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Provisions for elementary school home economics instruction in the state curriculum program

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PROVISIONS FOR. ELEMENTARY SCHOOL HOME ECONOMICS
INSTRUCTION IN THE STATE CURRICULUM PROGRAM
A Thesis
Presented to
the Faculty of the School of Education
The University of Southern California
In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Master of Science in Education
by
Helen Reese
June 1941
UMI Number: EP54111
All rights reserved
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UMI EP54111
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T h is thesis, w r it t e n u n d e r the d ir e c t io n o f the
C h a ir m a n o f the ca n d id a te ’ s G u id a n c e C o m m itte e
a n d a p p r o v e d by a l l m em bers o f the C o m m itte e ,
has been p re se n te d to a n d accepted by the F a c u lt y
o f the S c h o o l o f E d u c a t io n in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t
o f the re q u ire m e n ts f o r the degree o f M a s t e r o f
Science in E d u c a t io n .
DateJm * . l > . A ? . Q ..........
Dean
Guidance Committee
Chairman
D. Welty Lefever
Louis P. Thorpe
TABLE OP CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I.
PAGE
THE PROBLEM AND DEFINITIONS OP TERMS USED . . .
The p r o b l e m ................................
1
.
Statement of the p r o b l e m .................
1
Importance of the s t u d y ............
2
Definitions of terms used . . . . • • • • • •
P r o v i s i o n s ..............
. .
5
5
Home E c o n o m i c s ............................
5
Ins t r u c t i o n .............................
5
S t a t e ..................................
5
Curriculum program
6
...............
The procedure ..................
III.
5
...................
Elementary school
II.
1
. . . . . . .
6
.................
7
GENERAL DESCRIPTION OP D A T A ...................
18
REVIEW OP THE LITERATURE
.
Data from s t a t e s ............
18
A l a b a m a ....................................
18
A r k a n s a s ..................................
19
Arizona
20
............
C a l i f o r n i a ....................... .
•
• • •
20
C o l o r a d o ..................................
20
Connecticut
21
Delaware
.................
21
iv
CHAPTER
PAGE
F l o r i d a ...................
21
G e o r g i a ..........
22
I d a h o .........................................
23
Illinois
24
• • •
Indiana • •
Iowa
. . . . . . . .
24
. . . .........• .......................
Kansas
25
• . ............................... • •
25
K e n t u c k y ................................. . .
26
L o u i s i a n a ....................................
26
M a i n e .........................................
26
Massachusetts
27
Maryland
. . . . . . . . . .
. . ................................
27
M i c h i g a n .....................
27
M i n n e s o t a ....................................
28
M i s s i s s i p p i ..................................
28
Missouri
28
.. . .
...........................
M o n t a n a ..........
29
N e b r a s k a ..........
29
N e v a d a ..................... ............. ..
.
29
New H a m p s h i r e ............
29
New J e r s e y ..............
30
New M e x i c o ..................• ..............
30
New Y o r k ....................................
30
North Carolina
31
..........................
V
CHAPTER
PAGE
North Dakota
• • • • • • • • • •
...........
31
Ohio
32 '
O k l a h o m a ..............
32
O r e g o n ...............................
. . .
32
Pennsylvania
................................
33
Rhode Island
............. * ............
33
South Carolina• ' • • • • ......................
33
South D a k o t a ..........
33
T e n n e s s e e ...................
• .
34
T e x a s .........................................
34
U t a h ..............
..........................
34
V e r m o n t ..........................* ..........
34
Virginia
35
................................
W a s h i n g t o n ..............
West Virginia ...............
•
. . . . . . . .
Wisconsin ♦ . ............
Wyoming
36
.
...................
36
37
Data from possessions
Alaska
36
37
. . ..................................
37
American S a m o a ..............................
38
Commonwealth ofthe P h i l i p p i n e s ..............
38
G u a m .........................................
38
H a w a i i .......................................
39
Porto R i c o ...........................
3.9
. . .
vi
CHAPTER
PAGE
The Panama Canal Z o n e ............ • . . . . •
40
The Virgin Islands
41
Wake Islands
IV.
• • • • • ...............
. . . . . . . ............ • • •
GRADE P L A C E M E N T S .................
42
Grade o n e
• •
Social-studies bulletins
41
42
• .................
42
D e l a w a r e ..................................
42
I d a h o .......................................
43
K a n s a s .......................
44
Pennsylvania
South Carolina
. . • • • • • •
.............
• • • • • • • • • • . • • .
45
45
Vermont • • ..........
45
W y o m i n g ..........
46
Porto Rico
.........................
General elementary bulletins
Florida . . . . . .
...............
.............
Minnesota
47
47
47
. . . . . .
48
.................
49
M o n t a n a .............................. • • • •
49
N e b r a s k a ..................................
49
New Mexico
• • • •
50
. . . . . . . .
50
Missouri
. . • • • • • •
North Carolina
O k l a h o m a ...................
50
South D a k o t a ..............................
51
vii
CHAPTER
PAGE
Virginia
• • • • • • • • •
West Virginia .
...............
.........................
52
55
Home e c o n o m i c s ................. . ..........
56
V i r g i n i a ..................... ♦ ..........
56
The Panama Canal Z o n e ...................... •
57
Grade t w o
•
59
Minnesota . . • ..............................
59
Virginia
59
............
The Panama CanalZone
Grade t h r e e ............. •
..............
60
•• • • ............
60
Minnesota ..........................
Virginia
. . . . .
60
• .......... ........................
60
The Panama Canal Zone •• • • • • • ...........
61
Grade f o u r ...............................
Virginia
62
• • • ...........* .................
62
The Panama Canal.Z o n e .........................."62
Grade f i v e ................... • • • • . • • . .
V i r g i n i a ..............
The Panama CanalZone
Grade six
Virginia
; . .
..................
....................................
...........................
• • •
The Panama Canal Z o n e .......................
V.
GENERAL PROVISIONS
. . . . . .
A l a b a m a ..................... .......... ..
63
63
64
67
67
67
70
70
viii
CHAPTER
PAGE
A r k a n s a s ............ . . • . . ...............
70
Arizona • • • • • • • ..........................
71
Illinois
75
............
I o w a ..............
76
Massachusetts .................
. . . . . . . .
77
Montana . . . . . .
• • • •
79
Nevada
• • • •
79
••'•••
79
New H a m p s h i r e
New Y o r k .....................
• • • • • 82
North C a r o l i n a ................................
83
O k l a h o m a ......................................
84
Oregon
. • • • • • •
.
87
U t a h .....................
89
W a s h i n g t o n .................
90
VI. SUMMARY AND C O N C L U S I O N S .........................
S u m m a r y ................................... .
Conclusions ..............
. . . . .
. .
91
91
92
B I B L I O G R A P H Y .....................
94
A P P E N D I X .........................
97
CHAPTER I
THE PROBLEM AND DEFINITIONS OP TERMS USED
Though the teaching of home economics at an elementary
level can he traced from the late seventeenth century and
early eighteenth the study is comparatively new in the
schools.
Home economics began in the elementary grades as
early as it appeared in the higher divisions.
It suffered
here with the coming of science and the technical knowledges
added.
These materials proved too difficult for the ele­
mentary child and thus home economics was forwarded to the
higher divisions by the schools and some eliminated it
entirely from the elementary grades.
The growth of the
activity unit method of teaching has given a new start to
this field in all the grades.
In this sense home economics
in the elementary grades is a new subject, unrestrained by
traditions•
I.
THE PROBLEM
Statement of the problem.
It is the purpose of this
research to study the recommendations of the states1 cur­
ricula of home economics in the elementary grades.
The
different kinds of bulletins containing home economics,
along with the grade placement, will be noted.
In like
manner the curricula of the possessions will be studied#
Importance of the study#
The value of the study of
home economics has been expressed by Elizabeth Dyer'*’ of the
University of Cincinnati*
The need of broad training for intelligent and
pleasurable participation in family life has made
it expedient to organize a curriculum around four
important kinds of administrative problems that
confront every family* health, finance, efficiency,
and social obligation and their relation to food,
shelter, clothing, and family relationship# What­
ever the courses may be named, home economics should^
always take into account life and Its five fundamen­
tal aspects: physiological, psychological, economic,
social, and political#
The importance of family relationships, of child
care and training, and of the wise use of leisure
in the whole problem of mental health of our nation
is so obvious that no justification of this aspect
of the work needs to be made, especially when one
reflects on this statement, that ”of all the beds
In all the hospitals throughout the United States,
one in every two is for mental disease**1
The social status of our culture is based on the home
and the activities necessary to maintain this home#
This
thought is similarly expressed by members of President
Hooverfs Research Committee
2
In the following words:
Housekeeping still remains one of the major
Elizabeth Dyer, ffHome Economics as an Integrating
Force in Education,” Journal of Home Economics» 21:485-486,
July, 1929#
2
Presidents Research Committee, Recent Social
Trends (Hew York: McCraw-Hill Book Co#, 1§33), p. 6*71.
industries and home management is one of its most
important occupations* The housewife still makes
her contribution to the family support through the
production of goods and services in the home*
The value of learning home management is expressed
by the same Committee3 in these words:
The ways in which individual families allocate
their total income are shown to some extent by
budget studies*
As the school assumes greater responsibility for the
child, it will have to educate even more for happy home
life*
The value in beginning training of any essential and
fundamental knowledge at an early age is easily recognized*
Thus the importance of beginning training for the home at
the elementary level is obvious*
This point receives
emphasis when you consider the following statement by
Earnest E* Mowrer:^
As a modern problem, alarm of the disintegration
of the family has grown out of the observation of
the rapidly mounting divorce rate throughout a
great part of the world*
. • • The United States
probably exceeds any other country in the world In
its divorce rate*
The schools are aware of the importance of home
economics, for Ellen Miller3 states that education for home
3 Ibid*, p. 891*
^ Earnest R* Mowrer, The Family (New York: Houghton,
Mifflin Company, 1934), p* 146*
5
Ellen Miller, r,Home Economics in the United States
Since 1934; In the Elementary Grades,” Journal of Home
Economics, 31:450, September, 1939*
membership has for two decades been accepted as one of the
primary objectives of all education.
That the value of home economics' in the elementary
grades has been recognized by authorities is also shown by
Ellen Miller® when she says that life for the young child
is so definitely home centered that it is very natural that
many of the school activities, especially those in the first
few years, should be home activities.
Accordingly, we fre­
quently find kindergarten, first-, second-, and third-grade
children, studying about their homes, how they are built,
who builds them, and how people live in homes both in this
and other countries, as well as how families depend on others
for the exchange of goods and services to meet their needs.
Ellen Miller
rj
points out also that the trend in the
elementary schools in the United States is very strongly in
the direction of providing, as one important aspect of the
curriculum, experience designed to improve understanding of
family life, to increase underlying knowledge, and to acquire
a fundamental skill necessary to maintain the home.
are seen as social and technical skills.
These
The recent publi­
cations of educational groups increasingly point out the
6 Miller, loc.:cit.
7 Ibid.. p. 451.
Importance of such education for all the children regardless
of age, sex, or economic circumstances*
II.
Provisions*
DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED
According to Webster’s Collegiate
Dictionary, provision means f,A store of needed materials
prepared beforehand.11
In this study, the term "provisions”
will mean the recommendations made by a state committee on
curriculum making as drawn up in their official organ.
Elementary school*
Grades one through six will be
considered the elementary school*
Home economics*
For the purpose of this study,
"home economics” will mean the teaching of any material con­
cerning the home, whether it be taught in units or in foods
and clothing classes.
Instruction*
"The imparting of information, knowledge,
or skill" is instruction, according to Webster’s Collegiate
Dictionary.
The imparting of information, knowledge, or
skill by a teacher in a classroom of the elementary grades
will be the meaning of instruction in this study.
State*
Any of the forty-eight bodies politic of the
United States of America will be referred to as "state” in
this investigation.
Curriculum program*
Any official organ published
by or approved of the state department of education for the
purpose of guiding the teachers of that state in their work,
will be called the "curriculum program” in this thesis*
III.
THE PROCEDURE
The state department of education in the states of
the United States and her possessions will be contacted.
Requests for the materials that contain the recommendations
of the states and possessions to the elementary teachers for
the instruction of any materials concerning the home, will
be made.
The materials received will be arranged into
chapters which show the general character of the state
bulletins.
A chapter on grade placement will be given, and
another on recommendations which do not fall into definite
grades*
CHAPTER II
REVIEW OP THE LITERATURE
An abundance of material has been written on all
phases of home economics for the college and high school
levels, both in books and in periodicals*
Comparatively
little literature exists concerning the teaching of home
economics in the elementary grades, and the greater portion
of that which has been written will be found in the
periodicals•
The Metropolitan Life Insurance Company^- made a study
of the home economics in the public schools*
The results
were published in a pamphlet called A Statistical Survey
of the Home Economics in the Public Schools of the United
States, 1951*1952, with 80,644 returns.
They felt these
were significant because an equal representation came from
the forty-eight states.
It was reported from the 4,220 city
elementary schools answering the questionnaire that 64.3
per cent offered home economics in the fifth grade, 64.4 per
cent in the sixth grade, 54.6 per cent in the seventh grade,
and 58.2 per cent in the eighth grade.
Corresponding figures
"Statistics of Home Economics in the Public Schools,"
Journal of Home Economics, 25:404, May, 1933.
from the 3,814 county elementary schools were that 11*9 per
cent were teaching home economics in the fifth grade, 17*8
per cent were teaching it in the sixth, 40*2 per cent were
teaching it in the seventh, and 64.8 per cent in the eighth#
Certain problems concerning the administration of
home economics, along with a brief history, are discussed by
2
Ivol Spafford of the University of Minnesota# She con­
cludes by stressing the fact that knowledge and experience
should be brought to bear in the working out of the elemen­
tary school curriculum so as to bring in the newest knowledge
of nutrition and selection of foods to the elementary child
along with as much knowledge as he can use at each level in
regard to the selection of becoming clothes, caring for them
well, buying them economically, experience in caring for the
home to the level of his maturity and needs, and experience
in living happily with members of the family in everydaylife.
Home economics, bound by no narrowly interpreted field,
has to contribute to the education at the elementary level#
It should be drawn upon both to interpret more broadly the
purposes set up for elementary education and to provide
materials to be used in obtaining the objectives.
o
Ivol Spafford, ,fHome Economics at the Elementary
Level,11 Education, 56:451, April, 1936.
In her 1940 hook,
of home economics.
Ivol Spafford covers all phases
Beginning with the meaning of home
economics, she discusses the need of home-life education;
the administrator and the home economics program; and homelife education of the elementary level, junior high school,
senior high school, college level, and of special classes
for adults.
A discussion of the home economics, which she
found in her visits to certain city schools and from her
research in some city and state curricula, is given in the
chapter on home-life education today in the elementary
grades*
An analysis of the situation and recommendations
are given.
She concludes the discussion by saying that the
home has failed in the training for home-life, and that the
school must cooperate with even the best of the homes in
providing such education.
A good example of the teaching of home economics is
4
described by Sarah J. Weber of the Lincoln School Teachers
College*
In the first three grades, the children prepare
foods for needed morning lunches which consist of plain
simple dishes, examples of these being junket, stewed fruits,
chopped fresh fruits, a buttered vegetable, and milk dishes.
3
Ivol Spafford, A Functionary Program of Home
Economics (Hew York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., T § 4 0 ) ♦
^ Sarah Jane Weber, "Household Arts in the Elementary
Grades,” Progressive Education, 10:335-341, October, 1933.
In the fourth grade, recipes are given the children
and these are correlated with their mathematics.
The sixth-
grade students begin the study of the vitamin content of
foods.
An experimentation with the feeding of white rats
shows results of deficient diets and the students make
direct application of the results to their own diets.
Prom the Supervisor^ of Home Economics, in Houston,
Texas, comes a program for home economics as taught in the
elementary grades there.
In the primary grades, there are
units on home and family life in which children learn how
the members help one another in solving problems of foods,
clothing, shelter, recreation, and the like.
Through
dramatic plays, discussions, and other concrete experiences,
they learn about a family and its members, their duties and
responsibilities, the proper rights of individuals, the
sharing of duties and pleasures, the necessity for cooper­
ation, consideration and courtesy, and other factors that
contribute to happy family life.
To provide for imitative
experiences, children in the primary grades are encouraged
to build a house, considering health, beauty, and utility.
In the middle elementary grades, we find units of
c
Mable McBain, "Opportunities for Progressive Home
Economics in the Elementary Grades,M Practical Home
Economics. 15:155T-1SB, May, 1937.
11
work organized in such a way as to enable children to get
an understanding of the way in which people in other
countries secure their food, shelter, clothing, and recre­
ation; and manage their communication and transportation
problems .
In the upper elementary grades, where
sis
Is
greater empha­
placed upon history, are found units in which
children
are learning about the manner in which people lived in the
Middle Ages, contrasting these with our own civilization to
learn how man has used the findings of science to raise the
standard of living*
They also study the constituents of
food in their relation to a well-balanced diet*
A few of the problems confronting the
home economics and the administrators in the
teacher of
working out of
a home economics program are discussed by Irene Menes*
s
She says that the outstanding problem of the home economics
teacher is the attitude of the administrator when he fails
to see that, in this type of program, it is impractical to
schedule definite classes for regular periods*
Also that
the administrator's problem Is that the teacher resents
anything new added to her already overcrowded program*
It is interesting to note the advancement made in the
6 Irene Menes, "Home Arts in the Integrated Program
of the Elementary Schools," Practical Home Economics.
15:355, October, 1937*
12
teaching of home economics by reading a publication of 1910
by Alice P. Norton.17
In the elementary school of the
College of Education of the University of Chicago, a lesson
generally consisted first of science work that formed the
preparation for cooking, then of the actual carrying on of
the cooking process, followed either in the cooking labora­
tory or the classroom by the writing of the recipe used,
generally in the words of the children.
One of the earlier books of home economics for the
elementary and secondary schools was written by Agne3 K.
Hanna.
8
This book was planned primarily for students in
special methods courses in the home economics departments
in colleges and normal schools.
It tells prospective
teachers how to select and organize subject matter, method
of teaching in the home economics classes, and other
essential knowledge pertaining to the teaching of home
economics.
On page 291 of her book, she gives the results
of her study of 142 cities as to the status of home econom­
ics in 1923.
Over 50 per cent of these cities offered
sewing in grades six through ten.
Twenty-six to 50 per
7
Alice P. Norton, ffA Lesson in Cooking in the
Elementary School,” Journal of Home Economics, 2:601-604,
December, 1910.
o
Agnes K. Hanna, Home Economics in the Elementary
and Secondary Schools (Boston: Boston Whitcomb and Barrows.
1923T7~^
13
cent of the cities offered sewing in grades five, eleven
and twelve*
Eleven to 25 per cent of the cities offered
sewing in grade four*
Over 50 per cent of the cities
offered cooking in grades eight and nine*
Twenty-six to
50 per cent offered cooking in grades seven, ten, eleven,
and twelve*
Eleven to 25 per cent of the cities offered
cooking in grade six.
An elementary textbook on home economics, published
Q
in 1925, was by Mary Lockwood Matthews.
It was divided
into two parts, the first division dealing with the selection
of clothing and garment making*
The lessons in textiles are
correlated with the lessons in garment making by studying
in class the materials that are being used in the laboratory.
Part two deals with foods, their selection and preparation,
and the planning of meals from a nutritive, aesthetic, and
economic standpoint.
The contents of the elementary school curriculum are
summarized by Frederick Gordon B o n s e r . ^
The part containing
this summary of the home arts will be given here.
He tells
of building and furnishing doll houses out of boxes in the
first grade*
9
In the second and third grades, he suggests
Mary Lockwood Matthews, Elementary Home Economics
(Boston: Little, Brown, and Company, 1935).
10
Frederick Gordon Bonser, The Elementary School
Curriculum (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1^25) •
14
that a piece of simple household or school furniture be made.
Going further into furniture construction with the study of
commercial materials, design and prices may be considered
in grades four and five.
The history of shelter from the
primitive hut to the colonial home and to the architecture
of the present day may be considered in grade six.
For a
clothing project, he recommends the dressing of a doll for
the playhouse, which is mentioned above.
The making of
stocking caps and simple knitting provides a basis for the
discussion of knitted and woven fabrics in grade two.
Weaving of small individual rugs or a class rug is considered
worth while for grade three.
In grade four, doll clothes
or simple garments for children may be made.
apron is a possible project for grade five.
A school
The study of
linen and the construction of a simple linen garment are
recommended for grade six.
Mr. Bonser recommends the
following plans for foods in the grades: for grade one, the
planning of tea parties for different occasions arising
during the year, and the possible planning of a luncheon;
for grade two, luncheon projects and the possible preparation
of a cereal; for grade three, food preservation of the foods
grown in the school garden; for grade four, more detailed
study of luncheons; for grade five, the study of the cereal
from the farms to the table; for grade six, the preparation
of simple cakes and breads.
15
A summary of the research in home economics was given
by Clara M* Brown of the University of Minnesota in the
Thirty-Seventh Year Book of the National Society for the
Study of Education* ^
She states that most of the investi­
gations in home economics education dealt with curriculum;
they have been made by state and city departments of edu­
cation, and by individuals in universities*
The Denver
curriculum study in 1925 was the forerunner of many other
surveys undertaken to obtain information regarding home
activities, what girls of different ages did, and what they
liked to do.
Most of these studies collected data by means
of questionnaires, check lists, or interviews*
Other
studies, with activity as a center, were made contrasting
urban homes with rural homes, fixing the responsibilities
of boys and men, noting the characteristics we ascribe to
individuals, and the result of their sex*
Studies of the interest and attitudes of students
from their adolescence to maturity have been made.
Studies by Lindquist, Hadley, and Morgan were made
of the recommendations of married women for the most-needed
item for the curriculum, that being the necessity for
studying the problem of homemaking.
^ Guy M. Whipple, editor, Thirty-Seventh Yearbook
of the National Society for the Study oT Education, Part II.
1938, pp* 17^-184*
16
In the main curriculum, studies have been limited to
the tabulations of current practices.
The conclusions drawn
from these studies can find their influence in a changing
curriculum.
Spafford1s study of almost six hundred teachers and
administrators, regarding the values of home economics and
its functions in the present-day educational program, is
responsible for the trend toward regarding home economics
as a part of the core curriculum rather than as a special
subject for a particular group of girls.
Such schools as Iowa State College and University of
Minnesota are recognising the value of long-time research
projects.
By this means they can study such problems as
the effect of home economics training upon certain practices
of married homemakers and the prognostic value of various
types of Institutional records.
Literature for the elementary child In the field of
home economics is plentiful, both in the form to be read to
him and that which he will read for himself.
A few repre­
sentative books of this type of literature shall be mentioned.
A little book that Is well illustrated for the child
in the field of general homemaking is When Mother Lets Us
12
Help.
Rhyming verses about each home duty are found along
12
Constance Johnson, When. Mother Lets Us Help (Mew
York: Dodd, Mead andCompany, 1928)•
17
with explicit directions for the performance of each duty of
the housekeeper.
A cooking book for little boys and girls of the first
13
grade is Kitchen Fun.
The amount and the ingredients are
illustrated along with the wording of the recipe.
14
The study of clothes is told in The Clothes We W e a r .
An imaginative journey is taken from the raw materials to
the finished products.
13 Louise Price Bell, Kitchen Fun (Cleveland: Hortor
Publishing Company, 1932).
Frank G, Carpenter and Francis Carpenter, The
Clothes We Wear (New York: American Book Company, 1923).
CHAPTER III
GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF DATA
The materials used in securing the data described in
the following pages were secured by means of letters to the
state departments of education.
To those states
whose
responses were not satisfactory, letters were sent by
Elizabeth Nelson, Librarian of Abilene Christian College,
Abilene, Texas, to the state university libraries, request­
ing copies of the elementary courses of study, or any
materials concerning home economics in the elementary grades
for their states.
In this say, materials from all states
and possessions were secured.
An alphabetical arrangement of states, with a brief
description of the materials received from each, and the
results of the data from the possessions, will be given in
this chapter.
I.
Alabama.
DATA FROM STATES
A letter was received from Daisy Parton,
Supervisor of Elementary Education, in which she says that
her state has no special bulletin in the elementary grades
on the teaching of home economics.
At her suggestion, a
copy of Procedures in Large Unit Teaching--Suggestions for
Improving Instruction was obtained.
This 1938 bulletin
19
names the major areas of living, giving as area one ,fHome
Life” with*suggestions for the teaching of it. „ This same
bulletin lists centers of interest for grades one, two,
three, and for four, five, six.
In both of these groups,
"Home Life” is the first interest mentioned with suggestions
for the teaching of it.
In giving sample units, this
bulletin gives as the first sample "Planting Home Gardens.”
Arkansas.
A letter from W. F. Hall, State Elementary
Supervisor, stated that all elementary courses of study for
Arkansas were out of print.
reserve copy was loaned.
Upon request, however, his
This bulletin, called A Tentative
Course of Study for Arkansas Schools--Elementary Section,
contained the following references to the home: as a center
of interest for grade one, a "Home and School Life” was
given, along with recommendations for teaching* also sug­
gestions were made on the following subjects in the primary
grades: "Protecting Life from Accidents in Home, School,
and Community,” "Caring for Plants in Home and School,”
"Caring for Pets in Home and School,” "Producing Food in
Home and Community,” "Participating in Music Activities at
Home, at School, and in the Community.”
For the intermediate
level, the following subjects were suggested along with
appropriate activities for each: "Beautifying Surroundings
in Home, School, and Community" and "Planning for Appropriate
Clothing.”
20
Arizona*
A combined elementary and junior high
school bulletin for home economics is published by this
state, its title being Course of Study for Elementary Schools
of Arizona— 1937 Revision of Bulletin N o . Three Homemaking.
The first sixteen pages deal with the teaching of ”Pre-Junior
High School Homemaking,11 with topics for teaching suggestions
with their desirable outcomes, suggested problems and
activities, and teaching aids for each subject.
California.
A letter received from Maude I. Murchie,
Chief, Bureau of Homemaking Education, stated that her office
did not contain any records of the elementary schools1 teach­
ing home economics in her state, but that in the larger
cities home economics was being taught in the elementary
grades.
In the state bulletin titled Teacher1s Guide to
Child Development in the Intermediate Grades, two references
are made to the home in the form of bibliographies on the
subjects ffClothing,f and ,fHome.”
This is the only state
bulletin that contains mention of the home.
Colorado.
In a letter from the Deputy Superintendent,
Evelyn Irey, she says ”. • • the constitution of the State
of Colorado places control of instruction in the hands of
the local boards of school directories.
Therefore, they
have a right to determine what subjects shall be taught in
schools in their districts.”
Since this thesis contains only
21
state-wide recommendations for the teaching of home economics
in the elementary grades, no material was obtained from this
state*
Connecticut*
The Director, Bureau of Supervision,
•H. S* Light, states in a letter "We do not publish any
elementary course of study nor specific outlines on the
teaching of home economics in the elementary grades*”
With
this statement, no further material was received for reasons
as before cited*
Delaware.
Recommendations for the home for this state
are found in their first-grade social bulletin, there being
a separate social bulletin for each grade.
The name of the
bulletin used here is Integrated Curriculum Units--Social
Studies— First Grade*
The first suggested unit in this
bulletin, which is twenty-one pages long, is called "The
Home and the School.”
The overview, approach, major prob­
lems, activities, culminating.activities, evaluations, and
an extended teachers1 and children’s bibliography are given*
The third unit suggested here is on foods, there being twelve
pages of this material.
The same divisions as before given
are mentioned here*
Florida*
In their general bulletin, called, A
to Improved Practice in Florida Elementary Schools, a
Guide
22
discussion is given to the teacher to impress on her mind
the influence that the home and family life have upon a
school.
She is given a chart in which certain problems are
located that could come into the child*s environment.
Definite recommendations are made in the chapter called
"Organization of Elementary School Curriculum,” when for
grade one the major problem is f,How Can We Live Together
Better in the Home and School?”
Georgia.
A letter received from Celia McCall of the
State Department of Education states ”We do not propose to
write for publication a course of study for the elementary
or high school grades in Georgia.”
She states further,
however, that the Georgia Program for Improved Instruction
has developed a series of bulletins by which the teacher may
be guided.
The names of these bulletins were secured, but
none referred to the general teaching of home economics in
the elementary grades.
The Georgia Homemaking Curriculum
was secured, but no references were made to the teaching of
elementary home economics.
For elementary grades, the only
reference found to the home was in the bulletin called The
Community as a Source of Materials of Instruction— Georgia
Program for the Improvement of Instruction in the Public
School.
In this bulletin were found suggestions that the
teacher attempt to answer this problem in her schoolroom
activities: "Performing the Responsibilities of Citizenship
23
in the Home, the State, the Nation, and with other Nations.”
Resources and ways of investigation are given.
Idaho.
The 1931 Course of Study for Elementary
Schools of Idaho did not contain any references to the
home.
The supplements issued in mimeographed form for
September, 1939 contain a few references to the home, such
as "Social Studies and Science.”
The second suggested unit
for grade one is the home.
Suggestions are given for the
carrying out of this unit.
In the suggestions for the
units for grade two, the community is the topic, but homes
in the community is the first subtopic studied.
For grade
three, the unit study is concerning community organization.
Subtopics to this are modern housing and the source of food
and clothing for the community.
In the supplementary
bulletin called "Making the Most of the Environment,” a
survey is shown of how the social studies can be integrated
into the study of the environment.
For the first grade, a
unit on the study of food is suiggested, with special emphasis
on the poultry industry.
For the second grade is suggested
a unit on foods, with emphasis on milk.
Also a unit on
clothing is studied here with emphasis on woolen clothing.
A special phase of the unit on the home in the third grade
is construction of homes.
On the unit for clothing in this
grade the emphasis is made on clothing made from furs.
The
24
special phase for the fourth-grade unit on foods is candy*
Illinois* ' In a letter received from Charles C*
Stadman, First Assistant Superintendent, this statement is
made ” * * . permit me to say that this office is making no
recommendations relative to the teaching of home economics*ff
He states further in the letter that a bulletin for the
art area, which includes home art, is being constructed*
The first draft of this bulletin will be discussed in this
thesis, but Mr* Stadman states that when the revision is
made there will likely be several changes made.
In this
original draft which is titled f,Art Area of the Rural School
Curriculum Guide— Tentative only,” suggested activities and
experiences are made in "Fine and Applied Arts.”
Home
economics is given as the third art along with suggestions
for carrying out the activities.
For the suggested units for
the primary level, "Home" heads the list.
Illustrated pro­
cedures in the developing of units are given.
Home economics
is integrated in the unit on Japanese life.
Indiana.
The only reference to the home found in the
Indiana bulletins was in the bulletin called Junior and
Senior High School Economics*
On page seventeen of this
bulletin, a short paragraph is given concerning the elemen­
tary schools, in which is stated:
Education in relation to the home should be a
25
component part of a unified curriculum. The general
purpose of such education should be to help the child
to broaden his social poise outside of the home,
Iowa.
The bulletin titled The Iowa Course of Study
for Elementary School contains several references to the
home.
Under the topic of 11Citizenship” the home is the
first topic that is discussed for the primary grades, the
intermediate grades, and the upper grades.
Under the dis­
cussion of moral education, each attribute is discussed In
relation to the home.
In discussing the problem of health,
the home is one of the subtopics.
A full chapter of eleven,
pages on home economics is given in addition to the other
references.
A short discussion is given on clothing, foods,
and family relationships, setting forth the objectives,
activities, and methods of teaching.
Kansas.
The Assistant State Superintendent, W. A.
Stacey, states in a letter that all the material available
In Kansas on the teaching of home economics in the elemen­
tary grades is found in the social studies bulletin provided
for the elementary schools.
This bulletin is titled
Teachers1
Guide to the Kansas Elementary School Program of Study—
Second Semester, 1940. 5 This bulletin is divided into two
main divisions, one being social study and the other per%
taining to narcotics, health, and citizenship.
In the
social-studies division, units for each grade are suggested.
26
The units for grade one are clothing in the home and shelter
in the home.
Suggestions for the carrying out of these,
units are made.
Kentucky.
In a letter received from Mary Lois
Williamson, Supervisor of Home Economics Education, she
says that many teachers in the elementary grades include
material on the ”Home."
Although there is no printed
material in the elementary grades, the fact Is worth noting
that in the bulletin called 11Supplement to the Courses of
Study— (Elementary Grades),” the second “Purpose and Function
of Education in an American Democracy” is “Education as Con­
cerned with Home, Family, and Community Life.”
Louisiana.
The response for this state came from
Sue Hefley, Supervisor of School Libraries.
She states in
her letter that there is no general course of study for
elementary grades in Louisiana.
Furthermore, the home-
economics bulletin for the state makes no reference to the
elementary grades.
Maine.
In High School Manual— Part II, the recom­
mendations are made for the teaching of high school
economics.
However, a paragraph on page six of this short
pamphlet contains a list of outcomes in elementary home
economics.
27
Massachusetts♦
In the bulletin called A Course of
Study In Home Economics Education for Elementary and Junior
High Schools and Suggestions for the Organization and
Administration of Home Economics Education in the Public
Schools are found suggestions for the teaching of home
economics in the grades.
The contents of this extended
outline will be discussed more at length under the chapter
of"General ProvisIons •"
Maryland.
In the social-study bulletin called
Curriculum Materials in the Social Studies for the Inter mediate Grades no specific recommendations are made con­
cerning the home.
In a large section of this bulletin
called "Curriculum Materials Analyzed on the Basis of the
Operational Aspects of Group Living" only indirect references
are made to the home, showing its function in transmitting
culture.
Michigan.
A letter from the Assistant Superintendent,
G. Robert Koopman, states "While we do not make recommen­
dations, we do favor the study of the home in the elementary
schools and have a group studying this problem at the
present time.”
In the bulletin called
Instructional Guide
for Elementary Schools an objective for the social studies
is "Interest In Home Life."
28
Minnesota.
In their bulletin called Curriculum for
Elementary Schools, the following references to the home are
found.
In the division of history for the first grade, home
life is recommended as a second unit of study; for the study
of citizenship in the first grade, the first unit to be
studied is the family.
In the second-grade citizenship, the
first unit is "Conduct at Home and in the School"; the
second unit is "The Home in Contact with other Community
Activities."
For the third-grade citizenship, the first
unit is "Habits that Apply to Home and School."
For fourth-
grade citizenship, food, homes, and clothing are studied
as subheads to government.
Mississippi.
A letter from D. R. Patterson, Director
of State Curriculum Program, states that Bulletin Number
Seven was Curriculum Reorganization of the Secondary School.
His office would never respond to inquiries concerning an
elementary bulletin.
i
Consequently Abilene Christian College
-
Librarian wrote to the State University.
Whitman Davis,
Librarian, did not know anything about an elementary course
of study, but referred to the State Department.
Therefore,
the conclusion was drawn that the State of Mississippi had
no material valuable to this thesis.
Missouri.
The bulletin called Courses of Study for
Elementary Grades— 1957 was obtained as a loan from
, ;*
A. P. Elsea, Director of Rural Education, since the stock was
exhausted.
In the division called "Social Studies,” the
third unit for the first grade is called "How a Family Lives
and Works•"
Montana.
In the bulletin called Montana Course of
Study for Elementary Schools. recommendations are made on
general themes of house care, clothing oneself, social
acceptability, home decoration, sewing, and cooking under
the heading of "Social Science and Practical Arts.”
Also in
recommending units for the first grade, an outline for
developing a unit on home life is given.
Nebraska.
In the social-study section of Course of
Study for Elementary Schools , the center of interest for the
first grade is the home and school, beginning with the home.
Suggestions are given for the carrying out of this unit.
Nevada*
The only references made to the home in the
curriculum of this state are found in the bulletin called
Course of Study for the Elementary Grades.
These references
are found under the division called "Home and Highway Safety.
Suggestions are made for the teaching of this material.
New Hampshire.
A short chapter is found in the
Program of Studies Recommended for the Elementary Schools
of New Hampshire called "Industrial Arts."
A subdivision of
30
this chapter is called flHome Arts,” in which recommendations
are made Tor the teaching of foods and clothing for the
fifth and sixth grades•
More of the contents will be given
under 'General Provision^’ in Chapter Five.
New Jersey.
The person answering for this state is
Verna Danley, Supervisor of Home Economics.
She says that,
in this state, each school district writes its own course
of study,
Education.
subject to the approval of the State Board of
Since this thesis only covers state-wide pro­
visions, none of these local courses of study were obtained.
New Mexico.
Under the chapter of ”Social Studies” in
the bulletin New Mexico Course of Study for New Mexico
Schools,
home.
are found the recommendations for material on the
This division of the chapter is for grade one.
Recommendations will be found under grade one in the next
chapter.
Also a bulletin called Healthful hiving through the
School Day and In Home and Community was obtained.
This
material contains recommendations for the teaching of health
and safety, not the home.
Thus, the material will not be
included in this thesis.
New York.
The only available material on recommen­
dations concerning the work of the home in this state was
31
found in the bulletin called Hand Book for Rural Elementary
Schools*
A group of units are recommended for the "Even
Years" such as 1934, 1936, etc., and for the "Odd Years"
such as 1935, 1937, etc*
For the "Even Years" one of the
units recommended is "Home Life Today (Study of Food, Cloth­
ing, and Shelter)*"
is "Home Life*"
For the "Odd Years" a unit recommended
An illustrated unit accompanies this subject*
North Carolina*
here*
Three bulletins will be referred to
The first, called Course of Study for the Elementary
Schools of North Carolina* which is a 1930 edition, refers
to the home, only on page 431, where it gives samples of
desirable traits that may be practiced in the home*
The
second bulletin, a revision of the first, made in 1935,
called Courses of Study f o r ,the Elementary and Secondary
Schools of North Carolina,
contains references to the home
in that it gives, as a center of interest for grade one,
"The Home, School, and Neighborhood*”
This bulletin gives
twenty-seven books and bibliography for home life for this
grade*
Also in this bulletin, the unit "Pets and Tkeir Care"
is recommended for grades one and two*
In the third bulletin,
their publication No. 174, called Health and Citizenship
Education* the material is always applied to the home as one
of its practical features*
North Dakota*
The only reference to the home in the
32
North Dakota curriculum is found in their bulletin called
North Dakota Elementary Courses of Study.
In the division
called "Primary Observation and Activities,” a suggested
study is "Needs of Man in the Home Community."
Ohio.
Ohio issues no state course of study, but
issues a mimeographed publication called "Elementary Curricu­
lum for the State of Ohio" in which there are no references
made to the home.
In their mimeographed publication called
"General Provisions of the State Elementary Curriculum" no
reference is made to the home.
Their bulletin called "Home
Economics" makes no recommendations lower than the seventh
grade.
Therefore, there shall be no Ohio data considered
in the remaining pages of thi 3 thesis.
Oklahoma.
The bulletin called Worthy Home Membership
for Oklahoma Boys and Girls is a sixty-four page bulletin,
in which recommendations are made for units on the home,
along with suggestions for grade placement of each.
The
contents of this bulletin will be discussed at length under
the chapter of'General Provisions."
One reference to the home is also made in Course of
Study for Elementary Grades♦
For "Social Science" in the
first grade, the "Home" is recommended.
Oregon.
In the bulletin called Homemaking Education
33
for Secondary Schools--1957, a seventeen-page section is
devoted to elementary homemaking.
These units here pre­
scribed are designed to be introductory to the high school
economics, and are recommended to be used as the home
economies taught, regardless of the grade chosen in which
to teach it.
Pennsylvania.
Social-studies pamphlets are issued
by this state for grades one and two together, three and
four, five, and six.
All the units that are recommended
for grade one bring in some phase of home life.
Rhode Island.
George H. Baldwin, Assistant Director
of Education, writes "The local school committee also has
the power to formulate and adopt all courses of study which
are used in the public schools of the state.11
South Carolina.
The only reference found in the
bulletins for South Carolina is in the one called
Elemen­
tary School Manual Series--Bulletin I--Social Studies.
This bulletin recommends the study of home life in the first
grade.
South Dakota.
In the 1492-page book called Course
of Study for Elementary Schools— for the Public Schools of
South Dakota, the only references made to the home are the
units for the first grade.
The first one is "How the
34
Members of a Family Group Help One Another in Work and
Pleasure;1' and the second is !,How the Family Depends on
Farm Workers for Foods.11
Suggestions are made for carrying
out these units.
Tennessee.
In a letter from R. Lee Thomas, Super­
visor of the Division of Elementary Schools, he states that
there is no elementary course of study, but that since 1935
the State Board of Education has been working on one.
He
further states that their core curriculum has been tenta­
tively agreed to include materials on the making of a home
as one of the nine cores.
Texas.
In making recommendations for the first grade
in the bulletin called Course of Study for Grades One Through
Three, these units are suggested; "Working and Playing with
our* School Family" and "Living in My Home."
Utah.
Under the topic of History for the third and
fourth grades, home life is a subtopic to the study of
pioneer life of a local community.
Other references to the
home are only indirect, such as suggestions that some of the
written compositions in language should be drawn from home
life*
The name of this bulletin is Utah Course of Study for
Elementary Schools.
Vermont.
The references to the home for this state
35
are to be found in Suggested Course of Study in the Social
Studies for Elementary Schools.
In the first unit for the
first grade, called ”The Home,” suggestions are made for
carrying out its activities, along with the bibliography
for the teacher and child.
Virginia.
The Tentative Course of Study for Virginia
Elementary Schools, Grades One-Seven is full of references
to the home.
First, it recommends that the center of interest
for grade one should be ,fHome and School Life.”
Adequate
suggestions are made for the carrying out of this work, which
include suggestive activities and evaluations.
This center
of interest is subdivided into six complete units, with
abundance of material for the development of these submits. *
Extended bibliographies, songs, games, poems, and activities
in general are given here.
In all, there are twenty pages
for the carrying out of this one center of interest.
In
addition to all this, there is a chapter on home economics
showing explicitly that the children's abilities, in the
mastering of home arts, are to be understood.
These experi­
ences include such topics as beautifying the home, practicing
good housekeeping, gardening, sewing, selecting clothing,
observing rules of table etiquette, maintaining good grooming,
preparing food, and functioning as a wise consumer.
bibliography is given for each of these sections#
A
Washington*
In the bulletin Elementary Course of
Study, a number of general references are made to the home,
but none for home economics.
The first reference is found
under the general discussion of "Social Science,” in which
the suggestion for grade one is "The Home and the Natural
and Social Agencies that Contribute to it."
Also under
this general heading, a suggestion is made for first and
second grades together that the home should be studied.
In
the general grouping for primary grades in their study of
"Citizenship," the home is the first one mentioned.
West Virginia.
Under the title of "Practical Arts"
in Program of Study for Elementary Schools, are found the
references to the home for this state.
The first unit for
the first grade is the "Home."
Wisconsin.
Pour bulletins are published by this state
on home economics, namely, "Area of Housing," "Area of Cloth­
ing and Related Art," "Area of Family Relationships," and
"Area of Foods and Health."
These four bulletins go under
the general name of A Suggested Guide for the Improvement
of Instruction in Home Economics, A, B, C, and D.
No
indication is made as to which material is intended for high
school and which for grades.
No attempt will be made to pick
out what this state intended to be elementary home economics,
since the big majority of this material is laboratory mateial.
Therefore, no data from these bulletins will appear in
37
later chapters.
Wyoming;.
In a mimeographed bulletin called "Social
Studies,” the material for home is found in this state.
The first three units for the first grade are "Family Life,”
"Homes of Today,” and "Play in the Home and School.”
Sug­
gestions are made for the carrying out of these units.
II.
Alaska.
BATA FROM POSSESSIONS
The only material received from this
possession was a mimeographed temporary course called "House­
hold Arts— Grades Seven and Eight.”
This six-page publica­
tion contains no material appropriate for this thesis.
American Samoa.
A course of study called Government
of American Samoa— Department of Education--Revised Course
of Study— 1956 contains no reference to the home.
Commonwealth of the Philippines.
In a letter
received from Celedonio Salvador, Director of Education, he
says "I regret to inform you that we do not have a general
elementary course of study for grades one to six."
Guam.
C. J. McMillan, the Governor of Guam, who also
holds the title of Director of Education, writes a threepage, single-space letter,^in which he explains that there
is no printed material on their elementary schools.
But he
38
gives a short history, a brief description of the Island,
its peoples, and the number of students and teachers in
the various departments of its schools*
He further states
that in the elementary schools there is no form of home
economics program, as such*
But since Guam is largely
agricultural in its home life, the whole school program is
build around the home economics philosophy.
For instance,
they stress the project method as a means of learning.
The
projects here named by Mr* McMillan are tfThe home, trans­
portation in Guam, and the farm*”
The activities included
in these projects are such things as teaching the young
girls sewing and "Aggag11 weaving (table mats, rugs, blankets,
etc*, made from the pandanus leaf)*
The boys are instructed
in gardening, each outlying school having its own school
garden*
Mr* McMillan further states that the Department of
Agriculture cooperates with the Department of Education in
promoting and supervising Boys1 and Girls1 Club Work among
the school children*.
This comprises the raising of corn
crops, poultry, and animal husbandry.
In discussing the special supplementary work of the
schools in Agana, the Capito.l of Guam, Mr* McMillan says
that they have cooking, sewing, aggag weaving and slipper
making, carpentry, rattan furniture making and basketry,
and fish net weaving.
Pupils from the sixth to the ninth
39
grades are required to take these courses.
Hawaii.
The Deputy Superintendent, 0* W. Robinson,
writes "I regret to inform you that, inasmuch as home
economics is not taught in grades one to six, no course of
study is available.
Porto Rico.
A series of bulletins was received from
the Department of Education at San Juan on the teaching of
the social studies and the teaching of English in the grades.
An interesting fact to be noted here is that this material
is mimeographed on yellow sheets, with each grade separate,
for the social studies.
The English is combined into a
bulletin for grades one, two, and three; and for grades four,
five, and six in another bulletin.
Another observation worth
noting is that all bulletins are in English, with the excep­
tion of parts of social studies one and tivo.
The introduc­
tions of these last two bulletins are in English, while the
provisions for the teaching in these grades are in Spanish.
The reference to the home, found in these bulletins, is
found in the first grade, where home life is the center of
interest for that grade.
All the Spanish translated from these bulletins and
materials to follow were made by J. Willie Treat, Professor
of Spanish in Abilene Christian College in Abilene, Texas,
who has completed his resident work, majoring in Spanish for
40
his doctorate, from the State University at Austin, Texas.
The Panama Canal Zone.
The bulletin received from
this possession was entirely in Spanish being entitled
Programas Be Ensenanza Primaria Para has Escuelas De La
Republic a Panama 1950.
Domestica."
A full chapter is given to ,fEconomia
There are elaborate grade-by-grade recommen­
dations for the teaching of sewing and foods in this chapter,
the contents of which will be given in the grade placement
chapter.
At this point, a part of the introduction to the
chapter on home economics is interesting.
This chapter
begins by saying that the home, where there is a good house­
keeper, is always distinguished from the others.
There is
in it a particular order, a simple and pleasing way of
arranging everything, a scrupulous cleanliness, showing the
care of an intelligent and active housekeeper, her taste
and her constant and unvarying good humor.
The bulletin speaks of her personality, that it
shines in everything* it is felt without being seen and her
goodness is, in the family, a balm that calms and heals.
She is thrifty, patient, and happy; she mixes with sweetness
the sorrows and joys of those whom she loves, and perfumes
the domestic atmosphere with a charm so penetrating and
gentle that it makes of the most humble home the most noble
41
and beloved refuge.
The purpose .of this chapter is then given and it says
that to produce this kind of housekeeper should be the ideal
of all practical feminine education.
The modern primary
school looks for ways of realizing that ideal and includes
in its programs branches of teaching/ such as domestic
economy, which lead directly to that end.
The Virgin Islands.
A letter received from C.
Frederick Dixon, Superintendent of Education, states that
they have no published course in any form for distribution
for the elementary grades.
Wake Islands.
A very interesting letter was received
from Dr. Victor A. Badertscher, Resident Physician, in which
he states that there is no school system on the Islands.
These Islands, he goes on to say, are used only for the
purpose of the flights of the Pan-American Air Ways and
an extensive program of fortification for our navy.
There
are forty-five male adults, all being employees of PanAmerican Air Ways.
CHAPTER IV
GRADE PLACEMENTS
The purpose of this chapter is to give a composite
picture of what is being taught about the home, or home
economics, for each of the elementary grades.
I.
A.
Delaware.
GRADE ONE
SOCIAL-STUDIES BULLETINS
A twenty-page unit of this state is called
”The Home and the School.”
In the overview of this unit the
fact is stressed that the child*s best-known experience is
his home and his new experiences in the schoolroom.
Upon
this basis, the child’s Interest and experiences are devel­
oped to a realization of the part that he is to play in life.
There are suggested approaches to this unit by eight
ways of using pictures, five of using books.
Pour excur­
sions are outlined* seven personal experiences, in relation
to the home and school, are to be discussed; story telling,
reading books of stories and poems, and the showing of slides
and films, along with certain appropriate music, are also
recommended.
Such major problems are suggested as: home, a
place of work and play; what does mother do for the home; the
home as a place of shelter and protection; how the home is
43
served; homes in far-away lands; the home as a place where
things grow; the school as a place of work and play; and
activities outside of the home.
A series of sixteen research
activities are given; recommendations are made for the build­
ing of miniature homes and their furnishings; twenty creative
activities are recommended; and three experimental activities
are suggested.
given.
A choice of ten culminating activities are
Nineteen suggestions are made on how to evaluate
generalizations and learnings; eighteen suggestions are
given on how to evaluate skills and techniques; and fifteen
on the evaluation of attitudes.
Seven and one-half pages
of bibliography are given on the following subjects: stories,
home songs, singing games, safety songs, records for music
appreciation and rhythmic activities, home verse, slogans
and jingles, physical education, books to be read to
children, and bibliography for the teacher.
Idaho.
is 11The Home*”
The second unit recommended for this grade
The statement is made that the lives of
little children are filled with vivid home experiences
which may be used as approaches to consideration of home
problems, which will lead to broader and deeper under­
standings of home responsibilities and activities.
Only a
brief outline is given for carrying out this unit for, as
the bulletin says, the development will occur as teacher
44
and pupil plan together.
However, the suggestion is made to
study the responsibilities of each member of the family, the
purposes of the home, how the family travels, and the animals
that are found around the home.
Kansas.
The first unit here recommended is called
"Clothing in the Home.”
In the introductory statement the
fact is mentioned that a child in the first grade is very
conscious of being dressed up when he is wearing new clothes.
He likes new clothes and is eager for others to admire them.
Thus, at this age, is the suitable time to teach him the
effort that is required of his parents to provide and care
for his clothes.
He is also interested in the source of
his clothes and the appropriateness of certain types of
clothes.
Such activities as the finding out of who makes
his clothes, who buys them, who washes them, who mends them,
and how he can take care of them so they will last longer,
are suitable to this study.
A brief suggestion is given on
the correlation, expected outcome, and references.
"Shelter in the Home” is also recommended.
Certain
objectives are recommended along with activities, expected
outcomes, and references.
Stress is laid on the fact that
the building of a miniature home would develop the child’s
interest into how his own home is built and give him a
sense of responsibility in the care of it.
45
Pennsylvania *
The study of the home is an integrated
part of four units recommended for the first grade.
There
are three general objectives for the first
grade, the second
one being "To set up the beginnings
ideals and habits,
of the
essential to the family and school cooperation.11
South Carolina.
The only reference to the home is
the short paragraph on page thirty-five.
In mentioning the
themes for each grade, it says that in the first grade the
studies centering about the home with its relationships to
the community, are initiated largely through capitalizing
the interest of the children in the agencies of transportation.
Vermont.
The theme for the first grade here is
called "The Early Environment•11 As the first unit under
this theme flThe Home" is suggested.
The centers of thought
for this unit are: father’s work as
he helps at home,
work to earn a living, and his work
in the
his
community;
mother’s work as she trains and takes care of her children
and her home, along with her community interests; the
children’s work as they learn to take care of themselves, to
take care of the younger members of the family, as they
learn to do little chores and errands for mother and father,
and learn to respect the property of others; and good times
in the home indoors and outdoors.
The main activities for
this unit are the building of /playhouses, playing with
46
dolls, and the making of a movie of a typical day in a
child*s life*
Wyoming *
Again we find the theme of "Home and School11
for the first grade.
The first three units center in the
study of the home.
The first unit deals with the family life.
The theme
here stressed is the interdependence of the members of the
family as they work for the health, safety, and happiness of
their home.
For the activities, dramatization of the various
home activities, exhibits, games, songs, poems, parties for
mothers, and a puppet show are suggested.
The second unit is on "Homes of Today" in which
country homes, town homes, and apartment houses in cities
are studied.
Such activities are suggested as collecting
pictures of farms, houses, animals, machinery, crops,
vegetables, and fruits; the making of cottage cheese, churn­
ing butter, dramatization ofikrm stories; and the building
of a model farm on a sand table.
In the division of the
city homes and apartment house, such activities are sug­
gested as pictures of city homes and apartment houses;
pictures of the different kinds of homes, such as duplex,
hotel, bungalow, apartment houses, trailer houses, tourist
houses, and summer homes; the collecting of the samples of
building materials of homes in the city and the making of
47
playhouses, doll houses, and doll furniture.
f,Play in the Home* and School” is the third unit.
Such
activities are suggested as discussion.of fair play; suitable
games for home and school; does play make us happy, does it
help us grow strong; the making up of games; making up of
play booklets; and others.
Porto Rico.
The first unit studied in this social-
studies bulletin, Outline for the Teaching of Social Science
in the First Grade, is ”The Life of the Child in the Home
and at School.”
The first main heading is on the family.
These subheadings are studied* the father; the mother; the
children; the grandparents; the aunts and uncles; the
occupations of the members of the family; the life in the
home; friends; hospitality; factors which affect the life of
the family; habits and good manners; the family and the
community; what the community does for the family; and the
relation of the family to units and institutions of the
community.
The second unit discussed here is ”The House.”
These subheadings are studied: workmen who build houses and
what each one does; the houses of our community; public
buildings; primitive houses; and the ideal house.
B.
Florida.
GENERAL ELEMENTARY BULLETINS
In discussing the organization of the
48
elementary school curriculum, the major problem is "How Can
¥/e Live Together Better in Home and School?"
The minor
problems here involved are: how do we get homes;
help take care of ourselves in the home; how
how can we
can we
take
care of ourselves at school; how can we make the home a more
pleasant place to live; how can we live happily together at
school; how can we improve our home surroundings; how do we
and our families go places; how can we help care for things
in our classroom and on the school ground; how do other
people help make the home more pleasant; and
how do
other
people help make the school more enjoyable?
Minnesota.
Under the history section of this bulletin,
recommendation is found for teaching home life in its rela­
tion of members of a family to one another.
Various works
of the father, the mother, the children, the relatives in
the home, and the pets are discussed.
Under citizenship
in this bulletin, the family is studied with these points
being emphasized: what do father and mother do .for the
family; how can children show gratitude, be pleasant, and
avoid quarrels; how can children show courtesy in general
at home and at school; how should chilren care for toys,
clothing, furniture, and other property; how do different
members of a family enjoy play time; and what can we do to
keep our health?
49
Missouri#
The second unit for this grade is called
ffHow the Family Lives and Works," with such questions as
this arising: what are the duties and responsibilities of
each member of the family?
Montana.
"Home Life."
Unit one in this bulletin is also called
The emphasis in this unit is laid on "How the
Family Works and Plays."
The activities center around the
discussion of fatherfs work at home, away from home, and
with welfare groups; children1s work for father and mother,
for the relatives in the home, for themselves and one another,
and for the home and community; family pleasures and out­
door and indoor games, how children can contribute to these
pleasures, and the motherfs and father’s recreation; a
discussion of the care and kindness to their pets; and such
construction as doll houses and playhouses to represent the
home, toy furniture, posters, booklets, and reading activities.
Nebraska.
Under the social-study section of this
bulletin, the study of the home is the first unit.
Such .
appreciations as the effort that father makes in providing
for the home, mother and her work in the home, and the
interdependence of the community in general are suggested.
The general contents of the unit are homes of today, history
of home and shelter, and worthy home membership.
Activities,
such as the making of a scrap book showing furnishings of a
50
home, dramatising the major activities of the home, and the
making of doll houses and doll furniture,, are given.
New Mexico.
The first material on the unit r,The Home”
is a general outline, the major headings being the family as
an economic unit, the family as a social unit, the house,
and suggested activities.
The next gives the procedures in
carrying out this outline with these major headings: forms
of approach to the study of home life; suggested procedures
for making the approach through conversation of teacher and
children on activities of the home; suggestions for materials
and how to use them for the house and its furnishings; the
teacher1s responsibility; a list showing the tasks and duties
of mother and father in the home and how children may help;
father’s work outside the home; how various kinds of school
work grow out of and enrich the study of the home; shelter
and construction materials; planning various room furnish­
ings; food; clothing; and desirable outcomes.
The desirable
outcomes mentioned are knowledge, habits, skills, appreciation,
and attitudes.
North Carolina.
As the center of interest for grade
one quotes the home, school, and neighborhood, the home, as
a social institution in the relationship to the function of
the community as a whole, is emphasized.
Oklahoma.
Under the division of “Social Science” in
51
the elementary bulletin, the first suggested unit for this
grade is called lfThe Home."
gested problems are given.
A suggested approach and sug­
The main themes studied are*
life in the home with emphasis on courtesy in the home, and
developing cooperation; toys and pets; games and special
days; and open house to be held for the mother.
South Dakota.
The statement is made here that, as
the family is the first social group that the little child
knows, it is fitting that a study be made that will give
him a more intelligent understanding of the life of which
he is to be a part.
Prom this study of the family life, a
child begins to understand the family life and to realize
that only through cooperation of all members can a happy
home be assured.
Some problems considered in this study are*
finding out how father supplies a home for the family, how
mother makes the home comfortable for the family; what chil­
dren may do to help care for the home; how members of the
family help one another solve their clothing problems; how
members of the family help one another solve their food
problems; how the members of the family help one another
keep in good health; how the members of the family help one
another have an enjoyable time; how the members of the family
help one another in saving; and how the members of the
family may be good citizens.
Virginia.
Much emphasis is placed by this state on
the teaching of home.
They stress the fact that the cur­
riculum for grade one grows out of the pupils* interest in
their homes and their school.
The program of instruction
can be made significantly interesting and educational by
utilizing the vital experiences which the home and the
school present daily iii the form of challenging problems to
young children.
In suggesting material to carry out this
vital interest, the first aspect made is how we protect and
maintain life and health in our home and school.
The point
of emphasis here is how the child adjusts his new experiences
of school to his health.
They stress the forming of such
habits as toilet, personal cleanliness, good posture, walk­
ing, proper diet, caring for clothing at school, observing
the weather conditions so they will know how to dress when
they come to school, and how to walk to school safely.
Among the suggested activities are open and frank discussions
with no segregation of sexes, as to toilet habits and toilet
cleanliness.
Doctors and murses should be invited to the
school to help in the discussion of health problems.
Other
activities Include the actual preparation of milk dishes at
school for the child and proper eating habits and cleanli­
ness must be maintained.
Discussions are had on things that
father and mother do to make the home safe and clean; keeping
food safe and clean at home and school; keeping the yards at
53
home and school clean; how to dress at recess; making a map
of the, safest way to come to school; the proper placement
of toys, scissors and other tools; the proper use of firstaid equipment and medicine; making a chart of the dangers
that exist every day in our home and school; getting
acquainted with policemen; and parents* cooperation should
he maintained in all of these.
For aspect number two, there is discussed the sub­
ject of how the things we make and grow help us.
The major
activity is to familiarize the child with the source of his
proper food, both by vicarious experiences and by excursions
in his own community.
The third aspect studied is how our family provides
itself with food, clothing, and shelter.
Discussions are
had concerning the proper selections of food for each meal,
explaining that each meal does not include everything that
we are supposed to eat.
The children should bring foods
from home and prepare a proper meal.
Where possible, green
vegetables should be grown in the window box or pot in order
that the children may watch the effect that sun and water
have on plants.
A large ..playhouse should be built and the
furniture painted and placed for convenience and beauty.
,fHow Do Members of Our Family Travel from Place to
Place” is the next aspect studied.
A short history should
be studied and an illustrated booklet should be made showing
54
our modern means of travel.
Actual plans should be made
for a trip by train, bus, automobile, street car, airplane,
or boat.
Another feature of this home program is called ”How
Can We Have an Enjoyable Time at Home and School?”
The
experiences here for the child are watching plants grow,
observing stars, sun, and moon, going on picnics, observing
harvesting activities, catching insects, playing in woods
and parks, making sand sculpture, and gathering*wild flowers.
Still other experiences are singing songs, having birthday
parties, listening to the radio, hearing stories, looking
at books and magazines, playing a phonograph, attending
parties, and playing games.
The last aspect recommended for the first grade under
this program is f,What Can We Do to Make Our Home and School
More Beautiful and Pleasant?”
The experiences here suggested
for the children are looking at pictures, handling books,
singing songs, playing games, playing with pets, observing
plants, listening to poems and stories, and giving and
receiving gifts.
The main activity stressed here is the
beginning of rhythmic experiences for children and the
organization of a rhythmic band.
This little orchestra
also gives the children a sense of harmony, as well as
further experiences in cooperation, since their instruments
must not play all the time.
A complete bibliography is given for the pupil,
including the price list of books for all these different
aspects.
Teacher references are given, along with her list
of sound films.
The records with their Victor number and
names of the songs are also given for this work.
Records
are also given for the children*s singing games.
A nice
list of story books for the children*s enjoyment is given,
along with the price list, as well as the publishing house
and grade level.
West Virginia.
In the section of social studies,
the theme given for grade one is **Home Life and its Relations
Pood— Clothing— Shelter— Protections— -Recreation.,r
In the
explanation for this unit, the thought is emphasized that
the world of the young child is his home and his immediate
relationships.
Modern society is quite complex and, in
order to have him understand the complexity and his part in
the world, his interest must be broadened and deepened as
he develops.
He must understand his own home and its
immediate surroundings, for his own interest and as a basis
for understanding other relationships that are to be devel­
oped.
The program developed should include the organization
of the home, providing food, clothing, shelter, and recre­
ation for the home, beautifying the home, providing for the
health of the home, seasonal occupations of the home in
56
providing for its needs, comfort and happiness, the school
and its relations to the home and the children*
The methods
suggested for the carrying out of this program are the con­
struction of a playhouse, reading and listening to stories,
dramatization, collection of home pictures, and giving
entertainments for mother*
"Practical Arts" is another division of this bulle­
tin in which the unit on the home is found*
The emphasis
here is on the construction of a house from blocks, match
cartons, and radio crates.
Samples of all raw building
material should be made along with pictures of the building
processes•
This ends all of the states which recommend the study
of the "Home" as a center of interest for the first grade*
Only one state recommends home economics, as such, in the
first grade, that state being Virginia.
Also one posses­
sion recommends home economics, as such, in the first grade
and that is the Panama Canal Zone.
C.
Virginia.
HOME ECONOMICS
The following abilities are listed in this
course of study for the mastery in the first grade: ability
to use common objective materials in the home, such as the
use of the blunt needle with large thread; to hold material
57
correctly; to cut with blunt scissors; to create beauty in
the home in the arrangement of flowers and furniture; to make
articles for home; to plant and care for flowers; to care
for the yard; to maintain certain traditions of the social
heritage; to care for cleaning equipment; to wash and dry
dishes and to put them away; to set the table for a simple
meal; to keep possessions neat and in the right place; to
keep their own rooms orderly; to sweep and dust; to function
as a wise consumer; to observe buying etiquette; to use
allowance for personal funds; to maintain efficient economic
status; to handle property; to maintain health in the selec­
tion of their daily foods, which are healthful both in the
home and in the school lunch; to observe health habits; to
take proper precautions to protect self and others from
disease; to conform to social standards, such as courtesies
in daily contacts; to make and acknowledge introductions; to
show courtesy to parents and elders, as well as children of
his own age; to conduct themselves properly at public
places; to be courteous as a guest in the home, as a host
or hostess, and to observe table etiquette; to dress them­
selves and to care for their clothes as well as to keep them
in order in their closets; to wash their faces; to help in
the care of smaller brothers and sisters; and to entertain
friends*
The Panama Canal Zone*
There are no recommendations
58
for cooking in the first grade, but the following are the
recommendations for the sewing.
The introduction says that,
from the first grade, the teacher will talk to the girls
about the usefulness of teaching sewing and the advantages
which their apprenticeship gives them and, from the first
lessons, she will familiarize them with the most necessary
equipment such as needles, thread, thimble, and scissors,
and she will teach them the correct use of each one of them*
She should teach them to thread the needle in such a
way, in front and at a distance of twenty-three to thirty
centimeters, that the light ray will pass through the eye
of the needle and come to form a straight angle with the
perpendicu3.ar of the needle itself*
The thread should always
be short#
Every girl should have a sewing kit*
She should be
taught the following subject matter* (1) The first elements
of sewing.
In a little piece of cloth about ten by fifteen
centimeters, they will make three kinds of stitches: tacking,
round stitch, and the stitch connecting two biases.
name of each stitch learned should be taught.
' standard stitch#
The
(2) The
In a little cloth of coarse linen,
execute, with colored yarn or eotten threads, the standard
stitch connecting two biases#
Choose the colors of the threads and, in order to
cultivate the taste of the girls, allow them to select and
59
combine the colors in various tones*
II.
Minnesota*
GRADE TWO
This is the only state that recommends
specifically that material on the home should be taught in
units in this grade.
The name of the first unit is "Con­
duct at Home and in School*"
The topics to be studied here
are: at home, walking to and from school, in school, in the
classroom, on the playground, taking part in fire drills,
and cooperating with other safety-first agencies.
The second unit for this grade is "The Home in Con­
tact with Other Community Activities*"
Such topics are
discussed as the home served by community agents; the home
serving the community; those in authority serving the
community; and health protection given by the community.
Virginia*
The following are abilities to be devel­
oped by the child, beginning in the second grade, according
to the home economics chapter of the general elementary
bulletin:
ability to roll dough, to boil eggs, to make a
knot in their thread, to cut with ordinary scissors, to put
away dishes, to purchase a simple grocery order on a given
amount of money, to select and prepare lunch at home for
school, to meet the emergencies In accidents and illness,
to serve themselves from dishes, to bathe, and to comb their
hair.
60
The Panama Canal Zone.
For sewing, this possession
recommends repeating the stitches learned in the first grade
on a little cloth of white silk, the dimensions of which
may he fifteen to twenty centimeters* teaching a whip stitch
and English sewing; teaching the ”d>obladillorf (hemming as
on a handkerchief); teaching the standard stitch of embroi­
dery.
On a white cloth of cotton or of y a m ,
embroider the
simplest letters of the alphabet, these being very simple
models for ornamentation.
III.
Minnesota.
GRADE THREE
The unit to be studied here is "Habits
that apply to Home and School.”
Topics for discussion are
obedience, cleanliness and health habits, punctuality,
cooperation, courtesy, kindness, truthfulness, honesty,
courage, and fair play.
Virginia*
The abilities recommended here, to begin
in the third grade, are the ability to use the vacuum cleaner;
to follow a simple recipe for preparing food; to stir, beat,
strain, peel, and grate; to toast bread; to make a knot; to
work out a furniture arrangement; to remove and carry dishes;
to wash and dry dishes; to set the table for a simple meal;
to keep possessions neat and in the right place; to sweep
and dust; to arrange articles in dresser drawers and closets;
61
to pay bills systematically; to purchase foods; to plan a
wardrobe and to select clothes; to budget allowances and
time; and to manicure nails*
The Panama Canal Zone*
The work and sewing in this
grade are divided into semesters.
The abilities to be
learned the first semester are: to make the " d o l l ^ eye;”
the standard stitch* to embroider on woolen cloth (hose)
and on silk handkerchiefs, the letters of the alphabet
which were not named in the second grade, and various
examples of ornamentation; and to make large, small, open
and closed button holes, along with the sewing on of hooks
and eyes and buttons of various sizes and kinds.
For the second semester, cutting and fancy work are
learned*
A simple table cloth, a sheet, and a pillow case
are made.
A group of girls can make a table cloth.
The
size of the table on which it will be used determines its
dimensions.
The hemming which will be done on it should
make it match the napkins.
Illustrate to the girls the
kinds of cloth proper for the table and the bed, and the
various decorations which can be worked into each kind.
Have them to apply the dollfs eye, the hemming (dobladillo)
and the letters in standard stitching, the whip stitch, the
"English” sewing, the round stitch, efc .cetera.
Also on the
making of a sheet, a group of girls may work at the same time.
62
IV•
Virginia*
GRADE POUR
The following abilities are recommended
for this grade: to light gas or oil stoves; to start the
fire in stove or fire place; to use the vacuum cleaner; to
follow simple recipes; to measure cooking ingredients
accurately; to read cooking thermometers and to regulate
heat for cooking; to scramble eggs; to use fine needle and
thread and to use a thimble; to devise color schemes; to
make minor household repairs, such as oiling hinges, replan­
n i n g fuses, tightening screws, etcetera; to make beds, wash.
windows, clean woodwork, mop floors, and clean bathroom
fixtures; to keep simple household accounts; to store food
after it has come from the store; to prepare a simple tray
for an invalid; to dress healthfully; to sterilize articles;
to serve a simple meal; to act as host or hostess; to wash
articles of clothing; and to clean shoes*
The Panama Canal Zone *
For the first semester of
this year, are taught the accomplishments of darning of such
articles as suits, shirts, handkerchiefs, napkins, and
table cloths; the ideas of weaving wool and simple stitches
- for weaving children1s stockings; the sewing on of hooks
and eyes and buttons of various sizes and kinds; the first
ideas of embroidering, such as simple edging and the wreath.
For the second semester, the making of a child*s shirt
and a day shirt are begun; also seam work (mending) in a
corner, on a round piece, and a piece of three or four
corners, and the mending of shirt cuffs and collars of m e n ’s
coats.
The weaving of stockings of wool, of cotton, and of
silk is learned.
This note is given about the work, that,
before cutting the child’s shirt and the day shirt, the
teacher should sketch and explain the patterns on the cut­
ting table and, based on the work of the teacher, the girls
will cut the pattern on appropriate paper in order to
reproduce it later on the chosen cloth.
made for a year-old child.
The shirt will be
The collar, the sleeves, and the
inside border may end with a little lace.
In this case,
advantage should be taken of the opportunity to teach the
girls to select trimming in keeping with the cloth, and the
price of the materials in keeping with the financial
abilities of each one of them.
V.
Virginia.
GRADE FIVE
The work begun in this grade is as
follows: to prepare simple, adequate meals for the family;
to be able to dice foods; to be able to poach eggs; to learn
to thread a machine and bobbin; to be able to care for
electrical equipment; to master the technique of preserving
fruits and vegetables; to learn to clean spots in their
clothing; to sew on buttons; to mend rips and tears; to darn
64
hose; to shampoo hair; and to cooperate with family expen­
ditures in meeting emergencies of the home, such as an
unexpected guest and in selecting furnishings with good
taste.
The Panama Canal Zone.
No semester recommendations
are made for this grade in sewing, hut abilities are
recommended as a whole*
There are intensified ideas of
embroidering in white, acquired in grade four, with the
addition of very simple leaves, flowers, and letters*
Simple stitches are taught in the weaving of childrenrs
woolen stockings.
In this connection, a girl should be
taught the proper use of weaving needles, and the oppor­
tunity should be taken to give her advice about the choice
of woolens and the combination of the colors.
The new
cutting and fancy work for this grade
are the corset-cover
and the petticoat.
for all these articles,
In
the fancy work
the tracing of the pattern on the cutting table ought to
precede the cutting of the pattern by
the girls on appro­
priate paper and the reproduction of this on the cloth.
All
these stitches and points in sewing should be very simple
and apply all the principles learned in the preceding grades.
Also in this grade are studied the different kinds of cloth,
with their respective names, pricey and different widths;
and the difficulties that the narrow cloth offer and the
65
waste occasioned by cloth too wide for certain articles of
clothing.
The teacher should indicate which one should be
preferred because of the greater hygiene and economy.
All
the sewing must be done by hand.
The teaching of what is designated here as "Domestic
Economy" begins' in this grade.
"Room."
The first subject is the
This problem is discussed from the standpoint of
the choice of the room in relation to its condition of
health and monthly cost.
The kind of ventilation is studied in regard to
necessity, means, and disinfection.
Also the lighting is studied, considering the kinds,
costs, care for the lamps and hygienic recommendations.
Students must have a practical knowledge of cleaning
kerosene lamps.
A fourth study for the room is furniture in relation
to its cost, care, economical care of it, and the making of
wardrobes out of kerosene boxes.
covered with cretonne.
These are painted and
Also the making of benches, tables,
chairs, cooking tables, shelves, et cetera is taught.
The
girls should learn a practical way of cleaning the furniture
of the room, such as chairs and tables, beds, rugs, mirrors,
chests, et cetera.
The next discussion of the room is the decoration of
it.
The children are taught the preparation of very
66
economical objects, such as pasteboard flower pots, lamp
shades, pen cushions, dresser scarfa, and flowers#
Tidiness of the room is next discussed#
The daily
cleaning of each piece of furniture and the monthly clean­
ing of the whole house are recommended.
The girls will
practice cleaning daily their rooms and monthly the whole
house, sweeping, dusting, watering the plants, washing the
wooden steps, concrete steps, cleaning the doors, and all
the windows.
They learn how the bed is made, how the table
is set and discuss the tidiness of table serving.
The second subject discussed is ”The Essential
Elements of Life.”
The first given is air.
This is dis­
cussed as to its composition, contamination, ventilation,
and dangers of air currents.
Light is discussed as to its
action on health; and the water in relation to fountains,
qualities of drinking-water, contamination and dangers, and
purification.
Pood is discussed as to its vegetable, ani­
mal, mineral, and mixed qualities; its nutritious value,
cost, selection, and relation to m a n ’s work.
Clothing is the third subject discussed, including
its fundamental material, such as vegetables, animals,
artificial, and comparative values.
Its selection, use,
appropriate style, cost, and durability are items to be
noticed; also hygiene with adaptability to the climate.
Certain cautions are given, such as ventilation, cleanliness,
67
renovations, mending, washing and ironing.
The note is also
given that girls ought to learn, in a practical way, the
procedure for ventilation of the clothing; cleaning the
clothes and even taking out its stains; how to make over a
dress; washing and ironing the handkerchiefs and stockings
(cotton, yarn, silk, and woolen); and cleaning baby clothing.
VI.
Virginia.
GRADE SIX
There is only one new ability added to
this grade, and that is being able to stitch on a straight
line.
All of the other abilities are carried over and
intensified in their teaching.
The Panama Canal Zone.
Further recommendations made
for teaching of sewing are weaving with white thread, braids,
and very simple laces.
For the cutting and fancy work, a very simple dress
is made.
For the first time, the girls are allowed to use
the machine but, before using this machine, they must be
cautioned on these points: the correct sitting posture, use
of the pedal, how the needle is threaded, use of the bobbin,
the adjusting of the apparatus for the stitch, the way of
adjusting and using the principal parts, the appropriate
threads for the machine and for the work that is to be done,
and the care of the machine.
58
Under the heading of "Domestic Economy" this bulletin
states that, whenever possible, the practical knowledge in
the fifth grade (removing stains, cleaning the silverware,
sweeping, dusting, caring for plants, et,cetera) should be
further applied in this grade.
The first subject discussed here is home management.
Domestic bookkeeping and its advantages should be taught.
Budgets and memorandums of housekeeping should be studied.
The topic of food is next.
It is discussed as to
its preparation, with certain suggestions for breakfast,
lunch, supper, and refreshing drinks.
The suggestion is
made that the number of reeipes given for food preparation
and the practical experience for the girls will be given at
the discretion of the teacher, as she plans her work during
the whole school year.
The teacher is cautioned to consider
local conditions in the planning of such a yearfs work.
A
girl should also be taught the preparation of menus according
to the number of persons, the occasions, and the financial
and social conditions of the family.
food is discussed.
The mode of serving
Pood preparation must be according to
hygienic principles, including cleaning the cooking stove
and cooking utensils, personal tidiness of the cook, espe­
cially her apron, manner of doing the kitchen laundry, neat
arrangement of foods and the keeping of them in cool places,
and the use of the ice box.
69
The girls are now taught how to wash and iron*
They
wash women1s underwear and other washables, m e n fs underwear,
table cloths and napkins, and bed clothing and pillow cases*
Hygiene of the home in general is now discussed.
The girls must be taught first aid in case of accidents and
the care of the siek*
They should be taught the differences
between contagious and other ailments, and when hospitali­
zation is necessary*
The last topic to be discussed is called “Domestic
Education.”
Discussed here are problems of the housekeeper,
courtesy and good manners, respect and love for parents,
relationship between brothers and sisters, and greeting the
servants.
CHAPTER V
GENERAL PROVISIONS
The remaining states make their recommendations in
home economics in various kinds of ways, such as primary
grades, intermediate grades, and just elementary grades•
The following paragraphs will give a brief description of
these general recommendations.
Alabama.
In their bulletin called Procedures in Large
Unit Teaching, the major areas of living are named.
is "Home Life."
Area one
Such topics are here mentioned as getting
along together, keeping well, providing necessities, conven­
iences and beauty, relating the home to the community, and
rearing children.
Arkansas.
In A Tentative Course of Study for Arkansas
Schoo1s--Elementary Section, much material is given for the
primary level.
The first reference here is called "Protecting
Life from Accidents in Home, School, and Community."
The
activities suggested here are; finding hazards in the home;
eliminating hazards and preventing accidents in the home;
deciding what to do when accidents occur in the home; finding
hazards in the school and the community; preventing accidents
in the home and the community; and planning and taking part
in a safe and sane Halloween.
Certain culminating activities
71
are suggested*
\
"Caring for Plants in the Home and in the School,”
"Caring for Pets at Home and in the School," and "Partici­
pating in Music Activities at Home, at School, and in the
Community" are three short units recommended, with a few
suggested activities for each, along with materials for
teacher and children.
For the intermediate level, two short units are sug­
gested, namely, "Beautifying Surroundings at Home, School,
and Community” and "Planning and Selecting Appropriate
Clothing."
A few activities are suggested with bibliographies
for teacher and child.
Arizona.
The bulletin, Course of Study for Elemen­
tary Schools of Arizona— 1957 Revision of Bulletin N o . 3—
Homemaking
contains a recommendation for prejunior high
school homemaking and for junior high school homemaking.
The prejunior high school will be discussed here as the
elementary.
This work is divided into two years.
The first unit for year one is called "Being an
Efficient Helper in the Home."
Six periods of sixty minutes
each are recommended for the accomplishment of this work.
The specific objectives are: (1) Recognition of the responsi­
bilities of the younger girl in the fulfillment of simple
home duties.
(2) Knowledge of shopping courtesy.
(3)
72
Ability to handle money.
wise home helper*
(4) Desire to be a cheerful and
Some desired outcomes, suggested problems
and activities, and teaching aids are given.
Unit two is called "Equipment for Sewing."
Three
periods of sixty minutes each are recommended here.
The
specific objectives are: (1) Recognition of the specific
qualities which sewing equipment must have to serve its
purposes.
(2) Realization of the importance of a suitable
sewing equipment.
(3) Interest and the proper care of per­
sonal belongings.
(4) Ability to use the equipment in the
construction of simple articles.
Some desired outcomes,
teaching aids, and suggested problems and activities are
given.
Good and poor equipment, care of personal equipment,
construction of simple problem, and judgment of finished
product are some activities
suggested.
Unit three is called "Christmas Gifts."
Four
of sixty minutes each are suggested for this work.
periods
The
specific suggestions are: (1) Realization of the joy of
doing for others.
Christmas.
(2) Appreciation of the meaning of
(3) Realization that the value of agift
measured by the joy that it
gives.
In
is
addition to the
desired outcomes and teaching aids, these problems are dis­
cussed: meaning and the spirit of Christmas, Christmas gifts,
suggested problems, and gift wrapping.
Unit four is "Making the Meal Hour More Attractive."
73
Eight periods of s i x t y minutes each are recommended for this
course.
The specific objectives are? (1) Recognition of
the responsibilities of the girl of this age in the home.
(2) Knowledge of how to set and clear the table correctly.
(3) Realization of her ability as a homemaker.
(4) Reali­
zation of the social contribution of the girl to the home.
The teacher’s aids, some desired outcomes, and these prob­
lems and activities are given: flower arrangement and setting
and clearing the table.
"Making Living Rooms Livable" is a unit of two periods
of sixty minutes each.
References for the teacher, the
expected outcomes, and the problem of the daily care of the
living room are given.
The last unit for the first year is "Maintaining a
Glean and Orderly Home."
of sixty minutes each.
This unit takes up twelve periods
The specific objectives are: (1)
Understanding of family rights.
of sanitary standards.
home.
(2) Realization of the need
(3) Interest in a well-cared-for
Teaching aids and desired outcomes are also listed
here with these activities: keep the bathroom attractive,
care of personal, belongings, care of soiled articles, and
use of simple remedies.
For year two of this prejunior course, the first
unit is "Learning to Use the Sewing Machine."
From six to
eight periods of sixty minutes each are recommended for this
74
period.
These objectives are given; (1) Realization of the
necessity of measuring, pinning and basting.
to make a folded hem.
(3) Some understanding of the mechan­
ism of the sewing machine.
ing machine.
are given.
(2) Ability
(4) Ability to operate the sew­
The usual desired outcomes and teaching aids
The activities of the making of a towel appro­
priate to its use, operating a sewing machine, and finishing
details of the towel are listed.
The study of "Textiles” is now taken up for eight to
ten periods of sixty minutes each.
These objectives are
given: ( 1 ) -Interest in distinguishing the textile fibers.
(2) Some understanding of the methods by which cotton fabrics
are produced.
(3) Recognition of the fact that materials
are made by different processes other than weaving.
Interest in the manufacturing of the fabric.
(4)
Besides the
desired outcomes and teaching aids, these activities are
given; the study of cotton, linen, silk, synthetic fibers,
and the processes of making cloth.
The next study for the girls is "Care and Repair of
Old Clothing," this study lasting from six to eight periods
of sixty minutes each.
Objectives given are; (1) Realization
of the importance of well-eared for clothes.
to mend own clothes.
(2) Ability
(3) Ability to replace fasteners.
These activities are given; care of clothing, care of
clothes in the home, laundry of personal belongings, mending,
75
and replacement of fasteners.
The usual desired outcomes
and teaching aids are given.
The last unit for prejunior home economics is on
"Apron.”
Eight to ten periods of sixty minutes each are
consumed in this work.
The objectives given are: (1) Some
understanding of commercial patterns.
select suitable material.
apron.
(2) Some ability to
(3) Ability to construct an
The teacher instructs the pupil on the selection of
material, commercial pattern to be used, cutting out of a
garment, and its construction, pressing and scoring.
Here,
too, the desired outcomes and teaching references are given.
Illinois.
This is a rural bulletin and its name is
Art Area of the Rural School Curriculum Guide.
The first
mention of the home is in the section where the objectives
for all arts are given.
hold Art.”
The official title here is "House­
The contribution of home economics here mentioned
is as follows: (1) To help the child appreciate the problems
of home living as they appear in the school situation.
(2)
To develop an understanding of the part the home and family
activities play in social life.
(3) To develop an appreci­
ation and understanding of the importance of observing and
applying good health principles in a family, school and
community life.
(4) To provide experiences whereby the
child may identify himself more closely with the phase of
76
life he is studying#
(5) To enable the child to develop
through activities in keeping with his special interest
which lead to personal satisfaction, release tensions, and
possibly give him glimpses of future vocational opportunities.
Home economics is completely integrated with the unit
suggestion here#
As this book summarizes the work of fine
and applied arts for the primary grades, home economics for
these grades is given in outline forms.
Among the things
mentioned are these* collecting pictures showing home acti­
vities; choosing proper foods for a balanced diet; teaching
how to thoroughly clean fruits and vegetables that are to
be eaten raw; planning and serving a luncheon; planning a
Thanksgiving.dinner; making a frieze of pictures, contrasting
the present-day methods of pioneers and Indians; arranging
flowers for decorative purposes; transplanting and caring
for flowers at school; and decorating containers to be used
as vases.
Only one -unit is illustrated for the primary level,
but twenty-two names are suggested and- flHome,f is the first
one given.
Iowa.
This bulletin is called The Iowa Course of
Study for Elementary School.
In teaching citizenship, a
unit on the home is given for the primary grades, the inter­
mediate grades, and the upper grades.
In these units,
worthy home membership is stressed, rights of others, and a
77
willingness to perform their home duties.
also gives a chapter on home economics.
This bulletin
It recommends that
the school year should be broken up in the following units:
foods, eighteen to twenty weeks; clothing, ten to twelve
weeks; care of own room, one week; child care and training,
two weeks; family and social relationships, two weeks.
A
few suggestions are given for the carrying out of this
yea r fs work.
One brief clothing unit, one food unit, and
one unit on family relationships are given.
Massachusetts ♦
A Course of Study in Home Economics
Education for Elementary and Junior High School is one of
two bulletins put out by this state on home economics.
Only
three pages of this ninety-one page book is devoted to
elementary home economics.
The grades are spoken of col­
lectively in a program for grades four, five, and six.
The
introduction to this work states that in the first four
grades of the elementary schools, the teacher should give
work in food, shelter, and clothing organized around the
health, nature study, or industrial arts program.
This work
should be given to all boys and girls regardless of their
future vocation or social status in order to make them better
and more intelligent home members.
Such a program may well
be extended through the first six grades, except in those
communities where special teachers are employed to teach
78
clothing in grades four, five, and six and foods in grade
six.
Home economics, as an organized study, is not given to
the fourth grade, when sewing and textile work may be intro­
duced.
Instruction in foods seldom appears before the fifth
grade and in ma^r communities not until the seventh grade.
Major aims for this work are: (1) To secure coopera­
tion of mothers in giving the child more opportunities for
sharing home responsibilities.
(2) To develop a wholesome
and appreciative attitude toward home activities.
(3) To
cultivate simple health habits as applied to clothing.
(4) To learn the daily care of personal clothing at home
and in school.
This state recommends that a sixty-minute period be
allowed each week.
There has been no attempt to plan
definite subject matter for single periods.
The individual
teacher must determine her plan after she has learned the
interest and abilities of the girls.
However, there are some few suggestions made, such
as the recommendation that simple articles be made, these
being holders, tea towels, aprons, and bags.
Also mending,
such simple things as sewing on of buttons, and darning are
recommended.
In another bulletin, called Suggestions for the Organi­
zation and Administration of Home Economics in the Public
Schools, is found recommendations that one period of sixty
79
minutes should be dedicated to home economics in grades four,
five, and six.
Montana.
In a section of their bulletin called
Montana Course of Study for Elementary School, certain sug­
gestions are made for social science and practical arts.
A
few suggestions made here are* the best way to wash dishes;
chart of various materials used in building houses; how to'
set the table; how to keep hands clean and to keep the house
clean; the care of clothing; the study of raw materials;
proper eating etiquette; the need of a doctor, dentist, and
nurse; teaching courtesy; listing safety rules; how to
arrange flowers for flower shows; and how to make a new
pupil feel at home.
Nevada.
The only reference in this bulletin, Course
of Study for the Elementary Grades, is found under the topic
of flHome and Highway Safety," for the first to the eighth
grades inclusive.
Recommended texts for each grade are
given.
New Hampshire.
In this bulletin of Program of Studies
Recommended for the Elementary Schools of New Hampshire,
the unit under lrIndustrial Arts” for grades one and two has
no name but the objectives indicate that it is a study of
the home, for one of them is ”To Begin to Appreciate Home
with its Comforts and Conveniences.”
Some suggested
80
activities for this unit are: make a doll house of wood or
cardboard boxes; design and paper the rooms* weave rugs;
make furniture from blocks; flower pots and dollfs dishes
from clay; make dolls by shaping old stockings and stuffing
them; make doll dresses, wash and iron them; make a grocery
store and a dry goods store; and make pictures of primitive
peoples•
In this same chapter on industrial Arts,” home arts
for grades five and six are given*
are concerning food.
The first suggestions
The objectives give an idea of the work
to be done and they are: to know some ways of handling food
elements, which make them of greatest value to the body; to
have some judgment about choice and combination of foods
in the diet; to be interested in economy in buying food* to
know how to set the table correctly, and how to serve properly
any meal; and to create a desire to assist in the prepara­
tion of meals at home and In making the family meal hours
pleasant*
The suggested activities are: preserve fruits and
vegetables; make jelly; prepare to serve in several forms,
potatoes and other vegetables; make milk sauces and gravies;
make such soups as pea, bean, tomato, corn, et cetera; cook
cereals; learn to make biscuits as foundation of large
variety of recipes; make cornbread; make muffins of the
various coarse flours; prepare dishes of less expensive cuts
81
of meat; prepare eggs in several forms, such, as creamed,
boiled, dropped, and scrambled; make salads; prepare such
sauces as apple, berry, et cetera; make custards; make corn-'
starch pudding; prepare gelatine dishes; make plain cake
and gingerbread; learn to make left-overs appetizing; pre­
pare wholesome lunches for school picnics; learn to set table
properly for any simple meal; learn to plan well-balanced
meal or meals for a day; prepare and serve simple meals for
schoolmates, teachers, parents or other guests; make charts
to show relative cost of eggs, meat, cereals, and vegetables;
visit meat markets to learn something of meat cuts and to
find relation between high prices and nutritive values; and
make chart or prepare exhibit to show economy in buying large
quantities#
There are two units illustrating how to teach this
home economics and one is on the kinds of batter, the other
is on good hot lunch dishes#
A list of the minimum equip­
ment, for a class of six, is given along with desirable
additional equipment#
For the w*ork in clothing these activities are sug­
gested; clean and press clothing; remove stains from old
garments; wash and iron garments made of different kinds of
fabric; re-dip old silk garments as an experiment in dyeing;
mend stockings and other articles of clothing; make aprons,
holders, and caps; plan and assist in making costumes for
82
school plays; plan costumes for different individuals for
various occasions; make booklet showing appropriate costumes
for different seasons; and have contest for judging costumes
as to harmony and fitness for members of the group.
Some suggestions are given about work with home fur­
nishings which are.as follows: visit stores to see dishes
and vases; make booklet showing good examples of vases and
dishes; select from catalog dishes for home use and vases
for holding flowers; cover tin cans and enamel glass jars
for flower receptacles; visit stores to see rugs and draper­
ies; make curtains and runners; make towels and pillow cases;
weave rugs; braid rugs; visit stores to see furniture; select
from catalogs, containing pictures and descriptions, furni­
ture for different rooms; make posters showing desirable
arrangement of various rooms; and furnish miniature rooms.
An interesting note in this bulletin is that, under
the drawing section for grades five and six, a unit on home
decoration is given.
The students study the interiors of
rooms, walls, floors, furniture and furnishings, draperies,
the exterior of a house, planning of house and grounds,
decoration of the schoolroom, and improvement of schoolhouse
and grounds.
New York.
A book, called Hand Book for Rural Ele­
mentary Schools, is organized for the purpose of teaching
ability groups.
These ability groups consist of a combina­
tion of two grades.
odd years* work*
Also they are divided into even and
Of the odd years, a combined group of
grades one and two is called "Group D."
group is called f,Home Life.11
A unit for this
These are the major activities:
what mother does for us; what father does for us; good
manners in the home; health in the home; dependence of
members of the family; how to make a home happy and a
healthful place in which to live; and how children may
help.
Other possible activities are given, along with a
group of references.
In a combined group for the even years of grades three
and four, called "Group C,,f a unit on "Home Life Today" is
given.
These are the most important activities: how we are
fed; how we are clothed* how we are sheltered; importance
to our lives of fuel, light, land forms and water forms;
importance of transportation and communication to community
life; importance of occupations in community life; and the
settlement and growth of the local community.
North Carolina.
Although this bulletin is on
Health and Citizenship Education, one unit is interesting,
which is "Safety in the Home."
Such activities as these
are discussed: sources of falls; sources of burns and scalds;
dangers of electricity; poisons; water hazards; cutting
84
hazards; automobile riding hazards; first aid to accident
victims, in case of shock, hemorrhage, open wounds, burns,
fracture, eye injuries, electric shocks, apparent drowning,
asphyxiation, sun stroke, heat exhaustion, fainting and fits,
and poisons*
This unit is recommended for grades four, five,
or six.
Oklahoma.
For this state, Worthy Home Membership for
Oklahoma Boys and Girls
study of the home.
contains the recommendations for the
The first material is for preschool and
primary grades or grades one and two.
The problems presented
here are* playing the health game; checking our height,
weight, and age with standard tables; keeping clean every
day; eating the right kind and amount of food; and sleep,
elimination, exercise, and other desirable health habits.
For unit two of this same group, these problems are
discussed* the child's part in the home* being good house­
keepers at school; and thrift in the use of money.
Unit three for this group has but one concern, that
of the first lesson in social adjustment.
For grades three and four in the unit on "Nutrition
and Health,” such problems as these are discussed* why should
we drink milk; why should we eat vegetables; why is fruit
good for us; why are cereals good food; why should we
85
eat eggs; why should we care for our teeth; why should we
keep clean; why good food and health habits should be formed;
how much should we sleep; what is the importance of exercise,
fresh air, and sunshine; and what is the value of good
posture?
Another unit for this group is on “Thrift and Spend­
ing Money*”
Two problems are concerned here, which are*
what is meant by being thrifty and how can we learn to spend
our money wisely?
The last unit for this group is “Concerned with Man­
ners and Conduct,” with the one question of how are we con­
sidered well mannered boys and girls?
For grades five and six, their unit on “Nutrition
and Health” has these problems: keeping myself well; keeping
my family well; caring for my teeth; getting rid of dirt and
filth; preventing disease and disease carriers; preventing
contagious diseases; drinking pure water; avoiding accidents;
studying the value of nutrition; becoming familiar with
essentials of the d a y !s diet; choosing lunch at school;
selecting food for the school lunch; and getting ready for
a picnic*
For this group unit on “Thrift and Family Income,"
these problems are discussed: what does it mean to be
thrifty; how can I earn money; how can I learn to be a care­
ful spender; how can I spend my time; what is the importance
of good health.; how can I save my money; how can I plan my
budget and form thrift habits; how can I add to the family
income; and how can I lessen the cost of going to school?
The third unit is on "Good Manners and Conduct,”
with these to be discussed? why should I learn to be polite
and courteous* how can I help mother at home; do I have
respect for older people; do I have good table manners; do
I know how to introduce my £riends; do I know how to answer
the telephone; how do I treat a guest; do I know how to
entertain my friends; do I know how to treat my girl and
boy friends; how can I learn to choose gifts for my mother,
father, brother, sister, and friends; do I know how to treat
my teacher, my classmates at school; do I have good manners
in the lunchroom; do I apply the rules of good behavior at
school, at home, and in public places; how can I help in
making the community a better place in which to live; am I
dressed appropriately for street, for business engagement,
et'C?e;1fcera; and how can I help keep my clothes in good repair?
"Better Home Care” is now given for this fifth and
sixth grade group*
Such discussions as these are recommended
doing our part in keeping house; good housekeeping habits;
things to do that help mother keep a better home; keeping
our homes clean; and helping during better homes weeks".
A unit on "Home Gardening" is now given with these
problems; planning my garden; preparing the soil and plant­
ing; cultivating the garden; using and storing vegetables;
87
and beautifying home and school grounds.
For the last unit for this group, a study of poultry
is given with these discussions: raising poultry; feeding
and caring for poultry; and the value of poultry to the
family.
There are references for each of the above units in
this bulletin for Oklahoma.
the teacher.
Further suggestions are made to
Among the important ones are discussions on:
nutrition and health; the hot school lunch; thrift; good
housekeeping at school; manners and conduct; cooperation in
special community projects; characteristics of a healthy,
well-adjusted child; health factors that the school and home
should go by; a scale to help measure the behavior of chil­
dren; and bibliographies on many miscellaneous subjects.
Oregon.
A chapter on elementary home economics is
found in Homemaking Education for Secondary Schools.
There
are three units recommended in this chapter with desired
outcomes, suggested problems, activities, experiences, and
teaching aids for each.
The first unit is called MThe Girl in Her Home11 and
is to be taught in thirty-five or forty lessons.
The major
problems for this unit are: the g irlfs part in her home* care
of her own room; the care of rooms used by the family; -help­
ing younger children to be independent; spending money
wisely; safety in the home; and planning out-of-school time.
88
The objective of "Understanding What Makes a Livable Home
and the Girl’s Part in Home Life" is thus accomplished.
The second unit of sixty-five to seventy lessons is
"Looking One’s Best and Learning to Sew."
The objective is
the "Realization that Caring for One’s Personal Appearance
Is a Responsibility and That It Contributes to O n e ’s Happi­
ness."
This objective is accomplished through the following
major activities: the girls write a word picture of a person,
for example a movie star or an athlete, whom they consider
attractive; a girl discusses, before the class, her "Ideal’s”
personal habits, as hair arrangement and her posture; and
the teacher applies this discussion to the girl.
The teacher
then demonstrates to the class fundamental principles of good
grooming, including shampooing the hair and simple manicures.
Other activities In this unit are learning to use
proper sewing equipment, practicing on the machine, dis­
cussing materials appropriate to an occasion, the teacher
giving a cutting demonstration, the group discussing clothes
of different types, the teacher discussing commercial patterns
with the class, and the girl proceeding in the cutting of a
simple dress.
The teacher now leads the class in the dis­
cussion of the accessories which include undergarments as
well as outer.
The third unit in elementary home economics is "Help­
ing with Family Meals."
This is to be taught in sixty-five
89
to seventy lessons.
The general objectives are: an under­
standing or the girl’s responsibility in selecting her own
foods; ability to purchase food with discrimination; and
ability to prepare and serve simple dishes and meals.
The
following activities are a few of those recommended: a dis­
cussion of the results of good and poor nutrition; a girl
plans a d a y ’s adequate meals for herself; she learns the
preparation of such dishes as apple sauce, chocolate, cream
of tomato soup, macaroni and cheese, toasted cheese sand­
wiches, lettuce salad, poached eggs on toast, buttered
asparagus, fruit cup, vegetable salad, muffins, hot cakes,
French toast, and custards; the teacher takes the class to
the market and there points out such items to be noticed
as reading labels, how to buy fresh fruit and vegetables, how
to buy dried fruit and vegetables, how to select canned fruits
and vegetables, the buying of cereals, bakery goods and candy
and the teacher gives instruction in preparation for going
to the market and courtesies to be observed while there.
In the introduction to this bulletin, a statement is
made that the above recommendations were intended for seventh
and eighth grades, but if home economics is desired for lower
grades in this state, this work must be used and adapted, by
the teacher, to the age and experience of the girls she is
teaching.
Utah.
In the 1928 bulletin, called Utah Course of
90
Study for Elementary Schools, little is found on the subject
of home.
In the study of history for the third and fourth
grades, is an integrated part of the study of pioneer life.
Washington.
In the bulletin, called Elementary Course
of Study, the social science chapter contains various recom­
mendations concerning the home.
The objectives for grades
one, two, and three are discussed.
However, the recommen­
dations are made that, for grade one, the "Home and the
Natural Social Agencies that Contribute to It" be studied.
In this same chapter, the units for grades one and two are
discussed, the home being the first recommended.
The home
is discussed as a place of work and play, of shelter and
protection, and where things grow.
In the chapter on
"Citizenship and Civics," recommendations for the primary
grades include, as the first unit, the home.
These aspects
are studied: what does father do for the home; what does
mother do for the home; and what do children contribute to
the home?
The intermediate grades have a unit on the home,
with these things studied; helpfulness, self-control, thrift,
kindness to animals, loyalty, reverence, health, and safety.
The upper grades* unit on the home includes; organization
and government of the home; importance of the home; main­
tenance of the home; home leisure; and citizenship in the
home.
CHAPTER VI
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
I.
SUMMARY.
All forty-eight states and nine possessions responded
to the letters sent out.
Eight states and five possessions
stated, by letter, that all authority for curricula making
was in the hands of the local authorities.
Twenty-two states
and one possession responded with elementary bulletins.
In
every bulletin there were recommendations made that a unit
on the home should be studied in the first grade.
Two states
and one possession of this group included home economics in
the elementary grades.
Six states and one possession
responded with social-studies bulletins.
Each of these
states and the possession had units on the home in the first
grade and one of the states of this group had a unit on the
home for the first six grades.
Six states responded with
their combined elementary and high school bulletins for home
economics.
Only one state responded with a separate bulle­
tin for home economics in the elementary grades.
Three
states and two possessions responded with bulletins of
miscellaneous types.
92
II..
CONCLUSIONS
The study of home economics, as a laboratory subject,
is not being taught except in two states and one possession.
However, twenty-eight states and one possession have recog­
nized the value of studying the home in the first grade as a
means of transition from home life into the routine of school.
A study was made of the sections in which home economics and
units on the home were being given and no trend could be
found.
The work given on the home is predominantly in the
field of social science.
This is seen in tile fact that
eight states publish separate social-studies bulletins and
twenty-two other states include, in their elementary bulle­
tins, a chapter on social studies.
Since eight states have
no state-wide course of study and since the leading cities
are now publishing their own course of study to supplement,
the state course of study, data here are in no way an indi­
cation of how much home economics is actually being taught
in the schools of the United States.
The importance of
this data, then, is to show that home economics has not yet
been recognized by the state committees as a fundamental
necessity, along with other subjects, such as reading,
writing, and arithmetic.
One possession, the Republic of Panama, stands out
in the lead of all other states and possessions in its
93
teaching of home economics as a laboratory subject from the
first grade on up*
This possession makes specific recom­
mendations for sewing in grades one, two, three, four, five,
and six, and begins food preparation in the sixth grade.
Porto Rico follows the same plan as the eight states which
have separate social-studies bulletins and recommends, for
the first grade, the study of home life.
The other posses­
sions do not have an elementary course of study with
reference to the home.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
BIBLIOGRAPHY
A.
BOOKS
Bell, Louise Price, Kitchen Pun.
ing Company, 193IH "§8 pp*
Cleveland: Hortor Publish­
Bonser, Frederick Gordon, The Elementary School Curriculum.
New York: The Macmillan Company, 1925“ -$60 pp*
Carpenter, Frank G. and Francis Carpenter, The Clothes We
Wear.
New York: American Book Company, 1026"! l90 pp.
Hanna, Agnes K., Home Economics in the Elementary and
Secondary Schools. Boston: WEitcomb and Barrows,
1§2W7 327 pp.
Johnson, Constance, When Mother Lets Us Help.
Dodd, Mead, and Company, 1928" &2 pp.
New York:
Matthews, Mary Lockwood, Elementary Home Economics.
Little, Brown, and Company, 19357 343 pp.
Mowrer, Earnest R., The Family.
Company, 1934. 304 pp.
Boston:
New York: Houghton, Mifflin
President’s Research Committee, Recent Social Trends.
New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1933. 1568 pp.
Spafford, Ivol, A Functionary Program of Home Economics.
New York: JbEn''"Wiley and Sons/ In co rp o rated , 1940.
469 pp.
Whipple, Guy M*, editor, Thirty-Seventh Yearbook of the
National Society for the Study of Education, Part I I •
Bloomington: Public 'School Pub iTshfng Comp any, 1938.
529 pp.
B.
PERIODICALS
Dyer, Elizabeth, f,Home Economics as an Integrating Force in
Education,” Journal of Home Economics, 21:485-486. July,
1929.
, "Statistics of Home Economics in the Public Schools,”
Journal of Home Economics, 25:404, May, 1933.
96
MeBain, Mable, "Opportunities for Progressive Home Economics
in the Elementary Grades,” Practical Home Economics,
15:155-156,-May, 1937.
Menes, Irene, "Home Arts in the Integrated Program of the
Elementary Schools,” Practical Home Economics, 15:355,
October, 1937.
Miller, Ellen, "Home Economics in the United States Since
1934; In the Elementary Grades,” Journal of Home
Economics, 31:450, September, 1939.
Horton, Alice P., "A Lesson in Cooking in the Elementary
School,” Journal of Home Economics, 2:601-604, December,
1910.
Spafford, Ivol, "Home Economics at the Elementary Level,”
Education, 56:451, April, 1936.
Weber, Sarah Jane, "Household Arts in the Elementary Grades,"
Progressive Education, 10:335-341, October, 1933.
APPENDIX
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