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An evaluation of nutrition textbooks from a basis of current educational philosophy

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AN EVALUATION OF NUTRITION TEXTBOOKS
FROM A BASIS OF
CURRENT EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY
A Thesis
Presented to
the Faculty of the School of Education
The University of Southern California
In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Master of Science in Education
by
Gertrude Lorraine Dustin
August 1941
UMI Number: EP54198
All rights reserved
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a note will indicate the deletion.
Olssartalion Publishing
UMI EP54198
Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author.
Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC.
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unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code
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T h is thesis, w r i t t e n u n d e r the d ir e c t io n o f the
C h a ir m a n o f the c a n d id a te ’ s G u id a n c e C o m m it te e
a n d a p p r o v e d by a l l m em b ers o f the C o m m itte e ,
has been p re s e n te d to a n d a cce p te d by the F a c u lt y
o f the S c h o o l o f E d u c a t io n o f T h e U n iv e r s it y o f
S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f the
re q u ire m e n ts f o r the degree o f M a s t e r o f Science
in E d u c a tio n .
jyate
30
,1941
7
Guidance C om m ittee
M
M. Thompson
C hairm an
F. J. Weersing
Irving R. Melbo
Dean
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I.
II.
III.
PAGE
THE P R O B L E M ...............
1
Statement of the problem.......................
3
Definition of terms used............
4
Method of procedure ............................
5
Justification of the problem...................
8
Related investigations..........
15
Overview of remaining chapters.................
28
PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION AS A BASIS FORINTERPRETA^
TION OF GOALS AND PRACTICES IN EDUCATION. . . .
30
Introduction....................................
30
Purpose of this c h a p t e r ........................
31
S u m m a r y .........................................
44
FACTORS IN EDUCATION REQUIRED TO IMPLEMENT THE
PHILOSOPHY OF E D U C A T I O N .......................
48
Introduction....................................
48
Purpose of the chapter..........................
49
The mechanisms of learning are determined by
the psychobiological constitution of man. . .
IV.
50
Bases for choosing subject m a t t e r .............
51
Summary
77
.......................
SPECIFIC PURPOSES OF NUTRITION STUDY.............
Purpose of the chapter............
80
80
iv
CHAPTER
PAGE
Philosophical point of view to he integrated
into the purposes for studying nutrition .
*
Objectives in the study of n u t r i t i o n ....
81
82
Outcomes which may be expected to result from
V.
a study of nutrition • .................
88
Summary....................................
93
SELECTION OF SPECIFIC CRITERIA TO USE IN EVALUAT­
ING NUTRITION SUBJECT MATTER IN TEXTBOOKS. .
.
95
Purpose of the chapter > ................. *
.
95
The need for using subjective judgment . . .
.
95
Bases for judgment in establishing the criteria
97
Proposed classification of the criteria.
. .
«
101
Procedures in establishing further discrimina­
tion in classification .................
VI.
103
ARRANGEMENT AND APPLICATION OF THE CRITERIA IN
THE EVALUATION OF THE SELECTION AND USE OF
NUTRITION SUBJECT MATTER IN TEXTBOOKS....
107
Purpose of the c h a p t e r ...................
107
Arrangement of criteria into a form for
measuring................................
107
Method of employing the criteria in evaluating
the t e x t b o o k s . ...................
-I .
Books, in nutrition selected.for. eyaluation .
Ill
.
116
V
CHAPTER
VII.
PAGE
SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS.
.............
118
Purpose of the c h a p t e r ........................
118
Interpretation of findings . . . . . . . . . .
118
Summary of findings............................
134
Recommendations............
136
BIBLIOGRAPHY..........
137
APPENDIX...............
155
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE
1.
PAGE
Profile-ratings of Nutrition Textbooks According
to the Principal Categories...................
£.
Detailed Evaluations of Nutrition Textbooks.
. .
117
156
CHAPTER I
THE PROBLEM
During the past twenty years, there has developed an
ever increasingly accelerated tendency away from the use of
the textbook as the basic material in the development of
curricular experience*
What is the cause of this tendency?
Is it due to the development of breadth of background and
greater familiarity with subject matter resulting from the
lengthening years of training a teacher undergoes, so that
the teacher is now more resourceful and is no longer de­
pendent for development of curricular experiences upon a
slavish following of a textbook?
Is it due to the expe­
rience of the teacher with the more recently developed tech­
niques of teaching so that the teacher, in addition to being
more able, is now more eager to enrich the pupils* curricu­
lar experiences and therefore, through classroom procedures,
deliberately chooses other means of training in achieving
desired outcomes?
Or is this tendency caused, in part, by
the lag among textbook writers in basing their selection and
presentation of textbook materials upon the same educational
philosophy which now underlies the teacher’s classroom pro­
cedures?
In other words, does this tendency toward minimiz­
ing textbook importance indicate the necessity for the re­
valuation of the purposes which a textbook would serve?
2
There have been many studies in examination of text­
books.
Trends, adequacy in fulfillment of major aims of
teaching in the selected field, vocabularies as relating to
pupils’ comprehension, topical analysis, the development of
rating scales as guides in choosing, other standards for
choosing, and many other topics relating to textbooks have
been subjects of investigation; but an examination of this
field of investigation has shown no study based on a consid­
eration of the educational philosophy underlying the making
of a textbook in any specific subject matter area as related
to its use by the teacher in present-day classroom procedures.
Today’s classroom procedures very definitely stem from
a soundly based philosophy of education.
Thus, an investi­
gation to discover whether the construction of textbooks in
a given field exemplifies a similar philosophical basis
should indicate the extent to which each of these textbooks
is in harmony with the current philosophy of education now
serving as a basis for establishing classroom practices.
I.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
It was, therefore, the purpose of this study to ex­
amine critically and evaluate the selection and use of factual
materials in textbooks dealing with the food aspects of nu­
trition, using as criteria (1) a statement of current edu­
cational philosophy,
(2) selection of available factual
materials, and (3) use of the materials to attain desired
educational outcomes as based on educational philosophy.
Scope of the study.
This study is not concerned with
historical considerations as related to the development of
a current philosophy of education, nor the development of
textbooks, nor the study of food, nor the inclusion of food
aspects of nutrition in the school program.
This study was limited to an examination of the cur­
rent philosophy of education as presented by recognized
leaders in education for the purpose of determining points
of most general agreement among them, as evidenced by their
formulation of principles of education and by their recom­
mendation of classroom procedures which make the philosophy
explicit.
Current is to be interpreted as meaning Now in
use.
The statement of current educational philosophy which
evolved from this study was used as a basis for statements
of specific classroom procedures which make the philosophy
explicit.
From these statements and from statements of
specific goals to be achieved through a study of nutrition,
there were disclosed criteria for evaluating the selection
and use of factual materials in the textbooks considered.
Only those textbooks written or completely revised
since 1920 have been examined and evaluated.
The study
includes, but is not confined to, an examination of textbooks
devoted exclusively to the presentation of nutrition.
of foods and of biology were examined.
Books
When these books in­
cluded material on nutrition which would require fifteen
lessons or more for its presentation these sections have
been included in the evaluation.
II*
Textbook.
DEFINITION OF TERMS USED
Throughout the report of this investiga­
tion, the term textbook will be defined as a book designed
for school use and one in which there is a well systematized
arrangement of a recognized unit of a subject included in
the school curriculum.
This arrangement may be based upon
divisions of the categories of the subject (logical) or
upon divisions decided upon for purposes of teaching (peda­
gogical).
Sometimes there is a combination of these two
arrangements.
In the textbook may be included such aids and
devices as will make it effective in classroom use.
High school.
For the purposes of this study, the term
high school will be defined as that period of school begin­
ning after the usual first six grades of the elementary
school, and continuing for six years through the two divi­
sions of school usually referred to as the "junior high
school" and the "senior high school."
Nutrition.
Up to this point, care has been exercised
to use the term food aspects of nutrition, because of the
recognition that the meaning of the word nutrition is much
broader in its connotation than in its application to food.
Nutrition refers to the entire process by which growth is
promoted and waste repaired in the organism.
In this proc­
ess, food plays the most prominent though not the exclusive
role.
However, since there is no one word which means food
aspects of nutrition and since this expression is awkward to
use, henceforth in this presentation this term will be short­
ened to the word nutrition.
It is understood that, for pur­
poses of this discussion, the use of the term nutrition is to
be interpreted as meaning food aspects of nutrition.
III.
METHOD OF PROCEDURE
This investigation is a library study.
In order to
obtain a statement of educational philosophy which could be
used as a basis for formulating criteria for evaluating the
selected textbooks, published works of recognized educa­
tional leaders were examined, and their emphasized statements
of educational philosophy, of foundational educational prin­
ciples, and of recommended basic classroom procedures which
would implement this philosophy, were listed and compared.
After making this analysis, a statement of current educa­
tional philosophy was evolved from the basis of the frequency
with which ideas common to many were expressed.
After a
careful consideration of the data, the final determination
of the statement was empirical.
This analysis and a state­
ment of the philosophy to be implemented through classroom
procedures are presented in Chapter II.
Next, the founda­
tional educational principles and recommended basic class­
room procedures were examined.
Those specific procedures
which best implement the basic philosophy of education were
then determined upon.
After a careful examination and con­
sideration of procedures presented by the authorities con­
sulted, the specific selection was made of those practices
which were thoughtfully judged to be procedures which would
best implement the philosophy of education as stated.
Educational authorities consulted are listed in the
appended Bibliography.
In formulating the criteria to determine to what ex­
tent nutrition textbooks are useful in attaining desired
educational outcomes as based on educational philosophy, the
next step was a consideration of the specific objectives
which could be attained through a study of nutrition.
In
order to give consideration to the subject matter of nu­
trition out of which material of definite textbook value
could be developed, statements of objectives in teaching
health and/or nutrition as presented in some of the more
7
recent books on education, and current textbooks on nutrition
and scientific and popular presentations of this subject were
examined.
raphy.
These materials are listed in the appended Bibliog­
Years of experience in teaching this subject to high
school pupils gave a basis for an interpretation of these
data in terms of the needs of many pupils of this age.
From these bases: (1} statements of objectives,
(2)
available factual materials, and (3) experience in teaching,
outcomes to be anticipated from the teaching of nutrition
were decided upon.
From a basis of these specific objectives to be at­
tained through a study of nutrition, as implemented through
the procedures which make explicit the current educational
philosophy, the criteria to use in evaluating nutrition
textbooks were formulated.
Finally, from these criteria, a chart or "rating
scale" was prepared and used in evaluating the nutrition
textbooks selected.
Is an outcome of this investigation, it was found
that the selection and presentation of subject matter in
textbooks dealing with nutrition are not always in align­
ment with the present educational philosophy.
It is recog­
nized that further investigation is needed in order that
a study such as this one may be made acceptably complete.
However, this investigation has indicated some strengths,
8
some weaknesses, and some omissions in nutrition textbooks
if they are to aid in implementing a current philosophy of
education.
To achieve this purpose, the final chapter of
this study suggests new approaches in choosing and using
subject matter in nutrition; and to make such a study as
this one truly adequate, recommendations for further study
are advanced.
IV.
JUSTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM
Importance of textbooks.
Although in present school­
room procedures there is a strong trend away from a complete
reliance on the textbook, its use continues to be extensive.
In 1930,; a school administrator, Ward G. Reeder, made this
comment:
Since the textbook is the usual method of teach­
ing in American schools, since the textbook is often
the teacher, and since what the pupil learns at
school is often almost entirely limited to what the
textbook contains, it is necessary that the best
available textbooks be selected.!
Studies giving particular attention to the textbook
emphasize the importance of its influence in classroom
teaching.
Among educators who recognize this importance
is Fuller, who says:
1
Ward G. Reeder, The Fundamentals of Public -School
Administration (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1930),
P . 445.
The textbook is the most important of the teachers*
tools.
...
In determining teaching procedure, the
text is more influential from hour to hour than a
manual of methods.
. . • This is not the usual
theory but it is the actual fact.2
A statement is made by the Committee for the Study of
the Textbook,3 of the National Society for the Study of Edu­
cation, that the textbook in thousands of classrooms deter­
mines the content as well as the teaching procedures.
Such
strong reliance on textbooks for teaching purposes is not
readily modified in the ten or twelve years since these
statements were made.
The textbook continues to be impor­
tant as an instrument in classroom procedures.
Notwithstanding some indications of the trend away
from the universal extent of the use of the textbook, it
continues to be a significant instrument in determining the
educational philosophy of classroom practices.
Through its
use, factual materials which presumably influence the pupils
in their thinking, their attitudes, and their activities are
made available.
The form in which these materials are pre­
sented undeniably has as much influence with the pupils as
do the materials used.
It is only through the use of tools
which are so constructed that they will function in achiev­
ing the purposes of education, that they make explicit a
2 F. D. Fuller, Scientific Evaluation of Textbooks
(Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1928), p. iii.
3
J. B. Edmondson, "The Textbook in American Educa­
tion," Thirtieth Yearbook of the National Society for the
Study of Education (Bloomington, Illinois: Public School
Publishing Company, 1931), p. 1.
10
philosophy of education.
"To reap hay, one does not use a
plow."
Recent awareness of the implications of philosophy
for education.
It has been only in recent years that edu­
cators have been focusing their attention upon the need for
basing educational procedures in a philosophy of education.
Douglass says:
One of the greatest weaknesses in American educa­
tion . . . consists of negligence or inability to
formulate a philosophy of education, and to analyze
an ultimate aim into specifics and make classroom
practice consistent with the accepted aims.4
If an educational philosophy influences the edu­
cational program, it will be because ultimate goals
are translated into educational practice and be­
cause educational practice is evaluated in terms of
ultimate goals.5
But Douglass warns:
Constant thought and effort are demanded of those
who would bring educational practice into harmony
with educational philosophy. . .6
Need for textbooks which implement a philosophy of
education.
If translating ultimate philosophical goals
into educational practice and evaluating educational
4
Aubrey A. Douglass, Modern Secondary Education
(Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1938), p . 222.
5 Ibid., p. 224.
6 Ibid., p. 223.
.
11
practice into terms of ultimate goals
7
are necessary parts of
classroom procedure, then is it not Just as necessary that
textbooks, which are important teaching aids, also should be
based upon the philosophy of education accepted as determin­
ing ultimate goals, and that the factual materials and their
presentation should be decided upon from the viewpoint of the
specifics which are consistent with and aid in implementing
the philosophical aim?
If "constant thought and effort are
demanded of those who would bring educational practice into
harmony with educational philosophy,"8 should not a part of
this thought and effort be directed toward making textbooks
thus consistent?
Do textbooks evidence the weakness of im­
plementing the accepted philosophy of education which is
found in other aspects of American education?9
Only a study
and an evaluation of textbooks from the viewpoint, of concepts
of the current philosophy of education could answer this
question.
Nutrition textbooks are peculiarly important.
In
limiting this investigation to an evaluation of textbooks in
determining the food aspects of nutrition, there were three
factors, (1) usually teachers are not trained in this field
7 Ibid«,, p. 234.
8 Ibid., p. 333.
9 Ibid.. p. 333.
12
and, therefore, to a great extent, need to rely upon the
textbook for their guidance,
(2) health teaching is consid­
ered an important part of the curriculum, and (3) food is
basic for good nutrition, and nutrition for health.
These
three factors will now be considered in more detail.
Usually the training of teachers in nutrition is only
a small part of a course in physiology, biology, or hygiene.
Yet to have a basic understanding of the relationship of food
to health requires a long term of technical training, and
this training is based on.an advanced study of physiology
and of organic and physiological chemistry.
That is, the
field of the food aspects of nutrition.is highly technical.
An additional year or two of training would need to be re­
quired of a teacher, were she to develop the breadth of un­
derstanding necessary for skill in the presentation of this
subject.
Thus, the necessarily inadequate training of the
classroom teacher in this field makes it evident that a well
constructed textbook is basic as a guide in determining upon
factual materials and their adequate development in class­
room procedures.
Health, and therefore nutrition, are accepted as a
part of the school curriculum.
Whether or not health should
be included as a part of the educational program is not rel­
ative to a presentation of the justification for this
13
investigation.
The important consideration at this time is
that the teaching of healthf.ul living is accorded a promi­
nent position in the school program.
"Health is recognized
as an essential of education,"10 says Washburne; and Clement
says, "Unquestionably, the schools should assist students in
maintaining their health."11
Since it is now recognized that.good nutrition is a
major factor in good health, the subject of the food aspects
of nutrition becomes important as a field of investigation.
Concerning the importance of food for health, Heiser says:
Most of the diseases we associate with this
period fifty years of age and after are the di­
rect result of an improper diet in youth.
So many
people of middle and old age are miserable and sick,
wrinkled, worn-out, tired.
...
Yet nothing is
radically wrong with them.
They simply did not know
how to feed themselves p r o p e r l y . 12
Sensible clothing, suitable exercise, pleasant
relaxation enter into it {buoyant health], but the
pivot around which all these revolve is correct
eating.13
The human race still digs its own grave with its
teeth.
. . . Until recently, we did not know that
disease could be absolutely proved to be intimately
connected with diet, consequently, we attributed
our troubles to infections or eating something that
was not good for us. Today, I could prescribe a
10
Carleton Washburne, A Living Philosophy of Educa­
tion (New York: John Day Company, 1940), p. 5*
11 J. A. Clement, Educational Significance of Analysis
Appraisal and Use of Textbooks in Junior and Senior High
Schools"TChampaign, Illinois: Daniels Press, 1939), p. 260.
12 Victor Heiser, You*re the Doctor (New York: W. W.
Norton, Incorporated, 1939), p. 14.
13 Ibid.. p. 13.
X4
diet that you would consider not at all unusual and
predict in advance for you any one of a half-dozen
diseases you might contract as a result.14
A quotation from an article by Jennie Rowntree may
well be used to amplify and summarize the quotations from
Heiser.
She says:
All must be taught that health is an obligation
and that nutritional knowledge is the most essen­
tial tool.15
Thus, on a basis of five important considerations,
this study is justified.
These considerations are:
(1) the
textbook, notwithstanding a trend away from complete depend­
ence on it as an instrument of teaching, continues to be im­
portant in determining classroom procedures; (2) there is an
increasing awareness of the implications of philosophy for
education; (3) because of their general use in determining
classroom procedures, the textbooks should make explicit the
educational philosophy which currently determines the point
of view for educational practices; (4) because of the neces­
sarily inadequate training of the classroom teacher in under­
standing food as related to health, a textbook is her only
guide in directing learning in this field; and (5) since
teaching health is relatively important in the school program;
and good nutrition is crucial for good health, nutrition must
14 Ibid.. p. 9.
15
Jennie Rowntree, "Recent Advances in Nutrition,"
Journal of Home Economics. 31:641, November, 1939.
15
be well-taught if individuals are to be educated in health­
ful living*
V.
RELATED INVESTIGATIONS
Related studies comprise four fields: (1) analysis
and evaluations of textbooks in other subjects, (2) evalua­
tions of word difficulty in home economics textbooks,
(3) a
report of the development of a course in nutrition in a
senior high school, and (4) the development of a plan for
the analysis and evaluation of courses of study from the
viewpoint of their making explicit the current philosophy
of education*
There were no evaluations of textbooks in specific
subject fields from the basis of determining whether the
subject matter has been selected and organized in accord­
ance with achieving the objectives of a currently accepted
philosophy of education*
Certain of the related studies will now be consid­
ered*
A complete list of the studies examined will be found
in the appended Bibliography.
Analysis and evaluations of textbooks in other sub­
jects *
In all of the materials examined, there was but one
presentation of criteria to use in analyses or evaluations
of textbooks which specifically mentioned the need for a
consistency between the selection and presentation of
16
textbook materials and the philosophy of education which de­
termines the teacher’s point of view.
ent, ^
This study, by Clem­
The Educational Significance of Analysis Appraisal
and Use of Textbooks in Junior and Senior High Schools, will
be discussed after a brief consideration of the other inves­
tigations.
In the other studies, mention of philosophy of educa­
tion referred only to whether the author had explained his
philosophy on. which he had based the organization of his book.
There was no reference to the need for establishing criteria
to determine whether or not the organization of the textbook
made explicit the author’s philosophy.
In many of the studies more or less consideration was
given to whether principles of education had influenced the
selection and presentation of subject matter.
17
Strang’sA
study of Subject Matter in Health Education was one of the
best of these investigations.
In this study, typical consid­
erations included whether the centers of organization were
abstract and remote from the child’s experience, or intrin­
sically uninteresting; whether there was a disjointed and
fragmentary arrangement of material which failed to indicate
the relative importance of facts; whether the subject matter
^ Clement, 0 £. cit., 260 pp.
17
- Ruth Strang, Subject Matter in Health Education
(New York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 1928),
108 p p .
17
was organized around a situation which the child either meets
now or might meet in later life; whether the statements were
within the limits of individual differences; whether there
were built motives for performing healthful acts because
feeling as well as thinking and acting were connected with
the act.
These and the other considerations relating to
principles of education were not oriented around a central
concept of philosophy as determining needed procedures.
The
centers used for orientation consisted of (1) undesirable
organization of material found, (2) desirable type of organ­
ization found, (3) types of inaccuracies,
(4) organization
should be based upon situations in which responses relating
to health are called for, (5) great diversity concerning
grades in which various subjects were considered and in items
selected for use, (6) types of desirable statements which
ought to be included, but which frequently are omitted.
The
order in which these topics are named here follow the order
of their presentation.
Such a list of topics and their pres­
entation in this order are clearly indicative of regard for
principles of education as criteria in this analysis, and
they are just as clearly indicative of the absence of orienta­
tion around a basic concept of achieving the purposes which
are defined through a philosophy of education as a "measur­
ing stick."
18
In a study by V* E. Casey,
18
in which social science
textbooks are analyzed, the recommendation is made that au­
thors would meet the needs of children and teachers more ef­
fectively by being aware of the objectives determined upon by
the schools for the course in social science, but that curric­
ulum makers are finding it difficult to determine objectives.
In a study of music appreciation textbooks, W. L.
Martin
sought to find answers to the following questions:
Do authors follow modern educational concepts?
Do they or­
ganize material according to a psychological approach?
they correlate the material with other school subjects?
kind of music is presented?
music?
Do
What
Are there many illustrations of
Is the material presented on the level of the expe­
rience of the group which it is designed to instruct?
Al­
though the list is more extensive, the questions, and the
order in which they are quoted, are quite typical.
The cri­
teria which are used, Martin says, are drawn from modern text­
books on educational psychology, philosophy of education, and
music appreciation.
However, the study is not unified in a
concept of a current philosophy of education as a base from
which to establish criteria.
18
V.
E. Casey, "Investigation to Determine Criteria
for Authors of Elementary Social Science Textbooks" (unpub­
lished Master’s thesis, The University of Southern California,
Los Angeles, 1934), p. 8.
19 W. L. Martin, "An Analysis and Evaluation of Music
Appreciation Textbooks for Junior High School" (unpublished
Master’s thesis, The University of Southern California, Los
Angeles, 1937), 133 pp.
19
In the textbook study carried on by the National
Society for the Study of Education, the committee appointed
to make this study says that:
The educational interest of the pupil must at
all times be the primary consideration in apprais­
ing plans for making and selecting textbooks.20
Yet, there is no mention in this study of considera­
tion of educational outcomes as determining content.
A brief
chapter is devoted to a consideration of the textbook in its
relationship to methods of teaching.
By far the greater part
of the study is concerned with the techniques and professional
status of the authors, the selection of manuscript by the pub­
lishers, typography, publishers* policies in marketing, cost,
and other similar topics.
Although attention is paid to the
use of score cards, the viewpoint is from a basis of whether
or not they offer effective help in making choices from among
the textbooks offered.
Among these studies relating to textbooks, who should
evaluate them is a topic which is given a great deal of con­
sideration,— whether they should be evaluated by administra­
tors, city or state boards of education, teachers, or com­
mittees.2^
30
Edmondson, o p . cit.. p. 1.
C. D. Mead, "The Best Method of Selecting Text­
books," Educational Administration and Supervision. 4:9,
February, 1918.
20
The topic of whether rating scales are effective
tools is given a prominent place.22
Measuring vocabulary for its difficulty is one aspect
of textbook investigation in which many studies have been
made.
The Thorndike Word List
P3
and the Lewerenz Word Scale
24
are the investigations on which such studies usually are based.
25
Concerning word study, B. R. Buckingham
says that although
vocabulary frequently contains too many hard words, that a
more serious difficulty is the adult point of view.
In the textbook studies examined, it was found that
the larger share of attention is given to features which can
be measured objectively, such as the proportion and space used
for illustrations; size and number of pages; type of binding;
color of covers; decorations; paper; type; spacing and margin
widths; the author competency as measured by degrees, posi­
tion, and teaching experience; aids such as table of contents,
22
Cyrena Stirwalt, ’’Experimental Determination of a
Rating Scale for Plane Geometry Textbooks’* (unpublished
Master’s thesis, The University of Southern California, Los
Angeles, 1934), 152 pp.
23 E. L. Thorndike, The Teacher’s Word Book (New
York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 1921), 134 pp.
P4.
A. S. Lewerenz, ’’Techniques for the Objective
Education of the Vocabulary Used in Printed Matter” (unpub­
lished Master’s thesis. The University of Southern Califor­
nia, Los Angeles, 1937), 270 pp*
25
B. R. Buckingham, ”The Textbook and Its Vocabu­
lary,” Journal of Educational Research. 14:142-145, September,
1926.
21
og
indices, charts, supplements, title features*
However, only in the most recent discussions is a
philosophy of education given first place in importance in
determining criteria for analyzing and evaluating textbooks*
27
To one of these studies, that by Clement,
reference has
already been made.
In the determination of the considera­
tions on which textbooks should be evaluated, he says:
Several considerations should be kept in mind
in an effort to relate closely textbooks, the aim
of the courses of study and the classroom super­
vision*
In the first place, a consideration must
be given a clearly formulated philosophy of educa­
tion or theory of secondary education as a whole;
second, such a philosophy must take into account
the aims of secondary education as a whole as well
as the aims for teaching difficult subjects; third,
this philosophy of education must include a consid­
eration of the kind or quality of subject matter
that is best adapted to the realization of the aims
set up; fourth, it must take into account the abil­
ities and interests of the pupils that are to be
educated within a democracy*2®
This quotation makes it evident that, in the deter­
mination of criteria to use in evaluating textbooks, Clement
believes that there must be consistency between the selec­
tion and presentation of textbook materials and the philos­
ophy of education which determines the teacher’s point of
view*
26
Fuller, 0 £. cit•, 89 pp*
27 Clement, oj). cit*. 260 pp.
28 Ibid.. p. 33.
Clement
29
further believes that not enough attention
has been given by school officials in determining techniques
to use in the analysis and appraisal of textbook materials
and this neglect has been even greater in books for the sec­
ondary level than for the primary.
a score card as an aid in analysis.
He suggests the use of
He offers four "master
divisions" in the preparation of the score card.
He recom­
mends that about one-half of the evaluation should be from
the three following considerations:
(1) the authorship's per­
sonnel and their underlying philosophy and whether it is ex­
plicitly or implicitly stated;
(2) the instructional aids,
to include questions, pictures, charts, and collateral read­
ing; and (3) the mechanical make-up*
The other half of the
evaluation would be based on the nature of the subject matter
which should show a recognition of the general aims of second
ary education as a whole, the recognition of aims applied to
the teaching of the particular subject, the selection and
arrangement of the subject matter in terms of education, and
other considerations by which an accepted philosophy of edu­
cation would be made explicit.
If democracy is to be considered as an integral part
of our philosophy of education, then a recent article by
Fraser30 brings to our attention that at least this aspect
20 Clement, op* cit., pp. 21, 27, 99-134*
30
M. G r . Fraser, "Democracy in Our Textbooks,"
American Teacher. 22:12-13, May, 1938.
23
of our philosophy is not implemented in our textbooks,
Fraser
points out that not a single textbook is representative of
true democracy.
He defines the aim of democracy as "equal
opportunity for all, politically, economically, and educa­
tionally."
The examination of textbook studies has shown that,
although many such studies have been undertaken, this field
of investigation has not yet been well-covered.
Although
all aspects of the textbook are important in making it a use­
ful tool, the implications of a philosophy of education as a
criterion to use in analyzing and evaluating textbooks has
been given prominence only in two studies, both of which are
quite recent (Clement,31 1939 and Fraser,32 1938).
With the
comprehensiveness of outlook implied by using a standard es­
tablished from the viewpoint of philosophy to gage criteria,
further study of the textbook would assume refreshingly new
and vivid importance#
Evaluations of word difficulty in home economics
textbooks.
Only one study was concerned with vocabulary
difficulty in home economics textbooks.
Such a study is
31 Clement, 0 £. cit., 260 pp.
32 Fraser, op. cit.. pp. 12-13.
33 l . M. Elder, "A Determination of the Vocabulary
Grade Placement of Certain Home Economics Textbooks" (un­
published Master’s thesis, The University of Southern Cali­
fornia, Los Angeles, 1933), 65 pp.
24
considered here because some of them included material in
nutrition.
Is a result of examining vocabularies in home
economics textbooks published since 1918 and using the vocab34
ulary grade placement formula originated by Lewerenz,
Elder
found that usually the vocabularies in these textbooks tends
to be too difficult for the grades.
Development of a, course in nutrition.
In 1939, N. E.
Bingham35 published a description of an experiment in devel­
oping an experimental course in nutrition for senior high
school pupils.
This unit of instruction was presented from
the viewpoint of meeting pupil needs.
The amount of fuel
needed for each pupil was demonstrated through the pupilsf
measuring their own individual rate of metabolism.
Thus,
with their own personal fuel needs clearly made evident,
experimental presentation of how this need and other food
needs of the body are met became discoveries holding inter­
est for each class member.
The fuel value of foods was dem­
onstrated through burning food in a calorimeter.
The equip­
ment used was not scientifically accurate, but effective as
a teaching device.
Other food needs were demonstrated
through plant-growing and rat-feeding experiments.
34
Simple
Lewerenz, o£. cit., 270 pp.
35 N. E. Bingham, Teaching Nutrition in Biology
Classes (New York: Teachers College, Columbia University,
1 9 3 9 ) , 1 1 7 pp.
35
experiments were carried on to show the chemical composition
of foods.
Beside using the nutritional information gained as a
basis for their own food choices, pupils welcomed the oppor­
tunity to use this information in helping in a program under­
taken for obtaining better nourishment for a group of under­
nourished children.
Pretesting and repeated testing made it
evident to the pupils that they were achieving success in
understanding about nutrition and in making desirable changes
in their food choices.
This unit of study of nutrition exemplified consist­
ency with the currently accepted philosophy of education be­
cause it was based on meeting the physical, psychological,
and social needs of the pupils, it aided them to better orient
their lives individually and socially, and it provided expe­
rience in democratic interaction between the individual and
groups organized for purposes of achieving desired socially
valuable outcomes•
Analysis and evaluation of courses of study.
In 1936,
based on current educational philosophy, Stratemeyer and
Bruner36 published criteria to use in analyzing and evaluating
elementary courses of study.
In the ensuing years, as these
36 F. B. Stratemeyer and H. B. Bruner, Hating Elemen­
tary School Courses of Study (New York: Teachers College,
Columbia University, 1 9 3 6 ) , 1 9 3 pp.
26
criteria were used for their purpose, the need for some modi­
fications became apparent.
Revisions were made in 1935, 1936,
and 1937, and a report of the criteria in this form was then
made by Bruner.
37
The purpose of these criteria is to "pro­
vide for gauging the comparative value of completed courses
of study."
By 1937, the criteria had been used by graduates
in education working under the direction of Bruner, in eval­
uating approximately 40,000 courses of study.
Each evaluation was made by thoughtfully judging the
worth of the curriculum in terms of the criteria listed in
rating-scale form.
osophy,
(2) content,
pupils* work.
Four major headings were used: (1) phil­
(3) activity, and (4) evaluation of
Under the major heading of philosophy there
were two subheadings: {1} "social philosophy," explained as
"one which would do most in forwarding the ultimate aims of
a liberal democracy; it should recognize the dynamic charac­
ter of society and should demand that the school be an active
conscious agent for social improvement"; and (2) "educational
philosophy” which, it is explained, "should be based upon the
social philosophy and should be the dominating force in de­
termining the character of the subsequent parts of the study,"
its aim being "to assist the individual to become increasingly
self-directive in improving society through satisfactory
37 H. B. Bruner, "Criteria for Evaluating Courses of
Study," Teachers College Record. 39:107-120, October, 1937May, 1938.
27
individual growth*”
If only because these criteria have so thoroughly
been constructed and have so widely been used, they well
repay careful consideration.
Recency of emphasis on philosophy of education as a
major consideration in evaluations.
In the examination of
material related to this investigation, a common character­
istic of the studies and reports in which philosophy of edu­
cation is given prominence, is the recency of the publica­
tions.
Of the four studies mentioned above, and in which
philosophy of education was a major consideration, 1939 is
the date of Clement’s30 publication, 1938 of Fraser’s,39
1937 the date of the experimental unit in nutrition,40 and
1935-37 the years of major revision of Bruner’s41 criteria
for evaluating courses of study.
If courses of study are to
be developed and evaluated in accordance with criteria deter­
mined by educational philosophy, does it not follow that sub­
ject matter and its organization in textbooks, if they are to
be valuable as teaching aids, must be in accord with similar
purposes?
Clement, o£. cit.. 260 pp.
Fraser, o£. cit.. pp. 12-13.
AQ
41
Bingham, o p . cit.. 117 pp.
Bruner, op. cit., pp. 107-120.
26
Progress in the study of the textbooks
Even this brief
survey of investigations concerning textbooks makes it evident
that many factors must thoughtfully be appraised.
is stupendous.
books
42
The task
Even the Committee for the Study of Text-
disclaimed attempting to survey all factors which
needed consideration.
However$ recent publications indicate
that a new emphasis in textbook evaluations is emerging, that
the basic consideration in these evaluations is: "To what ex­
tent does the textbook function in implementing an accepted
philosophy of education?"
VI.
OVERVIEW OF REMAHflNG CHAPTERS
This investigation has attempted to determine (1) a
statement of a current educational philosophy,
procedures to implement this philosophy,
(2) educational
(3) goals to be
reached through the study of nutrition, and (4) formulation
of criteria to use in evaluating nutrition textbooks.
The
remainder of this presentation comprises a report of the
progress of the study and of the result of the measuring of
textbooks by the criteria established on page 29.
In Chapter II there is presented an analysis of state­
ments of educational leaders as they express their concepts
of the philosophical foundations of education, the meaning
42
Edmondson, op. cit., p. 9.
29
of education, and the principles of education which appear to
be basic in making their philosophy explicit.
From these
analyses, there was formulated a statement of current educa­
tional philosophy.
This statement was used as a base for developing spe­
cifics to employ as criteria in determining specific proce­
dures which will make explicit current philosophy.
Chapter
III comprises a statement of these procedures.
In Chapter IV, consideration was given to determining
specific outcomes to be derived from the study of nutrition.
These outcomes were then examined from the viewpoint of {1)
factual materials available in the field of nutritional in­
vestigations,
(2) the current philosophy of education, and
(3) the procedures which were deemed necessary to implement
this philosophy.
Chapter V explains how, from this examina­
tion, principal categories and statements of criteria were
developed for evaluating the selection and use of factual
materials in nutrition textbooks.
The organization of the criteria into a checking scale
and the evaluations of textbooks comprise the material in
Chapter VI.
As a result of this study, it has been found advis­
able to make certain recommendations for incorporation by
future authors into nutrition textbooks.
These recommenda­
tions are presented in the last chapter of this study.
CHAPTER II
PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION AS A BASIS FOR INTERPRETATION OF
GOALS AND PRACTICES IN EDUCATION
I*
INTRODUCTION
In all fields of education, during the past few
years, there has been a widespread attempt to make reval­
uations of the educational significance of the various sub­
jects taught in school.
The need for revaluation has es­
pecially been brought to the attention of teachers in the
field of home economics by Ivol Spafford, formerly State
Director of Home Economics in Alabama and now Professor of
Home Economics in the University of Minnesota.
She says:
Teachers in service and those directing their
training have been conscious for some time that new
ways are needed [for the teaching of home economics]
and there has been a growing appreciation that new
ways must be built on a basic philosophy of educa­
tion and fundamental principles of learning . . .1
The teacher . . . must formulate her beliefs
into a philosophy of education, reach a decision as
to what is most worth while as the goal of educa­
tion . . . be able to interpret the philosophy of
education into teaching practices in terms of ob­
jectives set up, activities and methods of teach­
ing selected, teaching materials and environment
Ivol Spafford, Fundamentals in Teaching Home
Economics (New York: John Wiley and Sons, Incorporated,
1935), p. vii.
31
provided, . . . measure progress in learning against
the goals set up to be realized, and evaluate what
is being done.2
Of the goal of philosophy, Berkson says that ”the
unification of life— its harmony and enhancement— is the
first principle and ultimate end.”^
In defining a philos4.
ophy of life, he says it is "a preferred way of living.”
Concerning what is meant by a philosophy of educa­
tion, Spafford gives this interpretation:
A philosophy . ♦ . is . . . the point of view,
the outlook of life, which guides o n e fs behavior.
It becomes a philosophy of education as it is ap­
plied within the area of educational practice.5
Berkson, too, stresses "point of view” as implicit
in a philosophy of education.
He says:
The philosophy of education implies not alone the
critical consideration of problems as they arise in
contemporary life, but unavoidably also the explicit
statement of a point of view in reference to which
problems are seen to arise, and for which solutions
are found . . .6
II.
PURPOSE OF THIS CHAPTER
The purpose of the present chapter is to examine
some of the major trends in the current philosophy of
2 Ibid.. pp. 12-13.
I. B. Berkson, Preface to an Educational Philosophy
(New York: Columbia University Press, 1940), p. 39.
4 Ibid.. p. 40.
Spafford, o p . cit.. p. 15.
6
Berkson, op. cit.. p. 41.
32
education in the United States in order to develop criteria
which may be used for the criticism of the selection and use
of factual materials dealing with the food aspects of nutri­
tion .
The value of a philosophy of education is in giving
"purpose, proportion, and orientation to the whole range of
responses which the individual makes to detailed educational
problems•"
7
Cubberley says:
Certainly a public function so important and vast
as education should be guided by a sound educational
philosophy.
The general principles, or conceptions
of education which have evolved should be studied,
evaluated, and systematized into a convenient form
for directing future educational procedures and
policies.8
How philosophy, as a. point of view, influences edu­
cational procedure.
With philosophy defined as a "point of
view," it is evident that there is never a separation be­
tween what a person does and his philosophy.
Thus, if a school administrator will not permit stu­
dent self-government in so far as it is practicable, or will
not permit teacher participation in determining policies,
then it can be said that this administrator does not have a
democratic viewpoint and, therefore, his philosophy is not
7
F. W. Thomas and A* R. Lang, Principles of Modern
Education (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1937TT 339 pp*
8 Ibid., p. viii.
33
inclusive of the concept of democracy.
Likewise, if a
teacher encourages merely imitation and memorization of in­
formation for the purpose of "adding to knowledge,* then this
teacher’s philosophy is inclusive of the concept of mastery
of subject matter as an end instead of as a means for effect­
ing .changes in the person’s attitudes and behavior.
Or, per­
haps, because of lack of a clear-cut definition of his own
philosophy, a teacher will, unthinkingly, adopt that of some
one else.
As Spafford says:
A home economics teacher believes, or so she says,
in education as preparation for living; but the . . .
class recites on the digestive system and all its
enzymes • • . or, if the class does not, it is be­
cause those particular items are no longer in the
textbook. Such teachers have accepted some one else’s
theory ([philosophy} without seeing clearly its mean­
ing in terms of teaching procedures in their own sit­
uation. 9
It is only as there is a common acceptance of some
point of view in determining outcomes to be realized from
school procedures, that basic criteria can be established
for evaluating content, activities, and teaching aids to be
employed in securing these outcomes.
Relationships between philosophy of education and
textbooks in nutrition.
Specifically, in the subject of
nutrition, as in any subject, the textbook is a teaching
9
Spafford, o£. cit.. p. 15.
aid.
Then, as such an aid, if a textbook in nutrition is
to be effective, the point of view of philosophy of educa­
tion which orients the selection and organization of its con­
tent must be the same as that which generally now is accepted
as a basis for educational procedure.
What are the compo­
nents of the commonly accepted philosophy of education cur-:
rent in the United States, the "point of view” around which
educational procedures are oriented and on which educational
activities are based?
Eor only through thoughtfully examin­
ing the current philosophy, analyzing it, and attempting to use
it as a "measuring stick" to apply to all educational endeavor,
can educational procedures and aids in securing the wanted
objectives be made consistent.
If education is to respond most satisfactorily to
the urgent demands which are now being made upon it,
it must be guided by sound principles systematized
into a working philosophy of education.
Current concepts in the United States of philosophy
of Education.
Through philosophy, an attempt is made to
find the meaning of life and to interpret this meaning so
that man is oriented to his environment.
Yet, today, a
philosophy of education is in good repute among educators
in the United States only if it is founded upon observed
and, in so far as may be possible, proved phenomena.
Thomas and Lang, o p . cit. . p. viii.
Through interpretation of these factual data, an attempt is
made to seek the explanation of how a person learns, how the
mind operates, what is experience, how mind and individual­
ity are acquired, what is the relationship of education to
the individual and to society, what are the components of the
interrelationship between the individual and society,— in
short, to determine whether or not there "are universal
valid principles which seem to underlie . . . (education) as
anatomy and physiology underlie the practice of medicine,"1^*
and, after examining these principles, to determine how man
may best orient himself with his environment.
The data used
in formulating a philosophy of education are those developed
through the sciences of biology, physiology, sociology,
anthropology, history, and others.
i3
According to Horne, there are two major steps in
philosophical thinking,— first, collection of facts; second,
their interpretation.
In any inquiry which attempts to be ultimate, to
go to the bottom of the matter, which is the essen­
tial characteristic of philosophical thinking, two
questions must be asked and answered.
The first
11
H.
H. Horne, The Philosophy of Education (New
York: The Macmillan Company, 1927), p . 9.
ip
■L
13
Loc. cit.
John Dewey, Democracy and Education (New York:
The Macmillan Company, 1916), p . 378.
36
is, what are the facts under consideration?
second is, what is their meaning?14
The
In the development of a philosophy of education from
a collection and interpretation of facts, it is necessary to
give consideration to two aspects of education; namely, its
relationship to the individual and its relationship to society.
In determining the relationship of education to the
individual, it now is recognized that educational procedures
must be based on data which have resulted from studies of the
nature of the individual.
"The nature of man • . . must
be • . . the absolute basis of all educational thinking and
endeavor."*1-''
Or, to quote Horne's expression of the same
idea:
The questions of the science of education are two,
namely; What is the nature of the body and mind to
be educated? And, how in the light of their nature,
ought this education to proceed?16
For the purpose of learning more about education as a
process affecting the individual, investigations have been
made in all fields of science which relate to a study of the
individual and how he learns.
These studies have shown that
(1) a person is born with certain psychological and biological
Horne, 0 £. cit., p.. 13.
15 M. M. Thompson, "The Educational Philosophy of
Giovanni Gentile" (unpublished Doctor's dissertation, The
University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1930), p. 107.
T ft
Horne, o£. cit.. p. 9.
capacities and mechanisms which he uses in making adaptations
to his environment; (2) it is because of a dynamic drive or
urge to satisfy these needs that he acts, and his activities
are directed toward the purpose of releasing the tensions he
experiences until the needs are satisfied; (3) modifications
of his behavior result from successes or failures attendant
upon the individual’s attempts to satisfy these felt needs;
(4) there are three types of needs--physical or biological
needs, psychological or ego needs, and social or racial needs
(5) needs are constantly changing, with a new awareness of
need replacing another as soon as that need is satisfied,
their degrees of intensity are continually varying, and they
may require immediate satisfaction as hunger, or the satis­
faction may be remote, as saving money to buy a home; these
needs are not mutually exclusive and are best satisfied when
one integrated action serves simultaneously to meet all three
types of needs.17
18
Fisher
gives an unusually lucid account of the fun­
damentals of human behavior.
He names three aspects of the
genetic constitution of man, saying that man as a psychobiqlogical organism possesses (1) various capacities and
17
L. P. Thorpe, Psychological Foundations of
Personality (New York: The McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1938),
Chapters III, IV, V, VIII, and IX.
18
V. E. Fisher, Autocorrectivism (Caldwell, Idaho:
The Caxton Printers, Ltd., 1937), pp. 102-103.
38
mechanisms adapted to activity,
(2) an inclination to activity,
and (3) a consciousness of needs and of impulsions to direct
his activity so that these needs are satisfied.
Furthermore,
these impulsions, drives, or desires serve as motives to act
and as directive forces in determining in which activity or
activities a person’s various psychobiological capacities and
mechanisms will be engaged as the organism seeks satisfac­
tions of his needs*
These same ideas are presented by Dewey, as he com­
pares the differences between modern concepts of education
and the concepts of Rousseau.
"The wording of Rousseau,"
19
Dewey says, "will repay careful study."
According to
Rousseau:
• , * the three factors of educative development
are, (a) the native structure of our bodily organs
and their functional activities, (b) the uses to
which the activities of these organs are put under
the influence of other persons, (c) their direct
interaction with the environment,
* . • His other
two propositions are . . . (a) that only when the
three factors of education are consonant and cooper­
ative does adequate development of the individual
occur and (b) that the native activities of the
organs, being original, are basic in conceiving
consonance.28
But, Dewey
21
says, Rousseau did not realize that this
development could not go on irrespective of the use the
19 Dewey, 0 £. cit., p. 132.
20 Ibid.. pp. 138-133.
21 Ibid., p. 133.
39
native organs are put*
Dewey emphasizes that the native
capacities do not develop through an independent growth of
their own, but only through the use of them to satisfy felt
needs*
He continues:
The office of the social medium . . • is to direct
growth through putting powers to the best possible
use.
. . . The instinctive activities . . . give a
strong bias for a certain sort of operation,— a bias
so strong that we cannot go contrary to it, though
by trying to go contrary, we may pervert, stunt,
and corrupt them. . . . The natural, or native,
powers furnish the initiating and limiting forces
in all education; they do not furnish its ends of
me ans*22
This consideration of a philosophy of education as it
relates to the study of the individual has shown that man is
a psychological organism with needs which, when felt, cause
him to direct his action toward their satisfaction.
Further
consideration shows that this satisfaction is possible only
in a social situation, for every one’s environment is social*
As Dewey says:
. . . a being connected with other beings cannot per­
form his own activities without taking the activities
of others into account.
...
We might as well try
to imagine a business man doing business, buying and
selling, all by himself, as to conceive it possible
to define the activities of an individual in terms
of his isolated actions.23
Not only the quality of experience is social, but
22
Dewey, loc. cit.
23 Ibid. . p. 14
40
society renews itself through the transmission of its culture
to the young.
, . , What nutrition and reproduction are to
physiological life, education is to social life . . .
When we have the outcome of the progress in mind,
we speak of education as . . . a shaping into the
standard form of social activity.
What is required is a transformation of the qual­
ity of experience till it partakes in the interests,
purposes, and ideas current in the social group.*. . .
Our problem is to discover the method by which the
young assimilate the point of view of the old, or
the older bring the young into likemindedness with
themselves.
(This is done] by means of environment in calling
out certain responses . . .
[AndJ the environment consists of those conditions
that promote or hinder, stimulate or inhibit, the
characteristic activities of a living being.24
In other words, education is a social as well as an
individual process.
This idea has been well expressed by
Thayer, who says:
A working concept of an educational need must al­
ways be both personal and social in reference, it
must always incorporate both the present desires of
the individual and what they should desirably be­
come. 25
Although the ultimate goal of education, Thayer2^
24
Ibid., pp. 11-13.
OR
V. T. Thayer, Caroline B. Zachry, and Ruth ICotinsky,
Reorganizing Secondary Education (New York: D. AppletonCentury Company, 1939J, p. 38.
26 Ibid.. p. 454.
41
says, is the "functional and directional wholeness of the
personality," this goal can be realized only through social
and cooperative means, as social experience is necessary for
the advancement of personal worth.
This educational relationship between the individual
and society is inclusive not only of the concept of m a n ’s
adaptation to his social as well as his physical environment,
but also of m a n ’s adaptation of his environment to meet his
own needs.
"It is essential," Dewey says, "that adjustment
be understood in its active sense of control of means for
27
achieving ends."
Furthermore, according to the American philosophy, the
social environment necessary for the fullest development of
the personality must function democratically.
This democratic
organization is necessary, because only in such society is
there a basic regard for the worth of the person.
Only in
democracy is there realization of the value to society of
each individual’s unique development.
"The best society and
the largest development of the individual are really as one,
since the largest individual is really the best aid to
28
society,"
is the way in which Horne expresses this idea.
Dewey, o p . cit.. p. 55.
28
Horne,
ojd .
cit.. p. 164.
42
And Thayer says, "The School in search of the directions of
growth to be fostered in the personality • • • can do no bet­
ter than to look to the cherished ideals of a democratic
society.
Thus far, in considering the philosophical backgrounds
of education it has been evident that (lj the purpose of ed­
ucation is the best possible development of the unique person­
ality of the individual,
(2) educational processes and goals
must be relevant to the needs of the learner,
(3) these needs
are satisfied through adaptations made by the individual as
he interacts in a social medium, and (4) according to American
philosophical interpretation, the fullest individual develop­
ment can be realized only in a society which is organized
.and is functioning democratically.
The fifth and last point, which will be presented in
this discussion of current American philosophical concepts,
is that education, in order adequately to serve society, must
yield the social outcome or morality.
The definition of morality given by Horne is "the rec­
ognition in conduct of the rights of other persons."30
Simi­
lar to this definition is that of Schoenchen, who defines
morality as "the best one is capable of becoming through and
29
Thayer, and others, op. cit., p. 65.
30 „
Horne, op. cit.. p. 180.
43
in his association with others."
31
It is evident that these interpretations of morality
are completely in harmony with that given by Dewey, who says:
Morals are as broad as acts which concern our
relationships with others. And potentially, this
includes all our acts.
• . . For every act, by
the principle of habit, modifies dispositions.
. . .
And it is impossible to tell when the habit thus
strengthened may have a direct and perceptible in­
fluence on our association with others . . .
The moral and social quality of conduct are, in
the last analysis, identical with each other.
Discipline, culture, social efficiency, personal
refinement, improvement of character are but phases
of the growth of capacity nobly to share in . . . a
balanced experience. And education is not a mere
means to such a life. Education is such a life.
To maintain capacity for such education is the
essence of morals.32
These quotations make it evident that moral values
are identified with action as it takes place within a frame­
work of organized society.
Thus, the development of concepts
of morality cannot proceed apart from activity nor apart from
a social medium.
Previous to the discussion of morality, the following
concepts, as inherent in an American philosophy of education,
were presented:
(1) the purpose of education is the realiza­
tion of the greatest worth of the individual,
31
(2) the needs
Gustav G. Schoenchen, The Activity School (New
York: Longmans, Green and Company, 1940), p. 221.
32
Dewey,
0 £.
cit.. pp. 414-417.
44
of the learner, as recognized by him, must determine the
processes and goals of education,
(3) satisfactions of these
needs result only from the interaction of the individual with
his environment,
(4) only as the individual functions in a
democratically organized society, can his complete and unique
individual development be realized.
To these four components
of a philosophy of education must now be added a fifth one,—
that morality, defined as "the recognition, in action, of
the rights of other persons," is inherent in and an outcome
of all education.
Summary.
To this point, this study has been concerned
with an examination of philosophy of education current in the
United States, and with education as it makes explicit this
philosophy.
In seeking to interpret the whole truth of life, phil­
osophy develops the point of view that there are two aspects
to education— individual and social.
Not only must the in­
dividual have opportunity to develop completely, but this
development is dependent upon the individual's sharing ef­
fectively in social life.
Moreover, education of this indi­
vidual can progress only in so far as educational procedures
are based on fundamental human reactions.
Although this philosophical concept of education is
variously expressed by various educators, in the basic con­
cepts there is little difference.
The following quotation
45
from Douglass typifies a usual interpretation of the philo­
sophic aim of education:
Phrases which express a widely accepted point of
view toward the purpose of education in this country
are "individual development and social efficiency." . . •
Education should produce a self-directive, selfreliant individual* free from mental conflict, health­
ful in a physical sense, poised in his contacts with
oth'ers, conscious of the problems which concern the
social groups of which he is a part, sympathetically
inclined toward his fellows, appreciative of the finer
things of life— in a word, education should produce
the integrated personality. . . .
Variously expressed in terms of citizenship, moral
character, or ability to participate effectively in
the activities of a small or large social group, the
social efficiency aim has, in recent years, been
greatly stressed.33
It has been found that, philosophically, the purpose
to be achieved through education is to orient more completely.,
each person in the world.
This orientation is attained when
the individuals complete uniqueness and worth are developed
and used fully in effective social participation.
An interpretation of this philosophy in terms of edu­
cational objectives, outcomes, and method mean that, as a
result of education, changes are to be expected in the atti­
tudes and behavior of a person.
a person satisfies felt needs.
These changes result when
Satisfactions of needs
result only as a person directs physical, mental and/or
33
Aubrey A. Douglass, Modern Secondary Education
(Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1938), p. 782.
46
emotional activity toward meeting these needs.
This ac­
tivity is and must be carried on in a socially organized
group, and results in interactions between the person and
the group.
When this activity furthers the interests of all,
moral outcomes result from this interaction.
The purpose of
education, defined as "the individual’s complete uniqueness
and worth, developed and used fuliy in effective social par­
ticipation," can be realized only when the social environ­
ment functions democratically.
Now that a philosophy which is to be implemented
through education has been established, how can it be made
to function in the schoolroom?
Thomas and Lang
34
suggest
that if a philosophy of education is to be made explicit,
then it is necessary to recognize that a philosophy of edu­
cation includes three essential elements all of which inter­
act with each other.
These three elements are (1) under­
standing of fundamental facts of science and the fields of
learning bearing directly upon the problems of education,
especially the nature of the learner and social relation­
ships in which he is to participate; (2) selection or accept­
ance of certain objectives which lead to educational activi­
ties; (3) the evaluation of essential principles and practices
34
Thomas and Lang, o p . cit.. pp. 6-7.
47
with a view to their organization on the basis of relative
importance in the scheme of educational procedures*
Following this idea, now that a statement of a phil­
osophy of education based on the interaction between the per
son and society has been presented, the following chapter
will comprise a selection of certain practices which may
best implement this philosophy*
Using these more specific
factors as a base, criteria will then be developed to use
in evaluating nutrition textbooks*
CHAPTER III
FACTORS-IN EDUCATION REQUIRED TO IMPLEMENT
THE PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION
I.
INTRODUCTION
In the previous chapterf it was found that, based
upon data obtained from science, philosophy attempts to find
and interpret the meaning and orientation of m a n ’s life, and
that from this inquiry a point of view develops.
Whether or
not an educator is fully conscious of his philosophy, it in­
fluences his selection of educational procedures.
In formu­
lating criteria to use in evaluating subject matter,— its
content, presentation,-or teaching aids,— these criteria are
basic only as they are founded on procedures which make ex­
plicit the philosophy which has determined the point of view.
In considering the current American philosophy of
education, in so far as this philosophy implements educa­
tional procedures, it was found that the scientifically ob­
tained data upon which it is based relate to (1J understand­
ing the nature of m a n ’s capacities,
(2) his mechanisms and
their functioning, and (3) the use of these capacities and
mechanisms in carrying on the educational process.
It was
found that the philosophic purpose of education has been
attained when m a n ’s individual complete uniqueness and worth
49
are developed and used fully in effective democratic social
participation.
The purpose of philosophy and of education
thus become one.
. . . "Philosophy of education" is not an exter­
nal application of ready-made ideas to a system of
practice having a radically different origin and
purpose: it is only an explicit formulation of the
problems of the formation of right mental and moral
habitudes in respect to the difficulties of contem­
porary social life*
. . . Since the only way of bringing about a
harmonions readjustment of the opposed tendencies
is through a modification of emotional and intel­
lectual disposition, philosophy is at once an ex­
plicit formulation of t>he various interests of
life and a propounding of points of view and meth­
ods through which a better balance of interests
may be effected.
Since education is the process
through which the needed transformation may be
accomplished . . . we reach a justification of the
statement that philosophy is the theory of educa­
tion as a deliberately conducted practice.^
II*
PURPOSE OF THE CHAPTER
It is the purpose of this chapter to examine definite
and specific procedures through the use of which the philo­
sophical purposes of education, as presented here, may be
implemented, that is, to determine upon specific means to
be used in classroom procedures which will best contribute
to the complete development of the worth of an individual
, and will best obtain his full and effective participation
^ John Dewey, Democracy and Education (New York:
The Macmillan Company, 1916), p p . 386-387.
50
in a democratically organized society.
III.
THE MECHANISMS OF LEARNING ARE DETERMINED BY
THE PSYCHOBIOLOGICAL CONSTITUTION OF MAN
In the study of ipan’s capacities and his mechanisms
and their functioning, and of the use of these capacities
and mechanisms in carrying on the educational process, it
has been found that m a n ’s learning is correlative with his
activity as he attempts to satisfy felt needs.
It further
has been found that these needs are physical or biological,
2
psychological or mental, and social or racial.
The human organism is inherently characterized
by tensions between itself and its environment
and . . . its activities represent the attempt to
satisfy these tensions.3
The terms in which the tensions exist for him
• [the learner] significantly determine his behav­
ior.4
And Dewey says that:
The essence of education is vital energy seek­
ing opportunity for effective exercise.5
Thayer shows how this concept of the person is re­
lated to education.
She says:
2 Infra, pp. 56-39.
3
V. T. Thayer, and others, "Science in General Edu­
cation," Progressive Education Association. Commission on
Secondary School Curriculum (New York: D. Appleton-Century
Company, Incorporated, 1938}, p. 17.
4 Ibid *» P* 16*
5
Dewey, p£. cit.. p. 84.
51
From the viewpoint of education • • • the learner
must he conceived of as a physical-social emotionalintellectual personality*
In order to "know" where
he is, it is necessary to know the stage of develop­
ment in all these respects . . •
In the personality so conceived, the wishes, feel­
ings, desires, inclinations— both conscious and un­
conscious— are basic, for they represent the propel­
ling and inhibiting aspect of the whole self in
action*6
However, in education, this activity must be directed
toward achieving the philosophic purpose*
Aim as a foreseen end gives direction to the ac­
tivity • • • [and! influences the steps taken to
reach the end*7
IV.
BASES FOR CHOOSING SUBJECT MATTER
Knowledge is the result of activity directed toward
securing satisfaction of psychobiologioal heeds.
It is now
recognized that because of the psychobiologioal constitution
of man, education results only from experience through ac­
tivities directed toward the anticipated ends of satisfying
needs*
"Relevance to his own life," says Thayer, "assures
a motivation for effective progress within a given field";8
g
V* T. Thayer, Caroline B* Zachry and Ruth Kotinsky,
Reorganizing Secondary Education (New York: D. AppletonCentury Company, 1939), p* 33.
7 Dewey, 0 £. cit•, p. 119.
8
Thayer, Zachry, and Kotinsky, Reorganizing Second­
ary Education, o p * cit*. p. 441.
52
and a learner enters whole-heartedly into only those activi­
ties which are so directed.
Educational procedures are ef­
fective only in so far as this motivation is an integral part
of the activity.
Thompson, in interpreting the Italian philosophereducator Gentile, cites lack of this type of motivation as
one of the chief defects of educational practice.
He saysr
Rules, laws, principles, and even literature, are
learned without being vital experience which he the
learner has lived and which he has grasped because
they are to him a living reality.
. . . Real situa­
tions within the range of the student’s comprehension
and interest are essential to any growth.9
Thompson further interprets Gentile’s philosophy as
emphasizing a need of which the pupil1is conscious, as the
foundation for learning.
He says:
The true and real problem is a need, the more
deeply felt, the more profound it is . . . and a
satisfied need is a new need.10
Dewey makes a similar criticism.
He says:
One has only to call to mind what is sometimes
treated in schools as acquisition of knowledge, to
realize how lacking it is in any fruitful connec­
tion with the outgoing experiences of the students—
how largely it seems to be believed that the mere
approximation of subject-matter which happens to be
stored in books constitutes knowledge. No matter how
true what is learned to those who found it out and
in whose experiences it functioned, there is nothing
which makes it knowledge to the p u p i l s . H
9 M. M. Thompson, "The Educational Philosophy of
Giovanni Gentile” (unpublished Doctor’s dissertation, The
University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1931), p. 101.
10 Ibid.. p. 145.
I1 Dewey, of>. cit., p. 398.
53
Schoenchen,
1P
too, emphasizes that knowledge develops
only in activity, saying that knowledge consists of the in­
teraction of an individual and his environment, not of in­
formation or truth stored in the mind, and thus that activity
and subject matter are one*
From the viewpoint of the authorities quoted, subject
matter can thus be defined as "experiences directed toward
meeting the needs of the learner,"
These experiences, to be
educational, should lead to consciousness of other needs; but,
as Thayer says, subject matter and curricular forms should
take their character slowly from what the meeting of needs
*1 «2
of a particular group of students proves to require.
Education begins from the point where the pupil i s .
The further activities and experience of the learner are de­
termined not only by his needs, but they must also proceed
from the point of development where the pupil now is, in in­
formation and in felt needs.
"Instruction should begin with
the concrete, that is, the stage of development at which the
pupil is f o u n d . " P r e v i o u s learning should be recognized
12
Gustav G. Schoenchen, The Activity School (New
York: Longmans, Green and Company, 1940), p. 270.
13
Thayer, Zachry, and Kotinsky, Reorganizing Second­
ary Education, o p . cit.. p. 428.
14
Thompson, o£. cit.. p. 106.
54
by the teacher and the pupils and the work should go on from
that point.”15
However, it should be recognized that information is
not to be identified with the page in.the textbook last
studied by the learner.
Horne’s caution is, "We learn from
books really only when their contents are interpreted by life
and experiences.
Books interpret and expand experience, but
they do not supply it."15
Thayer1^ offers the suggestion that even, those who
are in a dull group will not prove themselves so dull when
subject matter proceeds from present needs and is planned to
develop capacities through activities concerned with the
learners’ present needs in getting what they want out of
life.
Butterwick, in the following words, expresses the
necessity for beginning the educational process with pupils
where they are:
Education consists in raising the individual
from the plane on which we find him to higher planes
of achievement by directing him into and guiding him
through those activities which are most beneficial
in bringing about the desired growth.
IK
Ivol Spafford, Fundamentals in Teaching Home
Economics (New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 193577 P* 79*
15 H. H* Horne, The Philosophy of Education (New
York: The Macmillan Company, 1927J, p. 165.
17 Thayer, Zachry, and Kotinsky, Reorganizing Secondary Education, o p . cit.. p. 122.
TO
J • S. Butterwick and George A. Muzzey, A Handbook
for Teachers (New York: E. P. Dutton and Company, 1939),
pp. 5-6.
55
In learning, the complete experience of the total sit­
uation enters into the educational results.
Knowledge, says
Schoenchen,19 consists of the interaction of an individual
and his environment, not of information or truth stored in
the mind.
And Thayer says, "The whole situation influences
20
what happens to the learner."
That is, the circumstances
Cinder which learning takes place determine what is learned;
and subject matter and method, as used in the classroom, are
both integral parts of the same experience.
Rules and lesson assignments are often rigid and
arbitrary. Perhaps this accounts for the widespread
tradition among children and adults, too, that school
is unpleasant and to be disliked by any normal human
being.
. . . The tonic effect of "mild emotions"
suggests the possibility of making schools places of
much more vivid experience than at present, of en­
livening and enriching the educative p r o c e s s . 21
Whatever subject matter is used, whatever facts are
presented, therefore, can be no more important than the
learner’s reaction to them.
M a n ’s reactions and learning
take place only in accordance with his nature.
Because his
nature is psychobiologioal, to yield desirable educational
reaction, the total situation in which learning takes place
19
Schoenchen, op. cit.. p. 270.
on
Thayer, Zachry, and Kotinsky, Reorganizing Second­
ary Education, op. cit.. p. 270.
^ Daniel A. Prescott, and others, Emotion and the
Educative Process (Washington, D. C.: American Council on
Education, 1938), p. 47.
56
must be made to provide for full expression of the capacities
and mechanisms through which man learns.
There must be a
recognition that the genetic constitution of man provides
Cl) various capacities and mechanisms for activity,
(2) the
inclination to activity, and (3) an inherent and insistent
urging that, to achieve a feeling of satisfaction, activity
be directed toward certain psychobiologioal basic goals.22
These goals are of three basic types--those of (1)
bodily-welfare or physical comfort,
(2) individuation or of
status for the ego, and (3) perpetuation of the species or
social continuity and development.
Since all of the situa­
tion enters into the learning which takes place, desired out­
comes in education will result only in so far as the total
situation makes provision for the individuals attaining
these goals.2^
The total situation of the learning process, then,
must be relevant to what the pupil "wants" to do, with
"want" meaning an urge, a drive, an interest, a desire.
For the purposes of education, needs in the
sense of lacks must never be taken out of the con­
text of needs in the sense of wants, wishes, incli­
nations, and desires . . . must never be interpreted
to imply learnings unrelated to the adolescent’s
problems, feelings, aspirations, foreseen and de­
sired achievements.24
22 V. E. Fisher, Autocorreotivism (Caldwell, Idaho:
The Caxton Printers, Ltd., 1937), p. 103.
23 Ibid., p. 101.
24 Thayer, Zachry, and Kotinsky, Reorganizing Second­
ary Education, o p . cit.* > P* 3 S *
57
A realization that the pupil*s learning results from
his attempt to satisfy his needs, that in this attempt he
reacts in accordance with genetic laws, and that his response
is a result of his reaction to the totality instead of just
a part of the situation in which he finds himself, will cause
far-reaching, but needed changes in educational procedure.
If essential and vital needs of the personality
were made the requisite of all educative effort,
how much material now presented to children would
be discarded and replaced by other types both in
content and mode of presentation?^
These ^needed changes," in part, depend upon the point
of view that, in learning, the complete experience of the
total situation enters into the educational results.
Educational growth must be directed toward satisfac­
tion of adult needs and social adjustment.
Although the edu­
cational objective of each learning experience is a unity of
individual growth based upon the present felt needs of the
learner, the direction of growth should be toward satisfac­
tion of adult needs and social adjustment.
In order that
these necessarily remote adult values may enter into the
p ft
present education of young people, Dewey
names five edu­
cative responses to use as criteria in directing the learners*
25
Thompson, op., pit., p. 146.
Dewey, pp. cit.. p. 285.
58
experience:
(l) experience contributing to executive compe­
tency in the management of resources and obstacles encoun­
tered, summarized by the word "efficiency"; (S ) sociability
or interest in the direct companionship of others; (3) aes­
thetic taste, or capacity to appreciate artistic excellence;
(4) trained intellectual method or interest in some mode of
scientific achievement; (5) sensitiveness to the rights and
claims of others— conscientiousness.
Although present needs of the learner comprise the
motivating power which compels the learner to seek the new
experiences through which his knowledge grows, these expe­
riences should include activities which provide practice in
developing self-direction, sociability, aesthetic taste, in­
tellectual method, and social sensitivity, all of which are
desired adult values.
"Activities should meet a felt need
of the child and at the same time satisfy a social demand
As each felt need is satisfied, new needs will be developed,
and thus, as the learner becomes conscious of each new need,
his progress in their satisfaction can be directed further
and further toward an awareness of the problems of adults
and their more extensive needs of social, adjustment.
Thayer, too, recognizes that capacity to satisfy
adult needs must influence school experience.
27
She says:
W. F. Tidyman, Directed Learning through Class
Management (New York: Farrar and Rinehart, Inc., 1937), p.
50.
59
The argument of this volume proceeds with the
postulate that educational experience in the sec­
ondary school must be relevant to the needs of
young people growing up in the contemporary social
sensed 8
[italics not in the original^
Especially during the high school period should
social interdependence be stressed*
An analysis of social needs is most suitable for
the grades beyond the elementary level, that is be- *
yond the sixth grade*’. The pupils in the junior
high school years and beyond are more closely re­
lated to adult life; and so adult needs become more
apparent to them.29
The mistake is not in attaching importance to
preparation for futlire need but in making it the
mainstay of present effort.30
Thus the educational purpose of social growth is nott
confined merely to the satisfaction of a felt need of the
learner; but at the same time it should be a social act— a
form of behavior— which will make the learner more able to
achieve satisfaction in meeting his adult needs.
Specific acts should precede generalizations.
It is
now recognized that the individual’s learning results from
31
and is based upon specific acts.
Therefore, specific ex­
periences should precede generalizations.
"Education comes
28 Thayer, Zachry, and Kotinsky, Reorganizing Second­
ary Education, op. cit., p. 35.
29 Henry Harap, The Technique of Curriculum Making
(Hew York: The Macmillan Company, 192TT, p. 129.
30 Dewey, ojd. cit.« p. 65.
31 H. Hartshorne and M. A. May, Studies in Deceit
{New York: The Macmillan Company, 1928), 432 pp.
60
through what the child does, and says, and thinks, and feels
in the presence of the environment which the teacher supplies."32
Hartshorne gives the following concrete examples of
learning:
No school teacher would pretend that, when she has
taught a child that 3x3 » 9, she has thereby auto­
matically taught him that 5x5 - 25, that 6x6 - 36 . . .
these all having in common the fact that they are per­
fect squares. A small boy whose mother told him that
it was wrong to take apples from a fruit stand in­
quired of his mother later if it was also wrong to
take apples from the pushcart.
Thus we see how spe­
cific not only is conduct, but also ideals, ideas,
and attitudes.33
Newlon34 interprets education as a process of "expe­
rience reconstructing experience," and says that the aim is
"to equip the individual more wisely to reflect upon and to
guide his own experience."
experience in learning.
Spafford, too, recognizes only
She says:
"Learning takes place
through experiencing, direct or vicarious.
Direct expe35
riences, however, are always the basis of learning."
That
is, education results only from an accumulation of specific
reactions and their interpretation as predetermined by
Horne, 0 £. cit.» p. 55.
33
Hugh Hartshorne,. Character in Human Relations
(New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1935), p. 211.
34 Jesse H. Newlon, Education for Democracy in Our
Time (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1939), p. 84.
35 Spafford, o£. cit.. p. 100.
61
previous accumulation of experiences and reactions to them.
In presenting the idea of "adjustment to the external
world," for instance, if this concept, a generalization,
should he presented at the beginning of an educational unit,
pupils will find it formidable.
However, if instead of a
generalization the specific acts in adjustment,— such as those
relating to food, drink, shelter, raising vegetables, buying
and selling— are first considered, from these everyday acts-specific adjustments— there can be formulated the concept of
"adjustment to the external world."
This concept, based upon
specific acts, thus derives meaning.36
In this connection, Dewey says:
Careful inspection of methods which are per­
manently successful in formal education • . . will
reveal that they go back to the type of situation
which causes reflection . . . in ordinary life.
They give the pupils something to do, not some­
thing to learn; and the doing is of such nature as
to demand thinking, or the intentional noting of
connections (generalization); learning naturally
results.37
Information severed from thoughtful action is
dead, a mind crushing load.38
That is, generalizations, to be valuable as part of
the educative process,— to be meaningfully interpreted,—
36
Thayer, Zachry, and Kotinsky, Reorganizing Second­
ary Education, o p . cit.« p. 441.
37 Dewey, 0 £. cit., p. 181.,
38 Ibid., p. 179.
62
must be preceded by meaningful, specific acts.
Subject matter must be psychologically, not logically.
organized.
Since only direct experience is the basis of learn­
ing, necessary connections for the organization of subject
matter can be made only as experience provides these connec­
tions.
However, it is recognized that direct experience can
make real a great deal of vicarious experience.
There is no magic attached to material stated in
technically correct scientific form {says Dewey}.
When learned in this condition, it remains a body
of inert information. Moreover, its form of state­
ment removes it from fruitful contact with everyday
experiences.40
If classifications are to be meaningful to the pupils,
they must be made by the pupils.
On this point, Dewey says:
The subject matter of the learner is not, there­
fore, it cannot be, identified with the formulated,
the crystallized, and systematized subject matter of
the adult.
The latter represents the possibilities
of the former; not its existing state.41
Psychological organization may thus be defined as
organization developing from the experience of the learner
4.0
as he strives to find satisfaction for his needs.
Only to
one who is learned, is subject matter "extensive, accurately
39
Spafford, o£. cit.. p. 100.
Dewey, 0 £. cit.. p. 259.
41 Ibid.. p. 314.
~
Schoenchen, op. cit.. pp. 361-263.
63
43
defined, and logically interrelated.”
To one who is learning, it -^subject matteij is
fluid, partial, and connected through his personal
occupations.
The problem of teaching is'"to keep
the experience of the student moving in the direc­
tion of what the expert already knows.44
Educators are
agreed that the logical order
serve teaching purposes.
does not
In this connection, Dewey says:
Logical order is not a form imposed on what is
known, it is the proper form of knowledge as per­
fected.
...
To the non-expert, however, this,
perfected form is a stumbling block.
Just because
the material is stated with reference to the further­
ance of knowledge as an end in itself, its connec­
tions with everyday life are hidden.
. . . From
the standpoint of the learner, scientific form is
an ideal to be achieved, not a starting point from
which to set out.4§
And Thayer says:
We may bog down each educational field with an
encyclopedic load of facts not oriented nor organ­
ized with reference to the pressing concern of the
students.4**
Learning, then, should be a "discovery” rather than
"storing away what others pour into them {the learnersj .47
If the "pouring in” process is used, then, as Dewey says,
the pupil’s "learning” consists only of "a smattering which
is too superficial to be scientific and too technical to be
43
Dewey, o£. cit., p. 216.
44 L o c . cit.
45 Ibid., p. 187.
46 Thayer, Zachry, and Kotinsky, Reorganizing Second­
ary Education, o p . cit., p. 429.
47 Dewey, l o c . cit.
64
48
applicable to ordinary affairs."
Learning is not exclusively a mental activity; equally
important in the educational process are attitudes and emo­
tions.
As another result of the examination and study of
m a n ’s nature and mechanisms of reaction, there has been de­
veloped the realization that "learning” is not only a "mental"
process, but that attitudes and emotions also play important
parts in educational results.
Since educational experiences change the learner
as a whole personality with feelings and attitudes,
they must be so devised as to help him feel differ­
ently.
The adolescent’s feelings about himself and
other persons determine in large measure the way he
behaves and the quality of his social relationships.49
This present concept of the place of emotion and atti­
tude in education is in distinct contrast to the Herbartian
principles which emphasized intellect at the. expense of expe­
rience, and reason over attitudes which, for such a long
period of time, so greatly influenced our educational prac­
tices.50
Now, the realization that m a n ’s mental life is not
apart from his total way of reacting has made educators adopt
the point of view that m a n ’s "very understanding of his
48 Ibid., p. 335.
49
Thayer, Zachry, and Kotinsky, Reorganizing Second­
ary Education, o p . cit.. p. 19.
50
Schoenchen, op. cit.. p. 229.
65
problems and his world cannot be separated from the way he
feels about them.”
51
Thus, a psychology of the development
of the whole personality is in the making*52
Recognition that attitudes play an important part in
learning foreshadows the need for changes in educational pro**
cedures.
Such changes should be directed toward minimizing
or omitting all experiences in school which cannot be made
vital for the learner*
That concepts of emotion and attitude are now accepted
as vital parts of mental processes in educational activity is
53
well expressed by Prescott.
In the report of the excellent
study which he and his associates made concerning emotion in
education, he says:
Attitudes refer back to the innate biological tend­
ency of the organism to seek optimum conditions for
itself.
♦ . . The basic characteristics of most at­
titudes is their expression of the individual’s con­
cept of his own self-interest. But while attitudes
are physiologically rooted, they represent the high­
est form of mental organization generalization based
on experience.54
From this point of view, education may be defined as
a complete experience, consisting not of selected reactions,
but of all reaction— physical, mental, and emotional— of the
Thayer, Zachry, and Kotinsky, Reorganizing Second­
ary Education, o p . cit.. p. 19.
52 L o c . cit.
53
Prescott, ojd• cit., p. 47.
54 Ibid., p. 59.
66
learner to the environment.
Potentially, education results
from response to all parts of the environment.
Actually,
education is definitely limited to the response of the indi­
vidual to those parts of the environment to which the learner
reacts.
His reactions are determined by his self-interest
in meeting his physical, ego, and social needs.
Thinking is part of the/ educative process.
Thinking,
Dewey5^ says, results from inquiring not acquiring, which is
secondary; and he defines thinking as "the intentional en­
deavor to discover specific connections between something we
do and the consequences which result, so that the two become
continuous."
Thinking (1} begins with not knowing; (2) then
there is an awareness of not knowing, or, in other words, the
sense of a problem;
(3) then there is a "coming to know"
through observation of conditions, formation of hypothetical
conclusions, and tentative results; (4) then comes active ex­
perimental testing; (5) and finally a conclusion or "knowing"
is attained.
The object of thinking is to reach a conclusion
which then becomes additional data upon which to base further
action.
In short, thinking is problem-solving.
Since problem­
solving aids the learner to make more satisfactory adaptations
in relationship to his environment, guiding the experience of
55
Dewey, o£. cit.. pp. 170-173.
67
the learner into problem-solving situations is definitely a
part of the educative process.
It is the responsibility of the school to help
him— the individual— increase his ability to deal
intelligently with his environment . . • and it
Cthis activityj is to be developed only through
solving problems felt as relevant to the on-going
life of the learner.56
There is need in the educative process for social
participation.
"A complete social act," says Tidyman,
the ultimate educational objective."57
"is
How, then, can learn­
ing be directed toward this ultimate end?
It has been shown
that a person learns only experimentally and through activity.
Thus, if individuals are to function effectively in a demo­
cratic society, their learning must include the performance
of social acts.
Yet, for each social act performed, there
must be a basis of personal interest.
On this point of the
relationship between personal interest and a social act,
59
Prescott
says it must be recognized that m a n ’s three basic
needs— physiological, ego, and social— are not mutually ex­
clusive or independent, but that there is among them every­
where evident a unity, "a functional interrelationship," which
yields values far transcending those which would result from
Dewey, ojd. cit., pp. 170-173.
57 Tidyman, ojd. cit.. p. 42.
58 Infra, pp. 51-53.
5^ Prescott, Q£. cit.. p. 113.
58
68
exclusiveness•
Thayer, too, recognizes the personal basis for social
action.
She says:
Studies of adolescents suggest that their needs
group themselves roughly into four areas; immediate
relationships, social relationships, economic rela­
tionships, and closely related to all of these—
personal living.60
But, says Prescott:
Self-interest should be so inextricably inter­
associated with the welfare of the group that so­
cially useful conduct inevitably becomes the road
to personal satisfaction and self-expression.
Then
goals become clearer, life seems to have meaning,
and behavior under varying circumstances does not
arouse internal conflicts*61
What an individual wants to get out of life, Prescott
says further, determines the orientation of his self-expres­
sion and regulates his attitudes and "this concept that selfinterest is the dynamic core of effective life gives the key
to effective methods and materials to be used in education."62
Accumulated experience, through action, ingrains selfishness
or the most enlightened altruism into attitudes, and causes
these attitudes, in turn, to become directive agents for fur­
ther expression#
Dewey cautions that, although the subject matter of
education consists primarily of the meanings which supply
60 Thayer, Zachry, and Kotinsky, Reorganizing Second
ary Education, o p * cit.. p. 4.
AT
Prescott,
0 £.
62 Ibid.. p. 61.
cit.. p. 124.
69
content to the existing social life, there is danger that the
only outcome of schooling will be "the pupil’s ability to ap­
propriate and -reproduce subject matter in set statements irre­
spective of its organization into his activities as a develop­
ing social member."63
Rather, Dewey continues, young people’s
learning "should begin with active occupations having a social
origin and use."64
Participation by learners in local socially-organized
activities is urged by Thayer.
It is possible to use student participation in the
activities, institutions, and concerns of the local
community in ways to further the more general purposes
of education.
Through participation, so guided, young people can
be acquainted with the community’s resources and op­
portunities and ways in which these may be intelli­
gently used.
. . . Finally, they can be led to see
the way in which the social phenomena of the locality
focus . . . on conditions prevalent in far wider areas
of human association.65
Thayer66 then tells how one class in home economics
made effective use of social participation.
This class de­
cided to explore conditions of home living in the neighbor­
hood.
They found there was apparent need of a day nursery.
Consultation with neighborhood social workers confirmed the
63 Dewey, op. cit.. p. 226.
64 L o o , cit.
Thayer, Zachry, and Kotinsky, Reorganizing Second­
ary Education, o p . cit.. p. 225.
66 Ibid.. p. 227.
70
need.
From a local club the class secured the use of a suit­
able room with the idea of caring for children two days a
week.
Finally, the nursery became a Works Progress Adminis­
tration project on a daily basis.
Functioning in this social
situation resulted in intensification of the social quality
of the pupils’ mental outlook and, as behavior— "meeting a
situation by doing something about it,"— gave practice in the
development in skill in social participation.
Were all instructors to realize that the quality
of the mental process, not the production of correct
answers, is the measure of educative growth, some­
thing hardly less than a revolution in teaching
would be workedw?7"
Education is effective only as it causes desired changes
in behavior.
Although one objective of instruction is the de­
velopment of knowledge, it is now recognized that information
and knowledge are not synonomous, that is, information is
knowledge only in so far as it modifies behavior.
"Knowledge"
says Newlon, "is effective, is really knowledge for the in­
dividual, as it enters into and guides his actions."68
These
changes in behavior, in our democratic organization, should
lead to "personal self-direction in an intelligent, responsible,
social wgLy."69
an
Dewey, o£. cit., p. 207.
68 Newlon, 0 £. cit.. p. 94.
‘
J. K. Hart, Democracy in Ed ucation (New York:
The Century Company, 1918), p. 42.
71
"Growth is meaningless as a way of defining educational
objectives," says Tidyman,
70
because he believes that in addi­
tion to inner, psychological growth, there is the social act,
or changed behavior that is concrete— that has an outward
and objective form— as the individual expresses his more
fully integrated personality in improved social adjustment#
Douglass, too, sets up changes in behavior as a cri­
terion for evaluating results of education.
He says:
Teaching is no longer regarded merely as broad­
casting information and testing to see if it has
been assimilated.
It is considered incomplete un­
less pupils are able to apply and to express in
action . . . (ai^O to ensure modification of con­
duct beyond the time when the pupil quits the
school.71
And Spafford says:
The real measure of learning is . . . the abil­
ity of the individual to meet new and changing con­
ditions. in ways increasingly satisfying to himself
and to society. .
The individual needs convictions strong enough .
to control his behavior . . . [for] changed behavior
is the goal of teaching.73
70
Tidyman. op. cit.« p. 42.
71
-Aubrey A. Douglass, Modern Secondary Ed ucation
(Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1938), p. 225.
Spafford,
73
0 £.
Ibid., p. 96.
cit.T p. 94.
72
The educational experiences for each person are different.
Although the integration of each personality is brought
about through the operation of similar mechanisms, yet, be­
cause of the individual’s inheritance and his experiences
which are peculiar just to him, each person is unique.
Each
member in a class is endowed with capacities which do not
exactly duplicate those of any other person.
of no two people can be exactly alike.
The experiences
Since the interests
and desires of any person develop from a combination of what
he is able to learn— his genetic constitutions— plus the
effect of the experience which his activities have built
into his life— his environment— each person differs from
all others.
The present emphasis concerning the uniqueness of
each person makes educators realize that even among members
in the same classroom, differences in educational experience
are inevitable.
A basic, minimum learning should be ex­
pected from all, but opportunity for challenging educational
experience should be provided for every one to the extent of
each person’s ability to benefit by it.
Individual differences in inherited and acquired
tendencies require differentiated educational ar­
rangements adapted to the specific needs and capac­
ities of individuals.74
74
Hartshorne, op. cit.. p. 206.
73
Educational experiences must be integrated with demo­
cratic experiences.
"The new philosophic movement in edu­
cation is to interpret American education in terms of democracy and interpret American democracy in terms of education."
And Thayer says that since the schools are dedicated to the
purpose of democracy they "must implement their dedication
in new ways in order to contend with new conditions."76
according to the Educational Policies Commission,
Also,
"In any
realistic definition of education for the United States . . .
must appear the whole philosophy and practice of democracy."77
What is this "practice of democracy" to which the
schools, maintained in the United States through democratic
organization, are dedicated?
On this point, Washburne says:
Fundamentally, democracy is a way of life that
gives every individual the utmost possible oppor­
tunity for self fulfillment as a member of an in­
terdependent society. . Therefore it involves free­
dom . . . of thought . . . expression . . . and
action . . . social responsibility . . . and
understanding.78
75
G. A. Coe, "Emergent Democracy," School and
Society. 47:752-55, June 11, 1938.
76
Thayer, Zachry, and Kotinsky, Reorganizing Second­
ary Education. op. cit., p . 10.
77
Alexander J. Stoddard, "The Unique Function of
Education in American Democracy," National Education Asso­
ciation of the United States. Educational Policies Commission.
Department of Superintendence (Washington. D. C.: The
Association, 1937), p. 129.
78
Carlton Washburne, A Living Philosophy of Education
(New York: John Day Company, 1940), p. 448.
74
And Hart defines the democratic process as "personal
7Q
self-direction in an intelligent responsible social way."
It is necessary to include in the educational expe­
rience new concepts of social thinking such as planned
economy and the rights of the consumer, says Spafford;80
who also emphasizes social action,— understanding and sharing
of common purposes of the group,— as necessary for personal
integration as well as for the progress of the group.
How can the idea of democracy be made real in the
lives of the children?
Educators are agreed that this
process results only from integrating democratic experiences
with school life#
We must give children in our schools some reali­
zation of this dependence of each individual upon a
world of co-ordinated human beings.
Somehow we must
let them realize that the well-being of every human
group is, ultimately, necessary to their own indi­
vidual well-being, just as their individual well­
being is necessary for that of human s o c i e t y . 81
The power of self-direction is largely a func­
tion of social experiences.
. . . Co-operative
relations . . . is probably the most potent fac­
tor available for the development of normal,
socially adjusted individuals#82
What means should the schools use to develop selfdirection for the individual in this "world of co-ordinated
Hart, op. cit.. p. 371#
80 Spafford, pp. cit., p. 17.
8^ Washburne, op. cit., p. 376.
82
Hartshorne, op. cit., p. 304.
75
human beings?”
To achieve this purpose, Hartshorne suggests
that the school should be:
. . . continuous with the life of society— continuous
not by imitation, but in participation— the life of
the community flowing through the school and the
school functioning.within the life of the community.
If a man . . . functions well as a human being, those
human functions must be learned, and they can be
learned only by practicing them as functions in the
full sense of the word.83
How can this recommended participation be put into
effect?
Instead of just feeding the poor— as Thanksgiving
baskets— the student should find out why they are
poor.
The cause may be illness. Let this be cor­
rected. But let such illness also be investigated
and steps taken to prevent its occurrence by elimi­
nating the social condition which brought it about . . •
From the facing of such problems, children will
achieve skills in the several processes which to­
gether make up a rounded experience— skills in
action, skills in thinking, and skills in evalua­
tion.©4
That is, since our social organization is democratic,
the individual must learn to be self-directive in a society
which considers both the individual and group welfare im­
portant.
Since a person learns only through experience, the
experience of effective participation in and interaction
with democratic organization must be a part of the educational
procedure.
Moreover, this procedure must result in achieving
83 Ibid.. p. 289.
84
Ibid.. p. 315.
76
a common purpose of value to all*
Pretesting and continuous retesting are necessary in
the educational program.
The goals of education which have
been discussed can be attained only through activity di­
rected toward achieving a social purpose meaningful to the
learners.
To be thus meaningful, the purpose adopted, al­
though social in nature, must also be directed toward satis­
fying personal needs, urges, drives, or wishes.
As the
activity progresses, as needs are met, the learner develops
an awareness of new needs, not hitherto suspected.
Thus,
subject matter is no longer simply material to be learned,
but it becomes a way of action— of behavior— in satisfying
needs.
Effective changes in behavior, then— using satisfy­
ing ways of meeting new situations— is the desired outcome
of the educational experience.
The importance of subject
matter lies in its value as a guide in action.
The action
may be mental, physical, and/or emotional.
Testing thus becomes important as a means of deter­
mining the present development of the child for the purpose
of diagnosing the pupil’s needs.
From such consideration,
the child’s further growth may more effectively be directed.
Although pretesting is important, it may be informal.85
05
Spafford, o£. cit.. pp. 76-77.
Moreover, learnings which "are attainable by the
majority of the class with reasonable effort" and which are
"of intrinsic value to the group in so far as present needs
can be ascertained and future needs predicted" should be dedermined, and criteria for measuring these learnings be es­
tablished*
Beyond this point, special interests may be fol­
lowed up beyond the understanding desired for all.8S
Since the pupils are directing their activity toward
the accomplishment of a purpose they have adopted, it is the
progress in accomplishing this purpose which should be meas­
ured.
This progress includes the mastery of subject matter
needed in achieving the purpose.87
The individual must arrive at values which he
feels are worth working for, develop an attitude of
open-mindedness to life situations, and acquire the
ability to direct his own continued learning in the
intelligent solving of new problems as they arise . . .
Basic learnings are to be selected as focusing
points in teaching situations.
. . . Progress in
learning will be measured by the way in which the
individual meets life situations.88
Summary.
In the examination of philosophy of educa­
tion in Chapter II, it was found that (1) philosophy is an
attempt to answer what is to be achieved through education,
86
Spafford, loc. cit.
78
and how the achievement may take place; (2) the orientation
of man with his environment is the purpose to be realized
through philosophy; and (3) only in so far as the education
of man proceeds from the basis of his nature, can this orien­
tation be realized.
In the present chapter, educational procedures as '
based upon m a n ’s nature and directed toward achieving his
orientation have been presented.
These procedures are: (1)
directing activity toward the purpose of securing satisfac­
tion of present psyehobiologieal needs;
(2) beginning the
educational process from the point of development where the
pupil now is; (3) giving due weight to the recognition that
the complete experience of the total situation enters into
the educational results; (4) directing educational growth
toward the satisfaction of adult needs and social adjustment;
(5) developing generalizations only from specific acts; (6)
having subject matter arranged and presented psychologically
and experijentially rather than logically; (7) providing sit­
uations which learning involves development of desired atti­
tudes through physical and emotional as well as mental reac­
tions of the learner; (8) directing activity toward meeting
situations requiring thinking; (9) directing activities into
shared social experiences; (10) determining upon and providing
for securing practice in desired changes in behavior;
(11)
suiting the educational experiences for each person to the
79
unique ability of that person;
(12) providing a democratic
framework in which the educational activities proceed; (13).
integrating pretesting and retesting into the educational
program.
The next chapter comprises a presentation of the ob­
jectives to be realized and the outcomes to be desired from
a study of nutrition.
This chapter is followed by a develop­
ment of criteria to use in evaluating nutrition textbooks.
These criteria have been formulated upon a basis of the spe­
cific objectives and specific outcomes which should be
achieved through a study of nutrition, using the procedures
which have just been presented and through which in class­
room practices the current educational philosophy may be
implemented •
CHAPTER IV
SPECIFIC PURPOSES OF NUTRITION STUDY
This study was undertaken in order to determine the
extent nutrition textbooks make explicit a current philosophy
of education.
To this point consideration has been given to
the determination of (1) a statement which would be repre­
sentative of this philosophy^* and (2) educational procedures
by which the philosophy might be implemented.
I.
2
PURPOSE OF THE CHAPTER
The purpose of this chapter is to select objectives
and outcomes desired from studying nutrition which, when in­
tegrated with the educational procedures which implement the
point of view of the philosophy of education,
criteria in evaluating nutrition textbooks.
will serve as
This selection
is limited to goals and outcomes for the high school level.
It is . • . assumed that it would be economical
and profitable if our subject fields were not so
highly demarcated as they are at the present time. . . .
However, . . ♦ the great majority of our.schools
are operating on the pattern of subject field of­
ferings.4
^* Infra, pp. 30ff.
2 Infra,, pp • 48ff •
3 Infra, pp. 30ff.
4 John A. Clement, Educational Significance of Analysis
Appraisal a n d Use of Textbooks in Junior and Senior High
Schools (Champaign« Illinois: Daniels Press, 1939), p. 2.
a n d
81
If outcomes of nutrition are to make explicit the
philosophy of education as determined, then the study of
nutrition must be undertaken in such a way that the choice
and use of the subject matter will be in alignment with the
educational procedures presented in Chapter III.
Since author*
ities agree that the textbook, more than any other factor, determines classroom procedures,
then, if the purposes to which
reference has been made are to be realized, the selection and
presentation of the subject matter in nutrition textbooks
must be evaluated by the same criteria.
II.
PHILOSOPHICAL POINT OF VIEW TO BE INTEGRATED
INTO THE PURPOSES FOR STUDYING NUTRITION
It has been found that, philosophically, the purpose
to be achieved through education is more completely to orient
each person in the world.
This adjustment is dependent on
the individual’s integrity and peculiar excellence being de­
veloped, and being used effectively and sufficiently in social
participation within a democratic framework.
Interpreting this purpose into terms of educational
objectives and outcomes means that, as a result of education,
changes are to be effected in the attitudes and behavior of
a person.
5
These changes result when a person satisfies felt
Infra, pp. 8-9.
82
needs which all fall into three categories— physical or
biological, ego or psychological, social or racial-«and
which are felt in varying degrees of intensity, such as
wants, desires, urges, or drives.
It is only when activity
is directed toward satisfying a social need integrated with
a physical and/or ego need that the adjustment yielding the
most satisfactory integration of the unique worth of the per­
son is achieved.6
Thus, social participation must be part
of the activity; and changes in behavior, beside being di­
rected toward satisfying ego and/or physical needs, must also
be directed toward securing an increasingly effective partici
pation in social processes.
In the United States it is ex­
pected that these processes are to be democratic in organi­
zation.
Only if the teaching of nutrition can contribute to
the attainment of the philosophical purposes, should this
subject have a place in the educational program.
III.
OBJECTIVES IN THE STUDY OF NUTRITION7
What then, in the study of nutrition, are the ob­
jectives toward which learning should be directed and what
outcomes may be anticipated?
6 Infra, pp. 51-53.
7
J. Murray Lee and Doris May Lee, The Child and His
Curriculum (New.York: D. Appleton-Century Company, Inc.,
1940), 495 pp*
83
Objectives classified*
These objectives may be classi­
fied as (1) changes to be effected in attitude toward health
and health study as these are related to food; (2) increase in
skill as developed through behavior in maintaining personal
health and in participating in activities which are directed
toward making possible more buoyant health for others;
(3) an
increase in information concerning the role of food in its re­
lationship to health maintenance, to serve as a guide in pres­
ent and future decisions and activities that have to do with
this relationship*
Change to be effected in attitudes.
Changes desired
in attitudes include (1) changes which relate to personal
health and (2) changes which relate to our social pattern.
In attitudes affecting personal health, the objectives are—
(a) to further a desire for buoyant health and (b) to develop
a desire to make food-choices from a basis of information
and reasoning concerning health needs.
7 (continued)
Aubrey A. Douglass, Modern Secondary Education
(Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1938), 414 pp#
G.
A. Coe, "Emergent Democracy," School and Society
47:754, June -11* 1938.
Jennie Rowntree, "Teaching of Nutrition," Journal
of Home Economics. 30:156-160, March, 1938.
Frank A. Boudreau, "Coordination of Research in Home
Economics With Public Health in the Field of Nutrition,"
Journal of Home Economics, 30:677-683, December, 1938.
Thomas D. Wood, "Health and Education," Report of the
Joint Committee on Health Problems. National Education Associa­
tion and the American Medical Association, New York, 1934, p. 13.
84
In attitudes which have reference to social factors
and which affect health as it is related to food supply and
food choices, objectives should include (a) to develop a sen­
sitivity and appreciation of the responsibility of society in
so guarding the food supply that nutritional essentials are
readily available, no deleterious substances are added to
foods, health-building food values naturally present in foods
are not depleted, and food values are not misrepresented; (b)
to develop an interest in, and respect for, scientific inves­
tigation and the scientific method as these processes relate
to food composition and the effect of food on health, and for
the investigators who have made this information available to
society; (c) to develop an interest in keeping informed con­
cerning further advance in science and its application in
this field; (d) to develop sensitivity in recognizing fields
of social application regarding nutrition; (e) to develop an
interest in making effective use of information regarding
nutrition in fields of social application.
Changes to be effected in behavior.
In action, the
objectives are to increase skill (1) in making personal food
choices from the viewpoint of building health and (2) in par­
ticipating in activities which will be effective in bettering
social standards pertaining to health-building through ade­
quate nutrition.
85
So that skill may be developed in making personal
food-choices, the objectives are (a) to provide and suggest
opportunities for practice in making personal food-choices
from a basis of health-building; (b) to guide choices when
money is to be spent for food, so that the first choice will
be to purchase dietary needs.
To develop skill in improving social standards as they
relate to nutrition, the objectives are,— (a) to develop recog­
nition of social situations in which good nutrition would be
effective in promoting the welfare of the individuals con­
cerned; (b) to provide opportunity for activity in promoting
good nutrition for a chosen group;
(c) to evaluate critically
currently published and radio materials concerning nutrition;
(d) to evaluate critically relationships between many social
situations and nutrition— as amount and proportions of family
income necessary to spend to provide adequate nutrition for
family members, relationship between income levels and nutri­
tion as measured by foods purchased, cost to individual fami­
lies and to society of nutritional-deficiency illnesses,
choice of food and its per capita cost for naval and military
units engaged in national defense and in charitable institu­
tions or among families "on relief," social responsibility
of food manufacturers in processing and in advertising, menus
*£
served at recreational camps or church dinners, and so on;
(e) to use personal weight in developing and using public
86
opinion as it may function in safeguarding and making more
adequately available nutritional values of food.
Extent of increase in information desired.
Since
changes in attitudes and behavior are affected by the amount
of information which is under command, one objective in study­
ing nutrition must be to extend the range of information pos­
sessed.
However, growth in information must take place as a
result of a need felt for it, and in order to use it as a
guide to action in which the learner wants to engage, because
of feeling a desire, urge, or drive which compels him to act
toward achieving some purpose.
. . . what to teach (Spafford says7 . • • is seen as
behavior patterns, special abilities, habits, and
skills rather than as information to be learned.
Subject matter used in & certain way becomes the
means through which these learnings are to be real­
ized.©
Thus, because of the extent of information which is
readily available for use is one of the factors upon which
changed attitudes and behavior— both personal and social—
depend, a third objective in the study of nutrition is an
increase in information concerning the meaning and ways of
promoting adequate nutrition.
The information (1) should
adequately meet the felt needs of the learners and (2) should
relate this subject into its setting of the story of human
Q
Ivol Spafford, Fundamentals in Teaching Home Eco­
nomics (New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1935), p. 78*
87
progress*
It is not anticipated that this feeling of need will
be identical for all class members.
For some, just enough
information to use as a base for patterning their own food
choices will be all in which their interest will operate.
Others will have a desire to participate in some immediate
social situation toward which their attention has been di­
rected and, therefore, will feel a need for enough more in­
formation to participate successfully in such an activity.
Others may develop an interest— feeling of need— in a more
thorough acquaintance with the subject as a guide in feeding
a baby or younger brothers and sisters or in meeting other
immediate needs pertaining to the family; others will wish
to learn more of the more remote social implications; others
will develop a desire to learn more of the world-wide activ­
ities in the promotion of more adequate nutrition; others will
become interested in the more scientific aspects.
The purpose of relating the subject of nutrition into
the story of human progress calls for an overview,of (1) the
adequacy with which nutritional needs have been met in many
localities and in various periods of human development, such
as food habits and health conditions among aborigines, in
various developments of civilizations, and in selected local­
ities of the present day; (2) a comparison of the guides used
in food choices among the various peoples; and (3) a more
88
particularized consideration of the scientific advance in the
study of nutrition which has clearly demonstrated the causeeffect relationship of food and health and from which guidance
toward the development of more buoyant health may be secured
today.
Although all of this information should be made avail­
able and should be adapted to the unique interests and capa­
bilities of each learner, only a minimum basic amount of in­
formation to be learned should be required from all.
This re­
quired learning should consist of a repeated choosing and
eating of food in accordance with a learned basic pattern
which is easy to modify and which will be a readily usable
guide in making personal food choices which scientific in­
vestigation has proved effective in promoting vigorous health
and maximum vitality.
IV.
OUTCOMES WHICH MAY BE EXPECTED TO RESULT
FROM A STUDY OF NUTRITION
Values of adequate nutrition.
Experiments and obser­
vations in nutritional study have proved that health is de­
pendent upon good nutrition; that good nutrition does not re­
sult from unguided choice of food; that good nutrition pro­
motes a longer and more vigorous life with a higher level of
vitality.
The increase of vigor and vitality is indicated
by an earlier maturing of the body, and by a feeling of
89
greater buoyancy, a greatly increased span of physical fit­
ness; and other desired physical characteristics usually
associated with, more youthful years.
Moreover, undesired
physical characteristics usually associated with age are
greatly delayed or altogether eliminated; there is less dis­
turbance of physical structure and function; there is less
tendency to fatigue and more rapid recovery from it; there
is almost complete freedom from contagious or functional,
acute or chronic illness and from most minor "ailments” ; and
there is much improvement in desired physical outcomes in the
bearing of young.
Q
Since, scientifically, it has been demonstrated that
only through utilizing the information developed as a result
of the study of nutrition can the most vital health be se10
cured, and since health is basic for all human endeavor,
the
development of attitudes and activities which secure adequate
nutrition for each individual is essential so that each may
realize his complete uniqueness and worth, and may contribute
fully and effectively in social participation.
9
Henry C. Sherman and Caroline Sherman Lanford,
Essentials of Nutrition (New York: The Macmillan Company,
1940), 418 pp.
Victor Heiser, Y o u fre the Doctor (New York: W. W.
Norton and Company, Incorporated, 1939), 300 pp.
Henry Borsook, Vitamins (New York: The Viking
Press, 1941), SIS pp.
10
Infra, pp. 13-14.
90
Classification of outcomes.
The anticipated outcomes
from a study of nutrition may be classified as "immediate” or
"remote.”
Yet, whether immediate or remote, they are of value,
educationally, only as they satisfy felt needs.
Present needs.
In the field of nutrition, the pres­
ent "felt needs" or wants or desires which the use of infor­
mation regarding nutrition will satisfy, are (1) ego needs
(a) of improved physical appearance, such as a well-formed
body, good skin and complexion, strong, glossy hair, and
bright eyes,
(b) of ability to compete more successfully with
others in athletics, as team-games and track, and in recrea­
tion such as tennis, swimming, running games,
(c) of more en­
durance for hiking and camping activities, for social relaxa­
tion such as dancing, for school work or for activity in earn­
ing money; and (2) the biological need of buoyant health and
more freedom from illness, disease, and minor ailments.
Using these personal needs as the point from which to
begin, the study will extend itself so that remote needs and
social implications will be made evident.
Remote needs.
The immediate needs well may continue
to be desired all through life.
Therefore, inextricably these
needs here presented as immediate are both "immediate" and
"remote."
91
Other remote needs which may be satisfied through a
study of nutrition are (1) the ego need of ability to com­
pete more successfully in vocations; and (2) the social needs
of (a) improved health and vitality for family members,
(b)
improved health and vitality for many who, because of chronic,
preventable illness now become public charges supported through
public taxation,
(c) improved health and vitality for workers—
employers and employees— all through the nation whose ,fdays
lost” through illness add that much more cost to production
and service and which increases cost to the consumers;
(d }
improved health and vitality for all who are needed in national
defense; (e) of more joy in living for all, because of greater
vitality for sharing the fun of life and because the effort
now needed to meet the demands made by illness will be re­
duced, and the.time thus freed can be used in leisure or in more
constructive activity.
In the above classification of needs met through more
adequate nutrition, attention was called to the overlapping
and integration of the immediate and remote needs.
Similarly
the lines of demarcation into the further classification of
physical, ego,
and social needs are not sharply drawn.
Sat­
isfaction of one type of desire, such as an ego drive, when
rightly directed, also results in satisfaction of social
and/or physical urges.
For instance, although primarily,
successful completion in vocation is an ego-drive, through
vocational pursuits physical needs are supplied and a social
contribution is effected.
These classifications are made
for purposes of discussion, and to effect particularity for
purposes of analysis and evaluation.
Presentation of subject matter as well as its selection contributes to its effectiveness in obtaining desired
outcomes.
In order that progress will be made in achieving
the desired goals, as listed under the immediate and remote
needs, the content of subject matter to be studied must be
chosen and a plan be made for its presentation.
Both the
selection and use of subject matter in the particular field
of nutrition study must be evaluated from the viewpoint of
achieving desired objectives in attitudes, skills, and ex­
tension of information which are peculiar to this study and
which, too, will be coordinate with the purposes of the
accepted current educational philosophy.
A special problem that is inherent in a study of
nutrition is the fact that, although the immediate needs
named— improved physical appearance, buoyant health, more
power for competition, and more endurance— are keenly wanted,
yet, because of the lack of immediancy between cause and ef­
fect in nutritional choices, it is difficult to demonstrate
within a time limit allowable for this study that, for people,
such a cause and effect relationship exists.
Therefore, in
95
deciding upon techniques and aids to be employed in direct­
ing learning in nutrition, materials and methods which clearly,
immediately, effectively, and unmistakably demonstrate this
cause-effect relationship, must be used.
Summary of objectives. outcomes. and the use of sub­
ject matter in their attainment.
This chapter has presented
the objectives toward which a study of nutrition should be
directed and the outcomes to be desired.
It was found that
the objectives to be realized are changes in attitude and in
action which will result in food choices that will promote
good health for the individual, will activate society in
furthering social guardianship of the food supply and of in­
formation regarding nutritive values of food; will favor fur­
ther scientific study of nutrition; and will make more social
use of the information available; and that the outcomes which
may be expected are securing of more adequate nutritional food
choices, a longer life with more freedom from functional and
structural disturbance, a much lengthened and more buoyant
span of "the prime of life," much greater vitality and re­
sistance to disease, greater freedom from illness and ail­
ments; and the development of public opinion which will sup­
port social processes having more adequate nutrition for all
as their objective.
Subject matter in nutrition should be
selected and used in such a manner that progress will be
94
made in realizing these objectives and in achieving these
outcomes •
However, since the study of any one subject is but a
part of the whole educational process, its study should con­
tribute to attaining the educational purpose as determined by
philosophical goals.
This investigation has presented the
purposes of the current philosophy as follows:
to orient man
with his environment in such a manner that his individual and
unique worth are completely developed in full and effective
social interaction within a society democratically organized.
Permeated by the point of view of such a philosophical
purpose, and using as guides the factors in the educational
process which serve to implement such a p h i l o s o p h y t h e ob­
jectives and outcomes to be realized from a study of nutri­
tion have thoughtfully been examined.
Upon the basis of the considerations which developed
from this examination, statements of criteria were formulated
to use in analyzing and judging whether the choice and use
of the factual materials presented in nutrition textbooks
implement the philosophical purposes of nutrition study.
In the following chapter, these criteria are pre­
sented and used in evaluating nutrition subject matter as
it is presented in textbooks.
11
Infra, Chapter III.
CHAPTER V
SELECTION OF SPECIFIC CRITERIA
TO USE IN EVALUATING NUTRITION SUBJECT MATTER IN TEXTBOOKS
I.
PURPOSE OF THE CHAPTER
From the basis of a thoughtful consideration of (1) a
present philosophy of education
and (S) the factors through
2
which this philosophy is implemented,
it is the purpose of
this chapter to present the objectives and outcomes which
are to be achieved through a study of nutrition on the high
school level,
3
as integrated with these philosophical pur­
poses and these factors.
It is the further purpose to pro­
ceed with this presentation in such a manner that this inte­
gration will result in statements of specifics which are dis­
crete to the extent necessary to make them serviceable as a
means of analysis of the selection and use -of nutrition sub­
ject matter in textbooks, and for the purpose of evaluating
these books from the viewpoint of a generally accepted cur­
rent philosophy of education.
II.
THE NEED FOB USING SUBJECTIVE JUDGMENT
As in the determination of a current philosophy of
1 Infra. pp. 44-45.
2 Infra, pp. 51-76.
3
Infra. pp. 82-93*
96
the factors which implement such a philosophy, and of the
objectives and outcomes to be attained through the study of
nutrition, it is obvious that these decisions could be reached
only through the use of subjective judgment.
In like manner,
only through the use of subjective judgment can criteria to
use as a basis in evaluations be selected and arranged.
Clement says:
Inevitably, it will be necessary . . . to use sub­
jective judgments based upon reflective thinking . . .
in any body of items included in proposed standards
of various sorts.4
Nor would every one using these same data arrive at
exactly the same conclusions as are reached here.
On this
point Schoenchen says:
As long as individuals remain humans, differences
in conclusion will be drawn from the same set of
facts .5
However, now that there has been presented the point
of view** from which these criteria have been determined, only
critical judgment, as influenced by this point of view, fin­
ally can resolve the criteria.
Thus, eventually, the selec­
tion of these criteria was empirical.
4 John A. Clement, Sducational Significance of Analy­
sis Appraisal and Use of Textbooks in Junior and Senior High
Schools (Champaign. Illinois: Daniels Press, 1939), p . 150.
5 Gustav Schoenchen, The Activity School (New York:
Longmans, Green and Company, 1940), p. 282.
6 Infra, pp. 44-45.
97
III.
BASES FOR JUDGMENT IN ESTABLISHING THE CRITERIA
In resolving the criteria, three considerations were
thoughtfully examined— (l) the philosophical purposes of
education,7 (2) the procedures through which these purposes
are implemented,8 and (3) the objectives and outcomes to be
realized from the study of nutrition.9
Philosophical aims of education.
In alignment with the
point of view from which this selection was made, there is an
excellent classification by Washburne.
An adaptation of this
classification will serve as a brief form of recall of the
point of view which has been offered in this presentation.
Education, W a s h b u r n e ^ says, should be considered
from four angles, each of which refers to the child:
(1) the
child must be considered as a person having needs in common
with all others— physical, mental, andemotional;
child
is a unique creation and
has need
(2) the
forfollowing
out his
own characteristic pattern of development; (3} the child is
a part of an intricate society and must develop mastery of
7
Infra, pp. 43-44.
8 Infra. pp. 78-79.
9 Infra, pp. 82-93.
^ Carleton Washburne, A Living Philosophy of Education
(New York: John Day Company, 194Q), Chapters XIX and XX.
98
skills to play his part; and (4) the child is in organic
unity with democratic society and must be directed into real­
izing this unity and to act in the light of this realization.
Moreover, Washburne continues, these views are not mutually
exclusive.
This component which Washburne considers inherent in
the purposes of education in a democracy may even more briefly
be named as (1) human relationships,
(2) self-realization,
11
(3) economic efficiency, and (4) civic responsibility.
The procedures through which the philosophical pur­
poses of education are achieved.
It has been established
through this presentation that to achieve these philosophical
aims, there are certain educational procedures which necessa­
rily must become a part of the consideration of any subject.
Briefly stated, these procedures12 are (l) direct pupils’
activities toward securing satisfaction of psychobiological
needs which are producing tensions causing awareness of an
unresolved problem;
(2) begin the learning-activity from the
point where the pupil now is in his physical, psychological,
Alexander J. Stoddard, and others, ’’The Purposes of
Education in a Democracy,” National Education Association of
the United States. Educational Policies Commission (Wash ington.
D. C.r National Education Association and the American Asso­
ciation of School Administrators, 1938), p. 47.
12 Infra. pp. 51-76.
99
and social development;
(3) secure desired concomitant learn­
ings in emotional reactions and attitudes; (4) direct the
educational growth toward skill in securing satisfaction of
adult needs in the three categories of physical, ego, and
social; (5) arrange the study so that generalizations are
based on consideration of specific data;
(6) make use of
psychological and experimental presentation of subject matter
in the determination of these.data;
(7) secure the development
of desired emotional reactions, so potent in influencing atti­
tudes; (8) develop situations which require thinking in find­
ing satisfactory solutions; (9) direct activity toward pro­
viding practice in social interaction;
(10) direct activity
so that practice in desired behavior changes will be secured;
(11) suit the challenge of the activity to the capability and
interest of the various differences of the individuals so
that all students will be stimulated to do their best, and
yet each may achieve successfully within his range of possi­
ble accomplishment;
(12) have the activities so arranged that
their successful conclusion requires proceeding within a dem­
ocratic framework; (13) use pretesting and retesting for the
purpose of diagnosing needs and measuring accomplishment in
desired changes, not only in information, but in the develop­
ment of attitudes, interests, ideals, habits, and skills.
These processes are to be used to accomplish the
100
purposes of education which, it was found, are related to and
integrated with each other.
Nor is it possible to keep each
ofothese procedures as named above separate from the others.
There is a constant counterplay of interaction among them.
Thus, classifications of purposes and of procedures
for their implementation are artificial and are made only
for purposes of discussion.
No one procedure can be iso­
lated one from the other; nor can one part be operative when
segregated from its integrated whole.
Likev/ise, categories of the types of learning cannot
be separated from each other.
Mental reaction or behavior
cannot be disengaged from the emotional nor the emotional
from the physical.
The learner is a unity; procedures are
a unity; educational purpose is a unity.
Interrelation of the objectives and outcomes to be
realized through a^ study of nutrition.
study is a unity.
Moreover, nutritional
Although through this study, it is pur­
posed to secure changes in behavior which are evidenced in
increased skill in making personal food choices and in im­
proving social standards as they relate to nutrition, yet
these changes will not take place unless they are preceded
by positive changes in attitude concerning Cl) the desire
that compels one to action to secure the vigor of health as
based on information and reasoning concerning food needs
101
and (2) the sensitivity to, and appreciation of, the respon­
sibility of society in its guardianship of the food supply*
Nor can changes in attitude take place until the learner has
had access to the data— subject matter— through which he is
made acquainted with the cause-effect relationship of food
to nutrition and health.
17.
PROPOSED CLASSIFICATION OF THE CRITERIA
Procedure in determining categories.
the
In formulating
criteriato use in evaluating the extent to which the
selection and use of subject matter in nutrition make explicit
the current philosophy of education, because of the' inter­
penetration among the various factors, it is not possible to
classify these choices into alignment with the various educational procedures
13
nor into the desired objectives or
4
14
outcomes of nutritional, study.
After
the
thoughtful consideration there was adopted for
criteria a classification which accordswith the compo­
nents of the philosophical aim.
presented.
13
Infra, pp. 51-76.
14 Infra. pp. 83-93.
These categories are now
102
Classification showing the parallelism between the
components of the philosophical purposes of education and
the categories designating the grouping of the criteria.
Categories of Criteria
Philosophical Purposes of
Education
A.
To orient more completely
each person in this world.
A*
Select and present factual
materials from a basis of
the needs of the learner.
B.
Develop each individual’s
uniqueness and worth.
B.
Adapt the activities and
the concomitant factual
materials so that they
are within the range of
possible accomplishment
of all and challenge each
pupil’s entire capability
and interest.
C.
Effectively participate in
accomplishment of social
purposes.
C.
Direct the unique capaci­
ties of each child into
an interactive partici­
pation in the social
medium.
D.
Carry on activities in
groups democratically
organized and promoting
the welfare of all*
D.
Determine upon activities
to be undertaken by a
democratically organized
society to promote the
welfare of all, and, in
so far as may be possible,
make them operative.
E.
The textbook is influ­
ential in determining
teaching procedures.i5
E.
In a textbook there should
be provision for teaching
aids which are directed
toward implementing the
current philosophy of
education.
Infra. pp. 8-10 «
103
V.
PROCEDURES IN ESTABLISHING FURTHER DISCRIMINATION
IN CLASSIFICATION
The purpose of this study was to make evaluations of
nutrition textbooks from the viewpoints of (1) a current
philosophy of education and (2) an examination of available
factual materials.
The categories which have been presented
were a development from the statement of the current philos­
ophy of education as presented in this discussion.16
Available factual materials now will be considered.
Determination of factual materials which may be used
in a^ study of nutrition.
In establishing criteria for eval­
uating nutritional subject matter, it was necessary to be­
come thoroughly acquainted with the field of factual mate­
rials in nutrition.
Only through an extensive examination
would it be possible to know what data are available through
which the objectives and outcomes of the study of nutrition
might be achieved.
Factual materials in specific presentation.
To deter­
mine the factual materials available in nutrition, scientific
presentations in books, pamphlets, and research reports, as
prepared for dieticians, physicians, social workers, agricul­
tural economists, research workers, and teachers were
Infra, pp. 45-46.
104
17
examined •
Factual materials in "popular” presentations of
nutritional study*
Data scientifically obtained comprise
the factual materials of a study of nutrition; but if these
data are to become knowledge, they must be integrated into
an activity undertaken by the pupil and directed toward dis18
solving tensions caused by his own felt need,
and the data
must be integrated into the unity of the story of human
progress, that is, the data may not be presented disparate
from their setting as comprehended by the learner.^9
Although for the scientist, scientific presentation
is set comprehensibly in a framework of human progress, the
logical presentation of science is not adapted to learners.20
On the other hand, it is only logical to presume that a
"popular presentation" is popular because it offers a chal­
lenge to the interest of many people, that is/ such types
of presentation meet "present" needs.
Therefore, in order
to glean suggestions concerning the style in which factual
materials might be "meeting present needs," an examination
of "popular" articles on nutrition was undertaken.
17 Bibliography, pp.
Infra, pp. 51-53.
19
Infra, pp. 59-62#
20 Infra. pp. 59-66.
128 ff.
105
Interpretation of this data in establishing criteria.
Ways were sought to interpret these materials so that the
choice and use of them would implement the current philosophy
of education as stated.
The following section describes the
procedures adopted.
Development of ftspecifics."
In order to use judgment
in making evaluations of textbooks, it is necessary first to
develop statements of specific factors which can be used as
a measure by which to gage whether the material being eval­
uated serves the purpose under investigation.
Tiegs explains
how, through these "specific knowledges," objectives may be
realized.
In the final analysis, the most general objec­
tives • . • and the less general . . . objectives
related to subjects can only be realized through
the attainment of a large number of specio knowl­
edges, information, appreciations, skills, habits,
ideals, and attitudes.
. . . They . . . consti­
tute a kind of hierarchy, in which the attainment
of each objective .is partially dependent on certain
others which precede it.
...
Specific objec­
tives are best thought of as elements of a complete
educational picture which should be experienced so
far as possible in a natural psychological setting
or real learning situation but which for purposes
of guiding educational activities and evaluating
outcomes, must be specifically determined before­
hand.21
The formulation of these statements of "specific
knowledge" followed a discriminating examination of (1)
21
Ernest W. Tiegs, The Management of Learning in the
Elementary Schools (New York: Longmans, Green and Company,
1937), p . 8.
106
available factual materials in nutrition, and examination
of (2) the objectives and outcomes to be achieved through
the study of nutrition,
22
as analyzed from the viewpoint
integrating with them the educational processes23 which, it
was found, implemented the philosophical purposes as stated*24
These choices comprise the "specifics" used as the criteria
in the evaluations which it was the purpose of this study
to make*
These criteria have been grouped according to the
OK
categories previously adopted.
The wording of the cate-
gories is changed, slightly, from the previous statements,
so that these statements would be adapted particularly to
the choice and use of nutritional subject matter*
These
criteria have been arranged in a form to use for evalua­
tions and are presented, in use, in Chapter VI.
22
Infra, pp. 82-93.
23
Infra, pp. 78-79*
24 Infra, pp. 44-45.
25 Infra, pp. 43-44.
26 Infra. p. 102.
26
CHAPTER VI
ARRANGEMENT AND APPLICATION OF THE CRITERIA
IN THE EVALUATION OF THE SELECTION AND USE
OF NUTRITION SUBJECT MATTER IN TEXTBOOKS
I.
It is
the
teriawhich have
PURPOSE OF THE CHAPTER
purpose of this chapter to arrange
been established1 so that
the cri­
they may become a
measure for comparative ratings of subject matter in nutri­
tion and to use this measure in evaluating the choice and
use of subject matter in the selected textbooks.
II.
ARRANGEMENT OF CRITERIA INTO A FORM FOR MEASURING
After
to develop a
the
criteria were established the next
step was
form into which they could be arranged in such
a manner that ease in their use would be secured.
To use criteria in making evaluations ia rating form
is an aid.
In the investigation to determine means for es­
tablishing a measure to use in evaluating textbooks, it was
found that a score card, checking list, or rating scale
o
proved to be forms which met this need.
recommended the use of such devices.
1 Infra. p. 10E.
2 Bibliography, pp. 127 ff.
Other studies
108
2
Jensen
found that more generally used than a score
card is a checking list, with weighted or unweighted values
and with degrees of meeting the established standard rated
excellent, good, fair, poor, or unsatisfactory.
He further
says that such a guide usually is built for each subject,
and that using such a guide in studying and evaluating text­
books results in a series of judgments which make for a more
definite and detailed consideration of textbooks than is
possible without them.
After an examination of various studies,
4
an adapta-
5
tion of the checking list form as used by Bruner .in evalu­
ating courses of study was decided upon as the form best
suited to this investigation.
It was decided that there should be five divisions
for checking— ,'
t<superIor,/m "good," "fair," "present," and
"omitted."
The first three divisions are self-explanatory.
By Present is meant that although the item evaluated was
included in the textbook materials, its presence appeared
to be so incidental or so poorly presented that it could not
3
Frank Arthur Jensen, Current Procedure in Selecting
Textbooks (Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1931), pp. 143, 145.
4 Bibliography, pp. 127 ff.
5
H.
B. Bruner, "Criteria for Evaluating Courses of
Study," Teachers College Record. 39:107-120, October, 1935May, 1938.
109
even be checked as "fair*"
The checking of all of these
four degrees of rating depended upon the use of the consid­
ered judgment of the evaluator.
Should no item in the textbook appear to be repre­
sentative of a specific statement serving as a criterion,
then it would be checked as omitted.
It was decided to keep all ratings unweighted, and
as an aid in making the composite evaluations, arbitrarily
to assign a value to !S of 400, G of 300, F of 200, and P of
100.
If the item were altogether omitted, then the rating
for this item was 0.
The average of the ratings of all
items— subheadings— in its classification yielded the average for that classification.
These numerical ratings were
used as a matter of convenience only; being found useful as
a guide in aiding the judgment of the evaluator.
The use
of this plan made it possible to make comparative measure­
ments.
However, before the criteria could be applied as a
measure in the manner described, their further classifica­
tion appeared to be desirable.
Method of refining the classifications.
In the fur­
ther refining of the classification, each of the five cate&
gories developed from the statement of the current philosophy
6 Infra, p. 102.
110
of education was retained as a primary division and then
labeled with upper case letters— A, B, C, D, or E.
Each of the items established as a measure of a
"specific knowledge"
n
was labeled with a lower case letter
and retained under the principal category in which it had
been developed#
If it proved to be possible to group two or more of
these items into one classification, a statement of this
classification was made and numbered with an Arabic numeral.
These classifications, so numbered, were then listed as sub­
headings under each of the main categories as those in which
they had been developed.
Under them, in turn, there were
retained the statements of the specific criteria out of
which they had been established.
These criteria continued
to be identified by lower case letters.
However, if any one
of the specific criteria did not group itself with another,
then, by itself, it became a group classification and, like the
other principal subheadings, it was identified by an Arabic
numeral.
This arrangement gave a classification arranged in
the following order:
Cl) Eive principal categories each designated by an
upper case letter, A, B, C, D, or E.
7
Infra, p. 105.
Ill
(2) Under each principal category, a group classifi­
cation of specific criteria with each group desig­
nated by an Arabic numeral.
(3) Under each of these classifications, the appro­
priate specific criteria, each identified by a
lower case letter.
After the criteria had thus been classified and ar­
ranged into a checking-list form, they were employed in
evaluating textbooks as purposed.
III.
METHOD OF EMPLOYING THE CRITERIA
IN EVALUATING THE TEXTBOOKS
Evaluations were based on the "specific knowledgesn
as measured by the criteria established for them.
In each
of the textbooks examined, and using the criteria established
for "specific knowledges,” the selection and use of the fact­
ual materials were canvassed critically to determine to what
extent these materials made manifest the criteria estabQ
lished.
when the material in the textbooks was found to
be representative of any item among the criteria established,
the page number was noted beside the appropriate criterion.
Many of the items are representative of more than one
8 Supra. pp. 117ff.
Table II in the Appendix.
112
criterion#
In this case, note of the item was made beside
each criterion it represented.
After these notations were
made, the textbook again was examined carefully in order to
obtain perspective for judgment.
The degree to which the
textbook makes manifest the particular criterion was then
evaluated and checked in the appropriate column.
After the evaluation for the specific criteria was
thus recorded, a discriminating and thoughtful interpreta­
tion was made of these ratings, and the items of the sub­
headings, designated by the Arabic numerals, then were
evaluated and checked.
From these ratings the categories
which had been determined upon as factors in the current
Q
educational philosophy,
and indicated in the form used by
the upper case letters A, B, C, D, and E, then were evaluated.
From a basis of these evaluations, the final rating of the
textbook was determined.
Choice of textbooks.
In order to discover all text­
books in nutrition prepared for use in high school and writ­
ten since 1920, there were determined the volumes of the
Cumulative Index beginning with the year 1920 and extending
through June, 1941.
Textbook publishers’ catalogs also were
examined•
9
Infra, pp. 19-21.
113
Considering the fundamental importance of nutrition
to health, the number of textbooks in this subject is sur­
prisingly few.
Because of the importance of nutrition for
health, Wood says that in the upper grades, learning nutri­
tional information is essential and that this subject should
be taught in a thorough and fundamental manner.
. . . In all grades the aim is to develop correct
habits of nutrition by continued practice of the
desired procedure • . •
In the upper grades and in the high school it
is . . . essential that habit formation be based
upon adequate and accurate information.
The student
should leave school with a body of basic knowledge
that will enable him to choose his own diet intel­
ligently and economically, and render him proof
against the appeals of the advertising artist, the
commercial salesman, the food faddist, It is even
more important
that he should have conviction of
the importance
of a good diet and correct habits of
living and should already have developed this con­
viction into desirable habits.
To accomplish this
means that nutrition should be taught in a manner
as fundamental and thorough as chemistry, physics,
or other sciences.10
It was found that all the nutrition textbooks avail­
able had been written for use in home economics classes.
very often, in the
home economics field, nutrition is
in connection with
food preparation.
sometimes taught in biology classes.
But
taught
Also, nutrition is
In order to include in
Thomas D. Wood, "The School Health Program," White
House Conference on Child Health and Protection. Report of
the Committee on the School Child (New York: The Century
Company, 1932), pp. 118-119.
114
this investigation all sources of subject matter which has
been prepared for study in high school, food preparation and
biology textbooks were included in this study.
The selection
of these books was made in a manner similar to that employed
in the selection of books devoted primarily to the presenta­
tion of nutrition.
However, in this list of food preparation
and biology textbooks, there were included only those in which
a thorough use of the section in nutrition would require a
minimum of fifteen lessons for its study.
A list of all books evaluated forms a part of this
chapter
Evaluations of textbooks and of textbook sections in
nutrition.
The remainder of this chapter comprises (1) a
list of the textbooks.evaluated and (8) the record of the
evaluatipns which parallel the current philosophy of educa­
tion.
This abbreviated evaluation, indicating the compara­
tive degree to which there is provision in the selection and
use of subject matter to make each factor in the current phil­
osophy of education explicit is presented in profile form.
The picture resulting from the use of this form indicates the
strengths and weaknesses of each book in its implementation
11
Supra. p. 116.
115
of the factors which are components of the current philoso­
phy much more clearly than would an attempt to assign one total
rating as an evaluation of the book.
The more detailed evaluations as established by judg­
ing to what extent the choice and use of the "specific knowl­
edges" make manifest each of the specific criteria will be
found in the Appendix.
They are presented in rating form.
116
IV.
I.
BOOKS IN NUTRITION SELECTED FOR EVALUATION
12
Dowd, Mary T. and Alberta Dent, Elements of Food and
Nutrition (New York: J. Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1937},
279 pp.
II.
Willard, Florence, and Lucy H. Gillette, Dietetics it or
High Schools (New York: The Macmillan Company,
1930), 290 pp*
III.
Winchell, Florence E., Food Tests for Every Day
(Philadelphia: I. B. Lippincott Company, 1924),
109 pp.
Home economics textbooks in which nutrition
receives emphasis
IV.
Friend, Mata Roman, and Hazel Schultz, A First Book in
Home Economics (New York: D. Appleton-Century
Company, Inc., 1936), pp. 307-372.
V*
Friend, Mata Roman, and Hazel Schultz, Food (New York:
D. Appleton-Century Company, Inc., 1933), pp. 103185; 281-291.
VI.
Kinyon, Kate W . , and Thomas L. Hopkins, Junior Food
and Clothing (New York: Benjamin H. Sanborn and
Company, 1930), pp. 1-108; 114-136; 144-163; 166;'
169-195; 214; 219-252; 259-264.
Biology textbooks in which nutrition receives some emphasis.
VTI.
Bush, George L . , Alan Dickie, and Ronald C. Runkle,
A Biology of Familiar Things (New York: American
Book Company, 1939), p p . 19-49 and 97-98; and in
accompanying Work Book, pp. 25-28.
VIII.
Curtis, Francis D., Otis W. Caldwell, and Nina Henry
Sherman, Everyday Biology (Boston: Ginn and Com­
pany, 1940), pp. 313-332; 510-514; 530-531.
IX.
Hunter, George W . , Life Science (New York: American
Book Company, 1941), pp. 124-145 and 188-199.
12
cated.
Pages used in presentation of nutrition are indi-
117
TABLE I
EROFILE-EATINGS OF NUTRITION TEXTBOOKS ACCORDING TO ffi HilNCIPAL CATEGORIES5
Principal categories
Home Economics
Biology
Nutrition
7III
IX
I
7
71
711
II
III
17
" SGFPO SGFPO SGFPO SGFPO SGFPO SGFPO SGFPO SGFPO SGFPO
A. ■ Selection and presentation of subject matter
are made from basis of needs of the learner.
X
X
B. Presentation of subject matter makes it
adaptable to the unique development of the
individual.
X
X
X
C. Stimulation of interaction in the social
medium
D, Consideration of the interrelationships of
a democratically organized society with
nutrition and the implications of this
relationship to the individual and to
the state or nation.
X
E. Teaching aids directed toward implementing .
the current philosophy of education in the
teaching of nutrition.
X
X
X
X
x ■
X
X ;
X ■
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
■ X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
!
5 For identification of the books, eaoh Roman numeral across the top of the ohart corresponds with the sorter of its position in the list on page 116,
The interpretation of the rating refers to the degree to which the ohoioe and use of subject matter is adapted to implementing the current philosophy of
education.
S means very well adapted.
G means well adapted
F means somewhat adapted
P means the adaptation is not altogether absent but is negligible.
CHAPTER VII
SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS
I.
PURPOSE OF THE CHAPTER
As a result of this investigation, certain conclu­
sions have been developed concerning the available textbooks
in nutrition.
Moreover, this study has made it evident that,
judged by the selection and use of subject matter in text­
books and their comparison with the objectives and goals to
be realized through the study of nutrition, changes in text­
books are necessary if these books are to be effective tools
in implementing the current philosophy of education.
It is the purpose of this chapter (1) to interpret the
findings of this investigation; (2) to summarize the conclu­
sions reached, and (3) to make certain recommendations con­
cerning future textbooks in nutrition.
II.
INTERPRETATION OF FINDINGS
The study of nutrition is now ineffective in improving
food-choices.
As this investigation progressed, there was
found concrete and specific evidence of the need for changes
in the procedures now used in the study of nutrition in the
high school.
This evidence was furnished through reports
of data yielded by research directed toward determining the
119
contribution the study of nutrition in high schools has made
in effecting improved food-choices among those who had records
of having completed courses in nutrition.
The data yielded
through these investigations indicated little carry-over.1
2
Yet, as has been pointed out in this investigation,
f,the
main objective in any curriculum program is to cause the
experiences of pupils in the schools to become more effective
3
in producing behavior changes,” and certainly the minimum
basic learning which should result from the study of nutri­
tion is improvement in personal food choices.4
Such a result is fundamental as a contribution of nu­
trition study in making the current philosophy of education
explicit, because through nutritional knowledge only is a
person enabled, in respect to food selection, to make intel­
ligent and rational adjustment to the environment.
The data collected indicate a. lack of effectiveness
in all aspects of nutrition study.
The question thus arises,
if the study of nutrition is not effective in promoting
1
United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of
Home Economics, Graduate Studies and Research in Home Econom­
i c Education (Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office,
1937), Mimeographed.
^ Infra, pp. 45-46.
3 Henry Harap, and others, f,The Changing Curriculum,”
The Department of Supervision and Directors of Instruction
and the Society for Curriculum Study, Joint Committee on
Curriculum (New York: D. Appleton-Century Company, 1937),
4- Infra, pp. 13, 93.
desired adjustment of the individual to his environment in
the fundamental and basic learning which should result from
this study— that is, in making changes in food selection—
then is it not logical to assume that there is a similar lack
of change of conduct in other desired adjustments?
Such a query might lead to an extension of research,
scientifically to determine whether or not such an assumption
can be supported.
However, this investigation developed fur­
ther evidence that, in so far as nutritional study in high
schools is based on the choice and use of subject matter in
textbooks, other factors in implementing the current philos­
ophy of education are not made explicit through such study.
5
The report of this evidence is found in Tables I and II.
An examination of Table II shows under category AI— Ttbasic
principles presented are those of readily'usable day by day
choices”— that consideration of items a, b, and c--”major
health-promoting food needs,” ”food choices presented as
guides,” and ”food-choiees stated in such a manner that they
are readily usable in day by day food choices,”— are more
uniformly and better presented in textbooks than are any of
the other items rated.
It is upon the information gained
through a study of the subject matter as indicated by these
three, items that rational food choice is based.
5
Infra, pp. 117 and Appendix.
Yet, even
121
though the presentation of these items in textbooks is uni­
formly better than other items, and even though there is a
fair emphasis upon item d— "making subject matter understand­
able and usable"— upon item f — "choosing and eating a health
promoting diet"— and upon classification 4— "presentation in
non-technical form which shows use of intelligence in foodchoices is necessary"— yet results of research indicate very
little change in food habits among those who studied nutri­
tion in high schools.6
If little change in behavior resulted from the study
of the items which, it is judged, are those items in the text­
books which are best presented, what changes in behavior may
be expected to result from a study of those items which are
judged to be not so well selected as judged by this standard?
A further examination of Table II shows that the meas­
ure of nutrition textbooks by the standard of implementing
current philosophy of education indicates that greater con­
sistency is needed on the part of authors in adhering to such
a standard.
Data indicate that nutrition textbooks, generally, do
not make explicit the current philosophy of education.
Table
iP indicates in summary form the success of the authors in
6 Infra, p. 120.
7
Infra, p. 117.
122
making explicit each of the four components of the current
philosophy8— categories A, B, C-, and D— and in providing aid
to the teacher in making effective use of the textbook to
achieve the author’s purpose— category E.
An
examination of this table shows that the category
lettered A, expressed
as "selection and presentation of nu­
tritional subject matter is made from the basis of the needs
of the learner" is the category which is best implemented in
the textbooks examined.
It is interesting to note that the
book in biology having the latest date of publication— book
XX — has the best implementation of this category as judged
by the criteria established.
The other books in which the
needs of the learner are given most consideration are for the
use of girls in home economics classes— books IV and V.
An
sents
examination of the next category— B — which repre­
the provision made in the textbooks for the unique
development of the individual, shows that three of the texts—
books II, V, and IX--have had fair success in implementing
this philosophical purpose.
The recency of the dates of
publication of two of these books is noteworthy.
Categories C--"Provision for the stimulation of in­
teraction in the social medium" and D — "Consideration of
8
Q
Infra, p. 102.
Refer to Bibliography of books selected for this
study, p. 116.
123
the relationship of a democratically organized society to
nutrition and the implications of this relationship to the
individual and to the state and nation"— show an almost total
lack of implementation.
This finding is corroborative with
that of Fraser,10 that "not a single textbook encourages
true democracy."
Nor does it appear that a teacher, on her
own initiative, can be expected to provide for her pupils
this type of experience.
It is recognized that the demo­
cratic concept can be taught only through social participa­
tion.
Yet, a report by Bader11 showed that of four schools
she surveyed and which she represented as having made a great
advance in making explicit the purposes of the current phil­
osophy of education, an outstanding characteristic of all of
them was a lack of social orientation of the curricula#
Since it has been made evident that the textbook is
so very important in determining subject matter and classroom
procedures,
12
it is not reasonable to assume that unless a
textbook makes explicit the social purposes of an educational
philosophy, that these democratic purposes will not be im­
plemented through classroom teaching?
10 M. F. Fraser, "Democracy in Our Textbooks," American
Teacher, 22:12-13, May, 1938.
11
Harap, and others, op# cit#. p. 337.
12 Infra, pp. 8-9.
134
The last category of Table II, category E — "Provision
for teaching aids"—
indicates that six out of the nine books
offer "fair" aid to the teacher in implementing philosophical
purposes in her teaching.
Although the quantity of aid might
have obtained a higher rating, the quality of its value in
making explicit the purposes of philosophy was the criterion
for judgment, and the application of this measure yielded
the results indicated.
III.
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
Briefly, the outstanding findings of this study have
been (1) that the selection and use of subject matter in the
present textbooks in nutrition is, generally, not in harmony
with the current philosophy of education; (2) that of the
components of a philosophy of education, the one best imple­
mented through the choice and use of subject matter in nutri­
tion textbooks is that of the selection and presentation of
the subject matter from the basis of the needs of the learner;
(3) that there is some provision for the unique individual
development of the learner, and that the recent publishing
dates of two of the three books having fair scores in this
component would indicate that authors may now be attempting
to give more thoughtful consideration to this factor;
(4)
that there is an almost complete absence of provision for
125
the implementation of the social interactions of the indi­
vidual and of the concept of the relationship of a democrat­
ically organized society to activities necessary for the
guardianship of the welfare of its participating members in
so far as their nutritional needs are concerned; (5) that the
teaching aids, when judged by the criterion of making explicit
the current philosophy of education, should be more thought­
fully planned*
A further result of this investigation was to indicate
the need of. additional nutrition textbooks for high school
use.
The paucity of textbooks in this field, as is indicated
by the total number now
a
v
a
i l a
b
l e
,
may be but a reflection
of the meagre offering of this subject in high schools*
Yet,
as this investigation has indicated, nutrition is now con­
sidered a fundamental subject and there is general agreement
14
that it should be taught in a thorough and adequate manner.
This investigation also showed that a usable textbook
in nutrition is definitely important if this subject is to be
taught well enough to effect desired behavior changes in the
learners.I 5
permit of
13
14
15
The number oftextbooks
now available
a wide enough range ofchoice to
Infra, p. 116.
Infra, pp. 9-12.
PP* 8-14.
do not
meet local
needs.
126
IV.
RECOMMENDATIONS
As a result of this investigation, the recommendation
is made that thoughtful consideration should be turned toward
providing more adequate textbooks in nutrition for use in
high schools, and that in the preparation of these textbooks,
an attempt should be made to have them more satisfactorily
reflect the current philosophy of education.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
BIBLIOGRAPHY
A.
BOCKS
American Medical Association, Accepted Foods and Their
Hutritional Significance. Chicago: American Medical
Association, 1939. 492 pp.
The work of the Council on Foods of this Association
is to examine claims of processors of a selected list
of foods, to determine whether or not standards of
processing and claims of food-values meet the require­
ments adopted by this Association. Foods meeting these
requirements are granted acceptance*
, The Vitamins.
Chicago: American Medical Association,
1959.
537 pp.
A technical presentation identifying material concerning
vitamins which has been proved to be unquestionably true
for humans.
Barber, Edith M., What Shall I Eat? New York: The Macmillan
Company, 1933.
106 pp.
The style of this book is entertaining and informing.
The material is based upon good nutritional standards.
There are amusing illustrations.
Barnett, Sure, The Little Things in Life. New York: D.
Appleton-Century Company, 1937.
340 pp.
Relates the progress to date in determining the role of
vitamins in nutritional study and of the ductless glands
in health therapy#
Bauer, W. 1//., and Leslie Edgley, Your Health Dramatized.
New York: E. P. Dutton and Company, Inc., 1939.
528 pp.
This book received the First Award in 1938 from the
Institute for Radio in Education. Bauer is the Director
of the Bureau of Health Education, American Medical
Association and Edgley is connected with the National
Broadcasting Company.
A number of presentations concern
nutrition.
Bell, Viola M . , Chemistry Used in Foods and Nutrition Courses.
Columbus, Ohio: The Ohio State University, Bureau of
Educational Research, 1936. 84 pp.
Lists chemical terms used in teaching foods and nutrition
textbooks and analyzes their use to determine the selection
of chemistry subject matter to be taught as a prerequisite
for teaching foods and nutrition.
129
Belting, Paul E . , and A . W. Clevenger, The High School at
Work* Chicago: Rand McNally and Company, 1939. 432 pp.
A presentation of conditions as they exist in high schools
today, with the emphasis on the best of the practices.
Includes quotations of statements by many outstanding
leaders in education, of the aims of education.
Benedict, Francis Gano, and others, "Lectures on Nutrition,"
Mayo Foundation. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company,
1925.
243 pp.
Six lectures by leaders in nutritional research, present­
ing in minutia the latest findings to that date in
nutrition.
Berkson, I . B . , Preface to an Educational Philosophy. New
York: Columbia University Press, 1940. 250 pp.
Examines trends in current educational philosophy and
postulates ten "New Controlling Ideas for American
Education,” which are centered in democratic concepts.
Berman, Louis, Food and Character. Boston: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 1932. 357 pp.
A presentation of nutrition for the general reader.
Emphasis is placed on the changes in disposition
effected by diet.
Bingham, N. Eldred, Teaching Nutrition in Biology Classes.
New York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 1939.
117 pp.
A description of an experimental course in nutrition in
a Horace Mann high school class, including statements
of why the presentation was undertaken, how it proceeded,
and what was accomplished as shown by testing procedures.
Bogert, L. lean, Nutrition and Physical Fitness. Philadelphia:
W. B. Saunders Company, 1932. 554 pp.
A book written for the general reader with no previous
knowledge of chemistry. Its divisions are foods, body
requirements, body processes, meal planning, diets for
special conditions.
_______ and Marne T. Porter, Dietetics Simplified. New York:
The Macmillan Company, 1938.
655 pp.
A textbook for college students divided into sections as
follows: elementary nutrition, diet in normal conditions,
diet therapy, laboratory lessons in cookery, diet in
disease.
130
Borsook, Henry, Vitamins. New York: Viking Press, 1941.
212 pp.
This book is a non-technical presentation of the subject
of nutrition with the emphasis on vitamins.
Bradley, Alice V. Tables of Food Values. Peoria, Illinois:
Manual Arts Press, 1931. 128 pp.
Tables of food values expressed in terms of "shares."
Bridges, Milton Alexander, Food and Beverage Analyses.
Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger, 1935. 246 pp.
Tables of an almost complete list of foods for which
there are given the percentage composition of carbo­
hydrates, fats, proteins, and calories of portions of
foods of an average size serving.
Other tables give
mineral or vitamin content.
Bronson, Barnard S., Nutrition and Food Chemistry. New York:
John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1930.
467 pp.
A college textbook in the subject of nutrition.
Chemistry
of digestion, of the foodstuffs, and of food are presented
in great detail.
Brown, E. Emmett, The Development of a_ Course in the Physical
Sciences. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University,
1939.
205 pp.
The development of a course in science for students who
are accustomed to a relatively large degree of selfdirection.
The author was a member of the Progressive
Education Association Committee on Secondary Curriculum,
and based the development of the course presented on the
philosophy as set forth by that Committee.
Bruner, Herbert B . , Criteria for Evaluating Courses of Study.
New York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 1938.
Pp. 107-120.
A report concerning a score card developed as a basis for
evaluating courses of study. Philosophy of education
was a basic consideration in developing the criteria.
Bryson, Lyman, The Textbook of the Future. New York: H.
Wolff Book Manufacturing Company, 1936. P. 17.
This book is a printed address in which the author pleads
for textbooks which will serve as an introduction to
enjoyment of books, rather than books that predispose
children to avoid books when finally they are no longer
required to read them.
151
Bush, George L., Alan Didsie, and Ronald C. Runkle, A Biology
of Familiar Things. Hew York: American Book Company,
1939. Pp. 19-49 and 97-98; and in accompanying Work
Book, pp. 25-28.
The presentation of nutrition in this textbook is on the
senior high school level.
The emphasis is on the scientific
approach.
Butterwick, J. S. and George A. Muzzey, A Handbook for Teachers.
. New Y o r k : E. P. Dutton and Company, 1939.
218 pp.
Directs attention to and helps in analyzing concrete sit­
uations with which the beginning teacher is confronted.
Designed to use with teachers in training.
Caswell, Hollis L. and Doak S. Campbell, Curriculum Develop­
ment . New York: American Book Company, 1935.
600 pp.
The changes in American living call for re-evaluation
of, and changes in, school procedures so that democratic
social aims will be realized.
Educational aims are
evaluated from the viewpoint of meeting these new condi­
tions and plans for achieving these aims suggested.
Chaney, Margaret S. and Margaret Ahlborn, Nutrition. Boston:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 1939.
436 pp.
A comparatively simplified college text in nutrition.
Clement, John Addison, Educational Significance of Analysis
Appraisal and Use of Textbooks in Junior and Senior High
Schools.
Champaign, Illinois: Daniels Press, 1939.
260 pp.
Presents necessity for textbook appraisals, historical
evolution of textbook analysis and. appraisal of textbooks
for use in secondary schools published during the twentieth
century, principles and problems relating to the selection
of textbooks in secondary schools, and the relation of
textbooks to materials of instruction.
Curtis, Francis D., Otis W. Caldwell, and Nina Henry Sherman,
Everyday Biology. Boston: Ginn and Company, 1940.
698
PP.
This is an excellent example of a comprehensive and ency­
clopaedic textbook in its field.
The format lends interest.
DeKruif, Paul, Hunger Fighters. New York: Harcourt, Brace
aiicf Company, 1928. 377 pp*.
A popularly written narrative of the objectives and ac­
complishments of men, many of them unnoted governmental
employees in their struggles to make the economic condi­
tion of farmers more certain; and by their investigation
of pellagra now recognized as a nutritional disease, to
make it possible to banish this "hidden food-hunger."
132
Dewey, John, Democracy and Education, New York: The Macmillan
Company, 1916. 434 pp.
The standard work on philosophy of education in the United
States.
Diehl, Harold S., Healthful Living. New York: Whittlesey
House, McGraw-Hill Book.Company, Inc., 1941. 498 pp.
'This book was written for people who want the facts
about health so that they may use them. There are five
chapters on nutrition.
The introduction is by Morris
Fishbein.
Dimock, H. S., Rediscovering the .Adolescent. New York:
Association Press, 1937.
287 pp..
The report of a two year research concerning two hundred
adolescent boys, covering for many of them, the prepubescent to the post-pubescent period.
Douglass, Aubrey A., Modern Secondary Education. Boston:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 1938. 782 pp.
An appraisal of the secondary school as an institution,
a restatement of the aims, means, and purposes of the
secondary school as a guide to what is taking place, and
a statement of present objectives of secondary education.
Dowd, Mary T . , and Alberta Dent, Elements of Food and Nutri­
tion. New York: J. Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1937. 279 pp.
This textbook is a logical presentation of widely chosen
material relating to nutrition.
It is planned for use
in senior high schools.
Edmondson, J. B., "The Textbook in American Education,"
Thirtieth Yearbook of the National Society for the Study
of Education, Part II. Bloomington, Illinois: Public
School Publishing Company, 1931.
308 pp.
A study not only of standards for makers of textbooks but
also of methods used in evaluating them in their selection
for use in schools.
Espy, Herbert G . , The Public Secondary School. Boston:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 1939.
596 pp.
Facts concerning the history, organization, and purposes
of secondary education with an evaluation and criticism
directed toward improvement.
Fishbein, Morris, Your Diet and Your Health. New York:
Whittlesey House, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1937.
289 pp.
A presentation for the intelligent reader of the very
conservative point of view concerning nutrition.
133
Fisher, Irving, and Emerson Haven, How to L i v e . New York:
Funk and Wagnalls, 1938. 422 pp.
This book is an outgrowth of extra-curriculum lecturesgiven by the senior author at Yale University.
Its pur­
pose is to further interested, voluntary, personal obser­
vance of the rules of good health.
Co-authors are many
pioneer researchers. Part II is devoted to nutrition.
In the Appendix are articles on nutrition by Cluttendon,
McCollum, Kellogg, Davis, and Fisk.
Fisher, V. E . , Autocorrectivism. Caldwell, Idaho: The Caxton
Printers, Ltd., 1937. 337 pp.
The author clearly explains a psychological basis which,
he has found,' is the reason people act as they do. His
exposition is from the viewpoint of a clinical psy­
chologist, and is basic in the understanding of the
dynamics of personality.
Friend, Mata Homan, and Hazel Schultz, Food. New York:
D. Appleton-Century Company, Inc., 1933.
304 pp.
A textbook in food preparation and nutrition for senior
high school pupils.
The authors’ purpose is to develop
attitudes rather than perfection in skill#
_______ , A First Book in Home Economics. New York: D.
Appleton-Century Company, Inc., 1936.
610 pp.
A textbook in home economics for junior high school
pupils.
Fuller, Florence D., Scientific'Evaluation of Textbooks.
Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1928. 89 pp.
An experiment in cooperatively establishing principles
by which to evaluate junior high school mathematics
textbooks. Evaluations on the basis of these principles
may be made of textbooks in many other fields.
Furnas, C. C. and S. M. Furnas, Man, Breed and Destiny. New
York: Reynal and Hitchcock, 1937.
364 pp.
An excellent and popular presentation of nutritional
practices during various stages of civilization. Authen­
ticating references are cited in appended notes.
Class, James M . , Curriculum Practices in the Junior High
School and Grades Five and S i x . Chicago: The University
of Chicago Press, 1924. 181 pp.
A study of general American practices in thirteen sub­
ject fields, including detailed courses of study.
134
Greer, Carotta C . , Foods and Homemaking. Boston: Allyn and
Bacon, 1933.
635 pp.
A textbook in food selection and preparation to use with
high school pupils.
The subject matter is centered around
food preparation.
Haggard, Howard W., The L a m e . the H a l t , and the Blind. New
York: Harper and Brothers, 1932.
326 pp.
A book written for popular reading.
It contains an inter­
esting chapter on nutrition.
This chapter tells of scurvy
among sailors who were early sea-voyagers, and also in­
cludes an excellent brief summary of nutritional progress.
Hall-Quest-, Alfred L., The Textbook. New York: The Macmillan
Company, 1918. 265 pp.
Gives general criteria for textbook selection.
These
criteria are listed as hygiene, art, design, adaptability
to purpose, and economic production.
Gives more spe­
cific criteria for selected subjects.
Hambidge, Gore, New Aims in Education. New York: McGraw-Hill
Book Company, 1940. 226 pp.
Written as letters to his son, this book is a popular
exposition of some of the newer trends in educational
practice and an account of some recent educational re­
search, mainly the Pennsylvania School Survey*
_______ , Your Meals and Your Money. New York: V'fhittlesey
House, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1934. 190 pp.
An excellent presentation in popular style of buying
food that will keep the family properly nourished.
Food in its relation to national economics is well pre­
sented •
Harap, Henry, The Technique of Curriculum Making. New York:
The Macmillan Company, 1929. 315 pp.
This is a textbook for college students to serve as a
guide in the technique of curriculum making.
Hart, Joseph K., Democracy in Education. New York: The
Century Company, 1918. 418 pp.
An interpretation of the history and contemporary prob­
lems in education from the viewpoint of the gains and
problems of democracy which need to stand out clearly
in the consciousness of the democratic citizen.
135
Hartman, Gertrude, Finding Wisdom. New York: The John Day
Company, 1938. 147 pp.
A presentation of representative curriculum activities
of the Avery Coonley School at Downers Grove, Illinois,
in its development of John Dewey’s educational philosophy.
Hartshorne, Hugh, Character in Human Relations♦ New York:
Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1935.
367 pp.
The author who says that the ’’historic emphasis on char­
acter as the chief objective of education has now escaped
from the formulations of philosophers and historians and
has begun to materialize in the conscious practice of
teachers," sets forth as his purpose to "propose a general
theory of character which . . . offers a practicable basis
for such educational procedure as seriously proposes to make
character its major objective."
Heiser, Victor, Y o u ’re the Doctor. New York: W. W. Norton
and Company, Inc., 1939. 300 pp.
Written for popular reading, this book emphasizes nutri­
tion as the most essential of all health-builders.
Herrington, Evelyn M . , Homemaking. New York: D. AppletonCentury Company, Inc., 1935. 305 pp.
A plan for using a demonstration apartment in teaching
home economics.
Included is the description of a project
in nutrition.
Hopkins, L. Thomas, Curriculum Principles and Practices.
Chicago: Benjamin H. Sanborn, 1929.
611 pp.
A guide in curriculum construction for administrators,
and for curriculum committees; shows relationship
between curriculum and good teaching. Gives standards
of evaluation for courses of study and claims textbooks
should be judged by the same standards.
Horne, H. H., The Philosophy of Education. New York: The
Macmillan Company, Revised edition, 1927.
329 pp.
An exposition of the philosophical system of Idealistic
Theism.
Hughes-Osee, Introductory Foods. New York: The Macmillan
Company, 1940.
522 pp.
A textbook for college freshmen or sophomores, with the
main emphasis on food preparation, although it also
includes material on food hygiene, food values, and food
qualities in relation to purchasing.
136
Hunter, George W . , Science Teaching at Junior and Senior High
School Levels. New York: American Book Company, 1934.
553 pp.
A comprehensive exposition of science teaching in high
schools, including history, present practices and concrete
suggestions to make science teaching more vital.
_______ , Life Science. New York: American Book Company, 1941.
PP. 124-145, 188-199.
The functional approach is used in the presentation of
the material concerning nutrition in this senior high
school textbook. Much of the material is developed
experientially.
Judd, C . H ., Problems of Education in the United States.
New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1933. 214 pp.
Shows need for realignment of secondary education to meet
present needs of our culture.
Kilpatrick, William H., Group Education for a Democracy. New
York: Association Press, 1940.
219 pp.
Ways in which the democratic concept influences practices
in educational procedures.
Kinyon, Kate W., and Thomas L. Hopkins, J unior Food and Clothing.
New York: Benjamin H. Sanborn and Company, 1930. 264 pp.
This textbook written for use in the junior high school
combines a presentation of food preparation with the
nutritional properties of food.
Koos, Leonard V., The American Secondary School. Boston:
Ginn and Company, 1927.
755 pp.
A good source book for factual materials concerning
secondary education.
Lanman, Faith, H. McKay, and Frances Zuill, The Family *s F o o d .
Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Company, 1937.
630 pp.
Essentially a textbook in food preparation for use in the
high school. Basic "meal-patterns” are presented empiri­
cally as guides in meal-planning.
Lee, J. Murray and Doris May Lee, The Child and His Curriculum.
New York: D. Appleton-Century Company, Inc., 1940.
652 pp.
Based on an underlying philosophy of education, this book
presents classroom possibilities which are definite and
helpful to the teacher. .
137
Leighton, Frances Howe, A_ Basis for Building a^ Course in
Economics of the H ome. New York: Teachers College,
Columbia University, 1931. 114 pp.
A study to determine through a consideration of the problems
of a perfect group of seventy-five families, what material
should be included in a course in the economics of con­
sumption*
Matthews, J. B., Guinea Pigs No M o r e . New York: Covici-Friede,
1936.
311pp.
An account of the need for consumers to be alert in their
understanding of present marketing practices. Written in
feature-article style.
McCann, Alfred W . , The Science of Eating. New York: George
H. Doran Company, 1919. 408 pp.
This book is written in dramatic style for purposes of
crusading for more adequate nutrition and for more inter­
est and effective actibn by the federal government in
insuring conservation of nutritive values in processing.
McCance, R. A. and E. M. Widdowson, The Chemical Composition of
Foods. New York: Chemical Publishing Company, 1940.
150
- PP*
Tables of the chemical compositions of foods, including
that of prepared foods, for which recipes are given.
Some of the tables are based on 100 gram portions, others
on one ounce portions of food.
McCollum, E. V., and J. Ernestine Becker, Food Nutrition and
Health. Baltimore, Maryland: Published by the authors,
1940 edition. Printed by The Lord Baltimore Press,
Baltimore, Maryland.
127 pp.
A concise and accurate presentation of present information
concerning nutrition.
This is an excellent reference.
A great deal of information is contained in relatively
few words.
McCollum, E. V., Elsa Orent-Keiles, and Harry G. Day, The
Newer Knowledge of Nutrition. New York: The Macmillan
Company, 1939.
701 pp.
A very detailed and technical account of present nu­
tritional information.
Good source for early history of
nutrition and of dietary habits.
Complete bibliography
for each chapter.
McLester, 1. S., Nutrition and Diet in Health and Disease.
Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company, 1939.
838 pp.
A standard work in practical applications of nutritional
knowledge.
138
Newlon, Jesse K . , Education for Democracy in Our Time.
New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1939.
242 pp.
Discusses the importance and ways of making effective
democratic principles in.school procedures*
Peters, lulu Hunt,
1939. Revised
The style used
scientifically
Diet and Health. Chicago: Reitly and Lee,
edition, 148 pp*
in this hook is humorous; the material is
authentic*
Plimmer, R. H. A.-, and Violet Plimmer, Food, Health and
Vitamins. New York: Longmans, Green and Company, 1932* ,
143 pp*
A non-technical presentation concerning diet in its rela­
tion to health.
The first chapter summarizes the changes
which have taken place in foods made available for use
since primitive times*
Prentice, E. Parmalee, Hunger and History. New York: Harper
and Brothers, 1939.
269 pp#
Gives concrete instances of food customs in many lands
and of the relation of food supply to the progress of
civilization.
Prescott, D. A., Emotion and the Educative Process. Washington,
D. C.: American Council on Education, 1938.
323 pp*
Report to the American Council of Education by its Com­
mittee on the Relation of Emotion to the Educative Process.
The significance and value of emotion as a force in educa­
tion with suggestions for making use of this power are
clearly set forth.
Price, Weston A., Nutrition and Physical Degeneration. New
York: Paul B. Hoeber, Inc. (Medical B.ook Department of
Harper and Brothers).
1939. 431 pp.
A description of the author’s findings concerning the
relation of diet to health and especially to dentition
among various primitive tribes. Well illustrated with
photographs.
Prossey, Charles Allen. Secondary Education and L i f e . Cambridge:
Harvard University Press, 1939. 91 pp.
Presents cogent reasons why the secondary school should
teach those subjects which will better prepare youth for
life, instead of catering to requirements of those who
plan to enter college. Argues that even college entrance
will be better served through preparation in subjects
having life use value.
139
Ratliff, J. D., Modern Miracle M e n . New York: Dodd, Mead
and Company, 1939. 311 pp.
A book compiled from previously published feature articles.
Chapters VII, VIII, and IX deal with nutrition and re­
searchers in nutrition.
Reed, C. I., H. C. Struck and I. E. Steck, Vitamin D. Chicagor
The University of Chicago Press, 1939. .389 pp.
A comprehensive and well presented summary and interpreta­
tion of the practical and theoretical data concerning
Vitamin D. An appended bibliography gives many source,
references in the study of Vitamin D.
Reeder, Ward G . , The Fundamentals of Public School Administra­
tion. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1930.
454 pp.
Discusses the various aspects of the school administra­
tor’s problems.
Rose, Mary Swartz, Feeding the Family. New York: The Macmillan
Company, 1940.
421 pp.
For intelligent housewives and mothers, this book is a
standard guide. Considers all the food needs of a normal
family, and gives usable information regarding how to
meet them.
_______ , The Foundations of Nutrition. New York; The Macmillan
Company, 1938.
625 pp.
Based on present sound knowledge of nutrition, this book
is written for general reading.
_______ , A Laboratory Hand-book for Dietetics. New York: The
Macmillan Company, 1937. 322 pp.
The standard text of food values for college students.
_______ , Teaching Nutrition to Boys and Girls.
New York:
The Macmillan Company, 1932. 198 pp.
A plan of guidance for teachers in presenting the sub­
ject of nutrition in the upper elementary grades.
_______ , and Cora E. Gray, The Relation of Diet
to Health and
Growth of Children in Institutions. “New YorFT Teachers
College, Columbia University, 1930. Pp. 1-128.
A study and analysis of dietaries in selected institutions
for children with plans for three weeks’ dietaries which
promote better health at no greater cost.
Schoenchen, Gustav G . , The Activity School.
Green and Company, 1940. 359 pp.
New York: Longmans,
140
In this hook a comparison and synthesis are made between
John Dewey’s educational philosophy and the contributions
of Edward Burger in the theory and practice of activity
education.
Paul R. Radosavljevich believes that this
synthesis is "capable and worthy of becoming a basic
philosophy for teachers."
Sherman, Henry C., Food and Health. New York: The Macmillan
Company, 1934.
296 pp.
This book was written to help the average reader to im­
prove his"already adequate dietary as to build up higher
degrees of positive health." ItT*attempts to crystallize
the best from the voluminous findings of recent years,"
and includes a presentation of sanitary safeguards,
budgeting of the food money, and principles of nutrition.
An excellent bibliography of source materials is appended.
_______ , The Chemistry of Food and Nutrition. New York:
The Macmillan Company, 1938.
640 pp;
A standard technical presentation of this subject.
Refer­
ences to original research are especially noteworthy.
_______ , and Caroline Sherman Lanford, Essentials of Nutrition.
New York: The Macmillan Company, 1940. 418 pp.
The purpose of this book is to "offer its readers a‘
thoroughly adequate and up-to-date view of the essentials
of nutrition." It is a thorough presentation for college
students who had not necessarily had special training in
chemistry.
The organization of the material follows the
sequence of historical investigation and discovery.
Shrader, James Houston, Food Control. New York: John Wiley
and Sons, Inc., 1939.
513 pp*
A college textbook showing why regulatory food control is
necessary.
A digest of the 1939 Food, Drug and Cosmetic
Act is contained in the appendix.
Slarson, S. R . , Character Education in a Democracy. New
York: Association Press, 1939. 226 pp.
Sets forth the idea that (1) character education must pro­
ceed from a basis of the biopsychological nature of the
child and (2) in character education all influences— the
home, school, community, recreational activities— need
to be integrated, as all of them influence the final outeome
. off the child’s education.
141
Sokoloff, Boris, Middle Age is What You Make I t . New York:
The Greystone Press, 1938.
204 pp.
Contains a foreword by Walter H. Eddy calling the book
"real consumer education in the true sense.” It was
written for the reader in the thirties who wishes to know
the facts about his body and to formulate its care intel­
ligently.
The emphasis is on nutrition.
Contains excel­
lent references to nutritional research.
Spafford, Ivol, Fundamentals in Teaching Home Economics.
New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1935.
424 pp.
The presentation of a philosophy to provide a point of
view in teaching home economics with explanations to
develop an understanding of its meaning in its applica­
tion to teaching home economics.
_______ , and others, Home Economics in General Education at
the Secondary Level. Minneapolis, Minnesota: The Burgess
Publishing Company, 1939. 82 pp.
A re-interpretation of the general educational purposes
to which home economics contributes a presentation of means
of achieving these values, and a summary— statements of
actual practices in home economics instruction in specific
school, through which these purposes are being realized.
Emphasizes functional approach.
Spaulding, F. 3*., High School and L ife. New York: McGrawHill Book Company, Inc., 1938.
377 pp.
A report of the Regents’ inquiry into the character and
cost of public education in the state of New York.
Spears, H., The Emerging High School Curriculum. New York:
The American Book Company, 1940. 400 pp.
A presentation of past faults of curriculum construction
and changes which need to be made in the decade which
lies ahead.
The book is addressed, primarily, to prin­
cipals and challenges them to leadership in meeting
problems of the curriculum.
_______ , Experiences in Building a Curriculum. New York:
The Macmillan Company, 1937. 196 pp.
A treatment of the high school curriculum program of
Evansville, Indiana, with special attention to classroom
methods.
Stanley, Louise, and Jessie Alice Cline, Foods: Their Selec­
tion and Preparation. Boston: Ginn and Company, 1935.
458 pp.
A textbook for college students which intersperses data
regarding nutritional values of food, and the effect of
various methods of cooking on the nutritional value of
food, among the lessons in food preparation.
142
Stewart, Jean J*, Foods, Production and Marketing, New York:
Prentice-Hall, Inc,, 1938,
737 pp*
This book is especially valuable for showing national
trend's in food marketing and consumption.
Each chapter
has an excellent bibliography. Much use is made of mate­
rials issued by the United States Department of Agriculture.
Stout, Cyril Lynn, Trends of Methods, Contents, and Beliefs
in Geography Textbooks. Nashville, Tennessee: George
Peabody College for Teachers, 1937 and 1939. Abstract
of dissertation, 10 pp.
Geography books from 1784 to 1875 were examined and
general characteristics of objectives and development
described.
Strang, Ruth, Subject Matter in Health Education. New York:
Teachers College, Columbia University, 1926.
108 pp.
An analysis and evaluation of courses of study and text­
books in health education.
Stratemeyer, Florence B., The»Effective Use of Curriculum
Materials. New York; Teachers College, Columbia Univer­
sity, 1931. 159 pp*
The curriculum as here defined includes "the whole body
of experiences which condition and make up the total ac­
tivities of the child for which the school assumes
responsibility,tf and has been markedly affected by the
"changing conditions in social, economic life" and by a
"changing philosophy and psychology of education."
_______ , and Herbert B. Bruner, Rating Elementary School
Courses of Study. New York: Teachers College, Columbia
University, 1926. 193 pp.
A report of procedures in establishing criteria for
evaluating elementary school courses of study; and- the
standards finally adopted as criteria and how the rating
proceeded upon a basis of these criteria.
Symonds, Percival M . , Education and the Psychology of Thinking.
New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1936. 306 pp.
The purpose of this presentation is to more fully acquaint
teachers concerning the mental processes involved in solv­
ing a problem, that is, in thinking, and to be able to
determine whether or not pupils are developing toward
mastery in thinking.
Educators have strenuously main­
tained
. . that one of the aims of the process of edu­
cation is the development of the powers of the pupilr"
143
Symonds, Percival M., Mental Hygiene of the School Child. New
York: The Macmillan Company, 1936.
321 pp*
A treatise for teachers and parents on hoiv to prevent bad
mental habits from forming*
Thayer, Vivian T., The Passing of the Recitation. Boston:
D. C. Heath and Company, 1928.
331 pp*
Contrasts the principles of education underlying the
recitation method and the principles of today which em­
phasize character training, activity, and intelligent
participation in democratic living.
Concrete examples
of obtaining these objectives follow the presentation
of each principle*
_______ , Caroline B. Zachry, and Ruth Kotinsky, Reorganizing
Secondary Education. New York: D. Appleton-Century
Company, 1939. 483 pp*
The report of the Commission on Secondary School Curricu­
lum of the Progressive Education Association.
This volume
seeks to examine anew into the meaning of education and
the demands which begin to be made upon it as the child
emerges into adulthood.
_______ , "Science in General Education," Progressive Educa­
tion Association Commission on Secondary School Curricu­
lum. New York: D. Appleton-Century Company, Inc., 1938.
591 pp.
To show how science may be taught to meet the needs of
(l) personal living, personal-social relationships,
social-civic relationships, and economic relationships*
Emphasizes the need for understanding the student, for
guiding reflective thinking, and for evaluating student
achievement. Presents outlines of several units.
Thomas, Frank Waters, and Albert R. Lang, Principles of Modern
Education. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1937.
339 pp.
A textbook for teachers which sets forth principles and
practices of modern education, as based on philosophy.
Thorndike, E. L., The TeacherTs Word B o o k . New York: Teachers
College, Columbia University, 1921.
134 pp.
Twenty thousand words listed in order of their difficulty
for children.
Thorpe, Louis P . , Psychological Foundations of Education.
New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1938.
602 pp.
An extensive survey and interpretation of the literature
dealing with the study of the personality.
144
Tidyman, Willard Fred, Directing Learning Through Glass
Management. New York; Farrar and Rinehart, Inc., 1937.
539 pp.
This presentation is valuable because it is broadly con­
ceived and written by an experienced administrator from
a practical basis.
Tiegs, Ernest W . , The Management of Learning in the Elementary
Schools. New York: Longmans, Green and Company, 1937.
Pp. 1-45.
Presents objectives in elementary education and shows
how various plans have attempted to reach them'.: :;iu
Umstadt, I. G . , Secondary School Teaching. Boston; Ginn and
Company, 1937. 459 pp.
A textbook for college students preparing to teach in
secondary schools. Stresses teaching as guidance, empha­
sizing individual instruction as based on the unit plan
of instruction. Excellent bibliographies Yor all factors
that enter into secondary teaching.
Walworth, George, Teaching the Nation in Peace and W a r .
London: George Allen and Unwin, Ltd., 1940. 548 pp.
Discusses attempted special-interest control through
legislation of food production and marketing.
The thesis
is that ,fSconomic planning must be designed to meet the
needs of a community of interests, and the datum line for
such planning is an adjusted consumer purchasing power,
designed to present a well-defined food demand which can
be met efficiently."
Washburne, Carleton, A Living Philosophy of Education. New
York; lohn Day and Company, 1940.
Expounds a philosophy of education embodied in the prac­
tices of the Winnetka schools.
Wiley, George M . , Jr., The Redirection of Secondary Education.
New York: The Macmillan Company, 1940. 493 pp.
A presentation of the organization and administration of
secondary education with the emphasis on its sociological
significance.
Willard, Florence, and Lucy H. Gillette, Dietetics for High
Schools. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1930. 290 pp.
Planned for use in senior high schools, this textbook is
a thorough-going presentation cf nutritional factual
materials.
145
Winchell, Florence E., Food Facts for Every D a y . Philadelphia:
I. B. Lippincott Company, 1924.
109 pp.
The experimental approach is used in this simply written
textbook in nutrition.
It is suitable for use in the
first year of junior high school.
Witty, Paul A., and Charles E. Skinner, editors, Mental
Hygiene in Education. New York: Farrar and Rinehart,
Inc., 1939.
539 pp.
An excellent presentation of the various phases of mental
hygiene. Each chapter is written by an authority in the
field covered by the chapter.
B.
PERIODICAL ARTICLES
Alvarez, Walter C., "Why C a n ’t We Have Perfect Teeth?"
Harper’s Magazine, 179:498-502, October, 1939.
Almost everywhere primitives, not in contact with "civil­
ization" have perfect teeth. Evidence is:tending to prove
that there is a cause-effect relationship between a diet
containing white sugar and white flour, and poor teeth.
Andrews, Harry D., "Selecting a Textbook," American School
Board Journal, 73:67, 152, 154, 157-158, September, 1926.
Presents one hundred questions, and an explanation of each
item, as criteria for evaluating a textbook.
Bacon, P. V., "The Textbook as a Course of Study," American
School Board Journal, 90:44, June, 1935.
Suggests that well-prepared textbooks become the course
of study, the textbooks to be chosen by the local teachers,
not by state boards.
Barker, R. B., "Application of Nutrition Principles to Low
Income Families," Medical W o m e n ’s Journal, 46:82-86,
March, 1939.
Uses federal government’s figures to show that adequate
diet can be purchased by families with low income and
shows progress in education concerning better nutritional
choices as evidenced by families instructed by clinic.
Been, R. 0., and F. V. Waugh, "Price Spread Between the
Farmer and the Consumer," Bureau of Agricultural
Economics, United States Department of Agriculture,
February, 1939, 31 pp.
Present tables for farm value, and retail value of foods.
146
Boudreau, Frank G., "Coordination of Research in Home Economics
With Public Health in the Field of Nutrition," Journal of
Home Economics, 30:677-683, December, 1938,
The need for all scientists, social workers, educators,
and economists is to work together effectively to solve
problems of adequate nutrition.
Buckingham, B. R., "The Textbook and Its Vocabulary," Journal
of Educational Research, 14:142-45, September, 1926.
Although vocabulary frequently contains too many hard
words, a more serious difficulty is the adult point of
view.
Burr, Samuel Engle, "The Selection of Textbooks and the Use
of Rating Scales," American School Board Journal, 79:130y
August, 1929.
Gives a weighted rating scale for evaluating textbooks
to be used as a starting point for committees of teachers
to use in development of a rating scale for a specific
subject in a specific grade.
Camp, Helen, and S. S. Eppright, "Factors Affecting Appetite,"
Journal of Home Economics, 31:149-153, March, 1939.
There are many causes of lack of appetite; but normal
feeding habits of older children are but natural outgrowth
of earlier development.
The most important factors af­
fecting appetite are physiological and nutritional.
Cavin, J. P., "Consumption of Agricultural Products,"
Agricultural Situation, 23:13-15, January, 1939.
A report of trends in changes of amounts of the various
foods consumed and how these changes affect the amount
of acreage needed for food-growing.
Coe, G. A., "Emergent Democracy," School and Society, 47:75,
June 11, 1938.
Discusses the movement toward interpreting American de­
mocracy in terms of education.
Deckerman, H. E., "The Selection of High-School Textbooks,"
American School Board Journal, 76:90-94, February, 1928.
Suggests that one should know what is desired of a book
before he can evaluate it and that a weighted scale
should be used.
Donovan, H. L . , "How to Select Textbooks," Peabody Journal
of Education, 2:1-11, July, 1924.
Gives seven factors to be used and points for supplement­
ing them for different subjects which are used as criteria
by the Kentucky Textbook Commission.
147
Fraser,'M. G., "Democracy in Our Textbooks," American Teacher,
22 :12-13, May, 1938.
This article points out that when not a single textbook
encourages true democracy, the time is ripe for textbook
reform.
The democratic aim is defined as "equal apportunity for all, politically, economically, and educationally."
Gill, E. D., "Philosophy of Education," Sierra Educational
News, 3 4 :26~27, December, 1938.
Suggests practices which ne,ed to be used in those schools
which consider education a^social process;n*
Hambridge, Gore, "Nutrition as a National Problem," Journal
of Home Economics. 31:361-364, June, 1939.
To ~secure adequate nutrition for every one in the nation,
we find we must eat twice as much leafy green, and yellow
vegetables, 75 per cent more tomato and citrus fruits and
30 per cent more milk and milk products.
There is plenty
of producing capacity to attain this standard but there
are economic barriers and barriers of ignorance, habit,
and inertia.
Thought, effort, and courage are needed to
find the answer.
Johnson, Franklin W., "A Checking List for the Selection of
High School Textbooks," Teachers College Record, 27:104108, October, 1925.
Scheme for evaluating textbooks by checking list of items.
Major division listed are general considerations, subject
matter, helps and aids to instruction and mechanical make
up.
Kilpatrick, W.* H., "The Relation of Philosophy and Science in
the Study of Education," School and Society. 30:40-41.
Only through an appreciation of a philosophy developed
from a study of what now is known scientifically about
man, can acceptable educational procedures evolve.
Ky.te, George C., "Experimentation in the Development of a
Book to Meet Educational Needs," Educational Administra­
tion1and Supervision. 14:86-100, February, 1928.
This presentation emphasizes the need for obtaining pupilreactions to material to be included in a textbook before
this material is incorporated into the published form.
Lewis, J. M . , and L. H. Barenberg, "The Relationship of
Vitamin A to the Health of Infants," Journal of American
Medical Association, 110:1338-1341, April 23, 1938.
148
Research in including varying amounts in Vitamin A in
infant's dietaries,to study nutritional effects.
Found
no appreciable difference in health as measured by
various criteria.
Lively, Bertha A., and S. L. Fressey, "A Method for Measuring
the Vocabulary Burden of Textbooks," Educational Administration and Supervision. 9:389-398, October, 1923.
Presents a method of measuring vocabulary difficulty of
textbooks f
McCormick, Marge G , , "The Educational Possibilities of the
School Lunch," Journal of Home Economics. 31:226-228.
April, 1939.
Since children learn health habits as they learn other
habits— by practice— use should be made of the educa­
tional possibilities of the school lunch in development
of good food-selection habits. Methods of procedures
are suggested.
McElroy, Olive E., Hazel E."Munsell-'.and Mabel C, Stienbarger,
"Research: Ascorbic Acid Content of Tomatoes as Affected
by Home Canning and Subsequent Storage, and of Tomato
Juice and Fresh Orange Juice as Affected by Refrigeration,"
Journal of Home Economics. 31:325-330, May, 1939.
A report of carefully conducted research to determine
to what extent there is loss of Vitamin C through usual
preservation practices.
Mead, Cyrus D., "The Best Method of Selecting Textbooks,"
Educational Administration and Supervision. 4:61-69,
February, 1918.
A discussion of the method of appointing committees and
sub-committees of teachers to evaluate and recommend
textbooks for the Cincinnati Public School System.
Montgomery, D. E . , "Marketing Conditions and the Consumers,"
Journal of Home Economics. 31:369-373, June, 1939.
Our distribution system is getting commodities in our
hands and selling them to us, and is also selling dis­
tribution services for which the cost is often much
greater than the cost of the food. As, for instance, cost
of some cereals to the consumer is #24 a bushel; and addi­
tional butter fat in "special milk" brings retailer as
much as $1.50 per pound.
14Q
Oberteuffer, Delbert, "Preliminary Study of Criteria for the
Selection and Organization of Learning Experiences in
Health Instruction," Research Quarterly of the American
Physical Education Association. 6:63-65, October, 1935.
Experiences should constantly interpret health from a
social point of view, explaining health in terms of its
social uses.
Otis, E. M . , "A Textbook Score Card," Journal of Educational
Research. 7:132-136, February, 1923.
For the purpose of evaluating textbooks, this article
gives a score card weighted for six major divisions and
sub-topics.
Raup, R. B., "Philosophy and Education," Teachers College
Record. 38:218-222, December, 1936.
Presents Plato’s "Love of Wisdom" as an actual unity of
perspective with critical understanding and practical
moral purpose as contrasted with separating the parts from
the whole for purposes of study.
Rowntree, Jennie I., "The Teaching of Nutrition," Journal of
Home Economics. 30:156-160, March, 1938.
Suggests that the teaching of nutrition be used not only
for improvement of food habits but also as a means of
developing a scientific point of view.
________, "Recent Advances in Nutrition," Journal of Home
Economics. 31:635-643, November, 1939.
Nutrition has permeated and become involved with public
welfare, because it'is now recognized that health is so
definitely a result of good nutrition. Emphasizes the
need for nutritional education and suggests the type of
subject matter to be stressed.
An excellent bibliography
is included.
Sebrell, W. H . , "Public Health Implications of Recent Research
in Pellagra and Ariboflavinosis," Journal of Home Economics.
31:530-536, October, 1939.
History of incidence of pellagra, and the national prob­
lems it presents.
Tobey, James A., "Baking Technology and Modern Nutrition," The
Scientific Monthly, 49:464-468, November, 1939.
Claims bread chemistry must begin with soil chemistry;
that rightly made, white bread is, definitely, a healthpromoting food; and that the increase of sugar consumption
from seventy pounds in 1900 to one hundred ten pounds
today is the most potent cause of malnutrition.
150
Science News Letter, 33:121, February 19, 1938,
"Half of Average Americans Eat a Third-Rate Diet,"
Reports a United States Bureau of Home Economics among
25,000 representative families.
Science News Letter, 34:55, July 23,
"Man’s Future Depends on What He
Reports improvements of physique
choice of better diets, but that
choosing food wisely.
1938.
Eats."
resulting from the
not enough people are
Weber, Oscar T . , "Methods Used in the Analysis of Textbooks,"
School and Society, 24:678-694, November, 1926♦
A critical discussion of eight methods of analysis used
in selecting textbooks.
Whipple, Guy M . , "The Selection of Textbooks," American School
Board Journal. 80:51-53, 158, May, 1930.
An analysis of various phases of the selection of text­
books.
White, Ruth L . , "Training for Community Nutrition Work,"
Journal of Home Economics. 31:221-225, April, 1939.
Describes the course of training offered by Simmons
College in conjunction with the Community Health Asso­
ciation.
C.
PUBLICATIONS OF LEARNED ORGANIZATIONS
Carr, William G . , "Education for Character," Parts I and II,
National Education Association. Washington, D. C.: The „
Association, 1934. Vol. I, pp. 45-79; Vol. II, pp. 83-141.
Vol. I presents information essential to an understand­
ing of the social and psychological aspects of personality
development.
Vol. II provides a basis for evaluating and
improving the character-building program of the school.
Harap, Henry, and others, "The Changing Curriculum," Depart­
ment of Supervisors and Directors of Instruction and the
Society for Curriculum Study, Joint Committee on Curricu­
l u m . New York: D. Appleton-Century Company, 1937. 351 pp.
Factors which influence the curriculum in the direction
of "the acceptance of democratic living in all of its
aspects as a goal toward which the school should move."
151
National Education Association, "Implications of SocialEconomic Goals for Education," Report of the Committee
on Social-Economic Goals of America. Washington, D. C . :
National Education Association, 1937. 126 pp.
A statement of social-economic goals for the United
States with sub-committee reports clarifying the relation
ship of education to these goals.
Rugg, Harold, "Democracy and the Curriculum," Third Yearbook
of the John Dewey Society. New York: D. Appleton-Oent"dry
Company, Inc., 1939.
536 pp.
A cooperative product of ten well-known educators showing
the need for schools to implement democratic processes
in their educational procedures and suggesting means by
which this integration can be accomplished.
Stoddard, Alexander J., and others, "The Purposes of Educa­
tion in American Democracy," National Education of the
United States and the American Educational Policies
Commission. Washington, D. C . : National Education
Association, 1938. 157 pp.
Presents four objectives of education for democratic
living: (1) self-realization, (2) human relationship,
(3) economic efficiency, and (4) civic responsibility.
_______ , "The Unique Function of Education in American
Democracy," National Education Association of the United
States, Educational Policies Commission. Washington,
D. C.: National Education Association, 1937. 129 pp.
Shows growth of educational purposes in our developing
democracy, and states as present educational purposes
"dissemination of knowledge, the liberation of minds,
the development of skills, the promotion of free in­
quiries, the encouragement of the creative or inventive
spirit, and the establishment of wholesome attitudes
toward order and change.
Wood, Thomas D., "Health Education," National Education
Association and the American Medical Association,
Report of the Joint Committee on Health Problems. New
York: National Education Association, 1934.
251 pp.
A comprehensive presentation of subject matter to be
included in teaching health.
One section, pages 48-67,
is devoted to grade placement of nutrition and health
topics.
Specific suggestions for teaching nutrition
in grades four through twelve are presented in pages
195-211.
Includes excellent annotated bibliographies.
152
D.
GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS
"Graduate Studies and Research ih Home Economics and Home
Economics Education," Research Committee of the Home
Economics Section of the Association of Land-Grant
Colleges and Universities and the Research Department
of the American Home Economics Association. 1936-1941.
A section of each of these reports is devoted to a con­
sideration of research in food education.
"Nutrition," League of Nations. Report of the Mixed Committee
of the League of Nations on the Relation of Nutrition to
Health. Agriculture and Economic Policy (Genera, 1937),
327 pp.
,
A report which shows the social interrelationships through­
out the world in meeting nutritional needs.
"The Problem of Nutrition," League of Nations, Vol. I. Interim
Report of the Mixed Committee on the Problem of Nutrition
(Genera, 1936). Series of League of Nations Publications,
II, Economic and Financial, 1936, II, B. 3.
A report to the League of Nations Assembly Council.
United States Department of Agriculture, Circular No. 507.
Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1939.
Reports extensive survey in the United States of
research concerning nutritional sufficiency.
United States Department of Labor, Children’s Bureau, WellNourished Children. Folder 14. Washington, D. C.: Govern­
ment Printing Office, 1939. P. 16.
A simply written guide to health-building food-choices
for children.
Wood, Thomas D., "The School Health Program," Report of the
Committee on the School Child, White House Conference on
Child Health and Protection. New York: The Century
Company, 1932.
400 pp.
Discusses purposes and goals for child health and plans
for their realization.
E.
UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS
Casey, V. E., "Investigation to Determine Criteria for Authors
of Elementary Social Science Textbooks." Unpublished
Master’s thesis, University of Southern California, Los
Angeles, 1934.
110 pp.
153
A study to find the best present practices with respect
to social science textbooks for elementary schools, to
study currently used textbooks in social science, and
from such study to determine the essentials of a good
textbook in social sciences; finally, to formulate
criteria as a guide to textbook writers.
Dinges, Grace M . , ”A Study of Pupil and Parent attitudes
toward High-school Home-Economics as a Basis for Evalua­
tion of the Work Offered.” Unpublished Master’s thesis,
University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1934.
A study in which the questionnaire method was used and
resulted in the conclusion that a thorough re-evaluation
of the curriculum content of home economics be under­
taken.
Dunn, M. W . , "Textbook Difficulty for Pupils of Varying
Ability Levels in the Secondary School Segments.”
Unpublished Master’s thesis, University of Southern
California, Los Angeles, 1933.
234 pp.
Reports that a two thousand word sample is better than
a one thousand word sample in establishing an evaluation
of word.difficulty.
Elder, L. M., ”A Determination of the Vocabulary Grade Place­
ment of Certain Home Economics Textbooks.” Unpublished
Master’s thesis, University of Southern California, Los
JTngeles, 1933.
65 pp.
A study to determine vocabulary difficulty diversity in
home economics textbooks published since 1918.
The basis
used was the Vocabulary Grade Placement Formula originated
by Alfred S. Lewerenz and used by the Los Angeles City
School District as a means of evaluating textbooks.
Gunderson, Grace Farrell, ”The Adequacy of Textbooks in the
Fulfillment of the Major Aims in Biology.” Unpublished
Master’s thesis, University of Southern California, Los
Angeles, 1938.
236' pp*
Development of a score card and using it in evaluating
biology textbooks.
Lewerenz, A. S., "Techniques for the Objective Evaluation of
the Vocabulary Used in Printed Matter.” Unpublished
Doctor’s dissertation, University of Southern California,
Los Angeles, 1937.
270 pp.
Presents a usable plan for evaluating vocabularies on a
basis of grade difficulty.
154
Magnuson, Katherine Christine, "Graphs and Tables in Social
Science Textbooks.” Unpublished Master’s thesis, Universith of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1938.
73 pp.
In a study of the graphs and tables in social science
textbooks, it was found that graphs and tables were used
frequently and that further study of the needs of junior
high school children should be made to determine needed
vocabularies.
Martin, Wallace Lester, "An Analysis and Evaluation of Music
Appreciation Textbooks for Junior High School." Unpub­
lished Master’s thesis, University of Southern Califor­
nia, Los Angeles, 1937. 133 pp.
An investigation to determine the nature and function of
music appreciation, the place of music appreciation in
the school program, and the faults in teaching it.
Sturwalt, Cyrena, "Experimental Determination of a Hating
Scale for Plane Geometry Textbooks." Unpublished Master’s
thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles,
1933. 152 pp*
Rating scale should be used in an effort to incorporate
those elements which affect the efficiency of teachers
in the use of a text as a teaching tool and success in
pupil learning.
Thompson, Merritt Moore, "The Educational Philosophy of
Giovanni Gentile." Unpublished Doctor’s dissertation,
University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1930.
289 pp.
’
An interpretation of the philosophy of the Italian
philosopherTeducator, Gentile.
Wineman, Florence Lorraine, "The Educational Content of
Food Articles in W o men’s Magazines." Unpublished
M aster’s thesis, University of Southern California,
Los Angeles, 1936. 94 pp.
Reports that 15 per cent of the articles are educa­
tional in respect to food selection, and all are well
illustrated.
APPENDIX
TABLE II
DETAILED EVALUATIONS OE NUTRITION TEXTBOOKS*1
Classifications
A.
Nutrition
I
II III
SELECTION AND PRESENTATION OF
SUBJECT MATTER MADE FROM BASIS
OF NEEDS OF THE LEARNER.
1. Basic principles presented
are those of readily usable
day by day food-choiees.
Home Economics
IV
V
VI
VII
Biology
VIII IX
G
G
F
P
P
F
P
F
G
G
G
G
F '
a. Consideration of major healthpromoting food needs.
G
E
F
G
G
G
b. Show what food-choices are
essential as guides in meeting
these needs.
G
E
G
G
G
G
c. Food-choices so stated that
they and their variation form
a pattern readily usable in
everyday practical experience.
G
E
G
F
G
G
G
G
G
0
F
F
O
For identification of the books, each Roman numeral across the top of the table
corresponds with the number of its position in the list on page 116.
The interpretation of the rating refers to the degree to which the choice and use
of subject matter is adapted to implementing the current philosophy of education.
E - means very well adapted.
G - means well adapted.
F - means somewhat adapted.
P - means the adaptation is not altogether absent, but is negligible.
0 - means omission of adaptation.
TABLE II (continued)
DETAILED EVALUATIONS OF NUTRITION TEXTBOOKS
nipqqifiMtiftnq
Nutrition
I
II III
Home Economics
Biology
IV
V
VI VII VIII IX
d. Emphasis on making subject
matter understandable and
usable rather than upon develop­
ing a vocabulary of scientific
terms.
0
E
G
G
E
G
F
0
E
e. Use of scientific terms is con­
fined mainly to those which are
developed experientially.
F
0
F
F
G
0
0
0
G
f. Choosing and eating a healthpromoting diet receives major
emphasis.
F
E
G
G
E
O
P
F
F
F
a. Presentation from an experiential,
not an authoritative basis.
O
P
F
F
F
P
O
O
E
b. Scientific terms are presented
experientially.
O
P
F
F
F
P
O
P
E
P
P
P
F
G
F
P
O
G
P
F
F
F
G
F
P
O
E
2. Begin from point within experience
of learner.
3. Bases are provided for developing
an attitude of interest in making
needed changes in food choices.
F
O
P
O
P
F
E
157
a. Makes immediate appeal to
pupils’ felt needs.
F
TABLE II (continued)
DETAILED EVALUATIONS OF NUTRITION TEXTBOOKS
Classifications
b. Provides for experience with
effects of undernourishment*
I
Nutrition
II III
P
O
O
HomeEconomics
Biology
TV
V
VI VII Vtll IX
F
F
P
0
0
G
P
E
F
G
G
P
P
0
G
5* There should, be presented a con­
sideration of remote values and
remote results of food-choices*
F
F
F
F
G
P
P
0
F
a* Remote values to be achieved
from intelligent food-choice,
such as longer length of life,
a longer "prime of life," and
so on*
F
F
F
F
G
P
P
0
0
b* Remote results of unwise foodchoices, such as promoting
possible specific body weak­
nesses*
F
F
F
F
G
P
P
0
G
P
F
P
F
F
F
0
0
G
P
P
0
F
F
F
0
0
G
6. The learning should result from
the response of the complete
organism as it strives to satisfy
felt needs.
a. There should be provision for
purposing, planning, executing
and evaluating.
158
4. Presentation in nontechnical form
of material which shows use of
intelligence in food-choices is
necessary*
TABLE II (continued)
DETAILED EVALUATIONS OE NUTRITION TEXTBOOKS
Nutrition
Home Economics
__________ Ga s i f i c a t i o n s _______________________________________^
^
^
b. The activity should he both
mental and emotional, and,
when necessary for the con­
summation of the purpose,
physical.
P
P
O
F
F
F
O
O
G
c. The purposes should be such
that all pupils readily can
share in them and adopt them
for their own.
P
G
F
F
G
F
O
O
G
O
O
O
7. A feeling of success in compre­
hension of the subject matter
should be planned for.
B.
Biology
F
G
P
G
a. Study and comprehension of the
minimum material to be adapted
to a reasonable length of school
time— say fifteen to ninety
periods (excluding time used in
food preparation).
F
G
P
G
b. Minimum of scientific terms in
minimum of required learning.
F
G
F
G
PRESENTATION OF SUBJECT MATTER MAKES
IT ADAPTABLE TO THE UNIQUE DEVELOPMENT
OF THE INDIVIDUAL.
P
F
P
P
G
G
G
G
G
F
O
G
P
O
O
O
O
P
O
O
F
TABLE II (continued)
DETAILED EVALUATIONS OF NUTRITION TEXTBOOKS
Nutrition
Classifications
Hone Economics ‘
"IT-- r VI
Biology
1. Classifications should be
pupil-made, based on experience.
0
0
0
P
P
0
F
P
0
2. The series of experiences or areas
of activities should so challenge
each member of the group that
every pupil has a chosen desire
to initiate and carry to a conclu­
sion the work planned.
P
G
P
F
G
F
P
0
G
3. Provision for individual differences
in mental ability and interests.
G
F
P
P
F
F
0
0
G
0
E
0
G
a. Basic principles of food-choices
presented should be stated well
within the comprehension of and
should have use-value for every
child.
b. There should be provision for
differentiation in activities
and for further activity, investiga­
tion, or study by any child with
special ability or interest.
0
4. Opportunity should be provided for
ego-identification with leaders in
nutritional advance.
0
a. Through doing and finding^out
from some experiments similar
to theirs.
O
G
0
F
F
F
F
F
E
P
G
G
F
F
O
F - F
0
G
O
0
0
0
0
0
F
0
G
0
0
TABLE II (continued)
DETAILED EVALUATIONS OF NUTRITION TEXTBOOKS
Classifications
On this experiential basis,
further acquaintance with
their biographies in relation
to their scientific contribu­
tion should be made.
Home Economics
Biology
IV
V
Vl VII VIII It
0
P
P
P
0
0
0
0
0
E
F
P’
G
0
0
0
0
5. Opportunity should be provided
for finding for one's self the
most reasonable answer.
P
F
P
■F
G
F
0
0
F
STIMULATION OF INTERACTION IN THE
SOCIAL MEDIUM.
0
P
P
P
P
P
p
0
p
1* Consideration in non-technical
form of social implications in
food-choices as these*may affect
good nutrition for the individual.
P
P
P
0
P
P
0
0
0
0
0
P
0
P
P
0
0
0
a. Contact with an activity to
show hov/ the effect of foodchoices and/or food preparation
by individuals within a family
may result in nutritional illness.
161
0
c« This presentation should be
story-like and non-technical
in form.
C.
Nutrition
I
II III
TABLE II (continued)
DETAILED EVALUATIONS OF NUTRITION TEXTBOOKS
Classifications
b. Consideration of effect on
family life of nutritional
care of infants and young
children, how the quality of
family life is affected by
illness, the family income
and allowance for food, how
plans may be made to select
needed food within this allow­
ance, conservation of nutritional
values and appetite-interest in
cooking, and so on; and how each
of these factors affects the
individuals in the family.
Nutrition
I
II III
F
2. Provision for and stimulation of
consideration of the relation­
ships between food nutrition and
one or more community institution­
alized groups.
O
a. Encouragement of visits to and
helpful activity in orphan
homes, day nurseries, baby
clinics, and so on.
0
O
F
P
0
0
0
P
F
P
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
162
b. Encouragement of cooperation in
some nutritional program as in
planning and serving hot lunches
F
Home Economics
Biology
IV
V
VI VII VIII tx
TABLE II (continued)
DETAILED EVALUATIONS OF NUTRITION TEXTBOOKS
NutritionHome Economics
I
II III
IV
V
Biology
VI VII VIII
b. (Continued)
or mid-morning food for under­
nourished children, assisting
school nurse with nutrition
problems, and so on.
O
O
P
0
0
c. Consideration of the implica­
tions of such programs as
affecting each citizen.
O
O
P
0
Q
0
0
0
P
0
P
P
P
0
0
Classifications
3. From experiential bases of 1, 2,
and/or 3, above, provide a
widening of interests in consid­
eration of nutrition as related
to one or more wide generaliza­
tions, such as:
a. Food-choices in their relation­
ship to survivals of certain
groups, such as the Eskimos
and the New Hebrides group or
of typical dietaries of certain
nationalities and the probable
effect on the health of its
nationals.
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
P
0
0
P
0
163
b. Relationship between diet and
health deficiencies among people
in large geographical areas, such
0
0
IX
TABLE II (continued)
DETAILED EVALUATIONS OF NUTRITION TEXTBOOKS
m
Nutrition
I
n
HI
Home Economics
iv . v
vi
b. (Continued)
as goitre in the Great Lakes
Region, anemia in Florida,
pellagra in the South, and so on*
P
0
0
0
P
c. How possible optimal dietaries
may affect:
(1) Racial development.
(2) Future economic conditions
of the country*
0
0
0
0
P
d. Consideration of nutrition in one
or more of its immediate social
relationships, such as nutritional
values to be provided in meals for
social or community groups, whether
it is wiser to provide money for
the poor, and so on*
0
e* Consideration of the activities of
one or more volunteer groups in
the field of the general progress
of nutrition and the implications
of this activity.
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
vii
0
O
P
0
O
0
0
0
0
0
ix
viii
0
0
0
0
0
0
164
f. Consideration of some phases of
economic-industrial relationships
to nutrition such as reflected in
production and marketing costs and
practices, food consumption, changes
0
Biology
TABLE II (continued)
DETAILED EVALUATIONS OF NUTRITION TEXTBOOKS
Classifications
f. (Continued)
which have heen brought about
and might be brought about in
food processing and marketing,
and so on.
D.
Nutrition
T
ETUr
0
0
0
Home Economics
“TV
T
0
P
VT
Biology
vfl"' VIII
P
0
0
0
O
F
4. The presentation should be such
that it is adapted to group activ­
ity within the class, some of this
activity to consist of cooperative
thinking, planning, and working
with each other in the study and
solution of specific problems.
0
CONSIDERATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP OF
A DEMOCRATICALLY ORGANIZED SOCIETY
TO NUTRITION AND THE IMPLICATIONS
OF THIS RELATIONSHIP TO THE INDI­
VIDUAL AND TO THE STATE OR NATION.
P
P
P
1. Consideration of governmental
relationships to promotion of
good nutrition through:
O
P
F
0
0
0
0
P
0
P
P
F
O
O
O
O
P
O
0
F
G
F
P
O
P
P
'
P
O
165
a. One or more governmental agencies
such as the Bureau of Agriculture,
Department of Public Health, and
so on.
G
Ti
TABLE II (continued)
DETAILED EVALUATIONS OF NUTRITION TEXTBOOKS
mflssi-Mrtfttinns
I
b. Public schools.
Nutrition
ii I n
0
0
0
2. Consideration of the extent of
the responsibility of organized
social groups, as a nation or
state, in protecting individuals
from nutritional deficiencies as
exemplified by:
0
a. Problems of protecting people
in certain areas, from insuf­
ficient minerals in food
because of lacks in the soils;
from habitually chosen typical
diet selections which cause
malnutrition, and so on.
0
b. Problems of retaining maximum
nutritive values of food in
processing and marketing, and
fairly priced to the consumer.
0
c. Problems of protecting foods
in processing from contamina­
tion and/or from addition of
deleterious substances.
0
Biology
ill viii ix
■
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
F
166
d. Problems of protecting consumers
from misrepresentations in ad­
vertising nutritional values of
food.
Home Economics
iv
v
vi
TABLE II (continued)
DETAILED EVALUATIONS OF NUTRITION TEXTBOOKS
Classifications
E.
Nutrition
II til
I
Home Economics
Biology
“T T
V
T T VII VIII Ii
PROVISION FOR TEACHING AIDS
DIRECTED TOWARD IMPLEMENTING
THE CURRENT PHILOSOPHY OF
EDUCATION•
P
F
F
F
F
F
P
0
F
1. Provision for measuring
progress in developing
health-promoting food habits•
P
P
P
F
F
P
0
0
P
F
F
F
0
0
P
O
b. Suggestions for record keeping
in encouragement of putting
.into effect needed changes in
food-choices as they are made
from time to time*
P
P
P
F
F
P
0
0
P
c.-Provision for progressively
measuring progress in points
listed under "a.11
P
O
P
F
F
P
0
0
P
0
P
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2* Provision for evaluating progress
in the development of a social at­
titude toward the problem of
nutrition.
P
F
167
a* Provision for measuring present
development of pupils in re­
gard to food-selection habits,
acquaintance with fundamental
subject matter, and attitudes
toward nutrition*
TABLE II (continued)
DETAILED EVALUATIONS OF NUTRITION TEXTBOOKS
Classifications
Nutrition
I
II III
Home Economics
V
VI
IV
VII
Biology
VIII IX
3. Concrete suggestions for teaching
devices which aid in implementing
the philosophy of education.
0
G
G
F
F
F
F
0
F
4. Adequate reference material sug­
gested or provided, as:
F
F
F
P
P
F
P
0
F
a. Gharts and illustrations which
distinctly clarify the subject
matter are provided.
F
G
G
P
F
0
F
P
G
b. Popular or story form in books
and magazines.
0
0
0
0
P
F
P
0
P
c. Scientific
reference
nutrition
or senior
G
G
F
P
F
F
P
0
P
P
F
F
0
0
G
P
0
0
presentation as
books or textbooks in
written for junior
high school.
d. Pamphlets and charts issued by
organizations interested in
good nutrition, and surely to
include those of Federal and
State Departments.
168
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