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The organization and administration of education for the distributive occupations under the George-Deen Act

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THE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF
EDUCATION FOR THE DISTRIBUTIVE OCCUPATIONS
UNDER THE GEORG E-DEEN ACT
A Thesis
Presented to
the Faculty of the School of Education
The University of Southern California
In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Master of Science in Education
by
Doris M. Coventry
June 1941
UMI Number: EP53991
All rights reserved
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a note will indicate the deletion.
UMI EP53991
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O
T h is thesis, sw ritten u n d e r the d ir e c t io n o f t h e / t S ^
C h a ir m a n o f the candidate*s G u id a n c e C o m m itte e
a n d a p p r o v e d by a l l m em bers o f the C o m m itte e ,
has been p resen ted to a n d accepted by the F a c u lt y
o f the S c h o o l o f E d u c a t io n in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t
o f the re q u ire m e n ts f o r the degree o f M a s t e r o f
Science in E d u c a t io n .
.........
Dean
Guidance C om m ittee
.
J • .Weersing.......
C hairm an
E. G, Blackstone
S. E. Wagner
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I.
PAGE
...................
THE PROBLEM
1
The importance of the problem.......... .
1
..........
2
Education lagging in distributive field . . .
3
Failures among small store owners ..........
4
Increasing absorption of workers
Importance of Federal participation In the
distributive field
......................
Summary of the importance of the problem
• .
Definitions of terms u s e d ................
Distributive occupations
5
6
7
..................
7
Subjects included in education for distribu­
tive occupations
8
Levels of personnel...................
Review of related literature
8
................
9
Organization and administration of distribu­
tive e d u c a t i o n ...................
9
A news bulletin...............
9
The social policy and the George-Deen Act . .
A review of industrial e d u c a t i o n ......
10
10
The George-Deen A c t ...............
11
Distributive education
11
....................
iii
CHAPTER
PAGE
Distributive education in public junior
c o l l e g e s .............
11
Retail merchandising education in
secondary schools .............. . . . .
12
The status of merchandising education . . .
13
Procedure of present study
II.
. . .
13
HISTORY OF DISTRIBUTIVE EDUCATION.....
Development and trends
15
.....
15
Manual labor education movement....
16
Knights of L a b o r .................
17
Women’s Educational and Industrial Union of
B o s t o n .........................
How the store-training idea spread
17
....
20
Commission on National Aid to Vocational
• Education and the Smith-Hughes Act
III.
...
21
The Federal board for vocational education
22
George-Reed and George-Ellzey Acts
23
....
The Georg e-Deen A c t ...........
24
Personnel.......................
24
Summary
25
...........
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF DISTRIBUTIVE EDUCATION .
Significant developments of distribution
27
. •
27
The need for training.................
.
27
Large numbers engaged In t r a d e s ....
28
iv
CHAPTER
PAGE
High rate of labor t u r n o v e r .............
29
Business service occupations ..............
29
Fundamental objectives of distributive
e d u c a t i o n ... ...... .....................
SO
Better service
30
......................
Efficiency...............................
30
Knowledge of g o o d s .......................
31
Knowledge of standards for business behavior
31
Efficient management and operating practices
32
Summary of objectives of distributive educa­
tion .............................
IV.
....
32
DATA ON PRESENT STATUS OF GEORGE-DEEN ACT IN
CALIFORNIA.................................
36
Number of students, hours, and meetings in the
various subjects...............
36
Number of students enrolled by subject and
c o u n t y ....... .....................
37
Number of courses arranged according to busi­
nesses s e r v e d ...........................
39
Relationship between levels of personnel,
subjects, and meetings
..........
42
Relationship between levels of personnel,
subjects, and h o u r s .................
Part-time classes
...
....................
45
48
V
CHAPTER
PAGE
Cooperative classes . . . . . . .
48
. .........................
48
Summary.....................................
49
Courses of study
V.
............
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, ANDRECOMMENDATIONS . . . .
Summary of findings . . ......................
The problem........ .....
51
51
................
51
The procedure and sourcesof d a t a ...........
51
Results of theinvestigation...............
51
Conclusions . ...............................
53
Recommendations.............................
54
BIBLIOGRAPHY
.......................
. . . . . . .
A P P E N D I X .............. ...........................
56
68
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE
PAGE
I. Number of Students Enrolled by Subject and
County . . . . . . . . . ...............
40-41
II* Number of Courses Arranged According to Busi­
nesses S e r v e d ........................... .
III. Levels of Personnel, Subjects, and Meetings .
IV. Levels of Personnel, Subjects, and Hours
. .
43-44
46
47
LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE
I*
PAGE
Number of Students, Hours, and Meetings in the
Various S u b j e c t s .................
38
CHAPTER I
THE PROBLEM '
It was the purpose of this study to investigate the
organization and administration of education for the dis­
tributive occupations under the George-Deen Act and to trace
the extent of the use of the Act in the public schools of
California.
This new legislation in the field of vocational
education has made available training in all the major occu­
pational groups in the economic cycle from production to
consumption, marking another step in the development of a
democratic system of vocational education.
Prior to 1936,
Federal aid was not provided for workers in the distributive
field, and since the passage of the George-Deen Act, educators
in all departments of education have wondered if people would
take advantage of the Act and whether or not the funds would
be used.
IMPORTANCE OF THE PROBLEM
This study of the organization and administration of
education for the distributive occupations under the GeorgeDeen Act is important because (l) there has been an increas­
ing absorption of workers into distributive trades and
occupations; (S) education for distributive occupations has
lagged behind vocational education in other fields; (3) the
2
high rate of failure among small store owners of the United
States has shown great need of salvage among the merchan­
dising enterprises in this country • (4) distributive educa­
tion has been the fifth great phase of the field of voca­
tional education for which funds were authorized and
appropriated by the Federal Government.
Therefore, this
study of the George-Deen Act in the field of distributive
occupations seemed timely and worthwhile.
Increasing absorption of workers.
Paul Stewart and
others, authors of Does Distribution Cost Too Much, have
stated that*
At the time of the Census of 1870— less than seven
decades ago— more than three-fourths of the nation1s
labor force was engaged in the production of physical
goods, and less than a fourth in distributive and ser­
vice activities. Agriculture alone in that year re­
quired the services of nearly 7,000,000 persons, or more
than half of the nation’s total of less than 13,000,000
gainful workers. Although the actual number of farmers
and farm workers was half again as large in 1930 as in
1870, the proportion of the total working force engaged
in agriculture had shrunk from 53 per cent to about 21
per cent. Productive workers in the manufacturing and
mechanical industries (which include construction; com­
prised leaSL than 21 per cent of the 1870 working popula­
tion, and about 29 per cent of the 1930 labor force, but
the increase in the actual number of workers in these
industries was much less than in the service and distri­
bution occupations.
Taken as whole, the proportion of workers in pro­
duction of goods had fallen to little more than half of
the total by 1930, while distribution and service acti-1
vities employed twice as large a proportion as in 1870.
1 Paul Stewart and others, Doea Distribution £o£± Ioq
Much (New York: The Twentieth Century Fund Inc., 1939), p. 8-9.
Baw&en tells us that the Office of Education has es­
timated that in large cities ahout one person out of every
six between the ages of 18 and 25 years who are gainfully
employed, is engaged in selling or some other occupation
included under the heading distributive.”
For the country
as a whole, approximately 7,000,000 persons are now engaged
in these occupations and over 100,000 beginners, eighteen to
nineteen years of age, enter these occupations each year.
Only about 10,000 persons each year receive any vocational
preparation for retailing, selling, and store service, and
it has been estimated that not more than ten per cent of
the persons who enter the distributive occupations actually
succeed.s
Small wonder, says Arthur, that the States almost to
a unit are making plans to develop comprehensive programs
in distributive occupational subjects.3
M u catlon lagging
Matrqbutive fields.
Cox says
that although education for salesmanship and advertising has
been in operation since it was first fostered by the Boston
Industrial Union and by Simmons College about 1910, it has
^ W. T. Bawden, f,Review of Industrial Education for
the Biennium 1956-37,” Industrial Education Magazine, 40:53,
March, 1938.
3 C. M. Arthur, ”The George-Deen Act and Its Implica­
tions,” School Life. 22:134, January, 1937.
4
developed in significant ways only in the larger cities.^
The Vocational Division of the Office of Education
under the direction of J. C. Wright, Assistant Commissioner
for Vocational Education gives these facts:
Education for commercial pursuits in the United States
has become a conspicious part of secondary school and
college courses. Most of the instruction in this'field,
however, has been limited to prospective clerical workers,
such as secretaries, bookkeepers, and accountants. And
this in the face of the fact that the number of workers
employed in the distributive phases of business— those
phases involved in getting manufactured and farm com­
modities from the producer to the consumer— has increased
more rapidly than the number in any other major occupa­
tional field.5
The following statement was made by Massell:
While the need for training is universally recognized,
states and municipalities, due to lack of funds have been
unable to meet this urgent need for preparation for gain­
ful employment in the distributive trades. Traditional
commercial subjects have monopolized all the attention
and funds.6
Failures among small store owners. According to the
1935 Census of Distribution there were more than 1,530,000
independent store owners in the United States.
The total
number of store owners had not decreased during the period
4 Philip Cox, "Social Policy and the Georg e-Deen Act,"
o£ BiSiReas Education. 14:20, September, 1938.
^ United States Office of Education under the direc­
tion of J. C. Wright, "Development and Trends," School Life.
December, 1938, p. 73-74.
6 A. S. Massell, "From Poverty to Riches," Business
Education World, 17:236, December, 1936.
1929-1936; but the personnel and ownership had changed fre­
quently.
Hearly thirty per cent each year are new pro­
prietors.
Massell stated that most of the failures of 1930 in
small store ownership could have been salvaged had the re­
tail store owner been cognizant of the most elementary
business practices.
Retail failures were due to:
1. Store owners and the average sales persons are
generally uninformed in the most fundamental processes
that make for success in retailing.
2. Through ignorance of the merchandise he is
selling, the sales person frequently misrepresents it.
3.
He is indifferent to the needs of the customer.
4. He is ill-advised as to the location, financing,
and operation of his store.
5.
He knows little of scientific buying and selling
6.
He fails to keep proper books of account.
7.
He is negligent in applying book facts.
8.
He gives too much credit.
9.
He accepts too much credit.
The great turnover in proprietorship and employee
personnel is admittedly due to incompetence, ignorance,
and lack of training in the elementary phases of store
ownership, management, merchandising, selling, and
customer relationship.7
o£ Federal participation As
dlgjbrjlba-
tive field. Nystrom says that since retailing is so wide-
^ Ibid.. p. 236.
6
spread, the training for its workers should be carried on as
a function of public education just as it is for agriculture
or home economics.
There is no other way to reach and bene­
fit all the branches of retailing.®
Previously Federal aid had been available to the States
for vocational training in agriculture, homemaking, and trade
and industries.
Through the passage of the George-Deen Act
in 1936, Federal funds were made available for the training
of those engaged in the economic cycle from production to
consumption.®
Summary of the importance of the problem.
The dis­
tribution of manufactured articles is today a much more com­
plex problem than it was twenty years ago.
There has been a
steadily increasing demand for people to handle the distri­
bution of a wide variety of complicated articles such as
radios and automobiles and these people require more
training than was needed for the marketing of the simpler
necessities of life*
While this demand for more trained people has been
rapidly mounting, there has been relatively little done
8 P. H. Nystrom, "The George-Deen Act,"
16:72, October, 1937.
® United States Department of the Interior, Office
of Education, Organization and Adminiatration, Distributive
Education. (Washington, D. C., Miscellaneous £046), p. 1.
7
toward providing the training, a situation which is forcibly
illustrated by contrasting the inadequate education for the
distributive fields with the progress which has been made in
education in other fields.
The resultant inefficiency in the
distributive occupations has caused much unhappiness and
economic waste.
Also a high rate of turnover of personnel of
those employed in distributive occupations and an exceedingly
high rate of failure among small store owners in the United
States has prevailed.
Much of this failure has been due to
the lack of training and the lack of development of an
adequate personality.
A salesperson must not only have
sales knowledge but must be able to serve customers under­
standing^.
The Federal Government has recognized not only
the need of training in the field of distributive education,
but also the importance of citizens working as efficiently
as possible, and the importance of eliminating waste such as
that caused by business failures and personnel turnover.
Therefore, Congress, in 1936, appropriated funds for the
development, of vocational courses which would give students
better preparation for useful employment in the distributive
occupations.
DEFINITIONS OF TEEMS USED
pistributive occupations. The United States Office
of Education defines distributive occupations as follows:
Distributive occupations are those followed by work­
ers directly engaged in merchandising activities, or in
direct contact with buyers and sellers when— (a) distri­
buting to consumers, retailers, jobbers, wholesalers, and
others the products of farm and industry; (b) managing,
operating, or conducting a commercial service of personal
service business, or selling the services of such a busi­
ness
Subjects included in education for distributive occu­
pations . The kinds of instruction given in certain classes
were grouped according to eight headings:
manufacturing (I),
merchandising (II), public relations (ill), control (IV),
maintenance (V), personnel (VI), transportation (VII), and
buying (VIII).
Levels of personnel. These are listed in a government
monograph^ as:
managers and operators (l), managing agents
(2), apprentices (3), department heads (4), purchasing agents
and general buyers (5), salesmanagers (6), salespeople (7),
store service workers (8), deliverymen (9), and miscellaneous
(10).
For a more detailed description of this classification
see the Appendix, pages 73-74.
^ United States Department of the Interior, Office
of Education, Statement of Policies for the Administration
of Vocational Education. Vocational Education Bulletin No. 1
"(Washington, D. C., General Series No. 1, revised February,
1937), i>~: 66-67.
H United States Department of the Interior, Office
of Education, Organization and Administration of Distribu­
tive Education (Washington. D. C., Miscellaneous 2046),
p. 20.
9
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Investigation revealed that literature of the field
might be divided into the following groups:
Government bul­
letins and monographs/ magazines; books on the subject of
distributive education; studies of the George-Deen Act, com­
mercial education, merchandising education, and vocational
education*
Organization and administration of distributive
education*
This monograph was Issued by the United States
ip
Department of the Interior, Office of Education,
after
numerous requests had been made by individuals and organi­
zations for information concerning the administration and
supervision of the George-Deen Act, the persons eligible
for training, the kinds of schools or classes, and the
nature of the courses whiGh might be offered under the Act*
It was the purpose of this bulletin to provide this infor­
mation*
A news, bulletin* This is the official house organ
published by and for the coordinators and instructors in
distributive education*13
Volume III No. 2, called "The
12 1M4-# si pp.
13 News Bui 1etin (Sacramento, California: published
by and for Coordinators and Teachers in Distributive Occu­
pations, 3 Vols* 1938-41)•
10
Distributive Education Digest,tt presents the thinking and
efforts of those educators and businessmen who participated
in the evolution of distributive education.
One-page excerpts
of activities that have been written around the pioneering
experiences and the accomplishments of those engaged in dis­
tributive occupational training are presented.
C. C. Holmes, the editor states:
The major objective of this ^Distributive Education
Digest11 issue of the ¥ews Bulletin is to indicate what
has been done and to recognize, so far as can be seen at
present, the problems yet to be solved. Particularly
will we be concerned with effecting a better distribu­
tive system to the end that there will be better util­
ization of the nation’s resources during the critical
years ahead.1^
I M social m i i S X arjd Ihg £e_QXgg-D&gn M l *
September 1938 Philip Cox
In
indicated that he thought the
Act a definite advance in vocational education but believed
it needed careful consideration because he felt the funds
might be misused by prejudiced specialists in the vocational
field.
A review of industrial education. In March 1938,
BawdenIS
traced the background of Federal aid, starting with
14 Ibid..
p.
105.
*■5 Philip Cox, "Social Policy and the George-Deen Act,"
Journal of Business Education. 14:20-21, September, 1938.
^ ¥. T. Bawden, "A Review of Industrial Education
for the Biennium 1936-37,11 Industrial Education Magazine.
40:49-82, March, 1938.
11
the Smith-Hughes Act in 1917 and going through the GeorgeDeen Act.
The George-Deen Act.
17
P. H. Nystromx
stated in this
article that since retailing was so widespread it should be
a function of public education.
This was an abstract from
an address given at the Twenty-sixth Annual Convention of
the National Dry Goods Association, reprinted from the
Michigan Vocational New^ Bulletin of April, 1937.
Distributive education.
A recent book by Kenneth
Haasl® of the Office of Education in Washington gives general
and specific information of interest to instructors, admin­
istrators, and those who might utilize the opportunities
offered under the George-Deen Act.
education in
ianiQ£ cqlleg.^.
In 1939, John Carl Wounsclr1,17 made a study to ascertain the
facilities in the junior colleges for training students in
distributive occupations under the George-Deen Act.
He
1? P. H. Nystrom, nThe George-Deen Act,” Occupations.
16:71-72, October, 1957.
1Q Kenneth Haas,
The Gregg Publishing Com
ve Education (New York
264 pp.
John Carl Wounsch, ’’Distributive Education in the
Public Junior Colleges under the George-Deen Act,fT (unpub­
lished Master’s thesis, The University of Southern California,
Los Angeles, 1939, 136 pp.)
12
investigated the functions of the Act, the needs of workers
in the distributive occupations, the objectives of distribu­
tive education, and the benefits received from the distri­
butive education by the producer, ’distributor, and consumer.
As to the present organization and administration of distri­
butive education, he said:
The present organization and administration of dis­
tributive education under the George-Deen Act, is ad­
ministered by the Federal Government. The George-Deen
Act specifically sets forth certain conditions and
limitations which govern the use of distributive educa­
tion funds within the various states and territories. u
Retail merchandising education in secondary schools.
In 1928, Dorothy Dola Decker*^ made a study which concluded
that f!The schools of California are showing an increasing
interest in merchandising education.”*^
She recommended that:
If merchandising courses are to be included in the
curricula of the high schools and junior colleges, there
is need that they be so clearly and purposefully organ­
ized that there is little question as to what is being
attempted, what should be included in such courses, how
they should be taught, and how they correlate with
other subjects in the curricula.£3
20 Ibid.. p. 105.
21 Dorothy Dola Decker, "The Objectives, Content, and
Methods of Retail Merchandising Education in the Secondary
Schools of California,” (unpublished Master’s thesis. The
University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1939), 188 pp.
2 2 H 2 M . , p. 171.
13
The status of merchandlsing education. In 1932,
24Vista Milrae Mawe
made a study to investigate the practices
of merchandising instruction and to ascertain the need and
possibility for further development of this training in the
junior college.
She recommended that:
The curriculum of the junior college which offers, at
present, only a limited amount of training in merchan­
dising subjects should be expanded to meet the needs of
the community which the school serves. 5
PROCEDURE OF PRESENT STUDY
Since Congress passed the legislation (the George*Been Act) dealing with distributive education as recently as
1936, and it was not put into effect until 1937, the field
was a comparatively new one.
A great deal of information
concerning the Act was obtained from a study of government
publications and this was supplemented by attendance at a
conference on business education, by interviews with people
actually engaged in the field, and by figures obtained from
the California State Department of Education, Bureau of
Business Education.
These figures were organized under the
24
Vista Milrae Mawe, ffThe Status of Merchandising
Education in the Junior College,n (unpublished Masterfs
thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles,
1932), 105 pp.
25 Ibid.. p. 81.
14
following headings:
the location (county, city, and name of
school) of the schools utilizing the George-Deen Act, the
name of the course, the distributive business to which the
course was related, the meetings per course, the total hours
per course, and the male and female enrollments.
These fig­
ures have been summarized in table and figure form to show
the extent of the use of the Act in the public schools of
California.
The following chapters deal with distributive educa­
tion and an analysis of the data relating to the organization
and administration of education for the distributive occupa­
tions under the George-Deen Act.
The historical development
of distributive education with the part the various organi­
zations have played and the legislative acts which have
appropriated money for vocational education are revealed, in
Chapter II.
The various aims and fundamental objectives of
distributive education have been presented in government
monographs and have been amplified by statements by workers
in the field.
These, along with the data on the status of
the George-Deen Act in California during 1939-40, are pre­
sented in Chapters III and IV respectively.
The final
chapter is devoted to the summary, conclusions, and recom­
mendations.
CHAPTER II
HISTORY OF DISTRIBUTIVE EDUCATION
Educated people must labor; otherwise education be­
comes a positive and an intolerable evil. No nation
can sustain in idleness but a small percentage of its
numbers (people). The majority must work at something
productive, and from this premise the problem springs.
How can education and labor be more satisfactorily com­
bined .— Abraham Lincoln.26
Since the education for distributive occupations lies
within the broader field of vocational education, its history
starts back with the apprenticeship system and goes through
the various Federal appropriations to help vocational educa­
tion as it progressed.
It is the purpose of this chapter to
present this history and to bring it up-to-date— to the GeorgeDeen Act which was passed by Congress in 1956 specifically to
help the distributive occupations.
DEVELOPMENT AND TRENDS
In the early days the apprenticeship system did not
apply to the manual crafts alone but was the method used to
prepare youth for all forms of industrial and professional
employment.
The introduction of machinery, new processes
and new methods, broke down this system and the workers
26 H. A. Sotzin, ^Occupational Training .and Employ­
ment, fT Industrial Arts and Vocational Education, 27?&19,
June, 1938.
16
were forced to depend largely upon the pick-up method of
securing training.
Employers did not recognize the responsi­
bility for giving systematic training and this did not.imme­
diately become the responsibility of the public schools. ^
"For a period of years, providing education and training for
apprentices in the skilled trades appeared to be nobodyTs
business."^®
Manual labor education movement.
As early as 1820
what was known as the manual labor education movement was
organized in the United States.
The object of this movement
was to introduce organized trade instruction in certain
schools.
The plan advanced provided that students in these
schools should engage in practical work under school auspices
for approximately half of the school day and receive academ­
ic instruction during the remaining half.
Since this seemed to be a very radical innovation,
this movement did not get very far.
By the third quarter of
the last century, however, a change of sentiment became evi­
dent, and businessmen, manufacturers, engineers, and educa­
tors became interested in types of instruction that were not
^ United States Office of Education under the direc­
tion of J. C. Wright, "Development and Trends," School Life,
p. 68, December, 1938.
Loc. cit.
17
entirely academic.
Knights of Labor. As far back as 1885 the Knights of
Labor tried to get the states
to provide industrial education to pupils in the day
schools, and evening classes for those employed, so that
the workers and children of workers may be more effec­
tively trained in the public schools and better prepared
to cope with the struggle of life.29
The American Federation of Labor, which succeeded the Knights
of Labor, made efforts to obtain support for organized indus­
trial education and finally organized evening trade classes
through its constituent trade unions in which journeymen
workers were teachers, thus establishing vocational schools
of their own.
In 1905 the Massachusetts Committee on Indus­
trial and Technical Education was appointed by Governor
Douglas to "investigate the need for education in the differ­
ent grades of skill and responsibility in the different
industries.39
Women1s Educational and Industrial M Lon &£ £o&£on.
A direct outgrowth of a desire on the part of the Womens
Educational and Industrial Union of Boston to aid working
girls and women by sponsoring attempts on the part of these
workers to advance themselves educationally, industrially,
29 ibid.,
p ..68.
30 Las- sit-
18
or socially brought about organized training for store
workers in this country.
The aim of this organization was,
and still is, to assist working women to find new employment
opportunities and to help them to secure training for their
chosen line of work.
In _1905 a committee from the Union undertook to deter­
mine what special training "was needed by girls who wished to
become saleswomen.
Mrs. Lucinda Wyman Prince, a member of
the executive committee of the Union at that time, became
so interested in this investigation of saleswomen and their
needs that she devoted herself entirely to this important
question.
Mrs. Prince was a leader of a group of fifty working
girls, many of whom were employed in department stores.
She
felt that the store workers needed practical training in more
effective working procedures so that they might be worth more
to their employers and could be paid higher wages*
She at­
tempted to secure the interest of the Boston merchants in
providing instruction which she believed would result in
increased efficiency and earning capacity on the part of the
store workers.
She was unable to convince any of the store
executives that such organized training would be of value to
store salespeople or would be worth what it would cost.
In
the fall of 1905 the Union permitted her to start her first
class of eight girls whose lack of training would not permit
19
them to secure positions.
Because these girls were young,
they were able to enter stores as cash girls and stock girls
after they had completed the course,
A second class was
organized in January 1906 with six older and better qualified
girls enrolled.
After many interviews with store executives and doing
everything possible to interest the merchants in the value
of organized training, William Filenefs Sons Company finally
allowed Mrs. Princess students to secure practical store ex­
perience by working in the store on Mondays.
With seven pupils the School of Salesmanship sponsored
by the Union started its third class in July 1906.
A number
of stores agreed to participate in the plan since the value
of directed training for store service was being better under­
stood.
The superintendents of the stores acted as members of
an advisory committee which met once a month to discuss plans
for organizing and' conducting classes for retail-store workers.
The cooperating firms agreed to refer to the school
maintained by the Union, all inexperienced.applicants who
might be employed on a probationary basis after satisfactory
completion of the course.
The stores promised to provide
opportunities for the girls to gain practical selling ex­
perience on Mondays at the rate of $1 a day, and to secure
permanent positions for them provided their work proved
satisfactory after they had served a probationaly period of
20
one month.
The storesT active cooperation was given to the fourth
class in retail selling sponsored by the Union when in Octo­
ber 1906 a fourth class was started with sixteen students,
notwithstanding the fact that positions were guaranteed both
during and at the completion of the training, it was hard to
find desirable students who could afford the time or loss of
regular wages.
Sensing that more practical experience was an impor­
tant factor, Mrs. Prince arranged a schedule so that the .
students attended school part-time and worked in the stores
part-time.
This indicated that the stores were willing to
cooperate more fully.
More classes were started and in the fall of 1907 the
cooperating firms agreed to allow students full wages while
they were taking the course.
How the stor e-training idea spread. A request from
Providence, R. I. in 1910 for a teacher to organize classes
for store workers on a basis similar to that of the School
of Salesmanship of the Women’s Educational and Industrial
Union of Boston brought about the first attempt to train
teachers for such work.
The objective of the school, up to
this time, had been to train workers within the stores and
women who desired to find employment in store work with no
21
attempt being made to train teachers either for the stores
or for schools with salesmanship classes.
In 1911 Mrs. Lucinda Prince established the first
school to train educational directors for stores and highschool teachers to give instruction in store-training courses.
In 1912 the first classes for teaching retail store selling
in high schools and continuation schools were organized.
Mrs. Prince assisted in training the teachers for the newly
established continuation schools in Boston and supervised
the classes conducted in all the large retail stores under
the auspices of the public schools.
In 1913 she was appointed director of salesmanship
for high schools and continuation schools in Boston, and in
1915, educational director of the National Retail Dry Goods
Association, in which position she had charge of educational
work in stores throughout the country.
Commission on National Aid to Vocational Education and
the Smith-Hughes Act.
The findings and recommendations of
the Commission on National Aid to Vocational Education were
considered and the proposed bill, with some modifications,
was enacted by Congress and approved by President Wilson in
^ United States Department of the Interior, Office
of Education, Cooperative Part-Time Retail Training Programs
(Washington, D. C.: Vocational Division Bulletin, No. .205),
pp. 1-3.
22
19X7.
The National Vocational Education Act, commonly known
as the Smith-Hughes Act, was the first of the series of
Federal vocational education acts, of which the GeorgeBeen Act was the last. The basic objective of the SmithHughes Act mras to aid the States in providing vocational
education in the public schools and thus to provide equal
educational opportunity to all who desire to become
skilled, intelligent workers and self-supporting.citizens.
The specific purposes of the Smith-Hughes Act are:
1. To provide for Federal cooperation in State pro­
grams of vocational education in agriculture, trade and
industry, and home economics, including the training of
teachers in these fields, carried on under State control.
2. To provide cooperative financial support for such
programs.
The specific kind of instruction permitted under the
Smith-Hughes Act may be inferred from the provision which
stipulates that the controlling purpose of such education
shall be of less than college grade and shall be designed
to meet the needs of persons over fourteen years of age
who are preparing for or who have entered upon the work
of an occupation.3^
The Federal board for vocational education.
The
Federal Board for Vocational Education was created in 1917
to administer the Smith-Hughes Act, which provided for the
use of Federal funds for the promotion of vocational educa­
tion in cooperation with the States.
An interpretation of
the act made by the Board encouraged the organization of
cooperative retail-selling courses as a part of any local
school system, if the State plan for vocational education
32
pp.
5-6.
23
provided for the organization of such classes.
Largely because Federal funds were not available for
the reimbursement of salaries of qualified local and State
supervisors and teacher trainers, the program did not develop.
Adequate teaching personnel was not available at that time;
public-school authorities displayed no marked enthusiasm for
such training; and the Federal Board for Vocational Education
did not have adequate personnel to successfully initiate and
administer the
program.
Heor^-Med
George-EHzey Acts.
Congress ex­
tended its policy of cooperation in 1920 to include vocation­
al training and placement in employment of disabled persons.
Four years later it extended the benefits of the vocational
education and vocational rehabilitation acts to Hawaii.
In
1929, under the George-Reed Act it authorized for the five
years, 1930-35, additional appropriations to the States and
Territories for vocational agriculture and vocational homeeconomics.
In the same year it also provided funds and
administration for vocational rehabilitation service in the
District of Columbia.
It extended the benefits of voca­
tional education and vocational rehabilitation acts in 1931
to Puerto Rico.
Through the George-Ellzey Act which super­
33 r&M., p . 6.
24
seeled the George-Reed Act and which became operative July 1,
1934, Congress provided additional grants to the States and
Territories for vocational agriculture, trades and industries,
and home economics.
Increased appropriations for vocational
rehabilitation were authorized by Congress in the Social
Security Act of 1935.
The George-Been Act.
The George-Been Act consti­
tuted a definite advance in vocational education legislation.
It authorized an annual appropriation of $1,254,000 for
vocational training in distributive occupations— retailing,
wholesaling, jobbing, commission buying and selling, and
other merchandising occupations.
Federal allotments under
the Act are to be matched by the States on a fifty per, cent
basis until June 30, 1942.
Subsequent to that date, the
matching percentage will increase ten per cent each year
until the beginning of the fiscal year July 1, 1947, when
the States will be required to match Federal funds dollar
for dollar.54
Personnel. The Federal administrative set-up consists
of four regional agents for distributive education under the
Business Education Service in the United States Office of
c. M. Arthur, ffGeorge-Been Act and its Implica­
tions, " School Life, 22:133, January, 1937.
25
Education.
The following persons make up the California State
Staff for Distributive Education, 1939-40:
Berkeley
Hugh M. Blowers, Regional Supervisor
William R. Blackler, Research and
Teacher Training
Cynthia E. Judson, Assistant in
Research and Teacher Training
Los Angeles
Willis M. Kenealy, Regional Super­
visor
Margaret C. Tiffany, Traveling
Instructor
Sacramento
Ira W. J&bby, State Supervisor and
Chief, Bureau of Business Education
San Francisco
Ferris M. Wakeley, Traveling
Instructor
Summary.
In this chapter information has been pre­
sented which shows that the great movement for better educa­
tion for distributive occupations had a relatively humble
and obscure beginning.
The growth and development of train­
ing in this field was traced from the days when a prospective
worker was taught a trade by one already engaged in that
trade, up through the series of Federal vocational education
acts, the first of which was the Smith-Hughes (1917) and the
last of which was the George-Deen (1936).
It was found that difficulties such as inadequate
teaching personnel, the lack of funds for the reimbursement
of salaries of qualified local and state supervisors and
teacher trainers and the fact that public school authorities
26
displayed no marked enthusiasm for training in distributive
occupations.
Difficulties such as these that had arisen
under the national vocational education acts, no longer
existed when the provisions of the George-Deen Act offered
positive encouragement ($1,254,000 annually) for the estab­
lishment of distributive programs.
CHAPTER III
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF DISTRIBUTIVE EDUCATION
Government bulletins pointed out that an adequate pro­
gram in distributive education should result in significant
benefits to producers, distributive workers, the owners of
distributive businesses, and to consumers.
The purpose of
this chapter is to present some of the significant develop­
ments oif distribution and to ascertain the aims and objectives
of distributive education as presented by workers in the field
and government monographs.
SIGNIFICANT DEVELOPMENTS OF DISTRIBUTION
The need for training.
Ira W. Kibby says:
Training for the distributive occupations is begin­
ning to assume a recognized place in public education
along with other semi-professional study. The economic
and social importance of the American system of dis­
tribution of goods and services requires more extensive,
adequate and technical training of those engaged in its
various occupations.35
The large number already engaged in distributive
occupations, the number of individuals who enter the distri­
butive field each year, the great turnover of distributive
workers, the large number of failures among small retailers,
Ira W. Kibby, "Distributive Education of Tomorrow,"
News Bulletin. December, 1938, p. 4.
28
the unsatisfactory service rendered to consumers, and the
personal and social costs of inefficiency in the distributive
occupations make apparent the great need of training for dis­
tributive workers.
Large numbers engaged in trades.
It has been estim­
ated that 12j per cent of the working population of the
United States is engaged in wholesale and retail trade or in
other miscellaneous distributive occupations— or one of every
eight gainfully employed workers is engaged in a distributive
occupation.
It has been indicated that there are 5,437,212 people
engaged in retail occupations, while 1,315,281 are en­
gaged in wholesaling, making a total of 6,752,493 indi­
viduals directly engaged in distributive occupations.
These figures do not. include a possibly equal number of
indirect, passive service and executive salespeople, nor
do they include producers who engage in actual sales
activities. It is obvious that if this multitude of
people is to be given an intelligent understanding of
how to render intelligent service to customers, employers,
and society, organized education of some kind should be
provided for them. Furthermore, properly administered
education will help prevent the economic and emotional
waste resulting when those with aptitudes for selling
follow other kinds of work; arid when those with no apti­
tude for selling try to make progression an occupational
. field for which they are not adapted.
36
United States Department of the Interior, Office
of Education, Cooperative Part-Time Retail Training Programs
(Washington, D. C., Vocational Division Bulletin No. 205),
p. 11 •
High rate o£ labor turnover.
It has been estimated
that 150,000 youth eighteen to nineteen years of age find
their first employment in distributive occupations each year.
An additional 130,000 persons between the ages of twenty and
twenty-four enter the distributive field each year, many of
them from other occupations.
Relatively few of those enter­
ing the distributive occupations have had any effective
vocationalktraining for their employment.
Largely because
of the lack of training on the part of employees, the rate
of labor turnover in retail stores is extremely high,
probably twenty-five per cent or more annually.
Much of the
labor turnover and many of the business failures can be
traced directly to incompetency of personnel, due to a lack
of adequate training.
There is no doubt that adequate and
appropriate training for owners, managers, executives, and
store workers would result in more economical and efficient
merchandising methods, a reduction in labor turnover, and a
consequent reduction in the costs of operation.
Business service occupations. Vast numbers of indi­
viduals, in addition to those who are directly engaged in
retail and wholesale selling occupations, are engaged in
business service occupations.
37 Ibid.. p. 9
These services today are of
50
a wide variety and are bought and sold as freely as com­
modities or goods.
Business services are offered by insur­
ance agencies, advertising agencies, banks, brokers, hotels,
restaurants, theaters, public utilities— -telephone,. tele­
graph, railroad, express, power, heat and light companies—
and by associations of businessmen such.as chambers of com­
merce or merchants* associations.
These business organiza­
tions and many others have employees who negotiate with
possible customers, subscribers, or members about buying or
using services sold by their employers.
These people are
recognized as salespeople in the same degree as those
workers who sell cigars, dry goods, or other commodities.^8
FUNDAMENTAL OBJECTIVES OF DISTRIBUTIVE EDUCATION
Better service. To help distributive workers give
better service and thereby promote the general welfare of
both producers and consumers is the objective that underlies
the broad social and economic justification for public
school instruction of workers in distributive occupations.
Efficiency. The costs of distribution are approxi­
mately one half of what the consumer pays for his goods.
More efficient distribution, through better trained managers
28 Ibid.. pp. 10-11
31
and workers should contribute to the welfare of manufacturers
as well as that of distributive workers and consumers.
Vocational education for salespeople should be con­
ducted to help this group learn how to give better service
to consumers.
There are closely related kinds of satisfac­
tions which purchasers want:
(1) satisfaction with the goods
they purchase, and (2) satisfaction with the conduct of the
salesperson.
Both of these are so important that they should
be regarded as major objectives in all courses for sales­
people and consumer-contact employees.
Knox?ledge of goods. A purchaser usually has to rely
upon the salesman for information about the goods; conse­
quently, a salesman should be an expert on the goods he sells.
This involved two distinct areas of knowledge:
(1) knowledge
of the service qualities of an article, and (2) knowledge of
the satisfactions purchasers expect to derive from the use
of that article.
Courses intended to help salespeople to
become experts must be organized to give consideration to
both of these kinds of knowledge, especially to the inter­
relations involved in selling a specific article to a
specific buyer.
Knowledge of standards for business behavior.
Closely
related to knowledge of a purchaserTs standards for satis­
factory goods is a knowledge of a purchaser*s standards for
32
business behavior.
Studies have shown that more purchasers
are dissatisfied with the way salespeople treat them than
with the goods purchased.
Hence, all vocational education
programs for salespeople should give major attention to
helping salespeople understand how to behave in ways which
are socially pleasing to customers.
BfCLfilflat. management and operating practices.
Finally, better service by distributors calls for the effi­
cient operation of distributive units through the use of
the best known management practices.
Wider use of the most
efficient operating practices should result in a reduction
in the total cost of distribution.
Good management, with
all that it involves will reduce losses and increase profits,
and thus bring benefits to the distributor, the consumer, and
the producer.39
SUMMARY OF OBJECTIVES OF DISTRIBUTIVE EDUCATION
An authority of distributive education from the
Office of Education, Washington, D. C., has set forth these
objectives:
1.
To help workers in distributive occupations to
give better service.
59 Ibid.. pp. 12-13
33
2. To help workers to conduct their working activi­
ties for their best personal interests, as well as for
the best interest of their community and the nation.
3. To encourage workers to develop a distributive
system that will render the maximum of economic service
to both producers and consumers.
4. To help develop among workers in distributive
occupations an understanding of the socially desirable
services that distributive workers should render in
furthering the general welfare of our citizens.
5. To help workers in distributive occupations
develop the abilities necessary for successful employ­
ment in the highest positions they can attain; that is,
to improve their economic status.
6. To help prepare relatively inexperienced youths
for efficient employment in distributive occupations.
7 s To direct the growth of the personal abilities
necessary for satisfactory personal, social, economic,
and occupational adjustments in a rapidly changing world.
8. To stimulate the growth of pride in knowledge and
accomplishment in the distributive occupations so that
these oggupations may tend to become semi-professionalized.
An official bulletin that is intended to be a guide
in the field has presented the objectives in these state­
ment s:
1.
To train for high standards in the distribution
of goods and services by improving merchandising and
selling practices, in terms of-a.
b.
c.
Benefits to the buying public,
Opportunities for the employee, and
Sound, profitable operations for employers.
Dr. Kenneth B. Haas, "Summary of Objectives of Dis­
tributive Education,tf Hews Bulletin. December, 1938, p. 34.
(Reprinted from the Business Education World. December, 1938,
P. 280.)
34
2. To develop, among employers, employees, and con­
sumers, a wider appreciation of the value of trained
personnel*
3. To train for a wider appreciation and understand­
ing of the basic processes of distribution in our
national economy.
4. To develop a well-rounded program which recognizes
the comparable value of—
a. Extension training to increase the efficiency
of those now employed*
b. Cooperative part-time training to provide for
replacement needs as required annually for the distri­
butive occupations.
5. To train for increased efficiency in distribution
with particular reference to the merchandising and
management problems of the small merchant.
6. To train for a better understanding of the mutual
problems of employer and employee through a study of
personnel and management problems.
7. To develop a closer tie between the school and
the business community.
8. To deserve the confidence of business in accepting
distributive education as an integral part of the business
community.41
T^hile distributive education is not to be considered
a cure-all for all social and economic ills, the Federal
Government believes that an adequate program in vocational
^ United States Department of the Interior, Office
of Education, Report of Committee on Organization and
Development. First National Training Conference for Dis­
tributive Education called by the United States Office of
Education, William Hood Dunwoody Industrial Institute,
Minneapolis, Minnesota, August 14-25, 1959, p. 4.
35
training for workers in distributive occupations should
result in significant benefits to everyone.
CHAPTER IV
DATA ON PRESENT STATUS OF GEORGE-DEEN ACT IN CALIFORNIA
This study was based on attendance at the Seventh
Annual California Conference on Business Education held at
the Biltmore Hotel in Los Angeles on March 18-19, 1940, and
by interviews with Mr. Willis
Kenealy,
Regional Supervisor
of Distributive Occupations and Mr. George Juett Jr., Pasa­
dena Coordinator of Distributive Education.
To ascertain
the extent of the use of the George-Been Act in California,
1939-1940 figures were obtained from the State Department of
Education, Bureau of Business Education, Sacramento, Califor­
nia.
It is the purpose of this chapter to analyze these
figures.
Number of .students, hours« and meetings in the various
subjects. The study of the relationship between the number
of students, hours, and meetings showed the greatest number
of students studied merchandising (il) and next, personnel
(VI).
The numbers of students enrolled in other subjects
was insignificant.
There were over 10,000 students studying
merchandising (II) and 3,000 -studying personnel (VI), with
less than 1,000 in other subjects.
The numbers of hours de­
voted to the various subjects followed the same trend, being
almost Identically the same.
The numbers of meetings showed
the same over-emphasis placed on merchandising (II) as com-
37
pared to personnel (VI), and ten times as much as compared
to all the other subjects.
These figures are presented in
Figure 1, page 38.
Number of students, enrolled by subject and county.
The same over-emphasis is evident in the merchandising field.
There was throughout the whole state, only one county, Los
Angeles (9), that had students enrolled in all the subjects
offered under the Act.
There were 4,£84 students enrolled
in all subjects in Los Angeles County (9), and of these,
2,064 were enrolled in merchandising (II).
It was noted
that approximately the same number of students enrolled in
seven of the eight subjects under the Act in San Diego County
(19) and San Francisco County (20).
There were 1,421 stu­
dents enrolled in all subjects in San Diego County (10), 925
of these being in merchandising (II).
In San Francisco
County (20) there were 1,484 students enrolled in all sub­
jects.
The distribution as to subjects were more even—
421 enrolled in merchandising (II) almost as many, 364, in
transportation (Til), 300 studying control (IV), and .200 in
personnel studies (VI).
All of the counties presented
courses under the general classification of merchandising
(II), there being 10,624 students enrolled in this classifi­
cation.
It is also significant that in those counties where
only one subject was offered, merchandising (II) was offered;
Distribution of
number of students,
hour s, and meet ing s
38
10,000
10,000
9.500
9, 500
.9,000
9.000
8.500
8.500
8,000
8.000
7.500
7.500
7.000
7.000
6.500
6.500
6.000
6.000
5.500
5.500
5.000
5.000
• 4,500
4.500
4.000
4.000
5.500
3.500
3.000
3.000
2.500
2.500
2.000
2.000
1.500
1.500
1,000
1,000
500
f
I
500
\._
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
FIGURE 1
NUMBER OF STUDENTS, HOURS, AND MEETINGS
IN THE VARIOUS SUBJECTS
THE SOLID LINE represents number of students
THE DOTTED LINE represents number of hours
THE DOT-DASH LINE represents number of meetings
39
and eighteen of the counties offered only this one subject.
Fourteen of the thirty-three counties offered courses in
personnel (VI).
Eleven of the thirty-three counties offered
courses in public relations (III).
There were 16,897 students
enrolled in the eight classifications of subjects in the
thirty-three counties utilizing the Act.
These data are
presented in Table 1, pages 40-41.
Number of courses arranged according to businesses
served. Twenty-seven of the thirty-three counties presented
courses for diversified distributive businesses, wholesale
and retail (11), with a total of 108 courses for this one
kind of business.
All but six of the counties presented
classes for the diversified distributive businesses (11).
In those ten counties where only one course was held, all
but one offered the course for the diversified distributive
businesses (11).
In Los Angeles County (9) there were
courses offered for seventeen businesses with 100 classes,
while Santa Barbara County (23) offered twenty-eight courses
to serve thirteen businesses.
Next in number of courses -
offered were classes for department stores, with 104 courses
offered in ten counties.
More than half of the courses
offered were presented to serve the department stores and
diversified distributive businesses.
Seven of the busi­
nesses had only one course to serve them.
There were 380
TABLE I
NUMBER OF STUDENTS ENROLLED BY SUBJECT AND COUNTY
Subject 1
I
II
2
3
4
5
6
7
C o u n t i e s
8
9
10 11
12
13
14
15
16
295
407 222 123 122 334 830 137 213 2,064 224 104
91 258
88 220 311
iii
87
482
IV
51
223
57
V
22
591
30
VI
40
536
VII
30
VIII
63
53
8
Totals 607 222 123 122 334 830 137 213 4,284 232 104
17
17
18
60
I
84 374
II
12 III
187
21
30
IV
V
48 411
212
VI
VII
34
91 328
VIII
88 542 777’ 84 688
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: of the 16,897 students enrolled
in 33 counties, 10,624 are in the merchandising field (II); 2064 in merchandising in
Los Angeles County (9); a total of 1,484 in San Francisco County (20)•
TABLE I (continued)
NUMBER OF STUDENTS ENROLLED BY SUBJECT AND COUNTY
C o u n t i e s
Subject
I
II
III
IV
19
20
21
22
23
925 421 524
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34 123
229
45
84
19
VI
152 215
24 177
VII
235 364
63
15
18
29
I
10,624
•II
1,311
.III
726
IV
43
834
Y
69
2,242
VI
692
VII
97
VIII
57
70
60
22
68 265
Totals
371
72 340 269 277 193 142 308 106 585 129
13
VIII
25
16
14 277 '
V
24
-
Totals 1.,421 1,484: 524 96 841 355 579 193 142 337 106 585 301
57
70
16,897
H
42
courses offered serving thirty-one businesses in thirtythree counties.
These data are presented in Table II, pages
43-44.
Of the fifty-eight counties in California, thirtythree offered courses under the George-Deen Act and twentyfive did not.
course.
100.
Of these thirty-three, ten offered only one
The greatest number offered by any one county was
The average number of courses offered was twelve.
These data are presented in the Appendix, page 82.
Relationship between levels of personnel. subjects,
and meetings.
There were 4,379 meetings of classes in the
eight fields of subjects that served the ten levels of per­
sonnel.
Most of these meetings were for salespeople (7)
for whom 3,704 class meetings were held.
Approximately
eighty-five per cent of the class meetings that were held
under the George-Deen Act were for salespeople classified
as such.
The managers and operators (l) had less than five
per cent of the classes organized for their benefit.
The
other levels of personnel received little attention, and
there were no courses offered for managing agents (2).
The merchandising field (II) had 2,508 class meetings
which was approximately sixty per cent of the class meetings
held.
The subjects pertaining to personnel (Vi) had 835 or
about twenty per cent of the class meetings.
Manufacturing
TABLE II
NUMBER OF COURSES ARRANGED ACCORDING TO BUSINESSES SERVED
C o u
Businesses
. _
-.- - ____ 1 - 2 .3 _4
1. Advertising
2. Apartment House
3. Automotive (garage & repairs)
1
4. Bakery
5. Banking
6. Beauticians
7. Clothing (men and ?7omen)
8. Dairy
9. Dental & Medical Receptionists
9
10. Department Store
2 2 1 3
3
11. Div. Dist. Bus. (Wholesale & Retail)
12. Drug Store
13. Furniture & Home Furnishings
14. General Contractors— Bldg.
15. Grocery & Meats
1
16. Hardware & Lumber
17. Hotels & Restaurants
18. Ice Companies
19. Insurance
20. Jewelers
21. Laundry & Dry Cleaners
22. Newspaper
23. Paint
1
24. Petroleum
25. Photography Supply
26. Poultry
27. Public Utilities— gas, electric
28. Real Estate
1
29. Shoe Stores
30. Specialty & Variety Stores
31. Wholesale Sunnly Stores
13 2 1 3 5
Totals
n t i e s
6 .7 .3,._.,9 .IP.
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
6
1
1
2
j1
1
28
33
4
1
2
1
2
1
5
1
1
1
2
2
2
-2
8
1
1
8
,
1
1
4
1
1 100
10
2
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: of the 380 classes offered,
Los Angeles County (9) presented 100; 108 meetings were held for the Diversified
Distributive businesses (ll).
1
TABLE II (continued)
NUMBER OF COURSES ARRANGED ACCORDING TO BUSINESSES SERVED
_______________________ C o u n t i e s ______ ;
___________________
Businesses 15 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 50 51 52 55
1
2
1
4
5
5
1
5
18
7
4
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
10
11
1
1
2
4 17
3
12
13
14
15
16
17
2
3
1
6
1 6 29
3 7
7
1
1
7
3
6
1
1
10
2
1 2 5
1
2
9
2
4
1
1
1
105
108
2
5
2
31
4
6
1
1
1
4
5
4
4 6 1 1
2
1
2
1
4
1
1
5
1
2
1
1
18
19
20
1
1
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
51
Totals
1
1
1
6
1
1
2
1
2
2
1
1
18
2
1
2
1
1
4
1 20 30
13
2
5
Totals
__2
1 10 32 36 12
3 28 11 18
1
4
7
1
4
8
1
1
380
45
(I) and buying (VIII) had the fewest class meetings.
Class
meetings were held for apprentices and learners (3), salesmanagers (6), and miscellaneous personnel (10) only when
they pertained to merchandising (II).
Class meetings were
held for salesmen in all subjects exeept buying.
This classi­
fication of levels of personnel is found in the Appendix,
pages 73-74.
These data are presented in Table III, page
46.
Relationship between levels of personnel, subjects.
and hours. The State of California offered a total of 8,240
hours of instruction under the George-Been Act in 1939-40.
Almost ninety per cent of the hours of instruction (7,061)
was devoted to the improvement of salespeople- (7).
Managers
and operators (1) of businesses received 430 hours of in­
struction.
Store service workers (8) and deliverymen (9)
received about the same number of hours instruction, approx­
imately 200 hours.
instruction.
Managing agents (2) received no hours of
Merchandising subjects (II) occupied 4,888
hours, or about sixty per cent of all the time devoted to
classes under the George-Deen Act.
In the following order—
personnel subjects (VI), public relations (ill), transporta­
tion (VII), control (IV), maintenance (V), manufacturing
(I), and buying (VIII) devoted time to instruction in the
various levels of personnel (VI).
in Table IV, page 47.
These data are presented
46
TABLE III
LEVELS OF PERSONNEL, SUBJECTS, AND MEETINGS
S u b J- e c t s
IV
III
v-- VI
Levels of
personnel I
II
10
* 120
45
10
39
13
14
2,200
6
91
15
333
2,508
347
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Totals
55
14
32
VII
33
81
22
666
163 135
835
Totals
-
121
15
98
55
10
VIII
12
281
43
281
55
209
10
160
40
14
3,704
126
101
15
4,379
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: of the
4,379 class meetings held, 3,704 meetings were for sales­
people (7). and 2,508 meetings served the field of merchan­
dising (il)• There were 2,200 meetings for salespeople (7)
in the merchandising field (II).
47
TABLE IV
LEVELS OF PERSONNEL, SUBJECTS, AND HOURS
Levels of
personnel I
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Totals
II
III
20
244
28
90
15
65
20
18
4,317
12
167
30
592
4,888
620
110
S u b j e c t s
IV
V
VI VII
72
VIII
66
430
154
15
189
93
18
176
44
1,135
300
292
1,370
Totals
17
562
81
562
98
15
219
52
18
7,061
230
185
30
8,240
NOTE: This table should be read as> follows: 4,317
hours of instruction in merchandising (il), were given to
salespeople (7); 230 hours in merchandising (il), control
(IV), personnel (V}, and buying (VIII) were given to store
service workers (8); 620 hours in public relations (III)
were given to managers and operators (l), and salespeople
(7). The State of California offered a total of 8,240 hours
of instruction under the George-Deen Act in 1939-40.
48
Part-time classes.
There were classes termed wpart-
time11 given in Alameda and Los Angeles Counties for depart­
ment stores and electrical salesmen.
There were seven
courses offered in which 255 students were enrolled.
Cooperative classes. There were five counties:
Los
Angeles, Santa Barbara, San Biego, San Francisco, and Stanilaus that had cooperative part-time distributive occupational
schools and classes reimbursed from Federal funds.under the
George-Been Act in 1959-40.
These courses supplemented the
fifteen hours of weekly employment required of the students.
There were 198 enrolled in these various courses.
Courses of study.
l,The building of adequate courses
and programs of instruction is one of the acute and impor­
tant problems of distributive education. *f42
All of the courses of study reviewed by the investi­
gator involved a functional approach.
A representative
sample course of study is presented in the Appendix* pages
75-81.
V'v
:.
The flexibility of the courses made the outlines more,
useful as reminders of what might be covered rather than
^ United States Department of the Interior, Office
of Education, Cooperative Part-Time Betail Training Programs
(Washington, D. C.: Vocational Division Bulletin Ho. 205),
iu 40.
definite programs to be followed*
In each case, the needs
of the classes were determined and the appropriate plans of
instruction and discussion planned accordingly so that there
was much evidence of a wide variation of courses, subject
content, and course sequence.
The instructors must keep up-
to-date with the information in magazines, trade journals,
newspaper articles, local retail store projects, store
changes as to departments and systems, displays, and per­
sonnel matters*
Summary *
There were over 16,000 students enrolled
under the George-Deen In California during 1959-40.
They
were classified according to the kinds of subjects offered
and the levels of personnel.
It was noted that the counties
in general presented merchandising.
Of the fifty-eight
counties in California, thirty-three offered courses tinder
the George-Peen Act.
There was a great concentration of
courses in Los Angeles, San Francisco, and San Diego
Counties*
The study of the relationship between the number
of students, hours, and meetings showed the largest number
of students studied merchandising.
The study of the re­
lationship between the number of students enrolled by sub­
ject and county showed Los Angeles County with half of its
students enrolled in merchandising.
In the study of the
number of courses arranged according to businesses served,
50
it was found that almost all of the counties presented
courses for diversified distributive businesses and depart­
ment stores.
In the study of the relationship between the
levels of personnel, subjects, and meetings, it was found
that most of the meetings were for salespeople in the field
of merchandising.
In the study of the relationship between
the levels of personnel, subjects, and hours, it was found
that almost all of the hours of instruction were devoted to
the improvement of salespeople in the field of merchandising.
On the whole, then, most of the courses were offered for
salespeople in the field of merchandising and the other
subjects and levels of personnel were represented by a few
courses with short periods of time devoted to them.
CHAPTER V
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
Since education in the field of distributive occupa­
tions was a comparatively new one, the preceding chapters
have emphasized the need, the desirability, and,.the objec­
tives of education in the distributive field. ..Furthermore,
it was the purpose of this study to investigate the organi­
zation and administration of education for the distributive
occupations under the George-Deen Act and to trace the ex­
tent of the use of the Act in the public schools of ,Califor­
nia.
It was found that more and more materials on distri­
butive occupations have been made available through the
publication of courses of study, lists of books and pamphlets,
and reports of conferences held by department .heads, buyers,
and others.
These have been published by the Federal Govern­
ment, by individual businesses, and by the schools presenting
courses under the George-Deen Act.
These were all found
helpful in this investigation*
Educators have been getting the business interests of
the communities to accept the distributive program as a part
of the community’s business life.
Aided by service clubs,
chambers of commerce, and newspaper publicity, there has
been a growing demand for classes.
The official house organ, Mews Bulletin, revealed
that California had formed a distributive occupations club
to stimulate professional improvement among club members and
others in the distributive field.
A study of the practices followed in the administra­
tion of the Act indicated that the nomenclature and the con­
tent of the courses varied with every community and class.
The organization and administration of education for
the distributive occupations under the George-Been Act are
controlled by the Business Education Service (a Division of
Vocational Education organized in the United States Office
of Education) agents dealing with the recognized agents of
the state board for vocational education.
The George-Deen Act was found to help those employed
in distributive occupations by specifically providing for
instruction in federally aided classes.
It was found that
the largest number of students, the greatest number of hours,
and the greatest number of class meetings all concerned
merchandising.
55
CONCLUSIONS
The following conclusions were drawn from the investi­
gation:
Services (classes set up under the provisions of the
George-Deen Act) to local schools and organizations may be
given at the request of official representatives of the
state board for vocational education.
In 1959-40, the following personnel, managers and
operators, managing agents, apprentices, department heads,
purchasing agents and general buyers, salesmanagers, sales­
people, store service workers, deliverymen, and miscellaneous
workers took advantage of the modern methods offered in
courses classified under the subjects; manufacturing, mer­
chandising, public relations, control, maintenance, person­
nel, transportation, and buying.
The classes offered In
merchandising for salespeople had the largest enrollments.
There is need to clarify the George-Deen program to
businessmen throughout California so that many more people
may take advantage of the Act.
Courses of study revealed that no prescribed rigid
patterns had been set up.
There was much flexibility In
the courses of study and they were assigned names only as a
matter of convenience.
It was concluded that each community
set up its own courses to meet its own particular needs.
54
The data assembled in this study have shown that
there has been an increasing awareness of the Act and that
continued growth of activity under the Act is assured.
This
is made apparent as more and more courses are being set up
in the various communities in California.
RECOMMENDATIONS
The recommendations that follow are offered in the
hope that they will be of some value in furthering the pro­
grams under the George-Deen Act.
1.
There should be more uniformity in regard to the
nomenclature used for the courses offered.
2.
There should be a more widespread use of the Act.
3.
There should be a continued growth of classes.
4.
There should be a better understanding of the
possibilities of the George-Deen program by businessmen and
companies.
This could be aided by more publicity through
service clubs, newspapers, and chambers of commerce.
5.
There should be a greater recognition of distri­
butive education as a part of the school curriculum.
In
some schools there is but a single one-semester course in
salesmanship.
6.
There should be a greater recognition of retail­
ing as a profession.
Young people have avoided it and
55
entered the field only when they had nothing else to do.
7.
There should be further studies made of curriculum
organization, course content, and methods of instruction.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
BIBLIOGRAPHY
A*
BOOKS
Borsodi, Ralph, The Distribution Age.
ton and Company, 1929. 321 pp.
This book presents
the transportation
ducts.
New York*
D. Apple­
an analysis of physical distribution—
of raw materials and finished pro­
Castenholz, William B., The Control of Distribution Costs
and Sales. New York: Harper and Brothers Publishers,
1930. 194 pp.
This book presents
an analysis of distribution activi­
ties and problems and costs of distribution of manu­
facturers.
Haas, Kenneth B., Distributive Education. New York:
Gregg Publishing Company, 1941. 264 pp.
The
Here is a book for teachers, directors of distributive
education, merchants, and any others interested in dis­
tributive education. It tells the need for distributive
education and gives aids for teachers and administra­
tors in this field.
Keir, Arlissa, JS& You Want to Open a Shop. New York:
McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1939. 216 pp.
Detailed and authentic facts concerning the running of
various kinds of shops are presented in this book.
Nystrom, Paul H., Retail Store Operation.
Ronald Press Company, 1937. 702 pp.
New York:
The
This book describes and discusses ma^or lines of retail
store work including merchandising, advertising and dis­
play, sales promotion, personnel work, building manage­
ment, selling service, retail accounting, credits and
collections. This includes a good bibliography on the
above.
58
Stewart-, Paul, and others, Does Distribution Cost Too Much.
New York: The Twentieth Century Fund Inc., 1959, 402 pp.
This book presents a review of costs involved in current
marketing methods and a program for improvement.
B.
PERIODICAL ARTICLES
TtA Criticism of the George-Deen Vocational Education Act,”
Elementary School Journal. 57:488-90, March, 1937.
Presents a critical discourse of the Act, giving two
respects in which the Act might be subject to serious
criticism.
Arthur, D. M., tfGeorge-Deen Act and its Implications,”
School Life. 22:133-4, January, 1937.
A research specialist explains the Act and tells how
the states might be planning to use the additional funds.
. ”The Vocational Summary,” School Life. December,
1939, 92-93.
This article presents a record of bankruptcies in the
grocery business.
Barringer, C. A., ”The Place of Distributive Education in a
Field of General Education,” The Balance Sheet. Septem­
ber, 1940, 10-13, 37.
Presents the value of salesmanship and the necessity of
giving attention to distribution.
Bawden, W. T., ”Review of Industrial Education for the Bi­
ennium 1936-37,” Industrial Education Magazine. 40:4962, March, 1938.
Presents a good background of Federal aid for vocational
education, starting with 1917.
59
Blackler, William R., ^Distributive Education in our Voca­
tional Program,11 Journal of Business Education. 16:1113, September, 1940.
The writer stresses conference discussions on marketing
and merchandising problems and believes education will
bring improved order to the system of distribution of
products and services.
Blowers, Hugh M;, 11Distributive Education in California,1*
Journal of Business Education. 14:11-12, 22, March, 1939.
Tells about part-time classes to supplement daily work—
cooperative classes as the first opportunity for specific
vocational training— and extension classes for those
working in the field although previously untrained.
Brown, Bishop, ^Recent Developments in Training for Distri. butive Occupations under the George-Deen Act,11 The
Balance Sheet. October, 1939, 52-54, 95.
Here is an address delivered during the Cincinnati con­
vention of the National Retail Dry Goods Association
emphasizing the lack of training of those entering re­
tailing .
Cox, Philip, ^Social Policy and the George-Deen Act,1* Jour­
nal of Business Education. 14:20-21, September, 1938.
States the Act is a definite advance in vocational edu­
cation but believes it needs careful consideration be­
cause the funds might be misused by prejudiced special­
ists.
Dennis, L. H., ^Federal George-Deen Vocational Funds Now
Available,n Industrial Education Magazine. 39:258-9,
November, 1937.
Explains the Act and tells that the signature of the
President marked the end of more than two years of ef­
fort to secure additional Federal funds for vocational
education.
11Distributive Education; Organization and Administration of
the George-Deen Act,11 Commercial Education, 23:51-58,
May, 1938.
Presents the need and objectives for vocational training
for workers in the distributive occupations.
60
"George-Deen Act,”
1936.
World. 17:83, October,
Presents the principal features of the Act. States the
country would expect wise planning and careful adminis­
tration of the appropriated money.
"George-Been Vocational Education Law," School and Society.
44:296, September 5, 1936.
Presents the four principal ways in which the GeorgeDeen and George-Ellzey Acts differ.
Kirk, John G., "Heed of Preparatory Training for Distributive
Trades," Journal of Business Education. April, 1939,
17-18.
:
Presents the Census of Business for 1935 facts and
stresses the need for adequate training in distributive
courses.
Louis, Robert P., "Vitalizing Distributive Education Courses
in the Secondary School," Journal of Business Education.
May, 1939, 10-11.
Shows what could be done to present in real life situa­
tions a subject that would be usable to commercial
graduates after completion of their secondary work.
Massell, A. S., "From Poverty to Riches," Business Education
World. 17:235-9, December, 1936.
Gives the purpose of the George-Deen Act— the forces
behind the Act— and the beneficial results of the Act.
Metz, J. J., editor, "George-Deen Act," Industrial Arts and
Vocational Education. 25:278, September, 1936.
Presents the principal features of the Act. Says en­
actment provides a development of vocational education
beyond that already afforded by the Smith-Hughes Act.
Hichols, F. D., "Vocational Training for the Distributive
Occupations under the George-Deen Act," Journal of .Busi­
ness Education. 13:8-10, October, 1937.
Defines distributive occupations and explains part-time
schools or classes.
61
_______, "Vocational Training for the Distributive Occupa­
tions under the George-Deen Act," Journal of Business
Education» 13:8-10, November, 1937.
Presents sixteen specific recommendations concerning the
Act.
Nystrom, P. H., "George-Deen Act," Occupations. 16:71-78,
October, 1937.
This is an abstract from an address given at the 26th
Annual Convention of the National Dry Goods Association
reprinted from the Michigan Vocational News Bulletin,
April, 1937.
Nystrom, Paul, "Retailing and other Distributive Trades,"
School Life. November, 1939, 45-46.
Presents nine points a retailer must do and be in his
community.
Roosevelt, F. D. "Message on the Congressional Appropriation
for Vocational Education," School and Society. 46:249-51,
August 21, 1937.
States the apparent demand for immediate extension of
vocational education had been stimulated by an active
lobby of vocational teachers, supervisors, and admin­
istrative officers in the field of vocational education.
Sieloff, 0. R., "Recent Developments in Training for Dis­
tributive Occupations under the George-Deen Act," The
Balance Sheet. November, 1939, 105-7, 144.
A summary of the developments discussed at the personnel
group sessions held during the Cincinnati convention of
the National Retail Dry Goods Association and emphasizing
the need and desirability of continuous cooperation be­
tween the state and local school authorities and retailers
individually and collectively.
Sotzin, H. A., "Occupational Training and Employment,"
Industrial Arts and yQpatlQflal Education. 27:219-24,
June, 1938.
Defines occupational training and gives excerpts from
the Talmud indicating vocational philosophy.
62
United States Office of Education under the direction of
J. C. Wright, Development and Trends,” School Life.
December, 1938, 65,68-69, 73-74.
A history of the vocational education movement from the
days of the old apprenticeship system.
Unzicker, Francis 7., ”Adult Distributive Education,” The
Balance gheet, February, 1940, 260, 288.
Defines distributive occupations and tells about the
adult classes in certain Oklahoma cities.
Wright, J. C., ”Vbeational Education in Review,” School Life.
July, 1940, 305-7.
Presents the enrollments for the vocational education
classes reimbursed by the Federal government for the
fiscal year June 30, 1939.
C.
PUBLICATIONS OF LEARNED ORGANIZATIONS
Delta Pi Epsilon, edited by Hanna, J. Marshall and M. Herbert
Freeman, Distributive Education (information for Teachers
and Administrators of Business). Monograph 49, San
Francisco: SouthrWestern Publishing Company. 55 pp.
Answers pertinent questions on education for distribu­
tive occupations by bulletin references or by authori­
ties in the field.
D.
GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS
California State Department of Education, Bureau of Business
Education, A New Program in Vocational Education for
Workers in Distributive Occupations. Sacramentor Septem­
ber 14, 1937. 6 pp.
Gives the availability of the program throughout Calif­
ornia.
_______ , Distributive Occupations, Cost of Distribution.
Sacramento. 3 pp.
Emphasizes the fact that more consumer's money goes for
services involved in distribution than goes for services
in production.
63
Distributive Q_ccup at ional Education Under the
lleoriLe-Heen
in California (September 1, 1938 to
March 1, 1939), Sacramento: 1939. 14 pp.
Presents personnel of the Distributive Occupations staff
of the California Commission for Vocational Education and
includes the programs of education being carried out in
the state.
_______, Ltflt of Publications
Use la Teaching
Distributive Occupations, Sacramento: 1938. 51 pp.
la
Presents a list of magazines, pamphlets, booklets, books,
trade journals, and materials on conference leading.
Federal Security Agency, United States Office of Education,
Aa Outline of a Course in Advertising for Smaller Retail Stores. Washington, D. C.: March, 1940, Miscellan­
eous 2340. 22 pp.
This was published in response to requests for material
for use in classes for distributive workers. It presents
an outline that involves a function approach to the study
of small-store management problems.
Hews Bulletin of the Distributive Education Club of Califor­
nia. published by and for Coordinators and Teachers in
Distributive Occupations, Sacramento: 1938-1941. Vol. I,
No* 1, November, 1938, 19 pp. Vol I, No. 2, December,
1938, 44 pp. Vol. I, No. 3, May, 1939, 41 pp. Vol. Ill,
No. 1, November, 1940, 66 pp. Vol III, No. 3, February,
1941, 53 pp.
This is the official house-organ for those employed under
the George-Deen Act.
The Field of Distributive Occupations. (George-Deen Act 1938),
Standing Committee on Distributive Occupations, National
Council of Business Education* 10 pp.
Here are thirty-four replies received from questionnaires
sent to the states where work was being carried on under
the provisions of the George-Deen Act.
United States Department of the Interior, Office of Education,
Vocational Division, Bibliography■ Washington, D. C.:
June, 1938, Miscellaneous 2089. 77 pp.
This Is a list of books, pamphlets and publications on
marketing, retailing, salesmanship, and merchandising.
64
> Cooperative Part-Time Retail Training Programs,
Washington, D. C.: Vocational Education Bulletin No. 205.
96 pp.
A bulletin which suggests procedures which have proven
to be successful for promoting, initiating, coordinating,
supervising, and teaching the various types of retail
training courses.
> Organization aqd Administration. Distributive Edu­
cation. Washington, D. C., Miscellaneous 2046. 21 pp.
Presents organization and administration for promoting
distributive education— the persons eligible for train­
ing, the kinds of schools or classes, and the nature of
the courses which might be offered under the Act.
, Preliminary Report of Committee on Instructional
Material. First National Training Conference for Dis­
tributive Education called by the United States Office
of Education, William Hood Dunwoody Industrial Insti­
tute, Minneapolis, Minnesota, August 14-25, 1939. 14 pp.
This presents the suggested plans for national uni­
formity in published teaching materials.
, Preliminary Report of Committee on Methods. First
National Training Conference for Distributive Education
called by the United States Office of Education, William
Hood Dunwoody Industrial Institute, Minneapolis, Minnet
sota, August 14-25, 1939. 16 pp.
This lists methods of teaching classes for distributive
education.
. Preliminary Report of the Distributive Education
Conference (June 23-24), Miscellaneous 2124. August,
1938. 42 pp.
Presents history and philosophy of distributive education.
___> Report o£ Committee on Organization M
Peyelp.p.
mert First National Training Conference for Distributive Edu­
cation called by the United States Office of Education,
William Hood Dunwoody Industrial Institute, Minneapolis,
Minnesota, August 14-25, 1939. 24 pp.
Presents a statement of objectives: social and economic
aims of the program of distributive education.
65
> Report of Committee on Teacher-Training. First
National Training Conference for Distributive Education
called by the United States Office of Education, William
Hood Dunwoody Industrial Institute, Minneapolis, Minne­
sota, August 14-25, 1939. 18 pp.
This presents a discussion of the peculiar characteris­
tics of the teacher’s job in the distributive education
program.
Vocational Education. Vocational Education Bulletin No.
1, General series No. 1, revised February 1937. 137 pp.
Presents by question and answer method, the policies for
the administration of vocational education.
, Vocational Education and Changing Conditions. Vo­
cational Education Bulletin No. 174, General series
No. 5, 1934. 112 pp.
Here is a summary of the special difficulties of wage
earners in various occupations due to sweeping economic
and social changes.
E.
UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS
Cutler, Frederick Arthur, ’’The Status of Business Education
in the Junior Colleges of California.” Unpublished
Master’s thesis, The University of Southern California,
Los Angeles, 1935'. 93 pp.
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the
status of business education in respect to the aims, the
enrollment, the commercial curricular offerings and their
placement values.
Davidson, Mildred L., ”Recent Trends in Business Education.”
Unpublished Master’s thesis, The University of Southern
California, Los Angeles, 1936. 133 pp.
The purpose of this study was to study the trends in^
business education under the influence of the economic
transitions during the early 1930’s.
66
Decker, Dorothy Dola, "The Objectives, Content, and Methods
of Retail Merchandising Education in the Seconder ,
Schools of California." Unpublished Master1s thesis,
The University of Southern California, Los Angeles,
1928. 188 pp.
This was a study m*hich concluded that the schools of
California were showing an increased interest in
merchandising education.
Holdridge, Thelma Engstrom, "Business Education in the Pub­
lic Junior Colleges of California." Unpublished Master’s
thesis, The University of Southern California, Los
Angeles, 1938. 219 pp.
The purpose of this study was to aid the State Depart­
ment of Education in continuing or altering its
policies regarding business education in secondary
schools.
Mawe, Vista Milrae, "The Status of Merchandising Education
in the Junior College." Unpublished Master’s thesis,
The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1932.
105 pp.
This study was made to investigate practices of merchan­
dising instruction to ascertain the needs of the possi­
bilities for further development in the junior college.
Rindone, Joseph Jr.,"Business Education in the Public Junior
Colleges of California." Unpublished Master’s thesis,
The University of Southern California, Los Angeles,
1937. 115 pp.
This study was made to investigate the status of busi­
ness education in public junior colleges of California,
in respect to the aims and functions, the enrollment, the
business curricula offerings, and the need of certain
business subjects.
Wounsch, John Carl, "Distributive Education in the Public
Junior Colleges under the George-Deen Act." Unpublished
Master’s thesis, The University of Southern California,
Los Angeles, 1939. 136 pp.
The purpose of this study was* to ascertain the facilities
in junior colleges for training students in distributive
occupations under the George-Deen Act.
67
F.
NEWSPAPERS
Women *s Wear Daily (8 East 13th St., New York City), Octo­
ber 25, 1940.
Kenneth Lawyer, supervisor of distributive education
for Illinois, praises the co-operative courses and
stresses that retail failures were largely due to lack
of modern methods.
APPENDIX
COPY
74th Congress
2d Session
S. 2883
IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
May 4, 1936
Referred to the Committee on Education
AN ACT
To provide for the further development of vocational educa­
tion in the several States and Territories.
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representa­
tives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,
That for the purpose of providing for the further develop­
ment of vocational education in the several States and
Territories there is hereby authorized to be appropriated
for the fiscal year beginning July 1, 1937, and annually
thereafter, the sum of $12,000,000: Provided, That the
several States and Territories shall be required to match
by State or local funds or both 50 per centum of the appro­
priations authorized under the provisions of this section
until June 30, 1942, 60 per centum for the year ending
June 30, 1943, 70 per centum for the year ending June 30,
1944, 80 per centum for the year ending June 30, 1945, 90
per centum for the year ending June 30, 1946, and annually
thereafter 100 per centum of the appropriations authorized
under the provisions of this section. One-third of this sum
each year shall be allotted to the States and Territories in
the proportion that their farm population bears to the total
farm population of the United States and Territories, accord­
ing to the United States census last preceding the end of the
fiscal year in which any such allotment is made, and shall be
used for the salaries and necessary travel expenses of teach­
ers, supervisors, and directors of agricultural subjects in
such States and Territories. One-third of the sum appro­
priated for each fiscal year shall be allotted to the States
and Territories in the proportion that their rural popula­
tion bears to the total rural population of the United States
70
and Territories, according to the United States census last
preceding the end of the fiscal year in which any such allot­
ment is to be made, and shall be used for the salaries and
travel expenses of teachers, supervisors, and directors of
home-economics subjects in such States and Territories.
One-third of the sum appropriated for each fiscal year shall
be allotted to the States and Territories in the proportion
that their nonfarm population bears to the total nonfarm
population of the United States and Territories, according
to the United States census last preceding the end of the
fiscal year in which any such allotment is to be made, and
shall be used for the salaries and necessary travel expenses
of teachers, supervisors, and directors of trade and indus­
trial subjects, including public and other service occupa­
tions, in such States and Territories: Provided further,
That the allotment of funds to any State or Territory for
each of the three purposes enumerated in this section shall
be not less than a minimum of $20,000 for any fiscal year,
50 per centum of which shall be matched by State or local
funds or both, and there is hereby authorized to be appro­
priated for the fiscal year beginning July 1, 1937, and
annually thereafter the sum of $175,000, or so much thereof
as may be needed, which shall be used for the purpose of '
providing the minimum allotments to the States and Terri­
tories provided for in this section.
SEC. 2. In addition to the sum authorized to be
appropriated by section 1 hereof, there is hereby authorized
to be appropriated, and required to be matched in the same
proportions as such sum, the sum of $1,200,000, to be al­
lotted to the States and Territories in the proportion that
their total population bears to the total population of the
United; States and Territories, according to the United States
Census last preceding the end of the fiscal year in which any
such allotment is made, and shall be used for the salaries
and necessary travel expenses of teachers, supervisors, and
directors of, and maintenance of teacher training in, dis­
tributive occupational subjects in such States and Territories:
Provided, however, That the allotment' of funds to any State or
Territory for the purpose of this section shall be not less
than a minimum of $10,000 for any fiscal year after July 1,
1937, and there is hereby authorized to be appropriated for
the fiscal year beginning July 1, 1937, and annually there­
after the sum of $54,000, or so much thereof as may be needed,
which shall be used for the purpose of providing the minimum
allotments to the States and Territories provided for in this
section.
SEC. 3. That for the purpose of cooperating with the
States and Territories in preparing teachers, supervisors,
71
and directors of agricultural, trade and industrial, and
home-economics subjects there is hereby authorized to be
appropriated for the use of the several States and Territor­
ies for the fiscal year beginning July 1, 1957, and annually
thereafter the sum of $1,000,000. Said sum shall be allotted
to the several States and Territories in the proportion
which their population bears to the total population of the
United States and Territories, according to the last pre­
ceding United States census: Provided, That the allotment
of funds to any State or Territory shall be not less than a
minimum of $10,000 for any fiscal year. And there is hereby
authorized to be appropriated for the fiscal year beginning
after the enactment of the Act and annually thereafter the
sum of $54,000, or so much thereof as may be needed, which
shall be used for the purpose of providing the minimum al­
lotments to the States and Territories provided for in this
section.
SEC. 4. For the purpose of carrying out the pro­
visions of this Act there is hereby authorized to be appro­
priated to the Office of Education, Department of the Inter­
ior, for vocational education, for the fiscal year beginning
July 1, 1957.and annually thereafter the sum of $550,000, to
be expended for the same purposes and in the same manner as
provided in section 7 of the Act approved February 25, 1917,
as amended October 6, 1917.
SEC. 5. The Secretary of the Treasury, through the
Division of Disbursement of the Treasury Department, shall,
upon the certification of the United States Commissioner of
Education, pay, in equal semiannual payments, on the 1st day
of July and January of each year, to the custodian for vo-^
national education of each State and Territory designated in
the Act approved February 25, 1917, the moneys to which the
State or Territory is entitled under the provisions of this
Act.
SEC. 6. The appropriations made by this Act shall be
in addition to, and shall be subject to the same conditions
and limitations as, the appropriations made by the Act en­
titled nAn Act to provide for the promotion of vocational
education; to provide cooperation with the States in the
promotion of such education in agriculture and in the trades
and industries; to provide cooperation with the States in
the preparation of teachers of vocational subjects; and to
appropriate money and regulate its expenditures,T1 approved
February 23, 1917, except that the appropriations made by
this Act for home economics shall be subject to the condi­
tions and limitations applicable to the appropriation for
72
\
agricultural purposes under such Act of February 25, 1917,
with the exception of that part of section 10 thereof which
requires directed or supervised practice for at least six
months per year; that such moneys as are provided by this
Act for trade and industrial subjects, including public and
other service occupations, may be expended for part-time
classes operated for less than one hundred and forty-four
hours per year; that the provisions of section 11 of the Act
of February 23, 1917, requiring at least one-third of the
sum appropriated to any State to be expended for part-time
schools or classes shall be held to include any part-time
day-school classes for workers fourteen years of age and
over, and evening-school classes for workers sixteen years
of age and over; except that the appropriations made by .this
Act for distributive occupational subjects shall be limited
to part-time and evening schools as provided in said Act of
February 23, 1917, for trade, home economics, and industrial
subjects and as qualified by the provisions of this section;
and that the appropriations available under section 4 of this
Act shall be available for expenses of attendance at meeting
of educational associations and other organizations and for
expenses of conferees called to meet in the District of
Columbia or elsewhere, which, in the opinion of the Com­
missioner, are necessary for the efficient discharge of the
provisions of this Act.
SEC. 7. The appropriations authorized by this Act
shall be in lieu thereof and not in addition to the appro­
priations authorized in sections 1 and 2 of Public Law
Numbered 245, Seventy-third Congress, approved May 21, 1934.
SEC. 8. As used in this Act the term trStates and
Territories" means the several States, the Territories of
Alaska and Hawaii, the Island of Puerto Rico, and the Dis­
trict of Columbia.
Passed the Senate April 24 (calendar day, April 28),
1956 •
Attest:
EDWIN A. HALSEY,
Secretary
73
LEVELS OF PERSONNEL
DISTRIBUTIVE OCCUPATIONS
I*
Managers and operators of all kinds of stores, shops,
and other businesses:
a. Retail stores of every kind: grocery, meat, furni­
ture, apparel, hardware, drug, dry goods, general
merchandise, etc*
b* Wholesale stores
c. Jobbing and commission houses
d. Cooperative organizations: retail, wholesale, agri­
cultural
e* Commercial service businesses
f. Personal services businesses: laundries, dry
cleaners, garages, beauty parlors, etc.
g. Independent artisan shops: repair, handicraft,
printing, milliners, jewelers, etc.
h. Contractors dealing with consumers: electrical,
plumbing, building, etc.
i. Small factories selling direct to consumers
j. Hotel, restaurant, recreation and amusement businesses
2.
Managing agents: branch managers and other local repre­
sentatives of all kinds.
3.
Apprentices and learners in training for managerial
positions in stores.
4.
Department heads, supervisors, and foremen in stores:
a. Commodity departments: delivery, restaurant, etc.
5. Purchasing agents and general buyers of all kinds for:
a. Retail and wholesale stores
b. Cooperative organizations
c. Industrial, commercial, and personal service organi­
zations of all kinds
d. Agricultural products
6. Salesmanagers in all kinds of business
7. Salespeople:
sales agents, canvassers, solicitors,
demonstrators in:
a. Retail stores of all kinds
b. Wholesale, commission, jobbing organizations
c. Industrial organizations: "industrial salesmen,
specialty salesmen, etc.
74
d.
e.
f.
g.
h•
Commercial services: canvassers, solicitors, real­
tors, life under-writers, etc*
Transportation, communication, and other public
service organizations
Personal service businesses: laundries, cleaners,
garages, etc.
Hotel restaurant, amusement, and recreation busi­
nesses
Farmer s 1 market s
8.
Store service workers in contact with customers:
cashiers, adjusters, collectors, etc.
9.
Deliverymen of all kinds:
a. Delivery salesmen: milk, ice, laundry, etc.
b. Retail and wholesale deliverymen
10.
Miscellaneous: auctioneers, newspaper vendors, waiters,
stewards, and organization housekeepers
United States Department of the Interior, Office of
Education, Organization and Administration. Distributive
Education (Washington, D. C., Miscellaneous 2046), p. 20
AN OUTLINE OF A COURSE IN ADVERTISING
FOR SMALLER RETAIL STORES
General considerations
1.
Why is advertising necessary?
a.
b*
c.
d*
e.
f.
2*
What does the public need?
What have we to tell them about?
How can we describe it best?
Who particularly wants to learn of it?
How can we reach these people?
What competition have we?
What shall v we advertise?
a. Merchandise factors
Quality of certain goods
^2) Service goods will give
^3) Fashion timeliness
Ownership advantages
,5; Exceptional value
b. The storeys reputation
’1} Quality of all goods
Fashion leadership
^3) Store Integrity
^4) Low prices
5) Personnel relationships
'6) Civic interest
c. Store services
'1} Delivery
2) Credit plan
Z) Conveniences
'4; Entertainment
d. Miscellaneous
3.
How shall we advertise?
a.
Newspapers
Which medium?
76
(1) Types of newspapers
(a) Daily
(b) Weekly
(2) Using the newspaper
(a) Use of space; alternatives;
Frequent small space
Occasional large space
(b) Competitive situation
CompetitorTs media
Competitors program
b.
Direct Mail
(1) Types of direct mail
(a}. Post cards
ib) Circulars,
(c) Letters
(2) Using direct mail
(a) Securing lists
By occupations, etc.
By recreational habits
By buying abilities
By definite needs
From salespeople
. By surveys of area
From news items
(b) Avoiding hazards
Inaccuracy of name and other informa­
tion
Changing circumstances
Moving away
Death
Marriage
Changes in finan- ,
cial status
c . fiadio
(l) Types of programs
Brief announcements
Regular programs
(2) Using the radio
77
£a) Geographical considerations
(b) Competitive situation
d.
Outdoor boards
£l} Billboards
I2) Signs on buildings
(3) Truck signs
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
Handbills
Contests
Souvenirs
Samples
Moving-picture slides, trailers
Charity and goodwill
£l) Church and school publications
(2) Gifts and prizes
k.
1.
m*
n.
o#
4.
Package and letter inserts, stuffers
Catalogs
Store stationery
Salesmans cards
Wrapping materials
Making a market survey
a.
Geographical area to be served— sources of facts:
£1} Sales records
(2) Study of map, travel facilities
b.
Competition present
£l) Customer comments
(2 ) House-to-house canvass
(3) Newspapers, directories
c.
Price lines desired in area
£l} Sales records
(2 ) Newspaper advertising
d.
Quality desired in area
£l) Sales records
(2) Newspaper advertising
(3) Customer comments
e.
Fashion preferences of area
(1) Sales records
fen Customer comments
(3) Advertising
(4) Magazines, etc*
f.
Buying power of area
(1)
(2 )
(3)
(4)
g.
House-to-house canvass
Local banks
Advertising
Customer comment s
Cash or credit preference
(1) Sales records
(2) Competitive situation
(3) Local banks
h.
Phone or shopping preference
fl) Sales records
(2) House-to-house- canvass
(3; Customer comments
Measur(ingrsticks of media
1.
Accuracy in selection
a*
b.
c*
2.
Results
a.
b.
c.
d.
3.
Correct appeal
Reaching right persons
Right time
Direct sales made
Effect on store prestige
Cumulative value
He?/ markets reached
Costs
a.
b.
c.
d.
Total cost of advertisement
Cost per person reached
Cost per sale made
Store budget relationship
4*
Coordination with other promotion facilities
a. Window display
b. Interior display
c. Salespeople
d . Other media
5*
Harmony with the store’s reputation
a.
b.
c.
6.
The competitive situation, as to:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
7.
Appearance
Tone
Previous appeals
Quality of goods
Selection_available
Price
Prestige
Media used by competitor
Relationship to store’s long-range promotion program
Principles of advertising and selling
1.
The Famous Four Steps
a.
b*
c.
d.
2
. Some
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g*
h.-
3.
Attraction
Interest
Desire
Action
buying motives
Pride
Vanity
Gain
Economy
Curiosity
Imitation
Comfort
Convenience
Various further effective appeals
a. Sanitary features
b . Durability
e . Family ties
d. Personal prestige
e. Efficiency, safety
4*
Desirable message factors
a . Truthfulnes s
b . Informat ivenes s
c. Clarity of purpose
d. Enthusiasm
e. Simplicity
f • Emotional appeal
g. Permanence of impression
h. Novelty
i. Individuality
j. Good humor
5.
Typographical factors— the layout
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
J.
k.
1.
m*
n*
Shape of advertisement
Kind of type
1
Size of type
Heading or headline
Balance
White space
Border
Contrasts
Price display
Use of boxes
Illustrations
Rules and ornaments
Signature
PrinterTs instructions
Valuable techniques
1.
Use of illustrations:
a*
b«
c.
d.
e.
2.
requirements
Attraction
Stimulation
Harmony with copy
Harmony with typography
Harmony with publication
Varieties of illustrations
a.
Halftones
(1) Screen
(2) Restrictions as to paper used
81
b.
Line drawings— sources
(1) Drawn by own artist
(2) Commercial mat services
(s) Manufacturer’s services
c.
Line drawings— zinc etchings
fl) Ben Day process, etc.
(2) Two-color plates, etc.
d.
e.
3.
Electrotypes
Mats
Type variations and terms
a.
b.
c.
d.
Families, faces, and fonts
Point measurement
Clarity
Expressiveness, appropriatness
1
E.
Using ’’Dealer Helps.11
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
F.
"
Inserts or stuffers
Newspaper mats
Wrapping paper or bags
Stickers
Banners
Seasonal promotions or events— examples
.
Dollar Day
1
2 . Employee1s Day
3. Fathers’ or Mothers’ Day
National -Holidays— Christmas, etc.
4
5. Children’s Day
6 • Men’s or Women’s Day, etc.
7. ’’Pay day” promotions in manufacturing towns
.
Federal Security Agency, United States Office of Edu­
cation, An Outlipe of n Course in Advertising for Smaller
Retail Stores (Washington. ■D. C., Miscellaneous 2340),
pp. 7-16.
THE FIFTY-EIGHT COUNTIES OF CALIFORNIA
Utilized the George-Been
1.
2.
o•
4.
5.
6♦
7.
8.
9.
10,
11.
12.
IS.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
Alameda
Butte
Colusa
Contra Costa
Fresno
Imperial
Kern
Kings
Los Angeles
Monterey
Napa
Nevada
Orange
PjLaeer
Riverside
Sacramento
San Benito
San Bernardino
San Diego
San Francisco
San Joaquin
San Mateo
Santa Barbara
Santa Clara
Santa Cruz
Shasta
Sonoma
Stanislaus
Tehama
Tulare
Ventura
Yolo
Yuba
M
not utilize the Act
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
Alpine
Amador
Calaveras
Del Norte
El Dorado
Glenn
Humboldt
Inyo
Lake
Lassen
Madera
Marin
Mariposa
Mendocino
Merced
Modoc
Mono
Plumas
San Luis Obispo
Sierra
Siskiyou
Solano
Sutter
Trinity
Tuolumne
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