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The organization and administration of school clubs in the Jefferson high school of Los Angeles, California

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THE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF
SGHOOL CLUBS IN THE JEFFERSON HIGH SCHOOL
OF LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA
A Thesis
Presented to
the Faculty of the School of Education
The University of Southern California
In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
faster of Science in Education
hy
James Charles Pitts
June
1941
UMI Number: EP54107
All rights reserved
INFORMATION TO ALL USERS
The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted.
In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript
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a note will indicate the deletion.
Oissstiafen P_bi,shtng
UMI EP54107
Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author.
Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC.
All rights reserved. This work is protected against
unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code
ProQuest LLC.
789 East Eisenhower Parkway
P.O. Box 1346
Ann Arbor, Ml 48106- 1346
T h is thesis, w r it t e n u n d e r the d ir e c t io n o f the
C h a ir m a n o f the c a n d id a te ’ s G u id a n c e C o m m itte e
a n d a p p r o v e d by a l l m em b ers o f the C o m m itte e ,
has been presen ted to a n d accepted by the F a c u lt y
o f the S c h o o l o f E d u c a t io n in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t
o f the re q u ire m e n ts f o r the degree o f M a s t e r o f
Science in E d u c a t io n .
..........
Dean
Guidance Committee
Irving R. Melbo
Chairman
Louis P. Thorpe
D. Welty Lefever
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I.
PAGE
INTRODUCTION
The problem
......................... . .
1
. . . .........
2
Statement of the prob le m.............
2
Importance of the study
'3
Definition of terms used
........
.........
3
School clubs ...........
Extra-curricular activities
. . . . . .
4
Review of related investigations . . . . .
5
Upshaw study
.............
5
Kraft study
. . . . . ' ...........
6
Parker study • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
7
Heft study . .
......................
7
....................
8
. . .
9
Monegan survey .
II.
3
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
............
Spartan and Greek extra-curricular
activities
.....................
Dramatics and clubs
Student Government
.
9
............
10
..................
11
Athletics in Early American schools
Importance of present day clubs
. .
....
11
12
The extra-curricular program in the
high s c h o o l ........................
13
CHAPTER
PAGE
Hew clubs
........... ♦ .. .........
The procedure of present investigation
Changes in enrollment at Jefferson
16
. .
19
...
19
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20
Shift from residential to industrial
community
Racial composition of the.school popu­
lation
...........
20
Organization of the remaining chapters
.
III. .ORGAHIZATIQH AHD ADMINISTRATION OF THE CLUBS
Duties of the Principal
• • • • • • . .
22
24
24
• • • • • • • . ........
25
Club membership c a m p a i g n ..............
25
Eligibility to c l u b s .................
27
Initiation ceremonies...........
27
Club programs
........................
28
Club insignias and sweaters............
28
Frequency of club meetings
........
29
....
30
Inducting a new club at Jefferson . . . . .
31
Club sponsors
.
Time and length of club meetings
Criteria by which the administrators
evaluate the worth of a club
Inactive clubs at Jefferson
.....
53
. . . . . .
36
iv
CHAPTER
PAGE
IV. SAMPLINGS OF CLUB ACTIVITIES
. . . . . . . .
Interest c l u b s ..........
38
An inactive club
55
• • • • • • • • • • • •
Racial c l u b s ...........
V.
38
'56
FINDINGS AND RECOIMENDATIOHS" ..............
Findings
.
.................
60
60
Club grouping.............. .
60
Interest clubs
.......................
60
Racial clubs
............ . .........
61
Club activities.......................
61
Organization and administration ........
62
History of each club
62
How clubs are financed
............
. ..
.........
63
Time of meetings
............
64
Place of meeting
............
64
Frequency of m e e t i n g ..................
64
Length of m e e t i n g s ....................
65
Requirements for a d m i s s i o n ............
65
Outside agencies
66
Recommendations
........
. . . . . . .
.........
67
Club history.............-............
68
Membership in clubs
69
Evaluating the.club program.............
70
V
CHAPTER
PAGE
Need for reorganization of the camera
c l u b .............
B I B L I O GR AP HY ...................................
APPENDIX
* *............
71
72
75
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
The high degree of contemporary interest in
extra-curricular activities of. high school pupils is
attested by the large volume of literature on the sub­
ject that has appeared for the past few years and con­
tinues to do so.
The worth of activities termed "extra-curricular"
*1
is further exemplified by Fretwell
who says:
Through these activities, excursions may be
taken into many fields which would other wise be
untouched, because of the limited time at the
pupil’s disposal.
All wide awake school administrators have re­
cognized this fact and instituted these student orga­
nizations in their program to the extent that finance
and equipment have permitted.
Though school clubs, a major component of the
well rounded program, may be considered existent in
most schools by casual observers, even in this age of
educational enlightenment this fact is not true.
Lack
of initiative, or ability on part of the principals
and administrators as Y^ell as non-informed teachers
1 Elbert K. Fretwell, Extra-Curricular Activi­
ties in Secondary Schools (Boston: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 1931), p. 257
2
are definite factors which hinder activities of this
nature.
As a result, thousands of pupils are deprived
of the opportunity of building within themselves the
qualities of character and development which come as
a result of participation in responsibilities present
in student groups.
The experience derived from coopera­
tive club work: is an invaluable asset in later life.
It is perhaps unfortunate that the social acti­
vities of high school pupils that are not closely con­
nected with classroom work have been termed "extracurricula”.
Olivia Pound,
p
in an interesting book on extra­
curricula says:
Social activities, in consequence, too often
considered by teachers and pupils as rival attrac­
tions rather than as part of the main experience of
high school life. Each extra-curricula activity in
some way should further one or more of the main ob­
jectives of secondary education.
In addition to the fact that social organizations
of high school pupils may be used to further the aims
of secondary education, they also may be made to
yield valuable by-products in the way of ideals, in­
terests, appreciations, the element from which
character emerges.
I.
THE PROBLEM
Statement of the problem.
p
The purpose of this
Olivia Pound, Extra-Curricular Activities of the
High School Girls (Hew York: A, S. Barnes Company, 1931')',
pp. 2-3.
5
study was to present an account of the types of clubs;
their organization, administration, objectives, and acti­
vity programs as practiced in a typical high school of
Los Angeles, California,
The following were considered.
(1) types of clubs; (2) history and organization of each;
(3) aims or objectives;
(4) administrative procedures;
(5) how financed; (6) requirements for admission;
frequency of meetings;
(7)
(8) time and length of meetings;
(9) place of meeting; and (10) work of sponsors.
Importance of the study.
learn only by doing’ —
The statement —
seems a valid one.
??/e
So, pos­
sessing a keen interest in extra-curricular activities;
their organization and activity programs; it was con­
cluded that an investigation of prevalent clubs in an
ideal setting would provide an excellent means of be­
coming acquainted with present extra-curricular prac­
tices.
Information gleaned from this study should prove
helpful to the organizations under observation as an in­
centive toward perfection as well as a basis for club
organization in the future.
II.
DEFINITION OF TERMS USED
School Clubs.
These may be defined as organiza­
tions that offer an outlet for the desires and influences
4
resulting from curricular activities.
According to Roemer, Burdett, and Yarnell:
School clubs are those school activities or­
ganized and administered in the school, whether
during or after school hours, to provide for the
gregarious instincts of adolescent students and
to stimulate and promote desirable school spirit
and practices.^
Extra-Curricular Activities.
A satisfactory de­
finition of extra-curricular activities according to
Wilds is:
Extra-curricular activities are those activities
of the school that are outside the traditional cur­
riculum, that have sprung up and developed through
the students* own desires and efforts, that are car
ried on apart from the hours of the regular school
program, and that are participated in without the
rewards of regular school credit.^
Though this definition seems a fitting one, it
is undergoing a change in many school systems as some
of these activities are now given a place in the school
programs.
Students participate in them for their own
pleasure and satisfaction and for the intrinsic values
accruing therefrom.
Recently, however, several schools
3 Joseph Roemer, Charles F. Allen and Dorothy A.
Yarnell, Basic Student Activities (New York: Silver,
Burdett and Company, 1935) , 367 pp.
4 Elmer E. Wilds, Extra-Curricular Activities
(New York: The Century 0ompany, 1986), 273 pp.
5
have begun the policy of giving school credit for par­
ticipation in certain of the more valuable of these ac5
tivities, such as debating, dramatics, music, etc,
III.
REVIEW OF RELATED INVEST IOAT IOHS
Within the last two decades those associated with
and affected by school life have become club conscious
in every well populated section of the United States.
Many reports have been published describing investiga­
tions of junior and senior high club organizations,
club trends, programs, influences and values.
A brief
summary of these studies will be given here.
The Upshaw Evaluation of Club Activities. Mary
E. Upshaw, in an evaluation of the school clubs of
0
Roosevelt Junior High School, Tulsa, Oklahoma, used
the questionnaire method of investigation.
The ques­
tionnaires Vi?ere presented to the club members during a
regular club period.
The data gathered were tabulated
to facilitate the use of findings.
An effort was made
^ Ibid., p. 4.
6 Mary E. Upshaw, "Club Activities In The Roose­
velt Junior High School of Tulsa Oklahoma," (Unpublish­
ed Master’s thesis, University of Southern California,
Los Angeles, 1958), 174 pp.
6
to discover whether or not the club objectives, aims,
or purposes v^ere truly realized.
Such values were con­
sidered as (1) the development of old interests; (2)
the creation of new interests; (3) the training for
better citizenship; (4) the growth in leadership; (5)
the making of new friends; (6) the enrichment of lei­
sure time pursuits; and (7) a better teacher-pupil re­
lationship.
Conclusions drawn from this investigation
were definite according to the author:
1. Club members could and did recognize values
derived from club participation.
2. Most clubs were of some service to the school,
the community, or to non-club members.
3. Club placements, though good, needed some
adjustments. 7
Kraft Study.
During 1938, Keith M. Kraft made a
p
study of the influence of high school clubs0 on choice
of vocations and avocations.
Data from fifty personal
interviews and sixty- two questionnaires \*/ere used.
It
was concluded from this study that: (l) very little value
was attributed to high school clubs as factors influen­
cing the choice of a life work or occupation;
(2) little
credit was also given to high school clubs for aiding in
7 I~bid. , p. 49
® Keith M. Kraft, ’’The Influence of High School
Clubs on Choice of Vocations and Avocations,” (Unpublish­
ed Master’s thesis, University of Southern California,
Los Angeles, 1938), 64 pp.
7
developing present day avocational interests; (3) twenty
percent of those contacted credited club work with deve­
loping high school leisure time activities in which they
participated.
The Parker Investigation. Harry S. Parker made
an investigation closely aligned with this study that
described the many types of clubs in the secondary school
rather than those of a specified high school.
Their aims,
objectives, and current practices were noted. Q
Neft Investigation. Miss Tillie Heft made a study
to determine the values of commercial clubs in various
schools.
Inquiry blanks were used to determine the ad­
ministrative set-up as well as values of commercial^
clubs.
The bulk of her work tends to show that the so­
cial influences of commercial clubs receive the highest
rating of both the heads of commercial departments and
writers.
More time was spent in investigating the orga-
^ Harry Parker, "School Clubs and Their Programs,"
(Unpublished MasterTs thesis, University of Southern
California, Los Angeles, 1936), 137 pp.
Tillie Neft, "A Study to Determine The Values
of Commercial Clubs," (Unpublished Master’s thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1936),
112 pp.
8
nization and administration of the clubs than with the
■values of such clubs.
The Monegan Survey.^This survey was made, accor­
ding to the author:
in response to a recognized need for materials
recorded or unrecorded, that might be of use to
other teachers who wanted examples of accepted
programs which they might adapt to their own
situations.12
The outstanding difficulties given in putting on
a program were: (1) improper attitude on part of the par­
ticipants and the administrators as to the purpose of
the program; (S) lack of time, space, and equipment; (3)
lack of cooperation between the boys’ and girls* de­
partments .
■*•1 Helen Monegan, "Recreational Organizations
Hor Girls in Junior High School," (Unpublished Master’s
thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles,
1938. 152 pp.
12 Ibid., p. 8.
CHAPTER II
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
Spartan and Greek extra-curricular activities.
It is interesting to note that the Spartans and Greeks
of the fifth century B.C. recognized the value of var­
ious ’extra’ activities examples of which are: running,
jumping, throwing of the discus, swimming, hunting and
wrestling.
Most of these sports were performed without
team work being an important factor.
A limited amount
of social experience was obtained by the young men of
Sparta at the public dining halls.
In the Athenian
universities, more liberal types of activities were pro
vided in the ’circles’ of students who gathered around
their favorite teachers and in the Heracleids and Theseids which were larger groups of a more general nature
In the later Greek schools, considerable opportunity
was given for the practice of public speaking.
The be­
ginning of student government, likewise, made its ap­
pearance in ancient Greece.
Practices of this nature
were facilitated in Sparta by the congregation of boys
and young men in military boarding schools.1
lames H, Robinson, History of Western Europe
(New York: Ginn and Company, 1934;, 642.pp.
10
Extensive opportunities for soeial intercourse
and for self-government were enjoyed by the cosmopoli­
tan student-bodies of medieval European universities*
through organizations known as ’nations*.
2
A nation
consisted of all the members of the university who came
5
from the same country.
Athletic student activities held a place of
some importance in English secondary schools during
this medieval period too.
Aberdeen Grammar School had
golf and foot-bali very early in its history.
West­
minster played at cricket as early as 1746 and, in 1867,
it joined with Charterhouse in founding the association
4
game of football.
Dramatics and clubs.
Queen Elizabeth ordered
the headmaster of Westminster to have a Latin play act­
ed each year at Christmas to help the boys spend the
holidays more profitably and to encourage them in ’grace­
ful gesture and pronounciation*.
2 ibid., p . 5.
^ Ibid., p . 6.
‘4 Xbid., p. 6.
Social clubs, natural
history societies, and musical organizations were found5
ed in many schools during the ninteenth century.
Student Government.
Several types of student
government v?ere developed by these institutions in the
course of their long history.
The earliest was a per­
fect system which was outlined in the statutes of Win­
chester College in 1383.
Selected older scholars super­
vised the study and morals of the others and reported to
the Y/arden defects that needed correction.
6
Athletics in Early American Schools.
Athletic
activities were not extremely popular in the earliest
American seconders?- schools.
The first interseholastie
football game took place in 1878 between Exeter and And­
over.
Probably the earliest base-ball club in a public
high school was that of VJorchester, Massachusetts, or­
ganized in 1859.
In 181S, Exeter established the Rhetorical So­
ciety, which is believed to be the first literary orga­
nization in an American secondary school.
The school publications started as an outgrowth
5 Ibid., p. 8.
^ Ibid., p. 6.
12
of the early literary society.
The first printed pub­
lication was The Excelsior, a four page paper of three
columns, published every two months by the boys of Hartford Public school.
17
Importance of present day clubs.
The United
States Department,in 1933, conducted a questionnaire
investigation of secondary school clubs.
Responses were
received from 833 public high’schools located in cities
of varying sizes throughout the country.
The percentage
of high schools having club activities, the average num­
ber of clubs per school, the percentage of club members
to the total enrollment, and the methods relative to the
organization of clubs and club programs was summarized
in this bulletin.
The findings \*/ere:
1. Of the 833 public secondary schools included
in this study, 92.04 percent have school clubs.
2. The percentage of schools having clubs does
not vary greatly by kinds of high schools. How­
ever there is an indicated trend that this percen­
tage decreases with the increase of the number of
junior high school grades included in a high school.
3. The percentage that the club membership is of
the school enrollment varies directly with the num­
ber of junior high school grades included in a high
school.
4.
The average number of clubs per school, for
^ Paul Terry, Supervising Extra-Curricular Acti­
vities (New Tork: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1930T7
417 pp.
13
schools reporting clubs, is twelve. The junior high
school has an average of fifteen, which is the largest
for any kind of high school.
5. Girls outnumber boys in club membership for
everykind of high school.
6. The percentage of schools having clubs does
not vary significantly by size of cities.
7. The percentage of schools having clubs var­
ies with the size of the high school; being smaller
in the smaller high schools and larger in the larger
high schools.
8. A classification and compilation of data by
groups of states showed but very little difference
in the percentage of schools having clubs.8
This survey alone tends to show that the club
is considered an important feature of the school program.
The extra-curricular urogram in the high school.
Clubs are a part of most progressive junior high schools
of today and students, upon transferring to high schools,
would find school life not nearly so pleasant and condu­
cive to proper adjustment if, when ushered into this new
regime, there was no proper outlet for their energies
and social desires.
This is in accordance with Klein
who says:s
8 Maris M. Profitt, "High School Clubs", United
States Department of Education Bulletin. 18;58-59, 1934,
64 pp.
® J. Klein, "Know Tour Clubs," Occupation,
17:234, December, 1938.
14
One of the first interests of the average new
student in high school is in the clubs or other
school organizations. Each one, admittedly or
unavowedly, wants to be a part of some special
group.
One of the primary results of school organiza­
tions is that they provide problems on which all new
students work thus overcoming the shyness that is only
natural due to new surroundings.
Numerous as well as important are the activities
found in secondary schools but only a few will be men­
tioned here as examples.
Some are: the school newspaper
and pupil government organizations.
The press may be
considered as a mouthpiece of the school and no other
organization wields a greater influence.
By giving the
entire student body a periodical review of the ne'ws of
the school,
the newspaper places in their hands a
body of common knowledge that gives rise to feelings
of group consciousness and promotes helpful attitudes
toward the school on part of the community.
Willis A. Swan,^journalist and graduate student
of the University of California at Los Angeles, considers
Paul Terry, Supervising Ext ra -Curr icular Ac­
tivities (New York: McGraw Hill Book Company, 1950],p.
189.
11
Willis A. Swan, "Our School Newspapers," Phi
Delta Kappan. 20:155-57, January, 1938.
15
publicity and the school newspapers synonymous although
many educators fail to see the relation between the two.
A qualified teacher should be selected to advise the
school newspaper and offer a course in journalism should
such projects be attempted.
Too many times English tea­
chers are asked to serve in these capacities regardless
of previous training and because the school newspaper
contains specimens of English composition.
With reference to student government organiza­
tions, it is noted that they frequently engage in the
following activities: (l) regulating traffic and con­
duct in and about the building; (2) working out plans
for movement and conduct during fire drills; (3) regu­
lating sehool events and social affairs and innumerable
other essential acts.
Their main object is to maintain
smooth working relationships. 12
These so called government activities should be
means to an end rather than an end.
Grace M. Anderson^
confirms this statement by remarking:
Student participation should strive constantly
12 Terry, op., cit., p. 189
13
Grace M, Anderson, "School Activities As a
Means of Citizenship Training," Secondary Education,
:225-228, October, 1940.
16
not only for the realization of ideals in coopera­
tion, hut it should also aim to give practical and
realistic training in the technics of citizen par­
ticipation. Student council officers will then be
elected not in any convenient haphazard manner, hut
in a straight forward way such as we expect when our
national, state, and municipal officials are chosen.
Thus, one of the most practical opportunities for ac­
tual citizenship participation training is now in
the realm of the public school education.
Hew clubs.
Any organization or group of organi­
zations within the school are considered an. asset when
noticable advancements are made.
many new activities are appearing.
is the bicycle club.
Within this realm
An outstanding one
The Board of Education in the city
of Hew York has established bicycle classes.
The pri­
mary aim of the present course is to teach safety a14
wheel.
This is also wonderful physical exercise.
Safety awards are given at the end of the course.
This educational work is already reducing the
number of street accidents involving bicycles.
More
than seventy-five bicycle clubs and courses have been
organized mainly in the elementary and junior high
schools and the movement is spreading to the senior
high schools.
Another club making its appearance recently is
The SOS Club of West High School, Denver, Colorado
which may be classed as a welfare organization.
^ Roland Geist, "The Revival of Bicycling Educa­
tion," High Points. 22:62-66, December, 1940.
17
Numerous accidents in and around the school were cause
for a concentrated safety campaign, and as a result,
the SOS Club was formed to aid in enforcing the safety
rules.
Since its birth, West has become one of the
safest schools in the United States.
Membership of the
club consists of approximately fifty girls, who must
fulfill the following requirements:
They must have
been enrolled at West for at least two semesters, must
have and retain a high scholastic record, and must per­
form their duties for the interest of the club and the
school.
Each one must also complete a First Aid course
and must have a Red Cross First Aid Certificate, so
that they are capable of rendering First Aid in case
the necessity arises.
Applicants meeting these stan­
dards are required to appear before the club and ex­
press reasons for their desire to become members, and
are then voted on by the club.
Officers are elected
annually and the club is sponsored by two West High
School teachers well known for participation in safety
education.
Each girl is assigned to a post to which she is
required to report between each class period.
Each
floor in the building has one girl as a checker whose
duty is to see that the girls on that floor report re­
gularly to their posts, thus insuring greater efficiency
18
of the club.
SOS girls are dismissed from classes two
minutes before the end of the hour, in order that they
may be on duty when the dismissal bell rings, and they
must remain until the tardy bell for the next hour.
Running, shipping steps and other hazardous things are
not permitted.
SOS girls enforce this and other safety
rules of the school.
Members of the club wear badges that can easily
be recognized and also have jackets with the SOS insig­
nia above the pocket.
These jackets are owned by the
club, and were paid for by the proceeds of candy sales
at athletic events, school plays, and any other oppor­
tunities.
The club sponsors an annual semi-formal dance,
which is one of West’s most important social events
and is always a gala affair.
It also sponsors an as­
sembly program, which helps to publicize the organiza15
tion of the student body.
This type of activity provides an opportunity
for girls, who are not members of other clubs, to af­
filiate themselves with a worthwhile extra-curricular
activity.
The teachers are spared the burden of pat-
15 Sam R. Hill, "The SOS Club," The High School
Journal, S3:380-381, December, 1940.
19
rolling the halls and grounds.
The policy of every school should be: "A club
for each pupil”.
THE PROCEDURE OF PRESENT INVESTIGATION
This study was confined to the Jefferson High
School of Los Angeles, California with no attempt be­
ing made to evaluate the club program.
Changes in enrollment at Jefferson.
The school
opened in 1916 with an enrollment of less than three
hundred chiefly native white pupils in what was primari­
ly a residential district.
By 1924 the peak enrollment
of almost three thousand was reached.
This enrollment
decreased to less than two thousand the next three years,
to less than seventeen hundred by 1933, and to a new low
of sixteen hundred in 1936.
made in the last four years.
led nembered 2,100.
A rapid recovery has been
By 1937 the pupils enrol-
1 ft
The present enrollment (1940-41) is 2,004.
Pos­
sible factors aiding in increasing the school popula-
•^Oliver W. Saul, “Implications For Guidance of
High School Pupils From Follow-up Study,” (Unpublished
Master’s thesis, University of Southern California, Los
Angeles, 1939), 91 pp.
20
tion are: the building of an extremely modernistic school
after the old one was destroyed by earthquake in 1933,
the large influx of families to this district, and the
enrichment of the curriculum with an aim to serve the
community as a whole.
Shift from residential to industrial community.
The encroachment of industries, which began to be felt
strongly by 1923, increased rapidly during the next de­
cade.
At present there are shopping centers, large and
small factories, wholesale warehouses and distributing
plants, and various other industries scattered through­
out the district in which this school is located.
The
fundamental reason for the shift to the industrial was
the fact that the spread of these industries in Los
Angeles naturally followed the railroads, both steam
and electric, and the principal truck highways which
traverse this district.
Racial composition of the school population.
The races represented at Jefferson are: Chinese, Japa­
nese, White, Colored, and Mexican.
Mien the Japanese
and Chinese are combined to form the Oriental group,
and the Mexicans and ifhites combined to form the white
group, it is noted that the percentage of Y/hites en­
21
rolled is thirty-five, percentage of Orientals —
and percentage of Colored —
nine,
fifty-six.
The library was indispensable as a source of re17
search methods and accounts of former studies. Periodi­
cals published by the many educational agencies were equally helpful.
The questionnaire method was the principal tool
used in the majority of previous investigations of club
programs for gaining the desired information.
This was
necessary as the studies covered clubs in distant schools
but such was not true in this study.
The school was con­
veniently located, thus, permitting the acquisition of
first hand information in the midst of all activities.
However, this apparently perfect set-up was not an in­
surance against disappointments.
First, the change of
semesters brought club programs to a temporary stand­
still for two to three weeks.
New officers ??ere elect­
ed and plans made for the second semester and five to
ten days passed before some clubs reached a smooth run­
ning basis.
Secondly, upon sensing the desirability of
attending as many club meetings possible, it was neces17
Good, Barr, and Scates, A Methodology of
Educational Research (New York: D. Appleton Company,
1936,) 882 pp.
22
sary to alter plans constantly.
The use of questionnaires would have been an
easier way of gaining the desired information but by
using the personal interview and visitation method it
was possible to actually see the club program in opera­
tion.
A questionnaire was formulated but only for use
as a guide when administrators, sponsors, and club mem­
bers were interviewed, and during visitation of meetings
and social functions.
Results obtained through use of
this method warranted the continued use of it through­
out the study.
The congenial type of consideration and coopera­
tion shown by the entire favulty and student personnel
of Jefferson High during this study was a deciding fac­
tor in making the effort expended on this problem most
pleasurable and profitable.
Organization of the remaining chapters.
A
statement of the problem, review of related investiga­
tions, and historical background of clubs has been pre­
sented in Chapters I and II.
The Organization and Ad­
ministration of Jefferson’s clubs is covered in Chapter
III together with supporting testimony of various au­
thors.
The clubs and their programs provide the theme
£5
for data presented in Chapter IV.
The amount of des­
criptive narration given with respect to each club
varies because of available information.
The fifth
and final chapter includes a summary of findings with
recommendations.
CHAPTER III
ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF THE CLUBS
Duties of the Principal,
The principal is the
executive head of the student council-which is concern­
ed with the admittance and general supervision of all
the clubs.
He, with the aid of the student council,
evaluates carefully all aims and objectives
of new clubs
seeking recognition and places the final sanction on
plans for club socials, field trips, and assemble pro­
grams .
Roberts and Draper describe the responsibility
of the principal thus:
Modern social psychology places on the princi­
pal the responsibility for the many-sided develop­
ment of his heterogenous student body. Mot only
business management, curricular management, and
physical upkeep of the institution are his special
care; but it is in the office of the high-school
principal that the vision of the school program ; ;
of extra-curricular activities is developed. .It
is essential that he be able to see the scope of
the work, its relation to the curriculum, and its
influence in the lives of the students. He must
work with his teachers in outlining certain ideals
which are to be attained in the curricular and
extra-curricular program. In the selection of
sponsors for the various activities, he needs to
act with exceeding care and caution.!
i
A. G. Roberts and E. M. Draper, Extra-class
and Intramural Activities in High Schools (Hew York:
D. G. Heath and Company, 1928), p. 369.
25
Glub sponsors.
Forty-two of the sixty-nine
instructors at Jefferson are sponsors of some extra­
curricular activity.
There are seventeen interest
clubs and four racial clubs each having a sponsor.
The remaining twenty-one sponsors are advisers of the
musical and service organizations.
Except in special
cases the sponsor’s room is used as the meeting place
for the club.
When a new club is in the making the
pupils sometimes select their sponsor without any ad­
ministrative assistance.
Records showed that during
the organization of some clubs previously; instructors
automatically became their advisers because of the re­
lationship of the club activities to the subject mat­
ter taught by the sponsor.
This was true in the case
of the speech and dramatic clubs in which the teachers
of speech and dramatics are sponsors.
The role of the sponsor is an important one and
it is needless to say that no club can advance further
than is permitted by the foresight of its leader.
It
might be concluded that a progressive and well-liked
sponsor must be endowed with an alert mind and a well
rounded personality.
Glub membership campaign.
A mimeographed list
of all clubs is furnished each home-room at the begin-
26
ning of each school year for the purpose of acquaint­
ing all students with the purposes of each elub.
The
Jeffersonian (school paper) plays no small part in sup­
porting the membership drive.
It carries accounts of
meetings and social activities thus building up a de­
sire among students to become members of various clubs
with appealing programs.
The Chinese and Japanese
clubs fete all new Chinese and Japanese pupils with a
welcome party at the beginning of each semester and in­
vite them to join their clubs.
The Japanese welcome
party ‘
was given on February 12, 1941 in the school
cafeteria with presidents and officers of other clubs
as guests.
The Japanese president expressed her ap-.
preciation for large number of individuals present and
introduced each visitor from other clubs.
Each Japa­
nese student present introduced him or herself to the
group.
Games, singing, and dancing constituted the
amusements with ice-cream being served as a refresh­
ment.
This affair offered a medium through which
new students acquainted themselves with others as
well as with the club principles.
McKown2 believes that the membership campaign
p
Harry McKown, Extra-curricular Activities
(New'York: The MacMillan Company, 1937), p. 487.
27.
should he a dignified one rather than a membership-get­
ting drive or a competitive campaign of propaganda.
Eligibility to clubs.
A student is permitted
to'join any club provided he can meet its requirements.
One is allo?#ed to affiliate himself ?d.th as many clubs
as is desirable when class work is up to par.
If too
much extra-curricular- activity is deemed to be the
cause of classwork deficiency the student is forced
to devote more time to studies and cancel most of his
club work.
Violation of rules after becoming a mem­
ber causes one to lose his membership in some clubs
whereas in others a fine is paid instead.
The Letter-
mans Glub offers an example of the first ^portion of
the above statement.
If one of its members is absent
from meeting two times in succession he is ousted.
Penalties remind pupils that a club worth belonging to
is worthy of their attendance at its meetings.
Initiation ceremonies. None of the so-called
’goat riding’ or secret initiations are used in ad­
mitting new members.
The usual procedure incorporates
the taking of the club’s pledge or a mere welcome ex­
tended by the club president to the incoming new mem­
bers.
28
Club programs.
The speech and dramatic clubs
assume the major responsibility of preparing and pre­
senting assembly programs at different intervals during
each semester.
The Yox Populi, a speech club, present­
ed an unusually timely and interesting program during
3
March, 1941, An examination of this program will show
that it was in keeping with public sentiment of the
present year,
A play titled *Keeping A Man At Home* was pre­
sented to a double assembly of students by the Harlequin
Dramatic Club,
This play was entertaining as well as a
fine means of giving the drama students a drill in really
’putting on a show* • This club has its own prop men,
make-up artists, lighting technicians, script readers,
directors, and head director who is the dramatics tea­
cher and club sponsor.
The double assembly was neces­
sary because of the large number of students.
Assembly programs of this type are fine examples
or illustrations of the fact that club activities can be
of inestimable value in the production of worth while
programs for the benefit of the entire school.
Club insignlas and sweaters.
3
Appendix, p. 76
Members of various
29
clubs are recognizable by their pins, sweaters, emblems,
and uniforms,
ter IT.
A description of these follows in Chap­
The students wear them with much pride even to
the extent that sweaters and colors of other schools are
barred from their campus by order of the' student coun­
cil.
Anyone violating this ruling is subject to a pen­
alty imposed by this council.
McKown states that:
Pins and rings may add to the member’s interest
and increase his pride in his membership, but, in'
general it is perhaps unwise for the school to al­
low them because, (1} of the frequent change of
club personnel; (2) the false pride and foolish
display which will be engendered; (3) the needless
competition that may be started; and (4) the ex­
pense attached. The use of club colors or flowers
is inadvisable because there are not enough colors
and flowers to go around without duplication and
conflict.4
Other authorities condone the wearing of insignias and sweaters.5
Frequency of club meetings.
A wide range of
difference was found as to the number of meetings
during a month’s time.
Weekly meetings seem preferable
Harry McKown, Bxtra-curricular Activities
(Hew York: The MacMi 11 an 0ompany", 1937) , 734 pp.
5
Sam R. Hill, "The SOS Club," The High School
Journal, 23:381, December, 1940.
with, nine clubs scheduling their meetings thus*
met bi-monthly and four daily.
Eight
The Young Americans
Club, now inactive but included in this report, f o r ­
merly met bi-weekly.
It was noted that the dramatic,
speech, and Cosmopolitan clubs met daily because of
their curricular programs.
Daily meetings are obvious­
ly too frequent for most clubs as their aims and ob­
jectives do.not warrant it.
Ho club will be of any real value which meets
less frequently than once in two weeks. Probably,
too, a club which meets twice a week may easily
come to acquire a more or less formal, classlike
atmosphere and lose Its appeal and value. In any
case, one good Tfred letter" meeting is much better
than a dozen "just another" meetings.6
Time and length of club meetings.
Six of the
clubs held their meetings during the noon hour from
12:30 to 1:00 o ’clock while eight met after school
from one-half to one hour.
Six clubs, more closely
related to the curriculum,, met during the class per­
iod; sixty minutes being the usual length of the ses­
sions.
The Y.M.C.A. Clubs met at 7:30 p.m. on Wednes­
day of each week.
Hone lasted more than sixty-minutes.
Ho club was required to remain in session until a
specific amount of time had passed.
If all necessary
0
Harry McKown, Extra-curricular Activities
(Hew York: The MacMillan Company, 1937), 734 pp.
31
business was finished the session was dosed.
Inducting a new club at Jefferson.
Clubs as
well as other organizations have a way of getting started.
In the school around which this study is centered a new
club is organized whenever conditions warrant it.
The
following question may arise in the minds of the reader.
What person or persons determine this need?
It was
found that students, teachers, and administrators as
well were instrumental in suggesting a new club.
Upon
receipt of a new club idea, pupils submit it to a favo­
rite teacher whom they desire for a sponsor or temporary
adviser.
A petition for membership including aims and
objectives of the club is then presented to the student
council for its approval.
The Lettermans Club, organized during February
1941, resulted from a stiggestion of the boy’s VicePrincipal when a need was seen for assistance on the
athletic field, on the play-ground at noon, and during
track season.
Further description of this club and its
activities are to be found in Chapter IV.
Organizing a club in, this manner is in accord
with a description of the beginning of a Camera Club
in the Vassar Public School by Brant when a definite
32
need for It was felt by the students and teachers.
7
He outlines the way in whieh this club has become a
vital part of the visual instruction program in the
school and community.
Some of its activities are:.
1. The taking, developing, and finishing of
photographs of class activities, projects, assem­
blies, et cetera. A 13 inch by 15 inch loose-leaf
album serves as a cumulative record for pictures of
all activities taken, and is placed on the counter
of the outer office where it is available to stu­
dents, faculty, and patrons.
2. The camera club is busily engaged at present
making 35 mm. slides of agricultural, manuel arts,
and home economics projects. These will be used
by teachers as aids in evaluating their work as
well as affording a nucleus of interesting programs
for rural and local P. T. A. groups, farmers clubs,
and other lay organisations desiring to become bet­
ter acquainted with the activities sponsored by the
school.
3. Pictures are shown at Parent-Teacher meetings
showing children at vrork or play.
Q
Brant further states that:
We are constantly evaluating our visual .educa­
tion program on the basis of: Tl) its practical
value, (2) to what extent it is instructive, and
(3) does it have proper correlation with other
academic procedures?
Those directly responsible for the visual aid
program need be constantly on the alert, or "the
side show may run away with the circus”, for this
. ^ Ralph E. Brant, tTA Camera Club’s Contribution
To Visual Instruction," Education. 61:354, February,
1941.
hoc. cit
S3
type of activity is usually very interesting
and it is possible that these aids might fail
in their educational values if they are not
properly evaluated.
Criteria by which the administrators evaluate
the worth of a club.
Criteria of some sort is neces­
sary for use as a basis of determining as far as is
possible the effectiveness of clubs and the extent to
which they accomplish their objectives.
Careful and
objective evaluation is an asset to the progress of
any club.
Investigation reveals that clubs are evalua­
ted by the apparent worth of their objectives and achievement of the same, pupil interest, pupil-attendance, and service to pupil and school.
9
Enid S. Smith, Dean of Women, Bethel College,
worked out a very good scheme over a period of five
years for evaluating a club program.
Once every se­
mester the following questionnaire, v^i.th a five point
scale opposite each question, is given to all the mem­
bers of each club that they might rate their organization
by checking one of the squares of the descriptive scale
according to their best knowledge and judgment.
The
9 Enid S. Smith, "Evaluating A Club Program,"
Nations Schools, 23:25-28, February, 1939.
34
five divisions of the scale consist of "very good,"
100 to 75 per cent; 11 good,”.75 to 50 per cent; ”fair,”
50 to 25 per cent; "poor,” 25 to 1 per cent; "very poor,”
1 to 0 per cent.
1*
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Do you like this club?
Do themembers respect the club president?
”
”
”
” one another?
Is the club businesslike?
Is there growth in knowledge?
”
”
”
” leadership?
”
”
provision for individual differences?
Does the club help you develop a desirable
character?
9. Does the club help you develop skills?
10. "
”
”
”
" in your classwork?
11. ”
”
”
”
” ”
" home?
12. ”
”
” . ” your school?
13. ”
”
”
”
”
community?
14. Is the club democratic?
15. ”
” president satisfactory?
16. ”
” sponsor
”
?
17. Do thevmembers cooperate in the elub's work?
The results from this questionnaire are computed
in the following' manner":
The percentage of each separate question on each
section of the scale for the aggregate membership
is worked out, with due regard to the changing num­
ber of members in different semesters. To illustrate,
the composite returns from a‘ certain club may be 52
per cent, "very good”; 31 per cent "good”; 10 per
cent "fair,” and 7 per cent "poor” (use no scoring
for "very poor").
In like manner, every semester three raters (the
dean of girls, an assistant teacher and a member of
the student council) went unobtrusively to each club,
sat in the back seats and rated the club presidents
on the following questionnaire with its accompany­
ing five point scale: (1) self-control, (2) judgment,
(3) fairness, (4) enthusiasm, (5) patience, (6) cour-
55
age. (7) reverence, (8) humility, (9) graciousness,
(10) alertness, (11) resourcefulness, (12) pro­
gressiveness and (13) cheerfulness.
Likewise, the three raters visited every club
each semester and rated the sponsors, using the fol­
lowing questionnaire accompanied by the five point
scale: (1) interest in the club, (2) command of pup­
il’s respect, (3) willingness to permit the pupils .
to lead, (4) guidance ability when called upon, (5)
knowledge of the subject matter, (6) enthusiasm,
(7) fairness, (8.) resourcefulness, (9) friendlyurer
lations. with pupils and (IQ.), ^promptness at meetings.
Checking is unobtrusive. In the case of the
sponsors, as with the rating of the presidents, it
often was necessary to return several times to var­
ious clubs to observe definitely each item enumer­
ated on the questionnaires, since no president or
sponsor could be expected to show in his conduct-all
the enumerated factors in one day. The pupils were
accustomed to visitors from other clubs and from
the faculty, so the checking of a questionnaire in an unobtrusive way caused no embarrassment.
The interview schedule was divided’into two parts,
the first consisting of items 1, 5, 4, 7, 8 and 12
accompanied by’the five point rating scale and tak­
en from the questionnaire on club presidents, toge­
ther with items 3 , 5 , 6, and 10 from the question­
naire on sponsors, to be checked by the pupils at
the time of an interview in the dean’s office. The
second section asked two questions: (1) In what way
or ways do you think the club helps you, your school,
your homes, or your community? (2) In what way or
ways do you think the club could be improved?
The observation data sheet, in the hands of the
three raters, near the beginning and close of each
semester, was designed to obtain .definite objective
evidence of the influence of the clubs or school, .
home and community. It consisted of two parts.
I —
Glub, Home and Community.
1. Do you observe any objective indication of work
or influence that might be attributed to this
club? What?
2. Does the conversation in regard to the object or
36
subject in question indicate that the influence
of the cluh was responsible for it?
3. How extensive is this influence of the club?
(Estimate objectively if possible.) .
4. Record excerpts of conversation that show the
.attitude tov/ard the club on part of the indivi­
dual, the home, the community.
(Probable influence on club as the result.)
II —
1. What
they
2. 'What
3. What
Glub, Individual and School
do you see the club members doing?
doing it?
do you hear the club members say?
is the sponsor doing?
How are
Although the tabulation and evaluation of the
data obtained from the observation data sheet were
problems, as were the numerous visits to homes and
to club rooms, yet these data showed the far-reach­
ing influences of the clubs, served to supplement
case histories of the clubs and were a further check
on other data.10
Inactive clubs at Jefferson.- Clubs discontinued
as a result of this tj^pe of evaluation are: The Aviation,
Camera, and The Young Americans.
A conference with the
sponsor of each of these three clubs showed that lack of
pupil attendance and interest was the chief cause for
their cancellation of activity.
The Lafayette-Steuben Glub, organized for those
pupils interested in the French and German languages, is
temporarily discontinued until a new sponsor is selected
Lfrid., pp. 26-28. *
37
and the constitution revamped.
The discontinuance of
the teaching of Gorman language is the reason for the
inactivity on part of -this club.
CHAPTER IV
SAMPLINGS-OF CLTJB ACTIVITIES
Interest clubs.
The descriptions given here
are those gleaned from personal contact with numerous
members, officers, and sponsors at meetings and social
functions of the so-called interest clubs.
Cosmetology Club
Purpose:
To acquaint new members with practices in
cosmetics, and to provide an outlet for social
activities.
Dues:
Five cents per month.
Meetings:
Twice monthly for a maximum time of one
hour.
Humber of members:
22 girls.
Club rules:
(sample)
1. A business meeting is to be called on
the first and fourth monday of each month in the
Gosmetology room.
(Members discuss finance prob­
lems and plan the final luncheon scheduled at the
end of each semester).
2. The student must take any customer as­
signed to her.
3. Student must-be courteous and polite at
all times.
4. Student must wear clean uniforms.
(white)
Activities:
The sponsor contacts a reputable skin physi­
cian who lectures to the club on caring for the
39
skin at the last meeting of each month. A lun­
cheon is given at the end of each semester in
honor of the graduating club members. Hon-graduating club members are assessed fifty-cents as a
means of financing' this affair.. Guests present at
the mid-term luncheon were: Principal of the school,
Girl’s Vice-Principal, Home Economics Department
head, and the club’s sponsor. Election of officers
for the next semester follows at the close of the
. luncheon.
Picnics are given each spring in one of the
many city parks.
Aid is given to the school welfare workers
during Christmas, and a Christmas party given for
needy children. Funds for this work are obtained
from the sale of hand lotion and brilliantine made
by members of the club.
The Historian’s book contains: 1. the club
oath, S. a list of club officers, 3. club pictures,
4. club rules, 5. qualifications of a good cosmeto­
logist, 6. characteristics of club members, 7. a
calendar of club meetings, 8. ambitions of members,
9. pictures of graduating seniors, 10. clippings
from the school paper, and, 11. accounts of the
semester luncheons.
This club was organized eight years ago and
Jefferson High School was the first in the state of
California to gain recognition for its work done in
this department.
All cosmetology students are eligi­
ble for membership.
Cosmopolitan Club
Purpose:
To study the causes and remedies of allworld problems and promote world friendship.
Meetings:
Daily class meetings.
Dues:
Assessments when needed.
Number of members:
40 boys and girls.
Activities:
Section meetings are held with four other
¥/orld Friendship Clubs four times a year, and a
meeting of all the clubs twice a year. Local
problems and Pan-Americanism formed a part of
the discussion at the last meeting with the clubs
of Polytechnic, Belmont, and Metropolitan High
Schools.
A banquet is given by this club each spring.
The Cosmopolitan Club has been a part of the
school for the past ten years.
Any student inheres
ted may join but the majority of members are Inter­
national Relations students.
The Demostheneans Club
Purpose:
To stimulate better speech and practice
public speaking.
Dues:
None.
Meetings:
Daily during period I.
Number of members:
40 boys and girls.
Creed:
"I will speak in complete sentences. I will
use good Rnglish. I will speak distinctly. I
will think clearly. I will speak with enthusiasm
I will develop poise.TT
41
Activities:
This organization acts as a speaker’s bureau
to furnish speakers for many occasions in school
and in the community. The outstanding event of the
year is the Declamation Program.
Girls’ Athletic Association
Purpose:
To promote further interest in athletics;
to foster a spirit of loyalty and cooperation
toward the school and each other; and, to pro­
mote a higher mental and physical efficiency
among the girls.
Dues:
Hone.
Meetings:
Two social and five business meetings per
term. Daily meetings of the entire association.
Number of members:
Thirty girls in the official club and eighty
in the entire association.
Motto:
"The purpose of playing is not merely to
win, but to find joy and strength in trying.”
Activities:
The G. A. A. girls receive awards for their
playing. A girl who earns 200 points receives a
numeral; one who earns 580 points receives a mo­
nogram and the right to wear a sweater; 500 points
earn a
and with each additional 200 points a
star is added. This group of ’J ’ wearers has re­
cently been named the Letter Club. At the close
of the winter semester, 1940, there were twelve
members in this new club. These awards are achieved through participation in such sports as
speedball, basket-ball, volley-ball, and pingpong at various schools on play-days.
Thirty-six members of the association act
as referees and devote one hour of their time each
4£
day in officiating for gymnastic classes in addi­
tion to their regular gymnastic period.
Membership in the club is attainable only after
the applicant has proven her prowess as an athlete;
if she has a high merit record; and has been recommen­
ded and approved by the physical education teacher.
Girls' Tri-Y Club
Purpose:
Organized in order to fill the need for a
Junior Y. W. C, A., to provide a means for girls
to know each other better, and to promote greater
understancing among nationalities.
Dues:
Five cents- per week.
Meetings:
Monday after school for one hour.
Number of members:
50 girls.
Activities:
During Christmas a poor family is selected as
the receiver of donations from this club. The mem­
bers also operate a needle-work guild in which
clothes are made and given to The Volunteers of
America who in turn give them to the needy.
Social activities include: Teas, park trips,
carnivals given for raising funds used to send a
representative to the Girl Reserve Camp during the
summer, a splash party once each term, an opening
party, and joint banquets with other clubs. The
delegate chosen to represent the club at the sum­
mer camp is one who will be enrolled at Jefferson
for the next year in order that all may receive
the benefit of her report. The cost of the trip
is approximately $55 - #40.
43
At the end of the term a farewell party is
given for the graduating members of the group.
The sponsor acts as chaperon on trips, okays
plans for each meeting, meets with club cabinet
helping with problem solving, and contacts speakers
for meetings.
This club was organized in February, 1939
and all girls are eligible for membership.
Harlequin Club
Purpose:
To give opportunity for participation in
dramatics; to foster an appreciation of dramatic
literature through study and interpretation of
poetry, stories, monologues, and plays; to stimu­
late an interest in good diction and beautiful
voices; to develop an ability to criticize con­
structively; to create a professional and stu­
dious attitude toward dramatic work.
Dues:
Hone.
Meetings:
2 business meetings per month during and
after school.
Humber of members:
21 boys and girls.
Activities:
This club entertains with two studio reci­
tals per term, skits for senior parties, Girls1
League assemblies, P. T. A. programs, dramatic
recitals, a class day play, a school play, and
furnishes platform readers for various school
programs.
A club banquet is given at the close of
each semester.
On March 28, 1941, the Harlequin players
performed at an assembly in a play titled --’Keeping A Man At Home’.
44
Any student interested in dramatics is eligi­
ble for membership.
The club sponsor is director of
the Harlequin players.
Home Eco-Eds Club
Purpose:
To bring students in closer touch with Home
Economics and to implant in them a greater know­
ledge and love of the course.
Dues:
Twenty-five cents per semester.
Meetings:
1 meeting per month for business purposes
and 1 meeting per month for social reasons.
Humber of members:
35 girls. Teachers are honorary members.
Activities:
This club is a member of the California
Association of Home-Economies Clubs, chapters of
which are to be found in colleges, senior and jun­
ior high schools.. A voting delegate from this
club attends the state meetings and national meet­
ings which are held once a year. The delegate to
the national meet is selected on the basis of the
number of club activity points earned through
service. Other activities include: A Bazaar at
which cookies and candy made by members are sold
and Five-dollars of the proceeds contributed to
the Christmas basket for welfare work, do-nut
sale the proceeds of whieh are placed in the
treasury to be used for picnics, an annual affair,
bicycle trips, and a tea and flower demonstration
attended by parents. The National Biscuit Company
was one concern of interest visited by the club
during the past term. Three dollars is paid year­
ly as membership fee in the national organization.
The historian keeps a scrapbook in which are
kept accounts of state meetings, national meetings,
club activities, pictures of officers, and news-
45
paper clippings.
Any girl enrolled in a Home Economics class
or any girl who has sufficient interest may join.
Hope Street Hi-Y Club
Purpose:
To promote Christianity and to stimulate
better citizenship.
Dues:
Six dollars per year.
Meet ings:
Each Wednesday evening at 7:30 p. m. at
the down-town "3T”.
Humber of members:
30 boys.
Activities:
A welcome dance is given at the beginning
of each semester and a senior prom at the semes­
ter’s end in honor of the graduating members.
Joint meetings with other rtY tf groups of the city.
This group has many social activities in which it
participates throughout the year. Sports of all
descriptions are engaged in at the close of the
meetings.
Spanish Club
Purpose:
To promote interest in Spanish.
Dues:
Ten cents per month.
Meetings:
Twice monthly after school.
Humber of members:
25 boys and girls.
Activities:
At the time of this study the Spanish Club
had only been organized for a month. The only
plans to date ?/ere for a club sweater, (navy blue
and white).
This club was suggested by the sponsor.
Pep Club and Drill Team
Purpose:
To lead singing and cheering at games.
Dues:
Meetings:
Weekly during game seasons.
Number of members:
70 girls.
The available inforraation concerning this
club was limited as the foot-ball season i?as over
at the time of the investigation.
Scientific Explorers
Purpose:
To increase the scientific knowledge of the
club members in fields ordinarily not covered in
text books by means of:
Lectures
Demonstrations
Monthly field trips
Dues:
Ten cents per month.
Meetings:
Weekly from 12:30 to 1:00 p. m.
Number of members:
Limited to 35 boys and girls.
47
Activities:
Exploration trips of interest as decided on
by the votes of members. This group visited the
Mount Wilson Observatory, June 14, 1940. They
were honored with an astronomical lecture after
which lunch was eaten at Sycamore Grove.
The club historian keeps a neat calendar
of events, an example of which is given here.
Calendar of meetings —
September to January. 1941.
September 25, . . Business meeting.
October
2,
Lecture . . "Perfume and
Flowers", Mrs. A. Pratt.
"
9,
Lecture . . "Insects",
Mr. Thomas Sering.
"
16,
Lecture . . "Skeletons", Adri­
enne Bullock, Anna Tenette, and
Yvonne Johnson.
23,
Initiation of new members.
30,
Scientific treasure hunt.
Demonstration, . . "Tricks
Through Chemistry and Physics",
Claude Leeley.
November
December
13,
Business meeting.
27,.
Lecture . . "Christmas Trees",
Mrs. Dorothy Poole.
4,
Lecture . . "Automobiles", Mr.
Louis Emme.
"
11,
January
8,
Business meeting.
Business meeting and debate.
"Hesolved that science has done
more for humanity than to destroy it”.
”
15,
Election of officers.
"
22,
Installation of officers.
48
Calendar of trips,
October 28, . . Coca-Cola plant.
December 12, • . Christopher Candy Company.
"
18, . . Glass Containers Incorporated.
January
17, . . Los Angeles Museum.
4 Scientific Treasure-hunt.
These hunts are given
indoors as well as out of doors.
The one described
here occurred at a regular club meeting, thus:
Meeting called to order by the president.
Minutes of last meeting read by the secretary.
Each one present given a blank slip of paper and
instructed to list by name as many articles of
scientific importance to be found in the room.
Articles found were: Erlenmeyer flasks, distilled
water, rubber tubing, a live plant, a trough,
bark from a tree etc. The individual listing the
most articles correctly received three candy bars
as a reward." After the‘hunt:-new members were
initiated into the club by raising his or her
right hand and being sworn in by the president.
This club began in 1938 and any student in­
terested in science and attending three consecutive
meetings is eligible for membership until the limit
of 35 members is reached.
Membership cards are is­
sued to all.
Secretarial Efficiency Club
Purpose:
To promote better secretarial work.
Dues:
25 cents at beginning of semester and 10 cents
49
near the close.
Meetings:
Each Friday at 1:00 p. m.
Humber of members:
29 girls:
^Activities:
Do secretarial work for all teachers in the
school system.
Initiate all new members in grade 12B.
Representatives from the senior A and B
group attend the Commercial Conference and lun­
cheon at the Biltmore Hotel, Los Angeles, each
year. Roundtable discussions.on ’being an effi­
cient secretary’at meetings. Members criticize
each other regarding personal appearance, and
personality.
Each member writes a term book containing
items pertaining to: personal appearance require­
ments of a good secretary, information on secur­
ing and holding a job, dictation, transcription,
office machines, types of telephones, telegrams,
cablegrams, radiograms, office machines, supplies,
and business forms, reference books for secretar­
ies, and a bibliography of books used in compil­
ing the data. Illustrative pictures of items
mentioned are also included. The name commonly
used as a title for the book is — "The Efficient
Secretary”. Material is secured (1) by inter­
viewing at least two secretaries on jobs, (2 )
visits to typewriter companies, and (3) from books
and periodicals. One student sent a questionnaire
to Miss Lehend, secretary to President Roosevelt
requesting the duties of a secretary in that capa­
city. An answer was received with all questions
answered describing the duties of the nation’s
number one secretary.
This club maintains a volley-ball team
which plays against other club teams.
A record book is kept by the historian con­
taining pictures of each member and a statement
of what every pupil plans to do upon graduation.
Space is left for the recording of future achieve­
ments such as jobs taken or marriages. The sponsor
has a record on file of each club member since the
50
time of organization fifteen years ago.
This club had a ten year reunion In 1936
with over one-hundred former members in attendance.
All club members wear uniforms while In class,
meeting, or doing secretarial duty. These uniforms
are blue in color with the club emblem S. S. C. and
the owners name in white lettering on the left breast
pocket. Officers are distinguishable from ordinary
members by a white star on the left sleeve of their
uniform just below the shoulder. A club pin is al­
so worn.
The Secretarial Efficiency Club was listed as
one of the nation’s outstanding commercial clubs in
a survey of clubs during 1930.^
To became a member, a student must be major­
ing in stenography, planning an office career after
graduation, and to have made acceptable grades for
the past three years In commercial courses.
Senatus Fonulusque Romanus Club
Purpose:
To stimulate interest in the study of Latin.
Dues:
16 cents per semester.
Meetings:
Bi-monthly at IS:30 p. m.
Number of members:
43 boys and girls.
Louis D. Huddleston, "High School Commercial
Clubs,” Bulletin from John Adams High School, 1930,
Cleveland, Ohio.
51
Club Motto:
”Labore et Honore".
Activities:
Minutes of a February meeting,
February 19, 1941
Session opens with the flag salute by all.
Flag Salute
Signo civitatuin sociorum Americae et
rei publicai cui stat, fidem astringo,
una natio, individua cum libertate et
institia omnibus.
Discussion of membership cards, sweaters and
emblem. Picnic trip planned to Sycamore Grove and
museum during the Easter vacation. Latin songs
are sung and games played. At close of meeting
America sung by all in Latin.
Further activities:
The Senatus entertain the Populus each year
with a program consisting of a Latin play, Latin
songs, and with a Roman menu being served at the
end of the festivity.
The club subscribes to a Latin news pamphlet
entitled ITOTITS and published monthly by the clas­
sical department of the Los Angeles High School.
Subscription price is 15 cents per semester. With­
in it are to be found Latin crossword puzzles, poems,
songs, news articles, and pictures.
A scrap*-book is maintained in which is kept
the constitution, motto, list of officers, club
pictures, clippings from school paper, and minutes
of the meetings.
Officers are Consul, Imperator, Scriba, Questor, and Aedile.
This club is open to all interested in Latin
language and customs with joint meetings of the Sena­
tus and Populusque Romans twice each semester for the
planning of social activities.
\
52
Toastmistress Club
Purpose:
To better one’s speech by acquiring poise,
charm, and ease of delivery.
Dues:
Members assessed 25 cents on special occa­
sions. No regular payments.
Meetings:
Bi-monthly at 12:30 noon.
Number of Members:
25 girls.
Activities:
A different chairman presides at every meet­
ing and presents to the group some topic of interest
for discussion by the group. Each member stands and
gives her views on the topic. British and United
States Relations was an interesting topic at one of
the meetings. The Toastmistress asked the follow­
ing questions:
1.
Should the United States take the position
in world affairs that she is about to take?
(This question had reference to the sending of U.S.
destroyers to Britain).
2'. Should Britain lose the war including all
her navy and the destroyers and other war equipment
- sent by the U. S. what do you think will be the
result?
3. Assuming that we do not help Britain and
take no part in the war; inwhat condition do you
think the U. S. will be as far as commercial and
other trade connections with Germany are concerned?
At the close of the brief talk each member was
required to give a toast or proverb.
The club hobby
is bicycling on the first Sunday in each month.
A
banquet is given in the school cafeteria at the semes­
ter’s end.
This club is also known as the Gavel Club
and its membership is limited to 26 girls.
53
Twenty-Eighth Street Hi-Y
Purpose:
Christian leadership and service.
Dues:
Meetings:
Weekly at 7:30 p.m. on Wednesday at the
Twenty-Eighth street I. M. C. A. building.
Humber of members:
f.
28 boys'from the upper grades.
Activities:
This club is concerned with the checking of
undesirable influences in the school and the com­
munity. Every plan possible is used to induce
other boys to lead Christian lives.
There is a basket-ball court, gymnastic
equipment, a swimming pool and many smaller games
for the amusement of this club on meeting nights.
Lectures are given by religious and educa­
tional speakers to the group.
Membership is based on scholarship, citizen­
ship, attendance, and character.
Letterman* s Club
Purpose:
To assist the athletic directors in the duties
around the athletic field and to provide a means of
uniting the better athletes of Jefferson.
Dues:
Assessments when necessary.
's
Meetings:
Weekly at 12:30 in the office of the VicePrincipal.
Humber of members:
10 boys at the time of this study with others
joining weekly.
Activities:
This club has taken over complete management
of the athletic field. Their duties are:
1. Plac'ing of equipment on field before
games and at noon period such as soft-ball bats,
balls, laying off field before track meets, and
general supervision of the grounds during meets.
2 . Gymnasium patrol to offset breaking into
lockers and wanton destruction of property.
Plans have been made for the purchasing
of a club pin by each member.
The Letterman's Club is sponsored by the
boys* Vice-Principal who is also responsible for
its beginning, January, 1941.
All male students
who have earned a fletter1 through participation in
any athletic activity are’eligible for membership.
A member missing two consecutive meetings is ousted.
Vox Ponuli Club
Purpose:
To offer special opportunity to pupils who
wish to perfect their ability in persuasive and
effective communication of thought, in open de­
bates, group discussion, and formal forensic
speaking.
Dues:
None. Assessments when necessary for some
special function.
Meetings:
Daily class meetings and business meetings
on call.
Number of members:
25 boys and girls.
55
Activities:
This club presents four speech programs
each semester and has a banquet at the end. Thus,
participants are able to develop a richer person­
ality, serve the school and community in all the
speaking activities they can.
This club is composed of members of the
advanced public speaking group and one of the in­
structors of speech is sponsor.
An Inactive club.
On page 36 is listed the
discontinued clubs at Jefferson.
A sampling is given
here of the activities of one of these clubs, namely,
The Young Americans Club, with reasons for inactivity.
Young Americans Club
Purpose:
To create an interest in community, state and
national affairs for participation in citizenship
activities.
Dues:
Hone.
Assessments when necessary.
Meetings:
Each Monday and Thursday after school to hear
reports of the different committees, hold open dis­
course, and conduct any other business onG the calen­
dar.
Humber of members:
There were 35 boys and girls.
Activities:
The improvement, by discussion and debate, of
the members’ understanding of vital matters.of com­
munity, state, and nation.
The promotion of racial and religious tolerance.
Speakers of note, contacted by the sponsor,
56
lectured monthly to the club.
The sponsor reported that each speaker gladly
accepted the invitation to speak to the club.
After
several lectures however, interest began to lag and
in order to have an appreciable number present it was
necessary for the sponsor to make special trips to
each classroom and urge the club members to be.-pre­
sent.
This proved quite taxing and the sponsor con­
cluded that an organization Ys’hich does not attract
its members without the use of forceful or persuasive
measures should be discontinued.
Thus, the Young
Americans Club is temporarily dormant.
Racial Clubs.
It seems well to make mention
of these groups as they play a definite role in the
school life of Jefferson High.
Chinese Club
Purpose:
To banish shyness among Chinese students and
provide a means for pleasurable activities.
Dues:
This club is financed by skating parties.
Meetings:
¥/eekly meetings at 12:30, noon.
Humber of members:
25 boys and girls.
57
Activities:
A welcome party in September to welcome new
Chinese students and permit them to get acquainted.
Meetings and talks on etiquette throughout
the semester and frequent skating parties.
An all day biking and picnic trip planned
for the laster holidays with each.member bringing
his own lunch. The sponsor will accompany the club
on this trip. This club participates in an annual
social affair in which all Chinese clubs in the city
take part. Added to these events the members prac­
tice dancing at the homes of each other.
Two-dollars was appropriated for equipment
given to the new home-economics practice house on
the campus.
All Chinese students are eligible for membership.
Japanese Club
Purpose:
To promote a better understanding among Japa­
nese students, improve their social life, and give
them an organization all their own.
Dues:
25 cents for first semester and 15 cents the
second semester.
Meetings:
Bi-monthly after school.
Humber of members:
75 boys and girls.
Activities:
A semi-annual welcome party for new Japanese
students.
Skating parties planned for the month of April
and a wiener roast for May.
Welfare work at Christmas.
Negro -History Club
58
Purpose:
To bring knowledge about Hegro History to
effect satisfactory relationship within the Negro
groups and between Negro groups and other racial
groups.
Dues:
£5 cents per.semester.
Meetings:
Tuesday of each, week during school.
Number of members:
60 boys and girls of mixed races.
Activities:
This club presents a weekly program over
station KGFJ.
Social .activities and trips. 3ach spring
the club visits the Huntington Library to view
the many artistic art collections. Haitian and
Ethiopian newspapers are read here also.
This club grew out of the Hegro History class
and was organized in 1958.
In the fall of the same
year there was only a small group but due to the
eagerness of Negro as well as Mexican and Chinese
students to gain more accurate and complete information
concerning the history, life, and achievements of the
Hegro, this club has more than doubled its size.
bership is open to anyone interested.
Mexican Club
Purpose:
To give pupils a chance to use the Spanish
language, as a social outlet, and a means of im«
proving citizenship.
Mem­
59
Dues:
Assessments when-needed.
Meetings:
Bi-monthly after school.
Humber of members:
100 boys and girls.
Activities:
Throughout the semester this club has par­
ties, programs, and various discussions at meetings.
Mexican Club party, March 6 , 1941.
School cafeteria tables and chairs arranged in
in a semi-circle with micro-phone and piano in the
center. At beginning of the party, the Oath of Allegience said by all. Club president introduces each
visiting club president and cabinet member then the
master of ceremonies begins program.
- Program Spanish song sung by sponsor accompanied
by two student guitarists.
Spanish solo by girl member.
G-uitar duet by two male members*
Instrumental solo - "I’ll Hever Smile Again”.
Duet by club president, Lola Arranaga, and
guitar accompanist.
Games led by entertainment chairman.
Menu:
Fruit punch and Lostadas.
This club has the distinction of being the
largest in the school.
CHAPTER Y
FINDINGS AND REG QI4MENDATI0NS
The personal interview and visitation method
proved a fruitful one in more than one way.
Mot only
was it possible to gain all available information
relating to the organization and administration of
school clubs at Jefferson High but these clubs were
actually observed as they functioned in connection
with the regular curricular activities.
FINDINGS
Club grouping.
Clubs at Jefferson High are
classified under two groups, interest and racial: each
one representing exactly what the group name implies.
Membership in any of the interest clubs is voluntary,
the same being true as regards membership in racial
clubs.
Interest clubs.
group areithe:
Those clubs included in this
Cosmetology, Cosmopolitan, Demosthen-
eans, Girl’s Athletic Association, Girl’s Trl-T, Har­
lequin, Home Eco-Eds, Hope Street Hi-Y, Spanish, Pep
and Drill Team, Scientific Explorers, Secretarial
Efficiency, Senatus Populusque Romanus, Toastmistress,
Twenty-Eighth Street Hi-Y, Letterman’s , and Vox Populi
Racial clubs. Those included in this.group are
Mexican-, Negro History, Japanese, and Chinese.. Their
activities and objectives are principally social in
nature with the exception of the Negro History Club,
which grew out of the Negro History class, and has
for its purpose the enrichment of its members1 know­
ledge of Negro History as well as effecting a satis­
factory relationship between Negro and other racial
groups.
Club activities.
Chapter IY presents, in de­
tail, an account of the pleasures as well as the work
engaged in by each of the clubs.
Some are:
attending
lectures made possible by sponsors, welfare work, par­
ties, picnics, joint meetings and athletic activities,
with clubs from other schools, presenting assembly
programs, staging plays, teas, cheering at games, do­
ing secretarial work for teachers in the school sys­
tem, assisting athletic directors, and specific pro­
grams designed to create a liking for subject matter.
The activity mentioned last is true in the case of the
Home Eeo-lds Club.
62
Organization and administration.
It was found
that the Principal, sponsors, and pupils all had a
role in the beginning and management of the clubs.
The Principal, who presides over the student
council, and the council itself are responsible for
the admittance of new clubs and the supervision of
those already established.
Sponsors ??ere always present at club meetings
but merely- acted as a guide rather than as dictators.
As has been mentioned, the pupils served in
the student council.
Other pupils give their utmost
support during the membership campaign which is pro­
jected into the minds of non-members the value of
clubs.
This is done through the use of bulletin
board notices, the school paper, home room announce­
ments, and personal contacts.
History of each club.
The sampling of qlub
activities in Chapter IV shows that seventeen of the
twenty-two clubs studied kept an accurate account of ,
their date of organization as well as one of the month
ly events.
Others* records were not to be found due
to change of sponsors or because no permanent records
were kept.
The record books kept by the Cosmetology
63
and Secretarial Efficiency clubs, aside from the sec­
retaries f■books, were filled with snapshots of club
members', club oaths, objectives, rules, and names of
officers, accountsyof semester luncheons, characteris­
tics of members ana clippings from the school paper#
The remaining fifteen clubs recorded the minu­
tes of meetings, club objectives, and list of officers
in their secretarial books in the usual manner main­
taining no interest in an extra historical volume as
was practiced by the two clubs mentioned above#
How clubs are financed#
Funds are acquired
by special assessments when necessary, and dues paid
weekly, monthly, and once each semester while others
needed no funds.
The sale of do-nuts, cookies, and candy by the
Home Eco-lds Club and hand lotion by the Cosmetology
Club are examples of clubs, using sales as an addition­
al means of securing funds.
The Chinese Club chooses
skating parties as a means of keeping its treasury in
a commendable state.
Financing a club program is by no means an un­
important item.
Once money is acquired the uses to
be found for it are many.
Some are: for picnics,
proms, parties, bicycling trips, trips to factories
and other places of interest.
An increase in activi­
ties always resulted in an increased need for funds.
Time of meetings.
Sight of the clubs met im­
mediately after school, six during school hours, six
at noon, and two at 7:30 p. m. on Wednesday.
Pupils
showed just as much interest in the meetings during
the noon hour as did those meeting at other times.
This is not usually true as most pupils prefer to
spend this portion of the day on the athletic field
or conversing with others.
Without a doubt, members
of these clubs possessed an interest in their club
that was genuine in nature.
The clubs meeting during school periods were
those related most closely to the curriculum.
The time of meeting is a problem for any new­
ly organized club as this time must be as nearly con­
venient as is possible for both sponsor and pupils.
Place of meeting.
The sponsor’s room was the
usual meeting place for business transactions and
regular meetings.
The school cafeteria is used for
social affairs and the school auditorium for assembly
programs.
Frequency of meeting. Nine clubs met v/eekly,
65
eight bi-monthly, and four daily with the inactive
club mentioned having met bi-weekly.
Length of meetings. Meetings lasted from
twenty-five minutes to one hour with thirty-minutes
preferred as shown by practices.
Ho club was re­
quired by constitution to remain in session for any
specific length of time.
There seemed to be no prob-.
lem of maintaining interest during sessions as they
were terminated when business was finished and parti­
cipants had little chance of tiring.
Requirements for admission.
A review of
Chapter IV will show the requirements necessary for
membership in all of the clubs.
Some requirements
were: athletic accomplishments, a mere interest in
the club program, and enrollment in a specific course.
The first and third requirements mentioned are quite
essential in that applicants must be capable of per­
forming certain tasks or acquainted with specific
principles in order that they may participate fully
in all activities.
Members of the Letterman's and
Secretarial Efficiency Clubs may be cited as examples
of this.
Members of the club mentioned first must have
earned a letter in athletics while those in the latter
club are required to do typing for faculty members as
66
part of their club activity.
Outside agencies.
Contact with community,
state and national groups outside the school is high­
ly desirable.
Mention must be made of these types of
of contacts among clubs in this school.
The Twenty-eighth Street Hi-Y Club meets each
Wednesday at 7:30 p. m. at the Y. M. C. A. building
located on east 28th street in the heart of the com­
munity from whence come the student-body of Jefferson.
The Hope Street Hi-Y members of Jefferson at­
tend a similiar meeting on Wednesdays at the down­
town Y. M. C. A. Building.
Reputable physicians lecture to members of the
Cosmetology class and club monthly.
The Cosmopolitan Club is represented at section
meetings with four other World Friendship Clubs four
times yearly and at a meeting of all the clubs twice
a year at which local and other m^orld problems form
the discussion.
The Demostheneans Club acts as a speakers
bureau and furnishes speakers for many occasions in
both school and community.
The Girls’ Tri-Y use a portion of their funds
to send a delegate to the Girl Reserve Camp each
67
summer.
This keeps the group apprised of what other
Girl Reserves are doing.
The Home Eco-Eds Club, being a member of the
California Association of Home-Economic Clubs, sends
a voting delegate to state and national meetings yearly,
the one attending the national meet having been select­
ed on the basis of the number of club activity points
earned through service.
The Negro History Club presents a weekly pro­
gram over one of the Los Angeles radio stations.
Through this medium the community and environs are kept
posted on events pertinent to the school life at Jef­
ferson.
The Chinese Club participates in an annual so­
cial affair with all other clubs in the city.
The above mentioned are some of the ways in
which the school, community, and nation are kept in
contact with each other.
EEC CMEENDAT IONS
Though the student council performs some of
the administrative duties mentioned in this paragraph
a Central Club Committee seems a fitting addition to
this present club program.
All attention of this new
organization would be devoted to the club program.
It
wiil be the duty of this committee to assist the prin­
cipal in evaluating new club objectives and plans as
contained in their applications.
Requiring club sec­
retaries to send complete copies of the minutes of the
meetings to the committee will assist this office In
maintaining a close and wholesome supervision of club
activities; in advertising interesting phases of club
work through the assembly, home room, publication, or
other agencies, and in making this material available
to other club sponsors and officers, and to Interested
visitors or correspondents.
Committee members should be ex officio club of­
ficers selected by the principal on the basis of club
service rendered in the past.
Club history.
The greater number of clubs in­
cluded In this study record their history in a com­
mendable manner, however, some clubs have no record of
their origin.
The keeping of a neatly bound, booklet
illustrated with snapshots and comments would not only
prove valuable for clubs of a similiar nature but to
the present club member.
A properly constituted and
competent committee may be charged with the responsi­
69
bility for this project.
Membership in clubs.
There are 2,004 students
attending■Jefferson High School.
799 belong to clubs
included in this study and 1943 participate in other
extra-curricular activities.
not actively engaged.
The remaining 67 are
By exercising a bit of initia­
tive the extra-curricular program can be made 100 per
cent complete and school-wide.
Even with the seemingly adequate number of ac­
tive clubs on the campus it is possible that some new
club or clubs may be added to this present list in or­
der to absorb the interest of these non-participants.
It seems advisable, first, to contact these "sheep not
in the fold", ascertain their reasons for not becoming
a part of the club program, and ask them to offer sug­
gestions for new clubs in which they too might find a
place to work.
Some may contend that there
is too
much responsibility attached to meetings and other
club activities.
The answer to this would be a club
in which pupils assuming this attitude could ’do as
they pleased’.
The theme for each meeting could be
based on a suggestions of various members.
Once the
interest of the group is captured, ideas of a regimen­
tal nature may be inducted gradually if such is the
70
desire of the sponsor or Central Club Committee*
It
should be kept in mind that the major objective is to
get these non-clubmen into club activity of some sort.
Evaluating the club program*. There seemed to
be neither a systematic or an objective means used to
rate the clubs*
Though a club is not rapidly declin­
ing in effectiveness, this decline may be taking place
unnoticed unless the proper methods of detection are
used.
Jefferson’s clubs are evaluated by the sponsor
whenever they choose on the amount of pupil interest
shown, their service to pupil and school, pupil at­
tendance, the worth of club objectives and achieve­
ment of the same but this uncertain plan of evalua­
tion is not practiced when club machinery is apparent­
ly running smoothly and no evaluation seems necessary*
The plan of evaluation quoted previously on pages 3336 permits the evaluation of the club as well as that
of the fitness of the sponsor and president.
This
or a similiar plan should be used at specific inter­
vals during the year at Jefferson as it is only in
this manner that a club can hope to attain the ob­
jectives desired.
Just as carpenters, plane builders,
and road construction engineers need definite plans
in their work, so does the club program need a defi-
71
nit© means of evaluation.
The club check-up is com-
parable with that of the customary check-up given auto­
mobiles every one-thousand miles.
Should it be neg­
lected decay may go undetected.
Heed for reorganization of the camera club.
As was noted on page 56, this club is now inactive.
Photography is an expensive bit of work.
In most cases
students must furnish their own cameras and films but
with more and more emphasis being placed on Audio-Vis­
ual Aids it is probable that the Department of Educa­
tion will recognize the relationship which may exist
between the camera club and the visual aid program if
given a chance and appropriations for photography will
be forthcoming.
The relationship between Visual-Aids
and a Gamera Club, as it actually exists in a school
system, is shown on pages 31 and 32 of this treatise.
With the comparatively easy acquisition of films from
which color-slides for projection may be made for class
use, as well as for amusement, it seems advisable that
the students of Jefferson try for reorganization of the
Gamera Glub in the light of this present need for it.
This previously mentioned and well organized club
might be used as a pattern or guide.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
A* BOOKS
Abelson, Harold H . , The Art of Educational Research.
New York: World Book Company, 1933. 332 pp.
Campbell, William G;, A Form Book For Thesis Writing.
Los Angeles: University of Southern California
Press, 1933. 122 pp.
Fretwell, Elbert K . , Extra-Curricular Activities in
Secondary Schools. Boston: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 1931. 552 pp.
Good, Barr, and Scates, A Methodology of Educational
Research. New York: D. Appleton Company, 1936,
882 pp.
Millard, Cecil V . , The Organization and Administration
of Extra-Currioular Activities. New York: A. S.
Barnes and Company, 1930. 145 pp.
McKown, Harry C ., Extra-Curricular Activities. New
York: The MacMillan Company, 1937. 734 pp.
Pound, Olivia, Extra-Currioular Activities of The
High School Girls. New York: A. S. Barnes Com­
pany, 1931. 97 pp.
Roberts, A. C., and Draper, E. M . , Extraclass and
Intramural Activities in High Schools. Hew York:
D. C. Heath and Company, 1928. 529 pp.
Roemer, Joseph, Extra-Currioular Activities in Junior
and Senior High Schools. Boston: D. C. Heath and
Company, 1926. 333 pp.
Robinson, James H . , History of Western Europe. New
York: Ginn and Company, 1934. 642 pp.
Terry, Paul W . , Supervising Extra-Curricular Activi­
ties. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc.,
1930. 417 pp.
73
Wilds, Elmer Harrison, Extra-Curricular Activities.
New York: The Century Company, 1926. 273 pp.
B.
PERIODICAL ARTICLES
Anderson, Grace M . , "School Activities as a Means
of Citizenship Training,” Secondary Education.
:225-28, October, 1940.
Brant, Ralph E., "A Camera Club’s Contribution To
Visual Instruction,” Education. 61:354-58,
February, 1-941.
Geist, Roland, ”The Revival of Bicycling Education,”
High Points, 22:62-66, December*, 1940.
Hill, Sam R., ”The SOS Club,” The High School Journal.
23:380-81, December, 1940.
Klein, J. , ”Know Your Clubs,” Occupation. 17:234,
December, 1938.
Smith, Enid S., "Evaluating A Club Program,” Nations
Schools. 23:25-28, February, 1939.
Swan, W . , ”0ur School Newspapers,” Phi Delta Ivappan.
20:155-57, January, 1938.
C.
UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS AND SPECIAL PUBLICATIONS
Huddleston, Louis D., "High School Commercial Clubs,"
Bulletin from John Adams High School, Cleveland,
Ohio. 1930.
Kraft, Keith M . , "The Influence of High School Clubs
on Choice of Vocations and Avocations.” Unpub­
lished Master’s the!sis, The University of South­
ern California, Los Angeles, 1938. 64 pp.
Monegan, Helen V . , "Recreational Organizations for
Girls in Junior High School.” Unpublished Mas­
ter’s thesis, The University of Southern Califor­
nia, Los Angeles, 1938. 152 pp.
74
Neft, Tillie, "A Study to Determine The Yalues of
Commercial Clubs." Unpublished Master’s thesis,
The University of Southern California, Los Ange­
les, 1956. 112 pp.
Parker, Harry S., "School Clubs and Their Programs."
Unpublished Master’s thesis, The University of
Southern California, Los Angeles, 1936. 137 pp.
Profitt, Maris M. , "High School Clubs," Bulletin Ho.
18. Washington, D. C.: United States Department
of the interior, Office of Ddueation, 1934. 63 pp.
Saul, Oliver W * , "Implications For Guidance of High
School Pupils From Follow-up Study." Unpublished
Master’s thesis, The University of Southern Cali­
fornia, Los Angeles, 1939. 91 pp.
APPENDIX
RESPONSIBILITY OF AMERICAN CITIZENSHIP
Symposium
Sponsored by Yox Populi
Introductory-------- ---------- ------ Tamlin Harris
President of Vox Populi
"America”
---------- ■-------------- Gertrude Lomax
Youth’s Duties in a Democracy --------
Susie Beatty
Self-Discipline and Democracy --------
Gwendolyn Black
Youth and the Maintainanee of
Free Interprize ------------------
Roosevelt Graham
Keeping Faith with America----------- Leah Bowles
American Youth In A World of Turmoil -- Simon James
Democracy’s Challenge to Americans---- Sammy Lee
Youth’s Responsibility in
National Defense -----------------
Lillian Lomax
American Citizenship and What
It Means To M e
-------------- Sinclair Yip
AMERICA
My Country ’tis of thee
Sweet land of liberty
of thee I sing
Land where our fathers
died
Land of the pilgrims pride
From every mountain side
Let freedom ring.
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