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A study of the development of safety education in the public schools of the United States with special emphasis upon traffic safety

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A Thesis
Presented to
the Faculty of the School of Education
University of Southern California
In partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Master of Science in Education
Roy Cash Harvey
June 1941
UMI Number: EP54033
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T h i s thesis, w r i t t e n u n d e r th e d i r e c t i o n o f th e
C h a i r m a n o f th e c a n d id a te ’ s G u i d a n c e C o m m i t t e e
a n d a p p r o v e d b y a l l m e m b e r s o f th e C o m m i t t e e ,
has been p r e s e n te d to a n d a c c e p t e d by th e F a c u l t y
o f th e S c h o o l o f E d u c a t i o n in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m & n t
o f th e r e q u ir e m e n t s f o r th e d e g re e o f M a s t e r o f
S c ie n c e in E d u c a t i o n .
Guidance Committee
Irving R. 14611)0
Louis P. Thorpe
D. Welty Lefever
THE P R O B L E M ........................................... 1
The P r o b l e m ......................................... 1
Purpose of the s t u d y ............................... 1
Importance of the p r o b l e m .................
The need for the s t u d y ............................. 3
Procedure ........................................
SUMMARY OF RELATED L I T E R A T U R E ...............
Research studies .............
Courses of s t u d y ...................................15
Safety monographs ................................
Safety periodicals ..............................
Early accident legislation in America ...........
Company initiative furthering safety ...........
Contributions from insurance companies .........
The National Safety C o u n c i l ................. ..
. 23
Remedial emphasis ................................
Preventative measures introduced .......... ..
Safety incorporated in other subjects ........... 38
Safety through activities .......................
Safety in the c u r r i c u l u m .......................... 44
Legislation for safety .........................
Integrating safety .
............................ 52
Safety in school shops
................... 57
Safety in the Physical Education program
Safety for rural schools
. . . .
The schoolboy patrol .............................
The junior safety council .......................
The bicycle c l u b ................................. 81
Pioneers in driver training programs
........... 89
Plan based on student questions .
.............. 92
A standard driver training program
Factors restricting program expansion ........... 97
Adequate plans in operation .............
. . . .
Recommendations ................................
B I B L I O G R A P H Y ............................................. 110
I. State Courses of Study in Safety Education . . .
The Problem:
A study of the development of safety
education in the public schools of the United States, with
special emphasis upon traffic safety is the subject to be
considered in this thesis.
Purpose of the Study.
The purpose of this study is
to follow the development of safety education within the
public schools of the United States from its embryonic
development, following the turn of the century, to its
present and possible future place of importance in the
Much has been written concerning the importance of
safety education.
The first emphasis was concerned primarily
with industrial safety, which in time evolved to a place
of importance in the school system.
The schools now facing
the problem of expanding this early phase of safety must make
it include all phases which prove valuable to the present and
future generations of society.
A careful and complete study
of this development is needed for a complete understanding
of the safety movement as a whole, and its present status
in the schools of the United States.
Changes for the
future betterment of safety education should be made in the
light of these past developments, and not pioneered by a
trial and error method when a comparatively stable and
proven path may be utilized.
Importance of the Problem.
The development of the
safety education movement has been chosen for study because
of the present interest in this field.
There has never been
a period in educational history when the child himself has
been More the center of interest than at the present time.
The curriculum is now designed upon the basis of what is best
for the child.
This change in attitude is shown significantly
in our increased consideration of the physical welfare of the
school child.
We now have magnificent school buildings with
their wonderful equipment, medical inspection and nurse ser­
vice in the schools to keep a constant check on the physical
and health conditions of the individual, the correction of
defects such as; sight, hearing, posture, and other physiolgical needs, all of which point to this increased child interest.
It is not surprising, then, that within the past
decade, attention should have been directed toward another
phase of the child's well-being, that of his safety.
child1s environment today, the community in which he lives
is very different from that of even twenty years ago.
increase in the number of motor vehicles leading to com­
plications of traffic, the growth of various new means of
transportation, the rapid advance of the machine age in
its various forms have brought many dangers to the younger
generation as well as to the older.
Almost every activity
of the child today involves contact with dangerous situat­
ions in one form or another.
The crossing of streets on
his way to and from school, his activities within the school,
his choice of places to play, and his play itself, are all
associated with hazards which were unknown a few years ago.
A study of the accident record will show that this increas­
ed association with dangerous situations of one kind or an­
other has been taking an increasingly heavy toll of lives
from the ranks of the school children as well as the adults.
The Need for the Study.
The phrase,
"experience is
the best teacher", has been used by people for many years;
but when safety is the lesson to be learned, experience is
the best teacher only when it is somebody else’s experience.
The experience of losing his life is wasted on the driver
or pedestrian killed in an automobile accident.
The ex­
perience of months on a hospital cot or of weeks in a law
court is costly tuition for ones education in safety.
these dire costs are to be avoided the experiences of others
must be utilized, to facilitate new development, and how
can these experiences be better viewed than through a study
of the development of safety?
Why this wave of popular interest in safety education
in our schools?
Why add safety instruction to our already
overcrowded curriculum?
Is safety just a transient movement
or Is it something that has come to stay?
In answering
such questions Herbert J. Stack has shown vividly the
demands of the American people and the need of an under­
standing of this comparatively new movement in the following
Undoubtedly the most important reason is that
the American people are forthe first time thoroughly
alarmed about the growing tide of accidents.
As a
people we are comparatively slow to act, but once under
way we move fast. A yearly sacrifice of over 105,000
lives as a result o f 'accidents, together with over ten
million injuries seems to great a price to pay for the
progress of the machine age. The American people have
determined that accidents must be reduced.
They are
calling upon the police, safety councils, industries,
schools, and all other agencies to help.
The movement
for safety instruction in the schools is a reflection
of the popular demand that something intelligent and
constructive must be done about it.*
The need for a study of the development of safety
education is the need of every administrator.
How can the
conscientious administrator develop a worthwhile and depend­
able driving course, direct his energies toward a coordinat­
ed community safety program, integrate safety within the
school unless he has a thorough foundation of past organizat­
ions and proven fundamentals upon which to build?
A thorough
understanding of the development will likewise prove valuable
to the individual who intends to give instruction in safety
as well as serve in the capacity of a background for the
^Herbert J. Stack, "Safety Education in High Schools",
Bulletin of the Department of Secondary School Principles,
TNational Education Association, June 1938).
pupils who are being taught,
Before starting work on this problem,
materials have been gathered from the National Safety
Council, the National Conservation Bureau, and several other
lesser known organizations interested in the development
of safety in the United States.
The library of the
University of Southern California and the Los Angeles
Public Library have been utilized to the extent of avail­
able material concerned with safety education.
materials are to be used to determine the changes and
development of safety education in the schools covering the
period since safety education has been consciously included
in the school as such.
No books or studies have been found relating primarily
to the history or development, sod short chapter concerned
with related studies will contain publications that have
been interested in the early and subsequent developments
of safety education.
The early efforts of industrial or­
ganizations will be included to show the pressure from out­
side agencies demanding the inclusion of safety in the
The development of safety education in the
curriculum of the elementary school system and its inclusion
in the high schools as an integrated subject as well as a
separate required course will portray the rapid expansion
of safety in the schools.
The development of such or­
ganizations as the student patrols, student councils, and
special clubs, in the form of extracurricular activities
to meet the problems brought to the schools by traffic •
hazards will be included.
The more recent development of
the driver training courses for the high school level will
be traced.
Conclusions and recommendations will complete
the present study.
Before preparing this thesis, a thorough examination
of all available material was conducted for related
In the past' few years, an increasing
amount of material concerned with many aspects of safety
and safety education has been made available to persons
interested in safety and its problems.
For the most part,
the materials found were confined to safety for the element­
ary schools and prove valuable in furnishing a background
upon which to work.
None of the material found could be
called completly related, but much of it was very valuable
in discerning the evolution of safety education.
following is a brief synopsis-of the most significant
materials in so far as safety education within the school
program is concerned.
The Present Status of Safety Education.
first real interest in safety education in so far as the
schools were concerned appeared in the meeting of the
National Society for the Study of Education in 1925, and
resulted in the dedication of the twenty-fifth yearbook
to the subject of safety education.
The yearbook-1* was devoted to a series of articles
showing the development of the safety idea in industry and
its carry-over into the schools.
Then following is a dis­
cussion of the subject matter for education and the pre­
valent methods of administering safety education in the
This book furnishes an excellent picture of the
status of safety education in 1926 and forms an interesting
background for comparison with the present day situation.
It served as a spur to interest in the new field and was
probably responsible for the development of interest on
the part of many communities and school systems.
persons contributing to this book have since then gone
ahead and carried out further research studies and con­
tributed much to the field of safety education.
Safety for the Elementary Schools.
Ruth Streitz,
a contributor to the twenty-fifth yearbook of the National
Society for the Study of Education, in 1928, made a
graduate study in Teachers College, Columbia University,
on safety education in the elementary schools.
A technique
*The Present Status of Safety Education, Part I of
Twenty-Fifth Yearbook of the Society for the Study of
Education, ("Bloomington Illinois: Public Schools Publishing
Company, 1926).
^Ruth Streitz, Safety Education in the Elementary
Schools, (New York: National Bureau of Casualty and
Surety Underwriters, 1928).
for developing subject matter, it was an attempt to build
up in an analytical way, a course of study readily adapt­
able to the needs of any particular community desiring it.
She studied the available material and observed techniques
in use in the schools at that time and produced a suggested
course of study for the grades from one to eight of the
elementary school.
Many of the conclusions reached were
very significant for the furtherance of safety in the
elementary schools and it is yet one of the outstanding
pieces of work in coordinating community safety into the
curriculum of the school in the lower grades.
Safety Education in the Secondary Schools.
1929 Herbert J. Stack
the high school.
made a study of safety education in
This study was carried on at Columbia
University in connection with a fellowship established by
the National Bureau of Casualty and Surety Underwriters.
Doctor Stack made a very comprehensive study of accident
records in the years 1915 to 1928, and of safety methods
used in industry and transportation.
He studied the safety
activities in secondary schools including the various
safety councils, patrols, and other organizations.
analysis was made of safety materials found in secondary
^Herbert J. Stack, Safety Education in the Secondary
Schools, (New Xork: National Bureau of Casualty and Surety
Underwriters, 1929).
school text-books.
A list of the most common accidents
occuring to school children was compiled which has proven
very vital to the construction of a comprehensive course
of study for safety education.
Of major importance was
his attempt to allocate to the grade levels, and subjects
taught, those safety practices most pertinent.
He emphasiz­
es the need for a curriculum that will meet the ever chang­
ing conditions of society and will take into special con­
sideration the safety requirements of primary local
Accident Prevention in the Vocational School.
This study completed in 1928 by Max S. Henig4 took into
consideration those accidents occuring in a vocational
school over a three year period.
These accidents were
analyzed according to the departments in which they occurr­
ed and the type of accident.
A safety curriculum was or­
ganized upon these findings.
Following the introduction
of this curriculum a seven percent decrease in accidents
was noted.
He concluded that accident prevention, in order
to be effective, should supply the habit of working safely
and the knowledge necessary to enable the student to forsee the possible occurrence of a mishap.
The student must
4Max S. Henig, Safety in the Vocational School,
(New York: National Bureau of Casualty and Surety
Underwriters, 1929).
have instilled within him the desire to work under those
conditions offering the greatest degree of safety possible.
Positive versus Negative Education.
James Vaughn
In 1928
completed an experimental study of the effects
of various types of instruction on behaviour.
This was a
significant addition to the question of methods of teach­
ing safety.
Mister Vaughn points out that verbal instruct­
ion unsupported by other forms of stimulation is relatively
ineffective with children.
Demonstrations of the manner
in which injury may take place is more effective in shap­
ing behavior than either positive or negative directions.
Negative instruction was shown to have a slight superiority
over positive instruction'in reducing undesirable responses.
A Guide Book for Safety Education.
This book,
published by the National Bureau of Casualty and Surety
under the direction of Miss Emma A. Schadd,
Chairman of the Baltimore Schools Safety Committee, covers
all the grades from kindergarten through the senior high
school, and takes into consideration the safety activities
of the vocational schools.
This book emphasizes the teaching
5James S. Vaughn, Positive v s . Negative Instruction,
(New York: National Bureau of Casualty and Surety Underwriters,
National Bureau of Casualty and Surety Underwriters, A
Guide Book for Safety Education, (New York: National Bureau of
Casualty and Surety Underwriters,1931).
of safety during the student1s life in school where it is
most acceptable.
The various grades are covered in groups
of three, as the writers believe safety cannot be too close­
ly confined to single grades.
Emphasis is placed upon
correlation with subjects and not grades, as has been done
in so many school systems.
Safety Education in the Schools.
In 1932 the
White House Conference on Child Health and Protection17
published a report of its subcommittee on Safety Education
in Schools.
The report gave statistics regarding accidents
and a brief statement of the status of safety education in
the schools to show the need for further work in safety.
Another section of the report deals with methods and
materials of instruction, giving suggestions for grades
from kindergarten through high school, for vocational
schools and rural schools.
There is a discussion under
extra-curricular activities, of safety clubs,
junior safety
councils, school boy patrols, and other safety organizations.
Results of safety education have been measured from
statistical studies of certain sections, both before and
after safety programs have been installed.
unAut? xiouse Conference on Child Health and Protection,
Safety Education in the Schools. Report of the Subcommittee
on Safety Education in the Schools, (New York: The Century
Company, 1952).
Safety Education in the Public Schools of the
United States,
In 1936 Robert MacMillan® published a study
of safety education in the United States.
This study is
very valuable in showing the status of safety education
in the schools up until 1936.
The accident problem is portrayed by means of a thorough diagnosis of the
accidents occuring from 1925 to 1935.
School safety or­
ganizations are described, and the outside influences
aiding in a comprehensive safety program are enumerated.
Included are published typical plans for city courses of
study taken from actual practice in those cities seemingly
giving superior instruction.
An excellent analysis of
objectives of safety education and of contents of courses
of study is given.
The setting forth of present trends,
conclusions and suggestions is very informative and
Who Pays.
A book written by Ernest Greenwood^
is concerned with the astounding prevalence of accidents
in Industry and in motor vehicle operation.
He gives an
excellent picture of the accident problem and its cost to
the people in lives lost and persons injured, as well as
^Robert MacMillan, Safety Education in the Public
Schools of the United States» (Doctors Thesis, Temple
University Philadelphia, Penn., 1936).
Ernest Greenwood, Who Pays. (Garden City, New York:
Doubleday, Daran and Company., 1934).
estimations of monetary losses based upon working time lost
and materials destroyed.
These figures are truly appalling
and surpass the national costs of wars or education.
are many excellent suggestions given as to what the people
could do and should do to reduce these losses.
with national agencies having actual experience in the field
of safety is stressed.
Safety Education.
The eighteenth yearbook
published by the American Association of School Administrators'^
is the most recent publication devoted wholly to safety in
the schools.
The book takes into consideration every aspect
of safety and its school relationship.
A factual background
is presented to show the need for safety in the modern
curriculum, and suggested programs are given for the
elementary and secondary schools.
The new and important
question of driver training is presented with its implicat­
ions to the progressive secondary school.
The problem of
adult education for safety, and the training of a proper
teaching personnel is given more importance in this book
than in other publications.
Stress is placed upon the
proper locating, planning, and equipping of the school
plant; and the coordination of community and national
"Safety Education", American Association of School
Administrators, Eighteenth Yearbook, (Washington, D.G.,
1201 sixteenth Street, Northwest, 1940).
agencies in reducing the casualties caused by accidents.
The author has examined numerous courses of study
from various states and cities.
These courses of study
present valuable material for comparisons with courses of
studies used when safety education was in its infancy and
floundering for definite materials to teach, and product­
ive methods of teaching.
There is an abundance of material available in the
form of monographs or pamphlets.
This material is being
published by national and local safety councils, and the
numerous insurance agencies found throughout this country.
Several Automobile Clubs are doing some exceptionally fine
work in the field of driver and automoMtfe safety.
* 1.
National Safety Council.
This organization has
published a considerable number of booklets emphasizing
safety and its correlation with the home, school and
Community Safety-*--*- is one pamphlet by this
company deserving special mention here.
It is concerned
with a balanced program for the reduction of accidents in
Community Safety, (Chicago: National Safety Council,
Inc., 19377"!
any community.
Their recommendations are based on actual
experiences and practices of many communities long recogniz­
ed for outstanding achievements in accident prevention.
The importance of cooperation between the communities1
education, engineering, and enforcement departments is
stressed and outlined in detail .
Metropoliton Life Insurance Company is one of
the many insurance companies doing extensive work in the
field of safety.
Their monograph, Industrial Safety
Education in the Schools,
is an excellent contribution
showing how the schools may organize a safety program
and consequently reduce accidents in the manual arts
The outline shows the importance of building
a safety consciousness within the individual, as well as
controlling the actual physical features of the workshop
which must be protected.
Herbert J. Stack,
the director of the Center
for Safety Education, New York University, is one of the
outstanding men in the field of safety education for the
schools and has written articles covering all phases of the
^Industrial Safety Education in Schools, School
Health Monograph No. 10, (New York: Metropolitan Life
Insurance Company).
■^Herbert J. Stack, Safety Education in the Schools,
(New York: National Conservation Bureau, 60 John Street).
His material is especially valuable to those school
officials introducing or extending safety work in any school
The introduction of driving courses for the second­
ary schools is one of Doctor Stack1s favorite fields.
There are many magazines printed at the present time
which are interested in the field of safety in general.
There are only two that deal primarily with subjects of
interest to the schools promoting a safety education program.
Safety Education, A Magazine of the Good
The educational section of the National Safety
Council publishes this magazine-^ every month which is
devoted to the safety interests of the schools.
magazine is excellent for both the elementary and secondary
New suggestions are continually appearing in
articles written by persons conducting safety campaigns in
the various school systems of the country.
Many of these
articles give a vivid insight into what is being done, as
to the new methods and materials being used.
Each issue
includes appropriate posters in color to be used in the
different grades for special campaigns.
This magazine is
^ S a f e t y Education, A Magazine of the Good Adventure,
(New York: Educational Section, National Safety Council).
in use by schools in all parts of the country.
Yearly Accidents Statistics.
A little manual
of statistics published yearly by the public safety division
of the National Safety Council in Chicago, contains out­
standing facts concerned with the accident situation.
gives a thoroughly clear analysis and understanding of the
causes and circumstances of accidents, as well as the
number occurring yearly.
Injuries, deaths, and property
damage are interpreted and segregated for use in future
Safety Engineering.
This monthly periodical
is one of several magazines devoted to safety in industry.
It is concerned with methods for the reduction of accidents
in every type of industry and is not primarily concerned
with the educational aspects of safety for the schools.
This magazine gives a good view of safety as it is im­
portant to industry by reduction of personal injury to
the workers and physical injury to the plant.
There is scarcely a current magazine of recent issue
especially the industrial or educational magazines which
does not contain articles concerned with safety.
-^Accident Facts, (Chicago, 111.: National Safety
Safety Engineering, (Hew York: The Insurance Press).
fact is not surprising when viewed with the staggering
statistics of the nation’s aggregate loss in lives alone
due to avoidable accidents.
The foregoing review is not exhaustive.
The purpose
has been to furnish a useful working background of readily
available material bearing directly upon the safety problem
and safety education in the schools.
Many publications
have not been included, either because they are out of
print or otherwise difficult of access, or because they
are too general in character to be of specific value.
No attempt has been made to list the large number of
courses of study, textbooks, and supplementary readers
which contain small amounts of safety material.
bulletins on safety education have been omitted because
of their numbers, brevity and the difficulty of obtaining
The condition of safety with respect to any people
grows out of their habits of living or of acting at
any given time. For example in a primitive society,
even in a nomadic state and later among peoples with
simple industrial interests, or even in modern times
with its complex manufacturing equipments, hazards
exist against which precautions have to be, taken if
life itself is to be preserved, personal injury
avoided and social purpose realized. ^
The birth of the safety movement as we know it today
• has been credited to industry, but a definite date for the
actual beginning is difficult to establish.
It is true
that the rapid development of machinery for the manufacture
of goods, and for their transportation, during the lastihalf
of the nineteenth century had eliminated many of the hazards
which had confronted the early pioneers, but each new develop­
ment connected with electricity, chemistry or mechanical
equipment was responsibile for the introduction of even more
potent and serious dangers than had previously existed.
Along with this industrial development came an ever increas­
ing respect for the life and health of the workman and his
These new industrial processes caused a large increase
Albert B. Meredith, "Summary and Outlook: Future
Problems”, Part one of Twenty Fifth Yearbook of the National
Society for the Study of Education, p. 349.
in the number of fatal and other accidents to the employees.
Accidents were commonplace and accepted as a necessary evil
to be expected where mass production was demanded.
were looked upon as a by-product, a price which had to be paid
for industrial progress.
The employer was considered to
have done more than his duty if he gave a permanently injured
worker a job as watchman or reimbursed the widow for the
funeral expenses of an employee who had been killed.
sued for damages by an injured workman, the employer could
fall back on three major defenses.
These were that the
injured party nad assumed the risk; that the accident had
been due to a fellow worker whose actions the employer could
not be expected to control; and that the injured man him­
self had been guilty of contributory negligence.
defenses, coupled with the burden of proof and the cost of
legal action, made it almost impossible for the injured
employee to recover damages.
European industrial centers were the first to realize
the importance of safety to the worker.
In 1844 the British
Parliament adopted Lord Ashley1s "Great Factory Act",re­
quiring among other provisions, the protection of moving
This was the first legal action taken by a
nation to meet the preventable dangers faced by workmen.
Other countries established museums of safety in which were
placed all known methods for guarding against dangers found
in industry.
This method of promoting safety had "been used
in Europe several years before its inception in America.
Attention first centered on safety devices and other
mechanical means of protection, and in 1907 there was
held the first public exhibition of these devices in
the American museum of Natural History and under the
auspices of the American Institute of Social Science.
This was the first adaption of the exhibit method of
education in safety--an importation from Europe.
this display grew the American Museum of Safety, which
has done much splendid work under the direction of
Mr. Arthur Williams, its present p r e s i d e n t . 2
The American Museum of Safety is a non profit organi­
It does not sell safety devices but places the
many inventions on display where they may be studied by
safety engineers for adoption in industry.
The dangers of
occupational diseases and hazardous working conditions are
graphically shown and the devices for the prevention of
these conditions may be seen in prominent displays.
As we have already seen, European countries had en­
acted laws for protection of the worker— The Great Factory
Act by England in 1844— other governments established and
maintained museums of safety for the purpose of protecting
the workman.
In the United States, the state of Massachusetts made
a law in 1877 to compel employers to safeguard dangerous
^Earnest Greenwood, Who Pays, :(Garden City, New York:
Doubleday Doran and Company, 1934), p.144
machinery, and during the next thirty years most of the
progressive industrial states enacted similar laws.
is no doubt that these laws contributed to the safety of the
workman, but they were full of loopholes and too often there
was no means of enforcing them.
In 1898 the state of New
York adopted the first Workmans compensation bill.
This bill
gave an incentive for safety, and probably was the beginning
of what is known as the organized safety movement.
The work­
m a n ’s compensation law has since been adopted by practically
every state in the union, and the workman no longer assumes
the risks of the job he is doing.
The employer now must
provide safe working conditions or pay the penalty.
To Larenzo A. Coffin goes the credit for the first
federal law requiring safety appliances.
Coffin was a state
railroad commissioner, and in 1893, after a four year fight,
a bill was passed and signed by President Harrison requir­
ing automatic couplers and air brakes for trains.
This law
has since saved many thousands of persons from being injured
or killed, and it was not long after the enactment of this
legislation that reilroads began to organize their employees
for a part in the war against accidents.
It would be impossible to cover in a short space the
laws and codes that have been enacted by the federal and
state legislators since 1910 to control safety in the numer­
ous fields of industry.
Every progressive city, county, and
state in the union have codes controlling the condition under
which the employee may work as well as controlling the con­
struction of the buildings and factories in which they work.
' Between 1905 and 1910 a few far-sighted employers
began to realize that accidents were wasteful, that they
intercepted production, and that it was expensive to break
in new men.
They began to study their accidents, asking
not whose fault was it but how could it have been prevent­
ed. They concluded that, even though legally it might
be negligence for a workman to put his hand into unguard­
ed gears, neverthless the simplest way to prevent such
an accident was to guard the gears.
They therefore sought
out all danger points which could possible be guarded and
proceeded to guard them. They began to study every in­
dustrial operation from the standpoint of the safety to
the workman as well as the speed and economy of product­
ion, and of quality of product.
It has often been said that the present status of
safety is due, primarily, to selfishness on the part of in­
dustry, but out of this natural desire for self-protection
has grown a new regard for humanity in general.
Safety to
Industry has a much broader conception than the saving of
life and the prevention of injury to workmen.
The follow­
ing quotation shows a vivid picture of industrial reasoning
without which the mere saving of human life would have been
^Sidney J. Williams, "Development of the Safety Movement”,
Twenty Fifth Yearbook. National Society for the study of
* (Bloomington, Illinois: Public School Publishing
Company, 1926), p.5
comparatively unimportant to the people of a rapidly ex­
panding nation.
Suppose a workman is pushing a truck load of material
through a shop.
Suppose that, as sometimes happens, one
piece falls off and hits a workmans foot and injures it.
This not only causes pain to the workman, but an economic *
loss to the employer for medical service and for compen­
sation to the workman.
Now, there are many other times—
perhaps a hundred or more— when a piece of material falls
off the truck but does not happen to fall on the workman1s
Every time this happens there is more or less dam­
age to either material or floor; the workman must stop
and pick up the piece— perhaps he must call some one else
to help him; other trucks behind him are forced to wait;
the machine operator who is to use the material may be
The safety inspector investigating the occasion­
al injury will, upon remedying the cause save not only
an occasional injury but a more frequent loss of time.
From the economic stand point the injury is chiefly im­
portant, not because of its direct cost, but because it
attracts attention to a condition of inefficiency which
in the aggregate is even more costly.^
From the best information available it seems that as
an industry, iron and steel can be justly credited with the
first comprehensive effort to organize an entire industry.
In 1906 Judge Cary issued his historic instructions:
United States Steel Corporation expects its subsidiary
companies to make every effort practicable to prevent injury
to its employees.
will be authorized.
Expenditure necessary for such purposes
Nothing which will add to the protection
of the workmen should be neglected.M Since this statement
many lives have been saved, injuries avoided, and production
increased all of which has more than balanced the added cost
incident to safety. 5
Irf 1907 the Association of Iron and Steel Electrical
Engineers was formed and they appointed a safety committee,
the first to be established by any association in the United
States.^Accident prevention grew in importance as a topic
for discussion at its annual conventions, until finally, in
1911, it was decided to hold a larger and more widely rep­
resentative conference at which safety should be the sole
topic for discussion.
At last a nation wide agency for
efficient dissemination of safety principles was forming.
The insurance companies enter the picture of safety
as they have been called upon by industry for relief from
financial burdens caused by accidents, death, illness,
property damage or destruction and a variety of other econ­
omic losses.
The passage of the workmen’s compensation laws
following the turn of the century gave the insurance compan­
ies an incentive to become safety conscious.
Contrary to
the belief of the average citizen that the insurance companies
make a profit out of misfortune, they, actually.
^Greenwood, Op. Cit., p. 113
^Louis De Blois, f,How the Safety Movement Began, H
Safety Education, 14;63, March, 1931.
can only make money from accident prevention and by curative
medical and surgical treatments when accidents occur.
of the organized safety movements, Workmen's compensation
laws, accident prevention and fire prevention, will be found
the insurance engineering executive whose one time small
department is now the most important factor in conducting
the whole business of insurance.
It is this same department
which realized the conditions, and consequently has greatly
reduced the accident hazard, thus benefitting society.
A look into the laboratories of the engineering
department of any great casualty company would find model
factories being studied for danger points, floor surfacing
being tested for safety, clothes undergoing rigid testsffor
protecting the worker, and numerous other similar activities
being carried on to constantly reduce the accidents to the
people in every walk of life.
The engineers in the occupation­
al diseases laboratory are constantly studying ways and means
of eliminating all the types of diseases that may affect the
The following quotation by Henry Swift Ives, Special
Counsel of the Association of Casualty and Surety Executives,
vividly portrays the importance of insurance in the modern
Its trade-mark is indelibly impressed upon every man­
ufactured thing.
Its sentinels stand guard at every sta­
tion through which the trade and commerce of the world
passes in its long and torto.rtous journey from producer to
It is only because of the safeguard which
insurance offers that civilized man may comb the world
for his needs with little fear that he will be deprived
of the fruits of his labor by storm, fire, accident, and
other uncertainties which constantly beset him* ?
Insurance has made many invaluable contributions to
the efforts to solve the accident problems.
It is spending
millions of dollars every year, and the time of thousands
of technicians, engineers and students, yet in spite of all
it has done and is doing, the loss in some fields, especially
automobile accidents, is steadily increasing.
The insurance companies believe that it is in the
field of education— education of the general public and
education of coming generations through its support of safety
education in the public schools, that it may make its great­
est contributions in the future.
The insurance companies
through their national organizations, The National Bureau
of Casualty and Surety Underwriters,have been contributing
many thousands of dollars yearly to the work of the education­
al section of the National Safety Council.
That this work
is worth while is shown by the fact that an estimated sav­
ings of over 7,500 school children yearly, Is a direct result
of this work,
The National Safety Council has been mentioned several
^Greenwood, o£, cit., p. 164.
times in this chapter and the preceeding one, and as it is
the outstanding agency in America for the dissemination of
safety principles, it should receive special mention here.
The Safety Committee appointed in conjunction with
the Association of Iron and Steel Electrical Engineers
(in 1907) became so important by 1911 that it was decided
to hold a larger and more widely representative conference
at which safety should be the sole topic for discussion.
Invitations were sent out and the first meeting of the C o o p e r ­
ative Safety Congress was held in Milwaukee in 1912.
problem confronting this congress was a National organization
for the promotion of safety to human life.
They gave an open
invitation to all organizations concerned with safety prob­
Thus was launched a national institution that carried
on through two annual safety congresses by voluntary effort,
starting with sixteen men and no money, it has become the
most powerful organization in the world, devoting its time
and resources solely to accident prevention.
In 1913 a modest office In Chicago was converted into
the first headquarters for the National Council for Industrial
Safety, and is now known as the National Safety Council.
had forty members by this time and has grown until at the
present time its membership numbers over five thousand.
following quotation clearly shows the purpose of the organ­
The story of the National Safety Connell is one of
revolutionary achievment that follows the law of progress­
ive development.
Humanitarian facts declared war on
indifference, prejudice, ignorance, selfishness, and
Hearts clashed with minds.
On every side
the waste in human lives and human suffering due to un­
necessary and entirely stupid accidents is constantly
growing— humanity*s junk*pile representing a form of
inefficiency entirely out of keeping with the claim that
we are the most efficient nation in the world.8
In 1914 the first safety poster was issued and during
recent years over three million posters have been distrib­
uted yearly to all parts of the country.
In 1918 the first
issue of THE NATIONAL SAFETY NEWS appeared as a forerunner
of many other publications.
"Accident Facts, 11 now accepted
as the national statistics authority made its first appear­
ance in 1921.
In 1923 the educational division was established and
has since carried on a nation wide campaign of safety educa­
tion in the public schools.
A monthly publication, Safety
Education, was issued, which keeps pace with the times and
distributes useful material among the schools.
The National Safety Council has saved untold numbers
of lives since its inauguration and i s •steadily forging
ahead to new achievments.
This non profit organization de­
pends solely upon contributions, mostly from industry, for
It cooperates with all agents and individuals
clt., p. 149
when there is a possibility to reduce accidents or benefit
humanity by eliminating hazardous conditions.
This wave oi£ increasing interest in industrial
accidents played a very important part in introducing safety
to the schools of the nation.
Industry has furnished many
of the statistics upon which the schools built their first
programs of safety.
Experts have taken time from their
duties in the factory to give talks to the classes within
the schools.
Industries have welcomed inspections by or­
ganized groups of,school children so that they might see at
first hand the efforts being made to safeguard the worker.
The most important contributions to the safety education
section of the National Safety Council are industrial con­
cerns who realize the importance of safety education and
make either direct contributions or subscribe to the safety
education magazine and distribute it to the schools in their
Insurance companies concentrate much of their
efforts upon education in their desire to eliminate haz­
ardous conditions.
These same insurance companies are re­
sponsible for a continual flow of accident prevention
literature, available and very important to the schools
carrying on a comprehensive safety program.
In the past years educators have exhibited some
reluctance in accepting new movements into the curriculum.
They know the predisposition of the public to feel that a
problem has been solved when it has been referred to the
schools; unfortunately that same public is prone to complain
about the results.
Safety education to some teachers may
still appear to be just another of the tasks which parents
and legislators are all too willing to thrust upon an al­
ready overburdened curriculum and school personnel, but the
majority of the school personnel has accepted the teaching
of safety as a responsibility of the schools.
The following
quotation will perhaps serve to illustrate this acceptance
by schools; and explain the rapid rise to a place of
prominence which safety now holds in the modern school
Undoubtedly the most important reason that educat­
ion has a definite hold upon our schools is that the
American people are for the first time thoroughly
alarmed about the growing tide of accidents.
a people we are comparatively slow to act, but once
started, we move_fast.
A,yearly sacrifice of over
10.5,000 lives as a result of accidents, together with,
over ten million injuries seems too great a price
to pay for the progress of the machine age.
American people have determined that accidents must
be reduced.
They are calling upon the police, safety
council, industries, schools and all other agencies
to help*
The strong movement for safety instruction
in the schools is a reflection of the popular demand
that something intelligent and constructive must
be done about it.l
As may be seen from Chapter Three, the schools are
not alone in shouldering the burden of safety education.
Industrial, legislative, enfordement, and engineering
agencies have all given ample evidence of their willing­
ness to accept responsibility.
The magnitude of the.
lem of safety is so great that there is room for the
continued and expanded efforts of every agency.
the knowledge and attitude of the individual, who is both
a potential aggressor and potential victim, are so in­
evitably a part of the problem, the combined efforts of
all other agencies cannot be effective without the fund­
amental and thorough educational contributions which only
the schools can make.
Certain elements of safety education were in evidence
in the textbooks used in the elementary schools as early
as 1845.
The emphasis in these earlier years was distinctly
remedial rather than preventative.
A textbook entitled
11Anatomy and Physiology Designed for Schools ana Families11
^Herbert J. Stack, Safety Education in the Schools,
York: National Education Association, 1938), p.2
by Calvin Cutler, M.D., in use at this time contains the
following statement.
To make a knowledge of the structure and function
of the different organs practical the laws of the sever­
al parts, and the condition on which health and disease
depend, have been clearly and succinctly explained*
Hence it may be called a treatise on the principle of
hygiene and health.
To render this department more complete, an
appendix has been added, in which the appropriate
treatment of burns, wounds, dangerous hemorrhage from
divided arteries-the management of persons apparently
drowning and sick in rooms-have been detailed that
persons may know what should be done and what should
not be done until a surgeon or physicial can be called.""
It is interesting to note that the emphasis was
placed upon the remedy, that is, the students were instruct­
ed in what we now call first aid.
This type of teaching
is not to be discouraged as it is still a very important
and laudable subject within the curriculum of the schools,
but it is now found on the high school level or in the
junior high schools.
The preventative methods first in­
corporated in the schools still hold to the primary subject
of health for the human body and not a freedom from injuries
caused by accidents.
During the period ending in 1913, accident prevention
"""^Calvin Cutter, M.D., Anatomy and Physiology Designed
for. So ho Q la,., and. Families, (Boston Publishing Comoany, 1845),
was gradually gaining importance in a few of the more
progressive or interested school systems.
In 1906 a
course of study and syllabus in physiology and hygiene
for the new lower public schools included such precautions
as keeping poisons from children, and causes and relief
for suffocation.
The dangers of fires as a topic to be
emphasized in the first eight grades was included in the
course ‘
of study for the Dayton public schools in 1910.
In 1913 a distinct emphasis was placed upon accident
This was coincident with the increased attent­
ion that industries were giving, or beginning to give, to
the reduction of accidents.
Under the direction of the
National Safety Council a supplementary reader entitled
,fSure Pop and the Safety Scouts”3 was prepared.
other supplementary readers dealing with safety education
appeared, and accident prevention was finally beginning
to receive the long deserved attention necessary for the
deduction of accidents.
Some of the railroads and public utilities companies
made early efforts to appeal to, and educate the general
public for cooperation in the avoidance of accidents.
1916 the Brooklyn Rapid Transit System distributed to the
schools a safety calendar and a safety film; in 1917 the
3Roy Rutherford Bailey, Sure Pop and the Safety Scouts,
(Yonkers on the Hudson, New York: World Book Company, 192?).
Bureau of Safety in Chicago, serving various public utilities,
produced a pamphlet on the safety instruction in the schools,
at about the same time the Philadelphia Rapid Transit Com­
pany and others sent representatives into the schools to
talk safety to the children.
Railroads distributed safety
stories, safety pictures, and the like among both children
and adults.
Safety essay contests were sponsored by motor
clubs and others.
All of these activities were necessary to start a
foundation upon which to build a safety program, but they
were fragmentary and were not based upon real experiences
which educators were seeking as a guide for safety instruct­
ion in the schools.
Money for such an experiment came
from the Rational Safety Council, when in 1918 they ap­
propriated $5,000 to finance a six months safety campaign
in Rochester, New York.
A comprehensive educational
campaign was conducted,
including a study of accident
statistics; a committee organization, public meetings,
publicity by posters, newspapers, pictures, etcetera; work
in the schools and on the playgrounds; a study of traffic
ordinances and possible improvements; and various miscel­
laneous activities.
The results of this campaign were
carefully compiled and published, so furnishing something
definite in the line of safety education from which other
communities or schools could work.
Localized programs were the first important type
comprehensive accident prevention programs carried on by
the school.
This type of program was carried on by schools
in sections where the population of the community worked
in one specialized field of industry and the children com­
ing from this community would probably be employed,in the
same or similar jobs as those held by their fathers.
school authorities working with the industrial officials
compiled accident statistics of the local community, and
prepared a safety program for the betterment of local work­
ing conditions, and to instill within the pupil an attitude
of safety towards those hazardous conditions peculiar to
the industry of his community.
This type of program is
still effective especially in the industrial sections of
the country, but the accidents from motor vehicles are
increasing, and emphasis is being transferred from industrial
accidents to automobile accidents, so that this type of
program, in itself, is no longer sufficient for any school.
By 1923 the schools throughout the country were
establishing programs for the reduction of the accidents on
a somewhat scientific basis.
Charts were available which
segregated accidents into age groups from specific causes,
and a study of these statistics afforded school administrators
the vital information needed for a conscientious safety
These charts pointed out that the greatest number
of deaths to children under fifteen years of age were
caused by automobile accidents, burns came second, drownings third, accidental deaths by firearms fourth, and falls
fifth, while accidents from asphyxiation, railroads etc.,
were comparatively few.
The administrators built their
programs around these findings and a beginning to modern
safety education was under way even tho some of these
early overtures now seem insufficient.
Safety precepts were injected into the other subjects
in the curriculum and long lists of dofs and dont*s were
compiled for safety in connection with traffic hazards,
burns, and the other dangers pointed out by the accident
As safety progressed statistics pointed out that
the home was one of the centers for accidents to both
children and adults, so an attempt was made to emphasize
these danger points.
Questionaires were compiled and sent
home with the child to be filled out with the cooperation
of the parents.
These charts furnished much of the know­
ledge necessary for home safety, not only for the child, but
were regarded as creating parent interest in a safer home.
Home safety was given a definite place in the school
curriculum and as a reward the present day statistics show
a decided decrease in home accidents to school children
over the decrease in the adult age groups.
Fire prevention received early consideration in the
schools, and state legislatures passed laws compelling this
type of instruction to be included in the curriculum long
before other types of safety education received legislative
The lecture method of teaching was first employ­
ed, with'the usual long list of “do's and dont's11 presented,
with regard to the various hazardous conditions.
were called in for specialized talks and demonstrations.
The fire drill has proven to be a very effective method
of making a child fire-conscious, but as educational methods
are changing, the dramatization, or activity methods of
teaching have proven much more beneficial than these other
The safety campaign type of organization has been
utilized by probably every school in this country at one
time or another, but the principals and superintendents, in
a large percentage of the cases, have complained that they
had no means to continue safety once the campaign was over.
■They said the old methods of positive and negative education
did not prove to be effective enough to support a comp­
rehensive program for safety principles.
This attitude
on the part of the school personnel was perhaps justified
40 .
after a period of stagnation developed by a lack of new
materials, methods, and objectives.
With the new progres­
sive schools and the instigation of new and varied methods
of instruction into the classroom,
taken on a new meaning.
safety education has
Safety teaching is now considered
largely the provision of circumstances which afford the in­
dividual practice in meeting those hazardous situations
which are most likely to develop.
Mrs. Ray has given the definition of safety education
as the development of a knowledge of the common causes of
accidents; habits of personal safety and a consciousness
of responsibility for the safety of others; respect for
those individuals whose duty it is to enforce regulations
of safety.3
The opinion of many educators is given expression
in the following quotation.
It is quite impossible to train children in
character merely by talking to them or by giving them
books to read on the subject, and it is quite impos­
sible to teach safety effectively without some op­
portunity to practice the principles of safety
The school is limited in scope, but in
so far as it can, i t 'should provide conditions
which give the pupils practice in meeting actual life
Of course there are limitations to this sort of
. Mary Ray, New Developments in Elementary School
Safety Programs, Proceedings' ofNational SafeiyCounciT,1936,p .97.
^Charles H. Lake, Safety Education for Elementary Schools,
Proceedings of National Safety CouncIT7~T93S. p. 113'.
For example, it would not be wise to have child­
ren jump from a fifth story window into a fire net on the
presumption that some time they might be confronted with
a situation which called for such a proceedure.
The intent­
ion is to teach the children how to conduct themselves so
that they, may avoid the necessity for emergency proceedures.
One of the essentials of such education is to teach people
to observe, to be aware of their surroundings and circum­
This applies to the whole field of education,
but it applies particularly to the teaching of safety.
Safety education is no longer’ considered the mere
acquisition of a fund of knowledge; the habits a child
forms, his attitudes toward life and his happiness are
regarded by modern educators as of far more importance.
Safety is concerned especially with the whole child and
his relationship with others.
It undertakes through the
guidance and exercise of children, mentally and physically,
to establish ideals and standards of living which, through
inculcated habits, may produce good citizens.
The modern school makes the best possible use of
routine activities of its buildings and. grounds for the
purpose of instilling safety attitucles and developing
safety habits.
Children must pass through crowded cor­
ridors, go up and down stairs, move classroom furnitire,
open and close doors, cross streets on the way to and from
school, and do many other things which afford excellent
opportunities for the teaching of safety.
In many schools
the most important committee of the school safety program
is the school boy safety patrol and the safety committee.
The success of this type of .work, is demonstrated by a
greatly reduced number of accidents taking place at
controlled crossings, and is of enough importance to be
dealt with more fully in a following chapter.
Much safety is taught in correlation with other
subjects in the progressive schools activity program.
is frequently considered in the language period,
as it
affords live and interesting material for both orad. and
written compositions.
In handcraft, proper use of tools
and care in handling materials is taught.
It may be
portrayed in pictures and posters produced in art classes,
for when the child makes an original safety poster there
is a likelihood of his retaining the idea he has expressed.
Social studies afford one of the best fields for
integration of safety ideas.
Here the basic needs of food,
shelter and clothing are taught and an understanding of
human essentials developed.
Trips and excursions to
several of the town*s many business establishments such
as; bakeries, dairies, markets, building construction,
etc., may be carried on which result in lively discussions
and the formulation of desirable conclusions.
Trips to fire
stations or police stations and talks from these sources
develop a basic understanding of the community cooperation
necessary for developing a comprehensive safety attitude^
Travel units afford excellent material for teaching the
developments of safety by transportation companies and
the many ways in which various organizations are trying
to make travel safer.
Safety instruction is a very important part of the
work in physical education.
The educators now realize
that the elementary child is engaged from four to five
hours daily outside of school in big-muscle activities,
and that while he is so engaged, accidents may occur if
he has not learned to use good judgment.
An attempt must
be made to insure the carry-over of the safe type of
activities learned in the gymnasium to out-of-school play
The organized recess is an excellent means of
bridging the gap-between physical education class and outof-school activities.
Here the children have a chance to
practice skills learned in class.
They are given definite
responsibility in the organization and administration of
the recess period.
They learn to assume responsibility
and leadership, and to respect the rights of others, as
well as to play safely with other children.
There are excellent opportunities in every school
for the. teaching of safety under the progressive ideal, but
44shortcomings are often found which are centered in the
personnel of the school.
The following quotation will
point out the most prevalent weakness found in the schools
Each subject has its guiding objective.
attempting to attain these subject matter object­
ives the classroom teacher may feel that the safety
objectives are not directly in line with what he is
attempting to do, and because of the pressure of
time will fail to make the necessary correlation.
,In other works, there is a likelihood that the teacher
will consider safety instruction a by-product which
should be attended to only if and when the more
traditional objectives of the course are achieved.
To overcome this weakness, it is necessary for ad­
ministrators, supervisors and teachers to be constantly
alert to this danger.
Teachers must be given help in
making the necessary correlations, and safety out­
comes must be given as important a place as any of
the other outcomes which the course may be expected
to achieve.
The realization that unless safety is given a
definite pchace in the curriculum it will receive only
meager attention in the majority of cases, has led ad­
ministrators to set aside a definite time and designate
specific material to be devoted to safety education.
When it is given the status of a separate subject, there*
is assurance that it will be taught.
To do this it has
been found necessary to provide the teachers with a
^Safety Education, American Association of School
Administrators, Eighteenth Yearbook, p. 63.
practical course of study.
This course should be based
upon a careful study of the accidents that actually happen
to elementary school children at home, at school, on the
street, and elsewhere.
To this should be added a compre­
hensive accident reporting system .to- determine the effective­
ness of the program and aid in future programs.
campaigns and programs may still be carried on in conjunction
with the classroom work, but not used as the only means of
teaching safety.
The elementary school has shown the way to the
other schools in the past, but has, itself, a greater
future development to look forward to than these past
accomplishments to which it may point with just pride.
These future developments will depend largely upon the ad­
ministrative forces of the schools and the cooperation of
the community
Table I shown on the following page has been pre­
pared to show the extent of state legislation in the Interests
of safety education,
It gives a view of the safety education
program by atates of 1940.
In 1931^ there were only nine
states reporting state-wide programs, and several of these
^Florence C. Fox, Safety Education, Bulletin No. 8
(Washington, B.C.: Office of Education, 1932), p. 28.
were not very comprehensive*
The situation in 1940 shows
an encouraging improvement over the situation in 1S31.
Twenty-three states have courses of study in safety edu­
cation, twelve correlate safety with the health and
physical education program,
ten provide instruction in
highway safety and driver training, and seventeen require
definite instruction in fire prevention.
A number of states
have confined their requirements or suggestions to one of
two phases of safety education, as for example in one state
the only indication of interest is on the side of fire
prevention, while in several others it is centered on traffic
safety and training the young drivers.
Some of the state
courses are very meager, requiring only that safety be
taught and leaving the rest up to the individual school
systems in the state, others have well outlined programs for
all grades including all types of safety teaching.
The fact
that all but four states have included some type of safety
at some place in their required curriculums is important
in showing the increasing interest that safety education is
receiving from educational authorities.
Safety Units in
General Courses
Safety in Health
& Physical Educ.
Courses in High­
way Safety and
Driver Training
Courses in
Fire Prevention
_------ ,---..------ „ ---------- --------- ------
m -i
Safety As a
Separate Subject
1 75
CQ 4
0 P
4 Pi
P {5
4 H
1 4
P Pi
4 0
M >
0 H
[All grades
[Jun.-Sen. H.S.l
!Not specified
Not specified
iAll grades
IJunior High
i Not
3 3
13* K
O 4
All grades
Not specified
All grades
All grades
Not specified
Not specified
Courses in
Fire Prevention
Courses in High­
way Safety and
Driver Training
!Safety Units in
[General Courses
All grades
Not specified
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
West Virginia
Safety in Health
& Physical Educ.
[Safety As a
|Separate Subject
The secondary schools have been slower than the ele­
mentary schools in their efforts to reorganize the curriculum
to meet the needs of society.
Because of the hold which the
traditional subjects have secured in the secondary school
it has been necessary for many of the newer
subjects to make their entry into the schools through slow
and unpredictable channels.
However, by the very nature of
the subject, safety has always had a place in the secondary
It has been taught in such courses as chemistry,
general science, civics and similar courses, but this teaching
has been more accidental than intentional.
Safety in the
secondary schools may be said to be still in the experimental
stage, since many of the present trends are still on the
elementary level and do not effectively conform to secondary
It must be kept in mind that the problem of organizing
and administering an effective, well-rounded safety education
program in the secondary school is quite different from that
of the elementary school.
One factor which makes the high
school planning more complex is the psychology of pupils of
the secondary school level.
One of the characteristics of
these young people who are experiencing adolescence is the
desire for adventure and the distaste for restraint.
youth, like many adults, look upon safety as negative, as
taking something out of life, and this concept must be
dispelled if the secondary school safety program is to
become effective.
That the adolescent child is entering
a period of life where safety teaching is extremely im­
portant is pointed out in the following quotation.
At the same time the high school pupil may be
acquiring a distaste for what he supposes to be the
restrictive phases of safety, his need for safety
education in many respects is increasing.
He is
stepping further and further out of the immediate
influence of the home and the school. He is constant
ly meeting new hazards as he experiences his newly
acquired freedom.
Furthermore, he is entering the
age when certain phases of.his conduct will profound­
ly affect the safety and well-being of others.
It Is
apparent then, that in spite of the difficulties that
must be overcome if the secondary school program is
to be effective, the need for safety instruction is
so great that It must not be neglected.
One of the first subjects to be taught in the high
school in connection with a safety program was fire
The emphasis for this type of teaching
material probably came, from legislation in most of the
states requiring the teaching of fire prevention for
Special drives and programs were carried on to
reduce the hazards of fire.
That these programs were
^Safety Education» American Association of School
Administrators, Eighteenth Yearbook, p. 104.
effective and taught valuable lessons cannot be denied, but
in most of the cases there was no follow up activities
except the traditional school fire drills.
Today the
formal fire drill is still an important phase of the fire
prevention program, but it has been supplemented with
other activities found in the home economics, civics,
and shop courses as well as periodic lectures by firemen
and an occasional assembly program or radio broadcast
being devoted to the subject.
The senior high school, while continuing to
form habits and to teach the beauty of service,
will meet the needs of older students by encourag­
ing investigations and the application of these
findings to more purposful living.2
This statment made by Thomas W. Gosling has been
taken by a few school administrators and executed to
produce a very effective safety program.
carried out as a cooperative project.
The work was
Agencies interest­
ed in safety were solicited for material with which to work.
Poster materials were utilized by the art departments in
picture portrayals of both constructive and destructive
safety practices.
The English and Speech classes were
called upon to write letters or prepare speeches concerned
with safety.
The best resulting posters and compositions
^Id'abelle Stevenson, "Courses of Study and Methods in
Safety Education: Senior High School", The Twenty Fifth Yearbook
of the National Society for the Study of Education, p. 249.
were sent to the lower grades in the community for presentat­
ion in safety meetings or programs.
The public speaking
class sent speakers to the various grade schools to present
carefully prepared safety talks.
Once enthusiasm had been started -fbr this type of
program it continued on from year to year and throughout
the year by the organization of special committees for the
preparation of material to be used in the lower grade schools
as well as specially prepared programs for the presentation
at high school assemblies.
The shortcomings of this type
of program are found in the fact that a small percentage
of the high school students are affected by its development,
and it is necessary to have a teacher or principal vitally
interested in the safety movement to insure a live and
continued program.
In the high school there is evey more danger than
in the elementary school of ignoring safety education.
has been pointed out, the curriculum is set and unless
definite methods, materials, and time are allocated for
teaching safety, the instructors will ignore the field
and safety instruction will, in most cases, be accidental*
Even with the integration of safety as a definite part of
study and the extracurricular activities, it is necessary
to have an administrative organization headed by an
individual who is interested in and extremely conscious
of the safety needs of the pupils.
The successful
programs being carried on at the present time are headed
by such administrators.
The changing attitude of the secondary school pupil
makes it necessary for the administrator to sell the
program to the students instead of trying to preach to
The safety program is best set in motion by an
intensive campaign which must sell the idea to the school
as a whole and make the participation of students popular.
Prominent poster displays have proven their value in such
a campaign.
School assemblies for all pupils, and radio
broadcasts by students, classes, or organizations, are
accepted methods of student stimulation toward safety.
Once a comprehensive program has been started, interest
jnust be maintained throughout the year by repetition, or
continued instruction by the teachers in actual classroom
work, or student participation in safety projects.
Bluch has been said concerning the correlation of
safety with many different subjects and activities in the
secondary schools.
Such a plan of organizing the safety
education program has ffehe advantages of not introducing a
new subject into the curriculum, and of teaching safety
in connection with situations as they arise in the various
- 54
This system has the disadvantage, mentioned before,
of not receiving enough emphasis from subject minded teachers.
This may be overcome by carefully planned programs with re­
sponsibilities carefully assigned to each teacher.
This is
the type of program being carried on by the majority of the
secondary schools supporting definite systems of safety in­
The following outline was taken mainly from a
paper prepared by Herbert J. Stack summarizing the allocation
of various safety topics among the different departments of
the school.
Director of Sciences.
There are four principal
sciences in may be stressed.
The most important
is general science, which includes several units on safety as
well as incidental teaching.
The units include: the cause
and prevention of fires; transportation by air, rail, and
water; the prevention of gas and electrical accidents, and
several other items of learning.
In biology, time will be
spent on poisons and first aid, with several days' work on
alcohol and narcotics and their effect upon the human body.
In physics the teacher will stress the mechanics of
safe driving, especially the application of the loss of
"^Herbert J. Stack, A Baper prepared for the University
of Pennsylvania1s Schoolmens Week,(New York City: National
Conservation Bureau, 60 John Street, 1937)
motion, friction, centrifugal force, and the gasoline engine*
Under electricity will come instruction in the safe use ofelectrical apparatus.
Under combustion and explosive mixtures,
there are several opportunities to stress the prevention of
gas and oil accidents.
In October, time will be devoted to
explosives and the dangers of firearms.
The chemistry department will include safety instruct­
ion, especially in the prevention of laboratory accidents,
the safe use of gas and electricity and the danger of ex­
Work will be included on the use of chemicals
commonly found in the home, with special reference to first
Director of Household Arts*
This department will in­
clude units on the safe home in the home management class.
In cooking there will be included several safety lessons on
the use of the gas stove and the prevention and treatment of
The dangers of dry cleaning in the home will be con­
sidered in clothihg as well as in home management.
will be other references to safety when the opportunity
arises in the various subjects.
Director of Social Studies.
Several courses in social
studies have a direct connection with safety.
Community civics
contains units that have to do with safety, such as the work
of the police force, fire departments, forest conservation,
and community safety activities.
Safety as a Distinct Unit in Various Sub ieats.
Many schools have added to the correlation method just present­
ed by the addition of definite units of safety which do not
readily lend themselves to any specific subject.
Those favor­
ing this type of organization maintain that there is more
certainty that the subject will be thoroughly covered than if
safety is left to the initiative of the teachers.
A Safety Course for Credit. Recently there has been
a tendency to organize separate courses in safety education
in the secondary schools.
In 1937^ the Indiana Legislature
made safety a compulsory study for the eighth grade in the
schools of the state.
Later the state board of education pass­
ed a ruling that all senior high schools must teach a credit
course in safety, of one semester’s length, and that all students
graduating must have this course.
The views taken by some
the educators desiring to place safety upon a compulsory and
credit basis is offered by Mr. Campbell in the following
If safety is vjorth teaching at all, it is worth being
placed on a parity with other school subjects.
safety is worthy of and eligible for such educational
recognition has long since ceased to be an issue.
Only one
small peril remains:
if safety is to be a meritorious course,
it is worthy of an adequate program of instruction and must
not lapse into being regarded as just another s u b j e c t . 5
------------— .A.—....................
Arthur Campbell, ’’The Teaching of Safety for Credit in
Indiana High Schools”, Transactions of Child Education Section
of National Safety Council, (Chicago: The National Safety Council,
1938), p. 125
6Xbld.,,p. 126.
Shop safety today consists of much more than saying
"Always whittle from yourself and You'll never cut your­
self* " Boys must be taught to keep their fingers out
of cogs; their shirt sleeves and neckties out of fast
revolving machinery; their hands below moving cranes;
their feet from under heavy loads; and their bodies free
from molten metal and electric sparks.
The problem of
school safety M s now recognized as a difficult one and
must be dealt with as an important phase of school work.
Its solution depends upon the type of organization be­
hind it and the degree ftlth which suggestions and plans
are executed.®
The above quotation portrays the problems to be faced
by the schools in creating a program of safety teaching in
their shops.
Shop safety has a much better background upon
which to build thah any other part of the school safety program.
The problems confronted in the shops are closely allied with
the problems found in the shops of the country* s industrial
concerns, and industry has done much toward the elimination
of accidents to the worker.
The schools have been free to
partake of the experience of industry, yet the school shop is
today high on the list of school accidents.
Industry has demonstrated the need of mechanical safe­
guards both as a means of eliminating accidents and as a method
of proving the sincerity of the employer in his safety educa­
tional program.
/-» n
In like manner, students in industrial classes
Charles D. Dawson, "A Statewide Program for School
Shops", Transactions of Child Education Section of the Nat­
ional Safety Council,”TChicago: The National Safety Council,
1935), p. 80
will more readily adhere to safe practices if the school shop
machinery is equipped with safeguards.
This guarding should
at least meet the safety standards prevailing in industry.
fact, the school shops should surpass industry in this respect
and set examples of the best practices for two reasons: first,
the obvious responsibility of the school to protect the students
while at work; and second, the opportunity to teach future in-'
dustrial workers the reasons and principles of effective guard­
Mechanical safeguards are used in most school shops to
the best advantage yet accidents occur; and behind every ac­
cident there is a cause, therefore, the modern school is turn­
ing to the training of its students; at last the human factor
is being considered and an attempt is being made to create a
safety consciousness within the worker.
The mere posting of
safety notices on a bulletin board, or precautions given in
lectures by the instructor, are no longer adequate or accept­
able to a safety seeking group of students.
Actual participa­
tion by the students under the leadership of an able and
enthusiastic instructor is considered the best means of learn­
ing in the schools today.
" Industry has proven the value of employee inspection
as a means of emphasizing the needs of safeguards as well as a
method of discovering unsafe conditions.
The school shop has
a similar opportunity to teach the principles of safeguarding
through student inspection under teacher leadership.
One of
the more recent developments in school shop organizations is
the creation of the position of student safety engineer or
This position may be filled by one student head­
ing a small group and working with the other students or it
may be a temporary appointment, thus giving every student a
chance to be inspector or serve on the committee.
.The conditions to be found in most school shops are
limited, therefore the opportunities to familiarise students
with the equipment found in industry must come from other
The progressive schools are now organizing field
trips to industrial plants to show the students what is being
done to equip various types of machines with modern safety
Good housekeeping in shops, tool rooms, and store rooms
contributes much to a reduction in the number of accidents.
Considerable time is being devoted to this subject by the
student safety engineers, safety committees, and entire classes
in the modern school.
A few of the items to be considered
under good housekeeping are, neatness, proper storage of mater­
ials, maintenance of aisle space, proper illumination and proper
All of these items and others are important in
reducing hazardous conditions to the physical equipment as
\?ell as to the student.
Some of the other devices used in shop safety which
are still important are the sa.fety poster and a display of
accident records.
The safety poster is found to he most
effective when changed frequently;
The early posters were
of the Hshockern type in which safety was emphasized through
the emotion of fear, but this type is now being replaced by
ones that are based upon methods of meeting situations.
prominent display of a chart tracing the accident record of
the school shop and comparing it with records of some other
school committee, has proven valuable in many schools.
Safety in the school shop is a very important phase of
the school safety program, but we have seen that, as in the
case of other types of safety, much depends upon the type of
personnel carrying on the program.
There must be an instruct­
or in charge who understands the psychology of students as
well as the physical make-up of the shop.
The:following quo­
tation emphasizes the human element to be considered in any
shop safety program.
The experience in any shop safety program that only a
small percentage of modern accidents can be prevented by
mechanical means, i.e., the safeguarding of equipments
and the removal of hazardous conditions.
On the other
hand, the majority of accidents can be prevented by
educational activities planned to stimulate employee inter­
est and encourage the development of safe practices.1?
^School Health Monograph No. 10, Industrial Safety
Education in Schools.(New York: Metropolitan Life Insurance
Company, 1938*77 p. 37.
Studies carried on in the field of safety education
in recent years have indicated that a large percentage of the
school accidents take place in the physical education and
athletic activities.
cause of
This would naturally he expected be­
the fact that many sports are in themselves hazard­
In many sports too often little attention is paid to
ordinary precautions which will tend to reduce accidents. The
responsibility of the school in proper administration of
physical education activities is shown in the following quo­
The physical education activities tend by their nature
to be dangerous activities.
Much of the “fun11 obtained
through the participation in these activities is the play
with fear.
To eliminate the hazards natural to a game
would remove the opportunities for education through the
However, a public institution which does not adequate­
ly protect its students from unnecessary hazards is der­
elict in its responsibility to the student and the public
which it serves.
Accepting that the ultimate purpose of education is
that of developing ability to exercise control over our-?
selves, and the world of which we are a part, H an accident
is, by its very nature, only a spectacular evidence of
an inability to exercise such controlH. 8
Safety first made its appearance in the field of
physical education as a result of the statistics of child
fatalities which placed drowning as the third highest cause
aFrank S. Lloyd, Safety in Physical Education in the
Secondary Schools,(New York: 'National Bureau of Casualty and
Surety Underwriters, 1933) p. 129.
of death to school children.
The number of fatalities due to
drowning in 1929 was ;7,578.^ This figure has remained nearly
constant from 1911 to the present time in spite of a marked
increase in the number of swimming pools, bathing places, and
summer camps*
That a large percent of the fatalities due to
this cause are persons in the ten to nineteen age group is an
indication that the schools have been carrying on constructive
campaigns to eliminate the dangers of drowning.
Swimming is, by nature, a popular and universal sport
to the young people of the secondary school level, so courses
in swimming have been carried on in the regular physical
education program for a number of years in those schools having
the facilities.
The problem for schools without the facili­
ties has in numerous cases been overcome by using swimming pools
available in other organizations,
Y.M.O.A. pools.
such as the city plunge or
School wide "learn-to-swim" campaigns are
generally carried on in the spring of the year and include
such safety knowledge as: under what conditions is it safe to
swim, what to do in case of drownings, how to carry on resus­
citation, and other rules governing water safety, as well as
learning the skill of swimming.
The physical equipment of the school gymnasium offers
--------- Q---------
Herbert J. Stack, Safety Education in the Secondary
Schools, (New York: National Education Association, 1938),
p . 33
a multitude of hazards in itself.
This equipment must he
maintained in excellent condition or serious accidents may
result in its use.
The student using this equipment must he
taught the dangers of using equipment without proper knowledge
and experience.
Students are heing organized into committees
to inspect the equipment of the gymnasiums; to inspect the
gymnasium itself for cleanliness, unobstructed play area,
ventilation, and light; to inspect the outside play areas
for hazardous conditions; and for inspections of locker
rooms, swimming pools and stairways.
By this student
participation, the young people become conscious of the
safety program heing carried on by the athletic department.
The hazards of improper wearing apparel is emphasiz­
ed by rules and regulations enacted by athletic commissions
throughout the country.
It is primarily in the field of
extracurricular athletic contests that proper safeguards
such as headguards,
shoulder pads, hip and kidney pads,
thigh guards, elbow and knee protectors, and proper shoes
should be stressed.
Medical examinations are being required by all schools
for young people participating in the more strenuous activities
of the school curriculum.
The more progressive schools are
requiring the examination of every student so he may be
placed in those activity classes which will overcome the
imperfections where possible.
Taken as a whole, the physical education departments
have an excellent opportunity to teach a type of safety
which the student will rely upon throughout life.
proper handling of the body is essential in numerous
situations faced daily by the average person.
Up to recent years the small school with its
rudimentary curriculum satisfied the educational
requirments of people living under simple rural c. ,'Yi
What dangers there were, were physical
rather than mechanical and the attitudes of mind and
the methods of combating them were taught to the child
at home.
As rural life was largely indivudualistic,
so was each man1s approach to the problems and
dangers to be faced.
Except in major catastrophes
such as a part of a society was entirely incidental.
His world was small and his consciousness of a need
for safety was an outgrowth of the natural lav; of selfpreservation from natural dangers.-^-0
The above quotation summarizes the past of the work
of the rural schools in the field of safety education.
the past few years the accidents brought about by
mechanical equipment on the farm and the universal use
of the automobile, has made safety a vital topic even to
the farming communities.
T he'transportation of the students' in rural areas
by school busses makes a knowledge of the rules of the
lOSafety Education, Ojd. Git. , p. 167
road necessary.
The children thus conveyed must know how
to conduct themselves on the highways and in the bus or else
they jeopardize their own lives and those of their companions.
Other students must walk: or ride bicycles and unless they
adhere to certain fundamental safety measures they are en­
dangering their lives and the lives of the drivers of all
the vehicles on the highway.
The rural student must know the hazards of nature.
He may daily come into contact with poisonous plants,
or snakes and a knowledge of these dangers is imperative.
A farm is somewhat isolated from other farms so the students
should be trained in first aid and possess a simple first
aid kit.
The combination of these two may care for many
simple accidents and in some cases, save.limbs or even lives.
As a general rule, safety education in rural schools
is not achieved by its inclusion in the curriculum as a
separate subject, but rather as a definite unit in a
particular subject or subjects.
Correlation has its ad­
vantages in a small school as one teacher teaches all or
several of the grades and can carry on the safety work
in relation with other subjects without the monotony of
too much repetition.
Much of the safety work carried on around the school
itself is similar to the work carried on in other schools.
The system of student patrols and other student organizations
have been carried further in some rural schools than in the
average city system.
The work of the patrol and student
committees will be explained in another chapter.
problems of safety in the individual rural schools are
presented very well in the following quotation.
It remains to the rural school to recognize,
first, the urgent need for safety education; second,,
from the mass of information, teaching material, and
its own experience to select that which is adaptable
to the needs of its youth; and third, from this
recognition and selection to formulate a vital
program designed to awaken in each of its students
a consciousness of safety,
Without this awareness
in the individual, in our rapidly changing civilizat­
ion, today’s safety program will be ill-adapted to
tomorrows needs, and. our schools will fail in their
obligation to equip safe citizens in safe communities.
The value of safety organizations for instilling
into the minds of children the fundamental principles of
safety cannot be doubted.
There is no field in which we
learn to do by doing, more than in carrying out the safety
It is not alone activity which is needed, but
organized activity.
Most of our great movements advance
because of the concentrated efforts of people with the
same ideal.
The organization of school children for the
promotion of safety ideals is a natural evolution of human
The desire to congregate, to be one of a group,
seems an elemental need.
Even the smallest children form
clubs, and the urge nto belongM carries through life; proof
of this is the thousands of social, trade, educational,
fraternal and civic organizations in existence today.
The tendency, when properly directed, becomes of
tremendous value and today the club has a recognized
function in the progressive school program.
When a number
of individuals are drawn together by their common interest
in safety and are given regularly an opportunity to meet
and exchange ideas and experiences,
entire group is quickened.
the interest of the
The so called club becomes
a medium for education and its members are able to influence
the attitude and behaviour of those with whom they come in
In view of the accident problem in this country, and
the peculiar susceptibility of our young people to accidents,
we need no further incentive for including the safety club
in our extra curricular activities.
Certain safety in­
formation should be made available to every student and
such instruction ought to be given in the classroom, but
if we are to inspire the youth to take their appropriate
place in the safety movements we must invoke the force
and enthusiasm of group action.
Safety lends itself naturally to group activity.
Its aims are not individualistic but social.
It fosters
consideration of others and finds expression in service.
The boys and girls in safety clubs learn not only how
to work for others but how to work with others; how to
distinguish real from ass lined service; how to become
effective leaders.
The contribution of participation in
safety programs by the student is emphasized into the
following quotation.
Preparation for citizenship is a primary function
of the schools in a democracy.
Techniques of
participation in group activities are developed with
The Co-Curricular activity program of the
school gives this experience.
Through this, program
pupils have an opportunity to participate in the
development of the rules to be observed as they move
about the building, park their bicycles and cars
and perform other tasks that are a part of group
It is not too much to believe that the
experiences of co-curricular activities in schools
by children makes participation in government
functions as adults easy, natural and effective*
In 1913^ the American Museum of Safety advocated
schoolboy patrols to protect children from traffic hazards
on their way to and from school.
It remained for the
initiative of an industrial concern to actively interest
a school department in the benefits of this patrol.
the same year of these recommendations by The American
Museum of Safety, H.G-. Winsor, of the Puget Sound Power
and Light Company, and William L. G-erger, superintendent
of schools in Tacoma Washington, set up the organization
for the Tacoma Safety Scouts.
Their pledge,
which has
since been adopted by safety patrols throughout the country,
was as follows:
I will work for the safety of others as I would want
them to work for my safety.
^Don Cash Seaton, Program of Safety, (Circular No.
299, Department of Public Instruction, State of Illinois,
1939), p. 130.
Idabelle- Stevenson, Safety Education, (New York:
A.S. Barnes and Company, 1931), p. 25.
^Loc. Cit.
I will try to be careful all the time, everywhere.
I will not take unnecessary chances of getting hurt and
and will warn others against doing so.
I will do my part to help reduce the number of accidents
this year.
All this I will do for the sake of humanity and the
honor of my school.
The work of putting this organization into action
within the schools was done by Mr. T.N. Henry, an employee
of the Tacoma Railway and Power Company, who was known as
the supervisor of the Tacoma School Safety Scouts.
has continued the movment, and since its beginning there has
been an average of twenty five hundred boys and girls
qualified and acting as safety scouts.
In 1914 the Safety Education Department of the
Public Service Corporation of New Jersey encouraged patrols
in Newark.
This work was done under the direction of
Mr. A.J. Van Brunt.
He had the cooperation and assistance
of Mr. Charles MacCall, Director of Attendance of the
Newark Public Schools, and Officer Felix Dunn, of the Newark
Police Department.
Newark, like. Tacoma, has maintained
patrols consistently during the years which have elapsed
since the first organizations were established.
It has been indicated that the first beginning of
the safety patrol movement in the public schools came from
the iniative of industrial organizations.
Later, the police
departments of various cities became actively interested
in the patrol movement.
The police department of Saint
Paul, Minnesota, was the first to take an active part in
the school safety campaign.
In 1920, the school police
were organized, and in 1922 an officer was placed in charge
of this work.
The organization is still in use, and since
its inception in Saint Paul, many schools have accepted
this plan or one very similar for use with safety patrols.
Automobile clubs have taken a keen interest in the
formation of safety patrols.
Just when they began this
work is not known, but records show that in Chicago, as
early as 1920 some efforts have been made.
The November
issue of the "Motor News", the official organ of the
Chicago Motor Club, contained an article by Charles N.
Hayes, its president,
in which he asserted that his clubs
conceived the patrol plan early in 1920.
In 1921 Major
John Bander of Chicago police department was chosed to
work with the Automobile Club of Illinois and the school
department in organizing a schoolboy patrol.
In Philadelphia the safety patrols were organized in
1921 through the help and encouragement of the Philadelphia
^Robert MacMillan, Safety Education in the Public
Schools of the United States, ^'Philadelphia, Pa. : Temple
University, 1936), p.50
Rapid Transit Company.
This company sent an agent into the
schools to urge the formation of patrols, furnished an
insignia, and sponsored city meetings of the patrol group.
This type of organization may be found in hundreds of the
towns in the United States today.
The patrols are organiz­
ed within the school with the aid of outside agencies.
These agencies are known as the sponsors and in most cases
furnish any equipment necessary such as insignias, belts,
caps, raincoats, and hand signals.
As the patrol idea grew in popularity, many well
intentioned persons set up patrols without first giving
proper consideration to their purpose and function.
some cases, children had not been carefully selected or
correctly trained.
In other cases, children have been
stationed in the center of the street in the path.of
They were either assigned certain police duties
or*, with the overzealousness of youth, they have assumed
police authority for halting and moving traffic.
understanding and interference often resulted.
objected to their children being engaged in what they
rightly considered hazardous work, and the.motorist objected
to what they considered an unwarranted interference.
In order that the schools should suffer as little
as possible from unmerited attacks, and to eliminate
haphazard organizations, the National Education Association,
American Automobile Association, National Safety Council,
Parent Teachers Association, and United States Office of
Education met jointly in 1930, and formulated rules for the
operation of school safety patrols.
These rules were
revised in 1937 and are presented in part in the following
The function of the school safety
patrol is to instruct, direct, and control the members of
the student body in crossing the streets at or near schools.
Patrols should not be charged with the responsibility of
directing vehicular traffic, nor be allowed to do so, other
than signalling to a motorist approaching the crossing after
the student pedestrians have left the curb.
Patrol members should ordinarily
be appointed by the principal or faculty advisor.
members are generally boys, but girls may be appointed
in certain cases.
They should be selected from the upper
grades in the school.
Patrol members should be selected
for leadership and reliability.
Their service should be
voluntary and only with written approval of parent or
Officers serve for at least one school term;
other members may be changed quarterly!
Any officer or
member should be removed for cause.
.Size and officers.
The size of the patrol varies
^Seaton, Op. Git., pp. 140-143.
with street conditions and size of school.
The average
patrol has ten or twelve members including officers.
patrol should have a captain.
Lieutenants and sometimes
sargeants may also be apppinted.
Instruction and Supervision.
Instruction and
supervision are essential if the patrol is to function
efficiently and permanently.
School officials are res­
ponsible for all school activities including safety patrols.
The school patrols are a means through which the instruction
in traffic can be extended beyond the classroom.
In the
detailed training and supervision of patrols the best
results generally are obtained by continuous supervision
by a faculty sponsor and by utilizing the cooperation of
the police department through one or more officers detailed
for that purpose.
The superintendent'of public instruction, local
motor clubs, safety council, parent teachers associations ,
and other civic bodies, may cooperate by providing general
supervision and encouragement, and by furnishing equipment.
New members of the patrol should, where practicable,
with and under the guidance of experienced members for at
least a week.
The standard insignia for patrol
members is a white Sam Browne belt made of two inch
This must be worn at all times while on duty.
Special badges for officers may be worn on the left breast
or left*arm.
Auxiliary equipment if any should be standard
throughout the community.
Increased visibility of patrol members where
special need exists.
The standard patrol belt is adequate
to attract attention of motorists under normal conditions.
However, occasionally hill creats, curves, foliage, or
other conditions prevent the motorists from seeing the
patrol member soon enough to insure a safe stop or make
other driving readjustment which may be needed.
When such
a condition does exist and cannot be changed, an auxiliary
patrol member shall carry and use a yellow warning flag or
other effective sign warning to designate a school crossing
ahead, so the motorists attention will be called to the ap­
proaching danger zone.
The use of a red flag is not approved, for red is
intended to mean stop, and might easily cause criticism
against patrols which have no power to stop vehicular
The patrol members while on, duty shall not have
in their possession any stick signal device, whistle, or
other type of sign than the proposed yellow flag, and •
that flag should^be used only where visibility is
unusually restricted and no other preferable solution can
be devised.
Position and procee&ure.
The patrol member
should stand on the curb, not in the street and hold back
children until he sees a lull in traffic.
When this
occurs, he motions for the children to cross the street
in a gropp.
He still keeps his position on the curb,
except when his view of traffic is obstructed /by parked
cars, in this case he may step into the street' far enough
to obtain a clear view, then return to the curb after the
children have crossed.
Where the street is wide and
traffic comparatively heavy, two patrol members should
be used, one for each side of the street and they must
work together.
If traffic is so heavy that lulls do not
occur, the problem is not a patrol responsibility, but
should be handled by the muncipality.
Hours on duty.
The patrol members should reach
their posts ten or fifteen minutes before school in the
morning and at noon, and should remain on duty until the
last bell.
At noon and afternoon dismissals, they should
leave class two or three minutes before the bell and remain
until all students who are not stragglers have passed their
If any classes are dismissed before the regular tim
provisions should be made for these pupils.
Relation to police officers.
At intersections
when traffic is controlled by an officer, adult guard,
traffic signal, or both;
the patrol will direct the
crossing of the pupils in conformity with the directions
of the signal or the officers.
The patrols function is
to hold the children at the curb until the proper time to
send them across the street or hold them for an officer
Legality and liability.
The majority of legal
advisors have been of the opinion that: it is proper for
a board of education to organize patrols for the purpose
of aiding and guiding pupils walking to and from school.
It is not proper for a board of education to allow pupils
to direct automobile traffic from a position in the
street or on the curb, a board would not be liable for
injury to a patrol guiding children, and the individual
members of a board may be liable for injury to a patrol
created to direct automobile traffic.
With very few exceptions these are the rules
governing the school boy patrol in the schools of the
United States.
These few exceptions are found in various
cities where the pupil has been given authority, either
by the city or school board, to control vehicular traffic.
In Seattle, Washington, the patrol is furnished with a
badge and whistles, and may by law direct traffic at any
time in any part of the city when the necessity arises.•
The Seattle authorities believe this system to be practical
and it has undoubtedly saved the lives of numerous pupils,
but it is the belief of most authorities that the patrol
members should never be given authority over vehicle
The following quotation expresses the opinion
of most educators and police officials on this point.
I am glad to note that this patrol is kept a
. school matter.
The purpose being to safeguard
the children of the school from accidents and not
to direct traffic on the streets.
This clear cut
recognition of the line between the responsibility
of the police department and the responsibility of
the school officials is good.®
The Junior Safety Council was first known as the
Junior Safety League and was organized in 1918 , when
the National Safety Council arid the Rochester Chamber
of Commerce were experimenting in the organization of a
local safety council with a comprehensive safety pro­
The public schools of Rochester participated, and
under the direction of Herman J. Norton, Director of
Health and Physical Education, a school organization,
not only responsible for patrol work but with a wider range
of safety activities, was developed.
This movement-spread very rapidly, especially in
communities where safety teaching was receiving a strong
In this movement we again find the assistance
®Standard Rules for Operation of School Boy Patrols.
(Chicago Illinois: National Safety Council), p. 9.
^Stevenson, Op. Cit., p. 26.
of the various local safety councils, automobile clubs,
and chambers of commerce has been of paramount importancefor its success.
The duties and activities of the junior safety
council vary from city to city and sometimes from school
to school within a particular city.
The organization, as
well as the activities,, must fit the local situation.
accepted plan for the organization of a junior safety
council has been outlined by the White House Conference on
Child Health and Protection.8
The following outline is
taken principally from this publication.
The membership of the junior safety council is
composed of elected foom representatives.
The number of
representatives from each room varies considerably, but
ordinarily two, three, or four pupils represent each room
above the second grade.
Membership should be small enough
to make it possible for each member to participate in the
activities of the club.
Room representatives hold their
positions for varying lengths of time, ordinarily not long­
er than a term.
In addition to the active membership there
is, in some schools, an associate membership group, which
is made up of children who have learned a pledge of the
safety laws and observed them for a specified length of
^Safety Education in the Schools, White House
Conferences on Child Health and Protection, (rNevTiYork:
The Centnry Company, 1932), p.32
The problems of the active group are the problems
of the entire school membership.
The officers of the safety council are President,
Secretary, and Captain of Patrols.
duties of other officers are in general similar to those
of any school organization.
Meetings are held every week or two weeks and are
usually thirty minutes in length.
They are held during
the regular school activities period, or if no such period
is provided, during the latter part of the lunch hour or
after school.
Following each business meeting, room
representatives report to the pupils of their rooms.
Special room representatives from among the older children
are delegated to report to those rooms not represented on
the council.
In some cities where more than one safety council
is active, city wide meetings are held.
These are of two
types, monthly business meetings of small representative
groups for the exchange of ideas and the discussion of
common problems, and annual or semiannual mass meetings.
Very frequently city officials, particularly members of
the police and fire departments, take an active part in
these meetings and contribute to the civic aspects of the
The standing committees of the council are usually
a program committee: to arrange programs for council meet­
school assemblies, Barent-Teacher Association meet­
ings, and so forth; a publicity committee to give publicity
to the problems and activities of the club through school
bulletin boards and papers, local newspapers and so forth;
an inspection committee to make regular inspections of school
plant and report to council, which in turn reports to the
principal of the school; an information committee to gather
and disseminate pertinent statistical information on school,
city, and national problems of safety; a patrol committee
to supervise the patrol squad through the captain of patrols.
Special temporary committees are organized when found
In some safety councils, courts are provided for
the purpose of handling minor infractions of safety rules.
Such proceedure must be carefully supervised and every
effort made to assist children in discriminating between
serious and minor offenses, and in properly adjusting the
punishment to the crime.
Young people are often too severe
in punishment for minor offenses.
With seven million bicycles concentrated in the
cities and towns of this country, people have come to the
realization that they do have a bicycle traffic problem
taking its place in the safety field with the automobile
and the pedestrian.
The appalling number of bicycle
seven hundred and fifty, in a single year, has
drawn the bicycle problem to a head.
It is generally
considered that the increased number of accidents involv­
ing bicycles is caused by the domination of the streets by
other vehicular traffic.
The bicycle has literally been
crowded out of the streets, and has no place on the side­
The rider, at the same time, comes in for his share
of the blame for increased accidents.
It has been indicated
by statistics that in seventy-two percent of bicycle-vehicle
the traffic violation was traced to the cyclist.
This indicates a need to educate the bicycle rider in correct
habits, and an observance of the rules of the road.
the largest percent of bicycle riders fall in the five to
fourteen age group, it seems only natural that the respon­
sibility of the school.
In the past few years numerous schools have instigated
bicycle clubs and tried in numerous ways to improve the
morale of their bicycle riding students.
definite place in such a program.
There is a very
Bicycle safety has a
definite place in such a program and where we find a decrease
in the number of automobile accidents we also find a decided
decrease in bicycle accidents.
The school may form a club
and develop a sense of responsibility in the majority of its
cyclists yet there is a certain percent of the riders over
which they have no influence unless outside pressure may
be utilized to create and enforce community or state
The regulation of bicycles by requiring a license
was first adopted by Toronto, Canada, and has since spread
to both coasts in the United States.
The principal ad­
vantage in placing an identifying number on a bicycle is
the psychological effect on the rider.
He is placed on a
similar level of importance with the automobile, the same
laws, with few exceptions, govern his actions.
The license
also allows a definite means of reporting violations to the
school or police.
An interesting bicycle safety program has been
developed in G-rants Pass, Oregon.^
Through cooperation
with the police, an ordinance was passed requiring licenses
for bicycle operation, a license issued only after a
practical examination of those students who have passed the
school’s examination on the laws relating to bicycle equip­
ment and operation.
The police also check on violations,
assigning demerits according to seriousness of the violat­
Seventy demerits for an elementary-school pupil, fifty
for a high school pupil,
in a six week period means that the
9Safety Education, Eighteenth Yearbook of the American
Association of School Administrators, p. 50.
bicycle goes to jail for a week.
Accidents have been
reduced and bicycle riding increased.
This is one example of what the school can do with
community cooperation.
In general the school organizations
have a. definite set of rules, for the safe operation of
These rules include such things as hand signals,
where to ride, ride single file only, keep to the right,
and never hitch rides.
Membership cards are issues to the
cyclists who have proven themselves worthy of membership.
An annual inspection is one of the important functions
of the bicycle club.
The bicycle should be examined for
mechanical defects, and proper equipment.
Proper adjustment
of the bicycle to fit the rider is very important to insure
proper and safe manipulation.
In the school, this inspect­
ion may be made by the more experienced boys with the aid of
a teacher or a police officer.
The license tag should be
securely sealed to the bicycle to make theft more difficult.
This licensing of bicycles has reduced the number of
bicycle thefts, and in numerous cases, has served as a
means of identifying seriously injured riders.
The bicycle club as a school responsibility is
definitely established in numerous school systems through­
out the country.
The active cooperation of other community
agencies in promoting this program is definitely necessary
for its proper function, but it has been proven, in most
cases, that it will be left to the school to instigate and
to maintain interest in this organization.
The information in this chapter concerning extra­
curricular activities is generally considered to pertain to
the elementary school and the junior high schoo.
It is an
accepted fact that safety instruction is necessary on the
high school level, but the job of establishing patrols,
councils, and clubs is different in many respects from the
organizations found on the elementary level.
The high school
organizations will call for the cooperation of students for a
longer period of service and those serving must realize their
responsibility and accept it seriously.
The addition of
automobile patrols in some schools will be an extension of
the organizations found on the elementary level.
This work on the high school level is comparatively a
new development in the field of safety education.
educators who have carried on a program believe that the
future will see much increased activity in safety organiza­
tions on the high school level.
There is no doubt but what
there are numerous places such as street crossings, corridors,
shops, and playgrounds which can be greatly improved with
organized patrols and clubs.
The growing motor vehicle
problem may in like manner be improved with effective planning.
The need of developing proper habits, attitudes,
and skills on the part:of motorists' is being convincingly
impressed upon the public mind by the tremendous daily
accident toll.
Great strides have been made in engineering,
both with respect to the construction of motor vehicles and
the construction of highways.
Also, traffic law enforcement
agencies have become increasingly effective in recent years.
Both good enginering and proper law enforcement are necessary,
but to secure a very appreciable reduction in traffic
accidents authorities are agreed that there must be an
effective driver education pfogram.
There have been many
analyses of the causes of traffic accidents; all of them
clearly indicating that human factors account for the
majority of accidents.
That education must play the major
role in any program which aims to eradicate these causes
is certain.
There is much objective evidence that young drivers
are in particular need or training in the use of the motor
An analysis issued by the Safety and Traffic Engineer­
ing Department of the American Automobile Association shows
that drivers between the ages of sixteen and twenty years,
drove less than one-fifth as far per fatal accident as did
drivers aged forty-five to fifty.-*-
The steady decline in
the fatality record with advance in age up to fifty years
of age, undoubtedly may be attributed to a number of factors
such as natural increase in caution as a person grows, older,
better judgment and better knowledge of sound driving
practices due to longer driving experience.
The fact that
a person's best record as a driver is made after many years
of experience, offers a real challenge to those in charge
of secondary education.
A thorough driver-education and
training program for beginning drivers would give them the
opportunity to acquire in a short time the proper attitudes,
habits and skills which otherwise would be gained only after
long years of trial s.nd error experiences.
Some edueatbrs feel that road instruction is not a
responsibility of the high school; they feel that it should
be given by some other agency.
This same thing could be said
however, about machine shop practice, wood working, and other
manual training activities.
If the schools do not undertake
the work of training the millions of young people who are
to be the drivers of the future, who will?
It is known that
from sixty to seventy percent of the high school students
^Fatality Hazards Much Greater for Young Drivers Than
for Drivers of Mature Age~ fWashington, D .C.: American
Automobile Association, 1938) p. 3.
will be driving cars within two years after graduation.
Some educators feel that highway patrolmen or the police
should give some of this road instruction, especially in
rural areas.
Others feel that it should be the responsibility
of the school and that it should be given under experienced
The following quotation from one of the out­
standing workers in the field of traffic safety emphasizes
the responsibility of the school in teaching driver training.
The high school is designed to teach young people
to do better the worthwhile things they are reasonably
sure to do in life*
They are almost sure to drive cars.
The high school is the logical place to offer this
It has the teachers; it has the class­
room facilities; it has the students.
one of the chief causes of the bad accident record
is the lack of instruction.2
The analysis of any statistics concerned with age
groupings and accident fatality will point out the poor
showing being made by the young drivers of automobiles.
The increased congestion of the roads in the past few
years has increased the danger faced by the inexperienced
The following quotation describes the change
taking place in the minds of the public concerning the
preparation of the individual for operating an automobile
Another popular myth is being exploded.
The myth
^Herbert J. Stack, Training Tomorrow1s Drivers,
('New--York: The National Conservation Bureau) p. 3
is that but little special preparation for driving a
car is needed.
Analysis after analysis is showing that
new drivers, generally poorly trained, are being in­
volved in serious accidents to a degree entirely un­
warranted by their numbers.
The value of proper
training in learning to drive is being increasingly
Ten years ago, driver training was being carried
on in only a very few of the schools in the United States
and in those schools supporting a program for drivers, the
work was not being carried to the actual driving lessons
nov/ found in many schools.
Today there are several thous£
and schools including driver training in their curriculum,
and several hundred include actual driving experience as
part of the required course.
Almost overnight this new
activity 1ms captured the imagination of parents, teachers,
and students alike.
real need.
It is here to stay because it fills a
Parents welcome the introduction of the new
work because they recognize its practical value; schools,
in most cases, like it because they realize that the auto­
mobile is an important part of the'every day life of the
average student; students enjoy the work because they want
to .learn to drive.
The state of New Jersey was one of the first states
^Washington D.C.
Association, 1937), Int.
to place driver education and training in its syllabus.
Bergen county in 1935 had courses in twenty six schools,
including high schools, private and parochial schools, with
a total enrollment of more, than four thousand students.
work was well organized and had been going on for two years
before 1935.
The required course took one period per week
and covered the full semester.
Topics stressed were common
causes of accidents, mechanical features of the car,
psychology and habits of drivers, laws of the state, costs
of accidents.
An examination on the work covered preceeded
actual driving experience.
The road instruction took five
periods and was given by a specialized engineer-driver.
In 1936, William H. Johnson,
superintendent of the
Chicago public schools, conducted an experimental course
in driver training in the Lane Technical High School.5
This course was divided into three parts.
The first consist­
ed of teaching by means of lantern slides and moving pictures,
mimeographed material,■and continued reference to such
sources as the Chicago Traffic Code Book and the Illinois
summary of traffic laws.
This work.was given to familiarize
the student with the economical ways- of using the 'streets and
highways, as well as a proper understanding of the reasons
why they must live up to the rules of the road.
5Safety Education, Eighteenth Yearbook of American
Association of School Administrators, p. 165.
driver must be courteous, kind, and have good driving sense.
The next part consisted of discussions of traffic
Diagrams and problems were worked out to show
how, when and where to place the vehicle on the streets at
different types of intersections.
Traffic was considered
and the best practical positions for the vehicle was
determined, giving due consideration to other motorists,
cyclists, pedestrians,
children, and the incapacitated.
This second phase of the program took place in dummy cars.
In these cars, they learned to operate the controls and
react to traffic situations as depicted in moving pictures
on a screen before them.
Having satisfied the instructor in the first two
steps, the student was then allowed to drive alone on a
specially designed track surrounded by a high wire fence.
Five boys were admitted to the track at a time, each with
a car, and the instructor stood by to give directions.
track had standard city traffic lights at intersections,
road hazards, and problems that are continually confronting
the motorist.
An average of twelve clock hours was spent
in actual driving practice by the students in this school.
This plan is still in operation in Chicago and the school
officials feel that it is one of the best plans in operation
Mr. Anderson, the Supervisor of Traffic and Safety
Activities, Board of Education, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania,
has carried on extensive work in the field of driver train­
ing from the standpoint of what the high school student
wants to know about
The supervisor finds that
first he wants to' know how to get a license, then he asks,
"What is the speed limit? ff.
These questions seem very
discouraging to the administrator filled with a desire to
develop a high sense of responsibility in the young motorist.
Yet these questions are significant in the fact that youth
realizes that a license is necessary and wants to get one.
It ihdicates that the youth of today accepts driving as a
privilege and not as a right.
The fact that the student
wants to know the speed limit shows he is interested in
traffic laws and in obeying them.
The answers to questions
given the high school student furnishes a desirable basis
for planning a program of instruction as modern education
methods demand the teaching of problems in which youth is
One question asked was, what should a beginning
driver course stress— mechanical knowledge of the car, know­
ledge of the traffic laws, attitude toward traffic laws, or
5Safety Education, Eighteenth Yearbook of American
Association of School Administrators, p. 165.
driving practice?
The order of choice of answers was,
knowledge of laws, attitude toward laws, actual driving
practice, and last, mechanical knowledge of the car.
choice of answers seems to indicate a desire to obey the
law and a realization that the individuals attitude is of
major importance.
Questions dealing with the various speed limits
are most common*
Next in frequency are those concerning
highway sign regulations, and possession of the right of
The fourth interest is in the driver1s legal and
financial responsibility in case of accidents, as well as
that of parents.
Of least interest is the motor of the
These discussions of laws and responsibility are of
major importance and deserve the prominent place they hold
in the students interest.
The driver-training plan most widely used in secondary
schools was developed by Amos E. Neyhart, at Pennsylvania
State College, and has been further developed by the American
Automobile Association in its National driver training
Mr. Neyhart started work on driver training in
1933 , and the following plan is based primarily upon the
result of his several years of intensive work in the field
^Ibid., p. 140.
of driver-training.
According to this plan, pupils practice in a car
in groups of four with an instructor.
The schedule calls
for .a series of teacher demonstrations and pupil practice
The .amount of practice required to-make pro­
ficient drivers varies.
One of the outstanding character­
istics of this system is thoroughness.
The theory being
that if pupils are to be good drivers, their driving habits
and skills should be firmly fixed before their instruction
is completed.
Dual control cars are used.
The r&ual control consists
of auxiliary clutch and brake pedals which enable the in­
structor to assume control of the car if necessary.
make road instruction practical, a practice street which
presents actual driving situations is used.
This street
may be especially constructed for this purpose or be a
street in the vicinity of the school which is comparatively
free from traffic.. It should be appropriately marked with
crosswalks, parallel and angle parking lines, and center
There should be a grade and provisions for left and
right turns.
It' is helpful to have the various types of
traffic signs and traffic lights installed.
After pupils reach a certain proficiency on the
practice street, they drive on other streets in general
Always in the presence of the instructor.
final step is a battery of driving tests which the pupil
must pass successfully if he is given credit for completing
the course.
Neyhart has developed a series of sixteen units,
the successful completion of which assures the pupil of a
good foundation for driving.
Following are the topics and
objectives of these units.
Unit No. 1— The driver’s compartment.
To acquaint the students with the purposes and
types of gauges, safety aids, starting and
control devices in the driver’s compartment.
Unit No. 2 — How the Automobile runs.
To acquaint the students with the parts of a
car involved in mechanical operation.
Unit No. 3— Check up on car and criver and starting
•the engines.
To acquaint the students with the
important checks to make before setting the
car in motion, and to present the starting of
the engine.
Unit No. 4--Starting, steering, and stopping from low
To acquaint the students with the nec­
essary steps to be followed in starting and
stopping the car, and to teach them the motions
involved in steering the car, until these
motions become habits.
Unit No. 5— Shifting from low to second gear and
To familiarize the student with the
steps to be used in shifting from low to second
and stopping.
Unit No. 6— Shifting from second to high gear and
To acquaint the student with the
steps necessary to shift from second to high
gear and stopping; and to perfect skill through
Unit No. 7— Starting car in low gear, shifting to
second and on to high gear within the prescribed
time and distance; and stopping the car from ■
high gear.
Steering the car in a straight line,
and stopping at a designated point, using the
proper hand signals.
Weaving between stanchions.
To perfect skill through practice starting and
To develop judgment and skill in
driving and judge the position of a car in
depth and to the right and left.
To develop
an understanding of the proper hand signal for
stopping and'to teach the llfeelM of the car by
weaving between stanchions.
No. 8— Shifting from high to second gear and
from second to low gear.
Making emergency stops.
To create an understanding of the necessity for
knowing how and why they must reduce gears under
certain driving conditions, and give practice
in reducing gears as well as the previously
learned shifting and stopping.
No. 9— Backing, steering, and stopping in reverse
gear, and stopping on designated spot.
acquaint the student with the steps necessary
in backing the car; to develop skill in steering
the car while in motion backward, and stopping.
No. 10— Making a right hand turn and left hand
turn and using the correct hand signals.
teach the students how to make right and left
hand turns skillfully and to teach the correct
use of the proper hand signals.
Ho. 11— Turning the car around.
To develop'in
the student a knowledge of the accepted ways to
turn a car around, making use of cross streets,
alleyways, driveways, farm lanes, or width of
To introduce the U-turn, the steps
necessary in making this turn and develop an
understanding of its proper use.
No. 12— Parking in a short space between other
cars and angle parking.
To introduce parking
parallel to the curb in a short space, to
introduce angle parking, and develop skills
necessary for parking.
No. 13— Stopping and starting on an upgrade,
backing on an upgrade, parking on an upgrade, or
To teach and develop in the students
the skills required for starting and stopping
on an upgrade and the skills necessary for
backing the car on an upgrade and parking on
an upgrade or downgrade.
No. 14— Open highway driving.
To develop skill
in driving on the open road and to apply the
laws of the road and the rules of sportsmanlike
No. 15— City driving.
To develop the studentfe
skill in handling the car in city traffic, and
development in them of the attitude of thought-
fulness for other drivers and courtesy towards
Unit No. 16— Driver skill tests.
To develop in the
students the attitude that good driving requires
skill, to create an appreciation, of the many
problems confronting the pedestrian and the driver,
and to stimulate a willingness to accept respon­
sibilities as a driver.8
The above outline has proven successful in a great
many high school throughout the United States.
It has in
it all of the desirable qualities a modern driver training
course could expect.
Some schools have gone further in
furnishing more practice cars so that each student may drive
alone, but this practice is open to controversy.
educators believe the passengers learn from riding with
the beginners, others believe the distraction is too great
when the car is occupied with others beside the driver.
The present rapid expansion of the driver-training
program should point out to the educational officials that
they must prepare for such instruction in all of the second­
ary schools in the near future.
At present, several things
are holding up the program -in most schools.
The chief
arguments fostered by the conservative school officials
is the cost of such a program, the liability of the school,
^Teachers Guide-Road Instruction and Driver Skill
Tests in Automobile Driving, (Pennsylvania State College,
Institute of Public Safety, 1939), Part I, pp. 1-71.
the need for competent instructors, and who should receive
this instruction.
The cost of the driver education program is of major
importance to a large number of the schools in the United
The greatest expense is the purchase of automobiles
with which to carry out the program.
In many of the schools
supporting a driver education program, this equipment has
been furnished by agencies outside the school system.
Industrial concerns, Parent Teachers Associations, Automobile
Clubs, and other agencies found in the average community
are, in most cases, willing to cooperate in various ways,
to acquire the necessary equipment to start a comprehensive
In numerous schools the school shops have construct­
ed the necessary Hdummy” cars in which the students do a
large part of their training previous to actual driving.
The fact that the school must in most cases depend upon
community agencies for the financial baching of a drivertraining program is a serious obstacle, but the laxity of
the school in appointing a head to promote community interest
in the right direction,
is perhaps, the greatest obstacle.
Those schools offering driver-training report- the cost of
instruction per student, after the purchase of the automobile,
is less than in numerous of the laboratory courses.
The liability of the school should not offer a
serious obstacle to the development of a comprehensive driver-
training program.
It will "be necessary to adequately
insure the training cars and this insurance automatically
settles the questions of who shall be eligible for this
Those students having reached legal driving
age as required by state laws are naturally the only ones
eligible for training in the driver-training cars.
It is
of the opinion of the courts that driver-education and
training classes are meeting a need and are a responsibility
of the school, therefore the schools are not responsible to
any greater extent in this activity than in other school
classes and activities.
Driver training programs have been steadily increasing
in the past ten years, and during the school year 1938-1939,
approximately six hundred secondary school offered courses
in actual driving practice.
Following is a partial list of
those cities having a definite course of study for driving
Fairfield, Oklahoma; Phoenix, Arizona; Blytheville,
Arkansas; El Dorado, Arkansas; Miami, Florida; Maywood,
Illinois; Peoria, Illinois; Evanston, Illinois; Gl-en
Ellyn, Illinois; Chicago, Illinois; Evansville, Indiana;
Rockville, Maryland; Minneapolis, Minnesota; Duluth,
Minnesota; Bayonne, -New Jersey; Roselle, New Jersey;
Buffalo, New York; Huntington, Long Island, New York;
Shelburne, New York; Olean, New York; Akron, Ohio;
Lakewood, Ohio; Euclid, Ohio; Dayton,Ohio; Oxford,
Ohio; Cleveland, Ohio; Cleveland Heights, Ohio;
Oklohoma City, Oklohoma; Bradford, Pennsylvania ;
Johnston, Pennsylvania; Lancaster, Pennsylvania.;
Pittsburg, Pennsylvania; State Sollege, Pennsylvania;
Philipsburg, Pennsylvania; Providence, Rhode Island;
Lynchburg, Virginia; Richmond, Virginia; Roanoke,
Virginia; Morgantown, West yirginia; Parksburg, West
Virginia; Madison, Wisconsin; Wausau, Wisconsin.This list covers the majority of the schools offering
actual driving experience.
It seems very small when com­
pared with the large number of high schools in the United
States, yet it is quite an impressive number considering
the newness of the field.
It is reasonable to believe
that future developments will greatly surpass these of the
The growing realization of the necessity to create
proper attitudes in the young motorists is given in the
following quotation.
The motor car does not become a complete mechanism
until the driver is back of the steering wheel.
steering apparatus does not end at the steering wheel
any more than does a good braking system end with the
foot pedal or hand lever.
Bohes, muscles, sinews,
nerves, human temperaments, instincts, and habits
must all be taken into account.10
Safety Education, Op. Cit., p. 156
^QThe Philosophy of Customer Research, (Detroit
Michigan: General Motors Corporation^ p. 14.
It is evident from a study of safety education that
the schools, the public, and organizations public and
private, are aware of the importance of safety education
and are becoming more and more concerned about it.
It has
been pointed out that the demand for the schools to take
definite action came from outside organizations, chiefly
industry, but there is no doubt that school officials are
now fully conscious of their responsibility in this regard
Within the school itself the thought is dominant that ed­
ucation is not alone for the mind, but for the entire
individual; that the child is made up of many distinct
each of which must be considered when the broad
field of education is planned.
Thus safety education must
be considered a definite and necessary part of the full
training of that individual.
by Industry,
The community as represented
the home, the state, and other institutions
is holding the school responsible for definite safety work
and at the same time, is realizing that the school must
have full support in carrying out this responsibility.
It is difficult to find any subject which has
developed so rapidly in the educational system as safety
No educator now questions the necessity of
safety instruction and activities in the school.
may be some disagreement as to method, but these differences
are slight and are constantly changing as improved methods
and materials are introduced.
The elementary school is at
present most stable as it has been working in the field of
safety education longest.
The early positive and negative
methods of instruction slowly gave way to new and improved
The development of courses of study both local
and state wide has made teaching of safety compulsory in
a very large percentage of the elementary schools.
At the
same time these courses of study have specifically designat­
ed what to teach as well as when and where to teach it,
thus insuring safety a definite place in the curriculum.
The secondary school has not developed nor establish­
ed courses as rapidly as the elementary school, but if the
present interest is maintained, safety education will shortly
be includee in a large percentage of the high schools.
are at present numerous city courses of study and quite a
few state courses of study allocating definite safety
instruction on the secondary level.
A small percentage of
the secondary schools have progressed beyond the integrat­
ion of safety material with other subjects, and have develop­
ed a special course for safety instruction.
In some cases
this specialized course is required for graduation.
In stimulating extracurricular activities safety
education has found its most fertile medium.
The develop­
ment of the school boy patrol is now an accepted activity in
practically every elementary school in the United States.
The patrol has been aided materially by various community
organizations which have acted as sponsors and furnished
much of the needed equipment for carrying on patrol
The National Safety Council and other national
agencies have cooperated in evolving standard rules for the
operation of patrols.
The development of the Junior Safety
Councils closely rivals the patrol in importance as .a school
Bicycle safety clubs have proven their value
in many schools which have a large percentage of bicycle
The most recent addition to the field of safety ed­
ucation is the development of the driver-training course.
This new course is being carried on in only a small per­
centage of the schools at present, but where it is function­
ing it has met with the hearty approval of the students,
school administrators, and the community.
There are at
present several highly satisfactory methods being used for
this instruction and the majority of the undesirable proceedures have been eliminated.
If the school can overcome
the financial problems, which are the primary handicaps to
adopting the course, they will find that the minor obstacles
remaining will not keep this desirable course out of the
Considering the short time elapsed since safety has
been introduced into the schools, it is remarkable the
progress which they have made in this field.
The great
danger now lies in the fact that educators may be satisfied
with the beginning which has been made and will not continue
to improve the safety program.
If safety teaching continues
to make as much progress in the future as it has in the past,
it is not unreasonable to predict that all of the schools
will soon enjoy comprehensive and definite safety material
in their curriculums.
Central Authority.
Some central school authority
should have, charge of the work so that proper interest may
be created and maintained.
This person must be vitally
interested in the development of the safety movement.
must be an efficient organizer and one able to win the
continued cooperation of his associates both within the
school system and in outside organizations.
Every school
should have a person to direct safety within that particular
The community should also be organized into a com­
mittee of these school heads, and in turn under the leader­
ship of one man, a member of a state-wide organization for
the dissemination of safety ideals.
Material should be
Issued periodically through these organizations.
be a course of study, a periodic bulletin,
It may
safety programs,
special safety-drives, or other communications.
Community Coordination.
Any organization working
alone can make some contribution to safety and safety
education, but any marked success requires the united efforts
of many agencies.
The need for coordination in safety ed­
ucation becomes readily apparent when the number of private,
public, and other organizations, active in the field is
Duplications of programs and activities,
competition for both public and private support, occasional
exploitation of safety ideals for selfish purposes,
frequent use of unsound psychological and educational
principles in attempted achievement of both desirable and
dubious ends further reveal the need of coordinated effort
in safety education.
It is the responsibility of the school
to organize these community agencies into a coordinated safety
program, all working for improved conditions within the
Some of the most important organizations to be
considered, and found In most communities are:
The State
Police Patrol, The Highway Department, Including The Motor
Vehicle Division, Public Health Service, Department of
Commerce, local automobile clubs, American Automobile
Chamber of Commerce,
service clubs, fire in­
surance companies, National Safety Council, Parent Teachers
Association, Red Cross, youth groups and religious organizat­
It must be kept in mind that the most effective safety
program will coordinate the combined efforts of numerous
community agencies.
A.ccldent Records.
Every school should keep a
detailed record of accidents that happen to the students
on the way to and from school, and on the playgrounds,
athletic contests,
in the shops, in classes, in the corridors
and other miscellaneous danger points.
These records should
be formulated by a central city school authority and combined
with other city accident records.
In this way the accident
records become a source of information as to what phases
of safety education need to be emphasized in the school or
throughout the community.
Safety Organizations.
The Junior Safety Council
and the safety patrol are indispensable for success in safety
The older students should be trained to assume
responsibility for the younger ones.
These organizations
should be headed by a responsible school authority and
their duties definitely outlined in accord with standard
rules and regulations.
Teacher Training.
The rapid growth of the safety
movement has confronted school administrators with the prob­
lem of finding teachers prepared to administer safety ed­
There are very few courses given in college to
prepare the teacher for teaching safety.
The summer
schools in a few colleges offer short intensified, courses
in safety in which numerous safety minded teachers are
Until the average college offers courses in
training the teaching personnel,
school authorities can
solve many of their problems for the present thrju an
inservice training preparation,
such as short intensive
These may be evening or Saturday extension
type furnished by a neighboring college, they may be the
sole subject of the annual county teachers institute,
or they may be given by an outside agency, of which
there are several prepared for such work.
The develop­
ment of safety by a curriculum committee is valuable
because it familiarizes the committee with the current
methods and materials for teaching safety.
of the method used it is very important that the school
have on its staff teachers with special preparation in
the field of safety.
Proper attitudes, skills, and know­
ledge must be taught to the students and it is not
reasonable that teachers untrained in the safety education
should be responsible for this work.
Legislation. Legislative prescription of the
curriculum has proven unwise in many instances in the
past, but it is the belief of the author that the develop­
ment of required state courses of study in safety education
are advisable.
They would act as a spur to these local
administrators who are backward about developing safety
in their schools.
They would definitely allocate
materials to be taught and the grade levels where various
types of materials should be taught.
Local action should
be taken in those areas where the state is lax, which will
produce the same results.
Legislative action will show
the colleges that safety has been alloted a definite
place in the school systems and the colleges can in turn
develop courses to prepare the teachers for this new field.
Safety Lesson for Each Grade. Washington, D . C . :
Highway Education Board, 1937. 88pp.
The development of a safety program by integration
with subjects found in the school curriculum.
Community Safety. Chicago: National Safety Council, Inc.
1937.71 pp.
Cooper, John W m . , A Guide Book for Safety Education.
New York: National Bureau of Casualty and Surety
Underwriters, 1931.
A guide book for the allocation of safety materials to
grade levels in the elementary schools.
Cutler, Calvin, Anatomy and Physiology Designed for
Schools and Families. Boston Publishing Company,
276 pp.
F atality Hazards Much Greater for Young Drivers than
for Drivers of Mature age. Washington, D . C . :
American Automobile Association, 1937.
Greenwood, Earnest, Who Pays* Garden City, New York:
Doubleday Doran and Company, 1934.
301 pp.
Concerned chiefly with industrial accidents and
their cost to the people of the United States.
Henig, Max S., Safety in the Vocational School. New
York: National Bureau of Casualty and Surety
Underwriters, 1929.
156 pp.
A research study of accident c a u ses in the vocational
school with recommendations for their elimination.
How to Drive. Washington, D.C.: American Automobile
Association, 1937.
9 pp.
,fHow the Safety Movement Begann, Safety Education,
14:63, March, 1931.
Hyde, Florence Slown, Slown, Ruth Clara, Safety Programs
and Activities for Elementary and Junior High Schools.
Chicago: Berkley-Cardy Company, 1935.
261 pp.
Industrial Safety Education In Schools. School
Monograph No. 10. New York: Metropolitan Life
Insurance Company, 1937.
47 pp.
Mac Millan, Robert, Safety Education in the public
schools of the United States. Philadelphia, Penn.:
Temple University, 1936.
112 pp.
An excellent contribution covering the aims, objectives,
methods and materials of safety education.
Nelson, Florence, Safety Through the Y e a r . New York,
London: Me G-raw-Hill Book Company, 1937.
96 pp.
Safety Education, American Association of School
Administrators, Eighteenth Yearbook.
Washington, D.C.:
1201 Sixteenth Street, Northwest, 1940.
535 pp.
Covers the whole field of safety education in the schools
and gives summaries of numerous plans now in use.
Safety Education in the Schools.
White House Conference
on child health and protection, Report of Subcommittee
on Safety Education in the Schools, New &ork:
Century Company, 1932.
61 pp.
Safety .Education Methods for Secondary Schools. Chicago:
Education Division of National Safety Council, 1940. 104 pp.
Seaton, Don Cash, A Program of Safety Education for the
Elementary Schools of the State of Illinois. Printed
by the State of Illinois, 1939.
170 pp.
Sportsmanlike Driving. A Program for High Schools.
Washington, D.C.: American Automobile Association,
51 pp.
Stack, Herbert J., Safety Education in the Secondary Schools.
New York: National Bureau of Casualty and Surety
Underwriters, 1929.
155 pp.
A research study of safety education practices in high
school and an analysis of safety material found in
textbooks on this level.
_ _ _ _____ , Safety Education in High Schools. Bulletin of the
Department of Secondary School Principles, New York:
National Education Association, 1938.
5 pp.
Stack, Herbert J., Training Tomorrow1s Drivers* New York:
National Conservation Bureau, 60 John Street. 4 pp.
Stevenson, Isabelle, Safety Education. New York:
A. S.Barnes and Company, 1931.
157 pp.
Streitz, Ruth, Safety Education in the Elementary School.
New York: National Bureau of Casualty and Surety
Underwriters, 1926.
142 pp.
The Philosophy of Customer Research. Detroit, Michigan:
G-eneral Motors Corporation, 38 pp.
The Present Status of Safety Education, Twenty Fifth
Yearbook of the National Society for the study of
Education, Part I. Bloomington, Illinois: PubMtf^
School Publishing Company. 5-926. 366 pp.
Gives an excellent picture of the status of safety
education in 1926.
Transactions of the Child Education Section of the National
SAfety Council. Chicago: National Safety Council,
Published Yearly from 1913-1940.
A very good publication showing the trends of what is
being done in safety education in the schools by the
leading educators from year to year.
Vaughn, James S., Positive v s . Negative Instruction.
New York: National Bureau of Casualty and Surety
Underwriters, 1928.
235 pp.
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