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Results of remedial reading instruction with a group of elementary school children

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RESULTS OF REMEDIAL READING- INSTRUCTION
WITH A GROUP OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN
A Thesis
Presented to
the Faculty of the School of Education
University of Southern California
In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Master of Science in Education
by
Jack R* Singer
May 1941
UMI Number: EP54125
All rights reserved
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UMI EP54125
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T h is thesis, w r it t e n u n d e r the d ir e c t io n o f t h e 1
C h a ir m a n o f the ca n d id a te 9s G u id a n c e C o m m itte e
a n d a p p r o v e d by a l l m em bers o f the C o m m itte e ,
has been p resen ted to a n d accepted by the F a c u lt y
o f the S c h o o l o f E d u c a t io n in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t
o f the re q u ire m e n ts f o r the degree o f M a s t e r o f
Science in E d u c a tio n .
D a te J .^ .ls ... M
.........
D ean
Guidance C om m ittee
P. J. Weersing
Chairm an
Irving R. Melbo
Nila B. Smith
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I.
PAGE
THE PROBLEM AND RELATED S T U D I E S ...............
I
Importance of the p r o b l e m .......... . . . . .
2
-Social and economic i m p o r t a n c e ...........
2
Importance of early recognition of
difficulties
.......................
Related investigations
. ♦
.' . .................
5
Extent of reading retardation .............
6
Causes of reading difficulties
7
........
Methods of remedial instruction ...........
II.
3
9
Summary of related investigations . . . . .
18
PROCEDURE OF REMEDIAL INSTRUCTION OF PRESENT STUDY
19
Tests
...........................
Case histories
19
•
22
Case history of Lawrence Beck . . . . . . .
23
Case history of Bruce Hall
24
. . . . . . . .
Case history of Lonnie Rhoten .
........
Class procedure •
25
27
Daily n e w s p a p e r ............................
27
Daily log
28
............
The F e m a l d m e t h o d ...................
29
The Phonetic method . .
.................
30
The Picture method
.................
34
S u m m a r y ............. . . . . . . . ‘ ..........
35
iii
CHAPTER
III*
PAGE
ANALYZING READING DIFFICULTIES . . . . . . . .
General achievement tests
. .
3?
...........
38
Intelligence tests . • • • • . • • • • • • •
39
Reading-readiness, t e s t s ...................
40
Tests of specific reading skills and
reading level
. . . . .
...............
Tests of sensory capacities
IV.
.
..........
42
43
Appraisal of individual interests and habits
43
Case history and general observation . . . .
44
Summary . . . . . . . . . . .
45
. . . . . . .
IMPROVEMENT IN RELATION TO LENGTH OF REMEDIAL
INSTRUCTION...........................
47
Cases having approximately three months*
instruction
. . ♦
..........
47
Cases having approximately four months*
instruction
............
51
Cases having approximately six months*
instruction
• • • • • • • • . .
........
54
Cases having approximately ten months*
instruction
. . . . .
........
. . . . .
55
Cases having approximately fifteen months*
instruction
..............
58
Cases having approximately two years*
instruction
62
iv
CHAPTER
PAG-E
Cases having two and one-ha,lf years1
65
.
i n s t r u c t i o n ............
Cases having approximately three years*
instruction
•
.........
71
Summary............
V.
HAND AND EYE PREFERENCE
68
OF POOR READERS
75
Tests for determination of hand and eye
preference
77
Distribution of hand and eye preference
VI.
VII.
of present c a s e s ............ .....
77
IMPROVEMENT IN RELATION....... TO I.Q......
80
I.Q. distribution of present cases . . .
80
Improvement in relation to I.Q.
81
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
. . . .
. . . . . . . . .
B I B L I O G R A P H Y ....................................
84
89
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE
PAGE
T!
I.
Gains on Each Test for Oases Having Approx­
imately Three Months of Remedial Instruction
49
I I • Median Gains on Each Test for Gases Having'
Approximately Three Months of Remedial
..............
Instruction
III.
50
Gains on Each Test for Cases Having Approx­
imately Four Months of Remedial Instruction
IV.
52
Median Gains on Each Test for Oases Having
Approximately Four Months of Remedial
Instruction
V.
.
..........
.
Gains on Each Test for Cases Having Approx­
imately Six Months of Remedial Instruction
VI.
53
56
Median Gains on Each Test for Cases Having
Approximately Six Months of Remedial
Instruction
VII.
.
............................
Gains on Each Test for Cases Having Approx­
imately Ten Months of Remedial Instruction
VIII.
57
59
Median Gains on Each Test for Cases Having
Approximately Ten Months of Remedial
Instruction
IX.
..............
61
Gains on Each Test for Cases Having Approx­
imately Fifteen Months of Remedial Instruction
.63
vi
TABLE
X.
PAGE
Median Gains on Each Test for Cases Having
Approximately Fifteen Months of Remedial
Instruction
XI.
64
Gains on Each Test for Cases Having Approx­
imately Two Years of Remedial Instruction
XII.
66
Median Gains on Each Test for Cases Having
Approximately Two Years of Remedial
Instruction
XIII.
..............
67
Gains on Each Test' for Cases Having Approx­
imately Two and Gne-Half Years of
Remedial I n s t r u c t i o n ................ . .
XIV*
69
Median Gains on Each Test for Cases Having
Approximately Two and One-Half Years of
Remedial Instruction
XV.
•
Gains on Each Test for Cases Having Approx­
imately Three Years of Remedial Instruction
XVI.
70
72
Median Gains on Each Test for Cases Having
Approximately Three Years of Remedial
I n s t r u c t i o n ..........
XVII.
Distribution of Hand and Eye Preferences
of Present Cases
XVIII.
73
............
79
Distribution of Gases According to Intelli­
gence Quotients
.................
82
CHAPTER I
THE PROBLEM AND RELATED STUDIES
In recent years, much attention has been given to
the group of individuals in our elementary schools who have
never satisfactorily mastered the technique of reading*
t
Many experiments in methods of overcoming these handicaps
have been made in our private and public schools.
These
experiments naturally have involved a certain amount of
additional equipment and expense.
Frequently they have
taken a great deal of the teacherfs time and energy, or
else a special teacher has been secured for the sole purpos
of working with the group of slow readers.
It is not only
the taxpayers, but the teachers and the administrators as
well, who are interested in the marginal value of such ex­
periments .
Since this is true it is important that all the
possible information be gathered and considered critically,
that greater improvements may be made in giving children
every opportunity to develop the very best reading habits.
It is the purpose of this study to make a general
survey of seventy-four cases of poor readers in the Taft
City Schools, who have been given Individual remedial read­
ing instruction for periods varying from three months to
three years.
In the survey it is expected (1) to find the
2
reading improvement in relation to the length of time spent
in the remedial class, (2) to show distribution of hand and
eye preferences in present cases, and (3) improvement of
reading in relation to the Intelligence Quotient*
IMPORTANCE OP THE PROBLEM
It is interesting and encouraging to note the amount
of Interest shown in remedial reading within the last few
years*
At no other time in the history of education has so
much concern been shown for the less gifted readers as today*
However, though many studies and experiments have been made,
there has been no one method chosen as an established prac­
tice in remedial instruction*
Social and economic importance*
The importance of
reading in our present civilization can hardly be questioned*
An individual who expects to compete with others in our plan
of life must be able to use the written medium of exchange
of thought.
The complexity of our democratic society and
economic life has placed a tremendous responsibility upon
every citizen.
In order to keep intelligently informed on
important national and international issues, and to formu­
late sound attitudes towards these problems, it is highly
essential that every individual should possess the ability
to read understandingly and efficiently.
Furthermore it
seems quite logical to assume that there is a definite re­
lationship between the ability to read and social maladjust­
ment in school and out of school.
With the additional amount
of leisure time which the present industrial civilization has
guaranteed to every individual, it is important that the
opportunities of finding pleasure and enjoyment from reading
be shared by all.
Finally, the individual professional
success of each member of society depends very largely on
his ability to keep abreast of his profession by means of
publications, bulletins, charts, graphs, maps, and other
written materials.
These materials are often not only
voluminous but also copious, and the individual must of
necessity read with efficiency and rapidity.
Importance of early recognition of difficulties.
The
importance of developing good reading habits in the elementary grades can not be stressed too much.
Since reading is
the basis for all other studies, the individual*s later
school career is definitely handicapped unless good reading
habits have been developed.
Boredom and discouragement
generally follows and soon school is dropped and the indi­
vidual finds himself in society attempting to compete with
other individuals.
If, the individual has not mastered read­
ing, his literary possibilities are limited, and thus his
cultural life dwarfed.
It can be seen that if the individual
4
who has inferior reading habits is not helped by some re­
medial assistance, he will be handicapped throughout the
rest of his school career and his entire life.
Thus it is
not only important to find these individuals who are handi­
capped in reading, but find them at the proper time.
The
foundation for further study, or the tools of learning,
should be mastered in the elementary grades, before the
individual is allowed to develop any complex of inferiority.
The gap that develops between a poor reader and the normal
group widens as time goes on, unless special help is given
the individual.
This naturally has its effects on the
child1s personality and his emotional and spiritual develop­
ment.
The sense of success is just as positive, as the sense
of failure is negative, for elementary children.
Also wrong
habits in reading, once started and allowed to continue,
become more fixed and much harder to overcome later.
It is
the concensus of opinion among educators that the most
plastic period of a child*s life is during the early years.
Habits and attitudes formulated during this period are
generally kept throughout life.
By placing the responsibility of remedial reading
with the elementary school, much time should be saved for
the individual pupil who attempts to continue his study, for
reading is a basis of other subjects in the curriculum.
5
Dr. Cole summarizes its importance in the following state­
ment :
Reading is the basic subject in elementary school.
Ability to read not only marks the difference between
the literate and illiterate person; it is also an abso­
lutely necessary basis for other subjects in the
curriculum. To be sure, in the earliest grades a child
may compensate for a deficiency in reading by accurate
listening and a good verbal memory, but the time soon
comes when progress in all academic subjects very nearly
ceases unless he can read. It is therefore essential
that teachers should understand the nature of the read­
ing process, in order that they may give the greatest
possible aid to pupils in the mastery of this fundamental
educational tool— the ability to read.l
Furthermore it can be hoped that by improving the
methods of remedial reading instruction in the elementary
school, reading habits for all groups of children may be
better developed with greater efficiency on the part of the
teacher.
RELATED INVESTIGATIONS
An abundance of professional material, both in peri­
odical and book form, is to be found on the problems of
reading.
Probably some of the most useful materials are
the studies and surveys which report results of experiments
carried on in all parts of our country and under all types
^Luella Cole, Ph.D., The Improvement of Reading
(Farrar & Rinehart, Inc., 1938), p. 3.
of conditions.
These studies can offer much in establishing
proper procedures and techniques*
In making a study of related investigations, an effort
was made to include studies showing the extent of reading
retardation; studies giving the causes of failure in reading;
studies determining the type of remedial work needed by
individual children; studies using the individual instruction
method; and experiments showing various types of class
grouping to aid in overcoming reading difficulties.
Extent of reading retardation.
In an article in the
National Elementary Principals Yearbook for 1938,
James A* Fitzgerald^ stated that recent investigations show
that from eight to fifteen percent of school pupils are
retarded readers.
In the ?*alsh Elementary School In Chicago
in the autumn of 1936, 125 children in a total population of
376, in grades 4 to 8 inclusive, were found to be retarded
from two months to nearly five years in reading.
Thirty-
six of these children were retarded two years or more,
twenty-two were retarded from one and one-half to two years,
thirty were retarded from one to one and one-half years,
p
James A. Fitzgerald, discovering Minor Reading
Difficulties and their C a u s e s , National Elementary Princi­
pals Yearbook Seventeenth. July, l93&.
~
7
twenty-eight were retarded from one-half to one year, and
nine were retarded from zero months to one-half year.
Causes of reading difficulties.
In cooperation with
others, William Scott Gray^ conducted a study for the purpose
of determining the number of types of remedial cases in read­
ing, the characteristics of each type, and to develop appropri
ate methods of remedial instruction in each case.
The following causes for. failure in reading were
brought, out by the study:
1. Inferior learning capacity
2. Congenital word blindness
3. Poor auditory memory
4. Defective vision
5. Narrow span of recognition
6. Defective eye movements
7. Inadequate training in phonetics
8. Inadequate attention to the content
9. An inadequate speaking vocabulary
10. Small meaning vocabulary
11.. Special defects
12. Lack of interest
® William Scott Gray, tfRemedial Cases in Reading-Their Diagnosis and Treatment.tt
15. Guessing at word recognition
14. Timidity
The study included the actual experimentation with
a group of children who had the various reading difficulties.
In each case complete test records were kept and in most
cases satisfactory results were noted.
In some cases it
was impossible to secure entirely satisfactory results in
the time devoted to this investigation.
Several conclusions based on the study were formu­
lated, however, the one which follows applies most to the
present study:
Individual instruction is preferable.
In an unpublished thesis, Helen M. Hart^ reports on
an experiment with twenty junior high school students who
had reading difficulties.
Part of the work given the stu­
dents was carried on as a class activity and part was
devoted to individual instruction.
Case studies were made
of all members of the group.
The author states that, nThe results of the study
i
show the most outstanding causes for reading difficulties
to be low mentality, narrow recognition span, limited
^ Helen M. Hart, ’’Case Studies of Remedial Reading in
Junior High School,M (unpublished Master’s thesis, The
University of Southern California, Los Angeles, August, 1934)
p. 121.
9
vocabulary, lack of attention to content, irregular eye
movements, and lack of interest.
Other causes which were
less frequent were poor .visual memory, defective vision,
lack of training in phonetics, and emotional disturbances.w
The author also felt that one of the greatest gains
from the experiment was the change of the pupilfs attitude
toward reading.
In a later check-up it was found that
nearly every one of the cases was continuing his interest
in reading, and using library and informational material
for his own pleasure.
Methods of remedial instruction.
A committee con­
sisting of Alma Leonhardy and o t h e r s 5 reported a survey made
in the junior high schools in Los Angeles to determine the
particular, type of remedial work which was the first essen­
tial for each chiId*s progress.
report into three parts.
The committee divided its
Part I lists the causes of failure,
and the materials and devices set forth to overcome these
failures.
The causes of failure were as follows:
1. Mechanical handicaps
2. Lack of reading comprehension
5 Alma Leonhardy, wWhat is done to Improve Reading
Ability of Pupils in Los Angeles Junior High Schools.w
Education Research Bulletin. Board of Education, Los Angeles,
California, VII, October and November, 1927.
10
3. Lack of interest
The materials and devices were listed as follows 2 .
1. Practices with words
2. Practices with sentences
3. Practices with paragraphs
Part II has to do with the technique for improving
the reading ability*
Regarding individual instruction, the
authors state, **The individual period should have a two-fold
aim: (1) to give the pupil time to work out individual prob­
lems and review what has been discussed in socialized
periods, and (2) to enable the teacher to give personal help
to various individuals.1*
Part III has to do with detailed studies of progress.
The results showed that those of high and average I. Q., but
of low reading comprehension, showed the greatest improve­
ment.
Their progress was generally a constant growth
throughout the high-school period.
In’an unpublished master*s thesis at the University
of Southern California, Grace W. Hogpboom^reported on an
experiment in remedial reading consisting of three remedial
Grace W. Hogoboom, wAn Experimental Study of the
Value of Remedial Reading for Slow-Learning Pupils,1*
(unpublished Masterfs thesis, The University of Southern
California, Los Angeles).
11
groups and
on© control group*
The results of the exper­
iment showed gains by the remedial groups to be from one to
twenty-one months in school work, and from one to nine
months for the control group.
The use of the following drills were used;
1. Drills to improve the mechanisms of reading, such
as eye-span, accuracy, speed, and pronounciation and identi­
fication of words.
2. Drills to improve the context of reading, such as
word meaning, vocabulary and reading comprehension.
A special study of nine retarded children in grade
two was made by Edwina Deans^ to study methods of overcoming
reading handicaps.
was given.
Both group and individual instruction
The author makes three practical conclusions:
.1. Individuals with reading difficulty should be
given as much individual reading instruction as possible.
2. All word study should be carried on as needed in
connection with larger reading units.
3. Meaningful units of materials should furnish the
basis for the teaching of reading.
An interesting experiment was carried on under the
7
Edwina Deans, ^Correcting. the Reading Disabilities
on Nine Selected Pupils,11 National Elementary Principals
Seventeenth Yearbook.
12
direction of Paul
A. Witty8 in the Chicago Schools involv­
ing some 1023 children who were handicapped in reading.
The purpose of the experiment was primarily to demonstrate
methods and to develop practical materials which could he
used in regular classrooms.
this
The remedial instruction in
program was given individually to the non-readers and
the most handicapped.
Others were placed in groups of from
three to five children, and as sbon as the ones with the
greatest handicaps had progressed far enough they were
placed in these small groups too.
A study of twenty-seven cases of remedial reading
cases conducted at the University High School, University of
Chicago, was reported by James McCallister.9
He states?
wRemedial instruction must of necessity be designed
to aid in overcoming the deficiencies of individual
pupils. In this study, the deficiencies of no two pupils
were found to be exactly alike. However, the deficiencies
were sufficiently similar to justify classifying them
into four groups for the purpose of describing the
remedial instruetion.tt
1.
2.
3.
4.
In group A were Decipherers
In group B were Slow Learners
In group 0 were Slow Accurate Learners
In group D were Word Readers
® Paul A. Witty, ”A Practical Approach to Remedial
Reading,11 National Elementary Principals Seventeenth Yearbook.
® James M. McCallister, wThe Effectiveness of Remedial
Instruction in Reading in the Junior High School,” School
Review, 39:97-111, 1931.
13
Each pupil usually read under.the direction of the
remedial teacher for two fifty-minute periods a week*
The author retested the cases from six to nine months
after remedial instruction was stopped.
He concludes;
1, In general the gains persisted from six to nine
months,
2, Some pupils continued to improve after training
' had been discontinued; others failed to maintain the
degree of proficiency obtained during the training
period, but maintained some of the gains,
3, The persistency of gains in comprehension appears
to be greater than is the persistency of gains in rate.
All but four of the cases made greater improvement in
reading during the period of remedial instruction of from
eight to twenty-four weeks in length than would be expected
in a year*s normal school work,
A program of child-grouping carried out in the
Dilworth School, Charlotte, North Carolina, is described by
Fannie B. Johns ton,3-°
children were selected.
Three experimental groups of thirty
In each group there were placed
fifteen children of average or above average school achieve­
ment, and fifteen below average achievement.
Much care was
given in the selection of the individuals for the groups so
that harmonious groups would be made.
10 Fannie B. Johnston, l,A New Point of View for
Remedial R e a d i n g , Educational Research Bulletin, 18:127-32,
May, 1939.
14
After the classes had been organized several weeks,
they were broken down into groups of six and. always one very
strong pupil was placed in each group*
The program used provided for the following helps:
1* Leading the child to have a purpose of his own
that would involve reading, and guiding him to share
his reading experiences with others for the sheer joy
of doing it.
2. Helping each individual to choose reading mater­
ials suited to his o?m needs, interests, and reading
ability.
3. Helping the child to select and read stories which
he enjoyed and to tell them interestingly to others.
4. Helping the child to enjoy a story by arousing
interest in it through an attractive introduction for
it; by stating clearly what he wished to find out, _by
setting up a large purpose or problem, then breaking it
up into smaller parts or questions, and helping him to
choose the part for which he was to be responsible; by
guiding him to overcome one difficulty at a time, with
its attendant causes.
The achievements tests showed a gain in every group
which is given below.
These scores represent the lowest
scores in each group.
G-rade
Sept. Test
May Test
4
2.2
4.8
5
2.9
5.9
6
4.2
5.1
6
4.1
5.4
15
In an experimental study covering a period of two
years with a class of low eighth graders, Edgar 0. La Petra11
found that the reading ability of the students not only improved hut their achievement in other subjects was greater*
By use of tests the following specific objectives were set
for the remedial class:
1* To enlarge and enrich the speaking, writing, and
reading vocabulary of each student by improving the
understanding and use of words*
2* To improve the rate of silent reading of each
student.
3.
To help each pupil to understand better the mean­
ing of each paragraph of historical, scientific, and all
other types of reading materials*
4* To enable each member of the-class to have a more
thorough and complete total meaning of an entire
selection.
5. To aid each pupil to grasp more readily the central
thought, or main idea of an article.
6. To assist each pupil to better understand and
follow directions.
7. To help each class member to improve his ability
to organize written material so that it might be more
easily understood.
8. To enable each student to better understand the
meaning Of individual sentences.
9. To aid each pupil to learn to alphabetize and use
material of all kinds that is placed in alphabetical
order*
11
Edgar C. La Petra, *An Experimental Investigation
of the Improvement in Reading Ability of a Low Group 8
Class — A Two Year Study,11 (unpublished Mas ter fs thesis, The
University of Southern California, Los Angeles, April, 1938),
p. 12.
16
10* To assist each, member of the class in the use of
an Index so that materials of all kinds may be easily
found in books, encyclopedias, and etc.
Definite procedures were set up to realize each of
the foregoing objectives, and tests were given at the close
of five months of work and also at the end of fourteen
months.
It was found that those individuals with high
intelligence quotient and low reading ability tend to pro­
gress further than those with a low intelligence quotient
and low reading ability*
With the assistance of The Behavior Research Fund and
the Institute For Juvenile Research, Dr. Marion M o n r o e ^
carried on a very interesting and worth-while study with a
group of fovu* hundred and fifteen children with reading handi­
caps.
The reading difficulties ranged from mild retardation
to extreme disabilities.
These individuals were tested and
given special drill and remedial work for specific reading
difficulties and were compared with a control group of one
hundred and one average children.
The special group of four hundred and fifteen children
were divided into three groups of cases.
The results of the
^ Dr. Marion Monroe, Children'Who Cannot Read '
(University of Chicago Press, 1 9 3 2 ) p. 155.
17
experiment are summarized by the author as follows:
Progress in reading was made in a large percentage of
the cases studied, not only when the children were
trained under carefully controlled laboratory conditions,
but also under conditions possible in public schools#
Progress in reading was made under individual instruction
and also in small groups of children selected for simi­
larity of achievements and errors•
The remedial-reading methods were found to be direct
and readily understood.
Public school teachers learned
to apply the methods in the course of conferences and
demonstration lessons.
The rate of progress in reading under remedial in­
struction was found to be a function of the childfs
intelligence, his age, the number of hours spent in
training, the number of months during which treatment
was continued, the severity of the disability, the
personality and behavior difficulties encountered in
applying the remedial techniques.
The remedial methods, consisting as they did of many
methods adapted to the specific difficulties of the
children, proved successful with the various types of
cases. The children with whom the remedial work failed
were those whose reading difficulties were complicated
by behavior disorders which the teachers were unable to
control or those to whom the remedial work was given
irregularly and with out persistent, systematic, or
sympathetic treatment.
Dr. Monroe further noted that the technique of using
remedial methods improved with those teachers who worked
with several successive cases.
The procedure used in this experiment was followed
almost to the letter by the teacher giving the remedial in­
struction to the present cases, therefore the discussion of
the procedure will be given in detail in a following chapter.
18
Summary of related Investigations.
It is apparent
that a great deal of vital material concerning causes of
reading failure has been collected and classified.
However,
most of the causes could be divided into the following
groups:
1. Mechanical handicaps
2. Lack of reading comprehension
3. Lack of interest
Definite procedures and methods have been suggested
and proved successful for nearly every type of failure.
Most methods and procedures suggested are practical in every
day classrooms*
Witty, Gray, Leonhardy, Deans, and others,
emphasized the importance of individual instruction, or at
least very small groups.
McCallister expressed it, "Remedial
instruction must of necessity be designed to aid in over­
coming the deficiencies of individual pupils."
Drills such as eye-span, accuracy, speed, pronun­
ciation and identification of words; and drills such as word
meaning, vocabulary and reading comprehension, seem to find
a place in nearly every program of remedial instruction.
The important part that interest plays in the success
or failure of any reading program was especially emphasized
by Johnson, Hart, and other reporters.
CHAPTER II
• PROCEDURE OF REMEDIAL INSTRUCTION OF PRESENT STUDY
The purpose of this chapter is to describe the
remedial methods, as well as charts and drills used by the
teacher.
Also it is the purpose of the chapter to give a
brief description of the tests used in selecting the pupils
for the remedial classes.
The data included in the chapter
seems to divide itself naturally Into (1) Tests used,
(2) Case histories of chronic cases, and (3) The class pro­
cedure.
In the first part of the chapter the physical
examinations .used are briefly mentioned, and the intelligence
and the reading diagnostic tests are listed.
In the second
division, portions of case histories are summarized to show
the importance of securing data about the child which is not
included in standardized tests.
The third division has been
devoted to the actual procedure used in the remedial classes.
TESTS
In the school system in which the present experiment
was conducted, every child on entering school is given
several different tests, in order that he may be placed in
classes best suited to his needs.
If a child is found to be
at least a year retarded in reading and is In the high second
20
grade, or above, he is sent to a special reading teacher
every day, for the particular reading experiences that he
needs *
The size of the class that he is placed in depends on
several things.
If the individual is a chronic case, and the
special teacher has sufficient time, the child is given indi­
vidual instruction for twenty minutes every day.
Later as
improvement is made he may be placed in a class of two or
three children.
In this group will be children who have about
the same handicaps as he.
The child will probably remain in
this special class until he has achieved the normal standard
for his grade.
The children who are not chronic cases are grouped
into classes of from three to five children.
They are
grouped according to their ability and difficulties, and also
are given special instruction for twenty minutes every day.
Thus the special remedial reading teacher is kept
busy all day with individuals or with very small classes.
If time permitted, there would be more of the individual
class work; however, in many cases it would not be necessary.
Generally the total number that the teacher can include in
her program ranges from thirty to thirty-five.
A physical examination of each child includes an
audiometor test and a telebinocular test.
If either test
21
shows a deficiency, the child is referred to a physician for
further and more complete examination*
A dental nurse makes
careful inspection of the mouth, and reports the condition
of the child*s teeth.
A medical examination, given some­
time during the year, will reveal.the condition of the
adenoids, tonsils, heart, etc.
Every child is given the Monroe Diagonostic Reading
Tests, which consists of the following:
1. Gray Oral Reading Test
2. Haggerty Reading Test
3. The Monroe Silent Reading Test
4. Iota Test
5. Word Test
Some of the most frequent reading difficulties which
are found in the Monroe Tests are listed below:
1. Reversals of words
2. Reversals of letters within the words
3. Faulty consonants
4. Addition of sounds
5. Omission of sounds
6. Repetition of words
7* Substitution of words
In these tests, and other special tests, the eye and
hand preference is noted and recorded.
The hand preference
22
is frequently tested by some of the following;
tapping,
handwriting, throwing, using scissors, picking up objects,
*>
*
sawing, hammering nails, and batting*
The eye preference is
frequently found by the use of the Mailing Tube or the Peep­
hole Test*
Intelligence tests are also given to all the children*
Anyone of the following is generally used;
1* Kuhlmann-Anderson Intelligence Tests
2. Stanford Revision of the Binet-Simon Intelligence
Tests; Terman
5. Non-Language Primary Mental Tests; Pentner
CASE HISTORY
Nervousness and other pecularities are very important
in the understanding of problem children.
Since these items
are not included in standardized tests, it is necessary to
compile a case history giving this information*
Attitudes,
habits, special interests, and character traits should be
included in a history report.
A family history and a report
on the religious background of the child are generally
included.
The compilation of a case history represents the
combined efforts of the teachers, nurses, parents, and often
those of a physician.
The complete reports are generally
23
quite lengthy and therefore only parts of three histories
are given in this part of the study*
are contained in the appendix*
The complete histories
The following portions of
histories are given to illustrate some of the pertinent
factors to be included in such a report:
Case History of Lawrence Beck* Lawrence’s whole
attitude seems to be one of indifference as far as his work
in school is concerned, and yet if one observes him care­
fully, this attitude does always appear to be a sincere or
true one. He is interested when he is able to perform
creditably, in fact he has the tendency to become just a bit
conceited about a small measure of success.
(As evidenced
by his actions when allowed to take the teacher’s place dur­
ing the spelling lesson)• He really seemed to take hold of
the task and to feel his responsibility, but as soon as he
had finished and once more became just one of the students
in the room, he shouted to a boy on the other side of the
room, “Yah, I ’ll bet you never got to be the spelling teacher.”
On the whole, however, he attempts to hide his interest from
his class mates, and spends his time looking out of the
window, running around the room, talking in a very loud
voice whenever the opportunity presents itself, and just
generally making a nuisance of himself . Very seldom does a
day go by in which some other child in the room does not say.,
“Lawrence could just do better if he only would try.“ And
Lawrence frequently receives his share of student scolding
when he fails to sit up straight and the'whole room has to
wait on him before being allowed to pass. None of this
however, seems to have any effect on his behavior. He en­
joys his roll as the class clown, as he is thereby able to
receive the attention which he does seem to crave.
Lawrence in the ordinary class room situation has a
rather unllkeable personality. He is slovenly in appear­
ance; he is uninterested in the routine of the class room,
such as the opening exercises, unless he can be the flag
monitor, (and then he makes faces at the other members of
the class). His usual reaction to any suggestion which
might be made by the teacher is, “Ah, I d o n ’t want to do
that,” as long as there are any other children around to
hear. However, he will quickly accept any suggestion which
the teacher might make after school and seems to enjoy
helping her*. In fact, he usually waits until all the other
24
children have left, and then as he has to wait for the last
"bus, will ask if there is anything which he can do to help.
This is so very different from his usual behavior during the
day that he seems like an entirely different child. Instead
of resenting suggestions, pouting when corrected, or making
any effort whatsoever to show off, he works ahead with a
good deal of responsibility. But it is to be remembered
that he does not have an audience at this time.
He never quite openly defies authority, but he will
go just as far as he dares before obeying in all such little
things as taking his seat when asked to, putting away some
object which he has been using, etc. For instance, when he
has been asked to take his seat, if the class is watching
him, he will walk clear around to the other side of his seat
before he will make any attempt to sit down.
At the present time he has two habits which should be
mentioned and considered along with his developmental history.
Although he appears to enter into activities on the athletic
field with a little more than average ability, his difficulty
with writing (he is left-handed), with drawing, with speaking
softly, and with walking, (he has a very awkward, shuffling
gait) would indicate that his finer muscular coordination is
not as well developed as It should be for a child of his age.
Also he still has trouble with nocturnal enuresis, and his
mother has to get him up once or twice every night.
His chief interest seems to be in baseball and football--he has no hobbles, and although he has his own tools,
does not seem to get much pleasure from their use. He has
but one playmate, a boy in the fifth grade who lives next
door to him. His parents felt that the other b o y Ts Influence
was so strong on Lawrence that much of his trouble last year
came from the fact that they were In the same room and conse­
quently enjoyed cutting up together.
Case History of Bruce Hall. In handling Bruce his
health history must: be kept in the background. He is like
a wax doll and should be handled with care. He is of an
artistic high strung sensitive disposition. From the time
he was out of the cradle, he has felt inferior to those
around him. Therefore, he strives to excel and if he fails,
he becomes most discouraged and dispirited. " W h a t ^ the
use attitude!tt
When he was only two years old, he would hang to his
mother*3 skirts. He would ask Garold to go with him if he
25
had to go out in the dark. Because he is sensitive, he also
takes things to heart and suffers more keenly than the aver­
age person. He screamed and had hysterical spells when his
beloved dog died.
He was afraid of operations and afraid of dying.
is also very tender hearted and sympathetic.
He
Since his brothers are stronger and more successful
he tries to bring himself on an equality with them. He
wants affection and praise. He feels insecure, so teachers
should keep in mind these introvertive traits. Bruce is a
beautiful writer, they say, and always, has gotten the best
grades in Art. However, he does not want to become an
artist orsculptor. He wants to be a sailor. Art can be a
hobby, he says. He has always had a pad and pencil and is
drawing on the floor. He has musical tendencies. He wants
to be in the drum corps and wants to take tap dancing. The
artistic child has to be handled with exquisite Art.
P. A. and lateral studies of the chest show a calcified
Ghon focus in the right upper lung. Very minute calcifi­
cations are present at the right hilus. The left lung is
clear throughout. There is no evidence of exudative infil­
tration. The heart is not enlarged. Conclusions: The
calcified deposit in the right upper lung is probably a
Ghon focus• There is no evidence of active pulmonary
pathology.
He was also given thyroid tablets which have helped
him greatly. He has shown no curiosity regarding sex.
Case History of Lonnie Rhoten. (personal history)
1. Asocial behavior--'there is no indication that
Lonnie has ever stolen, lied or been cruel to anything. His
mother says that he tells huge tales that run on for hours*
But they are really stories he makes up to entertain him­
self— and this certainly cannot be called lying. It is a
play of the imagination.
2. Personality traits--Lonnie is not seclusive in the
true sense of the word, but he is indifferent and bored. He
has built up an outer wall that rebuffs everything. He
d oesn’t outwardly seem to care whether you like or dislike
him. He gets along nicely with other children. The mother
says that everybody in the neighborhood loves him. He does
not care about his relatives or immediate family as much as
he does other adults she says, but Lonnie insists he loves
them all. He is sweet natured and charming, but tries hard
not to show it.
26
a* Timidity— he is not afraid of anything* His
mother says that when he was little he picked up snakes
and never showed fear. He has no fear of the dark and
can be left alone for hours.
b. Pear— as was stated above Lonnie has no fear or
timidity. His mother says that when he was struck with
an appendicitis attack at night, although he was in
severe pain— such pain that he was white and covered
with perspiration, he kept saying, "It doesn’t hurt.
1*11 try to keep quiet so that Daddy can sleep, for he
has to work tomorrow.11
c. Habits— Lonnie has no sleep disturbances. He
sleeps like a ".log11 his mother says. He goes to bed at
7*30 or 8*00 and sleeps in a relaxed state until morning.
He has a rather capricious appetite. He will not eat
meat or bread unless it is in a sandwich. He hates
buttermilk and loves tomatoes. He will eat as much as
a dozen tomatoes a day. When he eats eggs and sweet
milk, he breaks out with hives. Since Lonnie has had
his tonsils removed (this month) he eats "like a horse."
He does not suck his thumb or bite his nails. No sign
of masturbation. He still wets his bed, but his mother
has this explanation for this.
It seems that when Lonnie had his appendix removed,
the doctor used a spinal block and this affected Lonnie’s
kidneys. Since this operation, he has wet his bed,
Mrs. Rhoten says Dr. Garner said this was the cause.
This operation occurred in 1935.
Mrs. Rhoten goes on further to say that Lonnie is most
unreliant. He cannot be depended on to any extent. For
example, he has several little jobs he must do before he
leaves for school. Everyday he calmly walks off to school
without touching them. Instead of leaving them for him
to do, Mrs. Rhoten does them herself. Then when he gets
home, she speaks to him about them. He laughs and says,
"You did it, didn’t you?" This is not said in an im­
pertinent manner, but merely as a statement of fact. At
school he cannot be depended on to do his work unless he
is constantly reminded.
There is an instance in Lonnie’s history which leads
me to believe that he feels self-pity. It seems that at
home Lonnie has been reprimanded about his failure to do
passing work at school. His mother says, "We bawled him
27
out and told him he must not be a dumbell all his life.
He stood there without any sign of listening or caring.
Later, he went outside to hang up some clothes, and I
heard a whimpering sound coming from under the house.
There was Lonnie crying his heart out. He will never
show any outward hurt.”
Lonnie is terribly conceited. He wisecracks at the
table and snickers at everything he does. He has never
been truly ttsquelched,” and Mrs. Rhoten says that he
really is funny. When he does these things, the fami
tries not to laugh but they just have to.
Lonnie seems to live in a world of his own. He is
highly imaginative. He loves to draw and he is es­
pecially fond of airplanes. He said in school one day,
Ӵ?hen I get big, I *m going to fly an airplane and be a
soldier.** Mrs. Rhoten says he listens to Jimmy A l l e n fs
program and eats up movies like ”The Devil*s Squadron.”
He likes to crochet. When he was sick, he liked nothing
better than to sit quietly and crochet in bed. He is
quiet at school— too quiet. Many times I have seen him
sitting and gazing Out into space with a far-away look
in his eyes. Nothing seems to interest him, even talk
about airplanes. He loves acting and make-up.
GLASS PROCEDURE
The room used for the remedial instruction is very
small, with comfortable chairs and a table.
blackboard space is also provided.
Sufficient
Reading material on all
levels, many drill charts, and useful pictures are to be
found handy in the room.
During the class period no inter­
ruptions are allowed, and no visitors are permitted.
Daily newspaper.
Each day as the individual or small
group of individuals come into the room, they find an
interesting picture standing on the chalk tray.
The picture
28
is generally taken from the morning newspaper, and. the
children learn to call the picture and the accompanying story
their "Daily Newspaper."
The following story illustrates the
type of picture and story used by the teacher.
tray was a picture of a
On the chalk
Yak and her newly born baby, and
above on the blackboard was the story;
Spring comes to San Francisco and with it one of
the few Yaks ever to be born in an taerican zoo*
What is the b a b y !s name? "Just Yak," said the zoo
keeper. "That name
suits him best ofall," he added*
The stories are always so written that certain read­
ing objectives are emphasized, and the children find a lot
of joy and pride in being able to read their newspaper.
Daily log*
The teacher found a well-kept daily log
for each child, or group of children, proved very helpful
in conducting review lessons, as well as preparing necessary
charts for the following day.
In the log were noted stories
read, charts and drill exercises used, troublesome words for
the child, types of errors noted In the childfs reading, and
anything else that the teacher felt important to consider in
planning remedial work for the child.
There are three general types of remedial instruction
used in the field of reading, and since the individuals in a
remedial class are apt to learn best by different methods,
no one method can be used to the exclusion of the others.
29
It may be advisable to use all three methods with the same
individual at times.
So it was with the present classes,
for the teacher used all three methods and varied them to
meet the needs and interests of the children.
The methods
are listed below, and will be discussed separately:
1* The Dr. Pernald Method
2. The Phonetic Method
3. The Picture Method
The Fernaid Method.
The method which Dr. Fernald,
Los Angeles psychologist, happened onto somewhat by accident
has been referred to by Professor Lewis M* Terman, head of
the Department of Psychology at Stanford University, as the
nmost dramatic thing going on in education today anywhere in
the
w
o
r
l
d
.
After much discouraging work with a boy of
eleven years old, Dr* Fernald and her assistant Miss Helen
Bass Keller, discovered that when the boy traced a word
several times on the blackboard he was able to recognize it
later.
With further use of this method with many similar
cases of non-readers, Dr. Fernald proved without a doubt that
certain children learn through their muscles and nerves.
Albert Edward Wiggam, !,The Most Dramatic Thing
Going on in Education Today Anywhere in the World— Teaching
the Child Who Cannot Read,n The Reader rs Digest. November, 1936.
She explains further that such children learn by doing and
feeling, and thus learn better.
The memory of it goes deeper
These .children are not defective but merely get their learn­
ing the nkinesthetic way.11
With the children in the present remedial classes who
apparently did not respond to other methods of instruction,
the teacher used this method of teaching words.
With some
children it was used only a short time until the child was
able to go ahead with normal reading.
With others only an
occasional use of this method was necessary to learn certain
difficult words.
In many cases this trouble occurred when
words are similar in spelling and pronounciation.
The Dr.
Fernald Method is very effective, but requires much more
time than other methods and therefore is not used except
with cases which demand it.
The Phonetic Method.
Phonetic training is a valuable
tool in overcoming !ldifficult periods1* in reading.
It should
result In its automatic use in determining the pronounciation
of unknown words.
Thus children should be led to cultivate
and use promptly phonetic knowledge whenever an unknown word
is confronted, -unless of course the context gives the key.
Studies of eye movements show clearly that confusion arises
when no satisfactory method of word attack has been developed
Judd recommends phonetic analysis as a valuable method of
31
attacking new words and of eliminating periods of confusion.
When a child comes to the remedial teacher for the
first time, one of the first problems to overcome Is to
learn the difference between vowels and consonants.
Of
course, In the case of the younger children the teacher does
not refer to the letter as a vowel or a consonant.
expressions are used.
as ”heart sounds.”
Other
The vowels are generally referred to
In developing an understanding of the
vowel sound the teacher used a series of cars with attractive
pictures to illustrate the sounds:
-Used with a picture
of a red apple
E ----- — Usedwith a picture
of an elephant
I &
of an Indian
Y — Usedwith a picture
0 -------
U — -—
U3ed with a picture
used with a picture
of an olive
of an umbrella
In this report of the remedial methods used, it Is
impossible to discuss or even mention all the drills and
exercises used to develop an understanding of the different
sounds.
Therefore, only samples of different types of drill
cards will be given to illustrate the materials used in the
classes.
Some of the first drill cards used with the study of
vowel sounds are given below:
am
at
egg
ebb
32
an
and
add
ask
end
elk
elm
else
in
it
is
ill
ink
inch
on
off
odd
up
us '
>llowing drills are used to show the
together:
at
ate
on
no
ebb
ell
us
use
is
ice
typ
type
Still other types of drill cards are used to develop
different sounds:
ar
are
far
farm
barn
start
er
ir
her
term
jerk
clerk
serve
girl
bird
dirt
whirl
first
ar— -— far
er
-her
Ir----- sir
yp---- -syrup
or-----f or
ur
--fur
or
for
form
morn
morning
north
ur
turn
curl
burst
nurse
church
33
ay— —
ai —
ey —
ei —
°y—
oi— —
pay
boil
ea—
ee-~
oa— - - r o a d
oe—
ue-ui-aw
ew
saw
draw
dawn
hawk
crawl
new
few
grew
chew
jewel
my
fly
cry
try
spy
sky
red
bet
fed
met
kept
Chess
baby
lady
army
story
rainy
sleepy
Also drill cards were used to build words.
These
drills were used with the older children:
optic
logic
magic
music
physic
technic
comic
mechanic
practice
psychic
optical
logical
magical
musical
physical
technical
comical
mechanic
practical
psychical
optician
logician
magician
musician
physician
technically
comedian
mechanism
practitioner
psychology
34
Prefix and suffix charts are used:
distiller
disgusting
discourage
disbandment
discussion
dissected
distinctive
disturbances
discovery
distinction
au
aw
al
auk
■aughts
sauce
haul
cause
fault
daub
awl
awful
saw
hawk
caw
fawn
dawn
all
also
salt
halt
call
fall
wall
dismissal
disgraceful
disagreeable
discordant
ou
ought
nought
sought
bought
brought
fought
thought
After the various phonetic sounds have been mastered
by the child, the next step is learn to blend them so that
he may discover the pronounciation of a new word.
Until
this habit of blending is fixed, the pupil will not be an
efficient or independent reader.
He must learn to do this
process of blending silently or mentally; that is he must see
the phonetic elements in a word, think the sounds they sym­
bolize, and pronounce the word.
These three acts are to be
practically simultaneous.
The Picture Method.
The method of teaching reading
commonly referred to as the MPicture Method*1 is psychologi­
cally based upon the power of association and the power of
suggestion.
The child who learns easier by association will
generally respond to this method and will learn new words
more quickly and retain them better than by any other method.
35
For some children the sight of a picture immediately creates
an interest, and after all that is one of the first requi­
sites to all learning*
If the teacher were attempting to get the child to
recognize the word whouse,n she would find an attractive
picture of a house and mount it oh cardboard with the word
^house*1 placed beneath it.
Or if the child was confronted
with difficulty in connection with the words, “mother*1 or
“father," she would find suitable pictures and mount them as
described above.
This process naturally involves a great
deal of time and planning on the part of the teacher to
anticipate all the needs of a group of children, but often
the results more than justify the efforts spent.
This same method, or use of pictures, carried a step
further can be used with short stories.
The picture used
not only stimulates an interest in the story but also illus­
trates meanings of words and expressions.
universally used
It is almost
in all primary readers today.
SUMMARY
1.
In selecting children for remedial reading, it was
found important to have the following test data:
cal (obtained from school nurse and doctor),
(a) physi­
(b) Monroe
Diagnostic Reading Tests, and (c) Intelligence Test.
56
2.
In chronic cases it'was found necessary to include
in a case history other information about the habits, atti­
tudes, family and social background of the child which do
not appear in the above mentioned tests,
5, In the daily class procedure two helpful aids were
used:
(a) The Daily Newspaper and (b) The Daily Log,
4, The three remedial methods used by the teacher
included the following:
(a) Dr, Fernald Method,
Phonetic Method, and (c) The Picture Method,
(b) The
CHAPTER III
ANALYZING READING DIFFICULTIES
Cases of reading difficulties vary almost as much as
do the personalities of the pupils involved.
Children having
specific reading difficulties can usually be diagnosed by
good reading diagnostic tests.
The more complex cases hav­
ing trouble with several reading skills are more difficult
to analyze.
This being true, the task of making the analy­
sis falls to the lot of a specialist.
These specialists must
have a good understanding of the physiological and psycho­
logical processes in reading, and should be able to secure
the whole-hearted cooperation of teachers, parents, and the
community.
In order to secure all the desired information
it will probably be necessary to solicit the assistance of
the health department and the parents.
Since the analysis of reading difficulties is so
closely associated with any program of remedial reading, it
was thought advisable to include in this study a chapter on
nAnalyzing Reading Difficulties .**
It is the purpose of this
chapter to discuss the several sources of information needed
to completely understand the child who Is having trouble
with reading.
Seven sources from which infomation on oral
and silent reading habits, personality and individual
38
abilities, and school and home orientation can be secured
will be-considered briefly in this section.
The seven
sources to be discussed are:
1. General achievement tests
2. intelligence tests
3. Reading-readiness tests
4. Tests of specific reading skills and reading level
5. Tests
of sensory capacities
6. Tests for appraisal of individual interests and
habits.
7. Case history and general observations.
In the discussion of each source of information a list
of available tests to be given will be included.
In some
cases, however, this list will consist of items to be investi­
gated rather than tests to be administered.
GENERAL ACHIEVEMENT TESTS
Since reading is the underlying basis for nearly all
school subject-matter fields, a good achievement test will
reveal weaknesses which might be due to poor reading habits.
It does not follow that all low scores on achievement tests
are indicative of reading difficulty.
A child’s lack of
interest or social adjustment may frequently be the cause.
Although reading is considered basic for all school
59
subject-matter fields, some fields require more reading
ability than others.
For instance, a pupil with reading
difficulties may show normal or above normal achievement in
arithmetic fundamentals, and fall far below normal in arith­
metic reasoning.
The following achievement tests provide valuable
information:
1* Metropolitan Achievement Tests; Allen, Bixler,
Conner, Graham, and Hildreth
2. The Hew Stanford Achievement Tests; Kelly, Ruch,
and Terman
3. The Modern School Achievement Tests; Gates, Mort,
and Symonds
4. The Progressive Achievement Test
INTELLIGENCE TESTS
Although intelligence tests have been severely
criticized in recent years, educators still find test results
extremely useful in the classification of children.
With
our increased understanding of the uses test results can be
made to serve, more efficient use can be made of them.
Many
slow readers make low scores on the written intelligence
tests, but on oral tests show normal or superior intelligence.
40
Durrelll4
suggests that group intelligence tests, involving
a great number of reading items, are merely reading tests,
incorrectly labeled.
The consensus of opinion appears to be that formal
reading should never be attempted with children of low
intelligence until they have reached a mental age of at
least six and one-half years.
Intelligence tests which have been very frequently
used include:
1. Kuhlmann-Anderson Intelligence Tests; Kuhlmann
and Anderson
2. Stanford Revision of the Binet-Simon Intelligence
Tests; Terman
5. Non-Language Primary Mental Test; Pintner
READING-READINESS TESTS
It has been said that the only meaning a person can
get from a word is the meaning he takes to it.
No child
should be introduced to formal reading until he is ready.
Many primary children have parents and teachers who attempt
**•4 Donald D. Durrell, wThe Influence of Reading
Ability on Intelligence Measures,n Journal of Educational
Psychology. XXIV (September, 1933).
41
to push them ahead in their reading, not realizing that per­
haps they have not had sufficient experience to give them an
adequate basis for formal reading.
When such a condition
exists, much time can be saved for the child and many unhappy experiences eliminated, if the teacher will accept
the challenge of providing the necessary background for the
child.
It seems to be the consensus of opinion among those
using reading-readiness tests that although the individual
test requires more time to give than the group test, it is
far more satisfactory.
The following tests provide valuable information;
1. Betts Ready to
Read Tests (individual tests); Betts
2. Metropolitan Readiness Tests (group tests); Hildreth,
Gertrude, and Nellie L. Griffiths.
3.. Reading-Readiness Tests; Lee and Grant
4. Aptitude Tests; Monroe
5. Sangren Information Tests for Young Children;
Sangren
6. Classification Test for Beginners in Reading; Stone
and Grover
7. Reading-Readiness Tests; Van Wagenen
42
TESTS OF SPECIFIC READING SKILLS AND READING LEVEL
It is necessary to discover the reading level of
pupils as well as their difficulties in reading.
In develop­
ing a reading program it is essential to know where the child
should begin his work.
The following reading tests are frequently used and
have been proven to be very valuable:
1. General reading tests
a. Gates Silent Reading Tests; Gates
b. Iowa Silent Reading Tests; Greene and Kelly
c. Instructional Tests in Reading; Sangren and
Wilson
d.Sangren-Woody Reading Tests; Sangren and Woody
2. Comprehension reading tests
a. Unspeeded Reading Comprehension Tests; Chapman
and Holzinger
b. Reading; Level of Comprehension and Reading;
Speed and Accuracy; Gates
3. Oral reading tests
a. Gray Standardized Oral Reading Check Tests; Gray
b. Gray Standardized Oral Reading Paragraph Tests;
Gray
4. Diagnostic reading tests
a. Betts Ready to Read Tests; Betts
43
b, Procedure for the Analysis of Reading Diffi­
culties; Durell
c, Diagnostic Reading Tests; Gates
d, Diagnostic Reading Examination; Monroe
TESTS OF SENSORY CAPACITIES
Since reading is so closely related to the physical
development of an individual, many reading cases can never
he analyzed without the assistance of the health department.
The health department can furnish valuable inform­
ation on the following items :
1, Defective vision
2, Defective hearing
3, Enlarged tonsils
4, Obstructive adenoids
5, Glandular disturbances
6, Defective teeth
7, Malnutrition
8, Brain injuries
9, History of previous Illness
APPRAISAL OF INDIVIDUAL INTERESTS AND HABITS
Modern education considers a child’s interest to be
of paramount importance.
In the field of remedial reading
44
interest is probably of more importance than any other
factor.
Without interest on the part of the learner, very .
little can be accomplished.
In order to establish a connec­
tion with the childTs experience the teacher must discover
his interests.
Personal habits and attitudes should be of interest to
the teacher working with a remedial reading program.
One of
the by-products of successful work in the remedial field is
often the change of the childfs attitude toward school,
home, and society when he has once gained confidence in him­
self.
A better citizen with a well-balanced philosophy of
life is just as much the goal
of the remedial teacher as
any other teacher in the school.
CASE HISTORY AND'GENERAL OBSERVATIONS
Establishing a course of remedial work for any child
cannot be done in a haphazard way.
A history of the case
will often give data which is necessary in planning a reme­
dial instruction course.
Often a weakness in school work is due to poor
attendance, improper home environment, physical handicaps,
foreign language difficulty, or poor home-school relationship.
Betts^ suggests that the following items be included in a
case history:
1* School history
a. Age of entrance to first grade
b. Extent of pre-first grade training
c. First awareness of the difficulty on the part
of the teacher
d. Number of grades repeated
e. Attitude of parents
f. Regularity of attendance
g. Frequency of transfer from one school to another
h. Record of illness
i. Achievement in other school subjects
j. Attitude toward teacher and school
k. Special school interests and attitudes
2. Home data
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f•
g.
Occupation of parents
Nationality
Language spoken in the home
Social-economic condition of home
Reading difficulties of parents or siblings
Parents* attitude toward school
Parents* attitude toward difficulty of child
SUMMARY
1* The analysis of serious reading difficulties should
be the task of a specialist.
2.
The following sources provide necessary information
for the analysis of reading difficulties *
a. General achievement tests
15 gmma Albert Betts, The Prevention and Correction
of Reading Difficulties (Row, Peterson and Company, 1936),
p.
46
b. Intelligence tests
c. Reading-readiness tests
d.
Tests of specific reading skills and reading
e.
Tests of sensory capacities
level
f # Tests for appraisal of individual interests and
habits
g. Case history and general observations
3. A general achievement test will often reveal weak­
nesses which might be due to reading difficulty.
4. Formal reading should never be attempted with
children of low intelligence until they havereached
age of
a mental
at least six and one half years.
5. With the realization^of the limitations of intelli­
gence tests, more efficient use can be made of them.
6. The individual reading-readiness test seems to be
far more satisfactory than the group test.
7. The assistance of the health department in diagnos­
ing reading difficulties'is very necessary.
8. The development of proper attitudes, habits, and
philosophy of life is just as much the goal of the remedial
teacher as any other teacher in the school.
CHAPTER IV
IMPROVEMENT IN RELATION TO LENGTH
OF REMEDIAL INSTRUCTION
The purpose of this chapter is to analyze the test
results of the seventy-four eases included in this study and
compare the achievement of each with the length of time spent
in the remedial class*
Due to irregular entries into the
class, many children had retests given them at the conclusion
of three, four, six, or more months*
Some of those who were
retested at the end of three or four months continued in the
class for as long a period as one or two years*
In this
study; however, all cases showing retests at the end of three
months1work will be grouped together for analysis; those hav­
ing approximately four months will be grouped together; and
likewise for all other periods of instruction.
The progress
T
for all cases is shown in terms of years and months, ten
school months making one school year, that is, a number such
as 1*2 represents a gain of one year and two tenths of another
one.
CASES HAVING APPROXIMATELY THREE MONTHS' INSTRUCTION
Out of the seventy-four cases included in this study,
seventeen were retested at the end of approximately three
months of remedial Instruction.
The most significant gains
48
were shown in the Word Test and the Iota Word Test, both
showing considerably greater than normal gains.
In the Word
Test the gains ranged from *4 to 2.?, while on the Iota Word
Test the range was from .2 to 1.9.
The- median for the Iota Word Test was 1*1 while for
the Word Test it was 1*2, both of which are considerably
above a normal gain for three months.
The lowest gains were made in the Gray Oral Test and
the Haggerty Test.
The gains on the G-ray Oral Test ranged
from .0 to 1.0, while on the Haggerty Test the range was
from -.8 to 1.8.
On the Haggerty Test three pupils showed
losses on their retests, the only instances of any loss in
scores on retests in the entire study of the seventy-four
cases.
The median for the Gray Oral Test was .5 and for the
Haggerty Test .4, both of which are slightly above a normal
three months1gain.
The average reading score is probably a fairly true
picture of a pupil* s reading level.
The gains on the average
score ranged from .3 to 1.4, which means that all the cases
made average or above average progress during the three months
in the class.
The median gain for the average reading scores
was .8.
The gains on all test*scores for all the cases are
shown in Table I (page 49), and median gains for all tests
are given in Table II (page 50).
TABLE I
GAINS ON EACH TEST
FOR CASES HAVING APPROXIMATELY
THREE MONTHS OF REMEDIAL INSTRUCTION
Case
Gray Oral
Haggerty
Iota Word
Word Test
30
.2
-.1
1.6
2* 1
31
.2
0
.3
.7
32
.5
.2
.6
1.1
33
0
.2
«2
.8
34
.3
.4
1.9
2.3
44
0
0
.4
1.0
57
.7
.7
1.5
1.5
127
.3
.2
1.3
1.3
128
.7
1.0
1.6
1.2
129
1.0
•5
1.2
2.0
130
.5
.5
1.9
2.7
132
•5
.5
.7
1.6
133
0
.5
.8
1.3
134
.8
*6
1.1
1.1
135
.9
— *8
.8
.4
136
.5
-.5
.8
.4
13?
.8
1.8
1.6
.5
50
TABLE II
MEDIAN GAINS ON EACH TEST
FOR CASES HAVING APPROXIMATELY
THREE MONTHS OF REMEDIAL INSTRUCTION
Gray Oral
Haggerty
4
Iota Word
Word Test
Average
1.1
1.2
.8
51
CASES HAVING- APPROXIMATELY FOUR MONTHS' INSTRUCTION
Out of the seventy-four cases Included in this study,
eight were retested at the end of approximately four months.
Again the most significant gains were made in the Word Test
and the Iota Word Test.
On the Iota Word Test only one pupil
failed to make normal or above normal progress, and on the
Word Test there were two.
The gains on the Iota Word Test
ranged from .2 to 2.8, and the median for the eight cases was
.85.
The gains on the Word Test ranged from .0 to 2.5, and
the median gain for the eight cases was 1.15.
The Gray Oral Test seemed to show the least gains, with
only one pupil making more than four months'progress.
The
range of gains on this test was from .0 to .8 and the median
gain was .2.
On the Haggerty Test nearly all the gains were
above normal, only two pupils failing to show at least four
months' gain.
The range in gains was from *0 to .8, and the
median gain for the eight cases was .6.
On the average reading scores there were six who made
above normal progress and only two who failed to make at least
four months' progress.
The range of gains was from .2 to 1.6
and the median gain was .7.
The gains on all test scores for all the eight cases
are shown in Table III (page 52), and the median gains for all
the tests are given in Table IV (page 55).
52
TABLE III
GAIKS.ON EACH TEST FOR
CASES HAVING APPROXIMATELY
FOUR MONTHS OF REMEDIAL INSTRUCTION
Case
Gray Oral
Haggerty
Iota Word
Word Test
* Average
4
.3
•3
1.0
1.0
.7
28
.2
.8
.2
.3
.3
29
.2
.5
1.4
2.0
1.0
39
.1
.7
.7
1.3
.7
42
0
.8
.4
.6
.5
.8
2.8
1.9
1.6
52
•8
76
*2
0
.4
0
.2
94
.2
.4
1.6
2.5
1.1
53
TABLE IV
MEDIAN GAINS ON EACH TEST
FOR OASES HAVING APPROXIMATELY
FOUR MONTHS OF REMEDIAL INSTRUCTION
Gray Oral
*2
Haggerty
.6
Iota Word
♦85
Word Test
1*15
Average
.7
54
CASES HAVING APPROXIMATELY SIX MONTHS1 INSTRUCTION
Out of the seventy-four cases, there were twenty-three
who were retested at the conclusion of approximately six
months of remedial instruction*
The greatest gains were made
in the Word Test and the Iota Word Test*.
In the Word Test
there were four pupils who failed to achieve at least six
months1 improvement.
The range of gains was from .0 to 3.?,
and the median gain was 1*5.
On the Iota Word Test there
were only two children who failed to achieve normal progress
for the time spent in the class.
The gains for the group
ranged from .4 to 4*1 and the median was 1*7*
The medians
for both the Word Test and Iota Test were considerably
greater than six months.
The Haggerty Test seemed to show the least gain for
the group.
Twelve of the children in the group failed to
make at least six months* progress.
for the group was .5.
2.7.
H 0wever, the median gain
The range of scores was from *0 to
On the Gray Oral Test there were ten who failed to show
six months* gain.
The range of scores was from .0 to £.1 and
the median score was .8.
On the average reading score there was a range from
.2 to 2.5 and the median score was 1.1.
For the average
reading score there were only three who failed to show normal
progress for the six months, and there were four pupils who
showed as much as two years*or more progress.
55
The gains on all test scores for all the twenty-three
cases are shown in Table V (page 56), and the median gains
for all the tests are given in Table VI (page 57)*
OASES HAVING APPROXIMATELY TEN MONTHS' INSTRUCTION
There were thirty cases retested at the conclusion of
ten months of remedial instruction.
Again the greatest im­
provement was definitely made in the Iota Word Test and the
Word Test.
On each of the two tests twenty-eight of the
thirty cases made normal or above normal progress for the
ten months spent in the class.
The gains on the Iota Test
ranged from .7 to 3.7, and the median was 1*95.
On the Word
Test the range was from .3 to 3.4, and the median was 1.9.
Both medians were far above a normal achievement for the
time spent in the class.
On the G-ray Oral Test there were six cases that made
less than one year's progress.
The range of scores for the
Gray Oral Test was from .3 to 3.2 and the median was 1.5.
On the Haggerty Test there was a range of gains from *3 to
2.0, and the median gain was 1.1.
Fourteen out of the thirty
cases failed to make at least one year* s progress.
The gains on the average reading scores were all, ex­
cept two, above a year's improvement.
The range of gains
was from .8 to 2.8, and the median was 1.75.
Seven pupils
made two years or more progress during the one year spent in
the class.
56
TABLE V
'GAINS ON EAGH TEST FOR CASES HAVING
APPROXIMATELY SIX MONTHS OF REMEDIAL INSTRUCTION
Iota Word
Word Test
Average
1.7
1.2
.9
2.1
3.3
2.9
2.3
.9
0
2.0
H
to
•
Case
Gray Oral
12
* -5
16
.9
22
Haggerty
1.0
23
.4
.4
1.4
2.7
1.2
25
•1
.4
1.0
1.5
.8
36
1.9
2.7
2.1
1.2
1.9
38
.9
.2
2.4
1.8
116
40
1.0
1.0
1.7
2.5
1.9
.3 :
.8 .
.8
.4
•3
.6
45
♦7
.1
1.1
.4
.6
49
0
0
.5
0
.2
53
0
.3
.6
.7
.4
67
.3
1.0
2.0
2.9
1.5
68
.0
.7
.7
.9
.6
70
1.3
.8
1.6
.5
1.1
78
0
.5
H
H
1.9
.9
81
0
.3
.6
.8
.5
91
1.3
.6
2.0
2.2
1.3
92
0
.1
.9
1.6
•6
95
2.1
1.0
,4.1
.. 2.0
. 2.3
98
.8
.3
2.7
2.8
1.7
99
2.1
1.9
2.6
1.5
2.0
104
1.5
1.8
3.2
3.7
2.5
.
41
TABLE VI
MEDIAN GAINS ON EACH TEST
FOR CASES HAVING APPROXIMATELY
SIX MONTHS OF REMEDIAL INSTRUCTION
Gray Oral
.8
Haggerty
Iota Word
Word Test
Average
.5
1.7
1.5
1.1
58
The gains on all test scores for all the thirty cases
are shown in Table VII (pages 59-60), and the median gains
for all the tests are given in Table VIII (page 61).
CASES HAVING- APPROXIMATELY FIFTEEN MONTHS1INSTRUCTION
Out of the seventy-four cases, sixteen were retested
at the end of approximately fifteen months.
As has been
true with all the other groups, the greatest improvement
was made in the Iota Word Test and the Word Test.
On the
Iota Word Test, thirteen pupils showed above normal progress.
The range of gains was from 1.2 to 4.3, and the median was
2.85.
On the Word Test all of the cases showed more than
fifteen months* progress.
The range of gains was from 2.0
to 3*7, and the median was 2.75.
The medians on both of
these tests were nearly twice a normal improvement for the
time spent in the class.
Seven pupils out of the sixteen made more than fif­
teen months*progress on the Gray Oral Test, and also seven
on the Haggerty Test.
The median gain for the Gray Oral
Test was 1.3, and for the Haggerty, 1.35.
On the Gray Oral
Test the range of gains was from .0 to 3.3, and on the
Haggerty it was from .6 to 2.6.
The average reading gains showed that in fifteen
months, three individuals made more than three years* pro­
gress, and four made between 2.5 and 3.0 years*progress.
59
TABLE YII
GAINS ON EACH TEST
FOR CASES HAVING. APPROXIMATELY
TEN MONTHS OF REMEDIAL INSTRUCTION
Case
Gray Oral
Haggerty
Iota Word
Word Test
Average
1.8
.8
1.7
.4
1.0
7
1.3
.8
1.9
1.5
1.6
8
H
.6
1.3
1.8
1.3
1.5
1.1
1.8
.3
1.2
.7
1.1
2.4
2.0
1.5
32
2.6
1.3
1.6
1.1
1.7
34
2.3
1.6
2.1
2.6
2.1
35
2.2
.7
1.8
2.7
1.8
39
2.0
.9
1.2
1.0
1.3
42
.8
.8
1.1
1.9
1.2
53
.5
.7
.9
1.1
.8
54
1.6
.9
1.9
1.9
1.5
55
1.9
1.6
3.7
3.3
2.7
56
1.7
1.7
2.0
2*2
1.9
59
1.1
.9
2.7
2.7
1.8
62
.3
.3
1.2
1.9
.9
66
1.3
H
H
1.8
2.8
1.8
78
.5
H
2.8
3.2
1.9
•
17
31
H
2
:
.
H
.
60
TABLE VII (continued)
GAIKS ON EACH TEST
FOR CASES HAVING APPROXIMATELY
TEN MONTHS OF REMEDIAL INSTRUCTION
Case
Gray Oral
Haggerty
Iota Word
Word Test
Average
82
1.3
1.1
1.9
1.9
2.5
96
3.2
1.9
3.7
2.5
2.8
102
.3
.5
3.2
3.4
1.8
113
1.5
.7
.7
1.4
1.0
114
1.3
1.7
2.1
H
02
•
1.6
115
2.1
1.7
2.5
1.1
1.9
119
2.4
2.0
2.7
2.3
2.3
121
1.1
.7
2.1
2.7
1.7
122
1.5
1.2
2.2
2.4
1.8
123
1.0
1.1
1.4
1.6
1.2
124
2.3
1.4
3.5
1.6
2.2
125
1.5
3.5
2.4
2.0
.8
61
TABLE VIII
MEDIAN GAINS ON EACH TEST
FOR CASES HAVING APPROXIMATELY
TEN MONTHS OF REMEDIAL INSTRUCTION
Gray Oral
1.5
Haggerty
1*1
Iota Word
1.95
Word Test
1.9
Average
1.75
62
All except four pupils made normal or above normal Improve­
ment, and their gains were very close to normal.
The median
average gain was 2.5.
The gains on all test scores for all the sixteen
cases are shown In Table IX (page 65),
and the median
gains
for all the tests are given In Table X (page 64).
o a s e s h a v i n g - a p p r o x i m a t e l y t w o y e a r s 1 In s t r u c t i o n
Nine pupils remained in the class long enough to have
retests at the end of two years of instruction.
The great­
est improvement again was made in the Iota Word Test and
the Word Test.
The median gain for the Iota Test was 5.7,
and for the Word Test it was 5.5.
normal two years' improvement.
Both were far above a
On the Iota Test the gains
ranged from 1.6 to 4.5 with seven out of the nine making
more than three years' progress in the two years.
On the
Word Test the range of scores was from 1.6 to 3.9with
seven children making more than three years' progress In the
two years.
The median gain for the Gray Oral Test was 2.2, with
the range of gains from .7 to 3.0.
On the Haggerty Test
there were only two who made at least two years' Improvement.
The median gain on the Haggerty Test was 1.7, with a range
of gains from .9 to 2.4.
*63
TABLE IX
GAINS ON EACH TEST
FOR OASES HAVING. APPROXIMATELY
FIFTEEN MONTHS OF REMEDIAL INSTRUCTION
Case
Gray Oral
Haggerty
Iota Word
Word Test
Average
8
2*7
1.6
3.6
3.0
2.7
23
3.3
2.6
3.5
3.6
3.3
32
3.3
2.4
3.2
2.4
2.8
39
1.9
2.2
2.8
3.2
2.6
40
2.5
2.6
4.3
3.3
3.2
41
1.3
1.3
1.4
2.0
1.5
42
3.1
2.5
2.9
3.7
3.1
44
1.3
1.4
3.3
3.3
2.4
49
0
.6
2.6
2.2
1.4
53
.3
1.0
2.5
2.7 /
1.6
67
1.0
2.1
3.2
3.7
2.5
68
.3
1.1
2.1
2.7
1.6
81
.5
1.0
1.6
2.0
1.3
88
.8
.9
1.3
2.7
1.4
92
.5
i.o
1.2
2.5
1.3
94
2.2
1.0
3.2
2.8
2.2
64
TABLE X
MEDIAN GAINS ON EACH TEST
FOR CASES HAVING APPROXIMATELY
FIFTEEN MONTHS OF REMEDIAL INSTRUCTION
Gray Oral
Haggerty
Iota Word
Word Test
Average
1.3
1.35
2.85
2.75
2.3
65
The average reading scores showed that in two years
six individuals made more than normal progress for the period
of time spent in the class*
two year improvement.
Three pupils failed to make a
The range of average gains was from
1*4 to 3*1, and the median was 2*7*
The gains on all test scores for all the nine cases
are shown in Table XI (page 66), and the median gains for
all the tests are given in Table XII (page 67).
CASES HAVING- APPROXIMATELY TWO AND ONE-HALF
YEARS' INSTRUCTION
Out of the seventy-four cases, eight were retested at
the end of approximately two and one-half years of remedial
Instruction*
The Iota Word Test and the Word Test again
showed the greatest improvements, with median gains of over
one year more than a normal improvement.
The median for the
Iota Word Test was 3*8, with a range of gains from 1*8 to
4*5.
There were three pupils who made over four years' Im­
provement during the two and
one-half years spent in the
class*
range of gains was from 1*9 to
On the Word Test the
4.1, and the median was 3*65.
The median gains for both the G-ray Oral and the Hag­
gerty tests were below a two and one-half years' gain*
median for the Gray
from .5 to 2.9.
Oral was
The
1.95 and the range of gains was
On the Haggerty Test the median gain was
66
TABLE XI
GAINS ON EACH TEST
FOR OASES HAVING APPROXIMATELY
TWO YEARS OF REMEDIAL INSTRUCTION
Case
Gray Oral
Haggerty
Iota Word
Word Test
Average
?
2.9
1.9
4.5
3.3
3.1
31
2.2
2.2
4.2
3.4
3.0
35
3.0
1.7
3.2
3.1
2.6
66
2.5
2.4
3.8
3.7
3.1
74
•7
1.7
1.6
3.2
2.1
76
1.2
.9
1.8
1.6
1.4
78
1.6
1.8
3.6
3.9
2.7
82
2.7
1*4
3.9
2.6
2.9
102
1.8
1.3
3.7
3.9
1.6
.
67
TABLE XII
MEDIAN GAINS ON EACH TEST
FOR CASES HAVING APPROXIMATELY
TWO YEARS OF REMEDIAL INSTRUCTION
Gray Oral
Haggerty
Iota Word
Word Test
2.2
1.7
3.7
3.3
Average
68
1.7, and the range of gains was from .8 to 2.4.
On the Gray
Oral Test there were six cases that failed to show at least
normal progress, and on the Haggerty Test there were seven.
The average reading gains showed that all except
three pupils made normal or more than normal progress for
the time spent in the class.
Two children made three years*
or more improvement during the period of instruction.
The
median gain was 2*7, and the range of gains was from 1.4 to
3.6.
The gains on all test scores for all the six cases
are shown in Table XIII (page 69), and the median gains for
all the tests are given in Table XIV (page 70).
OASES HAVING APPROXIMATELY THREE YEARS1INSTRUCTION
Only five cases remained in the class long enough to
have retests given at the end of three years of instruction.
Again the greatest gains were ma.de on the Iota Word and the
Word Test.
The median gain for the Iota Word Test was 3.6
and the range of gains was from 3.0 to 4.7.
Every case
showed a normal or above normal gain in this test.
On the
Word Test the median gain was 3.9, and the range was from 2.9
to 4.1.
All except one pupil showed normal or above normal
improvement.
more progress.
Two out of the five children made four years* or
69
TABLE XIII
GAINS ON EACH TEST
FOR CASES HAVING APPROXIMATELY
TWO AND ONE-HALF YEARS OF REMEDIAL INSTRUCTION
Gase
Gray Oral
Haggerty
Iota Word
Word Test
Average
41
2.1
1.7
1.7
2.9
2.1
44
2.1
1*7
4.4
3*6
3.1
45
1*3
1.6
1.8
1.9
1.4
49
.5
*8
2.9
3.7
2*0
67
2*9
2*9
4.5
4*1
3.6
68
1.5
2*4
3*9
4* 1
3*0
88
1.8
1.3
3.7
3.4
2.5
.94
2*8
2*0
4.3
3.7
2*9
70
TABLE XIV
MEDIAN GAINS ON EACH TEST
FOR CASES HAVING APPROXIMATELY
TWO AND ONE-HALF YEARS OF REMEDIAL INSTRUCTION
Gray Oral
1*95
Haggerty
1*7
Iota Word
3.8
Word Test
Average
3.65
2*7
71
The median gain
for the Gray Oral Test was 2.6 and
the range of gains was
from 1.9 to 3.9.
Only one child
showed a normal gain*
The median for the Haggerty Test was
2.2, and the range of gains was from 1.3 to 2.7.
None of
the cases showed normal progress in this test.
On the average reading scores there were two who made
more than three years* gain and three who made less than a
normal progress.
The median gain was 2.9, and the range of
gains was from 2*7 to 3.8.
The gains on all test scores for all five cases are
shown in Table XV (page 72), and the median gains for all
the tests are given in Table XVI (page 73).
SUMMARY
The results of retests seemed to follow a rather defi­
nite pattern in each group of eases.
Regardless of the
length of period of instruction, the achievementsof each
group were quite uniform in following certain trends.
Some
of these results are as listed:
1.
The two tests which showed the greatest gains
in each group of cases were the Iota Word Test and the Word
Test.
2.
The median gains on the Gray Oral Test and the
Haggerty Test were much lower than the Iota Word Test and
the Word Test, on all the groups.
72
TABLE XV
GAINS ON EACH TEST
FOR CASES HAVING APPROXIMATELY
THREE YEARS OF REMEDIAL INSTRUCTION
Case
45
Gray Oral
2.6
Haggerty
2.2
Iota Word
. 3.0
Word Te st
Average
2.9
2.7
49
1.9
1.3
3.5
3.9
2.7
53
2.4
2.2
4.1
3.2
2.9
74
3.9
2.7
3.6
4.1
3.8
76
2.6
2.1
4.7
4.0
3.3
TABLE XVI
MEDIAN GAINS ON EACH TEST
FOR CASES HAVING APPROXIMATELY
THREE YEARS OF REMEDIAL INSTRUCTION
Gray Oral
Haggerty
Iota Word
2.2
3.6
Word Test
3.9
Average
2.9
74
3*
The medians for the Iota Word and the Word Test
were above a normal gain for each period, and in some periods
the gains were as much as one year above a normal gain#
4*
The median gains for-the Gray Oral Test were not
all above a normal gain for each group*
One-half of the
groups showed medians above normal gains, and one-half below.
5.
The median gains on average reading scores for
all groups except the one having three years of remedial in­
struction were well above normal gains for the periods of
instruction.
6.
The gains on the Haggerty Test and the G-ray O m l
Test for children having retests at the conclusion of periods
up to and including one year of instruction were much b etter
in relation to the length of instruction than those having
retests for periods longer than one year.
7.
The group that had retests given at the conclu­
sion of one y e a r ’s instruction seemed to show the best re­
sults on all batteries of the Monroe Diagnostic Reading
Test.
CHAPTER V
HAND AND EYE PREFERENCE OF POOR READERS
There seems to be some variation in the results re­
ported for studies made to determine the hand and eye pre­
ferences of children and their relationship to school achievement.
Comfort"*"6 and Dearborn1^ show evidence of greater
mixed dextrality among poor readers than good readers.
Haef-
ner1^ found a greater variability in performance in the lefthanded group, but no reliable difference between the school
achievement of the left-handed and the right-handed groups.
In a study of one hundred and one school children
Monroe19 found about the same number of cases of righthandedness and left-handedness in the reading defect and the
control groups.
Dr. Monroe states:
. . . hand preference, on the whole, showed little
significant difference among the groups* Eye prefer­
ence, on the contrary, showed significant differences.
Among reading-defect cases there was a greater portion
of children who preferred the left eye in sighting, and
who showed right hand dominance with left-eye dominance.
16
F. D. Comfort, ^Lateral Dominance and Reading
Ability,11 September 11. 1931 (paper read before American Psy­
chological Association).
17
W. F. Dearborn, MOcular and Manual Dominance in
Dyslexia,” September 12, 1931 (paper read before the American
Psychological Association).
18
Ralph Haefner, "The Educational Significance of
Left-Handedness, " (New York: Teachers College, Columbia
University, 1929).
19
Marion Monroe, Children Who Cannot Read (Chicago:
University of Chicago Press, 1932), p. 84.
76
Since there is much question as to the relationship,
if any, between hand and eye preference and the reading
achievement of an individual, it was considered important
to contribute to the general study of the problem, any vital
information that was available.
More specifically stated,
the purpose is to analyze the data for ninety-eight cases
of poor readers which were tested for hand and eye dominance.
In referring to the hand and eye dominance of indivi­
duals the following terms are commonly used:
1.
2.
3.
Left handed
Right handed
No clear cut
pattern
Sinistrads
Dextrads
Ambidextrous
Dr. Monroe used the following terms’to distinguish be­
tween the hand and eye preferences of individuals, and these
terms will be used in this study to differentiate between
the Mhandedness” and the
1.
2.
3.
4.
Right-hand
Right-hand
Left-hand
Left-hand
"eyedness” of individuals:
right
-left
left
right
eye
eye
eye
eye
Pure dextrals
Mixed dextrals
Pure sinistrals
Mixed sinistrals
In the first part of this chapter a brief considersution of tests used for the determination of hand and eye
preference will be given.
The latter part of the chapter
will be devoted to the analysis of the hand and eye prefer­
ences of the present cases.
determine the preferences,
Since no retests were needed to
several cases which had no retest
in their reading achievement, could be added for this part
77
of the study.
The total number of oases with sufficient
data were ninety-eight, and all a r e .included in this chapter.
TESTS FOR DETERMINATION OF HAND AND EYE PREFERENCE
No one single test should be relied upon In determin­
ing the handedness and eyedness of individuals.
A battery of
tests might include the following:
1.
Hand Preference
Tapping
Handwriting
Throwing
Using Scissors
Strength of grip
Picking up objects
Hammering nails
Sawing
Spinning a top
Sweeping
Raking
Shoveling
Batting
2.
Eye Preference
The Miles A-B-C Test
Mailing Tube
Peep Hole Test
DISTRIBUTION OF HAND AND EYE PREFERENCE OF PRESENT CASES
The present investigation reveals that there were
seventy cases having right-hand and right eye preference,
sixteen cases with right-hand and left eye preference, eight
cases with left-hand and left eye preference, a n d four cases
with left-hand and right eye preference.
Converting these
78
figures into per cents, we find there are about seventy-one
per cent pure dextrals, or right-hand and right eye prefer­
ence.
The mixed dextrals represent about sixteen per cent
of the group, and the pure sinistrals about eight per cent*
There were only about four per cent of the group who were
mixed sinistrals.
The above results seem to be in line with percentages
given by investigators for the general population.
Betts20
summarized results of various investigations and concluded
that from two to forty per cent of the population are lefthanded.
This would tend to bear out the thesis that there
are no more left-handed individuals in a group of poor read­
ers than in a group of normal readers.
The present survey shows that approximately twelve
per cent of the cases studied are left-handed, and approximately
twenty-four per cent have left eye domination.
These per cents
are not sufficiently large enough to indicate any particular
connection between their left-handedness and their reading
achievement.
However, the above results might conform to Dr.
Monroe1s2-*- finding that Hamong the reading-defect cases there
were a greater proportion of children who preferred the left
eye in sighting, and who showed right-hand dominance with
left-eye dominance."
on
w Emmett Albert Betts, The Prevention and Correction
of Reading Difficulties (New York: Row, Peterson and. Company,
1 9 3 6 ) 7 p. 1 1 0 .
2-** Marion Monroe, Children Who Cannot Read (Chicago:
University of Chicago Press, 193&), p. 84.
79
TABLE XVII
DISTRIBUTION OF HAND AND
EYE PREFERENCES OF PRESENT CASES
Number of cases
Percentage
Pure Dextrals
70
71
Mixed Dextrals
16
16
Pure Sinistrals
8
8'
Mixed Sinistrals
4
4
CHAPTER VI
IMPROVEMENT IN RELATION TO I.Q.
It Is the purpose of this chapter to attempt to dis­
cover any existing relationship between a child’s Intelli­
gence quotient and the amount of improvement in reading made
during a given time spent in the remedial class.
In the
first part of the chapter the distribution of intelligence
quotients for the cases studied will be considered.
In the
latter part, a discussion of general trends and relation­
ships between the intelligence quotient and the improvement
in reading will be given.
Also taken Into consideration
with this relationship will be the following factors:
1.
The amount of retardation.
2.
The amount of time spent in the remedial class.
I.Q. DISTRIBUTION OP PRESENT CASES
Out of the seventy-four cases there were only a few
with I.Q.*s below normal.
Their distribution seems to cor-
respond with Dr. Monroefs conclusion:
'
It appears that the reading-defect cases are fairly
typical In their intelligence test scores of the sampling
22
Marion Monroe, Children Who Cannot Read (Chicago:
University of Chicago Press, 1932)f p. 6.
81
of the population from which they are selected.
The
reading defects may occur at any intellectual level
from very superior to very inferior, as measured by
intelligence tests.
The distribution of intelligence quotients ranged
from 82 to 123, with the median being 100.
These facts tend
to substantiate the claim that reading difficulties are not
always the cause of low Intelligence.
It may be suggested
from these results that reading, defects may occur at any
level of intelligence.
A complete distribution of intelligence quotients for
the seventy-four cases is given in Table XVIII (page 82).
IMPROVEMENT IN RELATION TO I.Q.
There was some curiosity on the part of those who
were interested in the present survey regarding any exist­
ing relationship between a child's intelligence quotient and
his improvement in reading after spending some time in the
remedial class.
By using the same grouping of cases as was
used in Chapter IV and adding two other factors, namely, the
intelligence quotient, and the months of retardation, it
was. possible to obtain a fair picture of the relationship
between the I.Q. and the improvement in reading.
It was first noted that in each group (three months,
four months, six months, etc.), there was a wide range of
intelligence quotients.
It was observed that pupils having
82
TABLE XVIII
DISTRIBUTION OP CASES
ACCORDING TO INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENTS
Intelligence quotient
123
118
117
116
115
114
112
111
110
109
108
107
106
105
104
103
102
101
100
99
98
97
96
95
94
93
92
91
89
87
85
82
Number of cases
1
1
1
1
2
1
3
5
2
1
1
1
1
1
5
4
2
4
1
3
1
5
3
4
2
5
2
1
7
1
1
1
83
the same intelligence quotient varied greatly as to their
reading level, or the number of months, retardation from
their normal grade.
Most of the individuals were retarded
from one to two years.
A few, however, were retarded as much
as three years below their grade level in reading.
In analyzing the relationship between the intelligence
quotient and the improvement in reading, it was quite clear
that no absolute pattern was followed, for there were cases
of all extremes.
By considering the majority of cases, how­
ever, one is able to establish certain trends.
The first
observation was that pupils having greater retardation than
certain other pupils, but having the same intelligence quo­
tient, would generally show greater improvement in their
reading over a given period of time.
This condition is one
that we would probably expect since the one who Is retarded
more has a greater chance for improvement.
•*
It was also noticed that many children having the
same amount of retardation as certain other children, but
having higher intelligence quotients, showed a greater amount
of improvement in their reading.
This too is probably a
condition that most teachers would expect, since pupils with
greater intelligence quotients would probably have a better
chance of achieving more than pupils with lower intelligence
quotients.
CHAPTER VII
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
This study attempted to find: (1) the reading improve­
ment in relation to the length of time spent in the remedial
class,
(2) the distribution of hand and eye preferences of
present cases, and (3) to show any existing relationship
between the intelligence quotient and the improvement in
reading*
The main objective of any class in remedial instruc­
tion is the improvement of the reading ability of the members
of the class*
The extent to which this objective is realized
Is conditioned by many factors.
The type and cause of the
rea-ding difficulty, the experience and ability of the teach­
er, physical condition of the child, home environment, com­
munity relations, and the mental development of the child
are but a few of the many conditioning factors*
It must be
kept in mind, however, that there are several phases of
reading, and that a pupil may remain weak in one phase of
his reading and still achieve outstanding success in other
skills of reading.
The results of the present study illus­
trate this condition in many individual cases.
Nearly every
case showed greater gains on the two Word Tests in the battery
of the Monroe Diagnostic Reading Test.
Grouping all the cases
together for all periods of instruction, approximately ninety
85
per cent made normal or above normal progress on the Word
Test and the Iota Word Test.
The most significant fact is
that the achievement for most of the pupils amounted to a
great deal more than the time spent in the class.
In many
cases the total months in gain amounted to as much as two
or three years in excess of the normal gain for the period
of time spent in the remedial class.
These gains hold more
significance when it is remembered that prior to entrance
into the remedial class these children were not even measur­
ing up to normal growth each year.
If they had, they would
never have been sent to the class in the first place.
In each group of cases there was a marked difference ‘
in the gain on the two Word Tests, and the G-ray Oral and
the Haggerty Test, which are the other two tests in the Mon­
roe battery of tests.
Where the two Word Tests always
showed a very high gain, the other two tests generally showed
merely a normal gain, or in many cases less than normal.
Group­
ing all the cases together for all periods of instruction, it
was noted that approximately fifty-five per cent of the child­
ren failed to make normal progress on the Hatterty Test, and
about forty-three per cent on the Gray Oral Test.
In many
cases of several of the groups there were no gains shown on
these latter tests, and in three cases there were actually
losses on the retests.
There seemed to be a tendency for
more children out of the groups having longer periods of in-
86
struetion to show less than normal improvement on their
retests of these two tests, than of those groups having
shorter periods of instruction*
These results might indicate that the methods used
emphasized the recognition of individual words with their
meaning, rather than other skills in reading.
Another pos­
sible explanation for this might he that many children in
the classes were further retarded in these phases of read­
ing than in others, and would naturally, under special train­
ing, have an excellent chance of showing greater progress.
Since the average reading score is an average of the
four batteries, it might be said that it would give a truer
picture of a pupil*s reading ability than any single test.
The average reading scores showed that about eighty-five
per cent made normal or above normal progress for the time
spent in the class.
Many of these pupils made several years
improvement in just a few months time.
Although many of the
children did not show the desired achievement in the G-ray
Oral and the Haggerty Reading Tests, their gains on the other
two tests in the battery were sufficient to offset these
scores and still give them an average improvement exceeding
the time spent in the class.
Considering the results of the surveys showing the
extent of left handedness of the population, the present cases
appear to follow a normal curve.
Their per cent, twelve, falls
87
well within the limits set for the general population,
so
any particular conclusion regarding the relationship of
handedness and poor reading would be difficult.
The fact
that a larger per cent had left eye dominance might hold
some significance.
for the left eye.
Twenty-four per cent showed a preference
This might be some indication that these
children were reading illogically from the left side of the
page to the right.
The left eye having domination over the
right might have a tendency to retard the speed, or break
the eye span.
An analysis of the distribution of intelligence quo­
tients in the present cases shows an approximation of a
normal distribution, with the median intelligence quotient
being 100.
From these facts one could conclude: (1) that
reading difficulties might occur at any level of intelligence,
and (2) that a low intelligence quotient is not necessarily
the cause of poor reading.
The following three factors were
considered in attempting to discover any relationship between
the I.Q. and improvement in reading:
1.
The intelligence quotient of the child.
2.
The length of time spent in the class.
3.
The amount of Improvement made during the time
spent in the class.
No absolute relationship was discovered, because exceptions
to all rules could be found.
Only by considering the majority
88
of cases could certain trends be established.
The two fol­
lowing trends were observed:
1.
Children having the same intelligence quotient,
but being further retarded than certain other children,
showed greater improvement.
2.
Of children having the same amount of retardation,
those having higher intelligence quotients generally showed
greater improvement.
It is hoped that this study may be of value to teach­
ers faced with the problem of poor readers.
Also, it is
hoped that this and other such studies may serve as an in­
spiration for further experimentation and exploration in the
field of remedial residing.
bibliography
BIBLIOC-RAPHY
Bett, Emmett Albert, The Prevention and Correction of Reading
Difficulties, New York: Row, Peterson and Company, 1936.
402 pp.
Largely a summary and interpretation of recent research
findings.
Contains a fine analysis of reading difficul­
ties.
Cole, Luella, The Improvement of Reading. New York: Farrar
and Rinehart, Incorporated, 1938. 338 pp.
Statement of importance of correcting reading difficul­
ties in the elementary school.
Comfort, F. D., "Lateral Dominance and Reading Ability,”
September 11, 1931. Paper read before American Psycho­
logical Association.
Deans, Edwina, "Correcting the Reading Disabilities on Nine
Selected Pupils, 11 National Elementary Principals1 Seven­
teenth Yearbook.
A study to demonstrate the use of .both group and indivi­
dual Instructional remedial methods with a group of re­
tarded children.
Dearborn, W. F., "Oc&lar and Manual Dominance in Dyslexia,11
September 12, 1931. Paper read before the American
Psychological Association.
Durell, Donald D., "The Influence of Reading Ability on Intel­
ligence Measures," Journal of Educational Psychology,
XXIV, September, 1933.
Fitzerald, James A., "Discovering Minor Reading Difficulties
and Their Causes," National Elementary Principals1 Seven­
teenth Yearbook, July, 1938.
Extent of reading retardation among school pupils.
Gray, William Scott, "Remedial Cases in Reading— Their Diag­
nosis and Treatment."
Chicago: University of Chicago.
208 pp.
A report of a study to determine the types of remedial
cases in reading, the characteristics of each type, and to
develop appropriate methods of remedial instruction in each
case.
Excellent list of causes of reading failure.
90
Haefner, Ralph, "The Educational Significance of LeftHandedness*" New York: Teachers College, Columbia Univer­
sity, 1929 . 84 pp.
Hart, Helen M., "Case Studies of Remedial Reading in Junior
High School." Unpublished Master1s thesis, University of
Southern California, Los Angeles, California, August, 1934.
134 pp.
A report of reading difficulties, and methods used for
correction.
Hogoboom, Grace W., "An Experimental Study of the Value of
Remedial Reading for Slow-Learning Pupils." Unpublished
Master1s thesis, University of Southern California, Los
Angeles, California, June, 1931. 78 pp.
Methods used in remedial reading, especially drills.
Johnston, Fannie B.., "A New Point of View for Remedial Read­
ing, " Educational Research Bulletin, 18:127-32, May, 1939.
Very fine for methods of grouping children with reading
difficulties.
La Fetra, Edgar
Improvement
Unpublished
California,
C., "An Experimental Investigation of the
in Reading Ability of a Low Group B8 Class."
Master1s thesis, University of Southern
Los Angeles, California.
95 pp.
Good lists of objectives for remedial reading classes.
Leonhardy, Alma, "What Is Done to Improve Reading Ability of
Pupils in Los Angeles Junior High Schools," Educational
Re search Bulletin, Board of Education, Los Angeles,
California, VII, October and November, 1927.
A survey dealing with the causes of reading failure, the
technique of improving reading ability, and thirdly, the
detailed studies of progress of pupils In the Los Angeles
City Schools.
McCallister, James M . , "The Effectiveness of Remedial Instruc­
tion In Reading in the Junior High School," School Review,
1939, 39:97-111.
A study of remedial reading cases at the University High
School, University of Chicago, which was followed with
retests to determine the persistency of gains.
91
Monroe, Marlon, diagnostic and Remedial Procedures in Read­
ing,11 Education Digest, III, March, 1938,
Monroe, Marion, Children Who Cannot Read*
of Chicago Press, 1932.
205 pp.
Chicago; University
Excellent procedure for remedial reading.
Oats, D. W . , "Left Handedness in Relation to Speech Defects,
Intelligence, and Achievement,ft Forum of Education, VII.
1925, 91-105.
Witty, Paul A., flA Practical Approach to Remedial Reading,”
National Elementary Principals1 Seventeenth Yearbook.
A study of methods to overcome reading handicaps.
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