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A proposed course in automobile driving for high school students

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A PROPOSED COURSE IN AUTOMOBILE DRIVING
FOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS
A Thesis
Presented to
the Faculty of the School of Education
University of Southern California
In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements' for-the Degree
Master of Science, in Education
by
Charles Stuart Guthrie
June 1941
UMI Number: EP54028
All rights reserved
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Dissertation Pubi sh*ng
UMI EP54028
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O '
T h is thesis, w r it t e n u n d e r the d ir e c t io n o f the
C h a ir m a n o f the ca n d id a te ’s G u id a n c e C o m m itte e
a n d a p p r o v e d by a l l m em bers o f the C o m m itte e ,
has been prese n te d to a n d a ccep ted by the F a c u lt y
o f the S c h o o l o f E d u c a t io n in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t
o f the re q u ire m e n ts f o r the degree o f M a s t e r o f
S cience in E d u c a tio n .
.........
Dean
Guidance Committee
V/m. R . L a P o r t e
Chairman
Lloyd E. Webster
D. Welty Lefever
,
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I.
PAGE
THE P R O B L E M ............ . ..................
Importance of the s t u d y ...............
Method of procedure
II.
• •
1
3
..................
5
Related investigations . . ..................
7
Organization of the remaining chapters . . . .
9
MATERIALS AND METHODS USED IN FORMULATING
THE COURSE OF S T U D Y .................
12
An analysis of accident statistics . . . . . .
12
Study of vehicle codes
.................. 31
Interviews with experts in the field of
public safety
...........................
An analysis of courses of study
• • • • . • •
33
36
Study of research p a m p h l e t s .............37
Personal experience of the investigator
...
41
Construction of the course of s t u d y .....42
The course of s t u d y .................... 42
III.
THE OBJECTIVES AND ORGANIZATION OF A COURSE
IN AUTOMOBILE D R I V I N G .................. 44
Objectives of the c o u r s e .............
• • .
Organization of the c o u r s e .........
Type of course
.........................
45
46
47
Length of c o u r s e ...................... 47
Credit
.................................... 47
iii
CHAPTER
PAGE
Eligibility of students and grade
p l a c e m e n t ................................ 47
Size of c l a s s .................. *.......... 43
Qualifications of the instructor . . . . . .
48
................
48
Course equipment and other necessities . . .
49
Materials for instruction
Scheduling classroom instruction and
driving lessons
. . . . . .
............
49
Divisions of the c o u r s e .................... 49
IV.
UNIT I.
HOW WILL THE PHYSICAL AND MENTAL
MAKE-UP OF THE DRIVER AFFECT DRIVING?
Objectives
...........
V.
UNIT II.
...........
............................. .
References
.............
53
66
67
WHAT ARE DRIVER AND PEDESTRIAN
RESPONSIBILITIES?...........
VI.
53
53
Problems and pupil activities
Evaluation
....
68
Objectives
.................................. 68
Problems and
pupil’
Evaluation
.
...................
References
•
............................. 88
UNIT III.
a c t i v i t i e s ............ 68
WHAT ARE SOUND DRIVING PRACTICES? . .
Objectives
Problems and
87
90
.......................... 90
pupilactivities
..............
90
iV
CHAPTER
PAGE
E v a l u a t i o n .....................
112
R e f e r e n c e s .................................. 113
VII.
UNIT IV.
WHAT ARE SOCIETY’S RESPONSIBILITIES
IN IMPROVING TRAFFIC C O N D I T I O N S ? ............ 116
O b j e c t i v e s .................................. 116
Problems and pupil activities .............
Evaluation
116
. . .............................. 134
R e f e r e n c e s .................................. 135
VIII.
UNIT V.
HOW CAN THE BEGINNER LEARN TO
OPERATE A CAR EFFICIENTLY?
............ 137
O b j e c t i v e s .................................. 137
137
Problems and pupil activities.............
E v a l u a t i o n .................................. 150
R e f e r e n c e s ............ ................... 150
IX.
LESSONS FOR ROAD INSTRUCTION IN AUTOMOBILE
DRIVING
■ Lesson 1.
...........
152
Starting, steering, and
stopping in low g e a r ...................... 153
Lesson 2.
Starting, steering, and
stopping in low gear (conti nu ed ).......... 159
Lesson 3.
Starting, steering, and
stopping in low gear (c on ti nue d) .......... 160
Lesson 4.
Shifting to second and stopping
Lesson 5.
Shifting to second and
stopping (continued)
....
.
............
161
164
V
CHAPTER
PACE
Lesson 6.
Shifting from second to high
stopping from high g e a r ......... 165
gear and
Lesson 7.
Shifting from second to high
gear and
stopping from high gear
(continued)
.............................. 168
Lesson 8.
Hand signal for stopping.......... 170
Lesson 9.
Shifting from high to second
gear, double-clutching, and shifting
from second to low g e a r .................
Lesson 10.
173
Complete review of first nine
lessons and essential items covered in
Unit V
.........
.
'.
175
Lesson 11.
Backing the c a r ................. 176
Lesson 12.
Backing the car (continued) . . . 179
Lesson 13.
Backing the car and making
right and left
Lesson 14.
hand t u r n s .................. 180
Making a right turn in low
g e a r ...................................... 182
.Lesson 15.
Making a right hand turn in
second or high gear . ..
Lesson 16.
.................. 184
Making a left hand turn in
low g e a r .................................. 187
Lesson 17.
Making a left hand turn in
second or high gear . .
............
188
vi
CHAPTER
PAGE
Lesson 18.
Turning the car around
... . . . .
Lesson 19.
Continued practice in turning
the. car around and the use of the U-turn
Lesson 20.
.. 193
Turning the car around in the
width of the street
Lesson 21.
190
...................
195
Continued practice in turning
the car around in the width of the street
Lesson £2.
Review of all turns .
Lesson 23.
Stopping the car in the wnosew
and emergency stops
. 197
...........198
.............. 200
Lesson 24.
Parking parallel to the curh
Lesson 25.
Continued practice in parking
. .
.
parallel to the c u r b ..................
.
202
204
Lesson 26.
Angle parking .................... 206
Lesson 27.
Stopping and starting on an
upgrade, backing on an upgrade, parking
on an upgrade and downgrade........... 208
Lesson 28.
Driving on the open highway . . .
Lesson 29.
City d r i v i n g ..................... 215
Lesson 30.
City driving (continued)
....
217
Lesson 31.
City driving (continued)
....
218
Lesson 32.
Final check on the driver . . . .
223
X.SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS . . .
S u mm a r y ............ ......................
213
227
227
vii
CHAPTER
PAGE
Conclusions
.................... . . . . .
Recommendations
BIBLIOGRAPHY
...................
............
228
229
230
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE
I.
PAGE
Types of Accidents Resulting in Deaths
and Injuries— 1939
II.
.............. .
. •
.....
..............
........ . .
IX.
................. . .
24
Direction of Travel of Cars Involved in
Accidents— 1939
VIII.
22
Road Conditions Prevailing in Accidents
— 1939
VII.
20
Weather Conditions Prevailing in
Accidents— 1939 .........
VI.
18
Condition of Motor Vehicles Involved in
Fatal and Non-fatal Accidents— 1939 ........
V.
15
Actions of Pedestrians Resulting in
Deaths and Injuries— 1939 ..................
IT.
13
Actions of Drivers Resulting in Deaths
and Injuries— 1939
III.
.
..........................
Road Location of Automobile Accidents— 1939 . .
27
29
Items Contained in Selected Courses of
Study in Traffic S a f e t y ...............
38
LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE
1.
PAGE
Frequency of Collision Accidents Resulting
in Death and I n j u r i e s ......................
2.
Frequency of Driver Errors Resulting in
Death and Injuries
3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
16
Frequency of Pedestrian Errors Resulting
in Death and I n j u r i e s ......................
4.
7.
...
23
A c c i d e n t s .................................
26
Rank of Road Conditions Prevailing in
Rank of Direction of Travel of Cars Involved
in Accidents...........
8.
21
Rank of Occurrence of Fatal and Non-Fatal
Accidents Prevailing Weather Conditions
6.
19
Rank of the Condition of Cars Involved in
Fatal and Non-fatal A c c i d e n t s ..............
5.
14
.
28
Ranking of Road Locations in Automobile
Accidents
..........................
30
CHAPTER I
THE PROBLEM
If some new plague or pestilence were suddenly to
strike America, sending more than 32,000 persons to their
graves and more than a million others to beds of pain and
suffering, a state of emergency would surely be declared.
Theaters and schools would be closed and the various relief
forces would marshal all their resources to cope with the
tragic situation.
Parents would be frantic; government
officials would take drastic measures to get the dread
disease under control.
In a sense, America’s automobile accident experience
in 1939 might be likened to such a plague.
But because the
total casualties are stretched over a period of an entire
year, because they are not confined to any particular season,
to any particular locality, nor to any particular age-group,
the public remains apathetic.
The death total last year reached 32,100, neither
substantially better'nor worse than the record for 1938.
Sizeable decreases recorded in the first three quarters of
the year were completely wiped out by discouraging monthly
increases in the final quarter.
Non-fatal injuries increased by 64,600 over the
previous year, bringing the total to 1,210,200.
This is
just short of the all-time record established in 1937.1
wThe death rate in traffic accidents has increased
130 per cent between the ages of 15 and 19 and 157 per cent
between the ages of 19 and 24.,r2
The first age. group was
made up of persons of high school age, while the second age
group was made up of persons who should be through high
school and entering the business world or doing work in
college.
The young people in most of the states are permitted
to drive when they reach the age of sixteen.
Under present
conditions of learning to drive, the beginners are left to
their own resources.
They learn by the trial and error
method which does not develop proper skills, habits, and
attitudes for safe driving.
In order to reduce the number of deaths
and injuries
from traffic accidents, the young people must be educated
to meet the hazards of driving and walking in modern traffic.
Where can the youth receive this training?
The high school
offers the besifc opportunity for the training of the youths
to become safe, efficient drivers.
The purpose of this study was to construct a course
1 The Travelers Insurance Company, Smash Hits of the
Year (Hartford; 1940), p. 3.
2 American Automobile Association, Sportsmanlike
Driving (Washington, D. C., 1935), p. 3.
of study in automobile driving for high school students.
Such a course should contain the following:
1.
Information on the qualifications of drivers.
2.
Information on the cause and prevention of
‘*
traffic accidents.
3.
The study of traffic laws and safe driving
practices.
4.
Practical instruction for the development of
proper skills, habits, and attitudes in driving.
5.
Training in maintenance of the automobile.
6.
Instruction which would aid in developing the
proper attitude toward safe driving.
Importance of the study.
One of the aims of educa­
tion should be the prevention of accidents; there is a
definite need for education in the practices of safe driv­
ing.
Students in high school must be given the training
under the supervision of trained teachers.
The training
should fit them for meeting the problems of living safely
and aid them in becoming desirable citizens on the streets
and highways.'
Other agencies are doing all in their power to re­
duce the terrific toll of automobile accidents.
The follow­
ing paragraphs will show some of the things they are doing.
The insurance companies are doing much in educating
the public on the prevention of traffic accidents.
They
have published many educational and statistical pamphlets *
produced safety films, safety posters, and developed
courses of study in safety education*
The National’Safety Council acts as a clearing house
for safety education materials*
Many of its pamphlets are
of value in the safety' education field.
Automobile companies have their engineers working
continually to produce safer cars.
Some of the safety
features of the automobile are four-wheel brakes, safety
glass, safer tires, and all steel bodies.
Some of the
companies have produced films and pamphlets on driving
safety.
Highway engineers are designing and building safer
highways and developing new safety devices for the control
of traffic.
States are passing new laws for regulating automo­
bile traffic.
Many of the states are requiring the licens­
ing of drivers as a means of removing unsound drivers from
the streets and highways.
A number of states have recently
put in statewide highway patrol organizations to aid in the
enforcement of traffic laws.
Many of the larger cities have hired traffic engineers
to aid in reducing traffic hazards.
Many improvements in the
handling of traffic have been made.
City, traffic officers
are working hard to reduce the number of automobile accidents.
5:
Newspapers, magazines, and radio stations are carry­
ing on programs designed to make the public safety con­
scious .
The schools are offering courses in safety education
for the students.
These are doing much to reduce the num­
ber of accidents among the pupils of elementary school age.
High schools are in need of a course of safety education to
reduce the number of accidents among that age group.
This study was planned as an aid in the reduction of
automobile and traffic accidents by the construction of a
course of study in automobile driving for high school
students.
Method of procedure,
The data for this investiga­
tion were secured by the following methods:
1.
An analysis of statistical data on the causes of
automobile accidents was made.
Such an analysis would show
the educational shortages of the drivers.
This material
was obtained from the bureaus of statistics of various
states, insurance companies, and the National Safety
Council.
2.
A study of vehicle codes was made.
The majority
of the automobile accidents are due to violations of traf­
fic laws.
shortages.
This study gave evidence of further educational
The vehicle codes were obtained from various
state departments of motor vehicles and the United States
Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Public Roads.
3.
Interviews and conferences with experts in the
field of public safety were obtained for the purpose of
obtaining expert opinions on the. educational shortages of
drivers and suggestions for correcting them through educa­
tion in the schools.
4.
An analysis of courses of study in automobile
and traffic safety was made.
This step was an aid in
determining the practices of other states in teaching traf­
fic safety and automobile driving.
5.
A study of research pamphlets on automobile driv­
ing was made.
This material gave much information of value
on how to correct the errors of drivers and pedestrians.
The pamphlets were obtained from insurance companies, the
American Automobile Association, National Safety Council,
and from the manufacturers of tires, automobiles, and
petroleum products.
6.
The investigator used his experience as a driver
and a teacher of safety in the selection of activities and
problems for the course of study.
The investigator took time and tried out the steps
in the driving lessons before putting them into the course
of study.
From the personal observation of driver and pedestri­
an errors, the investigator was able to select much material
for correcting them.
7.
The data were collected and written on filing
cards under the headings of the various chapters.
A, plan
of the course was formulated and presented to members of
the Oklahoma State Highway Patrol.
They were asked to
approve the features they thought adequate and to modify
those they thought inadequate.
They made some suggestions
which were followed in the construction of the course of
study.
8.
It was planned to present the course of study to
a group of experts for final approval and modifications,
but due to the bulk of material and the limitation of time
it was impossible to do so.
The first two methods in this procedure were sug­
gested by the difficulty analysis in The Technique of
Research in Education, by Claude C. Crawford.
Related investigations. Much printed material on
safety education has been released during the past few
years.
Most of this was written for the elementary schools
and does not have a direct bearing on the subject of this
thesis.
The following is a brief digest of the most sig­
nificant studies on safety education which have some
3 Claude C. Crawford, The Technique of Research in
Education (Los Angeles: The University of Southern California, 1928), p. 121.
* relation to this study.
The earliest curriculum on safety education in the
elementary schools was constructed by Ruth Streitz4 in 1925.
This
curriculum was validated on the basis of an analysis
of accidents in a specific school in New York City, an
analysis of textbooks and courses of study in elementary
subjects.
The proposed course of study integrates safety
education with the subject matter fields for the first eight
grades.
In 1927,
dent
Max Henig^ constructed a curriculum in acci~
prevention for vocational schools.
The information on
accidents at the Essex County Vocational School was gathered
over a period of three years.
The accidents were analyzed
and the curriculum constructed on the basis of the findings.
This made the curriculum applicable to the school situation.
Herbert J. Stack^ in 1929 made a study for the pur­
pose of organizing objectives and materials for the teach­
ing of safety education in the secondary schools.
In the
4 Ruth Streitz, Safety Education in the Elementary
School (New York: National Bureau of Casualty and Surety
Underwriters, 1926).
Max S. Henig, Safety Education in the Vocational
School (New York: National Bureau of Casualty and Surety
Underwriters, 1928).
Herbert <T. Stack, Safety Education in the Secondary
Schools (New York: National Bureau of Casualty and Surety
Underwriters, 1929).
study he gave the problems and methods of organizing cur­
riculum materials.
The curriculum was validated on the
basis of an analysis of accident records and an analysis of
the common safety activities.
The curriculum materials
cover safety instruction as integrated with thirteen differ­
ent subjects.
Frances Miner
7
in 1931 made a study in which the
materials of safety education in high school were integrated
with the various subject matter fields and extra-curricular
activities.
The study lists many safety rules for the
various subject matter departments.
The teaching of traf­
fic safety in the automobile shop is suggested in the study.
The American Automobile Association8 published a
group of six pamphlets between 1935 and 1938.
The pamphlets
are known as the Sportsmanlike Driving Series and contain
much material for instruction in traffic safety and automo­
bile driving.
The material was gathered by research workers
interested in highway safety.
This series was used exten­
sively in this study.
Organization of the remaining chapters. The
7 Frances Miner, "How to Teach Safety in High School,"
(unpublished Master’s thesis, University of Southern Cali­
fornia, Los Angles, 1930).
® American Automobile Association, Sportsmanlike
Driving Series (Washington, D. C., 1935-1938).
10
remaining chapters were organized as follows:
Chapter II, Materials and Methods used in Formulat­
ing the Course of Study, explains how the investigator
determined what subject matter should be included in the
course.
‘• Chapter III, Objectives and Organization of a Course
in Automobile'Driving, presents the objectives of a course
in automobile driving and suggestions for organization of
the course.
Chapter IT is devoted to Unit I for classroom in­
struction in traffic safety and deals with the physical and
mental make-up of the driver.
Chapter V was devoted to Unit II for classroom in­
struction in traffic safety and deals with the responsibili­
ty of the driver and the pedestrian.
Chapter VI was devoted to Unit III for classroom in- •
struction in traffic safety, and deals with sound practices
in driving.
Chapter VII was devoted to Unit IV for classroom
instruction in traffic safety and deals with society’s re­
sponsibilities for improving traffic conditions.
Chapter VIII was devoted to Unit V for classroom
instruction in traffic safety and deal's with the young
driver and how he can learn to operate the automobile effi­
ciently.
11
Chapter IX.
In this chapter, the lessons for road
instruction are presented.
There are thirty-two lessons
given with check lists for the use of the instructor in
checking the learning of the students.
Chapter X gives the summary, conclusions, and recom­
mendations of the study.
CHAPTER II
MATERIALS' AND METHODS USED IN FORMULATING THE
COURSE OF STUDY
In order to determine the educational shortages of
drivers and pedestrians several methods were used by the
investigator.
The methods and materials used were as fol­
lows :
An analysis of accident statistics.
The purpose of
making an analysis of the statistics on automobile acci­
dents was to determine the errors committed by drivers and
pedestrians.
The majority of accidents are' results of
errors of some form or another.
The various types of automobile accidents and their
results are shown in Table I.
The accidents shown in the
table were the results of errors.
Figure 1 shows the
frequency of death and injuries in the various types of
accidents.
DriversT mistakes caused two out of three accidents
in this country in 1939.
Table II shows the nature and
seriousness of these mistakes.
The majority of the acci­
dents shown in the table were the results of driving im­
properly.
In Figure 2 the frequency of drivers’ errors re­
sulting in death and injuries is shown.
Mistakes of the pedestrian were the cause of about
13
TABLE Ia
TYPES OF ACCIDENTS RESULTING IN DEATHS AND INJURIES— 1939
COLLISION WITH:
Pedestrian
Automobile
Horse-drawn vehicle
Railroad train
Street car
Other vehicle
Fixed object
Bicycle
Non-collision
Miscellaneous
TOTAL
a
Persons
killed
Per
cent
Persons
injured
Per
cent
IB,470
8,550
140
1,590
160
140
3,300
780
4,810
160
38.9
28.6
.4
5.0
.5
.4
10.3
2.4
15.0
.5
293,810
663,720
4,180
7,280
11,250
5,820
83,910
38,830
96,820
4, 550
24.3
54.9
.3
.6
.9
.5
6.9
3.2
8.0
.4
52,100
100.0
1,210,200
100.0
Travelers Insurance Company, Smash. Hits; of the
Year (Hartford: 1940), p. 3.
■
tS'^
Jii^3^...[il33;i;i333j3
mu
m
N o . 6201, U n iv e r s it y B o o k sto r e, L os A n g e le s
15
TABLE IIa
ACTIONS OF DRIVERS RESULTING IN DEATHS AND INJURIES— 1939
Persons
killed
Exceeding speed limit
On wrong side of road
Did not have rightof-way
Cutting in
Passing standing
street car
Passing on curve or
hill
Passing on wrong side
Failed to signal and
improper signaling
Car ran away— no
driver
Drove off roadway
Reckless driving
Miscellaneous
TOTAL
Per
cent
Persons
injured
Per
cent
7,990
3,200
36.5
14.6
179,980
103,990
22.5
13.0
2,960
350
13.5
1.6
243,970
23,200
30.5
2.9
40
.2
2,400
.3
330
220
1.5
1.0
9,600
11,200
1.2
1.4
290
1.3
44,790
5.6
40
2,540
3,220
720
.2
11.6
14.7
3.3
3,200
42,390
92,790
42,390
.4
5.5
11.6
5.3
21,900
100.0
799,900
100.0
a Travelers Insurance Company, Smash Hits of the
Year (Hartford: 1940), p. 4.
I
m
m
N o . 6201, U n iv e r s it y B o o k sto r e, L o s A n g e le s
17
two fifths of the fatalities and one fourth of the injuries
in traffic accidents in 1939.
The nature and seriousness
of these mistakes are shown in Table III.
The frequency of
pedestrian errors resulting in death and injury is shown by
Figure 3.
About seven per cent of the fatal traffic accidents
and less than five per cent of the non-fatal accidents were
the results of driving unsafe cars.
The condition of auto­
mobiles involved in accidents is shown in Table IT.
The
table shows that most of the cars involved in accidents were
in good condition, and also the results of driving cars with
defective equipment.
Figure 4 shows how the various condi­
tions of the cars involved in accidents rank in occurrence.
When a driver takes an unsafe car out on the road he is com­
mitting an error which might result in injury or death.
Unfavorable weather conditions were listed in about
thirteen per cent of the fatal and about fourteen per cent
of the non-fatal accidents.
Table T shows the weather con­
ditions prevailing during accidents and how drivers erred
by failing to adapt their driving to weather conditions.
Figure 5 shows how weather conditions rank in automobile ac­
cidents-.
Table 71 shows the road conditions as they were dur.ing the various automobile accidents.
Although the largest
per cent of accidents occurred on dry highways, about
18
TABLE IIIa
ACTIONS OF PEDESTRIANS RESULTING IN DEATHS
AND INJURIES— 1939
CROSSING AT INTER­
SECTION:
With signal
Against signal
No signal
Diagonally
Crossing between
intersections
Waiting for, or get­
ting on or off
street car
Standing on safety
isle
Getting on or off
other vehicle
Children playing in
street
At work in road
Riding or hitching
on vehicle
Coming from behind
parked car
Walking on rural
highway
Not on roadway
Miscellaneous
TOTAL
Per
cent
Pedestrians
injured
Per
cent
210
1,200
1,780
810
1.7
9.6
14.3
6.5
13,220
40,250
42,310
13,510
4.5
13.7
14.4
4.6
3,290
26.4
68,460
23.3
40
.3
1,760
•
50
.4
1,470
.5
140
1.1
2,940
- 1.0
810
340
6.5
2.7
38,780
6,760
13.3
2.3
160
1.3
4,410
1.5
1,000
CD
•
O
Pedestrians
killed
39,080
13.3
2,180
250
210
17.5
2.0
1.7
10,870
7,050
2,940
3.7
2.4
1.0
12,470
100.0
293,810
100.0
a Travelers Insurance Company, Smash Hits of the
Year (Hartford: 1940), p. 8.
6
Bn
BS
m
©i:j^6
OSRt:o£f +
m
seesS ee
N o . 6201, U n iv e r s it y B o o k sto r e, L o s A n g e le s
20
TABLE IVs*
CONDITION OF MOTOR VEHICLES INVOLVED IN FATAL AND
NON-FATAL ACCIDENTS— 1939
In apparently good
condition
Brakes defective
Steering mechanism
defective
Glaring headlights
One or both head­
lights out
Tail-light out or
obscured
No chains (wet and
slippery road)
Other defects in
equipment
Puncture or blowout
Miscellaneous
TOTAL
Vehicles
in Fatal
Accidents
Per
cent
Vehicles in
Non-Fatal
Accidents
Per
cent
34,410
670
93.0
1.8
1,219,820
19,160
95.5
1.5
150
180
.4
.5
3,830
2,560
.5
.2
330
.9
7,660
.6
150
.4
3,830
.3
70
.2
2,560
.2
560
440
40
1.5
1.2
.1
7,660
8,940
1,280
.6
.7
.1
37,000
100.0
1,277,300
100.0
m Travelers Insurance Company, Smash Hits of the
Year (Hartford: 1940), p. 22.
si
N o . 6201, U n iv e r s it y B o o k sto r e, L o s A n g e le s
22
TABLE V01
WEATHER CONDITIONS PREVAILING IN ACCIDENTS— 1939
Clear
Fog
Rain
Snow
TOTAL
Fatal
Accidents
Per
cent
Non-Fatal
Accidents
Per
cent
25,180
640
2,850
380
86.7
2.2
9.8
1.3
719,720
11,810
93,660
18,560
85.3
1.4
11.1
2.2
29,050
100.0
843,750
100.0
a Travelers Insurance Company, Smash Hits of the
Year (Hartford: 1940), p. 25.
Si
TO
m
N o . 6201, U n iv e r s it y B o o k sto r e, L o s A n g e le s
2 4
TABLE VXa
ROAD. CONDITIONS PREVAILING- IN ACCIDENTS— 1939
Fatal
Accidents
Dry
Wet
Snowy
Icy
TOTAL
25,1 2 0
4 ,450
520
9 60
29,050
Per
cent
Non-F&tal
Accidents
Per
cent
79.6
649,690
15.5
134,150
1 .8
5 .3
19,410
40,500
7 7.0
1 5 .9
2 .3
4 .8
843 ,7 5 0
1 00.0
100. or,
^ Travelers Insurance Company, Smash Hits of the
Year (Hartford: 1940), p. 25.
85
nineteen per cent of the fatal and twenty per cent of the
non-fatal accidents were the result of drivers failing to
drive in accordance with conditions. :Figure 6 shows how
the conditions of the highways ranked as factors in automo­
bile accidents.
Many accidents were caused by drivers1 errors in
maneuvering cars in traffic.
and the results.
Table VII shows these errors
Figure 7 shows how the drivers1 errors in
maneuvering cars in traffic rank as accident causes.
Table VIII shows the road location of accidents and
the results of the accidents.
Drivers1 errors in various
road situations and their rank as accident causes are shown
in Figure 8.
In about twenty-two per cent of the fatal traffic ac­
cidents in California^ alcohol was mentioned as a primary
cause.
The accidents involved drivers and pedestrians who
were under the influence of alcohol, or had been drinking
alcoholic liquors.
Mental and physical defects were contributing factors
in many accidents.
Some of the defects of drivers and
pedestrians were poor eyesight, poor hearing, lameness,
fatigue, unsound or disturbed mental condition, poor co­
ordination, illness, and old age.
Driving or walking in
California State Department of Motor Vehicles,
Annual Statistical Report (Sacramento: 1940), pp. 19-81.
3®diatk
mm
N o. 6201, U n iv e r s it y B o o k sto r e, L o s A n g e le s
:;&c,ck tc«k SuB;
:
M
37
TABLE VTIa
DIRECTION OF TRAVEL OF CARS INVOLVED IN ACCIDENTS— 1939
Persons
' killed
Per
cent
Persons
injured
Per
cent
Going straight
Turning right
Turning.left
Backing
Skidding
Car parked or
standing still
Slowing down or
stopping
Miscellaneous
37,130
480
1,350
350
1,570
84.5
1.5
3.9
1.1
4.9.
934,070
37,540
83,910
31,740
43,570
76.4
3.3
6.9
1.8
3.6
670
3.1
47,100
3.9
390
360
1.3
.8
58,090
4,180
4.8
.3
TOTAL
33,100
100.0
1,310,300
100.0
a Travelers Insurance Company, Smash Hits of the
Year (Hartford: 1940), p. 38,
ml
W
m
m
mt
m
MS
N o . 6201, U n iv e r s it y B o o k sto r e, L o s A n g e le s
a
29
TABLE VIII®
ROAD LOCATION OF AUTOMOBILE ACCIDENTS— 1939
Persons
killed
Between intersections
Rural intersections
Highway
Driveway
Curve
Street intersections
Railroad crossing
Bridge
TOTAL
7,490
1,440.
11,310
460
3,530
5,740
1,590
540
32,100
Per
cent
Persons
injured
Per
cent
23.3
4.5
35.2
1.4
11.0
17.9
'5.0
1.7
433,670
30,260
164,590
15,360
39,940
499,370
7,280
15,730
35.8
2.5
13.6
1.6
3.3
41.3
.6
1.3
100.0
1,210,200
100.0
Travelers Insurance Company, Smash Hits of the
Year (Hartford: 1940), p. 29.
EE==P5I?EH331B5
KB
N o . 6201, U n iv e r s it y B o o k sto r e, L o s A n g e le s
31
traffic when physically or mentally unfit are serious
errors and need to be corrected.
After determining the driver and pedestrian errors
from the analysis of accident statistics, it was felt that
a course to correct these errors would offer instruction
in the following:
1.
Safe speeds and stopping distances
2.
Highway hazards
3.
Traffic rules and regulations
4.
Safe driving practices
5.
Safe walking practices
6.
Keeping the car in safe condition
How weather and road conditions affect driving
8.
Driving the car on streets and highways
9.
The effects of alcohol on driving or walking
10.
Physical and mental defects of drivers
11.
Proper maneuvering of the car in traffic.
Study of vehicle codes. A study of the California
2
3
Vehicle Code and the Uniform Vehicle Code was made to de­
termine what laws were violated in the majority of the auto­
mobile and traffic accidents.
Each violation of the vehicle
2 California State Department of Motor Vehicles,
Vehicle Code (Sacramento: 1939), 304 pp.
United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of
Public Roads, Uniform Act Regulating Traffic on Highways
(Washington, D. C., 1939), 49 pp.
52
code was an error on the part of the person committing it.
By checking the vehicle code violations with the statistics
presented earlier in this study, the investigator was able
to formulate the following list of bad driving practices
responsible for traffic accidents:
1.
Exceeding speed limit
2.
Reckless driving
5.
Violated the right-of-way
4.
Driving on wrong side of roadway
5.
Failure to signal or improper signal
6.
Passing on wrong side
7.
Passing on a curve or hill
8.. Driving while drunk or under the influence of
alcohol
9.
Driving cars that were in an unsafe condition
10.
Gutting in -
11.
Turning improperly
12.
Passing a standing street car
13.
Driving unsafe cars
14.
Improper turning
15.
Improper parking
16.
Traffic control violations..
Pedestrian violations causing traffic accidents were
as follows:
1.
Crossing against light at intersection
33
8.
Crossing diagonally at intersections
3.
Crossing between intersections
4.
Walking in traffic while drunk or under the in­
fluence of alcohol
5.
WaIking on wrong side of highway
6.
Hitching rides.
The above errors of pedestrians and drivers make it
necessary for the course to .offer instruction in the follow­
ing:
1.
Traffic rules and regulations
2.
Safe speeds and stopping distances
3.
Keeping the car in safe condition
4.
Safe driving practices
5.
Safe walking practices
6.
The effects of alcohol on driving and walking
7.
Driving on streets and highways
8.
Proper signaling by the driver
9.
Proper maneuvering of the car in traffic.
Interviews with experts in the field of public safe­
ty.
The investigator obtained interviews with a number of
men engaged in the field of public safety.
Each of these
men were asked the question,"What should be presented in a
course in automobile driving for high school students?H
In a two hour interview Mr. Gerry H. Lockner, of the
California Traffic Safety Commission, said that he did not
feel that the schools should accept the responsibility for
teaching students how to drive, but the schools should give
thorough instruction in. traffic.
The following problems
were suggested by Mr, liOckner as suitable materials for a
course in traffic safetyr
1.
Physical limitations of drivers and pedestrians
2.
Psychological limitations of drivers and pedes­
trians
3. Drivers’ reaction time
4. Traffic regulations
5. Driver and pedestrian responsibilities and
obligations
6. Driver licensing requirements
7. Driver’s responsibilities when involved in an
accident.
8. Correct method of signaling
9. Types of highways and surfaces
10.
imitations of highways and roads
11.
Curves and hill crests
12.
Purpose of lanes on streets and highways
13.
Intersections
14.
Special highway structures
15. Traffic lights, signals, and signs
16. Safe speeds and stopping distances
17.
Driving problems
35
18.
Safety equipment.
In an hour and a half interview Mr. E. B. Lefferts,
■Manager, Public Safety Department of the Automobile Club of
Southern California, said that he did not think that the
schools should accept the responsibility for teaching the
students how to drive.
If the schools did accept the re­
sponsibility the course should be thorough in order to
develop the best type of drivers.
Mr. Lefferts suggested
the following materials for a course in traffic safety with­
out driving lessons:
1.
G-ood citizenship on the road
2.
Proper attitudes of drivers and pedestrians
3.
Traffic regulations
4.
Driving license requirements
5.
Driver’s responsibility when involved in an
accident
6.
Accident causes and prevention
7.
First aid to injured
8.
If school trains students to drive let the state
examine them for their driving license’s.
A two hour interview with Mr. L. L. Williams, Direct­
or of Safety Education of the Oklahoma Department of Public
Safety, was granted to the investigator.
Mr. Williams said
that the schools were not ready to teach the students how
to drive, but such a course would be valuable.
The
56
materials and problems suggested by Mr. Lockner and Mr,
Lefferts were presented to Mr. Williams and he thought all
of them should be incorporated in the course and suggested
the addition of the following materials:
1.
Study of how the car runs
S.
Development of proper driving habits, skills,
and attitudes by a complete course of driving lessons
3.
The responsibilities of society in reducing traf­
fic accidents
4.
Train the students to drive and let the state
examine them for their driving licenses.
The materials and
problems suggested by the experts
were incorporated in the. proposed course of study when it
was constructed.
An analysis of courses of study.
There are three
main types of safety education courses offered in the high
schools of the country.
The first type of course offers a
general program of safety education and may or may not
offer instruction in traffic safety.
The second type offers
instruction in traffic safety and may or may not’be inte­
grated with other high school subjects.
The third type
offers instruction in traffic safety and road instruction
with a general course in safety.
The investigator found it impossible to obtain
courses of study from all of the states for this analysis.
57
Some of the outstanding courses of study were analyzed and
Table IX shows the material for instruction offered in them.
Michigan, New York, and Yirginia offer a general
program of safety education which includes instruction in
traffic safety.
Texas, New Jersey, Connecticut, Delaware,
Xos Angeles County, and Sportsmanlike Driving 4 offer courses
in traffic safety and driving without giving road instruc­
tion.
The course offered by Kansas State Teachers College
presents a general course in safety education and includes
a division on traffic safety.
The course proposes a list
of driving lessons for road instruction but does not have
the lessons worked out.
The various items shown in Table IX were used in the
course of study constructed by the investigator.
The course
of study was constructed for the purpose of teaching traffic
safety with lessons for actual driving instruction.
Study of research pamphlets. A study of research
pamphlets on automobile driving and traffic safety was made
for the purpose of finding suitable subject matter for the
course.
The most valuable source of material was the
Sportsmanlike Driving Series, a set of five pamphlets pub5
lished by the American Automobile Association.
The
^ American Automobile Association, Sport smanlike
Driving (Washington, D. C.: 1935), 51 pp.
American Automobile Association, Sportsmanlike
TABLE IX
ITEMS CONTAINED ‘IN SELECTED COURSES OF STUDY IN TRAFFIC SAFETY
Los
Connecti- Texas Angeles New
Vir- Dela- Mich- New
cut
County Jersey ginia ware igan York
_________________ __________________________
Physical fitness . X
Mental fitness . . X
Attitudes of
X
drivers . . . .
Study of driving
practices . . ♦ X
Development of
highways . . . .
X
Society's responsi­
bility for traffic
X
control . . . .
)evelopment of the
automobile . . .
How the automobile
r u n s .........
Safety equipment . X
Care of the
automobile . . . X
Road instruction
in driving . . .
Learning to drive. X
Driving safety . ♦ X
Pedestrian safety. X
How the automobile
affects daily
X
living .......
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
.X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X,
X
X
Kansas
SportsmanState
like
Teachers Driving
College
X
X
X
X
X
X
.x
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
•
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X.
X-
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X ’'
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X'
X
X
X
X
X
TABLE'IX (continued)
ITEMS CONTAINED IN SELECTED COURSES OE STUDY IN TRAFFIC SAFETY
Los
Kansas
Sportsman­
Connecti- Texas Angeles New
Vir- Dela- Mich- New State . like
cut
County Jersey ginia ware igan York Teachers Driving
College
Alcohol and
driving . . . .
Accident causes
.and prevention.
Driver’s license
requirements
Driver’s respon­
sibility . . .
Other'modes of
travel . . . .
Traffic laws .
Carbon monoxide .
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
03
tD
40
objectives of the course given in this study were taken
from Sportsmanlike Driving, a pamphlet published by the
American Automobile Association*
6
The first unit of the course of study was based on
The Driver, the first of the series, and deals with the
physical and mental make-up of the driver and how it affects
driving.
The second unit of the course of study was based on
Driver and Pedestrian Responsibilities, the second in the
series, and deals with the responsibilities of drivers and
pedestrians.
The third unit in the course of study was based on
Sound Driving Practices, the third in the series, and deals
with sound practices in driving.
The fourth unit of the course of study was based on
Society* s Responsibilities t the fourth pamphlet in the
series, and deals with society*s responsibilities in improv­
ing traffic conditions.
The fifth unit of the course of study was based on
How to Drive, the fifth pamphlet of the series, and deals
Driving Series (Washington, D. C., 1936-1938): The Driver,
Driver and Pedestrian Responsibilities, Sound Driving
Practices, Society*s ResponsibilitiesT and How to Drive.
American Automobile Association,- Sportsmanlike
Driving (Washington, D. C., 1935).
41
with how the beginner can learn to operate the car effi­
ciently.
The driving lessons are based on the pamphlets Sound
Driving^Practices, and How to Drive.
These pamphlets pre­
sent the best material available for instruction in driving.
Man and the Motor Car ' was suggested as the students’
textbook in the course-.
It was suggested because of the
valuable material it contains.
p
Youth at the Wheel was used in this study and is suggested as a supplementary text in the course.
Other pamphlets and books used by the investigator in
this study were placed in supplementary references or as
teacher aids in the course of study.
Personal experience of the investigator. From person­
al observation of driver and pedestrian errors, the investi­
gator was able to select much of the material offered in
the course for correcting them.
In the units for classroom instruction a number of
activities were used because they were found satisfactory
by the investigator in the teaching of traffic safety.
The investigator found it impossible to use the steps
^ A*. W. Whitney, Editor, Man and the Motor Car (New
York: National Conservation Bureau, 1939}, B56 pp.
8 John I. Floherty, Youth at the Wheel (Philadelphia:
I. B. Lippincott, 1937), 168 pp.
42
in the driving lessons in actual teaching practice because
of school policy.
The investigator took time and tried out
•the steps in the driving lessons before putting them into
the course of study.
Construction of the course of study.
The data were
collected and arranged under the various chapter headings
of the course of study.
After all the material had been
collected a course of study was formulated and presented to
members of the Oklahoma State Highway Patrol for approval
of features they thought adequate and for modification of
the features they thought inadequate.
They gave their approval to the'five units in class­
room instruction as they were constructed.
In the lessons
for road instruction, the Patrol members suggested the con­
struction of check lists for the use of the teachers in
checking the student’s learning.
After the course units and driving lessons had been
returned to the investigator, check lists were constructed
for the driving lessons.
The course of study.
The plan of this study was to
present the completed course of study to a group of experts
in public safety for final approval,, but this proved impos­
sible because of the bulk of material and the limitation of
time.
The proposed course of study in automobile driving*
for high school students begins with the next chapter.
CHAPTER III
THE OBJECTIVES AND ORGANIZATION OF A COURSE
IN AUTOMOBILE DRIVING
The accident record of the young drivers has been
far in excess of what it should be.
The young drivers have
been allowed to learn to drive by the trial and error
method.
The errors of young drivers have resulted in many
accidents causing many deaths and injuries, and much proper­
ty damage.
Last year nearly a million new. drivers were recruited
from among the boys and girls of our country.
E. W. James,
in a pamphlet titled Improving Driver Responsibility, makes
the following suggestion for teaching the new drivers.
It appears, however, that the recruiting of our
driver population as largely as possible from a group
of youths who are trained in mind and body to drive
well, is a matter within our reach. Training in mental
attitude, which has been properly emphasized by some
investigators, can best be given during school age, and
our driving recruits will at least have been taught
what they should do, even should an inevitable percent­
age fail to practice it. Certainly at this time there
is no better way to raise the driving standards of the
motorized population than to embark upon a systematic
course of training in our public schools; there is the•
most obvious, the best, and immediately available place
to instill the sound principles of driver responsi­
bility. I
^ E. W. James, Improving Driver Responsibility (New
York: National Conservation Bureau, 1939) , p . T~.
45
Objectives of the course.
In constructing a course
of study for the teaching of high school students how to
drive the objectives of the course should be set up:
The
-following objectives were selected from Sportsmanlike Driving
as suitable for this course:
A.
General objectives:-.
1.
To prepare high school youths to shoulder
the responsibilities involved in the opera­
tion of a motor vehicle
S.
To reduce the increasing toll of traffic
accidents among persons of high school and
college age
- 3.
To prepare youths of today to support sound
traffic programs as citizens and (in some
cases) to be better prepared to cope effect­
ively with traffic problems as adult offi-'
cials.
B.
Specific objectives:
1.
To develop safety consciousness and proper
attitudes towards driving
2.
To encourage the formation of safe driving
habits
o.
American Automobile Association, Sportsmanlike
Driving (Washington, D. C.: 1935), p. 8.
46
.3•
To give the students a proper understanding
of the physical, mental, and emotional
characteristics and limitations of the
driver and pedestrian
4.
To develop an understanding of and proper
attitude toward the "causes" of accidents
5.
To' impress students with the significance
and reasonableness of traffic laws
6.
To teach the elements of the automobile—
their function, maintenance and operation
7.
To assist in training youths in how to drive
an automobile
8.
To develop a reasonable understanding of the '
physical characteristics of streets and high­
ways, including the significance and value
of signals, signs, and markings,
9.
To enable qualification for a driverfs
license.
Organization of .the course.
The same high standards
of instruction and administration are as necessary in a
course in automobile driving as in any other credit course
of the classroom and laboratory type, since the important
objectives to be attained include the development of atti­
tudes, appreciations, and understandings as well as skill
and habits.
The following general principles are suggested for
the organization and administration of the course.
1. Type of course.
This course was planned to give class­
room instruction in traffic safety and lessons for road
■ instruction in automobile driving.
£. Length of course.
Due to a lack of standards for the
length of the course, the following standards are recom­
mended :
a.
Classroom instruction in traffic safety offered five
days a week for one semester.
b.
Eight hours of actual-driving experience behind the
wheel in life situations.
c.
Twenty-four hours in the car for observation of
driving techniques of instructor and other students.
3* Credit.
In using this course in any school it is recom­
mended that credit be allowed in accordance with the
standards set up by the State Board of Education.
4.
Eligibility of students and grade placement.
In states
where the legal driving age is sixteen years, the stu­
dents should be that age or approaching the legal driv­
ing age to be eligible to take the course.
In states
where learners permits are required each student should
have one.
It is recommended that the course be offered
in the grade of high school that corresponds to the
legal driving age.
Size of class.
It is recommended that the classes in
traffic safety be small enough to insure maximum pupil
activity and yet large enough to maintain economy of
instruction.
In classroom instruction, the group should
not exceed thirty-five in number.
The classes would
need to be divided into groups of four or five pupils
each for driving instruction.
Qualifications of the instructor.
For teaching the
course in automobile driving, it is recommended that the
instructor have the following qualifications;
a.
He must have proper credentials for teaching in
high school.
b.
He must be trained in the content and methods of
classroom teaching in safety.
c.
He should be interested in the entire field of
safety.
d.
He must be trained in the techniques of giving road
instruction.
Materials for instruction.
The textbook recommended for
use in this course is Man and the Motor Car; by A. W.
Whitney.
The supplementary texts recommended for use in
the course are the five pamphlets of the Sportsmanlike
49
Driving Series by the American Automobile Association,
and Youth at the Wheel by John J. Floherty.
It is also
recommended that the school provide adequate pupil, and
teacher references for the course,
8.
Course equipment and other necessities.
In a-course of
this kind it is recommended that the following equip­
ment be made available by the school.
a.
A double or dual control driver training car.
The
dual control car would make, it possible for the
instructor to prevent student errors from causing
accidents.
b.
Stanchions to serve as guides for parking, stopping,
and backing.
c.
Equipment for testing driver’s eyesight, hearing,
reaction time, et cetera.
d.
Adequate insurance protection for all concerned in
the course.
9.
Scheduling classroom -instruction and driving lessons.
•. The class instruction and driving instruction schedules
would be governed by the conditions found in schools
offering the course.
10.
Divisions of the course.
two main parts.
The course was divided into
The first part was made up of five
units for classroom instruction in traffic safety and
50
the second part consists of thirty-two lessons for
road instruction in automobile driving.
a.
Units of classroom instruction.
The classroom in­
struction was arranged in five units under the
following headings:
I.
How will the physical and mental make-up of
the driver affect driving?
XI.
What are driver.and pedestrian responsi­
bilities?
III.
What
are sound driving practices?
IV.
What
are society's responsibilities in im­
proving traffic conditions?
V.
How can the beginner learn to operate the
car efficiently?
b.
How the units were developed: Each unit was devel­
oped as follows:
I.
Objectives.
show
II.
The objectives were set up to
the purposes of the unit.
Problems and Pupil Activities.
The problems
were based on pupils * needs and are stated
in question form.
The capital letters denote
the major heading of the problems and these
are broken down into numerous question prob­
lems designated by the Arabic numerals.
Pupil
activities are suggested for the purpose of
51
aiding the pupils in the solution of the
problems.
The pupil activities are denoted
by small letters in the course.
The prob­
lems and pupil activities'were selected f rom
the various sources of material used in the
preparation of this course.
III.
Evaluation. Under evaluation suggestions
are offered for measuring the student’s de­
velopment and growth.
IV.
References. At the end of each unit there
is a number of references for the use of
pupils and the teacher,
c*.
Driving lessons in road instruction.
Each lesson
was developed as follows:
Lesson number
Topic
I.
Objectives of the lesson.
The objectives
state the purposes of the lesson.
II.
Materials for instruction.
The materials
for instruction are given.
III.
Procedure
A.
Preparation.
This gives the approach to
the lesson.
B.
Presentation.
The steps of the lesson
are given in the presentation by the
52
teacher.
The steps are from How to
Drive and Sound Driving Practices.
C.
Application.
The student is given a
chance to apply the steps of the
presentation in actual practice.
D.
Testing.
The teacher cheeks the stu­
dent’s learning on the lessons.
IT.
Assignment.
The follow-up and advance
assignment are made at the end of each
lesson.
CHAPTER IV
INIT I
HOW WILL THE PHYSICAL AND MENTAL MAKE-UP OF .'THE
DRIVER AFFECT DRIVING?
I.
Objectives.
■ A.
II.
To instill in the pupils a desire to become a
skillful driver.
B.
To acquaint the students with the physical,
mental, and emotional characteristics that are
related to movement in traffic.
C.
To develop an understanding of the relationship
of these characteristics to automobile accidents.
D.
To impress upon the students the desirability of
correction of' or compensation for personal de­
fects related to movement in traffic.
E.
To acquaint students with the methods that may be
used to correct or compensate for physical de­
fects.
F.
To develop an understanding of driver’s reaction,
physical fitness, and vision under normal and
abnormal conditions.
G.
To develop an understanding of the necessity for
acquiring proper habits of driving.
H.
To develop an appreciation of the need for good
judgment and quick accurate decisions in driving,
and the methods for developing them.
I.
To develop an understanding of the need for the
drivers to focus their attention on the job of
driving.
Problems and pupil activities.
A.
Habits of drivers.
What part does habit play in driving?
a.
Read Chapter II, The Driver.
b.
Use discussion topics, pages 20-31.
What are habits?
broken?
How are they formed and how
a.
Read Man and the Motor Car, pages 60-63.
b.
Have student read and report on Jamesf'
Psychology, Chapter 10.
c.
Have one student make a report on habits
of another pupil.
d.
Have students try to write name with hand
-opposite of usual one.
e.
Tell of a bad habit and how'you overcome
it.
f.
Write your name five times and note
similarity.
How important are habits?
a.
About what per cent of your activities
are due to habits?
b.
The students might check habits of posture
of other students in class and tell how
they injure health.
c.
Discuss how correct study habits will save
time.
d.
Ask a right-handed thrower to try throwing
a ball left-handed. Discuss result of
observation.
e.
Have the class discuss how habits aid
efficiency in performing a task.
What habits must the driver develop in opera­
tion of the automobile until they are auto­
matic?
a.
Have students list some driving habits
which are automatic.
55
b.
Have student ride with a good driver,
note the actions that are automatic, and
report them to the class.
c. Have students discuss automatic acts of
' ' bicycle riding.
d.
5.
6.
Students should.discuss habits of driving
that should not be automatic.
What habits must the driver form in his
driving practices?
a.
Students should make a list of thoughtful
and unthoughtful habits of drivers ob­
served for a week. In class discussion
make a complete list.
b.
Compare the list of habits on pages 15
and 16 with those on page IE and show how
they differ.
c.
Have class discuss the driving habits
listed on pages 15 and 16 and show how
they are related to thoughtful driving.
d.
Explain how the habit of inspecting
safety equipment is a good practice.
e.
Explain why it is important to allow
plenty of time in driving to meet an
appointment.
f.
Discuss the importance of the habit of
never taking a chance.
What is the Importance of emergency habits?
a.
Lead students into a discussion of ex­
periences involving emergencies in which
habits were important.
b.
Observe busy traffic intersection and
report cases of emergency action which
show the result of emergency habit train­
ing.
c.
Discuss the meaning of emergencies listed
on pages 18-19, The Driver.
56
7.
B.
d.
G-ive reasons why the habit of attention
is called an emergency habit,
e.
Show how emergency habits may be vital
when driving a strange car,
How can the beginning driver develop the
proper habits to become an expert driver?
a.
Discuss the qualifications of a good
driving instructor.
b.
Explain how a good driving instructor '
would aid the young driver in forming
the proper habits.
Driverfs reaction time.
a.
Read Chapter III, The Driver.
b. Use discussion topics and projects, pages
34-35, The Driver.
c. Read pages 54-55, Man and the Motor Car.
1.
&.
What is meant by reaction time?
a.
Have students define reaction time. Dis­
cuss and formulate a good definition.
b.
Have students devise a means for illus­
trating reaction time.
Why is it important to know your own reaction
time?
a. Have the group work out project 1, page
35, The Driver, as instructed.
b.
Have individuals test their reaction time
by procedure given in project 3, The
Driver.
c. Have the class discuss the importance of
each driver knowing his reaction time.
d. Explain what nervous reactions take place
from the time the driver sees danger
until he c§n begin to apply the brakes.
e.
Have students devise methods of testing
reaction time.
How is reaction time related to the total
stopping distances of the car?
a.
Read Youth at the Wheel, page 50, and
Man and the Motor* Gar, pages 152-53.
h.
Have students compute distance covered in
one second at 30, 40, 50, 60 M. P. H.
Discuss.
c.
Study Table I, page 26, The Driver, and
make a graph showing reaction distance at ■
various speeds when reaction times are
.3 sec., .5 sec., .75 sec., and 1 second.
d.
Measure off distance of 22, 33, 44, 55,
and 66 feet along curb so that students
can visualize distance traveled at various
speeds at a .75 reaction time. Project
2, page 35, The Driver.
e.
Have students study stopping distances
as given in Table II, page 27. Discuss.
f.
Have students discuss the relation of
reaction time to the total stopping
distance. Table III, page 29, The Driver.
g.
Describe the danger zone and show what
factors influence it. Explain how its
length can be controlled by the driver.
What factors tend to lengthen reaction time?
a.
Have students discuss their personal
experience with fatigue and reaction time.
b.
Explain how fatigue affects one's reaction
time. Give reasons why a tired driver
should drive slower.
c.
Test the reaction time of an athlete be­
fore and after a hard practice. .What are
the results?
d.
Explain how increasing age affects reac­
tion time. Make notes of games played at
various ages and how how they indicate a
slowing of reaction time.
e.
Describe the effect of alcohol on the
driver’s reaction time. Read Man and the
-Motor Car, pages 58-60, on alcohol.
f.
Explain how readiness-to-act aids in
speeding reaction time.
g.
Describe other factor's which tend to
' increase reaction time.
Driver’s eyesight.
1.
3.
What is the importance of good eyesight in
driving?
a.
Read Chapter;TIV, The Driver.
b.
Read pages 53-54, Man and the Motor Car.
c.
Use discussion topics and special-projects
pages 48-49, The Driver.
d.
Explain the importance of vision in driv­
ing.
e.
G-ive reasons why it is vital to know of
any defects of the eyes.
How do we see?
a.
3.
Have a student read and report on the eyes
and how we see from a good physiology book
How does visual acuity affect one’s ability
to drive?
a.
Define and discuss visual acuity.
b.
Have the eyes of each student tested by
use of Snellen-Chart Record results on
chart given on page 85, The Driver.
c.
Have students state the limitations that
should be placed on drivers having the
following visual acuities: 30/50, 30/60,
and 20/70.
59
d.
4.
5.
How can farsightedness, nearsightedness,
and astigmatism he corrected?
How does the field of vision affect the
driverfs ability?
a.
Define periphereal vision, tunnel vision.
Discuss the advantages or disadvantages
of each in driving.
b.
Test each student’s field of vision by
the method given on pages 40-41, The
Driver. Record results on chart given
on page 83, The Driver.
c.
List the precautions that a driver with
a field of vision of 140° should take.
Why must the driver be able to judge colors?
a.
Give reasons why drivers should be able
to distinguish between colors.
b.
Discuss types of color-blindness and
their effect on ability to drive.
c.
Devise a test for color perception.
d.
Describe the Ishihara Test.
e.
Test each student and record it on his
chart.
f.
Write a letter to a driver with red-green
color-blindness and tell him how he can
compensate for it.
6 . Why is it important for a driver to be able
to judge distance and speed?
'a.
Have students estimate dimensions of room,
length of table.
b.
Have‘students discuss situations where
judgment of distance and speed are
involved.
c.
Construct "Rod Test” apparatus for testing
depth perception as described on pages 4445 of The Driver. Blue prints may be ob­
tained fromA.A.A., Washington, D. C.
d.
Test each student’s depth perception and
record it on his chart.
e.
Have students judge speed of approaching
cars and keep records of findings. Dis­
cuss findings.
f. Tell how a driver can remedy or compen­
sate for faulty depth and speed percep­
tion.
What is the effect of double vision on driv­
ing ability?
a.
Describe the causes of double vision.
b.
Experiment by pressing eyelids to illus­
trate double vision.
c.
Have students discuss hazards of double
vision.
d. Give the remedies for double vision.
e. Study and discuss the effects of alcohol
on vision.
What is the effect of glare on a driver’s
eyes?
a.
Describe the effects of glare on the eyes.
b.
Construct a glarometer for testing effect
of glare on eyes.
(Blue prints may be
obtained from A.A.A., Washington, D. C.)
c. Test eyes of students to show how much
the eyes are affected by glare.
d.
Hold a bright light before eyes for ten
seconds and then record time it takes to
recover sufficient vision to read SnellenChart at normal distance.
e.
Describe methods of overcoming the effects
of glare in driving.
What is the effect .of eye fatigue on seeing
ability?
61
10.
D.
a.
Have students report on the results of
using their eyes in long periods of night
study.
b.
Describe the conditions leading to eye
fatigue in driving.
c.
List ways in which eye fatigue may become
hazardous in driving.
d.
Describe some practices that can be used
to rest the eyes.
How can the state improve vision of drivers?
a.
Give restrictions that the state should
place on drivers with eye defects.
b.
Discuss the benefits of highway lighting
as a means of improving vision.
c.
Show how vehicle inspection could aid
driver’s vision.
Physical fitness of drivers.
1.
2.
How is physical condition related to driving
ability?
a.
Read Chapter V of The Driver.
b.
Use discussion topics, pages 61-62.
c.
Read Man and the.Motor Car, pages 56-60.
d.
Read Youth at the Wheel, pages 80-81.
What disabilities of the driver result in
unsafe driving?
a.
3.
List disabilities which handicap the
driver.
What disabilities of the driver permit correc­
tion or compensation?
a.
Test the hearing of each student with the
watch tick test or an audiometer and
record results on his chart.
62
4.
5.
b.
Discuss methods of compensation for poor
hearing acuity.
c.
Make a list of disabilities that may be
compensated.
d.
Have'--students observe and report on how
some drivers compensate for physical
disabilities.
What disabilities of the driver cannot’be
corrected or allowed f o r .compensation?
a.
Make a list of disabilities which do not
permit compensation.
b.
Does the drivers’ license laws of your
state have a clause that disqualifies the
drivers who cannot compensate for
disabilities?
c.
Discuss the possible result of permitting
permanently disabled persons to drive.
How can occasional or accidental disabilities:
be overcome?
a.
Students should make a list of occasional
or accidental disabilities which would
disqualify a driver temporarily.
b.
Describe the effects of fatigue on driv­
ing ability and give some good methods of
overcoming it.
c.
Students should collect newspaper articles
on accidents resulting from drunkenness.
Discuss them in class.
d.- Discuss the effect of alcohol on the
driver. .
e.
Find out what your state is doing to curb
drunken driving.
f.
Have students discuss the dangers of car­
bon monoxide poisoning and its effects on
the driver.
g.
Explain how a driver can avoid the danger
of carbon monoxide poisoning.
63
E.
Judgment and quick decision by drivers.
1.
2.
3.
What is the importance of judgment and quick
decision in driving?
a.
Read Chapter VX, The Driver.
b.
Use discussion topics and project, page
72.
Under what circumstances is good judgment
required in driving?
a.
Have students discuss what constitutes
good judgment in driving.
b.
Have students observe traffic situations
and report observations of good or bad
judgment of drivers to class.
c.
Diagram,situations on black board and
discuss.
d.
List and discuss ten situations where good
judgment is required.
e.
Using a set of model cars, set up various
driving situations requiring good judgment.
Have students'discuss solutions.
What factors tend to impair judgment?
a.
4.
5.
List and discuss conditions of the driver
that might cause him to exercise poor
judgment, page 68, The Driver.
How can the driver improve his judgment in
driving?
a.
What information does the driver need to
develop sound judgment?
b.
List ways in which one may develop good'
judgment before learning to drive.
Why is the ability of the driver to make
quick, correct decisions important?
a.
G-ive reasons why the ability to make
quick, correct decisions is necessary in
driving.
64
E.
b.
Have students report on traffic situations
they have observed where quick decision
averted an accident.
c.
Discuss the relation of speed and stopping
- distance to the need for quick, accurate
decisions, page 7.0, The Driver.
d.
List and discuss the conditions which tend
to work against the making, of quick de­
cisions.
e.
Discuss ways of improving the ability to
make correct quick decisions.
f.
List factors which tend to impair the
ability to make quick decisions.
g.
How can the driver improve his ability to
make quick decisions?
Driver’s control of situation.
1.
£.
3.
What factors are involved in the driver’s
control of the situation?
a.
Head Chapter VIX, The Driver.
b.
Use discussions topics and projects, pages
81-88.
c.
Read Man and the Motor Car, pages 67-74.
Of what importance is attention in control of
situations?
a.
Teacher should arrange some distraction
in rear of room and at the same time give
some distraction to students. Check to
see how many followed directions.
b.
Students report on the results of inatten­
tion observed during the day.
c.
Explain the reason for keeping your eye
on the ball in tennis.
What distractions tend to reduce the driver’s
control?
4.
a.
Discuss the various distractions of the
driver and their possible results.
b.
Show, how drivers can overcome distrac­
tions.
e.
Discuss the statement, "Driving is a full
time job."
How does anticipation of traffic conditions
aid in driver’s control?
a.
Have students relate how they learned to
anticipate situations in their favorite
sport.
b.
Have a football player explain how to
anticipate plays before they develop.
c.
Explain how anticipation of traffic con­
ditions would enable a driver to avoid
trouble.
d.
Eame and discuss the ways in which the
state highway department and automobile
clubs are aiding drivers to anticipate
traffic conditions.
e.
Study charts illustrating highway markers
and road signs.
Summary of unit.
1.
How can the relation of mental and physical
characteristics and their relation to effi­
ciency in driving be summarized?
a.
Have each..pupil make an appraisal of him­
self concerning the numerous items of the
unit. Make charts as shown on page 83 of
The Driver and check each individual
separately.
b.
Have students, list needed mental and
physical requirements for efficient driv­
ing. Have class discussion on how to
overcome defects and the development and
practice of good habits.
c.
Discuss the present method of examination
for driver’s license and show how it might
be made more effective.
66
d.
III.
Prepare a paper based on accident reports
- showing drivers1 disabilities and explain
how these accidents might have been pre­
vented.
Evaluation.
A.
Do the students show by their conversation that
they think it is desirable to be a skillful
driver?
B.
Are the students enthusiastic about becoming
skillful drivers?
C.
.Can each student list his own mental, physical,
and emotional characteristics -that are related to
traffic?
D.
Can a student analyze an accident and point out
personal factors involved?
E.
-What has each student done to remedy his own
defects? Can he tell how to compensate for de­
fects in others?
F.
Does the student know his own reaction time?
Does he realize the importance of reaction time
in driving?
Gr.
Does the student know the importance of good
vision in driving? Does he know how the various
eye defects and the relationship of each to safe
driving?
H.
Does the student have an understanding of the
importance of habits in driving? Can he list the
good habits of drivers?
I.
Does the student realize the importance of good
judgment in driving? Does he admire good judgment
in others?
J". Does the driver have a copy of the driver’s
license laws of the state? Can he list items
that should be listed in the physical examination?
K.
Can the student make a satisfactory score on an
objective test over material covered?
67
IT,
References:
A.
Required by students.
Tke P^iver, Sportsmanlike Driving Series,
American Automobile Association, Washington,
D. 0.
State Vehicle Code.
Public Safety.
3.
B.
State Department of
Man and the Motor Car. A. W. Whitney..
National Conservation Bureau, New York City,
New York. Chapters IV, V.
Supplementary.
Youth at the Wheel, John J. Floherty, J. B.
Lippincott Co., Philadelphia, Pa., pp. 65-91;
10B-5.
C.
S.
Driver Rating Manual.
D. C.
A.A.A.. Washington,
3.
Safety for Myself and Others. G-eorge L. Bush
and others. American Book Co., New York.
Unit X, pp. 788-96.
4.
Automobile Safety. Marble and Wilson,
American Book Company, New York. Pp. 29-47.
Teachers’ aids.
1.
Accident Facts for 1940, National Safety
Council, Chicago.
2.
Man and the Motor Car, Teachers* Manual,
H. J. Stack, National Conservation Bureau,
New York.
3.
Statistical Reports. Your state.
Department of Public Safety.
4.
Teaching Traffic Safety. Safety Committee.
Office of County Superintendent of Schools,
Los Angeles.
State
CHAPTER V
UNIT II
WHAT ARE DRIVER AND PEDESTRIAN RESPONSIBILITIES?
X.
Objectives.
A.
To enable the students to recognize the classifi­
cation of drivers as to their attitudes, skills,
knowledge, physical and mental fitness.
B.
To analyze, with the students, the psychological
factors that cause various traffic situations.
C. To create a desire among students to avoid the
practices of the many undesirable types of
drivers and pedestrians.
II.
D.
To develop an understanding of the obligations of
the driver in modern traffic situations.
E.
To teach the students how courtesy, fair-play,
self-control, tolerance, co-operation, and sports­
manship are necessary in traffic situations.
F.
To develop a disposition to maintain emotional
balance in the face of provoking traffic situa­
tions.
Gr.
To develop an appreciation of traffic hazards.
H.
To help pupils understand the obligations of a
driver involved in an accident.
X.
To promote co-operation between driver and
pedestrian.
J.
To develop an understanding of sound pedestrian
practices.
K.
To develop an appreciation of the efforts of
society to improve traffic conditions relating
to pedestrians.
Problems and pupil activities.
A.
Survey of drivers.
69
1.
3.
3.
4.
How can the driver’s qualities-be determined?
a.
Read Chapter 1, Driver and Pedestrian
Responsibilities;,
b.
Use Discussion Topics and Projects, page
8.
How do you rank as a driver?
a.
Select ten drivers whom you know and
classify them under the following head­
lines: good, bad, indifferent, responsi­
ble, irresponsible, blundering, expert.
b.
Explain how the above drivers could im­
prove their ratings.
Ci
Write a diagnosis of drivers’ troubles
listed on page 3, and as directed under
’’Moving to the Right of the Quality Line,’*
page 3. Then check yourself with the
answers listed under Project 1, page 8.
d.
TWrite out a description of how you rank
in the quality line, and -give your reasons
why you think you belong there.
What mistakes are made by the poor driver?
a.
Have students make a list of observed
errors of drivers which would put them in
the poor driver class.
b.
Have each student check errors of drivers
at some intersection for a period of
thirty minutes. Make a list of them.
e.
Compare above list with faults listed on
page 7 of text and discuss reasons for
faults.
&.
Devise a method of correction for each of
above faults.
What part does the proper attitude play in
driving?
a.
Explain how a change in the attitude of a
poor driver might improve his rating.
70
b.
5.
G-ive reasons why attitude is the keystone
in "The Arch for Supporting Expert Driv­
ing/* page 4 of text.
What are the requirements of a skillful
driver?
a.
Make a list of the attitudes', skills, and
habits of an expert driver.
b.
Make an analysis of expert driving prac­
tices to show how they prevent accidents.
c.
Have students study accident reports in
newspapers and explain how an expert
driver might have averted them.
6 . How do drivers accept their responsibilities?
B.
a.
Have students observe drivers and make a
count of how many are guilty of making
incorrect signals, thereby endangering
themselves and others.
b.
Have you had any thought of what you
should do for a person you might injure?
c.
Consult police records of traffic viola­
tions. Do these give a clue as to how
drivers and pedestrians are accepting
their responsibilities?
d.
Write a fifteen minute talk on the
driver’s responsibilities.
Psychology of the driver.
1.
How will the understanding and appreciation.
of psychology aid the driver in understanding
himself and other drivers?
a.
Read Chapter II, Driver and Pedestrian
Responsibilities.
b.
Use Discussion Topics and Projects, pages
20-2 1 .
c.
Read Chapter V, Man and the Motor Car.
71
S.
3.
4.
5.
What factors determine the traffic behavior
of the driver?
a.
Discuss the relation to driving of each
of the five factors presented in Figure 6,
page 9 , .Driver and Pedestrian Responsi­
bilities.
b.
Have the class read a good psychology
text on behavior and discuss it in rela­
tion to traffic behavior.
c.
Interview a traffic officer and find out
how drivers behave when they are arrested
for a violation.
How do drivers differ in their mental reac­
tions?
a.
Present a problem to five drivers and get
their reactions to it.
b.
Explain how our behavior reflects our
background.
c.
Write a general statement of why drivers
differ.
d.
Give your reactions to a person going
ahead of you at the ticket window and
then retiring graciously when learning of
the mistake.
How is it possible to tell what takes place
in the driverrs mind?
a.
Show by examples how an understanding of
proper behavior will help you.
b.
Observe some students whose behavior
causes them to get into trouble. Give
remedies that would help them.
c.
Discuss methods of improving traffic
behavior.
What can be done to eJLiminate the accidentprone driver from our highways?
a.
Explain how we can determine the accidentprone driver by the looks of his car.
72
b.
List means in use today for eliminating
such a driver*
c*
Explain how companies operating large
fleets of vehicles eliminate such drivers*
d.
List and discuss accident-causing traits
which should cause driver elimination*
Tell what traits can be improved and how
it can he accomplished. Make a chart of
these.
e.
Have students suggest means whereby the
state licensing bureau might eliminate
such drivers.
6 . What are the characteristics of the egotist?
a.
b.
c.
7.
Have each student define an egotist.
Have each student scale himself.in light
of definition.
List the driving practices'of an egotist.
d.
Have each student express his reaction
on the egotist.
e.
Have the students explain how the qgotist
could improve his behavior.
f.
How can you refrain from being an egotist?
What are the characteristics of the showoff?
a.
Relate some experiences you have had with
showoff drivers while a passenger in a
car.
b.
What driving practices of the showoff
should be corrected? Explain how this
can be done.
c.
Tell what is lacking in the showofffs
make-up.
d.
State your opinion of the showoff driver.
8 . What are the faults of the emotionally uncon­
trolled driver? Will proper training aid in
controlling emotions?
75
9.
10.
11.
a.
Give examples of conduct of unstable
persons.
b.
List the faults of the emotionally uncon­
trolled driver.
c.
G-ive reasons why this driver should not
drive until he can control his emotions.
d.
How can a person learn to control his
emotions?
e.
Have class recall incidents of some sport*s
contest where a player lost his temper.
Give causes and results.
f.
Have class recall the actions of some
persons when faced with some emergency.
How does the deluded driver act?
a.
Give reason why the deluded person acts
the way he does while driving.
b.
Study the actions of a person who is try­
ing to deceive others with false impres­
sions. Vi/hat is your opinion of him?
c.
List the faults in the behavior of the
deluded persons in driving.
d.
Suggest remedies for the faults as shown
in the list.
How does a driver react to power?
a.
Give some examples of how some persons'
react when in control of a powerful car.
b.
From some newspaper reports on accidents
select for discussion a few where the
drivers lost control.
c.
Discuss controlled power and uncontrolled
power, and its relation to traffic.
How is the personality of a driver sometimes
changed when he enters a car?
a.
Have students tell of changes they have
observed in a driver’s personality while
driving.
7 4
C.
b.
Have students recall Instances of how
personality changed when a person was
given a position of responsibility or
authority.
c.
Have students give ways they think a
man’s personality might be changed -by
getting behind the wheel.
Driver’s responsibilities and obligations.
1.
a.
Read Chapter II, Driver and Pedestrian
Responsibilities.
b.
Use Discussion Topics and Projects, page
52.
c.
Read Man and the Motor Car.
How is driving a social obligation?
a.
Have students define a social obligation.
b.
Have students find out the requirements
of his state for a driver’s license.
From these have pupils develop the idea
that driving is a social obligation.
c.
List the social obligations of drivers.
d.
Compare a driver’s obligations with those
to his home and community.
e . Show how the conduct of one player can
affect the entire team.
f . Describe people you have seen who drive
as if they were alone on the road.
2.
What are the driver’s obligations in sharing
the highway?
a.
State the right-of-way rules of your com­
munity. Do these prevent accidents?
Why? Should one always insist on rightof-way?
b.
Class should list situations where highway
should be shared.
c.
d.
Explain tiie driver’s obligation in rela­
t i o n to right-of-way in emergencies which
require the entire roadway.
Give rules of courteous driving. Contrast
these with legal traffic regulations.
What are the obligations of the drivers in
regard to traffic officers?
^a.
Have students list the duties of traffic
officer.
b.
Give reasons why the traffic officer is a
friend of the driver.
c.
Discuss the attitudes of drivers toward
officers.
d.
List the qualities you would expect in good
traffic officers. Explain your list.
e.
Show how drivers and pedestrians can co­
operate with the traffic officer.
What are the obligations of the drivers toward
the pedestrian?
a.
Give examples of the accidents where the
driver lost control of the car and injured
a pedestrian.
b.
Give examples of instances where drivers
protected the pedestrian.
What obligations are imposed on a driver, who
is involved in an accident?
a.
Give in order the procedure to be followed
by a driver involved in several different
types of accidents. Where there is an
injury to any person, list the precautions
that should be taken. Page 26, Driver and
Pedestrian Responsibilities.
b.
What penalties are provided by law for
those who do not assume their.social
obligation in an accident? Consult the
Vehicle Code of your state.
76
c.
6
.
7.
Describe your reaction toward a hit-andrun driver.
Why is. maintaining the car in safe condition
a social obligation?
a.
Discuss the statement, "An ounce of pre­
vention is better than a pound of c ure/
and relate the discussion to safety
equipment of the car.
b.
List safety equipment of car and show how
neglect of each part might bring about an
accident. How would this be violation of
a driver's social obligation?
c.
Study and discuss legal requirements for
maintaining the car in a safe condition.
d.
List the parts of the ear which require
periodical inspection and adjustment.
e.
Have students discuss keeping the car in
a safe condition as a social obligation.
How is driving a privilege?
privilege be cancelled?
How can the
Have the students distinguish between a
right and a privilege. State how driving
is a privilege.
Have the students give the reasons for
licensing drivers.
Give causes for cancelling or revoking
the license by legal means.
When society grants the privilege of
driving to a person, what should be done
if he violates the privilege?
Give reasons why so many agencies are
taking an interest in driving.
How is the driver responsible for what the
car does?
a.
Show how the driver is responsible for
everything the car does.
77
9.
,D.
b.
Have students interview a highway patrol­
man on accidents and find out how he
places the responsibility.
c.
Give reasons why a driver should, be
familiar with every traffic regulation
in his state.
How could we make the obligations of the
driver more clear?
a.
What does your community do to teach a
lesson to certain reckless drivers?
b.
State your opinion of sending drivers in­
volved in an accident to a driving school.
c.
Give reasons why adopting a uniform
vehicle code for the United States would
prove beneficial.
d.
Do you think a uniform traffic code would
aid drivers?'
Good sportsmanship in driving.
1.
a.
Read Chapter IT, Driver and Pedestrian
Responsibilities.
b.
Use Discussion Topics and Projects,
pages 44-45.
c.
Read Youth at the Wheel.
d.
Read Man and the Motor Car.
How does fair play enter into driving?
a.
Have students discuss sportsmanship and
fair play in a sports contest.
.b.
Why do you admire good sportsmanship in a
player?
c.
List drivers’ actions which you consider
unfair and unsportsmanlike.
d.
Have class define good sportsmanship in a
player.
78
2.
How are courtesy and fair play related?
a.
. b.
3.
Have students state acts of courtesy they
have practiced during the day.
Describe some act of courtesy you have
seen in a sports event.
c.
Have students observe a busy corner and
report.to class the various acts of
courtesy they* have seen.
d.
Bring to class a list of examples on
courteous and discourteous driving.
How will courtesy aid in preventing accidents?
a.
Study Table II, page 36, Driver and
Pedestrian.Responsibilities, and add other
discourtesies which, might lead to acci­
dents.
b.
Suggest ways of correcting the discourte­
ous habits above.
c. Write an editorial showing how courtesy
of a driver might.prevent accidents.
4.
How is tolerance related to good sportsman­
ship?
a.
Have students define tolerance.
b.
How does a good driver react toward other
drivers or toward pedestrian mistakes?
c. Have students explain how tolerance grows
with understanding of others’ faults.
d. ’ Observe traffic on a busy street. Make
a list of the actions of.drivers and
pedestrians which showed lack of toler­
ance .
e. How would good sportsmanship on the part,
of drivers and pedestrians have made them
more tolerant in actions listed above?
5.
Why may the young driver be expected to be.come a better driver than his dad?
79
6
a.
Interview an elderly person, who learned
to drive when there were few automobiles, ,
and find out some of the difficulties he
encountered in learning to drive.
b.
Find out how long your city has had
traffic regulations. Also your state.
c.
Give reasons'why'young drivers have such
bad records.
d.
Write an essay on "Why Young Drivers
Should Be Better Drivers Than Their
Fathers." See page 39, Drivers and
Pedestrian Responsibilities.
. How is appreciation of hazards related to
fair play?
.7.
a.
List and discuss some things that are
done to remind careless drivers of the
dangers of their ways.
b.
Making drawings or set-up situations with
model cars which might cause serious ac­
cidents.
c.
Give reasons why drivers should under­
stand traffic hazards created by their
carelessness.
d.
Discuss physical laws of driving as given
on pages 40-4S, Driver and Pedestrian
Responsibilities, and show how a thorough
understanding of them would aid in
appreciation of hazards.
e.
Have class list and discuss traffic
hazards in the community and show how
they can be improved.
What standards of conduct show expertness and
good sportsmanship of the driver?
a.
Choose a person who is rated as an expert
driver and list his habits of driving.
Decide for yourself whether they are good
or bad.
b.
List sportsmanlike standards by which a
driver may judge himself. See page 43,
80
Driver and Pedestrian Responsibilities.
c.
E.
Show how the above standards show the
expertness of a driver.
The pedestrian’s problems.
1.
a.
Read Chapter V, Driver and Pedestrian
Responsibilities.
b.
Use Discussion Topics and Projects,,
page 55.
c.
Read Man and the Motor Car.
d.
Read Youth at the Wheel.
What, problem is faced by the pedestrian?
a.
Have students observe pedestrians at a
busy street intersection and compare the
number of people walking with the number
driving.
b.
List the pedestrian violations observed
oh a busy street.
c.
Report on the seriousness of the pedestri­
an problem in your state. Base report on
the current statistical report for your
state.
d.
Report on the trend of pedestrian acci­
dents in your community.
e.
Give a discussion on the problem faced by
the pedestrian as shown in reports above.
2. . How does the attitude of the old-fashioned
pedestrian cause accidents?
a.
Show how motor traffic has changed the
problems of the pedestrian today as com­
pared with his problems of the horse and
buggy days.
b.
Explain the reasons for the attitude of
the older pedestrians.
c.
Show what changes are needed in the
•behavior of older pedestrians.
81
3.
4.
5.
When does the driver become a pedestrian?
a.
Have the class define pedestrian.
b.
List the times when a driver may become
a pedestrian.
What physical and mental handicaps cause
pedestrian accidents?
a.
Have students interview pedestrians to
determine their reactions to their
obligations as pedestrians.
b.
Compare physical differences of members
of the class.
c.
Make a list of physical defects of
pedestrians which add to the danger of
walking under present traffic conditions.
^ee Current Statistical Report for your
state.
d.
Make a list of mental characteristics
which add to the pedestrian’s danger in
traffic. See page 51 of Driver and
Pedestrian Responsibilities.
e.
Have students devise a set of rules for
safe walking.
What bad pedestrian practices lead to
accidents?
a.
List the bad habits of the pedestrians
which result in accidents. See Current
Statistical Report on Actions of
Pedestrians Contributing to Accidents.
b.
Make a survey of your community to de­
termine the bad pedestrian practices exist
,ing there. .
c.
What bad pedestrian practices of children
lead to accidents? Discuss remedies for
them.
d.
Account for the decrease of accidents
among grade school children and the in­
crease among high school children.
e.
Explain how darkness increases the danger
of pedestrians,
f.
List precautions a pedestrian should
exercise when walking on a rural highway
in the day time and at night.
Sound pedestrian practices.*
1.
a.
Read Chapter VI, Driver and Pedestrian
Responsibilities.
b.
Use Discussion Topics and Projects, pages
64-65.
c.
Read Youth at the Wheel.
d.
Read Man and the Motor Car.
What are the ordinary pedestrian habits?
a.
Explain how pedestrian traffic rules have
changed to meet modern traffic conditions.
b.
List things you refrained from doing while
walking to school today.
c.
Have students observe traffic at a busy
intersection and report on the habits of
pedestrians. Compile a list of the most
common.
d.
Relate the best methods of learning good
pedestrian habits.
e.
Compare the pedestrian habits of today
with those, of the past.
f. Give the meaning of custom-built pedestri. an habits.
State the ones you have
formed.
g.
2.
List changes needed in the habits of
pedestrians.
What good habits on the streets will reduce
the number of pedestrian accidents?
a.
Have students observe the actions of
pedestrians at a busy street corner.
How
83
many pedestrians jay walk; walk out from
behind parked cars, buses, or street cars;
run across the street due to fright;
crowd drivers at intersections; cross
between intersections; or any other bad
habits which might endanger them.
3.
b.
Make a list of desirable pedestrians*
street habits. See page 58, Driver and
Pedestrian Responsibilities.
c.
How well do you observe the above prac­
tices? Practice those which you have not
been observing.
d.
Make posters illustrating good or bad
habits of pedestrians.
At intersections, what habits would reduce
the pedestrian hazards?
a.
Relate and discuss the right and wrong
practices of pedestrians observed at an
intersection.
b.
Have several students make oral reports
on pedestrian accidents at intersections
showing causes and remedies.
c . Explain why looking left and then right
before stepping from the curb is a good
pedestrian practice.
d.
Show how traffic laws apply to pedestri­
ans as well as to the driver.
■ ,e. Formulate a set of rules for governing
pedestrians at intersections.
4.
In waiting for, or alighting from, a bus or
street car, what habits will.add to the
pedestrian’s safety?
a.
State the safety habits needed by pedes­
trians for bus and street car situations.
b.
How do the bus and street car companies
attempt to protect their patrons?
8 4
c.
5.
C r.
List the precautions which should he
exercised by school pupils in waiting
for, entering, or leaving a school bus.
What are safe habits for pedestrians on rural
highways?
'
a.
Make a list of highway precautions for
rural highway walking.
b.
Explain-how the careless action of a
driver may result in a hazard to a pedes­
trian on rural highways.
c.
Check statistics on pedestrian accidents
on rural highways and compare with those
on city streets.
d.
Make posters showing safe walking habits
on the highway.
e.
Discuss the sight distance of the pedes­
trian and the driver at night.
f.
Tell of experiences on hikes and tell
what advantages there are in facing
traffic.
Societyfs Job in protection of pedestrian.
1.
a.
Read Chapter 7IX, Driver and Pedestrian
Responsibilities.
b.
Use Discussion Topics and Projects, pages
74-75.
c.
Read Youth at the Wheel.
d.
Read Man and the Motor Car.
Where does responsibility for pedestrian
safety lie?
a.
Have students visit civic clubs, automo­
bile clubs, American Legion, and Boy
Scouts to find out what they are doing
to prevent pedestrian accidents.
b.
Write an editorial on "Society’s Responsi­
bility for Pedestrian Safety" for the
school paper.
85
c.
2•
List the ways in which your community is
protecting the pedestrian,
What legislation is needed for pedestrian
safety?
a.
State how your state protects the pedes­
trian by legislation. Could you suggest
improvements?
b.. Compare the legislation governing pedes­
trian traffic with those of other states.
3.
c.
Have sthdents report on different traffic
practices in other communities and other
-states.
d.
Have students work out a uniform code for
regulating pedestrian traffic.
e.
Explain how a uniform system of legisla­
tion would benefit pedestrians■throughout
the country.
How can enforcement of traffic laws protect
the pedestrian as well as the driver?
a.
Give reasons why traffic laws should
apply to pedestrians as well as drivers.
b.
How strictly should the pedestrian traf­
fic- laws be enforced?
c. Compare the figures on pedestrian acci­
dents in well regulated and poorly regu­
lated communities.
d.
Interview traffic officers on how pedes­
trian violations are handled.
e. Discuss the purpose of law enforcement.
4.
What engineering developments bring about
safer walking?
a. Have students list dangerous corners and
suggest how engineering might improve
them.
b . What engineering improvements have
86
engineers made for pedestrian safety in
your community?
c.
Make a study of pedestrian safeguards de­
signed by traffic engineers on page 70,
Driver and Pedestrian Responsibilities.
d.
Describe some of the above safeguards you
have seen.
e. Have student take some certain highway
and find out what engineering has done to
make the highway safe for pedestrians.
Have a general class discussion on the
project.
5.
How can education help the pedestrian to pro­
tect himself?
a.
Have students list the things which could
be taught pedestrians for safety in
traffic.
b. List all educational agencies in your
community interested in safety. Which
agencies do the most good?
H.
c.
Have' students explain how they acquired
their pedestrian habits.
d.
Show how the responsibility for training
the young pedestrians belongs to the
schools.
e.
Discuss methods of educating the pedes­
trians who are not in school.
Summary of driver and pedestrian responsibilities.
a.
Have students give a report on the traffic
laws of the city which apply to pedestrian
and driver.
b.' Have students give a report on state traf­
fic laws which apply to pedestrian and
driver.
c.
Have the class work out a list of Md ofs
and don't's" for pedestrians and drivers.
*87
d.
Have students prepare a list of descrip­
tive characteristics of poor drivers and
suggest means of correction.
e.
Work out a score card on how drivers
accept responsibilities. Use this score
card on a number of individuals.
f . Work out a score card on how pedestrians
accept responsibilities. Use this score
card on a number,of individuals.
III.
g.
Write up an editorial on good sportsman­
ship in pedestrian traffic for publica- tion.
h.
Have students formulate a program of
driver and pedestrian training for their
community.
Evaluation.
A..
Can the students evaluate their acts and the acts
• of others using the ideas established in the
study of this unit as a standard of measurement?
B.
Do the students realize the importance of train­
ing in becoming better drivers or pedestrians?
0.
Do the student pedestrians show the proper atti­
tude toward drivers, traffic officers, and school
safety patrols?
D.
Do students realize the importance of maintaining
emotional balance in all traffic situations?
E.
Have the students accepted an attitude of looking
.upon driving as a privilege?
F.
Do students realize that the mechanical condition
of the car is a social obligation?
Gr.
Have the students shown by their attitudes and
discussions that they think driving is a social
undertaking?
H.
Have students an understanding of .psychological .
background of the show-off and the egotist?
1.
Do the students realize the undesirable practices
of both driver and pedestrian?
88
IV.
J.
Have the students been impressed by the need for
cooperation in traffic situations?
if.
Do the students have a good working knowledge of
the subject matter and facts in Driver and Pedes­
trian Responsibilities?
L.
Have members of the class shown by their discus­
sions and class activities that the purposes of
this unit have been achieved?
M.
Can the students make a satisfactory score on a
comprehensive objective test on work covered in
this unit.
References:
A.
Required.
3-*
Driver and Pedestrian Responsibilities t Sports­
manlike Driving Series” American Automobile
Association, Washington, D. C.
2 . Man and the Motor Car. A.. W. Whitney, Nation­
al Conservation Bureau.
E.
C.
3.
State Motor Vehicle Laws: (your state) State
Department of Public Safety.
4.
Local Traffic Regulations.
Supplementary.
1.
Youth at the Wheel, John J. Floherty; J. B.
Lippincott Co., Philadelphia, pp. 111-14.
2.
Automobile Safety, Marble and Wilson; Ameri­
can Book Company, Chicago, pp. 23-28, 43-46.
3.
A Trio of Warnings. The Port of New York
Authority, New York. .Entire pamphlet.
Teacher aids.
1.
Teacher *s Manual for Man and the Motor Car.
Herbert J . Stack; National Conservation
Bureau, New York.
Accident Pacts (Current Edition), National
Safety Council, Chicago.
Teaching Traffic Safety, Safety Committee,
Traffic of County Superintendent, Los Angeles.
Manual on Traffic Safety for California
Secondary Schools, State Department of
Education, Sacramento.
CHAPTER 71
UNIT III
WHAT ARE SOUND DRIVING PRACTICES?
I*
II.
Objectives.
A..
To develop' an understanding and appreciation of
the basic practices of good driving.
B.
To develop an understanding of the development
and necessity of traffic regulations.
C.
To teach the students the proper respect for the
laws of nature as they are applied to driving.
D.
To teach students the proper respect for the
rights of others on the highway.
E.
To teach the students the rules and regulations
governing safe driving.
F.
To develop an understanding of how to cope with
various driving situations.
G.
To instill in the students a desire to obey the
rules of the road, to follow sound practices in
driving, and to aid in encouraging others to do
so.
Problems and pupil activities.
A.
The meaning of sound driving practices.
1.
a.
'Read Chapter I, Sound Driving Practices.
b.
Use Discussion Topics and Projects, pages
11-13.
c.
Read Youth at the Wheel.
d.
Read Man and the Motor Car.
What is the meaning of the word ,fsoundn as
applied to any activity?
91
2.
5.
a.
Explain the meaning of "sound."
b.
Have students name activities in which
they think they excel because of sound
practices. Give reasons for thinking so.
c.
Have students interview the coaches of
sports as to what they understand by
"sound" in their sports.
d.
Compare the principles of sports with the
principles of sound driving.
e.
Give reasons why some drivers do not have
sound driving practices.
How can a car be handled soundly?
a.
Have students tell how legal, social,
technical, and personal points of view
enter into the soundness of driving prac­
tices .
b.
Make a list of five sound and five un­
sound driving practices.
c.
Have students interview a highway patrol­
man on sound driving practices.
d.
Have student give a definition of sound
driving practice. Discuss.
What is the basic concept of sound driving?
a.
Have students list six basic practices of
sound driving.
b.
Have students discuss the importance of
each of the six practices.
c . Have students interview experienced
drivers and report back to class their
ideas on the requirements for good driv­
ing.
4.
How can skill in the control of the car be
developed?
a.
Have students state how they would devel­
op skill in any activity.
b.
Give reasons why practice is-as necessary
in the learning to.drive as in any other
activity.
c.
Have students discuss the results of
practicing the wrong methods. Why are
the correct methods more difficult to
learn after practicing the wrong ones?
d.
Give reasons why it is impossible for
everyone to become a skillful driver.
e.
Have class list the driving techniques .
necessary to the development of correct
habits of sound driving.
f.
Explain what is meant by "control of the
car."
Why is it important to know what you can ex­
pect from the car?
a.
Have students list differences in makes
of cars which would require practice to
handle them properly.
b.
Explain why it is necessary to feel out
a strange car before taking it into
traffic.
c.
What should a driver know about his own
ear?
d.
Explain how natural forces such as
centrifugal force, friction, inertia,
and weather conditions affect the car.
e.
Why is it a sound practice'to learn
mechanical limitations of the car?
How can the driver avoid taking foolish
chances?
a.
Show how most chance-taking is a viola­
tion of some traffic law.
b.
Discuss the traffic rules and regulations1
that are designed to. keep drivers from
taking foolish chances.
95
c.
List and discuss driving situations where
you are likely to find the foolish drivers
taking chances.
d. 'State reasons why drivers take chances.
,e.
f.
7.
Study accident statistics and try to de­
termine the number of accidents caused by
taking foolish chances.
Explain how the knowledge and practices
of sound driving techniques will reduce
chance-taking•
Why is the practice of regarding the rights
of others considered sound?
a. .List types of persons who disregard the
rights of others on the highway. Give
ways in which they violate those rights.
b.
Have students state how their rights as
pedestrians have been violated. State
your feelings.
c.
Apply the "Gold-en Rule” to the considera­
tion of rights of others.
d.
Discuss courtesy in connection with
rights of others.
.8 . Why should a driver signal his intentions?
9.
a.
Learn and demonstrate the proper method
of signaling used in your community.
b.
Explain the reasons for giving proper
signals at all times.
c.
Discuss situations where signaling is
necessary.
d.
Observe drivers making right and left'
turns and determine the percentage of
those who signal properly.
e.
Give reasons why a driver must leave no
doubt as to his intention.
Why is it important to watch for the mistakes
of other persons?
94
a.
Explain what is meant by the statement,
"We must drive the car of the other fellow
as well as our own,"
b.
Give a list of mistakes of the other
driver that may affect our driving,
c.
State how we can protect ourselves from
the mistakes of other drivers,
d.
Explain who is responsible for
dent in the eyes of the law.
e.
Interview a judge or a lawyer on accidents
where the "last clear chance" was in­
volved .
an acci­
f . Explain how we as drivers can determine
by the actions of the driver, or the posi­
tion of his car, what he intends to do.
B.
Sound driving practices and laws.
1.
a.
Read Chapter II, Sound Driving Practices.
b.
Use Discussion Topics and Projects, pages
27-29.
c.
Read Man and the Motor Car.
d.
Read Youth at the Wheel.
How have laws developed from custom?
a.
Explain how sound driving practices have
arisen from customs.
b.
Name some laws which have arisen as a
result of customs.
c.
Give reasons for following established
customs.
,d.
Explain how the custom of tipping the hat
to ladies’originated.
e.
Give reasons for considering customs in
making traffic laws.
f..
List the traffic customs that may become
laws.
Why is the operation of automobiles on public
highways subject to rules?
a.
Observe a group of boys playing touch
football without supervision. Report what
happens when the rules are made up as the
play progresses.
b.
Have the coach explain the necessity of
rules in any sport.
c.
Give sound reasons for the need of a set
of rules for driving in public.
What are "Rules of the Road"?
a.
Students should compare some rules of the
sea with those of the road.
b.
Study and illustrate the eleven rules of
the road given on pages 17-18 of Sound
Driving Practices.
c.
Have students add other rules of the road
and explain their value.
d.
Have students list any exceptions to
above rules.
e.
Give reasons why traffic laws have
changed from time to time.
When does it become necessary to make new
traffic regulations?
a.
Show how traffic laws have changed be­
tween 1910-1940.
b.
What conditions determine the need for
traffic control devices?
c.
Describe some laws that have arisen other
than from custom.
d.
Give a iist of laws which have not arisen
from custom and explain their necessity.
e.
Explain how differences in traffic laws
of states might prove confusing to the
driver.
What does "the right-of-way" mean?
a.
Define right-of-way.
b . . Diagram and explain the right-of-way of
drivers at intersection.
c.
Explain the right-of-way rule as applied
to pedestrians.
d.
Explain the .emergency vehicle right-ofway .-
e.
Describe situations where it would be
unwise to insist on your right-of-way.
f.
Have members of class assigned to certain
busy corners to make observations as to
the number of drivers observing the rightof-way rules. Report to class.
Are all traffic laws sound?
a.
Study traffic laws of your city. Analyze
them and see if they are practical today.
b.
Same as above for your state laws.
c.
.List unsound laws of your city or state.
d.
Explain why it is necessary to obey un­
sound laws as long as they are laws.
e.
Consult traffic officers on soundness of
laws.
Are all sound driving practices written into
law?
a.
Have class make a list of fifteen driving
practices which are written into law.
b.
Make a list of sound practices which have
not been written into law. Do you think
they should be made into laws?
c.
What laws governing driving practices
should be incorporated in all state vehi­
cle codes to aid traffic?
d.
Have students interview older drivers on
changes of traffic laws of their city and
state. Make a list.
Sound practices in city driving.
1.
2.
3.
a.
Read Chapter III, Sound Driving Practices.
b.
Use Discussion Topics and Projects, pages
45-48.
c.
Read Man and the Motor Car.
d.
Read Youth at the Wheel.
What sound practices are necessary in driving
in city traffic?
a.
Have students ride with a good driver
from his home downtown and list the driv­
ing practices observed.
b.
Have students discuss above practices.
What is the proper method of getting the car
into the street?
a.
hist the hazards of backing from garage
into street.
b.
State steps to be followed in backing
from garage into street.
c.
How does right-of-way enter into this
situation?
d.
Use model cars and demonstrate correct
method.
What are the ways of signaling?
a.
State three methods drivers use to signal
their intentions.
b.
Demonstrate the-methods of giving proper
hand signals in your community. Are they
required by city ordinances or state law?
Explain.
c.
Observe traffic and determine the per
cent of drivers giving proper signals.
d.
Draw diagrams of hand signals; explain
their meaning, and tell how and when they
should he given*
e.
Have class discuss horn signaling.
f.
Give reasons why the cyclist should use
hand signals.
When driving in traffic what must the driver
watch?
a.
Have students list items that must be
watched in traffic.
b.
Give reasons why drivers should adjust
their speed to conform with traffic con­
ditions .
c.
List some actions of drivers which are
unsound.
d.
How do city driving practices differ from
those on the open highway?
What is the purpose of the traffic laws?
a.
Have students explain the purpose of
traffic laws.
b.
Explain the rules for driving on two,
three, four, five, and six lane streets.
c.
List the ways in which drivers misuse the
street lanes.
What is meant by a progressive, signal system?
a.
Explain how the progressive signal system
of stop and go lights are timed.
b.
Have students learn the correct driving
speed on the main traffic arteries.
c.
State the reasons why it is impossible
"beat the light," in such a system.
d.
Ride with an experienced driver and note
how he is able to keep moving.
to
99
7.
What factors determine a sound speed?
a.
Have students define sound speed.
b.
What are the local speed regulations?
c.
Explain Figures 26-27, pages 57-38, Sound
Driving Practices, on danger zones.
d.
e.
8
.
9.
10.
Give reasons why one may drive.faster on
• one street than another-.
Have class list the fundamentals of a
sound speed.
When may a driver overtake and pass on the
right?
a.
State the rules for overtaking and pass­
ing another car.
b.
If Vehicle Code permits exceptions to
above rules, state and diagram them..
What situations confront the driver at inter­
sections and how does he meet them?
a.
.List the various types of intersections
encountered by drivers.
b.
Explain how intersections are alike in
some respects.
c.
Draw diagrams of various types of inter­
sections you have seen.
d.
Give a list of rules for driving into and
through various types of intersections.
What are the proper methods of making right
or left turns?
a.
Study and compare methods of'making right
and left turns as shown in-Figures 29-30,
pages 41-42, Sound Driving Practices.
b.
Have students demonstrate with model cars
how to make right and left turns.
c.
Explain fully the correct procedure for
making turns.
100
d.
11.
IS.
D.
List precautions to be taken in making
turns.
How should parking be done?
a.
Explain fully how to park on an angle to
the curb.
b.
Explain fully how to park parallel to the
curb.
c.
List places where stopping, standing, or
parking are prohibited.
d.
Discuss local parking regulations.
e.
Explain how parallel parking should be
done on uphill and downhill streets.
What precautions should be taken in pulling
out from curb?
a.
List the things one should do when pull­
ing out from the curb.
b.
What mistakes have you observed drivers
making as they pull away from the curb?
Natural laws and driving.
1.
2.
How do natural laws affect one’s ability to
drive?
a.
Read Chapter IY, Sound Driving Practices.
b.
Use Discussion Topics and Projects, pages
64-65.
c.
Read Man and the Motor Car.
d.
Read Youth at the Wheel.
How do man-made laws and natural laws differ?
a.
State a number of natural laws pertaining
to the operation of an automobile.
b.
State a number of man-made lav/s pertaining
to the operation of an automobile.
c.
- d.
e.
Describe accidents caused by lack of
knowledge of natural laws. Compare tbese
with accidents caused by violations of
man-made laws.
Explain why natural laws must be consid­
ered in driving.
Show how a violation of natural laws
brings•certain punishment.
What part does friction have in control of
the automobile?
a.
Explain the necessity of friction between
tires and the road as an aid in the con­
trol of the car.
b.
Give reasons why we must walk carefully
on an icy walk.
c.
List the parts of the car where friction
functions in the operation.
d.
Explain the purpose of car chains on
slippery roads.
e.
Demonstrate the laws of- friction.
good physics text.
See a
f. .Explain methods used by drivers to con­
trol friction in the operation of the
automobile.
g.
List the advantages and disadvantages of
friction in driving.
h.
How are manufacturers reducing air fric­
tion?
What factors govern the starting and stopping
of the car?
a.
Explain why track men use spikes on their
shoes.
b.
Give an explanation of how friction is
necessary in starting the car in motion.
c.
Give an explanation of the part played by
friction in stopping the car.
d.
How have tire manufacturers improved
tires to give tetter traction on wet pave­
ments, in mud, and on other types of road
surfaces?
How does centrifugal force affect driving on
curves?
a.
Have a student demonstrate centrifugal
force by whirling a pail of water around
at a rapid speed. Explain why water does
not spill.
b.
Look up a definition of centrifugal.
c.
Have students fide in car around a sharp
curve and report how they were affected.
d.
Have students explain how friction works
to overcome centrifugal force.
e.
How does flat, banked, and crowned curves
affect centrifugal forces?
f.
What effect does a rough road have on
rounding a curve? Same for wet, or icy
road.
g. Study the effect
of speed on curves.
h. Have students tell how speed
on curves.
i.
is regulated
Describe some accidents you have observed
where friction was overcome by centrifugal
force.
j.. Explain some sound practices for counter­
acting centrifugal force.
How does the laws of nature affect the chang­
ing speed?
a.
Have students study and explain the
factors involved in changing the speed
of the car. See description and tables,
pages 58-61, Sound Driving Practices.
b.
Describe road conditions which affect the
changing speed of a car.
103
c.
7.
Watch a demonstration on stopping cars at
various rates of speed,
How does down hill stopping differ from stop­
ping on the level?
a.
Have students define force of gravity.
b.
Describe how this force enters into down
hiil stopping.
c. Explain the reasons for not coasting down
hill.
d. What steps are taken to reduce the
hazards of hill driving in your state?
e. Students should give reasons for differ­
ences in stopping on the level and on the
downgrade.
8.
How do nature’s laws apply to the driver?
a. Study the laws of reflex action and dis­
cuss their effect on drivers.
b. Explain how we can overcome or resist
reflex actions that tend to endanger us
as drivers.
c. Let students discuss’accidents they have
observed, which were caused by drivers
violating the laws of nature.
E.
Driving on the open highway.
1.
What are the problems of driving on the open
highway?
a.
’b.
Read Chapter V, Sound Driving Practices.
Use Discussion Topics and Projects, pages
78-80.
c. Read Youth at the Wheel, pages 52-134.
d.
2.
Read Man and the Motor Car, pages 127-96.
What are the three keys of safe driving on
the straight road?
a.
Discuss the three major keys to sound
driving: alertness, consideration for
others, and wise choice of speed. Of
what value are they on the open highway?
•b;’ Study accident statistics and determine
the per cent of accidents occurring on
the open highway.
e.' Give reasons why more fatal accidents oc­
cur on straight roads than elsewhere.
d.
Explain how rules of the road apply to
driving on the open highway.
e.
List the violations that cause most of
the highway accidents.
f.
Have students divided into groups to ob­
serve how drivers react to the open-high­
way.. Report findings and discuss.
What driving problems are faced in driving on
curves?
a.
Have students list driving problems faced
by drivers on curves.
b.
Discuss the difference in driving around
a flat curve and a banked curve.
c.
From accident statistics try to determine
what causes accidents on curves.
d.
Explain how the above accidents might
have been prevented.
e.
What is meant by easing into a curve?
f.
Explain the forces which tend to throw
the car out of control on a curve.
g.
How have curves changed in recent years?
h.
Draw and explain the marking used in your
state to indicate curves.
i.
State the correct procedure for driving
on a curve.
What are the driving hazards in going over a
hill?
a.
Have students list the sound practices of
driving on hills.
b.
List unsound practices of driving on
hills.
c.
What has been done by the state to make
hill driving safer?
d.
Explain the danger of topping a hill at a
high rate of speed.
e.
Have students explain how to prevent stalL
ing on up grade.
f.
Why is coasting prohibited in many hilly
states?
g.- Explain the correct procedure in driving
over hills.
What problems of driving are present where
other drivers are to be considered?
a.
Give reasons why a driver must make allow­
ances for other drivers on the road.
b.
What factors determine how closely a
driver should follow another car?
c.
What hazards are caused by fast drivers
and slow drivers?
d.
List and discuss the things a driver must
consider in following another car.
e.
Some states have laws controlling dis­
tances between vehicles on the highway.
Have students report on them.
f.
List the hazards present-in overtaking
and passing another car.
g.
State the conditions where overtaking and
passing is prohibited.
h.
Describe the proper method of overtaking
and passing another car.
i.
Explain three problems that may be pres­
ent in meeting on-coming cars.
j.
Explain the best driving practices for
meeting on-coming cars.
k.
What additional precautions should be
taken at night?
1.
If your engine fails, or a tire blows out,
where should you stop with reference to
h ighway? Explain.
m.
When it is necessary to stop at night,
what precautions should be taken?
n.
What engineering improvements seem neces­
sary to safeguard parking on the open
road?
What are the sound practices of driving with
regard to pedestrians on the open highway?
a.
Describe two types of pedestrian acci­
dents that occur to pedestrians on open
roads.
b.
List the improper conduct of pedestrians
on the highway.
c.
Explain how the pedestrian can protect
himself on the highways both day and
night.
d.
Give ways in which the driver can protect
the pedestrian.
What are sound driving practices when ap­
proaching a grade crossing or rural inter­
section?
a.
Determine from statistics the- number of
fatalities occurring at grade crossings
and highway intersections.
b.
Have students observe grade crossings in
the community and report how the driver
is protected.
107
F.
o.
State some sound practices for drivers
approaching grade crossings.
d.
Same as above for rural intersections.
e.
Describe -the methods used by highway
engineers to make intersections and grade
crossings safer.
Driving in accordance with conditions.
1.
2.
How can the driver drive in -accordance with
varying conditions met on the highway?
a.
Read Chapter VT, Sound Driving Practices.
h.
Use Discussion Topics and Projects, pages
93-95.
How does surface of roads affect driving?
a.
Have class study the kinds of road surfac­
ing material on rural roads. What kinds
are apt to be.slippery when wet?
b.
Explain the effect of bumps on rolling
objects. Use a basket ball to demonstrate.
c.
List the hazards of loose gravel in driv­
ing.
d.
How does loose sand on the highway affect
driving?
e.
Have class discuss the proper handling of
the car on different kinds of highways
under all types of weather conditions.
f . Have students rate the different highway
surfaces for safety.
3.
How does weather affect safe driving?
a.
From statistical reports prepare a list
of driving hazards attributed to weather
conditions.
b.
List mechanical devices which aid in over­
coming dangerous weather conditions.
c.
List precautions to be taken when driving
in fog, rain,’ snow, and dust.
d.
List sound driving practices for one
driving in bad weather.
What are the problems of night driving?
a.
From statistical reports determine the
number of fatal accidents occurring
during night.
b.
List objects which may be' struck when
driving at night in the country.
c.
Describe the difference between the range
of vision during the day and night.
d.
Tell why a person with limited vision
should not drive at night.
e.
Explain what is meant by "overdriving
their headlights." Why is this a cause
of accidents?
f . Make a list of sound driving practices
for night driving.
g.
Describe the effect of glare on drivers.
How can it be overcome?
h*
Explain why "speed should always go ‘down
with the sun."
i.
How can a driver modify his day driving
practices to fit night driving?
j.
Discuss the problems presented to the
driver by pedestrians in dark clothes.
How does the condition of the car affeet.onefs
driving?
a.
List and discuss the way faulty parts of
the car may contribute to hazards.
b.
Have students interview a mechanic on the
parts of the car which need a regular
che ckup.
109
6.
G-.
c.
From statistical reports determine the
number of accidents caused by faulty con­
dition of car.
d.
Study the laws of your state which govern
car equipment.
How can the driver determine his own ability
to drive?
a.
Explain how a driver can determine his
ability to drive.
b.
Show how one adverse condition may give
a little difficulty, but a combination of
many may prove' serious.
c.
Explain how certain adverse conditions
affect stopping distance. See Figure 55,
page 90, Sound Driving Fractices.
d.
List factors v\foich reduce sight distances.
See Figure 56, page 93, Sound Driving
Fractices.
e.
Have students prepare a list of sound
driving practices for adverse conditions.
Unsound driving practices.
1.
■2.
What can be done about unsound practices?
a.
Read Chapter VII, Sound Driving Fractices.
b.
Use Discussion Topics and Projects, pages
106-8.
How do unsound practices cause accidents?
a.
From statistical reports on accidents
determine the unsound practices which
■ caused them.
b.
Interview a highway patrolman on recent
accidents caused by unsound driving prac­
tices. Report to class.
c.
Explain how the above accidents might
have been prevented.
110
3.
d.
What is your state doing to eliminate
drivers with unsound driving practices
from the highway?
e.
Have each student make a self analysis,
showing individual weakness that might
hinder sound driving practices.
What is meant by learning the ncostly way*?
a." Interview an insurance adjustor and.find
out the cost of accidents.
4.
5.
b.
Investigate a recent accident and find
out the cost under the following headings.
Car repair, hospital and doctor bills,
loss of time by operator and passengers,
and other costs.
c.
If yourwere in an accident why should you
analyze carefully? How would you do it?
d.
Explain why accident experience is an
expensive teacher.
How can others be influenced to drive safely? ,
a.
G-ive examples of how one person can in­
fluence another.
b.
How can girls influence poor drivers to
be more careful?
c.
Explain the attitude you should take
toward the driver who follows unsound
driving practices.
d.
List some ways that passengers might be
to blame for a driver’s unsound practices.
e.
Make a list of ways we can help drivers
to correct bad driving practices.
7/hat can be done to make the public conscious
of unsound practices which should be stamped
out?
a.
List the ways an individual can aid in
stamping out unsound driving practices.
b.
Study your state traffic code.
Is the
■111
meaning of the laws clear?
of clarifying them.
Suggest ways
c. What are the city police and state high­
way patrolmen doing to bring about sound­
er driving practices?
6.
d.
Investigate the method of recording acci­
dents in your community.
e.
List the items that should be covered in
an accident report.
f.
Suggest ways that accident reports might
be used by police and safety engineers to
reduce hazards.
g.
How can public opinion be used to curb bad
driving practices?
h.
Devise some methods that might be used to
make the public conscious of bad driving
practices.
How is it possible to reduce the number of
accidents?
a. Discuss how proper cooperation by every­
one will aid in reducing accident toll.
b.
Study reports dealing with states and com­
munities where a marked reduction of acci­
dents is shown. Explain how these were
brought about.
c. How can drivers aid in reducing the traf­
fic accident toll?
d. Discuss the part of good laws in reducing
accidents. Do the same for sound educa­
tion, proper public opinion, good traffic
engineering, and sound enforcement.
H.
How can the sound driving practices learned in
this unit be summarized?
a.
Prepare a checklist of all the sound driv­
ing practices learned in this unit.
b. Have students mak:e a series of posters
112
illustrating the most important sound
'driving practice. These posters are to
serve as a review of the unit. Display
them on school bulletin hoard or in down- .
town windows.
c . •Construct diagrams and models of some of
the most dangerous traffic situations in
your community.
XIX.
d.
Have students demonstrate, with model
automobiles on a table, the various sound
practices learned in the unit.
e.
Have students prepare a program on ob­
servance of sound driving practices for
their community. Have them go as far as
they can in putting program into opera­
tion.
f.
Have students prepare programs or talks
for presentation to the school or civic
clubs on sound practices in driving.
Evaluation.
A.
Are pupils able to diagnose properly accidents of
their community, or case study of accidents, that
are violations of sound driving practices? Can
they determine who is liable in each case?
B.
Do the pupils recognize violations of the six
basic practices when diagnosing the cause of high­
way accidents concerning which they have the
necessary facts?
C.
Do the pupils show evidence of developing the
proper social attitudes toward their responsibili­
ty for helping to reduce highway accidents?
D.
Do pupils show evidence of having a thorough under­
standing of the local and state traffic regula­
tions?
E.
Can each student illustrate and explain the part
friction plays in the control of the car?
F.
Can each student explain the natural lav/s involved
in motor car operation and how they operate in
various driving situations?
113
G.
Does each student show evidence of forming a
satisfactory basis for judgment concerning what
to expect from the car?
H‘.
Do students show attitudes of respect for traffic
laws?
X.
Do students show by their discussion of problems
a satisfactory appreciation for adapting their
driving in accordance with.varying driving conditions?
J.
Do students understand the basic physical laws of
nature as applied to driving and the result of
their violation?
K.
Do students have a thorough understanding of the
necessity for traffic regulation?
L.
Do the students show by their attitudes in class
that they are desirous of helping others to fol­
low driving sound practices?
M.
Does each student show evidence of satisfactory
knowledge concerning adverse driving conditions
and how to compensate for them?
N.
Can each student make a satisfactory score on a
comprehensive objective test over items covered
in this unit?
0.
Do students critically analyze trafficsituations
of the community at all times?
P.
Are the students in support of a uniform code of
traffic regulations for the United States?
Q,. Do students show evidence of appreciation of the
rights of others on the streets and highways?
IT.
References.
A.
Required.
1:. -Sound Driving Practices, Sportsmanlike Driving
Series, American Automobile Association,
Washington, D. C.
Man and the Motor Car, A. W. Whitney, National
Conservation Bureau, New York, pp. 115-49.
114
3.
B.
Local and State Traffic Regulations,
Supplementary,
1.
Youth at the Wheel, J*ohn J*. Eloherty. Lippincott Co., Philadelphia, pp. 91-102; 114-45.
Safety for Myself and Others, George L. Bush
and others, .American Book Company, Chicago,
pp. 779-815.
C.
3.
A Guide to Highway Safety, Public Safety De­
partment, Automobile Club of Southern Cali­
fornia, Los Angeles.
4.
Automobile Safety, Priscilla R. Marble and I.
Duane Wilson, American Book Company, Chicago,
pp. 101-53.
5.
How to Reduce Traffic Nerves, Traffic Clinic,
Union Oil Company of California, Los Angeles.
6.
We Drivers, General Motors Corporation,
Detroit, Michigan.
?•
Calling All Drivers, Metropolitan Life Insur­
ance Company, New York City.
8.
Stop Carelessness-Prevent Accidents, Ralph A.
Hayne~ International Harvester Company,
Chicago, pp. 69-73.
Teachers’ aids.
Teacher’s Manual for Man and the Motor Car,
H. I. Stack, National Conservation Bureau,
New York City.
Accident Facts, (Current Edition), National
Safety Council, Chicago.
3.
Annual Statistical Report, Department of Pub­
lic Safety, your state.
4*
Model Traffic Ordinances, Bureau of Public
Roads, United States Department of Agriculture,
Washington, D. C.
5 • Uniform Act Regulating Traffic on Highways,
Bureau of Public Roads, Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.
115
6.
Teaching Traffic Safety, Safety Committee,
Traffic of County Superintendent of Schools,
Los Angeles.
7.
Manual on Traffic Safety for California
Secondary Schools, State■Department of-Educa­
tion, Sacramento, California,.
CHAPTER VII
UNIT IV
WHAT ARE SOCIETY’S RESPONSIBILITIES IN IMPROVING
TRAFFIC CONDITIONS?
I.
II.
Objectives.
A.
To have the students realize the ways in which
the automobile has changed the manner of living
for a large part of our people.
B.
To have the students understand the improvements
that have been made in automobiles to make better
and safer cars.
C.
To develop an appreciation of the engineering
problems solved in making modern highways and
streets safe and efficient.
D.
To develop an appreciative respect for traffic
regulations.
E.
To develop an appreciation for the necessity of
social control of traffic through legislation,
enforcement, and observance.
F.
To give the students an understanding of the im­
portance of education in solving problems of
automobile traffic.
G.
To enable the students to realize the part they
can- play-in reducing traffic hazards.
Problems and pupil activities.
A.
The changes in mode of living brought about by
the automobile.
1.
What changes in mode of living have been
brought about by the automobile?
a.
Read Chapter I, Society’s Responsibilities.
b.
Use Discussion Topics and Projects, pages
13-15.
117
2.
o.
Read Man and the Motor Car.
d.
Read Youth at the Wheel.
How is the automobile used for both business
and pleasure?
. a.
3.
4.
5.
List the ways that the automobile is used
for pleasure.
b.
Explain how the automobile is used in
business.
o.
Describe the advantages of using the auto­
mobile for pleasure and business. The
disadvantages.
d.
Show how it is now possible for a person
to live in the country and work in the
city.
How has the automobile affected city dwellers?
a.
Give examples of how the city dweller
uses his automobile.
b.
List the advantages and disadvantages the
automobile has given the city dweller.
c.
Discuss the need for parks and play grounds
due to automobile traffic.
How has the country dweller been affected by
the use of the automobile?
a.
Give examples of how farm life has changed
since the advent of the automobile.
b.
How has the automobile aided in improving
rural education?
c.
Discuss the effect of the automobile on
rura1 communi t ies .
d.
How has the automobile aided the farmer
in marketing his produce?
How has the use of motor busses changed the
mode of travel?
118
6.
7.
8.
a.
Have students report on the number of bus
companies operating in the state. The
number of passengers riding busses.
b.
Describe some services performed by the
busses other than carrying passengers.
c.
Discuss advantages of bus travel over
other means of transportation.
How does the truck change transportation
methods?
a.
Discuss the.advantages of truck trans­
portation over railroads.
b.
Report to class on the number of business
firms in your community using trucks for
delivery.
c.
Interview a truck line operator on the
area served by his line.
d.
Explain how trucks have brought the farm
and markets closer together.
How has the automobile affected industry?
a.
List the new jobs and industries brought
about by the manufacture of the automo­
bile.
b.
Explain how good roads are the result of
the demand by automobile users.
c.
Have students list the materials used in
the manufacture of the automobile. Where
do the materials come from?
What has been the effect of the automobile
on crime?
a.
What crimes have increased as the result
of automobiles? Decreased?
b.
Discuss the use of the automobile in com­
mitting crimes.
c.
Suggest some methods of reducing crimes
attributed to the automobile.
119
9.
10.
What protective services does the automobile
offer to the people?
a.
Discuss the use of automobiles in appre­
hending criminals.
b.
State how police protection has been ex­
tended by the use of the automobile.
c.
"Visit a fire station and find out how
motor equipment aids in protecting homes.
d.
Discuss how motor equipment has increased
the mobility of the fighting forces.
e.
Describe the services rendered by motor
ambulances.
How has the automobile increased the number
of accidents in America?
a.
Study accident statistics from 1920 to
the present and show by graphs how acci­
dents have increased.
b.
Give an estimated cost of automobile
accidents.
c. Have class suggest methods of reducing
traffic accidents.
B.
The automobile of yesterday and today.
a.
Read Chapter II, Society1s Responsibili­
ties .
b.
Use Discussion Topics and Projects, pages
27-28.
c. Read Man and the Motor Car.
1.
What were the European beginnings of the
automobile?
a.
Read and report on the development of
self-propelled vehicles in Europe.
b.
What was the source of power in early
vehicles?
c.
Describe some of the early European vehi­
cles.
Who were, the pioneers of the automobile in­
dustry in America?
a.
’b.
Study the history of the automobile in
America. List the names of the pioneers
and tell how they got started.
Report on the number of early manufac­
turers who are still doing business.
c. List the cars which carry the names of
. the pioneers.
How were the first automobiles produced?
Y/ere they reliable?
a.
Discuss early automobile factories.
b.
Have students report on how the parts of
early cars were made.
c. Interview some older person on his ex­
periences with the early models of auto­
mobiles.
d.
Pretend you were driving one of the early
cars and write a description of a trip.
How have production methods been improved?
a.
Discuss the growth of the automobile
industries.
b.
Compare the early methods of manufactur­
ing with present methods.
c. Compare the price: of earlier cars with
that of cars today. Give reasons for the
difference.
What improvements have been made in the
modern automobile?
a.
Visit an automobile showroom. Study im­
provements of the latest model over
earlier models of same make.
121
b.
Discuss the effect of the development of
improvements on safety, comfort, perform­
ance, and economy of the car, as given on
pages 21-24 of Society’s Responsibilities.
c.
Compare safety features of today’s cars
with those of a decade ago.
d.
Discuss the cause for the development of
our modern trucks._
• e.
List some of the types of trucks now in
use.
6 . How has the development of crude oil sources
and modern refining methods extended the use
of automobiles?
C.
a.
Read the story of the first oilwell. Com­
pare the method of drilling then with
present methods.
b.
Explain how the discovery of large depos­
its of oil makes it possible to supply
motoring needs.
c.
Find out from statistics the amount of
gasoline consumed each year. Make a
graph showing the amounts of gasoline
used.
d.
List the products obtained from oil refin­
ing. Name those used as fuel and lubri­
cants for automobiles.
e.
Have students report on prospecting and
drilling for oil.
f.
Visit an oil field and a refinery if
there are any in your vicinity.
g.
Visit a filling station and see different
kinds of grease, oil, and gasoline used
in servicing cars.
The highways.
a.
Read Chapter III, Society’s Responsibilities.
122
1.
2.
b.
Use Discussion Topics and Projects, pages
43-45.
c.
Read Man and the Motor Car.
d.
Read Youth at the Wheel.
What is the importance of our highways?
a.
Have students report on' roads of the
past and present.
b.
Explain how the use of the bicycle created
a demand for good roads.
c.
Give some specific reasons why we have
highways.
d.
List types of traffic on our highways.
e.
Let some students observe traffic on a
state highway and present an estimate of
the number of users.
Has the building of highways changed to meet
the needs of the users?
a.Have students trace the development
of
our highway system from the animal paths
to our present networks. How was this
necessary for progress?
3.
b.
Xn your community determine the road im­
provements being made to meet the needs.
c.
List the factors that have created demands
for good roads.
What kinds of road surfacingmaterial are on
the highways?
a.
Describe the surfacing material used in
early Roman roads.
b.
Discuss the road surfaces used before the
advent of the automobile.
c.
Give reasons why roads need good founda­
tions .
125
d.
4.
List the various types of road surfaces.
Explain how weather affects them. What
surface is hest for driving?
What improvements have been made to make the
highways safer?
a.
Discuss the value of the following high­
way improvements:
(1) Smoother surfaces
(2) Wider pavements
(3) Longer sight distances
(4) Non-skid surfaces
(5) Eliminating of crown
(6) Divided highways
(7) Other improvements such as wider
bridges, culvert head placed farther
from paved surface, guard rails; firm,
wide shoulders; and elimination of
grade crossings.
5.
b.
Considering the cost, are above improve­
ments worthwhile?
c.
Explain the advantages of banked curves.
d.
Visit and observe highway construction
if possible.
How have intersections been improved?
a.
List and describe some of the less costly
-methods of improving intersections.
b.
Describe some intersection improvements
that have.been completed recently in srour
community. How have they reduced traffic
hazards?
c.
Discuss the construction of the "roundaboutn and how traffic operates on it.
How does it reduce accidents?
124
d.
Discuss the grade separation construction
and how traffic operates on it. How does
it reduce accidents?
e.
Cite some intersection improvements de­
signed to protect pedestrians.
6 . What problems are faced by the highway
engineers in building a highway system?
7.
8.
a.
List the improvements needed in your com­
munity. Give reasons why you think they
are needed.
b.
Explain how the need for highways is de-.
termined.
c.
List and discuss the engineering steps
in the construction of the highway.
d.
Discuss the duties of a highway engineer
in building roads.
What are the sources of funds for building
and maintenance of roads?
a.
Have students find out the road improve­
ments in their community and how they
were paid for. Include all types of roads.
b.
Have the students explain how funds are
raised for the building. Compare present
method with that of 1921.
c.
Determine the cost of maintaining a strip
of highway ten miles long.
d.
Explain how states may receive Federal
aid for building highways.
e.
Find out how the roads in your state are
maintained.
f.
Explain why research in highway construc­
tion is needed.
What factors tend to bring about changes in
highway needs?
a.
Have class determine what is meant by outof-date roads.
125
9.
D.
b.
Determine from discussion whether there
are any out-of-date roads in your com­
munity.
c.
Explain what is meant by bottlenecks on
highways.
d.
Have class suggest ways of.planning
future highways to meet changing needs.
What does the future hold for this country
in the way of highways?
a.
Explain what is meant by a super-highway.
Where and when does such a highway become
necessary?
b.
Have students make a study of improvements
suggested for high speed roads. See pages
42-43, Society*s Responsibilities.
c.
What will determine the highway needs of
the future?
d.
Prepare a scrap book on the past, present,
and future of highways.
Traffic engineering.
a.
Read Chapter IV, Society*s Responsibili­
ties.
b.
Use Discussion Topics and Projects, pages
59-60.
c.
Read Man and the Motor Car.
d.
Read Youth at the Wheel.
1 .. What is the purpose of traffic engineering?
a.
Interview a traffic engineer to find out
his duties.
b.
State the basic purpose of traffic engi­
neering.
c.
List the problems of traffic engineering.
Explain how a traffic engineer solves
these problems.
d.
Explain how the traffic engineer gathers
data for planning street and highway im­
provements.
e.
Explain how the traffic engineer plans
accident remedies.
What improvements in traffic handling have
been devised by the traffic engineer?
a.
Make a survey of traffic signs in your
community. Make suggestions for removal
of those you think unnecessary and for
erection of those you think necessary.
Give reasons for doing so.
b.
Study highway and street signs. What
signs are of the regulatory type? warningtype? What is their function?
c.
Explain the reasons for standardizing
highway signs.
d.
Explain the meaning of traffic lights.
Their purpose.
e.
Present sound reasons why lights are
placed where they are.
f.
Survey your city and point out any need
you find for additional traffic lights.
Give reasons for them..
g.
Explain how traffic is routed through
your city. Give reasons why this has
been done.
h.
Survey your community to find why parking
is such a problem.
i.
Present to the class some suggested
remedies of the parking problem.
j.
Explain how careless parking tends to
create a bad situation. How can it be
corrected?
k.
Give examples of how intersections have
been improved in your community.
127
3..
4.
1.
Study Figures 35 and 36, page 55,
Society1s Responsibilities. Compare
them.
m.
Explain how the traffic engineer attacks
problems of erecting signs, traffic
lights, routing of traffic, parking, and
correcting bad intersections.
What are some safeguards in street layout
in new residential areas?
a.
Have students explain why the layout of
residential sections on the rectangular
or checker board plan is unsatisfactory.
b.
Make drawings for street layout for a
residential district in your community.
See Figure 37, page 56, Society *s
Responsibilities.
c.
Suggest remedies for present traffic con­
ditions in the residential districts of
your community.
d.
Give reasons why a traffic engineer
should be consulted in laying out new
residential districts.
What are some of the results of traffic
engineering?
a.
Consult accident statistics on some bad
crossings in your community. Has the
rate been reduced as the result of traf­
fic engineering?
b.
Give examples of traffic engineering in
your community that have improved driving
and pedestrian traffic and safety.
5.- How has traffic engineering grown as a voca­
tion?
a.
b.
Report on the increased numbers of traf.fic engineers in the United States.
Where can training in traffic engineering
be studied?
128
c.
E.
Would you consider entering traffic engi­
neering as a vocation?
Traffic legislation.
1.
2.
3.
a.
Read Chapter V, Societyfs Responsibilities.
b.
Use Discussion Topics and Projects, pages
73-74.
What objectives are sought by traffic laws?
a.
Explain why it was necessary for society
to enact traffic laws.
b.
Give examples of traffic laws that guide
and control drivers and pedestrians.
c.
Give examples of traffic laws designed to
protect highway users.
d.
Give examples of traffic laws that assign
responsibilities of drivers and pedestri­
ans .
e.
Give examples of traffic laws designed to
raise revenue.
f.
Make a list of the objectives sought by
traffic laws. See page 62, Society1s
Responsibilities.
Who is responsible for traffic law enforce­
ment?
a.
Give some illustrations of various types
of law enforcement as practiced in dif­
ferent localities.
b.
Suggest reasons for the need of uniform
traffic laws for the United States.
c.
Eist city traffic ordinances that are
most frequently violated by drivers.
How do traffic laws affect and protect you?
a.
Compare the vehicle registration of your
state with those of other states.
129
4.
b.
Discuss the advantages of registration of
vehicles over no registration.
c.
Tell what is done with the money paid for
registration.
d.
Explain how registration will aid and
protect you.
e.
Explain the purpose of the drivers*
license law.
f.
State the steps to be followed in obtain­
ing a driver’s license.
g.
Compare the licensing requirements of
your-state with those of other states.
h.
Explain how stringent licensing laws will
aid in reducing accidents.
i.
List the types of offences that will
cause the revoking of the driver’s license.
j.
Check the rules of the road on page 69,
Society’s Responsibilities, and determine
how many of them are enforced in your com­
munity. How about other rules of the
road?
k.
Explain the three things that must be
done when there is an accident resulting
in an injury to anyone.
1.
Explain how both criminal and civil cases
can be brought against a driver as a re­
sult of an accident.
m.
Give reasons why the state should have a
no hitch-hiking law.
n.
Study the different types of automobile
insurance.
o.
Give arguments for and against the state
requiring that drivers carry certain
types of insurance. See your State
Vehicle Code.
Where does the Federal Government regulate
motor traffic?
130
F.
a.
Discuss the Federal Regulations regarding
interstate operation of "common carriers."
b.
How has the Federal Government taken
action against criminals who steal cars
and transport them across state borders?
c.
Tell of other Federal Regulations of the
state highways. Do you think there should
be more control? Explain.
Traffic law enforcement.
1.
2.
a.
Read Chapter VI, Society* s Responsibili­
ties .
b.
Use Discussion Topics and Projects, pages
87-89.'
Why is observance of traffic laws more desira­
ble than enforcement?
a.
Interview your police chief on the diffi­
culty of forcing people to obey traffic
laws. Learn how many officers would be
needed.
b.
Explain why it is better to obey the traf­
fic laws of your own free will.
c.
Have students observe traffic on city
streets and make a list of violations.
d.
Give reasons why traffic laws should be
obeyed.
e.
Analyze recent accidents of your communi­
ty; list the violations involved in them.
f.
Have students suggest ways of improving
observance of traffic laws.
g.
Suggest ways of improving enforcement.
What is the purpose of enforcement? ■
a.
Interview a traffic officer on his duties
in enforcement.
b.
Determine the types of violations causing
most arrests in your community.
131
c.- What is meant by selective enforcement?
d.
3*
4.
5.
How does enforcement reduce accidents?
How can enforcement be improved?
a.
List some faults of traffic enforcement. •
b.
Explain what is meant by ticket fixing.
c.
Give reasons why adequate personnel is 1
necessary for efficient' enforcement.
d.
Discuss the need for training of our en­
forcement officers.
e.
Give reasons why traffic officers need
supervision.
f.
List reasons why officers need proper
equipment to enforce laws.
g.
Explain why good enforcement needs organ­
ized public support.
What results can be expected from good ob­
servance and efficient enforcement?
a.
Write an article on the results of good
enforcement.
b.
Discuss how good enforcement and observ­
ance can increase motoring pleasure and
reduce accidents.
What do you think of enforcement work as a
vocation?
a. * Interview a traffic officer on the educa­
tional requirements for his work.
G.
b.
Find out where you can get training for
the vocation of traffic officer.
c.
Report oh the vocational opportunities in
the field of traffic law enforcement.
Influencing traffic behavior.
1.
What are some methods of influencing traffic
behavior?
a.
Read Chapter VII, Societyfs Responsibili­
ties .
/
b.
Use Discussion Topics and Projects, pages
103-4.
What are the objectives of traffic education?
a.
List the objectives of traffic education.
b. Explain how one can be informed of traf•fic rules and regulations.
Why is this
important?
c.
Suggest methods of informing the public
on the seriousness of the accident prob­
lem.
d. Suggest methods of arousing
do something about reducing
accidents.
the public to
the number of
How are the Public schools aiding in traffic
education?
a.
Explain how pre-school age children can
be taught.to keep out of the roadway.
b.
List the accident situations in which
pre-school children may be involved.
c.
How can older children aid in influencing
the behavior of pre-school children?
d.
Find out how safety is taught in your
grade schools.
e.
From statistics determine how safety edu­
cation has decreased the number of acci­
dents among grade school students.
f.
Discuss the value of school safety
patrol's.
g.
Suggest some needed safety training for
high school students.
h.
Determine from accident reports the safe­
ty record of high school students.
133
i. Explain how high school students can in­
fluence the behavior of younger children,
4.
5.
What means are used in training adults?
a.
List and discuss ways and means of educat­
ing adults.
b.
Have students report on how operators of
bus and truck lines educate their drivers.
c.
Describe the operation of a traffic vio­
lators 1 school. State the value of such
a school.
d.
What agencies should diagnose drivers’
faults and suggest remedies?
How can the masses be educated in traffic
safety?
a. Collect newspaper editorials and articles
on safety.
b. How do traffic safety slogans affect you?
c. Discuss the value of safety programs on
the radio.
d. List and discuss the methods being used
in your community to educate the public.
H.
First aid to injured a responsibility.
1.
What should the driver know about first aid
in automobile accidents?
a. Read First Aid Handbook, pages 3-16.
b. State the precautions that should be
taken by a person rendering first aid.
c. Describe the method of treating a patient
for shock.
d. Demonstrate the methods for stopping
arterial and veinous bleeding on various
parts of the body.
e.
Describe care to be given to small wounds.
154
I.
III.
f.
What precautions should be taken in
rendering first aid to burns?
g.
In rendering first aid for broken bones,
what precautions must be taken in handling
the injured person?
h.
Demonstrate methods of splinting for
broken bones.
How can we summarize the points learned in this
unit?
a.
Write an essay on the responsibility of
society in reducing accidents.
b.
Make a series of posters showing important
things that have been treated in this unit.
c.
Prepare talks on things covered in this
unit for presentation before civic clubs
or over local radio stations.
Evaluation.
A.
Do all members of the class have a' full apprecia­
tion of the changes that the automobile has
brought about in society?
B.
Do the pupils have a thorough understanding of
how the automobile has developed? Do they.realize
the effect of the development on society?
C.
Do all the students have a satisfactory under­
standing of the development of the highway system?
D.
Do all the students have an understanding of the
construction, methods of financing, and needed
improvements of the highway system?
E.
Do all students have a sound knowledge pf the ob­
jectives of traffic legislation?
F.
Do all students realize the importance of law ob­
servance and law enforcement in' regard to traffic
safety?
G-.
Do pupils have the proper attitude toward traffic
laws and enforcement?
155
XY.
H".
Are the duties of the traffic engineer understood
by all the class?
X.
Do the students realize the importance of a sound
educational program in traffic safety?
J.
Do the students understand the important part
they can play in making the streets and highways
safer?
K.
Are all members of the class able to make a satis­
factory score on an objective test over the work
covered in this unit?
References.
A.
Required.
1*
Society^ Responsibilities, Sportsmanlike
Driving Series. American Automobile Associa­
tion, Washington, D. C.
2.
Man,and the Motor Gar, A. W. Whitney, National
Conservation Bureau, New York. . Chapter VI.
3.
Youth at the Wheel, John J. Floherty. J. B.
Lippinco.tt Co., Philadelphia, pp. 91-102.
First Aid Handbook, Johnson and Johnson, Chi­
cago, pp. 3-16.
B.
Supplementary.
Automobile Safety, Marble and Wilson, Ameri­
can Book Company, Chicago. Fp. 83-99.
2.
Transportation Progress, Arthur Pond, General
Motors Corporation, Detroit. P? 53.
Putting Progress Through Its Paces, General
Motors Corporation, Detroit. F. 32.
4.
Engineering for Traffic Safety, National Safe­
ty Counci l7 Chicago. P. 32.
5.
Enforcement for Traffic Safety, National Safety Council, Chicago. P. 47.
Education, the Public for Traffic Safety,
National Safety Council, Chicago. P. 32.
136
C.
Teachers Aids.
1.
Accident Facts for 1940, National Safety
Council, Chicago.
.2.
Man and the Motor Car, Teacher’s Manual.
H. J*. Stack, National Conservation Bureau.
3.
Manual on Traffic Safety for California
Secondary Schools, State Department of
Education, Sacramento.
Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices,
The American Association of State Highway
Officials, Washington, D. C.
5.
Community Safety, National Safety Council,
Chicago.
CHAPTER VIII
UNIT V
HOW CAN THE BEGINNER LEARN TO OPERATE A CAR
EFFICIENTLY?
1.
II.
Objectives.
A.
To acquaint the pupil with thenecessity for
proper training in learning to drive.
B.
To give an understanding of the technical aspects
of the working parts of the automobile essential
to sound driving and economy of operation.
C.
To understand the procedures, habits, and skills
connected with the efficient operation of the
car.
D.
To develop a pride in the proper care and main­
tenance of an automobile.
Problems and pupil activities.
A.
Driving preparation.
1.
2.
a.
Read Chapter I, How to Drive.
b.
Use Discussion Topics and Projects, pages
6-7.
c.
Read Man and the Motor Car.
By what methods were the majority of the
older drivers trained to drive? a'.
Each student should interview a driver to
find out how he learned to drive.
b.
Explain the faults in above methods of
learning.
By what methods do drivers learn now?'
a.
Explain the four ways of learning given
in text.
138
b.
Give reasons why one cannot learn to
drive by reading books, or by being told
how.
c.
List the faults of the "trial and error
method.in learning.”
d.
Give reasons why watching others and try­
ing to imitate thdr procedure is a poor
way to learn.
, .
'3.
4.
B.
What are the disadvantages of learning to
drive before learning the sound driving prac­
tices, laws, et cetera?
a.
List some of the hazards of driving be­
fore learning the rules of the road.
b.
Show how skill in handling controls.and
an understanding of the car are necessary
in safe driving.
c.
Have a basketball player describe the
disadvantages a player would encounter
without knowing the fundamentals.
Why is expert guidance important in learning
to drive?’
a.
Explain why athlete teams have coaches.
b.
Give reasons why a poorly taught driver
is harder to train than one with no ex­
perience .
c.
List the persons you consider best quali­
fied to teach you to drive. Tell why.
The driver’s compartment.
1.
a.
Read Chapter II, How to Drive.
b.
Use Discussion Topics and Projects, pages
21 -2 2 .
What should the driver know about the gauges
of the driver’s compartment?
a.
Have students take turns in sitting in the
driver’s compartment and locating the
gasoline gauge, water temperature gauge,
oil pressure gauge, the ammeter, and the
speedometer.
b.
Explain how to read each gauge and tell
its purpose.
c.
Give reasons why a thorough knowledge of
each gauge is important;
d.
Do the gauges always work?
What are the safety aids found in the driver’s
compartment?
a.
Have each student learn the location of
the light switch and how to operate it for
various lighting needs in driving or park­
ing.
b.
Describe how the rear-view mirror should
be adjusted. What is its purpose?
c.
Explain the purpose and control of the
windshield wiper.
d.
Explain how to adjust the sun visors.
State their purpose.
e.
What is the purpose and location of the
windshield defroster? How does it
operate?
f.
What is the location and purpose of the
horn button?
What should the driver know about the start­
ing devices of the car?
a.
Locate the ignition switch. Explain its
purpose and tell how to turn it on.
b.
Locate the starter switch. What is its
purpose and how do you use it?.
c.
What must be done.before stepping on the
starter switch?
d.
Locate the hand throttle and the choke.
Explain the purpose of each.
4.
What are the devices for controlling the car?
a.
Explain how to adjust the driver’s seat
so as to reach all control devices.
b.
Sit at the steering wheel. Explain its
purpose and how the wheels turn when
steering wheel is turned right or left#
c.
What is the purpose of the clutch? Ex­
plain how it is operated.
(note) Some
new models have no clutches.
d.
Locate and explain the purpose of the
accelerator#
e.
Locate and explain the purpose and opera­
tion of the foot brake.
f . Locate and state the purpose of. the hand
brake. How do you operate it?
Power plant and power transmission.
a. Read Chapter III, How to Drive.
b. Use Discussion Topics and Projects, pages
36-39.
1.
What is the function of the power plant?
a.
Look under the hood of a car.
and note the various parts.
Observe
b. Discuss the function of the power plant.
2
. What are the various parts of the power plant
and their purposes?
a.
Point out the motor block. Tell how many
cylinders it has. See Figure 16, page 24
How to Drive.
b. Explain how the pistons operate. How
many pistons does the motor have?
c. Explain the purpose of the connecting rod
How does it aid in driving the wheels?
d. Give an explanation of the crankshaft.
141
What parts of the motor are driven from
the front end of the ‘
crankshaft?
e.
What is the crank case?
pose?
What is its pur­
f.
What is the .combustion chamber?
t.akes place in it?
g.
Locate the gasoline tank. How does the
gasoline get from the tank to the carbu­
retor? What is its capacity?’
h.
Locate the fuel pump and explain its oper­
ation.
i.
Explain the purpose of the carburetor.
How does it operate? See Figure 17, page
£5, How to Drive.
j.
What is the purpose of the spark plugs?
Where do they get their electric current?
k.
State the purpose of the battery. When
does it supply current and when does it
store up the charge?
1.
Explain the operation and purpose of the
generator.
m.
Explain the purpose and operation of the
distributor.
n.
Give reasons why perfect timing is neces­
sary in the operation of the motor.
o.
Describe what takes place in the cylinder
during the intake, compression, power,
and exhaust strokes. See pages £6-27,
How to Drive.
p.
Name the parts of the water cooling sys­
tem and explain the purpose of each. See
Figure 19, page 28, How to Drive.
q.
Explain how the motor is lubricated. See
Figure 20, page 29, How to Drive. What
is the importance of the oil supply to
the motor?
What
142
5.
4.
D.
How is the power transferred from the engine
to the driving wheels?
a.
Explain the purpose of
the flywheel.
b.
Explain the purpose and operation of the
clutch. See Figure 22, page 52, How to
Drive..
c.
Explain the purpose of the transmission.
How does the gearshift lever operate to
change the combination of gears to give
the driver power or speed as he needs it.
See Figure 23, page 33, How to Drive.
d.
Explain the purpose of
thedrive shaft.
e.
Explain the purpose of
joints.
the universal
f.
Explain the purpose of the differential
gears.
What is the importance of the brakes?
a.
Explain the purpose of the brakes.
do they stop the car?
How
b.
Explain the difference in the operation
of mechanical and hydraulic brakes.
Getting the car in motion and stopping it.
1.
a.
Read Chapter IT, How to Drive.
b.
Use Discussion Topics and Projects.
What check should be made of the car before
starting?
a.
Check the radiator.
water?
Is there plenty of
b.
Check the oil- level. . Is there plenty ;of
oil in the crank case?
c.
Check the amount of gasoline in the tank.
d.
Are the tires properly inflated?
e.
Check the lights if preparing to drive at
night.
What preparations must the driver make in
getting ready to start?
a.
Adjust driver’s seat to a comfortable
position..
b.
Explain and demonstrate the proper venti­
lation of the car.
c.
Show how to adjust the rear view mirror.
d.
Explain why doors should be latched. What
courtesy should be shown to your passen­
gers?
e.
Point out each gauge/
f ... Have each student sit at the steering
wheel and, while looking straight ahead,
locate the following by feel:
(1) Ignition switch— right hand.
(2 ) Starter switch— right::foot.
(3) Clutch pedal— left foot.
(4) Gear shift— right hand.
(5) Accelerator— right foot.
(6) Foot brake— right foot.
(7) Hand brake— right or left hand.
(8 ) Switch for lights--right hand.
(9) Xight control button— left foot.
(10) Horn button— right hand.
(11) Windshield wiper control— right hand
How does one get the car started in motion?
a.
Watch demonstration by the instructor and
follow each move he makes.
b.
List the steps in starting the engine.
c.
What factors might cause the engine to
fail to start? How can they best be cor­
rected?
d.
Make drawings of the gear shift knob in
each of the four positions*
e.
Name and explain two things which must be
done, while shifting gears.
f.
List the seven steps necessary to put the
car in motion.
How do you steer the car?
a.
Demonstrate the proper position of hands
on steering wheel.
b.
Draw a diagram of how the front wheels
are turned when the steering wheel is
turned toward the left and right.
c.
Explain the method of turning right or
left in backing.
How do you shift gears?
a.
List the necessary steps in shifting from
neutral to low gear.
b.
List the steps necessary in shifting from
low to second gear.
c.
List steps necessary to shift from second
to high gear.
d.
Discuss the use of the clutch and accel­
erator in the shifting of gears.
e.
Examine some of the newer model cars and
find out how the .gear shift levers are
arranged.
How can you shift from high to second gear?
From second to low gear?
a.
List a number of instances when it may
become necessary to shift from high to
second gear.
145
7.
b.
State the necessary steps to shift from
high to second gear*
c.
Explain "double-clutching."
used?
d.
list a number of instances when it maybecome necessary to shift from second to
low gear.
e.
State the necessary steps in shifting
from second to low gear.
f.
Give reasons why the car may jump during
shifting operations.
When is it
How is the car stopped?
a. ' State the steps in stopping the car from
low gear.
b.
State the steps in stopping the car from
high gear.
c.
Explain the difference between (a) and
(b).
E.
Maneuvering the car in making turns and parking.
a..
Read Chapter T, How to Drive.
b.
Use Discussion Topics and Projects, pages
68-69.
c.
1.
2.
Read Man and the Motor Car.
How do you back the car?
a.
Draw a diagram of position of gearshift
lever when about to start backing the car.
b.
Prepare a list of directions to be follow­
ed in backing the car.
c.
State the steps to be followed in stopping
the car from reverse.
How should turning maneuvers be made?
a.
Study the operations necessary to make a
correct right turn. Be able to give them
when called upon.
146
3.
4.
F.
b.
Demonstrate hand-over-hand technique of
steering. See Figure 37, page 60, How to
Drive.
c.
Study and memorize the steps necessary in
making a left turn.
d.
Study the local regulations in regard to
turning around. Learn the rules of turn­
ing around.
e.
Explain how to turn the car.around by
using an alley or country lane.
f.
Explain how to turn the car around in the
width of the street.
What are the skillful maneuvers used in park­
ing a car?
a.
Study and find out the parking regulations
of your community.
b.
Make a chart showing the steps necessary
in parking parallel to the curb.
c.
Same as (b) for angle parking.
d.
Observe several drivers while parking
and list the mistakes they made.
What are the proper maneuvers on a grade?
a.
Explain how to park on the down grade.
On the upgrade.
b.
List the steps of starting on the up
grade.
c.
Explain what should be done when a car
stalls on the up grade.
f,Solo Driving.”
a.
Read Chapter VI, How to Drive.
b.
Use Discussion Topics and Projects, pages
83-84.
147
c.
1.
2.
Read Man and the Motor Car.
What are the more technical phases of driv­
ing?
a.
G-ive reasons why it is a pleasure to ride
with a driver who drives smoothly.
b.
hist the situations where the engine
should be allowed to do part of the brak­
ing. How does the engine do, this?
' c.
Describe how the brakes can be applied
properly.
d.
Give three examples where slipping the
clutch is advisable. When is it not
advisable?
e.
Explain the effect of high speed on
gasoline and oil consumption, brake wear,
tires, and the motor. Why is a moderate
speed more economical?
f.
Suggest other ways of keeping out of
trouble to add to the list on page 77 of
How to Drive.
g.
Describe the correct method of getting
back on the pavement after running off.
What are the causes and remedies for skid­
ding?
a.
List and discuss the cause of skidding.
b.
Explain how you would prevent skidding.
c.
If your car should skid, how would you
get out of it?
d.
Under what conditions are chains neces­
sary? Explain their value.
e.
Why is it important for a driver to
maintain self-control when his car skids?
f.
What does your city street department do
to prevent skidding?
g..
5.
What per cent of traffic accidents result
from skidding?
What may the motorist do when the rear wheels
are stuck?
a*
Under what circumstances may the rear
wheels become stuck?
b.
Describe methods a driver may use to re­
lease his car when stuck.
Giving' the car. a square deal.
1.
2.
3.
a.
Read Chapter Til, How to Drive.
b.
Use Discussion Topics and Projects, pages
105-6.
What is meant by the expression "giving the
car a square deal"?
a.
List reasons for keeping the car in good
condition.
b.
Determine from accident statistics the
number of accidents caused by defective
equipment;
c.
Observe cars on the highway and make a
list of the defects seen.
d.
Give reasons why the car should have a
regular inspection by a mechanic.
What care should be given the brakes on the
car?
a.
Explain how you can tell when brakes need
adjusting.
b.
List the factors which tend to reduce
brake efficiency.
c.
Explain how a driver can give his brakes
proper care.
How may tires be cared for so as to give maxi­
mum service and safety?
a.
What tire trouble may result from under­
inflation? Over-inflation?
b.
What are the hazards of worn tires?
o.
List the causes of excessive tire wear.
d.
What attention should be given to tires.
e.
State the steps necessary in changing a
tire.
How may lights and other safety equipment be
kept in good condition?
a.
In your state regulations, what are the
lighting requirements for automobiles?
b.
What factors tend to reduce lighting
efficiency?
c.
How can lights be kept in first class
condition?
d.
Give reasons why it is necessary for the
steering mechanism to function properly.
e.
What' steering troubles show that the
steering mechanism needs immediate atten­
tion? Where can the troubles be remedied?
f.
Give reasons why safety aids, previously
studied in this unit, should be kept in
good condition.
What should be done to keep the power plant
efficient?
a.
Explain what should be done when the
motor overheats.
b.
Describe the proper care of the cooling
system in summer. In winter.
c.
What is a good routine to follow in hav­
ing the car lubricated?
d.
How does winter lubrication differ from
summer lubrication?
150
e.
What care should he given to the electri­
cal equipment?
'f .
What special care must be given the igni­
tion system in winter?
g.
III.
List the common-sense practices which
will aid in increasing gasoline mileage.
Evaluation.
-A.
Does each student realize the importance, of ex­
pert supervision in learning to drive?
B.
Does each student have a: thorough understanding
of the location, purpose, and use of gauges,
safety aids, starting and control devices of the
car?
C.
Does each student understand how the car operates
to the extent that he is ready to begin road- work?
D.
Is each student able to locate control and start­
ing devices by touch?
E.
Has each student mastered the steps .involved in
maneuvering the car under ordinary driving condi­
tions? Are they ready to begin field instruction?
F.
Does each student understand the principles of
smooth driving, keeping out of trouble, and get­
ting out of trouble?
G.
Does each student understand the need for proper
care of the whole car?
.H . ' Does each student have a *satisfactory mechanical
knowledge to understand good driving practices?
XV.
I.
Do the students show attitudes to indicate that
they desire to.become skillful drivers?
<7*
Do the students show a mastery of all items
covered in this unit to warrant their beginning
of actual driving lessons in the field?
References.
A.
Required.
151
1.
How to Drive, Sportsmanlike Driving Series,
American Automobile Association, Washington,
D. C.
2.
Man and the Motor Car, A* W. Whitney, Nation­
al Conservation Bureau,- New York. Chapters
II, III.
F.
C.
Supplementary.
1.
Highway Safety, Marble and Wilson, American
Book Company, Chicago. Pp. 1-18 and 76-81.
2.
Youth at the Wheel, John I. Floherty, <T. B.
Lippincott Co., Philadelphia, pp. 18-64.
3.
When -the Wheels Revolvet General Motors
Corporation, Detroit. P. 20.
4.
Quit Your Skidding, B. P. Goodrich Co., Los
Angeles.
5.
Automobile Owner *s -Manual, published by all
automobile companies.
Teachers V .aids.
1.
Shop Manual, General Motors Corporation,
Detroit.
2.
Man and the Motor Car, Teacher* s Manual,
Herbert J. Stack, National Conservation Bureau, New York.
3.
Teaching Traffic Safety, Borden and Safety
Committee, Office of County Superintendent
of Schools, Los Angeles.
C H A P T E R
I X
LESSONS- FOR ROAD INSTRUCTION IN. AUTOMOBILE DRIVING
The following lessons in automobile driving were de­
veloped from the suggestions .offere'd by Professor Amos E.
Neihart and the American Automobile Association listed, in
the book, Automobile,Safety,1 and the material for driving
instruction offered in the text pamphlets Sound Driving
Practices and How to Drive published by the American Auto­
mobile Association.
The lessons were planned for the purpose of prepar­
ing the student to drive efficiently.
The development of
the proper habits, skills, and attitudes were given an im­
portant place in the instruction of the student.
The lessons for road instruction were planned to be
used after the completion of the units for classroom in­
struction when it was possible to do so.
The road instruc­
tion was intended to supplement the work in the classroom
as a laboratory for learning the practical aspects of the
course.
To give more time to driving instruction, the study
of the following was included in classroom instruction
1 Priscilla R. Marble and I. Duane Wilson, Automobile
Safety (New York: American Book Company, 1940), pp“ 71-76.
153
units.
1.
Gauges, safety aids, starting and control de­
vices .
-2.
How the automobile runs.
3.
Checking the water, oil, gasoline, tires, lights,
position at the wheel, locating the control devices.
LESSON, 1
STARTING, STEERING, AND STOPPING IN LOW GEAR
I.
Objectives of the lesson.
To acquaint the student with the necessary steps to
be followed in starting the motor, starting the car
in motion, steering, and stopping from low gear.
II.
Materials for instruction;
How to Drive, Chapter IV, parts 1, 2, 3, and 4.
45-48.
Pp.
Driver training car.
Practice street.
Automobile user’s guide for training car.
Ill. Pro cedure:
A..
Preparation;
The teacher may use any approach that is likely
to attract the.interest of the students. To be
successful, the approach must be based oh the
experience and environment of the students.
As a suggested approach to the lesson; The
teacher may select some sport and explain how
certain players become stars because of skills
developed through practicing of fundamentals,
while other players remain in the dub class
because they lack skill. Skill in driving
154
requires constant practice of fundamentals and. *
concentration on doing the job as well as the
best •
B.
Presentation:
The steps in the lesson should be explained by
the teacher in the order that they will be used,
with reasons for each step. Teacher should go
through the motions without actually starting the
car.
The teacher should then demonstrate the steps in
the lesson in the order, by starting the car and
stopping it in low gear.
Review each student on preceding lesson before
starting on new material.
The following is an outline for the guidance of
the teacher. It gives the material in the order
which it is to be presented and suggests the
points to be covered in the presentation. Any
questiorE listed below are not to be asked of the
students, but are to be answered by the teacher
in the presentation.
Review.
(a.) The routine to be followed in checking the
car before starting to drive such as water,
oil, gasoline, tires, and lights.
(b) The routine to be followed by the driver in
checking himself, namely, doors, ventilation,
rear view mirror, seating, gauges, starting
and control devices.
The steps in starting the motor.
1.
Press the clutch pedal down with left foot
to disconnect the engine from the rest of the
car. Hold it down firmly during next step.
2.
Check the gear-shift lever by jiggling it to
see that gears are in neutral. If in neutral
the lever can be moved freely from side to
side.
3.
Turn on ignition switch.
What may happen if
155
switch is left on when the motor is not run­
ning?
4.
Push the starter pedal down firmly.
5.
Release starter pedal at once when engine
starts to run. Why should the foot be kept
off the starter pedal when the engine is
running?
Now that the engine is running, you are ready to
start the car in low gear.
Steps in starting the car in low gear.
1.
Press clutch pedal all the way to the floor.
Why is this necessary?
2.
Tilt gear-shift lever to the left, and then
pull it back toward you into low gear.
Refer to Figure 51 (a) How to Drive.
3.
Release the hand brake lever, pushing it as
far forward as possible. Keep your left foot
pressed tightly against the clutch pedal all
the time.
4.
Press lightly on the accelerator pedal with
the right foot. Why must the engine be
speeded up?
5.
Slowly allow the clutch to come up until it
reaches the friction point, or the place
where you hear or feel it taking hold. Then
hesitate an instant and gradually let it up
farther. At the same time press gradually
on the accelerator pedal with the right foot
so that the engine will get enough gas to
have power to start the car in motion and
increase momentum. What is wrong if the car
jumps and jerks when you are releasing the
clutch?
6
. 'Increase the pressure on the accelerator
pedal to gain momentum. Now you have the
car moving in low or first gear, and you face
the problem of steering..
156
Steering.
1*
Indicate the proper position of hands on
steering wheel. Left hand at ten o ’clock and
right at four o ’clock position.
2.
Keep your eyes on the road while using pedals
and levers.
3.
Observe that the car turns in the same direc­
tion that you turn the wheel'.
4.
Refrain from making sudden turns.
make steering a smooth operation.
5.
Drive on the right side of the road. Explain
why this is a good habit to form at the be­
ginning. You have the car moving along in
first or low gear, and you want to stop the
car. That is the next step.
Learn to
Steps in stopping the car from low gear.
1.
Press the clutch pedal down with your left
foot, disengaging the clutch.
2.
Take your right foot off the accelerator, cut­
ting off the feed of gas to the engine. Learn
to do this at just about the same time that
- you are pressing down on the clutch pedal.
Why is the clutch"pressed down before taking
your foot off the accelerator?
3.
Move your right foot to the brake pedal and
press on it slowly and with a smooth, gradual
increase until the car has almost come to a
full stop. . Then release brake pressure a
little for a smooth stopping.
4.
Shift the-gears to neutral following dotted
line shown-in Figure 31 (bj, page 46, How to
Drive. Keep the gear-shift lever in neutral
position until you are ready to start again.
Yi/hy is it important to leave the gear-shift
lever in neutral while the car is stopped for
traffic lights, stop signs, and where there
are pedestrians?
5.
Take your left foot off the clutch pedal.
157
6
C.
.
Set the hand brake.
Application.
The teacher should be in such a position at all
times that he can make immediate use of dual con­
trols. The teacher should be careful to note
that the student positively puts the gear-shift
lever in neutral before taking his foot off the
clutch pedal in making a stop.
Have the student sit behind.the wheel and enumer­
ate the steps in the presentation. If any steps
are omitted or stated incorrectly, they should be
corrected before the student is allowed to con­
tinue. Then have the student repeat the steps
in the presentation, by starting the engine,starting the car in low gear, steering, and stop­
ping from low gear.
D.
Testing.
During the course of the following two days les­
sons when the teacher is confident that each
student has completely learned the steps in this
lesson, the following check list may be used while
students are giving a verbal explanation and
demons tration of the activities included in this
list.
Check list for use in lessons
( ) i.
(
) 2.
1
,
2
, and
3
.
Press clutch pedal to floor.
Gear-shift in neutral.
( ) 3.
Turn on ignition.
( ) 4.
Push down on starter pedal.
(- ) 5.
Release starter pedal when engine starts.
Starting in low gear.
( ) I-
Presses clutch to floor.
( )
Gear-shift in low.
2
.
( ) 3.
Release hand brake.
158
(
) 4. Look forward.
(
) 5. Proper pressure of foot onaccelerator.
(
) 6 . Clutch released through friction point
for a smooth start.'
Steering.
(
) 1. Hand position on wheel.
(
) 2. Eyes forward on road.
(
) 5. Shifts gears by feel.
{
) 4. Stays on right side of street.
Stopping from low gear.
IV.
(
) 1. Clutch to floor.
(
) 2. Right foot off accelerator after clutch
is disengaged.
{
) 3. Right foot to brake for stopping.
(
) 4. Smooth stop by releasing pressure
brake just before stopping.
(
) 5. Gear-shift to neutral.
{
) 6 . Keeps eyes forward until car is stopped.
(
) 7. Left foot off clutch.
(
) 8 . Set hand brake.
on
Assignment.
1.
Follow-up.
Review parts 1, 2, 3, and 4, pages 45-48 in
How to Drive.
Learn the
steps in starting motor.
Learn the
stepsin starting in low.
Learn the
stepsin stopping car from low.
159
2.
Advance.
Teacher should explain that there is no ad­
vance hook work to be studied, but that .
practice in starting the motor, starting and
stopping the car in low will be continued.
LESSOR 2
STARTING, STEERING, AND STOPPING IN LOW GEAR
X.
Objectives of lesson.
To develop added skill in starting the motor, start­
ing the car in low, steering, stopping from low gear.
II.
Materials of instruction:
Same as lesson 1.
III.
Procedure:
A.
Preparation:
The class will review the steps of the preceding
lesson and continue practice of the skills.
B.
Presentation.
Today as each student takes his turn at the wheel
signs of improvement should be seen over the prac­
tice of yesterday. Steps in their correct order
must be carefully followed in order to have more
smooth starts and stops, and eyes must be kept on
the road while shifting gears.
C.
Application:
Each student should take his turn at the wheel
and continue developing the proper habits and
skills in starting the motor, starting the car in
low, and stopping.
D. ■ Testing:
The teacher should begin using the check list at
any time during this or the next lesson.
160
IT.
Assignment:
1.
Follow-up.
The teacher may suggest that students use the
family car and practice going throughtthe mo­
tions of starting the motor, starting in low
gear, and stopping from low gear. The stu­
dents.must be warned that they are not to
move the car under any circumstances.
2.
Advance:
The students will continue practice in driv­
ing practice car.
LESSON 3
STARTING, STEERING, AND STOPPING IN LOW GEAR
I.
Objectives of lesson:
To develop to perfection thetechniques ofstarting
the motor, starting andstopping
in low gear, with
smooth starts and stops.
II.
Materials of instruction:
Practice street.'
Driver training car.
III.
Procedure:
A.
Preparation.
The students are to continue the practice of
starting the motor, starting the car in low gear,
and stopping from low gear.
B.
Presentation.
Each student is to continue the practice of -the
. materials covered in lessons 1 and 2 .
C.
Testing.
Before the end of this lesson each student should
161
have been checked on the habits and skills de­
veloped by this and the two preceding lessons.
XV.
Assignment.
1.
Follow-up.
Practice naming steps in starting motor,
starting and stopping in low gear.
Continue to go through the motions of start­
ing the engine, starting and stopping in low
gear on the family car. The car must not be
moved during this type of practice.
£.
Advance.
Study Chapter IV, part 5, pages 49 and 50',
in How to Drive.
LESSON 4
SHIFTING TO SECOND AND STOPPING
I. • Objectives of the lesson.
To have the student learn the steps to be used in
shifting from low gear to second gear and stopping
from second.
II.
Materials of instruction.
How to Drive, Chapter IV, part 5, pages 49-50.
Driver training car.
Practice street.
III.
Procedure.
A.
Preparation.
The teacher should review orally the function of .
the clutch, gear-shift lever, and transmission in
getting the car into motion.
B.
Presentation.
Repeat the steps of starting the motor and
162
starting the car in low gear.
Explain the steps used in shifting from low to
second gear and stopping from second gear.
Demonstrate the steps used shifting from low to
second gear and stopping.
The following suggests a list'of steps to be fol­
lowed .
Starting in low.
1. Start the engine as you have learned to do.
2. Press clutch pedal to floor.
3. Shift gear-shift to first.
4. Release hand brake.
5. Press lightly down on foot accelerator.
6
. Raise the clutch pedal slowly through fric­
tion point.
Shifting to second gear.
1. Press down on accelerator until the car is
running approximately eight to ten miles per
hour. This speed will enable the car to run
on momentum while you shift to second gear.
2. Press clutch pedal to floor and take the pres­
sure off the accelerator at almost the same
time.
3. Move gear-shift lever forward to neutral, then
tilt it to the right and push it forward into
second gear. See diagram in Figure 33, (a),
page 49 of How to Drive. Note the hesitation
point and practice observing it.
4. Allow the' clutch to come up smoothly and at
the same time gradually press the accelerator
pedal to give gas to the engine.
The teacher should explain why it is sound judg­
ment to start the car in low gear. Why is it
necessary to increase the amount of gas to the
163
motor when the car is moving in second? Why does
the car move faster in second than in low gear?
Stopping from second.
1.
Press clutch pedal to floor.
2.
Take right foot from accelerator.
3.
Move right foot to brake pedal, and apply
pressure to bring the car to a smooth stop.
4.
-Shift gears .to neutral as shown in Figure 33
( b ) p a g e 49 of How to Drive.
5.
Remove foot from clutch pedal.
6
G.
.
Set hand brake.
Application.
Have each student take his turn under the wheel
to name and demonstrate the steps of starting the
car in low, shifting to second gear, and stopping
from second.
D.
Testing.
The following check list is provided for checking1
the students on the previous lessons and the new
material covered in this lesson.
Starting in low gear.
( ) 1.
Press clutch pedal to floor.
(
)2.
Gear-shift lever in low gear.
(
)3.
Release hand brake.
{
)4.
Keep eyes forward.
{
)5.
Proper pressure on foot accelerator.
(
)6 . Clutch released through friction point
for a smooth start.
Shifting to second gear.
( ) 1.
Attain proper speed, eight to ten miles
per hour.
164
( ) 2.
Press clutch' to floor, release pressure
on accelerator.
( ) 3.
Move gear-shift lever to second without
clashing the gears.
{ ) 4.
Keep eyes forward, and engage clutch.
( ) 5.
Apply even pressure to accelerator.
Stopping while in second gear.
< )
1
.
Press clutch to floor.
( ) 2.
Take right foot from accelerator.
( ) 3.
Move right foot to brake pedal and apply
pressure to bring car to a smooth stop.
( ) 4. . Gear shift to neutral.
( ) 5.
( )
■IT.
6
.
Release clutch pedal.
Set hand brake.
Assignment.
1.
Follow-up.
Review steps in starting in low, shifting to
second, and stopping in second gear.
B.
Advance.
Continue practice in training car on the
things outlined in this lesson.
LESSON 5
SHIFTING- TO SECOND AND STOPPING
I.
Objective of lesson.
To perfect the techniques of shifting from first to
second gear.
II.
Material of instruction.
Same as in lesson 4.
165
III.
Procedure:
A,.
Preparation:
In this lesson the students will continue their
practice of starting the car in low gear and
shifting to second gear and stopping while in
second. They should expect to show improvement
in ability to start and stop the car.
B.
Presentation:
Each student will have his turn in reviewing and
continuing the practice of the things covered in
lessons 1, £, 5, and 4.
0.
Application;
The students will continue practice in starting
the car and shifting to second and stopping.
D.
Testing.
The teacher may use the check list in lesson 4 as
■a final check of the students1 learning.
IT.
Assignment;
1.
Follow-up.
Students should continue the practice of the
going through the necessary movements of
shifting on the family car.
£.
Advance.
How to Drive» Chapter IT, parts
pages 50-5£.
LESSON
6
and 7,
6
SHIFTING FROM SECOND TO HIGH GEAR AND
STOPPING FROM HIGH’GEAR
I.
Objectives of lesson.
To learn the steps involved in shifting from second
gear to high gear and stopping in high gear.
166
II.
Materials for instruction.
How to Drive, Chapter IT, parts
6
and 7, pages 51-52*
Driver training car.
Practice street.
III.
Procedure.
A..
Preparation.
In today’s lesson the students will practice the
steps learned in lessons 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, and
add to them the new steps in shifting from second
to high gear and stopping in high gear.
B.
Presentation.
The teacher should take the driver’s position at
the wheel and explain the steps shifting from
second to high gear and stopping in high gear.
The teacher should then start the car and give a
demonstration of steps as they should' come.
The following gives a method of presenting the
steps in shifting from second to high gear and
stopping from high gear.
Steps in shifting from second to high gear.
1.
Start the engine as you have learned.
2. Start the car in low, shift to
have learned.
second as you
3.
Gradually press down on accelerator until car
has attained sufficient speed, about fifteen
miles per hour. Why should one get up speed
before shifting?
4.
Press clutch pedal to floor; at the same time
let up accelerator pedal.
5.
Move gear-shift lever straight back from
second to high. See Figure 33 (a), page 50,
How to Drive. Notice hesitation points and
practice observing them.
167
6
. As soon as the high gears are engaged, let up
on the clutch smoothly and gradually press
the accelerator down to gain momentum.
7. Remove foot from
the clutch pedal.
Steps in stopping in high gear.
1.
Move foot from accelerator to foot brake.
Apply foot brake gradually -leaving the clutch
engaged.
Why is it a good practice to leave the clutch
engaged when stopping in high?
C.
2.
When speed is reduced to about ten miles per
hour press the clutch to the floor. Continue
pressure on brake until car is almoststopped,
then release the pressure a bit toavoid a
jerky stop.
•3.
Move gear-shift lever to neutral as shown in
Figure 34 (b).
4.
Set hand brake.
5.
Remove foot from clutch and brake pedal.
Application.
Have each student take their turn under the name
and demonstrate the steps outlined above for
starting the car, shifting to second, then high
and stopping from high.
Teacher should see that each student is carrying
through all the steps and developing the correct
habits and skills pointed out in the lessons.
D.
Testing:
Check list for this lesson will be found under
testing in lesson 7. Teacher should use check
list when he feels confident that the students
have mastered the steps shifting from low through
to high and stopping.
IV.
Assignment.
1.
Follow-up.
168
The students will continue starting in low
and shifting through to high and stopping,
2.
Advance.
There is no advance hook work. Continue
study assigned reading for above lesson.
LESSON 7
SHIFTING FROM SECOND GEAR TO HIGH GEAR AND '
STOPPING FROM HIGH GEAR
I.
Objectives of lesson.
To perfect the teaching of shifting from low to
second then high and stopping from high.
II.
Materials of instruction. Same as in lesson
6
.
Ill. Pro cedure.
A.
Preparation:
Today the students will continue the practice of
the steps learned in the first six lessons, being
- careful to go through them in order.
B.
Presentation:
Today each student will continue the practice of
shifting through the three gears and stopping
from high gear.
The ’following suggestions should be given to the
students:
1.
2
Look forward.
. Keep your left foot poised above the clutch
during the shifting operations.
3.
Keep right hand on gear-shift knob during the
shifting operations.
Application.
Each student should take his turn under the wheel
and demonstrate his skill in shifting through the
three gears and stopping from high gear.
Testing.
The teacher should use the following check list
to check the students’ learning.
Shifting to high gear.
1
. Attains proper momentum in second. Ap­
proximately fifteen miles per hour.
2.
Presses clutch pedal to floor, releases
pressure on accelerator.
3.
ICeep eyes forward.
4.
Push gear-shift lever into high.
5.
Releases clutch through friction point
smoothly.
6
.
7.
Increases pressure on accelerator gradu­
ally.
Takes foot from clutch pedal.
Stopping from high gear.
1.
Release pressure on foot accelerator.
2.
Moves right foot to brake to apply pres­
sure .
3.
Press down on clutch pedal when car is
slowed to ten miles per hour.
4.
Release pressure on brake to bring car to
a smooth stop.
5.
Put gear-shift lever in neutral.
6
.
7.
Set hand brake.
Remove left foot from clutch pedal and
right foot from brake pedal.
170
XT.
Assignment:
1.
Follow-up.
Practice going through the motions of shifting
through the three gears on the-,family car.
2.
Advance.
The reading assignment for the next lesson is
found in Sound Driving Practices, practice 5,
pages 8-9, and signaling beginning on pages
32-34.
LESSON
8
HAND SIGNAL FOB STOPPING
I.
Objectives of lesson.
To develop an understanding for the proper hand
signal for stopping in traffic on street or highway.
To shift through the three gears in a limited time
and distance to improve skill in shifting gears.
To steer in a straight line.
To stop while in high, giving proper hand signal.
ir. Materials of instruction.
Sound Driving Practices, pages 8-9 and 32-34.
Driver training car.
Practice street.
h i
. Procedure:
A.
Preparation:
Today the class will practice giving the proper
hand signal for stopping and the control of the
car in doing so.
The giving of the proper hand signal is a warning
of your intention and shows expertness in driving.
171
The laws of the state require that a driver give
proper hand signal.
B.
Presentation:
The teacher should explain and demonstrate the
proper hand signal while driving the car.
The teacher should have the students try to shift
through the three gears in a smooth manner and
.complete the operations within twelve seconds
time and a distance of 175 feet. Steer in a
straight line with right and left wheels on a
line, give the proper signal and stop the car
while in low.
C.
Application.
The students should take their turns at the wheel
of the car to demonstrate their ability in carry­
ing out the requirement of the lesson.
D.
Testing.
The following checks should be used in checking
pupils’ learning in addition to checks in lesson
7.
Starting in low and shifting through to high.
{
)1.
Shifting carried out within 175 feet.
(
)2 . Shifting carried out within twelve seconds.
Steering in a. straight line.
(
)1.
Steers in a straight
wheels on line.
line with right
(
)2.
Steers in a straight
on line.
line with left wheels
Signaling.
{
)1.
Gives proper hand signal for stopping.
Stopping from high gear.
Check list under lesson 7.
172
IV.
Assignment.
1.
Follow-up.
Continue practice in habits and skills of the
preceding lessons.
2.
Advance.
How to Drive, Chapter IV, parts
52-53.
8
and 9, pages
LESSON 9
SHIFTING FROM HIGH TO SECOND GEAR, DOUBLE CLUTCHING,
AND SHIFTING FROM SECOND TO LOW GEAR
I.
Objectives of the lesson.
To provide the students with an understanding of the
necessity of knowing how and why drivers must shift
high gear into second or even to low under certain
driving conditions.
To have students practice shifting from high to second
to low and double clutching.
To continue practice of shifting through the three
gears in the correct time and distance, steering in a
straight line and stopping while giving correct hand
signal.
II.
Materials of instruction.
How to Drive, Chapter IV, parts
8
and 9, pages 52-54.
Driver training car.
Practice street.
III.
Procedure:
A..
Preparation:
The shifting of gears is just as important in stop­
ping the car under some conditions as it is in
starting the car. Shifting from a higher gear to
173
lower one aids in braking the car.
It is necessary to shift from.high to a lower
■ gear in climbing steep grades or descending
grades, or when speed of.the car is reduced in
other traffic situations.
B.
Presentation:
The- teacher should explain and demonstrate the
steps in shifting from high to second and from
second to low gear.
. The following gives a suggested method of
presentation.
Steps in Shifting from high to second.
1.
Release the pressure on the accelerator.
S.
Press down on the clutch pedal.
3.
Shift from high to second gear.
4.
5.
Press on the accelerator to speed motor.
Second gear requires a faster engine speed
.than high gear.
Release the clutch pedal at the same time '
that you press the accelerator.
How can you avoid a "stall*?
should you shift to second?
At what speed
Steps in double-clutching in shifting from second
to low gear.
1.
Press down on clutch pedal.
S.
Shift to neutral.
3.
Let up on clutch pedal.
4.
Press down on accelerator pedal.
(This speeds
up all the gears in the transmission except
those mounted on shaft which transmits power
to the wheels.)
.5.
Press down on clutch again.
174
6
.
7.
C.
Shift to low gear.
Release the clutch pedal.
Application:
Let each student take his turn at the wheel to
explain and demonstrate the steps of this lesson.
D.
Testing:
Use the following check list to check learning
in this lesson.
Shifting from high to second gear.
< ) 1 . Release pressure on accelerator.
( ) 2.
Press clutch to floor.
< ) 3.
Move gear-shift lever to second.
< > 4.
Speed motor to equal speed of car.
( ) 5.
Release clutch pedal without placing a
drag on motor.
Double­ clutching in shifting from second to low
gear.
( ) 1 . Press clutch pedal to floor.
(
) 2 . Apply brake to slow speed of car.
( ) 3.
Shift lever to neutral.
< ) 4.
Let up on clutch.
( ) 5.
Press accelerator to speed transmission
gears.
( )
IT.
6
• Press clutch pedal to floor.
( ) 7.
Shift into low.
( ) 8.
Release clutch slowly.
Assignment.
1.
Follow-up.
175
Continue practice of the skills and tech­
niques outlined in all preceding lessons.
2.
Advance.
'■
Review of everything in first nine lessons
including chapters IX, III, and IT in How to
Drive.
LESSON 10
COMPLETE REVIEW OF FIRST NINE LESSONS AND ESSENTIAL
ITEMS COVERED IN UNIT V
I.
Objectives of the lesson.
To review all knowledge of the use of gauges, safety
aids, starting devices, control devices, in the
driver’s compartment.
To review all knowledge of the power plant, power
transmission, and control of power.
To review all knowledge and skills learned in lessons
1-9:
Skill in starting the motor.
Skill in starting in low and stopping while in
low.
Skill in shifting from low gear through second
into high gear.
Skill in starting and stopping smoothly.
Skill in steering, use of proper signals when
stopping, shifting from high to second, and second
to low with proper use of double-clutching.
II.
Materials of instruction.
How to Drive, Chapters II, III, and IV.
Driver training car.
Practice street.
176
III.
Procedure:
A.
Preparation:
Today the 'class will review all skills and knowl­
edge that have "been assigned as practice so far.
The lessons from this point will deal with the
maneuvering and control of the car in traffic
' situations.
B.
Presentation:
There is no need for the teacher to make the
presentation in the form of a review over lessons
covered thus far. The teacher will direct each
student as to what he is to do.
C.
Application:
The teacher should indicate to each student as he
takes his turn what he wants him to explain or
demonstrate. The student should carry out the
explanation or demonstrate without aid of the
instructor.
D.
Testing.
In carrying out the review test over the preced­
ing lessons, the teacher should use the check
lists in the preceding lessons.
IV.
Assignment:
1.
Follow-up.
Continue the practice and study of material
covered thus far.
2.
Advance.
How to Drive, Chapter V, pages 57-59, backing
the car.
LESSON 11
BACKING THE CAR
1 . Objectives of the lesson.
177
To acquaint the student with the necessary steps in
hacking the car.
To develop skill in hacking the car and steering the
car while in motion backwards.
II.
Materials of instruction:
How to Drive, Chapter V, pages 57-59.
Driver training car.
Practice street.
III.
Procedure:
A..
Preparation:
There are times when it becomes necessary to
drive the car backwards. It is necessary.to
learn how to shift gears for backing the car and
how to steer the car while backing and how to
stop the car while in reverse. In today’s lesson
you will learn the steps for doing so.
B.
Presentation:
You will find the operation of the car in reverse
slightly different from moving the car forward.
In maneuvering the car in close places, or where
the car must be just barely moved, you cannot
take your foot from the clutch pedal, but must
hold the clutch at the friction point to move
smoothly and be ready at all times to stop in­
stantly.
The teacher should explain the stops and demon­
strate them to the students. The steps of the
presentation are as follows:
Steps in backing the car.
1.
Press down on clutch pedal.
2.
Tilt gear-shift lever to the left and push it
forward into reverse gear.
3.
Press slightly on accelerator pedal to give a
little more speed to engine.
178
4.
Slowly allow the clutch pedal to come up to
the friction point, and at the same time
gradually increase the pressure on the
accelerator pedal..
You are now moving in reverse and steering is
necessary. The car will turn in the direction
that you turn the top of the wheel just as it did
when driving forward.
You must watch the road either by leaning your
head slightly out of side window or by looking
back over your right shoulder and watching through
rear window.
Be ready to stop instantly.
Stopping the car while in reverse.
C.
1.
Press clutch pedal to floor.
2.
Remove foot from accelerator pedal as clutch
pedal is pushed down.
3.
Apply the foot brake to stop motor of car.
4.
Shift gears to neutral.
Application.
Each student should take his turn in explaining
the steps used in backing the car and stopping '
in reverse. The mistakes of the students should
be corrected and the steps repeated correctly.
The student should be required to back the car in
a straight line, turning to right or left between
stanchions fifty feet apart and stopping at cer­
tain designated spots.
D.
Testing.
Check list for use with this lesson.
Backing the car.
{ ) 1.
Press clutch to floor.
( )
When car is stopped, shift into reverse.
2
.
179
( ) 3.
Increase pressure on accelerator slightly.
(
)4. Raise clutch pedal to friction point
slowly for a smooth ,start -. .
(
} 5. Observes rear correctly.
{
) 6 . Keeps foot on clutch for quick stop.
{
) 7. Steers properly while watching rear.
Stopping while moving in reverse.
IV.
(
) 1. Press clutch to floor.
(
) 2. Move foot from accelerator to brake.
(
) 3. Bring car to complete stop.
(
) 4. Shift gears to neutral.
Assignment.
1.
Follow-up.
Practice skills learned in this lesson.
2.
Advance.
Continued practice in backing the car, steer­
ing in reverse, and stopping in reverse.
LESSOR
12
BACKING THE CAR
I.
Objectives of the lesson.
To perfect the skill of driving, steering, and stop­
ping while backing the car.
II.
Materials of instruction.
Same as in lesson 11.
III.
Procedure:
A.
Preparation:
180
Today the class is to continue the practice of
the steps learned in Lesson 11.
B.
Presentation.
Today the students are going to practice the
steps in hacking the car, steering, and stopping
while traveling in reverse. They should be.able
to carry through the steps with greater skill.
C.
Application:
Each student will take his turn at the wheel and
demonstrate the steps of the lesson.
D.
Testing:
The teacher should use- the check list presented
in Lesson 11 to check the students’ learning.
I1T.
Assignment.
1.
Follow-up.
Continue practice in backing car.
S.
Advance.
The students will continue backing the car in
the next lesson.
LESSON 15
BACKING THE CAR AND MAKING RIGHT AND LEFT HAND 'ItTRNS
I.
Objectives of the lesson.
To learn the proper methods of making right and left
hand turns while moving in reverse.
II.
Materials of instruction.
How to Drive, Chapter V, pages 58-59.
Driver training car.
Practice street.
181
III.
Procedure.
A.
Preparation.
The driver finds it necessary to back around a
corner in backing from his driveway, or in turn­
ing around. It is important to know how to make
turn to the right or left while moving the car
in reverse.
B.
Presentation.
In backing the car and turning to the right the
following steps must be followed:
Steps in backing around a right hand turn.
1.
Make a complete observation to the rear and
to the right.
2.
Back the car slowly and continue observation
to rear.
3.
Turn the steering wheel
wise at the proper time
hand turn.
. 4.
to the right or clock­
to make the right
Bring the car to a stop in the proper posi­
tion on the right side of road.
Steps in backing around a left hand turn.
1.
Make a complete observation to the rear and
to the left.
2•
Back car slowly and continue observation to
rear.
3.
Turnthe wheel to the left or counter clock­
wise at the proper time to make the left
hand turn.
4.
Bring the car to a stop in the proper posi­
tion.
The teacher should demonstrate the above steps.
C.
Application.
Have each student demonstrate the steps in making
18S
right and left hand turns while moving in reverse.
D.
Testing.
The following check-list is for the use of the
teacher in checking the learning of the students.
Backing around right hand turn.
{
)1.
Observes for vehicles and pedestrians
before backing.
(
)S.
Maintains slow speed while backing.
(
)3.
Begins turn at proper place.
(
)4.
Continued observation to the rear.
( ) 5.
Brings car to a stop in correct position.
Backing around a left hand turn.
Same as above.
IV.
Assignment.
1.
Follow-up.
Continue practice in backing car.
S . Advance.
Study Chapter V, pages 59-60, How to Drive,
and in Sound Driving Practices, pages 5E-34
and 41-4S.
LESSON 14
MAKING A RIGHT TURN IN LOW GEAR
I.
Objectives, of the lesson.
To learn how to make right turns in low gear from a
stop position.
To learn the correct signal in making a right turn.
183
XI.
Materials of instruction:
How to Drive, Chapter V, pages 59-60.
Sound Driving Practices, pages 32-34 and 41-42..
Driver training car.
Practice street.
Ill. Procedure:
A.
Preparation:
The driving practice so far has consisted mainly
in driving forward or backward on the practice
street. When driving in traffic the student will
find it necessary to change the direction of the
car. He will have to know how to maneuver the
car in order to make a turn. It is important to
know the correct lane and give the correct hand
signal in making a turn.
The students are going to develop their ability
and skill in making turns.
B.
Presentation:
Steps in making a right turn in low gear:
1.
The first thing to remember is to give the
proper signal for a right turn.
2.
Begin making the turn when the front wheels
are opposite the curb’ of the intersecting
street.
3.
The hands must be kept on the steering wheel
at all times while making a turn. Use the
hand-over-hand technique in making a turn.
See Figure 37, page 60, How to Drive.
4.
After the turn is made it may be necessary to
turn the wheel back to drive in the proper
lane.
The teacher should demonstrate the proper method
of signaling, steering, and position of the car in
making a right turn.
1 8 4
C.
Application.:
Have each student bring the car to a stop at the
intersection in the proper position to make a.
right- hand turn being certain to give the proper
signal for the stop. G-ive the correct signal and
start the car in low and make the right turn in
low gear. Bring the car into the proper lane
after completing the turn.
D.
Testing:
The check list under Lesson 14 may be used to
check the progress of the student.
IV.
Assignment.
1.
Follow-up.
Continue practice in making right hand turns',
using correct signals, starting and complet­
ing turns in correct lane.
2.
Advance.
Study diagrams on pages 41 and 42 of Sound
Driving Fractices. Know the objections to
making right turns as shown on page 42.
LESSON 15
MAKING- A RIGHT HAND TURN IN SECOND OR HIGH GEAR
I.
Objectives of the lesson.
To-continue the development of skills in making right
hand turns.
To learn how to make a. right hand turn while moving
in second or high gear.
II.
Materials of instruction:
Same as in Lesson 13.
III.
Procedure:
A.
Preparation:
185
In the last lesson the students learned how to
make a right hand turn while moving in low gear.
They used the proper hand signal and considered
the position of the car before and after making
the turn.
They are going to continue the practice of these
things today, but will make the turns in second
or high gear. This will require alertness as the
car will be moving faster.
B.
Presentation.
Steps in making a_ right turn in second or high
gear.
1.
The driver is approaching an intersection
where he desires to make a right hand turn.
He is going to make the turn in high, second,
or even low gear if necessary.
2.
He must signal for a right turn well back
from the intersection and get in the proper
lane for a right turn.
3.
He must observe traffic and pedestrians in
order not to cause an accident.
4.
He must reduce speed so as to be able to make
the turn smoothly and finish the turn in the
proper lane.
The teacher should demonstrate the proper tech­
nique in making a right hand turn in second or
high.
C.
Application:
Each student should take his turn and demonstrate
the making of a right hand turn. The teacher
should observe that the following *things are
carried out correctly by the student.
1.
Gives correct hand signal suitable distance
from intersection.
2.
Gets car in proper lane before making the
turn.
3.
Speed of the car is controlled according to
conditions.
186
4.
Shift if necessary is made properly before
and after making the turn.
5.
Begins turn at correct point.
6 . Takes proper precautions in observing traffic
and pedestrians.
7.
Uses.easy, smooth steering technique.
8 . Brings car out of turn into proper lane.
D.
Testing:
The following check list is for lessons 14-15.
( )1.
Gives proper hand signal a reasonable
distance from intersection.
( )2.
Car is in proper
( )3.
(If stop is made) Car is stoppedsmoothly
at crosswalk.
( )4.
Observes for traffic and pedestrians.
( )5.
Turn is begun atintersecting
( )6.
Proper speed.
( ) 7.
Foot on clutch in case of necessity for
a stop as shifting gears.
( )8.
Gears shifted smoothly before and after
the turn.
( ) 9.
Smooth handling of steering.
over-hand technique.
lane.
curb
line.
Use of hand­
( }10. Straightens car up in proper lane.
IV.
Assignment.
1.
Follow-up.
2.
Advance.
How to Drive, Chapter V, pages 60-61.
Sound Driving Practices, pages 32-34 and 41-45.
187
LESSON 16
MAKING- A LEFT HAND TURN IN LOW GEAR
I.
Objectives of the lesson.
To learn how to make a left hand turn in low gearfrom a stop position at the crosswalk into the proper
lane.
To learn the use of the proper hand signal in making
a left hand turn.
II.
Materials of instruction.
How to Drive, Chapter V, pages 60 and 61.
Sound Driving Practices, pages 32-34 and 41-43.
Driver training car.
Practice street.
III.
Procedure:
A.
Preparation:
As drivers it will he necessary for the students
to make left hand turns as well as right hand
turns. It will be necessary for them as drivers
to learn the proper techniques of making left
hand turns.
They have studied the correct and incorrect
■methods of making left hand turns. In the next
two lessons they will learn the proper procedure
to be used in making left turns correctly.
B.
Presentation:
The teacher should explain and demonstrate the
procedure of making left hand turns.
The steps in making a left hand turn in low gear.
1.
Signal your intention to make a stop at the
crosswalk.
2.
You should stop outside the crosswalk and on
the lane near the center of the street.
188
C.
3.
Observe traffic and pedestrians until way is
clear for left turn.
4.
Start in low, giving signal for left band
turn, and start tbe left turn as the front
wheels pass through the pedestrian crosswalk.
5.
The turn should be completed in the lane near
the center of the intersecting street and on
the right hand side of the center.
Application:
Each student should demonstrate making a left
hand turn as stated in the presentation.
D.
Testing.
The teacher is referred to check list in Lesson
15.
XV.
Assignment.
1.
Follow-up.
Continued practice in making left hand turns,
using proper hand signals, and starting and
finishing left hand turns in the proper lane.
2.
Advance.
Study diagrams on page 42 in Sound Driving
Practices, and know the objections to the
methods shown for making left hand turns.
LESSON 17
MAKING A LEFT HAND TURN IN SECOND OR HIGH GEAR
I.
Objectives of the lesson.
To continue in the development of the correct habits
and skills required in making left hand turns.
To learn the correct procedure used in making’left
hand turns while moving in second or high gear at
various speeds.
189
IT.
Materials of instruction:
Same as for Lesson 15.
III.
Procedure:
A.
Preparation:
Under' certain' circumstances it is not necessary
to make a complete stop before making a left turn.
'The turn may be made by slowing the car down to
a safe speed and making it in high gear or, if
necessary, by shifting into second gear as the
turn is made.
B.
Presentation:
The teacher should demonstrate the correct pro­
cedure of making a left turn in second or high
gear. The steps are as follows:
1.
Drive into the lane nearest the center line
about £00 feet from the intersection.
£. G-ive the proper signal for a left hand turn.
3.
Slow down to ten miles per hour.
4.
Observe traffic conditions to be sure way is
clear.
5.
Shift to second gear.
6 . Start turn when front wheels pass through
pedestrian crosswalk.
7. End turn at crosswalk in the lane nearest, the
center of the street into which the turn is
made.
8.
Straighten the car out in the proper lane.
In making the left hand turn in high, the same
steps are followed but omit the shifting of gears.
C.
Application:
Each student is to demonstrate the various ways
of making the left turns described in this and the
preceding lesson.
190
D.
Testing.
The following check list may be used by the
teacher to be sure the student has developed the
proper skills and techniques necessary for making
left turns properly.
Check list for use with lessons 16 and 17 left
hand turns.
IV.
( ) 1.
Gives proper hand signal a reasonable
distance from intersection.
( ) 2.
Car in lane nearest and -to the right
center.
(
) 5. Observes conditions of traffic.
(
) 4. Turn is begun from crosswalk.
(
) 5. Proper speed maintained.
(
) 6. Foot is kept on the clutch in case it is
necessary to stop or shift gears.
( ) 7.
Smooth handling of steering
making turn.
wheel in
( ) 8.
Straightens carup in proper lane after
turn.
Assignment.
1.
Follow-up.
2.
Advance.'
How to Drive
Chapter V, page 61.
Diagram four methods of turning the car around
by using side streets, alleyways, or lanes.
LESSON 18
TURNING THE CAR AROUND
I.
Objectives of the lesson.
To develop
an understanding of the waysto turn the
191
car around, making use of the side streets, alleyways,
and country lanes.
To learn the skills necessary to turn the car around
when using these methods.
II.
Materials of instruction.
How to Drive, Chapter V, page 61, "Turning Around."
Driver training car.
Practice street.
III.
Procedure.
A.
Preparation.
In driving a car on city streets or on the open
highway the students will often find it necessary
to turn the car around. As skilled drivers they
will want to know how to turn the car in a manner
which will cause the least interference with other
vehicles.
In the next few lessons the class is going to con­
sider and learn several methods of turning the
car around. It will then he up to the student to
determine the legal methods of his community and
practice these in turning around.
B.
Presentation.
A presentation of the material should he made hy
the teacher.
1.
Refer .to the four diagrams in Figure 38, page
61 of How to Drive.
2.
Determine which methods are permitted hy local
ordinance.
3.
Choose places where there is little or no
traffic.
4.
Do not hack into main street or highway.
5.
Avoid hacking down grade, when possible.
6.
Look carefully to see that the path into which
you are hacking is -perfectly clear.
192
7. Signal your intention to back.
8 . Move the. car slowly when backing.
‘ 9. Hold the clutch near the friction point to be
.ready for a quick stop.
Teacher should demonstrate the four methods of
turning around.
C.
Application:
Each student should take his turn in describing
the four methods of turning around and the cau­
tions which accompany them.
Each student should demonstrate the ways of turn­
ing around.
Sometimes it is best to drive around the block in
turning around.
D.
Testing:
The following check list is for the use of the
teacher.
Four methods of turning the car around.
IV.
{
) 1. Gives proper signal before making a right
or left turn, or coming tc? a stop.
(
) 2. Observes traffic conditions in rear before
backing.
(
) 3. Backs at a slow speed.
(
) 4. Makes correct turn whilebacking.
Con­
tinues observation to rear and sides.
(
) 5. Comes to a stop smoothly and in correct
position for completing turn.
{
) 6. Completes turn by driving
lane.
(
) 7. Shifts gears smoothly.
Assignment.
1.
Follow-up.
away in proper
195
Continued practice in turning the ‘car around.
2.
Advane e .
Learn how a U-turn is made and where it is
prohibited.
LESSON 19
CONTINUED PRACTICE IN TURNING CAR AROUND AND THE
USE OE THE U-TURN
I.
Objectives of the lesson.
To continue the practice of the different methods of
turning the car around.
To learn the steps necessary in making a.U-turn and
where it may or may not be used.
II.
Materials of instruction:
Training car.
Practice street.
III.
Procedure: •
A.
Preparation:
There will be times when each of you as drivers
will find it easier to turn around on a wide
street, intersection, or wide highway by making
a complete turn around in one sweep. This is
known as a U-turn. ■
It is much easier ‘than the other methods studied,
but there are some places where the use of the
U-turn is prohibited. You will need to know
where’ and how to make the U-turn. This lesson
will explain the steps in making a U-turn.
B.
Presentation:
The teacher should discuss the safe and unsafe
places for making the U-turn.
(See State Vehicle
Code.)
194
The following steps are to be followed in making
a U-turn*
1.
Signal your intentions to stop.
2.
Stop at right hand curb or if on highway stop
on shoulder off the pavement.
3.
Observe traffic carefully.
a.
If in middle of a block or on highway ob­
serve traffic ahead and behind.
b.
If at an intersection observe traffic
all directions.
in
4.
Give hand signal for a left turn.
5.
Proceed cautiously, making the U-turn in low
gear.
6.
Stratighten the car out in the proper lane.
7.
Bring car to final position without weaving.
The teacher should demonstrate the proper methods
for making a U-turn.
C.
Application:
Have each student practice the four methods of
turning the car around as given in preceding les­
son. Have each student explain and demonstrate
the steps in making a U-turn.
D.
Testing:
The check list below is to be used as the student
makes his demonstration in making a U-turn.
(
)1.
Gives proper signal for coming to a stop.
{
)2.
Brings car to complete stop in correct
position.
(
)3.
Observes carefully for vehicles and pedes­
trians .
(
)4.
Gives hand signal for a left turn.
195
-IV.
( ) 5.
Proceeds cautiously making U-turn in low
gear.
( ) 6.
Handles steering -smoothly.
over-hand technique.
( ) 7.
Straightens car out in proper lane.
( ) 8.
Proceeds down street or highway in normal
manner.
Uses hand-
Assignment.
1.
Follow-up.
2.
Advance.
Study Chapter V, pages 62-63 of How to Drive.
Learn the steps used in turning around in the
width of the street.
LESSON 20
TURNING THE CAR AROUND IN THE WIDTH OF THE STREET
X.
Objectives of the lesson.
To teach the students the necessary steps in turning
the car around in the width of the street.
To further develop the skills of handling the control
devices of the car.
II.
Materials of instruction.
How to Drive, Chapter IV, pages 62 and 63.
Driver training car.
Practice street twenty-five feet wide.
III.
Procedure:
A.
Preparation:
In their study and practice the students have
used several methods of turning the car around.
196
There is one more method and that is to turn the
car around in the width of the street. In this
and the following lesson the steps of this method
will be given.
B.
Presentation.
The teacher should explain the steps used turning
the car around in the width of the street.
-Steps in turning car around in width
of the street.
1.
Give the hand signal for a stop and stop as
near the right hand curb as possible.
2.
Be sure the way is clear ahead and behind.
5.
Give signal for left turn.
4.
Go forward in low gear.
Turn the steering
wheel to the left as far and as' fast as neces­
sary to bring the car to a right angle posi­
tion to the curb. Keep signaling for a left
turn.
5.
When the wheels are about two feet from the
curb and the car is- stillmoving very slowly,
start turning the steering wheel to the right.
Do not strike the curb.
• 6.
Look both ways to be sure the way is clear.
Back the car slowly, and turn the steering
wheel to the right as far and as fast as
necessary to bring the car into the proper
position on the left side of the street. Stop
the car about two feet from the curb.
7.
When the way is clear, go forward in low gear,
turn the steering wheel to the left so as to
bring the car into a position close to and
parallel to the right curb.
It may be necessary to use the hand brake to
hold the car in steps 5 and.6 to prevent the
car from rolling against the curb.
Teacher should demonstrate the above steps.
C.
Application.
Each student should take his turn in explaining
197
the steps listed in the presentation and then
demonstrate them in actual practice.
D.
Testing.
The check list for this lesson will be found in
the. next lesson.
IV.
Assignment.
1.
Follow-up.
Continued practice in turning the car around.
2.
Advance.
No advance reading as the students will continue
the practice of turning the car around in the
next lesson.
LESSON El
CONTINUED PRACTICE IN TURNING- THE CAR AROUND
IN THE WIDTH OF THE STREET
I.
Objectives of the lesson;
To further develop the skills necessary in turning
around in the width of the street.
II.
Materials of instruction.
Same as in Lesson 20.
III.
Procedure:
A..
Preparation.
B.
Presentation.
C.
Application.
Each student is to continue to practice turning
the car around in the width of the street until
he becomes proficient in the skills.
D.
Testing:
The following check list is-for the teacher’s use
in checking learning in lessons 20 and 21.
198
Turning around in the width of the street.
IV.
(
) 1* Gives signal for stop and stops near curb,
(
) 2. Observes traffic condition in both direc­
tions ,
(
) 3. Gives signal for a left hand turn and
moves away from curb in .low gear.
(
} 4. Uses correct technique in steering.
(
) 5. Controls speed correctly, and about two
feet from left hand curb turns steering
wheel to right.
(Sets hand brake if
necessary.}
(
) 6. Observes traffic.
(
) 7.
(
) 8. Does not hit curb.
(
) 9. Drives forward in low gear turning steer­
ing wheel to left to complete the turn
without backing a second time.
(Releases hand brake) and backs car, slow­
ly turning steering wheel to right.
Assignment.
1.
Follow-up.
2 . Advance.
A complete review -of all material covered in
lessons 13-21.
Chapter V, pages 59-63 in How to Drive.
LESSON 22
REVIEW OF ALL TURNS
I.
Objectives of the lesson.
To review all turning movements, including their
proper hand signals.
II.
Materials of instruction.
199
How to Drive, Chapter V, pages 59-63.
Previous lessons 13-21 with their check lists.
Driver training car.
Practice street.
III.
Procedure:
A.
Preparation.
In the lesson today the students are going to re­
view the various methods of turning they have
studied in the previous lessons.
B. .Presentation.
The teacher should present the material in the
order he wishes the student to demonstrate it.
C.
Application.
Each student should take his turn to demonstrate
each of the following:
1 . A right and left hand turn from the correct
lane and the proper hand signals.
2.
D.
Each of the six methods of turning the car
around.
Testing.
Use dheck lists given in lessons 11 through 21.
IV.
Assignment.
1.
Follow-up.
Continued practice in driver training-car.
2 . Advance.
The next lesson will include stopping the car
in the "nose” and emergency stops.
200
LESSON 23
STOPPING- THE OAR IN THE "NOSE" AND EMERGENCY STOPS
I.
Objectives
lesson.
To learn how to judge' position of the car in depth
and to the.right and left.
To practice making' emergency stops.
II.
Materials of instruction.
Driver training car.
Painted nose on practice street with two stanchions.
Practice street.
III.
Procedure:
A . Preparation.
The students will find in their driving experience
that it will he necessary for them under certain
driving conditions to be able to judge the posi­
tion of the car in relation to objects on the
right or left and the length of the car to the
front or rear. In today’s lesson they will gain
some knowledge of how to judge those things by
driving the car forward and then backward into
what is called a "nose." The "nose" is a box­
shaped set of lines painted on the pavement and
has one end open.
In past lessons the students have practiced mak­
ing smooth stops, but in an emergency where quick
stopping is necessary the stops cannot always be
smooth. Today they will practice some emergency
. stops.
B.
Presentation.
The teacher should explain the procedure to be
followed In stopping the car in the "nose."
Procedure for stopping the car in the "nose."
1.
The car should be moving at a slow rate of
speed (not to exceed twenty miles per hour)
201
in high gear,
2.
Give hand signal for a stop,
3.
Apply brakes to decrease speed of the car,
4.
Depress the clutch.
5.
Stop the car in such a position that both
front wheels are touching the side lines, and
the bumper is not more than six inches on
either side of the cross line.
{The two
stanchions should be placed anywhere along a
line six inches outside the cross lines.)
After driving forward into the "nose" the car
should then be turned around and backed into it.
The teacher should demonstrate the procedure of
putting the car into the "nose" and methods of
making emergency stops.
C.
Application:
Each student should demonstrate putting the car
into the "nose" while going forward and in re­
verse, and demonstrate how to make emergency
stops.
D.
Testing:
The following check list is for the teacher’s use
in checking students on driving forward or back­
ward into the "nose."
(
).1*. Proper hand signal given for stopping or
backing.
(
)2.
Car is brought to a smooth stop.
(
)3.
Both wheels touching the outside parallel
'lines.
(
)4.
The front or rear bumper not to touch the
stanchions.
(
)5.
The front or rear bumper to be within six
inches of the cross-line.
(
)6.
The motor is not stalled.
202
IV.
Assignment.
1.
Follow-up.
Continued practice in the driver training car.
2.
Advance.
How to Drive, Chapter V, pages 63-65.
Sound Driving Practices, pages..43-45.
LESSON 24
PARKING- PARALLEL TO THE CURB
I.
Objectives of the lesson.
To introduce parking parallel to the curb between two
cars.
To develop the necessary skill to park parallel to
the curb.
II.
Materials of instruction.
How to Drive» Chapter V, pages 63-65.
Man and the Motor Car, pages 46-49.
Driver training car.
Practice street with lines painted on the pavement to
■represent parking stalls. - Spaces twenty-five, twentyone, and nineteen feet long.
Stanchions or paper boxes as guides.
III.
Procedure.
A.
Preparation.
Many times in driving one finds it necessary to
park next to the curb between two parked cars.
The. students want to learn the best method of
doing this so that as skilled drivers they will
have no trouble.
205
B.
Presentation.
The teacher should present the steps by giving a
*demonstration and explaining each step as he
goes.- What general rule should apply in determin­
ing if there is sufficient room to park the car?
Steps in parking parallel to the curb.
1.
Be .certain that road is clear, signal for a
stop.
2.
Drive alongside the car you are going to
park behind and stop when the rear bumper of
your car is even with the rear bumper of the
other car. You should be two feet away from
the other car. These positions are important.
3.
Back slowly slipping the clutch while turning'
the steering wheel sharply to the right until
your car is nearly at a 45 degree angle with
the curb.
4.
Straighten out the front wheels and continue
backing the car into the parking space until
the right end of your front bumper is about
opposite the left end of the rear bumper of
the forward car. Hesitate an instant, and
then turn the steering wheel rapidly to the
left as far as it will go while slowly back­
ing into parking space.
5.
This should put your rear wheels near the
curb.’ Then go forward slowly, turning the
steering wheel to the right to bring the car
parallel to the curb. Stop the car an equal
distance from the front and rear cars.
What should be done if the car is too far
from the curb after this step?
6.
C.
If you are going to leave the car, pull on
hand brake, turn off ignition switch, roll up
windows and lock the car, after being sure
you have the ignition key.
Application:
Have each student demonstrate the steps of the
lesson.
204
Practice each step before going on to the next.
D.
Testing:
The check list for this lesson will- be found in
Lesson 25.
17.
Assignment.
1.
Follow-up.
Continued practice in parking parallel to the
curb.
2 . Advance.
There is no advance assignment as the next
lesson is a review of this one*
LESSON 25
CONTINUED PRACTICE IN PARKING- PARALLEL TO THE CURB
I.
Objectives in the lesson.
To further develop the skills necessary for parking
parallel to the curb.
To improve in ability to park parallel to curb by
parking in a smaller space.
II.
Materials of instruction.
Same as Lesson 24.
III.
Procedure":
A.
Preparation:
In the lesson today the students are going to
practice the steps in parking parallel to the
curb. There are seldom two parking spaces the
same length and after.practicing on the same
distance they used in the last lesson the stu­
dents will try parking in a smaller distance.
205
B.
Presentation;
The teacher should again demonstrate the steps in
parking in line with an explanation.
C.
Application:
Let each student continue his practice of the last
lesson and as he develops sufficient skill, then
let him try parking in a shorter distance.
D.
Testing:
Check list for teacher’s use in checking students
on lessons 24 and 25.
Parking the car parallel to the curb.
(
)1. Observes conditions of traffic behind and
ahead, signals for a stop.
(
)2. Stops car about two feet from car-rear
bumpers in line.
{
)3. Backs slowly— no motor racing— to 45 de­
gree angle.
(
)4.
Straightens front wheels until bumper
clears rear bumper of forward car.
(
)5. Turns front wheels sharply to the left,
continuing to back without touching
bumpers of rear car.
(
)6. Turns front wheels sharply pulling up to
a point midway between front.and rear
cars.
(
)7. Sets hand brake and prepares car properly
before leaving it.
(
)8.
Gets out of car on curb
side.
Pulling out from the curb.
(
)1.
Observes to the rear for traffic.
(
)2.
Backs car slowly without
banging rear car.
(
)3.
Observes for traffic and
left turn.
gives signal for
£06
IV.
( ) 4.
Moves car slowly in low gear, turning
steering wheel sharply to left.
( ) 5.
Observes traffic conditions and enters
proper traffic lane.
Assignment.
•1.
Follow-up.
2 . Advance.
How to Drive, Chapter V, pages 65-66.
LESSON 26
ANGLE PARKING
I.
Objectives in the lesson.
To learn how to park at an angle to the curb.
II.
Materials of instruction;
How to Drive, Chapter V, pages 65-66.
Driver training car.
Practice street marked for angle parking.
Stanchions.
III.
Procedure:
A.
Preparation;
In some cities you will find cars parked at an
angle to the curb. There are parking stalls
marked with point on the pavement and the driver
is expected to park between two lines. As drivers
you must know the steps in parking at an angle.
B.
Presentation:
The teacher should explain and demonstrate the
steps in angle parking listed below.
1.
Observe traffic conditions ahead and behind.
£07
£•
Signal intention of slowing down.
3.
Move car out to the left to get into position
to clear parked cars when entering parking
space.
4.
Steer sharply to the right-and slowly enter
the parking space.
5.
Continue forward slowly until front wheel
touches curb.
6 . Pull on hand brake, turn off ignition switch,
roll up windows and lock the car, after being
sure you have taken the ignition key with you
{when leaving the car).
After you have returned to the car and have un­
locked the doors and started the motor you are
ready to back out of the parking space. These
steps must be followed:
C.
1.
Observe for traffic.
£.
Back out slowly.
3.
Come to a complete stop when you are able to
see down the street.
4.
Turn the steering wheel to the right as soon
as your left front fender clears the car on
your left.
5.
Proceed down the street in the proper lane of
traffic.
Application:
Have each student take his turn at the wheel, to
demonstrate parking at an angle to the curb.
Each student should be able to drive into the
stall correctly and come to a stop with the front
wheel just touching the curb.
D.
Testing.
When the teacher feels certain that the student
has developed sufficient skill, he may use the
following check list.
208
Driving into a parking space.
1.
Observes for traffic ahead and behind.
2.
Signals intention of slowing down at the
proper distance from the parking location.
5.
Drives the car to the left far enough to
clear parked cars when entering the park­
ing space.
4.
Turns sharply to the right and enters the
space slowly, centering the car as near
as possible.
5.
Continues forward slowly until front wheel
touches the curb lightly.
6.
Sets hand brake, turns off ignition, and
prepares car to be left.
Backing out of parking space.
IV.
1.
Observes traffic to see if way is clear.
2.
Backs out slowly.
3.
Stops to observe traffic again.
4.
Turns car sharply to the right when the
left front fender is clear of the car on
the left.
( ) 5.
Stops smoothly and starts forward in the
proper traffic lane.
Assignment.
1.
Follow-up.
2.
Advance.
How to Drive, Chapter V, pages 66-67.
LESSON 27
STOPPING AND STARTING ON AN UPGRADE, BACKING ON AN UP­
GRADE, PARKING-ON AN UPGRADE AND DOWNGRADE
I.
Objectives of the lesson.
209
To learn and develop the skills required for stopping
and starting the oar on an upgrade.
To learn the proper procedure for parking the car onan upgrade or downgrade.
II.
Materials of instruction.
How to Drive, Chapter V, pages 66-67.
Driver training car.
Practice street, preferably going over a hill.
III.
Procedure:
A.
Preparation.
In your driving experience you will find it neces­
sary to come to a stop on a hill and then start
the car without stalling the motor or permitting
it to roll backward.
. At other times you will find it necessary to park
the car on the upgrade or downgrade. The knowlelge will prevent a lot of searching for a level'
place to park.
Today the students are going to practice these
things in order that they may become more pro­
ficient in their driving.
B.
Presentation.
The teacher should take the students to a paved
street on a hill or slight incline (if one is
available) where the conditions are more nearly
suited to the needs of this lesson.
The teacher should explain and demonstrate the
following steps.
Bringing the car to a stop on the upgrade.
1.
Give the hand signal for stopping.
2.
Drive to the right side of the pavement and
stop the car.
210
3.
Set the hand brake before putting the gear­
shift in neutral.
4.
Put gear-shift in neutral and remove' the foot
from the clutch and brakes.
Startingjon an upgrade.
1. Press the clutch to the floor.
2. Shift into low gear.
3.
Press the accelerator pedal, and at the same
time slowly release the hand brake and the
clutch so that the car can start forward-letting the engine pull slightly against the
brake until the clutch is fully engaged.
4. . Continue in low gear until the car has gained
sufficient momentum to shift to a higher gear.
Backing on the upgrade.
1. Press the clutch to the floor.
2. Shift into reverse gear.
3. Press on the accelerator pedal and
at the
same time release clutch and thehand brake
so that the car can start forward— letting
the engine pull slightly against the brake
until the clutch is fully engaged.
4.
Continue backing and stopping at short dis­
tances to perfect skills.
Sometimes the engine will stall on an upgrade.
It is then necessary to apply the foot brake
quickly, depress the clutch, shift to neutral,
and pull on the hand brake. The car may then be
started by stepping on the starter and following
the steps for starting on the upgrade.
Parking on an upgrade.
1.
Pull up to the curb or maneuver the car into
position as when parking parallel to the curb.
2.
Turn the steering wheel to the left, bringing
the right front tire against the curb.
211.
3.
Set hand brake.
4.
Put gear-shift lever in- low gear.
5.
Prepare the oar to leave it unoccupied.
Parking on the downgrade.
1. Pull up next to the curb.
2. Turn the front wheel to the right against the
curb.
3.
Set the hand brake.
4. Put the gear-shift lever in reverse.
5.
C.
Prepare car to be left unoccupied.
Application:
Permit each student, in his turn, to demonstrate
the various things described above. The teacher
is to be the judge of when the student has become
proficient in the performance of the skills.
D.
Testing:
A check list for the use of the teacher.
Stopping on the upgrade.
(
)1.
Gives signal for stopping and pulls to
the right of the street.
(
)2.
Sets hand brake, moves gear-shift to.
neutral.
Starting on the upgrade.
{
)1.
Depresses clutch and shifts to low gear.
(
)2.
Increases speed of motor and releases
clutch to the friction point, releases
hand brake.
(
)3.
Gets car into motion without stalling
motor.
(
)4.
After gaining sufficient momentum, shifts
to a higher gear.
212
Backing on the upgrade.
( )1.
Depresses clutch and shifts to reverse.
(‘ )2.
Increases speed of .motor and. releases
clutch to friction point, releases hand
brake.
( )5.
Backs car without stalling motor.
(
Stops car smoothly.
)4.
Parking on an upgrade.
(
)1.
Pulls into proper position at the curb
after giving the proper signal for stop­
ping.
( )2.
Turns front wheels to the left and lets
the car roll back until right front tire
touches the curb•
(
Sets hand brake.
)3.
( )4.
Puts gear-shift into low gear.
( )5.
Prepares car to leave it unoccupied.
Parking on the downgrade.
( ) 1.
Gives proper signal for stopping and pulls
into proper position at the curb.
(
Turns front wheels to right, and lets the
car roll forward until the right front
tire is against the curb.
)2.
( )3.
Sets hand brake.
( )4.
Puts gear-shift into reverse.
(
Prepares car to leave it unoccupied.
)5.
IT. As signment:
1.
Follow-up.
2.
Advance.
How to Drive, Chapter VI, pages 70-86.
2 1 3
Sound Driving Practices, Chapters I, IT, and
V.
LESSON 28
DRIVING ON THE OPEN HIGHWAY
I.
Objectives in the lesson.
To develop skills in handling the car on the open
highway.
To apply the rules of the road to driving.
II.
Materials of instruction:
How to Drive, Chapter VI, pages 70-86.
Sound Driving Practices, Chapter I.
III.
Procedure:
A.
Preparation:
In the lesson today the students are going to get
some experience in driving on the open highway.
They must remember that others have the same legal
right to use the highway that they have. It is
important for them to know all the rules and regu­
lations of driving and to practice them at all
times.
The students must know the laws of nature as they
apply to driving. This knowledge will aid them
in keeping out of trouble many times.
B.
Presentation:
The teacher should have a definite route in mind
for this lesson. The route should include hills,
curves, intersections, traffic signs, traffic
signals, railroad crossings, viaducts or under­
passes, a long stretch of straight road, not too
much traffic or too many pedestrians. The teacher
should drive over the route and demonstrate the
sound driving practices to the group.
214
C.
Application.
Each student should drive over the route to
demonstrate his ability to drive on the open
highway. The teacher should be alert to aid the
student if he should get into difficulty. The
first drive on the open highway should be a
thrilling experience for the student driver. The
teacher should use every means to make the ex­
perience one of pleasure and of learning.
D.
Testing:
The following check list is suggested for the
teacher.
Driving on the open highway.
( ) 1.
Drives on the right' hand side of the
highway.
( ): 2.
Passes to the left of slower moving vehi­
cles.
( ) 3.
Keeps to the right in passing on-coming
vehicles.
( )4.
Yields right-of-way at intersection to
vehicle already in the intersection.
{
)5.
Yields right-of-way to vehicle on his
right at an intersection.
(
)6 .
Yields right-of-way to pedestrians at
crosswalks.
( ) 7.
When making left turns waits until oppos­
ing traffic has passed— gives proper
signal.
( )8 .
Does not increase speed when being passed
by a faster moving car.
( ) 9. Is alert for other cars at alleyways,
country lanes, and private driveways.
( )10• Observes
and
obeys all warning signs.
{ )11. Keeps to the right on curves.
curves at correct speed.
Makes
215
IT.
(
) 12. Keeps to the right on hills.
(
) 13. Does not follow too closely.
(
) 14. Increases, and decreases speed smoothly.
(
) 15. Parks off the pavement to the right.
(
}'16. Knows how to get back on the pavement
after parking on the shoulder.
(
) 17. Is alert at railroad crossings.
(
} 18. Gives proper hand signal when changing
lanes.
(
} 19. Keeps to the right on viaduct or in
underpass.
(
) 20. Does not ride clutch.
(
) 21. Does not exceed speed limit.
(
) 22. Always is courteous to other drivers.
(
) 25. Relaxed and alert at all times.
Assignment.
1.
Follow-up.
Review all material as found in How to Drive,
Chapter VI, pages 70-86, and Sound Driving
Practices, chapters I, IT, and T.
2.
Advance.
Sound Driving Practices, chapters III and IV.
LESSON 29
CITY DRIVING
I.
Objectives of the lesson.
To develop skill in handling the car in city traffic.
To develop the attitude of thoughtfulness for other
drivers on the city streets.
816
To develop the attitude of courtesy toward pedestri­
ans.
II.
Materials of instruction:
Sound Driving Practices» Chapters III and IT.
Driver training car.
III.
Procedure:
A.
Preparation:
In driving on the open highway drivers experience
many of the sound driving practices studied about
in the Sportsmanlike Driving text pamphlets. To­
day the students are going to begin driving in
city traffic. They must be just as alert in city
driving because of the many hazardous conditions
they will meet. They must be ready to act at all
times when some driver or pedestrian makes a
wrong move. They must anticipate what the pedes­
trian or driver is going to do and be ready to
meet the situation.
B.
Presentation:
The teacher should select a route for this lesson
that presents as many of the driving problems as
possible in city driving for the students. The
route should include at least five right turns,
five left turns, stop signs, traffic signals,
parking parallel, parking at an angle to the curb,
turning the car around, U-turns, railroad crossing,
uphill and downhill, backing the car, use of the
hand brake, making a quick stop, and where possi­
ble a street of four or six lanes. The iteacher
should drive over the route to explain and demon­
strate the proper procedure in driving. The
route selected should not be in the heavier
■' traveled areas of the city.
C.
Application:
Each student should take his turn and drive over
the selected route to demonstrate his ability to
drive in the city traffic. The teacher should be
alert at all times because of the many difficul­
ties confronting the driver in city traffic. The
217
new driver may become confused when other drivers
and pedestrians appear in the roadway. There are
signs and traffic lights to observe. The teacher
should talk very little and assist if necessary.
D.
Testing:
A check list is suggested Lesson 51.
IV.
Assignment.
1.
Follow-up.
Review material found in chapters III and IV
of Sound Driving Practices.
2
. Advance.
Continued practice in city driving.
LESSON 30
CITY DRIVING CONTINUED
I.
Objectives of lesson.
To develop further skill in driving in city traffic.
To develop further the attitude of thoughtfulness for
other drivers on the city streets.
To develop further the attitude of courtesy toward
pedestrians.
II.
Materials of instruction:
Same as Lesson 29.
Ill.
Procedure.
A.
Preparation.
In the last lesson the students experienced driv­
ing in city traffic. The route selected did not
take them into heavily traveled areas. Today
they will drive in a more heavily traveled area
of the city where more and different situations
will be faced. The new experiences will enable
the students to develop habits to meet the chang­
ing situations. They must be alert and pay strict
2 1 8
attention to tlie job of driving.
B.
Presentation.
The teacher should select a route for this lesson
which will present more traffic problems than the
last lesson. The route selected should be within
the students* ability to meet the situations.
The teacher should drive over the. route to ex­
plain and demonstrate the correct procedure. The
students diould be encouraged to look for the
sound and unsound practices of other users of the
streets. A discussion of these practices will
aid in developing a sense of responsibility
toward others on the streets.
C.
Application.
Each student should drive over the selected route
and demonstrate his ability to drive in city
traffic. The teacher must observe very carefully
the driving practices of each student and correct
any bad practices before they become habits.
D.
Testing.
A suggested check list is offered for the teacher
in Lesson 31.
IV.
Assignment.
1.
Follow-up.
Review chapters III and IV of Sound Driving
Practices.
2.
Advance.
Practice will continue in city driving.
LESSON 31
CITY DRIVING CONTINUED
I.
Objectives of the lesson.
Same as in Lesson 30.
219
II.
M a t e r i a l s
of
i n s t r uction.
Same as in Lesson 30.
Ill. Proc edure.
A.
Preparation.
In the last two lessons the students have been
driving in city traffic. They are learning to
meet the new situations in traffic by sound driv­
ing practices. These sound driving practices
should be developed into habits which will prove
valuable in future driving. Today the lesson is
in city driving and will take the students into
a heavier traveled area of the city.
B.
Presentation.
The route selected for this lesson should include
all the hazards and problems of city driving if
the students are ready for them. The teacher
should drive over the selected route and explain
and demonstrate the proper practices to the stu.dents.
C.
Application.
Have each student drive over the route and demon­
strate his ability to drive in city traffic. The
student should feel at ease but alert to the
changing traffic.
D.
Testing.
The following check list is suggested for use of
the teacher in checking the learning of the stu­
dents in new situations in city driving.
Making a quick stop by use of the foot brake.
( } 1.
Observes condition of traffic.
rect hand signal for a stop.
Gives cor­
( ) 2.
Applies foot brake smoothly without lock­
ing the wheels.
( ) 3.
Keeps car in a straight line.
230
(
)4. Comes to a complete stop within forty
feet at a speed of twenty miles per hour.
Making a quick stop by use of the hand brake.
(
)1.- Observes conditions of traffic.
correct hand signal for a stop.
Gives
(
)2. Applies hand brake without locking the
wheels.
(
)3. Keeps car in a straight line.
(
)4. Comes to a complete stop within forty
feet at a speed of twenty miles per hour.
Driving in correct lane and proper speed at intersection.
( ) 1.
Keeps car in proper lane.
( ) 2.
Gives proper signal when changing lanes.
( ) 3.
Reduces speed when approaching an inter­
section.
( ) 4.
Observes traffic condition before entering
the street intersection.
( ) 5.
Moves through intersection smoothly and
without hesitation.
( )
Speeds up and slows up without jerky mo­
tion.
6
.
(
)7. Does not try to take right-of-way.
(
}8 . Acts courteously toward pedestrians and
other drivers.
Passing through a street intersection with a slow
sign.
(
)1. Keeps car in proper lane.
(
)2. Reduces speed when approaching a stop
sign.
( ) 3.
Observes traffic conditions before enter­
ing street intersection.
( ) 4.
Moves through intersection smoothly and
without hesitation.
{■-) 5.
Does not try to take right-of-way.
( )
6
. Acts courteously toward pedestrians and
other drivers.
Stopping at stop sign before passing through an
intersection.
( ) 1
.
Gives proper signal for stopping.
( )
.
Slows down when approaching intersection.
( ) 3.
Keeps in proper lane for through traffic.
( ) 4.
Brings car to a smooth and complete stop.
C ) 5.
Observes conditions of traffic and starts
in low gear when it is safe to do so.
C )
2
6
. Moves through intersection smoothly and
without hesitation.
( ) 7.
( )
8
Does not try to take right-of-way.
. Acts courteously toward pedestrians and
other drivers.
Passing through an intersection with a flashing .
signal.
( ) 1
( )
.
2.
Keeps car in proper lane for through traf­
fic .
Reduces speed when approaching intersec­
tion.
( ) 3*
If light is red— brings car to a stop—
proceeds with caution.
( ) 4.
If light is amber— reduces speed and then
proceeds with caution.
( ) 5.
Moves through intersection smoothly and
without hesitation.
( )
6
. Acts courteously toward pedestrians and
other drivers.
Passing through an intersection with a traffic
light.
( ) 1.
Keeps car in proper lane for through traf
fic.
( ) 2.
Reduces speed when approaching intersec­
tion.
( ) 3.
If light is green— passes through inter­
section smoothly and without hesitation.
( ) 4.
If light is red— 'Stops smoothly back of
pedestrian crosswalk.
( ) 5.
If light is red— remains stopped until
light changes to green.
( ) 6.
Observes traffic conditions and moves
ahead only when it is safe to do so.
( ) 7.
Does,not try to beat traffic light.
( )
8
. Acts courteously toward pedestrians and
other drivers.
Approaching and crossing railroad tracks.
( ) 1.
Reduces speed of car and looks in both
directions.
( ) 2.
If view is obstructed— shifts to a lower
gear and approaches crossing slowly.
( ) 3.
When certain no train is approaching,
moves forward smoothly and without hesita
tion.
( ) 4.
After tracks are crossed shifts smoothly
to higher gear.
( ) 5.
Reduces speed at crossing regardless of
whether there is a watchman or signals.
Checking speed control.
( ) 1.
Keeps car in straight path.
( ) 2.
Increases speed smooth^.
223
(
)3.
Decreases speed smoothly.
(
)4.
Observes all speed limit signs.
(
)5.
Keeps eyes up and on the road.
(
}
6
. Observes carefully for pedestrians and
other drivers.
( ) 7.
Acts courteously toward pedestrians and
other drivers.
(
Holds car at even speeds.
)8 .
The check lists suggested in lessons on right
turns, left turns, turning the car around, U-turns,
stopping and starting on the upgrade, parallel
parking, angle parking, parking on upgrade and
downgrade, and turning the car around in the
width of the street should be used in checking the
driver on city driving.
IV.
Assignment.
1.
Follow-up.
2.
Advance.
The next lesson is a final check on the stu­
dents’ ability to drive. It will include all
material covered in How to Drive, chapters II,
III, IV, V, and VI, pages 8-79, and Sound
Driving Practices, chapters I, II, III, IV,
and V, pages 1-80.
LESSON 32
FINAL CHECK ON THE DRIVER
I.. Objectives of lesson.
To test the driver’s skill in driving in traffic.
To test the driver on the application of traffic
rules and regulations to his driving.
To check the attitudes and driving habits of the
driver.
2 2 4
To determine if the driver should.be recommended to
the state examiner as a fit candidate for a driver’s
license.
II.
Materials of Instruction.
How to Drive, chapters II, III, IV, V, and VI, pages
8-79.
Sound Driving Practices, chapters I, II, III, IV, and
V, pages 1-80.
Driver training car.
III.
Procedure:
A.
Preparation.
Today the students complete their course in driv­
ing lessons and this final lesson is a check on
their ability to drive in traffic, their knowl­
edge of sound driving practices, and traffic rules
and regulations.
B.
Presentation.
On this final test the teacher and the student
driver should be the only occupants of the car.
The teacher should select a route and develop the
test to include the following requirements of the
student•
1.
Starting the motor.
2.
Starting and stopping in low gear.
3.
Starting in low and shifting through second
to high gear and stopping in high gear.
4.
Starting in low and shifting through to high
gear within a distance of 175 feet and a time
limit of twelve seconds, and stopping after
giving correct hand signal.
5. Driving up a hill that will require shifting
from high to second and from second to low
using double-clutching.
6
. Stopping and starting on the upgrade.
225
7.
8
.
9.
Driving downgrade, shifting to lower gears
to aid braking of car.using double-clutching
in shifting from second to low gear.
Stopping on downgrade, and backing on up­
grade •
Parking parallel to the curb and backing out.
10.
Parking parallel to the curb on an upgrade
and downgrade.
11.
Parking at an angle to the curb and backing
out.
12.
Four methods of turning the car around by
using side streets and alleyways.
13.
Turning the car around in the width of the
street.
14.
Turning the ear around by use of the U-turn.
15.
Making at least three right turns.
16.
Making at least three left turns.
17.
Making a quick stop by use of the foot brake.
18.
Making a quick stop by use of the hand brake.
19.
Driving in correct lane and proper speed at
intersection.
20.
Passing through an intersection with a slow
sign.
21.
Stopping at a stop sign before passing
through an intersection.
22.
Passing through an intersection with a flash­
ing signal.
23.
Passing through an intersection with a traf­
fic light.
24.
Approaching and crossing railroad tracks.
25.
Control of speed in driving.
226
Tlie teacher should be careful to note the stu­
dent’s driving habits and his attitude toward
pedestrians and other drivers. The teacher does
not drive over the route with the student before
the test, but names the steps as the driver pro­
ceeds with the test.
C.
Application.'
Have each student take his turn with the teacher
at his side and demonstrate the steps as the
teacher names them.
D.
Testing.
The check lists suggested for the use of the
teacher are found in lessons 1, 7, 8 , 9, 11, 13,
15, 18, 19, 21, 25, 26, 27, and 31, and may be
used in checking the driver’s skill.
The teacher should check the student on the fol­
lowing:
IT.
(
)1.
Has developed proper attitudes toward
pedestrians.
(
)2.
Has developed proper attitudes toward
other drivers.
(
}3.
Has developed sound driving habits.
(
)4.
Has a thorough understanding of traffic
rules and regulations of community and
state.
(
)5.
Has completed satisfactorily the work in
classroom instruction.
(
}6 .
Driver is recommended to the state ex­
aminer for the driver’s license test to
qualify him for a driving license.
Assignment.
1.
Follow-up.
2.
Advance.
After the students have been passed on by the
teacher, it should be arranged for a state
examiner to give the tests for their drivers’
licenses.
■CHAPTER X
^SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, -AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Summary.
This study was made for the purpose of
constructing a course of study in automobile driving for
high school students.
It was constructed to meet educa­
tional shortages of drivers and pedestrians as shown by an
analysis of accident statistics and traffic violations.
The course of study was set up to provide classroom
instruction in traffic safety and lessons for road instruc­
tion in automobile driving.
The course was planned to give
the classroom instruction before starting the driving in­
struction on the road.
The classroom instruction in traffic safety was
divided into five units.
The units were based on the edu­
cational needs of drivers and pedestrians, and were pre­
sented under the following headings;
I.
How Will the Physical and Mental Make-up of the
Driver Affect Driving?
II.
III.
IT.
What are Driver and Pedestrian Responsibilities?
What are Sound Driving Practices?
What are Society’s Responsibilities in Improving
Traffic Conditions?
T.
How Can the Beginner Learn to Operate a Car
Efficiently?
228
Each unit was constructed with a number of objec­
tives for the teacher’s guidance in presenting the subject
matter.
A number of problems were listed for the students
to solve with a list of reading references and pupil activi­
ties to aid the students in the solution of the problems.
Suggestions for evaluation of the results of the class in­
struction were given for each unit.
Additional references'
for students, and teacher’s references and aids were suggest­
ed for each unit.
A series of thirty-two lessons for road instruction
in automobile driving was constructed to teach the students
the skills of driving efficiently.
The formation of cor­
rect driving habits and attitudes was stressed in the les­
sons.
In each lesson the objectives, materials of instruc­
tion, procedure for presentation of the lesson, the student’s
application of the lesson in actual driving practice, and
suggested check list for the use of the teacher in judging
the student’s learning were presented.
Conclusion.
In conclusion, the course of study was
constructed for the purpose of training the youth of the
United States to drive an automobile more skillfully and
safely.
The teaching of such a course should develop the
proper driving skills, habits, and attitudes, and by doing
this it would bring a reduction of traffic accidents.
course would aid the students in developing the proper
The
walking habits and attitudes,
A course of ,study in automobile driving would prove
a valuable addition to the high school curriculum.
Recommendations.
It was recommended that the entire
course including the five units of classroom instruction
and the series of lessons for road instruction in automo­
bile driving be used by the high school where such a course
is desired.
The lessons in road instruction were planned
to follow the class instruction units and to serve as a
laboratory for working out the problems of traffic safety
in actual traffic situations.
Whenever a high school found it impossible to give
the driving instructions on the road, but wanted to present
a course in traffic safety, it was recommended that the
five units in classroom instruction be used in teaching the
students.
In adult education classes or in evening high schools,
it was recommended that the entire course, the units in
classroom instruction or the lessons in road instruction,
be used as desired by the school.
It was further recommended that teachers, using the
course of study in their classes, should be on the alert
to add new material and activities as it becomes necessary
to meet the changing needs of the times.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
251
BOOKS
Bush, George L . , Theodore W. Ptacek, and John Kovats, Safety
for Myself and Others. Chicago: American Book Company,
1937. 251 pp.
‘
Contains a section devoted to driving safety.
Caswell, Hollis L., and Doak S. Campbell, Curriculum Devel­
opment . Chicago: American Book Company, 1935. 600 pp.
This book is valuable in the construction of a cur­
riculum.
Crawford, Claud C., The Technique of' Research in Education.
Los Angeles: The University of Southern California,
1924. 305 pp.
This book gives many valuable suggestions for doing
research.in education.
Floherty, John J., Youth at the Wheel. Philadelphia: J. B.
Lippincott Company, 1937. 168 pp.
A fine text in traffic safety and automobile driving.
Gives many illustrations of safe and unsafe driving ’
practices.
Marble, Priscilla R., and I. Duane Wilson, Automobile Safety.
Chicago: American Book Company, 1940. 162 pp.
A textbook on automobile driving and safety.
of driving lessons.
Has a list
Whitney, Albert W . , editor, Man and the Motor Car. New York:
The .National Conservation Bureau, 1939. 256 pp.
This book contains much valuable textual material for
use in teaching traffic safety and automobile driving.
RESEARCH STUDIES IN SAFETY
Henig, Max S., Safety Education in the Vocational Schools.
National Bureau of Casualty and Surety Underwriters,
New York: 1929. 110 pp.
A curriculum in safety education for vocational schools.
232
Miner, Frances, "How to Teach Safety in High School,"
published Master’s thesis, University of Southern
California, Xos Angeles, 1930. 230 pp.
Un­
Suggests ways of teaching safety in various high school
subjects.
Stack, Herbert J., Safety Education in the Secondary
Schools. New York: National Bureau of Casualty and
Surety Underwriters, 1929. 155 pp.
Presents much material in safety education for high
schools.
Streitz^, Ruth, Safety Education in the Elementary Schools.
New York: National Bureau of Casualty and Surety Under­
writers, 1926. 142'pp.
A course of study in safety education for elementary
schools.
PAMPHLETS
American Automobile Association, Sportsmanlike Driving
Series. Washington, D. C. Contains the following
pamphlets:
1.
2.
3.
4*
5.
The Driver. 1936. 8 8 pp.
Driver and Pedestrian Responsibilities. 1936.
80 pp.
Sound Driving Practices. 1937. 112 pp.
Society’s Responsibilities. 1937. 108 pp.
How to Drive. 1938. 112 pp.
The above series presents material for a full course in
traffic safety and automobile -driving.
Automobile Club of Southern California, A Guide to Highway
Safety. Los Angeles: 30 pp.
Applies traffic laws to driving situations.
American Association of Highway Officials, Manual of
Uniform Traffic Control Devices. Washington, D. C.:
1937. 166 pp.
General Motors Corporation, We Drivers. Detroit: 1935.
33 pp.
Offers valuable suggestions on how to drive.
253
_______, When the Wheels Revolve.
Detroit: 1955.
20 pp.
This pamphlet explains the power plant and power trans­
mission.
, Putting Progress Through Its-Paces.
3lpp.
Detroit: 1936.
Story of proving ground procedure.
Hayne, Ralph A., Stop.Carelessness I Prevent Accidents!
Chicago: International Harvester Company. 84 pp.
Contains a section on rules of the road with illustra­
tions.
International Harvester Company, I Drive Safely.
1956. 61 pp.
Chicago:
Offers many safety suggestions for motorists.
B. P. Goodrich Company, Q,uit Tour Skidding.
34 pp.
Los Angeles:
Explains causes and prevention of skidding.
Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, Calling All Drivers.
New York: 16 pp.
Contains many safe driving suggestions.
National Safety Council, Community Safety.
71 pp.
Chicago: 1939.
The booklet suggests methods for the organization of
community safety programs.
The Port of New York Authority, A Trio of Warnings. New
York: 1935. 24 pp.
Contains warnings to both pedestrians and drivers.
National Safety Council, Educating the Public for Traffic
Safety. Chicago: 32 pp.
Gives methods of educating the public to the needs of
traffic safety.
_______, Enforcement for Traffic Safety.
Chicago:
47 pp.
Gives suggestions for better traffic law enforcement.
2 3 4
_______, Engineering for Traffic Safety.
Chicago:
32 pp.
Makes suggestions for bettering traffic conditions
through engineering.
Pound, Arthur, Transportation Progress. Detroit: General
Motors Corporation, 1934. .53 pp.
A history of the development of the automobile.
Union Oil Company, How to Reduce Traffic Nerves. Los
Angeles: 1940. 27 pp.
Gives suggestions for safe driving with less nerve
strain.
VEHICLE LAWS
Department of Motor Vehicles, California Vehicle Code.
Sacramento: 1937. 352 pp.
_______ , Summary, California Vehicle Code.
1937. 40 pp.
Sacramento:
United States Department of- Agriculture,' Bureau of Public
Roads, Uniform Act Regulating Traffic on Highways.
Washington, D. C.: 1939. 49 pp.
______ ', Model Traffic Ordinances. Washington, D. C.: 1936.
30 pp.
Department of Public Safety, Oklahoma *s New Highway Safety
Laws. Oklahoma City: 1937. 33 pp.
■STATISTICAL MATERIALS
Department of Motor Vehicles, Annual Statistical Report.
Sacramento: 1940. 100 pp.
Department of Public Safety, Statistical Summary of Motor
Vehicle Traffic Accidents. Oklahoma City: 1940. 4 pp.
National Safety Council, Accident Facts.
113 pp.
Chicago: 1940.
Contains two sections on automobile accidents.
The Travelers Insurance Company, Smash Hits of the.Year*
Hartford: 1940* 37 pp.
A pamphlet of automobile accident statistics and many
suggestions for accident prevention.
TEACHERS' MANUALS AND AIDS'
California State Department of Education, Manual on Traffic
Safety for California Secondary Schools. Sacramento:
1938. 86 pp.
A valuable aid to teachers.
Borden, Newman C., and Safety Committee, Teaching Traffic
Safety. Los Angeles: Office of County Superintendent
of Schools, 1937. 57 p p.
A monograph on teaching suggestions for dealing with
the many problems of. safe driving.
General Motors Corporation, Shop Manuals for 1940 Models.
Detroit: 1940. 222 pp.
Gives valuable information on the mechanics of the car.
James, E. W . , Improving Driver Responsibility. Washington,
D. C.: American Association of Motor Vehicles Administra­
tors , 1939. 7 pp.
Johnson and Johnson, First Aid Handbook.
1933. 44 pp.
New Brunswick:
National Conservation Bureau, A Teacher's Manual Designed
for Use with Man and the Motor Car. New York: 1938.
48 pp.
A valuable teaching aid.
United States Department of Agriculture, Department of
Public Roads, Highway Accidents, Their Causes and Recom­
mendations for Their Prevent ion. Washington, D. C.:
1938. 38 pp.
COURSES OF STUDY
American Automobile Association, Sportsmanlike Driving.
Washington, D. C.: 1935. 51 pp.
236
Connecticut State Department of Education, Intelligent
Driving. Hartford: 1936. 32 pp.
Delaware State Board of Education,' The Training of Young
Automobile Drivers. Dover: 1936. 11 pp.
Kansas State Teachers College, Safety Education. Pittsburg,
Kansas: 1939. 125 pp. '
Department of Public Instruction, Education for Safety.
Xansing, Michigan: 1936. 81 pp.
Department of Public Instruction, Highway Safety. Trenton,
New jersey: Department of Motor Vehicles, 1940. 110 pp.
State Department of Education, Traffic Safety. Austin,
Texas: 1937. 36 pp.
Van Cott, Harrison H . , The Safety Education Program in High
Schools of New York State. Albany: The University of
the State of New York Press, 1938. 71 pp.
Virginia State Department of Education, Safety Education.
Richmond: The Virginia Department of the American
Xegion, 1936. 76 pp.
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