STUDY TECHNIQUES OF LOS ANGELES JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL PUPILS A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the School of Education The University of Southern California In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Science in Education hy Enid Evelyn McCoy June 1941 UMI Number: EP54075 All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion. Dissertation:Publishing UMI EP54075 Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author. Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 48106-1346 T h is thesis, w r it t e n u n d e r the d ir e c t io n o f th e ^ '^ fjjjl C h a ir m a n o f the cand ida te’ s G u id a n c e C o m m itte e a n d a p p ro v e d by a l l m em bers o f the C o m m itte e , has been presen ted to a n d accep ted by the F a c u lt y o f the S c h o o l o f E d u c a t io n in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f the re q u ire m e n ts f o r the degree o f M a s t e r o f Science in E d u c a tio n . ......... Guidance C om m ittee D. Welty Lefever C hairm an 1. E. Wagner 0. R. Hull TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I. PAGE THE PROBLEM A HD IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY . . . The problem 1 ..................... Statement of the problem I . . . . . . . . 1 Importance of the s t u d y ......... ... II. 2 ................... 4 .Literature on the subject . . . . . . . . . 4 PROCEDURE Questionnaire . . . . . ................... 4 Form I. Questionnaire on study techniques III. REVIEW OF PERIODICAL L I T E R A T U R E ......... .. . 9 Controversy over value of study instruction 10 Suggestions for courses in rTHow To Study11 . 14 Good study habits . General notes on study IV. 5 ....................... 20 ............... BOOKS AND BOOK REVIEWS . . . . . . ......... 26 29,. Directing Study Activities in Secondary Schools • • • • • . . . . . • • .......... 29 StudentTs Guide To Efficient Study . . . . 31 Studying Efficiently . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Directing Learning . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 How To Study Handbook . . . . . . . . . . 38 How To Study ..................... 40 The Children's Book On How To Use Books And L i b r a r i e s ......................... 41 CHAPTER V. PAGE How To Study Effectively . . . . . . . . . 4£ Learning How To L e a r n ................... 43 Independent Study At Stanford . . . . . . . 44 Best Met Rods Of S t u d y .......... 47 Directing Study Of High School Pupils 49 RESULTS OF IHVESTIGATIOH . . . . ............’ Skill in use of text "books .. . . . . . . Skill in use of a library ......... .. 54 . 66 Skill in note-taking techniques . . . . . 79 Skill in outlining 84 Vocabulary building ............ 89 Instruction given in study techniques . . . vi. 53 conclusions a h d r e c o m m e h d a t i o h s . Conclusions 93 ........ io? ............................ 107 Demands made by s i t u a t i o n .................... 108 More rigid standards in upper grades . . . 109 Individual teacher demands ............... - 110 Comparison with previous class . . . . . . Recommendations Articulation 110 . ............ Ill Ill Specific standards ........ Ill Agreement on d e t a i l s ..................... Ill Instructional techniques ................. Ill B I BLIOGRAPHY....................... 113 LIST OF TABLES TABLE I. II. . Tally on Study Habits Recommended in Periodicals 55 Frequency Distribution of Teacher Responses Regarding' Pupil Skill in the Use of a Library IV. 2£ Frequency Distribution of Teacher Responses Regarding Pupil Skill in the Use of Textbooks III. PAGE 6? Frequency Distribution of Teacher Responses Regarding Pupil Skill in Hote-taking Techniques 80 V. Frequency Distribution of Teacher *Responses Regarding Pupil Skill in Outlining Techniques VI. Frequency Distribution of Teacher Responses Regarding Pupil Skill in Vocabulary Building VII. 85- 90 Frequency Distribution of Teacher Responses Regarding Instruction Given in the use of Textbooks. . VIII. .................... 94 Frequency Distribution of Teacher Responses Regarding Instruction Given in the use of a Library IX. .......... 9? Frequency Distribution of Teacher Responses Regarding Instruction Given in Hote-taking Techniques .............. 100 TAB JjE X. PAGE Frequency Distribution of Teacher Responses Regarding Instruction Given in Outlining T e c h n i q u e s .......... XI* 103 Frequency Distribution of Teacher Responses Regarding Instruction Given in Techniques for "Vocabulary Building • + • • • • • • • 105 CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND- IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY During the past several years there has he on much discussion, in educational circles, as to the most effective ways of learning* The value of study as a way to effective learning has recently received a reaffirmation* The question of what capacity junior high school pupils have for study is frequently raised* I. THE PROBLEM Statement of the problem* It was the purpose of this investigation (1) to summarize the recent (1935-1940) litera ture on study techniques in the secondary schools. further purposes of the study were: The (E) to determine the concensus of Los Angeles city teacher opinion as to the extent certain study techniques, generally approved by authorities, have been acquired by Los Angeles city school pupils by the time they enter junior high school and the gains made in mastering these techniques during the junior high school period; (3) to determine the extent of the instruction given in the sixth to tenth grades of the Los Angeles school system in connection with these particular study techniques; and (4) to mafce recommendations based on the result of this study. £ II. IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY Importance of the Study, Educators, aware of the im possibility of predicting exactly what items of knowledge will be essential in an uncertain future, recognize that a valuable contribution of the school to its pupils is to dedelop in them an ability to learn with the greatest possible economy of time and effort. Whatever their future problems may be, the pupils now in school will need to recognize their problems, find pertinent information, evaluate and organize findings and reach solutions. In brief, they will need to know how to study. Although educators are aware of the importance of an ability to study, schools are a constant target for criticism by those who assert that pupils do not learn as much as they should in the time spent in school. High school and college instructors allege that an inability to study, or the employ ment of study techniques wasteful of time and effort, cause many of•the failures in the upper secondary level. Pupils, too, often charge their scholastic short-comings to a lack of knowledge of how-to-study. Teachers on all levels charge their pupils with an "inability to study", but there is little agreement among teachers as to exactly what is meant by "ability to study" or as to when, where, and how this ability should be acquired. However authorities on study techniques have agreed on some of the effective ways to study, therefore, this investigation into the extent to which some of these effec tive study techniques-have been presented to and acquired by pupils of the aforementioned grades of the Hos Angeles schools has been considered worthwhile. CHAPTER II PROCEDURE The purpose of this investigation was to determine: (I) the study techniques generally recognized as effective by educational authorities; (E) the extent to which the abil ity to use these techniques has been acquired by Los Angeles junior high school pupils; and (3) the grades in which par ticular emphasis was placed on the acquisition of the specif ied techniques. Literature on the subject. Articles listed under the topic of study in the Reader *s Guide to Periodical Literature or in the Educational Index were considered in the review of periodical literature on the subject. This material is pre sented as Chapter III. After consulting book reviews of books on study and study techniques, twelve of the books which were considered by educators to be most authoritative were given careful study. Critiques of these books are included in Chapter IT, * Questionnaire. Items in the questionnaire (see Form I on following page) were selected from those stressed by ed ucators whose findings on this subject have been published in recent years, either in educational magazines or in book form. FORM I 5 QUESTIONNAIRE ON STUDY TECHNIQUES The purpose of this questionnaire is to discover what study techniques Los Angeles pupils have mastered by the time they enter junior high school; and what additional mastery takes place during the junior high school period. teach. Instructions: Please fill in the space indicating the grade you If you teach in more than one grade, please consider the skills of one grade only in filling out this questionnaire. Each item should be checked once in COLUMN I once in COLUMN II once in COLUMN III I On entering grade I. II III On leav- Instruction ing grade given SKILL IN USE OF TEXT-BOOKS Bo the majority of your pupils evidence an acquaintance with and a satisfactory skill in the use of: r~l H • H +S3f H3 C? r-H - & r-i £* O r-f 1. The Index? 2. The Table of Contents? 5. The Appendix? ________ 4. The Preface? 5. Topic Headings? 6. Footnotes? 7. Graphs, Charts, Tables, etc? ■S CO ffljt«D ^ 'Cf CEf <—f 3 ® CQ t? 03 as XS -H <D 'H CJ O O H C3 (D p, CO 6 On entering grade II. SKILL IN THE USE OF A LIBRARY Do the majority of your pupils evidence an acquaintance with and a satisfactory skill in the use of; A. Reference works H • H <~~i CO +3 O g *** ® ti ® <p © ,ra B. III. ^ CO P 8. A Dictionary? 9. An Encyclopedia or world-book? 10. The World Almanac? 11. The Readers Guide? 12. The Card Catalogue? Books on Shelves . ____ Do your pupils: 13. Distinguish between fiction and non-fi ct ion? 14. Know that fiction is shelved by author? _______________ . 15. Know that non-fiction is shelved by subject? NOTE TAKING Do the majority of your pupils evidence ability to: 16. Evaluate material and select pertinent information? ________ 17. Summarize (Express ’gist* of article in a few brief sentences)? ___ 18. Select key words, and phrases? 19. Select main thoughts of paragraphs? 20. Use bibliography cards? 21. Use abbreviations? II III On leav- Instruction ing grade given f 0b UO r(-|J <D © 03 r? CO fc> C/ 'H ro 'H 0 ■H O & O 0 a a £ h co 7 I On entering grade * II III On leav- Instruction ing grade given 'f *rf w IV. OUTLINING Do the majority of your pupils evidence an ability to: 22 Fill in simple skeleton outlines? , V. 25. Select and rephrase main thoughts of paragraphs? _____________ ____ 24. Organize main points in terms of a general plan? . _____ ______ 25, Eliminate irrelevent points? , $ h ^ O H , § 3—f f-i O I (D TJ Of <D T1 CO r-1 & ( D O W & CO fc> VOCABULARY BUILDING Do the majority of your pupils: 26. Attempt to get meaning from content? 27. Look for familiar parts of unfamiliar words? 28. Understand meaning and use of common prefixes and suffixes? 29. Know how to divide words into _____ syllables? ■ 30. Kuo?/ how to use diacritical markings as pronunciation aids? Grade taught r -i pi ( D O W CO fc> IS o © u *8 t-f ©. ’*H O 0 2 <1) ,9 ^ pi, ^ H CO These questionnaires were then sent out to A6 teachers, and to teachers of English, Social Studies, and Social Living in grades 7, 8, 9, and BIO. Inasmuch as results were to /be in terms of teacher opinion the schools to which the question naire was sent were carefully selected so that the results would incorporate a sampling of the currents of opinion from every part of the Los Angeles school district. Twenty-eight elementary schools, twenty-nine junior high schools, and thirty-four senior high schools were asked to participate in the study. The tabulated results incorporate the opinions of twenty-five experienced teachers for each grade represent ed in the study. Teachers from twenty elementary schools, twenty-two junior high schools, and twenty-one senior high schools participated in the study. A detailed report of the findings from this question naire can be found in Chapter V. General conclusions and recommendations are presented in Chapter VI. CHAPTER III •REVIEW OF PERIODICAL LITERATURE All articles published between January, 1935, and March, 1940 which were listed under the topic of "Study" in the Reader *s Guide to Periodical Literature or in the Educational Index have been considered in preparing this review of periodical literature. The "Success1* referred to where recommendations are made for study habits which result in success, is an academic success. The study techniques considered in this literature are not limited to concern for the junior high school period but deal generally with study from the fourth grade through the college or university period. One article deals with the establishment of a correct background to be laid in the early primary years, for study habits which should be ac1 quired in later grades; Over forty different articles on some phase of study have found their way into print during this five year period This fact testifies to the interest in study techniques. 1 Ryan Dudley Dessalee, "Learning to Study in Early Grades,11 Educational Method, 17:378-81, May, 1938. I. CONTROVERSY OVER VALUE OR STUDY INSTRUCTION Tlie absence of agreement, on the part of educational authorities, as to the value of instruction in study techniques, is apparent in the literature on the subject. The ratio, based simply on the numbers of published articles is about 10 to 1 in favor of teaching, pupils how to study. In attempting to arrive at a solution to this problem on a basis more defensible than sheer personal opinion, a good many experiments have been made to determine the value of such instruction. Experiments resulting in a showing of value in instruction. An experiment conducted at Miami University questioned whether an emphasis on **how-to-learn1* would affect the amount of learning, (1) in the course where S applied, and (g) in other school work. The conclusions were that students who had been given instruction in study techniques made more improvement both in the courses where the instruction was applied and in other courses. The **evidence of improvement1* was the school marks given. In an experiment to ascertain the value of instruct ion in study techniques applicable to the special field of & R* W. Edmiston, **The Effects of Emphasizing *How To Learn* Upon Knowledge of Course Content and School Marks, Journal of Educational Psychology, 40:371-9 * January, 1940. 11 history it was concluded that "the instructed group showed 3 distinct growth over the uninstrueted group”. 4 Rachel Salisbury reports as her conclusion after exper imenting with instruction in the specific study techniques of outlining that outlining, if thoroughly taught at the junior high school level, will hring valuable dividends in improving general scholarship in certain fields, also in reading and 5 in reasoning. Another authority reports that bright, young, and superior pupils have 17$ more of the habits listed by 6 authorities as good study habits than do other pupils. A three-weeks how to study course given to college freshmen who had been in the lowest quintile of high school scholastic achievement resulted in materially lessening the gap between the lowest quintile students and the more suceess7 ful students. 3 Hettie J. McKinnon and William H. Burton, "An Evalu ation of Certain Study'Procedures in History,11 Elementary School Journal, 40:371-9, January, 1940. 4 Rachel Salisbury, "Some Effects of 'Training in Out lining," English Journal, (college edition), 24:111-116, Fe brua r y , ’1935. 5 hoc* c it• 6 Hoel B. Cuff, "Study Habits in Grades Four to Twelve," Journal of Educational Psychology, 88:295-301, April, 1937. 7 Ruth E. Eckert and Edward S. Jones, "hong-Time Effects of Training College Students How to Study," School and Society;1 42:413-415, September 15, 1935. IS Experimenters who conducted a how to study course for high school pupils found that they got definitely better results from the trained pupils than from the control group of random pupils. The trained pupils made more units of credit, with better grades, and fewer of them dropped out of 8 . school. S. Experiments resulting in a showing of minor or negative value in instruction. Conclusions of other experi menters in the how to study field have been either that this type of instruction was not needed, or that it was ineffect ive. C. W* Seeder of Ohio State University reported that he could find very little correlation between study habits and scholastic success. He concludes, " a study habit that means success to one is evidently a means of failure to another. The exact techniques that make for a successful study-habit 9 pattern remain pretty much unknown." Another educator ex presses the view that, "A study habit may be good for some 10 though usually bad. " . 8 Maj&ie Earle Wagner and Eunice Strable, "Teaching High-School Pupils How To Study", School Research, 43: 57789, October, 1935. 9 C. W. Reeder, "Study Habits", School and Society, 42:413-415, September 21, 1935. 10 Hoel B. Cuff, ££. cit. 13 After a lengthy and exhaustive Investigation at Stephen1s College, Columbia, Missouri, the investigator re ports the conclusion that assuming an adequate l;Q., successfull study is mainly a matter of attitudes. Aside from a few general and basic study principles such as advice as to frequency and regularity, this investigator does not favor f,how to study” courses on the grounds that they are not adapted to individual differences* He soms up,‘ thus: (There are nine and sixty ways of constructing tribal lays, And every single one of them is right.1 11 Another investigator reported that, although he approves of instruction in how to study courses, having found that instructed students did better work, the improvement resulting from the instruction gave little evidence of being permanent. Records made a year after the instruction ceased showed only a slight margin in favor of the instructed students* Some small lasting improvement was apparent, 12 however, even by the end of senior year. A study made in Minnesota results in the conclusion 11 Hoy Ivan Johnson, ”The Problem of 'How (To Study,” School Review, 45:577-84, October, 1937* 12 R. W. Edminston, ”The Effects of Jftnphasizing 'How To learn1 Upon Knowledge of Course Content And School Marks,” Journal of Educational Psychology, 28:371-81, May, 1937. 14 that within any given small range of I.Q., there are little material differences in average high school marks between those who had different practices with respect to the study 13 techniques involved; The apparent differences in study methods are not of primary importance in making marks. II. SUGGESTIONS FOE COURSES IN "HOW TO STUDY" Need of knowledge of best techniques or practices in the use of these techniques. In considering the organization of "How To Study" courses it is essential to reach a con clusion as to whether the pupils already know what study techniques are best but have not acquired the habit of using them, or are they unaware of the existanee of good study habits. From test results Henry C. Mills of the University of Buffalo concluded that, apparently a course in how-to-study designed for last year high school may assume on the part of aver age and superior students a fair knowledge of what constitutes a good study technique. The value of how-to-study courses are that they give an opportunity to turn knowledge into habit. They bridge the gap between theory and practice. 14 13 Harl R. Douglass and Harold C. Bauer, "The Study Practices of Three Hundred Ninety Five High-School Pupils," Journal of Educational Psychology, 39:36-43, January, 1938. 14 Henry C. Mills, "What Do High School Pupils Khow About How To Study?” Journal of Educational Research, 44; 184-93, March, 1936. 15 On the contrary, C, O* Matthews and Nora Toepfer, who say, "Academic success Is largely dependent on the skill with which a person handles the techniques of study,” found that a test of knowledge of effective study showed that in only. 58fo of the situations was the hast alternatives solutions (best according to authorities) known by these high school pupils. In 21 fo of the instances the best response was the one usually employed. In 17, 8$ of instances the pupils em ployed the procedure they think best. From this they.con cluded that many principles of effective study were not used by the high school pupils tested, Good pupils used more of 16 the principles than the poor pupils did. Faced with this uncertainty*— is teaching how to study a matter .of acquainting pupils with the best techniques or so directing their study that they form the habit of employing the best techniques; one educator conducted two test groups. One of these groups was operated on the direct method of telling pupils how to study and teaching them how to apply certain of the more technical techniques, such as outlining. 3?he other group, conducted by a more indirect method* consist ed chiefly in practice on certain techniques but the pupils 15 C, 0. Matthews and Nora foepfer, Comparison of Principles and Practices of Study” , School Heview, 44: 18492, March, 1936. -------------16 hoc, cit. 16 were not always aware that they were learning study habits* The same techniques were stressed with both groups* The re17 suits were slightly in favor of the indirect method only. Most of the authorities have apparently acted on the assumption that a combination of the two methods— direct in struction and instruction combined with provisions for habit formation— would be most effective* P a n e l s F. Powers feels that, flStudents profit to a very limited extent from long abstract discussions of study techniques." Learning to study is chiefly a matter of learning to read effectively which implies a mastering of vocabulary difficulties.* To this end he finds formal grammar a valuable adjunct to effective study. "Grammar is the skeleton of language and language is the medi18 um of thought*" There is also a disciplinary element in a correct study technique* This must come to be a self-dis- eipline* Strong Emphasis on Disciplinary Element* of self-discipline is made by many authorities. This point To study effectively one must want to learn sufficiently to exercise 17 Values of Habits in December* J. L. Naden, "£n Experimental Study of the Relative a Direct And an Indirect Method of Teaching Study Science," School Science and Mathematics, 35: 970-6, 1935. 18 Francis F. Powers, "Observations on Teaching How To Study," School Review, 46: 485-8, September, 1938. self-discipline* In the face of countless enticements to fritter away time, the successful studier must have what it takes to get at the task, and to keep at it. Several writers have concluded that self-discipline is the key to Success in study; In almost every discussion of study it was stressed in one way or another, That the most effective of all study- aids is a complete desire to learn was mentioned ten times in some thirty-five articles; and in eight more were the com mands; "Discipline yourself", "Ignore distractions", "Concen trate". This feeling for the self-ooersion essential to successful study also found expression in the injunction to have a definite time for study, and when that time came to allow nothing short of a genuine emergency to interfere. Over and over the student is warned to "begin promptly", and "get lessons done" before stopping. This oft-repeated conclusion was summed up by the assertion that success in a scholastic life, always assuming a background of adequate mentality, is more dependent on a "right attitude" than on any other one thing; Techniques of study are tools; they are not self operating but must be applied by one who wants to use them if they are to be effective. Skills. Educational authorities are in considerable agreement as to what general skills should be emphasized in how to study courses. Study involves; besides adequate 18 mental ability, a desire to learn, and conducive physical surroundings; (1) knowledge of sources, reference works, and library facilities; (2) ability, to apply the mind— to concen trate, to read, and to remember; (3) ability to take careful notes and to organize material into useful form; (4) a digest ive process of thinking and comparing; and (5) the ability to apply what has been learned to the solution of problems pre19 sehted in lessons or in life* How to study courses are designed to open the way so that students may acquire those abilities 3ust listed* One of these abilities— note-taking, and outlining— seems to be acknowledged to be the particular responsibility of the junior high school period. Elementary pupils are considered too immature to deal with the abstractions of the outline but the mechanics of outlining can approach mastery with eighth ZQ grade pupils. The same authority notes the carryover of ability from one subject field to another when outlining has been thoroughly taught. In the instance quoted the skill was taught in a history class. Teachers of both English and science reported definite improvement in detailed and accurate 19 Doris Holt Flinton, "Bridging the Gap Between Second ary School and College Methods of Study , n Education, 57: 6414, January, 1937.. 20 Hettie J. McKinnon and William H. Barton, "An Eval uation of Certain Study Procedures in History," Elementary School Journal, 40:371-9, January, 1940. 19 comprehension in reading, a greater freedom of expression, more orderly organization of material, and marked improve ment in sentence construction, sequence of ideas, selection 21 of relevant material and exact statement of facts* JRachel 22 Salisbury, points to a particular improvement in the ability to solve reasoning problems* She attributes this to a trans fer of training, and concludes; flOutlining if thoroughly taught at the Junior high school level will bring valuable dividends in improved general scholarship in content subjects, 33 also reading and reasoning*" Unsolved Problems* There remain some basic problems in the teaching of study which need further analysis. authority has summed them under five headings* One (1) There is need for investigation into the attitudes, interests, motives, and purposes of children who are studying* (2) Scientific investigations should be undertaken to determine what types of study, procedures, and what habits can be developed at what age levels* (3) There is need for a thoroughly analyzed treatment of the skills needed for learning in each content 21 McKinnon, loc* cit. 22 Rachel Salisbury, "Some Effects of Training in Outlining," English Journal,college edition, 24:111-116, February, 19337 23 hoc, cit* ao field* (4) Investigations should be made into the study habits and integrated habit patterns of specific value in study, and, (5) An attempt should be made to determine what ; 34 can be done to teach perseverenee and concentration. III. GOOD STUDY HABITS Study and its Purpose. Study is an "activity which proceeds from the purpose of the student and is directed to35 ward the solution of a problem”. Indeed, one of the major functions of a school is to furnish the student with an environment favorable to the development of wholesome atti tudes toward intellectual tasks and advantageous habits of 36 mental work. Children’s study has a two-fold purpose: (1) 37 to acquire learning, and (3} to acquire good study habits. Tally on Study Habits. While there is indeed an amaz ing diversity of opinion as to what actually constitutes good .study habits it soon becomes evident that seme items are being stressed over and over again while others are mentioned only occasionally. A tally was made on the educator’s recommend- 34 G. A. Yoakam, ’’The Improvement of Reading and Study Habits,” Elementary School Journal, 26:175-84, November, 1935. 25 Ryan Dudley Dessalee, "Learning to Study in Early Grades,” Educational Method, 17:378-81, May, 1938. 26 Doris Holt Flinton, "Bridging the Gap Between Second ary School and College Methods of Study,” Education, 57:641-4, January, 1937. 87 Edwin H. Reeder, "Directing Children’s Study of Geography,” Educational Method, 17:382-6, May, 1938. 21 ations and the study suggestions organized. Only those recommend ations which were made "by five or more authorities were re tained in the final tally, which is presented in Table I.* on the following page. Physical background for Study. A place that one associates with study, with adequate space, good light* and a comfortable but work-suggesting chair is considered help ful to the student who is desiring to establish study habits; This place should, if possible, be apart not only from the other members of the family but from the student’s friends and associates* Time* Would-be students are strongly urged by au thorities to work out a daily or a weekly time budget speci fying definite time for all the activities needed in a well rounded life. Time should be allotted, not only for work, but for recreation, adequate sleep, meal times, etc. Once decided upon, the time allotted for study should be used for study— which implies getting at the j o b on the dot, and . keeping at it for the duration of the allotted time. Materials. All the materials needed for study--items such as plenty of sharpened pencils, ink, dictionary, paper, erasers* and maps^-should be collected before the study period begins. Getting up to get some needed study aid wastes time TABLE I -.TALLY -ON.STUiar HABITS. RECOMMENCED IN PERIODICALS' Times Re c ommended Physical Conditions for Study 1. 2. 3. 4. Have a definite place. Have a definite time and begin promptly. Select a favorable environment. Have all needed materials athand 5 13 7 6 Attitudes 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Desire to learn. Concentrate. Study alone. Expect to recall. Co beyond minimum requirements 13 10 5 5 8 Study Activities 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Get task clearly in mind. Review previous work. Skim first and reread slowly Read charts, graphs, and tables. Master each topic. Take notes and use outlines. Underline and annotate. Write summaries. Use study aids. Recite immediately Interpret work in some way. 9 9 18 5 b 9 12 6 5 9 1-8 General 1. 2. 3. 4. Build vocabulary. Master library skills. Learn to memorize. Use complete sentences. 12 11 5 7 23 in addition to breaking the continuity of thought. Attitudes^ On this point there is both extraordinary agreement and emphatic emphasis— nthe most effective of all study aids is a desire to learn11. Agreeing that a desire to learn is half the battle, the student is further commanded to exercise self discipline in the matter of keeping to a study schedule, ignoring distractions, and perservering at a task until mastery results. Study, the experts agree, is an individual matter, to be undertaken in physical solitude if possible, certainly in complete intellectual independence. A matter of attitude stressed by the authorities, in addition to beginning with the desire to learn* and studying alone with regularity and concentration, is to study with the expectation of recalling the material studied. Authorities also advise the students to be generous in preparation. Successful students, more often than not, form the habit of voluntarily exceeding the minimum requirements. Study Activities. What does a student actually do when, in desirable physical surroundings and with impeccable attitude, he sits down to study? a clear idea of M s He should begin by getting immediate task in mind, The second step is to make a brief review of previous work and consider how the new assignment ties in with the whole subject. These B4 might he called the preparatory steps. He should hegin the mastery of the new material by reading over the whole assign ment rapidly once, and then go hack and reread it slowly and in detail* If there are questions to answer or study-aids for use, this is the time to attack them; If none are specified in the assignment it is wise to take a few clear notes, work out a brief outline, or annotate the important points* In this matter of re-reading, authorities stress master of the meaning of all charts, graphs, or illustrations included in the material. Each topic should he mastered before leaving it. Hesitation. Considering the processes described above as study the student is warned and rewarned that the essential next step is some form of recitation. This self-recitation should come immediately after study and may take any one of a myriad of forms. The important thing is to so cover the points studied as to clinch them. devices suggested are, Simple and to-the-point (1) list the important points covered with a hrief hut complete statement for each, (8) write a short concise summary of each topic, or (3) write a set of questions to cover all.the important points. Mental Synthesis. Study, after all, is for the purpose of bringing about some mental change. Before material that has been studied and factually mastered can he incorporated S5 into the mental’make-up of the student it must he digested and absorbed, without which the whole goal of education is thwarted. Mo other part of the study* process has so baffled educators. The mental digestive process is a piece of mental synthesis, undoubtedly a part of the comprehension complex. But how to assure the transformation? Many authorities, feeling that no matter how devoutly-to-be-wished-for this final step in comprehension is, its achievement is pretty much a matter of mystery, perhaps best left on the laps of the gods. Others, less confident of the salutary effect of a chance technique, feel that something definite should be done to at least give the mind a shove in the right direction. Their advice is that the student should postulate and work out individual examples to Illustrate the rules and princi ples learned; or should in some other way interpret the work done. Listing of likenesses and differences, comparisons, and analysis of cause and effect were advised as aids to the interpretation of the materials learned* He ca pi tula t i onw The students of a freshman Orientat ion class at the Anaheim Union High School, Orange County, California, have compiled a set of five rules for study which represents an excellent recapitulation of current thought on how to study. Their rules are: 86 1. Pat year self in a right condition for study; 2. Consider titles, and ask 1Twhat shall I learn?!f 3. Read rapidly once* 4. Read slowly once. 5. Do something about it. The studentTs list of 11suggestions” under the rule to 1fdo something about it” include taking notes, listing import ant facts, discussing the lesson with someone else, making an outline, looking up something interesting about it, writing 28 a summary, and, writing a set of questions about it. IV. GERERAL rotes Textbook and Library Aids. or study A skillful use of the library is an essential prerequisite to academic success. The student should be acquainted with the library set-up; should know how to use such aids as the card catalogue, and Reader *s Guide To Periodical Literature; and should know the shelving system so that desired books may be located on the shelf without depending on a librarian every step of the way. It is necessary also to be familiar with the make-up of text- 28 Royal C. Marten, ”Tools of Study,” Sierra Education al Dews, 35:28, March, 1939. a? books. The student should have free access, not only to the table of contents and the index, but, also to the* preface, appendix, and footnotes. He should also be so well acquainted with the standard reference works that he will turn to them freely and frequently. Both educational authorities and successful students agree that a mastery of library skills is an essential tool for successful study. A further behest to the would-be successful student— handmaiden of the in junction to be generous in preparation— is to do collateral reading. The good student does collateral reading in liberal amount whether or not such reading is required. Vocabulary. The pupil who would study successfully would pay particular attention to the problem of building his vocab ulary. He should be alert to catch the unfamiliar term whether used in lectures, or conversations, or found in print. Ho means of getting at the meaning of new words should be scorned by the student. He should make the habit of showing curiosity about words— frank inquiry is often the quickest way to get at the peculiar connotation of a word. The diction ary habit should be established firmly, and at as early an age as possible. Educators also strongly urge students to train themselves to attempt to deduce the meaning of new words by noting how the Word is used in context. This practice is essential when dictionary aid is resorted to for otherwise £8 there can be no assurance that the meaning selected from a possible several will bear any relation to the meaning the author intended. The use of diacritical markings as an aid to correct pronunciation should be familiar to the student. Memorization. This is an intregal part of study and the pupil will need some facility in this art. He should experiment to find what memorization technique is most effi cient for him. Educators are not in agreement as to the merits of various memorization proeeedures. It seems probable that individual differences provide a variable which makes it extremely difficult to apply standard measuring to this skill. Upon two things educators are agreed: one, the ability to memorize increases under practice; and, two, some kind of logical association is an efficient memorization aid for many people. Complete Sentences. By far the greater number of successful students report that they habitually write complete sentences when taking notes, or writing summaries or outlines** Educators agree that this is a particularly valuable practice as it tends to compel clear and logical thinking. CHAPTER IT BOOKS AHD BOOK REVIEWS This chapter consists of twelve critical book reviews. All books published on study or study-techniques -which were given favorable reports by educational journals were consider ed in making the selection of books to be reviewed here. The books finally selected were those which this investigator believed to be the most instructive for the purpose of this study. 1 Study Activities in Secondary Schools. This is a comprehensive treatise on the educative process, with special emphasis on the theory of education which tends to shift responsibility more and more upon the pupil himself. It is designed, not for pupils, but for teachers and admini strators; and would make an excellent broad general text for a general methods course centered around the notion that the school must make its pupils self-directing, self-initiating, . 2 and self-reliant. ”Study” is defined as 11the concentration of attention 1 W. G. Brink, Directing Studs?- Activities.in Secon dary Schools. (Hew YorW: Doubleday, Doran and Co.~T93TJ 738 pp. 2 A. H. Lass, Review of ”W. G. Brink, Directing Study Activities in the Secondary School” , High Points, 21:76, March, 1939. " 30 upon a series of activities for the purpose of satisfying a 3 felt need." Education is conceived of as a cooperative en terprise with the teacher regarded as a director of study, who, as such, must possess an intimate knowledge of both the teaching and learning process if he is to discharge his func tion with the skill that society expects of him. Part I of this volume deals fully and concretely with the illustration and application of the principles underlying 4 the whole mysterious matter we call learning. Part II treats with the integration of the instruct ional program around educational guidance. Especial attention is given to the library, and the part the librarian plays in developing effective study habits. Teachers in the special fields of English, social studies, foreign languages, science, mathematics, the fine arts, and practical arts will find much valuable material here, indicating at great length how they can best guide student activities. Part III presents a discussion of integration. This portion of the book is particularly note-worthy for its attempt to show how techniques can be taught and objectives gained. This honest try at the synchronization of the philo- 3 W. G-. Brink, Ibid, p. 11 4 A. H. Lass, Ibid, p. 76. 31 sophie and scientific aspects of education gives the book a 5 rare quality. The whole book is devoid of stuffiness or pretension, realistic in outlook, and acutely aware of the difficulties of the classroom teacher in attempting to be at once, guide, 6 model, and inspiration. 7 Studentys Guide to Efficient Study is a very useful manual which, while designed primarily for the use of college students, would be equally valuable in the hands of a high school student who was sufficiently mature to take an independ ent interest in developing efficient study habits. After interviewing and observing college students, good, poor, and ordinary, the authors, two women professors, have 8 codified the usages of the successful workers. They have put these into simple positive terms with the psychological principles made clear. This is no nstudy made easyfl; it is 5 J. J. Pugh, Review of flW. G. Brink, Directing Study Activities in the Secondary Schools/1 Educational Research Bulletin, 18:37, January* 1937. 6 Lass, op. cit. 7 Luella Cole and Jessie Mary Ferguson, Studentfs Guide Efficient Study, (New York: Farrar and Rinehart,' Inc. 1935) ^8 pp. 8 Loe. cif 3a instead a rigorous prescription-— with the implication that the student who is not practicing good mental habits is a 9 fat-head and ought to cure himself. The authors advise the student to check:, on their list-, the rules they violate, with a double check against the three or four they neglect most conspicuously— and then drive hard at retraining themselves, This is a stimulating little book, at once encourag ing and practical. The student who sticks to the directions is assured of the delightful experience, as he marks off the bad practices which have practically disappeared, of a deep satisfaction in feeling that he has so sharpened the edge of his mind that it will cut clearly into any new problem that comes along. The thirty-four rules for effective study are in the form of positive directions, arranged under appropriate chapter headings. Chapter I PLASHING YOUR WORK Rule 1: Make a schedule and stick to it. Rule 2: Develop a good study environment. Rule 3; D o n ft attempt too many kinds of activity. Rule 4: D o n ’t loaf on your job. 9 W. McAndrew, "Student’s Guide to Efficient Study,11 Book Review. School and Society, 42:484-5, October 5, 1935. 03 Chapter II M A R K I N G TO CONCENTRATE Rule 1: Start studying the minute you sit down at your desk. Rule 3: If your mind continually wanders stop and analyze yourself to find out why. Rule 3: Find an interest in every subject you take. Chapter III READING AND STUDYING Rule 1: Make a preliminary survey before reading a chapter in detail. Rule B: Notice carefully the type in which (text book) headings are printed. Rule 3: Do not skip graphs, drawings, or tables. Rule 4: Watch carefully for technical words and be sure you know their meaning. Rule After you have made a preliminary survey and you have read your lesson carefully once, recite to yourself to see how much you remember. Chapter IV NOTE TAKING Rule 1: -Rule 2: Rule 3: Chapter V Rule 1: Rule 3: Rule 3: Use an outline form for all notes. Do not copy the words of an author and do not try to write down the words of the in structor in class. Keep the notes on one subject together. REVIEV/S AND EXAMINATIONS Set aside one hour each week for each sub ject for review. Review selectively (work on items not clearly understood, or forgotten). Do not sit up late during examination v/eek. 34 Rule 4: At tlie examination hour remember to read all the questions before "writing on any. Rule 5: At the examination hour remember to write legibly, and to outline your answers before you begin to write. Glia pter VI MEMORIZING Rule 1: ho not memorize whatever is more efficiently learned by association. Rule 3: Don’t be afraid of learning word-for-word, whatever is more efficiently learned this way. Rule 3: If you feel that certain subject matter should be memorized, do not try to do it all at one time. Rule 4: If the material to be memorized is to be used later as a unit, learn it as a unit; if it is to be used later as separate elements, do not learn it as a unit. Rule 5: D o n ’t use artificial memory devices. Chapter VII DEVELOPING CORRECT GENERAL HABITS Rule 1: Analyze your work for your particular difficulties. Rule 3: Apply everything you learn as early and as often as possible. Rule 3: When in class pay keen attention to what is going on. Rule 4: Co-operate with your teachers. Glia pter VIII 'PREVIOUS PREPARATION Rule 1: It is desirable to check your entire prep aration either before you enter college or immediately after your entrance. Rule 3: Be sure you read fast enough and well enough to keep up with your assignments. 35 Bale 3: Be sure you know enough elementary school arithmetic and simple algebra to solve problems in; the sciences. Buie 4: Be sure‘your technical vocabulary is adequate. Buie 5: Be sure you can produce legible handwriting rapidly. . Rule 6: • Be sure you have mastered the elementary skills in English composition. 10 Studying Efficiently is aptly keynoted by the following quotation by Robert M. Hutchins, which stands, unsupported by comment, as the foreword to this book. A University is a community of scholars. It is not a kindergarten; it is not a club; it is not a . reform school; it is not a political party; it is not an agency of propaganda. A University is a community of scholars. Studying Efficiently is presented as a practical manual for college students, and indeed would be helpful for any fair- 11 ly mature and intelligent seeker after academic learning. There are chapters on orientation to college work, planning a work schedule, reading effectively, note-taking and the use of notes* attention and concentration, learning and memorizing, examinations, and grades, and the motivated effort and .educat ional values. The chapters on planning a work schedule, and K) L. Crawley, Studying Efficiently, Prentiee-Hall, inc. , 1936)’ 95 pp/ (Hew York: 11 W. Me Andrews, "Crav/ley, S* L. , 1Studying Efficient1y ,,,» School and Society, 44: £5, July 1, 1936. 36 attention and concentration are especially fine. The chapter on memorizing contains some worthwhile comments. Throughout the hook, the learner is encouraged to keep those little per sonal bents which have developed a significance for him in IE successful study. 13 Directing Learning. In the first paragraph of the pre face the authors say: nAmong the possible products of the classroom the ability to continue to learn effectively through out life is frankly regarded in this book as the most import ant. ff Throughout the book the author’s purpose to engender study skills, procedures and attitudes which will function all through life, as well as in ’’getting lessons” is clearly in dicated. This book is written for teachers, administrators and supervisors, and is intended for use by teachers in train ing or in service. Emphasis is placed on learning in the junior high school. The book is divided into three parts. Part I deals with the processes of learning and study, and was probably 14 written by Ragsdale. This part presents the psychology of learning, including comments on motivation, and a refreshing 12 Crawley, op. cit. , p. vii. 13 Robert W. Frederick, Clarence E. Ragsdale, and Rachel Salisbury, Directing Learning, (New York: D. AppletonCentury Co. Inc. 1938), xvi a n d .527 pp. Review, 14 R. T. Gregg, Review of ’’Directing Learning,” School 47:228-9, March, 1939. 37 insistence on tlie, transfer of learning, The emphasis is on principles *rather than devices. It is psychologically sound 15 and progressive. There are chapters on directing the edu cational process, nature of study and learning, conditions of learning, motivation of learning, study, and performance, efficiency and study, and utility of the products of learning. 16 Part II, probably written by Frederick, school and direction of study. ±s on -^he It has critical chapters on recitation, and various administrative plans for the direction of study. The unit laboratory plan of instruction is suggest ed for ideational subjects, and the self directive practice plan for operative subjects. The chapter on the initiation of a program of directed study should be helpful to a princi pal who wished to introduce such work. Part III, ifhich takes up some two-fifths of the book, 17 and was probably written by Salisbury, is directed to the classroom teacher and is the best part of the book. It is" called directing Study in the Class-room” , and deals with various study techniques, giving, valuable suggestions for the practical teacher! It is most useful as a reference on 15 Gregg, loc. cit. I«oc. cit. 17 Loc. cit. 38 18 methods of teaching. The book as a whole attempts to do four things., (1) show the place and importance of study and learning power in the total school program, ing process, (2) describe the nature of the learn' (3) outline and illustrate directed learning, with special reference to the development of independent learning power, and (4) indicate procedures which will assistpupils and teachers to work satisfactorily. The emphasis is upon the processes of problem-solving thinking; and the bold plea for training in the generalized attitudes and skills of thinking, and the insistence that these, elements of thinking are transferable when properly taught are distinctly refresh19 ing. How To Study Handbook. 20 The How To Study Handbook is written from the standpoint of the pupil and in a style ad mirably adapted to the junior high school. The book is well suited for use any place from grade Y to grade XII, uses are: Suggested a textbook in courses on how to study, the basis for the f,Home Roomn program, background for part of an orien- 18 Walter S. Monroe, Review of "Directing Learning," Journal of Educational Research, 32:538-9, March, 1939. 19 Frederick, loc. cit. , p. viii. 20 Robert If. Frederick, How To Study Handbook, with editorial assistance of William"l[7 Bur Yon (Hew York': D. Appleton-Century Co., 1938), 442 pp. 39 tation program, a basis for guidance -work, or as a reference for pupils. Well suited to any of tbe above, the book would be of very great value to the regular subject teacher from day to day. There are two challenging introductions. One for the teacher gives the purpose of the book and suggestions for u s ing it, and one for the student emphasizes the importance of 21 good study habits. - Study helps are given on a wide variety of subjects under the general topics of reading, listening, using libraries, writing, outlining, meeting examinations, thinking, and concentrating. Each discussion is followed by suggestions of activities in which pupils may engage. The book contains an unusual amount of illustrative material such as graphs, maps, sample pages from reference books, cartoons, and figures. Outlines are used frequently and each topic is 22 subdivided to facilitate quick reference. A detailed index, and a "self-scoring studentship scale" are included in the make up. The author has adapted the book for use in either a conventional sehool situation, or in a progressive school where activities are emphasized. 21 William G. Brink, "A Manual of Study for Pupils," The School Review, 46:710-11, Hovember, 1938. 22 Loc. cit. 40 Scholastic success depends, according to Frederick, on S3 ability, effort, and efficient methods of work. The Handbook treats of the latter topic, and i s f r a n k l y addressed to the student who already possesses a reasonable amount of the first, and is willing to put forth adequate quantities of the second. The fact that effective study habits are developed through long continued practice is emphasized throughout the book. Every abstract principle is followed by explicit direct ions for utilization by pupils in real study situations. S4 How To Study. In the preface of this book the author makes the flat statement: uThis book on how to study sets forth the best methods of study.rT He backs up his assertion by explaining that the prineipleslisted have been culled from a much larger number, have been tried out experimentally, and have proved their worth. The book is divided into four chapters— Why Study? How to Study, Reading, and Studying the Various Subjects. The heart of the book is*ccntained in the last of these which is the longest (43 out of 97 pages), and the most important. 53 Dewey B. Stuit, Educational Abstract, S:796. 54 A. M. dordon, How To Study, (Boston: The Christ opher Publishing House, 193677 97' pp. 41 In it detailed instructions are given for attaching lessons in English, foreign languages (Latin and French), social studies, mathematics (algebra and geometry), and science. 25 The Childrens Book On How To Use Books And Libraries. In these days when wide departures are made from the use of one textbook for each subject, an intelligent use of books 26 and libraries is not only a desirable but a necessary ability. Teachers and librarians who are concerned with the systematic training of children in the use of books and libraries will find this a valuable aid. to VIII. It is adapted to use in grades IV The text is well planned and organized with clear phrasing, easy vocabulary, and with plentiful and apt illus27 trations. Lessons on the care of books; tables of contents; maps; how to make a bibliography; use of such aids as encycl opedias, indexes, dictionaries, and atlases; and a short dis cussion of the Dewey Decimal System of Classification are in cluded* Pictures of the cartoon-type made by the children of the William Land Elementary School, Sacramento, California, where the material was tried out before publication; lend 25 Carolyn Mott, and Leo B. Baisden, The C h i l dre n s Book On How To Use Books and Libraries, (Hew York':" Charles Scribner Ts Sons, 1937 ) £Q7~pp. 26 Educational Abstract, 2:361. 27 Ruth E. Seeger, tfThe Children’s Book On How To Use Books and Libraries,’1 A review, Educational Research Bulletin 18:86-7, March, 1937. 42 interest and visual reinforcement to the ideas presented in 28 the text. An inexpensive practice hook, ftThe Childrenfs Library Lesson Book,” is available for use with this text. 29 Effectively. Students just entering upon ^ their college careers were in the mind of the .author of this study manual, and it was prepared primarily for their benefit. Those who come to college with a real desire, to succeed in the new experience, and who, in spite of their expectations, fail; generally do so, according to Parr, because they do not know how to study. In setting up a how-to-study program three major objectives were stressed; toward oneTs work; (1) proper and healthy attitudes (2) intelligent understanding of the princi ples and techniques of learning and studying; and (3) desirable habits and a high degree of' skill in the performance of learn ing activities. This manual was built out of activities select ed in the belief that they would insure the realization of the above goals. The manual is organized into ten units, presented in the following order: getting the right start, investing time wisely, increasing reading efficiency, building a vocabulary, 28 Evangeline. Colburn, f,The Children’s Book On How To Use Books and Libraries,11 A review, Elementary School Journal, 39:314-15, December, 1938. 29 Prank W. Parr, How To Study Effectively (Hew York: Prentice-Hall, Inc. 1938) pp xv and 2337 43 learning to concentrate, preparing assignments; making good notes, using the library, preparing reports, and preparing for and taking examinations. or divisions: Each unit contains four sections (1) a list of purposes showing what value should "be derived from the unit; (2) a selected list of references in which the student is to find the information needed in filling out the study outline; (3) a study outline; and (4) an assignment to he prepared and handed in to the instructor, The. manual is a combination of a syllabus and a work-book, with a detailed progress record section, 30 Learning'How To Learn has a different approach to the problem of training young people of school age in the art of learning. Outlined on the basic assumption that good funda mental habit formation plus an ability to read well will equal the ability to learn effectively the authors have worked out the strategy of training in all of these abilities as part of the regular English course. especially stressed are: The habits they believe should be (1) concentrating, broader relations among facts, (2) grasping.the (3) selecting items relevant to onefs purpose, and (4) reflecting upon new facts in the light of all that one has previously learned. 30 Walter B. Pitkin, Harold C. Newton, and Olive P. Langham, Learning How To Learn, (Hew York and London: McGrawHill Book Company, Inc. 1935) pp vii and 194. 44 The authors are of the opinion that young Americans are notoriously undertrained in this respect; llAmong them, learning is not a lost art; it is an art that has never been 31 found. n The hook is divided into six units; one each de voted to self-understanding, systematized living, interests, self-mastery, efficiency in reading, and o n e ’s vocational goal. Each unit is followed by experiments which should, if done, clarify the basic principles and clear the way to further practice. The text is addressed to the student, and is in very simple vocabulary. Used as the authors intended, it should be very helpful to any secondary school pupil. 32 Independent Study At Stanford. Early in 1931 funds were placed at the disposal of Stanford University by the General Education Board for development of independent study in Lower Division courses. The University Committee on the Independent Study Plan, which had guided the development of Independent Study,in the Upper Division since 1925 were asked to supervise. The work was begun in the fields of English and the 31 Ibid,' p ,v. 33 Edgar Eugene Robinson, Independent Study at Stanford, Independent Study in the Lower Division at Sta"nford-TJniVersity (Stanford University: Stanford University Press and London: Humphrey Milford Oxford University Press. 1937) pp 90. ‘45 Social Sciences. Each department developed independent work in its own way. The plan was designed for superior students only, how ever the discovery of the superior students proved to he far less simple than the faculties of the various departments had 34 at first assumed it would he. The instructing staff generally share the view that the promising student can he detected hest in regular class work. The selection of students privileged to participate in the plan was based on aptitude, record, in terest, character, and maturity. Vigilance on the part of the * part of the instructor "in detecting that flicker of interest which may he developed into an abiding intellectual curiousity" 35 is an important element in the selection. The aim of the Independent Study plan has been and is to stimulate superior students to do more and better work than they would do otherwise. are emphasized. Heading, writing, and oral expression The reading involves the intelligent and purposeful use of books, and includes the critical comparison of books, and reading books in their entirety. The writing 33 W. A. Stumpf, Independent Study In The lower Division At Stanford University. UA review. Bdu'catiohaI"Tbstract &: 54~7 34 H; F. Fletcher, "Independent Study in lower Division At Stanford University," A review. Journal of Higher Education, 9: 466-7, Hovember, 1938. 35 Stumpf, ^oc. cit. 46 becomes the direct reaction of students to facts and ideas encountered in reading. dividual sort. It is critical writing of an in Oral presentation of ideas is encouraged in small selective group discussions.- The plan is essentially an individual curriculum, with each student working with a special faculty advisor who functions as a tutor. The course culminates in a comprehensive examination. In considering results of the plan, records and opin ions of .the participating students, and the opinions of their instructors are presented as evidence. The primary effect of independent study has been greatly increased activity. In structors believe these students do from two to five times as much reading, and a greatly Increased amount of writing and discussion. All of these activities are carried on on a plain markedly superior to the standards of the average university student. In the opinion of the instructors, characteristic results of the plan are: more rapid and individual growth, greater intellectual maturity, more sustained interest, more acute awareness of-the significance of the subject, and a greater skill in the management of time. The students reports emphasize the personal benefits gained from closer contact with instructors, the development of initiative, the advantages of a small selective discussion group, and their enlarged acquaintance with books. the source of not only facts but ideas. Books are Both students and instructors feel that reading hooks in their entirety is the basis for much of this change in opinion. The students put much stress on the fact that in regular class, or tinder in dependent study, there is no substitute for a good teacher. 26 Best Methods of Study is a brief summary of study suggestions immediately applicable to the needs of the college freshman or high school senior. The points that need greatest emphasis in answering the student*s questions, fJ$?hat shall I do?” , and ,?H o w .shall I do it?” , are presented. The authors state that the book could be used either as a text for a sy stematic course, or as a reference book, applicable to any of the various regular courses. There are chapters on efficiency; reading; (anc|)underlining; note-taking; outlining, reviewing; writing; the library and use of reference books; studying English; minimum essentials of punctuation; studying the fine arts; studying foreign languages; studying mathematics; study ing philosophy, religion, and psychology; studying the social sciences; interpreting visual aids; and, concluding hints* The purpose of aspiring to better methods of study is to improve in efficiency. The authors of this book hold that the chief reasons for inefficiency in learning are carelessness 26 Samuel Smith, and Arthur W. Littlefield; with special sections by Louis Shores and A. C. Jordon. (Hew York: Barnes and Hoble, Inc., 1938) pp 132. 48 and ineffective habits of study. Investigations have shown that students can save from one-fourth to one-third of their time if they systematize their efforts in accordance v/ith the principles of learning. proper study methods. Speed is not the only advantage of Effective methods help the student to understand and remember what he is studying. 'The case for 37 efficiency is presented in a quotation from Harrison Emerson. — To be strenuous is to put forth greater effort; to be efficient is to put forth less effort . . .Efficiency brings about greater results with lessened 'efforts; strenuousness brings forth greater results with ab normally greater effort. 38 This book is ^ust what it represents itself to be--a brief summary of the high points. It would be an inspiring and helpful volume in the-hands of a mature and intelligent student. The immature and unintelligent will need other guidance. chapter opens with a pertinent inspirational quotation. Each A definite purpose and goal is established at the beginning of each new field— in this case, each new chapter'. The very best teachers establish such goals, but the student often has suffered through several semesters of a "required subject" before he finds a recognizable and personally acceptable goal. The final chapter, on "Hints", takesa broad view and 37 Harrison Emerson, The Twelve Principles of Efficiency. (Hew York: McGraw-Hill Book CJompahy] 38 Locw cit. 49 gives timely and practical hints for the student who must econ omize hut who-honestly desires to get the most out of his ed ucation. The graduating college senior has discovered many of these things for himself; the graduating high school senior needs the information and seldom has access to it. The key note of the entire hook; and particularly the concluding chapter is: "You must not only prepare to earn a living; you must also live a life”. 39 Directing Study Of High School Pupils. Pew teachers today would deny that learning is an active process, or that the pupils learning is proportionate to his active participat40 ation in that process. In theory this doctrine has received universal acceptance, yet an examination of instructional pro cedures in high schools of today reveal that although this doctrine receives devout lip service, there are occasions where it is executed with hut feehle indifference. Under an instructional plan of pupil participation the teacher becomes a directer and planner who must provide guidance in study tech niques as well as in a choice of subject matter. The pupil 39 M. U. Woodring, and C. W. Flemming Directing Study Of High School Pupils (Hew York: Bureau of Publications , Teachers College, Columbia University. 1935. A reprint of articles from Teachers College Records. Revised and enlarged edition. } pp vi plus 253. 40 A. H. lass, Review of "Woodring, M. H. and Flemming, C. W . , Directing Study of High School Pupils" High Points, 17: 69-71, Ifovemher, 1935. 50 rightly becomes the focal point— his attitudes, his diffi culties, and his problems, are as much a part of the teacherfs job as the subject matter itself. The teacher must be pre pared to help the student develop the skills, habits, and attitudes which will enable him to function on a higher, more 41 conscious plane of personal and social efficiency. Articles from Teachers College Record (Columbia University) from 1928 to 1935, reprinted, with brief addition al notes, make up this monograph. Unpretentiously issued, and making no extravagant claims, this book has brought to gether a bibliography of study techniques and devices from 1917 to 1935, in addition to a thorough and sensible disaussion of the whole problem. Those who want to made education mean more to both student and teacher will find this volume 42 a mine of practical,'useful, and useable devices. The book is divided into twelve chapters, of which three (2, 6, and 11) are selected and annotated bibliographies. The first of the three, 28 pages in length, covers the studies up to 1928. The second, of 18 pages, summarizes the litera ture from 1928 to 1932; and the third, covering 18 pages, carries the bibliography to 1935. 41 Lass, loo. clt. 42 Loc. cit. Chapter 1 presents an 51 analysis of problems in supervised study listed by two hundred and thirty teachers engaged in junior high and senior high instruction. The problems arise.from inadequate knowledge or skill on the part of the teacher, and from conditions which directly affect the study activities of the pupil; e g . , home conditions, physical conditions, capacity, attitudes and interests. Chapter three is a survey of studies to 1928 of methods and habits of study, and the use of study techniques. A growing feeling is evident that attention must be given to determining what procedures are applicable to all school sub jects, and what are peculiar to different subjects. Chapter four enlarges upon the fact that study Responses are a type of learning activity, and that each is made up of different processes and requires skillful guidance and adequate practice. Chapter five emphasizes the place of reading as a study skill common to all subjects. Chapter seven, develops the thesis that the assignment is the crux of the study problem on the high school level, and proposes turning classrooms into study laboratories. Chapter eight is devoted to the school library. Chapter nine discusses the beneficial results of remedial instruction. Chapter ten presents some of the more important 43 Educational Abstract 1:233. ( review of Woodring and Flemming, Directing Study.Of High School Pupils) 5a principles underlying the use of the interviewing method in improving study. Chapter twelve reviews some of the factors in study which have received especial attention during recent years. 44 Educational Abstract, loc. cit. CHAPTER V RESULTS OF IHVESTIGATIOH The questionnaire technique was used in making this investigation. A questionnaire was compiled which asked for teacherfs opinions as to whether or not the majority of pupils on entering, and again on leaving, a specified grade evidenced a satisfactory degree of skill in regard to thirty specific study skills. Teachers were also asked to indicate, in respect to each of said skills, whether or not, in the grade under consideration, instruction was given; and if so, whether it was of an incidental or specific character. Questionnaires were sent to teachers of English and Social Studies in grades seven, eight, nine, and ten; and to sixth grade classroom teachers; in schools carefully selected so that the results would represent a sample of the currents of opinion from every part of the Los Angeles city school system, and from schools in every type of community represent ed in the Los Angeles city school system. The results on each item represent the opinion of twenty-five experienced teachers, each of whom, at the time the opinion was expressed, was en gaged in teaching the grade about which the opinion was ex pressed* In general the questionnaires were tabulated as they 54 were returned. The first twenty-five, for each grade under consideration were recorded in full except for such items as had either been omitted, dr for which the response was not clear. Thereafter only such responses were incorporated as were needed to insure twenty-five opinions for each item; Teachers of the sixth grade were asked to report only upon their opinion of the skills of pupils on finishing the sixth grade; and teachers of tenth grade classes were asked for an opinion of the skills of pupils beginning tenth grade. Teachers of the seventh grade", eighth, and ninth grades were asked to express an opinion of the skills of classes both on entering, and on leaving* the grade; All teachers were asked to indicate, as for each of the thirty study skills, whether any instruction was given in the grade for which they were responding* and if so, whether it was intensive or only in cidental instruction. I. SKILL m USE OF TEXTBOOKS Items 1 to 7 deal with skills in the use of textbooks. The teacher’s responses are presented In Table II on the following page. The results of each item will be discussed separately, with a general summary at the end of the section. Use of the Index/ as follows: Teachers reported their opinions One teacher said that on leaving the sixth grade 55 TABLE II FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF TEACHER RESPONSES REGARDING PUPIL SKILL IN THE USE OF TEXTBOOKS Do the majority. of your pupil's evidence an ac6th quaintancy with and a satisfactory skill in * 1. the use of: 7th 6« 8th 1. e• 9th 1. e• 10th 1. e a . Never b. Seldom c • Usually 0 1 24 0 10 15 0 1 24 1 8 16 0 2 23 2 5 18 0 1 24' 1 10 14 2. The a. Never Table of b. Seldom Contents? c • Usually 0 1 24 4 7 14 0 4 21 0 12 13 0 2 23 1 5 19 0 2 23 1 8 16 3* The Ap pendix? a. Never b. Seldom c • Usually .2 9 14 9 14 2 2 11 12 8 11 6 3 11 11 2 13 10 1 7 17 4 18 3 4 • The Preface? a • Never b • Seldom c. Usually 3 14 8 8 12 5 2 11 12 10 11 4 2 9 14 6 13 6 0 10 15 3 20 2 5. Topic a • Never Headings? b. Seldom c • Usually 0 3 22 3 17 5 0 6 19 1 16 8 0 5 20 1 9 15 0 1 24 2 13 10 6. Foot notes? a. Never b • Seldom c • Usually 5 10 10 5 18 2 1 12 12 5 17 3 2 10 13 3 13 9 1 5 18 1 21 3 7. Graphs, Charts, Tables, etc •? a • Never b • Seldom c . Usually 0 5 20 2 15 8 0 7 18 1 17 7 0 10 15 3 12 10 0 3 22 1 195 1. The Index? # 1. denotes irLeaving”; e* denotes ,!EnteringM * 56 classes seldom gave satisfactory evidence of this skill while twenty-five sixth grade teachers reported that they usually did. On entering the seventh grade ten teachers thought satisfactory skills seldom achieved, while fifteen thought it usual. However, hy the end of the seventh grade, the vote was exactly as it had heen at the end of the sixth grade; twenty-four of the twenty-five teachers thought the skill satisfactorily mastered. classes the vote was: teen "usually". Concerning entering eighth grade one "never” , eight "seldom", and six On leaving the eighth grade, however, a big majority again believing that pupils have mastered the use of the index, voted accordingly. Only two of the twenty-five dissented from this majority opinion, and registered votes in the "seldom" column. Two ninth grade teachers believed that on entering the ninth grade the majority of pupils were "never!1 able to use the index in a satisfactory fashion; five found they "seldom" eould; while eighteen agreed that they "usually" could. were, On leaving the ninth grade the opinions again exactly as they were at the end of the sixth grade --all but one teacher holding that pupils usually evidenced a, satisfactory ability to use the index. In spite of this opinion; one teacher of entering tenth grade classes still felt that the*majority of pupils never evidenced this skill while ten others, only slightly dissatisfied, said they seldom 57 do, Fourteen of the tenth grade teachers felt that entering tenth grade pupils usually knew how to use the index. The use of the Table of Contents. Only one sixth grade teacher felt that the majority of pupils on leaving the sixth grade seldom evidence a satisfactory skill in the use of the table of contents, while twenty-four thought they usually do. The .seventh grade teachers report: on entering— four "never” , seven "seldom” , and fourteen "usually” , and on leaving— four "seldom” , and twenty-one "usually”. Twelve teachers of enter ing eighth grade classes reported that pupils seldom were able to use the table of contents satisfactorily, while only one more thought they are usually able to do so upon leaving the eighth grade the vote was up to twenty-three for "usually”. Again at the end of the ninth grade twenty-three teachers agreed that the majority of pupils could use the table of contents in a satisfactory fashion. Teachers of entering tenth grade classes however, in answer to the same question,, voted as follows: one for "never", eight for "seldom", and sixteen for "usually". The use of the Appendix. The appendix of a book is not used nearly as frequently as either the table of contents, or the index, Many children, and indeed many adults seldom or never turn to the appendix unless specifically instructed 58 to do so. nevertheless, fourteen of the twenty-five sixth grade teachers expressed the opinion that children leaving the sixth grade evidence a satisfactory degree of skill in the use of the appendix. Perhaps they do; if little or no skill is needed, then little or no skill is indeed a satis factory degree of skill. Seventh grade teachers failed to concur in this satisfactory analysis. Only two voted that classes, on entering the seventh grade usually made satis factory use of the index; and even at the end of the grade only twelve teachers thought they usually evidenced satis factory skill. The concensus of eighth grade teachers shows a slight gain— nearly one 'fourth of such teachers felt that entering classes are usually familiar with and skillful in the use of the appendix, while eleven, still fewer than onehalf, held that view in regard to classes leaving the eighth grade. Ten of the ninth grade teachers voted that pupils are usually skillful in this respect * while seventeen— just over two-thirds— were content that pupils leave the ninth grade, and that usually means junior high school as well, are satis factorily able to use the appendix of a textbook. A sharp _ variation of judgment is evident here for only three of the twenty-five teachers of entering tenth grade classes express the opinion that those classes usually evidence a satisfactory degree of this skill, while eighteen said they, seldom are so skilled, and four voted that they never are. 59 The rather sharp break apparent between the sixth and seventh grades, and again between the ninth and tenth grades probably has its roots in the term "satisfactory11* It is conceivable that a sixth grade pupil might satisfy the de mands made of him without ever having connected the name f,appendixff with that supplementary, fact-laden, sort of a final chapter to which he was occasionally directed to turn* Seventh grade teachers begin to expect pupils to make some voluntary use of available sources of supplementary informa tion, and find that the pupils are not habituated to any such proeeedure* The demand becomes stronger throughout each succeeding grade, remaining constantly degree of adjustments made by the pupils* advance of the This situation in dicates need for careful instruction in the purposes and uses of the appendix. Probably the seventh grade would be a suit able place for the intensive instruction, which should be followed by spaced drills in the form of frequent assignments requiring application of the instruction. These drills should be repeated at intervals throughout the junior high school period until recourse to the appendix, has become part of the study habit pattern of the student. Use of the Preface. The situation in regard to the preface is similar to that of the appendix, discussed above, with the exception that the dissatisfaction of the teachers 60 sets in earlier* Sixth grade teachers indicated disapproval* Only one-third considered that pupils use of the preface was usually satisfactory, while fourteen thought it seldom satis factory, and a few said it was never so* This dissatisfaction continued in slightly abating proportions throughout each succeeding grade level* Twelve teachers of the seventh grade, fourteen of the eighth grade, and fifteen of the .ninth grade found pupils, upon leaving the respective grades, familiar with and satisfactorily skillful in the use of the preface* The tenth grade teachers* opinions, however, diverged sharply from this view. Only two considered entering tenth grade classes satisfactory in this regard. Six of the ninth grade teachers considered classes satisfactory upon entering the ninth grade, with four of the eighth, and five of the seventh grade teachers holding a similar view. Twenty of the tenth grade teachers voted that entering grade ten classes were seldom so skilled, leaving three who felt that they never were. Teachers throughout the junior high school period are aware of the advisability of pupils becoming more familiar with the preface. There is considerable consideration and reason to believe that the more intelligent and inquisitive pupils, once trained to refer to the preface * continue its use. Especially is this so when the preface is addressed to 61 the 3roung student, and is gaged to his interests and reading abilities. The marked discontent of the tenth grade teachers might be occasioned by the fact that a great many high school text books apparently proceed on the theory that the high school pupils are mature individuals and no longer warrant a preface addressed especially to them. The vocabulary be comes as suddenly more technical, and the print smaller. The elementary and junior high school pupil has become habituated to finding a simply worded and interest-seeking preface pre pared especially for him, and frequently a second preface addressed to the adults who may handle the. book* The high school student, for the moment forgetting his claims to maturity, often concludes after a hasty glance that there is no preface— that is, none he is intended to read. Such students need to have it pointed out to them that as they assume the rights, privileges, and perogatives of the more nearly mature they must in turn put away childish things— and cease to expect a preface nwritten down11 to them. Instruction in the value and use of the preface should begin far down in the grades. Books written for very little children often contain a preface. Children should be led to look for this introductory foreword and to recognize that familiarity with it can enhance the flavor of the entire book. Experience has shown that once conditioned to turn to the 62 preface for introduction and explanation, the habit will persist with most students because of the essential satis faction involved. The establishment of the habit should be insured by frequent assignments, through all the grades, calling for information which can be found only in the pre face. Example is a powerful weapon,, and one which is parti cularly applicable here. Whatever the grade— from kinder garten through university post-graduate courses— if all teachers formed the habit of turning appreciatively to the preface of new books as they came into their hands, many pupils would follow the example. Use of Topic Headings. Twenty-two of the twenty-five sixth grade teachers felt that the majority of pupils on leaving the sixth grade display a satisfactory skill in the use of topic headings; nineteen seventh grade teachers, twenty eighth grade teachers, and twenty-four tenth grade teachers felt that pupils on leaving the grade under consider ation, manifest this skill. Ten of the tenth grade teachers agree that they come to the tenth grade able to use topic headings satisfactorily, while thirteen find that they are seldom able, and two express the opinion that the majority of the class are never able to use topic headings in a satis factory fashion; 63 Use of footnotes* Five of the sixth grade teachers frankly acknowledge that on leaving the sixth grade the major ity of their pupils never show familiarity with, or ability to use footnotes* Another ten say they seldom do, while the last ten assert that pupils usually display satisfactory skill in the use of footnotes* In the seventh grade two teachers felt that the pupils displayed a satisfactory skill on entering, and twelve thought they did by the end of the seventh grade. The votes in the eighth grade went up one point, both for entering and leaving pupils. The ninth grade teachers took a considerably more satisfied view of the situation; nine voicing the opinion that pupils could use footnotes on enter ing the grade, and eighteen feeling that they could do so by the end of the grade* Again the tenth grade teachers dissent with only three of the twenty-five voting that pupils usually use footnotes satisfactorily and twenty-one maintaining that they seldom exemplify this skill. Inasmuch as it is difficult to see why the use of foot notes in connection with use of a text book should be markedly more difficult in the tenth grade than in the junior high school period, the suspicion arises that the tenth grade teachers* accustomed to more mature standards, may have been somewhat influenced by entering tenth grade pupils inability to use footnotes in their own written work. Junior high 64 school teachers would not often expect such an ability* Use of graphs, charts, and tables. This problem seems to have presented little difficulty to the sixth grade teachers ias twenty of the twenty^five felt that it had been satisfactor ily solved by the end of the sixth grade. Seventh grade teach ers were a little less sure about it; only one-third agreeing that it had been mastered by entering classes, and, eighteen content with the ability of classes leaving the seventh grade to read and interpret graphic presentations. Eighth grade teachers were even more doubtful of their classes* abilities in this respect--seven voting that incoming classes, and fif teen that leaving classes used graphs, charts, and tables satisfactorily. The ninth grade teachers, however, view the problem with greater sanguinity* Ten of the ninth grade teachers even believed that entering classes displayed ability to use the pictorial devices found in their textbooks in a satisfactory fashion, while more than seven-eighths of them believed that pupils leaving the ninth grade evidenced this ability. Again, the tenth grade teachers dissented. votes indicated a belief that incomirg Only a few tenth graders made satisfactory use of- the graphs, and charts in their textbooks, with nineteen votes saying they 11seldom” could do so, and one saying they Mnever” evidenced satisfactory skill in the use of graphs, charts, and tables. 65 One trend is evidenced in these reactions--that the type of pictorial presentations used in textbooks sharply increases in difficulty as the junior high school type text book is substituted for the elementary text, and again as the senior high school text supplants the less technical and less difficult junior high school text. Conclusions. A fairly consistent "break*1 appears in the standards set by teachers at the end of the elementary period* and again at the end of the junior high school period. At the end of the sixth grade* and again at the end of the ninth grade, teachers appear to feel that the ends for which they have been striving throughout the years a given class has spent in that particular school level, have been fairly well achieved. But when the next section of the educational system takes over, the judgment of the teachers there is that the pupils are far from a satisfactory goal. This judgment is not so much a criticism of the work that has been done on the previous level, as it is usually thought to be, as it is an indication that the teacher has as her essential or final standard of satisfactory achieve ment, the standards which the highest grade in that particular institution can reasonably hope to achieve. There is not so much an accepted sixth, seventh, or eighth grade standard, as an elementary school standard, a junior high school standard, and a senior high school standard. This situation makes for considerable confusion on the part of the pupil who has been a source of pride to his elementary school teachers in that he has been fairly approximate to the standards set for that institution as he leaves the sixth grade; only to find as he enters Junior high school that his achievements are looked upon with considerable scorn as he is compared, to his de cided disfavor, with the ninth grade pupils. By slow degrees, over a three year period, he again gains in grade and leaves the junior high school as one approved of by those in author ity; only to be thrown once more, with shocking effects upon his self-esteemj to the foot of the class as he becomes an "entering tenth grade pupil". The results of this questionnaire indicate very clearly that instead of there being any one time when a new textbook study skill is introduced and mastered, each one of the tech niques is in use throughout each of the grades, with teacher’s standards of what constitutes a "satisfactory" degree of skill for any one particular grade surprisingly consistent. II. SKILL IK THE USE OP A LIBRARY The data concerning skill in the use of a library; both in connection with the use of various reference works, and in locating books on shelves is given in Table III..which appears on the next page. 67 TABLE III FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF TEACHER RESPONSES REGARDING- PUPIL SKILL IN THE USE OF A LIBRARY Do the majority of your pupils evidence an ac- - 6th quaintance with, and a satisfactory skill in * 1. the us e of s 7 th ©• 8 th 1• e. 9 th 1* e• 1* 10 th e• A. Reference Works? S.• Never b. Seldom c. Usually 0 0 25 0 10 15 0 2 23 0 8 17 0 2 23 0 5 20 0 1 24 1 11 13 a. Never b. Seldom c • Usually 0 2 23 0 17 8 0 4 21 1 13 11 0 3 22 1 6 18 0 1 24 1 6 18 a. Never 10. The World Al b. Seldom manac? c. Usually 8 12 5 7 17 1 3 14 8 11 11 3 1 17 7 4 18 3 2 9 14 4 18 3 a. Never b • Seldom c . Usually 17 18 7 0 6 17 2 15 10 0 4 12 9 7 14 4 1 7 17 4 17 4 7 14 4 3 1 21 4 14 7 1 5 19 0 10 15 0 1 24 1 9 15 0 7 18 0 1 24 0 5 20 8. A Dic tionary? 9• An Encyclopedia. or Worldbook? 11• The Reader1s Guide? 12. The Card a. Never Catalogue b. Seldom c. usually B. 8 0 3 8 14 Books on Shelves? Do •your pupi1s : 13. Distin guish be-.. a. Never 0 b. Seldom tween 3 c • Usually 22 fiction « Snd non-fiction? 1. denotes a Leaving"; e. < 0 0 1 0 16' 1 7 2 9 24 17 23 >i_ 11EnteringM ♦ 68 TABLE III (continued) FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF TEACHER RESPONSES REGARDING PUPIL SKILL. THE USE OF A LIBRARY 6 th * 1. 7th ©. 8 th 1. e♦ 9 th 1. e. 10 th 1. e. Do your pupils: 14. Know that fiction is shelved hy au thor? a. Never b. Seldom c. Usually 3 8 14 3 15 7 0 1 24 2 6 17 0 2 23 0 6 19 0 1 24 1 10 14 Know that non fiction a. Never is b Seldom shelved c. Usually hy sub ject? 5 7 13 4 15 6 0 1 24 2 7 16 0 2 23 1 7 17 0 2 23 2 9 14 . * 1. denotes ’’Leaving” ; e. denotes '’Entering11. 69 Use of a Dictionary.. All twenty-five of the sixth grade teachers felt that their pupils usually evidenced this .skill on leaving the sixth grade; hut only fifteen of the seventh grade teachers were of the opinion that pupils enter ing the seventh grade "usually" displayed a satisfactory skill in this technique. The other ten seventh grade teachers ex pressed the view that pupils entering the seventh grade "seldom" used'the dictionary as weill as might be expected; and two of them considered that even pupils leaving the seven th grade "seldom" evidenced this skill to a satisfactory de gree. However, twenty-three of the seventh grade teachers judged their pupils satisfactory in this skill by the time they left the seventh grade. The eighth grade teachers also expressed dissatisfact ion with the skill of pupils entering that grade. Only slightly more than two-thirds of the teachers found that pupils entering the eighth grade displayed satisfactory skill in the use of the dictionary, while the rest felt that pupils evidenced an inadequate skill in this technique. It is inter esting to note that the opinions of the eighth grade teachers relative to the skill of pupils leaving the eighth grade was exactly the same as the opinion of seventh grade relative to pupils leaving that grade. The ninth grade teachers judgment: teachers nearly concurred in this five could agree that entering ninth grade pupils 70 were seldom satisfactory, while twenty agreed that they usually displayed a satisfactory degree of skill in the use of the dictionary* A close parallel was disclosed between opinions of the sixth and the ninth grade teachers' concerning the skills of pupils leaving the two grades. All twenty-five of the sixth grade teachers believed that the majority of pupils leave the elementary level skilled in the use of the dictionary; and twenty-four out of twenty-five ninth grade teachers believed the same of pupils leaving the junior high school. A similar close parallel existed between the views of seventh and tenth grade teachers regarding the skill of pupils just entering the junior high school and the senior high school. Ten of the seventh grade teachers were of the opinion that pupils entering the junior high school seldom use the dictionary adequately; while eleven of the tenth grade teachers considered that pupils entering the senior high school seldom evidenced such skill. One tenth grade teacher said that the majority of entering tenth grade pupils never show such evidence, while only thirteen of the twenty-five, a bare, majority, were of the opinion that skill in the use of the dictionary is usual among entering tenth grade pupils. Use of Encyclopedia or World-Books. Two sixth grade teachers expressed the opinion that pupils leaving their grade seldom evidence a satisfactory skill in the use of an 71 encyclopedia or world-book, while twenty-three thought this skill usual. Less than one-third of the seventh grade teach ers, found it usual with pupils, entering the seventh grade. The eighth grade teachers reported: on entering, one "never",' thirteen "seldom**, and eleven "usually"; and on leaving, three "seldom", and twenty-two "usually11. One ninth grade teacher said that the majority of pupils on entering the grade "never" evidence such skill, while six considered it "seldom" and eighteen found that it was "usually" evidenced. However, ninth grade teachers were almost unanimously of the opinion that pupils leaving the ninth grade and junior high school "usually" evidence a satisfactory degree of skill in the use of an en cyclopedia or worId-book. The reported opinions of tenth grade teachers veered far from the opinion of ninth grade teachers. Concerning evidence of this skill on the part of entering tenth grade pupils; only eighteen considered it "usual", while six said it was "seldom" evidenced, and one found the skill so rare among entering tenth grade pupils as to be of the opinion that the majority of such pupils "never" demonstrate it. Use of the World Almanac. The World Almanac is not usually found on the shelves of the elementary school library. This fact was reflected in the judgment of the sixth grade teachers, eight of whom said that the majority of pupils ?a leaving the eighth grade "never” evidenced acquaintance with, and skill in the use of the World Almanac, while twelve others considered that they "seldom" did, and only five were of the • opinion that this was a usual skill. Seventh grade teachers, too, were uncertain of the proficiency of pupils in the use of this reference work. Only one felt that pupils entering the seventh grade "usually" showed skill in its use, while seventeen considered this skill "seldom" shown, and seven were of the opinion that such skill is "never" evidenced by the majority of pupils entering the seventh grade. Eight of these same seventh grade teachers, however, expressed the view that skill in the use of the World Almanac was "usually" a part of the. study equipment of pupils leaving the seventh grade, although the majority continued to believe this desir able state very seldom achieved by the majority of such pupils. Nearly half of the eighth grade teachers, were of the opinion that the majority of pupils entering the eighth grade "never" evidenced this skill, while another eleven "seldom" find such evidence, and only three "usually" do. Indeed, even by the end of the eighth grade, only seven teachers expressed the view that the majority of pupils have acquired this skill, while seventeen found it "seldom" evidenced, and one"never". The ninth grade teachers apparently found their pupils were generally somewhat more familiar with this reference work for while only four could say "never", eighteen said that they 73 "seldom" and only four said they "usually" evidence skill in the use of the World Almanac on entering the ninth grade; fourteen, for the first time a majority; considered it "usual ly" a skill on the part of pupils leaving the ninth grade. Four of the teachers of entering tenth grade pupils agree that the majority of pupils entering senior high school "never" display this ability, while eighteen considered that this skill had "seldom" been achieved, and only three voted that acquaintance with and skill in the use of the World Almanac was "usual" with pupils on this scholastic level. IJse of the Reader*s Guide. Sixth grade teachers, with considerable emphasis, recorded negative views concerning leaving sixth grade pupils’ skill in the use of the Reader’s Guide. Seventeen of the twenty-five teachers said this was never a skill of the majority of such pupils, and the remain ing eight said it seldom was. Seventh grade .teachers con curred; voting concerning pupils entering the seventh grade as follows: eighteen "never", and seven "seldom". Only two of the seventh grade teachers expressed the view that this skill was usually mastered by the majority of pupils by the end of the seventh grade. Seventeen considered it seldom adequate, and six, or nearly twenty-five per cent believed that the majority had never acquired this skill. Eighth grade teachers* judgment of pupil skill in the 74 use of the Readerfs Guide was as follows: fifteen teachers of entering pupils voted what indicated that pupils never evidenced a satisfactory degree of this skill; ten voted that they seldom did; and only one found that they usually did. On leaving the eighth grade,, four teachers considered that this skill was never evidenced "by the majority, twelve that it seldom was, and nine that it usually was. The majority vote of the ninth grade, teachers concerning entering pupils was in the "seldom” category* fourteen expressing that opinion while seven said "never", and only four "usually”. Seventeen of the ninth grade teachers, however, believed that the major ity of pupils had learned how to use the Readerfs Guide before leaving the ninth grade, and junior high school. But the majority of tenth grade teacher opinion swung back to the "seldom” view; with four saying "never” , and four "usually". Use of the Card Catalogue. Teachers generally ex pressed greater confidence in the adequate preparation of pupils regarding skill in the use of card catalogue. Fourteen sixth grade teachers believed that pupils on leaving the elem entary school usually have acquired this skill; and while an equal number of seventh grade teachers found this seldom true of entering seventh grade pupils, an even stronger majority, agreed that on leaving the seventh grade pupils usually evidenced skill in the use of the card catalogue. Again in 75 the eighth grade the majority opinion of teachers concerning the skill of pupils on entering the grade swung toward an expression of doubt: fourteen teachers considered this skill seldom a part of the study equipment of entering eighth grade pupils* with only half that number voting that it was usually so. nineteen eighth grade teachers, however, considered that pupils have usually mastered this skill before leaving the eighth grade; Two-thirds of the ninth grade teachers agreed, with fifteen voting that mastery of the technique of the use of the card catalogue is usual with entering ninth grade pupils. Twenty-four— all but one— of the ninth grade teachers expressed the opinion that pupils leaving the grade have usually mastered this skill. Tenth grade teachers, as usual, were less sure of this mastery. Fifteen of the tenth grade teachers found satis factory evidence of this skill on the part of pupils entering the grade and senior high school, but nine felt it was seldom evidenced* and one expressed the view that it was never an acquired skill with the majority of pupils just entering the tenth grade. Summary concerning skill in the use of references. The majority of sixth grade teachers believed that pupils have mastered the use of the dictionary and the encyclopedia be fore leaving the elementary level; and ninth grade teachers 76 believe the same of pupils leaving the junior high school level. Teachers of entering classes in the junior high, and in the senior high disagree with almost exact emphasis. While it is reasonable to assume that the standards considered "satisfactory” are considerably more rigorous in a ninth grade than in a sixth grade; and likewise in a tenth than in a seven th; it is still apparent that the gap of expectancy between the sixth and seventh grades is almost equivalent to that between the ninth and tenth grades— and in both cases consid erably greater than that between any other two grades. Teacher opinion concerning skill in the use of the World Almanac and the Reader*s Guide reflected the facts that while these references are little used in elementary grades, the junior high school introduces their use and is confident that by the end of the ninth grade period the majority of pupils have acquired considerable skill in their use. The senior high teachers are less sanguine of this. An interesting point in the opinions concerning the use of the card catalogue is that while the least confidence in, the pupil achievement of this skill was shown by teachers of pupils leaving the eighth grade, teachers of entering ninth grade pupils displayed greater assurance tha)t pupils have mastered use of the card catalogue than any other teachers of an entering class. 77 Pi stinguishing 'between fiction and non-fiction. On all levels, teachers were of the majority opinion that pupils make this distinction "before leaving the grade. Confidence in this matter on the part of teachers of pupils just enter ing the various grades, while in no instance as high a degree as those of the teachers concerning pupils leaving the pre vious grade, increased on each grade level. Only nine teachers of entering seventh grade pupils felt pupils were usually able to make this distinction, while seventeen eighth grade teachers eighteen ninth grade teachers, and twenty tenth grade teachers were of this opinion. It is probable that these opinions re flect the increasing mental maturity of the pupils involved as much as the acquisition of a skill. Knowledge of how fiction is shelved. The Dewey Decimal system of library classification is in general use both in school and in public libraries. According to this system fiction is shelved alphabetically according to the author !s last name. The majority of teachers in sixth, seventh, eighth, and ninth grade pupils believed that this fact is generally known by. pupils before leaving these grades. ■ Sixth grade teachers were the least -unanimous in this view--only fourteen felt it usual there. Except in the seventh grade, where the majority of teachers felt that this information was seldom one of the study skills of entering seventh grade elasses^ 78 the teachers of pupils entering the various grades were also agreed that pupils usually know how fiction is shelved. Knowledge of how non-fiction is shelved. Teachers ex pressing views on this topic almost exactly duplicated the opinions concerning pupil knowledge of the system of fiction shelving. Only thirteen sixth grade teachers believed that pupils are usually acquainted with this fact on leaving the elementary school. Teachers of seventh, eighth, and ninth grades believe that pupils leaving these grades are usually possessed of this knowledge. The majority of eighth, ninth, and tenth grade teachers agree that the knowledge is usual with entering classes, though with less unanimity than is ex pressed by the teachers of pupils leaving the grades; Fewer tenth grade teachers concur than either eighth or ninth grade teachers; Only the seventh grade teachers express the opinion that entering pupils seldom know that non-fiction is shelved by subjects* It is obvious that knowledge of how both fiction and non-fiction is shelved, together with the ability to distin guish between the two, is a basic necessity in developing skill in independent use of a library. Teacher opinions concerning the knowledge and skills of pupils in handling the techniques involved in efficiency in locating books off the shelves of libraries suggest that 79 the acquisition of library skills as such is quite incidental throughout the elementary grades, but that pupils in the junior high school, particularly in the seventh, are given specific instruction in these techniques* The apparent drop in skill between the junior and senior high schools * is quite probably affected by the fact that pupils just entering high school are confronted not only with the necessity of locating unfamiliar material, but also with the necessity of locating it in an unfamiliar library* III. SKILL I H KOTE-TAKIKG- TECHNIQUES The pattern of teacher opinion concerning pupils skill in taking notes as given in Table IV; presents the probab ility that the conditioning factors are at work. First, con siderably more difficult textbook material is used in the junior high school than in the elementary school, and again in the senior high school than in the junior high school. This is, of course* entirely proper and legitimate. Second, teacher standards of acceptable performance becomes definitely more rigorous on each advanced level. This too is legitimate. The only point that can be criticized is that in addition to to the desirable gradual climb there is considerable evidence pointing an abrupt step-up at the break between each two levels. There is not so much an eighth grade difficulty, or acceptability, for instance* as there is a junior high school 80 TABLE IV FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF TEACHER RESPONSES REGARDING PUPIL SKILL- IN NOTE TAKING TECHNIQUES Do the majority of your pupils evidence ability to: 6th./' 1, 7th e• 8th 1. e• 9th 1. e• 10th 1. e 16 • Evaluate material and se a. Never lect b. Seldom perti c. Usually nent in formation? 1 9 15 8 16 1 0 17 8 7 12 6 0 8 17 3 15 7 0 5 20 1 20 7 a. Never b. Seldom c. Usually 2 6 17 7 17 1 0 16 9 6 15 4 1 11 13 3 15 7 0 9 16 2 19 4 Select a. Never b. Seldom key words and c. Usually phrases? 5 9 11 8 15 2 0 18 7 8 14 3 2 12 11 6 14 5 1 10 14 1 21 3 H CD • 17. Summarize? 19. Select main thoughts of para graphs? a. Never b. Seldom c • Usually 0 4 21 3 18 4 0 6 19 4 10 11 1 6 18 2 14 9 0 2 23 1 20 4 20. Use bibliography cards? a.'Never b. Seldom c • Usually 13 10 2 16 9 0 11 12 2 13 10 2 10 10 5 10 13 2 5 12 8 7 16 2 21. Use ab brevia tions? a. Never b. Seldom c. Usually 0 11 14 1 13 11 0 11 14 6 13 6 4 13 8 5 10 10 2 10 13 3 15 7 # 1. denotes "Leaving11; e. denotes "Entering" • 81 difficulty, or a senior high standard of acceptability* Evaluation of material. Three-fifths of the element ary teachers believed pupils usually evidenced ability to evaluate material and select pertinent information on leaving the sixth grade* while slightly less than one-third, consid ered this a usual skill of pupils leaving the seventh grade. Hot till the end of the eighth grade did a majority again vote that this skill was a usual one, while four-fifths of the ninth grade teachers expressed this view concerning pupils leaving the ninth grade. Both seventh and tenth grade teachers were emphatic in the view that this skill was seldom or never prevalent among the majority entering these respective grades. Ability to summarize. The prevailing drift of opinion on this item closely follows those expressed on the previous question. Sixth grade teachers are inclined to believe the ability to summarize usual by the time pupils leave the sixth grade. Seventeen voted "usually” , six "seldom” , and two "never" on this question. The teachers of entering seventh grade pupils flatly deny this: only one found this a usual skill, to seventeen who considered it seldom achieved, and seven who say it never is. Even by the end of the ninth grade only sixteen teachers voted it usually a skill to nine who say it is seldom evidenced. 82 Teachers of ninth grade pupils are less confident of the ability of pupils on leaving the grade to summarize than are teachers of the sixth grade. The inference is clear that either the material to be summarized presents considerably greater difficulties, or that teachers demand a far greater degree of skill in summarizing. Probably both of these condi tioning factors have operated upon these expressions of opin ion* There is again evidence of this in the expression of tenth grade teacher opinion— nineteen of whom considered ade quate summarizing skill seldom evidenced by entering tenth grade pupils* Selection of key words and phrases. Ho place from the sixth to the tenth grade is the tide of teacher opinion strongly of the view that the ability to select key words and phrases is usually evidenced. A bare majority of opinion is achieved only once; by teachers of pupils leaving the ninth grade; while more than two-thirds of the tenth grade teachers considered it seldom ani achieved skill on the part of enter ing tenth grade pupils. Selection of main thoughts of paragraphs. The majority of teachers of each grade were of the opinion that pupils usually evidence ability to select the main thought of a paragraph before leaving the grade* In equal agreement, the teachers of each grade, though by a less conclusive majority, 83 were of the opinion that this skill is seldom evidenced by pupils oust entering the grade. The seventh and tenth grade •teachers are especially emphatic in this view— highlighting once more the unwarrantable■J u m p ‘in.difficulty of material, severity of standards, or both, which occurs in the break between two levels of the educational system. Instead of a gradual increase in difficulty, and a tightening up of the standards of acceptable achievement proper in view of advanc ing maturity and the cumulative effect of training, the trans fer from elementary school to junior high school or from junior high school to senior high school is not so much a step up ward, comparable with the advance from, say a third to a fourth grade, or a seventh to an eighth; but a leap from the shores of the familiar and comparatively known, to the unfamiliar, unknown, and often unfriendly. Use of bibliography cards. Sixth grade teachers agree that pupils leaving the sixth grade seldom or-never evidence ability to use-bibliography cards. The expressed opinions suggest that this ability increases steadily throughout the junior high school period; the opinions gradually swinging away from a never view, through seldom and toward usually, nevertheless, nearly one-half of the ninth grade teachers felt that this skill is seldom achieved by pupils before leaving the junior high school. 84 Use of abbreviations^ Opinions of teachers of pupils about to leave each of the. respective grades is only slightly stronger in the view that ability to use abbreviations is usually, a skill evidenced by such pupils than that it is seldom evidenced. Indeed more than one-half of the eighth grade teachers are of the opinion that this skill is seldom evidenced by pupils leaving that grade. In every grade teachers are of the opinion that the majority of pupils enter ing that grade seldom show ability to abbreviate adequately. The junior high school apparently makes serious attempts to teach the specific skills vhich add up to skill in note-taking. Generally speaking, the junior high school teachers are far from expressing any over-confidence that their attempts have met with unqualified success, IV-. SKILL IN OUTLINING The teacher responses to inquiries concerning pupil skill in outlining technique are presented in Table v. on the following page. Skeleton outlines. Thirteen of the sixth grade teachers responded "seldom11 to this inquiry, with eleven saying "usual ly" and one "never". The same number of seventh grade teachers say that pupils entering the seventh grade seldom can fill in simple skeleton outlines, with the other twelve votes evenly 85 TABLE V FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF TEACHER RESPONSES REGARDING PUPIL SKILL IN OUTLINING TECHNIQUES ©• 8 th 1. e. O 22. Fill in simple skeleton out lines? 7 th H Do the majority of your 6 th pupils evidence an ability to: # 1• 9 th 1. e. 1. e 1 a. Never b. Seldom 13 c. Usually 11 6 13 6 1 11 13 11 12 2 2 12 11 4 15 6 0 8 17 3 16 6 23. Select and re1 phrase 3 a • .Never main 8 b* Seldom thoughts c. Usually 14 of para graphs ? 6 15 4 2 16 7 4 17 4 1 1410 2 18 5 0 8 17 3 18 4 8 17 0 3 14 8 9 10 6 4 12 9 5 14 6 0 11 14 3 21 1 1 4 18 16 8 3. 4 19 2 0 12 13 1 22 2 24• Organ ize main 4 points in a . Never terms of b. Seldom 14 a general c. Usually 7 plan? 2b. Elimi nate irrelevent points? 5 a. Never b . Seldom 8 c. Usually 11* 4 7 18 . 20 1 0 ■I_ # 1. denotes l e a v i n g ” ; e. denotes ,!EnterIng,!• 86 divided between "usually” and "never”. By the end of the seventh grade only thirteen thought that the majority of pupils usually evidenced an ability to fill in simple out lines. Two.less, agreed that this was a usual skill with pupils leaving the eighth grade. Seventeen ninth grade teach ers considered that pupils leaving the grade could.usually fill in such an outline; but only six of the teachers of entering tenth grade pupils agreed, while a majority of six teen felt the ability was seldom evidenced. The teacher con ception of a "simple*1 outline appeared to have increased more rapidly than pupil ability to perform. Selection and rephrasing of main thoughts. Strangely enough, fourteen of the sixth grade teachers considered that this rather difficult technique is usually one of the skills of pupils leaving the sixth grade. Throughout the seventh and eighth grades the majority of teacher' votes for both entering and leaving pupils expressed the view that the abili ty to select and rephrase main thoughts of paragraphs is sel dom or never achieved. The ninth grade teachers, while con curring in the opinion that entering pupils are seldom skilled in this technique, voted seventeen to eight, that pupils leav ing the ninth grade are usually able to select and rephrase the main thought of a paragraph* However, the tenth grade teachers, by a larger majority, went back to the view that 87 this is seldom true of entering tenth grade pupils* The abrupt advance in difficulty of material between the levels of elementary and junior high school, and again between the junior and senior high school is again indicated in these responses. Assuming the validity of the expressed' opinions, a picture is presented of sixth grade pupils who have become fairly successful in selecting the main thoughts of paragraphs and rephrasing these thoughts, entering junior high school where for the next two and more years they are overwhelmed and defeated in the attempt to exercise this technique by the greatly increased difficulty of the material. By the end of the ninth grade most of them have again mastered the technique; but on entering the senior high school they are again faced with material of such increased difficulty that few can evidence an adequate degree of skill in this necessary technique. Organization of main points; supposes several abilities. 'This technique pre It is first necessary that the pupil determine which are the main points. Then, before he can arrange them in terms of a. plan, he must be able to place some evaluation upon them; These abilities demand a consid^- erable degree of mental maturity. In view of this fact it is not surprising that teachers of the sixth, seventh, and eighth grades reported that the ability to organize main 88 thoughts in terms of a general plan is seldom evidenced by pupils of those grades. Only a slight majority of ninth grade teachers considered it usually an acquired skill by the end of the ninth grades However, only one tenth grade teacher felt that it is a usual skill with the majority of pupils entering the tenth grade, while twenty-one considered it seldom'so, and three said never. Elimination of irrelevent points. This ability, in company with the abilities to select and organize main points, is essential in the making of an efficient outline. Sixth grade teachers considered the ability to eliminate irrelevent points more frequently evidenced than the ability to organize main points, but did not consider it usual with pupils leaving the sixth grade. Teacher votes throughout the junior high school period leaned heavily toward the opinion that this skill is seldom achieved by junior high school pupils. Educational authorities rate skill in outlining as highly essential in successful study. The consensus of teach er opinion is that the majority of pupils have not acquired a satisfactory degree of this skill by the end of the junior high school period. 89 V. VOCABULARY BUILDING • The ability to build a vocabulary, independent of direct teacher instruction is a valuable study technique* The data concerning vocabulary building technique is given in Table VI. Meaning from content* One of the ways in which students who study successfully build their vocabularies is by con sciously looking to content for a clue to the meaning of un familiar words* Teachers of all grades from sixth to the tenth were of the majority opinion that pupils of these grades usually make this attempt. growth in this ability. There would seem to be a steady The fact that teachers felt that pupils at the end of each grade were more successful in get ting meaning from content than at the beginning of each grade probably is a healthy sign, indicating continuing progress. Familiar parts of unfamiliar words. thoughtful and conscious skill. This is a detailed, While two-thirds of the sixth grade teachers believed that the majority of pupils leaving the sixth grade usually look for the familiar parts of un familiar words, nowhere else until the end of the ninth grade did teachers find this true* Tenth grade teachers were over whelmingly of the opinion that pupils entering senior high school have not established this habit* 90 TABLE VI FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF TEACHER RESPONSES REGARDING PUPIL SKILL IN VOCABULARY BUILDING Do the majority of your pupils: 6th ^*"1* 26 . Attempt to get meaning from content? 7th e• 8th 1# e. 9th 1* e. 10th 1* e• a. Never 1 b • Seldom 1 c. Usually 23 2 8 15 0 6 19 1 9 15 1 4 20 2 2 21 0 1 24 1 5 19 27. Look for 2 familiar £L• Never 7 parts of b. Seldom c. Usually 16 unfamiliar words? 6 18 1 2 17 6 7 16 2 1 16 8 2 15 8 0 8 17 3 19 3 11 12 2 4 12 9 7 17 1 2 14 9 4 1 18 10 3' 14 2 19 4 3 15 7 1 2 19 4 0 11 14 4 16 5 0 9 16 18 1 10 15 0 2 17 11 10 6 4 3 10 12 8 15 2 28. Under stand a* Never 1 meaning b. Seldom 12 and use c. Usually 12 of com mon p r e fixes and suffixes? 29. Know how a* Never 1 to divide b . Seldom 5 into syl C t Usually 19 lables? • o CO Know how to use diacri tical mark ings as pronun ciation aids? a. Never 4 Seldom 12 c • Usually 9 b. 9 15 1 8 16 4 15 6 # 1. denotes "Leaving**; e* denotes “Entering” • 6 It is difficult to understand why this skill, presumab ly established by the end of the sixth grade * and re-establish ed by the end of the ninth grade, should be abandoned upon entering each new academic level, unless the vocabulary diffi culties presented by the new situation were in such profusion that the pupils feel inadequate to attempt an orderly word by word attack on them. It is entirely possible that a careful survey and adjustment of the advancing vocabulary difficult ies presented to pupils so that the load is never allowed to become overwhelming might do much to establish and maintain the study "skill of looking for familiar parts of unfamiliar words. Prefixes and suffixes. An understanding of the meaning and use of common prefixes and suffixes is a valuable aid in vocabulary building. Nevertheless, only the teachers of pup ils leaving the sixth grade, and again of those leaving the ninth grade were, by even a slight majority, of the opinion that pupils usually have this understanding. The consensus of opinion throughout the junior high school period is that pupils seldom evidence such understanding. Divide words into syllables. The majority opinion was - that pupils leaving each of thegrades (six, seven, eight, and nine) do know how to divide words into syllables; although in no case was the opinion anything like a unanimous one. The 92 opinion of teachers of pupils entering each of these grades was, in each ease, that pupils are seldom .skilled in this tech nique, The implication is that while pupils can demonstrate this skill with familiar words that they are unahle to use it when confronted with pronunciation difficulties, and with un certainty as to meaning. This technique has little value as a vocabulary building device unless it can be used to unlock unfamiliar words. Diacritical markings. Opinion;* on this question was con sistent from the sixth to the tenth grade, and was strongly slanted toward the "seldom” or "never” responses. Educational authorities point out that independent mastery of pronunciat ion is practically impossible without this aid; and yet, lack ing this skill, throughout the entire junior high school period the majority of pupils, in the opinion of teachers, remain de pendent upon others for pronunciation of unfamiliar words; The attempt to get meaning from content is the only technique for independent vocabulary building which teachers felt was part of the study skills of junior high school pupils. Aside from this pupils are judged to be, "in the majority de pendent upon instruction for both meanings and pronunciations of new words; A careful investigation into each of the specif ic aids to vocabulary building, with recommendations as to where and how these skills should be taught, would be a valu able contribution to education. 93 ' TI. INSTRUCTION G-IVEN IN STUDY TECHNIQUES Column III. in the questionnaire gave each teacher who responded, an opportunity to indicate what kind of instruction is given in each skill,- in the grade for which she was voting. Instruction given in the use of the index* While the majority of sixth, seventh, and eighth grade teachers reported that they feave special drill in the use of the index, the major ity 'became steadily less with twenty-three out of twenty-five sixth grade teachers, hut only fifteen out of twenty-five eighth grade teachers making such a report. The data concern ing this instruction is given in Table 1TII. The majority of ninth and tenth grade teachers said they gave incidental drill but with a stronger tendency in the tenth than in the ninth to have given special drill. This correlated closely with the opinion of teachers of pupils entering the tenth grade that mastery of the use of the index is by no means completely accomplished by the end of the junior high school period. Instruction given in the use of the table of contents. The results of this item tally exactly with those on item 1. Sixth, seventh, and eighth grade teachers reported "special drill" with steadily decreasing emphasis; The ninth and ten th grade teachers said they gave "incidental" teaching only in the use of the table of contents* but with a noticeable tend ency on the part of the tenth grade teacher to go back to 94 TABLE VII FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF.TEACHER RESPONSES REGARD ING INSTRUCTION GIVEN IN THE USE OF TEXTBOOKS X. Textbook Skills 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 1. The Index a. None b. Incidental 'c• Special drill 0 2 25 0 9 16 1 9 15 0 17 8 0 15 10 2. The Table of Contents a. None b. Incidental c. Special drill 0 1 24 0 10 15 2 9 14 0 20 5 1 13 11 5. The Appendix a. None b. Incidental c • Special drill 2 9 14 4 12 9 4 13 8 1 14 10 2 17 6 4. The Preface a. None b. Incidental c • Special drill 4 15 6 5 14 8 4 12 9 2 17 6 0 19 6 5. Topic Headings a. None b. Incidental c. Special drill 1 6 IS 0 11 14 0 12 13 0 10 15 0 8 17 6. Footnotes a. None b. Incidental c. Special drill 4 19 2 3 18 4 5 10 10 1 18 6 0 15 10 7. G-raphs , Charts, Tables, etc. a. None b. Incidental c • Special drill 0 8 17 0 11 14 1 8 16 0 13 12 0 16 9 95 "special drill" on the subject. Instruction given in the use of the appendix. In only the sixth grade did the majority of teachers report giving "special drill" in the use of the appendix. The majority of seventh, eighth, ninth, and tenth grade teachers reported that teaching of this subject was of an incidental nature. Instruction given in the use of the preface. The major ity of teachers from each grade indicated that instruction in the use of the preface was "incidental". Instruction given in the use of topic headings. The majority of teachers of every grade reported giving "special drill" in the use of topic headings, with the seventh, eighth and ninth grade teachers showing a tendency toward."incidental" teaching in this matter* Instruction given in the, use of footnotes. In the sixth and seventh, and again in the ninth and tenth grades, the majority of teachers reported that the use of footnotes was taught by "incidental" instruction; but in the eighth grade marked differences of opinion crept in with ten reporting "special drill", ten reporting that teaching was "incidental", and five saying they gave no instruction in the use of foot notes* 96 Instruction given in the use of graphs, charts, tables, etc, A majority of sixth, seventh* and eighth grade teachers said that "special drill" was given in the use of graphs, charts, tables, etc. , in the grade for TAfoieh they reported. The ninth grade teachers divided almost evenly between report ing "special drill" and "Incidental" teaching; while a major ity of tenth grade teachers said that in the tenth grade inst ruction in the use of these aids was "incidental". Instruction given in the use of ja dictionary. The major ity of sixth grade teachers reported "incidental" instruction in the use of a dictionary, but the majority of teachers of all other grades said "special drill" was given on this subject in the grade for which they were reporting. Refer to Table VIII, on the next page for data concerning instruction given in the use of the library. Instruction given in the use of an encyclopedia or World Book. In the sixth, seventh, and eighth grade, the major ity of teachers reported giving "special drill" in the use of this type of reference work. Hinth grade teachers were divided almost evenly between those who gave, "special drill" and those whose teaching in this matter was "incidental". The majority of tenth grade teachers reported that instruction was "inciden tal". 97 TABLE VIII FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF TEACHER RESPONSES REGARD ING INSTRUCTION GIVEN IN THE USE OF A LIBRARY 10th 6 th 7 th 8 th 9 th a. None 1 b • Incidental • 24 c. Special drill 0 0 7 18 1 4 20 0 11 14 0 9 16 II . Skill in the Use of a Library A • Reference Works 8. A Dictionary 0 3 22 1 6 18 1 9 15 0 12 13 0 16 9 • o a. None b. Incidental c. Special drill 10 13 2 8 ; 12 -5 5 14 6 1 17 7 5 15 5 a. None b. Incidental c. Special drill 21 4 0 13 9 3 3 14 8 0 7 18 2 4 19 a. None b* Incidental c. Special drill 9 6 10 2 4 19 1 8 16 0 10 15 0 7 18 13. Distinguish be a. None tween fiction b. Incidental and non-fiction c • Special drill 2 12 11 0 6 19 0 11 14 3 11 11 1 15 9 14. Know that fic £1• None tion is shelved b. Incidental c. Special drill by author 7 7 11 0 6 19 0 15 10 5 9 11 0 13 12 a. None b. Incidental c. Special drill 8 9 8 0 6 19 1 13 11 4 6 15 1 10 14 H a. None 9. An Encyclo pedia or World- b. Incidental c. Special drill book World Alma nac 11. The Reader*s Guide 12. The Card Catalogue B. Books on Shelves 15. Know that non fiction is shelved by subject. 98 Instruction given in the use of the World Almanac, A veryslight majority of the sixth grade teachers said that ”ineidental11 teaching was given in the use of the World Alman ac, with almost as many frankly stating that no instruction was given in the use of this reference work. Throughout the seventh, eighth, ninth, and tenth grades the consensus is that instruction in the use of the World Almanac is "incidental”. Instruction given in the use of the Reader *s Guide. In reporting on the type of instruction given in the use of the Reader's Guide twenty-one out of twenty-five sixth grade teachers said "none”. The majority of seventh grade teachers, though of a lesser majority, made the same report. Eighth grade teachers, in the majority; reported incidental teaching in this technique; while most of the ninth and tenth grade teachers reported giving special drill. Instruction given in the use of the card catalogue. Throughout the five grades from which a report was requested, the majority of teachers said that special drill was given in the use of the card catalogue. This majority, while very slight in the sixth grade, was quite strong in each of the others. Instruction given in distinguishing between fiction and non-fiction. Reports from the sixth and the ninth grade teach ers balanced between incidental teaching and special drill; 99 while from the seventh and eighth grades the majority reported special drill, and most of the tenth grade teachers said,that they gave incidental instruction in this subject; Instruction given in how fiction is shelved; From the sixth, seventhj and ninth grades, the majority of teachers reported that "special drill" was given in this matter, while a slight majority of eighth and tenth grade teachers reported such instruction of an "incidental" nature. Instruction given in how non-fiction is shelved. The sixth grade teachers reports on what type of instruction was given in this matter were evenly divided between "none", "in cidental" teaching and "special drill". , A majority of seven th, ninth, and tenth grade teachers reported giving "special drill", while the eighth grade teachers reports were divided between "special drill" and "incidental" teaching, with a slight majority for the latter expression* Instruction given in the evaluation of material and the selection of pertinent information* A heavy majority of teachers from each of the grades reported giving "special drill" on this subject. Their responses, and others concerned with instruction given in note'taking technique are given in Table IX. 100 TABLE IX FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF TEACHER RESPONSES REGARD ING INSTRUCTION GIVEN IN NOTE TAKING TECHNIQUES What type of instruction was given in: 6th 7th 8th 9th 16. The evaluating a. None 1 of material and b. Incidental 4 c • Special drill 20 selection of pertinent in formation? 0 6 19 1 4 20 1 0 24 0 8 17 17. Summarizing? a. None 1 b. Incidental 5 c. Special drill 19 0 9 16 0 9 16 0 4 21 0 3 22 18. The Selection of key words and phrases? a. None 4 6 b. Incidental c • Special drill 15 2 11 12 2 8 15 1 10 14 1 10 14 a. None 19. The selection 0 of main thoughtsb. Incidental 0 c. Special drill 25 of paragraphs? 0 5 20 0 3 22 0 4 21 0 4 21 20. The use of bib a. None 13 liography eards?b. Incidental 8 c. Special drill 4 14 8 3 8 12 5 9 8 8 10 9 6 a. None 2 b • Incidental 11 c • Special drill 12 3 14 8 6 14 5 ■5 16 4 3 18 4 21. The use of ab breviations? 10th 101 Instruction given in summarizing. Although for every grade the majority report was for "special drill" the seventh and eighth grade teachers reported "incidental" teaching in a number of cases. Instruction given in the selection of key words and phrases. Again the majority of teachers from each grade re ported that special drill was given, with those reporting incidental teaching maintaining a strong minority from the seventh grade on. Instruction given selecting the main thought of a paragraph. A strong majority from every grade reported giving special drill. Instruction given in the use of bibliography cards. The majority of teachers from the sixth, seventh, and ninth and tenth grades said they gave no instruction in the use of bibliography cards. In all four grades a considerable minor ity reported giving incidental teaching in the matter, while in the eighth grade the majority reported giving incidental instruction. Instruction given in the use of abbreviations. Through out the grades, from the sixth to the tenth, the majority of teachers reported that instruction in the use of abbreviations was incidental. lo a Instruction given in filling out simple skeleton out lines. A strong majority of sixth grade teachers reported giving special drill in this skill, hut the seventh grade teachers, for the most part, reported that instruction was incidental. Tahle X gives this and all other data referring to instruction given in outlining. Eighth, ninth, and tenth grade teachers, with steadily mounting majorities, reported that they gave special drill in the filling out of simple skeleton outlines. Instruction given in rephrasing main thoughts4. In the sixth, and again the ninth and tenth grade teachers reported giving special drill in this outlining technique. In the seventh and eighth grades the majority reported incidental instruction with a strong minority who said special drill was givens Instruction given in organizing main points. Ihe majority of sixth and eighth graded teachers reported incident al instruction* while the seventh, ninth and tenth grade teachers reported a majority who give special drill. Instruction in the elimination of irrelevent points. In the sixth, seventh and eighth grades, the majority of teachers reported that instruction in the elimination of irrelevent points was incidental. In the ninth and tenth 103 TABLE X FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF TEACHER RESPONSES REGARD ING INSTRUCTION GIVEN IN OUTLINING TECHNIQUES 6 th 7th 8th 9 th a. None b • Incidental c. Special drill 1 5 19 1 18 6 4 8 13 0 10 15 0 4 21 23* Selecting and a. None b. Incidental rephrazing main thoughts c. Special drill of paragraphs? 3 8 14 3 13 9 3 11 11 0 10 15 0 6 19 What type of instruction was given in: 22# Filling out a simple skeleton? 10th 24. Organizing main points in terms of a general plan? a. None b • Incidental c. Special drill 4 14 7 4 9 12 3 13 9 0 7 18 0 2 23 25. Eliminating irrelevant points? a • None b. Incidental c • Special drill 5 12 8 3 15 7 3 13 9 0 9 16 0 8 17 104 grades the majority reported that special drill was given in this matter. Instruction given in attempting to get meaning from contents Sixth, seventh, ninth, and tenth grade teachers, with a majority from each grade, reported giving special drill in this technique. Hhese reports are given in Table XI, to gether with the complete data regarding instruction given in vocabulary building.techniques. The majority of eighth grade teachers said that instruction was incidental, with a consid erable minority, saying that no instruction was given in the matter. , Instruction given in looking for the familiar parts of unfamiliar words, throughout the grades reporting, the bal ance between reports of special drills and incidental teach ing was rather even, the proponents of special drill attain ed a slight majority in the sixth, ninth, and tenth grades. Instruction given in understanding meaning and use of common prefixes and suffixes* A g a in the balance between in cidental teaching and special drill was closely maintained throughout the grades reporting. A slight majority of sixth, seventh, and tenth grade teachers reported giving special drill while the stronger tendency in the ninth grade was to ward incidental instruction, and the reports from the eighth 105 TABLE XI FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF TEACHER RESPONSES REGARDING ' INSTRUCTION GIVEN IN TECHNIQUES FOR VOCABULARY BUILDING What type of instruction was given in: 6th 7th 8th 9th a. None b. Incidental c. Special drill 0 24 1 0 6 19 7 18 0 0 10 15 0 4 21 a. None 27. Looking for familiar parts b • Incidental of unfamiliar c. Special drill words? 1 6 18 5 13 9 2 13 10 0 11 14 2 9 14 28. Understanding meaning and use of common prefixes and suffices? a. None b. Incidental c. Special drill 2 11 12 4 10 11 1 12 12 2 14 9 0 9 16 29. Knowing how to divide words into syllables? a . None b • Incidental c. Special drill 1 3 21 1 6 18 0 8 17 1 12 12 1 8 16 30. Knowing how to use dia critical markings? a . None b. Incidental c • Special drill 2 12 11 4 8 13 0 15 10 3 11 11 -5 5 15 26. Getting mean ing from content? 10th 106 grad© struck a perfect balance, between the two degrees of instructional intensity. Instruction given in knowing how to divide words into syllables* Except in the ninth grade v fti er e an even number of teachers reported giving special drill and incidental in struction, the majority reported throughout that they gave special drill in syllabications instruction given in the use of diacritical marks. -Teachers from the sixth, seventh, eighth, and ninth grades reported special drill or incidental instruction in rather evenly balanced numbers. Only from the tenth grade did a strong majority report that special drill was given in this pronunciation aid. CHAPTEH VI COECLTJSIQKS AHD EEC OMME3JDATI OHS The purposes of this investigation were: (1) to summarize the recent literature on study proeeedure and techniques in the secondary schools in order to determine which techniques are most generally recognized as effective by educational authorities; (S) to determine the extent to which the ability to use these techniques has been acquired by I»os Angeles junior high school pupils; and (3) to determine the grades in which particular emphasis is being placed on the acquisition of the specified techniques. The first of these goals was attained by a thorough perusal of the literature on the subject. Periodical litera ture, books, and book reviews on study and study techniques were given careful study. The second and third objectives were approached by the questionnaire technique. Details con cerning the preparation and circularization of the question naire are presented in Chapter II. The agreement existing between teachers o f 'the variousgrades concerning the skills evidenced by pupils on entering the various grades, or concerning the skills evidenced by pupils on leaving the various grades, is marked. A lack of 108 agreement "between teachers of pupils leaving one grade and the teachers of pupils entering the next higher grade is equally apparent, These seemingly contradictory views have led certain critics to assert that there is' little or no validity to teacher opinion concerning pupil achievement. The popular expression is that teachers never "believe pupils •have learned much "before they enter their classes; hut they are always quite sure that they know a great deal when they leave. A cursory examination of the teacher’s opinions tabulated in this study might holster such a prejudice. A careful analysis of the expressed opinions together with a thoughtful evaluation of the resulting implications, however, reveals several possible contributing explanations of this apparent contradiction. Demands of the made by outward lack the word satisfactory. ory skill? fy the stationary^ of The clue to onecause agreement between teachers liesin What degree of skill is a satisfact Obviously, a degree of skill sufficient to satis demands made of skill. the situation. It by the situation is a satisfactory degree is the demands of the situation that are not For example, a sixth grade pupil might very weLl be able to satisfy the demands upon him by locating a clearly specified topic in the index, and possibly noting a page while a 109 ninth or tenth grade pupil might need to display considerable imagination and discrimination in considering what to look for in the first place, and once found, what to eliminate. The tenth grade pupil, though displaying a great deal more ability in the use of the index than the sixth grade pupil, might still be unable to evidence a satisfactory skill, while the sixth grade pupil could evidence skill entirely satisfact ory to the situation. The teacher in the lower grade may be entirely accurate and objective in saying that her pupils meet the demands made upon them in a satisfactory way without in any way casting aspersions upon the judgment, fairness, objectivity or accur acy of the next teacher who reports that pupils entering her grade are not usually prepared to make a satisfactory response to the demands made upon them; The pupils may be equally skill ful, and the teachers equally objective, but the situation, and the demands made on the pupils by the situation may have changed very materially. More rigid standards in upper grades; A tendency for judgments, as to pupils abilities, to become increasingly less lenient with ascending grade level is noted throughout the survey. This is justifiable to a degree, though there is room for inquiry as to whether lower grade teachers accept 110 too low standards, or the teachers of higher grades hold standards that are too rigid. The standards do appear to increase more rapidly than the skill of the pupils. It is however probable that holding too low a standard is more harmful than holding too high a standard. Individual teacher demands. Whatever the skill under consideration each teacher is certain to stress some indivi dual details of technique. A new class, being unfamiliar with these specific demands, naturally does not comply with them and thus leads the teacher to feel a lack of satisfaction in their performance. Comparison with previous class. An incoming class usually treads very closely upon the heels of a departing class to whom the teacher is bound by ties of familiarity and affection. It is almost inevitable that in some slight degree at least, the new class is compared, not with other new classes, but with the class ;just departed which had the ad vantage not only of familiarity but a year of increased train ing and maturity. On merit alone a beginning eighth grade class would naturally compare unfavorably with an entering ninth grade class. .111 EEC OMMEM)ATI OFS Articulation* A city wide campaign for better arti culation in order to bridge the gap between the various levels of the school system is strongly recommended* The. break be tween elementary and junior high school requirements and standards is apparent throughout the survey. A similar break between the junior and the senior high school is obvious. Specific standards. A specific and detailed set of study-skill achievements expected of each class would be a very helpful aid. To be effective these standards would have to be worked out by classroom teacher committees who could compare and test in order to arrive at conclusions which would stand up under actual teaching conditions. Agreement on details. Some agreement should be reached as to what shall constitute acceptable performance as to de tails. The legitimate increase in difficulty of subject matter should not be complicated by subjecting students to a whole new set of minor requirements term by term. Instructional techniques. The techniques which go to make up skill in outlining, note-taking, and vocabulary build ing were reported by the majority of teachers as inadequate although apparently considerable stress is laid on the 112 instruction of each of these techniqueSi Educators hold all three to "be highly important in successful study. Further investigations should be made to determine the exact instru ctional techniques by which these skills could be most effect ively attained by the Junior high pupils. BIBLIOGRAPHY A. BOOKS Allen, C. B . , Teaching of Study In Secondary Schools. Western Reserve University, 19*39^ Baker, K. H. , Study Methods Workhook. Minneapolis: Pub li shing Uompahy, 1939 • Burgess Berg, D. S., The Modern Student. Forest Hills, Hew York: Universal~FubIisMng Company, 1935. Brink, William G . , Directing Study Activities in Secondary Schools. Hew York: Doubleday, Doran and Company, Inc. , Cole, Luella, and Jessie Mary Ferguson, Student*s Guide To Efficient Study. Revised edition; Hew York; Farrar and Rinehart, Inc., 1935. 38 pp. Crawley, S. 1., Studying Efficiently. Hew York: Inc. , 1936. 9'5 pp. Prentice-Hall, Frederick, Robert W . , Clarence E. Ragsdale, and Rachel Salisbury, Directed Learning. Hew York: D. Appleton-Century Co., Inc., T93'8, xvi and 527 pp. Frederick, Robert W . , How To Study Handbook. Appleton-Century Company, 1938. 44S pp.' Hew York: D. Jones, E. S. , Improvement of Study Habits. Second edition; Buffalo, Hew York: Foster and Stewart, Inc., 1936. Jordon, A. M . , How To Study. Boston: Publishing House, 1936. 97 pp. The Christopher Kahn, S., How To Study. Bibliography; Boston; ing Company, 1938. Meador Publish ICornhauser, Arthur W. , How To Study. Revised edition; Chicago: University o f~Uhic a go Press, 1937. 42 pp. Moore, H . , Reading And Study Aids* South Hadley, Mass.: The Author, e. o. Mt.r'HoiyoYe 'College, 1935. Mott, Carolyn, and Leo B. Baisden, The Children1s Book On How To Use Books And Libraries, ifew YorkT Charles S c r ib n e r s I>ons, 1937. ^0*8 pp. Parr, Frank W . , How To Study Effectively. Hall, Inc., 19^8. xv and £33 pp. Hew York: Prentice Pitkin, Walter B. , Harold C. Dewton, and Olive P. Langham, Learning How To Learn. Hew York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1935. vii and 194 pp. Robinson, Edgar Eugene, Independent Study In The Lower Division At Stanford University. “Stanford University: Stanford University Press, 1937. 90 pp. Smith,-E. P., How To Study. Lewiston, Maine: , Echo Publishing Company,--------- ---Smith, Samuel, and Arthur W. Littlefield, with special sec tions by Louis Shores and A. C. Jordon, Best Methods Of Study. Hew York: Barnes and Hoble, lnc.~ I3£r pp. Walters, W. R. , Hints On Hov* To Study. 3rd edition, Phila delphia: WesTWooE^PuBTisEing^Company, 1936. \foodring, M. H. and C. W. Flemming, Directing Study of High School Pupils. Revised and enlarged edition; Reprint of articles from Teachers College Record; Hew York: Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1935. vi and 253 pp. 115 B. BOOK -REVIEWS Brink, William G-. , "A Manual Of Studies For Pupils,Tr The School Review, 46: 710-11, November, 1938. Colburn, Evangeline, "The Children's Book On How To Use Books And Libraries,?1 Elementary School Journal, 39: 314-15, December, 1938. Conrad, Walter, Jr., "How To Study Handbook," The High School Journal, 21: 322, December, 1938. Dewey, Stuit B. , "How Tu Study Handbook" (Review of book by Robert Frederick) Educational Abstract, 3:796. Educational Abstract I: 233 (no author given) Fletcher, H .F., "Independent Study In The Dower Division At Stanford University," Journal of Higher Education, 9: 466-7, November, 1938. Gregg, Russell, T. , "Directed B e a m i n g , " School Review, 47: 228-9, March, 1939. Lass, A.H * , "Directing Study Activities In Secondary Schools," High Points, 21: 76, March, 1939. ___________, "Directing Study of High School Pupils," High Points» 17: 69-71, November, 1935. McAndrews, W. , "How To Study," Sehool and Society, 45: 490, April 3, 1937. ______, "Students1 Guide To Efficient Study," School And Society, 42: 484-5, October 5, 1935. _____ ., "Studying Efficiently," School And Society, '44: 2T57~"July 4, 1936. Monroe, Walter S., "Directed Learning," Journal of. Educational Research, 32: 538-9, March, 1939. Pruitt, C.M. , "Directing Study of High School pupils," Science Education, 20: 49, February, 1936. 116 Pugh, J.J., "Directing Study Activities In Secondary Schools," Educational Research Bulletin, 18:£7, January, 1939. Seeger, Ruth E, , "Children’s Book: On How To Use Books And Libraries," Educational Research Bulletin, 18: 86-7, March, 1937. Stumpf, W.A. , "Independent’Study* In The Lower Division At Stanford University," Educational Abstract, 3:547, Tempero, Lucile, "Children’s Book On H oy/ To Use Books And Libraries," Educational Abstract, 3:361. 117 C. PERIODICAL ARTICLES Andress, J.M. , T1Is There Too Much Homework?11 Hygeia, 17:371, April, 1939. Bass, A. H. , "Sharpen The Tools Of Our Trade," Scholastic, 35:853, October, 1939. Behrens, H . D . , "Effects of a How-to-Study Course," of Higher Education, 6:195-208, April, 1935, Journal Berman, S. L. , "Some Thoughts on Teaching Effective Habits of Study," High Points, 19:67-70, May, 1937. Boyd, P. P. , "How To Study," School and Society, 45:753, May, 1937. Brownell, W. A., "What Has Happened to Supervised Study?" Educational Method, 17:373-377, May, 1938. Bundesen, H. H . , "Homework Versus Health," Ladies Home Journal, 55:70, September, 1938. Corey, S. M . , "Making Botes From Lectures and Readings," Journal of Educational Research, 29:204-8, Hovember, 1935. Crawford, C. C. and Carmichael, J.A., "Value of Home Study," Elementary School Journal, 38:194-200, Hovember, 1937. Cuff, N.B., "Study Habits in Grades Four to Twelve," Journal of Educational Psychology, 28:295-301, April, 1937*1 Dawson, Lester, "How to Study a Technical Subject," School Science and Mathematics, 39:659-61, October, 1937^ Di Hapoli, B J*, "What Does Research Say?" 23:165, January, 1938. School L i f e , Dudley, Dessalee Ryan, "Learning to Study in Early Grades," Educational Method, 17:378-81, May, 1938. Douglass, H.R. and Bauer, H.C., "Study Practices of Three Hundred and Binety Five High School Pupils," Journal of Educational Psychology, 29: 36-43, January, 1938. Eckert, Ruth E. , and Jones, Edward S., "Long Time Effects of Training College Students How to Study," School and Society, 42: 685-8, Bovember 16, 1935. 118 Edmlaton, B. W. , "Study Conditions in High School and College,11 School and Society, 48:379-80, September 17, 1938. Edmiston, B. W. , "The Effects of Emphasizing THow to Learnr Upon Knowledge of Course Content and School Marks,” -Journal of Educational Psychology, £8:371-81, May, 1937. Farley, Bebecca, "Developing Study Habits in a Basic Course," California Journal of Secondary Education, Vol. 14, Janu ary, 1939. Finch, C. E. , "Building Better Study Habits," Journal of Education, 1£1: ££3-4, 310-12, £59-60; 122:' £3-£3-,T9-60, 95-6', 131-2, 167-8, £03-4, October, 1938 to July, 1939. Flinton, Doris Holt, "Bridging the G-ap Between Secondary School and College Methods of Study," Education, 57: 641-4, January* 1937. Froelicher, Hans, Jr., "Study Habits and Skills," Educational Record, 17: 171-80, October, 1936. Gray, Lillian, "The Direction of Stud^/r in Elementary School Using the Integrated Program," Educational Method, 17: 382-6, May, 1938. Hemleben, Sylvester John, "Teaching Them How to Study," Journal of Education, 1££: £?0-£, Boveraber, 1939, Hume, L. F. , "Supervised Study in the Social Sciences," The Social Studies, £9: 122-126, March, 1938. Johnson, Boy Ivan , "The Problem of How to Study," School Be view, 45: 577-84, October, 1937. Kerans, J.A., "Testing Study Habits," Catholic School Journal, 36: 186-8, July, 1936. Kneller, G-eorge F. , "Ten Commandments for Successful Study," Scholastic, 33: 7-8, September 7, 1938. Lardner, J.J., "Apportionment and Use of.Study Time," national Catholic Education Association Proc., 1935: 271-8. Long, Sara Liston, "About Tomorrow1s Lessons," American Home, £0: 13pSeptember, 1938, 119 Mathews, C.O., "Comparison of Methods of Study for Immediate and Delayed Recall," Journal of Educational Psychology, £9: 101-6, February, 1’93'8. Mathews, C.O., and Toepfer, Hora, "Comparison of Principles and Practices of Study," School Research, 44: 184-92, March, 1936. Marten, Royal C. , "Tools of Study," Sierra Educational Hews, 35:28, March, 1938. Marshall. M.'V. , "Guided Study With College Juniors," School and Society, 48:28, July 2, 1938. Mills, Henry C . , "What Do High School Students Know About How To Study?" Journal of Educational Research, 29: 58-64, April, 1 9 3 K McDowell, John G. , and Anderson, Howard R. , "Testing Ability of Pupils to Outline," School Research, 46:48-56, January, 1938. McKinnin, Hettie J. , and Burton, William H . , "An Evaluation of Certain Study Procedures in History," Elementary School Journal, 40: 371-9, January, 1940. Haden, J. Is. , "An Experimental Study of the Relative Values of a Direct and an Indirect Method of Teaching Study Habits in Science," School Science and Mathematics, 35: 970-6, December , " T W 5 7 ‘ Oruhn, W.T. , and Conner, C. , "Planning A Program for Teaching Pupils How To Study," High School Journal, 23:61-5, February, 1940. Park, J . , "A Practical Social-Studies notebook," The Rational Educational Association Journa 1 , 27:88, Mareh7~T938. Piersel, W.G., "Apprehensive Index," School and Society, 44:120-123, July, 1936. Powers, Francis F . , "Observations on Teaching How to Study," School Review, 46: 485-8, September, 1938. Reeder, C.W. , "Study Habits," School and Society, 42:413-15, September 21, 1935. 130 Reeder, Edwin K. , "Directing Children’s Study of Geography,1’ Educational Method, 17: 382-6, May, 1938. Rogers, J.F. , "Home Study Issue," School Life> 21:5, September, 1935. Rogers, J.F. , "Home Study, The Big Bad Wolf of Education, Hygeia, 14: 808-12, September, 1936. Rosenstengel, W . E . , and Dixon, Fred B . , "General Study Habits of High School Pupils," School Review, 44: 127-31, February, 1936. Salisbury, Rachel, "Some Effects of Training in Outlining," English Journal, college edition, 24: 111-116, February, 1935; : Thomas, Evan K # , "Getting Pupils to Study," School Executive 57: 487, June, 1938. Updegraff, Robert R. , "Make A Ifote of It.1" Reader ’s Digest, reprint from The Rotarian, January, 193*91 Wagner, Mazie Earle, and Strable, Eunice, "Teaching High School Pupils How To Study," School Review, 43: 577-89, October, 1935. Washburne, Carleton, "How Much Homework?" Parent’s Magazine, 12: 16-17, November, 1937. Williamson, E. G . , "An Analysis of the Young-Eastabrooks Studiousness Scale," The Journal of Applied Psychology, 21: 260-4, June, 1937*: Winter, John E . , "An Experimental Study of the Effect On Learning of Supervised and TJnsuper vised (jitudy Among College Freshmen," Journal of Educational Psychology, 27: 111-18, February, 1936. Woodring, M . C . , and Flemming, G.W. , "Recent Trends in Study," Teachers College Record, 37: 27, October, 1935. Woods, Roy C . , "Budgeting The Child’s Time," Education, 56: 125, October, 1935. . ---Yoakam, G.A., "The Improvement of Reading and Study Habits," Elementary School Journal, 36: 175-84, November, 1935.