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An analysis of newer type courses in physical science

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AN ANALYSIS OF NEWER TYPE
COURSES IN PHYSICAL SCIENCE
A Thesis
Presented to
the Faculty of the School of Education
University of Southern California
In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Master of Science in Education
by
Carl V. Gruhn
February 19^1
UMI Number: EP54026
All rights reserved
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Dissertation PuDiisning
UMI EP54026
Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author.
Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC.
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T h is thesis, w r it t e n u n d e r the d ir e c t io n o f t h e }v ^ j > t
C h a ir m a n o f the c a n d id a te fs G u id a n c e C o m m itte e
a n d a p p r o v e d hy a l l m em b ers o f the C o m m itte e ,
has been presen ted to a n d a ccep ted by the F a c u lt y
o f the S c h o o l o f E d u c a t io n in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t
o f the re q u ire m e n ts f o r the degree o f M a s t e r o f
Science in E d u c a tio n .
D a te ...
Guidance Com m ittee
I*. J, Weersing
C hairm an
D. W. Lefever
W. G-. Campbell
TABLE OP CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I.
PAGE
THE NATURE OF THE PRESENT INVESTIGATION . . . .
1
Importance of the problem • • • . . . • . • .
2
Present courses are too technical and
too highly specialized
. ..............
3
Present science courses are not adapted
to the Interests and needs of the pupil .
4
Science courses as now taught do not
develop scientific attitudes
. . . . . .
4
The present science curriculum does not
embody emphasis' on socialization
....
5
............
....
7
...
8
Related investigations
Investigations which indicate trends
Proposals for reorganization on the basis
of surveys
. . . . . . .
10
Studies covering aims, curriculum offer­
ings, and course organization ..........
11
Experimental studies in Integration and
methods . . . . .
............
.....
Studies on evaluation ....................
Sources of data and methods of procedure
Organization of remaining chapters
II.
. .
.....
AN ANALYSIS OP AIMS FOR NEW TYPE SCIENCE
13
13
15
16
iii
CHAPTER
PAGE
COURSES . . . . ...........................
18
Definition of terms
18
. . . . . . .
Philosophy and educational a i m s ............
20
Philosophy underlying the aims of
education • • • •
.
20
General aims of education................
24
Aims of secondary education..............
27
Analysis of general educational aims
presented by cooperating schools
....
30
....
38
Philosophy for the sciences..............
38
General aims for the sciences
40
Philosophy and aims for the sciences
.........
General aims for physical science . . . . .
44
Specific objectives for physical science
53
.
Summary...........
III.
56
THE CURRICULUM ORGANIZATION FOR NEW TYPE
COURSES IN PHYSICAL SCIENCE................
57
Definitions of the curriculum......... . „ . .
57
Basic psychological p r i n c i p l e s ............
59
Physical science in the school curriculum . .
62
Purpose for placing physical science in
the school curriculum..................
62
Types of organization...................
63
Course sequence within the curriculum . . .
68
iv
CHAPTER
PAGE
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IV.
7k
AH ANALYSIS OP COURSE CONTENT FOR NEWER TYPE
COURSES IN PHYSICAL SCIENCE . ........
76
The traditional courses in physical science
.
76
Criticism of traditional courses by
writers in the field
• • • • • • • • • •
77
Contrasting content of the conventional .
with the new type courses . . . . . . . .
Principles determining content
• * • • • • •
79
8l
Basic principles for determining content.
suggested by analysts in the field
...
82
schools • • • • . . . • • • • • • • • • •
87
Organization of content • • • • • • • • • • •
89
Principles used for determining course
content in twenty-seven cooperating
Science areas about which content material
is organized.............
89
Type of course organization which may be
used
Summary
V.
• • • • • • • • • • • • . • • • • •
.................... • • •
9k
99
SUGGESTED METHODS OF WORK IN THE NEW TYPE
SCIENCE COURSES ................
. . . . . .
Social and individual implications-
.....
Philosophical and psychological principles.
101
101
CHAPTER
PAGE
basic to methods of work for the newer
type courses
.............
101
Recognition given to basic principles
involving the individual and society
. .
105
Suggested methods by writers in the field . .
106
Methods for a general subject approach
. .
107
Methods for unitplanning.................
109
The techniques
Ill
ofproblem solving . . . . .
Methods used by twenty-seven cooperating
schools •
..............................
Teacher responsibilities
. ......... . . .
117
117
Specific methods of work used in the
physical sciences of the cooperating
schools........... .................. .
Summary
VI.
...........
119
121
METHODS OP EVALUATING THE NEW SCIENCE
P R O G R A M S .................................
124
Evaluation on the basis of change in
behavior
...................
124
Philosophical and psychological views
determining standards of evaluation . . .
124
Outcomes as a means for measuring changes
in behavior
..........................
150
Evaluation in the experimental and cooperat­
ing schools
......................
155
Vi
CHAPTER
PAGE
Evaluation in experimental schools
....
133
Methods of evaluation for the new courses
in physical science presented by
cooperating schools ....................
Summary
VII.
.........................
136
143
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS AND
RECOMMENDATIONS...............
144
Findings and concl u s i o n s .................
144
The aims for the new type science courses .
145
The findings and conclusions for curricu­
lum organization.....................
149
Course content for physical science • • • •
151
Findings and conclusions for methods of
work
.............. . . . . . . . . . .
153
Evaluating the new science programs . . . .
155
Recommendations • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
157
Recommendations for improving the
statement of aims
..............
157
Recommendations for curriculum organiza­
tion in physical science
• • • • • • • •
159
Improving content material for physical
science . . • • • • . • • • • •
........
1F0
Improving methods used In physical
science • . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
160
vii
CHAPTER
PAGE
Recommendations for evaluating the newer
courses in physical science.............
.
B I B L I O G R A P H Y .......................... .■. •..........
APPENDIX I.
References Found
163
MostHelpful for Physical
Science by the Twenty-seven Schools
APPENDIX II.
161
• ..
..........
184
Schools Cooperating in the Analysis of
Newer Type Courses in Physical Science Through the
Answers to a Questionnaire.......................
APPENDIX III.
Letter and Questionnaire
188
.
191
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE
I.
PAGE
Criteria Elements and Per Cent Evaluation of
General Educational Aims for Twenty-four
Cooperating Schools
II.
32
Evaluation of General Aims for Physical
Science
III.
• • • • • • • • • • • •
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
48
The Purpose for Placing Physical Science in
the Curriculum of Twenty-seven Cooperating
Schools
IV.
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
64
Number of Schools with Time In Minutes Per
Week Day Given to Class and Laboratory
Work in Physical Science • • . • • • • • • •
V.
67
Distribution of Science Subjects Offered at
Various Grade Levels in the Cooperating
Schools
VI.
• • • • • • • . • • •
........
• •
73
Distribution of the Principles Determining
Course Content in Physical Science for
Twenty-seven Cooperating Schools • • • • • •
VII.
88
Distribution of Subject Combinations in
Physical Science as Given by Twenty-seven
Cooperating Schools
VIII.
• • • • • • • • • • • •
91
A Distribution Indicating the Type of Course
Organization Used for Physical Science by
Twenty-seven Schools • • • • • • • • • • • •
99
ix
TABLE
IX.
PAGE
Teacher Responsibilities Emphasized, Prepara­
tory to the Development of a Block of Work
in Physical Science as Given by Twenty-seven
S c h o o l s ..... .... .......................
X.
118
The Degree to Which Certain Specific Methods
of Work Are Used in Physical Science by the
Twenty-sevenSchools.......................
XI.
120
Distribution of Specific Methods Used in
Laboratory Work as Given by Twenty-seven
S c h o o l s ..... ...........................
XII.
122
The Extent to Which Various Methods of
Evaluation Are Used in Measuring Outcomes
for Physical Science by Twenty-seven
S c h o o l s .................................
XIII.
140
The Extent to Which Various Outcomes Are
Measured in Physical Science by Twenty-seven
Schools. . . . .
..........................
141
LIST OP FIGURES
FIGURE
1.
PAGE
Per Cent Inclusion of Criteria Elements in the
General Educational Aims of Twenty-four
Cooperating Schools..........................
2.
J>6
Per Cent Inclusion of Criteria Elements in
General Aims for Physical Science from
Twenty-two Schools
5*
..........................
52
Number of Schools Offering a Grade Science
Sequence as a Build-up for Physical Science
in the Cooperating S c h o o l s ..................
4.
Grade Placement of Physical Science in Twentyseven Cooperating Schools...............
5.
73-
. .
72
The Frequency with Which Certain Subjects Appear
in Physical Science for the Twenty-seven
Schools
...................................
92
CHAPTER I
THE NATURE OF THE PRESENT INVESTIGATION
The purpose of the present Investigation was to dis­
cover the newer type courses in physical science the second­
ary level and to analyze the aims, curricular organization,
course content, methods of work, and methods of evaluation
used In these courses*
The science curriculum today Is rapidly being reor­
ganized in order to give greater consideration to the actual
needs of the pupil.
Among the current trends in the develop­
ment of the general science curriculum are the fusion of zo­
ology and botany in general biology and the Integration of
chemistry and physics or science and mathematics to form a
generalized physical science curriculum.
Experiments such
as these are being conducted in Chicago, the State of Dela­
ware, the California schools, and hundreds of schools in
other states.
Educational literature contains the reports
of many such experiments.
It was the purpose of this study
to make a thorough analysis of these various proposals in
order to bring into the foreground the best possible organi­
zation in conformation with modern philosophy of education
and accepted principals of the psychology of learning.
2
IMPORTANCE OF THE PROBLEM
The analysis of newer type science courses in a gen­
eralized physical science curriculum becomes important in
consideration of the numerous proposals for the reorganiza­
tion of this curriculum.
A. ¥. Hurd,1 of the University of
Minnesota, alone reports a general analysis of five hundred
such curriculum investigations.
A. N. Zechiel,2 curriculum
assistant in science and mathematics at Wilmington, Delaware,
and member of the Commission on the Relations of School and
College, speaks of thirty schools participating in such an
experimental study there.
Also, Trillingham3 states that
ninety-three out of one hundred cities' In various parts of
the United States having a population over twenty thousand
are adopting a similar procedure.
Such a general movement toward reorganization Is un­
doubtedly the reaction to the mounting criticism of the pre­
sent science curriculum.
Those criticisms which seem to be
most prominent are: (l) Present courses are too technical and
1 A. W. Hurd, "Tendencies Disclosed by Curriculum In­
vestigations in Higher Education and Their Implications for
Science Teaching In Elementary and in High Schools,” Science
Education, 21:147-81, October, 1931.
2 A. N. Zechiel, "Recent Trends In Revision of Science
Curricula.” Education Method, 16:402-07, May, 1937^ C. C. Trillingham, "The Supervisor and Curriculum
Making,” School Executive Magazine, 53:396, July, 1934.
too highly specialized, (2) Present science courses are not
adapted to the interests and needs of the pupil, (3) Science
courses as now taught do not develop scientific attitudes,
and (4) The present science curriculum does not embody the
emphasis on socialization#
These criticisms will be briefly
considered in the following paragraphs#
Present courses are too technical and too highly spe­
cialized,
The traditional courses in the sciences are re­
puted to deal largely with factual material that aims to
prepare students for college.
is a decided reaction#
Toward this criticism there
As Otis ¥. Caldwell relates, "Sci­
ence teaching has dealt too largely with fundamental prin­
ciples of the dynamo, and too little with the human uses of
the electric light and driving energy coming from the
dynamo#,!4
There again, according to L. T#
Lucas,5
over one
half the time in high school chemistry is wasted on memori­
zation of factual material which does not contribute directly
to the mastery of chemical principles.
said about physics and astronomy#
The same may also be
Since many teachers real­
ize the validity of such criticism, efforts have been made
to reorganize the curriculum.
Therefore, an analysis of the
^ Otis ¥# Caldwell, "Some Considerations Regarding Sci­
ence and Education," School Science and Mathematics, 37:84003, October, 1937.
5 L# T. Lucas, "Are ¥e ¥asting Our Chemistry Students*
Time?" Science Education, 17:240, October, 1933*
newer type courses becomes pertinent.
Present science courses are not adapted to the inter­
ests and needs of the pupil.
Because of individual differ­
ences, pupils vary in their interests and also in their
requirements.
Whatever the interests of the pupil, the
course should be sufficiently flexible and fundamental to
satisfy the needs of all and to lend itself to individual
adaptation.
In the opinion of Hal Baird:
The sciences have been so well organized from a sub­
ject matter point of view that it has been difficult to
realize that perhaps this very logical, carefully con-^
strueted pattern of knowledge, admirable though it may
be from the science angle, is not a particularly appro­
priate organization for the secondary school, either
from the perspective of the child’s interests and needs,
or judged by the criteria of educational psychology and
our knowledge of the learning p r o c e s s . 6
Science courses as now taught do not develop scienti­
fic attitudes.
Scientific thinking has long been considered
of vital importance.
A survey of literature for pertinent
facts to prove or disprove statements of individuals, news­
papers, magazines, or even an individual’s personal opinions,
involves a certain organization of thought and the develop­
ment of a conclusion based upon that thought.
Such thinking
becomes necessary for protection against superstitions.
^ Hal Baird, ’’Teaching the Physical Sciences from a
Functional Point of View,” Educational Method, 16:408, May,
1937.
5
propaganda, and malicious advertising.
Certainly:
The full victory (of sciences in the curriculum) will
not he won until every subject and lesson is taught in
connection with its bearing upon creation and growth of
the kind of power of observation, inquiry, reflection,
and testing that are the heart of scientific intelli­
gence.?
Since scientific attitudes may be considered an outcome of
scientific method, the following criticism of Samuel Ralph
Powers may well be accepted.
Scientific method remains in large measure an agency
working outside the social organization which it has so
largely influenced, and activity within the organization
goes on largely under^the direction of tradition, dogma,
and emotional appeal.
Without some answer to this criticism, the newer type curricu­
lum in science will fail to mold critical scientific thought
with respect to the pupilfs environment.
In this manner,
it could be considered no better than the old.
Therefore,
v an appraisal with respect to such courses becomes necessary.
The present science curriculum does not embody emphasis
on socialization.
Many courses today are reflecting a ten­
dency toward social emphasis which brings to light the in­
efficiency of the science curriculum in human relationships.
R. K. Watkins says:
7 John Dewey, "The Relation of Science and Philosophy
as the Basis of Education,f! School and Society, 47:472,
April, 1938.
® Samuel R. Powers, tTInfluence of Science on Human
Activities with Implications for Education," Educational
Method, 16:400, May, 1937.
6
Science can no longer be taught without pointing out
its obligations for human beings. The social studies
teacher can no longer teach social studies and ignore
the interpretations which science makes of the world in
which we live. It is not the business of the teacher
of science, however, to be dogmatic in pointing out the
best way to control human beings in using the findings
of science, and it is not the business of the social
studies teacher to help the student in the verification
of scientific facts.9
A certain integration.of materials becomes necessary
because of today*s complex human interrelationships.
quently, ”. . .
Conse­
all who teach science must be brought into
more effective and more complete participation in the social
processes that influence science and are in turn influenced
by i t . I n
this way alone can the pupil bring about a
proper adjustment to his environment, thereby creating a
better citizen for this democratic form of government.
This
issue must be recognized in the reorganization of the sci­
ence curriculum, especially'in the newer courses of physical
science.
In summarizing this phase of the subject, it may be
said that the newer type courses in physical science should
answer the criticism of the old by becoming more informa­
tional and general, by being adaptable to the interests and
^ R. K. Watkins, "Science in the High School and Social
Studies Objectives,” National Education Association Proceed­
ings. 1937, P. 430.
10 B. C. Gruenberg, "School Science and Public Needs,"
Nation*s Schools. 20:41, September, 1937*
needs of the pupil, by developing scientific attitudes
through the application of scientific methods, and by plac­
ing some emphasis on social relationships of scientific
principles through a process of integration.
Further im­
portance of the problem can be seen in the light of related
investigations which have been made.
RELATED INVESTIGATIONS
The full significance of the problem does not become
apparent until the ramifications of allied literature have
been examined.
It Is only within recent years that defin­
ite steps have been taken to reorganize the science curricu­
lum to meet the criticisms of the traditional plan.
Even
though many educational leaders such as Pestalozzi, Herbart,
Froebel, and Spencer believed true education to be a process
requiring a psychological as well as a philosophical under­
standing of the child, It has remained for the recent socialeconomic crisis to awaken general educational thought to the
childfs need for personal development and opportunity to
adjust himself to the democratic social order.
This tendency
is reflected in the surveys on curriculum change and the ex­
perimental studies with respect to science curriculum revi­
sion.
The most common aspects of study to be found in this
movement are: (l) Investigations which indicate trends; (2)
Proposals for reorganization on the basis of surveys; (35)
8
Studies covering present aims, curriculum offerings, and
course organization; (4) Experimental studies in integration
and methods; and (5) Studies on evaluation.
Representative
investigations in each of these divisions are briefly con­
sidered.
Investigations which indicate trends.
George William
Hunter11 made a rather general survey of the science courses
in one thousand high schools and approximately five hundred
leading junior high schools in this country.
By means of a
questionnaire he Investigated the aims of science at differ­
ent age levels, the placement of courses with total offerings
in terms of weeks, hours per week and laboratory hours, the
sequence of science in the high school system, and enroll­
ment compared with twenty years ago, and methods used In
teaching.
He found the chemistry-physics sequence still
unsettled, more pupils enrolling in science courses, the
upper class science gaining from the earlier sciences, and
current science courses showing greater correlation with
other courses.
His study helped to bring about many of the
modifications found in physical science courses today.
George William Hunter, ffScience Sequence In the
Junior and Senior High Schools,” School Science and Mathe­
matics , 33:214-23, February, 1933.
Arlington B. C. Jacobs,12 in 193^ > developed a thesis
with respect to textbooks, enrollment trends and pupils*
attitudes toward science subjects taught in high school.
Because of various shifts in the enrollment from one class
to another, it was impossible to make specific generaliza­
tions with respect to enrollment and attitudes.
However,
Jacobs observed a tendency toward emphasis on practical and
college preparatory chemistry rather than a continuance of
memorization.
The value of his study is found in the trend
toward correlation and in the methods used.
Richard Landon Miller,1^ in 1937* made a study in the
trend of the selection of chemistry textbooks over a period
of one hundred years.
Books used in chemistry between 1800
and the present time showed that authorship had shifted from
college instructors to high school teachers who were experi­
enced in their field.
This change had brought greater em­
phasis on chemical principles, and greater inclusion of
material on practical chemistry.
Miller*s study also pre­
sents the general trend in the content of chemistry courses.
Arlington B. C. Jacobs, ’’Enrollment Trends and Pupil
Attitudes Toward Courses in Senior High School Science,” (un­
published Master*s thesis, University of Southern California,
Los Angeles, 193*0*
^ Richard Landon Miller, ’’Trends in the Teaching of
Chemistry in the Secondary Schools of the United States as
Shown by the Textbooks in Use Since 1800,” (unpublished
Master*s thesis, University of Southern California, Los
Angeles, 1937).
10
Proposals for reorganization on the basis of surveys#
The Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary Education
appointed by the National Education Association12* in 1920
made a proposal for the reorganization of science in the
secondary schools.
This proposal was based on numerous
studies made in connection with schools throughout the
country that were experimenting with reorganization.
Of
particular value to an analysis of the physical sciences is
a proposal of aims and a set of guides for the organization
of a curriculum built around the child.
Glen Meng W o o l l e y , i n 1931, studied the reorganiza­
tion of subject matter in high school physics and chemistry.
His study dealt with.the content of courses at the time, the
nature and extent of reorganization taking place in these
courses, and the opinions of science teachers in regard to
special upper division courses.
The conclusions embodying
appreciations and attitudes in aims and emphasis on consumer
education content will be of value in this analysis.
0. W. Caldwell and others, "Reorganization of Sci­
ence in Secondary Schools,1* The Reorganization of Science in
Secondary Schools (Department, Bureau of Education Bulletin
No. 26, 1920, Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C.).
15 Glen Meng Woolley, "The Reorganization of Subject
Matter in High School Physics and Chemistry," (unpublished
Masterfs thesis, University of Southern California, Los
Angeles, 1931)*
11
A. W.
Hurdl6
made a study in seven high schools in
Ohio, Minnesota, and Illinois dealing with the possible voca­
tions of pupils in those schools.
The purpose of this in­
vestigation was to determine the type of reorganization
necessary to meet the vocational needs of pupils.
As a
result of the study it was found that out of 1958 pupils
enrolled in science and mathematics, 217 vocational choices
were listed.
This caused the majority of the writers to
agree that a change in subject matter content was needed.
Studies covering aims, curriculum offerings, and
course organization.
J. P. Clement,-**7 in 1934, reported a
general analysis made by a committee in the 11°rth Central
Association of aims, content, and organization of science
courses in a hundred high schools.
The object of this study
was to determine the aims, as presented in mimeographed
copies, of courses of study from these schools; also, to
determine the organization and nature of the subject matter
used.
In general, the conclusions drawn were to the effect
that aims were usually stated, but that in a third of the
A. ¥. Hurd, "Curriculum Revision to Meet the Needs
of High School Pupils,” School Science and Mathematics, 34:
656-50, June, 1954.
^ J. P. Clement, "An Analytical Study of Courses of
Study of North Central Secondary Schools," North Central
Association Quarterly, 8:475-78, April, 195*^1
12
cases the organization of the "teaching unit” had heen pre­
viously determined or was hased on the "teaching unit” as
presented in the textbooks.
A. ¥. Hurd^-8 made a similar
study and found the teaching objective emphasizing indivi­
dual development and growth of personality.
These studies
are readily adaptable to the determining of standards for
analysis of the newer type physical sciences.
Vernon
Hodge1^
in his Masterfs thesis, written in
1936, made an analysis of the aims, content, and organiza­
tion of "Upper Grade Science."
His study dealt with a
philosophical analysis of these points in regard to existing
courses and a suggestion for greater emphasis upon sociali­
zation and integration.
A model course was set up to illus­
trate this point of view.
C. P. Stevens,20 in 1932, made a
similar study with respect to the Pandemic Movement in
secondary school chemistry.
This study indicated a change
toward the functional or civic type of aim.
A. W. Hurd, "Tendencies Disclosed by Curriculum In­
vestigations in Higher Education and Their Implications for
Science Teaching in Elementary and in High Schools,” Science
Education. 21:147-51, January, 1938.
^ Vernon Hodge, "A Critical Analysis of the Aims, Con­
tent, and Organization of Upper Grade High School Science,”
(unpublished Master*s thesis, University of Southern Cali­
fornia, Los Angeles, 1936), 92 pp.
20 C. P. Stevens, "A Study of the Pandemic Movement in
Secondary School Chemistry,” (unpublished Master*s thesis,
University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1932), 162.
PP.
13
Experiment al studies in Integration and methods.
George A. Federer, Jr.,21 of the University High School at
Morgantown, West Virginia, in 193^* made a report of an ex­
periment conducted in teaching physical science.
He gives
an account of some of the integrated science contracts used
and states that some of the work appeared to carry over to
other departments.
As a suggested course of physical sci­
ence this, study has an analytical purpose.
P. Goldstein22 conducted an experiment to determine
whether pupils gain more resourcefulness from teacher de­
monstration methods or from pupil laboratory technique.
found the study to favor pupil laboratory methods.
He
In his
report he states that these findings agree with the view­
points of Webb and Beauchamp.
This is a vital point in the
consideration of analysis of methods.
Studies on evaluation. Very few studies appear to
have been conducted with respect to the present testing pro­
gram.
Methods for testing and evaluation of the intangibles
are appearing and may be significant for the purpose of anal­
21 George H. Federer, “The Teaching of Integrated Phy­
sical Science in West Virginia University High School,”
Educational Methods, 13 s271-739 February, 193^.
22 P. Goldstein, “Student Laboratory Work Versus
Teacher Demonstration as a Means of Developing Laboratory
Resourcefulness,” Science Education, 21:185-93* November,
1937.
14
ysis.
John
B e n k a r t 2^
made a study on the selection, organi­
zation, and evaluation of the elements of new type tests in
chemistry.
His work is of value in analyzing suggested
methods in physical science.
Other references hearing on this subject and repre­
senting the trend of thought in the teaching field could be
cited.
They are not mentioned at this time, however, as
they served merely as a background and guide in carrying out
this study.
Much has been said about the necessity for change and
the inadequacy of present organization and methodology, but
only recently has there been a definite restatement of aims,
suggestions for reorganization, and changes in methods.
Such
suggested changes as found in the newer type courses in phy­
sical science require a critical analysis if the schools are
to develop a curriculum that will best serve the pupil and
society.
As far as can be determined no investigation has
yet been made that deals directly with the analysis of the
newer type courses in physical science.
Therefore, such a
study is timely and may be of some value to those wishing
to adopt such a curriculum.
2^ John Benkart, ”The Selection, Organization and
Evaluation of the Elements of New Type Tests in Secondary
School Chemistry,” (unpublished Master1s thesis, University
of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1929)*
15
SOURCES OF DATA AHD METHODS OF PROCEDURE
Since an analysis of the newer type courses in physi­
cal science must he planned on the basis of standards estab­
lished by outstanding educational authorities as well as
current practices, the present investigation has been con­
ducted by means of library research supplemented by the re­
sults of a questionnaire received from twenty-seven schools
offering such courses.
A list of the cooperating schools
is given in Appendix II.
A study of the more important educational literature
dealing with science instruction in the secondary schools
was made in order to gather information with respect to
present-day aims, suggested programs for the curriculum
organization in the physical sciences, the selection and
scope of course content, methods of work and methods of
evaluation, together with accepted principles of philosophy
and psychology upon which such an analysis must be based.
These data were collected from current periodicals, pam­
phlets, books, investigations, and reports made by learned
organizations.
The questionnaire was prepared to gain information
about the general educational aims, the general and specific
physical science aims, curriculum organization, course con­
tent, methods of work, and methods of evaluation used by
schools having the newer type courses in physical science.
A sample of the questionnaire is found in Appendix III*
The
questionnaire was sent to 106 schools represented as having
such courses, which were located through references on the
subject as well as those given by teachers in the field and
by state superintendents of instruction.
Fifty-three replies
were made, representing a response of 50 per cent.
Of
these, twenty-seven schools had definite Information on the
newer type courses in physical science, in the other schools
such courses were not yet developed.
This represented
51 per cent of the returns with which to supplement the
findings from library research.
The analysis of the subject was carried out on the
basis of philosophical and psychological standards upheld
by outstanding educational authorities and teachers in the
field, for which criteria were developed or accepted as a
means to evaluate practices.
On this basis, the various
phases of the study were analyzed and recommendations made
for an Improved physical science curriculum.
The analysis
is developed in succeeding chapters.
Organization of remaining chapters.
Chapter. Two
deals with an analysis of present aims as given by schools
cooperating In this study on the basis of criteria developed
from current philosophical and psychological thought in
harmony with general educational aims.
Chapter Three con­
siders the curriculum organizations of the newer physical
science courses from the standpoint of their function or
purpose in the curriculum, the types of organization sug­
gested, and the course sequence represented philosophically,
psychologically, and from a practical standpoint.
Chapter
Pour gives an analysis of the content presented by writers
in the field and that presented by the cooperating schools .
on the basis of principles suggested by authorities and
teachers for determining such content.
Methods of work for
the physical sciences are considered in Chapter Five as
presented by experimental and cooperating schools in the
light of current philosophical and psychological thought.
Chapter Six presents standards for evaluating behavior
change in the light of outcomes representing behavior re­
sponse as suggested by authorities and recommended by ex­
perimental schools for measuring current methods.
The
final chapter contains a complete digest of the findings
and conclusions together with recommendations for improving
the newer courses in physical science.
The references which
were used in the study are noted and annotated in the bibli­
ography.
Additional data of minor importance are included
in the Appendixes.
CHAPTER II
AH ANALYSIS OP AIMS FOR NEW TYPE SCIENCE COURSES
An analysis of aims, logically, is the first step in
the presentation of a subject, as is here proposed.
The
analysis of aims in current literature, as well as those
presented by cooperating schools in answer to a question­
naire with respect to their experimental course in physical
science, is based upon the aims and objectives given by
authorities in the educational field and supported by cur­
rent philosophical thought.
To make this chapter complete,
so that it will fit into the entire educational scheme, the
problem is considered from the standpoint of: (l) defini­
tion of terms, (2) philosophy and educational aims, and
(3) philosophy and aims for the sciences,
DEFINITION OF TERMS
/
To avoid confusion with respect to the probable mean­
ing of aim, objective, function, purpose, and goal as used
in current educational literature, an understanding of their
use in this study becomes important,
A. A, Douglass defines
an educational aim as the purpose or goal to be achieved by
the educative process,^-
As such, an aim becomes synonymous
^ A, A. Douglass. Secondary Education (New York: The
Macmillan Company, 1938;, p. 9.
19
with purpose and goal*
Caswell and Campbell, on the other
hand, use aim and objective interchangeably with the adjec­
tives "ultimate” and "immediate*"
They say, "The distinc­
tion between ultimate and immediate objectives is essentially
the same as the distinction made by Hopkins between aims.and
objectives."2
Hopkins^ points out a difference between aims
and objectives by designating an aim to represent the out­
comes of education in general or of a whole subject field,
whereas, an objective represents an outcome of'a particular
unit of instruction*
The term, "function," is also often
used to represent aim, but Koos modifies the meaning of this
term by stating that for the most part it represents condi­
tions under which education must advance in order to achieve
the "ultimate g o a l s * I n the light of this interpretation,
a function may be considered a component part of an aim but
not the aim itself; the aim being the function plus the out­
come, where outcome represents the completed act or result.
In this study "aim" will be used to represent purpose
2 H. S. Caswell and D. S. Campbell, Curriculum Devel­
opment , (New York: American Book Company, 1935), p. 115.
^ Thomas L. Hopkins, Curriculum Principles and Prac­
tices* (New York: Benjamin L. Sanborn Company, 192TJ7 p. 8l.
14 L. V. Koos, The American Secondary School, (Hew
York: Ginn and Company, 1927)"," ~pV 156.
20
in the general educational and subject fields and may em­
body outcomes and functions designated for these fields, but
is not to be considered synonymous -with function in itself.
However, function will be considered a part of the underly­
ing philosophy of aims.
The term ttobjective11 will be used
to represent purpose in a unit of instruction, the realiza­
tion of which may be determined by the desired outcomes.
When necessary, such adjectives as "general” and "specific”
will determine the scope of either aim or objective.
PHILOSOPHY AND EDUCATIONAL AIMS
Philosophical thinking determines the values and
understandings basic to educational structure.
On it rests
the development of educational aims and objectives which
serve as guides in modern educational thought.
In view of
this fact, the points briefly to be considered for a proper
philosophical background and the analysis of aims are; (a)
philosophy underlying the aims of education, (b) general
aims of education, (c) aims of secondary education, and (d)
analysis of general educational- aims presented by cooperat­
ing schools.
Philosophy underlying the aims of education.
Certain
changes have taken place in the basic philosophy underlying
educational thought.
Prom the approach through a rather
ideational idealism beginning with Plato and Aristotle,
21
to the more practical suggestions and methods of Pestalozzi,
Froebel, and Spencer, wherein education is considered a
process tending toward complete living, gradual adjustments
evolved in educational philosophy.
Today emphasis is upon
the child as a personality, his interests, and needs with
respect to his social and civic relationships.
According
to Samuel Ralph Powers of the Teachers College of Columbia:
An essential task of the schools is to provide the
experiences through which children may prepare them­
selves for intelligent participation in this changing
society.5
He further states:
The effectiveness in education seems to require that
education he in a setting that is of individual or
social significance and that it he carried on with
recognition of the factors affecting the activities of
the individual and society and with equal recognition
of the methods of thinking that have brought these
factors about.6
The same thought is voiced by D, R. Watson, head of the
science department of Citrus Union High School and Junior
College.
The function of the school is to meet the needs of
the child and of society. Education is a growth process
through experience and its interpretation. Learning is
accomplished only through meaningful activity and hence
^ Samuel Ralph Powers, ’’influences of Science on
Human Activities with Implications for Education,” ,Educa­
tional Methods, 16:395, May, 1937*
6 Ibid., p. 401.
22
experiences must be real to the student.7
Then, according to the Report of the Committee on the Orien­
tation of Secondary Education as given in the Bulletin of
the Department of Secondary School Principals of the Nation­
al Education Association, of which T. H. Briggs was the
chairman, the. functions of secondary education are:
Function I: To continue by a definite program,
though in diminishing degree, the integration of stud­
ents.
Function II: To satisfy the important needs of the
students, so far as their maturity permits.
Function III: To reveal higher activities of an in­
creasingly differentiated type in the major fields of
the racial inheritance of experience and culture and
their significance.
Function IV: To explore the Interests, aptitudes,
and capacities of students, looking toward the direc­
tion of them into avenues of study and work for which
they have manifested peculiar fitness.
Function V: To systematize knowledge in such ways as
to show its significance and especially of the laws and
principles.
Function VI: To establish and to develop interests in
the major fields of human activity as a means to happi­
ness, to social progress, and to continued growth.
Function VII: To guide pupils into wholesome social
relationships, maximum personality adjustment, and
vocations or advanced study in which they are most
likely to be successful and happy.
Function VIII: To use as largely as possible methods
that demand independent thought, Involve the elementary
7 D* R. Watson, "Secondary Science," Sierra Educa­
tional News,
October, 1937*
23
principles of research, and provide practice in the
appropriate desirable activities of the educated person*
Function IX: To begin and increase differentiated
education on the evidence of capacities, aptitudes, and
interest demonstrated in earlier years.
Function X: To retain each student until the law of
diminishing returns begins to operate and then to elim­
inate him promptly, directing him into some other school
or into work for which he seems most fit.y
These functions provide a sound philosophical background
for direction of basic educational aims within which they
are often incorporated.
They are those presented by Briggs
in his book on secondary education^ from which they are
often taken as basic aims by some writers.
In this treatise,
however, they will be considered only in the light of the
definition of function previously given.
Finally, V. T. Thayer, in a brief discussion of the
work done by the committee outlining the policies for
secondary curriculum reorganization by the Progressive
Education Association, brings out another point in harmony
with those already mentioned, when he says:
The Commission on Secondary School Curriculum is
attempting to take seriously the function of secondary
® Report of the Committee on the Orientation of
Secondary Education in the Bulletin of the Department of
Secondary School Principals at the National Education Asso­
ciation, "Functions of Secondary Education,11 Education
Digest. 2:14, April, 1937*
9 T. H. Briggs, Secondary Education (New York: The
Macmillan Company, 1935)> Chap ter s XIII and XIV.
24
education as guidance; guidance of young people as they
orient themselves in the basic and essential relation­
ships of living ■within their culture,10
According to this evidence, the process of adjusting the
child on the basis of his present and possible future needs
desires, and abilities to an ever changing social environ­
ment by means of the process of experience becomes exceed­
ingly important.
Incidentally, there are dangers to be recognized in
this newer philosophy of educating the child,
Dewey says:
It is not too much to say that an educational philos­
ophy which professes to be based on freedom may become
as dogmatic as ever was the traditional education which
is reacted against, . , • A coherent theory of experi­
ence, affording positive direction to selection and
organization of appropriate educational methods and
materials, is required by the attempt to give new dir­
ection to the work of the schools,11
With this newer philosophy in mind, a careful scrutiny of
the general aims of education and the aims within the sub­
ject field itself becomes possible.
General aims of education.
The general aims of educa­
tion are a natural outgrowth of educational philosophy.
According to S. R. Powers:
An aim of education that seems consistent with the
10 V. T. Thayer, nA Basis for a New Secondary Curriculum,11 Progressive Education Association, 12:478, November,
1935.
11 John Dewey, Experience and Education (New York: The
Macmillan Company, 1938;, p , 649*
25
postulations of modern philosophy is Life Enrichment
Through Participation in a Democratic Social Order,
Education is an effect which comes from experiences
operating as causes. The education of an individual is
the effect on his whole behavior that has come from the
experiences in which he has participated.
Agreeing with this, Hal Baird, in a preliminary report of
the Science Committee to the Commission on Secondary School* '
Curriculum of the Progressive Education Association, says
that the aim of general education f!is to promote the continu­
ous reconstruction, improvement, and enrichment of individual
and social life through the orientation of the individual in
the basic relationships of living.
To point out the change which has taken place in the
statement of aims which now include outcome, function, and
method, a list compiled by Hopkins follows:
1.
Education is the re-making of life.— Kilpatrick.
2. The work of education is to make changes in human
minds and bodies.— Thorndike.
3* The end of education is to produce a well-balanced
and many sided interest.— Herbart.
4.
The true aim of education is the attainment of
happiness through perfect virtue.— Aristotle.
5* The proper education of today is a preparation
for the duties and responsibilities of life.— C. M.
Woodward.
12 National Society for the Study of Education, Thirtyfirst Yearbook. Part I, A Program for Teaching Science,*1
(Bloomington, Illinois: Public School Publishing Company,
1932), p. 42.
U Hal Baird, ,}A Functional Course in the Physical
Sciences,” Curriculum Journal, 8:13, January, 1937*
26
6. Reduced to its lowest terms, education is the
process of producing, directing, and presenting changes
in human beings, — Inglis.
7. Education is the organization of acquired habits
of action such as will fit the individual to his physi­
cal and social environment,— William James,
8. We educate a child in order that he may be pre­
pared to live a normally satisfactory life for himself,
and may contribute his full share to the progress and
betterment of mankind.--Eugene R. Smith.
9. Education is the process of remaking experience,
giving it a more socialized value through increased in­
dividual experience, by giving the individual better
control over his own powers.--Dewey (Democracy and
Education, p. 89).
10.
To educate a person means to adjust him to those
elements of his environment that are of concern in
modern life, and to develop, organize, and train his
powers so that he may make efficient and proper use of
them.— Ruediger (The Principles of Education, p. 39 )•
Comparing the above with the newer aims given immediately,
brings to light the work of men like Dewey and Ruediger.
The aims presented by them definitely embody outcome, func­
tion, and method.
The other aims proposed appear rather
indefinite in that they emphasize only one or two of the
necessary aspects of a good aim.
Hopkins says:
An aim which is not stated definitely enough to in­
dicate the mental processes involved in the materials
of instruction cannot aid the curriculum maker or the
teacher in determining the methods which should be
selected to operate yith that content in order that the
aims may be reached.1^
'
-5-1* Thomas L. Hopkins, pp. cit. , p. 50.
15 Ibid., p. 102.
•27
Therefore, the recent aims presented in strict adherence to
modern philosophy may be accepted as guides or criteria for
analyzing those presented for secondary education as well as
those for the specific subject fields.
Aims of secondary education.
The aims of secondary
education are at this time briefly presented to point out
the same change in statement as indicated in the analysis .
of general education aims*
The work which possibly had more
to do with respect to the formulation and evaluation of aims
in the secondary field than any other is that of the Com­
mission on the Reorganization of Secondary Education in its
report entitled The Cardinal Principles of Secondary Educa­
tion,1^ which deals with health; worthy home membership;
mastery of tools, techniques, and spirit of learning; voca­
tional efficiency; citizenship; worthy use of leisure time;
and ethical character.
The criticism made by Koos of these aims is that they
do not differentiate between aims and functions.
He sug­
gests as "ultimate” or general aims the following:
The civic-social-moralism which comprehends "citizen­
ship,” "worthy home membership," and "ethical character"
-*-6 The Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education,
Report of the Committee on the Reorganization of Secondary
Education (United States Department of the Interior, Bureau
of Education Bulletin, 1913, Number 35> Washington, D, C,:
Government Printing Office, 1918), pp, 5-9*
28
of the "Cardinal Principles.,!
Training for recreational and aesthetic participation
and appreciation.
Training for occupational efficiency.
Training for physical efficiency.1^
As functions he lists the following:
1. Achieving a democratic secondary education.
(Bringing within the high school all children of all
the people.)
2. Recognizing individual differences (abilities,
interests, and needs.)
5. Exploration
and guidance.
4. Preparation
for higher institutions.
5♦ Recognizing
the nature of pupils at adolescence.
6. Training in the fundamental processes.
ing in the tool subjects.)
(Train­
7. Fostering intellectual efficiency and transfer
of training (with guarded acceptance)♦
This criticism, however, does not destroy the inspirational
value of the "Cardinal Principles."
It is only indicative
of the many interpretations found in educational literature
which may well be covered by those of Alexander Inglis, who
gives as his aims:
1.
The preparation of the individual as a prospec­
tive citizen and cooperating member of soe.iety--the
Social-Civic Aim.
^7 L. V. Koos, o£. cit., pp. 154-56.
^
Loc. cit.
29
2.
The preparation of the individual as a prospec­
tive worker and producer— the Economic-Vocational Aim*
3* The preparation of the individual for those acti­
vities which, while primarily involving individual action,
the utilization of leisure, and the development of per­
sonality, are of great importance to society-r-the Indi­
viduals tic-Avocational Aim. -*-9
Again, indicating the tendency to incorporate out­
comes, functions, and method, the aims suggested by Arthur
Gould of the Los Angeles City Schools may be used for com­
parison.
He says:
The first notable purpose of the secondary school
must be to aid pupils in achieving a satisfactory ad­
justment to their social environment. This can be
achieved by (a) developing their social understandings;
(b) developing sensitivity to the esthetic value in
environments; (c) preparing pupils to enter sooner or
later upon satisfactory occupations both through gui­
dance and preparation; (d) continuing the achievement
of necessary fundamental skills; (e) aiding children
to keep an open mind and to weigh evidence judiciously.
The second great purpose of secondary education must
be to aid pupils in achieving satisfactory adjustments
to physical environment. This can be brought about by
(a) cultivating an understanding of the part played by
science and invention in today*s living; (b) participat­
ing in manual activities; (c) developing quantitative
understandings through dealing with numbers and
materials.
The third great purpose of secondary education Is to
aid pupils to develop and maintain sound physical
health.20
Irrespective of the aims selected, similar principles
Alexander Inglis, Principles of Secondary Education
(Chicago: Houghton Mifflin Company, 19"lB).
20 Arthur Gould, Liberalizing the Curriculum of the
Los Angeles City Schools (Los Angeles City School District,
193577^
30
in the background express the flexibility necessary as
voiced by Draper.
Since individual experiences are dynamic and society
is dynamic, the educational process must prepare for a
dynamic life. Ho list of objectives, however complete,
can visualize the perfect adjustment of the individual
in society, for society is changing and the individual
as he grows and becomes educated learns to appreciate
new levels of attainment in that society.
The newer type aims, however, which express the ultimate
outcomes, functions, and methods of education in terms of
modern industrial and social progress, are more pointed and
more easily understood.
These as well as the basic philos­
ophy presented will serve as criteria for further analysis.
Analysis of general educational aims presented by
cooperating schools.
An analysis of the aims of education
presented by schools developing the newer type courses in
physical science must be based upon certain criteria deter­
mined by an analysis of the philosophy and aims of authori­
ties in the field.
Prom the preceding discussion the ele­
ments found to be essential in the statement of a general
aim of education, both flexible and specific, may be grouped
in the following criteria.
Edgar Marion Draper, Principles and Techniques of
Curriculum Making (Hew York: D. Apple ton-Century Company,
Inc., 1936), p. 70.
31
Criteria for Aim Analysis
1.
Outcome
a*
Orientation of the individual to the
present and possible future social order.
b.
2.
Individual adjustment to environment.
Function
a.
Preparation for a changing society.
b.
Individual Integration (recognition of
heeds, interests, and capacities).
c.
Social Integration (recognition of the needs,
interests, and potentialities of society).
d.
Recognize the significance of laws and
principles in organized knowledge.
3.
Method
a.
Provision for a setting of Individual and
social significance.
b.
Provision for activities through experience.
c.
Provision for a critical or scientific
method of thinking. .
The application of these criteria is expressed in Table I
and Figure 1.
Table I indicates the use of these criteria in deter­
mining the number of elements found In the aims presented,
together with the percentage evaluation on the basis of the
total number.
Whenever possible, the aim was credited with
52
TABLE I
CRITERIA ELEMENTS AND PER CENT EVALUATION OF GENERAL
EDUCATIONAL AIMS FOR TWENTY-FOUR COOPERATING SCHOOLS
Criteria
elements
* :
Per cent
evaluation
' **
"
General
Educational aims
~~
'
....
lb
2d
22* 2
1* A general knowledge of some of the
scientific truths thatapply to
everyday life in home and community.
la
2b, d
35*5
2. Personality growth--Intellectual
maturity.
77*S
3* (a) To develop scientific attitude
and method.
(b) To create ordevelopunderstand­
ing of environment.
(cj To give background for intelli­
gent consumers.
lb
2a, b,
3a, b,
d
c
la
66.7
2a, b, c
3a, c
4. Development of the individual so
that he becomes a happier and more
effective member of the social
group.
2d
11.1
5* To give those students who are com­
pleting their education with their
high school course a practical
knowledge of chemistry and physics.
la
2c, d
3a, c
55.6
6. To develop a greater appreciation
of life and ability to understand .
the fundamentals of the scientific
method.
3c
11.1
7« To develop a scientific attitude.
lb
77*8
2a, b, c,
d
3a, e
8. To help the individual make satisfactory adjustments to the complex,
Interdependent, mechanized modern
world.
* Number indicates the criteria statement on page 31*
** Found by dividing number of criteria elements present
by total number given on page 31•
33
TABLE I (continued)
CRITERIA ELEMENTS AND PER CENT EVALUATION OF GENERAL
EDUCATIONAL AIMS FOR TWENTY-FOUR COOPERATING SCHOOLS
Criteria
elements
la, b
2a, b,c,d
3a,b,c
lb
2c,d
3a
Per cent
evaluation
100
44.4
*la,b
2a,b,c,d
3a,b,c
General
educational aims
9* ,fTo meet the needs of individuals
in the basic aspects of living in
such a way as to promote the full­
est possible realization of person­
al potentialities and the most ef­
fective participation in a demo­
cratic society*
10. This course is primarily intended
to furnish essential scientific
information for those pupils who
are following commercial, home
economics, or general courses—
pupils who are completing their
formal education with graduation
from high school.
100
11. Health; worthy home membership;
mastery of tools, techniques and
spirit of learning; vocational
efficiency; citizenship, worthy
use of leisure time; and ethical
character.
lb
2a,b,c,d
3a
66.7
12. Better orientation to the world in
which we live.
2d
11.1
13. To give an additional year of sci­
ence of a non-technical nature.
* See pages 2%~28 for criticism by Koos.
34
TABLE I (continued)
CRITERIA ELEMENTS AND PER CENT EVALUATION OF GENERAL
EDUCATIONAL AIMS FOR TWENTY-FOUR COOPERATING SCHOOLS
Criteria
elements
Per cent
evaluation
General
educational aims
lb
2a,b,d
3a,b
66.7
14* To give and apply practical inforraa*
tion with some of the applications
being carried to completion only
after the student takes his place
as a citizen in the community.
la,b
2a,b,c,d
3a,b,c
100
15. (a) To help pupils interpret environment.
(b) To help pupils become better
citizens.
(c) To help pupils Improve health.
(d) To help pupils make better
vocational adjustment.
la
2a,b,d
3b,c
66.7
16. The creation of a greater enjoyment of life through the opening
of doors to new types of knowledge,
to new kinds of experiences, and
to new modes of thought.
la,b
2a,b,d
3a,b,c
88.8
17.To adjust students for more ±ntelligent participation in the
social order which employs con­
stantly the inventions, discover­
ies, and achievements of science.
2b,d
22.2
18. To give a general knowledge of
everyday applications of science.
To take care of the unsuccessful
pupil in other sciences.
lb
2a,b,d
3a,b,c
77*8
19.Preparation for living.
lb
2b,c
3b,c
55*6
20. Development of individual ability
to observe everyday things in terms
of scientific principles and to
think and attack problems In a
scientific manner.
35
TABLE I (continued)
CRITERIA ELEMENTS AND PER CENT EVALUATION OF GENERAL
EDUCATIONAL AIMS FOR TWENTY-FOUR COOPERATING SCHOOLS
Criteria
elements
Per cent
evaluation
General
educational aims
lb
2a,b,d
3a,b,c
77*B
21. To prepare boys and girls for parti*
cipation in life.
2d
3c
22.2
22. To promote clear, accurate, and
independent thinking and to give
an appreciation of the history of
science and the scientific method.
lb
2b,d
3b,c
55*6
25* Acquisition of knowledge, understanding of the elementary forces,
materials, and phenomena.
Discovery and development of
desirable study attitudes, habits,
abilities, and skills.
la
2a,c,d
3a
55*6
24. To give the student an appreciation of the place of science in
the past and present development
of civilization.
¥t
m m
m *4
c3 Q
W
hi m
9 0ir3tT3ed
JOj £.OUQOO&a£
— b 3— <D
b) oc
b3
_bD_P
O
O *H
<ti-h
Pi P-
NO, 6 0 4 3 , U N IV E R S IT Y
BO O K STOR E. LOS A N G E LE S
ci
an'element, whether specifically stated or implied.
Even to
the neglect of specificity of statement, the majority of aims
fail to include some of the essential elements*.
An inter­
pretation of these results indicates lack of familiarity
with current philosophical thought and proposed statement of
aims, an unorganized method of course development, or
possible neglect to realize the importance of aims in cur­
riculum organization*
Figure 1, page 36, indicates the frequency with which
the various elements appear in the aims presented, as well
as the per cent inclusion on a comparative basis*
As the
study indicates, emphasis is still on subject matter with
some recognition for the individual in society and some
evaluation on critical method of thought.
The latter is
undoubtedly due to the recent emphasis on individual differ­
ences and scientific method.
The emphasis on experience as
a method is still weak,.but recognizes the work of men like
Dewey and other current writers*
The element showing the
least consideration deals with social integration and pos­
sible social change.
This is particularly important in
view of the fact that one of the major factors to influence
the adoption of the newer type course in physical science
was greater emphasis on socialization.
In view of this
fact, the need for a greater emphasis on formulation of
proper aims becomes apparent if the courses are to serve
38
the purpose for which they were intended*
Thus, with the
foregoing discussion of modern educational philosophy and
general aims as a background, it is possible to study the
philosophy and aims of the sciences as a component part of
the broader educational picture.
PHILOSOPHY' AND AIMS FOB THE SCIENCES
The philosophy and aims for the sciences express the
general educational view more specifically for a certain
subject field.
As such, it is necessary to make a similar
analysis of the following: (a) philosophy for the sciences,
(b) general aims for the sciences, (c) general aims for
physical science, (d) specific objectives for physical sci­
ence.
Philosophy for the sciences*
The philosophy in the
physical sciences today Is rapidly changing from emphasis
on narrow mastery of subject matter, drill in problem solv­
ing, and college preparation to a broader viewpoint which
begins to recognize the pupil as a personality and as a
member of society.
Francis D* Curtis gives as the earlier
aims in science, (l) formal discipline, (2) knowledge, and
(3) preparation.22
In contrast, Donald B. Watson, chairman
22 Francis D. Curtis, A Digest of Investigations in
the Teaching of Science (Blakiston: Philadelphia, 1926),.
PP. 330-31.
#
39
of the committee of the Los Angeles County science teachers
for the reorganization of the science curriculum, says:
The scope of high school science should he broad
enough to include the main concepts and problems of the
pupilfs biological and physical environment, their re­
lations to him and to society, and the contributions of
science to the advance of civilization*23
Such a scope certainly would not be too broad when the fol­
lowing is considered*
"Where the effect of the applications of science has
been felt, human relations have ceased to be static.
Old forms have been invaded and often undermined, in
the family, in politics, and even in moral and reli­
gious habits as well as in the narrower fields of
economic arrangements* Almost all current social
problems have their source here.2^
Donald R. Watson further states:
Science courses in high school should be ends rather
than means--at least in emphasis; that is, the solution
of real problems from life rather than mere preparation
for life. The preparatory or vocational import of high
school science should be definitely subordinate to the
functional and social v a l u e . 25
Similar views are expressed by many other writers.
This
would indicate additional aims that are in harmony with the
general educational aims analyzed.
2^ Donald R. Watson, ffScope and Sequence of High
School Science,” California Journal of Secondary Education,
13:50, January, 193^
2^ John Dewey, "The Relation of Science and Philosophy
as the Basis of Education," School and Society, 47:471 >
April, 1938.
25 Donald R. Watson, loc. cit.
40
General alms for the sciences.
A radical change in
the statement of science aims is also seen in the light of
modern philosophy.
The change is particularly noticeable
from emphasis upon desired outcomes to that expressing a
change in behavior through action.
Bearing in mind the use of the word 11aim" to cover
the purpose of a subject or subject field, any group of
objectives here presented to indicate such change must be
viewed in the light of this term, even though expressly
listed as objectives in the study from which they are taken.
A group of objectives bearing these characteristics was
offered in 1930 by a group of graduate students at the
University of Wisconsin.
They are:
1.. Habit of scientific thinking.
2. Scientific attitude.
3. Knowledge which will give an insight into the
nature and organization of the environment making it
an organized whole instead of a lot ofdisjointed parts.
4. Power or ability in the use of scientific method.
5. Knowledge of scientific facts, principles, ideas,
et cetera (the structural materials of science).
6.
Desire for further knowledge.
7. Habit of inquiry--looking for reasons and rela­
tions in the things about one.
8. Power to apply general principles to new and
complicated facts.
9. Knowledge which will satisfy natural interests in
the forces of nature with which we are surrounded and
with which we must deal.
41
10. Knowledge concerning applicances and principles
which science has developed which are useful in making
for greater comfort and convenience in home and com­
munity.
11. Appreciation of the universal operation of
natural law.26
A careful scrutiny of these aims brings to view some
points difficult of measurement, such as scientific atti­
tude, appreciations, and desires, in addition to emphasiz­
ing mere statement of outcome rather than outcome as action
or change in behavior.
In 1932 the Science Committee of the Wisconsin Educa­
tion Association reported fourteen objectives which are an
improvement over those listed above because of specificity.
They are:
1.
Command of factual information.
2.
Familiarity with laws, principles, and theories
3.
Power to distinguish between fact and theory.
4.
Concept of cause and effect relationships.
5.
Ability to make observations.
6.
Habits of basing judgment on fact.
7.
Ability to formulate workable hypotheses.
8. Willingness to change opinion on basis of new
ideas.
9.
Freedom from superstitions.
Bergen and others, if0bjectives of Science Teaching,11
School Science and Mathematics, 31:555* May, 1931*
42
10. Appreciation of the contributions of science to
our civilization.
11.
Appreciation of natural beauty.
12.
Appreciation of man's place in the universe.
13. Appreciation of possible future developments of
science.
14.
Possessions of interest in science.^7
The weaknesses of these aims may be seen in the com­
parison between the experimental and the conventional schools
as given by Wrightstone.
The experimental school outlines as major objectives
of science instruction: (1) mastery of facts and in­
formation; (2) working skills in obtaining facts; (3)
organizing skills in reporting and treating facts; (4)
interpreting facts; (5) applying principles and gener­
alizations; (6) use of scientific attitudes and be­
liefs.
The objectives of the conventional are: (l) to
acquire information; (2) to acquire a better under­
standing of the environment; (3) to acquire a scien­
tific vocabulary; (4) to acquaint the pupil with
sources of scientific knowledge; (5) to develop the
ability to think scientifically; (6) to develop a sci­
entific attitude; (2) to correct superstition and
erroneous beliefs.
According to this comparison, there is a change from acqui­
sition of knowledge to one of behavior response.
This
tendency was still more pronounced when in 1937, A. N.
Wisconsin State Science Committee, cited by G. K.
Peterson, "Wisconsin Testing Program in Science,11 Wisconsin
Journal of Education, 69077, April, 1937.
oQ
J. Wayne Wrightstone, Appraisal of Experimental
High School Practices (New York: Bureau of Publications,
Teachers College, Columbia University, 1936).
43
Zechlelj?^ as curriculum assistant in science and mathe­
matics for the Commission on the Relations of School and
College, reported certain trends in thirty schools partici­
pating in an experimental study.
Ah analysis of the objec­
tives listed by teachers and not administrators, indicated
trends toward a statement on the basis of behavior responses.
The' following questions represent the analysis.
A.
Is he open-minded?
tolerant of other people and new ideas?
free from superstition?
actively curious?
intellectually honest?
B.. Is he in the habit of suspending judgment until
facts are known?
aware of the contributions of science to
way of living?
aware of the problems created by science as
well as problems solved by.science?
C.
Does he have a reasonable expectation of the
ability of science to solve our problems?
D.
Can he distinguish between fact, theory, assump­
tion, generalization?
A. N. Zechiel, f,Recent Trends in Revision of Sci­
ence Curricula,11 Educational Methods, 16:403, May, 1937*
E.
Does he have the ability to
recognize a problem?
set up a hypothesis?
collect and organize data?
draw conclusions from data?
derive generalizations and appreciate their
significance?
apply facts and principles to new problems?
distinguish between cause and effect?
recognize multiple effects from a single
cause rather than consider them in
causal relationship?
Evidently, the trend is toward a fuller realization
of the newer philosophy of education.
Not only do the new
aims in the form of behavior responses cover the habits,
skills, and appreciations of the individual, but they also
particularly stress those factors which are believed to
bring about enrichment of life in harmony with this present
social order.
They form a convenient guide to formulate
criteria for the study of aims presented in physical sci­
ence.
General aims for physical science.
An analysis of
the general aims for the specific course in physical sci­
ence must be in harmony with the aims stressed for science
in general as veil as those developed for the general educa
tional field if there is to he unity in educational pattern
Hopkins says:
The function of the aim of subject is (l) to define
the end of action, vhich usually is stated in terms of
the appreciations, knowledges, and skills that pupils
should possess vhen they arrive at the end, (2) to
tell the curriculum maker vhat content to accept or
reject, and (3) to indicate the type of method vhich
should be employed in attaining it.30
Also remembering that A. N.
Zechiel31
uses objective in a
general sense, he shovs in his analysis of the thirty ex­
perimental schools reorganizing their science curricula
that there is evidence of the use of three criteria in the
statement of objectives— first, the objectives of science
instruction must contribute to the general objectives of
the school; second, the objectives must function as cri­
teria for the selection of either content or method; and
third, the objectives must be capable of evaluation.
In
his analysis, of objectives given by these schools, he
finds emphasis in behavior changes for five main areas:
(l) fundamental skills and abilities based upon careful
diagnosis of pup i.X. needs; (2) development of cooperation
through group vork in preparation for our social order;
(3) formulation of a scale of beliefs to develop a philos­
ophy of life (appreciatiions) vhich vill make for greater
^
Thomas L. Hopkins, op, cit., p, 86.
^
A. N. Zechiel, pp. cit., pp. 402-403.
46
stability; (4) development of a logical method of thinking
vhich implies an understanding of the scientific method; and
(5) development of a desire and willingness to apply the
principles and generalizations necessary to achieve good
mental and physical health.
On the basis of these findings and the criteria set
up by Hopkins and Zechiel, as well as the criteria set up
for the general educational aims, criteria for the evalua­
tion of the general aims in physical science may be given
as follows:
A subject aim should emphasize:
1.
Behavior response.
2.
Social integration (recognize needs, inter­
ests, and potentialities of society).
3*
Individual integration (recognize needs,
interests, and capacities).
4.
Development of a. scale of beliefs as a
philosophy of life (appreciation).
5.
Logical method of thinking (implies under­
standings and attitudes through use of
the scientific method).
6.
Application of facts, principles, and
generalizations to present individual
environment.
7.
Application of facts, principles, and
47
generalizations to potential individual
environment.
For the purpose of clarification, behavior response
'will include those individual activities and experiences
necessary to learning, on the basis of the Gestalt psy­
chology which stresses the reaction of’the individual as a
whole to a given situation.
The other elements of this
criteria are self-explanatory and point toward aims which
are capable of evaluation since each recognizes an observ­
able idea or action.
The evaluation of the general aims
for newer type physical science courses are given in Table
II, and a comparative analysis of the degree of inclusion
for various criteria elements follows in Figure 2.
An examination of Table II Indicates the following
distribution according to percentage evaluation: one, 100
per cent; four, 85.6 per cent; three, 57*3 per cent; six,
42.8 per cent; three, 28.6 per cent; four, 14.^ per cent.
Whether the aims are weak with respect to general educa­
tional principles or principles bearing more directly upon
content or method, is interpreted in Figure 2.
Each element
represents an essential basic characteristic in the general
aim of a science course as pointed out In the discussion of
philosophy and aims for the sciences, and should, therefore,
reflect 100 per cent inclusion in the aims for any new
course.
Any conclusion drawn with respect to the need for
48
TABLE II
EVALUATION OF GENERAL AIMS FOR PHYSICAL SCIENCE
Criteria*
elements Per cent**
present
evaluation
General aims presented
5? 6
28.6
1. Scientific attitudes and laboratory
techniques.
5f 6, 7
42.8
2. (a) To understand structure of
matter.
(b) To understanding of functions
of living things.
1, 2, 4
5) 6, 7
85.6
3* (a) Understanding of scientific
method.
(b) Better appreciation of science
as a part of modern life.
(c) Better tinderstanding of sci­
ence phenomena.
4, 5
6, 7
57*3
4. To develop a realistic insight into
the common phenomena of our physi­
cal world.
2, 3, 4
6, 7
85.6
5. Consumer knowledge, health, homemaking, safety, scientific thinking,
economic.
59 6, 7
42,8
6. To develop a scientific attitude
and an attitude of critical evalu­
ation In buying.
5
14.3
7* (a) To help the pupils develop
scientific attitudes.
(b) To give practice in the scien­
tific method of problem solving.
7
14,3
8, This course draws relatively few
from the physics and chemistry
courses but stimulates a few to
elect physica and chemistry after
taking the less formal courses.
* Number Indicates the criteria statement given on
page 46.
** Found by dividing criteria elements present by total
number shown on page 46.
49
TABLE II (continued)
EVALUATION OF-GENERAL AIMS FOR PHYSICAL SCIENCE
Criteria
element Per cent
present evaluation
General aims presented
14.3
9.
4, 6, 7
42.8
10.
To better acquaint the student who
will not attend college with some
of the physical features of his
surroundings.
6, 7
28.6
11.
It cuts across the common subject
matter of science and stresses
practical applications of scienti­
fic principles.
1,
4
5, 6, 7
85.6
12.
(a) To begin the development of
skill in the scientific method.
(b) To begin the development of a
scientific attitude.
(c) To develop interest in scien­
tific phenomena.
2, 4, 6
42.8
13*
To study the relation of science
and its applications to the prog­
ress of civilization.
To study the relation of science
and its applications to the prog­
ress of civilization.
42.8
14.
To present physical science materi­
als which develop greater meaning
and under standing.
15.
To present physical science materi­
als which develop greater meaning
and understanding so as to contriute to
(a) The accomplishment of the
function of orienting the students
to the fields of physical science;
1, 2, 3
4, 5, 6
7
100
Ability to use scientific method of
thinking.
50
TABLE II (continued)
EVALUATION OF GENERAL AIMS FOR PHYSICAL SCIENCE
Criteria
element Per cent
present evaluation
General aims presented
15*
(continued)
(b) The awakening of a new appreci­
ation for the influences science is
having upon life today;
(c) The provision of enough informa­
tion to better understand physical
aspects of our environment;
(d) The development of the concept
that science is a unity and not a
group of isolated bodies;
(e) Practice in the scientific
method and its corollaries, appli­
cations, et cetera;
(f) An increased appreciation of
man’s relation to his environment
and his steps in its control.
6, 7
42.8
16.
A general survey of chemicalphysical-biological sciences and
their interrelation and applica­
tion to life.
4
Ik.3
17.
Wide range of experience for boys
and girls.
7
Ik.3
18.
General understanding of applica­
tion of scientific principles to
aviation.
57.3
19*
To give those boys and girls who do
not plan to enter college a back­
ground of physical and chemical
science so they may successfully
meet their problems in life.
51
TABLE II (continued)
EVALUATION OP GENERAL AIMS FOR PHYSICAL SCIENCE
Criteria
element Per cent
present evaluation
General aim presented
4, 7
28,6
20.
To show the interrelation of
physics and chemistry and to pro­
vide a substantial foundation for
further work in science.
2, 3
4,6
57*3
21.
The development of desirable attitudes toward appreciation of and
adaptations to our environment.
To provide adequate practical ex­
periences in the fields of the
physical sciences for pupils who
do not desire or are unable to
take chemistry or physics.
1, 3 9 4
59 6, 7
85*6
22.
(a) To adapt Instruction to the
needs, interests, and abilities of
eleventh and twelfth grade pupils
who desire some science but do not
wish, or are unable to take chem­
istry or physics.
(b) To discover the most effective
teaching method for presenting
science material to a non-college
group.
(c) To ascertain a knowledge of the
needs, interests, and abilities of
eleventh and twelfth grade pupils
and use this knowledge in arranging
the content of the course.
(d) To produce an independent type
of investigation, experimentation,
and study by the pupil.
(e) To provide opportunity for the
pupil to explain, use, and apply
the scientific method in daily life.
52
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the formulation of more meaningful aims may be based on the
data presented.
Specific objectives for physical science.
On the
basis of definition, the specific objectives in physical
science should include the aspects of outcome, function, and
method as found for the general aims, and should be repre­
sentative of a particular unit of instruction.
If the ob­
jective of any unit of instruction is measured by the out­
comes of the -unit, then the possible perspective of an
objective may be obtained from the realization of such out­
comes.
Ho definite unit objectives were given by cooperat­
ing schools In this study, nor are there any such definite
objectives given in the texts for the physical science
field.
The returns from the questionnaire largely em­
phasized outcomes and unit topics under this category.
In viewing the subject of outcomes as a measure for
an objective, certain general aspects are stressed in the
advanced physical science courses of the Los Angeles School
District.32
They are skills, habits, abilities, attitudes,
and understandings which are found to be in harmony with
the criteria set up for the evaluation of the physical
science aim.
The same general classification is used by
3^ William B. Brown, 11Advanced Physical Science,”
(unpublished monograph, Los Angeles City School District,
Division of Instruction and Curriculum, Secondary Curricu­
lum Section, Los Angeles, California, 1937)*
the Citrus Union High School of Azusa, California, as was
shown by the answers to a questionnaire where interests,
attitudes, knowledges, and skills basic to the aims of
physical science were to be used as the general aspects of
an objective for each of ten to twelve units.
Likewise, a
similar classification consisting of understandings and
meanings, attitudes and appreciations, techniques and skills
is given for the grouping of outcomes in Our Physical World
by Eckels, Shaver, and Howard,^
and method included.
In no group are function
The only other two texts for physical
science in the secondary field, Consumer Science by Hausrath
and Harms^ and Senior Science by Bush, Ptacek, Kovata,^^
mention neither objectives nor outcomes for the units of
instruction.
Another type of classification was given by Central
High at La Crosse, Wisconsin; Watertown, South Dakota; and
Normandy High School, St. Louis, Missouri.
This classifi­
cation suggests knowledges and skills with an indirect
^ Charles P. Eckels, Chalmer B. Shaver, Bailey W.
Howard, Our Physical World (Chicago: Benjamin H. Sanborn
and Co., 1938)•
^ Alfred H. Hausrath, Jr., and John H. Harms, Con­
sumer Science (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1939)>
£92 PP.
l. Bush, Theodore Ptacek, and John Kovats,
Senior Science (New York: American Book Company, 1937)>
835 PP.
George
implication for the development of attitudes and apprecia­
tions ♦
This type is represented in terms of units of in­
struction*
Two examples are given*
Example One
1.
Principles of road building
2.
Motor car operation.,
3.
Sources and manufacture of textiles and building
materials*
.4*
Quackery in foods and medicine*
5.
Uses of home tools and equipment*
6.
Fire— applications and control.
7.
Knowledge of environment.
Example Two
To know something about
1.
Composition of matter*.
2.
Atmosphere*
3*
Fire and fuel.
4.
Acids, bases, and salts.
5*
Foods.
6.
Drugs, poisons and cosmetics.
7*
Clothing and cleaning agents.
8.. Building materials.
9*
10.
Metals and alloys.
Electricity in the home.
56
11.
Communi cation.
12.
Heat and functional use of it.
13*The nature of light
14.
and its use.
Machines and energy.
A comparison between the two methods can be drawn on the
basis of the criteria for the aim of physical science to
which objectives must directly contribute.
Summary.
A review of the chapter on aims stresses
three points of consideration.
sionof terminology
In the first place, confu­
in current literature made Itnecessary
to accept an aim as purpose in the
educational and subject
fields, with objective as purpose in the unit of instruc­
tion.
Second, an analysis of the general educational aims
presented by cooperating schools in answer to a question­
naire on the basis of criteria determined by philosophy
and aims of authorities In current literature is interpreted
in tables and figures.
Finally, an analysis of the aims for
the physical sciences is similarly made with a comparison of
two indirect methods of objective classification.
The gen­
eral study of aims pursued should clarify the thinking with
respect to curriculum organization, content, method, and
evaluation of the new type course in physical science.
CHAPTER III
THE CURRICULUM ORGANIZATION FOR NEW TYPE
COURSES IN PHYSICAL SCIENCE
A study of the curriculum organization for a course
in physical science will doubtlessly aid in the development
of a model course based upon anticipation of the fulfill­
ment of present-day aims.
The analysis in the present
chapter must necessarily be based upon current psychologi­
cal and philosophical thought presented by authorities in
the educational field.
A comparison of the actual practice
in certain schools, as given in answer to a questionnadre
with the theoretical principles considered essential, will
serve as the basis for the improvement of a curriculum or­
ganization.
To make the study complete, three points are
essential: (a) definitions of the curriculum, (b) psycholog­
ical principles basic to curriculum organization, and (c)
physical science in the school curriculum.
DEFINITIONS OF THE CURRICULUM
In order that the meaning of the term, "curriculum,”
become entirely clear, three modern aspects of it have been
considered.
Curriculum as used today may be classified as
an administrative curriculum, a course of study curriculum,
or an experience curriculum.
58
The administrative curriculum is construed to mean
what Caswell and Campbell suggest, "a term in s. very re­
stricted sense--to indicate a group of subjects or fields of
study arranged in a particular sequence.
This definition is
employed especially in secondary schools and colleges.
They point out that this concept was originally held in the
work of the North Central Associations Committee on Stand­
ards for use in the reorganization of secondary school cur­
ricula.
Draper^
places similar emphasis on the use of the
term.
The course of study curriculum refers to the course
plans which are used to guide the teacher in her work.
Caswell and Campbell-^ again designate it as including the
subject matter or content that is to be employed in instruc­
tion.
Burton
speaks of courses of study, f1as an aid to the
development of an actual curriculum. . . .
According to
his interpretation, "courses of study11 should not be used
synonomously with "curriculum.”
^ Hollis L. Caswell and Doak S. Campbell, Curriculum
Development (New York: American Book Company, 1935), P* £>5*
p
Edgar Marion Draper, Principles and Techniques of
Curriculum Making (New York: D. Appleton Century Company,
1936), p. 11.
3
Loc. cit.
2i
A. S. Barr, William H. Burton, and Leo J. Bruckner,
Supervision (New York: D. Appleton Century Company, 1938),
p. 719.
59
The third definition given to curriculum is more com­
prehensive than the preceding concepts.
It involves all the
elements of experience for the learner.
Burton says, "The
term, curriculum, Is increasingly used to mean the actual
experience which children h a v e . T h e
given by Caswell and
Campbell;
same Interpretation is
^ also by Draper,7 under the
term, "Individual Curriculum."
The curriculum In this
sense includes consideration of pupil interests and activi­
ties, aims, method,.content, or everything that influences ■
the experiences of the learner.
In this chapter curriculum, will be considered from
the administrative aspect with reference to the school sub­
ject placement and organization as well as its application
to the characteristics pertaining to the complete develop­
ment of the individual.
In the last category, it will be
referred to as the "individual curriculum."
Irrespective
of the phase considered, a basic understanding of the under­
lying principles of psychology and philosophy Is Important.
BASIC PSYCHOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES
Psychological principles underlie the proper place-
^ Barr, Burton, and Bruckner, loc. cit.
^ Caswell and Campbell, pp. cit., p. 66.
7 Draper, op. cit., p. 12.
6o
ment of any subject within the school organization to the
extent in which that subject is to fulfill certain needs of
the
pupils
for whom it is intended.
Psychological prin­
ciples fundamental to proper subject placement depend upon
the acceptance of certain philosophical attitudes and psy­
chological theories.
Two philosophical attitudes with re­
spect to conflicting psychologies are brought out by Knudsen
who contrasts two theories of the transfer of training.
According to one theory, transfer of training can
be explained adequately on the basis of identical
elements in situations or identities of procedure.
Habit is the basis of transfer. Curricula become op­
portunities for habit formation. According to another
theory, transfer takes place through formulation of
concepts. Consequently, the curriculum built on this
theory consists of experiencing, through which concepts
are developed. This is equivalent to regarding trans­
fer of training and intelligence as synonymous. Facil­
itation of transfer is guaranteed, according to an
exponent of the latter theory, by "cultivation of social
content and logical organization. . . ." the second
theory has greater acceptance among educators of the
present than does the first. The first theory leads to
creation of curricula in which drill predominated; the
second leads to creation of curricula in which emphasis
is placed upon acquisition of learning.
Riley gives a similar digest by saying:
The S— R bond concept, as well as the conditioning
of behavior in accordance with the theories of Pavlor
and Watson involves the training and combination of
the more elemental mechanisms with the minor attention
to function of the organism as a whole. These basic
concepts also encourage a highly compartmentalized cur­
riculum made up of separate and more or less unrelated
fields of learning. Only since the introduction and
spread of the theories of Gestalt psychology has the
o
C. W. Knudsen, "Science Teacher and Curriculum
Trends," Peabody Journal of Education, 14:310-18, May, 1937*
61
behavior of the totality of the individual been given
prime consideration with secondary and subsequent at-*
tention being directed to simpler and more rudimentary
factors. The principles of Gestalt psychology are
basic to a modern and progressive science of educa­
tion. 9
Hopkins10 applies Gestalt psychology to the curriculum by
stating that the curriculum must be concerned with aiding
individuals to improve their life and living, the test of
which lies in the integrating effect upon behavior.
11Since
life is changing and individuals are growing in ability to
manage it, a curriculum cannot be fixed in advance, but
must be as flexible as intelligent living.w11
With this
viewpoint in mind, it may be logical to agree with Powers
that
The enlargement of the curriculum should be gradual,
paralleling the mental growth of the children. . . .
The general program of the lower grades of the elemen­
tary school and the progray of elective subjects in
the senior high school are quite in contrast, but an
effective curriculum is one in which the learning
progresses gradually and uninterruptedly from the
lower to the upper levels.12
^ T. M. Riley, "The Evolving Curriculum of the
Secondary School,” California Journal of Secondary Educa­
tion, 11:3061, May, 1936.
L. Thomas Hopkins, and others, Integration, Its
Meaning and Application (New York; D. Appleton Century
Company, 1937), p. l P V
Loc» cit.
1p
Samuel R. Powers, "Educational Values of Science
Teaching,” Teachers College Record, 32:25, October, 1930,
at Columbia University.
62
Understanding the basic philosophy underlying the psycholog­
ical principles applied to the curriculum in general, it is
possible to study the position of physical science in that
curriculum.
PHYSICAL SCIENCE IN THE SCHOOL CURRICULUM
To study the curriculum organization of physical
science in the light of psychological principles and au­
thority, the curriculum organization of certain experimental
schools will be considered from the standpoint of (l) purpose for placing physical science in the school curriculum,
(2) types of organization, and (3 ) course sequence within
the curriculum.
Purpose for placing physical science in the school
curriculum.
The purpose for placing physical science in
the school curriculum will vary from school to school.
It
is evident, however, on the basis of philosophy and psy­
chology that flft is the aim of the school to provide the
experiences which will make possible the most efficient
growth in learning.
Moreover, ,f0n the practical side it
that in any subject matter a program of education which is
inconsistent with the plan of general education can hardly
'13 Ibid. , p. 26.
63
be s u c c e s s f u l . O n the basis of this thought, Samuel R.
Powers comments:
. . . it is proposed that the curriculum in science be
organized about large objectives, understanding and
enlargement of which shall constitute the ultimate aim
of science teaching, and that the course of study be
organized so that each succeeding grade level shall
present an increasingly enlarged and increasingly
mature development of them.15
It is evident in the reasons given by the schools
cooperating in this analysis,»as shown in Table III, that
the course is to replace the old stereotyped chemistry and
physics courses as an elective, but only partially for
pupils enrolled in general courses who do not necessarily
plan to enter college.
At the same time approximately 50
per cent of these schools emphasize the course as a possible
preparatory course for the more technical chemistry and
physics.
Such emphasis evidently utilizes the principles
of philosophy to adjust the subject to possible pupil
interests and needs, making it elective for the pupil inter­
ested in the technical aspects, as well as adapting it to
the pupil Interested in other vocational fields.
Types of organization.
Instituting a new course
necessarily includes various plans of organization.
Samuel R. Powers, loc. cit.
Loc. cit.
The
64
TABLE III
THE PURPOSES FOR PLACING- PHYSICAL SCIENCE
IN THE CURRICULUM OF TWENTY-SEVEN COOPERATING SCHOOLS
Purposes
Frequency of occurrence
To replace chemistry and physics
15
As a requirement for all pupils
2
As a science elective
24*
For non-college vocational pupils
13
As a foundation for physics and chemistry
14
As a college preparatory science
13
To fulfill the school science requirement
21
* 2— Elective only for general course pupils
3--Elective only for non-college pupils
types of organization in the physical science curriculum are
dependent upon the present attempt to develop in the pupil.
a more basic understanding of some of the major problems in
society and to arouse within him an interest in the common
welfare.
This development is indicated by a greater con­
tinuity of. pupil
experience in several fields of work.
Such continuity of experience was found in mathematics,
foreign languages, and English; but at present is being
developed in social studies and in science.
the Briarc l i f f
Conference1^
A report of
of the Progressive Education
Association indicates that this experience is continuous
throughout the six years of the secondary schools in some
cases, in others for three or four years.
The report
further indicates that such continuity is bringing about
better organization of subject matter and more solid con­
tent and substance in the fields of science and social
studies.
The particular change in curriculum organization
is in the direction of integration, correlation, and
orchestration of subjects.
Robert J. Havighurst,^7 assistant director of educa­
^ Briarcliff Conference, Progressive Education Asso­
ciation, Commission on the Relations of School and College,
Ohio,State University, October, 1935*
^7 Robert J. Havighurst, Assistant Director of Educa­
tion, General Education Board, New York, f,A Survey of Some
Experiments in Science Education (Abstract).
tion for the General Education Board in New York, empha­
sizes the fact that much stress has been placed on integra­
tion of subject matter in recent years.
He points out three
types of integration: lateral integration within the broad
field of the natural sciences drawing from various subject
areas at a single grade level; lateral integration of
several broad fields, such as social studies, natural sci­
ences, and art; vertical integration, which means integra­
tion of science courses into a sequence covering two or
more years.
In the high school the lateral integration plan
is used as a survey course.
Not only do the types of organization vary with
respect to lateral or vertical fusion; but, there is also
a variation in regard to the manner in which experimentation
is utilized to substantiate and prove scientific generaliza­
tions.
Table IV indicates the policies adopted by twenty-
seven different experimental schools.
Emphasis, however,
favors demonstration work with the greater part including
no specified time for laboratory work.
The old, static sys­
tem for laboratory work has largely been replaced by one in
which experiments are used as the need arises.
Approxi­
mately 50 per cent, however, depend upon the development of
generalization without experimental work.
Such types of
organization suggest possible sequences which also will
vary according to local conditions and the extent to which
67
TABLE IV
NUMBER OF SCHOOLS WITH
TIME IN MINUTES PER WEEK-DAY GIVEN TO
CLASS AND LABORATORY WORK IN PHYSICAL SCIENCE
Provision for
laboratory periods
Minutes allotted to class period
40
42
45
50
53
55
60
1
When desired
One period per week
pins demonstration
1
Two periods per week
Demonstration only
No time specified
3
2
1
1
2
1
3
2
1
4
5
68
current educational philosophy is followed in the general
educational aims.
Course sequence within the curriculum.
A course
sequence for the administrative curriculum within the field
of science becomes necessary if educators are to apply the
philosophical principles accepted in education today.
H. A.
Carpenter says:
A twelve-year program of science education must
provide for the development of skill in the use of the
method of science by actual practice in using it
throughout the whole elementary and secondary school
period, if returns to the childcare to compensate him
fully for his time and energy.
Emmet H. Brown stresses the same point by saying, "The in­
tegrated physical science course must definitely build on
previous work in science.
Its success is to a large extent
conditioned by the extent to which this is accomplished. 11-*-9
Similar conclusions were reached by a committee of Los
Angeles County science teachers.
Donald H. Watson, chair­
man of the committee, reports a suggested high school se­
quence.
The sequence includes: (l) General science --9th
year— to be composed of units from the physical and biologi­
cal environment based on their social significance with em­
phasis on life needs; (2) General biology--10th year—
to be
H. A. Carpenter, "Pattern for Science Teaching,"
Science Education, 20:223> December, 1936.
-*-9 Emmet H. Brown, "Science in the New Secondary
School," Teachers College Record, 35:704, May, 1934.
composed of units from the field of the life sciences with
emphasis on man's relations to the living world, his place
in it, and his own functioning as a living organism; (3)
General physical science— 11th year— to be composed of units
from the field of physical science with emphasis on man's
relations to the physical world; (4) General chemistry—
11th and 12th year--to emphasize the applications to the
home, personal welfare, and industry; and (5) General physics--llth and 12th year--to emphasize its application to
the home, the modern world, and industry.2^ 'The report fur­
ther suggested that general science be stressed for pupils.,
not planning to graduate, but not to serve as a requirement,
that physical science may serve as a preparatory course for
chemistry and physics.
The Horace Mann School also recognizes the importance
of a continuous program of instruction in science, beginning
with the kindergarten and extending through the twelve years
of the elementary and high school.
G. S. Craig brings out
the point that "The school recognizes the pertinent interests
of children on the one hand and the needs of society on the
other.”21
G. W. Blount of the Abraham Lincoln School reviews
20 Donald R. ¥atson, "Scope and Sequence of High
School Science," California Journal of Secondary Education,
13:50-51> January, 1958.
21 G. S. Craig and A. J. Lockhart, "The Program of
Science in the Horace Mann School," Teachers College Record,
36:688, May, 1935*
70
a similar program in which the science program is an inte­
gral part of the core experience of e a c h p u p i l , .^2
The
concensus of opinion by such writers in the field emphasizes
the need and practice of applying the philosophical and
psychological principles stressed in the development of
aims.
Therefore, such a pattern must be the key for com­
parison of practices in the schools at large.
The twenty-
seven cooperating schools indicated an almost 50 per cent
inclusion of a science sequence throughout the elementary
and secondary levels.
The various grade sequence stages
are indicated in Figure 5*
Further interest within the.sequence is the grade
placement of the physical science course itself.
According
to Figure 4, page 72, the majority indicate preference at
the eleventh and twelfth grade level which coincides with
the suggestion made by the Los Angeles county science
teachers.^5
rp^e fact remains, however, that there is a
variation of Opinion as to grade placement.
A number of
points stand out with respect to the distribution of sci­
ence subjects offered at various grade levels in the co­
operating schools, as shown in Table V, page 75.
pp
Chemistry
G. W. Blount, "Experience with’a Continuous Science
Program,” National Education Association Proceedings, 1957*
p. 585.
23
^ Watson, loc. cit.
71
04
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•H
v-i
G
o; W
§ ^
O
•H
ra
Dr
Mi
w
n
TO
(—Q -KQ—{*- ^0L_^_^U_Os
H co
NO. 6 0 4 3 .
U N IV E R S IT Y
BO O K STORE. LOS AN GELES.
Q
i—I
CQi 0 0
72
10
21
2a
11 and 1
10
2-5
11
chooIs
------- £IG UH.&—I--------------
m
LAi
EmCL_CE J
SH 3AI»
—Sj2ZEMCII
tyUeve:^ coo:3EEATi:EG schools
NO. 6 0 4 3 .
U N IV E R S IT Y
BOOK STORE. LOS ANG ELES
73
TABLE V
DISTRIBUTION OP SCIENCE SUBJECTS
OFFERED AT VARIOUS GRADE LEVELS IN THE
COOPERATING SCHOOLS
Grade
'9
Physical science
10
11
12
5
' 22
25
Chemistry
17.
Physics
Biology
General science
9
2
17
1
11
2
18
Botany
1
1
Zoology
1
1
Life science
2
Physiology
3
Anatomy
1
Related science
8
1
1
Practical science
.1
1
Natural science
1
1
1
1
is offered in the eleventh year hy the majority with physi­
cal science in the eleventh and twelfth years as a sequence,
thereby, making it quite impossible for physical science to
serve in a preparatory capacity for further science on the
secondary level.
Approximately, the same situation exists
with respect to physics.
In most cases, physics and chem­
istry are given in addition to the course in physical,sci­
ence,
Comparing this distribution with figures given in
Table III, a certain amount of duplication in the curricu­
lum appears.
Thirteen schools list one of the purposes of
the course as a college preparatory science.
twenty-five offer chemistry also.
Whereas,
Evidently, in approxi­
mately 50 per cent of the cases, physical science Is open
to all students planning to take further work in college.
Summary.
In reviewing the items covered in this
chapter, several points stand out.
First, the conclusion
that the term, curriculum, must be considered from the
standpoint of the individual as it pertains to his inter­
est and needs and not solely from the administrative angle;
second, that a sound philosophical attitude with respect to
existing psychologies is taken as the ba.sis of curriculum
construction in the sciences, indicated by the adoption of
Gestalt psychology in harmony with present-day philosophy
centered about the ..pupil';; and third, that physical sci­
'75
ence in the school curriculum has a definite place.
he an elective for the majority of
It may
pupils,, hut it serves
as a college preparatory course in 50 per cent of the
schools studied.
The type of organization may vary from
lateral to vertical integration with little time, if any,
particularly specified for laboratory work.
The sequence
of science from the elementary through the secondary school
level is hased upon fundamental philosophy and according to
this hasis the majority of schools participating in this
study arranged their courses.
There were certain variations
as to the reasons for the inclusion of physical science
tending toward slight duplication of material as indicated
hy the distribution of subjects presented by the twentyseven schools.
CHAPTER IV
AN ANALYSIS OF COURSE CONTENT FOR NEWER
TYPE COURSES IN PHYSICAL SCIENCE
In analyzing course content for any subject the logi­
cal procedure is to begin with the principles that are in
conformity -with current philosophical and psychological
thought.
Such principles give a clue to the trend of thought
and serve as a guide to the selection of content material
built around the interests and needs of the child.
There­
fore , a comparison of the ideas propounded by other analysts
with those presented in current texts, as well as those
presented by the twenty-seven cooperating schools, was used
as a basis for this analysis which covers: (l) the tradi­
tional courses in physical science; (2) the principles de­
termining course content; and (3) the organization of con­
tent.
THE TRADITIONAL COURSES IN PHYSICAL SCIENCE
The traditional courses in physical science are chem­
istry and physics taught independently and irrespectively of
the individual interests and needs of the average pupil.',
A few criticisms of these courses were considered of first
importance.
77
Criticism of traditional courses by writers in the
field.
The concensus of opinion by authorities with respect
to traditional courses is expressed by Shailer A. Peterson-*of the University of Minnesota, when he says that they are
courses which appear to be in a static condition, having
changed but little since the time of the Committee of Ten.
These courses were so firmly established by the entrance
requirements of the universities that little could be done
except to follow the factual materials and laws suggested
by college professors.
Of such courses Peterson further
adds, "Both the chemistry and physics courses have won for
themselves sufficient dissatisfaction on the part of all
concerned to actually warrant a change.
Ralph D. Russell^ of the -University of Idaho voices
a similar opinion by stating that present courses consist in
a study of books which are organized partly on a scientific
basis and partly on a practical basis.
Beginning with sim­
plified rudiments, the text proceeds according to divisions
formulated for a specialist.
Technical definitions and con­
cepts are presented, followed by laws with no application to
1 Shailer A. Peterson, "Advocating a Fusion of Physics
and Chemistry," School Science and Mathematics, 37*450,
April, 1937.
2 Loc. cit.
^ Ralph D. Russell, "Organizing Science on a Func­
tional Basis," Curriculum Journal, 7*21, October, 1936.
78
natural situations, thereby giving an almost.duplicate course
to that given in college.
Similar criticisms may be made of
supporting laboratory materials.
The results of such unpsychological material are
brought out by Deyoe of the State Teachers College in Plattesville, Wisconsin, with respect to a study made of supersti­
tions and -unfounded beliefs in college students, which should
have been corrected in the high school and college science
subjects.
He states:
In a group of college freshmen, practically all of
whom had taken general science, biology, and physics
in high school, one-fifth or more were so -unfamiliar
with the application of scientific principles to the
environment that they gave erroneous responses to such
situations as the use of the ”devining rod” for locat­
ing underground ore and water, the acceleration of
falling bodies of different weights, various important
life activities, of animals, and the explanations for
important natural phenomena.^
Many more examples were cited but this serves to point out
the incongruity of content material with the present-day
philosophy of education.
The criticisms based upon current
philosophical and psychological thought with respect to the
traditional courses in the physical sciences are also
brought out by contrasting the conventional with the newer
experimental courses.
^ G. P. Deyoe, 1TConsumer Approach to Science Teach­
e s * ” Science Education9 19:95-103* October, 1935*
79
Contrasting content of the conventional with the
newer type courses.
A contrast "between the conventional and
the experimental courses is pointed out by Wrightstone.
Of
the conventional, he says:
In teaching the natural sciences, the so-called
conventional group accepts the isolated subjects of
instruction as the logical and pedagogical units for
classroom teaching. The content of each subject
usually represents a historical accumulation of topics
arranged-logically for a trained scientific worker.
Each topic is*taught according to a psychology that
places an emphasis upon the acquisition of “minimum
essentials’* of intellectual knowledge and skills.5
in direct contrast with this viewpoint he calls attention to
the practices in selected experimental schools.
The advocates of the new system maintain further
that the-method and content of ,the curriculum should
draw upon and expand the present interests and ex­
periences of pupils; and that units of study, or work,
need not necessarily be taught according to any pre­
vious logically arranged order of topics.*3
Wrightstone further points out that the newer practices are
based upon
. . . the theory that the pupils* interests, purposes,
and attitudes are a principal consideration of the
teacher who should utilize and organize curriculum
content to develop such interests, purposes, and atti­
tudes so that pupils are led to the understanding of
concepts and ideas by a problem-solving technique.‘
5
J. Wayne Wrightstone, Appraisal of Ex p erimental
High School Practices (New York: Bureau of Publications,
Teachers College, Columbia University, 1936), p. 63*
^ Ibid., p. 65*
^ Ibid., p. 66.
80
A report of the Briaroliff Conference® held by the
Commission on the Relation of School and College of the Pro­
gressive Education Association points out certain changes
in curriculum content of the thirty experimental schools
under their observation*
These changes include the elimina­
tion of content of doubtful value from the traditional sub­
jects and the inclusion of new content which seems of greater
significance.
Such changes also include the addition of
elementary aspects of astronomy and geology to the content
in science thought to be essential.
Another contrast may be made by comparing statements
of Graham at Berea College, Berea, Kentucky, with those of
Watson that reflect the conclusions of a committee of Los
Angeles County science teachers who worked for a year on
the science curriculum.
Graham emphasizes the slow change
in content of physics and chemistry due to greater degrees
of specialization as compared to biology and general sci­
ence.
He says:
A course of study in physics is divided into units
with titles such as: (l) mechanics of liquids and
solids; (2) sound, and (j5) electricity and magnetism;
and chemistry includes such units as (l) acids, bases
and salts; (2) non-metals, and (5 ) the electron^ theory
of matter.9
8
Pamphlet on Briarcliff Conference, Commission on
the Relation of School and College of the Progressive Edu­
cation Association, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio,
October, 1935.
9 C. C. Graham, "Some Practices and Tendencies in the
Teaching of Science--Grades I-XII," Educational Administra­
tion and Supervision, 23:2^7* April, 1937.
81
To offset such a static condition, Watson suggests that a
high school science course should include the main concepts
and problems of a pupil’s biological and physical environ­
ment,
His report points out that general physical science
should be composed of units from the field of physical sci­
ence with emphasis on m a n ’s relations to the physical world,
his place in it, and the relations of physical science to
society.
Criticisms of existing traditional courses in physi­
cal science, as well as contrasts of the old content ar­
rangement with the more practical psychological adaptation
proposed by progressive schools, points toward a closer
adjustment of these courses to the present-day philosophy
of education which places emphasis upon the child rather
than the subject.
Certain principles for determining such
content must be established as a means for bringing about
such a change.
PRINCIPLES DETERMINING CONTENT
As stated earlier, any change suggested in the con­
tent of the physical sciences is sound only to the degree
in which the guiding principles follow the principles of
philosophical and psychological thought.
Principles devel-
10 Donald R. Watson, ’’Scope and Sequence of High
School Science,” California Journal of Secondary Educations
13:50, January,.1938*
82
oped on this "basis by analysts in the field and those used
by schools adopting a change in course content may serve
as a foundation for this analysis.
Basic principles for determining content suggested
by analysts in the field.
Authorities in the selection of
content material for the physical sciences are considered
briefly at this time.
Hopkins calls attention to the fal­
lacy of the present correlated curriculum, governed by the
ideas of the basic subject curriculum, by stating:
If it persists in its present form, it may possibly
hinder rather than promote integration since the more
teachers lock together subject matter in terms of their
purposes under such terms as correlation, fusion, acti­
vities, units and the like, the more difficult it may
?or pupils to disassociate the subject matter to use
in achieving their own goals, a need which is funda­
mental to all intelligent conceptions of integration.H
Furthermore, Hopkins believes that it is difficult to esti­
mate the contribution the broad fields curriculum may make
toward integrating and cites the newer type courses in phy­
sical science as an example.
In the fused or correlated broad fields type parti­
cular units for each year are worked out in detail with
objectives and standards of attainment, although free­
dom is allowed the teacher to develop them with the
pupils in as psychological a way as possible. In the
experience curriculum type the advance preparation is
usually in terms of principles of philosophy, learning,
11
L. Thomas Hopkins and others, Integration, Its
Meaning and Application (New York: D. Appleton-Century
Company, 1937)TT?T~2097
83
techniques of managing experiences, broad suggestions
•to teachers; whereas the specific situations, their
development and the outcomes expected are left to
teachers and pupils to determine.
The principle stressed by Hopkins is the integration of the
individual, toward which all content material must be
centered.
According to Baird in the Preliminary Report of the
Science Committee to the Commission on Secondary School
Curriculum of the Progressive Education Association:
We can no longer assume that the mere memorization
of a mass of factual information— will make a signifi­
cant contribution to the development of the child in
terms of basic relationships as set up neither can we
argue that the actual mastery of a series of generali­
zations --will- -further that development. Oxidation and
reduction, Boylefs and Charles Laws, Avogadrofs hypo­
thesis and a host of other familiar topics of tradi­
tional science have not— the power to exercise much
influence on the continuous reconstruction and improve­
ment of individual and social life.13
As a solution to the problem of conforming to a
philosophy in which a science course shall have some social
and functional value, Watson suggests that it “should con­
sist of units or problems drawn from the environment of the
pupil and solved by application of subject matter through
the scientific m e t h o d . H e
states that such units should
12 Ibid., p. 231.
Hal Baird, "A Functional Course In the Physical
Sciences,,! Curriculum Journal. 8:13* January, 1937*
D. R. Watson, “Secondary Science,“ Sierra Educa­
tional News, 33:11# October, 1937*
84
have social significance in which the main problem is sub­
divided into minor individual problems adapted to individual
differences, abilities, and interests in order to develop
initiative, creativity, and originality*
P o w e r s - 1-^
presents points favored by the Science Com­
mittee of the National Society for the Study of Education
in curriculum construction.
These points emphasize the use
of broad generalizations as agencies for relating under­
standing of scientific achievements to human experiences
rather than pure science generalizations*
Powers suggests
the use of such interpretative generalizations as guides in
the organization of subject matter to bring about a closer
integration of school activities with social activities.
Similar viewpoints with respect to content selection ex­
pressed by Lindsay,
Zechiel and Mc C u t c h e o n , B r o w n ,
^ S. R. Powers, "interpretative Generalizations as
Aids in Curriculum Work in Science," Science Education,
20:222, December, 1936.
-*-6 f , b . Lindsay, "Science and Social Trends," Cali­
fornia Journal of Secondary Education, 11:413, November,
1936."
•*-7 A. N. Zechiel and L. P. McCutcheon, "Reflective
Thinking in Social Studies and in Science," Progressive
Education, 15:288-89, April, 1938.
^ Emmet H. Brown, "Science in the New Secondary
School," Teachers College Record, 35:704, May, 1934*
85
Eckels,^9 and Jarvis*^ may be summarized as follows:
1.
Selection of large unit problems or generaliza­
tions which are suggestive of many sub-problems reflecting
individual needs, interests, and backgrounds, and which
will aid in the solution of the main unit problem*
2.
To develop skill in the scientific method which
will be of social value, content must be drawn from many
texts irrespective of their organization and must habituate
the pupil to analysis and deliberation in original situa­
tions*
3*
Content material should deal with conservation
of national resources, both material and human.
4*
Laboratory work should substitute for the "Cook
Book11 type of manual, those problems which are a direct
outgrowth of the unit problems under consideration and
should approach the nature of individual research through
the application of techniques of scientific investigation.
5*
The selection of content should also depend upon
local environmental relationships, availability of supplies,
and other instructional facilities.
6.
Within the framework of the unit itself, the
•*•9 >/. C. Shaver and C. P. Eckels, "Improvement of
Junior College Science Teaching,n California Journal of
Secondary Education, 10:489-91* November, 1935*
20 E. A. Jarvis, "Selection of Science Content in
Core-Courses,” California Journal of Secondary Education,
12:78, February,. 1937*
86
teacher and pupil should be afforded extensive opportunity
for the selection of content which is not static, but sub­
ject to continuous revision in the light of experience.
There is very close agreement between the principles
just enumerated and the general criteria for the selection
of content adopted by Hopkins, who says that good content
should:
(1) Have high frequency of occurrence in the common
activities of present social life. For this- reason it
ought to be taught in the schools.
(2) Have high frequency of occurrence in the common
activities of present social life, but not be taught
by any outside social agency.
(3) Have high frequency of occurrence in social
life as it ought to be in the next generation.
(4) Be of interest to pupils.
(5) Serve as the basis for acquiring more learning.2-1*
The principles for the selection of content developed and
propounded by analysts in the field not only concentrate
thought on what should be done but incidentally exert an in­
fluence on changes taking place in course content for the
physical sciences as well.
This is illustrated by the re­
port given by twenty-seven schools cooperating in this
study.
21
L. Thomas Hopkins, Curriculum Principles and
Practices (Chicago: Benjamin H. Sanborn and Company, 1929)9
p. 133.
87
Principles used for determining course content in
twenty-seven cooperating schools.
The distribution of the
principles used for determining course content used by the
cooperating schools is indicated in Table VI.
The fre­
quency with which any one principle is selected indicates
the importance attached to that principle as well as its
adaptability for the classroom.
A study of the table indicates the emphasis upon
pupil interests and needs in the selection of content for
new courses in physical sciences.
On the other hand, it
indicates also a weakness in emphasis on the possible fu­
ture interests of the pupil and his needs as an adult.
The influence of the subject type of course is still re­
flected in the majority by emphasizing basic generaliza­
tions with practical applications, although more than half
the reports show a tendency toward the consideration of an
analysis of practical problems supported by theoretical
generalizations and concepts.
The emphasis on the part of
half of the schools considered the subject from the con­
sumer angle, while the remaining half tended to throw some
emphasis on the specialist to a greater or less degree.
Pew schools retained the extreme of solely fusing theoreti­
cal generalizations and concepts of the various sciences.
Such a report points out the weaknesses and strong points
of practice in the light of present-day philosophy,
hot
88
TABLE VI
DISTRIBUTION OP THE PRINCIPLES DETERMINING
COURSE CONTENT IN PHYSICAL SCIENCE FOR TWENTY-SEVEN
COOPERATING SCHOOLS
Principles determining course content
Number of schools
Pupil needs
2
Pupil interests
2
Pupil interests and needs
Adult interests and needs
15
A survey of the practical applications of science
in specialized industrial fields
8
A fusion of theoretical generalizations and
concepts of various sciences
8
The development of basic generalizations
with practical applications
24
An analysis of pertinent practical problems
supported by theoretical generalizations
and concepts
17
Content for the consumer
14
Content for the specialist and consumer
8
89
only are the principles of the analyst and those used in
content selection of interest in this study* but the organ­
ization of content material on the basis of psychology and
philosophy indicates the degree to which the suggested
principles are applied.
ORGANIZATION OP CONTENT
The guiding principles determining content indirect­
ly point out the subject fields to be covered in the newer
type courses in physical science.
The organization of such
content will now be considered from the standpoint of sci­
ence areas covered and the type of course organization which
may be used.
Science areas about which content material is organ­
ized.
Conventional courses in physical science are organ­
ized in separate categories* dealing with the principles
and concepts of pure chemistry or physics.
The newer type
courses are found to include* in addition to chemistry and
physics* certain concepts or generalizations from geology*
astronomy* and mathematics.
In a study of thirty schools*
Zechiel22
found that
variation from the traditional courses took the form of
22 A. N. Zechiel* "Recent Trends In Revision of
Science Curricula," Educational Methods, 1 6 : 4 0 4 * May*
1937*
90
fusions of physics, chemistry, geology, and astronomy; and
more rarely, fusions of chemistry with biology and science
with mathematics.
He also found that integrated courses
were designed for the consumer rather than for the special­
ist, at the same time serving as a foundation for pure chem­
istry and physics,
Pruitt2^ emphasized the same course
areas covered by the newer courses in physical science given
on the college level.
An example of course areas offered
at the Horace Mann Secondary School is given by Craig and
Lockhart.2** Included in the survey are the fields of physics,
chemistry, geology, astronomy, and paleontology.
The course areas emphasized by the twenty-seven
schools cooperating in this study are shown in Table VII.
The greatest emphasis is found in the grouping of chemistry,
physics, astronomy, geology, and some of the mathematics
subjects.
The frequency of occurrence of these subject
fields is shown in Figure 5, page 92.
The extent to which any subject area Is covered may
depend upon its approach.
Zechiel states that
. . . most teachers--do not have courses of study in
terms of day-to-day activities, laboratory exercises,
25 C. M. Pruitt, "Survey Courses in the Natural Sci­
ences," Science Education, 21:11, February, 1957.
24 Q. g. Craig and A. J. Lockhart, "The Program of
Science in the Horace Mann Schools," Teachers College
Record, 36:697, May, 1955.
91
TABLE VII
DISTRIBUTION OP SUBJECT COMBINATIONS IN
PHYSICAL SCIENCE AS GIVEN BY TWENTY-SEVEN
COOPERATING SCHOOLS
Chemistry;
physics
4
Chemistry;
physics; mathematics
3
Chemistry;
astronomy; geology
1
Chemistry;
physics; astronomy; geology
8
Chemistry;
physics; astronomy; geology;biology
3
Chemistry;
physics; mathematics; astronomy;geology
7
92
'Shemi:3try
J21i3ai'3-S______
JM e l o d y ______
-LsLtnaiony___
Jtoihe]aaiJLc 3_
Biology____
30
oc our re;ice
.TJMCTJtfm :WHICH CERTAIN SUBJECTS APP1SAR
ca ::i
NO.
6 0 4 3 . U N IV E R S IT Y
BO OK STORE. LOS AN G E LE S
.aci:sNC E j?OH T3IE TwfajTY-SEVfEN SCHOOLS
93
or specified factual material. They do have a curricu­
lum in terms of generalizations, principles, or con­
cepts, hut the daily activities may vary from year to
year, or in the case of teachers.
Russell suggests that a survey course in science should
bring about socio-scientific experiences where generaliza­
tions are made rather than learned; also, that problems for
possible solution should be taken from the community,
using the laboratory as a means toward the s o l u t i o n . j n
view of such an attitude, courses in physical science may
vary greatly and may draw upon various subject matter
fields.
Havighur.st says that purposes of general education
about broad generalizations which ramify widely into human
affairs may be called "interpretative generalizations" to
distinguish them from "pure science generalizations" and
gives as example the course developed at Pasadena Junior
College, which is largely embodied in the text, Our Physi­
cal World, by Eckels, Shaver, and Howard.
He says that
interpretative survey courses tend to be analytical tracing
the relationship between pure and applied science, and
between science and other aspects of human life.
Therefore,
the reason for the added inclusion of various subject fields
A. N. Zechiel, loc. cit.
Russell, 0£. cit., p. 23.
can be understood, ^
Type of course organization which may be used.
Know­
ing the subject fields about which content is built as a
consequence of the application of educational philosophy,
it is necessary to analyze the type of organization used
with the content material.
This organization may be found
in terms of unit, unit and activity, unit and problem, unit
and chapter, chapter and project, topic and problem, topic,
chapter, or a combination of these types.
Zechiel, in his study of curriculum organization
around the "source unit," refers to an important trend in
the thirty experimental schools that served as a basis for
his
study.
28
He defines an organized body of source mater­
ial in terms of principles, generalizations, and concepts
bearing upon some long-time problem of boys and girls.
In
the discussion of further definitions of source units he
refers to matter, its composition and changes; energy and
its transformations; public health; transportation; and
communication, all of which may serve as a guide for
teachers who wish to start with pupil interest.
Such a
trend in the presentation of course material is in perfect
agreement with the principles developed for content selec­
tion by writers in the field.
Robert J. Havighurst, "Survey Course in the Natural
Sciences, Curriculum Journal, 7:28, October, 1936.
^
A. N. Zechiel, op. cit., p. 137*
95
To avoid irrelevant factual and theoretical material
as far as the need on the secondary level is concerned,
Peterson suggests the selection of units which seem to
represent the important elements of interest in the current
press, daily conversation, and present-day industrial ad­
vances.
The units can then he defended and ^explained by the
best scientific principles.
He suggests:
1. Air conditioning
2. The motor car and the railroads
5. The petroleum industry
4. Mining and metallurgy
5. Printing and typing
6. Illumination and photography
7* Microscopy and the telescope
8. Aviation
9* Munitions
10. The manufacture of paper
11. The water supply
12. Sewage disposal systems
13* Radio, movies, and television
14. Telegraph, telephone, teletype
15* Civil engineering
16. Glass, guns, and plastics
17* ■Checking food producers and manufacturers
18. Scientific methods and the ”G Men”
19* Weather predictions
20. How to become an inventor (applying to scientific
method)
Zechiel and McCutcheon emphasize the importance of breaking
down a unit, such as flHow do we obtain an adequate supply of
pure water?”, into several sub-problems in order to adapt it
more readily to the different members of a class group.
29 Peterson, o£. cit., p. 453*
^
Zechiel and McCutcheon, loc. cit.
Powers introduces consciousness of the necessity for
organizing material about large ideas and testing the potentialities of the ideas by the extent to which they influence
the physical and mental adjustment of human beings.
For
main ideas he refers to the themes or topics developed by
men of science for the general reader.
As examples he gives
I.
Statements concerning the origin and history of
the earth.
II.
The earth in relation to other heavenly bodies.
III.
IV.
V.
Living things.
Physical and chemical processes.
Generalizations relating to the method of
science.^1
Such statements may be of interest to the general adult
reader, but certainly do not take into account the Inter­
ests and needs of a pupil on the secondary level.
Blount^
refers to such a plan at the Abraham Lincoln High School at
Los Angeles.
Carpenter^ refers to an instructional unit plan at
the Rochester Schools which contains three or four sets of
problems contributing to the development of many simple con­
cepts.
These concepts build toward larger generalizations.
31 Samuel R. Powers, "Educational Values of Science
Teaching," Teachers College Record, 32:23, October, 1930.
32 G,. w. Blount, "Experience with a Continuous Science
Program,” National Education Association Proceedings, 1937•
383.
3~5 H. A. Carpenter, "Pattern for Science Teaching,"
Science Education, 20:223,.December, 1936.
97
T o d d ^ also speaks of units which center around real prob­
lems of experience and are stated in terms of activities
selected on the basis of student interests.
Irrespective of the final unit development, the major
philosophical and psychological adaptation revolves about
the unit plan with emphasis on the interests, needs, and
experiences of the pupil.
Table VIII indicates the type of
course organization used for physical science by the twentyseven schools in this study.
Of the schools incorporating
the newer type physical science courses, nineteen definite­
ly embodied the unit plan.
The three outstanding books.in this field are also
built on the unit plan.
Consumer Science by Hausrath and
is an interpretative course in which the unit is subdivided
into practical problem questions supported by suggested
activities at the end of the units.
Senior Science by Bush,
Ptacek and Kovats is an interpretative course, built to a
large extent on a descriptive plan; whereas, Our Physical
World by Eckels, Shaver, Howard is built on a unit plan
revolving about science generalizations followed by specific
measurable outcomes.
^ R. B. Todd, ’’Fusion in Practical Physical Science—
An Experimental Course,” School Science and Mathematics,
37:92, January, 1937*
98
TABLE VIII
A DISTRIBUTION INDICATING THE TYPE
OP COURSE ORGANIZATION USED FOR FHYSICAL
SCIENCE BY TWENTY-SEVEN SCHOOLS
Type of course
Unit
Number of schools
10
Unit and activity
5
Unit and problem
3
Unit and chapter
1
Chapter and project
1
Topic and problem
1
Topic
4
Chapter
1
Combination of above types
1
99
Summary.
A summary of the analysis of course content
for never type courses in physical science must include
three main points.
First, the traditional courses in phy­
sical science vas considered on the basis of the criticisms
given conventional courses by writers in the field.
This
criticism brought out the general view that content material
was unpsychologically arranged for the average pupil.
By
contrasting the content of the conventional courses with the
newer type courses a change toward content of greater in­
dividual significance was indicated.
Secondly, the prin­
ciples determining content were based upon the philosophim
cal and psychological thought of analysts in the field who
emphasized the importance of individual integration and
organization of content about science problems of social
significance to the pupil.
This change in emphasis may
be presented as broad interpretative generalizations re­
flecting possible pupil interests; and in addition to its
philosophical and psychological basis reflects the princi­
ples used for determining content by the twenty-seven
cooperating schools which are presented in tables and
figures in this study.
Thirdly, organization of content
was considered from the standpoint of the science areas
about which content material is organized, and was found to
cover mainly the areas of physics, chemistry, geology,
astronomy, and some mathematics on the basis of general!-
zations which may vary in activities*
From the standpoint
of the type of course organization which may he used, at­
tention was directed to the unit plan, showing how it is
based upon problems and activities or upon the presentation
of main ideas and generalizations as expressed largely by
books and writers in the field, and supported in practice
by the experimental schools.
An analysis of course con­
tent for newer type courses in physical science reveals
possible methods for the selection of adaptable material.
Suggested methods of work in the newer type science courses
will, therefore, be of importance.
CHAPTER V
SUGGESTED METHODS OF WORK IN THE
NEWER TYPE SCIENCE COURSE
Methods of work in any course are often determined
by content, but it was the purpose of this chapter to deter­
mine the work methods suggested for the newer type courses
in physical science as they are based upon philosophical
and psychological principles established by authorities and
practiced by schools developing such courses.
The analysis
will cover (l) social and individual implications, (2) sug­
gested methods for the newer type courses, and (3) methods
used by the cooperating schools.
SOCIAL AND INDIVIDUAL IMPLICATIONS
Methods of work in the past were largely determined
by textbook assignments and whatever variety the person­
ality of the individual teacher may have supplied.
With
the growth of the newer type courses greater emphasis has
been placed upon methods embodying sound philosophical and
psychologies,! principles.
Philosophical and psychological principles basic to
methods of work for the newer type courses.
Philosophical
and psychological principles are used as a guide to deter­
mine methods of work which will be of value to the
102
individual and to society.
Certain writers in the field
have been quoted for their support of socio-civic emphasis
in science courses.
Among this group is Hunter, who has
said:
After thirty years of teaching and supervising in
secondary schools the writer has become more and more
convinced that the socio-civic values of science must
come first if science is to do its best work for the
future citizens of the democracy.
He points out that method is important but that it depends
upon the psychological viewpoint and an individual’s
philosophy of education.
He believes that if Dewey’s
philosophy of growth is accepted, then study must be made
meaningful in terms of actual living based upon Gestalt
psychology, which shows the necessity for a definite goal
to call forth pupil interest.
He says, ’’Interest has been
defined as ’an impulse to attain’ or ’a natural tendency to
2
action,*” which is used by pupils when they become inter­
ested in the improvement of the conditions of others or in
the betterment of home conditions.
Such a viewpoint shows
the relation of the individual to society for its betterment
through personal interest.
Hunter also believes that if
the pupil
...
is to make necessary adjustments for sane and
G.
W. Hunter, Science Teaching (Chicago: American
Book Company, 1934), p. 11.
2 Ibid., p. 81.
103
healthy living, he must integrate his sciences experi­
ences with those of his workaday world so that he may
intelligently interpret such experiences and solve the
problems that he meets in the environment in which he
is placed.2
Lindsay agrees with this reasoning by saying that "To be of
social use, a course in science must habituate the pupil to
analysis and deliberation in original situations."^
Sel-
berg and Bernard suggest socialization in a democratic
classroom where a pupil promotes the interests of the group
by aiding others to adjust themselves, making proper ad­
justments to the group himself, cooperating in group acti­
vities, planning the work for himself, and helping others
to do the same.5
From the psychological angle, Wrightstone believes
that "The new psychology counts upon purpose and interest
as the core of the learning and educative processes.
Based upon Gestalt psychology,
. . . learning results extend to all parts and aspects
^ G. W. Hunter, "Philosophy for Teaching Science in
a Changing World," Science Education, 20:220, December, 1936.
^ B. P. Lindsay, "Science and Social Trends,"Cali­
fornia Journal of Secondary-Education, 11:413* November,
1936.
6 Edith M. Selberg and J. Darrel Bernard, "Teaching
Pupils the Method of Problem Solving," Educational Methods,
16:413, May, 1937.
fi J. Wayne Wrightstone, Appraisal of Experimental
High School Practices (New York: Bureau of Publications,
Teachers College, Columbia University, 1936), p. 41.
104
of the organism included in the learning response . • .
the successive knowledge aspects join together to form
an interrelated whole. The related feeling aspects
form perhaps a distinct emotional attitude. Related
skill aspects build techniques, and always are those
varied learnings simultaneously in process.•
He also -points out from the study of maturity made by
Benezet, Washburne, and others that effective learning only
takes place when ^experience has provided meaning and pur­
pose for the acquisition of certain skills, abilities, and
powers; and that an agreeable attitude is necessary to aid
rather than hinder learning.
Similar emphasis upon complete
units of behavior based upon the experience curriculum
rather than isolated activities is given by Caswell and
Campbell,® and by
Hopkins.9
Hopkins definitely points out
that
1. Learning best takes place when the child as an
active individual is dealing intelligently with situ­
ations confronting him in interacting with his environ­
ment. This means that the experience curriculum has
its beginning in the situations which confront children
in their immediate living. Sometimes these are desig­
nated as interests, needs, purposes, problems, upsets,
or other similar terms in which shades of meaning are
not clarified.
2. The selection, development, and direction of
the experience is a cooperative undertaking in which
7 Ibid., p. 42.
® H. L. Cs,swell, and D. S. Campbell, Curriculum De­
velopment (New York: American Book Company, 1935), P* 192.
9 L. Thomas Hopkins and others, Integration, Its
Meaning and Application (New York: D. Appleton-Century
Company, 1937)7P* 2327
105
pupils and teacher work together under teacherguidance.10
However, basic principles of philosophy and psychology are
effective only as they are applied.
Recognition given to basic principles involving the
individual and society.
The importance of philosophy and
psychology may be recognized through the inclusion of those
principles in the criteria for determining pupil activities.
Proposals indicate that such criteria should be broad enough
to cover complete units of behavior.
A criterion which re­
flects individual interests, needs, capacities, and growth
into profitable activities, which are profitable only to
the extent in which an individual works with society and
society for the individual, is given by Graham.
He says:
1. Activities should challenge the interests of the
majority of the group.
2,
Activities should result in science growth.
5.
Only those activities should be selected which
can be understood with reasonable assurance success,
4. Those activities should be selected which will
afford desirable continuity by leading into other pro­
fitable activities.
10 Ibid., p. 253.
H C. C. Graham, "Some Practices and Tendencies In the
Teaching of Science— Grades I to XII,” Educational Adminis­
tration and Supervision, 25:248, April, 1937 •
106
Similar criteria are suggested by Albertyl^ and by Hopkins. U
Recognition to principles may also be given through
usage in regular procedure.
According to a report of the
Briarcliff Conference^ of the Progressive Education Asso­
ciation, processes of socialization are- now practiced in
some of the experimental schools, where pupils are taking a
larger share in planning individual and group work in co­
operation with the teachers.
The social implications for the individual, as given
by philosophy and psychology, can only reflect effective
change and adjustment of the pupil to his environment, both
social and physical, according to the methods used in bring­
ing about such an adjustment.
An analysis of methods pro­
posed by writers in the field as well as those used by
schools cooperating in this study should reflect the use of
basic principles for the accomplishment of these adjustments.
SUGGESTED METHODS BY "WRITERS IN THE FIELD
Writers in the field have suggested methods for a
general approach to the subject, methods for unit planning,
H.
B. Alberty, "Philosophy of General Education
with Some Implications for Science Teaching in the Secondary
School," Educational Methods, 1 6 : 5 8 9 , May, 1 9 3 7 .
^3 l. Thomas Hopkins, Curriculum Principles and Prac­
tices (Chicago: Benjamin J. Sanborn and Company, 1 9 2 9 )> p. 177*
I2* Report of the Briarcliff Conference Commission on
the Relation of School and College, Progressive Education
Association, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.
107
and techniques for problem solving based upon the scientific
method, which includes techniques for obtaining data and
analyzing such data on the basis of laboratory investigation
and library research.
All such methods tend to emphasize
the importance of socialization, and learning through ex­
perience based upon pupil interests, needs, and capaci­
ties.
Methods for a general subject approach.
Methods of
approach may vary according to the pupils within a group
but psychologically and philosophically there will be com­
mon principles.
The short preview plan with many demonstra­
tions to arouse pupil interest and to direct his activities
into desirable channels is used by T o d d ^ in the new type
physical science course.
The Morrisonian idea of the preview in unitary de­
velopment is sound psychology because it presents the
goal at the most opportune time. The recent trend
toward the early presentation of f,big ideasM and gen­
eralizations is also sound because it uses the same
psychological approach. But here the weakness lies in
the fact that young children, because of their immatur­
ity, may memorize generalizations that are meaningless
to them. If education is to be a continuous process,
then generalizations must grow out of experiences. 16
Closely allied to this thought, Selberg and Bernard say,
r. b. Todd, "Fusion in Practical Physical Science—
An Experimental Course,” School Science and Mathematics,
31-93, January, 1937.
^
Hunter, loc. cit.
108
’’Teaching will begin with the needs and interests of stu­
dents, with pupil selected problems, and with pupil planned
units of learning,
A definite plan of attach is suggested by Knapp, who
points out that the natural interest of pupils in things of
their community, what they are, how they work, and why they
act as they do, should be used by allowing them to submit
questions about such i n t e r e s t s , S u c h interests will be
found to group themselves about various scientific princi­
ples and will suggest many problems and activities for their
solution.
Hunter voices the same opinion by saying:
It is also a truism that the approach in teaching
should go from the known to the unknown. This means
a real use of the environment by both teacher and
pupil. If we teach for immediate life responses, our
illustrative matter should be taken so far as possible
from the home, the garden, the street, the factory,
the mine, the farm, and the hills and valleys in the
immediate environment.
Some of the best preparations
for the experiences of living come through activities
which are centered in and around the child’s own home.19
All the suggested methods of approach embody the principles
suggested in the aims for the newer type courses in physical
science.
They naturally lead to units and problems for
pupil solution.
Selberg and Bernard, loc. cit.
R. A. Knapp, ’’Reorganization of High School Science
Instruction,” California Journal of Secondary Education,
10:487* November, 1935*
-*-9 George ¥. Hunter, Science Teaching (Chicago:
American Book Company, 1934), p. 93*
109
Methods for unit planning.
Unit planning may be
carried out solely by the teacher or through the cooperation
of the pupils and the teacher.
It may also be practiced on
the basis of problems pertinent to the
pupils
or on the
basis of predetermined scientific principles arranged about
pupil interests by the teacher.
Various viewpoints of
writers indicate certain specific plans both in .theory and
in practice.
Watson suggests that
A high school science course . . . should consist of
units or problems drawn from the environment of the
pupil and solved by application of subject-matter
through the scientific method. The broad problems or
units should be of social significance which are sub­
divided into individual problems in order to recognize
indiv|gual differences, needs, interests, and abili­
ties.
Dewey supports this view in that
. . . it is the educatorfs responsibility to see
equally to two things: First, that the problem grows
out of the conditions of the experience being had in
the present, and that it is within the range of the
capacity of students; and secondly, that it is such
that it arouses in the learner an active quest for in­
formation and for production of new ideas.21
Hunter, too, stresses the idea that "Motivation of the
truest kind comes through the discovery of problems that
the child adopts as his own.It22
20 D. R. Watson, "Secondary Science," Sierra Educa­
tional Hews, 33:11* October, 1937*
21 John Dewey, Experience and Education (New York:
The Macmillan Company” 1938), p. 96.
22 G. W. Hunter, "Philosophy for Teaching Science in
a Changing World," Science Education, 20:220, December,1936.
110
Zechiel and McCutcheon2-^ refer to unit study on a
problem basis in which the pupil must participate in the
formulation of the problem, in the delineation of its scope,
in determining the sub-problems involved in the collection,
organization, and analysis of the data.
'Such a research
plan calls for a large number of reference materials readi­
ly accessible.
Selberg and Bernard2**" suggest that the teacher aid
the pupil in recognizing problems by analyzing the problems
selected into situations and incidents that are familiar to
the pupils.
These situations should then be presented in
logical order to show their interrelationship to the learner
who should be given the opportunity to formulate the rela­
tionship into sub-problems.
Pupil-teacher unit planning on a problem basis is
found in the thirty experimental schools according to the
report of the Briarcliff
Education Association.
Conference^
fty
the Progressive
Wrightstone2^ reports similar plans
A. N. Zechiel and S. P. McCutcheon, "Reflective
Thinking in Social Studies and in Science,” Progressive
Education, 15:288, April, 1938.
^
Selberg and Bernard, op. cit., p. 4l4.
Report of the Briarcliff Conference, Commission on
the Relation of School and College, Progressive Education
Association, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, October,
1935.
Wrightstone, op. cit., p. 66.
I l l
in experimental schools*
Carpenter"^ also suggests the use
of instructional units containing three or four sets of
problems contributing toward the development of simple con­
cepts which are fused to arrive at larger inclusive concepts
or generalizations.
This suggestion is based on a “process­
ing” plan used in the Rochester schools for elementary chil­
dren.
The concensus of opinion for unit planning points
toward the cooperation of the pupil and the teacher in anal­
yzing major unit problems into subordinate Iproblems, gather­
ing supporting data, drawing conclusions for the problems,
and finally applying the solutions to concrete situations.
The techniques of problem solving.
The techniques
used and their arrangement in solving problems may vary, but
rf. . . the scientific method is the only authentic means
. . . for getting at the significance of our everyday experi­
ences of the world in which we live.”28
in the opinion of
Selberg and Bernard self planning the units of learning and
the execution of those plans do more to establish the tech­
niques of the scientific method than any other learning
procedure.^9
Watson also suggests:
H.
A. Carpenter, “Pattern for Science Teaching,11
Science Education, 20:223, December, 1936.
O Q
John Dewey, op. cit., p. 111.
Selberg and Bernard, loc. cit.
112
To understand the scientific method pupils must
(l) see it practiced by the instructor (demonstration)
and (2) be given opportunity to apply it in situations
where it is known to give results (planned experiments),
(3) be encouraged to apply it in the attempted solu­
tion of life problems (projects).^0
Lindsay
believes that f,A completion course in science
should demonstrate above all the nature of scientific truth
and the techniques of scientific investigation."51
The sequence of steps developed under "Methods for
Unit Planning” comprise the steps necessary to the scienti­
fic method for problem solving.
They may be summarized in
terms of the steps given by C. E. Powers, who says:
Properly chosen problems involving either inductive
or deductive approach, or both, will call for laboratory
study for obtaining data to validate suggestions, in
other cases may definitely motivate a class experiment
or demonstration. Through these types, intelligently
directed by the teacher and followed by the student,
the student will have opportunity to practice and ac­
quire certain attitudes such as basing judgment only
on data, suspending judgment, perhaps changing opinions
to fit the facts of others.52
The technique for problem solving or reflective think­
ing within the classroom is clearly pictured by Zechiel and
McCutcheon.
Here the classroom becomes a workroom, not a
quiz room, lock-step procedures disappear, wide-spread
50 Mats:on, loc. cit.
51 Lindsay, loc. cit.
52 C. E. Powers, "'What Shall Be the Place of Science
in Education?" Science Education, 21:204, November, 1937*
113
activities proceed simultaneously; where daily assignments
and recitations are replaced by discussions for planning
work to be done, reports, demonstrations (by pupils, if
possible), and discussions over work done lead to the formu­
lation of important generalizations and understandings.^
Selberg and Bernard agree that pupils never develop insight
and the ability to solve problems if these problems are
previously determined by the teacher and then formally pre­
sented to the pupils, but that a democratic classroom must
concern itself with techniques promoting self-learning.^
Other writers in the field express the same opinion.
The techniques expressing the views of many writers
to obtain data for solving problems and determining activi­
ties may be summarized as follows:
1.
Experimentation, using original methods whenever
possible.
2.
Making original investigations of community
problems.
3.
Taking trips to observe processes, devices, and
natural phenomena.
4.
Interviewing authorities and individuals who have
had experience with the problem.
Zechiel and McCutcheon,
^
ojd.
cit., p. 289.
Selberg and Bernard, loc., cit.
114
5*
Observing demonstrations, films, slides, and
6.
Locating reference material In various books,
charts.
magazines, newspapers, and bulletins.
7.
Using panel discussions.
Such writers as H u n t e r , W a t s o n , 36 gchiInk,^ Knapp,
G o u l d , an£ Eckels^ support similar techniques which
should be used in the newer type courses in physical science.
A technique of supplying original data or proving
data in problem solving takes the form of laboratory analy­
sis or library research.
Even though laboratory work in
the physical sciences has been questioned, the point is
^
Hunter, "Science Teaching," pp. pit., p. 85.
■36
^
Watson, loc. cit.
^ F. J. Schlink, "Shall the Consumer Have Rights in
the Schools?" Progressive Education, 9*335» May, 1932.
^
Knapp, op. cit., pp. 487-88.
Arthur Gould, "Principles and Organization of the
Sciences in Secondary Schools, California Journal of
Secondary ~Education, 10:480, November, 1935.
^ Charles F. Eckels, "Clear Thinking Through the
Use of Physical Science," California Journal of Secondary
Education, 11:57* January, 1936.
115
brought out by Charles S. W e b b ^ and also by Eckels*^ that
meaningful laboratory experiences based upon the pupil !s
own questions combined -with demonstrations should lead to
desirable outcomes.
Evidence, according to Graham, points
to favorable acquisition of subject-matter by the so-called
leeture-demonstration method.^
According to Zechiel, the
practice in the newer type courses, however, is more in
keeping with the philosophy of scientific thinking where
pupils explore the problem-solving type of experiment and
show a decreasing tendency toward verification and descrip­
tive experiments. T h i s
port given by Todd. ^
is also substantiated in the re­
Watson says that such laboratory
^ Charles S. Webb, f,The Teaching of Advanced Science
Using the Demonstration Method,” School Science and Mathe­
matics, 58:22, January, 1958.
1,2 C. P. Eckels, "Improvement of Junior College Sclence Teaching,” California Journal of Secondary Education,
10:^90, November, 1955*
^
C. C. Graham, op. cit., p. 250.
^ A. N. Zechiel, "Recent Trends in Revision of
Science Curricula," Educational Methods, 16:^05* May,
1957.
Todd, pp. cit., p. 9k.
116
courses must be set by the need and not the day in the
w e e k . E m p h a s i s on library research involving many books
and current science magazines, rather than the use of one
book is brought out by T o d d ^ and also by Zechiel^ in keep­
ing with the philosophy of "learning by doing."
The technique of using visual aids is supported by
Shaver and
E c k e l s
^9 and is shown to be of value by Graham^0
on the basis of experimental tests made by Wood and Freeman.
Such a technique is also supported by Rugg.51
in view of
this fact, its importance should not be underestimated; for
the newer type courses in physical science, since the analy­
sis of methods already made, emphasize immediate environment
for problem selection.
The analysis of methods for the newer type science
courses as given by writers in the field indicates definite
methods of approach, definite steps for unit planning, and
definite plans for problem solving.
A complete analysis
^6 Watson, loc. cit.
^7 Todd, loc. cit.
^8 Zechiel, loc. cit.
^9 W. C. Shaver and C. F. Eckels, "The Improvement of
Junior College Physical Science Teaching,1’ California J ournal of Secondary Education, 10:491, November, 1955*
50 Graham, op. cit., p. 251.
51 Earle Rugg, "Experience in Curriculum Making,"
Curriculum Journal, 8:206, May, 1957*
117
must include the methods actually used by experimental
schools in the newer type courses in physical science.
METHODS USED BY TWENTY-SEVEN COOPERATING SCHOOLS
The methods used for the newer courses in physical
science by schools cooperating in this study may be com­
pared with the methods already presented.
Such a compari­
son should point out the extent to which philosophical and
psychological principles are adopted and should make clear
the recommendations necessary.
The study will cover (l)
teacher responsibilities and (2) specific methods used in
the cooperating schools.
Teacher responsibilities.
Teaching responsibilities
with respect to method definitely refer to the manner of
approach to the course in physical science.
Table IX
points out the methods used in developing a block of work
in physical science by the twenty-seven cooperating schools.
The majority use a definite preview with pupil-teacher
cooperation in planning, allowing for individual interests,
needs, and capacities.
Approximately half of the schools
reporting still give assignments quite in detail with re­
spect to references and plan of work.
By referring to
Table VIII it can be noted that the Unit Plan is used in
only two thirds of the schools with approximately one third
118
TABLE IX
TEACHER RESPONSIBILITIES EMPHASIZED PREPARATORY
TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF A BLOCK OF WORK IN PHYSICAL
SCIENCE AS GIVEN BY TWENTY-SEVEN SCHOOLS
Teacher responsibility
Number of schools
A preview of each new assignment
21
A general assignment made at intervals-details and methods of organization left
to the pupil
19
Assignment detailed as to references and
plan of work
Ik
The pupil informed as to the reason for
trying certain methods
19
119
of these using problem and activity techniques.
The manner
of subject approach leads definitely to the methods used in
the working plan itself.
Specific methods of work used in the physical sci­
ences of the cooperating schools.
The degree in which cer­
tain specific methods of work are used in the working plan
for the newer type courses in physical science by the twentyseven cooperating schools is given in Table X.
According to
this tabulation the greatest emphasis is based upon social
aspects of a problem, partial control of a class discussion
by the pupil, the use of the teacher1s own syllabus, field
trips taken to vitalize units, and the encouragement of
pupils to interview business men.
in two thirds of the schools.
Such methods were used
The lecture-demonstration
method is still used in over half of the schools, while the
experimental method is being used as a general plan in less
than half, although pupil activities embodying this method
are used in approximately two thirds of the schools.
Chal­
lenging problems are given in only twelve of the schools,
and one third of these alone allow pupils to select and
organize their problems.
In approximately half the schools
the old textbook and notebook methods are used, while ap­
proximately one third availed themselves to the library re­
search method involving reference books and magazines.
A
TABLE X
120
THE DEGREE TO WHICH CERTAIN SPECIFIC METHODS OF WORK
ARE USED IN PHYSICAL SCIENCE BY THE TWENTY-SEVEN SCHOOLS
General plan based largely on the experimental method
Accompllished by correlating class and laboratory
12
4
Social aspects of a problem usually considered
20
Challenging problems given to the pupil
12
Pupil allowed to select and organize own problems
4
Use both the assignment and selection of a problem method
7
Use made of the lecture-recitation method
Unit-eontract plan
15
1
Partial control of class discussion by the pupil
19
Some time given to individual reports
17
The individual project
9
The group project
5
Combination of individual and group project
4
Pupil activities embodying the scientific method
17
Work based largely on references
10
Basic text used
15
Own syllabus used
19
Own course study
1
Develop and organize notebooks
14
Field trips to vitalize units
20
Pupils urged to interview business men
18
121
list of reference books and magazines found most helpful is
given in Appendix II.
The distribution of specific methods used in labora­
tory work is given in Table XI.
Of those giving laboratory
work (Table IV, page 67, indicates no time specified by
thirteen schools), the tendency appears to allow pupils to
work individually, together, or in demonstration with the
teacher in order to prove problems with the laboratory
technique.
In almost all cases, the laboratory work is
correlated with the class work and reports are written in
the pupilfs own words.
The thirteen schools specifying no
time for laboratory work, as shown in Table IV, do not offer
such work for the newer type courses in physical science.
Summary.
A brief summary of the work in the chapter
covers three points, the social and individual implications
involved in methods for the newer type courses in physical
science, suggested methods by writers in the field, and
methods used by twenty-seven cooperating schools.
It was pointed out that social and individual impli­
cations involve the emphasis upon social values of science
through problems based upon pupil interest, capacity, and
experience as they may be cooperatively planned and drawn
from his environment and developed on the basis of philo­
sophical and psychological principles.
They were reflected
122
TABLE XI
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIFIC METHODS USED IN
LABORATORY WORK AS GIVEN BY TWENTY-SEVEN SCHOOLS
Distribution of methods
Number of schools
Laboratory work correlated with class work
11
Pupil allowed to prove problems with laboratory
technique
15
Teacher demonstration of experiments
6
Pupil demonstration
2
Teacher and pupil demonstration
11
Individual experimentation
13
Group experimentation
13
Results of experiments in pupil1s own words
13
Definite plan set for the pupil in experimental
reports
5
in the criteria established for activity selection, and also
in their application in experimental schools.
The general
methods suggested by -writers in the field emphasized an
approach through a preview in unitary development followed
by cooperatively planned problems of social significance
drawn from pupil-environmental experiences that are logi­
cally arranged and reflect the interests, needs, and capa­
cities of the pupil.
The techniques of problem solving
through the scientific method suggested include the obtain­
ing and analyzing of data by means of laboratory investiga­
tion or original problems, studies of community problems
and assets, interviewing authorities of experience, and
library research aided by visual and museum type of data.
Finally, the methods used by the twenty-seven cooperating
schools, which are presented in tables, indicated the
general use of the preview and cooperative pupil-teacher
planning based upon interests, needs, and capacities with
small emphasis on problem and activity techniques; whereas,
specific methods indicated emphasis on social aspects,
textbook, and lecture-demonstration methods with little
reference to individual problem solving and the necessary
library and laboratory techniques for analyzing'data.
Anal­
ysis of the methods used suggests the possibility of measur­
ing the outcomes of those methods.
Therefore, methods for
evaluating the new science programs have been considered.
CHAPTER VI
METHODS OP EVALUATING THE NEW SCIENCE PROGRAMS
The establishment of aims and the organization of a
new curriculum with different content material and differ­
ent teaching methods are not sufficient to determine the
value of a course.
Value must depend upon the extent to
which that course accomplishes what it is supposed to ac­
complish.
This involves the necessity for proper methods
of evaluation.
The evaluation methods in the newer type
courses in physical science will be considered from the
standpoint of: (1) evaluation on the basis of change in be­
havior and (2) evaluation in the experimental and cooperat­
ing schools.
EVALUATION ON THE BASIS OP CHANGE IN BEHAVIOR
Evaluation implies concreteness of measurement,
whereby definite elements of accomplishment stand out and
can be readily acknowledged.
As in the discussion of the
preceding chapters, a philosophical and psychological view­
point should serve as the basis for the formulation of
standards with which to measure the elements of accomplish­
ment pertaining to the human being.
Philosophical and psychological views determining
standards of evaluation.
The philosophical and psychological
125
aspects of measuring human accomplishments concern them­
selves with changes in human behavior*
This is evidenced
by writings in the field.
Philosophical points of view are brought out by
Morrison who says:
In general, any actual learning is always expressed
either as a change in the attitude of the individual
or as the acquisition of a special ability or as the
attainment of some form of skill in manipulating in­
strumentalities or m a t e r i a l s . 1
He further adds that "The test of a real product of learn­
ing is then: First, its permanency; and, second, its habi­
tual use in the ordinary activities of life.”2
Gould also emphasizes change in behavior by suggesting
that the criteria through which the value of the work may
be judged might be improvement in understandings, attitudes,
interests, ability to interpret data, to apply generaliza­
tions, sensitivity to significant problems, work habits, and
essential
knowledge.^
Powers voices a similar opinion by
saying:
Definable educational values from science teaching
will have been attained if students acquire (l) an
^ Henry C. Morrison, The Practice of Teaching in the
Secondary School (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press,
1926),
p.
19*
2 Ibid., p. 29*
5 Arthur Gould, "Principles and Organization of the
Sciences in Secondary Schools, California Journal of
Secondary Education, 10:481, November, 1935*
126
ability to utilize the findings of science that have
application in their own experiences; (2) an ability
to interpret the natural phenomena of their own environ­
ment; and (3) on understanding of, and ability to use,
some of the methods of study that have been used by
creative workers in the fields of science*”
Baird suggests methods of testing in terms of actual
functioning or in terms of conditioned responses to real­
ize unitary objectives set up in the Francis W. Parker
School, Chicago.5
The importance of such views for evalua­
tion is expressed by Dewey to the effect that
Activity that is not checked by observation of what
follows from it may be temporarily enjoyed, but intel­
lectually it leads nowhere. It does not provide knowl­
edge about the situations in which action occurs nor does it lead to clarification and expansion of ideas.^
Therefore, philosophically the attainment of any educational
goals set up for realization must be measured on the basis
of change in behavior, if for no other reason than to clari­
fy thinking on the part of the learner.
An interpretation of behavior in terms of the indivi­
dual and the curriculum is given by Hopkins.
He says:
Purposeful behavior implies intelligent behavior.
From the educational point of view, then, integration
^Samuel R. Powers, #tEducational Values of Science
Teaching,” Teachers College Record. 32:32, October, 1930.
^ Hal Baird, f,A Functional Course in the Physical
Sciences,” Curriculum Journal. 8:15, January, 1937*
6 John Dewey, Experience and Education (Hew York:
The Macmillan Company, 193b)> p. 110.
127
must be the shorthand word to describe the process in­
volved in this intelligent ongoing, interacting, adjust­
ing behavior.f
Such a process means that the integrating individual:
1.
Makes wide contact with the environment.
2. Approaches the ensuing disturbances or problems
with confidence, courage, hope, optimism.
3. Collects, selects, and organizes material for
the solution of these problems.
4.
Draws relevant conclusions.
5. Puts into practice the conclusions in changed
behavior.
6. Takes responsibility for the consequences of
his behavior.
7. Uses feelings either as instruments or ends as
compatible with the preservation of wholeness.
8. Organizes pertinent aspects of his successive
experiences so that they are better available for use
in subsequent experiences.8
These statements are indicative of measurable quantities in
behavior change, which may also include certain personality
traits.
Hopkins points out that in the narrower and more
conventional sense, personality refers to the various as­
pects of total behavior, such as initiative, courtesy, de­
pendability, and the like.9
Therefore, the test of the
7 L. Thomas Hopkins and others, Integration. Its
Meaning and Applications (New York: D. Appleton-Century
Company, 1937;, p. 2.
^ Loc. cit.
9 Ibid., p. 10.
128
degree to which the curriculum aids individuals to improve
their life and living through the refinement of meanings,
values, and attitudes within the matrix of social reality
lies in the integrating effect upon behavior.10
Prom a more purely psychological standpoint, support­
ing evidence stresses changes in past testing methods to
methods which consider the totality of behavior.
Riley11
indicates the changes of tests and testing from that based
on a mechanistic psychology with its impetus to departmen­
talization and mastery of subject matter and utter disre­
gard for worth-while social values, to a consideration of
the totality of the individual, primarily, with subsequent
attention to simpler and more rudimentary factors.
He says:
The legitimate purpose of the standardized or
objective new type test is to measure skills and factual
learning which contribute to or are cultivated by gen­
uine learning activities. Tests of this type have a
definite place in modern educational procedure. However,
the skills and facutal learnings which they measure
should not be emphasized unduly lest the attitudes,
understandings, and other more worth-while social values
be neglected.12
Caswell and Campbell1^ similarly point out the change in
psychological thought, from the wholly mechanistic explana­
tion of behavior involving isolated activities alone, to
10 Ibid., p. 194.
11 T. M. Riley, "The Evolving Curriculum of the Secondary School,11 California Journal of Secondary Education, 11:
306-307, M a y , 1936. —
1^ Loc. cit.
15 H. L. Caswell and D. S. Campbell, Curriculum Devel­
opment (Hew York: American Book Company, 1935), P* 192.
129
studies of complete units of behavior backed by the Gestalt
psychology.
For the purpose of giving a clearer picture to
supporting evidence for the newer philosophy of measuring
behavior change, the psychological evidence for integration
given by Hopkins follows:
1. The human organism Is so interconnected, inter­
dependent and integrated that whatever happens to one
part of it usually brings about correlative changes in
other parts of the organism.
2. When we see or hear or otherwise experience
anything, our experience is not mechanical and fixed
response corresponding to isolated stimulus, but is
dependent upon what the stimulus means to us, and that
meaning grows out of an integration of the whole set­
ting in time and space and out of our own state of
organization about certain ends.
5* Learning represents improvement in the creation
of appropriate meaningful responses to situations
which are partly new and partly old, but conceive as
wholes in relation to ends sought.
4. Memory is not reproduction of sensory stimulus,
but a creation influenced by the whole previous ex­
perience and, to some extent, by present factors.
5* Habits, however, much practiced, are subject to
considerable modification when incorporated around
different purposes.
7. Integration is not essentially an achievement
which has been learned. Early activities and responses
to new situations show integration. Experience may
modify, improve, or extend the integration.
8. Each behavior of a person represents an integra­
tion which has been influenced by many factors over
his whole life period. . . .
9*
Each person develops within a more or less
130
integrated culture. . .
Such psychological evidence supports the philosophy for
measuring the totality of behavior change and not solely
the isolated skills and learnings which are but a minor part
of human response to learning.
Therefore, philosophical
and psychological evidence points to definite measurable
entitles as expressed in human behavior which cover the
totality of such behavior rather than isolated aspects of
it.
On this basis, elements representing such behavior may
be combined in such a way as to bring about complete indi­
vidual expression as a test of the learning process and
curriculum offerings.
They may be represented as outcomes
of learning.
Outcomes as a means for measuring changes in behavior.
Stating outcomes in terms of changes in behavior must not be
confused with a mere statement of outcomes if they are to be
used for purposes of measurement, as was specifically indi­
cated in the chapter on an analysis of aims for new type
science courses.
Hopkins emphasizes such a view by saying,
ftThe outcomes of teaching are the ends which the pupils
actually reach rather than those which they are expected to
reach.
Hopkins, pp. cit. 5 p. 124.
IS
^ L. Thomas Hopkins, Curriculum Principles and Prac­
tices (Chicago: Benjamin H. Sanborn and Company, 1929)>
p. 217.
131
A clearer understanding of how outcomes may serve as
a test of behavior change in understandings, skills, atti­
tudes, and appreciations is possible on the basis of the
interpretation given by
H o p k i n s . j j e
places in the cate­
gory of behavior change insights or understandings as the
ability to see through things, which involves recognition,
knowledge of, and interpretation of ideas; skills in the
form of habits acquired through experience, or in the in­
crease of power to do or to possess; attitudes or apprecia­
tions in the form of interests, sense of values, tendencies
to act, points of view, prejudices, or ideals.
All these
may be placed under the adaptive outcomes of content ma­
terial whether directly or indirectly supplied to realize
certain aims for the present and future success of the in­
dividual in a dynamic society.
They reflect the specific
elements of behavior change which are measurable of the
social values as well as the more specific factual learn­
ings.
A criterion for the selection of outcomes which re­
presents the thinking of Hopkins states that direct outcomes
must be:
1.
2.
aims.
^
A direct outgrowth of the direct content.
Absolutely necessary for the achievement of the
Ibid., pp. 205-212
132
3* Specific enough so that the results of pupil
growth can he measured In order to determine when he
has arrived,
4.
Definite enough to limit the scope of content
and the character of method.
5*
Within the capacity of pupils,
6,
Attainable by pupils.
7*
Attainable within the time allotted.
8.
Elastic enough to provide for growth wherever
the specific outcome Is not attained from the given
unit of content or the work of the particular year.17
His classification of the indirect outcomes is as follows:
1. They should be reasonably expected to accrue
from the content and the method by which it is taught.
2. They should not be essential to the achievement
of the aims.
3* They should be highly desirable for pupils, but
should not necessarily be attained.
4.
They should be within the capacity of pupils.
5* They should be measurable only to a limited
degree.18
Wot only should such a criterion serve the purpose of select­
ing proper outcomes but it should also serve the purpose of
a guide to testing procedure if outcomes represent change in
behavior.
Outcomes indicating growth or change in behavior
17 Ibid., p. 22H.
Loc. cit.
133
which conform to the criterion established by Hopkins and
which may form the basis for testing in the newer type
courses of physical science are found in only one text
covering this field.
They appear at the end of the chapters
in Our Physical World by Eckels, Shaver, and Howard and
cover aspects of understandings and meanings, attitudes and
appreciations, and techniques and skills.
It is evident that evaluation on the basis of change
in behavior is supported by philosophical and psychological
thought as well as the possibility to represent elements of
change in behavior in terms of outcomes as reflected by the
criteria for their selection and their appearance as out­
growths of content material.
The extent to which such
methods are used is found in reports from experimental
schools and the schools cooperating in this study.
EVALUATION IN THE EXPERIMENTAL AND COOPERATING SCHOOLS
Evaluation methods for the new type courses in physi­
cal science should reflect basic philosophical and psycho­
logical thought.
A consideration of actual practice in
experimental schools and the cooperating schools will point
out the extent to which such metho.ds are used.
Evaluation in experimental schools.
Evaluation
methods in science curricula used in experimental schools
134
under the Commission on the Relation of School and College
are given by Zechiel* ^
He points out that pre-testing on
factual material or the setting up of testing exercises in
which all the facts are presented within the test itself
are usually given with subsequent tests in order to measure
growth.
The testing program is thus expanded to include
many short tests showing evidence upon single abilities,
habits, or skills (behavior responses) to provide data of
diagnostic value for guidance purposes, for outlining re­
medial work for determining classroom procedure and for
validating content.
These test items must not include
factual material in order to be of diagnostic value.
Tests
covering such behavior responses have been completed by
teachers, under the guidance of R. ¥. Tyler of Ohio State
University, with respect to:
Ability to set up a hypothesis.
Ability to interpret data.
Ability to distinguish between fact, theory, and
assumption.
Ability to distinguish between cause and effect.
Ability to make accurate observations.
Ability to apply principles and facts to new situa­
tions .
-*-9 a. N. Zechiel, ”Recent Trends in Revision of Sci­
ence Curricula,” Educational Methods. 16:406, May, 1931•
A comparison with the aims presented by the same schools
should indicate measurement of the outcomes of those aims
if the tests reflect philosophical thought.
The alms presented by the schools are in terms of
desired behavior responses, as brought out in the chapter
on an analysis of aims for new type science courses, since
teachers are interested in developing attitudes, apprecia­
tions, habits, skills, and abilities.
They are:
Is he open-minded?
Tolerant of other people and new ideas?
Free from superstition?
Actively curious?
Intellectually honest?
Is he in the habit of suspending judgment until the
facts are known?
Aware of the contributions of science to the
way of living?
Aware of the problems created by science as well
as the problems solved by science?
Does he have a reasonable expectation of the ability
of science to solve our problems?
Can he distinguish between fact, theory, assumption,
generalization?
Does he have the ability to
Set up a hypothesis?
Collect and organize data?
Draw conclusions from data?
Derive generalizations and appreciate their
significance?
Apply facts and principles to new problems?
Distinguish between cause and effect?
Recognize multiple effects from a single cause
rather than consider them in casual rela­
tionship?20
Each aim indicates a desired behavior change embodying a
measurable outcome of behavior response which is repre­
sented by one or more of the tests that have been consisted*
Wrightstone, in his appraisal of experimental high
school practices,2-*- indicates that— in addition to objective
tests which already exist for measuring recognition and re­
call— tests have been constructed to measure working skills,
interpretation of facts, application of generalizations, and
discrimination between founded and unfounded beliefs*
He
also points out that tests of achievement consistently favor
the experimental schools in knowledge and skills over the
conventional and are statistically significant in physics
20 Ibid., P* ^03.
21 J. Wayne Wrightstone, Appraisal of Experimental
High School Practices (New York: Bureau of Publications,
Teachers College, Columbia University, 1936), p* 1^6.
137
and chemistry (physical sciences).22
The latter view is
also supported by Hopkins with respect to the improved learn­
ing situation in the broad fields curriculums over the con­
ventional.2^
Peterson refers to similar tests developed for the
subjects of physics and chemistry to cover the objectives
established by the Science Committee of the Wisconsin Educa­
tion Association in 1932.2^
They may serve as guides for
building similar tests for the newer type courses in phy­
sical science since they cover cause and effect, fact
theory, understanding of a controlled experiment as a part
of the scientific method tests, and evaluation of sources
of information as a part of the scientific method tests.
A testing program is also presented by Todd for a
fusion course in physical science.2^
He divides it into dif­
ferent phases in which a list of pupil needs is prepared as
seen by pupils and teachers.
Two interest tests are pre­
pared, one of which requires the selection of favorite
science topics and the other a selection of activities in
22 Ibid., p. 152.
2’ Hopkins
j
Integration, Its Meaning and Application,
op. cit.. p. 232.
2i* G. K. Peterson, "Wisconsin Testing Program in Sci­
ence,” Wisconsin Journal of Education. 69:378, April, 1937.
25 R. B. Todd, "Fusion in Practical Physical Science—
An Experimental Course,” School Science and Mathematics.
37:95, January, 1937.
138
which the pupil would like to participate.
A record is made
of pupil abilities, part of which consist of experiments
chosen by pupils to be carefully che:c.k.ed upon the basis of
their individual record.
The ability to generalize scien­
tific principles with respect to their experiences is tested
by matching a list of scientific experiences with underly­
ing principles.
Finally, the ability to use the scientific
method is tested by having pupils state problems, experi­
ment, analyze them, and then draw their conclusions.
Such
methods employed by the experimental schools may serve as
an additional basis for analyzing the methods of evaluation
for the new science courses presented by schools cooperat­
ing in this study.
Methods of evaluation for the new courses in physi­
cal science presented by cooperating schools.
The methods
of evaluation used by the cooperating schools as indicated
by the questionnaire results may be divided into three
groups: (l) methods of evaluation used for measuring out­
comes, (2) outcomes measured by the schools, and (3) the
tests with which outcomes are measured.
The methods of evaluation used for measuring out­
comes, as given in a questionnaire, include pre-tests given
before units are begun, diagnostic tests recognizing the
need for individual differences, measuring outcomes in
159
terms of actual functioning, measuring outcomes In terms of
content alone, and the selection of actual life problems
for solution.
The distribution indicating the extent to
which each is used is given in Table XII. . Approximately
three fourths of the schools emphasize problem solving,
while two thirds measure outcomes in terms of actual func­
tioning, of which only one third give diagnostic tests and
less than one third, pre-tests.
Approximately one third
still measure outcomes in terms of content alone.
The extent to shich various outcomes are measured
is given in Table XIII.
The outcomes measured, according
to the questionnaire, include the degree to which supersti­
tious thinking is averted; the development of habits,
skills, abilities, appreciations, scientific attitudes,
methods of observation in laboratory technique; the appli­
cation of principles and facts therein; and the manner of
reporting final conclusions in laboratory technique.
The
distribution in Table XIII Indicates that two thirds of the
schools emphasize aversion to superstition, development of
abilities, and development of scientific attitudes, while
one half also emphasize appreciations.
Less than one third
emphasize habit development, while more than one third re­
fer to skills.
The measurement of outcomes In laboratory
technique represents about two thirds of the schools offer­
ing laboratory work since thirteen offer no laboratory
TABLE XII
THE EXTENT TO “WHICH VARIOUS METHODS OF EVALUATION
ARE USED IN MEASURING OUTCOMES FOR PHYSICAL
SCIENCE BY TWENTY-SEVEN SCHOOLS
Methods for evaluating outcomes
Number of schools
Pre-tests given before units are begun
7
Diagnostic tests recognizing the need for
individual differences
9
Measuring outcomes in terms of actual functioning
17
Measuring outcomes in terms of content alone
11
Selection of actual life problems for solution
21
141
TABLE XIII
THE EXTENT TO WHICH VARIOUS OUTCOMES
ARE MEASURED IN PHYSICAL SCIENCE
BY TWENTY-SEVEN SCHOOLS
Extent to which various outcomes
are measured
Number of
schools
The degree to which superstitious thinking
is averted
18
Development of habits
7
Development of skills
11
Development of abilities
17
Development of appreciations
14
Development of scientific attitudes
17
♦Methods of observation In laboratory technique
9
Application of principles and facts in laboratory
technique
11
Manner of reporting final conclusion in laboratory
technique
10
* Thirteen schools offer no experimental work.
experimentation.
The tests which measure outcomes, however, do not
evaluate behavior response, with but few exceptions.
Six
schools use the behavior response technique for measuring
outcomes.
The schools of Pasadena and Oakland, California,
use tests to measure such specific outcomes as interpreta­
tion of data, application of principles to solution of
problems, understanding of scientific methods, and various
types of critical thinking exercises.
At Beaver Country
Day School of Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts; the New Trei
High School of Winnetka, Illinois; and the North Shore
Country Day School, Winnetka, Illinois, tests devised by
the evaluation staff of the Progressive Education Associa­
tion are in use.
In one school, a Records Bureau Achieve­
ment Test in General Science is also used.
In another
school the Carnegie Foundation Tests are used, and a vari­
ation of the Caldwell Lundeen Test to measure aversion to
superstition is used at Azusa, California.
The majority
of the schools use the older type test to measure the out­
comes presented in Table XIII.
The facts presented with respect to the cooperating
schools offer a good comparison with techniques in experi­
mental schools and those presented by philosophy and sup­
ported by psychology.
143
Summary.
A review of the analysis in this chapter
covering the methods of evaluation in the new type science
courses reveals, first, that evaluation on the hasis of be­
havior change is supported by the principles of philosophy
and psychology covering skills, abilities, understandings,
and attitudes with respect to certain measurable elements
in the form of outcomes based upon behavior response; and,
second, that methods of evaluation used by experimental
schools favor the use of pre-tests, diagnostic tests, and
tests covering behavior responses which are reflected as
desired outcomes in the aims of the courses; whereas, the
methods suggested by cooperating schools also emphasize pre­
tests, diagnostic tests, and measurement of outcomes in
terms of superstitious thinking, habits, skills, abilities,
appreciations, and scientific attitudes, but do not measure
outcomes in terms of behavior response, with the exception
of a few schools.
On the basis of the philosophical and
psychological analysis with respect to methods of evaluation
in the experimental and cooperating schools, as well as that
presented in preceding chapters, conclusions may be drawn
and recommendations made with respect to changes in practice
necessary for a more complete realization of those principles
bringing the greatest returns in the learning necessary for
the maintenance of a democratic society.
CHAPTER VII
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS
AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The study of an anlysis of the newer type courses
in physical science based upon a philosophical and psycho­
logical approach as accepted by writers and authorities In
the field, as well as actual practice in experimental and
cooperating schools, revealed certain principles and trends
as discussed in the foregoing chapters.
A brief summary of
this material is presented in the form of findings and con­
clusions.
Immediately following are the investigator’s
recommendations for an improved program in physical science
based upon the facts revealed in this study.
FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS
A survey of the literature on the teaching of physi­
cal science in the secondary field Indicated severe criti­
cisms of the older courses of physics and chemistry on the
basis that they were too technical and highly specialized;
that they were not adapted to the interests and needs of the
pupil; that science courses as now taught do not develop sci­
entific attitudes; and, that the present science curriculums
do not emphasize socialization.
Studies of investigations
which indicated trends, proposals for reorganization on the
145
basis of surveys; studies covering aims, curriculum offer­
ings, and course organization; and studies in integration,
methods and evaluation all indicated the importance of such
allegations*
The only conclusions ■which may be drawn are
that the newer type courses in physical science must be more
informational and general and more adaptable to the inter­
ests and needs of the pupil; also that they must develop
scientific attitudes through definite teaching of scienti­
fic method, and must show the social import of scientific
principles by drawing experience activities from the en­
vironment and solving them through processes of socializa­
tion.
The findings and conclusions of each phase of the
study are considered separately.
The aims for the new type science courses.
The aims
for the new type science courses were studied from the
standpoint of general educational aims and aims for the
courses in physical science that must also contribute to
the general educational aims.
Literature on general educa­
tional aims indicated much confusion in terminology between
aim, purpose, goal, function, and objective.
Such confu­
sion was reflected in the statements of general educational
aims listed in the questionnaire returns from the cooperat­
ing schools.
An analysis of the general aims on the basis
of philosophy given by authorities resulted in the conclu­
sion that aim should be used to represent purpose or goal
146
in the general educational and subject fields, while the
term, objective, should be used to represent purpose or goal
in a unit of instruction*
In each case, it was philosophi­
cally determined that aim or objective should include the
aspects of outcome, function, and method in order to be com­
plete*
To serve as a guide for definitely evaluating general
educational aims presented, a criterion was developed on the
basis of current educational philosophy and the newer aims
in general and secondary education.
Twenty-four of the
twenty-seven cooperating schools submitted aims.
In these
aims it was concluded that criteria must be established for
the purpose of measuring aims and must be composed of es­
sential recognizable elements that can be placed under the
divisions of outcomes, functions, and methods.
On the basis
of these criteria, the majority of aims failed to include
some of the essential elements, only three receiving a rat­
ing of one hundred per cent.
This would indicate lack of
familiarity with current philosophical thought and proposed
statement of aims, an unorganized method of course develop­
ment, or possible neglect to realize the importance of aims
in curriculum organization.
According to percentage inclu­
sion of the various elements in the aims presented, major
emphasis was still based on the recognition of significant
laws and principles in organized knowledge, with some
147
recognition "being given to the scientific method of thought
and the individual in society on the basis of interests,
needs, capacities, adjustment to environment, and method.
The last two reflect the influence of recent emphasis on
individual differences and scientific method.
The element
which received little consideration deals with social inte­
gration and orientation to a dynamic social order.
This is
particularly important, since one of the major criticisms
of the old courses dealt with the need for social considera­
tion.
The conclusion which may be.drawn is that general
educational aims in practice do not yet fully recognize all
the important principles.in current philosophical thought.
An analysis of the aims in physical science, which
must conform to the general educational aims, was based on
current philosophy and aims presented for the sciences and
criteria and aims presented for the specific courses in phy­
sical science by analysts in the field.
It was found that
there is a change in philosophy for the sciences from em­
phasis on narrow mastery of subject matter, drill in problem
solving, and college preparation, to a broader recognition
of the individual as a personality and a member of society.
Such a change was found noticeably to affect a corresponding
change in the statement of science aims from acquisition of
knowledge as an outcome, to behavior responses covering
habits, skills, and appreciations of the individual, with
emphasis on factors contributing toward enrichment of life
in harmony with a dynamic social order.
A criterion re­
flecting this change was formulated to evaluate the aims
for the specific courses in physical science presented by
the cooperating schools.
On the basis of this criterion,
extreme weakness was shown in incorporating such elements
as behavior response, social integration, and individual
integration.
Major emphasis was based on developing a
scale of beliefs, developing a logical method of thinking,
and applying facts and principles to environment.
Such
practice in the field indicates little conformity to the
philosophy and aims presented for the development of the
newer type courses in physical science, which incidentally
were the factors originally to promote such a course.
The
major conclusion to be drawn is that philosophy and aims
presented by analysts answer the major objections to the
old courses in physical science, but the newer courses do
not yet fully incorporate those principles in practice.
The extent to which lack of emphasis is given to ob­
jectives for unit instruction is also found in the returns
from the questionnaire.
Outcomes and 'unit topics were in­
correctly presented as objectives, since outcomes represent
the goals to be reached and cannot be considered synonomous
with objectives.
As such, they were presented by a few
schools to cover skills, habits, abilities, attitudes, and
149
understandings.
According to this classification, however,
outcomes are definitely recognized as goals to be reached by
one text on physical science in the field.
Evidently confu­
sion in terminology or neglect to determine definite objec­
tives for unit instruction is found in practice.
The findings and conclusions for curriculum organiza­
tion.
^
A study of the curriculum organization to be used in
connection with physical science brought out various view­
points with respect to the purpose of such a course in the
administrative curriculum.
In most cases it was to serve as
a science elective and fulfill the science requirement; also,
it was to replace physics and chemistry In some curriculums,
while in others it was to serve as a foundation for those
sciences; then again, in some it was to be considered as a
science course for non-college vocational
college preparatory in others.
pupids,
and as
The emphasis varied, but the
purposes agreed with the philosophy of providing experiences
in the form of broader generalizations to produce more ef­
ficient growth for all In harmony with the general educa­
tional scheme, which reflects the recent interpretation of
curriculum to include experiences in the form of abilities,
needs, interests, and influencing factors, such as aims,
method, and content, and which also reflects principles of
psychology by supplying a less technical course for all to
150
bring about integration of behavior and flexibility to the
curriculum.
The variation in emphasis may be interpreted
to be due to local conditions or due to neglect in using
properly stated aims as a course guide.
It was found that course organization may vary from
lateral integration of subject fields, lateral integration
of the natural sciences, to vertical integration of sciences
covering two or more years.
Particularly the last two are
indicative of the organization emphasized on the secondary
school level by writers in the field.
Lateral integration
agrees with the philosophy developed under aims, and
vertical integration with the psychological principles of
mental growth stimulated by a sequence of science subjects
from the elementary-secondary school level.
Such a sequence
is emphasized by 50 per cent of the cooperating schools with
many others emphasizing a shorter sequence.
The placement of physical science by the cooperating
schools is largely on the eleventh and twelfth grade levels
within the science sequence, which agrees with suggestions
made by others.
At the same time many give chemistry and
physics in the eleventh year which brings about a conflict
as to physical science serving in the capacity of a founda­
tion course for those two subjects.
This would mean some
duplication in the administrative curriculum unless it is
to serve in place of chemistry and physics as a college
151
science requirement for the pupil electing a general course.
Even so, it is not considered a laboratory science by the
majority since half the schools give no experimentation at
all to develop generalizations, and those which do, largely
use the demonstration method during class time*
Conse­
quently, in most cases, there is no placement for laboratory
work as such.
Course content for physical science.
A review of
the concensus of opinion about content for newer type sci­
ence courses revealed the answer to criticisms of the old
courses for being too technical, too highly specialized,
based on an outmoded mechanistic psychology and showing a
low percentage of accuracy in applying scientific principles
in a practical way.
Opinion supported by practice in ex­
perimental schools pointed out present emphasis upon con­
tent drawn from
pupil
interests and experiences in which
the interests, purposes, and attitudes lead to understand­
ings of concepts and generalizations that are determined
through a problem solving technique.
Such practice conforms
directly to the philosophy of aims previously discussed in
which the child and not the subject is emphasized.
The principles which were emphasized for selecting
content dealt directly with individual integration by sug­
gesting the selection of large unit problems of dynamic
152
social significance involving individual interests, needs,
and capacities related to the local environment in the light
of individual experiences which could he solved through the
scientific method by using a research technique involving
many reference texts for content material rather than one.
These suggested principles were found to be used in practice
by the cooperating schools to a certain extent.
They em­
phasized present pupil interests and needs, but showed
weakness by some not recognizing the pupil as a dynamic
individual with respect to future interests and needs.
Then
too, emphasis on basic generalizations with application
showed the influence of the subject type of course, although
some indicated the influence of newer philosophy by consid­
ering analysis of practical problems supported by theoreti­
cal generalizations and concepts.
Some emphasis was found
to be placed entirely upon the consumer phase and little on
a combination content for the specialist and consumer.
This
would reflect a lack of consideration for future needs
The areas covered by content material were found to
be combinations of chemistry, phys.ics, geology, astronomy,
and some mathematics based upon the view that environmental
problems of socio-scientific experiences are to unfold gen­
eralizations about which conclusions are to be
which such subject fields would cover.
drawn and
The organization of
these areas in the form of units sub-divided into problems
153
and activities was favored by writers in the field and prac­
tice In the cooperating schools.
Variations of unit organi­
zation were found in physical science texts; only one being
built on the unit problem activity basis*
The policy of
another text to be purely descriptive and another based upon
pure scientific generalizations, also employed by some of
the cooperating schools, Is contrary to the philosophy of
writers to select content of dynamic social and individual
import evolved from pupil-problem experiences.
The general
conclusion which may be drawn would be that suggested con­
tent material, as well as that emphasized In practice,
recognizes many philosophical and psychological principles
embodied in the newer science aims.
Findings and conclusions for methods of work.
Con­
sideration of methods of work for the new type physical sci­
ence courses developed certain implications of social and
Individual Importance based upon philosophy and psychology
which have been recognized and which must be recognized by
successful methods.
These implications involved applica­
tion of Individual interest to environmental problems for
Intelligent Interpretation and analysis through a process
of socialization to promote such interest In the classroom.
Psychologically, It was pointed out, such purpose and inter­
est produces effective learning only Insofar as experience
154
provides meaning for the acquisition of certain skills,
abilities, and powers#
These viewpoints were reflected in
criteria developed for the selection of activities and
processes of socialization used in experimental schools.
The methods suggested by writers in the field includ­
ed a proposed unitary preview by the teacher, a cooperative
pupil-teacher approach to planning a unit in which the major
unit problems would be analyzed into subordinate problems.
Supporting data would be collected by pupils from many
sources, conclusions drawn and then applied to concrete
situations.
Such pupil-teacher unit planning was reported
for experimental schools.
Methods for unit development
emphasizes the scientific method for problem solving, class
discussions, reports, demonstrations, individual activities,
proving data in problem solving by means of laboratory
analysis or library research, and visual aids.. These methods
include the social and individual implications previously
made.
Methods used by the majority of the cooperating
schools agree with writers in the field by approaching the
unit with a teacher preview followed by a cooperating pupilteacher -unit planning.
In developing a unit, some still are
hampered by the textbook method, allowing little individual­
ity for problem selection and solving.
Many schools empha­
size the social aspects of a problem and practice some
155
socialization in class.
The lecture-demonstration method is
still used by many with little emphasis on the experimental
method in general but to a greater extent in pupil activi­
ties.
Few use the library research method.
Of the 50 per
cent using laboratory technique, the tendency appears to
allow pupils to work individually, together, or in demon­
stration with the teacher.
The general conclusion to be
drawn is that specific methods do not agree with the tech­
niques suggested by writers in the field.
This may be
attributed to the neglect of method as an aspect of the
science aim or entire neglect to develop philosophically
and psychologically the science aims.
Evaluating the new science programs.
A study of
methods suggested for evaluating the newer type physical
sciences was found to involve the measurement of definite
recognizeable elements representing integration in the form
of behavior change and improvement in understandings, atti­
tudes, interests, ability to interpret data, to apply gen­
eralizations, sensitivity to significant problems, work
habits, and knowledge.
It was pointed out that such a
change would need ,to recognize the totality of behavior as
represented in .individual personality with subsequent atten­
tion to lesser factors.
These elements were represented as
outcomes of the direct content and a means of evaluating the
156
attainment of the aims selected for the course.
The methods used by experimental schools that reflect
the use of outcomes for measurement were represented by a
testing program of pre-tests on factual material followed by
many short diagnostic tests in the form of behavior res­
ponses upon single abilities, habits, or skills for guidance
purposes in evaluating response and course content.
A com­
parison of the type tests measuring outcomes in behavior
response with aims presented by experimental schools reveal­
ed the inclusion of the outcome as an aspect of the aim
which it was supposed to measure.
Tests for measuring such
outcomes as recognition and recall, working skills, inter­
pretation of facts, application of generalizations, dis­
crimination between founded and unfounded beliefs have
been developed.
The methods used by the schools cooperating in this
study ranged from testing content alone to testing actual
functioning and selection of actual life problems for solu­
tion with few presenting pre-tests and diagnostic tests.
Such practice would make it impossible to measure behavior
change, which is the psychological basis for aims, method,
and content in the newer courses of physical science.
The
various outcomes measured by the majority were given as
superstitious thinking,skills, abilities, appreciations, and
scientific attitudes, but not in terms of behavior response,
157
except for six schools*
The only conclusion which can be
drawn Is that such measurement must be largely factual and
that practice at large does not agree with reports from
experimental schools or express basic philosophy and psy­
chology.
Finally, it may be said that the programs for the
newer courses in physical science in all their phases show
the attempt to base such courses upon modern principles of
philosophy and psychology.
Some recommendations for improve­
ment may be made.
RECOMMENDATIONS
The recommendations for an improved program in phy­
sical science, based upon the findings of this study, are
discussed according to chapter divisions.
Recommendations for improving the statement of aims.
The first step for improving the statement of aims calls for
a clear -understanding of terminology by adopting the terms
of aim and objective which embody the aspects of outcome,
function, and method to serve as general educational and
subject guides, in which function determines the boundaries
of content.
The second step should be to determine a defin­
ite criterion, of recognizable elements based on philosophy
and psychology, for developing general educational aims and
a means for establishing definite and measurable aims
involving behavior changes through study and participation
In physical science.
The suggested criteria to evaluate a
general educational aim should Include:
1.
Outcome
a.
Orientation of the individual to the present
and possible future social order.
b.
2.
Individual adjustment to environment.
Function
a.
Preparation for a changing society.
b.
Individual integration (recognition of needs,
interests, and capacities).
c.
Social integration (recognition of the needs,
interests, and potentialities of society).
d.
Recognition of the significance of laws and
principles in organized knowledge.
3.
Method
a.
Provision for a setting of individual and
social significance.
b.
Provision for activities through experience.
*
c.
Provision for a critical or scientific method
of thinking.
The criteria for the development of subject aims should em­
phasize:
1.
Behavior response.
2.
Social integration (recognition of needs, interests,
159
and potentialities of society).
3*
Individual integration (recognition of needs,
interests, and capacities).
4.
Development of a scale of beliefs as a philos­
ophy of life (appreciations).
5.
Logical method of thinking (implication of
understandings and attitudes through use of the
scientific method).
6.
Application of facts, principles, and generaliza­
tions to present individual environment through
experiences.
7*
Application of facts, principles and generaliza­
tions to potential individual environment.
The use of such guides will tend to correct the errors due
to poorly stated aims in determining the course.
Recommendations for curriculum organization in physi­
cal science.
To avoid duplication of course material, it is
recommended to place the course in the eleventh year with sub­
sequent courses of chemistry and physics in the twelfth year
as electives.
In this manner the course could serve as a
foundational course if so desired.
To impart greater flexi­
bility to the curriculum, the opportunity for tenth year en­
rollment could be allowed so that a pupil could enroll in
chemistry or physics in the eleventh year and the other sci­
ence in the twelfth year.
Greater recognition of a science
build-up through the grades should also be made.
Improving content material for physical science.
A
decided change in the general use of content is recommended
from single text material to material drawn from pupil en­
vironmental experiences in the form of problems supplemented
by library materials and necessary laboratory equipment for
their solution.
Such content material is variable but the
concepts and generalizations developed from it have been
found to be quite constant.
A basic text may be used to
give a direction of orderliness to the pupil with respect
for concepts and generalizations aided by other books,
pamphlets, and periodicals as supporting material.
Content should emphasize an approach from a consumer
and interest angle, but should also recognize the potentiali­
ties of society and the individual by covering any aspects
of a problem to the extent in which interest is shown by the
pupil.
Such a recognition of specialized interest does not
Imply the imposition of content on pupils whose interest
lies elsewhere.
This gives point to method.
Improving methods used in physical science.
Better
methods of value to pupils may be obtained by definitely
referring to the formulation of aims that involve method.
As definite modes of procedure to produce effective learn­
ing, a teacher approach to the possible unit may be deter-
161
mined by pupil interests of needs in the light of their ex­
periences and environment followed by a cooperatively selec­
ted and planned unit in the form of problems and activities.
The activities should be selected with the aid of a previous
ly determined criterion.
During the process, the teacherfs
function should be that of suggestion or of guidance.
The techniques used In solving the problems should be
determined by the pupils mainly in the light of their own
problems.
They may include demonstrations, laboratory tech­
nique, cooperative analysis, library research, visual
materials, discussions to develop attitudes, or personal
conferences.
A democratic socializing atmosphere in the
classroom should allow freedom for the pupil to move about
and carry out solutions to problems independently, added to
group work covering the aspects of common interests for all.
The teacher*s responsibility during this procedure should
be to guide pupils in the steps of scientific method until
they develop a definite manner of research and study in
solving problems and applying such conclusions reached to
practical situations.
A measure of such methods must be on
the basis of common elements of interest in the problems
solved as they bear a common relation to the major unit
problem of general interest.
Recommendations for evaluating the newer courses in
162
physical science.
An evaluation must cover the outcomes
implied in the aims on the basis of behavior response.
In
order to measure any behavior change, as a result of teach­
ing, pre-tests with subsequent diagnostic tests measuring
growth in definite recognizable elements of behavior re­
sponse must be given.
Only such a testing program will test
complete child development.
The education of teachers in
the use of such tests is necessary since most testing has
been entirely based upon the accumulation of facts with no
recognition given to attitudes, abilities, or appreciations.
The final recommendations offered would cover the
main weaknesses found in this analysis.
They consist of
definite teacher training in proper development of aims
on a philosophical and psychological basis; definite train­
ing in practice to use methods of socialization and steps
in the scientific analysis of problems; and, finally, the
education of teachers in new testing methods and the
factors they are supposed to test as given by the aims.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
BIBLIOGRAPHYA.
BOOKS
Barr, A* S., William H. Burton, and Leo J. Bruckner, Supervision. New York: D. Appleton Century Company, 19387""’
9$1 pp.
Valuable to this study with respect to interpretation
of the term "curriculum,” discussed on page 719*
Briggs, T. H., Secondary Education.
lan Company, 1935* 571 pp*
New York: The Macmil­
Chapters XIII and XIV were of value for the interpreta­
tion of functions of education.
Bush, George L., Theodore Ptacek, and John Kovats, Jr.,
Senior Science. New York: American Book Company, 1937*
835
pp.
A descriptive type of organization for physical science.
Campbell, D. S., and H. L. Caswell, Curriculum Development.
New York: American Book Company, 1935* £00 pp.
The portion of the book given over to curriculum devel­
opment considered more pertinent to this paper was the
section on Aims of Education, Pupil Purposes, and Unit
Basis of Organizing a Curriculum.
Curtis, P. D., Some Values Derived from Extensive Reading
in General Science. Teachers College Contributions to
Education, N0. 163. New York: Teachers College, Colum­
bia University, 1924. 142 pp.
A thorough investigation made to determine the value of
extensive reading in general science which embodied a
study of scientific attitudes and a favorable report
for such reading.
Dewey, John, Experience and Education.
millan Company, 1938. Il5pp.
New York: The Mac­
A philosophical consideration of traditional vs. pro­
gressive education on the basis of experience, in which
experience is taken as the means and goal of education.
165
Douglass, A. A*, Secondary Education.
Mifflin Company, 1927* 649 pp.
Chicago: Houghton-
Valuable to this study from the standpoint of general
educational objectives*
Draper, Edgar Marion, Principles and Techniques of Curricu­
lum Making. New York: D. Appleton Century Company,
1936: 575 PP.
A discussion of current problems in curriculum construc­
tion, principles and objectives of education, the unit
of work, and administration and organization of curricu­
lum development which is of value to teachers interested
in reorganizing their teaching field.
Eckels, Charles F., Chalmer B. Shaver, and Bailey W. Howard,
Our Physical World. Chicago: Benjamin H. Sanborn and
Company, 1938T 801 pp.
A text for physical science based upon units covering
science generalizations followed by chapter outcomes.
Harap, Henry, The Technique of Curriculum Making. New York:
The Macmillan Company, 1928. 315 pp.
Section on "Determining Objectives from Secondary Data"
of interest because of various suggested methods of
analysis.
Hausrath, Alfred H. Jr., and.John H. Harms, Consumer Science.
New York: The Macmillan Company, 1959* 692 pp.
A text in physical science built on the unit plan which
may be called an interpretative development supported •
by suggested activities.
Hopkins, L. Thomas, Curriculum Principles and Practices.
Chicago: Benjamin H. Sanborn and Company, 1929. 571 PP*
A very valuable book from the standpoint of criteria
for determining aims, content, organization of content,
method, and desired outcomes as far as this study is
concerned.
166
Hopkins, L. Thomas, and others, Integration, Its Meaning and
Application* New York: D* Appleton Century Company,
1937. 315 PP.
A thorough philosophical and psychological consideration
of integration and its relation to the various methods
of organization found in the educational field today,
together with implications for its more complete realiz­
ation.
Hunter, George ¥., Science Teaching.
Book Company,
Chicago: American
An analysis of the general subject of objectives with
respect to students interests and needs and the con­
clusion that junior high school teachers doing better
work than senior high school. Teachers of neither
level show much evidence of humanizing science through
the development of an appreciation of the work of
scientists.
Inglis, Alexander, Principles of Secondary Education.
Chicago: Houghton Mifflin Company, 191B. 517 pp.
The phase of the text on general educational principles
for the secondary school was of value in the analysis
of aims.
Koos, L. V., The American Secondary School.
and Company, 1927. 7^3 pp.
New York: Ginn
Contributed to a better understanding of the term
"function” and the term "aim” as brought out in his
criticism of Cardinal Principles.
Lemon, Schlesinger, and others, Introductory General Course
in the Physical Sciences. Chicago: Distributed by
Chicago University Bookstore, June, 1933* 265 PP*
A syllabus in physical sciences giving the main points
in outline form. Use of museums and references with
course.
Monroe, ¥. S., Directing Learning in the High School. New
York: Doubleday, Doran and Company, Inc., 1927. 577 PP*
An analysis of objectives by Bobbitt, the Cardinal Prin­
ciples, and those proposed by a committee of the North
Central Association of College and Secondary Schools.
16?
Morrison, Henry C., The Practice of Teaching in the Second­
ary School. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press,
1926: S53 p p .
Valuable to this study from the standpoint of method,
Thorndike, Edward L., The Psychology of Wants, Interests,
and Attitudes. New York: D. Appleton Century Company*
1935. 301 pp.
Based upon the recently reaffirmed stimulus response
theory, Thorndike gives a thorough psychology discus­
sion of the influence of wants, interests, and attitudes,
as well as changes in wants, interests, and attitudes.
Westaway, F. W., Scientific Method, Its Philosophy and Prac­
tice. London: Blackie and Son, Limited, 1924. ¥56 pp.
A philosophic consideration of the scientific method
and its application. Particularly valuable from the
standpoint of clarifying the fundamental philosophy in
science as well as terms such as classification,
generalization, and hypothesis.
Wrightstone, J. Wayne, Appraisal of Experimental High
School Practices. New York: Bureau of Publications,
Teachers College, Columbia University, 1936.
A valuable discussion of the various teaching plans,
philosophical hypothesis of experimental practices,
and some of the practices in content and instruction
in the natural sciences of the experimental schools.
B.
PERIODICAL ARTICLES
Aikin, Wilford M., "Toward School College Cooperation,"
Progressive Education* 12:435-40, November, 1935*
A short history of the development of the work of the
commission on the Relation of School and College with
a list of the schools on the secondary level which
cooperated with the plan.
Alberty, H. B., "Philosophy of General Education with Some
Implications for Science Teaching in the Secondary
School," Educational Methods* 16:337-94, May, 1937*
A philosophical discussion to determine the following
168
criteria for general science education.
1. Is my program based upon the fundamental needs,
interests, and crucial problems of the adolescent in
this changing culture?
2. Does my program help to promote, enrich, and rein­
terpret the democratic way of life?
Alimack, John C., "The Method of Applied Science In Teach­
ing Administration," School and Society, 47:193-97*
February 12, 1938.
An article showing the application of scientific method
in research method and measurement and the steps or
divisions of the method of applied science.
Baird, Hal, "A Functional Course in the Physical Sciences,11
Curriculum Journal, 8:13-16, January, 1937*
An example of a functional course in the physical sci­
ences giving the outline of units, and the objectives,
suggested content materials, and activities of one of
the units.
Bergen, L. M., and others, "Objectives in Science Teaching,"
School Science and Mathematics, 31:550-59* May, 1931*
A list of fifty-seven distinct objectives for science
secured and classified into eight separate categories
from a group of twenty-five graduate students with a
median of five years experience In science teaching,
University of Wisconsin Summer School, 1930.
Brown, Emmet H., "Science in the Hew Secondary School,”
Teachers College Record, 35:694-707* May, 1934.
A consideration of general public interest in science,
large enrollments in general science and biology, the
justification of or teaching science to contribute to
man’s knowledge of the universe, and the character of
a new course in the physical sciences organized around
broad science themes.
Caldwell, Otis W., "Some Considerations Regarding Science
and Education," School Science and Mathematics, 37:
840-43* October, 1937.
Gives a criticism of the manner in which science is
taught at present.
169
Carpenter, H. A., "Pattern for Science Teaching,” Science
Education, 20:223-24, December, 1936.
A philosophical discussion; on questions, What shall we
teach? How shall we teach? and What results do we
expect from our teaching? together with the presentation
of a 1tprocessing,f plan used in the Rochester Schools
for elementary children. This plan might serve as a
guide for upper grades as well.
Champlin, C. D., "Democracy and Science," School and
Society, 46:830-31, December 23, 1937.
A short article on the important role of science in the
social progress of a democracy pointing out the definite
relationship between democracy and science.
Craig, G. S., and A. J. Lockhart, "The Program of Science
in the Horace Mann Schools," Teachers College Record,
36:688-98, May, 1935*
A brief survey of the program of science in the Horace
Mann School showing the continuity of the program through
the first twelve grades based upon student interests,
society needs, and broad themes with a common element
to serve in the capacity of an ever-broadening and more
meaningful consideration of these themes as the student
progresses in the school. Specialists in the various
fields act mainly as consultants and assist classroom
teachers in instilling these values into the lives of
the children.
Dewey, John, "Relation of Science and Philosophy as the
Basis of Education," School and Society, 47:470-73,
April 9, 1938.
Shows the complete relationship of philosophy and sci­
ence by pointing out that the two should work together
to overcome the split between knowledge and action,
between theory and practice, which now affects both
education and society.
Deyoe, G. P., "Consumer Approach to Science Teaching,"
Science Education, 19:95-103, October, 1935*
A discussion of consumer science as related to: (l)
Activities of leisure, (2) the development of intelli­
gent purchases and consumers of commercial products,
170
(3) the development of desirable health habits,
(4) the socio-economic betterment of mankind, and
(5) the Improvement of thinking ability, together with
suggestions for utilizing these problems for vital
teaching situations.
Douglas, H. R., and G. H. Fields, "Experimental Comparison
of the Daily Assignment-Daily Recitation and a Unit
Assignment in High School Chemistry," Science Education,
20 :141-50 , 1956.
Experiment indicated that the Unit assignment may re­
sult in slightly better achievement, and that it is at
least equal to the daily assignment and recitation
method.
Downing, E. R., "Does Science Teach Scientific Thinking?11
Science Education, 17:87-89, April, 1935.
The results of a study made to test some of the ele­
ments and safeguards of scientific thinking.
Duel, Henry W. . "Measurable Outcomes of Laboratory Work in
Science"; A Review of Experimental Investigations,11
School Science and Mathematics, 37:795-810, October,
1937.
Results reported on various methods of laboratory
technique In the secondary and college levels. Very
little difference between the lecture-demonstration
and individual methods.
Eby, G., "Scope and Sequence in Relation to Science Educa­
tion," California Journal Secondary Education, 11:35659, October;T935.
A short philosophic discussion of a continuous program
in science, Its sequence, and science as life prepara­
tion.
Eckels, Charles F., "Clear Thinking Through the Use of
Physical Science," California Journal Secondary Educa­
tion, 11:56, January, 1936.
A short article emphasizing the methods by which clear
thinking., might become a more functional and definite
outcome of science instruction.
171
Feders, George H., "The Teaching of Integrated Physical
Science in West Virginia University High School,11
Educational Methods, 13:271-73* February, 1932*.
A report of an experiment in teaching integrated sci­
ence indicating a certain amount of transfer to other
courses*
Freeman, E., "Divisional Courses; Two Types of Divisional
Courses in the Natural Sciences*" Journal of Higher
Education, 7008-12, January, 19367
A discussion of the junior and senior college courses
recently organized at the Liberal Arts College of the
University of Louisville with respect to organization
methods of instruction, advantages and disadvantages in
instruction*
Goldstein, P., "Student Laboratory Work Versus Teacher Demon­
stration as a Means of Developing Laboratory Resource­
fulness,” Science Education* 21:185-93* November, 1937•
The study favored pupil laboratory methods*
Gould, Arthur, Liberalizing the Curriculum of the Los
Angeles City Schools, Los Angeles City School District,
1935.
_______ , "Principles and Organization of the Sciences in
Secondary Schools,” California Journal Secondary Edu­
cation, 10:^79-82, November, 19357
A topic discussed in a Symposium on the Physical and
Biological Sciences to show why change in science teach­
ing is slow, the necessity of broad surveys instead of
specialized sciences for the non-technical student, the
criteria necessary for judging science teaching, and
that specialized laboratory science will have its
place*
Graham, C* C., "Some Practices and Tendencies in the Teach­
ing of Science-Grades I to XII," Educational Administra­
tion and Supervision, 23:2^1-5*1* April, 1937*
A rather general discussion on the trends in science
teaching today as found in our public schools* Emphasis
is placed on the elementary level with some reference
to the junior and senior high school levels. Points
out the tendencies in objectives and methods as well as
content.
172
Gruenberg, B. C., "School Science and Public Heeds," Nation1s
Schools, 20:39-41, September, 1937*
A discussion of the doubt with respect to awareness of
science teachers to public needs, the meager attempt at
consumer education, and an emphasis for greater and more
complete participation in social processes by those who
teach science.
Hall, ¥. J., "A Study of Three Methods of Teaching Science
with Classroom Films,*1 School Science and Mathematics,
36:968-73> December, 1936,
Havighurst, Robert J,, "Survey Courses in the Natural Sci­
ences, Curriculum Journal, 7:26-30, October, 1936,
A discussion of the comprehensive, selective, analyti­
cal, descriptive, pure science, and interpretative
courses, as well as some of the advantages and disad­
vantages of these courses,
Heiss, E. D,, "Science Education from the Standpoint of
Psychology," Science Education, 20:224-25, December,
1936.
Discussion of Thorndikefs mechanistic S-R bond
theory as a guide for the scientific method and atti­
tude.
Hunter, G. ¥., "Philosophy for Teaching Science in a Chang­
ing ¥orld," Science Education, 20:220-21, December,
1936.
A philosophy of science teaching with emphasis on teach­
ing through experience to bring about integration of
the child and society. Interests and needs of child to
be recognized.
Hunter, G. ¥., "Science Sequence in the Junior and Senior
High Schools,11 School Science and Mathematics, 33:21423> February, 1933*
The report of a survey with respect to science programs
in over 1000 high schools.
Hurd, A. ¥., "Appreciational Objectives in Science Teaching,"^"
School and Society, 37:124-26, January 28, 1933.
An account of an attempt to collect concepts of an ap­
preciational nature to be used as specific objectives
173
in classes in high school sciences. Items obtained
from writings by educators in the field of science
teaching. They represent distinct statements which
are not usually found in textbooks of science, and
which might not be recognized without specific em­
phasis, They necessarily involve information. Most
of them can be supported by factual evidence.
Hurd, A. W., "Curriculum Revision to Meet the Needs of High
School Pupils," School Science and Mathematics, 34:63650, June, 1934.
A study of- the type of reorganization necessary in
seven Minnesota High Schools.
_______, "Tendencies Disclosed by Curriculum Investigations,
in Higher Education and Their Implications for Science
Teaching in Elementary and in High Schools," Science
Education, 21:147-51.
A review of the authorfs study of 500 curriculum in­
vestigations with emphasis on the implications for
education such as correlation of theory and practice,
a broad comprehensive curriculum for the high school
and junior college, personality development, and the
importance of organization and departmentalization in
higher educational institutions.
Jarvis, E. A., "Selections of Science Content in Core-Courses,"
California Journal Secondary Education, 12:77-79*
February, 1937.
The discussion of those principles for content selec­
tion which have been used by the assistant supervisor
of secondary curriculum in the Los Angeles Schools.
Knapp, R. A., "Reorganization of High School Science In­
struction," California Journal Secondary Education, 10:
485-88, November, 1935.
A more or less philosophical discussion of science re­
organization in the high school with emphasis on
methods involving student interest for mastery of
scientific thinking.
Knapp, R. A., and G. W. Hunter, "Technique for the Discovery s/
of Working Objectives in Science,” Science Education,
17:214-20, October, 1933.
The presentation of a working technique for the dis-
174
covery of objectives in science. Can be used by any
teacher in his own environment and adapt to his educa­
tional needs and needs of pupils.
Knudsen, C. W., "Science Teacher and Curriculum Trends,"
Peabody Journal of Education, 14:310-18, May, 1927.
A discussion of two different philosophical attitudes
and psychological theories and the impossibility of
using a scientific method for the selection of educa­
tional goals.
Lawrence, A., "Origin of Effective Learning," Science Educa­
tion, 21:21-24, Feburary, 1937.
A discussion of real life learning through certain
hobbies and teaching methods from a pupil!s viewpoint
as well as a statement of accepted aims.
Leigh, Robert D ., "Twenty-seven Senior High Schools* Plans,"
Progressive Education, 10:273-80, November, 1933*
An analysis of the experimental curricula in the twentyseven schools pointing out curriculum plans such as
culture-epoch organization, broad fields of knowledge,
individual interests, and needs; also the place of
subject matter and general methods.
Lindsay, F. B., "Science and Social Trends," California
Journal of Secondary Education, 11:413-15. November,
19W.
A suggestion for the content of completion courses to
be along practical and consumer lines.
Lucas, L. T., "Are We Wasting Our Chemistry Students*
Time?" Science Education, 17:240, October, 1933*
Criticism of the present method of teaching high school
chemistry.
Noel, V. H., "Teaching Science for the Purpose of Influenc­
ing Behavior," Science Education, 20:17-20, February,
1936.
The purpose of this article is to discuss some of the
principles which appear to be of primary importance in
the teaching of science for influencing behavior.
Based upon some accepted psychological concepts.
175
Noel, V. H., "The Habit of Scientific Thinking,” Teachers
College Record, 35:1-9* October, 1953*
A thorough analysis of the scientific attitude on the
basis of a development of various habits of thinking
and their present educational significance,
Peterson, G. K., "Wisconsin Testing Program in Science,”
Wisconsin Journal of Education, 69:377-78, April, 1937*
A consideration of various elements of the scientific
method and suggested tests for the measurement of
various aspects of this method as well as tests to
measure other objectives set up by the Science Committee
of the Wisconsin Educational Association in 1932*
Peterson, ShailerrA., "Advocating a Fusion of Physics and
Chemistry," School Science and Mathematics, 37:449-57*
April, 1937.
A suggested unit plan with the content of one of the
units included*
Powers, C. E,, "What Shall Be the Place of Science in Edu­
cation?” Science Education, 21:202-204, November, 1937*
A criticism of our traditional educational system with
implications for education directed toward usable
knowledge of the environment through understanding of
sources and relationships between items of that usable
knowledge; also suggestions for the use of induction and
deduction in problem solving*
Powers, Samuel R*, "Educational Values of Science Teaching,”
Teachers College Record, 52:17-33* October, 1930*
A valuable consideration of the big ideas in the sci­
ence of human affairs which may be used as guides in
the selection of content for scientific instruction
so that a continuous integrated program will result in
our educational system.
_______ , "Influences of Science on Human Activities with
Implications for Education,” Education Methods, 16:395401, May, 1937.
An analysis of human activities and influences affect­
ing them to reveal the complexity of our society and
the difficulties attendant upon education for intelli­
gent participation in It. Science and other areas con­
tributed to its making.
176
Powers, Samuel R., "Interpretative Generalizations as Aids
in Curriculum Work in Science,11 Science Education, 20:
221-25, December, 1936.
This article embodies some pertinent remarks with re­
spect to the points for guidance in curriculum con­
struction brought out by the Science Committee of the
National Society for the Study of Education in the
Thirty-first Yearbook.
Pruitt, C. M., "Survey Courses in the National Sciences,11
Science Education, 21:10-16, February, 1937*
A discussion of the type of survey, comprehensive and
selective, courses, in the colleges and the results as
to requiring students to take such a course.
Riley, T. M., "The Evolving Curriculum of the Secondary
School,” California Journal of Secondary Education,
110:505-309, May, 19361
A criticism of the conventional curriculum with respect
to learning subject matter, pre-mass education, trans­
fer of training, atomistic and organismic psychology,
testing, and a number of other points not particularly
concerned in this treatise.
Rugg, Eerie, "Experience in Curriculum Making," Curriculum
Journal, 8:205-208, May, 1937.
A group of basic curriculum principles determined in
unit construction which grew out of such experiences
with his class in "Technique of the School Curriculum."
Russell, Ralph D., "Organizing Science on a Functional
Basis," Curriculum Journal, 7:21-26, October, 1936.
A discussion of the different types of science organi­
zations such as the traditional science as a way of
knowing, general survey of science for the crowd, and
organization of science around functions from which
criteria for desirable courses were deduced.
Schlink, F. J., "Shall the Consumer Have Rights in the
Schools?” Progressive Education, 9:333-338, May, 1932.
Article emphasizes consumer helplessness and the point
that "Impartial study of the facts and freedom to ex­
periment will lead students to draw significant conclu­
sions as to the social efficiency of our present forms
of production and distribution of goods."
177
Selberg, Edith M., and J. Darrel Barnard, "Teaching Pupils
the Method for Solving Problems," Educational Methods,
16:413-16, May, 1957.
In a discussion on problem solving for the purpose of
being able to participate actively in social planning,
the authors draw the conclusion that skills, attitudes,
and the steps of problem solving become identified
with each other, which may have an incidental bearing
on the subject here under discussion.
Shaver, ¥. C., and C. F. Eckels, "The Improvement of Junior
College Physical Science Teaching,f! California Journal
of Secondary Education, 10:489-91* November, 1933.
Suggestions for improving science teaching through.mu­
seum type experiences, use of visual aids, and adapt­
ing the curriculum to the needs of the student,
Thayer, V. T., "A Basis for a New Secondary Curriculum,11
Progressive Education Association, 12:478-83, November,
1935.
A brief discussion of the work of the committee out­
lining the policies for reorganization.
Todd, H. B., "Fusion in Practical Physical Science— An
Experimental Course,” School Science and Mathematics ,
37:92-96, January, 1937*
Valuable discussion of an experiment in the fusion of
physical sciences from the standpoint of purpose,
organization, content, methods, equipment, and testing
which has proved very satisfactory for the pupils for
whom the course was intended.
Trillingham, C. C., "The Supervisor and Curriculum Making,"
School Executive Magazine, 53s396, July, 1934.
Refers to the degree in which curricula are changing
over the United States.
Watson, Donald R., "Scope and Sequence of High School Sci­
ence,” California Journal of Secondary Education, 13:5051, January, 1938*
An article reflecting the conclusions of a committee of
Los Angeles County science teachers who worked for a
year on the science curriculum. Mr. Watson, chairman
178
of the committee, dwells on the scope by saying that
United States Science should include the main concepts
and problems of a pupil*s biological and physical
environment# He also points out a recommended se­
quence of science in which the physical science course
is placed in the tenth year.
Watson, Donald' R., "Secondary Science," Sierra Educational
News#
October, 1937.
Philosophy, objectives, and some guiding principles for
high school science.
Webb, Charles S., "The Teaching of Advanced Science Using
the Demonstration Method," School Science and Mathe­
matics . 38:20-28, January, 1938.
An analysis of Senior Science# a textbook by Bush,
Ptacek, and Kovats, in order to show that the course
is not a substitute for chemistry and physics, but
will serve a good purpose if strongly supported with
demonstration experiments.
Whitehead, T. H., "Survey of Courses in Science," School
and College# 25:86-87, April, 1937.
A careful consideration of the reasons for the science
survey course, its organization, supplements to teach­
ing, and its present status on the college level.
Zechiel, A. N., "Recent Trends in Revision of Science Cur­
ricula,” Educational Methods# 16:402-407, May, 1937*
As found in the Thirty Schools participating in the ex­
perimental study \mder the commission on the Relation
of School and College.
Zechiel, A. N., and L. P. McCutchen, "Reflective Thinking
• in Social Studies and in Science," Progressive Educa­
tion# 15:284-90, April, 1938.
The purpose of the paper was to deny the assumptions
serving as a basis -for the mastery of content philosophy
and to suggest an approach to education based on assump­
tions which are almost directly contrary to the former;
also, to suggest the Implications of the latter line of
thinking in the fields of science and social studies in
the high school.
179
C.
PUBLICATIONS OF LEARNED ORGANIZATIONS
Beauchamp, Wilbur, Instruction in Science, Office of Educa­
tion Bulletin No. 17, 1922, National Survey of
Secondary Education, Monograph, No. 22, Washington, D.
C., Office of Education, 1933.
A survey which indicated general trends, and therefore
of general importance for a background in this
analysis.
Blount, G. W., "Experience With a Continuous Science Pro­
gram," National Education Association Proceedings,
1937:383.
Plan and purpose of the science program in the Abraham
Lincoln High School, Los Angeles, California.
Briarcliff Conference, October, 1935* Pamphlet. Progres­
sive Education Association, Commission on the Relation
of School and College, Ohio State University, Columbus,
Ohio.
A discussion of the direction of change in the thirty
experimental schools under the Progressive Education
Association with respect to administrative changes
involving better cooperation on the part of pupil and
teacher, curriculum changes based more on contemporary
pupilfs experiences together with a breaking down of
subject lines, and changes in method of teaching which
involves greater pupil participation and less formal
technique.
Briggs, T. R., "Functions of Secondary Education," Report
of the Committee on the Orientation of Secondary
Education in the Bulletin of the Department of Second­
ary School Principals at the National Education Asso­
ciation. Education Digest, 2:14, April, 1937*
A digest of the functions of secondary education.
Brown, William B., "Advanced Physical Science," Monograph,
Los Angeles City School District, Division of Instruc­
tion and Curriculum, Secondary Curriculum Section,
publication No. 337> Los Angeles, California, 1939.
A complete teachers1 guide covering all phases of a
proposed course in physical science.
180
Caldwell, 0. W., and others, "Reorganization of Science in
the Secondary Schools," Report of the Commission on
the Reorganization of Secondary Education. Department
of Interior, Bureau of Education Bulletin No. 26, 1920.
Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, pp. 1536.
Contributed ideas with respect to aim analysis for sci­
ence In general In the general proposal for reorganiza­
tion of science in the secondary schools.
The Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education. Report of
the Committee on the Reorganization of Secondary Educa­
tion. United States Department of the Interior,
Bureau of Education Bulletin No. 35* Washington, D. C.:
Government Printing Office, 1918, pp. 5-9.
Clement, J. P., 11An Analytical Study of Courses of Study of
North Central Secondary Schools," North Central
Association Quarterly. 8:475-78, April, 193^.
A report of an analysis of aims, content, and organiza­
tion of science courses In one hundred high schools.
Frutchey, Fred P., "Evaluating Chemistry Instruction,"
Educational Research Bulletin, College of Education,
Ohio State University, Volume XVI, No. 1, January 13,
1937.
A discussion of objectives as given by teachers as well
as a discussion of important uses of an appraisal pro­
gram to measure such objectives.
Judd, C. H., "Needed Revision in Social Science Instruction,"
Fourth Yearbook of the Council for Social Studies,
Philadelphia: McKinely Publishing Company, 1934VPP* 921.
A criticism of the social studies curriculum with recom­
mendations which may serve as a background for the
present study, in view of the emphasis on socialization.
Powers, S. R., "A Program for Teaching Science," Thirtyfirst Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of
Education, Part I, Bloomington, Illinois: Public School
Publishing Company, 1932, 370 pp.
Chapter II contributed to the analysis of aims in the
sciences as related to the aims In education.
181
Scanmore, H. E., "Discipline of the Natural Sciences,"
Association of American Colleges Bulletin, 22:581-91#
December, 1935•
A discussion to show that a considerable part of the
value of the discipline in the natural sciences will
depend upon our ability to relate these sciences with
other branches of learning.
Watkins, R. K., "Science in the High School and Social
Studies Objectives," National Education Association
Proceedings, 1937:^30-31*
An implication of the possible confusion which may
result if further integration of social and natural
sciences takes place.
D.
UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS
Benkart, John, "The Selection, Organization, and Evaluation
of the Elements of New Type Tests in Secondary School
Chemistry,” Unpublished Master*s thesis, University of
Southern California, Los Angeles, 1929*
Hodge, Vernon, "A Critical Analysis of the Aims, Content,
and Organization of Upper Grade High School Science, 1
Unpublished Masterfs thesis, University of Southern .
California, Los Angeles, 1936. 92 pp.
A philosophical analysis of the upper grade sciences
with emphasis upon socialization and integration.
Jacbos, Arlington B. C., "Enrollment Trends and Pupil
Attitudes Toward Courses in Senior High School Science."
Unpublished Master*s thesis, University of Southern
California, Los Angeles, 193^*
A study of textbooks, enrollment trends, and pupils*
attitudes toward high school science subjects.
Miller, Richard Landon, "Trends In the Teaching of Chem­
istry in the Secondary Schools of the United States
as Shown by the Textbooks in Use Since 1800." Unpub­
lished Master*s thesis, University of Southern Cali­
fornia, Los Angeles, 1937*
Indicated greater emphasis on chemical principles and
more inclusion of material on practical chemistry.
182
Stevens, C. P., ”A Study of the Pandemic Movement in
Secondary School Chemistry.” Unpublished Master’s
thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles,
1932. 162 pp.
A study which indicated the change toward a functional
or civic type of aim.
Woolley, Glen Meng, ”The Reorganization of Subject Matter
in High School Physics and Chemistry.” Unpublished
Master’s thesis, University of Southern California,
Los Angeles, California, 1931.
This study dealt with the content of courses at that
time, the nature of their reorganization, and opinions
of teachers about upper division courses.
APPENDIXES
I.
REFERENCES FOUND MOST HELPFUL FOR
PHYSICAL SCIENCE BY THE TWENTY-SEVEN SCHOOLS
A.
BOOKS
1.
Biology, Moon and Mann
2.
Book of Popular Science (Series)
3*
Chemistry, Dull
Chemistry, Jaffe
5*
Chemistry Applied to Home and Community, Pauline G.
Beery
6*
Chemistry of Engineering Materials, Leighton
7*
Creative Chemistry, Slosson
8*
Dynamic Chemistry, Biddle-Bush
9*
Earth Science, Fletcher
10.
Encyclopeadia
H*
Galileo to Cosmic Rays, Lemon
12.
Man and the Nature of His Physical Universe, JeanHarrah-Herman-P over s
13•
New Physics in Everyday Life, Henderson
14.
New Practical Chemistry, Black-Covant
15*
Our Physical World, Eckels-Shaver-Howard
16.
Out of the Test Tube, Holmes
Physics, Dull
1®*
Practical Physics, Black and Davis
19*
Problems in Everyday Science, Pieper and Beauchamp
20.
Romance of Chemistry, Foster
186
21.
Romping Through Physics, Gail
22.
Senior Science. Bush-Ptacek-Kovats
23.
Skin Deep. M. C. Phillip
24.
Stuff. Pauline G. Beery
25.
The World and Man as Science Sees Them. Moulton
26.
Your Money1s Worth. C. Sand and P. J. Schlink
27.
"1001n Tests. Dr. Wiley
B.
JOURNALS, MAGAZINES, AND PAMPHLETS
1.
Consumers Research
2*
Forestry Primer, Government Dept, of Forestry
3.
Government Bulletins
4. Hygeia
5*
Journal of American Chemical Education
6. Life
7.
Nature Magazine
8.
Photography
9. Popular Mechanics
10.
11.
Popular Science
Scientific American
12.
Science Digest
13.
Science Leaflet
14.
Science Monthly, A. A. A. S.
187
15*
Science News Letter
3-6.
Sheet Iron Primer, Central Alloy Steel Corporation,
Ohio
17*
The Railroad> Santa Fe System
18.
Trade Publications
19.
Young American
II.
SCHOOLS COOPERATING IN THE ANALYSIS OF
NEWER TYPE COURSES IN PHYSICAL SCIENCE
THROUGH THE ANSWERS TO A QUESTIONNAIRE
189
State
City
School
Person Reporting
Donald R. Watson
Head of Science Dept.
California
Azusa
Citrus Union High
School
California
Los Angeles
Jordon High School W. Helvey
California
Los Angeles
Los Angeles High
School
Mary Burdick
California
Oakland
University High
School
Dr. Lawrence F.
Foster
California
Pasadena
Pasadena Junior
College
Charles F. Eckels
California
San Diego
San Diego High
School
Charles S. Manning
California
Wilmington
Phineas Banning
High School
M. H. Compton
Illinois
Chicago
Wells High School
Harold W. Haggard
Illinois
Chicago
Heights
Bloom Township
High School
H. C. Lare
Illinois
Rockford
Rockford Senior
High School
F. G. Weber
Illinois
Winnetka
New Trei High
School
F. C. Windoes
Illinois
Winnetka
Perry Dunlap Smith
Worth Shore
Country Day School
Massachusetts
Boston
Beaver Country
Day School
Chester F. Protheral
Milton Academy
Homer W. LeSourd
Massachusetts Milton Lower
Mills
190
State.
City
School
Person Reporting
Missouri
Saint Louis
Normandy High School Ernestine Long
Montana
Great Falls
Great Falls High
School
Cyril H. Hancock
New York
New York
Lincoln School of
Teachers College
H. Emmett Brown
Pennsylvania
Arnold
Arnold Senior High
School
J. Elmer Browne
Head of Science
Dept,
Pennsylvania
Beaver Falls
Beaver Falls High
School
0. H. Heekothorne
Pennsylvania
Irwin
Norwin High School
Howard B. Trombley
Pennsylvania
Jeannette
High School
E. S. Albright
Pennsylvania
Kittanning
Kittanning High
School
W. ,B. Irvine
Pennsylvania
New Castle
Senior High School
William A. Margraf
Pennsylvania
Turtle Creek
Turtle Creek High
School
John L. Trevaskis
South Dakota
Watertown
Watertown High
School
Francis E. Clark
Wisconsin
La Crosse
Central High
Dr. A. G. Hoff
Wisconsin
Madison
Wisconsin High
School
Ira C. Davis
III.
LETTER AND QUESTIONNAIRE
192
SAMPLE OP LETTER SENT WITH QUESTIONNAIRE
204 Fifth Avenue S. E.
Aberdeen, South Dakota
April 12, 1939
Principal of Brookings High School
Brookings, South Dakota
Dear Sir:
I am making a research study of the “Newer Type Courses
in Physical Science” for my thesis work at the University
of Southern California, Knowing that you and your co­
workers are -undoubtedly very busy, I would appreciate it
very much if you would please have some competent indivi­
dual fill out the enclosed blanks and return them in the
self-addressed envelope,
I would also appreciate it if you would send a copy of
the syllabus or course of study used by you as a guide
in your Physical Science Course together with samples of
tests used, I would be glad to pay for the same.
Information with respect to other schools doing similar
work would also be welcome.
If you are interested in this investigation, I would be
glad to forward you my findings.
Thank you very much for your cooperation.
Very truly yours,
A RESEARCH STUDY
of the
NEWER TYPE COURSES IN PHYSICAL SCIENCE
approved "by
CALIFORNIA STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
N. B. This blank is to be filled out by teachers of physical science*
Name of person reporting__________________________________________
Name of school_______ ;______.________________________________ _____
This study refers to the physical science course which is a
fusion or integration of chemistry and physics, together with those
other sciences of astronomy, geology, or mathematics which have
been incorporated by various schools.
Please check carefully or fill in blanks of items listed below:
A,
Aims*
1.
General aims,
a. Educational
b.
For physical science
Note: * In order to make this study represent actual conditions, it
becomes necessary for the teacher to list the aim actually in use.
Therefore, no check list has been suggested.
2.
Specific aims.
required.)
(Use back of this sheet if more space is
194
B.
Curriculum organization
1.
Grade placement
Year. 10th ( ), 11th ( ), 12th ( ).
2. Does this course replace the traditional course in chemistry
( ), physics ( ), both ( )?
3.
Is the course required of all pupils?_______________________
4.
Is the course elective for all pupils?______________________
5. Is the course primarily arranged for vocational pupils who
do not plan to go to college?________ ______________________________
6. Is this course so placed and organized that it serves as
foundation for further courses In physics and chemistry?_____________
7. May this course be considered a college preparatory science,
yes ( ), no ( ), partially so ( ).
8. Do you have a continuous science program through the grades
which serves as a build-up for this course?_________________________
9* Do you offer general science in the 7th, 8th, or 9th grades
as a background for this course?______________
Indicate the grade and whether it is optional or required.
(Underline.)
10.
Does this course fill the science requirement in your school?
11.
Please fill in the following chart to indicate the arrange­
ment of your science program with respect to physical science,
chemistry, physics, mathematics, or any other science.
Year _______9th__________10th___________ 11th_________
12th
Subject
12.
What Is the length of each period given over to the physical
science course?
13* Is there any specified time for laboratory work?
If so, indicate such In chart 14.
195
14.
Please fill in your weekly schedule with respect to the
subjects you teach, largely to indicate the time given over to phy­
sical science and laboratory work, if any.
Indicate time of
each period. ______Mon._____ Tues._____ Wed.____ Thurs._____ Fri.
15*
C.
Further remarks with respect to organization.
Course content
1.
Please check the fields of information included in your course
in physical science, geology ( ), astronomy ( ), chemistry ( ),
physics ( ), mathematics { ). List any others together with
explanatory remarks on your combination.
2.
Is the course material selected on the basis of present
pupil interests ( ), needs ( ), both ( )?
5* Is the course content largely built upon adult interests
and needs?
__ ________
196
Remarks.
4.
Does the course material only serve as a survey of the
practical applications of science in the specialized fields of
industry?_______________________________________
5* Is the course material a fusion of the theoretical generali­
zations and concepts of the various science previously checked?
6.
Does the content represent the development of basic general!
zations with practical applications?_________________ ______________
7* Does the course content deal with an analysis of pertinent
practical problems supported by theoretical generalizations and
concepts?____________ ________ ___________________________________
(
8. Do you consider the course content purely for the consumer
), the specialist ( ), both ( )?
9. Is the course content organized on the basis of the unit ( ),
topic ( ), problem ( ), project or activity ( ), chapter ( )?
Remarks with respect to a combination of these._____________________
D.
Methods of work
1.
Preparatory
a. Is a preview of each new piece of work given?
b. Is a general assignment made at intervals, with details
and methods of organization left to the pupil?_____________________
c. Is the assignment always detailed with respect to refer
ences, plan of work, etc.?________________________________________
197
cL Is the pupil taken into the confidence of the teacher
as to reasons for trying certain methods?
2,
Specific methods >
a.
Is the general plan built upon the experimental method?
How Is this accomplished?
b. Are the social aspects of every scientific problem
considered?__________________________ _____________________________
c. Are challenging problems pertaining to the pupil given
to him ( ) or is the pupil allowed to select and organize his own
problems ( )?
d.
Is the lecture-recltation method used?
e.
Is the pupil allowed to control the class discussion
similar to that in a panel discussion?__________________________
f. Is much time given to individual reports?_
If so, how many reports do you find mastered in a single period?
g. Is the individual project method used?.
The group project method?___________________ How often?_
Do you find this method effective?____
h.
Are pupil activities determined with the scientific
method in mind?_______________
.
________ ____________________
I. Is a basic text used?
. If so, name the text,
author, and publication house> ________________________________
j*
Is most of the work based on references?
198
List references found most helpful.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
List magazines and journals considered essential and helpful.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5*
k.
Are pupils asked to develop and organize notebooks?
1. Is your own syllabus used as a guide?_______________
If not, what syllabus or course of study do you find most useful?
m. Is the pupil allowed to prove problems with the use of
laboratory technique?______________________________________________
n. Is laboratory work correlated with class work?
Is it based on the method of teacher demonstration { ), pupil demon­
stration ( ), both ( ), individual experimentation ( ), group
experimentation ( )?
o. Are the results of experimental work written up in the
pupil1s own words ( ), or is a definite plan set for him ( )?
p.
Are fieldtrips taken to vitalize units?_________________
q. Are pupils urged to interview business and professional
men for information?_________________________
Methods of evaluation
1.
Are definite methods of evaluation set up to measure the
realization of objectives in terms of actual functioning?___________
To measure content alone?
199
2. Do your methods of evaluation test habits, skills, abilities,
appreciations, or scientific attitudes? Please underline.
3. Do you have standardized tests at your disposal for the
measurement of these in terms of desired behavior r e s p o n s e s ? ______.
If so, please list those you find most suitable.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
4.
Are pre-tests given before units are begun?_________________
5.
Are diagnostic tests used to determine subsequent content
material with respect to individual differences?^_______________
6.
Are questions set up to determine the degree to which pupils
attempt to avert superstitious thinking?________________________ ___
7.
Are problems taken from actual life situations for solution?
8.
In problems employing laboratory technique, is a definite
evaluation made of:
a.
Methods of observation?___________ .
____ _____________
b.
The application of principles and facts?________ '
c.
The manner of reporting final conclusions drawn?_____
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