years
_"
;
No
j
;
No
;
7.
What particular subject do you most prefer to teach? ________________________
8.
Give the amount of schooling you have had. Count summer sessions as l/4 year,
quarters as l/3 year, and semesters as 1/2 year.
a. Years high school
; Years junior college, four-year college or univ.
Years special school
% Years graduate work in university ____ .
- 1-
"
;
£43
9.
What degrees do you hold?
____________________________
10. What teachersf certificate or certificates do you hold?
11. If you hold a general certificate, give teaching major or majors: _
_________________ Teaching minoro r ,min.Qr.g-L____________________________
12. If you hold a special certificate, list the subjects and grades the
certificate authorizes you to teach: _______________________________
IS. Training Experience. List each business subject you teach, and give the
following information relative to each:
Business Institution in which
Months of instruction ree’d College Methods Hour
Subj ect you received instruc­ High school or Bus.college or Semester
Yes
No
tion in subject
evening school private school Units
14.
List the various types of business jobs you have held and give the number of
months you have worked in each type job. By type job is meant secretary,
file clerk, stenographer, store clerk, bookkeeper, and the like.
Type Job
Part VIII
Months Employed
-2-
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