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A classification of science concepts found in popular magazines and their significance in relation to the subject matter of high school science

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A CLASSIFICATION OF SCIENCE CONCEPTS FOUND IN POPULAR
MAGAZINES AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE IN RELATION TO
THE SUBJECT MATTER OF HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE
A T h e s is
P r e s e n te d to
th e F a c u lty o f t h e S ch o o l o f E d u c a tio n
U n iv e rs ity of so u th e rn C a lifo rn ia
In P a r tia l F u lfillm e n t
o f th e R e q u ire m e n ts f o r t h e D egree
M a ste r o f S c ie n c e i n E d u c a tio n
hy
D o n a l d T hom as McKie
J u n e 1941
UMI Number: EP54079
All rights reserved
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l7V| iS&
o
T7m thesis, written under the direction of the
Chairman of the candidate’s Guidance Committee
and appr ov ed by all members of the Committee,
has been presented to and accepted by the Faculty
of the School of Education in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of M ast er of
Science in Education.
D a te
J u n .® .7 < I® 4 ! .......................
D ean
Guidance C om m ittee
Chairman
0. H. Hull
D. Welty Lefever
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I.
PAGE
THE P R O B L E M ..............................
-
Im p o rta n c e o f th e p ro b le m
.
2
R e a d i n g a s a m e a n s o f l e a r n i n g ..........................
3
P re se n ce o f sc ie n c e
4
S ta tu s o f sc ie n c e
. .
.
c o n c e p ts i n m ag a z in e s
c o n te n t i n h ig h sc h o o l
s c i e n c e c o u r s e s ........................................ .
II.
.
.
.
6
L i m i t a t i o n s .............................................................. .
.
.
8
RELATED I N V E S T I G A T I O N ........................................
re a d in g in sc ie n c e
A llu sio n s
to
. . . . . . . .
. . . . .
13
F req u en cy
o f s c ie n c e a l l u s i o n s i n m ag a z in e s
18
s c ie n c e in t h e p r e s s
........................................................ .....
METHOD OF PROCEDURE
10
.
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
S e l e c t i o n o f m a g a zin e s • .
IV .
10
E x te n siv e
Sum m ary
III.
1
.
21
22
...............................
22
C l a s s o f r e a d i n g p u b l i c ...............................................
23
F r e q u e n c y o f i s s u e ..............................................................
25
C o l l e c t i o n o f d a t a ..............................................................
25
C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f c o n c e p t s .........................................
27
A n a ly sis o f c o n c e p ts
...............................................
27
M e th o d o f o r g a n i z a t i o n ...................................................
28
.
PRESENTATION OF FINDINGS WITH REFERENCE TO
PHYSICS
............................... * ..............................................
R e v ie w o f p r o b l e m ..................................................
29
29
ill
CHAPTER
PAGE
N um ber o f
a rtic le s •
30
L e n g th o f
a r t i c l e s .......................................................
31
A m ount o f
sp a c e d e v o te d to p i c t u r e s
.
35
• • . • • • • • • • • •
35
R a n k in g o f f i e l d s i n o r d e r o f
d e v o te d to
P h y sic s
.
.
each
...............................
. .
space
. . ................................
36
P la c e m e n t o f c o n c e p ts fo u n d i n th e
f i e l d o f p h y s i c s ........................................ * .
* .
41
.
44
E l e c t r i c i t y . and m a g n e t i s m ...............................
46
M a tte r
46
L i g h t ........................................
H eat
Y.
Y I.
.............................................................................
. ................................... . . . . . . . . . .
49
M e c h a n i c s ..................... . ......................................... . .
50
Sound
.
53
S u m m a r y ..................................................................................
55
• • • • • • • • • •
BIOLOGY CONGEPTS FOUND I N MAGAZINES
59
N um ber o f a r t i c l e s ............................................................
59
L e n g th o f a r t i c l e s
60
..............................
P l a c e m e n t o f c o n c e p t s ....................................................
62
S u m m a r y ..............................
67
CHEMISTRY CONCEPTS POUND I N MAGAZINES
. . . .
70
L e n g t h o f a r t i c l e s ..............................................................
72
C o n c ep ts fo u n d i n
..........................
72
...................................................................
75
S u b sta n c e
M a tte r
.
a rtic le s
77
iv
CHAPTER
PAGE
R e a c tio n s
. . . . . . . .
...............................
C o n d itio n
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
80
P ro p e rtie s
.......................... . . . . . . . . .
82
P r o c e s s e s ..................................................
T erm s
.
O rg a n ic
. * .
82
......................... * .
85
. . . • • • . • • ...................... . . .
87
.
.
.
.
.
S u m m a r y * ......................
711.
.
.
.
.
.
• . .
.
87
.
91
.............................................
91
...................................................
95
0TH1R SCIENCE GONCEPTS POUND I N MAGAZINES
A s t r o n o m y .......................... .
M e te o ro lo g y
.
. . .
C o n c e p ts fo u n d i n m e te o ro lo g y
.
. .
.
.
G e o l o g y ........................................
V III.
97
99
C o n c e p ts fo u n d i n g e o lo g y
Summary
77
. . . . . . .
101
. • • . . . • • • • • • • • • • •
101
SUMMARY A W , C O N C L U S I O N ...............................................
R e s ta te m e n t o f t h e p ro b lem
105
. . . . . . . .
105
M e th o d o f p r o c e d u r e
.
..........................................
106
Sum m ary o f f i n d i n g s
.
..........................................
107
C o n c lu s io n s
BIBLIOGRAPHY
...
.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
115
. .........................................................................
117
L IS T OF TABLBS
TABLE
I.
II*
PACE
M a g a z i n e s S e l e c t e d f o r S t u d y ...............................
.
•
34
R a n k in g o f F i e l d s i n O r d e r o f S p a c e D e v o t e d
t o l a c k ........................................
V.
37
Summary o f S c i e n c e C o n c e p t s F o u n d i n M a g a z i n e
A r tic le s In c lu d in g T h e ir F re q u e n c ie s
V I.
. . . .
38
Hum ber o f S c i e n c e C o n c e p t s w i t h R e f e r e n c e t o
P h y s i c s Found i n V a rio u s M a g a z in e s . . . . .
V II.
32
A v e r a g e A m ount o f S p a c e D e v o t e d t o S c i e n c e
C o n c e p t s p e r M a g a z i n e ..............................
IV .
24
T o t a l H um ber o f S c i e n c e C o n c e p t s a n d Hum ber o f
C o lu m n -in e h e s Found i n V a r io u s M a g a z in e s
III*
. .
40
Sum m ary o f P h y s i c s C o n c e p t s F o u n d i n M a g a z i n e
A r tic le s In c lu d in g t h e i r F re q u e n c ie s
. . . .
42
V I I I . . L i s t o f P h y s i c s C o n c e p ts Found i n M ag azin e
A r tic le s In c lu d in g T h e ir F re q u e n c ie s-L i g h t ...................................................
IX .
45
L i s t o f P h y s i c s C o n c e p ts Found i n M a g az in e
A r tic le s In c lu d in g T h e ir F re q u e n c ie s—
E l e c t r i c i t y a n d M a g n e t i s m ............................
X.
47
L i s t o f P h y s i c s C o n c e p t s F o u n d i n M a g a z in e
A r tic le s In c lu d in g T h e ir F re q u e n c ie s—
M a tte r
.........................
48
vi
TABLE
X I.
PAGE
L i s t o f P h y s i c s C o n c e p ts Found i n M a g az in e
A r tic le s In c lu d in g T h e ir F re q u e n c ie s— H eat
X II.
.
51
M e c h a n i c s ..................................................................................
52
L i s t of P h y s i c s C o n c e p ts Found i n M a g az in e
A r t i c l e s In c lu d in g T h e ir F re q u e n c ie s—
X III.
L i s t o f P h y s i c s C o n c e p ts Found i n M a g a z in e
A r tic le s In c lu d in g T h e ir F re q u e n c ie s—
Sound
X IV .
...................................................
N u m b er o f B i o l o g y C o n c e p t s F o u n d i n V a r i o u s
M a g a z i n e s ..................... .................................... .
XV.
.
,
.
61
T h e ir F re q u e n c ie s. . . .
63
L i s t o f B io lo g y C o n c e p ts Found i n M a g az in e .
A r tic le s In c lu d in g
X V I.
54
Num ber o f C h e m i s t r y C o n c e p t s F o u n d i n
V a rio u s M a g a z i n e s
X V II.
71
sum m ary o f C h e m i s t r y C o n c e p t s F oun d i n M aga­
z in e s A r tic le s In c lu d in g
X V III.
.
T h e irF re q u e n c ie s
•
73
L i s t o f C h e m i s t r y C o n c e p t s F ound i n M a g a z i n e
A r tic le s in c lu d in g T h e ir F re q u e n c ie s -S u b sta n c e s
X IX .
...................................................
76
L i s t o f C h e m is try C o n c e p ts Found i n M a g a z in e
A r tic le s in c lu d in g T h e ir F re q u e n c ie s—
M a t t e r .............................................. .............................................
XX.
L i s t o f C h e m is tr y C o n c e p ts Found i n M a g az in e
A r t i c l e s in c lu d in g T h e ir F re q u e n c ie s -R e a e t i o n s .....................................................................
79
78
v ii
TABLE
X X I.
PAGE
L i s t o f C h e m is try C o n c e p ts Found i n M a g az in e
A r t i c l e s In c lu d in g T h e ir F re q u e n c ie s—
C o n d itio n . . . . . . . .
X X II.
..........................................
81
L i s t o f C h e m is tr y C o n c e p ts Found i n M a g az in e
A r tic le s In c lu d in g T h e ir F re q u e n c ie s—
P ro p e rtie s
X X III.
.............................................
83
L i s t o f C h e m is try C o n c e p ts Found i n M a g az in e
A r tic le s In c lu d in g T h e ir F re q u e n c ie s—
P r o c e s s e s ............................................................. .....
XXIV.
• • •
84
L i s t o f C h o n i s t r y C o n c e p ts Found i n M a g az in e
A r tic le s In c lu d in g T h e ir F re q u e n c ie s—
T e rm s
XXV.
...................................
86
L i s t o f C h e m is tr y C o n c e p ts Found i n M a g az in e
A r ti c le s In c lu d in g T h e ir F re q u e n c ie s—
O rg a n ic
XXVI.
...................................................
M im b er o f S c i e n c e C o n c e p t s W it h R e f e r e n c e t o
A s tr o n o m y F o u n d i n V a r i o u s M a g a z i n e s
X X V II.
XXIX.
. . .
92
L i s t o f A stro n o m y C o n c e p ts Found i n M a g a z in e s
A r t i c l e s In c lu d in g T h e ir F re q u e n c ie s
X X V II I .
88
. . .
94
V a r i o u s M a g a z i n e s ..............................................................
96
EUmber o f M e t e o r o l o g y C o n c e p t s F o u n d i n
L i s t o f M e t e o r o l o g y C o n c e p t s F o u n d i n M aga­
z in e A r t i c l e s I n c lu d in g T h e ir F re q u e n c ie s
.
98
v iii
'TABLE
XXX#
PACE
Number o f G e o l o g y C o n c e p t s F o u n d i n V a r i o u s
M a g a z i n e s .............................................................................
XXXI#
100
L i s t o f G e o lo g y C o n c e p ts Found i n M a g az in e
A r tic le s In c lu d in g T h e ir F re q u e n c ie s
.
. .
102
THE PROBLM
One o f t h e
h e lp th e c h ild f i t
T here i s
m ade t o
g r e a t p ro b lem s o f th e sc h o o l to d a y i s to
i n t e l l i g e n t l y in to
a g r o w i n g d em an d t h a t s c i e n c e a n d i t s
c o n fo rm m ore c l o s e l y to
m odern l i f e .
S in c e th e
m eet th e p ro b a b le
c itiz e n i t
te a c h in g be
ev ery d ay s c ie n c e o f
in stru c tio n is
to
fu tu re needs o f th e p u p il a s an a d u lt
seem s r e a s o n a b l e t o
suppose t h a t th e g r e a t e s t
a r e f u n c t i o n a l v a l u e s and a r e
so f a r a s t h e y c o n t r i b u t e t o
in d iv id u a l in h is d a ily l i f e ,
I n v iew o f t h e
f o r th e
th e
a im o f s c i e n t i f i c
v a lu e s o f sc ie n c e t r a i n in g
re a l in
h i s e n v iro n m e n t.
th e w e lfa re o f th e
a p a r t fro m h i s v o c a tio n .
fa c t th a t th e re is
c o n s i d e r a b l e dem and
a d a p ta tio n o f s c ie n c e c o u rs e s to m eet p o p u la r n eed s,
and s in c e i t
is
to m a g a z in e s, p e r i o d i c a l s and new spapers
t h a t t h e A m e r i c a n p e o p l e t u r n w h en s e e k i n g b o t h i n f o r m a t i o n
and e n jo y m e n t, i t
w o u ld seem t h a t t h e r e i s n e e d f o r a
c lo s e r s c ru tin y o f th e sc ie n c e
c o n c e p ts t o
be fo u n d i n
m a g a z in e s i n o r d e r to d e te rm in e :
1.
p erso n to
W hat s c i e n t i f i c k n o w l e d g e i s n e c e s s a r y f o r a
b e a b l e to
read i n te llig e n tly
th e p o p u la r
m a g a zin e?
2.
W hat p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e m a g a z in e s i s
news c o n t a i n i n g r e f e r e n c e s t o
sc ie n c e ?
d e v o te d to
3*
W hat c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f s c i e n c e
i n p o p u la r m ag a zin es c o in c id e w ith
in
c o n c e p ts fo u n d
sc ie n c e s u b je c ts ta u g h t
seco n d ary sc h o o ls?
4*
W hat s c i e n c e
c o n c e p ts a re r e f e r r e d to m ost
f r e q u e n t l y i n m a g a z in e s and t h e r e f o r e
sh o u ld c o n s t i t u t e
th e b a s is f o r sc ie n c e s u b je c t- m a tte r ?
5#
W h at v a l u e s v&iich m i g h t b e o b t a i n e d f o r
sc ie n c e
c u r r i c u l u m b u i l d i n g b y t h e m a g a z in e a n a l y s i s m eth o d ?
I.
IMPORTAHCE OF THE PROBLEM
" I t i s t h r o u g h t h e m ediu m o f m a g a z i n e s , n e w s p a p e r s ,
p a m p h le ts, b u l l e t i n s ,
a n d b o o k s t h a t m o d e r n man c o n t i n u e s
m uch o f h i s e d u c a t i o n . " ^
T h is s ta te m e n t a p p a r e n tly h o ld s
t r u e a l s o f o r t h e y o u t h who i s
s till
a tte n d in g sc h o o l.
M any A m e r i c a n f a m i l i e s s u b s c r i b e t o o n e o r m o r e m a g a z i n e s .
I n a d d i t i o n , p u p i l s i n m ost h ig h s c h o o ls h av e a c c e s s t o t h e
m ag a zin e r a c k i n e i t h e r t h e s c h o o l l i b r a r y o r t h e p u b l i c
l i b r a r y , o r b o th .
To s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s ,
o f c o l l e c t i n g an d e x a m in in g t h e
m ag a zin es h a s s i g n i f i c a n c e
is
a m eans o f l e a r n i n g i n
(1)
th e re fo re ,
s c ie n tific
t h e p ro b lem
id e a s found in
b e c a u s e r e a d i n g f o r e n jo y m e n t
s c ie n c e as w e ll a s i n o th e r s u b je c ts ,
1
F r a n k W. T hom as a n d A l b e r t R. L a n g , P r i n c i p l e s o f
M o d e rn E d u c a t i o n ( B o s t o n : H o u g h t o n M i f f l i n C o m pany, 1 9 3 7 7 7
p . 163.
(2)
b e c a u se th e p r e s e n c e o f s c i e n c e r e f e r e n c e s i n m a g a z in e s
m a k e s th e m v a l u a b l e
m a te ria l,
a n d (3 )
a s c o l l a t e r a l o r su p p le m e n ta ry r e a d in g
b e c ia u s e t h e p r e s e n t s t a t u s o f t h e s c i e n c e
c o n te n t i n h ig h sc h o o l s c ie n c e c o u rs e s i s b e in g c r i t i c i z e d .
H e ad in g a s a m ean s o f l e a r n i n g ,
R e ad in g i s o f su c h
im p o rta n c e t h a t i s h a s b e e n s a i d » .
.
any s c h o o l 'f r o m 't h e k i n d e r g a r t e n to
th e u n iv e r s ity
can hope
th e m t o r e a d , * 2
R ead in g
to
do f o r i t s
s t u d e n t s i s to t e a c h
♦ th a t about a l l th a t
i s o f e d u c a t i o n a l i m p o r t a n c e b e c a u s e (1 )
success in
"ric h
c o n t e n t s u b j e c t , a n d (2 )
and v a r i e d
it
is
it
is
e s s e n t i a l to
e s s e n t i a l to
e x p e rie n c e th ro u g h r e a d in g ,
(b )
m o tiv e s f o r , and p erm an en t i n t e r e s t i n r e a d in g ;
a b le a t t i t u d e s ,
(a)
stro n g
(c)
d e sir­
e c o n o m ic a l a n d e f f e c t i v e h a b i t s and s k i l l s . " 5
S e v e r a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s and e x p e r im e n ts h av e b e e n
c a r r i e d o u t to d e te r m i n e t h e v a l u e o f r e a d i n g a s an a i d i n
th e te a c h in g o f s u b je c ts o th e r th a n
g a tio n in th e f i e l d o f s o c ia l
sc ie n c e .
I n an i n v e s t i ­
stu d ie s, M c A lis te r s ta te s
th a t:
R e a d in g i s e s s e n t i a l to th e e n r ic h m e n t o f e x p e r i ­
en ce b o th w i t h i n and w ith o u t t h e s c h o o l. W ith in th e
s c h o o l, r e a d in g i s a m eans o f m a s te r in g sc h o o l
2
C a r t e r V. G o o d , S u p p l e m e n t a i y R e a d i n g 4 s s ig m m e n t
( B a l t i m o r e : W a rw ic k a n d Yo r k , 1 § S ^ ) , p . 3 .
3
W illia m S . G ra y , T w e n ty - f o u r th Y earbook o f t h e
N a tio n a l S o c ie ty f o r th e S tu d y o f E d u c a tio n , P a r t l,~ I& 2 5 ,
pp. 3 -1 $ .
s u b j e c t s . W ith o u t t h e s c h o o l , i t i s t h e s o u r c e fro m
w h ic h s p r i n g s u n l i m i t e d o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e a d u l t to
e n r i c h h i s e x p e r ie n c e and t o p r o g r e s s i n h i s b u s i n e s s
o r o c c u p a tio n .4
T he s u c c e s s f u l o u tco m es o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t h e
f ie ld s of l it e r a t u r e
and th e s o c i a l
sc ie n c e s r e s u lte d in
s e v e r a l s t u d i e s l i k e w i s e b e i n g m ade i n t h e f i e l d o f
sc ie n c e .
The g e n e r a l c o n se n su s o f o p in io n p ro d u ce d by t h e i n v e s t i g a ­
t i o n s i s summed u p b y C u r t i s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t :
. . . t h a t e x t e n s i v e r e a d i n g f u n c t i o n s i n a d d in g
t o th e p u p i l * s a c h ie v e m e n t i n g e n e r a l s c ie n c e w h e th e r
t h i s r e a d in g b e done e n t i r e l y a p a r t fro m any c o u rs e
i n g e n e r a l s c ie n c e o r a s an i n t e g r a l o r s u p p le m e n ta ry
p a r t o f th e r e g u l a r c o u rse i n g e n e ra l s c i e n c e .5
P resen ce o f
s c ie n c e c o n c e p ts i n m a g a z in e s.
i s f a m i l i a r w ith th e f a c t
th a t s c ie n tific
E veryone
in fo rm a tio n i s
to
be fo u n d n o t o n ly i n t h e p u r e l y s c i e n t i f i c o r t e c h n i c a l
m a g a z in e s, b u t in o t h e r p e r i o d i c a l s
as w e ll.
T he f a c t t h a t
som e f e w i n v e s t i g a t i o n s h a v e b e e n c a r r i e d o u t p e r t a i n i n g t o
t h e s c ie n c e c o n te n t o f m a g a z in e s s h o u ld be s u f f i c i e n t p r o o f
of th e tru th of th is
s ta te m e n t.
4
J a n e M c A l l i s t e r , "A S t u d y o f E x t e n s i v e H e a d i n g
M e th o d i n t h e S o c i a l S t u d i e s , ” ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ’ s t h e s i s ,
U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a , L os A n g e le s, 1933) , p . 1 .
5
F r a n c i s D. C u r t i s , Some V a l u e s D e r i v e d f r o m E x t e n ­
s i v e R e a d i n g o f G e n e r a l S c i e n c e (n e w Y o r k : T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e ,
C o lu m b ia U n i v e r s i t y , 1924) , p . I l l .
The i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f
s c i e n c e r e f e r e n c e s i n new s­
p a p e r s m ig h t s e r v e a s a d d i t i o n a l p r o o f o f t h e p r e s e n c e o f
s c ie n c e c o n c e p ts i n m a g a z in e s.
For is
n e w sp a p e r a r t i c l e s o f s u f f i c i e n t w o rth
i t n ot tru e th a t
and im p o rta n c e a re
so m e tim e s i n v e s t i g a t e d and w r i t t e n up a s f e a t u r e
m any m a g a z i n e s .
a rtic le s in
T h a t b e i n g t h e c a s e , i t may b e s a f e l y
a s s u m e d t h a t some s c i e n c e n e w s w i l l p r o b a b l y b e o c c a s i o n a l l y
found i n t h e s p e c ia l
s e c tio n s o f even th e l e s s te c h n ic a l
p e rio d ic a ls.
P e rh a p s th e
f a c t t h a t a t l e a s t one i n v e s t i g a t i o n
h a s b e e n m ad e e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e p r e s e n c e o f
sc ie n c e id e a s in
s e l e c t e d f i c t i o n m ig h t a ls o b e o f s i g n i f i c a n c e .
S in c e
m a g a z in e s g e n e r a l l y r e p r i n t n o v e ls , w h e th e r f u l l - l e n g t h o r
s e r i a l , u n d o u b t e d l y m u ch s c i e n c e i n f o r m a t i o n c a n b e f o u n d
i n th e p e r u s a l o f s t o r i e s w h ic h a r e r e a d f o r r e c r e a t i o n and
f o r v ic a rio u s e x p e rie n c e s.
T h e f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n se e m s a p p r o p r i a t e h e r e ,
"O n e p u r p o s e i n t e a c h i n g
sc ie n c e i s
t o m ake i t p o s s i b l e
f o r p e o p le to u n d e r s ta n d t h e a l l u s i o n s to
re a d in g m a tte r ." 6
g e stio n f
10m
sc ie n c e m et in
A d d itio n a l e v id e n c e i s fo u n d in a sug­
a B ureau o f E d u c a tio n B u l l e t i n t h a t " t h e t e x t
6
i v e u s N e w la n d , "A S t u d y o f A l l u s i o n s t o s c i e n c e i n
M a g a z in e s ," s c i e n c e E d u c a tio n , 2 1 :1 2 6 -5 0 , O c to b e r, 1 9 3 7 .
■book s h o u l d b e u s e f u l
o th e r
a s a r e a d in g and r e f e r e n c e bo o k , and
so u rc e s f o r r e a d in g sh o u ld be e x te n s iv e ly u s e d ,
a s m ag azin e
a r t i c l e s w h ic h d e a l w ith
such
c u rre n t use of
s c ie n c e .^ 7
I n v iew o f th e p r e v i o u s ly m e n tio n e d f a c t s ,
f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s m ig h t b e d raw n :
(1 )
c e p t s a r e p r e s e n t i n m a g a z i n e s ; a n d (2 )
o f th e s e
th e
t h a t s c ie n c e con­
th a t th e p resen ce
s c ie n c e c o n c e p ts m akes m a g a z in e s v a l u a b l e a s
c o l l a t e r a l o r su p p le m e n ta ry r e a d in g m a t e r i a l i n th e t e a c h i n g
of sc ie n c e .
S t a tu s o f s c ie n c e c o n te n t i n h ig h sc h o o l s c ie n c e
co u rses*
" T h e e m p h a s i s o n s u b j e c t m a t t e r t h a t h a s f o r m any
y e a rs c h a ra c te riz e d sc ie n c e in s tr u c tio n ,
is
d o u b tle s s th e
o u tg ro w th o f th e o ld b e l i e f t h a t se c o n d a ry e d u c a tio n sh o u ld
0
be p r im a r ily p r e p a r a to r y ."
F u r t h e r p ro o f o f t h i s i s to
be found i n a s ta te m e n t
i n t h e T h i r t i e t h Y earb o o k :
I t i s th e te x tb o o k t h a t i n th o u sa n d s o f c la ss ro o m s
d e te rm in e s th e c o n te n t o f i n s t r u c t i o n a s w e ll as th e
te a c h in g p ro ce d u re.
T h i s s t a t e m e n t may n o t b e i n
a c c o r d w ith t h e u s u a l t h e o r y , b u t i t i s s u p p o r te d by
7
" R e o rg a n iz a tio n o f s c ie n c e i n S eco n d ary s c h o o ls ,"
U n i t e d S t a t e s B u l l e t i n Ho. 26 ( W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . : B u r e a u o f
E d u c a tio n , 1 9 2 0 ), p . S i.
8
M a t t R u s s e l l G r i f f e a t h , "An E x p e r i m e n t w i t h E x t e n ­
s iv e R ead in g i n G e n e ra l S c i e n c e ," ( u n p u b lis h e d M a s t e r 's
t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a , L os A n g e le s , 1934) ,
p. 2.
f a c t s r e p o r te d by s u p e r v is o r s and s t a t e i n s p e c t o r s
o f sc h o o ls .9
J o h n s o n v o i c e s t h e o p i n i o n o f m any e d u c a t o r s an d
t e a c h e r s w hen s h e d e c l a r e s t h a t t h e . g r o w i n g d em an d f r o m
f o r c e s b o th i n s i d e and o u t s i d e o f t h e s c h o o ls to d a y i s
th e te a c h in g of th o se
s c i e n c e s b e m ade t o
c o n f o n a m o re
c l o s e l y to t h e e v e ry d a y s c ie n c e o f m odern l i f e
it
th a t
in ste a d as
a p p e a r s i n i t s o r d e r l y f a s h i o n i n t h e t e x t b o o k . 10
The f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t w as d i s c o v e r e d i n a
secondary e d u c a tio n te x tb o o k :
. . . a c c o rd in g to th e f i n d i n g s o f one i n v e s t i g a t o r ,
a la r g e r p ro p o rtio n o f te a c h e rs of p h y sic s in se n io r
h ig h s c h o o ls co v er a l l th e te x tb o o k m a te r ia l i n t h e i r
c o u r s e s w i t h no c o l l a t e r a l r e a d i n g .
T hese o b s e rv a ­
t i o n s show ro o m f o r m uch i m p r o v e m e n t i n t h e b r e a d t h
o f o f f e r i n g s i n s c i e n c e s i n h i g h s c h o o l . 11
T h e s e a n d m any o t h e r c r i t i c i s m s n o t q u o t e d w o u ld seem
to
in d ic a te
is
n o t w hat i t
co u rses i s
t h a t th e p r e s e n t
sh o u ld b e .
c o n te n t o f t h e
A re v is io n o f th e
a p p a re n tly d e s ire d ,
sc ie n c e c o u rse s
c o n te n t o f th e
and S h a v e r e x p r e s s e s a b e l i e f
9
"T he T e x tb o o k i n A m erican E d u c a t i o n , " T h i r t i e t h
Y earbook o f t h e N a tio n a l S o c i e t y o f S tu d y o f E d u c a tio n .
p afF 'iT ; t s st t p T t :-----------------------------------------------------
10
F e r n J o h n s o n , " S c i e n c e News i n t h e L o s A n g e l e s
P ress:
A C u rric u lu m s tu d y ," (u n p u b lis h e d M a ste r* s t h e s i s ,
U n iv e rs ity o f S o u th e rn C a lif o r n ia , Los A n g e les, 1 9 2 6 ), p . 1.
11
F re d E n g e lh a rd t. a n d A lf r e d O v ern , s e c o n d a r y E du cat i o n P r i n c i p l e s a n d P r a c t i c e s (New Y o r k : D. A p p l e t o n C e n t u r y C o m pany, i § 5 7 ) , p . 4 0 2 .
8
t h a t , " t h e s c i e n t i f i c m a t e r i a l i n n e w sp a p e rs and m a g a z in e s
is of d e fin ite
v a lu e i n d e te rm in in g th e c o n te n t o f
seco n d ary sch o o l
P a rtrid g e
s c ie n c e ." * * -2
and H arap v o i c e t h a t
same t h o u g h t w h e n
th e y u rg e t h a t :
T here i s a need f o r f u r t h e r stu d y of th e o c c u rre n c e
o f s c i e n t i f i c t e r m s i n p u b l i c a t i o n s w i d e l y r e a d by
co n su m ers, such a s :
a group o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e
m a g a z in e s; . . .
The d a t a c a n b e u s e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g w a y s :
first,
a s a b a s i s o f a c o u rs e o f s c ie n c e f o r consum ers, ♦ . .
t h i r d , a s a c h e c k l i s t by a n y t e a c h e r o f s c i e n c e who
f e e ls he i s n e g le c tin g th e p r a c tic a l a s p e c ts of
sc ie n c e in h i s c o u rse; f o u r th , as a b a s is f o r b u ild in g
v o c a b u la ry t e s t s i n g e n e ra l sc ie n c e o r o th e r s u b je c ts
co v ered ; and f i f t h , a s an a id i n s e l e c ti n g p r a c t i c a l
a p p l i c a t i o n s o f s c i e n t i f i c f a c t s and p r i n c i p l e s . 13
II.
LIMITATIONS
In c o n d u c tin g t h i s i n v e s ti g a t i o n
c e rta in lim ita tio n s
w ere n e c e s s a r y .
1.
T h is s tu d y w as c o n fin e d s t r i c t l y
c e p ts found i n
m ag a zin es.
to
sc ie n c e con­
s t o r i e s and a r t i c l e s i n e le v e n s e le c te d
A d v e r tis e m e n ts w ere o m itte d b e c a u se o f a r e c e n t
th e s is in v e s tig a tio n in th is f ie ld .
12
O h a l m e r B. S h a v e r , "Some V a l u e s O b t a i n e d f o r
G e n e ra l S c ie n c e C u rric u lu m B u ild in g by t h e N ew spaper A n a ly s is
M e th o d ," ( u n p u b l is h e d M a s t e r ’ s t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f s o u t h e r n
C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s, 1 9 2 8 ), p . 21.
13
W. A« P a r t r i d g e a n d H e n r y H a r a p , " S c i e n c e f o r t h e
C o n s u m e r ," S c h o o l S c i e n c e a n d M a t h e m a t i c s . 3 3 : 2 6 8 , M a r c h , 1 9 3 3 .
2,
No a t t e m p t w a s m ad e t o
p la c e sc ie n c e o r sc ie n c e
c o n c e p ts i n t h e r e s p e c t i v e g ra d e s w ith in th e se co n d a ry
school *
3.
E v e r y e f f o r t w a s m ad e t o
safeg u ard th is
in v e s ti­
g a tio n a g a in s t p ro b a b le e r r o r s , b u t th e w r ite r r e a l i z e s
th a t
sc ie n c e
c o n c e p ts i n th e s e v e r a l m a g a z in e s
se le c te d f o r
t h e s t u d y may h a v e b e e n o v e r l o o k e d o r m i s c l a s s i f i e d
tim e to
fro m
tim e ,
4*
Due t o
m a g a z in e s t h i s
t h e m e c h a n ic a l m akeup o f t h e v a r i o u s
i n v e s t i g a t i o n was l i m i t e d i n r e c o r d i n g e x a c t
m e a su re m e n ts o f a r t i c l e s .
F o r e x a m p le ,
c e rta in
m a g a z in e s su c h a s L i f e , S a t u r d a y E v en in g P o s t ,
a re c o n sid e ra b ly d i f f e r e n t i n
page in th o s e m a g a z in e s.
w ere t a b u l a t e d i n t h i s
se c tio n s o f
and L ib e r ty
c o lu m n w i d t h t h a n t h e a v e r a g e
O n ly c o lu m n - 1 e n g t h m e a s u r e m e n t s
stu d y .
CHAPTER I I
RELATED INVESTIGATIONS
I t h a s h e e n m en tio n ed a lr e a d y t h a t
sev eral in v e s ti­
g a t i o n s h a v e h e e n m ad e c o n c e r n i n g t h e p r e s e n c e o f s c i e n c e
c o n c e p ts i n m a g a z in e s and n e w sp a p e rs .
M o st o f t h e s e
s t u d i e s , h o w ev er, w e re e i t h e r c o m p ila tio n s o f
te rm s o r w ere r e s t r i c t e d
c a s e was l i m i t e d to
to
some o n e b r a n c h o f s c i e n c e .
a c la s s ific a tio n of th e
i n m ag a zin e a d v e r t i s i n g .
s c ie n tific
One
sc ie n c e p re s e n t
Y et c e r t a i n r e l a ti o n s h i p s
e x is t
b e tw e e n t h e f o r m e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s and t h e p r e s e n t o n e ,
t h e r e f o r e a b r i e f re su m e o f e ac h seem s a d v i s a b l e .
E x te n siv e re a d in g i n
sc ie n c e ,
i n 1924, c u r t i s pub­
lis h e d
a book d e s c r ib in g a s e r i e s o f e x p e rim e n ts c a r r ie d
o u t to
d e t e r m i n e how m u c h , a n d w h a t k i n d o f , i n f o r m a t i o n
stu d e n ts o f g e n e ra l
s c ie n c e c o u ld g e t fro m t h e r e a d i n g o f
r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l , a s m easu red by t e s t s on s c i e n t i f i c
a ttitu d e s.
He e x p r e s s e d a d e s i r e t h a t :
A stu d y o f e x te n s iv e re a d in g m a t e r i a l s sh o u ld be
m ade i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e w h e r e i n b o o k s , p a m p h l e t s ,
m ag a zin es, e t c . , th e needed in fo rm a tio n n o t s u p p lie d
i n t h e c o u r s e s o f g e n e r a l s c i e n c e b u t dem anded a s a
f o u n d a t i o n f o r a n i n t e l l i g e n t r e a d i n g o f t h e p r e s s may
be fo u n d .
Some o r a l l o f t h i s e x t e n s i v e r e a d i n g
m a t e r i a l may t h e n b e m ade a s u p p l e m e n t a r y p a r t o f t h e
c o u rse i n g e n e ra l s c ie n c e , p r e f e r a b ly r e q u ir e d , but
a t l e a s t m ade a v a i l a b l e t o s u c h p u p i l s a s may c a r e
11
to
re a d it.^ Som e o f t h e c o n c l u s i o n s e v o l v i n g f r o m t h i s r e s e a r c h
w ere:
1*
S tu d ie s of th e s c ie n tif ic
and a d u lts and o f s c i e n t i f i c
in te r e s ts of p u p ils
k n o w le d g e p r e s u p p o s e d f o r an
i n t e l l i g e n t r e a d in g of n ew sp ap ers s h o u ld p ro v e o f v a lu e to
m ak ers o f t e x t s
2•
and t e s t s i n g e n e r a l
sc ie n c e .
W it h p r o p e r e n c o u r a g e m e n t a n d a c c e s s t o
su ita b le
b o o k s a n d p e r i o d i c a l s p u p i l s may r e a d a g r e a t a m o u n t o f
sc ie n tific lite ra tu re
3.
fo r re c re a tio n .
E x te n siv e re a d in g o f s c i e n t i f i c l i t e r a t u r e
t r i b u t e s to
th e
s c ie n tific
con­
a ttitu d e s of in d iv id u a ls b u t not
to th e
e x t e n t s e c u r e d by a s m a ll am ount o f c l a s s tim e d e v o te d
o
s p e c i f i c a l l y to th e te a c h in g o f s c i e n t i f i c a t t i t u d e s .
The r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n t h 6 C u r t i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n and
th e p r e s e n t stu d y l i e s
i n th e f a c t t h a t h e , t o o ,
b e lie v e d
t h a t t h e r e w as a need f o r t h e u s e o f m a t e r i a l o t h e r th a n t h a t
com m only f o u n d i n t h e t e x t b o o k s now u s e d i n s c i e n c e c o u r s e s .
I n 1 9 3 5 , B i c e m ade a s t u d y o f e x t e n s i v e r e a d i n g
v e r s u s i n t e n s i v e t e x t b o o k s t u d y a s a m eans o f a c q u i r i n g a
1
F r a n c i s D . C u r t i s , Some V a l u e s D e r i v e d f r o m E x t e n ­
s i v e R e a d i n g o f G e n e r a l S c i e n c e (Hew Y o r k : T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e ,
C o lu m b ia u n i v e r s i t y , 1 ^ 2 4 ) , p . ' 1 1 2 .
2
I b i d . , pp. 1 1 1 - 1 2 .
12
k n o w le d g e o f s c i e n t i f i c f a c t s .
H is p u rp o s e w as to d e t e r ­
m i n e (1 ) w h e t h e r p u p i l s w i l l a c q u i r e a g r e a t e r n u m b e r o f
sc ie n tific
fa c ts
from e x te n s i v e r e a d in g o f s c i e n t i f i c
i a l o r fro m i n t e n s i v e te x tb o o k
stu d y ;
(2 )
m a te r­
w hat ty p e s o f ite m s
w i l l b e r e a d b y t h e p u p i l s who r e a d s c i e n t i f i c m a g a z i n e s ;
(3)
th e r e l a ti v e
th e p u p ils ;
(4 )
a c c u m u la tio n o f f a c t s w ith th e m a tu rity o f
th e e f f e c t o f th e f i e l d o f s c ie n c e upon th e
m a tte r o f o b ta in in g f a c ts ;
(5 )
t y p e o f i n s t r u c t i o n ; a n d (6 )
th e r e la tiv e e f f e c t o f th e
th e e f f e c t of e x te n s iv e re a d in g
upon th e r e te n tio n o f f a c t s
S e v e n te e n h u n d re d e i g h t p u p i l s w ere u s e d f o r th e
c o n t r o l g r o u p , and t e s t s , b o t h
m ade, c o v e rin g
sta n d a rd iz e d
and t e a c h e r -
c o u r s e s o f s t u d y w e re g i v e n and t e s t s
th e m a te ria ls rea d and t e s t s
He f o u n d t h a t t h e
c o v e rin g
f o r r e t e n t i o n w ere a d m in is te r e d .
e x te n siv e re a d in g p u p ils re a d
a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 . 8 t i m e s a s m uch a s t h e i n t e n s i v e r e a d i n g
p u p ils .
G a i n s b e t w e e n t h e two g r o u p s w e r e h i g h l y
sig n ific a n t
and w ere i n f a v o r o f t h e e x te n s iv e r e a d in g g ro u p f o r a l l
su b je c ts in a l l
sc h o o ls
T he e x t e n s i v e g r o u p
(2)
(1 )
except in
c h e m istry i n one s c h o o l.
l e a r n e d m o re s u p p l e m e n t a r y i t e m s ,
e x c e lle d i n 5 9 .8 p e r c e n t o f t h e t e s t s ,
f a c t s th a n th e i n t e n s i v e s tu d y g ro u p , and
(3)
(4 )
r e t a i n e d m o re
th e boys
3
R. S . R i c e , " E x t e n s i v e R e a d i n g V e r s u s I n t e n s i v e
T e x t b o o k s t u d y a s a M e a n s o f A c q u i r i n g a K n o w le d g e o f s c i e n ­
t i f i c F a c ts ," (u n p u b lis h e d D o c to r’ s d i s s e r t a t i o n , P e n n sy lv a n ia
S ta te C o lle g e , 1 9 3 5 ).
13
e x c e e d e d t h e g i r l s i n t o t a l k n o w le d g e o f s c i e n t i f i c f a c t s .
I t was fo u n d t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f r e a d i n g w as d o n e i n t h e
f i e l d o f c h e m is try .
A llu s io n s to
s c ie n c e in th e p r e s s *
and C a ld w e ll p u b lis h e d a book e n t i t l e d
P u b lic P re ss"
ences to
In 1923, F in le y
"B io lo g y i n th e
i n w h ic h t h e y a n a l y z e d a n d c l a s s i f i e d
refer­
b io lo g y found i n s e v e r a l r e p r e s e n ta t iv e n ew sp ap ers
i n o r d e r to
f i n d o u t w h a t b i o l o g i c a l t r a i n i n g w as n e c e s s a r y
to be a b le to u n d e rs ta n d such r e f e r e n c e s a p p e a rin g i n
p e rio d ic a ls .4
h ig h
4 s a r e s u l t o f t h e i m p r e s s i o n c r e a t e d by t h e
sta n d a rd o f th e a r t i c l e s
sc ie n tific
and t h e r e l i a b i l i t y
of th e
c o n te n t, th e y c o n clu d e d t h a t new sp ap er a r t i c l e s
w ere n o t o n l y a n I m p o r ta n t m e a su re o f t h e t o p i c s i n b i o l o g y ,
b u t c o u ld be a v a lu a b le so u rc e o f c o n t e n t .
A l t h o u g h t h i s s t u d y w a s c o m p l e t e d some f i f t e e n y e a r s
ago an d w as l i m i t e d to
th e f i e l d
i n d i c a t e s t h a t a n e e d was f e l t ,
c o n te n t o f
sc ie n c e
of b io lo g y ,
still
it
even th e n , to l i b e r a l i z e
th e
c o u r s e s by f i n d i n g o u t w h a t k n o w le d g e w as
n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e o r d i n a r y i n d i v i d u a l to be a b le to u n d e r ­
sta n d th e
sc ie n c e
c o n c e p t s a p p e a r i n g i n common p e r i o d i c a l s .
4
C h a r l e s W. F i n l e y a n d O t i s W. C a l d w e l l , B i o l o g y i n
t h e P u b l i c P r e s s (New Y o r k : L i n c o l n s c h o o l o f T e a c h e r s
C o l l e g e , 1 9 8 3 ) . A l s o c i t e d b y A . H . S e a r l e a n d &. M. R u c h ,
"A S t u d y o f S c i e n c e A r t i c l e s i n M a g a z i n e s , " S c h o o l s c i e n c e
and M a th e m a tic s , 2 6 :3 8 9 , A p r i l , 1 9 2 6 .
14
I n 193 4, J a r v i s a tte m p te d to d e te rm in e w hat p ro p o r­
t i o n o f m a g a z in e a d v e r t i s i n g
space i s
in g c o n ta in in g r e f e r e n c e s to
s c i e n c e and w h a t s c i e n c e
e l e m e n t s com m only f o u n d
d e v o te d to a d v e r t i s ­
in m ag a zin e a d v e r t i s i n g
s tu d ie d i n o u r seco n d ary sc h o o ls,
a r e now
a s i n d i c a t e d by a s e a r c h
o f te x tb o o k s* 5
He f o u n d t h a t :
1.
C o n c e r n s s p e n d i n g t h e m o s t m on ey f o r t h e i r
a d v e r tis in g a re c o n s is te n t u s e r s o f sc ie n c e
e le m e n ts i n
th e ir a d v e rtis in g .
2.
T h e p u p i l who h a s s t u d i e d o n l y t h e m inim um o f
re q u ire d sc ie n c e
co u rses in
secondary s c h o o ls h a s an in a d e ­
q u a te b ackground f o r th e u n d e rs ta n d in g and a p p r e c i a tio n o f
th e sc ie n c e u sed i n a d v e r tis in g .
3.
The u s u a l s c i e n c e c o u r s e s r a n k e d i n o r d e r o f
t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n to w a rd t h e
s c ie n c e back g ro u n d n e c e s s a ry
f o r u n d e rsta n d in g a d v e r tis in g in g e n e r a l a r e :
g en eral
sc ie n c e ,
c h e m is try ,
b io lo g y ,
and p h y s i c s . 6
A f t e r m ak in g a n a n a l y s i s o f w h at s c i e n t i f i c
t i o n a p e r s o n n e e d e d t o kn o w i n o r d e r t o
in fo rm a ­
read in te llig e n tly
5
E l l i s A. J a r v i s , "A S t u d y o f t h e s c i e n c e U s e d i n
M a g az in e A d v e r t i s i n g a n d I t s R e l a t i o n t o t h e S c i e n c e T a u g h t
i n S eco n d ary S c h o o ls , n (u n p u b lish e d M a ste r t h e s i s , U n iv e r­
s i t y o f S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 4 ) , 223 p p .
6
I b i d . , p . 217.
15
t h e d a i l y n e w sp a p ers and a s e l e c te d l i s t o f m a g a z in e s ,
H o p k in s w ro te an a r t i c l e
e n t i t l e d *& S t u d y o f M a g a z i n e and
N ew spaper S c ie n c e A r t i c l e s w ith R e la ti o n t o C o u rse s i n
S c i e n c e s f o r H ig h S c h o o l . * 7
t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n was t o
H o p k in s * m a i n p u r p o s e i n m a k i n g
a tte m p t to
fo rm a c u r r ic u lu m i n
s c ie n c e sequence b a se d upon th e stu d y o f
found i n n e w sp a p ers and m a g a z in e s .
s e t up s ta n d a r d s to
su b je c t m a tte r,
a id in
and s t a t e d
se le c tio n
sc ie n c e a r t i c l e s
He a l s o
e n d eav o red to
and i n c o r p o r a ti o n o f
th a t:
A m a j o r a s s u m p t io n u p o n w h ic h t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n
r e s t s i s t h a t s u b je c t m a tte r sh o u ld e n a b le th e p u p il
to p e r f o r m b e t t e r t h o s e d e s i r a b l e a c t i v i t i e s i n w h ic h
t h e y a r e now e n g a g e d . 8
He c o n c l u d e d t h a t
i f c l o s e r c o n t a c t w e r e m ad e b e t w e e n
t h e s u b j e c t - m a t t e r ta u g h t and th e l i f e
e x p e rie n c e s o f p u p ils
i t w c u l d s e e m t h a t m any b o y s a n d g i r l s w o u l d b e a t t r a c t e d t o
th is
s u b je c t.^
T h is i n v e s t i g a t i o n t o o , m ore o r l e s s ,
w ith th e p r e s e n t s tu d y i n a im s, b u t d i f f e r s
co rresp o n d s
in th e f a c t th a t
o n l y t h o s e m a g a z in e s a n d n e w s p a p e r s w e r e s e l e c t e d w h ich w e re
7
L . T hom as H o p k i n s , *A S t u d y o f M a g a z i n e a n d News­
p a p e r S c ie n c e A r t i c l e s w ith R e l a t i o n t o C o u r s e s i|i S c ie n c e s
f o r H ig h S c h o o l , * S c h o o l S c i e n c e a n d M a t h e m a t i c s , 2 5 : 7 8 3 8 0 0 , N o v e m b e r, 1 9 2 5 .
8
I b i d ., p . 783.
9
I b i d . , p. 800.
16
r e a d by p u p i l s i n t h e
S e a rle
s c h o o ls i n D e n v e r, C o lo rad o *
a n d R uch c o l l a b o r a t e d a n d m ade a s t u d y b a s e d
o n m ag a zin e s c i e n c e a r t i c l e s
c o l l e c t e d fro m s t a n d a r d m aga­
z in e s o v e r a p e rio d of te n y e a r s T h e
a n a l y z e d an d s e g r e g a t e d i n t o
c la ss ifie d
a r t i c l e s w ere
s u b j e c t s and t h e n f u r t h e r
as to t o p ic a l g ro u p s w ith in s u b je c ts .
They s e t up t h e f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a f o r t h e
se le c tio n
of a rtic le s :
1.
D oes th e a r t i c l e
c o n trib u te
to th e b ack g ro u n d
needed f o r an i n t e l l i g e n t u n d e rs ta n d in g o f th e p r i n c i p l e s ,
d is c o v e r ie s , and in v e n tio n s o f sc ie n c e ?
2.
I s th e a r t i c l e
in
w ork o f p u p i l s i n r e g a r d to
to th e
s a tis f a c tio n o f th e
3.
sc ie n tific
dose
re la tio n s h ip to
s c ie n c e and w i l l
s c ie n tific
it
th e
c o n trib u te
i n t e r e s t s o f a d u lts?
W i l l t h e a r t i c l e m ak e a c o n t r i b u t i o n t o w a r d s a
a ttitu d e
on t h e p a r t o f t h e r e a d e r ? ^
T hey b a s e d t h e i r s t u d y o n m ag a zin e a r t i c l e s b e c a u s e
th e y b e lie v e d t h a t :
An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s c i e n t i f i c a r t i c l e s i n s u c h
s t a n d a r d m a g a z i n e s w o u ld i n d i c a t e w h a t s c i e n c e
a r t i c l e s th e f u t u r e c i t i z e n s sh o u ld be a b le to re a d
i f th e y a r e to k e e p w e ll in fo rm e d o f t h e p r o g r e s s o f
10
A. H. S e a r l e a n d 0 . M. R u c h , ”A S t u d y o f S c i e n c e
A r t i c l e s i n M a g a z in e s ,” S c h o o l s c i e n c e and M a th e m a tic s ,
2 6 :3 8 9 -9 6 , A p r i l , 1926.
11
I b i d . , p . 390.
17
s c i e n c e i n t h i s e r a . . . . I f we a r e t o a s c e r t a i n
w h a t k i n d s o f i n f o r m a t i o n w o u ld h e m o s t u s e f u l i t
s e e m s w i s e t o f i r s t e x a m in e some o f t h e k i n d s o f
i n f o r m a t i o n t h e p u b l i c i s now u s i n g .
The n e w s p a p e r s
a p p e a r t o b e m ore up to d a t e t h a n o u r h i g h s c h o o l
t e x t s o r o u r c o l l e g e t e x t s . ^2
S e a rle
1.
a n d R u ch c o n c l u d e d t h a t :
S in c e th e s e t o p ic s a re t r e a t e d
th a t c irc u la te
so w i d e l y , i t
in th e m a g a z in e s
seem s t h a t t h e s c h o o l s h o u ld
p r e p a r e t h e p u p i l s so t h a t t h e y w i l l b e a b l e t o i n t e r p r e t
t h e m a t e r i a l c o v e r e d by t h e a r t i c l e s ,
e s p e c ia lly th o se
to p ic s g iv e n th e l a r g e r p e rc e n ta g e s o f sp ace.
T hese f i n d ­
i n g s may b e t a k e n o n l y a s o n e i n d i c a t i o n o f w h a t t h e p u p i l s
sh o u ld
be a b le to i n t e r p r e t . 13
2.
One o f t h e h e a v i e s t o b l i g a t i o n s o n m o d e r n s c i e n c e
re q u ire s th a t i t
re s u lts
so t h a t
s h a ll o rg a n iz e
and p r e s e n t m any o f i t s
t h e s e r e s u l t s may b e u n d e r s t o o d a n d s e e n b y
in te llig e n t but n o n -s c ie n tific a lly tra in e d p erso n s.
S i n c e t h i s s t u d y w as b a s e d
some f i f t e e n t o t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s
on a r t i c l e s c o l l e c t e d
ago, i t
was t h o u g h t l i k e l y
t h a t m any new s c i e n c e c o n c e p t s w o u ld no w b e f o u n d i n m a g a ­
z i n e s w h ic h w e r e n o t p r e s e n t a t t h e t i m e t h e S e a r l e
a n d R u ch
i n v e s t i g a t i o n w a s m a d e , a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e r e w o u ld b e no
q u e s tio n o f th e p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n e n c ro a c h in g on t h e i r
12
I b i d ., p . 389.
13
Loc.
c it.
18
in v e s tig a tio n .
F e r n J o h n s o n m ad e a n a n a l y s i s o f t h e p r o m i n e n c e ,
c h a r a c te r , and c o n te n t o f
s c i e n c e n ew s i n
t i v e Los A n g e le s n e w sp a p e rs i n
o f th e
six re p re se n ta ­
an e f f o r t to
d e t e r m i n e w h ic h
s c i e n c e s a n d s c i e n c e e l e m e n t s r e c e i v e m o re e m p h a s i s
i n t h e s e c o n d a r y c u rric u lu m .^ * 4
She fo u n d t h a t t h e L o s A n g e le s p u b lic p r e s s re c o g n iz e d
s c i e n c e new s a s b e i n g w o rth y o f e x t e n s i v e t r e a t m e n t a s b o rn e
o u t b y th e f a c t t h a t 224 i s s u e s s e l e c t e d
found to
space.
c o n t a i n 176 news i t e m s ,
f o r s tu d y w ere
o r 1 ,7 0 8 c o lu m n -in c h e s o f
J o h n s o n s t a t e s t h a t n e w s p a p e r s a r e p r o m p t i n pub-*
lic iz in g
th e l a t e s t
sc ie n tific
d e v e lo p m e n ts and a p p e a r to
co v er th e f i e l d o f s c ie n c e q u ite
She c o n c lu d e d t h a t t h e
L os A n g e les p r e s s i s
a d e q u a te ly .
am ount o f s c i e n c e new s i n t h e
l a r g e enough to be u s e d a s a s o u rc e o f
i n f o r m a t i o n b y t h o s e who c o n s t r u c t t h e s e c o n d a r y c u r r i c u l u m .
F req u en cy o f sc ie n c e a ll u s io n s i n m a g a z in e s*
1 9 3 7 , N e w lan d r p o r t e d
th e r e s u l ts o f h is
In
a n a ly s is of th e
s c ie n c e te rm s fo u n d i n e le v e n m a g a z in e s o v e r a t e n - y e a r
14
F e r n P . J o h n s o n , " S c i e n c e News i n t h e L o s A n g e l e s
P ress:
A C u rric u lu m S tu d y ," (u n p u b lis h e d M a s te r ’ s t h e s i s ,
U n i v e r s i ty o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a , L os A n g e le s, 1 9 3 6 ),
113 p p .
15
I b id ., p . 103.
19
p e r io d , i n a d v e r tis in g a s w e ll as i n
s to rie s .^
re e o rd e d o n ly th o s e w ords a l l u d i n g d i r e c t l y to
a ls o ta b u la te d
t h e i r m e a n in g s a t t h e
jje
sc ie n c e and
sam e t i m e .
He d i s c o v e r e d t h a t :
I t i s a p p a r e n t , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e m e a n in g s o f
th e a ll u s i o n s a re a s s o c ia te d i n g e n e ra l w ith t h e
a p p l i c a t i o n o f s c i e n c e t o t h e i m p r o v e m e n t o f man* s
hom e e n v i r o n m e n t , r a t h e r t h a n t o a n y t e c h n i c a l d i s ­
c u ssio n in v o lv in g th e te rm . 1?
He c o n c l u d e d t h a t
h a ir,
s in c e such a l l u s i o n s a s t e e t h ,
v i t a m i n , g e r m s , a n d s k i n o c c u r so f r e q u e n t l y i n
a d v e rtis e m e n ts d e f i n i te p ro v is io n
in g t h e
tru th
o r f a l s i t y o f c l a i m s m ad e f o r t h e m .
A s im ila rity
in v e s tig a tio n
s h o u l d b e m ade f o r t e a c h ­
b e tw e e n h i s
s tu d y and th e p r e s e n t
i s e v i d e n t f r o m H e w la n d ’ s s t a t e m e n t t h a t
"O ne p u r p o s e i n t e a c h i n g
sc ie n c e i s
t o m ak e i t
p o ss ib le
f o r p e o p le to u n d e rs ta n d th e a l l u s i o n s to s c ie n c e m et i n
r e a d i n g m a t t e r . ” 3-8
D a v i s m ade a s t u d y o f t h e k n o w l e d g e o f p h y s i c a l
an d c h e m ic a l s c i e n c e s n eed ed f o r p e r s o n a l u s e .
he a tte m p te d to
s o lv e w ere:
The p ro b le m s
(1 ) w i t h w h a t m e c h a n i c a l
16
H v e u s N e w la n d , nA S t u d y o f A l l u s i o n s t o S c i e n c e
i n M a g a z in e s ,” S c ie n c e E d u c a tio n , 2 1 :1 2 6 -3 0 , O c to b e r,
1937.
17
I b i d ., p . 130.
18
I b id ., p. 126.
so
a p p lia n c e s ,
t h e o p e r a t i o n o r m a in te n a n c e o f w h ic h r e q u i r e s
some k n o w l e d g e o f c h e m i s t r y o r p h y s i c s , do t h e m a j o r i t y o f
s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s come i n
is
(5 )
d a ily c o n ta c t?
(2 ) W h at
t h e c o m b in e d s c i e n c e n e e d o f t h e h i g h s c h o o l g ro u p ?
C an p r e s e n t
and s t i l l
s c i e n c e c o u r s e s be r e v i s e d t o m e e t t h i s
serv e as a b a s is f o r c o lle g e
D a v is fo u n d t h a t a l l
need
e n t r a n c e ? 19
s tu d e n ts in h ig h s c h o o l,
i r r e s p e c t i v e o f g ra d e and o f r a c i a l b a ck g ro u n d w ere b ro u g h t
in to d a ily
c o n ta c t w ith a la r g e
num ber o f e l e c t r i c a l
d e v i c e s , w i t h m odern s a n i t a r y p lu m b in g , w i t h a v a r i e t y o f
g a rd e n and h o u se h o ld t o o l s ,
w ith a u to m o b ile s,
num ber o f m u s ic a l i n s t r u m e n t s .
and w ith a
H ence a l l h ig h s c h o o l
s t u d e n t s h a d an o b v io u s n e e d o f k n o w le d g e i n t h e f i e l d s o f
s c i e n c e , i n w h ic h s u c h t o o l s an d e q u ip m e n t o p e r a t e .
He c o n c l u d e d t h a t o b v i o u s l y t h e s c i e n c e n e e d s o f
t h e s e s t u d e n t s w ere e x te n s iv e an d w ere l a r g e l y
in th e fie ld
sc ie n c e .
o f p h y sic a l
to be fo und
s c ie n c e r a t h e r th a n o f c h e m ic a l
A lso , t h a t s tu d e n ts
sh o u ld r e c e i v e i n s t r u c t i o n
i n t h e n a tu r e and a p p l i c a t i o n o f e v e ry d a y a p p li a n c e s and
d e v i s e s u s e d a t hom e.
I n " S c i e n c e C o n c e p t s i n S e l e c t e d i?‘i c t i o n , "
T eauey
U l r e y H a w le y s u g g e s t s t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f u t i l i z i n g
19
G e o r g e W a r r e n D a v i s , " T h e K n o w le d g e o f p h y s i c a l
a n d C h e m ica l S c i e n c e s N eeded f o r p e r s o n a l U s e ," ( u n p u b l i s h e d
M a s te r ’ s t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f s o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a , Los
A n g e le s , 1 9 3 8 ) , 142 p p .
21
se le c te d f i c t io n
a s c o l l a t e r a l re a d in g
in
in te re s t
an a tte m p t to
S u m m ary .
fo llo w in g
in sc ie n c e
co u rses
s t u d e n t s i n s c i e n c e . 2^
F ro m a s u r v e y o f t h e s e i n v e s t i g a t i o n
th e
c o n c l u s i o n s w e re draw n:
1.
That d i s s a t is f a c ti o n e x is ts
t e n t o f h ig h se h o o l sc ie n c e
2*
b e lie v e d to
c o n c e rn in g th e con­
co u rses*
T h a t s c i e n c e i n m a g a z in e s and n e w s p a p e r s i s
be o f s u f f i c i e n t v a lu e to be c o n s id e re d i n th e
o rg a n iz in g o f th e s e ie n e e c u rric u lu m .
3.
That not one b u t s e v e ra l in v e s tig a tio n s
sh o u ld
b e m ade b e f o r e a n y r e v o l u t i o n i z i n g o f t h e c o n t e n t o f
sc ie n c e
co u rses be c a rrie d o u t.
C o n se q u e n tly , t h i s p r e s e n t
in h e lp in g
to re o rg a n iz e th e
s t u d y may b e o f som e v a l u e
sc ie n c e
c o u rse s i n h ig h
sc h o o l•
20
T e a u e y B l r e y H a w ley , " S c i e n c e C o n c e p ts i n S e l e c t e d
F i c t i o n an d T h e i r U se i n S e n i o r H ig h s c h o o l , " ( u n p u b l i s h e d
M a ste r’ s t h e s i s , U n iv e rs ity o f s o u th e rn C a lif o r n ia , lo s
t o g e l e s , 1928) , 138 p p .
CHAPTER III
METHOD OF PROCEDURE
I n m a k i n g a s t u d y o f t h i s t y p e i t w a s deem ed
n ecessary to
s e le c t a re p re se n ta tiv e
a v a i la b l e m ag a zin es.
(2)
T h i s w as b a s e d o n ( 1 )
freq u en cy o f is s u e ,
s t u d i e d , a n d (4 )
sa m p lin g o f t h e
(3)
c irc u la tio n ,
a v a i l a b i l i t y o f i s s u e s t o be
c la s s of re a d in g p u b lic .
S e le c tio n o f m a g a z in e s.
C o n s u l t i n g A y e r s G u id e t o
N e w s p a p e r s an d P e r i o d i c a l s , f o r 1 9 3 8 , ^ l e d t o
° **
th e
se le c tio n
C o l l i e r s . G ood H o u s e k e e p i n g . L i f e . L i b e r t y ,
a n d Womans Home C o m p a n io n i n v i e w o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s e
m a g a z in e s w ere l i s t e d
tio n ;
a s h a v in g th e g r e a t e s t p a id c i r c u l a ­
no a t t e m p t b e i n g m ade t o
m e n ts o f n e w sp a p e rs .
i n c l u d e th e m ag a zin e s u p p le ­
No c i r c u l a t i o n f i g u r e s w e r e a v a i l a b l e
f o r th e R eaders D ig e s t b ecau se i t
It,
it
c o n t a i n s no a d v e r t i s i n g .
ho w ev er, w as s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s s tu d y on th e b a s i s t h a t
is
v e ry w id e ly u se d i n
ev ery l i b r a r y ,
sc h o o ls,
i n a lm o st
an d su ch o f f i c e s a s d o c t o r s and d e n t i s t s .
S in c e th e s tu d y w as c o n fin e d t o
th o u g h t w ise to
i s a v a ila b le
s c ie n c e c o n c e p ts i t w as
c h o o s e tw o s c i e n t i f i c
m a g a z in e s, a lth o u g h
1
N. W. A y e r s , D i r e c t o r y o f N e w s p a p e r and P e r i o d i c a l s
(P h ila d e lp h ia :
N. W. A y e r s a n a S o n s , 1 9 3 8 ) .
23
t h e i r p a id
c i r c u l a t i o n d id n o t com pare w i t h t h a t o f t h e
o t h e r m a g a z in e s,
a s se e n i n T a b le I .
C la ss o f re a d in g p u b l i c .
An a t t e m p t w a s m ad e t o
s e l e c t m ag a zin es t h a t a p p e a l to a l l g ro u p s o r c l a s s e s o f
read ers.
T he R e a d e r s D i g e s t a n d T im e m a g a z i n e s w e r e
s e l e c t e d a s b e in g u s e d w id e ly i n
s c h o o l w ork.
O v er 2 0 ,0 0 0 t e a c h e r s i n 1 2 ,0 0 0 s c h o o l s w i l l u s e
t h e R e a d e rs D ig e s t t h i s y e a r i n c l a s s w ork.
N e a rly
5 0 0 ,0 0 0 s t u d e n t s w i l l s h a r e i n th e e d u c a t i o n a l
v a lu e o f i t s a r t i c l e s .
I t a ro u ses stu d e n ts in te r e s t
i n t h e p ro b le m s o f t h e day; a r t i c l e s a re th e b a s i s
f o r i n t e l l i g e n t d i s c u s s i o n , and a s a s o u rc e o f id e a s
f o r im a g in a tiv e d a ily l i v i n g . 8
Each o f t h e s e m a g a z in e s h a s a n o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n c e :
a s a c u r r e n t e v e n t m a g a zin e ,
T im e
and R e a d e rs D ig e s t b e ca u se o f
b e in g w id e ly re a d by p r o f e s s i o n a l p e o p le .
Two m o n t h l y
m a g a z i n e s , Womans Home C o m p a n io n a n d Good H o u s e k e e p i n g , w e r e
s e l e c t e d a s b e i n g w o m e n 's m a g a z i n e s .
Two w e e k l y m a g a z i n e s
s e l e c t e d , S a tu r d a y E v en in g P o s t and L i b e r t y , w ere p r e ­
s u m a b ly m o r e a p p e a l i n g t o m e n .
Two m a g a z i n e s com m only r e a d
f o r a m u s e m e n t b y b o t h s e x e s w e r e C o l l i e r s an d A m e r i c a n .
For
t h o s e w i t h a m o r e s e r i o u s i n c l i n a t i o n , tw o m a g a z i n e s o f
s c ie n c e i n f o r m a t i o n , p o p u l a r S c i e n c e and P o p u la r M e c h a n ic s ,
w ere in c lu d e d i n th e s tu d y .
One p i c t u r e m a g a z i n e , L i f e ,
2
E d i t o r i a l , R ead ers D ig e s t,
N ovem ber, 1 9 3 9 .
24
mELE I
M G & Z L N B SELECTED FOR STUDY
M a g a z in e
F req u en cy
of
issu e
C irc u la tio n *
NO. o f
issu e s
stu d ie d
f a e r i e an
M o n th ly
2 ,2 0 2 ,6 8 6
12
C o llie rs
W e e k ly
2 ,6 2 0 ,3 5 1
52
G oo d H o u s e k e e p i n g
M o n th ly
2 ,1 4 2 ,7 1 9
12
L ib e rty
W e e k ly
2 ,1 8 8 ,3 0 9
52
L ife
W e e k ly
1 ,0 0 5 ,8 9 5
52
p o p u l a r M e ch a n ics
M o n th ly
5 3 6 ,3 4 3
6
P o p u la r S c ie n c e
M o n th ly
4 5 9 ,3 0 0
6
R eaders D ig e st
M o n th ly
S a t . E v en in g p o s t
W e e k ly
2 ,0 2 6 ,1 2 9
52
T im e
W e e k ly
6 7 0 ,3 4 1
52
2 ,9 8 1 ,8 2 6
12
Womans Home C o m p a n io n M o n t h l y
12
* D a ta t a k e n fro m D i r e c t o r y o f N ew sp ap ers and
P e r i o d i c a l s » N. W. . A y e r and. S o n 1 s , “T 9 s S .
w as i n c lu d e d due to
th e r is in g p o p u la rity o f
F requency o f i s s u e .
such m a g a z in e s.
I n o r d e r to o f f s e t any se a s o n a l
e f f e c t on t h e c o n t e n t s o f t h e m a g a z i n e s o r a n y p o l i t i c a l
c o m p l i c a t i o n s ( w o r l d w id e )
it
was d e c id e d to
w h ic h m ig h t h e r e f l e e t e d
i n th e m
sa m p le a y e a r s p u b l i c a t i o n o f e a c h .
F iv e
w e ek ly m a g a z in e s an d s i x m o n th ly m a g a z in e s w e re s e l e c t e d .
S i n e e t h e m eth o d o f c o l l e c t i n g d a t a n e c e s s i t a t e d
c lip p in g o f
im p o ssib le
T hrough th e
s c i e n c e c o n c e p t s fr o m t h e i s s u e s i t w a s
to u s e l i b r a r y
c o p ie s o f th e s e m a g a z in e s.
c o o p e ra tio n o f th e p u p ils i n th e sch o o l th e
a u th o r w as a b le to
su p p le m e n t a p e r s o n a l s to c k o f m a g a z in e s
and s e c u r e a f u l l y e a ^ s
i n th e
th e
s u b s c r i p t i o n o f e v e ry m ag a zin e u s e d
s t u d y , w i t h tw o e x c e p t i o n s — P o p u l a r S c i e n c e
P o p u la r M e ch a n ics.
O n ly s i x
i s s u e s o f e a c h o f t h e s e m aga­
z in e s w as a v a i l a b l e f o r c l i p p i n g
C o lle c tio n o f d a ta .
and
a rtic le s.
Any m a g a z i n e a r t i c l e
r e f e r r e d t o o r d i r e c t l y im p lie d any o f th e
th a t
sc ie n c e s o r
s c i e n c e c o n c e p ts was c o n s i d e r e d o f s u f f i c i e n t im p o r ta n c e t o
be in c lu d e d i n
th is
A ll is s u e s o f
stu d y .
each m a g a z in e
ehosen f o r th e
in v e s ti­
g a ti o n w ere c a r e f u l l y r e a d f o r any s c ie n c e c o n c e p ts .
Each
c o n c e p t was t h e n c l i p p e d fro m t h e m a g a z in e , l a b e l l e d w ith
t h e nam e, d a t e ,
and p a g e o f p u b l i c a t i o n .
A ll th e
fro m e a c h i s s u e o f e a c h m a g a z in e w ere f i l e d
c o n c e p ts
to g e th e r, b u t
26
l a t e r w hen a l l
th e m a g a z in e s h ad b e e n c a r e f u l l y r e a d th e
c o n c e p ts w ere s o r t e d u n d e r t h e h e a d i n g s o f t h e v a r i o u s
sc ie n c e s.
A n u m b e r c o u n t , b y w h ic h t h e s p e c i f i c
b e r o f sc ie n c e
and t o t a l
num­
c o n c e p ts and s c i e n c e p i c t u r e s w as c o m p ile d ,
w a s f i r s t r e c o r d e d o n a w o r k s h e e t u n d e r t h e name o f t h e
m a g a z in e i n w h ich i t a p p e a r e d .
d u re,
F o llo w in g t h e above p r o c e ­
a c o lu m n -in c h m easu rem en t o f t h e s p a c e o c c u p ie d by
t h e c o n c e p ts and p i c t u r e s w as th e n t a k e n .
The l a t t e r p r o ­
c e s s was c a r r i e d o u t by m eans o f a n o r d i n a r y f o o t - r u l e ,
m e a s u r e m e n t b e i n g r e c o r d e d t o t h e n e a r e s t 'w h o l e - i n c h a n d
in c lu d in g sp ace o c c u p ie d by h e a d lin e s ,
e x p l a n a t i o n s b e lo w
p h o to g ra p h s , a s w e ll a s th e body o f th e a r t i c l e
b e in g m easu red .
o r p ic tu re
I n o r d e r to a v o id d u p lic a tio n o f m ea su re ­
m e n ts , s i n c e n um erous a r t i c l e s
c o n ta in e d
sc ie n c e
c o n c e p ts
f r o m s e v e r a l o f t h e s c i e n c e f i e l d s t h e m e a s u r e m e n t w as
re c o rd e d o n ly f o r th e p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d
t h a t w as s t r e s s e d i n
each a r t i c l e .
When a l l
t h e c o n c e p ts from e a c h p u b l i c a t i o n w ere
m e a su re d t h e i r l e n g t h s w ere t o t a l l e d
se p a ra te ly fo r each
m a g a z in e and t h e f i n d i n g s r e c o r d e d i n T a b le s I I
t o XXXI.
T he a v e ra g e num ber o f a r t i c l e s fo u n d p e r m a g a z in e was o b t a i n e d
by d i v i d i n g t h e t o t a l n u m b e r o f c o n c e p t s f o u n d i n e a c h
m a g a z in e by t h e num ber o f i s s u e s o f e a c h m a g a z in e r e a d ,
T a b le I I I ) .
(see
27
C l a s s i f ic a t i o n o f c o n c e p ts ,
A fte r th e
c o n c e p ts had
been c o u n te d and m e a su re d th e n e x t s te p w as to
th e
to
a rtic le s.
A te n ta tiv e c la s s ific a tio n
sc h e m e a c c o r d i n g
c e r t a i n b r a n c h e s o f s c i e n c e was a d o p t e d .
o rig in a lly
s e le c te d w ere b io lo g y ,
i n a s m uch a s t h e s e
c h e m is tr y , and p h y s i c s ,
I t w as so o n fo u n d t h a t
c l a s s i f i c a t i o n w as n o t i n c l u s i v e
a stro n o m y , g e o lo g y ,
h e a d in g s.
T hose b r a n c h e s
a r e t h e m o s t common s c i e n c e c o u r s e s
o ffe re d in th e seco n d ary sc h o o ls.
th is
c la ss ify
enough, th e r e f o r e ,
and m e te o ro lo g y w ere added as t o p i c
B io lo g y was f u r t h e r s u b d iv id e d i n t o
b o ta n y ,
z o o lo g y , and p h y s io lo g y .
A w o rk s h e e t w a s t h e n d e v i s e d f o r e a c h m a g a z i n e
w hereby each s c ie n c e r e f e r r e d t o
it
c o u ld b e t a b u l a t e d a s
o ccu rred .
A n a ly sis o f c o n c e p ts.
As p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d o n e o f
t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h i s s t u d y w as t o d i s c o v e r w h a t s c i e n c e
e l e m e n t s a r e com m only f o u n d i n m a g a z i n e s a n d ,
sh o u ld c o n s t i t u t e t h e b a s i s f o r
B e a rin g t h i s
th e re fo re ,
sc ie n c e s u b je c t- m a tte r .
i n m in d t h e m a t e r i a l w as a n a ly z e d a s s u c h ..
The s c i e n c e c o n c e p ts w ere c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d in g to
th e b ran ch o f sc ie n c e
d iv id e d in to
L a te r a l l
th e
th e y p e rta in e d t o ,
an d f u r t h e r sub­
s c ie n c e e le m e n ts i n t h a t p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d .
s i m i l a r e le m e n ts from each o f th e m a g a z in e s r e a d
w e re b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r and t a b u l a t e d .
In a d d itio n th e
28
c o n c e p ts w ere t a b u l a t e d
a cc o rd in g t o w h e th e r th e y had
m e re ly b e en m en tio n e d i n th e a r t i c l e ,
a c tu a lly
e x p la in e d .
stre s s e d h e a v ily , o r
( S e e T a b l e s 7 1 t o J X X I .)
done b e c a u s e i t was b e li e v e d
it
T h i s w as
wD uld h e l p i n d i c a t e w h a t
e le m e n ts s h o u ld r e c e i v e m ore e m p h a s is i n
seco n d ary sch o o l
sc ie n c e c o u rs e s .
M e th o d o f o r g a n i z a t i o n .
The d a t a d is c o v e r e d i n t h i s
i n v e s t i g a t i o n w as o r g a n iz e d i n t o
fo u r c h a p te rs,
p h y s ic s , b io lo g y , and o t h e r s c i e n c e s ,
c h e m is try ,
re s p e c tiv e ly .
A ll
o f t h e d a t a w as p r e s e n t e d i n t a b u l a r form t h e n f u r t h e r
d isc u sse d as to :
m a g a z in e s,
(2)
(1 )
am ount o f s c i e n c e
num ber o f a r t i c l e s
c o n c e p ts fo u n d i n
found i n
a s w a l l a s s p a c e o c c u p i e d b y e a c h ; a n d (3 )
n a tu re o f th e
c o n c e p ts .
The f i n a l
sum m ary o f t h e e n t i r e s t u d y a n d t h e
th e re fro m .
e ac h m a g a z in e
a n a l y s i s and
c h a p te r p re s e n ts a
c o n c l u s i o n s draw n
CHAPTER IV
PRESENTATION OF FINDING-S WITH REFERENCE TO PHYSICS
T h is c h a p te r m i l
in c lu d e v a rio u s t a b l e s , w ith
e x p l a n a t i o n s a n d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , w h ic h p r e s e n t t h e f i n d ­
in g s o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n to d e te rm in e th e
fo und i n p o p u la r m a g a z in e s w ith
sc ie n c e
c o n c e p ts
r e f e r e n c e to p h y s ic s a s
ta u g h t i n th e seco n d ary s c h o o ls .
I.
S c ie n c e
REVIEW OF PROBLEM
c o n c e p ts , a s fo u n d i n e l e v e n p o p u l a r m aga­
z i n e s , w ere c l a s s i f i e d
1.
p erso n to
i n o r d e r to d e te rm in e :
W hat s c i e n t i f i c
k n o w le d g e i s
be a b le to re a d i n t e l l i g e n t l y
n ecessary fo r a
th e p o p u la r
m ag a zin e?
2 . /W h a t p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e m a g a z i n e s i s
new s c o n t a i n i n g r e f e r e n c e s t o
5.
d e v o te d to
sc ie n c e ?
W h at c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f s c i e n c e c o n c e p t s f o u n d i n
p o p u la r m a g a z in e s c o in c id e w ith
sc ie n c e s u b je c ts ta u g h t in
se co n d a ry sc h o o ls?
4.
W hat s c i e n c e c o n c e p t s a r e r e f e r r e d to m o s t f r e ­
q u e n t l y i n m a g a z in e s and t h e r e f o r e s h o u ld c o n s t i t u t e t h e
b a sis f o r
5.
sc ie n c e
su b je c t-m a tte r?
W hat v a l u e s w h i c h m i g h t b e o b t a i n e d f o r s c i e n c e
c u rric u lu m b u ild in g
by t h e m a g a z in e a n a l y s i s m eth o d ?
30
Ifoimber o f a r t i c l e s .
e le v e n m a g a z in e s s e l e c te d
a r t i c l e s p e r t a i n i n g to
I n t h e 320 i s s u e s o f t h e
f o r th e
stu d y ,
a t o t a l o f 4072
s c i e n c e c o n c e p ts w as f o u n d .
seven h un d red f i f t y - n i n e o f th e s e
T h irty -
i t e m s w e r e s t r a i g h t new s
a r t i c l e s a n d s e v e n p e r c e n t , o r 313 a r t i c l e s w ere accom ­
p a n ie d by p h o to g ra p h s.
T he T im e m a g a z i n e r a n k e d f i r s t ,
879 a r t i c l e s
c o n ta in in g sc ie n c e
c o n c e p ts.
p i c t u r e s a c c o m p a n ie d t h e a r t i c l e s .
a rtic le s
z in e i s
p rin tin g a to ta l of
T w e n ty -o n e
The l a r g e num ber o f
and p i c t u r e s c o n t a i n e d i n t h i s p o p u l a r new s m aga­
s ig n ific a n t in
a s m uch a s i t i n d i c a t e s t h e m e a s u r e
o f i m p o r t a n c e t h i s m a g a z i n e p l a c e s u p o n new s o f a s c i e n t i f i c
c h a ra c te r.
The p o p u l a r s c i e n c e m a g a z in e ra n k e d s e c o n d , w i t h
631 s c i e n t i f i c
tu re s .
It
a rtic le s,
79 o f w h i c h w e r e a u g m e n t e d by p i c ­
i s to b e n o te d t h a t t h i s
s c i e n c e m a g a z in e w o u ld
p r o b a b l y h a v e r a n k e d h i g h e s t i n num ber o f s c i e n t i f i c
had a y e a r 's
of
s a m p lin g o f
a rtic le s
th e m ag a zin e b e en ta k e n i n s t e a d
s ix m o n th s•
S a tu r d a y E v en in g p o s t ra n k e d t h i r d w ith 503
a r tic le s p e rta in in g to
s c i e n c e , b u t was i l l u s t r a t e d w ith
o n l y tv© p i c t u r e s .
The C o l l i e r s ra n k e d f o u r t h w ith 486 s c i e n t i f i c
ite m s and n in e p i c t u r e s .
n ew s
31
P o p u la r M e ch a n ics m a g a z in e r a t e d
fifth
p la c e in
t h e p r in tin g o f s c i e n c e new s, o v e r a p e r i o d o f s i x m o n th s .
T h e n u m b e r o f p i c t u r e s f o u n d w i t h a r t i c l e s w a s 54*
o f 4 7 2 new s i t e m s c o n t a i n e d r e f e r e n c e s t o
& to ta l
sc ie n c e .
T he r e m a i n i n g s i x m a g a z i n e s r a n k e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g
d e sc e n d in g o r d e r , r e s p e c t i v e l y ,
fic
R e a d e rs D i g e s t , 438 s c i e n t i ­
a r t i c l e s a n d no p i c t u r e s ; L i f e , 3 8 8 a r t i c l e s
and 137
p i c t u r e s ; A m e ric a n , 146 a r t i c l e s an d t e n p i c t u r e s ; L i b e r t y ,
51 s c i e n t i f i c
a r t i c l e s a n d n o p i c t u r e s ; G ood H o u s e k e e p i n g ,
50 a r t i c l e s
a n d no p i c t u r e s ;
28 a r t i c l e s
and one p i c t u r e .
a n d Womans Home C o m p a n io n w i t h
($ e e T ab le I I . )
H e a d e r s D i g e s t and Tim e m a g a z i n e , s e l e c t e d a s
b e in g m ost w id e ly u se d i n s c h o o l w ork, ra n k e d f i r s t
six th ,
re s p e c tiv e ly ,
sc ie n tific
c o n c e p ts.
i n num ber o f a r t i c l e s
ra te d
sc ie n tific
se v e n th i n num ber o f s c i e n t i f i c
L en g th o f a r t i c l e s
n a tu ra lly
p ic tu re s.
It
a rtic le s.
c o n t a i n i n g r e f e r e n c e s to
T he l e n g t h o f t h e 4072 new s a r t i c l e s ,
to
c o n ta in in g
L i f e , a p i c t u r e m a g a z in e ,
c o n ta in e d t h e g r e a t e s t num ber o f
and
c o n ta in in g
sc ie n c e .
referen ces
s c i e n c e , g a t h e r e d f r o m t h e 32 0 i s s u e s o f t h e e l e v e n
p u b l i c a t i o n s s e l e c t e d f o r t h e s t u d y t o t a l l e d 4431 c o lu m n in c h e s.
A g a i n Tim e m a g a z i n e r a n k e d f i r s t p l a c e i n
s p a c e d e v o t e d to
am ount o f
s c i e n c e n e w s , a n a v e r a g e o f 19 c o l u m n - i n c h e s
TOTAL NUMBER OF SCIENCE CONCEPTS AND NUMBER OF COLUMN-INCHES
FOUND IN VARIOUS MAGAZINES
M a g a z in e
NUmber
of
issu e s
HUmber
of
a rtic le s
Humber o f
c o lu m n in ch e s
Number
of
p ic tu re s
Number o f
p ic tu re
in ch e s
jfcneri c a n
12
146
162
81
10
C o llie rs
52
486
579
69
9
Oood H o u s e k e e p i n g
12
50
34
0
0
L ib e rty -
52
51
48
0
0
L ife
52
588
356
1697
137
P o p u la r M e ch a n ics
6
472
407
199
54
P o p u la r S c ien c e
6
631
466
235
79
R eaders D ig e st
12
438
718
0
0
S a t u r d a y liv e n in g p o s t
52
503
62 8
9
2
T im e
52
879
1005
69
21
womans Home c o m p a n io n
12
28
28
10
28
520
4072
4431
2369
3 13
T o ta ls
33
p e r i s s u e , o r a t o t a l o f 10 0 5 c o l u m n - i n c h e s o v e r t h e p e r i o d
of a y ear.
H an k in g s e c o n d i n t h e am ount o f s c i e n c e new s p u b ­
l i s h e d th e R ead ers D ig e s t p r i n te d
th e y e a r 's p e rio d ,
718 c o l u m n - i n c h e s d u r i n g
in th is p u b lic a tio n th e
average le n g th
o f e a c h a r t i c l e w a s 62 c o l u m n - i n c h e s .
The S a tu r d a y
E v en in g P o s t p l a c e d t h i r d , , w i t h 628
e o lu m n -in e h e s o f s c i e n t i f i c
new s,
a v e ra g e le n g t h o f each a r t i c l e
of fifty -tw o
in t h i s p u b lic a tio n th e
w as 11 e o l u m n - i n e h e s f o r e a c h
issu e s.
T h e C o l l i e r s r a n k e d f o u r t h w i t h a n a v e r a g e o f 12
e o l u m n - i n e h e s p e r i s s u e , o r a t o t a l o f 57 9 c o l u m n - i n c h e s
f o r fifty -tw o
i s s u e s p e r t a i n i n g to
s c ie n tific
new s.
F i f t h p l a c e was g iv e n to p o p u l a r S c ie n c e w i t h a t o t a l
o f 466 e o lu m n -in e h e s f o r
six is s u e s .
78 e o l u m n - i n c h e s o f s c i e n t i f i c
T h is m a g a z in e a v e ra g e d
new s p e r i s s u e .
(S ee T a b le
III.)
The re m a in in g s i x m a g a z in e s s t u d i e d ra n k e d i n th e
fo llo w in g d e sc e n d in g o r d e r , r e s p e c t i v e l y , P o p u la r M e c h a n ic s,
407 e o lu m n - in e h e s ; L i f e , 356 c o lu m n - in c h e s ; A m e ric a n , 162
c o l u m n - i n c h e s ; L i b e r t y , 4 8 e o l u m n - i n e h e s ; G ood H o u s e k e e p i n g ,
34 c o lu m n - in c h e s ;
in c h e s.
a n d Womans Borne C o m p a n i o n , 2 8 c o lu m n -
(S ee T ab le I I ,
H ere a g a i n ,
s e le c te d f o r th e
p a g e 3 2 .)
t h e T im e m a g a z i n e a n d R e a d e r s D i g e s t ,
s tu d y a s b e in g t h e m ost w id e ly u se d i n
TABLE I I I
AVERAGE MOUNT OF SPACE DEVOTED TO SCIENCE CONCEPTS PER MAGAZINE
M ag az in e
B io lo g y
G e o lo g y
A s tro n o m y
C h e m istry
P h y sic s
M e teo ro lo g y T o ta l
C o l 1. F r e q . fc o l. F r e q . C o l . F r e q . C o l . F r e q . C o l . F r e q . C o l . F r e q . c o lu m n
in c h e s
i n c h es
in c h e s
in c h e s
in c h e s
in c h e s
in c h e s
J m e r i can
1
1
7
4
3
3
1
2
C o llie rs
1
1
4
4
5
3
1
1
G ood H o u s e ­
k e e p in g
1
2
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
2
4
3
2
L ib e rty
L ife
1
1
5
40
63
2
4
9
6
1
1
P o p u la r S c,
31
42
33
41
11
17
1
2
2
3
4
4
20
14
30
12
2
3
3
1
S a t . Even. P o s t 1
2
4
5
3
2
3
1
Time
2
3
6
9
8
4
Woman’ s Home
C om pan ion
1
1
1
1
56
71
67
49
146
12
2
14
119
14
3
14
T o ta ls
1
1
P o p u l a r Meeh .
H eaders D ig e s t
1
2
2
3
1
68
1
78
5
62
11
19
1
1
1
16
15
10
7
8
8
276
u
35
seco n d ary s c h o o ls ran k ed f i r s t and second p la c e s ,
ly ,
in
c o n ta in in g th e m ost s c i e n t i f i c
re s p e c tiv e ­
new s.
am ount o f sp ace d e v o te d to p i c t u r e s .
P ic tu re s,
a
v i t a l p r o c e s s i n v i s u a l e d u c a t i o n , o c c u p i e d a t o t a l o f £369
c o lu m n -in c h e s i n
stu d y .
t h e 320 i s s u e s o f m a g a z i n e s u s e d i n t h e
T h is w as e q u a l t o
o f s p a c e d e v o te d to
a p p r o x im a te ly o n e h a l f t h e am ount
th e a r t i c l e s p re s e n tin g
L i f e , a p i c t u r e m a g a z in e ,
g r e a t e s t num ber o f p i c t u r e
1697*
n a tu ra lly
s c ie n c e new s.
c o n ta in e d th e
c o lu m n - in c h e s , w h ich t o t a l l e d
P o p u la r S c ie n c e ran k ed
se c o n d w ith 235 p i c t u r e
c o l u m n - i n c h e s and P o p u l a r M e c h a n i c s r a n k e d t h i r d w i t h 1 9 9
p ic tu re
c o lu m n -in c h e s.
T h is i s
to b e e x p e e te d a s th e s e
tw o m a g a z i n e s a r e d e v o t e d e n t i r e l y t o
sc ie n c e .
S in c e p i c t u r e s and i l l u s t r a t i o n s g r e a t l y
v a lu e o f a p r in te d
a rtic le
enhance th e
i t m ig h t b e assum ed t h a t L i f e ,
P o p u l a r S c i e n c e and p o p u l a r M e c h a n ic s w o u ld be o f g r e a t e s t
v a lu e to
th e
stu d e n ts o f
R a n k in g o f f i e l d s
in
c la s s ify in g th e
sc ie n c e c la s s e s .
i n o r d e r o f sp a c e d e v o te d to e a c h ,
sc ie n c e
c o n c e p ts fo u n d i n p o p u la r
m a g a z in e s s e l e c t e d
f o r t h i s s t u d y , a c c o r d i n g to
s u b je c ts ta u g h t in
secondary
sc h o o ls,
ran k ed i n th e fo llo w in g o rd e r:
in c h e s;
(2 )
(1 )
th e d if f e r e n t b ran ch es
p h y s i c s , 1682 c o lu m n -
b i o l o g y , 1490 c o lu m n - in c h e s ;
c o lu m n -in c h e s;
(4)
sc ie n c e
(3)
c h e m i s t r y , 602
a s tro n o m y , 286 c o lu m n -in c h e s ;
(5 )
g e o io g y ,
36
253 c o lu m n - in c h e s ;
an d (6 )
m e te o ro lo g y , 118 c o lu m n -in c h e s.
(S e e T a b le IV .)
The a m o u n t.o f s p a c e d e v o te d to e a c h o f t h e s e s i x
b ran ch es o f sc ie n c e i n
fo r th is
stu d y i s
each o f th e e le v e n m a g a zin es s e le c te d
show n i n T a b l e V.
The g r e a t e s t am ount o f
space d e v o te d to p h y s ic s i n
a n y o n e m a g a z i n e w a s f o u n d i n T im e w i t h a t o t a l o f
o o lu m n -in eh e s.
d e v o te d to
any one
336
P o p u la r S c ie n c e c o n ta in e d 183 c o lu m n -in c h e s
c h e m is try .
sc ie n c e i n
The g r e a t e s t a m o u n t o f s p a c e g i v e n t o
a n y o n e m a g a z i n e w as 3 60 c o l u m n - i n c h e s t o
b io lo g y i n th e R ead ers D ig e s t.
i n c h e s p e r t a i n i n g to
a stro n o m y .
T im e c o n t a i n e d 1 1 7 c o lu m n One h u n d r e d f i f t y - e i g h t
c o lu m n i n c h e s i n t h e S a t u r d a y E v e n i n g p o s t r e f e r r e d t o
g e o lo g y .
in
M e te o ro lo g y was th e s u b j e c t r e f e r r e d t o t h e l e a s t
t h e m a g a z in e s s t u d i e d , a n d t h e g r e a t e s t n u m b er o f c o lu m n -
i n c h e s , 2 8 , w a s f o u n d i n T im e .
The re m a in d e r o f t h e c h a p t e r w i l l be d e v o te d t o a
p r e s e n ta tio n o f th e fin d in g s w ith r e fe re n c e to
II.
PHYSICS
S in c e num erous a r t i c l e s
c o n ta in e d s c ie n c e c o n c e p ts
fro m s e v e r a l o f t h e s c i e n c e f i e l d s ,
c a t i o n o f m e a su re m e n ts,
fo r th e p a rtic u la r f ie ld
p h y sic s.
i n o r d e r to a v o id d u p li­
th e m easu rem en t was r e c o r d e d o n ly
t h a t was s t r e s s e d i n
each a r t i c l e .
37
TABLE IV
RANSCING OF FIELDS IN OEDIR OF SPACE DEVOTED TO EACH
F i e ld
T o ta l
num ber o f
e o lu m n -in e h e s
F requency
of
m e n tio n
P h y si cs
1682
1982
B io lo g y
1490
905
C h e m istry
602
795
A s t r o nomy
286
243
G eo lo g y
253
104
M e te o ro lo g y
118
11 3
4431
4142
T o ta ls
TABLE V
SUMMARY OF SCIENCE CONCEPTS FOUND IN MAGAZINE ARTICLES INCLUDING THEIR FREQUENCIES
M ag az in e
G h e m istry
P h y sic s
C o l. F re q . C o l. F re q .
in c h e s
in c h e s
A s tr o n o m y
G e o lo g y
B io lo g y
M e teo ro lo g y
C o l.
F r e q . C o l. F r e q . C o l. F r e q . C o l. F r e q .
i n c h es
in c h e s
in ch es
in c h e s
A m eric an
15
16
83
48
37
40
C o llie rs
53
74
206
190
246
15 5
Good H o u s e ­
k e ep in g
11
21
6
14
15
14
7
10
27
22
12
13
L ife
24
47
125
1 96
160
108
14
15
P o p . M ech an icsi
84
85
234
316
16
22
57
183
250
196
244
68
103
R ead ers D ig e s t
43
46
236
173
360
S a t.
53
90
23 2
259
11 5
143
336
14
13
1
602
795
L ib e rty -
Pop. S c ie n c e
Iv e. Post
Time
Womans Home
C om panion
T o ta ls
23
8
9
8
10
38
4
13
26
16
2
1
1
2
2
19
10
14
12
32
6
9
10
8
6
14
11
16
.2
4
14 6
27
35
35
10
17
28
16 4
105
10
7
15 8
26
11
16
446
401
189
117
76
8
8
28
17
4
11
10
2
1
1682 19 1 2
1490
905
253
104
11 8
113
11
44
3
286
243
03
CD
39
T h erefo re,
in
p h y s i c s , t h e m o s t com m only t a u g h t s c i e n c e
se c o n d a ry s c h o o l s , w as found t o
d e v o te d to
it
in th e
su b je c t
have th e m ost sp a c e
e le v e n m a g a z in e s
s e le c te d fo r t h i s
stu d y *
T a b l e V I s h o w s t h e n u m b e r o f t i m e s p h y s i c s w a s m en­
t i o n e d , t h e num ber o f c o lu m n - in c h e s d e v o te d t o
th e t o p i c ,
f r e q u e n c y o f p i c t u r e s and t h e num ber o f p i c t u r e - i n c h e s p e r
m ag a zin e.
T he t o t a l n u m b e r o f c o l u m n - i n c h e s p e r t a i n i n g t o
p h y s i c s w a s 1 6 8 2 , f r e q u e n c y o f m e n t i o n w as 1 9 1 2 , f r e q u e n c y o f
p ic tu re s 104,
and t h e t o t a l
nu m b er o f p i c t u r e i n c h e s was 6 4 1 ,
Tim e l e d t h e l i s t i n t h i s
fie ld
o f s c ie n c e w ith a
f r e q u e n c y o f 446 and a t o t a l o f 336 c o lu m n - in c h e s .
a rtic le s
c o n ta in e d o n ly te n p i c t u r e s , o r a t o t a l
T hese
o f 33 p i c ­
t u r e c o lu m n -in c h e s.
T h e r e w a s a d i f f e r e n c e o f o n l y tw o c o l u m n - i n c h e s
b e tw e e n t h e n e x t t h r e e m a g a z in e s ,
R ead ers D ig e s t, P o p u la r
M e c h a n ic s and S a t u r d a y E v e n in g P o s t , t h e t o t a l
c o lu m n -in c h e s b e in g ,
236, 2 3 4 , and 2 3 2 , r e s p e c t i v e l y .
was a d i f f e r e n c e , h o w ev er,
num ber o f a r t i c l e s .
num ber o f
T h ere
i n t h e fre q u e n c y o f m en tio n o r
P o p u la r M e ch a n ics r a n k e d seco n d w ith a
fre q u e n c y o f 316, S a tu rd a y
E v en in g p o s t , t h i r d
w ith
a fre­
q u e n cy o f 259 an d R e a d e r s D i g e s t w ith a f r e q u e n c y o f 1 7 3 .
P o p u l a r M e c h a n i c s c o n t a i n e d 29 p i c t u r e s w i t h a t o t a l o f 96
p i c t u r e c o lu m n - in c h e s w h ic h w a s t h e se c o n d l a r g e s t num ber o f
th e e le v e n m a g a z in e s.
40
TABLE V I
NUMBER 0 ? SCIENCE CONCEPTS WITH REFERENCE TO PHYSICS
FOUND I N VARIOUS MAGAST NFS
M a g a z i ne
No. o f
c o lu m n
in ch e s
F req u en cy
of
m e n tio n
A m e ric an
83
48
C o llie rs
206
190
6
14
27
22
L ife
125
p o p u l a r M e ch a n ics
No. o f
p ic tu re
in c h e s
F req u en cy
of
p ic tu re s
4
1
196
428
41
234
316
96
29
p o p u la r S c ie n c e
196
244
76
22
R ead ers D ig e s t
23 6
173
S a t* E v en in g P o s t
232
25 9
4
1
Tim e
336
446
33
10
1
4
1682
1912
6 41
94
Good H o u s e k e e p i n g
L ib e rty
Womans Home
C o m p a n io n
T o ta ls
41
L ife ranked f i f t h
f i r s t w ith
41 p i c t u r e s *
i n f r e q u e n c y w i t h 196* b u t r a n k e d
a to ta l
o f 428 p i c t u r e c o lu g m -in c h e s*
P o p u la r S c ie n c e ranked s ix th
w ith 196 c o lu m n -in c h e s ,
a f r e q u e n c y o f 2 4 4 , w i t h 22 p i c t u r e s a n d 76 p i c t u r e
c o lu m n -
in c h e s.
T h e f i v e m a g a z i n e s * t o e r i c a n * C o l l i e r s , L i b e r t y , Good
H o u s e k e e p i n g , a n d womans Home C o m p a n i o n , l i s t e d
th e g r e a t e s t p a id
a s h a v in g
c irc u la tio n ,
sh ow ed a n a l m o s t n e g l i g i b l e
am ount o f s c i e n t i f i c m a t e r i a l ,
t h e l a t t e r tw o r a n k i n g o n l y
t e n t h and e le v e n th p la c e s w ith a fre q u e n c y of f o u r and f o u r ­
te e n ,
re s p e c tiv e ly .
p ic tu re ,
The f i v e m a g a z in e s c o n ta in e d o n l y one
and t h a t w as fo u n d i n t h e t o e r i c a n .
It
is
s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t th e f i v e m ag a zin e s h a v in g th e
g r e a t e s t p a id
s c ie n tific
c i r c u l a t i o n s h o u ld c o n t a i n t h e l e a s t am ount o f
new s.
Of t h i s g r o u p , t h e t o e r i c a n i s p e r h a p s
t h e o n ly m a g a z in e w h ic h i s fo u n d i n s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s .
P la c e m e n t o f c o n c e p ts fo und i n t h e f i e l d o f p h y s i c s .
As p r e v i o u s l y m e n tio n e d t h e s c i e n c e c o n c e p t s w e re c l a s s i f i e d
a c c o rd in g to
th e b ran ch of
f u r t h e r su b d iv id e d i n t o
sc ie n c e th ey p e rta in e d t o ,
th e s c ie n c e
and
e le m e n ts in t h a t
p a rtic u la r fie ld .
By r e f e r r i n g
t o T a b l e ¥ 1 1 i t may b e s e e n t h a t p h y s i c s
w as s u b d iv id e d i n t o
s i x m ain t o p i c s ,
c ity
(3) m a t t e r ,
(6 )
and m a g n e tism ,
sound.
(4 )
(1)
h e a t,
lig h t,
(2)
e le c tri­
(5 ) m e c h a n i c s , a n d
T h e s e s i x m a in d i v i s i o n s o f p h y s i c s a r e f u r t h e r
42
TABLE V I I
.
SUMMARY OF PHYSICS CONCEPTS FOUND I N MAGAZINE ARTICLES
INCLUDING THEIR FREQUENCIES
C o n c e p ts
M e n tio n e d
F req u en cy
S tre sse d
E x p la in e d
T o ta l
E l e c t r i c i t y and
m a g n e tism
303
10 1
7
411
H eat
223
60
6
289
L ig h t
321
122
13
456
M a tte r
224
98
4
326
M e c h a n ic s
213
113
5
331
55
37
1339
531
Sound
T o ta ls
92
35
1905
su b d iv id e d in to
ta b u la te d
t h e s c i e n c e c o n c e p ts fo u n d u n d e r e a c h , and
a c c o rd in g t o w h e th e r th e y h ad m e re ly b e e n m e n tio n e d
in th e a r t i c l e ,
1.
s tre s s e d h e a v ily , o r a c tu a lly
Of a t o t a l o f 4 5 6 t i m e s t h a t t h e t o p i c o f l i g h t
was fo u n d i n t h e m a g a z in e s s t u d i e d , i t
tim e s ,
e x p la in e d .
was m e n tio n e d 321
s t r e s s e d 122 t i m e s and e x p l a i n e d i n o n l y t h i r t e e n
a rtic le s.
T h is w o u ld t e n d t o i n d i c a t e
th a t lig h t is p er­
h a p s c o n s id e re d th e m ost im p o rta n t s u b je c t i n th e f i e l d
of
p h y sic s.
2.
E le c tric ity
and m a g n e tis m , f o u n d i n a t o t a l o f
41 1 a r t i c l e s , w a s m e n t i o n e d 3 0 3 t i m e s ,
s t r e s s e d 101 tim e s
an d e x p l a i n e d o n l y s e v e n t i m e s .
3.
Of a t o t a l o f 326 s c i e n c e a r t i c l e s w h ic h d i s ­
cussed m a tte r,
and f u l l y
4.
i t was m e n tio n e d 224 t i m e s ,
s t r e s s e d 98 t i m e s ,
e x p la in e d b y o n ly f o u r .
H e a t, an i m p o r t a n t e le m e n t o f p h y s i c s , w as fo u n d
i n 289 a r t i c l e s ,
2 2 3 o f w h i c h w e r e m e n t i o n e d , 60 s t r e s s e d ,
and s i x e x p l a i n e d .
5.
Of a t o t a l o f 3 3 1 a r t i c l e s
o f p h y s i c s , 213 w e re m e n tio n e d , 113
c o n ta in in g m e c h a n ic s
s tr e s s e d and o n ly f iv e
e x p la in e d .
6.
th e s e
S o u n d w as f o u n d to
six to p ic s .
s o u n d , 37 s t r e s s e d
r e c e i v e th e l e a s t em p h a sis o f
O f a t o t a l o f 92 a r t i c l e s , 5 5 m e n t i o n e d
it
e x p la n a tio n o f such.
and i n no a r t i c l e
w as t h e r e found a n
44
T hese t o p i c s w ere t a b u l a t e d a c c o r d in g to
th e y had m e re ly b een m e n tio n e d i n th e a r t i c l e ,
h e a v ily , o r a c tu a lly
e x p la in e d , because i t
w h e th er
stre sse d
was b e l i e v e d i t
w o u ld h e l p i n d i c a t e w h a t c o n c e p ts s h o u ld r e c e i v e m ore
em p h a sis i n s e c o n d a ry
sc h o o l sc ie n c e
fo u n d i n T a b le V II i n d i c a t e s t h a t
c o u rses.
i f th e
stu d e n t d id n o t
r e c e i v e a th o r o u g h m e a n in g o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r
p h y sic s in h is
have l i t t l e
sc ie n c e c la s s , th e
a rtic le
T he d a t a
concept in
w o u ld p e r h a p s
o r no m e a n in g .
L ig h t.
A l i s t o f th e l i g h t c o n c e p ts fou n d i n p h y s ic s ,
to g e th e r w ith t h e i r fre q u e n c ie s ,
are
show n i n T a b l e V I I I .
U n d e r t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f l i g h t w e r e f o u n d 23 d i f f e r e n t
c o n c e p ts w ith a t o t a l fre q u e n c y o f 456.
The te r m " p h o to ­
graphy” le d th e l i s t
38 o f w h i c h w e r e
w i t h 56 r e f e r e n c e s ,
m e n tio n e d , and 18 s t r e s s e d .
The t e r n
" i n s t r u m e n t s " was
r e f e r r e d t o t h e l e a s t num ber o f t i m e s , b e in g m e n tio n e d o n l y
fo u r tim e s.
The c o n c e p ts fo u n d t h e g r e a t e s t num ber o f tim e s and
lis te d
le n s,
i n o r d e r o f im p o r ta n c e w ere p h o to g r a p h y , r e f l e c t i o n ,
fo cu s, p e n e tr a b ility ,
le n g th .
p rism ,
w aves,
in te n sity ,
and w ave
T he c o n c e p t s r e c e i v i n g n e g l i g i b l e m e n t i o n w e r e
a b so rp tio n ,
in stru m e n ts.
d iffu sio n ,
c o lo rs ,
d iffra c tio n ,
and
45
TABLE V III
LIST OF PHYSICS CONCEPTS FOUND IN MAGAZINE ARTICLES
INCLUDING THEIR FREQUENCI I S — LIGHT
L ig h t
concept s
M e n tio n e d
L ig h t
A bsorbed
F requ en cy
S tre sse d
E x p la in e d
T o ta l
10
5
11
2
C o lo rs
1
5
D iffra c tio n
D iffu sio n
4
4
3
F ilte rs
5
3
F lu o re sc e n c e
8
4
12
fo cu s
25
7
52
In can d escen t
12
in s tru m e n ts
1
1
22
8
6
1
5
7
2
10
12
3
1
4
In te n s ity
13
10
23
Lens
31
7
L u m in o u s
10
2
P e n e tra b ility
31
P h o to g ra p h y
38
18
p o la riz e d
1
8
3
12
P rism
7
1
1
9
R e fle c tio n
40
11
R e fra c tio n
7
8
S p e c tru m
14
2
16
Speed
10
6
16
9
3
12
Wave l e n g t h
14
5
19
W av es
19
5
24
321
12$
U ltra v io le t ra y s
T o ta ls
3
41
12
31
56
51
1
13
16
456
46
Of t h e 4 5 6 a r t i c l e s f o u n d p e r t a i n i n g
is
to
lig h t
it
s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t o n ly 13 o f t h e s e c o n c e p ts w ere e x p la in e d .
F ro m t h i s i t may b e a s s u m e d t h a t t h e m e a n i n g s o f so m e o f
th e s e c o n c e p ts a re a p t to
th e stu d e n ts*
in te re s ts
H e o tric ity
a b s t r a c t o r re m o te from
and u n d e r s t a n d i n g s .
A l i s t of t h e l i g h t con­
and m a g n e tism .
c e p ts fou n d u n d e r t h e
m ag n e tism
be to o
su b h e a d in g s o f e l e c t r i c i t y
a r e found i n T a b le IX .
U nder t h i s
and
c la s s ific a tio n
w e re fo u n d 23 d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p ts w ith a t o t a l f r e q u e n c y o f
411.
The t e r n " r a d i o "
ra n k e d f i r s t w ith a t o t a l fre q u e n c y
o f 49.
T h is t e n a was m e n tio n e d 44 tim e s and s t r e s s e d
tim e s.
The c o n c e p ts fo u n d th e g r e a t e s t num ber o f tim e s i n
th e a r ti c l e s
ra d io ,
s tu d ie d , and l i s t e d i n o r d e r o f im p o rta n c e w ere
s h o r t w aves ( r a d i o ) , m a g n e tism ,
e le c tric c e ll,
e le c tro d e s .
in stru m e n ts, b a tte r ie s ,
E le v e n o f th e s e
r e s i s t a n c e , im p u lse s,
c irc u it,
fiv e
in d u c tio n ,
c u rre n t,
p h o to ­
lig h tn in g ,
and
c o n c e p ts— e le c tro m a g n e tism ,
com pass, u n i t s , p o t e n t i a l ,
io n iz a tio n ,
c o n d u c to rs,
grounded
and s h o r t c i r ­
c u i t — r e c e iv e d n e g l i g i b l e m e n tio n .
M a tte r.
M a tte r ran k ed t h i r d
i n im p o rta n c e u n d e r th e
s u b j e c t o f l i g h t w i t h 3 3 6 a r t i c l e s a s sh o w n i n T a b l e X,
page 48.
A t o t a l o f 18 d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p t s r a n g i n g fro m a
f r e q u e n c y o f 47 t o
s ix are
p re se n te d in t h i s ta b l e .
47
TABLE IX
LIST OF PHYSICS CONCEPTS FOUND IN MAGAZINE RETICLES
INCLUDING THEIR FREQUENCIES— ELECTRICITY
AM) MAGNETISM
%
C o n c e p ts
M e n tio n e d
F requ en cy
S tre sse d
E x p la in e d
T o ta l
10
16
7
17
16
10
2
12
3
2
5
C u rren t
24
7
31
E le c tro d e s
15
ELECTRICITY:
B a tte ry
C harge
C o n d u c to rs
15
G rounded c i r c u i t
6
1
7
Im p u lse s
6
3
6
In d u c tio n
3
3
6
In stru m e n ts
19
1
In s u la tio n
10
1
Io n iz a tio n
6
L ig h tn in g
7
8
15
c e l l 25
6
31
P h o to -e le c tric
P o te n tia l
R a d io
1
21
11
6
6
1
7
44
5
49
R e sista n c e
4
4
8
S h o rt c ir c u it
3
1
1
5
18
18
2
38
6
6
5
4
26
1
19
17
S h o r t w aves (ra d io )
S ta tic
e le c tric ity
T E l© v isio n
U n its
MAGNETISM:
C o m p ass
7
E l e c t r o m a g n e t ! sm
5
4
303
101
T o ta ls
12
.1
10
7
1
37
7
9
7
411
48
TABLE X
LIST OF PHYSICS CONCEPTS FOUND IN MAGAZINE ARTICLES
INCLUDING THEIR FR1QUENGIBS--MATTER
M a tte r
co nc e p t s
i
M e n tio n e d
F req u en cy
S tre sse d
E x p la in e d
T o ta l
22
3
25
5
13
18
11
1
12
B a ry tro n s
1
4
1
6
C o s m ic r a y s
6
5
1
12
12
3
1
16
4
2
A to m s
A tom " s m a s h i n g ”
A to m ic p a r t i c l e s
D e n sity
E la stic ity
E le c tro n s
11
6
11
22
3
4
E n erg y
31
16
47
E n erg y change
13
15
28
M o le c u le s
14
2
16
9
2
11
20
5
25
R a d io -a c tiv e
8
1
9
S u rface te n s io n
6
1
7
Vacuum
20
4
24
X -rays
28
6
34
T o ta ls
224
98
E le c t r o n m ic ro sc o p e
N e u tio ns
R a d ia tio n
1
4
8
326
49
F o r t y - s e v e n a r t i c l e s w ere fo u n d r e f e r r i n g
to
en erg y .
O f t h i s n u m b e r 31 w e r e m e n t i o n e d a n d 1 6 ' w e r e s t r e s s e d .
R a n k in g n e x t i n o r d e r of im p o r ta n c e w e re t h e c o n c e p t s ,
x -ray s,
en erg y c h an g e , r a d i a t i o n ,
e le c tio n s,
a to m s , v a c u u m , r a d i a t i o n ,
a t o m " s m a s h in g ,* * d e n s i t y , m o l e c u l e s ,
and n e t r o n s .
O n ly f i v e o f t h e 18 d i f f e r e n t
rin g to m a tte r— b a ry tr o n s ,
ra d io -a c tiv e ,
and
e la stic ity ,
c o sm ic r a y s ,
c o n c e p ts r e f e r ­
e le c t r o n m ic ro sc o p e ,
su rfa ce te n s io n — re c e iv e d n e g lig ib le
m en tio n .
H ere a g a i n , o n l y f o u r o f t h e a r t i c l e s w ere e x p la in e d ;
77 p e r c e n t , o r 2 2 4 a r t i c l e s w e r e m e n t i o n e d and 29 p e r c e n t ,
o r 98 a r t i c l e s w e re s t r e s s e d .
F ro m t h e s e f i g u r e s i t may b e
c o n c lu d e d t h a t t h e a u t h o r s o f t h e new s a r t i c l e s assum e t h a t
th e re a d e r i s
fo re,
a c q u a in te d w ith th e s c ie n c e o f p h y s ic s .
in o rd e r th a t
s t u d e n t s o f s c i e n c e may b e a b l e t o
d e v e lo p a f u l l e r u n d e rs ta n d in g o f t h e
u tiliz e d
T here­
in t h e i r stu d y o f s c ie n c e ,
sc ie n c e c o n c e p ts
it
is e s s e n tia l th a t
th e y a c q u i r e a d e q u a te m e a n in g s.
H e a t.
H e a t, one o f th e
c o n c e p t s w i t h w h ic h m o s t
s tu d e n ts are p e rh a p s th e m o st f a m i l i a r ,
in
th e
ranked o n ly f o u r th
i m p o r t a n c e w i t h a t o t a l o f 289 n ew s a r t i c l e s f o u n d i n
e le v e n m ag a zin es s t u d i e d .
T h is d i v i s i o n o f p h y s ic s con­
t a i n e d 16 d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p t s , w i t h h e a t
le a d in g th e l i s t
( a s a g e n e r a l te m a )
w ith a fre q u e n c y o f 107.
T h is te r m was
m en tion ed 87 t i m e s , s t r e s s e d 1 8 t im e s , and e x p la in e d o n ly
t w ic e .
N ext i n o r d e r o f im p o rta n c e , t h e
h i g h e s t w ere:
s ix te rm s ra n k in g
f r i c t i o n w ith a freq u e n cy o f 30; c o n tr a c tio n
and e x p a n s io n w ith a fre q u e n c y o f 2 7 ; m e a su rin g d e v ic e s w ith
a fre q u e n c y o f 22; u n i t s w ith a fre q u e n c y o f 20; h u m id ity
w ith a fre q u e n c y o f 1 7 ; and i n s u l a t i o n w ith a fre q u e n c y o f
te n .
O n l y s i x o f t h e 2 8 9 new s a r t i c l e s
e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e s u b j e c t nam ed,
M e c h a n ic s.
c o n ta in e d an
( s e e T a b le X I.)
The m e c h a n ic s o f p h y s i c s c o n t a i n e d 13
d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p ts w ith a t o t a l
"p ressu re"
a c tu a lly
freq u en cy of 331.
The te rm
le d th e l i s t w ith a freq u en cy o f 151.
T h is con­
c e p t w as m e n tio n e d 87 t i m e s a n d s t r e s s e d 64 t i m e s .
T h is
w as t h e g r e a t e s t num ber o f a r t i c l e s d e v o te d to an y o n e con­
cept under 6 ith 6 r o f th e
six
su b d iv isio n s o f p h y sic s.
H an k in g n e x t i n t h e o r d e r o f i m p o r ta n c e w e re t h e
c o n c e p ts :
m o tio n , g r a v i t a t i o n , v e l o c i t y ,
m e n t, c e n t r i f u g a l f o r c e ,
stra in ,
d isp la c e ­
e q u ilib r iu m , p o w er, and l e v e r s .
T h re e of t h e 13 c o n c e p ts r e c e i v e d o n l y n e g l i g i b l e m e n tio n ,
th e s e b e in g ,
t o r q u e , p e n d u lu m , a n d w heel a n d a x l e .
(S ee
T a b le X II.)
O f t h e t o t a l 331 n e w s a r t i c l e s f o u n d i n t h 6 e l e v e n
m a g a z i n e s s t u d i e d , p e r t a i n i n g to m e c h a n i c s o f p h y s i c s ,
p e r c e n t , o r 213 a r t i c l e s w e re m e n tio n e d ;
34 p e r
64
c e n t, o r
51
TABLE XI
LIST OF PHYSICS CONCEPTS FOUND IN MAGAZINE ARTICLES
INCLUDING THEIR FREQUENCIES--HEAT
H eat
c o n c e p ts
M e n tio n e d
F requency
S tre sse d
E x p la in e d
T o ta l
87
18
A b so rp tio n
4
1
5
A n n e a lin g
4
1
5
C o ld
2
4
6
C o n d u c tio n
3
2
5
23
4
27
H eat
C o n tr a c tio n and
e x p a n sio n
2
107
C o n v e c tio n
4
C y ro g e n ic s
2
3
F ric tio n
20
10
30
H u m id ity
15
2
17
7
3
10
17
3
R a d ia n t
3
2
5
Th ermo d y nam i c s
3
3
6
U n its
17
2
W aves
6
2
W e ld in g
6
In su la tio n
M e a su rin g d e v i c e s
T o ta ls
223
4
1
2
1
6
22
20
8
6
60
6
289
TABLE X II
LIST OF PHYSICS CONCEPTS FOUND IN MAGAZINE ARTICLES
INCLUDING- THEIR FREQUENCIES--MECHANICS
M e ch a n ica l
c o n c e p ts
M e n tio n e d
F requency
S tre sse d
E x p la in e d
T o ta l
C e n trifu g a l fo rc e
8
5
D isp la ce m e n t
4
9
E q u ilib riu m
6
6
12
G ra v ita tio n
24
2
26
L ev ers
4
6
M o ti o n
30
3
3
3
P e n d u lu m
Pow er
12
P ressu re
87
S tra in
10
T o rq u e
T e lo c ity
W h ee l a n d a x l e
T o ta ls
13
1
1
14
11
33
1
7
12
151
64
10
20
20
5
2
1
19
2
1
1
1
3
213
115
5
331
8
21
53
113 a r t i c l e s w ere s t r e s s e d ;
and o n ly f i v e a r t i c l e s w ere
e x p la in ed *
Sound,
so u n d , th e t h ir d o f th e b ran ch es o f p h y sic s
p r o b a b l y b e s t known by s t u d e n t s ,
fiv e
d iffe re n t
ra n k e d f i f t h w ith o n ly
c o n c e p ts and a t o t a l fre q u e n c y o f 9 £ .
The g e n e r a l t e r n
"sound” ranked h ig h e s t of th e
con­
c e p t s , w ith a fre q u e n c y o f 3 5 , b e in g m e n tio n e d s i x t e e n tim e s ,
and s t r e s s e d
n in e te e n tim e s.
w ith a freq u en cy o f 14;
A m p lific a tio n ran k ed second
reso n an ce
(a c c o u s tic s)
ran k ed t h i r d
w i t h a f r e q u e n c y o f 1 4 ; m ed iu m r a n k e d f o u r t h w i t h a f r e q u e n c y
of 11;
speed ra n k e d f i f t h
ranked s ix th w ith
w i t h a f r e q u e n c y o f .1 0 ; a n d w a v e s
a freq u en cy of n in e .
a r t i c l e s p e r t a i n i n g to
Of t h e t o t a l 9£ news
s o u n d , 60 p e r c e n t o r 55 o f t h e c o n ­
c e p t s w e r e m e n t i o n e d , 40 p e r c e n t o r 37 c o n c e p t s w e r e
s t r e s s e d a n d no c o n c e p t w a s e x p l a i n e d .
(S ee T a b le X I I I .)
S i n c e s u c h a s m a ll num ber o f t h e s e c o n c e p t s o r
a r t i c l e s w ere a c t u a l l y
e x p la in e d ,
p ro b a b ly be i n t e r e s t e d
i n o n l y t h o s e c o n c e p t s w i t h w h ich
th ey
s e c o n d a r y s t u d e n t s w o u ld
c o u ld e m o tio n a lly i d e n t i f y th e m s e lv e s ,
such a s r a d i o .
I n f o r m a tio n g iv e n i n p o p u la r m ag a z in e s c o n c e rn in g s c i e n t i f i c
d e v e lo p m e n ts w o u ld b e b e t t e r u n d e r s t o o d i f
tu r n to
th e
s t u d e n t c o u ld
c la ss ro o m o r te a c h e r f o r re fe re n c e o r f u r t h e r
d isc u ssio n .
54
TABLE X I I I
L IS T OF PHYSICS CONCEPTS FOUND IN MAGAZINE ARTICLES
INCLUDING THEIR FREQUENCIES— SOUND
Sound
c o n c e p ts
•______________ F r e q u e n c y
_______ M e n t i o n e d
S tre sse d
E x p la in e d
Sound
______
T o ta l
16
19
35
13
1
14
M edium
9
2
11
R esonance (a c c o u s tie s)
7
6
13
Speed
4
6
10
W aves
6
3
9
A m p lifie d
T o ta ls
55
37
92
55
S u m m a ry ♦
1*
In th e
m a g a z in e s s e l e c te d f o r t h e
p e r t a i n i n g to
sc ie n c e
320 i s s u e s o f t h e
stu d y ,
e le v e n
a t o t a l o f 4072 a r t i c l e s
c o n c e p ts w ere fo u n d .
T h irty -se v e n
h u n d red f i f t y - n i n e o f t h e s e ite m s w ere s t r a i g h t
news a r t i c l e s
a n d s e v e n p e r e e n t , o r 313 a r t i c l e s w e r e a c c o m p a n i e d b y
p h o to g ra p h s.
2.
T h e R e a d e r s D i g e s t a n d Tim e m a g a z i n e ,
se le c te d
a s b e in g m ost w id e ly u s e d i n s c h o o l w o rk , r a n k e d f i r s t an d
six th ,
re s p e c tiv e ly ,
sc ie n tific
i n num ber o f a r t i c l e s c o n ta in i n g
c o n c e p ts .
L i f e , a p i c t u r e m a g a z in e ,
c o n ta in e d th e g r e a t e s t num ber o f s c i e n t i f i c
ra n k e d s e v e n th i n num ber o f
3.
sc ie n tific
n a tu ra lly
p ic tu re s.
a rtic le s.
The l e n g t h o f t h e 4072 news a r t i c l e s ,
r e f e r e n c e s to
It
c o n ta in in g
s c i e n c e , g a t h e r e d f r o m t h e 320 i s s u e s o f t h e
e le v e n p u b lic a tio n s
se le c te d f o r th e
s tu d y t o t a l l e d 4431
co l u m n - i nc h e s .
4.
Tim e m a g a z i n e , r a n k e d f i r s t p l a c e i n a m o u n t o f
s p a c e d e v o t e d to
p e r m ag a zin e,
s c i e n c e n e w s , a n a v e r a g e o f 19 c o lu m n - in c h e s
o r a t o t a l o f 1005 c o lu m n -in c h e s o v e r t h e
p e rio d o f a y e a r.
5.
P ic tu re s,
o c c u p ie d a t o t a l
a v ita l p ro cess in v isu a l
o f 2369 c o lu m n - in c h e s i n t h e 320 i s s u e s o f
m a g a zin es u se d i n th e
stu d y .
T h is w as e q u a l to
l y h a l f t h e a m o u n t o f s p a c e d e v o t e d t<a> t h e
in g s c i e n c e new s.
e d u c a tio n ,
a p p ro x im a te ­
a rtic le s
p re se n t­
56
6.
L ife ,
a p i c t u r e m ag a zin e, n a t u r a l l y
c o n ta in e d th e
g r e a t e s t num ber o f p i c t u r e c o lu m n - in c h e s w h ic h t o t a l l e d
1697.
7.
In c la s s if y i n g th e
s c ie n e e c o n c e p ts found in
p o p u la r m ag a zin es s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s
sc ie n c e s u b je c ts ta u g h t in
s tu d y , a c c o rd in g to
secon dary s c h o o ls ,
b ran c h es ran k ed i n th e fo llo w in g o r d e r :
c o lu m n -in c h e s;
try ,
(5 )
(2)
(1 )
th e
p h y s i c s , 1682
b i o l o g y , 1490 c o lu m n -in c h e s ;
602 c o l u m n - i n c h e s ;
(4 )
d iffe re n t
(3 )
c h e m is­
a s tro n o m y , 286 c o lu m n - in c h e s ;
g e o l o g y , 2 5 3 c o l u m n - i n c h e s ; a n d ( 6 ) m e t e o r o l o g y , 11 8
c o lu m n - i n c h e s .
8.
T im e l e d t h e
lis t
in th e f i e l d o f p h y sic s w ith a
f r e q u e n c y o f 446 and a t o t a l o f 336 c o lu m n - in c h e s .
a rtic le s
p ic tu re
c o n ta in e d o n ly te n p i c t u r e s ,
These
o r a t o t a l o f 33
c o lu m n -in c h e s.
9.
The f i v e m a g a z in e s ,
A m e ric a n , C o l l i e r s , L i b e r t y ,
G oo d H o u s e k e e p i n g , a n d Womans Home G o m p a n io n , l i s t e d
h a v in g th e g r e a t e s t p a id c i r c u l a t i o n ,
as
sh o w ed a n a l m o s t
n e g l i g i b l e am ount o f s c i e n t i f i c m a t e r i a l , t h e
la tte r
tw c
ra n k in g o n ly t e n t h and e le v e n th p la c e s w ith a fre q u e n c y o f
f o u r and f o u r t e e n ,
re s p e c tiv e ly .
t a i n e d o n ly one p i c t u r e ,
10.
(1 )
lig h t,
The f i v e m a g a z in e s c o n ­
and t h a t fo u n d i n t h e A m e ric a n .
P h y s ic s w as s u b d iv id e d in to
(2)
e le c tric ity
s i x m ain t o p i c s ,
a n d m a g n e t i s m , (3 ) m a t t e r ,
57
(4)
h e a t,
( 5 ) m e c h a n i c s , a n d (6 )
11.
U nder th e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f
23 d i f f e r e n t
te im
sound.
lig h t,
w ere fo u n d
c o n c e p ts w ith a t o t a l fre q u e n c y of 45 6 .
"p h o to g ra p h y ” le d t h e l i s t w ith
56 r e f e r e n c e s ,
T he
38 o f
w h ic h w e re m e n tio n e d , a n d 1 8 s t r e s s e d .
12.
T w e n ty -th re e d i f f e r e n t
c o n c e p ts w ith a t o t a l
f r e q u e n c y o f 411 w e re fo u n d u n d e r t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f
e l e c t r i c i t y a n d m a g n e tism .
13.
M a tte r ran k ed t h i r d
in im p o rta n c e u n d e r t h e
s u b j e c t o f p h y s i c s w i t h 336 a r t i c l e s a n d a t o t a l o f 1 8
d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p t s r a n g i n g f r o m a f r e q u e n c y o f 47 t o
14.
H e a t, one o f th e
c o n c e p ts w ith w h ic h m o s t
s tu d e n ts a re t h e m ost f a m i l i a r ,
c o n c e p ts , w ith h e a t
c o n t a i n e d 16 d i f f e r e n t
( a s a g e n e r a l term )
w ith a fre q u e n c y o f 107.
le a d in g th e l i s t
T h i s t e r m w as m e n t i o n e d 8 7 t i m e s ,
s t r e s s e d 18 tim e s , and e x p la in e d o n ly tw ic e .
t h e 289 n e w s a r t i c l e s
six .
a c tu a lly
O n ly s i x o f
c o n ta in e d an e x p la n a tio n o f
t h e s u b j e c t nam ed.
15.
The m e c h a n ic s o f p h y s i c s c o n t a i n e d 1 3 d i f f e r e n t
c o n c e p ts w ith
a t o t a l freq u en cy o f 331.
le d th e l i s t w ith a fre q u e n c y o f 1 5 1 .
t io n e d 87 tim e s and s t r e s s e d
16.
Of th e t o t a l
Th6 t e n a
"p ressu re"
T h i s c o n c e p t w a s m en­
64 tim e s .
331 n e w s a r t i c l e s f o u n d i n
th e
e le v e n m a g a z in e s s t u d i e d , p e r t a i n i n g t o m e c h a n ic s o f p h y s i c s ,
58
6 4 p e r c e n t , o r 2 1 3 a r t i c l e s w e r e m e n t i o n e d ; 34 p e r c e n t ,
113 a r t i c l e s w ere s t r e s s e d ;
and o n ly f iv e
or
a r t i c l e s w ere
e x p la in e d .
17.
Sound ran k ed f i f t h w ith o n ly f iv e d i f f e r e n t
c o n c e p ts and a t o t a l
freq u en cy o f 92.
a r t i c l e s p e r t a in i n g to
Of t h e t o t a l 92 n e w s
s o u n d , 60 p e r c e n t o r 5 5 o f t h e
c e p t s w e r e m e n t i o n e d , 40 p e r c e n t o r 37 c o n c e p t s w e r e
s t r e s s e d a n d no c o n c e p t w as e x p l a i n e d .
con­
CHAPTER V
BIOLOGY CONCEPTS FOUND IN MAGAZINES
The e n s u in g p a g e s i n d i c a t e t h e
p e rta in in g
to
sc ie n c e c o n c e p ts
b io lo g y fo u n d i n t h e e le v e n m a g a z in e s s e l e c t e d
f o r th e stu d y *
Num ber o f a r t i c l e s .
I n t h e 320 i s s u e s o f t h e
m a g a z in e s s e l e c te d f o r th e s tu d y , a t o t a l
p e rta in in g to
o f th e se
b io lo g y w ere fo u n d .
e le v e n
o f 905 a r t i c l e s
One h u n d r e d t w e n t y - s e v e n
a r t i c l e s c o n ta in e d p ic tu r e s .
T h is w as t h e l a r g e s t
n u m b e r o f p i c t u r e s f o u n d f o r a n y o n e b r a n c h o f s c i e n c e m en­
tio n e d i n
t h i s stu d y .
T im e m a g a z i n e r a n k e d f i r s t ,
a r t i c l e s r e f e r r i n g to
b io lo g y .
p r i n t i n g a t o t a l o f 189
S u rp risin g ly , C o llie r s , a
m a g a z i n e m o s t com m only r e a d f o r a m u s e m e n t p u r p o s e s ,
seco n d w ith 155 s c i e n t i f i c
a rtic le s.
ran k ed
H ead ers D i g e s t , a
m a g a z i n e m o s t c o m m o n ly r e a d b y p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n s , r a n k e d
th ir d w ith a t o t a l o f 146 a r t i c l e s p e rta in in g to b io lo g y .
L ife ,
S a tu r d a y E v en in g p o s t , a n d p o p u l a r s c i e n c e ra n k e d
fo u rth ,
fifth ,
a rtic le s,
an d s i x t h p la c e s w ith 1 0 8 , 105,
and 103
re s p e c tiv e ly .
The r e m a i n i n g f i v e m a g a z i n e s , A m e r i c a n , P o p u l a r
M e c h a n i c s , Good h o u s e k e e p i n g , L i b e r t y ,
C o m p a n io n c o n t a i n e d l e s s
th a n f o r ty
a n d Womans Home
a rtic le s
a s com pared to
60
t h e h i g h o f 1 8 9 a r t i c l e s , f o u n d i n T im e .
L i f e , a p i c t u r e m a g a z i n e , c o n t a i n e d 61 p i c t u r e s o f
b io lo g ic a l in te r e s t;
s c ie n c e m ag a zin e,
and p o p u l a r S c i e n c e , an i l l u s t r a t e d
c o n ta in e d 44 p i c t u r e s .
S i x o t h e r m aga­
z in e s c o n ta in e d a n e g l i g i b l e num ber o f p i c t u r e s ,
th e
g r e a t e s t n u m b e r b e i n g n i n e , w h i c h w a s f o u n d i n t h e T im e
m ag a zin e*
( S e e T a b l e X IV .)
L e n g th o f a r t i d e s .
The l e n g t h o f t h e
a r t i c l e s g a t h e r e d fro m t h e 320 i s s u e s o f t h e
905 news
e le v e n p u b l i ­
c a t i o n s s e l e c t e d f o r s tu d y t o t a l l e d 1490 c o lu m n -in c h e s .
F o u r h u n d red o n e c o lu m n -in c h e s w ere u t i l i z e d
m ag a zin e i n p r i n t i n g
s c i e n c e new s r e l a t i n g
R e ad e rs D ig e st ran k ed seco n d w ith a t o t a l
in c h e s.
C o ilie r s ran k ed t h i r d
to
b y T im e
b io lo g y .
o f 360 c o lu m n -
b o th i n c o lu m n -in c h e s
(24 6 )
p ic tu re -in c h e s (4 6 ).
S a t u r d a y E v en in g p o s t ra n k e d f o u r t h i n num ber o f
c o lu m n -in c h e s, b u t c o n ta in e d o n ly f i v e p i c t u r e - i n c h e s ,
t h e l e a s t num ber o f p i c t u r e s .
160 c o lu m n - in c h e s ,
tu re -in c h e s,
L ife ranked f i f t h
or
p la c e w ith
b u t c o n t a i n e d 61 p i c t u r e s , o r 9 0 2 p i c ­
t h e l a r g e s t num ber fo u n d i n a n y one m a g a z in e .
P o p u l a r s c i e n c e c o n t a i n e d 68 c o lu m n - in c h e s ,
l a r g e s t num ber o f p i c t u r e s t o t a l l i n g
and t h e
second
116 p i c t u r e - i n c h e s .
The f i v e r e m a in in g m a g a z in e s r a n k e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g
d e s c e n d i n g o r d e r ; I m e r i c a n w i t h 37 c o l u m n - i n c h e s ; P o p u l a r
and
61
TABLE XIV
NUMBER OF BIOLOGY CONCEPTS FOUND I N VARIOUS MAGAZINES
M agazi ne
N o. o f
c o lu m n
in c h e s
F requency
of
m en tio n
N o. o f
p ic tu re
in ch e s
F requenc:
of
p ic tu re s
A m e ric a n
37
40
14
2
O o llie rs
246
155
46
7
G o o d h o u sek e ep in g
15
14
L ib e rty
12
13
P o p u la r M e c h a n ic s
16
22
12
2
160
108
902
61
68
103
116
44
R ead ers D ig e s t
360
146
S a t . liv e n in g P o s t
164
105
5
1
T im e
401
189
30
9
11
10
10
1
1490
905
1135
1B7
L ife
P o p u la r S c ie n c e
Womans Home
C o m p a n io n
T o ta ls
62
M e c h a n i c s w i t h 1 4 c o l u m n - i n c h e s ; G o o d h o u s e k e e p i n g w i t h 15
c o lu m n -in c h e s; L ib e r ty
w i t h 1 2 c o l u m n - i n c h e s a n d Womans Home
C o m p a n io n w i t h 1 1 c o l u m n - i n c h e s , t h e l e a s t n u m b e r .
O n ly
tw o o f t h e s e m a g a z i n e s , M m evi c a n a n d P o p u l a r M e c h a n i c s ,
c o n ta in e d p i c t u r e s .
P la c e m e n t of c o n c e p ts fo u n d i n t h e f i e l d
The 905 a r t i c l e s fo u n d p e r t a i n i n g to
w ere c l a s s i f i e d
fie ld .
th e f i e l d
of b io lo g y .
of b io lo ^ r
i n t o 15 c o n c e p t s f o u n d i n t h a t p a r t i c u l a r
T hese f i f t e e n d i v i s i o n s o f b io lo g y w ere f u r t h e r
su b d iv id e d in to th e s c ie n c e c o n c e p ts fo u n d u n d e r e a c h , and
t a b u l a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o w h e t h e r t h e y h a d m e r e l y b e e n m en ­
tio n e d in
e x p la in e d ,
th e a r t i c l e ,
s tre s s e d h e a v ily , o r a c tu a lly
a s sh o w n i n T a b l e XV.
The t o p i c s m e n tio n e d th e g r e a t e s t num ber o f t im e s i n
b i o l o g y w ere p h y s i o l o g y ,
a n im a ls, b a c t e r i a
d ise a se ,
in se c ts, p la n ts,
fish ,
and b i r d s .
Of a t o t a l o f 2 5 5 , p h y s i o l o g y w a s m e n t i o n e d 58 t i m e s ,
s t r e s s e d 21 t i m e s a n d e x p l a i n e d t h r e e t i m e s .
fe rtiliz a tio n ,
R e p ro d u c tio n ,
sex (h o rm o n e s ), an d s t e r i l i z a t i o n w ere t h e
s u b je c ts d isc u sse d un der t h i s
c la ss ific a tio n .
It
f i c a n t t h a t t h e s e m uch d i s c u s s e d s u b j e c t s o f t o d a y
is
sig n i­
sh o u ld
r a n k among t h e a r t i c l e s w r i t t e n p e r t a i n i n g t o b i o l o g y .
w o u l d seem t h a t t h i s
It
b ra n c h o f s c ie n c e sh o u ld r e c e i v e
s p e c ia l c o n s id e r a tio n i n t h e b u ild in g of a seco n d ary s c h o o l
63
TABLE XV
LIST OF BIOLOGY CONCEPTS FOUND IN MAGAZINE ARTICLES
INCLUDING THEIR FREQUENCIES
C oncept
F re q u en c y o f m e n tio n
M e n tio n e d
S tre sse d
E x p la in e d
Jin im a ls
Mammals
R o d e n ts
24
10
9
15
B a c te ria
D ecay
45
B ird s
32
23
7
3
3
12
1
D ise a se
In fe c tio n
M e d ic in e
T re a tm e n t
30
5
7
4
30
3
8
11
F i sh
S h e lls
41
6
16
2
F lo w e rs
P o lle n iz in g
16
4
6
7
7
3
C e lls
Am oeba
M e ta b o lis m
T o ta l
2
39
10
11
60
5
4
50
J
54
55
1
4
1
20
4
J3
27
64
8
15
16 103
57
JE*
65
22
_4
26
4
4
4
11
11
_7
29
12
2
14
14
3
5
3
1
3
3
4
8
In se c ts
S p id e rs
49
5
23
3
M ic ro sco p e s
21
4
Food
F ru it
V ita m in s
F ro g s
H e re d ity
C h ro m o so m e s
E v o lu tio n
1
J
18
73
J
81
25
TABLE XV (c o n tin u e d )
LIST OF BIOLOGY CONOEFTS FOUND IN MA&AZTN8 ARTICLES
INCLUDING THEIR FREQUENCIES
C oncept
F re q u e n c y o f m e n tio n
M e n tio n e d
stre sse d
E x p la in e d
P h y s io lo g y
G la n d s
B lo o d
O rg an s
R e p ro d u c tio n
F e rtiliz a tio n
Sex (honnones)
S te riliz a tio n
62
7
25
18
10
6
1
11
43
4
24
10
3
4
12
2
1
3
2
1
P la n ts
A lg a e
P a ra s ite s
H y d ro p o n ic s
23
3
15
3
14
5
2
1
R e p tile s
14
9
559
323
G rand T o ta ls
6
4
T o ta l
111
11
50
31
15
11
13
15
255
39
9
15
5
70
23
23
905
65
c u rric u la *
S c ie n c e i n s t r u c t i o n g iv e n i n o u r s c h o o ls sh o u ld
a tte m p t t h e m ost p e r s i s t e n t ,
im p o r ta n t n e e d s o f h o y s and
g irls
fa c to r in th e
if
it
i s to he a v i ta l
im p ro v e m e n t o f
liv in g .
D is e a s e , r a k i n g se c o n d w ith a t o t a l o f 103 a r t i c l e s ,
w a s m e n t i o n e d i n 46 a r t i c l e s ,
e x p la in e d i n
fiv e .
stre sse d
i n 52 a r t i c l e s a n d
The s u b j e c t s l i s t e d u n d e r t h i s
w e re i n f e c t i o n , m e d i c i n e and t r e a t m e n t .
to p ic
T h is a g a in i s
s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h a t t h e a v e r a g e p e r s o n t o d a y i s b e c o m in g
m ore i n t e r e s t e d
th e re o f.
i n i n f e c t i o u s d i s e a s e s and t h e t r e a t m e n t
The p r o c e e d in g s o f s c i e n t i f i c
now f r o n t p a g e n e w s ,
re p o rte d
are
in v e n tio n s and d is c o v e rie s a re
and p u b lis h e d w ith th e
w ith f o r e ig n
a sso c ia tio n s
sa m e a v i d i t y a s i n t e r v i e w s
d ic ta to rs , o r d e ta ils of
s c a n d a ls and
a c c id e n ts .
I n s e c ts ran k ed t h i r d w ith a t o t a l
54 o f w h i e h a r e m e n t i o n e d , 26 s t r e s s e d
o f 81 a r t i c l e s ,
and o n e e x p l a i n e d .
The s p i d e r w as m e n tio n e d t h e g r e a t e s t num ber o f t i m e s .
P l a n t s , w h ich r e a l l y s h o u ld b e c l a s s e d u n d e r b o ta n y ,
r a n k e d f o u r t h w i t h a t o t a l o f 70 a r t i c l e s , 4 4 o f w h i c h w e r e
m e n tio n e d ,
23 s t r e s s e d ,
and t h r e e
e x p la in e d .
The s u b j e c t s
1
P a u l B. M a n n , "Why N o t T e a c h S c i e n c e S c i e n t i f i c *
H y » w S c ie n c e E d u c a tio n , 2 3 :2 3 9 , O c to b e r, 1939.
lis te d under th is
p o n ic s,
t o p i c w ere a l g a e , p a r a s i t e s
and h y d ro ­
P a r a s i t e s w ere m e n tio n e d t h e g r e a t e s t num ber o f
tim e s.
H a n k in g f i f t h , w e r e 65 a r t i c l e s p e r t a i n i n g
47 o f ^ h ic h w e r e m e n tio n e d , 18 s t r e s s e d ,
S h e l l s w ere t h e o n ly
to f i s h ,
and none e x p la in e d .
s u b - to p ic m e n tio n ed u n d e r th e
c la ss i­
fic a tio n of f is h .
JU iim a ls, f o u n d i n
on l i s t ,
a t o t a l o f 60 a r t i c l e s , w a s s i x t h
and was m e n tio n e d 43 t i m e s ,
The s u b j e c t s l i s t e d u n d e r t h i s
a n d s t r e s s e d 17 t i m e s .
t o p i c w e r e m am m als a n d
ro d e n ts.
B a c t e r i a ra n k e d s e v e n th o n th e
a rtic le s,
l i s t w i t h a t o t a l o f 54
45 o f w h i c h w e r e m e n t i o n e d , a n d n i n e
stre sse d .
D ecay w as t h e o n l y s u b d i v i s i o n u n d e r t h i s t o p i c .
W ith a t o t a l o f 5 5 a r t i c l e s , b i r d s ra n k e d e i g h t h
th e l i s t .
on
T h i s s u b j e c t w a s m e n t i o n e d 32 t i m e s a n d e x p l a i n e d
23 t i m e s .
The r e m a i n i n g s e v e n d i v i s i o n s u n d e r b i o l o g y w e r e
lis te d
in th e fo llo w in g o r d e r :
tw e n ty -n in e a r t i c l e s on
fo o d , w ith f r u i t and v ita m in s a s s u b - to p ic s ;
a r t i c l e s on c e l l s ,
d isc u ssin g
b o lis m ; tw e n ty - s ix a r t i c l e s
p rin c ip a lly
tw e n ty -s e v e n
am oeba a n d m e ta ­
on f lo w e r s w ith p o l l e n i z a t i o n
th e m ain t o p i c o f d i s c u s s i o n ; t w e n t y - f i v e a r t i c l e s
d e v o te d
to th e t o p ic o f m ic ro s c o p e s ; r e p t i l e s w ith a t o t a l o f
a rtic le s;
,23
e i g h t e e n a r t i c l e s o n h e r e d i t y w i t h c h ro m o s o m e s a n d
67
e v o lu tio n s a s s u b - to p ic s ; and fo u rte e n
a rtic le s
d isc u ssin g
fro g s.
Of a t o t a l
w as r e f e r r e d t o
of th e
o f 905 tim e s t h a t
th e s c ie n c e o f b io lo g y
i n t h e m a g a z in e s s tu d ie d ,
559 o r 6 1 p e r c e n t
a r t i c l e s w e re m e n tio n e d , 323 o r 31 p e r c e n t w ere
stre sse d ,
an d 23 o r e i g h t p e r c e n t w ere e x p l a i n e d .
The e le m e n t t h a t s t a n d s b e tw e e n h a v i n g a s u b j e c t l i k e
b io lo g y a dead i s s u e ,
h a v in g i t
life
once i t s
fo m al
stu d y i s o v e r ,
and
a c o n tin u in g and a b s o rb in g i n t e r e s t th ro u g h o u t
i s th e h a b it o f p u rp o se fu l re a d in g .
sh o w n i n t h i s
c h a p te r, i t
be en co u rag ed t o
ap p ears t h a t
F ro m t h e d a t a
s t u d e n ts m ig h t w e ll
re a d p o p u la r m a g a z in e s.
S u m m a ry .
1.
I n t h e 320 i s s u e s o f t h e
e le v e n m a g a z in e s
s e le c te d f o r th e stu d y ,
a t o t a l o f 905 a r t i c l e s p e r t a i n i n g
to b io lo g y w ere fo u n d .
One h u n d r e d t w e n t y - s e v e n o f t h e s e
a r t i c l e s c o n ta in e d p i c t u r e s .
T h i s was t h e l a r g e s t num ber
o f p i c t u r e s found f o r an y one b r a n c h o f s c i e n c e m e n tio n e d
in th is
stu d y .
2.
T im e m a g a z i n e r a n k e d f i r s t ,
189 a r t i c l e s
r e f e r r in g to b io lo g y .
w ith 155 s c i e n t i f i c
a rtic le s,
p rin tin g
a to ta l of
C o l l i e r s ran k e d second
and R e a d e rs D ig e s t r a n k e d t h i r d
w ith a t o t a l o f 146 a r t i c l e s .
3.
L i f e , a p i c t u r e m a g a z i n e , c o n t a i n e d 61 p i c t u r e s
o f b io lo g ic a l in te r e s t;
s c ie n c e m ag a zin e,
4.
and p o p u la r s c i e n c e , an i l l u s t r a t e d
c o n ta in e d 44 p i c t u r e s .
The l e n g t h o f t h e 9 0 5 n ew s a r t i c l e s g a t h e r e d
68
4.
T h e l e n g t h o f t h e 9 0 5 n ew s a r t i c l e s g a t h e r e d
f r o m t h e 320 i s s u e s o f t h e e l e v e n p u b l i c a t i o n s s e l e c t e d f o r
s tu d y t o t a l l e d 1490 e o lu m n - in e h e s .
5*
F o u r h u n d re d one e o lu m n -in e h e s w ere u t i l i z e d by
T im e m a g a z i n e i n p r i n t i n g s c i e n c e n e w s r e l a t i n g t o
b io lo g y .
R e a d e r s D i g e s t r a n k e d se c o n d w i t h a t o t a l o f 360 e o lu m n in e h e s,
and c o l l i e r s
r a n k e d t h i r d w i t h 246 c o l u m n - i n c h e s a n d
46 p i c t u r e - i n c h e s .
6.
The 905 a r t i c l e s
b io lo g y w ere c l a s s i f i e d
p a rtic u la r f ie ld .
to th e f i e l d
of
i n t o 15 c o n c e p ts fo u n d i n t h a t
T h e s e f i f t e e n d i v i s i o n s o f b io lo g y w ere
f u r t h e r su b d iv id e d in to
7.
fo u n d p e r t a in i n g
th e s c ie n c e c o n c e p ts found u n d e r e a c h .
The t o p i c s m e n tio n e d t h e
g r e a t e s t num ber o f tim e s
i n b i o l o g y , w ere p h y s i o l o g y , d i s e a s e ,
in se c ts, p la n ts ,
fish ,
a n im a ls, b a c t e r i a and b i r d s .
a*
38 t i m e s ,
Of a t o t a l o f 2 5 5 , p h y s i o l o g y w a s m e n t i o n e d
s t r e s s e d 21 tim e s and e x p la in e d t h r e e tim e s .
R e p ro d u c tio n ,
fe rtiliz a tio n ,
sex (h o rm o n es), and s t e r i l i z a ­
t i o n , w ere t h e o t h e r s u b j e c t s l i s t e d u n d e r t h i s
c la ss ific a ­
tio n .
b.
a rtic le s,
a rtic le s
D ise a se ,
ra n k in g
w a s m e n t i o n e d i n 46 a r t i c l e s ,
and e x p la in e d i n f i v e .
second w i t h a t o t a l o f 10
s t r e s s e d i n 52
The s u b j e c t s l i s t e d u n d e r
t h i s t o p i c w e re i n f e c t i o n , m e d i c i n e and t r e a t m e n t .
69
c.
a rtic le s,
In se c ts
r a n k e d t h i r d w i t h a t o t a l o f 81
5 4 o f w h i c h w e r e m e n t i o n e d , 26 s t r e s s e d a n d o n e
e x p la in e d .
The s p i d e r w as m e n tio n e d t h e g r e a t e s t
num ber o f
tim e s.
8.
lis te d
The re m a in in g
in th e
m ic ro sc o p e s ,
9.
se v e n d i v i s i o n s u n d e r b io lo g y w ere
fo llo w in g o r d e r :
re p tile s,
fo o d ,
c e lls ,
flo w e rs,
h e r e d ity and fro g s .
Of a t o t a l o f 905 t i m e s t h a t t h e s c i e n c e o f
b i o lo g y was r e f e r r e d t o
i n th e m a g a z in e s s t u d i e d ,
61 p e r c e n t o f t h e a r t i c l e s w e r e m e n t i o n e d ,
c e n t w ere s t r e s s e d ,
559 o r
5 2 3 o r 31 p e r
and 23 o r e i g h t p e r c e n t w ere e x p l a i n e d .
CHAPTER VI
CHEMISTRY CONCEPTS FOUND I N MtGJLZINES
The e i g h t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f c h e m i s t r y c o n c e p t s
d e sc rib e d i n th e fo llo w in g pages in d ic a te th e
sc ie n tific
a r t i c l e s fo u n d in th e
N um ber o f a r t i c l e s .
e le v e n m a g a z in e s s t u d i e d .
I n t h e 320 i s s u e s o f t h e e le v e n
p u b lic a tio n s s e le c te d f o r th e
p e rta in in g to
t y p e . lOf
stu d y ,
c h e m is tr y w ere fo u n d .
a t o t a l o f 795 a r t i c l e s
Of t h i s n u m b e r o n l y 42
a r t i c l e s w e re a c c o m p a n ie d by p i c t u r e s ,
as
sho w n i n T a b l e XV I.
P o p u l a r S c i e n c e r a n k e d f i r s t w i t h 250 a r t i c l e s
r in g to
refer­
c h e m is tr y , t h e g r e a t e s t num ber fo u n d i n a n y o n e o f
t h e e le v e n m a g a z in e s s tu d ie d .
T h is w as a l s o
f o r o n ly a
s i x m o n th s s a m p lin g o f t h e m a g a z in e i n s t e a d o f t h e t w e lv e
m o n th s a c c o r d e d n in e o t h e r m a g a z in e s .
T hese a r t i c l e s
con­
t a i n e d o n l y 12 p i c t u r e s .
T im e , t h e c u r r e n t
a t o t a l o f 143 a r t i c l e s .
w ith a t o t a l
e v en t m a g a z in e , ran k ed seco n d w ith
S a tu rd a y
E v en in g P o s t p l a c e d t h i r d
o f 90 a r t i c l e s .
P o p u l a r M e c h a n i c s , o n e o f t h e tw s
se le c te d
f o r th e stu d y
c h e m is try .
s c ie n c e m ag a zin es
c o n ta in e d 85 a r t i c l e s p e r t a in i n g to
N in e p i c t u r e s a c c o m p a n ie d t h e s e i t e m s .
S e v e n t y - f o u r s c i e n c e news i te m s w e re fo u n d i n t h e
C o llie rs.
L ife
r a n k e d s i x t h w i t h 47 a r t i c l e s a n d 19
71
TABLE XVI
NUMBER OF CHEMISTRY CONCEPTS FOUND I N VARIOUS MAGAZINES
M ag azin e
N o. o f
c o lu m n
in c h e s
A m e ric an
15
16
C o llie rs
55
74
Goodhou s e k e e p in g
11
21
7
10
L ife
24
P o p u la r M e c h a n ic s
F requency
of
m en ti on
No. o f
F req u en cy
p ic tu re s of
in c h e s
p ic tu re s
18
1
47
177
19
84
85
27
8
183
250
41
12
R ead ers D ig e s t
43
46
S a t . E v en in g P o s t
53
90
115
143
3
1
14
13
602
79 5
266
42
L ib e rty
P o p u la r S c ie n c e
T im e
Womans Home Com pan­
io n
T o ta ls
p i c t u r e s , t h e l a r g e s t num ber o f p i c t u r e s fo u n d i n a n y one
of th e p u b lic a tio n s s tu d ie d .
The re m a in in g f i v e m a g a z in e s had t h e f o llo w in g f r e ­
q u e n c ie s:
R e a d e r s D i g e s t , 46$ Good H o u s e k e e p i n g , 2 1 ; A m e r i ­
c a n , 1 6 ; Womans Home C o m p a n i o n , 1 3 ; a n d L i b e r t y , 1 0 .
None
o f th e s e m a g a z in e s c o n ta in e d p i c t u r e s .
L e n g th o f
c le s g a th e re d
s e le c te d
a rtic le s.
from t h e
T h e l e n g t h o f t h e 795 n ew s a r t i ­
320 i s s u e s o f t h e e l e v e n m a g a z i n e s
f o r stu d y t o t a l l e d 602 c o lu m n -in c h e s.
^ e r e a g a i n P o p u l a r S c l e n c e a n d T im e r a n g e d f i r s t
and
s e c o n d , w i t h 183 and 115 e o lu m n - in e h e s , r e s p e c t i v e l y .
O n ly f o u r o t h e r m a g a z i n e s c o n t a i n e d a s i g n i f i c a n t
n u m b e r o f e o l u m n - i n e h e s —‘P o p u l a r M e c h a n i c s , 8 4 c o l u m n - i n c h e s
C o l l i e r s and S a t u r d a y E v e n in g P o s t 53 c o l u m n - i n c h e s e a c h ,
H e ad e rs D ig e s t w ith 43 c o lu m n -in c h e s.
sev en c o lu m n -in c h e s,
d e v o te d t o
L ife
177,
L ib e rty
c o n ta in e d
t h e l e a s t num ber o f c o lu m n - in c h e s
s c i e n c e new s i n an y one m a g a z in e .
c o n ta in e d t h e g r e a t e s t num ber o f p i c t u r e - i n c h e s ,
and P o p u l a r S c ie n c e r a n k e d se c o n d w i t h 4 1 .
C h e m istry c o n c e p ts fo u n d i n
a rtic le s,
k lis t
of
c h e m i s t r y c o n c e p t s t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e f r e q u e n c i e s , may b e
f o u n d i n T a b l e XV TI.
T he c o n c e p t s w ere d i v i d e d i n t o
m a jo r f i e l d s o f c h e m is try :
(1 )
su b s ta n c e s,
e ig h t
(2 ) m a t t e r ,
73
TABLE XVII
SUMMARY OF CHEMISTRY CONCEPTS FOUND I N MAGAZINE ARTICLES
INCLUDING THEIR FREQUENCIES
C o n e e p ts
M e n tio n e d
F requency
S tre sse d
E x p la in e d
T o ta l
79
8
2
89
123
36
5
164
O rg a n ic
21
11
13
45
P ro cesses
63
a
3
74
P ro p e rtie s
54
12
11
77
R e a c tio n s
76
30
4
11 0
127
33
6
166
49
9
12
70
592
147
56
795
Condi t i o n
M a tte r
S u b sta n c e s
T erm s
T o ta ls
74
(3)
re a c tio n s,
(7 )
te rm s,
in g to
(4 )
c o n d itio n ,
a n d (8 )
o rg a n ic .
(5)
p ro p e rtie s,
(6 )
p ro cesses,
A lth o u g h t h e a r t i c l e s p e r t a i n ­
c h e m istry ran k ed o n ly t h i r d
in
frequency,
th e y
to u c h e d o n t h e g r e a t e s t num ber o f f i e l d s i n t h a t b r a n c h o f
sc ie n c e .
The c o n c e p ts w ere t a b u l a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o w h e th e r
th e y had m e re ly been m en tio n ed i n th e a r t i c l e ,
h e a v ily , o r a c tu a lly
1.
e x p la in e d .
Of a t o t a l o f 1 6 6 t i m e s t h a t t h e t o p i c o f
s u b s ta n c e was fo u n d i n
t io n e d 127 tim e s ,
tw o a r t i c l e s .
th e m a g a z in e s s t u d i e d ,
stre sse d
of
w a s m en ­
T h i s w o u ld t e n d t o
in d ic a te
t h a t su b sta n c e
s u b je c t in th e
e h e m is try .
2.
M a t t e r , fo u n d i n a t o t a l
m e n tio n e d 123 tim e s ,
fiv e
it
33 t i m e s , a n d e s p l a i n e d i n o n l y
i s p e r h a p s c o n s i d e r e d t h e m ost im p o r ta n t
fie ld
stre sse d
stre sse d
o f 164 a r t i c l e s ,
was
36 t i m e s and e x p l a i n e d o n ly
tim e s.
5.
Of a t o t a l o f 1 1 0 a r t i c l e s w h i c h d i s c u s s e d
re a c tio n s in
30 t i m e s ,
4.
c h e m istry , i t
and f u l l y
w a s m e n t i o n e d 76 t i m e s ,
stre sse d
e x p la in e d by o n ly f o u r .
C o n d i ti o n , a n i m p o r t a n t e le m e n t o f c h e m is tr y ,
w as fo u n d i n 89 a r t i c l e s ,
79 o f w h i c h w e r e m e n t i o n e d ,
e ig h t
s t r e s s e d a n d two e x p l a i n e d .
5.
O f a t o t a l o f 77 a r t i c l e s
c o n ta in in g p r o p e r tie s
o f c h e m i s t r y , 54 w ere m e n tio n e d , 12 s t r e s s e d
a n d 11 e x p l a i n e d .
75
6•
P ro cesses,
m e n tio n e d 63 t i m e s ,
fo u n d in a t o t a l
stre s s e d e ig h t,
o f 74 a r t i c l e s , w a s
and e x p la in e d i n o n ly
th re e .
7.
a rtic le s,
T h e c o n c e p t " t e i m s ” w a s f o u n d i n a t o t a l o f 70
49 o r w h i c h w e r e m e n t i o n e d , n i n e s t r e s s e d , a n d
12 e x p l a i n e d .
8.
le a st
T he c o n c e p t " o r g a n i c " w a s f o u n d to r e c e i v e t h e
em p h a sis o f
a rtic le s,
th e se
e ig h t to p ic s .
Of a t o t a l o f 4 5
21 w e r e m e n t i o n e d , 11 s t r e s s e d ,
and 13 e x p la in e d .
T h e s e e i g h t m a in d i v i s i o n s o f c h e m i s t r y a r e f u r t h e r
su b d iv id e d i n t o t h e s c ie n c e c o n c e p ts found u n d e r e a c h .
S u b sta n c e .
A lis t
o f s u b s ta n c e c o n c e p ts fo und i n
c h e m is try t o g e t h e r w ith t h e i r fre q u e n c ie s a r e
T a b le X V III.
U nder t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n w ere found f i v e
d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p ts w ith a t o t a l
term " a c id s *
l6 d th e l i s t
freq u en cy o f 166.
w i t h 70 r e f e r e n c e s ,
w e r e m e n t i o n e d , 1 5 s t r e s s e d a n d tw> e x p l a i n e d .
f u r t h e r d iv id e d i n t o
(b )
sa lts ,
show n i n
(a)
bases,
T he
55 o f w h ic h
T h is was
w i t h a f r e q u e n c y o f 26 a n d
w ith a fre q u e n c y o f 2 2 .
The te rm " a l l o y s " w as
r e f e r r e d t o t h e l e a s t num ber o f t im e s ,
b e in g m e n tio n e d
o n ly f o u r tim e s .
M in e ra ls, p o iso n s,
and e x p lo s iv e s w ere t h e o t h e r
a llo y s m e n tio n e d , w ith fre q u e n c ie s o f 1 3 , 2 1 ,
re s p e c tiv e ly .
and 1 0 ,
76
TABLE X V T II
L I S T OF CHEMISTRY CONCEPTS FOUND I N MAGAZINE ARTICLES
INCLUDING THEIR FREQUENCIES- -SUBSTANCES
S u b sta n c e
c o n c e p ts
M e n tio n e d
F requency
S tre sse d
E x p la in e d
55
13
B ases
23
3
26
S a lts
21
1
22
M in e ra ls
11
2
13
A llo y s
2
1
1
4
E x p lo s iv e s
6
2
2
10
P o iso n s
9
11
1
21
127
33
6
166
A c id s
T o ta ls
2
T o ta l
70
77
Of t h e t o t a l 1 6 6 a r t i c l e s f o u n d p e r t a i n i n g t o
s u b s t a n c e s 1 2 7 , o r 76 p e r c e n t w e r e m e n t i o n e d , 3 5 o r 2 0
p er cent stre sse d
e x p la in e d .
and s i x , o r o n ly f o u r p e r c e n t ,
H ere a g a in t h e
s t u d e n t o r r e a d e r m ust b e
f a m i li a r w ith t h i s b ra n c h o f c h e m is try in o rd e r to
a te th e v a lu e o f th e
a p p re c i­
a rtic le .
A lis t
M a tte r.
w ere
o f t h e c o n c e p ts found u n d e r t h e
s u b h e a d i n g o f m a t t e r a r e f o u n d i n T a b l e X IX .
c l a s s i f i c a t i o n w ere fo u n d f i v e d i f f e r e n t
U nder t h i s
c o n c e p ts w ith a
t o ta l frequency of 164.
The te r m s "a to m s and m o le c u le s ” and " s o l u t i o n s ”
r a n k e d e q u a l l y w i t h a f r e q u e n c y o f 52 e a c h .
m e n tio n e d 43 t i m e s ,
tw ic e .
stre sse d
S o l u t i o n s w ere
seven tim e s and e x p la in e d o n ly
A tom s a n d m o l e c u l e s w e r e m e n t i o n e d 38 t i m e s ,
s t r e s s e d 13 t i m e s a n d e x p l a i n e d o n l y o n c e .
The t e m
” g a s e s ” h a d a f r e q u e n c y o f 3 8 , 24 o f ^ d iic h
w e r e m e n t i o n e d , 1 2 s t r e s s e d a n d twD e x p l a i n e d .
The t o t a l
f r e q u e n c y o f t h e t e r m " c r y s t a l s ” w a s 1 8 , 14 o f w h i c h w e r e
m e n tio n e d and o n ly f o u r s t r e s s e d .
C h e m is tr y c o m p o s it i o n was m e n tio n e d a n e g l i g i b l e
num ber o f t im e s — f o u r .
R e a c tio n s.
under th e
R e a c tio n s ran k ed t h i r d i n
im p o rta n c e
s u b j e c t o f c h e m i s t r y w i t h 1 1 0 a r t i c l e s a s sh ow n
i n T a b l e XX.
A to ta l of seven d iffe re n t
c o n c e p ts ra n g in g
78
TABLE XIX
L IS T OF CHEMISTRY CONCEPTS FOUND I N MAGAZINE ARTICLES
INCLUDING THEIR FREQUENCIES--MATTER
M a tte r
c o n c e p ts
M e n tio n e d
F req u en cy
S tre sse d
E x p la i ned
T o ta l
A tom s a n d m o l e c u l e s
38
13
1
52
G ases
24
12
2
38
S o lu tio n s
43
7
2
52
C ry sta ls
14
4
Chem i s t r y
T o ta ls
com pos.
18
4
123
4
36
5
164
79
TABLE XX
L I S T OF CHEMISTRY CONCEPTS ROUND IN MAGAZINE ARTICLES
INCLUDING THEIR EREQJJENCIHS--REACTION
R e a c tio n
c o n c e p ts
M e n tio n e d
F req u en cy
S tre sse d
E x p la in e d
T o ta l
30
11
1
42
6
8
2
16
7
1
8
D e c o m p o sitio n
8
3
11
C o rro sio n
7
3
10
O x id a tio n
12
2
6
2
C h e m istry r e a c t i o n s
B re a th in g
C h e m ica l c h a n g e s
S p o n t a n e o u s com­
b u stio n
T o ta ls
76
30
1
15
8
4
110
f r o m a f r e q u e n c y o f 42 t o
e ig h t a re re p re s e n te d in t h is
ta b le .
F o r ty - tw o a r t i c l e s w ere fo u n d r e f e r r i n g
to
c h e m istry
r e a c t i o n s , o f t h i s n u m b e r 30 w e r e m e n t i o n e d , 11 w e r e
s t r e s s e d an d o n e w as e x p l a i n e d .
im p o r ta n c e w ere t h e c o n c e p t s ;
c h e m ic a l d e c o m p o s itio n ,
H a n k in g n e x t i n
b re a th in g ,
c h e m ic a l o x i d a t i o n ,
c h e m ic a l c o r r o s i o n ,
and s p o n ta n e o u s c o m b u s tio n .
o rd er o f
c h e m ic a l ch an g e s
T he l a t t e r tw o c o n c e p t s r e c e i v e d
n e g lig ib le m e n tio n .
H ere a g a i n ,
t h e f r e q u e n c y w i t h w h ic h th e
c o n c e p ts
w e r e s t r e s s e d o r e x p l a i n e d , i t may b e a s s u m e d t h a t t h e
a rtic le
is
o f i n t e r e s t o n ly to th o s e
engaged in t h a t f i e l d
o f sc ie n c e .
C o n d itio n .
C o n d itio n , one o f th e c o n c e p ts w ith
w h ic h m ost s t u d e n t s a r e p e r h a p s t h e m o st f a m i l i a r ,
ranked
o n ly f o u r th ,
i n im p o rta n c e w ith a t o t a l
o f 89 n e w s a r t i c l e s
found i n t h e
e le v e n m a g a z in e s s t u d i e d .
T h is d iv is io n o f
c h e m is try c o n ta in e d n in e d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p ts , w ith
" d is s o lv e d " le a d in g th e l i s t
th e
te rn
w ith a fre q u e n c y o f 27.
R a n k in g n e x t i n o r d e r o f im p o r ta n c e w e re t h e c o n c e p ts :
p re c ip ita tio n ,
tio n ,
c o n c e n tra tio n , d ilu tio n ,
im p r e g n a t i o n , and a m a lg a m a tio n .
c o a g u la tio n ,
The l a t t e r tw o o f
th e s e te rm s re c e iv e d o n ly n e g lig ib le m e n tio n ,
T a b l e X X I.
sa tu ra ­
a s show n i n
81
TABLE XXI
L IS T OF CHEMISTRY CONCEPTS FOUND I N MAGAZINE ARTICLES
INCLUDING- THEIR FREQUENCIES--CONDITION ,
F req u en cy
S tre sse d
E x p la in e d
C o n d itio n
c o n c e p ts
M e n tio n e d
S a tu ra te d
5
5
D ilu te
8
8
C o n c e n tra te d
11
11
D isso lv e d
27
27
T o ta l
5
2
14
5
1
20
C o n d e n sin g
6
1
1
8
Im p re g n a te d
2
2
A m a lg a m a te d
1
1
C o a g u la tio n
P e re ip ita tio n
T o ta ls
79
8
7
2
89
82
Of a t o t a l o f 8 9 a r t i c l e s
79 w e r e m e n t i o n e d ,
and a
n e g l i g i b l e num ber w ere s t r e s s e d o r e x p l a i n e d ♦
P ro p e rtie s.
A lth o u g h t h i s
h a d a f r e q u e n c y o f o n l y 77 i t
d i v i s i o n o f c h e m is try
c o n t a i n e d a l a r g e num ber o f
c o n c e p t s a s may b e s e e n i n T a b l e X X I I .
A t o t a l o f 14 d i f ­
f e r e n t c o n c e p ts r a n g in g from s o l u b i l i t y
to d e n s ity are
re p re se n te d .
The te r m " s o l u b i l i t y "
o f 20.
ra n k e d f i r s t w ith a fre q u e n c y
The c o n c e p t s f o u n d t h e g r e a t e s t num ber o f t i m e s i n
th e a r t i c l e s s tu d ie d ,
w ere c a t a l y s t ,
a b so rb e n t,
and l i s t e d
a b so rp tio n ,
ra d io
i n o r d e r o f im p o rta n c e
a c tiv e , v is c o s ity ,
a d h e sio n , and c a p i ll a r y a t t r a c t i o n .
The c o n c e p ts r e c e i v i n g o n ly n e g l i g i b l e m e n tio n w ere
o sm o sis, v o l a t i l e ,
d e n s ity , m e ltin g p o in t,
iso tp o ic ,
and
im p e rv io u s .
Of t h e
o f c h a a is try ,
to ta l
77 a r t i c l e s r e f e r r i n g t o t h e
5 4 , o r 70 p e r c e n t w e r e m e n t i o n e d ,
p e r c e n t w ere s t r e s s e d ,
P ro cesses.
and I I
p ro p e rtie s
12 o r 15
o r 14 p e r c e n t w e r e e x p l a i n e d .
U nder th e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of p ro c e s s e s
w ere fo u n d 14 d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p ts w i t h a t o t a l f r e q u e n c y o f
7 4 , a s sh o w n i n T a b l e X X I I I , p a g e 8 2 .
The te n n " s y n t h e s i s "
quency o f 1 2 .
f o u r tim e s.
ran k ed f i r s t w ith a t o t a l
fre­
T h i s t e r m w a s m e n t i o n e d 12 t i m e s a n d s t r e s s e d
The c o n c e p t s fo u n d t h e g r e a t e s t num ber o f t im e s
83
TABLE XXII
LIST OF CH2MISTRY CONCEPTS FOUND IN MAGAZINE ARTICLES
INCLUDING THEIR FREQUENCIES--PROPERTIES
P ro p e rtie s
c o n c e p ts
M e n tio n e d
D e n sity
S o lu b ility
F req u en cy
S tre sse d
E x p la in e d
1
1
19
T o ta l
1
20
V o la tile
2
2
V isc o sity
2
M e ltin g p o in t
1
1
R a d io a c t i v e
7
7
A b sa p tio n
3
1
5
Iso to p ic
4
5
3
11
1
1
5
13
C a ta ly s t
4
A b so rb en t
5
5
Im p e rv io u s
1
1
A d h e sio n
4
4
C a p illa ry a ttr a c tio n
2
O s m o s is
1
T o ta ls
54
2
12
4
1
2
11
77
84
TABLE X X I II
LIST OF CHEMISTRY CONCEPTS FOUND IN MAGAZINE ARTICLES
INCLUDING THEIR FREQUENCIE8—FROCESSES
P ro cess
M e n tio n e d
S y n th e sis
IE
F requency
S tre sse d
E x p la in e d
4
T o ta l
16
H y d ro ly sis
3
D e h y d ra tio n
1
1
S
D e c a n ta tio n
1
1
s
D istilla tio n
11
3
S
13
E v a p o ra tio n
9
F iltra tio n
9
S te riliz a tio n
E
S
11
11
Neu t r a l i z a t i o n
T itra tio n
9
1
1
10
1
E
E tc h in g
1
1
E le c tro ly sis
1
1
D isso c ia tio n
1
1
E le c tro p la tin g
1
1
T o ta ls
63
8
3
74
85
in th e a r t i c l e s
stu d ie d ,
w ere d i s t i l l a t i o n ,
tio n .
i n o r d e r of im p o rta n c e
n e u tra liz a tio n , f i l t r a t i o n ,
and e v a p o ra ­
N in e o t h e r c o n c e p t s r e c e i v e d o n l y n e g l i g i b l e m e n t i o n —
h y d ro ly sis,
tio n ,
and l i s t e d
d e h y d ra tio n , d e c a n ta tio n ,
ste riliz a tio n ,
titra ­
e t c h i n g , e l e c t r o l y s i s , d i s s o c i a t i o n and e l e c t r o ­
p la tin g .
T erm s.
A t o t a l o f e le v e n d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p ts ra n g in g
fro m d e s c r i p t i o n o f e q u ip m e n t w i t h a f r e q u e n c y o f 16 t o
k in e tic
e n e r g y w i t h a f r e q u e n c y o f tw o u n d e r t h e
t io n o f te rm s i s
sh o w n i n T a b l e XXIV.
c la ss ific a ­
The o t h e r te rm s w ith
a n o ta b le f r e q u e n c y w e re a n a l y s i s , m e n tio n e d 15 t im e s ;
i n d i c a t o r s m e n tio n e d IS t i m e s ; and t e m p e r a t u r e m e n tio n e d
te n tim e s.
T he o t h e r t e r m s w i t h a f r e q u e n c y o f o n l y tw o o r t h r e e
w ere s ip h o n ,
sta n d a rd s, r a d ia tio n s ,
a b so lu te z e ro , k in e tic
ene r g y , g a s l a w s , and B ro w n ia n m o v em en t.
O f t h e 70 a r t i c l e s f o u n d p e r t a i n i n g t o
t e r m s , 49 o r
70 p e r c e n t w e r e m e n t i o n e d , 9 o r 15 p e r c e n t w e r e s t r e s s e d ,
and I S o r 17 p e r c e n t w e re e x p l a i n e d .
A s i n t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s m en tio n ed p r e v i o u s ly u n d e r
c h e m is tr y , t h e r e i s a w id e v a r i e t y o f c o n c e p ts found i n t h e
a r tic le s p e rta in in g
to t h i s
p ro b a b ly in d ic a te s t h a t
b ran ch of s c ie n c e .
th e re i s
in g b e in g done i n t h i s f i e l d .
a g reat deal o f
T h is
e x p e rim e n t­
86
TABUS XXIV
LIST OF CHEMISTRY CONCEPTS FOUND IN MAGAZINE ARTICLES
INCLUDING- THEIR FREQUENCIES— TEEMS
F req u en cy
S tre sse d
E x p la in e d
T e rm
c omn c e p t s
M e n tio n e d
A n a ly si s
11
3
1
15
5
1
4
10
2
2
T e m p e ra tu re
A b s o lu te zero
K in e tic
en erg y
2
In d ic a to rs
5
G as la w s
2
B ro w n ia n m ovem ent
1
D e sc rip tio n of
e q u ip m e n t
15
T o ta l
2
4
3
12
2
1
1
2
16
S ip h o n
3
3
S ta n d a rd s
3
3
R a d ia tio n s
2
T o ta ls
49
9
1
3
12
70
87
O rg a n ic .
R a n k in g l a s t i n t h e l i s t
c o n c e p ts th e te im
and a t o t a l
o f c h e m is try
no r g a n i c ” h a d a t o t a l f r e q u e n c y o f 45
o f 12 d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p ts a s s u b d i v i s i o n s ,
(see
T a b l e XXT.)
.T h e m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t c o n c e p t w a s h y d r o p o n i c s w i t h
a
f r e q u e n c y o f 1 2 , f i v e o f w h i c h w e re m e n t i o n e d , o n e s t r e s s e d ,
and s ix e x p la in e d .
The c o n c e p ts found t h e g r e a t e s t num ber
o f tim e s in th e a r t i c l e s
s tu d ie d , and l i s t e d
im p o rta n c e w ere p h o t o s y n t h e s is ,
a n a e s t h e t i c , m e ta b o lism ,
in o rd er of
fe rtiliz a tio n ,
an d f e r m e n t a t i o n .
je llin g ,
F iv e o t h e r con­
c e p ts — s a p o n if ic a tio n , p o ly m e riz a tio n , d e to x ic a tio n ,
ie s,
c a lo r­
and v u l c a n i z a t i o n — r e c e i v e d o n l y n e g l i g i b l e m e n t i o n .
Of t h e 4 5 a r t i c l e s
fie ld
it
is
fo u n d p e r t a i n i n g to
th e o rg a n ic
s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t 1 3 o r 29 p e r c e n t o f t h e
c o n c e p ts w ere e x p la in e d .
S u m m a ry ,
k l a r g e r n u m b e r o f c h e m i s t r y c o n c e p t s w e re
e x p la in e d th a n any o t h e r s c ie n c e c o n c e p ts u se d i n t h i s
stu d y .
T h is im p lie s t h a t t h e
s t u d e n t can g a i n im m e d ia te
and p r a c t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n fro m t h e s e a r t i c l e s w h ic h h e c a n
u s e i n h i s s c h o o l d a y s — such a s ,
in fo rm a tio n on c o sm e tic s,
a d v a n c e m e n t s i n r a d i o :and t e l e v i s i o n ,
new m e t h o d s i n
d e v e l o p i n g p h o t o g r a p h s , b e t t e r g a s o l i n e , m a t e r i a l s o f w h ic h
a i r p l a i n e s a r e m ade, u s e f u l h o u s e h o ld c h e m ic a l s , a n d num erous
o th e rs .
88
TABLE XXV
LIST OF CHEMISTRY CONCEPTS FOUND IN MAGAZINE ARTICLES
INCLUDING THEIR FREQUENCIES— ORGANIC
O rg a n ic
c o n c e p ts
M e n tio n e d
F req u en cy
S tre sse d
E x p la in e d
T o ta l
5
7
1
6
P h o to s y n th e sis
2
F e rtiliz a tio n
1
4
M e ta b o lism
2
1
3
F erm ent a t i o n
2
1
3
S a p o n ific a tio n
1
1
P o ly m e ri z a t i o n
1
1
1
B e to x ic a tio n
1
Je llin g
1
5
H y d ro p o n ic s
5
1
C a lo rie s
2
2
V u lc a n iz a tio n
1
1
jy a a e sth e ti c
4
4
T o ta l s
21
11
4
6
13
12
45
89
1.
In th e
s e le c te d f o r th e stu d y ,
to
520 i s s u e s o f t h e
a to ta l
e le v e n p u b lic a tio n s
o f 795 a r t i c l e s p e r t a i n i n g
c h e m istry w ere fo u n d .
F o p u la r S c ie n c e ran k ed f i r s t
t h e g r e a t e s t num ber fo u n d i n
w i t h 250 a r t i c l e s ,
an y one o f t h e e l e v e n m aga­
z in e s s tu d ie d .
3.
T im e , t h e
w ith a t o t a l
4.
c u r r e n t e v e n t m a g a z in e ,
ran k ed second
o f 143 a r t i c l e s .
S e v e n ty - f o u r s c ie n c e new s ite m s w e re fo u n d i n
C o l l i e r s , a m a g a z in e r e a d s o l e l y f o r a m u sem en t.
5.
T h e l e n g t h o f t h e 795 news a r t i c l e s g a t h e r e d
fro m t h e 320 i s s u e s o f t h e
stu d y t o t a l l e d
6.
e le v e n m a g a z in e s s e l e c te d f o r
602 c o l u m n - i n c h e s .
H e r e a g a i n p o p u l a r s c i e n c e a n d T im e r a n k e d f i r s t
a n d s e c o n d , w i t h 1 8 3 a n d 1 15 c o l u m n - i n c h e s ,
7.
The c h e m is try c o n c e p ts w ere d iv id e d i n to
m a jo r f i e l d s o f c h e m is try :
(3 )
re a c tio n s,
(7 )
te rm s,
8.
re s p e c tiv e ly .
(4 )
an d ( 8 )
(1)
c o n d itio n ,
su b s ta n c e s,
(5 )
(2)
p ro p e rtie s,
m a tte r,
(6)
p ro cesses,
o rg a n ic .
JU -tho ugh t h e a r t i c l e s p e r t a i n i n g t o
ranked o n ly t h i r d
e ig h t
c h e m is try
i n fre q u e n c y , th e y to u c h e d on th e g r e a t e s t
num ber o f f i e l d s i n t h a t b r a n c h o f s c i e n c e .
9.
U nder th 6
c la ss ific a tio n of
s u b s ta n c e w ere fo u n d
f iv e d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p ts w ith a t o t a l fre q u e n c y o f 166.
t e r m " a c id s* * ; l e d t h e l i s t w i t h 70 r e f e r e n c e s .
The
90
10.
fiv e
U nder th e
c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f m a t t e r w e re fo u n d
d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p ts w ith
a t o t a l freq u en cy of 1 6 4 .
The t e r m s ” a to m s and m o l e c u l e s ” a n d " s o l u t i o n s ” r a n k e d
f i r s t w i t h a f r e q u e n c y o f 52 e a c h .
11.
s u b je c t of
R e a c tio n s ra n k e d t h i r d i n
im p o rta n c e u n d e r th e
c h e m is tr y w i t h 110 a r t i c l e s an d s e v e n d i f f e r e n t
c o n c e p t s r a n g i n g f r o m a f r e q u e n c y o f 42 t o e i g h t .
12.
to ta l
C o n d itio n ranked f o u r th in
im p o rta n c e w ith a
o f 89 new s a r t i c l e s fo u n d i n t h e e le v e n m a g a z in e s
stu d ie d .
T h is d iv is io n o f
c h e m is try
c o n ta in e d n in e
d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p ts , w ith th e te rm ” d is s o lv e d ” le a d in g
th e
l i s t w ith a freq u e n cy o f 27.
13.
th is
A lth o u g h p r o p e r t i e s had a fre q u e n c y o f o n ly 7 7 ,
c la s s ific a tio n
c e p ts ra n g in g
14.
c o n t a i n e d t h e l a r g e n u m b e r o f 14 c o n ­
from s o l u b i l i t y
to
d e n s ity .
U n der t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f p r o c e s s e s w ere
fo u n d 14 d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p ts w ith a t o t a l f r e q u e n c y o f
The t e r n
” s y n th e s is ” ranked f i r s t w ith
74.
a to ta l freq u en cy
of 12.
15.
A to ta l
of
e le v e n d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p ts ra n g in g
fro m d e s c r i p t i o n o f e q u ip m e n t w i t h a f r e q u e n c y o f 16 t o
k in e tic
en erg y w ith
a f r e q u e n c y o f tw o w a s g i v e n u n d e r t h e
c la s s if i c a t io n o f te rm s.
16.
th e t e r n
R a n k in g l a s t
in th e l i s t of
c h e m is try c o n c e p ts
" o r g a n i c ” had a t o t a l f r e q u e n c y o f 45 and a t o t a l
o f 12 d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p t s a s s u b d i v i s i o n s .
CH&PTER V II
OTHER SCIEM3E CONCEPT FOURD I E M k G k Z IE m
In c la ss ify in g
th e
e le v e n m ag a zin es s t u d i e d ,
a c c o rd in g to
a te n ta tiv e c la s s ific a tio n
c e r t a i n b ra n c h e s o f s c ie n c e w as a d o p te d .
b ran ch es o r ig in a lly
p h y sic s, in
sc ie n c e c o n c e p ts found in th e
s e le c te d w ere b io lo g y ,
a s m uch a s t h e s e
are th e
c h e m is try ,
The
and
s c ie n c e c o u rs e s m ost
com m only o f f e r e d i n t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s .
I t w as soon
found t h a t
t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n w as n o t i n c l u s i v e en o u g h ,
th e re fo re ,
a stro n o m y , m e te o ro lo g y ,
T h is c h a p te r w i l l
and g e o lo g y w ere a d d e d .
in c lu d e v a rio u s ta b le s ,
w ith e x p la n a tio n s
an d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s > w h ic h p r e s e n t t h e f i n d i n g s w ith r e f e r ­
ence to
a stro n o m y , m e te o ro lo g y , and g e o lo g y .
I.
.iSTHOHOMY
T a b l e XXVI s h o w s t h e n u m b e r o f t i m e s a s t r o n o m y w a s
m e n tio n e d i n each o f t h e e le v e n m a g a z in e s , t h e num ber o f
c o lu m n -in e h e s d e v o te d to
th e
to p ic , frequency of p ic tu r e s ,
and t h e num ber o f p i c t u r e - i n c h e s p e r m a g a z in e .
num ber o f c o lu m n - in e h e s p e r t a i n i n g
The t o t a l
to a stro n o m y w as 2 8 6 ,
th e fre q u e n c y o f m e n tio n 243, fre q u e n c y o f p i c t u r e s 3 0 ,
and t o t a l n u m b e r o f p i c t u r e - i n c h e s w a s 2 1 2 .
T im e l e d t h e l i s t i n t h i s f i e l d
f r e q u e n c y o f 76 a n d a t o t a l
of
sc ie n c e w ith a
o f 117 c o lu m n - in e h e s .
T hese
92
TABLE XXVI
NUMBER OF SCIENCE CONCEPTS WITH REFERENCE TO ASTRONOMY
FOUND IN VARIOUS MAGAZINES
N o. o f
c o lu m n
in c h e s
F req u en cy
of
m e n tio n
A m e ri c a n
11
23
42
5
C o llie rs
44
38
23
2
M a g az in es
Good H o u s e k e e p i n g
No. o f F re q u e n c y
p ic tu re s
of
in c h e s p ic tu r e s
0
0
3
L ib e rty
L ife
14
15
79
8
p o p u l a r M e ch a n ics
57
32
63
13
6
14
2
1
R ead ers D ig e st
27
35
S a t.
10
7
117
76
3
1
P o p u la r S c ie n c e
Eve. P o s t
T im e
Womans Home Com­
p a n io n
T o ta ls
0
0
286
243
212
30
93
a rtic le s
c o n ta in e d o n ly one p i c t u r e , o r a t o t a l of th r e e
p ic tu re -in c h e s♦
T h ere w as o n ly a d if f e r e n c e o f s ix i n th e fre q u e n c y
o f m e n tio n i n th e n e x t t h r e e m a g a z in e s, C o l l i e r s , H ead ers
D i g e s t , and P o p u la r M e c h a n ic s , th e t o t a l f r e q u e n c i e s
b e in g , 3 8 , 35, and 3 2 , r e s p e c tiv e ly .
T h e re w as a d i f f e r ­
e n c e , h o w e v e r, i n t h e num ber o f c o lu m n - in e h e s p e r m a g a z in e .
p o p u l a r M e c h a n i c s r a n k e d s e c o n d w i t h 57 c o l u m n - i n c h e s ;
C o l l i e r s t h i r d w ith 44 c o lu m n -in e h e s, and R e ad e rs D i g e s t ,
fo u rth , w ith
27 c o l u m n - i n e h e s .
P o p u la r M e c h a n ic s c o n ta in e d
13 p i c t u r e s , o r a t o t a l o f 63 p i c t u r e - i n c h e s , w h ic h w as th e
l a r g e s t num ber fo u n d i n
any o f th e e le v e n m a g a z in e s .
T he A m e ric an r a n k e d f i f t h
ran k ed t h i r d w ith f i v e
i n fre q u e n c y w ith 2 3 , b u t
p i c t u r e s , o r a t o t a l o f 42 p i c t u r e -
in c h e s.
P o p u la r S c ie n c e ranked
1 2 , o r s i x c o lu m n -in c h e s,
L ife
six th
w ith a fre q u e n c y of
and o n ly o n e p i c t u r e .
r a n k e d s e v e n t h w i t h a f r e q u e n c y o f 15 o r 1 4
c o lu m n -in c h e s , b u t r a n k e d s e c o n d w ith e i g h t p i c t u r e s , o r
79 p i c t u r e - i n c h e s .
T h re e m ag a zin es,
G ood H o u s e k e e p i n g , L i b e r t y a n d t h e
Womans Home C o m p a n i o n , l i s t e d
c irc u la tio n ,
c o n t a i n e d no
By r e f e r r i n g t o
a s h a v in g th e g r e a t e s t p a id
s c ie n tif ic m a te ria l in
th is fie ld .
T a b l e XXVII i t c a n b e s e e n t h a t
a s t r o n o m y c o n t a i n e d 16 d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p t s w i t h a t o t a l
94
TABLE XXVII
LIST OF ASTRONOMY CONCEPTS FOUND IN MAGAHNE ARTICLES
INCLUDING THEIR FREQUENCIES
Co n c e p t s
M e n tio n e d
F req u en cy
S tre sse d
E x p la in e d
T o ta l s
11
1
E c lip s e
5
4
G a la x y
4
3
15
2
M e te o rs
6
4
10
Moon
6
4
10
N o rth e rn l i g h t s
4
4
8
PI a n e ts
9
5
14
R o ta tio n of e a r th
8
5
Sun
14
8
S u n lig h t
12
S u n sp o ts
8
A tm o sp h e re
In stru m e n ts
12
2
11
7
1
1
19
14
22
12
2
10
26
S ta rs
16
10
T e le sc o p e
23
2
1
26
T e rm s
24
4
4
32
5
6
170
64
T im e
T o ta ls
11
9
243
95
f r e q u e n c y o f 243*
a rtic le
C o n c e p ts t h a t a p p e a re d i n t h e
sam e
tw o o r m o re t i m e s w e re r e c o r d e d o n ly o n c e , t a b u l a ­
t i o n s b e i n g m ade a c c o r d i n g t o
a rtic le s.
th e freq u en cy in . s e p a ra te
H o w e v e r , i t w a s n o t uncomm on t o f i n d
th re e o r
m o re d i f f e r e n t e l e m e n t s i n t h e sa m e a r t i c l e .
Of t h e
s i x t e e n c o n c e p ts m e n tio n e d u n d e r astro n o m y
th o s e ra n k in g h ig h e s t in o r d e r o f im p o rta n c e w ere:
te rm s,
(6 )
(2 )
te le sc o p e ,
su n lig h t,
a n d (7 )
(3)
sta rs,
(4 )
a tm o sp h e re .
in stru m e n ts,
It
is
(1 )
(5 )
sun,
sig n ific a n t th a t
t h e c o n c e p ts w i t h w h ich th e a v e r a g e r e a d e r i s p r o b a b ly
th e b e s t a c q u a in te d had th e l a r g e s t fre q u e n c y o f m e n tio n
in th e se a r t i c l e s .
e x p la in e d ,
O n ly t h r e e o f t h e s e a r t i c l e s w e r e
t h e r e s t b e in g m e r e ly m e n tio n e d o r s t r e s s e d .
O th e r c o n c e p ts r e c e iv in g o n ly n e g l i g i b l e m e n tio n
w e r e (8 )
p la n e ts ,
(11) m e t e o r s ,
g a la x y ,
(9 )
ro ta tio n of e a rth ,
(12) m oon,
and (16)
(13)
tim e ,
(14)
(1 0 )
su n s p o ts ,
e c lip s e ,
(1 5 )
n o rth e rn l i g h t s .
Of t h e 2 4 3 a r t i c l e s p e r t a i n i n g t o
a stro n o m y , 170
o r 70 p e r c e n t w e r e m e n t i o n e d , 6 0 o r 24 p e r c e n t w e r e
stre sse d ,
and n in e o r o n ly s i x p e r c e n t w ere e x p la in e d .
I I .
METEROLOGY
T a b l e X X V III sh o w s t h e n u m b e r o f t i m e s m e t e r o l o g y
was m e n tio n e d i n t h e a r t i c l e s s t u d i e d ,
i n e h e s d e v o te d to
th e to p ic ,
t h e num ber o f c o lu m n -
fre q u e n c y of p i c t u r e s , and th e
96
,
TABLE X X V III
HUMBER OF METEROLOGY CONCEPTS FOUND I N VARIOUS MAGAZINES
M a g az in es
Ho. o f
c o lu m n
in c h es
F requency
of
m e n tio n
A m e ric an
8
10
C o llie rs
26
16
N o. o f
p ic tu re
in c h e s
F req u en cy
of
p ic tu re s
3
1
G ood H o u s e k e e p i n g
0
L ib e rty
2
2
L ife
14
12
24
2
Po p u l a r Me c h a n i c s
10
8
1
1
2
4
R ead ers D ig e st
17
28
S a t.
11
16
28
17
P o p u la r S c ie n c e
E v en in g P o s t
T im e
Womanf s Home Com pan­
io n
T o ta ls
0
0
118
0
113
28
4
97
num ber o f p i c t u r e - i n c h e s p e r m a g a z in e .
The t o t a l num ber o f
c o lu m n - in e h e s p e r t a i n i n g t o m e te o r o lo g y w as 1 1 8 , t h e f r e ­
quency o f m e n tio n 1 1 5 , fre q u e n c y of p i c t u r e s f o u r,
and t o t a l
num ber of p i c t u r e - i n c h e s w as £8.
R e a d e r s D i g e s t r a n k e d f i r s t w i t h 2 8 a r t i c l e s a n d 17
c o lu m n -in c h e s,
and S a tu r d a y E v e n in g P o s t and C o l l i e r s
e q u a l ly i n f r e q u e n c y o f m e n tio n , w h ic h w as 1 6 ,
ran k ed
H ow ever,
C o l l i e r s c o n ta in e d t h e g r e a t e r num ber o f c o lu m n - in c h e s — 2 6 ,
The re m a in in g m a g a z in e s c o n ta in in g m e te o ro lo g y
m a te ria l,
an d r a n k e d i n o r d e r o f im p o rta n c e w e re A m erican
w i t h 1 0 a r t i c l e s , p o p u l a r Me c h a n i c s w i t h e i g h t , P o p u l a r
S c ie n c e w ith f o u r and L i b e r t y w ith tw o .
Of t h e e l e v e n m a g a z in e s s t u d i e d , tw o — Good H o u s e k e e p ­
i n g a n d W omans Home C o m p a n i o n - - c o n t a i n e d no s c i e n t i f i c m a t e r ­
ia l
in th is
f i e l d , an d t h r e e m a g a z in e s c o n ta in e d a t o t a l o f
o n l y f o u r p i c t u r e s , tw o o f w h i c h w e r e f o u n d i n L i f e ,
C o n c e p ts fo u n d i n m e te o r o lo g y ,
A to ta l o f te n d if f e r ­
e n t c o n c e p ts r a n g i n g from a tm o s p h e r ic c o n d i t i o n s t o
m e n ts was fo u n d i n t h i s f i e l d .
The te rm " a tm o s p h e r ic
t i o n s ” l e d t h e l i s t w ith 26 r e f e r e n c e s .
ra n k in g in o r d e r of im p o rta n c e w ere
ta tio n ,
(4) b a r o m e t e r ,
m o v sa e n t,
(8)
m e te o ro lo g y .
(5 )
fo re c a s tin g ,
w in d s,
(9 )
( S e e T a b l e X X IX .)
in stru ­
(2 )
(6 )
c o n d i­
O th e r c o n c e p ts
sto rm s,
c lo u d s ,
(5 )
(7 )
p re c ip i­
w e a th e r
i n s t r u m e n t s , a n d (10)
98
TABLE XXIX
L I S T OF METEOROLOGY CONCEPTS FOUND I N MAGAZINE A R T IC L E
INCLUDING THEIR FREQUENCIES
F requency
M e te o ro lo g y
M e n tio n e d
M e te o ro lo g y
S tre sse d
E x p la i ne d
T o ta l
1
4
3
1
£0
7
£6
B a ro m e te r
7
3
10
C lo u d s
5
£
7
F o re c a stin g
3
£
A tm o sp h e ric
c o n d itio n s
1
£
In stru m e n ts
6
£
6
10
4
£0
IS
10
1
£3
W e a th e r m ovem ent
3
3
1
7
W in d s
6
£
65
41
P re c ip ita tio n
S to rm s
T o ta ls
8
7
113
99
Of t h e 1 1 3 a r t i c l e s p e r t a i n i n g to m e t e o r o l o g y , 65
o r 57 p e r c e n t w e re m e n tio n e d ,
stre sse d ,
and
41 o r 36 p e r c e n t w e r e
se v e n o r s e v e n p e r c e n t w ere e x p la in e d .
' III.
Of th e
GEOLOGY
th re e b ranches of
sc ie n c e in c lu d e d in t h i s
c h a p te r , g e o lo g y r e c e iv e d th e l e a s t e m p h a sis.
show s t h e
th e
T a b l e XXX
num ber o f t i m e s g e o lo g y was m e n tio n e d i n e a c h o f
e le v e n m a g a z in e s s e l e c t e d f o r t h e s tu d y , t h e
c o lu m n - in c h e s d e r a t e d to
th e to p ic , freq u en cy of p ic tu re s
and t h e num ber o f p i c t u r e - i n c h e s p e r m a g a z in e .
num ber o f c o lu m n -in c h e s p e r t a i n i n g
fre q u e n c y o f m e n tio n 104,
to ta l
num ber o f
The t o t a l
to g e o l o g y w a s 2 5 3 , t h e
frequency o f p ic tu re s
six ,
and
num ber o f p i c t u r e - i n c h e s was 8 7 .
S u r p r i s i n g l y , S a t u r d a y E v e n in g P o s t , a p o p u l a r m aga­
z in e , le d th e l i s t
w i t h 26 a r t i c l e s a n d a t o t a l o f 158
c o lu m n -in e h e s.
P o p u l a r S c i e n c e r a n k e d s e c o n d w ith a f r e q u e n c y o f 16
and e le v e n c o lu m n -in e h e s .
S ix o th e r m a g a z in e s, C o l l i e r s ,
R e a d e r s D i g e s t , L i f e , A rn e ric a n , p o p u l a r M e c h a n ic s , and T im e ,
c o n t a i n e d a n a l m o s t e q u a l am o u n t o f m a t e r i a l , a v e r a g i n g a
freq u en cy of
te n .
R ead ers D ig e st c o n ta in e d th e l a r g e s t
num ber o f c o lu m n - in e h e s — 3 5 .
L i f e , t h e o n ly m a g a z in e c o n ta in i n g p i c t u r e s , h a d s i x
p ic tu re s,
o r 87 p i c t u r e - i n c h e s .
G ood H o u s e k e e p i n g , L i b e r t y ,
100
'FABLE XXX
NUMBER OF GEOLOGY CONCEPTS FOUND I N VARIOUS MAGAZINES
M a g az in e
Mo, o f
c o lu m n
in c h es
F req u en cy
of
m e n tio n
A m e ric a n
8
9
C o llie rs
4
13
35
10
2
1
R ead ers D ig e s t
G o o d h o u sek e ep in g
19
10
P o p u la r M e c h a n ic s
6
9
S a t . E v en in g p o s t
158
26
11
16
8
8
Womans Home C o m p a n io n 2
1
253
104
p o p u la r S c ie n c e
T im e
T o ta ls
F req u en cy
of
p ic tu re s
1
L ib e rty
L ife
No. o f
p ic tu re
in c h e s
S7
6
101
a n d Womans Home C o m p a n io n c o n t a i n e d o n l y o n e a r t i c l e
C o n c e p ts fo u n d in g e o lo g y .
By r e f e r r i n g t o T a b l e
XXXI i t may b e s e e n t h a t g e o l o g y w a s s u b d i v i d e d i n t o
m a in t o p i c s ,
phenom ena,
o r c o n c e p ts:
(3 )
o i l w e lls ,
(1 )
(4 )
each*
ages o f ro ck ,
o res,
(5 )
(2 )
ro ck s,
six
n a tu ra l
a n d (6 )
se ism o g ra p h s.
1.
d e p o sits ,
Ages o f r o c k h ad f i v e s u b h e a d in g s ,
fa u lts, fissu re s,
a n tic lin e s ,
and l a v a , m ak in g a t o t a l
freq u en cy o f 45.
2.
N a tu r a l phenom ena w as d i v i d e d
e a rth q u a k e s, g e y s e rs ,
g la c ie rs,
g u lf
in to
fiv e c la s s e s ,
stre a m , and v o lc a n o e s ,
m ak in g a t o t a l f r e q u e n c y o f 2 5 .
3.
Rocks ran k ed t h i r d w ith a fre q u e n c y o f 1 3 .
Of a t o t a l o f 1 0 4 t i m e s t h a t g e o l o g y w a s f o u n d i n t h e
m ag a zin es s t u d i e d ,
70 a r t i c l e s ,
or
25 o r 2 4 p e r c e n t w e r e s t r e s s e d ,
67 p e r c e n t w e r e m e n t i o n e d ,
and n in e o r n in e p e r c e n t
w ere e x p la in e d .
17.
A stro n o m y .
p e r t a in in g to
1.
SUMMARY
The t o t a l
num ber o f c o lu m n - in e h e s
a s t r o n o m y w a s. 2 8 6 , t h e f r e q u e n c y o f m e n t i o n
243, freq u e n cy o f p ic tu r e s 30,
an d t o t a l
num ber of p i c t u r e -
i n c h e s w as 2 1 2 .
2.
T im e l e d t h e l i s t
in th is
fie ld
of
a f r e q u e n c y o f 76 a n d a t o t a l o f 1 1 7 c o l u m n - i n c h e s .
s c ie n c e w ith
lo g
TABLE XXI
L IS T OF GEOLOGY CONCEPTS FOUND IN MAGAZINE ABTICL13
INCLUDING THEIR FREQUENCIES
C oncept
M e n tio n e d
A ges o f r o c k
9
A n tic lin e s
D e p o sits
F a u lts
F issu re s
L ava
2
6
6
5
4
F requency
S tre sse d
E x p la in e d
3
3
1
T o ta l
12
1
2
3
11
7
5
7
1
2
11
3
2
4
5
1
5
3
N a tu ra l phenom ena
E a rth q u ak e s
G ey ers
G la c ie rs
G u lf stre am
V o lc an o e s
9
2
1
2
2
4
2
1
O il w e lls
2
2
O res
5
3
11
1
1
13
5
3
2
8
Rocks
S e i sm ograph
8
10 5
3.
a to ta l
A s t r o n o m y c o n t a i n e d 16 d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p t s w i t h
freq u en cy of 243.
4.
Of t h e s i x t e e n c o n c e p t s m e n t i o n e d u n d e r a s t r o n o m y
th o s e ra n k in g h ig h e s t i n o r d e r of im p o rta n c e w ere:
te rn s ,
(6 )
(2 )
te le sc o p e ,
su n lig h t,
5.
(3 )
sta rs,
(4)
in stru m e n ts,
(1 )
(5)
sun,
a n d (7 ) a t m o s p h e r e .
Of t h e 245
a r t i c l e s p e rta in in g
to a s tro n o m y ,
1 7 0 o r 70
p e r c e n t w e r e m e n t i o n e d , 60 o r 2 4 p e r c e n t w e r e
stre sse d ,
and n in e o r
M e te o ro lo g y .
o n ly s ix p e r
1.
The t o t a l
c e n t w eree x p la in e d .
num ber o f c o lu m n -in e h e s
p e r t a i n i n g t o m e te o ro lo g y w as 1 1 8 , t h e f r e q u e n c y o f m e n tio n
1 1 3 , fre q u e n c y o f p i c t u r e s f o u r , an d t o t a l num ber o f
p i c t u r e - i n c h e s was 2 8 .
2.
R ead ers D ig e s t ran k e d f i r s t w ith 28 a r t i c l e s and
17 c o lu m n - in e h e s .
3.
A t o t a l o f t e n d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p ts r a n g in g fro m
a tm o s p h e r ic c o n d i t i o n s to
fie ld .
The te n a
i n s t r u m e n t s was fo u n d i n t h i s
"a tm o sp h e ric c o n d itio n s "
le d th e l i s t
w ith
26 r e f e r e n c e s .
4.
Gf t h e 1 1 2 a r t i c l e s p e r t a i n i n g t o m e t e o r o l o g y ,
6 5 o r 57 p e r c e n t w e r e m e n t i o n e d , 41 o r 36 p e r c e n t w e r e
stre sse d ,
and se v e n o r se v e n p e r c e n t w ere e x p la in e d .
G e o lo g y .
in c lu d e d
1.
Of t h e t h r e e
in t h i s c h a p te r,
b ran ch es of
sc ie n c e
g e o lo g y r e c e i v e d th e l e a s t
e m p h a sis.
104
2.
T he t o t a l num ber o f
c o lu m n -in c h e s d e v o te d to
g e o lo g y was 2 5 3 , t h e f r e q u e n c y o f m e n tio n 1 0 4 , fr e q u e n c y o f
p i c t u r e s s i x , an d t o t a l num ber o f p i c t u r e - i n c h e s w as 8 7 .
3.
m a g a z in e ,
S u r p r i s i n g l y , S a tu r d a y E v en in g P o s t , a p o p u l a r
le d th e l i s t
w i t h 26 a r t i c l e s
and a t o t a l o f 158
c o lu m n -in c h e s .
4.
G e o lo g y w as s u b d i v i d e d i n t o
c o n c e p ts :
(1 )
ages of rock,
o i l w e lls ,
(4)
o res,
5.
(5)
(2 )
s i x m a in t o p i c s , o r
n a t u r a l phenom ena,
r o c k s , a n d (6 )
(3 )
se ism o g ra p h s.
Of a t o t a l o f 104 tim e s t h a t g e o lo g y w as fo u n d
i n t h e m a g a z in e s s t u d i e d ,
70 a r t i c l e s ,
o r 67 p e r c e n t w e re
m e n tio n e d , 25 o r 24 p e r c e n t w ere s t r e s s e d ,
p e r c e n t w ere e x p la in e d .
and n in e o r n in e
CHAPTER VIII
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
T h i s c h a p t e r vd 11 c o n t a i n a r e s t a t e m e n t o f t h e
p r o b l e m , m e th o d o f p r o c e d u r e ,
sum m ary o f f i n d i n g s ,
and con­
c l u s i o n s draw n t h e r e f r o n u
R e sta te m e n t o f th e
th e re i s
c o n sid e ra b le
p ro b le m .
I n v ie w of t h e f a c t t h a t
dem and f o r t h e a d a p t a t i o n o f s c i e n c e
c o u rs e s to m eet p o p u la r n eed s,
and s i n c e i t
is
to m a g a z in e s ,
p e r i o d i c a l s a n d n e w s p a p e rs t h a t t h e A m e ric an p e o p l e t u r n
when s e e k i n g b o th i n f o r m a t i o n an d e n jo y m e n t, i t
th a t th e re is
c o n c e p ts to
1.
p e r s o n to
2.
need f o r a c lo s e r s c r u tin y o f th e s c ie n c e
be fo u n d i n m a g a z in e s i n o r d e r t o d e te r m in e :
W h at s c i e n t i f i c k n o w l e d g e i s
be a b le t o
n ecessary f o r th a t
i n t e l l i g e n t l y re a d th e
common m a g a z i n e ?
W h at p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e m a g a z i n e s i s
news c o n t a i n i n g r e f e r e n c e s t o
3.
w o u ld seem
d e v o te d t o
sc ie n c e ?
W hat c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f s c i e n c e c o n c e p t s f o u n d i n
p o p u la r m ag a zin es c o in c id e w ith s c ie n c e
su b je c ts ta u g h t in
se co n d a ry sc h o o ls?
4.
q u e n tly
W hat
s e ie n e e c o n c e p ts a r e r e f e r r e d t o m ost f r e ­
in m a g a z in e s and t h e r e f o r e
b a s is f o r sc ie n c e
su b je c t-m a tte r?
sh o u ld c o n s t i t u t e th e
106
5.
W h at v a l u e s w h i c h m i g h t b e o b t a i n e d f o r s c i e n c e
c u r r i c u l u m b u i l d i n g by t h e m a g a z in e a n a l y s i s m eth o d ?
M eth o d o f p r o c e d u r e .
E le v e n p o p u la r m a g a z in e s w ere
s e l e c t e d f o r t h e s t u d y on t h e b a s i s
(2 )
freq u en cy of is s u e ,
c la s s e s of re a d e rs .
an d (3)
of
(1)
ap p eal to
c irc u la tio n ,
a l l g ro u p s o r
The m a g a z in e s s t u d i e d w ere:
A m e ric a n ,
C o l l i e r s , G ood H o u s e k e e p i n g , L i b e r t y , L i f e , p o p u l a r M e c h a n i c s , P o p u la r S c i e n c e , R e a d e rs D i g e s t , S a tu r d a y E v en in g p o s t ,
T im e , a n d Womans Home C o m p a n i o n .
A ll i s s u e s o f each m a g a z in e c h o se n f o r t h e i n v e s t i g a ­
t i o n w ere c a r e f u l l y r e a d f o r an y s c ie n c e
a rtic le th a t referred
to
or d ire c tly
be in c lu d e d i n t h i s
c o u n te d , m ea su re d ,
in g to
stu d y .
su b d iv id e d in to
p a rtic u la r fie ld ,
su ffic ie n t
im p o rta n c e
A f t e r t h e c o n c e p t s w ere
and r e c o r d e d , t h e y w e re c l a s s i f i e d
th e b r a n c h o f s c ie n c e to
fu rth e r
Any
im p lie d to any sc ie n c e
o r s c ie n c e c o n c e p ts w as c o n s id e r e d o f
to
c o n c e p ts .
v d i ic h t h e y p e r t a i n e d ,
acco rd ­
and
th e s c ie n c e e le m e n ts i n t h a t
i n a d d i t i o n t h e c o n c e p ts w ere ta b u l a t e d
a c c o r d in g to w h e th e r th e y h a d m e re ly b e e n m e n tio n e d i n th e
a rtic le ,
s tre s s e d h e a v ily , o r a c tu a lly
e x p la in e d ,
it
was
b e l i e v e d t h a t t h i s m eth o d w o u ld h e l p i n d i c a t e w hat e l e m e n t s
s h o u ld r e c e i v e m ore e m p h a sis i n
co u rses.
seco n d ary school s c ie n c e
107
S u m m a ry .
1.
T h e f i n d i n g s m ay b e s u m m a r i z e d a s f o l l o w s :
I n t h e 320 i s s u e s o f th e
s e l e c te d f o r th e
stu d y ,
a t o t a l o f 4072 a r t i c l e s
s c i e n c e c o n c e p t s w e re found*
n in e of th e s e
o n ly
c o n ta in in g
T h irty -s e v e n hun d red f i f t y -
ite m s w ere s t r a i g h t s c i e n c e new s a r t i c l e s ,
and
se v en p e r c e n t w e re a c c o m p a n ie d b y p i c t u r e s .
2.
Tim e m a g a z i n e r a n k e d f i r s t ,
879 a r t i c l e s
of a rtic le s
is
e le v e n m a g a z in e s
p rin tin g
c o n ta in in g s c ie n c e c o n c e p ts .
a to ta l of
T h e l a r g e num ber
c o n t a i n e d i n t h i s p o p u l a r c u r r e n t new s m a g a z in e
sig n ific a n t
i n a s m uch a s i t
i n d ic a t e s th e m easu re o f
im p o r ta n c e t h i s m a g a z in e p l a c e s u p o n new s o f a s c i e n t i f i c
c h a ra c te r.
Two s c i e n c e m a g a z i n e s , F o p u l a r s c i e n c e a n d p o p u l a r
M e c h a n ic s ra n k e d s e c o n d and f i f t h
a rtic le s
each.
p l a c e s w i t h 6 3 1 a n d 47 2
T h e s e tw o m a g a z i n e s w o u l d p r o b a b l y h a v e
r a n k e d h i g h e s t i n num ber o f s c i e n t i f i c
a r t i c l e s had a y e a r’s
s a m p lin g o f t h e m ag a zin e b e e n ta k e n i n s t e a d o f s i x m o n th s.
S a t u r d a y jg v e n i n g p o s t a n d C o l l i e r s , t h e two m a g a z i n e s m o s t
com m only r e a d f o r a m u s e m e n t r a n k e d t h i r d
and f o u r t h ,
r e s p e c t i v e l y , w i t h 5 0 3 a n d 486 a r t i c l e s e a c h .
3.
T he l e n g t h o f t h e 4072 news a r t i c l e s ,
r e f e r e n c e s to
sc ie n c e
c o n ta in in g
t o t a l l e d 4431 c o lu m n - in c h e s .
T im e
m a g a z in e ra n k e d f i r s t p l a c e i n am ount o f s p a c e d e v o te d to
s c ie n c e new s,
an a v e r a g e o f 19 c o lu m n - in c h e s p e r m a g a z in e ,
o r a t o t a l o f 1005 c o lu m n -in e h e s o v e r th e p e rio d
of a y e a r .
108
A lth o u g h H e a d e rs D ig e s t ra n k e d
a r tic le s p rin te d ,
p rin tin g
it
ran k ed t h i r d
i n num ber o f s c i e n c e
r a n k e d se c o n d i n am ount o f new s,
718 c o lu m n - in e h e s ,
in e h e s p e r a r t i c l e .
six th
o r a n a v e r a g e o f 62 c o l u m n -
S a tu rd a y
and f o u r th ,
E v e n in g P o s t and c o l l i e r s
w i t h 6 2 8 c o l u m n - i n c h e s a n d 579
c o lu m n -in c h e s, r e s p e c t iv e ly .
It
is
s ig n ific a n t
th a t
t h e tvso m a g a z i n e s — T im e a n d
R ead ers D ig e s t—m ost w id e ly u se d i n
first
se c o n d a ry s c h o o ls ran k ed
and seco n d p l a c e s , r e s p e c t i v e l y , i n
m ost s c i e n t i f i c
c o n ta in in g th e
new s.
4.
P ic tu re s ,
a v ita l
o c c u p i e d a t o t a l o f o n l y 2 369
e le m e n t i n v i s u a l
c o l u m n - i n e h e s i n t h e 320
i s s u e s o f m ag a zin es u se d i n t h e s tu d y .
T h is w as e q u a l to
a p p r o x im a te ly h a l f t h e am ount of s p a c e d e v o te d to
a r t i c l e s p re s e n tin g sc ie n c e
th e
new s.
L i f e , a p i c t u r e m ag a zin e,
num ber o f p i c t u r e
e d u c a tio n ,
c o n ta in e d th e g r e a t e s t
c o lu m n - in c h e s w h ic h t o t a l l e d 1 6 9 7 .
P o p u la r S c ie n c e ra n k e d second w ith 235 p i c t u r e c o lu m n -in c h es
and P o p u la r M e c h a n ic s ra n k e d t h i r d
in e h e s.
S in c e p ic tu r e s
t h e v a lu e o f a p r i n t e d
P o p u la r s c ie n c e and
v a lu e to t h e
w ith 199 p i c t u r e
and i l l u s t r a t i o n s g r e a t l y
a rtic le
c o lu m n -
enhance
i t m ig h t be assum ed t h a t L i f e ,
F o p u la r M e c h a n ic s v o u ld be o f g r e a t e s t
stu d e n ts of sc ie n c e c la s s e s .
109
5.
I n c l a s s if y i n g th e
s c ie n c e c o n c e p ts u n d e r m a jo r
to p ic s o f sc ie n c e as ta u g h t in
ranked a s fo llo w s :
(1)
(4)
th e y
p h y s i c s , 1682 c o lu m n - in c h e s ;
b i o lo g y , 1490 c o lu m n -in c h e s ;
in e h e s;
seco n d ary s c h o o ls,
(3 )
(2 )
c h e m i s t r y , 602 c o lu m n -
a s tro n o m y , 286 c o lu m n - in c h e s ;
(5 )
g e o lo g y ,
2 5 3 c o l u m n - i n e h e s ; a n d (6 ) m e t e o r o l o g y , 1 1 8 c o l u m n - i n c h e s .
6.
P h y sic s,
w as fo u n d to
a p o p u la r h ig h school sc ie n c e s u b je c t,
h av e th e m ost s p a c e d e v o te d to
m a g a z in e s s e l e c te d f o r t h i s s tu d y .
s p a c e d e v o te d to
it
i n th e e le v e n
The g r e a t e s t am ount o f
p h y s i c s i n a n y o n e m a g a z i n e w a s Tim e w i t h
a t o t a l o f 336 c o l u m n - i n c h e s .
The f i v e m a g a z in e s , A m e ric an
C & l l l e r s , L i b e r t y , G o o d H o u s e k e e p i n g , and Womans Home c o m p a n ­
io n , lis te d
as h a v in g t h e g r e a t e s t p a id
c irc u la tio n ,
sh o w ed
an a lm o st n e g l i g i b l e am ount o f s c i e n t i f i c m a t e r i a l o n t h e
to p ic o f p h y sic s.
It
is
s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t t h e f i v e m aga­
z in e s h a v in g th e g r e a t e s t p a id
le a st
c iru la tio n
am ount o f s c i e n t i f i c n ew s.
sh o u ld c o n ta in th e
Of t h i s g r o u p , th e A m e ric a n
i s p e r h a p s t h e o n l y m a g a z in e w h ic h i s
fo u n d i n sc h o o l
lib ra rie s .
P h y s ic s w as s u b d iv id e d i n t o
s i x m ain t o p i c s :
l i g h t , w i t h a f r e q u e n c y o f 456 a n d 23 s u b t o p i c s ;
e le c tric ity
su b to p ic s;
(1 )
(2)
an d m a g n e tis m , w i t h a f r e q u e n c y o f 4 1 1 and 2 3
(3 )
m a t t e r , w i t h a f r e q u e n c y o f 326 an d 1 8 s u b -
to p ic s;
(5 ) m e c h a n i c s , w i t h a f r e q u e n c y o f 331 a n d 1 3 s u b -
to p ic s;
a n d (6 )
s o u n d , w i t h a f r e q u e n c j ^ o f 92 a n d f i v e
110
su b to p ic s.
Of th e t o t a l
p h y sic s,
1905 new s a r t i c l e s
fou n d p e r t a i n i n g to
70 p e r c e n t o f 1 3 3 9 a r t i c l e s w e r e m e n t i o n e d ; 2 7
p e r . c e n t o r 531 a r t i c l e s w e re s t r e s s e d ;
36 a r t i c l e s w e r e
e x p la in e d .
S in c e
such a s m a ll num ber o f
t h e s e c o n c e p t s o r a r t i c l e s w ere a c t u a l l y
m e a n in g s a r e a p t to b e t o o
s tu d e n ts i n t e r e s t s
e x p la in e d ,
th e
o r re m o te fro m t h e
and u n d e r s t a n d i n g s .
sc h o o l sh o u ld p re p a re
to
a b stra c t
and 3 p e r c e n t o r
T h erefo re th e
t h e p u p i l s so t h a t t h e y w i l l b e a b le
i n t e r p r e t t h e m a t e r i a l c o v e r e d by t h e s e m a g a z i n e s .
7.
B i o l o g y w as f o u n d t o b e t h e m a j o r t o p i c o f 90 5
m a g a z in e ^ a r t i c l e s .
One h u n d r e d t w e n t y - s e v e n , o r 14 p e r
c e n t o f t h e s e a r t i c l e s w e re a c c o m p a n ie d b y p i c t u r e s .
T h is
w as t h e l a r g e s t num ber o f p i c t u r e s fo u n d f o r an y one
b ra n c h o f s c ie n c e m e n tio n e d i n t h i s
T im e r a n k e d f i r s t ,
p e rta in in g
to
b io lo g y .
p rin tin g
stu d y .
a t o t a l o f 189 a r t i c l e s
C o l l i e r s , a m a g a z i n e m o s t com m only
r e a d f o r am usem ent p u r p o s e s ra n k e d s e c o n d w ith 155
a rtic le s.
L i f e c o n t a i n e d 61 p i c t u r e s o f b i o l o g i c a l i n t e r e s t
and F o p u l& r S c i e n c e c o n ta in e d 44 p i c t u r e s .
R ead ers D ig e s t,
a m a g a z i n e m o s t c o m m o n ly r e a d b y p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n s ,
ran k ed t h i r d w ith a t o t a l
o f 146 a r t i c l e s .
The l e n g t h o f t h e 905 new s a r t i c l e s
b io lo g ic a l
in fo rm a tio n t o t a l l e d
c o n ta in in g
1490 c o lu m n -in c h e s .
A
I ll
t o t a l o f 401 c o lu m n - in e h e s was p r i n t e d
i n T im e , an d R e a d e rs
D i g e s t and C o l l i e r s r a n k e d s e c o n d a n d t h i r d w i t h 360 an d
246 c o lu m n - in c h e s , r e s p e c t i v e l y *
The 905 a r t i c l e s f o u n d i n t h e f i e l d o f b i o l o g y w e re
fu rth e r
c l a s s i f i e d in to
p a rtic u la r fie ld .
15 c o n c e p ts ,
The t o p i c s m e n tio n e d t h e g r e a t e s t num ber
o f tim e s i n b io lo g y w ere p h y s io lo g y ,
p la n ts,
fish ,
o r su b to p ic s in t h a t
d is e a s e .,
a n im a ls, b a c t e r i a and b i r d s .
fe rtiliz a tio n ,
in se c ts,
R e p ro d u c tio n ,
s e x (h o rm o n es) , and s t e r i l i z a t i o n
w ere th e
s u b je c ts d is c u s s e d u n d e r th e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of p h y s io lo g y .
It
is
sig n ific a n t
t h a t t h e s e m uch d i s c u s s e d
o f to d a y sh o u ld ra n k f i r s t
t a i n i n g to
b io lo g y .
su b je c ts
among t h e a r t i c l e s w r i t t e n p e r ­
T h i s b e i n g t r u e no s t u d e n t s h o u l d b e
ig n o ra n t o f th e s e s u b j e c t s and th e
sc h o o l sh o u ld a tte m p t t o
b u i l d s c i e n c e p ro g ra m s w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n a im e d a t a n i n t e l l i ­
gent in te r p r e ta tio n o f th e s e s u b je c ts .
Of a t o t a l o f 905 t i m e s t h a t t h e
was r e f e r r e d t o
c e n t o f th e
A t o t a l o f 795 a r t i c l e s p e r t a i n i n g to
F o rty -tw o ,
a c c o m p a n ie d t h e s e
th is
323 o r 31 p e r c e n t
and 23 o r e ig h t p e r c e n t w ere e x p la in e d *
8.
w as fo u n d .
b io lo g y
i n t h e m a g a z i n e s s t u d i e d , 5 5 9 , o r 61 p e r
a r t i c l e s w ere m e n tio n e d ,
w ere s t r e s s e d ,
sc ie n c e of
a n e g l i g i b l e n um ber, p i c t u r e s
a rtic le s.
f i e l d w i t h 250 a r t i c l e s .
t o t a l of 143 a r t i c l e s ,
c h e m is try
P o p u la r $ c ie n c e ran k ed f i r s t i n
T im e r a n k e d s e c o n d w i t h a
and p o p u l a r M e c h a n ic s t h i r d w i t h 85
112
a rtic le s.
The le n g th o f th e
to ta lle d
795 c h e m i s t r y n e w s a r t i c l e s
603 c o l u m n - i n c h e s .
P o p u l a r S c i e n c e a n d T im e
ra n k e d f i r s t an d seco n d w ith 183 a n d 115 c o lu m n - in c h e s ,
re s p e c tiv e ly .
& lth o u g h t h e a r t i c l e s
o n ly t h i r d i n fre q u e n c y , th e y
p e r t a i n i n g to
to u e h e d o n a g r e a t e r num ber o f
f i e l d s th a n i n any o th e r sc ie n c e
d iv id e d in to
c h e m is try ran k ed
stu d ie d .
e ig h t m a jo r f i e l d s o f
The o o n c e p ts w ere
c h e m is try ;
s ta n c e , w i t h a fre q u e n c y o f 166 and f i v e
(1)
sub­
su b to p ic s;
(3)
m a tte r , w ith a fre q u e n c y o f 164 and f i v e s u b to p ic s ;
(3)
re a c tio n s,
v i t h a fr e q u e n c y o f 110 and se v en s u b to p i c s ;
(4 )
c o n d itio n ,
m th
(5 )
p r o p e r t i e s , w i t h a fre q u e n c y o f 77 and 14 s u b to p ic s ;
(6)
p r o c e s s e s , w i t h a f r e q u e n c y o f 74 and 14 s u b t o p i c s ;
(7)
t e r m s , w i t h a f r e q u e n c y o f 70 a n d 11 s u b t o p i c s ;
(8)
o r g a n i c , w i t h a f r e q u e n c y o f 45 an d 1 3 s u b t o p i c s .
Of t h e t o t a l
a f r e q u e n c y o f 89 a n d n i n e s u b t o p i c s ;
795 m a g a z in e a r t i c l e s
and
in th e f i e l d
of
c h e m i s t r y , 592 o r 74 p e r c e n t w e r e m e n t i o n e d , 1 4 7 o r 1 8
p e r c e n t w ere s t r e s s e d ,
a n d 56 o r 8 p e r c e n t w e r e e x p l a i n e d .
T h is w as th e l a r g e s t num ber o f c o n c e p ts e x p la in e d i n an y
one f i e l d
of sc ie n c e
in th is stu d y .
T h is im p lie s t h a t
s t u d e n t m ay a g a i n i m m e d i a t e a n d p r a c t i c a l
th e
in f o r m a tio n fro m
t h e s e a r t i c l e s w h ic h he c a n u s e i n h i s s c h o o l d a y s — su c h a s ,
in f o r m a t i o n on c o s m e tic s ,
a d v a n c e m e n ts i n r a d i o
and
113
te le v isio n ,
new s m e th o d s i n d e v e lo p in g p h o t o g r a p h s , b e t t e r
g a s o l i n e , m a t e r i a l s o f w h ic h a i r p l a n e s
h o u se h o ld c h e m ic a ls ,
in te re s te d
a re m ade, u s e f u l
and nu m ero u s o t h e r s .
S tu d e n ts a re
i n t h o s e t h i n g s w ith w h ic h t h e y
can a n o tio n a lly
i d e n t i f y th e m se lv e s.
9.
A stro n o m y r a n k e d f o u r t h
sc ie n c e found in a t o t a l
le d th e l i s t
in th is
a s a m a jo r t o p ic o f
o f 286 m a g a z in e a r t i c l e s .
fie ld
o f sc ie n c e w ith
76 a n d a t o t a l o f 1 1 7 c o l u m n - i n c h e s .
c e p ts l i s t e d
u n d e r a stro n o m y th o s e
o f im p o rta n c e w ere:
(1)
(4)
sun,
in stru m e n ts,
(5 )
te rm s,
(6 )
T im e
a freq u en cy of
Of t h e
six te e n
con­
ran k in g h ig h e s t i n o r d e r
(2)
te le sc o p e s,
su n lig h t,
a n d (7)
(3 )
sta rs,
a tm o sp h e re .
Of t h e 2 4 3 a r t i c l e s p e r t a i n i n g t o a s t r o n o m y , 1 7 0 ,
o r 70 p e r c e n t w e r e m e n t i o n e d , 6 0 , o r 2 4 p e r c e n t w e r e
stre sse d ,
and n i n e ,
T h is s u b j e c t
o r o n ly s i x p e r c e n t w ere e x p l a i n e d .
s h o u l d r e c e i v e m uch e m p h a s i s i n s o u t h e r n
C a lif o r n ia s c h o o ls b eca u se o f th e
a v a ila b le
e x c e lle n t
fa c ilitie s
f o r su c h s t u d y — M t. W ils o n O b s e r v a to r y and
G r i f f i t h P ark
10.
O b s e rv a to ry .
One h u n d r e d e i g h t e e n c o l u m n - i n c h e s o f t h e
m a g a z in e s s t u d i e d w ere d e v o te d to
m e te o ro lo g y .
th e sc ie n c e of
R ead ers D ig e st ran k e d f i r s t
o f s c i e n c e w i t h 28 a r t i c l e s .
in th is f ie ld
S a tu r d a y E v e n in g p o s t and
C o l l i e r s r a n k e d s e c o n d an d t h i r d w i t h
a f r e q u e n c y o f 16
114
6 6.Ch. «
& t o t a l o f te n d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p ts w ere l i s t e d
th is fie ld
tio n ,
on t h e f o llo w in g 's u b je c ts :
b a ro m e te r, w in d s,
fo re c a s tin g .
c lo u d s,
in
sto rm s, p r e c i p i t a ­
w e a t h e r m o v e m e n t, and
O n ly a n e g l i g i b l e num ber o f t h e s e t e r m s w e re
e x p l a i n e d , b u t t h e s e a r e s u b j e c t s w ith w h ic h t h e a v e r a g e
s tu d e n t i s w e ll a c q u a in te d and m e e ts in e v e ry d a y l i f e .
11.
Of t h e
sc ie n c e s in c lu d e d in t h i s
s tu d y , g e o lo g y
r e c e iv e d th e l e a s t e m p h a sis, w ith a t o t a l o f 104 a r t i c l e s
o r 253 c o lu m n - in c h e s *
le d
th e l i s t w ith
S u r p r i s i n g l y , S a tu r d a y E v e n in g p o s t
26 a r t i c l e s
a n d a t o t a l o f 158 c o lu m n -
in c h e s.
G e o lo g y w as s u b d i v i d e d i n t o
c o n c e p ts:
{1)
ages of ro c k s,
o i l w e lls ,
(4)
o res,
(5 )
O n ly n i n e p e r c e n t o f t h e
12.
(2 )
s i x m ain t o p i c s ,
or
n a t u r a l phenom ena,
r o c k s , a n d (6 )
(3)
se ism o g ra p h s.
a r t i c l e s w ere e x p l a i n e d .
Of t h e e l e v e n m a g a z i n e s s t u d i e d f o r s c i e n t i f i c
m a te ria l o r a r t i c l e s ,
22 p e r c e n t o f t h e m a t e r i a l w as
f o u n d i n Tim e , 1 6 p e r c e n t i n p o p u l a r S c i e n c e , 1 2 p e r c e n t
i n S a tu r d a y E v en in g p o s t ; 1 1 .5 p e r c e n t i n C o l l i e r s ; and
11 p e r c e n t i n p o p u l a r M e c h a n i c s .
It
T im e — a c u r r e n t n e w s m a g a z i n e - - a n d t h e
is
not unusual th a t
two s c i e n c e m a g a ­
z in e s , p o p u la r S c ie n c e
and P o p u l a r M e c h a n ic s , s h o u ld b e
in th e upper b ra c k e ts,
but it
is
ra th e r sig n ific a n t
th a t
S a tu r d a y E v en in g P o s t and C o l l i e r s , m a g a z in e s t h a t a re
115
o r d i n a r i ly c o n sid e re d a s l i g h t re a d in g ,
a h ig h r a t i n g ,
sh o u ld r e c e iv e such
G o o d h o u s e k e e p i n g , L i h e r t y t a n d Womans Home
C o m p a n io n c o n t a i n e d o n l y a n e g l i g i b l e a m o u n t o f
sc ie n tific
m a t e r i a l , w i t h Womans Home C o m p a n io n r a n k i n g l o w e s t o f t h e
e le v e n m a g a z in e s.
A stu d y of th e f in d in g s
C o n c lu s io n s .
v e s t i g a t i o n le d to
1*
in th is
in ­
th e fo llo w in g c o n c lu sio n s:
M any o f t h e a r t i c l e s
w ere t e c h n i c a l d i s c u s s i o n s
i n v o l v i n g t h e te r m s r a t h e r t h a n th e m e a n in g s w h ic h a r e
a s s o c ia te d in g e n eral w ith th e a p p lic a tio n o f s c ie n c e to
th e
im p ro v e m e n t o f m an’ s hom e.
sh o u ld b u i l d
th e
in te rp re ta tio n of
sc ie n c e c o n c e p ts .
I n f o r m a tio n g iv e n i n p o p u la r m a g a z in e s c o n c e rn ­
in g s c i e n t i f i c
th e
school
s c i e n c e p r o g r a m s w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n a im e d
a t an i n t e l l i g e n t
2.
T h erefo re, th e
d e v e l o p m e n t s w o u ld b e b e t t e r u n d e r s t o o d i f
s t u d e n t c o u ld t u r n to
c la s s ro o m s o r t e a c h e r s f o r r e f e r ­
ence o r f u r th e r d is c u s s io n .
3.
T e a c h e rs sh o u ld c o n s i s t e n t l y t r y
to
s c i e n c e phenom ena a f f e c t th e p u p i l s th e m s e lv e s .
im p lie s s u p p ly in g su ch im m e d ia te and p r a c t i c a l
a s he can u s e i n h i s
in g ,
c o sm e tic s,
he p u rc h a se s .
h o b b ie s o f a
show how
T h is
in fo rm a tio n
school d a y s--in fo rm a tio n about e lo th -
sp o rtin g goods,
ra d io s,
and o th e r th in g s
S tu d e n ts sh o u ld be enco u rag ed to
s c ie n tific
n a tu re .
fo llo w
116
4.
s i n c e m a g a z in e s a re m o r e - u p -to - d a te th a n se h d o l
t e x t s , m ag a zin es
sh o u ld h e re g a r d e d a s im p o rta n t s u p p le ­
m e n ta ry m a t e r i a l .
5.
The s c ie n c e c u rric u lu m
w h o l e so a s t o
sh o u ld be p la n n e d a s a
h a v e d e p e n d e n t c o n t i n u i t y , an d m ag a zin e
m a te r ia l sh o u ld be in c lu d e d in i t s
f o u n d a tio n i n o r d e r to
k e e p t h e s c i e n c e c o u r s e s fro m b e c o m in g o b s o l e t e .
BIHLIOSR&PHT
BIBLIOGRAPHY
A.
BOOKS
A y e r s , N. W . , D i r e c t o r y o f N e w s p a p e r s a n d P e r i o d i c a l s .
P h ila d e lp h ia !
N. W. A y e r s a n d s o n s , 1 9 3 $ .
L i s t s th e c i r c u l a t i o n o f n ew sp ap ers and p e r i o d i c a l s ,
b ased on a d v e r t i s i n g ; a ls o c o n ta in s fre q u e n c y o f
issu e .
C u r t i s , F r a n c i s D . , Borne y a l u e s D e r i v e d f r o m E x t e n s i v e
R e ad in g o f G e n e ra l S c i e n c e ,
New Y o r k : T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e ,
C o lu m b ia U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 2 4 .
D e s c r i p t i o n o f s e r i e s o f e x p e r i m e n t s t o d e t e r m i n e how
m uch a n d w h a t k i n d o f i n f o r m a t i o n s t u d e n t s o f g e n e r a l
s c i e n c e c o u ld g e t fro m r e a d i n g o f r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l —
a s m easu red by t e s t s on s c i e n t i f i c a t t i t u d e s .
S n g e lh a r d t, F re d and A lf r e d O v ern , S e c o n d a ry E d u c a ti on
P r i n c i p l e s and P r a c t i c e s .
New Y o r k : D . A p p I e i o r i ­
c e n t u r y C o m p an y , 193*7.
C r itic is m s o f p r e s e n t day p r i n c i p l e s and p r a c t i c e s
i n seco n d ary e d u c a tio n s c ie n c e c la s s e s .
G o o d , C a r t e r B . , S u p p l e m e n t a r y Re a d i n g A s s i g n m e n t .
m ore:
W arw i ck a n d Y o r k , T 9
\
’
B a lti­
E m p h a size s th e im p o r ta n c e o f t e a c h i n g p u p i l s - - f r o m
t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n t o t h e u n i v e r s i t y — to r e a d .
T h o m a s , F r a n k W. a n d A l b e r t R. L a n g , P r i n c i p l e s o f M o d e rn
B.
PERIODICAL ARTICLES
B r o w n , H. E m m e tt, " T h e R e d i r e c t i o n o f S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n
and I t s B e a r in g o n S c ie n c e T e a c h in g ," E d u c a tio n
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s c i e n t i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n a p e r s o n n e e d e d t o kno w i n
o r d e r to r e a d i n t e l l i g e n t l y t h e d a i l y n ew sp ap ers and
e m p h a siz e s t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r c l o s e r c o n t a c t b e tw e e n
th e s u b j e c t - m a t t e r ta u g h t and l i f e e x p e rie n c e s o f
p u p ils .
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“
E m p h a size s th e im p o r ta n c e o f t e a c h i n g s c i e n c e i n
o r d e r to m a k e i t p o s s i b l e f o r t h e r e a d e r to u n d e r s t a n d
t h e a l l u s i o n s t o s c i e n c e m et i n r e a d in g m a t t e r .
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fro m s t a n d a r d m a g a z in e s o v e r a p e r i o d o f t e n y e a r s .
They c o n c lu d e d t h a t e x te n s i v e r e a d in g i n t h e s c i e n c e s
d o e s n o t d i s p l a c e o t h e r m e th o d s b u t p r o v id e s a n e n r i c h ­
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Im p o rta n t to t e a c h e r s in
in g m a te ria l f o r sc ie n c e
C.
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c la ss e s.
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