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RESULTS OF REMEDIAL READING- INSTRUCTION WITH A GROUP OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the School of Education University of Southern California In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Science in Education by Jack R* Singer May 1941 UMI Number: EP54125 All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion. Dissertation Publishing UMI EP54125 Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author. Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 48106-1346 T h is thesis, w r it t e n u n d e r the d ir e c t io n o f t h e 1 C h a ir m a n o f the ca n d id a te 9s G u id a n c e C o m m itte e a n d a p p r o v e d by a l l m em bers o f the C o m m itte e , has been p resen ted to a n d accepted by the F a c u lt y o f the S c h o o l o f E d u c a t io n in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f the re q u ire m e n ts f o r the degree o f M a s t e r o f Science in E d u c a tio n . D a te J .^ .ls ... M ......... D ean Guidance C om m ittee P. J. Weersing Chairm an Irving R. Melbo Nila B. Smith TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I. PAGE THE PROBLEM AND RELATED S T U D I E S ............... I Importance of the p r o b l e m .......... . . . . . 2 -Social and economic i m p o r t a n c e ........... 2 Importance of early recognition of difficulties ....................... Related investigations . ♦ .' . ................. 5 Extent of reading retardation ............. 6 Causes of reading difficulties 7 ........ Methods of remedial instruction ........... II. 3 9 Summary of related investigations . . . . . 18 PROCEDURE OF REMEDIAL INSTRUCTION OF PRESENT STUDY 19 Tests ........................... Case histories 19 • 22 Case history of Lawrence Beck . . . . . . . 23 Case history of Bruce Hall 24 . . . . . . . . Case history of Lonnie Rhoten . ........ Class procedure • 25 27 Daily n e w s p a p e r ............................ 27 Daily log 28 ............ The F e m a l d m e t h o d ................... 29 The Phonetic method . . ................. 30 The Picture method ................. 34 S u m m a r y ............. . . . . . . . ‘ .......... 35 iii CHAPTER III* PAGE ANALYZING READING DIFFICULTIES . . . . . . . . General achievement tests . . 3? ........... 38 Intelligence tests . • • • • . • • • • • • • 39 Reading-readiness, t e s t s ................... 40 Tests of specific reading skills and reading level . . . . . ............... Tests of sensory capacities IV. . .......... 42 43 Appraisal of individual interests and habits 43 Case history and general observation . . . . 44 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . 45 . . . . . . . IMPROVEMENT IN RELATION TO LENGTH OF REMEDIAL INSTRUCTION........................... 47 Cases having approximately three months* instruction . . ♦ .......... 47 Cases having approximately four months* instruction ............ 51 Cases having approximately six months* instruction • • • • • • • • . . ........ 54 Cases having approximately ten months* instruction . . . . . ........ . . . . . 55 Cases having approximately fifteen months* instruction .............. 58 Cases having approximately two years* instruction 62 iv CHAPTER PAG-E Cases having two and one-ha,lf years1 65 . i n s t r u c t i o n ............ Cases having approximately three years* instruction • ......... 71 Summary............ V. HAND AND EYE PREFERENCE 68 OF POOR READERS 75 Tests for determination of hand and eye preference 77 Distribution of hand and eye preference VI. VII. of present c a s e s ............ ..... 77 IMPROVEMENT IN RELATION....... TO I.Q...... 80 I.Q. distribution of present cases . . . 80 Improvement in relation to I.Q. 81 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . B I B L I O G R A P H Y .................................... 84 89 LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE T! I. Gains on Each Test for Oases Having Approx imately Three Months of Remedial Instruction 49 I I • Median Gains on Each Test for Gases Having' Approximately Three Months of Remedial .............. Instruction III. 50 Gains on Each Test for Cases Having Approx imately Four Months of Remedial Instruction IV. 52 Median Gains on Each Test for Oases Having Approximately Four Months of Remedial Instruction V. . .......... . Gains on Each Test for Cases Having Approx imately Six Months of Remedial Instruction VI. 53 56 Median Gains on Each Test for Cases Having Approximately Six Months of Remedial Instruction VII. . ............................ Gains on Each Test for Cases Having Approx imately Ten Months of Remedial Instruction VIII. 57 59 Median Gains on Each Test for Cases Having Approximately Ten Months of Remedial Instruction IX. .............. 61 Gains on Each Test for Cases Having Approx imately Fifteen Months of Remedial Instruction .63 vi TABLE X. PAGE Median Gains on Each Test for Cases Having Approximately Fifteen Months of Remedial Instruction XI. 64 Gains on Each Test for Cases Having Approx imately Two Years of Remedial Instruction XII. 66 Median Gains on Each Test for Cases Having Approximately Two Years of Remedial Instruction XIII. .............. 67 Gains on Each Test' for Cases Having Approx imately Two and Gne-Half Years of Remedial I n s t r u c t i o n ................ . . XIV* 69 Median Gains on Each Test for Cases Having Approximately Two and One-Half Years of Remedial Instruction XV. • Gains on Each Test for Cases Having Approx imately Three Years of Remedial Instruction XVI. 70 72 Median Gains on Each Test for Cases Having Approximately Three Years of Remedial I n s t r u c t i o n .......... XVII. Distribution of Hand and Eye Preferences of Present Cases XVIII. 73 ............ 79 Distribution of Gases According to Intelli gence Quotients ................. 82 CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND RELATED STUDIES In recent years, much attention has been given to the group of individuals in our elementary schools who have never satisfactorily mastered the technique of reading* t Many experiments in methods of overcoming these handicaps have been made in our private and public schools. These experiments naturally have involved a certain amount of additional equipment and expense. Frequently they have taken a great deal of the teacherfs time and energy, or else a special teacher has been secured for the sole purpos of working with the group of slow readers. It is not only the taxpayers, but the teachers and the administrators as well, who are interested in the marginal value of such ex periments . Since this is true it is important that all the possible information be gathered and considered critically, that greater improvements may be made in giving children every opportunity to develop the very best reading habits. It is the purpose of this study to make a general survey of seventy-four cases of poor readers in the Taft City Schools, who have been given Individual remedial read ing instruction for periods varying from three months to three years. In the survey it is expected (1) to find the 2 reading improvement in relation to the length of time spent in the remedial class, (2) to show distribution of hand and eye preferences in present cases, and (3) improvement of reading in relation to the Intelligence Quotient* IMPORTANCE OP THE PROBLEM It is interesting and encouraging to note the amount of Interest shown in remedial reading within the last few years* At no other time in the history of education has so much concern been shown for the less gifted readers as today* However, though many studies and experiments have been made, there has been no one method chosen as an established prac tice in remedial instruction* Social and economic importance* The importance of reading in our present civilization can hardly be questioned* An individual who expects to compete with others in our plan of life must be able to use the written medium of exchange of thought. The complexity of our democratic society and economic life has placed a tremendous responsibility upon every citizen. In order to keep intelligently informed on important national and international issues, and to formu late sound attitudes towards these problems, it is highly essential that every individual should possess the ability to read understandingly and efficiently. Furthermore it seems quite logical to assume that there is a definite re lationship between the ability to read and social maladjust ment in school and out of school. With the additional amount of leisure time which the present industrial civilization has guaranteed to every individual, it is important that the opportunities of finding pleasure and enjoyment from reading be shared by all. Finally, the individual professional success of each member of society depends very largely on his ability to keep abreast of his profession by means of publications, bulletins, charts, graphs, maps, and other written materials. These materials are often not only voluminous but also copious, and the individual must of necessity read with efficiency and rapidity. Importance of early recognition of difficulties. The importance of developing good reading habits in the elementary grades can not be stressed too much. Since reading is the basis for all other studies, the individual*s later school career is definitely handicapped unless good reading habits have been developed. Boredom and discouragement generally follows and soon school is dropped and the indi vidual finds himself in society attempting to compete with other individuals. If, the individual has not mastered read ing, his literary possibilities are limited, and thus his cultural life dwarfed. It can be seen that if the individual 4 who has inferior reading habits is not helped by some re medial assistance, he will be handicapped throughout the rest of his school career and his entire life. Thus it is not only important to find these individuals who are handi capped in reading, but find them at the proper time. The foundation for further study, or the tools of learning, should be mastered in the elementary grades, before the individual is allowed to develop any complex of inferiority. The gap that develops between a poor reader and the normal group widens as time goes on, unless special help is given the individual. This naturally has its effects on the child1s personality and his emotional and spiritual develop ment. The sense of success is just as positive, as the sense of failure is negative, for elementary children. Also wrong habits in reading, once started and allowed to continue, become more fixed and much harder to overcome later. It is the concensus of opinion among educators that the most plastic period of a child*s life is during the early years. Habits and attitudes formulated during this period are generally kept throughout life. By placing the responsibility of remedial reading with the elementary school, much time should be saved for the individual pupil who attempts to continue his study, for reading is a basis of other subjects in the curriculum. 5 Dr. Cole summarizes its importance in the following state ment : Reading is the basic subject in elementary school. Ability to read not only marks the difference between the literate and illiterate person; it is also an abso lutely necessary basis for other subjects in the curriculum. To be sure, in the earliest grades a child may compensate for a deficiency in reading by accurate listening and a good verbal memory, but the time soon comes when progress in all academic subjects very nearly ceases unless he can read. It is therefore essential that teachers should understand the nature of the read ing process, in order that they may give the greatest possible aid to pupils in the mastery of this fundamental educational tool— the ability to read.l Furthermore it can be hoped that by improving the methods of remedial reading instruction in the elementary school, reading habits for all groups of children may be better developed with greater efficiency on the part of the teacher. RELATED INVESTIGATIONS An abundance of professional material, both in peri odical and book form, is to be found on the problems of reading. Probably some of the most useful materials are the studies and surveys which report results of experiments carried on in all parts of our country and under all types ^Luella Cole, Ph.D., The Improvement of Reading (Farrar & Rinehart, Inc., 1938), p. 3. of conditions. These studies can offer much in establishing proper procedures and techniques* In making a study of related investigations, an effort was made to include studies showing the extent of reading retardation; studies giving the causes of failure in reading; studies determining the type of remedial work needed by individual children; studies using the individual instruction method; and experiments showing various types of class grouping to aid in overcoming reading difficulties. Extent of reading retardation. In an article in the National Elementary Principals Yearbook for 1938, James A* Fitzgerald^ stated that recent investigations show that from eight to fifteen percent of school pupils are retarded readers. In the ?*alsh Elementary School In Chicago in the autumn of 1936, 125 children in a total population of 376, in grades 4 to 8 inclusive, were found to be retarded from two months to nearly five years in reading. Thirty- six of these children were retarded two years or more, twenty-two were retarded from one and one-half to two years, thirty were retarded from one to one and one-half years, p James A. Fitzgerald, discovering Minor Reading Difficulties and their C a u s e s , National Elementary Princi pals Yearbook Seventeenth. July, l93&. ~ 7 twenty-eight were retarded from one-half to one year, and nine were retarded from zero months to one-half year. Causes of reading difficulties. In cooperation with others, William Scott Gray^ conducted a study for the purpose of determining the number of types of remedial cases in read ing, the characteristics of each type, and to develop appropri ate methods of remedial instruction in each case. The following causes for. failure in reading were brought, out by the study: 1. Inferior learning capacity 2. Congenital word blindness 3. Poor auditory memory 4. Defective vision 5. Narrow span of recognition 6. Defective eye movements 7. Inadequate training in phonetics 8. Inadequate attention to the content 9. An inadequate speaking vocabulary 10. Small meaning vocabulary 11.. Special defects 12. Lack of interest ® William Scott Gray, tfRemedial Cases in Reading-Their Diagnosis and Treatment.tt 15. Guessing at word recognition 14. Timidity The study included the actual experimentation with a group of children who had the various reading difficulties. In each case complete test records were kept and in most cases satisfactory results were noted. In some cases it was impossible to secure entirely satisfactory results in the time devoted to this investigation. Several conclusions based on the study were formu lated, however, the one which follows applies most to the present study: Individual instruction is preferable. In an unpublished thesis, Helen M. Hart^ reports on an experiment with twenty junior high school students who had reading difficulties. Part of the work given the stu dents was carried on as a class activity and part was devoted to individual instruction. Case studies were made of all members of the group. The author states that, nThe results of the study i show the most outstanding causes for reading difficulties to be low mentality, narrow recognition span, limited ^ Helen M. Hart, ’’Case Studies of Remedial Reading in Junior High School,M (unpublished Master’s thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, August, 1934) p. 121. 9 vocabulary, lack of attention to content, irregular eye movements, and lack of interest. Other causes which were less frequent were poor .visual memory, defective vision, lack of training in phonetics, and emotional disturbances.w The author also felt that one of the greatest gains from the experiment was the change of the pupilfs attitude toward reading. In a later check-up it was found that nearly every one of the cases was continuing his interest in reading, and using library and informational material for his own pleasure. Methods of remedial instruction. A committee con sisting of Alma Leonhardy and o t h e r s 5 reported a survey made in the junior high schools in Los Angeles to determine the particular, type of remedial work which was the first essen tial for each chiId*s progress. report into three parts. The committee divided its Part I lists the causes of failure, and the materials and devices set forth to overcome these failures. The causes of failure were as follows: 1. Mechanical handicaps 2. Lack of reading comprehension 5 Alma Leonhardy, wWhat is done to Improve Reading Ability of Pupils in Los Angeles Junior High Schools.w Education Research Bulletin. Board of Education, Los Angeles, California, VII, October and November, 1927. 10 3. Lack of interest The materials and devices were listed as follows 2 . 1. Practices with words 2. Practices with sentences 3. Practices with paragraphs Part II has to do with the technique for improving the reading ability* Regarding individual instruction, the authors state, **The individual period should have a two-fold aim: (1) to give the pupil time to work out individual prob lems and review what has been discussed in socialized periods, and (2) to enable the teacher to give personal help to various individuals.1* Part III has to do with detailed studies of progress. The results showed that those of high and average I. Q., but of low reading comprehension, showed the greatest improve ment. Their progress was generally a constant growth throughout the high-school period. In’an unpublished master*s thesis at the University of Southern California, Grace W. Hogpboom^reported on an experiment in remedial reading consisting of three remedial Grace W. Hogoboom, wAn Experimental Study of the Value of Remedial Reading for Slow-Learning Pupils,1* (unpublished Masterfs thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles). 11 groups and on© control group* The results of the exper iment showed gains by the remedial groups to be from one to twenty-one months in school work, and from one to nine months for the control group. The use of the following drills were used; 1. Drills to improve the mechanisms of reading, such as eye-span, accuracy, speed, and pronounciation and identi fication of words. 2. Drills to improve the context of reading, such as word meaning, vocabulary and reading comprehension. A special study of nine retarded children in grade two was made by Edwina Deans^ to study methods of overcoming reading handicaps. was given. Both group and individual instruction The author makes three practical conclusions: .1. Individuals with reading difficulty should be given as much individual reading instruction as possible. 2. All word study should be carried on as needed in connection with larger reading units. 3. Meaningful units of materials should furnish the basis for the teaching of reading. An interesting experiment was carried on under the 7 Edwina Deans, ^Correcting. the Reading Disabilities on Nine Selected Pupils,11 National Elementary Principals Seventeenth Yearbook. 12 direction of Paul A. Witty8 in the Chicago Schools involv ing some 1023 children who were handicapped in reading. The purpose of the experiment was primarily to demonstrate methods and to develop practical materials which could he used in regular classrooms. this The remedial instruction in program was given individually to the non-readers and the most handicapped. Others were placed in groups of from three to five children, and as sbon as the ones with the greatest handicaps had progressed far enough they were placed in these small groups too. A study of twenty-seven cases of remedial reading cases conducted at the University High School, University of Chicago, was reported by James McCallister.9 He states? wRemedial instruction must of necessity be designed to aid in overcoming the deficiencies of individual pupils. In this study, the deficiencies of no two pupils were found to be exactly alike. However, the deficiencies were sufficiently similar to justify classifying them into four groups for the purpose of describing the remedial instruetion.tt 1. 2. 3. 4. In group A were Decipherers In group B were Slow Learners In group 0 were Slow Accurate Learners In group D were Word Readers ® Paul A. Witty, ”A Practical Approach to Remedial Reading,11 National Elementary Principals Seventeenth Yearbook. ® James M. McCallister, wThe Effectiveness of Remedial Instruction in Reading in the Junior High School,” School Review, 39:97-111, 1931. 13 Each pupil usually read under.the direction of the remedial teacher for two fifty-minute periods a week* The author retested the cases from six to nine months after remedial instruction was stopped. He concludes; 1, In general the gains persisted from six to nine months, 2, Some pupils continued to improve after training ' had been discontinued; others failed to maintain the degree of proficiency obtained during the training period, but maintained some of the gains, 3, The persistency of gains in comprehension appears to be greater than is the persistency of gains in rate. All but four of the cases made greater improvement in reading during the period of remedial instruction of from eight to twenty-four weeks in length than would be expected in a year*s normal school work, A program of child-grouping carried out in the Dilworth School, Charlotte, North Carolina, is described by Fannie B. Johns ton,3-° children were selected. Three experimental groups of thirty In each group there were placed fifteen children of average or above average school achieve ment, and fifteen below average achievement. Much care was given in the selection of the individuals for the groups so that harmonious groups would be made. 10 Fannie B. Johnston, l,A New Point of View for Remedial R e a d i n g , Educational Research Bulletin, 18:127-32, May, 1939. 14 After the classes had been organized several weeks, they were broken down into groups of six and. always one very strong pupil was placed in each group* The program used provided for the following helps: 1* Leading the child to have a purpose of his own that would involve reading, and guiding him to share his reading experiences with others for the sheer joy of doing it. 2. Helping each individual to choose reading mater ials suited to his o?m needs, interests, and reading ability. 3. Helping the child to select and read stories which he enjoyed and to tell them interestingly to others. 4. Helping the child to enjoy a story by arousing interest in it through an attractive introduction for it; by stating clearly what he wished to find out, _by setting up a large purpose or problem, then breaking it up into smaller parts or questions, and helping him to choose the part for which he was to be responsible; by guiding him to overcome one difficulty at a time, with its attendant causes. The achievements tests showed a gain in every group which is given below. These scores represent the lowest scores in each group. G-rade Sept. Test May Test 4 2.2 4.8 5 2.9 5.9 6 4.2 5.1 6 4.1 5.4 15 In an experimental study covering a period of two years with a class of low eighth graders, Edgar 0. La Petra11 found that the reading ability of the students not only improved hut their achievement in other subjects was greater* By use of tests the following specific objectives were set for the remedial class: 1* To enlarge and enrich the speaking, writing, and reading vocabulary of each student by improving the understanding and use of words* 2* To improve the rate of silent reading of each student. 3. To help each pupil to understand better the mean ing of each paragraph of historical, scientific, and all other types of reading materials* 4* To enable each member of the-class to have a more thorough and complete total meaning of an entire selection. 5. To aid each pupil to grasp more readily the central thought, or main idea of an article. 6. To assist each pupil to better understand and follow directions. 7. To help each class member to improve his ability to organize written material so that it might be more easily understood. 8. To enable each student to better understand the meaning Of individual sentences. 9. To aid each pupil to learn to alphabetize and use material of all kinds that is placed in alphabetical order* 11 Edgar C. La Petra, *An Experimental Investigation of the Improvement in Reading Ability of a Low Group 8 Class — A Two Year Study,11 (unpublished Mas ter fs thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, April, 1938), p. 12. 16 10* To assist each, member of the class in the use of an Index so that materials of all kinds may be easily found in books, encyclopedias, and etc. Definite procedures were set up to realize each of the foregoing objectives, and tests were given at the close of five months of work and also at the end of fourteen months. It was found that those individuals with high intelligence quotient and low reading ability tend to pro gress further than those with a low intelligence quotient and low reading ability* With the assistance of The Behavior Research Fund and the Institute For Juvenile Research, Dr. Marion M o n r o e ^ carried on a very interesting and worth-while study with a group of fovu* hundred and fifteen children with reading handi caps. The reading difficulties ranged from mild retardation to extreme disabilities. These individuals were tested and given special drill and remedial work for specific reading difficulties and were compared with a control group of one hundred and one average children. The special group of four hundred and fifteen children were divided into three groups of cases. The results of the ^ Dr. Marion Monroe, Children'Who Cannot Read ' (University of Chicago Press, 1 9 3 2 ) p. 155. 17 experiment are summarized by the author as follows: Progress in reading was made in a large percentage of the cases studied, not only when the children were trained under carefully controlled laboratory conditions, but also under conditions possible in public schools# Progress in reading was made under individual instruction and also in small groups of children selected for simi larity of achievements and errors• The remedial-reading methods were found to be direct and readily understood. Public school teachers learned to apply the methods in the course of conferences and demonstration lessons. The rate of progress in reading under remedial in struction was found to be a function of the childfs intelligence, his age, the number of hours spent in training, the number of months during which treatment was continued, the severity of the disability, the personality and behavior difficulties encountered in applying the remedial techniques. The remedial methods, consisting as they did of many methods adapted to the specific difficulties of the children, proved successful with the various types of cases. The children with whom the remedial work failed were those whose reading difficulties were complicated by behavior disorders which the teachers were unable to control or those to whom the remedial work was given irregularly and with out persistent, systematic, or sympathetic treatment. Dr. Monroe further noted that the technique of using remedial methods improved with those teachers who worked with several successive cases. The procedure used in this experiment was followed almost to the letter by the teacher giving the remedial in struction to the present cases, therefore the discussion of the procedure will be given in detail in a following chapter. 18 Summary of related Investigations. It is apparent that a great deal of vital material concerning causes of reading failure has been collected and classified. However, most of the causes could be divided into the following groups: 1. Mechanical handicaps 2. Lack of reading comprehension 3. Lack of interest Definite procedures and methods have been suggested and proved successful for nearly every type of failure. Most methods and procedures suggested are practical in every day classrooms* Witty, Gray, Leonhardy, Deans, and others, emphasized the importance of individual instruction, or at least very small groups. McCallister expressed it, "Remedial instruction must of necessity be designed to aid in over coming the deficiencies of individual pupils." Drills such as eye-span, accuracy, speed, pronun ciation and identification of words; and drills such as word meaning, vocabulary and reading comprehension, seem to find a place in nearly every program of remedial instruction. The important part that interest plays in the success or failure of any reading program was especially emphasized by Johnson, Hart, and other reporters. CHAPTER II • PROCEDURE OF REMEDIAL INSTRUCTION OF PRESENT STUDY The purpose of this chapter is to describe the remedial methods, as well as charts and drills used by the teacher. Also it is the purpose of the chapter to give a brief description of the tests used in selecting the pupils for the remedial classes. The data included in the chapter seems to divide itself naturally Into (1) Tests used, (2) Case histories of chronic cases, and (3) The class pro cedure. In the first part of the chapter the physical examinations .used are briefly mentioned, and the intelligence and the reading diagnostic tests are listed. In the second division, portions of case histories are summarized to show the importance of securing data about the child which is not included in standardized tests. The third division has been devoted to the actual procedure used in the remedial classes. TESTS In the school system in which the present experiment was conducted, every child on entering school is given several different tests, in order that he may be placed in classes best suited to his needs. If a child is found to be at least a year retarded in reading and is In the high second 20 grade, or above, he is sent to a special reading teacher every day, for the particular reading experiences that he needs * The size of the class that he is placed in depends on several things. If the individual is a chronic case, and the special teacher has sufficient time, the child is given indi vidual instruction for twenty minutes every day. Later as improvement is made he may be placed in a class of two or three children. In this group will be children who have about the same handicaps as he. The child will probably remain in this special class until he has achieved the normal standard for his grade. The children who are not chronic cases are grouped into classes of from three to five children. They are grouped according to their ability and difficulties, and also are given special instruction for twenty minutes every day. Thus the special remedial reading teacher is kept busy all day with individuals or with very small classes. If time permitted, there would be more of the individual class work; however, in many cases it would not be necessary. Generally the total number that the teacher can include in her program ranges from thirty to thirty-five. A physical examination of each child includes an audiometor test and a telebinocular test. If either test 21 shows a deficiency, the child is referred to a physician for further and more complete examination* A dental nurse makes careful inspection of the mouth, and reports the condition of the child*s teeth. A medical examination, given some time during the year, will reveal.the condition of the adenoids, tonsils, heart, etc. Every child is given the Monroe Diagonostic Reading Tests, which consists of the following: 1. Gray Oral Reading Test 2. Haggerty Reading Test 3. The Monroe Silent Reading Test 4. Iota Test 5. Word Test Some of the most frequent reading difficulties which are found in the Monroe Tests are listed below: 1. Reversals of words 2. Reversals of letters within the words 3. Faulty consonants 4. Addition of sounds 5. Omission of sounds 6. Repetition of words 7* Substitution of words In these tests, and other special tests, the eye and hand preference is noted and recorded. The hand preference 22 is frequently tested by some of the following; tapping, handwriting, throwing, using scissors, picking up objects, *> * sawing, hammering nails, and batting* The eye preference is frequently found by the use of the Mailing Tube or the Peep hole Test* Intelligence tests are also given to all the children* Anyone of the following is generally used; 1* Kuhlmann-Anderson Intelligence Tests 2. Stanford Revision of the Binet-Simon Intelligence Tests; Terman 5. Non-Language Primary Mental Tests; Pentner CASE HISTORY Nervousness and other pecularities are very important in the understanding of problem children. Since these items are not included in standardized tests, it is necessary to compile a case history giving this information* Attitudes, habits, special interests, and character traits should be included in a history report. A family history and a report on the religious background of the child are generally included. The compilation of a case history represents the combined efforts of the teachers, nurses, parents, and often those of a physician. The complete reports are generally 23 quite lengthy and therefore only parts of three histories are given in this part of the study* are contained in the appendix* The complete histories The following portions of histories are given to illustrate some of the pertinent factors to be included in such a report: Case History of Lawrence Beck* Lawrence’s whole attitude seems to be one of indifference as far as his work in school is concerned, and yet if one observes him care fully, this attitude does always appear to be a sincere or true one. He is interested when he is able to perform creditably, in fact he has the tendency to become just a bit conceited about a small measure of success. (As evidenced by his actions when allowed to take the teacher’s place dur ing the spelling lesson)• He really seemed to take hold of the task and to feel his responsibility, but as soon as he had finished and once more became just one of the students in the room, he shouted to a boy on the other side of the room, “Yah, I ’ll bet you never got to be the spelling teacher.” On the whole, however, he attempts to hide his interest from his class mates, and spends his time looking out of the window, running around the room, talking in a very loud voice whenever the opportunity presents itself, and just generally making a nuisance of himself . Very seldom does a day go by in which some other child in the room does not say., “Lawrence could just do better if he only would try.“ And Lawrence frequently receives his share of student scolding when he fails to sit up straight and the'whole room has to wait on him before being allowed to pass. None of this however, seems to have any effect on his behavior. He en joys his roll as the class clown, as he is thereby able to receive the attention which he does seem to crave. Lawrence in the ordinary class room situation has a rather unllkeable personality. He is slovenly in appear ance; he is uninterested in the routine of the class room, such as the opening exercises, unless he can be the flag monitor, (and then he makes faces at the other members of the class). His usual reaction to any suggestion which might be made by the teacher is, “Ah, I d o n ’t want to do that,” as long as there are any other children around to hear. However, he will quickly accept any suggestion which the teacher might make after school and seems to enjoy helping her*. In fact, he usually waits until all the other 24 children have left, and then as he has to wait for the last "bus, will ask if there is anything which he can do to help. This is so very different from his usual behavior during the day that he seems like an entirely different child. Instead of resenting suggestions, pouting when corrected, or making any effort whatsoever to show off, he works ahead with a good deal of responsibility. But it is to be remembered that he does not have an audience at this time. He never quite openly defies authority, but he will go just as far as he dares before obeying in all such little things as taking his seat when asked to, putting away some object which he has been using, etc. For instance, when he has been asked to take his seat, if the class is watching him, he will walk clear around to the other side of his seat before he will make any attempt to sit down. At the present time he has two habits which should be mentioned and considered along with his developmental history. Although he appears to enter into activities on the athletic field with a little more than average ability, his difficulty with writing (he is left-handed), with drawing, with speaking softly, and with walking, (he has a very awkward, shuffling gait) would indicate that his finer muscular coordination is not as well developed as It should be for a child of his age. Also he still has trouble with nocturnal enuresis, and his mother has to get him up once or twice every night. His chief interest seems to be in baseball and football--he has no hobbles, and although he has his own tools, does not seem to get much pleasure from their use. He has but one playmate, a boy in the fifth grade who lives next door to him. His parents felt that the other b o y Ts Influence was so strong on Lawrence that much of his trouble last year came from the fact that they were In the same room and conse quently enjoyed cutting up together. Case History of Bruce Hall. In handling Bruce his health history must: be kept in the background. He is like a wax doll and should be handled with care. He is of an artistic high strung sensitive disposition. From the time he was out of the cradle, he has felt inferior to those around him. Therefore, he strives to excel and if he fails, he becomes most discouraged and dispirited. " W h a t ^ the use attitude!tt When he was only two years old, he would hang to his mother*3 skirts. He would ask Garold to go with him if he 25 had to go out in the dark. Because he is sensitive, he also takes things to heart and suffers more keenly than the aver age person. He screamed and had hysterical spells when his beloved dog died. He was afraid of operations and afraid of dying. is also very tender hearted and sympathetic. He Since his brothers are stronger and more successful he tries to bring himself on an equality with them. He wants affection and praise. He feels insecure, so teachers should keep in mind these introvertive traits. Bruce is a beautiful writer, they say, and always, has gotten the best grades in Art. However, he does not want to become an artist orsculptor. He wants to be a sailor. Art can be a hobby, he says. He has always had a pad and pencil and is drawing on the floor. He has musical tendencies. He wants to be in the drum corps and wants to take tap dancing. The artistic child has to be handled with exquisite Art. P. A. and lateral studies of the chest show a calcified Ghon focus in the right upper lung. Very minute calcifi cations are present at the right hilus. The left lung is clear throughout. There is no evidence of exudative infil tration. The heart is not enlarged. Conclusions: The calcified deposit in the right upper lung is probably a Ghon focus• There is no evidence of active pulmonary pathology. He was also given thyroid tablets which have helped him greatly. He has shown no curiosity regarding sex. Case History of Lonnie Rhoten. (personal history) 1. Asocial behavior--'there is no indication that Lonnie has ever stolen, lied or been cruel to anything. His mother says that he tells huge tales that run on for hours* But they are really stories he makes up to entertain him self— and this certainly cannot be called lying. It is a play of the imagination. 2. Personality traits--Lonnie is not seclusive in the true sense of the word, but he is indifferent and bored. He has built up an outer wall that rebuffs everything. He d oesn’t outwardly seem to care whether you like or dislike him. He gets along nicely with other children. The mother says that everybody in the neighborhood loves him. He does not care about his relatives or immediate family as much as he does other adults she says, but Lonnie insists he loves them all. He is sweet natured and charming, but tries hard not to show it. 26 a* Timidity— he is not afraid of anything* His mother says that when he was little he picked up snakes and never showed fear. He has no fear of the dark and can be left alone for hours. b. Pear— as was stated above Lonnie has no fear or timidity. His mother says that when he was struck with an appendicitis attack at night, although he was in severe pain— such pain that he was white and covered with perspiration, he kept saying, "It doesn’t hurt. 1*11 try to keep quiet so that Daddy can sleep, for he has to work tomorrow.11 c. Habits— Lonnie has no sleep disturbances. He sleeps like a ".log11 his mother says. He goes to bed at 7*30 or 8*00 and sleeps in a relaxed state until morning. He has a rather capricious appetite. He will not eat meat or bread unless it is in a sandwich. He hates buttermilk and loves tomatoes. He will eat as much as a dozen tomatoes a day. When he eats eggs and sweet milk, he breaks out with hives. Since Lonnie has had his tonsils removed (this month) he eats "like a horse." He does not suck his thumb or bite his nails. No sign of masturbation. He still wets his bed, but his mother has this explanation for this. It seems that when Lonnie had his appendix removed, the doctor used a spinal block and this affected Lonnie’s kidneys. Since this operation, he has wet his bed, Mrs. Rhoten says Dr. Garner said this was the cause. This operation occurred in 1935. Mrs. Rhoten goes on further to say that Lonnie is most unreliant. He cannot be depended on to any extent. For example, he has several little jobs he must do before he leaves for school. Everyday he calmly walks off to school without touching them. Instead of leaving them for him to do, Mrs. Rhoten does them herself. Then when he gets home, she speaks to him about them. He laughs and says, "You did it, didn’t you?" This is not said in an im pertinent manner, but merely as a statement of fact. At school he cannot be depended on to do his work unless he is constantly reminded. There is an instance in Lonnie’s history which leads me to believe that he feels self-pity. It seems that at home Lonnie has been reprimanded about his failure to do passing work at school. His mother says, "We bawled him 27 out and told him he must not be a dumbell all his life. He stood there without any sign of listening or caring. Later, he went outside to hang up some clothes, and I heard a whimpering sound coming from under the house. There was Lonnie crying his heart out. He will never show any outward hurt.” Lonnie is terribly conceited. He wisecracks at the table and snickers at everything he does. He has never been truly ttsquelched,” and Mrs. Rhoten says that he really is funny. When he does these things, the fami tries not to laugh but they just have to. Lonnie seems to live in a world of his own. He is highly imaginative. He loves to draw and he is es pecially fond of airplanes. He said in school one day, ”¥?hen I get big, I *m going to fly an airplane and be a soldier.** Mrs. Rhoten says he listens to Jimmy A l l e n fs program and eats up movies like ”The Devil*s Squadron.” He likes to crochet. When he was sick, he liked nothing better than to sit quietly and crochet in bed. He is quiet at school— too quiet. Many times I have seen him sitting and gazing Out into space with a far-away look in his eyes. Nothing seems to interest him, even talk about airplanes. He loves acting and make-up. GLASS PROCEDURE The room used for the remedial instruction is very small, with comfortable chairs and a table. blackboard space is also provided. Sufficient Reading material on all levels, many drill charts, and useful pictures are to be found handy in the room. During the class period no inter ruptions are allowed, and no visitors are permitted. Daily newspaper. Each day as the individual or small group of individuals come into the room, they find an interesting picture standing on the chalk tray. The picture 28 is generally taken from the morning newspaper, and. the children learn to call the picture and the accompanying story their "Daily Newspaper." The following story illustrates the type of picture and story used by the teacher. tray was a picture of a On the chalk Yak and her newly born baby, and above on the blackboard was the story; Spring comes to San Francisco and with it one of the few Yaks ever to be born in an taerican zoo* What is the b a b y !s name? "Just Yak," said the zoo keeper. "That name suits him best ofall," he added* The stories are always so written that certain read ing objectives are emphasized, and the children find a lot of joy and pride in being able to read their newspaper. Daily log* The teacher found a well-kept daily log for each child, or group of children, proved very helpful in conducting review lessons, as well as preparing necessary charts for the following day. In the log were noted stories read, charts and drill exercises used, troublesome words for the child, types of errors noted In the childfs reading, and anything else that the teacher felt important to consider in planning remedial work for the child. There are three general types of remedial instruction used in the field of reading, and since the individuals in a remedial class are apt to learn best by different methods, no one method can be used to the exclusion of the others. 29 It may be advisable to use all three methods with the same individual at times. So it was with the present classes, for the teacher used all three methods and varied them to meet the needs and interests of the children. The methods are listed below, and will be discussed separately: 1* The Dr. Pernald Method 2. The Phonetic Method 3. The Picture Method The Fernaid Method. The method which Dr. Fernald, Los Angeles psychologist, happened onto somewhat by accident has been referred to by Professor Lewis M* Terman, head of the Department of Psychology at Stanford University, as the nmost dramatic thing going on in education today anywhere in the w o r l d . After much discouraging work with a boy of eleven years old, Dr* Fernald and her assistant Miss Helen Bass Keller, discovered that when the boy traced a word several times on the blackboard he was able to recognize it later. With further use of this method with many similar cases of non-readers, Dr. Fernald proved without a doubt that certain children learn through their muscles and nerves. Albert Edward Wiggam, !,The Most Dramatic Thing Going on in Education Today Anywhere in the World— Teaching the Child Who Cannot Read,n The Reader rs Digest. November, 1936. She explains further that such children learn by doing and feeling, and thus learn better. The memory of it goes deeper These .children are not defective but merely get their learn ing the nkinesthetic way.11 With the children in the present remedial classes who apparently did not respond to other methods of instruction, the teacher used this method of teaching words. With some children it was used only a short time until the child was able to go ahead with normal reading. With others only an occasional use of this method was necessary to learn certain difficult words. In many cases this trouble occurred when words are similar in spelling and pronounciation. The Dr. Fernald Method is very effective, but requires much more time than other methods and therefore is not used except with cases which demand it. The Phonetic Method. Phonetic training is a valuable tool in overcoming !ldifficult periods1* in reading. It should result In its automatic use in determining the pronounciation of unknown words. Thus children should be led to cultivate and use promptly phonetic knowledge whenever an unknown word is confronted, -unless of course the context gives the key. Studies of eye movements show clearly that confusion arises when no satisfactory method of word attack has been developed Judd recommends phonetic analysis as a valuable method of 31 attacking new words and of eliminating periods of confusion. When a child comes to the remedial teacher for the first time, one of the first problems to overcome Is to learn the difference between vowels and consonants. Of course, In the case of the younger children the teacher does not refer to the letter as a vowel or a consonant. expressions are used. as ”heart sounds.” Other The vowels are generally referred to In developing an understanding of the vowel sound the teacher used a series of cars with attractive pictures to illustrate the sounds: -Used with a picture of a red apple E ----- — Usedwith a picture of an elephant I & of an Indian Y — Usedwith a picture 0 ------- U — -— U3ed with a picture used with a picture of an olive of an umbrella In this report of the remedial methods used, it Is impossible to discuss or even mention all the drills and exercises used to develop an understanding of the different sounds. Therefore, only samples of different types of drill cards will be given to illustrate the materials used in the classes. Some of the first drill cards used with the study of vowel sounds are given below: am at egg ebb 32 an and add ask end elk elm else in it is ill ink inch on off odd up us ' >llowing drills are used to show the together: at ate on no ebb ell us use is ice typ type Still other types of drill cards are used to develop different sounds: ar are far farm barn start er ir her term jerk clerk serve girl bird dirt whirl first ar— -— far er -her Ir----- sir yp---- -syrup or-----f or ur --fur or for form morn morning north ur turn curl burst nurse church 33 ay— — ai — ey — ei — °y— oi— — pay boil ea— ee-~ oa— - - r o a d oe— ue-ui-aw ew saw draw dawn hawk crawl new few grew chew jewel my fly cry try spy sky red bet fed met kept Chess baby lady army story rainy sleepy Also drill cards were used to build words. These drills were used with the older children: optic logic magic music physic technic comic mechanic practice psychic optical logical magical musical physical technical comical mechanic practical psychical optician logician magician musician physician technically comedian mechanism practitioner psychology 34 Prefix and suffix charts are used: distiller disgusting discourage disbandment discussion dissected distinctive disturbances discovery distinction au aw al auk ■aughts sauce haul cause fault daub awl awful saw hawk caw fawn dawn all also salt halt call fall wall dismissal disgraceful disagreeable discordant ou ought nought sought bought brought fought thought After the various phonetic sounds have been mastered by the child, the next step is learn to blend them so that he may discover the pronounciation of a new word. Until this habit of blending is fixed, the pupil will not be an efficient or independent reader. He must learn to do this process of blending silently or mentally; that is he must see the phonetic elements in a word, think the sounds they sym bolize, and pronounce the word. These three acts are to be practically simultaneous. The Picture Method. The method of teaching reading commonly referred to as the MPicture Method*1 is psychologi cally based upon the power of association and the power of suggestion. The child who learns easier by association will generally respond to this method and will learn new words more quickly and retain them better than by any other method. 35 For some children the sight of a picture immediately creates an interest, and after all that is one of the first requi sites to all learning* If the teacher were attempting to get the child to recognize the word whouse,n she would find an attractive picture of a house and mount it oh cardboard with the word ^house*1 placed beneath it. Or if the child was confronted with difficulty in connection with the words, “mother*1 or “father," she would find suitable pictures and mount them as described above. This process naturally involves a great deal of time and planning on the part of the teacher to anticipate all the needs of a group of children, but often the results more than justify the efforts spent. This same method, or use of pictures, carried a step further can be used with short stories. The picture used not only stimulates an interest in the story but also illus trates meanings of words and expressions. universally used It is almost in all primary readers today. SUMMARY 1. In selecting children for remedial reading, it was found important to have the following test data: cal (obtained from school nurse and doctor), (a) physi (b) Monroe Diagnostic Reading Tests, and (c) Intelligence Test. 56 2. In chronic cases it'was found necessary to include in a case history other information about the habits, atti tudes, family and social background of the child which do not appear in the above mentioned tests, 5, In the daily class procedure two helpful aids were used: (a) The Daily Newspaper and (b) The Daily Log, 4, The three remedial methods used by the teacher included the following: (a) Dr, Fernald Method, Phonetic Method, and (c) The Picture Method, (b) The CHAPTER III ANALYZING READING DIFFICULTIES Cases of reading difficulties vary almost as much as do the personalities of the pupils involved. Children having specific reading difficulties can usually be diagnosed by good reading diagnostic tests. The more complex cases hav ing trouble with several reading skills are more difficult to analyze. This being true, the task of making the analy sis falls to the lot of a specialist. These specialists must have a good understanding of the physiological and psycho logical processes in reading, and should be able to secure the whole-hearted cooperation of teachers, parents, and the community. In order to secure all the desired information it will probably be necessary to solicit the assistance of the health department and the parents. Since the analysis of reading difficulties is so closely associated with any program of remedial reading, it was thought advisable to include in this study a chapter on nAnalyzing Reading Difficulties .** It is the purpose of this chapter to discuss the several sources of information needed to completely understand the child who Is having trouble with reading. Seven sources from which infomation on oral and silent reading habits, personality and individual 38 abilities, and school and home orientation can be secured will be-considered briefly in this section. The seven sources to be discussed are: 1. General achievement tests 2. intelligence tests 3. Reading-readiness tests 4. Tests of specific reading skills and reading level 5. Tests of sensory capacities 6. Tests for appraisal of individual interests and habits. 7. Case history and general observations. In the discussion of each source of information a list of available tests to be given will be included. In some cases, however, this list will consist of items to be investi gated rather than tests to be administered. GENERAL ACHIEVEMENT TESTS Since reading is the underlying basis for nearly all school subject-matter fields, a good achievement test will reveal weaknesses which might be due to poor reading habits. It does not follow that all low scores on achievement tests are indicative of reading difficulty. A child’s lack of interest or social adjustment may frequently be the cause. Although reading is considered basic for all school 59 subject-matter fields, some fields require more reading ability than others. For instance, a pupil with reading difficulties may show normal or above normal achievement in arithmetic fundamentals, and fall far below normal in arith metic reasoning. The following achievement tests provide valuable information: 1* Metropolitan Achievement Tests; Allen, Bixler, Conner, Graham, and Hildreth 2. The Hew Stanford Achievement Tests; Kelly, Ruch, and Terman 3. The Modern School Achievement Tests; Gates, Mort, and Symonds 4. The Progressive Achievement Test INTELLIGENCE TESTS Although intelligence tests have been severely criticized in recent years, educators still find test results extremely useful in the classification of children. With our increased understanding of the uses test results can be made to serve, more efficient use can be made of them. Many slow readers make low scores on the written intelligence tests, but on oral tests show normal or superior intelligence. 40 Durrelll4 suggests that group intelligence tests, involving a great number of reading items, are merely reading tests, incorrectly labeled. The consensus of opinion appears to be that formal reading should never be attempted with children of low intelligence until they have reached a mental age of at least six and one-half years. Intelligence tests which have been very frequently used include: 1. Kuhlmann-Anderson Intelligence Tests; Kuhlmann and Anderson 2. Stanford Revision of the Binet-Simon Intelligence Tests; Terman 5. Non-Language Primary Mental Test; Pintner READING-READINESS TESTS It has been said that the only meaning a person can get from a word is the meaning he takes to it. No child should be introduced to formal reading until he is ready. Many primary children have parents and teachers who attempt **•4 Donald D. Durrell, wThe Influence of Reading Ability on Intelligence Measures,n Journal of Educational Psychology. XXIV (September, 1933). 41 to push them ahead in their reading, not realizing that per haps they have not had sufficient experience to give them an adequate basis for formal reading. When such a condition exists, much time can be saved for the child and many unhappy experiences eliminated, if the teacher will accept the challenge of providing the necessary background for the child. It seems to be the consensus of opinion among those using reading-readiness tests that although the individual test requires more time to give than the group test, it is far more satisfactory. The following tests provide valuable information; 1. Betts Ready to Read Tests (individual tests); Betts 2. Metropolitan Readiness Tests (group tests); Hildreth, Gertrude, and Nellie L. Griffiths. 3.. Reading-Readiness Tests; Lee and Grant 4. Aptitude Tests; Monroe 5. Sangren Information Tests for Young Children; Sangren 6. Classification Test for Beginners in Reading; Stone and Grover 7. Reading-Readiness Tests; Van Wagenen 42 TESTS OF SPECIFIC READING SKILLS AND READING LEVEL It is necessary to discover the reading level of pupils as well as their difficulties in reading. In develop ing a reading program it is essential to know where the child should begin his work. The following reading tests are frequently used and have been proven to be very valuable: 1. General reading tests a. Gates Silent Reading Tests; Gates b. Iowa Silent Reading Tests; Greene and Kelly c. Instructional Tests in Reading; Sangren and Wilson d.Sangren-Woody Reading Tests; Sangren and Woody 2. Comprehension reading tests a. Unspeeded Reading Comprehension Tests; Chapman and Holzinger b. Reading; Level of Comprehension and Reading; Speed and Accuracy; Gates 3. Oral reading tests a. Gray Standardized Oral Reading Check Tests; Gray b. Gray Standardized Oral Reading Paragraph Tests; Gray 4. Diagnostic reading tests a. Betts Ready to Read Tests; Betts 43 b, Procedure for the Analysis of Reading Diffi culties; Durell c, Diagnostic Reading Tests; Gates d, Diagnostic Reading Examination; Monroe TESTS OF SENSORY CAPACITIES Since reading is so closely related to the physical development of an individual, many reading cases can never he analyzed without the assistance of the health department. The health department can furnish valuable inform ation on the following items : 1, Defective vision 2, Defective hearing 3, Enlarged tonsils 4, Obstructive adenoids 5, Glandular disturbances 6, Defective teeth 7, Malnutrition 8, Brain injuries 9, History of previous Illness APPRAISAL OF INDIVIDUAL INTERESTS AND HABITS Modern education considers a child’s interest to be of paramount importance. In the field of remedial reading 44 interest is probably of more importance than any other factor. Without interest on the part of the learner, very . little can be accomplished. In order to establish a connec tion with the childTs experience the teacher must discover his interests. Personal habits and attitudes should be of interest to the teacher working with a remedial reading program. One of the by-products of successful work in the remedial field is often the change of the childfs attitude toward school, home, and society when he has once gained confidence in him self. A better citizen with a well-balanced philosophy of life is just as much the goal of the remedial teacher as any other teacher in the school. CASE HISTORY AND'GENERAL OBSERVATIONS Establishing a course of remedial work for any child cannot be done in a haphazard way. A history of the case will often give data which is necessary in planning a reme dial instruction course. Often a weakness in school work is due to poor attendance, improper home environment, physical handicaps, foreign language difficulty, or poor home-school relationship. Betts^ suggests that the following items be included in a case history: 1* School history a. Age of entrance to first grade b. Extent of pre-first grade training c. First awareness of the difficulty on the part of the teacher d. Number of grades repeated e. Attitude of parents f. Regularity of attendance g. Frequency of transfer from one school to another h. Record of illness i. Achievement in other school subjects j. Attitude toward teacher and school k. Special school interests and attitudes 2. Home data a. b. c. d. e. f• g. Occupation of parents Nationality Language spoken in the home Social-economic condition of home Reading difficulties of parents or siblings Parents* attitude toward school Parents* attitude toward difficulty of child SUMMARY 1* The analysis of serious reading difficulties should be the task of a specialist. 2. The following sources provide necessary information for the analysis of reading difficulties * a. General achievement tests 15 gmma Albert Betts, The Prevention and Correction of Reading Difficulties (Row, Peterson and Company, 1936), p. 46 b. Intelligence tests c. Reading-readiness tests d. Tests of specific reading skills and reading e. Tests of sensory capacities level f # Tests for appraisal of individual interests and habits g. Case history and general observations 3. A general achievement test will often reveal weak nesses which might be due to reading difficulty. 4. Formal reading should never be attempted with children of low intelligence until they havereached age of a mental at least six and one half years. 5. With the realization^of the limitations of intelli gence tests, more efficient use can be made of them. 6. The individual reading-readiness test seems to be far more satisfactory than the group test. 7. The assistance of the health department in diagnos ing reading difficulties'is very necessary. 8. The development of proper attitudes, habits, and philosophy of life is just as much the goal of the remedial teacher as any other teacher in the school. CHAPTER IV IMPROVEMENT IN RELATION TO LENGTH OF REMEDIAL INSTRUCTION The purpose of this chapter is to analyze the test results of the seventy-four eases included in this study and compare the achievement of each with the length of time spent in the remedial class* Due to irregular entries into the class, many children had retests given them at the conclusion of three, four, six, or more months* Some of those who were retested at the end of three or four months continued in the class for as long a period as one or two years* In this study; however, all cases showing retests at the end of three months1work will be grouped together for analysis; those hav ing approximately four months will be grouped together; and likewise for all other periods of instruction. The progress T for all cases is shown in terms of years and months, ten school months making one school year, that is, a number such as 1*2 represents a gain of one year and two tenths of another one. CASES HAVING APPROXIMATELY THREE MONTHS' INSTRUCTION Out of the seventy-four cases included in this study, seventeen were retested at the end of approximately three months of remedial Instruction. The most significant gains 48 were shown in the Word Test and the Iota Word Test, both showing considerably greater than normal gains. In the Word Test the gains ranged from *4 to 2.?, while on the Iota Word Test the range was from .2 to 1.9. The- median for the Iota Word Test was 1*1 while for the Word Test it was 1*2, both of which are considerably above a normal gain for three months. The lowest gains were made in the Gray Oral Test and the Haggerty Test. The gains on the G-ray Oral Test ranged from .0 to 1.0, while on the Haggerty Test the range was from -.8 to 1.8. On the Haggerty Test three pupils showed losses on their retests, the only instances of any loss in scores on retests in the entire study of the seventy-four cases. The median for the Gray Oral Test was .5 and for the Haggerty Test .4, both of which are slightly above a normal three months1gain. The average reading score is probably a fairly true picture of a pupil* s reading level. The gains on the average score ranged from .3 to 1.4, which means that all the cases made average or above average progress during the three months in the class. The median gain for the average reading scores was .8. The gains on all test*scores for all the cases are shown in Table I (page 49), and median gains for all tests are given in Table II (page 50). TABLE I GAINS ON EACH TEST FOR CASES HAVING APPROXIMATELY THREE MONTHS OF REMEDIAL INSTRUCTION Case Gray Oral Haggerty Iota Word Word Test 30 .2 -.1 1.6 2* 1 31 .2 0 .3 .7 32 .5 .2 .6 1.1 33 0 .2 «2 .8 34 .3 .4 1.9 2.3 44 0 0 .4 1.0 57 .7 .7 1.5 1.5 127 .3 .2 1.3 1.3 128 .7 1.0 1.6 1.2 129 1.0 •5 1.2 2.0 130 .5 .5 1.9 2.7 132 •5 .5 .7 1.6 133 0 .5 .8 1.3 134 .8 *6 1.1 1.1 135 .9 — *8 .8 .4 136 .5 -.5 .8 .4 13? .8 1.8 1.6 .5 50 TABLE II MEDIAN GAINS ON EACH TEST FOR CASES HAVING APPROXIMATELY THREE MONTHS OF REMEDIAL INSTRUCTION Gray Oral Haggerty 4 Iota Word Word Test Average 1.1 1.2 .8 51 CASES HAVING- APPROXIMATELY FOUR MONTHS' INSTRUCTION Out of the seventy-four cases Included in this study, eight were retested at the end of approximately four months. Again the most significant gains were made in the Word Test and the Iota Word Test. On the Iota Word Test only one pupil failed to make normal or above normal progress, and on the Word Test there were two. The gains on the Iota Word Test ranged from .2 to 2.8, and the median for the eight cases was .85. The gains on the Word Test ranged from .0 to 2.5, and the median gain for the eight cases was 1.15. The Gray Oral Test seemed to show the least gains, with only one pupil making more than four months'progress. The range of gains on this test was from .0 to .8 and the median gain was .2. On the Haggerty Test nearly all the gains were above normal, only two pupils failing to show at least four months' gain. The range in gains was from *0 to .8, and the median gain for the eight cases was .6. On the average reading scores there were six who made above normal progress and only two who failed to make at least four months' progress. The range of gains was from .2 to 1.6 and the median gain was .7. The gains on all test scores for all the eight cases are shown in Table III (page 52), and the median gains for all the tests are given in Table IV (page 55). 52 TABLE III GAIKS.ON EACH TEST FOR CASES HAVING APPROXIMATELY FOUR MONTHS OF REMEDIAL INSTRUCTION Case Gray Oral Haggerty Iota Word Word Test * Average 4 .3 •3 1.0 1.0 .7 28 .2 .8 .2 .3 .3 29 .2 .5 1.4 2.0 1.0 39 .1 .7 .7 1.3 .7 42 0 .8 .4 .6 .5 .8 2.8 1.9 1.6 52 •8 76 *2 0 .4 0 .2 94 .2 .4 1.6 2.5 1.1 53 TABLE IV MEDIAN GAINS ON EACH TEST FOR OASES HAVING APPROXIMATELY FOUR MONTHS OF REMEDIAL INSTRUCTION Gray Oral *2 Haggerty .6 Iota Word ♦85 Word Test 1*15 Average .7 54 CASES HAVING APPROXIMATELY SIX MONTHS1 INSTRUCTION Out of the seventy-four cases, there were twenty-three who were retested at the conclusion of approximately six months of remedial instruction* The greatest gains were made in the Word Test and the Iota Word Test*. In the Word Test there were four pupils who failed to achieve at least six months1 improvement. The range of gains was from .0 to 3.?, and the median gain was 1*5. On the Iota Word Test there were only two children who failed to achieve normal progress for the time spent in the class. The gains for the group ranged from .4 to 4*1 and the median was 1*7* The medians for both the Word Test and Iota Test were considerably greater than six months. The Haggerty Test seemed to show the least gain for the group. Twelve of the children in the group failed to make at least six months* progress. for the group was .5. 2.7. H 0wever, the median gain The range of scores was from *0 to On the Gray Oral Test there were ten who failed to show six months* gain. The range of scores was from .0 to £.1 and the median score was .8. On the average reading score there was a range from .2 to 2.5 and the median score was 1.1. For the average reading score there were only three who failed to show normal progress for the six months, and there were four pupils who showed as much as two years*or more progress. 55 The gains on all test scores for all the twenty-three cases are shown in Table V (page 56), and the median gains for all the tests are given in Table VI (page 57)* OASES HAVING APPROXIMATELY TEN MONTHS' INSTRUCTION There were thirty cases retested at the conclusion of ten months of remedial instruction. Again the greatest im provement was definitely made in the Iota Word Test and the Word Test. On each of the two tests twenty-eight of the thirty cases made normal or above normal progress for the ten months spent in the class. The gains on the Iota Test ranged from .7 to 3.7, and the median was 1*95. On the Word Test the range was from .3 to 3.4, and the median was 1.9. Both medians were far above a normal achievement for the time spent in the class. On the G-ray Oral Test there were six cases that made less than one year's progress. The range of scores for the Gray Oral Test was from .3 to 3.2 and the median was 1.5. On the Haggerty Test there was a range of gains from *3 to 2.0, and the median gain was 1.1. Fourteen out of the thirty cases failed to make at least one year* s progress. The gains on the average reading scores were all, ex cept two, above a year's improvement. The range of gains was from .8 to 2.8, and the median was 1.75. Seven pupils made two years or more progress during the one year spent in the class. 56 TABLE V 'GAINS ON EAGH TEST FOR CASES HAVING APPROXIMATELY SIX MONTHS OF REMEDIAL INSTRUCTION Iota Word Word Test Average 1.7 1.2 .9 2.1 3.3 2.9 2.3 .9 0 2.0 H to • Case Gray Oral 12 * -5 16 .9 22 Haggerty 1.0 23 .4 .4 1.4 2.7 1.2 25 •1 .4 1.0 1.5 .8 36 1.9 2.7 2.1 1.2 1.9 38 .9 .2 2.4 1.8 116 40 1.0 1.0 1.7 2.5 1.9 .3 : .8 . .8 .4 •3 .6 45 ♦7 .1 1.1 .4 .6 49 0 0 .5 0 .2 53 0 .3 .6 .7 .4 67 .3 1.0 2.0 2.9 1.5 68 .0 .7 .7 .9 .6 70 1.3 .8 1.6 .5 1.1 78 0 .5 H H 1.9 .9 81 0 .3 .6 .8 .5 91 1.3 .6 2.0 2.2 1.3 92 0 .1 .9 1.6 •6 95 2.1 1.0 ,4.1 .. 2.0 . 2.3 98 .8 .3 2.7 2.8 1.7 99 2.1 1.9 2.6 1.5 2.0 104 1.5 1.8 3.2 3.7 2.5 . 41 TABLE VI MEDIAN GAINS ON EACH TEST FOR CASES HAVING APPROXIMATELY SIX MONTHS OF REMEDIAL INSTRUCTION Gray Oral .8 Haggerty Iota Word Word Test Average .5 1.7 1.5 1.1 58 The gains on all test scores for all the thirty cases are shown in Table VII (pages 59-60), and the median gains for all the tests are given in Table VIII (page 61). CASES HAVING- APPROXIMATELY FIFTEEN MONTHS1INSTRUCTION Out of the seventy-four cases, sixteen were retested at the end of approximately fifteen months. As has been true with all the other groups, the greatest improvement was made in the Iota Word Test and the Word Test. On the Iota Word Test, thirteen pupils showed above normal progress. The range of gains was from 1.2 to 4.3, and the median was 2.85. On the Word Test all of the cases showed more than fifteen months* progress. The range of gains was from 2.0 to 3*7, and the median was 2.75. The medians on both of these tests were nearly twice a normal improvement for the time spent in the class. Seven pupils out of the sixteen made more than fif teen months*progress on the Gray Oral Test, and also seven on the Haggerty Test. The median gain for the Gray Oral Test was 1.3, and for the Haggerty, 1.35. On the Gray Oral Test the range of gains was from .0 to 3.3, and on the Haggerty it was from .6 to 2.6. The average reading gains showed that in fifteen months, three individuals made more than three years* pro gress, and four made between 2.5 and 3.0 years*progress. 59 TABLE YII GAINS ON EACH TEST FOR CASES HAVING. APPROXIMATELY TEN MONTHS OF REMEDIAL INSTRUCTION Case Gray Oral Haggerty Iota Word Word Test Average 1.8 .8 1.7 .4 1.0 7 1.3 .8 1.9 1.5 1.6 8 H .6 1.3 1.8 1.3 1.5 1.1 1.8 .3 1.2 .7 1.1 2.4 2.0 1.5 32 2.6 1.3 1.6 1.1 1.7 34 2.3 1.6 2.1 2.6 2.1 35 2.2 .7 1.8 2.7 1.8 39 2.0 .9 1.2 1.0 1.3 42 .8 .8 1.1 1.9 1.2 53 .5 .7 .9 1.1 .8 54 1.6 .9 1.9 1.9 1.5 55 1.9 1.6 3.7 3.3 2.7 56 1.7 1.7 2.0 2*2 1.9 59 1.1 .9 2.7 2.7 1.8 62 .3 .3 1.2 1.9 .9 66 1.3 H H 1.8 2.8 1.8 78 .5 H 2.8 3.2 1.9 • 17 31 H 2 : . H . 60 TABLE VII (continued) GAIKS ON EACH TEST FOR CASES HAVING APPROXIMATELY TEN MONTHS OF REMEDIAL INSTRUCTION Case Gray Oral Haggerty Iota Word Word Test Average 82 1.3 1.1 1.9 1.9 2.5 96 3.2 1.9 3.7 2.5 2.8 102 .3 .5 3.2 3.4 1.8 113 1.5 .7 .7 1.4 1.0 114 1.3 1.7 2.1 H 02 • 1.6 115 2.1 1.7 2.5 1.1 1.9 119 2.4 2.0 2.7 2.3 2.3 121 1.1 .7 2.1 2.7 1.7 122 1.5 1.2 2.2 2.4 1.8 123 1.0 1.1 1.4 1.6 1.2 124 2.3 1.4 3.5 1.6 2.2 125 1.5 3.5 2.4 2.0 .8 61 TABLE VIII MEDIAN GAINS ON EACH TEST FOR CASES HAVING APPROXIMATELY TEN MONTHS OF REMEDIAL INSTRUCTION Gray Oral 1.5 Haggerty 1*1 Iota Word 1.95 Word Test 1.9 Average 1.75 62 All except four pupils made normal or above normal Improve ment, and their gains were very close to normal. The median average gain was 2.5. The gains on all test scores for all the sixteen cases are shown In Table IX (page 65), and the median gains for all the tests are given In Table X (page 64). o a s e s h a v i n g - a p p r o x i m a t e l y t w o y e a r s 1 In s t r u c t i o n Nine pupils remained in the class long enough to have retests at the end of two years of instruction. The great est improvement again was made in the Iota Word Test and the Word Test. The median gain for the Iota Test was 5.7, and for the Word Test it was 5.5. normal two years' improvement. Both were far above a On the Iota Test the gains ranged from 1.6 to 4.5 with seven out of the nine making more than three years' progress in the two years. On the Word Test the range of scores was from 1.6 to 3.9with seven children making more than three years' progress In the two years. The median gain for the Gray Oral Test was 2.2, with the range of gains from .7 to 3.0. On the Haggerty Test there were only two who made at least two years' Improvement. The median gain on the Haggerty Test was 1.7, with a range of gains from .9 to 2.4. *63 TABLE IX GAINS ON EACH TEST FOR OASES HAVING. APPROXIMATELY FIFTEEN MONTHS OF REMEDIAL INSTRUCTION Case Gray Oral Haggerty Iota Word Word Test Average 8 2*7 1.6 3.6 3.0 2.7 23 3.3 2.6 3.5 3.6 3.3 32 3.3 2.4 3.2 2.4 2.8 39 1.9 2.2 2.8 3.2 2.6 40 2.5 2.6 4.3 3.3 3.2 41 1.3 1.3 1.4 2.0 1.5 42 3.1 2.5 2.9 3.7 3.1 44 1.3 1.4 3.3 3.3 2.4 49 0 .6 2.6 2.2 1.4 53 .3 1.0 2.5 2.7 / 1.6 67 1.0 2.1 3.2 3.7 2.5 68 .3 1.1 2.1 2.7 1.6 81 .5 1.0 1.6 2.0 1.3 88 .8 .9 1.3 2.7 1.4 92 .5 i.o 1.2 2.5 1.3 94 2.2 1.0 3.2 2.8 2.2 64 TABLE X MEDIAN GAINS ON EACH TEST FOR CASES HAVING APPROXIMATELY FIFTEEN MONTHS OF REMEDIAL INSTRUCTION Gray Oral Haggerty Iota Word Word Test Average 1.3 1.35 2.85 2.75 2.3 65 The average reading scores showed that in two years six individuals made more than normal progress for the period of time spent in the class* two year improvement. Three pupils failed to make a The range of average gains was from 1*4 to 3*1, and the median was 2*7* The gains on all test scores for all the nine cases are shown in Table XI (page 66), and the median gains for all the tests are given in Table XII (page 67). CASES HAVING- APPROXIMATELY TWO AND ONE-HALF YEARS' INSTRUCTION Out of the seventy-four cases, eight were retested at the end of approximately two and one-half years of remedial Instruction* The Iota Word Test and the Word Test again showed the greatest improvements, with median gains of over one year more than a normal improvement. The median for the Iota Word Test was 3*8, with a range of gains from 1*8 to 4*5. There were three pupils who made over four years' Im provement during the two and one-half years spent in the class* range of gains was from 1*9 to On the Word Test the 4.1, and the median was 3*65. The median gains for both the G-ray Oral and the Hag gerty tests were below a two and one-half years' gain* median for the Gray from .5 to 2.9. Oral was The 1.95 and the range of gains was On the Haggerty Test the median gain was 66 TABLE XI GAINS ON EACH TEST FOR OASES HAVING APPROXIMATELY TWO YEARS OF REMEDIAL INSTRUCTION Case Gray Oral Haggerty Iota Word Word Test Average ? 2.9 1.9 4.5 3.3 3.1 31 2.2 2.2 4.2 3.4 3.0 35 3.0 1.7 3.2 3.1 2.6 66 2.5 2.4 3.8 3.7 3.1 74 •7 1.7 1.6 3.2 2.1 76 1.2 .9 1.8 1.6 1.4 78 1.6 1.8 3.6 3.9 2.7 82 2.7 1*4 3.9 2.6 2.9 102 1.8 1.3 3.7 3.9 1.6 . 67 TABLE XII MEDIAN GAINS ON EACH TEST FOR CASES HAVING APPROXIMATELY TWO YEARS OF REMEDIAL INSTRUCTION Gray Oral Haggerty Iota Word Word Test 2.2 1.7 3.7 3.3 Average 68 1.7, and the range of gains was from .8 to 2.4. On the Gray Oral Test there were six cases that failed to show at least normal progress, and on the Haggerty Test there were seven. The average reading gains showed that all except three pupils made normal or more than normal progress for the time spent in the class. Two children made three years* or more improvement during the period of instruction. The median gain was 2*7, and the range of gains was from 1.4 to 3.6. The gains on all test scores for all the six cases are shown in Table XIII (page 69), and the median gains for all the tests are given in Table XIV (page 70). OASES HAVING APPROXIMATELY THREE YEARS1INSTRUCTION Only five cases remained in the class long enough to have retests given at the end of three years of instruction. Again the greatest gains were ma.de on the Iota Word and the Word Test. The median gain for the Iota Word Test was 3.6 and the range of gains was from 3.0 to 4.7. Every case showed a normal or above normal gain in this test. On the Word Test the median gain was 3.9, and the range was from 2.9 to 4.1. All except one pupil showed normal or above normal improvement. more progress. Two out of the five children made four years* or 69 TABLE XIII GAINS ON EACH TEST FOR CASES HAVING APPROXIMATELY TWO AND ONE-HALF YEARS OF REMEDIAL INSTRUCTION Gase Gray Oral Haggerty Iota Word Word Test Average 41 2.1 1.7 1.7 2.9 2.1 44 2.1 1*7 4.4 3*6 3.1 45 1*3 1.6 1.8 1.9 1.4 49 .5 *8 2.9 3.7 2*0 67 2*9 2*9 4.5 4*1 3.6 68 1.5 2*4 3*9 4* 1 3*0 88 1.8 1.3 3.7 3.4 2.5 .94 2*8 2*0 4.3 3.7 2*9 70 TABLE XIV MEDIAN GAINS ON EACH TEST FOR CASES HAVING APPROXIMATELY TWO AND ONE-HALF YEARS OF REMEDIAL INSTRUCTION Gray Oral 1*95 Haggerty 1*7 Iota Word 3.8 Word Test Average 3.65 2*7 71 The median gain for the Gray Oral Test was 2.6 and the range of gains was from 1.9 to 3.9. Only one child showed a normal gain* The median for the Haggerty Test was 2.2, and the range of gains was from 1.3 to 2.7. None of the cases showed normal progress in this test. On the average reading scores there were two who made more than three years* gain and three who made less than a normal progress. The median gain was 2.9, and the range of gains was from 2*7 to 3.8. The gains on all test scores for all five cases are shown in Table XV (page 72), and the median gains for all the tests are given in Table XVI (page 73). SUMMARY The results of retests seemed to follow a rather defi nite pattern in each group of eases. Regardless of the length of period of instruction, the achievementsof each group were quite uniform in following certain trends. Some of these results are as listed: 1. The two tests which showed the greatest gains in each group of cases were the Iota Word Test and the Word Test. 2. The median gains on the Gray Oral Test and the Haggerty Test were much lower than the Iota Word Test and the Word Test, on all the groups. 72 TABLE XV GAINS ON EACH TEST FOR CASES HAVING APPROXIMATELY THREE YEARS OF REMEDIAL INSTRUCTION Case 45 Gray Oral 2.6 Haggerty 2.2 Iota Word . 3.0 Word Te st Average 2.9 2.7 49 1.9 1.3 3.5 3.9 2.7 53 2.4 2.2 4.1 3.2 2.9 74 3.9 2.7 3.6 4.1 3.8 76 2.6 2.1 4.7 4.0 3.3 TABLE XVI MEDIAN GAINS ON EACH TEST FOR CASES HAVING APPROXIMATELY THREE YEARS OF REMEDIAL INSTRUCTION Gray Oral Haggerty Iota Word 2.2 3.6 Word Test 3.9 Average 2.9 74 3* The medians for the Iota Word and the Word Test were above a normal gain for each period, and in some periods the gains were as much as one year above a normal gain# 4* The median gains for-the Gray Oral Test were not all above a normal gain for each group* One-half of the groups showed medians above normal gains, and one-half below. 5. The median gains on average reading scores for all groups except the one having three years of remedial in struction were well above normal gains for the periods of instruction. 6. The gains on the Haggerty Test and the G-ray O m l Test for children having retests at the conclusion of periods up to and including one year of instruction were much b etter in relation to the length of instruction than those having retests for periods longer than one year. 7. The group that had retests given at the conclu sion of one y e a r ’s instruction seemed to show the best re sults on all batteries of the Monroe Diagnostic Reading Test. CHAPTER V HAND AND EYE PREFERENCE OF POOR READERS There seems to be some variation in the results re ported for studies made to determine the hand and eye pre ferences of children and their relationship to school achievement. Comfort"*"6 and Dearborn1^ show evidence of greater mixed dextrality among poor readers than good readers. Haef- ner1^ found a greater variability in performance in the lefthanded group, but no reliable difference between the school achievement of the left-handed and the right-handed groups. In a study of one hundred and one school children Monroe19 found about the same number of cases of righthandedness and left-handedness in the reading defect and the control groups. Dr. Monroe states: . . . hand preference, on the whole, showed little significant difference among the groups* Eye prefer ence, on the contrary, showed significant differences. Among reading-defect cases there was a greater portion of children who preferred the left eye in sighting, and who showed right hand dominance with left-eye dominance. 16 F. D. Comfort, ^Lateral Dominance and Reading Ability,11 September 11. 1931 (paper read before American Psy chological Association). 17 W. F. Dearborn, MOcular and Manual Dominance in Dyslexia,” September 12, 1931 (paper read before the American Psychological Association). 18 Ralph Haefner, "The Educational Significance of Left-Handedness, " (New York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 1929). 19 Marion Monroe, Children Who Cannot Read (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1932), p. 84. 76 Since there is much question as to the relationship, if any, between hand and eye preference and the reading achievement of an individual, it was considered important to contribute to the general study of the problem, any vital information that was available. More specifically stated, the purpose is to analyze the data for ninety-eight cases of poor readers which were tested for hand and eye dominance. In referring to the hand and eye dominance of indivi duals the following terms are commonly used: 1. 2. 3. Left handed Right handed No clear cut pattern Sinistrads Dextrads Ambidextrous Dr. Monroe used the following terms’to distinguish be tween the hand and eye preferences of individuals, and these terms will be used in this study to differentiate between the Mhandedness” and the 1. 2. 3. 4. Right-hand Right-hand Left-hand Left-hand "eyedness” of individuals: right -left left right eye eye eye eye Pure dextrals Mixed dextrals Pure sinistrals Mixed sinistrals In the first part of this chapter a brief considersution of tests used for the determination of hand and eye preference will be given. The latter part of the chapter will be devoted to the analysis of the hand and eye prefer ences of the present cases. determine the preferences, Since no retests were needed to several cases which had no retest in their reading achievement, could be added for this part 77 of the study. The total number of oases with sufficient data were ninety-eight, and all a r e .included in this chapter. TESTS FOR DETERMINATION OF HAND AND EYE PREFERENCE No one single test should be relied upon In determin ing the handedness and eyedness of individuals. A battery of tests might include the following: 1. Hand Preference Tapping Handwriting Throwing Using Scissors Strength of grip Picking up objects Hammering nails Sawing Spinning a top Sweeping Raking Shoveling Batting 2. Eye Preference The Miles A-B-C Test Mailing Tube Peep Hole Test DISTRIBUTION OF HAND AND EYE PREFERENCE OF PRESENT CASES The present investigation reveals that there were seventy cases having right-hand and right eye preference, sixteen cases with right-hand and left eye preference, eight cases with left-hand and left eye preference, a n d four cases with left-hand and right eye preference. Converting these 78 figures into per cents, we find there are about seventy-one per cent pure dextrals, or right-hand and right eye prefer ence. The mixed dextrals represent about sixteen per cent of the group, and the pure sinistrals about eight per cent* There were only about four per cent of the group who were mixed sinistrals. The above results seem to be in line with percentages given by investigators for the general population. Betts20 summarized results of various investigations and concluded that from two to forty per cent of the population are lefthanded. This would tend to bear out the thesis that there are no more left-handed individuals in a group of poor read ers than in a group of normal readers. The present survey shows that approximately twelve per cent of the cases studied are left-handed, and approximately twenty-four per cent have left eye domination. These per cents are not sufficiently large enough to indicate any particular connection between their left-handedness and their reading achievement. However, the above results might conform to Dr. Monroe1s2-*- finding that Hamong the reading-defect cases there were a greater proportion of children who preferred the left eye in sighting, and who showed right-hand dominance with left-eye dominance." on w Emmett Albert Betts, The Prevention and Correction of Reading Difficulties (New York: Row, Peterson and. Company, 1 9 3 6 ) 7 p. 1 1 0 . 2-** Marion Monroe, Children Who Cannot Read (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 193&), p. 84. 79 TABLE XVII DISTRIBUTION OF HAND AND EYE PREFERENCES OF PRESENT CASES Number of cases Percentage Pure Dextrals 70 71 Mixed Dextrals 16 16 Pure Sinistrals 8 8' Mixed Sinistrals 4 4 CHAPTER VI IMPROVEMENT IN RELATION TO I.Q. It Is the purpose of this chapter to attempt to dis cover any existing relationship between a child’s Intelli gence quotient and the amount of improvement in reading made during a given time spent in the remedial class. In the first part of the chapter the distribution of intelligence quotients for the cases studied will be considered. In the latter part, a discussion of general trends and relation ships between the intelligence quotient and the improvement in reading will be given. Also taken Into consideration with this relationship will be the following factors: 1. The amount of retardation. 2. The amount of time spent in the remedial class. I.Q. DISTRIBUTION OP PRESENT CASES Out of the seventy-four cases there were only a few with I.Q.*s below normal. Their distribution seems to cor- respond with Dr. Monroefs conclusion: ' It appears that the reading-defect cases are fairly typical In their intelligence test scores of the sampling 22 Marion Monroe, Children Who Cannot Read (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1932)f p. 6. 81 of the population from which they are selected. The reading defects may occur at any intellectual level from very superior to very inferior, as measured by intelligence tests. The distribution of intelligence quotients ranged from 82 to 123, with the median being 100. These facts tend to substantiate the claim that reading difficulties are not always the cause of low Intelligence. It may be suggested from these results that reading, defects may occur at any level of intelligence. A complete distribution of intelligence quotients for the seventy-four cases is given in Table XVIII (page 82). IMPROVEMENT IN RELATION TO I.Q. There was some curiosity on the part of those who were interested in the present survey regarding any exist ing relationship between a child's intelligence quotient and his improvement in reading after spending some time in the remedial class. By using the same grouping of cases as was used in Chapter IV and adding two other factors, namely, the intelligence quotient, and the months of retardation, it was. possible to obtain a fair picture of the relationship between the I.Q. and the improvement in reading. It was first noted that in each group (three months, four months, six months, etc.), there was a wide range of intelligence quotients. It was observed that pupils having 82 TABLE XVIII DISTRIBUTION OP CASES ACCORDING TO INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENTS Intelligence quotient 123 118 117 116 115 114 112 111 110 109 108 107 106 105 104 103 102 101 100 99 98 97 96 95 94 93 92 91 89 87 85 82 Number of cases 1 1 1 1 2 1 3 5 2 1 1 1 1 1 5 4 2 4 1 3 1 5 3 4 2 5 2 1 7 1 1 1 83 the same intelligence quotient varied greatly as to their reading level, or the number of months, retardation from their normal grade. Most of the individuals were retarded from one to two years. A few, however, were retarded as much as three years below their grade level in reading. In analyzing the relationship between the intelligence quotient and the improvement in reading, it was quite clear that no absolute pattern was followed, for there were cases of all extremes. By considering the majority of cases, how ever, one is able to establish certain trends. The first observation was that pupils having greater retardation than certain other pupils, but having the same intelligence quo tient, would generally show greater improvement in their reading over a given period of time. This condition is one that we would probably expect since the one who Is retarded more has a greater chance for improvement. •* It was also noticed that many children having the same amount of retardation as certain other children, but having higher intelligence quotients, showed a greater amount of improvement in their reading. This too is probably a condition that most teachers would expect, since pupils with greater intelligence quotients would probably have a better chance of achieving more than pupils with lower intelligence quotients. CHAPTER VII SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS This study attempted to find: (1) the reading improve ment in relation to the length of time spent in the remedial class, (2) the distribution of hand and eye preferences of present cases, and (3) to show any existing relationship between the intelligence quotient and the improvement in reading* The main objective of any class in remedial instruc tion is the improvement of the reading ability of the members of the class* The extent to which this objective is realized Is conditioned by many factors. The type and cause of the rea-ding difficulty, the experience and ability of the teach er, physical condition of the child, home environment, com munity relations, and the mental development of the child are but a few of the many conditioning factors* It must be kept in mind, however, that there are several phases of reading, and that a pupil may remain weak in one phase of his reading and still achieve outstanding success in other skills of reading. The results of the present study illus trate this condition in many individual cases. Nearly every case showed greater gains on the two Word Tests in the battery of the Monroe Diagnostic Reading Test. Grouping all the cases together for all periods of instruction, approximately ninety 85 per cent made normal or above normal progress on the Word Test and the Iota Word Test. The most significant fact is that the achievement for most of the pupils amounted to a great deal more than the time spent in the class. In many cases the total months in gain amounted to as much as two or three years in excess of the normal gain for the period of time spent in the remedial class. These gains hold more significance when it is remembered that prior to entrance into the remedial class these children were not even measur ing up to normal growth each year. If they had, they would never have been sent to the class in the first place. In each group of cases there was a marked difference ‘ in the gain on the two Word Tests, and the G-ray Oral and the Haggerty Test, which are the other two tests in the Mon roe battery of tests. Where the two Word Tests always showed a very high gain, the other two tests generally showed merely a normal gain, or in many cases less than normal. Group ing all the cases together for all periods of instruction, it was noted that approximately fifty-five per cent of the child ren failed to make normal progress on the Hatterty Test, and about forty-three per cent on the Gray Oral Test. In many cases of several of the groups there were no gains shown on these latter tests, and in three cases there were actually losses on the retests. There seemed to be a tendency for more children out of the groups having longer periods of in- 86 struetion to show less than normal improvement on their retests of these two tests, than of those groups having shorter periods of instruction* These results might indicate that the methods used emphasized the recognition of individual words with their meaning, rather than other skills in reading. Another pos sible explanation for this might he that many children in the classes were further retarded in these phases of read ing than in others, and would naturally, under special train ing, have an excellent chance of showing greater progress. Since the average reading score is an average of the four batteries, it might be said that it would give a truer picture of a pupil*s reading ability than any single test. The average reading scores showed that about eighty-five per cent made normal or above normal progress for the time spent in the class. Many of these pupils made several years improvement in just a few months time. Although many of the children did not show the desired achievement in the G-ray Oral and the Haggerty Reading Tests, their gains on the other two tests in the battery were sufficient to offset these scores and still give them an average improvement exceeding the time spent in the class. Considering the results of the surveys showing the extent of left handedness of the population, the present cases appear to follow a normal curve. Their per cent, twelve, falls 87 well within the limits set for the general population, so any particular conclusion regarding the relationship of handedness and poor reading would be difficult. The fact that a larger per cent had left eye dominance might hold some significance. for the left eye. Twenty-four per cent showed a preference This might be some indication that these children were reading illogically from the left side of the page to the right. The left eye having domination over the right might have a tendency to retard the speed, or break the eye span. An analysis of the distribution of intelligence quo tients in the present cases shows an approximation of a normal distribution, with the median intelligence quotient being 100. From these facts one could conclude: (1) that reading difficulties might occur at any level of intelligence, and (2) that a low intelligence quotient is not necessarily the cause of poor reading. The following three factors were considered in attempting to discover any relationship between the I.Q. and improvement in reading: 1. The intelligence quotient of the child. 2. The length of time spent in the class. 3. The amount of Improvement made during the time spent in the class. No absolute relationship was discovered, because exceptions to all rules could be found. Only by considering the majority 88 of cases could certain trends be established. The two fol lowing trends were observed: 1. Children having the same intelligence quotient, but being further retarded than certain other children, showed greater improvement. 2. Of children having the same amount of retardation, those having higher intelligence quotients generally showed greater improvement. It is hoped that this study may be of value to teach ers faced with the problem of poor readers. Also, it is hoped that this and other such studies may serve as an in spiration for further experimentation and exploration in the field of remedial residing. bibliography BIBLIOC-RAPHY Bett, Emmett Albert, The Prevention and Correction of Reading Difficulties, New York: Row, Peterson and Company, 1936. 402 pp. Largely a summary and interpretation of recent research findings. Contains a fine analysis of reading difficul ties. Cole, Luella, The Improvement of Reading. New York: Farrar and Rinehart, Incorporated, 1938. 338 pp. Statement of importance of correcting reading difficul ties in the elementary school. Comfort, F. D., "Lateral Dominance and Reading Ability,” September 11, 1931. Paper read before American Psycho logical Association. Deans, Edwina, "Correcting the Reading Disabilities on Nine Selected Pupils, 11 National Elementary Principals1 Seven teenth Yearbook. A study to demonstrate the use of .both group and indivi dual Instructional remedial methods with a group of re tarded children. Dearborn, W. F., "Oc&lar and Manual Dominance in Dyslexia,11 September 12, 1931. Paper read before the American Psychological Association. Durell, Donald D., "The Influence of Reading Ability on Intel ligence Measures," Journal of Educational Psychology, XXIV, September, 1933. Fitzerald, James A., "Discovering Minor Reading Difficulties and Their Causes," National Elementary Principals1 Seven teenth Yearbook, July, 1938. Extent of reading retardation among school pupils. Gray, William Scott, "Remedial Cases in Reading— Their Diag nosis and Treatment." Chicago: University of Chicago. 208 pp. A report of a study to determine the types of remedial cases in reading, the characteristics of each type, and to develop appropriate methods of remedial instruction in each case. Excellent list of causes of reading failure. 90 Haefner, Ralph, "The Educational Significance of LeftHandedness*" New York: Teachers College, Columbia Univer sity, 1929 . 84 pp. Hart, Helen M., "Case Studies of Remedial Reading in Junior High School." Unpublished Master1s thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, August, 1934. 134 pp. A report of reading difficulties, and methods used for correction. Hogoboom, Grace W., "An Experimental Study of the Value of Remedial Reading for Slow-Learning Pupils." Unpublished Master1s thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, June, 1931. 78 pp. Methods used in remedial reading, especially drills. Johnston, Fannie B.., "A New Point of View for Remedial Read ing, " Educational Research Bulletin, 18:127-32, May, 1939. Very fine for methods of grouping children with reading difficulties. La Fetra, Edgar Improvement Unpublished California, C., "An Experimental Investigation of the in Reading Ability of a Low Group B8 Class." Master1s thesis, University of Southern Los Angeles, California. 95 pp. Good lists of objectives for remedial reading classes. Leonhardy, Alma, "What Is Done to Improve Reading Ability of Pupils in Los Angeles Junior High Schools," Educational Re search Bulletin, Board of Education, Los Angeles, California, VII, October and November, 1927. A survey dealing with the causes of reading failure, the technique of improving reading ability, and thirdly, the detailed studies of progress of pupils In the Los Angeles City Schools. McCallister, James M . , "The Effectiveness of Remedial Instruc tion In Reading in the Junior High School," School Review, 1939, 39:97-111. A study of remedial reading cases at the University High School, University of Chicago, which was followed with retests to determine the persistency of gains. 91 Monroe, Marlon, diagnostic and Remedial Procedures in Read ing,11 Education Digest, III, March, 1938, Monroe, Marion, Children Who Cannot Read* of Chicago Press, 1932. 205 pp. Chicago; University Excellent procedure for remedial reading. Oats, D. W . , "Left Handedness in Relation to Speech Defects, Intelligence, and Achievement,ft Forum of Education, VII. 1925, 91-105. Witty, Paul A., flA Practical Approach to Remedial Reading,” National Elementary Principals1 Seventeenth Yearbook. A study of methods to overcome reading handicaps.