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Reading achievement in relation to a remedial program

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READING ACHIEVEMENT IN RELATION TO
A REMEDIAL PROGRAM
A T h e s is
P re s e n te d to
th e F a c u lty o f th e S c h o o l o f E d u c a tio n
U n iv e r s ity o f S o u th e rn C a lif o r n ia
In P a r tia l F u lfillm e n t
o f t h e R e q u ire m e n ts f o r t h e D e g re e
M a s te r o f S c ie n c e i n E d u c a tio n
by
L e ila M a rjo rie L ie s v e ld
A ugust
1941
UMI Number: EP54250
All rights reserved
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UMI EP54250
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ft* <C"H ^
c/
*i
Th is thesis, w ri t te n und er the direction of the
C ha ir m an of the candidate?s G u id an ce C o m m i t t e e
an d a p p r o v e d hy all m e m b e rs of the C o m m it te e ,
has been p r es e n te d to an d ac c e p te d by the F ac u lty
of the S c h o o l of E d u c a ti o n of T h e U ni ve rsi ty of
Southe rn California in p a r ti a l fu lfi llm e nt of the
requirements f o r the de gre e of M a s t e r of Science
in Ed ucation.
D a te.,
.
L ?0 *
...l 9
.4
i1.
D ean
Guidance C om m ittee
C. C, Crawford
Chairman
D. Welty Lefever
Louis P. Thorpe
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
PAGE
X . THE PROBLEM....................................
1
S t a t e m e n t o f t h e p r o b l e m ............................................. 2
II.
F a c t o r s t& b e c o n s i d e r e d
in th e
S u m m ary .
.
. .
.
...
. . .
s tu d y .
. . .
4
...........................................5
THE PR O C E D U R E ...........................
M a te ria ls u sed
7
...................................................
7
T e rm a n I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t .........................................
7
D ia g n o s tic E x a m in a tio n o f S i l e n t R e a d in g
A b i l i t i e s ............................................................................ 8
...................................11
Q u e s tio n n a ire .
O ffic e f i l e s
......................................................................... 1 1
N u r s e * s f i l e s ......................................................................11
P ro c ed u re s
......................................................................... 1 1
In te llig e n c e t e s t.
. . . .
..................................... IB
G e n e r a l r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n .............................I S
R e a d in g an d i n t e l l i g e n c e
.....................................
R e a d in g c o m p re h e n s io n an d b a c k g ro u n d
.1 4
. . .
15
. . .
16
. . . . .
16
R e a d in g c o m p re h e n s io n an d s e e i n g a n d
h e a rin g d i f f i c u l t i e s
......................... .
R e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s io n i n r e l a t i o n
f r e e r e a d i n g ..........................................
to
iii
CHAPTER
PAGE
R e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s io n i n r e l a t i o n
a c a d e m ic
to
sc o re s.
17
R e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s io n i n r e l a t i o n
to r a te
o f r e a d i n g ...............................
. 18
S um m ary...................................................................................................... 1 8
III.
TOTAL READINGCOMPREHENSION.......................................................... 19
I V . READING COMPREHENSION IN RELATION TO BACKGROUND . 4 1
V . SIGHT AND HEARING D IFFIC U L T IE S IN RELATION TO
COMPREHENSION....................... .
.
. ............................................ 4 8
V I . READING COMPREHENSION IN RELATION TO FREE
READING
................................................................................. 5 5
V I I . READING COMPREHENSION IN RELATION TO ACADEMIC
GRADES........................................................
V III.
63
READING COMPREHENSION IN RELATION TO RATE OF
READING ....................................................................
IX . CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS .
C o n c lu s io n s
? ? ?
. . . . . .
71
................................... 74
........................................
74
R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s ...................................
. 80
. BIBLIOGRAPH3T.............................................................
APPENDIX.............................................................................................................
86
.
. 9B
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE
I.
PAGE
D i s t r i b u ti o n o f th e I .Q .
E le v e n ,
II*
i n G ra d e s T en
a n d T w e lv e ............................................................................ 2 0
C o m p a r is o n o f S t a n d a r d M ean t o T h a t o f G ra d e
T w e lv e i n E a c h F a r t o f t h e T e s t ..........................................23
III.
C o m p a r is o n o f t h e S t a n d a r d M ean t o T h a t o f
G ra d e E l e v e n i n E a c h P a r t o f t h e T e s t . . . . .
IV .
27
C o m p a r is o n o f t h e S t a n d a r d M ean t o T h a t o f
G ra d e T e n i n E a c h F a r t o f t h e T e s t .................................... 32
V. C o r r e l a t i o n T a b l e o f R e a d i n g C o m p r e h e n s io n
to
I .Q .
i n G r a d e s T em , E l e v e n , a n d T w e lv e . . .
37
V I . R e l a t i o n s h i p o f R e a d in g C o m p r e h e n s io n t o
B a c k g r o u n d o f P u p i l s o f G ra d e T w e lv e .
V II. R e la tio n s h ip
. . . . .
43
o f R e a d i n g C o m p r e h e n s io n t o
B a c k g r o u n d o f P u p i l s o f G ra d e E l e v e n . ....................... 4 4
V I I I . R e l a t i o n s h i p o f R e a d i n g C o m p r e h e n s io n t o
B a c k g r o u n d o f P u p i l s o f G ra d e T e n .................................... 45
IX . R e l a t i o n s h i p
o f T o t a l R e a d i n g C o m p r e h e n s io n
To S i g h t a n d H e a r i n g D i f f i c u l t i e s
f o r G ra d e
T w e lv e .........................................
50
X . R e l a t i o n s h i p o f T o t a l R e a d i n g C o m p r e h e n s io n
To S i g h t a n d H e a r i n g D i f f i c u l t i e s
f o r G ra d e
E l e v e n ........................................................................................................... 51
V
tabu:
pag e
X I. R e la tio n s h ip
o f T o t a l R e a d i n g C o m p r e h e n s io n
t o S ig h t and H e a rin g D i f f i c u l t i e s
fo r
G ra d e T e n .......................... - ..........................................................
. 52
X I I . R e l a t i o n s h i p o f T o t a l R e a d in g C o m p r e h e n s io n
t o F r e e R e a d e r s a n d N o n - r e a d e r s i n G ra d e
T w e l v e ...................................................................................................... 57
X I I I . R e la tio n s h ip
to
o f T o t a l R e a d i n g C o m p r e h e n s io n
F re e R e a d e rs and N o n -re a d e rs
E le v e n .
X IV . R e l a t i o n s h i p
i n G ra d e
..............................................................................................5 8
o f T o t a l R e a d i n g C o m p r e h e n s io n
*
to F re e R e a d e rs and N o n -re a d e rs
i n G ra d e
T e n ..........................
. . . .
59
XV. S t u d e n t ? s A c a d e m ic R e c o r d i n G ra d e T w e lv e i n
R e l a t i o n s h i p t o T o t a l R e a d i n g C o m p r e h e n s io n .
? 64
X V I. S t u d e n t ? s A c a d e m ic R e c o r d i n G ra d e E l e v e n i n
R e la tio n s h ip to
T o t a l R e a d in g C o m p r e h e n s io n .
? 65
X V I I. S t u d e n t ? s A c a d e m ic R e c o r d i n G ra d e T e n i n
R e l a t i o n s h i p t o T o t a l R e a d in g C o m p r e h e n s io n .
. 67
X V T II. C o r r e l a t i o n T a b l e o f R e a d i n g C o m p r e h e n s io n t o
A c a d e m ic G r a d e s i n G r a d e s , T e n , E l e v e n , a n d
T w e lv e . . . ? ? ?
.......................
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 6 8
X IX . C o r r e l a t i o n T a b l e o f R e a d i n g C o m p r e h e n s io n t o
R a te o f R e a d in g i n G ra d e s T en , E le v e n , and
T w e l v e ............................................................................................ .
? 71
LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE
PAGE
1 . D i s t r i b u t i o n o f R e a d i n g C o m p r e h e n s io n S c o r e s
o f G r a d e s T e n , E l e v e n , a n d T w e lv e i n t h e
D i a g n o s t i c E x a m i n a t i o n o f S i l e n t R e a d in g
A b ilitie s .
......................................................................... 24
2 . C o m p a r is o n o f G ra d e T w e lv e t o S t a n d a r d Norm
i n t h e D ia g n o s tic E x a m in a tio n o f S i l e n t
R e a d in g A b i l i t i e s .
............................................................... 26
3 . C o m p a r is o n o f G ra d e E l e v e n t o S t a n d a r d Norm
i n t h e D ia g n o s tic E x a m in a tio n o f S i l e n t
R e a d i n g A b i l i t i e s ....................................................................3 1
4 . C o m p a r is o n o f G ra d e T en t o S t a n d a r d Norm
i n t h e D ia g n o s tic E x a m in a tio n o f S i l e n t
R e a d i n g A b i l i t i e s ................................................................... 35
m
CHAPTER
I
THE PROBUM
R e a d in g h a s b e e n a n d s t i l l
p ro c e ss e s in th e f i e l d
is
o f la rn in g .
one o f th e b a s ic
T h e re h a s b e en a
r e n e w e d i n t e r e s t i n t h e a g e - o l d p r o b le m t h e p a s t y e a r s
becau se o f
th e f e e lin g
in d e v e lo p in g s k i l l s ,
t h a t th e s c h o o l h a s b e en in a d e q u a te
a t t i t u d e s , and h a b i t s .
le v e ls o f le a rn in g , a ls o , have f a i l e d
in s i l e n t re a d in g .
tific
a p p ro a c h to
c is m s t i l l
to
The h ig h e r
f o s t e r an i n t e r e s t
T h i s r e a l i z a t i o n h a s m ade f o r a s c i e n н
th e
s tu d y o f re a d in g a lth o u g h th e c r i t i н
e x i s t s t h a t th e s tu d e n ts i n h ig h s c h o o l a s w e ll
a s a d u lt s c a n n o t r e a d w id e ly o r c r i t i c a l l y . *
N u m e ro u s
r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s h av e b e e n c a r r i e d on in an a tte m p t t o
a n a ly z e r e a d in g f a i l u r e s .
S u c h s t u d i e s h a v e m ade n o t
o n ly th e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s b u t a l s o
c la s s ro o m t e a c h e r s r e a l i z e
t h a t t h e r e h a s b e e n n o e co n o m y i n t h e t e a c h i n g o f r e a d i n g .
T h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r now r e a l i z e s t h a t s h e c a n d o m uch i n
s c ie n tific a lly
d ia g n o s in g s tu d e n ts to f in d d e f i c i e n c i e s
in
r e a d in g and th e n c a r r y in g o u t a w e ll- p la n n e d re m e d ia l c o u r s e .
R e a d in g p r e s e n t s a g r e a t c h a l le n g e t o t e a c h e r s .
* P a u l W i t t y a n d D a v id K o p e l , R e a d i n g a n d t h e
E d u c a tiv e P r o c e s s . (B o s to n ;
G in n a n d C o . , 1 9 3 9 ) , p p . 7 .
2
S ta te m e n t o f th e p ro b le m .
th is
I t w as t h e p u r p o s e o f
i n v e s t i g a t i o n t o d is c o v e r t h e r e a d in g a c h ie v e m e n t
o f t h e s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s o f t h e G e r in g C i t y
S c h o o l s , a n d t o m ak e a d e t a i l e d d i a g n o s i s o f t h e t e s t
r e s u l t s to d is c o v e r f a c to r s a s s o c ia te d w ith th e s e deн
f i c i e n c i e s a s a s t e p to w a rd a r e m e d ia l p ro g ra m .
F o r t h e a b o v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n t h e f o l l o w i n g ( Q u e s tio n s
w e re s e t up t o be a n s w e re d :
( 1 ) W hat i s
th e re a d in g a b i l i t y
o f each o f th e th re e
g ra d e s?
I n a n s w e rin g t h e q u e s t i o n , t h e
i n v e s t i g a t o r w is h e d
t o s e e t h e t o t a l r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s io n o f g r a d e s t e n ,
e le v e n ,
is
and tw e lv e .
a g a in .
The n a t u r a l a s s u m p tio n i s t h a t t h e r e
B u t c a n one assum e t h a t t h e g a in s e a c h y e a r
a r e c o m p a ra b le ?
F r o m e th e s t u d y o n e c a n s e e i f
i s d e p e n d e n t on su c h f a c t o r s a s i n t e l l i g e n c e .
see w hat f a c to r s
a re r e la te d
th e g a in
One c a n
t o c o m p re h e n s io n , w h e re t h e
p o i n t s o f g r e a t e s t s t r e n g t h a r e , and w h e re th e s e g ro u p s
sh o w t h e g r e a t e s t w e a k n e s s .
T h is s h o u ld s e r v e a s a g u id e
i n w o rk in g o u t a r e m e d ia l p ro g ra m
if
su ch is need ed .
( 2 ) Do s t u d e n t s c o m in g f r o m hom es i n w h ic h p a r e n t s
a r e f o r e i g n b o r n show h i g h e r o r l o w e r r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s io n ?
The q u e s t io n i s a p e r t i n e n t one b e c a u s e o f th e
f o r e ig n p o p u la tio n t h a t h as s e t t l e d
p e rm a n e n tly i n t h e
3
l o c a l i t y w h e re t h e s t u d y w a s m a d e .
fa c ts
(2 )
M ig h t n o t t h e s e
(1 ) t h a t a f o r e i g n la n g u a g e i s s p o k e n i n t h e hom e,
re a d in g m a te r ia l
i s lim i te d , and
(3 ) t r a v e l
is h o t
com m on, a f f e c t g r e a t l y t h e r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s io n e s p e c н
ia lly
a id
in th e v o c a b u la ry ?
i n k n o w in g w h e t h e r t o
T he a n s w e r t o
p la c e s t r e s s
th e
q u e s tio n w i l l
on v o c a b u la ry d eн
v e lo p m e n t i n t h e f o r e i g n g r o u p s , e n c o u r a g e t h e q u a n t i t y
o f r e a d i n g d o n e , o r t o m ake i t a s c h o o l - w i d e p r o g r a m .
( 3 ) Do s e e i n g a n d h e a r i n g d e f e c t s h a v e a n y r e l a t i o n н
s h i p t o r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s io n ?
The q u e s tio n h a s b e e n a s k e d t o p ro v e w h e th e r th o s e
s t u d e n t s who a r e p o o r r e a d e r s h a v e som e p h y s i c a l d e f e c t
in s i g h t o r h e a r in g t h a t s h o u ld b e t r e a t e d .
can be p ro v id e d f o r th o s e to
som e e x t e n t .
be fo u n d t h a t th e s e d e f e c t s have l i t t l e
a w h o le s c h o o l r e m e d i a l p r o g r a m i s
If
so , c are
B u t t h e r e m ay
e f f e c t and t h a t
n e ce ssa ry .
( 4 ) Do s t u d e n t s r a n k h i g h who d o f r e e r e a d i n g ?
W ith c u r r i c u l u m
changes in a l l p ro g re s s iv e s c h o o ls ,
e x p e n s iv e r e a d in g h a s b e e n s e t up a s a d e s i r a b l e g o a l.
T h e a s s u m p t i o n i s t h a t s t u d e n t s who r e a d w i d e l y f r o m m agн
a z i n e s , b o o k s , a n d n e w s p a p e r s show g r e a t e r r e a d i n g c o m p re н
h e n s io n .
I n th e g ro u p s t u d i e d , th e n , one s e e s th e s t a t u s
of fre e re a d e rs.
T h ere w i l l a ls o b e ,
i n a n s w e rin g t h e
q u e s t i o n , a n i m p l i c a t i o n a s t o w h e th e r t h e p r e s e n t p ro g ra m
4
o f f r e e r e a d i n g m e e ts a d e q u a te ly t h e n e e d s o f t h e s t u d e n t
o r. to w h at e x te n t r e v is io n
is n e c e ssa ry .
(5 ) D o e s r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s io n sh o w a h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n
w ith g ra d e s re c e iv e d
i n a c a d e m ic c o u r s e s ?
One o f t h e common r e m a r k s m ade b y t e a c h e r s o f a l l
a c a d e m ic s u b j e c t s i n t h e s c h o o l i s
n o t se e m t o
t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s do
c o m p re h e n d w h a t t h e y r e a d .
T he a n s w e r t o
th e
q u e s t i o n w i l l t e l l w h e t h e r c o m p r e h e n s io n h a s a d i r e c t
b e a r in g on t h e f a i l u r e s
i n t h e a c a d e m ic f i e l d s .
I s th e
i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t a c a d e m ic t e a c h e r s n e e d t o s t r e s s t h e
t e c h n i c a l v o c a b u l a r i e s o f t h e i r own p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d
as
w e l l a s t h e p h r a s i n g a n d p a r a g r a p h m e a n in g s ?
( 6 ) I s t h e r e a r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n r a t e
o f re a d in g
a n d c o m p r e h e n s io n ?
The an sw er t o t h e q u e s t io n w i l l
th e f a s t re a d e r
I f su ch i s
?t e l l u s w h e t h e r
i s a b e t t e r r e a d e r th a n th e
th e c a s e ,
it
s lo w r e a d e r .
w i l l im p ly t h a t t h e s t u d y h a b i t s
o f t h e s t u d e n t s w i l l h a v e t o b e o b s e r v e d m o re c l o s e l y t o
s e e i f r e m e d i a l w o rk c a n b e d o n e t h e r e .
F a c to rs to be c o n s id e re d in th e s tu d y .
th e s tu d y
it
I n m a k in g
s h o u l d b e m ade c l e a r t h a t t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n
lim ita tio n s to be c o n s id e re d .
When t h e s t u d y i s
i t d o es n o t n e c e s s a r ily fo llo w t h a t th e
h o ld t r u e f o r a
lo n g p e r io d o f tim e .
c o m p le te d
f i n d i n g s now w i l l
T h ere h a s b e e n a
5
g r e a t i n f l u x o f p o p u la tio n i n t o th e N o rth P l a t t e V a lle y
w h e re t h e s c h o o l s t u d i e d
is lo c a te d .
T he c a u s e i s t h e
e x tre m e d r o u th i n N e b ra s k a a n d a d j o i n i n g s t a t e s .
under a la rg e
irrig a tio n
p r o je c t, th e v a lle y
B e in g
c o n tin u e s to
p ro g re s s a s f a r a s a g r ic u ltu r e and o th e r in d u s tr ie s a re
c o n c e rn e d .
A t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , new i n d u s t r i e s a r e c o n н
s i d e r i n g t h e v a l l e y a s a p o s s i b l e l o c a t i o n w h ic h m ig h t
change th e p ic tu r e
a t a l a t e r d a te *
The d e p r e s s io n h a s a f f e c t e d th e s c h o o l p o p u la tio n
a s w e ll*
s ta tu s ,
T he num ber h a s i n c r e a s e d r a p i d l y .
h o w e v e r , o f t h e in c o m in g g r o u p s i s
f o r th o s e in p r o f e s s io n a l g ro u p s.
p o p u la tio n
T h e e c o n o m ic
lo w e r e x c e p t
Some o f t h e in c o m in g
i s t r a n s i e n t a n d m o v es r a p i d l y t o o t h e r c e n t e r s .
O t h e r g r o u p s m ay s e t t l e
p e rm a n e n tly d e p e n d in g u p o n th e
in d u s trie s *
W ith a c h a n g e i n c l i m a t i c
o m ic t r e n d s ,
o u r s c h o o l m ay b e e v e n l e s s s t a b l e .
A t p re s e n t our s e t-u p
changes.
is
c o n d itio n s o r econн
s u b j e c t t o m any a n d r a p i d
T h is w i l l a f f e c t th e f i g u r e s o b ta in e d i n su c h a
m anner t h a t th e t r u e p i c t u r e o f th e s c h o o l i s n o t g iv e n .
T h e s e f i g u r e s m ay b e u s e d t o g u i d e
in s e t t i n g up a re m e d ia l
p ro g ram now , b u t su c h w i l l b e o f l i t t l e
te s tin g
o c c u rs a t s ta te d
I n su m m a ry , t h e
v a lu e u n le s s f u r t h e r
in te rv a ls .
in v e s tig a to r p la n s to
s tu d y th e
r e a d i n g a c h ie v e m e n t o f t h e h ig h s c h o o l p u p i l s o f G e rin g
H ig h S c h o o l a s a d i a g n o s i s p r e p a r a t o r y t o
r e a d i n g im p ro v e m e n t p r o g r a m .
a re s
s e t ti n g up a
The q u e s tio n s t o b e a n sw e re d
( 1 ) W hat i s t h e r e a d i n g a b i l i t y
o f each o f th e th r e e
i
g ra d e s in th e
s e n io r h ig h s c h o o l?
( 2 ) Do s t u d e n t s c o m in g
f r o m h om es w i t h f o r e i g n b a c k g r o u n d s show h i g h e r o r l o w e r
r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s io n ?
have any r e la tio n s h ip
(4 )
( 3 ) Do s e e i n g a n d h e a r i n g d e f e c t s
to
t o t a l r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s io n ?
Do s t u d e n t s r a n k h i g h e r who do f r e e r e a d i n g ?
(5 ) D oes
r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s io n sh o w a h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h a c a н
d e m ic g r a d e s ?
( 6 ) I s t h e r e a r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n r a t e
o f r e a d i n g a n d c o m p r e h e n s io n ?
T h is s tu d y w i l l b e c o lo r e d
b y t h e u n u s u a l g ro w th i n p o p u l a t i o n i n th e v a l l e y
d ro u th c o n d itio n s e ls e w h e re .
due to
CHAPTER
II
THE PROCEDURE
T h is c h a p te r w i l l d e a l w ith th e m a t e r i a l s u se d
in c a rry in g on t h is
o b ta in th e r e s u l t s
s tu d y and a ls o th e p ro c e d u re s u se d t o
t h a t have b een re c o rd e d *
I.
MATERIALS USED
T h i s s e c t i o n o f t h e s t u d y w i l l nam e t h e t e s t s
u s e d i n t h e s t u d y a n d t h e r e a s o n f o r c h o o s i n g them *
A ll
o t h e r r e c o r d s u s e d w i l l a l s o b e nam ed*
T e rm a n I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t *
T he T e rm a n I n t e l l i g e n c e
T e s t w a s u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e I*Q * o f a l l t h e s t u d e n t s *
I t w a s a d m i n i s t e r e d o n l y t o t h o s e who w e r e new i n t h e
s y s te m *
O f f ic e r e c o r d s w e re u s e d t o o b t a i n t h e s c o r e s
f o r th e o th e r s tu d e n ts a s th e t e s t s
to
th e m a t a n e a r l i e r d a t e *
n e c e ssa ry to
had b een a d m in is te re d
The i n v e s t i g a t o r th o u g h t i t
o b ta in th e I .Q . f o r th e s tu d e n ts a s a n o v e rн
v ie w f o r t h e w h o le s t u d y .
F rom o b t a i n i n g s u c h i n f o r m a t i o n
o n e w o u ld know w h e t h e r t h e g r o u p s s t u d i e d w e r e o f n o r m a l
i n t e l l i g e n c e o r w h e th e r th e g ro u p s s t u d i e d w e re o f s u p e r i o r
o r a b n o rm a l i n t e l l i g e n c e *
By d e t e r m i n i n g t h i s , i m p l i c a t i o n s
w o u ld n o t b e m ade u n r e l a t e d t o
th is
s tu d y .
8
D ia g n o s tic E x a m in a tio n o f S i l e n t R e a d in g A b i l i t i e s ,
The D ia g n o s tic E x a m in a tio n o f S i l e n t R e a d in g A b i l i t i e s b y
M. J . V an W agenen a n d A u g u s t D v o r a k w a s a d m i n i s t e r e d t o
g rad e s te n ,
s e m e s te r.
e le v e n , and tw e lv e a t th e end o f th e f i r s t
T h is t e s t w as c h o se n b e c a u s e i t
w e ll th e f i e l d
o f re a d in g .
It
c o v e rs u n u s u a lly
is d ia g n o s tic
p ro v id in g a d ia g n o s is o f s p e c i f i c
in n a tu re
e le m e n ts o r p h a s e s o f
r e a d i n g a b i l i t y w h ic h a r e s u s c e p t a b l e t o d e v e l o p m e n t a l
o r re m e d ia l te a c h in g a s w e ll a s t o p r o v id e a m e a su re o f
g e n e ra l re a d in g le v e ls .
The v a l i d i t y o f th e t e s t ,
i t m e a su re w h at i t p u r p o r ts t o m e a s u re ,
its
d is c rim in a tin g c a p a c ity .
i s d e te rm in e d b y
The d i s c r i m i n a t i v e
w as d e te rm in e d b y a s tu d y o f 9000 c a s e s .
b a s e d o n 3 0 ,0 0 0 e a s e s i n a l a r g e c i t y
in s m a lle r c i t i e s
and r u r a l a re a s .
does
c a p a c ity
T h e n o rm s a r e
a n d 1 5 ,0 0 0 c a s e s
T he n o rm s w e r e d e н
te rm in e d i n r e l a t i o n t o g ra d e p la c e m e n t and c h r o n o lo g ic a l
age le v e ls .
T h is t e s t
is
c o rre c t re sp o n se
in to
so c o n s tr u c te d t h a t th e s t u d e n t f s
in each o f th e te n t e s t s
a c o m p a ra b le s c o r e d e s i g n a t e d a s t h e
T h is m akes i t
is
c o n v e rte d
"C S c o r e . ?
p o s s ib le to m e a su re p r o g r e s s in u n i t s t h a t
a re s u b s ta n tia lly
e q u a l a t a l l p a r t s o f th e m e a s u rin g
s c a le .
The t e s t
is
o f c o m p r e h e n s io n .
c o m p o se d o f t e n p a r t s .
It
P a rt I is ra te
i s m ade u p o f p a r a g r a p h s t h a t t a k e
9
a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e sam e t i m e t o r e a d .
The p a r a g r a p h s a r e
n o t c o m p le x b u t r a t h e r c o n t a i n o n l y s i m p l e v o c a b u l a r y a n d
s im p le s e n te n c e s t r u c t u r e .
re la tio n s .
P a rt I I
T he ite m s l i s t e d
h e re
b y a p p r o x i m a t e l y equal* s t e p s .
is
th e p e rc e p tio n o f
in c re a s e
in d i f f i c u l t y
G ra d e s f o u r , s i x ,
e ig h t,
an d tw e lv e c o n s i s t i n g o f 200 p u p i l s e a c h w e re t e s t e d w ith
s e v e fa j. h u n d red t r i a l t e s t s t o
d e te rm in e d i f f i c u l t y v a lu e s .
The v o c a b u la r y and in f o r m a tio n i s k e p t on s im p le r l e v e l s
th a n th e r e l a t i o n s h i p .
P a rts I I I
and a lo n e .
a n d IV i n v o l v e v o c a b u l a r y i n t h e c o n t e x t
D i f f i c u l t y v a lu e s w e re a g a in d e te rm in e d b y
t e s t i n g 800 s tu d e n ts in g ra d e s f o u r , s i x , e ig h t, and tw e lv e .
The s tim u lu s w o rd s i n b o th t e s t s w e re ta k e n fro m th e
T h o r n d i k e W ord L i s t .
I n T e s t I I I t h e w o rd s w e re u s e d i n
s h o r t s e n t e n c e s s o n o q u e s t i o n w o u ld b e h a d a b o u t t h e m ean н
in g .
T he w o rd s f r o m w h ic h o n e w a s t o b e s e l e c t e d w e r e
m o re d i f f i c u l t t h a n t h e s t i m u l u s w o r d .
I n T e s t I V , w h ic h
w a s i s o l a t e d w o r d s , t h e f i v e f r o m w h ic h o n e w a s t o b e c h o s e n
w e re s im p le r th a n th e o r i g i n a l w o rd .
P a r t V i s a g e n e r a l in fo rm a tio n t e s t .
i s b a s e d o n m any d i f f e r e n t f i e l d s
T he c o n t e n t
a l l w ith in th e p u p i l 's
e x p e r ie n c e b u t n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a p a r t o f h i s c la s s ro o m
w o rk .
P a r t s V I and X, i n c l u s i v e , m e a su re a l l p h a s e s o f
re a d in g .
E a c h o f t h e f i v e p h a s e s e x a m in e d h a s t w e n t y p a r t s
1G
b u t th e m a te r ia l i s
s o a r r a n g e d a s t o a v o i d a m in d s e t
to w a rd q u e s tio n s t h a t a r e s i m i l a r and f o llo w e a c h o th e r*
T h e a t t e m p t i s m ad e t o h a v e t h e m a t e r i a l i n a f o r m m o re
n e a r l y a p p ro x im a tin g n o rm al re a d in g *
fro m a l l f i e l d s
so th a t
T h e m a t e r i a l co m es
i t w i l l re s e m b le th e g e n e r a l r e a d н
in g done in t h e e la s s ro o m o r o u t s i d e .
V a rie d v o c a b u la r y
a n d s e n t e n c e s t r u c t u r e a r e u s e d a s m u ch a s i s f e a s i b l e .
P a r t V I d e a ls w ith c e n tr a l th o u g h t.
t o r e a d f o r t h e m a in t h o u g h t s e e i n g
The id e a
is
i t w ith o u t a llo w in g
s u p p o rtin g id e a s to d i s t r a c t o r c o n fu s e .
P a r t V II d ia g n o s e s a b i l i t y
t o g e t d e t a i l w hen t h o s e
d e t a i l s a r e a p a r t o f a c o m p a ct w h o le .
P a rt V III is
to
t e s t to
see i f
th e
see w hat is s a id
in th e p a ra g ra p h b u t a ls o to
to
in te rg re tio n
o f d is p e rs e d
in te rre la tio n
of it.
id e a s .
T he
f o llo w an id e a b u i l t up th r o u g h s e v e r a l
s e n te n c e s w ith o u t b e in g d i s t r a c te d *
It
in v o lv e s s e e in g
of p a rts .
P a r t X i s d r a w in g i n f e r e n c e s .
see i f
The id e a i s n o t o n ly
s tu d e n t g ra s p s th e s ig n if ic a n c e
P a r t IX i s
p u rp o se i s
in te rp re ta tio n .
T h e t e s t a im s t o
t h e p u p i l c a n a p p l y a n i d e a t o a m uch w i d e r r a n g e
of s itu a tio n s
a f t e r f i r s t u n d e rs ta n d in g th e
The t o t a l s c o r e , T , i s
s io n b ased on th e l a s t f iv e
id e a b u i l t u p .
t h e t o t a l r e a d i n g c o m p re h e n н
te s ts .
11
Q u e s tio n n a ire *
A q u e s t io n n a i r e w as u s e d t o d e t e r н
m in e t h e a m o u n t o f f r e e r e a d i n g d o n e *
T h is w as p r e s e n te d
to
th e p u p ils a t th e end o f th e
se co n d s e m e s te r.
T hey w e re
to
i n d i c a t e t h e am ount o f r e a d in g done i n f i c t i o n b o o k s ,
n o n - f i c t i o n b o o k s , e n u m e r a te t h e p e r i o d i c a l s r e a d r e g u l a r l y ,
th e n e w sp a p ers re a d r e g u l a r l y , th e b i r t h p l a c e
o f th e p a r e n ts ,
th e b i r t h p l a c e o f t h e p u p i l s , and th e la n g u a g e sp o k e n i n
t h e home*
A file
w as a v a i l a b l e t o u s e t o r e c a l l a l l r e н
q u ir e d r e a d i n g d o n e i n t h e c l a s s e s a s a c o m p le te r e c o r d
h a s b e e n k e p t o f su c h w ith nam e, b o o k , and a u th o r .
S u fн
f i c i e n t t i m e w a s g i v e n t o m ak e t h i s r e c o r d c o m p l e t e .
O ffic e f i l e s .
A t th e end o f th e f i r s t
s e m e s te r,
th e r e c o r d s i n t h e o f f i c e w e re u se d t o o b t a i n d a ta on
th e g ra d e s o f th e s tu d e n ts .
N u rse fs r e c o r d s .
E ach f a l l th e p u p ils
in sch o o l a re
e x a m in e d b y t h e s c h o o l n u r s e a s a p r o c e d u r e i n f u l f i l l i n g
th e re q u ire m e n ts f o r th e s t a t e .
Krom t h e s e r e c o r d s w i l l
be o b ta in e d a l l c a s e s o f s i g h t and h e a rin g d e f e c ts , th o s e
t r e a t e d , and th o s e n o t.
II.
PROCEDURES
T h i s p a r t o f t h e c h a p t e r w i l l d e a l w i t h t h e m e th o d s
o f c o m p u ta tio n u se d and th e p u rp o s e o f su c h c o m p u ta tio n s .
IB
In te llig e n c e t e s t s *
h a v in g b e e n g iv e n *
T h e T e rm a n I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t
t h e d a te w e re t a b u l a t e d an d t h e m eans
f o r g r a d e t e n w e r e c o m p u te d b y t h e s t a n d a r d f o r m u l a , f o r
c o m p u ta tio n o f th e m ean .
fig u re d to
se e w ith in w hat lim i ts tw o - th ir d s o f th e c a se s
w o u jd f a l l .
to
T he s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n w a s t h e n
T he r e l i a b i l i t y
o f t h e m ean w a s t h e n c o m p u te d
s e e w h e t h e r t h e p r e d i c t i o n b a s e d o n t h e m ean I . Q . w o u ld
be tru e
if
a n i n f i n i t e num ber o f s t u d e n t s i n g ra d e t e n
w e re te s te d *
The r e l i a b i l i t y
o f t h e m ean w a s m e a s u r e d i n
te rm s o f th e s ta n d a r d e r r o r o f th e m ean.
t h e s t a n d a r d e r r o r o f t h e m ean t h e
To d e t e r m i n e
s ta n d a rd d e v ia tio n
w as d iv id e d b y t h e s q u a r e r o o t o f t h e num ber o f c a s e s .
T h e a n s w e r f o u n d h e r e w o u ld i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e c h a n c e s
w e r e tw o t o
lim its
o n e t h a t t h e t r u e m ean w o u ld l i e w i t h i n t h o s e
on e i t h e r s i d e o f t h e o b s e rv e d m ean.
T he sam e p r o c e s s w as u s e d t o
c o m p u te t h e m e a n s ,
th e s ta n d a rd d e v ia tio n , and th e s ta n d a rd
e r r o r o f t h e m ea n
in g ra d e s e le v e n and tw e lv e .
G e n e r a l r e a d i n g c o m p re h e n s io n .
The d a ta fro m th e
r e a d i n g t e s t s w a s t a b u l a t e d a n d a t a b l e m ade t o sh o w t h e
s t a n d a r d m ean o n e a c h p a r t o f t h e t e s t
t h e m ean o f g ra d e t e n .
a d m in is te re d .
i n c o m p a r is o n t o
T h e m e d ia n w as g i v e n i n t h e t e s t
B u t s i n c e t h e m e d ia n w a s d e t e r m i n e d o n s u c h
13
a l a r g e n u m b er o f c a s e s t h e m ean a n d t h e m e d ia n w o u ld b e
s o n e a r l y t h e sam e t h a t f o r p u r p o s e s h e r e
t o m e a n t h e sam e a s t h e m ean#
The s ta n d a r d d e v i a t i o n w as
th e n f ig u r e d t o s e e w ith in w hat l i m i t s
c a s e s w o u ld f a l l *
i t w i l l be u sed
T he r e l i a b i l i t y
tw o -th ird s o f th e
o f t h e m ea n w as t h e n
c o m p u te d t o s e e w h e t h e r t h e p r e d i c t i o n b a s e d o n t h e m ean
o f T e s t I w o u ld b e t r u e
i f a n i n f i n i t e num ber o f s t u d e n t s
i n g ra d e t e n w e re t e s t e d .
w as m e a s u re d i n te r m s o f
The r e l i a b i l i t y
o f t h e m ean
th e s ta n d a r d e r r o r o f th e m ean.
To d e t e r m i n e t h e s t a n d a r d e r r o r o f t h e m ea n t h e s t a n d a r d
d e v i a t i o n w as d i v i d e d b y t h e s q u a r e r o o t o f t h e n u m b er
of cases.
T h e a n s w e r h e r e a g a i n w o u ld i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e
c h a n g e s w e r e tw o t o
o n e t h a t t h e t r u e m ean w o u ld l i e w i t h i n
th o s e l i m i t s on e i t h e r s id e o f th e o b s e rv e d m ean.
T he d i f н
f e r e n c e w a s t h e n f o u n d b e tw e e n t h e s t a n d a r d m ean a n d g r a d e
t e n m ean o n e a c h p a r t o f
th e t e s t .
By d i v i d i n g t h i s
d ifн
f e r e n c e b y t h e s t a n d a r d e r r o r o f t h e m e a n , we w o u ld f i n d
t h e . s t a f c d a r d e r r o r u n i t s g r a d e t e n w o u ld b e a b o v e o r b e lo w
th e s ta n d a rd m ean.
By r e f e r r i n g t o T a b l e X1K o f t h e b o o k
S t a t i s t i c s f o r T e a c h e r s b y T i e g s a n d C r a w f o r d we f i n d t h e
c h a n c e s o u t o f a h u n d r e d t h a t a c a s e w o u ld b e a b o v e o r
b e lo w t h e s t a n d a r d m e a n .
ra tio
to
show t h a t t h e r e
I n o t h e r w o r d s , we c o u l d g e t t h e
is r e a l s u p e rio rity o r in f e r io r ity
in g rad e te n .
T h e sam e m e th o d w a s u s e d f o r c o m p u t i n g t h e g r a d e
14
m ean, s ta n d a rd d e v ia tio n ,
th e d if f e r e n c e , r a t i o ,
t w e lv e *
d if f e r e n c e , s ta n d a rd e r r o r o f
and c h a n c e s f o r g ra d e s e le v e n and
T h e s e t h r e e t a b l e s w i l l sh o w how c e r t a i n we
a r e t h a t th e g ra d e o r g ro u p s a r e b e t t e r o r w o rse in e a c h
p a r t o f th e te s t*
A f i g u r e w a s m ade t o
s h ip o f a l l g ra d e s to
h e n s io n *
A p ro file
b e tte r
illu s tra te
th e r e la tio n н
e a c h o t h e r i n t h e t o t a l r e a d i n g c o m p re н
c h a r t w a s m ade t o
th re e g ra d e s ra n k s as to
sh o w how e a c h o f t h e
g r a d e p la c e m e n t i n e a c h p a r t o f
th e te s t*
R e a d in g an d i n t e l l i g e n c e *
The c o e f f i c i e n t o f
c o r r e l a t i o n b e tw e e n r e a d i n g a n d i n t e l l i g e n c e
in g ra d e te n
w a s n e x t f i g u r e d b y t h e P e a r s o n P r o d u c t M om ent M e th o d o f
c o m p u tin g t h e c o e f f i c i e n t o f c o r r e l a t i o n *
T h i s w o u ld
show w h e t h e r t h e r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s io n t e n d s t o v a r y i n
a f ix e d m anner w ith th e v a r i a ti o n s
o b ta in in g t h i s
in
in te llig e n c e .
i t w o u ld b e n e c e s s a r y t o
e r r o r o f th e c o r r e l a t io n c o e f f i c i e n t .
A fte r
o b ta in th e s ta n d a rd
T h is w as done b y
f o llo w in g th e s ta n d a r d f o rm u la f o r t h i s
c o m p u ta tio n *
T h is
w o u ia sh o w t h a t t h e c h a n c e s w e r e tw o t o o n e t h a t t h e t r u e
c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t w o u ld n o t go a b o v e o r b e lo w t h e
c o rre la tio n
c o e ffic ie n t*
ch an ces t h a t th e
N e x t we w o u jd w i s h t o know t h e
t r u e c o r r e l a t i o n b a se d on an u n lim ite d
n u m b e r o f c a s e s w o u ld b e a b o v e z e r o *
T h i s w as f o u n d b y
15
d iv id in g th e c o r r e l a t io n c o e f f i c i e n t by th e s ta n d a rd
e r r o r o f th e c o r r e la tio n
p re te d
c o e ffic ie n t.
T h is can b e i n t e r н
i n t o c h a n c e s a g a i n f r o m T a b l e XIX o f t h e T i e g s
an d C ra w fo rd b o o k o n S t a t i s t i c s
f o r T e a c h e rs, page 137.
T h e sam e w o u ld b e c o m p u te d f o r g r a d e s e l e v e n a n d
tw e lv e and b e r e p r e s e n te d
i n t h e sa m e t a b l e .
R e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s io n a n d b a c k g r o u n d .
In a ta b le
t h e f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n w o u ld b e m ade s h o w in g t h e s c o r e s
o f t h e s t u d e n t s f r o m A m e ric a n hom es a n d t h o s e f ro m hom es
w h e re t h e p a r e n t s a r e f o r e i g n b o r n .
T h ese w e re th e n s e t
u p i n p e r c e n t a g e s s i n c e t h e g r o u p s w o u ld b e o f u n e q u a l
n u m b e rs.
T h e n t h e m ean f o r t h o s e o f A m e ric a n p a r e n t a g e
w a s c o m p u te d a n d a l s o t h e m ean f o r t h e o t h e r g r o u p .
s t a n d a r d e r r o r o f e a c h m e a n w as f o u n d b y t h e
d u re u sed b e fo re
ite
in t h i s
s tu d y .
T he
sam e p r o c e н
A g a in , s i n c e
in an i n f i n н
n u m b e r o f c o m p a r is o n s t h e d i f f e r e n c e s w o u ld d i s t r i b u t e
t h e m s e l v e s a p p r o x i m a t e l y a c c o r d i n g t o a n o r m a l c u r v e , we
m ay a n s w e r t h e q u e s t i o n a s t o w h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e
tw e e n t h e tw o m e a n s a n d t h e i r
s ta n d a rd e r r o r .
u s e d w a s t h e o n e u s e d b e f o r e i n c o m p u tin g l i k e
is beн
The fo rm u la
th in g s .
A g a in we w i s h t o know w h a t t h e c h a n c e s a r e t h a t t h o s e o f
o n e b a c k g r o u n d w o u ld a lw a y s h a v e a d i f f e r e n c e
T h e r e f o r e , we f i n d t h e r a t i o
in
its
fa v o r*
b e tw e e n t h e d i f f e r e n c e a n d
16
its
s t a n d a r d e r r o r b y t h e s t a n d a r d fo rm u la f o r s u c h .
The r a t i o
te lls
u s how m any s t a n d a r d e r r o r u n i t s t h e
o b se rv e d d if f e r e n c e
is
above z e ro .
By r e f e r r i n g
to
T a b l e X IX , t h e sam e a s u s e d b e f o r e , we g e t t h e c h a n c e s
th a t w ill t e l l us
a d iffe re n c e
in
w h e th e r o n e b a c k g ro u n d w i l l a lw a y s h a v e
its
fa v o r.
H e a d in g c o m p r e h e n s io n a n d s e e i n g a n d h e a r i n g d i f f i c u ltie s .
A f r e q u e n c y t a b l e w as m ad e t o
show t h e n u m b e r o f
s t u d e n t s who h a d n o d e f e c t s i n r e l a t i o n
so o re .
to t h e i r re a d in g
T h o s e w ho h a d s e e i n g a n d h e a r i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s w e r e
a ls o ta b u la te d .
The m ean, th e s ta n d a r d d e v i a t i o n ,
e n c e , th e s ta n d a rd
e rr o r o f th e d if f e r e n c e , r a t i o ,
c h a n c e s w e r e c o m p u te d f o r t h i s
d iffe rн
and
i n t h e sam e m a n n e r a s t h e y
w e r e f o r r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s io n i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o
The p u rp o s e o f t h i s c o m p u ta tio n w as t o
re a d in g .
show w h e t h e r t h o s e
s t u d e n t s w i t h o u t s e e i n g a n d h e a r i n g d e f e c t s w o u ld a lw a y s
have a d if f e r e n c e
in th e ir fa v o r.
T he c o m p u t a t i o n w o u ld
g i v e u s t h e c h a n c e s t h a t we c o u l d b a s e t h i s o n .
R e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s io n i n r e l a t i o n
A f r e q u e n c y t a b l e w as m ade t o
to
fre e re a d in g .
show t h e n u m b e r o f s t u d e n t s
who d i d f r e e r e a d i n g i n r e l a t i o n s h i p
t o t h e i r s c o r e s and
t h o s e who d i d n o t i n r e l a t i o n s h i p
th e ir sc o re s.
to
T he
p e r c e n t a g e s w ire c o m p u te d a s t h e g r o u p s w o u ld n o t b e e q u a l
17
i n n u m b e r.
The m ean , t h e
e n c e , th e s ta n d a rd
s ta n d a rd d e v ia tio n , th e d i f f e r н
e r r o r o f th e d if f e r e n c e , r a t i o ,
and
c h a n c e s w e r e a g a i n c o m p u te d i n t h e sam e f a s h i o n a s b e н
fo re.
T h is w as do ne t o
s e e w h at t h e c h a n c e s w e re t h a t
o n e o f t h e g r o u p s w o u ld a lw a y s h a v e a d i f f e r e n c e
in
its
fa v o r.
R e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s io n i n r e l a t i o n t o
a c a d e m ic s c o r e s .
T he g r a d e s f o r t h e f i r s t s e m e s t e r f o r g r a d e t e n w e r e t a k e n
fro m th e o f f i c i a l r e c o r d
in th e s u p e rin te n d e n t?s o f f ic e .
T h e g r a d e s w e re r e c o r d e d w i t h o n e a s h i g h a n d f i v e a s
lo w .
B u t t o k e e p i n s t r i c t s t a t i s t i c a l fo rm t h e g r a d e s
w e re t r a n s l a t e d
s o t h a t f i v e w o u ld b e h i g h a n d o n e w o u ld
b e lo w .
A f r e q u e n c y t a b l e w as m ade f o r g r a d e t e n
th e s t u d e n t s w e re r a n k e d i n r e l a t i o n
s c o re and t h e i r g ra d e a v e ra g e .
i n w h ic h
to t h e i r re a d in g
The c o r r e l a t i o n
w a s c o m p u te d b e tw e e n g r a d e s a n d r e a d i n g
sc o re s.
c o e ffic ie n t
T he s t a n н
d a rd e r r o r o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t w as fo u n d an d
th e r a t i o
a n d c h a n c e s c o m p u te d i n t h e sam e m a n n e r a s t h e y
w e r e f o r r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s io n a n d t h e I . Q .
ta b le s
S im ila r
a n d c o m p u t a t i o n s w e r e m ade f o r . g r a d e s e l e v e n a n d
tw e lv e .
A c o rre la tio n
t a b l e w as m ade f o r g r a d e s t e n ,
e le v e n ,
a n d t w e l v e t o b e t t e r sh o w t h e a b o v e c o m p u t a t i o n s a n d t o
s u m m a r iz e .
18
R e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s io n i n r e l a t i o n
A c o r r e l a t i o n t a b l e w as m ade t o
c o e ffic ie n t,
fic ie n t,
o f re a d in g .
sh o w t h e c o r r e l a t i o n
th e s ta n d a rd e r r o r o f th e c o r r e la tio n c o e fн
th e r a t i o ,
and tw e lv e .
to r a te
and th e c h a n c e s f o r g ra d e s t e n ,
T he p u r p o s e o f t h i s w as t o
c o m p u ta tio n s f o r t h e t h r e e g r a d e s and t o
e le v e n ,
s u m m a riz e t h e
sh o w w h e t h e r t h e
r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s io n t e n d s t o v a r y i n a f i x e d m a n n e r
w ith th e v a r i a ti o n s in re a d in g r a t e .
I t w a s c o m p u te d i n
t h e sam e m a n n e r a s t h o s e b e f o r e w e r e c o m p u te d .
S um m ary.
t o be fo llo w e d
T h is c h a p t e r h a s d e a l t w ith th e p r o c e d u r e s
in t h i s s tu d y .
T h i s w as d i v i d e d i n t o t h e
m a te r ia l u se d and th e a c tu a l p ro c e d u re p u rs u e d .
In th e
m a t e r i a l s u s e d w e r e t h e T e rm a n I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t , T he
d i a g n o s t i c E x a m in a tio n o f S i l e n t R e a d in g A b i l i t i e s ,
Q u e s tio n n a ire on f r e e r e a d in g , th e
o ffic e f i le s
a c a d e m ic r e c o r d s , a n d t h e n u r s e ' s f i l e s
h e a rin g d i f f i c u l t i e s .
a
fo r
f o r s i g h t and
T h e p r o c e d u r e sh o w e d t h e c o m p u ta -
t i o n s m ade i n o r d e r t o a n s w e r t h e q u e s t i o n s e t u p i n t h e
p r o b le m a n d t o
g iv e th e t a b l e s and g ra p h s t h a t w e re u s e d
as illu s tr a tio n s .
CHAPTER
III
TOTAL READING COMPREHENSION
The p u rp o s e o f t h i s
a b ility
c h a p te r i s to
o r c o m p r e h e n s io n i n g r a d e s t e n ,
tw e lv e a s a g u id e t o
be done,
if
sh o w t h e r e a d i n g
e le v e n , and
d e t e r m i n e w h a t r e m e d i a l w o rk s h o u l d
any.
In th e f i r s t p la c e l e t us n o te th e i n te l li g e n c e
q u o tie n ts o f th e
s tu d e n ts in g ra d e s te n ,
and th e d i s t r i b u t i o n to
n o rm a l o r a v e r a g e .
lig e n c e
is
e le v e n , and tw e lv e
s e e i f t h e y a r e a b o v e o r b e lo w
P rom t h i s we c a n n o t e w h e t h e r i n t e l н
a f a d t b r i n r e a d i n g c o m p re h e n s io n .
P ro m T a b l e I we n o t e t h a t t h e m e a n f o r g r a d e t w e l v e
is
1 0 6 .8 2 w i t h t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f t h e m ean b e i n g
1 2 .5 7 .
T h i s w o u ld m ean t h a t t w o - t h i r d s o f a l l t h e c a s e s
w o u ld f a l l b e tw e e n 1 1 9 .3 9 a n d 9 4 . 2 5 , o r t h a t t h e c h a n c e s
a r e o n e i n s i x t h a t a n y g i v e n c a s e w i l l b e a b o v e 1 1 9 .3 9
o r b e lo w 9 4 . 2 5 .
T he s t a n d a r d
e r r o r o f t h e m ean f o r g ra d e
t w e l v e p r o v e d t o b e 1 . 6 3 , w h ic h m e a n s t h a t we c a n p r e d i c t
t h a t t h e c h a n c e s a r e tw o t o
o n e t h a t t h e t r u e m ean f o r a l l
e a s e s o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e s e 59 o b s e r v e d c a s e s w o u ld f a l l
b e tw e e n 1 0 5 .1 9 a n d 1 0 8 . 4 5 .
We w o u ld a s s u m e t h e n t h a t t h i s
g r o u p o f 59 t w e l f t h g r a d e r s i s
o f n o rm al i n t e l l i g e n c e ^
w h ic h w o u ld m ea n we й re n o t d e a l i n g w i t h a n u n u s u a l g r o u p
20
TABLE
I
DISTRIBUTION OF I . Q ! S . IN GRADES
TEN, ELEVEN, AND TWELVE
I .c >
1 4 0 -1 4 4
1 3 5 -1 3 9
1 3 0 -1 3 4
1 2 5 -1 2 9
1 2 0 -1 2 4
1 1 5 -1 1 9
1 1 0 -1 1 4
1 0 5 -1 0 9
1 0 0 -1 0 4
9 5 - 99
9 0 - 94
8 5 - 89
8 0 - 84
7 5 - 79
7 0 - 74
G ra d e .
10
G ra d e
11
G ra d e
12
1
3
4
6
8
1
8
11
9
5
5
2
3
2
1
0
3
3
8
3
10
21
5
e.
i
5
3
1
5
4
12
10
7
7
3
3
4
78
T o ta l
105*9
M e an s
S ta n d a rd d e v ia tio n 14*85
S ta n d a rd e r r o r
o f m ean
1 .6 8
66
1 0 5 .0 8
1 1 .7 5
59
1 0 6 .8
1 2 .5 7
1 .4 5
1 .6 3
-
21
and any d e f ic ie n c ie s w i l l n o t be due to any la c k
o f n o rm al
in te llig e n c e .
F rom T a b l e I we a l s o n o t e t h a t g r a d e e l e v e n h a s
a m ea n o f 1 0 5 * 0 8 w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 1 1 * 7 5 .
T h is m eans a g a in t h a t t w o - t h i r d s o f a l l t h e
e a s e s w o u ld
f a l l b e tw e e n t h e ^ m e a n s o f 9 3 * 7 3 a n d 1 1 6 .8 3 o r t h a t t h e
c h a n c e s a r e on e i n s i x t h a t a n y c a s e w i l l be ab o v e 116*83
o r b e lo w 9 3 . 7 3 .
T he s t a n d a r d e r r o r o f th e m ean f o r g r a d e
e l e v e n w a s 1 . 4 5 f r o m w h i c h we c a n p r e d i e t t h a t t h e c h a n c e s
a g a i n a r e tw o t o
o n e t h a t t h e t r u e m ean f o r a l l c a s e s
b a s e d o n t h e s e o f g r a d e e l e v e n w i l l f a l l b e tw e e n 1 0 6 .5 3
an d 1 0 3 .6 3 .
We c a n a s s u m e t h e n t h a t t h i s g r o u p i s o f
n o rm a l i n t e l l i g e n c e a l s o ,
lo w e r i n r a t i n g
a lth o u g h th e y a r e s l i g h t l y
t h a n g r a d e t w e lv e *
F o r g r a d e t e n T a b le . 1 sh o w s t h a t t h e m ean i n t e l l i н
gence is
1 0 5 .9 w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 1 4 . 8 5 .
T h is
m e a n s t h a t t w o - t h i r d s o f a l l t h e c a s e s w i l l f a l l b e tw e e n
t h e m e a n s o f 9 1 .0 5 a n d 1 2 0 .7 5 o r t h a t t h e c h a n c e s a r e o n e
i n s i x t h a t a n y e a s e w i l l f a l l b e lo w 9 1 * 0 5 o r a b o v e 1 2 0 . 7 5 .
T h e s t a n d a r d e r r o r o f t h e m ea n i s
1 . 6 8 w h ic h m e a n s t h a t
we c a n p r e d i c t t h a t t h e c h a n c e s a r e tw o t o
one t h a t th e
t r u e m ean f o r a l l c a s e s on t h e b a s i s o f t h e s e o b s e r v e d
i n g r a d e t e n w i l l f a l l b e tw e e n 1 0 2 .2 2 a n d 1 0 7 . 5 8 .
A g a in
we m ay a s s u m e t h a t we a r e d e a l i n g w i t h a g r o u p o f n o r m a l
i n t e l l i g e n c e a n d o n e o n t h e sam e l e v e l a s t h e
ju n io rs .
22
I n su m m arizin g th e
in te llig e n c e
q u o tie n ts o f th e
g r o u p s s t u d i e d , we m ay s a y t h a t r t h e y a r e a l l ,
te n ,
g rad es
e le v e n , tw e lv e , o f n o rm al i n t e l l i g e n c e .
T a b l e I I sh o w s a c o r r e l a t i o n o f . 5 2 b e t w e e n t h e
in te llig e n c e
q u o tie n t o f g rad e te n and t h e i r re a d in g
c o m p re h e n s io n , w h ic h i n t e r p r e t e d m eans t h a t t h e r e
d e f i n i t e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n i n t e l l i g e n c e
r e a d i n g c o m p re h e n sio n .
q u o tie n t and
G rade e l e v e n show s a h i g h e r c o r н
r e l a t i o n o f . 6 1 w h i l e g r a d e t w e l v e sh o w s . 3 8 .
sh o w s t h e r e
The r a t i o
is
is a
a re la tio n sh ip but i t
sh o w s p r a c t i c a l c e r t a i n t y
The l a s t
i s n o t a s m arked.
in g ra d e s te n and
e l e v e n t h a t i n an i n f i n i t e num ber o f s a m p lin g s t h e c o r н
r e l a t i o n w i l l be above z e ro ,
and in g ra d e tw e lv e th e
c h a n c e s a r e 3 6 0 0 t o 1 t h a t t h e sam e w i l l b e t r u e .
f o r e we c a n s a y t h a t t h e r e
is
T hereн
a d e fin ite re la tio n s h ip
b e tw e e n i n t e l l i g e n c e and r e a d i n g c o m p re h e n s io n .
By F i g u r e 1 we n o t e t h e r e
a b ility
is
a g a in in re a d in g
e a c h y e a r b u t t h a t t h e g a in s a r e n o t c o m p a ra b le .
The f i g u r e show s t h e g r e a t e s t g a i n fro m t h e sophom ore
y e ar to th e
j u n i o r y e a r and l e s s fro m j u n i o r to s e n i o r .
T he i n t e l l i g e n c e
q u o tie n t o f g ra d e s t e n and e le v e n a re
p r a c t i c a l l y t h e sam e.
te llig e n c e
B ut g ra d e tw e lv e w ith a h ig h e r i n н
q u o t i e n t show ed l e s s g a i n .
co m p a rab le and i s n o t due w h o lly t o
G ain th e n i s n o t
in te llig e n c e .
O th e r
23
TABLE
II
CORHEfcKTCEBN TABLE OF READING COMPREHENSION TO
I . Q . IN GRADES TEN, ELEVEN, AND TWELVE
C o rre la tio n
c o e ffic ie n t
.5 2
11
.6 1
12
R a tio
C hances
00
CO
?
6 .5
O ver 3 ,4 0 0 ,0 0 0
00
o
?
10
S ta n d a rd e r r o r
of
c o rre la tio n
c o e ffie ie n t
.
o
00
G rade
7 .6 2
O ver 3 ,4 0 0 ,0 0 0
.1 1
3 .4 5
3600 t o 1
xriu
X o . (.2i.t1T. I ? n iv (-i-vit j- K nok> t> uv, L ?.╗s A 'lp rr-]'?'
-V-
25
f a c t o r s s u c h as amount o f f r e e r e a d i n g d o n e , p r e v i o u s
t r a i n i n g , g u i d a n c e i n r e a d i n g g i v e n by t h e t e a c h e r , s t r e s s
o f o u t s i d e a c t i v i t i e s , and l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s m i g h t p r o v e
in flu en tial.
T h e r e f o r e w h i l e we c a n assume t h e r e i s a g a i n
we c a n n o t s a y t h a t i t
i s a lw a y s c o m p a r a b l e a s t h e r e a r e t o o
many f a c t o r s t o be c o n s i d e r e d .
Knowing t h a t we a r e d e a l i n g w i t h g r o u p s o f n o r m a l i n t e l l i н
g e n c e , we a r e now r e a d y t o s e e w h e t t h e r e a d i n g a b i l i t y o f
th e s e groups i s .
L o o k in g a t g r a d e t w e l v e , F i g u r e 2, we s e e t h a t t h e
g r o u p i s s u p e r i o r i n c o m p a r i s o n t o t h e n a t i o n a l norm.
The
chances a r e 1 0.3 to 1 t h a t t h i s group has r e a l s u p e r i o r i t y
i n t o t a l r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n a s shown by row T o f T a b l e
III.
We c a n n o t a s s u m e , h o w e v e r, t h a t t h e y a r e s u p e r i o r i n
a l l p a r t s t h a t go t o make up t o t a l r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n .
The t e r m i n c l u d e s , a s s t a t e d e a r l i e r ,
the c e n t r a l th o u g h t,
ta ils,
(1) a b i l i t y t o g r a s p
(2) a b i l i t y t o n o t e c l e a r l y s t a t e d deн
(3) i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ,
(4) i n t e g r a t i o n o f d i s p e r s e d
i d e a s , and (5) a b i l i t y t o draw i n f e r e n c e s .
T h e r e a r e two
d i s t i n c t w eaknesses, th e f i r s t in a b i l i t y to grasp th e
c e n t r a l t h o u g h t and t h e s e c o n d i n a b i l i t y t o draw i n f e r e n c e s .
T h i s may be s e e n i n T a b l e I I , T e s t 6 and 10.
t h i s group f a i l s
In o th e r w ords,
t o s e e t h e m a in i d e a o f t h e p a r a g r a p h b u t
i s d i s t r a c t e d by t h e s u p p o r t i n g i d e a s .
We a l s o n o t e by
T a b l e I I I , T e s t 7 , t h a t t h i s group i s e s p e c i a l l y a p t
iREKlisgpsE
N o.
6201T , -TTi t i v e r s t ( y
B o o k sto re, L o s A n g ek
27
TABLE
III
COMPARISON OF THE STANDARD MEM TO THAT OF
GRADE TWELVE IN EACH PART OF TEST
P a r ts ! S ta n -G ra d e
S ta n н
of
d ard
d a rd tw e lv e
te st
D e v ia н
m e a n m ea n
tio n
3 0 .9
9 1 .3
9 8 .4
D ifн S ta n d a rd
R a tio
erro r
ferн
ence
or
d iffe re n c e
1 .1 3
.7 8
1 .6 3
5 .3 9
4 .2 3
.6 7
1 t o 3 ,4 0 0 ,0 0 0
9 1 ,0 0 0 t o 1
3 .1 to 1
2 .5
.6
.0 5
1 .4 2
1 .0 8
.8 9
1 .7 6
.5 5
.0 6
24 t o 1
1 to 2 i4
1 to 1 .1
3 .3
2 .3
2 .0
1 .3
.9 7
1 .0 3
2 .5 4
2 .3 7
1 .9 4
184 t o 1
121 t o 1
38 t o 1
.8
1 .3
1 .0 8
.9 7
.7 4
1 .3 4
1 to 3 .'
1 0 .3 to 1
8 .7
6 .0
1 2 . 55
-6 .1
3 .3
1 .1
1 0 .9
8 .3
6 .8 5
-
1
2
3
37
88
9 7 .3
4
5
6
9 8 . 3 :1 0 0 . 8
87
8 6 .4
95
9 4 .9 5
7
8
9
95
95
95
9 8 .3
9 7 .3
9 7 .0
9 .9 5
7 .4 5
7 .9
10
T
95
95
9 4 .2
9 6 .3
8 .3
7 .5
-
C hances
28
in i t s
a b ility
to g rasp d e ta il#
T h is w o u ld p ro v e t h a t
t h e i r re a d in g h as been la r g e ly f o r d e t a i l r a th e r th a n to
s e e t h e p i c t u r e a s a w h o le #
o ffere d are
in th e f i e l d s
S in c e th e s e n io r s u b je c ts
of so c ia l stu d ie s,
lite ra tu re ,
sc ie n c e ,
and c o m m e rc ia l s u b j e c t s , and s i n c e t h e t e s t s g iv e n
are
in th e s e c o u rs e s o b j e c t i v e a lm o st w h o lly , and f a c t u a l n o t
f u n c t i o n a l , we c a n r e a d i l y
account f o r th e i r o u tsta n d in g
w ork i n d e t a i l and p o o r w o rk i n c e n t r a l t h o u g h t .
T h is
w o u ld i n d i c a t e a w e a k n e s s i n t h e t e a c h i n g p r o c e d u r e s w h i c h
m ak e t h e w o r k s o d e t a i l e d
lo st.
It
and s p e c i f i c
th a t th e
i n d i c a t e s t h e n e e d o f m ore u s e o f s u m m a r ie s , o u t н
l i n i n g , and in d ic a tin g o f c e n t r a l id e s s .
T a b le I I I ,
T est 1,
th a t th e r a t e
is
slo w t h e r a t e
a c lo s e r e l a ti o n
We n o t e f r o m
o f re a d in g
l o w i n c o m p a r i s o n t o t h e n a t i o n a l norm #
ten d s to
"w h o le ? i s
is
e x tre m e ly
R e a d in g f o r d e t a i l
o f r e a d i n g so i t w o u ld seen t h e r e
b e tw e e n t h e r a t e
b e i n g lo w a n d d e t a i l
re a d in g b e in g o u ts ta n d in g ly h ig h .
As h a s b e e n s t a t e d
above, th is
g ro u p i s p o o r in
d ra w in g i n f e r e n c e s w h ic h m eans th e y a r e u n a b le to se e t h e
a p p l i c a t i o n o f so m e th in g c o n c e rn e d i n t h e p a r a g r a p h w i t h н
o u t th e a p p li c a t io n b e in g p o in te d o u t.
c e iv e
i d e a s t h a t m ay a p p l y t o c e r t a i n
They c a n n o t p e r н
e l e m e n t s i n a m uch
w id e r r a n g e o f s i t u a t i o n s th a n th e one b e in g u se d i n t h e
p arag rap h .
The c h a n c e s a r e 1 t o 5 .4 t h a t t h i s
gro u p i s
S9
d e f i n i t e l y lo w a s s e e n fro m T a b le I I I ,
a g a in th a t
it
T est 10.
N o tin g
i s a p p a re n t t h a t th e group h as b e en r e a d in g
f o r d e t a i l and n o t lo o k in g to
to fin d in g o f f a c t s ,
it
a p p lic a tio n o f id e a s b u t
f o l l o w s t h e y w o u ld h a v e l i t t l e
no p r a c t i c e o r g u i d a n c e i n d r a w i n g i n f e r e n c e s .
or
T h is w o u ld
a g a in in d ic a te w eaknesses in te a c h in g p ro c e d u re s.
S in c e t h e t o t a l r e a d i n g c o m p re h e n sio n i s
i t m ust be n o te d t h a t th e c l a s s
in fo rm a tio n as
is
in fe rio r
i n d ic a t e d by T a b le I I I ,
be due to v a r io u s f a c t o r s .
in g e n e ra l
T est 5.
A slo w r a t e
In th e second
p la c e th e ran g e o f e x tr a - c u r r ic u la r a c t i v i t i e s
re a c h a l l s tu d e n ts .
fo r fre e re a d in g .
sh o w s t h a t t h e r e
T h i s may
o f r e a d i n g w o u ld
n o t a l l o w f o r a s m uch t i m e t o r e a d w i d e l y .
H ig h S c h o o l i s e x tr e m e l y w id e and v a r i e d
su p e rio r,
i n G e rin g
a tte m p tin g to
T h i s w o u l d n o t a l l o w f o r a s m u ch t i m e
C a re fu l in q u iry
is v ery l i t t l e
in to
c la s s p ro ced u res
tim e g iv e n f o r f r e e r e a d in g
d u r i n g t h e w e e k o t h e r t h a n t h e t i m e t h e s t u d e n t s m ay f i n d
in stu d y h a l l s .
it
From p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s m ad e i n t h e s c h o o l
has been fo u n d th a t th e re
in g m a t e r i a l i n t h e hom e.
is
a n o tic e a b le la c k o f re a d н
F ro m t h i s
i t w o u ld f o l l o w
n a tu r a ll y t h a t th e g e n e ra l in fo rm a tio n o f th e
g ro u p w o u ld
b e lo w .
S u m m arizin g t h e r e a d i n g c o m p re h e n s io n o f g r a d e
t w e l v e , we f i n d
it
is su p e rio r
i n t o t a l r e a d i n g c o m p re h e n s io n
30
but it
sh o w s d i s t i n c t w e a k n e s s e s i n a b i l i t y
c e n t r a l t h o u g h t and draw i n f e r e n c e s .
th is
c o m p re h e n sio n i s
to g rasp
C lo se ly r e la te d
th e w eak n ess i n sp e ed and th e l a c k
o f g e n e ra l in fo rm a tio n .
in p a r t to th e s p e c if ic
It
is
in d ic a te d
th a t th is
is
and d e t a i l e d w o rk r e q u i r e d ,
u s e o f a lm o s t a l l f a c t u a l and o b j e c t i v e t e s t i n g ,
o f re a d in g m a te r ia ls
to
due
th e
th e
la c k
i n t h e h om e, a n d t h e l a c k o f t i m e a n d
n o e f f o r t m ad e t o p r o v i d e t i m e f o r f r e e r e e d i n g a l t h o u g h
t h e s c h o o l l i b r a r y o f G e r in g H ig h S c h o o l i s
c o rd in g to th e
su p e rio r acн
s t a n d a r d s s e t up by t h e A m e ric a n L i b r a r y
A s so c ia tio n .
T u r n i n g t o g r a d e e l e v e n , we n o t e f r o m F i g u r e 3
t h a t t h e t o t a l r e a d i n g c o m p re h e n s io n
n o rm al*
above
T he c h a n c e s a r e o n l y 1 . 8 t o 1 t h a t t h i s g r o u p
has any r e a l
su p e rio rity .
re a l su p e rio rity
and to
is v ery l i t t l e
is
T h is
i s sh o w n i n T a b l e TV.
sho w n i n t h e i r
a b ility
T he
to g rasp d e ta il s
i n t e r p r e t m a t e r i a l r e a d a s show n b y T a b l e I V , T e s t s
7 and 8 .
in a b il i ty
T h e y do n o t sh o w s u p e r i o r i t y b u t r a t h e r a r e n o r m a l
to
g r a s p c e n t r a l th o u g h t and i n t e g r a t e
i d e a s a s sh o w n b y T a b l e I V , T e s t s 6 a n d 9 .
d isp e rse d
The f a c t t h a t
t h e y i n t e r p r e t w i t h m o r e a b i l i t y m ay b e d u e t o t h e f a c t
th a t p ra c tic a lly
e v e r y s t u d e n t t a k e s A m e ric an l i t e r a t u r e
w here i n t e r p r e t a t i o n
is
s t r e s s e d and
th e o b je c tiv e s o f th e c o u rs e .
is d e f in ite ly
one o f
Much o u t s i d e r e a d i n g i s
ml
32
TABLE
17
COMPARISON OF THE STANDARD MEAN TO THAT OF
GRADE ELEVEN IN EACH PART OF TEST
S ta n н
P a r t s S t a n н G rad e
d ard
tw e lv e d a rd
of
te s t
m ea n m e a n
D e v ia н
tio n
1
34
28*15
7 .3 5
2
3
85
93*3
8 7 .2
9 3 .2
9 .6 5
1 1 .1 5
4
5
6
94
84
92
9 5 .8
83
9 2 .7
7
8
9
92
92
92
10
T
92
92
D ifн
ferн
ence
S ta n d a rd
R a tio
e rro r
of
d iffe re n c e
C hances
.9 1
6 .4 3
2 .2
- .1
1 .1 9
1 .3 7
1 .8 5
.0 7
1 to over
3 ,4 0 0 ,0 0 0
3 0 .1 to 1
1 to 1 .1
1 0 .8
7 .8 5
6 .3 5
1 .8
-1 .0
.7
1 .3 3
.9 7
.7 8
1 .3 5
.0 1
.8 9
1 0 .3 to 1
1 to 1
4 .4 to 1
9 5 .4
9 5 .5
9 2 .3 5
7 .1
7 .6
8 .9 5
3 .4
3 .5
.3 5
.8 7
.9 5
1 .1
3 .9 1
3 .6 8
.3 2
2 1 ,0 0 0 t o 1
9 1 ,0 0 0 t o 1
1 .6 to 1
9 1 .3
9 2 .3 5
7 .6
7 .9
-
.9 4
.9 7
.7 4
.3 6
-5 .8 5
.7
.3 5
1 to 3 .4
1 .8 to 1
33
re q u ire d w ith i n t e r p r e t i v e r e p o r ts fo llo w in g .
gro u p h as a d i s t i n c t w eak n ess in i t s
feren ces.
to
a b ility
to draw i n н
C lo s e o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h i s g r o u p w o u ld l e a d u s
assum e t h a t t h e y g r a s p t h e m a t e r i a l end c a n i n t e r p r e t
i t b u t f a i l t o m ake a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e
ran g e o f s itu a tio n s .
The c l a s s a p p a r e n t l y
t o m ake a p p l i c a t i o n o f i d e a s .
As i n g r a d e t w e l v e t h e r e
is p ra c tic a l c e rta in ty
a s show n b y T a b l e TV, T e s t 1 , t h a t t h i s
t h e sp eed w i t h w h ic h th e y r e a d .
g ro u p i s w eak i n
T h is a g a in f i t s
s u p e r i o r w ork d o n e i n d e t a i l r e a d i n g .
in w ith
I t m ig h t a l s o
f o llo w t h a t th e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r program i s
s t r e s s e d to o
I n t h e G e r i n g s c h o o l s we f i n d t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n
in o u ts id e a c t i v i t i e s
w ith th e
e le v e n i s
tio n .
carry
i n e x p e r i e n c e s o f a w i d e r a n g e w h i c h m ay a c c o u n t
fo r fa ilu re
m uch.
in a w id e r
of a la c k o f s tim u li to
th e th in k in g p ro ce d u re th ro u g h .
la c k s
id e a s
T h i s m ay b e d u e t o l a c k o f g u i d a n c e
on t h e p a r t o f t h e t e a c h e r ,
th e
But th e
i s m u ch m o r e e x t e n s i v e b e g i n n i n g
ju n io r y e a r.
ju st a t r i f l e
S lo w r a t e
T a b le IV , t e s t 5 ,
sh o w s t h a t g r a d e
b e lo w n o rm a l i n g e n e r a l in f o r m a н
o f r e a d in g i s n o t co n d u civ e to f r e e r e a d н
i n g and t o t h e c o v e r i n g o f l a r g e
q u a n titie s
B e a d in g becom es w ork n o t p l e a s u r e .
of m a te ria l.
By i n c r e a s i n g t h e r a t e
o f r e a d in g th e g e n e r a l in f o r m a tio n l e v e l m ig h t be r a i s e d .
T a b l e IV , T e s t 3 ,
a ls o
in d ic a te s t h a t th e v o c a b u la ry o f
34
th is
g r o u p i s n o t a s h i g h w hen w o rd s a r e
te x t as i t
i s when w o rd s a r e s t u d i e d
T h i s may b e d u e t o
stu d ie d
in conн
in is o la te d
g ro u p s.
th e f a c t t h a t th e y have been ta u g h t to
s e e w ord s s lo n e and d e f in e d a s s u c h .
th e w ords in r e l a t i o n
But th e y can n o t see
t o o t h e r w ords i n t h e
t i n g u i s h th e sh a d e s o f m e a n in g .
te x t or d is н
T h i s w o u ld i n d i c a t e
th e
n e c e s s i t y o f t h e c o n ti n u e d s t u d y o f w o rd s from t h e t e x t
o f m a t e r i a l b e in g re a d r a t h e r
t h a n fro m s e p a r a t e w ord l i s t s .
I n s u m m a r i z i n g g r a d e e l e v e n t h e n , we c a n s a y
norm al a s f a r
sh o w s w e a k n e s s e s i n a b i l i t y
a n d t o m ake a p p l i c a t i o n o f i d e a s
range of s itu a tio n s ,
th e te x t o f re a d in g ,
in fo rm a tio n .
h a ll.
in v o c a b u la ry as
it
o f re a d in g ,
i s m et in
and d o e s n o t h av e a w id e ra n g e o f g en н
A g a in i t w as fo u n d t h a t
n o t have any tim e g iv e n to
in g .
t o draw
in a w id e r
i s d e f i n i t e l y lo w i n r a t e
d o e s n o t show a n y s t r e n g t h
eral
is
a s t o t a l r e a d i n g c o m p re h e n sio n i s c o n c e rn e d .
The g ro u p d e f i n i t e l y
in fe re n c e s
it
t h e c l a s s e s do
th e m i n c l a s s e s f o r f r e e r e a d н
T h i s h a s tojbe d o n e o u t s i d e o f s c h o o l o r i n t h e s t u d y
The g ro u p a l s o w as p a r t i c i p a t i n g a c t i v e l y
a c tiv itie s .
A lso ,
in o u ts id e
t h e hom es w e r e o u t s t a n d i n g f o r t h e i r l a c k
o f re a d in g m a te r ia l.
To t u r n t o g r a d e t e n , we n o t e f r o m F i g u r e 4 t h a t
a lth o u g h th e g ro u p i s o f n o rm a l i n t e l l i g e n c e
it
does n o t
m e e t t h e s t a n d a r d norm a s f a r a s t o t a l r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s io n
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36
i s co n ce rn ed .
a re 1 to
to
Row T o f T a b l e V s h o w s t h a t t h e c h a n c e s
5 4 . 8 t h a t t h e c l a s s show s a d e f i n i t e
t h e n a t i o n a l norm .
m ak e u p t h i s w e a k n e s s .
c la ss
L e t u s n o te th e f a c t o r s t h a t go t o
F ro m T a b l e V, T e s t 6 , we s e e t h e
i s u n a b le to g ra s p th e c e n t r a l th o u g h t, t h a t i s
c e n tra l
id e a .
A s T e s t 7 o f t h e sam e t a b l e
g rasp o f d e ta ijs
th e
show s a c l e a r
i t w o u ld i n d i c a t e a s i n g r a d e s e l e v e n and
t w e l v e t h a t t o o m uch r e a d i n g
c h ild
in fe rio rity
i s b e in g done i n w h ic h t h e
i s dem anded t o h av e a s e r i e s o f f a c t s w h e th e r o r n o t
th e c e n t r a l id e a i s
grasp ed .
co u rses o f n a tu r a l s c ie n c e ,
U n til th is
l a s t y ear th e
s o c ia l sc ie n c e ,
c o m m erc ial w o rk ,
and la n g u a g e s w ere a l l t a u g h t o b j e c t i v e l y and f a c t u a l l y .
O n ly w i t h i n t h e l a s t y e a r h a s E n g l i s h b e e n t a u g h t w i t h
m uch s t r e s s t o a n y o t h e r p h a s e t h a n g ra m m a r a n d c o m p o s i t i o n
due t o la c k o f m a t e r i a l s .
sid e re d
th o u g h t.
T h i s m ay b e a p h a s e t o b e c o n н
in n o tin g la c k o f tr a in in g
I n te g r a tio n o f d isp e rse d
in g ra sp in g c e n tr a l
id e a s
i s w eak a s n o t e d
b y T a b le V, T e s t 9 , w h ic h show s t h e c l a s s e s l a c k a b i l i t y
to see in te r - r e la tio n s ,
th a t is
th e y can n o t see th e b u ild in g
up o f an id e a th ro u g h s e v e r a l s e n te n c e s .
T h is a g a in f i t s
i n w i t h l a c k o f a b i l i t y t o r e a d f o r m e a n in g b u t r a t h e r f o r
fa c ts.
B u t T a b le V, T e s t 1 0 , show s e v e n a m ore d e f i n i t e
w eakness in th e
o r to see th e
in a b ility
o f t h e g ro u p t o draw i n f e r e n c e s
id e a and th e n
a p p ly i t
t o a m u ch w i d e r r a n g e
37
TABLE
V
COMPARISON OF THE STANDARD MEAN TO THAT OF
GRADE TEN IN EACH PART OF TEST
P a r t s S ta n н G rade S ta n н
d a rd - tw e lv e d a rd
of
te st
m ean m ean
d e v ia н
tio n
1
31
2 5 .8
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
LO
T
82
89
89
81
89
89
89
89
89
89
8 4 .1 5
8 7 .5
8 7 .3
7 8 .2
87
9 0 .3
9 1 .4
8 8 .8
87
8 6 .9
8 .1 5
1 2 .4 5
1 3 .7
1 4 .4 5
9 .0 5
7 .7
8 .3
8 .5
8 .2 5
8 .2
8 .8 5
D ifн
ferн
ence-
-5 .2
r' " \
2 .1 5 i
-1 .5
-1 .7
-2 .8
-2 .0
1 .3
2 .4
- .2
-2 .0
-2 .1
S ta n d a rd
R a tio
erro r
of
d iffe re n c e
.9 2
5 .7 6
1 .4 1
1 .5 5
1 .6 4
1 .0 3
.8 7
.9 4
.9 5
.9 3
.9 3
1 .0 0
1 .5 2
,9 7
1 .0 3
2 .7 2
2 .3
1 .3 8
2 .5 2
.2 2
2115
2 .1
C hances
1 to over
3 ,4 0 0 ,0 0 0
14 t o 1
1 to 5 .3
1 to 5 .8
1 t o 285
1 t o 9 2 .4
1 1 .4 to 1
160 t o 1
1 to 1 .4
1 t o 6 2 .4
1 to 5 4 .8
38
o f situ a tio n s*
is
in fe rio r.
The c h a n c e s a r e 1 t o
62*2 t h a t t h i s
c la s s
T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h o u g h t h e y m ay i n t e r н
p r e t w e l l a s i s sh o w n b y T a b l e V, T e s t 8 , t h e y a r e n o t a b l e
to a p p ly th o s e
id e a s to
th e a c tu a l s itu a tio n
o th e r s itu a tio n s
ju st
in te rp re te d *
o r th in k beyond
I t p roves th a t th e
in te r p r e ta tio n s have n o t been f u n c tio n a l.
By l o o k i n g a t T a b l e V a n d t h e f i r s t
f i v e t e s t s we
c a n d i a g n o s e o t h e r c a u s e s m o re m e c h a n i c a l i n n a t u r e f o r p o o r
r e a d i n g c o m p re h e n sio n .
T e s t 1 sh o w s p r a c t i c a l e e r t a i n l y
t h a t t h e c l a s s r e a d s m u ch t o o s l o w l y .
W ith t h i s g ro u p
slo w r e a d i n g a n d c o m p r e h e n s io n seem t o b e r e l a t e d w h ic h
w ^s n o t t r u e o f t h e o t h e r c l a s s e s .
V o c a b u la ry b o t h i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f i s o l a t e d w ords
an d t h e w o rd s i n t h e t e x t i s lo w , t h e c h a n c e s b e in g 1 t o
5 .3 and 1 to 5 .8 t h a t th e y a re
in fe rio r.
I n th e b ackground
o f t h i s g ro u p , w ords h a v e e v i d e n t l y n o t b e e n s t r e s s e d o r
d ic tio n a ry s tu d ie s
c o n d u c te d .
W ith p o o r v o c a b u l a r i e s ,
in a b ility to
a slo w r a t e
g rasp c e n tr a l th o u g h t,
it
o f re a d in g ,
and
i s to be e x p e c te d
t h a t th e y a r e n o t f r e e r e a d e r s and do n o t h av e a fu n d o f
g e n e ra l in fo rm a tio n .
T h i s i s s u b s t a n t i a t e d b y T a b le V,
T e s t 5 , w h ic h show s t h e c h a n c e s a r e 1 t o
285 t h a t t h e
c l a s s d o e s n o t m e e t t h e s t a n d a r d n o rm o n g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n .
I n s u m m a r i z i n g g r a d e t e n t h e n , we c a n s a y t h a t t h e
39
c la ss
i s b e lo w n o rm a l i n t o t a l r e a d i n g c o m p re h e n s io n a l н
th o u g h i t
can g rasp d e t a i l s
n esses are in a b ility
and i n t e r p r e t *
D e f i n i t e w eakн
to g rasp c e n tr a l th o u g h t,
in a b ility
t o f o l l o w t h e b u i l d i n g u p o f a n i d e a t h r o u g h m an y s e n t e n c e s ,
th e
in a b ility
not sta te d ,
is
a ls o
to a p p ly p e rc e iv e d id e a s to w id e r s i t u a t i o n s
and t h e
in fe rio r
in a b ility
in a b i l i t y
to draw i n f e r e n c e s .
to read ra p id ly ,
u l a r y b o th in r e a d in g and in i s o l a t i o n .
th a t th e re
The c l a s s
la c k s a vocabн
Xt f o l l o w s t h e n ,
i s a la c k o f g e n e ra l in fo rm a tio n .
I n s u m m a r i z i n g a l l t h r e e c l a s s e s t h e n , we f i n d
o n ly
g r a d e t e n b e l o w t h e s t a n d a r d n o rm i n t o t a l r e a d i n g c o m p r e н
h e n sio n .
A ll th re e
c la ss e s,
how ever, p ro v e th e m s e lv e s
v e r y slo w r e a d e r s , l a c k g e n e r a l i n f o r m a ti o n ,
th a t
is
in н
f o r m a tio n n o t e m p h a siz e d i n th e c la s s ro o m b u t b e in g w i t h i n
th e e x p e rie n c e o f th e p u p ils ,
and l a c k a b i l i t y t o draw i n н
feren ces.
G r a d e s t e n a n d e l e v e n show v o c a b u l a r y w e a k n e s s e s .
G r a d e s t e n a n d t w e l v e sh o w l a c k o f a b i l i t y
to g et th e c e n tr a l
id e a w ith o u t b e in g d i s t r a c t e d by s u p p o rtin g
te n f a i l s
id e a s.
t o fo llo w an id e a b e in g b u i l t up to
W h ile t h e r e a d i n g c o m p re h e n s io n i s
its
G rade
c lim a x .
n o t to be conн
s id e r e d bad w ith t h e e x c e p tio n o f one c l a s s , t h e r e
s till
r e m a i n s m an y g l a r i n g w e a k n e s s e s w h i c h m u s t b e c o n s i d e r e d
i n s e t t i n g up a r e a d i n g im p ro v e m e n t p r o g r a m .
The f a c t o r s
40
re la te d
a r e th e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r p ro g ra m , am ount o f f r e e
re a d in g done,
tim e f o r f r e e r e a d i n g ,
la c k o f re a d in g
m a t e r i a l i n t h e hom e, and w e a k n e s s e s i n t e a c h i n g p r o c e d u r e s .
CHAPTER
XV
HEADING COMPREHENSION IN RELATION TO BACKGROUND
Onй o f t h e p r o b l e m s t o b e a n s w e r e d i n t h i s
is;
stu d y
Do s t u d e n t s c o m i n g f r o m h o m es i n w h i c h p a r e n t s a r e
f o r e i g n b o r n show a h i g h e r o r lo w e r l e v e l o f r e a d i n g
c o m p re h e n sio n ?
T h is q u e s tio n i s p e r t i n e n t b e c a u se a
R u s s ia n -G e rm a n e le m e n t i s v e r y m uch i n e v id e n c e i n t h e
c o m m u n ity b e c a u s e o f t h e i n d u s t r y m o s t d o m i n a n t h e r e ,
th a t
i s th e s u g a r b e e t i n d u s t r y and th e m a n u fa c tu re o f
su g ar.
The c o m m u n ity , b e i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l , n a t u r a l l y
a c c e p t s t h e s e h a rd w o rk in g g ro u p s from f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s
who a r e i n t e r e s t e d
i n f a r m i n g , who t e n d t o s e t t l e
n e n t l y , who b e c o m e n a t u r a l i z e d ,
th e l i f e
i n t h e c o m m u n i ty .
a n d who e v e n t u a l l y i n f l u e n c e
T here i s
a l s o a t r a n s i e n t gro u p
o f f o r e i g n e r s m ad e u p o f R u s s i a n s a n d M e x i c a n s .
n o t b e co m e n a t u r a l i z e d ,
th e
p erm aн
T h ese do
c h i l d r e n o f s u c h f a m i l i e s do
n o t a tte n d sehool re g u la r ly ,
and a s a r e s u l t th o s e c h ild r e n
do n o t r e a c h t h e g r a d e s t e n ,
e le v e n ,
and tw e lv e u se d in t h i s
w t u d y s o do n o t n e e d t o b e c o n s i d e r e d .
We m u s t a n s w e r t h e q u e s t i o n :
" A r e we J u s t i f i e d
in
s a y in g t h a t a r e m e d ia l p ro g ram s h o u ld be p u t i n t o e f f e c t
in o u r s c h o o l o n ly f o r th e s e o f f o r e ig n b ack g ro u n d s o r sh o u ld
su c h a pro g ram be s c h o o l-w id e ? "
42
F ro m T a b l e V I we s e e t h a t t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f s t u d e n t s
i n g r a d e t w e l v e who h a v e o n e o r b o t h p a r e n t s o f f o r e i g n
b irth
й re o n l y 5 . 0 ? p e r c e n t o f t h e c l a s s o r t h r e e
stu d e n ts .
T h o s e t h r e e s t u d e n t s r a n k am ong t h e h i g h e r b r a c k e t s a s
reg ard s
in te llig e n c e
q u o tie n ts so n a tu r a lly
i t w o u ld f o l l o w
t h a t t h e m ean f o r g r a d e tw e lv e s t u d e n t s o f f o r e i g n b o r n
p a r e n t s w o u ld b e h i g h e r t h a n t h o s e w hose p a r e n t s a r e A m e ric a n
b o rn .
d ic a te s
We s e e t h a t t h e m e a n i s t e n p o i n t s h i g h e r w h i c h i n н
a g re a t d iffe re n c e .
The c h a n c e s show p r a c t i c a l
c e r t a i n t y t h a t t h e s e s t u d e n t s fro m f o r e i g n b o rn p a r e n t s
a r e b e t t e r t h a n A m erican s t u d e n t s .
But th e groups a re
n o t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a s th e p o o re r s t u d e n ts te n d to d ro p o u t
d u rin g t h e i r
ju n io r y e a r.
T u r n i n g t o g r a d e e l e v e n we h a v e a m o r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e
g ro u p .
Of t h i s
g r o u p we h a v e г 1 p e r c e n t f r o m h o m es o f
fo r e ig n b o rn p a r e n ts ,
I.
Q Js.
a n d t h e y h a v e a m uch w i d e r r a n g e o f
N o t i n g t h e m e a n s f r o m T a b l e V I I we s e e t h e m ean
i s 3 . 2 p o i n t s l o w e r f o r t h o s e f r o m h om es w h e r e t h e p a r e n t s
a re fo re ig n b o rn .
The c h a n c e s a r e 1 1 .4 t o 1 t h a t t h e
g r o u p f r o m h o m es w h e r e t h e p a r e n t s w e r e b o r n h e r e w i l l h a v e
a s u p e r i o r i t y o v e r t h o s e f r o m h o m es w h e r e t h e p a r e n t s w e r e
b o rn e ls e w h e re .
T a b l e V I I I s h o w s u s t h a t o v e r 22 p e r c e n t o f t h e
s o p h o m o r e c l a s s co m es f r o m f o r e i g n b o r n p a r e n t s a n d t h a t
43
TABLE
VI
RELATIONSHIP OP TOTAL READING COMPREHENSION
TO BACKGROUND OF PU PILS OF r
GRADE TWELVE
S co res
F re q u e n c ie s
A m erican
F o re ig n b o rn
p a re n ts
p a re n ts
1 05 -10 9
1 0 0 -1 0 4
.9 5- 99
9 0 - 94
8 5 - 89
8 0 - 84
7 5 - 79
7 0 - 74:
6 5 - 69
6 0 - 64
5
10
16
16
8
T o ta ls
M ean
S ta n d a rd
d e v ia tio n
D iffe re n c e
S ta n d a rd e r r o r
. of d iffe re n c e
R a tio
C hances
56
9 5 .8
2
1
1
Per cent
A m erican F o r e ig n
p a re n ts
b o rn
p a re n ts
8 .4 7
1 6 .9 4
2 7 .1
2 7 .1
1 3 .5 5
3 .3 8
1 .6 9
1 .6 9
3
1 0 5 .8
7 .3
2 .3 5
10*00
1 .6 7
5 .9 9
O ver 3 ,4 0 0 ,0 0 0
9 4 .8 5
5 .0 7
..
TABUS
V II
RELATIONSHIP OF TOTAL READING COMPREHENSION
TO BACKGROUND OF PU PIL S OF
GRADE ELEVEN
S co res
105-109
100-104
9 5 - 99
9 0 - 94
8 5 - 89
8 0 - 84
7 5 - 79
7 0 - 74
?f :
F re q u e n c ie s
A m erican F o r e ig n b o r n
p a re n ts
p a re n ts
-
A m erican
p a re n ts
Per cent
F o re ig n b o rn
p a re n ts
3
6
11
17
7
4
1
г
5
г
2
4 .7 6
9 .5 2
1 7 .4 6
2 6 .9 8
1 1 .1 1
6 .3 5
1 .5 9
3 .1 7
7 .9 4
3 .1 7
3 .1 7
2
1
3 .1 7
1 .5 9
50
9 3 .4
13
9 0 .2
7 9 .3 5
2 0 .6 3
?
T o ta ls
M ean
S ta n d a rd
d e v ia tio n
D iffe re n c e
S ta n d a rd e r r o r
of d iffe re n c e
R a tio
C hances
7 .5 5
7 .4 5
3 .2
2 .3 2
1 .3 8
1 1 .4 to 1
?*
45
TABLE
VUI
RELATIONSHIP OF TOTAL READING COMPREHENSION
TO BACKGROUND OF H J P IL S OF
GRADE TEN
S co res
F re q u e n c ie s
A m erican F o r e i g n b o r n
p a re n ts
p a re n ts
1 05 -10 9
1 0 0 -1 0 4
9 5 - 99
9 0 - 94
8 5 - 89
8 0 - 84
7 5 - 79
70-74
T o ta ls
M ean
S ta n d a rd
d e v ia tio n
D iffe re n c e
S ta n d a rd e r r o r
of d iffe re n c e
R a tio
C hances
1
3
13
9
11
9
7
3
56
8 8 . 95
1
2
1
6
4
2
16
8 2 .8
8 . 55
7*55
6 .1 5
2 .2 1
2 .7 8
384 to 1
A m e ric an
.p a re n ts
Per cent
F o re ig n b o rn
p a re n ts
1 .3 9
4 .1 6
1 8 .0 4
1 2 .4 9
1 5 .2 7
1 2 .4 9
9 .7 2
4 .1 6
2 .7 8
1 .3 9
8 .3 3
5 .5 5
2 .7 8
7 7 .7 3
2 2 .2 2
1 .3 9
46
t h e mean*
is
f o r t h i s g ro u p on t o t a l r e a d i n g c o m p re h e n sio n
6*15 p o i n t s l o w e r .
The c h a n c e s a r e 384 t o 1 t h a t
s t u d e n t s f r o m .A m e ric a n hom es sh o w a s u p e r i o r r e a d i n g
e om pr e h e n s i o n .
T h i s w o u ld h e i n t e r p r e t e d t h e n t h a t i n c l a s s e s w h e re
th e re
is
a w id e r a n g e of i n t e l l i g e n c e
q u o tie n ts fo r p u p ils
f r o m hom es w h e r e o n e o r b o t h p a r e n t s a r e f o r e i g n b o r n t h e y
te n d to
show l e s s a b i l i t y
i n c o m p re h e n sio n .
The c a u s e s f o r t h i s m ig h t b e t h a t t h e s e c h i l d r e n
w i t h a f o r e i g n h e r i t a g e u s u a l l y s p e a k tw o l a n g u a g e s
home o r o n l y t h e o n e o f t h e p a r e n t s .
in th is
in th e
J ill r e a d in g i s done
lan g u a g e and f o r b o th *o f th e s e re a s o n s t h e v o cab н
u l a r y o f t h e s e p u p i l s w o u l d t e n d t o b e m o re l i m i t e d
l e s s m e a n in g fu l.
and
T h ese p e o p le do n o t t r a v e l w id e ly , th e
c o m m u n ity b e i n g t h e l i m i t f o r m o s t a n d t h e g r e a t e s t d i s н
ta n c e b e in g D env er,
m a tte r
is
225 m i l e s d i s t a n t .
fo u n d in t h e s e hom es.
L ittle
re a d in g
One m i g h t f i n d a f a r m
m a g a z in e , a p u lp m a g a z in e , and o c c a s i o n a l l y a d a i l y new sн
p ap er.
T here i s th e c a te c h is m
t h e G erm an l a n g u a g e ,
i n e v e r y home b u t i t
in w h ic h i t
I t w o u ld seem t h e n ,
is le a rn e d by th e
is
in
c h ild re n .
t h a t f i r s t a v o c a b u la r y p ro g ram
s h o u ld be i n s t i t u t e d w i t h s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n p a i d t o w ords
in th e c o n te x t.
F re e r e a d in g sh o u ld be s t r e s s e d
c la s s e s n o t o n ly E n g lis h c l a s s e s .
g iv e n th e s tu d e n ts
in a l l
S p e c ia l tim e sh o u ld be
j u s t t o brow se i n th e l i b r a r y t o
47
in c r e a s e t h e i r g e n e r a l in f o rm a tio n and f in d t h e i r f i e l d
of
in te re s t.
U nder g u id a n c e th e y sh o u ld b e d i r e c t e d t o
re a d in g w id e ly to
o f tra v e l*
in c re a se th e ir
e x p e rie n c e s due to la c k
O r a l w ork s h o u ld be e n c o u ra g e d t o g i v e t h o s e
u s in g a f o r e i g n to n g u e a f a m i l i a r i t y
and a f e e l i n g o f
n a t u r a l n e s s w i t h t h e .A m e ric a n l a n g u a g e *
The p ro g ra m s h o u ld b e s c h o o l w id e a s t h e d i f f e r e n c e
b e t w e e n t h e tw o g r o u p s d o e s n ? t
in d ic a te
a w id e en ough
v a r i a t i o n t o w a r r a n t t h e tim e s p e n t on j u s t t h o s e fro m
ho m es w h e r e t h e b a c k g r o u n d i s f o r e i g n .
CHAPTER
Y
SIGHT AND HEARING D IF FIC U L T IE S IN RELATION
TO COMPREHENSION
The n e x t q u e s t i o n t o b e a n s w e re d i n t h i s
Do s i g h t a n d h e a r i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s
t o r e a d i n g c o m p re h e n sio n ?
stu d y i s :
have any r e la tio n s h ip
T h is m ust be an sw ered to s e e
w h e th e r t h e r e a d i n g im p ro v e m e n t p ro g ra m s h o u ld b e s c h o o l
w id e o r l i m i t e d t o t h o s e p u p i l s w i t h s i g h t and h e a r i n g
d iffic u ltie s .
I n none o f th e t h r e e c l a s s e s w ere t h e r e any h e a r in g
d i f f i c u l t i e s d e te c te d .
Of c o u r s e , t h i s
c an n o t be ta k e n as
m e a n in g t h e r e a r e n o n e b e c a u s e t h e e x a m in a tio n was n o t
c o n d u c te d by an e a r s p e c i a l i s t .
B u t i t was s t a t e d
in
C h a p te r I t h a t th e d a ta on h e a r i n g w ere ta k e n fro m t h e
n u rsefs f ile s ,
th e f i l e
b e i n g s e t up a f t e r t h e e x a m in a н
t i o n w h ic h i s g iv e n e a c h f a l l .
T h is e x a m in a tio n i s n o t
c o n d u c te d by l i s t e n i n g to th e t i c k
ifie d
d is ta n c e as in m ost c a s e s .
stu d e n ts
re a lity
o f a w a tc h a t a sp e c н
S t u d y h a s sh ow n t o o m an y
im a g in e th e y h e a r th e t i c k
t h e y do n o t .
o f t h e w a tc h w hen i n
I n s t e a d N u rse H arv ey r e a d s i n a
n o rm al to n e to th e c h il d b e in g t e s t e d
a t a d ista n c e of
tw e n ty f e e t and th e n a s k s t h a t th e e h i l d r e p o r t th e conн
te n t back.
The r e a s o n f o r t h i s p r o c e d u r e
is to e lim in a te
49
th e p o s s i b i l i t y
Over a p e r i o d
of re p o rtin g
so m e th in g t h a t w as n o t h e a r d .
o f y e a rs th e l a t t e r p ro ce d u re h as been r e н
p o r t e d b y t h e r e g i s t e r e d n u r s e a s f a r m ore e f f e c t i v e
in
d e te c tin g d i f f i c u l t i e s .
But in th e e a s e o f s i g h t ,
c u ltie s re p o rte d .
t h e r e w e re m ore d i f f i н
I n t h e s e n i o r c l a s s г9 o f t h e 59 p u p i l s
h ad s i g h t d i f f i c u l t i e s r a n g in g fro m s i g h t o f 8 -1 0 i n one
eye and p e r f e c t s i g h t in th e o th e r t o
a ll
in b o th ey es.
a lm o s t no s i g h t a t
A s t u d y o f t h e m ean o f b o t h g r o u p s ,
T a b le IX , show s t h a t t h e m ean i s lo w e r b y 1 . 6 p o i n t s f o r
v*
th o s e h a v in g s i g h t d i f f i c u l t i e s .
The c h a n c e s a r e 3 . 7 t o
1 t h a t t h e g r o u p w i t h n o d e f e c t s w i l l a l w a y s show h i g h e r
r e a d i n g c o m p re h e n s io n .
T a b le I
e le v e n .
show s u s t h a t t h e
The c l a s s
sig h t d if f ic u ltie s
is
is
sam e i s t r u e
f o r : grad e
e q u a lly d iv id e d as to th o se t h a t have
a n d t h o s e who d o n o t .
A g a in t h e m ean
.9 h ig h e r f o r th o s e w ith p e r f e c t s i g h t .
The c h a n c e s
a r e г .1 t o 1 t h a t t h o s e h a v in g no s i g h t d i f f i c u l t i e s w i l l
a lw a y s r a n k h i g h e r .
T a b le X I show s a g r e a t e r num ber h a v i n g n o s i g h t
d iffic u ltie s
i n t h e sophom ore c l a s s .
th o s e h a v in g s i g h t d i f f i c u l t i e s
p re v io u s c la s s e s .
T h is group i s
B ut t h e m ean f o r
i s m uch lo w e r t h a n
4 .9 lo w e r.
in th e
The c h a n c e s
a r e a l s o г1г t o 1 t h a t t h o s e h a v in g d i f f i c u l t i e s w i l l r a n k
50
TABLE
IX
RELATIONSHIP OF TOTAL READING COMPREHENSION TO
SIGHT AND HEARING D IFFIC U LT IES FOR
GRADE TWELVE
S co res
F re q u e n c ie s
S ig h t
H e a rin g
d iffic u ltie s
d iffic u ltie s
Ho
d e fe c ts
1 0 5 - 10 9
1 0 0 - 104
9 5 - 99
9 0 - 94
8 5 - 89
8 0 - 84
7 5 - 79
7 0 - 74
6 5 - 69
6 0 - 64
3
6
10
7
4
T o ta l
M ean
S ta n d a rd
d e v ia tio n
D iffe re n c e
S ta n d a rd e r r o r
o f d iffe re n c e
R a tio
C hances
30
97
4
5
5
10
4
1
29
9 5 .4
5 .8
8 .8 5
1 .6
1 .9 5
.8 2
3 .7 to
1
TABU!
X
RELATIONSHIP OF TOTAL READING COMPREHENSION TO SIGHT
AND HEARING D IF FIC U L T IE S FOR GRADE ELEVEN
S c o re s
1 0 5 -1 0 9
1 0 0 -1 0 4
95 -9 9
9 0 - 94
8 5 - 89
8 0 - 84
7 5 - 79
7 0 - 74
T o ta l
M ean
S ta n d a rd
d e v ia tio n
D iffe re n c e
S ta n d a rd e r f o r
o f d iffe re n c e
R a tio
C hances
No
d e fe c ts
F re q u e n c ie s
S ig h t
H e a rin g
d iffic u ltie s
d iffic u ltie s
2
1
3
9
9
5
3
4
4
14
5
3
2
2
33
9 2 .8
33
9 1 .9
8 .1 5
7 .6 5
?9
1 .9 4
.4 6
2 . 1 t o I i r:
52
TABLE
XE
RELATIONSHIP OF TOTAL READING COMPREHENSION TO SIGHT
AND HEARING D IF FIC U L T IE S FOR GRADE TEN
S c o re s
1 0 5 -1 0 9
1 0 0 -1 0 4
9 5 - 99
9 0 - 94
8 5 - 89
8 0 - 84
7 5 - 79
7 0 - 74
T o ta l
M ean
S ta n d a rd
d e v ia tio n
D iffe re n c e
S ta n d a rd e r r o r
o f d iffe re n c e
R a tio
C hances
F re q u e n c ie s
S ig h t
H e a rin g
d iffic u ltie s
d iffic u ltie s
No
d e fe c ts
1
4
10
2
5
7
7
4
6
12
17
6
.
1
46
6
.
32
8 3 .9
8 8 .8
7 .9
8 .8
4 .9
1 .9 1
2 .5 7
2 1 2 to
1
53
lo w e r t h a n t h o s e h a v i n g p e r f e c t s i g h t .
In te rp re te d
an d tw e lv e a r e
t h i s m eans t h a t a s f a r a s g ra d e s e le v e n
c o n c e r n e d t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e tw e e n t h o s e
h a v in g s i g h t d i f f i c u l t i e s
n o t g r e a t enough to
f o r th e m , s o l e l y *
be ju s tif ie d *
an d t h o s e n o t h a v in g s u c h i s
s e t u p a r e a d i n g im p r o v e m e n t p r o g r a m
As f o r g r a d e t e n s u c h a p r o g r a m m ig h t
B u t on t h e b a s i s o f t h e t h r e e g r a d e s
it
w o u ld seem a w h o le s c h o o l p r o g r a m w o u ld b e m o re s a t i s f a c t o r y #
In th e c a s e s o f th e s ig h t d i f f i c u l t i e s
tw o t h i n g s a p p a r e n t *
F ro m t h e r e c o r d s i t
is
th e re a re
c le a rly
a p p a r e n t t h a t g l a s s e s a r e n e e d e d i n m an y o f t h e c a s e s .
T h o se n e e d in g su c h a r e n o t g e n e r a l l y ,
f r o m t h e l o w e r in c o m e b r a c k e t s *
r e c tio n s a r e w e ll a b le to
p la n m u st be d e v is e d f o r
a s m ig h t b e s u p p o s e d ,
T h o s e who m o s t n e e d c o r н
a f f o r d them *
c a llin g th is
In th a t case a
n o t o n ly to th e
a t t e n t i o n &f t h e p u p i l b u t t o t h e a t t e n t i o n
o f th e p a re n ts #
P r e s s u r e s h o u ld b e b ro u g h t to b e a r w h e re a t a l l p o s s i b l e
to a t t a i n
c o rre c tio n s *
G o rin g h a s a num ber o f s e r v i c e
o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t c a n b e c o n t a c t e d a n d w ho w i l l c o n t r i b u t e
to
th e c o s t o f su ch c o r r e c tio n s f o r th o s e t h a t c a n n o t a f н
fo rd to
fin a n c e
it
th e m s e lv e s #
A c h e c k m ade h a s sh o w e d t h a t a l l t h o s e l i s t e d
n e e d in g c o r r e c t i o n s
as
i n m any c a s e s h a v e g l a s s e s b u t a t e
m e r e l y c a r e l e s s a b o u t w e a r i n g th e m .
T h is i s
a p r o b le m
f o r te a c h e r s and th e n u rs e to s e e t h a t th e p u p il w e a rs
h is g la s s e s to f a c i l i t a t e
re s p o n s ib ility
a ls o to
re a d in g .
T h e re i s t h e t e a c h e r ?s
see t h a t th e l i g h t i s p ro p e rly
t a k e n c a r e o f i n t h e c l a s s ro o m a n d t h a t t h o s e w i t h p o o r
S ig h t a re s e a te d in su c h a m anner t h a t th e r e w i l l be th e
le a s t s tra in
on t h e i r
eyes.
I n sum m ary t h e n , t h e r e a r e n o h e a r i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s
t h a t w o u ld c a u s e a r e a d i n g p r o b l e m .
a re a p p a re n t in a l l th re e
tw o f a c t o r s s
ness
S ig h t d i f f i c u l t i e s
c la s s e s and a r e d e p e n d e n t on
(1 ) n e e d o f c o r r e c t i o n
and
(2 ) c a re le s s н
i n w e a rin g g l a s s e s w h e re c o r r e c t i o n s h a v e a l r e a d y
b e en m ade.
W h ile t h e m e a n s a r e g e n e r a l l y l o w e r f o r t h o s e
n o t h a v in g p e r f e c t s i g h t w i t h t h e e x c e p tio n o f g ra d e t e n
th e d iffe re n c e
i s n o t g r e a t e n o u g h t o p l a n a r e a d i n g imн
p ro v e m e n t p ro g ram f o r
j u s t th o s e
s tu d e n ts .
A sch o o l p ro н
g ra m s h o u l d b e o r g a n i z e d w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s g i v e n i n
g ra d e te n to th o s e w ith poor s ig h t.
CHAPTER
VI
READING COMPREHENSION IN RELATION TO
FREE READING
The f o u r t h q u e s t i o n t h a t i s
is :
ta k e n up in t h i s
Do s t u d e n t s r a n k h i g h e r who do f r e e r e a d i n g ?
tw o y e a r s t h i s
s tu d y
T he p a s t
s c h o o l h a s b e e n w o rk in g i n c o n ju n c ti o n
w ith th e o t h e r s c h o o ls o f th e N o rth P l a t t e V a lle y u n d e r
th e s u p e r v is io n o f th e U n iv e r s ity o f N e b rask a i n a s c h o o l
im p r o v e m e n t p ro g ra m *
W ith t h e u s e o f t h e
" C o o p e ra tiv e
S t u d y o f S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s " f a c u l t y m e m b e rs w e r e m ade
c o n s c io u s o f th e s c h o o l* s r e a d in g n e e d s .
t h e w o rk i n c u r r i c u lu m
th a n e v er b e f o r e .
re v is io n
L a st y e a r in
i t b e c a m e e v i d e n t m o re s o
A s t h e w o rk g o e s o n n e x t y e a r i n r e н
v i s i o n how m uch s h o u l d we c o n s i d e r t h e r e a d i n g p r o g r a m ?
H as o u r p r e s e n t p r o g r a m b e e n a d e q u a t e o r d o we n e e d t o
re v is e
o u r s e t - u p t o p r o v i d e f o r m o re f r e e
In
re a d in g ?
ju d g in g f r e e r e a d in g o r in s e t t i n g
d id n o t g iv e t h e
up a m e a s u rin g
s tic k ,
fiv e books o r le s s
s tu d e n t th e
s ta tu s
o f a f r e e re a d e r a s f iv e books a t le a s t a re re q u ire d
by m o st E n g lis h c l a s s e s a s p a r t o f th e w o rk .
c r e d i t e d w ith r e a d i n g an y num ber o v e r f i v e
fie tio n
i f th e y w e re
o r n o n - f i c t i o n a s e i g h e r w o u ld t e n d t o
t h e i r e x p e rie n c e s to
som e d e g r e e .
S tu d e n ts w e re
in c re a s e
One d a i l y n e w s p a p e r w a s
56
re q u ire d to
be re a d a s w e ll a s one p e r i o d i c a l .
A ny s t u d e n t
n o t m e e tin g th e s e r e q u ir e m e n ts w as n o t c o n s id e r e d a f r e e
re a d e r.
L et us tu rn f i r s t to
g ra d e tw e ly e .
By n o t i n g T a b l e
X I I we s e e t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - h a l f o f t h e c l a s s a r e
f r e e re a d e rs and th e o th e rs a re n o t.
A s we w o u ld e x p e c t
t h e f r e e r e a d e r s h a v e t h e h i g h e s t m ean t h i s b e in g 1 .0 5
p o in ts h ig h e r.
The c h a n c e s a r e 2 .4 t o
1 th a t fre e re a d e rs
have a r e a l s u p e r io r ity o v er n o n -re a d e rs in t h i s g ro u p .
I n g rad e e le v e n th e d if f e r e n c e
in f r e e r e a d e r s and
n o n - r e a d e r s i s m uch m o re e v i d e n c e d a s c a n b e s e e n b y T a b l e
X III.
T h e re a r e
re a d ers.
a l m o s t t w i c e a s m any n o n - r e a d e r s a s f r e e
The f r e e
r e a d e r s h e re a r e 5 .1 p o in ts h ig h e r a s
re g a r d s th e m ean.
T h e c h a n c e s a r e a l s o m uch h i g h e r , 1 4 0
to
c la s s th e re
1
, th a t
in th is
is r e a l s u p e rio rity
in th e
g ro u p o f f r e e r e a d e r s .
T a b l e XIV sh o w s n o t n e a r l y a s g r e a t a d i f f e r e n c e
a s in g ra d e e le v e n in m ean s.
S till
th e re
i s tw o p o i n t s
i n f a v o r o f t h e f r e e r e a d e r s w h ic h m ak es t h e c h a n c e s n e a r l y
5 to
1 th a t f r e e re a d e rs have r e a l s u p e r io r ity
in re a d in g
c o m p re h e n s io n .
W h ile o n e c l a s s
re a d in g
i s c o n c e rn e d , i t
r e a d i n g p ro g ra m
is
is
d is tin c tly
out of lin e
as fre e
s t i l l re m a in s t r u e t h a t t h e г r e e
n o t a d e q u a te i n
th e s c h o o l an d s h o u ld
57
TABLE
X II
RELATIONSHIP OF TOTAL READING COMPREHENSION
TO FREE READERS AND NON-READERS
IN GRADE TWELVE
S c o re s
1 0 5 -1 0 9
1 0 0 -1 0 4
9 5 - 99
9 0 - 94
8 5 - 89
8 0 - 84
7 5 - 79
7 0 - 74
6 5 - 69
6 0 - 64
F re q u e n c ie s
F re e
N onrea d ers
re a d e rs
4
2
8
3
5
8
11
8
3
5
1
29
T o ta ls
29
M ean
9 6 .6 5
9 5 .6
S ta n d a rd
5 .4 5
d e v ia tio n
8 .9
1 .0 5
D iffe re n c e
S ta n d a rd e r r o r o f
d iffe re n c e
1 .9 3
.5 4
R a tio
C hances
2 .4 to 1
Per cent
F re e
Nonн
re a d e rs
re a d e rs
6 .9
1 3 .7 9
8 .6 2
1 3 .7 9
5 .1 7
3 .4 5
5 .1 7
1 8 .9 6
1 3 .7 9
8 .6 2
1 .7 2
4 9 .9 9
4 9 .9 9
*
58
TABLE
X III
RELATIONSHIP OP TOTAL READING COMPREHENSION
TO FREE READERS AND NON-READERS
IN GRADE ELEVEN
S c o re s
1 0 5 -1 0 9
1 0 0 -1 0 4
9 5 - 99
9 0 - 94
8 5 - 89
8 0 - 84
7 5 - 79
7 0 - 74
F re q u e n c ie s
F re e
N onн
rea d ers
re a d e rs
Per cent
F re e
ifa n rea d ers
re a d e rs
2
1
3 .3 3
4
5
9
3
1
2
6 .6 6
6
12
8 .3 3
1 4 .9 9
5 .0 0
1 .6 7
7
5
3
24
36
T o ta ls
95*4
9 0 .3
M ean
S ta n d a rd
6 .2 5
7 .9
d e v ia tio n
D iffe re n c e
5 .1
S ta n d a rd e r r o r
o f d iffe re n c e
' 2 .0 8
2 .4 5
R a tio
C hances
140 t o 1
.
1 .6 7
3 .3 3
1 0 .0 0
1 9 .9 9
1 1 .6 6
8 .3 3
5 .0 0
3 9 .9 8
5 9 .9 8
59
TABLE
XIV
RELATIONSHIP OF TOTAL- READING COMPREHENSION
TO FREE READERS AND NON-READERS
IN GRADE TEN
1 0 5 -1 0 9
1 0 0 -1 0 4
9 5 - 99
9 0 - 94
8 5 - 89
8 0 - 84
2 5 - 79
70- 74
T o ta ls
M ean
S ta n d a rd
d e v ia tio n
D iffe re n c e
S ta n d a rd e r r o r
o f d iffe re n c e
R a tio
C hanees
1
3
9
5
1
4
4
5
5
5
6
10
5
3
2
268 6 .3 5
42
8 8 .3 5
9 .1
8 .2
2 .0
2 .1 1
.9 5
4 .8 to 1
1*47
4 .4 1
1 0 .2 4
7 .3 6
8 .8 3
1 4 .7 1
7 .3 6
4 .4 1
1 .4 7
5 .8 8
5 .8 8
7 .3 6
7 .3 5
3 .3 6
2 .9 4
5 8 .7 9
3 8 .2 5
60
be c o n s id e re d in th e r e v is io n
p ro g ra m #
T h e r e m ay b e s e v e r a l f a c t o r s
The f i r s t
one i s
th e adequacy o f lib r a r y f a c i l i t i e s
G e r i n g H ig h S c h o o l#
s tru c tu re
to b e c o n s id e re d
h e re #
in
W ith t h e a d d i t i o n ^ o f a f i S 0 , 0 0 0
to th e s c h o o l,
s p a c e w as p r o v id e d t o
th e l i b r a r y w as ex panded*
A d e q u a te
c a r e f o r t h o s e who w i s h t o u s e i t #
O pen s h e l v e s a r e u s e d a n d a t t r a c t i v e
d is p la y s o f books a re
m ad e t o
T he m a g a z i n e s e c t i o n
c re a te
i n te r e s t in re a d in g .
i s u n u s u a l l y l a r g e a n d sh o w s a w id e s e l e c t i o n .
re p o rts th a t th is
sch o o l is
The l i b r a r i a n
s u p e rio r to th e s ta n d a rd s
set
u p b y t h e A m e r ic a n L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n a s r e g a r d s l i b r a r i e s
in s c h o o ls t h i s
n e w sp a p e rs.
s iz e #
T h ere i s a la c k ,
U nusual i n t e r e s t i s
h o w e v er, o f d a i l y
e v id e n c e d b y a l l p u p i ls
o f th e th r e e g ra d e s in th e lib r a r y #
It
is
f u l l to o v e rн
f lo w in g e v e ry s tu d y r h a l l an d b e f o r e and a f t e r
s c h o o l#
B u t t h e r e a r e r e g u l a r l e s s o n s t o b e w o rk e d o n d u r i n g s t u d y
h a lls
so t h e r e f o r e n o t a g r e a t de& l o f tim e c a n b e d e v o te d
to f r e e re a d in g #
l i b r a r y and to
T e a c h e rs a re f r e e
to b r in g c la s s e s to th e
d e v o te th e tim e t o f r e e r e a d i n g
p a rtic u la r f ie ld .
a r e m ad e , a v a i l a b l e
B ut t h is
is
not done.
No ro o m l i b r a r i e s
so t h a t a p o r t i o n o f th e w e e k f s tim e
c a n b e d e v o te d t o f r e e r e a d i n g .
r e a d i n g p ro b le m i s
in th e ir
due in p a r t to
I t w o u ld se e m t h e f r e e
im p ro p e r b a la n c e
i s f tim e
i n t e a c h i n g p r o c e d u r e s and l a c k o f tim e f o r s u c h a p ro g ra m
61
i n th e c u rric u lu m .
T h e re i s a c i t y l i b r a r y
a v a ila b le to
L ib ra ry c a rd s a r e h e ld by p r a c t i c a l l y
is
a l l th e s tu d e n ts .
e v ery s tu d e n t.
t r u e , h o w e v e r, t h a t th e books a r e l a r g e l y
th e f i e l d
It
d e v o te d t o
o f f i c t i o n w ith o n ly a s p r i n k l in g o f n o n - f i c t i o n
m a te ria l.
W ith t h i s
c o n d itio n t r u e , re a d in g done in th e
home w i l l b e l a r g e l y f i c t i o n .
f o r e , th e re
T h e re fo re ,
is
As h a s b e e n m e n t i o n e d b e н
a la c k o f re a d in g m a te r ia ls
th e lib r a r y
i n t h e hom es.
c a rd and w hat i t h a s to o f f e r m u st
se rv e in s te a d .
I n T e s t 5 o f T a b le s I I I ,
re s u lts
IV , an d V, a l l
sh o w ed lo w
o n g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h w o u ld i n d i c a t e t h e
f r e e r e a d in g p ro g ram i s b e in g n e g le c te d .
A n o th e r f a c t o r i s t h e r a t e
T a b le s I I I ,
o f re a d in g .
T est 1 of
I V , a n d V , sh o w e d a l l c l a s s e s v e r y i n f e r i o r
sp e e d o f r e a d i n g .
S lo w r e a d i n g w o u ld t e n d t o
in
d e c re a se th e
a m o u n t d o n e a n d a l s o d i s c o u r a g e s lo w r e a d e r s .
A th ird fa c to r
w h ic h i n a p r o g r e s s i v e
is
t h e w id e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r p r o g r a m
sch o o l is
f e l t to be v e ry v a lu a b le .
W ith s u c h a p r o g r a m w e l l u n d e r w a y ,
i t becom es n e c e s s a r y
t o p ro v id e tim e o th e r th a n o u t s i d e o f s c h o o l f o r a l l f r e e
re a d in g .
A w e ll- g u id e d f r e e r e a d in g p ro g ram becom es n e c e s s a r y
th e n and w i l l be d e p e n d e n t n o t s o l e l y on th e E n g lis h d e p a r t н
m ent f o r
its
c o n tin u a n c e a lth o u g h t h a t d e p a rtm e n t m u st s e r v e
62
a s a le a d e r f o r th e
o th e r d e p a rtm e n ts .
I n su m m a ry , t h e n , f r e e r e a d e r s sh o w a s u p e r i o r i t y
over n o n -re a d e rs.
o f n o n -re a d e rs
I n G e n in g H ig h S c h o o l t h e p e r c e n t a g e
is v e ry h ig h .
S uch b e in g t r u e
r e a d i n g p ro g ram s e t up m u st b e in c o r p o r a te d
th e n a f r e e
in th e c u r r ic н
u lu m r e v i s i o n t a k i n g p l a c e w i t h e a c h d e p a r t m e n t b e i n g
r e s p o n s ib le f o r a p a r t o f su c h a p ro g ram .
F a c to rs to be c o n s id e re d
i n th e p ro g ra m a r e
tim e p ro v id e d th e s tu d e n ts f o r f r e e r e a d in g ,
a ti o n o f th e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r p ro g ram ,
(4 ) l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s ,
hom e, an d
(5 ) m a t e r i a l s
( 6 ) t e a c h e r g u id a n c e i n
(1 )
(2 ) c o n s id e rн
(3 ) r a t e
a v a ila b le
o f re a d in g ,
in th e
su ch a p ro g ra m .
CHAPTER
V II
READING- COMPREHENSION IN RELATION
TO ACADEMIC GRADES
The f i f t h
q u e s tio n to
be c o n s id e r e d
is :
D o es r e a d н
i n g c o m p r e h e n s io n sh o w a h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h g r a d e s r e н
c e i v e d i n a c a d e m ic c o u r s e s ?
T h is m u st b e c o n s id e r e d t o
have any r e l a ti o n
to
see
i f re a d in g d i f f i c u l t i e s
a c a d e m ic g r a d e s *
I f th e y d o ,
i t w ill
m ea n t h a t we h a v e a c l u e a s t o w h a t m i g h t b e t h e c a u s e o f
som e o f t h e f a i l u r e s
re la tio n s h ip
i n a c a d e m ic w o rk *
I f th e re
is
a d ire c t
b e tw e e n g r a d e s a n d c o m p r e h e n s i o n , i t w i l l m ean
t h a t t h e r e a d i n g p ro b le m w i l l becom e t h e p ro b le m o f a l l
t e a c h e r s n o t m e re ly r e a d i n g t e a c h e r s o r E n g lis h t e a c h e r s .
F irs t,
l e t u s l o o k a t g r a d e t w e l v e i n T a b l e XV*
By n o t i n g t h e f r e q u e n c i e s we s e e t h e
g e n e ra l tre n d
is to
h i g h e r g r a d e s w i t h h i g h e r s c o r e s i n r e a d i n g c o m p re h e n s io n .
T a b l e XVII
a ls o
sh o w s a c o r r e l a t i o n
w h ic h sh o w s t h a t c o m p r e h e n s io n i s
i n a c a d e m ic g r a d e s .
c o e f f i c i e n t o f *58
a v e ry im p o rta n t f a c t o r
T a b le X V I a l s o
sh o w s t h a t t h e c h a n c e s
a r e p r a c t i c a l c e r t a i n t y t h a t i n an i n f i n i t e num ber o f
s a m p lin g s th e
z e ro .
c o rre la tio n
c o e f f i c i e n t w i } 4 a lw a y s b e a b o v e
We w i l l n o t e , h o w e v e r , o n e s t u d e n t h a d a l m o s t w h o l l y
a f a i l i n g r e c o r d w ith a h ig h r e a d in g s c o r e .
T h is i s
one o f
64
TABLE
XV
STUDENTS* ACADEMIC RECORD IN GRADE TWELVE IN
RELATIONSHIP TO TOTAL READING
COMPREHENSION
S c o res
1
1 0 5 -1 0 9
1 0 0 -1 0 4
9 5 - 99
9 0 - 94
8 5 - 89
8 0 - 84
7 5 - 79
7 0 - 74
6 5 - 69
6 0 - 64
1
T o ta ls
3
1
1
.
G ra d es e x p re s s e d a s g ra d e p o in ts
2
3
4
5
1
1
4
4
10
8
5
5
2
4
5
1
1
2
2
1
19
22
13
2
65
TABLE
XVI
CORRELATION TABLE OF READING COMPREHENSION
TO ACADEMIC GRADES IN GRADES
TEN, ELEVEN, AND TWELVE
G ra d e
10
11
12
C o rre la tio n
c o e ffic ie n t
.5 8
.5 2
.5 5
S ta n d a rd e r r o r
of
c o rre la tio n
c o e ffic ie n t
R a tio
.0 8
7 .2 5
.0 9
5 .7 8
.0 9
6 .1 1
C hances
O v e r 3>40Q Q000
O ver 3 ,4 0 0 ,0 0 0
O ver 3 ,4 0 0 ,0 0 0
66
th e
i n d i v i d u a l c a s e s t h a t w i l l a lw a y s h a v e t o b e c o n s i d e r e d .
T h i s b o y h a s p o s s i b i l i t i e s b u t i s n o t u s i n g th e m t o t h e
b e s t a d v a n ta g e .
He i s k n o v n t o
w ro n g c o m p a n y , a n d i s
m in is tra tio n
is
v a lu e , th e s e
a p ro b le m c h i l d
c o n c e rn e d .
sc h o o l h o u rs a ls o .
be la z y , tr a v e li n g
in th e
as f a r a s th e adн
He i s w o r k i n g o u t s i d e o f
I n m a k in g t h i s
c o rre la tio n c h a rt o f
in d iv id u a l c a s e s , a s th e
m u st be c o n s id e re d c a r e f u l l y .
one a n a ly z e d h e r e ,
G ro u p s u m m a r ie s w i l l n o t
aU w ays s u f f i c e .
G r a d e e l e v e n a s s e e n f r o m T a b l e X V II sh o w s a t r e n d
u p w a r d i n a c a d e m ic g r a d e s a s r e a d i n g s c o r e s i n c r e a s e .
T h ere a re no u n u s u a l c a s e s o u t o f l i n e
X V I I I sh o w s a c o r r e l a t i o n
in t h i s
g ro u p .
T a b le
c o e f f i c i e n t o f .5 2 w h ic h a g a in
sh o w s t h a t c o m p r e h e n s io n i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t i n a c a d e m ic
g ra d e s.
T h e re i s a ls o
p ra c tic a l c e rta in ty th a t
i f an
i n f i n i t e num ber o f c a s e s h ad b e e n u se d th e c o r r e l a t i o n
c o e f f i c i e n t w o u ld b e a b o v e z e r o .
G ra d e t e n sh o w s t h e sa m e n o r m a l t r e n d u p w a rd i n
a c a d e m ic g r a d e s a s r e a d i n g s c o r e s i n c r e a s e a s sh o w n b y
T a b le X V III.
I n T a b l e XVI we s e e a c o r r e l a t i o n o f . 5 5
w h i c h sh o w s t h a t
in t h i s
c la s s th e re
is
a d e fin ite re н
l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n g r a d e s an d c o m p r e h e n s io n .
A g a in t h e r e
i s p r a c t i c a l c e r t a i n t y t h a t i n a n i n f i n i t e num ber o f
s a m p lin g s th e c o r r e l a t i o n
z e ro .
c o e f f i c i e n t w i l l a lw a y s b e ab o v e
67
TABUS
XVTI
STUDENTS* ACADEMIC RECORD IN GRADE ELEVEN IN
RELATIONSHIP TO TOTAL READING
COMPREHENSION
S c o re s
1
G ra d es e x p re s s e d a s g ra d e p o in ts
2
3
4
5
1 0 5 -1 0 9
1 0 0 -1 0 4
9 5 - 99
9 0 - 94
8 5 - 89
8 0 -8 4
7 5 - 79
7 0 - 74
3
5
1
3
T o ta ls
9
24
6
7
3
5
1
2
2
6
12
1
1
1
1
5
1
22
11
68
TABLE
X V III
STUDENTS* ACADEMIC RECORD IN GRADE TEN IN RELATIONSHIP
TO TOTAL READING COMPREHENSION
S c o re
I
1 0 5 -1 0 9
1 0 0 -1 0 4
9 5 - 99
9 0 - 94
8 5 - 89
80 -8 4
7 5 - 79
7 0 - 74
T o ta ls
G ra d es e x p re s s e d a s g ra d e p o i n ts
4
5
2
3
1
1
1
8
1
2
1
1
5
7
4
10
2
2
1
6
5
5
1
6
20
g7
3
3
1
2
1
3
1
12
3
69
T h e re fo re ,
s tu d y , th e r e
is
in a l l th r e e g ra d e s c o n s id e re d in
a d e fin ite
c o r r e l a t i o n b e tw e e n r e a d i n g
c o m p r e h e n s io n a n d a c a d e m ic g r a d e s *
t h a t we w o u ld b e
ju s tifie d
one c a u se f o r f a i l i n g
th e
in
I t w o u ld se e m t h e n
c o n s id e rin g ^ p o o r re a d in g as
g rad e s*
A n a ly s is m u st b e m ade,
h o w e v e r, o f o t h e r f a c t o r s t h a t m ig h t i n f l u e n c e s u c h a s
w a s show n b y t h e o n e c a s e i n g r a d e t w e lv e *
It
to
seem s n e c e s s a r y th e n t h a t e a c h t e a c h e r w i l l h a v e
c o n s id e r t h e r e a d i n g p ro b le m a s p a r t o f h e r w o rk an d
n o t le a v e i t
s o le ly *
u la ry *
to a r e m e d ia l t e a c h e r t o m ake a d ju s tm e n ts
T h is m ig h t b e d o n e b y c o n s i d e r i n g f i r s t v o c a b н
The te a c h e r m u st c o n s id e r th e t e c h n i c a l v o c ab н
u la ry o f h er f ie ld
a n d m ak e s p e c i a l e f f o r t s
in th e m o st
e f f e c t i v e w ay p o s s i b l e t o b u i l d u p a v o c a b u l a r y t h a t w i l l
b e u s a b le and tin d e rs ta n d a b le
in th o s e c la s s e s .
n o t b e d o n e b y a n y o u t s i d e m em ber*
to
T hat canн
E f f o r t s s h o u l d b e m ade
s t r e s s p h ra s in g s p e c u lia r to
t h a t s u b je c t o r id io m a tic
e x p r e s s i o n s t h a t m ig h t b e u se d *
I t becom es th e t e a c h e r ?s
p r o b l e m t o h e l p t h e c l a s s g r a s p t h e w h o le c o n c e p t a n d t h e
p a r t i c u l a r p a r a g r a p h m e a n in g b y c e n t r a l t h o u g h t u n t i l t h e
p u p il re a d s w ith e a se
p a rtic u la r f ie ld .
in t h e m anner b e s t a d a p te d to t h a t
C a re m u st b e ta k e n t o a v o id o v e r-e m p h a s is
oh d e t a i l a s t h a t h a s p ro v e d t o be a p o in t o f s tr e n g th
a lr e a d y and s h o u ld n o t be c o n tin u e d t o
t h e p o i n t w h e re
c o m p r e h e n s io n f a i l s
to
p ic tu re .
b ecause o f f a ilu r e
s e e t h e w h o le
7G
I n su m m ary t h e n , t h e g r a d e s b e i n g s t u d i e d sh o w
d e fin ite ly
t h a t r e a d i h g c o m p r e h e n s io n i s a f a c t o r i n
a c a d e m ic g r a d e s .
T h is m u st b e c o n s id e r e d
T h e r e m e d i a l w o rk h e r e b e c o m e s t h e
p ro b le m .
to th e f i e l d ,
b re a k in g
and
in d iv id u a l te a c h e r* s
He m u s t c o n s i d e r s e v e r a l p h a s e s
w o rd s u s e d i n t h e f i e l d ,
(1 ) t e c h n i c a l
( 2 ) p h r a s i n g a n d i d i o m s common
(3 ) p i c t u r i n g
in to p a r t s ,
in f a ilu r e s .
o f t h e w h o le a n d t h e n t h e
( 4 ) n o t o v e r - e m p h a s i z i n g s*1' d e t a i l ,
( 5 ) s h o w in g c e n t r a l i d e a s , t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e , a n d
in te rp re ta tio n *
CHAPTER
V III
READING COMPREHENSION IN 'RELATION TO
RATE/OP READING
The l a s t q u e s tio n to b e c o n s id e r e d
a re la tio n s h ip
h e n s io n ?
b e tw e e n r a t e
be done to
h e n s io n ,
it
is
if ra te
is
c o m p r e h e n s io n t h e n s o m e t h i n g m u s t
in c re a s e th e sp eed to f a c i l i t a t e
I t w i l l a ls o
I s th e re
o f r e a d i n g a n d r e a d i n g c o m p re н
T h is n e e d s to b e c o n s id e r e d b e c a u s e
d e fin ite ly re la te d to
n ess
is :
g r e a t e r c o m p re н
p r e s e n t t h e p ro b le m o f w h o se b u s i н
t o c a r e f o r su c h re m e d ia l p ro c e d u re s s h o u ld th e
p ro b le m e x i s t #
T h is w i l l a f f e c t te a c h in g p ro c e d u r e s
g re a tly .
T a b l e XIX sh o w s a c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t o f *53 f o r
g r a d e t w e l v e b e tw e e n r a t e a n d c o m p r e h e n s i o n .
The r a t i o
i n d i c a t e s p r a c t i c a l c e r t a i n t y t h a t i n a n i n f i n i t e num ber
o f s a m p le s t h a t t h e c o r r e l a t i o n
z e ro .
T h e sam e t a b l e
f o r g ra d e e le v e n .
c o e f f ic ie n t w ill be above
sh o w s p r a c t i c a l l y
The c o r r e l a t i o n
c o e f f ic ie n t h e re
and th e c h an c es a re p r a c t ic a l c e r t a i n t y
num ber o f s a m p lin g s t h e c o r r e l a t i o n
above z e ro .
1
is
.5 5
t h a t in an i n f i n i t e
c o e f f ic ie n t w ill be
I n g r a d e t e n f r o m t h e sa m e t a b l e , we s e e t h e
c o rre la tio n c o e ffic ie n t is
to
t h e sam e i s t r u e
.4 7 w i t h c h a n c e s b e i n g 7 7 0 ,0 0 0
or p ra c tic a l c e rta in ty
s a m p lin g s t h e c o r r e l a t i o n
t h a t i n an i n f i n i t e num ber o f
c o e f f ic ie n t w i l l be above z e ro .
71
TABLE
X IX
CORRELATION TABLE OF READING COMPREHENSION TO
RATE OF READING IN GRADES TEN,
ELEVEN, AND TWELVE
G ra d e
C o rre la tio n
c o e ffic ie n t
S ta n d a rd e r r o r
of
c o rre la tio n
c o e ffic ie n t
R a tio
C hances
10
*53
.0 8
6 .6 2
O ver 3 ,4 0 0 ,0 0 0
11
.5 5
.0 9
6 .1 1
O ver 3 ,4 0 0 ,0 0 0
12
.4 7
.1 0
4 .7
7 7 0 ,0 0 0 t o 1
72
We c a n a s s u m e t h e n , w i t h t h e s e t h r e e
i e n t s b e in g
.5 3 ,
c o rre la tio n c o e ffic н
.5 5 , and .4 7 , t h a t th e r a t e
is
a fa c to r
i n c o m p re h e n s io n .
Now l e t u s t u r n
to T a b le s I I I ,
and I F ,
and V a n d we
s e e a g a in w h a t h a s b e e n m e n tio n e d e a r l i e r t h a t t h e r a t e
o f re a d in g
2, 3,
in a l l th r e e
F ig u re s
a n d 4 sh o w t h a t t h e s e g r a d e s a r e r e a d i n g on t h e l e v e l
o f s tu d e n ts
tw o y e a r s b e lo w th e m w h ic h we c a n a s s u m e i s
m u ch t o o s l o w .
th e re
g r a d e s i s f a r b e lo w n o r m a l .
is
S in c e r a t e
a d e fin ite
is
need to
one f a c to r
in
c o m p r e h e n s io n
in c re a s e th e sp eed o f re a d in g
i n G e r i n g H ig h S c h o o l .
T h is c a n b e a c c o m p lis h e d t o
som e d e g r e e
in re a d in g
im p r o v e m e n t c l a s s e s w h e r e a p o r t i o n o f t h e s t u d e n t s a r e
rea ch e d .
B ut s in c e th o s e c la s s e s w i l l d e a l w ith o n ly th o s e
d e f i n i t e l y n e e d in g a r e m e d ia l p ro g ram an d s in c e th e g r e a t e r
p o rtio n o f each c la s s f a l l s
speed,
i t w i l l b eco m e t h e
b e lo w t h e n a t i o n a l norm й i n
i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r 1s p r o b le m
w ith th e g r e a t e s t s t r e s s b e in g p la c e d
in th e E n g lis h c la s s e s
w h e re n e a r l y e v e r y s t u d e n t w i l l b e r e g i s t e r e d .
D e fin ite
tim e d r e a d i n g .
e f f o r t s m u st be d i r e c te d t o
T h is c s n b e done by a l l te a c h e r s b u t m u st
be fo llo w e d b y t e s t i n g
p ro ce d u res to
i d e a s w e re c o m p re h e n d e d .
s tre s s
speed in
d r i l l w o rk i n
see i f
th e c e n tr a l
S uch a p ro g ram s h o u ld r e a l l y
c o m p r e h e n s io n n o t s p e e d i n r e a d i n g .
D iff-^ r
e r e n t s p e e d s a r e n e c e m sa ry t o d i f f e r e n t k in d s o f r e a d in g .
73
S k im m in g s h o u l d b e d o n e .
The l e v e l o f r e a d in g a s s ig n e d
sh o u ld n o t b e b eyond th e m a tu r a tio n l e v e l o f th e s t u d e n t .
T oo d i f f i c u l t r e a d i n g w i l l d e c r e a s e s p e e d .
c la s s e s ,
and in f a c t a l l
In s p e c ia l
c l a s s e s , a l l c h il d r e n s h o u ld b e
w a t c h e d f o r u s e m ade o f v o c a l i z a t i o n w h ic h w o u ld t e n d t o
d e c re a se speed.
B u ild in g a v o c a b u la ry w i l l a ls o h e lp to
speed.
A tte n tiv e re a d in g
in c re a s e
s h o u ld b e c h e c k e d a s w e l l a s
w a t c h i n g t h e e n l a r g i n g o f p e r c e p t i o n a n d c o m p r e h e n s io n
sp an s.
T he m in d - s e t to w a rd t h e m a t e r i a l s h o u ld b e w a tc h e d
and c a n b e s t be d e a lt w ith th ro u g h th e g iv in g o f i n t e r e s t i n g
a s s ig n m e n ts and th e p r e s e n t a ti o n o f s u c h .
CHAPTER
IX
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMQ5NBATIONS
T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l g i v e a su m m ary o f t h e p r o b l e m
a n d f i n d i n g s m ade b y t h e
i n v e s t i g a t o r an d w i l l a l s o m ake
re c o m m e n d a tio n s i n t h e l i g h t o f t h i s
I.
s tu d y .
CONCLUSIONS
S in c e r e a d in g h a s b e e n and s t i l l
p ro ce sses
p u rp o se to
in th e f i e l d
o f le a rn in g , t h is
is
one o f th e b a s ic
s tu d y h ad a s i t s
d is c o v e r th e r e a d i n g a c h ie v e m e n t o f t h e
s e n io r
h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s o f t h e G e r i n g C i t y S c h o o l s a n d t o m ake
a d e ta ile d
d ia g n o s is
o f th e
te s t r e s u lts to
a s s o c ia te d w ith th e s e d e f ic ie n c ie s
d is c o v e r f a c to r s
a s a s t e p to w a rd s a r e н
m e d ia l p ro g ram .
T h e s tu d y w as b a s e d o n t h e s e s i x q u e s t i o n s :
W h at i s t h e r e a d i n g a b i l i t y
(1 )
o f each o f th e th r e e g ra d e s?
( 3) Do s t u d e n t s c o m in g f r o m h o m es i n w h i c h o n e o r b o t h
p a r e n t s a r e f o r e i g n b o r n sh o w h i g h e r o r l o w e r r e a d i n g
c o m p r e h e n s io n ?
( 3 ) Do s e e i n g a n d h e a r i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s
have any r e la tio n s h ip
to
c c m p re h e n s io n ?
r a n k h i g h e r w ho do f r e e r e a d i n g ?
( 4 ) Do s t u d e n t s
( 5 ) D o e s r e a d i n g c o m p re н
h e n s io n sho w a h i g h e r c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h g r a d e s r e c e i v e d
a c a d e m ic c o u r s e s ?
in
( 6 ) I s t h e r e a r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n r a t e
o f r e a d i n g a n d c o m p r e h e n s io n ?
75
In th is
s tu d y
i t w as f o u n d t h a t g r a d e s t e n ,
e le v e n ,
\
an d tw e lv e w e re o f n o rm al i n t e l l i g e n c e w i t h g r a d e t e n
s h o w in g a v e r y s l i g h t s u p e r i o r i t y
in te llig e n c e *
te n ,
o v e r g ra d e e le v e n
T h e re w as a m ark e d c o r r e l a t i o n
in
in g rad e s
e l e v e n , an d tw e lv e b e tw e e n i n t e l l i g e n c e an d r e a d i n g
c o m p re h e n s io n .
T h is w as .5 2 ,
.6 1 , and .3 8 r e s p e c t i v e l y ,
w i t h p r a c t i c a l c e r t a i n t y b e i n g sh o w n t h a t s u c h w o u ld b e
tru e
in an i n f i n i t e
num ber o f s a m p lin g s .
I n t o t a l r e a d i n g c o m p re h e n s io n , g r a d e s t e n , e le v e n ,
a n d t w e l v e sh o w e d a d e f i n i t e
n o rm .
s u p e rio rity
o v er th e n a tio n a l
G r a d e t e n w a s b e lo w t h e n a t i o n a l n o r m .
A ll th re e
c l a s s e s w e r e v e r y , v e r y s lo w r e a d e r s r a n k i n g f r o m tw o t o
t h r e e g r a d e s b e lo w t h e i r p r e s e n t g r a d e p l a c e m e n t .
A ll
t h r e e c l a s s e s sh o w e d w e a k n e s s e s i n g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n ,
th a t is
i n f o r m a t i o n n o t e m p h a s iz e d i n t h e c l a s s ro o m b u t
b e in g w ith in th e ra n g e o f e x p e rie n c e o f th e p u p i ls .
A ll
t h r e e c l a s s e s w e re u n a b le t o d raw i n f e r e n c e s o r s e e t h e
a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e m a in i d e a
in th e
p a ra g ra p h w ith o u t
t h a t a p p l i c a t i o n b e i n g p o i n t e d o u t*
G r a d e s t e n a n d e l e v e n sh o w e d a w e a k n e s s i n v o c a b u l a r y .
G r a d e s t e n a n d t w e l v e sh o w e d l a c k o f a b i l i t y
to
g e t th e
c e n t r a l th o u g h t w ith o u t b e in g d i s t r a c t e d
by s u p p o r tin g
id e a s .
t o f o llo w an id e a
to
its
G ra d e t e n
c o n c lu s io n .
sh o w ed l a c k o f a b i l i t y
76
As to
s tre n g th ,
a l l c l a s s e s w e re s tr o n g
p e rc e p tio n o f r e l a t i o n s , g ra s p in g o f d e t a i l s ,
in th e
and i n t e r н
p re ta tio n s ?
The im p lic a tio n s
th e re
is
o f th e above f in d in g s
is
a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n b e tw e e n i n t e l l i g e n c e
th a t
and r e a d н
in g c o m p re h e n s io n .
G e rin g s e n i o r h ig h s t u d e n t s a r e o f
n o rm al i n t e l l i g e n c e
and e x c e p t f o r
io rity
to
o n e g r a d e sh o w s u p e r н
t h e s t a n d a r d n o rm s i n r e a d i n g .
T h i s f a c t sh o w s
we h a v e a n e e d f o r a d e f i n i t e r e a d i n g im p ro v e m e n t p r o g r a m
f o r g rad e te n .
We a l s o s e e t h a t d e s p i t e t h e
to ta l re a d н
i n g c o m p r e h e n s io n b e i n g s u p e r i o r t o
t h e n a t i o n a l n o rm ,
t h e r e a r e m any g l a r i n g w e a k n e s s e s .
F ro m t h i s we c a n i n f e r
th a t a re a d in g
im p ro v e m e n t \ p r o g r am w o u ld b e b e n e f i c i a l
n o t o n ly in g ra d e t e n b u t i n th e e n t i r e
The d a ta
s c h o o l.
o b t a i n e d a b o v e i n d i c a t e s t o o m u eh s t r e s s
h a s b e e n p l a c e d o n d e t a i l w o rk b o t h i n c l a s s w o rk a n d
.e x a m in a tio n s .
be s u p e rio r.
T h a t p h a s e , d e t a i l a b i l i t y , w a s sh o w n t o
T h i s w o u ld i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e
e n tir e fa c u lty
n e e d s to c o o p e ra te h e re b e c a u se i t
c a n b e assu m ed t h a t
d e ta ile d
R e a d i n g f o r t h e w h o le
r e a d i n g c u t s dow n s p e e d .
p i c t u r e a n d s k im m in g s h o u l d b e a d d e d t o d e t a i l r e a d i n g
a n d i t w o u ld b e t h e t e a c h e r ^
w o rk t o
see w hat m a te ria ls
dem and w h ic h k in d o f r e a d i n g .
T o o m u ch d e t a i l r e a d i n g w o u ld i n d i c a t e n o t e n o u g h
77
l o o k in g a t t h e w h o le r e s u l t i n g
id e a s ,
fo llo w in g id e a s to
d is tr a c te d by s u p p o rtin g
o f id e a s to
fo r th e w o rst c a s e s .
to
see c e n tr a l
t h e i r c o n c lu s io n s w ith o u t b e in g
id e a s ,
o th e r s i t u a t i o n s .
w o rk n e e d s t o b e d o n e .
in i n a b i l i t y
a n d m a k in g a p p l i c a t i o n s
T h i s w o u ld i n d i c a t e r e m e d i a l
R e m e d ia l c l a s s e s s h o u ld b e s e t up
B ut th e te a c h e r s can b e s t fo llo w
t h i s u p i n t h e i r r e g u l a r c l a s s e s b y u s e o f s u m m a riz in g ,
o u tlin in g ,
in d ic a tin g o f c e n tra l id e a s ,
o f th e m t o r e a l l i f e
and a p p lic a tio n
s itu a tio n s .
V o c a b u la ry w e a k n e s s e s i n d i c a t e t h e n e e d o f a n a l l
sc h o o l p ro g ram .
T hat i s ,
sh o u ld b e s t r e s s e d
t h e v o c a b u la r y o f e a c h d e p a rtm e n t
w ith in t h a t d e p a rtm e n t so t h a t a w id e r
m o re m e a n i n g f u l v o c a b u l a r y c a n b e b u i l t .
W it h s l o w r e a d e r s
re a d in g w ill be l e s s .
b u t speed w il l d i f f e r
th e re
i t n a t u r a l l y fo llo w s t h a t f r e e
In c re a se d
sp e e d n e e d s to b e g a in e d
in d i f f e r e n t ty p e s o f m a te r ia l a s
i s no g e n e r a l r e a d i n g c o m p re h e n s io n o r s p e e d .
S k im m in g s h o u l d b e e v a l u a t e d a s n e e d e d , a s h a s b e e n m e n t i o n e d
b e fo re .
M o re t i m e s h o u l d b e g i v e n i n c l a s s e s f o r f r e e
re a d in g . . I t
l i e s w ith th e
in d iv id u a l te a c h e r to
in c re a s e
i n t e r e s t feo t h a t t h e r e w i l l b e m o re f r e e r e a d i n g d o n e .
As r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s io n i s r e l a t e d
t o b a ck g ro u n d
we s e e t h a t t h o s e f r o m h o m es w h e r e o n e o r b o t h p a r e n t s
a re f o r e ig n b o rn in d ic a te l e s s e r a b i l i t y
re a d ily .
to
The d i f f e r e n c e d o e s n o t j u s t i f y
g ra m j u s t f o r th e m i n l i g h t o f t h e d a t e
c o m p re h e n d
a re m e d ia l p ro н
s ta te d p re v io u s ly .
T
78
R a th e r a n a l l
s c h o o l p ro g ra m s h o u ld be u s e d so a s n o t t o
b r i n g s tig m a o f b e in g i n f e r i o r t o b e a r on t h e s e p u p ils *
I m p lic a tio n s a r e t h a t v o c a b u la ry s h o u ld b e s t r e s s e d
in
c o n te x t , g u id a n c e in b e t t e r s tu d y h a b i t s s h o u ld b e i n н
c r e a s e d , and a f r e e r e a d i n g p ro g ram s h o u ld b e b e g u n i n
a l l c l a s s e s t o w id e n t h e p u p ils *
ra n g e o f e x p e rie n c e s
due to la c k o f tr a v e l and la c k o f re a d in g m a te r ia l in
t h e home*
The s t u d y i n d i c a t e s n o h e a r in g d i f f i c u l t i e s
s c h o o l o f a n y I m p o r ta n c e *
S ig h t d i f f i c u l t i e s
a r e common
a n d t h e s t u d y sh o w s t h o s e w i t h s i g h t d i f f i c u l t i e s
lo w e r i n a b i l i t y
t o c o m p re h e n d *
d e fin ite
s h o u l d b e m a d e o to r e m e d y t h i s
F irs t,
e ffo rts
in t h is
ra n k
Im p lic a tio n s a r e t h a t
s itu a tio n *
t h e t e a c h e r s h o u l d m ak e w h a t a d j u s t m e n t s s h e c a n
i n t h e c l a s s ro o m f o r t h o s e w i t h p o o r s i g h t *
s e r v ic e o r g a n iz a tio n s s h o u ld be c o n ta c te d to
The l o c a l
h e lp f in a n c e
a c o r r e c t i o n p r o g r a m f o r t h o s e w i t h p o o r s i g h t who й re i n
t h e lo w e r in c o m e b r a c k e t s .
p a re n ts to
C o n t a c t s s h o u l d b e m ade w i t h
e n c o u r a g e th e m t o m ake c o r r e c t i o n s f o r t h o s e
i n t h e h i g h e r in c o m e b r a c k e t s w i t h a d e f i n i t e
In t h is
s u p e rio rity
s tu d y f r e e r e a d e r s w e re fo u n d t o
sh o w a
i n r e a d i n g c o m p re h e n s io n o v e r n o n - r e a d e r s .
im p lic a tio n s h e re a re to
c o rp o ra te d in to
lib ra ry
fo llo w -u p .
have in c re a s e d f r e e
th e c u rric u lu m
fa c ilitie s ,
ta k in g
in to
re a d in g in н
c o n s id e ra tio n
e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r p ro g ram , m a t e r i a ls
The
79
a v a ila b le
i n hom es, te a c h e r g u id a n c e ,
and i n t e r e s t
in m a te r ia ls ,
a ttra c tiv e n e s s of
and r e a d in g on t h e m a t u r a tio n
l e v e l o f th e p u p il*
T h e re was a m a rk e d c o r r e l a t i o n b e tw e e n a c a d e m ic
g r a d e s and r e a d i n g c o m p re h e n s io n .
T h is m akes c o m p re h e n s io n
a f a c to r to be c o n sid e re d in f a i l u r e s .
are th a t
Im p lic a tio n s h e re
a v o c a b u la ry a d a p te d to each f i e l d
s tu d ie d m ust
b e b u i l t u p , p h r a s i n g a n d i d i o m s common t o t h e
m ust be ta u g h t,
eo u rse
d e t a i l m ust n o t be o v e re m p h a s iz e d , w h o le s
m ust be p re s e n te d as w e ll a s p a r t s
and d e t a i l s ,
o f c e n t r a l id e a s , fo llo w in g th ro u g h o f id e a s ,
sig n ific a n c e
and i n t e r н
p r e t a t i o n s m u s t bB w o r k e d o u t .
The s t u d y show ed a h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n b e tw e e n s p e e d
o f r e a d i n g and c o m p re h e n sio n .
S in c e th e th r e e c la s s e s
w e re v e r y lo w i n s p e e d o f r e a d i n g , t h e
fo r
in c re a se d speed.
s u m m a ry , t h e r e
im p lic a tio n s
As h a s b e e n s t a t e d
tim e d r e a d in g w ith t e s t i n g
S k im m in g s h o u l d b e d o n e ,
f o r c o m p re h e n sio n s h o u ld b e
w orked o u t , m a t e r i a l s h o u ld b e g i v e n t h a t
v o c a b u la ry sh o u ld be in c r e a s e d ,
g iv e n to
spans.
in th is
i s no g e n e r a l s p e e d , b u t r a t h e r i t m u st b e
d e te rm in e d by th e m a t e r i a l r e a d .
c u lt,
e a rlie r
are
is n o t to o d i f f i н
and c a r e s h o u l d b e
t h e e n l a r g i n g o f p e r c e p t i o n and c o m p re h e n sio n
II,
RECOMMENDATIONS
I n l i g h t o f th e f i n d in g s and t h e i r
t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o g r a m i s re c o m m e n d ed *
th e te s tin g
program p r o f i l e
im p lic a tio n s
At th e c lo s e o f
s h e e t s w e r e m ade f o r e a c h
s t u d e n t w h ic h show s i n a v e r y u n d e r s t a n d a b l e m a n n e r j u s t
w h e re e a c h i s w eak and s t r o n g .
T hese sh o u ld be p re s e n te d
in in d iv id u a l c o n fe re n c e s by th e a d m in is tr a to r o f th e t e s t s
i n o rd e r t h a t a c o m p le te e x p la n a t i o n and u n d e r s ta n d in g
m ig h t be h a d .
C a s e r e c o r d s s h o u l d b e m ad e o n e a c h s t u d e n t
t o b e in c lu d e d w ith th e r e a d in g t e s t s and s h o u ld in c lu d e
d a ta a s t o g ra d e p la c e m e n t i n r e a d in g an d in s c h o o l w h ic h
is
g iv e n on t h e p r o f i l e
a c a d e m ic r e c o r d ,
p h y sic a l d e fe c ts .
fa c ilita te
e h a r t , b ackground o f s tu d e n t, h is
in te re s ts ,
p e rs o n a lity f a c to r s ,
D ata a c c u m u la te d i n t h i s
and m y
f a s h i o n w o u ld
t h e e a r i n g f o r p u p i l s w ay o u t o f l i n e
a s th e
o n e d i s c u s s e d i n t h e c h a p t e r o n g r a d e s a n d r e a d i n g who
h ad u n u s u a l ly h ig h c o m p re h e n sio n and v e r y p o o r g r a d e s .
T h e se c a s e s n e e d a s m uch a t t e n t i o n a s t h e p o o r r e a d e r s .
R e m e d ia l c l a s s e s
a r e recom m ended b u t s h o u l d i n c l u d e
o n ly th e s e v e r e l y h a n d ic a p p e d r e a d e r s and n o n - r e a d e r s
th a t th e
i n d iv i d u a l te a c h e r d o es n o t h av e tim e t o
w ith in re g u la r c la s s p e rio d s .
I n th e s e c la s s e s , m o tiv a tio n
c an be u se d and a ty p e o f p sy c h o lo g y t o
i m p r o v e m e n t am ong t h e p u p i l s .
cope
p ro m o te d e s i r e f o r
I n d i v i d u a l w ork f o r t r e a t i n g
81
o f s p e c if ic w eaknesses o f p u p ils can be b e t t e r
by m eans o f v a r i e d te c h n iq u e s and r e t e s t i n g
cared f o r
can ta k e
p la c e a t needed in te r v a ls .
The r e m e d ia l p ro g ram t h a t
in v e s tig a to r
i s re c o m m e n d e d b y t h e
i s an a l l - s c h o o l program u s in g t h e e n t i r e
fa c u lty to c a rry
it
o u t.
To m ak e s u c h s u c c e s s f u l * r e g u l a r
f a c u l t y m e e tin g s sh o u ld be h e ld
i n w h ic h t o p r e s e n t g ro u p
c h a r t s an d i n d i v i d u a l c h a r t s t o m ake c l e a r t h e s t a t u s
th e p u p ils .
E ach c o u rs e m ig h t w e ll d e f i n e
so t h a t th e
i n d iv i d u a l te a c h e r m ig h t b e t t e r
m ig h t i n c o r p o r a te r e a d in g i n to
its
of
o b je c tiv e s
s e e how h e
h is c o u rse .
P ro fe ss io n a l
s t i m u l a t i o n m ig h t be in c r e a s e d by a s tu d y o f t h e a im s ,
o b je c tiv e s , sta g e s
o f g r o w th , a n d m eth o d s u s e d i n r e a d i n g ,
and a l s o t h e w o rk b e in g done i n o t h e r s c h o o l s .
To m a k e
t h e r e m e d ia l p ro g ra m e f f i c i e n t t h i s w o u ld a lm o s t h a v e t o
b e d o n e a s t h e a v e r a g e t e a c h e r knows v e r y l i t t l e
re a d in g .
p o rte d .
C lassro o m t e c h n iq u e s and r e s u l t s
S in c e f r e e re a d in g
th e te a c h e rs
a v a ila b le
la x
th is
is
about
sh o u ld be r e н
a v i t a l p a r t o f t h e w ork,
s h o u ld becom e v e r y f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e m a t e r i a l s
in th e
about th is
lib ra ry .
It
p a rtic u la rly .
i s fo u n d t h a t th e y a r e v e ry
It
i s a l s o recom m edned t h a t
s tu d y be fo llo w e d up n e x t w in te r in th e
pro g ram t o be c a r r i e d
in -se rv ic e
on u n d e r t h e s p o n s o rs h ip o f t h e
U n iv e rs ity o f N eb rask a.
82
It
c u ltie s,
is
recom m ended t h a t
a fa c u lty
in th e c ase o f s ig h t d i f f i н
c o m m itte e be p u t
in ch arg e*
o f c h il d r e n h a v in g s i g h t d i f f i c u l t i e s
P a re n ts
sh o u ld be n o t i f i e d
o f s u c h , s h o u l d b e m ade f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e r e a d i n g p ro g ra m
and i t s
o b je c tiv e s,
p u p ils be ta k e n to
a n d r e q u e s t s s h o u l d b e m ade t h a t t h e s e
a p h y sic ia n fo r f u r th e r tre a tm e n t.
sh o u ld be fo llo w e d up a t r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s
g r e s s m ade.
th is
T h is
to c h e c k on p ro н
S e rv ic e o r g a n iz a tio n s s h o u ld b e c o n ta c te d by
c o m m itte e t o g e t n e c e s s a r y a i d f o r t h o s e u n a b le t o
g e t tre a tm e n t because o f f in a n c ia l d i f f i c u l t i e s .
E ffo rts
s h o u l d b e m ade b y t h e c o m m itte e t o b o r r o w t h e o p th a lm o g r a p h
fro m t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f N eb rask a f o r u s e i n f u r t h e r t e s t i n g
and s tu d y .
I n t h e a l l s c h o o l p r o g r a m , t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r recom m ends
t h a t each te a c h e r a n a ly z e c a r e f u l l y th e
th o se
stu d y h a b its o f
i n t h e c l a s s e s f o r v o c a l i z a t i o n , r h y t h m i c e y e m oveн
m e n ts , and a t t e n t i v e r e a d i n g a s a m eans o f im p ro v in g t h e
s tu d y h a b i t s w h ic h h ave b een s u g g e s te d a s a c a u s e f o r
p o o r c o m p re h e n sio n .
room c o n d i t i o n s a s t o
p ro m o te b e t t e r
S p e c ia l c a r e sh o u ld be ta k e n to a d a p t
lig h tin g ,
h e a t,
stu d y h a b i t s .
A u n it ty p e o f o rg a n iz a tio n
in te re s t
c o n c e p ts ,
and o t h e r f a c t o r s t o
i s recom m ended t o p ro m o te
i n f r e e r e a d i n g , u s e o f l i b r a r y , r e a d i n g f o r w h o le
a p p l i c a t i o n o f i d e a s and d ra w in g o f i n f e r e n c e s .
S p e c ia l c a re sh o u ld be g iv e n to m o tiv a te d a s s ig n m e n ts ,
83
g iv in g th e p u p il a b ackground o f th e m a t e r i a ls to
stu d ie d ,
be
o r i e n t i n g h im t o a p p r e c i a t e n e w p r o b l e m s , how
to u se s p e c if ic books, re a s o n s fo r stu d y in g th e u n i t ,
and w i t h a t t e n t i o n t o th e
a n tic ip a tio n o f d if f ic u ltie s
so t h a t r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t w i l l n o t b e l o s t .
F re e re a d in g sh o u ld be
tim e
in c re a s e d a ls o by p ro v id in g
i n c l a s s e s f o r t h e u s e o f t h e l i b r a r y , b u i l d i n g room
lib ra rie s
and re a d in g ta b le s
and c l a s s e s ,
f o r u s e d u r i n g home ro o m p e r i o d
p r o v id in g m a te r ia l n o t beyond th e m a tu r a tio n
le v e l o f th e p u p ils ,
o f su g g e ste d re a d in g
and p ro v id in g s p e c i a l l y a rra n g e d l i s t s
fo r
t h a t p a r t i c u l a r d e p a rtm e n t.
It
i s recom m ended t h a t e a c h d e p a r t m e n t c o o p e r a t e i n s u g g e s t i n g
books to be p u rc h a se d by th e c i t y
be added to
o u r own l i b r a r y ,
c l a s s e s b e h e l d ?.
and i t s
h e ld
w o rk in g s.
in c la s s e s
4
lib ra ry ,
t h a t n ew sp ap ers
and t h a t s p e c i a l o r i e n t a t i o n
f o r p u p ils u n fa m ilia r w ith th e l ib r a r y
It
i s recom m ended t h a t o p e n fo ru m s b e
a s one m eans o f c r e a t i n g
in te re s t
in f u r н
t h e r r e a d i n g :.on a h i g h e r l e v e l .
T he i n v e s t i g a t o r recom m ends t h e b u i l d i n g o f c o n c e p ts
b y r e a d i n g f o r t h e w h o le p i c t u r e
and h a v in g an u n d e rs ta n d in g
of it
su m m aries, e v a l u a t i o n s o f
a id e d by u se o f o u t l i n i n g ,
m a te ria l rea d ,
to l i f e
and a c t u a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n
s i t u a t i o n s m ade.
and ^ a p p lic a tio n
M o re f u n c t i o n a l t e s t i n g
be s t r e s s e d t o a v o id t o o m uch r e a d i n g f o r d e t a i l .
sh o u ld
T h is
64
is d e fin ite ly
t h e w o rk o f e a c h d e p a rtm e n t*
The v o c a b u l a r y s h o u ld b e b u i l t up i n e a c h d e p a r tm e n t
w ith s p e c i a l e m p h a sis b e in g p la c e d on b u i l d i n g a m e a n in g fu l
one f o r u se in t h a t d e p a rtm e n t,
s p e c ia l a t t e n t i o n p a id to
p h r a s i n g s an d id io m s u s e d t h e r e ,
th e re ,
and f ig u r a tiv e
te c h n ic a l te rm in o lo g y u sed
lan g u a g e p o p u la r i n t h a t f i e l d .
The
E n g lis h d e p a rtm e n t s h o u ld e s p e c i a l l y a d v o c a te th e u s e o f
th e d ic tio n a ry ,
an d s h o u ld w ork e s p e c i a l l y
s ta n d in g o f p r e f i x e s and s u f f i x e s ,
in th e und erн
a n d t h e m e a n in g o f w ord
ro o ts.
R a te o f r e a d in g ,
it
is
reco m m en d ed ,
sh o u ld be c a re d
f o r th ro u g h th e E n g lis h c la s s e s
la r g e ly w ith speed t e s t s
b e in g g iv e n ,
an d sk im m in g b e i n g u s e d .
It
is
t e s ti n g fo llo w in g ,
recom m ended t h a t t h e s e t e s t s b e g i v e n a g a i n
a t r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s s o t h a t c o m p a r i s o n s c a n b e m ad e f o r
th e
i n d i v i d u a l s and g r o u p s fro m y e a r t o y e a r and t h e w ork
b e revam ped a s n e c e s s a r y .
I n su m m ary t h e n ,
th is
s tu d y h as su rv ey ed th e re a d н
in g a c h ie v e m e n t o f g r a d e s t e n ,
e le v e n , and tw e lv e o f G o rin g
H ig h S c h o o l b y a d i a g n o s t i c t e s t i n g p ro g ra m .
The r e s u l t s
h a v e sh o w n t h a t a s f a r a s t h e t h r e e c l a s s e s a r e c o n c e r n e d
t h e y a r e n o rm a l o r n e a r n o rm a l on t o t a l r e a d i n g c o m p re h e n s io n
b u t sh o w w e a k n e s s e s a s w e l l a s s t r e n g t h w i t h i n t h a t c o m p r e н
h e n sio n .
re la te d
The f a c t o r s h a v e b e e n a n a ly z e d ^ M c h m ig h t b e
t o p o o r c o m p re h e n s io n and re c o m m e n d a tio n s h av e
b e e n m ade f o r a n a l l s c h o o l r e a d i n g
C o n sta n t t e s t i n g and r e t e s t i n g
n e c e ssa ry because th e p ic tu r e
and re v a m p in g w i l l b e
i s c o n s t a n t l y c h a n g in g due
t o a c h a n g in g p o p u la tio n in th e
c o n d itio n s.
im p ro v em en t p ro g ra m .
s c h o o l b e c a u s e o f e c o n o m ic
BIBLIOGRAPHY
BIBLIOGRAPHY
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' N bvei|it e f JC 1 9 3 6 .
G l i c k s b e r g , C h a r l e s I . , " T h e D y n a m ic s o f Y o c a b u l s r y
B u ild in g ,"
E n g li s h J o u r n a l . 2 9 :1 9 7 -2 0 6 , M arch, 1 9 4 0 .
G ra y , W illia m S . , " N a tu re an d E x te n t o f R e a d in g P ro b le m
i n A m e ric an E d u c a t i o n , " E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h . 1 1 :8 7 - 1 0 4 ,
Jan u ary , 1938.
G r a y , W i l l i a m S . # Sum m ary o f R e a d i n g I n v e s t i g a t i o n s . J u l y 1 ,
1 9 2 1 t o J u n e 30> 1 9 2 5 .
C h ic a g o , I l l i n o i s :
U n iv e rs ity
o f C h in a g o , 1 з 3 6 .
G r a y , W i l l i a m S . , "Sum m ary o f R e a d i n g I n v e s t i g a t i o n s . J u l y
1 , 1935 t o Jun e 3 0 , 1 9 3 6 ,"
Jo u rn a l of E d u c a tio n a l
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G ra y , W illia m S . , "D e v elo p m en t o f M e an in g Y o c a b u la ry w i t h
. S p e c ia l R e fe re n c e to R e a d in g :
C r i ti q u e o f th e S e v e n th
A nnual R e s e a rc h B u l l e t i n o f th e N a tio n a l C o n fe re n c e on
R esearch in E n g lis h ,"
E le m e n ta r y E n g l i s h R e v ie w .
1 7 :7 1 -6 , F e b ru a ry , 1940.
G ray , W illis m S . , " R e a d in g ," T h ir t y - E i g h t h Y earbook o f th e
N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r t h e S t u d y o f E d u c a t i o n . P a r t T ?I .
B lo o m in g to n , I l l i n o i s :
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89
H i l l i a r d , G. H . , P r o b a b l e T y p e s o f D i f f i c u l t i e s U n d e r н
l y i n g Low S c o r e s i n C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t s , S t u d i e s i n
E d u c a t i o n , F i r s t S e r i e s , No* 7 6 , V o l . 2 , N o. 6 .
Io w a
C ity : - U n iv e rs ity o f-Io w a, 1924.
H o rn , E r n e s t , "M eth o d s o f I n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e S o c i a l
S t u d i e s , " R e p o r t o f t h e C o m m issio n on t h e S o c i a l
S t u d i e s o f t h e A m e ric a n H i s t o r i c a l As s o c l a t i o n . f e a r t
XV, New Y o r k : C h a r l e s S c r i b n e r ? s a n d S o n s , 1 9 3 7 ?
H o v lo u s, C a r o l, F ly in g t h e P r i n tw a y s .
H e a th and C o ., 1 9 3 6 .
C h ic a g o :
H oH rious, C a r o l , F o l l o w i n g P r i n t e d t r a i l s ,
H e a th and C o ., 1936.
D. C.
C h ic a g o :
D. C.
J a c o b s o n , P . B . , "Some W ays t o D e v e l o p B e t t e r R e a d e r s i n
t h e H ig h S c h o o l , "
S c h o o l R e v ie w s 4 7 : 3 5 2 - 3 6 3 , M ay, 1 9 3 9 .
J o r g e n s o n , A l b e r t N e l s , Io w a S i l e n t R e a d i n g E x a m i n a t i o n s .
S t u d i e s i n E d u c a t i o n , V o l . I V , N o . 3 . Io w a c i t y :
U n i v e r s i t y o f Io w a, 1 9 3 1 .
K e l l e y , V i c t o r B .╗ ? " R e a d in g a s a P ro b le m f o r t h e H ig h
S c h o o l,"
C le a rin g H ouse. 1 1 :4 8 7 -8 9 , A p r il, 1937.
K em pkes, E l i z a b e t h , " H a n d ic a p s i n R e a d i n g , "
E d u c a tio n a l
A d m in is tr a tio n and S u p e r v is io n . 2 4 :1 2 7 -3 4 .
K i r k , S . A . , T e a c h i n g R e a d i n g t o S lo w R e a d i n g C h i l d r e n .
B o sto n :
H o u g h to n M i f f l i n C o . , 1 9 4 0 .
K n o t t , T . A . , " O b s e r v a t i o n s on V o c a b u la ry P r o b le m s :
C r i ti q u e o f th e S e v e n th A nnual R e se a rc h B u l l e t i n o f
t h e N a t io n a l C o n fe re n c e .on R e s e a rc h i n E n g l i s h , "
E le m e n ta r y E n g l i s h R e v ie w . 1 7 : 6 3 - 7 , F e b r u a r y , 1 9 4 0 .
M a r s h , J e s s i e B . , "A R e a d i n g D i s a b i l i t y P r o b l e m , "
T ra in in g School B u l le t i n , 3 4 :3 1 -5 , A p r il, 1937.
M c C a l l i s t e r , J . M ., "T ypes o f R e a d in g D e f i c i e n c i e s . i n th e
S econdary S ch o o l and C o lle g e ,"
Peabody J o u rn a l o f
E d u c a t i o n , 1 6 : 2 1 2 - 2 0 , N ovem ber, 1 9 3 8 .
M c C u llo u g h , C o n s t a n c e , " I m p ro v in g R e a d in g C o m p re h e n sio n
i n G rade IX , M in n e a p o lis H ig h S c h o o l , "
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90
M e y ers, G a rry , C ., " H e lp in g th e P o o r R e a d e r ,"
E d u c a t i o n , 1 1 8 : 5 6 0 - 2 , D e c e m b e r , 1 6 , 1935*
Jo u rn al of
M o n ro e, M a r io n , " D i a g n o s t i c and R e m e d ia l P r o c e d u r e s i n
R e a d in g ,"
E d u c a tio n a l D i g e s t * 3 : 2 4 - 6 , M arch , 19 3 8 .
M onroe, M a rio n , " D ia g n o s is and T r e a tm e n t o f R e a d in g
D is a b ilitie s ,"
T h i r t y - F o u r t h Y earbook o f t h e R a ti o n a l
S o c ie ty f o r th e S tu d y o f E d u e a tio n . B lo o m in g to n .
I l l i n o i s : P u b i i c S c h o o l P u b l i s h i n g Go*, p p . 2 0 1 -8 8 .
P a r r , W. F r a n k , " R e m e d i a l R e a d i n g I n s t r u c t i o n a s a P l a c e
o f P e r s o n a l W ork i n H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n , " R e s e a r c h o n
H ig h e r E d u c a ti o n . R e g io n a l C o n fe re n c e on H ig h e r
E d u c a tio n P a p e rs , 1931.
p p . 6 7 -7 1 .
P lum l e y , A d a , a n d W e a m e r, V i o l a , " R e m e d i a l R e a d i n g , f o r
t h e N o n -A c a d e m ic , "
C a lif o r n ia Jo u rn a l o f S econdary
E d u c a t i o n . V o l. 1 4 , N o. 7 , N ovem ber, 1939*
R i d e n o u r , N in a , "The T r e a t m e n t o f R e a d in g D i s a b i l i t y , "
M e n ta l H y g ie n e , 1 9 :3 8 7 -9 7 , J u ly , 1 935.
R o b in s o n , F . P . , "C o m p reh en sio n D i f f i c u l t i e s an d
I n s p i r a t i o n a l V a lu e !," P e d a g o g i c a l S e m in a r y . 5 6 : 5 3 - 6 5 ,
M a rc h ,. 194G.
'''S m i th , R . S . , " M e a s u r i n g P r o g r e s s i n R e a d i n g i n H i g h
S c h o o l," W is c o n s in J o u r n a l o f E d u c a tio n , 7 0 :4 2 7 -2 8 ,
A p r i l , 1938^
S t r a n g , R . M . , "Do Y ou G e t t h e P o i n t ? "
3 6 :2 0 - 1 , M arch, 4 , 1 9 4 0 .
S c h o la s tic .
S t r a n g , R . M . , "T h e I m p r o v e m e n t o f R e a d i n g o f t h e A v e r a g e
and S u p e r i o r S t u d e n t , " E n g lis h J o u r n a l . V o l. 2 9 ,
p p . 4 5 7 -6 5 , Ju n e , 1940.
S t r a n g , R. M ., "Im p ro v em en t o f R e a d in g i n H ig h S c h o o l ,"
T e a c h e r s C o lle g e R e c o r d , 3 9 :1 9 7 -2 0 6 , D ecem ber, 1 9 3 7 .
T a y lo r , E a r l L . , C o n tr o lle d R e a d in g . C h ic a g o :
U n i v e r s i t y o f C h ica g o P r e s s , 1 9 3 7 .
T he
T h o m a s , R u s s e l l , "T h e P r o b l e m o f R e a d i n g i n H i g h S c h o o l s , "
H a r v a r d E d u c a t i o n a l R e v i e w , V o l . V I I , N o. 4 , 4 3 4 - 3 6 ,
O c to b e r, 1937.
91
T i n k e r , M. A . , " T r e n d s i n d i a g n o s t i c a n d R e m e d i a l R e a d i n g
a s Show n b y R e c e n t P u b l i c a t i o n s i n T h i s F i e l d , "
J o u r n a l o f E d u c a tio n a l R e s e a r c h , 3 2 :2 9 3 - 5 0 3 , D ecem ber,
1938.
T o w n s, C h a r l e s , F . , " R e m e d i a l R e a d i n g , "
S c h o o ls, 2 1 :3 5 , A p r il, 1938.
The N a tio n * s
W h ip p le , G . , "C a u se s; o f R e t a r d a t i o n i n R e a d in g a n d M e th o d s
o f E li m in a t in g fh e m ,"
Peabody J o u rn a l o f E d u c a tio n ,
1 6 :1 9 1 - 2 0 0 , N ovem ber, 1 9 3 8 .
W ith e r s , A. M ., " M a l n u tr i t io n in E n g l i s h ,"
o f E d u c a ti o n , 1 7 :3 2 4 -2 7 , M arch, 1 9 4 0 .
Peabody J o u rn a l
W itty , P a u l , and K o p e l, D a v id , R e a d in g and t h e E d u c a tiv e
P ro cess.
B o sto n :
G in n and C o . , 1 9 3 9 .
W it t y , P a u l , " R e a d in g , R e m e d ia l R e a d in g , and G e n e ra l
E d u c a t i o n , " E d u c a t i o n a l M e t h o d , 1 8 : 4 2 5 - 3 1 , M ay, 1 9 3 9 .
W oody, C . , " A t t e m p t s a t M e a s u r e m e n t o f M e a n i n g f u l E x p e r н
ie n c e a s a F a c t o r C o n d i ti o n i n g A c h iev e m e n t in
R e a d in g ," Peabody J o u rn a l o f E d u c a tio n , 1 6 :1 8 0 -9 1 ,
N ovem ber, 1 9 3 8 .
Z a h n e r, L. G ., " T e s tin g o f C o m p re h e n s io n ," E d u c a tio n a l
R e c o r d , 2 1 : 7 1 - 8 9 , s u p p le m e n t, J a n u a r y , 1940?
Z e h r e r , F r e d e r i c k , A . , "M eth o d s o f R e m e d ia l R e a d in g
I n s t r u c t i o n a t t h e H ig h S c h o o l L e v e l , "
H arvard
T ea ch ers R e c o rd , 6 :1 5 4 -6 2 , Ju n e, 1936.
P ro c e e d in g s o f th e S ix th A nnual A ll S t a te E d u c a tio n a l
~
C o n feren ce.
E d u c a t i o n a l M o n o g r a p h s , N o. 1 2 , U n i v e r s i t y
o f N e b r a s k a , P u b l i c a t i o n , N o. 1 3 0 , J u n e , 1 9 3 9 .
APPENDIX
D ia g n o stic
S
M
ilent
R
eading
E x a m in a tio n
A
bilities
anual
E d u cation al
T e st
BUREAU
of
DIAGNOSTIC EXAMINATION OF SILENT READING ABILITIES
Developed by
M. J. V A N W A G E N E N
University of Minnesota
and
AUG UST DVORAK
University of Washington
Manual of Directions and Interpretation
P u b lish ed by
EDUCATIO NAL T E ST B U R E A U
E D U C A T I O N A L P U B L I S H E R S , In c .
Minneapolis
720 Wash. Ave. S. E.
Nashville
2106 Pierce Ave.
Philadelphia
3433 Walnut St.
C o p y rig h t, 1940, E d u c a tio n a l T e s t B u rea u , E d u c a tio n a l P u b lish e rs, Inc.
INTRODUCTION
8. I n te r p r e ta tio n
9. I n te g r a tio n of D isp e rse d Id ea s
10. A b ility to D ra w In fe re n c e s
A b ility to re a d fo r com prehension an d in te rp re н
ta tio n is g en erally recognized as th e m ost im p o rta n t
single m eans of g ain in g educational content. I t is,
of course, ju s t as im p o rta n t outside of as in school.
T he D ia g n o s t ic E x a m i n a t i o n o f S i l e n t R e a d in g
A b i l i t i e s w as developed to pro v id e diagnoses of
specific elem ents o r phases of re a d in g ab ility w hich
a re susceptible to developm ental o r rem edial te ach н
ing, as well as to provide a m easu re of g en eral re a d н
in g ab ility level.
The T otal Score (T ) on th e la st five of these phases
gives th e m e asu re of g en era l rea d in g ab ility level.
The to tal of th e s tu d e n t?s co rrect responses in
each of th e ten su b -tests is converted into a co m p arн
able score d esig n ated as th e ? C -Score.? T he chief
c h a ra c te ristic of th e ? C -Score? is th a t it m easu res
p ro g ress in u n its th a t a re su b stan tially equal a t
all p a rts of th e m e asu rin g scale.
T h ere a re th re e D ivisions of th is E x am in atio n .
The In te rm e d ia te D ivision is g en erally usable in
G rades IV and V ; th e J u n io r D ivision in G rades VI,
V II, V III, and I X ; an d th e S enior D ivision in
G rades X, X I, X II an d w ith College F resh m en .
W H A T T H E TE ST S M EA SU RE
PART
T est 1 ? R a te of C om prehension. T his scale is
m ade up of p a ra g ra p h s each of w hich req u ire s
ap p ro x im ate ly th e sam e re a d in g tim e. T he p a r a н
g ra p h s co n tain only sim ple vocab u lary and sentence
stru c tu re . The item s in th e In term ed ia te, Ju n io r,
an d S enior D ivisions w ere selected fro m m ore th a n
700 item s given in d ividually in v aried o rd ers to
fifty sev en th -g rad e pupils, w ith th e re a d in g tim e
fo r each p a ra g ra p h ta k e n in fifths of a second.
W hile th e re a re slig h t v a ria tio n s in th e av erag e
re a d in g tim e fo r each p a ra g ra p h , th e av era g e re a d н
in g tim e of groups of fo u r consecutive p a ra g ra p h s
is th e sam e. T he close co rrelatio n of scores on
th is scale w ith scores on a P ercep tio n of R elations
scale of sim ple item s of equal difficulty indicates
th a t th is scale is m e asu rin g quickness of m ental
fu n ctio n in g w ith easy v erb al m a terial. The scores
in r a te increase w ith age.
E ac h D ivision of th is E x am in atio n consists of
P a r t s I, II, and III, and a s e p a ra te A n sw er Sheet.
P a r t I includes T est 1, w hich is th e R ate of Comн
p reh en sio n T est, and th e In d iv id u al D iagnostic
R ead in g Profile. P a r t s II an d III, m ark ed w ith a
s ta r an d a circle, respectively, a re p rin te d in a
s e p a ra te sixteen page booklet. T he division of th e
booklet in to P a r t s II an d I I I is fo r g re a te r conн
venience in a d m in iste rin g in tw o o r m ore periods.
T hese tw o P a r t s fit th e tw o sides of th e A n sw er
Sheet.
T he sixteen page booklet co n tain in g P a r t s II
an d I II m ay be used rep eated ly . P u p ils a re to be
advised to keep it n e a t an d fre e of an y m ark s.
P a r t I and th e A n sw er S heet a re used lip by th e
pupil. In ad m in iste rin g th is E x am in atio n , it is
im p o rta n t th a t th e A n sw er S heet D ivision corн
respond w ith th e D ivision of th e E x am in atio n . Thus,
fo r instance, th e Ju n io r D ivision of th e A nsw er
S h eet m u s t be used w ith th e J u n io r D ivision of th e
E x am in atio n .
PART
II
T est 2 ? P ercep tio n of R elations. The P ercep н
tio n of R elations scale consists of a set of item s
in c re asin g in difficulty by ap p ro x im ately equal steps.
The difficulty values w ere derived fro m th e te s tin g
of ab o u t 200 pupils in each of G rades IV, V I, V III,
an d X II w ith several h u n d red tr ia l task s. In conн
stru c tin g th e task s, effort w as m ade to keep th e
in fo rm a tio n as well as th e vocab u lary used in th e
ta s k sim p ler th a n th e rela tio n sh ip involved.
T h is E x am in atio n m easu res th e follow ing phases
of silen t re a d in g :
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
I
R a te of C om p reh en sio n
P e rc e p tio n of R e la tio n s
V o ca b u lary in C o n tex t
V o ca b u lary ? Iso la te d W ords
G en e ra l In fo rm a tio n
A b ility to G ra sp th e C e n tra l T h o u g h t
A b ility to N o te C lea rly S ta te d D eta ils
3
tw o th o u san d questions or statem en ts. To d e te rн
m ine th e difficulty values of th e p a ra g ra p h s and
questions or statem en ts, th ey w ere trie d out on
1,000 pupils of v a ry in g ages. The questions or s ta te н
m ents w ere th e n classified and grouped to secure
fo r each D ivision tw en ty questions or sta te m e n ts of
consecutive difficulty values in th e five diag n o stic
classifications m entioned above.
To obtain th e sm allest e rro rs of m easu rem en t
fo r th e least able read ers, th e level of difficulty fo r
th e item s in th e read in g scale in each D ivision w as
cen tered a t th e level of th e low est g ra d e ta k in g each
D ivision. The difficulty of th e content th ro u g h o u t
th is E x am in atio n has been scaled.
T est 6 ? C en tral T h o u g h t. T he item s u n d er th is
caption involve a g rasp of th e m eaning of th e to ta l
p a ra g ra p h , an d an ab ility to see th e ce n tra l idea
w ith o u t being d istra c te d or confused by th e su p н
p o rtin g ideas.
Test 7 ? Clearly Stated Details. T his group of
ta sk s m easu res ab ility to g rasp an d re ta in ideas in
isolation w hen th e y are clearly expressed in a comн
p act u n it, usually in a single w ord or sentence.
T est 8 ? In te rp re ta tio n . This p h ase of th e te s t
goes outside of th e u n d erstan d in g of th e lan g u ag e
used. I t not only n ecessitates seeing w h a t is ex p resн
sed in th e p a ra g ra p h , b u t using one?s im ag in atio n
in g ra sp in g th e significance of w h a t is seen.
Test 9 ? Integration of Dispersed Ideas. To see
an idea w hen it is b u ilt up th ro u g h th e use of several
sentences is a process involving so m eth in g besides
th e u n d erstan d in g of th e language. I t involves th e
keeping of several th in g s in m ind a t th e sam e tim e,
and th e ab ility to see th e ir in terrela tio n s.
Test 10 ? Drawing Inferences. T his se t of ta sk s
goes beyond th e u n d erstan d in g of th e ideas exн
p ressed in th e p a ra g ra p h . I t involves perceiv in g an
idea th a t m ay apply to certain elem ents in a m uch
w ider ran g e of situ a tio n s th a n th e im m ediate one
set fo rth in th e p a ra g ra p h . It involves seeing th e
application of so m eth in g contained in th e p a ra g ra p h
w ith o u t th a t application being pointed out.
T ests 3 and 4 ? Vocabulary (W ords in context
and in iso la tio n ). The stim u lu s w ords w ere tak en
fro m th e first 10,000 w ords in th e T h o rn d ike W ord
L ist, and included in sh o rt sentences to give th e
exact m eaning. The five w ords fro m w hich one is
to be selected a re all m ore difficult th a n th e stim ulus
w ord. T his ap p ro x im ates th e fu n ctio n of try in g to
th in k of th e best w ord to ex p ress some m eaning
th a t one h as in m ind. The co n ten t of th e V ocabuн
la ry ? Isolated W ords scale (T est 4) w as also tak en
fro m th e first 10,000 w ords in th e T h o rn d ike W ord
L ist. In each task , th e five w ords fro m w hich one
is to be selected a re all easier th a n th e stim ulus
w ord. The difficulty values of w ords w ere derived
fro m th e te stin g of some 800 pupils in G rades IV,
VI, V III, and X II.
Test 5 ? Range of General Information* The
item s fo r th is scale w ere selected fro m m an y d ifн
fe re n t fields of in fo rm atio n th a t a re n o t em phasized
in classroom w ork, y et lie w ith in th e experience of
school pupils.
P A R T
III
P a r t I I I m e a s u r e s t h e f o llo w in g p h a s e s o f r e a d н
in g a b i l i t y :
A b ility to g ra s p th e c e n tra l th o u g h t of th e p a r a g r a p h
(T e st 6)
A b ility to n o te th e c le a rly s ta te d d e ta ils (T e s t 7)
A b ility to in te r p r e t th e c o n te n t of th e p a r a g r a p h (T e st 8)
A b ility to g r a s p an idea w h en sp re a d th ro u g h se v eral
se n te n c e s (T e s t 9)
A b ility to d ra w in feren c es fro m ideas in a p a r a g ra p h
(T e st 10)
T his P art is m ade up of tw e n ty ta sk s in each of
these five phases, a rra n g e d in heterogeneous m a n н
ner. T his a rra n g e m e n t elim inates a ?m en tal s e t?
to w ard a g roup of consecutive questions of sim ilar
ch ara cter, and m ore n early ap p ro x im ates g eneral
read in g conditions. The item s a re seg reg ated , and
scores are obtained fo r th e v ario u s phases eith e r by
m achine sco rin g or by m eans of h an d scoring keys.
The content of P a r t II I is d raw n fro m a w ide
v arie ty of sources and includes as v arie d a vocabuн
la ry and sentence s tru c tu re as is feasible to re p re н
sent th e g en eral ty p e of rea d in g w ith w hich all
stu d en ts come in contact in all th e ir classes an d also
in out-of-school read in g . The p a ra g ra p h s or selecн
tio n s w ere chosen fro m 124 p a ra g ra p h s an d selecн
tions ; th e questions or statem en ts fro m m ore th a n
DIAGNOSIS
Since th e m ain p u rp o se of th is E x am in a tio n is
th e diagnosis of read in g difficulties, ch ief in te re s t
cen ters in its effectiveness as a m eans of locating
these difficulties.
4
The illu stratio n on page 6 is a diagnosis of a
G rade IX stu d en t and in d icates th e ab ility of th e
te s t to pick out th e s tu d e n t?s difficulties. A stu d y
of th is s tu d e n t?s diagnosis indicates th e phases on
w hich to w ork w ith rem edial procedures. In asm u ch
a s th is p a rtic u la r s tu d e n t has a h ig h ra te of com preн
hension (th e essence of ra te of re a d in g ), a very
good perception of relatio n sh ip s, an d a su b sta n tia l
v ocabulary, he could profit fro m rem edial re a d in g
w ork. T his s tu d e n t?s diagnosis is ty p ical of one who
h as ab ility fo r doing b e tte r w ork th a n he actu ally
is doing. T his ty p e of stu d en t is ju s t as m uch in
need of rem edial w ork as th e one who h as less n ativ e
cap acity and who is re ta rd e d in silen t re a d in g
ability.
T his E x am in atio n is also effective as a m eans of
d iag nosing group tendencies. The illu stra tio n on
page 7 gives th e resu lts obtained fro m 2,001
G rad e IX stu d en ts, and in dicates especially th e need
o f developm ental w ork in im p ro v in g th e ra te of
read in g . M ost of th e stu d en ts w hose scores a re in
th e low er p a rt of th is G roup S u m m ary a re in g re a t
need of rem edial w ork to im prove th e ir read in g
abilities.
NORMS
T he N orm s a p p e a r in tw o p la c e s : on th e In d iн
vidual D iagnostic R eading Profile, page 4 of P a r t I,
an d on th e G roup S u m m ary sheet. The N orm s a re
given in th e ir rela tio n sh ip s to g rad e placem ent and
chronological age levels.
The N orm s a re based on 30,000 cases in one
la rg e city, an d 15,000 cases in sm aller cities and
r u ra l areas.
VALIDITY
The question of th e v alid ity of th is E x am in atio n
applies to it as a m easu re of g en eral re a d in g ab ility
level. As s ta te d in th e fifth p a ra g ra p h of th e In tro н
duction, th is R eading Level is obtained fro m T ests
6 to 10, inclusive, an d is th e tra n s m u te d C-Score
fro m th e to ta l n u m b er r ig h t on T est 6 to 10. T his
ta b le is given on page 16 of th is M anual.
It is now g en erally conceded th a t th e v alid ity of
a m e asu rin g in s tru m e n t is b est in d icated by its disн
crim in ativ e capacity. T h a t th is E x am in atio n has a
h ig h degree of d iscrim in ativ e cap acity is evidenced
by a stu d y of 9,000 cases, th e resu lts of w hich a re
given in th e illu stra tio n on page 8.
DIAGNOSTIC EXAMINATION OF SILENT READING ABILITIES
AGE
LEV
EL*
GRADE
LEVEL
R ate
of
Comp.
1
Percep.
of
Rel's.
2
105 ?
104 ?
Vocab.
in
Context
102*
4
3
120*
120*
119#
General C entral
In fo r?n T hought
6
6
104 ?
112*
105*
111
ClearlyStated
Details
I n te r н
p re ta н
tion
7
8
*
I10*
105 ?
220
Vocnb.iKolated
Words
Integ'n D ra w 's
Disp?d [ I n f e r s
Ideas
10
9
Hi*
110 ?
110*
116*
READING
LEVEL
III*
110*
LI1?
110*
109 ?
lib*
101 ?
10b ?
106*
115 ?
1 07 ?
107 ?
210
LOb ?
112*
til*
10b *
1 0b ?
I Ob ?
105 *
105 ?
105 ?
104 ?
104 ?
104 ?
104
i Of i *
105 ?
105 ?
107 ?
102*
102*
102*
102*
LO?
101 ?
100*
105 ?
1 04 ?
109*
200
106*
IOb*
107 ?
101 ?
101 *
101 *
105 ?
100*
100*
100*
105 ?
105 ?
9
105*
105*
101 ?
105 ?
1 02 ?
105 ?
LOO ?
101?
Reading
6o ?
Individual Diagnostic
Illustrated
Profile
100?
49 ?
D ate A d m in istered
* I n d i c a t e th e s t u d e n t ?s C h r o n o l o g i c a l A g e L e v e l w i t h a h o r i z o n t a l lin e, an d M e n t a l A g e L e v e l ,
if a va ila b le, w i t h a square.
w
s
Co m
ments
READING
INDEX
/& z. S
:
<
6
DIAGNOSTIC
EXAMINATION OF SILENT
Group Sum m ary
C IT Y ...............X ..................................
DIVISION ...JU N IO R
AGE
LEVEL
SCHOOL.................X .......... ............
GRADE .. .N IN E .
R a te o f
C om p.
GRADE
LEVEL
1
P e rc e p .
o f R e l?s.
2
NO. OF PUPILS
V o cab . in
C o n te x t
3
V ocab. Iso !.
W o rd s
4
ABILITIES
......................... D A T E ........ ...... X.
2*Q Q 1
G e n e ra l
I n f o r ?n
5
READING
TEA C H ER ________ X....................
C le a r. S ta t.
D e ta ils
7
C e n tra l
Thought
6
I n te p 'n
D is p 'd I d e a s
9
In te r p re ta н
tio n
8
D r a w in g
I n f e r ?s
10
R E A D IN G
LEVEL
T
^ r x,^ r s,h'_' *?1
2
18-0
8
/
6
2
4
2
16-0
10
3
S
S
ft
3 3
3y
л
9 1 . LIP
85
v j.
3 3 ..4
.
84 1 .3 3 ....... 1
*
90. 1.3. b.
31... A.3....
82 ...I S 3...
3 0 ...... J.0
81
S ...
80^3?)
9
11y
.
/
7 2
H-r
77
27
4
s
4
3
b
2
a 3
'O
<?
8
<2
77
76
2A
-
?3
O
i
J .......
t.3 ..
23
# -
22
s^ r.
21
12-0
>
0>
7*3...
74
73
19
by
18
fjo.
17
m
O
2
c
0
93 ..l.SJL......
93
.1.20.......
93 ...4S. .....
92...
JA . ........
9 2 . 7 y .....
91
ly
91 .... 7
/
84
.1.31 .......
/
92
.b.3
92 .....................
92
9 1 /6 5 "
91
1.2 . 2 .....
91
lyTL
91
s4
90.....................
89.....................
*'
?}
89 . f b ........
8 9 .1 2 0 ......
89
20t>
88 ..
so
y g .........
88
8 8 ..... 4
88
/
./2L6.
..
8 7 .....v 7 .........
1 .2 4 ......
bb
11.2......
93
1........
b .....
9 0 ..... L.2.......
9 0 .....................
9 0 ....24. .....
l.SJL......
8 9 ...A .3 ,.?......
89...//.I ? .....
9 . 5 " .....
78
8 8 ........ 1.........
88 ..... 24....
/
O b .....
8 2 ....... 4 ........
81
. 7 0 .......
80
7
/
77
87
2.0Q
86
by
87.
87
I f ! .......
87
87..... fib.......
8 6 ...... 10 ........
8 G ...$ 3 >
85....25........
8 5 ..... f 3 ......
8 4 ...... .7.......
/
84 ..... 2.11....
r
1 8 .1 ......
83.. ..2.1a....
8 2 ..... 3.Q........
82.8.% ......
8 1 .1.4.3.......
81...A.3......
8 0 .....................
8 0 .....4 - 7 .....
Sr i.......
7 9 ....jST.Jt....
78.....................
78...b.4.......
87 ( 7 7 5 )
4 7 ........
84 ....... / ..........
83
/ .......
89
й
(T oy)
85..
/0 4
8 6 ..... f..............
86
( jjl^
85
8 4 ..... 4 ..........
84
I S if
.
83
8 2 ....................
82
i k f ......
81
!
.....
76.....J * ..........
85 @
...
85
75 .1.0.1.......
8 4 ...... / ..........
84
/
IS M .....
t
85
13.9 ......
4
........
79...... / ............
74
rQ .i .......
7 1 ...... / ............
3.5.........
69.. 2-
83
ly 0
2 0 ........
8 2 .....................
82
hi
n 4
si
67... 2 .2 . ......
1 2 ,0 ......
6 2 .....................
83
80
.....
80
79
140
79
I 3 y ___
si
4 8 .....................
67 .
3 7
66
31
t ........
77
i^ -y
.........
I2 .y
79 .
78
6 3 .....................
74
I t ........
73
77...
1 0 3 ......
77
76
t
b y .......
75
S3
75
3
74
1
LSL.......
74
73
ISLS
S 0 .....
*S
1
77 ...11.3.......
77
4 .4 .....
76
...4 . 7 .....
7 5 . . . . / . / .........
75 . ...5.1.........
75. ...3.f .....
74......................
74
73 ..... y.) ..........
73 ...H.b .....
......
74
73
M S. ......
73
72 ... ..A.i....
70 ... .A ...........
70......................
70
7
.1.4......
69...J.A,
69
69...3.0.........
69
....S......
6 8 ...................
68
68 .....................
68 ...2.0.....
66...2.0
66?f.ty......
6 6........2...........
66........t. .......
64..... 1.0.......
64
64...... 2 .........
64
70
/
70
59.....................
5 9 ...... b ..........
69
4S
69
5 8 ..... I S
.....
5 8 .....................
68
J
68
57.....................
5 7 ..... g ...........
66
4 1 .........
66 .
л L .....
6 4 ..... 3 ..........
...2.0......
7 1 ..... 1-7......
6 0 .....................
64 ..... y ...........
.......
71 .....................
72
71
31
35
7 2 .....................
................
*7
2 .......
I
72
7
79..../
7 6...... 2 .........
76
71...... 2 .........
61 I t .... .
56.....................
......
I
7 7 .....P
72
64...2.1..
y s
78 ..................
76........b..........
.......
7 6 ..... 4
75
02
78.....2
79
71
14 __
83
...
6 5 .....................
64..... I
lA fL
7 1 ...................
60....... 1...........
1 /4 . ......
8 0 ...../ ............
72
65.... ,........
1 5 .2 ......
6 9 .3 .7 . .........
A L l .......
64.....................
J.SLf
7 0 . . . . / ...........
78
2 4..
83.
73 ..... S ' .........
73
63.
96
9 2 .....................
90
15.....
13
9 3 . .l.y.3
/o y
.......
9 0 ....../ ............
61..... 13. ........
10
94 ...4.k ......
3
/ 0 b ......
6 6 ...v 3 i?
10-0
6
4 .4 .
V /
9 4 .....................
96..... y
III
90
66.....................
67
16
4
8
by
gj
93
/
. . 4 y .......
7 2 4 f .......
ti
94
94
142
.'2
9 1 ...... 4 .........
65
>
94 ..... 2 ..........
гL
/ Y J ......
....
2 ,....
9 5 ... .55. .....
94
86
8 3 .....1VI.........
10-2-
68..
68
9 5 ...... ? ...........
9 5 ...... 3l.........
71
11-0
9 5 ....... / ........
I
7 5 .4 .2
7 4 ..... 3 ............
70..............
2
95 ....... /...........
95
. S.y. ..
i 2 ....y a ...
4.5.....
87
72.. 7 4 .
2
90
96
76...... /............
7i.A3-..
20 .....
4
6
1 /A ......
70..
6
8
81
3 .
f4 .
.2.3..
96..... y(e .......
f j .....
.......
7 7 ..... bb..........
7 5 .....
2
/
s
78..... i 5 ........
>
6
IS.!....
so
25
7
3
JA._.
26
O
f
10
s....
78
85../5:/
84 yo
S3 y/
135
96
9 3 .............. .
86
82
>
8
6
13.2
81...lb...
2 8 - //.~ .
/?o
88
4r.y .....
88 . 1 2 1 ......
85.
94
97
97
9 5 .....................
9 2 ...1.2.1..
9 1 ..............
S J ..
32..
0
(T f* * )
10
10
9 7 ..... 5 . ..........
92
29 ......28
/
.5..
X
14-0
8
.113...
9 7 ...... 1............
97.....................
89.
.4........
9 5 .............
35 ...JL.4.
93..
4
10
9 8...... 1............
96
34... .3.5...
8
4
9 7 ...... /
96..... y
/- ? ?
13-0
J.
1 00.....................
00 ... 7
i t ,
3 6 ..
10
2
Sir-
98 ...... JI.....
2
15-0
6
101.....1..............
lb....
37
/
73
/ O7
/
//a
r
/33
2
0.3 .
O
?
6
4
90 .1.
99
38...
J
j
I
2.
4
6
If
39
a
X
10
17-0
10
8
j .y ..........
102
70
i
.........
.
...10......
READING LEVEL (T ) DISTRIBUTIONS A N D M EDIANS ? BY GRADES
A ge
GrIV
GrV
Gr. VI
Gr. VII
Gr. VIII
Gr. IX
Gr. X
Gr. XI
Gr. XII Gr. XIII
ABOVE
2
2
22
82
41
27
19-0
1
5
12
21
6
10
10
8
6
6
40
34
10
12
3
11
44
23
12
16
7
17
29
38
11
15
10
9
45
35
19
10
16
36
65
36
15
l l-
6
9
46
54
15
lS
16
32
95
45
17
9
22
29
74
54
14?M
9
7
32
36
76
53
18
7
1
36
40
84
60
12
8
17
46
39
no
61?M
18
5
35
47
84
45
11
4
4
6
4
2
18-0
10
8
л
4
2
17-0
10
8
2
S
4
2
16-0
10
8
6
4
3
2
15-0
10
8
1
4
18
35
51
80
42
12
1
S
19
32
48
84 ? M
67
12
4
S
8
25
40
61
93
21
7
1
6
16
38
40
39?M
87
49
8
2
7
32
81
42
41
86
29
6
1
17
31
81
43
38
89
46
6
5
9
22
67
39?M
39
63
14
6
2
14
24
43
42
41
69
15
6
1
17
38
70
48
50
53
23
S
1
14
18
46
43
38
46
16
3
1
6
4
2
14-0
10
8
6
4
2
13-0
10
8
6
4
2
12-0
10
8
6
4
28
49
63?M
43
16
44
22
4
1
2
26
33
64
40
26
49
17
3
1
81
6
3
11-0
25
33
46
32
28
39
10
29
43
51
40
26
20
8
25
36
38
22
18
26
33
24
10
23
14
7
19
14
6
24
36
4
34
3 6 ?M
2
22
29
31
20
19
10-0
25
32
33
17
7
5
10
24
33
22
22
13
20
8
64
41
36
3
8
6
44
34
16
26
3
10
4
52 ?M
31
23
6
3
3
2
59
51
21
19
6
9
9-0
42
32
21
20
8
10
8
54
34
19
38
25
19
6
36
18
6
4
28
17
9
8-2
32
12
3
BELOW
154
54
30
1
1
1
1
2
Above results are from a study carried out in the State of Oregon in December, 1939.
8
W ait fo r th e answ er.
out BUTTONS.
D IRECTIO N S FO R A D M IN IST ER IN G
PART
I
T est I ? R ate of C om prehension
Yes, BUTTONS, so cross
N ow find the w o rd s in the last h a lf o f P araн
graphs E , F, and G th a t do n o t fit in w ith the
m eaning of the r e st of the paragraphs and cross
th em out.
B efore d istrib u tin g - th e te s t leaflets, have th e
stu d e n ts clear ev ery th in g fro m th e tops of th e ir
desks. D istrib u te P a r t I of th e te s t b lanks w ith
th e Individual D iagnostic R eading Profile on th e
la st page facin g up. H ave th e pupils fill in th e blanks
calling fo r th e ir nam es, ages, etc. W hen th is has
been com pleted, have th em tu r n back to th e first
page co n tain in g th e directions fo r T est 1, R ate of
C om prehension. H ave th e pupils fill in th e blanks
on th e first page also calling fo r nam es, ages, etc.
T hen say to them , L ook at th e directions on the
first page. T h ey are, ?R ead P a ra g ra p h A careн
fu lly .?
(R ead it aloud w hile th e pupils follow
s ile n tly .)
E. W hen we h it th e m an as he w as
cro ssin g th e stre e t, it m ade him very
a n g ry . W hile he w as g e ttin g up and
b ru sh in g off his clothes, he laughed
a t us.
F. T h ere w as a v ery
see th e m otion p ic tu re
g ot th e re v ery early
th e re w as h a rd ly an
th e place.
la rg e crow d to
la st n ig h t. We
b u t even th en
em pty tab le in
A. J o h n ?s c a r cam e to a stop because
th e re w as no m ore gasoline in th e
ta n k . W hen he h ad to w alk over a
m ile to g et w ater, it m ade him cross.
G. The ball gam e w as m ore th a n h alf
over w hen we g ot to it, b u t it w as so
ex citin g th a t we w ere glad to see even
th e first p a r t of it.
In the last h a lf o f th is paragraph, the w ord
does n o t fit in w ith the m eaning o f the paraн
graph, so w a t e r is crossed out.
W hen all have finished say, W h a t w ord did you
cross out in P a ra g ra p h E ? W ait fo r th e rig h t
an sw er, l a u g h e d .
w ater
N ow look a t P aragraph B.
I n P a ra g ra p h F ?
(R ead it.)
W ait fo r th e r ig h t answ er,
TABLE.
B. T he c a rp e n te r asked Tom to go
to th e h a rd w a re sto re an d g et him a
pound of nails. W hen Tom got back
w ith th e m atches, th e c a rp e n te r gave
him a nickel.
In P a ragraph G?
W ait fo r th e r ig h t answ er,
FIRST.
On the n e x t tw o pages, you w ill find m ore paraн
g ra p h s ju s t like the ones w e have ju s t done. W hen
I say, ?T u rn the page and s ta r t,? tu r n over the page
to P a ragraph 1. R ead each p a ragraph carefully,
find the w ord in the last h a lf o f each one th a t does
n o t fit in w ith the m eaning o f the re st o f the paraн
g ra p h and m ake a cross th ro u g h it ju s t as you did
in these paragraphs. W o rk as fa s t as you can w ith н
out m a kin g m ista kes. Do n o t sta y too long on a n y
one paragraph but go on to the n ext.
W ait u n til th e second h an d of yo ur w atch is
ap p ro ach in g th e 60 second m ark , th e n say R eady,
an d w hen th e second h an d is a t 58, say T u rn the
page and s ta r t w o rkin g .
N ote th e tim e indicated by th e m in u te hand and
add 5 m in u tes to it. W rite th is down so th a t an
in te rru p tio n will not cause you to fo rg et. The tim e
fo r th is te s t should be k ep t accurately, b u t a sto p н
w atch is n ot needed.
A t th e end of five m in u tes, say Stop. Close yo u r
te st papers and pass th em fo rw a rd . T hese a re now
read y to be scored.
W hat w ord in the last h a lf o f th is paragraph
should be crossed o u t? W ait fo r th e answ er. Yes,
m a t c h e s , so m ake a cross thro u g h m a t c h e s .
W h a t w ord shoidd be crossed out in the last h a lf
o f P aragraph C? (R ead th e p a ra g ra p h aloud.)
C. We a re p lan n in g to go on an all
day picnic tom orrow . We w an t to get
s ta rte d ju s t as early in th e aftern o o n
as we can get aw ay.
W ait f o r t h e rig h t answ er. Yes, AFTERNOON, fo r
th e y could n o t s ta r t on an all day picnic in the a fte r н
noon. So cross out AFTERNOON.
In P aragraph D, w h a t wordI in the last h a lf
shoidd be crossed out?
D. Ja n e needed a spool of silk th re a d
to finish h e r new dress. B ut w hen she
w ent to th e sto re fo r h e r m other, she
fo rg o t to g et th e b u tto n s she needed.
9
Should an y pupil m iss th is te st, give it to him
a t th e first o p p o rtu n ity so th a t his reco rd m ay be
com plete.
PART
T u rn to page 1 o f the test booklet.
find an illu stra tio n .
D irectio n s:
A.
II
R ead th e first sam ple carefully
sky : blue :: g ra s s :
I. g ro w s
B.
T ests 2, 3, 4, and 5
Perception of Relations, Vocabulary, and
Range of General Information
I t is therefore
im p o rta n t th a t th e in d ividuals com plete all th e
m a te ria ls o r all th ey a re able to com plete. Omisн
sions receive no credit.
D istrib u te th e six teen pag e booklets face-up.
T hen d istrib u te th e A n sw er Sheets. I f th e A n sw er
Sheets a re to be m achine scored, special pencils to
be used fo r th a t p a rtic u la r p u rp o se M UST also be
d istrib u ted . I f th e A nsw er S heets are to be hand
scored, th e n special pencils a re n o t necessary. T he
A nsw er S heet should be on a h ard , sm ooth surface.
O rd in arily th e desk top will do v ery well. Pencils
should be sharpen ed , b u t needle-like pencil points
a re n o t desirable.
I t is im p erativ e th a t th e D IV IS IO N of th e
A nsw er S heet be identical w ith th e D IV IS IO N of
th e te st. T hus, th e In te rm e d ia te D ivision of th e
A nsw er S heet m u st be used w ith th e In term ed ia te
D ivision of th e te s t booklet.
H ave th e stu d en ts fill in th e b lank spaces on
both sides of th e A n sw er Sheets. E ach stu d e n t?s
age, called fo r on th e circle-side of th e A nsw er
Sheet, should be given in y ears an d m onths. A fte r
allow ing sufficient tim e fo r th e stu d en ts to fill in
these blanks, have th em tu r n to th e star-sid e of th e
A n sw er Sheets and read th em th e follow ing d irecн
tio n s :
A t the top of each colum n o f th is A n s w e r S h eet
are le tters and page n u m b ers. M a tch these w ith
le tters and page n u m b ers in th e te st booklet. Page 1
on the A n s w e r S h eet r e fe r s to page 1 o f the test
booklet. The le tter A on th e A n s w e r S h e e t re fe rs to
le tter A h a lf w a y dow n on page 1 o f th e te st booklet.
T h a t A is im m ed ia tely above th e first 15 te st
item s. T h u s the 15 A -ite m s on th e A n s w e r S h eet
correspond w ith the 15 A -ite m s in th e te st booklet.
L ikew ise, page 2 on the A n s w e r S h eet corresponds
w ith page 2 in the te st booklet, and the le tter B
re fe rs to the le tter B a t the top o f page 2 in the
te st booklet. The le tter C and page 2 on th e A n sw e r
S h e e t r e fe r to the le tter C on page 2 in the te st
booklet. A ccordingly, the page n u m b ers on the
A n s w e r S h e e t correspond w ith the page n u m b ers
in the te st booklet.
D.
3. rip e
4. g re e n
5. law n
7. w alk s
8. ta lk s
9. w o rk s
10. sle e p s
head : h a t :: foot :
I I , a n k le
P a r t I I consists of p ow er te sts.
2. h ay
fish : sw im s :: m an :
6. s ta n d s
C.
T here w e
12. leg
13. toe
14. shoe
15. snow
foot : toe :: h an d :
16. glove
17. a rm
18. fin g er
19. fist
20. m an
Y o u see the first tw o w ords, SKY and b l u e . T h ey
go to g eth er in a certain w ay. N o w am ong th e last
five w ords th ere is one w o rd th a t goes w ith GRASS
in the sam e w a y th a t b l u e goes w ith s k y . I t is
g r e e n , o f course.
G r a s s is g r e e n ju s t as the SKY
is b l u e . N o n e o f the other w ords goes w ith g r a s s
in the sam e w a y th a t BLUE goes w ith SKY. G r e e n
has a f in fr o n t o f it. F in d 4 above th e row of
dots a fte r A .
Y o u see a m a rk has been m ade
betw een th e row s o f dots under A. N otice th a t th is
m a rk is v e ry black. W hen you m a ke these m a rk s
on the A n s w e r S h eet, m,ake th em black by ru n n in g
the p o in t o f yo u r pencil u p and dow n several tim es
b etw een the roivs o f dots. F ill the en tire space
betw een the row s o f dots ivith the pencil m a rk.
N o w look a t Sam ple B. A m a n s t a n d s , w a l k s ,
w o r k s , and s l e e p s .
B u t w h ich o f these
w ords goes w ith m a n in th e sam e w a y th a t SWIM
goes w ith f i s h ? W a l k s is correct. W a l k s has a
7 in fr o n t o f it. So a line has been d ra w n betw een
th e ro w s o f dots u n d er 7 a fte r B.
ta lk s,
L o o k a t S a m p les C and D. Do you u n d ersta n d
w h y th e m a rk s have been d ra w n betw een the row s
o f dots u n d er 14 and 18?
Sa m p le C. On one?s h e a d one w ears a h a t .
On one?s FOOT one w ears a ______? Y es, SHOE.
T he n u m b er in fr o n t o f the rig h t answ er ? SHOE? is
14, so th e line is d ra w n betw een the ro w s o f dots
w ith 14 above them .
Sa m p le D. A toe is a p a rt o f one?s FOOT. W h a t
is a p a rt o f one?s h a n d in the sam e w a y? Yes,
f i n g e r , so th e pencil m a rk is d ra w n betw een the
row s o f dots u n d er 18.
N o w u sin g P a r t I I side o f th e A n s w e r S h e e t
m a rk ed w ith a sta r in th e upper le ft corner, begin
w ith N u m b e r 1 below and do each exercise in the
sam e w ay.
In each exercise below, see how th e second w ord
is related to th e first one ? how i t goes w ith it, then
10
Sheet, m a r k e d w it h t h e c ir c l e , h e w ill r e c o r d his
a n s w e r s t o e a c h s t a t e m e n t o r q u e s tio n in P a r t I I I
o f t h e t e s t b o o k le t.
find the w ord am ong th e last five th a t goes w ith
the th ird w ord in the sam e w a y th a t th e second
w ord goes w ith the first one. Do each exercise.
I f you are n o t sure o f the r ig h t answ er, choose th e
one you th in k is m o st likely to be the r ig h t one and
p u t a m a rk betw een th e row s o f dots u n d er its
n u m b er in the proper colum n on th e A n s w e r S h eet.
M ake all yo u r answ ers black by ru n n in g yo u r pencil
up and dow n several tim es betw een the ro w s o f dots.
A fte r th e stu d e n ts have th e ir A n sw er Sheets
w ith P a r t III side (m ark ed w ith a CIRCLE) u p , s a y
to them , T u rn to page 6 in the te st booklet. Y o u w ill
find a c ir c l e on th is page w h ich corresponds w ith
the c ir c l e on the A n s w e r S h eet. J u s t as in P a r t II,
each page in th e booklet and each colum n in the
A n s w e r S h eet have a page n u m b er a t the top. E ach
line o f ro w s o f dots has the sam e n u m b er in fr o n t
o f it as the question or sta te m e n t to w h ich it belongs.
W h en you find th e best a n sw er to a question or
sta te m en t, note th e n u m b er in fr o n t o f it, th en find
in the double row o f dots the one th a t has the sam e
n u m b er above it, and m a ke a m a rk to indicate yo u r
answ er.
I t is suggested ag ain th a t th e stu d en t be cauн
tioned to m ake th e m a rk s black if th e A nsw er S heets
a re to be m achine scored.
R ead th e sam ple p a ragraph on page 6 o f the
te st booklet. (R ead it to th e m w hile th e y follow
silen tly .)
W hen you have com pleted th is test, read the
directions fo r the n e x t te st and do tvh a t th e y tell
yo u to do. Do each succeeding te st u n til you have
com pleted page 5, T e st 5. H a n d in yo u r book and
A n sw e r S h e e t separately. I f you do n o t u n d ersta n d
th e directions fo r a n y te st w h en yo u come to it,
raise your hand.
If th e A n sw er Sheets a re to be m achine scored,
give th e stu d en ts th ese ad d itio n al d ire c tio n s : W ith
th e special pencil, m ake th e black m a rk s betw een
th e dotted lines v e ry h ea vy by m o vin g yo u r pencil
u p and, dow n several tim es. M ake th e m a rk s as
black as th e y are m ade on the sam ple on page 1 of
th e te st booklet. Do n o t be satisfied u n til th e m a rk s
are v e ry black.
R eady.
I t w as P erez, a f r ia r , on whom
Colum bus called w ith his little son
Diego, an d explained h is need fo r m en
an d sh ip s to prove th e w orld is round.
The f r ia r in te re ste d h is frien d , Queen
Isabella of Spain, in th e p lan s of
Colum bus. B u t w hen th e th re e ships
th a t c a rrie d Colum bus to A m erica
sailed fro m Spain, D iego w as le ft to
s ta y a t th e palace of th e Queen until
his f a th e r should come back.
B egin.
T h ere a re no tim e lim its fo r th ese tests. A t
least 45 m in u tes should be allow ed fo r th e fo u r
te sts. A ny pupils who fail to com plete th e te st
befo re th e end of th e perio d should be given an
o p p o rtu n ity to finish it.
E specially in ad m in iste rin g th e In te rm e d ia te
D ivision, th e ex am in er should note th e s tu d e n ts?
an sw ers to th e first tw o o r th re e ta sk s of T est 2.
I f an y stu d en t does n o t know w h at to do, th e ex am н
in e r should have him re a d th e directio n s silently
w ith help u n til he u n d e rsta n d s how to do th e task s.
N o w look a t the directions below th e paragraph
w hile I read th em w ith you.
R ead the first sta te m e n t a t th e side o f the paraн
graph, the one w ith an A in fr o n t o f it. Since the
p a ra g ra p h is m a in ly about th e pla n s and efforts of
C olum bus and his sailing, th e sta te m e n t ?The paraн
g ra p h is m a in ly about . . .? is best com pleted by
4 . t h e v o y a g e o f C o l u m b u s . So a m a rk has been
m ade b etw een th e ro w s o f dots u n d er U a fte r the A
in the a n sw er column.
N o w read th e sta te m e n t w ith th e B in fr o n t o f
it: ?P erez had been a fr ie n d o f . . .? Since the
pa ra g ra p h says th a t the fr ia r in terested his frie n d ,
Queen Isabella o f S p ain, in th e plans o f Colum bus,
Q u e e n I s a b e l l a best com pletes the sta te m en t.
Q u e e n I s a b e l l a has an 8 in fr o n t o f it. So a fte r
th e B in the a n sw er colum n, a m a rk has been m ade
b etw een th e row s o f d ots u n d er th e 8.
The d irections fo r th e o th er te sts m ay be
explained quietly to an y pupil w ho raises his hand,
b u t th e an sw ers to th e ta sk s in th e te sts should not
be explained or suggested to th e pupil.
PART
III
T ests 6 to 10, inclusive
I t is im p o rta n t th a t each stu d e n t should be given
sufficient tim e to com plete P a r t III. T his is a
pow er an d n o t a tim ed te st.
D istrib u te th e booklets a t th e n ex t te stin g period.
The s tu d e n t?s ow n A n sw er S heet previously used
fo r P a r t I I in th e booklet should be han d ed back
to each stu d en t. On th e P a r t I I I side o f th e A n sw er
11
th e tw o sq u are holes a t th e u p p er le ft an d low er
r ig h t fit exactly over th e round, ink spots. Then
count th e n u m b er of w ords m ark ed out in th e cu tн
outs. The heavy, v ertical lines on th e key fa c ilita te
th e counting.
The n u m b er of w ords correctly
m ark ed out is th e p u p il?s score. T his score should
be w ritte n in th e low er rig h t co rn er of th e te st
leaflet and also on th e Individual D iagnostic R eading
Profile in th e space u n d er th e colum n m ark ed ? R ate
of Com p.? Then in th e column above th is space,
encircle th e dot w ith th e n um ber co rresp o n d in g to
th e p u p il?s score a t th e le ft of it. (See th e Illu stra te d
Profile in th is M anual.)
T he best a n sw er to com plete the th ird sta te m e n t
is TOO YOUNG. In fr o n t o f it is 12, so in L in e C in
the answ er colum n a m a rk has been m ade betw een
the row s o f dots u n d er the 12.
U n h a p p y best com pletes the sta te m e n t w ith D
in fr o n t o f it. U n h a p p y has a 20 in fr o n t o f it. So
in L in e D in the a n sw er colum n a m a rk has been
m ade betw een the row s o f dots u n d er the 20.
W hen you tu r n to page 7 o f the te st booklet,
find the side o f the A n s w e r S h eet w ith a CIRCLE and
P a r t I I I in the u p p er le ft corner. R ead the first
p a ragraph and th en read the first question a t the
r ig h t o f it. Choose the best a n sw er ju s t as you
have been doing. L ook a t the n u m b er in fr o n t o f
th is best answ er and find it above th e row o f dots
a fte r the large 1 in th e first colum n on th e A n s w e r
S heet. M ake a m a rk b etw een the row s o f dots th a t
are u nder the n u m b er on the A n sw e r S h eet th a t
is in fr o n t o f the a n sw er yo u choose fo r th e first
question. Do the r e s t o f the ta sks in the sam e w ay.
W hen you have finished page 7, continue on
page 8. Choose th e r ig h t answ ers, and on the
A n sw er S h eet p u t m a rk s u n d er the n u m b ers o f the
r ig h t answ ers.
A f te r page 8, continue on the
rem a in in g pages in th e sam e m a n n er u n til you have
finished the te st on page 16.
T his p a r t of th e te st req u ires fro m 60 to 90
m inutes. I t is advisable to use tw o class periods
f o r P a r t I I I . A few m in u tes before th e end of th e
first period on th is te st, tell th e pupils to stop w ork
w ith th e p a ra g ra p h on w hich th ey a re now w orking.
H ave th em inclose th e ir A n sw er S heets in th e te st
booklets a t the page on w hich th e y are w orking.
H ave th e ir nam es on th e A n sw er S heets show ing
so th a t th e booklets an d A n sw er Sheets m ay be
handed back to be com pleted a t th e n ex t period.
The la te r period m ay be on th e sam e day a f te r an
in term issio n of some kin d or on th e n ex t day.
W hen th e p ap ers a re handed back to be comн
pleted a t th e n e x t te s t period, stu d en ts should be
told to com plete th e te s t in th e sam e w ay th a t th ey
have been w orking.
A s stated above, since P a r t I I I consists of a
pow er te st w hich d eterm in es how difficult m a teria ls
th e stu d en t can do correctly, it is suggested th a t
sufficient tim e be allotted fo r each stu d en t to comн
plete th e te s t booklet.
PARTS
Machine Scoring
W hen all th e te sts have been com pleted, p u t th e
te s t booklets an d th e A nsw er Sheets in s e p a ra te
packages w ith labels on th e outside show ing th e
room , grad e, te a c h e r?s nam e, nam e of th e school,
an d nam e of th e place, an d re tu rn to th e p rin c ip a l?s
office. The te s t booklets should be sto red fo r subseн
q u en t use. I t is needless to sta te th a t th e value of
these ex am in atio n s to th e school w ill be p reserv ed
only by n o t allow ing th em to circu late am ong pupils.
T he packages of A n sw er Sheets should be c a re н
fu lly tied to g e th e r an d sen t to be scored. A nsw er
Sheets should be w rap p ed betw een stiff card b o a rd s
in o rd er th a t th e sheets will not become creased or
have th e edges b en t or otherw ise m a rre d . Some
schools have a rra n g e m e n ts fo r m achine scoring
service. The pu b lish ers of th is te st also m a in tain
such te s t scoring service (described on pages 3 and
21 in th e ir C atalog No. 25, 1939-40, and in subseн
q u en t issues of th e ir catalog.) F o r th e p u b lish e r?s
scoring service, th e A n sw er Sheets, p ro p erly w ra p н
ped, should be sent, by prep aid express, to an y one
of th e ir th re e offices. The p u b lisher w ill re tu rn th e
A n sw er Sheets by p rep aid ex press as soon as
m achine scored.
Hand Scoring
A h an d scoring Key, com parable w ith th a t used
fo r P a r t I, is also available fo r P a r t s II and III.
The cut-out card fo r P a r t s II an d I I I is folded and
th e A n sw er Sheet is inserted. Be su re th a t th e
sides of th e A nsw er Sheet correspond w ith th e
respective sides of th e S coring Key. T he scores fo r
PA R T II a re tak en fro m th e star-sid e of th e S coring
Key, and th e scores fo r P a r t III a re taken fro m th e
circle-side of th e Key.
DIRECTIONS FOR SCORING
PART
II and I II
I
In scoring T est 1, R ate of C om prehension scale,
place th e cut-out key on th e open te st p ap er so th a t
12
sum into th e C-Score. T he A b b rev iated Table on
page 17 m u st be used fo r d eterm in in g th is T otal
Score.
The side of th e card fo r sco rin g P a r t II of th e
A n sw er S heet is divided into fo u r p a rts . The scores
fo r T est 2 a re ta k en fro m th e u p p er r ig h t q u a rte r of
th e card ; T est 3 fro m th e low er r ig h t q u a r te r ; T est
4 fro m th e up p er le ft q u a r te r ; an d T est 5 fro m th e
low er le ft q u a rte r of th e card. T he n u m b er rig h t
an d th e corresponding C-Score fo r each te s t (found
on th e S coring K ey) a re to be reco rd ed in th e space
provided fo r th a t purpose in th e u p p er le ft h an d corн
n e r of th e star-sid e of th e A n sw er Sheet.
The side of th e card fo r sco rin g P a r t I I I of th e
A n sw er S heet is ch ara cterized by a series of colored,
s tra ig h t and curved lines. E ach te s t h as its own color
of line w hich connects th e tw e n ty an sw ers fo r th a t
te st. T he te s t n u m b er is fo u n d a t e ith e r end of th a t
colored line In counting th e r ig h t an sw ers along th e
colored lines, it is suggested th a t th e co u nting begin
a t th e sc o re r?s rig h t h an d side of th e S coring Key.
The T otal Score (T ) on P a r t I I I is found by ta k in g
th e to tal of th e nu m b er rig h t on T ests 6, 7, 8, 9, and
10. The C-Scores fo r T ests 6, 7, 8, 9, an d 10 and
th e T otal Score (T ) a re recorded on th e hand
scoring K eys and a re also given in th e T ables in th is
M anual as well as in th e A b b rev iated M anual.
These C-Scores a re to be recorded in th e space p ro н
vided fo r th a t purpose in th e u p p er le ft h an d co rn er
of th e circle-side of th e A n sw er Sheet.
In case of sco rin g P a r t I I I fro m th e p rin te d
r ig h t an sw ers, th e scoring is based on th e n u m b er
co rrect out of th e first 16 an sw ers as given in th e
A b b rev iated M anual.
DIRECTIONS FOR ENTERING THE RECORD
ON THE INDIVIDUAL DIAGNOSTIC
READING PROFILE
The reco rd on th e In dividual D iagnostic R eading
Profile is ta k e n fro m P a r t I (T est 1) and fro m th e
in d iv id u al A n sw er Sheet.
F o r convenience, th e
C-Scores fro m th e A n sw er S heet m ay first be tr a n s н
fe rre d to th e bottom of th e Profile C h art. T hese
scores a re th e n plotted on th e c h a rt itself.
(See
illu stra te d In d iv id u al D iagnostic R ead in g Profile on
pag e 6.) T he Profiles so com pleted a re th e n read y
fo r in te rp re ta tio n an d rem edial rea d in g in stru c tio n .
As pointed out in th e first p a ra g ra p h of th e
In tro d u ctio n in th is M anual, besides being an in s tru н
m en t of diagnoses, th e D i a g n o s t i c E x a m i n a t i o n o f
S i l e n t R e a d i n g A b i l i t i e s c o n stitu tes also a m easн
u re of g en eral re a d in g ab ility level. T his g en eral
re a d in g a b ility level is m easu red in com parison w ith
chronological age and g rad e placem ent. See th e
Illu stra te d Profile on page 6.
S C O R IN G A B B R E V IA T E D P A R T III
W hile it is advisable to give th e pupils sufficient
tim e to com plete P a r t III, n ev erth eless circu m н
stances will occasionally a rise w hich m ake it im posн
sible to com plete all of P a r t III. In such cases, th e
score fo r P a r t I I I m ay be o b tained by sco rin g th e
first 8 0 of th e 1 0 0 item s contained in P a r t III,
th e re b y a b b re v ia tin g th e scale fro m 20 to 1 6 item s
fo r each of th e five te sts. T hen by use of th e special
C-Score Table on page 1 7 th e n u m b er co rrect out of
1 6 is converted into a C-Score w hich is com parable
w ith th a t obtained fro m th e 20 item s in each scale.
The m easure will not have as h ig h a degree of re lia н
bility, how ever, ow ing to th e decreased n u m b er of
item s.
The procedure in case of u sin g th e m achine
scoring K ey is d eterm in ed by th e o p e ra to r who
m akes th e n ecessary a d ju stm e n ts on th e m achine.
T he procedure in case of u sin g th e h an d scoring
K ey is th a t of counting th e n u m b er of co rrect
responses a p p e a rin g in th e first 16 an sw ers, countн
ing th e 16 holes as b eg in n in g fro m th e s c o re r?s rig h t
h an d side of th e S coring Key. T he T otal Score (T)
w ill be found by ta k in g th e to ta l of th e n u m b er
rig h t on T ests 6, 7, 8, 9, an d 10 an d co n v ertin g th is
The g eneral read in g ab ility m ay also be tr a n s н
lated into a R eading In d ex. T he R eading Index
in d icates w h ere th e s tu d e n t?s rea d in g a b ility stan d s
in referen ce to th e p oorest and b est stu d en ts am ong
a re p re se n ta tiv e th o u san d of his ow n chronological
age. T he R ead in g In d ex T able is fo u n d on pages 18
an d 19. T he In d ex is determ in ed fro m th e T otal
Score (T ) an d th e chronological age. T hus on th e
illu stra te d P rofile on page 6, th e R ead ing In d ex is
found to be 102.5. T his is derived fro m th e s tu d e n t?s
T o tal Score on P a r t III, 88.5, an d his chronological
age, 14 y ears 9 m onths.
To d e te rm in e th e score 102.5 fro m th is Table, follow dow n
th e colum n w ith 14-8 a t th e top. One finds 102 opposite
C-Score 88? T h is w ould be th e p u p il?s R e ad in g In d ex if he
w ere 14 y ea rs 8 m o n th s an d h ad a re a d in g C-Score of 88 on
P a r t III.
If he w ere 14 y e a rs 10 m o n th s an d h ad a re a d in g
C-Score of 88, h is R e ad in g In d ex w ould be 101. H ence, since
he is 14 y e a rs 9 m o n th s, an d h ad h e a C-Score of 88, h is
R e ad in g Index w ould be 101.5 (h a lf w ay betw een 101 an d 102).
In th e sam e w ay, if he w ere 14 y e a rs 8 m o n th s an d h ad a
re a d in g C-Score of 89, h is R ead in g In d ex w ould be 104, w h ile
fo r a ch ro n o lo g ical age of 14 y e a rs 10 m o n th s, it w ould be 103.
F o r a ch ro n o lo g ical age of 14 y e a rs 9 m o n th s, it w ould be 103.5
(h a lf w ay betw een 103 an d 104). F o r a C-Score of 88.5 a t
13
14 y e a rs 9 m o n th s, i t w ould be h a lf w ay betw een 101.5 an d
103.5, o r 102.5. F ra c tio n s m ay be dropped in re c o rd in g th e
R e a d in g Index.
placement indicates where a student stands between
the poorest and best silent readers among a repreн
sentative thousand students of his own chronological
age group.
GROUP SUMMARY SHEET
E x am p le. In th e case of th e s tu d e n t w hose rec o rd a p p e a rs
on th e illu s tra te d In d iv id u a l D iag n o stic R e ad in g P rofile on
page 6, th e R e ad in g Index, a s a lre a d y noted, is 102.5. A ccordн
ingly, h is p e rc e n t p la ce m en t is 52.5 (i.e. 102.5. less 5 0 ). A g ain ,
if h is R ea d in g In d e x h ad been 110, he w ould have b een 60 p e rн
c e n t of th e w ay b etw een th e p o o rest a n d b e st s ile n t re a d e rs
am o n g a re p re s e n ta tiv e th o u sa n d of h is ow n ch ro n o lo g ical
age group.
The scores from the Individual D iagnostic
Reading Profile m ay be transferred, by tally marks,
directly to the Group Summary sheet. See the
illustration on page 7.
CLASS RECORD SH EET
The Class Record provides for listing by name
the scores obtained on each of the ten tests. Space is
also provided for listing each pupil?s chonological
age, Total Score, and Reading A ge Level. This
Class Record w ill accommodate fifty names.
Quartile D eviations: The quartile deviation has
reference to the ?normal curve.? A variation of
10 points in the Reading Index above or below 100
indicates a distance representing one quartile deviaн
tion in the Reading Index. Thus a Reading Index
of 110 stands at the 75th percentile.
These quartile deviations and other percentile
rankings are found from each Reading Index in the
Table on page 20.
PERCENT PLACEMENTS
To determine the student?s Percent Placem ent ,
subtract 50 from the Reading Index. This percent
14
NUM BER RIGHT ? C-SCORE
Transmutation Table
Part II
T e s ts 2, 3, 4, a n d 5
T E S T 2 C -SC O R E S
I n te r. J u n io r S en io r
T E S T 3 C -SC O R E S
In te r. Ju n io r S enior
T E S T 4 C -S C O R E S
In te r. J u n io r S enior
37
36
107.5
100.5
95
116.5
111
130.5
125
100.5
95
35
34
33
32
31
97.5
93.5
90
87.5
85
120.5
116.5
113
110.5
108
30
29
28
27
26
83
81
79
77.5
76
25
24
23
74
72,5
71
69.5
:igl
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
110.5
105
115.5
100.5
96.5
93
90.5
105.5
101.5
98
95.5
93
90.5
86.5
83
80.5
78
106.5
102.5
99
96.5
94
84
82
80.5
79
91
89
87
85.5
84
76
74
72
70.5
69
92
90
106
104
88
102
86.5
85
77
75.5
74
72.5
71
82
80.5
79
77.5
76
67
65.5
64
62.5
61
66.5
64.5
63
61
59.5
69.5
67.5
74.5
72.5
71
69
67.5
58
56.5
54.5
52.5
49.5
61
59.5
57.5
55.5
52.5
66
45.5
41.5
36.5
36?
48.5
44.5
39.5
39-
102
68
88
86
66
64
62.5
111
130.5
125
90.5
86.5
83
80.5
78
106.5
102.5
99
96.5
94
120.5
116.5
113
110.5
108
92
90
106
104
88
102
100.5
99
76
74
72
70.5
69
80.5
85
100.5
99
83
81.5
80
78.5
77
97
95.5
94
92.5
91
67
65.5
64
62.5
61
83
81.5
80
78.5
77
97
95.5
94
92.5
91
59.5
57.5
56
54
52.5
75.5
73.5
72
70
68.5
89.5
87.5
75.5
73.5
72
70
68.5
89.5
87.5
84
82.5
59.5
57.5
56
54
52,5
64.5
62.5
60.5
57.5
51
49.5
47.5
45.5
42.5
67
65.5
63.5
61.5
58.5
81
79.5
77.5
75.5
72.5
51
49.5
47.5
45.5
42.5
67
65.5
63.5
61.5
58.5
81
79.5
77.5
75.5
72.5
53.5
49.5
44.5
44-
38.5
34.5
29.5
29-
54.5
50.5
45.5
45-
68.5
64.5
59.5
59-
38.5
34.5
29.5
29-
54.5
50.5
45.5
45-
68.5
64.5
59.5
59?
110
86
15
116.5
86
84
82,5
Part III
T e sts 6 , 7, 8 , 9, an d 10
1N 0
dgl
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
I n te rm e d ia te
D ivision
100
84.5
80
77.5
75
73
71
69
C -SC O R E S ________________
S enior
J u n io r
D ivision
D ivision
116
100.5
96
93.5
91
89
87
85
C -SC O R E S ? (C o n tin u e d )
R ig h t
130
114.5
12
11
110
10
107.5
105
103
8
101
6
99
5
9
7
In te rm e d ia te
D ivision
J u n io r
D ivision
S en io r
D iv isio n
67
65
63
61
59
57
53.5
49.5
83
81
79
77
75
73
69.5
65.5
97
95
93
91
89
87
83.5
79.5
T (T o ta l of T e sts 6 , 7, 8 , 9, a n d 10)
No
igh
LOO
99
98
97
96
95
94
93
92
91
C -S C O R E S
-? ---------------------?-------- ?--------------------------------------I n te r m e d ia te
J u n io r
S en io r
R ig h t
D ivision
D ivision
D ivision
95.5
93
91
116
116
111.5
109
107
130
130
125.5
123
89
87.5
105
103.5
86
102
85
84
101
119
117.5
116
115
114
100
100
100
121
113.5
113
112.5
86
83.5
83
82.5
82
81
99.5
99
98.5
98
97
85
84
83
82
81
80
79.5
79
78
77.5
96
95.5
95
94
93.5
109.5
109
108
107.5
80
79
78
77
76
77
76.5
76
75.5
75
93
92.5
92
91.5
91
107
106.5
106
105.5
105
75
74
73
72
71
74.5
74
73.5
73
72.5
90.5
90
89.5
89
88.5
104.5
104
103.5
103
102.5
70
69
88
102
87.5
87
86.5
101.5
66
72
71.5
71
70.5
70
86
100
65
64
63
69.5
69
68.5
85.5
85
84.5
90
89
88
87
68
67
112
111
110
101
100.5
99.5
99
98.5
16
C -S C O R E S ? (C o n tin u e d )
N
o
. -----------------------------------------I n te rm e d ia te
J u n io r
S en io r
D ivision
D iv isio n
D ivision
84
83.5
98
97.5
65.5
65
83
82.5
82
81.5
81
97
96.5
96
95.5
95
55
54
53
52
51
64.5
64
63.5
63
62.5
80.5
80
79.5
79
78.5
94.5
94
93.5
93
92.5
50
49
48
47
46
62
61.5
61
60.5
60
78
77.5
77
76.5
76
92
91.5
91
90.5
90
45
44
43
42
41
59.5
59
58.5
58
57.5
75.5
75
74.5
74
73.5
89.5
89
88.5
40
39
38
37
36
57
56.5
56
55
54.5
73
72.5
72
71
70.5
87
86.5
35
34
33
32
31
54
53
52.5
52
51
70
69
68.5
84
83
82.5
82
81
30
29
28
27
26
25
50
49
48
47
46
44
62
61
68
60
59
58
57
56
67
66.5
67.5
66
68
67
66
65
64
63
62
60
88
87.5
86
85
84.5
80
79
78
77
76
74
Part III ? Abbreviated
N u m b er R ig h t O ut o f F ir s t 16 on each of
T e sts 6 , 7, 8 , 9, an d 10
No,
ig h t
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
rm e d ia te
i v isio n
100
83.5
79.5
75.5
73
70.5
68
C -S C O R E S
J u n io r
D ivision
116
99.5
95.5
91.5
89
86.5
84
No.
R ig'ht
S enior
D ivision
9
130
113.5
109.5
105.5
103
100.5
98
8
7
6
5
4
C -SC O R E S ? (C o n tin u e d )
J u n io r
S en io r
D iv isio n
D ivision
In te rm e d ia te
D ivision
65.5
63
60.5
58
54
48.5
81.5
79
76.5
74
70
64.5
95.5
93
90,5
88
84
78.5
N u m b er R ig h t O u t of 80
T (T o ta l of N u m b e r R ig h t O ut of 16, each T e sts 6 , 7, 8 , 9, a n d 10)
No.
ig h t
80
79
78
77
76
In te rm e d ia te
D ivision
100
98
94
91
89
C -SC O R E S_________
J u n io r
S enior
D ivision
D ivision
116
114
C -S C O R E S ? (C o n tin u e d )
R ig h t
In te rm e d ia te
D iv isio n
J u n io r
D iv isio n
S en io r
D ivision
68
67.5
67
66.5
65.5
84
83.5
83
82.5
81.5
98
97.5
97
96.5
95.5
110
130
128
124
107
105
119
50
49
48
47
46
117.5
115.5
114.5
113.5
113
45
44
43
42
41
65
64.5
64
63
62.5
81
80.5
80
79
78.5
95
94.5
94
93
92.5
62
61.5
60.5
60
59.5
78
77.5
76.5
76
75.5
92
91.5
90.5
90
89.5
121
75
74
73
72
71
87.5
85.5
84.5
83.5
83
103.5
101.5
100.5
99.5
99
70
69
98
97
96
95.5
94.5
112
66
82
81
80
79.5
78.5
109.5
108.5
40
39
38
37
36
65
64
63
62
61
77.5
77
76.5
75.5
75
93.5
93
92.5
91.5
91
107.5
107
106.5
105.5
105
35
34
33
32
31
59
58
57.5
57
56
75
74
73.5
73
72
89
60
59
58
57
56
74.5
74
73
72.5
72
90.5
90
89
88.5
104.5
104
103
102.5
102
55.5
55
54
53
52
71.5
71
70
69
88
30
29
28
27
26
85.5
85
84
83
82
55
54
53
52
51
71.5
70.5
70
69.5
69
87.5
86.5
101.5
100.5
100
51
50
48.5
47.5
46
44
67
86
25
24
23
68
67
85.5
85
111
110
22
99.5
99
21
20
17
68
66
64.5
63.5
62
60
88
87.5
87
86
81
80
78.5
77.5
76
74
READING IN D EX TABLE
<
u
uй
_
w
CO
6
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
C H R O N O L O G IC A L A G E
10
11
0
2
4
70
72
74
76
77
79
80
81
83
85
69
70
72
74
75
77
78
80
81
83
84
67
69
70
72
74
75
77
78
80
81
83
84
86
88
89
91
92
94
95
97
99
86
87
89
90
92
93
95
97
98
86
87
89
90
9294
95
97
98
10
0
2
4
6
8
10
0
2
4
6
8
10
0
2
4
6
8
10
0
66
64
67
69
70
72
74
75
77
78
80
81
83
84
66
63
64
67
66
61
63
64
68
67
69
70
72
74
75
77
78
80
81
83
84
60
62
63
65
59
61
62
64
65
67
58
60
61
63
64
57
59
60
62
63
65
56
58
59
61
62
64
65
67
56
57
59
60
62
63
65
55
56
58
59
61
62
64
66
68
66
54
55
57
59
60
62
63
65
53
54
56
58
59
61
62
64
65
67
52
54
55
57
59
60
62
63
65
51
53
54
56
58
59
61
62
64
65
67
50
52
53
55
57
58
60
61
63
64
50
52
54
55
57
58
60
61
63
64
68
67
69
70
72
73
75
77
78
80
81
83
84
50
51
53
55
56
58
59
61
62
64
65
67
50
51
53
55
56
58
59
61
62
64
65
67
51
52
54
55
57
58
60
61
63
64
50
52
53
55
56
58
59
61
62
64
65
67
50
51
52
54
55
57
58
60
61
63
64
68
67
69
70
72
74
75
77
78
80
81
83
84
86
87
89
90
92
94
95
96
98
71
72
73
75
77
78
80
81
83
84
86
87
89
91
92
94
95
97
98
86
87
89
91
92
94
95
97
98
66
67
69
71
72
74
75
77
78
80
81
83
84
86
88
89
91
92
94
95
97
98
66
68
69
71
72
74
75
77
79
80
81
83
84
86
88
68
70
71
73
74
76
77
79
80
82
83
85
87
66
67
69
70
72
73
75
76
78
79
81
82
84
86
66
68
69
71
72
74
75
77
78
80
81
83
85
68
70
71
73
74
76
77
79
80
82
84
85
87
89 8 8 87 8 6
102 100
91 90 89 8 8
92 91 90 89 8 8
103 1 0 1 1 0 0
94 93 92 91 90
105 103 1 0 1 1 0 0
106 104 103 1 0 1 1 0 0
95 94 93 92 91
108 106 104 103 1 0 1 1 0 0
97 96 95 94 93
109 107 106 104 103 1 0 1 1 0 0 98 97 96 95 94
1 1 1 109 108 106 105 103 1 0 2 1 0 0
99 98 97 96
113 1 1 1 109 108 106 105 103 1 0 2 1 0 1 1 0 0 99 98
114 1 1 2 1 1 1 109 108 106 105 103 1 0 2 1 0 1 1 0 0 99
116 114 1 1 2 1 1 1 109 108 106 105 104 103 1 0 2 1 0 1
117 115 114 1 1 2 1 1 1 109 108 106 105 104 103 1 0 2
119 117 116 114 1 1 2 11 1 109 108 107 106 105 104
1 2 0 118 117 115 114 1 1 2 1 1 1 109 108 107 106 105
1 2 2 1 2 0 118 117 115 114 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 109 108 107
123 1 2 1 1 2 0 118 117 115 114 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 109 108
125 123 1 2 1 1 2 0 118 117 115 114 113 1 1 2 111 1 1 0
126 124 123 1 2 1 1 2 0 118 117 115 114 113 1 1 2 1 1 1
128 126 124 123 1 2 1 1 2 0 118 117 116 115 114 113
129 127 126 124 123 1 2 1 1 2 0 118 117 116 115 114
131 129 127 126 124 123 1 2 1 1 2 0 119 118 117 116
132 130 129 127 126 124 123 1 2 1 1 2 0 119 118 117
134 132 131 129 127 126 124 123 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 0 119
135 133 132 130 129 127 126 125 123 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 0
137 135 134 132 130 129 128 127 125 124 123 1 2 2
100
139
140
142
143
145
146
148
150
137
138
140
141
143
144
146
148
149
135
137
138
140
141
143
144
146
148
149
14
13
12
8
6
133
135
137
138
140
141
143
145
146
148
149
132
134
135
137
139
140
141
143
145
146
148
149
130
132
134
135
137
138
140
141
143
145
146
148
149
129
131
132
134
136
137
138
140
142
143
145
146
148
149
128
129
131
132
134
135
137
139
140
142
143
145
146
148
149
127
128
130
131
133
134
136
138
139
141
142
144
145
147
148
150
126
127
129
130
132
133
135
137
138
140
141
143
144
146
147
149
125
12G
128
129
131
132
134
136
137
139
140
142
143
145
146
148
149
124
125
127
128
130
131
133
135
136
138
139
141
142
144
145
147
148
150
69
71
72
74
75
77
78
80
82
83
85
86
88
89
91
92
94
96
97
99
67
69
70
72
73
75
76
78
79
81
83
84
86
87
89
90
92
93
95
97
98
66
68
69
71
72
74
75
77
78
80
82
83
85
86
88
89
91
92
91
96
97
99
100 100
102 101 100
103 103 1 0 2
68
70
71
73
74
76
77
79
81
82
84
85
87
66
68
69
71
72
74
75
77
79
80
82
83
85
88
86
88
90
91
93
95
96
98
99
89
91
93
94
96
97
99
70
71
73
74
76
78
79
81
82
84
85
87
88
90
92
93
95
96
98
99
66
86
87
89
91
92
94
95
97
98
68
70
71
73
74
76
78
79
81
82
84
85
87
88
90
92
93
95
96
98
99
66
67
69
70
72
73
75
77
78
80
81
83
84
86
87
89
91
92
94
95
97
98
68
70
71
73
75
76
78
79
81
82
84
85
87
89
90
92
93
95
96
98
99
66
67
69
70
72
74
75
77
78
80
81
83
84
86
88
89
91
92
94
95
97
98
70
71
73
75
76
78
79
81
82
84
85
87
89
90
92
93
95
96
98
99
66
86
88
89
91
92
94
95
97
98
101 100
102 102 101 100
104 103 1 0 2 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0
105 105 104 103 1 0 2 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0
107 106 105 104 104 103 1 0 2 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0
108 108 107 106 105 104 104 103 1 0 2 1 0 1
1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 109 108 107 107 106 105 104 104 103
114 113 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 109 108 107 107 106 105 105
115 115 114 113 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 109 108 107 107 106
117 116 115 114 114 113 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 109 108 108
118 118 117 116 115 114 113 113 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 109
1 2 0 119 118 117 117 116 115 114 113 113 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1
1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 0 119 118 117 116 116 115 114 113 113 1 1 2
123 123 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 0 119 118 118 117 116 115 115 114
125 124 123 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 0 119 118 118 117 116 115
126 126 125 124 123 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 0 119 118 118 117
128 127 126 125 125 124 123 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 0 119 118
129 129 128 127 126 125 124 124 123 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 0
131 130 129 128 128 127 126 125 124 124 123 1 2 2 1 2 1
105
106
108
109
103
105
106
108
1 1 1 1 1 0 109
132
134
136
137
139
140
142
143
145
146
148
149
104
106
107
109
132
134
135
137
138
140
141
143
144
146
147
149
150
131
133
134
136
137
139
140
142
143
145
146
148
149
130
132
133
135
136
138
139
341
142
144
145
147
148
150
129
131
133
134
136
137
139
140
142
143
145
146
148
149
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
18
128
130
132
133
135
136
138
139
141
142
144
145
147
148
150
127
129
131
132
134
loD
137
138
140
141
143
144
146
147
149
127
129
130
132
133
135
136
138
139
141
142
144
145
147
148
150
126
128
129
131
132
134
135
137
138
140
141
143
144
146
147
149
125
127
129
130
132
133
135
136
138
139
141
142
144
145
147
149
150
124
126
128
129
131
132
134
135
137
138
140
141
143
144
146
148
149
124
126
127
129
130
132
133
135
136
138
139
141
142
144
145
147
149
150
123
125
126
128
129
131
132
134
135
137
138
140
141
143
144
146
148
149
2
4
50
52
53
55
56
58
59
61
62
64
65
67
50
51
53
54
56
57
59
60
62
63
65
68
70
72
73
75
76
78
79
81
82
84
86
87
89
90
92
93
95
96
98
99
66
68
69
71
73
74
76
77
79
80
82
83
85
87
88
90
91
93
94
96
97
99
6
8
50
52
53
55
56
58
59
61
62
64
65
67
50
51
53
54
56
57
59
60
62
63
65
68
70
72
73
75
76
78
79
81
82
84
86
87
89
90
92
93
95
96
98
99
101 100
102 101
103
104
106
107
109
104
105
107
108
103
104
106
107
1 1 0 1 1 0 109
112
113
115
116
118
119
121
123
124
126
127
129
130
132
133
135
136
138
139
141
142
144
146
147
149
150
66
68
70
71
73
74
76
77
79
80
82
84
85
87
88
90
91
93
94
96
97
99
10
50
52
53
55
56
58
59
61
62
64
65
67
69
70
72
73
75
76
78
79
81
83
84
86
87
89
90
92
93
95
96
98
101 100
102 101
104
105
107
108
103
104
106
107
1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 109
113 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 0
114 113 113 1 1 2
116 115 114 113
117 116 116 115
119 118 117 116
1 2 0 119 119 118
1 2 2 121 1 2 0 119
124 123 1 2 2 1 2 1
125 124 123 123
127 126 125 124
128 127 127 126
130 129 128 127
131 130 130 129
133 132 131 130
134 133 133 132
136 135 134 133
137 136 136 135
139 138 137 136
140 139 139 138
142 141 140 139
143 142 142 141
145 144 144 143
147 146 145 144
148 147 147 146
150 149 148 147
150 150 149
150
READING IN D E X TABLE
й
й
u
CO
C H R O N O L O G IC A L A G E
16
15
0
51
53
54
56
57
59
60
62
63
65
66
68
70
71
73
74
76
77
79
80
82
84
85
87
88
90
91
93
94
96
97
99
2
50
52
53
55
56
58
59
61
62
64
65
67
69
70
72
73
75
76
78
79
81
83
84
86
87
89
90
92
93
95
96
98
4
50
51
52
54
55
57
58
60
61
63
64
66
68
69
71
72
74
75
77
78
80
82
83
85
86
88
89
91
92
94
95
97
99
6
50
52
53
55
56
58
59
61
62
64
66
67
69
70
72
73
75
76
78
80
81
83
84
86
87
89
90
92
93
95
97
98
8
50
51
52
54
55
57
58
60
61
63
65
66
68
69
71
72
74
75
77
79
80
82
83
85
86
88
89
91
92
94
96
97
99
10
50
52
53
55
56
58
59
61
62
64
66
67
69
70
72
73
75
76
78
80
81
83
84
86
87
89
90
92
93
95
97
98
0
50
51
52
54
55
57
58
60
61
63
65
66
68
69
71
72
74
75
77
79
80
82
83
85
86
88
89
91
92
94
96
97
99
50
52
53
55
56
58
59
61
63
64
66
67
69
70
72
73
75
77
78
80
81
83
84
86
87
89
90
92
94
95
97
98
101 100
102 101 10 0 100
104 103 1 0 2 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0
105 104 103 103 1 0 2 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0
107 106 105 104 103 103 1 0 2 1 0 1
108 107 106 106
1 1 0 109 108 107
1 1 1 1 1 0 109 109
113 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 0
114 113 1 1 2 1 1 2
116 115 114 113
117 116 115 115
119 118 117 116
121 1 2 0 119 118
122
124
125
127
128
130
131
133
134
136
137
139
140
142
144
145
147
148
150
105
106
108
109
104
106
107
109
112 112
114
115
117
1 2 1 1 2 0 1 2 0 119
123 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 0
124 123 123 1 2 2
126 125 124 123
127 126 126 125
129 128 127 126
130 129 129 128
132 131 130 129
133 132 132 131
135 134 133 132
136 135 135 134
138 137 136 135
139 138 138 137
141 140 140 139
143 142 141 140
144 143 143 142
146 145 144 143
147 146 146 145
149 148 147 146
150 149 149 148
150 119
113
115
117
118
120
121
123
124
126
127
129
130
132
133
135
136
138
140
141
143
144
146
147
149
150
4
50
51
52
54
55
57
58
60
62
63
65
66
68
69
71
72
74
76
77
79
80
82
83
85
86
88
89
91
93
94
96
97
99
6
50
51
53
54
56
57
59
61
62
64
65
67
68
70
71
73
75
76
78
79
81
82
84
85
87
8
50
51
52
54
55
57
58
60
62
63
65
66
68
69
71
72
74
76
77
79
80
82
83
85
88
86
88
90
92
93
95
96
98
99
89
91
93
94
96
97
99
10
50
51
53
54
56
57
59
61
62
64
65
67
68
70
71
73
75
76
78
79
81
82
84
85
87
0
50
51
52
54
55
57
59
60
62
63
65
66
68
69
71
73
74
76
77
79
80
82
83
85
88
86
88
90
92
93
95
96
98
99
90
91
93
94
96
97
99
2
50
51
53
54
56
58
59
61
62
64
65
67
68
70
72
73
75
76
78
79
81
82
84
85
87
89
90
92
93
95
96
98
99
4
50
52
53
55
57
58
60
61
63
64
66
67
69
71
72
74
75
77
78
80
81
83
84
86
88
89
91
92
94
95
97
98
100
102 101 100
103 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 1 1 0 0
105 104 103 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 1 1 0 0
106 105 105 104 103 1 0 2 1 0 1
103
104
106
107
109 108 107 106
1 1 1 1 1 0 109 108 108
1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 109
114 113 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1
116 115 114 113 113
117 117 116 115 114
119 118 117 116 116
1 2 0 1 2 0 119 118 117
1 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 0 119 119
123 123 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 0
125 124 123 1 2 2 1 2 2
126 126 125 124 123
128 127 126 125 125
129 129 128 127 126
131 130 129 128 128
132 132 131 130 129
134 133 132 131 131
135 135 134 133 132
137 137 136 135 134
139 138 137 136 136
140 140 139 138 137
142 141 140 139 139
143 143 142 141 140
145 144 143 142 142
146 146 145 144 143
148 147 146 145 145
149 149 148 147 146
150 149 148 148
150 149
103
105
106
108
1 1 1 1 1 0 109
18
17
2
105 105 104
107 106 105
108 108 107
1 1 0 109 108
112 111
113
115
116
118
119
113
114
116
117
119
110
112
113
115
116
118
1 2 1 1 2 0 119
122 122 121
123 1 2 2
124
125
127
128
130
131
133
135
136
138
139
141
142
144
145
147
148
150
125
126
128
129
131
133
134
136
137
139
140
142
143
145
146
148
149
124
125
127
128
130
132
133
135
136
138
139
141
142
144
145
147
148
150
6
50
51
53
54
56
58
59
61
62
64
65
67
68
70
72
73
75
76
78
79
81
82
84
85
87
89
90
92
93
95
96
98
99
8
50
52
53
55
57
58
60
61
63
64
66
67
69
71
72
74
75
77
78
80
81
83
84
86
88
89
91
92
94
95
97
98
10
50
51
53
55
56
58
59
61
62
64
65
67
69
70
72
73
75
76
78
79
81
82
84
86
87
89
90
92
93
95
96
98
99
0
50
52
54
55
57
58
60
61
63
64
66
68
69
71
72
74
75
77
78
80
81
83
85
86
88
89
91
92
94
95
97
98
19
2
50
51
53
54
56
57
59
60
62
63
65
67
68
70
71
73
74
76
77
79
80
82
84
85
87
4
50
51
52
54
55
57
58
60
61
63
64
66
68
69
71
72
74
75
77
78
80
81
83
85
88
86
88
90
91
93
94
96
97
99
89
91
92
94
95
97
98
6
8
10
0
130
132
133
135
136
138
139
141
142
143
145
147
148
19
129
131
132
134
135
137
138
140
141
143
144
146
147
129
130
132
133
135
136
138
139
141
142
144
145
147
128
129
131
132
134
135
137
138
140
141
143
144
146
127
128
130
131
133
134
136
137
139
140
142
143
145
126
128
129
131
132
134
135
137
138
140
141
143
144
4
6
8
10
6
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
50
51
53
54
56
57
59
60
62
63
65
67
68
70
71
73
74
76
77
79
80
82
84
85
87
50
51
52
54
55
57
58
60
61
63
65
66
68
69
71
72
74
75
77
78
80
82
83
85
88
86
88
90
91
93
94
96
97
99
89
91
92
94
95
97
98
66
50
51
53
54
56
57
59
60
62
64
65
67
68
70
71
73
74
76
77
79
81
82
84
85
87
50
51
52
54
55
57
58
60
61
63
65
66
68
69
71
72
74
75
77
78
80
82
83
85
88
86
88
90
91
93
94
96
97
99
89
91
92
94
95
97
98
101 100
103 1 0 2 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0
104 104 103 1 0 2 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0
106 105 104 104 103 1 0 2 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0
107 107 106 105 104 103 103 1 0 2 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0
109 109 108 107 106 105 105 104 103 1 0 2 1 0 2
1 1 1 1 1 0 109 109 108 107 106 105 105 104 103
1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 109 108 108 107 106 105 105
114 113 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 109 108 108 107 106
115 115 114 113 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 109 108 108
117 116 115 115 114 113 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 109
118 118 117 116 115 114 114 113 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1
1 2 0 119 118 118 117 116 115 114 114 113 1 1 2
1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 0 119 118 117 117 116 115 114 114
123 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 0 119 118 117 117 116 115
124 124 123 1 2 2 121 1 2 0 1 2 0 119 118 117 117
126 125 124 124 123 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 0 12 0 119 118
127 127 126 125 124 123 123 1 2 2 121 1 2 0 1 2 0
129 128 127 127 126 125 124 123 123 1 2 2 1 2 1
131
132
134
135
137
138
140
141
143
144
146
147
149
2
125
127
128
130
131
133
134
136
137
139
140
142
143
125
126
128
129
131
132
134
135
137
138
140
141
143
124
125
127
128
130
131
133
134
136
137
139
140
142
123
125
126
128
129
131
132
134
135
137
138
140
141
67
50
51
53
54
56
57
59
60
62
64
65
67
68
70
71
73
74
76
77
79
81
82
84
85
87
50
51
52
54
55
57
58
60
62
63
65
66
68
69
71
72
74
75
77
79
80
82
83
85
88
86
88
90
91
93
94
96
97
99
89
91
92
94
95
97
98
68
50
51
53
54
56
57
59
61
62
64
65
67
68
70
71
73
74
76
78
79
81
82
84
85
87
50
51
52
54
55
57
58
60
62
63
65
66
68
69
71
72
74
75
77
79
80
82
83
85
88
86
88
90
91
93
94
96
97
99
89
91
92
94
95
97
99
50
51
53
54
56
57
59
61
62
64
65
67
68
70
71
73
74
76
78
79
81
82
84
85
87
88
90
91
93
94
96
98
99
101 100
102 102 101 100
104 103 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 1
105 105 104 103 1 0 2
107 106 105 105 104
108 108 107 106 105
1 1 0 109 108 108 107
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 109 108
113 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0
114 114 113 1 1 2 1 1 1
116 115 114 114 113
117 117 116 115 114
119 118 117 117 116
1 2 0 1 2 0 119 118 117
1 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 0 119
124 123 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 1
125 125 124 123 1 2 2
127 126 125 125 124
128 128 127 126 125
130 129 128 128 127
131 131 130 129 128
133 132 131 131 130
134 134 133 132 131
136 135 134 134 133
137 137 136 135 134
139 138 137 137 136
140 140 139 138 137
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
PERCENTILE RANK EQUIVALENTS
T his Table sh ow s th e p ercen tile rank correspond ing w ith each R eading Index
Reading
Index
Corresponding
Percentile
Rank
(Continued)
Corresponding
Reading
Percentile
Index
Rank
(Continued)
Corresponding
Reading
Percentile
Index
Rank
.1
.1
85
86
87
88
89
...... ......
...... ......
...... ......
...... ......
...... ......
15.6
17.3
19.0
20.9
22.9
120
121
122
123
124
...... ......
...... ......
...... ......
...... ......
...... ......
91.1
92.2
93.1
94.0
94.7
55
56
57
58
59
.2
... ____
.2
....____
.2
....____
.... .................3
..................... 3
90
91
92
93
94
___ ......
...... ......
...... ......
...... ......
...... .......
25.0
27.2
29.5
31.9
34.3
125
126
127
128
129
...... ......
...... ......
...... ......
...... ......
...... .....
95.4
96.0
96,6
97.1
97.5
60
61
62
63
64
....____
.4
....____
.5
....____
..................... 6
....____
.8
95
96
97
98
99
...... ......
...... ......
...... ......
...... ......
___ ......
36.8
39.4
42.0
44.6
47.3
130
131
132
133
134
...... ......
...... ......
...... ......
...... ......
...... ......
97.9
98.2
98.5
98.7
98.9
65
66
67
68
69
....____
...........
... .......
....____
..............
.9
1.1
1.3
1.6
1.8
100
101
102
103
104
...... ......
...... ......
___ ......
___ ......
___ ......
50
52.7
55.4
58.0
60.6
135
136
137
138
139
...... ......
...... ......
...... ......
.............
...... ......
99.1
99.2
99.4
99.5
99.6
70
71
72
73
74
....____
...........
....____
....____
....____
2.2
2.5
105
106
107
108
109
...... ......
...... ......
___ ......
....... ......
___ ......
63.2
63.7
68.2
70.5
72.8
140
141
142
143
144
.............
___ ......
___ ......
.............
.............
99.6
99.7
110 ___ ......
111 ___ ......
112 ...... .......
113 ___ ......
114 ...... ......
75.0
77.1
79.1
81.0
82.8
145 ___ ...... 99.8
146 ___ ...... 99.9
147 ...... ...... 99.9
148
149
...... ......
___ ......
___ ......
.............
___ ......
84.4
86.0
87.4
88.8
90.0
150
50
51
52
____
53
54 ....____
A
75 .... ...... .
76 .... .........
77 ..............
78 ....____
79
........ .
80
81
82
83
84
..............
....____
....____
..........
....____
3.0
3.4
4.0
4.6
5.3
6.0
6.9
7.8
8.9
10.0
11.2
12.6
14.0
115
116
117
118
119
20
99.7
99,8
99.8
D IA G N O S T IC E X A M IN A T IO N O F S I L E N T R E A D IN G A B IL IT I E S
Developed Toy
M. J. V A N W A G E N E N
U niversity of M innesota
an d
AUG U ST DVORAK
Part I
U n ive rsity of W a sh in g to n
SEN IO R D IV ISIO N
FORM M
R A TE OF CO M PR EH EN SIO N TE ST and IN D IV ID U A L D IA G N O ST IC R EA D IN G P R O F IL E
N AM E ....................................................................................................................................................BOY o r G IR L .
Last
F ir st
M iddle
CITY
GRADE
D A TE 19
TE A C H E R ....
Y ear
M onth
Day
Y ear
M onth
Day
D A T E of
B IR T H 19
SCHOOL ......
SCORED BY
AGE
M onths
C o p y r i g h t , 1939, E d u c a t i o n a l T e s t B u r e a u , E d u c a t i o n a l P u b l i s h e r s , In c.
D irections fo r R ate of C om prehension T est
R ead 'paragraph A carefully.
A. J o h n ?s c a r cam e to a stop because th e re w as
no m ore gasoline in th e ta n k . W hen he had to
w alk over a m ile to get
it m ade him cross.
In the last h a lf o f th is par graph, the w ord
does n o t fit in w ith the m eaning o f the r e st
of the paragraph, so w a t e r is crossed out.
WATER
B. The c a rp e n te r asked Tom to go to th e h a rd н
w are sto re and g e t him a pound of nails. W hen
Tom got back w ith th e m atches, th e c a rp e n te r
gave him a nickel.
C. We a re p lanning to go on an all-day picnic
tom orrow . We w an t to g et s ta rte d ju s t as early
in th e aftern o o n as we can g e t aw ay.
D.
her
fo r
she
Ja n e needed a spool of silk th re a d to finish
new dress. B ut w hen she w en t to th e sto re
h e r m other, she fo rg o t to g et th e b u tto n s
needed.
E.
W hen we h it th e m an as he w as crossing
th e street, it m ade him v ery an g ry . W hile he
w as g e ttin g up and b ru sh in g off his clothes, he
laughed a t us.
F . T h ere w as a very large crowd to see th e
m otion p ic tu re la st n ig h t. We g ot th e re very
early, b u t even th e n th e re w as h a rd ly an em pty
ta b le in th e place.
G. The ball gam e w as m ore th a n h a lf over w hen
we got to it, b u t it w as so ex citing th a t we w ere
glad to see even th e first p a r t of it.
On the n e x t tw o pages yo u w ill find m,ore
p aragraphs like th e ones you have ju s t read.
W hen you are told, ?T u rn the page and sta r t,?
tu rn over the page to P a ra g ra p h 1. R ead each
p a ra g ra p h carefully, find the w ord in the last
h a lf th a t does n o t fit in w ith the m eaning o f the
r e s t o f it, and m ake a cross th ro u g h it ju s t as
yo u did in these paragraphs. W o rk as fa s t as
yo u can vA thout m a kin g a n y m ista kes. Do not
sta y too long on a n y one paragraph, b ut go on
to the n ext.
P u blish ed by
E D U C A T IO N A L T E S T B U R E A U
M inneapolis - N a sh v ille - P h ila d e lp h ia
TEST 1
1. Stephen likes to w ork w ith tools and to make playн
things for himself and his sister. His father thinks
that he will be an artist some day if he keeps on.
15. Our house has been overrun w ith mice lately.
There are so many around that we must get some new
fly-traps and try to catch them before they get any
thicker.
2. In the days before the airplane or the automobile
had been invented, people w ho were wealthy or w ho
were in a hurry traveled from one place to another in
flying machines.
16. Jo h n 's eyes have never bothered him, but he is
very deaf. His teachers have made it very much easier
for him since they found out th at he cannot see well.
3. T h e ice man comes around every day in the summer
and three times a week in winter. All housekeepers
seem to need it these days in order to cook their food.
17. W hen the train left our station, it was already an
hour behind time. In order to reach the next station
on time, it will have to go slower than usual.
4. T he carpenter w ho is repairing our house is always
forgetting to take his tools home w ith him. Last week
he forgot to take his hoe w ith him when he left.
5. A fire broke oiit in one of the largest lumber yards
in the city last night. It was such a big one that it
could be heard many miles away.
6. D uring our stay in camp, there was nothing to
remind us of the city we had left. In the early m orning
hours only the calls of the newsboys were heard.
7. Philip wears his best clothes only when he goes to
a dance at school. He m ust be going to one tonight,
as he went out dressed in his oldest clothes.
8. Every evening Alfred brings home the daily paper
and spends about an hour reading it very carefully.
W hen he finishes, he knows nothing about w hat has
happened during the day.
9. T he church was so crowded for the concert last
night that we could hardly squeeze inside the doors.
W hen we did get inside at last, we found only empty
seats.
10. M ark T w ain wrote some books about the activiн
ties of children. These books are full of hum or and
simple to read. Because of these qualities, most children
dislike to read them.
11. Sally wears a clean dress every day. Of course,
she always looks well in them, but it must keep her
m other at w ork sewing for her most of the time.
12. Joseph receives smaller wages and works less time
than anyone else in the village. Whenever pay day
comes around, he receives more money than any one of
his neighbors.
13. I never saw the rain come down faster. A lthough
I was out only a little while, my clothes were as dry
as they could be when I reached the house.
14. It was such a perfect June day that our class
decided to have its picnic. After school we got our
lunches ready, piled into a sleigh, and started merrily
off.
18. W hen the fall winds come, the dry leaves blow
off the trees. We had such a heavy wind yesterday that
in a short time the ground was covered w ith water.
19. W ith his face scratched up, one ear partly bitten
off, and a hind leg broken, it was apparent to all of us
that Jack had been in a race recently.
20. W hile the boys were swimming across the lake, a
heavy shower came up. T he wind blew so hard that
they had great difficulty in rowing the rest of the way.
21. All the children on our street will go into the
country just as soon as their summer vacation begins.
T hen it will be much noisier around here for some
time.
22. H arry wanted to see the big tree come crashing
down, so he kept in sight while the men were chopping
it, for fear that he m ight miss hearing it fall.
23. Harold likes to sleep late in the morning. W hen
he does not get up in time to eat w ith the rest of the
family, he goes w ithout supper th at day.
24. Florence is one of the best swimmers in the
village. Her brother says she should be the best one
because she has been taking lessons in singing for several
years.
25. W hen T om fell off the garage roof and broke his
arm he started for his home on a run, singing just as
loudly as he could all the way there.
26. A pair of sparrows have made their nest in a vine
on our porch. Chirping merrily, they fly in and out
among the leaves. T hey seem such sad little creatures.
27. Fred got a new pony for his birthday and now is
learning to ride it. He will not let any other boys ride
it for fear they m ight break it.
28. Ralph has so far to walk to school that his father
takes him in the car. When he is older, his father will
get him a boat of his own.
C o n ti n u e on next p a g e
29. Jane will not let her brothers touch the new
puppy she got for her birthday. She is afraid one of
them will let it drop and break it some day.
30. W illiam does not mind his w ork of picking out
shoes to fit people, but he gets very tired of trying to
get them to buy the suits that fit them.
31. Jane?s mother will let her wear a thin dress only
when the v/eather is warm. As she is dressed in one
tonight, it must be cold again out of doors.
32. John went to the store to get some vinegar for his
mother, but the grocer told him that he would have to
bring a clean basket to put it in.
33. W hen the boys asked the farmer for a ride, he told
them he was very sorry but that he already had too
light a load for his horses to pull.
34. Russell is very fond of fishing, but cares nothing
at all for hunting. So to please him very much on his
last birthday, his father gave him a new rifle.
35. People sailing from London on M onday may
reach New Y ork the next Saturday if they sail on the
fastest boat. Otherwise they are likely to arrive a few
days sooner.
43. W hen Jo h n takes his umbrella and it stops rainн
ing, he often forgets to bring it home again. Whenever
he does forget, his mother always sends him back to
leave it.
44. Sadie was the slowest runner among all the girls
at our school. W hen she entered the hundred-yard
dash, the whole school expected her to come in first in
the race.
45. John had his composition nearly w ritten when
his pen ran out of ink. Ele felt very bad when he found
there was no varnish in the house to finish it.
46. T h e trees in M r. Brow n?s orchard are full of
apples this summer even though the weather is dry. He
th inks that his crop will be a small one this year.
47. One day we found a kind of flower that none of
us had ever seen. As it was growing in the woods, we
knew it must be a common flower.
48. Boys and girls w ho live in the country come to
know many things about animals and plants that
children w ho live in the city can learn only from their
games.
49. Donald has been elected president of his high
school class. T h is must have been due to the fact th at
he is so much disliked by all his classmates.
36. T he thieves w ho robbed the jewelry store in our
village last night escaped in an automobile. T he officers
expect to catch them when they begin to sell the locks
they stole.
50. Helen has a poor appetite, but she likes .cake so
well that she will eat almost anything that is set before
her in order to have a banana for dessert.
37. It costs a lot of money to keep our car running
when it is driven very much. It is so big and heavy
th at it uses a lot of water.
51. It has been so dry this summer thafi nothing can
grow in the gardens. T his is not surprising as there
have been only tw o snow-storms during the last three
months.
38. Henry likes his work as a clerk in the jewelry
store very much. T h e only thing he does not like about
it is showing people heavy things all the time.
39. Every m orning the milkman has to get up early
and go over the same route. He must get very tired
of leaving mail at the same houses day after day.
40. We had been w ithout rain for such a long time
that plants and even trees were drying up. Everyone
felt relieved when the sun came up yesterday.
52. There were several young children in the Gray
family when the father died. As the mother was very
poor, the neighbors would often send them flowers to
help them out.
53. M y old suit of clothes is much in need of repairs.
I wish you would remind me to leave it at the plum bing
shop the next time I go dow ntow n.
54. Jo h n wants to be a carpenter when he grows up.
He is sure th at he will succeed in this, as he always
liked to work w ith paints and caws.
41. I am sure that Mr. Johnson must be a doctor, for
I have never yet seen him on the street when he was
not carrying a sawr around w ith him.
55. Mr. Green has a large farm on which he raises
nothing but fruit. T his fall he expects to have large
crops of apples, potatoes, and peaches to send to market.
42. James and Ralph were both very fond of the big
yellow peaches that grew in the garden. So as soon as
they became hungry, they hurried to the apple tree.
56. M r. Sm ith?s new house will be ready to live in
soon. O nly some painting remains to be done. T he
carpenter expects to have this finished in a few days.
N u m b er rig h t
DIAGNOSTIC EXAMINATION OF SILENT READING ABILITIES
AGE
L E V E L .*
GRADE
LEVEL
R a te
of
C om p .
1
23 -0
*
54*
P ercep.
of
l i e ! ?s.
3
2
105 л
10*
fi ?
5} ?
104*
?
32*
103*
31 ?
102о
6о
4
10 ?
111 о
111
111 *
1 11 *
1 1 1 о
110о
1 10о
110о
110 ╗
110*
110о
116*
117 о
101 ?
109о
109 о
109о
109 ?
109 ?
109о
115 ?
U faо
108о
108о
108о
114 л
100 о
108 л
108о
108о
115 о
107о
107 о
107 *
107о
117*
a*
?
46*
45 ?
44 ?
95*
43 ?
94*
42 ?
93*
41 ?
92*
40*
91*
lOl *
100*
101 ?
99о
100о
98 о
99о
?
19 -0 .
10 *
2*
6*
6*
o
o
4
------- 2 ?
*
la-o*
10 *
a*
6*
114 ?
107*
107 ?
U Sо
96о
106о
106о
106о
106о
106*
106о
111 о
112о
97о
105 ?
105 *
105 ?
105 ?
105 s
105 ?
110 ?
111 ?
97*
109о
110о
96о
104*
104о
104*
104о
104о
104 ╗
96*
108о
109о
95 ?
103о
103о
103о
103о
1 03 о
101
107о
106*
94 ?
102 о
102 о
102 о
102о
102о
102 *
93 ?
101 ?
101 ?
101
101 ?
101 о
101 о
92о
100о
100 о
100 о
100о
100о
100 о
91 *
99 о
99о
99о
99 *
99о
99о
90*
98о
98о
98*
98о
98 о
96 о
97о
*
4
--- 2 *
17 -0 *
10 *
a*
6*
---2 **
16 -0 *
4
6*
*
---2 о
15 0 *
10*
4
96 о
35 ?
66о
95 о
34 о
65о
93 о
o ?
33о
64о
92 о
?
33 ?
63о
91 ?
>1 ?
62 о
S.
o ?
8о
oо
a*
*
------ 2 ?
130*
4
94 о
30о
81 о
29 о
80о
a*
6?
*
? 2 *12-0 *
10*
8*
6*
*
? -
110*
10 *
?
?
---2 ?10-0 *
10*
a*
?
9 0 *
10*
4
a*
6 ?
*
2?
ao*
D a te A d m in iste re d
67 ?
66о
-15 ? -
о-
14 ?
64о
1 3о
9*
63 о
62о
61 ?
-60о59 ?
56о
57 ?
56о
55 ?
8о
53 ?
6 ?
-- 2 *-
66о
12о
11 ?
10о
54о
95 о
95 о
95 ?
97 ?
96 о
66о
94*
94 о
94*
94о
94о
94о
95 ?
65о
9 3о
93*
93о
93о
93 о
93 о
94 ?
84о
92*
9 2о
92о
92о
92о
92о
91о
OQо
90о
90 о
89 ?
69 ?
61о
69о
69*
69*
69о
89о
69о
86 ?
80о
68 о
68о
66о
68о
68о
68о
6 7о
67о
8 7о
87о
67о
67о
77 ?
66о
66о
66о
66о
66о
76о
65о
65о
85 *
85 ?
65о
65 ?
75о
64о
84о
64 ?
84о
84о
64 ?
74о
63о
83о
63о
83о
73о
62о
62о
62*
62о
62о
62о
72о
71 ?
81о
fit о
fit *
81 о
81*
fil ?
60 о
60 о
60*
80 о
60*
60 о
79о
79о
79о
79о
79о
79о
76о
76о
76о
76о
75о
76о
77о
- 76 о 75о
74о
73о
72о
71о
-70о69о
77о
?76о75 о
74о
73о
72о
71о
-7 (
69о
77о
?76*75о
74о
73*
72о
71о
-70о69 *
77о
-76о75 о
74о
73о
72о
71о
-70 о69о
77о
-76о 75о
74о
73*
72о
71о
68о
68о
77о
-76╗75о
74о
73*
72о
71о
-70*69о
68о
-70о69о
68о
66о
66о
66о
66*
66о
66 ?
64о
62*
-60*58*
56о
54о
52о
50о
48 о
46*
64о
62о
-60о 56*
56о
54о
52о
50о
46о
46о
64о
62о
-60о58о
56о
54о
52о
50о
46*
46о
64о
62о
-60о58*
56о
54о
52о
50о
46*
46о
64о
62о
-60о 58о
56о
54о
52о
50о
46*
46*
64о
62о
-60о58о
56о
54о
52о
50о
48*
46о.
87 ?
86 ?
65 ?
74о
lbо
95 ?
91 ?
23 о
17 ?
95о
90о
79о
8*
98о
95 ?
91 ?
76о
77о
76о
75 ?
74о
-73*72о
71 ?
70о
69о
69о
96*
87 ?
90*
75о
-18 л ?
96о
91 о
24о
70о
97 о
96о
91 о
76о
71о
97о
9 6о
90о
25 ?
19 ?
97*
96о
90о
77 о
20о
97 о
96 *
91 о
26 ?
72о
97 о
62о
76о
73о
69 ?
88 о
83 ?
27 ?
22 ?
102 ?
92 *
79о
21 ?
105 ?
о
?84о63 ?
82о
61 о
8 0о
87
66
85
84
-83
82
о
81 ?
80 о
79 o
-73 ? 77 о
76 ?
75 о
74 о
73 ?
-72 ?
71 о
70о
69 *
68
о
68о
67 о
?6 7 ? -
? 66 ? -
66 ?
65 о
64 *
63 о
62 о
?61 ? 60 о
59 ?
58о
57 о
56 ?
-55 ? 54о
53 ?
52 ?
51 о
50о
49 о
48 ?
65
64
63
62
61
- 60
59
58
57
56
55
-54
53
52
51
30
49
48
47
79о
о
?
о
?о
?
?
о
?
?
о?
*
?
?
?
??
о
?
?
о
?
╗
76о
70о
-'69 ? 68о
63о
66 ?
65 о
63 ?
62 ?
- 6 0о 59о
58о
56о
- 55 ? 54 о
53 ?
52 ?
51 ?
50о
49 о
68о
68о
10
* In d ic a te th e s tu d e n t?s Chronological A ge L e v e l -with a h o riz o n ta l lin e, an d M enial Age L evel, if av a ilн
able, w ith a square.
Com m en ts :
2
<
S?
*
91 о
90*
28 ?
10*
4
103о
97 ?
6?
6
4
102 о
67*
*
---2 14 -0 *
10*
2
104 ?
36 *
?
??1m
*>
-o
?
6*
---------
103о
68о
4
4
10 6о
37 *
a*
4
107о
105 ?
104*
69*
10 *
a*
106 ?
90о
:
oо
*
112 о
39о
1
о
113 .
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SENIOR
DIVISION
PAGE 8
PAGE 7
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DIRECTIONS FOR MARKING THIS ANSWER SHEET
1. At the top of each column on this side of this answer sheet are placed the numbers of the pages in the tesl
booklet for which the columns are to be used.
A t the top of each column on the other side of this answer sheet are letters and page numbers. Use each dolumi
for placing the answers to the questions under the same letter on the page.
2. Each row of dotted lines on this answer sheet has before it the number of the question ill the test booklet to b<
answered in that row of dotted lines.
3. Read each question and its numbered answers and decide which answer is correct.
4. Find the pair of dotted lines numbered the same as the answer you have chosen, and with the special pencil mak
a heavy Mack mark between them by moving your pencil up and down several times. BE SURE THAI
THE SPACE YOU MARK IS IN THE ROW NUMBERED THE SAME AS THE QUESTION YOU ARE
ANSWERING, Misplaced answers are counted as wrong answers,
5. Make your marks as long as the pair of dotted lines.
6. If you change your mind, erase your first mark completely.
7. Make no unnecessary marks in or around the dotted lines.
8. Keep your answer sheet on a hard and smooth surface while marking your answers,
9. NOW TURN THIS SHEET OVER TO PART II.
PAGE 13
PAGE 12
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C o p y r ig h t , 1939, E D U C A T IO N A L T E S T B U R E A U ? M in n e a p o lis - N a s h v i ll e - P h i l a d e l p h i a
2 2
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27
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DIAGNOSTIC EXAMINATION OF SILENT READING ABILITIES
Developed, Toy
-
M- J- V A N W A G E N E N
Page 1
U n i v e r s i t y of M i nn e s o ta
g
tt
an d
A U G U ST D VORAK
U n i v e r s i t y of W a s h i n g t o n
Part II
SENIOR DIVISION
FORM M
TEST 2
C o p yrig-h t, 1939, E d u c a t i o n a l T e s t B u r e a u , E d u c a t i o n a l P u b l i s h e r s , In c.
D irection s:
A.
B.
C.
D.
i
3
6
,8
A.
Read the first sam ple carefully.
sky : blue :: g r a s s : 1. grows 2. hay 3. ripe 4. green 5. lawn
6. stands 7. walks 8. talks 9. works 10. sleeps fish : sw im s :: m a n
head : h a t : : fo o t : 11. ankle 12. leg 13. toe 14. shoe 15. snow
fo o t : toe : : h an d : 16. glove 17. arm 18. finger 19. fist 20. man
A
B
C
D
5
1
B. i
ii
C.
4
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15
19
20
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D. !
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1
You see th e first tw o w ords, sky and blue. T hey go to g e th e r in a certain way. Now am ong
th e la st five w ords th e re is one w ord th a t goes w ith g ra ss in th e sam e w ay th a t blue goes w ith sky.
It is green, of course. G rass is green ju s t as th e sky is blue. None of th e o th e r w ords goes w ith
g ra ss in th e sam e w ay th a t blue goes w ith sky. Green has a 4 in fro n t of it. F ind 4 above th e row
of dots a f te r A. You see a m a rk h as been m ade betw een th e row s of dots under 4.
Now look a t Sam ple B. A m an stan d s, w alks, talk s, w orks, and sleeps. B u t w hich of th e se
w ords goes w ith m an in th e sam e w ay th a t sw im goes w ith fish? W alks is correct. W alks h as
a 7 in fro n t of it. So a line h as been draw n betw een th e row s of dots u n d er 7 a f te r B.
Look a t Sam ples C and D. L isten to th e directions. Do you u n d erstan d w hy th e m ark s have
been draw n betw een th e row s of dots un d er 14 and 18?
T u rn to th e side of th e an sw er sh eet w ith a s ta r and P a rt II in th e upper le ft corner. Begin
w ith n um ber 1 below' and do each exercise in th e sam e way.
*
A.
(Place your answ ers u n d er A in the first colum n on the answ er sh eet.)
screw : sc rew d riv e r :: n a il : 1. iron 2. head 3. ham m er 4. w o o d 5. d r i v e .................................................1
2. fire I h o t :: ice :
6. freezes 7. melts 8. cools 9. cold 10. water
- - - - - - - 2
3.
I : m ine :: you :
11. h ave 12. w ere 13. you rs 14. keep 15. get
3
4 . Cat : Scratch :: bee :
16. h o n e y 17. h ive 18. b u z z 19. stin g 20. f l y 4
5 . a ir : a irp lan e :: w a t e r :
21. b o a t 22. d rin k 23. sw im
24. sin k 25. sail
5
6. clog : b a rk s :: b ird : 26. flies 27. sings 28. wings 29. eats 30. lays
- - - - 6
7 . book .* le tte rs :: m usic :
31. p la y
32. tu n e 33. learn 34. keys 35. n otes - - - - 7
8. lettu ce : g a rd e n :: apple .'
36. tree 37. orchard 38. pick 39. sw eet 40. b lo sso m - 8
9 . SWeet : honey :: sour :
41. taste 42. bitter 43. sugar 44. vinegar 45. u n p leasan t 9
1 0 . cold .? ice :: h e a t .'
46. cook
47. steam 48. sum m er 49. lig h tn in g 50. fire - - - - - 10
1 1 . fo o t : leg :: h and :
51. arm 52. w r ist 53. finger
54.th u m b 55. grasp - - - - - - - 1 1
1 2 . pencil : p o in t :: knife :
56. h an d le 5 7. d u ll 58. blade 59. sharp 60. cut - - - 12
13.
b lan k et : wool :: pillow I
61. slip 62. feathers 63. sleep 64. so ft 65. b e d ...............................
13
1 4 . w olf : dog :: tig e r :66. h u n ter 67. bear 68. pu m a
69. elep h an t 70. cat - - - - - 14
1 5 . scu lp to r ! sta tu e :: p a in te r :
71. picture 72. brush 73. p ain t 74. artist 75. canvas
15
1.
(C ontinue on Page 2)
P ublish ed by
E D U C A T IO N A L T E S T B U R E A U
E D U C A T I O N A L P U B L I S H E R S , In c .
M inneapolis - N ash v ille - P h ila d e lp h ia
Page 2
B.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
28.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
(Place y o u r a n sw ers u n d er B in th e second colum n on the a n sw er sh eet.)
Ounce p o u n d
in c h :
1. m easure 2. yard 3. len g th 4. f o o t 5. m eter - - - - - 1 6
c a t t le .'b a r n
p r is o n e r s :
6 . crim es
7. cells 8. jail 9. con fin em en t 10. freedom
17
p r e s e n t : k n o w n :: f u t u r e : 11. ahead 12. b rig h t 13. past 14. fo re to ld 15, u n k n o w n - - 18
li g h t ? la m p :: w a r m th :
16. clothing 17. wool 18. heat 19. stove 20. f i r e .................................19
b ir d s I w in g s I ?, fish :
21. scales 22. fins 23. sw im 24. g ills 25. catch
- - - - - 20
w h e n : w h e r e :: t i m e :
26. place 27. n o w 28. present 29. here 30. distance
- - 21
c o lo r : b r ig h t :: so u n d :31. noise 32. grating 33. loud 34. tone
35. harsh
- - - - 22
p a s t : f u t u r e :: y e s t e r d a y :
36. present 37. tomorrow 38. today 39. gone 40. coming - 23
S ton e : m a r b le :: w o o d I
41. furniture 42. carpenter 43. tree 44. oak 45. forest
24
w in d : a ir : : r a in :
46. falls 47. shower 48. water 49. lightning 50. clouds - - - - 25
lig h t .? so u n d
d a r k n e s s .* 51. d a w n 52. fear 53. g lo o m 54. calm 55. silence
26
C a r p e n t e r : s a w :: t a i l o r :
56. scissors 57. clo th 58. needle 59. thread 60. pattern
27
f o r k : t in e :: k n if e .'
61. cut 62. handle 63. sharp 64. blade 65. s te e l..............................................28
m e a t I s c a le s :: c lo th :
66. m easure 67. yardstick 68. scissors 69. yard 70. piece
29
p o v e r t y I w e a l t h :: s i c k n e s s :
71. m edicine 72. d octor 73. cure 74. death 75. h ealth
30
(Place yo u r a n sw ers u n d er C in the th ird colum n on the a n sw er sh eet.)
S u n sh in e I su n :: r a in :
1. w^ater 2. fa lls 3. clou d s 4. sh o w er 5, lig h tn in g
- - - - c o w a r d ic e : c o n te m p t ::d ig n it y :
6. respect 7. wealth 8. honor 9. position
10.pride
a s s i m i l a t i o n : v i t a l i t y :: e x e r t io n :
11. exercise 12. fatigue 13. satisfaction 14. energy 15. decay
W ater .? q u a n t it y :: s te a m :
16. pressure 17. vapor 18. gas 19. h ea t 2 0 . a m o u n t
r e l i g i o n : b e l i e f s :: s c i e n c e :
21. experimentation 22. analysis 23. laboratory 24. equipment
25. principles
- - - - - - - - - - - a u to m o b ile : c o n c r e te :: tr a in :
26. engine 27. cars 28. rails 29. steel 30. engineer
C a rp en ter : n a ils :: t a ilo r :
31. needle 32. scissors 33. thread 34. clo th 35. p attern
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
TEST 3
D irections:
A.
B.
R ead th e se tw o sentences carefully.
He felt very sad. 1. timid 2. happy 3. weary 4. sorrowful 5. hungry
Will you watch over my books?
6. deliver 7. guard 8. purchase
9. call for
10. return
1 2
3
A
A. ji
B
B. i! |
6
7
4
5
9
10
You see th e re is a w ord or p h rase in each sentence in v ery black p rin t. A fte r each sentence
th e re a re five w ords or p h rases. One of th e m can be used in place o f th e w ord o r p h ra se in v ery
black p rin t. In th e first sentence, so rro w fu l can b e used in place of sad. Look a t th e n u m b er in fro n t
of sorrow ful. I t is 4. F in d 4 above th e row of d o ts a f te r A. A m a rk h as been m ade betw een th e
row s of dots u n d er 4.
N ow look a t th e second sentence and list o f w ords. W hich w ord earn be used in place of
w atch over? Yes, gu ard . G uard h as a 7 in f r o n t of it. F in d 7 above th e row of dots a f te r B. A
m a rk h a s been m ade betw een th e row s of dots u n d e r 7.
B egin w ith n u m b er 1 below and do each ex ercise in th e sam e w ay.
D.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
(Place yo u r an sw ers u n d er D in the th ird colum n on th e a n sw er sh eet.)
T he crow d will soon come to g e th e r.
1. retaliate 2. assemble 3. disperse 4. conform 5. migrate
She will be h e re soon. 6. presently 7, eventually 8. recently 9. meanwhile 10. temporarily
Y o u r speech m u st be limited to th e topic.
11. appropriate 12. superfluous 13. relevant
14. confined 15. s u p e r f ic ia l................................ - ...........................................................................................
H e will u n d e rta k e th is new duty. 16. solicit 17. derogate 18. evade 19. divulge 20. assume
One can n o t tell b efo re h an d w h a t th e w e a th e r will be. 21. insinuate 22. predict 23. compile
24. recapitulate 25. expiate - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - T his is a difficult a c t to p e rfo rm .
26. caprice 27. regime 28. dogma 29. feat 30. epoch
T h ere w as a re p o rt t h a t he h ad re tu rn e d .
31. rum or 32. sanction 33. delusion 34. fantasy
35. prediction - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
(Continue on Page S)
Page 3
E.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
(Place yo u r answ ers u n d er E in the fo u r th colum n on the answ er sh eet.)
H e d o e s b e t t e r t h a n h is b r o t h e r in s c h o o l.
1. chides 2. harasses 3. excels 4. exhorts
5. supplicates - - - - - - - - - .......................... - - - - - - - - - 8
T h is p a y m e n t w ill d e c r e a s e o u r f u n d s .
6. eliminate 7. obliterate 8. prostrate 9. diversify
10. diminish
~
9
H i s is a k i n d ly s m ile .
11. genial 12. timorous 13. malevolent 14. capricious 15. gruesome
10
H e w a s in a m o o d o f r e g r e t f o r h is in j u r i e s t o o th e r s .
16. reluctance 17. insolence
18. repentance 19. complacency 20. sophistication - - - - - - - - 11
T h e y w ill s o o n e n t e r t h e d e n s e f o r e s t .
21. dissipate 22. penetrate 23. extirpate
24. assassinate 25. extinguish
- - - - - - - - - - - 12
H e w ill g i v e u p h is w e a l t h to t h e s t a t e .
26. quote 27. suppress 28. ascribe 29. disguise
30. surrender
13
H e is a h a r m l e s s b oy.
31. fastidious 32. impeccable 33. reluctant 34. inoffensive 35. truculent
14
S h e is in a t h o u g h t f u l m o o d .
36. apprehensive 37. covetous 38. pensive 39. timorous
40. complacent
15
T h e y w ill s to p t h e p a p e r s p r i n t i n g t h e d e f e a t s .
41. reiterate 42. evacuate
43. remonstrate 44. stipulate 45. suppress
16
H e is a l a z y b oy.
46. insipid 47. capricious 48. versatile 49. indolent 50. irascible - - 17
H i s in flu e n c e is o f n o im p o r t a n c e .
51. importunate 52. insignificant 53. accessory
54. incalculable 55. unscrupulous
................................
18
G a m e s o f t e n a t t r a c t US f r o m o u r d u tie s .
56. entice 57. emancipate 58. intimidate
59. stultify
60. disrupt - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 19
T h e y t r ie d to d e a d e n h is cr ie s .
61. estrange
62. assuage
63. stifle64. aggravate65.
enhance20
H e c o u ld e a s i l y p r e p a r e f o r t h e p o s itio n .
66. negotiate 67. barter 68. carouse 69. advocate
70. qualify - - - - - - - - - - - - 21
H e Was a s t u b b o r n boy.
71. obstinate 72. flippant 73. malevolent 74. arrogant 75. indolent
22
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
19.
20.
21.
22.
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
F . (Place your answ ers u n d er F in the fifth colum n on the answ er sheet.)
23. T h e p r in c ip le s o f a lg e b r a a r e s u r e .
1. relevant 2. palpable 3. pretentious 4. infallible
5. unscrupulous
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
23
24. T h is is a g e n u i n e a c c o u n t o f w h a t h a p p e n e d .
6. incredible 7. authentic 8. scrupulous
24
9. palpable 10. relevant - - - - - ............................. ............................................
25. A q u a r r e l d e v e lo p e d in t h e m e e t i n g .
11. dissension 12. diversity 13. gesticulation
14. complaisance 15. lamentation - - - - - - - - - - 25
26. S h e w i l l p u n i s h t h e p u p il f o r h i s m is b e h a v io r .
16. indict 17. contaminate 18. vindicate
19. mercerize 20. chasten - - - - - - - - - - - - - .......................................- - 2 6
27. H e s p e n d s h is m o n e y w is e l y .
21. credulously 22. prudently 23. legitimately 24. illegally
25. sp on tan eou sly
_ _ _ 27
28. A l t h o u g h d is a g r e e a b l e t h i n g s a r is e , h e is c o n t e n t e d .
26. prostrate 27. acrimonious
28. complacent 29. auspicious 30. exuberant - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2 8
29. H i s g i v i n g u p t h e p r iz e to t h e b lin d b o y w a s a n a c t o f n o b le n e s s .
3 1. execration
32. incrimination 33. imprecation 34. magnanimity35. nonchalance - - - - -2 9
30. H e h a d a f a n t a s t i c a p p e a r a n c e . 36. extenuating 3 7. inimitable 38. obnoxious
39. predatory
40. grotesque _ _ 3 0
31. T h e h e a v y r a i n s h a v e b lo t te d o u t t h e trail.
41. suffused 42. striated 43. encumbered
44. obliterated 45. congested
31
32. H i s a c t io n is a v o i d i n g s u s p ic io n w a s a w i s e on e.
46. credulous 47. inoffensive 48. discreet
49. obsequious 50. obvious - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 32
33. T h i s is a h a t e f u l t h i n g to do.
51. formidable 52. odious 53. efficacious 54. audacious
55. adequate
- - - _ _ _ _ - - _ _ _ - _ - - - _ - - _ - _ 3 3
34. H e w a s t o o w e a k a le a d e r to r e s i s t t h e i r d e m a n d s .
56. impotent 5 7. precocious
58. importunate 59. supercilious 60. exuberant - - - - - - - - - - - 3 4
35. * D id h i s t h o u g h t l e s s r e m a r k s i n s u l t y o u ? 61. incarcerate 62. fluster 63. placate 64. enervate
65. affront - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -3 5
36. H e is v e r y s a v i n g o f h is tim e .
66. predatory 67. scrupulous 68. frugal 69. exorbitant
70. su m p tu o u s ............................................................................... - ...................................................- - - - 3 6
37. T h a t is n o t a r e a s o n a b le a n s w e r to m y q u e s tio n .
71. rational 72. magnanimous
73. mercenary 74. credulous 75. comprehensive
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(Continue on Page U)
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Page 4
D irections:
A.
B.
TEST 4
Look a t
sim ple
g u a rd
th e first
line of w ords carefully.
1. hard 2. funny 3. easy 4. busy 5. tiny
6. stop
7. watch over 8. hit 9. run away
-
- - - - A
10. climb - B
A.
I
10
B.
I
You see th e re are five w ords a f te r th e w ord sim ple. One of th e m m eans th e sam e as sim ple.
I t is easy, of course. Look a t th e n um ber in f ro n t of easy. The n um ber is 3. F in d 3 above th e
row of dots a f te r A. A m a rk h as been m ade betw een th e row s of dots u n d er 3.
Now look a t th e second line of w ords. W hich w ord or p h rase m eans th e sam e as g u a rd ? Yes,
w atch over. W atch over h as 7 in fro n t of it. F in d 7 above th e row of dots. A m ark h a s been m ade
betw een th e row s of dots un d er 7.
B egin w ith n u m b er 1 below and do each exercise in th e sam e w ay.
G.
(Place your an sw ers u n d er G in th e low er h a lf o f the first colum n on the answ er sh eet.)
1.
agony
- - I. great joy 2. greediness 3. hunger 4. gloom J5. great pain - - - - 1
u nprofitable
6. seasonable 7. sacred 8. useless 9. terrible 10. gainful - - - - - - - 2
3.
ridicule - - I I . scold 12. love 13. strike 14. make fun of 15. injure - - - - - - 3
*
4.
achieve - - 16. accomplish 17. begin 18. assist 19. plan 20. take u p - - - - - 4
5.
cordial - - 21. cold 22. hearty 23. clever 24. careless 25. powerful
- - - - 5
6.
peril - - - 26. cruelty 27. pride 28. error 29. rage 30. d a n g e r ............................................................. 6
2.
7.
brink
8.
resistan c e am ple
- secu rity - sullen
- a p p ro p ria te
9.
10 .
11.
12.
T3.
-
-
31.
36.
41.
46.
51.
56.
61.
66.
71.
edge 32. top 33. slope 34. surface 35. cliff
- - - - - - - - - ~J
change
37. cruelty 38.
respect 39. opposition
40. fondness - - - - empty
42. enough 43.
w orthy 44. powerful
45. popular - - - - profit 47. income
48. safety 49. debt 50. risk - - - - - - 1 0
fearful 52. sulky 53. sly 54. timid 55. kind - - - - .................................- 1 1
suitable 57. costly 58. probable 59. quaint 60. ordinary - - - - 12
excite 62. tempt 63. prevent 64. experience 65. tell - - - - - - - - 1 3
greedy67. cruel 68. strong 69. excited 70.
suitable
14
destroy
72. tear apart 73. throw away 74. use up 75. select - - - - 15
14.
recount - vigorous
15.
e x h au st -
H.
(Place your answ ers u n d er H in the low er h a lf o f the second colum n on the answ er sh eet.)
16.
fugitive
17.
serene su b sta n tia l
in fam o u s
loathe
denounce
tra n q u il in d ig n atio n
triv ia l derision o p p o rtu n e
fo rtitu d e
conceit vehem ence
solicit
-
18.
19.
20 .
21 .
22 .
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
/.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
-
-
-
1. captive 2. fighter 3. soldier 4. enemy 5. runaway - - - - 6. calm 7. innocent 8.
silent 9.idle 10. late - - - - - 11. helpless 12. proper
13. solid 14. hopeful 15. suitable - - 16. well know n 17. disgraceful 18. stupid 19. careless 20. marvelous
21. soothe 22. resemble 23. neglect 24. hate 25. love
-
26.
31.
36.
41.
46.
51.
56.
61.
66.
71.
-
-
-
-
-
- - 1 6
- 17
- 18
19
20
-
-
frighten 27. reprove 28. slay 29. select 30. destroy - - - - - - - - 2 1
calm 32. strong 33. abundant 34. disturbed 35. humble - - - - - 22
courage 37. desire 38. display 39. punishm ent 40. displeasure - - - - 23
gorgeous 42. solemn 43. shameful 44. petty 45. serious - - - - - 24
fright 47. adm iration 48. scorn 49. guilt 50. w rath
- ....................................... 25
very early 52. previous 53. probable 54. secure 55. seasonable
26
cruelty 5 7. hum an 58. hope 59. courage 60. fear - - - - - - - 27
28
faith 62. vanity 63. distress 64. worry 65. joy 29
strength 67. envy 68. fury 69. hope 70. joy - - - 30
beg 72. comfort 73. examine 74. expose 75. reprove -
(Place your ansivers u n d er 1 in the low er h a lf o f th e th ird colum n on th e a n sw er sheet.)
obscure tra n s ie n t
dissem ble
ad v e rsity
em inent innocuous
a stu te
I. not costly 2. not plain 3. not large 4. valuable 5. not regular - - - - 6. peerless 7. permanent 1. patient 9. seasonable 10. temporary
I I . proclaim 12. recount 13. disguise 14. announce 15. predict - - 16. misfortune 17. greed 18. opposition 19. help 20. sorrow - - - 21. courteous 22. industrious 23. common 24. prominent 25. familiar
26. tough 27. harmless
28. strange 29. stealthy 30. disgraceful - - 31. humorous 32. righteous 33. courteous 34. stupid 35. keen
- - -
(Continue on Page 5)
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31
32
33
34
35
36
37
Page 5
TEST 5
D irections:
A.
B.
1
Read th e se tw o sentences carefully.
The SUn rises in the 1. evening 2. west 3. south 4. m orning 5. north A
A chauffeur drives an 6. engine 7. automobile 8. airplane 9. horse 10. boat B
A .
ij
B .
ii
6
2
3
7
4
5
9
10
You see th a t th e re a re five possible an sw ers in each sentence. Only one an sw er is rig h t.
In th e first sentence th e rig h t an sw er is morning. M orning h as a 4 in fro n t of it. F in d 4 above
th e row of dots a f te r A. You see a m a rk h as been m ade betw een th e row s of dots u n d er 4.
Now look a t th e second sentence. W hich w ord is th e rig h t one to finish th e sentence co rrectly ?
Yes, autom obile, and autom obile h as a 7 in fro n t of it. F ind 7 above th e row of dots. A m a rk
has been m ade betw een th e row s of dots u n d er 7.
Begin w ith nu m b er 1 below and do each exercise in th e sam e way.
J.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
K.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
(Place yo u r answ ers u n d er J in the lower h a lf o f the th ird colum n on the a n sw er sh eet.)
L im e s a r e a k in d o f
1. nut 2. vegetable 3. tree 4. fish 5. fruit - - - - A t e l l e r w o r k s in a
6. bank 7. store 8. office 9. factory 10. hospital - - - R e m in g to n is a k in d o f
11. piano 12. fountain pen 13. automobile 14. typew riter 15. radio
P in e a p p le s c o m e f r o m
16. Florida 17. H awaii 18. Cuba 19. Brazil 20. China - - L i p to n is a m a k e r o f
21. cigarettes
22. clothing 23. razors 24. tea 25. coffee W h i s t is p la y e d w i t h
26. cards 27. dice 28. rackets 29. mallets 30. bats - - - - - A r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a f o r e i g n g o v e r n m e n t is a
31. deputy 32. proxy 33. ambassador
34. alternate 35. delegate
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - (Place your ansivers u n d er K in the low er h a lf o f th e fo u r th colum n on th e a n sw er sh eet.)
C o b r a is a k in d o f
1. insect 2. fish 3. bird 4, mammal 5. snake
- - - T he Q u a k e rs a re a
6. fraternal 7. charitable 8. farmers' 9. religious 10. polidcal organization
P o lo is a
11. musical composition 12. disease 13. sport 14. drama 15. poem - - - - D e c is io n s in a f o o t b a l l g a m e a r e m a d e b y t h e
16. coach 17. umpire 18 halfback
19. announcer 20. manager - - - - - - - - - - - - L lo y d G e o r g e h a d m o s t in f lu e n c e in
21. France 22. Russia 23. Germany 24. Greece 25. England
S u g a r com es fro m
26. Louisiana 27. Hawaii 28. Florida 29. Brazil 30. China - - T o k io is in
31. China 32. Philippines 33. India 34. Japan 35. M anchuria - - - - M a c b e th w a s w r i t t e n b y
36. Shakespeare 37. M ilton 38. Defoe 39. Stevenson 40. Scott C ic e ro w a s a
41. Greek 42. Roman 43. Egyptian 44. Persian 45. Carthaginian - - A f e lo n y is a
46. tax 47. permit 48. crime 49. legal summons 50. penalty - - - - Y a le U n i v e r s i t y is in
51. New Y ork 52. California 53. Wisconsin 54. Illinois 55. Connecticut
M u s c le S h o a ls is a
56. dam 57. sea coast 58. museum 59. sanatorium 60. gorge
- A f r a n c h i s e is a
61. tax 62. crime
63. legal summons 64. penalty 65. privilege
B e a t r i c e is a c h a r a c t e r in
66. Shakespeare 67. Virgil 68. D ante 69. Goethe 70. H ugo Is a ia h w a s a
71. king 72. prophet 73. apostle 74. law -g h er 75. patriarch - - - - -
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
L. (Place your ansivers u n d er L in the low er h a lf o f the fifth colum n on th e answ er sh eet.)
23. A s u b p o e n a is a
1. tax 2. permit 3. crime 4. legal summons 5. penalty - - - - - 23
24. V o d k a IS a k in d o f
6. drink 7. wood 8. food 9. coal 10. cloth - - - -2 4
25. F o r u m r e f e r s to
11. newspapers 12. news weekly 13. encyclopedia 14. humorous weekly
15. m onthly magazine - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 25
26. I s t a n b u l is in
16. England 17. Rumania 18. T urkey 19. Russia 20. India - - - - - 26
27. H a r t , S c h a f f n e r a n d M a r x m a n u f a c t u r e
21. cigarettes 22. razors 23. saws 24. clothing
25. typewriters - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 27
28. W a g n e r w a s a
26. sculptor 27. musician 28. painter
29. scientist 30. author
28
29. S o c ia lly m in d e d p e o p le a r e o r g a n i z e d i n t o
31. clubs 32. parties 33. denominations
34. labor unions 35. associations
- - - - - - - - - - - 2 9
30. S h a s t a is a
36. national park 3 7. falls 38. volcano 39. tree 40. astronomical observatory
30
31. L a is s e z f a i r e a p p lie s to
41. religion 42. philosophy 43. music 44. architecture 45. government
31
32. C o n f u c i a n is m is o n e o f t h e c h ie f r e l i g i o n s o f
46. T urkey 47. Japan 48. India 49. China
50. Russia - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3 2
33. M o d u la tio n is a p r o c e d u r e u s e d in
51. sculpture 52. music 53. painting 54. tapestry 55. poetry
33
34. T a n n h a u s e r is a
56. statue 57. painting 58. sym phony 59. opera 60. w altz - - - - 34
35. T h e c h i e f d e i t y o f t h e E g y p t i a n s w a s
61. Zeus 62. Ra 63. M arduk 64. Jupiter 65. Allah
35
36. J e a n V a l J e a n is a c h a r a c t e r in
66. Shakespeare 67. Dante 68. Virgil 69. Goethe 70. Hugo
36
37. N a t u r e s t o r i e s w e r e w r i t t e n b v
71. M ark T w ain 72. Bret Harte 73. Thom pson-Seton
74. Harris 75. Doyle - - -- .................................................................................................................................. 3 7 ^
(C o n tin u e to P a r t I I I on Page 6)
TEST 6 (Pages 6 to 16)
Page 6
Senior Division
Part III
DIRECTIONS TO THE STUDENT
Read the paragraph below carefully.
Paragraph
It was Perez, a friar, on whom
Columbus called w ith his little son
Diego, and explained his need for
men and ships to prove the world is
round.
The friar interested his
friend, Queen Isabella of Spain, in
the plans of Columbus. But when
the three ships that carried Columbus
to America sailed from Spain, Diego
was left to stay at the palace of the
Queen until his father should come
back.
Answers
Q u estio n s
A. The paragraph is m ainly about
I. P e re z , th e f r i a r 2. Q ueen Isa b e lla 3. th e
sh ip s in w h ich C olum bus sailed 4. th e v o y н
ag e of C olum bus 5. th e p alac e of th e Q ueen A
B. Perez had been a friend of
a
6.
C olum bus
7. D iego
8 . Q ueen Isa b e lla
9. D ieg o ?s f a th e r 10. th e f a th e r o f C olum bus
B
16. h a p p y 17. g la d
20. u n h a p p y - - -
Read th e first statem ent at the side of th e paraн
graph, th e one w ith A in front of it. Since th e
paragraph is mainly about the plans and efforts o f
Columbus and his sailing, the statem ent ?The paraн
graph is m ainly about . . . ? is best completed by
4. the voyage of Columbus. So a mark has been
made between th e rows o f dots under 4 after A
in the answer column.
Now read the statem ent w ith B in front of
it: ?Perez had been a friend of . . . ? Since the
paragraph says th at the friar interested his friend,
Queen Isabella of Spain, in the plans of Columbus,
Queen Isabella best completes the statem ent. Queen
Isabella has 8 in front of it. So after B in the answer
column, a mark has been made between the rows
of dots under 8.
The best answer to complete the third statem ent
is too young. In front of it is 12, so in Line C in the
answer column a mark has been made between the
rows of dots under 12.
Unhappy best completes the statem ent w ith D in
18. reliev ed
- - -
19. jo y o u s
- - -
il
G
?J
II
ii
c
II
d
D. When Diego was left at the palace,
he was
2
R
C. D iego was left at home because he was
I I . a f r i a r 12. to o y o u n g 13. n o t in te re s te d
14. a f r a id to g o 15. d id n ?t k n o w h is f a th e r
w as g o in g
-
1
3
4
5
7
8
1
9
10
12
i
13
16
1
17
ii
J╗
li
14
15
||
IS
19
20
||
1
D
front of it. Unhappy has 20 in front of it. So in
Line D in the answer column a mark has been made
between the rows of dots under 20.
When you turn to Page 7 of th e test booklet, find
the side of th e answer sheet w ith a circle and
Part III in the upper le ft corner. Read the first
paragraph and then read the first question at th e
right of it. Choose th e best answer ju st as has been
done above. Look at th e number in fron t o f th is
best answer and find it above th e rows of dots after
th e 1 on the answer sheet. Make a mark between
th e rows of dots th at are under th e number th at is
in front of the answer you chose for th e first quesн
tion. Do the other paragraphs and questions on
Page 7 in the same way.
When you have finished Page 7, continue on
Page 8. Choose the righ t answers and then on the
answer sheet put marks under th e numbers of right
answers. A fter Page 8, continue on th e other pages
in the same manner until you have finished the test
on Page 16.
Page 7
L. W hen B ra n d t, because of ra s h acts, fo u n d him self
in d an g er of being seized by th e B ritish , he so u g h t
shelter a t th e farm h o u se of a relativ e, alth o u g h he
knew th a t th e fam ily would suffer p u n ish m e n t if th e
B ritish h e a rd th a t he had been th e re . E a rly in th e
tiext aftern o o n , Bob, th e youngest son of th e household,
Durst in w ith th e new s th a t a b an d of B ritis h soldiers
were on th e w ay to search th e fa rm fo r B ran d t.
?T h ere is a b o at on th e riv e rb a n k ,? suggested Ben, th e
alder son. As B ra n d t dashed out of th e house he
tiearly ra n into H etty , a g irl of tw elve, w ho w as s p rin k н
ling some cloth to bleach it in th e sun. ? Tell th e
soldiers I have gone up th e ro ad w hile I g et aw ay in
the b o at,? he paused to say.
?I can ?t do th a t, cousin, it w ould n o t be tr u e .?
?B u t you w ould not b e tra y me to th e B ritish ,
H etty ??
?R un! I shall n o t tell th em w hich w ay.?
J u s t th e n th e band of B ritis h w ere h eard ap p ro ach н
ing.
? Q uick! Lie dow n w hile I cover you.?
W hen th e ca p ta in of th e band rode up w h ere H etty
was sp rin k lin g h e r cloth an d in q u ired if she had seen
i m an ru n n in g by, she replied, ? Yes, sir, b u t 1 p ro m н
ised n o t to tell w hich w ay.?
?B u t you m u st o r it w ill be th e w orse fo r you.?
?H e said he w as going fo r th e b o at b u t asked me
to tell you th a t he had gone up th e hill.?
2. T he one fa c t w hich re s tric ts th e mode of life and
n u tritio n of th e fu n g i is th e absence of chlorophyll
and th e ir consequent dependence on outside supplies
i f o rg an ic carbon and in m any cases of org an ic
nitrogen. F u n g i are, th e re fo re, com pelled to live on
m aterials derived fro m o th er p la n ts o r fro m anim als,
and a re eith e r p a ra site s on living o rg an ism s o r s a p ro н
phytes living on th e ir dead. T he la rg e m a jo rity a re
the la tte r and they, w ith th e b acteria, a re th e g re a t
agents of decay in n a tu re , th e m oulds a tta c k in g th e
fallen leaves an d branch es an d th e bodies of dead
anim als as well as stale foods an d dam p clothing. The
fungi afford some of th e best instan ces of sym biosis
ir th e living to g e th e r of d issim ilar o rg an ism s like th e
lichens an d algae, in w hich an alg a receives fro m th e
fungus w a te r and inorgan ic su bstances an d som etim es
protection fro m desiccation, w hile th e fu n g u s derives
its o rganic food supply fro m th e algae. A n o th er fo rm
af association betw een fu n g i an d h ig h e r p lan ts, know n
as'm y corhizas, consists of th e fu n g i g ro w in g in in tiн
mate rela tio n w ith or w ith in th e cells of th e roots of
higher plants. In th e case of th e orchids w hich a re
devoid of chlorophyll and m u st th e re fo re depend fo r
th eir whole supply of o rg an ic food on th e hum us in
w hich th e y live, th e re is no evidence th a t th e p lan ts
are able to u n d erta k e th is ab so rp tio n in th e absence
of th e fungus.
1. The sto ry is m ain ly ab o u t
I. B r a n d t?s escap e fro m th e f a r m 2. B ritis h p u r s u it
of B ra n d t 3. H e tty 's d a n g e r 4. H e tty ?s t r u th f u lн
ness 5. how H e tty sa v ed B r a n d t fro m c a p tu re
1
2. H ow did H e tty act w hen B ra n d t asked h e r
to lie to th e so ld iers?
6 . a s if a f r a id
7. ju d ic io u sly 8 . co w a rd ly 9. t r a i н
to ro u sly 1 0 . re s e n tf u lly - - - - - - - - 2
3. H ow did B ra n d t p ro b ab ly feel a t H e tty ?s
rep ly th a t she could n o t lie?
I I . so rro w fu l
12. c h a g rin e d
14. r e s e n tf u l 15. th a n k fu l - - -
13. re sp e c tfu l
- - -
3
4. In com ing to th e A tw ood hom e fo r p ro н
tection, B ra n d t w as
16. in c o n sid e ra te
19. h o n o rin g th e m
17. d esp ica b le 18. co u ra g eo u s
20. se lf-sa c rific in g - - -
4
5. The p a ra g ra p h is m ain ly about th e
21.
th in g s f u n g i a tta c k 2 2 . h a rm fu n g i do 23. w ay
fu n g i live 24. d iffe re n t k in d s of fu n g i 25. w h a t
foods f u n g i n eed - - - - - - -
5
6. F u n g i a re
26. n e c e s sa ry fo r th e g ro w th o f som e p la n ts la c k in g
ch lo ro p h y ll
27. alw a y s h a rm le s s
28. n e c e s sa ry
fo r th e g ro w th o f all p la n ts 29. alw a y s beneficial
30. h a rm fu l to th e a lg a e - - - - - - - 6
7. One of th e causes of th in g s ro ttin g is
31. lack of ch lo ro p h y ll 32. o rg a n ic c a rb o n 33. b acн
t e r i a 34. sy m b io sis 35. m y c o rh izas
- - - -
7
8. The process by w hich fu n g i help th e roots
of h ig h e r p la n ts to fu n ctio n is called
36. p a r a s ite s
37. sy m b io sis
39. d ecay 40. m y c o rh izas - - -
38. sa p ro p h y te s
- - -
8
9. M oulds th a t live on stale foods are
41. a lg a e 42. s a p ro p h ite s
45. b a c te ria - - - -
43. p a r a s ite s 44. lichens
- - - - -
9
10. F u n g i a re
46. a n im a ls too sm a ll to be seen 47. p la n ts too
sm a ll to be se en 48. m a in ly p a r a s ite s 49. a k in d
of p la n t 50. a k in d of a n im a l - - - - - 10
11. F ro m algae, lichens o btain
51. ch lo ro p h y ll
52. o rg a n ic c a rb o n
54. w a te r 55. c a rb o n dioxide - - -
53. o x y g en
- - H
12. T he dependence of fu n g i upon o th e r o rg a n н
ism s fo r th e ir food su p p ly is due to th e ir
56. b e in g p la n ts 57. tin y size 58. b e in g a g e n ts of
d ecay 59. la ck of in o rg a n ic su b sta n c e s 60. la c k o f
ch lo ro p h y ll
- - - - - - 12
3. G erry alw ays w an ted to jo in Bob and Roy w hen
th e y "went off to fish. She w anted to be tw elve and
a boy in stead of a g irl an d nine. W hen she begged to
go along th is m o rn in g th e y laughed and said, ? No girls
allow ed,? as usual.
W hen th e y prom ised h e r a p erch fo r supper, she
replied, ? I don?t w a n t your old fish.?
A s she lay in th e ham m ock, she h eard someone
com ing up th e w alk. ? Molly,? she th o u g h t; ?now I
shall have to p lay w ith h e r th e r e s t of th e d ay .?
B u t it tu rn e d out to be C ousin N ed in his navy
clothes. H e w as full of sto ries ab o u t how his boat
had crossed th e ocean m an y tim es am ong th e subн
m arines, b u t he could sta y only a couple of h ours and
th e boys would n o t be hom e u n til n ig h t. A sw ift
th o u g h t ra n th ro u g h h er m ind, b u t she w as asham ed
of it and w ished th e re w as some w ay to g et hold of
them . They w ere across th e b ay w ith th e boat. She
knew th e ir code of signals b u t th e y w ere too f a r aw ay
to h e a r her. R u n n in g to th e roof, she trie d sig n allin g
to th em w ith a m irro r to come home. A t first they
h esitated , b u t finally gave up th e ir sp o rt to come.
4. T he so-called economic in d iv id u alism is larg ely th e
product of clim atic conditions. W hen th e E ng lish m an
leaves his m oist an d fe rtile hom e fo r th e alm ost riv erless w astes of th e antipodes, he becomes, if n o t a
socialist, th e n ex t move to one. In A u stralia, we
accordingly find g o v ern m en t railro ad s, insurance,
steam ships, frozen-rneat in d u s try an d m any oth er
exam ples of g overn m en t in d u s try th a t would be viewed
w ith dism ay in th e m o th er co u n try . Likew ise th e
ard u o u s stru g g les w ith a rebellious soil an d an inhosн
p itab le clim ate caused th e A m erican of th e early n in eн
te e n th c en tu ry to tu r n to th e go v ern m en t fo r state
roads, canals, railro ad s, an d bounties. W hen, how ever,
th e m ountains had been crossed an d th e fe rtile valleys
of th e M iddle W est, w ith an a b u n d a n t ra in fa ll and a
genial clim ate, had been reached, p riv a te in itia tiv e
replaced governm en t assistan ce an d th e age of corн
p o ratio n s w as ushered in. The th e o ry of individualism
w as a n a tu ra l re su lt of th e economic, an d a t bottom
of th e clim atic, conditions of a new environm ent.
13. The p a ra g ra p h is m ainly ab o u t
l . _ a fishing- t r ip 2. a sailor?s a rrival 3. G e r r y ?s
tr ia ls 4. signaling: th e boys 5. M olly?s v is it II
14. T he ?sw ift th o u g h t? th a t
G e rry ?s m ind w as
ra n
th ro u g h
6.
8.
se rv e s th e m r ig h t 7. th e y w ill be d isa p p o in te d
I w ish th e boys w e re h ere 9. I m u s t g e t th e m
10. I w ish I w ere w ith th e m - - - - p
15. G erry ?s feeling fo r Molly w as one of
11. h a tin g 12. b ein g a n g r y 13. en v y 14. b ein g
b o red 15. l i k i n g ...................................................................... 11
4
16. The p a ra g ra p h is m ainly ab o u t
16. influence of clim a te 17. influence o f g o v e rn m e n t
18. e a rly A m e ric a n s e ttle rs 19. th e a g e of c o rp o ra н
tio n s 20. co n d itio n s in A u s tr a lia - - - - n
17. The g ro w th of in d u strial co rp o ratio n s in
A m erica w as in p a r t due to th e
21. reb e llio u s soil of th e E a s t 22. A lle g h e n y M ounн
ta in s 23. u n fa v o ra b le clim ate o f th e E a s t 24. f a v o r н
ab le clim a te o f th e M iddle W e s t 25. g r e a t p la in s
o f th e M iddle W e st
- - - - - - 1'
18. The build in g of sta te ro ads an d canals in
A m erica aro u n d 1800 w as in no sm all m easн
u re due to
26. p o litica l co n d itio n s
27. co n d itio n s of th e soil
28. tr a d e co n d itio n s
29. g ro w th o f p o p u la tio n 30. w e s tw a rd s e ttle m e n t If
19. In A m erica aro u n d 1800, th e re w as a la rg e
degree of g o vernm ent 31. in te rfe re n c e 32. conн
tr o l
33. o w n ersh ip
34. re g u la tio n
35. a s s is ta n c e
If
20. People?s a ttitu d e to w ard g o v ern m en t ac tiv н
ities is larg ely th e resu lt of
36. n a tio n a lity 37. p o litics 38. c lim a te 39. o w n e rн
sh ip 40. econom ic in d iv id u alism - - - - - 2(
21. In A u stralia, th e re is a la rg e degree of
go v ern m en t
4 1 . a s sista n c e 42. c o n tro l
43. in te rfe re n c e
44. re g u la tio n
45. o w n ersh ip
-
21
22. The a ttitu d e of E n gland to w a rd go v ern m en t
activ ities such as railro a d tra n s p o rta tio n
and in su ran ce h as been
46. d ecid ed ly fa v o ra b le
47. so m e w h a t fa v o ra b le
48. h o stile 49. in d iffe re n t 50. s lig h tly fa v o ra b le
25
5. The colonial fa rm e r w as his ow n blacksm ith, c a rн
pen ter, and ta n n e r and som etim es his own shoem aker
as well. E v ery housew ife could spin an d weave, m ake
soap and tallow candles. He h u n ted an d fished fo r
food as well as sp o rt. The fu rs he tra d e d fo r m oney
or supplies. H e cu t his h ay w ith a scythe and his
g ra in w ith a cradle an d th resh ed it w ith a flail. Plows,
h arro w s, an d c a rts w ere th e only fa rm im plem ents
d raw n by horses or oxen. E ven his f u r n itu re w as
usually hom em ade. People w ho lived in th e sam e
locality helped one an o th e r in clearin g land, in h a rv e stн
ing and corn husking, and a t q u iltin g s and b a rn r a is н
ings. T hese g a th e rin g s of n eig h b o rs to w ork to g eth er,
called ?bees,? w ere rollicking social events enjoyed to
th e full, w hile w eddings w ere joyous occasions a t which
th e re w as g re a t deal of g aiety and ro u g h sp o rt in
c o n tra st w ith th e solem nity of th e long religious
services.
23. The p a ra g ra p h is m ainly about colonial
51. life on th e f a r m s 52. in d u strie s 53. f a r m to o ls
54. hom e f u rn is h in g s 55. social g a th e r in g s - 23
24. L ife on a colonial fa rm w as
56. e a sy 57. d a n g e ro u s 58. h u rrie d 59. rig o ro u s
60. m o n o to n o u s - - - - - - - 24
25. Social life in a colonial neighborhood w as
61. a r is to c r a tic 62. b o istero u s.......63. a rtific ia l.64. r e н
fined 65. in sip id - - 25
6. In th e g ard en in fro n t of a little one room cottag e
am ong th e rocks s a t P ietro , a lad of tw elve, an d his
g ran d m o th er, E lizab etta, b ra id in g straw . He h ad to
do th e w ork of his little sister, B ianca, who h ad n o t
lived, w hen he w an ted to do a m a n ?s w ork. W hen
E lizab e tta saw th e splices in his w ork, she chided him ,
?B ianca would have been p atien t, as w as your m o th er.?
Once w hen he w ent to th e m a rk e t to buy m ore s tra w
fo r E lizabetta, he stopped to look a t a p ic tu re th a t a
w hite h a ire d a r tis t w as p ain tin g . ? T here is som ething
w rong w ith your p ictu re, s i r ; one shadow is longer
th a n th e o th e r.? ?A nd w h at do you do, m y b o y ??
asked th e p ain ter. ? P ain t, as everyone else in Ita ly
seem s to do?? P ie tro did n o t w an t to tell w h at he did,
but a t la st th e a r tis t drew his sto ry fro m him . A few
m ornings la te r w hen P ie tro an d E lizab e tta re tu rn e d
fro m church, th e a r tis t w as s ittin g in f ro n t of th e ir
cottage. A fte r some w ords of g reetin g , th e s tra n g e r
suggested to E lizab etta, ? Down in th e city, th e re is a
g irl of fifteen w ho longs to le a rn th e a r t of stra w b ra id in g and w ho could te ach h e r b e tte r th a n you?
She could ta k e P ie tro ?s place w hile he comes to live
w ith m e.?
7. B alance, m easure, and patience, th ese a re th e
etern al conditions of hig h success, an d these a re ju s t
w h at th e sen tim en tal Celt h as never had. E ven in th e
w orld of sp iritu a l creation, he has never, in sp ite of
his ad m irab le g ifts of quick percep tio n an d w arm
em otion, succeeded p erfectly because he n ev er h as h ad
steadiness, patience, sa n ity enough to comply w ith th e
conditions u n d er w hich alone can expression be p e rн
fectly given to th e finest perceptions and em otions.
The G reek h as th e sam e perceptive, em otional te m p e ra н
m ent as th e C e lt; b u t to th is te m p eram en t he adds th e
sense of m e a su re ; hence his ad m irab le success in th e
plastic a rts , in w hich th e C eltic genius w ith its chafing
a g ain st th e despotism of fact, its p erp etu al s tra in in g
a fte r m ere em otion, has accom plished n othing. In th e
com paratively p e tty a r t of o rn am en tatio n , in rin g s,
brooches, relic-cases, he h as done ju s t enough to show
his delicacy of ta ste , his h ap p y te m p e ra m e n t; b u t th e
g ran d difficulties of p a in tin g an d scu lp tu re, th e p ro н
longed dealings of s p irit and m a tte r, he has n ev er h ad
patience fo r. T ake th e m ore sp iritu a l a r ts of m usic
and poetry. All th a t em otion alone can do in m usic
the Celt has d o n e ; th e v ery soul of em otion b reath es
in th e Scotch and Iris h a i r s ; b u t w h a t has th e Celt,
so eag er fo r em otion th a t he h as n o t h ad p atience fo r
science, accom plished in m usic in com parison w ith th e
less em otional b u t science developing G erm an? In
poetry, w here em otion counts fo r so m uch, b u t w here
reason, m easure, s a n ity also count fo r so m uch, th e
Celt has show n genius b u t his fa u lts have h in d ered
him fro m pro d u cin g g re a t w orks such as o th er g re a t
nations w ith a genius fo r p o etry ? th e G reeks or
Italian s ? have produced. I f his rebellion a g a in st fa c t
has lam ed th e Celt in sp iritu a l w ork, how m uch m ore
t h as lam ed him in business an d politics!
26. T he p a ra g ra p h is m ainly about
1. a n a r t i s t 2. P ie tr o ?s w o rk S. P ie tr o ?s s is te r
4. P ie tr o ?s good fo rtu n e 5. P ie tr o ?s g r a n d m o th e r
26
27. To E lizab etta, th e a r tis t w as
6 . ta c tf u l
7. o v e rb e a rin g
10. d ec eitfu l - - - -
8 . ch id in g
- - -
9. s a rc a s tic
- - 27
28. T he p a ra g ra p h is m ainly ab o u t th e
11. C eltic te m p e ra m e n t 12. a r t s o f p a in tin g , m usic,
a n d p o e try 13. sh o rtc o m in g s o f th e C elt 14. Celtic
em o tio n s 15. co n d itio n s o f h ig h success 28
29. The C elt h as accom plished least in
16.
19.
m u sic
17. a r t o f o rn a m e n ta tio n
18. p o e try
sc u lp tu re 20. p o litics
- - - - - 20
30. P e rfe c t expression can be given to th e finest
p ercep tio n s only w hen th e re is
21.
24.
a h a p p y te m p e ra m e n t
reb e llio n a g a in s t f a c ts
22. s a n ity 23. re a so n
25. love o f p o e try - 30
31. The G erm an su rp asse s th e Celt in
26. em o tio n a l fe e lin g 27. h a p p in e s s te m p e ra m e n t
28. quick p e rc e p tio n 29. d e a lin g w ith f a c ts 30. d eliн
cacy o f ta s te
- - - - - - - 31
32. One of th e shortcom ings of th e Celt is his
31. w a r m th o f em o tio n s
32, w a n t o f p a tie n c e
33. h a p p in e ss o f te m p e ra m e n t
34. q u ick n ess o f
p e rc e p tio n 35. d elicacy of ta s te - - - - - 32
33. H ig h success calls fo r
36. w a rm em o tio n
lio n a g a in s t f a c ts
40. b a lan c e - - -
37. d elicacy of t a s te 38. re b e lн
39. s tr a in in g a f te r em o tio n
- - - - - - 33
34. A m ong th e C elts a re th e
41. G reek s
45. R o m an s
42. G erm a n s 43. S cotch
- - - - - - -
44. I ta lia n s
- - -
34
Page 10,
8. In a ty p ical flower, th e re a re fo u r d istin c t w horls,
a n o u te r calyx of sepals, u sually g reen in color an d
p ro tectiv e in fu n c tio n ; w ith in it is th e corolla of petals,
com m only highly colored to a ttr a c t in sects; n e x t th e
androecium of stam en s, a ris in g fro m receptacles
w ith in th e p etals an d co n sistin g each of a stalk , th e
filam ent, on w hich is a n a n th e r co n tain in g th e pollen
sacs fro m w hich th e pollen is u ltim ately discharged,
an d in th e cen ter th e p istil or gynoecium of carpels
w hich is m ade up o f stig m a, style and ovary, an d a fte r
flow ering, is enlarg ed to fo rm th e f r u it an d co ntain
th e seeds. The p a r ts of th e calyx a re som etim es fre e
o r sep arate, a t o th e r tim es u n ite d ; in th e fo rm e r case,
th e calyx is polysepalous, in th e la tte r gam osepalous.
A corolla is dipetalous, trip etalo u s, etc., acco rd in g as
it has tw o, th ree , etc., s e p a ra te p a r ts ; th e g en eral
nam e polypetalous is given to corollas w ith se p a ra te
p a rts , w hile those in w hich th e p a rts a re u nited a re
m onopetalous, gam opetalous o r sym petalous.
The
filam ents m ay cohere to a g re a te r o r lesser extent,
th e a n th e rs re m a in in g free. T hus, all th e filam ents
m ay u n ite to fo rm a tu b e a ro u n d th e p istil, in w hich
case th e te rm m onodelphous is used, or th e y m ay be
a rra n g e d in tw o bundles (diadelphous) as in th e pea.
W hen a gynoecium consists of a single carpel it is
sim ple or m onocarpellary, w hen com posed of several
carpels, each of w hich h as its own ovary, style, an d
stigm a, it is com pound or polycarpeilary.
9. The com posite racial o rig in s of th e F re n c h race,
th e ir im m em orial co n tact w ith th e R om an an d o th er
M ed iterran ean an d N e a r-E a s te rn civilizations before
and a fte r th e C rusades, th e political preem inence of
th e n atio n in several la te r centuries, have no doubt
le ft th e ir im p rin t in th e h ig h level of intelligence,
taste, a rtis tic and creativ e pow er th a t ch ara cterize th e
p resen t population. F ra n c e rem a in s in th e economic
dom ain th e p rin cip al w o rld ?s p u rv ey o r of fine q u ality
of lu x u ry goods, and of w orks of a rt, w hich by th e ir
co n stan tly ch an g in g n a tu re , fan cifu ln ess, ta ste, quality,
and finish a ttr a c t th e m ore fastid io u s an d d isc rim in a tн
in g classes in m ost civilized countries. T he p rim a ry
notes of F ren ch pro d u ctio n re ta in th is in d iv id u ality
and inventiveness, d espite ce rta in oncom ing an d m ore
pronounced in d u strializatio n . These q u alities explain
th e vigour of th e sm all in d u stries in F ra n c e ? th e host
of P a ris trad e s, jew elery, artificial flowers, toys, disн
tin ctiv e creatio n s in in n u m erab le b ran ch es, as well as
th e specialization in so m any tex tile an d o th e r in d u sн
trie s th a t have been now organized on la rg e r lines th a n
fo rm erly . T he p ersisten ce of th ese tr a its also explains
how F ra n c e still co n tain s a v ery la rg e body of sm all
m aster, and of skilled w o rk ers form ed by them , w hose
in h e rited intellectual an d a rtis tic cu rio sity is extrem ely
keen. T he gen eral population h as n o t been overн
w helm ed to th e sam e ex te n t as m ost w estern E u ro p ea n
n atio n s by u rb an iz atio n an d in d u strializatio n .
35. The p a ra g ra p h is m ainly about
I . s tr u c tu r e o f flow ers
2 . v a ria tio n s in flow ers
3. fu n c tio n s o f d iffe re n t p a r ts o f a flow er 4. in te r н
re la tio n sh ip o f d iffe re n t p a r ts o f a flow er 5. evoluн
tio n o f flow ers - - - - - - 35
36. T he p istil contains
6 . p e ta ls 7. se p als 8 . s tig m a s 9. a n th e r s
10. filaн
m e n ts - - - - - - - - - - - - - 36
37. W hen th e p etals of a flower a re sep arate,
th e corolla is
I I . p o ly p e talo u s
14. sy m p e ta lo u s
12. d ia p e ta lo u s 13. m o n o p e talo u s
15. g a m o p e ta lo u s - - - - 37
38. T he p a rts of a flower th a t grow out of th e
p etals a re th e
16. se p a ls 17. c a rp e ls 18. s tig m a s
20. a n th e rs - - - - - -
19. sta m e n s
- - 38
39. T he developm ent and d is trib u tio n of th e
pollen is a fu n ctio n of
21. co ro lla
25. o v arie s
-
22. s ta m e n s
- - -
23. s ty le s
24. ca ly x
- - - - 39
40. T he stam en s a re usually
26. g re e n 27. p a r ts of th e co ro lla 28. h ig h ly colored
29. p ro te c tiv e in fu n c tio n 30. b e a re rs of th e po llen
sa cs
- - - - - - - - - 40
41. The p a ra g ra p h is m ainly ab o u t F re n c h
31. c u ltu re 32. econom ic c h a ra c te ris tic s 33. p ro d u cts
34. in d u s tria l ch a n g es 35. tr a d e r e la tio n s - - 41
42. T he goods produced by F ra n c e a re m ainly
th in g s th a t a re b o u g h t because th e y a re
36. need ed
39. en jo y ed
37. tim e sa v in g
40. c o stly
- - -
38. la b o r sa v in g
- - - - - -
42
43. The creativ e pow er of th e F re n c h is exн
pressed m ainly in th e ir
41. m a k in g of th in g s b e a u tifu l 42. m ach in e p ro d u c н
tio n 43. in d u s tria l o rg a n iz a tio n s 44. in v e n tio n s of
m a c h in e ry 45. se llin g ab ilitie s
- - - - - 43
44. The in d u stries of F ran ce a re m ainly
46. la rg e w ith h ig h ly sp ecialized a c tiv itie s 47. of
th e hom e m a n u fa c tu rin g ty p e 48. of a m ach in e
p ro d u ctio n n a tu re 49. o rg a n iz e d f o r m a ss p ro d u cн
tio n 50. sm a ll a n d h ig h ly sp ecialized in o u tp u t 44
45. The co ntact of th e F ren ch w ith th e civilizaн
tio n s of th e M ed iterran ean an d N e a r E a s t
h as been
51. v e ry b rie f 52.- v e ry re c e n t 53. o v er a lo n g
p erio d 54. only v e ry rem o te 55. of lit tle co n seн
........................................................................................ 4 5
q uence
Page 11
10. ? I f you will b u t help me, H an n ah , w ith th e
candle-dipping you will fo rg e t to f r e t all day long about
the hom ecom ing of fa th e r an d N ath a n ie l,? said S a ra h
W ad sw o rth to h e r d au g h ter. ?B u t it is now tw o w eeks
since th e y s ta rte d aw ay w ith th e sledge to b rin g us
back th e wood fo r th e w in ter. F a th e r said it would
tak e no longer th a n ten days an d th e re have been
sto rm s an d th e re a re In d ia n s.? N ot u n til th re e w eeks
la te r did a little In d ia n boy, Joe, h a lf fro zen an d alm ost
breathless, come b eatin g a t th e door. On th e piece of
b irch b a rk th a t he th r u s t in to M rs. W ad sw o rth ?s h an d s
w as w ritte n , ?We a re safe b u t th e In d ia n s w ill n o t
let us go w ith o u t g ifts of beads an d corn. Send some
m en to fetch us.? E a rly th e n ex t m o rn in g a la rg e
p a rty of m en fro m th e n e a rb y hom es w ere follow ing
Joe w ith g ifts fo r th e r e tu r n of N ath an iel an d his
fa th e r.
1 1 . W e alw ays find th e w arm est a ir a t th e to p of a
room. W hen th e a ir is heated, it expands, becomes
lig h ter in w eight, and is th e n pushed up by th e h eav ier
cold a ir. All aro u n d th e E q u ato r, th e a ir heated by
th e m ore d irec t ra y s of th e sun is pushed up by th e
cooler a ir flow ing in fro m b o th th e n o rth an d th e south.
The g re a t stream s of cool a ir blow ing to w a rd th e
E q u a to r a re called th e tra d e w inds. A s th e e a rth
tu rn s fro m w est to w ard th e east, th e w inds lag behind
the solid e a rth . Hence, th e y come fro m th e n o rth e a st
in th e n o rth e rn hem isphere an d fro m th e so u th east in
the so u th ern hem isphere. The w arm a ir pushed up a t
th e E q u a to r flows to w ard th e N o rth an d S outh Poles
and is called th e a n ti-tra d e w inds. B ecause th e e a rth
tu rn s fa s te r a t th e E q u a to r th a n a t th e Poles, th e
a n ti-tra d e w inds in th e n o rth e rn h em isp h ere blow fro m
the so uthw est w hile those in th e so u th ern h em isphere
blow fro m th e n o rth w est. The a ir in free circu latio n
alw ays contains w a te r vapor. W arm a ir can hold m ore
th a n colder air. W hen th e w arm a ir is cooled, th e
w ater v ap o r condenses as ra in . The w arm a ir pushed
up in th e eq u ato rial regio n holds m uch w a te r vapor,
w hich is cooled as it is pushed u p w ard an d flows
tow ard th e poles.
12. T w enty-seven y ears ago, Je a n V al Je a n had
escaped fro m prison.
In th e m eanw hile, he had
reform ed and w as now M onsieur M adeleine, m ay o r of
M___________ A t A rra s, a d ay ?s d riv e aw ay, an o th er
m an w as being trie d as J e a n V al Jean . To give
him self up to save th e innocent v ictim would m ean
exchanging th e house he h ad b uilt, his books, his
w ritings, his w alks in th e fields, fo r th e galley crew ,
;he iro n collar, th e chain a t his foot, th e dungeon, th e
plank bed, h o rro rs w hich he knew so w e ll! F o r h o u rs
le h ad w alked th e floor. B u t now th e c a rria g e he had
ordered w as w aitin g . A few m iles along an d a w heel
*ave out. I t could n o t be fixed u n til th e n ex t d ay an d
io o th e r conveyance w as to be h ad to reac h A r r a s in
:ime f o r th e tria l. H e h ad fa ith fu lly ex h au sted every
means to reach A rra s. T hen a w om an offered to
rent him h e r carriag e. In th is he reach ed th e co u rt
room a t A rra s ju s t in tim e to h e a r tw o convicts sw ear
;hat th e p riso n e r w as J e a n V al Jean . I t w as evident
bhat th e m an w as lost u n til th e new com er pushed
bhrough th e crow d an d exclaim ed, ?R elease th e
iccused. H e is n o t th e m a n you seek. I am Je a n
Vsl\ J e a n .?
46. T he p a ra g ra p h is m ainly ab o u t N ath an iel
and h is f a th e r ?s
. f a ilu re to r e tu r n 2 . c a p tu re b y In d ia n s 3. hom e
com ing 4. tr ip f o r w ood 5. resc u e b y h is n eig h b o rs 46
I
47. The W ad sw o rth fam ily lived
6.
8.
in th e m o u n ta in s 7. on a c le a rin g in th e w oods
in a v illa g e 9. n e a r a f o r e s t 10. on a lo n ely f a r m 47
48. The long absence of N ath an iel an d his
f a th e r m ade M rs. W ad sw o rth
I I . v e ry h a p p y 12. fe e l im p o r ta n t 13. v e ry lo n ely
14. v e ry f r e tf u l 15. v e ry an x io u s
- - - - 48
49. The p a ra g ra p h is m ain ly ab o u t
16. te m p e r a tu re 17. d irec tio n o f w inds 18. e x p a n н
sion o f th e a ir 19. th e E q u a to r 20. r a in f a ll 49
50. In th e n o rth e rn hem isphere, th e cold w inds
blow fro m th e
21. s o u th w e st 22. s o u th e a s t 23. w e st 24. n o r th e a s t
25. n o rth w e s t
- - - - - - 50
51. In th e so u th ern hem isphere, th e cold w inds
blow fro m th e
26. so u th w e st 27. s o u th e a s t
w e st 30. n o r th e a s t
- - -
28. n o rth
- - -
52. In th e so u th ern hem isphere,
w inds blow fro m th e
31. s o u th w e st 32. s o u th e a s t
w e st 35. n o r th e a s t
- - -
29. n o r th н
- 51
th e
33. s o u th
- - -
w arm
34. n o r th н
- 52
53. W hich of th ese w inds blows over th e B ritis h
Isles w ith its d am p clim ate an d location
n o rth of th e E q u a to r?
36. so u th w e s t w in d 37. n o rth w e s t w in d 38. tr a d e
w in d 39. n o r th e a s t w in d 40. s o u th e a s t w in d 53
54. The paragraph is m ainly about Jean Val
Jean?s
41. life at M_____
44. re fo rm
A rra s
42. surrender 43. journey to
45. m o ral s tr u g g le 54
55. Jean Val Jean?s life at M
had been
hard 47. monotonous 48. pleasant 49. turbulent
50. e x tra v a g a n t - - - - - - - - - - 55
46.
56. How did the prisoner probably feel toward
the two convicts?
51. sorry 52. forgiving 53. thankful 54. helpful
55. revengeful - - - - - - 56
Page 12.
13. In th e th irte e n th cen tu ry , C hina w as f a r ahead
o f F ran ce, S pain, E n g lan d , G erm any, o r Italy , th o u g h
in Ita ly b u rn ed b rig h te s t th e flam e of W estern culture.
W hy h as th e lead ersh ip passed fro m th e E a s t to th e
W est in seven sh o rt cen tu ries? The first an d r a th e r
fla tte rin g an sw er is th a t th e w h ite race is in trin sically
a su p erio r race. T he en g in eerin g fe a t o f build in g th e
fam ous g re a t w all of C hina, in com parison w ith w hich
th e building of th e tra n sc o n tin e n ta l ra ilro a d is a comн
p ara tiv e ly sm all m a tte r, su g g ests th a t th e C hinese a re
n o t in fe rio r in abilities. R a th e r, th e W est owes its
fav o rab le position to th e idea of science, a n a ttitu d e
th a t looks a t life, d eterm in es its m ethods of o p eratio n
an d a d ju sts th e m to h u m an needs, a d esire to find out
how th e outside en v iro n m en t in w hich we live w orks,
coupled w ith th e d esire to in crease pow er to control it.
T he first consciously to develop th is view w as L eonardo
da Vinci, b u t Galileo, K epler, N ew ton, an d a h o st of
o th e rs should be p erm a n en tly g re a t nam es in ou r
h isto ry , fo r th e y m ade significant co n trib u tio n s to th e
extension of th is w ay of looking a t th in g s an d life.
Science w as larg ely responsible fo r th e in d u stria l
revolution, fo r in d u stry , by itself, is s ta g n a n t and
s ta tic ; science is needed to m ake it p ro g ressiv e and
dynam ic. In th e O rient, th e re a re m an y places w here
th e spinning-w heel, p o tte r?s wheel, an d o th e r tools
such as w ere used in th e O ccident cen tu ries ago are
s till in use.
14. The people of A th en s an d S p a rta spoke a comн
m on language, G reek. A thens, risin g h ig h fro m th e
plain and exposed to th e fre s h breezes fro m th e sea,
w as a f a s t gro w in g city of b u sy tra d e , b u t n o t so busy
b u t th a t th e freem en loved to sit in th e su n and
discuss p o etry or listen to th e w ise w ords of a philosoн
p h e r w ith o u t a th o u g h t of w ar. S p a rta , b u ilt a t th e
bottom of a deep valley, used th e su rro u n d in g m ounн
ta in s as a b a r r ie r to fo reig n th o u g h t. I t w as an
a rm e d cam p, w here th e people knew how to fight and
liked to fight, b u t th e y n ev er w ro te a line th a t w as
considered lite ra tu re . W hen A thens, attack e d by th e
P e rsia n s in su p erio r n um bers, asked aid of S p a rta , too
sm all an arm y w as d isp atch ed to keep A th en s fro m
being sacked by th e P ersian s, b u t w hen th e P e rsia n s
w ith th e ir la rg e r n u m b ers th re a te n e d to o v erru n all
Greece, th e S p a rta n s led th e victo rio u s land a tta c k on
th e P e rsia n s w hile th e A th en ian ships destroyed th e
enem y?s fleet. F am o u s sculptors, p a in te rs, an d scienн
tis ts w ere sought f a r an d w ide to help reb u ild th e
c ity of A th en s an d m ake it m ore b eau tifu l b u t a t th e
sam e tim e h ig h w alls w ere b u ilt to m ake it th e
s tro n g e st fo rtre s s of th a t day, s tro n g e r by f a r th a n
S p a rta , despite th e fa c t th a t th e P e rs ia n s h ad been
com pletely broken.
57. The p a ra g ra p h is m ainly ab o u t
A . C h in a?s g r e a t w all <-2. n a tiv e s u p e rio r ity o f th e
w h ite ra c e 3. th e influence of scien ce 4. th e in d u sн
tr ia l rev o lu tio n 5. how o u r e n v iro n m e n t w o rk s 5'
58. T he kin d of lead ersh ip th a t h as passed fro m
C hina to th e w h ite race is lead ersh ip in
6 . co n tro l o v er fo rc es of n a tu re
7 . p ro m o tio n of
h a p p in e ss 8 . social re la tio n s
9. d ev e lo p m e n t of
c h a r a c te r 10. lite r a tu r e and a r t - - - - - 5!
59. T he lead ersh ip of th is w h ite race is due to
1 1 . its n a tiv e s u p e rio r ity 1 2 . th e in d u s tria l re v o lu н
tio n 13. its g e o g ra p h ic a l lo catio n 14. th e a ttitu d e
o f science 15. its e n g in e e rin g f e a ts - - - - 5!
60. The notion th a t th e C hinese a re in fe rio r to
th e w h ite race in nativ e ab ility is
16. u n d o u b te d ly tr u e 17. n o t su p p o rte d b y com н
p a r a tiv e ly e a rly ac h ie v em e n ts
18. s u p p o rte d b y
fa c ts 19. a b elief am o n g th e Chinese^ 2 0 . fla tte r in g
to th e C hinese - - - - - - 6<
61. The p a ra g ra p h is m ainly ab o u t th e
21. P e rs ia n a tta c k up o n A th en s 22. u n io n o f S p a r ta
an d A th e n s 23. reb u ild in g of A th e n s 24. d e s tru c н
tio n o f th e P e rs ia n a tta c k e r s
25. th e c o n tr a s t
b etw e en A th e n s an d S p a rta - - - - 61
62. A thens and S p a rta had sim ilar
26.
30.
speech 27. id eals
a ttitu d e s
- - -
28.in te r e s ts
- - - - - -
29.
- -
id e as
61
63. The S p a rta n s evidently looked upon th e
g ro w th of A thens w ith
31.
35.
su sp icio n 32. a d m ira tio n
fe a r - - - - - -
33. en v y
- - - -
34. p rid e
- -
6c
64. The th in g w hich th e S p a rta n s and A th eн
n ian s had in common w as
36. tra in e d a rm y 37. fo re ig n tr a d e
38. lite r a r y
p ro d u cts 39. la n g u a g e 40. in te r e s t in a r t
64
65. A fte r th e d efeat of th e P ersian s, th e feeling
th a t g rew up betw een th e A th en ian s and
S p a rta n s w as one of
41. co o p e ratio n
42. h o s tility
44. h e lp fu ln e ss 45. sy m p a th y -
43. tr u s tf u ln e s s
- - - 6г
66. B efore th e P e rsia n W ar, S p a rta an d A th en s
w ere evidently
46. b itte r enem ies
47. v ery f rie n d ly
48. u n ite d
p o litica lly 49. keen riv a ls 50. v e ry c o o p e ra tiv e
6(
Page 13
L5. N ever shall I fo rg e t th e m o rn in g w hen m y f a th e r
:hanged his la st m easu re of g ra in fo r a shaw l of
icarlet cloth frin g e d w ith silver, w hich he th re w
iround m y shoulders. A fte r he h ad decked m y head
vith flowers, he led m e ginto th e m a rk e t place w h ere a
concourse of people w ere w a itin g fo r th e p u rch ase
>f slaves. P ro u d w as I w hen several ta le n ts w ere
iffered fo r me. W hen m y f a th e r scowled an d refu sed
he money, I th o u g h t he m u st be play in g a gam e an d
aughed. E ven w hen an elderly m an asked m e w ith
lolicitude if I w as h u n g ry I laughed ag ain fo r m y
fa th e r had n o urished m e m ost carefu lly an d p le n tiн
fully. B u t X an th u s, w a itin g fo r no answ er, took out
)f a sack, w hich one of his slaves c arried a t his side,
i cake of w heaten bread, an d a piece of honey-com b
ind gave th em to me. T he honey-com b I held to m y
n th e r ?s m outh. He dashed it to th e g ro u n d ; bu t,
ieizing th e bread, began to devour it ferociously. This,
oo, I th o u g h t w as play an d began to laugh, b u t
Xanthus looked a t him like one a fra id , an d sm ote th e
:ake fro m him , cry in g aloud, ? N am e th e p rice .? My
!a th e r placed m e in his arm s, n am in g a p rice m uch
)elow w h a t th e o th e r had offered. B u t w hile X an th u s
vas counting out th e silver, m y f a th e r seized th e cake
igain, fo r his h u n g e r w as ex asp erated by th e ta s te
md th e delay. Suddenly th e re w as a tu m u lt. T u rn ng a ro u n d in th e old w om an?s bosom w ho h ad received
ne fro m X an th u s, I saw m y beloved f a th e r s tru g g lin g
>n th e ground, livid an d speechless. The m ore violent
ny cries th e m ore rap id ly th e y h u rrie d m e a w a y ; an d
nany w ere soon betw een us.
16.
T he C hinese w ork h a rd fo r a living, b u t w hen
hey have enough to live on, th ey live on it, going to
he th e a tre , listen in g to a scholar, ad m irin g a r t of an
a r lie r tim e, o r leisurely w alk in g in b eau tifu l scenery,
n stead of try in g to au g m en t th e ir w ealth, as m any
V esterners do, to buy w orks of a r t a t fabulous prices
o im press th e ir neighbors. A m ong ourselves, th e
)eople who a re re g a rd e d as m oral lu m in aries a re
hose w ho forego pleasures them selves an d find comjensation in in te rfe rin g w ith th e pleasu re of others,
n C hina a m an is expected to be resp ectfu l to his
>arents, kind to his children, generous to poor relaions, an d courteous to all ? duties n o t v ery difficult
o fulfill, b u t actu ally c a rrie d out. T hey a d m it in
heory th a t th e re a re occasions w hen it is p ro p e r to
ight, an d in p ractice th a t th ese occasions a re so r a r e
h a t m ilita ry leaders w ho ap p eal to force find th a t no
ne, n o t even th e ir ow n soldiers, ta k e th e m serio u sly ;
whereas we hold in th e o ry th a t th e re a re no occasions
idxen it is p ro p e r to fight an d in p ractice devote a p a r t
f th e w onderful skill an d efficiency we develop in
la n u fa c tu re to th e m a k in g of guns, poison gases, an d
irp la n e s to kill each o th e r wholesale, w hile th e r e s t
s devoted to th e m ak in g of ships, autom obiles, teleihones, an d o th e r m eans of liv in g lu x u rio u sly a t h ig h
?ressure.
67. T he p a ra g ra p h is m ain ly ab o u t a
I . slav e m a rk e t
2 . f a th e r ?s sacrifice
S. g ir l sold
in to s la v e ry
4. w icked f a th e r
5. m a n b ein g
tra m p le d u p o n ................................................. _ _ _ _
57
68. The fa th e r sold his d a u g h te r so th a t
6 . he m ig h t h av e m o n ey
7. h e w ould n o t h av e to
ta k e c a re of h e r 8 . he could do a s h e w a n te d to
9. he w ould be av e n g ed 10. sh e w o u ld n o t s ta rv e
68
69. W hen th e f a th e r sold h is d au g h ter, it was
a tim e of
I I . c e le b ra tio n
12. d e b a u c h e ry
14. re jo ic in g 15. w a r - - - - - -
-
13. fa m in e
- 69
70. T he f a th e r sold his d a u g h te r to X an th u s
r a th e r th a n th e first b id d e r because
16. he tr u s te d X a n th u s 17. X a n th u s offered m o re
m oney 18. X a n th u s w as o ld er 19. X a n th u s h ad
slav es 20. he fe a re d th e firs t b id d e r m ig h t n o t p a y 70
71. The f a th e r ?s a ttitu d e to w ard h is d au g h te r
w as one of
21.
24.
cold-bloodedness
f e a r 25. h a tre d
22. c ru e lty
23. d ev o tio n
- - - - - 71
72. The f a th e r ?s action in selling h is d au g h te r
to X an th u s w as one of
26.
29.
m e rc y
c ru e lty
27. selfish n ess
30. r a p a c ity
28. co w ard lin ess
- - 72
73. X an th u s w as a m an of g re a t
31. w e a lth
32. p o w er
33. a m b itio n
34. u n d e rн
sta n d in g 35. ru d e n e ss - - - - - 73
74. A w ord th a t ch aracterizes th e activ ities of
th e C hinese is
36. h y p o c risy 37. m o d e ra tio n 38. p ro g re s s 39. d isн
p la y 40. p o w er - - - - - - - - - - 74
75. A w ord th a t ch ara cterizes th e people of th e
w estern n atio n s in c o n tra st to th e C hinese is
41.
44.
k in d lin ess
v e n e ra tio n
42. m o d e ra tio n
45. h y p o c risy -
43. a p p re c ia tio n
- - - 75
Page 14,
17. J u s t as a t an y e a rlie r date, th e scien tist looked
first upon th e m olecule an d th e n upon th e ato m as th e
u ltim a te elem ent of m a tte r, so to d ay he envisages all
th e stu ff of th e u n iv erse in te rm s of electrons and
protons, th e neg ativ e an d positive electricities w hich
w ere e a rlie r assum ed to ex plain all electrical p h eн
nom ena. So now we say th a t m a tte r is g ra n u la r in
s tru c tu re an d electrical in n a tu re .
The co n stan t
change an d m otion of m a tte r w hich a p p e a r as chem iн
cal, electrical, o r g ra v ita tio n a l phenom ena a re ascrib ed
to energy, th e existence of w hich is an in feren ce fro m
th e m otions involved in th e changes th a t occur in th e
form , chem ical com position, o r location of bodies of
m a tte r. Only in th is k in etic fo rm can it be m easu red
or detected, fo r betw een such occasions it m asks its
p o ten tialities an d ap p e a rs as harm less as th e explosive
shell, th e h ig h ten sio n w ires, or th e re se rv o ir of still
w a te r in th e hills above th e hydro electric p lan t. To
fill th e b ro ad spaces in w hich o u r tan g ib le an d p o n d erн
able m a tte r fo rm s m ere specks, a v ast eth e r is assum ed
th ro u g h w hich en erg y m ay be tra n s m itte d fro m one
body to an o th er, w h eth er as lig h t o r h eat fro m so lar
bodies, or as so-called e th e r w aves fro m a rad io b ro ad н
c astin g s ta tio n to a receiving set. Of th e th re e en tities
of m a tte r, energy, an d e th e r ? e th e r is th e m ost
debatable assum ptio n , fo r en erg y m ay n o t be tr a n s н
m itte d th ro u g h a continuous eth ereal m edium b u t
h u rtle d th ro u g h space like a bullet, fo r w hich th e re
is m uch evidence. In a science w here th e e th e r is a
convenient p o stu late an d en erg y a form less unknow n,
th e electron stan d s o ut in s ta r k re a lity as a definite
ponderable p article, th e tin y m a te ria l and u ltim a te
elem ent of th e universe.
18,
As soon as I had sh o t th e buffalo, all th e village
cam e ru n n in g an d sh o u tin g , an d th e squaw s g ath ered
a ro u n d th e dead anim al, jo stlin g and elbow ing each
o th e r as th e y to re off th e m eat. I t is th e In d ia n ru le
th a t gam e is com m on p ro p erty , an d m y buffalo w as
soon reduced to a pile of bones by th e knives of th e
busy squaw s. I could n o t help lau g h in g as I w atched
th em stru g g lin g fo r th e choice m orsels. F irs t, th e
skin w as carefu lly rem oved, an d th e n th e m uscle an d
g ristle cut aw ay. Then, ju s t as a squaw w as ab o u t
to ta k e th e coveted p a rt, she w ould be ru d ely th r u s t
aside, an d some o th e r squaw would ta k e it. These
exploits w ere received w ith loud shouts of la u g h ter,
a n d no ill te m p e r or q u a rre lin g w as observed am ong
th e excited crow d of w om en who su rro u n d ed th e
carcass.
76. T he p a ra g ra p h is m ainly ab o u t
I . n a tu r e of e n e rg y
2 . n a tu r e of m a tte r , e n e rg y ,
a n d e th e r 3. u ltim a te elem en t o f m a tte r 4. elecн
tric a l a n d g r a v ita tio n a l p h en o m en a 5. k in e tic fo rm
of e n e rg y - - - - - - - - - - - - 7
77. H eat fro m th e sun is th o u g h t of as
6.
8.
g r a v ita tio n a l p h en o m en a
7. e th e r w av e s
m o tio n o f bodies
9. tra n s m is s io n of e n e rg y
10, chem ical p h en o m en a - - - - - 7
78. T angible m a tte r is th o u g h t by scien tists to
consist of
. e lec tro n s an d p ro to n s
1 2 . th e e th e r in sp ace
13. g r a v ita tio n a l p h en o m en a
14. e n e rg y in its
k in e tic fo rm 15. e th e r w aves - - - - - 7:
II
79. The sm allest know n p a rtic le s
th in g s a re com posed are
of
w hich
16, k in e tic ;form s of e n e rg y 17. m olecules 18. ato m s
19. ch em ical p h en o m en a 20. e le c tro n s
-7'
80. The existence of w hich of these is a n a s н
sum ption only?
21. elec tro n s 22. g r a v ita tio n a l p h en o m en a 23. e th e r
24, e n e rg y 25. ato m s
- - - - - - 8(
81. The existence of energy is in fe rre d fro m
26, ch a n g es in th e lo c atio n of m a tte r 27. th e ch e m iн
cal co m p o sitio n of m a tte r 28. r e s e rv o irs of w a te r
29. g r a n u la r s tr u c tu r e of m a tte r 30. e th e r w av es
8
82. In d ividing up th e buffalo m eat, th e In d ia n
w om en w ere
31. co u rte o u s 32. a n g r y 33. sp o rtiv e 34. cru e l
35. fig h tin g w ith one a n o th e r - - - - 8J
83. In d iv id in g up th e buffalo m eat, th e T ndian
w om en w ere
36. calm
37. q u ie t
38. sa d
40. h ila rio u s - - - - -
39. q u a rre ls o m e
- - - 8J
Page 15
19. The actions of pro to n s an d electrons in follown g th e w ell-know n electrical law s of like p article s
?epelling each oth er and unlike a ttr a c tin g one an o th er,
ip pear as if th e y w ere th e re su lt of tw o u rg es ? one
ow ard th e assem bling in an y region of equal n u m b er
)f th e positive p ro to n s an d th e lig h te r n eg ativ e elec;rons; th e o th er, m u tu al rep u lsio n s betw een tw o or
nore p ro to n s or betw een tw o or m ore electrons. Cer;ain a rra n g e m e n ts of th e p article s in space seem to
)e m ore stable th a n others. One of th e m ost stable
groups com prises fo u r p ro to n s an d fo u r electrons. All
)f th ese except tw o electrons a re closely gro u p ed into
i tin y particle, know n as an alp h a p article. T he o th er
wo electrons disport them selves a t som e d istan ce and
)resum ably on opposite sides of th e alp h a particle,
vhich a ttra c ts th em because of its excess of p rotons,
rh e e n tire g ro u p is know n as an atom of helium , in
vhich we have th e c h a ra c te ristic s tru c tu re of all
itom ic system s ? a t th e cen ter a nucleus composed
)f a close a rra n g e m e n t of p ro to n s an d a sm aller num )er of electrons, w ith electrons in th e reg io n beyond.
"n th e n itro g en atom , th e nucleus co n tain s fo u rte e n
)rotons and seven electrons, th e excess of p ro to n s
n d ic a tin g th e atom ic n u m b er an d th e n u clear co ntent
;he n a tu re of th e atom . A bout th is nucleus a re seven
planetary electrons, tw o of w hich a p p a re n tly occupy
positions on opposite sides o f th e nucleus w ith th e
)ther five a t a g re a te r distan ce an d disposed as if on
m im a g in a ry sphere abo u t th e nucleus. U ran iu m , a
/?ery u nstable chem ical elem ent, w ith a nucleus h av in g
m excess of ninety-tw o p ro to n s eventually yields to
;he s tra in , expels an alp h a p a rticle an d loses tw o
planetary electrons, leaving a d ifferen t chem ical elenent, w ith differen t chem ical p ro p erties. T he sodium
itom w ith an excess of eleven p ro to n s in its nucleus
m d chlorine w ith an excess of seventeen p ro to n s a re
w ithout th e com plete sa tisfa c tio n of bo th th e u rg es
vhile th e atom s of neon w ith an excess of te n p ro to n s
md argon w ith a n execess of eighteen p ro to n s a re
>oth com pletely satisfied.
JO. ? H ave you n o t h e a rd th e sto ry of th e fool, th e
Tying pan, an d th e fire?? asked a n eig h b o r of Jo sep h
^ sp d in of Leeds. ? He is a good-enough w o rk er an d
leighbor in th e daytim e, b u t ev ery evening fo r y ears
le h as been m ixing an d s tir r in g som ething in a p an
ind w atch in g it over th e fire as if th e p an held gold.
Dhe poor m an cooks rocks an d clay. Some people have
leard him say he is try in g d ifferen t m ix tu re s an d
lifferent te m p e ra tu re s b u t seem ed no n e a re r finding
>ut th e kin d of a h a rd an d s tro n g cem ent th e old
Romans had used. T h irte e n y ears w en t by b efo re he
inally discovered th e m ix tu re, now know n as P o rtla n d
dem ent,w hich w ill n o t crack o r b re a k an d can be used
m d er w a te r as well as on land. T h en his neig hb o rs
a id , ?H e is a lucky m an. Soon he an d his cem ent will
>e fam ous. The w hole to w n is p ro u d of h im / ?
84. The p a ra g ra p h is m ain ly about
I . p ro p e rtie s o f ch em ical e le m e n ts
2 . s tr u c tu r e of
ato m s 3. ch em ical u rg e s 4. a lp h a p a rtic le s 5. s t a н
b ility of a to m s - - - - - - - - - 84
85. In th e nucleus,
th e re a re
6.
m o re e le c tro n s th a n p ro to n s
elec tro n s a n d p ro to n s 8 . m o re
p a rtic le s
9. m o re p o sitiv e ly
1 0 . p ro to n s o nly
- - - -
86. The m ost
gro u p is
u n stab le
alw ays
7. sa m e n u m b e r of
n e g a tiv e ly ch a rg e d
c h a rg e d p a rtic le s
- - - 85
elem ent
am ong
th is
I I . a rg o n 12. u ra n iu m
13. n itro g e n 14. h eliu m
15. neon - - - - - - - - - - - 86
87. The electrons in th e o u ter reg io n of th e
n itro g en ato m a re supposed to be a rra n g e d
in th e fo rm of a16. circle 17. r in g 18. p la n e 19. p o ly g o n 20. sp h e re 87
88. The paragraph
A spdin?s
is
mainly
about Joseph
21. neighbors 22. luck 23. persistence 24. discovery
25. queerness
- - - - - - 88
89. A s a worker for others, Joseph Aspdin
seemed to his neighbors to be
26. sensible 27. careless
30. ingenious - - - -
28. foolish
- - -
29. clever
89
90. D uring his thirteen years of work, Joseph
A spdin?s neighbors probably felt
31. resentful toward him
32. respect for him
33. amused at him 34. sorry for him 35. fearful
99
91. Joseph A spdin?s neighbors were probably
people o f
36. great initiative 37. contentedness 38. restless
disposition 39. much ingenuity 40. changing views 91
Page 16,
21. A m ong th e artificial causes of fam in e m ay be
classed w a r an d economic e rro rs in th e production,
tra n s p o rt, and sale of food-stuffs, w hile am ong th e
n a tu ra l causes m ay be classed all fa ilu re s of crops due
to excess o r defects of ra in fa ll an d o th e r m eteorological
causes, o r to th e rav ag e s of insects an d verm in. The
n a tu ra l causes a re still m ain ly outside ou r control,
th o u g h science enables a g ric u ltu rists to com bat th em
m ore successfully, an d th e im p ro v em en t in m eans of
tr a n s p o r t allow s a ric h h a rv e st in one land to suppleн
m e n t th e defective crops in an o th er. In tro p ical counн
trie s, d ro u g h t is th e com m onest cause of a fa ilu re in
th e h arv est, and w here g re a t d ro u g h ts a re not uncom н
m on ? as in p a r ts of In d ia an d A u stra lia ? th e
h y d rau lic engineer comes to th e rescue by devising
system s of w a te r sto rag e an d irrig a tio n . I t is less
easy to provide a g a in st th e evils of excessive rain fa ll,
fro st, hail, and th e like. The experience of th e F ren ch
in A lgiers show s th a t it is possible to stam p out a
plague of locusts, such as is th e g re a te s t d an g er to
th e fa rm e r in m an y p a rts of A rg en tin a . B u t th e ease
w ith w hich food can now adays be tra n s p o rte d fro m
one p a r t of th e w orld to an o th e r m inim izes th e d an g er
of fam in e fro m n a tu ra l causes, as we can h a rd ly conн
ceive th a t th e whole food-producing a re a of th e w orld
should be th u s affected a t once.
2 2 . A t th e tim e A n sg a r a rriv e d in Sw eden in th e
n in th century, iro n w as in u n iv ersal use in th e co u n try
an d had been so since th e fifth cen tu ry before C h rist.
I t w as d u rin g th is period, th e Iro n Age, th a t th e
in h a b ita n ts of Sw eden first becam e acq u ain ted w ith
b rass, silver, lead, and glass, as well as iron. As
w orks of iron could not, like th o se of bronze, be
produced only by castin g , th e sm ith ?s c r a f t cam e to
h av e f a r g re a te r significance d u rin g th is age. P rio r
to th e Iro n Age, th e re w as an o th e r period, th e B ronze
A ge, wThen th e use of iron w as alto g eth e r unknow n.
W eapons an d tools w ere th e n m ade of bronze ? a
m ix tu re of copper an d tin . Gold w as th e only o th er
m etal know n d u rin g th is period, w hich continued fro m
ab o u t th e fifteen th c en tu ry B. C. to th e fifth cen tu ry
B. C. P rev io u s to th e B ronze Age, th e people of
S w eden w ere in com plete ig n o ran ce of th e use of an y
m etals. T hey w ere com pelled to m ake th e ir w eapons
a n d im plem ents of such m a te ria ls as stone, horn, bone,
a n d wood. T his perio d is recognized as th e Stone Age.
92. The p a ra g ra p h is m ainly about
I . a g r ic u ltu r e 2. tr a n s p o r ta tio n 3. r e lie f of fa m in e
4. ca u ses of fa m in e s 5. effects of fa m in e s - - 9
93. I t is h a rd e s t to p rev en t th e dam age due to
6 . too g r e a t r a in f a ll
7. in sects 8 . to o lit tle r a in н
f a ll 9. v erm in 10. no r a in fa ll f o r a se aso n 9
94. The effect of a fam ine in a n y locality is
relieved m ain ly by
I I . ir r ig a tio n
12. d e s tro y in g in se c ts
13. b e tte r
m e an s o f sh ip p in g
14. scien tific a g r ic u ltu r e
15. w a te r s to r a g e - - - - - - 9
95. Crop fa ilu re s in tro p ical regions a re m ostly
due to
16. f r o s t 17. in se c ts 18. in te n se h e a t
r a in f a ll 20. s h o rta g e of r a in fa ll - -
19. ex cessiv e
- - - 9
96. A w orld w ide fam in e is
21.
24.
f a ir ly .lik ely 22. n o t v ery lik e ly
23. p ro b a b le
v e ry u n lik e ly 25. v ery lik e ly to o ccu r - 9i
97. The p a ra g ra p h is m ainly about
26. A n s g a r's a r r iv a l in Sw eden 27. m e ta ls u se d in
Sw eden a t d iffe re n t p erio d s 28. I ro n A g e in S w eden
29. w eap o n s u sed in d iffe ren t a g e s 30. w h a t b ro n ze
is m ad e o f - - - - - - - - - - - 91
98. The only m etals know n d u rin g th e B ronze
A ge w ere
31. tin , gold, an d co p p er
32. iro n a n d b ro n ze
33. iron, co p p er, a n d gold
34. tin a n d co p p er
35. gold, silv er, iro n , an d co p p e r - - - - 9г
99. Of these, th e first to come into use w as
36. g old
37. silv e r
38. bronze
39. g la s s 40. w ood
100. W hich one of these has been in use th e
longest ?
41.
lead 42. silv e r
43. tin
44. g la s s
45.
iro n
9г
DIAGNOSTIC EXAMINATION OF SILENT READING ABILITIES
CLASS RECORD
School .......
on ................... G rade....................
Name
Date
No. of P u p ils...................... Teacher
Phases of Reading Ability ? C-Score on Tests
C.A.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Total
10
Read.
Age
Level
Name
C.A.
Phases of Reading Ability ? C-Score on Tests
1
2
3
4
5
26........................................................................
27........................................................................
28........................................................................
29........................................................................
30........................................................................
31........................................................................
32........................................................................
33........................................................................
34........................................................................
35........................................................................
36........................................................................
37................... ....................................................
38.............. .........................................................
39.......................................................................
40.......................................................................
41.......................................................................
42.......................................................................
43.......................................................................
44.......................................................................
45.......................................................................
46........................................................................
47........................................................................
48........................................................................
49........................................................................
50........................................................................
P ublished by
ED U C A T IO N A L T E S T B U R E A U
E D U C A T IO N A L P U B L I S H E R S , In c .
M inneapolis - N ash v ille - P h ilad e lp h ia
6
7
8
9
Total
10
DIAGNOSTIC EXAMINATION OP SILENT READING ABILITIES
Group Summary
CITY........................................................................ SCHOOL.
DIVISION.
23-010.
21 -0 .
10
8.
20 - 0 .
10
.
17-0.
10.
4.
2
.
16-0.
10.
2
.
15-0 _
4.
2.
14-0.
10.
12-0 :
10.
GRADE .
105.......
:.............. NO. OP PUPILS -
5
9
10
You see th a t th e re a re five possible an sw ers in each sentence. Only one an sw er is rig h t.
In th e first sentence th e rig h t an sw er is morning. M orning h as a 4 in fro n t of it. F in d 4 above
th e row of dots a f te r A. You see a m a rk h as been m ade betw een th e row s of dots u n d er 4.
Now look a t th e second sentence. W hich w ord is th e rig h t one to finish th e sentence co rrectly ?
Yes, autom obile, and autom obile h as a 7 in fro n t of it. F ind 7 above th e row of dots. A m a rk
has been m ade betw een th e row s of dots u n d er 7.
Begin w ith nu m b er 1 below and do each exercise in th e sam e way.
J.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
K.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
(Place yo u r answ ers u n d er J in the lower h a lf o f the th ird colum n on the a n sw er sh eet.)
L im e s a r e a k in d o f
1. nut 2. vegetable 3. tree 4. fish 5. fruit - - - - A t e l l e r w o r k s in a
6. bank 7. store 8. office 9. factory 10. hospital - - - R e m in g to n is a k in d o f
11. piano 12. fountain pen 13. automobile 14. typew riter 15. radio
P in e a p p le s c o m e f r o m
16. Florida 17. H awaii 18. Cuba 19. Brazil 20. China - - L i p to n is a m a k e r o f
21. cigarettes
22. clothing 23. razors 24. tea 25. coffee W h i s t is p la y e d w i t h
26. cards 27. dice 28. rackets 29. mallets 30. bats - - - - - A r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a f o r e i g n g o v e r n m e n t is a
31. deputy 32. proxy 33. ambassador
34. alternate 35. delegate
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - (Place your ansivers u n d er K in the low er h a lf o f th e fo u r th colum n on th e a n sw er sh eet.)
C o b r a is a k in d o f
1. insect 2. fish 3. bird 4, mammal 5. snake
- - - T he Q u a k e rs a re a
6. fraternal 7. charitable 8. farmers' 9. religious 10. polidcal organization
P o lo is a
11. musical composition 12. disease 13. sport 14. drama 15. poem - - - - D e c is io n s in a f o o t b a l l g a m e a r e m a d e b y t h e
16. coach 17. umpire 18 halfback
19. announcer 20. manager - - - - - - - - - - - - L lo y d G e o r g e h a d m o s t in f lu e n c e in
21. France 22. Russia 23. Germany 24. Greece 25. England
S u g a r com es fro m
26. Louisiana 27. Hawaii 28. Florida 29. Brazil 30. China - - T o k io is in
31. China 32. Philippines 33. India 34. Japan 35. M anchuria - - - - M a c b e th w a s w r i t t e n b y
36. Shakespeare 37. M ilton 38. Defoe 39. Stevenson 40. Scott C ic e ro w a s a
41. Greek 42. Roman 43. Egyptian 44. Persian 45. Carthaginian - - A f e lo n y is a
46. tax 47. permit 48. crime 49. legal summons 50. penalty - - - - Y a le U n i v e r s i t y is in
51. New Y ork 52. California 53. Wisconsin 54. Illinois 55. Connecticut
M u s c le S h o a ls is a
56. dam 57. sea coast 58. museum 59. sanatorium 60. gorge
- A f r a n c h i s e is a
61. tax 62. crime
63. legal summons 64. penalty 65. privilege
B e a t r i c e is a c h a r a c t e r in
66. Shakespeare 67. Virgil 68. D ante 69. Goethe 70. H ugo Is a ia h w a s a
71. king 72. prophet 73. apostle 74. law -g h er 75. patriarch - - - - -
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
L. (Place your ansivers u n d er L in the low er h a lf o f the fifth colum n on th e answ er sh eet.)
23. A s u b p o e n a is a
1. tax 2. permit 3. crime 4. legal summons 5. penalty - - - - - 23
24. V o d k a IS a k in d o f
6. drink 7. wood 8. food 9. coal 10. cloth - - - -2 4
25. F o r u m r e f e r s to
11. newspapers 12. news weekly 13. encyclopedia 14. humorous weekly
15. m onthly magazine - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 25
26. I s t a n b u l is in
16. England 17. Rumania 18. T urkey 19. Russia 20. India - - - - - 26
27. H a r t , S c h a f f n e r a n d M a r x m a n u f a c t u r e
21. cigarettes 22. razors 23. saws 24. clothing
25. typewriters - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 27
28. W a g n e r w a s a
26. sculptor 27. musician 28. painter
29. scientist 30. author
28
29. S o c ia lly m in d e d p e o p le a r e o r g a n i z e d i n t o
31. clubs 32. parties 33. denominations
34. labor unions 35. associations
- - - - - - - - - - - 2 9
30. S h a s t a is a
36. national park 3 7. falls 38. volcano 39. tree 40. astronomical observatory
30
31. L a is s e z f a i r e a p p lie s to
41. religion 42. philosophy 43. music 44. architecture 45. government
31
32. C o n f u c i a n is m is o n e o f t h e c h ie f r e l i g i o n s o f
46. T urkey 47. Japan 48. India 49. China
50. Russia - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3 2
33. M o d u la tio n is a p r o c e d u r e u s e d in
51. sculpture 52. music 53. painting 54. tapestry 55. poetry
33
34. T a n n h a u s e r is a
56. statue 57. painting 58. sym phony 59. opera 60. w altz - - - - 34
35. T h e c h i e f d e i t y o f t h e E g y p t i a n s w a s
61. Zeus 62. Ra 63. M arduk 64. Jupiter 65. Allah
35
36. J e a n V a l J e a n is a c h a r a c t e r in
66. Shakespeare 67. Dante 68. Virgil 69. Goethe 70. Hugo
36
37. N a t u r e s t o r i e s w e r e w r i t t e n b v
71. M ark T w ain 72. Bret Harte 73. Thom pson-Seton
74. Harris 75. Doyle - - -- .................................................................................................................................. 3 7 ^
(C o n tin u e to P a r t I I I on Page 6)
TEST 6 (Pages 6 to 16)
Page 6
Senior Division
Part III
DIRECTIONS TO THE STUDENT
Read the paragraph below carefully.
Paragraph
It was Perez, a friar, on whom
Columbus called w ith his little son
Diego, and explained his need for
men and ships to prove the world is
round.
The friar interested his
friend, Queen Isabella of Spain, in
the plans of Columbus. But when
the three ships that carried Columbus
to America sailed from Spain, Diego
was left to stay at the palace of the
Queen until his father should come
back.
Answers
Q u estio n s
A. The paragraph is m ainly about
I. P e re z , th e f r i a r 2. Q ueen Isa b e lla 3. th e
sh ip s in w h ich C olum bus sailed 4. th e v o y н
ag e of C olum bus 5. th e p alac e of th e Q ueen A
B. Perez had been a friend of
a
6.
C olum bus
7. D iego
8 . Q ueen Isa b e lla
9. D ieg o ?s f a th e r 10. th e f a th e r o f C olum bus
B
16. h a p p y 17. g la d
20. u n h a p p y - - -
Read th e first statem ent at the side of th e paraн
graph, th e one w ith A in front of it. Since th e
paragraph is mainly about the plans and efforts o f
Columbus and his sailing, the statem ent ?The paraн
graph is m ainly about . . . ? is best completed by
4. the voyage of Columbus. So a mark has been
made between th e rows o f dots under 4 after A
in the answer column.
Now read the statem ent w ith B in front of
it: ?Perez had been a friend of . . . ? Since the
paragraph says th at the friar interested his friend,
Queen Isabella of Spain, in the plans of Columbus,
Queen Isabella best completes the statem ent. Queen
Isabella has 8 in front of it. So after B in the answer
column, a mark has been made between the rows
of dots under 8.
The best answer to complete the third statem ent
is too young. In front of it is 12, so in Line C in the
answer column a mark has been made between the
rows of dots under 12.
Unhappy best completes the statem ent w ith D in
18. reliev ed
- - -
19. jo y o u s
- - -
il
G
?J
II
ii
c
II
d
D. When Diego was left at the palace,
he was
2
R
C. D iego was left at home because he was
I I . a f r i a r 12. to o y o u n g 13. n o t in te re s te d
14. a f r a id to g o 15. d id n ?t k n o w h is f a th e r
w as g o in g
-
1
3
4
5
7
8
1
9
10
12
i
13
16
1
17
ii
J╗
li
14
15
||
IS
19
20
||
1
D
front of it. Unhappy has 20 in front of it. So in
Line D in the answer column a mark has been made
between the rows of dots under 20.
When you turn to Page 7 of th e test booklet, find
the side of th e answer sheet w ith a circle and
Part III in the upper le ft corner. Read the first
paragraph and then read the first question at th e
right of it. Choose th e best answer ju st as has been
done above. Look at th e number in fron t o f th is
best answer and find it above th e rows of dots after
th e 1 on the answer sheet. Make a mark between
th e rows of dots th at are under th e number th at is
in front of the answer you chose for th e first quesн
tion. Do the other paragraphs and questions on
Page 7 in the same way.
When you have finished Page 7, continue on
Page 8. Choose the righ t answers and then on the
answer sheet put marks under th e numbers of right
answers. A fter Page 8, continue on th e other pages
in the same manner until you have finished the test
on Page 16.
Page 7
L. W hen B ra n d t, because of ra s h acts, fo u n d him self
in d an g er of being seized by th e B ritish , he so u g h t
shelter a t th e farm h o u se of a relativ e, alth o u g h he
knew th a t th e fam ily would suffer p u n ish m e n t if th e
B ritish h e a rd th a t he had been th e re . E a rly in th e
tiext aftern o o n , Bob, th e youngest son of th e household,
Durst in w ith th e new s th a t a b an d of B ritis h soldiers
were on th e w ay to search th e fa rm fo r B ran d t.
?T h ere is a b o at on th e riv e rb a n k ,? suggested Ben, th e
alder son. As B ra n d t dashed out of th e house he
tiearly ra n into H etty , a g irl of tw elve, w ho w as s p rin k н
ling some cloth to bleach it in th e sun. ? Tell th e
soldiers I have gone up th e ro ad w hile I g et aw ay in
the b o at,? he paused to say.
?I can ?t do th a t, cousin, it w ould n o t be tr u e .?
?B u t you w ould not b e tra y me to th e B ritish ,
H etty ??
?R un! I shall n o t tell th em w hich w ay.?
J u s t th e n th e band of B ritis h w ere h eard ap p ro ach н
ing.
? Q uick! Lie dow n w hile I cover you.?
W hen th e ca p ta in of th e band rode up w h ere H etty
was sp rin k lin g h e r cloth an d in q u ired if she had seen
i m an ru n n in g by, she replied, ? Yes, sir, b u t 1 p ro m н
ised n o t to tell w hich w ay.?
?B u t you m u st o r it w ill be th e w orse fo r you.?
?H e said he w as going fo r th e b o at b u t asked me
to tell you th a t he had gone up th e hill.?
2. T he one fa c t w hich re s tric ts th e mode of life and
n u tritio n of th e fu n g i is th e absence of chlorophyll
and th e ir consequent dependence on outside supplies
i f o rg an ic carbon and in m any cases of org an ic
nitrogen. F u n g i are, th e re fo re, com pelled to live on
m aterials derived fro m o th er p la n ts o r fro m anim als,
and a re eith e r p a ra site s on living o rg an ism s o r s a p ro н
phytes living on th e ir dead. T he la rg e m a jo rity a re
the la tte r and they, w ith th e b acteria, a re th e g re a t
agents of decay in n a tu re , th e m oulds a tta c k in g th e
fallen leaves an d branch es an d th e bodies of dead
anim als as well as stale foods an d dam p clothing. The
fungi afford some of th e best instan ces of sym biosis
ir th e living to g e th e r of d issim ilar o rg an ism s like th e
lichens an d algae, in w hich an alg a receives fro m th e
fungus w a te r and inorgan ic su bstances an d som etim es
protection fro m desiccation, w hile th e fu n g u s derives
its o rganic food supply fro m th e algae. A n o th er fo rm
af association betw een fu n g i an d h ig h e r p lan ts, know n
as'm y corhizas, consists of th e fu n g i g ro w in g in in tiн
mate rela tio n w ith or w ith in th e cells of th e roots of
higher plants. In th e case of th e orchids w hich a re
devoid of chlorophyll and m u st th e re fo re depend fo r
th eir whole supply of o rg an ic food on th e hum us in
w hich th e y live, th e re is no evidence th a t th e p lan ts
are able to u n d erta k e th is ab so rp tio n in th e absence
of th e fungus.
1. The sto ry is m ain ly ab o u t
I. B r a n d t?s escap e fro m th e f a r m 2. B ritis h p u r s u it
of B ra n d t 3. H e tty 's d a n g e r 4. H e tty ?s t r u th f u lн
ness 5. how H e tty sa v ed B r a n d t fro m c a p tu re
1
2. H ow did H e tty act w hen B ra n d t asked h e r
to lie to th e so ld iers?
6 . a s if a f r a id
7. ju d ic io u sly 8 . co w a rd ly 9. t r a i н
to ro u sly 1 0 . re s e n tf u lly - - - - - - - - 2
3. H ow did B ra n d t p ro b ab ly feel a t H e tty ?s
rep ly th a t she could n o t lie?
I I . so rro w fu l
12. c h a g rin e d
14. r e s e n tf u l 15. th a n k fu l - - -
13. re sp e c tfu l
- - -
3
4. In com ing to th e A tw ood hom e fo r p ro н
tection, B ra n d t w as
16. in c o n sid e ra te
19. h o n o rin g th e m
17. d esp ica b le 18. co u ra g eo u s
20. se lf-sa c rific in g - - -
4
5. The p a ra g ra p h is m ain ly about th e
21.
th in g s f u n g i a tta c k 2 2 . h a rm fu n g i do 23. w ay
fu n g i live 24. d iffe re n t k in d s of fu n g i 25. w h a t
foods f u n g i n eed - - - - - - -
5
6. F u n g i a re
26. n e c e s sa ry fo r th e g ro w th o f som e p la n ts la c k in g
ch lo ro p h y ll
27. alw a y s h a rm le s s
28. n e c e s sa ry
fo r th e g ro w th o f all p la n ts 29. alw a y s beneficial
30. h a rm fu l to th e a lg a e - - - - - - - 6
7. One of th e causes of th in g s ro ttin g is
31. lack of ch lo ro p h y ll 32. o rg a n ic c a rb o n 33. b acн
t e r i a 34. sy m b io sis 35. m y c o rh izas
- - - -
7
8. The process by w hich fu n g i help th e roots
of h ig h e r p la n ts to fu n ctio n is called
36. p a r a s ite s
37. sy m b io sis
39. d ecay 40. m y c o rh izas - - -
38. sa p ro p h y te s
- - -
8
9. M oulds th a t live on stale foods are
41. a lg a e 42. s a p ro p h ite s
45. b a c te ria - - - -
43. p a r a s ite s 44. lichens
- - - - -
9
10. F u n g i a re
46. a n im a ls too sm a ll to be seen 47. p la n ts too
sm a ll to be se en 48. m a in ly p a r a s ite s 49. a k in d
of p la n t 50. a k in d of a n im a l - - - - - 10
11. F ro m algae, lichens o btain
51. ch lo ro p h y ll
52. o rg a n ic c a rb o n
54. w a te r 55. c a rb o n dioxide - - -
53. o x y g en
- - H
12. T he dependence of fu n g i upon o th e r o rg a n н
ism s fo r th e ir food su p p ly is due to th e ir
56. b e in g p la n ts 57. tin y size 58. b e in g a g e n ts of
d ecay 59. la ck of in o rg a n ic su b sta n c e s 60. la c k o f
ch lo ro p h y ll
- - - - - - 12
3. G erry alw ays w an ted to jo in Bob and Roy w hen
th e y "went off to fish. She w anted to be tw elve and
a boy in stead of a g irl an d nine. W hen she begged to
go along th is m o rn in g th e y laughed and said, ? No girls
allow ed,? as usual.
W hen th e y prom ised h e r a p erch fo r supper, she
replied, ? I don?t w a n t your old fish.?
A s she lay in th e ham m ock, she h eard someone
com ing up th e w alk. ? Molly,? she th o u g h t; ?now I
shall have to p lay w ith h e r th e r e s t of th e d ay .?
B u t it tu rn e d out to be C ousin N ed in his navy
clothes. H e w as full of sto ries ab o u t how his boat
had crossed th e ocean m an y tim es am ong th e subн
m arines, b u t he could sta y only a couple of h ours and
th e boys would n o t be hom e u n til n ig h t. A sw ift
th o u g h t ra n th ro u g h h er m ind, b u t she w as asham ed
of it and w ished th e re w as some w ay to g et hold of
them . They w ere across th e b ay w ith th e boat. She
knew th e ir code of signals b u t th e y w ere too f a r aw ay
to h e a r her. R u n n in g to th e roof, she trie d sig n allin g
to th em w ith a m irro r to come home. A t first they
h esitated , b u t finally gave up th e ir sp o rt to come.
4. T he so-called economic in d iv id u alism is larg ely th e
product of clim atic conditions. W hen th e E ng lish m an
leaves his m oist an d fe rtile hom e fo r th e alm ost riv erless w astes of th e antipodes, he becomes, if n o t a
socialist, th e n ex t move to one. In A u stralia, we
accordingly find g o v ern m en t railro ad s, insurance,
steam ships, frozen-rneat in d u s try an d m any oth er
exam ples of g overn m en t in d u s try th a t would be viewed
w ith dism ay in th e m o th er co u n try . Likew ise th e
ard u o u s stru g g les w ith a rebellious soil an d an inhosн
p itab le clim ate caused th e A m erican of th e early n in eн
te e n th c en tu ry to tu r n to th e go v ern m en t fo r state
roads, canals, railro ad s, an d bounties. W hen, how ever,
th e m ountains had been crossed an d th e fe rtile valleys
of th e M iddle W est, w ith an a b u n d a n t ra in fa ll and a
genial clim ate, had been reached, p riv a te in itia tiv e
replaced governm en t assistan ce an d th e age of corн
p o ratio n s w as ushered in. The th e o ry of individualism
w as a n a tu ra l re su lt of th e economic, an d a t bottom
of th e clim atic, conditions of a new environm ent.
13. The p a ra g ra p h is m ainly ab o u t
l . _ a fishing- t r ip 2. a sailor?s a rrival 3. G e r r y ?s
tr ia ls 4. signaling: th e boys 5. M olly?s v is it II
14. T he ?sw ift th o u g h t? th a t
G e rry ?s m ind w as
ra n
th ro u g h
6.
8.
se rv e s th e m r ig h t 7. th e y w ill be d isa p p o in te d
I w ish th e boys w e re h ere 9. I m u s t g e t th e m
10. I w ish I w ere w ith th e m - - - - p
15. G erry ?s feeling fo r Molly w as one of
11. h a tin g 12. b ein g a n g r y 13. en v y 14. b ein g
b o red 15. l i k i n g ...................................................................... 11
4
16. The p a ra g ra p h is m ainly ab o u t
16. influence of clim a te 17. influence o f g o v e rn m e n t
18. e a rly A m e ric a n s e ttle rs 19. th e a g e of c o rp o ra н
tio n s 20. co n d itio n s in A u s tr a lia - - - - n
17. The g ro w th of in d u strial co rp o ratio n s in
A m erica w as in p a r t due to th e
21. reb e llio u s soil of th e E a s t 22. A lle g h e n y M ounн
ta in s 23. u n fa v o ra b le clim ate o f th e E a s t 24. f a v o r н
ab le clim a te o f th e M iddle W e s t 25. g r e a t p la in s
o f th e M iddle W e st
- - - - - - 1'
18. The build in g of sta te ro ads an d canals in
A m erica aro u n d 1800 w as in no sm all m easн
u re due to
26. p o litica l co n d itio n s
27. co n d itio n s of th e soil
28. tr a d e co n d itio n s
29. g ro w th o f p o p u la tio n 30. w e s tw a rd s e ttle m e n t If
19. In A m erica aro u n d 1800, th e re w as a la rg e
degree of g o vernm ent 31. in te rfe re n c e 32. conн
tr o l
33. o w n ersh ip
34. re g u la tio n
35. a s s is ta n c e
If
20. People?s a ttitu d e to w ard g o v ern m en t ac tiv н
ities is larg ely th e resu lt of
36. n a tio n a lity 37. p o litics 38. c lim a te 39. o w n e rн
sh ip 40. econom ic in d iv id u alism - - - - - 2(
21. In A u stralia, th e re is a la rg e degree of
go v ern m en t
4 1 . a s sista n c e 42. c o n tro l
43. in te rfe re n c e
44. re g u la tio n
45. o w n ersh ip
-
21
22. The a ttitu d e of E n gland to w a rd go v ern m en t
activ ities such as railro a d tra n s p o rta tio n
and in su ran ce h as been
46. d ecid ed ly fa v o ra b le
47. so m e w h a t fa v o ra b le
48. h o stile 49. in d iffe re n t 50. s lig h tly fa v o ra b le
25
5. The colonial fa rm e r w as his ow n blacksm ith, c a rн
pen ter, and ta n n e r and som etim es his own shoem aker
as well. E v ery housew ife could spin an d weave, m ake
soap and tallow candles. He h u n ted an d fished fo r
food as well as sp o rt. The fu rs he tra d e d fo r m oney
or supplies. H e cu t his h ay w ith a scythe and his
g ra in w ith a cradle an d th resh ed it w ith a flail. Plows,
h arro w s, an d c a rts w ere th e only fa rm im plem ents
d raw n by horses or oxen. E ven his f u r n itu re w as
usually hom em ade. People w ho lived in th e sam e
locality helped one an o th e r in clearin g land, in h a rv e stн
ing and corn husking, and a t q u iltin g s and b a rn r a is н
ings. T hese g a th e rin g s of n eig h b o rs to w ork to g eth er,
called ?bees,? w ere rollicking social events enjoyed to
th e full, w hile w eddings w ere joyous occasions a t which
th e re w as g re a t deal of g aiety and ro u g h sp o rt in
c o n tra st w ith th e solem nity of th e long religious
services.
23. The p a ra g ra p h is m ainly about colonial
51. life on th e f a r m s 52. in d u strie s 53. f a r m to o ls
54. hom e f u rn is h in g s 55. social g a th e r in g s - 23
24. L ife on a colonial fa rm w as
56. e a sy 57. d a n g e ro u s 58. h u rrie d 59. rig o ro u s
60. m o n o to n o u s - - - - - - - 24
25. Social life in a colonial neighborhood w as
61. a r is to c r a tic 62. b o istero u s.......63. a rtific ia l.64. r e н
fined 65. in sip id - - 25
6. In th e g ard en in fro n t of a little one room cottag e
am ong th e rocks s a t P ietro , a lad of tw elve, an d his
g ran d m o th er, E lizab etta, b ra id in g straw . He h ad to
do th e w ork of his little sister, B ianca, who h ad n o t
lived, w hen he w an ted to do a m a n ?s w ork. W hen
E lizab e tta saw th e splices in his w ork, she chided him ,
?B ianca would have been p atien t, as w as your m o th er.?
Once w hen he w ent to th e m a rk e t to buy m ore s tra w
fo r E lizabetta, he stopped to look a t a p ic tu re th a t a
w hite h a ire d a r tis t w as p ain tin g . ? T here is som ething
w rong w ith your p ictu re, s i r ; one shadow is longer
th a n th e o th e r.? ?A nd w h at do you do, m y b o y ??
asked th e p ain ter. ? P ain t, as everyone else in Ita ly
seem s to do?? P ie tro did n o t w an t to tell w h at he did,
but a t la st th e a r tis t drew his sto ry fro m him . A few
m ornings la te r w hen P ie tro an d E lizab e tta re tu rn e d
fro m church, th e a r tis t w as s ittin g in f ro n t of th e ir
cottage. A fte r some w ords of g reetin g , th e s tra n g e r
suggested to E lizab etta, ? Down in th e city, th e re is a
g irl of fifteen w ho longs to le a rn th e a r t of stra w b ra id in g and w ho could te ach h e r b e tte r th a n you?
She could ta k e P ie tro ?s place w hile he comes to live
w ith m e.?
7. B alance, m easure, and patience, th ese a re th e
etern al conditions of hig h success, an d these a re ju s t
w h at th e sen tim en tal Celt h as never had. E ven in th e
w orld of sp iritu a l creation, he has never, in sp ite of
his ad m irab le g ifts of quick percep tio n an d w arm
em otion, succeeded p erfectly because he n ev er h as h ad
steadiness, patience, sa n ity enough to comply w ith th e
conditions u n d er w hich alone can expression be p e rн
fectly given to th e finest perceptions and em otions.
The G reek h as th e sam e perceptive, em otional te m p e ra н
m ent as th e C e lt; b u t to th is te m p eram en t he adds th e
sense of m e a su re ; hence his ad m irab le success in th e
plastic a rts , in w hich th e C eltic genius w ith its chafing
a g ain st th e despotism of fact, its p erp etu al s tra in in g
a fte r m ere em otion, has accom plished n othing. In th e
com paratively p e tty a r t of o rn am en tatio n , in rin g s,
brooches, relic-cases, he h as done ju s t enough to show
his delicacy of ta ste , his h ap p y te m p e ra m e n t; b u t th e
g ran d difficulties of p a in tin g an d scu lp tu re, th e p ro н
longed dealings of s p irit and m a tte r, he has n ev er h ad
patience fo r. T ake th e m ore sp iritu a l a r ts of m usic
and poetry. All th a t em otion alone can do in m usic
the Celt has d o n e ; th e v ery soul of em otion b reath es
in th e Scotch and Iris h a i r s ; b u t w h a t has th e Celt,
so eag er fo r em otion th a t he h as n o t h ad p atience fo r
science, accom plished in m usic in com parison w ith th e
less em otional b u t science developing G erm an? In
poetry, w here em otion counts fo r so m uch, b u t w here
reason, m easure, s a n ity also count fo r so m uch, th e
Celt has show n genius b u t his fa u lts have h in d ered
him fro m pro d u cin g g re a t w orks such as o th er g re a t
nations w ith a genius fo r p o etry ? th e G reeks or
Italian s ? have produced. I f his rebellion a g a in st fa c t
has lam ed th e Celt in sp iritu a l w ork, how m uch m ore
t h as lam ed him in business an d politics!
26. T he p a ra g ra p h is m ainly about
1. a n a r t i s t 2. P ie tr o ?s w o rk S. P ie tr o ?s s is te r
4. P ie tr o ?s good fo rtu n e 5. P ie tr o ?s g r a n d m o th e r
26
27. To E lizab etta, th e a r tis t w as
6 . ta c tf u l
7. o v e rb e a rin g
10. d ec eitfu l - - - -
8 . ch id in g
- - -
9. s a rc a s tic
- - 27
28. T he p a ra g ra p h is m ainly ab o u t th e
11. C eltic te m p e ra m e n t 12. a r t s o f p a in tin g , m usic,
a n d p o e try 13. sh o rtc o m in g s o f th e C elt 14. Celtic
em o tio n s 15. co n d itio n s o f h ig h success 28
29. The C elt h as accom plished least in
16.
19.
m u sic
17. a r t o f o rn a m e n ta tio n
18. p o e try
sc u lp tu re 20. p o litics
- - - - - 20
30. P e rfe c t expression can be given to th e finest
p ercep tio n s only w hen th e re is
21.
24.
a h a p p y te m p e ra m e n t
reb e llio n a g a in s t f a c ts
22. s a n ity 23. re a so n
25. love o f p o e try - 30
31. The G erm an su rp asse s th e Celt in
26. em o tio n a l fe e lin g 27. h a p p in e s s te m p e ra m e n t
28. quick p e rc e p tio n 29. d e a lin g w ith f a c ts 30. d eliн
cacy o f ta s te
- - - - - - - 31
32. One of th e shortcom ings of th e Celt is his
31. w a r m th o f em o tio n s
32, w a n t o f p a tie n c e
33. h a p p in e ss o f te m p e ra m e n t
34. q u ick n ess o f
p e rc e p tio n 35. d elicacy of ta s te - - - - - 32
33. H ig h success calls fo r
36. w a rm em o tio n
lio n a g a in s t f a c ts
40. b a lan c e - - -
37. d elicacy of t a s te 38. re b e lн
39. s tr a in in g a f te r em o tio n
- - - - - - 33
34. A m ong th e C elts a re th e
41. G reek s
45. R o m an s
42. G erm a n s 43. S cotch
- - - - - - -
44. I ta lia n s
- - -
34
Page 10,
8. In a ty p ical flower, th e re a re fo u r d istin c t w horls,
a n o u te r calyx of sepals, u sually g reen in color an d
p ro tectiv e in fu n c tio n ; w ith in it is th e corolla of petals,
com m only highly colored to a ttr a c t in sects; n e x t th e
androecium of stam en s, a ris in g fro m receptacles
w ith in th e p etals an d co n sistin g each of a stalk , th e
filam ent, on w hich is a n a n th e r co n tain in g th e pollen
sacs fro m w hich th e pollen is u ltim ately discharged,
an d in th e cen ter th e p istil or gynoecium of carpels
w hich is m ade up o f stig m a, style and ovary, an d a fte r
flow ering, is enlarg ed to fo rm th e f r u it an d co ntain
th e seeds. The p a r ts of th e calyx a re som etim es fre e
o r sep arate, a t o th e r tim es u n ite d ; in th e fo rm e r case,
th e calyx is polysepalous, in th e la tte r gam osepalous.
A corolla is dipetalous, trip etalo u s, etc., acco rd in g as
it has tw o, th ree , etc., s e p a ra te p a r ts ; th e g en eral
nam e polypetalous is given to corollas w ith se p a ra te
p a rts , w hile those in w hich th e p a rts a re u nited a re
m onopetalous, gam opetalous o r sym petalous.
The
filam ents m ay cohere to a g re a te r o r lesser extent,
th e a n th e rs re m a in in g free. T hus, all th e filam ents
m ay u n ite to fo rm a tu b e a ro u n d th e p istil, in w hich
case th e te rm m onodelphous is used, or th e y m ay be
a rra n g e d in tw o bundles (diadelphous) as in th e pea.
W hen a gynoecium consists of a single carpel it is
sim ple or m onocarpellary, w hen com posed of several
carpels, each of w hich h as its own ovary, style, an d
stigm a, it is com pound or polycarpeilary.
9. The com posite racial o rig in s of th e F re n c h race,
th e ir im m em orial co n tact w ith th e R om an an d o th er
M ed iterran ean an d N e a r-E a s te rn civilizations before
and a fte r th e C rusades, th e political preem inence of
th e n atio n in several la te r centuries, have no doubt
le ft th e ir im p rin t in th e h ig h level of intelligence,
taste, a rtis tic and creativ e pow er th a t ch ara cterize th e
p resen t population. F ra n c e rem a in s in th e economic
dom ain th e p rin cip al w o rld ?s p u rv ey o r of fine q u ality
of lu x u ry goods, and of w orks of a rt, w hich by th e ir
co n stan tly ch an g in g n a tu re , fan cifu ln ess, ta ste, quality,
and finish a ttr a c t th e m ore fastid io u s an d d isc rim in a tн
in g classes in m ost civilized countries. T he p rim a ry
notes of F ren ch pro d u ctio n re ta in th is in d iv id u ality
and inventiveness, d espite ce rta in oncom ing an d m ore
pronounced in d u strializatio n . These q u alities explain
th e vigour of th e sm all in d u stries in F ra n c e ? th e host
of P a ris trad e s, jew elery, artificial flowers, toys, disн
tin ctiv e creatio n s in in n u m erab le b ran ch es, as well as
th e specialization in so m any tex tile an d o th e r in d u sн
trie s th a t have been now organized on la rg e r lines th a n
fo rm erly . T he p ersisten ce of th ese tr a its also explains
how F ra n c e still co n tain s a v ery la rg e body of sm all
m aster, and of skilled w o rk ers form ed by them , w hose
in h e rited intellectual an d a rtis tic cu rio sity is extrem ely
keen. T he gen eral population h as n o t been overн
w helm ed to th e sam e ex te n t as m ost w estern E u ro p ea n
n atio n s by u rb an iz atio n an d in d u strializatio n .
35. The p a ra g ra p h is m ainly about
I . s tr u c tu r e o f flow ers
2 . v a ria tio n s in flow ers
3. fu n c tio n s o f d iffe re n t p a r ts o f a flow er 4. in te r н
re la tio n sh ip o f d iffe re n t p a r ts o f a flow er 5. evoluн
tio n o f flow ers - - - - - - 35
36. T he p istil contains
6 . p e ta ls 7. se p als 8 . s tig m a s 9. a n th e r s
10. filaн
m e n ts - - - - - - - - - - - - - 36
37. W hen th e p etals of a flower a re sep arate,
th e corolla is
I I . p o ly p e talo u s
14. sy m p e ta lo u s
12. d ia p e ta lo u s 13. m o n o p e talo u s
15. g a m o p e ta lo u s - - - - 37
38. T he p a rts of a flower th a t grow out of th e
p etals a re th e
16. se p a ls 17. c a rp e ls 18. s tig m a s
20. a n th e rs - - - - - -
19. sta m e n s
- - 38
39. T he developm ent and d is trib u tio n of th e
pollen is a fu n ctio n of
21. co ro lla
25. o v arie s
-
22. s ta m e n s
- - -
23. s ty le s
24. ca ly x
- - - - 39
40. T he stam en s a re usually
26. g re e n 27. p a r ts of th e co ro lla 28. h ig h ly colored
29. p ro te c tiv e in fu n c tio n 30. b e a re rs of th e po llen
sa cs
- - - - - - - - - 40
41. The p a ra g ra p h is m ainly ab o u t F re n c h
31. c u ltu re 32. econom ic c h a ra c te ris tic s 33. p ro d u cts
34. in d u s tria l ch a n g es 35. tr a d e r e la tio n s - - 41
42. T he goods produced by F ra n c e a re m ainly
th in g s th a t a re b o u g h t because th e y a re
36. need ed
39. en jo y ed
37. tim e sa v in g
40. c o stly
- - -
38. la b o r sa v in g
- - - - - -
42
43. The creativ e pow er of th e F re n c h is exн
pressed m ainly in th e ir
41. m a k in g of th in g s b e a u tifu l 42. m ach in e p ro d u c н
tio n 43. in d u s tria l o rg a n iz a tio n s 44. in v e n tio n s of
m a c h in e ry 45. se llin g ab ilitie s
- - - - - 43
44. The in d u stries of F ran ce a re m ainly
46. la rg e w ith h ig h ly sp ecialized a c tiv itie s 47. of
th e hom e m a n u fa c tu rin g ty p e 48. of a m ach in e
p ro d u ctio n n a tu re 49. o rg a n iz e d f o r m a ss p ro d u cн
tio n 50. sm a ll a n d h ig h ly sp ecialized in o u tp u t 44
45. The co ntact of th e F ren ch w ith th e civilizaн
tio n s of th e M ed iterran ean an d N e a r E a s t
h as been
51. v e ry b rie f 52.- v e ry re c e n t 53. o v er a lo n g
p erio d 54. only v e ry rem o te 55. of lit tle co n seн
........................................................................................ 4 5
q uence
Page 11
10. ? I f you will b u t help me, H an n ah , w ith th e
candle-dipping you will fo rg e t to f r e t all day long about
the hom ecom ing of fa th e r an d N ath a n ie l,? said S a ra h
W ad sw o rth to h e r d au g h ter. ?B u t it is now tw o w eeks
since th e y s ta rte d aw ay w ith th e sledge to b rin g us
back th e wood fo r th e w in ter. F a th e r said it would
tak e no longer th a n ten days an d th e re have been
sto rm s an d th e re a re In d ia n s.? N ot u n til th re e w eeks
la te r did a little In d ia n boy, Joe, h a lf fro zen an d alm ost
breathless, come b eatin g a t th e door. On th e piece of
b irch b a rk th a t he th r u s t in to M rs. W ad sw o rth ?s h an d s
w as w ritte n , ?We a re safe b u t th e In d ia n s w ill n o t
let us go w ith o u t g ifts of beads an d corn. Send some
m en to fetch us.? E a rly th e n ex t m o rn in g a la rg e
p a rty of m en fro m th e n e a rb y hom es w ere follow ing
Joe w ith g ifts fo r th e r e tu r n of N ath an iel an d his
fa th e r.
1 1 . W e alw ays find th e w arm est a ir a t th e to p of a
room. W hen th e a ir is heated, it expands, becomes
lig h ter in w eight, and is th e n pushed up by th e h eav ier
cold a ir. All aro u n d th e E q u ato r, th e a ir heated by
th e m ore d irec t ra y s of th e sun is pushed up by th e
cooler a ir flow ing in fro m b o th th e n o rth an d th e south.
The g re a t stream s of cool a ir blow ing to w a rd th e
E q u a to r a re called th e tra d e w inds. A s th e e a rth
tu rn s fro m w est to w ard th e east, th e w inds lag behind
the solid e a rth . Hence, th e y come fro m th e n o rth e a st
in th e n o rth e rn hem isphere an d fro m th e so u th east in
the so u th ern hem isphere. The w arm a ir pushed up a t
th e E q u a to r flows to w ard th e N o rth an d S outh Poles
and is called th e a n ti-tra d e w inds. B ecause th e e a rth
tu rn s fa s te r a t th e E q u a to r th a n a t th e Poles, th e
a n ti-tra d e w inds in th e n o rth e rn h em isp h ere blow fro m
the so uthw est w hile those in th e so u th ern h em isphere
blow fro m th e n o rth w est. The a ir in free circu latio n
alw ays contains w a te r vapor. W arm a ir can hold m ore
th a n colder air. W hen th e w arm a ir is cooled, th e
w ater v ap o r condenses as ra in . The w arm a ir pushed
up in th e eq u ato rial regio n holds m uch w a te r vapor,
w hich is cooled as it is pushed u p w ard an d flows
tow ard th e poles.
12. T w enty-seven y ears ago, Je a n V al Je a n had
escaped fro m prison.
In th e m eanw hile, he had
reform ed and w as now M onsieur M adeleine, m ay o r of
M___________ A t A rra s, a d ay ?s d riv e aw ay, an o th er
m an w as being trie d as J e a n V al Jean . To give
him self up to save th e innocent v ictim would m ean
exchanging th e house he h ad b uilt, his books, his
w ritings, his w alks in th e fields, fo r th e galley crew ,
;he iro n collar, th e chain a t his foot, th e dungeon, th e
plank bed, h o rro rs w hich he knew so w e ll! F o r h o u rs
le h ad w alked th e floor. B u t now th e c a rria g e he had
ordered w as w aitin g . A few m iles along an d a w heel
*ave out. I t could n o t be fixed u n til th e n ex t d ay an d
io o th e r conveyance w as to be h ad to reac h A r r a s in
:ime f o r th e tria l. H e h ad fa ith fu lly ex h au sted every
means to reach A rra s. T hen a w om an offered to
rent him h e r carriag e. In th is he reach ed th e co u rt
room a t A rra s ju s t in tim e to h e a r tw o convicts sw ear
;hat th e p riso n e r w as J e a n V al Jean . I t w as evident
bhat th e m an w as lost u n til th e new com er pushed
bhrough th e crow d an d exclaim ed, ?R elease th e
iccused. H e is n o t th e m a n you seek. I am Je a n
Vsl\ J e a n .?
46. T he p a ra g ra p h is m ainly ab o u t N ath an iel
and h is f a th e r ?s
. f a ilu re to r e tu r n 2 . c a p tu re b y In d ia n s 3. hom e
com ing 4. tr ip f o r w ood 5. resc u e b y h is n eig h b o rs 46
I
47. The W ad sw o rth fam ily lived
6.
8.
in th e m o u n ta in s 7. on a c le a rin g in th e w oods
in a v illa g e 9. n e a r a f o r e s t 10. on a lo n ely f a r m 47
48. The long absence of N ath an iel an d his
f a th e r m ade M rs. W ad sw o rth
I I . v e ry h a p p y 12. fe e l im p o r ta n t 13. v e ry lo n ely
14. v e ry f r e tf u l 15. v e ry an x io u s
- - - - 48
49. The p a ra g ra p h is m ain ly ab o u t
16. te m p e r a tu re 17. d irec tio n o f w inds 18. e x p a n н
sion o f th e a ir 19. th e E q u a to r 20. r a in f a ll 49
50. In th e n o rth e rn hem isphere, th e cold w inds
blow fro m th e
21. s o u th w e st 22. s o u th e a s t 23. w e st 24. n o r th e a s t
25. n o rth w e s t
- - - - - - 50
51. In th e so u th ern hem isphere, th e cold w inds
blow fro m th e
26. so u th w e st 27. s o u th e a s t
w e st 30. n o r th e a s t
- - -
28. n o rth
- - -
52. In th e so u th ern hem isphere,
w inds blow fro m th e
31. s o u th w e st 32. s o u th e a s t
w e st 35. n o r th e a s t
- - -
29. n o r th н
- 51
th e
33. s o u th
- - -
w arm
34. n o r th н
- 52
53. W hich of th ese w inds blows over th e B ritis h
Isles w ith its d am p clim ate an d location
n o rth of th e E q u a to r?
36. so u th w e s t w in d 37. n o rth w e s t w in d 38. tr a d e
w in d 39. n o r th e a s t w in d 40. s o u th e a s t w in d 53
54. The paragraph is m ainly about Jean Val
Jean?s
41. life at M_____
44. re fo rm
A rra s
42. surrender 43. journey to
45. m o ral s tr u g g le 54
55. Jean Val Jean?s life at M
had been
hard 47. monotonous 48. pleasant 49. turbulent
50. e x tra v a g a n t - - - - - - - - - - 55
46.
56. How did the prisoner probably feel toward
the two convicts?
51. sorry 52. forgiving 53. thankful 54. helpful
55. revengeful - - - - - - 56
Page 12.
13. In th e th irte e n th cen tu ry , C hina w as f a r ahead
o f F ran ce, S pain, E n g lan d , G erm any, o r Italy , th o u g h
in Ita ly b u rn ed b rig h te s t th e flam e of W estern culture.
W hy h as th e lead ersh ip passed fro m th e E a s t to th e
W est in seven sh o rt cen tu ries? The first an d r a th e r
fla tte rin g an sw er is th a t th e w h ite race is in trin sically
a su p erio r race. T he en g in eerin g fe a t o f build in g th e
fam ous g re a t w all of C hina, in com parison w ith w hich
th e building of th e tra n sc o n tin e n ta l ra ilro a d is a comн
p ara tiv e ly sm all m a tte r, su g g ests th a t th e C hinese a re
n o t in fe rio r in abilities. R a th e r, th e W est owes its
fav o rab le position to th e idea of science, a n a ttitu d e
th a t looks a t life, d eterm in es its m ethods of o p eratio n
an d a d ju sts th e m to h u m an needs, a d esire to find out
how th e outside en v iro n m en t in w hich we live w orks,
coupled w ith th e d esire to in crease pow er to control it.
T he first consciously to develop th is view w as L eonardo
da Vinci, b u t Galileo, K epler, N ew ton, an d a h o st of
o th e rs should be p erm a n en tly g re a t nam es in ou r
h isto ry , fo r th e y m ade significant co n trib u tio n s to th e
extension of th is w ay of looking a t th in g s an d life.
Science w as larg ely responsible fo r th e in d u stria l
revolution, fo r in d u stry , by itself, is s ta g n a n t and
s ta tic ; science is needed to m ake it p ro g ressiv e and
dynam ic. In th e O rient, th e re a re m an y places w here
th e spinning-w heel, p o tte r?s wheel, an d o th e r tools
such as w ere used in th e O ccident cen tu ries ago are
s till in use.
14. The people of A th en s an d S p a rta spoke a comн
m on language, G reek. A thens, risin g h ig h fro m th e
plain and exposed to th e fre s h breezes fro m th e sea,
w as a f a s t gro w in g city of b u sy tra d e , b u t n o t so busy
b u t th a t th e freem en loved to sit in th e su n and
discuss p o etry or listen to th e w ise w ords of a philosoн
p h e r w ith o u t a th o u g h t of w ar. S p a rta , b u ilt a t th e
bottom of a deep valley, used th e su rro u n d in g m ounн
ta in s as a b a r r ie r to fo reig n th o u g h t. I t w as an
a rm e d cam p, w here th e people knew how to fight and
liked to fight, b u t th e y n ev er w ro te a line th a t w as
considered lite ra tu re . W hen A thens, attack e d by th e
P e rsia n s in su p erio r n um bers, asked aid of S p a rta , too
sm all an arm y w as d isp atch ed to keep A th en s fro m
being sacked by th e P ersian s, b u t w hen th e P e rsia n s
w ith th e ir la rg e r n u m b ers th re a te n e d to o v erru n all
Greece, th e S p a rta n s led th e victo rio u s land a tta c k on
th e P e rsia n s w hile th e A th en ian ships destroyed th e
enem y?s fleet. F am o u s sculptors, p a in te rs, an d scienн
tis ts w ere sought f a r an d w ide to help reb u ild th e
c ity of A th en s an d m ake it m ore b eau tifu l b u t a t th e
sam e tim e h ig h w alls w ere b u ilt to m ake it th e
s tro n g e st fo rtre s s of th a t day, s tro n g e r by f a r th a n
S p a rta , despite th e fa c t th a t th e P e rs ia n s h ad been
com pletely broken.
57. The p a ra g ra p h is m ainly ab o u t
A . C h in a?s g r e a t w all <-2. n a tiv e s u p e rio r ity o f th e
w h ite ra c e 3. th e influence of scien ce 4. th e in d u sн
tr ia l rev o lu tio n 5. how o u r e n v iro n m e n t w o rk s 5'
58. T he kin d of lead ersh ip th a t h as passed fro m
C hina to th e w h ite race is lead ersh ip in
6 . co n tro l o v er fo rc es of n a tu re
7 . p ro m o tio n of
h a p p in e ss 8 . social re la tio n s
9. d ev e lo p m e n t of
c h a r a c te r 10. lite r a tu r e and a r t - - - - - 5!
59. T he lead ersh ip of th is w h ite race is due to
1 1 . its n a tiv e s u p e rio r ity 1 2 . th e in d u s tria l re v o lu н
tio n 13. its g e o g ra p h ic a l lo catio n 14. th e a ttitu d e
o f science 15. its e n g in e e rin g f e a ts - - - - 5!
60. The notion th a t th e C hinese a re in fe rio r to
th e w h ite race in nativ e ab ility is
16. u n d o u b te d ly tr u e 17. n o t su p p o rte d b y com н
p a r a tiv e ly e a rly ac h ie v em e n ts
18. s u p p o rte d b y
fa c ts 19. a b elief am o n g th e Chinese^ 2 0 . fla tte r in g
to th e C hinese - - - - - - 6<
61. The p a ra g ra p h is m ainly ab o u t th e
21. P e rs ia n a tta c k up o n A th en s 22. u n io n o f S p a r ta
an d A th e n s 23. reb u ild in g of A th e n s 24. d e s tru c н
tio n o f th e P e rs ia n a tta c k e r s
25. th e c o n tr a s t
b etw e en A th e n s an d S p a rta - - - - 61
62. A thens and S p a rta had sim ilar
26.
30.
speech 27. id eals
a ttitu d e s
- - -
28.in te r e s ts
- - - - - -
29.
- -
id e as
61
63. The S p a rta n s evidently looked upon th e
g ro w th of A thens w ith
31.
35.
su sp icio n 32. a d m ira tio n
fe a r - - - - - -
33. en v y
- - - -
34. p rid e
- -
6c
64. The th in g w hich th e S p a rta n s and A th eн
n ian s had in common w as
36. tra in e d a rm y 37. fo re ig n tr a d e
38. lite r a r y
p ro d u cts 39. la n g u a g e 40. in te r e s t in a r t
64
65. A fte r th e d efeat of th e P ersian s, th e feeling
th a t g rew up betw een th e A th en ian s and
S p a rta n s w as one of
41. co o p e ratio n
42. h o s tility
44. h e lp fu ln e ss 45. sy m p a th y -
43. tr u s tf u ln e s s
- - - 6г
66. B efore th e P e rsia n W ar, S p a rta an d A th en s
w ere evidently
46. b itte r enem ies
47. v ery f rie n d ly
48. u n ite d
p o litica lly 49. keen riv a ls 50. v e ry c o o p e ra tiv e
6(
Page 13
L5. N ever shall I fo rg e t th e m o rn in g w hen m y f a th e r
:hanged his la st m easu re of g ra in fo r a shaw l of
icarlet cloth frin g e d w ith silver, w hich he th re w
iround m y shoulders. A fte r he h ad decked m y head
vith flowers, he led m e ginto th e m a rk e t place w h ere a
concourse of people w ere w a itin g fo r th e p u rch ase
>f slaves. P ro u d w as I w hen several ta le n ts w ere
iffered fo r me. W hen m y f a th e r scowled an d refu sed
he money, I th o u g h t he m u st be play in g a gam e an d
aughed. E ven w hen an elderly m an asked m e w ith
lolicitude if I w as h u n g ry I laughed ag ain fo r m y
fa th e r had n o urished m e m ost carefu lly an d p le n tiн
fully. B u t X an th u s, w a itin g fo r no answ er, took out
)f a sack, w hich one of his slaves c arried a t his side,
i cake of w heaten bread, an d a piece of honey-com b
ind gave th em to me. T he honey-com b I held to m y
n th e r ?s m outh. He dashed it to th e g ro u n d ; bu t,
ieizing th e bread, began to devour it ferociously. This,
oo, I th o u g h t w as play an d began to laugh, b u t
Xanthus looked a t him like one a fra id , an d sm ote th e
:ake fro m him , cry in g aloud, ? N am e th e p rice .? My
!a th e r placed m e in his arm s, n am in g a p rice m uch
)elow w h a t th e o th e r had offered. B u t w hile X an th u s
vas counting out th e silver, m y f a th e r seized th e cake
igain, fo r his h u n g e r w as ex asp erated by th e ta s te
md th e delay. Suddenly th e re w as a tu m u lt. T u rn ng a ro u n d in th e old w om an?s bosom w ho h ad received
ne fro m X an th u s, I saw m y beloved f a th e r s tru g g lin g
>n th e ground, livid an d speechless. The m ore violent
ny cries th e m ore rap id ly th e y h u rrie d m e a w a y ; an d
nany w ere soon betw een us.
16.
T he C hinese w ork h a rd fo r a living, b u t w hen
hey have enough to live on, th ey live on it, going to
he th e a tre , listen in g to a scholar, ad m irin g a r t of an
a r lie r tim e, o r leisurely w alk in g in b eau tifu l scenery,
n stead of try in g to au g m en t th e ir w ealth, as m any
V esterners do, to buy w orks of a r t a t fabulous prices
o im press th e ir neighbors. A m ong ourselves, th e
)eople who a re re g a rd e d as m oral lu m in aries a re
hose w ho forego pleasures them selves an d find comjensation in in te rfe rin g w ith th e pleasu re of others,
n C hina a m an is expected to be resp ectfu l to his
>arents, kind to his children, generous to poor relaions, an d courteous to all ? duties n o t v ery difficult
o fulfill, b u t actu ally c a rrie d out. T hey a d m it in
heory th a t th e re a re occasions w hen it is p ro p e r to
ight, an d in p ractice th a t th ese occasions a re so r a r e
h a t m ilita ry leaders w ho ap p eal to force find th a t no
ne, n o t even th e ir ow n soldiers, ta k e th e m serio u sly ;
whereas we hold in th e o ry th a t th e re a re no occasions
idxen it is p ro p e r to fight an d in p ractice devote a p a r t
f th e w onderful skill an d efficiency we develop in
la n u fa c tu re to th e m a k in g of guns, poison gases, an d
irp la n e s to kill each o th e r wholesale, w hile th e r e s t
s devoted to th e m ak in g of ships, autom obiles, teleihones, an d o th e r m eans of liv in g lu x u rio u sly a t h ig h
?ressure.
67. T he p a ra g ra p h is m ain ly ab o u t a
I . slav e m a rk e t
2 . f a th e r ?s sacrifice
S. g ir l sold
in to s la v e ry
4. w icked f a th e r
5. m a n b ein g
tra m p le d u p o n ................................................. _ _ _ _
57
68. The fa th e r sold his d a u g h te r so th a t
6 . he m ig h t h av e m o n ey
7. h e w ould n o t h av e to
ta k e c a re of h e r 8 . he could do a s h e w a n te d to
9. he w ould be av e n g ed 10. sh e w o u ld n o t s ta rv e
68
69. W hen th e f a th e r sold h is d au g h ter, it was
a tim e of
I I . c e le b ra tio n
12. d e b a u c h e ry
14. re jo ic in g 15. w a r - - - - - -
-
13. fa m in e
- 69
70. T he f a th e r sold his d a u g h te r to X an th u s
r a th e r th a n th e first b id d e r because
16. he tr u s te d X a n th u s 17. X a n th u s offered m o re
m oney 18. X a n th u s w as o ld er 19. X a n th u s h ad
slav es 20. he fe a re d th e firs t b id d e r m ig h t n o t p a y 70
71. The f a th e r ?s a ttitu d e to w ard h is d au g h te r
w as one of
21.
24.
cold-bloodedness
f e a r 25. h a tre d
22. c ru e lty
23. d ev o tio n
- - - - - 71
72. The f a th e r ?s action in selling h is d au g h te r
to X an th u s w as one of
26.
29.
m e rc y
c ru e lty
27. selfish n ess
30. r a p a c ity
28. co w ard lin ess
- - 72
73. X an th u s w as a m an of g re a t
31. w e a lth
32. p o w er
33. a m b itio n
34. u n d e rн
sta n d in g 35. ru d e n e ss - - - - - 73
74. A w ord th a t ch aracterizes th e activ ities of
th e C hinese is
36. h y p o c risy 37. m o d e ra tio n 38. p ro g re s s 39. d isн
p la y 40. p o w er - - - - - - - - - - 74
75. A w ord th a t ch ara cterizes th e people of th e
w estern n atio n s in c o n tra st to th e C hinese is
41.
44.
k in d lin ess
v e n e ra tio n
42. m o d e ra tio n
45. h y p o c risy -
43. a p p re c ia tio n
- - - 75
Page 14,
17. J u s t as a t an y e a rlie r date, th e scien tist looked
first upon th e m olecule an d th e n upon th e ato m as th e
u ltim a te elem ent of m a tte r, so to d ay he envisages all
th e stu ff of th e u n iv erse in te rm s of electrons and
protons, th e neg ativ e an d positive electricities w hich
w ere e a rlie r assum ed to ex plain all electrical p h eн
nom ena. So now we say th a t m a tte r is g ra n u la r in
s tru c tu re an d electrical in n a tu re .
The co n stan t
change an d m otion of m a tte r w hich a p p e a r as chem iн
cal, electrical, o r g ra v ita tio n a l phenom ena a re ascrib ed
to energy, th e existence of w hich is an in feren ce fro m
th e m otions involved in th e changes th a t occur in th e
form , chem ical com position, o r location of bodies of
m a tte r. Only in th is k in etic fo rm can it be m easu red
or detected, fo r betw een such occasions it m asks its
p o ten tialities an d ap p e a rs as harm less as th e explosive
shell, th e h ig h ten sio n w ires, or th e re se rv o ir of still
w a te r in th e hills above th e hydro electric p lan t. To
fill th e b ro ad spaces in w hich o u r tan g ib le an d p o n d erн
able m a tte r fo rm s m ere specks, a v ast eth e r is assum ed
th ro u g h w hich en erg y m ay be tra n s m itte d fro m one
body to an o th er, w h eth er as lig h t o r h eat fro m so lar
bodies, or as so-called e th e r w aves fro m a rad io b ro ad н
c astin g s ta tio n to a receiving set. Of th e th re e en tities
of m a tte r, energy, an d e th e r ? e th e r is th e m ost
debatable assum ptio n , fo r en erg y m ay n o t be tr a n s н
m itte d th ro u g h a continuous eth ereal m edium b u t
h u rtle d th ro u g h space like a bullet, fo r w hich th e re
is m uch evidence. In a science w here th e e th e r is a
convenient p o stu late an d en erg y a form less unknow n,
th e electron stan d s o ut in s ta r k re a lity as a definite
ponderable p article, th e tin y m a te ria l and u ltim a te
elem ent of th e universe.
18,
As soon as I had sh o t th e buffalo, all th e village
cam e ru n n in g an d sh o u tin g , an d th e squaw s g ath ered
a ro u n d th e dead anim al, jo stlin g and elbow ing each
o th e r as th e y to re off th e m eat. I t is th e In d ia n ru le
th a t gam e is com m on p ro p erty , an d m y buffalo w as
soon reduced to a pile of bones by th e knives of th e
busy squaw s. I could n o t help lau g h in g as I w atched
th em stru g g lin g fo r th e choice m orsels. F irs t, th e
skin w as carefu lly rem oved, an d th e n th e m uscle an d
g ristle cut aw ay. Then, ju s t as a squaw w as ab o u t
to ta k e th e coveted p a rt, she w ould be ru d ely th r u s t
aside, an d some o th e r squaw would ta k e it. These
exploits w ere received w ith loud shouts of la u g h ter,
a n d no ill te m p e r or q u a rre lin g w as observed am ong
th e excited crow d of w om en who su rro u n d ed th e
carcass.
76. T he p a ra g ra p h is m ainly ab o u t
I . n a tu r e of e n e rg y
2 . n a tu r e of m a tte r , e n e rg y ,
a n d e th e r 3. u ltim a te elem en t o f m a tte r 4. elecн
tric a l a n d g r a v ita tio n a l p h en o m en a 5. k in e tic fo rm
of e n e rg y - - - - - - - - - - - - 7
77. H eat fro m th e sun is th o u g h t of as
6.
8.
g r a v ita tio n a l p h en o m en a
7. e th e r w av e s
m o tio n o f bodies
9. tra n s m is s io n of e n e rg y
10, chem ical p h en o m en a - - - - - 7
78. T angible m a tte r is th o u g h t by scien tists to
consist of
. e lec tro n s an d p ro to n s
1 2 . th e e th e r in sp ace
13. g r a v ita tio n a l p h en o m en a
14. e n e rg y in its
k in e tic fo rm 15. e th e r w aves - - - - - 7:
II
79. The sm allest know n p a rtic le s
th in g s a re com posed are
of
w hich
16, k in e tic ;form s of e n e rg y 17. m olecules 18. ato m s
19. ch em ical p h en o m en a 20. e le c tro n s
-7'
80. The existence of w hich of these is a n a s н
sum ption only?
21. elec tro n s 22. g r a v ita tio n a l p h en o m en a 23. e th e r
24, e n e rg y 25. ato m s
- - - - - - 8(
81. The existence of energy is in fe rre d fro m
26, ch a n g es in th e lo c atio n of m a tte r 27. th e ch e m iн
cal co m p o sitio n of m a tte r 28. r e s e rv o irs of w a te r
29. g r a n u la r s tr u c tu r e of m a tte r 30. e th e r w av es
8
82. In d ividing up th e buffalo m eat, th e In d ia n
w om en w ere
31. co u rte o u s 32. a n g r y 33. sp o rtiv e 34. cru e l
35. fig h tin g w ith one a n o th e r - - - - 8J
83. In d iv id in g up th e buffalo m eat, th e T ndian
w om en w ere
36. calm
37. q u ie t
38. sa d
40. h ila rio u s - - - - -
39. q u a rre ls o m e
- - - 8J
Page 15
19. The actions of pro to n s an d electrons in follown g th e w ell-know n electrical law s of like p article s
?epelling each oth er and unlike a ttr a c tin g one an o th er,
ip pear as if th e y w ere th e re su lt of tw o u rg es ? one
ow ard th e assem bling in an y region of equal n u m b er
)f th e positive p ro to n s an d th e lig h te r n eg ativ e elec;rons; th e o th er, m u tu al rep u lsio n s betw een tw o or
nore p ro to n s or betw een tw o or m ore electrons. Cer;ain a rra n g e m e n ts of th e p article s in space seem to
)e m ore stable th a n others. One of th e m ost stable
groups com prises fo u r p ro to n s an d fo u r electrons. All
)f th ese except tw o electrons a re closely gro u p ed into
i tin y particle, know n as an alp h a p article. T he o th er
wo electrons disport them selves a t som e d istan ce and
)resum ably on opposite sides of th e alp h a particle,
vhich a ttra c ts th em because of its excess of p rotons,
rh e e n tire g ro u p is know n as an atom of helium , in
vhich we have th e c h a ra c te ristic s tru c tu re of all
itom ic system s ? a t th e cen ter a nucleus composed
)f a close a rra n g e m e n t of p ro to n s an d a sm aller num )er of electrons, w ith electrons in th e reg io n beyond.
"n th e n itro g en atom , th e nucleus co n tain s fo u rte e n
)rotons and seven electrons, th e excess of p ro to n s
n d ic a tin g th e atom ic n u m b er an d th e n u clear co ntent
;he n a tu re of th e atom . A bout th is nucleus a re seven
planetary electrons, tw o of w hich a p p a re n tly occupy
positions on opposite sides o f th e nucleus w ith th e
)ther five a t a g re a te r distan ce an d disposed as if on
m im a g in a ry sphere abo u t th e nucleus. U ran iu m , a
/?ery u nstable chem ical elem ent, w ith a nucleus h av in g
m excess of ninety-tw o p ro to n s eventually yields to
;he s tra in , expels an alp h a p a rticle an d loses tw o
planetary electrons, leaving a d ifferen t chem ical elenent, w ith differen t chem ical p ro p erties. T he sodium
itom w ith an excess of eleven p ro to n s in its nucleus
m d chlorine w ith an excess of seventeen p ro to n s a re
w ithout th e com plete sa tisfa c tio n of bo th th e u rg es
vhile th e atom s of neon w ith an excess of te n p ro to n s
md argon w ith a n execess of eighteen p ro to n s a re
>oth com pletely satisfied.
JO. ? H ave you n o t h e a rd th e sto ry of th e fool, th e
Tying pan, an d th e fire?? asked a n eig h b o r of Jo sep h
^ sp d in of Leeds. ? He is a good-enough w o rk er an d
leighbor in th e daytim e, b u t ev ery evening fo r y ears
le h as been m ixing an d s tir r in g som ething in a p an
ind w atch in g it over th e fire as if th e p an held gold.
Dhe poor m an cooks rocks an d clay. Some people have
leard him say he is try in g d ifferen t m ix tu re s an d
lifferent te m p e ra tu re s b u t seem ed no n e a re r finding
>ut th e kin d of a h a rd an d s tro n g cem ent th e old
Romans had used. T h irte e n y ears w en t by b efo re he
inally discovered th e m ix tu re, now know n as P o rtla n d
dem ent,w hich w ill n o t crack o r b re a k an d can be used
m d er w a te r as well as on land. T h en his neig hb o rs
a id , ?H e is a lucky m an. Soon he an d his cem ent will
>e fam ous. The w hole to w n is p ro u d of h im / ?
84. The p a ra g ra p h is m ain ly about
I . p ro p e rtie s o f ch em ical e le m e n ts
2 . s tr u c tu r e of
ato m s 3. ch em ical u rg e s 4. a lp h a p a rtic le s 5. s t a н
b ility of a to m s - - - - - - - - - 84
85. In th e nucleus,
th e re a re
6.
m o re e le c tro n s th a n p ro to n s
elec tro n s a n d p ro to n s 8 . m o re
p a rtic le s
9. m o re p o sitiv e ly
1 0 . p ro to n s o nly
- - - -
86. The m ost
gro u p is
u n stab le
alw ays
7. sa m e n u m b e r of
n e g a tiv e ly ch a rg e d
c h a rg e d p a rtic le s
- - - 85
elem ent
am ong
th is
I I . a rg o n 12. u ra n iu m
13. n itro g e n 14. h eliu m
15. neon - - - - - - - - - - - 86
87. The electrons in th e o u ter reg io n of th e
n itro g en ato m a re supposed to be a rra n g e d
in th e fo rm of a16. circle 17. r in g 18. p la n e 19. p o ly g o n 20. sp h e re 87
88. The paragraph
A spdin?s
is
mainly
about Joseph
21. neighbors 22. luck 23. persistence 24. discovery
25. queerness
- - - - - - 88
89. A s a worker for others, Joseph Aspdin
seemed to his neighbors to be
26. sensible 27. careless
30. ingenious - - - -
28. foolish
- - -
29. clever
89
90. D uring his thirteen years of work, Joseph
A spdin?s neighbors probably felt
31. resentful toward him
32. respect for him
33. amused at him 34. sorry for him 35. fearful
99
91. Joseph A spdin?s neighbors were probably
people o f
36. great initiative 37. contentedness 38. restless
disposition 39. much ingenuity 40. changing views 91
Page 16,
21. A m ong th e artificial causes of fam in e m ay be
classed w a r an d economic e rro rs in th e production,
tra n s p o rt, and sale of food-stuffs, w hile am ong th e
n a tu ra l causes m ay be classed all fa ilu re s of crops due
to excess o r defects of ra in fa ll an d o th e r m eteorological
causes, o r to th e rav ag e s of insects an d verm in. The
n a tu ra l causes a re still m ain ly outside ou r control,
th o u g h science enables a g ric u ltu rists to com bat th em
m ore successfully, an d th e im p ro v em en t in m eans of
tr a n s p o r t allow s a ric h h a rv e st in one land to suppleн
m e n t th e defective crops in an o th er. In tro p ical counн
trie s, d ro u g h t is th e com m onest cause of a fa ilu re in
th e h arv est, and w here g re a t d ro u g h ts a re not uncom н
m on ? as in p a r ts of In d ia an d A u stra lia ? th e
h y d rau lic engineer comes to th e rescue by devising
system s of w a te r sto rag e an d irrig a tio n . I t is less
easy to provide a g a in st th e evils of excessive rain fa ll,
fro st, hail, and th e like. The experience of th e F ren ch
in A lgiers show s th a t it is possible to stam p out a
plague of locusts, such as is th e g re a te s t d an g er to
th e fa rm e r in m an y p a rts of A rg en tin a . B u t th e ease
w ith w hich food can now adays be tra n s p o rte d fro m
one p a r t of th e w orld to an o th e r m inim izes th e d an g er
of fam in e fro m n a tu ra l causes, as we can h a rd ly conн
ceive th a t th e whole food-producing a re a of th e w orld
should be th u s affected a t once.
2 2 . A t th e tim e A n sg a r a rriv e d in Sw eden in th e
n in th century, iro n w as in u n iv ersal use in th e co u n try
an d had been so since th e fifth cen tu ry before C h rist.
I t w as d u rin g th is period, th e Iro n Age, th a t th e
in h a b ita n ts of Sw eden first becam e acq u ain ted w ith
b rass, silver, lead, and glass, as well as iron. As
w orks of iron could not, like th o se of bronze, be
produced only by castin g , th e sm ith ?s c r a f t cam e to
h av e f a r g re a te r significance d u rin g th is age. P rio r
to th e Iro n Age, th e re w as an o th e r period, th e B ronze
A ge, wThen th e use of iron w as alto g eth e r unknow n.
W eapons an d tools w ere th e n m ade of bronze ? a
m ix tu re of copper an d tin . Gold w as th e only o th er
m etal know n
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