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THE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF SGHOOL CLUBS IN THE JEFFERSON HIGH SCHOOL OF LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the School of Education The University of Southern California In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree faster of Science in Education hy James Charles Pitts June 1941 UMI Number: EP54107 All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion. Oissstiafen P_bi,shtng UMI EP54107 Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author. Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 48106- 1346 T h is thesis, w r it t e n u n d e r the d ir e c t io n o f the C h a ir m a n o f the c a n d id a te ’ s G u id a n c e C o m m itte e a n d a p p r o v e d by a l l m em b ers o f the C o m m itte e , has been presen ted to a n d accepted by the F a c u lt y o f the S c h o o l o f E d u c a t io n in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f the re q u ire m e n ts f o r the degree o f M a s t e r o f Science in E d u c a t io n . .......... Dean Guidance Committee Irving R. Melbo Chairman Louis P. Thorpe D. Welty Lefever TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I. PAGE INTRODUCTION The problem ......................... . . 1 . . . ......... 2 Statement of the prob le m............. 2 Importance of the study '3 Definition of terms used ........ ......... 3 School clubs ........... Extra-curricular activities . . . . . . 4 Review of related investigations . . . . . 5 Upshaw study ............. 5 Kraft study . . . . . ' ........... 6 Parker study • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 7 Heft study . . ...................... 7 .................... 8 . . . 9 Monegan survey . II. 3 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND ............ Spartan and Greek extra-curricular activities ..................... Dramatics and clubs Student Government . 9 ............ 10 .................. 11 Athletics in Early American schools Importance of present day clubs . . .... 11 12 The extra-curricular program in the high s c h o o l ........................ 13 CHAPTER PAGE Hew clubs ........... ♦ .. ......... The procedure of present investigation Changes in enrollment at Jefferson 16 . . 19 ... 19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Shift from residential to industrial community Racial composition of the.school popu lation ........... 20 Organization of the remaining chapters . III. .ORGAHIZATIQH AHD ADMINISTRATION OF THE CLUBS Duties of the Principal • • • • • • . . 22 24 24 • • • • • • • . ........ 25 Club membership c a m p a i g n .............. 25 Eligibility to c l u b s ................. 27 Initiation ceremonies........... 27 Club programs ........................ 28 Club insignias and sweaters............ 28 Frequency of club meetings ........ 29 .... 30 Inducting a new club at Jefferson . . . . . 31 Club sponsors . Time and length of club meetings Criteria by which the administrators evaluate the worth of a club Inactive clubs at Jefferson ..... 53 . . . . . . 36 iv CHAPTER PAGE IV. SAMPLINGS OF CLUB ACTIVITIES . . . . . . . . Interest c l u b s .......... 38 An inactive club 55 • • • • • • • • • • • • Racial c l u b s ........... V. 38 '56 FINDINGS AND RECOIMENDATIOHS" .............. Findings . ................. 60 60 Club grouping.............. . 60 Interest clubs ....................... 60 Racial clubs ............ . ......... 61 Club activities....................... 61 Organization and administration ........ 62 History of each club 62 How clubs are financed ............ . .. ......... 63 Time of meetings ............ 64 Place of meeting ............ 64 Frequency of m e e t i n g .................. 64 Length of m e e t i n g s .................... 65 Requirements for a d m i s s i o n ............ 65 Outside agencies 66 Recommendations ........ . . . . . . . ......... 67 Club history.............-............ 68 Membership in clubs 69 Evaluating the.club program............. 70 V CHAPTER PAGE Need for reorganization of the camera c l u b ............. B I B L I O GR AP HY ................................... APPENDIX * *............ 71 72 75 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The high degree of contemporary interest in extra-curricular activities of. high school pupils is attested by the large volume of literature on the sub ject that has appeared for the past few years and con tinues to do so. The worth of activities termed "extra-curricular" *1 is further exemplified by Fretwell who says: Through these activities, excursions may be taken into many fields which would other wise be untouched, because of the limited time at the pupil’s disposal. All wide awake school administrators have re cognized this fact and instituted these student orga nizations in their program to the extent that finance and equipment have permitted. Though school clubs, a major component of the well rounded program, may be considered existent in most schools by casual observers, even in this age of educational enlightenment this fact is not true. Lack of initiative, or ability on part of the principals and administrators as Y^ell as non-informed teachers 1 Elbert K. Fretwell, Extra-Curricular Activi ties in Secondary Schools (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1931), p. 257 2 are definite factors which hinder activities of this nature. As a result, thousands of pupils are deprived of the opportunity of building within themselves the qualities of character and development which come as a result of participation in responsibilities present in student groups. The experience derived from coopera tive club work: is an invaluable asset in later life. It is perhaps unfortunate that the social acti vities of high school pupils that are not closely con nected with classroom work have been termed "extracurricula”. Olivia Pound, p in an interesting book on extra curricula says: Social activities, in consequence, too often considered by teachers and pupils as rival attrac tions rather than as part of the main experience of high school life. Each extra-curricula activity in some way should further one or more of the main ob jectives of secondary education. In addition to the fact that social organizations of high school pupils may be used to further the aims of secondary education, they also may be made to yield valuable by-products in the way of ideals, in terests, appreciations, the element from which character emerges. I. THE PROBLEM Statement of the problem. p The purpose of this Olivia Pound, Extra-Curricular Activities of the High School Girls (Hew York: A, S. Barnes Company, 1931')', pp. 2-3. 5 study was to present an account of the types of clubs; their organization, administration, objectives, and acti vity programs as practiced in a typical high school of Los Angeles, California, The following were considered. (1) types of clubs; (2) history and organization of each; (3) aims or objectives; (4) administrative procedures; (5) how financed; (6) requirements for admission; frequency of meetings; (7) (8) time and length of meetings; (9) place of meeting; and (10) work of sponsors. Importance of the study. learn only by doing’ — The statement — seems a valid one. ??/e So, pos sessing a keen interest in extra-curricular activities; their organization and activity programs; it was con cluded that an investigation of prevalent clubs in an ideal setting would provide an excellent means of be coming acquainted with present extra-curricular prac tices. Information gleaned from this study should prove helpful to the organizations under observation as an in centive toward perfection as well as a basis for club organization in the future. II. DEFINITION OF TERMS USED School Clubs. These may be defined as organiza tions that offer an outlet for the desires and influences 4 resulting from curricular activities. According to Roemer, Burdett, and Yarnell: School clubs are those school activities or ganized and administered in the school, whether during or after school hours, to provide for the gregarious instincts of adolescent students and to stimulate and promote desirable school spirit and practices.^ Extra-Curricular Activities. A satisfactory de finition of extra-curricular activities according to Wilds is: Extra-curricular activities are those activities of the school that are outside the traditional cur riculum, that have sprung up and developed through the students* own desires and efforts, that are car ried on apart from the hours of the regular school program, and that are participated in without the rewards of regular school credit.^ Though this definition seems a fitting one, it is undergoing a change in many school systems as some of these activities are now given a place in the school programs. Students participate in them for their own pleasure and satisfaction and for the intrinsic values accruing therefrom. Recently, however, several schools 3 Joseph Roemer, Charles F. Allen and Dorothy A. Yarnell, Basic Student Activities (New York: Silver, Burdett and Company, 1935) , 367 pp. 4 Elmer E. Wilds, Extra-Curricular Activities (New York: The Century 0ompany, 1986), 273 pp. 5 have begun the policy of giving school credit for par ticipation in certain of the more valuable of these ac5 tivities, such as debating, dramatics, music, etc, III. REVIEW OF RELATED INVEST IOAT IOHS Within the last two decades those associated with and affected by school life have become club conscious in every well populated section of the United States. Many reports have been published describing investiga tions of junior and senior high club organizations, club trends, programs, influences and values. A brief summary of these studies will be given here. The Upshaw Evaluation of Club Activities. Mary E. Upshaw, in an evaluation of the school clubs of 0 Roosevelt Junior High School, Tulsa, Oklahoma, used the questionnaire method of investigation. The ques tionnaires Vi?ere presented to the club members during a regular club period. The data gathered were tabulated to facilitate the use of findings. An effort was made ^ Ibid., p. 4. 6 Mary E. Upshaw, "Club Activities In The Roose velt Junior High School of Tulsa Oklahoma," (Unpublish ed Master’s thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1958), 174 pp. 6 to discover whether or not the club objectives, aims, or purposes v^ere truly realized. Such values were con sidered as (1) the development of old interests; (2) the creation of new interests; (3) the training for better citizenship; (4) the growth in leadership; (5) the making of new friends; (6) the enrichment of lei sure time pursuits; and (7) a better teacher-pupil re lationship. Conclusions drawn from this investigation were definite according to the author: 1. Club members could and did recognize values derived from club participation. 2. Most clubs were of some service to the school, the community, or to non-club members. 3. Club placements, though good, needed some adjustments. 7 Kraft Study. During 1938, Keith M. Kraft made a p study of the influence of high school clubs0 on choice of vocations and avocations. Data from fifty personal interviews and sixty- two questionnaires \*/ere used. It was concluded from this study that: (l) very little value was attributed to high school clubs as factors influen cing the choice of a life work or occupation; (2) little credit was also given to high school clubs for aiding in 7 I~bid. , p. 49 ® Keith M. Kraft, ’’The Influence of High School Clubs on Choice of Vocations and Avocations,” (Unpublish ed Master’s thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1938), 64 pp. 7 developing present day avocational interests; (3) twenty percent of those contacted credited club work with deve loping high school leisure time activities in which they participated. The Parker Investigation. Harry S. Parker made an investigation closely aligned with this study that described the many types of clubs in the secondary school rather than those of a specified high school. Their aims, objectives, and current practices were noted. Q Neft Investigation. Miss Tillie Heft made a study to determine the values of commercial clubs in various schools. Inquiry blanks were used to determine the ad ministrative set-up as well as values of commercial^ clubs. The bulk of her work tends to show that the so cial influences of commercial clubs receive the highest rating of both the heads of commercial departments and writers. More time was spent in investigating the orga- ^ Harry Parker, "School Clubs and Their Programs," (Unpublished MasterTs thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1936), 137 pp. Tillie Neft, "A Study to Determine The Values of Commercial Clubs," (Unpublished Master’s thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1936), 112 pp. 8 nization and administration of the clubs than with the ■values of such clubs. The Monegan Survey.^This survey was made, accor ding to the author: in response to a recognized need for materials recorded or unrecorded, that might be of use to other teachers who wanted examples of accepted programs which they might adapt to their own situations.12 The outstanding difficulties given in putting on a program were: (1) improper attitude on part of the par ticipants and the administrators as to the purpose of the program; (S) lack of time, space, and equipment; (3) lack of cooperation between the boys’ and girls* de partments . ■*•1 Helen Monegan, "Recreational Organizations Hor Girls in Junior High School," (Unpublished Master’s thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1938. 152 pp. 12 Ibid., p. 8. CHAPTER II HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Spartan and Greek extra-curricular activities. It is interesting to note that the Spartans and Greeks of the fifth century B.C. recognized the value of var ious ’extra’ activities examples of which are: running, jumping, throwing of the discus, swimming, hunting and wrestling. Most of these sports were performed without team work being an important factor. A limited amount of social experience was obtained by the young men of Sparta at the public dining halls. In the Athenian universities, more liberal types of activities were pro vided in the ’circles’ of students who gathered around their favorite teachers and in the Heracleids and Theseids which were larger groups of a more general nature In the later Greek schools, considerable opportunity was given for the practice of public speaking. The be ginning of student government, likewise, made its ap pearance in ancient Greece. Practices of this nature were facilitated in Sparta by the congregation of boys and young men in military boarding schools.1 lames H, Robinson, History of Western Europe (New York: Ginn and Company, 1934;, 642.pp. 10 Extensive opportunities for soeial intercourse and for self-government were enjoyed by the cosmopoli tan student-bodies of medieval European universities* through organizations known as ’nations*. 2 A nation consisted of all the members of the university who came 5 from the same country. Athletic student activities held a place of some importance in English secondary schools during this medieval period too. Aberdeen Grammar School had golf and foot-bali very early in its history. West minster played at cricket as early as 1746 and, in 1867, it joined with Charterhouse in founding the association 4 game of football. Dramatics and clubs. Queen Elizabeth ordered the headmaster of Westminster to have a Latin play act ed each year at Christmas to help the boys spend the holidays more profitably and to encourage them in ’grace ful gesture and pronounciation*. 2 ibid., p . 5. ^ Ibid., p . 6. ‘4 Xbid., p. 6. Social clubs, natural history societies, and musical organizations were found5 ed in many schools during the ninteenth century. Student Government. Several types of student government v?ere developed by these institutions in the course of their long history. The earliest was a per fect system which was outlined in the statutes of Win chester College in 1383. Selected older scholars super vised the study and morals of the others and reported to the Y/arden defects that needed correction. 6 Athletics in Early American Schools. Athletic activities were not extremely popular in the earliest American seconders?- schools. The first interseholastie football game took place in 1878 between Exeter and And over. Probably the earliest base-ball club in a public high school was that of VJorchester, Massachusetts, or ganized in 1859. In 181S, Exeter established the Rhetorical So ciety, which is believed to be the first literary orga nization in an American secondary school. The school publications started as an outgrowth 5 Ibid., p. 8. ^ Ibid., p. 6. 12 of the early literary society. The first printed pub lication was The Excelsior, a four page paper of three columns, published every two months by the boys of Hartford Public school. 17 Importance of present day clubs. The United States Department,in 1933, conducted a questionnaire investigation of secondary school clubs. Responses were received from 833 public high’schools located in cities of varying sizes throughout the country. The percentage of high schools having club activities, the average num ber of clubs per school, the percentage of club members to the total enrollment, and the methods relative to the organization of clubs and club programs was summarized in this bulletin. The findings \*/ere: 1. Of the 833 public secondary schools included in this study, 92.04 percent have school clubs. 2. The percentage of schools having clubs does not vary greatly by kinds of high schools. How ever there is an indicated trend that this percen tage decreases with the increase of the number of junior high school grades included in a high school. 3. The percentage that the club membership is of the school enrollment varies directly with the num ber of junior high school grades included in a high school. 4. The average number of clubs per school, for ^ Paul Terry, Supervising Extra-Curricular Acti vities (New Tork: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1930T7 417 pp. 13 schools reporting clubs, is twelve. The junior high school has an average of fifteen, which is the largest for any kind of high school. 5. Girls outnumber boys in club membership for everykind of high school. 6. The percentage of schools having clubs does not vary significantly by size of cities. 7. The percentage of schools having clubs var ies with the size of the high school; being smaller in the smaller high schools and larger in the larger high schools. 8. A classification and compilation of data by groups of states showed but very little difference in the percentage of schools having clubs.8 This survey alone tends to show that the club is considered an important feature of the school program. The extra-curricular urogram in the high school. Clubs are a part of most progressive junior high schools of today and students, upon transferring to high schools, would find school life not nearly so pleasant and condu cive to proper adjustment if, when ushered into this new regime, there was no proper outlet for their energies and social desires. This is in accordance with Klein who says:s 8 Maris M. Profitt, "High School Clubs", United States Department of Education Bulletin. 18;58-59, 1934, 64 pp. ® J. Klein, "Know Tour Clubs," Occupation, 17:234, December, 1938. 14 One of the first interests of the average new student in high school is in the clubs or other school organizations. Each one, admittedly or unavowedly, wants to be a part of some special group. One of the primary results of school organiza tions is that they provide problems on which all new students work thus overcoming the shyness that is only natural due to new surroundings. Numerous as well as important are the activities found in secondary schools but only a few will be men tioned here as examples. Some are: the school newspaper and pupil government organizations. The press may be considered as a mouthpiece of the school and no other organization wields a greater influence. By giving the entire student body a periodical review of the ne'ws of the school, the newspaper places in their hands a body of common knowledge that gives rise to feelings of group consciousness and promotes helpful attitudes toward the school on part of the community. Willis A. Swan,^journalist and graduate student of the University of California at Los Angeles, considers Paul Terry, Supervising Ext ra -Curr icular Ac tivities (New York: McGraw Hill Book Company, 1950],p. 189. 11 Willis A. Swan, "Our School Newspapers," Phi Delta Kappan. 20:155-57, January, 1938. 15 publicity and the school newspapers synonymous although many educators fail to see the relation between the two. A qualified teacher should be selected to advise the school newspaper and offer a course in journalism should such projects be attempted. Too many times English tea chers are asked to serve in these capacities regardless of previous training and because the school newspaper contains specimens of English composition. With reference to student government organiza tions, it is noted that they frequently engage in the following activities: (l) regulating traffic and con duct in and about the building; (2) working out plans for movement and conduct during fire drills; (3) regu lating sehool events and social affairs and innumerable other essential acts. Their main object is to maintain smooth working relationships. 12 These so called government activities should be means to an end rather than an end. Grace M. Anderson^ confirms this statement by remarking: Student participation should strive constantly 12 Terry, op., cit., p. 189 13 Grace M, Anderson, "School Activities As a Means of Citizenship Training," Secondary Education, :225-228, October, 1940. 16 not only for the realization of ideals in coopera tion, hut it should also aim to give practical and realistic training in the technics of citizen par ticipation. Student council officers will then be elected not in any convenient haphazard manner, hut in a straight forward way such as we expect when our national, state, and municipal officials are chosen. Thus, one of the most practical opportunities for ac tual citizenship participation training is now in the realm of the public school education. Hew clubs. Any organization or group of organi zations within the school are considered an. asset when noticable advancements are made. many new activities are appearing. is the bicycle club. Within this realm An outstanding one The Board of Education in the city of Hew York has established bicycle classes. The pri mary aim of the present course is to teach safety a14 wheel. This is also wonderful physical exercise. Safety awards are given at the end of the course. This educational work is already reducing the number of street accidents involving bicycles. More than seventy-five bicycle clubs and courses have been organized mainly in the elementary and junior high schools and the movement is spreading to the senior high schools. Another club making its appearance recently is The SOS Club of West High School, Denver, Colorado which may be classed as a welfare organization. ^ Roland Geist, "The Revival of Bicycling Educa tion," High Points. 22:62-66, December, 1940. 17 Numerous accidents in and around the school were cause for a concentrated safety campaign, and as a result, the SOS Club was formed to aid in enforcing the safety rules. Since its birth, West has become one of the safest schools in the United States. Membership of the club consists of approximately fifty girls, who must fulfill the following requirements: They must have been enrolled at West for at least two semesters, must have and retain a high scholastic record, and must per form their duties for the interest of the club and the school. Each one must also complete a First Aid course and must have a Red Cross First Aid Certificate, so that they are capable of rendering First Aid in case the necessity arises. Applicants meeting these stan dards are required to appear before the club and ex press reasons for their desire to become members, and are then voted on by the club. Officers are elected annually and the club is sponsored by two West High School teachers well known for participation in safety education. Each girl is assigned to a post to which she is required to report between each class period. Each floor in the building has one girl as a checker whose duty is to see that the girls on that floor report re gularly to their posts, thus insuring greater efficiency 18 of the club. SOS girls are dismissed from classes two minutes before the end of the hour, in order that they may be on duty when the dismissal bell rings, and they must remain until the tardy bell for the next hour. Running, shipping steps and other hazardous things are not permitted. SOS girls enforce this and other safety rules of the school. Members of the club wear badges that can easily be recognized and also have jackets with the SOS insig nia above the pocket. These jackets are owned by the club, and were paid for by the proceeds of candy sales at athletic events, school plays, and any other oppor tunities. The club sponsors an annual semi-formal dance, which is one of West’s most important social events and is always a gala affair. It also sponsors an as sembly program, which helps to publicize the organiza15 tion of the student body. This type of activity provides an opportunity for girls, who are not members of other clubs, to af filiate themselves with a worthwhile extra-curricular activity. The teachers are spared the burden of pat- 15 Sam R. Hill, "The SOS Club," The High School Journal, S3:380-381, December, 1940. 19 rolling the halls and grounds. The policy of every school should be: "A club for each pupil”. THE PROCEDURE OF PRESENT INVESTIGATION This study was confined to the Jefferson High School of Los Angeles, California with no attempt be ing made to evaluate the club program. Changes in enrollment at Jefferson. The school opened in 1916 with an enrollment of less than three hundred chiefly native white pupils in what was primari ly a residential district. By 1924 the peak enrollment of almost three thousand was reached. This enrollment decreased to less than two thousand the next three years, to less than seventeen hundred by 1933, and to a new low of sixteen hundred in 1936. made in the last four years. led nembered 2,100. A rapid recovery has been By 1937 the pupils enrol- 1 ft The present enrollment (1940-41) is 2,004. Pos sible factors aiding in increasing the school popula- •^Oliver W. Saul, “Implications For Guidance of High School Pupils From Follow-up Study,” (Unpublished Master’s thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1939), 91 pp. 20 tion are: the building of an extremely modernistic school after the old one was destroyed by earthquake in 1933, the large influx of families to this district, and the enrichment of the curriculum with an aim to serve the community as a whole. Shift from residential to industrial community. The encroachment of industries, which began to be felt strongly by 1923, increased rapidly during the next de cade. At present there are shopping centers, large and small factories, wholesale warehouses and distributing plants, and various other industries scattered through out the district in which this school is located. The fundamental reason for the shift to the industrial was the fact that the spread of these industries in Los Angeles naturally followed the railroads, both steam and electric, and the principal truck highways which traverse this district. Racial composition of the school population. The races represented at Jefferson are: Chinese, Japa nese, White, Colored, and Mexican. Mien the Japanese and Chinese are combined to form the Oriental group, and the Mexicans and ifhites combined to form the white group, it is noted that the percentage of Y/hites en 21 rolled is thirty-five, percentage of Orientals — and percentage of Colored — nine, fifty-six. The library was indispensable as a source of re17 search methods and accounts of former studies. Periodi cals published by the many educational agencies were equally helpful. The questionnaire method was the principal tool used in the majority of previous investigations of club programs for gaining the desired information. This was necessary as the studies covered clubs in distant schools but such was not true in this study. The school was con veniently located, thus, permitting the acquisition of first hand information in the midst of all activities. However, this apparently perfect set-up was not an in surance against disappointments. First, the change of semesters brought club programs to a temporary stand still for two to three weeks. New officers ??ere elect ed and plans made for the second semester and five to ten days passed before some clubs reached a smooth run ning basis. Secondly, upon sensing the desirability of attending as many club meetings possible, it was neces17 Good, Barr, and Scates, A Methodology of Educational Research (New York: D. Appleton Company, 1936,) 882 pp. 22 sary to alter plans constantly. The use of questionnaires would have been an easier way of gaining the desired information but by using the personal interview and visitation method it was possible to actually see the club program in opera tion. A questionnaire was formulated but only for use as a guide when administrators, sponsors, and club mem bers were interviewed, and during visitation of meetings and social functions. Results obtained through use of this method warranted the continued use of it through out the study. The congenial type of consideration and coopera tion shown by the entire favulty and student personnel of Jefferson High during this study was a deciding fac tor in making the effort expended on this problem most pleasurable and profitable. Organization of the remaining chapters. A statement of the problem, review of related investiga tions, and historical background of clubs has been pre sented in Chapters I and II. The Organization and Ad ministration of Jefferson’s clubs is covered in Chapter III together with supporting testimony of various au thors. The clubs and their programs provide the theme £5 for data presented in Chapter IV. The amount of des criptive narration given with respect to each club varies because of available information. The fifth and final chapter includes a summary of findings with recommendations. CHAPTER III ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF THE CLUBS Duties of the Principal, The principal is the executive head of the student council-which is concern ed with the admittance and general supervision of all the clubs. He, with the aid of the student council, evaluates carefully all aims and objectives of new clubs seeking recognition and places the final sanction on plans for club socials, field trips, and assemble pro grams . Roberts and Draper describe the responsibility of the principal thus: Modern social psychology places on the princi pal the responsibility for the many-sided develop ment of his heterogenous student body. Mot only business management, curricular management, and physical upkeep of the institution are his special care; but it is in the office of the high-school principal that the vision of the school program ; ; of extra-curricular activities is developed. .It is essential that he be able to see the scope of the work, its relation to the curriculum, and its influence in the lives of the students. He must work with his teachers in outlining certain ideals which are to be attained in the curricular and extra-curricular program. In the selection of sponsors for the various activities, he needs to act with exceeding care and caution.! i A. G. Roberts and E. M. Draper, Extra-class and Intramural Activities in High Schools (Hew York: D. G. Heath and Company, 1928), p. 369. 25 Glub sponsors. Forty-two of the sixty-nine instructors at Jefferson are sponsors of some extra curricular activity. There are seventeen interest clubs and four racial clubs each having a sponsor. The remaining twenty-one sponsors are advisers of the musical and service organizations. Except in special cases the sponsor’s room is used as the meeting place for the club. When a new club is in the making the pupils sometimes select their sponsor without any ad ministrative assistance. Records showed that during the organization of some clubs previously; instructors automatically became their advisers because of the re lationship of the club activities to the subject mat ter taught by the sponsor. This was true in the case of the speech and dramatic clubs in which the teachers of speech and dramatics are sponsors. The role of the sponsor is an important one and it is needless to say that no club can advance further than is permitted by the foresight of its leader. It might be concluded that a progressive and well-liked sponsor must be endowed with an alert mind and a well rounded personality. Glub membership campaign. A mimeographed list of all clubs is furnished each home-room at the begin- 26 ning of each school year for the purpose of acquaint ing all students with the purposes of each elub. The Jeffersonian (school paper) plays no small part in sup porting the membership drive. It carries accounts of meetings and social activities thus building up a de sire among students to become members of various clubs with appealing programs. The Chinese and Japanese clubs fete all new Chinese and Japanese pupils with a welcome party at the beginning of each semester and in vite them to join their clubs. The Japanese welcome party ‘ was given on February 12, 1941 in the school cafeteria with presidents and officers of other clubs as guests. The Japanese president expressed her ap-. preciation for large number of individuals present and introduced each visitor from other clubs. Each Japa nese student present introduced him or herself to the group. Games, singing, and dancing constituted the amusements with ice-cream being served as a refresh ment. This affair offered a medium through which new students acquainted themselves with others as well as with the club principles. McKown2 believes that the membership campaign p Harry McKown, Extra-curricular Activities (New'York: The MacMillan Company, 1937), p. 487. 27. should he a dignified one rather than a membership-get ting drive or a competitive campaign of propaganda. Eligibility to clubs. A student is permitted to'join any club provided he can meet its requirements. One is allo?#ed to affiliate himself ?d.th as many clubs as is desirable when class work is up to par. If too much extra-curricular- activity is deemed to be the cause of classwork deficiency the student is forced to devote more time to studies and cancel most of his club work. Violation of rules after becoming a mem ber causes one to lose his membership in some clubs whereas in others a fine is paid instead. The Letter- mans Glub offers an example of the first ^portion of the above statement. If one of its members is absent from meeting two times in succession he is ousted. Penalties remind pupils that a club worth belonging to is worthy of their attendance at its meetings. Initiation ceremonies. None of the so-called ’goat riding’ or secret initiations are used in ad mitting new members. The usual procedure incorporates the taking of the club’s pledge or a mere welcome ex tended by the club president to the incoming new mem bers. 28 Club programs. The speech and dramatic clubs assume the major responsibility of preparing and pre senting assembly programs at different intervals during each semester. The Yox Populi, a speech club, present ed an unusually timely and interesting program during 3 March, 1941, An examination of this program will show that it was in keeping with public sentiment of the present year, A play titled *Keeping A Man At Home* was pre sented to a double assembly of students by the Harlequin Dramatic Club, This play was entertaining as well as a fine means of giving the drama students a drill in really ’putting on a show* • This club has its own prop men, make-up artists, lighting technicians, script readers, directors, and head director who is the dramatics tea cher and club sponsor. The double assembly was neces sary because of the large number of students. Assembly programs of this type are fine examples or illustrations of the fact that club activities can be of inestimable value in the production of worth while programs for the benefit of the entire school. Club insignlas and sweaters. 3 Appendix, p. 76 Members of various 29 clubs are recognizable by their pins, sweaters, emblems, and uniforms, ter IT. A description of these follows in Chap The students wear them with much pride even to the extent that sweaters and colors of other schools are barred from their campus by order of the' student coun cil. Anyone violating this ruling is subject to a pen alty imposed by this council. McKown states that: Pins and rings may add to the member’s interest and increase his pride in his membership, but, in' general it is perhaps unwise for the school to al low them because, (1} of the frequent change of club personnel; (2) the false pride and foolish display which will be engendered; (3) the needless competition that may be started; and (4) the ex pense attached. The use of club colors or flowers is inadvisable because there are not enough colors and flowers to go around without duplication and conflict.4 Other authorities condone the wearing of insignias and sweaters.5 Frequency of club meetings. A wide range of difference was found as to the number of meetings during a month’s time. Weekly meetings seem preferable Harry McKown, Bxtra-curricular Activities (Hew York: The MacMi 11 an 0ompany", 1937) , 734 pp. 5 Sam R. Hill, "The SOS Club," The High School Journal, 23:381, December, 1940. with, nine clubs scheduling their meetings thus* met bi-monthly and four daily. Eight The Young Americans Club, now inactive but included in this report, f o r merly met bi-weekly. It was noted that the dramatic, speech, and Cosmopolitan clubs met daily because of their curricular programs. Daily meetings are obvious ly too frequent for most clubs as their aims and ob jectives do.not warrant it. Ho club will be of any real value which meets less frequently than once in two weeks. Probably, too, a club which meets twice a week may easily come to acquire a more or less formal, classlike atmosphere and lose Its appeal and value. In any case, one good Tfred letter" meeting is much better than a dozen "just another" meetings.6 Time and length of club meetings. Six of the clubs held their meetings during the noon hour from 12:30 to 1:00 o ’clock while eight met after school from one-half to one hour. Six clubs, more closely related to the curriculum,, met during the class per iod; sixty minutes being the usual length of the ses sions. The Y.M.C.A. Clubs met at 7:30 p.m. on Wednes day of each week. Hone lasted more than sixty-minutes. Ho club was required to remain in session until a specific amount of time had passed. If all necessary 0 Harry McKown, Extra-curricular Activities (Hew York: The MacMillan Company, 1937), 734 pp. 31 business was finished the session was dosed. Inducting a new club at Jefferson. Clubs as well as other organizations have a way of getting started. In the school around which this study is centered a new club is organized whenever conditions warrant it. The following question may arise in the minds of the reader. What person or persons determine this need? It was found that students, teachers, and administrators as well were instrumental in suggesting a new club. Upon receipt of a new club idea, pupils submit it to a favo rite teacher whom they desire for a sponsor or temporary adviser. A petition for membership including aims and objectives of the club is then presented to the student council for its approval. The Lettermans Club, organized during February 1941, resulted from a stiggestion of the boy’s VicePrincipal when a need was seen for assistance on the athletic field, on the play-ground at noon, and during track season. Further description of this club and its activities are to be found in Chapter IV. Organizing a club in, this manner is in accord with a description of the beginning of a Camera Club in the Vassar Public School by Brant when a definite 32 need for It was felt by the students and teachers. 7 He outlines the way in whieh this club has become a vital part of the visual instruction program in the school and community. Some of its activities are:. 1. The taking, developing, and finishing of photographs of class activities, projects, assem blies, et cetera. A 13 inch by 15 inch loose-leaf album serves as a cumulative record for pictures of all activities taken, and is placed on the counter of the outer office where it is available to stu dents, faculty, and patrons. 2. The camera club is busily engaged at present making 35 mm. slides of agricultural, manuel arts, and home economics projects. These will be used by teachers as aids in evaluating their work as well as affording a nucleus of interesting programs for rural and local P. T. A. groups, farmers clubs, and other lay organisations desiring to become bet ter acquainted with the activities sponsored by the school. 3. Pictures are shown at Parent-Teacher meetings showing children at vrork or play. Q Brant further states that: We are constantly evaluating our visual .educa tion program on the basis of: Tl) its practical value, (2) to what extent it is instructive, and (3) does it have proper correlation with other academic procedures? Those directly responsible for the visual aid program need be constantly on the alert, or "the side show may run away with the circus”, for this . ^ Ralph E. Brant, tTA Camera Club’s Contribution To Visual Instruction," Education. 61:354, February, 1941. hoc. cit S3 type of activity is usually very interesting and it is possible that these aids might fail in their educational values if they are not properly evaluated. Criteria by which the administrators evaluate the worth of a club. Criteria of some sort is neces sary for use as a basis of determining as far as is possible the effectiveness of clubs and the extent to which they accomplish their objectives. Careful and objective evaluation is an asset to the progress of any club. Investigation reveals that clubs are evalua ted by the apparent worth of their objectives and achievement of the same, pupil interest, pupil-attendance, and service to pupil and school. 9 Enid S. Smith, Dean of Women, Bethel College, worked out a very good scheme over a period of five years for evaluating a club program. Once every se mester the following questionnaire, v^i.th a five point scale opposite each question, is given to all the mem bers of each club that they might rate their organization by checking one of the squares of the descriptive scale according to their best knowledge and judgment. The 9 Enid S. Smith, "Evaluating A Club Program," Nations Schools, 23:25-28, February, 1939. 34 five divisions of the scale consist of "very good," 100 to 75 per cent; 11 good,”.75 to 50 per cent; ”fair,” 50 to 25 per cent; "poor,” 25 to 1 per cent; "very poor,” 1 to 0 per cent. 1* 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Do you like this club? Do themembers respect the club president? ” ” ” ” one another? Is the club businesslike? Is there growth in knowledge? ” ” ” ” leadership? ” ” provision for individual differences? Does the club help you develop a desirable character? 9. Does the club help you develop skills? 10. " ” ” ” " in your classwork? 11. ” ” ” ” ” ” " home? 12. ” ” ” . ” your school? 13. ” ” ” ” ” community? 14. Is the club democratic? 15. ” ” president satisfactory? 16. ” ” sponsor ” ? 17. Do thevmembers cooperate in the elub's work? The results from this questionnaire are computed in the following' manner": The percentage of each separate question on each section of the scale for the aggregate membership is worked out, with due regard to the changing num ber of members in different semesters. To illustrate, the composite returns from a‘ certain club may be 52 per cent, "very good”; 31 per cent "good”; 10 per cent "fair,” and 7 per cent "poor” (use no scoring for "very poor"). In like manner, every semester three raters (the dean of girls, an assistant teacher and a member of the student council) went unobtrusively to each club, sat in the back seats and rated the club presidents on the following questionnaire with its accompany ing five point scale: (1) self-control, (2) judgment, (3) fairness, (4) enthusiasm, (5) patience, (6) cour- 55 age. (7) reverence, (8) humility, (9) graciousness, (10) alertness, (11) resourcefulness, (12) pro gressiveness and (13) cheerfulness. Likewise, the three raters visited every club each semester and rated the sponsors, using the fol lowing questionnaire accompanied by the five point scale: (1) interest in the club, (2) command of pup il’s respect, (3) willingness to permit the pupils . to lead, (4) guidance ability when called upon, (5) knowledge of the subject matter, (6) enthusiasm, (7) fairness, (8.) resourcefulness, (9) friendlyurer lations. with pupils and (IQ.), ^promptness at meetings. Checking is unobtrusive. In the case of the sponsors, as with the rating of the presidents, it often was necessary to return several times to var ious clubs to observe definitely each item enumer ated on the questionnaires, since no president or sponsor could be expected to show in his conduct-all the enumerated factors in one day. The pupils were accustomed to visitors from other clubs and from the faculty, so the checking of a questionnaire in an unobtrusive way caused no embarrassment. The interview schedule was divided’into two parts, the first consisting of items 1, 5, 4, 7, 8 and 12 accompanied by’the five point rating scale and tak en from the questionnaire on club presidents, toge ther with items 3 , 5 , 6, and 10 from the question naire on sponsors, to be checked by the pupils at the time of an interview in the dean’s office. The second section asked two questions: (1) In what way or ways do you think the club helps you, your school, your homes, or your community? (2) In what way or ways do you think the club could be improved? The observation data sheet, in the hands of the three raters, near the beginning and close of each semester, was designed to obtain .definite objective evidence of the influence of the clubs or school, . home and community. It consisted of two parts. I — Glub, Home and Community. 1. Do you observe any objective indication of work or influence that might be attributed to this club? What? 2. Does the conversation in regard to the object or 36 subject in question indicate that the influence of the cluh was responsible for it? 3. How extensive is this influence of the club? (Estimate objectively if possible.) . 4. Record excerpts of conversation that show the .attitude tov/ard the club on part of the indivi dual, the home, the community. (Probable influence on club as the result.) II — 1. What they 2. 'What 3. What Glub, Individual and School do you see the club members doing? doing it? do you hear the club members say? is the sponsor doing? How are Although the tabulation and evaluation of the data obtained from the observation data sheet were problems, as were the numerous visits to homes and to club rooms, yet these data showed the far-reach ing influences of the clubs, served to supplement case histories of the clubs and were a further check on other data.10 Inactive clubs at Jefferson.- Clubs discontinued as a result of this tj^pe of evaluation are: The Aviation, Camera, and The Young Americans. A conference with the sponsor of each of these three clubs showed that lack of pupil attendance and interest was the chief cause for their cancellation of activity. The Lafayette-Steuben Glub, organized for those pupils interested in the French and German languages, is temporarily discontinued until a new sponsor is selected Lfrid., pp. 26-28. * 37 and the constitution revamped. The discontinuance of the teaching of Gorman language is the reason for the inactivity on part of -this club. CHAPTER IV SAMPLINGS-OF CLTJB ACTIVITIES Interest clubs. The descriptions given here are those gleaned from personal contact with numerous members, officers, and sponsors at meetings and social functions of the so-called interest clubs. Cosmetology Club Purpose: To acquaint new members with practices in cosmetics, and to provide an outlet for social activities. Dues: Five cents per month. Meetings: Twice monthly for a maximum time of one hour. Humber of members: 22 girls. Club rules: (sample) 1. A business meeting is to be called on the first and fourth monday of each month in the Gosmetology room. (Members discuss finance prob lems and plan the final luncheon scheduled at the end of each semester). 2. The student must take any customer as signed to her. 3. Student must-be courteous and polite at all times. 4. Student must wear clean uniforms. (white) Activities: The sponsor contacts a reputable skin physi cian who lectures to the club on caring for the 39 skin at the last meeting of each month. A lun cheon is given at the end of each semester in honor of the graduating club members. Hon-graduating club members are assessed fifty-cents as a means of financing' this affair.. Guests present at the mid-term luncheon were: Principal of the school, Girl’s Vice-Principal, Home Economics Department head, and the club’s sponsor. Election of officers for the next semester follows at the close of the . luncheon. Picnics are given each spring in one of the many city parks. Aid is given to the school welfare workers during Christmas, and a Christmas party given for needy children. Funds for this work are obtained from the sale of hand lotion and brilliantine made by members of the club. The Historian’s book contains: 1. the club oath, S. a list of club officers, 3. club pictures, 4. club rules, 5. qualifications of a good cosmeto logist, 6. characteristics of club members, 7. a calendar of club meetings, 8. ambitions of members, 9. pictures of graduating seniors, 10. clippings from the school paper, and, 11. accounts of the semester luncheons. This club was organized eight years ago and Jefferson High School was the first in the state of California to gain recognition for its work done in this department. All cosmetology students are eligi ble for membership. Cosmopolitan Club Purpose: To study the causes and remedies of allworld problems and promote world friendship. Meetings: Daily class meetings. Dues: Assessments when needed. Number of members: 40 boys and girls. Activities: Section meetings are held with four other ¥/orld Friendship Clubs four times a year, and a meeting of all the clubs twice a year. Local problems and Pan-Americanism formed a part of the discussion at the last meeting with the clubs of Polytechnic, Belmont, and Metropolitan High Schools. A banquet is given by this club each spring. The Cosmopolitan Club has been a part of the school for the past ten years. Any student inheres ted may join but the majority of members are Inter national Relations students. The Demostheneans Club Purpose: To stimulate better speech and practice public speaking. Dues: None. Meetings: Daily during period I. Number of members: 40 boys and girls. Creed: "I will speak in complete sentences. I will use good Rnglish. I will speak distinctly. I will think clearly. I will speak with enthusiasm I will develop poise.TT 41 Activities: This organization acts as a speaker’s bureau to furnish speakers for many occasions in school and in the community. The outstanding event of the year is the Declamation Program. Girls’ Athletic Association Purpose: To promote further interest in athletics; to foster a spirit of loyalty and cooperation toward the school and each other; and, to pro mote a higher mental and physical efficiency among the girls. Dues: Hone. Meetings: Two social and five business meetings per term. Daily meetings of the entire association. Number of members: Thirty girls in the official club and eighty in the entire association. Motto: "The purpose of playing is not merely to win, but to find joy and strength in trying.” Activities: The G. A. A. girls receive awards for their playing. A girl who earns 200 points receives a numeral; one who earns 580 points receives a mo nogram and the right to wear a sweater; 500 points earn a and with each additional 200 points a star is added. This group of ’J ’ wearers has re cently been named the Letter Club. At the close of the winter semester, 1940, there were twelve members in this new club. These awards are achieved through participation in such sports as speedball, basket-ball, volley-ball, and pingpong at various schools on play-days. Thirty-six members of the association act as referees and devote one hour of their time each 4£ day in officiating for gymnastic classes in addi tion to their regular gymnastic period. Membership in the club is attainable only after the applicant has proven her prowess as an athlete; if she has a high merit record; and has been recommen ded and approved by the physical education teacher. Girls' Tri-Y Club Purpose: Organized in order to fill the need for a Junior Y. W. C, A., to provide a means for girls to know each other better, and to promote greater understancing among nationalities. Dues: Five cents- per week. Meetings: Monday after school for one hour. Number of members: 50 girls. Activities: During Christmas a poor family is selected as the receiver of donations from this club. The mem bers also operate a needle-work guild in which clothes are made and given to The Volunteers of America who in turn give them to the needy. Social activities include: Teas, park trips, carnivals given for raising funds used to send a representative to the Girl Reserve Camp during the summer, a splash party once each term, an opening party, and joint banquets with other clubs. The delegate chosen to represent the club at the sum mer camp is one who will be enrolled at Jefferson for the next year in order that all may receive the benefit of her report. The cost of the trip is approximately $55 - #40. 43 At the end of the term a farewell party is given for the graduating members of the group. The sponsor acts as chaperon on trips, okays plans for each meeting, meets with club cabinet helping with problem solving, and contacts speakers for meetings. This club was organized in February, 1939 and all girls are eligible for membership. Harlequin Club Purpose: To give opportunity for participation in dramatics; to foster an appreciation of dramatic literature through study and interpretation of poetry, stories, monologues, and plays; to stimu late an interest in good diction and beautiful voices; to develop an ability to criticize con structively; to create a professional and stu dious attitude toward dramatic work. Dues: Hone. Meetings: 2 business meetings per month during and after school. Humber of members: 21 boys and girls. Activities: This club entertains with two studio reci tals per term, skits for senior parties, Girls1 League assemblies, P. T. A. programs, dramatic recitals, a class day play, a school play, and furnishes platform readers for various school programs. A club banquet is given at the close of each semester. On March 28, 1941, the Harlequin players performed at an assembly in a play titled --’Keeping A Man At Home’. 44 Any student interested in dramatics is eligi ble for membership. The club sponsor is director of the Harlequin players. Home Eco-Eds Club Purpose: To bring students in closer touch with Home Economics and to implant in them a greater know ledge and love of the course. Dues: Twenty-five cents per semester. Meetings: 1 meeting per month for business purposes and 1 meeting per month for social reasons. Humber of members: 35 girls. Teachers are honorary members. Activities: This club is a member of the California Association of Home-Economies Clubs, chapters of which are to be found in colleges, senior and jun ior high schools.. A voting delegate from this club attends the state meetings and national meet ings which are held once a year. The delegate to the national meet is selected on the basis of the number of club activity points earned through service. Other activities include: A Bazaar at which cookies and candy made by members are sold and Five-dollars of the proceeds contributed to the Christmas basket for welfare work, do-nut sale the proceeds of whieh are placed in the treasury to be used for picnics, an annual affair, bicycle trips, and a tea and flower demonstration attended by parents. The National Biscuit Company was one concern of interest visited by the club during the past term. Three dollars is paid year ly as membership fee in the national organization. The historian keeps a scrapbook in which are kept accounts of state meetings, national meetings, club activities, pictures of officers, and news- 45 paper clippings. Any girl enrolled in a Home Economics class or any girl who has sufficient interest may join. Hope Street Hi-Y Club Purpose: To promote Christianity and to stimulate better citizenship. Dues: Six dollars per year. Meet ings: Each Wednesday evening at 7:30 p. m. at the down-town "3T”. Humber of members: 30 boys. Activities: A welcome dance is given at the beginning of each semester and a senior prom at the semes ter’s end in honor of the graduating members. Joint meetings with other rtY tf groups of the city. This group has many social activities in which it participates throughout the year. Sports of all descriptions are engaged in at the close of the meetings. Spanish Club Purpose: To promote interest in Spanish. Dues: Ten cents per month. Meetings: Twice monthly after school. Humber of members: 25 boys and girls. Activities: At the time of this study the Spanish Club had only been organized for a month. The only plans to date ?/ere for a club sweater, (navy blue and white). This club was suggested by the sponsor. Pep Club and Drill Team Purpose: To lead singing and cheering at games. Dues: Meetings: Weekly during game seasons. Number of members: 70 girls. The available inforraation concerning this club was limited as the foot-ball season i?as over at the time of the investigation. Scientific Explorers Purpose: To increase the scientific knowledge of the club members in fields ordinarily not covered in text books by means of: Lectures Demonstrations Monthly field trips Dues: Ten cents per month. Meetings: Weekly from 12:30 to 1:00 p. m. Number of members: Limited to 35 boys and girls. 47 Activities: Exploration trips of interest as decided on by the votes of members. This group visited the Mount Wilson Observatory, June 14, 1940. They were honored with an astronomical lecture after which lunch was eaten at Sycamore Grove. The club historian keeps a neat calendar of events, an example of which is given here. Calendar of meetings — September to January. 1941. September 25, . . Business meeting. October 2, Lecture . . "Perfume and Flowers", Mrs. A. Pratt. " 9, Lecture . . "Insects", Mr. Thomas Sering. " 16, Lecture . . "Skeletons", Adri enne Bullock, Anna Tenette, and Yvonne Johnson. 23, Initiation of new members. 30, Scientific treasure hunt. Demonstration, . . "Tricks Through Chemistry and Physics", Claude Leeley. November December 13, Business meeting. 27,. Lecture . . "Christmas Trees", Mrs. Dorothy Poole. 4, Lecture . . "Automobiles", Mr. Louis Emme. " 11, January 8, Business meeting. Business meeting and debate. "Hesolved that science has done more for humanity than to destroy it”. ” 15, Election of officers. " 22, Installation of officers. 48 Calendar of trips, October 28, . . Coca-Cola plant. December 12, • . Christopher Candy Company. " 18, . . Glass Containers Incorporated. January 17, . . Los Angeles Museum. 4 Scientific Treasure-hunt. These hunts are given indoors as well as out of doors. The one described here occurred at a regular club meeting, thus: Meeting called to order by the president. Minutes of last meeting read by the secretary. Each one present given a blank slip of paper and instructed to list by name as many articles of scientific importance to be found in the room. Articles found were: Erlenmeyer flasks, distilled water, rubber tubing, a live plant, a trough, bark from a tree etc. The individual listing the most articles correctly received three candy bars as a reward." After the‘hunt:-new members were initiated into the club by raising his or her right hand and being sworn in by the president. This club began in 1938 and any student in terested in science and attending three consecutive meetings is eligible for membership until the limit of 35 members is reached. Membership cards are is sued to all. Secretarial Efficiency Club Purpose: To promote better secretarial work. Dues: 25 cents at beginning of semester and 10 cents 49 near the close. Meetings: Each Friday at 1:00 p. m. Humber of members: 29 girls: ^Activities: Do secretarial work for all teachers in the school system. Initiate all new members in grade 12B. Representatives from the senior A and B group attend the Commercial Conference and lun cheon at the Biltmore Hotel, Los Angeles, each year. Roundtable discussions.on ’being an effi cient secretary’at meetings. Members criticize each other regarding personal appearance, and personality. Each member writes a term book containing items pertaining to: personal appearance require ments of a good secretary, information on secur ing and holding a job, dictation, transcription, office machines, types of telephones, telegrams, cablegrams, radiograms, office machines, supplies, and business forms, reference books for secretar ies, and a bibliography of books used in compil ing the data. Illustrative pictures of items mentioned are also included. The name commonly used as a title for the book is — "The Efficient Secretary”. Material is secured (1) by inter viewing at least two secretaries on jobs, (2 ) visits to typewriter companies, and (3) from books and periodicals. One student sent a questionnaire to Miss Lehend, secretary to President Roosevelt requesting the duties of a secretary in that capa city. An answer was received with all questions answered describing the duties of the nation’s number one secretary. This club maintains a volley-ball team which plays against other club teams. A record book is kept by the historian con taining pictures of each member and a statement of what every pupil plans to do upon graduation. Space is left for the recording of future achieve ments such as jobs taken or marriages. The sponsor has a record on file of each club member since the 50 time of organization fifteen years ago. This club had a ten year reunion In 1936 with over one-hundred former members in attendance. All club members wear uniforms while In class, meeting, or doing secretarial duty. These uniforms are blue in color with the club emblem S. S. C. and the owners name in white lettering on the left breast pocket. Officers are distinguishable from ordinary members by a white star on the left sleeve of their uniform just below the shoulder. A club pin is al so worn. The Secretarial Efficiency Club was listed as one of the nation’s outstanding commercial clubs in a survey of clubs during 1930.^ To became a member, a student must be major ing in stenography, planning an office career after graduation, and to have made acceptable grades for the past three years In commercial courses. Senatus Fonulusque Romanus Club Purpose: To stimulate interest in the study of Latin. Dues: 16 cents per semester. Meetings: Bi-monthly at IS:30 p. m. Number of members: 43 boys and girls. Louis D. Huddleston, "High School Commercial Clubs,” Bulletin from John Adams High School, 1930, Cleveland, Ohio. 51 Club Motto: ”Labore et Honore". Activities: Minutes of a February meeting, February 19, 1941 Session opens with the flag salute by all. Flag Salute Signo civitatuin sociorum Americae et rei publicai cui stat, fidem astringo, una natio, individua cum libertate et institia omnibus. Discussion of membership cards, sweaters and emblem. Picnic trip planned to Sycamore Grove and museum during the Easter vacation. Latin songs are sung and games played. At close of meeting America sung by all in Latin. Further activities: The Senatus entertain the Populus each year with a program consisting of a Latin play, Latin songs, and with a Roman menu being served at the end of the festivity. The club subscribes to a Latin news pamphlet entitled ITOTITS and published monthly by the clas sical department of the Los Angeles High School. Subscription price is 15 cents per semester. With in it are to be found Latin crossword puzzles, poems, songs, news articles, and pictures. A scrap*-book is maintained in which is kept the constitution, motto, list of officers, club pictures, clippings from school paper, and minutes of the meetings. Officers are Consul, Imperator, Scriba, Questor, and Aedile. This club is open to all interested in Latin language and customs with joint meetings of the Sena tus and Populusque Romans twice each semester for the planning of social activities. \ 52 Toastmistress Club Purpose: To better one’s speech by acquiring poise, charm, and ease of delivery. Dues: Members assessed 25 cents on special occa sions. No regular payments. Meetings: Bi-monthly at 12:30 noon. Number of Members: 25 girls. Activities: A different chairman presides at every meet ing and presents to the group some topic of interest for discussion by the group. Each member stands and gives her views on the topic. British and United States Relations was an interesting topic at one of the meetings. The Toastmistress asked the follow ing questions: 1. Should the United States take the position in world affairs that she is about to take? (This question had reference to the sending of U.S. destroyers to Britain). 2'. Should Britain lose the war including all her navy and the destroyers and other war equipment - sent by the U. S. what do you think will be the result? 3. Assuming that we do not help Britain and take no part in the war; inwhat condition do you think the U. S. will be as far as commercial and other trade connections with Germany are concerned? At the close of the brief talk each member was required to give a toast or proverb. The club hobby is bicycling on the first Sunday in each month. A banquet is given in the school cafeteria at the semes ter’s end. This club is also known as the Gavel Club and its membership is limited to 26 girls. 53 Twenty-Eighth Street Hi-Y Purpose: Christian leadership and service. Dues: Meetings: Weekly at 7:30 p.m. on Wednesday at the Twenty-Eighth street I. M. C. A. building. Humber of members: f. 28 boys'from the upper grades. Activities: This club is concerned with the checking of undesirable influences in the school and the com munity. Every plan possible is used to induce other boys to lead Christian lives. There is a basket-ball court, gymnastic equipment, a swimming pool and many smaller games for the amusement of this club on meeting nights. Lectures are given by religious and educa tional speakers to the group. Membership is based on scholarship, citizen ship, attendance, and character. Letterman* s Club Purpose: To assist the athletic directors in the duties around the athletic field and to provide a means of uniting the better athletes of Jefferson. Dues: Assessments when necessary. 's Meetings: Weekly at 12:30 in the office of the VicePrincipal. Humber of members: 10 boys at the time of this study with others joining weekly. Activities: This club has taken over complete management of the athletic field. Their duties are: 1. Plac'ing of equipment on field before games and at noon period such as soft-ball bats, balls, laying off field before track meets, and general supervision of the grounds during meets. 2 . Gymnasium patrol to offset breaking into lockers and wanton destruction of property. Plans have been made for the purchasing of a club pin by each member. The Letterman's Club is sponsored by the boys* Vice-Principal who is also responsible for its beginning, January, 1941. All male students who have earned a fletter1 through participation in any athletic activity are’eligible for membership. A member missing two consecutive meetings is ousted. Vox Ponuli Club Purpose: To offer special opportunity to pupils who wish to perfect their ability in persuasive and effective communication of thought, in open de bates, group discussion, and formal forensic speaking. Dues: None. Assessments when necessary for some special function. Meetings: Daily class meetings and business meetings on call. Number of members: 25 boys and girls. 55 Activities: This club presents four speech programs each semester and has a banquet at the end. Thus, participants are able to develop a richer person ality, serve the school and community in all the speaking activities they can. This club is composed of members of the advanced public speaking group and one of the in structors of speech is sponsor. An Inactive club. On page 36 is listed the discontinued clubs at Jefferson. A sampling is given here of the activities of one of these clubs, namely, The Young Americans Club, with reasons for inactivity. Young Americans Club Purpose: To create an interest in community, state and national affairs for participation in citizenship activities. Dues: Hone. Assessments when necessary. Meetings: Each Monday and Thursday after school to hear reports of the different committees, hold open dis course, and conduct any other business onG the calen dar. Humber of members: There were 35 boys and girls. Activities: The improvement, by discussion and debate, of the members’ understanding of vital matters.of com munity, state, and nation. The promotion of racial and religious tolerance. Speakers of note, contacted by the sponsor, 56 lectured monthly to the club. The sponsor reported that each speaker gladly accepted the invitation to speak to the club. After several lectures however, interest began to lag and in order to have an appreciable number present it was necessary for the sponsor to make special trips to each classroom and urge the club members to be.-pre sent. This proved quite taxing and the sponsor con cluded that an organization Ys’hich does not attract its members without the use of forceful or persuasive measures should be discontinued. Thus, the Young Americans Club is temporarily dormant. Racial Clubs. It seems well to make mention of these groups as they play a definite role in the school life of Jefferson High. Chinese Club Purpose: To banish shyness among Chinese students and provide a means for pleasurable activities. Dues: This club is financed by skating parties. Meetings: ¥/eekly meetings at 12:30, noon. Humber of members: 25 boys and girls. 57 Activities: A welcome party in September to welcome new Chinese students and permit them to get acquainted. Meetings and talks on etiquette throughout the semester and frequent skating parties. An all day biking and picnic trip planned for the laster holidays with each.member bringing his own lunch. The sponsor will accompany the club on this trip. This club participates in an annual social affair in which all Chinese clubs in the city take part. Added to these events the members prac tice dancing at the homes of each other. Two-dollars was appropriated for equipment given to the new home-economics practice house on the campus. All Chinese students are eligible for membership. Japanese Club Purpose: To promote a better understanding among Japa nese students, improve their social life, and give them an organization all their own. Dues: 25 cents for first semester and 15 cents the second semester. Meetings: Bi-monthly after school. Humber of members: 75 boys and girls. Activities: A semi-annual welcome party for new Japanese students. Skating parties planned for the month of April and a wiener roast for May. Welfare work at Christmas. Negro -History Club 58 Purpose: To bring knowledge about Hegro History to effect satisfactory relationship within the Negro groups and between Negro groups and other racial groups. Dues: £5 cents per.semester. Meetings: Tuesday of each, week during school. Number of members: 60 boys and girls of mixed races. Activities: This club presents a weekly program over station KGFJ. Social .activities and trips. 3ach spring the club visits the Huntington Library to view the many artistic art collections. Haitian and Ethiopian newspapers are read here also. This club grew out of the Hegro History class and was organized in 1958. In the fall of the same year there was only a small group but due to the eagerness of Negro as well as Mexican and Chinese students to gain more accurate and complete information concerning the history, life, and achievements of the Hegro, this club has more than doubled its size. bership is open to anyone interested. Mexican Club Purpose: To give pupils a chance to use the Spanish language, as a social outlet, and a means of im« proving citizenship. Mem 59 Dues: Assessments when-needed. Meetings: Bi-monthly after school. Humber of members: 100 boys and girls. Activities: Throughout the semester this club has par ties, programs, and various discussions at meetings. Mexican Club party, March 6 , 1941. School cafeteria tables and chairs arranged in in a semi-circle with micro-phone and piano in the center. At beginning of the party, the Oath of Allegience said by all. Club president introduces each visiting club president and cabinet member then the master of ceremonies begins program. - Program Spanish song sung by sponsor accompanied by two student guitarists. Spanish solo by girl member. G-uitar duet by two male members* Instrumental solo - "I’ll Hever Smile Again”. Duet by club president, Lola Arranaga, and guitar accompanist. Games led by entertainment chairman. Menu: Fruit punch and Lostadas. This club has the distinction of being the largest in the school. CHAPTER Y FINDINGS AND REG QI4MENDATI0NS The personal interview and visitation method proved a fruitful one in more than one way. Mot only was it possible to gain all available information relating to the organization and administration of school clubs at Jefferson High but these clubs were actually observed as they functioned in connection with the regular curricular activities. FINDINGS Club grouping. Clubs at Jefferson High are classified under two groups, interest and racial: each one representing exactly what the group name implies. Membership in any of the interest clubs is voluntary, the same being true as regards membership in racial clubs. Interest clubs. group areithe: Those clubs included in this Cosmetology, Cosmopolitan, Demosthen- eans, Girl’s Athletic Association, Girl’s Trl-T, Har lequin, Home Eco-Eds, Hope Street Hi-Y, Spanish, Pep and Drill Team, Scientific Explorers, Secretarial Efficiency, Senatus Populusque Romanus, Toastmistress, Twenty-Eighth Street Hi-Y, Letterman’s , and Vox Populi Racial clubs. Those included in this.group are Mexican-, Negro History, Japanese, and Chinese.. Their activities and objectives are principally social in nature with the exception of the Negro History Club, which grew out of the Negro History class, and has for its purpose the enrichment of its members1 know ledge of Negro History as well as effecting a satis factory relationship between Negro and other racial groups. Club activities. Chapter IY presents, in de tail, an account of the pleasures as well as the work engaged in by each of the clubs. Some are: attending lectures made possible by sponsors, welfare work, par ties, picnics, joint meetings and athletic activities, with clubs from other schools, presenting assembly programs, staging plays, teas, cheering at games, do ing secretarial work for teachers in the school sys tem, assisting athletic directors, and specific pro grams designed to create a liking for subject matter. The activity mentioned last is true in the case of the Home Eeo-lds Club. 62 Organization and administration. It was found that the Principal, sponsors, and pupils all had a role in the beginning and management of the clubs. The Principal, who presides over the student council, and the council itself are responsible for the admittance of new clubs and the supervision of those already established. Sponsors ??ere always present at club meetings but merely- acted as a guide rather than as dictators. As has been mentioned, the pupils served in the student council. Other pupils give their utmost support during the membership campaign which is pro jected into the minds of non-members the value of clubs. This is done through the use of bulletin board notices, the school paper, home room announce ments, and personal contacts. History of each club. The sampling of qlub activities in Chapter IV shows that seventeen of the twenty-two clubs studied kept an accurate account of , their date of organization as well as one of the month ly events. Others* records were not to be found due to change of sponsors or because no permanent records were kept. The record books kept by the Cosmetology 63 and Secretarial Efficiency clubs, aside from the sec retaries f■books, were filled with snapshots of club members', club oaths, objectives, rules, and names of officers, accountsyof semester luncheons, characteris tics of members ana clippings from the school paper# The remaining fifteen clubs recorded the minu tes of meetings, club objectives, and list of officers in their secretarial books in the usual manner main taining no interest in an extra historical volume as was practiced by the two clubs mentioned above# How clubs are financed# Funds are acquired by special assessments when necessary, and dues paid weekly, monthly, and once each semester while others needed no funds. The sale of do-nuts, cookies, and candy by the Home Eco-lds Club and hand lotion by the Cosmetology Club are examples of clubs, using sales as an addition al means of securing funds. The Chinese Club chooses skating parties as a means of keeping its treasury in a commendable state. Financing a club program is by no means an un important item. Once money is acquired the uses to be found for it are many. Some are: for picnics, proms, parties, bicycling trips, trips to factories and other places of interest. An increase in activi ties always resulted in an increased need for funds. Time of meetings. Sight of the clubs met im mediately after school, six during school hours, six at noon, and two at 7:30 p. m. on Wednesday. Pupils showed just as much interest in the meetings during the noon hour as did those meeting at other times. This is not usually true as most pupils prefer to spend this portion of the day on the athletic field or conversing with others. Without a doubt, members of these clubs possessed an interest in their club that was genuine in nature. The clubs meeting during school periods were those related most closely to the curriculum. The time of meeting is a problem for any new ly organized club as this time must be as nearly con venient as is possible for both sponsor and pupils. Place of meeting. The sponsor’s room was the usual meeting place for business transactions and regular meetings. The school cafeteria is used for social affairs and the school auditorium for assembly programs. Frequency of meeting. Nine clubs met v/eekly, 65 eight bi-monthly, and four daily with the inactive club mentioned having met bi-weekly. Length of meetings. Meetings lasted from twenty-five minutes to one hour with thirty-minutes preferred as shown by practices. Ho club was re quired by constitution to remain in session for any specific length of time. There seemed to be no prob-. lem of maintaining interest during sessions as they were terminated when business was finished and parti cipants had little chance of tiring. Requirements for admission. A review of Chapter IV will show the requirements necessary for membership in all of the clubs. Some requirements were: athletic accomplishments, a mere interest in the club program, and enrollment in a specific course. The first and third requirements mentioned are quite essential in that applicants must be capable of per forming certain tasks or acquainted with specific principles in order that they may participate fully in all activities. Members of the Letterman's and Secretarial Efficiency Clubs may be cited as examples of this. Members of the club mentioned first must have earned a letter in athletics while those in the latter club are required to do typing for faculty members as 66 part of their club activity. Outside agencies. Contact with community, state and national groups outside the school is high ly desirable. Mention must be made of these types of of contacts among clubs in this school. The Twenty-eighth Street Hi-Y Club meets each Wednesday at 7:30 p. m. at the Y. M. C. A. building located on east 28th street in the heart of the com munity from whence come the student-body of Jefferson. The Hope Street Hi-Y members of Jefferson at tend a similiar meeting on Wednesdays at the down town Y. M. C. A. Building. Reputable physicians lecture to members of the Cosmetology class and club monthly. The Cosmopolitan Club is represented at section meetings with four other World Friendship Clubs four times yearly and at a meeting of all the clubs twice a year at which local and other m^orld problems form the discussion. The Demostheneans Club acts as a speakers bureau and furnishes speakers for many occasions in both school and community. The Girls’ Tri-Y use a portion of their funds to send a delegate to the Girl Reserve Camp each 67 summer. This keeps the group apprised of what other Girl Reserves are doing. The Home Eco-Eds Club, being a member of the California Association of Home-Economic Clubs, sends a voting delegate to state and national meetings yearly, the one attending the national meet having been select ed on the basis of the number of club activity points earned through service. The Negro History Club presents a weekly pro gram over one of the Los Angeles radio stations. Through this medium the community and environs are kept posted on events pertinent to the school life at Jef ferson. The Chinese Club participates in an annual so cial affair with all other clubs in the city. The above mentioned are some of the ways in which the school, community, and nation are kept in contact with each other. EEC CMEENDAT IONS Though the student council performs some of the administrative duties mentioned in this paragraph a Central Club Committee seems a fitting addition to this present club program. All attention of this new organization would be devoted to the club program. It wiil be the duty of this committee to assist the prin cipal in evaluating new club objectives and plans as contained in their applications. Requiring club sec retaries to send complete copies of the minutes of the meetings to the committee will assist this office In maintaining a close and wholesome supervision of club activities; in advertising interesting phases of club work through the assembly, home room, publication, or other agencies, and in making this material available to other club sponsors and officers, and to Interested visitors or correspondents. Committee members should be ex officio club of ficers selected by the principal on the basis of club service rendered in the past. Club history. The greater number of clubs in cluded In this study record their history in a com mendable manner, however, some clubs have no record of their origin. The keeping of a neatly bound, booklet illustrated with snapshots and comments would not only prove valuable for clubs of a similiar nature but to the present club member. A properly constituted and competent committee may be charged with the responsi 69 bility for this project. Membership in clubs. There are 2,004 students attending■Jefferson High School. 799 belong to clubs included in this study and 1943 participate in other extra-curricular activities. not actively engaged. The remaining 67 are By exercising a bit of initia tive the extra-curricular program can be made 100 per cent complete and school-wide. Even with the seemingly adequate number of ac tive clubs on the campus it is possible that some new club or clubs may be added to this present list in or der to absorb the interest of these non-participants. It seems advisable, first, to contact these "sheep not in the fold", ascertain their reasons for not becoming a part of the club program, and ask them to offer sug gestions for new clubs in which they too might find a place to work. Some may contend that there is too much responsibility attached to meetings and other club activities. The answer to this would be a club in which pupils assuming this attitude could ’do as they pleased’. The theme for each meeting could be based on a suggestions of various members. Once the interest of the group is captured, ideas of a regimen tal nature may be inducted gradually if such is the 70 desire of the sponsor or Central Club Committee* It should be kept in mind that the major objective is to get these non-clubmen into club activity of some sort. Evaluating the club program*. There seemed to be neither a systematic or an objective means used to rate the clubs* Though a club is not rapidly declin ing in effectiveness, this decline may be taking place unnoticed unless the proper methods of detection are used. Jefferson’s clubs are evaluated by the sponsor whenever they choose on the amount of pupil interest shown, their service to pupil and school, pupil at tendance, the worth of club objectives and achieve ment of the same but this uncertain plan of evalua tion is not practiced when club machinery is apparent ly running smoothly and no evaluation seems necessary* The plan of evaluation quoted previously on pages 3336 permits the evaluation of the club as well as that of the fitness of the sponsor and president. This or a similiar plan should be used at specific inter vals during the year at Jefferson as it is only in this manner that a club can hope to attain the ob jectives desired. Just as carpenters, plane builders, and road construction engineers need definite plans in their work, so does the club program need a defi- 71 nit© means of evaluation. The club check-up is com- parable with that of the customary check-up given auto mobiles every one-thousand miles. Should it be neg lected decay may go undetected. Heed for reorganization of the camera club. As was noted on page 56, this club is now inactive. Photography is an expensive bit of work. In most cases students must furnish their own cameras and films but with more and more emphasis being placed on Audio-Vis ual Aids it is probable that the Department of Educa tion will recognize the relationship which may exist between the camera club and the visual aid program if given a chance and appropriations for photography will be forthcoming. The relationship between Visual-Aids and a Gamera Club, as it actually exists in a school system, is shown on pages 31 and 32 of this treatise. With the comparatively easy acquisition of films from which color-slides for projection may be made for class use, as well as for amusement, it seems advisable that the students of Jefferson try for reorganization of the Gamera Glub in the light of this present need for it. This previously mentioned and well organized club might be used as a pattern or guide. BIBLIOGRAPHY A* BOOKS Abelson, Harold H . , The Art of Educational Research. New York: World Book Company, 1933. 332 pp. Campbell, William G;, A Form Book For Thesis Writing. Los Angeles: University of Southern California Press, 1933. 122 pp. Fretwell, Elbert K . , Extra-Curricular Activities in Secondary Schools. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1931. 552 pp. Good, Barr, and Scates, A Methodology of Educational Research. New York: D. Appleton Company, 1936, 882 pp. Millard, Cecil V . , The Organization and Administration of Extra-Currioular Activities. New York: A. S. Barnes and Company, 1930. 145 pp. McKown, Harry C ., Extra-Curricular Activities. New York: The MacMillan Company, 1937. 734 pp. Pound, Olivia, Extra-Currioular Activities of The High School Girls. New York: A. S. Barnes Com pany, 1931. 97 pp. Roberts, A. C., and Draper, E. M . , Extraclass and Intramural Activities in High Schools. Hew York: D. C. Heath and Company, 1928. 529 pp. Roemer, Joseph, Extra-Currioular Activities in Junior and Senior High Schools. Boston: D. C. Heath and Company, 1926. 333 pp. Robinson, James H . , History of Western Europe. New York: Ginn and Company, 1934. 642 pp. Terry, Paul W . , Supervising Extra-Curricular Activi ties. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1930. 417 pp. 73 Wilds, Elmer Harrison, Extra-Curricular Activities. New York: The Century Company, 1926. 273 pp. B. PERIODICAL ARTICLES Anderson, Grace M . , "School Activities as a Means of Citizenship Training,” Secondary Education. :225-28, October, 1940. Brant, Ralph E., "A Camera Club’s Contribution To Visual Instruction,” Education. 61:354-58, February, 1-941. Geist, Roland, ”The Revival of Bicycling Education,” High Points, 22:62-66, December*, 1940. Hill, Sam R., ”The SOS Club,” The High School Journal. 23:380-81, December, 1940. Klein, J. , ”Know Your Clubs,” Occupation. 17:234, December, 1938. Smith, Enid S., "Evaluating A Club Program,” Nations Schools. 23:25-28, February, 1939. Swan, W . , ”0ur School Newspapers,” Phi Delta Ivappan. 20:155-57, January, 1938. C. UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS AND SPECIAL PUBLICATIONS Huddleston, Louis D., "High School Commercial Clubs," Bulletin from John Adams High School, Cleveland, Ohio. 1930. Kraft, Keith M . , "The Influence of High School Clubs on Choice of Vocations and Avocations.” Unpub lished Master’s the!sis, The University of South ern California, Los Angeles, 1938. 64 pp. Monegan, Helen V . , "Recreational Organizations for Girls in Junior High School.” Unpublished Mas ter’s thesis, The University of Southern Califor nia, Los Angeles, 1938. 152 pp. 74 Neft, Tillie, "A Study to Determine The Yalues of Commercial Clubs." Unpublished Master’s thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Ange les, 1956. 112 pp. Parker, Harry S., "School Clubs and Their Programs." Unpublished Master’s thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1936. 137 pp. Profitt, Maris M. , "High School Clubs," Bulletin Ho. 18. Washington, D. C.: United States Department of the interior, Office of Ddueation, 1934. 63 pp. Saul, Oliver W * , "Implications For Guidance of High School Pupils From Follow-up Study." Unpublished Master’s thesis, The University of Southern Cali fornia, Los Angeles, 1939. 91 pp. APPENDIX RESPONSIBILITY OF AMERICAN CITIZENSHIP Symposium Sponsored by Yox Populi Introductory-------- ---------- ------ Tamlin Harris President of Vox Populi "America” ---------- ■-------------- Gertrude Lomax Youth’s Duties in a Democracy -------- Susie Beatty Self-Discipline and Democracy -------- Gwendolyn Black Youth and the Maintainanee of Free Interprize ------------------ Roosevelt Graham Keeping Faith with America----------- Leah Bowles American Youth In A World of Turmoil -- Simon James Democracy’s Challenge to Americans---- Sammy Lee Youth’s Responsibility in National Defense ----------------- Lillian Lomax American Citizenship and What It Means To M e -------------- Sinclair Yip AMERICA My Country ’tis of thee Sweet land of liberty of thee I sing Land where our fathers died Land of the pilgrims pride From every mountain side Let freedom ring.