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An analysis of offerings in music in certain secondary schools

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AN ANALYSIS
OF OFFERINGS I N MUSIC
IN CERTAIN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
A T hesis
P resen ted
the F a c u lty
U n iv ersity
of th e
of
School of E d u catio n
of S outhern
In P a r t i a l
-
to
C alifo rn ia
F u lfillm en t
the R e q u ire m e n ts f o r
M aster o f S c ie n c e
the D egree
in E d u c atio n
George A l b e r t B ergen
June 1941
UMI Number: EP53972
All rights reserved
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UMI EP53972
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T h i s thesis, w r i t t e n u n d e r the d ir e c t io n of t h e
C h a i r m a n of the c a n d id a t e ’s G u i d a n c e C o m m i t t e e
a n d a p p r o v e d by al l m e m b e r s of the C o m m i t t e e ,
has been p r e s e n t e d to a n d a c c e p t e d by the F a c u l t y
of the S c h o o l of E d u c a t i o n in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t
o f the r e q u ir e m e n t s f o r th e d e g r e e of M a s t e r of
S c i e n c e in E d u c a ti o n .
Date
'T u n e ..7 - . 1?.41.....................
Guidance C om m ittee
.
1.
* . _J • . .
1
) .©
V.s i n&...................
Chairman
Max T. Krone
I r v i n g R* Mel"bo
•
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I*
PAGE
THE PROBLEM .
.
Im portance
.
of
.
.
the
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
p r o b l e m .......................... .
The n e e d f o r
s c h o o l m usic
M u sical developm ent
Miusic i n
.
.
1
.
.
. . . .
1
. . . . . . .
2
l i f e ...........................................
.
S u m m a r y ................................................
R elated
In v estig atio n s
2
3
. . . . . . . . .
M ethod a n d A d m i n i s t r a t i o n
. . . .
3
4
M u s i c o b j e c t i v e s ...........................................
5
S tu d en t i n t e r e s t s
......................................
5
M u s i c d i v i s i o n s ............................................
6
M u s i e - - a new f o r c e
......................................
7
S u m m a r y ................................................................
8
Procedure
of
O rg an izatio n
II.
1
th e p resen t
of rem ain in g
stu d y
......................
ch ap ters
. . .
THE ORGANIZATION OF MUSIC I N SECONDARY SCHOOLS
H i s t o r i c a l d ev elo p m en t o f m usic
seco n d ary sch o o ls
h isto ries
10
12
in
as re v e a le d by
o f m u s i c ................................................
P resen t o rg an izatio n
8
o f m usic
in
12
the
secondary sch o o ls as re v e a le d by
the
q u estio n n aire
.................................................
16
ii
CHAPTER
PAGE
The s y s t e m s r e p r e s e n t e d . . . . . . .
16
Types o f work o f f e r e d . . . . . . .
19
* * * ................................
Chorus c l a s s e s
A p p reciatio n
.
. ' ................................ .
A p p r e c ia tio n and
h isto ry
A p p r e c ia tio n and
th eo ry
A p p r e c i a t i o n and
harm ony
Harmony .
-
20
.
21
of m usic .
24
..........................
24
....................
25
...........................................................
26
T heory o f m usic
.
.....................................
26
H i s t o r y o f m u s i c ...........................................
29
O r c h e s t r a .................................................................
29
B and
.
.....................................
G lee C lu b s
Piano
29
. . . . . . . . . . . .
c l a s s e s ................................
31
• V i o l i n c l a s s e s ................................
In stru m en tal
In stru ctio n
c l a s s e s .......................................
in v o ice
. . . . . . .
31
32
32
O r g a n ............................................................................
33
O ther c o u r s e s
. . . . .
...........................
33
M usical c lu b s
.
......................................
33
.
.
G eneral rem arks
III.
30
. . . . .
PRESENT STATUS OP APPLIED M U S I C ......................................
The p r e s e n t a t t i t u d e
and th e
in stru m en ts
tow ard
ap p lied
m usic
c o n s id e re d w orthy of
36
47
iii
CHAPTER
PAGE ,
receiv in g
c r e d i t .....................................
C red it fo r
Piano
ap p lied
m usic
47
. . . .
*
i n s t r u c t i o n ....................................
V io lin
in stru ctio n
O ther s tr in g e d
48
.......................................
in stru m en ts
51
. . . .
51
Wind i n s t r u m e n t s
......................................
54
V o c a l * * * # - *
............................................
54
The p r a c t i c e
of lo an in g
in stru m en ts
L oaning i n s t r u m e n t s
. . .
Bond r e q u i r e d
for
.
.
in stru m en ts
o rch estra
Time d e v o t e d
R eading
.
.
.
for
62
In te rp retatio n
63
the
.................................
t o t u n i n g ....................
of o rch estra
In d iv id u al
60
o rch estra p ra c tic e
p e r w e e k ....................................................
T uning o f
59
............................................
METHODS OP TEACHING O R C H E S T R A ....................................
L ength of
59
in stru m en ts
l o a n e d .........................................................
C onclusions
57
f o r home
p r a c t i c e ....................................................
IV-
47
m usic
. . . . .
63
64
. . . .
67
......................
69
c o a c h i n g ........................ 69
M em orization of s e l e c t i o n s
. . . .
Use o f s t u d e n t d i r e c t o r s ..............
69
70
i.v
PAGE
CHAPTER
Use o f p o p u l a r m u s i c
•
70
O . u t s i d e p r e p a r a t i o n ............................................. 72
C onclusions
V.
.
.. . . . . . . . . .
METHODS OP TEACHING GLEE CLUBS .
Are g l e e
clu b s
G lee c lu b
In sig n ia
............................................. 76
so c ia l
o rg an izatio n s
.
P u p ilsr part
G lee c lu b s *
.
......................................................
in
part
Time d e v o t e d
to
co n d u ctin g c la s s e s
in
77
opera p ro d u c tio n
78
voice
ex ercises
.
to
S ize
of
the
boys * g le e club . . . .
S ize
of
the
g irls*
S ize
of
the
m ixed g l e e c l u b s
. 78
r e a d m u s i c ..............................
g lee
of each p a r t
m ixed c h o r u s
club
in
. . . . .
P o p u la r m usic used
glee
77
.
A b ility
P ro p o rtio n
77
............................. 77
o fficers
.
. 73
in
club
79
82
. . . . 82
. . . . 82
the
......................
85
teach in g
.................................................. 85
P a r t m usic m ost a c c e p t a b le
for
t h e m i x e d c h o r u s .............................................86
P a r t m usic m ost a c c e p t a b l e
for
th e boys 1 and g i r l s * g le e
clubs
.
88
C o n c l u s i o n s .................................................................. 8 8
V I.
POPULARITY OP VARIOUS MUSIC METHODS IN TEACHING
V
CHAPTER
i
PAGE
PIANO C L A S S E S ...................... . . . . . . ................................
P o p u la r m usic
in
classes
te a c h in g piano
................................. .....
P ianos and card b o ard keyboards
G rading of
.
.
97
.
98
c l a s s e s ..............................
Time d e v o t e d
to
96
98
th e o ry and p r a c t i c e
D aily re h e a rs a l
of each c h ild
on
t h e p i a n o ........................... .....
How c l a s s
99
99
t i m e w a s s p e n t ..................1 0 1
C o n c l u s i o n s ..................................................1 0 1
V II..
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS *
C onclusions
.................................. 1 0 3
..............................................................
O rg an izatio n
of m usic i n
s e c o n d a ry .sch o o ls
.................................
103
A p p l i e d m u s i c .............................................' *
106
T eaching
107
o f o r c h e s t r a ....... ..........................
G lee c l u b s
.
P o p u larity
o f m ethods
pian o
.
.
classes
.
.....................................
in
109
teach in g
.............................1 1 0
R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s ...........................................................
BIBLIOGRAPHY
103
.
Ill
116
'LIST OF TABLES
TABLE
I*
The N u m b e r o f S y s t e m s
o f Chorus
II.
C horus in
in
In stru c tio n
in
The N u m b e r o f S y s t e m s
M usic
the
in
the
Tim e A l l o w e d
to
Types o f
C ertain
C ertain
.
*
Types o f
* .
Types of
J u n io r H igh S c h o o l
C ertain
*
Types o f
I n The S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l
the
C ertain
C lubs
S e n io r H igh S c h o o l
V arious
Types o f
J u n io r H igh S ch o o l
The N u m b er o f S y s t e m s O f f e r i n g
K inds
IX.
O ffering
in
. . . . . .
S e n i o r H igh S c h o o l
The N u m b e r o f S y s t e m s O f f e r i n g
M u sic a l C lubs i n
V III.
the
C ertain
Types
J u n i o r H igh S ch o o l
The N um be r o f S y s t e m s O f f e r i n g
I n s t r u m e n t a l M usic
V II.
the
Types
...........................
S e n i o r H igh S ch o o l
System s O f f e r i n g
In stru m e n ta l
V I.
the
In stru ctio n
The N um ber o f
M usic
V.
J u n i o r H igh S ch o o l
The N um ber o f S y s t e m s O f f e r i n g
M usic
IV.
the
The N u m b e r o f S y s t e m s O f f e r i n g D i f f e r e n t
of
III.
in
O fferin g D iffe re n t
,
.
.
.
of V arious
. . . . . . . .
F o r m s o f M u s i c As
R ep o rted by T h irty -S e v e n S o u th e rn C a l if o r n ia
Ci t i es
X.
M usic
» *■ * * . • * * »
Courses
O ffered
■* » * .
in S ev e n ty -E ig h t
...
• * .
#
40
Ju n io r
H i g h S c h o o l s ........................... ...........................................................
vii
TABLE
X I.
PAGE
M usic C o u r s e s
O ffered
in
T h irty
S e n i o r H igh
S chools
X II.
A ttitu d e
45
of V arious
S c h o o l s Toward G i v i n g
C r e d i t F o r A p p l i e d M usic
X III.
A ttitu d e
of V arious
C r e d it For P iano
XIV.
A ttitu d e
of V arious
G iving
XV.
A ttitu d e
S chools
Study
C red it
For
Toward G i v i n g
S chool System s
C ities
Study of
49
............................................................
C re d it For V io lin
of V arious
. . . . . . . . . . .
S tudy
Toward
......................................
A ttitu d e
of V arious
S trin g ed
For the
X V II.
A ttitu d e
C ities
In stru m en ts
53
Toward G i v i n g
C red it
S t u d y o f W ind I n s t r u m e n t s .................................
of V arious
C ities
X V III.
A ttitu d e
o f V arious
Band o r O r c h e s t r a
Lending of th e
XIX.
XX.
Time A l l o w e d F o r
In stru m en ts
the
. . .
to
.
*
56
Owning o f
I n s t r u m e n ts and
L e n g t h o f T im e A l l o t t e d
in
C l u b ................................
S chools as
Same
55
Tow ard G i v i n g C r e d i t
F o r V o c a l S tu d y O t h e r Than T h a t R e c e i v e d
G e n e r a l Chorus and G lee
52
Toward G i v i n g
O t h e r T h a n The V i o l i n ................................
XVI.
50
the
.................................................................
to O rc h e stra
P ra c tic e .
.
58
65
T uning o f O r c h e s t r a l
* ......................................................................
66
viii
TABLE
X X I.
PAGE
P a rt of the
R ead in g ,
O rchestra
P erio d
In te rp re ta tio n
D evoted
and
to
T uning,
In d iv id u al
C oaching
X X II.
A ttitu d e
*
of V arious
P o p u l a r M usic
S chools
and
Toward
the
Use o f
th e S t u d e n t ‘R e a c t i o n
in
T h e s e S c h o o l s .............................................................
X X IIIi
XXIV.
XXV.
M iscellaneous
XXVII.
XXIX.
the
T eaching
A b ility
G l e e C l u b s ..................................
80
an d M i x e d G l e e
in
Chorus A c c o rd in g
to
C ities
G lee
C lubs,
C lubs
of P arts
. . .
81
83
G irls1
. . . . . . .
T e a c h in g G lee
C om parative P r o p o r tio n
Club
. . .
84
87
i n a M ix e d
t h e R e p o r t o f Tw enty...........................................................
XXX.
P art
M u sic U sed b y M ixed C h o r u s e s
XXXI.
P art
M u s i c U s e d b y Boys*
XXXII.
P art
M usic Used by t h e
X X X III.
Some
F a c ts in Regard
P iano
the
to R ead M usic
B o y s 1 G lee
Use o f P o p u l a r M u sic
Three
in
. . . . . .
C lu b M embers
Number o f Members i n
71
74
. . . . . . . . .
o f G lee
• * * *
of O rc h e stra
T im e D e v o t e d t o V o i c e E x e r c i s e s
G lee C lu b s
XXVIII*
on t h e
M ethods o f H a n d lin g
C lubs
XXVI.
F acts
68
G lee
C l u b s .............................
G i r l s ’ G lee
to
. . . . . . .
Club
. . . .
89
90
92
94
M ethods o f T e a c h in g
as R eported by S ix te e n
System s
. . . . .
100
CHAPTER I
(TEE ■PROBLEM
The o b j e c t o f
the p r e s e n t in v e s tig a tio n
co v er and a n a ly z e th e
stim u late
p u p il
was i n
attem pted
the
natu re
ty p es,
the e x te n t
g e n e ra l p lan
of
in tere st
in
The s t u d y ,
th e p u p il
reactio n
th eir
in
of procedure fo r
there^
1938 w hich
o f i n s t r u m e n t a l and
the sch o o ls,
use
and
in c e r ta in
o f a s u r v e y made d u r i n g
th e m a jo r form s
v o c a l m u s i c now o f f e r e d
ty p es,
to
of S outhern C a lif o r n ia .
to d i s c l o s e
th e d i f f e r e n t
used
i n t e r e s t w h ic h were' p r e v a l e n t
secondary sch o o ls
fore,
m usic p r a c t i c e s
was t o d i s ­
the
to
leisu re
the v a rio u s
tim e g iv e n
the
v ario u s
tim e
and th e
to
classes.
IMPORTANCE OE THE PROBLEM
The n e e d f o r
e/aphasized
to
the
clubs
a s w as t h e
Mt h a t
every c h ild
school m u sic.
ex clu sio n
of o r c h e s tr a s ,
c a s e s om e y e a r s a g o .
in
p lay in g ,
creativ e
o p p o rtu n ity
m ay d i c t a t e ,
activ ity ,
o t h e r form o f m u s i c a l e n d e a v o r . ”
1
no l o n g e r
bands and glee
s u c h ways a s h i s
preferen ces and c a p a b ilitie s
is
The i d e a l a i m now i s
s h o u ld be. g i v e n am ple
p re ss h im self m u sic a lly
sin g in g ,
Vocal m usic
ex­
in d iv id u al
w hether
listen in g ,
M usic,
to
bein g
th ro u g h
o r any
one o f
1 K o c k e n g a , G e r t r u d e A . , ‘‘R u r a l S c h o o l M u s i c , 1*
( S i e r r a E d u c a t i o n a l N ew s) O c t . 1 9 4 0 . , p . 26
the
b asic
facto rs
i n t h e makeup o f
by im p ra c tic a l
teach ers
to
to f i n d
in tere sted .
the
the h ig h school
n ecessitated
vast
in the
in
th e m ethods p r e s e n t i n g
M usical d e v e lo p m e n t.
very v alu ab le
to
The g r e a t e r p a r t o f
been acq u ired
The y e a r s
those d e s ir in g
h is
th in g s
before
th e
in life.*
so c ia liz a tio n ,
life
reco g n ized .
boys ’ and g i r l s ’ g le e
It
is
p r e p a r e him f o r
on,
to re a c h
th e
enjoym ent of
of
of
the h ig h
o rch estras,
clu b s,
en larg in g
the
the
p u p il
liv in g
after
thought
it*
leisu re
has
pian o c la s s e s
scope
in
hours,
in
long been
school p u p ils
bands,
p ro b a b le t h a t m ost h ig h s c h o o ls
w ill p lan
order
and in v o c a t i o n a l g ro w th ,
use
c o n tr o l m ust have
The p o w er o f m u sic a s a f a c t o r
The m u s i c n e e d s
b e i n g 'm e t by the
are
e n t e r m usic a s a v o c a t i o n .
h a s b e e n a more r e c e n t
behind
in p e rs o n a l
activ ities
of m usic.
The p r o b l e m o f g i v i n g
w hich w ould b e t t e r
and has a w orthy purpose
T his h as
of ad o lescen ce
age o f tw e n ty i n
sch o o l d a y s had ended,
M usic
to
of
and e s p e c i a l ­
form s
t h e m u s c u l a r and m e n t a l
h i g h e s t fo rm s of a r t i s t r y *
tho se
p u p il.
v ario u s
de­
and scope
o rg an izatio n ,
the
fie ld s
Each f i e l d
su ita b ility
the needs o f
ly ,
in tere st
num erous
e a c h to m e e t
ehanges
had been r e ta rd e d ,
th at p u p il
Now t h e r e a r e
p u p i l may b e c o m e
mands a c l o s e s t u d y
ch ild ,
the p o in t
had been g r e a t l y re d u c e d .
in w hich th e
the
acap ella
ch o irs,
and m u s i c
are p la n n in g
of o p p o r tu n itie s ,
are
clu b s.
on,
or
ty p es
of m u s i c ,
of
m ethods o f a p p ro a c h ,
the s u b j e c t
than
th ey have y e t had.
m ore m odern p r o g r e s s i v e
ard
glee
Irv in g B e rlin ,
in the
the
of
our
orchestra,
is bein g
such com posers as
for
because
They have p r o g r e s s e d
o f th e problem f a c in g
and s u c c e s s .
in band,
of a p p l i e d m usic
th e w orks
la rg e r c itie s
in g o f m usic and
stu d y the
of
in tere st
V ast o p p o rtu n itie s
c ia l a sse ts.
so lu tio n
use
In a few of
S i g m u n d R o m b e r g an d G e o r g e G e r s h w i n .
Summary.
found
sch o o ls
c lu b s and o th e r form s
s tim u la te d by the
a n d a much b r o a d e r k n o w l e d g e
th o se
m usic
offered
sm a lle r ones f o r
it
reasons
in
of
th e ir g reater fin a n ­
farth est
tow ard
th o se engaged
resp o n sib le
Bor t h e s e
ex p erim en tatio n a re
it
for
its
in
the
the
teach ­
co n tin u ed
grow th
seemed m ost l o g i c a l
the la rg e r
sch o o ls as w ell
w ould g i v e a w i d e r s c o p e f o r
to
as
th is
in v estig a tio n .
RELATED INVESTIGATIONS .
There have b e e n few s t u d i e s
h i g h s c h o o l m usic a s com pared to
made i n
the
the
fie ld
number of s o - c a l l e d -
academ ic s u b j e c t s ,
p e rh a p s b e c a u s e m usic h as u n t i l
ly receiv ed
little
r e c o g n itio n a s an a c c r e d ite d
Two s u r v e y s
h a v e b e e n mad e o f t h e
in
the se c o n d a ry sch o o l,
but
th ere
of
o rg an izatio n
recen t­
su b jec t.
of m usic
h a s b e e n no a n a l y s i s
of
th e v a r i o u s m usic p r a c t i c e s
the i n t e r e s t
of p u p ils
used
to s t i m u l a t e
and p e r p e t u a t e
in m usic.
M ethod a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .
In 1917 W ill E a r h a r t
a n d O s b o u r n e M c C o n a t h y ma.de a s t u d y o f h i g h
s c h o o l m ethods
and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n
a im was t o
pare a p latfo rm
m usical
o f the
T h eir f i r s t
s u f f i c i e n t l y broad f o r a l l
activ ity ,
U nited
of m u sic.1
T h eir
fic ie n t
to f i t
plan s
th at
a v ariety
N on-m usical or
not p a rtic u la rly
for
the f i r s t
the
second,
in n atu re
t h e r e were
little
talen ted
and
req u ired
th ird
group,
ele c tiv e s.
and a e s t h e t i c s
clubs
suf­
the
group.
M usic
sin g in g ;
for
and m usic a p p r e c i a ­
F o r the
sho uld be
thorough in te n s iv e
b io g rap h ies
last
of p u p ils,
in tere sted but
and a p p l i e d m u sic
h isto ry ,
of m usic f o r
groups
electiv e.
They recom m ended a
stu d y of m u sical form s,
p ro v id e
by p resen tin g
of chorus
or e le c tiv e ,
th e o r y of m usic and g le e
t h e o r y o f m usic
th ree
talen ted
g ro u p sh o u ld c o n s is t
chorus
h ig h sch o o ls
and n u m b e r s a r e
in tere sted ,
the
tio n ,
added as
pro b lem s,
of
of c o n d i t i o n s .
They d e c id e d t h a t
nam ely:
the
s e c o n d aim was t o
p r a c tic a l help fo r a d m in istra tiv e
i n some d e t a i l ,
proper phases
how ever d iv e rse ,, found i n
S ta,tes.
pre­
of m u sic ia n s ,
two y e a r s
of high
^ E a r h a r t , . W ill and M cConathy, O s b o u rn e , "M usic i n
S econdary S c h o o ls,"
B u r e a u o f E d u c a t i o n , B u l l e t i n , No. 49
p . 16
sch o o l.
after
They d e c i d e d
reg u lar
th at
school h o u rs.
te r e s t because
does not g ive
m usicians
the
en tire
qu ired s u b je c t.
ju n io r and
cities
in
of
in
is
it
at
is
the tim e,
i n m usic
in
sch o o ls
in
it
the
the
t o w h ic h m usic had become a r e ­
These were a n a ly z e d
was r e q u i r e d
by r e q u e s tin g
by a la rg e
Good
m ajo rity
of
sch o o ls
in the
of the
sch o o ls
in the n in th g ra d e . S en io r h ig h
types
a ll
eig h th grade,
He a l s o
related
to
th is
d iscovered
the
T h is was o f s p e c i a l
in v estig atio n
for
a d e q u a te m ethods o f k e e p in g th e
it
over h a lf
and b y a b o u t a f o u r t h
o f m usic w ere s e ld o m p r e s e n t e d ;
term ed m u sic .^
larg er
an d D r .
s e v e n t h g rad e,, b y a l i t t l e
n o t r e q u i r e m usic.
Good
secondary
the
d id
but
today.
H is m a t e r i a l was o b t a i n e d
each S ta te .
in ­
t h e f e e l i n g o f a num­
the f i e l d
as
conducted
of sp e c ia l
s e n io r h ig h s c h o o l program s from th e
d isco v ered t h a t
the
ex ten t
stu d y
I n 1 9 2 7 Dr.- C a r t e r V.
the o b je c tiv e s
and the
sh o u ld be
sta te s
p ictu re
M usic o b j e c t i v e s .
sch o o ls,
T his
i t so c l e a r l y
b e r o f w e l l kno w n
in v estig ated
o rch estras
sch o o ls
th at d iffe re n t
s u b je c t being
in te re st
a n d w as
showed t h e l a c k
in tere st
of p u p ils
of
in
mu s i c .
S tudent i n t e r e s t s .
In 1928 M ary M a r g a r e t Lynn g a v e
1 G o o d , C a r t e r V. , MThe M u s i c C u r r i c u l u m i n S e c o n d a r y
S c h o o l s , lf A m e r i c a n E d u c a t i o n D i g e s t , D e c e m b e r 1 9 2 8 ,
p p . 176-178.
a d efin ite
relativ e
c o n trib u tio n
p o p u la rity
m ent heads
She
found
m ajor
in
th at
th at
the
th is
of the
tw en ty -fiv e
th in g s.
second,
to
sch o o ls
p u p i l s became
F irst,
th a t the
th e m usic
t e a c h e r would
the
su b jec ts
t a u g h t b y m usic d e p a r t 2
of S o u th ern C a lif o rn ia .
in te re ste d because
grant
o f two
t e a c h e r was i n t e r e s t i n g
of G ershw in,
o t h e r m odern co m p o se rs h e ld
ever th e
w ork when she s t u d i e d
Rom berg,
B e r l i n and
th e p u p ils r in te re s t.
to
o rch estra,
and
band,
When­
glee
clu b s
o r c h o ru s e s m usic by su ch co m posers a s have b e e n m en tio n ed ,
the
in te re st
of
t h e p u p i l s was g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d .
s t u d y was d e f i n i t e l y r e l a t e d
for
it
tio n
clearly
to th e
showed t h e p u p i l
reactio n
of m usic b y th e s e com posers i n
but it
does
not g ive
the
present
en tire
the
se ttin g
in v estig atio n
to
the
p resen ta­
secondary
of
T his
sch o o ls,
the p re s e n t
stu d y .
M usic d i v i s i o n s .
P h illip s
D.
of
C. m u s i c
v o c a l m usic,
the d i r e c t i o n
the D ep artm en t of E d u c a tio n
in stru ctio n
was d i v i d e d
i n s t r u m e n t a l m usic
had w orked o u t i n
^
Heads o f
C alifo rn
S o u th ern
2
Under
tab le
form th e
o f F r a n k M.
in W ashington,
in to
and m u sic
th ree
d iv iso n si
stu d ies.
en ro llm en t
in
o
He
one
L y n n , M a r y M a r g a r e t , ”A C r i t i c a l A n a l y s i s o f t h e
M usic D e p a r t m e n t s i n S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s o f S o u t h e r n
i a , ” ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ’s t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f
C a l i f o r n i a , , Los A n g e l e s , 1 9 2 8 )
pp. 81.
P h i l l i p s , F r a n k M ., B u l l e t i n Ho. 35
E d u c a t i o n , W a s h i n g t o n , D. C . , 1 9 2 9 ) , p p . 3 2 .
( D e p a r tm e n t of
thousand
U nited
fo u r hundred and
S tates
stru c tio n .
th ese
T his
three
re la tiv e
im p o rtan ce
th re e
of c e r t a i n
p u p il in te r e s t
B ro ad castin g
is
showed
ty p es
Co m pan y,
p ro claim s:
to m u sic ia n s *
no l o n g e r j u s t
M usic i s
In th e
ag ain
b elongs
feren ces w ith in
one g r e a t
th e
life
the
in ­
of
stan d p o in t of stu d e n t
show t h e
o f m usic
to r e c r e a t e
com e-under
to th e
the
of th e p e o p le ,
Journal
the N a t i o n a l
uM u s i c no l o n g e r " b e l o n g s
the
c l a s s i c a l m usic.
It
of th e dance band
liv e,
p eo p le.
F ine
h a s become
and t h e
ch o ir
i n w h a t t h e y do * a n d
A fte r f iv e hundred y e a rs
p e o p l e . 11
f a m i l y and
to
for
to
w here p e o p le
o b jectiv e:
ap p reciatin g ,
M usic E d u c a t o r s
I t belongs
i n ho w t h e y e x p r e s s t h e m s e l v e s .
it
the p o p u l a r i t y
i n m u s ic w h ic h w ould
ed u catio n al d ire c to r
o n c e m ore t h e p o s s e s s i o n
lo ft.
of
heading s.
F r a n k l i n Dunham,
m usic
sch o o ls
n o a t t e m p t w a s m ade t o
Musi c ——a new f o r c e .
ex clu siv e ly
h ig h
o f h ig h s c h o o l m usic
of m usic fro m th e
However,
or stim u late
d iv isio n s
in v estig atio n
th re e phases
en ro llm en t*
th ese
in
sev en ty -fiv e
Let us s e tt l e
go o u t
to
la y a fo u n d atio n
to b u i l d
the
our d i f ­
p u b lic w ith
f o r m usic
a sin g in g ,
in
p lay in g ,
jo y o u s m u s ic a l A m erica.
1 D unham , F r a n k l i n , rtM u s i c — A New F o r c e
M u s i c E d u c a t o r s J o u r n a l , May, L 9 3 8 , p p . 1 4 - 1 5 .
i n A m erica,'*
§
T his
to
p u p ils
would b e
adage,
s ta te m e n t fo llo w ed
th e
p riv ileg e
of g re a te s t
o f m usic
i n t e r e s t to
and
so i t
is
w hich a p p e a l s
have
little
T his
s t u d y was r e l a t e d
clearly
tro u b le
showed t h e
im portance
in
has a d e f i n it e
It
in
to
to
in
n o t a d e q u a te ly met t h e
te r e s t has f a lle n
the
p u p ils
g iv e
pu p il
the p r e s e n t
to
in
m ig h t be r e a c h e d .
in te re st
of
the
sch o o ls,
situ a tio n .
grant
the
in
p u p ils
a low e b b .
kin d s
y et the
The s c h o o l s
of a l l
t h a t m usic
of p u p i l s
th eir
the
ty p es
to
order th a t each p u p il
o p p o rtu n itie s
If
the
offered
p a rtic u la r
s c h o o ls w ould
o f m usic w hich a r e
p u p il
in ­
a r e becom ing
y e t many h a v e f a i l e d
of m usic i n
t h e i r realm of u n d erstan d in g
w ould be
it
sch o o ls have
as a re s u lt
has been o m itted .
use
for
tow ard th e
The p r e f e r e n c e
and,
C onsequently,
in tere st
w ill
in m usic.
in v estig atio n
h a v e b e e n n e g l e c t e d b y th e p u p i l s when t h e i r
fie ld
teach er
ev ery day l i f e .
some - w a y s ,
all
an old
them t h e k i n d ,
o f m usic e d u c a to r s
not o fte n been co n sid ered ,
give
is
th at
b u t y o u c e n r t m ak e
the m usic
stim u latin g
of g ra n tin g
o f m usic
There
to w a te r ,
them and
id ea
has been c le a r ly dem onstrated
p lace
more p r o g r e s s i v e
them .
w ith p u p ils ;
feelin g
of m usic
Summary.
has
of u sin g any ty p e
tfYou c a n l e a d a h o r s e
him d r i n k ,
c lo s e ly the
in te re st
elev ated .
PROCEDURE OE THE PRESENT STUDY
w ith ­
i n m usic
r9
The i n t e n t
tab u late
of
and a n a ly z e
sch o o ls as re p o rte d
C alifo rn ia.
th is
in v estig atio n
th e m usic p r a c t i c e s
from f o r t y - f i v e
o f m usic
in
valu e
p u p ils'
perio d
in te re st
of
types
tim e.
in
secondary
S ou th ern
of i n s t r u c t i o n
o f m usic
It
in
was
stu d y r e l a t i v e
has d isc lo s e d
stim u latin g
The i n v e s t i g a t i o n d i s c l o s e d
in tere st
a more r o u n d e d ,
the
the
the
in
fu ll
sa c re d m usic,
o rch estras
life .
It
and d an ce m usic
in
in ­
a n d c h o r u s w o r k t o make
aim ed to
(*b J *
W hat w e r e
(c).
How m u c h t i m e w a s g i v e n
(d).
How w a s t h e s t u d e n t s '
stim u la te d ?
(e).
W h at w e r e t h e t y p e s o f m u s i c w h i c h
i n t e r e s t e d th e p u p i l m ost?
(f).
What w e re t h e g e n e r a l m e th o d s o f c o n ­
d u ctin g vocal and in stru m e n ta l
classes?
(g).
How,
fie ld
statu s
d isco v e rt
W ha t w a s
if
the
the v a lu e
(a)*
S in c e the
to
in m usic w h ich h a s b e e n d o rm a n t f o r a
o f c l a s s i c a l m usic,
creasin g
d etailed
of each s u b je c t.
of u sin g a l l
co llect,
so f a r a s g e n e r a l p ro c e d u re
c o n c e r n e d , b u t d i d n o t go i n t o
the p re s e n ta tio n
in
sch o o ls
Th e s u r v e y i n c l u d e d m e t h o d s
in each f ie ld
was t o
the
types
of h ig h sch o o l m usic?
of m usic
offered?
to m usic?
in tere st
in m usic
in any d e g r e e , did p o p u la r
m usic a f f e c t th e te a c h in g of
m usic ?
of th is
stu d y
in clu d ed
fo rty -fiv e
h ig h sc h o o ls from S outhern
and p e r s o n a l
in g the
tific
for
data*
the
In o r d e r
q u e stio n n aire,
in the
co untry.
th e s e c o n d a ry s c h o o ls ,
m u sical p u b lic a tio n s ,
S tates
ses
p am phlets,
of stu d y
in
some . o f t h e
boohs
a rtic le s
th is
larg est
o u t l i n e d b y so me o f t h e
larg er
in
lead in g
U nited
s o u r c e s w ere
in v estig atio n .
As a r e s u l t a g r e a t v a r i e t y
com pared.
in
and o t h e r p r im a r y
for
to
on m u s i c
i n v e s t i g a t i o n s m ad e b y t h e
as a v a lid b a s i s
scie n ­
i t was n e c e s s a r y
In a d d i t i o n ,
B ureau o f E d u c a tio n
co n sid ered
q u estio n n aire
to o b t a i n a f a i r l y
d i s c o v e r w hat c o u r s e s w ere o f f e r e d
sch o o ls
th e
i n t e r v i e w m eth o d s w e re t h e means o f c o l l e c t ­
req u ired
b a sis
C alifo rn ia,
cities
of su b jec ts
C our­
w ere
and
c o m b in a tio n s were d is c o v e r e d *
From t h e s e
was
com piled,
d itio n al
n aire.
tab u latio n s
cross
sch o o ls a l i k e
teach ers
so me o f t h e
by th e
s e c t i o n was d e s i r e d
and s u p e r v i s o r s
o f m usic
m ethods
in
offered,
ad­
q u estio n ­
sin ce
the re tu rn e d
w ith
seem ed a d v i s a b l e
to
re tu rn e d answ ers.
th e seco n d ary sch o o l,
the
in
in terv iew
O rg a n iz a tio n of rem ain in g c h a p t e r s .
tio n
for
w ere c o n t a c t e d
I n many i n s t a n c e s a p e r s o n a l
t h e s e m usic
a q u estio n n aire
s p a c e was l e f t
com m ents w h i c h w ere n o t c o v e r e d
L arg e and sm a ll
answ ers*
and
i n w hich a d e q u a te
a rep resen tativ e
clarify
stu d ie s
types
of work,
The o r g a n i z a ­
the d i f f e r e n t
the k in d s
of m usic
11
offered,
v io lin ,
the
o r c h e s t r a and b a n d s ,
in stru m en tal c la s se s ,
o th er courses,
w hich a r e
m usic c lu b s
found i n
a p p lie d m usic,
req u ired
in stru m en ts
in
for
C hapter T h ree.
l e n g th of
The m e t h o d s
size
of glee
m usic
used
in
glee
to
club,
p u p ils,--a re
g rad in g
p o p u la r m usic
of c l a s s e s ,
procedure,
S ix .
the
types
tuning,
the
of
in terp reta­
in C h ap ter
glee
club
a b ility
of p a r ts ,
of­
to
p o p u lar
m usic m ost a c c e p t a b l e
stu d ied
pian o s
tim e d e v o t e d
The c o n c l u s i o n s
C h ap ter Seven.
used,
bond
stu d en t d ire c to rs ,
clu bs,
P o p u l a r i t y of v a r i o u s m usic m ethods i n
classes,
p iano
read in g
classes,
d iv isio n
of
o rch estra,
w i l l be fo u n d
in co n d u ctin g
clu b s,
sta tu s
pro b lem s d is c u s s e d
m em o rizatio n ,
th ese
su b je c ts
m u sic,
teach in g
tim e d e v o te d
teach in g glee
club
of
of teach in g g lee
p u p ilsr part
read,
f o r the
are
of
and
f o r home p r a c t i c e ,
p u p i l p a r t i c i p a t i o n and
The m e th o d s
fic e rs,
f o r ap p lied
lo an ed ,
in d iv id u a l coaching ,
Pour.
of v o ice
The p r e s e n t
in stru m en ts
of p o p u la r m usic,
tio n ,
Two.
o rch estra p ra c tic e ,
o r c h e s t r a m usic,
use
th e success
c r e d i t allow ed
lo an in g
su ccessfu ln ess
of v ario u s k in d s --s re
C hapter
in stru ctio n ,
the
to
of m u s ic ,- - a r e
in
C hapter F iv e .
teach in g
piano
and c a r d b o a rd
keyboards,
p ractice,
class
in clu d ed
and r e c o m m e n d s tio n s a r e
th e
in
C hapter
in clu d ed
in
CHAPTER I I
THE ORGANIZATION OP MUSIC IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
The p u r p o s e o f
present p ractices
secondary
of
sch o o ls.
the
In o r d e r
T his
of th is
su b jec t
ch ap ter w ill,
d ealin g
w ith the
H isto rical
hig h
of the
is
o rg an izatio n
it
short but
in r e l a t i o n
th erefo re,
to
to p ics
tab u lated
resu lts
q u e stio n n a ire .
o f m usic
offered
clu sio n s
A*
in to
drawn as
the
in
B of
two s e c t i o n s
su b ject
(B ).
personal
th is
in terv iew s
ch ap ter
each phase
rev ealed
co n sid ered ,
statu s
and
and
and g e n e r a l
by
con­
trend.
HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF MUSIC I N SECONDARY
SCHOOLS AS REVEALED BY HI STO RIES OF MUSIC
A lth o u g h v o c a l and
a part
of th e
in
seco n d ary sch o o ls g a th e re d
w i l l be c a r e f u l l y
present
(A ).
of m usic.
secondary sch o o ls as
to th e
sch o o ls.
resp ectiv ely :
o f the
In p a r t
in
q u estio n n aire,
of m usic
to g iv e
secondary
be d iv id e d
sch o o ls as re v e a le d by h i s t o r i e s
from th e
in
in tere stin g
d ev elopm ent of m usic a s a c u r r ic u lu m
P resen t o rg an izatio n
the
of m usic
seems n e c e s s a r y
rath er
fo llo w in g
to d e te rm in e
to have a p ro p e r p e r s p e c tiv e
t h e p l a c e m u s i c now h o l d s ,
h isto ry
the
ch ap ter
concerning
a v ery b r i e f review
the
th is
i n s t r u m e n t a l m usic w ere
program s o f s tu d y in
our e a rly
o fte n
academ ies,
13
m usic
in stru ctio n
began w ith the
of any im p o rtan ce
tw e n tie th cen tu ry *
work was u s u a l l y c h o r u s
week,
and n o t
c red it.
meager co u rses
th e
secondary sch o o ls
P rev io u s
or assem bly s in g in g
co n sid ered
By 1 9 0 6 f i v e
in
im p o rtan t enough
cities
to
once
tim e
or
the
tw ice a
to r e c e i v e
in M assachusetts
i n harm ony w i t h c r e d i t ,
th at
school
w ere o f f e r i n g
and a c o u rs e
in m usic
a p p re c ia tio n w ith o u t c r e d it.
The e a r l y
by the
q u estio n
stag e s
of
s e c o n d a ry m usic
of c re d itin g
th e w ork,
ed a s a n a c c o m p l i s h m e n t r a t h e r
d isc ip lin a ry
tim e.
v alu es,
m ittee
appointed
a ry m usic,
m usic
v o ice,
the d e c id in g f a c to r
fie ld
the
c o n sistin g
four years
or in stru m en ts
as l a b o r a t o r y w ork.
w o r k a.dded t o
th e
of
of m usic.
th e f i r s t r e a l a tte m p t to
in
the
organize
at
th at
of
of,
The com­
stu d y f o r
second­
"four hours
sch o o l.
symphony o r c h e s t r a
p erio d s
fo u rth
w ere
of choral
p e r week,
year."-*-
of
P iano,
The c u s t o m a r y p e r i o d
t h e a b o v e make f i v e
en sem ble a s an a l t e r n a t i v e
for cred it
of h ig h
the
stu d y w ith
b y t h e New E n g l a n d
d r e w up a m a j o r c o u r s e
e a c h week o f
cred ited
to e n la r g e
p u rely e le c tiv e ,
organ,
f o r m u s ic was r e g a r d ­
th an a s e r i o u s
I n 1902 a c o n f e r e n c e was c a l l e d
E d u c a tio n a l League
w ere c o m p lic a te d
w ith
T h i s was
s e c o n d a ry s c h o o l m usic
1 B i r g e , Edw ard B a i l e y , " H i s t o r y o f P u b l i c S c h o o l
M usic i n t h e U n ite d S t a t e s , " O l i v e r B i t s o n C o ., B o s t o n ,
p . 11,6.
14
on a r e g u l a r b a s i s
and a s a m ajor
the
th e M usic
endorsem ent of
and th e
M usic S e c t i o n
c o u r s e •was,
of
of course,
su b jec t.
It
-
receiv ed
T each ersr N atio n al A sso ciatio n
the
N. E.. A., i n
im p o ssib le
1904.
Such a
of attain m en t a t
tim e f o r m usic h ad n o t y e t r e c e i v e d
the r i g h t
th at
to be
cred it­
ed.
C le a r ly the
the c o l l e g e s .
n e x t s t e p was t o r e c e i v e
T h is was a c c o m p l i s h e d b y t h e
of
the
New E n g l a n d E d u c a t i o n a l L e a g u e
of
t h e New E n g l a n d a n d M i d d l e A t l a n t i c
to
th eir
list
r e c o g n i t i o n by
of s u b je c ts .
e x a m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n s was
m usic a p p r e c i a t i o n ,
in
secu rin g
S tates
In June 1907,
issu ed ,
harm ony,
organized
c o u n terp o in t,
consent
to add m usic
the
in elu d in g
the
effort
first
the
set
of
su b jec ts
v o ice,
of
p ian o ,
and v i o l i n .
C o in cid en t w ith c o lle g e
m usic
came t h e
then,
as
they s t i l l
stru c tio n
a s the
q u estio n
sho u ld
so -called
of school
b eliev e
academ ic
The q u e s t i o n
an d much d e b a t e d
one.
cred it
t h e i r m usic,
p in g m usic
e n tire ly ,
for
for
on t h e
talen ted
choose betw een
o r rem ain in g
th e h o u rs
of
m any b e l i e v e d
t h a t m usic
in ­
same s t a n d a r d
such as E n g lis h ,
of ap p lied
M u sically
con tin u in g
cred it,
su b jec ts
or m athem atics.
to
re c o g n itio n
i n many s c h o o l s ,
not receiv e
f r e q u e n tly com pelled
entran ce
h isto ry ,
m u s ic was a l o n g
p u p i l s were
leav in g
in sch o o l
of p ra c tic e
s c h o o l and
and d r o p ­
to m a in ta in
15
the
stan d a rd ,
t o g e t h e r w ith th e r e g u l a r academ ic
m ad e a l o a d
too heavy fo r any s tu d e n t
the f e e l i n g
is
its
ch anging,
and m usic w i l l
G rad u ally
some d a y come i n t o
own.
The f o l l o w i n g r e s o l u t i o n
of
to c a r r y .
su b je c ts,
the D e p a rtm e n t
A sso ciatio n ,
d ep icts
passed
of S u p erin ten d en cy ,
D allas,
the p r e s e n t
Texas,
tren d
M arch 4,
of
thought
by th e conference
N a tio n a l E d u c atio n
1927,
in
m ost c l e a r l y
th e m odern e d u c a t i o n ­
a l wo r i d .
R eso lu tio n s
C onference
of
passed
b y t h e D i s c u s s i o n Group a t
the D epartm ent of S u p e rin te n d e n c y ,
the
N atio n al
E d u c a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n w ere a s f o l l o w s :
We t h e r e f o r e
reso lv e:
* . . F i r s t , t h a t we f a v o r t h e i n c l u s i o n o f m u s i c i n
o u r c u r r i c u l u m on an e q u a l i t y w i t h th e o t h e r b a s i c s u b ­
jects*
We r e c o m m e n d t h a t a l l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e r s
t a k e s t e p s t o w a r d a more e q u i t a b l e a d j u s t m e n t o f m u s i c
in the e d u c a ti o n a l program in v o lv in g ;
tim e a l l o t t m e n t ,
number and s t a n d a r d o f t e a c h e r s , e q u ip m e n t p r o v i d e d .
• » * S e c o n d , t h a t we b e l i e v e a n a d e q u a t e p r o g r a m o f
h ig h s c h o o l m usic i n s t r u c t i o n sh o u ld i n c l u d e c r e d i t
e q u i v a l e n t to t h a t g iv e n to o t h e r b a s i c s u b j e c t s f o r
p r o p e r ly s u p e rv is e d m usic.
Edw ard B. B i r g e
M usic
in
the
U nited
S tates,
v o te a t D a l l a s was a t
challeng e
to
in h is
"H isto ry of
c lo s e s w ith
once a prom ise
the m usic p r o f e s s i o n
of
the P u b lic
th ese
w ords,
School
11The.
c o o p e r a t i o n and a
to b r in g
to
com plete
1 D epartm ent of S up erin ten d en cjr, " R e s o lu tio n ," R e p r i n t ­
ed b y B i r g e i n h i s " H i s t o r y o f P u b l i c S c h o o l M u s i c . " p . 285
16
fu lfillm e n t
th e g r e a t w ork r e m a in in g
to be done
in m usic
e d u c a t i o n . 11^
PRESENT ORGANIZATION OF MUSIC I N TEE SECONDARY
SCHOOLS AS REVEALED BY THE QUESTIONNAIRE
P r o c e d u r e . As a p a r t
to d eterm in e
sch o o ls,
the p re se n t
th o se
rep o rtin g
of
sta tu s
the
q u estio n n aire
o f m usic
w ere r e q u e s t e d
in
the
d esig n ed
secondary
to a n s w e r
the
fo llo w in g :
(a)*
S tate
the p o s itio n
(b).
Number
sch o o ls
of j u n io r ,
in
th eir
they h e ld .
sen io r,
system s.
( c ).
E nrollm ent.
(d).
Number
of f u l l
tim e,
number
of f u ll
tim e m usic t e a c h e r s
em ployed
in
system s.
t e a c h i n g m usic
p a r t tim e,
th eir
sta tin g
sch o o ls,
req u ired .
w hether
an d a.lso
th e y were
the g rad es
S u fficien t
and a p p ro x im a te
resp ectiv e
They w e re f u r t h e r r e q u e s t e d
ses,
or fo u r year hig h
to
check a l i s t
req u ired
or e le c tiv e
in
of c o u r­
in
th eir
i n w hich t h e y were e l e c t i v e
s p a c e was g i v e n so
m ig h t be added w h ic h were n o t a l r e a d y
th at
o th er courses
tab u lated
on th e
q u estio n n a ire .
The s y s t e m s
^ Ib id
p.
rep resen ted .
286.
F ifty -tw o
or
q u e stio n n a ire s
17
w ere r e t u r n e d r e p r e s e n t i n g
fo rty -sev en
Two q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w e r e s o
s k e tc h il y checked b ecau se
lack
of tim e
th at
th e y co u ld n o t he c o n s id e re d
receiv ed .
on t h e
part
of
The f o r t y - f i v e
fin d in g s are
based,
secondary sch o o ls
in
school d i s t r i c t s .
of
th e busy s u p e r v is o r s answ ering
system s
in com piling
data
upon whose r e p o r t s
rep resen t a cross
S outhern
the
se c tio n
C alifo rn ia.
of
the
the
They w ere t h e
fo llo w in g :
1.
a.
3.
4.
5.
6*
7.
8*
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20 .
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
A n a h e im
B anning
B arstow
Beaumont
B onita
B raw ley
B rea
C alexico
Chino
C itrus
C larem ont
C olton
Corona
C ovina
Dow ney
El C entro
E lsin o re
E x celsio r
E x eter
Ei ilm o re
F u llerto n
G ard en Grove
Over n i n e t y - t w o
per cent
answ ered by s u p e r v is o r s
carried
on i n
the
of the
of m usic,
tim e
q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were
and r e p r e s e n t e d
seco n d ary sch o o ls
The e x a c t n u m b e r o f f u l l
Hemet
H u n tin g to n Beach
Ind i o
L an caster
L indsay
Long B e a c h
M inneapolis
M onrovia
N ewport Beach
New Y o r k
O ceanside
O range
Paso H obles
P lacen tia
P o rterv ille
P uente
San J a c i n t o
San D ieg o
S a n t a Ana
S trathm ore
T ulare
T u stin
V isalia
of
teach ers
th ese
t h e work
school d i s t r i c t s .
c o u ld n o t be o b ta in e d
18
as
some s u p e r v i s o r s
sin ce
th is
neg lected
to
fill
i n no m e a s u r e a f f e c t e d
in
th is
th e re p o rt,
item ,
but
an ex act
a c c o u n t i n g was n o t deemed n e c e s s a r y .
T ypes o f work o f f e r e d .
l o g i c a l l y divided' in to
th ree
The t y p e s
o f work a r e
g r o u p s w h i c h m ay b e o u t l i n e d
as fo llo w s:
I.
II.
P o p u larity
wo rk .
of v a r i o u s m usic a c t i v i t i e s
A.
A ctiv
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
B.
R e g u l a r c l a s s room c o u r s e s
1. A p p lie d m usic c l a s s e s
2 . Harmony
3 . H i s t o r y o f M usic
4. A p p r e c i a t i o n
5. A G e n e r a l M u s ic C o u r s e
and c l a s s
ities
Band
O rchestra
Boys * G lee
G i r l s ’ G lee
Choru s
P o p u lar p r a c tic e s
in
the
M usic D e p a r tm e n t
A*.
Time g i v e n t o t h e v a r i o u s m u s i c a c t i v i t i e s
1 . Ba nd
2. O rc h e s tra
3. G i r l s ’ G lee
4 . Boys r G le e
5. C horus
6. A p p lie d M usic
B.
C red it
1.
2.
3.
4.
C.
The c o u r s e
o f f e r e d f o r M u s i c W ork
Th e M u s i c m a j o r
The M u s i c m i n o r
C re d its accep ted f o r g ra d u a tio n
C r e d i t a c c e p t e d f o r p r i v a t e work
taken o u ts id e of school
of
stu d y
III.
Program s
of
th e M usic D e p a r tm e n t
B.
G uidance
in
the
P.
T ry o u ts f o r m em bership in a c t i v i t i e s
M iscellaneo us d a ta
Types
and g i r l s
th eo ry ,
M usical p r e p a r a t i o n
C.
P ercentage of stu d e n ts
p h a s e o f M usic
D.
P e r c e n t a g e o f s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n some
p h a s e o f M usic when p o p u l a r m u s ic i s u s e d
e x ten siv e n ess
to
n ote
com bined.
w ith harm ony,
organ,
strin g ed
en sem b les;
Not a l l
th e
C lasses
o f m usic,
the
and
courses are
in
some
ty p es
o f m usic
d iv isio n s
array
of
o p eretta,
fo lk
offered
but
it
is
sin ce
or f o r boys
harm oiiy,
fo r boys,
p ian o ,
in tere sted
needs.
of a p p r e c ia tio n
clubs
in v io lin ,
in
su b je c ts,
in a p p re c ia tio n ,
g lee
of
a p p e a r many
sep arately ,
fo r boys, g i r l s ,
corps;
school
ex p ed ien t f o r lo c a l
larg e
clu b s
in stru m en ts,
to h ig h
e n ro lle d
or com binations
in stru ctio n
or v o ic e ;
p rio r
o fferin g s
th ese
or theory;
d r u m and b u g l e
of th ese
of
be c o n s id e r e d
here
h isto ry ,
o r m ixed g r o u p s ;
piano,
su ita b le
i n M usic
T h irty -o n e d i s t i n c t
W ithin
chorus c la s s e s
h isto ry
classes,
t h e M usic D e p a r tm e n t
B.
of w ork w i l l
th ey ex clude
o f M usic C o u r s e s
Humber o f b o y s e n r o l l e d
c o m b in a tio n s found
in te re stin g
se le c tio n
A.
secondary sc h o o ls-
Bach ty p e
of
o f work o f f e r e d .
w ork show t h e
the
D.
g irls,
in stru m en tal
in a p p re c ia tio n ,
o r harm ony;
dancing,
strin g e d
accom panying.
by ev ery sch o o l,
but
20
a ll
as
of
th ese
courses
w ill be seen in
are
the fo llo w in g
Chorus c l a s s e s .
grades
of
the
req u ired .
to
A ll h ig h sch o o ls
m aking
th o se s tu d e n ts
grade,
ow ing to
the boys*
the
they w i l l
p er cen t in
n i n t h w i t h tw o and
■grade.
elev en th
system s
eith er
the
it
th ese
s e n io r h ig h sch o o ls.
of only
in
the
offered
tw elfth
sch o o l.
It
to be r e ­
cases.
choruses
chorus
one h a l f
the
p ro p o rtio n
to g eth er.
in
the
per cent
is
Tw enty-
seventh g ra d e ;
in
the
Over f o r t y
the
per cent
electiv es
ju n io r h ig h sch o o ls
in
ten th
b o y s ' -o r g i r l s ’ c h o r u s e s
two c h o r u s e s a s
In
The
One s c h o o l
it
in
e ig h th and f o u r t e e n p e r c e n t
tw elfth grades.
offered
per cent
the n in th .
be c o n s i d e r e d
ITo s y s t e m r e q u i r e d
or
fifty -n in e
in
except
per cent req u ired
c h o r u s work c e a s e s
in a l l
or g i r l s '
cent req u ired
tw en ty -tw o
S ix ty -tw o
elim in atin g
t h a t when t h e
freq u en tly
in m ost cases
a crow ded p ro g ram i n a s m a ll
In
per
is
and n i n t h
some f o r m o f c h o r u s
per cent
only,
becomes e l e c t i v e
th at
eig h th ,
tw e lfth grades req u ired
years
or an o th er
rep o rt.
chorus
sev en th g rad e;
it
so s i m i l a r
sev en th ,
t a k in g m usic a s a m a jo r.
th ree
be n o t i c e d
q u ired
n ine
the
e le v e n t h and
chorus f o r
d etailed
electiv e
e ig h th and f o r t y - t h r e e
ten th ,
w ill
it
one s c h o o l
offered
p r o v id in g m usic m a jo r s .
m ixed c h o r u s i n
the
In th e
in
ju n io r h ig h sch o o ls,
every grade,
th o se
offered
of
in
in
the
the
over
the
21'
‘t h i r t y
grade
the
per cent
scheduled
it
as an e le c tiv e
a t w h ic h t i m e many s y s t e m s h a v e
req u ired
to
the e l e c t i v e
The t i m e d e v o t e d t o
T he a m o u n t o f t i m e
for
choruses.
the
m inutes
m ost th r e e
o th er
to
to
the
le a st
tim e
in
was d o n e t o a l l o w
See
the
T ab les
I and
A p p r e c ia ti on.
in th e
per
it
in the
There
is
th eo ry ,
o r harm ony.
th at
It
No d o u b t t h i s
II.
than
the
in
is
the
is,
r e q u i r e d m ore commonly
sen io r
sin ce
fo rty
se v e n th and e ig h th g rad es
n in th .
a tendency
o th er courses,
a l­
t h e work a c c o m p lis h e d .
A p p reciatio n
in
fiv e
s e n io r h ig h sch o o ls,
In th e
was f o u n d t h a t m u s ic a p p r e c i a t i o n
ject.
the
per cent
it
the
O n ly one s y s t e m
s e n io r h ig h sc h o o l.
ju n io r h ig h school
cent req u ire
th irty
ju n io r and
cred it for
average
I ’o u r s y s t e m s d e v o t e d
in
lo w in g m ore
tim e was f o r t y
w ith th e
v aried
the
number o f
the b o y s 1 o r g i r l s 1
th e m ixed c h o ru s g r o u p .
tim e
from
hundred m in u te s,
th e la r g e s t
hundred,
two g r o u p s .
th ree
h o u r s a week t o
the
it
c h o r u s work f o r b o y s and g i r l s
I n th e m ixed c h o r u s
m in u tes and the
s am e a s
nin ety
tran sferred
seventh
c h o r u s work v a r i e d g r e a t l y .
of n in e ty m in u tes,
system s d e v o tin g
the
su b jec ts.
s e p a r a t e l y ran g ed from f o r t y - f i v e
w ith an average
in
se n io r h ig h sch o o l
was a n e l e c t i v e
t o make a p p r e c i a t i o n
com bining
was a l s o
an d
it
sub­
a part
of
w ith h is to r y ,
com bined w ith c h o ru s w ork
22
TABLE I
THE NUMBER OB SYSTEMS ( 4 5 REPORTING) OFFERING DIFFERENT
TYRES OF CHORUS IN THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL
R equired
Type
of
or
C horus E l e c t i v e
Boys
G irls
M ixed
7
(N o. P e r C ent)(N o*
G rades
8
P e r C ent)(N o*
9
Per C en t)
R
11
29*7
9
24*3
5
13*5
E
6
1 6 .2
8
21*6
11
29*7
R
11
29*7
8
2 1 .6
5
13*5
E
7
18*9
10
27.
14
37*8
R
23
62*1
22
59*4
16
43 .2
E
7
18*9
9
2 4 .3
14
3 7 .8
1 F o u r s y s te m s h ad no j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l , t h e r e f o r e ,
t h e d a t a f o r t h e s e v e n t h a n d e i g h t h g r a d e s i s b a s e d on 41
system s*
23
TABLE T I ­
THE HUMBER OF SYSTEMS OFFERING DIFFERENT TYFES OF CHORUS IN
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
Type
of
Chorus
R equired
or
E lec tiv e
Boys
R
1
2.7
E
15
4 0 .5
R
1
2 .7
E
17
R
E
G irls
M ixed
10 ■
(No, P e r C e n t ) ( N o .
G rades
11
P er C ent)(N o.
12
P e r C ent)
16
4 8 .6
16
4 3 .2
45.9
18
48.6
17
4 5 .9
6
1 6 .2
1
2 .7
1
2 .7
24
64.3
27
7 2.9
26
70.2
t>y t h r e e
sch o o ls,
voted to
th is
ciatio n
the
ly
ev id en tly a p a rt
p h ase of m u sic.
electiv e
in
the
of
the
E l e v e n p e r c e n t make a p p r e ­
sev en th g rad e,
eig h th ,
th irty
per cent
electiv e
in th e
s e n io r h ig h sch o o l.
a p p re c ia tio n v aried
in
w ith
to th e
Those s y ste m s p l a c i n g
hundred m inute
c re d it b asis
sch ed u le
com parable
The
average d ev o tin g
it
e v id e n tly p laced
to
th at
per
cent
in
and a lm o st e n t i r e ­
tim e d e v o t e d t o
m in u tes
hundred m in u tes,
su b je c t.
six te e n
the n in th ,
from f o r t y - f i v e
the
p e rio d b ein g d e ­
to
th ree
n in e ty m inutes
in th e
th is
g iven f o r
th ree
su b jec t
o th er
on a
school sub­
je c ts w ith equal re q u ire m e n ts.'
A p p reciatio n
and H i s t o r y o f M u sic .
sy ste m s com bining a p p r e c i a t i o n and h i s t o r y
th is
course
grades.
req u ired
Two o f f e r e d
s e v e n t h and
in
the
th is
eig h th grades,
fo u rteen
seven th ,
w hile
it
was o f f e r e d b y s e v e n i n
e le v e n th g rad e and f i f t e e n
of s u b je c ts
in th e f i e l d
cluded
in
system s
the
te n th grade,
in
the
o fferin g
of m usic,
in
the
six teen
tw e lfth grade.
the g r e a t e s t
w i t h one
in
It
v ariety
ex cep tio n ,
in ­
th is co m b in atio n .
A p p rec i a t i on and
course
n in th
an e l e c t i v e
the
the
e ig h th and
as
n in th grade,
th at
o f m u s i c made
course
the
was n o t i c e d
Seven of th o s e
T heory.
u s in g p o p u l a r m usic
in stru ctio n in
the
sim p ler
In th e h ig h
in a p p re c ia tio n
form s
sch o o ls a
o fte n
in clu d es
o f m u s i c a n d so me t r e a t m e n t
of
the
stru ctu re
o f m usic
t h a t w i l l make a p p r e c i a t i o n
keener.
P our system s r e q u ir e d
t i o n and
t h e o r y of m usic
req u ired
it
in
the
in
in
for
eig h th ,
the
eig h t
in
e le v e n th and
th ese
su b jec ts
On t h e
the
ten
p reciatio n
hundred
v aried
the
and tw en ty .
for
w ith an average
of m u s ic ,
The l a r g e s t
of s tu d e n ts
th e
is
in
elev en
to
two
to th e
w ith an a v e ra g e
to
stu d y
ap­
o f one
number of sy ste m s a llo w e d
th is
stu d y .
Harmony, a s a s u b j e c t b y
p ro fessio n al
m u sician ,
and
c a n h a r d l y be o f g r e a t v a l u e .
in te llig e n t grasp
a course
ten th ,
one h u n d r e d m in u te s
p e r ie n c e n e c e s s a r y to an
tio n ,
th ree
o f one h u n d r e d .
sp ecial g if ts
is
ten th .
m inutes
"A f e w c h i l d r e n h a v e t h e
B ut when t h i s
the
in
The t i m e a l l o w e d
from f o r t y - f i v e
p r im a r ily to
the m a j o r i t y
the
tw elfth .
tw enty m inutes f o r
b elo n g s
one
two
sev en th g rad e,
ten in
A p p r e c i a t i o n and Harm ony.
itse lf,
and
w hile
t h r e e h u n d re d m in u te s w ere g iv e n
and h i s t o r y
one h u n d r e d an d
in
in the
system s d evoted
o th e r hand
sev en th g rad e,
the n i n t h ,
h u n d re d and t w e n t y - f i v e ,
M ost o f
th e
com b in atio n of a p p r e c ia ­
e ig h th and n i n t h ,
One s y s t e m m a d e i t e l e c t i v e
the
th e
the
tra in in g ,
of
the
and e x ­
su b je c t."1
com bined i n a m o d if ie d fo rm w i t h a p p r e c i a ­
offered
t h a t m a n y m ay e n j o y
and u s e
to
1 D a v i s o n , A r c h i b a l d T . , "M usic E d u c a t i o n i n A m e r ic a ,
H a r p e r B r o t h e r s , New T o r k , New Y o r k 1 9 2 6 , p . 1 0 0 .
26
good a d v a n ta g e .
One s y s t e m r e q u i r e s
seventh,
and
eig h th ,
grades
th is
grade,
tw elve
tw e lfth
course
in
grade.
two i n
the
n in th .
w as m a d e e l e c t i v e
the
th is
e le v e n th grade
w ith s ix
fifty ,
w ith an average
Harm ony.
g ra d u a te s tak e
to
th e
such a n
course
ex ten siv e
u n d erstan d in g
s e v e n t h and e i g h t h
course
offer
i n m usic to
in harm ony g i v e s ,
it
in the
in
the
ten th ,
the
s u b je c t ranged
to
tw o h u n d r e d
few of o u r h i g h
o f m usic
as a
n in th grade,
tw elfth grades.
acco rd in g
th e d a ta g a th e re d ,
school
thorough
system s have
and tw e n ty each
h u n d re d m in u te s a week,
ten th
the e x te n t of r e q u ir in g
E leven
e le v e n th and
to
the
in
two s y s t e m s o n l y o f f e r
grades.
of e le c tiv e s
school
o f a b o u t two h u n d r e d m i n u t e s .
S ince r e l a t i v e l y
part
in
and e l e v e n
The t i m e d e s i g n a t e d
of a l l
In th e h ig h
f ro m one h u n d r e d and t w e n t y - f i v e m i n u t e s
and
course
The
w hile
offer
w ith an average
in
it
on t h e i r
it
in
to
the
the
from s i x t y
of
the
tw enty-tw o
tim e d e v o t e d
v aries
it
to
stu d y ,
th ree
one h u n d r e d an d
eig h ty .
See T a b le s
III,
F
and
Theory of M usic.
m u s ic was a p a r t
a d istin ct
c h o ru s w ork,
Three
sev en th y ear and fo u r
e lectiv e
Many s t a t e d
of th e
course.
b y one s y s te m
IX.
in
in
th at
the
b u t some n o t e d
system s re q u ire d
the
th e
th eo ry
eig h th year.
seventh grade
it
in
of
it
as
the
I t w a s mad e
and by
tw o i n
27TABLE I I I
THE NUMBER OF SYSTEMS OFFERING CERTAIN TYPES OF MUSIC
INSTRUCTION IN THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL
G rades
8
9
P er C en t)(N o . P er C ent)
R equired.
or
E lec tiv e
(No.
A pprec.
R
E
15
4
4 0 .5
1 0 .8
15
5
4 0 .5
1 3 .5
11
11
29.7
2 9 .7
A pprec.
&
H isto ry
R
E
7
2
18.9
5.4
7
2
18.9
5 .4
7
7
18.9
18.9
A pprec *
&
Harmony
R
E
1
1
2 .7
2 .7
1
1
2.7
2. 7
1
2
2 .7
5 .4
A pprec.
&
Theory
R
E
4
1
10. 8
2 .7
2
3
5.4
8 .1
2
8
5 .4
21.6
Harmony
R
E
2
5 .4
2
5.4
11
29.7
R
E
3
1
8 .1
2 .7
4
2
1 0 .8
5.4
14
37 .8
R
E
1
2 .7
2
5.4
6
1 6 .2
C ourse
Theory
H isto ry
7
P er C ent)(N o.
F o u r s y s t e m s h a d no J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l s , t h e r e f o r e ,
t h e d a t a f o r t h e s e v e n t h a n d e i g h t h g r a d e s i s b a s e d o n 41
sy stem s.
28.
TABLE
iy
THE NUMBER OF SYSTEMS OFFERING CERTAIN TYPES OF MUSIC
INSTRUCTION IN THE SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
C ourse
Grade
R equired
11
10
or
E le c tiv e (N o * P er C ent)(N o. P er C ent)(N o.
12
P er C ent)
A pprec.
R
E
6
15
1 6 *2
4 0 .5
2,
17
5 .4
45.9
2
16
5 .4
43 .2
A -pprec.
&
Harmony
R
E
1
14
2.7
3 7 .8
16
4 3 .2
15 -
40. 5
A pprec.
R
E
1
6
2 .7
1 6 .2
12
3 2 .4
11
2 9 .7
A pprec.
&
Theory
R
E
1
10
2 .7
27.
11
29 .7
8
2 1 .6
Harmony
R
E
22.
5 9 .4
20
54.
19
51.3
R
E
17
.45.9
15
4 0 .5
14
3 7 .8
R
E
11
29.7
14
3 7 .8
15
4 0 .5
8c
Harm ony
Theory
H isto ry
T h r e e s y s t e m s had no t w e l f t h g r a d e ,
d a t a f o r t h a t g r a d e i s b a s e d on 41 s y s t e m s .
th e re fo re ,,
the
29
the
eig h th .
F o u rte e n system s
seventeen in
teen
in the
the
tw elfth
o f m usic v a r i e d
sev en th grade
to
H isto ry
the h i s t o r y
fifte e n
grade.
teen
in th e
to
elev en th ,
the
offer
it
in
the
eleven
in
the
the
the
sev en th grade
and
two i n
the
ranged from s i x t y
o f one h u n d re d
O rch estra.
j u n i o r and
A ll
the
g r e a t l y a s we s h a l l
see
hu n d red m in u te s w eekly.
to
all
it
as a d is tin c t
to g eth er.
year,
and o n ly
th ree
offered
sch o o ls*
F if­
four­
six
as an e l e c t i v e
in
in
The
hundred m inu tes,
and t h i r t y - f i v e
in a la te r
work r a n g e d
it
e ig h th did a ls o .
cities
s e n io r high
out before
tw elfth
ten th ,
One s y s t e m o f f e r e d
th is
in
The a v e r a g e w a s
tw o s u b j e c t s
n in th grade.
to
th eo ry
so e x c e l l e n t l y w i t h m usic
th e
voted
tim e f o r
As h a s h e e n p o i n t e d
teach
how ever,
w i t h an a v e r a g e
and f o u r ­
tw enty m in u te s.
of M u sic.
amount o f tim e
n in th ,
th e e le v e n th ,
th re e hun d red m inutes*
but prefer
system s,
the
the
t h a t m a n y s y s t e m s do n o t o f f e r
teen
in
in
The a m o u n t o f
o f m u sic com bines
ap p reciatio n
in
it
f r o m t w e n t y m i n u t e s when r e q u i r e d
one h u n d red and
course,
ten th ,
offered
m in u tes.
o rch estra
both
The r e s u l t s
ch ap ter.
v aried
The t i m e d e ­
t h e way f r o m f i f t y
to
fiv e
The a v e r a g e b e i n g a b o u t o n e
hundred and s i x t y m in u te s .
Band.
sch o o ls
the
than
cities
B a n d s a r e m o r e common i n
in
*
the
ju n io r h igh.
have bands
in
the
the
s e n io r h ig h
E i g h t y - s i x p e r c e n t of
s e n io r h ig h sc h o o ls .
S eventy
p e r c e n t have a band
in
th e n in th grade
c e n t o f f e r band a s an e l e c t i v e
grades.
th e re
In a few s c h o o l s
seems
it
is
they a re
t h e now p o p u l a r
even g r e a t e r
ra n g e s from f i f t y
m in u tes
some o f
the
in
in
the av erag e
f o r band a c c o rd in g
over
ex tra
of
p lace
to
per
eig h th
cu rricu lar,
but
t h e m on t h e
The t i m e v a ­
the o r c h e s t r a ,
one s y s t e m ,
o th ers.
fifty
s e v e n th and
o rch estra.
than t h a t
re d m inutes
the
the
to be a g row ing te n d e n c y to
same f o o t i n g a s
ria tio n
in
and
to
fiv e
sin ce
hund­
One h u n d r e d m i n u t e s
the
resu lts
o b tain ed
is
by
q u estio n n aire.
See
T a b l e s V, V I I a n d
G lee
and g i r l s
C lu b s.
There
f o r glee
m ixed g ro u p
is
a tendency
c lu b work w h i l e
m ost p r e v a l e n t .
o f f e r e d m ixed g l e e
eig h ty -o n e
is
IX .
club
per cent
in
th is
the
o f f e r e d m ixed g l e e
sep arate g lee
club
clu b s fo r
The l e a s t
to
noted
tim e a llo w e d
as
th e
eig h teen
w hile
and
ju n io r
system s
sch o o ls p o sse ssin g
t h e m ixed g l e e
was n i n e t y .
th e
fiv e
per cent
c lu b work,
Even i n
the
and b o y s.
t h e m o st was t h r e e
t h e minimum a n d
glee
tw en ty -sev en
g irls
phase
high sch o o l,
clu b .
t h i r t y m in u tes,
In
th e chorus
se n io r
o ffe re d boys*
tendency i s
se p a ra te boys
Over s i x t y - s e v e n
e ig h ty -s ix per ce n t g i r l s r g lee
h ig h sch o o ls
in
to
g i r l s r g lee
hundred
club
c l u b was
and
the a v e r a g e
t h i r t y m i n u t e s was
h u n d r e d w a s t h e m axim um ,
w ith n in e ty
m inutes
th irty
the
average*
to f i v e
The b o y s * g l e e
hundred and averaged
Muc h e m p h a s i s h a s b e e n p l a c e d
in
recent years,
fe stiv a ls
h eld
P iano
throughout
C lasses.
p o p u lar m u sical
th is
in
the
in
t h e home.
in stru m en t is
is
and have
lo w er g r a d e s .
seems
to be
and f i f t e e n
The t i m e v a r i e s
in
th eir
in
th erefo re,
w h ile
the
the
the
stu d y
ch ild
taken t h i s
is
in to
p iano
classes
in
the
system s have p ia n o
classes
in
the
th e
te n have
them i n
e le v e n th and
from f o r t y - f i v e
w ith an average
sta rte d
the
piano
th a t can be used
rep o rted ,
sta rte d
T h irteen
th e m ost
as w ell as
Many s y s t e m s h a v e
sev en th and e ig h th g ra d e s,
m in u tes,
by th e v a rio u s
O ften s tu d y o f the
g en erally
elem en tary g rad es.
c l u b w ork
state*
The p i a n o
E arly in te r e s t
c o n sid e ratio n
ten th ,
in stig ated
t h a t o f so me i n s t r u m e n t
o rch estra.
of
on e x c e l l e n t g l e e
the
from
n i n e t y m i n u t e s p e r w eek *
i n s t r u m e n t of m odern tim e s ,
m o st v/idely u sed
precedes
und o u b ted ly
c l u b work r a n g e d
m inutes
the
tw elfth
to
of ap p ro x im ately
n in th and
grades.
th re e hundred
one h u n d re d and
tw en ty -fiv e.
V io lin
th e p ia n o ,
is
C lasses.
o fte n
b y some s y s t e m s
th e high sch o o l.
the
ju n io r
in
V io lin
sta rte d
at
in stru ctio n ,
an e a r l y
lik e
age,
and
th at
is
the e le m e n ta ry g ra d e s s s w e ll as
T h irteen
system s o f f e r e d
and s e n io r h ig h s c h o o ls .
th is
tau g h t
in
stu d y
The t i m e r a n g e d
of
in
from
32>
a m in i m u m o f
s ix t y m inutes
w ith an average
of
one h u n d re d
In stru m e n ta l
than v io lin ,
sev en th ,
in
are
the
are
t o a m axim um o f f i v e
C lasses.
offered
and tw e n ty .
In stru m e n ta l c la s s e s
by seventeen
e ig h th and n in th y e a r s ,
se n io r h ig h sch o o ls.
composed f o r
of
some a b i l i t y
the
in p itc h ,
volum e an d
tone
as feeders
q u ality ,
These i n s t r u m e n t a l c l a s s e s
for
tem s r e q u i r e
the
o rch estra
p a rtic ip a tio n
d if­
th eir p a rtic u la r
u su a lly
in f a c t,
member o f t h e
class*
The t i m e
fifty
to f i v e
hundred w ith an a v e ra g e
m inutes
fin e
such o rg a n iz a tio n s
spent
and
to g e th e r w ith
are
and bands;
in
system s
accu rate
to d i s t i n g u i s h
p r o p e r p h y s ic a l equipm ent e s s e n t i a l f o r
in stru m en t.
the
t h e m ore g i f t e d
rh y th m ic
ference
o th er
in stru m en tal c la s se s
s t u d e n t s who h a v e a f a i r l y
and
in
and by e ig h te e n
These
th e m ost p a r t
system s
m u sically in c lin e d
sense
hundred
in c la s s
used
many s y s ­
of every
v aries
from
of about
n i n t y m in u te s p e r week.
See
T a b l e s V,
In stru ctio n
p rim a rily ,
n ized
in
th e
the
to
the
V o ice.
IX.
V oice
in stru ctio n
upper grades-because
grade,
e l e v e n t h and
phase
in
age a b i l i t y . '
nin th
V II and
It
is
elev en
the
long
o ffe re d by only fo u r
in
th e
tw e lfth grades*
of m u sical a c t i v i t y
of
v aries
ten th ,
and
b elo n g s,
system s
fifte e n
The t i m e a l l o w e d
from f o r t y
recog­
to
in
for
th is
tw o h u n d r e d
33
and
tw e n ty -fiv e m in u tes p e r week.
O rgan.
organ in
the
the
O nly one s y s te m o f f e r e d
s e v e n th and
o th er
a t present
th is
ad v o cates,
tim e a s
school h o u rs.
sch ed u le.
-Among t h e
q u artet
seems
as
system s
fiv e
e ig h th g r a d e s , seven f o r
h ig h
the
in
It
is
The
ev id en t th a t
stu d y does not rank v ery p ro m in en tly .
O ther C o u rse s.
strin g
the
one h u n d r e d a n d t h i r t y - f i v e
sp e n t d u rin g
s c h o o l s g a v e no tim e
of
and o n l y f o u r
Two s y s t e m s g a v e
tw e n ty and
m inutes r e s p e c tiv e ly ,
the
eig h th g rad es,
e l e v e n t h and t w e l f t h .
one h u n d re d and
th e stu d y
school group.
to h a v e
o th er
th e
scheduled
the n i n t h
courses
offered,
g r e a t e s t number o f
for
the
se v en th ana
and n i n e
for
the s e n io r
The t i m e r a n g e d
it
from s i x t y
to
one
hundred m in u tes p e r week.
The s t r i n g
ferin g
them i n
the
ensem bles a re
an a v e r a g e
from f o r t y - f i v e
of sev en ty -fiv e
tc
e i t h e r on a c r e d i t
or o u tsid e
so cia l,
for
the
the sch o o l
w ith
m in u tes.
Several
is
in
two h u n d r e d m i n u t e s ,
M usical C lu b s.
value
fiv e
sp en t d u rin g
V I.I T a n d I X .
c lu b s m eet d u rin g ,
ch ief
The t i m e
S e e T a b l e s V I I: ,
organized
tw o s y s t e m s o f ­
j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s and
s e n io r high sc h o o ls.
hours v aried
n e x t w ith
types
of m u sic a l c lu b s a re
o r non c r e d i t b a s i s .
school hours,
they tend
to b in d
These
and t h e i r
to g eth er
34
•TABLE V
THE HUMBER OF SYSTEMS OFFERING CERTAIN TYPES OF INSTRUMENTAL
MUSIC IN THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL
G rades
7
8
(No. P e r C e n t)(N o ►P e r C e n t) ( N o .
Course
9
P e r C enti
O rch estra
33
8 8 .8
33
8 8 .8
37
Band
20
54
20
54
26
70.3
Piano
13
35 .1
13
35.1
24
64.3
V io lin
18
48.6
19
51.3
10
27
In stru m e n ta l
17
45.9
17
4 5 .9
18
4 8 .6
1
2 .7
5
13.5
5
1 3 .5
7
1 8.9
2
5.4
2
5 .4
2
5.4
Organ
S trin g
Q ,uartet
S t r i n g E nsem bles
1
100
2^7
F o u r - s y s t e m s had no J u n i o r H igh S c h o o l , t h e r e f o r e ,
t h e d a t a f o r t h e s e v e n t h a n d e i g h t h g r a d e s i s b a s e d on 3 3 .
35
TABLE VI
THE NUMBER OF SYSTEMS' OFFERING CERTAIN TYRES OF INSTRUMENTAL
MUSIC IN THE SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
G rades
10
11
{No* P e r C e n t ) (No* P e r C e n t ) ( N o .
C ourse
O rch estra
3.7
Band
32
85*6
P iano
10
27
V io lin
13
In stru m e n ta l
100
37
100
12
P er C ent)
34
91 .8
32
8 5 .6
31
8 3 .7
7
18.9
7
1 8 .9
3 5 .1
13
3 5 .1
13
3 5 .1
19
51.3
18
4 8 .6
18
4 8 .6
4
1 0 .8
4
1 0 .8
4
1 0 .8
9
2 4 .3
9
2 4 .3
9
24.3
S t r i n g E nsem ble
5
13. 5
5
1 3 .5
5
1 3 .5
Drum & B u g le
1
2 .7
1
2 .7 .
1
2 .7
1
2 .7
1
2 .7
1
2 .7
O rgan
S trin g
Q u artet
Ac c ompa n y i n g
Corps
36
p u p ils
is
of sim ila r
ta ste s.
Of c o u r s e ,
th e m u sic a l elem ent
alw ays p r e s e n t .
C h i e f among t h e s e
found in f o u rte e n
is
two o p e r e t t a s
To t h e m i s
ch estra
given
and b a n d ,
activ ities
of
the
o p e r e tta , g ro u p w hich
sch o o l system s d u rin g
s e n io r h ig h school y e a rs.
one o r
the
the
the
They a r e r e s p o n s i b l e
produced by t h e i r
o p p o rtu n ity ,
of p resen tin g
sch o o ls
to
the
p u b lic
s y s te m s and
th ro u g h o u t th e
four
s e n io r h ig h
j u n i o r and
m eeting f o r
the
in m usic
general
It
is
s tu d e n t body,
are
type
understoo d
offered
o fte n
it
has an ex ten siv e
ta k e harm ony,
in fo u r
th at
as
in v o ice,
for
or­
for
stu d en ts
electiv es
to
For in s ta n c e ,
m usic h i s t o r y ,
such o th e r s u b je c ts
Some s y s t e m s
ex cep t t h a t pursued
Los A n g e le s f o l l o w s
course
system s.
a m onth.
req u ired .
do n o t g r a n t an y c r e d i t f o r an y m usic
the h ig h s c h o o l.
ju n io r
ex ists
o f m usic, m a jo r w ould r e q u i r e .
in
six
h ig h sch o o ls,
tw ice
th eo ry and a p p re c ia tio n ,, to g e th e r w ith
th eir
or­
an extra, c u r r i c u l a r
such s u b je c ts ,
t h e y w ould be r e q u i r e d , t o
as
the
school
sen io r
f o r t y m inutes
G eneral R em arks.
m ajoring
every y e a r.
the m u sical
in
in stru m en ts
Los A n g e le s h a s a harm ony c lu b ,
g an izatio n ,
the
sch o o l.
A club fo r d e v o te e s of s trin g e d
system s
and
for
to g e th e r w ith
M usic a p p r e c i a t i o n c l u b s w ere f o u n d
h ig h school
ju n io r
is
th is
p ian o,
m ethod,
pipe
as
organ.
37
TABLET V I I
THE NUMBER OF SYSTEMS OFFERING CERTAIN TYPES OF
MUSICAL CLUBS IN THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL
C lubs
{No.
Boys* G le e
2. 7
7
P er C ent)(N o.
G rades
8
P er C ent)(N o.
9
Per C en t)
72.9
27
72.9
28
7 5 .6
G i r l s * G lee
27.
72.9
28
75.6
28
75.6
M ixed G le e
18.
48 .6
19
51.3
24
6 4 .3
P iano
2.
5.4
2
5.4
3
8 .1
A p p reciatio n
6.
16 .2
6
16.2
5
1 3 .5
Opere t t a
9.
2 4 .3
9
24 .3
9
24.3
S trin g
In stru m e n ts
4
1 0 .8
4
10.8
3
8 .1
grades*
1 O n ly 33 s y s t e m s r e p o r t e d f o r t h e s e v e n th * an d e i g h t h
a s f o u r had no j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l*
38
TABLE T i l l
THE NUMBER OF SYSTEMS OFFERING CLUBS OF VARIOUS FINDS
IN THE SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
(N o .P e r C ent) (N o .P er C ent) (N o .P er C ent)
C lubs
Boys*5 G le e
30
8 0 .1
30
8 0 .1
28
75.6
G i r l s ’ G lee
32
8 6 .4
32
6 6 .4
30
80.1
M ix e d G l e e
25
67 .5
25
67 .5
24
64.3
P iano
A pprec.
8.1
1 0 .8
C lu b
O p eretta
Club
S trin g ed
Ins.
C lub
4
B oysr Q u artet
F o lk D ancing
10 .8
1
4
10.8
24 .3
9
24.3
24.3
1 0 .8
4
1 0 .8
10.8
2. 7
2 .7
2 .7
Harmony C lu b
8.1
8.1
2 .7
1
2 .7
2 .7
2. 7
1
2.7
2 .7
39
TABLE IX
TIME ALLOWED TO VARIOUS FORBES OF MUSIC AS REPORTED BY
THIRTY-SEVEN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA CITIES
A pprec.
Boys
45
50
50
55
60
60
60
80
90
90
90
90
90
120
120
135
135
180
225
250
3 00
Chorus
M ix e d
G irls
45
50
55
60
60
60
80
90
90
90
90
120
120
120
135
135
225
250
250
300
40
45
45
50
50
50
50
55
60
60
60
75
80
90
90
90
90
90
120
135
150
200
200
225
300
300
300
300
A pprec.
50
60
60
60
60
75
75
75
90
90
90
90
90
90
100
120
120
135
180
180
300
A pprec, A pprec.
8c
8c
8c
H isto ry
Theory
Harmony
60
75
90
90
100
125
120
120
135
180
225
250
300
45
50
90
100
100
135
200
225
120
135
135
200
250
250
I n a v e r y f e w i n s t a n c e s w h e r e two t i m e s w e r e
g i v e n a s 90 t o 1 2 0 , t h e l a r g e r one w as ta b u la te d .* ..
40
TABLE IX (C o n tin u e d )
TIMES' ALLOTTED TO VARIOUS FORMS OF MUSIC AS REPORTED BY
THIRTY-SEVEN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA CITIES
Harmony T h e o ry H is to r j^ O r c h e s t r a
60
90
90
90
90
90
100
12Q
135
150
180
180
180
200
200
225
225
250
250
300
300
300
20
50
60
90
90
90
90
100
100
120
120
135
200
225
225
225
250
250
30 0
300
300
30 0
60
90
90
100
120
120
135
135
180
180
200
200
225
300
300
50
60
60
60
75
80
90
90
90
90
90
100
100
100
120
120
15 0
150
175
180
180
180
180
200
200
225
225
225
225
225
250
250
300
300
300
400
500
Band
50
60
60
60
75
80
90
.
90
100
100
120
120
150
150
175
180
180
180
180
180
200
200
200
225
225
250
270
300
300
300
500
G lee C lubs
Boys G i r l s M ixed
40
50
50
50
60
60
60
60
60
75
80
90
90
90
90
90
90
100
120
120
135
135
140
150
180
200
225
225
250
250
300
300
500
40
50
50
60
60
60
60
60
75
80
90
90
90
90
90
90
90
100
100
120
120
120
120
135
135
150
180
200
225
225
250
250
300
500
30
45
45
50
60
60
60
60
75
80
90
90
90
90
100
120
120
135
135
150
18 0
225
250
300
300
41
TABLE IX (C o n t in u e d )
TIME ALLOTTED TO VARIOUS FORMS OF MUSIC AS REPORTED BY
THIRTY-SEVER SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA CITIES
P iano
45
60
60
60
75
90
120
120
120
120
120
200
225
Y io lin
60
60
60
75
90
90
120
1 20
120
120
12 0
200
500
In stru .
50
60
60
60
75
90
90
90
120
120
120
120
135
150
180
200
225
225
500
V oice
40
90
90
90
100
120
120
135
135
180
200
225
O rgan
120
135
135
S trin g
Q uartet
45
60
60
60
75
100
135
135
200
S trin g
Q u artet
60
60
90
90
10 Q
120
120
135
42
TABLE I X ( C o n t i n u e d )
A pprec
40
45
60
60
120
Piano
C lu b s
O peretta
45
60
30
50
30
60
60
60
90
90
135
150
60
90
135
S trin g
In stru .
Harmony
90
m in. p e r
m onth
F o lic
Da nc i ng
60
m in * p e r
week
v io lin
and s t r i n g
in stru m en ts.
M usic c u r r i c u l u m
b y the
s u r v e y of D r.
the
great s trid e s
the
tab u lated
by D r.
in
facts
G ood i n
in
secondary sch o o ls as d is c lo s e d
C a r t e r VI Good i n 1 9 2 7 .
Some i d e a
th is
by com paring
fie ld
may b e g a i n e d
of th e p re s e n t
1927,
bearin g
n o t a l l have been f o r
w ords
“c o n s t a n t " and
“e le c tiv e "
of th e
six ty -sev e n
of
q u i r e d m usic
nin e
in
the
title
th irty
it
the
is
the y e a r 1927.
“v a r i a b l e ' *
stu d en ts
in th e
M ost o f
“m u s i c "
offered
the
fact
that
h ig h sch o o ls
seventh g rad e,
grade,
th at
an d t w e n t y - e i g h t
w ork.
under
In th e
th at
th e work i s
in g e n e ra l.
The s t u d y
of
ed u catio n al
the f o ll o w i n g
T a b le s X and XI.
re­
fifty -
w orld
report
not
The v a r i e t y
by a v e r y few s c h o o ls d e m o n sta te
show t h i s p r o g r e s s v e r y c l e a r l y .
See
ju n io r
sp e c ia liz e d
headings
aw akening undergone b y th e
of m usic.
“ r e q u i r e d ’1 a n d
upon w h ich he b a s e d
again a v ery n o tic e a b le
of courses
of
the
He d i s c o v e r e d
eig h th
than
s e n io r h ig h sch o o ls
sp e c ia liz e d
s c h o o l a n d may
th e work i n m u sic a p p e a r e d
rath er
even under
in
s t u d y was
He h a s u s e d
in p lace
sev en ty -eig h t
of a ll
th at h is
the h ig h
p resen t survey.
r e q u i r e d m usic
the n in th .
s u r v e y w i t h t h a t m ade
i n mind
b a s e d on m a n u a ls a n d p ro g ra m s o f
of
in
the
the f i e l d
tab les w ill,
perhaps,
44'
TABLE X
MUSIC COURSES OFFERED I N SEVENTY-EIGHT
JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS
C ourse
S e v e n th Grade E i g h t h Grade N in th G rade
Con.
Con*
V ar.
C on .
V ar.
V ar.
T itle
Mus i e
65
?
5?
14
27
36
C horus
2
3
2.
3
0
6
G le e Club
0
0
0
0
0
3
O rch estra
0
5
0
6
0
9
0
1
0
1
0
1
Adv. O r c h e s t r a
0
1
0
1
0
1
Ban d
0
1
0
2
0
3
In stru m e n ta l
0
1
0
2
0
2
Harmony
0
0
0
0
0
2
P rep arato ry
Orch
1 As r e p o r t e d b y Dr * C a r t e r V. Good i n h i s
‘‘M u s i c i n t h e S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s . tr
survey
on
45
TABLE X X
MUSIC COURSES, OFFERED IN THIRTY SEHIOR
HIGH SCHOOLS
C ourse
T itles
M usic
A p p l i e d M usic
Band
Boys* G le e C lu b
C h o ru s M usic
C hoir P r a c t i c e
C horus
E le m e n ta ry T heory
G i r l s * G le e Club
G lee C lub
Harmony
Harmony & E a r T r a i n i n g
H i s t o r y 3c A p p r e c i a t i o n
H i s t o r y o f M usic
H i s t o r y 8c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n
I n s t r u m e n t a l E nsem ble
L iteratu re
M usic
M usic A p p r e c i a t i o n
M usic T h e o ry
O rchestra
O u t s id e M usic S tu d y
R u d im e n ts o f M usic
S ig h t S inging or Ear
T rain in g
T h e o r y 8c P r a c t i c e
V o ic e E n se m b le
V ocal M usic
in
H in th '
C on- Var*
5
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
G rades
T en th
E lev en th
Con* V a r . C o n . V a r .
42
0
5
1
0
0
3
0
1
2
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
11
0
1
11
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
2
0
0
0
.
-*-As r e p o r t e d b y Dr* C a r t e r
th e S e c o n d a ry H igh S c h o o l s . '1
V.
.
49
1
5
1
1
1
3
1
1
4
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
11
2
1
8
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
52
1
5
1
1
1
3
1
1
4
5
0
1
0
1
1
2
10
2
1
8
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
Good i n h i s
Twe I f t h
Con* V a r *
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
47
1
5
1
1
1
3
1
.0
4
5
0
1
0
0
1
2
9
1
1
8
1
0
0
0 ■
0
0
s u r v e y on “M usic
0
1
1
CHAPTER I I I
PRESENT STATUS OP APPLIED MUSIC
'T he p u r p o s e
present statu s
w ith th e
adm ission
p u r s u i n g m usic
the
c h ild 's
necessary
h ig h
m usic.
o f m usic i n
at
on t h e
h aving
to
tim e c a r r y
or drop out
th ereb y
am ount o f c r e d i t and
was t o b e g r a n t e d
t o do
the
in
o rd e r to
to m e e t t h i s
cred it
the c o n d itio n s
v ary in g acco rd in g
ch ap ter w ill,
The p r e s e n t a t t i t u d e
The p r a c t i c e
of
for
it
school
tim e
to
fo llo w in g
the
d e m a n d some
m usic,
sch o o ls
be d iv id e d
su b je c ts,
tow ard a p p lie d
lo an in g
the
th e
upon w h ic h c r e d i t
th erefo re,
the
is
of p ra c tic e
have
fo r ap p lied
in stru m e n ts c o n s id e re d w orthy of r e c e iv in g
(B ),
of
i n s t r u m e n t a l m usic
r e g u la r h ig h
in
some
was a c a s e
the h o u rs
on
ch ild ren
the e d u c a tio n a l p r iv i le g e s
tw o s e c t i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h
(A ).
it
m usic a l t o g e t h e r ,
In order
to allo w
to w h e th e r
m ight n o t r e c e i v e
of school
lo sin g
school o ffe rs .
This
secondary sch o o ls
As a r u l e
forego
the
A lm ost c o i n c i d e n t a l
the
o u tsid e,
an im p o s s ib ility
sch o o ls decided
to d e t e r m i n e
came t h e q u e s t i o n a s
th e same
m usic,
selv e s.
is
to m a in ta in an y s ta n d a rd
sch ed u le;
for
ch ap ter
tow ard g r a d u a tio n .
p ractically
and,
th is
of ap p lie d
a c re d it b a sis,
cred it
of
in stru m en ts
m usic
in to
nam ely
and th e
cred it,
to
them -
and
stu d e n ts.
47
!
In the
q u estio n n aire
p ractices
in
the f o llo w in g
1.
and p e r s o n a l
seco ndary sch o o ls
in terv iew s
on t h e m u sic
an sw ers w ere r e q u e s te d
to
q u estio n s:
Was c r e d i t
given
f o r m usic
stu d ie d
in
or out of
sch o o l?
2.
Was c r e d i t a l l o w e d
w ind i n s t r u m e n t s
3.
D id th e
or
school
o rch estra
fo r pian o ,
v io lin ,
strin g ed
or
or v o ice?
own a n d l o a n i n s t r u m e n t s
p u p ils,
and i f
so,
f o r hand
was a bond r e ­
quired ?
These a n s w e rs w ere
fo llo w in g
tab les
th en
carefu lly
and d i s c u s s i o n s
are
tab u lated .
The
based upon t h i s
tab u latio n .
A*
TEE PRESENT ATTITUDE TOWARD APPLIED MUSIC AND THE
INSTRUMENTS CONSIDERED WORTHY OF RECEIVING CREDIT
C red it fo r
g ran tin g
e ig h t,
given
or
for
cred it
a p p lie d m usic.
f o r ap p lied
tw en ty -tw o
o u tsid e
m usic
per cen t,
m usic
To t h e
in
or out
answ ered
in stru ctio n
o th er
sch o o ls.
c red it
th an
F iv e,
th a t of general
or about fo u rte e n
o n ly f o r m usic
of
of sch o o l,
t h a t c r e d i t was
o nly.
s c h o o l s w h e r e no i n s t r u c t i o n w a s g i v e n
m usic,
q u estio n
in
These were
in stru m en tal
o rch estra
w ith in
per
p erm itted
tau g h t w ith in
cen t,
the
sch o o l,
the
w hile
48.
tw en ty ,
or f i f t y - f o u r
tau g h t e ith e r
an alm o st
m usic,
in
of,
allo w in g
or out
eig h ty -n in e
and l e s s
cred it
for
g ran ted
of sch o o l.
uniform d e c is io n
sin ce
favor
in
per cen t,
There
to t h e
g ran tin g
stu d e n ts,
yet
under o u tsid e
per cent
of
of c r e d it.
except
tw elve
o 'c lo c k ,
g iv in g
offered
c red it
to
stu d en ts
in stru ctio n .
or out of
See
w hether
e ig h t,
or
work d o n e
T able
those
Los A n g e le s
no c r e d i t
o u tsid e
in stru ctio n ,
o fferin g
an
w ith in
in stru ctio n ,
O ther s c h o o ls ,
gran ted
to
d o in g work
in stru m en tal in s tru c tio n
in sch o o l.
hut
o fferin g
cred it
f o r work
in
to
q u estio n as
X III.
In stru c tio n .
In answ er
c r e d i t w as g r a n t e d
n early
was g i v e n f o r
teen per c e n t,
sch o o l,
to
classes
sch o o l.
P iano
to
refused
com plete
rep o rted
every S aturd ay
to
cred it
eq u ally
offered a l l
organ,
the
cred it
sch o o ls
o f o p i n i o n was n o t e d
Brea
in
w ould
the
a p p lie d m usic.
e q u a lly com plete c o u rse
sch o o ls,
ev id en tly ,
than elev en per ce n t a g a in s t,
o f in s t r u m e n t a l m usic,
m orning from e i g h t
is,
to g ra n t c r e d it f o r ap p lied
A ra th e r p e c u lia r div erg en ce
as
c r e d i t f o r m usic
w hile
tw en ty -tw o
o u tsid e
per cen t,
in stru ctio n .
gave c r e d i t
tw enty,
fo r piano
for
the
in stru c tio n ,
stated
F ive,
th at
or n early fo u r­
in s tru c tio n w ith in
or fifty -fo u r
c red it
per cen t,
gave
th e
cred it
49>
TABLE X I I
ATTITUDE OF VARIOUS SCHOOLS TOWARD GIVING CREDIT FOR
, APPLIED MUSIC
No* o f C i t i e s
R ep o rtin g "
Per
Cent
g iv en f o r in s tr u c tio n
w ith in the school
5
1 3 .5
C red it g iv en f o r in s tr u c tio n
o u ts id e the s c h o o l '
8
2 1 .6
20
54.0
4
1 0 .8
C red it
C red it g iv en f o r in s tr u c tio n
o u ts id e or w ith in the
school
Number o f c i t i e s g i v i n g no c r e d i t
f o r a p p l i e d m usic
T h is t a b l e s h o u ld be r e a d a s f o l l o w s :
F ive
c i t i e s , or 13*5 p e r c e n t o f th e c i t i e s r e p o r t i n g ,
g iv e c r e d i t f o r a p p l i e d m usic i n s t r u c t i o n w i t h i n t h e
h ig h sch o o l*
50
TABLE X I I I
ATTITUDE! OF VARIOUS SCHOOLS TOWARD
GIVING CREDIT FOR PIANO STUDY
t
No , o f C i t i e s
R eporting
Per
Cent
5
1 3 ,5
8
2 1 .6
20
54.0
4
1 0 .8
C red it g iven fo r in s tr u c tio n
w ith in th e sch o o l
C red it
C red it
g iv en f o r i n s t r u c t i o n
o u ts id e the s c h o o l
g iven f o r in s tr u c tio n
o u tsid e or w ith in th e
school
Number o f C i t i e s g i v i n g no c r e d i t
f o r p iano s tu d y
1
T h i s t a b l e s h o u l d b e r e a d as f o l l o w s :
F ive
c i t i e s , or 1 3 , 5 per c e n t o f the C i t i e s r e p o r t i n g , g i v e
c r e d i t f o r p ia n o s tu d y w i t h i n the s c h o o l .
51 '
5f o r
e ith er
to ta l
of
cred it
in sid e
o u tsid e
for
i n s t r u c t i o n on t h e
T able
V io lin
seven,
cred it
was g i v e n f o r
gave
slig h tly
or n in eteen per
o u tsid e
ap p ro x im a te ly elev en p er
the
The n u m b e r o f f e r i n g
i n V i o l i n was
sin ce
tio n w ith in
sch o o l,
cen t,
or about fo u rteen
and n in e te e n
per cen t,
sch o o l,
e ith e r w ith in
T h i r t y —two
in stru ctio n
fretted .
c re d it for
and
g ran ted
for a ll
F ive
allow ed
no
Four, or
per
in stru ctio n .
stu d y of v io li n .
the
than
o b tain ed
strin g ed
strin g ed
the v i o l i n ,
o u tsid e
in stru m en ts
o th er
when
th e sch o o l.
work o f t h i s
o u tsid e
in stru m en ts
As s i x t y - e i g h t p e r c e n t o f
in stru c­
N ineteen per cen t
for
c r e d it b o th f o r
for
system s,
p e r c e n t when g i v e n
sch o o l.
no c r e d i t
school
cred it
th irty -fiv e
in stru ctio n
p e r c e n t gave
P h ilad elp h ia
th at
or alm o st f i f t y
f o r the
in stru m en ts
or o u tsid e
gave c r e d i t f o r
stated
and o u ts id e
in stru m en ts.
on o t h e r s t r i n g e d
the
than f o r
XV.
O ther s t r i n g e d
g iven in
cen t,
cred it
gave c r e d i t f o r i n s t r u c ­
N i n e t e e n p e r c e n t g a v e no c r e d i t
T able
sm aller
in stru c tio n .
c r e d it fo r b o th in sid e
See
g ran tin g
XIV.
p iano,
tio n
T h i s m ade a
pian o .
In stru c tio n .
in stru ctio n
cen t,
in stru ctio n .
t h i r t y - t h r e e , or about n in e ty per cen t,
See
for
or
the
and
ty p e.
in sid e
t h a t were n o t
sch o o ls
than th e
g ran ted
v io lin ,
52
TABLE X I V
ATTITUDE OF VARIOUS, SCHOOL SYSTEMS
TOWARD GIVING CREDIT FOR VIO LIN STUDY
No. o f C i t i e s
R ep o rtin g
Per
Cent
C red it g iv en f o r in s tr u c tio n
w ith in th e sch o o l
4
1 0 .8
C re d it giv en fo r in s tr u c tio n
o u ts id e the s c h o o l
7
1 8 .9
19
50.9
7
1 8 .9
C r e d it g iven f o r i n s t r u c t i o n
o u tsid e or w ith in the
school
Number o f C i t i e s g i v i n g no c r e d i t
f o r v i o l i n stu d y
1
T his t a b l e sh o u ld be read a s f o l l o w s :
Four
C i t i e s , or 1 0 . 8 p er c e n t o f the c i t i e s r e p o r t i n g , g i v e
c r e d it fo r v i o l i n study w ith in the sc h o o l.
53
TABUS XV
ATTITUDE OF VARIOUS C I T I E S TOWARD GIVING
CREDIT FOR STUDY OF STRINGED INSTRUMENTS OTHER THAN TEE
VIOLIN
No* o f C i t i e s
R eporting
Per
Cent
C re d it g iv en f o r i n s t r u c t i o n
w ith in the sch o o l
5
13*5
C red it given f o r i n s tr u c tio n
o u tsid e th e school
7
18.9
school
13
35*1
o f c i t i e s g i v i n g no c r e d i t
f o r stu d y of s trin g e d i n s t r u
m ents o t h e r th a n th e v i o l i n
when s t u d i e d w i t h i n t h e
sch o o l.
12
32*4
C red it
Numb e r
g iven f o r i n s t r u c t i o n
w ith in or o u ts id e the
^ T his t a b le sh o u ld be re a d a s fo llo w s :
F ive
C i t i e s , o r 13*5 p e r c e n t ' g i v e c r e d i t f o r t h e s t u d y of
s t r i n g e d i n s t r u m e n t s o t h e r t h a n t h e v i o l i n when s t u d i e d
w ith in th e sch o o l*
54
one c o n c lu d e s
th at
the m a jo r ity
reco g n izin g
the a d v i s a b i l i t y
b esid e s
piano
the
See
T able
per
for
sid e
th e
the
the
and
w ind i n s t r u m e n t s and
tio n ,
th e y gave
S ix ,
for
cen t,
for
p e r cen t,
sid e
the
per cent
or
and o f
the q u e s tio n
no c r e d i t
for
per cen t,
stu d y w ith in
stu d y
o u tsid e
of
the
o u t­
th e stu d y w ith
In o th e r w ords,
cred it
per
for
stu d y
of
c e n t d id n o t.
cred itin g
th ese
for
th e
th e w rite r
in
the
th re e,
cred it for
and
clu b ,
of ap p lied
t h a t c r e d i t was
the s c h o o l,
in stru c­
b eliev es
chorus or g lee
any o t h e r k in d
sch o o l;
vocal
p er c e n t gave any
and answ ered
rep o rted
rep o rted g iv in g
sch o o l.
gave
about fo rty -o n e
when m e a n in g c r e d i t
or six teen
vocal
in stru ctio n .
q u estio n
stu d y ;
two m i s u n d e r s t o o d
as
p er cen t,
about fo rty -o n e
To t h e
vocal
affirm ativ e
only e le v e n
XVII*
o n ly f if t e e n ,
c re d it for
for
g ran ted
stu d y under in s tr u c tio n
th irty -tw o
ap p ro x im ately f i f t y - n i n e
T able
in stru m en ts,
the
school or w ith o u tsid e
V ocal.
in stru m en ts
stu d y under i n s t r u c t i o n w ith in
per cen t,
sch o o l,
See
o th er
A fe w e r number o f s c h o o ls
th e s t u d y o f w ind
six te e n
of cre d itin g
are
XVI.
cen t reco g n ized
sch o o l,
the s c h o o ls
and v i o l i n .
Wind I n s t r u m e n t s .
cred it
of
or
six ,
m usic.
allow ed
eig h t per
or
six teen
stu d y w ith in
or o u t­
55
TABI32 XVI
ATTITUDE OP VARIOUS C I T I E S TOWARD GIVING- CREDIT POR
THE STUDY OP WIND INSTRUMENTS
No . o f C i t i e s
R ep o rtin g
Per
Cent
4
10 - 8
6
1 6 .2
12
3 2 .4
15
4 0 .5
C re d it given f o r in s t r u c t i o n
w ith in th e school
C red it
g iven f o r i n s tr u c t io n
o u t s i d e the s c h o o l
C red it g iv en fo r
w ith in or
in stru ctio n
o u t s i d e the
school
N u m b e r o f C i t i e s g i v i n g no c r e d i t f o r
th e s t u d y o f w ind i n s t r u m e n t s
*
1 T his t a b l e s h o u ld be r e a d a s f o ll o w s :
Four
C i t i e s , or 1 0 .8 p e r c e n t of the C i t i e s r e p o r t i n g , g iv e
c r e d i t f o r t h e s t u d y o f w ind i n s t r u m e n t s u n d e r s c h o o l
in stru ctio n .
56
•TABLE XVII
-ATTITUDE OE VARIOUS C I T I E S TOWARD GIVING CREDIT EOR VOCAL
STUDY OTHER THAN THAT RECEIVED I N GENERAL CHORUS
AND GLEE CLUBS
C red it
C red it
No. o f C i t i e s
R eporting
Per
Cent
g iven f o r i n s tr u c tio n
w ith in th e school
6
16*2
g iven f o r in s t r u c t i o n
o u tsid e th e school
3
8 .1
6
1 6 .2
22
59 * 4
C red it g iv en f o r in s tr u c tio n
w ith in or o u tsid e th e
Number o f C i t i e s o f f e r i n g
f o r v o cal stu d y
school
no c r e d i t
T h i s t a b l e s h o u l d be r e a d as f o l l o w s :
S ix C itie s
or 1 6 . 2 per c e n t , g i v e c r e d i t f o r v o c a l s t u d y under
i n s t r u c t i o n from th e s c h o o l*
57 ’
Many s c h o o l s
added a f o o tn o te
statin g
f o r a p p l i e d m u s ic w as o n l y g i v e n when a t
p ractice,
for
in
ad d itio n
each day.
o u tsid e
the
See
B.
to
lesso n
p erio d ;
lesso n p erio d ,
o th er
of
was a s s u r e d
of p ra c tic e
s c h o o l s demand s i x h o u r s .
in te r e s t p u p ils
ch estra
in su re
to
the
s c h o o ls have found
in stru m en ts
su p erv iso rs,
necessary,
w ell advanced
th at
th eir
q u alifica tio n s
the
band or o r­
of p a rts,
or a d v isa b le ,
it
is
the
stu d ies
w arrant
not
ad v isa b le
stu d en ts
to
are
d isco v er
o f m aking t h i s d e c i s i o n .
such e x p e n d itu re .
The l a r g e
r a r e l y owned b y i n d i v i d u a l s ,
tak in g
school rep o rted
on in s tr u m e n ts
th at
they
ow ned
own a n d
and m o st
to p u r c h a s e
th eir
tastes
The
the o p p o rtu n ity
and u n u s u a l
in stru m en ts
a n d a r e n o t moved f r o m th e
They a r e g e n e r a l l y
in stru ctio n
to
su ffic ie n tly
if
in s tr u m e n ts borrow ed from ’ th e sc h o o l a f f o r d
sch o o l p rem ises.
many
t h e p u p i l s . . Many p a r e n t s ,
suggest
in
i n s t r u m e n t a l m usic
for
proper b alan ce
it
to
in
in stru m en ts
exp en siv e in s tru m e n ts u n t i l
k in d .
one h o u r
THE PRACTICE OF LOANING INSTRUMENTS TO P U P I L S
the u n u su a l
are
cred it
T a b le X V TIi.
or p ro v id e
and
least
San D iego demands s e v e n h o u r s
In o rd e r to
loan
the
th at
p layed by s tu d e n ts
of s im ila r
ty p e.
some i n s t r u m e n t
of
E very
th is
58.
'Ta b l e
x v tix
.ATTITUDE OP VARIOUS SCHOOLS AS TO OWNING OF BAND- OR
ORCHESTRA INSTRUMENTS AND THE LENDING OR THE SAME
No* o f C i t i e s
R ep o rtin g
S chools
ow ning and l o a n i n g
hand in stru m e n ts
21
5 6 .7
ow ning and l o a n i n g
o rc h e stra in stru m en ts
23
5 9 .4
6
26.1
15
6 5 .2
S c h o o l s r e q u i r i n g p a y m e n t o f $5
fee f o r in stru m en ts le n t
2
8 .9
S c h o o l s r e q u i r i n g no s i g n e d a g r e e ­
ment f o r in s tr u m e n ts l e n t
3
13.0
S ch o o ls
3.
4.
5.
6.
Per
Cent
S c h o o ls r e q u i r i n g bond f o r
in stru m en ts le n t
S chools r e q u ir in g sig n ed
agreem ent f o r in stru m e n ts
len t
T The p e r c e n t f o r i t e m s 3 , 4 , 5 s n d 6 w e r e c o m p u t e d
on t h e b a s i s of th e num ber o f C i t i e s l e n d i n g i n s t r u m e n t s ,
nam ely 2 3 .
59'
hoaning
in stru m en ts
s c h o o l system s
in stru m en ts
and l e n t
for
th e band
a t home,
in stru m en ts.
or o r c h e s tr a
o th er
Hew Y o r k r e p o r t e d
th at
and
th at
band
tv/enty-three
owned
T h i s made a t o t a l
th an the
w ere p r i v a t e l y
the l a r g e
T w enty-one
t h e y owned and l e n t
p e r c e n t who o w n e d a n d l o a n e d
and o r c h e s t r a
in fer
th at
p ractice
o rch estra
six ty -tw o
k in d .
rep o rted
f o r home p r a c t i c e .
in stru m en ts fo r
larg e
and u n u s u a l
some i n s t r u m e n t s
owned,
leav in g
m a j o r i t y m ust be
of
in
the band
the w r i t e r
to
owned b y t h e
sch o o ls.
Bend r e q u i r e d
sch o o ls re q u ire d
T u stin ,
for
a bond, f o r
Brea L inda,
M onrovia,
no c a s e
cover
the
r e p a i r w ould b e
co n tin u e
Two s c h o o l s c h a r g e d
p a r e n t s to
cities
the
req u ired
stu d e n ts.
in stru m en t
S tu d en ts
the
F u llerto n .
to
have
covered
and
The a m o u n t u s u a l l y w a s s u f f i c i e n t
of th e
the
O range,
nam ely:
the
to
to
lo an ed ,
of
faile d
req u ired
O nly s i x
cost
m ost damages i n c u r r e d b y th e
in stru m en t.
lo an ed .
the in s tr u m e n ts
C itru s,
The a m o u n t o f b o n d i n
in stru m en t.
in strum en ts
When s t u d e n t s
repaired, th em selv es
the
cost
ta k e n from th e bond p o s te d
for
the
to
whom i n s t r u m e n t s
th eir
fiv e
lesso n s
d o llars
and d a i l y
a sem ester
sig n a r e s p o n s ib ility
th e p a re n ts
to
lo a n e d w ere
p ractice.
and r e q u ir e d
co n tract.
sig n an
in s tru m e n t in good c o n d itio n ;
w ere
F ifteen
a g re e m e n t to k eep
but th ree
req u ired
no
60’
sig n ed
th o se
agreem ent w h atso ev er,
stu d en ts
th at
l a s t group l e n t
perhaps,
the
th ey f e l t
only la rg e
per c e n t of
the
w ith in
sch o o ls re p o rtin g
o f p iano
the
th e
is
school
in favor
of
o f o th er
per
o ffer cred it
for
the
o fferin g
t h a n g r o u p w ork seems v e r y
is
one
rarely
c o n sid e rs
m ature
f o r m usic
th at
enough
stu d y
Many c i t i e s
s c h o o l age
o fte n
for
sm all
to w a r r a n t
o b tain
reco g n ize
to
p lay
to p u rch ase
the
stu d y
of g ra n tin g
as
About f i f t y - n i n e
o f wind
(fo rty -o n e
the v o ic e
under
in stru m en ts,
in stru m en ts.
c red it fo r vocal
to
order
for
in favor
strin g ed
e a r l y age
in ab ility
the
alm ost a l l
g iv in g c r e d it
s t u d e n t s m ust be
of h ig h
a bond,
stu d ied
or o u tsid e,
Vvrhile i n s t r u m e n t a l
in
About
a v e r y m arked movement
c e n t do s o n o w .
The n u m b e r o f c i t i e s
u n til
w hich w e re ,
school p rem ises.
Hot so many a r e
stu d y
only s ix t y - e i g h t
cent
th is
th e paym ent o f a sm all fee
of c re d it
or v io lin .
for
Two o f
system s r e q u ir e d
There
toY/a.rd t h e g r a n t i n g
in stru c tio n
o n ly to
in stru m en t.
C o n clu sio n s♦
per
in stru m en ts,
of an agreem ent o r
use of
cred it
the
lo an in g
tru stw o rth y .
se ld o m rem oved fro m th e
six ty -tw o
sig n in g
ev id en tly
stu d y o th e r
per cen t)
of h ig h school
stu d en ts
s p e c ia l v o c a l stu d y ,
started
a t a very
the b e s t r e s u l t s .
th e d e s ire
of
the s tu d e n ts
some i n s t r u m e n t ,
it.
In o r d e r
and t h e i r
to m e e t t h i s
61
demand t h e y h a v e w o rk e d
out a sp len d id
i n s tr u m e n ts and
them to
lean in g
the
plan
o f bu ying
stu d en ts,
req u irin g
u s u a ll y a sig n e d ag reem en t to k eep th e
in stru m en t in
co n d itio n .
of
owned, a n d
the
About f i f t y - s e v e n
lo an ed band
in stru m en ts
used
per cent
in stru m en ts,
in
th e
the
payment of
fiv e d o lla r s
N early six ty -tw o
agreem ent
th irteen
to keep
th e
of
nothing fo r
and s ix ty - tw o
th o se
about n in e
for
the use
cent req u ired
for
those
the
per cent
len d in g
per cent req u ired
of
only the
th e
in stru m en t.
sig n in g
in s tr u m e n t i n good r e p a i r ,
per c e n t asked
S eventy p er c e n t
charged
per
the c i t i e s
o rch estra.
O nly t w e n t y - s i x p e r c e n t of
in stru m en ts re q u ire d a bond;
good
of an
and
no p r o m is e w h a t s o e v e r .
fu rn ish in g
serv ice.
in stru m en ts
to
p u p ils
/
CHAPTER IV
METHODS OF TEACHING ORCHESTRA
The p u r p o s e
of
th is
ch ap ter
is
to d e te rm in e
A
g e n e ra l o rg a n iz a tio n and conduct of an o r c h e s tr a *
great deal
depends
o rch estra lead er,
w hich a r e
of
on t h e
b ut th ere
common t o
tim e p e r m i t t e d
in stru m en ts,
for
m em o rizatio n o f
of
are
is
in
such a s ;
o u tsid e
on t h e s e
o f m usic
and i t
q u estio n s
class
T his
deal
q u e stio n s:
(1)-
o rch estra?
( 2 ) * Were t h e t e a c h e r s
in stru m en ts?
(a)
tu n in g ,
d iv id u al
(5).
(b)
S tate
read in g ,
coaching.
(4).
w ith
be c o n s id e r e d ,
o r both*
the
fo llo w in g
fo r the
ex p ected
to tu n e
tim e g i v e n
Were s e l e c t i o n s
(6).
th is
of teach in g
( c ) in terp retatio n ,
used?
To
th e hope
th at
m ethod,
th e ap p ro x im ate
W ere s t u d e n t d i r e c t o r s
of stu d en t
in
How m u c h t i m e w a s a l l o w e d
(3).
of
th ese m a tte rs
is
sch o o ls w i l l a ls o
th erefo re,
len g th
p rep aratio n .
w h eth er by i n d i v i d u a l m ethod,
ch ap ter w ill,
the
use
The p r e v a l e n t m e t h o d
the h ig h
the
of ro u tin e
tu n in g
sele ctio n s,
of keen i n t e r e s t ,
w ritte n .
in stru m en ts
s om e m a t t e r s
su p erv iso rs
t h r o w i n g some l i g h t
ch ap ter
op in io n of
o r c h e s t r a w ork,
le a d e rs and
of ro u tin e
are
each d ir e c to r ,
d i r e c t o r s , and c o m p u l s o r y
o rch estra
in d iv id u al
the
In
(d)
in ­
m em orized?
teach ing
th e
to t
63
In stru m e n ta l
m usic,
p u p il
in te re st?
(8)*
In teach in g
class
was
(7).
the use
o f p o p u la r m usic
Was o u t s i d e
p rep aratio n
i n s t r u m e n t a l m u s ic was t h e
stim u latin g
req u ired ?
in d iv id u al,
o r com bined m e th o d s u s e d ?
See
T able
L e n g th of
devoted to
o rch estra
o rch estra
hundred f i f t y
m inutes,
XIX .
sch o o ls.
p ractice
m in u tes,
scheduled
p ractice
as
per
v aried .
and
one h a l f
cent of
h u n d r e d m i n u t e s p e r week to
ly
fiv e
for
th e
two h u n d r e d
a n d one h a l f
o rch estra,
e ig h ty m in u tes,
m inutes
to
th ree
T w enty-seven p er c e n t
o r more
allow ed
about
and s i x t e e n
per
A p proxim ate­
two h u n d r e d m i n u t e s
per
one h u n d r e d
c e n t gave n in e ty
sev en ty -th ree
o rch estra
fro m one
of the
th ree
in m ass,
to
six ty
p ractice;
per cen t p erm itted
a n d one h a l f
to
th ree
m in u tes,
As v i e w e d
hours
per cent
tw en ty -fiv e m in u tes.
n in eteen
and f i v e
ran g ed from fo u r
s c h o o ls devoted
p er cen t p erm itted
t h i s w ork.
c e n t devoted
the
o rch estra
p e r c e n t g a v e two h u n d r e d f i f t y
c e n t allow ed
It
The t i m e
sc h e d u le d b y San D ie g o ,
by f iv e
F o rty -th re e
per w eek♦
to
per
e v e ry week.
two a n d o n e h a l f
h o u r s p e r week.
T uning
of
paragraph d eals
passin g
is
in stru m en ts
not w ith
of ju d g m e n t a s
p ro p erly ,
for
th e a c tu a l
to w hether
or c o rre c tly
the o r c h e s t r a .
tu n ed .
tuning,
th e
T his
b u t w ith
in stru m en t
in
G arden G rove h a s
the
q u estio n
the
64'
teach er alo n e
F o rty -fiv e
tune
per
som etim es w i t h
stu d en t
cent
th e
teach ers
stu d en ts
stu d en t
cap ab le
one h a l f
tu n in g ;
th e
tu n in g ,
of
p e r c e n t use
per cent
of
th at
a
F ive
teach er,
teach er,
stu d en t
stu d en t
of
teach ers
teach ers
and
and
and
the sc h o o ls r e l i e v e
tu n in g
the s c h o o ls have
the
th e
the
in stru m en ts.
te a c h e r and
stu d en ts
tu n in g .
See
T a b l e XX.
T im e d e v o t e d
w ere accustom ed
to
tu n in g .
to g iv in g
p e r c e n t gave from th re e
two m i n u t e s ,
F o rty -o n e per
f iv e m in u tes
to f i v e
and about f iv e
answ ering
the q u e s tio n n a ir e
in stru m en ts.
m in u tes,
th re e m in u tes a t
Of t h o s e
many a d d e d a n o t e
of
tu n in g ,
th ree
six te e n
per
m inutes
u sin g
fiv e ,
say in g
the
cent
ten
those r e p o rtin g
used f iv e
th e b eg in n in g
c e n t of sc h o o ls
p e r c e n t allow ed
S ev en ty -eig h t per cen t of
tu n in g the
for
m in u tes,
m inutes.
fiv e
no d o u b t ,
the
own i n s t r u m e n t *
per cent of
S ix teen
to
the
c e n t have
N in eteen p er c e n t use s tu d e n t
resp o n sib ility
used
assist
an i n s t r u m e n t i n an o r c h e s t r a
tu n in g h is
S ev en ty -fiv e
p u p ils.
teach ers
per
b eliev in g ,
from the
the
o rch estra
the
an d f i f t y - f o u r
teach er
do
the
tw e n ty -se v e n p er c e n t have
of p lay in g
About th re e
stu d en ts.
for
the s c h o o ls have
c e n t make u s e o f t h e
and s tu d e n ts .
p u p ils.
of
capable
per
in stru m en ts
a ssist;
a l o n e do
o u g h t tG b e
the
and
or le ss
o r from th re e
they u s u a l l y
p erio d ,
in
and
th en
used
two
65"
TABLE XIX'
LENGTH OB TIME ALLOTTED TO ORCHESTRA PRACTICE
No.
450 m i n u t e s ,
o r s e v e n a n d one
h a lf hours
-
of system s
R ep o rtin g
Per
Cent
1
2 .7 0
16
43.20
2 . 70
300
rr
250
ft
1
225
it
6
1 6 .2
200
tt
2
5.4
180
it
7
1 8 .9
90
it
2
5 .4
60
it
2
5 .4
1
T his
sy stem or 2 .7
an sw erin g the
s e v e n and one
week.
or
fiv e
hours
T able sh o u ld be re a d a s f o l l o w s :
One
p e r c e n t of the t h i r t y - s e v e n sy ste m s
q u e s t i o n n a i r e , d e v o t e 450 m i n u t e s o r
h a l f h o u rs to o r c h e s t r a p r a c t i c e e a c h
66'
TABLE XX
TIMS ALLOWED FOR THE TUNING OP ORCHESTRAL INSTRUMENTS
\
No- o f system s
R ep o rtin g
Tim e a l l o w e d f o r
tu n in g in stru m en ts
Per
Cent
2 m inutes
1
2-7
3
u
3
8*1
3 to
5 m in utes
6
16-2
15
41-5
5
13-5
2
5-4
5
13-5
5 m in u tes
6
*
o
H
¥o a n s w e r t o th e q u e s t i o n as
d e v o t e d to t u n i n g
to
tim e
^ The t a b l e a b o v e s h o u l d b e r e a d a s f o l l o w s :
s y s t e m , o r 2 - 7 p e r c e n t o f t h e s y s t e m s d e v o t e d two
m in u tes of th e o r c h e s tr a p e rio d to tu n in g of th e
in stru m en ts-
One
67
m in u tes
to
c h e c k up a f t e r
p lay in g
one o r
two n u m b e r s ,
A few q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w ere r e c e i v e d w ith th e
tak en f o r
tu n in g g iv e n ,
item s w ere
o m itted .
a new t a b l e
of
the
devoted
fifty -fiv e
per cent of
the
tim e
to tu n in g .
See
T a b l e XXI,
t o mean t h e
fifte e n
tim e, an
equal
of
the
c e n t of
tim e
and
per
m anner.
m u sic.
and
and s i x t y ,
of
th irty
fiv e
th eir
th irty
of the
th e system s
tim e
spent
tim e i n r e a d i n g .
seems to be
to spend from
two f i f t h s
o rch estra
m u sic.
to
of
for
the
tim e
on
of
per
th eir
cent
per
spent f if ty ,
in
th at
sev en ty -fiv e
th e o rc h e s tra
in re a d in g
o f the
spent fo rty
cen t each
ten
un d ersto o d
per cent
cent
to
in terp reta­
th irty -eig h t
per
per
per cent
of
to
c e n t of
tim e
is
of
per cent
o r one f o u r t h
H eading
th ree
out
tim e
per cent
th o u g h t as
number s p e n t a b o u t
One t e n t h
th eir
ten
cen t,
per cent spent
tim e,
th irty
o v e r o f some new s e l e c t i o n s
in read in g ,
th eir
fifty -fiv e
per
tu n in g ,
Ten p e r c e n t s p e n t a f o u r t h
read in g ,
th e w orking
p er c e n t of
tim e w i t h o u t a n y s p e c i a l
tio n .
o th er
c e n t of- th e s y s te m s d e v o te d
o rch estra
p lay in g
the
was l e a r n e d t h a t
tw en ty -fiv e
H eading of
first
per
th e answ ers t o
n ecessitated
fiv e
tim e to
system s allo w ed
th eir
T his
from w hich i t
system s
tu ning ,
but
tim e
The t e n d e n c y
one h a l f
of
the
68
TABLE XXX
PART OF THE ORCHESTRA PERIOD DEVOTED TO
TUNING, READING, INTERPRETATION AND INDIVIDUAL COACHING
P ercen tag e
O rch estra
P erio d
5
of
per cent
P e r c e n t o f s y s terns
d e v o tin g tim e to
T uning R ead in g I n t e r p r e t a i o n
' fIn d iv id u a l
coaching
30
5
it
if
35
25
12i
it
ti
5
5
20
ii
if
25
ti
ti
30
ti
H
37*
ti
ll
15
15
40
ti
11
30
15
45
if
If
5
15
50
ti
11
5
10
55
ii
II
5
5
60
ti
If
5
5
65
n
II
75
»f
11
10
10
10
10
5
10
5
15
15
10
^ T h e a b o v e t a b l e s h o u l d b e r e a d a s f o l l o w s : Of
t h o s e s y s t e m s a n s w e r i n g t h e q u e s t i o n a s to t h e a m o u n t
o f tim e s p e n t on tu n in g , r e a d i n g , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , and
i n d i v i d u a l , c o a c h i n g , 30 p e r c e n t s p e n t 5 p e r c e n t o f t h e
tim e on t u n i n g , a n d 5 p e r c e n t o f t h e s y s t e m s s p e n t 5
p e r c e n t o f t h e t i m e on i n d i v i d u a l c o a c h i n g *
69
S e e T a b le XXI.
In te rp re ta tio n .
one f i f t h
of
s p e n t one
fo u rth
each devoted
th eir
of t h e i r
th irty -th ree
fiv e
Two f i f t h s
per
and
spend
th e
spent h a lf
w h ile
system
fifte e n
tim e
th ree
in
per
tim e
th is
eig h th s
way *
to
to
six ty
fo rty
per
in terp reta­
on t h i s
and
cent
per cent
p er cen t,
resp ectiv ely ,
th eir
spent
an e q u a l number
fifte e n
one h a l f
per cen t,
w hile
per cent of th e ir
be to
tim e,
cent each spent f i f t y - f i v e
in terp retatio n ,
to
of
tim e on i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ,
c e n t and f o r t y - f i v e
tio n .
Two f i f t h s
phase,
per cent
on
spent six ty -fiv e
The
one h a l f
tendency
seems
the
in
tim e
in terp retatio n .
See
T able
XXL.
In d iv id u al
s y s terns g a v e
no
though a f i f t h
when n e e d e d .
per
cent
C o ach in g .
F ifty -fiv e
in d iv id u a l h elp d u rin g
of th e s e
F ive p e r
of t h e i r tim e
cent of
the
of
system s
the
s p e n t one
ten th
fiv e
per cent each spent
of
th e p erio d
one e i g h t h ,
one f i f t h ,
resp ectiv ely ,
of
the
th e w hole,
very
d u rin g
school o rc h e stra p erio d .
in d iv id u al
M em orization of s e l e c t i o n s .
co aching
p erio d ,
p erio d ,
in
tw entyth is
one f o u r t h ,
o rch estra
of the
spent fiv e
on i n d i v i d u a l c o a c h i n g ,
per cent
the
o rch estra
gave h e l p o u t s i d e
fiv e
little
per cent
way;
and
p erio d .
On
was g i v e n
M em orization of
*
sele ctio n s
learned
teach ers
of
p ractice
m eets
per
is
o fte n
encouraged by
in stru m en ts o u tsid e
cen t said
w ith l i t t l e
of
the
sch o o l,
fa v o r sin ce
th e y u su a lly req u ired
it,
and
T h i s m ad e
th at
o r no m e m o r iz a tio n *
Use o f
a t tim es,
used,
as
about e i g h t y - s i x
stu d en t d i r e c t o r s .
f a v o r o f u sin g
to
lead
the
eig h ty -fo u r per cent rep o rted
six te e n
stu d en t d ir e c to r s
per cent
Many s y s t e m s a r e
stu d en t d ire c to rs
w hile b u t
th irty -eig h t
and f o r t y - e i g h t
p e r c e n t n ev er did*
little
but th is
only f o u rte e n
p e r c e n t seldom r e q u i r e d m e m o riz a tio n ,
req u ired
in d iv id u al
per cen t sta te d
w ere n e v e r p e r m it t e d
to
o rch estra
th at
th at
in
th e y w ere
th ese
lead
the
o rch estra See T a b le
X X I I*
Use o f p o p u l a r m u s i c .
of th e
q u estio n n aire
In r e s p o n s e
one f i f t h
of
the
t o be u s i n g p o p u l a r m u s ic w i t h t h e i r
th ird
favored
i t because
cent
th e
use
of a d m in is tr a tio n
of the
teach ers
as bein g d i s t a s t e f u l
p u p ils.
of i t ,
frow ned
cent th at
had t h r e e
ro lle d
th eir
in
th is
stu d en ts,
o b jectio n s.
on t h e u s e
th ere
per cent of
th e b e s t
were
the
part
t e a c h e r s w ere fo u n d
w h ile
b u t were n o t a llo w e d
and n o t in
From t h i s g r o u p
to
to
one
use
E ig h ty per
o f p o p u l a r m usic
in tere st
tw en ty -fiv e
of
the
per
stu d en t body en­
in stru m en tal c la sse s,
w h ile
tw en ty p er
71-
TABLE XXII
ATTITUDE OP VARIOUS SCHOOLS TOWARD THE USE OP POPULAR
MUSIC AND THE STUDENT REACTION I N THESE SCHOOLS
No.
S chools
u s in g p o p u la r m usic
S chools
n o t u s in g p o p u la r m usic
S tu d en t i n t e r e s t in sch o o ls
u s in g p o p u la r m usic
S tu d en t
i n t e r e s t in sch o o ls
n o t u s in g p o p u la r m usic
o f system s
R ep o rtin g
Per
Cent
9
20
36
80
9
29*6
36
4*2
^ The a b o v e t a b l e s h o u l d b e r e a d a s f o l l o w s v
N in e s y s t e m s o r 20 p e r c e n t o f the s y s t e m s u s e p o p u l a r
m u s ic i n t h e i r s c h o o l s .
72'
c en t each re p o rte d
e n ro lle d
in
rep o rtin g
th e ir
said
four
classes.
th at
s tu d e n t body in
th eir
s tu d e n t body in
classes.
u su a lly
u sin g
in
The
is
stay ed
th e
from
Those
lack
th eir
become a n x io u s
teach ers
of t h e
report
th at
tim e g iv e n
the p erio d
to
sc h o o ls u sin g
O u tsid e
demand
reg u lar
such o u tsid e
is
u sin g
per cent
of
the s tu d e n ts
in tere st
report
in. m u sic
about
th e
to
the
teach ers
was e v i d e n t .
th at
the
p erio d
is
to t h e
p u p il
th eir
ex ten t
th at
c lassics.
d iv id ed
th ey
These
w ith one h a l f
the re m a in d e r o f
classics.
The g e n e r a l
i n t e r e s t by the
ev id en ced by the
m usic
u su a lly ,
stan d a rd
p o p u la r m usic w i t h
in crease
p o jju la r m usic a s
o f the
to
the
tw enty p e r c e n t
th e stu d en t and,
th eir
b e in g devoted
tendency i s
system s
of
learn
th at
of
w ere a lw a y s h a v in g a ch an g e
of p u p il
in tere st
to
the
in stru m e n t w h ile
t e a c h e r s u s in g p o p u la r m usic
on t h e m e n t a l l e v e l
th irty
Of
th o se
per cent
teach ers
tw enty to
was r e p o r t e d
classics
t h e i r g ro u p and
p er cent of
classes.
w ith t h e i r
stan d a rd
stim u la te s
the
it
s tu d e n t body
w ere a b o u t f i v e
th e ir
u s in g p o p u l a r m usic
th e
F ifteen
th ere
p o p u l a r m usic r e p o r t e d
the
per cent of
use
tw enty p e r
of
cent of
it.
p rep aratio n ^
th at
T h irty -e ig h t per cent
stu d en ts p r a c tic e
o rch estra
p rep aratio n
p erio d ,
at
sele ctio n s
th irty
tim es,
w hile
per
of. t h e
ou tsid e,
cent req u ire
th irty -tw o
per
73
" c e n t do n o t r e q u i r e
any o u ts id e
general
ten d en cy
to
o u tsid e
th e
See
is
reg u lar
for
week t o
p ractice.
stu d e n ts and
d u rin g
to
do
th eir
if
the
be
of l i t t l e
fo u rth s
stu d en t
O v e r one h a l f
of
use
tim e,
tim e
to
ten th
of t h e i r
per cent
of
th ree
as
the
to
general
general
of
tune
tu n in g ;
tim e
of th e
in d iv id u al
About
and
th ree
system s have
th ere
in stru m en ts.
is
stu d en ts
a feelin g
th at
in stru m e n t he w ill
the
procedure
stu d en t le a d e rs
of
tu n in g ,
th ereb y
o rch estra
p erio d
o th er d u tie s .
system s
of
th is
tim e
d u ty ,
in stru ctio n .
fiv e
per
per c en t of
c e n t dev o ted a
leav in g
to be used
in d iv id u a l co ach in g d u rin g
the
devoted
and f i f t y - f i v e
to
v aries
o r m ore e a c h
th e
tune h i s
d istrib u tio n
the
it
o f tim e
d epended upon th e
E v id en tly
cannot
for
hours
th e school
an o r c h e s t r a ,
teach er
th eir
or
in
d ire ct
per cent
ta tio n ,
school
those r e p o r tin g
own t u n i n g .
In th e
th irty
a v e r y w ide r a n g e
teach ers
stu d en t h im self
th e
is
sc h o o ls d evote
Over t h r e e
freein g
w ith th e o r c h e s tr a
s e v e n and a h a l f h o u r s p e r w eek.
of the
to
There
o rch estra
fo u rth s
can e a s i l y
The
T a b l e XXIXI*
f r o m one t o
fiv e
s p e n d some t i m e
p rep aratio n .
s c h o o l tim e*
C on clu sio n s.
allow ed
or e x tra
n in ety
to n i n e t y -
in re a d in g ,
in terp re­
V ery few gave
any tim e
o rch estra
p erio d as
only
74
TABES X X I I I
MISCBLLAIIFOUS FACTS OK TEACHING OF ORCHESTRA '
No* o f s y s t e m s
R ep o rtin g
S electio n s
u s u a l l y m em orized
Per
Cent
5
13.5
tt
seldom
”
14
3 7 .8
11
never
11
18
4 8 .6
som etim es u se d
31
8 3 .7
6
1 6 .3
14
3 7 .8
S tu d en t
11
d ire cto rs
11
never
11
O u tsid e p r e p a r a t i o n alw ays r e q u ir e d
11
11
som etim es
“
12
3 2 .4
ii
u
never
“
11
2 9 .7
The a b o v e t a b l e s h o u l d be r e a d a s f o l l o w s :
F ive
sy ste m s or 1 3 .5 p e r c e n t , u s u a l l y r e q u i r e t h e s e l e c t i o n s
p l a y e d t o b e m em orized*
75.
fiv e
per
c e n t gave
an d one f o u r t h
p ro b lem s.
o f th e
tw en tieth
p erm itted
a ten th
A number g av e
re g u la r p erio d .
f r o m two f i f t h s
th ree
one
eig h th s
to
of
of th e
one h a l f
of
the
th e
O rch estra
lead ers,
as a r u le ,
or none,
ed any m e m o riz a tio n ,
tim e
in
spend
fo u rteen
and
do n o t r e q u i r e
as e ig h ty - s ix
the
per
cent
cent never r e q u ir ­
per cent u su a lly d id .
S tu d en t d i r e c t o r s
are
used by alm o st seven e ig h th s
sch o o ls
the
o rch estra
to d i r e c t
of
the s tu d e n t body p la y in g
sch o o ls not u sin g
in
to
in te rp re tstio n .
fo rty -e ig h t per
w h ile
to be
at
tim es.
S c h o o ls u s in g p o p u la r m u sic had a lm o s t
cent
in d iv id u al
tim e r e a d i n g m u sic ,
one h a l f
little
such w ork,
tim e f o r
The t e n d e n c y s e e m d d
to
req u ired
to
the a s s is ta n c e , n e c e s s a r y o u ts id e
m em o rizatio n o f m u s ic a l s e l e c t i o n s ,
of th e
the tim e
th eir
classes.
p o p u la r m usic
in
th irty
in stru m en ts,
w hile
p o p u la r m usic had a b o u t f i v e
The t e n d e n c y s e e m e d
o rch estra
as
to b e
a means o f
per
per cent
to
in clu d e
stim u latin g
p u p il i n t e r e s t .
O rchestra, l e a d e r s a r e a lm o st
the
q u estio n o f re q u irin g
o u tsid e
p e r c e n t demanded such w ork,
and
th irty
p e r c e n t som etim es
p rep aratio n ,
th irty
d id .
evenly d iv id e d
per
as
c e n t did
on
th irty
n o t,
CHAPTER T
METHODS OF TEACHING GLEE CLUBS
The p u r p o s e
of
teach in g g lee
m usical
m usic
for
th at
clu b s.
ab ilitie s,
in tere sted
m usic.
of th is
for
in m usic,
U n til
ch ap ter
The g l e e
is
s t u d y th e m ethods
clu b s develop
stu d e n ts v o c a lly g ifte d
far
recen tly ,
beyond
th a t reached
th e high school g lee
no l o n g e r w o r r i e s
clu b s.
the m usic
so me q u e s t i o n s
in
in
th e
and
in
t h e r e was n o t a g r e a t
to be fo u n d w h ic h w as s u i t a b l e
There a r e
to
general
deal of
them e a n d . r a n g e
But t h i s
teach er
is
or
o rg an izatio n
a p roblem
su p erv iso r.
and co n d u c tin g
o f c l a s s e s w hich t h i s
ch ap ter w ill attem p t
to
l i g h t upon,
(l).
so c ia l
such a s :
W ere g l e e
o rg an izatio n s:
( 2 .) * D i d
In sig n ia?
What p a r t d i d
(3).
ing c l a s s e s ?
(4).
How m u c h
A b ility
clu b s?
tim e
clu b s*
was g i v e n
to re a d m usic?
boys* g le e
g lee
The g l e e
clu b s?
(6K
clubs?
th e y have
(5).
glee
part
to
in
glee
siz e
of
the
The m i x e d
the
teach in g
glee
of
What p a r t m u s ic w as m o s t a c c e p t a b l e
clu b s?
q u estio n n aire
the
th e
in
For
item s w hich
in co n d u ct­
opera p ro d u ctio n ?
clu b ?
f o r t h e m ixed c h o r u s e s ?
T his p a r t
o fficers?
voice e x e r c i s e s ?
W hat w as
The g i r l s *
club
th e p u p ils have
Was p o p u l a r m u s i c u s e d
(7).
clu b s
throw
of
the
su p erv iso rs
the g i r l s *
and boys*
co n tain ed
and t e a c h e r s
glee
fo u rteen
w ere a s k e d
to
77 ’c h e c k s
T h e s e w i l l b e t a k e n up and d i s c u s s e d
acco rd in g
to
the
Are g l e e
q u estio n a s
clubs
n in eteen
per cent
The m a j o r i t y a r e
o rg an izatio n s,
th e y belonged
d esire
to
th an th a t
per
per
per cent
th at
th e y were
en tire ly ,
in
th is
club
th at
o fficers.
th eir
they
and
o rg an izatio n s*
so c ia l
p er cen t said
O b v io u sly th e r e
th at
is
a
d iffe re n t b a sis
T h is was a l a r g e
In sig n ia.
p er c e n t used
per
o fficers,
t h e y had n o n e .
o fficers*
w ere used a s
About e i g h t y - s i x p e r c e n t
c lu b had
Over n i n e t y p e r
F ive
in sig n ia
c e n t som etim es had
or
alw ays had
those a n sw e rin g .
cent rep o rted
th at pin s
c lu b m em bers, a b o u t e i g h t
n in e te e n p e r c e n t used unifo rm s,
cen t used b o th p in s
E v id en tly
per
m ajo rity of
fo r glee
sw eaters,
and a b o u t e i g h t
cent u su ally ,
F o rty -eig h t per
ap p ro x im a te ly s ix te e n
next
se m i-so c ia l
g r o u p on a l i t t l e
o fficers.
ever.
th at
they w ere n o t ,
or p a r tia lly
th a t categ o ry .
first
o f t h e r e g u l a r m ixed c h o r u s .
cent th a t
fo u rteen
cent rep o rted
th at
To t h e
c l u b s were a s o c i a l
as about f i f t y - s e v e n
p lace
G lee
rep o rted
o rg an izatio n s?
or n o t g le e
fo rty -th re e
th irty -e ig h t
resu lts.
so c ia l
to w h e t h e r
o rg an izatio n ,
w ere,
tab u lated
sep arately
and s w e a t e r s ,
per c e n t used
no i n s i g n i a
the m a j o r i t y fa v o re d
w hile
w hatso­
p in s w ith uniform s
in p re fe re n c e .
P u p ils y p a rt
in co n d u ctin g c l a s s e s .
P u p ils
have
78,
a prom inent p a r t
sch o o ls,
in th e
as about
perform ed
th is
th irty -tw o
practice*.
r o l l a n d made a l l
See
clu b s
S eventy p e r c e n t
s om e
they
called
the
About elev en
of the c l a s s e s
w hatso­
stu d en ts.
T able
XXIY
fu rn is h th e m a te ria l
answ ers
in
cent re p o rte d
no c o n d u c t i n g
G lee c l u b s 1 c a r t
n in ety -o n e
per
n e c e s s a r y announcem ents.
p er cen t p erm itted
e v e r by the
opening o f r e c i t a t i o n s
in
com bine f o r
none, and b u t
p ro d u c tio n .
th e
operas
the s c h o o ls ,
etc.
G lee
clu b s
in about
acco rd in g
th e q u e stio n n a ire ,
operas,
tw o,
opera
and back
p er c e n t of
tab u lated
in
to
the
nam ely s e p a r a t e
One s y s t e m
o nly,
rep o rted
som etim es.
S e e T a b l e XXIY.
Tim e d e v o t e d
cent
as
to
g lee
of th e
retu rn ed
how m u c h
c lu b work,
per cent
fifte e n th s
tim e
in
of
spent
o n e-fifteen th
th is
v oice
ex ercises.
q u e stio n n a ire s
tim e was d e s i g n a t e d
th o se answ ering
fiv e
to
as
answ ered
fo r voice
t h e y had no d a t a
the
q u estio n n aire,
th eir
cent
sp e n t tw elve
m anner.
f o u r t h and one t h i r d
of
of
tim e
ex ercises
ex ercises;
a n d one h a l f
th eir
q u estio n
fo u r-fifteen th s
th eir
O n e-fifteen th
the
per
on t h e s u b j e c t .
tim e on v o i c e
ten p e r
O nly e i g h t
tim e
Of
spent
four-
t h a t way;
per cent
of
the
e a c h s p e n t one
in voice
in
ex ercises,
79.
w hile
one
t e n t h d id n o t use
these
ex ercises
at
a ll.
shows a w id e d i f f e r e n c e
of
o pinion
tow ard v o ic e
S ince
one h a l f
to
ten
per
cent
v o ice
ex ercises
th irty
per
c e n t u s e m ore
seems
th at
and
the m a j o r i t y
tim e or l e s s
See
use f iv e
T able
to
read m u sic.
or,
As t h e g l e e c l u b
school
sh o u ld g iv e
m usic
to
if
it
members
in m u sical a b i l i t y ,
th e
stu d en ts ab le
to re a d
r e a d m usic w ith o u t
alw ays used th e
p ian o ;
a t tim es.
of th e ir
tim e
th is
and
to
th e
pick ed
tab u lated
th at
the
p iano;
aid
it,
p ian o .
group
XXVI.
of
answ er
are
the a i d
the
of
th e
p e r c e n t w ere
six te e n per cent
six ty -tw o per
p a r t n eeding
seem s t r i k i n g
of
glee c lu b
use th e
tw en ty -tw o
s p e n t on m u s ic
sch o o ls.
See T a b le
the
m usic w i t h o u t
or about
a larg e
These f i n d i n g s
am ount o f
w hether
the
cen t used the
Tw entj^-two p e r c e n t o n l y w e re a b l e
read w ith o u t a id ,
elem en tary
to know w h e t h e r
order
in fo rm atio n d e s ire d ,
a b le to
th e
In
are r e a l l y
S ig h t sch o o ls
tim es.
it
an e i g h t h
w as n e c e s s a r y
piano?
piano
tim e,
on
to s p e n d
read m usic o r needed
one q u e s t i o n a s k e d
m embers r e a d ,
the
th e i r tim e
XXV.
th e p u p i l s w ere a b l e
p ian o ,
ex ercises.
on e x e r c i s e s .
A b ility
the
prefer
of
T his
it
only a t
to
certain
when one c o n s i d e r s
read in g
in
the
80
TABLE XXIV
METHODS OF HANDLING THE GLEE CLUBS
No* o f s c h o o l s
R ep o rtin g
G lee
clu b s a re
n
11
11
u
so c ia l
o rg an izatio n s
not so c ia l
11
o fficers
do n o t h a v e
"
•*
S w eaters,
o rg an izatio n s
37*8
7 18*9
3
8 .1
2
5*4
in sig n ia
3
8 .1
7
1 8 .9
5
13 .5
6
1 6 .2
12
3 2 .4
of g le e
club
r‘
11
U niform s
n
"
M
*'
and u n if o r m s ,
No i n s i g n i a
in sig n ia
fo r g lee
assist
in
”
do n o t a s s i s t a t
11
club
openin g e x e r c is e s
call
S ep arate g le e
of g le e
c l u b m embers
w
ro ll
clu b s
"
26 7 0 . 3
a ll
com bine
for
opera
4
1 0 .8
34
91*3
so m e tim e s com bine f o r
opera
11
85*6
som etim es haveo f f i c e r s
**
"
14
o fficers
M
O fficers
43*3
52
P ins
P ins
16
sem i-so c ia lo rg an izatio n s
G lee c lu b s have
**
*
Per
Cent
11
"
never
2
com bine
for
opera
1
5 .4
2*7
TABLE XXV
TIME DEVOTED TO VOICE EXERCISES IN THE
GLEE CLUBS
T h i r t y S c h o o l System s
R ep o rtin g
P e r c e n t o f tim e
s p e n t on v o i c e
ex ercises
Number o f s c h o o l
P er Cent
system s
of school
system s
5
8
26.66
10
8
26.66
2
6 .6 6
20
5
1 6.66
25
2
6 * 66
3 3 .3 3
2
6 .66
0
3
10.
T his ta b le sh o u ld re a d a s f o llo w s :
e ig h t sch o o l system s, or 2 6 .6 6 p er c e n t of
the t h i r t y s c h o o l s y s te m s r e p o r t i n g , s p e n t
f i v e p e r c e n t o f t h e i r tim e on v o i c e
ex ercises.
82 '
gige o f the bo.ygr g le e clu b ,
The numbers in the
hoys* g le e club vary so much th a t the b e s t m y to p resent
t h i s variance i s to r e l y s o l e l y upon the readin gs of
T a b l e XXVTI'.
th irty
to
to f o r t y .
two h u n d r e d
S ize
in
The m o s t p o p u l a r n u m b e r s e e m s
The n u m b e r o f m e m b e r s r a n g e f r o m t w e n t y
and f i f t y .
of
t h e g i r l s 1 g l e e 1.-c l u b .
the g i r l s r g le e clu b
the b o y s ’ g le e
or m ore.
club
for
stte n tio n ,
alto
tim e
th ey are
G i r l s ’ v o ices,
ric h e r
t o do
on t h e
is
q u ality
S i ze o f
per
cen t of
the
m ixed
u n til
in tere sts
to
take
o th er hand,
the
u su a lly
p reced in g
glee c l u b s .
th e s c h o o ls doubled
g lee c lu b .
About
clu b .
group ran ged from t h i r t y
c e n t had th e
in
in
size .
th e
have
tak en
ex tra
w ork.
th eir
o n l y become
soprano
or
grades*
X X V I I.
t h e m ixed
have a m ixed g l e e
to f i f t y
the a v erag e h ig h sch o o l
o th er
the
than in
w ith th e d if f e r e n c e
unable
th e y had in
m ore
from f o r t y
and c o n t i n u e w i t h o u t c h a n g e f r o m t h e
See T a b le
per
of
trifle
have n o t become s e t t l e d
b y w hich
or
the a v e r a g e
v o ices
b o y m ay h a v e s o m e t h i n g
Many b o y s ’ v o i c e s
The n u m b e r o f m e m b e r s
s e e m s to b e a
The c h a n g i n g
sen io r year,
to b e f r o m
About tw e n ty -fo u r
the o th e r
tw en ty -tw o
per
g lee
same n u m b e r
th ree
hundred.
for a l l
glee
for
cent d id not
The n u m b e r o f m e m b e r s
to
clu b s
in
th is
About e le v e n
clu b s,
b u t the
TABLE XXVI
A B I L I T Y OF GLEE CLUB MEMBERS TO READ MUSIC
Bo.
M embers h a b i t u a l l y r e a d m u s ic
w ith o u t the
aid o f p iano
P iano
som etim es u sed
m usic
of school
Per
system s
Cent
8
2 1 .6
23
62.1
6
1 6 .2
to h elp read
P ian o alw ays used a s a i d
m usic
in read in g
1 T h is t a b l e s h o u l d b e r e a d a s follow s**
E ig h t s c h o o l sy stem s, or tw enty-one p e r c e n t of th e
t h i r t y - s e v e n r e p o r t i n g , h a b i t u a l l y r e a d m usic
w ith o u t th e a id of a p ia n o .
TABUS XXVII
NUMBER OP MEMBERS I N BOYS * GLEE CLUBS, GIRLS * GLEE
CLUBS AND MIXED GLEE CLUBS
•
o
o
C ities
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
a
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
i
Number o f m em bers i n t h e g l e e
Boys f
G irls *
20-30
20-30
20-30
20-40
22
24
24-40
24-55
25
25-40
25-60
25-70
25-100
30
30
30
30
30-75
30-80
30-250
35
40-60
40-120
43
45
50
60
75
125
clu b s
M ixed
40-100
60
35-60
40
60
30
20-40
24-55
25
35-55
25-60
25-70
25-100
60
30
60
30
30-75
30-80
30-250
50
55-80
40-150
46
46
50
80
115
170
200
80
4 6 - 80
7 0 - 80
60- 125
4 8 - 1 10
25
70-110
5 0 - 120
2 5 - 70
2 5 - 200
60
30
60
3 0 - 75
6 0 - 16 0
3 0 - 250
75
5 5 - 80
8 0 - 30Q
130
120
--------- -_
1 T h i s t a b l e should, b e r e a d a s f o l l o w s :
One
c i t y r e p o r t e d tw e n ty t o t h i r t y b o y s i n t h e boys*
g l e e c l u b , f o r t y to one h u n d r e d g i r l s i n t h e g i r l s ’
g l e e c l u b , a n d two h u n d r e d i n t h e m i x e d g l e e c l u b s *
8 5ten d en cy
glee
is
to
in crease
c lu b s by a t h i r d
or m ore.
p a r t s was u n d o u b te d ly
the
th e number
in
eith er
the
The p r o p e r b a l a n c e
an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r
n u m b er o f m em bers when t h e
of
o th er
of
in d e te rm in in g
two g r o u p s w e r e
com bined.
S e e T a b l e XXVII*
P ro p o rtio n
the
q u estio n
part
of
o f each p a rt
reg ard in g
and
th e number v a r i e d
it
th is
changed
o f the
the v o ic e s
group
said
the
q u estio n ,
p ractically
in
a slig h tly
th e b a s s,
strik in g
that
and
th e
See
and
th at
answ er,
sin ce
and
A th ird
had a l a r g e r
answ ering
the
the
number i n
th e a lto ,
number i n
th irty -sev en
said
the p a r t s ,
the l a r g e r
read in g s
per cent
to y e a r*
Of t h o s e
sm allest
To
a few l e s s
ten o r.
o b tain ed ,
s o p ra n o s to
the
one
On
fin d s
tw en ty -six
tw en ty -tw o b a s s e s .
T a b l e XXVITT.
q u estio n
of g lee
of
from y e a r
a l l p laced
ten o rs,
P o p u la r m usic
the
b alan ce
they g e n e ra lly
the
cent
give a d e f i n i t e
group.
of
are about
fifte e n
tw en ty -sev en
s m a l l e r number i n
an average
th ere
alto s,
soprano
chorus.
o f m embers i n e a c h
tw en ty -tw o p e r
upon th e
number in
soprano,
sin g ers,
to o much t o
w ith
latter
of
about
depended e n t i r e l y
t h e m ixed
the p r o p o r t i o n
t h e m ixed g r o u p
g a v e no a n s w e r ,
in
of
clu b s,
used
in
teach in g
g lee
th e u s e o f p o p u la r m usic
a ll
but fifte e n
in
clu b s.
th e
To
teach in g
p er c e n t responded.
P o rty
86
per
cent
said
th at
g r o u p s a s means
w hile
th e y u se d p o p u la r m usic w ith
of stim u la tin g
tw en ty p e r c e n t
said
in te re st
they d id not
and a b o u t
tw en ty -fiv e
th e
u s u a l l y a b o u t one d a y a w eek.
tim e,
fo rty
per cen t said
enjoym ent in
th eir
p o p u l a r m usic *
because
of
th ey found
classes
T w enty p e r
per cent
up t h e
the d e s i r e s
to
use p o p u la r m usic
in g lee
for
of
clu b w ork,
the p u p il.
d eclared
th at
th eir
as
and,
in
th e use
to
w hich o th e rw is e
use
it
the
th eir
clu b ,
at
ail,
it
some o f
Of t h i s
num ber,
in te re st
and
in tro d u ctio n
n o t use
o b jectio n s.
a s a means
classes
and t h e
Th e t e n d e n c y
a means o f a r o u s i n g
a s a means o f
seems
more o f
the
sa tis­
to be
o u tlet
rep o rtin g
o f p o p u la r m usic was h e l p i n g
learn
of
group i n t e r e s t
em otional
of sch o o ls
of
p o p u l a r m usic
or a d m in istra tiv e
group.
The m a j o r i t y
groups to want
g reater
c e n t d id
in g lee
th ey used
used p o p u la r m usic
en ro llm en t
fy
said
sin ce
personal fe e lin g s
T w enty-five
k eep in g
per cent
th eir
stan d a rd
w ould n e v e r h a v e b e e n h e a r d
th eir
classics
of by the
stu d e n t.
S e e T a b l e XXIX.
P a r t m usic
T hree c i t i e s ,
m ost a c c e p ta b le
th e m ixed
or eig h t per cent p referred
f o r t h e i r m ixed g r o u p s
preferred
for
th ree
part
of
sin g ers.
m usic;
tw o p a r t m u s i c
S ix teen
fifty -fo u r
choruses.
per cent
per cen t,
four
87
£ABLB XXVIII'
USB OF POPULAR MUSIC I N TEACHING GLUE CLUB
No.
S chools
u sin g
of system s P er
R ep o rtin g
Cent
p o p u la r m usic
11
n o t u s in g p o p u l a r m usic
’*
o c c a s i o n a l l y u s in g p o p u la r m usic
Per cent of
stu d en ts
en ro lle d
from s c h o o ls u s in g
Per
cen t of
stu d en ts
from sch o o ls n ot
Per
cent
of
stu d en ts
40
9
20
11
2 4 .4
18
37
i n m usic
p o p u la r m usic
e n ro lle d
18
i n m usic
u s in g p o p u la r m usic9
en ro lle d
1 2 .7
i n m usic
o c c a s i o n a l l y u s in g p o p u la r m usic
11
2 4 .3
^ T h is t a b l e s h o u l d b e r e a d a s f o l l o w s :
18
s c h o o l s or 40 p e r c e n t o f the s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g u s e d
p o p u l a r m u s ic i n t h e t e a c h i n g o f g l e e c l u b .
88 ,
p a r t m usic;
about fiv e
p a r t m usic; and
Three
cities
m usic have
See
eig h t
u sin g
per cen t,
per cent
the
fiv e ,
th e a c a p p e lla ,
T able
tw o,
th ree
six ,
per cent
In the
u s e d tw o p a r t
o r unaccom panied
or
per
six teen
used
th ree
cent
of
per cent
per
p er c e n t used
m usic
is
g irls*
cent
or p art
th ree
used
choruses.
the g i r l s * and
club
th irteen
p a r t m usic,
g i r l s * glee
the
tim e,
v e ry o b v io u sly used
any
and
six ty and o n l y
or fo u r p a r t m usic.
the
of
about th ree
p a r t m usic,
th ree
f o u r p a r t m usic a t
clu b s
That i s ,
used
th ree
w h ile
o n ly n in e te e n
tim e.
Three p a r t
to a l a r g e
ex ten t w ith
v o ices.
The b o y s * g l e e
part
for
g i r l s r g lee
se v e n and a h a l f
all,
o r f o u r p a r t m usic.
o r fo u r p a r t m usic,
a h a l f p e r c e n t u s e d tw o
p a r t m usic
four
XXX.
clu b s.
n in ety -sev en
or
seven and e ig h t p a r t
P a r t m usic m ost a c c e p t a h l e
boys * glee
th ree,
sele ctio n s,
as a b o u t
m usic e x c l u s i v e l y ;
p a r t m u sic;.an d
c l u b mem bers t e n d
six te e n
th irty
tow ard
per cent
p er c e n t use
e le v e n p e r c e n t use
tw o,
use
th ree
four
four p art
or
th ree,
four
or four
p a r t m usic.
See
T ab les
XXXI a n d X X X I I .
C on clu sio n s.
glee
I n a: m a j o r i t y
c l u b s h av e become e n t i r e l y ,
of
th e sch o o ls
or p a r tia lly ,
the
so c ia l
89
TABLE XXIX
COMPARATIVE PROPORTION OF PARTS IN A MIXED CHORUS
ACCORDING TO THE REPORT OP TWENTY
THREE C I T I E S
No.
1
1.
1
L
1
1
1.
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
of C ities
R ep o rtin g
Sopranos
A verages
of
Sopranos
25
30
30
30
31
33.33
33 .3 3
35
36
3 7 .5
39
40
40
40
40
40
40
41
15
s l i g h t l y more
to ta ls
36.3 7
A lto s
T enors
Basses
25
25
20
30
25
20
19
19
31
19
25
1 6.66
1 6 *6 6
30
25
20
24
10
25
1 2 .5
31
15
30
10
25
15
20
20
6
30
25
15
25
10
30
14
30
10
than o t h e r p a r t s .
2 6 . 58
1 5 .4
25
20
25
32
19
25
20
20
30
25
15
20
20
20
24
20
25
15
10
2 1 .5 8
T his t a b l e sh o u ld be r e a d as f o l l o w s :
One
c i t y r e p o r t s t h a t i n t h e m ixed g l e e c l u b s t h e r e a r e
tw e n ty - f iv e so p ra n o s to tw e n ty - f iv e a l t o s , tw en ty f i v e t e n o r s , and t w e n t y - f i v e b a s s e s .
90
TABLE XXX
PART MUSIC'USEE BY MIXED CHORUSES
Number o f s y s t e m s
Per cen t
of sy stem s
Number o f s y s t e m s
Per cen t of
of
u sin g
system s
Number o f s y s t e m s
Per cent
u sin g
u sin g
system s
Number o f s y s t e m s
u sin g
2 p a r t mus i c
u sin g
3 p a r t mu s i c
u sin g
system s u s in g
Per c e n t of system s
N u m b er o f s y s t e m s
u sin g
Per c e n t of system s
3 p a r t m usic
4 p a r t m usic
u sin g
2 ,3 ,4
Per c e n t of system s u sin g
Number o f
2 p a r t m usic
4 p a r t m usic
p a r t m usic
2, 3 , 4
p a r t m usic
3 a n d At p a r t m u s i c
u sin g
4 to
u sin g
3 and
4 p a r t m usic
3*1
8 .1
6.
16.2
20.
54.
2.
5 .4
3.
8 .1
8 p a r t m usic
3.
4 to
8 .1
8 p a r t m usic
9-1
groups,
for
fifty -se v e n
th is
w ork on t h a t b a s i s
th at
the
th ro u g h
or
per cent of
now*
u su a lly ,
have
them .
to
th e
ro ll
and make a l l
per
c e n t p e r m i t no c o n d u c t i n g
sw eaters,
part
some s c h o o l s ,
sw eaters,
n in eteen
c l u b m em bers.
the
operas
O nly one
for
per
c e n t used
G lee c lu b s
system
o fficers
at
call
E lev en
a ll.
In sig n ia,
p l a y an im p o rta n t
cent preferred
c e n t used
states
u n ifo rm s,
and u n ifo rm s .
some i n s i g n i a
fu rn ish
in about n in ety -o n e
pins
That i s ,
for
th eir
over
g lee
th e m a t e r i a l and back
per cent
th a t th e
and f o u r ­
g lee
of th e
clu b s d id
sch o o ls.
not
com bine
operas.
There
tim e
w hile
is
a v e r y w ide v a r i a t i o n
sp en t in v o ice
o th ers
One h a l f
of
spent a
the
tim e on v o i c e
w ith
of classes
fo rty -e ig h t per
teen per c e n t used b o th p in s
per
th e
c lu b m em bersr e i g h t p e r c e n t fa v o re d
glee
eig h ty -sev en
of
or u n iform s,
as
also
task s
n e c e s s a ry announcem ents.
p in s,
on
c e n t alw ays,
resp o n sib le
S eventy p e r c e n t
such a s
carry
th e management
N in ety per
who h a v e
assig n ed
to d e s ig n a te
in
of officers*.
o fficers
sch o o ls
seem s d e s i r a b l e
s tu d e n ts be g iv e n a p a r t
the e l e c t i o n
in
It
th e
ex ercises,
th ird
sch o o ls
ex ercises,
one e x c e p t i o n .
of
used
and
for
th e
fiv e
in
so me u s e d
tim e
to
in
a
amount of
no e x e r c i s e s ,
t h a t manner*
ten p er
the o t h e r s
The m a j o r i t y
the
c e n t of
th eir
lo n g er tim e,
p refer to
spend
an
92.
TABLE XXXI
PART MUSIC USED BY BOYSr GLEE CLUB
Humber o f s y s t e m s
Per cen t of
Humber o f
system s
system s
Per cent
P e r c e n t of
u sin g
o f system s
system s
Per cent
u sin g
system s
Humber o f s y s t e m s
Humber o f
u sin g
2 part
u sin g
of
u sin g
2
2 and
of system s u s in g
Humber o f s y s t e m s
Per cent
u sin g
2
p a r t m usic
5 .4
3 p a r t m usic
2
3 part
u sin g
m usic
3
and
3 p a r t m usic
3
2 and
system s u s in g 2
13*5
m usic
25.
p a r t m usic
67.6
3 and 4 p a r t m usic
u sin g
5
and 4 p a r t m usic
4 p a r t m usic
and 4 p a r t m usic
6
1 6 .2
1
2 .7
93^
TABLE XXXII
PABT MUSIC' USED BY THE GIRLS* GLEE CLUB
aae— c—saaaeuiH
L, A ^ 7 X saBSs&y*e=zFxsmc=mcz2BXMZsm2MC3ma=3e^mmmmmmicmammmmm*K3mMmiamimmmmmc.'''.iM.->=r''Lx ' 1,..;r.r7-aezmimmamaB2S2z= - ■
Number o f
system s
Per cen t
of
u sin g
system s u sin g
Number o f s y s t e m s u s i n g
Per cent
Number
Per
Per
Number
c e n t of
cent
2 and
3 p a r t m usic
3 and 4 p a r t m usic
3 a n d 4p a r t m u s i c
4 p a r t m usic
of sy ste m s u s in g 4 p a r t m usic
system s u s in g
system s
system s
Per cent
3 p a r t m usic
3 p a r t m usic
of sy stem s u sin g
Per c e n t of
Number o f
2 p a r t m usic
sy ste m s u s in g 3p a r t m usic
system s u s in g
Per cent
Number o f
u sin g
system s u s in g
of
2 and
of system s u sin g
o f system s
Number o f
2 p a r t m usic
of
u sin g
2 ,3 ,
u sin g
2 and
—a c a e s
I
2.7
1
2.7
15.
4 0 .5
6.
16.2
11.
2 9 .7
and 4 p a r t m usic
2.
2 ,3 ,
5.4
and 4 p a r t m usic
4 p a r t m usic
s y ste m s u s in g 2 and 4 p a r t m usic
1.
2 .7
94 >
e ig h th of
the
p erio d
or
O nly tw e n ty - tw o
m usic w ith o u t
alw ays used
piano
due
at
to
the
T his
lack
of
per
of
p iano ,
tim es.
the
of the
the a id
less
on t h i s
cen t of
the
and
tech n ical
of
to
the
the
p u p ils
per
read
tra in in g
in
of
w ork.
could
S ix teen per
six ty -tw o
in a b ility
cent
the
piano.
s t u d e n t s w hen t h e y v/ere
F o rty p er
part
sch o o ls
cent
c e n t used
the
m u s i c may b e
on th e
the
reed
part
of
some
low er g r a d e s .
used
p o p u la r m usic
✓
r e g u l a r l y and
tim e,
in to
w hile
th eir
was fo u n d
th eir
p e r c e n t used
tw enty-five
tw enty p e r
classes.
c e n t d id
Of t h o s e
th at a g reater
resp ectiv e
per cent
in terested
th at
th irty -sev en
body e n r o lle d
for
g lee
club
reg u larly
about
when i t
was u se d
tw en ty -fiv e
per
o c c a s i o n a l l y and
stu d en ts
to
used.
t h e y may g a i n
i n m u sic b y so d o i n g .
create
th ro u g h o u t
a m u sical d e s ir e
the
per
at a ll
m usic
in
it
in
g lee
cent of
In
w ith in
cent
only
clu b s.
the
stu d en t
were
seem s
tow ard
th e
th at
th e use
in te re st
th is
the
ta k in g vo ice
th irteen , per cent
It
s c h o o l s a r e b e c o m in g m ore f a v o r a b l e
sin ce
it
the
when p o p u l a r m u s i c was u s e d
when p o p u l a r m u s ic was n e v e r
p o p u la r m usic
popular
of
o f th e stu d en ts
I t was found a l s o
and
part
not in tro d u ce
u sin g
s c h o o ls became
it
the
of
of
way t h e y a r e
ab le
p u p il w hich e n d u re s
years.
The p o p u l a r n u m b e r o f m e m b e r s f o r
the b o y s ’ g le e
95
club
is
from t h i r t y
varian ce
as
is
fo rty ,
alth o u g h
shown b y t h e f a c t
tw e n ty m em bers,
and f i f t y ;
to
w hile
o th ers
The g i r l s ’ g l e e
fe w m ore m em bers,
as
th at
there
is
some c l u b s h a v e
h a v e a s many a s
clu b s have,
they u s u a lly
a great
range
only
two h u n d r e d
on th e
average,
from f o r t y
to
a
fifty
i n m em bership*
The p r o p o r t i o n
acco rd in g
to
g en erally
the
of
those
th e
v o ices
th e
sch o o ls d e f i n i t e l y
tw en ty -six a lto s ,
In
t h i s m ixed
of
glee
the
g i r l s 1 g lee
larg est
answ ering
fifte e n
f o u r p a r t m usic
per cent
in
th e ir
of
the
p a r t m usic
the a c a p p e lla ,
for
¥ in ety -sev en
p a r t m usic
th is
and
but
The a v e r a g e
part
of the
sopranos
tw enty -on e b a s se s *
number i s
u su a lly
th ree
in b o th boys*
prefer
is
for
choruses,
used,
and
and a t
of
the
sch o o ls
the g i r l s ’ g l e e
used
use
tim es
four
th ree
clu b ;
alth o u g h
in bo th groups.
to
use
altho ug h
o r unaccom panied
fo u r p a r t m usic,
o fte n
prefer
A s m a ll number ch o se
per cent
tim e
sch o o ls
m ixed p a r t
used*
clu b s
num ber*
num ber o f members
p a r t m u s ic was
glee
p arts,
th irty -sev en
ten o rs,
p a r t m u s ic was f r e q u e n t l y
the
the
clu b s.
The l a r g e r
m ost of
of
club group th e
en tire
each p a rt v a rie s
to b a l a n c e
gave a p r o p o r tio n
to
th ree
needed
soprano has
q u estio n n aire,
fo u rth s
o f members i n
but
to
tw o
eig h t
choruses*
p a r t m usic
the b o y s ’
tw o a n d
th ree
CHAPTER V I
POPULARITY OP TARIOUS MUSIC
METHODS I N TEACHING PIAUO CLASSES
The p u r p o s e
p r e s e n t m ethods
ed u cato rs
in
of
th is
ch ap ter
teach in g
everyw here
are
piano
M ost m usic
req u ire
on t h e
vocal
stu d y ,
never reach
in stru m en t.
the
sch o o ls
it
Even
T his a b i l i t y
to
later
in te llig e n tly
source
of
th e
is
ap p reciate
stu d en ts
s t u d e n t may
a good p i a n i s t ,
listen in g
the g r e a t e s t
sch o o l p iano
fu n d a m e n ta ls and g iv e
ex p ressio n
in
the
re a d by s ig h t ,
th e piano
th eir
to
to
and
o th ers.
w hat he h e a r s
p leasu re
and r e l a x a t i o n
years.
The p u b l i c
to
of
in ­
co n serv ato ries
understan d in g
o f good m u sic w h i l e
in
also
p o i n t w here he h i m s e l f
a p p reciatio n
the
stu d y of
and
though
he h a s d e v e l o p e d a n i n t e l l i g e n t
m ay b e
th e
th e
P ro g ressiv e
piano as a p r e r e q u i s i t e
a n d some r e q u i r e
on a n y o t h e r
to d e t e r m i n e
classes.
en co u rag in g
s tru m e n ta l m usic.
s om e s k i l l
is
class
to
easier
and
serves
the
some d e g r e e
grades
aim to
of m u sic,
to d i s c o v e r
of a ll
sp irit
teach
o f m astery ,
talen t,
ed u catio n .
the
se lf-
the a b i l i t y
s im p le a c c o m p a n im e n ts'.
m ost im p o rta n t f u n c tio n s
p o p u la r m usic w i t h
classes
In a d d itio n ,
one
of
the
The u s e
o f c o m r a d e s h i p and
of
riv a lry
s ti m u l a t e s and
su stain s
fee
it
is
charged
p lay in g
of
the
successful
type
of
is
a sm all
piano
teach in g
en thusiasm
open
one and
to anyone
of p iano
is
P o p u la r m usic
o f p o p u la r m usic
in
q u estio n n aire
the
said
to
sch o o ls
w ere
teach in g
of p iano
list
th o se w an tin g
of
sch o o ls
it
was n o t e d
w ere v e ry a n x io u s f o r
th ey did
w h ile about
not
was f o u n d
few and w ith
per cent
said
the
th at
to p l a y .
per
in
c e n t said
stu d en ts
classes.
The
th at
u s e p o p u l a r m u sic m ore a n d more i n
the g i r l s
piano
classes
w as u s e d
p o p u la r m usic
w ere v e r y
T w enty-five
o c c a s i o n a l l y and
th e y could
the
piano
th ese
it
g irls.
tendency
cent
F o rty per ce n t
p iano
th e y used p o p u la r m usic
of
a w aitin g
th eir
th at
tak in g
part
th e ir
In
sch o o ls n o t u sin g
few e x c e p t i o n s w ere a l l
th eir
w ith
the p ia n o .
chance
has
th irtjr per
the boys as w e ll as
the s t u d e n t s
the
th is
t h e y had
use p o p u la r m usic
From t h o s e
th a t th ey had a l l
of w ith in
stu d y
th at
tw en ty -fiv e
o ccasio n ally .
sch o o ls
The u s e
classes
to
th at
p o p u la r m usic
th ese
to
classes.
In resp o n se
was d i s c o v e r e d
of
tech n iq u e
of p u p il d e s ire s .
the
u sin g
s h ig h
teach in g
piano
it
any
The
req u ire
teach in g
and i n a l l
it
t h i s makes
in
classes
said
If
in tere sted .
und erstan d in g
been found v e ry b e n e f i c i a l .
of th e
th e w ork.
o rg a n iz a tio n and a s p e c ia liz e d
as w e ll a s a com plete
the
in
seems
tak e
to b e
teach in g
care
to
of piano
98 ,
since
there
systems
to he
are
using
that
over
it
sixty-five
now.
per
The f e e l i n g
they a re b e t t e r
able
p o p u la r music as w e ll a s
w hich he
can use
teaching
the
w hile
piano answered
that
or
answered
or e i g h t y p er
but
three
seventy-five
t wo u s e d
of a d d itio n a l
school
schools
the
seems
student
him so m e th in g
per
cent,
cent,
of
had
the
their
as
nineteen
high schools,
o f piano
one.
system s
questionnaire
o n l y one p i a n o
than
used
as
of
question
Twelve
methods.
in
the p u p i l s
they perform ed
and
the b e n e f it
on t h e i r
t h e m u s i c w h i c h wa s b e i n g p l a y e d
each
system s,
cardboard keyboards
This gave
practice,
Not a l l . the
exclusively,
the
h a d more
pianographs.
keyboards
giving
part
i n s ome g r a d e s
only s ix te e n
classroom ,
these
and c a r d b o a r d k e y b o a r d s .
classes
Thirteen,
the
on a n y o c c a s i o n .
w hich d e a l t w ith p ian o methods
had piano
in
of
to i n t e r e s t
by using
Pianos
cent
dummy
on t h e r e a l
piano.
Grading
classes;
graded
of c l a s s e s .
three,
or nineteen per
system in
p a r t i a l l y graded
considers
that
credits,
that
regular
school
Only n in e
the
course.
those
is,
class
force,
are
did
instruction;
This
pupils
credit
cent,
schools
for
from te a c h e r s
universally
graded
not use a
and
seems r a t h e r
asking
had
four used
odd w h e n o n e
a p p l i e d music
not
a
on t h e
required
to
99 -
m aintain a graded
I t would
course
seem t h a t
the
and p u rsu e
class
need of f r e e d o m n o t deemed
teachers
of
the
and
time
another,
phase
three-fourths
to
theory
while
the
reports
to y e a r .
feels
the
individual
that
The m a j o r i t y ,
ce n t of the
time
that
however,
time
time
for
increased
spent
for
spent
on t h e o r y ,
to
theory,
half
their
of
time
to
a sixth
p ractice;
and
still
little
their
time
to
to
this
time
th e o r y of music d e c re a se d ,
exception.of
the
' * e o n s i d e r a b l e 11 w h i l e
to
A fourth
One g a v e
system s gave
to p r a c t i c e
w ith the
was s t a t e d
time
t wo d e v o t e d
As t h e
time devoted
more
the
cent of
to p r a c tic e .
Three
another
of work.
per
and t h e r e m a i n d e r
none a t a l l .
the
it
piano
necessary fo r
tw enty-five
an o th e r gave c o n s id e ra b le
theory,
te a c h e r of
to. t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e .
systems devoted
theory,
from y e a r
of piano.
Ti me d e v o t e d
the
it
one*
for
In
this
to a l l
instance,
t h e o r y was
practice
less
according
than
was
^ v a r i a b l e . 11
tw enty-five
evidently considering
per
practice
im portant.
See
T able XXXIII.
D aily reh earsal
sixteen
of each
systems r e p o rte d
lesson a t
that each
th e pis.no R e s i d e s
t h e dummy k e y b o a r d .
child
on t h e
pupil
participating
Of c o u r s e
this
time
piano.
rehearsed
in
All
the
t h e w o r k on
would be
lim ited,
100
TABI.E X X X III
SOME PACTS I N REGARD TO METHODS OP TEACHING PIANO AS
REPORTED BY SI XTEEN SYSTEMS
1*
Mo r e t h a n o n e p i a n o u s e d
Yes— 3
2,
C lasses
in
the
classroom ?
No— 13
graded?
Yes— 9
No— 3
P arti a lly — 4
3.
Every p u p il
4.
Use c a r d b o a r d
5.
p l a y s e v e r y d a y on t h e p i a n o ?
Y es— 16
No — 0
keyboards?
Y e s — 12
No — 0
Pianographs--2
E x t r a work?
W rite s c a l e s — 8
W rite ch o rd s- - 8
Read c u r r e n t m a g a z in e s or
mu s i c — 2
L i s t e n to c o n s t r u c t i v e
c r i t i c ism— 2
6*
T i me s p e n t
on t h e o r y ?
25 p e r
16
0
cent
H
it
H
it
tt
50
----------- — -------- 4
________
---------------------- - 2
------------------------- 1
------------------------- 1
Very l i t t l e
-----— -------------3
C o n s i d e r a b l e ------------------------------ 1
7.
Ti me s p e n t
at
practice?
75 p e r c e n t -----------------------4
83
*«
"
— ---------------------------- 1
50
11
“
2
100
,!
*'
----------------------------------------------- — 1
V ariable
-------------------------- — 1
Most o f th e t i m e *— ---------- 2
101,
a s many o f
the
enrolled.
The q u e s t i o n n a i r e ,
inquire
class,
classes
have as h ig h a s
concerning the
unfortunately,
number
of
a m a tte r which has proved
in progress
of
the
twenty .pupils
did
not
students
in each piano
to be
s o me i m p o r t a n c e
of
individual-students,
and
of
the c l a s s
8 S fi w h o l e .
How c l a s s
the
students
time
w rite
on t h e k e y b o a r d s .
the
students
absorb
that
the
scales
the
the
Two o f
these
that
of a l l
at
A ll
is
to
all
individual
study fin g e r
C onclusions.
thus
in favor
playing.
to
of
chords
A ll
the person
of
the
criticism ,
or
corrections,
San D ie g o ,
m a t e r i a l , ’ t r a n s p o s e and
and
criticism
to h e a r.
pupils
Three
very evident
demand c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n
the
perm itted
or w r itin g
in a c tu a l
the
and a l s o
It
practice
loudly
has
also,
s y s t e m s wa s s t r o n g l y
expressed
and c h o r d s ,
when n o t p e r f o r m i n g
system s,
criticism .
should be
class
s y s t e m s had
the stu d e n ts p lay in g ,
active
p i a n o and a l s o ,
teacher.
chords,
could be used
should
T hirteen
c u rre n t m usical m agazines.
to have
students
instruction
at
and
constructive
the feelin g
having
and
the
spent.
scales
to read
systems p r e f e r r e d
is
enough f o r
besides
read music
study h i s t o r y
class
or
e v e r y member o f
w riting
scales
appreciation
of
the
piano,
problem s.
There i s
a marked
ten d en cy to b e g in
102
the
piano
leaving
classes
the
are
schools
girls
as well*
ciassrooom .
are
classes
the
be u sed
practicing,
or read
the
if
possible.
per
the
piano.
to
interest
of
per
Those p u p i l s
keyboards
pupils
cent
not
of
a n y time*
the
that
spent
boys and
in
each
reasons,
more
in
the
the p e r io d ,
than
of
the
study
w hile
c e n t was u sed f o r
at
the
o fte n wrote
literature,
the
three-fourths
or pianographs.
also
at
school,
high schools.
econom ical
tim e
cent
high
one p i a n o
About
The a v e r a g e
c u rre n t m usical
♦
to
e v e r y s y s te m recommended
tw enty-five
cardboard
senior
can use
was due
rem aining se v e n ty -fiv e
used
junior
the a tte n tio n
this
were g raded.
actual p ractice.
of
p o p u la r music
getting
Probably
t h e o r y was
the
Most s c h o o l s had b u t
practically
one p i a n o
of
using
to
give him s o m e th in g he
These
since
the elem entary or
more a d v a n c e d w o r k
Most s c h o o l s
s tu d e n t and
in
or
piano
generally
When n o t
scales,
studied
chords,
the
history
CHAPTER V I I
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONSThe m a i n p u r p o s e
in
the
music
introduction,
in c e r ta in
given to
m usic,
of procedure
of
was
the
for
methods used,
The c o n c l u s i o n s
in
orchestra,
o f methods
(4).
in
(2)*
in
O rganization
variety
of c o u r s e s
in d e x of
due
its
to t h e
music
in the
c h o r u s work,
the
first
set
is
piano
absence
plan
five
clubs
in
in
follow ing headingst
(3).
and
Teaching
(5).
of
Popularity
secondary s c h o o ls .
the
field
of music
recent years.
of hampering
w ith
the
of v e ry re c e n t
of exam ination
Secondary
classes.
school,
a m atter
the
of glee
offered
su c c e ssfu l answ ering
time
analysis
C alifornia
A pplied m usic,
of music
secondary
the
and t h e g e n e r a l
certain
expansion w ith in
entire
in
classes*
under
Teaching
teaching
offerings
drawn from th e p r e s e n t
music
O rganization,
stated
CONCLUSIONS
schools w i l l be d isc u sse d
(l).
the
as
Secondary Schools,
the various
offerings
investigation,
to a n a l y z e
C alifornia
A.
of the
this
is
a plain
T h i s ma y b e
traditions
since
exception
growth.
of g e n e r a l
In 1907
q u e s t i o n s was i s s u e d ,
o f w h i c h v/ o u l d p e r m i t
The
the
the
candidates
104/
to
enter college.
based
The s u b j e c t s
in c lu d e d music
voice,
piano and
recognition
of music
more c o m p a r a b le
to
such as E n g lish ,
of
expedient fo r
array
appreciation,
voice,
studied
of
local
of music
It
is
subjects
of
in v io lin ,
a nd b a n d .
to n o te
theory,
the
in
glee
besides
In a d d itio n ,
stringed
is
and
there
is
instrum ents,
granted
f o r music
te a c h e r s by th e g r e a t e r m a j o r i t y
especially,
the
C redit
these
classes
together,
organ,
exten­
suitable
chorus,
the above.
piano,
W ithin
of m usic,
or both
the
interesting
w h e n no p r o v i s i o n
w ithin
is
in about ninety per cent
the
somewhat
academic
found
instruction
required
on a b a s i s
today.
history
girls,
under p r iv a te
schools,
entrance
school c re d it,
o f w ork show
as t h e y i n c l u d e
harmony,
orchestra
of
so-called
types
needs.
com binations
instruction
the
many c o m b i n a t i o n s
f o r boys and
various
of
distinct
of s u b je c ts ,
clubs
c a me t o b e p l a c e d
that
counterpoint,
C oincident with c o lle g e
c a me t h e q u e s t i o n
the f i e l d
d iv isio n s appear
harmony,
H is to r y and M athem atics.
Thirty-one
siveness
appreciation,
violin.
and m usic g r a d u a l l y
upon w hich q u e s ti o n s were
school.
seventh or e ig h th grades,
cent
in
the
n in th grade.
cent
in the
tenth grade,
It
Chorus
and
is
is
ma d e f o r
or g lee
of
the
c l u b work
system s
by f i f t y - s e v e n
required
b u t o n l y one
in
per
by n in e te e n
system re q u ire d
per
105
chorus
in
the
tw elfth grade.
music a p p r e c i a t i o n
sixteen
the
per cent
in
e l e v e n t h and
and
per cent
cent
of
the
the
are
the
tenth,
is
generally
increases
as
the
school.
offer
instruction
in
clubs
this
the
ever,
those
found
it
Several
as
to
the p o in t
d ifficult
curricular
cent
in
in
and
in­
low er g rad es
and
is
same,
per
reached.
as
senior high
are
practically
schools
to be found
over eig h ty per
stim ulate
the
the
of m usical c lu b s
or e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r
cent offer­
interest
the
use
were
is
in both
classes.
How­
of p o p u la r music
club.
organized
activity,
and meet e i t h e r
value
in
clubs w ith varying r e s u l t s .
of overflow ing
Their c h ie f
fifty -fo u r
violin
to fo rm a w e l l b a l a n c e d g l e e
types
every
in e ig h ty -f iv e
level
the
in
of m usic.
n o t employing
or non-credit b asis,
school hours.
type
or g i r l s f g le e
schools
other
the
and
schools,
P o p u l a r m u s i c was f o u n d . t o
clubs
in
o f'v a rio u s kinds
of
e i t h e r boys*
and
Piano
rem ain ab o u t
per cen t of bo th ju n io r
glee
exception
senior high school
classes
practically a ll
per
Bands a p p e a r
started
fifty
ing
only f iv e
ju n io r high schools
struction
Glee
and
sen io r high schools.
Instrum ental
e i g h t h and n i n t h g r a d e s ,
found w ith o u t
se n io r high
of the
seventh,
cent required
tw elfth grades.
O rchestras
junior
in
Forty per
during
social,
either
on a c r e d i t
or o u ts id e
inasm uch a s
of
106'
they
tend
to b in d
pupils
of
sim ilar
m usical
tastes
to­
gether.
By c o m p a r i n g
C. V.
Good i n
the
status
1927 w i t h t h e
d is c lo s e d a most rem arkable
subjects
varied
and i n
the
programs.
in
at
offered
about
over
in
the
eighty-five
cent
per
w ithin
piano
or
however.
wind
credit
outside
or v i o l i n
granting
w hile
of
credit
study.
study
in
the v a r i e t y
of
offering
senior,
three
schools,
the
of
these
orchestras
and o n l y a
only
junior
in
in
the
third
the
that
of
tenth,
were
are
is
today found
high schools
in
and
in
schools.
studied under
especially
in
stringed
field
of
in
favor
of
instrum ents
now g r a n t
credit
being,
studied,
credit
for
The n u m b e r o f c i t i e s
seems v e r y s m a l l ,
instructors
the
A s m a l l e r number a r e
per cent
schools
a marked movement to w ard
f o r music
school,
found
studied.
ju n io r high
the s e n i o r h ig h
per cent give
instrum ents.
is
Today o r c h e s t r a s a r e
or
There
other
S ixty-eight
fifty-nine
fo r vocal
the
for
of
cent
Applied m u sic.
the g ra n tin g
schools
time,
junior
senior high
seventy per
in
there
o r c h e s t r a l work
which th e n e x i s t e d
and f iv e
progress
tw elfth grades.
every h ig h school,
Bands,
that
f o u n d b y Dr *
findings,
Ee f o u n d b u t f i v e
the h ig h schools
and
present
number of
ju n io r high schools
eleventh,
of music as
the
for
study of
offering
in
these,
fact,
credit
only
107forty-one
the
high
per cent
school
of
student
s p e c i a l v o c a l work,
started
obtain
very e a rly
the
until
one c o n s i d e r s
r a r e ly m ature
that
enough to w a rra n t
i n s t r u m e n t a l m u s ic m u st be
life
of
the
student
in
order
to
the b e s t r e s u l t s .
of high school
recognizing
age to
frequent in a b ility
splendid
the
to
students.
loaned
play
the
one,
i n s t r u m e n ts and
c h a r g e ma d e
of
of
the
only
per
cent
student
their
signing
and l o a n e d
of
sixty-tw o
the
per
cities
cent
Two t h i r d s
of
of an agreement
i n s t r u m e n t i n good
condition.
of
the
those borrow ing
and
purchased
orchestra.
the
the
have worked out a
are
About f i f t y - s e v e n
instrum ents
the
desire
some i n s t r u m e n t ,
purchase
systems r e q u ir e d
to keep
the
plan whereby in stru m e n ts
owned a n d l e n t b a n d
these
total,
is
w hile
in
Many c i t i e s
to
the
T h e r e w a s no
instrum ents
under these
condi t i o n s .
Teaching
of
orchestra.
u sin g p o p u la r music a s w e ll as
demands
of
the
students
n o t become
per cent
schools
their
orchestra
classical
to m eet
as w ell
would o t h e r w i s e
of the
Today t h e
are
of th e
instrum ents.
student
Those
using
body i s
schools
to
interest
interested.
o r c h e s tr a l groups w ith the
per cent
as
is
the
t h o s e who
About f o r ty - tw o
p o p u la r music w ith
result
learning
that
about
thirty
to p l a y
not using popular
music have
108 .
■b e t we e n t h r e e
in
their
orchestra
There
the
is
orchestra
seven and
the
and e i g h t p e r c e n t
a v e ry wide ra n g e
during
devote
school
three
m ents.
tune h i s
feeling
orchestra
necessary outside
of
the
time
one h a l f
of
the
is
of
spent
the
time
O rchestra
m em orization
influenced
any
seldom r e q u ir e d
is
f r o m one
to
three-fourths
m usical
student
the s tu d e n t
little
use
spent during
to
but
individual
s ome g i v e
the p e r i o d .
the
Tw o-fifths,
in re a d in g m usic;
practice.
to
instru­
to h i s
unable
to
to
the
the p erio d
coaching
assistance
to
one h a l f
three-eighths
to
on i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .
as a r u l e ,
selections.
question
devoted
policy
outside
of
those
study.
do n o t
require
They a r e
outside
to m u sic
since
of
s e v e r a l numbers have been
time
period,
on t h e
this
after
leaders,
time
for
system s have
their
that
m inutes
of m u sical
evenly divided
The l e n g t h o f
of
varies
school
tune
evidently
About f i v e
allowed
About
depend upon the
Very few g iv e
the
enrollm ent
o r m ore h o u r s p e r week t o
tu ning and rech eck in g
during
student
time
it
own i n s t r u m e n t w o u l d b e o f
orchestra.
played.
time as
teachers
O v e r one h a l f
own t u n i n g ,
in
student
of
p e r week.
Over t h r e e - f o u r t h s
s tu d e n ts and
the
classes.
one h a l f h o u r s
schools
of
during
the
alm ost
preparation.
school
hours
m eeting every day
Student d ir e c to r s
are
109
used by alm o st s e v e n -e ig h th s
orchestra
the
at
tim es.
talented
self
in h is
leader,
the
music
in
chosen f i e l d ,
The g l e e
m ajority
of
the
of s tu d e n ts
t h a t by g iv in g
he w i l l
for,
be able
to d ir e c t
fine
the
way o f g i v i n g
to
p e r f e c t him ­
to bepome a s u c c e s s f u l
than
ordinary
insight
instrum entation.
clubs.
the
schools
opportunity
s t u d e n t m u s t h a v e more
l a r g e r numbers
being
the
seems a v e r y
stu d e n t a n added
and know ledge of
Glee
This
of
to
the
clubs
schools
to
their
student
create
are
using popular
studied
to
classes.
attract
The f e e l i n g
t h a t w hich he d e s i r e s ,
a desire
for
classical
music a s
w ell.
In a m a j o r i t y
become e n t i r e l y ,
officers.
usually,
tasks
have
assigned
the s c h o o ls
or p a r tia lly ,
being given a p a r t
of
of
in
the
N inety per
them,
social
cent
of the
clu b s have
groups;
management th r o u g h
o f f i c e r s who a r e
to
the glee
system s
responsible
such as c a l l i n g
n e c e s s a r y an n o u n cem en ts, and sometimes
students
the
election
alw ays,
for
ro ll,
or
certain
making a l l
conducting
the
class.
Only o n e - f i f t h
students
This
could
inability
technical
of
the
system s re p o rte d
r e a d music w ith o u t
of
training
the
the
s t u d e n t s would
on t h e
part
of
the
aid
of
that
their
the piano.
indicate
students
a lack
of
when i n
^
110.
the
lower g ra d e s .
number of members
There
is
a great difference
in each o rg s n iz a tio n ,
u p o n t h e kind, o f m u s i c w h i c h i s
to g le e
c lu b work v a r i e d
has
larger
the
thirty-seven
and
greatly.
of members;
sopranos
to
larger
per
f o u r p a r t music
frequently
use f o u r
two a n d
to
eight
unaccompanied,
p a r t music,
in
of
soprano g e n e r a l l y
the p r o p o r t i o n being*
There i s
the
three
parts
fifteen
tenors,
four
in
high
use
for
number
or
three
both popular
private
P o p u lar music
teachers.
the
piano
the boys and g i r l s
in
the s e n io r high
classes
the
as
is
in
piano
stressed
the
of the
of
time
classes
and
in
spent
the
to
interesting
Most
classroom ,’ but
is usually
in
the
piano.
keyboards and p ian o g rap h s.
class
classes.
leaving
schools
a means
the p la y in g
o n ly one piano
cardboard
the
piano
school y ears,
to
of
A sm all
clubs
teaching
more a d v a n c e d w ork
fourths
although
a cappella,
part
ten d en cy to b e g in
elem entary or ju n io r
system s have
the
to
work.
a marked
m ajo rity of
used.
G i r l s r glee
b o y s ’ use
preferred
choruses,
are
p a r t music f o r
the
system s
t h e i r mixed
P o p u l a r i t y o f methods
use
largely
time devoted
tw enty-six a lto s ,
cent
choruses.
but
and c l a s s i c a l
the
depending
The
Th e
the
twenty-one b a s s e s .
The
use
number
used.
in
About
these
three-
in a c t u a l
Ill,
practice
and
the rem ainder
three-fourths
practicing,
current
of
the
the
classes
pupils
literature,
since
p o p u la r music
tion,
and
thus e n ab lin g
in providing
phasis
being placed
ed c h i l d r e n .
of
this
the
pupil
the p ia n o .
in group
and g i r l s
read
There
is
a
instruction
in piano
o b tain a m usical
schools
today are
differentiation
upon th e
in­
instruc­
education.
v e r y much i n t e r e s t ­
in
talent,
opportunities
the m usical
students
up t o
t h a t w hich he most e n jo y s .
to
it.
secondary schools
stim ulate
chords,
the
w ith
for
the
em­
talent­
the r e s p o n s ib ility
opportunity fo r
lower
grades
of
This can b e s t be accom plished by o f f e r i n g
natu rally likes
provide
scales,
chord system have been
movement by e n l a r g i n g
school.
Only
When n o t
Music e d u c a t i o n m u st a c c e p t
common k n o w l e d g e
to
the
theory.
EEC OMMENDATIOFS
m usically talen ted
high
the
for
graded.
interest
them to
The s e c o n d a r y
study of
of
i n t e r e s t both boys
B.
ed
are
or h i s t o r y
and r a p i d l y growing
to
the
often w rite
great
troduced
in
his
the American y outh and,
The u s e
should be
desire
f o r him an
P o p u la r music
of
therefore,
he
of p o p u la r music
to i n t e r e s t
outlet,
him so m eth in g w hich he can use
as
in
the
the c h ild
to l e a r n more a b o u t
em otional
is
w ell
it,
in
and
music,
to
as g i v i n g
and en jo y in h i s
leisure
112-
time*
The s c h o o l w h i c h f a i l s
pupils w ill
entering
discourage
the ranks
s u b je c t i n most
school
is
bodies*
to
the
definitely
establish
i s more a d v i s a b l e
to
would
to
the
all
naturally
create
interest
the
lack
in
the
is
yet
in
its
included
course,
in
offered
a recognized
of u n certa in ty as
this
more u n i f o r m p l a n o f
but
or
can
pupil
it
to
through
there
as a whole,
There
every system r e ­
true' growth,
of
secondary education,
is
rig h tfu lly
or should
should
organization
be p o s s i b l e
than
a feeling
not be,
Narrow s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n
it
this
organization,
a mark of
to w hat s h o u l d ,
undesirable,
only
music w hich
vary w ith
subject
hence,
course.
the
f a c t s giined
or b a s i s
considered
infancy;
test
our h ig h s c h o o ls .
inasmuch as
as
no
of o rg an izatio n ,
no common e l e m e n t s
s in c e music
of
train
to
Therefore,
w ithin
type
student
him.
seems to be
T h i s ma y b e
that
the
be g i v e n
then
persons.
a desire
ex am in atio n of
courses
and
if
their
should
remains
him t h a t
music work o f f e r e d
porting.
tests
talented
s t u d y shows a r e m a r k a b l e
She
fact
the
b ein g an e l e c t i v e
th e b e s t from
that
of
group from
m u s t b e ma d e a t t r a c t i v e
feel
l e a r n by g iv in g
A close
in
Music,
t h e m ost and
w hile
interest
talented
those w ith n a tu r a l a b i l i t y ,
chosen few,
want
of music.
Some t e a c h e r s
determ ine
reach the
the m u sically
schools,
get
to
to
is,
of
obtain a
now p r e v a i l s .
113 .
Careful
attention
c o u r s e would
The
place
the
recent
regarding
undoubtedly r e lie v e
tendency in p u b lic
em phasis
trend
tensively
is
T his would
on l a r g e
to
on one
immense v a l u e
insure
a higher
sm aller groups.
formed
if
On t h e
it
rightful
share
field
of music
is
tim e;
hence,
reached
it
larger
the
as an
Every
their
and,
training
share
experiences.
system should have
p e r c u s s io n and piano
classes.
every p upil a t a very l i t t l e
this
the
types
n o t be
of
To t h e
for
self-ex­
occupying l e i s u r e
the child
m usic.
A ll
be
pupils
needful experience.
string,
wind,
These b r i n g
cost,
of
s tu d e n t body of
a wide o u t l e t
of
for
should
in c o n se q u e n tia l w hether
fair
its
most im p o rta n t
groups
e x c e l l e n t means
of
efficiency
the b e t t e r
the g e n e ra l
in m usical
proving
groups because
love f o r
these
in­
system.
s t u d y and
through popular or c l a s s i c a l
should have
is
to
the
study
individual
of stu d e n ts ,
attributed
is
of
thorough
means d e p r i v i n g
as w e ll
to
This p r a c t i c e
degree
o th er hand,
their
pression
but
T h i s would make p r o v i s i o n
i t would encourage
of m usic.
ensem bles,
sm all groups
the
the
m u sic a lly s u p e rio r group
all,
problem .
should be ad o p te d by e v e ry
members would h a v e had
of
and aim of ea c h
scho ol music has been
instrum ent.
and
this
group
encourage
a s w e ll a s b e t t e r work i n
the
the co n ten t
a price
brass,
instruction
w ithin
the
to
114'
reach
he
of every s tu d e n t.
school ownership
the p u p ils ,
of p ric e .
especially
Schools
different
of
Along w i t h
those
offering
of
the
used cau ses
w aiting
for
advantage
to
the
accom panists.
chestras
carry
the
In
and r e e d
should
over
into
ultim ate
the
school as
field
quartets
and
be o rg a n iz e d .
the
classes
that
pupil
rivalry
students
as
trios
tim e w ith sch o o l
credit.
of
th e se music
com petent
teachers.
There
the music
departm ent
of
sh o u ld be t r a i n e d
strings,
c h o ru s and
in h is
Since
the
for
so loists
should be
as
t h e o r y work.
and
sm all
string,
or­
a direct
really
school
w ell prepared,
several
especially
the
sh o u ld be
during
high
Th e
music,
which i s
require
every large
teachers
specialist
courses
in­
immense
T his would g iv e
of i n s t r u m e n t a l music
the
up on t h e
feeders
There
to
because
affords.
of
as w ell
teaching.
lent
interest
instrum ental
d aily rehearsals
All
for
to s ig n
training
neighborhood l i f e ,
aim of music
it
They a r e
of
should
prohibitive
t h e y become
as w ell
this
are
separate
instrum ents.
o r c h e s t r a and band,
brass,
that
friendly
p o p u l a r music
lists
practice
instru m en s which could be
in stru m e n ts have found
creases because
this
teachers
school.
fo r band,
Each should
in
These
orchestra,
be a
field .
use
o f p o p u la r music h as
stim ulated
the
11 5
interest
in music
in
m ajority
of th o se
studied,
s ome w a y t o
care
should provide
student
thus
late
study
it.
it
these
perm itting
on a t
time
students.
b u t would
th e music
course
consist
counterpoint,
in stru m e n ta l m usic.
w ith
popular,
d e a v o r where p e r f e c t i o n
hoped
that
every
school
are
initiate
school
or as a
in definitely
i n music
attem pting
it.
offered
in
in graduate
such as
foreign
harmony,
and a l l
work,
is d esired .
these
history
forms
the
dance
any f i e l d
of en­
Some
s u c h a p r o g r a m and
learning.
the
The a c a d e m i c
in radio
or
his
to s t i m u ­
as w ell as
classical
p r o v i s i o n w i l l b e made f o r
of h ig h er
only serve
Such a p r o g r a m would h e l p
symphony o r c h e s t r a s
hig h schools
the
on b y t h e
career
of arranging,
to become p r o f e s s i o n a l
orchestras,
schools
to m u s ic ,
general h isto ry ,
languages c lo s e ly a s so c ia te d
students
in
Every high
him to p u r s u e
present,
Psychology,
of music,
the
has
T h i s w o u l d i n no w a y j e o p a r d i z e
Along w ith
m u s i c a l work would
it
t o be c a r r i e d
sh o u ld go e d u c a t i o n r e l a t e d
English,
of
is
as
reg u lar high school
education.
work c a r r i e d
schools,
a musi' C c o u r s e
during h is
graduate,
m usical
for
the h ig h
it
of
the
is
students
by
BIBLIOGRAPHY
BIBLIOGRAPHY
V
B a l d w i n , R a l p h , ’’M u s i c C r e d i t s i n S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s , ’*
P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e Mu sic T e a c h e r s * N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n,
1906.
A s u r v e y o f the h i g h s c h o o l s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ,
reco rd in g the d i f f e r e n t m usical
o f f e r i n g s and the
s c h o o ls a llo w in g c r e d i t f o r the work.
B a k e r , S a r i L. , ’’T r a i n i n g a n d C o n s e r v a t i o n o f V o i c e s i n t h e
J u n i o r and S e n i o r H ig h S c h o o l s , ” Music S u p e r v i s o r s 1
N a tio n a l C onference, 1929.
pp. 593-599.
B i r g e , Edward B a i l e y , H i s t o r y o f P u b l i c S c h o o l Music
U nited S t a t e s , O liv e r D its o n Co., Boston 1928.
in
the
A s p le n d id h i s t o r y of the grow th of music in the
schools of th e United S t a t e s .
B o e p p l e , P . , ’’M u s i c i n M o d e r n E d u c a t i o n , ’* S c h o o l and H o m e , ”
1 4 : 2 9 - 3 9 , May 1 9 3 1 .
The n e e d f o r m u s i c a s a v o c a t i o n o r a v o c a t i o n w i t h
s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s on m u s i c f o r l e i s u r e t i m e .
Bureau of E d u c a tio n
and McConathy,
Schools.
B ulletin,
Osbourne,
A s u r v e y on m u s i c i n t h e
from q u e s t i o n n a i r e s s e n t
1917, No. 49, E a r h a r t , W i l l ,
Music i n t h e S e c o n d a r y
secondary schools g ath ered
to l a r g e c i t i e s .
D u n h a m , F r a n k l i n , ”M ' u s i c - A New F o r c e i n A m e r i c a , ” M u s i c
E d u c a t o r s J o u r n a l t May, 1 9 3 8 , p p . 1 4 - 1 5 .
Dykema. , P . W. , ’’M u s i c i n t h e New P r o b l e m o f L e i s u r e , ”
Music T e a c h e rs r N a t i o n a l A sso cia t i o n P r o c e e d i n g s ,
1930, pp . 100-109.
M u s i c , t h e a n s w e r t o t h e q u e s t i o n a s t o how t o s p e n d
th e i n c r e a s e d amount of l e i s u r e tim e found i n modern
life.
I n s t r u m e n ta l music and a p p r e c i a t i o n e s p e c i a l l y
emphasi z e d .
E l s o n , L o u i s C . , The H i s t o r y o f A m e r i c a n
M a c m i l l a n Company, 1 9 0 4 .
M u s i c , The
118,
R e la te s the b e g in n in g s , th e f o r e ig n in f lu e n c e s , the
changes, the methods, the p e r s o n a l en d eav o rs, t h a t
have gone i n t o the making of our p r e s e n t m usic.
G i l d e r s l e e v e , G . , "How a C o u r s e i n M u s i c a l H i s t o r y S h o u l d
d i f f e r F r o m One i n M u s i c a l A p p r e c i a t i o n , " E t u d e , "
49:100, Feb. 1931.
T h is a u t h o r b e l i e v e s t h a t h i s t o r y o f m usic sh o u ld be
very lig h tly s tre s s e s in teaching a p p re c ia tio n ; th a t
t h e f e e l i n g of h arm ony and m u s i c a l theme i s t h e m a in
issue.
Goldberg, Is a a c ,
1932.
Good,
"Jass,"
Forum and
Century,
87:232,
A pril
C a r t e r V . , " Th e M u s i c C u r r i c u l u m i n S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s , 11
A m erican E d u c a t i o n a l D i g e s t , p p . 1 7 6 - 1 7 8 , Dec. f28.
H a g g i n , B. E . , " T h e E c o n o m i c I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f J a z z , 1*
Sa t u r d a y R e v i e w o f L i t e r a t u r e , 6 : 1 4 6 , May 1 7 , 1 9 3 0 .
H all,
H elen, "B oys* Glee C lu b , H N a tio n a l
J o u rn a l, 1929, pp. 415-419.
Music
Supervisors
S p e c i a l s u g g e s t i o n s o n c o n d u c t i n g b o y s ’" g l e e c l u b s
w i t h p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n p a id to th e changing v o ic e
question.
H ockenga, G e rtru d e A., "R ural School M u sic,"
E d u c a t i o n a l News, O ct. 1940, p . 26.
Sierra
H o w a r d , J o h n T a s k e r , Our A m e r i c a n M u s i c , T h o m a s Y.
C o m p a n y , New Y o r k , 1 9 3 1 .
Crowell
H u g h e s , C. L . , " M u s i c I n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e H i g h S c h o o l , "
C a lif o r n ia Q u a rte rly of Secondary E d u c a tio n , 4:335-341,
J u n e , *29.
Various cou rses o ffe re d in th e high sc h o o l-ss learn ed
from the t a b u l a t i o n of f a c t s g ath ered by a q u e s tio n ­
n a i r e s tu d y of f o r t y l e a d i n g c i t i e s in the U nited
S tates.
" J a z z Comes t o
1924.
M anchester,
Stay,"
Current
A rthur I.ivingston,
Opinion,
77:337,
Music E d u c a t i o n
September,
in
the
119
U n i t Te _s
r g _
States,
_
Government P r i n t i n g
O ffice,
'
W ashington,
An e a r l y h i s t o r y o f m u s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n t h e U n i t e d
S ta te s , a u th e n tic and w r itte n w ith co n sid e ra b le
d eta i 1.
M c C o n a t h y , O s b o u r n e , B e a t t i e , J o h n W. , a n d M o r g a n , R u s s e l l
V* * Mu s i c i n t h e J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l , S i l v e r B u r d e t t
C o m p a n y , Hew Y o r k , 1 9 3 0 .
A splendid book,
d iff e r e n t phases
program of the b
Th e a u t h o r f e e l s
of youth.
McGehee, T h o m a s i n e
Boston, 1929.
t e l l i n g methods of p r e s e n t i n g
o f m u s i c , and m u s i c a s sh o wn on t h e
e t t e r modern j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o ls .
m u s i c i s one o f th e p r im e e s s e n t i a l s
C . , P e o p l e and' M u s i c , A l l y n and
Company,
An e l e m e n t a r y t e x t f o r j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s c o n t a i n i n g
r e s e a r c h upon t h e s u b j e c t o f A m erican m u s i c and
related subjects.
M e n d e l , A r t h u r , '‘W h a t i s
May 4 , 1 9 3 R.
American M usic?"
M e n d l , R. W. S . , The A p p e a l o f J a z z ,
Co m p a n y , L i m i t e d , L o n d o n , 1 9 2 7 .
An u n b i a s e d o p i n i o n o n t h e
w r i t t e n by a f o r e i g n e r .
The N a t i o n ,
P hillip
subject
A l l a n and
of p o p u la r music
M u r s e l l , J a m e s L . , a n d G l e n n , M a y b e l l e , The P s y c h o l o g y o f
S c h o o l M u s i c T e a c h i n g , S i l v e r B u r d e t t C o m p a n y , Hew
York, 1931.
Th e n e e d a n d d e s i r a b i l i t y o f
by the modern p s y c h o l o g i s t .
te a c h in g music
as viewed
O b e r n d o r f e r , Anne, a n d Marx O b e r n d o r f e r , A C e n t u r y o f
P r o g r e s s i n A m e r i c a n S o n g , H a l l a n d M e C r e a r y C o mp a n y
Chicago, 1933.
An o r i g i n a l c o l l e c t i o n o f f a v o r i t e s o n g s a n d g e n e r a l
comments upon t h e e a r l y -b a c k g ro u n d s o f A m e ric a n
m usic.
120'
,rG l d f o r g o t t e n , P a r - o f f
May 2 8 , 1 9 3 2 .
W e b s t e r , W. P . ,
Bureau f o r
1927.
T hings,” L ite ra ry
L igest,
113:1.7
rtM u s i c a n d t h e S a c r e d S e v e n , ” N a t i o n a l
A d v a n c e m e n t o f Mus i c , h e w Y o r k , M a r c h 3 ,
Music a t l a s t a c c e p t e d as a s o l i d i n d e t e r m i n g c o l l e g e
entrance c r e d its .
Music i s g r a d u a l l y coining up to th e
l e v e l o f t h e s o - c a l l e d '’r e g u l a r s u b j e c t s . ”
APPEEDIX I
Dear S upervisor:
R e a l i z i n g t h e wide v a r i a t i o n i n o p i n i o n
r e g a r d i n g the use of p o p u la r m usic in se c o n d a ry s c h o o ls ,
I h a v e b e e n a u t h o r i z e d t o make a s t u d y o f t h e m u s i c d e ­
partm ents in various hig h sch o o ls.
I w i l l a p p re c ia te the
i n f o r m a t i o n y o u c a n g i v e me i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e p r o v i d e d .
1.
2.
in
3.
What
5.
is
6.
is
your high
How m a n y j u n i o r ,
e n r o l l m e n t ? _________
school
s e n io r,or four
year high
y o u r s y s t e m ? ____________________________
Hew m a n y f u l l
___________.
4.
is
Part
.
schools
are
.
tim e music t e a c h e r s in your h ig h
school?
t i m e ? _________
How ma n y s t u d e n t s
How m a n y s t u d e n t s
are
enrolled
i n s ome p h a s e
of m usic?
are
enrolled
because
p o p u la r music
are
enrolled
because
classical
u s e d ? ______________*
How m a n y s t u d e n t s
used?
.
7.
Do y o u u s e p o p u l a r m u s i c w i t h
S.
What p e r c e n t
your group?
of your s t u d e n t s
b a c k g r o u n d when e n t e r i n g
high
9.
enrollm ent
What p e r
music
cent
of t h e
have
______ .
a good m u s i c a l
s c h o o l ? ____________ *
is
ma d e u p o f b o y s ?
_
G i r l s ? _______ .
1 0 . Do y o u o f f e r
11.
I s music
v o c a l ? _______ .
a m ajor
in m usic?
.
A m i n o r ? ______ _ _ _
r e q u i r e d ? ________ .__ E l e c t i v e ? _________ .
Instrum ental?
______ .
B o t h ? __________.
If
so,
122
<12- Do y o u
offer
cliorus
classes?
A p p r e c ia tio n and h i s t o r y
A p p r e c i a t i o n and
harmony?
_______ ^
.
.
o f music?__
Glee
classes?
Instruction
_
.
Theory of m usic?
' O r c h e s t r a ? _________ *
.
Instrum ental
Other
P i a n o _c l a s s e s ? ^ ____ .
c l a s s e s ? _______________. .
c o u r s e s ? _____________
How m a n y do y o u h a v e e n r o l l e d
.
in
the
follow ing
A p p r e c i a t i o n and h i s t o r y
A p p r e c i a t i o n and th e o r y ?
a n d h a r m o n y ? __________
______________ H i s t o r y
Ba.nd?.____________.
V iolin
.
.
H a r m o n y ? ___________*
of m u s i c ?
.
.
c l u b s ?_________
.
1 4. ' Do y o u g i v e
credit
A ppreciation?
Theory
Instrum ental
H istory
of m usic?
of m u s i c ?
c l a s s e s ? _____
classes?
Organ?
______
M usical
O t h e r c o u r s e s ? __________ ______
.
f o r any of
the
follow ing
A p p r e c ia tio n and h i s t o r y
A p p r e c i a t i o n a n d t h e o r y ? __________ .
harmony?
of m usic?
A ppreciation
Piano
i n v o i c e ? __________ ,____ .
classes-
O r c h e s t r a ? ___________ i
Glee c l u b s ?
classes?
Instruction
and
and
i n v o i c e ? _________ .___O r g a n ? ________________ M u s i c a l
A p p r e c i a t i o n ? ______
.
A ppreciation
clubs?
.
clubs?
13.
o f m u s i c ? ________ .
•
H a r m o n y ? _________
H istory
Band?
V iolin
theory?
A ppreciation?
Harmony?
.
.
classes:
of m usic?
A ppreciation
T h e o r y of m u s ic ?
O r c h e s t r a ? _____________ B a n d ? ________
Glee
c l u b s ? ___________ .
Instrum ental
15.
P i a n o ? ______________.
classes?
________
Bo y o u a l l o w c r e d i t
Voice?
the music
_______*
c o u r s e s he
17. Bees your p r i n c i p a l
in your
18.
school?
V i o l i n ? _______________Wi nd
is
t a k i n g ? ________ _
of
a n y of
so,
school?
instrum ents
s tu d e n ts 1 enrollm ent
the
use
_ ____________ *
o f p o p u la r music
annually?
_____ *
*
p e r week a r e
required
Instrum ental
use
these
21. Boes your
f o r band?
of p o p u la r music
Bo y o u g i v e
.
increased
the
enrollm ent
g r o u p s ? _____________ _____ .
school
do t h e y
c l a s s e s ? __________
O r c h e s t r a ?_____________..
charge
own a n d
for
loan
instrum ents?
t hem?; _________ .
m u s i c memory c o n t e s t s ?
2 3 . How m a n y m i n u t e s
24.
not
the
of
G i r l s f g l e e ? ____________ * C h o r u s ? ________ *
P i a n o ?__________ .
22.
for
approve
Voice c l a s s e s ?
If
outside
____
Boys 1 g l e e ?
in
studied
. ___
_____ *
1 9 . How m a n y p e r i o d s
Has t h e
c l a s s e s ? _______
courses?
How m a n y m u s i c p r o g r a m s do y o u p r e s e n t
What k i n d s ? _
20.
Other
f o r music
16* W h a t v/as m o s t r e s p o n s i b l e
in
.
V iolin
What d i f f e r e n t
p e r week a r e
types
How m u c h ? ________
.
__________
spent
of m usic a r e
.
in assem bly sin g in g ?
sung a t
assem bly?
25.
If
26.
Is
any tim e
Has t h e
use
Is
there
their
any time
is
the
.
If
so,
employed
__ ______________ •
P h o n o g r a p h ? _______
_•
interest
in
»I f
so,
.
to
pupils
To p l a y
to
sing
the
selections
songs
of
their
how m u c h ? _ _____________
find
those
interested
.
in
R a d i o ? __________
»
Music
•
t e s t s ? _______________
_____________ .
O thers?
2 9 . What m e t h o d s a r e
in music?
C lassical
.
used
.
to
encourage
the p u p i l s 1 in te r e s t
P o p u l a r m u s i c ? _____________ ______________
m u s i c ? _____________ E x e r c i s e s ? _____________ .
Class
c o n t e s t s ? _______
Row m u c h t i m e w a s t a k e n
instrum ents?
t i o n ? _______
31.
given to
_________ .
What m e t h o d
student
more
exhibited?
own c h o i c e ? _ _
m usic?
30.
school?
_______________
own c h o i c e ?
28.
in your
of p o p u la r music c re a te d
th a n was p r e v i o u s l y
how much?
of
p o p u la r music
s o , h o w much?_____________________ *
music
27.
given to
_______ .
.
for
.
tuning
C lass
d rills
O t h e r s ? ______ ___________ .
the
orchestra
S i g h t r e a d i n g ? _ _ _ _________.___ I n t e r p r e t a ­
Individual
c o a c h i n g ? ___________ .___ Use o f
d i r e c t o r s ? _________________ Us e o f p o p u l a r m u s i c ?
Do y o u r e q u i r e
m u c h ? _______________♦
outside
p r e p a r a t i o n ? ___________ *
If
.
so,
how
125
,32.
Does y o u r g l e e
presented
by your
33.
the
State
read
club
take p a r t
operas or
per
cent
of your
students
Whata r e t h e
p ro p o rtio n of p a r ts in boys*
3 5 . Was p o p u l a r
music
used
in
u s e ? __________ ______
..
.
O thers?
best
T h r e e p a r t ? ______
If
s t u d e n t s more i n t e r e s t e d
so,
are
the
3 8 . Do y o u u s e p i a n o s
piano
in your
t h e o r y ? __________
in
teaching
classes
ho w m u c h t i m e
because
of
in
i t ? ____
teaching
is
i n which
devoted
to
D aily reh earsal
;
there
is
I n s t r u m e n t a l S o l o s _______________C h o r u s
_________G i r l s f g l e e ________________ .
the
p i a n o ? __________ _
. P ractice?
B a n d ______O r c h e s t r a ____________.
State
Four p a r t?
and c a r d b o a r d k e y b o a r d s
p u p i l ?____________
Check e v e n t s
ship:
your
s c h o o l ? ___________.
In your piano
the
.
for
_________.
p o p u la r music
41.
club?
c l u b ? ______
glee
suitable
3 7 . Do y o u u s e
40.
glee
s o , how m u c h ? _____________ .do you f i n d
of
can s ig h t
Mixed c h o r u s ?
teaching
36. What p a r t m u s i c
39.
that
.
____________G i r l s r g l e e ? ____________________ .
If
operettas
s c h o o l ? ______________ .
music ?
34.
in
com petition
f o r member
V o c a l S o l o s _____________ _
_____
Piano
number o f music f e s t i v a l s
.
Boys* glee
.
entered
O t h e r s . ___
during
126
the y e a r?
42.
Do y o u u s e s t u d e n t
O rchestra?
>
d i r e c t o r s ? _______.
. C h o r u s ? ________ ■
43.
to
school,
the
1.
Is
school?
there
.
45.
Wh a t f e e
46.
For
a fee
If
and
stress
so,
2
charged
for
class
in your hig h
offered
in
m usicr
3_____________
.
instruction
in
your
how much?
do you c h a r g e
what i s
47* R e m a r k s ‘
im portance
curricular a c tiv itie s
,
_
44*
their
extra
.G i r l s f g l e e ?
Boys* g l e e ?
____________
L ist as
I n _b a n d ? __________.
for
♦
private
t h e money d e r i v e d
i n s t r u c t i o n ? _______.
from le s s o n s
u s e d ? ___
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