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The significance of the changing frontier in the development of educational thought in the United States

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THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE CHANGING FRONTIER
IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATIONAL
THOUGHT IN THE UNITED STATES
A Thesis
Presented to
the Faculty of the School of Education
University of Southern California
In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Master of Science in Education
*7
Frank Strickland Brown
August, 1941
UMI Number: EP54177
All rights reserved
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UMI EP54177
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ProQuest LLC.
789 East Eisenhower Parkway
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T h is thesis, w r it t e n u n d e r the d ir e c t io n o f the
C h a ir m a n o f the c a n d id a te ’ s G u id a n c e C o m m itte e
a n d a p p r o v e d by a l l m em bers o f the C o m m itte e ,
has been pre se n te d to a n d accep ted by the F a c u l t y
o f the S c h o o l o f E d u c a t io n o f T h e U n iv e r s it y o f
S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f the
re q u ire m e n ts f o r the degree o f M a s t e r o f S cience
in E d u c a tio n .
Dean
Guidance C om m ittee
M. M. Thompson
C hairm an
D. Welty Lefever
Owen C. Coy
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I.
PAGE
THE PROBLEM AND DEFINITION OF
TERMS.
1
.....................
1
Statement of the p r o b l e m ......... .......
2
Importance of the problem
2
Introduction • • • • •
• • • • • • • •
Definition of terms used . . . . . . . .
The frontier .
.
4
.......................
4
Educational t h o u g h t ........... .
5
Scope of the investigation . . . . . . . .
5
Source materials
6
Biography
. . . . . .
...
School l a w s .......................
6
Land l a w s ..........................
7
American literature
. . . .
...........
7
H i s t o r y ................
7
Histories of Education • • • • • • • • •
8
Non-fiction
8
. . .............
. . . . .
Organization of the t h e s i s
II.
6
HISTORICAL B A C K G R O U N D ...................
.
8
10
The English theory of education in the
s o u t h .......................... .......
10
The Calvinistic idea of education in New
England
• • • • • • • • • • • • » • • •
12
CHAPTER
ill
The parochial schools of the Middle
colonies
•• • •
15
Summary of the chapter . • . ♦ . ...........
III.
THE FIRST FRONTIER
..........
17
19
The first frontier in New England . . . .
19
The Indian wars and the expanding
frontier
. . • • • • • • • • • • . . .
Frontier objectives in education
The academy
20
. . . .
21
..........
22
Little change in educational practice in
the South
..........
24
............
25
THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY . . . . . . . . . . .
27
Summary of the chapter
IV.
.
Independence and education
. . . . . . .
27
Early education In the Northwest
T e r r i t o r y ..........
34
The educational awakening in the United
States
............
34
The type of schools found in the North­
west T e r r i t o r y
.
34
The defeat of the charity schools . . . .
35
The high school in the Northwest Territory
35
Education for women
35
...............
Church colleges in the west prior
Summary of the chapter
to 1850
37
...........
39
CHAPTER
V.
iv
CALIFORNIA AND THE MINING FRONTIER
........
41
Important factors bearing upon the develop­
ment of public education in California
•
41
Cosmopolitan nature of the population • • .
41
The wealth of opportunity for success affordby m i n i n g ...................
42
The political status of California
. . . .
Early California school l a w s ..........
Constitutional provisions . . . .
VI.
• • • •
.
........
Early statute laws regarding education
Summary of the chapter
42
. .
........
THE GREAT P L A I N S ..............................
The great plains, a delayed frontier
42
42
43
54
56
...
56
The political situation ...................
57
National land laws
...........
58
Frontier aspects of e d u c a t i o n .............
61
The European educational influences in the
west
.................
Early Iowa educational practices
Higher education in Iowa
62
. . . . .
62
..........
63
Early education in K a n s a s .................
64
The extension of suffrage in the west . . .
68
Higher education on the p l a i n s ...........
69
A complete system of public education . . .
71
Summary of the c h a p t e r ...................
71
CHAPTER
VII.
v
IMPLICATIONS OP THE CLOSED F R O N T I E R .........
73
Old and new frontiers in the United States
73
Educational thought as a directing force
.
74
New/ forces in American life today . * . . .
74
The new pioneer • • • • • « • • • • • • • •
75
The challenge to education and its leader^
s h i p .......................
VIII. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
. . . . . .
76
.........
Summary . ...................
Conclusion
77
• • • « • • • • • • •
B I BLIOGRAPHY...............
77
.........
. ............ .
85
90
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
Introduction to the probiem.
The Italian historian,
Loria, has the following to say regarding the significance
of the American frontier :
America has the key to the historical enigma which
Europe has sought for centuries in vain, and the land
which has no history reveals luminously the course of
universal history* 1
This revelation according to Loria is found in the spectacle
of the unfolding frontier. Indeed, much importance has been
attributed to the influence of the frontier in connection
with nearly every phase of American life. Americans are
practical and resourceful. This practical resourcefulness,
say the historians, is an outgrowth of frontier life. Amer­
icans are also daring and adventuresome in their under-takings.
The frontier again receives the credit. The American philos­
ophy and practice of public education is the most unique of
any in the world. To what extent was this American idea of
public education an outgrowth of frontier influence ? It
was for the purpose of answering this question that this
study has been attempted.
1
Frederick J,Turner, The Frontier in American History
(New York; Henry Holt Company, 1920)", "pT 11 •
2
Statement of the problem.
How did the changing
frontier life affect educational thought in the United
States? In other words, the purpose of this study was to
answer the following questions :
1. What was the philosophy of education in colonial
United States?
a. In New England?
b. In the Middle States?
c. In the South?
2. What were the forces underlying the development
of this early conception of education?
3. How did the philosophy of life, as developed on
the moving frontier, become a determining factor in the
formation of the changing patterns of educational thought
in the United States?
4. Does the disappearance of the geographical frontier
hold any significant implications for the future educational
thought in the United States?
Importance of the problem.
In the year 1893 Professor
Frederick Jackson Turner read a paper to the American Hist­
orical Society, convening in Chicago, that was destined to
revolutionize historical thought In America. The title of
Professor Turner’s paper was :
"The Significance of the
American Frontier." In this, now famous,essay Professor
Turner says :
3
Thus American development has exhibited, not merely
advance along a single line, but a return to the primitive
conditions on a continually advancing frontier line, and
a new development of that area. • • • American social
development has been continually beginning over again on
the frontier. This perennial rebirth, this fluidity of
American life, this expansion westward with its new
opportunities, Its continuous touch with the simplicity
of primitive society, furnish the forces dominating
American character. The true point of view in the history
of this nation is not the Atlantic coast; it is the great
west. Behind institutions, behind constitutional forms
and modifications, lie the vital forces that call these
organs into life and shape them to meet changing conditions.
The peculiarity of American institutions is the fact that
they have been compelled to adapt themselves to the changes
involved in crossing a continent, in winning a wilderness,
and in developing at each area progress out of the prim­
itive economic and political conditions of the frontier
into the complexity of city life. &
The great western frontier has been to the Americans
what the Mediterranean was to the Greeks —
a challenge and
a fulfillment. There is a rather definite agreement among
historians and scholars in general that the frontier has
definitely shaped the social, political, and economic
institutions in the United States. It seems only reasonable
to suppose then that these same influences of the frontier
have, in a like manner, influenced our most important
institution, the public school.
Therefore, it seems to the writer that a study designed
to discover what these influences were, the manner in which
they were manifested, and the extent to which they contributed
The Frontier in American
Frederick J.Turner, _______
(New York: Henry Holt Company, 1920), P 2
“
4
to the establishment of modern public education as we now
have it would be of general interest to the student of
American educational thought.
Such a study should challenge the student of education
to discover the factors underlying educational thought in
America. It should also urge him to investigate such quest­
ions as : (1) What direction will future educational thought
in this country follow? (2) What influences in modern Amer­
ican life will supplant those formerly wielded by the frontier?
(3) Will these new influences be for a broader, more virile
and more democratic educational philosophy or will they tend
to mold present educational ideas into a static philosophy
based on the past?
These and many more questions are important in this
day of international change and disillusionment. Educational
thought in the United States will determine the future course
of national progress. It is, therefore, of particular import­
ance to students of education to examine carefully all the
factors which have contributed to the American way of life
as we now have it in order that the new philosophy will
prove a true beacon of leadership through the maze of "new
frontiers1’ that now confront the youth of the nation.
Definition of terms.
Frontier. For the purpose of this discussion the term
5
^frontier" will be considered to refer, not alone to that
narrow border-land between the civilized and •uncivilized
portions of our country as it existed from time to time, but
to that larger area which contained the scattered dwellings
of. those American pioneers who, without awaiting the coming
of the more orderly process of settlement, pushed fearlessly
into the wilderness hundreds of miles from the older settle­
ments •
Educational thought. Educational thought will be con­
strued to mean the broad underlying principles of thought
in the United States which have determined the type and extent
of public education In this country.
Scope of the investigation. In this Investigation no
exhaustive treatment of either the backgrounds or the general
factors which have contributed to the formation of American
educational thought was attempted. On the contrary, with the
exception of brief summaries of these backgrounds and general
factors, the study was restricted to an examination and
evaluation of a single important factor —
the moving frontier.
Furthermore, this study was concerned with the general
influences exercised upon American life by the frontier only
■k0 the extent in which that influence affected educational
thought. Finally, only a few of the most typical frontiers
were studied.
6
Source material for the study, The source material for
the study, as listed in the bibliography, can be classified
under the following general heads :
Biography, The lives of prominent American leaders
were used to discover the trends of educational thought in
the United States at different periods of time. Among the
lives studied some of the more important were :
George
Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Andrew Jackson, De Witt Clinton,
Horace Mann, Edward Everett Hale, Benjamin Franklin, Abraham
Lincoln, Jefferson Davis, Henry Clay, John C.Calhoun, William
Henry Harrison, General John Fremont, Lieutenant Colonel
Zebulon Pike, Aaron Burr, Stephen A*Douglas, Peter Cartwright,
George Rogers Clark, Davy Crockett, Sam Houston, George Cooke,
and Father Junipero Serra,
School laws. The school laws of the cities, districts,
and states were examined as a reflecting source of public
thought. Especially valuable, in this connection, were the
earl# records of the cities of Boston, Philadelphia, Hew
York, Charleston, St,Louis, Denver, Hew Orleans, Chicago,
and San Francisco.
The educational objectives of Father Serra also
proved of great value in this study as did the records of
the Methodist Church which referred to the educational
policy of the church and missionary enterprises in the west-
7
ern settlements.
The early state and district records of the states of
Kentucky, Virginia,'iillllnois, Indiana, Missouri, Minnesota,
Wyoming, Arizona, Iowa, Ohio, Kansas, Texas, California,
Pennsylvania, Hew York, and Massachusetts throw considerable
light on educational thought in the different sections of
the country at different periods of time.
Land laws. The land laws of both the state and nat­
ional governments are closely related to educational thought
and practice. The Ordinance of 1787 Is an outstanding example
of a national law. The land laws of such states as Virginia,
Massachusetts, New York, Maryland, Illinois, Ohio, and Iowa
were most carefully examined.
American literature. Special attention was paid to the
group of mid-western writers known as the "Realists” .
Especially important were the following : Eggleston1s, The
Hoosier 8 choolmaster, Herbert Quick’s, The Brown Mouse,
Garland’s, Main-travelled Roads, and Sandberg’s, The Prairie
Years. The novels by Kenneth Roberts furnished rich and
intimate details of the-early northeast frontier.
History. The histories of the United States, both
social and political, were freely consulted. Some of the
most valuable histories for this study were : Elston, Social
History of the United States, Parkman, The Oregon Trail,
Roosevelt, Winning of the West, J.T.Adams, Epic of America,
and The March of Democracy, Owen C.Coy, The G-reat Trek,
and Bancroft1s works.
Many histories of education were used in this study.
The histories of education most useful for this work were
those of Cubberley, Inglis, Douglass, Englehardt, and Swett.
Western non-fiction and personal accounts and diaries.
The diaries of such men as Jedidiah Smith, Pattie, Pike,
and Fremont were particularly helpful in this investigation.
The recent publications of a non-fictional character
dealing with significant phases of the frontier were quite
valuable to this study. The books of Stanley Vestal and
J.Frank Dobie were most frequently consulted.
Organization of the chapters. The second chapter is
devoted to a brief account of the three most important
educational philosophies brought to America by the colonial
peoples. Some space is also given to indicate reasons why
each type of thought was found where it was.
Chapter three is a brief description of how the first
frontier modified these early conceptions of educational
thought and ushered in new ideas and practices.
Chapter four deals with the frontier problems of the
Northwest Territory as they relate to education. Particular
9
consideration is given to the land laws which greatly
influenced public education in the United States.
Chapter five discusses the unique G a l i f o m i a frontier
%
and education. Unusual space is given to the early California
school laws because they have definitely influenced school
legislation in many western states.
Chapter six is a study of the educational ideology as
developed on the great western plains. Several important
developments were discussed, the most significant of which
were : (1) Private education,
(2) Religious influence,
(3) Woman suffrage and (4) Coeducational, state supported
universities.
Chapter seven sets forth a few of the many problems
facing American educational leaders as a result of the closed
frontier.
Chapter eight is composed of a summary of the preced­
ing seven chapters and the conclusions drawn from the study
as to the importance of the moving frontier in the formation
of educational thought in the United States.
CHAPTER II
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
There exists today in many quarters the idea that the
pattern of educational thought in the United States is to a
large degree, a transplanted replica of the English system of
education* This popular belief is, however, quite erroneous.
The foundation materials from which rose the unique structure
of American public education were supplied by the fusion of
several European educational philosophies tempered by two
factors of non-English origin,
(1) the Calvinistic doctrine
of the church controlled state with its attendant educational
responsibility and (2) the purely American factor, the moving
frontier.
The English theory in America. The Virginia colony
affords the most striking illustration of the transplanted
English theory of education in the United States. In the
South society was or ganized along much the same lines as in
rural England. Physical factors were largely responsible for
this similarity, the climate and soil being ideally suited
to large scale agricultural operations. An agricultural
system organized around the large plantation idea called for
a wealthy land owning class, a class of society which felt
no urge to champion free education for all the children.
11
The children of the well-to-do class were taught at
home by tutors, sent to select private schools in the north
or, as in the case of the wealthy, sent to England. To the
Established Church, which dominated this section of America,
was left the dubious task of teaching the children of the
poor to read. The general practice regarding the education
of orphans and paupers was to see that each was taught a trade
suitable to his position in society through the apprentice
system.
Such an educational plan was an exact counterpart of
the English practice which held that education was not a
governmental responsibility, but rather a private enterprise
for those who could afford the expense. As a matter of fact
the English authorities preferred that the common people
remain in an untutored state as a guarantee against popular
discontent with the prevailing political, economic, and
social systems. Governor Berkeley, of the Virginia colony as
late as 1671 issued the following statement :
I thank God there are no free schools nor printing,
and I hope we shall not have these hundred years, for
learning has brought disobedience into the world and
printing has divulged them and libels against the best
governments. God keep us from both. 3
3
Mary Johnston, Pioneers of the Old South,
(Hew Haven : Yale U. Press, 1918), p. 168.
12
The Calvin!stic idea of religious education. In New
England a very un-English philosophy of education prevailed.
New England was peopled largely by dissenters who held to
the teachings of John Calvin. Calvinistic theories not being
countenanced in England, it behooved such Englishmen as held
them to migrate to such places as would allow their practice.
In New England these English Calvinists founded colonies and
put their peculiar ideology into practice. The Calvinists
believed in a church dominated state, holding that it was the
prime duty of the state to teach all of its children so that
they might become both better Christians and better citizens.
In New England soil, climate, and Indian troubles all
united to keep the colonists in small compact groups near the
coast. Each settlement embraced the village and adjacent lands
and was referred to as a Mtownn . In government the town was
both a political unit and a religious community. The same
gentlemen, who politically were known as selectmen, were also
the religious regulators. Hence the church fathers found it
no difficult feat to persuade themselves, while sitting as
the civil authority, to pass laws designed to carry out their
will as leaders of the church.
Education in New England before 1642 was voluntary and
a fair copy of the English system which left the duty of
teaching the children to read up to the home and master
apprentices. Latin grammar schools were established to prepare
13
carefully selected youths for entrance to Harvard which was
a typical English college whose main duty was to train young
men for the ministry*
Such a system was neither democratic nor successful
in the eyes of the church fathers. Calvinism contended that
every boy and girl should be taught to read so that they
would be both better church members and better citizens.
Moreover the church fathers were convinced that a large
number of parents were falling down o*i the job of home in­
struction in both reading and religion. Consequently the
Massachusetts legislature passed the startling Law. of 1642
which, for the first time, required the officials of each
toim to investigate as to whether the parents were properly
providing for the educational needs of the children and were
empowered to impose fines on those who were negligent in
this respect. The government was particularly concerned with
the children being taught to, ’’Read and understand the
principles of religion and the capital laws of the country.”4
Because of Indian troubles and the difficulties of the frontier
life, the investigators found that this parental function
4
Ellwood P.Cubberley, Public Education in the United
States, (Boston : Houghton Mifflin Company, 1919T, p. 17.
14
had been sadly neglected. Consequestly, in 1647, Massachu­
setts passed an even more significant law, the Law of 1647.
This law had two famous provisions
:
1, That every town having fifty householders should
at once appoint a teacher of reading and writing, and
provide for his wages in such manner as the town might
determine; and
2. That every town having one hundred householders
must provide a (Latin) grammar school to fit youths
for the university under a penalty of five pounds sterling
for failure to do so. 5
Cubberley in commenting on these two remarkable laws
says :
This Law represents a distinct advance over the Law
of 1642. TJie State here, acting again as the servant of
the Church,' enacted a law for which there were no Eng­
lish precedents. Not only was a school system ordered
established — elementary for all towns and children,
and secondary for the youths in the larger towns — but,
for the first time among English-speaking people, there
was the assertion of the right of the State to require
communities to establish and maintain schools, under
penalty of a fine if they refused to do so. 6
While the form of these schools was English, the spirit
or philosophy underlying them was decidedly new, an .American
contribution through the Church controlled State. As American
frontier conditions continued their influence upon these
transplanted New Englanders, conceptions of education became
5
Ellwood P Cubberley, Fublic Education in the United
States, (Boston : fioughton Mifflin Company, 191STJ", p. 18.
6
Ibid., p. 18.
15
more democratic and practical in nature and more public in
control. Such a system of education as this was no replica
of the undemocratic system of selective education as pract­
iced in England, but an American development, fostered by
the very corner stone of public education in the United
States.
The parochial school conception of education in the
Middle colonies. In the middle colonies a third attitude
toward education was evolved. It must be remembered that
the middle colonies were so situated as to become the cross­
roads of the various European races in the hew world. Dutch,
Swede, Scotch, Irish, German, and English all mingled in
these colonies. In Pennsylvania and New York originated all
the great highways leading to the west. Turner calls it the
most American section of all :
The Middle region, entered by New York harbor, was an
open door to all Europe. The tide-water part of the South
represented typical Englishmen, modified by a warm cli­
mate and servile labor, and living in baronial fashion
on great plantations; New England stood for a special
English movement — Puritanism. The Middle region was less
English than the other sections. It had a wide mixture
of nationalities, a varied society, the mixed town and
county system of local government, a varied economic
life, many religious sects. In short, it was a region
mediating between New England and the South, and the
East and the West. It represented that composite nation­
ality which the contemporary United States exhibits, that
juxtaposition of non-English groups, occupying a valley
or a little settlement, and presenting reflections of the
map of Europe in their variety. It was democratic and
non-sectional, If not national; !,easy, tolerant, and contented11; rooted strongly in material prosperity. It was
16
typical of the modern United States, It was least sect­
ional, not only because it lay between North and South,
but also because with no barriers to shut out its front­
iers from its settled region, and with a system of con­
necting waterways, the Middle region mediated between
East and West as well as between North and South. Thus
it became the typically American region. Even the New
Englander, who was shut out from the frontier by the
Middle region, tarrying in New York or Pennsylvania on
his westward march, lost the acuteness of his section­
alism on the way.
In this middle section of colonial America no religious
sect was strong enough to dominate the political government
as was true of New England. Hence we
compulsory schools
do not have the state
in this region. However, since a reading
knowledge of the Scriptures was deemed necessary as a means
to personal salvation, some education was accomplished by
the churches.
The prevailing types were : (1) parish schools estab­
lished by the different religious denominations and (2) pri­
vate or pay schools for the more wealthy class. In the parish
type of school the educational offerings were few and of an
indifferent nature. Usually the pastor or sexton served as the
master and the chief studies were reading and singing both of
which were necessary to the services
The private
7
schools, while of
of the church.
a much better character
Frederick J.Turner, The Frontier in American History.
(New York : Henry Holt Company, 1920), pp. 27, 28.
17
than those of the parish, were ineffectual as a means of
public education on account of the limiting factor of expense.
In general it may be said that few free public educational
opportunities existed in the middle section of colonial
America.
SUMMARY
In this chapter the three fundamental types of
European educational-^practices as found in colonial America
have been reviewed,
1. In Virginia and in the South in general, a trans­
planted English philosophy of private responsibility for
education was found to prevail. This philosophy was expressed
in the practice of hiring private tutors in the homes and the
sending of the youth to private pay schools in the North and
to England at the expense of the parents. The Established
Church offered some opportunity for teaching the essentials
of reading to the poor while the government undertook to see
that orphans and paupers were taught trades through the
apprentice system. There was little or no governmental recog­
nition in the South until after the Civil War for universal
education at public expense.
£*1 New England. In New .England the non-English
idea of the religious state existed. Under this plan the
18
state assumed direct responsibility for the education of all
the children. Common or Latin Grammar Schools were provided
for in every town and the people were taxed to support public
education. This was a new and startling educational idea.
3*
Middle section. This region presented a more
or less mixed attitude toward education. The parish school
taught some reading to those of its own denomination while
private schools offered a better educational program to the
relatively few who could pay for the privilege.
In chapter three the effect of the first frontier upon
these general types of colonial educational institutions
will be discussed.
CHAPTER III
THE FIRST FRONTIER
In the preceding chapter the three fundamental
philosophies of early American public education have been
discussed. The succeeding chapters of this investigation
will continue the study of these three basic Ideas of ed­
ucation in the light of changing conditions brought about
by a constantly shifting frontier.
The first frontier in New England. It must .be re­
membered that the first colonists found a frontier beginning
at the very edge of the Atlantic. Many of their preconceived
ideas of life had to undergo instant and sometimes revolut­
ionary change. As each succeeding wave of westward expansion
took place, new Ideas were evolved to meet the needs of
primitive life. What had been deemed essential for an English
community in England or in the more settled east of colonial
America was neither necessary nor possible on the frontier.
This condition was particularly true of education.
The colonial leaders, in their efforts to establish
an English society in a new world, overreached themselves.
The Massachusetts school laws of 1642 and 1647 were designed
to fulfill the educational needs of a typical English commun­
ity under normal settled conditions. Events soon proved that
20
any such program was not only unsuitable but impossible when
applied to American frontier conditions♦
The Indian wars and the expanding frontiers* The
Indian wars in New England had two direct effects upon the
school program as set up by the Law of 1647, First, the
expense attendant to the successful prosecution of the wars
caused the partial abandonment of the tax supported town
schools* Dover, New Hampshire, addressed the following petit­
ion to the assembly :
That whereas the said town is one of the most exposed
towns in this Province to the insults of the Indian enemy,
and also whereas by an act of the General Assembly of this
Province the said town of Dover (amongst others) is oblig­
ed by said act to keep and maintain a grammar school, and
whereas the circumstances and situation or settlements of
the inhabitants of said town lying and being in such a
manner as It is, the houses being so scattered over the
whole township that in no one place six houses are within
call, by which inconveniency the inhabitants of said town
can have no benefit of such grammar school, for at the
times fit for children to go and come from school, is
generally the chief time of the Indians doing mischief,
so that the inhabitants are afraid to send their children
to school, and the children dare not venture; so that the
salary to said schoolmaster is wholly lost to said town.°
Second, the removal of Indian dangers stimulated the westward
expansion of the colonial peoples. By the close of the seven­
teenth century numerous new western settlements were found
throughout western New England* Since It was no longer possible
8
Edwin E.Slosson, The American Spirit in Education,
(New Haven : Yale University Press, 1921), pp. 6,7*
21
to send the children back to the town school, some new plan
for schools had to be formulated* The "moving school" was a
partial answer to the problem, but was in the eighteenth
century succeeded by the district system* The original towns
were eventually divided into districts, each having its own
school paid for by a tax levied on the property of that
district or by rate assessments* The affairs of the district
were managed by the district itself. This type of school
organization became the prototype of the present local school
organization.in the United States.
Frontier objectives in education. The objectives of
education in these new communities were very different from
those considered essential in the original settlements. The
religious element was no longer important. Frontiersmen
needed to be able to shoot straight rather than to argue with
skill and authority upon theoretical religious problems or to
read Latin* The child of the frontiersman needed knowledge of
woodcraft, Indian language, the ability to trap and trade.
Book education naturally declined; schools became fewer in
number and poorer in their offerings. On the frontier formal
learning came back once again to the parent and the church.
In the original settlements north of Virginia a marked
change also took place. Wo longer were the people interested
principally in agriculture. Manufacturing, trade, and ship
building were great interests now. Seaboard merchants and
22
manufacturers wanted apprentices with "basic training of some
practical value to their particular "business. The Latin school
declined in favor of the more practical Academy which proved
to be more suitable to the needs of the new country.
The Academy, an outgrowth of frontier -needs in education,.
The Academy movement was a direct result of the demands of a
frontier dominated society for an educational offering suitable
to the needs of a new country. During the latter part of the
eighteenth century the Academy gradually took precedence over
the more selective Latin Grammar school. One of the chief
characteristics of the Academy was its curriculum. While still
offering instruction in Latin and Greek, the Academies
specialized in a broad general educational offering designed
to more adequately prepare youth for effective citizenship
in a frontier country. English grammar, oratory, declamation,
geometry, arithmetic, algebra, geography, astronomy, survey­
ing, rhetoric, navigation as well as moral philosophy and
Roman history were among the subjects taught. Benjamin Frank­
lin, possibly the leading advocate of the Academy proclaimed
his views in some ^Proposals Relating to the Education of the
Youth in Pennsylvania.”
As to their studies, it Y/ould be well if they could
be taught everything that is useful, and everything that
is ornamental. But art is long, and their time is short.
It is therefore proposed that they learn those things that
are likely to be most useful and most ornamental, regard
being had to the several professions for which they are
intended.
23
Youth, will come out of this school fitted for learning
any business, calling, or profession, except such wherein
languages are required; and> though unacquainted with any
ancient or foreign tongue, they will be masters of their
own, which is of more immediate and general use, and with­
al will have attained many other valuable accomplishments
Truly the frontier demands for a more practical school had
borne fruit.
A second characteristic of the Academy lay in its
control. While it is true that Academies were started largely
through private groups, private control was gradually cur­
tailed by the granting of more and more government assistance.
The various state governments early adopted the practice of
granting land, the sale or lease of which, was to go toward
the maintenance of the new Academies. With the granting of
these land bounties the state naturally demanded more voice
in the management of the Academies. The state authority
finally ended in the elimination of church control in public
education.
While the Academies stressed the religious need in
education they represented a transition from the control of
schools by particular churches. The original grant for
Phillips Academy at Andover, Massachusetts brings out this
point in the statement of its aims :
To lay the foundation of a public free school or
9
David C.Cloyd, Ben.jamin Franklin and Education,
(Heath, 1902), pp. 73-85.
24
ACADEMY for the purpose of Instructing Youth, not only
in English and Latin Grammar, Writing, Arithmetic, and
those Sciences wherein they are commonly taught; but
more especially to learn them the GREAT AND REAL BUSINESS
OP LIVING • • . It is again declared the first and
principle object of this Institution in the promo11on
of true PIETY and VIRTUE; the second. Instruction In the
English, Latin, and Greek Languages, together with Writ­
ing, Arithmetic, Music, and the Art of Speaking; the
third, practical Geometry, Logic, and Geography; and the
fourth, such other liberal Arts and Sciences or Languages,
as opportunity and ability may hereafter admit, and as
the TRUSTEES shall direct.1°
G.H.Martin says :
In spite of the fact that the laws recognized the
rights of girls to at least elementary Instruction, less
than forty per cent of the women whose names appear on
recorded deeds in Massachusetts during the early part of
the eighteenth century were able to write their own
signatures, the rest having to attest by marks.
The Latin Grammar school w as a school exclusively for boys,
but now, in view of the more democratic nature of educational
Ideas, Academies were established for girls as well as boys
and before long many were coeducational.
Little change in educational practice in the South.
In the South expansion had also taken place. White bondsmen
after fulfilling their allotted years as servants pushed
westward into the Appalachians. The chief interest of this
group of pioneers was in the acquisition of skills to over-
10
Ellwood P.Cubberley, Public Education In the United
(Boston : Houghton Mifflin Company, 1919T, p. 188.
11
G.H.Martin, Evolution of the Massachusetts Public
School System, (1894), p. 141.
States,
25
com© the problems of the wilderness, not in book learning.
In the original southern colonies the release of so many
indentured servants, negro slavery, and the presence of a
society organized on a class basis forbade a free public
system of education. Consequently education continued there
much as it had in the past until after the Civil War.
SUMMARY
In this chapter the original philosophies of education
in colonial America have been reviewed in the light of the
demands made by the first frontiers. Several distinctive
modifications to both the theory and practice of education
have been noted which were the direct results of the demands
of a frontier society.
First. The Massachusetts school laws of 1642 and 1647
were overambitious. In theory they were designed to meet the
needs of a settled English community rather than the exigency
of a struggling frontier settlement in a new world. In pract­
ice the provisions of these laws were impractical for several
reasons. In the first place, the expense of Indian wars united
with the general poverty of early colonial existence combined
to make their success impossible. Again, the extension of the
frontier after the removal of the Indian dangers, spelled the
final failure of the town system since children from the more
distant regions could not be transported to the central town
26
school. Finally the type of education provided for was not
suitable to the needs of a vigorous people pitting their
every resource against a harsh and demanding frontier.
Second. The district system, which became the proto­
type of American public school organization and control, re­
presented a natural evolution of educational organization to
meet frontier needs.
Third. The decline of classical education in favor of
the more democratic and practical curriculum of the Academy
shows the clear recognition of the new needs in education to
meet the changing conditions of American life as influenced
by the west.
Fourth. 'The control of public education continued to
shift from the church to the state because of the increased
public aid given largely in land grants to the new Academies.
CHAPTER IV
THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY
In chapter three the changes In "both the theory and
the practice of public education in colonial America were
examined with particular reference to the influences wielded
by the opening of new frontiers to the west of the seaboard
colonies. In this chapter the frontiers of the Northwest
will be studied with relation to public education.
Independence and education.
The Revolutionary War had
two important effects upon education in the United States.
The immediate effect was one of extreme curtailment. During
the war every resource was employed to win independence.
There were no funds to carry on the educational program and
the leaders of the country were occupied with matters of
state rather than of education. For many years after the war
a like condition' existed. There were grave doubts as to the
success of the new government. It was not until after the
War of 1812 that confidence began to replace skepticism on
the national scene. With this returning confidence interest
in education received new impetus.
The second important effect of Independence upon
public education was a fundamental change in view point
concerning its Importance and type. Independence, itself a
28
product of the frontier, led to the establishment of a gov­
ernment by the people and for the people. Such a government
required an intelligent electorate to insure Its success.
The early leaders of the Republic were strong advocates
for education. Washington voiced his support of education in
these lines from his Farewell Address :
Promote then, as an object of primary Importance,
institutions for the general diffusion of knowledge. In
proportion as the structure of a government gives force
to public opinion, it is essential that public opinion
should be enlightened.3-2
In his will Washington left considerable funds to carry out
his wishes regarding education which were expressed in these
words :
It has been my ardent wish to see a plan devised on a
liberal scale, which would have a tendency to spread
systematic ideas through all parts of this rising empire
thereby to do away with local attachments and State
prejudices, as far as the nature of things would, or
indeed ought to admit, from our national councils. Look­
ing anxiously forward to the accomplishment of so desir­
able an object as this is (in my estimation), my mind
has not been able to contemplate any plan more likely
to effect the measure, than the establishment of a
UNIVERSITY in the central part of the United States, to
which the youths of fortune and talents from all parts
thereof may be sent for the completion of their educat­
ion, In all branches of polite literature, in arts and
sciences, in acquiring knowledge in the principles of
politics and good government, and, as a matter of in­
finite importance in my judgment, by associating with
each other, and forming friendships in juvenile years
12
States,
Ellwood P.Cubber|?ey, Public Education in the United
(Boston : Houghton Mifflin Company, 1919), p. 57.
29
be enabled to free themselves in a proper degree from
those local prejudices and habitual jealousies which
have just been mentioned, and which, when carried to
excess, are never-failing sources of disquietude to the
public mind, and pregnant of mischievous consequences
to this country.1^
Jefferson always a great champion of both democracy
and education wrote the following to James Madison in 1787 :
Above all things, I hope the education of the common
people vfill be attended to; convinced that on their good
sense we may rely with^the most security for the preser­
vation of a due degree of liberty. 4
In 1816, Jefferson again said :
If a nation expects to be ignorant and free in a state
of civilization it expects what never was and never will
be, . . . There is no safe deposit for the functions of
government, but with the people themselves; nor can they
be safe with them, without information. 5
James Madison wrote :
A satisfactory plan for primary education is certainly
a vital desideratum in our republics,
A popular government without information or
of acquiring it is but a propogue to a farce or
or perhaps, both. Knowledge will forever govern
and a people who mean to be their own governors
themselves with the power which knowledge gives
the means
a tragedy,
ignorance;
must arm
13
Edwin E.Slosson, The American Spirit in Education,
(New Haven : Yale University Press, 1921), p. 96,
14
Ellwood P. Cubberley, Public Education in the United
States, (Boston : Houghton Mifflin Company, 1919*77 p. 57.
15
Loc. Cit.
16
Loc.' Cit.
30
Two major difficulties, however, stood in the way of
the accomplishment of such ideals of education in this region.
First, the lack of adequately trained teachers and second,
the inability of the greater part of the country to support
an adequate school program. The establishment of the Academies
with their emphasis upon teacher training tended to solve
the first of these difficulties while the abundance of gov­
ernment land afforded a partial solution for the second.
All the land lying between the Alleghenies and the
Mississippi River south of the Great Lakes and north of the
Ohio was ceded to the national government by the various
claimant states by 1787. By the famous Ordinance of 1787
Congress expressed itself regarding education as follows :
’’Religion, Morality, and knowledge being necessary to
good government and the happiness of mankind, schools
and the means of education shall be forever encouraged”
in the States to be formed from this territory.17
Before the Revolutionary War many hardy frontiersmen had
migrated into the Ohio country. Boone, Sevier, Robertson
and others had established permanent communities in Kentucky
and Tennessee. From these central communities many small
settlements were established on both binks of the Ohio which
was the great highway to the west. After the war the valleys
of western New York and Pennsylvania were rapidly filled by
3?7
Ellwood P.Cubberley, Public Education in the United
States,(Boston : Houghton Mifflin Company, 1919*17 P* 59.
31
settlers from the seaboard states and immigrants from the
British Isles and Germany• Soon settlements extended west­
ward into the Northwest Territory by way of the Mohawk valley
and the Cumberland Road, .The immigrants from Europe were in
many instances better educated than the .Americans from the
seaboard states. 'These European immigrants, particularly the
Germans, were strongly in favor of education believing it to
be the best guarantee for the future success of their child­
ren.
Most of the Americans from the original states were
of a generation far removed from England. They had been born
in America and many had grown up since the war. Their out­
look was purely American, influenced more by frontier needs
than by the cultural backgrounds of their fathers. The mingl­
ing of these peoples on the frontier with their diverse ed­
ucational ideas tended to build a new American philosophy of
education.
De Witt Clinton, while governor of New York, was_
particularly interested in education. In a statement to the
New York Legislature, in 1827, he urged state aid to academies
suggesting that they be t!located at county towns throughout
the state to give a practical scientific education suited to
the wants of farmers, merchants, and mechanics, and also to
train teachers for the common schools of the state.ft
Ohio, after its admission to the Union in 1803, pro-
32
posed to tax the vast holdings of public lands within its
borders to raise money to maintain schools. Congress, how­
ever, being eager to facilitate the sale of public lands
was opposed to this plan and offered to Ohio and all states
subsequently to be formed from the territory one section in
each township of the public lands to be used to promote
public education. This agreement w as wisely accepted by Ohio
and has become an important basis for the support of education
throughout the west.
Now that a means for the support of public education
was found, educationally-minded sections of the frontier
made liberal educational provision in their state constitut­
ions or statute laws. The Ohio constitution had the following
torsay concerning education in the state :
Art.VIII, 25. That no law shall be passed to prevent
the poor in the several counties and townships within
the State from an equal participation in the schools,
academies, colleges, and universities within this state,
which are endowed, in whole or in part, from the revenues
arising from the donations made by the United States for
the support of schools and colleges * and the doors of
said schools, academies, and universities shall be open
for the reception of scholars, students, and teachers
of every grade, without distinction, or preference what­
ever, contrary to the intent for which said donations
were made.-**®
The Indiana constitution of 1816 contained this pro­
vision for education :
18
States,
Ellwood P.Cubberley, Public Education in the United
(Boston : Houghton Mifflin Company, 191$T7, p. 75.
33
Art* IX, Sec.2* It shall he the duty of the general
assembly, as soon as circumstances will permit, to pro­
vide by law for a general system of education, ascend­
ing in regular gradations from township schools to a
State university, wherein tuition shall be gratis and
equally open to all*
Michigan, while still a territory, passed a revolut­
ionary law taxing the-property owned by non-residents for
school purposes. When admitted as a state in 1835, Michigan
provided for the first state Superintendent of Public In­
struction along with this excellent constitutional plan for
education :
Sec. 3. The legislature shall provide for a system of
common schools, by which a school shall be kept up and
supported in each school district at least three months
in every year; and any school district neglecting to
keep up and support such school may be deprived of its
equal proportion of the interest of the public (school)
fund*2u
Wisconsin, admitted in 1848, had a constitutional
plan for education modelled on the Massachusetts district
system.
On the frontier, where democratic ideas and practices
were strongest, the ideas of Clinton, Mann, and Barnard
found a strong following. Mannfs insistence upon a good
common school education for all children at public expense
became generally accepted throughout the west.
19
Ellwood P.Cubberley, Public Education in the United
States,(Boston :Houghton Mifflin Company, 1919), p.75.
20
Ibid., p. 76.
34
The more democratic suffrage practices of the frontier
again emphasized the necessity for a good system of common
schools if the new electorate was to he an intelligent one.
Early education in the Northwest Territory. During
the early days of the Northwest Territory little progress
was made in education. The problems of establishment on the
new frontier and, as has been stated, the weakness and u n­
certainty concerning the new government at Washington, both
united to keep people1s attention centered upon problems
of the present rather than upon future objectives.
The educational awakening in the United States. Most
authorities use the year 1820 to mark the beginning of the
great revival of interest in public education which swept
the country during the second quarter of the nineteenth
century. As more settlers poured into the Northwest Territory
after the War of 1812, schools made rapid progress.
The type of schools found in the Northwest Territory.
On this frontier a real American school developed. The New
England element, augmented by New Yorkers, after the com­
pletion of the Erie Canal in 1825, early secured favorable
school laws and public support to maintain them. The typically
American school of the 3-Rfs became the common school of this
region. The text-books, teachers, and general equipment were
,fhomespunu variety, but they were free and supported by the
35
public.
The defeat of the charity schools. The pauper schools
of the east found no favor in the land where one m a n ’s
children were deemed as good as another’s. In the east poor
parents often had too much pride to send their children to
the ’’free schools for indigents.” In the west the charity
schools died a quick but permanent death.
The high school in the Northwest Territory. In the
more thickly populated portions of the Northwest the academy
was held in high esteem. The state governments contributed
generously to its support from the first. People on the
frontier, however, began to ask why public education at the
secondary level should not be free for all. The so-called
’’English Grammar School” or high school of New England
origin, grew in popular favor and became the successor to
the academy. Thus was provided a free school system from the
elementary grades to the college level.
Education for women, a result of frontier democracy.
New England girls were barred from the Latin Grammar schools.
What little education they received was in the Dame school*
Now the ’’Female” academies arose and other academies per­
mitted girls to attend. Emma Willard and Mary Lyon were
leaders in the movement to secure equal educational priv­
ileges for girls. With the coming of the high school, girls were
36
admitted on an equal footing with, boys in the west. Edwin
E.Slosson, in his book, The American Spirit in Education,
says :
For the first true colleges open to women we must
turn to the West and especially to an institution which,
though widely different from the New England seminary
in most respects, was yet founded in the same spirit
of democracy, economy, piety, and industry. Oberlin
Collegiate Institute, founded in 1833, was started in
the wilderness of Ohio by tow Congregational home
missionaries.21
The intentions of the founders are set forth in
their first, report as follows :
*The grand object is the diffusion of useful science,
sound morality, and pure religion among the growing
multitudes of the Mississippi valley. It aims also at
bearing an important part in extending these blessings
to thp destitute millions that overspread the earth,
For this purpose it proposes as its primary object the
thorough education of ministers and pious school teach­
ers; as a secondary object the elevation of female
character. And as a third general design, the education
of the common people with the higher classes in such
manner as suits the nature of republican institutions.*
This was an ambitious programme for a little wooden
building in a clearing of the backwoods of Ohio, but
the most remarkable thing about it is that the pro­
gramme has been carried out. ^
Regarding education for women, Cubberley has the
following to say, "Another change in the nature of instruet-
21
Edwin E.Slosson, American Spirit in Education,
(New Haven : Yale University Press, l§2l), p. 245.
22
Ibid. , p. 246.
37
ion to women." ^3
in 1800 women could not enter any college
in the United States. Today over eighty per cent of the
colleges and universities are coeducational. In the west
where coeducation received its greatest impetus the percentage
is well over ninety-five,per cent.
Church colleges in the west prior to 1850. The churches
have made no greater single contribution to the welfare of the
nation than through its educational missionary activities.
The churches had been active in elementary and secondary
schools of the west, but the crowning achievement was the
establishing of various denominational colleges through­
out the western states. These colleges provided a trained
leadership for the church, state, and school. The higher
education offered by these institutions was strongly re­
ligious in character and was one of the strongest influ­
ences behind the many reforms for which the west is noted.
Considerable financial support came from New England
in a spirit of religious contribution to the cause of home
missions. In 1833 Edward Everett concluded an appeal to
Bostonians on behalf of Kenyon College, Ohio, with the
following words which are Indicative of this spirit :
23
Ellwood P.Cubberley, Public Education in the United
States, (Boston : Houghton Mifflin Company, 1919J, p. 209.
38
They ask you, to make yourselves rich, in their re­
spect, goodwill, and gratitude; — to make your name
dear and venerable, in their distant shades. They ask
you, to give their young men cause to love you, now
in.the spring-time of life, before the heart is chilled
and hardened; to make their old men, who in the morn­
ing of their days, went out from your borders, lift
up their hands for a blessing on you, and say, 11Ah,
this is the good old-fashioned liberality of the land
where we were born.” Yes, sir, we shall raise an altar,
in the remote wilderness. Our eyes will not behold the
smoke of its incense, as it curls up to the heaven. But
there the altar will stand; and the worshipper who
comes, in all future time, to pay his devotions before
it, will turn his face to the Eastward, and think of
the land of his benefactors.24
Since the national government, through the granting
of lands for school purposes, had become an important con­
tributor to the support of schools it is surprising that it
made no effort to dictate educational policy. On the other
hand the state governments which had, in most instances,
also given support to the school program became the domin­
ating factor in the control of education, but delegated
most aspects of school control to the local communities.
The control of education by the church groups was, however,
restricted to private enterprise. The common school was now
a free public school, open to rich and poor alike, control­
led by the state, and designed to offer a practical educa­
tion suitable to the needs of the community. These element-
24
Edward Everett, Practical Education, (New. York :
Harper and Brothers Publishers, 1840), p . 171.
39
ary schools were linked to the free coeducational univer­
sities by the free public high schools.
SUMMARY
This chapter has presented a study of the changing
theories of education as found in the new frontier in the
Northwest. Certain conditions there tended to further
modify the already changing ideology of American education­
al thought.
First. Through frontier politics a firm financial
guarantee for education in the form of public land gifts
was secured by Ohio in 1802. By this plan pne section in
each township of public land was set aside to help pro­
vide for public education. This plan became the basic
practice of the national government toward public education
in the west and encouraged state governments to make similar
grants for educational needs.
Second. By the broadening of manhood suffrage pract­
ices the necessity for a system of public instruction for
all the children was stressed as the best means to develop
a more intelligent electorate.
Third. Other frontier conditions tending to increase
democratic practices in education were the emphasis upon
individual worth, the levelling of class distinctions, and
the recognition of the equal rights of all for the opportun-
40
ity to succeed under a free democratic government.
Fourth. School programs were "broadened to include
more practical instruction suitable to the needs of a
frontier society.
Fifth. .The land grants and various property taxes for
schools tended still further to break down religious control
and establish state control of public education.
Sixth. The mingling of the diverse nationalities in
this frontier tended to increase the democratic nature of
educational thought.
Seventh. Free public education on both secondary and
collegiate levels was a distinct contribution of the west
which made a lasting impression upon the educational
thought of America.
Eighth. The influence of church missionary enter­
prise as expressed in the founding of religious seminaries
and colleges in the west gave great impetus and religious
direction to both education and social reform.
CHAPTER V
CALIFORNIA AND THE MINING FRONTIER
In all the worldfs history there was never a frontier
comparable to that of California in the early, fifties. The
population was, perhaps, the most cosmopolitan to be found
in any one section on the globe. The development of an edu­
cational consciousness there was particularly interesting
and significant In relation to its contribution to the gen­
eral educational thought and practice of the nation as a
whole.
I.
IMPORTANT FACTORS BEARING UPON TH E DEVELOPMENT
OF PUBLIC EDUCATION IN CALIFORNIA
The cosmopolitan nature of the population. People came
to the California gold fields from every part of the world
and from all walks of life. The New England schoolmaster, with
his definite ideas of democratic education, rubbed shoulders
with the backwoodsman from the south who had little knowledge
and less Interest in the subject* Gold seekers from Europe
accustomed to rigid control by the government mingled with
the American fur trapper who accepted dictation from no man
or state. Bankers, preachers, clerks, farmers, lawyers, mech­
anics, and the inevitable gambler all were there and all had
their part in the in the development of education in the state.
42
From such, a unique cross section of life as was found here
it is not surprising that an unusual public reaction to
education took place.
The wealth of opportunity for success afforded by
mining. In the early days of California the need for educat­
ion as a means to success was minimized by the wealth of
opportunity provided by the mines for all possessed with
reasonable physical strength and native ingenuity. Gold was
there for the taking. A fortune was the re?/ard for individual
enterprise and industry. Schooling was rendered unnecessary
because of this short cut to success and educational progress
was slow for some time.
The political status of California was
significant.
The rapid growth of California led to its admission as a state
in 1850. The various political groups of the day took their
politics seriously and all phases of the state government
were controlled by the party in power. The office of the State
Superintendent of Schools was strictly political. For some
time the Incumbent was not even required to be a member of
the teaching profession.
II. EARLY CALIFORNIA SCHOOL LAWS
Constitutional provision. Article IX of the constitut­
ion of 1849 provided for the election by the people of a
43
superintendent of public instruction to hold office for three
years, the salary to be fixed by the legislature* There were
no personal qualifications attached.
Section II provided that the proceeds of all lands
granted to the state by act of Congress for the support of
schools, and the 500,000 acres of public lands pranted to
the new states for the purpose of internal improvements,
should constitute a perpetual fund to be Inviolably appro­
priated to the support of common schools.
Section III required the legislature to provide for a
system of common schools by which a school
should be
kept up
in each school district for at least three
months of
each
school year.
Section IV provided that the legislature should take
measures for the protection, improvement, or other disposit­
ion of such lands as have been, or may hereafter be, reserved
or granted by the United States, or any person or
persons, to
the state for the use of a university. 25
Early statute laws regarding education.
The first
legislature enacted no lav/ whatever to carry into effect the
constitutional provisions relating to education. The Legis­
lature of 1851 provided for :
25
Paul Mason, Constitution of the State of California,
(Sacramento, 1939), pp. 113-114.
44
1* The subdivision of counties into school districts,
2.
A district board of school trustees, three in
number, elected annually for a term of one year by direct
popular vote of school-districts electors. These trustees
had the following powers :
a. Building and maintaining school buildings (but
had no power to levy a tax for building operations).
b. Examination and certify teachers. (Certificate
valid for one year.)
c. Employ teachers for the period of one year.
d. To pay the teacher’s wages from the state
school fund which was n o n - e x i s t e n t .26
The legislature of 1853, however, grudgingly amended
the school law by authorizing counties to levy a school tax
nnot to exceed three cents on a hundred dollars”. (The county
treasurer was appointed acting county superintendent to collect
this levy)*
The legislature further provided that citizens should
have the power to raise by tax whatever amount was necessary
for school purposes and that religious and sectarian schools
should receive a pro rata share of the school fund.
In 1856 the school law was revised and materially
improved.
This law provided for the election of county superin­
tendents by popular vote and defined their duties; em­
powered incorporated cities to raise a school tax not
exceeding twenty-five cents on a hundred dollars; pro­
vided by election or appointment for city boards of
education and city school superintendents; and author­
ized counties to levy a county school tax not to exceed
ten cents on a hundred dollars. It also provided that no
26
John Swett, Public Education in California,
(New York : American Book Company, 19117, P. 150.
45
school should he entitled to receive public-school money
unless it had been taught by teachers duly examined and
approved by legal authority, and that no sectarian books
should be used and sectarian doctrines should not be
taught in any school under penalty of forfeiting the
public funds.27
In 1859 an advance was made which enabled school
districts, by vote of the electorate, to levy district
taxes for the support of schools or for building school
hous es•
In 1860-61 the maximum rate for county school tax was
raised from ten cents to twenty-five cents on a hundred
dollars; the state superintendent was authorized to hold
annually a state teacher*s Institute, to appoint a state
board of examination with the power to grant state cer­
tificates valid for two years. County superintendents
were authorized to appoint county boards of examination
with power to grant certificates valid for one year.2
Thus at the end of the first decade of statehood
California had a school system organized more on the plan of
New York than on that of New England. This fact was due
largely to the area and the sparse and scattered population
of the state*
There were two distinct lines of development in
California education. One was that of incorporated cities
with their local schools provided for by special charters;
the 'other, that of rural schools in which the county was the
unit of control under direct state school laws.
27
John Swett, Public Education in California,
(New York: American Boole Company, 191177 P« 151.
28
California Statutes,(1859),pp. 30,31.
46
As a result of this dual system, the people in the
centers of population ^ere in a stage of school development
far in advance of general state legislation, while the rural
schools were kept up in a rude way for three or four months
in the year by tuition fees or rate bills.
Obviously, reform was needed if public education ih
California was to become effective. With the waning of interest
in mining and the accompanying growth of other industries, the
increased population, and the easing of the national politi­
cal situation, a change did come*
In 1862 John Swett was elected State Superintendent
of Public Instruction. Swett has often been referred to as
the uHorace Mann of the Pacific Coastu, -A study of his
accomplishments for public education in California ranks him
as one of the foremost educatbrs of his day and throws con­
siderable light upon the development of educational thought
in the history of the state. A brief list of the educational
reforms secured by Mr. Swett in 1864 follow :
1. An effective method of levying and collecting school
district taxes for building school houses and for the
support of schools.
2. A legal way to collect rate bills.
3. An increase in the maximum rate of county school tax.
4. A state board of examiners composed exclusively of
professional teachers; authorized to issue, on written
examinations, certificates of three grades, good for four,
three^. and two years respectively. The board could renew
these certificates without examination. After three years
experience, a teacher could apply to the examiners for an
47
11educational diploma’1 valid for six years,
5. County "boards of examiners consisting exclusively
of professional teachers, authorized to hold examinations
in writing and to issue certificates valid for two years.
6. Not to exceed $150.00 was allowed from the general
county fund to pay the expenses of the annual county
teachersr institutes.
7. School trustees were to be elected for three years
instead of one.
8. to attendance
register was furnished by the state.
9. The state board was authorized to adopt a uniform
series of common school textbooks.
10. The state superintendent was allowed one thousand
dollars a year for traveling expenses. This allowance
was of particular importance because it was the beginning
of state supervision of public education.29
Mr.Swett sent the following official message to the
district boards of education :
As school trustees, you are the executive agents of
the public-school department. On you must depend, in a
great measure, the prosperity and usefulness of the
schools. It cannot be supposed that you will neglect
your business to visit schools, but you may reasonably
be expected to employ good teachers, and pay them well;
to purchase maps and charts with a small percentage of
the county school money; to insist on the adoption of
good school-books, and to inform yourselves thoroughly
concerning all your official duties.
It may reasonably be expected that if your schoolhouse is meaner than half the b a m s in the district,
you will call a district meeting, levy a tax, and build
a new one. In a recent tour through three of the most
fertile counties of the state, and among the wealthiest,
29
John Swett, Public Education in California, (New
York : American Book Company, 1911), pp. 154,155.
48
I did not find a single public-schoolhouse which ought
not to be returned by the county superintendent opposite
this heading of his report : "Number of Schoolhouses
which Disgrace the State." If you fail to carry the vote
at the first meeting, try a second, and a third. Schoolhouses must be built, and you are the agents whose duty
it is to build them. You can never make public schools
the best schools until you provide neat, spacious, and
comfortable buildings; and having built a house, the
grounds should be ornamented with trees, and all the
surroundings made attractive. And having erected a school
house, and furnished it with modern school furniture,
your next duty will be to secure a professionally trained
teacher.30
In 1863 Mr.Swett sent two thousand copies of the
following appeal to teachers, boards, and private citizens :
Raise the rates of county taxation for the support
of common schools ought to be inscribed over the doors
of every schoolhouse In California. When our gold mines
are enriching the world; when our valleys are teeming
with agricultural wealth; when commerce is pouring its
treasure into our lap -- shall we give less for the
support of schools than the older states on the other
side of the continent raise by direct taxation? What
are lands, and seas, and gold, and silver, compared with
men, trained and educated In the public schools to an
intelligent comprehension of their rights and duties as
citizens of the state and of the Union?
While other states are moving onward in a liberal
support of schools, ought we, in California, entering
on a new career of prosperity, -- ought we to make the
war an excuse for relaxing our efforts in behalf of
popular education? As teachers, we are debtors to our
profession; and our patriotism, in this great crisis of
national affairs, ought to incite us to make earnest
■ endeavor to secure a system of free schools — a system
essential to the existence of a free people., and to
the permanence of a republican government. 1
30
John Swett, Public Education in California, (New
York : American Book Company, 1911),~pp. 155-156.
31
Ibid., pp. 156-157.
49
In arguing for a state tax for the common schools
Mr.Swett said :
When we stop to ponder on the vital relations which
public schools hold to our national life: when we begin
to perceive, amid the terrible realities of war, that
the schools have been the nurseries of loyalty, and the
lack of them the right arm of secession, there is a deep
significance in this educational convention, because It
concerns the future stability of the government, and the
integrity, power, glory, and unity of the nation. Consti­
tutions and laws may be bequeathed by one generation to
its successors; but patriotism, intelligence, and moral­
ity die with each generation, and involve the necessity
of continuous training and education. Public opinion, the
sum of the intelligence of the citizens of the nation,
slowly modifies all constitutions, and breathes vitality
into all laws by which the people are governed. . . . .
”The first object of a free people,” says Daniel
Webster, tfis the preservation of their liberty.” In a
government where the people are not only in theory the
source of all powers, but In actual practice are called
upon to administer the laws,, it is evident that some
degree of education is indispensably necessary to enable
citizens to discharge their duties, maintain and admin­
ister the laws, and to retain their constitutional
rights. In a government like ours, either we must have
officers unqualified for their duties, or we must pro­
vide a system of public instruction which shall furnish
a supply of intelligent citizens capable of discharging
their various official trusts with honesty and efficiency.
If left to their own unaided efforts, a majority of
parents will fail, through want of means, properly to
educate their children; another class, with means at
command, will fail through lack of interest. All the
children can be educated only by a system of free schools,
supported by taxation, and controlled directly by the
people. The early settlers of our country recognized
this vital principle by providing by law for schools,
and by making schools and taxation as inseparably con­
nected as taxation and representation are bound together.32
32
John Swett, Public Education in California, (New
York : American Book Company, 1 9 1 1 ) , PP* 161-162.
50
Regarding the course of study for the California
common schools Dr.Tuthill of the Bulletin had the following
to say :
Nine-tenths of all that the arithmetics contain are
worse than useless to the pupil; that grammars are a bore
' and a nuisance when forced upon little children. Do not
let their grammar be an incessant tearing to pieces of
other m e n ’s sentences, but teach them how to construct
their own. Let their arithmetic be, not a perpetual
torment of explaining why the divisor is inverted in the
division of fractions, but the shortest process to make
out a bill and calculate interest. . . a great deal of
what is taught children in schools should properly be
headed, ’’Things worth forgetting.11
Children should be trained to a free and easy use of
the English language. Let them study it in such a pract­
ical way that they will know how to write a letter cor­
rectly and to distinguish an inaccuracy of language the
moment it is uttered. But just how to do this is one of
the most difficult things to say, though not so very
difficult to do.
Mr.Swett in this common-sense style explained what
and how much of phsiology, of music, calisthenics, gym­
nastics, hygiene, and all other branches should be
taught. He urged the point that in all things the teach­
er should be practical, the youngest scholar as surely
as the oldest appreciates what is practical to h i m . Mr.
Swett was often applauded vigorously, and some stern
mathematical faces were relaxed into smiles that still
must have deemed all such sensible talk the rankest
kind of heresy.33
Truly this statement was a demand for a practical
school to meet the practical needs of a frontier people.
In his annual report in 1863, Mr.Sewell urged the
33
John Swett, Public Education in California. (New
York : American Book Comp any! 911)', PP • 162-163.
51
legislature to provide a state; tax of nne-half mill per
dollar for education* The following paragraph from the
report justifies the request :
If one state in the Union needs a system of free
schools more than any other, that state is California#
He r •population is drawn from all nations* The next
generation will he a composite one, made up of the
heterogeneous atoms of all nationalities. Nothing can
Americanize these chaotic elements and breathe into
them the spirit of our institutions except the public
schools•34
Describing the existing schoolhouses the report goes
on to say :
In visiting several of the most prosperous agricult­
ural counties, I do not remember having seen a schoolhouse with an enclosed yard, or one surrounded by shade
trees or ornamented with a single shrub or flower. Many
of these substitutes for schoolhouses were so wretched
that no intelligent farmer would think them fit for
housing his prize pigs. The stables of wealthy ranchmen
in the vicinity were elegant edifices in comparison.
These schoolhouses were mostly built by subscription,
and they stand by the wayside, like tattered beggars,
imploring charitable donations. In many districts where
the assessable property amounts to half a million dollars,
a tax for building schoolhouses would hardly be felt.
Until the principle of the district taxation for build­
ing schoolhouses is more fully recognized, the "number
of schoolhouses which disgrace the state" will not be
materially lessened.5^
In 1865 Mr.Swett made a biennial report which received
34
John Swett, Public Education in California.
York : American Book Comp any, 1911), p.- 165.
35
Ibid., p. 166.
(New
52
considerable comment from eastern educators. The Pennsylvania
Journal of Education said :
Would that every sister state were in possession of a
general school law equally comprehensive in Its provis­
ions, as methodical in the arrangement of its sections,
and to as great degree divested of all mere verbage and
unnecessary legal technicalities. In its style and gener­
al provisions this is a model school law, and under its
working, ably administered, as we know It will be, the
El Dorado of the Pacific will make bold strides onward
as may render it necessary for older states to look well
to their laurels.36
Henry Barnard devoted ten pages to a discussion of
the California system concluding with these words :
There is nothing so liberal in the way of taxation
In any other state in the world. Superintendent Swett
has, in this noble contribution to the interests of
national education, laid our whole country under last­
ing obligations; and It is a highly gratifying indicat3Loma6fL its value, that California1s younger sister,
TTevada has adopted, for the molding of her publicschool system, that of her elder sister, as matured and
and perfected by the indefatigable exertions of one
whose long professional experience and peculiar quali­
fications for his present office, give such force to
all his suggestions, whether regarding methods of in­
struction or legislative measures for the diffusion of
education.37
The year 1867 marked the end of the Mrate-billu in
California* Every public school was a free school supported
by taxation and compelled to offer from three to ten months
course depending upon the valuation of the district.
36
The Pennsylvania Journal of Education^ Sept.1867,)
p. 150.
37
Henry Barnard, American Journal of Education,
(March 1866, )pp. 65-75.
53
The revised school law of 1866 had the following
provisions :
1.
A state board of education of nine members, and a
board of state normal-school trustees of eight members;
authorizing the state board of education to adopt rules,
regulations, and a course of study for district schools,
and to adopt a uniform state series of textbooks for
such schools,
2m Providing that the legislature should furnish the
state superintendent with at least two thousand copies
of each biennial report for distribution among school
officers and libraries.
3. Providing for the payment of necessary expenses
for county teachers1 institutes out of the county school
fund.
4. Requiring the district clerk to furnish the schools
with pens, ink, stationery, and school incidentals, at
the expense of the district.
5. Providing for the legal establishment of separate
schools for children other than white children.
6. Limiting the school hours of children under eight
years of age to four hours a day, exclusive of inter­
mission.
7. Establishing a system of school libraries by the
reservation of ten per cent of the state school apporti onment.
8. A state subscription was authorized for an educat­
ional journal, two copies for each school district, one
for the district clerk, and one for the school library.
9. Authorizing life diplomas for teachers having
ten y ears1 experience was provided for; city boards of
examination were established; normal school diplomas
of other states were recognized; and all boards of ex­
amination, whether state, city, or county were to be
composed of professional teachers only.
10. A state tax of eight cents on each hundred dollars
of taxable property could be levied; a minimum county
school tax of three dollars per census child was assessed;
and a maximum tax of thirty-five cents on each hundred
54
dollars was possible,
11.
School trustees were authorized and required to
levy a district-school tax sufficient to keep a free
school five months in a year.38
Professor Silliman, of Yale University made the
following comment relative to the California system in a
public address :
By the admirably digested law of 1866 the people of
California in their fAct to provide for a system of
common schools,1 have laid the foundation and set up
the frame work of the best system of general common school education for the whole people which exists in
any state or country where the English language is
spoken.39
SUMMARY
This rather elaborate discussion of school develop­
ment in California from 1850 to 1867 indicates several
important contributions made by that frontier state to the
development of educational thought not only within its own
borders but throughout the nation.
First. The political ideal of education as a necess­
ity for the perpetuation and refinement of the free democrat
ic American government.
Second. The democratic ideal of a .free public educat-
California Statutes for 1865-1866. p. 383.
39
"l'
John Swett, Public Education in California,
York : American Book Company, 1911), p. 187.
(New
55
ion for all at public expense.
Third. The demand for a course of study suitable for
real life situations on the frontier.
The next chapter of this study will concern itself
with the importance to public education of certain frontier
influences exerted by the great plains upon educational
thought.
CHAPTER VI
THE GREAT PLAINS
In chapter five the contributions of the California
frontier have been reviewed at length. In this chapter the
last of the great American frontiers will be studied with
particular regard to its share in the forming of an American
policy of public education.
The great plains, a delayed frontier. Captain Zebulon
Pike, in his memorable exploration along the Arkansas which
lay In the southwest portion of the great plains, referred
to it In his diary, as the "Great American Desert". The
official map makers of the time unwittingly designated the
whole region as "desert" and the general opinion prevailed
in the east that this entire vast plains region was a water­
less waste of sand and sagebrush fit only for the buffalo
and the Indian.
This frontier was consequently passed over by the
gold seekers in 1849 and was to become the last great out­
post for frontiersmen. Many a farmer questioned the "desert"
character of this region as he hastily crossed it during the
mad rush to the California or Oregon territories in the
forties and early fifties. Later, as the vision of unlimited
wealth in the mines faded for many of these gold seekers,
they remembered the rolling grass lands of the Great Plains
with its rich valleys and teeming wild life and determined
to migrate there. Stockmen and farmers laid the foundation
for one of the greatest agricultural regions in the world.
The political situation. During the eighteen fifties
two states, Kansas and Nebraska, were being formed in this
region. The national political situation was keyed to a
white heat over the slavery question. The western territor­
ies were the pawns in the struggle between the free soil and
the pro-slave groups for Congressional representation.
The doctrine of squatter sovereignty caused the
settlement of Kansas and Nebraska to be a race between the
two opposing factions. Each side exerted every energy to
“possess the landff. The New England Emigrant Society was
formed in New England by religious Zealots and Abolitionists
to encourage and aid groups of “free soilersM to migrate to
Kansas. A circular of the Aid Society had the following to
say regarding its service to emigrants
:
The emigrant suffers whenever he goes alone into his
new home. He suffers from the frauds of others; from his
own ignorance of the system of travel, and of the
country where he settles; and again, from his wan* of
support from neighbors, which results in the impossibil­
ity of any combined assistance, or of any division of
labor.
The Emigrant Aid Company will relieve him from all
these embarrassments by sending out emigrants in com­
panies, and establishing them in considerable numbers.
They will locate these where they please on their
arrival in their new homes, and receive from the gov-
58
ernment their titles. The company proposes to carry them
to their homes more cheaply than they could otherwise go,
to enable them to establish themselves with the least
inconvenience, and to provide shelter and food at the
lov/est prices after the arrival of the emigrants, while
they make the arrangements necessary for their new homes.
. . • And, by establishing emigrants in large numbers in
the territories, it will give them the power of using
at once those social influences which radiate from the
church, the school, and the press.40
In Missouri those in favor of slavery organized to give aid
to the pro-slavery group in Kansas. This partisanship result­
ed in a miniature civil war in Kansas.
The hot-bed of the Populist Movement was later in this
same region. Kansas in particular, was important in this
great reform movement. "Sockless" Jerry Simpson became a
national figure. It was amid these stirring times that the
frontiers were carried into the heart of the "Great American
Desert".
National land laws♦ The passage in Congress of the
Homestead Act in 1862 gave great impetus to the settlement
of the plains. Land hungry Americans as well as many Europ­
eans poured into the west for free land and a chance to begin
life anew. Colony settlements were made by land and railroad
companies. Foreign groups were frequently organized in
colony settlements. To this day, in many of the states
40
Edward Everett Hale, Kansas and Nebraska. (Boston :
Harpers, 1854), pp. 222-235.
59
formed from this region, strong vestiges of these group
settlements are still visible. Whole counties of certain
states are distinctly German, Bohemian, or Swedish,
The Morrill Act of 1862, considered by many as the
most important educational law in the history of the United
States, provides
:
The endowment, support, and maintenance of at least
one college where the leading object shall be, without
excluding other scientific and classical studies, and
including military tactics, to teach such branches of
learning as are related to agriculture and the meehaniss
arts, in such manner as the legislatures of the States
may. respectively prescribe, in order to promote the
liberal and practical education of the industrial classes
in the several pursuits and professions in life.
Abraham Lincoln, in 1859, expressed most clearly the view­
point of the west in general and labor in particular when
he said :
The old general rule was that educated people did not
perform manual labor. They managed to eat their bread,
leaving the toil of producing it to the uneducated . . .
But free labor says ”N o n . Free labor argues that as the
Author of man makes every individual with one head and
one pair of hands, it was probably intended that heads
and hands should cooperate as friends, and that that
particular head should direct and control that pair of
hands. As each man had one mouth to feed and one pair
of hands to furnish foods, it was probably intended that
that particular pair of hands should feed that particular
mouth, that each head is the natural guardian, director,
and protector of the hands and mouth inseparably connect­
ed with it; and that being so, every head should, be culti­
vated and improved by whatever will add to its capacity
41
U.S.Statutes at Large. Vol. 12.
p. 503
60
for performing its charge. In one word, free labor in­
sists on universal education.42
Liberty Hyde Bailey of Cornell has this to say relative to
the Morrill Act :
The Land-Grant Act is probably the most important
single specific enactment ever made in the interest of
education. It recognizes the principle that every citizen
is entitled to receive educational aid from the govern­
ment and that the common affairs of life are proper sub­
jects with which to educate or train men. Its provisions
are so broad that the educational development of all
future time may rest upon it. It expresses the final
emancipation from formal, traditional and aristocratic
ideas and it imposes no methods or limitations. It recog­
nizes the democracy of education and then leaves all the
means to be worked out as time goes on.45
The rise of the Grange and the passage of supplementary
legislation, such as the Hatch, Adams, Smith-Lever, Smith
Hughes Acts have united to facilitate agricultural and mech­
anical training far beyond the fondest expectations of its
champions. It has been argued that this type of educational
thought is western adaptation of Fellenbergts idea of manual
labor self subsisting Institutes. Regardless of this point
of view, it has been shown throughout the history of educat­
ional development In the west that westerners were interest­
ed in a type of practical education which better prepared
its youth for life as it existed on the western frontier. The
42
Edwin E,Slosson, American Spirit in Education,
(Mew Haven : Yale University Press, 1921), p. 222.
43
Liberty Hyde Bailey, editor, A Cyclopedia of
Agriculture, (Mew York : The Macmillan Company, 1912T, IV
p. 415.
61
significance of the wide adoption of this type of education
lies in the fact that western leaders were quick to grasp
the great inherent possibilities of this type of education
as a means of meeting the western needs.
The value and success of vocational education is
expressed by Slosson :
As the colleges developed their own methods of in­
struction, they gained confidence in their calling and
won the respect of educators in other fields. The gap
between the chemist and the botanist who were ignorant
of farming and the practical farmer who was contemptuous
of fTbook-learninglf was bridged by a new order of. men with
a grasp of both theory and practice. When the experiment
stations demonstrated -- as for instance by the milk
testing and bacteriology of the dairy, by the breeding
of new varieties of crops and animals, by the destruct­
ion of insect pests, and by the elimination of tubercu­
losis — that the endowment of scientific research paid
the community in concrete coin, they had no further
trouble about getting funds. Through agricultural in­
stitutions, university extension lectures, shorter
winter courses, demonstration trains, lending libraries,
correspondence courses, and franked bulletins, the landgrant colleges now reach two or three million people a
year. They have come to realize that they have a wider
function than training a few expert managers of big
farms: they have to educate a community for country
life.44
Frontier aspects of education. An educational phil­
osophy coming from such a complex background of nationalities
and conflicting political and social ideology was found to
be distinctive.
44
Edwin EJ#; Slosson, American Spirit in Education,
£New Haven : Yale University Press, 1921), pp. 230-231.
62
The European, educational influences in the west. The
general run of European immigrants were well educated and
put their educational ideas into practice in this new
•country. Schools were conducted in the language of the
mother country and the courses of study were European in
nature. Bliss Isely, descendent of a Swiss immigrant in
Iowa, tells how his father, after much tearful pleading,
finally gained parental permission to attend an English
speaking
school.
45
Foreign groups did not want their child­
ren tp learn English for fear they v^ould he corrupted by the
American children.
The native-born settlers also brought their education­
al institutions with them to the new frontier. The story of
these conflicting ideas amid the stirring political times
and the hard exacting conditions of frontier life on the
plains form one of the most interesting, as well as one of
the most significant, chapters in the development of Ameri­
can educational theory.
Early Iowa educational practices. While Iowa was still
a part of the Michigan territory, provision was made for free
tax-supported schools. In 1840, after the formation of the
45
Bliss Isely, Sunbonnet Days, (Caldwell, Idaho :
Caxton Printers,), 1935, p. 108.
63
territory of Iowa, a law, "based upon the Michigan law, was
passed providing for public education in the territory.
Private schools were established in Iowa as early as 1830
and by 1838 there were over forty in the new territory. With
the early settlers education was a primary interest. Until
the Civil War Iowa’s educational practices were, more or
less, a moderated version of New England institutions
tempered somewhat by the passage through the old Northwest
states of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois.
In 1858, an education law was passed by the legis­
lature which has become the basis for a system of public
instruction in Iowa extending from the primary grades
through the university. The schools were organized upon
the district system. These districts ranged from the lone
country districts to the consolidated rural districts and
independent city districts. Each was controlled by the
people of the district.
Higher education in Inwa. Before public educational
institutions were established in Iowa, various religious
denominations organized elementary and secondary schools
as well as colleges. Iowa Wesleyan was established at
Mount Pleasant in 1844 as Mount Pleasant Collegiate Insti­
tute. Many other Methodist Colleges were established as well
as those of the Congregational, Catholic, Baptist, and other
religious groups.
64
By the law of 1858 one of the now famous agricultural
colleges in the United States was established at Ames "for
the purpose of giving academic instruction to the industrial
classes” . At the same time the legislature voted §10,000 to
purchase an experimental farm to be used in connection with
the agricultural program at the college.
Three alumni of Ames have served the United States as
Secretaries of Agriculture. Hornaday, the Zoologist, Pammel,
the Botanist, and many other notables, owe their present
opportunities to the foresight of the early Iowa farmers who
believed, not only in a free education for all, but were
also convinced that education should be of a practical nat­
ure conducive to improving the conditions of life as found
in the West.
Early education in Kansas. The first schools in Kansas
were religious missions among the Indians. Some twenty-five
missions were located in the territory between 1820 and 1850.
The first free schools in the territory were held in homes,
stores, or missions. If no teacher was available, some
house-wife with "learning” was elected to the job. Text­
books ranged from the Bible and Shakespeare to the newspaper
and the ever present almanac.
Two divergent views of education in Kansas are shown
by the following brief commentaries. Stuart Henry, describing
the first school in Abilene, during the heydey of its import-
65
ance as a cattle center, states :
That the people of the region were prone to look upon
schooling with both suspicion and contempt, a new source
of tax on the poor man at the behest of the !,upper crustTf,
as the more well-to-do were called,46
Bliss Isely, describing how schools were founded in the early
days presents a different view :
We felt a closer relationship to the school than is
possible in these later days when education is standard­
ized and much of the government of the schools is vested
in boards and commissions* In our day the school was our
own creation. During the early Kansas territorial days
the government was in such constant turmoil over the
slavery question that almost nothing was done toward
organizing school districts. The initiative for school
organization, therefore, was left to public-spirited
farmers in each community.
In our community somebody called a meeting to consid­
er the building of a schoolhouse. At that meeting every­
body agreed that a school was a necessity; but without
any means of levying taxes to build a schoolhouse,
another way had to be found. The patrons of the district
decided on a central' site, and there they met one morn­
ing at daybreak. A captain was chosen to direct building
operations. Soon axes were ringing in the woods, trees
were felled, trimmed, dragged by ox-teams to the build­
ing site, where they were squared, notched, heaved In
place, and chinked to withstand wind and snow. While
part of the men were laying the logs, others were riv­
ing shingles to lay on the roof. An expert in masonry
worked with another gang, bringing stones from a quarry
to build a fireplace and chimney. A puncheon floor,
puncheon seats, and a puncheon desk for the teacher
were manufactured and installed. At noon the women
served a community dinner cooked in the woods. By night
the schoolhouse was complete and ready for occupancy.
The farmers on whose land trees were cut and stone was
46
Stuart Henry, Conquering the Great American Plains,
(Sew York : E.P.Dutton and Company, 1930), p. 175.
66
quarried made no charge for the materials. Next arose
the question of a teacher. We had no examining board
and no laws covering qualifications for teachers. Some
body, however, suggested that Mrs.Lewis, the wife of
our community doctor, would be a good teacher. I do not
know how it was determined that she was qualified, but
she was chosen by a show of hands, and accepted the post.
Of course there was no tax levy to pay the salary of the
teacher and no authority for levying a tax. It was
agreed by a vote that the tuition should be one dollar
a month for each pupil and that the school be for four
monthsr duration. Those who could not afford to pay
tuition In cash paid Mrs. Lewis in produce. She taught
several terms of successful school. Adolph and Fred
attended there and learned rapidly. In a short time
they could read and recite In English as well as any
other children of their a g e . 47
Discussing the community use of the school in those days
Mr.Isely continues
;
We used the schoolhouse seven days in the week. On
Friday and on Saturday nights there were ciphering
matches, literary and debating societies, and singing '
schools. Sometimes a traveling entertainer gave a
magic lantern show, or a lecturer came to speak on
questions of importance. Later on a Reformed Church
was organized at Spring Grove. This became a strong
church.48
In 1855 the first Kansas Territorial legislature adopted
a school plan copied after that of Missouri. Later legislat­
ures created a system of school districts supervised by
county superintendents and a Territorial superintendent of
schools. To the districts themselves fell the power to
manage all their affairs. They were charged by lpr to main-
47
Bliss Isely, Sunbonnet Days t (Caldwell, Idaho,
Caxton Printers, 1935), p. 88^90.
48
Ibid., p. 195.
67
tain schools entirely from a tax levy upon real and personal
property. Kansas had no state school fund until 1937.
The state constitution, adopted in 1859, provided for
"equal educational opportunities for white and colored, males
and females alike”. Provision was also made for a state
university which was established in 1865. The Kansas Agri­
cultural College was established at Manhattan in 1862 with
a federal land grant of 90,000 acres.
During the sixties state schools were established for
the deaf and blind and for teacher training. In 1874 a com­
pulsory school attendance law was passed and in 1885, as
part of the prohibition movement, courses in hygiene were
"to be taught with special reference to the effect of alco­
holic and narcotic stimulants".
In the 1880fs the Kansas legislature initiated the
county high school plan. Within a few years nearly every
state in the union followed this example. Kansas was also
one of the first states to utilize the benefits of the
Smith-Hughes Act by full cooperation with the federal gov­
ernment in vocational training.
There has been considerable criticism of the number
of small1independent districts in the state, but many Kansans
believe in them. They are community centers as well as schools.
Several generations have attended the same one-room school
which has given it considerable sentimental value and dis-
68
courages the consolidation movement. Popular reaction to
criticism of this type of school is well illustrated in
the following quotation :
Nowadays they tell us that the one-room country school
is out of date and that it must give way to rural graded
schools. Perhaps that is true. Spring Grove had no modern
heating plant, no gyrahasium, no up-to-date psychological
teaching methods. One teacher yaught all the pupils from
chart to fifth reader. Yet out of Spring Grove1s pioneer
graduating class two of the eight to receive diplomas on
that occasion became sufficiently eminent to have a para­
graph each in Who*s W h o . 4 9
Kansans believe in learning as a means tor.ithe industry,
virtue, and success of her youth —
today more than 500,000
boys and girls attend the state!s public schools.
Extension of suffrage in the W est. With the growth of
cities and industries on the plains and the filling up of the
cattle frontier by the farmers, conditions changed. Many of
the ranch mothers were originally school teachers who appre­
ciated the value of schooling and these women began to insist
upon some education for their children. The women of the
frontier who had stood by during Indian and outlaw raids
loading guns,binding wounds, and taking the guns from the
falling hands of husband or son to conquen a wilderness
could not be denied their rightful place in the councils
of the the state. In this raw, new country where every m a n ’s
49
Bliss Isely, Sunbonnet Days, ( Caldwell, Idaho :
Caxton Printers, 1935), p. 195.
69
caste was his own making, the practice of universal man­
hood suffrage was common. The state of Wyoming was the first
to incorporate women suffrage into its constitution. Other
Rocky Mountain states followed and from this frontier beginn­
ing the woman suffrage movement became a national issue end­
ing in a constitutional amendment giving women equal suffrage
rights with men.
The importance of this extension of suffrage coupled
with the universal manhood suffrage of the west is hard to
over-estimate in its relation to the development of educat­
ional thought. No longer could the few privileged male voters
dictate the educational policy, or lack of policy. All could
vote and demand for their children the chance to success
which had been denied to them as parents.
Women suffrage and more general male suffrage came as
a result of the changing conditions of frontier life. This
more universalized suffrage not only affected the education­
al practice of the far west, but reacted in all parts of the
country, making educational opportunities better in quality
and more democratic in opportunity.
Higher education on the plains. The development of
higher education in Iowa and Kansas has been touched upon
earlier in this chapter. However there remain two import­
ant aspects to be examined.
In the second quarter of the eighteenth century the
70
establishment of numerous church colleges in that portion of
the west lying west of the Alleghenies and east of the Miss­
issippi River was noted. This movement swept on across the
river to the Great Plains. Hundreds of these small denominat­
ional colleges dotted the prairies. Some have vanished, but
others like Baker University at Baldwin, Kansas,
and South­
western located at Winfield, Kansas, have taken permanent
root in the hearts of the plainsmen standing as living
memorials to the religious zeal of a vanished frontier. Many
of these denominational colleges Ytrere supported by the free
will pledges of the denominational membership in the sur­
rounding vicinity augmented somewhat by light tuition charges.
The driving ambition of youthful members of these religious
supporting groups was to graduate from one of these church
schools. They have done so by the thousands and are now
members of that great western society from which so large
a number of our national leaders have sprung.
A second aspect of higher education in the plains
region related to the great number of land grant colleges..
These colleges formed a vast chain of opportunity through­
out the Mississippi valley for education in agriculture and
the mechanical arts. They were free to men and women alike,
and have been largely instrumental in developing the great­
est body of educated common people to be found any place
in the world. In recent years another important influence
71
of the state institutions for higher learning in the west
has been the broadening of entrance requirements and the
extension of academic education to the people through the
medium of extension courses, speakers, motion picture ser­
vice and night school activities,
A QQ3a.pl® te 37/s tern of free public education. With the
©stablishment in the west of the free" public universities
the dream of those early westerners, Washington and Jeffer­
son, came to full fruition. At last, in the heart of the
great west a complete system of free public education came
into being. Prom the western prairies this system spread
eastward until now some such system prevails throughout the
nation.
SUMMARY
This chapter has dealt with the beginning of education
on the frontier of the Great Plains. The laws and literature
of the time show the people to have been strong believers
in a system of democratic public education. Among the many
contributions to the general philosophy of American public
education the following appear to be most significant :
First. The earliest educational institutions were
founded by religious groups. These early religious influences
gave a strong moral tone to educational thought in the West#
Second. The schools were community centers which, in
72
turn, created a deep respect for the value of schools.
Third. The schools were free and democratic with
equal opportunities for "both boys and girls.
Fourth. The West was quick to appreciate and adopt
for their own use the new vocational conceptions in education.
■
F ifth. The state supported universities,
agricultural
and technical schools, developed here most rapidly, being a
further expression of the pioneers1 demand for a practical
curriculum suitable for the needs of the country.
Sixth. The woman suffrage movement received its
strongest support in the West. The influence of this move­
ment has been exceedingly important in securing educational
reforms wher-ever needed.
Seventh. The influence of such reforms as prohibition
and Populism greatly affected educational thought in the
West.
Eighth. A complete educational ladder of free public
education was an outgrowth of the democratic West.
CHAPTER VII
IMPLICATIONS OF THE CLOSED FRONTIER
In tlie preceding chapters of this investigation the
influence of the shifting frontier upon the development of
a philosophy of education in the United States has "been
studied. It will be the purpose of this chapter to call
attention to some of the implications to educational thought
that have come about as a result of the disappearance of a
physical frontier in the United States.
Old and new frontiers in the United States. In the
early seventeenth century the English colonists were con­
fronted with the problem of education in a new and unknown
world. The ingenuity and courage with which they met and
mastered this problem has been an inspiration to all leaders
in the educational field since that day*
Today the physical frontier has vanished in the path
of crowded cities and an unparalleled Industrialism. Until
the disappearance of the frontier, discontented peoples
could leave civilization behind them and start anew in the
lands to the west. Now the problems of the discontented
class can no longer be solved by such migration. Like the
hapless refugees, in the present world conflict, flight
from the -unpleasant situations of a modern world tend only
74
to deepen and intensify the discontent and confusion. The
direct action of the frontier must "be replaced by the in­
direct methods of a complex society. Free land will no
longer assuage economic wounds. New methods must be invoked
to conquer old problems, new types of frontiers must be con­
quered —
the moral, social, economic, and scientific —
these, are the challenge to modern life. Their conquest,
the challenge to education.
Educational thought as a directing force in American
life.
History has shown that the democratic public schools
of the nation have, more than any other single factor, pre­
served and advanced the spirit of our ancient democratic
institutions. In this day of world revolution, when m e n ’s
minds are confused and baffled,
a new guiding philosophy
must be born if this, or any other nation, Is to emerge
victorious from the lengthening shadows of international
chaos.
New forces in American life today.
The world today
is a world divided against itself. Democracy, as a way of
government, has been challenged by advocates of the total­
itarian system. The ’’have not” nations have risen up to
dispute the claims of those nations, which thro\\gh enter­
prise, struggle, and sacrifice, possess economic advantages
superior to the others.
75
M o d e m industrialism, with its host of ugly attend­
ant problems, holds the world in its savage grip. The voice
of the great masses of workers through their superb organ­
ization is heard, above the tumult of twentieth century
mechanization, demanding a toe-hold by which they can raise
themselves from the slough of economic and social despond­
ency of modern capitalism.
Science dominates world leadership. To the nation
with the scientific superiority go the spoils. A science
that can be as cruel and destructive as it can be enlight­
ened and benevolent must be guided by education so that it
will not become a modern Frankenstein.
The greatest of all frontiers today, however, lies
on the moral front. In the realm of the individual citizen,
as well as in the wider sphere of general society, the
struggle is the same. The ancient precepts of our fathers
are on the block. Much that once was accepted without
question as right, is now seriously questioned, if not
totally ignored. Changing times have cast new meanings to
old truths. Life today is facing new and mysterious frontiers
just as truly as when those first daring Europeans, braving
the dangers and mysteries of the grim Atlantic in their frail
little boats, sailed steadily westward into the great unknown
seeking new ways to old ports.
The new pioneer.
Pioneers, with courage and ingenu-
76
ity.worthy of their forebears, must be found to push into
the dark mazes of the modern frontier to seek out the good
and acceptable ways of the new life and, returning,
chart
the paths for the innumerable millions who must, one and
all, make the Great Trek.
.The challenge to education and its leadership. These
pioneers must be the educational philosophers. To them the
torch has been handed. Theirs is the high privilege of im­
mortal leadership in a matchless era. In as much as they
find the basic truths and map the way with a new philoso­
phy of education, to that same degree will civilization
emerge from its baptism of change and disillusionment into
a new frontier of unbelievable grandeur and prosperity.
CHAPTER VIII
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
The materials in this study fall into three well de­
fined divisions : first, those pertaining to the historical
background, second, the discussion of materials relating to
the development of an American philosophy of education as
influenced by an ever present and changing frontier, and
third, the discussion of certain implications for educat­
ional thought as a result of the disappearance of the
physical frontier in the United States *
The materials presented in this chapter will be divid'
ed into two parts, a summary of the investigation and a
series of conclusions drawn from the study,
I.
SUMMARY
The principal philosophies of education in early
colonial America were found to be three in number.
The English type as found in Virginia and the South
generally. This plan of education was based upon the common
educational practices in England. It was found that there
existed no idea of governmental responsibility for free
public education. Education was a matter of private concern.
Children of the well-to-do were taught by tutors in the home
78
and later sent to private schools in the North or to England.
The Established Church which dominated the region undertook
to teach the children of the poorer members of the congregat­
ion to read the Bible.
The State assumed the responsibility for seeing that
pauper children were taught useful trades through the
apprentice system.
The presence of an aristocratic type of English
society in the South, organized upon a caste system, the
prevalence of negro slavery, and large numbers of indentured
servants —
all united to discourage the development of any
sys'tem of publicly controlled
education. Education was a
private responsibility for the privileged few until well
after the Civil War.
The Calvlnistic type.
A conception of education was
developed in New England which was destined to be the domin­
ant influence in all future American educational practices.
The New England Calvinist believed first of all in a churchstate theocracy. In order to be a good citizen, good church
standing was necessary and fundamental education was consid­
ered necessary to accomplish worthy church membership.
The Calvinists originally provided for education in
the typical English manner; that is, they charged the heads
of households and the masters of apprentices with the duty
of teaching reading to the children in the home. A Latin
79
grammar school was provided for the selected few who were
considered worthy to he trained, at private expense, for
admission to Harvard College where they would eventually
be trained for the pulpit and other responsible positions'
in the colony.
Because of Indian wars, the extending of the frontier^,
and the general difficulties of the frontier life, this plan
failed to operate to the satisfaction of the church fathers
who succeeded in having two significant school laws enacted
by the Massachusetts colonial legislature*
The Law of 1642 provided for a compulsory system for
teaching reading. This law was a revolutionary departure
and led to the adoption by the legislature, In 1647, of the
most famous of American laws. This Law of 1647 voiced, for
the first time in the English speaking world, the right of
the State to require communities to establish and maintain
schools under penalty of fine for failure to do so.
Here was a new, an American development, in the
theory of educational practice that was destined to be the
corner stone in the structure of democratic public educat­
ion In the United States.
The parochial school practices of the Middle colonies.
In the Middle colonies there existed a unique society more
nearly American, perhaps, than existed elsewhere in the New
80
World, This society was heterogeneous both as to nationality
and religion. The resultant educational expression was more
or less a mixture of the other two colonial policies.
The various religious denominations established
parochial schools, while some effort toward universal ed­
ucation may be observed in the so-called
charity schools” .
The influence of the first frontier upon educational
thought, In chapter two considerable attention was paid to
the tracing of the three most significant educational
theories of colonial America in the light of demands made
upon them by the first frontier* Possibly the most significant
change was the break up of the central town school into dis­
tricts which, over a period of time, became largely Independ­
ent. Another important development lay in the demand of the
frontier for (1) a democratic system of education and (2)
the adoption of a curriculum more in keeping with frontier
needs.
To meet the demand for a democratic system of educat­
ion, more public support and consequent control was necess­
ary. The self-reliant frontiersman had no use for the
Upauper school” as he called it a n d refused to send his
children to it. Eventually this type of school disappeared
and in its stead rose a public school system extending from
the elementary level through the university.
81
A new school was evolved to meet the more practical
needs of the new country, the academy. The academy produced
several fundamental changes in educational thought in Amer­
ica.
First. The curriculum was broadened to give training
for frontier callings in addition to the ministry.
Second. The academies, while primarily a private
enterprise, became so popular that they drew an increasingly
large amount of support from the state, principally in the
form of land grants. State support tended to foster state
control.
Third. The academies opened their doors to women
which fact was the beginning of a new democratic movement
in American education.
Fourth. A strong religious influence permeated the
activities of the academies.
The Northwest Territory and education.
With the
extension of the frontier into the Northwest Territory,
several influences on the theory of education were felt.
Foremost among these was the strong impetus given to the
public rather than religious schools. The presence of a
means of support to school programs in the form of public
lands which were given by both the state and national
governments strengthened the theory of public control.
Another influence on education that was strengthen-
ed In this frontier was the development of a more democratic
type of school* This democratic spirit was fostered by the
changed values placed by the frontier upon personal worth
and led to the broadening of male suffrage, the abolition
of the charity school, and education for women*
A third influence of this frontier lay in Its insist­
ence upon a curriculum better adapted to life in the west.
Many states gave generous aid to academies because of their
more practical courses of study.
Other influences on education noted in this chapter
were the religious spirit which pervaded the academies and .
church colleges, the mingling of Europeans and Americans in
this frontier with their diverse educational ideas, and the
development of a system of state laws protecting education.
The California frontier.
The growth of educational
institutions in California received considerable attention
in this study for several reasons. In the first place, the
California system has been a model from which many western
states have copied their educational legislation and In the
second place, the excellent educational philosophy and
practice of education in California exercised considerable
Influence upon the thinking and practice of education in
the eastern states.
California*s two chief contributions to the develop­
ment of educational thought were : (1) the necessity of the
83
public school to instill patriotism and. appreciation for
American democratic institutions; and (2) the development
of a free, public controlled system of education extending
from the elementary grades through the university.
Education on the Great Plains.
Perhaps the most
democratic region in the United States is the Middle West.
Consequently it is more typically American* This great
prairie domain was the last of our great frontiers and was
the scene for the convergence of the great social and ec­
onomic forces that were to weld and shape modern American
democracy.
In educational ideas and practices this region was
significant. The contributions of the plains states to
educational thought were several in number.
First. The many denominational colleges located in
these western prairies gave a strong religious and moral
tone to the educational thinking of the region.
Second.
Many of the great reform movements were
either conceived in this region, or adopted by it, which
have signally influenced educational thought in the nation.
The principal reform of this nature was that of Woman
Suffrage. The new and vigorous direction given to education
in the United States since the Civil War was greatly in­
fluenced by this new addition to the electorate.
84
Third.
The new emphasis upon vocational education in
the region was remarkable. To them, this type of education
was a culture in itself, a better means for the understand­
ing of the true cultural value of the arts and mechanical
skills so necessary to every day living. This emphasis was
noticeable in both high schools and in the land grant
universities.
Fourth.
The growth of a complete scheme of public
education, coeducational and free, gave rise to the growth
of a system of democratic high schools and state universities
found in no other part of the nation.
Fifth.
The patriotic and civic training received in
these western school-community centers of the plains pro­
duced in the words of Turner :
A larger single body of intelligent plain people
than can be found elsewhere in the world. Its political
tendencies, whether we consider Democracy, Populism, or
Republicanism, are distinctly in the direction of great­
er social control and the conservation of the old dem­
ocratic ideals.
Sixth.
A final contribution to the educational
thinking of the new country lay In the strong sense of per­
sonal democracy that was developed In the public schools of
of the west. In the more aristocratic East,.Harvard, Yale,
55
History,
Frederick J.Turner, The Frontier in American
(New. York : Henry Holt and Comp any, 1920}, p. 266.
85
and similar institutions listed their students in order of
social importance of their families. In the western univer­
sities, self reliance was almost a fetish while wealth and
social position, more often than not, was a handicap.
The significance of the closed frontier to the lead­
ership of educational thought in the United States. In the
discussion of the significance of the closed frontier to
educational leadership in the United States, there was no
attempt to offer suggestions upon the methods or means by
which educational leadership could cope with these new
world problems. Neither were all of the many significant
problems of American life discussed. The purpose of the
chapter was : (1) to indicate the fact that while the old
drives of the frontier remain, the means of satisfying them
have changed; and (2) that it is the high duty and privilege
of the educational leadership of this country to so interpret
the new frontiers of modern American life that this country
will emerge from its present confusion a stronger and more
virile nation worthy of the magnificent heritage it enjoys.
II. CONCLUSIONS
At the outset if this investigation several questions
were asked : (1) in what way did the moving frontier affect
educational thought in the United States? and ‘(2) what are
86
the implications of the closed frontier to American educa­
tional thought? The following series of conclusions were
arrived at during the course of this study :
Frontier influence upon educational thought in the
United States,
First, Under the democratic conditions of frontier
life a unified philosophy of democratic education has grown
up in the United States replacing the several divergent
views, most of which were far from being democratic, that
were held in the early colonial period. Today practically
every state in the Union provides free education for all
boys and girls from the elementary level through the uni­
versity.
Second. The demands of a frontier society for a
practical course of study emphasizing training for real life
situations has borne fruit as can be appreciated when the
course of study for a Latin grammar school is compared with
that of a modern rural consolidated school in the mid-west.
In the west a cultural emphasis was established regarding
vocational training.
Third. The abundance of free land in the west and
later the large amounts of taxable corporate property
provided a firm basis for support to education. At the
same time this support, being the collective wealth of the
87
state, was instrumental in tlie shift of control of the
schools from the church to the state*
Fourth* The development of a free, public controlled,
coeducational system of higher education, both academic and
vocational in nature, was a direct result of pioneer influ­
ences culminating in the states west of the Mississippi
River*
Fifth* The strong moral tone prevalent in American
education today is a heritage received from the hundreds', of
denominational colleges and academies sprinkled over the
prairies of the west by a devout people held close to re­
ligious traditions by the struggle and privations of life
in the Great West*
Sixth. On the great frontiers of America patriotic
people were anxious to see that the spirit of loyalty and
appreciation for American democratic institutions should
be instilled within the hearts of their children* The pub­
lic school was considered the ideal medium for this purpose
and in that day, as in this, the prime function of public
education in the United States is to prepare the youth of
the land for worthy citizenship in the Republic.
Significance to educational thought of the vanished
frontier.
First* The disappearance of the physical frontier
in the United States by 1900 has created a vast number of
88
new problems in the lives of Americans, New and baffling
frontiers lie before the citizen on every hand. In this ex­
tremity the educational leadership of the nation is challeng­
ed as never before to clarify and redirect the issues of
life in such a manner as to guarantee the perpetuation and
growth of traditional American democratic institutions.
That this challenge will be accepted and its charges
accomplished is the firm belief of this investigator, who
with Turner believes
:
The West gave to the world such types as the farmer
Thomas Jefferson, with his Declaration of Independence,
his statute for religious toleration, and his purchase
of Louisiana. She gave us Andrew Jackson, that fierce
Tennessee spirit who broke down the traditions of con­
servative rule, swept away the privacies and privileges
of officialdom, and like a Gothic leader, opened the
temple of the nation to the populace. She gave us Ab­
raham Lincoln, whose gaunt frontier form and gnarled,
massive hand told of the conflict with the forest,
whose grasp of the ax handle of the pioneer was no
firmer than his grasp of the helm of the ship of state
as It breasted the seas of the civil war. She has fur­
nished to this new democracy her stores of mineral
wealth, that dwarf those of the old world, and her
provinces that In themselves are vaster and more pro­
ductive than most of the nations of Europe. Out of her
bounty has come a nation whose industrial competition
alarms the Old World, and the masters of whose resources
wield wealth and power vaster than the wealth and power
of kings. Best of all, the west gave, not only to the
American, but to the unhappy and oppressed of all lands,
a vision of hope, and assurance that the v/orld held a
place where were to be found high faith in man and the
will and power to furnish him the opportunity to grow to
the full measure of his own capacity. Great and power­
ful as are the new sons of her loins, the Republic is
greater than they. The paths of the pioneers have widen­
ed into broad highways. The forest clearing has expand­
ed into broad affluent commonwealths. Let us see to it
that the ideals of the pioneer in his log cabin shall
89
enlarge into the spiritual life of a democracy where
civic power shall dominate and utilize individual
achievement for the common good.51
51
Frederick J,Turner, The Frontier in American'
History, (New York : Henry Holt and Company, 1920), p. 268.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
A.
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Adams, James T., The March of Democracy. 2 vols•;
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_
, The Epic of America. Boston
Little, Brown
and Company, 1932.
443 pp.
______ The Living Jefferson. New York : Charles
Scribners Sons, 1936.
4-03 pp.
Ament, W.S., Oxcart and Airplane. Los Angeles
Powell Press, 1929. 442 pp.
:
The
Andrews, Chas.M., Colonial Period of American History.
4 vols.* New Haven : Yale University Press, 1936.
_
_,
Colonial Backgrounds for the American
Revolution. New Haven : Yale University Press,
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B.
LAWS
California Statutes for the years 1856, 1859, 1862, 1863-4
1865-6.
United States at Large, vol. 12.
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