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THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE CHANGING FRONTIER IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATIONAL THOUGHT IN THE UNITED STATES A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the School of Education University of Southern California In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Science in Education *7 Frank Strickland Brown August, 1941 UMI Number: EP54177 All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion. Dissertation Publishing UMI EP54177 Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author. Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 48106-1346 T h is thesis, w r it t e n u n d e r the d ir e c t io n o f the C h a ir m a n o f the c a n d id a te ’ s G u id a n c e C o m m itte e a n d a p p r o v e d by a l l m em bers o f the C o m m itte e , has been pre se n te d to a n d accep ted by the F a c u l t y o f the S c h o o l o f E d u c a t io n o f T h e U n iv e r s it y o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f the re q u ire m e n ts f o r the degree o f M a s t e r o f S cience in E d u c a tio n . Dean Guidance C om m ittee M. M. Thompson C hairm an D. Welty Lefever Owen C. Coy TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I. PAGE THE PROBLEM AND DEFINITION OF TERMS. 1 ..................... 1 Statement of the p r o b l e m ......... ....... 2 Importance of the problem 2 Introduction • • • • • • • • • • • • • Definition of terms used . . . . . . . . The frontier . . 4 ....................... 4 Educational t h o u g h t ........... . 5 Scope of the investigation . . . . . . . . 5 Source materials 6 Biography . . . . . . ... School l a w s ....................... 6 Land l a w s .......................... 7 American literature . . . . ........... 7 H i s t o r y ................ 7 Histories of Education • • • • • • • • • 8 Non-fiction 8 . . ............. . . . . . Organization of the t h e s i s II. 6 HISTORICAL B A C K G R O U N D ................... . 8 10 The English theory of education in the s o u t h .......................... ....... 10 The Calvinistic idea of education in New England • • • • • • • • • • • • » • • • 12 CHAPTER ill The parochial schools of the Middle colonies •• • • 15 Summary of the chapter . • . ♦ . ........... III. THE FIRST FRONTIER .......... 17 19 The first frontier in New England . . . . 19 The Indian wars and the expanding frontier . . • • • • • • • • • • . . . Frontier objectives in education The academy 20 . . . . 21 .......... 22 Little change in educational practice in the South .......... 24 ............ 25 THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Summary of the chapter IV. . Independence and education . . . . . . . 27 Early education In the Northwest T e r r i t o r y .......... 34 The educational awakening in the United States ............ 34 The type of schools found in the North west T e r r i t o r y . 34 The defeat of the charity schools . . . . 35 The high school in the Northwest Territory 35 Education for women 35 ............... Church colleges in the west prior Summary of the chapter to 1850 37 ........... 39 CHAPTER V. iv CALIFORNIA AND THE MINING FRONTIER ........ 41 Important factors bearing upon the develop ment of public education in California • 41 Cosmopolitan nature of the population • • . 41 The wealth of opportunity for success affordby m i n i n g ................... 42 The political status of California . . . . Early California school l a w s .......... Constitutional provisions . . . . VI. • • • • . ........ Early statute laws regarding education Summary of the chapter 42 . . ........ THE GREAT P L A I N S .............................. The great plains, a delayed frontier 42 42 43 54 56 ... 56 The political situation ................... 57 National land laws ........... 58 Frontier aspects of e d u c a t i o n ............. 61 The European educational influences in the west ................. Early Iowa educational practices Higher education in Iowa 62 . . . . . 62 .......... 63 Early education in K a n s a s ................. 64 The extension of suffrage in the west . . . 68 Higher education on the p l a i n s ........... 69 A complete system of public education . . . 71 Summary of the c h a p t e r ................... 71 CHAPTER VII. v IMPLICATIONS OP THE CLOSED F R O N T I E R ......... 73 Old and new frontiers in the United States 73 Educational thought as a directing force . 74 New/ forces in American life today . * . . . 74 The new pioneer • • • • • « • • • • • • • • 75 The challenge to education and its leader^ s h i p ....................... VIII. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS . . . . . . 76 ......... Summary . ................... Conclusion 77 • • • « • • • • • • • B I BLIOGRAPHY............... 77 ......... . ............ . 85 90 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Introduction to the probiem. The Italian historian, Loria, has the following to say regarding the significance of the American frontier : America has the key to the historical enigma which Europe has sought for centuries in vain, and the land which has no history reveals luminously the course of universal history* 1 This revelation according to Loria is found in the spectacle of the unfolding frontier. Indeed, much importance has been attributed to the influence of the frontier in connection with nearly every phase of American life. Americans are practical and resourceful. This practical resourcefulness, say the historians, is an outgrowth of frontier life. Amer icans are also daring and adventuresome in their under-takings. The frontier again receives the credit. The American philos ophy and practice of public education is the most unique of any in the world. To what extent was this American idea of public education an outgrowth of frontier influence ? It was for the purpose of answering this question that this study has been attempted. 1 Frederick J,Turner, The Frontier in American History (New York; Henry Holt Company, 1920)", "pT 11 • 2 Statement of the problem. How did the changing frontier life affect educational thought in the United States? In other words, the purpose of this study was to answer the following questions : 1. What was the philosophy of education in colonial United States? a. In New England? b. In the Middle States? c. In the South? 2. What were the forces underlying the development of this early conception of education? 3. How did the philosophy of life, as developed on the moving frontier, become a determining factor in the formation of the changing patterns of educational thought in the United States? 4. Does the disappearance of the geographical frontier hold any significant implications for the future educational thought in the United States? Importance of the problem. In the year 1893 Professor Frederick Jackson Turner read a paper to the American Hist orical Society, convening in Chicago, that was destined to revolutionize historical thought In America. The title of Professor Turner’s paper was : "The Significance of the American Frontier." In this, now famous,essay Professor Turner says : 3 Thus American development has exhibited, not merely advance along a single line, but a return to the primitive conditions on a continually advancing frontier line, and a new development of that area. • • • American social development has been continually beginning over again on the frontier. This perennial rebirth, this fluidity of American life, this expansion westward with its new opportunities, Its continuous touch with the simplicity of primitive society, furnish the forces dominating American character. The true point of view in the history of this nation is not the Atlantic coast; it is the great west. Behind institutions, behind constitutional forms and modifications, lie the vital forces that call these organs into life and shape them to meet changing conditions. The peculiarity of American institutions is the fact that they have been compelled to adapt themselves to the changes involved in crossing a continent, in winning a wilderness, and in developing at each area progress out of the prim itive economic and political conditions of the frontier into the complexity of city life. & The great western frontier has been to the Americans what the Mediterranean was to the Greeks — a challenge and a fulfillment. There is a rather definite agreement among historians and scholars in general that the frontier has definitely shaped the social, political, and economic institutions in the United States. It seems only reasonable to suppose then that these same influences of the frontier have, in a like manner, influenced our most important institution, the public school. Therefore, it seems to the writer that a study designed to discover what these influences were, the manner in which they were manifested, and the extent to which they contributed The Frontier in American Frederick J.Turner, _______ (New York: Henry Holt Company, 1920), P 2 “ 4 to the establishment of modern public education as we now have it would be of general interest to the student of American educational thought. Such a study should challenge the student of education to discover the factors underlying educational thought in America. It should also urge him to investigate such quest ions as : (1) What direction will future educational thought in this country follow? (2) What influences in modern Amer ican life will supplant those formerly wielded by the frontier? (3) Will these new influences be for a broader, more virile and more democratic educational philosophy or will they tend to mold present educational ideas into a static philosophy based on the past? These and many more questions are important in this day of international change and disillusionment. Educational thought in the United States will determine the future course of national progress. It is, therefore, of particular import ance to students of education to examine carefully all the factors which have contributed to the American way of life as we now have it in order that the new philosophy will prove a true beacon of leadership through the maze of "new frontiers1’ that now confront the youth of the nation. Definition of terms. Frontier. For the purpose of this discussion the term 5 ^frontier" will be considered to refer, not alone to that narrow border-land between the civilized and •uncivilized portions of our country as it existed from time to time, but to that larger area which contained the scattered dwellings of. those American pioneers who, without awaiting the coming of the more orderly process of settlement, pushed fearlessly into the wilderness hundreds of miles from the older settle ments • Educational thought. Educational thought will be con strued to mean the broad underlying principles of thought in the United States which have determined the type and extent of public education In this country. Scope of the investigation. In this Investigation no exhaustive treatment of either the backgrounds or the general factors which have contributed to the formation of American educational thought was attempted. On the contrary, with the exception of brief summaries of these backgrounds and general factors, the study was restricted to an examination and evaluation of a single important factor — the moving frontier. Furthermore, this study was concerned with the general influences exercised upon American life by the frontier only ■k0 the extent in which that influence affected educational thought. Finally, only a few of the most typical frontiers were studied. 6 Source material for the study, The source material for the study, as listed in the bibliography, can be classified under the following general heads : Biography, The lives of prominent American leaders were used to discover the trends of educational thought in the United States at different periods of time. Among the lives studied some of the more important were : George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Andrew Jackson, De Witt Clinton, Horace Mann, Edward Everett Hale, Benjamin Franklin, Abraham Lincoln, Jefferson Davis, Henry Clay, John C.Calhoun, William Henry Harrison, General John Fremont, Lieutenant Colonel Zebulon Pike, Aaron Burr, Stephen A*Douglas, Peter Cartwright, George Rogers Clark, Davy Crockett, Sam Houston, George Cooke, and Father Junipero Serra, School laws. The school laws of the cities, districts, and states were examined as a reflecting source of public thought. Especially valuable, in this connection, were the earl# records of the cities of Boston, Philadelphia, Hew York, Charleston, St,Louis, Denver, Hew Orleans, Chicago, and San Francisco. The educational objectives of Father Serra also proved of great value in this study as did the records of the Methodist Church which referred to the educational policy of the church and missionary enterprises in the west- 7 ern settlements. The early state and district records of the states of Kentucky, Virginia,'iillllnois, Indiana, Missouri, Minnesota, Wyoming, Arizona, Iowa, Ohio, Kansas, Texas, California, Pennsylvania, Hew York, and Massachusetts throw considerable light on educational thought in the different sections of the country at different periods of time. Land laws. The land laws of both the state and nat ional governments are closely related to educational thought and practice. The Ordinance of 1787 Is an outstanding example of a national law. The land laws of such states as Virginia, Massachusetts, New York, Maryland, Illinois, Ohio, and Iowa were most carefully examined. American literature. Special attention was paid to the group of mid-western writers known as the "Realists” . Especially important were the following : Eggleston1s, The Hoosier 8 choolmaster, Herbert Quick’s, The Brown Mouse, Garland’s, Main-travelled Roads, and Sandberg’s, The Prairie Years. The novels by Kenneth Roberts furnished rich and intimate details of the-early northeast frontier. History. The histories of the United States, both social and political, were freely consulted. Some of the most valuable histories for this study were : Elston, Social History of the United States, Parkman, The Oregon Trail, Roosevelt, Winning of the West, J.T.Adams, Epic of America, and The March of Democracy, Owen C.Coy, The G-reat Trek, and Bancroft1s works. Many histories of education were used in this study. The histories of education most useful for this work were those of Cubberley, Inglis, Douglass, Englehardt, and Swett. Western non-fiction and personal accounts and diaries. The diaries of such men as Jedidiah Smith, Pattie, Pike, and Fremont were particularly helpful in this investigation. The recent publications of a non-fictional character dealing with significant phases of the frontier were quite valuable to this study. The books of Stanley Vestal and J.Frank Dobie were most frequently consulted. Organization of the chapters. The second chapter is devoted to a brief account of the three most important educational philosophies brought to America by the colonial peoples. Some space is also given to indicate reasons why each type of thought was found where it was. Chapter three is a brief description of how the first frontier modified these early conceptions of educational thought and ushered in new ideas and practices. Chapter four deals with the frontier problems of the Northwest Territory as they relate to education. Particular 9 consideration is given to the land laws which greatly influenced public education in the United States. Chapter five discusses the unique G a l i f o m i a frontier % and education. Unusual space is given to the early California school laws because they have definitely influenced school legislation in many western states. Chapter six is a study of the educational ideology as developed on the great western plains. Several important developments were discussed, the most significant of which were : (1) Private education, (2) Religious influence, (3) Woman suffrage and (4) Coeducational, state supported universities. Chapter seven sets forth a few of the many problems facing American educational leaders as a result of the closed frontier. Chapter eight is composed of a summary of the preced ing seven chapters and the conclusions drawn from the study as to the importance of the moving frontier in the formation of educational thought in the United States. CHAPTER II HISTORICAL BACKGROUND There exists today in many quarters the idea that the pattern of educational thought in the United States is to a large degree, a transplanted replica of the English system of education* This popular belief is, however, quite erroneous. The foundation materials from which rose the unique structure of American public education were supplied by the fusion of several European educational philosophies tempered by two factors of non-English origin, (1) the Calvinistic doctrine of the church controlled state with its attendant educational responsibility and (2) the purely American factor, the moving frontier. The English theory in America. The Virginia colony affords the most striking illustration of the transplanted English theory of education in the United States. In the South society was or ganized along much the same lines as in rural England. Physical factors were largely responsible for this similarity, the climate and soil being ideally suited to large scale agricultural operations. An agricultural system organized around the large plantation idea called for a wealthy land owning class, a class of society which felt no urge to champion free education for all the children. 11 The children of the well-to-do class were taught at home by tutors, sent to select private schools in the north or, as in the case of the wealthy, sent to England. To the Established Church, which dominated this section of America, was left the dubious task of teaching the children of the poor to read. The general practice regarding the education of orphans and paupers was to see that each was taught a trade suitable to his position in society through the apprentice system. Such an educational plan was an exact counterpart of the English practice which held that education was not a governmental responsibility, but rather a private enterprise for those who could afford the expense. As a matter of fact the English authorities preferred that the common people remain in an untutored state as a guarantee against popular discontent with the prevailing political, economic, and social systems. Governor Berkeley, of the Virginia colony as late as 1671 issued the following statement : I thank God there are no free schools nor printing, and I hope we shall not have these hundred years, for learning has brought disobedience into the world and printing has divulged them and libels against the best governments. God keep us from both. 3 3 Mary Johnston, Pioneers of the Old South, (Hew Haven : Yale U. Press, 1918), p. 168. 12 The Calvin!stic idea of religious education. In New England a very un-English philosophy of education prevailed. New England was peopled largely by dissenters who held to the teachings of John Calvin. Calvinistic theories not being countenanced in England, it behooved such Englishmen as held them to migrate to such places as would allow their practice. In New England these English Calvinists founded colonies and put their peculiar ideology into practice. The Calvinists believed in a church dominated state, holding that it was the prime duty of the state to teach all of its children so that they might become both better Christians and better citizens. In New England soil, climate, and Indian troubles all united to keep the colonists in small compact groups near the coast. Each settlement embraced the village and adjacent lands and was referred to as a Mtownn . In government the town was both a political unit and a religious community. The same gentlemen, who politically were known as selectmen, were also the religious regulators. Hence the church fathers found it no difficult feat to persuade themselves, while sitting as the civil authority, to pass laws designed to carry out their will as leaders of the church. Education in New England before 1642 was voluntary and a fair copy of the English system which left the duty of teaching the children to read up to the home and master apprentices. Latin grammar schools were established to prepare 13 carefully selected youths for entrance to Harvard which was a typical English college whose main duty was to train young men for the ministry* Such a system was neither democratic nor successful in the eyes of the church fathers. Calvinism contended that every boy and girl should be taught to read so that they would be both better church members and better citizens. Moreover the church fathers were convinced that a large number of parents were falling down o*i the job of home in struction in both reading and religion. Consequently the Massachusetts legislature passed the startling Law. of 1642 which, for the first time, required the officials of each toim to investigate as to whether the parents were properly providing for the educational needs of the children and were empowered to impose fines on those who were negligent in this respect. The government was particularly concerned with the children being taught to, ’’Read and understand the principles of religion and the capital laws of the country.”4 Because of Indian troubles and the difficulties of the frontier life, the investigators found that this parental function 4 Ellwood P.Cubberley, Public Education in the United States, (Boston : Houghton Mifflin Company, 1919T, p. 17. 14 had been sadly neglected. Consequestly, in 1647, Massachu setts passed an even more significant law, the Law of 1647. This law had two famous provisions : 1, That every town having fifty householders should at once appoint a teacher of reading and writing, and provide for his wages in such manner as the town might determine; and 2. That every town having one hundred householders must provide a (Latin) grammar school to fit youths for the university under a penalty of five pounds sterling for failure to do so. 5 Cubberley in commenting on these two remarkable laws says : This Law represents a distinct advance over the Law of 1642. TJie State here, acting again as the servant of the Church,' enacted a law for which there were no Eng lish precedents. Not only was a school system ordered established — elementary for all towns and children, and secondary for the youths in the larger towns — but, for the first time among English-speaking people, there was the assertion of the right of the State to require communities to establish and maintain schools, under penalty of a fine if they refused to do so. 6 While the form of these schools was English, the spirit or philosophy underlying them was decidedly new, an .American contribution through the Church controlled State. As American frontier conditions continued their influence upon these transplanted New Englanders, conceptions of education became 5 Ellwood P Cubberley, Fublic Education in the United States, (Boston : fioughton Mifflin Company, 191STJ", p. 18. 6 Ibid., p. 18. 15 more democratic and practical in nature and more public in control. Such a system of education as this was no replica of the undemocratic system of selective education as pract iced in England, but an American development, fostered by the very corner stone of public education in the United States. The parochial school conception of education in the Middle colonies. In the middle colonies a third attitude toward education was evolved. It must be remembered that the middle colonies were so situated as to become the cross roads of the various European races in the hew world. Dutch, Swede, Scotch, Irish, German, and English all mingled in these colonies. In Pennsylvania and New York originated all the great highways leading to the west. Turner calls it the most American section of all : The Middle region, entered by New York harbor, was an open door to all Europe. The tide-water part of the South represented typical Englishmen, modified by a warm cli mate and servile labor, and living in baronial fashion on great plantations; New England stood for a special English movement — Puritanism. The Middle region was less English than the other sections. It had a wide mixture of nationalities, a varied society, the mixed town and county system of local government, a varied economic life, many religious sects. In short, it was a region mediating between New England and the South, and the East and the West. It represented that composite nation ality which the contemporary United States exhibits, that juxtaposition of non-English groups, occupying a valley or a little settlement, and presenting reflections of the map of Europe in their variety. It was democratic and non-sectional, If not national; !,easy, tolerant, and contented11; rooted strongly in material prosperity. It was 16 typical of the modern United States, It was least sect ional, not only because it lay between North and South, but also because with no barriers to shut out its front iers from its settled region, and with a system of con necting waterways, the Middle region mediated between East and West as well as between North and South. Thus it became the typically American region. Even the New Englander, who was shut out from the frontier by the Middle region, tarrying in New York or Pennsylvania on his westward march, lost the acuteness of his section alism on the way. In this middle section of colonial America no religious sect was strong enough to dominate the political government as was true of New England. Hence we compulsory schools do not have the state in this region. However, since a reading knowledge of the Scriptures was deemed necessary as a means to personal salvation, some education was accomplished by the churches. The prevailing types were : (1) parish schools estab lished by the different religious denominations and (2) pri vate or pay schools for the more wealthy class. In the parish type of school the educational offerings were few and of an indifferent nature. Usually the pastor or sexton served as the master and the chief studies were reading and singing both of which were necessary to the services The private 7 schools, while of of the church. a much better character Frederick J.Turner, The Frontier in American History. (New York : Henry Holt Company, 1920), pp. 27, 28. 17 than those of the parish, were ineffectual as a means of public education on account of the limiting factor of expense. In general it may be said that few free public educational opportunities existed in the middle section of colonial America. SUMMARY In this chapter the three fundamental types of European educational-^practices as found in colonial America have been reviewed, 1. In Virginia and in the South in general, a trans planted English philosophy of private responsibility for education was found to prevail. This philosophy was expressed in the practice of hiring private tutors in the homes and the sending of the youth to private pay schools in the North and to England at the expense of the parents. The Established Church offered some opportunity for teaching the essentials of reading to the poor while the government undertook to see that orphans and paupers were taught trades through the apprentice system. There was little or no governmental recog nition in the South until after the Civil War for universal education at public expense. £*1 New England. In New .England the non-English idea of the religious state existed. Under this plan the 18 state assumed direct responsibility for the education of all the children. Common or Latin Grammar Schools were provided for in every town and the people were taxed to support public education. This was a new and startling educational idea. 3* Middle section. This region presented a more or less mixed attitude toward education. The parish school taught some reading to those of its own denomination while private schools offered a better educational program to the relatively few who could pay for the privilege. In chapter three the effect of the first frontier upon these general types of colonial educational institutions will be discussed. CHAPTER III THE FIRST FRONTIER In the preceding chapter the three fundamental philosophies of early American public education have been discussed. The succeeding chapters of this investigation will continue the study of these three basic Ideas of ed ucation in the light of changing conditions brought about by a constantly shifting frontier. The first frontier in New England. It must .be re membered that the first colonists found a frontier beginning at the very edge of the Atlantic. Many of their preconceived ideas of life had to undergo instant and sometimes revolut ionary change. As each succeeding wave of westward expansion took place, new Ideas were evolved to meet the needs of primitive life. What had been deemed essential for an English community in England or in the more settled east of colonial America was neither necessary nor possible on the frontier. This condition was particularly true of education. The colonial leaders, in their efforts to establish an English society in a new world, overreached themselves. The Massachusetts school laws of 1642 and 1647 were designed to fulfill the educational needs of a typical English commun ity under normal settled conditions. Events soon proved that 20 any such program was not only unsuitable but impossible when applied to American frontier conditions♦ The Indian wars and the expanding frontiers* The Indian wars in New England had two direct effects upon the school program as set up by the Law of 1647, First, the expense attendant to the successful prosecution of the wars caused the partial abandonment of the tax supported town schools* Dover, New Hampshire, addressed the following petit ion to the assembly : That whereas the said town is one of the most exposed towns in this Province to the insults of the Indian enemy, and also whereas by an act of the General Assembly of this Province the said town of Dover (amongst others) is oblig ed by said act to keep and maintain a grammar school, and whereas the circumstances and situation or settlements of the inhabitants of said town lying and being in such a manner as It is, the houses being so scattered over the whole township that in no one place six houses are within call, by which inconveniency the inhabitants of said town can have no benefit of such grammar school, for at the times fit for children to go and come from school, is generally the chief time of the Indians doing mischief, so that the inhabitants are afraid to send their children to school, and the children dare not venture; so that the salary to said schoolmaster is wholly lost to said town.° Second, the removal of Indian dangers stimulated the westward expansion of the colonial peoples. By the close of the seven teenth century numerous new western settlements were found throughout western New England* Since It was no longer possible 8 Edwin E.Slosson, The American Spirit in Education, (New Haven : Yale University Press, 1921), pp. 6,7* 21 to send the children back to the town school, some new plan for schools had to be formulated* The "moving school" was a partial answer to the problem, but was in the eighteenth century succeeded by the district system* The original towns were eventually divided into districts, each having its own school paid for by a tax levied on the property of that district or by rate assessments* The affairs of the district were managed by the district itself. This type of school organization became the prototype of the present local school organization.in the United States. Frontier objectives in education. The objectives of education in these new communities were very different from those considered essential in the original settlements. The religious element was no longer important. Frontiersmen needed to be able to shoot straight rather than to argue with skill and authority upon theoretical religious problems or to read Latin* The child of the frontiersman needed knowledge of woodcraft, Indian language, the ability to trap and trade. Book education naturally declined; schools became fewer in number and poorer in their offerings. On the frontier formal learning came back once again to the parent and the church. In the original settlements north of Virginia a marked change also took place. Wo longer were the people interested principally in agriculture. Manufacturing, trade, and ship building were great interests now. Seaboard merchants and 22 manufacturers wanted apprentices with "basic training of some practical value to their particular "business. The Latin school declined in favor of the more practical Academy which proved to be more suitable to the needs of the new country. The Academy, an outgrowth of frontier -needs in education,. The Academy movement was a direct result of the demands of a frontier dominated society for an educational offering suitable to the needs of a new country. During the latter part of the eighteenth century the Academy gradually took precedence over the more selective Latin Grammar school. One of the chief characteristics of the Academy was its curriculum. While still offering instruction in Latin and Greek, the Academies specialized in a broad general educational offering designed to more adequately prepare youth for effective citizenship in a frontier country. English grammar, oratory, declamation, geometry, arithmetic, algebra, geography, astronomy, survey ing, rhetoric, navigation as well as moral philosophy and Roman history were among the subjects taught. Benjamin Frank lin, possibly the leading advocate of the Academy proclaimed his views in some ^Proposals Relating to the Education of the Youth in Pennsylvania.” As to their studies, it Y/ould be well if they could be taught everything that is useful, and everything that is ornamental. But art is long, and their time is short. It is therefore proposed that they learn those things that are likely to be most useful and most ornamental, regard being had to the several professions for which they are intended. 23 Youth, will come out of this school fitted for learning any business, calling, or profession, except such wherein languages are required; and> though unacquainted with any ancient or foreign tongue, they will be masters of their own, which is of more immediate and general use, and with al will have attained many other valuable accomplishments Truly the frontier demands for a more practical school had borne fruit. A second characteristic of the Academy lay in its control. While it is true that Academies were started largely through private groups, private control was gradually cur tailed by the granting of more and more government assistance. The various state governments early adopted the practice of granting land, the sale or lease of which, was to go toward the maintenance of the new Academies. With the granting of these land bounties the state naturally demanded more voice in the management of the Academies. The state authority finally ended in the elimination of church control in public education. While the Academies stressed the religious need in education they represented a transition from the control of schools by particular churches. The original grant for Phillips Academy at Andover, Massachusetts brings out this point in the statement of its aims : To lay the foundation of a public free school or 9 David C.Cloyd, Ben.jamin Franklin and Education, (Heath, 1902), pp. 73-85. 24 ACADEMY for the purpose of Instructing Youth, not only in English and Latin Grammar, Writing, Arithmetic, and those Sciences wherein they are commonly taught; but more especially to learn them the GREAT AND REAL BUSINESS OP LIVING • • . It is again declared the first and principle object of this Institution in the promo11on of true PIETY and VIRTUE; the second. Instruction In the English, Latin, and Greek Languages, together with Writ ing, Arithmetic, Music, and the Art of Speaking; the third, practical Geometry, Logic, and Geography; and the fourth, such other liberal Arts and Sciences or Languages, as opportunity and ability may hereafter admit, and as the TRUSTEES shall direct.1° G.H.Martin says : In spite of the fact that the laws recognized the rights of girls to at least elementary Instruction, less than forty per cent of the women whose names appear on recorded deeds in Massachusetts during the early part of the eighteenth century were able to write their own signatures, the rest having to attest by marks. The Latin Grammar school w as a school exclusively for boys, but now, in view of the more democratic nature of educational Ideas, Academies were established for girls as well as boys and before long many were coeducational. Little change in educational practice in the South. In the South expansion had also taken place. White bondsmen after fulfilling their allotted years as servants pushed westward into the Appalachians. The chief interest of this group of pioneers was in the acquisition of skills to over- 10 Ellwood P.Cubberley, Public Education In the United (Boston : Houghton Mifflin Company, 1919T, p. 188. 11 G.H.Martin, Evolution of the Massachusetts Public School System, (1894), p. 141. States, 25 com© the problems of the wilderness, not in book learning. In the original southern colonies the release of so many indentured servants, negro slavery, and the presence of a society organized on a class basis forbade a free public system of education. Consequently education continued there much as it had in the past until after the Civil War. SUMMARY In this chapter the original philosophies of education in colonial America have been reviewed in the light of the demands made by the first frontiers. Several distinctive modifications to both the theory and practice of education have been noted which were the direct results of the demands of a frontier society. First. The Massachusetts school laws of 1642 and 1647 were overambitious. In theory they were designed to meet the needs of a settled English community rather than the exigency of a struggling frontier settlement in a new world. In pract ice the provisions of these laws were impractical for several reasons. In the first place, the expense of Indian wars united with the general poverty of early colonial existence combined to make their success impossible. Again, the extension of the frontier after the removal of the Indian dangers, spelled the final failure of the town system since children from the more distant regions could not be transported to the central town 26 school. Finally the type of education provided for was not suitable to the needs of a vigorous people pitting their every resource against a harsh and demanding frontier. Second. The district system, which became the proto type of American public school organization and control, re presented a natural evolution of educational organization to meet frontier needs. Third. The decline of classical education in favor of the more democratic and practical curriculum of the Academy shows the clear recognition of the new needs in education to meet the changing conditions of American life as influenced by the west. Fourth. 'The control of public education continued to shift from the church to the state because of the increased public aid given largely in land grants to the new Academies. CHAPTER IV THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY In chapter three the changes In "both the theory and the practice of public education in colonial America were examined with particular reference to the influences wielded by the opening of new frontiers to the west of the seaboard colonies. In this chapter the frontiers of the Northwest will be studied with relation to public education. Independence and education. The Revolutionary War had two important effects upon education in the United States. The immediate effect was one of extreme curtailment. During the war every resource was employed to win independence. There were no funds to carry on the educational program and the leaders of the country were occupied with matters of state rather than of education. For many years after the war a like condition' existed. There were grave doubts as to the success of the new government. It was not until after the War of 1812 that confidence began to replace skepticism on the national scene. With this returning confidence interest in education received new impetus. The second important effect of Independence upon public education was a fundamental change in view point concerning its Importance and type. Independence, itself a 28 product of the frontier, led to the establishment of a gov ernment by the people and for the people. Such a government required an intelligent electorate to insure Its success. The early leaders of the Republic were strong advocates for education. Washington voiced his support of education in these lines from his Farewell Address : Promote then, as an object of primary Importance, institutions for the general diffusion of knowledge. In proportion as the structure of a government gives force to public opinion, it is essential that public opinion should be enlightened.3-2 In his will Washington left considerable funds to carry out his wishes regarding education which were expressed in these words : It has been my ardent wish to see a plan devised on a liberal scale, which would have a tendency to spread systematic ideas through all parts of this rising empire thereby to do away with local attachments and State prejudices, as far as the nature of things would, or indeed ought to admit, from our national councils. Look ing anxiously forward to the accomplishment of so desir able an object as this is (in my estimation), my mind has not been able to contemplate any plan more likely to effect the measure, than the establishment of a UNIVERSITY in the central part of the United States, to which the youths of fortune and talents from all parts thereof may be sent for the completion of their educat ion, In all branches of polite literature, in arts and sciences, in acquiring knowledge in the principles of politics and good government, and, as a matter of in finite importance in my judgment, by associating with each other, and forming friendships in juvenile years 12 States, Ellwood P.Cubber|?ey, Public Education in the United (Boston : Houghton Mifflin Company, 1919), p. 57. 29 be enabled to free themselves in a proper degree from those local prejudices and habitual jealousies which have just been mentioned, and which, when carried to excess, are never-failing sources of disquietude to the public mind, and pregnant of mischievous consequences to this country.1^ Jefferson always a great champion of both democracy and education wrote the following to James Madison in 1787 : Above all things, I hope the education of the common people vfill be attended to; convinced that on their good sense we may rely with^the most security for the preser vation of a due degree of liberty. 4 In 1816, Jefferson again said : If a nation expects to be ignorant and free in a state of civilization it expects what never was and never will be, . . . There is no safe deposit for the functions of government, but with the people themselves; nor can they be safe with them, without information. 5 James Madison wrote : A satisfactory plan for primary education is certainly a vital desideratum in our republics, A popular government without information or of acquiring it is but a propogue to a farce or or perhaps, both. Knowledge will forever govern and a people who mean to be their own governors themselves with the power which knowledge gives the means a tragedy, ignorance; must arm 13 Edwin E.Slosson, The American Spirit in Education, (New Haven : Yale University Press, 1921), p. 96, 14 Ellwood P. Cubberley, Public Education in the United States, (Boston : Houghton Mifflin Company, 1919*77 p. 57. 15 Loc. Cit. 16 Loc.' Cit. 30 Two major difficulties, however, stood in the way of the accomplishment of such ideals of education in this region. First, the lack of adequately trained teachers and second, the inability of the greater part of the country to support an adequate school program. The establishment of the Academies with their emphasis upon teacher training tended to solve the first of these difficulties while the abundance of gov ernment land afforded a partial solution for the second. All the land lying between the Alleghenies and the Mississippi River south of the Great Lakes and north of the Ohio was ceded to the national government by the various claimant states by 1787. By the famous Ordinance of 1787 Congress expressed itself regarding education as follows : ’’Religion, Morality, and knowledge being necessary to good government and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall be forever encouraged” in the States to be formed from this territory.17 Before the Revolutionary War many hardy frontiersmen had migrated into the Ohio country. Boone, Sevier, Robertson and others had established permanent communities in Kentucky and Tennessee. From these central communities many small settlements were established on both binks of the Ohio which was the great highway to the west. After the war the valleys of western New York and Pennsylvania were rapidly filled by 3?7 Ellwood P.Cubberley, Public Education in the United States,(Boston : Houghton Mifflin Company, 1919*17 P* 59. 31 settlers from the seaboard states and immigrants from the British Isles and Germany• Soon settlements extended west ward into the Northwest Territory by way of the Mohawk valley and the Cumberland Road, .The immigrants from Europe were in many instances better educated than the .Americans from the seaboard states. 'These European immigrants, particularly the Germans, were strongly in favor of education believing it to be the best guarantee for the future success of their child ren. Most of the Americans from the original states were of a generation far removed from England. They had been born in America and many had grown up since the war. Their out look was purely American, influenced more by frontier needs than by the cultural backgrounds of their fathers. The mingl ing of these peoples on the frontier with their diverse ed ucational ideas tended to build a new American philosophy of education. De Witt Clinton, while governor of New York, was_ particularly interested in education. In a statement to the New York Legislature, in 1827, he urged state aid to academies suggesting that they be t!located at county towns throughout the state to give a practical scientific education suited to the wants of farmers, merchants, and mechanics, and also to train teachers for the common schools of the state.ft Ohio, after its admission to the Union in 1803, pro- 32 posed to tax the vast holdings of public lands within its borders to raise money to maintain schools. Congress, how ever, being eager to facilitate the sale of public lands was opposed to this plan and offered to Ohio and all states subsequently to be formed from the territory one section in each township of the public lands to be used to promote public education. This agreement w as wisely accepted by Ohio and has become an important basis for the support of education throughout the west. Now that a means for the support of public education was found, educationally-minded sections of the frontier made liberal educational provision in their state constitut ions or statute laws. The Ohio constitution had the following torsay concerning education in the state : Art.VIII, 25. That no law shall be passed to prevent the poor in the several counties and townships within the State from an equal participation in the schools, academies, colleges, and universities within this state, which are endowed, in whole or in part, from the revenues arising from the donations made by the United States for the support of schools and colleges * and the doors of said schools, academies, and universities shall be open for the reception of scholars, students, and teachers of every grade, without distinction, or preference what ever, contrary to the intent for which said donations were made.-**® The Indiana constitution of 1816 contained this pro vision for education : 18 States, Ellwood P.Cubberley, Public Education in the United (Boston : Houghton Mifflin Company, 191$T7, p. 75. 33 Art* IX, Sec.2* It shall he the duty of the general assembly, as soon as circumstances will permit, to pro vide by law for a general system of education, ascend ing in regular gradations from township schools to a State university, wherein tuition shall be gratis and equally open to all* Michigan, while still a territory, passed a revolut ionary law taxing the-property owned by non-residents for school purposes. When admitted as a state in 1835, Michigan provided for the first state Superintendent of Public In struction along with this excellent constitutional plan for education : Sec. 3. The legislature shall provide for a system of common schools, by which a school shall be kept up and supported in each school district at least three months in every year; and any school district neglecting to keep up and support such school may be deprived of its equal proportion of the interest of the public (school) fund*2u Wisconsin, admitted in 1848, had a constitutional plan for education modelled on the Massachusetts district system. On the frontier, where democratic ideas and practices were strongest, the ideas of Clinton, Mann, and Barnard found a strong following. Mannfs insistence upon a good common school education for all children at public expense became generally accepted throughout the west. 19 Ellwood P.Cubberley, Public Education in the United States,(Boston :Houghton Mifflin Company, 1919), p.75. 20 Ibid., p. 76. 34 The more democratic suffrage practices of the frontier again emphasized the necessity for a good system of common schools if the new electorate was to he an intelligent one. Early education in the Northwest Territory. During the early days of the Northwest Territory little progress was made in education. The problems of establishment on the new frontier and, as has been stated, the weakness and u n certainty concerning the new government at Washington, both united to keep people1s attention centered upon problems of the present rather than upon future objectives. The educational awakening in the United States. Most authorities use the year 1820 to mark the beginning of the great revival of interest in public education which swept the country during the second quarter of the nineteenth century. As more settlers poured into the Northwest Territory after the War of 1812, schools made rapid progress. The type of schools found in the Northwest Territory. On this frontier a real American school developed. The New England element, augmented by New Yorkers, after the com pletion of the Erie Canal in 1825, early secured favorable school laws and public support to maintain them. The typically American school of the 3-Rfs became the common school of this region. The text-books, teachers, and general equipment were ,fhomespunu variety, but they were free and supported by the 35 public. The defeat of the charity schools. The pauper schools of the east found no favor in the land where one m a n ’s children were deemed as good as another’s. In the east poor parents often had too much pride to send their children to the ’’free schools for indigents.” In the west the charity schools died a quick but permanent death. The high school in the Northwest Territory. In the more thickly populated portions of the Northwest the academy was held in high esteem. The state governments contributed generously to its support from the first. People on the frontier, however, began to ask why public education at the secondary level should not be free for all. The so-called ’’English Grammar School” or high school of New England origin, grew in popular favor and became the successor to the academy. Thus was provided a free school system from the elementary grades to the college level. Education for women, a result of frontier democracy. New England girls were barred from the Latin Grammar schools. What little education they received was in the Dame school* Now the ’’Female” academies arose and other academies per mitted girls to attend. Emma Willard and Mary Lyon were leaders in the movement to secure equal educational priv ileges for girls. With the coming of the high school, girls were 36 admitted on an equal footing with, boys in the west. Edwin E.Slosson, in his book, The American Spirit in Education, says : For the first true colleges open to women we must turn to the West and especially to an institution which, though widely different from the New England seminary in most respects, was yet founded in the same spirit of democracy, economy, piety, and industry. Oberlin Collegiate Institute, founded in 1833, was started in the wilderness of Ohio by tow Congregational home missionaries.21 The intentions of the founders are set forth in their first, report as follows : *The grand object is the diffusion of useful science, sound morality, and pure religion among the growing multitudes of the Mississippi valley. It aims also at bearing an important part in extending these blessings to thp destitute millions that overspread the earth, For this purpose it proposes as its primary object the thorough education of ministers and pious school teach ers; as a secondary object the elevation of female character. And as a third general design, the education of the common people with the higher classes in such manner as suits the nature of republican institutions.* This was an ambitious programme for a little wooden building in a clearing of the backwoods of Ohio, but the most remarkable thing about it is that the pro gramme has been carried out. ^ Regarding education for women, Cubberley has the following to say, "Another change in the nature of instruet- 21 Edwin E.Slosson, American Spirit in Education, (New Haven : Yale University Press, l§2l), p. 245. 22 Ibid. , p. 246. 37 ion to women." ^3 in 1800 women could not enter any college in the United States. Today over eighty per cent of the colleges and universities are coeducational. In the west where coeducation received its greatest impetus the percentage is well over ninety-five,per cent. Church colleges in the west prior to 1850. The churches have made no greater single contribution to the welfare of the nation than through its educational missionary activities. The churches had been active in elementary and secondary schools of the west, but the crowning achievement was the establishing of various denominational colleges through out the western states. These colleges provided a trained leadership for the church, state, and school. The higher education offered by these institutions was strongly re ligious in character and was one of the strongest influ ences behind the many reforms for which the west is noted. Considerable financial support came from New England in a spirit of religious contribution to the cause of home missions. In 1833 Edward Everett concluded an appeal to Bostonians on behalf of Kenyon College, Ohio, with the following words which are Indicative of this spirit : 23 Ellwood P.Cubberley, Public Education in the United States, (Boston : Houghton Mifflin Company, 1919J, p. 209. 38 They ask you, to make yourselves rich, in their re spect, goodwill, and gratitude; — to make your name dear and venerable, in their distant shades. They ask you, to give their young men cause to love you, now in.the spring-time of life, before the heart is chilled and hardened; to make their old men, who in the morn ing of their days, went out from your borders, lift up their hands for a blessing on you, and say, 11Ah, this is the good old-fashioned liberality of the land where we were born.” Yes, sir, we shall raise an altar, in the remote wilderness. Our eyes will not behold the smoke of its incense, as it curls up to the heaven. But there the altar will stand; and the worshipper who comes, in all future time, to pay his devotions before it, will turn his face to the Eastward, and think of the land of his benefactors.24 Since the national government, through the granting of lands for school purposes, had become an important con tributor to the support of schools it is surprising that it made no effort to dictate educational policy. On the other hand the state governments which had, in most instances, also given support to the school program became the domin ating factor in the control of education, but delegated most aspects of school control to the local communities. The control of education by the church groups was, however, restricted to private enterprise. The common school was now a free public school, open to rich and poor alike, control led by the state, and designed to offer a practical educa tion suitable to the needs of the community. These element- 24 Edward Everett, Practical Education, (New. York : Harper and Brothers Publishers, 1840), p . 171. 39 ary schools were linked to the free coeducational univer sities by the free public high schools. SUMMARY This chapter has presented a study of the changing theories of education as found in the new frontier in the Northwest. Certain conditions there tended to further modify the already changing ideology of American education al thought. First. Through frontier politics a firm financial guarantee for education in the form of public land gifts was secured by Ohio in 1802. By this plan pne section in each township of public land was set aside to help pro vide for public education. This plan became the basic practice of the national government toward public education in the west and encouraged state governments to make similar grants for educational needs. Second. By the broadening of manhood suffrage pract ices the necessity for a system of public instruction for all the children was stressed as the best means to develop a more intelligent electorate. Third. Other frontier conditions tending to increase democratic practices in education were the emphasis upon individual worth, the levelling of class distinctions, and the recognition of the equal rights of all for the opportun- 40 ity to succeed under a free democratic government. Fourth. School programs were "broadened to include more practical instruction suitable to the needs of a frontier society. Fifth. .The land grants and various property taxes for schools tended still further to break down religious control and establish state control of public education. Sixth. The mingling of the diverse nationalities in this frontier tended to increase the democratic nature of educational thought. Seventh. Free public education on both secondary and collegiate levels was a distinct contribution of the west which made a lasting impression upon the educational thought of America. Eighth. The influence of church missionary enter prise as expressed in the founding of religious seminaries and colleges in the west gave great impetus and religious direction to both education and social reform. CHAPTER V CALIFORNIA AND THE MINING FRONTIER In all the worldfs history there was never a frontier comparable to that of California in the early, fifties. The population was, perhaps, the most cosmopolitan to be found in any one section on the globe. The development of an edu cational consciousness there was particularly interesting and significant In relation to its contribution to the gen eral educational thought and practice of the nation as a whole. I. IMPORTANT FACTORS BEARING UPON TH E DEVELOPMENT OF PUBLIC EDUCATION IN CALIFORNIA The cosmopolitan nature of the population. People came to the California gold fields from every part of the world and from all walks of life. The New England schoolmaster, with his definite ideas of democratic education, rubbed shoulders with the backwoodsman from the south who had little knowledge and less Interest in the subject* Gold seekers from Europe accustomed to rigid control by the government mingled with the American fur trapper who accepted dictation from no man or state. Bankers, preachers, clerks, farmers, lawyers, mech anics, and the inevitable gambler all were there and all had their part in the in the development of education in the state. 42 From such, a unique cross section of life as was found here it is not surprising that an unusual public reaction to education took place. The wealth of opportunity for success afforded by mining. In the early days of California the need for educat ion as a means to success was minimized by the wealth of opportunity provided by the mines for all possessed with reasonable physical strength and native ingenuity. Gold was there for the taking. A fortune was the re?/ard for individual enterprise and industry. Schooling was rendered unnecessary because of this short cut to success and educational progress was slow for some time. The political status of California was significant. The rapid growth of California led to its admission as a state in 1850. The various political groups of the day took their politics seriously and all phases of the state government were controlled by the party in power. The office of the State Superintendent of Schools was strictly political. For some time the Incumbent was not even required to be a member of the teaching profession. II. EARLY CALIFORNIA SCHOOL LAWS Constitutional provision. Article IX of the constitut ion of 1849 provided for the election by the people of a 43 superintendent of public instruction to hold office for three years, the salary to be fixed by the legislature* There were no personal qualifications attached. Section II provided that the proceeds of all lands granted to the state by act of Congress for the support of schools, and the 500,000 acres of public lands pranted to the new states for the purpose of internal improvements, should constitute a perpetual fund to be Inviolably appro priated to the support of common schools. Section III required the legislature to provide for a system of common schools by which a school should be kept up in each school district for at least three months of each school year. Section IV provided that the legislature should take measures for the protection, improvement, or other disposit ion of such lands as have been, or may hereafter be, reserved or granted by the United States, or any person or persons, to the state for the use of a university. 25 Early statute laws regarding education. The first legislature enacted no lav/ whatever to carry into effect the constitutional provisions relating to education. The Legis lature of 1851 provided for : 25 Paul Mason, Constitution of the State of California, (Sacramento, 1939), pp. 113-114. 44 1* The subdivision of counties into school districts, 2. A district board of school trustees, three in number, elected annually for a term of one year by direct popular vote of school-districts electors. These trustees had the following powers : a. Building and maintaining school buildings (but had no power to levy a tax for building operations). b. Examination and certify teachers. (Certificate valid for one year.) c. Employ teachers for the period of one year. d. To pay the teacher’s wages from the state school fund which was n o n - e x i s t e n t .26 The legislature of 1853, however, grudgingly amended the school law by authorizing counties to levy a school tax nnot to exceed three cents on a hundred dollars”. (The county treasurer was appointed acting county superintendent to collect this levy)* The legislature further provided that citizens should have the power to raise by tax whatever amount was necessary for school purposes and that religious and sectarian schools should receive a pro rata share of the school fund. In 1856 the school law was revised and materially improved. This law provided for the election of county superin tendents by popular vote and defined their duties; em powered incorporated cities to raise a school tax not exceeding twenty-five cents on a hundred dollars; pro vided by election or appointment for city boards of education and city school superintendents; and author ized counties to levy a county school tax not to exceed ten cents on a hundred dollars. It also provided that no 26 John Swett, Public Education in California, (New York : American Book Company, 19117, P. 150. 45 school should he entitled to receive public-school money unless it had been taught by teachers duly examined and approved by legal authority, and that no sectarian books should be used and sectarian doctrines should not be taught in any school under penalty of forfeiting the public funds.27 In 1859 an advance was made which enabled school districts, by vote of the electorate, to levy district taxes for the support of schools or for building school hous es• In 1860-61 the maximum rate for county school tax was raised from ten cents to twenty-five cents on a hundred dollars; the state superintendent was authorized to hold annually a state teacher*s Institute, to appoint a state board of examination with the power to grant state cer tificates valid for two years. County superintendents were authorized to appoint county boards of examination with power to grant certificates valid for one year.2 Thus at the end of the first decade of statehood California had a school system organized more on the plan of New York than on that of New England. This fact was due largely to the area and the sparse and scattered population of the state* There were two distinct lines of development in California education. One was that of incorporated cities with their local schools provided for by special charters; the 'other, that of rural schools in which the county was the unit of control under direct state school laws. 27 John Swett, Public Education in California, (New York: American Boole Company, 191177 P« 151. 28 California Statutes,(1859),pp. 30,31. 46 As a result of this dual system, the people in the centers of population ^ere in a stage of school development far in advance of general state legislation, while the rural schools were kept up in a rude way for three or four months in the year by tuition fees or rate bills. Obviously, reform was needed if public education ih California was to become effective. With the waning of interest in mining and the accompanying growth of other industries, the increased population, and the easing of the national politi cal situation, a change did come* In 1862 John Swett was elected State Superintendent of Public Instruction. Swett has often been referred to as the uHorace Mann of the Pacific Coastu, -A study of his accomplishments for public education in California ranks him as one of the foremost educatbrs of his day and throws con siderable light upon the development of educational thought in the history of the state. A brief list of the educational reforms secured by Mr. Swett in 1864 follow : 1. An effective method of levying and collecting school district taxes for building school houses and for the support of schools. 2. A legal way to collect rate bills. 3. An increase in the maximum rate of county school tax. 4. A state board of examiners composed exclusively of professional teachers; authorized to issue, on written examinations, certificates of three grades, good for four, three^. and two years respectively. The board could renew these certificates without examination. After three years experience, a teacher could apply to the examiners for an 47 11educational diploma’1 valid for six years, 5. County "boards of examiners consisting exclusively of professional teachers, authorized to hold examinations in writing and to issue certificates valid for two years. 6. Not to exceed $150.00 was allowed from the general county fund to pay the expenses of the annual county teachersr institutes. 7. School trustees were to be elected for three years instead of one. 8. to attendance register was furnished by the state. 9. The state board was authorized to adopt a uniform series of common school textbooks. 10. The state superintendent was allowed one thousand dollars a year for traveling expenses. This allowance was of particular importance because it was the beginning of state supervision of public education.29 Mr.Swett sent the following official message to the district boards of education : As school trustees, you are the executive agents of the public-school department. On you must depend, in a great measure, the prosperity and usefulness of the schools. It cannot be supposed that you will neglect your business to visit schools, but you may reasonably be expected to employ good teachers, and pay them well; to purchase maps and charts with a small percentage of the county school money; to insist on the adoption of good school-books, and to inform yourselves thoroughly concerning all your official duties. It may reasonably be expected that if your schoolhouse is meaner than half the b a m s in the district, you will call a district meeting, levy a tax, and build a new one. In a recent tour through three of the most fertile counties of the state, and among the wealthiest, 29 John Swett, Public Education in California, (New York : American Book Company, 1911), pp. 154,155. 48 I did not find a single public-schoolhouse which ought not to be returned by the county superintendent opposite this heading of his report : "Number of Schoolhouses which Disgrace the State." If you fail to carry the vote at the first meeting, try a second, and a third. Schoolhouses must be built, and you are the agents whose duty it is to build them. You can never make public schools the best schools until you provide neat, spacious, and comfortable buildings; and having built a house, the grounds should be ornamented with trees, and all the surroundings made attractive. And having erected a school house, and furnished it with modern school furniture, your next duty will be to secure a professionally trained teacher.30 In 1863 Mr.Swett sent two thousand copies of the following appeal to teachers, boards, and private citizens : Raise the rates of county taxation for the support of common schools ought to be inscribed over the doors of every schoolhouse In California. When our gold mines are enriching the world; when our valleys are teeming with agricultural wealth; when commerce is pouring its treasure into our lap -- shall we give less for the support of schools than the older states on the other side of the continent raise by direct taxation? What are lands, and seas, and gold, and silver, compared with men, trained and educated In the public schools to an intelligent comprehension of their rights and duties as citizens of the state and of the Union? While other states are moving onward in a liberal support of schools, ought we, in California, entering on a new career of prosperity, -- ought we to make the war an excuse for relaxing our efforts in behalf of popular education? As teachers, we are debtors to our profession; and our patriotism, in this great crisis of national affairs, ought to incite us to make earnest ■ endeavor to secure a system of free schools — a system essential to the existence of a free people., and to the permanence of a republican government. 1 30 John Swett, Public Education in California, (New York : American Book Company, 1911),~pp. 155-156. 31 Ibid., pp. 156-157. 49 In arguing for a state tax for the common schools Mr.Swett said : When we stop to ponder on the vital relations which public schools hold to our national life: when we begin to perceive, amid the terrible realities of war, that the schools have been the nurseries of loyalty, and the lack of them the right arm of secession, there is a deep significance in this educational convention, because It concerns the future stability of the government, and the integrity, power, glory, and unity of the nation. Consti tutions and laws may be bequeathed by one generation to its successors; but patriotism, intelligence, and moral ity die with each generation, and involve the necessity of continuous training and education. Public opinion, the sum of the intelligence of the citizens of the nation, slowly modifies all constitutions, and breathes vitality into all laws by which the people are governed. . . . . ”The first object of a free people,” says Daniel Webster, tfis the preservation of their liberty.” In a government where the people are not only in theory the source of all powers, but In actual practice are called upon to administer the laws,, it is evident that some degree of education is indispensably necessary to enable citizens to discharge their duties, maintain and admin ister the laws, and to retain their constitutional rights. In a government like ours, either we must have officers unqualified for their duties, or we must pro vide a system of public instruction which shall furnish a supply of intelligent citizens capable of discharging their various official trusts with honesty and efficiency. If left to their own unaided efforts, a majority of parents will fail, through want of means, properly to educate their children; another class, with means at command, will fail through lack of interest. All the children can be educated only by a system of free schools, supported by taxation, and controlled directly by the people. The early settlers of our country recognized this vital principle by providing by law for schools, and by making schools and taxation as inseparably con nected as taxation and representation are bound together.32 32 John Swett, Public Education in California, (New York : American Book Company, 1 9 1 1 ) , PP* 161-162. 50 Regarding the course of study for the California common schools Dr.Tuthill of the Bulletin had the following to say : Nine-tenths of all that the arithmetics contain are worse than useless to the pupil; that grammars are a bore ' and a nuisance when forced upon little children. Do not let their grammar be an incessant tearing to pieces of other m e n ’s sentences, but teach them how to construct their own. Let their arithmetic be, not a perpetual torment of explaining why the divisor is inverted in the division of fractions, but the shortest process to make out a bill and calculate interest. . . a great deal of what is taught children in schools should properly be headed, ’’Things worth forgetting.11 Children should be trained to a free and easy use of the English language. Let them study it in such a pract ical way that they will know how to write a letter cor rectly and to distinguish an inaccuracy of language the moment it is uttered. But just how to do this is one of the most difficult things to say, though not so very difficult to do. Mr.Swett in this common-sense style explained what and how much of phsiology, of music, calisthenics, gym nastics, hygiene, and all other branches should be taught. He urged the point that in all things the teach er should be practical, the youngest scholar as surely as the oldest appreciates what is practical to h i m . Mr. Swett was often applauded vigorously, and some stern mathematical faces were relaxed into smiles that still must have deemed all such sensible talk the rankest kind of heresy.33 Truly this statement was a demand for a practical school to meet the practical needs of a frontier people. In his annual report in 1863, Mr.Sewell urged the 33 John Swett, Public Education in California. (New York : American Book Comp any! 911)', PP • 162-163. 51 legislature to provide a state; tax of nne-half mill per dollar for education* The following paragraph from the report justifies the request : If one state in the Union needs a system of free schools more than any other, that state is California# He r •population is drawn from all nations* The next generation will he a composite one, made up of the heterogeneous atoms of all nationalities. Nothing can Americanize these chaotic elements and breathe into them the spirit of our institutions except the public schools•34 Describing the existing schoolhouses the report goes on to say : In visiting several of the most prosperous agricult ural counties, I do not remember having seen a schoolhouse with an enclosed yard, or one surrounded by shade trees or ornamented with a single shrub or flower. Many of these substitutes for schoolhouses were so wretched that no intelligent farmer would think them fit for housing his prize pigs. The stables of wealthy ranchmen in the vicinity were elegant edifices in comparison. These schoolhouses were mostly built by subscription, and they stand by the wayside, like tattered beggars, imploring charitable donations. In many districts where the assessable property amounts to half a million dollars, a tax for building schoolhouses would hardly be felt. Until the principle of the district taxation for build ing schoolhouses is more fully recognized, the "number of schoolhouses which disgrace the state" will not be materially lessened.5^ In 1865 Mr.Swett made a biennial report which received 34 John Swett, Public Education in California. York : American Book Comp any, 1911), p.- 165. 35 Ibid., p. 166. (New 52 considerable comment from eastern educators. The Pennsylvania Journal of Education said : Would that every sister state were in possession of a general school law equally comprehensive in Its provis ions, as methodical in the arrangement of its sections, and to as great degree divested of all mere verbage and unnecessary legal technicalities. In its style and gener al provisions this is a model school law, and under its working, ably administered, as we know It will be, the El Dorado of the Pacific will make bold strides onward as may render it necessary for older states to look well to their laurels.36 Henry Barnard devoted ten pages to a discussion of the California system concluding with these words : There is nothing so liberal in the way of taxation In any other state in the world. Superintendent Swett has, in this noble contribution to the interests of national education, laid our whole country under last ing obligations; and It is a highly gratifying indicat3Loma6fL its value, that California1s younger sister, TTevada has adopted, for the molding of her publicschool system, that of her elder sister, as matured and and perfected by the indefatigable exertions of one whose long professional experience and peculiar quali fications for his present office, give such force to all his suggestions, whether regarding methods of in struction or legislative measures for the diffusion of education.37 The year 1867 marked the end of the Mrate-billu in California* Every public school was a free school supported by taxation and compelled to offer from three to ten months course depending upon the valuation of the district. 36 The Pennsylvania Journal of Education^ Sept.1867,) p. 150. 37 Henry Barnard, American Journal of Education, (March 1866, )pp. 65-75. 53 The revised school law of 1866 had the following provisions : 1. A state board of education of nine members, and a board of state normal-school trustees of eight members; authorizing the state board of education to adopt rules, regulations, and a course of study for district schools, and to adopt a uniform state series of textbooks for such schools, 2m Providing that the legislature should furnish the state superintendent with at least two thousand copies of each biennial report for distribution among school officers and libraries. 3. Providing for the payment of necessary expenses for county teachers1 institutes out of the county school fund. 4. Requiring the district clerk to furnish the schools with pens, ink, stationery, and school incidentals, at the expense of the district. 5. Providing for the legal establishment of separate schools for children other than white children. 6. Limiting the school hours of children under eight years of age to four hours a day, exclusive of inter mission. 7. Establishing a system of school libraries by the reservation of ten per cent of the state school apporti onment. 8. A state subscription was authorized for an educat ional journal, two copies for each school district, one for the district clerk, and one for the school library. 9. Authorizing life diplomas for teachers having ten y ears1 experience was provided for; city boards of examination were established; normal school diplomas of other states were recognized; and all boards of ex amination, whether state, city, or county were to be composed of professional teachers only. 10. A state tax of eight cents on each hundred dollars of taxable property could be levied; a minimum county school tax of three dollars per census child was assessed; and a maximum tax of thirty-five cents on each hundred 54 dollars was possible, 11. School trustees were authorized and required to levy a district-school tax sufficient to keep a free school five months in a year.38 Professor Silliman, of Yale University made the following comment relative to the California system in a public address : By the admirably digested law of 1866 the people of California in their fAct to provide for a system of common schools,1 have laid the foundation and set up the frame work of the best system of general common school education for the whole people which exists in any state or country where the English language is spoken.39 SUMMARY This rather elaborate discussion of school develop ment in California from 1850 to 1867 indicates several important contributions made by that frontier state to the development of educational thought not only within its own borders but throughout the nation. First. The political ideal of education as a necess ity for the perpetuation and refinement of the free democrat ic American government. Second. The democratic ideal of a .free public educat- California Statutes for 1865-1866. p. 383. 39 "l' John Swett, Public Education in California, York : American Book Company, 1911), p. 187. (New 55 ion for all at public expense. Third. The demand for a course of study suitable for real life situations on the frontier. The next chapter of this study will concern itself with the importance to public education of certain frontier influences exerted by the great plains upon educational thought. CHAPTER VI THE GREAT PLAINS In chapter five the contributions of the California frontier have been reviewed at length. In this chapter the last of the great American frontiers will be studied with particular regard to its share in the forming of an American policy of public education. The great plains, a delayed frontier. Captain Zebulon Pike, in his memorable exploration along the Arkansas which lay In the southwest portion of the great plains, referred to it In his diary, as the "Great American Desert". The official map makers of the time unwittingly designated the whole region as "desert" and the general opinion prevailed in the east that this entire vast plains region was a water less waste of sand and sagebrush fit only for the buffalo and the Indian. This frontier was consequently passed over by the gold seekers in 1849 and was to become the last great out post for frontiersmen. Many a farmer questioned the "desert" character of this region as he hastily crossed it during the mad rush to the California or Oregon territories in the forties and early fifties. Later, as the vision of unlimited wealth in the mines faded for many of these gold seekers, they remembered the rolling grass lands of the Great Plains with its rich valleys and teeming wild life and determined to migrate there. Stockmen and farmers laid the foundation for one of the greatest agricultural regions in the world. The political situation. During the eighteen fifties two states, Kansas and Nebraska, were being formed in this region. The national political situation was keyed to a white heat over the slavery question. The western territor ies were the pawns in the struggle between the free soil and the pro-slave groups for Congressional representation. The doctrine of squatter sovereignty caused the settlement of Kansas and Nebraska to be a race between the two opposing factions. Each side exerted every energy to “possess the landff. The New England Emigrant Society was formed in New England by religious Zealots and Abolitionists to encourage and aid groups of “free soilersM to migrate to Kansas. A circular of the Aid Society had the following to say regarding its service to emigrants : The emigrant suffers whenever he goes alone into his new home. He suffers from the frauds of others; from his own ignorance of the system of travel, and of the country where he settles; and again, from his wan* of support from neighbors, which results in the impossibil ity of any combined assistance, or of any division of labor. The Emigrant Aid Company will relieve him from all these embarrassments by sending out emigrants in com panies, and establishing them in considerable numbers. They will locate these where they please on their arrival in their new homes, and receive from the gov- 58 ernment their titles. The company proposes to carry them to their homes more cheaply than they could otherwise go, to enable them to establish themselves with the least inconvenience, and to provide shelter and food at the lov/est prices after the arrival of the emigrants, while they make the arrangements necessary for their new homes. . . • And, by establishing emigrants in large numbers in the territories, it will give them the power of using at once those social influences which radiate from the church, the school, and the press.40 In Missouri those in favor of slavery organized to give aid to the pro-slavery group in Kansas. This partisanship result ed in a miniature civil war in Kansas. The hot-bed of the Populist Movement was later in this same region. Kansas in particular, was important in this great reform movement. "Sockless" Jerry Simpson became a national figure. It was amid these stirring times that the frontiers were carried into the heart of the "Great American Desert". National land laws♦ The passage in Congress of the Homestead Act in 1862 gave great impetus to the settlement of the plains. Land hungry Americans as well as many Europ eans poured into the west for free land and a chance to begin life anew. Colony settlements were made by land and railroad companies. Foreign groups were frequently organized in colony settlements. To this day, in many of the states 40 Edward Everett Hale, Kansas and Nebraska. (Boston : Harpers, 1854), pp. 222-235. 59 formed from this region, strong vestiges of these group settlements are still visible. Whole counties of certain states are distinctly German, Bohemian, or Swedish, The Morrill Act of 1862, considered by many as the most important educational law in the history of the United States, provides : The endowment, support, and maintenance of at least one college where the leading object shall be, without excluding other scientific and classical studies, and including military tactics, to teach such branches of learning as are related to agriculture and the meehaniss arts, in such manner as the legislatures of the States may. respectively prescribe, in order to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes in the several pursuits and professions in life. Abraham Lincoln, in 1859, expressed most clearly the view point of the west in general and labor in particular when he said : The old general rule was that educated people did not perform manual labor. They managed to eat their bread, leaving the toil of producing it to the uneducated . . . But free labor says ”N o n . Free labor argues that as the Author of man makes every individual with one head and one pair of hands, it was probably intended that heads and hands should cooperate as friends, and that that particular head should direct and control that pair of hands. As each man had one mouth to feed and one pair of hands to furnish foods, it was probably intended that that particular pair of hands should feed that particular mouth, that each head is the natural guardian, director, and protector of the hands and mouth inseparably connect ed with it; and that being so, every head should, be culti vated and improved by whatever will add to its capacity 41 U.S.Statutes at Large. Vol. 12. p. 503 60 for performing its charge. In one word, free labor in sists on universal education.42 Liberty Hyde Bailey of Cornell has this to say relative to the Morrill Act : The Land-Grant Act is probably the most important single specific enactment ever made in the interest of education. It recognizes the principle that every citizen is entitled to receive educational aid from the govern ment and that the common affairs of life are proper sub jects with which to educate or train men. Its provisions are so broad that the educational development of all future time may rest upon it. It expresses the final emancipation from formal, traditional and aristocratic ideas and it imposes no methods or limitations. It recog nizes the democracy of education and then leaves all the means to be worked out as time goes on.45 The rise of the Grange and the passage of supplementary legislation, such as the Hatch, Adams, Smith-Lever, Smith Hughes Acts have united to facilitate agricultural and mech anical training far beyond the fondest expectations of its champions. It has been argued that this type of educational thought is western adaptation of Fellenbergts idea of manual labor self subsisting Institutes. Regardless of this point of view, it has been shown throughout the history of educat ional development In the west that westerners were interest ed in a type of practical education which better prepared its youth for life as it existed on the western frontier. The 42 Edwin E,Slosson, American Spirit in Education, (Mew Haven : Yale University Press, 1921), p. 222. 43 Liberty Hyde Bailey, editor, A Cyclopedia of Agriculture, (Mew York : The Macmillan Company, 1912T, IV p. 415. 61 significance of the wide adoption of this type of education lies in the fact that western leaders were quick to grasp the great inherent possibilities of this type of education as a means of meeting the western needs. The value and success of vocational education is expressed by Slosson : As the colleges developed their own methods of in struction, they gained confidence in their calling and won the respect of educators in other fields. The gap between the chemist and the botanist who were ignorant of farming and the practical farmer who was contemptuous of fTbook-learninglf was bridged by a new order of. men with a grasp of both theory and practice. When the experiment stations demonstrated -- as for instance by the milk testing and bacteriology of the dairy, by the breeding of new varieties of crops and animals, by the destruct ion of insect pests, and by the elimination of tubercu losis — that the endowment of scientific research paid the community in concrete coin, they had no further trouble about getting funds. Through agricultural in stitutions, university extension lectures, shorter winter courses, demonstration trains, lending libraries, correspondence courses, and franked bulletins, the landgrant colleges now reach two or three million people a year. They have come to realize that they have a wider function than training a few expert managers of big farms: they have to educate a community for country life.44 Frontier aspects of education. An educational phil osophy coming from such a complex background of nationalities and conflicting political and social ideology was found to be distinctive. 44 Edwin EJ#; Slosson, American Spirit in Education, £New Haven : Yale University Press, 1921), pp. 230-231. 62 The European, educational influences in the west. The general run of European immigrants were well educated and put their educational ideas into practice in this new •country. Schools were conducted in the language of the mother country and the courses of study were European in nature. Bliss Isely, descendent of a Swiss immigrant in Iowa, tells how his father, after much tearful pleading, finally gained parental permission to attend an English speaking school. 45 Foreign groups did not want their child ren tp learn English for fear they v^ould he corrupted by the American children. The native-born settlers also brought their education al institutions with them to the new frontier. The story of these conflicting ideas amid the stirring political times and the hard exacting conditions of frontier life on the plains form one of the most interesting, as well as one of the most significant, chapters in the development of Ameri can educational theory. Early Iowa educational practices. While Iowa was still a part of the Michigan territory, provision was made for free tax-supported schools. In 1840, after the formation of the 45 Bliss Isely, Sunbonnet Days, (Caldwell, Idaho : Caxton Printers,), 1935, p. 108. 63 territory of Iowa, a law, "based upon the Michigan law, was passed providing for public education in the territory. Private schools were established in Iowa as early as 1830 and by 1838 there were over forty in the new territory. With the early settlers education was a primary interest. Until the Civil War Iowa’s educational practices were, more or less, a moderated version of New England institutions tempered somewhat by the passage through the old Northwest states of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois. In 1858, an education law was passed by the legis lature which has become the basis for a system of public instruction in Iowa extending from the primary grades through the university. The schools were organized upon the district system. These districts ranged from the lone country districts to the consolidated rural districts and independent city districts. Each was controlled by the people of the district. Higher education in Inwa. Before public educational institutions were established in Iowa, various religious denominations organized elementary and secondary schools as well as colleges. Iowa Wesleyan was established at Mount Pleasant in 1844 as Mount Pleasant Collegiate Insti tute. Many other Methodist Colleges were established as well as those of the Congregational, Catholic, Baptist, and other religious groups. 64 By the law of 1858 one of the now famous agricultural colleges in the United States was established at Ames "for the purpose of giving academic instruction to the industrial classes” . At the same time the legislature voted §10,000 to purchase an experimental farm to be used in connection with the agricultural program at the college. Three alumni of Ames have served the United States as Secretaries of Agriculture. Hornaday, the Zoologist, Pammel, the Botanist, and many other notables, owe their present opportunities to the foresight of the early Iowa farmers who believed, not only in a free education for all, but were also convinced that education should be of a practical nat ure conducive to improving the conditions of life as found in the West. Early education in Kansas. The first schools in Kansas were religious missions among the Indians. Some twenty-five missions were located in the territory between 1820 and 1850. The first free schools in the territory were held in homes, stores, or missions. If no teacher was available, some house-wife with "learning” was elected to the job. Text books ranged from the Bible and Shakespeare to the newspaper and the ever present almanac. Two divergent views of education in Kansas are shown by the following brief commentaries. Stuart Henry, describing the first school in Abilene, during the heydey of its import- 65 ance as a cattle center, states : That the people of the region were prone to look upon schooling with both suspicion and contempt, a new source of tax on the poor man at the behest of the !,upper crustTf, as the more well-to-do were called,46 Bliss Isely, describing how schools were founded in the early days presents a different view : We felt a closer relationship to the school than is possible in these later days when education is standard ized and much of the government of the schools is vested in boards and commissions* In our day the school was our own creation. During the early Kansas territorial days the government was in such constant turmoil over the slavery question that almost nothing was done toward organizing school districts. The initiative for school organization, therefore, was left to public-spirited farmers in each community. In our community somebody called a meeting to consid er the building of a schoolhouse. At that meeting every body agreed that a school was a necessity; but without any means of levying taxes to build a schoolhouse, another way had to be found. The patrons of the district decided on a central' site, and there they met one morn ing at daybreak. A captain was chosen to direct building operations. Soon axes were ringing in the woods, trees were felled, trimmed, dragged by ox-teams to the build ing site, where they were squared, notched, heaved In place, and chinked to withstand wind and snow. While part of the men were laying the logs, others were riv ing shingles to lay on the roof. An expert in masonry worked with another gang, bringing stones from a quarry to build a fireplace and chimney. A puncheon floor, puncheon seats, and a puncheon desk for the teacher were manufactured and installed. At noon the women served a community dinner cooked in the woods. By night the schoolhouse was complete and ready for occupancy. The farmers on whose land trees were cut and stone was 46 Stuart Henry, Conquering the Great American Plains, (Sew York : E.P.Dutton and Company, 1930), p. 175. 66 quarried made no charge for the materials. Next arose the question of a teacher. We had no examining board and no laws covering qualifications for teachers. Some body, however, suggested that Mrs.Lewis, the wife of our community doctor, would be a good teacher. I do not know how it was determined that she was qualified, but she was chosen by a show of hands, and accepted the post. Of course there was no tax levy to pay the salary of the teacher and no authority for levying a tax. It was agreed by a vote that the tuition should be one dollar a month for each pupil and that the school be for four monthsr duration. Those who could not afford to pay tuition In cash paid Mrs. Lewis in produce. She taught several terms of successful school. Adolph and Fred attended there and learned rapidly. In a short time they could read and recite In English as well as any other children of their a g e . 47 Discussing the community use of the school in those days Mr.Isely continues ; We used the schoolhouse seven days in the week. On Friday and on Saturday nights there were ciphering matches, literary and debating societies, and singing ' schools. Sometimes a traveling entertainer gave a magic lantern show, or a lecturer came to speak on questions of importance. Later on a Reformed Church was organized at Spring Grove. This became a strong church.48 In 1855 the first Kansas Territorial legislature adopted a school plan copied after that of Missouri. Later legislat ures created a system of school districts supervised by county superintendents and a Territorial superintendent of schools. To the districts themselves fell the power to manage all their affairs. They were charged by lpr to main- 47 Bliss Isely, Sunbonnet Days t (Caldwell, Idaho, Caxton Printers, 1935), p. 88^90. 48 Ibid., p. 195. 67 tain schools entirely from a tax levy upon real and personal property. Kansas had no state school fund until 1937. The state constitution, adopted in 1859, provided for "equal educational opportunities for white and colored, males and females alike”. Provision was also made for a state university which was established in 1865. The Kansas Agri cultural College was established at Manhattan in 1862 with a federal land grant of 90,000 acres. During the sixties state schools were established for the deaf and blind and for teacher training. In 1874 a com pulsory school attendance law was passed and in 1885, as part of the prohibition movement, courses in hygiene were "to be taught with special reference to the effect of alco holic and narcotic stimulants". In the 1880fs the Kansas legislature initiated the county high school plan. Within a few years nearly every state in the union followed this example. Kansas was also one of the first states to utilize the benefits of the Smith-Hughes Act by full cooperation with the federal gov ernment in vocational training. There has been considerable criticism of the number of small1independent districts in the state, but many Kansans believe in them. They are community centers as well as schools. Several generations have attended the same one-room school which has given it considerable sentimental value and dis- 68 courages the consolidation movement. Popular reaction to criticism of this type of school is well illustrated in the following quotation : Nowadays they tell us that the one-room country school is out of date and that it must give way to rural graded schools. Perhaps that is true. Spring Grove had no modern heating plant, no gyrahasium, no up-to-date psychological teaching methods. One teacher yaught all the pupils from chart to fifth reader. Yet out of Spring Grove1s pioneer graduating class two of the eight to receive diplomas on that occasion became sufficiently eminent to have a para graph each in Who*s W h o . 4 9 Kansans believe in learning as a means tor.ithe industry, virtue, and success of her youth — today more than 500,000 boys and girls attend the state!s public schools. Extension of suffrage in the W est. With the growth of cities and industries on the plains and the filling up of the cattle frontier by the farmers, conditions changed. Many of the ranch mothers were originally school teachers who appre ciated the value of schooling and these women began to insist upon some education for their children. The women of the frontier who had stood by during Indian and outlaw raids loading guns,binding wounds, and taking the guns from the falling hands of husband or son to conquen a wilderness could not be denied their rightful place in the councils of the the state. In this raw, new country where every m a n ’s 49 Bliss Isely, Sunbonnet Days, ( Caldwell, Idaho : Caxton Printers, 1935), p. 195. 69 caste was his own making, the practice of universal man hood suffrage was common. The state of Wyoming was the first to incorporate women suffrage into its constitution. Other Rocky Mountain states followed and from this frontier beginn ing the woman suffrage movement became a national issue end ing in a constitutional amendment giving women equal suffrage rights with men. The importance of this extension of suffrage coupled with the universal manhood suffrage of the west is hard to over-estimate in its relation to the development of educat ional thought. No longer could the few privileged male voters dictate the educational policy, or lack of policy. All could vote and demand for their children the chance to success which had been denied to them as parents. Women suffrage and more general male suffrage came as a result of the changing conditions of frontier life. This more universalized suffrage not only affected the education al practice of the far west, but reacted in all parts of the country, making educational opportunities better in quality and more democratic in opportunity. Higher education on the plains. The development of higher education in Iowa and Kansas has been touched upon earlier in this chapter. However there remain two import ant aspects to be examined. In the second quarter of the eighteenth century the 70 establishment of numerous church colleges in that portion of the west lying west of the Alleghenies and east of the Miss issippi River was noted. This movement swept on across the river to the Great Plains. Hundreds of these small denominat ional colleges dotted the prairies. Some have vanished, but others like Baker University at Baldwin, Kansas, and South western located at Winfield, Kansas, have taken permanent root in the hearts of the plainsmen standing as living memorials to the religious zeal of a vanished frontier. Many of these denominational colleges Ytrere supported by the free will pledges of the denominational membership in the sur rounding vicinity augmented somewhat by light tuition charges. The driving ambition of youthful members of these religious supporting groups was to graduate from one of these church schools. They have done so by the thousands and are now members of that great western society from which so large a number of our national leaders have sprung. A second aspect of higher education in the plains region related to the great number of land grant colleges.. These colleges formed a vast chain of opportunity through out the Mississippi valley for education in agriculture and the mechanical arts. They were free to men and women alike, and have been largely instrumental in developing the great est body of educated common people to be found any place in the world. In recent years another important influence 71 of the state institutions for higher learning in the west has been the broadening of entrance requirements and the extension of academic education to the people through the medium of extension courses, speakers, motion picture ser vice and night school activities, A QQ3a.pl® te 37/s tern of free public education. With the ©stablishment in the west of the free" public universities the dream of those early westerners, Washington and Jeffer son, came to full fruition. At last, in the heart of the great west a complete system of free public education came into being. Prom the western prairies this system spread eastward until now some such system prevails throughout the nation. SUMMARY This chapter has dealt with the beginning of education on the frontier of the Great Plains. The laws and literature of the time show the people to have been strong believers in a system of democratic public education. Among the many contributions to the general philosophy of American public education the following appear to be most significant : First. The earliest educational institutions were founded by religious groups. These early religious influences gave a strong moral tone to educational thought in the West# Second. The schools were community centers which, in 72 turn, created a deep respect for the value of schools. Third. The schools were free and democratic with equal opportunities for "both boys and girls. Fourth. The West was quick to appreciate and adopt for their own use the new vocational conceptions in education. ■ F ifth. The state supported universities, agricultural and technical schools, developed here most rapidly, being a further expression of the pioneers1 demand for a practical curriculum suitable for the needs of the country. Sixth. The woman suffrage movement received its strongest support in the West. The influence of this move ment has been exceedingly important in securing educational reforms wher-ever needed. Seventh. The influence of such reforms as prohibition and Populism greatly affected educational thought in the West. Eighth. A complete educational ladder of free public education was an outgrowth of the democratic West. CHAPTER VII IMPLICATIONS OF THE CLOSED FRONTIER In tlie preceding chapters of this investigation the influence of the shifting frontier upon the development of a philosophy of education in the United States has "been studied. It will be the purpose of this chapter to call attention to some of the implications to educational thought that have come about as a result of the disappearance of a physical frontier in the United States. Old and new frontiers in the United States. In the early seventeenth century the English colonists were con fronted with the problem of education in a new and unknown world. The ingenuity and courage with which they met and mastered this problem has been an inspiration to all leaders in the educational field since that day* Today the physical frontier has vanished in the path of crowded cities and an unparalleled Industrialism. Until the disappearance of the frontier, discontented peoples could leave civilization behind them and start anew in the lands to the west. Now the problems of the discontented class can no longer be solved by such migration. Like the hapless refugees, in the present world conflict, flight from the -unpleasant situations of a modern world tend only 74 to deepen and intensify the discontent and confusion. The direct action of the frontier must "be replaced by the in direct methods of a complex society. Free land will no longer assuage economic wounds. New methods must be invoked to conquer old problems, new types of frontiers must be con quered — the moral, social, economic, and scientific — these, are the challenge to modern life. Their conquest, the challenge to education. Educational thought as a directing force in American life. History has shown that the democratic public schools of the nation have, more than any other single factor, pre served and advanced the spirit of our ancient democratic institutions. In this day of world revolution, when m e n ’s minds are confused and baffled, a new guiding philosophy must be born if this, or any other nation, Is to emerge victorious from the lengthening shadows of international chaos. New forces in American life today. The world today is a world divided against itself. Democracy, as a way of government, has been challenged by advocates of the total itarian system. The ’’have not” nations have risen up to dispute the claims of those nations, which thro\\gh enter prise, struggle, and sacrifice, possess economic advantages superior to the others. 75 M o d e m industrialism, with its host of ugly attend ant problems, holds the world in its savage grip. The voice of the great masses of workers through their superb organ ization is heard, above the tumult of twentieth century mechanization, demanding a toe-hold by which they can raise themselves from the slough of economic and social despond ency of modern capitalism. Science dominates world leadership. To the nation with the scientific superiority go the spoils. A science that can be as cruel and destructive as it can be enlight ened and benevolent must be guided by education so that it will not become a modern Frankenstein. The greatest of all frontiers today, however, lies on the moral front. In the realm of the individual citizen, as well as in the wider sphere of general society, the struggle is the same. The ancient precepts of our fathers are on the block. Much that once was accepted without question as right, is now seriously questioned, if not totally ignored. Changing times have cast new meanings to old truths. Life today is facing new and mysterious frontiers just as truly as when those first daring Europeans, braving the dangers and mysteries of the grim Atlantic in their frail little boats, sailed steadily westward into the great unknown seeking new ways to old ports. The new pioneer. Pioneers, with courage and ingenu- 76 ity.worthy of their forebears, must be found to push into the dark mazes of the modern frontier to seek out the good and acceptable ways of the new life and, returning, chart the paths for the innumerable millions who must, one and all, make the Great Trek. .The challenge to education and its leadership. These pioneers must be the educational philosophers. To them the torch has been handed. Theirs is the high privilege of im mortal leadership in a matchless era. In as much as they find the basic truths and map the way with a new philoso phy of education, to that same degree will civilization emerge from its baptism of change and disillusionment into a new frontier of unbelievable grandeur and prosperity. CHAPTER VIII SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION The materials in this study fall into three well de fined divisions : first, those pertaining to the historical background, second, the discussion of materials relating to the development of an American philosophy of education as influenced by an ever present and changing frontier, and third, the discussion of certain implications for educat ional thought as a result of the disappearance of the physical frontier in the United States * The materials presented in this chapter will be divid' ed into two parts, a summary of the investigation and a series of conclusions drawn from the study, I. SUMMARY The principal philosophies of education in early colonial America were found to be three in number. The English type as found in Virginia and the South generally. This plan of education was based upon the common educational practices in England. It was found that there existed no idea of governmental responsibility for free public education. Education was a matter of private concern. Children of the well-to-do were taught by tutors in the home 78 and later sent to private schools in the North or to England. The Established Church which dominated the region undertook to teach the children of the poorer members of the congregat ion to read the Bible. The State assumed the responsibility for seeing that pauper children were taught useful trades through the apprentice system. The presence of an aristocratic type of English society in the South, organized upon a caste system, the prevalence of negro slavery, and large numbers of indentured servants — all united to discourage the development of any sys'tem of publicly controlled education. Education was a private responsibility for the privileged few until well after the Civil War. The Calvlnistic type. A conception of education was developed in New England which was destined to be the domin ant influence in all future American educational practices. The New England Calvinist believed first of all in a churchstate theocracy. In order to be a good citizen, good church standing was necessary and fundamental education was consid ered necessary to accomplish worthy church membership. The Calvinists originally provided for education in the typical English manner; that is, they charged the heads of households and the masters of apprentices with the duty of teaching reading to the children in the home. A Latin 79 grammar school was provided for the selected few who were considered worthy to he trained, at private expense, for admission to Harvard College where they would eventually be trained for the pulpit and other responsible positions' in the colony. Because of Indian wars, the extending of the frontier^, and the general difficulties of the frontier life, this plan failed to operate to the satisfaction of the church fathers who succeeded in having two significant school laws enacted by the Massachusetts colonial legislature* The Law of 1642 provided for a compulsory system for teaching reading. This law was a revolutionary departure and led to the adoption by the legislature, In 1647, of the most famous of American laws. This Law of 1647 voiced, for the first time in the English speaking world, the right of the State to require communities to establish and maintain schools under penalty of fine for failure to do so. Here was a new, an American development, in the theory of educational practice that was destined to be the corner stone in the structure of democratic public educat ion In the United States. The parochial school practices of the Middle colonies. In the Middle colonies there existed a unique society more nearly American, perhaps, than existed elsewhere in the New 80 World, This society was heterogeneous both as to nationality and religion. The resultant educational expression was more or less a mixture of the other two colonial policies. The various religious denominations established parochial schools, while some effort toward universal ed ucation may be observed in the so-called charity schools” . The influence of the first frontier upon educational thought, In chapter two considerable attention was paid to the tracing of the three most significant educational theories of colonial America in the light of demands made upon them by the first frontier* Possibly the most significant change was the break up of the central town school into dis tricts which, over a period of time, became largely Independ ent. Another important development lay in the demand of the frontier for (1) a democratic system of education and (2) the adoption of a curriculum more in keeping with frontier needs. To meet the demand for a democratic system of educat ion, more public support and consequent control was necess ary. The self-reliant frontiersman had no use for the Upauper school” as he called it a n d refused to send his children to it. Eventually this type of school disappeared and in its stead rose a public school system extending from the elementary level through the university. 81 A new school was evolved to meet the more practical needs of the new country, the academy. The academy produced several fundamental changes in educational thought in Amer ica. First. The curriculum was broadened to give training for frontier callings in addition to the ministry. Second. The academies, while primarily a private enterprise, became so popular that they drew an increasingly large amount of support from the state, principally in the form of land grants. State support tended to foster state control. Third. The academies opened their doors to women which fact was the beginning of a new democratic movement in American education. Fourth. A strong religious influence permeated the activities of the academies. The Northwest Territory and education. With the extension of the frontier into the Northwest Territory, several influences on the theory of education were felt. Foremost among these was the strong impetus given to the public rather than religious schools. The presence of a means of support to school programs in the form of public lands which were given by both the state and national governments strengthened the theory of public control. Another influence on education that was strengthen- ed In this frontier was the development of a more democratic type of school* This democratic spirit was fostered by the changed values placed by the frontier upon personal worth and led to the broadening of male suffrage, the abolition of the charity school, and education for women* A third influence of this frontier lay in Its insist ence upon a curriculum better adapted to life in the west. Many states gave generous aid to academies because of their more practical courses of study. Other influences on education noted in this chapter were the religious spirit which pervaded the academies and . church colleges, the mingling of Europeans and Americans in this frontier with their diverse educational ideas, and the development of a system of state laws protecting education. The California frontier. The growth of educational institutions in California received considerable attention in this study for several reasons. In the first place, the California system has been a model from which many western states have copied their educational legislation and In the second place, the excellent educational philosophy and practice of education in California exercised considerable Influence upon the thinking and practice of education in the eastern states. California*s two chief contributions to the develop ment of educational thought were : (1) the necessity of the 83 public school to instill patriotism and. appreciation for American democratic institutions; and (2) the development of a free, public controlled system of education extending from the elementary grades through the university. Education on the Great Plains. Perhaps the most democratic region in the United States is the Middle West. Consequently it is more typically American* This great prairie domain was the last of our great frontiers and was the scene for the convergence of the great social and ec onomic forces that were to weld and shape modern American democracy. In educational ideas and practices this region was significant. The contributions of the plains states to educational thought were several in number. First. The many denominational colleges located in these western prairies gave a strong religious and moral tone to the educational thinking of the region. Second. Many of the great reform movements were either conceived in this region, or adopted by it, which have signally influenced educational thought in the nation. The principal reform of this nature was that of Woman Suffrage. The new and vigorous direction given to education in the United States since the Civil War was greatly in fluenced by this new addition to the electorate. 84 Third. The new emphasis upon vocational education in the region was remarkable. To them, this type of education was a culture in itself, a better means for the understand ing of the true cultural value of the arts and mechanical skills so necessary to every day living. This emphasis was noticeable in both high schools and in the land grant universities. Fourth. The growth of a complete scheme of public education, coeducational and free, gave rise to the growth of a system of democratic high schools and state universities found in no other part of the nation. Fifth. The patriotic and civic training received in these western school-community centers of the plains pro duced in the words of Turner : A larger single body of intelligent plain people than can be found elsewhere in the world. Its political tendencies, whether we consider Democracy, Populism, or Republicanism, are distinctly in the direction of great er social control and the conservation of the old dem ocratic ideals. Sixth. A final contribution to the educational thinking of the new country lay In the strong sense of per sonal democracy that was developed In the public schools of of the west. In the more aristocratic East,.Harvard, Yale, 55 History, Frederick J.Turner, The Frontier in American (New. York : Henry Holt and Comp any, 1920}, p. 266. 85 and similar institutions listed their students in order of social importance of their families. In the western univer sities, self reliance was almost a fetish while wealth and social position, more often than not, was a handicap. The significance of the closed frontier to the lead ership of educational thought in the United States. In the discussion of the significance of the closed frontier to educational leadership in the United States, there was no attempt to offer suggestions upon the methods or means by which educational leadership could cope with these new world problems. Neither were all of the many significant problems of American life discussed. The purpose of the chapter was : (1) to indicate the fact that while the old drives of the frontier remain, the means of satisfying them have changed; and (2) that it is the high duty and privilege of the educational leadership of this country to so interpret the new frontiers of modern American life that this country will emerge from its present confusion a stronger and more virile nation worthy of the magnificent heritage it enjoys. II. CONCLUSIONS At the outset if this investigation several questions were asked : (1) in what way did the moving frontier affect educational thought in the United States? and ‘(2) what are 86 the implications of the closed frontier to American educa tional thought? The following series of conclusions were arrived at during the course of this study : Frontier influence upon educational thought in the United States, First, Under the democratic conditions of frontier life a unified philosophy of democratic education has grown up in the United States replacing the several divergent views, most of which were far from being democratic, that were held in the early colonial period. Today practically every state in the Union provides free education for all boys and girls from the elementary level through the uni versity. Second. The demands of a frontier society for a practical course of study emphasizing training for real life situations has borne fruit as can be appreciated when the course of study for a Latin grammar school is compared with that of a modern rural consolidated school in the mid-west. In the west a cultural emphasis was established regarding vocational training. Third. The abundance of free land in the west and later the large amounts of taxable corporate property provided a firm basis for support to education. At the same time this support, being the collective wealth of the 87 state, was instrumental in tlie shift of control of the schools from the church to the state* Fourth* The development of a free, public controlled, coeducational system of higher education, both academic and vocational in nature, was a direct result of pioneer influ ences culminating in the states west of the Mississippi River* Fifth* The strong moral tone prevalent in American education today is a heritage received from the hundreds', of denominational colleges and academies sprinkled over the prairies of the west by a devout people held close to re ligious traditions by the struggle and privations of life in the Great West* Sixth. On the great frontiers of America patriotic people were anxious to see that the spirit of loyalty and appreciation for American democratic institutions should be instilled within the hearts of their children* The pub lic school was considered the ideal medium for this purpose and in that day, as in this, the prime function of public education in the United States is to prepare the youth of the land for worthy citizenship in the Republic. Significance to educational thought of the vanished frontier. First* The disappearance of the physical frontier in the United States by 1900 has created a vast number of 88 new problems in the lives of Americans, New and baffling frontiers lie before the citizen on every hand. In this ex tremity the educational leadership of the nation is challeng ed as never before to clarify and redirect the issues of life in such a manner as to guarantee the perpetuation and growth of traditional American democratic institutions. That this challenge will be accepted and its charges accomplished is the firm belief of this investigator, who with Turner believes : The West gave to the world such types as the farmer Thomas Jefferson, with his Declaration of Independence, his statute for religious toleration, and his purchase of Louisiana. She gave us Andrew Jackson, that fierce Tennessee spirit who broke down the traditions of con servative rule, swept away the privacies and privileges of officialdom, and like a Gothic leader, opened the temple of the nation to the populace. She gave us Ab raham Lincoln, whose gaunt frontier form and gnarled, massive hand told of the conflict with the forest, whose grasp of the ax handle of the pioneer was no firmer than his grasp of the helm of the ship of state as It breasted the seas of the civil war. She has fur nished to this new democracy her stores of mineral wealth, that dwarf those of the old world, and her provinces that In themselves are vaster and more pro ductive than most of the nations of Europe. Out of her bounty has come a nation whose industrial competition alarms the Old World, and the masters of whose resources wield wealth and power vaster than the wealth and power of kings. Best of all, the west gave, not only to the American, but to the unhappy and oppressed of all lands, a vision of hope, and assurance that the v/orld held a place where were to be found high faith in man and the will and power to furnish him the opportunity to grow to the full measure of his own capacity. Great and power ful as are the new sons of her loins, the Republic is greater than they. The paths of the pioneers have widen ed into broad highways. The forest clearing has expand ed into broad affluent commonwealths. 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