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A critical evaluation of the techniques of organization and management in the San Mateo County elementary school libraries

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A CRITICAL EVALUATION OF THE TECHNIQUES OF ORGANIZATION
AND MANAGEMENT IN THE SAN MATEO COUNTY
ELEMENTARY SCHOOL LIBRARIES
A T h e sis
P re se n te d
to
th e F a c u lty o f th e S ch o o l o f E d u c a tio n
U n iv e r s ity o f S o u th e rn C a li f o r n ia
In F a r t la l F u lfillm e n t
o f th e R e q u ire m e n ts f o r th e D egree
M a ste r o f S c ie n c e i n E d u c a tio n
hy
H o w ard A * B l e t h e n
S e p te m b e r 1941
UMI Number: EP54172
All rights reserved
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Dissertation Publishing
UMI EP54172
Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author.
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ProQuest LLC.
789 East Eisenhower Parkway
P.O. Box 1346
Ann Arbor, Ml 48106-1346
Th is thesis, w ri tt en under the direction of the
Chair man of the candidate’s Guid an ce C o m m i t t e e
and a p p r o v e d by all m em be rs of the C o m m i t t e e ,
has been p r es e n te d to a n d a c c e p te d by the F ac u lty
of the S c h o o l of Ed uc a tio n of T h e U ni ve rsi ty of
Sou thern California in p a r ti a l fu lfillment of the
requirements f o r the degree of M a s t e r of Science
in Education.
.................
D ean
G uidance C om m ittee
Paul Fisher
Chairman
0. B. Hull
D. Welty Lefever
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I.
PAGE
’ THE PROBLEM AND DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED .
1
The p r o b l e m .............................................................................
1
S t a t e m e n t o f t h e p r o b l e m .........................................
1
A n a l y s i s o f t h e p r o b l e m .........................................
2
J u s t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e p r o b le m *
..........................
3
D e f i n i t i o n o f t e r m s u s e d ..............................................
4
....................................
4
.........................................
4
E le m e n ta ry
school lib r a r y
C lassro o m l i b r a r y
. .
.
S c h o o l sy ste m c e n t r a l l i b r a r y
..........................
5
H i s t o r y o f t h e p r o b l e m ...................................................
5
E le m e n ta ry s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s
U n ite d S t a te s
in th e
..............................................................
O rg a n iz a tio n o f t h is
IX.
.
5
s t u d y ........................................ .
9
REVIEW o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e ..................................................
11
P u b l i c a t io n s r e la te d - to e le m e n ta ry
s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s ..............................................................
11
S t a r ti n g an e le m e n ta ry sc h o o l l i b r a r y
.
.
11
A d m in is te rin g th e e le m e n ta ry l i b r a r y .
.
.
15
S u m m a r y ..................................................................................
R e v ie w o f t h e r e l a t e d
C a p p le m a n s t u d y
s t u d i e s ...............................
. . . . . .
C u n n in g h a m s t u d y ..............................
...............................
28
29
29
31
iii
CHAPTER
FAGE
B enson s tu d y
III.
...................................................................
35
Adams s t u d y ...................................
38
Sum m ary.........................................
43
ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT OF THE
COUNTY LIBRARY AND AFFILIATED SCHOOL
LIBRARIES.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The S a n M a te o C o u n t y L i b r a r y
. . . . . . .
E a r l y h i s t o r y ...................................................................
A d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d m a n a g e m e n t.
. . . . . .
S o u r c e o f r e v e n u e .........................................................
C o u n ty l i b r a r y r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e
a ffilia te d
sc h o o ls
45
46
46
47
47
to
...............................................
48
C i r c u l a t i o n o f m a t e r i a l .........................................
54
V a lu e o f c o u n ty l i b r a r y
se rv ic e
to
S a n M a te o s c h o o l s .............................................
L ib ra rie s
54
in th e
s c h o o l s .........................................
59
School lib r a r y
..............................................................
60
C l a s s r o o m l i b r a r y .........................................................
60
L i b r a r y e q u i p m e n t .........................................................
62
«
IV .
L i b r a r y p e r s o n n e l .........................................................
64
L ib ra ry a d m in is tr a tio n
64
....................................
ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT OF SCHOOL
LIBRARIES NOT AFFILIATED WITH THE
COUNTY LIBRARY . . . . . . .........................................
65
iv
CHAPTER
PAGE
B r e a k in g aw ay fro m t h e c o u n ty l i b r a r y .
S e rv ic e s o f th e c i t y p u b lic
The c e n t r a l s c h o o l l i b r a r y
lib ra ry .
. .
. .
. . .
..........................
S a n M a te o D i s t r i c t E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l s .
66
67
68
. .
69
S c h o o l s ..................................................................................
70
B u rlin g a m e D i s t r i c t E le m e n ta ry
Redw ood C i t y D i s t r i c t E l e m e n t a r y
S c h o o l s .........................
M illb r a e E le m e n ta ry S ch o o l D i s t r i c t .
75
. . .
76
S a n B ru n o a n d S o u t h S a n F r a n c i s c o
E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l D i s t r i c t s ...............................
J e f f e r s o n E le m e n ta ry S ch o o l D i s t r i c t
V.
. . .
78
84
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS.........................
Sum m ary.
78
..................................................................
84
The S a n M a te o E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l
D i s t r i c t .............................................................................
B u rlin g a m e E le m e n ta ry S c h o o l D i s t r i c t .
89
. .
90
........................................................................
91
M i l l b r a e E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l s ....................................
92
J e f f e r s o n E le m e n ta ry S ch o o l D i s t r i c t
. . .
93
S a n B ru n o E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l s ..............................
93
Redw ood C i t y E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l
D istric t
.
S o u th San F r a n c is c o E le m e n ta ry S c h o o l
D i s t r i c t .........................
94
V
CHAPTER
PAGE
C o n c l u s i o n s ........................................
94
...............................................
95
g r o u p .........................................................
96
G e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s ...................................................
96
R ecom m ended f u t u r e r e l a t e d
98
C o u n ty l i b r a r y g r o u p .
U n a ffilia te d
stu d ie s.
. . .
BIBLIOGRAPHY..................................................................................................
99
AFFEHDIX............................................................................................................
10 8
L IS T OF TABLES
TABLE
I.
PAGE
M e th o d s o f C l a s s i f y i n g L i b r a r y B o o k s i n
E le m e n ta ry S c h o o ls
II.
III.
.........................................................
C o n t r i b u t i o n s t o C o u n ty L i b r a r y
- Ju ly
1940.
49
M a g a z in e s an d P e r i o d i c a l s D i s t r i b u t e d by
t h e S a n M a te o C o u n t y L i b r a r y 1 9 3 9 ~ 1 9 4 0 * •
IV .
V.
S a n M a te o C o u n t y B r a n c h L i b r a r i e s ...........................
Books and M a t e r i a l s S u p p lie d
S a n M a te o C o u n t y L i b r a r y
VI*
.
...............................
w i t h C o u n ty L i b r a r y
. . . . . .
57
61
C lassro o m L ib r a r y O r g a n iz a tio n - S c h o o ls
w i t h C o u n ty L i b r a r y
..........................
63
O r g a n iz a tio n and A d m in is tr a tio n o f L ib r a r ie s
i n S a n M a te o E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l s ..........................
X.
55
S c h o o l L ib r a r y O r g a n iz a tio n - S c h o o ls
A ffilia te d
IX .
53
A v e r a g e B o o k s a n d M a t e r i a l s P e r A .D .A .
A ffilia te d
V III.
51
to S c h o o l by
S a n M a te o C o u n t y 1 9 4 0 - 1 9 4 1 ....................................
V II.
20
71
O r g a n iz a tio n and A d m in is tr a tio n o f L i b r a r i e s
i n B u rlin g a m e E le m e n ta ry S c h o o l
D i s t r i c t ............................................................................
X I.
72
O r g a n iz a tio n and A d m in is tr a tio n o f L i b r a r i e s
i n R edw ood C i t y E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l s
X II.
.
. . . .
77
O rg a n iz a tio n and A d m in is tra tio n o f L ib r a r ie s
i n M i l l b r a e E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l s ..........................
79
v ii
TABLE
X III.
FAG-E
O r g a n iz a tio n and A d m in is tr a tio n o f L ib r a r ie s
i n S a n B r u n o ........................................
X IV .
O rg a n iz a tio n and A d m in is tr a tio n o f L ib r a r ie s
i n S o u th San F ra n c is c o
XV.
80
...............................
81
O r g a n iz a tio n and A d m in is tr a tio n o f L ib r a r ie s
i n J e f f e r s o n .........................
83
CHAPTER I
THIS PROBLEM AND DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED
On© o f tli© m o a t f a r - r e a c h i n g a n d I m p o r t a n t m o v e m e n ts
i n e le m e n ta r y e d u c a t i o n to d a y l i e s
lib ra rie s
in th e
i n th e e sta b lis h m e n t of
s c h o o l s and th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f a te c h n iq u e
f o r t h e p r a c t i c a l u s e o f th e m .
The l i b r a r y
keep p ace w ith th e
is
n o t a new f a d d e v e l o p e d o v e r - n i g h t t o
l a t e s t m o v e m e n ts i n e d u c a t i o n - - i t i s a n
i n s t i t u t i o n t h a t h a s e n h a n c e d m an’ s l e a r n i n g from t h e
e a rlie s t of c iv iliz a tio n .
H a ll,
i n h i s book on l i b r a r i e s ,
advances th e fo llo w in g :
I n t h e m ak in g o f o u r c i v i l i z a t i o n l i b r a r i e s h a v e
p la y e d a m ost s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t .
L ib r a r ie s have been
lin k e d w ith a l l c e n te r s o f c u ltu r e .
B a b y lo n ia n s t u d e n ts
w orked i n t h e l i b r a r i e s o f th e g r e a t te m p le s ; s c h o l a r s
an d t e a c h e r s w o rk ed s i d e by s i d e I n t h e g r e a t l i b r a r i e s
o f A le x a n d ria ; and to d ay th e l i b r a r y b u ild in g s ta n d s o u t
c o n s p i c u o u s ly o n a n y u n i v e r s i t y o r c o l l e g e cam pus.
Many
o r g a n i z a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g t h e c h u r c h , h a v e t h e i r own
l i b r a r i e s , a n d m o d e r n ho m es h a v e t h e i r r e a d i n g b o o k s *
I.
THE PROBLEM
S ta te m e n t o f th e p ro b lem .
in v e s tig a tio n to
I t, was t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s
e x a m in e c r i t i c a l l y
th e b a s ic p r in c ip le s of
^ W. F . H a l l , T he Need f o r E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l
L i b r a r i e s a n d How t o B u i l d Them ( L i t t l e R o c k , A r k a n s a s :
S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n P r e s s , 1 9 3 6 ) , p . 5*
2
lib ra ry
o r g a n i z a t i o n an d m anagem ent i n t h e e le m e n ta r y
sc h o o ls,
to e v a lu a te
th e v a rio u s e x is tin g
te c h n iq u e s o f
o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d m a n a g e m e n t i n t h e S a n M a te o C o u n ty
E le m e n ta ry S c h o o ls , and to o u t l i n e a d e s i r a b l e p ro c e d u re
f o r m ak in g t h e l i b r a r i e s
i n t h e s e s c h o o l s f u n c t i o n m o re
e ffic ie n tly .
A n a ly s is o f th e p ro b le m .
The o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d
a d m i n i s t r a t io n o f e le m e n ta ry sc h o o l l i b r a r i e s have fo llo w e d
many a n d v a r i e d p a t t e r n s .
s e n ta tiv e
1.
By a s t u d y o f v a r i o u s r e p r e ­
s y s t e m s t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s may b e a n s w e r e d :
W hat i s
th e
sta tu s of lib ra rie s
in e le m e n ta ry
sc h o o ls?
2.
W hat a r e t h e b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s
t h a t g o v ern th e
o r g a n iz a tio n o f e le m e n ta ry sc h o o l l i b r a r i e s ?
3*
W hat a r e
th e b a s ic p r in c ip le s
t h a t g o v ern th e
m anagem ent o f e le m e n ta r y s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s ?
4.
5.
W hat i s
th e s t a t u s o f th e e le m e n ta ry sc h o o l
lib ra ry
i n S a n M a teo C o u n t y e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s ?
W hat a r e
th e b a s ic p r in c ip le s
t h a t g o v ern th e
o r g a n iz a tio n o f e le m e n ta ry sc h o o l l i b r a r i e s
in
B an M a teo C o u n t y ?
6.
W hat a r e t h e b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s
t h a t g o v ern th e
m anagem ent o f e le m e n ta r y s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s
S a n M a te o C o u n t y ?
in
3
7*
How may t h e p r e s e n t l i b r a r y
s e t - u p b e im p ro v ed
t o f u n c t i o n m o re e f f i c i e n t l y
i n S a n M ateo
C o u n ty ?
J u s t i f i c a t i o n o f th e p ro b le m *
o f a m o re c r e a t i v e
The r e c e n t d e v e l o p m e n t
and d y n am ic t y p e o f e l e m e n t a r y c u r r i c u l u m
h as g iv e n a d e f i n i t e
re fe re n c e m a te ria ls .
im p e tu s to th e w id e r u se o f b ooks and
Many e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s h a v e d e v e l o p e d
c u r r i c u l a w h ic h r e q u i r e e x te n s i v e u se o f l i t e r a r y m a t e r i a l s
and h av e d e v e lo p e d w e ll e q u ip p e d l i b r a r i e s w ith book
c o lle c tio n s
su ite d
w h o le , h o w ev er,
to
t h e new e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m .
s c h o o ls o f t h i s ty p e a re r a r e .
v e n tio n a l te x tb o o k c e n te re d
school is
e le m e n ta ry s c h o o l p a t t e r n .
It
lib ra ry
fa c ilitie s
d e v e lo p e d
s till
On t h e
The c o n ­
th e p re d o m in a n t
i s n o t uncommon t o f i n d
l i m i t e d t o a fe w s c h o o l s i n s t e a d o f b e i n g
i n a l l s c h o o ls th r o u g h o u t th e sy ste m .
The t y p i c a l
e le m e n ta ry sc h o o l l i b r a r y h a s been o f a h i t- o r - m is s v a r i e t y
w ith l i t t l e
o r no s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n .
c a p a b ly d e s c rib e d
T h is s i t u a t i o n i s v e r y
i n th e S t a t e o f C a l i f o r n i a D e p artm en t o f
E d u c a tio n B u l l e t i n .
I t has th is
to w ay:
I n som e s c h o o l s y s t e m s , f o r e x a m p l e , e a c h s c h o o l may
have a c e n t r a l l i b r a r y ; i n o t h e r s , th e books a re
s c a t t e r e d th ro u g h v a r io u s c la s s ro o m s a s c la ss ro o m u n i t
l i b r a r i e s ; i n o t h e r s , t h e b o o k c o l l e c t i o n s a r e ow ned b y
t h e p u b l i c l i b r a r y and lo a n e d to th e v a r i o u s c la s s ro o m s .
I n some I n s t a n c e s t h e b o o k c o l l e c t i o n b e a r s a c a r e f u l l y
p la n n e d r e l a t i o n s h i p to th e c u rric u lu m ; In o th e r s , i t
i s m e re ly a n o n d e s c r ip t c o l l e c t i o n o f b o o k s.
I n som e
i n s t a n c e s , th e books a re p re d o m in a n tly f i c t i o n , o r s o -
4
c a lle d p le a s u re re a d in g ty p e ; in o th e r s , th e y a re
c o l l e c t i o n s o f g e o g r a p h i c r e a d e r s , h i s t o r i e s , s a m p le
t e x t s , s u p p le m e n ta r y t e x t b o o k s , and o t h e r odds and e n d s
of school books.
In th e m a tte r o f p e rs o n n e l, lik e w is e ,
t h e r e i s no s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n i n th e e le m e n ta r y f i e l d .
T he l i b r a r y i s i n c h a r g e o f j a n i t o r s , c h i l d r e n , a s s i s t ­
a n t p r i n c i p a l s , p a r e n t s , s c h o o l c l e r k s , t e a c h e r s , and
o c c a s io n a lly t e a c h e r - l i b r a r i a n s , o r lib r a r ia n s w ith
p ro fe ssio n a l tra in in g .
The i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e l i b r a r y
s c h o o l m ust be b r o u g h t o u t ,
w h ic h ,
i n many i n s t a n c e s ,
II.
as w e ll as th e p r e v a ilin g ab u ses
can be c o r r e c te d .
DEFINITION OF TERMS USED
E le m e n ta ry s c h o o l l i b r a r y .
school l ib r a r y ” is
in th e e le m e n ta ry
The t e r m
^ e le m e n ta ry
i n t e r p r e t e d a s th e c e n t r a l l i b r a r y
w i t h i n a n e le m e n t a r y s c h o o l fro m w h ic h a l l r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l
o th e r
th a n s t a te
lib ra ry
is
a lso
te x ts
i s h o u se d and d i s t r i b u t e d .
c o n stru e d
h a v in g f a c i l i t i e s
a s c la s s ro o m r e s e a r c h .
C la ssro o m l i b r a r y .
in te rp re te d
se rv e as a re a d in g c e n te r ,
t o 'e n c o u r a g e th e e x p l o r a t i o n and u t i l i ­
z a tio n of l it e r a t u r e
is
to
T h is
T he t e r m ^ c l a s s r o o m l i b r a r y ”
a s t h a t u n i t o f th e c la s s ro o m w h ic h i s
th e
c e n t e r f o r b o o k s a n d v i s u a l a i d s i n a p a r t i c u l a r ro o m a n d
is
u s e d e x c l u s i v e l y b y t h e c h i l d r e n o f t h a t ro o m .
” The L i b r a r y i n t h e E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l , ” S t a t e o f
C a l i f o r n i a , D e p a rtm e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , B u l l e t i n No. 1 8 , 1 9 3 5 ,
P-. 3•
5
S c h o o l a y stem c e n t r a l l i b r a r y .
I n many e l e m e n t a r y
s c h o o l s y s t e m s c o n s i s t i n g o f tw o o r m o re s c h o o l s t h e r e
lo c a te d , u s u a lly
I n one o f th e s c h o o ls , a l i b r a r y
serv es as a c e n te r fo r
re a d in g m a te r ia l,
t h e w h o le s y s te m .
III.
th a t
V isu a l a id s ,
and even t e x t s a re d i s t r i b u t e d
s y s t e m 1a s c h o o l s f r o m t h i s
is
to a l l th e
fo c a l p o in t.
HISTORY OF THE PROBLEM
E le m e n ta ry s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s
i n th e U n ite d S t a t e s .
The e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l l i b r a r y i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s
i s t h e r e s u l t a n t o f tw o c o n v e r g i n g m o v e m e n t s :
th e r i s e
o f c h i l d r e n * s l i b r a r y w o rk i n t h e p u b l i c l i b r a r y , a n d
t h e e m e r g e n c e o f a new c u r r i c u l u m i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y
s c h o o l.5
F argo
4
tra c e d
y e a rs w h ile th e
t h e f o r m e r m ovem ent b a c k a b o u t f i f t y
la tte r
reached
its
f u l l s ig n if ic a n c e o n ly
in th e l a s t d ecad e.
B o stw ie k
a t t e n t i o n to
lib ra rie s
m ade a r e v e a l i n g o b s e r v a t i o n w h e n h e c a l l e d
t h e v o lu m in o u s g o v ern m en t r e p o r t o n p u b l i c
issu e d
in
1 8 7 6 - - n o t a s i n g l e e n t r y w a s made i n t h e
3
L* F . F a r g o , T he P r o g r a m f o r E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l
L i b r a r y S e r v i c e ( C h ic a g o : A m e ric an L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n ,
1 9 3 0 ), p . 10.
^
» c lt.
5 A . E . B o s t w i e k , The R e l a t i o n s h i p B e tw e e n t h e
L i b r a r y a n d t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s ( W h ite P l a i n s , Hew Y o rk a n d
Hew Y o r k C i t y :
The W. H. W i l s o n C om pany, 1 9 1 ^ ) , P* 11*
6
in d ex u n d er " c h ild " o r " c h i l d r e n ."
In th e f i r a t decade o f th e tw e n tie th c e n tu ry th re e
l i b r a r i e s w ere e s t a b l i s h e d w h ic h a r e t h e p i o n e e r s o f th e
e le m e n ta ry l e v e l .
T hese l i b r a r i e s w ere e s t a b l i s h e d a t
D a y t o n , O h io i n 1 9 0 2 ; N e w p o r t , R h o d e I s l a n d i n 1 9 0 6 ; a n d
6
G ary, In d ia n a i n 1908.
M o rg a n , e d i t o r o f t h e J o u r n a l o f
th e N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia tio n , s a y s :
I t i s a c u rio u s th in g t h a t th e e v o lu tio n o f th e
A m e r i c a n l i b r a r y m o vem en t s h o u l d p l a c e t h e e m p h a s i s o n
th e l i b r a r y o f th e e le m e n ta ry sc h o o l l a s t .
O ur p u b l i c
l i b r a r i e s c a n n e v e r r e n d e r t h e i r maximum s e r v i c e u n t i l
a l l t h e p e o p le a r e t r a i n e d an d h a b i t u a t e d t o u s e th em .
The e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l I s t h e s c h o o l o f t h e m a s s e s .
It
i s th e o n ly sc h o o l t h a t i n our day th e g r e a t m a jo r ity
w i l l be p r iv ile g e d to f i n i s h .
We a r e now g e t t i n g t o
t h e b a s e o f t h e g r e a t e d u c a t i o n a l p y ra m id i n th e
e le m e n ta ry s c h o o l .'
A bout th e end o f th e f i r s t
c e n tu ry ,
a rtic le s
q u a rte r o f th e tw e n tie th
f a v o r in g th e e le m e n ta ry sc h o o l l i b r a r y
b e g a n t o a p p e a r i n g r e a t num bers i n e d u c a t i o n a l p u b l i c a t i o n s .
T h is was a n i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e p i o n e e r l i b r a r i e s h a d h a d
tim e to p ro v e t h e i r v a l u e .
I n 1924 H a m ilto n w r o te :
^ E . P . M i l l e r a n d G. P l u m e , " E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l
L i b r a r y , " S c h o o l E x e c u t i v e M a g a z i n e . 5 3 : 2 6 8 , O c t o b e r , 1933*
J . E. M organ, e d i t o r , "The C u l t u r a l S i g n i f i c a n c e
o f th e S c h o o l L i b r a r y , " T w e lfth Y earbook o f th e N a t io n a l
E d u c a tio n A s s o c i a t i o n . D e p artm en t o f E le m e n ta ry S c h o o l
P r i n c i p a l s . 1933» P* 3*
7
I n m ost s c h o o ls to d a y t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e , need f o r
a l i b r a r y — n o t a few h o o k s o f f i c t i o n — b u t a l i b r a r y
i n w h ic h a r e fo u n d t h e b e t t e r b o o k s i n a l l f i e l d s o f
h u m an e x p e r i e n c e .
T e a c h in g fro m t h e n a t u r a l m eth o d ,
t h a t i s , a l l o w i n g c h i l d r e n t o w ork o n p r o b le m s o r
p r o j e c t s t h a t a r e o f i n t e r e s t t o th e m a n d a t t a c k t h e i r
p r o b l e m s i n t h e sam e way t h a t a d u l t s d o i n t h e i r w o r l d ,
r e q u i r e s a s one o f th e m ost Im p o rta n t f a c t o r s • . •
a w e l l e q u ip p e d l i b r a r y .®
In 1925 C e r t a i n w ro te :
The p o v e r t y o f t h e a v e r a g e s c h o o l i n s u p p l e m e n t a r y
m a te ria l i s th e c h ie f cause fo r th e d u lln e s s , la c k o f
l i f e , w ant o f i n t e r e s t , and t h e i m p r a c t i c a b i l i t y o f
s o m uch o f t h e c l a s s r o o m i n s t r u c t i o n ♦ . .
T he l a c k
o f r e f e r e n c e and su p p le m e n ta ry books and o t h e r e d u ­
c a t i o n a l m a t e r i a l i n th e a v e ra g e c la s s ro o m te n d s to
m ake t h e s t u d y a n d r e c i t a t i o n p e r i o d s s u p e r f i c i a l ,
in c o n s e q u e n tia l, and b a r r e n . 9
I n 1927 K ent w r o t e :
I t i s c e r t a i n t h a t th e l i b r a r y o f to d a y i s o n ly i n
name t h e l i b r a r y o f y e s t e r d a y .
I t w o u ld b e l e s s
h a n d i c a p p e d w e r e t h e m o d e rn s c h o o l l i b r a r y g i v e n a new
nam e, o n e t h a t w o u ld p r e v e n t o u r c l i n g i n g t o t h e
a n c ie n t c o n c e p tio n o f a l ib r a r y a s a d e p o s ito ry o r
“ m a u s o le u m 8* f o r b o o k s , r a t h e r t h a n a n a c t i v e , l i v e
o r g a n i s m f u n c t i o n i n g m o re a n d m o re w i d e l y i n t h e
o r g a n i c p r o g r a m o f t h e s c h o o l . . • T he s c h o o l l i b r a r y ,
p r o b a b l y a s much a s a n y o t h e r a g e n c y i n t h e s c h o o l , i s
i n a p o s i t i o n t o b u i l d up I n t h e r a n k s o f b o t h t e a c h e r s
a n d p u p i l s a s c h o o l s p i r i t f o r b e t t e r i d e a l s . 10
^ A. J * H a m i l t o n , S u p e r v i s i n g F r i n e i p a l , U n i v e r s i t y
E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l , "T h e E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l L i b r a r y , * T h i r d
Y e a rb o o k . N a t i o n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c i a t i o n . D e p a rtm e n t o f
E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s . 1 9 2 4 . p . 493*
9 C . 0* C e r t a i n , “R e p o r t o f t h e J o i n t C o m m itte e o n
t h e E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l L i b r a r y , 11 F o u r t h Y e a r b o o k . N a t i o n a l
E d u c a tio n A s s o c i a t i o n . D e p artm en t o f E le m e n ta ry S c h o o l
P r i n c i p a l s . 1 9 2 5 , P* ^ 6 2 .
1 0 C. A. K e n t , " O r g a n i z i n g a L i b r a r y i n a n E l e m e n t a r y
S c h o o l, n S ix th Y earb o o k . N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia tio n .
D e p a r t m e n t o f E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s . 1 9 2 7 , P* 2 7 6 .
8
T hese q u o t a t i o n s a r e enough to
of th e
show t h e
s te a d y g ro w th
id e a o f th e l i b r a r y a s a n a d ju n c t to th e e le m e n ta ry
sc h o o l*
T he p u b l i c i t y r e s u l t i n g
from th e p u b l is h e d a r t i c l e s
d o u b tle s s h ad -a r e a l in flu e n c e f o r ,
a c c o rd in g to O tto ,
num ber o f e le m e n t a r y s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s w i t h t h r e e
v o lu m e s o r m o re , I n c r e a s e d from 9^7 t o
1929, a n i n c r e a s e o f o v e r 100 p e r c e n t .
v a rio u s s ta te s .
a ls o
11
in e le m e n ta ry
i n th e c o u rs e s o f stu d y o f th e
I n 1 9 2 4 t h e A la b a m a e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l
C o u rse o f S tu d y in c lu d e d t h i s
be s a t i s f i e d
th o u sa n d
1 ,9 8 2 , fro m 1923 t o
The g ro w in g i n t e r e s t i n l i b r a r i e s
sc h o o ls i s r e f l e c t e d
th e
sta te m e n t,
w ith o u t a sch o o l l ib r a r y .
^Mo t e a c h e r s h o u l d
T h is i s
Ju st as
im p o r ta n t i n th e e le m e n ta r y g ra d e s a s i n th e h ig h sc h o o l.*
K oos, u p o n i n v e s t i g a t i o n ,
found t h a t tw e n ty - e ig h t s t a t e
c o u rs e s o f stu d y gave d i r e c t i o n s
f o r th e m a in ten a n c e o f
school l i b r a r i e s . ^
I n 1933 t h e D e p a rtm e n t o f E le m e n ta r y S c h o o l
11
H.
J . O tto , E le m e n ta ry S ch o o l O r g a n iz a tio n and
A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (Hew Y o r k a n d L o n d o n : D. A p p l e t o n C e n t u r y
C o m p an y , 1 9 3 4 7 , p . 4 0 2 .
S c h o o ls,
^
C o urse o f S tu d y
1924).
(A lab am a:
A la b a m a E l e m e n t a r y
F . H. K oos, S t a t e P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n P u b l i c S c h o o l
S e r v ic e (W a sh in g to n , D .C .:
C o lu m b ia U n i v e r s i t y , B u re au o f
P u b l i c a t io n s , 1 9 2 7 ), p . 1.
9
P r i n c i p a l s o f th e N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia tio n p u t th e
s ta m p o f a p p r o v a l o n l i b r a r i e s o n t h e e l e m e n t a r y l e v e l a n d
a l s o p u t t h e sta m p o f d i s a p p r o v a l o n a n y s c h o o l w h ic h d i d
n o t have a t
e n tire
l e a s t th e b e g in n in g s o f a l i b r a r y .
T h e ir
t w e l f t h y e a rb o o k i s d e v o te d to a d i s c u s s i o n o f th e
e le m e n ta ry sc h o o l l i b r a r y .
In i t
t h e E d i t o r i a l C o m m i t te e
q u e s tio n s and a n s w e rs :
How a r e p u p i l s t o l e a r n m e t h o d s o f s o l v i n g p r o b l e m s
u n l e s s t h e y c a n s e a r c h t h e w r i t i n g s o f many a u t h o r i t i e s ?
How d o e s o n e l e a r n t o r e s p e c t s e v e r a l v i e w - p o i n t s i f h e
m u s t s t u d y f r o m a s i n g l e " d e i f i e d " t e x t b o o k ? How c a n
o n e b e t a u g h t t o t h i n k w h en h e I s *t a u g h t o n l y t o
m e m o r iz e ? How c a n o n e l e a r n t o r e j e c t t r i v i a l r e a d i n g
f o r th e c l a s s i c s i f th e l a t t e r a re n o t a v a ila b le to
h im ? A d e q u a te l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s i n c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n
w i t h a m odern a c t i v i t y p ro g ra m h e l p to a n sw e r t h e s e
q u e s tio n s .^
P r o g r e s s i v e e d u c a t i o n a l m eth o d s r e q u i r e a s c h o o l
lib ra ry ;
b u t th e
“m o d e r n a c t i v i t y p r o g r a m ” i s n o t t h e o n l y
reaso n a school lib ra ry
n a tu ra l,
or life lik e ,
d e fin ite ly
is n ecessary .
T ra its
le a rn e d In a
s e t t i n g g i v e p r o m i s e o f © m e rg in g
i n a p p ro p r ia te c o n d u c t—a l i b r a r y
su p p lie s t h is
need.
IV .
ORGANIZATION OF THIS STONY
The s e c o n d c h a p t e r ,
" R e v ie w o f t h e L i t e r a t u r e , "
^ E d i t o r i a l C o m m itte e , T w e lf th Y e a rb o o k . N a t i o n a l
E d u c a tio n A s s o c i a t i o n . D e p artm en t o f E le m e n ta ry S c h o o l
P r i n c i p a l s , 1 9 3 3 , P* 1 3 2f 7
*
10
c o n ta in s a su rv ey o f p u b lic a tio n s d e a lin g w ith th e b ro ad e r
a s p e c ts o f e le m e n ta ry sc h o o l l i b r a r i e s
of re la te d
p re te d
a su rv ey
stu d ie s.
Q u e stio n n a ire s
a ffilia te d
and a ls o
s e n t to tw e n ty -e ig h t sc h o o ls
w i t h t h e S a n M a teo C o u n t y L i b r a r y a r e
i n C h a p te r
in te r­
I I I a lo n g w ith a stu d y o f th e a d m in is ­
t r a t i o n o f th e c o u n ty l i b r a r y .
C h a p t e r IV i s
as i t
a stu d y o f th e c e n t r a l
i s e m p lo y ed b y t h o s e d i s t r i c t s
d istric ts
is
sy ste m
i n S a n M a teo C o u n ty
w h i c h b r o k e aw ay f r o m t h e c o u n t y l i b r a r y .
p r e ta tio n of q u e stio n n a ire s
lib ra ry
s e n t to th e
The i n t e r ­
sc h o o ls in th e s e
stu d ie d .
In th e f i n a l c h a p te r ,
“ Summary a n d C o n c l u s i o n s , n
th e fin d in g s o f th e p re c e d in g c h a p te rs a re r e s t a t e d ,
stre ss*
i n g t h e m o re i m p o r t a n t f i n d i n g s o f t h e c o m p l e t e s t u d y .
P ro b le m s w h ic h r e q u i r e r e s e a r c h beyond th e l i m i t s
of th is
in v e s tig a tio n are re p o rte d .
CHAPTER I I
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
A g r e a t d e a l h a s b een w r i t te n c o n c e rn in g th e v a lu e
and i n d i s p e n s a b l l i t y o f l i b r a r i e s
e le m e n ta ry e d u c a tio n .
i n o u r m o d e r n sc h e m e o f
A l l se e m e d a g r e e d t h a t a w e l l -
r o u n d e d c l a s s r o o m p r o g r a m w as m o s t d e p e n d e n t u p o n g o o d
lib ra ry
fa c ilitie s .
U n til th e l a s t decade l i t t l e
w as
w r i t t e n upon th e s u b j e c t o f e le m e n ta ry sc h o o l l i b r a r i e s - p u b lic
lib ra rie s,
em p h a size d to
lib ra rie s .
c o l l e g e an d s e c o n d a r y l i b r a r i e s w ere
th e a lm o s t e x c lu s io n o f e le m e n ta ry
W h il e s t u d i e s d e a l i n g w i t h e l e m e n t a r y l i b r a r i e s
have n o t b e e n to o p l e n t i f u l ,
d e v o te d to
school
t h i s v ery
t h e r e h a s b e e n m uch l i t e r a t u r e
im p o rta n t f i e l d .
A b rie f
sum m ary o f
th e p u b l i c a t i o n s d e v o te d to th e o r g a n i z a t i o n and a d m in is ­
tra tio n
of e le m e n ta ry sc h o o l l i b r a r i e s
i s g iv e n a lo n g w ith
t h e s t u d i e s m ade.
I.
PUBLICATIONS RELATED TO
ELEMENTARY SCHOOL LIBRARIES
S t a r t i n g an e le m e n ta ry sc h o o l l i b r a r y .
The E d i t o r i a l
C o m m i t te e o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s ’
T w e lf th Y e a rb o o k , fo u n d t h a t t h e m ost f r e q u e n t l y a sk e d
q u e stio n re g a rd in g
s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s w a s , wW hat s t e p s a r e
12
n e c e s s a ry to
s t a r t a sc h o o l lib ra ry ? *
1
I n a n i n v e s t i g a t i o n made i n 1931> B e n s o n
o u t o f 132 s c h o o l s q u e s t i o n e d , o n l y s i x t y - t w o
th e ir
p
fo u n d t h a t
sa id th a t
l i b r a r i e s w e re m anaged b y t h e l o c a l s c h o o l b o a r d s .
That in d ic a te s
s ta rte d
th e ir
t h a t a t l e a s t h a l f of th e sc h o o ls have
lib ra rie s
rea d ag re ed t h a t i t
u n a id e d .
The b o o k s a n d a r t i c l e s
ta k e s a t l e a s t one k e e n ly i n te r e s te d
p e rs o n to s t a r t a c e n t r a l i z e d
lib ra ry .
One a r t i c l e
sta te d *
_An e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l l i b r a r y d o e s n o t j u s t h a p p e n .
S u c h a l i b r a r y , i n common w i t h many o t h e r w o r t h y
e n t e r p r i s e s , c o m e s i n t o b e i n g o n l y b e c a u s e som eon e
cares.
T h at som eone, w ith v i s i o n enough to b e s a t i s ­
f ie d w ith sm a ll b e g in n in g s , w ith ey es f ix e d on a g o a l
s o m e w h e re i n t h e f u t u r e , u n i t e s p e r s o n a l i t i e s a n d
m a t e r i a ls u n t i l th e lo n g so u g h t f o r g o a l i s r e a c h e d .^
A fe w a c c o u n t s f o l l o w
t h a t show how p e r s o n a l i t i e s a n d
m a te r ia ls h av e b e en u n ite d to s t a r t l i b r a r i e s .
B eek m an t o l d o f f i v e p r i n c i p a l s ,
fiv e
t e a c h e r s , one
^ The E d i t o r i a l C o m m i t t e e , T w e l f t h Y e a r b o o k . N a t i o n a l
E d u c a tio n A s s o c i a t i o n . D e p artm en t o f E le m e n ta ry S c h o o l
P r i n c i p a l s . 1 9 3 3 , P- 1 7 3 2
A. N. B e n s o n , "T h e O r g a n i z a t i o n a n d A d m i n i s t r a t i o n
o f t h e E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l L i b r a r y i n O a k l a n d ,*9 ( u n p u b l i s h e d
M a s te r’ s t h e s i s , S ta n f o r d U n iv e r s ity , P a lo A lto , 1931),
p . 84.
^ S . E . K e l l e r , C. II. B a r n e s , a n d II. P r a t t , "A
L i b r a r y i n a C o o p e r a t i v e G-roup S c h o o l , * T w e l f t h Y e a r b o o k
o f th e N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c i a t i o n , D ep artm en t o f
E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s , 1 9 3 3 , P* 1 9 2 .
13
d e p u t y s u p e r i n t e n d e n t a n d tw o s u p e r v i s o r s h o l d i n g a m e e t i n g
w h ic h r e s u l t e d
in th e e s ta b lis h in g o f fiv e
e le m e n ta r y s c h o o ls i n San F r a n c is c o .
e n th u sia sm
sc h o o ls.
sp read to
lib ra rie s
in
The c o m m i t t e e ^
a l l th e te a c h e rs o f th e r e s p e c tiv e
To q u o t e :
As t h e t e a c h e r s g r e w i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e v i t a l
s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e e x p e r im e n t, t h e i r i n t e r e s t and
e n t h u s i a s m r i v a l l e d t h a t o f t h e c o m m i t t e e m e m b e rs .
T e a c h e rs w ere fo u n d b r i n g i n g i n c l i p p i n g s a b o u t
e le m e n ta r y s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s , b ro w s in g i n t h e s c h o o l
l i b r a r y ro o m i n t h e i r fe w l e i s u r e m o m e n ts i n t h e b u s y
d a y , g i v i n g a b o o k o r tw o t o t h e s c h o o l l i b r a r y ,
a s s i s t i n g i n m a k in g c a t a l o g c a r d s a f t e r s c h o o l h o u r s ,
m o u n tin g p i c t u r e s f o r t h e p i c t u r e c o l l e c t i o n , and
b rin g in g o f fe rin g s fo r o th e r f u g itiv e m a te ria l
c o lle c tio n s .
T h e i r s w a s no h a l f - h e a r t e d i n t e r e s t .
T h e y b e l i e v e d t h a t a l i b r a r y w as a n d i s a n e c e s s i t y
i n t h e m odern e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l - - t h a t i t i s a so u n d
in v e s tm e n t f o r t h e w o rth y c i t i z e n . ^
In a n o th e r c ase th e a s s i s t a n t s u p e rin te n d e n t r e l a te d
th a t th e lib r a r y
i n m any s c h o o l s y s t e m s w a s l o o k e d u p o n a s
an e x p e n siv e lu x u ry .
H o r r a l r e p o r t e d t h a t some o f t h e
a rg u m e n ts he h a s h e a r d ad v an ced a g a i n s t e s t a b l i s h i n g a
lib ra ry
i n an e le m e n ta ry sc h o o l w e re :
1*
T he s p a c e
is
to o c o s t l y .
2.
A l i b r a r y t o b e p r o p e r l y m an a g e d n e e d s t h e
s e r v i c e s o f a t r a i n e d l i b r a r i a n , w h ic h ad d s
a n o t h e r m em ber t o t h e s c h o o l s t a f f .
^ B. R o b e r t s a n d A* B e ek m an , ” S u r v e y i n g L i b r a r y
N e e d s ,n T w e lfth Y earb o o k 8 N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia tio n .
D e p a r t m e n t o f E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l F r i n c i p a l s , 1933* PP* 1 7 7 “
do.
14
3*
The c l a s s r o o m
s u b s titu te .5
H o rral lis te d
l i b r a r y p r o v id e s an a d e q u a te
a rg u m e n ts b r o u g h t o u t by a n e le m e n ta ry
p r i n c i p a l who u s e d a l i b r a r y ro o m i n a c o n v e n t i o n a l s c h o o l
and was c o n v in c e d o f i t s
w o rth .
A c o n d e n sa tio n of th e
p o in ts fa v o rin g a sch o o l lib r a r y ,
a c c o rd in g to H o rra l,
w ere:
1.
T he l i b r a r y i s a c e n t r a l p l a c e f o r k e e p i n g
s c h o o l r e f e r e n c e s e t s , m a g a z in e s , e t c . , w h ic h
th e sc h o o l can n o t a ff o r d to d u p lic a te in each
room .
2.
L essons in th e use of th e l ib r a r y
g iv e n e f f e c t i v e l y in a lib r a r y .
3*
The l i b r a r y may b e t h e a c t i v i t y
sc h o o l.
4.
W i t h p r o p e r s c h e d u l i n g t h e l i b r a r y may b e i n
u se b e f o r e and a f t e r s c h o o l a s w e ll a s d u rin g
a l l o f th e sch o o l day.
5*
T h e re i s a b s o l u t e l y no n e c e s s i t y o f h a v in g a
t r a i n e d l i b r a r i a n who i s s o l e l y a d d e d t o t h e
s t a f f f o r l ib r a r y p u rp o ses o n ly .^
H o rral to ld
th e s c h o o ls in to
c a n o n ly be
c e n te r o f th e
o f t u r n i n g a v a c a n t c la s s ro o m i n one o f
an a ttr a c tiv e
school lib r a r y .
To q u o t e
h im :
T h r o u g h t h e c o o p e r a t i o n o f t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t 1a
o f f i c e i t w as d e c i d e d w h a t c o u l d b e d o n e i n c o n v e r t i n g
t h e u n a t t r a c t i v e ro o m i n t o a l i b r a r y .
The f l o o r w as
^ A. H. H o r r a l , " D e v e l o p i n g o f a n E l e m e n t a r y
L i b r a r y , " A m e r i c a n S c h o o l B o a rd J o u r n a l . 9 0 : 4 4 , l a y ,
6 Ib id .
1935*
15
i n s u c h b a d c o n d i t i o n t h a t a c o v e r i n g o f l i n o l e u m w as
n ecessary .
T h is f l o o r c o v e r in g , i n a d d i t i o n to a d d in g
t o t h e a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o f t h e r o o m , se em e d t o p r o d u c e
th e p s y c h o lo g ic a l e f f e c t o f q u ie tn e s s a s one e n te r e d
th e ro o m .•
A ll o f th e d e p a rtm e n ts in th e sc h o o l c o o p e ra te d
i n th e p r o ­
j e c t an d t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f i t w as so s a t i s f a c t o r y t h a t
p l a n s w e r e d e f i n i t e l y p u t u n d e r way t o
funds in th e b u d g et to d u p lic a te t h i s
in c lu d e s u f f i c i e n t
situ a tio n
in th e
o th e r sc h o o ls.
A d m in is te rin g th e e le m e n ta ry l i b r a r y .
Many a n d
v a rie d p la n s have b een advanced f o r th e a d m in is te rin g o f
e le m e n ta ry sc h o o l l i b r a r i e s — th e s e ,
a c c o rd in g to
th e ones
m a k in g r e p o r t s u p o n t h e m , h a v e b e e n v e r y s u c c e s s f u l .
One
cannot d is c o u n t th e f a c t th a t lo c a l c o n d itio n s p la y an
im p o rta n t r o l e
i n d e te r m in in g w hat th e s e t- u p
I n m any s y s t e m s f u n d s a r e a v a i l a b l e
lib ra ria n
to engage a tr a in e d
t o t a k e c h a r g e , w h i l e i n p r o b a b l y a g r e a t many
m o re s y s t e m s t h e b u d g e t I s n o t e l a s t i c
h ire
a d d itio n a l h e lp .
p o ss ib le
sh a ll be.
to e n t r u s t th e
N a tu ra lly ,
it
or la rg e enough to
i s a d v i s a b l e w hen
school lib ra ry
in to
c o m p e te n t
hands, a tra in e d
l i b r a r i a n who I s a s p e c i a l i s t .
When t h i s
is not p o ss ib le ,
u n d o u b te d ly th e n e x t b e s t p la n i s
e n g a g e a t e a c h e r - l i b r a r i a n who h a s h a d s p e c i a l i z e d
7 Ib id .
to
lib ra ry
16
tra in in g .
I f a sc h o o l can secu re n e ith e r a l i b r a r i a n nor
a te a c h e r-lib ra ria n ,
w illin g
p e r h a p s one o f t h e
t e a c h e r s w o u ld b e
t o t a k e som e l i b r a r y c o u r s e s a t summer s c h o o l a n d
th u s f u r n is h
so m e o n e w i t h p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g .
R e f e r r i n g b a c k to B eekm anfs s tu d y a g a i n ,
i n t e r e s t i n g and r e v e a l i n g
it
Is
t o n o t e how t h a t g r o u p o f t r u e
”l i b r a r y m in d e d ” t e a c h e r s , w ith o u t an y p r e v i o u s l i b r a r y
tra in in g ,
dug i n t o
th e p r o je c t.
B eekm an r e l a t e d :
T he c o m m i t t e e l o s t n o t i m e i n o v e r c o m i n g i t s f i r s t
g r e a t h a n d i c a p — l a c k o f k n o w led g e o f t h e e le m e n t a r y
school lib r a r y .
As a p r e l i m i n a r y s t e p , a s e l e c t e d
b i b l i o g r a p h y w a s g i v e n t o e a e h m em b er.
The b i b l i o ­
g ra p h y w as e n l a r g e d u p o n th r o u g h c o rr e s p o n d e n c e w i t h
p r o f e s s o r s in th e l i b r a r y sc h o o ls o f th e U n iv e rs ity of
C a l i f o r n i a , and G eorge P eab o d y C o lle g e f o r T e a c h e rs .
In o r d e r to b e n e f i t by e x i s t i n g p r a c t i c e s i n o th e r
c o m m u n itie s , t h e c o m m itte e s t u d i e d t h e e le m e n ta r y
s c h o o l l i b r a r y p la n in such w id e ly d i f f e r i n g c e n te r s
ass
C l e v e l a n d , O h i o ; Long B e a c h , C a l i f o r n i a ; M a d i s o n ,
W isc o n sin ; D en v er, C o lo ra d o ; 'P it t s b u r g h , P e n n s y lv a n ia ;
and P o r t l a n d , O reg o n .
A c a r e f u l s t u d y w a s made o f
~
m a t e r i a l s p r e p a r e d b y t h e A m e ric an L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n .^
As t h e i r
stu d y p ro g re s s e d
th e y p u t i t
to t r i a l and d id n o t
w a s t e a n y t i m e b e w a i l i n g l a c k o f I d e a l ro o m o r s t a n d a r d
e q u ip m e n t.
W i t h a l l d u e r e s p e c t t o B e ek m an * s g r o u p ,
so n n e l o f an e le m e n ta ry l i b r a r y
An a r t i c l e
th e p e r ­
i s o f u tm o st im p o rta n c e .
p re v io u s ly q u o ted , a d d s:
T he m inim um t r a i n i n g f o r a n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l
l i b r a r i a n s h o u l d b e f o u r y e a r s o f c o l l e g e w o rk w i t h
® R o b e r t s an d Beekm an, o p . c i t . , p .
178.
17
s p e c ia liz e d t r a i n i n g in sta n d a rd l ib r a r y c o u rs e s .
The p r e p a r a t i o n s h o u l d a l s o i n c l u d e c o n s i d e r a b l e t r a i n ­
in g i n h a n d lin g and u n d e rs ta n d in g c h ild r e n .
In f a c t ,
a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f th e t r a i n i n g u s u a l l y g iv e n to
te a c h e r s sh o u ld a ls o be r e q u ir e d o f g ra d e s c h o o l
l i b r a r i a n s , f o r a k n o w led g e o f b o o k s d o e s n o t g u a r a n t e e
a k n o w led g e o f c h i l d p s y c h o lo g y * ^
An e x c e l l e n t w ay t o f a m i l i a r i z e p e o p l e w i t h t h e
c o n te n ts o f th e l i b r a r y
a d m in istra tio n .
is
to
l e t th e m h a v e a p a r t i n i t s
T he d u t i e s a r e
v a ry in g d eg re es o f d i f f i c u l t y ,
s u it ta s k s
h e lp in g ,
t o many i n d i v i d u a l s .
so n u m e r o u s a n d o f s u c h
th a t
it
i s im p o s sib le to
I f g iv e n a sm a ll p a r t
t h e y p r o b a b l y w i l l f i n d t h e i r own way t o e n r i c h i n g
e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t w i l l c o n v i n c e th e m t h a t t h e l i b r a r y
o f v a lu e to
it
is
In
th e m .
e n lig h te n in g
a new b o o k .
can be
T ak in g j u s t one p h a se o f l i b r a r y w ork,
to n o te
th e n e c e ssa ry
In th e C a lif o r n ia
s te p s in h a n d lin g
L ib r a r y B u l l e t i n th e y w ere
lis te d :
!•
2.
3*
4.
5*
6.
7*
8.
9*
10.
A c c e ss io n in g
C la s sify in g
S h e lf l i s t i n g
C a ta lo g in g
M a k in g b o o k c a r d
M a k in g a n d p a s t i n g b o o k p o c k e t i n b o o k
S t a m p i n g name o f l i b r a r y o n b o o k p o c k e t , t i t l e
p a g e , and a page a r b i t r a r i l y s e l e c t e d , su ch a s?
p a g e 33
L e tte r in g book on b ack
L ac q u e rin g
P la c in g book on s h e lf
^ K e lle r, B arn es,
and P r a t t , p £ . c i t . , p .
192.
IB
11.
It
F ilin g
is
c a ta lo g and s h e l f l i s t
c a r d s ’3-0
a d v i s a b l e t o a d o p t t h e sam e s y s t e m o f c l a s s i ­
f y in g and c a t a l o g i n g
th e fo u n d a tio n f o r
t h a t i s used by p u b lic
lib ra rie s ,
fo r
l e i s u r e and a d u lt re a d in g i s b e in g l a i d .
The p u p i l s h a d b e t t e r b e g i n b y l e a r n i n g t h e s y s t e m t h a t
th e y w i l l use a l l
th e ir
S to k e s s t a t e d
liv e s
in th e p u b lic
lib ra ry .
t h a t a t th e S o u th H ig h la n d S c h o o l,
B irm in g h a m , A la b am a:
. . • t h e b o o k s a r e s h e l v e d , m arked an d l a b e l l e d b y
t h e Dewey D e c i m a l S y s t e m 3 u s t a s o n e w o u ld f i n d th e m I n
th e ju v e n ile d e p a rtm e n t o f a p u b lic l i b r a r y .
M a g az in es,
p a m p h l e t s , a n d p i c t u r e s f o l l o w t h e sam e g e n e r a l p l a n . 3-1
The Dewey D e c i m a l S y s t e m 12 i s a c c e p t e d a s t h e
sta n d a rd
sy ste m o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .
use o f la r g e o r s m a ll c o l l e c t i o n s .
sy s te m ,
sim p lifie d
th e S ta te
It
i s a d a p ta b le to
th e
An e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e
f o r t h e e le m e n ta r y s c h o o l , w as g i v e n i n
of C a lifo rn ia ,
D ep artm en t o f E d u c a tio n B u l l e t i n . 1^
MThe L i b r a r y i n t h e E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l , ” S t a t e o f
C a l i f o r n i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n B u l l e t i n No. 1 8 , 1 9 3 5 ,
p . ~6%.
11 G. S t o k e s , " I n t e g r a t i n g C l a s s r o o m a n d L i b r a r y
A c t i v i t i e s , " T w e lfth Y earb o o k . N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c i­
a t i o n , D e p a r t m e n t o f E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s . 1933>
P. 279. .
12
L. F . F a r g o , The L i b r a r y i n t h e S c h o o l ( C h i c a g o :
T h i r d E d i t i o n , A m e r i c a n L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 9 3 9 )» P* 3 2 3 .
^ S t a t e o f C a l i f o r n i a . D ep artm en t o f E d u c a tio n
B u l l e t i n N o. 1 8 . o p . c i t . , p . 6 5 T
19
F a r g o g a v e a s u g g e s t i o n t h a t w o u ld b e w e l l f o r t h e
lib ra ry
sta ff,
ab o u t to
u n d e rta k e c l a s s i f y i n g ,
to h eed :
-E x p e rie n c e h a s r e p e a t e d l y d e m o n s tra te d t h a t
l i b r a r i e s do n o t s t a y s m a l l .
Even th e m ost u n p ro m is in g
g ro w u n e x p e c t e d l y , a n d i t i s f a r b e t t e r s o t o p e r f o r m
t h e i n i t i a l w ork t h a t i t w i l l n o t h a v e t o b e d o n e o v e r
a g a in .^
T a b le I ,
t a k e n fro m L a th r o p ’s s tu d y ,
sh o w s t h a t t o o
few s c h o o l s a r e u s i n g t h e d e c i m a l s y s te m .
An I l l u s t r a t i o n
g i v e n b y L a t h r o p sh o w s t h a t t h e
d e c im a l s y s te m i s n o t beyond t h e p u p i l ’ s c o m p re h e n s io n :
C h ild r e n a p p r e c i a t e h a v in g t h e i r l i b r a r y books
a r r a n g e d so t h a t t h e y may b e u s e d .
T h is was w e l l
i l l u s t r a t e d i n a d e m o n s tra tio n g iv e n .b y th e s t a t e
s c h o o l l i b r a r y s u p e r v i s o r o f M in n e so ta i n a o n e-ro o m
sc h o o l.
A bout t h i r t y - f i v e b o o k s from t h e c o u n ty
l i b r a r y w ere p l a c e d h a p h a z a r d ly i n a b o o k - c a s e .
W ith
th e p e rm is s io n o f th e te a c h e r , th e s u p e rv is o r c a lle d
f o r tw o v o l u n t e e r s t o h e l p h e r w i t h w o rk d u r i n g r e c e s s .
S h e s t e p p e d t o t h e b l a c k b o a r d a n d w r o t e o u t t h e sc h e m e
o f th e d e c im a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r n o n - f i c t io n b o o k s:
* 1 0 0 - F h i l o s o p h y , * ’^ O O - K e l i g i o n , a n d s o o n .
W it h a
l i t t l e e x p l a n a t i o n t h e tw o v o l u n t e e r s saw a m e a n in g
i n t h e sy m b o ls o n t h e b a c k s o f t h e i r b o o k s t h a t had
b e e n G r e e k t o th e m b e f o r e , a n d t h e y sh o w e d d e l i g h t i n
r e - a r r a n g i n g t h e b o o k s a c c o r d in g to a w e ll-k n o w n
sy ste m .
The t e a c h e r s a i d t h a t h e h ad l e a r n e d s o m e th in g
a n d w hen t h e v i s i t o r s l e f t , i t was a g r e e d t h a t t h e
sc h e m e o u t l i n e d o n t h e b l a c k b o a r d s h o u l d b e p r e s e r v e d
u n t i l a l l th e c h il d r e n i n th e sc h o o l u n d e rsto o d w hat
t h e tw o v o l u n t e e r s h a d l e a r n e d d u r i n g t h e m o r n i n g
recess.
T he v i s i t o r s f o u n d a n u n o r g a n i z e d c o l l e c t i o n
o f books; th e y l e f t a m in ia tu re lib r a r y .
T hey l e f t
s o m e t h i n g m o re i m p o r t a n t - - a c o n s c i o u s n e s s o n t h e p a r t
o f b o t h t e a c h e r and p u p i l s t h a t sy ste m i n t h e a r r a n g e ­
m e n t .o f e v e n t h i r t y - f i v e b o o k s f a c i l i t a t e s t h e i r u s e ,
14
F a r g o , o £ . c l t . . p . 299-
20
TABLE I
METHODS OF CLASSIFYING- LIBRARY BOOKS IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS*
( R e s u l t s o f a s u r v e y t h a t I n c l u d e d 3 6 4 s c h o o l s i n 42 s t a t e s )
School
1 te a c h e r
Fer
cent
sy ste m
58
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ti
2 -4
te a c h e rs
84
5-10
"
83
1 1 -3 2
"
64
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ti
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cent
2
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it
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sy ste m
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ii
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n
*E. A . L a t h r o p , A S t u d y o f R u r a l S c h o o l L i b r a r y F r a c t l c e a
a n d S e r v i c e s ( C h i c a g o t The U n i t e d S t a t e s O f f i c e o f E d u ­
c a tio n , 1 9 3 4 ), p. 8 3 *
21
a f e e l i n g t h a t w e l l hound h o o k s when p r o p e r l y a r r a n g e d ,
add to t h e a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o f a ro o m , and a d e s i r e to
v i s i t som e d a y t h e c o u n t y l i b r a r y t h a t w a s t h e s o u r c e
o f t h e i r w e ll s e l e c t e d su p p ly o f h o o k s.
Jo h n s to n e b e lie v e d
t h a t th e d e c im a l sy ste m i s e a s y
to u n d e rs ta n d , h u t t h a t a c h il d sh o u ld n o t he fo rc e d to
le a rn i t .
L e t h i m w a n t t o know w h e r e t h e h o o k s h e d e s i r e s
a r e , f i n d o u t how m uch f u n i t i s t o g e t th e m f o r h i m ­
s e l f , t h i n k o f t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n sc h e m e a s a k e y t o
h e lp h im , and t h u s a c q u i r e t h e d e c im a l s y s te m e a s i l y
and n a t u r a l l y . - ^
S u r e l y t h o s e who a c q u i r e
th e d e c im a l sy ste m n a t u r a l l y c a n
n a t u r a l l y he le a d to th e w id e r e x p e rie n c e o f a s s i s t i n g w ith
t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f new h o o k s .
A card c a ta lo g
to a l i b r a r y
is
I s an in d e x to a l i b r a r y ;
t h a t o f an in d ex to a hook.
its re la tio n
A s ix th grade
c l a s s a t M ount A u b u r n S c h o o l i n C l e v e l a n d , O h io w as i n t r o ­
duced to
t h e m e a n in g o f a 'C a r d c a t a l o g b y i n d e x i n g a b o o k . ^
T he h o o k E g y p t i a n s o f L ong Ago h a d n o i n d e x a n d ,
lim ite d use.
th e re fo re ,
T he h o o k w a s r e a d a l o u d a p a r a g r a p h a t a t i m e .
s . a . L a th r o p , A S tu d y o f R u r a l S c h o o l L ib r a r y
P r a c t i c e s a n d S e r v i c e s ( C h i c a g o s The U n i t e d S t a t e s O f f i c e
o f E d u c a tio n , 1 9 3 4 ), p . 8 ?.
16
In flu e n c e
F eb ru ary ,
R . J o h n s t o n e , "T he L i b r a r y a s a S o c i a l i z i n g
i n t h e S c h o o l , 11 E d u c a t i o n a l M e th o d , 8 s 2 7 1 ,
1929.
^ E . F . K a s t o w i t z , " S i x t h O r a d e r s T r y In d e x in g ,* *
W ilso n B u l l e t i n , 1 0 :6 7 8 - 8 0 , J u n e , 1 9 3 6 .
22
E a c h p u p i l j o t t e d dow n h e a d i n g s t h a t h e t h o u g h t n e c e s s a r y .
The h e a d i n g s w e r e d i s c u s s e d b y t h e c l a s s ,
in g s a c c e p te d ,
first
and w r i t t e n on s e p a r a te
c h a p t e r t h e i d e a was g r a s p e d ;
w o rked w h e n ev e r h e h a d s p a r e t im e .
a lp h a b e tiz e
th e b e s t h e a d ­
card s.
th e re a fte r,
A f te r th e
each
The n e x t t a s k w as t o
th e c a rd s w ith th e h e a d in g s.
I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to n o te a t t h i s p o in t t h a t
o f t h e g r o u p who h a d d o n e e s p e c i a l l y w e l l w i t h
a s s i g n i n g o f s u b j e c t h e a d in g s fo un d th e t a s k o f
a l p h a b e t i z i n g a d i f f i c u l t o n e , a n d two g i r l s i n
p a r t i c u l a r who h a d d o n e o n l y f a i r w o rk w i t h t h e
j e c t h e a d in g s w ere u n u s u a l l y q u ic k and a c c u r a t e
th e a l p h a b e t i z i n g . ^
The i n d e x w a s t y p e d a n d p a s t e d
in th e book,
a fe w
th e
sub­
w ith
wa n d a t l a s t
E g y p t i a n s o f L ong Ago w e n t t o i t s a l l o t t e d p l a c e o n t h e
_1Q
sh e lf a b e tte r book.
A nd, i n c i d e n t a l l y , some s i x t h ,
g rad ers
le a r n e d , n o t o n ly to u se an in d e x , b u t to a s s i s t
in b u ild in g a card c a ta lo g .
An i n t e r e s t i n g
K irk
20
who r e p o r t e d
a n d v a l u a b l e s t u d y w as r e p o r t e d b y
upon th e d e v elo p m e n t o f a s h o r t
em ergen cy c o u r s e d e s ig n e d f o r e x p e r ie n c e d c la s s r o o m
te a c h ­
e r s who h a d b e e n a p p o i n t e d t o t a k e c h a r g e o f a n e m e r g i n g
18
rb id .
19 I b id .
M. K i r k , " D e v e l o p i n g a n E m e r g e n c y C o u r s e f o r t h e
T e a c h e r i n C h a r g e o f t h e E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l L i b r a r y , 11
W i l s o n B u l l e t i n , 1 0 : 1 9 - 2 4 , S e p t e m b e r , 1935*
23
e le m e n ta ry s c h o o l l i b r a r y .
K irk j u s t i f i e d
th is pro ced u re.
She s t a t e d :
The s e a s o n e d t e a c h e r ’ s k n o w l e d g e o f t e a c h i n g m e t h o d s ,
d i s c i p l i n e , t e a c h e r and p u p i l a c t i v i t y , and th e n e ed s
o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r n e i g h b o r h o o d a n d s c h o o l a r e among
re a s o n s advanced by p r i n c i p a l s f o r w ish in g to p u t
t e a c h e r s i n c h a r g e o f th e b e g in n in g l i b r a r y w h ic h m ust
make i t s p l a c e i n a c ro w d e d p r o g r a m .
A dd ed t o t h i s i s
th e v e ry p r a c t i c a l c o n s id e ra tio n t h a t th e s e te a c h e rs
a r e a lr e a d y a p p o in te d and th e q u e s t io n o f a d d in g
a n o t h e r mem ber t o t h e s t a f f d o e s n o t h a v e t o b e
a n sw e re d f o r a B oard o f E d u c a tio n l i m i t e d by p r e s e n t day d e c re a s in g b u d g e ts . 1
I t was p o s s i b l e
f o r t e a c h e r s , a c c o rd in g to K irk ,
to
go o n o v e r a p e r i o d o f summer s c h o o l s a n d s e c u r e f u l l
s c h o o l l i b r a r y p r e p a r a t i o n to m eet s t a t e r e q u ir e m e n ts .
22
B ut to m eet t h e dem ands o f a n im p e n d in g s i t u a t i o n a n
e m e r g e n c y c o u r s e w a s p l a n n e d w h i c h w as n o t t o b e u s e d i n
l ie u o f th e a c c e p te d
th e b a s ic
lib ra ry
t r a i n i n g b u t o n ly to o u t l i n e
I n f o r m a t io n w h ic h th e t e a c h e r i n c h a rg e o f a n
e le m e n t a r y l i b r a r y w o u ld n e e d .
K irk w ro te to
show how t h e c o u r s e w a s p l a n n e d .
She
sta te d :
In d e te rm in in g th e c o n te n t f o r t h i s c o u rs e , a stu d y
w a s m ade o f w h a t t e a c h e r s d i d n o t know a n d n e e d i n
o r d e r to c a r r y on a lim ite d l i b r a r y p ro g ram .
T w e n ty f i v e t e a c h e r s a s s i g n e d t o t h e N e w a rk B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n
L i b r a r y P r o j e c t u n d e r t h e E m e rg e n c y R e l i e f A d m i n i s ­
t r a t i o n c o o p e ra te d in th e stu d y .
T hese te a c h e r s w ere,
21 I b i d . , p .
Ib id .
19-
24
f o r t h e m ost p a r t , r e c e n t g r a d u a t e s o f e i t h e r n o rm a l
o r t e a c h e r s * c o l l e g e s , a n d h a d h a d no p r e v i o u s l i b r a r y
t r a i n i n g beyond t h a t re c e iv e d in l i b r a r y o r i e n t a t i o n
c o u rses.
T h ey h a d b e e n a s s i g n e d t o o r g a n i z e a n d
o p e ra te a s , l i b r a r i e s th e s c a tte r e d c o lle c tio n s o f books
i n th e e le m e n ta ry s c h o o ls , o r to a s s i s t i n l i b r a r i e s
a lre a d y e s ta b lis h e d .
T h ey h a d b e e n a t w o rk f o r n o t
- m o re t h a h t h r e e m o n t h s w hen t h i s s t u d y w a s m ad e .
M im e o g r a p h e d c o p i e s o f L u c i l e F . F a r g o * s f u n c t i o n a l
a n a l y s i s o f t h e s c h o o l l i b r a r y w o rk w e r e s e n t t o e a c h
and th e y w ere a s k e d to c h e c k o n ly th o s e f u n c t i o n s w h ic h
t h e y ^ f e l t f r o m t h e i r own e x p e r i e n c e , w e r e m o s t i m p o r t ­
a n t.
F ro m t h i s
s t u d y a c o u r s e w a s d r a w n up w h i c h w o u ld
s a t i s f y m o st o f t h e n e e d s b r o u g h t o u t when a n a n a l y s i s was
m ade.
A c o p y o f t h e o u t l i n e may b e s e c u r e d b y r e f e r r i n g
W i l s o n B u l l e t i n f o r L i b r a r i a n s , S e p t e m b e r , 1935*
It
w i l l pro v e v a lu a b le to t e a c h e r - l i b r a r i a n s .
24
S ta a ts
o u t l i n e d a "S im p le O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r an
E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l L i b r a r y " ’i n t h e I n s t r u c t o r *
v e ry n ic e ly w ith th e
It fitte d
in
s tu d y a s r e p o r t e d by K irk .
In D e tr o it sc h o o l l i b r a r i a n s had a d u a l t r a i n i n g —
25
t h a t o f te a c h e r and l i b r a r i a n .
As a t e a c h e r t h e s c h o o l
l i b r a r i a n a c t e d a s a g u id e i n r e a d i n g , an d was f a m i l i a r
w ith te a c h in g m eth o d s, c o u rs e s o f s tu d y , and c h i l d r e n fs
25 i f r i a . . p p - 1 9 - 2 0 .
24
F . G. S t a a t s , " S i m p l e O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r a n
E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l L i b r a r y , " I n s t r u c t o r . 4 8 : 1 1 f f . , N o v e m b e r,
1938.
D. D a w s o n , " L i b r a r y F r o g r a m i n t h e E l e m e n t a r y
S c h o o l," E d u c a tio n , A d m in is tr a tio n , and S u p e r v is io n , 2 2 :1 9 0 ,
l a r c h , 1 9 3 $•
25
a b ilitie s
and n e e d s .
As a l i b r a r i a n sh e was e q u ip p e d w i t h
a t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l k n o w le d g e o f l i b r a r y
and te c h n iq u e s ,
sk ills
knew c h i l d r e n ' s b o o k s a n d r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t s ,
an d was c o n c e r n e d p r i m a r i l y w i t h e n c o u r a g i n g c h i l d r e n t o
re a d a c c o rd in g to
th e ir a b ility
and i n t e r e s t s .
In D e tro it
a s c h o o l l i b r a r i a n w a s l o o k e d u p o n a s a n e x p e r t who c o u l d
h e l p e a c h i n d i v i d u a l w i t h h i s r e a d i n g p ro b le m s b y m eans
of a sp e c ia lise d
D e tro it,
lib ra rie s,
tra tiv e
te c h n iq u e .
l i k e m ost o th e r c i t i e s w ith s c h o o l
had a r e g u l a r tim e a ll o t m e n t i n i t s
se t-u p .
a d m in is­
A stu d y o f D e t r o i t ’s p la n re v e a le d a
l i b e r a l tim e a l l o t m e n t d e v o te d t o o r g a n iz e d l i b r a r y
stu d y .
To q u o t e :
A c c o rd in g to th e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s e t - u p o f th e
e le m e n ta ry s c h o o l l i b r a r y e v ery s e c tio n in th e sc h o o l
f r o m g r a d e s t h r e e t o e i g h t h a s tw o s c h e d u l e d l i b r a r y
p e r i o d s o f t h i r t y - t h r e e m in u te s e a c h p e r w eek, and
g r a d e s one t o tw o , one p e r i o d p e r w eek.
The l i b r a r i a n
m u st so p l a n h e r w o rk t h a t e a c h c h i l d i n g r a d e s one to
e ig h t e x p e rie n c e s in p ro p e r p ro p o rtio n th e th r e e ty p e s
o f l i b r a r y a c t i v i t i e s i n w h ic h e le m e n ta r y s c h o o l
c h ild re n p a r t i c i p a te — fre e re a d in g , re fe re n c e re a d in g ,
a n d l e a r n i n g how t o u s e b o o k s a n d l i b r a r y t o o l s .
C h i l d r e n o f t h e f i r s t an d s e c o n d g r a d e s w hose a b i l i t y
to r e a d I s l i m i t e d s h o u ld be a llo w e d o n e - t h i r d to o n e h a l f o f th e tim e f o r f r e e r e a d i n g .
The r e m a i n d e r o f
t h e i r tim e i n th e l i b r a r y sh o u ld be s p e n t i n w e l l p la n n e d a c t i v i t i e s , such a s l i s t e n i n g to s t o r i e s b e in g
r e a d o r t o l d , l e a r n i n g how t o c a r e f o r b o o k s , a n d
p l a y i n g a l p h a b e t g a m e s, u s i n g s l i d e s o f s t o r i e s known
to c h ild r e n .
In th e u p p er g ra d e s a p p ro x im a te ly s e v e n ty f i v e p e r c e n t o f th e tim e o f th e s c h e d u le d l i b r a r y
p e r io d s sh o u ld be s p e n t i n f r e e r e a d in g and t w e n ty - f iv e
p e r c e n t o f th e tim e i n r e f e r e n c e s k i l l .
T he l i b r a r i a n
26
s h o u ld p l a n t h e w ork o f e a c h s e c t i o n so t h a t d u r i n g
th e s e m e s te r t h e p r o p e r b a la n c e b e tw e e n th e t h r e e
t y p e s o f l i b r a r y a c t i v i t y may b e m a i n t a i n e d n o t o n l y
f o r th e s e c t i o n a s a w h o le , b u t a ls o f o r e a c h i n d i ­
v i d u a l i n t h e s e c t i o n . 1b
S om ew hat s i m i l a r w e r e t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e l i b r a r y
i n t h e M ount A u b u r n S c h o o l i n C l e v e l a n d , O h i o .
T h is
l i b r a r y was c a r r y i n g o n a u n iq u e e x p e r i m e n t — i t
sp e c ia liz e d
in in te re s tin g
c h ild r e n in th e
i n t e l l i g e n t use o f b oo k s.
And f o r a s c h o o l o f s e v e n h u n d r e d c h i l d r e n ,
e x c e p tio n a lly
i t had an
l a r g e num ber o f b o o k s — e i g h t th o u s a n d
v o lu m e s.
L ath ro p r e p o r t e d
lib ra ry .
She w r o te :
th e o b je c tiv e s o f t h i s
school
T he s c h o o l i s c a l l e d a l i b r a r y c u r r i c u l u m c e n t e r
b e c a u s e i t a t t e m p t s t o show i n how m any w a y s t h e
l i b r a r y c a n be o f s e r v i c e to t h e s c h o o l.
Its o b je c t­
iv e s a r e :
f i r s t , to t r a i n c h i l d r e n to su p p le m e n t th e
in f o r m a tio n fo u n d i n t h e i r te x tb o o k s w ith t h a t fo un d
i n o t h e r p r i n t e d m a t t e r ; s e c o n d , t o h e l p th e m a p p r e ­
c i a t e r e a d i n g w h ic h i s w o r th w h ile ; t h i r d , to t e a c h
th e m t o u s e t h e l i b r a r y a n d r e f e r e n c e b o o k s e a s i l y
and e f f e c t i v e l y ; and f o u r t h , to c u l t i v a t e a t t i t u d e s
to w ard boo k s and r e a d in g a s s o u r c e s o f p l e a s u r e and
in fo rm a tio n ^ ,th a t w i l l c a r r y o v er to th e use o f p u b lic
lib ra rie s. ‘
A sm o o th p a t h
le a d in g to
f in e e le m e n ta ry l i b r a r i e s
h a s n o t a lw a y s b e e n e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e .
A t C h ica g o ,
1 9 3 7 » a g o v e rn m e n t p r o j e c t was o r g a n i z e d to p ro m o te
26
27
i f r i a . . pp*
191-2.
L a th ro p e , o p . c i t . , p p .
3 5-6 .
in
27
lib ra ry
se rv ic e
i n th e e le m e n ta ry s c h o o l s .2^
e le m e n ta ry sc h o o ls had c e n t r a l l i b r a r i e s
by J a n u a ry o f 1938,
o rg a n iz in g c e n tr a l
a t th is
tim e , b u t
180 o f th e 332 e le m e n ta r y s c h o o ls w ere
lib ra rie s.
to o k r o o t and r e s u l t e d
p la n .
V e ry few
M acB ean t o l d how t h i s
in an e x te n siv e l ib r a r y
sta rt
tra in in g
To q u o t e :
T he n e e d f o r t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l o n t h e s c h o o l
f a c u l t i e s r e s u lte d in c o u rses fo r th e te a c h e r - lib r a r ia n
o f f e r e d a t C h i c a g o T e a c h e r s 1 C o l l e g e summer s e s s i o n f o r
t h e t e a c h e r s i n s e r v i c e i n th e C h ica g o s c h o o l s .
The
th re e c o u rse s o ffe re d in c lu d e :
H e ad in g G u id a n c e ,
O r g a n i z a t i o n o f a n E le m e n ta ry S c h o o l L i b r a r y , and
R e f e r e n c e M a t e r i a l s U sed i n a n E le m e n ta r y S c h o o l
L ib ra ry .
W i t h a f u t u r e p r o g r a m i n m i n d , a s t u d y w as
r e c e n t l y ann o un ced by th e S u p e r in te n d e n t o f S c h o o ls
w h ic h w i l l be c a r r i e d o u t t h e se co n d s e m e s te r o f t h e
s c h o o l y e a r 1 9 3 8 -1 9 3 9 i n t h i r t y - t w o e le m e n ta r y s c h o o ls
to d e te rm in e th e v a lu e o f h a v in g a t r a i n e d t e a c h e r l i b r a r i a n i n e v e ry sc h o o l.
S ix te e n o f th e sc h o o ls
w i l l have t r a i n e d t e a c h e r - l i b r a r i a n s to s u p e rv is e th e
l i b r a r y program and r e a d in g g u id a n c e o f th e p u p i l s .
They w i l l b e t e s t e d and com pared w i t h s i x t e e n s e l e c t e d
c o n t r o l s c h o o ls w h e re in th e l i b r a r y p rog ram i s s u p e r ­
v i s e d b y ©§gh t e a c h e r s c h e d u l e d t o t h e l i b r a r y w i t h
her c la ss . ^
M acB ean w e n t o n t o r e p o r t t h e l a r g e a m o u n t o f m oney
b e in g
s p e n t f o r new b o o k s a n d l i b r a r y
F e n n e rd e s c rib e d
fa c ilitie s .
a n o th e r s i t u a t i o n i n a n e le m e n ta ry
D . W. M a cB ea n , " O r g a n i z a t i o n o f L i b r a r i e s i n t h e
E le m e n ta ry S c h o o ls o f C h ic a g o ,w L ib r a r y J o u r n a l , 6 4 :1 3 4 -6 ,
F e b r u a r y 1 5 , 1939*
29 Ib id .
F . R. F e n n e r , " L i b r a r i a n I n t b e S c h o o l ," L i b r a r y
J o u r n a l , 6 3 * 6 7 1 “ 3 , S e p t e m b e r 1 5 , 1937*
28
s c h o o l a t M a n h a s s e t , New Y o r k .
o f p u p il h e lp
S he s t r e s s e d
th e
in c e n tiv e
i n d ra w in g c h i l d r e n to th e l i b r a r y .
H er id e a
w as t h a t p u p i l h e l p w a s n o t so m uch t o h e l p
th e l i b r a r i a n
(a lth o u g h i t d id h e lp a g r e a t d e a l) b u t i t
gave th e c h i l d ­
re n th e f e e l in g
t h a t t h e y w ere p a r t o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n
and a s s u c h to o k a b i g
in te re s t
in i t .
She e x p l a i n e d :
We h a v e d e v e l o p e d a s o r t o f c l u b o u t o f t h a t .
So
many c h i l d r e n w i s h t o h e l p t h a t we h a d t o h a v e some
lim ita tio n s .
F o u r p e r s o n s from e a c h f i f t h and s i x t h
g r a d e s w ere c h o s e n to h e lp i n t h e i r f r e e t im e .
T h ere
I s no s e t s c h e d u l e .
When t h e l i b r a r i a n n e e d s h e l p e r s
s h e c a l l s u p o n t h e c l u b m e m b e rs .
The c l u b c h a n g e s i t s
p e r s o n n e l f r e q u e n t l y s o t h a t a l l c h i l d r e n may h a v e a
chance.
The t e a c h e r m a k e s t h e u l t i m a t e c h o i c e i n t h e
m a tte r.
The c h i l d r e n do many k i n d s o f w o r k .
T hey
w o rk a t t h e d e s k , f i l e , s h e l v e b o o k s , t a k e c a r e o f
o v e r - d u e b o o k s , f i x t h e b u l l e t i n b o a r d , a n d e v e n m a rk
books w ith th e e l e c t r i c s ty lu s .
T he t e a c h e r s ,
th is
so F e n n e r r e p o r t e d ,
l i b r a r y , w ith i t s
fe lt
su re th a t
p o p u la r a p p e a l to th e c h ild r e n , had
pro v en i t s e l f .
S um m ary .
In th e S t a t e o f C a l i f o r n i a , D e p artm en t o f
E d u c a tio n B u l l e t in th e
in a c ity
le g a l p ro v isio n s fo r lib r a r y
funds
s c h o o l d i s t r i c t o f th e s t a t e w ere q u o te d from
t h e C a l i f o r n i a S c h o o l Code.
To q u o t e :
S e c t i o n 6 -550*
T he c o u n t y s u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f e a c h
c o u n ty , o r c i t y and c o u n ty , s h a l l a n n u a lly a p p o r tio n
to e a c h c i t y , o r c i t y and c o u n ty , n o t d iv id e d in to
s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s , a s a l i b r a r y f u n d , s u c h sum s a s may
b e r e q u e s t e d by t h e B oard o f E d u c a ti o n o f s u c h c i t y ,
o r c i t y and c o u n ty .
31
I b id .
29
S e c tio n 6 -5 5 2 .
In e a c h c i t y , o r c i t y and c o u n ty ,
c o m p r is in g a s i n g l e d i s t r i c t , t h e am ount a p p o r t i o n e d
w i l l n o t h e l e s s t h a n f o r t y c e n t s n o r m ore t h a n o n e
d o l l a r f o r each p u p il o f a v erag e d a ily a tte n d a n c e in
th e e le m e n ta ry s c h o o ls .
S e c tio n 6 -553•
T he a m o u n t so a p p o r t i o n e d s h a l l b e
d e d u c te d from t h e c o u n ty s c h o o l fu n d a p p o r t i o n e d t o
e a c h c i t y , o r c i t y and c o u n ty , and c r e d i t e d to t h e
l i b r a r y f u n d o f e a c h c i t y , o r c i t y a n d c o u n t y . 32
II.
REVIEW OF THE RELATED STUDIES
O a p p le m a n s t u d y .
L ib ra ry and i t s
The s t u d y ,
"T he E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l
I n f l u e n c e o n t h e P r o g r e s s o f S t u d e n t s , * 33
w as a n i n v e s t i g a t i o n t h a t w a s d i r e c t l y
co n cern ed w ith th e
o r g a n iz a tio n o f th e e le m e n ta ry sc h o o l l i b r a r y
and i t s
I n f lu e n c e on th e p r o g r e s s o f e le m e n ta ry p u p i ls .
o u tlin e d h is p la n .
The a u t h o r
He s t a t e d :
T hro u g h a p a r t i a l l y c o n t r o l l e d e x p e rim e n t th e s tu d y
a t t e m p t s t o sh o w , f i r s t , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n
s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g i n t h e u se o f th e l i b r a r y and th e
a m o u n t o f r e a d i n g d o n e by t h e s t u d e n t s ; s e c o n d , t h e
r e l a t i o n s h i p o f am ount o f r e a d i n g t o t h e Im provem ent
i n t h e s t u d e n t ’ s r e a d i n g a b i l i t y ; and t h i r d , th e
r e l a t i o n s h i p o f a m o u n t o f r e a d i n g t o im p r o v e m e n t i n
sp e llin g .
T he s e c o n d p a r t o f t h e t h e s i s i n c l u d e s a
c o m p lete s e t - u p o f th e e le m e n ta ry s c h o o l l i b r a r y w ith
s p e c ia l a t t e n t i o n g iv e n to :
school lib ra ry a c tiv itie s ,
th e s e l e c t i o n and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f l i b r a r y m a t e r i a l s ,
g u id a n c e i n r e a d in g and i n u se o f th e l i b r a r y , h o u s in g
^ S t a t e o f C a l i f o r n i a , D e p artm en t o f E d u c a tio n
B u l l e t i n H o ♦ T 5 , o p . e i t . , p . 141
'
3 3 j „ i . C a p p l e m a n , ’’The E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l L i b r a r y
and i t s I n f l u e n c e on t h e P r o g r e s s o f S tu d e n ts ,* * ( u n p u b l i s h ­
ed M a s t e r ’ s t h e s i s , S ta n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y , P a lo A l t o , 1 9 3 2 ).
30
and e q u ip m e n t o f th e l i b r a r y ,
fu tu re .
and th e l i b r a r y o f th e
T h i s s t u d y w a s m ade o f tw o t y p i c a l e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s
in F resn o .
One g r o u p w a s g i v e n s p e c i a l l i b r a r y
t r a i n i n g and
w as a l l o w e d t o m e e t i n t h e s c h o o l l i b r a r y o n c e a w e e k .
The
o th e r group d id n o t have th e b e n e f i t o f s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g
and t h e i r
l i b r a r y w as tw o b l o c k s aw ay f r o m t h e s c h o o l .
The
l i b r a r y o f t h e f i r s t s c h o o l w as o p e n f o u r h a l f - d a y s p e r
w eek , w h i l e f o r th e - s e c o n d g ro u p t h e
h a l f - d a y s p e r w eek.
l i b r a r y w as o p e n t h r e e
T he S t a n f o r d A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t w as g i v e n
t o a l l t h e c h i l d r e n - - F o r m A i n S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 3 0 , a n d Form B
w as g i v e n i n May, 1 9 3 1 , e i g h t m o n th s l a t e r .
w ere a l s o
te s te d
b e f o r e and a f t e r
The g r o u p s
in s p e llin g .
T he c o n c l u s i o n sh o w e d t h a t a f a v o r a b l y l o c a t e d ,
w e1 1 - o r g a n i z e d l i b r a r y , w i t h s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g
lib ra ry ,
w ill g re a tly
by th e p u p i l s .
i n use o f th e
i n c r e a s e th e am ount o f r e a d in g done
T h e re was a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r ­
r e l a t i o n b e tw e e n t h e num ber o f b o o k s r e a d an d p r o g r e s s I n
re a d in g a b i l i t y .
T h e re was no c o n s i s t e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p
b e tw e e n th e num ber o f b o o k s r e a d and p r o g r e s s
n o r b e tw e e n I n t e l l i g e n c e
in s p e llin g ,
t e s t sc o re and a b i l i t y
to s p e l l .
Of a l l t h e m a t e r i a l c o v e r e d i n t h e s e c o n d h a l f o f
th e stu d y , b u t l i t t l e
3 - I b id ., p.
5*
b e a rs any d i r e c t r e la tio n s h ip
to
31
th e p re s e n t
stu d y *
In h i s s e c tio n on th e h o u sin g and
e q u ip m e n t o f e le m e n ta r y
lib ra rie s ,
in g e n e r a litie s , d e sc rib in g
flo o r,
fu rn itu re ,
th e a u th o r d e a l t m ain ly
in g r e a t le n g th th e w a lls ,
s h e l v i n g , m ag a zin e r a c k s ,
e tc . ^
b een th e w r i t e r ’s lim ite d e x p e rie n c e th a t i t
is
e x c e p tio n a l e le m e n ta ry sc h o o l l i b r a r y
th a t is
c o n stru c te d
a c c o rd in g
se t-u p
to s p e c i f i c a ti o n s .
I t has
th e
M o st e l e m e n t a r y
s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s m ak e u s e o f a v a c a t e d ro o m a n d m a k e - s h i f t
f u r n i t u r e , w i t h t e a c h e r s a n d c h i l d r e n d o i n g some h e a v y
im p ro v isin g .
A d e s c r i p t io n o f th e c e n t r a l l i b r a r y o f th e n in e te e n
e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s i n F r e s n o w as a g o o d o n e .
c u la tio n ,
c o sts,
m an ag em en t, d i s t r i b u t i o n ,
fic a tio n ,
and a l l p h a s e s o f t h i s
The c i r ­
re p a irs,
c la s s i­
la rg e e le m e n ta ry l i b r a r y
p l a n t w ere d i s c u s s e d a n d e x p l a i n e d .
The a u t h o r d r e w n o f i n a l c o n c l u s i o n s f r o m h i s
d e sc rip tio n s
o f th e v a rio u s l ib r a r y f a c i l i t i e s ,
b u t d id
p a in t a r a t h e r v iv id p i c t u r e o f th e l i b r a r y o f th e f u tu r e ,
b rin g in g
i n t o p l a y m any o f o u r p r e s e n t - d a y ,
194-0* i m p r o v e ­
m e n ts.
C u n n in g h a m s t u d y .
"T h e E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l L i b r a r y a s
a S o c i a l i z i n g E x p e r i e n c e , 11* w as a s t u d y u n d e r t a k e n b y t h e
35 I b i d . . p p . 7 5 - 8 0 .
32
a u th o r to
sh ed l i g h t upon th e e x t e n t t o w h ic h a n e le m e n ta r y
school lib r a r y
can be a s o c ia liz in g e x p e rie n c e .
i z i n g e x p e r i e n c e w a s d e f i n e d by C u n n in g h a m a s
A so c ia l­
**any e t h i c a l
e x p e r ie n c e t h a t b r i n g s p e o p le t o g e t h e r f o r m u tu a l b e n e f i t . ^
The t h e s i s
is
th a t
th e e le m e n ta ry s c h o o l l i b r a r y
can be a
s o c ia liz in g e x p e rie n c e .
The i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e p r o b l e m r e v o l v e d a r o u n d t h e
v a lu e o f p ro p e r s o c i a l iz i n g e x p e rie n c e s f o r p u p ils .
An
e x a m p le w a s c i t e d w h e r e l i b r a r y d u t i e s w e r e a l l o t t e d
i n such
a way t h a t many w e r e h a v i n g a p a r t a n d many w e r e b e i n g
37
b e n e fite d .
T he s t u d y s e t f o r t h many s u g g e s t i o n s a n d p l a n s
fo r a c h ie v in g
s o c i a l iz i n g e x p e rie n c e s in th e l ib r a r y .
The p l a n a n d s c o p e o f t h e
s t u d y w as l i m i t e d t o a
su rv e y o f p u b l i c a t i o n s d e a lin g w ith e le m e n ta ry sc h o o l
l i b r a r i e s and a su rv e y o f th ir ty - o n e
v isite d ,
s c h o o l s t h a t w ere
f o u r t e e n o f w h i c h w e r e re c o m m e n d e d b y s c h o o l
o ffic ia ls,
and s e v e n t e e n w h ic h w ere s e l e c t e d a t random .
A q u e s t i o n n a i r e was f o llo w e d i n g a t h e r i n g d a t a upon th o s e
th irty -o n e
sc h o o ls.
su rv e y e d and th e
As a n o u t - g r o w t h o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e
l i b r a r i e s v i s i t e d and s tu d ie d ,
th e a u th o r
to o k th e e le m e n ta r y s c h o o l l i b r a r y a s a p r o j e c t and
^ H . H* C u n n in g h a m , "The E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l L i b r a r y
a s a S o c i a l i z i n g E x p e r i e n c e ,” (u n p u b lis h e d M a s te r 's t h e s i s ,
S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y , F a l o A l t o , 1 9 3 7 ) , P* 115*
37
I b i d . , p . 116.
33
d e v e lo p e d i t .
T he s u r v e y o f l i t e r a t u r e w h i c h c o u l d b e m e a s u r e d
o n l y s u b j e c t i v e l y b y C u n n in g h a m p o i n t e d t h a t t h e l i b r a r y
room s w e r e :
1.
B e c o m in g t h e c e n t e r s f o r many o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s
o f th e sc h o o ls.
2.
B u ild in g a k e en e r i n t e r e s t in te a c h in g th ro u g h
th e r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t t h e m a t e r i a l e q u ip m e n t o f
th e sch o o l i s r e a lly f in e .
3.
In c re a s in g
4.
G iv in g th e c h i l d s k i l l
lib ra ry m a te ria l.
5*
H e l p in g th e c h i l d t o d i s c o v e r u n i t y i n k n o w le d g e
a n d t o l e a r n m any t h i n g s n o t r e q u i r e d i n t h e
re g u la r co u rses.
6.
R a is in g th e d e g re e o f p u p il p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n
school a c tiv itie s .
7*
S t r e n g t h e n i n g many d e s i r a b l e s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s —
c o u rte s y , c o n s id e ra tio n , o r d e r lin e s s , c o o p e ra tio n ,
and i n i t i a t i v e .
8.
M a k in g m o re m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e f o r a l l c h i l d r e n .
9*
S t i m u l a t i n g c r e a t i v e e n d e a v o r o f m any t y p e s .
38
N e e e s s ita tiv e b e tt e r s e le c tio n o f books.
10.
t h e u s e o f b o o k s and v i s u a l a i d s .
In th e u se o f books and
T hese c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w ere c l o s e l y r e l a t e d
to
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h ic h w ere a p a r t o f a s o c i a l i z i n g e x p e r i ­
ence.
N u m b ers 1 a n d 6 w e r e b r i n g i n g m o re p e o p l e t o g e t h e r
and i n to th e
l i b r a r y e n v iro n m e n t.
38 Ibid. , p. 63.
N um bers 2 , 3 , 4 ,
5, 8 ,
34
9 , and. 1 0 w e r e p r o m o t i n g m e n t a l a l e r t n e s s w h i c h w as l a y i n g
fo u n d a tio n s fo r s o c ia liz in g e x p e rie n c e s.
The r e s u l t s o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s u r v e y w e r e b r i e f l y
su m m arized b y t h e a u t h o r :
The f i n d i n g s t h a t w e r e t h e o u tc o m e o f t h i s s u r v e y o f
e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s show t h a t m o s t o f t h e
l i b r a r i e s a r e f u r n i s h i n g th e e n v iro n m e n t f o r s o c i a l ­
iz in g e x p e rie n c e s.
W h ile n o o n e l i b r a r y i s c o n d u c t e d
e n t i r e l y a s a s c h o o l p r o j e c t , m ost o f t h e d e s i r a b l e
f e a t u r e s a r e b e i n g p r a c t i c e d i n some l i b r a r y .
That
e n c o u ra g e s one to b e lie v e t h a t th e e le m e n ta ry sc h o o l
lib r a r y as a school p ro je c t is p o ss ib le .
C e rta in ly
t h e r e i s a n a b u n d an ce o f e v id e n c e a t th e p r e s e n t tim e
t h a t th e s c h o o l l i b r a r y i s a v a lu a b le e d u c a tiv e and
s o c ia l e x p e rie n c e .
The l e a s t d e v e l o p e d f e a t u r e a t t h i s t i m e i s p u p i l
p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c l a s s i f y i n g , c a t a l o g i n g , and In d e x in g
books and m a t e r i a l .
T e a c h e r s may b e r i g h t t h a t s i x t h
g ra d e p u p i l s a r e n o t s u f f i c i e n t l y m a tu re t o be a c c u r a t e ;
t h a t w o r k may h a v e t o f o l l o w i n t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s .
G re a te r lib r a r y p r a c tic e w ill t e l l .
The o p i n i o n o f a u t h o r s , t h a t i t t a k e s a t l e a s t o n e
k e e n ly i n t e r e s t e d p e rs o n to b u i ld a l i b r a r y , i s d o u b t­
le ssly rig h t.
E v e r y s c h o o l l i b r a r y t h a t w as v i s i t e d
r e f l e c t e d th e p e r s o n a lity o f th e p e rs o n in c h arg e.
T he o n e t h a t s e e m s t o come n e a r e s t t o b e i n g a s o c i a l ­
i z e d l i b r a r y i s u n d e r t h e d i r e c t i o n o f a p e r s o n who h a s
t h e k n a c k o f p u t t i n g o t h e r s t o w o rk a n d k e e p i n g th e m
h app y i n t h e i r w ork .
The l i b r a r y w i t h t h e m o s t
c u lt u r e d a tm o sp h e re i s d i r e c t e d b y a p e rs o n o f g r e a t
p e rs o n a l re fin e m e n t.
I t i s r e g r e t t a b l e t h a t m o re s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s d o n o t
f i n d a p a r t f o r p a r e n t s a n d o t h e r m em bers o f t h e
c o m m u n i ty , s o t h a t t h e y , t o o , may b e m e n t a l l y a n d
s o c ia lly stim u la te d .
I t i s th e s c h o o l 's p a r t to see
t h a t t h e p u p i l s a n d c o m m u n ity d e v e l o p s i m u l t a n e o u s l y ,
so t h a t t h e p u p i l s w i l l f i t a l l th e b e t t e r i n t o th e
58 I b i d . , p . 6 3 .
35
e n v iro n m e n t and r e n d e r g r e a t e r s e r v i c e .
•xn
^
In th e p r e s e n ta tio n o f th e c h a p te r upon th e o r g a n i­
z a tio n ,
m a in te n a n c e , and use o f th e e le m e n ta ry l i b r a r y ,
th e a u th o r s t a te d a s h e r o b je c tiv e th e a f f o r d in g to th e
te a c h e rs, p u p ils ,
a n d c o m m u n i ty , a n e d u c a t i v e a n d s o c i a l 40
iz in g e x p e rie n c e .
T he p r o j e c t w a s ’ a c o m p l e t e g u i d e , s t e p
by s t e p ,
fo r se ttin g
up a s c h o o l l i b r a r y .
The c o n c l u s i o n s a s d r a w n b y t h e a u t h o r w e r e t h a t t h e
l i b r a r y c o u l d b e m o re t h a n J u s t g i v i n g o u t b o o k s , t h a t
t h e r e w e r e m any f a c t o r s g r o w i n g o u t o f l i b r a r y e x p e r i e n c e s
t h a t l e n t th e m se lv e s to
s o c ia liz in g
e x p e r i e n c e w o u ld b e s o c i a l i z i n g
in flu e n c e s,
th a t an
t o t h e d e g r e e t h a t i t w as
a l l i n c l u s i v e , and t h a t th e l i b r a r y p r o j e c t ,
if
c o n d u cted
4
a s p r e s e n t e d , w o u ld b r i n g many t o g e t h e r f o r m u t u a l b e n e f i t .
B enson s t u d y .
T he t i t l e
of th is
stu d y ,
"The
O r g a n iz a tio n and A d m i n is tr a t io n o f th e E le m e n ta ry S c h o o l
L ib ra rie s
i n O a k la n d ,” d e s c rib e d
t h e a im o f t h e a u t h o r .
i n a v e ry com pact f a s h io n
S e ttin g f o r t h th e
Im p o rta n c e o f th e
l i b r a r y m o v em en t i n e l e m e n t a r y e d u c a t i o n t o d a y ,
advanced th e fo llo w in g a s a p u rp o se f o r h i s
^
I b id ., pp.
40 I b id . , p.
41 I b i d . . p p .
86- 9.
89.
115-19-
th e a u th o r
stu d y :
36
The p u r p o s e o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o p o i n t o u t t h e
p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f th e e le m e n ta ry sc h o o l l i b r a r i e s i n th e
O ak lan d S c h o o l S y s te m , p a r t i c u l a r l y a s i t a p p l i e s to
o u r p r e s e n t l i b r a r y s e t - u p , a n d t o make r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s
a n d s u g g e s t i o n s f o r im p r o v e m e n t a c c o r d i n g t o some o f
th e b e s t p r e s e n t p r a c t ic e s i n th e f i e l d .
By s u b m i t t i n g
a sim p le and c u r r e n t p l a n o f l i b r a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n ,
w h ic h i f p r o p e r l y a d m i n i s t e r e d by t h e p r i n c i p a l an d
t e a c h e r - l i b r a r i a n , th e a u th o r h o p e s to w in th e a p p r o v a l
o f th e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t and th e B oard o f E d u c a tio n f o r a
b e t t e r e le m e n ta ry s c h o o l l i b r a r y p ro g ram .
A d e sc rip tio n
o f some o f t h e b e s t a n d m o s t c u r r e n t t e c h n i q u e a n d
p r a c t i c e s w i l l a c t a s a b a s i s f o r s e t t i n g up s t a n d a r d s
f o r c o m p a ris o n , e v a l u a t i o n and r e o r g a n i z a t i o n . 2
The a u t h o r a d v a n c e d t h e c a s e o f a c e n t r a l i z e d
lib ra ry
o v e r t h e c l a s s r o o m l i b r a r y b y p o i n t i n g o u t t h e many i m p o r t ­
an t fa c to rs
a t t a i n a b l e by th e use o f th e fo rm er.
A b rie f
d e s c r i p t i o n o f how t o p l a n a s c h o o l l i b r a r y w a s i n c l u d e d
b u t m ost o f t h e f i n d i n g s w ere a p p l i c a b l e t o a d e f i n i t e
up,
such as a la rg e c i t y
The h e a r t o f t h e
a d m in iste rin g o f th e
l i k e O a k lan d o f f e r e d .
s t u d y w a s t a k e n up o r g a n i z i n g a n d
school l i b r a r y . ^
In c lu d e d under
’“O r g a n i z a t i o n * * w e r e t h e f o l l o w i n g s u b - h e a d i n g s :
A c c e ss io n in g ,
se t­
The S h e l f - l i s t , C l a s s i f i c a t i o n ,
P ro c e ssin g ,
C a ta lo g in g ,
S h e I f - l a b e l i n g , The C e n t r a l i z e d C a t a l o g i n g P l a n , a n d The
A c q u i s i t i o n o f L i b r a r y B ooks.
was t r e a t e d
Each o f th e s e s u b -h e a d in g s
a d e q u a te ly enough to g iv e one u n i n i t i a t e d
in to
A. N. B e n s o n , “ The O r g a n i z a t i o n a n d A d m i n i s ­
t r a t i o n o f th e E le m e n ta ry S ch o o l L ib ra ry i n O a k la n d ,H
(u n p u b lis h e d M a s te r fs t h e s i s , S ta n fo rd U n iv e r s ity , P a lo
A lto , 1 9 3 1 ), P . 6 .
43 I b i d .. pp.
15 -5 5 -
37
th e f o r m a lity o f l i b r a r y
fa irly
c o m p le te p i c t u r e
te c h n iq u e a w e ll- r o u n d e d and
of lib r a r y o rg a n iz a tio n .
Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s on th e o r g a n i z a t i o n and s u p e r v is io n ,
o f e le m e n t a r y s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s w ere s e n t o u t by B enson to
two h u n d r e d o f t h e
from t h i r t y
la rg e st c itie s
in th e U n ite d S ta te s o f
th o u sa n d to f i v e m il l io n p o p u la tio n .
M o st
o f th e e le m e n ta r y s c h o o ls in c lu d e d g r a d e s from th e k i n d e r ­
g a r te n to th e
s ix th g rad e,
O f 1 32 r e p l i e s ,
o r from g r a d e s one to
six ty -tw o s a id
six .
t h e i r e le m e n ta ry
s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s w e re m anaged b y t h e l o c a l s c h o o l b o a r d ;
fo u r,
th a t th e ir
l i b r a r i e s w e re m anaged by t h e c i t y
b o a rd i n c o o p e r a tio n w ith th e c o u n ty l i b r a r y ,
c itie s
sta te d
b o a rd and th e
sa id
th e ir
fifte e n
t h e i r m a n a g e m e n t w as u n d e r t h e l o c a l s c h o o l
l i b r a r y b o ard ;
and s e v e n te e n s c h o o l sy s te m s
s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s w ere m anaged d i r e c t l y b y t h e
c i t y p u b lic
lib ra ry ;
school
lib ra ry .
T w e n t y - f o u r c i t i e s h a d no s c h o o l
tw o s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s w e r e m a n a g e d b y t h e P a r e n t
T ea ch e rs1 A s so c ia tio n s ,
a n d tw o s c h o o l s c o o p e r a t i v e l y b y
th e l o c a l s c h o o l b o a r d s and P a r e n t T e a c h e r s 1 A s s o c i a t i o n s .
The O a k l a n d l i b r a r y s e t - u p w a s g o n e i n t o
and i t
ap p eared to be a v e ry e x c e lle n t one.
B e n s o n mad©
some r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r t h e O a k l a n d s y s t e m t o
^
Loo. c i t .
th o ro u g h ly
fo llo w .
38
They w ere r a t h e r e l a b o r a t e and s p a c e d o e s n o t a ll o w t h e i r
i n c l u s i o n , b u t t h e t h e m e t h a t r a n t h r o u g h a l l o f th e m w a s
"M ore e l a b o r a t e a n d c o m p l e t e l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s . "
The r e s p o n s e s t h a t B e n s o n r e c e i v e d f r o m h i s q u e s t i o n
n a i r e s and th e v e ry a p p a re n t th o ro u g h n e s s o f h i s
m arked i t
stu d y
as an e x c e lle n t one.
Adams s t u d y .
The p ro b le m ,
"T he U se o f L i b r a r i e s
in
J u n i o r an d S e n i o r H ig h S c h o o l s ,' 1 was s t u d i e d b y t h e a u t h o r
w ith th e o b je c tiv e
of lib ra ry
i n m in d o f a s s i s t i n g
i n t h e im p r o v e m e n t
a d m in is tr a tio n i n p u b lic seco n d ary sc h o o ls by
p ro v id in g o b je c tiv e
e x te n t o f lib r a r y
re p re se n ta tiv e
in fo rm a tio n c o n c e rn in g th e n a tu re and
u sa g e b y p u p i l s and t e a c h e r s
in c e r ta in
ju n io r and s e n io r h ig h sc h o o ls in s e v e r a l
w id e ly s e p a r a te d
l o c a l i t i e s o f th e U n ite d S t a t e s .
To t h i s
e n d , Adams s t a t e d
A c a n v a s s w a s m ade o f e x p e r t j u d g m e n t s r e g a r d i n g
th e p u rp o s e o f a s c h o o l l i b r a r y and th e p la c e i t sh o u ld
occupy in an e d u c a tio n a l i n s t i t u t i o n , w ith s p e c ia l
r e f e r e n c e to i t s u se as a v i t a l p a r t o f th e
i n s t r u c t i o n a l o r g a n iz a tio n o f th e sc h o o l; se c o n d ly a
d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s w a s m ade o f l i b r a r y u s a g e o f 1 7 ,6 1 6
p u p i l s e n r o l l e d i n tw e n ty - f o u r j u n io r and s e n i o r h ig h
s c h o o ls o v e r a p e r io d o f one s e m e s te r, in c lu d in g a
s tu d y o f th e r e a d in g h a b i t s and p r e f e r e n c e s o f th e s e
p u p i l s ; f i n a l l y a n e v a l u a t i o n w a s m ade o f t h e m e t h o d s
o f l i b r a r y a d m in is tr a tio n p ro d u c in g th e s e r e s u l t s in
te r m s o f t h e a im s o f t h e s c h o o l l i b r a r y a s r e v e a l e d b y
t h e p r e l i m i n a r y c a n v a s s o f e x p e r t ju d g m e n t.
C e rta in
re c o m m e n d a tio n s f o r a m o d ifie d ty p e o f l i b r a r y
A . A dam s, The U se o f L i b r a r i e s i n J u n i o r a n d
S e n i o r H ig h S c h o o l (L os A n g e le s :
T he U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a F r e s s }, p* 1 .
39
a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ar© a l s o m a d e , b a s e d o n t h e f i n d i n g s
o f t h i s stu d y .
The i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e p r o b l e m may b e summed up i n
th e f a c t t h a t a p r o p e r l y c o n d u c ted s c h o o l l i b r a r y i s
very c o re o f th e
sc h o o l.
th e
i n s t r u c t i o n a l and l e a r n i n g program o f a
F o r , a c c o r d i n g t o A dam s, o t h e r s h a v e g o n e s o f a r
as to e p ito m iz e t h i s c u r r e n t tre n d
i n e d u c a t i o n a l m e th o d
46
te x tb o o k to th e l i b r a r y .
The U n i t e d
a s a s h i f t fro m th e
S t a t e s g o v ern m en t s u r v e y o f s c h o o l l i b r a r y
in d ic a te d
a p h en om enal g ro w th .
sta tistic s
W h ile p e r i o d i c a l a r t i c l e s
c o n c e rn in g l i b r a r y p ro b le m s h ave b e e n n u m erous,
re m a in s t h a t o b j e c t i v e
s t u d i e s h av e b e e n few , th u s th e
added im p o rta n c e o f a n o b j e c ti v e
added th e fo llo w in g to
th e f a c t
stu d y i s advanced.
Adams
th e a fo re -m e n tio n e d r e a s o n s :
The i n c r e a s e d a m o u n t o f l e i s u r e t i m e , t h e d e v e l o p ­
m e n t o f a c r i t i c a l m i n d e d n e s s , a n d t h e d e s i r e t o know
c a s u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , h a v e m ade t h e l i b r a r y a v i t a l
m eans o f t h e c o n t i n u a t i o n o f e d u c a ti o n .^ *
48
Adams
f r o m t h e r e s u l t s o f h i s s t u d y made some v e r y
re v e a lin g e v a lu a tio n s.
ru le
th e
u tiliz e d ;
He p o i n t e d o u t t h a t a s a g e n e r a l
l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s w ere n o t b e in g p r o p e r l y
th a t
th e
l i b r a r y had n o t a d e q u a te ly s a t i s f i e d
s e r v i c e dem anded by ch an g ed s u b j e c t - m a t t e r c o n te n t and
46 I b i d . , p p .
1- 3 .
47 I b i d . , p . 4 .
48 I b i d . . p p . 7 7 -8 6
th e
t e a c h i n g m e th o d s *
The a u t h o r r e v e a l e d
th a t th e l i b r a r i e s
o n ly p a r t i a l l y p e rfo rm e d th e f u n c t i o n o f o r g a n iz in g and
a c q u irin g m a te ria ls fo r
th e u se o f t e a c h e r s and p u p ils *
fo r g iv in g
i n s t r u c t i o n i n th e u s e o f l i b r a r y books and
m a te ria ls ,
th e l i b r a r y o n ly p a r t i a l l y
T he l i b r a r y
c a rrie d
As
t h is o u t.
e f f e c t i v e l y p e rfo rm ed th e f u n c tio n o f p r o v id in g
a d e q u a te and p ro p e r r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l f o r th e e n ric h m e n t
o f th e
s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m ; h o w e v e r , t h e r e w as y e t m uch t o b e
done in p ro v id in g f r e e re a d in g o f th e r e c r e a t io n a l ty p e .
The s t u d y b r o u g h t o u t t h a t n o t h i n g much h a d b e e n d o n e i n
th e m a tte r o f g iv in g g u id a n c e to
h is
th e p u p il in d is c o v e rin g
i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r e s t s and o p p o r tu n ity i n p u rs u in g su c h
in te re s ts .
T he o p p o r t u n i t y f o r b r o a d s o c i a l e x p e r i e n c e s
i n common w i t h t h e o t h e r d e p a r t m e n t s o f t h e s c h o o l c o u l d
n o t be a c c u r a t e l y m easured by a s tu d y such a s t h i s ,
th e
ju n io r h ig h s c h o o l l i b r a r y p erfo rm ed t h i s
m ore f u l l y
th a n th e
s e n i o r h ig h sc h o o l*
e f f o r t was s p e n t by t h e s c h o o l l i b r a r y
th e p u b lic
but
fu n c tio n
L ittle
c o n sc io u s
in c o o p e ra tin g w ith
lib ra ry .
T hese rec o m m e n d atio n s f o r i n i t i a t i n g
z a tio n o f th e l i b r a r y r e s u l ti n g
from t h i s
p r e s e n te d a s a g u id e to
school p rin c ip a ls .
m e n d a t i o n s b y Adams a r e
lis te d :
a re o rg a n i­
s t u d y w ere
T hese recom ­
1.
F o rm u la te a s ta te m e n t o f e d u c a tio n a l o b j e c t i v e s .
2.
E v a lu a te th e to o ls f o r a c h ie v in g th e e d u c a tio n ­
a l o b je c tiv e s.
4l
3*
D e te rm in e w h e th e r o r n o t th e
a s a m eans o f e d u c a t i o n .
lib ra ry
q u a lifie s
4.
D e te rm in e w hat to d i s c a r d i n o r d e r to p r o v id e
t h i s new t o o l *
5*
F o rm u la te d e f i n i t e
6.
R e o rg a n iz e th e sc h o o l b u d g et to p ro v id e t h i s
new t o o l .
7«
E d u c a te t h e
lib r a r y o b je c tiv e s .
f a c u l t y t o t h e new i d e a . ^
S u g g e s t i o n s f o r im p ro v e d l i b r a r y
th e d a ta p r e s e n te d and e v a lu a te d
in th is
s e r v i c e grew o u t o f
stu d y :
1.
In th e la r g e r s c h o o ls , f u l l- t i m e p r o f e s s io n a lly
t r a i n e d l i b r a r i a n s sh o u ld be i n c h a rg e o f th e
lib ra ry .
M ore t h a n a n y t h i n g e l s e , e f f i c i e n t
l i b r a r y p e r s o n n e l w i l l en co u rag e re a d in g and
stim u la te lib r a r y u t il i z a ti o n .
2.
As f a r a s l i b r a r y e q u i p m e n t w i l l p e r m i t , l i b r a r y
m a t e r i a l s sh o u ld be d i s t r i b u t e d th ro u g h o u t
c la ss ro o m s .
3*
The l i b r a r y s h o u l d b e o p e n f o r a s h o r t t i m e
b e f o r e a n d a f t e r s c h o o l h o u r s f o r r e f e r e n c e w ork
and th e is s u a n c e o f books o f a r e c r e a t io n a l
n a tu re .
4.
When o t h e r l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s a r e l a c k i n g a n d
w h e r e c o m m u n ity i n t e r e s t d e m a n d s i t , t h e l i b r a r y
sh o u ld re m a in open i n th e e v e n in g .
5*
N ew spaper an d m a g a z in e r e a d i n g c o n s t i t u t e a
la r g e p o r t i o n o f l i b r a r y a c t i v i t y , and sh o u ld be
p ro v id e d i n e v e ry sc h o o l.
6.
The l i b r a r y s h o u l d n o t b e u s e d f o r r e c l t a t i o n a l
pu rp o ses.
E x p e n s iv e l i b r a r y e q u ip m e n t s h o u ld b e
re se rv e d fo r i t s p ro p er u se.
7*
A f r e e - r e a d i n g p ro g ram sh o u ld be i n i t i a t e d .
49 I b i d . , p p .
87-9 -
42
8*
F u p i l i n t e r e s t s s h o u l d h e c o n s i d e r e d w hen
l i b r a r y m a te r ia ls a re b e in g p u rc h a se d .
I t is
a d v i s a b l e t o a l l o w p u p i l s t o rec o m m e n d b o o k s
fro m tim e t o tim e a n d , a s f a r a s p r a c t i c a b l e ,
t o b e g u i d e d b y t h e i r i n t e r e s t s i n m a k in g t h e
..u ltim a te c h o ic e .
9.
I n th o s e s t a t e s w here t r a v e l i n g l i b r a r i e s e x i s t ,
t h e i r f a c i l i t i e s sh o u ld be f u l l y u t i l i z e d .
10.
F u p i l s s h o u ld be a llo w e d freed o m to th e books t a c k s f o r b ro w s in g p u r p o s e s w here l i b r a r y
e q u ip m e n t, a rr a n g e m e n t, and p e r s o n n e l w i l l
p e rm it.
11.
R e q u ire m e n ts f o r a d m is s io n to th e l i b r a r y sh o u ld
be s im p lifie d as fa r as p o s s ib le .
The r e s u l t i n g
freed o m w i l l a c t a s a n added Inducem ent f o r
lib ra ry u tiliz a tio n .
12.
H e a r ty c o o p e r a t i o n sh o u ld e x i s t b e tw e e n th e
t e a c h e r s and th e l i b r a r i a n .
The l i b r a r i a n s h o u l d
keep th e t e a c h e r s in fo rm e d a s t o a v a i l a b l e
m a t e r i a l s a n d t h e t e a c h e r s i n t u r n , s h o u l d make
t h e i r l i b r a r y a s s ig n m e n ts d e f i n i t e and a d v is e th e
l i b r a r i a n a s to m a te ria l needed.
13*
In stru c tio n
a l l p u p ils .
14.
A l l d e p a rtm e n ts sh o u ld be e n c o u ra g e d to u t i l i z e
th e l i b r a r y .
E v ery e x i s t i n g s c h o o l d e p a rtm e n t
c o u l d p r o f i t a b l y make u s e o f l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s .
15*
M ore d e f i n i t e c o o p e r a t i o n s h o u l d e x i s t b e t w e e n
th e s c h o o l and p u b lic l i b r a r i e s .
Not o n ly w i l l
i t a m p lify school lib r a r y m a te r ia ls , b u t I t w i l l
s e r v e a s a c a r r y - o v e r f o r p u p i l s , o r i e n t i n g th e m
i n re g a rd to p u b lic l i b r a r y s e r v ic e a f t e r th e y
have l e f t sc h o o l.
16.
L ib r a r y c lu b s sh o u ld b e p ro v id e d in th e e x t r a ­
c u r r i c u l a r p ro g ram o f th e s c h o o l.
Any w o r t h ­
w h i l e m ovem ent w h ic h le n d s p u b l i c i t y t o t h e
l i b r a r y sh o u ld be en co u rag ed .
A p o r tio n of th e
s c h o o l n e w s p a p e r, w here s u c h e x i s t s , s h o u ld be
d e v o te d t o l i b r a r y new s, book r e v ie w s , e t c .
17*
The l i b r a r y
i n l i b r a r y u sa g e sh o u ld be g iv e n to
s h o u l d b e m ade t h e c e n t e r o f t h e
43
s o c i a l l i f e o f th e sc h o o l.
I t sh o u ld be p r o ­
v id e d w ith d is p la y c a s e s , e x h ib i tio n p a n e ls ,
e t c . , i n o r d e r t h a t t h e p u p i l 1s w o rk may b e
a p p r a is e d by h i s c la s s m a te s . - S o c ia l l i b r a r y
a c t i v i t y sh o u ld be e n co u rag ed .
The l i b r a r y ,
lik e a l l o th e r sch o o l a g e n c ie s, h as fo r i t s
p u rp o s e th e s o c i a l i z i n g and c i v i l i z i n g o f th e
p u p i l . 50
S um m ary.
W h i l e m uch o f t h e m a t e r i a l d e a l i n g w i t h
e le m e n ta ry sc h o o l l i b r a r i e s
is
is o f a te c h n ic a l n a tu re ,
some v e r y e x c e l l e n t d a t a t h a t c a n b e e a s i l y
and used by th e te a c h e r ,
s t u d e n t who i s
a d m in istra to r,
th e re
in te rp re te d
and e v en th e
lo o k in g f o r so m e th in g p r a c t i c a l and w o rk a b le
f o r a new s i t u a t i o n .
E la b o ra te
se t-u p s a re n o t n ecessary fo r
in g o f a c e n t r a l s c h o o l l i b r a r y .
th e s t a r t ­
L i b r a r i e s may b e s t a r t e d
f r o m v e r y m e a g e r b e g i n n i n g s a n d g ro w r a p i d l y a n d w e l l .
A ll
a u t h o r i t i e s a re d e f i n i t e l y ag reed t h a t a c e n t r a l l i b r a r y
h as a v e ry h ig h p la c e
i n t h e s c h o o l and c u r r ic u lu m .
T he o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e
l i b r a r y t a k e s m uch f o r e t h o u g h t ,
many f i n e
a w e l l - t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l , b u t few a r e t h e
id e a l
fa c ilitie s,
and
id e a l lib r a r ie s .
M ost l i b r a r i e s
ta k e t h e i r r o o t in a v a c a te d c la ssro o m ;
many l i b r a r i e s
a r e e q u ip p e d w ith m ade-over f a c i l i t i e s ;
and
m any l i b r a r i e s a r e w e l l r u n w i t h t e a c h e r - l i b r a r i a n s w i t h
p u p il a id as th e ir
so le p e rso n n e l.
50 I b i d . . pp. 8 9 - 9 0 .
The t e a c h e r s 1 c o l l e g e s
a n d m any l a r g e
e x c e lle n t
sy s te m s w ith i n - s e r v i c e
30b s i n t r a i n i n g
tra in in g
a re d o in g
l i b r a r i a n s and t e a c h e r -
l i b r a r i a n s who i n t u r n c a r r y t h e b e s t l i b r a r y p r a c t i c e s
in to
th e
sc h o o ls.
B oards o f E d u c a tio n and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s
a r e b e c o m in g l i b r a r y
c o n sc io u s.
The c h i l d r e n o f t o d a y a n d
t h e men a n d women o f t o m o r r o w a r e r e a p i n g t h e b e n e f i t s .
CHAPTER I I I
ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT OF THE COUNTY LIBRARY
AND AFFILIATED SCHOOL LIBRARIES
The e l e m e n t a r y
C o u n t y may b e d i v i d e d
to
s c h o o l l i b r a r y d a t a i n S a n M ateo
in to
tw o p a r t s :
t h a t w h ic h p e r t a i n e d
t h o s e s c h o o l s w h ic h h ad a w o rk in g a g re e m e n t w i t h t h e
c o u n ty l i b r a r y ;
an d t h a t w h ic h d e a l t w i t h t h o s e s c h o o ls
w h ere t h e l i b r a r y was m a i n t a i n e d e i t h e r b y t h e s c h o o l o r b y
th e d i s t r i c t .
A t t h e s u g g e s t i o n o f t h e S a n M a te o C o u n t y
D ir e c to r o f C u rric u lu m ,
th is
su rv ey and t h i s
C h a p t e r IV t o
th e
th e above d i v i s i o n was f o llo w e d i n
c h a p t e r w as d e v o t e d t o
la tte r.
The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a l l
school l i b r a r i e s a sso c ia te d
w i t h t h e c o u n ty l i b r a r y was s i m i l a r .
p e r tin e n t to b e g in t h i s
T h erefo re,
T h is i s
a t i o n and t a b l e s ,
I n f lu e n c e on th e
s c h o o l s w ere l i m i t e d
in th e ir
lib ra ry
i l l u s t r a t e d by th e fo llo w in g in fo rm ­
an o u tg ro w th o f th e
q u e s tio n n a ir e s used in th e su rv e y .
may b e f o u n d i n
se e m e d
serv ed .
A ll of th e s e
fa c ilitie s .
it
stu d y o f th e c o u n ty l i b r a r i e s w ith
th e c e n t r a l l i b r a r y and to fo llo w i t s
s c h o o ls w h ic h i t
th e fo rm er and
th e A p p e n d ix .
stu d y o f th e
A sa m p le q u e s t i o n n a i r e
46
I*
THE SAN MATEO COUNTY LIBRARY
E a rly h i s t o r y *
w as o f f i c i a l l y
W h i l e t h e S a n M a teo C o u n t y L i b r a r y
e sta b lis h e d
i n Redw ood C i t y o n S e p t e m b e r 5 ,
1 9 1 2 , no a p p r o p r i a t i o n w a s made a t t h e t i m e ,
d e la y and e r r o r ,
an d , due to
t h e a c t u a l w o rk o n t h e l i b r a r y w a s n o t
b e g u n u n t i l D e c e m b e r 1 , 1915*
T hree s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s ,
S an B ru n o , San C a r l o s , and S o u th San F r a n c i s c o ,
jo in e d a s
s o o n a s t h e l i b r a r y b e g a n f u n c t i o n i n g i n 1916*
Las L o m ita s
jo in e d
in 1917, b u t i t
o rg a n iz e r f o r th e
w as n o t u n t i l 1 9 1 8 , w h e n t h e l i b r a r y
sta te
o f C a l i f o r n i a a t t h a t t i m e cam e t o
S a n M a te o C o u n t y , u p o n t h e
in v ita tio n o f S u p e rin te n d e n t,
and spoke to th e t e a c h e r s o f th e c o u n ty a t t h e i r
th a t a r e a l in flu x
to o k p la c e .
o f th e te a c h e rs c a rry in g
and i n t e r e s t i n g
sc h o o ls
H er t a l k r e s u l t e d
t h i s m essage to t h e i r
i n many
tru ste e s
t h e i r b o a rd s to th e e x te n t t h a t t h e i r
jo in e d f o r c e s w ith th e c o u n ty l i b r a r y .
T he l i b r a r y o r g a n i z e r f o r t h e s t a t e
v isite d
in stitu te ,
of C a lifo rn ia
S a n M a teo C o u n t y , a n d , w i t h t h e h e l p o f t h e c o u n t y
lib ra ria n ,
c a lle d
c o u n ty l i b r a r y
upon and e x p la in e d th e p la n o f th e
sc h o o l s e r v ic e to
o f tw e n ty -o n e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s .
a d d itio n a l d i s t r i c t s
jo in in g
th e te a c h e r s and t r u s t e e s
T h is r e s u l t e d
i n 1918.
a n o th e r, n e a rly ev ery sch o o l d i s t r i c t
been a f f i l i a t e d
w ith
in e ig h te e n
At one tim e o r
i n th e c o u n ty h a s
th e c o u n ty l i b r a r y .
4?
The C a l i f o r n i a
re g a rd in g th e
S c h o o l Code c o v e r s t h e
le g a l ru lin g
a f f i l i a t i o n w ith c o u n ty l i b r a r i e s .
To
q u o te :
S e c t i o n 6-5 3 °*
YFhenever t h e c o u n t y i n w h i c h a
d i s t r i c t i s s i t u a t e d s h a l l m a in ta in a c o u n ty l i b r a r y ,
th e b o a rd o f sc h o o l t r u s t e e s or c i t y b o ard o f ed u ­
c a t i o n may a g r e e w i t h t h e p r o p e r a u t h o r i t i e s o f . s u c h
c o u n t y t o m ake t h e s c h o o l l i b r a r y a b r a n c h o f s u c h
c o u n ty l i b r a r y .
II.
ADMINISTRATION AND MANAGEMENT
S o u rce o f re v e n u e .
g a te d to
In a d d itio n to th e funds d e l e ­
th e c o u n ty l i b r a r y
expenses as a fre e p u b lic
fo r
i t s r e g u l a r ru n n in g
lib ra ry ,
it
a ls o re c e iv e d fu n d s
fro m t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s w i t h w h ic h i t was a f f i l i a t e d .
The s c h o o l la w o f C a l i f o r n i a
s t a t e s t h a t e a c h c o u n ty
s u p e r in te n d e n t m ust a n n u a lly a p p o r tio n to e a c h c i t y ,
c i t y and c o u n ty , n o t d iv id e d in to
lib ra ry
fu n d ,
school d i s t r i c t s ,
or
as a
s u c h sum s a s may b e r e q u e s t e d b y t h e B o a r d
o f E d u c a tio n o f su ch c i t y ,
o r c i t y and c o u n ty .
The a m o u n t
a p p o r t i o n e d c a n n o t b e l e s s t h a n f o r t y c e n t s n o r m o re t h a n
one d o l l a r
fo r each p u p il o f av erag e d a ily
th e e le m e n ta ry
fix e d
sc h o o ls.
at th irty -fiv e
a tte n d a n c e in
I n S a n M a te o C o u n t y t h e sum w as
d o l la r s p er te a c h in g u n it.
F u rth e r
^ S c h o o l Code o f t h e S t a t e o f C a l i f o r n i a . 1 9 3 7 .
pp. 3 35-6.
48
co v erag e of t h i s
C a lifo rn ia
lib ra ry
S c h o o l Code.
fu n d was s p e c i f i e d
in th e
I t read s:
S e c t i o n 6-531*
When t h e s c h o o l l i b r a r y b e c o m e s a
b ra n c h o f th e c o u n ty l i b r a r y a s h e r e i n p ro v id e d , th e
sc h o o l b o ard o f t r u s t e e s o r th e c i t y b o a rd o f e d u c a tio n
s h a l l t u r n o v e r th e books and o th e r p r o p e r t i e s o f th e
d i s t r i c t l i b r a r y t o t h e c o u n ty l i b r a r y , and s h a l l
a n n u a lly t r a n s f e r to su ch c o u n ty l i b r a r y i t s l i b r a r y
fu n d , a s soon a s I t i s a v a ila b l e .
The s a i d c o u n t y
l i b r a r y s h a l l m ake s u c h d i s t r i c t l i b r a r y a b r a n c h
l i b r a r y , m anaged an d m a in ta in e d a c c o r d i n g to t h e r u l e s
and r e g u l a t i o n s e s t a b l i s h e d by a u t h o r i t i e s o f th e
c o u n ty l i b r a r y .
As a l l o f t h i s m o n e y , w i t h l i t t l e
be sp e n t f o r books,
th e c o u n ty l i b r a r y found i t s
ta x e d to th e l i m i t .
a d m in istra tiv e
e x c e p t i o n , m ust
p erso n n el
Some e x t r a m oney t o p a y f o r a d d e d
and p e r s o n n e l b u rd e n s and in c r e a s e d s u p p ly
c o s t s w o u ld b e a g r e a t a i d .
T ab le I I
th e
lib ra ry
lis ts
fund.
t h e a m o u n t t h a t I n 1 9 4 0 w as p a i d i n t o
W h il e i t
p a i d m o re p e r p u p i l ,
it
ap p ea rs th a t th e sm a lle r sc h o o ls
m u s t b e re m e m b e r e d t h a t t h e y a l s o
r e c e i v e d m o re b o o k s p e r p u p i l .
C o u n ty l i b r a r y r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e
sc h o o ls.
to a f f i l i a t e d
Of a l l t h e m a t e r i a l s fo u n d i n t h e c o u n ty l i b r a r y
sc h o o l d e p a rtm e n t,
te x ts
su p p le m e n tin g th e c o u rs e o f s tu d y
w ere m o st f r e q u e n t l y dem anded b y t h e t e a c h e r s *
The S a n
M a te o C o u n t y B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n a u t h o r i z e d a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e
2 rbia.
49
TABLE I I
CONTRIBUTIONS TO COUNTY LIBRARY - JULY 1 9 4 0
D istric t
A lp in e
B ayshore
B e lm o n t
B risb a n e
G reersb u rg
H a l f Moon Bay
H ig g in s
H illsb o ro u g h
L as L o m lta s
La V l s t a #
M en lo P a r k * *
M ir a m a r
M o n t a r a ***“**
F escad ero
F ig e o n F o in t
F ila rc ito s
F o m p o n io
F o rto la
F u risim a
R avensw ood
H ockaw ay
San C a rlo s
San F ed ro
T u n is
T o ta l
A • D •A •
C o n trib u tio n
A v erag e
c o n trib u tio n
6
97
149
221
67
132
8
174
156
46
310
28
60
73
16
14
8
26
19
320
39
337
43
12
# 35
• 105
140
245
70
140
35
275
17 5
105
350
35
105
105
35
35
35
35
35
385
70
385
70
35
$ 5 -8 3
. 1 .0 8
. 94
1 .1 1
1 .0 5
1 .0 6
4 .3 7
1 .5 8
1 .1 2
2 .0 6
1 .1 3
1 .2 5
1 .7 5
1 .3 4
2 .1 8
2 .5 0
4 .3 7
1 .2 3
1 .8 5
1 .2 0
1 .7 9
1 .1 1
1 .6 3
2 .9 1
2 ,3 6 1
# 3 ,0 4 0
$ 1 .2 8
# La V i s t a ( B e l l - La H o n d a - S e a s i d e )
# *M enlo F a r k (M e n lo F a r k - F r e m o n t )
^ ^ M o n t a r a ( M o n t a r a - M oss B e a c h )
g ro u p o f c o u n ty t e a c h e r s t o r e v ie w b o o k s a n d e x am in e t h e i r
fitn e ss
in ty p ic a l school s itu a tio n s
th a t th o se b e s t s u ite d
to th e n eed s o f th e p u p i l s be s e l e c t e d .
When t h e b o o k w as
a p p ro v e d i t was a d d e d , w i t h re c o m m e n d a tio n s f o r i t s
to th e a d o p te d l i s t .
The l i b r a r y w as r e s t r i c t e d
in g o f b o o k s fro m t h i s
use,
to th e b u y ­
lis t.
By no m e a n s w a s t h e b u d g e t s p e n t f o r t e x t s a l o n e .
A c o n sid e ra b le
sum w a s p r o v i d e d f o r t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f
l e i s u r e r e a d in g m a t e r i a l s to be used i n th e c la ss ro o m o r
school lib r a r y .
T he t e a c h e r h a d t h e p r i v i l e g e
th e m a te r ia l in th e
l i b r a r y and s e l e c t i n g
o f e x a m in in g
t h a t w h ic h s h e
w a n t e d f o r h e r p u p i l s , o r a n a s s i s t a n t w o u ld m ake up a
c o lle c tio n fo r h e r.
T e a c h e rs w ere n o t r e s t r i c t e d
books p u rch ased w ith sc h o o l fu n d s.
to
th e use o f th o se
The p o l i c y o f t h e S a n
M a te o C o u n t y L i b r a r y w a s a l i b e r a l o n e .
w ere g e n e r o u s i n l e t t i n g
te a c h e rs ta k e la r g e c o ll e c t io n s
o f c h i l d r e n * s b o o k s w h ic h b e lo n g e d to
C lo se ly a l l i e d
to
T he l i b r a r i a n s
th e l i b r a r y p ro p e r.
th e t e x t s w ere g e n e r a l r e f e r e n c e
b o o k s , d i c t i o n a r i e s , an d e n c y c lo p e d ia s w h ic h w ere f u r ­
n ish e d a s sc h o o l rev en u e p e rm itte d .
Some o f t h e f u n d s
w ere u se d t o p u r c h a s e m a g a z in e s and p e r i o d i c a l s .
T ab le I I I
lis ts
t h e m a g a z in e s and p e r i o d i c a l s
d i s t r i b u t e d b y t h e B an M a te o C o u n t y L i b r a r y
(1 9 3 9 -1 9 4 0 ).
I t may b e n o t e d t h a t some o f t h e m a g a z i n e s w e r e o f
51
TABLE I I I
MAGAZINES AND PERIODICALS DISTRIBUTED BY
THE SAN MATEO , COUNTY LIBRARY
1 9 39-1940
M a g az in es and p e r i o d i c a l s
A m e ric a n C h ild h o o d
C h i l d r e n 's A c t i v i t i e s
C u r r e n t E v e n ts
E d u c a tio n a l D ig e st
G rade T e a c h e r
In stru c to r
My W e e k ly R e a d e r
N a t io n a l G e o g rap h ic
N a t u r e M a g a z in e
P o p u l a r M e ch a n ics
R e a d e r s 1 Di g e s t
W e ste rn J o u r n a l o f E d u c a tio n
Y oung A m e r i c a
52
a p ro fe s s io n a l n a tu re .
T h is w as p a r t o f a T e a c h e r s ’
P r o f e s s i o n a l L i b r a r y w h i c h w as i n c l u d e d i n
lib ra ry .
Books i n t h i s
t h e e o u n ty
c o l l e c t i o n w e re a v a i l a b l e
to an y
t e a c h e r i n t h e c o u n t y r e g a r d l e s s o f w h e t h e r t h e s c h o o l w as
a ffilia te d
w ith th e c o u n ty l i b r a r y .
B elo w i s
a lis t
o f o th e r a v a ila b le m a te r ia ls :
M aps
R e c o rd s
P ic tu re s
F o s te rs
C h a rts
P a m p h le ts
S te re o g ra p h s
T h e r e w e re t w e n t y - f o u r b r a n c h l i b r a r i e s
e s ta b lis h e d
i n t h e c o u n t y , a n d i n m o s t c a s e s e a c h w as l o c a t e d n e a r a
s c h o o l.
T e a c h e rs h a v in g a c c e s s to a b ra n c h l i b r a r y gave
th e ir p u p ils tr a in in g
c l a s s e s to
th e ir
lib ra ry
a n d h e l p i n g t h e c h i l d r e n t o m ake
s e le c tio n s o f m a te ria ls *
lib ra rie s
lib ra ry
o p e ra te d
lis t
th e
in th e u se o f l i b r a r i e s by ta k in g
in s tru c te d
s c ie n c e .
Some o f t h e b r a n c h
s p e c i a l g r o u p s f ro m t h e
s c h o o ls i n
T h e n t h e s e y o u n g p e o p l e s e t up a n d
s m a ll s c a l e
lib ra rie s
i n t h e i r ow n s c h o o l s .
A
o f t h e b r a n c h l i b r a r i e s o f S an M ateo C o u n ty may b e
f o u n d i n T a b l e IV .
53
TABLE IV
SAM MATEO COUNTY BRANCH LIBRARIES
B ra n c h , l i b r a r i e s
1.
2.
34.
5*
6.
7.
8.
910.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19*
20.
21.
22.
23.
A th e rto n
B ayshore
B e lm o n t
B risb a n e
Colm a
D a ly G lty
w xa“
E l G ranada
F ra n e isq u ito
H a l f Moon Bay
H ills b o ro u g h
La H o nda
L as L o m ltas
L o m ita F a r k
M e n lo F a r k
Ml l i b r a e
M o n ta ra
M o ss B e a c h
F escad ero
F o rto la
S a n B ru n o
San C a rlo s
S harp F a rk
S o u th San F r a n c is c o
W o o d s id e
N e a rly a l l n e a r s c h o o ls
54
C irc u la tio n o f m a te ria l*
w e re c i r c u l a t e d
b y t h e t e a c h e r s , who c a l l e d
th e l ib r a r y
and c a r r i e d
s e le c tio n s .
T e a c h e rs
m a t t e r w as d e l i v e r e d
te a c h e rs p r e f e r r e d
a s u b s titu te
if
M ost o f t h e m a t e r i a l s
b ack to th e
s c h o o ls t h e i r
se n t in th e ir l i s t s ,
by m a ll o r e x p r e s s .
to
i n p e rso n a t
and th e r e a d in g
H o w e v e r, m o s t
c a l l i n p e r s o n , f o r th e y c o u ld s e l e c t
th e ir
f i r s t c h o ic e w as u n a v a i l a b l e .
c o u n t i e s t h e r e w as r e g u l a r t r u c k
s e rv ic e .
I n som e
S a n M ateo C o u n ty
had o c c a s io n a l tru c k
s e r v i c e w h ic h , t o q u o te t h e l i b r a r i a n ,
w as m o s t i r r e g u l a r *
T a b le V l i s t s
th e c o u n ty l i b r a r y
th e d i s t r i c t s
an d g iv e s a n ite m iz e d
l i s t o f th e books
a n d m a t e r i a l s w h ic h t h e y r e c e i v e d d u r i n g t h e
1940-1941.
se rv e d by
sch o o l y e a r,
T he b o o k s a n d m a t e r i a l s u s e d b y t h e t e n v i s i t i n g
home t e a c h e r s a r e a l s o
ta b u la te d .
The l a r g e n u m b e r o f b o o k s u s e d b y t h e a v e r a g e c h i l d
i s re v e a le d
i n T a b l e V I , p a g e s 57 a n d 5 8 .
V a lu e o f c o u n t y l i b r a r y
s e rv ic e to
S a n M ateo s c h o o l s .
T he p r o g r a m o f e d u c a t i o n t o d a y d e m a n d s , m o re t h a n e v e r
b e f o r e , a w id e u s e o f s u p p l e m e n t a r y b o o k s a n d m a t e r i a l s .
T he m o s t s a t i s f a c t o r y
dem ands i s
m ean s o f m e e ti n g t h e s e e d u c a t i o n a l
t h r o u g h a s c h o o l l i b r a r y d e p o s i t o r y w h ic h
p r o v i d e s a l a r g e c o l l e c t i o n o f v a l u a b l e m a t e r i a l t h a t may
be c irc u la te d
s c h o o l and th e
fro m o n e s c h o o l to a n o t h e r .
F or th e r u r a l
s m a l l s c h o o l s y s te m a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h t h e
TABLE V
BOOKS AND MATERIALS SUPPLIED TO SCHOOL BY SAN MATEOCOUNTY LIBRARY
1
24
285
289
105
109
68
85
209
79
94
13
28
50
20
3
5
10
23
9
83
S te reo g ra p h s
128
106
44
29
35
Pam phlets
10
6
C h arts
12
21
4
22
8
10
15
1
14
13
3
28
4
23
37
4
8
7
9
5
4
3
6
7
27
P o s te rs
52
M agazines
P ic tu r e s
R ecords
23
44
69
281
272
135
Maps
143
669
218
1,846
2,088
1,546
319
1,426
171
192
206
794
1,927
580
311
494
996
274
210
275
442
629
3,594
L ib ra ry
books
T ex ts
A lpine
Bayshore
B e ll
Belmont
B risbane
Fremont
G reersburg
H alf Moon Bay
H iggins
H illsborough
La Honda
Las Lamitas
Menlo Park
Miramar
Montara
Moss Beach
Peseadero
Pigeon P o in t
P ila rc ito s
Pomponio
P o rto la
P u rrisim a
Havenswood
3
1
1
2
1
4
1
4
1
10
9
265
26
1
26
147
6
65
TABLE 1 (continued)
BOOKS AND MATERIALS SUPPLIED TO SCHOOL BY SAN MATEO COUNTY LIBRARY
CD
M
ct
CO
Rockaway
San C arlos
San Pedro
Seaside
Tunis
626
3,019
533
272
174
Gamboni
M oritz
Holgerson
H all
T a c k itt
Isa a c s
Works
C o llin s
Lauer
H a rd castle
3
1
3
76
16
18
118
191
11
15
T o ta ls
24,426
tf
tH
O H*
o o*
120
713
73
97
4
m
P
CD
*d
©
a
0
H
P
»
CO
Hd
H*
a
ct
g
Fj
CD
CD
20
26
20
g
P
CR3
P
N
H*
P
CD
ca
►
d
o
C
O
ct
©
nO
C
o
tr
!ct
<0
5
46
6
4
2
►d
fcr
*H
©
ct
©
1
1
m
ct
CD
CD
0
0*3
1tr
87
87
25
66
8
58
3,503
51
136
85
1
328
325
14
9
24
819
Ui
o\
TABLE 71
AVERAGE BOOKS AHD MATERIALS PER A.D.A. SAH MATEO COBNTT 1940 - 1941
Books and m a te ria l
taken out
7/1/40 - 6/31/41
A lpine
Bayshore
B e ll
Belmont
B risbane
Fremont
G reersburg
H alf Moon Bay
H iggins
H illsborough
La Honda
Las Lomitas
Menlo Parle
Miramar
Montara
Moss Beach
Pescadero
Pigeon P o in t
P i l a r e it o s
Pomponio
P o rto la
P u rrisim a
Bavenswood
Rockaway
San C arlos
170
790
295
2,156
2,398
2,007
363
1,603
283
220
259
1,129
2,299
689
428
569
1,090
488
293
399
608
664
3,844
859
3,912
Teacher
v i s i ta t io n s
8
14
12
47
50
49
10
29
12
5
14
32
72
13
9
9
25
16
12
10
13
8
71
28
120
Average d a ily
atten d an ce
6
97
9
149
221
80
67
132
8
174
17
156
229
28
26
34
73
16
14
8
26
19
320
39
337
Average books
p er p u p il
28f
84
331411254
5+
124
35t
It
15*
7t
104
25164
16*
15312150231
35124
22t
12-
TABLE VI (continued)
AVERAGE BOOKS AND MATERIALS PER A.D.A. SAN MATEO COUNT! 1940 - 1941
Books and m a te ria l
taken out
7/1/40 - 6/31/41
San Pedro
Seaside
Tunis
637
373
246
Gambini
M oritz
Holgerson
H a ll
T a c k itt
Isa a c s
Works
C o llin s
Lauer
H ard castle
3
1
3
84
16
18
362
191
11
15
T o ta ls
29,635
Teaeher
v is ita tio n s
Average d a ily
atten d an ce
17
24
4
43
20
12
751
2,361
Average books
per p u p il
151921-
12.55
59
c o u n ty l i b r a r y
a p p e a rs to be th e b e s t p la n .
p o o lin g l i b r a r y
fu n d s,
T h ro u g h
th e a v e ra g e s c h o o l h a s th e u se o f
m any t i m e s t h e m a t e r i a l s a n d b o o k s t h a t c o u l d b© p u r c h a s e d
w ith a s in g le
is p o s s ib le
lib ra ry
fu n d .
U nder t h i s a rra n g e m e n t,
f o r th e te a c h e r to
s e c u r e new t i t l e s
it
each
y e a r a n d t h u s k e e p t h e b o o k s a n d s c h o o l p ro g ra m f r e s h a n d
in te re s tin g
f o r t h e p u p i l s who h a v e b e e n i n t h e s c h o o l i n
p re v io u s y e a r s .
T h is i s e s p e c i a l l y a p p l i c a b l e
a n d tw o t e a c h e r s c h o o l s .
th e te a c h e r r e c e i v e ,
of p ro fe s s io n a lly
By a f f i l i a t i o n
l i b r a r i a n s who a i d
s e l e c t i o n o f b o o k s and i n t e c h n ic a l l i b r a r y
III.
S in c e th e
th e s e r v ic e s
i n th e
o rg a n iz a tio n *
LIBRARIES IN THE SCHOOLS
B an M a te o C o u n ty L i b r a r y s u p p l i e d a w e a l t h
o f s u p p l e m e n t a r y m a t e r i a l a t a m inim um o f c o s t t o
d is tric ts
th e one
th e s c h o o l and
i n a d d itio n to m a te r ia ls ,
tra in e d
to
th e
and t h e S u p e r in te n d e n t o f S c h o o ls an d D i r e c t o r o f
C u r r i c u l u m w e re m o s t l i b r a r y c o n s c i o u s ,
it
w as no w o n d e r
t h a t i n e v e r y r u r a l s c h o o l i n S a n M a teo C o u n ty t h e r e w as a
s c h o o l o r c la s s ro o m
lib ra ry .
The c h a n g i n g p r o g r a m o f e d u c a t i o n r e q u i r e s a w id e
u se o f s u p p le m e n ta ry m a t e r i a l s t h a t f i t v a r i e d
and p r o j e c ts
as w e ll a s a d iv e r s ity
d em and f o r s u p p l i e s
i s g r e a t , and i t
in te re s ts
of a b ilitie s .
T he
behooves th e te a c h e r
t o r e t u r n h e r b o o k s p r o m p t l y t h a t s h e may c o o p e r a t e w i t h
60
th e c o u n ty l i b r a r y
f o r th e
su ccess o f th is
s y s te m
is
d e p e n d e n t upon th e c o n tin u o u s ex ch an g e o f r e a d in g m a tte r .
Of th e
s ix ty -th re e
S a n M ateo C o u n ty s c h o o l s w h ic h
w e re s e n t q u e s t i o n n a i r e s ,
a ffilia te d
w ith th e
t w e n t y - e i g h t s c h o o l s w e re
c o u n ty l i b r a r y .
tw e n ty -e ig h t s c h o o ls f a i l e d
A lth o u g h f i v e o f th e
to r e tu r n t h e i r
q u e s tio n ­
n a i r e s , a c o n f e r e n c e w i t h th e c o u n ty d i r e c t o r o f c u r r ic u lu m
and a p e r u s a l o f th e
l i g h t enough f a c t s
c o u n ty l i b r a r y r e c o r d s b ro u g h t to
to r e l i a b l y a s c e r ta in t h e i r
lib ra ry
s e t­
up.
School lib r a r y .
From t h e
e x p e rie n c e , th e c e n tr a l lib r a r y
a d v a n ta g e o v e r th e c la s s ro o m
R o u tin e l i b r a r y p r a c t i c e
i n e a c h s c h o o l h a s m a rk e d
ty p e o f b o o k c o l l e c t i o n .
in v o lv in g th e h a n d lin g o f b o o k s,
th e u s in g o f c a rd c a t a l o g s ,
a id s ,
s ta n d p o in t o f lib r a r y
in d ic e s ,
and o t h e r r e f e r e n c e
a n d t h e s h e l v i n g o f b o o k s may o n l y b e a d e q u a t e l y
g a in e d w ith a s c h o o l l i b r a r y .
re v e a ls a g re a t v a r ia tio n
sch o o l lib r a r ie s .
s e t-u p s th a t a re
C la s s ro o m
T h is i s
lib ra ry .
Im p o s s ib le ,
s u ffic ie n tly
i n a rra n g e m e n t o f th e d i f f e r e n t
t o b e e x p e c t e d w h en s t u d y i n g
so d i f f e r e n t .
a n d w id e r a n g e o f r e a d i n g
m ade i t
A s tu d y o f T a b le V II
la rg e
The many f i e l d s
a b ilitie s
o f in te re s t
fo u n d i n a c l a s s r o o m
i n m o st s i t u a t i o n s ,
to m a in ta in a
c la s s ro o m book c o l l e c t i o n w ith o u t
s
8
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£
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30
6
P a r t i a l p u p il
freedom to s ta c k s
o
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d
150
3,500
o
d
Havenswood
San Carlos
Depend e n t i r e l y upon
county l i b r a r y a s
source
62
undue f i n a n c i a l w a s te .
The p u r p o s e o f h a v i n g t h e
lib ra ry
i n th e s c h o o lro o m w as a h ly d e f i n e d by o n e o f th e r u r a l
te a c h e rs .
S he s a i d ,
" I t i s m e re ly u s e d t o p r o v id e
s u p p le m e n ta ry te a c h i n g b o o k s and a s m a ll r e a d in g c o l ­
le c tio n . ”
I n t h e m a in , t h e c l a s s r o o m
c o u n t y s c h o o l s w e re n o t a l l o w e d t o
v i s i o n fro m th e c o u n ty o f f i c e ,
s ta ff,
and a c tiv e
s c h o o ls r e p o r t i n g
c o lle c tio n s
lib ra rie s
s ta g n a te .
Good s u p e r ­
a n a l e r t c o u n ty l i b r a r y
te a c h e r s p re v e n te d t h i s .
Many o f t h e
s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s a ls o m a in ta in e d book
in th e ir
c la s s ro o m s .
T a b le V I I I i s a t a b u l a ­
t i o n o f th o s e s c h o o ls r e p o r t i n g c la s s ro o m
L ib r a r y e q u ip m e n t.
o f th e c la s s ro o m
u sed in th e
lib ra rie s .
W h e th e r t h e s c h o o l l i b r a r y
is
t y p e o r e x i s t s a s a s e p a r a t e ro o m , t h e
e q u ip m e n t s h o u l d f o l l o w w e l l d e f i n e d
lib ra ry
M o st o f t h e
i n S a n M ateo C o u n ty
school lib r a r ie s
w e re o f t h e m a k e s h i f t o r d e r .
s tu d ie d
O n ly i n o n e c a s e ,
H i lls b o r o u g h S c h o o l, w as th e l i b r a r y
in th e b u ild in g p la n s .
c lo s e ts ,
th e
a c t u a l l y c o n s id e re d
V acan t c la s s ro o m s , e n la rg e d
an d a n te ro o m s h a v e f u r n i s h e d
W h ile t h i s
s ta n d a rd s .
can be d e p lo re d ,
sp ace f o r a l ib r a r y .
i t d o e s n o t h e lp
th e s i t u a t i o n .
A l t h o u g h m any o f t h e s e v a c a n t ro o m s h a v e b e e n f i t t e d
m ake p r e s e n t a b l e
s u re ly
lib ra rie s ,
to
d i s t r i c t s b u i l d i n g new s c h o o l s
s h o u ld in c lu d e a l i b r a r y
in th e ir p la n s .
TABLE VIII
CLASSROOM LIBRARY ORGANIZATION - SCHOOLS AFFILIATED WITH COUNTY LIBRARY
►
3
►
3
©
0
o
tr
®
N
w
8H*
0
CO
80
S’
*a
O
H
H
6>
0 OU
to P 0
O' o ®
OO a
?
8H*
8
to
cr Q)
(B*<| |j
Q
c+
2 H H*
R h*
O O' 0
0
o' Q
o
°o S'3
<tj
0
0
H H*
5 H
1c+
P*
2ri ?®CD
*<
i
H- f*
aCO h
*
O'
a
4 0
84
I
a0 aw
M
S p8
o' o
*<^ a*
o'
s
4
Bayshore
4
4
310
yes
yes
6w
yes
no
yes
B e ll
1
1
180
yes
yes
8w
yes
yes
no
B risbane
10
7
490
yes
yes
4w
yes
no
yes
Fremont
4
3
375
yes
yes
8w
yes
yes
yes
H iggins
1
1
54
yes
yes
8w
yes
yes
yes
La Honda
1
1
120
no
yes
6w
yes
no
yes
Pomponio
1
1
48
yes
yes
6w
yes
no
yes
Pescadero
3
3
246
yes
yes
6w
yes
no
yes
Roekaway
2
2
164
yes
yes
8w
yes
ho
no
S easide
1
1
1
1
100
no
85
no
yes
yes
4w
6w
yes
yes
no
no
no
no
T unis
NOTE: T o ta l volumes l i s t e d were books in th e l i b r a r i e s a t th e tim e of th e study,
r e s e r v o ir of books was on reserv e in th e county l ib r a r y to supplement th e s e .
A v a st
o\
v>i
64
L ib ra ry p e rs o n n e l.
had l i b r a r i e s
tra in in g
s t a f f e d w i t h p e o p l e who h a d l i t t l e
o r no
i n t h i s w ork, b u t good a d v ic e and s u p e r v i s i o n
c o u ld be se c u re d
e sp e c ia lly
from t h e c o u n ty l i b r a r y .
t r u e when t h e
th e b ra n c h l ib r a r y .
th is
M o st o f t h e s c h o o l s s t u d i e d
T h i s w as
s c h o o l w as c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h
Many o f t h e
te a c h e r s to o k a d v a n ta g e o f
s e r v i c e , and u p p e r g r a d e s t u d e n t s w ere f r e q u e n t l y
ta u g h t lib r a r y
s c i e n c e a n d a c c o m p l i s h e d much u n d e r t h e
s u p e r v is io n o f th e c la ssro o m
G overnm ent and s t a t e
t e a c h e r and c o u n ty l i b r a r i a n .
a g e n c ie s fu rn ish e d
s o n n e l a i d , b u t t h e s e p e o p le m ust b e c l o s e l y
f o r t h e i r w ork t o b e e f f e c t i v e .
p re v io u s l ib r a r y
some p e r ­
su p e rv ise d
H o w e v e r , so m e o n e w i t h
t r a i n i n g w as o c c a s i o n a l l y
se c u re d th ro u g h
th e s e c h a n n e ls .
L ib ra ry a d m in is tr a tio n .
e f f e c tiv e p la n fo r th e
In c o n s id e r in g th e m ost
o r g a n iz a tio n o f e le m e n ta ry sc h o o l
l i b r a r i e s , p r o b le m s a r i s e w h ic h c a n n o t be s e t t l e d
a r b i t r a r i l y b u t a p p e a r to be r a th e r a m a tte r o f
ju d g m e n t
and s a t i s f a c t o r y a d ju s tm e n t to l o c a l c o n d itio n s .
B ecause
of lim ite d p e rso n n e l,
t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e S a n M a te o
s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s was r e s t r i c t e d
in scope.
CHAPTER IV
ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT OF SCHOOL LIBRARIES
NOT AFFILIATED WITH THE COUNTY LIBRARY
In s e p a r a tin g th e sc h o o ls
a ffilia te d
ta in e d
in to
tw o g r o u p s ,
th o se
w i t h t h e c o u n ty l i b r a r y and t h o s e w h ic h m ain ­
in d ep en d en t l i b r a r y
sy ste m s,
i t becam e a p p a r e n t t h a t
t h e l a t t e r g ro u p was com posed o f s c h o o l s t h a t w e re e s ­
ta b lish e d
i n c e n t e r s o f p o p u l a t i o n . * On t h e w h o l e t h e
lib ra ry f a c ilitie s
f o r t h e s c h o o l s t h a t w ere in d e p e n d e n t
o f t h e c o u n ty l i b r a r y w e re m odern an d a d e q u a t e .
They w ere
a llo tte d
in con­
m o re m oney f o r o p e r a t i n g e x p e n s e s , a n d ,
t r a s t to th e g ro u p a s s o c i a t e d w ith th e e o u n ty l i b r a r y ,
o v e r h a l f o f w h i c h w e r e o n e a n d two t e a c h e r s c h o o l s , t h e s e
in d e p e n d e n t s c h o o l s w ere m o s tly l a r g e
A ll o f th e
th irty -fiv e
in s titu tio n s .
q u e stio n n a ire s
s e n t to th e
s c h o o ls w h ic h w ere n o t a l l i e d w i t h t h e c o u n ty l i b r a r y w ere
re tu rn e d .
I n a fe w c a s e s t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a s k e d f o r w a s
not a v a ila b le .
A s a m p l e c o p y o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e may b e
fo u n d i n t h e A p p e n d ix .
S tu d y in g th e q u e s t io n n a ir e s ,
th e re a re
lib ra ry
i t may b e n o t e d t h a t
s e v e r a l a g e n c ie s w h ich e n t e r i n t o
se t-u p ,
b u t on th e w h o le , t h e r e
th e g e n e ra l
is g re a t v a rie ty
i n t h e w ay t h a t e a c h d i s t r i c t o p e r a t e s i t s b o o k d i s t r i ­
b u t io n and l i b r a r y
fa c ilitie s .
B ecause o f t h i s
66
in d iv id u a lity each i s ,
w i t h fe w e x c e p t i o n s , h a n d l e d
se p a ra te ly .
B r e a k i n g a w ay f r o m t h e c o u n t y l i b r a r y .
seven sch o o l d i s t r i c t s
a ffilia te d
i n S a n M a te o C o u n t y t h a t w e r e n o t
w ith th e c o u n ty l i b r a r y .
Redw ood C i t y ,
once b e lo n g e d .
advanced fo r t h is
e x p la n a tio n ,
sev eran ce.
Of t h e s e ,
lib ra ry
it
a ll except
T h e r e w e r e fe w r e a s o n s
H o w ev er, th e p r i n c i p a l
a n d t h e m o s t l o g i c a l , w as t h a t w h en a s c h o o l
d i s t r i c t becam e l a r g e e n o u g h to a f f o r d
lib ra ria n
T h ere w ere
th e s a la r y o f a
t h e n se e m e d e x p e d i e n t t o e s t a b l i s h
its
own
sy s te m .
A ll o f th e d i s t r i c t s
p r a is e o f th e
c o n t a c t e d w ere lo u d i n t h e i r
s e r v i c e r e n d e r e d by t h e c o u n ty l i b r a r y .
r e a liz e d th a t th e f i r s t
few y e a r s u n d e r s e p a r a t e
T h ey
se t-u p s
w o u ld r e s u l t i n a s e r i o u s c u r t a i l m e n t o f s u p p l e m e n t a r y
t e x t s and o t h e r m a t e r i a l s .
Many t e a c h e r s , w h e n a s k e d t h e i r
o p in io n o f th e c e n t r a l s c h o o l l i b r a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n lam en te d
th e change b u t a d m itte d
a c c e ss ib le
of g reat
t h a t t h e c e n t r a l l i b r a r y w as m o re
a n d w o u l d , w h en i t r e a c h e d i t s
se rv ic e .
f u l l g ro w th , be
F o r som e o f t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s ,
th e
c h a n g e w a s made t o o
a b ru p tly f o r th ey had n o t re s e rv e d
su ffic ie n t
c a r r y on th e e n te r p r is e .
fu n d s to
The c o u n t y l i b r a r y a u t h o r i t i e s w e r e g r a c i o u s
th e ir
tre a tm e n t o f th o se d i s t r i c t s
in
se v e rin g r e l a t i o n s .
T hey
67
d o n a t e d many b o o k s t o t h e
sc h o o ls.
I n some c a s e s ,
in c lu d e d a l l o f t h e b o o k s w h ic h b e lo n g e d to
w ere I n t h e s c h o o l a t t h e tim e .
th e
th is
l i b r a r y and
N a t u r a l ly th e c o u n ty
l i b r a r y w as a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d by th e l o s s o f s c h o o l s ,
In cre ase d a tte n d a n c e a t a f f i l i a t e d
c o m p e n sa te d f o r
but
s c h o o l s seem s to h a v e
th e s e w ith d ra w a ls*
W h i l e m any s c h o o l s t e c h n i c a l l y b r o k e aw ay f r o m t h e
c o u n ty l i b r a r y ,
t h e y s t i l l e n j o y e d some o f i t s
b e n e fits .
A l a r g e n u m b e r s t i l l m ade u s e o f b r a n c h l i b r a r i e s
n ear.
T each ers in u n a f f i l i a t e d
c o u n ty l i b r a r y
fo r
sc h o o ls s t i l l v i s i t e d
th e
id e a s and c o u n s e l l in g .
S e rv ic e s o f th e c i t y p u b lic
th e n e c e s s ity f o r
lo c a te d
lib ra ry
lib ra ry .
se rv ic e fo r c h ild re n th a t,
w ith th e u tm o st u se o f t h e f a c i l i t i e s
and s c h o o l l i b r a r y ,
th is
i n m ost c o m m u n itie s.
So g r e a t w a s
even
o f b o th th e p u b lic
need cannot be f u l l y
s a tis fie d
I t w a s b e s t m e t w h e r e t h e r e w as
a c t i v e c o o p e r a t i o n b e tw e e n th e s c h o o ls and t h e p u b l ic
lib ra ry .
F r o b a b ly t h e m ost v a lu a b le a id g iv e n th e s c h o o ls
by th e p u b l ic
lib ra ry
in te r e s t in re a d in g .
p u b lic
lib ra rie s
is th a t of c u ltiv a tin g
c h ild r e n 's
Some o f t h e w a y s e m p l o y e d b y t h e
i n S a n M a te o C o u n ty o f a c c o m p l i s h i n g t h i s
w ere :
1.
L en d in g b o o k s to t h e s c h o o l and c la s s ro o m
lib ra rie s.
68
2.
E n c o u ra g in g c l a s s e s to v i s i t and s e e in g t h a t
t h i s e x c u r s i o n was a p r o f i t a b l e o n e .
3*
V isitin g
th e sc h o o ls to
i n t e r e s t th e c h ild r e n
.
i n t h e c h i l d r e n 1s d e p a r t m e n t o f t h e p u b l i c
l i b r a r y a n d t o a i d th e m i n s e c u r i n g
lib ra ry
card s.
4-.
C o n d u c tin g r e g u l a r l i b r a r y p e r i o d s i n th e s c h o o ls
fo r each o f th e g ra d e s.
(M is s B a r t l e , h e a d
l i b r a r i a n a t t h e S a n M a teo F u b l i c
th is
L ib ra ry d id
i n o n e o f t h e S a n M a te o s c h o o l s e v e r y
F rid a y a fte rn o o n .
M iss B a r t l e c la im e d t h a t t h i s
was h e r m o st e n j o y a b l e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e w e e k . )
The c e n t r a l s c h o o l l i b r a r y .
of e le m e n ta ry sc h o o l l i b r a r y
C o u n ty w a s t h e c e n t r a l i z e d
d i r e c t i o n o f th e
of th is
in
One o f t h e common t y p e s
o r g a n i z a t i o n i n S a n M a teo
one w h ic h o p e r a t e d u n d e r t h e
s c h o o l sy ste m .
T h e r e w e r e many v a r i a t i o n s
th e c o u n ty .
One t y p e w as t h e
sc h o o l book d e p o s ito r y , hou sed in
a s c h o o l o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b u i l d i n g , w h ic h s e r v e d a s a
re se rv o ir
f o r i n d iv i d u a l s c h o o l and c la ssro o m l i b r a r i e s .
H ere, as a r u l e ,
a p a r t t i m e l i b r a r i a n o r a t e a c h e r w as
in c h arg e .
A m o re e f f e c t i v e
in th e
c e n tra l lib ra ry
o r g a n i z a t i o n fo u n d
c o u n ty w as a l i b r a r y t h a t was s i t u a t e d
ly lo c a te d
in a c e n tr a l­
s c h o o l and se rv e d a s a so u rc e o f books and
69
lib r a r y m a te ria ls fo r
th is
th e
sy s te m and a l s o was u t i l i z e d
school as a school lib r a r y .
In th e s e
by
situ a tio n s a
p a r t o r f u l l tim e l i b r a r i a n was i n c h a r g e .
S a n M a te o D i s t r i c t E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l s .
w ith d re w from t h e c o u n ty l i b r a r y
a m ain l i b r a r y was s t a r t e d
th is
i n 1935*
S a n M a te o
A t t h a t tim e
in th e C e n tra l S c h o o l.
s c h o o l b u i l d i n g was s o l d t o
th e c i t y
in
1939*
b o o k s a n d m a t e r i a l s w e r e a p p o r t i o n e d among t h e
I n 19*^0, t h e a c t i n g
books.
c o lle c t,
sc h o o ls.
re p a ir,
and h o u s e a l l
su p p le m e n ta ry
L ib ra ry
c h a rg e o f th e s e books and h a s done an
i n s p i r i n g p i e c e o f w o r k i n t h e S a n M a te o s c h o o l s .
h e r a s s i s t a n t have g iv e n sy s te m a tic
sc ie n c e
in s tru c tio n in lib ra ry
l i b r a r y w a s m o s t g e n e r o u s I n l e n d i n g many o f
own b o o k s t o t h e
re p o rte d re c e iv in g
F* T. A. a t
to
S he a n d
to th e c h i l d r e n o f t h e s e v e n th and e i g h t h g r a d e s .
The p u b l i c
its
in to
lib r a r y to p u rch a se,
The h e a d l i b r a r i a n o f S a n M a te o F u b l i c
has been in a c tiv e
lib ra ry
s u p e rin te n d e n t of sc h o o ls e n te re d
an ag reem en t w ith th e c i t y p u b lic
d is trib u te ,
When
sc h o o ls.
b o o k s fro m any o t h e r s o u r c e .
The
t h e B e r e s f o r d S c h o o l d o n a t e d o n e b o o k p e r m o n th
th e c l a s s w h ic h had th e
r e g u la r m e e tin g s.
g iv e n to
O n l y tw o S a n M a te o s c h o o l s
th e
At th e
l a r g e s t num ber o f p a r e n t s a t t h e
F a r k S c h o o l r e p o r t e d t h a t b o o k s w ere
s c h o o l b y p a r e n t s and p u p i l s .
s t a r t o f each school y ear,
th e sc h o o l
T
O
l i b r a r i e s w e re s u p p l i e d w ith b o o k s .
u n i t w as b e g u n ,
When a new t e a c h i n g
th e b o o k s i n th e c la s s ro o m
l i b r a r y w e re
e x c h a n g e d a t t h e c e n t r a l l i b r a r y b y t h e t e a c h e r who
r e c e i v e d new m a t e r i a l s f o r t h e c l a s s s t u d y .
Two o f t h e s c h o o l . l i b r a r i e s w e r e m o re t h a n t e n y e a r s
o ld .
The r e m a i n i n g
l i b r a r i e s w ere l e s s
age.
An i n c r e a s i n g
tre n d
in e v id e n c e i n
L ittle
h e lp .
th a n th re e y e a rs o f
to w a rd l i b r a r y c o n s c i o u s n e s s was
t h e S a n M a te o C i t y S c h o o l s .
u s e h a s b e e n m ade o f g o v e r n m e n t o r s t a t e
H o w e v e r, o n e s c h o o l r e p o r t e d
th a t i t
to o k a d v a n ta g e
o f th is a id .
T a b le
IX i s
a p a r t i a l sum m ary o f d a t a c o n t a i n e d
q u e s tio n n a ir e s s e n t to
in
t h e s c h o o l s o f S a n M a te o .
B u rllm a m e D i s t r i c t E le m e n ta ry S c h o o ls .
The
B u rlin g a m e E le m e n ta r y S c h o o l D i s t r i c t w ith d re w fro m t h e
c o u n ty l i b r a r y
in J u ly ,
1936.
books re c e iv e d
put in to
sy ste m a t th e b e g in n in g o f th e s c h o o l y e a r
D u rin g t h e f o llo w in g y e a r ,
t h r e e th o u sa n d
fro m th e c o u n ty l i b r a r y w ere l i s t e d
and
som e s e m b l a n c e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n b y a c l e r i c a l
a s s i s t a n t e m p lo y ed f o r
o f f i c e o f th e
t h r e e d a y s a w eek to a s s i s t i n t h e
su p e rin te n d e n t.
T a b l e X, p a g e 7 2 ,
o r g a n i z a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t io n o f l i b r a r i e s
sh o w s t h e
i n B u rlin g a m e
E le m e n ta ry S c h o o l D i s t r i c t .
I n t h e f a l l o f 1 9 3 7 , t h e c l e r k w as e m p l o y e d f u l l
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TABLE X
ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF LIBRARI1S IN BURLINGAME ELEMENTARY- SCHOOL DISTRICT
©
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B* cd
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School
O H*
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Coolidge
5
119
not
lis te d
Hoover
8
220
350
370 8,500
2p ©
wp
p ct
©
H*
H
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ct(&
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H*P»
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©
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03 c+ ©
trp.
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(& p *
M
O
Hd
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4
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4 o'
o
o
w
m
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00 4O'
ct
4 g
gOS^
ct
H*
5
<t*d O
Od g
© H^d
ctHH
P ©
O *"bct
4©
ff ©
&
no
no
yes
6
no
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
30
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
©Hhj
ct** P
p ©»*
© ©<T
■ ff
H 03
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O* P*
4 O
P O
8&
et*d
° 5H*
H
o
H
P
W
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O
no
yes
no
yes
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
no
yes
McKinley*
12
P ershing
3
56
R oosevelt
12
385
462
35
no
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
Washington
10
330
120
8
no
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
yes
yes
^ C en tral school l ib r a r y .
NOTE:
8,500 books source of classroom and school l i b r a r i e s .
->3
TO
73
tim e t o
o r g a n iz e and a tte n d th e
e s ta b lis h e d
i n a l a r g e room*
c e rtific a te d
lib ra ria n
l i b r a r y w h i c h w as t h e n
T h e re w as no t r a i n e d o r
i n t h e s c h o o l s u n t i l May, 1 9 3 9 ,
w hen t h e a f o r e - m e n t i o n e d c l e r k c o m p l e t e d t h e c o u r s e i n
lib ra ria n sh ip
a t th e U n iv e rs ity o f C a lifo rn ia *
The o n l y o t h e r e m p l o y e e
w hen t h e
( a s id e fro m a s u b s t i t u t e
l i b r a r i a n was g r a n t e d a l e a v e o f a b s e n c e ) w as a
j u n i o r c o l l e g e b o y who h e l p e d i n t h e sum m er o f 1 9 3 8 *
A s s i s t a n c e w a s g i v e n a l m o s t f r o m t h e f i r s t b y N. Y* A*
a n d W. P . A* p r o j e c t s *
At th e tim e o f th e p r e s e n t s tu d y ,
in c lu d e d one t r a i n e d
th e
lib ra ry
l i b r a r i a n e m p lo y e d b y t h e
sta ff
school
d i s t r i c t a n d t w e l v e W. P . A* w o r k e r s who c l e a n e d a n d m ended
b o o k s , m o u n te d p i c t u r e s ,
a ls ,
file d
card s,
a s s is te d w ith v is u a l a id m a te ri­
e tc .
B u r l i n g a m e 's c e n t r a l l i b r a r y was fo u n d t o be o f t h e
ty p e t h a t was u s e d by t h e
s c h o o l i n w h ic h i t was h o u s e d a s
w e ll as by th e te a c h e r s o f th e sc h o o l d i s t r i c t .
l i b r a r y w as p l a c e d
Books c i r c u l a t e d
i n th e
to
T h is
s c h o o l m ost c e n t r a l l y
lo e a te d .
te a c h e rs in each o f th e s ix
sc h o o ls.
T e a c h e r s t o o k o u t a s many b o o k s a s t h e y n e e d e d a n d t h e r e
w a s no d e f i n i t e
tim e
lim it se t fo r th e ir re tu rn .
a v e ra g e l e n g t h o f tim e
The
l i b r a r y and s u p p le m e n ta ry t e x t s
w e r e k e p t b y t e a c h e r s w a s a p p r o x i m a t e l y e i g h t w eek s*
T h e re was a d e l i v e r y o n c e e a c h w eek ,
so t e a c h e r s phoned
74
f o r books and r e tu r n e d
th em i n t h i s way.
w e r e e n c o u r a g e d t o come t o t h e
H ow ever, th e y
l i b r a r y p e r s o n a l l y t o make
t h e i r own s e l e c t i o n s .
T he c e n t r a l l i b r a r i a n w a s i n s t r u m e n t a l i n g e t t i n g
lib ra rie s
o rg a n iz e d
in
p e rs o n a lly c a ta lo g e d ,
su p e rv ise d
th e in d iv id u a l s c h o o ls .
file d ,
and s h e l v e s t h e b o o k s ,
th e sc h o o l l i b r a r i e s .
B u rlin g a m e P u b l i c
to b o th th e
L ib ra ry
and
The h e a d l i b r a r i a n o f t h e
lo an e d la r g e c o l l e c t i o n s o f books
s c h o o l and c la s s ro o m
The s y s t e m d e f i n i t e l y
lib ra rie s.
su p p lie d th e needs o f te a c h e r s
a n d c h i l d r e n f a r m o re e c o n o m i c a l l y t h a n i f
lib ra ry
She
w ere i n e a c h s c h o o l .
A lib ra ry
a sim ila r
c o n ta in in g an e q u al
n u m b e r o f v o l u m e s , o r e v e n f e w e r v o l u m e s , o n t h e sam e i n ­
c l u s i v e n u m b e r o f s u b j e c t s w o u ld b e f i n a n c i a l l y
H o w ev er, r e a l i z i n g
had I n f i n i t e
use th e
v a lu e f o r
th a t a lib r a r y w ith in each school
c h i l d r e n who c a n t h e n l e a r n how t o
l i b r a r y , th e D i s t r i c t S u p e rin te n d e n t o f S c h o o ls
hoped to e s t a b l i s h
referen ce
P.
im p o ssib le .
i n e a c h s c h o o l a sm a ll l i b r a r y o f
books and f i c t i o n ,
p u r c h a s e d w i t h m oney g i v e n b y
T . A, a n d D a d s ’ C l u b , a n d a l s o w i t h f u n d s r a i s e d b y
v a rio u s
school a c t i v i t i e s .
p r o f e s s i o n a l w ork,
fic a tio n ,
e tc .,
i.
e .,
done a t
S u c h a l i b r a r y w o u ld h a v e t h e
s e le c tio n ,
c a ta lo g in g ,
t h e c e n t r a l l i b r a r y a n d w o u ld n e e d
o n ly a c l e r i c a l a s s i s t a n t o r te a c h e r to a tte n d
c irc u la tio n .
c la ss i­
to th e
75
School l i b r a r i e s
t h a n f i v e y e a r s o ld *
i n t h r e e o f t h e s c h o o l s w e re l e s s
One w as s t a r t e d
th is
year
(1 9 4 1 ).
B u r l i n g a m e h a d m ade f u l l u s e o f W* F . A* h e l p .
At
o n e t i m e a b o u t t w e n t y w e r e a c t i v e l y e n g a g e d i n l i b r a r y w o rk
th ro u g h o u t th e
sy s te m .
s u b s ta n tia l a id
T hree o f th e
sc h o o ls re p o rte d
i n r e c e i v i n g new b o o k s f r o m t h e F . T. A.
and D a d s’ C lu b s.
Books w ere s e l e c t e d
o n t h e b a s i s o f o n e o r m ore o f
th e fo llo w in g :
1.
R e c o m m e n d a tio n s b y t e a c h e r s .
2.
P e r s o n a l e x a m in a tio n by th e l i b r a r i a n .
3.
L i s t s o f a d o p te d b o o k s i s s u e d fro m th e o f f i c e
o f th e c o u n ty s u p e r in te n d e n t.
4.
B ib lio g r a p h ie s c o n ta in e d
A id s u se d
in s ta te
te x tb o o k s.
i n m ak in g a c h o ic e i n c l u d e d :
1.
The C h i l d r e n ’ s C a t a l o g
(H. W. W i l s o n ) .
2.
B o o k lis t.
3.
B ib lio g ra p h ie s
4.
H orn b o o k .
5.
A. L. A. g r a d e d l i s t
6.
F iv e y e a r s o f c h i l d r e n ’s b o o k s.
7*
R e a l m s o f g o l d b y M ah oney .
i n W ilso n l i b r a r y
b u lle tin .
of books fo r c h ild re n .
Redw ood C i t y D i s t r i c t E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l s .
C ity u sed a c e n t r a l
lib ra ry
Redwood
sy s te m w h ich s e r v e d a s a
76
so u rc e o f su p p ly f o r
hooks fo r th e
re c e iv e d
little
th e
sev en e le m e n ta ry s c h o o ls .
L ib ra ry
s c h o o l and c la s s ro o m l i b r a r i e s w ere a l s o
from th e c i t y
funds a v a ila b le
p u b lic
lib ra ry .
As t h e r e h a d b e e n
f o r th e p u rc h a se o f books o th e r th a n
s u p p le m e n ta ry t e x t s and r e f e r e n c e w orks,
b een d ependent upon th e c i t y
re a d in g m a tte r.
lib ra ry
th e sc h o o ls had
fo r re c re a tio n a l
T a b le XI g iv e s t a b u l a t i o n s on th e o r g a n ­
i z a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f l i b r a r i e s
i n R edw ood O i t y
E le m e n ta ry S c h o o ls .
M ost o f t h e
lib ra rie s
sc h o o l.
s ta te d
s c h o o ls w h ic h r e p o r t e d h a v in g s c h o o l
th e age o f th e l i b r a r y
to be t h a t o f th e
N. Y. A. h e l p w a s u s e d a t t i m e s t o g o o d a d v a n t a g e .
R edw ood C i t y h a s n e v e r b e e n c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e c o u n t y
lib ra ry .
M lllb r a e E le m e n ta ry S c h o o l D i s t r i c t .
aw ay f r o m t h e c o u n t y l i b r a r y
a new s c h o o l ,
th e M illb ra e
in June,
c la s s ro o m
lib ra ry ,
lib ra rie s .
A t t h a t tim e
I n t e r m e d i a t e , was b e i n g b u i l t .
A c e n t r a l l i b r a r y was i n s t a l l e d
s c h o o l s now d r e w u p o n t h i s
1939*
M illb ra e bro k e
in th is
sc h o o l.
A ll
l i b r a r y as a so u rce f o r t h e i r
In a d d itio n to
its
use a s a c e n t r a l
t h i s was a l s o u s e d a s a s c h o o l l i b r a r y .
The c o u n t y l i b r a r y w a s g e n e r o u s t o M i l l b r a e a n d
gave th e
te x ts,
s y s t e m many s e t s o f r e f e r e n c e b o o k s ,
and l e i s u r e r e a d in g m a t e r i a l .
s u p p le m e n ta ry
T h i s w as t h e n u c l e u s
§
£
A dult
lib ra ria n
§
ft
S e a tin g
c a p a c ity
o
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S
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yes
yes
o
ft
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tim e yes
y@3
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in
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<0
yes
yes
yes
yes
03
03
£
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yes
yes
03
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o
yes
03
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Volumes
§
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03
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S
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classroom, and school
Depend on
c e n tr a l l i b r a r y
ft
0)
9,500 books source
o
yes
R eceived books
from o th e r
so u rces
yes
03
yes
§
L ib ra ry
in s tru c tio n
S3
yes
S
o
o
ft
yes
yes
§
Complete
pupxl freedom
t o s ta c k s
03
©
>>
yes
yes
yes
03
CD
yes
yes
yes
yes
03
&
yes
P a r t i a l p u p il
freedom to
s ta c k s
o
yes
ft
yes
yes
o
yes
School
lib ra ry
School
EH
Classroom
yes
77
78
f o r t h e new l i b r a r y *
S i x h u n d re d d o l l a r s w ere s p e n t e a c h
y e a r f o r new b o o k s a n d m a t e r i a l s .
In M illb ra e ,
t h e L o m ita
F a r k S c h o o l m ade g o o d u s e o f a c o u n t y l i b r a r y b r a n c h
lo c a te d n e ar th e
sc h o o l.
T ab le X II g iv e s t h e t a b u l a t i o n s
fo r M illb ra e .
S a n B ru n o a n d S o u t h S a n F r a n c i s c o E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l
D istric ts.
T h e s e tw o d i s t r i c t s
Each had a c e n t r a l l i b r a r y
e m p lo y e d s i m i l a r
lo c a te d
i n one o f i t s
se t-u p s.
sc h o o ls
a n d i n c h a r g e o f a p a r t t i m e l i b r a r i a n who w a s a r e g u l a r
te a c h e r.
As t h e
c e n t r a l l i b r a r y was n o t e q u ip p e d t o
p erfo rm r e g u la r l i b r a r y
fu n c tio n s,
t h i s p a r t tim e l i b r a r i a n
a c t e d m a i n l y a s a c a r e t a k e r and d i s p e n s e r o f b o o k s .
l i b r a r y w as m e re ly a d e p o s i t o r y .
The
B o t h S a n B ru n o a n d S o u t h
San F r a n c i s c o w o rk ed i n c l o s e c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e i r
re s p e c tiv e
c ity
c o u n ty l i b r a r y
lib ra rie s.
fo r fiv e
fu n d s h a s p re v e n te d
th e
The d a t a r e v e a l e d
is c h a rte d
Each h a s b e e n p a r t e d
o r m o re y e a r s .
from t h e
L a c k o f ro o m a n d
in s ta lla tio n of school lib r a r ie s .
in a stu d y o f th e q u e s tio n n a ir e s
i n T a b l e s X I I I a n d X IV , p a g e s 8 0 a n d 8 1 .
J e f f e r s o n E le m e n ta ry S ch o o l D i s t r i c t .
b r o k e aw ay f r o m t h e c o u n t y l i b r a r y
i n 1 9 3 2*.
Jefferso n
W ith t h e
m a t e r i a l s w h ic h w ere d o n a te d by t h e c o u n ty l i b r a r y and
subsequent y e a rly p u rc h a se s,
in th e J e f f e r s o n S c h o o l.
it
s e t up a c e n t r a l
lib ra ry
8
Complete
p u p il freedom
to s ta c k s
CO
©
S
L ib ra ry
in s tru c tio n
yes
§
02
S.
o
£
go o
<D £
N
02
©
yes
§
yes
P u p il
lib ra ria n
8
yes
Depend on
c e n tra l lib r a r y
02
yes
R eceived books
from o th e r
so u rc es
O
£
yes
P a r t i a l p u p il
freedom t o
sta c k s
0<D
2
s
yes
8
02
©
o
£
o
02Q
O
£
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02
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A dult
lib ra ria n
o
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§
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02
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176
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Number of
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to
Lllbrae In1
m ediate*
ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF LIBRARIES IN MILLBRAE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS
Classroom
(
School
lib ra ry -
yes
79
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h
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2
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freedom to
s ta c k s
O
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0
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Complete
p u p il freedom
t o s ta c k s
L ib ra ry
in s tru c tio n '
M
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I
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yes
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p u p il freedom
t o s ta c k s
yes
o
L ib ra ry
in s tru c tio n
yes
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from o th e r
so u re es
§
s
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c e n tra l lib ra ry
©
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4
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Number o f
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«o
001
M artin
DO
o
560
o
150
S e a tin g
c a p a c ity
School
E-«
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yes
81
£
S
o
.a
o
o
o*
s
525
82
At th e b e g in n in g o f each sc h o o l y e a r ,
w ere s e c u r e d fro m t h i s
school lib r a r ie s
c e n t r a l l i b r a r y by t h e i n d i v i d u a l
t o becom e t h e i r p e rm a n e n t p o s s e s s i o n s .
T e a c h e r s drew u p o n th e c e n t r a l l i b r a r y
t h e i r c la s s ro o m
re c e iv e d
some b o o k s
lib ra ry
su p p ly .
a t an y tim e f o r
As a r u l e ,
a new s u p p l y o f b o o k s a t t h e
te a c h e rs
s t a r t o f a new u n i t
o f w o rk.
J e ffe rs o n re p o rte d
t h e u s e o f W. P . A. h e l p i n
its
c e n tra l lib ra ry .
T a b l e XV i s a p a r t i a l sum m ary o f d a t a c o n t a i n e d
q u e stio n n a ire s
D istric t.
s e n t to
in
th e s c h o o ls o f J e f f e r s o n E le m e n ta ry
83
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02
CHAPTER V
SUMMARY AND CONG HI SIGNS
A c h a n g in g p h i l o s o p h y o f e d u c a t i o n dem ands m o d i­
fic a tio n
in th e m a t e r i a ls o f in s tr u c tio n *
T h is m odern
p h ilo s o p h y o f e d u c a t i o n p l a c e s e m p h a sis p r i m a r i l y upon th e
a t t i t u d e s and i n t e r e s t s
a c q u isitio n
o f th e
le a rn e r ra th e r
o f fu n d a m e n ta l f a c t s and s k i l l s .
m ere a d h e r e n c e t o
te x tb o o k s
th a n upon th e
More t h a n
i s needed in an e d u c a tio n a l
p rogram d e s ig n e d to d e v e lo p th e i n t a n g i b l e
tra its
of
p e rs o n a lity .
New d e m a n d s f o r a w i d e v a r i e t y
b e i n g made u p o n t h e
en ces e s s e n t i a l to
w h ic h th e
sc h o o l to p ro v id e
fu rn ish .
e x p e rie n c e s
The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f
f u n c tio n as an e f f e c tiv e a id
o f th e se p u rp o ses b rin g s
er
th e v ic a r io u s e x p e r i ­
su p p le m e n t th e f i r s t - h a n d
sc h o o l se e k s to
m a te r ia ls to
o f m a te ria ls are
i n th e r e a l i z a t i o n
th e s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r and t e a c h ­
im m e d ia te ly to a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f th e p ro b le m s in v o lv e d
in th e o r g a n i z a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t io n o f a d e q u a te l i b r a r y
fa c ilitie s
and s e r v i c e .
I.
T h is s t u d y ,
SUMMARY
**A C r i t i c a l E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e T e c h n i q u e s
o f O r g a n i z a t i o n a n d M a n a g e m e n t i n t h e S a n M a teo C o u n ty
E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l L i b r a r i e s , ' * w as c h o s e n w i t h t h e r e a l i z a t i o n
85
th a t th e
success of lib ra ry
se rv ic e
in th e e le m e n ta ry
s c h o o l d e p e n d s u p o n t h e d e g r e e o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g w h ich th e
v a rio u s
school o f f i c e r s ,
su p e rv iso rs,
iv e
lib ra ry
su p e rin te n d e n ts, p r in c ip a ls ,
and t e a c h e r s have o f th e im p o rta n c e o f e f f e c t ­
s e r v ic e and th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f each i n
e s t a b l i s h i n g h i s own p r o p e r r e l a t i o n s h i p
to
it.
The h i s t o r y o f e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s
U n ite d S t a t e s r e v e a l s
t h a t o n ly i n th e
th e s e sc h o o l l i b r a r i e s reach ed t h e i r
in th e
l a s t decade have
f u l l s ig n ific a n c e .
I n 1933 t h e D e p a r tm e n t o f E le m e n ta r y P r i n c i p a l s d e v o te d
th e ir e n tire
y earb o o k to a d is c u s s io n o f th e e le m e n ta ry
lib ra ry .
T hey h e a r t i l y
a p p ro v ed th e e s ta b lis h m e n t o f
lib ra rie s
on th e e le m e n ta r y l e v e l and p u t th e
s ta m p o f
d i s a p p r o v a l on an y s c h o o l w h ic h d id n o t h a v e a t
l e a s t th e
b e g in n in g s o f a l i b r a r y .
U pon m a k i n g a n e x t e n s i v e r e v i e w o f l i t e r a t u r e
in g w i t h t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n and m anagem ent o f l i b r a r i e s
th e e le m e n ta ry sc h o o l and upon c r i t i c a l l y
in v e s tig a tio n s
i n t h i s sam e f i e l d ,
d e a l­
in
stu d y in g p re v io u s
many v a l u a b l e a i d s t o
th e o r g a n i z a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f a l i b r a r y w ere
n o te d .
A c e n t r a l th em e o f t h e r e l a t e d
To s u c c e s s f u l l y
s t a r t and d e v e lo p a l i b r a r y ,
a t l e a s t one k e e n ly
b u ild
th e
lite ra tu re
lib ra ry
w as t h i s .
t h e r e m ust be
I n t e r e s t e d p e r s o n who i s e a g e r t o
in to a v a lu a b le sch o o l i n s t it u t io n .
Many
86
e x c e l l e n t e x a m p le s w ere c i t e d o f s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s w h ich
w ere s t a r t e d
under try in g
a llo w e d to d e v e lo p
in to
w h ile h ig h ly d e s i r a b l e ,
sary .
c ir c u m s ta n c e s and w ere th e n
u se le ss u n its a tra in e d
I t w as s t a t e d
lib ra ria n
th a t,
is not neces­
The Dewey D e c i m a l S y s t e m w as a d v a n c e d a s b e i n g s u i t e d
f o r th e e le m e n ta ry s c h o o l.
The r e v i e w o f r e l a t e d
s t u d i e s , a lth o u g h lim ite d
s c o p e , r e v e a l e d m uch v a l u a b l e e l e m e n t a r y l i b r a r y
in
in fo rm ­
a tio n .
C a p p le m a n p r o m o t e d t h e i d e a t h a t t h e a m o u n t o f r e a d ­
in g done by th e p u p i l s o f a sc h o o l i s g r e a t l y
in c re a s e d
th o s e s i t u a t i o n s w h ere t h e r e i s a f a v o r a b l y l o c a t e d ,
o rg a n iz e d
lib ra ry
th e u se o f th e
and s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g
in
w e ll-
i s g iv e n s tu d e n ts
in
lib ra ry .
The C u n n in g h a m s t u d y a d v a n c e d t h e t h e s i s
a r e many f a c t o r s g r o w i n g o u t o f l i b r a r y
len d th e m se lv e s to
so c ia liz in g
in lib r a r y p ro ced u re
th a t th e re
e x p e rie n c e s th a t
i n f l u e n c e s , a n d t h a t a n a im
s h o u l d b e t o w a r d m o re s o c i a l i z i n g
in flu e n c e s.
The B e n s o n s t u d y w as c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n
and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f e le m e n ta r y s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s
O a k lan d .
B enson a d v a n c e d th e c a s e o f th e s c h o o l l i b r a r y
o v er th e c la ss ro o m
v a lu e
in
l i b r a r y by p o in tin g to th e c a rry -o v e r
in h ig h s c h o o l,
c o l l e g e , and l a t e r
life .
The Adams s t u d y w a s o n e o f l i b r a r y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n
87
in
th e
ju n io r h ig h sc h o o l.
as
a ru le ,
Adams
lib ra ry f a c ilitie s
u tiliz e d because
are
e m p h a size d t h e f a c t t h a t ,
n o t b e in g p r o p e r ly
th e s t u d e n t s h a v e n o t had th e p r o p e r
l i b r a r y g u id a n c e .
C h a p te r
I I I i s a s t u d y o f t h e S a n M a teo C o u n t y
C e n tr a l L ib r a r y and
it
th e
School
l i b r a r i e s i n th e s c h o o ls w i t h w h ich
is a ffilia te d .
T he S a n M a teo C o u n t y P u b l i c L i b r a r y i n Kedwood C i t y
h a d a w o r k i n g a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e S a n M a te o C o u n t y S c h o o l s
w hereby i t
books,
a ls .
s u p p l i e d th e m w i t h s u p p le m e n ta r y t e x t s , r e f e r e n c e
l e i s u r e r e a d i n g b o o k s a n d many o t h e r l i b r a r y m a t e r i ­
For t h i s s e r v ic e
t h i r t y - f i v e d o lla r s p e r te a c h in g u n it
was p a i d
to th e c o u n ty l i b r a r y .
sc h o o ls,
tw e n ty - e ig h t to o k a d v a n ta g e o f t h i s
o th e rs bought th e ir
F o r th e
se rv ic e ;
th e
own l i b r a r y m a t e r i a l s .
s c h o o l y e a r 1 9 4 -0 -1 9 4 1 , t h e r e w e r e 2 9 ,6 3 5
books and m a te r ia ls
th is
Of t h e s i x t y - t h r e e c o u n ty
s e r v ic e , th e
lo an e d by th e c e n t r a l l i b r a r y .
For
s c h o o ls p a id |3 ,0 4 0 .
P e r s o n a l a t t e n t i o n a n d h e l p w as g i v e n t o t e a c h e r s
who m ade 7 5 1 v i s i t s
T he c e n t r a l
to th e l i b r a r y f o r books.
lib ra ry
sta ff
s e rv ic e d a l l o f th e
lib r a r y m a te ria ls .
T h ere w ere tw e n ty - f o u r b r a n c h l i b r a r i e s
t h r o u g h o u t S a n M a te o C o u n t y .
a id e d
lo c a te d
T hese b ra n c h l i b r a r i e s a ls o
s c h o o ls t h a t w ere n o t a f f i l i a t e d
w ith th e c e n t r a l
88
lib ra ry .
W h ile t h e
c e n tra l lib ra ry
th e
la rg e
sc h o o ls b e n e f ite d g r e a t ly
a ssista n c e ,
in d is p e n s a b le
from t h e
s e r v i c e was g i v e n
s m a l l e r s c h o o l s , m any o f w h i c h p a i d i n b u t t h i r t y - f i v e
d o lla r s a year to
th e c o u n ty l i b r a r y fu n d .
W h i l e t h e s m a l l s c h o o l s p a i d m o re m oney p e r p u p i l ,
th ey a ls o
t o o k o u t m o re b o o k s p e r p u p i l .
fh e s t a f f o f th e
c e n tr a l l ib r a r y gave v a lu a b le
s u p e r v is o r y h e lp on l i b r a r y o r g a n iz a tio n and a d m i n i s t r a t io n
in th e sc h o o ls.
As a n a d d e d s e r v i c e
and l i b r a r y
m a te ria ls
th e c e n t r a l l ib r a r y
to th e s c h o o ls b y e x p r e s s and by m a il.
• B o th t h e c l a s s r o o m and s c h o o l l i b r a r y
used in th e a f f i l i a t e d
a school lib ra ry
tw e n ty -th re e
sc h o o ls.
s e t - u p was
Many o f t h e s c h o o l s h a v i n g
a ls o had c la s s ro o m l i b r a r i e s .
Of th e
s c h o o ls a n sw e rin g th e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , e le v e n
had c la ss ro o m l i b r a r i e s
lib ra rie s,
s e n t books
o n ly ;
t e n had s c h o o l and c la s s ro o m
a n d tw o h a d s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s o n l y .
V e r y fe w s c h o o l s h a d t r a i n e d
lib ra ria n s,
and
H i l ls b o r o u g h S c h o o l was t h e o n ly s c h o o l w h ic h r e p o r t e d a
f u l l tim e ,
tra in e d
lib ra ria n .
S t u d e n t l i b r a r i a n s w e r e u s e d i n 87 p e r c e n t o f t h e
sc h o o ls.
fh e c e n tr a l
s u p p lie s f o r Jk p e r
l i b r a r y w as t h e o n l y s o u r c e o f l i b r a r y
c e n t o f th e s c h o o ls.
89
M o st o f t h e s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s w e r e h o u s e d i n o l d
c la ss ro o m s and m a k e s h ift p la c e s .
Books w ere a d d e d and
changed b u t once a y e a r in th e sc h o o l l i b r a r i e s ,
c la ss ro o m
lib ra ry
w h ile th e
s u p p l y w as e x c h a n g e d a t t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f
each u n it.
C h a p t e r IV c o n t a i n e d a s t u d y o f t h e t h i r t y - f o u r S a n
M ateo C o u n t y s c h o o l s w h i c h w e r e n o t a f f i l i a t e d
c o u n ty
lib ra ry .
d is tric ts,
G e n e ra lly
w ith th e
T h e s e s c h o o l s made up s e v e n s e p a r a t e
e a c h o f w h ic h had i t s
s ta tin g ,
o rg a n iz a tio n of i t s
own c e n t r a l l i b r a r y .
e a c h w as u n i q u e i n t h e m a n a g e m e n t a n d
own c e n t r a l l i b r a r y .
For th is re a so n ,
t h e y w ere d e s c r i b e d s e p a r a t e l y .
The S a n M a te o E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l D i s t r i c t .
c e n tra l
The
l i b r a r y w a s o p e r a t e d b y t h e S a n M a te o F u b l i c L i b r a r y
w ith o u t th e b e n e f it o f a sc h o o l l i b r a r i a n .
L ib ra rie s
lib ra ry
i n t h e s c h o o l s d rew u p o n t h e c e n t r a l
and th e p u b l i c
m e n ta ry b o o k s.
lib ra ry ,
i n t h e m ain ,
fo r su p p le ­
A fe w b o o k s w e r e f o r t h c o m i n g f r o m s c h o o l
a g e n c ie s such as th e F.
T. A . , D a d s 1 C l u b s , e t c .
C la ss­
ro o m t e a c h e r s r e c e i v e d a new s u p p l y o f b o o k s a t t h e
b e g in n in g o f eac h te a c h in g u n i t .
to
th e
school lib r a r y
New b o o k s w e r e s u p p l i e d
y e a rly .
Of t h e e i g h t s c h o o l s ,
seven had sch o o l l i b r a r i e s .
A ll r e p o r te d c la ss ro o m l i b r a r i e s .
90
The s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s h a d f r o m t h r e e h u n d r e d t o
one th o u s a n d v o lu m e s o f b o o k s , an d t h e i r
ra n g e d from tw e lv e t o
s e a tin g c a p a c ity
fifty .
S e l e c t e d g r o u p s o f s t u d e n t s w ere g i v e n t r a i n i n g
i n l i b r a r y m anagem ent by t h e c i t y
i n s t r u c t i o n w as t a u g h t i n
w ere u s e d
in a l l sc h o o ls.
lib ra ria n s.
th e c la ssro o m .
L ib ra ry
S tu d e n t l i b r a r i a n s
Two s c h o o l s r e p o r t e d p a r t t i m e
te a c h e r lib r a r ia n s .
C o m p le te p u p i l fre e d o m t o t h e
effect
in s ix o f th e
sc h o o ls;
l i b r a r y s t a c k s w as i n
t h e o t h e r tw o s c h o o l s r e p o r t e d
p a r t i a l p u p i l freed o m .
F iv e s c h o o ls r e p o r t e d th e
s c h o o l, a t noon, and a f t e r
l ib r a r y to be open b e fo re
sc h o o l.
W. P . A. h e l p w a s u t i l i z e d
in b u t one o f th e s c h o o ls .
B u rlin g a m e E le m e n ta r y S c h o o l D i s t r i c t .
lib ra ry ,
serv ed ,
u n d e r t h e m anagem ent o f a t r a i n e d
a lo n g w ith th e
sch o o l a g e n c ie s,
c it y p u b lic
The c e n t r a l
lib ra ria n ,
l i b r a r y and v a rio u s
a s a book so u rce f o r th e
lib ra rie s
in th e
e le m e n ta r y s c h o o ls o f B u rlin g a m e .
Four o f th e
s i x s c h o o ls had s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s , and
a l l s c h o o ls had c la ss ro o m
lib ra rie s*
The s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s h a d f r o m 120 t o 4-62 v o l u m e s ,
and t h e
to
s e a t i n g c a p a c i t y o f t h e l i b r a r i e s r a n g e d from s i x
th irty -fiv e .
91
Books w e re d i s t r i b u t e d
y e a r ly , w h ile
\
th e c la ssro o m
changed w ith th e
to th e
school lib r a r ie s
l i b r a r y b o o k s w ere g e n e r a l l y
s t a r t o f a new t e a c h i n g u n i t .
F u p il lib r a r ia n s ,
under th e
s u p e r v is io n o f th e
c e n t r a l l i b r a r i a n an d t h e t e a c h e r s , w e re e m p lo y ed .
The c e n t r a l l i b r a r y
em p lo y ed t h e o n l y a c t i v e
T hree o f th e
to th e l i b r a r y
sta tio n e d
tra in e d
a t t h e M c K in le y S c h o o l
lib ra ria n
i n th e sy ste m .
s c h o o ls r e p o r t e d c o m p le te p u p i l freed o m
sta c k s;
t h e o t h e r tw o r e p o r t e d
lim ite d
freed o m .
L ib ra ry
i n s t r u c t i o n w as g i v e n i n t h e
c e n t r a l l i b r a r i a n a l s o w orked w i t h s e l e c t e d
in
lib ra ry
and th e
s tu d e n t gro u p s
sc ie n c e .
L ib ra rie s
a fte r
sc h o o ls,
i n tw o o f t h e s c h o o l s w e r e o p e n b e f o r e a n d
sc h o o lW. P . A. h e l p
u tiliz e d
to
t h e e x t e n t o f t w e n t y w o r k e r s w as
in th e v a rio u s lib r a r y
a g e n c ie s.
R edw ood C i t y E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l D i s t r i c t .
lib ra ry
A c e n tra l
u n d e r t h e p a r t t i m e c a r e o f c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s w as
p ro v id e d .
The c e n t r a l l i b r a r y a n d t h e c i t y
so u rces o f lib r a r y
l i b r a r y w e re m a i n
book su p p ly -
Four s c h o o ls r e p o r t e d s c h o o l and c la s s ro o m l i b r a r i e s .
T hree s c h o o ls r e p o r t e d c la s s ro o m l i b r a r i e s .
92
The s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s ,
lib r a r y , re p o rte d
th e
e x c lu s iv e o f th e c e n t r a l
lib ra rie s
c o n ta in e d fro m 260 to f o u r
h u n d re d v o lu m e s.
The l i b r a r y
s e a t i n g c a p a c i t y w as f r o m t w e l v e t o
fo rty -e ig h t.
O n ly t h e c e n t r a l l i b r a r y
r e p o r te d an a d u lt l i b r a r i a n ;
s t u d e n t l i b r a r i a n s w ere u se d i n f i v e
P a r t i a l p u p i l freed o m to
th e
sc h o o ls.
lib ra ry
s t a c k s w as
r e p o r te d by a l l s c h o o ls .
L ib ra ry
i n s t r u c t i o n was t a u g h t i n f o u r o f th e
seven
sc h o o ls.
N. Y. A. h e l p h a d b e e n u s e d f o r tw o y e a r s .
M illb r a e E le m e n ta ry S c h o o ls .
A c e n tra l lib ra ry ,
in
c h a r g e o f a c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r , was u s e d a s t h e m ain s o u r c e
o f boo k s u p p ly f o r th e M i l lb r a e E le m e n ta ry S c h o o l S y stem .
I t was a l s o
th e o n ly
school lib ra ry
In th e d i s t r i c t .
Two s c h o o l s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y m a i n t a i n e d o n l y
c la ssro o m l i b r a r i e s .
The o n e s c h o o l l i b r a r y h a d 1 , 4 0 0 v o l u m e s a n d a s e a t ­
in g c a p a c ity o f s e v e n ty .
L i b r a r y i n s t r u c t i o n w a s t a u g h t i n tw o o f t h e s c h o o l s .
C o m p le te p u p i l fre e d o m to
re p o rte d
i n one s c h o o l;
s t a c k s was l i m i t e d .
th e
lib ra ry
i n th e , o t h e r t w o ,
s t a c k s was
freedom to th e
93
J e f f e r s o n E le m e n ta ry S ch o o l D i s t r i c t .
lib ra ry ,
used.
A c e n tra l
u n d e r t h e p a r t tim e s u p e r v i s i o n o f a t e a c h e r , was
W ith t h e c i t y
lib ra ry ,
it
s e r v e d a s th e m a in book
so u rce.
A l l s c h o o ls had s c h o o l and c la s s ro o m
lib ra rie s.
E x c lu siv e o f th e c e n tr a l l ib r a r y m a te r ia ls ,
th e
s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s h o u s e d b e tw e e n one h u n d re d and f i v e
h u n d red b o o k s.
The r a n g e o f l i b r a r y
s e a t i n g c a p a c i t y was fro m tw e n ty
to f i f t y .
In stru c tio n
i n l i b r a r y u s a g e was t a u g h t i n a l l
sc h o o ls.
P a r t i a l freed o m to
in a l l
th e
lib ra ry
s t a c k s w a s e m p lo y e d
s c h o o ls sa v e one w h ic h a llo w e d c o m p le te p u p i l
f re e d o m *
A u tiliz a tio n
o f W. F . A. h e l p w a s r e p o r t e d .
S a n B ru n o E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l s .
A c e n tra l lib ra ry
u n d e r a p a r t t i m e l i b r a r i a n w as t h e s o u r c e f o r m o s t o f t h e
books i n s c h o o l and c la s s ro o m l i b r a r i e s .
s e c u r e d from th e c i t y
Some b o o k s w e r e
lib ra ry .
B o th s c h o o ls h ad c la s s ro o m l i b r a r i e s o n ly .
T hese
w e r e c a r e d f o r b y s t u d e n t l i b r a r i a n s who w e r e s u p e r v i s e d
by c la s s ro o m
te a c h e rs.
L i b r a r y i n s t r u c t i o n was t a u g h t i n b o t h s c h o o l s .
94
C o m p le te p u p i l f r e e d o m was a llo w e d i n t h e c l a s s r o o m
sta c k s.
S o u th San F r a n c is c o E le m e n ta ry S c h o o l D i s t r i c t .
c e n tra l lib ra ry p la n ,
u tiliz e d .
A
a d m i n i s t e r e d b y t h e p r i n c i p a l , w as
T h is s e r v e d a s t h e m ain b o o k s u p p ly f o r t h e
c la ssro o m l i b r a r i e s ,
th e o n ly ty p e
in use.
One s c h o o l m ade u s e o f s t u d e n t l i b r a r i a n s a n d
a llo w e d c o m p le te fre e d o m to l i b r a r y
sta c k s;
s c h o o l p e r m itte d p a r t i a l freedom to
th e
th e o th e r
s ta c k s and d id n o t
have s tu d e n t l i b r a r i a n s .
L i b r a r y i n s t r u c t i o n w as t a u g h t i n b o t h s c h o o l s .
II.
CONCLUSIONS
I n S a n M a te o C o u n t y ,
a tio n s
as fa r as lib r a r y
t h e r e w e r e two d i s t i n c t s i t u ­
o r g a n i z a t i o n was c o n c e r n e d .
One
ty p e was fo u n d i n t h e c e n t e r s o f p o p u l a t i o n , w h e re t h e r e
w ere e x t e n s i v e
sy s te m
its e lf
th e s c h o o ls .
lib ra ry
fa c ilitie s
or in th e c i t y
w ere o r d i n a r i l y
a b le
lim ite d
school lib r a r y
lib ra ry .
It
In th e sc h o o l
l i b r a r y w h ic h c o o p e r a te d w ith
A v ery d iffe re n t
s p a rs e ly p o p u la te d a r e a s ,
e ith e r
s t a t e w as f o u n d I n t h e
th e r u r a l d i s t r i c t s ,
lib ra ry
fa c ilitie s ,
w here t h e r e
and a l l a v a i l ­
s e r v i c e was f u r n i s h e d b y t h e c o u n t y
seem ed l o g i c a l and h o n e s t t h a t c o n c l u s i o n s to
be f a i r and m e a n in g f u l m ust ta k e i n t o
c o n s id e r a tio n th e se
95
tw o s i t u a t i o n s .
w ere s t i l l
W i t h h u t fe w e x c e p t i o n s ,
a ffilia te d
th e sc h o o ls th a t
w ith th e c o u n ty l i b r a r y
f a l l in to
th e r u r a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , w h ile th e s e p a r a te d s c h o o ls f a l l
in to
th e c i t y g ro u p in g .
Two s e t s o f c o n c l u s i o n s a r e m a d e , a n d t h e a b o v e
c la s s ific a tio n s
a re fo llo w e d .
C o u n ty l i b r a r y
gro u p *
It
i s d eem ed n e c e s s a r y t h a t
a d d i t i o n a l f u n d s b e m ade a v a i l a b l e b y t h e c o u n t y o r s t a t e
f o r th e a d m in is tr a tio n expenses o f t h a t s e c tio n o f th e
c o u n ty l i b r a r y w h ic h h a n d le s t h e s c h o o l m a t e r i a l s and b o o k s .
The p r e s e n t b u d g e t a l l o w s f o r l i t t l e
m o re t h a n t h e c o s t o f
books.
P e rio d ic a l v i s i t s
s h o u l d b e made t o e a c h s c h o o l b y
a m em ber o f t h e c o u n t y l i b r a r y
sta ff
to a ffo rd p e rs o n a l
c o n t a c t w h ic h s e r v e s to g u id e t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n ts i n th e
use o f books.
A d d itio n a l b ra n c h l i b r a r i e s a r e needed t h a t th o s e
d i s t r i c t s w h ic h a r e n o t s e r v e d , A lp in e , P ig e o n P o i n t ,
P u rrisim a ,
It
and B e l l ,
m ig h t b e n e f i t .
i s a d v is a b le th a t te a c h e rs be se n t b u lle tin s
fro m tim e t o
t i m e w h i c h t e l l o f new m a t e r i a l s a n d b o o k s
t h a t a r e a v a i l a b l e a t t h e c o u n ty l i b r a r y .
D istric ts
lib ra ry
p l a n n i n g t o b r e a k aw ay fro m t h e c o u n ty
and s e t up a c e n t r a l l i b r a r y
s y s t e m o f t h e i r own
96
s h o u ld h e f u l l y p r e p a r e d b e f o r e m ak in g t h e c h a n g e ♦
U n a ffilia te d
g ro u p »
A f u l l tim e t r a i n e d
lib ra ria n
s h o u l d b e e m p l o y e d b y Redwood C i t y , S a n M a t e o , a n d
J e f f e r s o n e le m e n ta ry
th e ir
school d i s t r i c t s
to be in ch arg e of
in d iv id u a l c e n tr a l lib r a r y .
T he S a n M a te o S c h o o l D i s t r i c t s h o u l d h o u s e i t s
c e n tra l lib ra ry
in one o f th e c e n tr a lly
b u ild in g s even th o u g h t h i s
lo c a te d
sehool
sh o u ld e n t a i l th e b u ild in g o f a n
e x t r a room .
San B runo, S o u th San F r a n c is c o , and M illb r a e sh o u ld
each have a tr a in e d
l i b r a r i a n who w o u l d w o r k a t
le a st p a rt
tim e .
G -eneral c o n c l u s i o n s .
1.
T e a c h e r s s h o u l d becom e f a m i l i a r w i t h l i b r a r y
books and m a t e r i a l s
th a t re la te
to th e g ra d e s o r s u b je c ts
th ey a re te a c h in g .
2.
The t e a c h e r s h o u l d p r o m p t l y r e t u r n b o o k s a n d
m a te r ia ls a s soon a s
3*
o n how
It
to u se th e
4.
ta k e
lib ra ry
5*
in
is
lib ra ry
she i s
a d v isa b le
f i n i s h e d w i t h th em .
t h a t d e f i n i t e l y p la n n e d le s s o n s
l i b r a r y be ta u g h t
e a rly
i n th e te rm .
The a d m i n i s t r a t o r s s h o u l d e n c o u r a g e t e a c h e r s t o
c o u rses
in an a c c re d ite d
sc h o o l.
A t l e a s t o n e t e a c h e r who i s k e e n l y i n t e r e s t e d
w ork I s
a v a lu a b le a s s e t to th e s c h o o l.
97
6 .
A school lib ra ry ,
o r th e b e g in n in g s o f o n e,
is
i n d i s p e n s a b l e to a w e l l e q u ip p e d s c h o o l.
7.
p o ss ib le
E ach s c h o o l and te a c h e r sh o u ld u t i l i z e
so u rce of lib r a r y
8.
It
is
ev ery
m a te ria l.
i m p e r a tiv e t h a t c l o s e c o o p e r a t i o n b e tw e e n
th e c la ss ro o m te a c h e r and l i b r a r i a n be m a in ta in e d .
w i l l n e ed to c o n f e r from tim e to
tim e r e g a r d i n g
T h ey
th e
c h i l d r e n ’ s c l a s s r o o m w ork*
9.
It
is h ig h ly d e s ira b le
fo r l ib r a r ie s be v ery
th a t th e p h y s ic a l s e t-u p
c a r e f u l l y w o rk ed o u t .
The b u i l d i n g
o f new s c h o o l s p r e s e n t s a n e x c e l l e n t o p p o r t u n i t y f o r
lib r a r y p la n n in g .
10.
A s e c tio n of th e l i b r a r y
fo r p ro fe s s io n a l re a d in g .
sh o u ld be s e t a s id e
P a r e n t s and t e a c h e r s c a n be
encouraged to use t h i s .
11.
I n th e u se o f th e sc h o o l l i b r a r y i t
to m a in ta in a r e g u la r
12.
tra in e d
It
13.
t h a t some o f t h e
s tu d e n ts be
sc ie n c e .
T he Dewey D e c i m a l S y s t e m a s e m p l o y e d b y p u b l i c
lib ra rie s
sh o u ld be u sed in
14.
d e sira b le
sc h e d u le .
is a d v is a b le
in lib r a r y
is n ecessary
th e sc h o o l
C o o p e ra tio n w ith th e p u b lic
lib ra rie s .
lib ra ry
is h ig h ly
and sh o u ld be e n co u rag e d .
15.
th e l i b r a r y
To f a c i l i t a t e
b e t t e r r e a d in g and s tu d y h a b i t s ,
s h o u ld be o p e n a s h o r t tim e b e f o r e and a f t e r
98
sch o o l*
16.
c h o ic e
The p u p i l s
in th e
IT .
sh o u ld be a llo w e d to e x e r c i s e
s e l e c t i o n o f books.
P u b lic
freedom to
th e book s t a c k s sh o u ld be
en co u rag ed a s f a r a s l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s
a llo w .
R ecom m ended f u t u r e r e l a t e d
stu d ie s*
1*
im p r o v e m e n t w i t h a n
C o rre la tio n o f re a d in g
a d e q u a te l i b r a r y
2.
som e
se t-u p .
A survey o f l ib r a r y
i n S a n M a te o C o u n t y H i g h S c h o o l s .
fa c ilitie s
and o r g a n i z a t i o n
BIBLIOGRAPHY
100
A.
BOOKS
A d a m s, A . , The U se o f L i b r a r i e s i n J u n i o r a n d S e n i o r H i g h
S c h o o l * L o s A n g e l e s t The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n
C a lifo rn ia F re e s.
1 05 p p .
B o s t w i c k , A. E . , T he R e l a t l o n s h i p B e tw e e n t h e L i b r a r y a n d
th e P u b lic S c h o o ls .
W h it e P l a i n s , New Y o r k , a n d New
Y o rk C i t y ;
T he W. H. W i l s o n C om pany, 1 9 1 4 . 3 3 1 p p .
C o lb u rn , E . , A L ib r a r y f o r th e I n te r m e d ia te G ra d e s.
C h ic a g o :
U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1936*
1 5 0 PP*
D r u r y , M. P . , The L i b r a r y a n d I t s O r g a n i z a t i o n .
The W. H. W i l s o n C om pany, 1 9 2 4 .
519 p p .
New Y o r k :
F a r g o , L. F . , T he P r o g r a m f o r E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l L i b r a r y
S e rv ic e .
C h ic a g o : A m e ric an L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n ,
1930.
218 p p .
_________, The L i b r a r y i n t h e S c h o o l .
Second E d itio n .
C h ica g o :
A m e r i c a n L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n , 1933*
^ 7 9 PP*
, T he L i b r a r y i n t h e S c h o o l .
T h ird E d i t i o n .
C h i c a g o : A m e r i c a n L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n , 1939*
522 p p .
P r e p a r a t i o n f o r S c h o o l L i b r a r y W ork.
d o lu m b ia P r e s s , 1936.
I 9C pp.
New Y o r k :
H a l l , W. F . , T he N e ed f o r E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l L i b r a r i e s a n d
How t o B u i l d T hem .
L i t t l e R ock, A rk an sas:
S ta te
D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n P r e s s , 1936*
J o i n t C o m m itte e o f t h e A m e ric a n A s s o c i a t i o n o f T e a c h e rs *
C o l l e g e s a n d t h e A m e r i c a n L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n , How
S h a l l We E d u c a t e T e a c h e r s a n d L i b r a r i a n s f o r L i b r a r y
S e r v i c e I n t h e S c h o o l s ? New Y o r k :
C o lu m b ia P r e s s ,
1936.
7 5 PP*
K i n g , W. A . , T h e E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l L i b r a r y .
C h a r l e s S c r i t o n e r i a S o n s , 1929*
224 p p .
New Y o r k :
K oos, F . H . , S t a t e P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n P u b l i c L i b r a r y S e r v i c e .
C o lu m b ia U n i v e r s i t y :
B u r e a u o f P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1927*
424 pp.
L a t h r o p , E . A. , A S t u d y o f R u r a l S c h o o l L i b r a r y P r a c t i c e s
and S e rv ic e s *
C h ic a g o :
T he U n i t e d S t a t e s O f f i c e o f
E d u c a tio n , 193^.
1 0 5 PP*
101
O s b u r n , W. J . , a n d B. J . R o h a n , E n r i c h i n g t h e C u r r i c u l u m
fo** £ i f t e d C h i l d r e n .
New Y o r k :
The M a c m i l l a n C om pany,
1931- 408 p p .
O t t o , H. J . , E le m e n t a r y S c h o o l O r g a n i z a t i o n a n d A d m in is ­
tra tio n .
New .Y o rk a n d L o n d o n : D. A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y
C om pan y, 1 9 3 4 .
652 p p .
R e a v i s , W. L . , Q r i t i c a l I s s u e s i n E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n l s t r a t i o n .
C h ic a g o :
U n i v e r s i t y . o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 193W .
19 2 p p .
S p a i n , C. L . , A . B. M o e lm a n , a n d F . W. F r o s t i c , The P u b l i c
E le m e n ta ry S c h o o l P l a n t .
New Y o r k : R a n d , M c N a lly a n d
C om pan y, 1930*
484 pp.
W i l s o n , M ., S c h o o l L i b r a r y M a n a g e m e n t.
New Y o r k :
H. w. W i l s o n C o m p an y , 1 9 2 5 351 p p .
B.
The
PERIODICAL ARTICLES
A l e x a n d e r , C . , " L i b r a r y A l a d d i n Lamp f o r t h e C l a s s r o o m , ”
N a t i o n a l E l e m e n t a r y P r i n c i p a l . 1 7 : 6 9 - 7 1 , D e c e m b e r , 1937*
B a i l y , L. C . , " F i t t i n g t h e L i b r a r y t o t h e S c h o o l , ”
E d u c a tio n a l M e th o d s, 1 2 :1 - 9 , O c to b e r, 1932.
B a r n e s , C. M . , " E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l L i b r a r y M e t h o d s , ” W i l s o n
B u l l e t i n , 8 : 2 8 - 9 , S e p t e m b e r , 1933*
B a r r e t t , F . , " C o m p a ra tiv e S tu d y o f E le m e n ta ry S c h o o l
L i b r a r i e s , 11 C a l i f o r n i a J o u r n a l o f E l e m e n t a r y E d u c a t i o n ,
4 : 1 0 9 - 1 6 , N ovem ber, 1 9 3 5 .
B ro o k s , A. R . , " E le m e n ta r y S c h o o l L i b r a r y a s a n E d u c a t i o n a l
C e n t e r , " E d u c a t i o n a l O u t l o o k . 1 0 : 1 4 0 - 5 0 , M a r c h , 1936*
C a rn e y , E . L . , " L if e i n an E le m e n ta ry S c h o o l L i b r a r y ,"
P l a t o o n S c h o o l . 1 3 : 4 - 7 , S e p t e m b e r , 1939*
C a t t e l l , J . M . , "New C a l i f o r n i a C o u n t y L i b r a r y , ” S c h o o l a n d
S o c i e t y . 4 5 : 5 3 , J a n u a r y 9 , 1937*
D aw son, D . , " L i b r a r y P ro g ra m i n t h e E le m e n ta ry S c h o o l , ”
E d u c a tio n , A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and S u p e r v is io n , 2 2 :1 9 0 r8 ,
M arch , 1 9 3 6 .
102
D e v e r e a u x , M. C. , " E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l L i b r a r y , " C a t h o l i c
S c h o o l J o u r n a l , 3 8 : 1 3 1 “3 , May, 1 9 3 8 .
D o u g l a s , M. P . , " P a t t e r n s i n E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l L i b r a r y
S e r v i c e , " E d u c a t i o n a l M e t h o d . 192 1 7 7 - 8 3 , D e c e m b e r ,
1939E d w ard s, N ., "G u id es f o r th e E f f e c t i v e O r g a n iz a t i o n and
A d m in is tr a tio n o f th e E le m e n ta ry S c h o o l L i b r a r y ,"
E le m e n ta ry S c h o o l J o u r n a l . 3 6 :5 6 9 f f • , A p r i l , 1 9 3 6 .
F e n n e r , F . R . , " T h e y C a l l I t O ur L i b r a r y , " N a t i o n ’ s
S c h o o l s . 2 0 :5 3 - 5 , J u l y , 1937.
" L ib r a r ia n in th e S c h o o l," L ib ra ry J o u r n a l .
5 3 * 6 7 1 -3 , S e p te m b e r 1 5 , 1937G l o v e r , P . F . , " E l e m e n t a r y L i b r a r i e s i n t h e L ong B e a c h
S c h o o ls ," C a l i f o r n i a E le m e n ta ry S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s 1
A s s o c i a t i o n , p p . 1 1 2 -1 5 *
H o l l i s , V ., " L ib r a r y i n th e E le m e n ta ry S c h o o l," N a tio n a l
E d u c a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n J o u r n a l . 2 0 : 1 9 1 - 2 , J u n e , 1931*
H o r r a l l , A. H . , " D e v e l o p i n g o f a n E l e m e n t a r y L i b r a r y , "
A m e r i c a n S c h o o l B o a r d J o u r n a l . 9 0 : 4 4 —5 , May, 1935*
J o h n s o n , E . M . , "Do You N eed a S c h o o l L i b r a r y ? "
T e a c h e r . 4 8 : 1 8 8 f f • , N o v e m b e r, I 9 3 O.
G rade
J o h n s t o n e , R . , "T h e L i b r a r y a s a S o c i a l i z i n g I n f l u e n c e i n
t h e S o h o o l , " E d u c a t i o n a l M e th o d . 8 : 2 6 9 - 7 4 , F e b r u a r y ,
1929K a s t o w i t z , E . F . , " S i x t h G r a d e r s T ry I n d e x i n g ," W ilso n
B u l l e t i n . 1 0 :6 7 8 -8 0 , J u n e , 1936.
K i r k , M ., " D e v e lo p in g a n E m ergency C o u rse f o r t h e T e a c h e r
i n C h a rg e o f t h e E le m e n ta r y S c h o o l L i b r a r y , " W ilso n
B u l l e t i n . 1 0 : 1 9 - 2 4 , S e p t e m b e r , 1935*
L a t h r o p , E. A . , "Love o f B o o k s ," S c h o o l L i f e ,
O c to b e r, 1932.
1 8:35-6 ,
M a cB ea n , D. W . , " O r g a n i z a t i o n o f L i b r a r i e s i n t h e E l e m e n t a r y
S c h o o ls o f C h ic a g o ," L ib ra ry J o u r n a l , 6 4 :1 3 4 -6 ,
F e b r u a r y 1 5 , 1939*
103
M c C o rm ic k , T . , " D e v e l o p i n g a n E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l L i b r a r y , "
W ilso n B u l l e t i n , 8 :4 5 - 7 , S e p te m b e r, 1933.
M i l l e r , E . P . , a n d (J. F l u m e , " E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l L i b r a r y , "
S c h o o l E x e c u t i v e M a g a z i n e , 5 3 * 5 4 - 5 , O c t o b e r , 1933*
M u r r a y , H . , E . D u c a n , a n d M. N u g e n t , " L i b r a r y S e r v i c e , "
S i e r r a E d u c a t i o n N e w s, 3 3 : 2 7 , May, 1937*
M y ers, J . N - , "D ucks an d D ra k es an d E d u c a t i o n , " J o u r n a l , o f
E d u c a t i o n , . 1 1 6 : 1 6 7 - 9 , A p r i l 3 , 1933*
F y g m a n , C. H . , " L i b r a r i e s F l a y L e a d i n g H o l e , " T he N a t i o n 1s
S c h o o l s , 2 2 ; 2 4 - 5 , N o v e m b e r, 1938*
'
S m i t h , H. , " E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l L i b r a r y , " L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n
R e c o r d , 1 : 1 3 3 - 9 , M ay, 1 9 3 4 .
S p a i n , C. L. , " L i b r a r y i n E l e m e n t a r y P a t t e r n , " N a t i o n 1s
S c h o o l s , 2 4 : 3 7 - 8 , O c t o b e r , 1939*
S t a a t s , P . G. , " S i m p l e O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r a n E l e m e n t a r y
S c h o o l L i b r a r y , " I n s t r u c t o r , 4 8 : 1 1 f f . , N ovem ber, 1 9 3 8 .
S u t h e r l a n d , A. M. , " L i b r a r y P r o j e c t s , * * S i e r r a E d u c a t i o n a l
N ew s, 2 7 : 3 9 ~ 4 0 , . A p r i l , 1931*
T o w n s e n d , L. , " E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l L i b r a r y , "
a l N e w s. 3 1 : 3 0 - 1 , O c t o b e r , 1935*
S ie r r a E d u c a tio n ­
Von H a t t e n , E . A . , "T h e E l e m e n t a r y . L i b r a r y a s a n E f f e c t i v e
F a c to r in P ro g r e s s iv e E d u c a tio n ," C a lif o r n ia J o u rn a l
o f E l e m e n t a r y E d u c a t i o n . 2 : 1 5 4 - 6 2 , F e b r u a r y , 1934".
W e a v e r , D. A . , " M a k in g t h e L i b r a r y a R e a l A s s e t , " J o u r n a l
o f E d u c a t i o n . 1 1 6 : 5 0 0 - 1 , D ecem ber 4 , 1932.
W h e e le r, J . L . , "T h o u g h ts on th e P r e p a r a t i o n o f S c h o o l
L i b r a r i a n s , " L i b r a r y J o u r n a l , 5 0 : 2 4 2 - 5 , M a rc h 1 5 , 1935*
C.
PUBLICATIONS OF LEARNED ORGANIZATIONS
A b b o t t , R . B. , "T h e P u p i l s B u i l d a L i b r a r y , " T w e l f t h
Y e a rb o o k , N a t i o n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c i a t i o n , D e p artm en t
o f E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s , 1933*
104
B a e r , A. H. ,
S chool L ib ra ry D e c o r a tio n s ,a T w e lfth
Y e a rb o o k , - N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c i a t i o n , D e p a rtm e n t
o f E le m e n ta r y S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s , 1933B r i t t o n , J a s m i n e , " L i b r a r y P r a c t i c e s i n L os A n g e l e s , "
T w e lfth Y earb o o k , N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia tio n .
D e p artm en t o f E le m e n ta ry S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s . 1933.
O a l i f o r n i a S t a t e C u r r i c u l u m C o m m is s io n , " T e a c h e r ’ s G-uide
to C h ild D e v elo p m en t i n t h e I n t e r m e d i a t e G r a d e s ,"
S a c ra m e n to :
C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e D e p artm en t o f E d u c a tio n ,
1936.
C a r r o l , II. B . , " A p p r a i s i n g C h a n g e s i n A t t i t u d e s a n d
I n t e r e s t s , " T w e lfth Y earbo ok . N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n
A sso c i a t i o n . D e p a rtm e n t o f E le m e n ta ry S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s .
1933.
C e r t a i n , C. C *, " R e p o r t o f t h e J o i n t C o m m i t te e o n t h e
E le m e n ta ry S c h o o l L ib r a r y ," F o u rth Y earb o o k , N a tio n a l
E d u c a tio n A s s o c i a t i o n , D ep artm en t o f E le m e n ta ry S c h o o l
P r i n c i p a l s . 1925.
C u rra n , E . , " A c t i v i t i e s f o r th e E le m e n ta ry S ch o o l L ib r a r y ,"
T w e lfth Y earb o o k , N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia tio n .
D e p a r t m e n t o f E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s . 1933*
E a t o n , A. T . , " C la s s r o o m A c t i v i t i e s and t h e S c h o o l
L ib r a r y ," S ix th Y earb o o k . N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n
A s s o c i a t i o n . D e p a rtm e n t o f E le m e n ta ry S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s ,
1927.
E d i t o r i a l C o m m itte e , T w e lf th Y e a rb o o k , N a t i o n a l E d u c a tio n
A s s o c i a t i o n , D e p a rtm e n t o f E le m e n ta ry S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s ,
1933G o n n e , B . , "A L i b r a r y P r o j e c t :
The M a g ic K e y , " T w e l f t h
Y e a rb o o k , N a t io n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia t io n . D e p artm en t
o f E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s , 1933*
G o r b u t t , C . , " L i b r a r y Work w i t h M e x i c a n C h i l d r e n , "
T w e lfth Y earb o o k , N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia t io n ,
D e p a r t m e n t o f E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s . 1933*
H a m i l t o n , A. J . , " T h e E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l L i b r a r y , " T h i r d
Y e a rb o o k , N a t i o n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c i a t i o n , D e p artm en t
o f E le m e n ta ry S c h o o l P r in c ip a 1 a , 1924.
105
H a r g e r , L. L. , "An E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e L i b r a r y P l a n s , ”
T w e lfth Y earb o o k % N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia tio n .
D e p a rtm e n t o f E le m e n ta ry S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s . 1953.
K e l l e r , S . E . , 0 . M. B a r n e s , a n d M. P r a t t , "A L i b r a r y i n
a C o o p e r a tiv e C roup S c h o o l ," T w e lfth Y e a rb o o k .
N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c i a t i o n . D e p artm en t o f E le m e n ta ry
S c h o o l ~ 3 F r l n c l p a l a . 1933*
K e n t, 0 . A ., " O r g a n iz in g a L ib r a r y i n a n E le m e n ta ry S c h o o l,"
S ix th Y earb o o k . N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia tio n .
D e p artm en t o f E le m e n ta ry S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s . 1927.
L a th ro p , E. A -, " E le m e n ta ry S ch o o l L ib r a r y S e r v ic e a s i t i s
and S h o u ld B e ," T w e lf th Y e a rb o o k . N a t io n a l E d u c a tio n
A s s o c i a t i o n . D e p artm en t o f E le m e n ta ry S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s .
L e a v i t t , R . , "Book T ru c k S e r v i c e f o r a C o u n ty ," T w e lf th
Y e a rb o o k . - N a t i o n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c i a t i o n . D e p artm en t
o f E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s . 1933*
M a c K in n e y , & . , " S t a t e L i b r a r y P r o g r a m s , " T w e l f t h Y e a r b o o k .
N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c i a t i o n . D e p artm en t o f
E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s . 1933*
M o rg a n , J . E . , J r . , E d i t o r , "T he C u l t u r a l S i g n i f i c a n c e o f
th e S ch o o l L ib r a r y ," T w e lfth Y earb o o k . N a tio n a l
E d u c a tio n A s s o c i a t i o n . D e p artm en t o f E le m e n ta ry S c h o o l
P r i n c i p a l s . 1933*
N a tio n a l S o c i e t y f o r t h e S tu d y o f E d u c a tio n ,
Y earb oo k. 1927.
T w en ty - S i x t h
N i l e s , M ary, "C ur C i t i z e n s U se t h e S c h o o l L i b r a r y , "
T w e lfth Y e arb o o k . N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia t io n .
D e p a r t m e n t o f E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s . 1933*
R o b e r t s , B . , a n d A. B eekm an, " S u r v e y in g L i b r a r y N e e d s ,"
T w e lfth Y e arb o o k . N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia t io n .
D e p a r t m e n t o f E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s , 1933*
R o b i n s o n , M. R . , E d i t o r , "T he S c h o l a s t i c L i t e r a r y A p p r e ­
c i a t i o n T hrough C r e a tiv e W r i t i n g ," N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n
A s s o c i a t i o n . A d d r e s s e s and P r o c e e d i n g s . 1 9 2 7 •
R o g e r s , D. C . , "T h e C e n t u r y o f P r o g r e s s S c h o o l , " T w e l f t h
Y e a rb o o k , N a t i o n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c i a t i o n , D ep artm en t
o f E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l " P r i n c i p a l s . 1933*
106
S e l b y , M. F . , " W o r k in g w i t h t h e P u b l i c L i b r a r y , " T w e l f t h
Y e a rb o o k . N a t io n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c i a t i o n . D e p artm en t
o f E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s , 1933*
S h a f e r , P . F . , “A P r o j e c t i n S c h o o l a n d P u b l i c L i b r a r y
C o o p e ra tio n ," T w e lfth Y earb o o k . N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n
A s s o c i a t i o n . . D e p a rtm e n t o f E le m e n ta ry S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s ,
S t a n l e y , E . , " D e v e lo p in g a T a s te f o r B e t t e r B o o k s ," T w e lf th
Y e a r b o o k , ..N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f
E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s . 1933*
S t o k e s , G. , " i n t e g r a t i n g C l a s s r o o m a n d L i b r a r y A c t i v i t i e s , 11
T w e lfth Y earb o o k , N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia t io n ,
D e p a r t m e n t o f E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s « 1933*
S t u l l k e n , E . H. , "T he L i b r a r y i n t h e S p e c i a l S c h o o l , *
T w e lfth Y earb o o k , N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia tio n ,
D e p a r t m e n t o f E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s . 1.933*
T u r n e r , M -, C. H. W i l s o n , a n d 0 . M. D a v i s , “A L i b r a r y
O r g a n i z e d a n d M an ag ed b y P a r e n t s , * * T w e l f t h Y e a r b o o k ,
N a t i o n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c i a t i o n , D e p artm en t o f E le m e n ta ry
S c h o o l "f t p I n c i p a l s , 1933*
Van A n t w e r p , B . , " S u p p l e m e n t i n g M a t h e m a t i c s T h r o u g h t h e
S c h o o l,
T w e lfth Y earb o o k , N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia t io n .
D e p a rtm e n t o f E le m e n ta r y S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s , 1933Wood, H . , “S t a t e L i b r a r y E x t e n s i o n A c t i v i t i e s , ” T w e l f t h
Y e a rb o o k , N a t io n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c i a t i o n . D e p artm en t o f
E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s . 1933*
Z y v e , 0 . , “ The L i b r a r y *. An I n t e g r a l P a r t o f A c t i v i t i e s , ”
T w e lfth Y earb o o k . N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia tio n ,
D e p a r t m e n t o f E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s , 1933*
D.
PARTS OF SERIES
D e n v e r , C o l o r a d o , P u b l i c S c h o o l s C u r r ic u lu m C o m m itte e ,
P u p I I T e x t O u t l i n e f o r C o u r s e o f S t u d y , M o n o g ra p h
N o. 2 7 , 1 9 3 0 .
D e t r o i t P u b l i c S c h o o l s , C o u rse o f S tu d y i n th e U se o f t h e
L ib r a r y , G rades 1 to 6 .
D e t r o i t , M i c h i g a n , 1931*
107
E f f e c t i v e U ae o f L i b r a r y F a c i l i t i e s i n R u r a l S c h o o l s .
S t a t e o f C a l i f o r n i a D e p artm en t o f E d u c a tio n B u l l e t i n
Ho. 1 1 , 1934-*
F i e a s u r e R e a d i n g f o r B oys a n d G i r l s , S t a t e o f C a l i f o r n i a
D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n B u l l e t i n No. 1 7 , 1 9 3 5 S e l e c t i o n and D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S u p p le m e n ta ry and L ib ra ry
Books i n C a l i f o r n i a C o u n tie s , S t a t e o f C a l i f o r n i a
D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n B u l l e t i n No. 1 0 , 1 9 3 4 .
The L i b r a r y i n t h e E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l , S t a t e o f C a l i f o r n i a
D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n B u l l e t i n No. 1 8 , 1935*
V i r g i n i a S t a t e B o ard o f E d u c a tio n , T e n t a t i v e C o u rse o f
S tu d y f o r th e V i r g i n i a E le m e n ta ry S c h o o l, 1934.
E.
UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS
B e n s o n , A. N . , "T h e O r g a n i z a t i o n a n d A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e
E le m e n ta ry S c h o o l L ib r a r y i n O a k la n d ."
U n p u b lish e d
M a s t e r ’ s t h e s i s , S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y , P a l o A l t o , 1931*
1 3 3 PP C a p p l e m a n , J* W. , "T he E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l L i b r a r y a n d i t s
In flu e n c e on th e P r o g r e s s o f S tu d e n ts ."
U n p u b lish e d
M a s t e r ’s t h e s i s , S ta n f o r d U n i v e r s i ty , P a lo A lto , 1932.
161 p p .
C u n n in g h a m , H. H . , " T h e E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l L i b r a r y a s a
S o c ia liz in g E x p e rie n c e .
U n p u b lish e d M a s te r ’ s t h e s i s ,
S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y , P a lo A l t o , 1937127 p p .
G o ld , V e ra L . , "M eth o d s o f U s in g t h e L i b r a r y f o r C la s s ro o m
In s tru c tio n ."
U n p u b lish e d M a s te r’ s t h e s i s , U n iv e r s ity
o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , L os A n g e l e s , 1933*
H I PPH u f f , W i l l i a m F . , "A S t u d y o f t h e P r o v i s i o n s Made L i b r a r i e s
i n P u b lic E le m e n ta ry S c h o o ls o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a . "
U n p u b lish e d M a s te r ’ s t h e s i s , U n iv e r s ity o f S o u th e rn
C a l i f o r n i a , L o s A n g e l e s , 1929*
1^0 p p .
APPENDIX
109
1249 D rake A v e .,
B u rlin g a m e , C a l i f o r n i a
March. 2 5 , 1 9 4 1
F e llo w P r i n c i p a l :
I am m a k i n g a s u r v e y o f t h e E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l
L ib ra ry f a c i l i t i e s
a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n i n S a n M a te o C o u n ty
a n d X am m o s t d e p e n d e n t u p o n t h e P r i n c i p a l s
f o r much o f
my d a t a .
E n c lo se d
i s a Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , w h ic h I hope you
w ill f i l l
o u t a n d m a i l t o me a t y o u r e a r l i e s t c o n v e n i e n c e .
T h an k in g you f o r y o u r c o o p e r a t i o n ,
I re m a in ,
V ery t r u l y
y o u rs,
H ow ard B l e t h e n
P r i n c i p a l - R o o se v e lt
School
H B /p
E n c l.
B u rlin g a m e
110
M arch 2 0 ,
19 4 1
TO THE PRINCIPALS AND TEACHERS OF SAN MATEO COUNTY:
Mr* H o w ard B l e t h e n , P r i n c i p a l o f t h e R o o s e v e l t S c h o o l
i n B u r lin g a m e , i s m ak in g a s t u d y o f t h e l i b r a r y s e r v i c e s
o f t h e S a n M a te o C o u n t y s c h o o l s ( u r b a n a n d r u r a l ) a s a p a r t
o f th e r e q u ir e m e n t f o r h i s M a s t e r ’ s D egree a t th e U n i v e r s i t y
o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a .
So t h a t t h i s s t u d y w i l l b e a s
a c c u ra te a s p o s s i b l e , he seek s th e c o o p e ra tio n o f a l l th e
p r i n c i p a l s and te a c h e r s .
E n c lo se d you w i l l f i n d a
Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Mr. B l e t h e n w o u ld l i k e t o h a v e y o u f i l l o u t .
I know t h a t y o u w i l l r e a l i z e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f s u c h a s t u d y
a n d w i l l m ake e v e r y p o s s i b l e e f f o r t t o c o o p e r a t e .
R e tu rn
th e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e to h im .
W ith b e s t p e r s o n a l w is h e s t o y o u ,
I am
V ery t r u l y
yo u rs,
ELEANOR FREEMAN COLLINS
D ir e c to r o f C u rricu lu m
EFC:AM
Enc.
I ll
SAN MATEO COUNTY LIBRARY SURVEY
(Q u e stio n n a ire se n t to p r in c ip a ls )
I.
G e n e ra l S c h o o l D a ta
A.
Name o f P r i n c i p a l _________________________
B.
Name o f S c h o o l __
C.
T ype o f S c h o o l
1 -3 g r d .
e le m .
1-5 g rd .
e le m .
1 -6 g r d .
e le m .
? -8 g rd .
e le m .
1 -8 g rd .
e le m .
D.
E n r o l l m e n t _______
E.
Number o f T e a c h e r s ________________________
F.
T ype o f L i b r a r y
C l a s s r o o m l i b r a r i e s o n l y ______________
S c h o o l L i b r a r y ____________ ______________
C l a s s r o o m a n d s c h o o l l i b r a r y _________
G.
II.
Age o f S c h o o l L i b r a r y ____________________
L i b r a r y E q u ip m e n t and P e r s o n n e l
c a p a c i t y o f s c h o o l l i b r a r y ___
A.
S e a tin g
B.
A p p ro x im a te num ber o f v o lu m e s on hand
G.
Number o f p e r i o d i c a l s p e r m onth^ ______
D.
A nnual b u d g et a llo tm e n t
E.
S o u rce f o r r e a d in g m a t e r i a l
( p e r p u p i l ) __
A n n u a l b u d g e t ____________________________
C e n t r a l S c h o o l L i b r a r y ________________
112
C o u n t y L i b r a r y _____
C ity
F.
F.
L i b r a r y _______
T. A
. _______
L is t o th e r
so u rces
L ib ra ria n
F u ll-tim e
t r a i n e d ____________________ __________
F a rt-tim e
t e a c h e r ______________________________
F a i d a s s i s t a n t __________________________________
F u p i l a s s i s t a n t _________ ________________________
Any o t h e r m e t h o d ____________________________
III.
L ib ra ry A d m in is tra tio n
A.
Is th e
lib ra ry
used a s a
B.
Is
lib ra ry
used f o r c la ss ro o m te a c h in g ?
C.
M e th o d o f a d m i s s i o n
th e
s t u d y h a l l ? _________
F r e e a c c e s s t o p u p i l s ________________________
F e rm it s y s te m — th ro u g h p r i n c i p a l ’ s o f f i c e
t h r o u g h l i b r a r i a n ___________
th ro u g h c la ss ro o m te a c h e r ^
D.
Issu an c e o f books
C o m p le te p u p i l fre e d o m t o
F a r t i a l p u p i l freed o m t o
s t a c k s ___________
s t a c k s _ _________ _
O n l y t h r o u g h r e q u e s t o f p u p i l _______________
E.
D i s t r i b u t i o n of books to c la ss ro o m
N o n e ................................................................................... ..........
113
O c c a s i o n a l l y ___
Common p r a c t i c e
F.
D u rin g w hat h o u rs i s
Is i t
G-*
th e l ib r a r y
open b e fo re sch o o l h o u rs?
Do y o u g i v e
In stru c tio n s
o p e n ? ____________
A f t e r ? ______
in th e use o f th e
lib ra ry ?
S y s t e m a t i c p r o g r a m f o r a l l p u p i l s ________________
L im ite d to g r a d e s
1 ( ) 2 ( ) 3 ( ) 4 ( ) 5 ( ) 6 ( ) 7 ( ) 8 < )
No n e _________
H.
Do y o u u s e t h e p u b l i c
E n tire ly
lib ra ry ?
s o _____________________________ ________________
L a r g e l y s o __________________
V e r y l i t t l e ______________________________________________
N o n e____________________________________________________ __
I.
The s e l e c t i o n a n d p u r c h a s e o f b o o k s i s
i n th e
hands o fs
L i b r a r i a n _______________ E n t i r e f a c u l t y ______________
P r i n c i p a l ^ ______________ T e a c h e r c o m m i t t e e _________ _
S u p e rin te n d e n t
F u p l l s e l e c t i o n _____________
A ny o t h e r m e t h o d _______________________________________
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