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Survey of teacher personnel in Placer County 1940-1941

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SURVEY OF TEACHER PERSONNEL
IN PLACER COUNTY 1940-1941
A Thesis
Presented to
the Faculty of the School of Education
The University of Southern California
In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Master of Science in Education
by
Eugene Benedetti
UMI Number: EP54167
All rights reserved
INFORMATION TO ALL USERS
The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted.
In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript
and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed,
a note will indicate the deletion.
Dissertation Publishing
UMI EP54167
Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author.
Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC.
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unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code
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789 East Eisenhower Parkway
P.O. Box 1346
Ann Arbor, Ml 48106- 1346
T h is thesis, w r it t e n u n d e r the d ir e c t io n o f the
C h a ir m a n o f the ca n d id a te ’ s G u id a n c e C o m m itte e
a n d a p p r o v e d by a l l m em bers o f the C o m m itte e ,
has been p re se n te d to a n d a ccep ted by the F a c u lt y
o f the S c h o o l o f E d u c a t io n o f T h e U n iv e r s it y o f
S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f the
r e q u ire m e n ts f o r the degree o f M a s t e r o f Science
in E d u c a tio n .
Dean
Guidance C om m ittee
Paul Fisher
C hairm an
D. Wei tv Lefever
Louis P. Thorpe
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I.
PAGE
THE PROBLEM AND RELATED INVESTIGATIONS
. . . . . .
.........
The problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Statement of the problem
1
• • . • • • • • • • •
4
4
Analysis of the problem................... 4
Justification of the problem
Scope of the investigation
. .
. . . . . . . . . .
Sources of data for investigation
Related Investigations
............ 5
6
............ 7
. . • • . ...
• • . • • ^7
Organization by c h a p t e r s .................... 11
II. GENERAL INFORMATION ON PLACER C O U N T Y ......... 13
Purpose of this chapter...................13
General information
13
I n d u s t r i e s .........................
14
Natural resources . . • • • • .
........
...15
Number and description of schools.........16
School enrollment.........
Average daily attendance
17
• .
..•
• . . ..
• 19
Average daily attendance cost
...
•... .
. 19,
Assessed v a l u a t i o n .........
22
Summary.................................. 24
III. PERSONAL INFORMATION AND DOMESTIC STATUS OF
PLACER COUNTY TEACHERS
........................
Purpose of this chapter .........
25
25
ii
CHAPTER
PAGE
Purpose of this chapter
Marital status
. . . . . .
.......... 25
............... . . 2 6
Number and age of c h i l d r e n ...........
28
Dependents other than children
29
. . . . . . . .
Data on home o w n e r s h i p ...........
29
Domestic status other than home ownership ._. . 35
Summary • • • •
IY.
..................... . . .
36
TRAINING AND CERTIFICATION OF PLACER COUNTY
T E A C H E R S ...............
40
Purpose of this chapter
40
Training of elementary school teachers in
rural schools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
40
Training of elementary school teachers 'with­
out degrees............................ 41
Training of elementary school teachers having
the bachelorfs degree . . . . . . . . . . . .
Training of all elementary school teachers
41
. . 44
Training of high school teachers having the
bachelor’s degree ............
. . . . . . . 4 4
Training of all teachers having received the
master’s degree
..........................
4&
Credentials held by the elementary school
t e a c h e r s .............................. 43
Credentials held by the high schoolteachers
.
49
iii
CHAPTER
PAGE
Comparison of data with findings from related
investigations of other counties in Calif­
ornia .
Summary
V.
.........................
49
........................... . 59
TEACHING EXPERIENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
61
Purpose of this chapter.............. . . 6 1
Number of years in the present position . . . .
61
Number of years experience in Placer County . . 62
Number of years experience outside Placer
County but in California
........... 63
Number of years experience outside
Total years of teaching experience
VI.
California . 63
. . . . . .
71
Summary.............
73
TEACHER L O A D ...............
73
Purpose of this chapter................73
Elementary teacher l o a d ................73
High school teacher load
• • • • ...... 75
Length of the school day
.
.........
75
The amount of time consumed in a professional
nature by the elementary school teachers
. . 77
The amount of time consumed in a professional
nature by the high school instructors . . . .
Subjects taught without academic preparation
31
. 81
Extracurricular activities in which the
teachers e n g a g e .........
83
iv
CHAPTER
PAGE
Summary ..........
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
VII. SALARIES OF TEACHERS AND ADMINISTRATORS FROM *
1935-1940.........................
Purpose
87
of this chapter . . . . . . .
....... 87
Six year salary distribution of rural school
teachers
. • • . • • • • • . • • • • • • • .
87
Four year salary distribution of kindergarten
t e a c h e r s ...............
.88
Six year salary distribution of elementary
school teachers . • • • • • • • • . • • • . . 8 8
Six year salary distribution of high school
instructors • • • • • • • • •
............
.88
Six year salary distribution of elementary
school teaching administrators
............ 92
Six year salary distribution of elementary
school supervising administrators . . . . . .
92
Six year salary distribution of high school
supervising administrators
..........
.♦.95
Comparison of teachers’ and administrators1
salaries of Placer County with those for
the state of California ..........
Summary ........
• • • • • • • •
VIII. PROFESSIONAL ADVANCEMENT
.....95
..........
.95
.....................
101
Purpose of this chapter • . • • • • • • • • •
101
Summer sessions attended by elementary school
V
CHAPTER
PAGE
teachers within the last five years • ♦ . • 101
Summer sessions attended by high school
instructors within the last five years
. • 102
Extension courses taken by Placer County
teachers within the last five years • . . • 102
Professional magazines read at regular in­
tervals by the Placer County teachers • . • 105
Professional books read by the teachers of
Placer County for 1940-194-1............... 105
Summary.........
109
IX. ’.PROFESSIONAL AND COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES...........112
Purpose of this chapter..................... 112
Teachers1 associations to which Placer
County teachers belong
.................. 112
Membership in other professional organizations
Community activities of Placer County
t e a c h e r s ................ * .............
113
Summary..................................... 118
X. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS . . . .
Summary of findings.............
General information on Placer County
119
119
....
119
Personal information and domestic status of
the Placer County teachers
............
Training and certification of Placer County
. 120
vi
CHAPTER
PAGE
t e a c h e r s .........................
121
Teaching experience .............. ........ 122
Teacher load
.....
Professional advancement
..........
....
Professional andcommunity activities . . . .
Conclusions
APPENDIX . . .
125
126
............................... 127
Recommendations
BIBLIOGRAPHY
124
............................. 129
...............................131
............................. .
137
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE
PAGE
I.
II.
III.
Number and Description of Schools . . . *
IS
State School Enrollment . . . • • • . • •
20
Average Daily Attendance and Percent of
Attendance in. Placer C o u n t y ........
IV.
Average Daily Attendance Cost, 1938-1941
V.
Assessed Valuation of Placer County and
California ........ 1 . . . . . . .
VI.
VIII.
IX.
X.
XI.
22
.
.
........
Age of Elementary School Instructors
. .
XIII.
27
30
31
Marital Status of Elementary School Teachers
32
Marital Status of High School Teachers. .
33
Number and Age of Children of Placer County
Domestic Status of Pla,cer County Teachers
34
37
Amount of Rent Paid.by Placer County
Teachers............................
XIV.
23
Age of High School I n s t r u c t o r s ..........
Teachers...........................
XII.
21
Number of Questionnaires Received From the
Teachers of Placer County
VII.
.
38
Training of Rural Elementary School Teachers
Without Having Received the Bachelor1s
D e g r e e .............................
XV.
42
Training of Rural Elementary School
Teachers Having Received the Bachelor*s
Degree
.............
43
viii
TABLE
XVI.
PAGE
Training of Elementary School Teachers With­
out Having Received the Bachelor*s Degree
XVII.
Training of Elementary School Teachers
Having Received the Bachelor *s Degree .
XVIII.
XIX.
Training of All Elementary School Teachers
....
.............
Training of All the Teachers in Placer
XXV.
Date High
School Teachers Received Degrees
56
57
Institutions of Learning Attended by the
Teachers of Placer County . . . . . . .
XXVIII.
55
Types of Credentials Held by the High School
Teachers and the Date I s s u e d ..........
XXVII.
54
Types of Credentials Held by the Elementary
School Teachers and the Date Issued . .
XXVI.
53
Date Elementary School Teachers Received
Degrees............ , ...............
XXIV.
52
Training Received by AA11 the Teachers of
Placer County ........................
XXIII.
50
51
County Having the Master’s Degree . . .
XXII.
4?
Training Received by All the High School
Teachers
XXI.
46
Training of High School Teachers Having
Received the Bachelor*s Degree
XX.
45
Number of
XXXIJCl Number of
Years in Present Position
...
53
64
Years Teaching Experience in
Placer County . .
..................
$5
ix
TABLE
XXX.
PAGE
Number of Years Teaching Experience Outside
Placer County But in California . . . .
XXXI.
Number of Years Teaching Experience Outside
California
XXXII.
XXXIII.
........ • • * .........
Total Number of Years Teaching Experience
..........
Teacher
70
?4
Teacher Load in Secondary Schools of Placer
County, California, April, 1941 . . . .
XXXVII.
69
Load in Elementary Schools of
Placer County, California, April, 19X1
XXXVI'.
66
Summary Table on Teaching Experience for
High School Instructors ..............
XXXV.
^
Summary Table on Teaching Experience for
Elementary School Teachers
XXXIV.
66
76
Length of the School Day in the Placer
County Public Schools ................
76
XXXVIII. Amount of Time( Consumed in a Professional
Nature by the Elementary School Teacher
XXXIX.
Amount of Time Consumed in a Professional
Nature by the High School Instructors .
XL.
62
Extracurricular Activities in Which the
Elementary School Teachers Engage . . .
XLII.
.60
Number of Subjects Taught Without Academic
Preparation.........................
XLI.
79
64
Extracurricular Activities in Which the
High School Instructors Engage
....
65
X
TABLE
XLIII.
PAGE
Salary Distribution of Rural School Teachers
for the SixYearInterval,1935-1940
XLIV.
•.
Salary Distribution of Kindergarten Teachers
For the FourYearI n t e r v a l 1937-1940
XLV.
89
•
90
Salary Distribution of the Elementary School
Teachers for the Six Year Interval, 19351940
XLVI.
Salary Distribution of High School
Instructors for the Six Year Interval, 19351940
XLVII.
93
Salary Distribution of Elementary School
Teaching Administrators for the Six Year
Interval, 1935-1940. . . .
XLVIII.
...........
94
Salary Distribution of Elementary School
Supervising Administrators for the Six
^ear Interval, 1935-J940 ..............
XLIX.
96
Salary Distribution of High School Admini­
strators for the Six Year Interval, 19351940 .........
L.
Salaries
97
of Teachers and Administrators of
Placer County Compared With Those for the
State.of California
LI.
...............
98
Summer Sessions Attended by Elementary
School Teachers Within the Last Five
Y e a r s .........................
103
xi
TABLE
LIII.
PAGE
Extension Courses Taken by Placer County
Within the Last Five Y e a r s ............
LIV.
Professional Magazines Read at Regular
Intervals by Elementary School Teachers
LV.
107
Professional Magazines Read at Regular
Intervals by High School Instructors . .
Lvt.
. . . . . .
..........
.
11$
Other Professional Organizations to Which
Secondary Teachers Belong
LX.
114
Other Professional Organizations to Which
Elementary Teachers Belong .........
LIX.
110
Teachers1 Organizations to Which Placer
County Teachers Belong ...
LVIII.
108
Professional Books Read by the Teachers of
Placer County for 1940-1941
LVII.
106
. . . . . . .
116
Community Activities in Which Placer County
Teachers Engage
. . . . . . . ........
117
CHAPTER I
THE PROBLEM AND RELATED INVESTIGATIONS
For the past decade the history of education in the
United States has been one of turmoil, uncertainty, experi­
mentation, and transition*
At no other time have educators
of the nation been confronted with problems so diverse in scope
with an importance of unprecedented magnitude*
Only a few
years ago education was faced with a severe financial crisis
that threatened its Very existence*
Schools suffered irrepa­
rable damages; educational offerings were reduced, extra-cur­
ricular activities curtailed and on occasions abolished, the
curriculum was cut to include the minimum essentials, teachers1
salaries were decreased and in numerous instances they offered
their services without remuneration.
It was generally believed that if a substantial solution
to the financial problems of the nation’s schools could be of­
fered, the major obstacles would be surmounted.
At the present
time the financial problem has been alleviated but obstacles
more complex in nature have to be faced*
On every hand challenges to teachers abound.
Develop­
ments in American society have placed crime several jumps ahead
of education and other means of crime prevention.
become the outstanding nation of killers.
America has
Crime is estimated
to cost the tax payers of the country twelve billion dollars
in material wealth to say nothing of the mental and physical
2
anguish*
Political life has been so corrupt that many share the
sentiment that democracy is on the way to failure and exit*
Natural resources are looted by favored individuals and corpo­
rations; election to important state and national office has
become strictly a partisan affair, the parties themselves being .
wealthy, favored by large campaign contributions by wealthy
donors; legislation is dominated by lobbies of special interests
and appointments are made on the basis of party service; public
officials have no security of tenure or adequate honest rewards;
and able honorable individuals seldom go into politics and the
service of their country* ^
On the international front, there exists a world torn
asunder by years of incessant conflicts*
Devoid of human sym­
pathy > understanding, tolerance, and mutual cooperation, the
cultural heritage passed on through the centuries faces chaos
and destruction in this universe filled with hate, envy, ra­
cial antagonism and prejudice*
Economic rivalry and certain
social and psychological factors have combined to bring about
the most destructive system of warfare ever witnessed by man­
kind*
Where are the solutions to these national problems and
the cures for international ills?
The solution can come only
^Earl R* Douglas, ,fThe School, the Teacher, and American
Society, ftSecondary Education* pp. 266 November, 1935*
3
through education.
In the school alone may young people expect
to be introduced to the truth unbiased and impartial.
The chief
obstacle in the way is the fact that the great bulk of the
teachers do not yet possess the background for participating
effectively in the work before them.
The schools and pupils,
in the past, have been victimized by specific indoctrination
and commercial propaganda.
The task of the public school teach­
er is to open all those problematic matters, stimulate children
to think about them and to acquire all the known facts about
them of which they are capable.
It is apparent that many prob­
lems will be unanswered; however, it should be sufficient to
start young people to think.
With the challenge of affairs, public and private, so
urgent, the Educational Policies Commission has laid down five
principles in discovering the task of education in American de­
mocracy:
1. Public education is anchored in the history of American
civilization and at any given moment operates within the accu­
mulated heritage of that civilization.
2. Every system of thought and practice in education is
formulated with some reference to the ideas and interests domi­
nant or widely cherished in society at the time of its formu­
lation.
3. Once created and systematized, any program of educa­
tional thought and practice takes on professional and institu­
tional stereotypes, and tends to outlast even profound changes
in the society in which it assumed its original shape.
4. Any restatement of educational objectives and respon­
sibilities which is rooted in reality takes into account the
nature of professional obligations and makes adjustments to
cope with the major changes wrought in society since the last
reckoning in education.
5* Any statement of educational objectives and respon­
sibilities that is not merely theoretical involves a quest for
the institutional forms and operation practives through which
education can best attain its ends.
I.
THE PROBLEM
Statement of the problem.
The investigation was to
study the teaching personnel of Placer County, California, rel­
ative to training, experience, salary, teaching load, the social
and economic relations of the teachers and administrators of
the county.
Also to analyze such data in terms of criteria
in the literature and information on best practices for the
purpose of making recommendations which may advance the teach­
ing profession in Placer County.
It has been the writer’s
objective to analyze the factors of personnel as they applied
to successful teaching and suggest improvements wherever pos­
sible.
Analysis of the problem.
It has been the purpose of
this presentation to bring to light in a tangible, comprehen­
sive manner, certain data concerning the teachers of Placer
County; and to analyze such data in terms of the best principles
and standards available for guidance in determining the status
of present practices.
The items under consideration include:
1. Personal information
^Educational Policies Commission, The Unique Function
of Education in American Democracy, pp. 8-7.
5
2. Economic status and domestic responsibilities
3. Training and certification
4. Degrees held
5. Experience
6. Teaching load
7* Salaries
8. Professional advancement
9* Professional and community activities.
Justification of the problem.
To the writerfs knowl­
edge, this is the first school survey of any kind that has been
undertaken in Placer County and no organized personnel data
were available.
It is hoped that from this study may come in­
formation that will provide the necessary incentive to change
such conditions as are shown to be out of harmony with progres­
sive practice.
Such factors are analyzed from the point of
view of their effect upon teacher personnel.
Most of the studies made and the available literature
written has been confined to the larger cities of the United
States.
The problem of rural education, which has been sadly
neglected, has become urgent and vital.
Practically half of
the children of school age in the nation live in rural sec­
tions or in towns of population less than 2,500.
Existing
conditions in the educational institutions of the semi-rural
areas of the nation offer fertile fields for exhaustive inves­
tigations.
In smaller communities the school serves as a nucleus
for all activities; carrying on social functions as well as
educational tasks, tending the needs of adults as well as those
of children.
On such occasions the school acts as a clearing
house for community social functions, as well as a cultural
center.
The role played by the teacher is greatly diversified
with an increasing amount of emphasis being placed on leader­
ship qualities without impairing teaching efficiency.
In general, it may be said that the inhabitants of small
communities lack essential information concerning teacher wel­
fare.
The possession of vital knowledge by the community rel­
ative to teacher training, certification, adequate salary sched­
ule, and the social and economic status of the teacher, would
have the tendency to make for better cooperation, harmony, and
understanding bet?/een the school and the community.
Scope of the investigation.
This investigation included
all the rural, kindergartens, elementary, and senior high
schools of Placer County.
A total of 268 questionnaires were
sent to the teachers and administrators throughout the county.
Two hundred nineteen questionnaires were returned, distributed
in the following ways:
143 from elementary teachers, or 85.6
per cent of the entire group; and seventy-six from the high
school instructors or the equivalent of 75.2 per cent of that
body.
In all, 81.7 per cent of the questionnaires sent out
were returned.
7
Not all of the information asked for was submitted.
Some of the personal items were not volunteered by both men
and women, especially the one treating with age.
The omis­
sions were insufficient to invalidate the findings of this
investigation.
Sources of data for investigation.
The materials for
this survey were obtained in the following ways:
First, pro­
fessional books and magazines such as the Report of the Educa­
tional Policies Commission, Research Bulletins by the National
Education Association, and writings by outstanding educational
authorities furnished the desired information for a clear state­
ment of the problem.
Second, personal interviews with teachers, administra­
tors, county superintendent, and members of the County Board
of Education.
Third, reports and records from the office of the county
superintendent made information available relative to the num­
ber of teachers employed, enrollment of scho'ols, school expend­
itures, and evaluation of school property.
Fourth, questionnaires were sent to all teachers and ad­
ministrators employed in Placer County.
A copy of the question­
naire may be seen in the Appendix, page 137.
II.
RELATED INVESTIGATIONS
During the past decade, an increasing number of studies
8
regarding teacher personnel have been made*
The United State
Office of Education which functions as a branch of the Depart­
ment of the Interior, has conducted surveys concerning the sta­
tus of teachers and administrators from a national standpoint.
Studies carried on by Gaumnitz^ and Wahlquist^ Deffenbaugh6
and Foster,6 have stressed the social, professional, and eco­
nomic status of the classroom teachers and administrators.
Crouch made an excellent comprehensive investigation of the
status of the elementary school principal*^
Several parallel surveys, which relate very closely with
this study, have been conducted relative to teacher personnel.
Le Grande Noble6 carried on an investigation in Uintah County,
Utah, which dealt strictly with the rural areas.
Clifford
^Walter H. Gaumnitz, Status of Teachers and Principals
Employed in the Rural Schools of the United States (Washington
D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1952), 122 pp.
4J. T. Wahlquist, Status of the Junior College Instructor
(Washington D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1931)
Walter S. Deffenbaugh, Elementary School Principals:
Some Data on Their Education. Experience, and Salaries tWashington D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1932) 11 pp.
6Frank K. Foster, Status of the Junior High School Prin­
cipal (Washington D. C.j Government Printing Office, 1930), 75
pp.
^Ray A. Crouch, wStatus of the Elementary School Principalf* (unpublished Doctor*s Dissertation, University of Missouri,
Columbia, Missouri, 1926)
8Le Grande Noble, "A Personnel Study of the Teachers of
Uintah County, Utah,w (unpublished Masterfs thesis, University
of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1939), 130 pp.
9
Peterson0 made an excellent study of teaching conditions in
Jackson and Harmon Counties, Oklahoma, also with direct empha­
sis on the plight of rural areas.
Stuart McComb's study10 of
teacher personnel in Ventura County, California, was carried
out on a more extensive basis.
In 1953, Clarence Vertrees^1
made a survey of Orange County, California.
One of the best
studies in the field was conducted by Henry Wilson18 in San
Diego County, California.
This thesis gives the student a very
clear picture of the teacher conditions in the county at the
time the thesis was written, in 1933.
It included all the
schools of San Diego County with the exception of San Diego
city schools.
These closely related presentations are centered about
personnel factors concerning salaries, teaching load, training,
experience, professional activities, community activities, and
^Clifford T. Peterson, ”A Personnel Study of Teachers of
Jackson and Harmon Counties, Oklahoma,” (unpublished Master1s
thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1938),
146 pp.
10Stuart F. McComb, ”Survey of Teacher Personnel in
Ventura County” (unpublished Master*s thesis, University of
Southern California, Los Angeles, 1939), 138 pp.
^Clarence E. Vertrees, ”A Survey of Orange County Teach­
ers” (unpublished Master*s thesis, University of Southern Calif­
ornia, Los Angeles, 1933), 179 pp.
3-2H e n r y Wilson, ”Teacher Personnel Study in San Diego
County” (unpublished Master1s thesis, University of Southern
California, Los Angeles, 1933), 145 pp.
10
personal Information,
Other personnel investigations have been completed as
theses at the University of Southern California.
Evelt15 stud­
ied the junior college teachers of California, while Lane1^
and Barringer15 studied the business teachers in California and
Idaho high schools*
LeFever1® made a special study of married
women teachers in Los Angeles County elementary schools, while
Harder1*'* made a study of teaching conditions in the Kansas ru­
ral schools.
Dice1® conducted a survey of the legal status of
13Florence Evelt, "The Status of the Junior College Teach­
er in California," (unpublished Masterfs thesis, University of
Southern California, Los Angeles, 1929), 152 pp.
^ J o h n R. Lane, "The Present Status of Business Teachers
in the High Schools of California," (unpublished Master’s
thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1955),
83 pp.
15Arthur C. Barringer, "The Status of Teachers of Busi­
ness Subjects in the Public High Schools of Idaho," (unpublish­
ed Master’s thesis, University of Southern California, Los
Angeles, 1935), 101 pp.
^ R u t h LeFever, "The Status of the Married Women Teachers
in the Elementary Schools of Los Angeles County," (unpublished
Master’s thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles,
1930), 102 pp.
^Menno S. Harder, "Rural High School Teaching Condi­
tions in Reno County, Kansas," (unpublished Master’s thesis,
University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1936), 94 pp.
^Clifford C. Dice, "The Legal Status of Public School
Teachers in California," (^published Master’s thesis, Univer­
sity of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1931), 72 pp.
California school teachers.
Aspen19 and Lucas20 made person­
nel studies of administrators in California.
III.
ORGANIZATION BY CHAPTERS
In Chapter II is advanced general information of Placer
County, California, relative to area in square miles, popula­
tion, number of schools, total enrollment, average daily attend­
ance, average daily attendance costs, and assessed valuation
of all county property.
Chapter III is devoted to the discussion of personal in­
formation, economic status, and the domestic responsibilities
of the teacher.
Such items as age, marital status, home data,
attendance, homes owned, rent paid, teachers living with par­
ents, and number of children, are herein considered.
The training and certification of Placer County teach­
ers are dealt with in Chapter IV, considering specifically teach­
ers who have diplomas only, those with degrees, and those who
hold credentials of various kinds.
In Chapter V is advanced information relative to the ex­
perience of teachers, including the number of years teaching
10Harriette M. Aspen, ”Status of the Elementary School
Principal in California,” (unpublished Master^ thesis, Univer­
sity of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1934), 98 pp.
20Douglas P. Lucas, ”A Study of Professional Status of
the Superintendents of Schools of California,” (unpublished
Masterfs thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles,
1932), 112 pp.
experience within Placer County, experience in other counties
within the state, and years of experience outside the state#
The purpose of Chapter VI is to present data on the
teaching load#
The length of teaching periods, average size
of classes, number of subjects taught per teacher, are advanc­
ed#
Salaries of teachers and administrators are analyzed in
Chapter VII#
The average salary for the elementary and high
school teachers is compared with the state average#
In Chapter VIII the professional advancement of the
teachers is discussed#
Such factors as summer sessions attend­
ed, extension courses taken, professional literature read, travel, and affiliation with various professional organizations,
are considered#
Teacher participation in professional and community ac­
tivities are discussed in Chapter IX#
Such factors as affili­
ation in professional organizations, participation in frater­
nal clubs, the teachers1 social-recreational, religious, and
civic activities are related.
In Chapter X are included a summary of the preceeding
chapters, the conclusions drawn, and necessary recommendations
made for the various phases of this survey#
CHAPTER II
GENERAL INFORMATION ON PLACER COUNTY
Purpose of this chapter.
The purpose of this chapter
is to relate in a concise manner pertinent facts regarding the
schools of Placer County, coupled with general information about the county itself.
Such items as the number and kind of
schools, assessed property valuation of the county, average
daily attendance, average daily attendance cost, state school
enrollment, and miscellaneous information are herein treated.
General information.
Placer County is located in the
northeastern section of California.
On the north it is bound
by Nevada County; the eastern limits of the county extend to
the shores of beautiful Lake Tahoe and the state of Nevada; to
the southeast it is bordered by El Dorado County; on the south
it is bound by Sacramento County; bound on the west by Sutter
County; and bound on the northwest by Yuba County.
The total population of Placer County is 27,917.
This
represents an increase of 3,475, which is 10.1 per cent, over
the previous decade.
Auburn is the county seat having a popu­
lation of 4500 and located about 34 miles northeast of Sacra­
mento, the capital of California.
Roseville is the largest
city in the county, located mid-way between Auburn and Sacra­
mento and having a total number of approximately 7,000 inhab­
itants.
14
There are 896,000 acres of land in the county which is
the equivalent to 13,*090 square miles.
Of this amount 295,6000
acres are tillable; the actual amount under cultivation is
51,425 acres, being divided into 1350 farms.
The normal amount .
of rainfall per year is slightly under 30 inches; however, last
season was unusual inasmuch as 35 inches of precipitation were
recorded.
A total of 945 miles of road exist in the county dis­
tributed in the following ways:
150 miles of state highway,
66 miles of city road, 433 miles of earth road, 273 miles of
oiled road, and 23 miles of asphalt mix road.^
Industries. . Placer County offers a number of fairly
well developed industries.
The chief occupation of its inhab­
itants is predominately agriculture in its various diversified
forms.
Deciduous fruit raising is a common practice in the
foothills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, while dry farming
consisting chiefly of wheat and truck garden crops, forms the
nucleus of the valley farming.
The farmers of the county are
proud of the reality that their peaches and plums are among the
earliest produced in the entire nation.
The broad expanse of
foothill terrain and a mediterranean climate form an ideal basis
for the raising of grapes and olives.
Consequently, one large
olive oil manufacturing plant and several wineries are to be
*^Tax Assessor’s Report for Placer County, 1940-41
15
found in the county*
Closely associated with agriculture, there exist stock
and poultry raising which form an essential part of the indus­
trial life of the county.
Rivaling agriculture for the county>s chief occupation
is railroading.
The Southern Pacific is the only railroad
company operating within the county and it maintains a termi­
nal at Roseville.
One of the largest icing stations in the
United States is located at Roseville because of the latterfs
proximity to the fruit and vegetable growing regions.
Another rapidly expanding industry of the county is the
manufacture of pottery products.
Only one plant of its kind
exists in the county, that being located at Lincoln.
Easily
accessible clay fields provide the plant with an abundance of
clay to be processed.
Conveniently situated railroad facili­
ties assure efficient dispersal of the pottery products through­
out the state.
Natural resources.
In Placer County are found several
natural resources which have paved the way for industries of
lesser importance.
Gold is responsible for the countyfs oldest
occupation which is mining.
At the present time, both placer
and hydraulic mining are in existence.
The former is exempli­
fied by the operations of the Alabama Mine at Penryn, and the
latter illustrated by the open pit workings of the Lost Camp
Mine at Blue Canyon*
16
Lumber also abounds in the county*
The cutting of trees
for commercial purposes has existed for a comparative short
period of time and consequently valuable tracts of virgin for­
est are to be found.
The most important trees are of the co­
niferous variety, the most important being the Douglas fir,
sugar pine, ponderosa pine, white fir, red fir, and the Jeffrey
pine.
The heavy winter snow fall and the extreme elevation of
the county ranging from a scant few feet above sea level to
Yd.thin the neighborhood of 6,000 feet, combine to furnish the
county an abundance of water power.
There exist several hydro­
electric plants which keep the county supplied with the neces­
sary electrical power.
Granite is found in limited amounts.
Quarrying was very
profitable over a decade ago when the construction program of
nearby communities demanded large quantities of granite.
De­
spite lessened demand, restricted amounts of the rock are still
being shipped out of the county.
Number and description of schools.
The schools of Placer
County offer an heterogeneous collection, ranging from the sim­
ple district of limited facilities with its one teacher school
to the modern, up-to-date, well equipped plant of the joint un­
ion high school district possessing its own lighted baseball
diamond, football field, and having a swimming pool under con­
struction.
In all, there are 48 schools having a grand total
of 268 teachers distributed in the following ways
26 one-
teacher schools; 6 two-teacher schools; 2 three-teacher schools
3 four-teacher schools; 3 schools having nine teachers; and 4
schools with more than ten teachers.
Three high schools have
more than ten teachers on the faculty and one secondary school
has but two teachers.
(In Table I are given details)
In regard to the number and description of school dis­
tricts, there are thirty-seven simple districts, seven union
districts, and one joint union district which is located partly
in Sacramento County.
School enrollment.
For the school year 1940-41, the
state enrollment for the county amounted to 7037; 3775 being
in the elementary schools, and 3262 in the secondary schools.
One significant fact concerning the school enrollment has been
a gradual total increase which was characterized by a marked
decline in the elementary school population and a noticeable
increase in secondary school students.
This trend seems to be
in accordance with the school enrollment trends common through­
out the nation.
No one explanation can be offered for the change in en­
rollment trends.
Population shifts, school attendance laws,
economic conditions and social attitudes determining school at­
tendance standards, administrative policies, provisions and
practices, are major factors in influencing such trends.2
(In
SQ. L. Harvey, "Enrollment Trends and Population Shifts,
Elementary School Journal. 38 pp., May 1938
18
TABLE I
NUMBER AND DESCRIPTION OF SCHOOLS
Exem. School
High School
26
6
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
3
9
4
Total 44
ner:
Number of Teachers
3
4
more than 10
268
NOTE: This table should be read in the following man­
Twenty-six elementary schools have one teacher etc.
19
Table II are given further details.)
Average -da ilv attendance.
Figures show that the per­
cent of attendance and the average daily attendance are un­
usually low.
One reason for the existing condition can be at-,
tributed to the county and school administration of the attend-,
ance problem.
entire county.
There exists one probationary officer for the
Technically speaking his services are available
for every school in the county, actually his operations are lim­
ited to the isolated, rural, one teacher schools.
District schools maintain some sort of an attendance of­
ficer, usually in the form of a regular classroom teacher who
devotes one hour daily to the problem of truancy.
With the lim­
ited time at their disposal, these attendance officers are un­
able to make the necessary routine calls and so by necessity
their work takes on an aspect of clerical nature.
One high school district employed a teacher who devoted
three hours daily to attendance check-ups.
The significant
factor of this move was illustrated by a three percent increase
over the attendance of the previous year.
(in Table III are
given statistical information.)
Average daily attendance cost.
One of the significant
features of the average daily attendance cost in Placer County
has been the material decrease in the amount expended on educa­
tion during the past three years.
It is to be noted that the
average daily attendance for the corresponding period steadily
so
TABLE II
STATE SCHOOL ENROLLMENT
Year
Elem. Sch* Students
H. S* Students
Total
1936
4222
1528
5750
1937
4119
1654
5773
1938
3967
2318
6305
1939
4285
2600
6885
1940
3775
3263
7037
NOTE: This table should be read in the following man­
ner: In 1936 there were 4222 elementary school students and
1528 high school enrolled, making a total of 5750, etc*
21
TABLE III
AVERAGE DAILY ATTENDANCE AND PERCENT OF
ATTENDANCE IN PLACER COUNTY
Average Daily
Attendance
No. Enrolled
1938-39
5113
6305
81.08
1939-40
5371
6885
78.09
1940-41
5546
7037
78.9
Year
Percent or
Attendance
NOTE: This table should be read in the following man­
ner: During the school year 1938-39, the average daily attend­
ance was 5113, with 6305 students enrolled for a total of 81.08
percent.
22
increased.
This marked decrease in school appropriations has
been followed by a similar cut in the tax rate for both ele­
mentary and high school districts.
In Table IV are given complete details regarding the
cost of education per average daily attendance from 1938-41.
TABLE IV
AVERAGE DAILY ATTENDANCE COST, 1938-1941
School Year
Average Daily
Attendance
Total Cost of
Operating Schs* Cost per A.D.A.
1938-39
5112
$364,214
$71.25
1939-40
5371
$334,647
$61.19
1940-41
5546
$326,279
#58.83
NOTE: This table should be read in the following man­
ner: For the school year 1938-39, the average daily attend­
ance was 5112, the total cost of operating the schools was
$364,214 which amounted to $71.25 per average daily attendance,
etc.
Assessed valuation.
The total assessed property valua­
tion of Placer County amounts to $35,597,395 which is approxi­
mately 5 percent of the assessed valuation of California.
Pro­
portionately speaking, Placer County has lagged behind the state
of California regarding the increase of property valuation.
In Table V is presented a complete picture concerning
the assessed valuation of Placer County and California togeth­
er with the accompanying rate of increase.
TABLE V
ASSESSED VALUATION OF PLACER COUNTY AND CALIFORNIA
Fiscal Year
California
Placer Co.
Assessed
Valuation
Rate of
Increase
1938-39
$7,006,805,801
1.5 %
1939-40
$7,095,382,102
1.1
1940-41
-$7,138,621,256
•6
1938-39
$35,008,835
6.5 %
1939-40
$35,474,145
1.3
1940-41
$35,597,395
.3
NOTE: This table should be read in the following man­
ner: During the fiscal year 1938-39, the assessed valuation
for California was $7,006,805,801 which was in increase of
1.5 % over the previous year*
24
Summary.
The industries of Placer County are fairly
numerous and diversified.
Most of the occupations are in the
initial stage of development and offer abundant possibilities
for subsequent expansion.
A ready supply of natural resources
namely granite, minerals, lumber, farm land, and hydro-elec­
tric power has been instrumental in forwarding the industries
of the county.
The heterogeneous population has shown a gradual but
steady increase.
Nationality groups from the Orient, southern,
southeastern, northern, central, and western Europe are well
represented, together with a sprinkle of Latin American inhab­
itants.
The schools present a miscellaneous picture, ranging
from twenty-six one-teacher schools to a recently created jun­
ior college.
The elementary school enrollment has shown a de­
crease since 1955, whereas the increase in the high school en­
rollment has been sufficiently large to bring about an increase
in the total school population.
Despite the gradual increase of assessed property valu- .
ation since 1958, there has been a material decrease in school
expenditures for that period.
The amount expended for the
school year 1940-41 was $58.83 per unit of average daily attend­
ance.
CHAPTER III
PERSONAL INFORMATION AND DOMESTIC STATUS OF
PLACER COUNTY TEACHERS
Purpose of this chapter.
The purpose of this chapter
is to summarize and evaluate the personal information submit­
ted by teachers and administrators for the purposes of this
investigation.
The items considered are the age of teachers,
the marital status, number and age of children, number of de­
pendents other than children, data on home ownership, and -the
domestic status of teachers other than home ownership.
'
Age of elementary and high school"teachers#
In this
investigation there was no positive correlation between the
age and position held by the individual teacher.
Out of the
total number of 143 questionnaires received from elementary
school teachers, 25 were from men teachers and the remaining
118 from women instructors*
The mean age for men teachers in the elementary schools
amounted to 34.4 years, while the corresponding age for women
instructors was 36.9 years.
The average age for all elementary
school teachers was 35.6 years.
This is a comparatively high average for professional
people where a limited amount of training is required before
certification occurs.
One explanation for the existing condi­
tion can be attributed to the small teacher turnover.
Only
one elementary district in the county has an average daily at­
26
tendance large enough to warrant the granting of tenure*
Teach­
ers in other districts retain their positions so long as the
quality of their work merits retention.
Another reason for
the small turnover is the relatively large number of teaching
certificates granted by the county in the past that restricted
teaching activities to within the county limits.
Out of the 76 reports received from the high schools,
40 were answered by men teachers and the remaining 56 were re­
turned by women instructors.
The mean age for the men was 37.6
years while the average age for the women amounted to 38.3 years.
The mean age for all high school teachers was 37.8 years.
(In
Tables VII, page 30, VIII, page 31 are given complete details.)
Marital status.
From the reports received, it was re­
vealed that seventy-six women teachers or 64.3 per cent of that
elementary group were single, thirty-four or 28 per cent were
married, four had been divorced and the same number were widow­
ed which amounted to 3.3 per cent for each group.
Concerning the men instructors in the elementary schools,
ten were single amounting to 40 per cent; and fifteen were mar­
ried which amounted to 60 per cent of the male elementary school
teachers submitting questionnaires.
Of the elementary school teachers as a group, 60.1 per
cent are single, 34.9 per cent are married, 2.7 per cent have
been divorced and the same amount have been widowed.
In the secondary schools, out of the thirty-six women
27
TABLE VI
NUMBER OF QUESTIONNAIRES RECEIVED FROM
THE TEACHERS OF PLACER COUNTY
Women Teachers Men Teachers
Per "Cent of
_____________ Reporting____ Reporting
Total County *s Total
Elementary
J Schools
118
25
145
85.6
Secondary
Schools
36
40
76
75.2
NOTE: This table should be read in the follo?;ing man­
ner: In the elementary schools, 118 women and 25 men teachers
returned questionnaires, etc.
28
teachers reporting, twenty-one were single, this figure amount­
ing to 58.3 per cent of the group; eleven or 30.6 per cent
were married, three or 8.3 per cent had been divorced and only
one was a widow.
The number of marriages among the male members of the
high school faculty was much greater than the corresponding
figures for the women.
Out of the forty cases reporting, thir­
ty or 75 per cent of the group were married, 22.5 per cent were
single amounting to nine, and one had been divorced.
Of the secondary school teachers as a group, 39.4 per
cent are single, 53.9 per cent are married, 5.2 per cent di­
vorced, and 1.3 per cent widowed.
(In Tables IX, page 32,
X, page 33 are given details.)
Number and age of children.
The average number of chil­
dren for the elementary school group was 1.4.
It is to be not­
ed however, that the average for the male group was 1.6 while
that of women instructors was .88.
One remarkable feature of
these figures was the number of children over twenty years of
age belonging to the women instructors.
Sixty-two per cent of
these children were over twenty.
The number of children belonging to the high school
teachers was less than the corresponding group of elementary
school teachers.
The average number of children for the mar­
ried secondary school teachers amounted to 1.2.
The women
teachers averaged .6 while the male instructors averaged 1.4
29
children.
(In Table XI, page 54 are given statistical de­
tails.)
Dependents other than children.
Only nine dependents
other than children were reported by the elementary school
group while the high school instructors cited five cases.
In
every instance the dependents were related to the teachers,
being either parent, brother or sisiter.
Data on home ownership.
In this survey it was reveal­
ed that a high degree of correlation existed between home own­
ership and permanent teaching status.
Especially was this
finding true among the elementary teachers who had received
tenure under old legislation when average daily attendance
was not a factor in granting tenure.
The greatest number of
permanent teachers can be found among the women elementary
school instructors, consequently that group presented the high­
est per cent of home ownership.
Of the 118 returns submitted by women elementary teach­
ers, fifty-six indicated home ownership, amounting to 47.4 per
cent of the group.
For men in corresponding group it was re­
vealed that six owned homes which was equal- to 24 per cent of
this particular group.
One reason for the small number of male
instructors in the elementary schools owning homes can be attri­
buted to the fact that only one in the entire county has tenure.
By combining the two groups, figures reveal that a to-
30
TABLE VII
AGE OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL INSTRUCTORS
Age in
Years
Frequency
for Women
Frequency
for Men
Total
21-25
4
1
5
26-30
30
10
40
31-35
31
5
36
36-40
15
3
18
41-45
16
3
19
46-50
6
2
a
51-55
5
1
6
56-60
3
3
over 60
2
2
Mean age for men 34.4 years.
Mean age for women 36.9 years.
Mean age for the group 35.6 years.
NOTE: In the elementary schools there are four women
and one male instructor between the years 21-25.
SI
TABLE VIII
AGE OF HIGH SCHOOL INSTRUCTORS,
Frequency
for Women
Frequency
for Men
Total
21-25
1
1
2
26-30
5
7
12
31-35
6
9
15
36-40
12
9
21
41-45
7
7
14
46-50
2
5
7
51-55
2
2
4
Age in
Years
56-60
over 60
1
1
Mean age for men 37.6 years,
Mean age for women 38.3 years,
Mean age for the entire group 37.8 years.
NOTE: This table is read in the following manner: In
the high schools there is one male and one woman instructor
between the years 21-25, etc.
32
TABLE IX
MARITAL STATUS OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS
Status
Frequency
for Women
Frequency
for Men
Total
Single
76
10
86
Married
34
15
49
Divorced
4
4
Widowed
4
4
NOTE: This table is read in the following manner:
There are 76 single women and 10 single men instructors in
the elementary schools*
33
TABLE X
MARITAL STATUS OF HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS
Status
Frequency
for Women
Frequency
for Men
Total
Single
21
9
30
Married
11
30
41
Divorced
3
1
4
Widowed
1
1
NOTE: This table is read in the following manner:,
There are 21 single women and 9 single male instructors in
the high schools*
34
TABLE XI
NUMBER AND AGE OF CHILDREN OF PLACER COUNTY TEACHERS
Age in
Years
Elemen. Sch.
Teachers
High School
Teachers
0-5
10
17
27
6-10
6
11
17
11-15
7
9
16
16-20
10
9
19
over 20
21
4
25
104
Total
NOTE: This table is read in the following manner:
Elementary school teachers have 10 and high school teachers
have 17 children up to five years of age, etc*
55
tal of sixty-two elementary school teachers own homes which
amounts to 43.6 per cent of the number reporting.
These conditions concerning home ownership are practi­
cally reversed in the secondary schools where there are more
men instructors having tenure than there are women.
Fifteen
men reported owning their homes which was 37.5 per cent of that
group, whereas seven women revealed owning homes, amounting to
19.4 per cent.
Considered as one group, twenty-two secondary school
teachers owned homes which amounted to 28.9 per cent of the
entire group reporting.
(In Table XII are given complete de­
tails.)
Domestic status other than home ownership.
There were
more teachers in both elementary and high schools who rented
homes than there were teachers living \¥ith parents or boarding
in a private home.
Fifty elementary school teachers, or 34.9
per cent rented homes, paying an average rent of #20.15 per
month.
The amount paid by the men was much greater than the cor­
responding amount paid by women instructors.
The average for
the women being #17.80 per month and the amount paid by the men
was #27.10.
The reason for the considerable difference paid
being that most of the women rented rooms with light housekeep­
ing facilities whereas men rented homes which obviously enough
necessitated greater expenditure.
36
Twenty-one elementary teachers were hoarding in private
homes which was 14.6 per cent of the group.
Ten teachers in
this group were living at home with their parents amounting to
6.9 per cent.
The per cent of high school teachers renting homes was
greater than the elementary group.
A total of thirty-seven
was renting, amounting to 48.7 per cent of the group.
Those
that boarded amounted to 18.4 per cent and 3.9 per cent were
living with their parents.
Summary.
(In Table XIII for further details.)
Due to the small teacher turnover and the ten­
ure system, the mean age for the teachers of Placer County is
comparatively high.
The average for the elementary school is
35.6 years, and the corresponding mean for the high school is
37.8.
In both instances the average age for the women was
higher than that of the male instructors.
In regard to marital status, 34.9 per cent of the ele­
mentary school teachers are married, 60.1 per cent are single,
2.7 per cent haye been divorced and 2.7 per cent are widowed.
For the secondary schools 39.4 per cent are single, 53.9 per
cent are married, 5.2 per cent have been divorced and 1.3 per
cent widowed.
Elementary teachers average more children than
high school instructors the former averaging 1.4 children and
the latter 1.2.
There was a high positive correlation between home own­
ership and tenure.
There are more elementary teachers having
37
TABLE XII
DOMESTIC STATUS OF PLACER COUNTY TEACHERS
Elementary
School
High
School
Owning Homes
62
22
84
Renting
50
37
87
Boarding
21
14
35
Living with
Parents
10
3
13
Total
NOTE: This table is read in the following manner:
There are 62 elementary and 22 high school instructors who
owned their homes, etc*
38
TABLE XIII
AMOUNT OF RENT PAID BY PLACER COUNTY TEACHERS
Amount
Per Month
Elementary
School
High
School
Total
$11-15
16
2
18
16-20
12
2
14
21-25
10
1
11
26-30
9
10
19
31-35
3
5
8
6
6
over 35
NOTE: This table should be read in the following man­
ner: There are 16 elementary and 2 high school instructors
who pay between $11-15 per month, etc.
39
permanent status than high school instructors, consequently
43.6 per cent of the former owned homes compared with 28.9
per cent for the latter group.
CHAPTER IV
TRAINING AND CERTIFICATION OF PLACER COUNTY TEACHERS
Purpose of this chapter.
The objective of this chap­
ter is to point out the training and certification of elemen­
tary and high school teachers.
The main items considered are
the various types of credentials held, and the training of
teachers holding degrees and the training of those without
degrees.
The findings are then compared with corresponding
summaries of related investigations conducted in other Cali­
fornia counties.
The comparison is made to show the relative
status of Placer County teachers regarding training and certi­
fication.
Training is defined as the amount of study under­
taken subsequent to high school graduation in an accredited
institution of higher learning.
#
Training of elementary school teachers in rural schools.
Because of the large number of rural schools in the county a
separate study was made concerning the training and certifica­
tion of the teachers in those schools.
A rural school is in­
terpreted as meaning a school having but one teacher.
A total of twenty questionnaires was returned by teach­
ers in rural areas.
Out of this total, eight had received
training which was insufficient to obtain the bachelorfs de­
gree.
The average in years of training for this group amount­
ed to 2.9*
41
There were twelve teachers in elementary districts hav­
ing but one teacher, that had received the bachelorfs degree*
This was equivalent to 60 per cent of the rural teachers subpitting questionnaires.
The average in years of training for
this group amounted to 4.5.
The average amount of training
for the entire rural elementary group was 3.8 years.
(In Ta­
bles XIV, XV are given statistical Information.)
Training of elementary school teachers without degrees.
Forty-two teachers in the elementary schools reported an amount of training that was insufficient to obtain the bache­
lor's degree.
The length of training ranged from a year and
a half to a little more than four years.
The mean training
for this particular group amounted to 3.1 years.
The institu­
tions most frequently attended were the state teachers * col­
leges, namely San Jose and Chico State College.
(In Table XVI,
page 45 for statistical presentation.)
Training of elementary school teachers having the bachlorfs degree.
Eighty-one elementary school teachers (excluding
the rural school group) out of the 123 reporting have completed
the necessary training for-the -bachelorvs degree.
This is the
equivalent of 65.9 per cent of the questionnaires submitted.
The training for this particular group ranged from a minimum
of four years to a maximum of approximately nine years.
average amount of training was 4.8 years.
The
The state teachers
colleges were still the most frequently attended but an in-
42
TABLE XIV
TRAINING OF RURAL ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS WITHOUT
HAVING RECEIVED THE BACHELOR1S DEGREE
Years of Training
Freauencies
4.0-4.4
1
3.5-3.9
1
3.0-3.4
1
2.5-2.9
2
2.0-2.4
2
1.5-1.9
1.0-1.4
1
Mean years of training 2.8 years.
NOTE: This table is read in the following manner: One
rural elementary school teacher had received 4*0-4.4 years of
training, etc*
43
TABLE XV
TRAINING OP RURAL ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS HAVING
RECEIVED THE BACHELOR1S DEGREE
Years of Training
Freauencies
6.0-6.4
1
5.5-5.9
5.0-5.4
1
4.5-4.9
3
4.0-4.4
7
Total
12
Mean years of training 4.5
NOTE: This table is read in the following manner: One
rural elementary school teacher having the bachelor*s degree
received 6#0-6.4 years of training.
44
crease in university attendance over the preceeding group was
reported.
(In Table XVII, page 46 are details.)
Training of all elementary school teachers.
For the
elementary school teachers as a single group, the amount of
training received ranged from a year and one-half to almost
nine years.
The average amount of training received was 4.3
years.
Chico State College was the most frequently attended
teacher training institution; 36.4 per cent of the teachers
reporting had received their training at Chico.
San Jose State
College ranked second in popularity with 33.5 per cent of the
group reported as having received their training at that insti­
tution.
San Francisco State College ranked third with a 17.4
percentage.
One significant factor of teacher training as revealed
by this survey was the insignificant number of elementary school
teachers who had received training out of the state.
Only five
teachers out of the 143 reporting revealed this fact, which is
definitely out of harmony with the corresponding figures for
the entire state.
(In Table XVIII, page 47 are further details.)
Training of high school teachers having the bachelor *s
degree.
Forty-five high school teachers out of the seventy-
six reporting had obtained the bachelorfs degree.
The amount
of training received ranged from a minimum of four years to
approximately seven years.
The average training received by
45
TABLE XVI
TRAINING OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS WITHOUT
HAVING RECEIVED THE BACHELOR1S DEGREE
Years of Training
Freauencies
4.0-4.4
2
3.5-3.9
9
3.0-3.4
16
2.5-2.9
9
S.0-2.4
5
1.5-1.9
1.0-1.4
Total
1
42
Mean years of training 3.1.
NOTE: This table is read in the following manner: Two
elementary school teachers without the bachelorfs degree had
received 4*0-4.4 years of training.
46
TABLE XVII
TRAINING OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS HAVING
RECEIVED THE BACHELOR*S DEGREE
Years of Training
Freauencies
6.5-6.9
3
6.0-6.4
4
5.5-5.9
8
5.0-5.4
14
4.5-4.9
22
4.0-4.4
30
Total
81
Mean years of training 4.3.
NOTE: This table is read in the following manner:
Three elementary school teachers with the bachelor*s degree
had received 6.5-6*9 years of training, etc.
47
TABLE XVIII
TRAINING OF ALL ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS
Years of Training
Freauencies
6.5-6.9
3
6.0-6.4
5
5.5-5.9
8
5.0-5.4
15
4.5-4.9
25
4.0-4.4
39
5.5-3.9
10
3.0-3.4
17
2.5-2.9
11
2.0-2.4
7
1.5-1.9
1
1.0-1.4
2
Total
143
Mean years of training 4.2.
NOTE: This table is read in the following manner:
Three elementary school teachers had between 6.5-6*9 years
of training, etc#
48
this group amounted to 5.5 years.
It is to be noted that the
five teachers in this field receiving four years of instruction
were holders of special credentials obtained from a state col­
lege.
(See Tables XIX, page 50, XX page 51 for further infor­
mation. )
Training of ail teachers having received the masterTs
degree.
Out of a total of 219 teachers submitting question^
naires only twenty-three reported as having received the mas­
ter’s degree.
reporting.
This number amounts to 10.5 per cent of those
Twenty-one degrees were obtained by teachers in
the high school while the elementary group accounted for two.
The average amount of training received by all teachers pos­
sessing the master’s degree was 6.8 years.
One reason for the relatively small number of elemen­
tary school teachers having the master’s degree can be attri­
buted to the nature of the salary, schedule.
The existing
schedules for the elementary schools do not recognize the mas­
ter’s degree as a basis for salary increase.
On the other
hand every high school schedule in the county provides for an
additional increment of at least seventy dollars to the teach­
ers having the master’s degree.
(In Table XXI, page 52 are
details.)
Credentials held by the elementary school teachers.
The 143 elementary school teachers reporting held a total of
166 teaching credentials and 32 credentials in administration.
49
This finding amounted to 198 or the equivalent of 1.4 creden­
tials per teacher.
Thirty-five credentials were of a special
variety and the remaining 131 were of a general nature.
The
credential most frequently held was the General Elementary;
103 teachers reported having this credential which was 62 per
cent of the group.
(In Table XXV, page 56 are further infor­
mation. )
Credentials held by the high school teachers.
The high
school teachers did not hold as many credentials per teacher
as the elementary group.
Seventy-six high school instructors
reported holding 107 credentials including fourteen in admin­
istration.
This was an average of 1.3 credentials per teacher
which was 0.1 below that held by the elementary group.
The credential with the greatest frequency was the Gen­
eral Secondary.
Fifty teachers reported having this credential
which was 46.7 per cent of the group.
The percentage of high
school teachers -holding special credentials was much greater
than the corresponding proportion for the elementary group.
This is a natural consequence because more special credentials
are available on the secondary level.
(in Table XXVI, page 57
are statistical details.)
Comparison of data with findings from related investi­
gations of other counties in California.
The teachers of
Placer County compare quite favorably with those of other coun­
ties as pointed out by the related investigations.
By compar-
50
TABLE XIX
TRAINING OF HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS HAVING
,RECEIVED THE BACHELOR1S DEGREE
Years of Training
Freauencies
6.5-6.9
4
6.0-6.4
7
5.5-5.9
.
22
5.0-5.4
12
4.5-4.9
5
4.0-4.4
5
Total
55
Mean years of training 5.5.
NOTE: This table should be read in the following man­
ner: Four high school teachers with the bachelor’s degree
have received between 6.5-6.9 years of training, etc.
51
TABLE XX
TRAINING RECEIVED BY ALL THE HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS
Years of Training
Freouencies
8.5-8.9
1
8.0-8.4
1
7.5-7.9
2 •
7.0-7.4
3
6.5-6.9
10
6.0-6.4
11
5.5-5.9
18
5.0-5.4
13
4.5-4.9
7
4 *0—4.4
5
3.5-5.9
3
3.0-3.4
2
Total
76
Mean years of training 5.5.
NOTE; This table should be read in the following man­
ner: One high school teacher had received between 8.5-8,9
years of training, etc.
52
TABLE XXI
TRAINING OF ALL THE TEACHERS IN PLACER COUNTY
HAVING THE MASTER'S DEGREE
Training
in Years
Elem. School
Teachers
High School
Teachers
Total
Frequencies
8.5-8.9
1
1
8.0-8.4
1
1
‘
7.5-7.9
2
2
7. 0-7.4
1
2
5
6.5-6.9
1
7
8
6.0-6.4
6
6
5.5-5.9
1
1
5.0-5.4
1
1
21
23
Totals
2
Mean years of training 6.8.
NOTE: This table should be read in the following man­
ner: One high school teacher with the masterfs degree had
received between 8.5-8,9 years of training, etc.
55
TABLE XXII
TRAINING RECEIVED BY ALL THE TEACHERS OF PLACER COUNTY
Training
in Years
Elem. School
Teachers
High School
Teachers
Total
Freauencies
8.5-8.9
1
1
8.0-8.9
1
1
7.5-7.9
2
2
7.0-7.4
3
3
6.5-6.9
3
11
14
6.0-6.4
5
13
18
5.5-5.9
8
22
30
5.0-5.4
15
13
88
4.5-4.9
25
5
30
4.0-4.4
39
5
44
3.5-3.9
10
10
3.0-3.4
17
17
8.5-2.9
11
11
2.0-2.4
7
7
1.5-1.9
1
1
1.0-1.4
2
2
Totals
143
76
219
Mean years of training 4.8.
NOTE: This table is read in the following manner: One
high school teacher had received between 8.5-8*9 years of train­
ing, etc.
54
TABLE XXIII
DATE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS RECEIVED DEGREES
Year
Bachelor *s
Decree
Master *s
?Decree
1910-1914
1
1915-1919
4
1980-1924
8
1925-1929
16
1930-1934
28
1935-1939
20
1
4
1
81
2
Since 1940
Totals
NOTE: This table should be read in the following man­
ner: One Elementary school teacher had received the bachelor*s
degree between the years 1910-1914, etc*
55
TABLE XXIV
DATE HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS RECEIVED DEGREES
Year
Bachelor *s
Deeree
Master*s
Degree
1910-1914
2
1915-1919
3
1920-1924
7
2
1925-1929
10
5
1930-1934
19
10
1935-1939
14
4
55
21
Since 1940
Totals
NOTE: This table should be read in the following man­
ner: Two high school teachers had received the bachelor1s
degree between the years 1910-1914, etc.
56
TABLE XXV
TYPES OF CREDENTIALS HELD BY THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
TEACHERS AND THE DATE ISSUED
Before 1910
Date Issued
1911-1920 1921-1930
1931-1940
Kindergarten
Primary
9
Special in
Music
2
Special in
Art
1
5
3
County
Certificates
3
4
6
2
General
Elementary
3
17
44
39
Junior
High
4
14
General
Secondary
3
7
Administrative___________ _______ 6
12_____ 14
NOTE:This table should be read in the following man­
ner: Nine elementary school teachers received the Kindergar­
ten-Primary Credential between the years 1931-1940, etc.
5?
TABLE XXVI
TYPES OF CREDENTIALS HELD BY THE HIGH SCHOOL
TEACHERS AND THE DATE ISSUED
Tc
Before 1910
1911-1920
qiidH
1921-1930
1931-1940
General
Elementary-
1
3
Junior
High
2
5
Special in
Physical Ed.
3
4
Special in
Music
2
4
Special in
Art
2
3
Special in
Domestic Sci.
2
3
Special in
Mechanical Arts
3
5
Special in
Commerce
3
3
General
Secondary
4
21
25
Administrative______ ______
2
5
7
NOTE: This table should be read in the following man­
ner: One high school teacher received the General Elementary
Credential between the years 1921-1930, three high school
teachers received the General Elementary Credential between
the years 1931-1940, etc.
58
TABLE XXVII
INSTITUTIONS OF LEARNING ATTENDED BY THE
TEACHERS OF PLACER COUNTY
Elementary
School
High
School
Chico State
College
52
4
56
San Jose State
College
48
4
52
San Francisco
State College
25
University of
California
8
30
38
Stanford
University
2
10
12
Others in
California
3
7
10
Out of State
5
21
26
Total
Freauencies
25
NOTE: This table is read in the following manner:
Fifty-two elementary school and four high school teachers
went to Chico State College fir a total of fifty-six, etc.
59
Ing the findings of this survey with similar studies of other
counties, it was revealed that the high school instructors of
Placer County had received the greatest amount of training
while the elementary school teachers rated second.
The elementary teachers of Ventura County received the
greatest amount of training with 4.3 years; Placer County was
a close second with 4.2 years; Orange County ranked third with
4.1 years; and San Diego ranked in last place with 3.1 years
of training.
Regarding the amount of training received by the high
school instructors, Placer County ranked first with 5.5 years
of training beyond the high school level; Ventura County was
second with 5.4 years; Orange County was next in order with
5.1 years; and finally San Diego County with 4.8 years of train­
ing.
Summaryi
Comparatively speaking, the teachers of Placer
County are well trained to carry out the duties of their pro­
fession.
The average amount of training received by all of
the elementary school teachers was 4.2 years, while the high
school instructors averaged 5.5 years of training beyond the
high school level.
When compared with similar investigations
conducted in other counties of California the former group
ranked second and the latter ranked first with respect to the
amount of training received.
Only five elementary school teachers reporting, or three
per cent of the group, received instruction in teacher train­
ing institutions out of California.
In the high school, how­
ever, the tendency was in the opposite direction; twenty-one
having received instruction out of the state which amounted to
nearly twenty-eight per cent.
Twenty-one high school instructors and two elementary
school teachers out of 219 reporting had received the master's
degree which amounted to 10.5 per cent of the group.
One hundred forty-three elementary teachers held a to­
tal of 166 various teaching credentials, and 32 in administra­
tion for an average of 1.4 per teacher while seventy-six high
school teachers possessed ninety-three teaching credentials and
fourteen in administration for an average of 1.3 per teacher.
CHAPTER V
TEACHING EXPERIENCE
Purpose of this chapter.
The purpose of this chapter
is to analyze the teaching experience of the Placer County
teachers.
In this chapter are dealt with specifically, such
items as the number of years in the present position; number
of years experience in Placer County; number of years exper­
ience outside Placer County but in California; number of
years experience outside of California; and the total num­
ber years of teaching experience.
Teaching experience is
interpreted as meaning the actual number of years rendered
as a teacher in the various public schools.
Number of years in the present position.
The elemen­
tary school teachers have remained longer in their present
positions than the high school group according to the findings
of this survey.
The average number of years in the present
position revealed by 14 3 elementary teachers reporting,
amounted to 8.1.
The corresponding figures for the seventy-
six high school instructors submitting questionnaires amount­
ed to 7.2 years.
A partial explanation for this existing condition can
be attributed to the personnel of the respective teaching
staffs.
The faculty of the elementary schools is composed
of a decided majority of women teachers who have displayed
62
less inclination to seek other positions than their male
colleagues.
In the high schools different circumstances
exist as the male instructors dominate from, .a numerical
standpoint and they have exhibited a greater willingness
to seek positions of higher rank.
Table XXVIII page 64 for
statistical information.
Number of years experience in Placer Countv.
The
elementary school teachers have, on the average, taught
longer in Placer County than the high school instructors.
The mean number of years teaching experience for the former
group is 10.3 while the corresponding figures for the latter
category amount to 8.6 years of teaching experience in the
county.
The nature of the existing salary schedules offers an
explanation for these circumstances.
There exist but three
high schools in Placer County and their salary schedules
bear a striking resemblance to one another.
The difference
in annual increment and salary paid is too insignificant to
permit high school instructors to seek similar positions in
other districts within the county.
Furthermore, teachers
affecting such an exchange are not given full credit for
their actual teaching experience on the new schedule.
customary procedure is to deduct one year.
The
High school in­
structors seeking greater renumeration leave the county for
more lucrative positions.
63
On the other hand the difference in the elementary
schedules is great enough to encourage teacher turnover with­
in the county*s elementary districts.
There is a constant
flow, or filtering process, of teachers.leaving the poorly
paid, rural, isolated, one teacher elementary schools for
the better paid institutions of the larger towns.
In general,
these one-teacher schools employ teachers just having fini­
shed teacher training institutions who readily seek advance­
ment.
Table XXIX page 65 for details.
Number of years experience outside Placer Countv but
in California.
The high school instructors have a greater
amount of teaching experience than the elementary school
group outside Placer County but still in California.
The
average for the former group is 2.1 years while the mean
for the latter group amounts to 1 . 4 years.
The Placer
County high schools have a ruling which prevents inexper­
ienced teachers from being hired.
From time to time certain
exceptions have been made but nevertheless, the county draws
heavily from outlying districts for a large number of its
high school instructors.
See Table XXX page 66 for further
information.
Number of years experience outside California.
The
elementary school teachers have had a limited amount of
teaching experience outside of California while the corres­
ponding amount for the high school instructors is greater
64
TABLE XXVIII
NUMBER OF YEARS .'IN PRESENT POSITION
Years of
Exnerience
22
21
20
19
13
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
B
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Mean
Elementary
School
1
4
1
3
7
4
6
5
9
6
13
8
7
4
8
10
12
11
11
......13
High
School
Total
Free uenci.es
1
2
1
1
4
1
5
9
7
8
5
13
9
17
14
11
10
8
16
19
23
18
19
2
2
3
2
4
3
4
6
4
6
6
7
12
7
6
7.2
8.1
NOTE: This table should be read in the following
manner: One elementary and one high school teacher have
taught in their present positions for twenty-two years, etc#
65
TABLE XXIX
NUMBER OF YEARS TEACHING EXPERIENCE
IN PLACER COUNTY
Elementary
School
Years of
ExDerience
26
2
1
25
24
23
High
School
1
Total
Frecuencies
3
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
19
IS
17
16
15
14
13
4
4
4
3
3
4
3
7
2
10
11
22
21
20
3
2
8
8
3
7
5
2
2
12
11
10
10
6
11
3
9
9
7
5
8
7
6
8
8
8
8
8
6
5
4
3
2
1
Mean
,
.. .............................. ........
6
2
9
7
13
7
17
14
9
5
10
6
7
14
15
8
10
18
1
6
5
16
4
12
1
_Z
_____
8 .6
NOTE: This table should be read in the following
manner: Two elementary school and one high school teacher
have had twenty-six years of teaching experience in Placer
County, etc.
66
TABLE XXX
NUMBER’OF YEARS TEACHING EXPERIENCE OUTSIDE
PLACER COUNTY BUT IN CALIFORNIA
Years of
Exoerience
10
9
8
7
Elementary
School
0
1
2
High
School
1
1
2
2
3
4
3
5
4
3
6
8
10
2
1
14
9
7
5
6
8
6
6
Total
Freauencies
1
2
4
5
7
12
14
19
21
13
Mean
2 .1
...... ,1*.4 ...
NOTE: This table should be read in the follo?/ing
manner: One high school instructor had one year of
teaching experience outside Placer County, but in Calif­
ornia, etc.
67
TABLE XXXI
NUMBER OF YEARS TEACHING EXPERIENCE
OUTSIDE CALIFORNIA
Years of
Exnerience
Elementary
School
High
School
10
Total
Freauencies
2
2
1
2
1
2
3
4
3
3
3
5
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Mean
2
3
4
4
3
-125
3
3
2
____
52
5
5
7
7
5
177
y.44
... ... ...1,5
NOTE: This table should be read in the following
manner: Two high school teachers had ten years teaching
outside California, etc.
.................—
—
------------ -
68
TABLE XXXII
TOTAL NUMBER OF YEARS TEACHING EXPERIENCE
Years of
Exoerience
28
27
26'
Elementary
School
1
1
2
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
3
4
4
5
5
6
High
School
1
1
2
2
5
7
5
4
8
12
11
10
6
8
8
4
3
5
3
5
9
7
5
5
4
2
2
1
1
8
8
10
8
6
3
4
7
4
6
5
4
3
2
1
2
2
15
14
13
7
4
6
6
9
8
2
2
1
2
2
2
16
7
5
Total
Frequencies
6
2
1
5
11
13
14
11
8
11
11
13
9
7
6
5
11
12
17
12
S
1 1 .1
Mean
__ --- 1 2 *..2 ..:—
NOTE: This table should be read in the following
manner! One elementary and one high school teacher have
had twenty-eight years of teaching experience, etc*
69
TABLE XXXIII
SUMMARY TABLE ON TEACHING EXPERIENCE FOR
ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS
Years of
Experience
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Present
Position
Placer
County
In Calif*
but outside
Placer
Countv
Outside
of Calif
2
1
1
3
2
A
1
3
7
4
6
5
9
6
13
8
7
A
8
10'
12
11
11
____ 13.. ........
A
A
A
8
8
7
5
10
6
11
9
7
5
8
8
8
8
8
6
1
2
3
4
6
8
10
14
8
1
1
2
3
4
4
____ JL
NOTE: This table should be read in the following
manner: Two elementary school teachers have had twentysix years of teaching experience in Placer County, etc*
70
TABLE XXXIV
SUMMARY TABLE ON TEACHING EXPERIENCE FOR
HIGH
Years of Exp Present
Experience
Position
26
SCHOOL INSTRUCTORS
Placer
County
1
25
24
23
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
3
15
14
13
3
3
12
11
10
5
3
4
2
1
6
6
5
4
5
3
5
7
2
22
21
20
19
IS
17
16
9
S
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
In Calif. Outside of
but outside California
Placer
Countv
2
2
2
2
3
5
1
1
2
2
6
3
7
6
6
S
11
10
7
4
6
9
7
2
2
3
4
3
2
3
3
1
2
..... ±
____ NOTE: This table should be read in the following
manner: One high school teacher has had twenty-six years
of teaching experience in Placer County, et&.
71
by more than a year.
The average number of years teaching
experience for the elementary group outside California was
•44 while the mean for the secondary school was 1.5 years.
Out of the seventy-six questionnaires received from
the high school group, twenty-four or 31.5 per cent, re­
ported having past teaching experience in other states.
These figures are quite in harmony with the corresponding
figures for the entire state which amounts to approximately
thirty per cent.
In Table XXXI page 67 are complete infor­
mation.
Total years of teaching experience.
The high school
instructors have had an average of 12.2 years teaching exper­
ience while the elementary school teachers have experienced
a mean of 11.1 years of teaching.
On the average., the high
school group has 1.1 years more teaching experience than
their elementary school colleagues.
Table XXXII page 68 for
details.
Summary.
On the average the elementary school teachers
have taught, in their present positions, 0.9 of a year more
than the high school instructors.
For teaching experience
within Placer County, the elementary school group averaged
1.7 years more than their high school colleagues.
The comparatively high rate of teacher turnover within
the county in the elementary schools is attributed, in part,
to the existing differences in salary schedules.
These
72
differences are great enough to permit teachers to move from
district to district with satisfactory increments given.
The elementary school personnel is predominantly feminine
who has displayed less eagerness to seek other positions
extraneous to Placer County than the masculine element*
The high school instructors have had an average of
0,7 of a year more teaching experience in California but
outside of Placer County, than the elementary school group.
The former category also averaged 0.9 of a year more teaching
experience outside California than the latter classification.
It has been a policy in Placer County, with minor
exceptions, to hire no inexperienced secondary school in­
structors, thereby compelling the high schools to draw
heavily from other counties and states for members of their
teaching staff.
The difference in salary schedules within
the county, is too insignificant to warrant high school
faculty members to seek similar positions within the county.
If the total amount of teaching experience is taken
into consideration, the high school instructors average 1.1
years more than the elementary group, the figures being 12.2
and 11.1 respectively.
CHAPTER VI
TEACHER LOAD
Purpose Qji this chanter.
The purpose of this chapter
is to evaluate the information submitted by the questionnaires;
relative to teacher load in the elementary and high schools
of Placer County.
It is the purpose also to relate the
number and types of activities in which the teachers enaage
after school hours.
Specifically, in this chapter are pre­
sented the elementary teacher load; high school teacher load;
\
number of subjects taught without academic preparation;
amount of time consumed in a professional nature; and extracurricular“' activities in which the teachers engage.
Elementary teacher load.
One hundred forty-three ele­
mentary school teachers submitting questionnaires, reported
having the names of 4->047 pupils on the state school register.
The enrollment ranged from nine students in the one-teacher
school, to forty-three pupils in a single class of a unified
school district.
The average number of children to each ele­
mentary school class throughout the county amounted to 28*3*
This average becomes significant Y/hen one considers that
there exists in Placer County, twenty-six one-teacher schools
located in districts having a limited population, consequently
having a restricted school enrollment.
further- details^.
In Table XXXV are given
74
TABLE XXXV
TEACHER LOAD. IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OF
PLACER COUNTY, CALIFORNIA, APRIL, 1941
Number of students appearing on state registers
Number of teachers submitting questionnaires
Average pupil load
Enrollment range
4047
143
2S.3
______________
9 to A3
High school teacher load»
Seventy-six high school
instructors reported a total of 12,027 pupil periods per
day.
Since the high school day is composed of six periods
this finding actually amounted to 26.3 students per class.
One significant factor concerning the teaching load of the
high school instructors was the wide distribution in range
of the pupil periods reported.
In considering the teachers
with a full teaching schedule, one vocational instructor
was found who reported a mere fifty-six pupil periods per
day, while on the other extreme a physical education in­
structor submitted evidence of having 33A pupil
day.
periods per
These classes in physical education were extremely
heterogeneous in academic and physical classification.
In
Table XXXVI is given complete information.
Length of the school day.
The Placer County schools,
on the various levels, have no standardized length of day.
At the beginning of the fall semester the county superinten­
dent of schools sends out a suggested program for the school
year which includes the length of the school day for the
various school divisions.
However, the actual determination
is a matter of local district concern; consequently, one
might expect a variation .in the amount of time a child re­
mains in schools*
The length of the school day for kindergarten classes
ranges from 150 to 160 minutes per day.
For the primary
76
TABLE XXXVI
TEACHER LOAD IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS OF
PLACER COUNTY, CALIFORNIA, APRIL, 1941
Pupil-periods per day reported
Number of teachers reporting
Number of periods per day
12,027
76
6
Average size of class
26,3
Minimum number of teacher-pupil
contacts per day;
56
Maximum number of pupil-teacher
contacts per day......
334
77
division, which includes grades from one to three, the school
day ranges from 24.O to 260 minutes.
The children in the in­
termediate division, which takes into consideration grades
four to six, -remain in school from 270 to 290 minutes.
In
the upper division, or grades seven and eight, the length
of the school day ranges from 290 to 320 minutes.
The length
of the school day for the high schools ranges from 320 to
350 minutes.
Table XXXVII gives a statistical presentation
of these data.
The amount of time consumed in a professional nature
bv the elementary school teachers.
One hundred thirty-six
elementary school teachers reported teaching a total of
3,74-0 hours per week, which averages 27.5 hours per teacher
if figures on a weekly basis.
One hundred thirty-three
teachers reported devoting 732 hours per week planning
lessons which is the equivalent to 5.5 hours per teacher.
One hundred thirty-four teachers devoted 60S hours per week
correcting papers, amounting to 4.*4 hours per teacher.
One
hundred thirty-three teachers devoted a total of 4-0 2 .hours
per week to checking results which gives an average of 3.2
hours per teacher.
Of the one hundred eighteen teachers re­
porting on professional advancement, a total of 179 hours per
week were devoted for that purpose, or a mean of 1.5 hours
per teacher computed on a weekly basis.
are given statistical details.
In Table XXXVIII
78
TABLE XXXVII
LENGTH OF THE SCHOOL DAY IN THE PLACER
COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS
School
Number of minutes
taught per. day
Kindergarten
150-160
Primary division (grades 1-3)
240-260
Intermediate division (grades 4“6)
270-290
Upper division (grades 7-8)
290-320
Hi eh school
.. _
_220-35P
„„.
....
79
TABLE XXXVIII
AMOUNT OF TIME CONSUMED IN A PROFESSIONAL NATURE
BY THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER
Professional
activities
Number of
teachers
reoortine
Total hours
oer week
Average
per w&ek
Actual teaching
136
3740
27.5
Lesson planning .
133
732
5.5
Correcting papers
134
60S
4*4
Checking results
133
402
3.2
Professional
advancement
11S
. . ...
172.___ _
'
-1*5____
so
TABLE XXXIX
AMOUNT OP TIME CONSUMED IN A PROFESSIONAL NATURE
BY THE HIGH SCHOOL INSTRUCTORS
Professional
activities
Number of
teachers
renortinft
Total hours
oer-week
Average
uer week
Actual teaching
73
1863
Lesson planning
70
58 6
8
Correcting papers
68
171
2.5
Checking results
67
136
2
209. . ,
3
Professional
advancement
.69..
25.1
The amount of time consumed in a professional nature
by the high s_cho,oJL instructors.
Seventy-three high school
instructors submitting questionnaires reported teaching IS63
hours per week, or a weekly average of 25.1 hours per teacher.
Lesson planning was the next big factor from the standpoint
of time necessitated.
Seventy teachers reported that lesson
planning required 536 hours or an average of eight hours per
instructor on a weekly basis.
Sixty-eight teachers reported
that 171 hours were required to correct papers each week or
an average of two hours weekly per instructor.
Professional
advancement received greater consideration than the amount of
time devoted to it by the elementary group.
Sixty-nine
teachers submitted evidence of having devoted 209 hours for
this specific purpose, amounting to a weekly average of three
hours for each instructor.
In Table XL are given statistical
details.
Subjects taught without.academic preparation.
Only
the larger elementary schools of Placer County have any degree
of departmentalization, and it occurs only in the special sub­
jects, namely, art, music, library, science, and physical edu­
cation.
One hundred forth-three, teachers reported teaching
seven subjects for which they had no special academic prepar­
ation other than the amount required by the general nature of
the teaching certificates.
Seventy-six high school instructors reported teaching
82
TABLE XL
NUMBER OF SUBJECTS TAUGHT WITHOUT
ACADEMIC PREPARATION
Subjects
Elementary
____ School
English
Library
High
School
4
2
Mathematics
Total
Freauencies
4
2
13
13
1
2
5
5
3
5
Commerce
1
1
Foreign language
4
4
Vocal Music
1
Social science
Physical science
Art
2
.2
. ...2. ......................
NOTE: This table should be read in the following
manner5 Four high school teachers are teaching English
without special academic preparation, etc.
S3
thirty-one subjects extraneous to their major or minor teach­
ing field*
Mathematics, with a total frequency of thirteen,
was the subject most commonly taught without special academic
preparation*
This finding can be attributed directly to the
increase in mathematical offerings for the past school year*
The national defense program has paved the way for the
introduction of numerous courses in machine shop and sheet
metal.
Enrollment in these courses can be attained by succes­
sfully meeting the prequisites in mathematics, hence the in­
creased offerings in that academic subject.
In Table XL are
given further information*
Extracurricular activities in which the teachers engage*
One hundred twenty-one elementary school teachers reported en­
gaging iii sixteen extracurricular activities*
The total amount
of time devoted to these activities was 267 hours computed on
a weekly basis, giving an average of 2.2 hours per instructor.
Playground supervision was the activity with the greatest
number of frequencies, fifteen teachers performing this task.
Sixty-three high school instructors reported indulging
in twenty-one extracurricular activities.
The total amount of
time devoted to these duties was 207 hours per week which was
the equivalent of 3*3 hours per instructor*
More- time was
consumed in coaching athletics than any other single activity.
Eleven coaches devoted fifty-eight hours per week to this duty.
Unlike their elementary colleagues, the high school
84
TABLE XLI
EXTRACURRICULAR ACTIVITIES IN WHICH THE
ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS ENGAGE
Types of activities
Number of
teachers
reporting
Total number
of hours
Der week
Driving the school bus
3
7
Coaching athletics
4
11
15
32
Vocal music
3
7
Instrumental music
3
6
11
25
6
11
13
28
Junior traffic patrol
8
18
Supervising the library
6
13
Display case
5
11
Assembly committee'
9
19
Arranging poster display
6
14
P.T..A. program committee
12
26
7
16
Playground supervision
Supervising the cafeteria
Supervising excursions
Advising student committees
Campfire girls
Bov scouts
Average hours
10
...
..... ..
23
2.2
85
TABLE XLII
EXTRACURRICULAR ACTIVITIES IN WHICH
THE HIGH SCHOOL INSTRUCTORS ENGAGE
Tvoes of activities
Number of
teachers
reDortins
Total number
of hours
t>er week
11
5S
Supervising dramatics
4
15
Vocal music
2
A
Instrumental music
2
5
Driving school bus
2
6
Gate committee
A
14
Ticket committee
2
5
Supervising cafeteria
3
7
Administering supplies
2
5
Supervising, library
3
7
Class advisors
A
14
Supervising school publications
3
8
Checking attendance
2
6
Supervising school dances
A
12
Supervising assembly programs
2
4
P.T.A. program committee
6
15
Supervising student traffic
1
2
Girls1 league show
2
7
Coaching athletics
Supervising student honor societies 3
8
Campfire girls
2
7
Bov Scouts
Average hours
1
2 _
3.3
36
group had to devote Saturday afternoon as members of gate and
ticket committees at the various athletic contests.
Also,
one night each week, usually Friday, was devoted to the super­
vision of school dances.
Summary.
Tables XLI, XLII.
The classes in the elementary schools^average
23.3 children for each teacher.
This is comparatively high
when one takes into consideration the large number of oneteacher schools in the county with limited enrollments.
The
high school instructors averaged 26.3 students per class.
The number of pupil-periods ranged from fifty-six reported by
a vocational instructor to 334 as submitted by a physical edu­
cation instructor.
The length of the school day varies with the policy of
the local school boards.
The kindergarten ranges from 150 to
160 minutes per day; the primary division from 240 to 260 min­
utes; the intermediate division from 270 to 290 minutes; the
upper division from 290 to 320 minutes; and the high schools
from 320 to 350 minutes per day.
Elementary school teachers teach on the average of 27.5
hours per week while the high school instructors devote 25.1
hours to teaching as computed on a weekly basis.
Each elemen­
tary teacher devoted 14*6 hours per week to the various phases
of preparation while the high school group averaged fifteen
hours for each instructor.
Only seven elementary feeachers of those reporting, were
87
teaching subjects for which they had no academic preparation.
In the high schools, thirty-one teachers were offering in­
struction in courses with insufficient preparation.
Elementary school teachers engaged in sixteen extra­
curricular activities^ devoting an average of 2.2. hours per
week for each teacher.
High school instructors participated
in twenty-one such activities, averaging 3*3 hours per in­
structor on a weekly basis.
CHAPTER VII
SALARIES OF TEACHERS AND ADMINISTRATORS FROM 1935-194-0
Purpose of this chapter.
The purpose of this chapter
is to tabulate the salaries of various groups of school
teachers and administrators in Placer County for purposes
of analysis and comparison.
Whenever circumstances warrant­
ed it, a six year salary distribution range was considered
(1935-1940)*
It is the purpose also to compare the salaries
of Placer County teachers and administrators with similar
wages for the state of California.
Six year salary distribution of rural school teachers.
The salaries of the rural school teachers have increased
for the past six years but continue to lag considerably be­
hind the corresponding wage for the other elementary teachers
within the county.
During the six year interval the lowest
average salary paid was for the school year 1935-194*3 when
$1175 was the mean wage.
The highest average salary paid
occurred during the school year 1940-1941>
wklck time the
one teacher districts paid their teachers a mean salary
amounting to $1353.
The greatest increase in salaries paid
occurred during the school year 1938-1939 over the preceeding
year.
These circumstances can be attributed directly to the
legislation that was enacted rendering it mandatory for
school districts to pay a minimum teacher salary of $1320
88
per year.
Table XLIII give details.
Four vear salary distribution of kindergarten teachers.
Kindergartens have existed in Placer County for a four year
period, consequently salaries are available for that abbre­
viated period only.
The average salary paid the kindergar­
ten teachers was higher than that paid the rural school
group for any corresponding year.
The lowest average paid
occurred during the year the kindergartens were established.
They received an average salary of $1260 for the school
year 1937-1938.
The highest salaries paid were for the
school year 1940-1941 when kindergarten teachers received
an average annual salary amounting to $1395•
Table XLIV for
further details.
Six year salary distribution of elementary school
teachers.
For the past six years the elementary teachers
have received an average annual salary greater than that
of the rural school and the kindergarten teachers.
The
lowest average salary paid this troup occurred in 1935-1936
at which time the elementary teachers received $1271 per
year.
The highest amount received during this six year in­
terval was for the school year 1940-1941 when $1471 was the
average amount earned by the group.
Table XLV for statisti­
cal details.
Six year salary distribution of high school instructors.
89
TABLE XLIII
SALABY DISTRIBUTION OF RURAL SCHOOL TEACHERS
FOR THE SIX YEAR INTERVAL, 1935-1940
School year
Minimum
Mean
Maximum
1935-1936
975
1175
1350
1936-1937
93$
1192
1350
1937-1933
1015
1204
1330
1933-1939
1320
1323
1425
1939-1940
1320
1342
1460
19A0-19A1
- 1320.
...____13.5JL
1500
90
TABLE XLXV
SALARY DISTRIBUTION OF KINDERGARTEN TEACHERS
FOR THE FOUR YEAR INTERVAL, 1937-1940
School vear
Minimum
Mean
Maximum
1937-1938
1200
1260
1380
1938-1939
1320
1364
1450
1939-1940
1320
1378
1480
19A0-19A1
1320_ .
1335 ____
1500
91
TABLE XLV
SALARY DISTRIBUTION OF THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
TEACHERS FOR THE SIX YEAR INTERVAL, 1935-1940
School year
Minimum
Mean
Maximum
1935-1936
1180
1271
1450
1936-1937
1200
1276
1450
1937-193#
1200
1293
1500
1938-1939
1320
1385
1560
1939-1940
1320
1405
1620
19A0-19A1
1320
1A71
1800
92
Salaries for high school instructors have increased steadily
much like those of the elementary teachers for the six year
period.
The lowest salaries were paid during 1935-1936
when the high school instructors received an average salary
of $1773.' During the six year interval the highest salaries
w'ere paid for the school year 1940-1941 when the average
annual salary amounted to $2005 per instructor.
Unlike the
elementary group, 1940-1941 displayed the greatest incre­
ment over the proceeding year.
Table XLVI for complete details.
Six year salary distribution of elementary school
teaching administrators.
Salaries of the elementary school
teaching administrators have increased at regular yearly
intervals much the same manner as the salaries of teachers.
The lowest amount paid a teaching administrator was in 19351936 when the average wage was $1585*
The greatest amount
received by this group of administrators was an average of
$175# for the school year 1940-1941*
Table XLVII gives statis­
tical information.
Six year, salary distribution of elementary .school
supervising administrators.
Elementary school supervising
administrators, like all other elementary groups, received
their lowest annual salary in 1935-1936 when the average
amounted to $2715.
school
The maximum was attained during the
year 1940-1941 when the average annual salary re­
ceived by the elementary school
supervising administrators
93
TABLE XLVI
SALARY DISTRIBUTION OF HIGH SCHOOL INSTRUCTORS
FOR THE SIX YEAR INTERVAL, 1935-194-0
School vear
Minimum
Mean
Maximum
1935-1936
1550
1773
2600
1936-1937
1550
1788
2600
1937-1938
1600
1817
2700
1938-1939
1600
1870
2700
1939-1940
1600
1911
2800
19Z.0-19A1
1650
2005
—
2850
_____
94
TABLE XLVII
SALARY DISTRIBUTION OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHING
ADMINISTRATORS FOR THE SIX YEAR INTERVAL, 1935-1940
School vear
Minimum
Mean
.
Maximum
1935-1936
1500
1585
1850
1936-1937
1500
1610
1910
1937-1938
1550
1634
1960
1938-1939
1550
1651
2015
1939-1940
1600
1720
2150
194,0.-1941.....
1600
1758
2200
95
amounted to $294'#*
Table XLVIII gives details.
Six year salary distribution of high school super­
vising administrators.
Salaries of secondary school admini­
strators increased more rapidly than any single group con­
sidered by this survey.
The lowest amount paid was for the
school year 1935-1936 when the average was #2860.
The
greatest amount received by secondary school administrators
was during the school year 1940-T941 when the mean salary
amounted to> $3345.
This year also displayed the greatest
increment over the preceeding term. 'In Table XLIX are given
further information.
Comparison of teachers and administrators1 salaries
of -Placer Countv with those for the State of California.
The salaries of teachers ,and administrators of Placer County
are considerably below the corresponding average wages for
similar professional groups throughout California.
The
kindergarten teachers received an annual salary #34 less
than the average for the state; elementary teachers received
#234 less; high school instructors #257 less; elementary
school teaching administrators #3 less; elementary school *
supervising principals #4 more; and high school supervising
administrators #653 less than the annual state, average.
In
Table L are given statistical details.
Summary.
The minimum salary law for the teachers of
96
TABLE XLVIII
i
SALARY DISTRIBUTION OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL SUPERVISING
ADMINISTRATORS FOR THE SIX YEAR INTERVAL, 1935-1940
School year
Minimum
Mean
Maximum.... „
1935-1936
2600
2715
3100
1936-1937
2600
2758
3100
1937-1938
2700
2795
3160
1938-1939
2750
2867
3220
1939-1940
2800
2912
3275
19AQ_-1941_ _ _
2800
..
294.8.
...... 3275
.....
97
TABLE XLIX
SALARY DISTRIBUTION OF HIGH SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
FOR THE SIX YEAR INTERVAL, 1935-1940
School year
Minimum
Mean
Maximum
1935-1936
2150
2860
4000
1936-1937
2150
2914
4000
1937-1938
2275
3023
4400
1938-1939
2275
3120
4500
1939-1940
2350
3215
4500
19A0-19A1
2350
___ 3345
....
A600
98
TABLE L
SALARIES OF TEACHERS AND ADMINISTRATORS OF PLACER COUNTY
COMPARED WITH THOSE FOR THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA
State of
California
Placer
Countv
Kindergarten teachers
14-29
1395
Elementary school teachers
1705
1471
High school teachers
2262
2005
Elementary school teaching
administrators
1761
1758
Elementary school supervising
administrators
2944
2948
J298
.. ... 3345._____
High school administrators
.
99
California which provides for a minimum wage of #1320 annually,
materially affected the salary schedules of Placer County as
many elementary teachers received below this amount*
This
finding also accounts for the noticeable increase in salaries
for .the school year 1938-1939.
The teachers in rural school communities are the
poorest paid of any group of teachers in the county.
The
lowest salary was paid in 1935-1936 when the average was
#117$ while the highest average salary, amounting to #1353,
was paid during the school
year 1940-1941•
The salaries of kindergarten teachers were higher
than the corresponding wages of rural school teachers for
any particular year.
For this group the lowest salaries
were paid during the school year 1935-1936 when the average
was #1260 and the highest in 1940-1941 when the mean amounted
to #1393.
Elementary teachers are better paid than the groups
previously mentioned.
Like the preceeding groups their mini­
mum salary occurred in 1935-1936 when the average salary was
#1271.
The maximum salary was paid in 1940-1941 when the
annual mean wage amounted to #1471. per instructor.
The salaries of high school instructors have also
shown a steady increase during the six year interval con­
sidered.
The lowest salary, #1773, was paid in 1935-1936
and the maximum salary was paid in 1940-1941 which amounted
to #2005.
Unlike the preceeding groups the greatest single
100
Increment, was given in 1 9 4 0 -1 9 4 1 *
During the six year interval elementary school teach­
ing administrators received the lowest salary in 1935-1936
amounting to $1585 and the highest wage during the school
year 1940-1941 which averaged #1758.
Supervising admini­
strators received #2715 and #2943 respectively for the above
mentioned school years.
Only the salaries of teaching and supervising elemen­
tary administrators were comparable to the state average.
The salaries of the other professional groups considered
ranked materially lower than the corresponding average for
California.
Salaries of high school administrators showed the
greatest increase of any group studies in this survey.
The
difference between the minimum and maximum salaries paid
amounted to #485-
The former occurred during the school
year 1935-1936 when the average salary was #2861, and the
latter was paid during 1940-1941 when the mean salary
amounted to $3345.
CHAPTER' VIII
PROFESSIONAL ADVANCEMENT
Purpose of this chapter.
The purpose of this chapter
is to analyze and evaluate the in-service training of the
Placer County teachers.
Specifically treated are the summer
sessions attended by elementary and high school instructors
within the last five years; the courses taken in extension
within the five year period; the nature of the professional
books read last year;, and the professional magazines read
at regular intervals.
Summer sessions attended by elementary school teachers
within the last five years.
One hundred thirty-nine elemen­
tary school teachers reported attending a total of 1^7
summer sessions within the last five years (since 1936).
Calculated on an average basis, this finding amounts to
1.06 summer sessions per teacher for the five year interval.
Comparatively, this figure is significantly low.
An
explanation for these circumstances can be attributed to the
salary schedules'for elementary teachers within the county.
Only one elementary school in Placer County.recognizes work
undertaken at summer school as a justifiable basis for award­
ing increments in salary.
Salary increases are granted solely
on the basis of teaching experience, hence the lack of an in­
centive to attend summer sessions.
Those attending school
102
during the summer months are interested in self-improvement,
also in acquiring credentials in administration and super­
vision.
In Table LI are given complete information.
Summer sessions attended by high school instructors
s
within the last five years.
An average of seventy-three
high school instructors have attended summer sessions total­
ing 159 for the five year period under consideration.
This
is an average of 2.2 summer sessions per instructor for that
interval.
Here again the nature of the salary schedules accounts
for the difference in number of summer sessions attended by
the elementary and high school instructors.
Increments on
the high school level are granted according to teaching exper­
ience and the number of units accumulated at summer school.
Furthermore, any teacher that fails to accumulate four semes­
ter units of work at summer school or in extension within a
three year period, is automatically lowered to the next brac­
ket on the salary schedule.
Table LII may be consulted- for
statistical details.
Extension courses taken by Placer County teachers within
the last five years.
Since 1936, the elementary school teach­
ers have taken twenty-eight and high school instructors have
taken twenty-one courses in extension, amounting to a com­
bined total of forty-nine for the five year interval.
This
information was reported by 183 teachers for an average of
103
TABLE LI
SUMMER SESSIONS ATTENDED BY ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
TEACHERS WITHIN THE LAST FIVE YEARS
Year summer
school was
attended
\
Number of
teachers
reporting ....
Number attending
summer school
1936
140
21
1937
138
23
1938
141
39
1939
136
29
19A0
139
Average
__
_
35
1.06
104
TABLE LII
SUMMER SESSIONS ATTENDED BY HIGH SCHOOL INSTRUCTORS
WITHIN THE LAST FIVE YEARS
Year summer
school was
attended
_
Number of teachers
reporting
Number attend*
ing summer
school
1936
75
25
1937
73
25
1938
71
33
1939
74
36
1940
Average
. ___ 73
_
_.
.
40
2.2
105
0,27 of a course per instructor for the interval studied.
Owing to its proximity,- the College of Pacific was most
frequently attended, usually at weekly intervals.
Five ele­
mentary school teachers were enrolled with the extension
diyision of the University of Southern California during the
school year 1933-1939.
Table LIII may be consulted for
further information.
Professional magazines read at regular intervals by
the Placer County teachers.
One hundred twenty-six elemen­
tary school teachers reported reading twelve different pro­
fessional magazines regularly.
These various magazines had
frequencies totaling 172 or an average of 1.4 per teacher.
Sixty-two high school instructors reported reading
sixteen different professional magazines at regular intervals.
These magazines had a total frequency of 145 which was the
equivalent of 2.2 per instructor.
Since a large number of teachers reporting are members
of the California Teachers Association, the Sierra Educational
News, which is the official monthly publication of that pro­
fessional organization, was the magazine most commonly read.
Ninety-nine teachers reported reading that particular publi­
cation.
In Tables LIV, LV are given complete details.
Professional books read bv the teachers of Placer
County for 19AQ-19A1.
Eighty-four elementary school teachers
reported reading a total of 130 professional books for the
TABLE LIII
EXTENSION COURSES TAKEN BY PLACER COUNTY
WITHIN THE LAST FIVE YEARS
School vear
Number of
courses taken
by elementary
teachers
Number of courses,
Total
taken by high
school teachers
frequency
1936-1937
.3
2
5
1937-1933
4
2
6
1933-1939
10
5
15
1939-1940
6
5
11
1940-1941 _
5
Totals
28
Number of teachers reporting
Average
______
7
21
.
12
49
183
.27
107
TABLE LIY
PROFESSIONAL MAGAZINES READ AT REGULAR INTERVALS
BY ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS
Name of magazine
Freauencies
Sierra Educational News
56
National Educational Association (Journal)
12
American Childhood
U
The Instructor
22
School Arts
10
The Grade Teacher
8
Wilson1s Library Manual
3
Independent Woman
3
Art Magazine
2
Primary Activities
15
California Journal of Elementary Education
18
California Schools
9 _____
Total number of teachers reporting, 126.
Average
____ ____ • .
108
%
TABLE LV
PROFESSIONAL MAGAZINES READ AT REGULAR INTERVALS
BY HIGH SCHOOL INSTRUCTORS
Name of magazine
.
Freuuenei.es
Gregg Writer
4
Gregg News Letter
3
Business Education Manual
3
Journal of Chemical Education
3
Athletic Journal
8
Sierra Educational News
43
National Education Association (Journal)
22
Wilson* s Library Manual
4
Independent Woman
3
Journal of Secondary Education
14
Eng1i sh Journal
9
Hispania
4
Industrial Arts
5
Vocational Education
5
Occupations
4
Scholastic
12
•
Total number of teachers reporting, 66.
Total frequencies
Averaee
145
_
___
____
___
2x2.
.
109
school year 1940-1941•
teacher.
This figure averaged 1.5 books per
The field in which the reading was most commonly
done was curriculum.
This finding can be attributed to the
existing number of curriculum committees throughout the
county constantly engaged in curriculum revision.
Sixty-two high school instructors reported reading
professional books that numbered 134 or the equivalent
average of 2.2 books per instructor.
Again curriculum had
the greatest frequency for the identical reason previously
mentioned.'
In Table LVI are given statistical details.
Summary.
Elementary teachers have averaged 1.06
summer sessions per teacher within the last five years,
while high school instructors averaged 2.2 summer sessions
for the same length of time.
The explanation is that salary
increases for the former group are based on teaching exper­
ience.
Salary increments for the secondary instructors
are based upon accumulated units of summer school work in
addition to teaching experience.
The number of extension courses taken within the five
year interval is insignificant.
Only forty-nine courses
were taken in extension or an average of 0.27 per instructor.
High school instructors read more extensively than
the elementary group.
Sixteen different professional maga­
zines were read at regular intervals by the former group
while the elementary group reported twelve.
In considering
110
TABLE LVI
PROFESSIONAL BOOKS READ BY THE TEACHERS OF
PLACER COUNTY FOR 1940-1941
Field in which
reading was done
Elementary
school
Curriculum
High
"school
Total
freauencies
49
34
S3
Philosophy of Education 8
16
24
Guidance
237
26
3
Methods
24
18
42
Admini stration
10
9
19
Supervision
12
9
21
Secondary Education
2
15
17
Kindergarten
4
Extracurri cular
8
4
10
10
Primarv Division
18
10
Elementary school teachers reporting, 84*
Average
1.5
High School teachers reporting, 62.
Average.....
_
..
2.2
Ill
the professional books read, the elementary group was found
to average 1,5 books per instructor while the secondary
school teachers averaged 2.2 during the school year 19401941*
In each instance most of the reading was done in the
curriculum field.
CHAPTER IX
PROFESSIONAL AND COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES
Purpose of this chapter.
The purpose of this chapter
is to present a study of professional and community activi­
ties of Placer County teachers.
ated as follows:
The information is evalu­
membership in teachers1 association;
membership in other professional organizations; and affili­
ation with community organizations of both elementary and
high school instructors.
Teachers1 associations to which Placer Countv teachers
belong.
The. teachers of Placer County are affiliated largely
with three main teacher1s associations, namely the California
Teachers Association, the National Education Association,
the Placer County Teachers Association, and other local organ!
zations throughout the county.
Of the elementary teachers reporting, <41*3 per cent
were members of the C.T.A., 4.8 per cent were affiliated with
the N.E.A., and 51*5 per cent were members of the county
organization.
Membership among the high school instructors was some­
what larger.
Questionnaires submitted by the secondary
teachers revealed that 60.5 per cent were paid members of
the state association, 1 5 per cent were affiliated with
the national organization, and 65.8 per cent were members
113
of the Placer County Teachers Association.
In Table LVII
are given complete details.
Membership in other professional organizations.
The
Placer County teachers display a greater numerical affili­
ation for other professional organizations than for those
associations that are directly related to their profession.
Among the elementary teachers, nine professional organiza­
tions had a membership of eighty-seven.
This amounted to
60.8 per cent of those reporting.
The high school instructors were members of eleven
professional organizations excluding teachers1 associations,
with a total membership of sixty-five.
This was the equiva­
lent to seventyi-five per cent of those returning question­
naires.
In Tables LVIII, LIX are given statistical infor­
mation.
Community activities of Placer Countv teachers.
Elem­
entary teachers are more active than high school instructors
in local community activities.
Participation in community
activities showed a total frequency of 196 as reported by
one hundred forty-three elementary teachers.
This was an
average of 1.4 activities per teacher.
High school instructors reported their participation
in the affairs of the community with frequencies amounting
to ninety-one.
Seventy-six secondary teachers reported,
thus averaging 1.2 per instructor.
In Table LX are given
114
TABLE LVII
TEACHERS * ORGANIZATIONS TO fffllCH PLACER
COUNTY TEACHERS BELONG
Elementary High
Total
Name of organization_______School______ school_____Frequencies
California Teachers Association 69
46
115
National Education Association
7
12
19
73
49
122
Placer County Teachers
Association
Local Organizations
31 _ _ ... S9..
_
115
TABLE LVIII
OTHER PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATIONS TO WHICH
ELEMENTARY TEACHERS BELONG
Name of organization
Freauencies
American Classical League
3
Phi Delta Kappa
2
Book of the Month Club'
23
California Elementary School Principals
10
National, State, and County Public
Health Nurses1 Association
County Tuberculosis Association
5
19
State Grange
A
History Study Club
3
Childhood Educational Association
IS
116
TABLE LIX
OTHER PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATIONS TO WHICH
SECONDARY TEACHERS BELONG
Name of organization
Freauencies
Phi Delta Kappa
4
National, State, and County Public Health
Nurses1 Association
4
County Tuberculosis Association
14
State Grange
4
Secondary School Principals1 Association
4
American Library Association
3
California Interscholastic
Federation
8
Art Guild
5
State Physical Education
Association
7
Phi Beta Kappa
2
American Classical League
.......
JL
117
TABLE LX
COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES IN WHICH PLACER
COUNTY TEACHERS ENGAGE
Type of activity
Leadership Boys and Girls’
Clubs
Total
Erecmenci.e_s
Elementary High
School
School
15
9
24
Teaching Sunday School
Classes
9
1
10
Chamber of Commerce "
5
8.
13
Service Clubs
35
16
51
Fraternal Organizations
51
25
76
Active Church Membershin
81
32
,
.
..............
118
details.
Summary.
Membership in teachers1 associations by the
teachers of Placer County is comparatively low.*
High school
instructors have shown greater willingness to siffiliate
themselves with these groups than the elementary teachers.
In each instance the greates percentage of membership was
in the Placer County Teachers1 Association, while the
California Teachers1 Association, and the National Educa­
tion Association followed in respective order.
Membership in other professional organizations was
greater than the affiliation with teachers1 associations.
Elementary teachers reported belonging to nine various pro­
fessional groups with total membership amounting to eightyseven.
This figure amounted to 60.8 per cent of the group.
High school instructors reported being connected with ele­
ven organizations.
Total membership amounted to sixty-five
or seventy-five per cent of the group.
Elementary teachers were more actively engaged in
community affairs than high school instructors.
The former
group reported 1.4- local activities per teacher while the
latter reported 1.2 community activities per teacher.
CHAPTER X
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The purpose of this chapter is to summarize and con­
clude the information secured through this survey.
topics to be summarized are as follows:
The
general information
on Placer County; personal information and domestic status
of the teachers; training and certification of Placer
County teachers; teaching experience; teacher load; salaries
of teachers and administrators from 1935-19405 professional
advancement; and professional and community activities.
I.
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
General information on Placer Countv.
Placer County
is primarily agricultural but other industries, namely, manu­
facturing, railroading, mining, quarrying, and lumbering are
firmly established and display possibilities of even further
expansion.
A fairly abundant supply of raw materials such
as lumber, minerals, and granite have assured the maintenance
of these industries.
The assessed valuation of Placer County has increased
since 1939 but has lagged behind the state of California con­
cerning the proportionate increase for the entire state.
Presently, the assessed valuation of Placer County is .5 per
cent of that for California.
Forty-eight schools, employing 268 teachers, exist in
120
Placer County.
follows:
The elementary schools are distributed as
twenty-six one-teacher schools; six two-teacher
schools; two three-teacher schools; three four-teacher
schools; three schools-having nine teachers; and four elemen­
tary schools employing more than ten teachers...
Three high
schools each employ more than ten teachers while one secon­
dary school has but two teachers.
In accordance with the school enrollment trends common
throughout the nation., fthe elementary school population has
shown a decline while secondary school enrollment has in­
creased noticeably.
Considered as a whole, the total school
enrollment of Placer County has exhibited a material increase
since 1 9 3 6 .
While the average daily attendance has been increasing
regularly the amount expended per unit of average daily atten­
dance has decreased materially since 1933.
For the school
year 1940-1941 the amount of expenditure per unit was $53.83.
Personal information and domestic status of the Placer
Countv teachers.
The average age for all elementary school
teachers is 3 5 * 6 years while the corresponding age of high
school instructors amounts to 37.8 years.
This comparative
high average is due to the small teacher turnover and the
presence of county teaching certificates wiiich restrict
teaching activities to within the county limits.
In regard to the marital status of elementary teachers,
121
it is found that*. 60.1 per cent are single; 34*9 per cent are
married; 2*7 per cent have been divorced and the same amount
widowed.
In considering the secondary instructors, the find­
ings are that 53.9 are married; 39.4 Pe** cent are single;
5.2 per cent divorced, and 1.3 per cent widowed.
Married
elementary teachers average 1.4 children while the secondary
group averaged 1.6.
The results of this survey displayed a high degree of
positive correlation between teaching tenure status and home
ownership.
Since tenure was more prevalent among elementary
teachers, 43.6 per cent of this group owned homes while 28.9
per cent of the secondary instructors signified home owner­
ship.
The average monthly rent paid by the 34*9 per cent of
elementary teachers that rented homes was $20.15 while $27.10
was the monthly average paid by the 4S.7 per cent of high
school instructors renting homes.
Training and certification of Placer Countv teachers.
When compared with the related investigations conducted for
other counties of California, the elementary school teachers
ranked second and high school instructors were first with re­
gard to the amount of training received above the high school
level.
The average amount of training received by elementary
Rural teachers had the least amount of training with 2.8 years
v».
school teachers was 4*2 years beyond the high school level.
122
elementary teachers without degree averaged 3*1 years; and
those elementary teachers having the bachelors degree aver­
aged 4*8 years.
Only two elementary school teachers have
qualified for the masters degree.
Owing to its proximity,
Chico State College was the institution most frequently
attended by this group, fifty-two or thirty-five per cent
having attended.
High school instructors averaged 5.5 years of training
subsequent to high school experience and twenty-one have quali­
fied for the masters degree.
Only five elementary teachers
received training in teacher training institutions out of
state while twenty-one high school instructors, or nearly
twenty-eight per cent of the group, had received training in
other states.
Elementary teachers hold more credentials than the high
school instructors.
One hundred forty-three elementary teachers
possess a total of 166 various teaching credentials and thirtytwo in administration for an average of 1.4 V e? teacher.
Seventy-six high school instructors have earned ninety-three
teaching credentials and fourteen in administration for an
average of 1.3 per instructor.
Teaching experience.
Elementary teachers have remained
in their present teaching positions an average of 8,1 years.
The number of years experience in Placer County amounted to
10.3; the average for experience outside Placer County but
123
in California was 1.4 years; only 0.44 of a year was devoted
to teaching outside California.
The total amount of teaching
experience for the elementary classification amounted to 11.1
years.
High school instructors have taught in their present
positions on the average of 7.2 years per teachers
The total
years of teaching experience in Placer County amounted to
8.6, considerably below the corresponding figures for the
elementary group.
High school instructors have experienced
a greater amount of teaching outside Placer County yet in
California and also in other states.
The average length of
experience is 2.1 and 1.5 years respectively.
Total teaching
experience averaged 12.2 years per instructor.
The nature of the salary schedules accounts for the
longer period of local teaching experience attained-by the
elementary teachers.
The difference in schedules throughout
the elementary cdistricts of the county is great enough to
warrant and encourage teachers to seek other schools within
the county.
Also, holders of county teaching certificates
must confine their professional activites within the county.
On the other hand the monetary difference between high school
salary schedules of the county is too insignificant to allow
instructors to seek similar positions within the county*
it is a commonly accepted practice not to accept inexperienced
instructors in the county.
This custom contributes to the
comparative brief period of local service rendered by the
124
secondary school group.
Teacher load.
The average number of children to each
elementary school class throughout the county amounted to
28.3«
This is a significant average when one takes into con­
sideration the large number of isolated districts having a
limited population which naturally restricts the school en­
rollment.
The enrollment ranged from nine.to forty-three.
High school instructors averaged 26.3 students per class.
The distribution range of pupil periods reported was highly
significant.
A vocational instructor reported a minimum
of fifty-six pupil periods per day contrasted with 334 pupil
periods reported by a physical education instructor.
There
is no mandatory county regulation compelling the schools of
Placer County to abide by a standard length for school days.
Consequently, the length of the school day for the various
school levels varies according to the policy of the local
district governing boards.
Elementary teachers average 27.5 hours of actual class­
room teaching computed on a weekly basis.
Other activities
directly connected with the profession such as lesson plan­
ning, correcting papers, checking results, and professional
advancement, required 14*6 hours per week.
High school in­
structors devoted an average of 25^1 hours per week to teach­
ing and other professional activities necessitated a weekly
average of 15*5 hours per instructor.
125
The national defense program is responsible for the
increase in the number of courses high school instructors
are offering without adequate preparation.
The introduction
of certain courses in sheet metal and machine shop carry
mathematical prerequisites which lead to the increased offer­
ings in mathematics.
Elementary teachers each devote 2.2 hours weekly to
sixteen extracurricular activities while high school in­
structors are occupied with twenty-one such activities for
an average of 3#3 hours per week.
Professional advancement.
Elementary teachers have
been rather hesitant in attending summer school.
For the
five year period considered the average was slightly*, over
one session per instructor.
The secondary group, averaged 2.2
sessions for the same period of time.
An explanation for
existing circumstances can be attributed to the. fact that
only one elementary district in the county grants a salary
increase for attending summer school.
Increments are granted
solely on the basis of teaching experience, thereby abolish­
ing the incentive for attendance at summer school.
On the
other hand high school instructors receive increments for
accumulated units of work undertaken at summer school.
At
least four units must be earned once in three years to pre­
vent being lowered to the next bracket on the schedule.
High school instructors read more professional liter-
126
ature than the elementary group.
The former category read
sixteen different professional magazines at regular- intervals
for an average of 2.2 per instructor while the elementary
teachers read twelve or the equivalent of 1.4 per teacher.
For professional books read during the school year 194°“1941>
the secondary group averaged 2.2 per instructor while the
elementary teachers averaged 1.5*
In each instance the cur­
riculum field maintained the greatest reading frequency.
Professional and community activities. Membership in
various teachers1 associations is low, the elementary more
so than secondary.
Of the elementary teachers reporting,
41.3 per cent were members o.f^the California Teachers Asso­
ciation; a mere 4*8 per cent were affiliated with the Nation­
al Education Association, and 51*5 per cent were members of
the Placer County Teachers Association.
The secondary group
showed a somewhat larger membership in these organizations.
In the C.T.A., 60.5 per cent were paid members; 15.8 per cent
belonged to the N.E.A.; and 65.8 per cent were members of the
county organization.
It must be remembered, however, that
local associations are inferior and impotent when it comes
to supporting or combating proposed legislation materially
affecting the interest of the individual teacher.
Placer County teachers display sufficient interest in
other professional organizations.
Elementary teachers amount­
ing to 60.8 per cent of their total belong to nine other
127
professional organizations, while high school instructors
belong to eleven such organizations•
v Elementary teachers exhibit greater interest in com­
munity activities.
This particular group reported engaging
on an average of 1.4 activities per teacher while the high
school category participated to the extent of 1.2 per in­
structor.
II.
CONCLUSIONS
The findings of this investigation warrant definite
conclusions regarding the status of working conditions of
the certified personnel of the Placer County Schools.
1.
The amount of expenditure per unit of average
daily attendance in Placer County is lower than the corres­
ponding figures for the related investigations.
The average
for the state is #90.10 while Placer County spends #58.83 per
unit of average daily attendance.
2.
status.
Home ownership has a direct bearing on teacher
The percentage of home ownership is greater among
permanent employees than probationary teachers.
3.
The teachers of Placer County have been adequately
trained for the obligations of their profession*
The training
received has a tendency to increase in advanced school levels.
Rural school teachers have received only minimum training and
are the lowest salaried professional group of the county.
4.
Elementary teachers have displayed a greater wil-
128
lingness to localize their teaching experience while high
school instructors are prone to accept positions out of
Placer County and California*
5.
The average teacher load of elementary school
teachers is approximately normal*
Teacher load for high
school instructors conforms rather closely with accepted
standards*
However, daily pupil-teacher contacts are incon­
sistent*
6.
Generally speaking all teachers and administrators*
salaries have shown a steady increase for the interval
studied (1935-1940)•
Despite this encouraging evidence, the
average for the state of California is much higher*
7.
The number of summer sessions attended by high
school instructors is encouraging while elementary teachers
are less apt to enroll at summer school*
8*
Owing to external forces, chief of which is the
national defense program, the number of subjects taught by
high school instructors without adequate training is in­
creasing.
9.
If considered as a single group, membership in
teachers’ associations is comparatively small.
10.
It is to be concluded by the findings of this
survey that certain existing individual standards and prac­
tices maintained by the teachers, administrators, and gov­
erning boards should undergo revision and improvement.
On
the other hand this investigation revealed facts concerning
129
the certificated personnel in definite accord with modern
trends and development.
Ill.
RECOMMENDATIONS
These recommendations have, as a purpose, the specific
objective of improving the conditions revealed by this study
to be detrimental to a modern, progressive and functional
philosophy of education.
1.
Placer County should endeavor to increase the
expenditure per unit of average daily attendance.
Since the
district school tax rate has been cut for the past three
years, this result could be- accomplished by restoring the
tax rate to a portion of its former status.
2.
A Credentials Committee should be established for
the purpose of investigating the subjects for which teachers
have received adequate training.
Teaching assignments should
not be given out on the basis of administrative convenience.
Occasionally teachers are assigned classes so that the ex­
isting schedule will not be disrupted.
Teaching assignments
should be given out on the basis of training and preparation
even/if it necessitates the discarding of the cherished, an­
tiquated, teaching schedule.
3.
A Scholarship Committee should be formed for the
purpose of adjusting extreme cases of pupil-teacher contacts,
especially in the department of physical education.
Classes
in physical education should not be looked upon as convenient
130
"dumping grounds*"
Physical adjustment is equally important
and in some cases more so than social or academic placement.
4-
An attempt should be made to increase salaries of
/
teachers, especially in the rural areas.
Most of these iso­
lated districts are tax-free as far as the school is con­
cerned.
They are able to operate on the state apportionment
of $1400 plus the amount received for average daily attend­
ance.
If a school tax is instituted this would provide
salaries adequate enough to attract better qualified teachers.
5*
Membership in the
National Education Association
and the California Teachers Association should be more ener­
getically solicited.
professional strength.
Strong membership is an indication of
Strong membership is highly desireable
at a time when legislation affecting the schools is ever on
the increase.
6.
Salary schedules of elementary school districts
should have some provision for recognizing attendance at
summer school
as a basis for salary increments.
This pro­
vision would have a tendency to increase the in-service train­
ing of teachers.
7.
Owing to a large over-supply of properly certified
teachers, the county should restrict the practice of issuing
county teaching certificates.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
BIBLIOGRAPHY
A.
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:
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New
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II.
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Evelt, Florence, "The Status of Junior College Teachers in
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94 -PP.
134
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Lefever, Ruth. B., "The Status of the Married Women Teachers
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Superintendents of-Schools of California.” Unpublished
Master!s thesis, The University of Southern California,
Los Angeles, 1932. 112 pp.
McComb, Stuart F., "Survey of Teacher Personnel in Ventura
County." Unpublished Master’s thesis, The University
of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1939. 130 pp.
Noble, Le Grande, ”A Personnel Study of the Teachers of the
Teachers of Unitah County, Utah.” Unpublished Master’s
thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles,
1939. 130 pp.
Vertrees, C. E., "Survey of Orange County Teachers.” Un­
published Master’s thesis, The University of Southern
California, Los Angeles, 1933. 179 pp.
Wilson, Henry, "Teacher Personnel Study in San Diego County.”
Unpublished Master!s thesis, University of Southern
California, Los Angeles, 1933. 145 PP*
III.
PERIODICAL ARTICLES
Anderson, Earl W. , "Technics of Research Used in the Field
of Teacher Personnel,” Review of Educational Research.
4:15-20, February, 1934*
Baer, Joseph A., ’’Teaching Loads in High School," School
Review. 355406-9, June, 1927..
Bain, Winifred F., and Grace Langdon, "New Responsibilities
Set New Goals in Teacher Education, *’ Childhood Education.
12:55-61, October, 1935.
Burnham, Ernest, "Elementary Rural Teaching as a Career,”
Journal of the National Education Association. 17:167-6S,
June, 192S.
135
Clark, H. E., "Salaries in the Professions," Journal of Higher
Education. 4:32-33, January, 1933
Clement, Evelyn A.,- "Standards for Teachers," Sierra Educational
News. 34*14, March, 1938.
Douglass, Earl E., "Measuring the Teaching Load in the High
School," The Nation1s Schools. 2:22-24, October, 192§.
Douglass, Earl R., "The School, the Teacher, and American
Society," Secondary Education. 4 :265, November, 1935*
Ganders, Harry S., "The Teacher Status," The Nation* s Schools.
16:24, October, 1935*
Hartwell, Albion A., "Security in the Professions," American
Teacher. 20:12-14, May, 1936.
Harvey, Oswald, L., "Enrollment Trends and PopulationsShifts,"
Elementary School Journal. May, 1938.
Heck, Archer 0., "Recent Changes in Public School Personnel
Services," Educational Research Bulletin. 14:155-61,
September 18, 1935.
Parsons, RheyB., "A Study of the Relation of Supply of
Teachers to Demand for Teachers," Elementary School
Journal. 36:97-104, October, 1935.
Strayer, George D., "The Maintenance of School Services During
the Period of Economic Depression," School and Society.
36:136-41, February, 1929.
Truxton, Walke I., "Teaching Profession and Its Position,"
Virginia Journal of Education. 30:216, February 1937.
Unzicker, Samuel P., "A Study of Teaching Loads in Junior
High Schools in Wisconsin," School Review. 37:136-41,
February, 1929.
Educational Policies Commission, The Unique Function of Educatlon In American Democracy. 6-7 pp.
Tax Assessor*s Report for Placer County, 1940-1941.
APPENDIX
Survey o f T ea ch er Personnel in Placer C o u n ty 1940-41
L— P O S IT IO N .
(U n d e rlin e .)
E lem en tary.
Teacher, kin d erg arten teacher, one room ru ra l school teacher,
f u ll tim e p rin c ip a l, vice p rin c ip a l, supervisor, superintendent.
H ig h School.
Teacher, head o f departm ent, v ice-prin cip al, p rin c ip a l.
J u n io r College.
H ead of departm ent, dean o f boys or g irls, v ic e -p rin c ip a l.
special
teacher,
teaching
p rin c ip a l,
H — P E R S O N A L IN F O R M A T IO N .
Sex...............................................
B irth d a te ...............................................:........................ A ge....................................................
M a rita l Status (check o n e ).
S in g le................................. W id o w ................................... D iv o rc e d ....................... - ........... M a r rie d ......................................
N u m b er and age o f children ...................................................... ..................................................................................... .
D o you own yo ur own hom e?.................................
D o you rent? ...........................................
H o w much rent do you p ay $ ........................................
per month.
D o you room and b o a rd ? ........................................................ . D o you live w ith p aren ts?
,..... ..........................
Ilf— SALARY.
W h a t is y o u r present a n nu al salary $ .............................................................. (1 9 4 0 -4 1 .)
Please list s a la ry fo r as m any of the fo llo w in g years that you were in the county. D o not list salary
fo r positions held outside P lacer County.
1935-36 ...........................................................................
1938-39.................................................................................
1936-37
1939-40
...........................................................................
1937-38 .............................................'.................................
.................................
1940-41.................................................................................
IV — T E A C H E R L O A D .
E lem entary
H ig h School
Names on R egister
P u p il Periods
Junior College
Length
P u p il Periods
A class fo r 20 p u p ils fo r one p erio d w ould be
20 p u p il periods.
H o w m an y hours per week do you spend on th e fo llo w in g (a p p ro x im a te ly .)
Lesson Planning ..............................................................
Professional Advancem ent
A c tu a l
E x tra C u rric u la r A ctivities
Teaching
Checking
........................................................
Results .........................................................
C om m unity
A ctivities
........
(N u m b e r)
........
C orrecting Papers ........... ............v................................
A re you teaching any subjects outside your m a jo r or m in o r fie ld ?
- T R A IN IN G
H o w m any years of tra in in g have you com pleted since high school?..............................
Please list a ll:
Degree or D ip lo m a
F ro m
D a te
•
Credentials or C ertificates
Issued B y
D ate
Please list by num ber o f college units a ll w o rk taken at accredited institutions since receiving your
last degree:
N o . U nits
In s titu tio n
L ocatio n
V I — E X P E R IE N C E .
N u m b er of years in present position (in c lu d in g present)
....................
N u m b er o f years experience in Placer C o u n ty ..............................................
N u m b er o f years experience outside P lacer C ounty but in C a lifo rn ia
N u m b er of years experience outside C a lifo r n ia ..............................................
T o ta l years of teaching experience ............................................................... .......
V I I — C O M M U N IT Y A N D P R O F E S S IO N A L ^ A C T IV IT IE S .
Please check those listed and f i l l in others not listed.
C om m unity A ctivities
Professional A ctivities
Leadership Boys’ and G irls’ Clubs
N a tio n a l Education Association
Teach Sunday School Classes
C a lifo rn ia Teachers Association
C ham ber o f Com merce
P lacer County Teachers Association
Service Clubs
F ra te rn a l O rganizations
V I I I — P R O F E S S IO N A L A D V A N C E M E N T .
Sum m er School w ith in last fiv e years:
Extension Courses
D ate
In s titu tio n
In stitu tion
D ate
List the professional magazines you read re g u la rly :
N u m b e r o f professional books read last y e a r............................................... , ...................
Check the fie ld in w hich the reading was d o n e :
C u rric u lu m
.........................
P hilo so p hy............................
A d m in is tra tio n .....................................
E x tra C u rric u la r..................................... r
Guidance.............................
S u p e rv is io n
Methods
Secondary
K in d e rg a rte n ......................................
E d ..........
P r im a r y ..................
T ra v e l d u rin g last fiv e years.
D a te
Place
P urpose fo r which trip was m ade:
S tu dy.......................
Pleasure.
H e a lth ...........
Business.
V is it Relatives
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