AN ANALYSIS OP THE GROWTH* NEEDS OP FIFTH AND SIXTH GRADE CHILDREN A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the School of Education The University of Southern California In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Science in Education ^7 Dorothy Voorhies Stever May 1941 UMI Number: EP54133 All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion. Dissertation Publishing UMI EP54133 Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author. Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 48106- 1346 T h is thesis, w r it t e n u n d e r the d ir e c t io n o f the C h a ir m a n o f the ca n d id a te ’ s G u id a n c e C o m m itte e a n d a p p r o v e d by a l l m em bers o f the C o m m itte e , has been prese n te d to a n d accep ted by the F a c u lt y o f the S c h o o l o f E d u c a t io n in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f the re q u ire m e n ts f o r the degree o f M a s t e r o f Science in E d u c a tio n . 1 ......... D ean Guidance Com m ittee •y ..®It3T..?*®®Y.® C hairm an L. P. Thorpe M. M, Thompson TABLE OP CONTENTS CHAPTER . I.THE PROBLEM AND DEFINITION OF TERM The problem PAGE USED . . . . 1 ................... Statement of-the problem 2 • • • • • • • . . 2 Importance of the s t u d y ............. . Scope of the study 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Children’s responses . 4 .............. . Procedure 4 Definition of term u s e d ............ 8 Organization of remainder of the thesis . . . II. 9 FINDINGS FROM STUDIES THAT HAVE BEEN MADE ON THE NEEDS AND INTERESTS OF CHILDREN . . . . . 11 Related literature 11 ................. Related investigations III. 4 . . . . ............. .. . 15 ANALYSIS OF THE FACTORS RELATED TO T H E ‘ HAPPINESS OF FIFTH AND SIXTHGRADE Happiness of children CHILDREN .......... . . 30 30 Comparison of b o y s ’ and girls’ responses as 30 . to the causes of h a p p i n e s s .......... Comparison of the .comments made by boys and girls under responses in regard to the causes of h a p p i n e s s .................... IV. 33 ANALYSIS OF THE FACTORS RELATED TO THE UNHAPPI NESS OF FIFTH AND SIXTH GRADE CHILDREN ... 41 iii CHAPTER 'PAGE Unhappiness of c h i l d r e n .................. . . . 41 Comparison of h o y s T and girls1 responses as to the causes of u n h a p p i n e s s ............. 41 Comparison of. the remarks made by boys and girls in regard to the causes of unhappiness. Summary V. 43 ........ * .............. 49 ANALYSIS OF THE RESPONSES OF CHILDREN AS TO WHAT THEY WOULD LIKE TO BE ABLE TO D O ...... 51 What children would like to be able to do . . . 51 Comparison of b o y s 1 and girls1 responses as to what they would like to be able to do . . . . 51 Comparison of the comments made by boys and girls under responses as to what they would most like to be able to do Summary VI. ........... 55 .......... 63 ANALYSIS OF THE RESPONSES OF CHILDREN AS TO WHAT THEY WOULD MOST' LIKE TO HAVE . What children would like to have ........ 65 . . . . . . . 65 Comparison of b o y s 1 and girlsT responses as to what they would most like to h a v e ......... 65 A Comparison of the comments made by boys and girls under responses in regard to what they would like to h a v e ..................... Summary . . . .................................... 69 69 iv CHAPTER VII. PAGE AH ANALYSIS OF THE RESPONSES OP CHILDREN AS TO WHAT THEY WOULD LIKE TO KNOW MORE ABOUT . . . . 75 What children would like to know more about . . 75 A comparison of b o y s 1 and girls* responses as to what they would like to know more about . 75 A Comparison of the comments made by boys and girls under responses as to what they would like to know more a b o u t .......... Summary . VIII. 77 .............. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 83 . . . . 85 S u m m a r y ..................... 85 Conclusions with educational implications . . . 88 Recommendations ................................ 99 B I B L I O G R A P H Y .................... 101 A P P E N D I X ......................... 104 LIST OP TABLES PAGE TABLE I. Percentage Distribution of the Response of Boys and Girls to the Question: What are the Three Things that have Made You Most Happy This Y e a r ? .................................... II. 31 Percentage Distribution of the Response of Boys to the Question: What are the Three Things that have Made You Most Happy This Year? . . . III. 34 Percentage Distribution of the Response of Girls to the Question: What are the Three Things that have Made You Most Happy This Year? . . . IV. 36 Percentage Distribution of the Response of Boys and Girls to the Question: What are the Three Things that have Made You Most Unhappy This Y e a r ? ........................................ V. 42 Percentage Distribution of the Response of Boys to the Question: What are the Three Things that have Made VI. You Most Unhappy This Year? . • 44 Percentage Distribution of the Response of Girls to the Question: YOiat are the Three Things that have Made VII. You Most Unhappy This Year? . . 46 Percentage Distribution of the Response of Boys and Girls to the Question: What Three Things would You Most Like to be Able To Do? . . . . 52 vi TABLE VIII* PAGE Percentage Distribution of the Response of Boys to the Question: What Three Things would You Most Like to be Able to d o ? ................. IX* 56 Percentage Distribution of the Response of Girls to the Question: What Three Things Would You Most Like to be Able to do?. . . . X. 60 Percentage Distribution of the Response of Boys and Girls to the Question: What Three Things ?/ould You Most Like to H a v e ? ............... XI. 66 Percentage Distribution of the Response of Boys to the Question: What Three Things Would You Most Like to Have? XII. ....................... 70 Percentage Distribution of the Response of Girls to the Question: What Three Things Would You Most Like to H a v e ? .............. XIII. 72 Percentage Distribution of the Response of Boys and Girls to the Question: What Three Things Ytfould You Like to Know More A b o u t ........... XIV* 76 Percentage Distribution of the Response of Boys to the Question: What Three Things Would You Like to Know More A b o u t ? ................... XV. 78 Percentage Distribution of the Response of Girls to the Question: What Three Things Y/ould You Like to Know More A b o u t ? ........ 81 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION In the last few years much discussion has taken place regarding the changed curriculum of the progressive elemen tary school. The school has the definite purpose of meeting the growth needs of its pupils. Should the curriculum be indefinite and be picked up when and where the childfs interests lead or should the curriculum be a* planned, organized process founded on the basic needs of a certain age range as determined by observant educators? Most educators agree that the curriculum should be . well-organized so that the children will develop ability to plan, execute and evaluate in a variety of experiences which will develop their personalities and lead to new interests. This would mean that the teacher would plan yet would not miss the opportunity of motivation and enthusiasm that comes with following the interests of various students as they arise in everyday association. But to plan the curriculum to present growth needs of the child requires a study of growth needs at various age or grade levels. Caroline B. Zachry and the Commission of Secondary School Curriculum state that the needs of any age level can be determined by case studies. V. T. Thayer, Caroline B. Zachry, and Ruth Kotinsky nA New Education for Youth, n Progressive Education, (October, 1939), p. 398. 2 The child must definitely be considered a parti cipant in our present Democracy, Consideration should be given to: His characteristic patterns of ;behavior, his customary concerns and pursuits, his usual way of feeling towards persons and groups and the values he most commonly seeks in the course of activities underway. For educational purposes needs must be identified by the interpretation of concrete and specified interests, desires, and behaviors in response to prevailing pres sures, influences and conditions. The progressive elementary.school has advanced in the last ten years in its attempts to liberate the child. Will liberation meet a need of the fifth and sixth grade child? Are the needs of these impressionable children ranging in age from nine to thirteen years known? Before adequate curriculum plans can be made, educators must.have definite information concerning the interests, desires, and behaviors of children who live and participate in life as it is today. I. THE PROBLEM Statement of the problem. It is the purpose of this study to determine.the growth needs of fifth and sixth grade children as recorded by the children themselves. This study plans to arrive at the growth needs of children through the children*s responses with regard to the things that had made them happy, the things that had made them unhappy, the things 2 Ibid.. p. 398. that they would like to be able to do, the things that they would most like to have, and the things that they would most like to know more about. The following questions are to be answered in the study: 1. Are children capable of determining their needs? 2. Are wants and desires of the child necessarily needs? 3. What do children think they want to possess most of all? 4. What are the things that children say make them happy? 5. What are the .things that children say make them unhappy? 6. What are the things children would like to be able to do? 7. What do children want to know more about? Does the desire lead to growth needs? Importance of the study. Growth needs of the child should be the first consideration of the school. Studies have been made of the needs of the primary child, the pre school child and the adolescent, but very few studies have been made of the intermediate child of the fifth and sixth grades. This study proposes to find the needs, interests 4 and desires of the fifth and sixth grade child to the end that the whole personality of the child may be developed. The formation of any curriculum depends on a knowledge of the growth needs of the child. The understanding of the child and his interests in a changing cultural world is of vital importance to elementary school procedure. To meet the needs of the child today and to aid him to face and think*through, his present problems to the end that he may develop his whole personality; physical, social, emotional and intellectual, more knowledge and insight is needed. II. SCOPE OP THE STUDY Children1s responses. This study was limited to five hundred children in the schools of a medium sized Southern California city. Children were questioned in five of the twenty-one schools. These schools were large in various parts of the city, and they included children of different races and social levels. A questionnaire to each child was the only means used in determining the results of growth needs as the child realized them. III. PROCEDURE The questionnaire method was used in making the study pertaining to children1s needs as the children realized them. These questions were given between the dates of January 22 and January 25, 1940. The questionnaire used with children 5 was as follows: 1. Please answer truthfully the questions which have been asked below. DO HOT sign your name* The papers will all be shuffled as they are collected, so no one will ever know what you say or ask for* 1. 2. ______ - _____ (School) (Town) Your grade in school_______ _____ 3. Boy 4. \Yhat are the three things that have made you most happy this year?_______________ ____________________ 5. What are the three things that have made you most unhappy this year?__________ ' 6. What three things would you most like to be able to do? ________ ' 7. 8. Name of your school (State) Girl What three things would you most like to have?___ What three things would you most like to know mor e ab ou t ?® _________________________________ The questionnaire was administered to 451 children by the writer during school time. Classes were selected from five different schools taking in a cross-section of the school population. The children knew they were to have a visitor to ask them questions so when the writer came to their school, they were ready to answer questions. However, they had no idea of the nature of these questions. An explana tion was made before the questionnaire was passed out, that ® This questionnaire, which is also given in the Appendix, was compiled by Dr. Margaret E. Bennett, Director of Guidance of the Pasadena City Schools, and Dr. Harold C. Hand, Professor of Education, Stanford University. - 6 a study was being made of fifth and sixth grade children in order to help and understand them better. The children were not to sign their names so they could say anything they wished, as it was desired that all questions be answered very frankly. The writer further explained that she would be the only one to see the questionnaire. The sheets were then distributed and the complete page including instruc tions and questions were read aloud to them. If questions were asked about the lines read, the examiner- would repeat the question slowly, making it very personal, for example: ’’Something must have made you very happy lately. tell about it?” Can you No suggestions or illustrations were given in answer to any of the questions of the children. They were instructed not to hurry, but to do their very best thinking. No time limit was observed although they averaged about thirty minutes. One “grouping was made, that of sex. Other groupings such as race, occupation of parent, etc. were not considered in this study because of the question of validity due to the limited number of questionnaires given. After all the tests were given, they were sorted as to sex. Columns as headings were made under ’’Happiness,” ’’Unhappiness,” ’’Like to be able to do, ” ’’Like to .have, ” and ’’Like to know more about, ” on a large sheet of paper. One questionnaire was taken and the remarks tabulated under the correct headings. The writer took the liberty to re-group a few answers that were listed under incorrect headings. No repetitions were recorded. The reader must keep in mind that each child was asked to make three answers to each question. Many children were unable to think of three, so put down one or two. Remarks fell into certain sub-groupings,, such as "Gifts," "School," "Friends," "Teacher," etc. under things that made children most happy. The examiner then made a second tabulation sheet, taking groupings from the first sheet and recording them under the'five main topics. The* second tabulations of items, as are noted on the included tables, are the result of the groupings. Recordings were then made of the number of times each remark was made. After all the questionnaires were tabulated, and.the totals for each type of response added, the percentage was obtained.' All the tables are based on percentage distribution of the responses. Under the main topics where sub-topics are listed, the sub-topics are the percentages of the response recorded by the children. In many cases, a child recorded two responses under the same main topic, for instance, in Table I, under the cause of happiness, sub-topics under "School" may have been recorded by the same child twice. He may have listed the "Teacher" and "School Sports" as causes for happiness. this, both were recorded. In cases like In the "Total" column on all the 8 tables, the number recorded is the sum of the percentage distribution of the sub-topics. All items of less than one per cent were not recorded. It was believed that the free response to questions would tend to make the study more valid than that of a check list. No answers of any kind were suggested during the test by the. examiner. The child would tend to put down the thoughts uppermost in his mind, at the time he answered the questionnaire. After all the tables were made, analyses with their educational implications were written. IV. Growth needs. DEFINITION OF TERM USED Thayer, Zachry, and Kotinsky state: The logical dual meaning of the word needs, proves of value in that it refers simultaneously to two requirements: one that education take cognizance of the wishes and desires of each individual as he expresses himself at the time when he is to be con fronted with an educational situation; and the other that it treat these wishes and desires in ways to effect desirable changes in them.** Lawrence K. Frank says that: The child1s needs may be seen as arising from his biological and physiological functions and more signi ficantly from the series of life tasks that he faces in the required socialization of his functions, his impulses and his behaviors. ^ Thayer, Zachry and Kotinsky, o p . cit., p. 406. From a speech presented at the Conference*of the National Association of Nursery Education, Nashville, Tennessee, October 22, 1937. Prescott states the needs of developing children fall into three categories: (1) physiological needs, (2) social and status needs, and (3) ego or integrative needs which develop a sense of worthy selfhood*® Lorraine Sherer has stated needs very clearly* Basic needs, appear to be: (1) those needs that arise by virtue of the way the human being is structured; (2) those needs that arise, by virtue of its structure and its needs to function or get along with other people; and (3) the need to meet human physical and extra-human realities with a fair degree of success and indepen dence. ^ Let us consider growth needs of the child as (1) phys ical and mental drives or urges that result from maturity and environment; (2) social.realizations and demands which recognize the worth of getting along with others, and the establishment of status in the group; (3) self-integrative realizations which make basic the belief in self as a worthy person* V. ORGANIZATION OF,REMAINDER OF THE THESIS The organization of this thesis is as follows: Chapter I* Introduction, statement of- the problem, questions to be answered in the thesis, importance of the ® Daniel Alfred Prescott, Emotion and the Educative Process* American Council of Education, Washington, £>.C 1938, pp* 110-38. ^ Lorraine Sherer, Their First Years in School Los Angeles County Board of Education^ 1939, p . 60. 10 study, scope of the study, procedure, definition of term used, and organization of the remainder of the thesis* Chapter II* Findings from studies that have been made by students of education on the needs and interests of the pre-adolescent child. Chapter III. Analysis Of the causes of happiness of fifth and sixth grade children. Chapter IV* Analysis of the causes of unhappiness of fifth and sixth grade children. Chapter V. Analysis of the responses of children as to what they would like to be able to do. Chapter VI. Analysis of the responses of children as to what they would most like to have. Chapter VII. Analysis of the responses of children as to what they would like to know more about. Chapter VIII. tions. Summary, conclusions, and recommenda CHAPTER II FINDINGS FROM STUDIES THAT HAVE BEEN MADE ON THE NEEDS AND INTERESTS OF CHILDREN I. RELATED LITERATURE The curriculum of yesteryear is not appropriate for providing experiences necessary for the child of today. His needs have changed, says William H. Kilpatrick. A new curriculum is needed because "our modern social and thought mould" have brought new developments which the educator must respect. Education should develop the child for living today and should contribute to a full well-rounded life. Hopkins states that the curriculum of today must offer: "Continuity, when necessary; uniformity, when desirable; variability, when pertinent; creative individuality, when such emphasis is needed."^ Kilpatrick^ further states that because conditions are ever changing we can meet needs of the young by helping them to think problems through, not just establish habit. Since we .live experimentally, each 1 William H. Kilpatrick, "New Developments, New Demands," National Education Association Journal, 24:261, November, 1935. ^ L. Thomas Hopkins, "Curriculum Development," Teachers College Record, 37:441, February, 1936. rz William H. Kilpatrick, Remaking the Curriculum (New York: Nelson and Company, 1936)', pp. 13-34. 12 new problem must be an experiment* just be something handed down. Education then canft New problems, all social life needs study and intelligent criticism. Kilpatrick states: Education thus becomes primarily the conscious pur suit of personally felt purposes with ever more adequate self-direction as the goal. The unit of curriculum construction likewise becomes an instance of selfdirected purposive living, not as formerly a selected portion of subject-matter-set-out-to-be-learned. The child must come first and subject .matter second, states Kilpatrick. The child!s present living, his whole personality, his socio-physical being must have opportunity to develop integratingly. He must face life situations and deal with them to the best advantage. Joy Elmer Morgan states in the introduction of Remaking the Curriculum, that: The cycle of educational reform must include: 1st, a new philosophy and concept of education as it is related to the total life of the individual on the one hand, and the total life of society on the other; 2nd, changes in school plant and organization in keeping with this broadened concept; 3rd, changes in the school curriculum to bring it into harmony with the new philo sophy; 4th, changes in the preparation and in-service education of teachers to equip them to deal with the new situation; and 5th, changes in public attitude necessary both to make the educational process itself effective and to insure adequate school finance.° ^ ZklS* * P* 5 Ibid.. p. 10. 13 Stolz® says the child is ready to receive responsi bility in part by the end of his first ten years, of health duties. That is while grov/th is proceeding with "a maximum of serenity and not too rapidly,””the child should begin to assume responsibilities. Their accumulated experience should be guided to produce a somewhat automatic self-control in eating, dressing, sleeping and exercising. 17 Prescott states that many children are meeting fail ure and are not growing emotionally. Scholastic achieve ments are lowered through "mental conflicts or emotional disorganization." Warped' attitudes are common. Maladjust ments have been found to be more functional than innate. The home and the school should early recognize these condi tions and make provision for their adjustments. In order to set up conditions for the promotion of mental health and normal adjusted personalities one must seek the needs of the child. What is needed in the way of things, activities, experiences and relationships in order to attain func tional effectiveness in our society and at the same time be reasonably happy . . . the structure of the organism, the processes of society and the nature of ^ Herbert R. Stolz, "Growth Needs of Children in the Intermedia.te Grades," Educational Method, January, 1938, pp. 157-62. ; 7 ’ Daniel Alfred Prescott, Emotion and the Educative Process (Washington, D.C.: American Council of Efducation, 193817 pp. 110-27. 14 a person* s experiences contrive to give rise to a series of needs, of quasi-needs and of operational concepts which must be met if wholesome personality development is to be achieved.^ These needs are basic and continuous with us, Prescott continues. We work out our needs to our satisfac tion and as conditions change, we find our needs changing and we modify our behavior. If these needs are met adequately, we are adjusted but many times these new needs cause person ality maladjustments. Our society prevents the fulfillment of many needs and quasi-needs for periods of varying length and this is why we have the maladjusted school child. He feels certain needs to be dominant and society inflicts other experiences and demands upon him. The study of case histories has furnished the basis for the determining of needs. These needs do not operate independently of each other, but there is an interrelation. Social needs grow from the reality that life must be lived in association with others. He can live, establish a home, and develop*his personality by maintaining satisfac tory relationships with persons and institutions of his land. This results in a need for learning how to get along with others. Affection, a sense of belonging, a likeness to others seems to be necessary for a well-adjusted personality. 8 Ibid., p. 111. 15 Ego and Integrative needs are explained by Prescott. People need to have a belief in self before they can be well-adjusted. The coordination and unification of all desires and operational concepts until they are fused into a unity which gives rise to consistent behavior is then an ultimate need of the growing personality . . . This basic necessity for a sense of worthy selfhood based upon the maturing of an integrated personality gives rise to a series of functional needs which have the most-fan-reaching implica tions for education and indeed for the evolution of all social institutions and processes. II. RELATED INVESTIGATIONS Howard M. Bell compiled a survey made by vocational experts revealing problems of 13,528 youth between the ages of sixteen and twenty-four. They were as follows: 1. Equality of educational opportunities. 2. Employment. 3. Economic security (most urgent and personal need). 4. Guidance. 5. Lack of vocational training. 6. Secondary educational program in need of reorganization. 7. Leisure-time - a social problem. 8. Health education. 9. Need for improved attitudes and citizenship. 10. Need for community planning for y o u t h . ^ ^ Ibid., pp. 118-19. ^ Howard M. Bell, Youth Tell Their Story (Washington, D.C.: American Council on Education, 1938), p. 270. 16 Reports of Stolz,11 Jones,12 Zachry,15 and Meek,14 reveal the general problems of adolescence. 1. Increased strain because of rapid physical development. 2. Desire to find a place for himself in society. 3. Desire for independence. 4. Desire to make satisfactory adjustment to the opposite sex. 5. Desire to be recognized as an individual. Dimoclc gives these interpretative statements concerning the adolescent boy: 1. Great expansion in social contacts. 2. Achievement of emancipation from parents. 3. Development of heterosexual interests and experience. Earl H. Floyd1® made a study of Junior High School children in Pasadena which might have some bearing on the age preceding adolescence. A questionnaire was given to 5,892 children in five junior high schools. The questionnaire Herbert Stolz, Mary C. Jones, and Judith Chaffey, 11The Junior High School Age," University High School Journal,. 15:63-72, January, 1937. ^ Mary C, Jones, "Guiding the Adolescent," Progres sive Education, 15:605-09, December, 1938. 15 Caroline B. Zachry, "Some General Characteristics of Adolescence," Progressive Education, 15:591-97, December, 1938. Lois H. Meek, "The Immediate Social Relations of Students in Junior arid Senior High School," Progressive Education, 15:610-16, December, 1938. 15 Hedley D. Dimock, Rediscovering the Adolescent (Hew York: Associated Press, 1&37), p. 23. 1® Earl H. Floyd,. "An Analysis of the Expressed Needs and Interests of Junior High School Pupils," (unpublished Masterfs thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, 1939), p. 25. u 17 was designed to secure a personal history of the child, his likes and dislikes, his interests in and out of school. I have chosen some pertinent findings that may have some implications to this study. The pupils indicated their greatest needs were talking interestingly and easily, choosing and preparing for a life work and social dancing and making friends. Girls indicated more need than boys for talking interestingly and making friends while boys indicated more need for help in choosing and preparing for a life work as well as sex education. Some conclusions of the twelve and thirteen year olds were as follows: 47 per cent of the girls and 40 per cent of the boys expressed the need of more help in how to. talk interestingly and easily. Thirty-seven per cent of the boys expressed the need for more help in choosing and pre paring for a life work. Personal attractiveness was very important to girls but not so important to boys. Sex problems were mentioned by only 5 per cent of the twelve year old boys and 5 per cent of the girls. Eleven per cent encountered difficulties with outside jobs. Only one per cent had difficulties with outside lessons. earn money. The most popular worry was that of how to Twelve year old boys were as much concerned about this as older boys. Twelve year old girls were not so much concerned about earning money as the older girls. 18 Thirty-three per cent of the twelve year old boys worried oyer lack of free time. Twenty-five per cent of the younger boys worried about getting along with their teachers as compared to 47 per cent of the older boys. Twenty-three per cent of the twelve year old girls worried about getting along with their friends as compared to only 8 per cent of the sixteen year old girls. Radio programs, motion pictures and reading are major leisure-time activities. Under free responses, one- half of the pupils indicated a need for more help on school subjects. Their greatest desire was for more independence in the home and school* School and school activities con stituted the major topic of conversation. wish would be for material objects. IPheir greatest Home duties were regis tered as the most important responsibility of all the pupils. Floyd1s conclusions were as follows: 1. Chronological age is not a significant factor in determining the needs and interests of junior high school pupils. Although needs and interests seem to vary somewhat with age, nevertheless, the various indi vidual age groups do not apparently offer a unique problem to education. 2. From the data certain interesting differences in needs and interests were expressed by pupils from the different occupational groups. These data, however, do not constitute sufficient evidence to warrant special consideration given to pupils from the various occupa tional levels. 3. The occupation of the mother is not a significant factor influencing the needs and interests of pupils. 19 4. The ordinal position of the child in the family groups is not a paramount factor influencing the needs and interests of pupils. Many were noted, however no pattern of needs was observed according to the position .of the child in the family group. 5. The sex factor constituted a basis for greater differentiation of needs and interests than did the other classifications under consideration. Consistent differences, in needs and interests of boys and girls were observed throughout the study . ’ Ruth Strange "IQ states after her review of health studies that.health habits and attitudes are a definite part of child development. favorable. "The child grows if conditions are The primary task i s to furnish favorable condi tions. ff .Prom the primary grades to puberty is a relatively healthy period. The child by this time has had or been exposed to most of the communicable diseases. Strange gathers from several studies the physical growth changes that take place as the child approaches puberty, that have implications for health education. They are as follows: 1. The preadolescent growth spurt, which is concen trated within a two- or three-year period prior to puberty. 17 Ibid.. p. 96. 18 Ruth Strange, "Child Development and-the Curric ulum," Thirty-eighth Yearbook of the national Society for the Study or. Education, ftart I^TBToomingt on« Illinois: Public School Publishing Company, 1939), pp. 85-92. 20 2. The changes in body size and proportion, indi cated by the fact that each dimension studied has its own characteristic growth pattern. 3. Anomalies of growth that occur in some cases. 4. The acceleration of girls over boys by one or two years in height, weight, and ossification of the wrist bones. 5. The individual differences in age of onset of puberty and the growth changes associated with physiological maturity. 6. The increase in acne and associated skin Shuttleworth^ l e s i o n s . 3-9 suggests that the two or three years prior to puberty is a period when dietary needs are great because this accelerating phrase, "reaches its climax not at any one chronological age but as early as age ten or late as age 14.” Guidance is suggested for children at this age level so that they will know what to expect in the way of physical development. Growth trends are individual, some children grow very rapidly and begin to wonder how tall they are really going to be. If the child begins to grow rapidly about the age of eight, he can expect to reach the climax of hip accelerating phase about puberty. grow very slowly before age twelve. Some children They are apt to have l9' Ibid., p. 91. 20 ; Frank K. Shuttleworth, Sexual Maturation and the Physical Growth of Girls.Age *3 to 19 Years. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, Vol. II, No. 5, Series No. 12 (Washington, D.C.: National Research Council, 1937), p. 189. 21 a less rapid, intense and prolonged growth spurt. Some . children grow very normally' and have no problems to meet. Problems come not in the changes per se but in the way they are viewed by the child and reacted to by him and others with whom he associates. Health education should help children to understand the growth changes of this period and to correct or accept individual handicaps or peculiari ties. Girls show development two years earlier than boys. This developmental difference shows need of segregation in physical education activities and for discussion of pre pubertal and adolescent problems prior to their appearance. S t o l z ^ states that many of the problems of early years carry over into this period. Vision, hearing and cardiac efficiency should be studied and remedies made. Franz e n ^ found with fifth and sixth grade children that teaching techniques such as health crusades, songs and lectures did not receive a high correlation with health tests. They had but little value in changing health habits and attitudes. 21 Herbert R. Stolz, "Growth Needs of Children in the Elementary Grades," Educational Method, 17:157-62, January, 1938. 22 Raymond Franzen An Evaluation of School Health Procedure (New York: American 6hild Heal’th Association, 1933), p. 127. 22 Stack‘d found similar results in his study. Demon strations, visual education, and individual follow-up in special cases seem to bring the best success in improving the health of the child. The study by Jersild, Markey and Jersild*^ brings out many varied and interesting wishes of four hundred boys and girls between the ages of five and twelve. In answer to the question, ’’If-you had a wish and your wish could come true, what would you wish?” they received the following response. Special material objects and possessions was the largest group and comprised 48.3 per cent of the total wishes. This included toys, clothes, food, vehicles, pets, furniture and money. The second largest group comprising 11.4 per cent of the total included wishes dealing with family relation ships and companionship. 10.6 per cent. Self-improvement comprised Improvements in socio-economic conditions, philanthropy and general benefits to society were 9.3 per cent. Benefits for parents totaled 5 per cent. Personal amusements, diversions, and parties constituted 7.3 per cent. 23 Herbert J. Stack, ffWhat We Can Contribute to Safety,ff The Journal of Health and Physical Education, 8:6-7, January, 1937. 24 Arthur T. Jersild, Frances V. Markey, and Catherine L. Jersild, Children1s Fears, Dreams, Wishes, Daydreams, Likes, Dislikes, Pleasant and Unpleasant Memories. (Wew York: Bureau of PubI icat!ons, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1933). 23 The oider children showed a marked decline in wishes for specific material objects. The five and six year olds rated 65 per cent of the total while the eleven and twelve year olds rated 25 per cent. .’The older children showed more wishes dealing with social and family relationships .and retaining parents.. The younger the child, the more marked was his desire for more specific objects. Wishes for general benefits for self and others were lower at the younger levels and showed a definite rise with age. Girls1 wishes (41.5 per cent) for material things were lower than b o y s 1 wishes (51 per cent), but girls* wishes were higher with family and social relations. In summarizing, the author states: The results as a whole show a rising tendency with age toward recognition of more inclusive benefits and of cause and effect relationships. The older child and the child with a higher I.Q. seem to understand that if inclusive desires are granted, many specific requests will automatically be taken care of. The character of the wishes illustrate well, the impirical nature of children*s concepts. The children*s thoughts are directed toward accomplished objective facts rather than toward the possession of powers within themselves which would enable them to win the things they desire.^5 Their wishes were preponderantly extrovert rather than introvert. Wishes dealing with improvement in personal power and prestige consisted only of about 11 per cent of ■— ° Ibid., pp. 25-26. 24 the total and show no significant differences in frequency with age or intelligence. Pew of the children think in terms of personal shortcomings or capacities. They wish for good marks but not in the ability to get them. The wishes voiced an abstract utopian scheme rather than a recognition of the underlying imperfections and inequalities of human beings. It is no doubt too much to expect a child to understand the factors which make for strife and poverty in human society. But unless hb'ican be given some understanding of human nature and of causal factors, it is perhaps questionable whether emphasis upon abstract notions of world-improvement have any significant meaning to him or any appreciable effect upon his conduct. 6 When asked, ’’What do you to be when you get big?” almost one-half chose occupations in the professions or as business executive, artist, writer, musician. Older children chose professional work and business management more frequently than the younger children. Younger children showed a preference for unskilled labor. Girls showed a greater preference for acting and music; also clerical work, parenthood and marriage. Boys chose business ownership and skilled labor. The children were asked, "What is the best thing that ever happened to you, the nicest thing that ever happened that you can remember?" The largest group of replies belonged in the category of amusements, festivities and 26 Ibid., p. 26 25 pleasant happenings (33 per cent). The second largest group oT 25.4 per cent consisted of gifts, etc. Kind parents, friendly relationships, friends included 11 per cent. Travel was 8 per cent. The older children showed larger replies in travel, 12.5 per cent as compared with 1 per cent in the younger children. Girls showed higher frequency than boys under the heading of kind parents and friends. Girls tend to find more enjoyment in social life while boys tend to be inter ested more with material objects, J e r s i l d ^ found. In answer to the worst things that ever happened to them, bodily injury, illness constitutes the largest group (74.5 per cent). Under the headings of scoldings, older children replied more frequently than younger children. There was very little difference between sex differences. In answer to their dislikes, the largest group fell to food 20.7 per cent; next came unpleasant duties, school, 17 per cent. Older children mention unpleasant activities, duties and deprivations of activity more frequently than younger children, also social and economic maladjustments in the world, people and undesirable traits, and personal shortcomings. Seventeen older children mentioned dislike for school as compared to only two younger children. ------- Jersild, loc. cit. 26 When asked about their likes, the father, mother, and near relatives group received first place, 22.7 per cent. Specific objects— toys, clothes, and pets comprise 19.3 per cent. Older children specify persona and associa tion with persons more than younger children; also, they mention activities and diversions.. In answer to the question, ’’Would you rather go to school or stay at home?” 85 per cent would rather go to school. Only 20.4 per cent of all children gave enjoyment of school as such, as their reason for preferring to go to school. The desire was not to be stupid for to be educated for practical reasons. As children grow older they do not grow more interested in school education as an end in itself. Younger children emphasized a liking for school as such, 39 per cent as compared with 16 per cent of the older children. In the school program made more interesting for the young child than for the older child? Older children are more conscious of the benefits of an education, of the * slow advance of the illiterate, and by a desire to avoid boredom of having nothing to do at home. In the summary, the following conclusions are given. The similarities between boys and girls are more outstanding than the differences. ences. There were a few outstanding differ Boys are concerned with objects more than girls while girls are concerned with people. Older children are 27 more concerned with social and family relationships and accomplishments while the younger children stress objects and foods. In all significant instances the replies of younger and older children showed much overlapping. Children at any particular age did not reveal any unique characteristics which set them apart from children at another age. The difference between the thinking of the older child as compared with that of the younger is not a difference in kind, but his greater capacity and knowledge enables him to deal with larger concepts. The likes and dislikes did not tend to be opposite or antithetical, but branched into dissimilar fields. Replies made little mention of general economic conditions* They had little understanding of poverty -and social maladjustments. Their suggestions were schemes for self-aggrandizement rather than an exercise of genuine charity. Most of the child*s fears deal with dangers that are either highly fictitious or highly improbable. It is difficult to conceive what benefit such fears achieve or what value they have in promoting adjust ments or precautions that have any utility In actual life. In his wishes the usual child displays little insight into cause and effect relationships. They think in terms of accomplished facts rather than in terms of resources that accomplish the facts. He asks for benefits rather than for means by which he can obtain the benefits. For example, he wants better grades, rather than greater ability. Their thought is of the ideal rather than the plans-or spe cific ways of improving society. The study suggests that if instruction in social philosophy is to be given, such instruction should Include an analysis of the motives, limitations, and imperfections of human beings.28 . . . M u r p h y ^ is concerned with the child growing into his own group or the socialization of the individual. In order to study the individual methods of work which are necessary, such as experimental method, controlled obser vations, rating scales, and a ’’complex method which seeks to see the various phases of child personality, all at once In their interrelations.” There should be systematic con trol as well as variation of conditions to get reliable data. ’’There is no aspect of social behavior which can be adequately understood apart from its relation to the OQ personality of the Individual.11 ^ A variety of methods are needed to thoroughly understand personalities. The projective-method was used by H. A. Murray at the Harvard Psychological Clinic for the study of fantasy and its relation to personality and social behavior. A few of the following needs were listed for the study of relationships between behavior and latent personality drives appearing in fantasies stimulated by pictures, stories, word Jersild, loc. cit., p. 278. 29 Gardner Murphy, Lois Barclay and Theodore M. Newcomb, Experimental Social Psychology (New York: Harper, and Br o ther s, 193 rf) 29 j lists, and sound stimuli. Aggression, achievement, domi nance, recognition, exhibition, excitance,. exposition, order, play, retention, of the needs. sex and blame escape, etc. were some They occurred in the stories as told by the children after looking at the pictures. They threw light on the same needs occurring in the individual^ social behavior as well as in his personality. The children also revealed their environmental pressures. Toys, directed and undirected dramatic play, drawings and games, finger print ing, clay, blocks and painting are mediums by which children release their personality traits for study. They project inarticulate feelings and responses into their reactions. Work and social behavior are intimately related to the personality organization of the child. We should see the individual in the light of the group and the group in the light of the individual.*0 30 Ibid.. p. 285. CHAPTER III ANALYSIS OF THE FACTORS RELATED TO THE HAPPINESS OF FIFTH AND SIXTH GRADE CHILDREN j Happiness of children. The schoolfs first considera tion should be 'the welfare of the child. This involves insights into his physical, mental, social and emotional growth needs. Socially, he must be accepted; he must have a sense of worthiness of self and his physical needs must be met. Happiness seems to be a result of ability to meet needs with independence, satisfaction, and success. What things contribute most to the happiness of children? children recognize the causes of their happiness? these causes basic? Can Are In the following analysis, the table showing sex differences of the cause of happiness will be first, then followed by a discussion and comparison of the remarks of the causes of happiness made by the boys and the girls. This plan will be used throughout the analysis. Comparison of b o y s y and girlsT responses as to the causes of happiness. Boys and girls alike derived their greatest amount of pleasure from school experiences, as shown in Table I. School in general, such as reading, being a squad leader, etc. received the highest rank in school experience and received equal mention from both boys 31 TABLE I PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OP THE RESPONSE OP BOYS AND GIRLS TO THE QUESTION: WHAT ARE THE THREE THINGS THAT HAVE MADE YOU MOST HAPPY THIS YEAR? Boys All pupils Girls Cause of Happiness Single-Total Single-Total Single-Total responses responses responses 82 School: School in general Teacher School journey School sports 39 23 19 7 40 12 11 19 85 88 40 18 15 13 Gifts and possessions 55 36 46 Home life 19 33 26 Personal accomplishments and pleasures 24 25 25 Friends 12 28 20 Trips 21 14 18 Christmas and holidays 21 14 18 Pets 7 5 6 Good health of self and relatives 1 7 4 Cultural possessions 4 2 3 Nothing 2 2 2 Being an American 2 0 1 Helping others 1 1 1 32 and girls. The teacher, the school journey, and school sports received recognition. Only half as many hoys (12 per cent) indicated the teacher as a source of happiness as did girls (23 per cent). Eight per cent more girls mentioned the school journey while 12 per cent more boys mentioned school sports. Forty-six per cent of all children mentioned gifts and personal possessions, as the next contributing factor to their cause of happiness. Boys received more happiness from gifts than did girls. Home life rated third as a cause of happiness. Fourteen per cent more girls mentioned the home than did boys. Personal accomplishments, friends, trips and holidays, received the next choices. Altruistic motives as a cause of happiness received only one per cent. Being an American was truly appreciated by two per cent of the boys. Good health, and cultural possessions were near the bottom of the list. Since the questionnaire was given.at school, the children may have felt their first obligation was to the school although the examiner explained that this was not a school questionnaire, but it should include their whole lives, both in and' out of school. One per cent of the boys and four per cent of the girls mentioned good health. 33 Comparison of the comments made by boys and girls under responses In regard to the causes of happiness. The causes for happiness of school in general were much the same for both boys and girls, as seen in Tables II and III. Both sexes derived happiness from being a squad leader, from social studies, work periods, music and arithmetic, etc. Remarks on happiness caused by the teacher were very much the same for both sexes. Both liked "the good teacher,” ffthe kind and nice teacher” and the one especially who was not "crabby." They liked the teacher who "helped them;" who took them on school journeys or excursions. The school journey, such as a ”trip to the museum," "the post office," "on the train,” "to the broadcasting company," "to China town" and "the pottery factory" were rated high by both sexes, as a cause for great happiness. This signifies that school journeys satisfy the child, in his effort to gain concepts outside the immediate environment. Both boys and girls rated sports as an important source of happiness. Baseball, kickball, games at recess were mentioned by both sexes. Football was mentioned by the boys while jump rope and hopskotch were mentioned by the girls. No decided tendency to many different types of games was noted between the sexes, but boys gave much more impor tance to sports than did girls. 34 TABLE II PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONSE OF BOYS TO THE QUESTION: WHAT ARE THE THREE THINGS THAT HAVE MADE YOU MOST HAPPY THIS YEAR? Cause of Happiness Boys Single-Total responses School: School in general-i.e., reading, going to school,“Being a squad leader, social studies, getting better marks this year, work period, music, arithmetic, carnival at school, etc. School sports-i.e., baseball, football, games at recess, etc. Teacher-i.e., nice teacher, teacher who helps you. School .1ourney-i.e., going to the broadcasting station, train trip, pottery factory, China town, etc. 82 40 19 12 11 Gifts received and possessions-i.e., money, radio, bicycle, boat, skates, cowboy suit, etc. 55 Personal Accomplishments and Pleasures-i.e., working, vacations, playing ray new piano, movies, things done right, etc. 24 Trips-i.e., to the mountains, to the beach, to New York, East, over the United States, etc. 21 Home Life-i.e., good food, Mother has every . Sunday off, cousins visited us, my baby : sister, a good home, father helps me. 19 Christmas and Holidays-i.e., fun at Christmas, Halloween, New Years. (Christmas received by far the greatest number of points). 17 35 TABLE II (continued) PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONSE OF BOYS TO THE QUESTION: WHAT ARE THE THREE THINGS THAT HAVE MADE YOU MOST HAPPY THIS YEAR? Cause of Happiness , . Boys Single-Total responses Friends-i.e., good friends and their friend ship, scout friends, good pals. 12 Pets-i.e., my dog, my horse, my dog house, a new pen for the monkeys. 7 Cultural Possessions and Desire for Higher Learning-i.e., musical instruments, mj piano, my violin, books, learning more, my education. 4 Living in America-i.e., being an American, living in the United States of America, America not being in the war, living in a free country, etc. 2 Nothing-i.e., (wrote the word nothing or left the space blank)• 2 Helping others-i.e., helping Mother, Helping Mother to get a new car. 1 Good Health of self-i.e., being strong. 1 36 TABLE III PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONSE OP GIRLS TO THE QUESTION: WHAT ARE THE THREE THINGS THAT HAVE MADE YOU MOST HAPPY THIS YEAR? Cause of Happiness Girls Single-Total responses School: 88 School in general-i.e., getting good grades, 39 passing, learning things, being in the choir, being in plays, drawing, work period. Teacher-I.e., my good teacher, my teacher is 23 kind, teacher who is not crabby, teacher who takes us on trips. School .journey-i.e. , going to the radio 19 station, the train trip, the North West Museum the post office. Sports at school-i.e., baseball, kickball, 7 jump rope, etc. Gifts Received and Possessions-!.e., my gifts for Christmas, my dolls, desk, bicycle, clothes, games, skates, etc. 36 Home life-i.e., my mother and daddy are living at home, my good home, my good mother and father, many .visitors, plenty to eat, our new home, am happy at home, being with mother, ray own room, brother and sister. 33 Friends-i.e., many friends, good girl friend, playing with friends, talking to friends, my good boy friend. 28 Personal Accomplishments and Pleasures-i.e., dramatics,25 dancing, camp, girl scouts, playing piano and violin, going to school plays, movies, parties, etc. Trips-i.e., when we went to the San Francisco Fair, to New York, to the mountains, to the beach. 14 37 TABLE III (continued) PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OP THE RESPONSE OP GIRLS TO THE QUESTION: WHAT ARE THE THREE THINGS THAT HAVE MADE YOU MOST HAPPY THIS YEAR? Cause of Happiness Girls . . Sing1e-To tal responses Christmas and Holidays-i.e,,, when everyone is home for Christmas, New Year 1s parade, fun at Christmas, Thanksgiving dinner, etc. 14 Pets-i.e., my cat, my dog, horse, bird. 5 Good health of self-i.e., I ’m well, havenft been sick, etc. 4 Good health of parents-i.e., Mother and Father are well, no one is sick. 3 Cultural Possessions and Desires-i.e., being a Christian, being educated, my books. 2 Nothing-i.e., (wrote the word nothing, or left the space blank) 2 Helping others-i.e., giving to the poor, helping children on the playground, giving to others. 1 38 There was a decided difference in the types of gifts that brought happiness to boys and girls. Boys, especially mentioned money, a radio, bicycle, boats, skates. Girls mentioned dolls, desk, bicycle, clothes, games, and skates. Both boys and girls rated gifts received and possessions, second as the causes of happiness. Personal accomplishments and pleasures ranked third with boys as a cause of happiness, while they ranked fifth with the girls. tions, movies. Both mentioned playing the piano, vaca The boys especially mentioned working while girls mentioned dramatics, dancing, camping, Girl Scouts, parties, etc. Home life ranked third with the girls (33 per cent)] and fifth with the boys (19 per cent) as a source of happi ness. Fourteen per cent more girls realized the value of a good home as revealed in the study, than did boys. Boys and girls’ ideas were very much alike in regard to the value of home life, for instance, both mentioned "Plenty to eat,11 "A good home,” ”My good -mother and father,” ”A brother and sister," "Father helps me," "Being with Mother." Mother was mentioned more times than Father. Friends ranked fourth with the girls (28 per cent). They ranked seventh with the boys (12 per cent). They both mentioned very much the same causes for happiness such as, "Many friends," "A good girl friend," "A good boy friend,” 39 "Playing with friends," "I have good pals," etc. Pour per cent of the girls mentioned good health as a cause of happiness, for instance, they mentioned "I am well,” "I haven1t been sick," etc. while only one per cent of the boys mentioned good health. They mentioned "being strong." - .SUMMARY 1. Boys and girls alike derived their greatest amount of pleasure from school experiences, such as reading, drawing, etc., the teacher, the school journey, and school sports. No decided tendency to many different types of games was noted between the sexes. Boys gave much more importance to sports than did the girls. 2. Gifts and personal possessions ranked second in importance for both boys and girls. than girls gave this response. However, many more boys Boys especially mentioned money, radio, boats, while girls mentioned more items con cerned with the home, such as dolls, desks, clothes, games, etc. 3. ness. Home life averaged third as a source of happi Girls were far more impressed with the happiness derived from their home than were boys. However, the ideas regarding the value of home life were similar. 4. Personal accomplishments and pleasures, such as working, doing things right, movies, etc. rated equally high 40 among both boys and girls* Boys were especially interested in working, while girls were especially interested in dramatics, parties, dancing, etc* 5. Friends were far more important to girls than to boys as far as a source of happiness was concerned* They both mentioned very much the same causes, however, for happiness derived from friends* 6* Good health, cultural possessions, being an Amer ican, and helping others, barely received mention by both boys and girls. CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS OP THE FACTORS RELATED TO THE UNHAPPINESS OP FIFTH AND SIXTH GRADE.CHILDREN Unhappiness of ‘children. The study brings out that unhappiness was a part of the life experience of 81 per cent of all the children. Many of these unhappy incidents were a result of lack of development of physical, mental, social and emotional needs. Do the unhappy experiences of children have educational implications? Can children, through written response, give clues as to their lack of need ful fillment? What are the causes of unhappiness of the fifth and sixth grade child? Comparison of b oys1 and girls1 responses as to the causes of unhappiness. The study revealed that boys and girls of the fifth and sixth grades have many causes for unhappiness as shown in Table IV. The greatest number of causes for unhappiness of all pupils questioned were with personal disappointments and interference. cent of all children recorded this response. Thirty-two per There was no significant difference between the responses of boys and girls. boys. School disappointments rated second with the They had 13 per cent more disappointments in school than girls. Friends were the cause of 19 per cent of the 42 TABLE IV PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONSE OF BOYS AND GIRLS TO THE QUESTION: WHAT ARE THE THREE THINGS THAT HAVE MADE YOU MOST UNHAPPY THIS YEAR? Cause of Unhappiness Boys Girls All responses pupils Personal disappointments and interference 28 36 32 School disappointments 29 16 23 Nothing 20 18 19 Friends 14 24 19 Loss of pets 10 13 12 Home conditions 15 9 12 Lack of material things 12 7 10 Illness of self 9 10 10 Loss of relatives 6 12 9 Illness of relatives 8 8 8 Accidents 9 5 7 Teacher 4 4 4 World conditions 3 4 4 Lack of self-control 4 2 .3 Weather 2 0 1 43 b oys1 and girls1 unhappiness. Ten per cent more girls than boys had difficulty with friends. Loss of pets and home conditions were minor causes of unhappiness. Fifteen per cent of the boys listed home conditions as the cause for their unhappiness while only 9 per cent of the girls listed the same. No significant difference was noted between boys and girls for the cause of unhappiness in the following items: illness of self, loss of relatives, illness of relatives, and accidents. The teacher caused unhappiness to four per cent of all pupils. Lack of self-control and world conditions caused unhappiness to a few children. Comparison of the remarks made by boys and girls in regard to the causes of unhappiness. School disappointments rated first among the causes of unhappiness to boys while it rated fourth, with girls, as- shown in Tables V and VI. There was very little difference in the responses of children in regard to school disappointments. Items such as "spelling and arithmetic are too hard,11 "I c a n !t draw,” ”1 d o n ft like corrective,” ”1 couldnrt go on school trips,” ”1 am afraid I w o n ft pass,” ”1 d o n ft like to give oral reports,” "Studying is too hard,” ”1 can1t'play baseball well,” etc., were mentioned. For the girls, personal disappointments and inter ference ranked first while with boys, this response ranked second. There was no significant difference in the items in 44 TABLE V PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OP THE RESPONSE OF BOYS TO THE QUESTION: WHAT ARE THE THREE THINGS THAT HAVE MADE YOU MOST UNHAPPY THIS YEAR? Cause of Unhappiness Boys total responses School disappointments-i.e., spelling is too hard, arithmetic is hard, couldn’t get my arithmetic and had to stay after school, was scolded be cause I couldn’t get my spelling, tests, couldn’t go on school trips, colored folks should have a school of their own, got blamed for things I didn’t do, afraid I w o n ’t pass, my chair is. too small, had to miss a work period, studying is too hard, can’t play base ball well, etc* 29 Personal disappointments and interference-i.e., had a flat tire, couldn’t go to the mountains, c a n ’t .sell magazines, had to do home work, got lost, other children d o n ’t play fair, have no money* 28 Nothing-i*e., (either, the word nothing was written in or the space was left blank). 20 Home conditions-i.e., got spanked (predominated), Dad flew off the handle, Mother yelled at me, had to practice the clarinet, finances, quarrels with my parents, father left home, mother went away, etc* 15 Priends-i.e., other children ignore me, I fought with friends, my friends d o n ’t like me, I d o n ’t mix well, my school mates -and I get mad at each other, the boys w o n ’t play with me, etc* 14 Lack of material things-i.e*, I lost my bike, we haven’t enough money, haven’t got a bike, want a tool set, had a flat tire and couldn’t get it fixed. 12 45 TABLE V (continued) PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONSE OF BOYS TO THE QUESTION: WHAT ARE THE THREE THINGS THAT HAVE MADE YOU MOST UNHAPPY THIS YEAR? Cause of Unhappiness Boys total responses Loss of pets-i.e., my dog died, my cat died, Daddy gave my dog away, etc. 19 Accidents-i.e., I was in an auto accident, a bicycle accident, I stubbed my toe, I broke my arm, etc. 9 Illness of self-i.e., I got sick, had the measles, had the flu, when I almost died. 9 Illness of relatives-i.e,, my mother was sick, my father is not able to work, my sister got whooping cough, etc. 8 Loss of relatives-i.e., my mother died, my aunt and uncle died, my brother was killed, my sister was smothered, etc. 6 Teacher-i.e., my teacher gave me a. poor grade, teacher got cross, my teacher has it in for me, I would like to tell the teachers what I think of them, I wish we had a good teacher, etc. 4 Lack of self-control-I.e., I didn!t play fair, I do things I shouldn't do, I am naughty, I'm stubborn, etc. 4 World conditions-i.e., too many wars, stop Hitler, many people are killed, hope we don't have war. 5 Weather-i,e., I'm unhappy when it rains, I have to stay in when it rains, etc. * 2 46 TABLE VI PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF .THE RESPONSE OF GIRLS TO THE QUESTION: WHAT ARE THE THREE THINGS THAT HAVE MADE YOU MOST UNHAPPY THIS YEAR? Cause of Unhappiness Girls total responses Personal disappointments and interference-i.e., my brother fights, had to leave my home town and move here, I ’m too short, have to do dishes when I want to play, spilled paint on my new bag, breaking a China dish I brought to school, not getting to go to the beach, canft go places I want to, my uncle is not a Christian, c a n ft tell, etc • 36 Friends-i.e., I donft have any friends, they get mad at me, my friend moved away, they like me part of the time and then they d o n ’t like me, my friend died, I d o n ’t like these girls, the girls gang up on me, they w o n ’t let me play with them, 24 Nothing-i.e., (either the word nothing was written in or the space was left blank). 18 School disappointments-!.e., c a n ’t work arithmetic, d o n ’t like spelling, writing is hard, cannot draw, d o n ’t like corrective, didn’t get good grades, we didn’t have open house when we planned to, I don’t like to give oral reports, I can’t think fast when I take a test. 16 Loss of relatives-i.e., my mother died, my father died, my sister and. brother were killed, an auto killed my uncle.. 12 Loss of pets-i.e., my dog was stolen, my cat died, I lost my dog, my M r d got out, etc. 13 47 TABLE VI (continued) PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONSE OF GIRLS TO THE. QUESTION: WHAT ARE THE THREE THINGS THAT HAVE MADE YOU MOST UNHAPPY THIS YEAR? Cause of Unhappiness Girls' total responses Illness of self-i.e., I got sick and Had to stay home from school, I had the whooping cough, had the flu and had to stay in bed. * 10 Home conditions-i.e., I want my daddy to come back home, daddy is out of work, when mom left us, , mother isnft happy, mother doesn’t get our break fast, father doesn’t make enough money, we have an old car, we live in an old house, mother doesn’t keep our house clean. 9 Illness of relatives-i.e., mother got sick, father is sick all the time, my brother got very sick, my grandmother is in bed. 8 Lack of material things-!.e., c a n ’t have a bicycle, d o n ’t have a doll buggy, c a n ’t have cookies, d o n ’t have good clothes, etc. 7 Accidents-i.e., I fell off my bicycle, I broke my arm, our auto accident, etc* 5 Teacher-i.e., she doesn’t like me, has it in for me, w o n ’t let me be a leader, is crabby, gets cross over nothing, w o n ’t help me. 4 World conditions-i.e., Hitler, war in Europe, etc. 4 Lack of self-control-i.e., getting mad at others, not doing what I should, not playing fair, being selfish, not being kind to other girls. 2 the remarks made by boys and girls. Such remarks as: ffMy brother fights,” "I am too short,” ”1 have to do dishes when I want to play,” "I can’t sell magazines,” ”Other children d o n ’t play fair,” ”My uncle is not a Christian,” ”1 c a n ’t tell,” etc., were among the items listed. Friends were very important as a cause of unhappi ness to girls, and ranked second in importance. They seem far less important to boys, ranking only fifth. The remarks made by boys and girls were very similar, for instance, ”1 don’t have any friends,” ”Other children ignore me,” ”1 d o n ’t like these girls,.” "The boys gang up on m e , ” ”1 d o n ’t mix well," etc. Nineteen per cent of all the children could think of no cause for unhappiness. Loss of pets were a source of sadness to both boys and girls. "My dog died,” "My cat was stolen,” "my bird got out," "Daddy gave my dog away” were among the remarks made by both boys and girls. Sickness with both boys and girls rated evenly as to cause of unhappiness with 9 per cent. Remarks over illness of relatives and accidents of both boys and girls were similar. The remarks about the teacher from both boys and girls were similar. For example, "My teacher gave me a poor grade,” "She doesn’t like me," "She has it in for me,” "Is crabby,” "Gets cross over nothing and w o n ’t help me," "I would like to tell the teacher what I think of her,” etc. 49 Lack of self-control was mentioned by only three per cent of the1 boys and girls. Such items as ”1 didn!t play fair,” ”1 do things I shouldn11 1do,” ”1 am stubborn,” ”1 am selfish,” were causes of unhappiness. World conditions were mentioned by three per cent of the boys and four per cent of the girls. instance, The remarks were very similar, for ”We have too many wars,” ”1 wish we could stop Hitler,” etc. Two per cent of the boys mentioned the weather. They especially did not like the rain. Summary. 1. Unhappiness was very prevalent in the lives of boys and girls of the fifth and sixth grades. The greatest number of causes was that of personal disappoint ments and interference. There was no significant difference in the responses made by the boys and girls as to the cause of this unhappiness. 2. School disappointments were second in number, the boys having 13 per cent more disappointments in school than girls. Both boys and girls recorded much the same causes of unhappiness in school. 3. Friends were also a great cause of unhappiness between both boys and girls. However, 10 per cent more girls .than boys, had difficulty with their friends which caused unhappiness. Their remarks as to the cause of .'unhappiness between boys and girls were very similar. 50 4. Home conditions were also a source of great unhappiness to both boys and girls. The boys listed the home as causing much more unhappiness to them than did girls. There-was no significant difference in the remarks of boys and girls concerning the home. 5. No significant difference was noted between the boys and the girls for the causes of the following unhappi ness: illness, loss of relatives, accidents, the teacher, and lack of self-control. CHAPTER V AH ANALYSIS OP THE RESPONSES OP CHILDREN AS TO WHAT THEY WOULD LIKE TO BE ABLE TO DO What children would like to be able to do. It was the desire of the study, by. obtaining free responses from children as to what they would like to be able to do, to secure their most individual and personal wishes. these responses? mining needs? What are Do they have any significance in deter Are there any marked differences in the type of response between sexes? Comparison of b o y s 1 and girlsf responses as to what they would like to be able to do. Sports received the greatest average number of responses of boys and girls than any other response (see Table VII). much higher than the girls. The boys rated sports They exceeded the girls in sport responses by 54 per cent. They placed among the four most important sports, flying in a plane and flying model planes, swimming, hiking and baseball. The girls placed among their most important sports, horseback riding, skating and hiking. Boys also favored to a lesser extent, fishing, horseback riding, and skating. Girls gave as a minor choice, swimming, baseball, playing and dancing. 52 TABLE VII PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OP THE RESPONSE OP BOYS AND GIRLS TO THE QUESTION: WHAT THREE THINGS WOULD YOU MOST LIKE TO BE ABLE TO DO? . in t H able to ao t Boys Girls All Pupils Single-Total SingTe-Total Single-Total responses responses responses Sports Swim Hike in the mountains Fly model planes and go up in a plane Play Baseball Ride a horse Skate-roller and ice Pish Dance Professions and occupations Musician Mechanic Miscellaneous Artist Teacher Pilot Army-navy Actor-actress Nurse Carpenter Secretary Airplane hostess Business of own Scientist-Explorer Author 52 86 69 17 12 7 9 12 11 19 0 10 12 11 5 3 7 0 5 6 12 11 0 2 9 9 9 7 4 1 54 4 16 10 5 0 4 6 0 0 3 0 0 ■ 0 4 0 56 16 0 2 4 8 1 0 6 5 0 4 3 3 0 2 55 10 8 6 5 4 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 53 TABLE VII (continued) PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONSE OF BOYS AND GIRLS TO THE QUESTION: WHAT THREE THINGS WOULD YOU MOST LIKE TO BE ABLE TO DO? _ vn able to do Boya Girla All pupils Single-Total Single-Total Single-Total responses responses responses Take trips 29 35 32 Excel in studies 11 10 11 Personal enjoyment 8 14 11 Care of the home 1 17 9 Altruistic tendencies 3 11 7 Be a squad leader in school 3 5 4 Make toy boats and airplanes 6 0 3 Work and earn money 6 0 3 Become a good citizen 4 1 3 Nothing 4 0 2 54 Occupations of boys and girls received the second largest response. There was no significant difference in the number of responses between boys and girls. ference came in the choice of occupations. The dif The boys listed as top choices, of definite occupations that of mechanic, and the army and navy. and teacher. The girls listed that of musician Boys’ minor choices were artist, musician, scientist and explorer. nurse, and secretary. Girls’ minor choices were actress, Miscellaneous rating was high among the boys, including that of being a magician, a detective, etc. farmer, a senator, a No boy mentioned that he would like to teach, be an actor, a nurse, a secretary, or have a business of his own. No girl mentioned that she would like to be a mechanic, in the army or navy, a carpenter, or a sceitnist and explorer. The boys seemed to make very little connection between their major sport of flying model planes and that of learning how.to be a pilot. However, the connection might come in the top choice of professions, that of mechanic. Travel rated high as a third choice in percentage of responses for both boys and girls. There was an equal distribution among boys and girls to excel in their studies. Personal enjoyment such as being happy, playing all the time, etc. was far more important to girls than boys. 55 Seventeen per cent of the girls rated care of the home as one of the things that they would like most to be able to do,-while only one per cent of the boys considered this as an ambition. Girls showed higher percentage of altruistic tendencies than boys. For instance, girls were more con cerned about helping the poor, making others happy, and being kind, than boys. Boys and girls alike mentioned that they would like to be able to be squad leaders or leaders in gamss in the physical education class. Boys especially wanted to make toy boats andairplanes, to work and money, to be a good citizen. listed nothing question. earn Four per cent of the boys or left blank the space dealing with this All the girls answered this question. Comparison of the comments made by boys and girls under responses as to what they would most like to be able to do. The boys (Table.VIII) in their eager desire to be able to excel in sports, mentioned most, model plane,” and ”going up in a plane.” ’’The flying of a The girls! (Table IX.) made no mention of a plane or a plane ride. Both girls and boys liked to swim, but boys mentioned it twice as many times as girls. Boys mentioned such comments as: “Swim all day,” ”Be a good swimmer,” ”Go to the beach and swim. ” Boys emphasized excelling in swimming while girls were content just to swim. Both boys*and girls * 56 TABLE VIII PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONSE OF BOYS TO THE QUESTION: WHAT THREE THINGS WOULD YOU MOST LIKE TO BE ABLE TO DO? Like to be able to do Sports Fly a model plane-i.e., I would like to be able to fly a plane, go up in a plane, have a plane of my own. Swim-i.e., swim all day, be a good swimmer, go to the beach and swim. Boys Single-Total responses 86 19 17 Hike in the mountains-1 .e., hike in the snow , 12 go on a long hike, hike and hike* Play-i.e., play all day, play with my friends, just play. 12 Baseball-i.e., be a good baseball player, play nothing but baseball. 11 Fish-i.e., go on a fishing trip, go fishing with daddy, fish from a boat. 7 Ride a horse-i.e., go for long horseback rides, ride on top of a horse, ride a horse in the country. 5 Skate-i.e., roller skate, ice skate In the mountains♦ 3 Professions and occupations. Mechanic-electriclan-i.e., to take cars apart, work on autos, be an engineer, be. an electrician. Miscellaneous-i.e., be a farmer, be a senator, a policeman, a magician, lecturer, a detective. 54 16 10 57 TABLE VIII (continued) PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONSE OF BOYS TO THE QUESTION: WHAT THREE THINGS WOULD YOU MOST LIKE TO BE ABLE TO DO? Like to be able to do Boys Single-Total responses Professions or occupations (continued) Army-Navy^T.e., be a sailor, be a soldier, fight Russia, kill Hitler. 6 Artist-i.e., be a painter, draw better than anyone else. 5 Musician-i.e., be a great singer, play in a band. 4 Pilot-i.e., be a pilot, pilot a big plane. 4 Carpenter-i.e., build 3 houses. Radio Announcer-i.e., announce the news over the radio, be an honest-to-goodness announcer. 2 Scientist-i.e., be a Marconi,; discover things, be a real scientist. 2 Explorer-i.e., go with Byrd, explore new lands.2 Trips-i.e. , go to Nev/ York, go East, take a trip m a trailer, go on a long train trip. 29 Excel*in Studies-i.e., be smart like others,pass my grade, be able to concentrate, go to college, do better in spelling and arithmetic. 11 Personal En.joyment-i.e .. be happy, be promoted, have my wishes come true, draw all day, read all I want to. 8 58 TABLE VIII (continued) PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONSE OF BOYS TO THE QUESTION: WHAT THREE THINGS WOULD YOU MOST LIKE TO BE ABLE TO DO? Like to be able to do Boys Single-Total responses Make toy boats and airplanes-i.e., have work' period oftener so I can build boats and air planes, work on boats, work on a radio in my plane. 6 Work and earn money-i.e., have a paper route, work and have my own money, grow flowers and sell them. 6 Be a good citizen-1.e.t get along better, be a great man, have more self-control. 4 No response-i.e., (either left space blank or wrote the word vn o thing.11 4 Altruistic tendencies-i.e., help people when they are in trouble, get a car for mother, help mother so she doesnft have to work so hard. Be a squad leader-i.e., be a leader on the playgrounds, help children play fair, lead the gang in basketball. - .3 3 59 remarks in regard to hiking in the mountains were similar. Both of them mentioned play, for instance, ’’Play all day," "Play with my friends," "Play and not have to work. " How ever, the hoys mentioned this twice as many times as the girls. Baseball was mentioned by both boys and girls, but twice as many times by the boys. The girls wanted to just "play baseball," while the boys wanted to be "A good base ball player," "play nothing but baseball." "Hiding horse back" was the favorite sport of the girls and was mentioned twice as many times by them as by the boys. Skating, both ice and roller skating, was the second choice of the girls, and was listed three times more than the boys. The girls' first choice of the things they would most like to be able to do was in the line of some type of work or occupation. The boys gave this their second choice. The girls' first choice of occupations was to "Be a musician," while the boys put "Be a musician" as the fifth choice. Their comments, however, were very similar. Both mentioned "Be a great singer," "Be a musician," "Play the piano," "An orchestra," etc. the girls. fession. "Being a teacher" ranked second with The boys made no mention of teaching as a pro Their choice in professions were that of mechanic and electrician. They wanted to "Take cars apart," "Work on autos," "Be an. engineer," "Be an electrician." made no mention of this type of occupation. Girls 60 TABLE IX PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OP THE RESPONSE OP GIRLS TO THE QUESTION: WHAT THREE THINGS WOULD YOU MOST LIKE TO BE ABLE TO DO? Like to be able to do Girls Single-Total responses Professions or Occupations Musician-i.e., be a singer, be a musician, play the piano well. 56 16 Teacher-i.e., be a school teacher and teach kindergarten children how to play. 8 Actress-i.e., act on the stage, be a great dancer, be like Shirley Temple. 6 Nurse-i.e., take care of the sick, be a nurse . 5 Secretary-i.e., type in an office, be a secretary to a great man. 4 Artist-i.e., be able to paint well, be an artist. 4 Airplane Hostess-i.e., be a hostess. 3 Business of my own-i.e., have a store, work in my own shop. 3 Author-i.e., write stories, be an author. 2 Miscellaneous-i.e., pilot, doctor, etc. 2 Sports Go horseback riding-i.e., ride a horse. 12 Roller and ice skate-i.e., ice skate well. Hike in the mountains-i.e., go on long hikes, go to the mountains. 52 11 9 61TABLE IX (continued) PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OP THE RESPONSE OP GIRLS TO THE QUESTION: WHAT THREE THINGS WOULD YOU MOST LIKE TO BE ABLE TO DO? Like to be able to do Sports (continued) Swim-i.e., go to the beach and swim, swim in the pool. Girls Single-Total responses 7 Baseball-i.e., play baseball. 6 Play-i.e., play and not have to work, play all the time. 5 Dance-i.e., go to a dance, dance at school. 2 Trips-i.e.t travel on the train, go East, take a long trip, travel around the world, go:', on a boat trip. 35 Care of- the home-i.e., take care of the babies, ge"E~married, have a garden, clean the house, sew and make my clothes, cook a meal. 17 Personal en joyment-i.e., see more movies, see relatives, join Girl Scouts, see famous people, have everything I want. 14 Excel in studies-i.e . g o to college, finish school, get better grades in spelling and arithmetic, do as well as John, be good in studies, be smart in reading.. 10 Altruistic tendencies-i.e.t get a new car for daddy, help the poor, make others happy, be kind. 11 Be a squad leader in school-i.e.. be a leader, help others to play safe. 5 Become a good citizen-i.e.t be good in school. 1 62 The army and navy was the second choice of a defi nite occupation for the boys. They wanted ”To be a sailor,” ”Be a soldier,” ”Fight Russia,” and ’’Kill Hitler.” Girls wanted to ’’Take care of the sick,” ’’Type in an office,” Both boys and girls wanted to be ’’Able to paint well, ” ”Be an artist.” Boys wanted especially to ’’Draw better than anyone else.” Girls* minor desires were ”To be an airplane hostess,” ’’Have a store of my own,” ”To write stories,” ”Be an author,” while the b o y s 1 minor desires were to ’’Announce news over the radio” ’’Build houses,” ”Be a Marconi,” ’’Dis cover things,” ”Go with Byrd,” and ’’Explore new lands.” Trips rated third with both boys and girls, and their responses were very similar. They wanted to ’’Travel on the train,” ”Go to Hew York,” ”Go on a boat trip,” etc. To excel in studies received an equal amount of response from both boys and girls and there was no significant difference in their comments. They wanted ”To be smart like others,” ”Go to college, ” ’’Get better grades in spelling and arith metic,” and ”Be able to concentrate better. ” Personal enjoyment ranked almost twice as high with girls as with boys. However, the comments were very similar. Remarks such as ”Be happy,” ’’Join the Girl Scouts,” ’’See famous people,” ’’Read all I want to,” ’’Draw all day,” etc. were mentioned. Six per cent of the boys wanted to ’’Work and earn money, ” ’’Have a paper route, ” or ”To grow flowers and sell them.” No girls mentioned earning money. wanted to ’’Make toy boats and airplanes.” Boys They wanted to 65 have more frequent work periods in school. They wanted to be able "To work on the radio," "Work on their airplanes," while girls did not mention this type of activity. The girls1 fourth choice was the "Care of the home." Boys did not mention this. Such comments as "Taking care of babies," "Getting married," "Having a garden," "Clean the house," "Sew and make my own clothes," and "Cook a meal" were made. These items were mentioned many times by the girls. SUMMARY 1. Sports received the greatest average number of responses of the children in answer to the question on w h a t they would like to be able to do. Boys1 responses to sports were higher than the girlsT by 34 per cent. 2. ponse. Occupations received the second greatest res There was no significant difference in the number of responses between the boys and girls. There was a signi ficant difference in the choice of occupations. .The boys listed mechanics, and the army and navy as favored choices while the girls listed musician and teacher. 3. Travel rated high with both sexes as a third 4. Minor mention was made by both sexes of the choice. following: excel in studies, personal enjoyment, and squad leader in physical education classes. 64 6. home. Girls alone were interested in the care of the They also showed far more altruistic tendencies than the boys. 6. Personal enjoyments ranked twice as high with the girls as compared to the boys while boys wanted to work and earn money. They wanted longer work periods in<school so they could work on their airplanes, radio, etc. did not mention this type of activity. Girls CHAPTER VI AN.ANALYSIS OP THE RESPONSES OF CHILDREN AS TO WHAT THEY WOULD MOST LIKE TO HAVE What children would like to have. Lorraine Sherer states that: Human beings have some needs that are basic to their growth, their stability, and their ability to function. They also have countless wants arising out of circum stances in their environment— wants or desires suffi ciently imperative to be confused with needs, or to be construed as needs. In reality, these wants are symptoms of basic needs♦ What is it children want most? Are the items listed under what they would like to have, of any importance as symptoms for determining needs? Are there any differences in the comments made by boys and girls in regard to responses for various things they would like to have? A comparison of boys f and girls1 responses as to what they would most like to have. Material possessions rated first with both boys and girls, as shown in Table X, An equal number of boys and girls wanted a bicycle. This was their first choice listed under material possessions. They each wanted any number of miscellaneous objects, such **■ Lorraine Sherer, and others, Their First Years in School (Los Angeles, California: Los Angeles County Board of Education, 1939). p. 59. 66 TABLE X PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONSE OF BOYS AND GIRLS TO THE QUESTION: WHAT THREE THINGS WOULD YOU MOST LIKE TO HAVE? Would like to have Boys Girls All Pupils Single-Total Single-Total Single-Total responses responses responses Material Possessions Bicycle 38 Miscellaneous 25 Ice and roller 8 skates Racer-cars 24 Glider-airplane 14 Radio and telegraph 14 sets Electric train sets 15 Musical instruments 6 Watch . 1 Books 4 Doll, with clothes — and furniture Ball and bat 9 New furniture — Typewriter — . Camera 1 Pets Horses Dogs Other pets Good home 159 135 39 23 13 -5 4 12 10 9 — 8 13 8 8 8 7 7 6 4 — 4 2 2 1 5 4 2 28 14 8 6 147 39 20 19 28 20 5 3 28 17 7 4 27 17 22 Clothes 6 18 17 Friends 6 9 8 Nothing 14 2 8 67 TABLE X (continued) PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONSE OF BOYS AND GIRLS TO THE QUESTION: WHAT THREE THINGS WOULD YOU MOST LIKE TO HAVE?. Would like to have Boys : Girls All Pupils Single-Tota1 Single-Total Single-Total responses responses responses Money 6 4 5 Intelligence and personal attractiveness 2 8 5 -- 3 4 3 Longer recesses and vacations 5 Brother or sister 2 Good teacher 1 A family with children — Food 1 Health — 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 68 as a telescope, a knife, a saw, jewelry, etc, The next greatest desire for the girls were ice and roller skates . and for the boys, racers, gliders, radio and telegraph sets, and electric train sets. The girls saw very little use for any of these last four articles. They wanted watches, books, dolls with clothes, doll house furniture, and furniture for their rooms. Minor wants were many. About an equal number of girls and boys wanted musical instruments. Boys put in a request for ball and bat while girls wanted new furniture, a type writer, and a camera. There was a significant difference between the wants of the boys and those of the girls, with the exception of the bicycle. An equal number of boys and girls wanted pets. Horses led first, followed by dogs, birds, and cats. Both boys and girls rated a good home as third on their list of wants. The girls definitely showed a greater want for clothes and friends than did boys. Fourteen per cent of the boys listed nothing or neglected to fill in the blanks while only two per cent of the girls listed nothing. Only five per cent of the boys and girls would like to have money. Eight per cent of the girls wanted intelligence and personal attractiveness while only two per cent of the boys mentioned this want. tions. Boys wanted longer -recesses and vaca "A good teacherff and food were two minor wants. 69 A few of the hoys wanted brothers and sisters. Minor wants of the girls w e r e '”A good teacher, ” ftA family with children,” ’’Food, ” and ’’Health. ” I A comparison of the comments made by boys and girls under the'responses in regard to what they would like to have. There was no material difference as to comments regarding bicycles (Tables XI and XII). Such items as ”1 would like to have a bicycle,” ”My old bicycle needs repairing,” ’’Get ting a horn for my bicycle,” boys and girls. etc. were similar with both Boys wanted such things as a wagon, desk, games, telescope, saw or workbench, while girls wanted a permanent, jewelry, manicure, a box to hold jewelry, etc. Both boys and girls realized the value of a good home. Their wishes were very much the same, for example, ”1 would like to have a father,” ”1 would like to have mother come back home,” ”1 would like to live with my mother and father,” ”1 want a good hone with nice furniture,” ”1 want a beautiful home with flowers.” SUMMARY 1. Material possessions rated first and very high with both boys and girls in response to what they would most like to have. An equal number of boys and girls wanted as their first choice, a bicycle. 70 TABLE XI PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OP THE RESPONSE OP BOYS TO THE QUESTION: WHAT THREE THINGS WOULD YOU MOST LIKE TO HAVE? /"Boys Would like to have Material Possessions Bicycle-i.e., like to own a bicycle, get my bicycle fixed, get a born for my bicycle. Single Total responses 159 58 Miscellaneous-!.e., like to have a wagon, desk, games, telescope, knife, saw, work bench, etc. 25 Racer-i.e., like to have a car, want a racer, want an automobile. 24 Electric train sets-i.e., want a large long train, I want a train that goes by itself. 15 Radio and telegraph sets-i.e., like to have an amateur radio set, tools so I could make a radio, sound effects for my radio, a. telegraph set. 14 Glider, airplane-i,e., want a glider, a real airplane, a glider I can ride in, to make a glider. *. 14 Ball and bat-i.e., ball and bat of my own. 9 Skates-i.e., ice and roller, pair of skates. 8 Musical Instruments-i.e., want a bugle, want a drum, a piano. 6 Books-i.e., want some good war stories, good books. 4 71 TABLE XI (continued) PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OP THE RESPONSE OP BOYS TO THE QUESTION: WHAT THREE THINGS WOULD YOU MOST LIKE TO HAVE? Would like to have Boys Single-Total responses Pets Horses-i.e., like to have a horse, a horse of my own, a horse I can ride. 28 . 14 Dog-i.e., want a dog. 8 Other pets-i.e., a monkey, a cat, a bird, some pigeons. 6* Good home-i.e., live with my mother and father, a father, a home, a good home, a new home with a swimming pool, nice furniture. 24 Nothing-i.e., either the word "nothing” was written in or the line was left blank. 14 Clothes-i.e., boots, shoes, cowboy hat, football suit. 6 Friends-i.e., have more friends, have a good friend, join a club, have a girl friend. 6 Money-i.e., be rich, have more money. 6 Longer recesses and vacations-i.e., more time to make things, have more vacations, have longer recesses. 5 Intelligence-i.e., have more ability, have better self-control, ability to get more customers for my paper route. 2 72 TABLE XII PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OP THE RESPONSE OP GIRLS TO THE QUESTION: WHAT THREE THINGS WOULD YOU MOST LIKE TO HAVE? Would like to have Girls Single-Total responses Material Possessions Bicycle-i.e., I would like to have a hicycle, a new bicycle, my old bicycle repaired. Miscellaneous-!.e., a permanent, jewelry, car, science laboratory, a manicure, a box to hold my jewelry. 135 39 20 Skates-i.e., ice and roller-i.e., ice skates, 19 new skates, a pair of skates (the wish for ice skates far outnumbered roller skates). • Watch^i.e., to have a wrist watch, a real watch^ a gold watch^ 13 Dolls with clothes and furniture-i.e., a beautiful doll, clothes for my doll, many dolls, a mama doll, furniture for my doll house. 8 Musical instruments-!.e., would like a piano, auto harp, violin. 8 Books-i.e., some new books, some beautiful books, a good book. 7 New furniture-i.e., desk, new furniture for my room. 5 Glider-airplane-i.e., an airplane, a glider, a real plane. 5 Radio-i.e., a radio for my room, a new radio. 4 Typewriter-i.e., a typewriter of my own. 4 Camera-i.e., a small camera. 2 73 TABLE X-Ll (continued) PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OP THE RESPONSE OP GIRLS TO THE QUESTION: WHAT THREE THINGS WOULD YOU MOST LIKE TO HAVE? Would like to have Girls Single-Total responses Pets-i.e., Horses-a horse to ride, etc. Dogs-a dog like my brothers have, etc. Other pets-a canary bird, cat, etc. 28 20 5 3 Clothes-i.e., nice clothes, a new dress, lots of clothes, pretty clothes. 18 Good home-i.e., a father, mother to come back home, a happy home, a home in the country, a room of my own, a beautiful home with flowers, 17 Priends-i.e., a boy friend, more girl friends, girls to like me, Jimmy for a boy friend. 9 Intelligence and personal attractiveness-i.e., I would like to have a good mind, a good education, be a good woman, a good girl, have poise, kind ness, good manners, beauty, popularity, health. 8 Brother or Sister-i.e., I would like to have a baby brother, a baby sister. 4 Money-i.e., I would like to have lots of money, all the money we need. 4 Good teacher-i.e., always have a good teacher, have a good teacher for once. 3 Nothing-i.e., wrote the word nothing or left the space blank. ?2 A family with' children-i.e ., many children, children of my own. 2 74 2. Boys would like to have gliders, racers, electric trains and telegraph sets. these things. etc. Girls were not interested in They wanted watches, books, dolls with clothes, Boys did not mention these items. 3. Pets and a good home were important wants of both boys and girls. 4. Both b o y s 1 and girls1 wants are important to teachers as symptoms for determining needs. Decided interests of boys and girls of these grade levels have been brought out. CHAPTER VII AN ANALYSIS.OP THE RESPONSES OF CHILDREN AS TO WHAT THEY WOULD LIKE TO M O W MORE ABOUT What children would like to know more about* are naturally curious about many things. Children Just what are the things that children would like to know more about? these responses have educational implications? Do Are the things that boys would like to know more about, the same as those of girls? A comparison of boys * and girlsf responses as to what they would like to know more about. The school subjects, rated first among the things which both boys and girls would like to know more about. (See Table;:XIII). Social studies rated first among the school subjects with 50 per cent more boys responding than girls. Next in importance as far as boys were concerned came science, arithmetic, art and spelling. Arithmetic, art, music and science respectively, were of importance as listed by the girls. Other subjects of minor mention was made by the girls of reading, spelling, dramatics, penmanship, and dancing? Minor mention was made by the boys of sports, reading and music. People, were second on the list of things that children would like to know more about. Girls especially were inter ested in knowing more about their friends, themselves, and 76 TABLE XIII :PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONSE OF BOYS AND •GIRLS TO THE QUESTION: WHAT THREE THINGS WOULD YOU LIKE TO KNOW MORE ABOUT? Like to know more about School subjects Social Studies Science Arithmetic Art Spelling Music Reading Sports School in general Dramatics Dancing Penmanship People Friends Self Relatives Opposite sex Boys All Pupils , Girls Single-^otal Single-Total Single-Total responses responses responses 185 144 165 45 12 19 18 7 13 8 3 4 7 4 4 100 29 15 10 9 4 5 7 5 1 1 1' 73 21 17 14 8 8 6 5 4 4 2 2 15 11 10 1 5 Church 1 4 3 Designing 3 0 The Future 2 2 2 Love 1 2 1 Miscellaneous 2 0 1 Nothing listed 8 8 4 2 1 5 1 1 1 ' 2 relatives,- Only one per cent of the boys and girls showed interest in knowing more about the opposite sex. not seem curious to know more about themselves. Boys did However, they were interested in knowing about their friends. Ten per cent of the boys listed nothing or left the space blank, indicating that there was nothing they could think of that they would like to know more about. the girls left this space blank. Only one per cent of Minor interests of girls were the church, the future, and love. Minor interests of boys were designing, the future, and love. Comparison of the comments made by boys and girls under responses as to what they would like to know more about There was no significant difference to the responses listed under the social studies by both boys and girls, XIV and XV). (See Tables They both wanted to know more about radio, electricity, television, communication, transportation, and the world in general. The significant thing was that the boys listed over 50 per cent more items than the girls. of the comments made were: Some !,How boats float,” f,How to run a tug," ,fHow to drive a racer,” ,fHow a plane works,” ”How it feels to ride in a plane,” while girls Just mentioned the fact that they would like to know more about airplanes, radio history and geography. Boys were far more specific in noting definite things which they would like to know more about. 78 TABLE XIV . PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE' RESPONSE OF-BOYS TO THE QUESTION: WHAT THREE'THINGS WOULD YOU LIKE TO ENOW MORE ABOUT? Y/ould like to know more about School Subjects Social Studies I would like to know-more about pioneers, Chinese, radio, electricity, television, machines, communication, transportation. (34; Boys Single-Total responses 185 100 Aviation-i.e., how a plane works, how to run a plane, how to build a plane, how it feels to ride in a plane. (26) World in general-i.e ., how the world was made, more about maps, great men in history, the world. (2 0 ) Boats-i.e., how submarines stay under water, how boats float, how to make boats, and more about boats, how to run a tug. (1 1 ) Cars and racers-i.e., how to drive a racer, how to make a car, more about autos. (9) Science-i.e., more about chemistry, planets, 29 farms, my dog, sea animals, my pets. Arithmetic-i.e ., more about how to work arithmetic, arithmetic problems. 15 Art-i.e., how to draw, how to paint, how to draw a train well. 10 Spelling-i.e., how to learn to spell, how not to miss so many words in spelling. 9 79 TABLE XIV (continued) PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONSE OF BOYS TO THE QUESTION: WHAT THREE THINGS WOULD YOU LIKE TO KNOW MORE ABOUT? Would like to know more about Boys Single-Total responses Sports-i.e., how to play good baseball, run faster, how to get more time to play, how to play football. 7 General school work-i.e., how to get longer work periods, in all my school work, how to be a squad leader. 5 Reading and English-i.e., good books, how to read faster, how to sound my words, how to remember what I read, how to talk so people will listen. 5 Music-i.e., singing, more about music, piano, flute. 4 10 Nothing listed-i.e., blank left unfilled or word ’‘nothing” written in. 8 People Friends-i♦e ., scouts, why teachers get so crabby, problems. 5 Self-i.e., why I !m good, why I*m not honest. 1 Relatives-!.e ., where they are. 1 Girls-i.e., what makes girls so silly. 1 Designing-i.e., how to design homes. 3 Miscellaneous-i.e., pirates, stamps, church, love, dramatics. 5 Future-i.e., what the future will be, who will win the war. 2 80 All other school subjects were of minor importance as compared to social studies. Science rated next in impor tance as far as boys were concerned. Science rated fifth with girls. Boys mentioned such things as chemistry, planets, sea animals, my dog, my pets, etc. Girls mentioned simpler forms of science which were the farm, the sea, my pets, etc. . Arithmetic received second in importance as far as girls were concerned and third as far as boys were concerned. Both b o y s ’ and girls’ comments were much the same. Both wanted to know more about "How to work arithmetic," ’About arithmetic problems." Art rated third with the girls and fourth with the boys, and the comments were very similar. Both wanted to know "How to draw well," "How to draw people," "How to make clay animals," etc. fourth with girls and ninth with boys. very much the same. Some of them were: Masic ranked The remarks were "How to sing better," "How to play the piano," "How to play the flute," etc. Reading and English received about the same stress from both boys and girls. books, They wanted to know more about good "How to read faster," "How to speak better before the class," and "How to talk so people will listen,"etc. People ranked second in importance with both the boys and girls. Comments in regard to their friends were similar. Some comments were; "Why my friends get mad," "I want to understand people better," "Why teachers get so crabby," 81 TABLE XV PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONSE OF GIRLS TO THE QUESTION: WHAT THREE THINGS WOULD YOU LIKE TO KNOW MORE ABOUT? Would like to know more .about School Subjects Social Studies Units of Work-i.e., pioneers, radio, communication, transportation, freight yards, airplanes. (25) Girls Sing 1 e-T'ota 1 responses 133 44 World in general-i;e ., history, geo graphy, the presidents, Germany, the countries in the war. (20) Arithmetic-i.e., how to do better arithme tic, how to get my arithmetic. 19 Art-i.e., drawing, drawing people, painting, making clay animals, flower arranging. 18 Music-i.e., how to sing, play the piano, play the accordion. 13 Science-i.e., the farm, my pets, science, the sea. 12 Reading and English-i.e ., how to read better, how to speak better before the class, how to write better stories. 8 Penmanship-i.e., writing (I scribble so), how to write backhand. 4 Sports-i.e., how to play baseball. 3 People FrTends-1.e ., why my friends get mad, my friends1 parents, understand people. 8 15 Self-i.e., why I get mad, what people think of me, my body. 4 82 TABLE XV (continued) PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONSE OF GIRLS TO THE QUESTION: WHAT THREE THINGS WOULD YOU LIKE TO KNOW MORE ABOUT? Would like to know more about Girls Single-Total responses People (continued) Relatives-i.e., my father, my mother. 2 Opposite sex-i.e., romance, love, boys. 1 Dramatics-i.e., how to be a movie star, a radio star, how to be a better ac.tress. 7 Dancing-i.e., ballroom dancing. 4 Church-i.e., the Bible, church. 4 Loye-i.e.,. why people love, love. 2 83 scouts, etc. Four per cent of the girls and one per cent of the boys would like to know more about themselves. Such remarks as: "Why I am good,1’ "Why I am-riot honest," "Why I get mad," "What people think of me," were made by both. Boys wanted to know "What makes girls so silly, " and girls wanted to know more above love, romance, and boys. Only one per cent of the boys were interested in girls and only one per cent of the girls remarked about boys. Seven per cent of the girls were interested in dramatics. They wanted to know "how to be a better actress," "How to be a movie star," "How to be a radio star." mentioned church. Four per cent They wanted to know more about the "Bible and the church." Four per centwDuld like to know more about ballroom dancing. Two per cent wanted to know about love, and why people love. SUMMARY 1. School subjects rated first among the items which both boys and girls would like to know more about. They rated out of all proportion to anything else mentioned. 2. Social studies rated first of all school subjects. A large percentage of the boys* responses referred to some phase of social studies. ponse of the girls. They more than doubled the res This would imply that boys were far interested in the social studies of these grades than were the girls. 84 3. Science, arithmetic, art, spelling, and music were among the next school subjects in importance to both girls and boys. 4. Children were eager to know more about people. People rated next to school subjects in importance. The social need is implied in this finding. 5. There was no significant difference in the types of responses given by boys as compared to girls. CHAPTER VIII SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS The purpose of this study was to determine if pos sible, some of the growth needs of fifth and sixth grade children.by the questionnaire method. This study planned to arrive at the growth needs of children through the c hildr ens responses that would be indicated by the things that had made them happy, the things that had made them unhappy, the things that they would like to be able to do, the things that they would most like to have, and the things they would most like to know more about. I. 1. SUMMARY Boys and girls alike derived the greatest amount of pleasure from school experiences. School in general, teachers, the school journey, and school sports received significant mention. 2. Gifts and possessions ranked second in importance to botli boys and girls as a cause of happiness. Boys especially mentioned money, radio, boats, while girls men tioned items concerning the home such as dolls, clothes, games, and desks. 3. Girls were far more impressed with the happiness derived from their homes than were boys. However, the ideas regarding the value of home life were similar. 86 4. Both boys and girls received much enjoyment from personal accomplishments and pleasures. Boys were especially interested in working and earning money while girls were more interested in dramatics, parties, and dancing. 5. Friends were far more important to girls than to boys as far as a source of happiness was concerned. 6. Minor sources of happiness mentioned were good health, cultural possessions, being an American, and helping others. 7.' Unhappiness and sorrow was prevalent in the lives of boys and girls of the fifth and sixth grades. Personal disappointments and interference of rights were the causes of most of the unhappy situations. There was no significant difference in, the responses made between boys and girls as to the cause. 8. School disappointments were second in number as the cause of unhappiness. The boys suffered far more disappointments in school than did girls. Both boys and girls recorded much the same causes for unhappiness in school. Friends were a cause of unhappiness to both boys and girls. However, 10 per cent more girls than boys had difficulty with their friends. 9. Home conditions were also a source of unhappiness. Girls seemed to get along much better at home than did boys. 87 10* A small percentage of both boys and girls were made unhappy because of sickness, loss of relatives, acci dents, the teacher, and lack of self-control. 11. Sports received the greatest average number of responses in answer to the question concerning what they would like to be able to do. were 34 per cent higher 12. Occupations The b o y s f responses to sports than that of the girls. received the second largest response. There was no significant difference in the number of res ponses between boys and girls. There was a great significant difference in the choice of occupations. The boys listed mechanics and the army and navy as choices while the girls listed musician and teacher. 13. Travel rated high with both sexes as to choice of the things they would like to be able to do. 14. care Girls alone of the home. cies than the boys. showed significant interest in the They also showed more altruistic tenden Personal enjoyment ranked twice as high with the girls as compared to the boys. Boys wanted to have longer work periods in school so that they could work on airplanes, radio, etc. Girls did not mention to any degree, this type of activity. 15. In response to what they would most like to have, material possessions rated first and very high with both boys and girls. An equal number of boys and girls wanted 88 a bicycle as their first choice in material possessions. 16. There was a decided difference in the type of things wanted by boys and girls. Boys would like to have gliders, racers, electric trains, and telegraph sets while girls were interested in watches, books, dolls, and clothes. 17. Pets, and a good home were very important to both boys and girls. 18. In answer to the question on what they would like to know more about, children rated school subjects as first choice. subjects. Social studies rated first among all school Both boys and girls rated social studies as the most important. However, the boys more than doubled the responses of the girls. 19. Science, arithmetic, art, spelling, and music were among the next school subjects in importance to both girls and boys. 20. Children also wanted to know more about people. There was no significant difference in the types of res ponses given by boys and girls in this regard. II. CONCLUSIONS WITH EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS The following conclusions seemed to evolve from the s tudy. 1. The school in general was by far, the greatest source of happiness to both sexes. Although more girls 89 recorded the teacher as a source of happiness and more boys recorded sports, there seems to be no significant difference in causes of happiness of boys and girls that would be of import to education. 2.• Gifts and possessions were of second importance as to the cause of happiness for both sexes. Articles children receive and own mean much to their happiness. 3. There was a significant difference in the type of things boys and girls are interested in that was of import to education. A. Boys 1. Considering gifts and possessions, boys received greatest happiness from radios, boats, skates, bicycles, chemical sets, cowboy suits, etc. 2. They listed sports first in the things they would like to be able to do. sports were in order: fly a model plane, These -go up in a plane, and swim, hike, and play baseball. 3. Material possessions rated first and very high with boys. In response to the ques tion on what they would most like to have, according to responses received, they are: bicycles, racers, cars, gliders, airplanes, 90 radio and telegraph sets, electric 'train sets, and balls and bats. 4. In answer to the question on what they would like to know more about,'boys chose by a great majority, the social studies. They mentioned television, electricity, machines, aviation, great men in history, boats, cars, and racers. They.listed science as second. These responses would tend to imply that b o y s 1 main interests were sports, mechanics, and the various methods and machines$ftrans portation, communication, and science. B. Girls. 1. Considering gifts, girls received greater happiness from gifts and possessions of the following nature: dolls, doll clothes and furniture, games, desks, and skates. 2. Twice as many girls recorded home life as a means of happiness as did boys. 3. Friends meant twice as much to the girls as a source of happiness t h a n .to the boys. 4. Girls would like to. follow certain occupa tions, especially that of musician and teacher. They preferred to take trips and care for the home. Personal enjoyment and altruistic tendencies rated higher than that of the boys. 5. Girls would most like to have bicycles, books, clothes, watches, dolls and any number of feminine trinkets. 6 . Girls also would like to know more about' social studies than any other thing although they were only half as enthusiastic as the boys. 7. These responses would tend to imply that girlsT interests were somewhat different from those of boys. The home, gifts that deal with the home, friends, and occupations which include musician and teacher, are vital in terests of girls. Girls tend to be more mature in their interests and wants than boys. 4. Unhappiness v,ras prevalent to a marked degree in the lives of boys and girls. The greatest number of causes of unhappiness was that of personal disappointments, inter ference, school, friends, and home conditions. 5. . There was no significant difference in the res ponses made between boys and girls as to the cause of unhappiness although 13 per cent more boys than girls had unhappy experiences in school, and more than 10 per cent more girls than boys had unhappy experiences with their friends. 92 6. The children made practically no mention of physical needs, such as adequate nutrition, health habits, rest, etc, A quasi-need was implied through interest in sports for outside activity and development of large muscle coordination, . 7. The results implied a recognition of social adjustment and need for status at school and at home. 8. Very few recognized their own faults. They men tioned the unhappiness caused by friends but only three per cent mentioned their own shortcomings as a cause for unhappiness. 9. Ego and integrative needs and quasi-needs were indicated through the responses by both sexes. 10• Educational Implications. a. Happy and successful school life would satisfy both the social and ego or integrative needs to some degree while gifts and personal possessions would give the child a sense of ownership which would aid in establishing stability and a sense of worth. Possessions would satisfy the cumulative desire which may be a symptom of a need of the child of this age. Physical needs were negligible as far as a cause of happiness was concerned. This would Imply that children do not realize as a group, the value of good health. 93 Status comes with doing things well and receiving recognition. Items under personal accomplishments and pleasures tend to emphasize the satisfaction from activity, accomplishments, and recreation. Sixteen per cent more girls mentioned friends as a source of happiness than did boys* This would tend to show the need to girls, especially, of a sense of status and worthiness and the value of getting along with people as one of the basic needs. The home was a greater source of happiness to the girls than to the boys. Shuttleworth,^ in his study on sexual maturity, found that girls developed two years earler than boys. In this study, girls seem more mature in recognizing more basic causes of happiness. Because the school journey and travel were considered a source of happiness, this technique of education would tend to imply that the school journey offered mental satisfac tions to the child in his effort to gain concepts outside the immediate environment. b. The findings on the causes of unhappiness show that the problems and sorrows of young children are many. Personal disappointments and- interference denotes a lack of status and social recognition. The mention of friends with ”1-------Prank K. Shuttlev/orth, Sexual Maturation and the Physical Growth of Girls Age 6 to 19 Years. Monographs of the Society for Research in ChiTcI Development, Vol. II, No. 5, Series No. 12, (Washington, D.C.: National Research Council), 1937, p. 189. 94 all the reasons given for the causes of unhappiness shows much need for social awareness and ability to get along with others. The lack of self-control denotes a need for social and self-understandings, physical adjustments and integrative development. c. The study shows a great interest in occupations. Children of these grades are beginning to think about types of work they would like to be able to do. It is first in the thoughts of the girls and second in the thoughts of the boys. Girls here appear to be more mature in their thinking than boys. These free responses seem to have a very definite educational implication, that of mental development. The curriculum should be a broadening experience at this level, taking into consideration many interests and types of occupations. The fact that children wanted to be able to do the many occupations listed denotes a desire or interest or need for knowledge along these lines. The fact that so many, occupations were mentioned may be an indication of interest established in the study.of such units of work as, transportation, communication, and Westward Movement. Since sports were among the first things children list that they would like to be able to do, it appears that this would have definite educational implications and would 95 give leads as to child interests. The desire to be able to do different types of sports well, may signify a physical need; also an integrative need, a feeling of worthiness in the eyes of his fellow companions and ability to excel for recognition. The social need is also revealed since most sports mentioned would be carried on in Since boys groups. seem far more interested in sports than girls and since they tend toward more vigorous games, division of sexes is justified in physical education classes. The desire for travel as a third choice for both boys and girls and the fact that school journeys were very important as a source of happiness would imply a need at this level for broadening concepts and satisfying curiosity as to what goes on in the world. To excel in studies would indicate the need for recognition and status, either by the other children, the teacher, or the childrens1 parents. Seventeen per cent of the girls at this age were interested in the care of the home and children. field at this age? .Should’ they have instruction in this The fact that only five per cent of all the children wanted intelligence and personal attractive ness and the greatest number of wants were for material possessions, shows a lack of knowledge or realization on the part of the child as to how material possessions are secured. 96 Jersild,^ in his study, also noted that children .wanted to have good marks, but they did not mention the intelligence that would enable them to make good marks. The study brought out that the desire for pets were basic interests of both boys and girls. Ownership of pets affords an outlet for the emotions, a sense of pride and companionship. Ownership aids in the establishment of status. d. Are the social studies geared more to boys* interests than to girls1? The fact that boys f wants ran to racers, cars, gliders, airplanes, radio, telegraph sets, and electric train sets seemed to have definite educational implications. The fact that girls hardly mentioned these items might signify that their interests were not along these lines. Fifth and sixth grade units of work included the study of many of the items children want. Transportation, for instance, involves the study of airplanes, cars, trains, etc. and Communication includes radio, telegraph sets, etc. This decided interest on the part of the boys may indicate the influence of the school environment. Lack of mention of these items or other items due to school environment by g Arthur T. Jersild, Frances V. Markey, and Catherine L. Jersild, Children1s Fears, Dreams, Wishes, Daydreams, Likes, Dislikes, Pleasant and Unpleasant Memories. (Mew Yorks' Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1933). 97 the girls might signify a lack of interest on the part of the girls or a stronger interest in out of school activities, such as roller and ice skating,.playing with dolls, dollclothes and furniture, etc. Why did so many children want bicycles? Is it because the bicycle gave the child an opportunity to be self-dependent? escape? Does the bicycle offer him a means of Does it give him a feeling of freedom from all res ponsibilities? Does it establish the ego and develop a pride in ownership? Many of the boys and. girls have bicycles in this school district. This environment mayrinfluence the wishes of other boys and girls who do not have bicycles. The bicycle also gives an opportunity for vigorous physical exercise and the development of large body muscles. The children tend to record the things they d o n ft have that other children have in their immediate environment. Only an average of 22 per cent of the children mentioned a good home. A good home implies food, shelter and clothing and other physical and social needs. This may imply that 78 per cent of the children were supplied with the good home, while the others were not fully satisfied with theirs. A good home was recognized by the child as something desirable, A good home fulfils a definite felt need that establishes status. Clothes were very important to the girls of this age but were only casually considered by the boys. 98 Many children coming from poorer homes in a district where the majority of children have beautiful homes may develop the sense of inferiority or lack of worthiness. Should the school follow interest leads of children? The school, in order to attain functional effectiveness, should seek to understand the interests and expressed wishes of children. Children acquire wholesome personalities by working out their needs to their satisfaction. When basic physical, social and integrative needs are not satis fied, personalities are warped and unhappiness and dissatis faction with life, results. e. The fact that studies taught in school ranked first of all the things that children would like to know more about would tend to imply that the school had set an environment which was of some vital interest to children. The social studies receiving such a high rank as 73 per cent of all children would tend to imply that the childrens1 interests were being challenged by the many and varied topics studied in these grades. Science, arithmetic, art, and music, the only other subjects of significant--' mention, tend to denote interests and quasi-needs in these fields. Knowledge of people received the only other signifi cant rating (that of 11 per cent) with regard to what children would like to know more about. This would tend to 99 imply that social needs are beginning to be recognized. The need for understanding people, the reality that they need to get along with others. In this study, the children did not recognize all of their most vital needs. However, their interests and wishes may be viewed as valuable symptoms of needs. Ill. RECOMMENDATIONS On the basis of the findings of this study, the following recommendations were noted: 1. Because of the importance of the development of a wholesome personality through adjustment of the child to his many and complicated needs, an attempt to understand each child as an individual should be made by the schools. 2. Because of the diversity of interests of boys and girls as noted from the frequency of mention of such interests, would indicate that the school should make group adjustments in the curriculum to meet the varied interests and needs of both boys and girls. 3. Further study should be made of both sexes on these grade levels as to growth needs. Group studies such as this one may give strong indications as to basic needs, and should aid the teacher in the guidance of the group. 4. Case studies of many children on these grade levels would be valuable in arriving at generalizations as to needs. 100 5. The school could provide opportunity to aid the child to become aware of his basic needs and attempt to meet them intelligently. 6. Many valuable studies have been made of the needs of children. teachers. These studies should be made available to The findings of such studies as were carried on by groups of teachers in this district in regard to needs of children are of much value to teachers in recognizing needs and in aiding the children in their attempts to make successful adjustments to our complicated society.^ 2 Growth Needs of Fifth and Sixth Grade Children as Organized by Teachers of these Grade Levels. See Appendix. -BIBLIOGRAPHY BIBLIOGRAPHY A. BOOKS Bell, Howard M., Youth Tell Their Story. American Council on Education,"“1938. Washington, D.C.: 261 pp. Bennett, Margaret E . , and others, Guidance in the Educa tional Program. Curriculum Monograph, Pasadena City Schools, November, 1940. 246 pp. Dimock, Hedley D., Rediscovering the Adolescent. Associated Press," 193’/. 277 pp. New York: Franzen, Raymond, An Evaluation of School Health Procedure. New York: American Child Health Association, 1933. 127 pp. Jersild, Arthur, Children1s Fears, Dreams, Wishes, Daydreams, Likes, Dislikes, Pleasant and Unpleasant Memories. New York: Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1933. 172 pp. Kilpatrick, William H . , Remaking the Curriculum. Nelson and Company, 1936. 128 pp. New York: Murphy, Gardner, and Theodore M. Newcomb, Experimental Social Psychology. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1937. IT S pp . Prescott, Daniel Alfred, Emotion and the Educative Process. Washington, DvC.: American Council of Education, 1938. 293 pp. Sherer, Lorraine, and others, "Their First Years in School. Los Angeles, California: Los Angeles' County Board of Education, 1939. 282 pp. Shuttleworth, Frank K., Sexual Maturation and the Physical Growth of Girls Age Six to Nineteen Years. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, Volume II, No. 5, Series No. 12. Washington, D.C.: National Research Council, 1937. 253 pp. 103 B. PERIODICAL ARTICLES Floyd, Earl H., ,fAn Analysis of the Expressed Reeds and Interests of Junior High School Pupils,” Unpublished Master’s thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1939. 102 pp. Hopkins, L. Thomas, "Curriculum Development,” Teachers College Record, 37:441, February, 1936. Jones, Mary C., "Guiding the Adolescent,” Progressive Education, 15:605-09, December, 1938. Kilpatrick, Y/illiam H., "New Developments, Hew Demands,” National Education Association Journal, 24:261-62, November, 1935. Meek, Lois,H., ”The Immediate Social Relations of Students in Junior and Senior High Schools,” Progressive Educa tion, 15:610-16, December, 1938. Stack, Herbert J., ”What We Can Contribute to Safety,” The Journal of Health and Physical Education, 8:6-7, January,. 1937. Stolz, Herbert R., "Growth Needs of Children in the Elemen tary Grades,” Educational Method, 175157-62, January, 1938. _______ , and others, "The Junior High School Age,” University """ High School Journal, 15:63-72, January, 1937. Strange, Ruth, "Child Development and the Curriculum,” Thirty-eighth Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Educatldn,, Part I. Bloomington, Illinois: Public School Publishing Company, 1939. 442 pp. Thayer, V. T., Caroline B. Zachry, and Ruth Kotinsky, ”A New Education for Youth," Progressive Education, 16:398, October, 1939. Zachry, Caroline B., "Some General Characteristics of Adolescence,” Progressive Education, 15:591-97, December, 1938. APPENDIX 104 DIRECTIONS Please answer truthfully the questions which have been asked below. Do NOT sign your name. The papers will all be shuffled as they are collected, so no one will ever know what you say or ask for. 1. Name of your school? 2. Your grade in school?________ 5. 4. What are the three things that have made you most happy this year?___________ 5. ____ * (School) ____ ______ _____ (Town) (State) Boy Girl______ • What are the three things that have made you most unhappy this year?______ __ _____ _________________________________ _ 6. What three things would you most like to be able to do? 7. What three things would you most like to have? 8. What three things would you most like to know more about? 105 GROWTH WEEDS OF FIFTH AND SIXTH GRADE CHILDREN AS ORGANIZED BY THE TEACHERS OF THESE CHILDREN IN RESPONSE TO THE QUESTION: WHAT ARE SOME OF THE MOST IMPORTANT GROWTH NEEDS OF CHILDREN AT THIS LEVEL? A*. What physical growth needs must be recognized and con sidered in guiding the child’s school experiences? 1. Adequate nutrition. 2. Detection and correction of physical handicaps. 3. Good health habits such as cleanliness, posture, care of the eyes. . 4. Developing wholesome attitude toward sex. Accurate sex information. 5. Fresh air, sunshine, and outdoor activity, 6 . Sufficient rest and relaxation. Adjustment of activities to physical changes Involved in pre adolescent period especially in sixth grade. 7. Freedom of activity. Varied activity. 8 . Opportunity for continued development of large muscle coordination and increased emphasis on fine muscle coordination. B. What social growth needs must be recognized and considered . in guiding the child’s school experiences? 1. Increasing need for status and sense of belonging in social groups. a. Sense of being wanted and needed. b. Need for improved group living. 1. Need for getting along with others. 2. Need for sharing. 3. Need for desirable leadership and followership. 2. Beginning break fro#i adult authority, especially in sixth grade. 3. Likeness to others. Doing the acceptable thing. . 4. Social cooperation. Recognition by children of each other’s ability and contribution each has to make. 5. Growing consideration of right of others. Growing self-control. 6 . Group approval. Recognition by group. 7. Association of other persons of the same sex, boys with men, etc., especially in the sixth grade. 106 GROWTH NEEDS OF FIFTH AND SIXTH GRADE CHILDREN AS ORGANIZED BY THE TEACHERS OF THESE CHILDREN IN RESPONSE TO THE QUESTION: WHAT ARE SOME OF THE MOST IMPORTANT GROWTH NEEDS OF CHILDREN AT THIS LEVEL? C. What emotional growth needs must be recognized and con sidered in guiding the child*s school experiences? 1. Sense of security, self-confidence, and pease. 2. Recognition and a feeling of success. Sense of personal worth? 3. Avoidance of strain, tension, and over-stimulation. 4. Need for sympathetic understanding of child*s reasons ;and feelings. Need for someone to confide in. 5. Happiness. 6 . Constructive outlets for natural urges and emotional responses. 7. Creative expression. 8 . Opportunity for growing independence for development of individual responsibility and initiative. 9. Ability to face facts squarely— disappointments and failures as well as successes. (Ability to face a problem situation objectively and work toward a solution). D. What mental growth needs must be recognized and considered in guiding the child*s school experience? 1. Increasing understanding of child*s own environment. Satisfaction of curiosity. 2. Extension of experience and growing understanding of other people. Beginning social consciousness. 3. Activity appropriate to level of development. 4. Continuity of experience and gradual development. 5. Improved ability In self-expression and in sharing ideas and experiences. 6 . Increasing•ability to gain needed information from books, etc. through reading. •7. Manipulation and construction. 8 . Developing those number concepts and skills needed in child*s experience. 9. Development of effective work habits. Need for devel oping "research techniques." Need for learning how to plan and organize materials in solving problems. 10. Ability to distinguish between reality and imaginative thinking. 11. Creative self-expression. * ' 12. Developing varied individual interests. Worthwhile use of leisure time.