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An analysis of the growth needs of fifth and sixth grade children

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AN ANALYSIS OP THE GROWTH* NEEDS
OP FIFTH AND SIXTH GRADE CHILDREN
A Thesis
Presented to
the Faculty of the School of Education
The University of Southern California
In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Master of Science in Education
^7
Dorothy Voorhies Stever
May 1941
UMI Number: EP54133
All rights reserved
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UMI EP54133
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T h is thesis, w r it t e n u n d e r the d ir e c t io n o f the
C h a ir m a n o f the ca n d id a te ’ s G u id a n c e C o m m itte e
a n d a p p r o v e d by a l l m em bers o f the C o m m itte e ,
has been prese n te d to a n d accep ted by the F a c u lt y
o f the S c h o o l o f E d u c a t io n in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t
o f the re q u ire m e n ts f o r the degree o f M a s t e r o f
Science in E d u c a tio n .
1 .........
D ean
Guidance Com m ittee
•y ..®It3T..?*®®Y.®
C hairm an
L. P. Thorpe
M. M, Thompson
TABLE OP CONTENTS
CHAPTER
.
I.THE PROBLEM AND DEFINITION OF TERM
The problem
PAGE
USED . . . .
1
...................
Statement of-the problem
2
• • • • • • • . .
2
Importance of the s t u d y ............. .
Scope of the study
3
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Children’s responses
.
4
..............
.
Procedure
4
Definition of term u s e d ............
8
Organization of remainder of the thesis . . .
II.
9
FINDINGS FROM STUDIES THAT HAVE BEEN MADE ON
THE NEEDS AND INTERESTS OF CHILDREN . . . . .
11
Related literature
11
.................
Related investigations
III.
4
. . . .
.............
.. .
15
ANALYSIS OF THE FACTORS RELATED TO T H E ‘
HAPPINESS OF FIFTH AND
SIXTHGRADE
Happiness of children
CHILDREN
..........
.
.
30
30
Comparison of b o y s ’ and girls’ responses as
30
.
to the causes of h a p p i n e s s ..........
Comparison of the .comments made by boys and
girls under responses in regard to the
causes of h a p p i n e s s ....................
IV.
33
ANALYSIS OF THE FACTORS RELATED TO THE UNHAPPI­
NESS OF FIFTH AND SIXTH GRADE
CHILDREN
...
41
iii
CHAPTER
'PAGE
Unhappiness of c h i l d r e n .................. . . .
41
Comparison of h o y s T and girls1 responses as
to the causes of u n h a p p i n e s s .............
41
Comparison of. the remarks made by boys and
girls in regard to the causes of unhappiness.
Summary
V.
43
........ * ..............
49
ANALYSIS OF THE RESPONSES OF CHILDREN AS TO
WHAT THEY WOULD LIKE TO BE ABLE TO D O ......
51
What children would like to be able to do . . .
51
Comparison of b o y s 1 and girls1 responses as to
what they would like to be able to do . . .
.
51
Comparison of the comments made by boys and
girls under responses as to what they would
most like to be able to do
Summary
VI.
...........
55
..........
63
ANALYSIS OF THE RESPONSES OF CHILDREN AS TO
WHAT THEY WOULD MOST' LIKE TO HAVE .
What children would like to have
........
65
. . . . . . .
65
Comparison of b o y s 1 and girlsT responses as to
what they would most like to h a v e .........
65
A Comparison of the comments made by boys and
girls under responses in regard to what they
would like to h a v e .....................
Summary .
. .
....................................
69
69
iv
CHAPTER
VII.
PAGE
AH ANALYSIS OF THE RESPONSES OP CHILDREN AS TO
WHAT THEY WOULD LIKE TO KNOW MORE ABOUT . . . .
75
What children would like to know more about . .
75
A comparison of b o y s 1 and girls* responses as
to what they would like to know more about
.
75
A Comparison of the comments made by boys and
girls under responses as to what they would
like to know more a b o u t ..........
Summary .
VIII.
77
..............
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
83
. . . .
85
S u m m a r y .....................
85
Conclusions with educational implications . . .
88
Recommendations ................................
99
B I B L I O G R A P H Y ....................
101
A P P E N D I X .........................
104
LIST OP TABLES
PAGE
TABLE
I.
Percentage Distribution of the Response of Boys
and Girls to the Question: What are the
Three Things that have Made You Most Happy
This Y e a r ? ....................................
II.
31
Percentage Distribution of the Response of Boys
to the Question: What are the Three Things
that have Made You Most Happy This Year? . . .
III.
34
Percentage Distribution of the Response of Girls
to the Question: What are the Three Things
that have Made You Most Happy This Year? . . .
IV.
36
Percentage Distribution of the Response of Boys
and Girls to the Question: What are the Three
Things that have Made You Most Unhappy This
Y e a r ? ........................................
V.
42
Percentage Distribution of the Response of Boys
to the Question: What are the Three Things
that have Made
VI.
You Most Unhappy This Year? . •
44
Percentage Distribution of the Response of Girls
to the Question: YOiat are the Three Things
that have Made
VII.
You Most Unhappy This Year? . .
46
Percentage Distribution of the Response of Boys
and Girls to the Question: What Three Things
would You Most
Like to be Able To Do?
. . . .
52
vi
TABLE
VIII*
PAGE
Percentage Distribution of the Response of Boys
to the Question: What Three Things would You
Most Like to be Able to d o ? .................
IX*
56
Percentage Distribution of the Response of
Girls to the Question: What Three Things
Would You Most Like to be Able to do?. . . .
X.
60
Percentage Distribution of the Response of Boys
and Girls to the Question: What Three Things
?/ould You Most Like to H a v e ? ...............
XI.
66
Percentage Distribution of the Response of Boys
to the Question: What Three Things Would You
Most Like to Have?
XII.
.......................
70
Percentage Distribution of the Response of
Girls to the Question: What Three Things
Would You Most Like to H a v e ? ..............
XIII.
72
Percentage Distribution of the Response of Boys
and Girls to the Question: What Three Things
Ytfould You Like to Know More A b o u t ...........
XIV*
76
Percentage Distribution of the Response of Boys
to the Question: What Three Things Would You
Like to Know More A b o u t ? ...................
XV.
78
Percentage Distribution of the Response of
Girls to the Question: What Three Things
Y/ould You Like to Know More A b o u t ? ........
81
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
In the last few years much discussion has taken place
regarding the changed curriculum of the progressive elemen­
tary school.
The school has the definite purpose of meeting
the growth needs of its pupils.
Should the curriculum be
indefinite and be picked up when and where the childfs
interests lead or should the curriculum be a* planned,
organized process founded on the basic needs of a certain
age range as determined by observant educators?
Most educators agree that the curriculum should be .
well-organized so that the children will develop ability to
plan, execute and evaluate in a variety of experiences which
will develop their personalities and lead to new interests.
This would mean that the teacher would plan yet would not
miss the opportunity of motivation and enthusiasm that
comes with following the interests of various students as
they arise in everyday association.
But to plan the curriculum to present growth needs of
the child requires a study of growth needs at various age
or grade levels.
Caroline B. Zachry and the Commission of
Secondary School Curriculum state that the needs of any age
level can be determined by case studies.
V.
T. Thayer, Caroline B. Zachry, and Ruth Kotinsky
nA New Education for Youth, n Progressive Education, (October,
1939), p. 398.
2
The child must definitely be considered a parti­
cipant in our present Democracy,
Consideration should be
given to:
His characteristic patterns of ;behavior, his customary
concerns and pursuits, his usual way of feeling towards
persons and groups and the values he most commonly seeks
in the course of activities underway.
For educational purposes needs must be identified by
the interpretation of concrete and specified interests,
desires, and behaviors in response to prevailing pres­
sures, influences and conditions.
The progressive elementary.school has advanced in
the last ten years in its attempts to liberate the child.
Will liberation meet a need of the fifth and sixth grade
child?
Are the needs of these impressionable children
ranging in age from nine to thirteen years known?
Before
adequate curriculum plans can be made, educators must.have
definite information concerning the interests, desires,
and behaviors of children who live and participate in life
as it is today.
I.
THE PROBLEM
Statement of the problem.
It is the purpose of this
study to determine.the growth needs of fifth and sixth grade
children as recorded by the children themselves.
This study
plans to arrive at the growth needs of children through the
children*s responses with regard to the things that had made
them happy, the things that had made them unhappy, the things
2 Ibid.. p. 398.
that they would like to be able to do, the things that they
would most like to have, and the things that they would most
like to know more about.
The following questions are to be answered in the
study:
1.
Are children capable of determining their needs?
2.
Are wants and desires of the child necessarily
needs?
3.
What do children think they want to possess
most of all?
4.
What are the things that children say make them
happy?
5.
What are the .things that children say make them
unhappy?
6.
What are the things children would like to be
able to do?
7.
What do children want to know more about?
Does
the desire lead to growth needs?
Importance of the study.
Growth needs of the child
should be the first consideration of the school.
Studies
have been made of the needs of the primary child, the pre­
school child and the adolescent, but very few studies have
been made of the intermediate child of the fifth and sixth
grades.
This study proposes to find the needs, interests
4
and desires of the fifth and sixth grade child to the end
that the whole personality of the child may be developed.
The formation of any curriculum depends on a knowledge of
the growth needs of the child.
The understanding of the
child and his interests in a changing cultural world is of
vital importance to elementary school procedure.
To meet
the needs of the child today and to aid him to face and
think*through, his present problems to the end that he may
develop his whole personality; physical,
social, emotional
and intellectual, more knowledge and insight is needed.
II.
SCOPE OP THE STUDY
Children1s responses.
This study was limited to five
hundred children in the schools of a medium sized Southern
California city.
Children were questioned in five of the
twenty-one schools.
These schools were large in various
parts of the city, and they included children of different
races and social levels.
A questionnaire to each child was
the only means used in determining the results of growth
needs as the child realized them.
III.
PROCEDURE
The questionnaire method was used in making the study
pertaining to children1s needs as the children realized them.
These questions were given between the dates of January 22
and January 25, 1940.
The questionnaire used with children
5
was as follows:
1. Please answer truthfully the questions which
have been asked below. DO HOT sign your name*
The
papers will all be shuffled as they are collected, so
no one will ever know what you say or ask for*
1.
2.
______ - _____
(School)
(Town)
Your grade in school_______ _____
3.
Boy
4.
\Yhat are the three things that have made you most
happy this year?_______________ ____________________
5.
What are the three things that have made you most
unhappy this year?__________
'
6.
What three things would you most like to be able
to do?
________
'
7.
8.
Name of your school
(State)
Girl
What three things would you most like
to have?___
What three things would you most like
to know
mor e ab ou t ?®
_________________________________
The questionnaire was administered to 451 children by the
writer during school time.
Classes were selected from five
different schools taking in a cross-section of the school
population.
The children knew they were to have a visitor
to ask them questions so when the writer came to their
school, they were ready to answer questions.
However, they
had no idea of the nature of these questions.
An explana­
tion was made before the questionnaire was passed out, that
® This questionnaire, which is also given in the
Appendix, was compiled by Dr. Margaret E. Bennett, Director
of Guidance of the Pasadena City Schools, and Dr. Harold C.
Hand, Professor of Education, Stanford University. -
6
a study was being made of fifth and sixth grade children
in order to help and understand them better.
The children
were not to sign their names so they could say anything
they wished, as it was desired that all questions be answered
very frankly.
The writer further explained that she would
be the only one to see the questionnaire.
The sheets were
then distributed and the complete page including instruc­
tions and questions were read aloud to them.
If questions
were asked about the lines read, the examiner- would repeat
the question slowly, making it very personal, for example:
’’Something must have made you very happy lately.
tell about it?”
Can you
No suggestions or illustrations were given
in answer to any of the questions of the children.
They
were instructed not to hurry, but to do their very best
thinking.
No time limit was observed although they averaged
about thirty minutes.
One “grouping was made, that of sex.
Other groupings
such as race, occupation of parent, etc. were not considered
in this study because of the question of validity due to the
limited number of questionnaires given.
After all the tests were given, they were sorted as
to sex.
Columns as headings were made under ’’Happiness,”
’’Unhappiness,” ’’Like to be able to do, ” ’’Like to .have, ” and
’’Like to know more about, ” on a large sheet of paper.
One
questionnaire was taken and the remarks tabulated under the
correct headings.
The writer took the liberty to re-group
a few answers that were listed under incorrect headings.
No repetitions were recorded.
The reader must keep in mind
that each child was asked to make three answers to each
question.
Many children were unable to think of three, so
put down one or two.
Remarks fell into certain sub-groupings,,
such as "Gifts," "School," "Friends," "Teacher," etc. under
things that made children most happy.
The examiner then made a second tabulation sheet,
taking groupings from the first sheet and recording them
under the'five main topics.
The* second tabulations of items,
as are noted on the included tables, are the result of the
groupings.
Recordings were then made of the number of times
each remark was made.
After all the questionnaires were
tabulated, and.the totals for each type of response added,
the percentage was obtained.'
All the tables are based on
percentage distribution of the responses.
Under the main
topics where sub-topics are listed, the sub-topics are the
percentages of the response recorded by the children.
In
many cases, a child recorded two responses under the same
main topic, for instance, in Table I, under the cause of
happiness, sub-topics under "School" may have been recorded
by the same child twice.
He may have listed the "Teacher"
and "School Sports" as causes for happiness.
this, both were recorded.
In cases like
In the "Total" column on all the
8
tables, the number recorded is the sum of the percentage
distribution of the sub-topics.
All items of less than one
per cent were not recorded.
It was believed that the free response to questions
would tend to make the study more valid than that of a check
list.
No answers of any kind were suggested during the test
by the. examiner.
The child would tend to put down the
thoughts uppermost in his mind, at the time he answered the
questionnaire.
After all the tables were made, analyses with their
educational implications were written.
IV.
Growth needs.
DEFINITION OF TERM USED
Thayer, Zachry, and Kotinsky state:
The logical dual meaning of the word needs, proves
of value in that it refers simultaneously to two
requirements:
one that education take cognizance of
the wishes and desires of each individual as he
expresses himself at the time when he is to be con­
fronted with an educational situation; and the other
that it treat these wishes and desires in ways to
effect desirable changes in them.**
Lawrence K. Frank says that:
The child1s needs may be seen as arising from his
biological and physiological functions and more signi
ficantly from the series of life tasks that he faces
in the required socialization of his functions, his
impulses and his behaviors.
^ Thayer, Zachry and Kotinsky, o p . cit., p. 406.
From a speech presented at the Conference*of the
National Association of Nursery Education, Nashville,
Tennessee, October 22, 1937.
Prescott states the needs of developing children fall
into three categories:
(1) physiological needs, (2) social
and status needs, and (3) ego or integrative needs which
develop a sense of worthy selfhood*®
Lorraine Sherer has stated needs very clearly*
Basic needs, appear to be:
(1) those needs that arise
by virtue of the way the human being is structured; (2)
those needs that arise, by virtue of its structure and
its needs to function or get along with other people;
and (3) the need to meet human physical and extra-human
realities with a fair degree of success and indepen­
dence. ^
Let us consider growth needs of the child as (1) phys­
ical and mental drives or urges that result from maturity
and environment; (2) social.realizations and demands which
recognize the worth of getting along with others, and the
establishment of status in the group; (3) self-integrative
realizations which make basic the belief in self as a worthy
person*
V.
ORGANIZATION OF,REMAINDER OF THE THESIS
The organization of this thesis is as follows:
Chapter I*
Introduction, statement of- the problem,
questions to be answered in the thesis, importance of the
® Daniel Alfred Prescott, Emotion and the Educative
Process* American Council of Education, Washington, £>.C
1938, pp* 110-38.
^ Lorraine Sherer, Their First Years in School Los
Angeles County Board of Education^ 1939, p . 60.
10
study, scope of the study, procedure, definition of term
used, and organization of the remainder of the thesis*
Chapter II*
Findings from studies that have been
made by students of education on the needs and interests of
the pre-adolescent child.
Chapter III.
Analysis Of the causes of happiness of
fifth and sixth grade children.
Chapter IV*
Analysis of the causes of unhappiness
of fifth and sixth grade children.
Chapter V.
Analysis of the responses of children
as to what they would like to be able to do.
Chapter VI.
Analysis of the responses of children
as to what they would most like to have.
Chapter VII.
Analysis of the responses of children
as to what they would like to know more about.
Chapter VIII.
tions.
Summary, conclusions, and recommenda­
CHAPTER II
FINDINGS FROM STUDIES THAT HAVE BEEN MADE
ON THE NEEDS AND INTERESTS OF CHILDREN
I.
RELATED LITERATURE
The curriculum of yesteryear is not appropriate for
providing experiences necessary for the child of today.
His needs have changed,
says William H. Kilpatrick.
A new
curriculum is needed because "our modern social and thought
mould" have brought new developments which the educator must
respect.
Education should develop the child for living
today and should contribute to a full well-rounded life.
Hopkins states that the curriculum of today must offer:
"Continuity, when necessary; uniformity, when desirable;
variability, when pertinent; creative individuality, when
such emphasis is needed."^
Kilpatrick^ further states that
because conditions are ever changing we can meet needs of
the young by helping them to think problems through, not
just establish habit.
Since we .live experimentally, each
1 William H. Kilpatrick, "New Developments, New
Demands," National Education Association Journal, 24:261,
November, 1935.
^ L. Thomas Hopkins, "Curriculum Development,"
Teachers College Record, 37:441, February, 1936.
rz
William H. Kilpatrick, Remaking the Curriculum
(New York: Nelson and Company, 1936)', pp. 13-34.
12
new problem must be an experiment*
just be something handed down.
Education then canft
New problems, all social
life needs study and intelligent criticism.
Kilpatrick
states:
Education thus becomes primarily the conscious pur­
suit of personally felt purposes with ever more adequate
self-direction as the goal.
The unit of curriculum
construction likewise becomes an instance of selfdirected purposive living, not as formerly a selected
portion of subject-matter-set-out-to-be-learned.
The child must come first and subject .matter second,
states Kilpatrick.
The child!s present living, his whole
personality, his socio-physical being must have opportunity
to develop integratingly.
He must face life situations and
deal with them to the best advantage.
Joy Elmer Morgan states in the introduction of
Remaking the Curriculum, that:
The cycle of educational reform must include: 1st,
a new philosophy and concept of education as it is
related to the total life of the individual on the one
hand, and the total life of society on the other; 2nd,
changes in school plant and organization in keeping
with this broadened concept; 3rd, changes in the school
curriculum to bring it into harmony with the new philo­
sophy; 4th, changes in the preparation and in-service
education of teachers to equip them to deal with the
new situation; and 5th, changes in public attitude
necessary both to make the educational process itself
effective and to insure adequate school finance.°
^ ZklS* * P*
5 Ibid.. p. 10.
13
Stolz® says the child is ready to receive responsi­
bility in part by the end of his first ten years, of health
duties.
That is while grov/th is proceeding with "a maximum
of serenity and not too rapidly,””the child should begin to
assume responsibilities.
Their accumulated experience
should be guided to produce a somewhat automatic self-control
in eating, dressing, sleeping and exercising.
17
Prescott states that many children are meeting fail­
ure and are not growing emotionally.
Scholastic achieve­
ments are lowered through "mental conflicts or emotional
disorganization."
Warped' attitudes are common.
Maladjust­
ments have been found to be more functional than innate.
The home and the school should early recognize these condi­
tions and make provision for their adjustments.
In order to set up conditions for the promotion of
mental health and normal adjusted personalities one must
seek the needs of the child.
What is needed in the way of things, activities,
experiences and relationships in order to attain func­
tional effectiveness in our society and at the same
time be reasonably happy . . . the structure of the
organism, the processes of society and the nature of
^ Herbert R. Stolz, "Growth Needs of Children in the
Intermedia.te Grades," Educational Method, January, 1938,
pp. 157-62.
;
7
’
Daniel Alfred Prescott, Emotion and the Educative
Process (Washington, D.C.: American Council of Efducation,
193817 pp. 110-27.
14
a person* s experiences contrive to give rise to a
series of needs, of quasi-needs and of operational
concepts which must be met if wholesome personality
development is to be achieved.^
These needs are basic and continuous with us,
Prescott continues.
We work out our needs to our satisfac­
tion and as conditions change, we find our needs changing
and we modify our behavior.
If these needs are met adequately,
we are adjusted but many times these new needs cause person­
ality maladjustments.
Our society prevents the fulfillment
of many needs and quasi-needs for periods of varying length
and this is why we have the maladjusted school child.
He
feels certain needs to be dominant and society inflicts
other experiences and demands upon him.
The study of case histories has furnished the basis
for the determining of needs.
These needs do not operate
independently of each other, but there is an interrelation.
Social needs grow from the reality that life must be
lived in association with others.
He can live, establish a
home, and develop*his personality by maintaining satisfac­
tory relationships with persons and institutions of his
land.
This results in a need for learning how to get along
with others.
Affection, a sense of belonging, a likeness to others
seems to be necessary for a well-adjusted personality.
8 Ibid., p. 111.
15
Ego and Integrative needs are explained by Prescott.
People need to have a belief in self before they can be
well-adjusted.
The coordination and unification of all desires
and operational concepts until they are fused into
a unity which gives rise to consistent behavior is
then an ultimate need of the growing personality
. . . This basic necessity for a sense of worthy
selfhood based upon the maturing of an integrated
personality gives rise to a series of functional
needs which have the most-fan-reaching implica­
tions for education and indeed for the evolution
of all social institutions and processes.
II.
RELATED INVESTIGATIONS
Howard M. Bell compiled a survey made by vocational
experts revealing problems of 13,528 youth between the ages
of sixteen and twenty-four.
They were as follows:
1. Equality of educational opportunities.
2. Employment.
3. Economic security (most urgent and personal need).
4. Guidance.
5. Lack of vocational training.
6. Secondary educational program in need of
reorganization.
7. Leisure-time - a social problem.
8. Health education.
9. Need for improved attitudes and citizenship.
10. Need for community planning for y o u t h . ^
^ Ibid., pp. 118-19.
^ Howard M. Bell, Youth Tell Their Story (Washington,
D.C.: American Council on Education, 1938), p. 270.
16
Reports of Stolz,11 Jones,12 Zachry,15 and Meek,14
reveal the general problems of adolescence.
1. Increased strain because of rapid physical
development.
2. Desire to find a place for himself in society.
3. Desire for independence.
4. Desire to make satisfactory adjustment to the
opposite sex.
5. Desire to be recognized as an individual.
Dimoclc gives these interpretative statements concerning the
adolescent boy:
1. Great expansion in social contacts.
2. Achievement of emancipation from parents.
3. Development of heterosexual interests and
experience.
Earl H. Floyd1® made a study of Junior High School
children in Pasadena which might have some bearing on the
age preceding adolescence.
A questionnaire was given to
5,892 children in five junior high schools.
The questionnaire
Herbert Stolz, Mary C. Jones, and Judith Chaffey,
11The Junior High School Age," University High School Journal,.
15:63-72, January, 1937.
^ Mary C, Jones, "Guiding the Adolescent," Progres­
sive Education, 15:605-09, December, 1938.
15 Caroline B. Zachry, "Some General Characteristics
of Adolescence," Progressive Education, 15:591-97, December,
1938.
Lois H. Meek, "The Immediate Social Relations of
Students in Junior arid Senior High School," Progressive
Education, 15:610-16, December, 1938.
15 Hedley D. Dimock, Rediscovering the Adolescent
(Hew York: Associated Press, 1&37), p. 23.
1® Earl H. Floyd,. "An Analysis of the Expressed Needs
and Interests of Junior High School Pupils," (unpublished
Masterfs thesis, University of Southern California, Los
Angeles, California, 1939), p. 25.
u
17
was designed to secure a personal history of the child, his
likes and dislikes, his interests in and out of school.
I
have chosen some pertinent findings that may have some
implications to this study.
The pupils indicated their
greatest needs were talking interestingly and easily,
choosing and preparing for a life work and social dancing
and making friends.
Girls indicated more need than boys
for talking interestingly and making friends while boys
indicated more need for help in choosing and preparing for
a life work as well as sex education.
Some conclusions of the twelve and thirteen year
olds were as follows:
47 per cent of the girls and 40 per
cent of the boys expressed the need of more help in how to.
talk interestingly and easily.
Thirty-seven per cent of the
boys expressed the need for more help in choosing and pre­
paring for a life work.
Personal attractiveness was very important to girls
but not so important to boys.
Sex problems were mentioned
by only 5 per cent of the twelve year old boys and 5 per
cent of the girls.
Eleven per cent encountered difficulties
with outside jobs.
Only one per cent had difficulties with
outside lessons.
earn money.
The most popular worry was that of how to
Twelve year old boys were as much concerned
about this as older boys.
Twelve year old girls were not so
much concerned about earning money as the older girls.
18
Thirty-three per cent of the twelve year old boys worried
oyer lack of free time.
Twenty-five per cent of the
younger boys worried about getting along with their teachers
as compared to 47 per cent of the older boys.
Twenty-three
per cent of the twelve year old girls worried about getting
along with their friends as compared to only 8 per cent of
the sixteen year old girls.
Radio programs, motion pictures and reading are
major leisure-time activities.
Under free responses, one-
half of the pupils indicated a need for more help on school
subjects.
Their greatest desire was for more independence
in the home and school*
School and school activities con­
stituted the major topic of conversation.
wish would be for material objects.
IPheir greatest
Home duties were regis­
tered as the most important responsibility of all the pupils.
Floyd1s conclusions were as follows:
1. Chronological age is not a significant factor in
determining the needs and interests of junior high
school pupils. Although needs and interests seem to
vary somewhat with age, nevertheless, the various indi­
vidual age groups do not apparently offer a unique
problem to education.
2. From the data certain interesting differences in
needs and interests were expressed by pupils from the
different occupational groups.
These data, however, do
not constitute sufficient evidence to warrant special
consideration given to pupils from the various occupa­
tional levels.
3. The occupation of the mother is not a significant
factor influencing the needs and interests of pupils.
19
4. The ordinal position of the child in the family
groups is not a paramount factor influencing the needs
and interests of pupils. Many were noted, however no
pattern of needs was observed according to the position
.of the child in the family group.
5. The sex factor constituted a basis for greater
differentiation of needs and interests than did the
other classifications under consideration.
Consistent
differences, in needs and interests of boys and girls
were observed throughout the study . ’
Ruth Strange
"IQ
states after her review of health
studies that.health habits and attitudes are a definite part
of child development.
favorable.
"The child grows if conditions are
The primary task i s to furnish favorable condi­
tions. ff
.Prom the primary grades to puberty is a relatively
healthy period.
The child by this time has had or been
exposed to most of the communicable diseases.
Strange gathers from several studies the physical
growth changes that take place as the child approaches
puberty, that have implications for health education.
They
are as follows:
1.
The preadolescent growth spurt, which is concen­
trated within a two- or three-year period prior to
puberty.
17 Ibid.. p. 96.
18
Ruth Strange, "Child Development and-the Curric­
ulum," Thirty-eighth Yearbook of the national Society for
the Study or. Education, ftart I^TBToomingt on« Illinois:
Public School Publishing Company, 1939), pp. 85-92.
20
2. The changes in body size and proportion, indi­
cated by the fact that each dimension studied has its
own characteristic growth pattern.
3.
Anomalies of growth that occur in some cases.
4. The acceleration of girls over boys by one or
two years in height, weight, and ossification of the
wrist bones.
5. The individual differences in age of onset of
puberty and the growth changes associated with
physiological maturity.
6.
The increase in acne and associated skin
Shuttleworth^
l e s i o n s . 3-9
suggests that the two or three years
prior to puberty is a period when dietary needs are great
because this accelerating phrase, "reaches its climax not
at any one chronological age but as early as age ten or late
as age 14.”
Guidance is suggested for children at this age level
so that they will know what to expect in the way of physical
development.
Growth trends are individual, some children
grow very rapidly and begin to wonder how tall they are
really going to be.
If the child begins to grow rapidly
about the age of eight, he can expect to reach the climax
of hip accelerating phase about puberty.
grow very slowly before age twelve.
Some children
They are apt to have
l9' Ibid., p. 91.
20
; Frank K. Shuttleworth, Sexual Maturation and the
Physical Growth of Girls.Age *3 to 19 Years. Monographs of
the Society for Research in Child Development, Vol. II,
No. 5, Series No. 12 (Washington, D.C.: National Research
Council, 1937), p. 189.
21
a less rapid, intense and prolonged growth spurt.
Some .
children grow very normally' and have no problems to meet.
Problems come not in the changes per se but in the way they
are viewed by the child and reacted to by him and others
with whom he associates.
Health education should help
children to understand the growth changes of this period
and to correct or accept individual handicaps or peculiari­
ties.
Girls show development two years earlier than boys.
This developmental difference shows need of segregation in
physical education activities and for discussion of pre­
pubertal and adolescent problems prior to their appearance.
S t o l z ^ states that many of the problems of early
years carry over into this period.
Vision, hearing and
cardiac efficiency should be studied and remedies made.
Franz e n ^ found with fifth and sixth grade children
that teaching techniques such as health crusades, songs and
lectures did not receive a high correlation with health
tests.
They had but little value in changing health habits
and attitudes.
21
Herbert R. Stolz, "Growth Needs of Children in the
Elementary Grades," Educational Method, 17:157-62, January,
1938.
22
Raymond Franzen An Evaluation of School Health
Procedure (New York: American 6hild Heal’th Association,
1933), p. 127.
22
Stack‘d
found similar results in his study.
Demon­
strations, visual education, and individual follow-up in
special cases seem to bring the best success in improving
the health of the child.
The study by Jersild, Markey and Jersild*^ brings
out many varied and interesting wishes of four hundred
boys and girls between the ages of five and twelve.
In answer to the question,
’’If-you had a wish and
your wish could come true, what would you wish?” they
received the following response.
Special material objects
and possessions was the largest group and comprised 48.3
per cent of the total wishes.
This included toys, clothes,
food, vehicles, pets, furniture and money.
The second largest group comprising 11.4 per cent
of the total included wishes dealing with family relation­
ships and companionship.
10.6 per cent.
Self-improvement comprised
Improvements in socio-economic conditions,
philanthropy and general benefits to society were 9.3 per
cent.
Benefits for parents totaled 5 per cent.
Personal
amusements, diversions, and parties constituted 7.3 per cent.
23
Herbert J. Stack, ffWhat We Can Contribute to
Safety,ff The Journal of Health and Physical Education, 8:6-7,
January, 1937.
24 Arthur T. Jersild, Frances V. Markey, and Catherine
L. Jersild, Children1s Fears, Dreams, Wishes, Daydreams, Likes,
Dislikes, Pleasant and Unpleasant Memories. (Wew York: Bureau
of PubI icat!ons, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1933).
23
The oider children showed a marked decline in wishes
for specific material objects.
The five and six year olds
rated 65 per cent of the total while the eleven and twelve
year olds rated 25 per cent.
.’The older children showed
more wishes dealing with social and family relationships
.and retaining parents..
The younger the child, the more marked was his desire
for more specific objects.
Wishes for general benefits for
self and others were lower at the younger levels and showed
a definite rise with age.
Girls1 wishes (41.5 per cent)
for material things were lower than b o y s 1 wishes (51 per
cent), but girls* wishes were higher with family and social
relations.
In summarizing, the author states:
The results as a whole show a rising tendency with
age toward recognition of more inclusive benefits and
of cause and effect relationships.
The older child
and the child with a higher I.Q. seem to understand
that if inclusive desires are granted, many specific
requests will automatically be taken care of. The
character of the wishes illustrate well, the impirical
nature of children*s concepts.
The children*s thoughts
are directed toward accomplished objective facts rather
than toward the possession of powers within themselves
which would enable them to win the things they desire.^5
Their wishes were preponderantly extrovert rather
than introvert.
Wishes dealing with improvement in personal
power and prestige consisted only of about 11 per cent of
■—
° Ibid., pp. 25-26.
24
the total and show no significant differences in frequency
with age or intelligence.
Pew of the children think in
terms of personal shortcomings or capacities.
They wish
for good marks but not in the ability to get them.
The wishes voiced an abstract utopian scheme rather
than a recognition of the underlying imperfections and
inequalities of human beings.
It is no doubt too much
to expect a child to understand the factors which make
for strife and poverty in human society. But unless
hb'ican be given some understanding of human nature and
of causal factors, it is perhaps questionable whether
emphasis upon abstract notions of world-improvement
have any significant meaning to him or any appreciable
effect upon his conduct. 6
When asked, ’’What do you to be when you get big?”
almost one-half chose occupations in the professions or as
business executive, artist, writer, musician.
Older
children chose professional work and business management
more frequently than the younger children.
Younger children
showed a preference for unskilled labor.
Girls showed a greater preference for acting and
music; also clerical work, parenthood and marriage.
Boys
chose business ownership and skilled labor.
The children were asked,
"What is the best thing that
ever happened to you, the nicest thing that ever happened
that you can remember?"
The largest group of replies
belonged in the category of amusements, festivities and
26 Ibid., p. 26
25
pleasant happenings (33 per cent).
The second largest
group oT 25.4 per cent consisted of gifts, etc.
Kind parents,
friendly relationships, friends included 11 per cent.
Travel
was 8 per cent.
The older children showed larger replies in travel,
12.5 per cent as compared with 1 per cent in the younger
children.
Girls showed higher frequency than boys under the
heading of kind parents and friends.
Girls tend to find
more enjoyment in social life while boys tend to be inter­
ested more with material objects, J e r s i l d ^ found.
In answer to the worst things that ever happened to
them, bodily injury, illness constitutes the largest group
(74.5 per cent).
Under the headings of scoldings, older
children replied more frequently than younger children.
There was very little difference between sex differences.
In answer to their dislikes, the largest group fell
to food 20.7 per cent; next came unpleasant duties, school,
17 per cent.
Older children mention unpleasant activities,
duties and deprivations of activity more frequently than
younger children, also social and economic maladjustments
in the world, people and undesirable traits, and personal
shortcomings.
Seventeen older children mentioned dislike
for school as compared to only two younger children.
-------
Jersild, loc. cit.
26
When asked about their likes, the father, mother,
and near relatives group received first place, 22.7 per
cent.
Specific objects— toys, clothes, and pets comprise
19.3 per cent.
Older children specify persona and associa­
tion with persons more than younger children; also, they
mention activities and diversions..
In answer to the question,
’’Would you rather go to
school or stay at home?” 85 per cent would rather go to
school.
Only 20.4 per cent of all children gave enjoyment
of school as such, as their reason for preferring to go to
school.
The desire was not to be stupid for to be educated
for practical reasons.
As children grow older they do not
grow more interested in school education as an end in itself.
Younger children emphasized a liking for school as such,
39 per cent as compared with 16 per cent of the older
children.
In the school program made more interesting for
the young child than for the older child?
Older children
are more conscious of the benefits of an education, of the *
slow advance of the illiterate, and by a desire to avoid
boredom of having nothing to do at home.
In the summary, the following conclusions are given.
The similarities between boys and girls are more outstanding
than the differences.
ences.
There were a few outstanding differ­
Boys are concerned with objects more than girls
while girls are concerned with people.
Older children are
27
more concerned with social and family relationships and
accomplishments while the younger children stress objects
and foods.
In all significant instances the replies of
younger and older children showed much overlapping.
Children at any particular age did not reveal any unique
characteristics which set them apart from children at
another age.
The difference between the thinking of the
older child as compared with that of the younger is not a
difference in kind, but his greater capacity and knowledge
enables him to deal with larger concepts.
The likes and
dislikes did not tend to be opposite or antithetical, but
branched into dissimilar fields.
Replies made little
mention of general economic conditions*
They had little
understanding of poverty -and social maladjustments.
Their
suggestions were schemes for self-aggrandizement rather
than an exercise of genuine charity.
Most of the child*s fears deal with dangers that are
either highly fictitious or highly improbable.
It is difficult to conceive what benefit such fears
achieve or what value they have in promoting adjust­
ments or precautions that have any utility In actual
life. In his wishes the usual child displays little
insight into cause and effect relationships.
They
think in terms of accomplished facts rather than in
terms of resources that accomplish the facts. He
asks for benefits rather than for means by which he
can obtain the benefits.
For example, he wants
better grades, rather than greater ability. Their
thought is of the ideal rather than the plans-or spe­
cific ways of improving society.
The study suggests
that if instruction in social philosophy is to be
given, such instruction should Include an analysis
of the motives, limitations, and imperfections of
human beings.28
.
.
.
M u r p h y ^ is concerned with the child growing into
his own group or the socialization of the individual.
In
order to study the individual methods of work which are
necessary, such as experimental method, controlled obser­
vations, rating scales, and a ’’complex method which seeks
to see the various phases of child personality, all at once
In their interrelations.”
There should be systematic con­
trol as well as variation of conditions to get reliable
data.
’’There is no aspect of social behavior which can
be adequately understood apart from its relation to the
OQ
personality of the Individual.11 ^
A variety of methods
are needed to thoroughly understand personalities.
The projective-method was used by H. A. Murray at
the Harvard Psychological Clinic for the study of fantasy
and its relation to personality and social behavior.
A
few of the following needs were listed for the study of
relationships between behavior and latent personality drives
appearing in fantasies stimulated by pictures, stories, word
Jersild, loc. cit., p. 278.
29 Gardner Murphy, Lois Barclay and Theodore M.
Newcomb, Experimental Social Psychology (New York: Harper,
and Br o ther s, 193 rf)
29
j
lists, and sound stimuli.
Aggression, achievement, domi­
nance, recognition, exhibition, excitance,. exposition,
order, play, retention,
of the needs.
sex and blame escape, etc. were some
They occurred in the stories as told by the
children after looking at the pictures.
They threw light
on the same needs occurring in the individual^ social
behavior as well as in his personality.
The children also
revealed their environmental pressures.
Toys, directed and
undirected dramatic play, drawings and games, finger print­
ing, clay, blocks and painting are mediums by which children
release their personality traits for study.
They project
inarticulate feelings and responses into their reactions.
Work and social behavior are intimately related to
the personality organization of the child. We should
see the individual in the light of the group and the
group in the light of the individual.*0
30 Ibid.. p. 285.
CHAPTER III
ANALYSIS OF THE FACTORS RELATED TO THE
HAPPINESS OF FIFTH AND SIXTH GRADE CHILDREN
j
Happiness of children.
The schoolfs first considera­
tion should be 'the welfare of the child.
This involves
insights into his physical, mental, social and emotional
growth needs.
Socially, he must be accepted; he must have
a sense of worthiness of self and his physical needs must
be met.
Happiness seems to be a result of ability to meet
needs with independence, satisfaction, and success.
What
things contribute most to the happiness of children?
children recognize the causes of their happiness?
these causes basic?
Can
Are
In the following analysis, the table
showing sex differences of the cause of happiness will be
first, then followed by a discussion and comparison of the
remarks of the causes of happiness made by the boys and
the girls.
This plan will be used throughout the analysis.
Comparison of b o y s y and girlsT responses as to the
causes of happiness.
Boys and girls alike derived their
greatest amount of pleasure from school experiences, as
shown in Table I.
School in general, such as reading,
being a squad leader, etc. received the highest rank in
school experience and received equal mention from both boys
31
TABLE I
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OP THE RESPONSE OP BOYS
AND GIRLS TO THE QUESTION: WHAT ARE THE THREE
THINGS THAT HAVE MADE YOU MOST HAPPY THIS YEAR?
Boys
All pupils
Girls
Cause of Happiness Single-Total Single-Total Single-Total
responses
responses
responses
82
School:
School in general
Teacher
School journey
School sports
39
23
19
7
40
12
11
19
85
88
40
18
15
13
Gifts and possessions
55
36
46
Home life
19
33
26
Personal accomplishments
and pleasures
24
25
25
Friends
12
28
20
Trips
21
14
18
Christmas and holidays
21
14
18
Pets
7
5
6
Good health of self and
relatives
1
7
4
Cultural possessions
4
2
3
Nothing
2
2
2
Being an American
2
0
1
Helping others
1
1
1
32
and girls.
The teacher, the school journey, and school
sports received recognition.
Only half as many hoys (12 per
cent) indicated the teacher as a source of happiness as did
girls (23 per cent).
Eight per cent more girls mentioned
the school journey while 12 per cent more boys mentioned
school sports.
Forty-six per cent of all children mentioned gifts
and personal possessions, as the next contributing factor
to their cause of happiness.
Boys received more happiness
from gifts than did girls.
Home life rated third as a cause of happiness.
Fourteen per cent more girls mentioned the home than did boys.
Personal accomplishments, friends, trips and holidays,
received the next choices.
Altruistic motives as a cause of happiness received
only one per cent.
Being an American was truly appreciated
by two per cent of the boys.
Good health, and cultural
possessions were near the bottom of the list.
Since the questionnaire was given.at school, the
children may have felt their first obligation was to the
school although the examiner explained that this was not a
school questionnaire, but it should include their whole
lives, both in and' out of school.
One per cent of the boys and four per cent of the
girls mentioned good health.
33
Comparison of the comments made by boys and girls
under responses In regard to the causes of happiness.
The
causes for happiness of school in general were much the
same for both boys and girls, as seen in Tables II and III.
Both sexes derived happiness from being a squad leader,
from social studies, work periods, music and arithmetic, etc.
Remarks on happiness caused by the teacher were very
much the same for both sexes.
Both liked "the good teacher,”
ffthe kind and nice teacher” and the one especially who was
not "crabby."
They liked the teacher who "helped them;" who
took them on school journeys or excursions.
The school journey, such as a ”trip to the museum,"
"the post office," "on the train,” "to the broadcasting
company," "to China town" and "the pottery factory" were
rated high by both sexes, as a cause for great happiness.
This signifies that school journeys satisfy the child, in
his effort to gain concepts outside the immediate environment.
Both boys and girls rated sports as an important
source of happiness.
Baseball, kickball, games at recess
were mentioned by both sexes.
Football was mentioned by the
boys while jump rope and hopskotch were mentioned by the
girls.
No decided tendency to many different types of games
was noted between the sexes, but boys gave much more impor­
tance to sports than did girls.
34
TABLE II
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONSE OF BOYS
TO THE QUESTION: WHAT ARE THE THREE THINGS
THAT HAVE MADE YOU MOST HAPPY THIS YEAR?
Cause of Happiness
Boys
Single-Total
responses
School:
School in general-i.e., reading, going to
school,“Being a squad leader, social studies,
getting better marks this year, work period,
music, arithmetic, carnival at school, etc.
School sports-i.e., baseball, football,
games at recess, etc.
Teacher-i.e., nice teacher, teacher who
helps you.
School .1ourney-i.e., going to the broadcasting station, train trip, pottery factory,
China town, etc.
82
40
19
12
11
Gifts received and possessions-i.e., money,
radio, bicycle, boat, skates, cowboy suit,
etc.
55
Personal Accomplishments and Pleasures-i.e.,
working, vacations, playing ray new piano,
movies, things done right, etc.
24
Trips-i.e., to the mountains, to the beach, to
New York, East, over the United States, etc.
21
Home Life-i.e., good food, Mother has every .
Sunday off, cousins visited us, my baby
:
sister, a good home, father helps me.
19
Christmas and Holidays-i.e., fun at Christmas,
Halloween, New Years.
(Christmas received by
far the greatest number of points).
17
35
TABLE II (continued)
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONSE OF BOYS
TO THE QUESTION: WHAT ARE THE THREE THINGS
THAT HAVE MADE YOU MOST HAPPY THIS YEAR?
Cause of Happiness
, .
Boys
Single-Total
responses
Friends-i.e., good friends and their friend­
ship, scout friends, good pals.
12
Pets-i.e., my dog, my horse, my dog house,
a new pen for the monkeys.
7
Cultural Possessions and Desire for Higher
Learning-i.e., musical instruments, mj piano,
my violin, books, learning more, my education.
4
Living in America-i.e., being an American, living
in the United States of America, America not
being in the war, living in a free country, etc.
2
Nothing-i.e., (wrote the word nothing or left the
space blank)•
2
Helping others-i.e., helping Mother, Helping Mother
to get a new car.
1
Good Health of self-i.e., being strong.
1
36
TABLE III
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONSE OP GIRLS
TO THE QUESTION: WHAT ARE THE THREE THINGS
THAT HAVE MADE YOU MOST HAPPY THIS YEAR?
Cause of Happiness
Girls
Single-Total
responses
School:
88
School in general-i.e., getting good grades,
39
passing, learning things, being in the choir,
being in plays, drawing, work period.
Teacher-I.e., my good teacher, my teacher is 23
kind, teacher who is not crabby, teacher who
takes us on trips.
School .journey-i.e. , going to the radio
19
station, the train trip, the North West Museum
the post office.
Sports at school-i.e., baseball, kickball,
7
jump rope, etc.
Gifts Received and Possessions-!.e., my gifts for
Christmas, my dolls, desk, bicycle, clothes,
games, skates, etc.
36
Home life-i.e., my mother and daddy are living at
home, my good home, my good mother and father,
many .visitors, plenty to eat, our new home, am
happy at home, being with mother, ray own room,
brother and sister.
33
Friends-i.e., many friends, good girl friend, playing with friends, talking to friends, my good
boy friend.
28
Personal Accomplishments and Pleasures-i.e., dramatics,25
dancing, camp, girl scouts, playing piano and
violin, going to school plays, movies, parties, etc.
Trips-i.e., when we went to the San Francisco Fair,
to New York, to the mountains, to the beach.
14
37
TABLE III (continued)
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OP THE RESPONSE OP GIRLS
TO THE QUESTION: WHAT ARE THE THREE THINGS
THAT HAVE MADE YOU MOST HAPPY THIS YEAR?
Cause of Happiness
Girls
. .
Sing1e-To tal
responses
Christmas and Holidays-i.e,,, when everyone is
home for Christmas, New Year 1s parade, fun at
Christmas, Thanksgiving dinner, etc.
14
Pets-i.e., my cat, my dog, horse, bird.
5
Good health of self-i.e., I ’m well, havenft been
sick, etc.
4
Good health of parents-i.e., Mother and Father
are well, no one is sick.
3
Cultural Possessions and Desires-i.e., being a
Christian, being educated, my books.
2
Nothing-i.e., (wrote the word nothing, or left
the space blank)
2
Helping others-i.e., giving to the poor, helping
children on the playground, giving to others.
1
38
There was a decided difference in the types of gifts
that brought happiness to boys and girls.
Boys, especially
mentioned money, a radio, bicycle, boats, skates.
Girls
mentioned dolls, desk, bicycle, clothes, games, and skates.
Both boys and girls rated gifts received and possessions,
second as the causes of happiness.
Personal accomplishments and pleasures ranked third
with boys as a cause of happiness, while they ranked fifth
with the girls.
tions, movies.
Both mentioned playing the piano, vaca­
The boys especially mentioned working while
girls mentioned dramatics, dancing, camping, Girl Scouts,
parties, etc.
Home life ranked third with the girls (33 per cent)]
and fifth with the boys (19 per cent) as a source of happi­
ness.
Fourteen per cent more girls realized the value of a
good home as revealed in the study, than did boys.
Boys and
girls’ ideas were very much alike in regard to the value of
home life, for instance, both mentioned "Plenty to eat,11
"A good home,” ”My good -mother and father,” ”A brother and
sister," "Father helps me," "Being with Mother."
Mother
was mentioned more times than Father.
Friends ranked fourth with the girls (28 per cent).
They ranked seventh with the boys (12 per cent).
They both
mentioned very much the same causes for happiness such as,
"Many friends," "A good girl friend," "A good boy friend,”
39
"Playing with friends," "I have good pals," etc.
Pour per
cent of the girls mentioned good health as a cause of
happiness, for instance, they mentioned "I am well,” "I
haven1t been sick," etc. while only one per cent of the
boys mentioned good health.
They mentioned "being strong."
- .SUMMARY
1.
Boys and girls alike derived their greatest
amount of pleasure from school experiences, such as reading,
drawing, etc., the teacher, the school journey, and school
sports.
No decided tendency to many different types of
games was noted between the sexes.
Boys gave much more
importance to sports than did the girls.
2.
Gifts and personal possessions ranked second in
importance for both boys and girls.
than girls gave this response.
However, many more boys
Boys especially mentioned
money, radio, boats, while girls mentioned more items con­
cerned with the home, such as dolls, desks, clothes, games,
etc.
3.
ness.
Home life averaged third as a source of happi­
Girls were far more impressed with the happiness
derived from their home than were boys.
However, the ideas
regarding the value of home life were similar.
4.
Personal accomplishments and pleasures, such as
working, doing things right, movies, etc. rated equally high
40
among both boys and girls*
Boys were especially interested
in working, while girls were especially interested in
dramatics, parties, dancing, etc*
5.
Friends were far more important to girls than to
boys as far as a source of happiness was concerned*
They
both mentioned very much the same causes, however, for
happiness derived from friends*
6*
Good health, cultural possessions, being an Amer­
ican, and helping others, barely received mention by both
boys and girls.
CHAPTER IV
ANALYSIS OP THE FACTORS RELATED TO THE UNHAPPINESS
OP FIFTH AND SIXTH GRADE.CHILDREN
Unhappiness of ‘children.
The study brings out that
unhappiness was a part of the life experience of 81 per cent
of all the children.
Many of these unhappy incidents were
a result of lack of development of physical, mental, social
and emotional needs.
Do the unhappy experiences of children
have educational implications?
Can children, through
written response, give clues as to their lack of need ful­
fillment?
What are the causes of unhappiness of the fifth
and sixth grade child?
Comparison of b oys1 and girls1 responses as to the
causes of unhappiness.
The study revealed that boys and
girls of the fifth and sixth grades have many causes for
unhappiness as shown in Table IV.
The greatest number of
causes for unhappiness of all pupils questioned were with
personal disappointments and interference.
cent of all children recorded this response.
Thirty-two per
There was
no significant difference between the responses of boys
and girls.
boys.
School disappointments rated second with the
They had 13 per cent more disappointments in school
than girls.
Friends were the cause of 19 per cent of the
42
TABLE IV
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONSE OF BOYS AND
GIRLS TO THE QUESTION: WHAT ARE THE THREE THINGS
THAT HAVE MADE YOU MOST UNHAPPY THIS YEAR?
Cause of Unhappiness
Boys Girls All
responses pupils
Personal disappointments and
interference
28
36
32
School disappointments
29
16
23
Nothing
20
18
19
Friends
14
24
19
Loss of pets
10
13
12
Home conditions
15
9
12
Lack of material things
12
7
10
Illness of self
9
10
10
Loss of relatives
6
12
9
Illness of relatives
8
8
8
Accidents
9
5
7
Teacher
4
4
4
World conditions
3
4
4
Lack of self-control
4
2
.3
Weather
2
0
1
43
b oys1 and girls1 unhappiness.
Ten per cent more girls than
boys had difficulty with friends.
Loss of pets and home
conditions were minor causes of unhappiness.
Fifteen per
cent of the boys listed home conditions as the cause for
their unhappiness while only 9 per cent of the girls listed
the same.
No significant difference was noted between boys
and girls for the cause of unhappiness in the following
items:
illness of self, loss of relatives, illness of
relatives, and accidents.
The teacher caused unhappiness
to four per cent of all pupils.
Lack of self-control and
world conditions caused unhappiness to a few children.
Comparison of the remarks made by boys and girls in
regard to the causes of unhappiness.
School disappointments
rated first among the causes of unhappiness to boys while
it rated fourth, with girls, as- shown in Tables V and VI.
There was very little difference in the responses of
children in regard to school disappointments.
Items such
as "spelling and arithmetic are too hard,11 "I c a n !t draw,”
”1 d o n ft like corrective,” ”1 couldnrt go on school trips,”
”1 am afraid I w o n ft pass,” ”1 d o n ft like to give oral
reports,” "Studying is too hard,” ”1 can1t'play baseball
well,” etc., were mentioned.
For the girls, personal disappointments and inter­
ference ranked first while with boys, this response ranked
second.
There was no significant difference in the items in
44
TABLE V
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OP THE RESPONSE OF BOYS
TO THE QUESTION: WHAT ARE THE THREE THINGS
THAT HAVE MADE YOU MOST UNHAPPY THIS YEAR?
Cause of Unhappiness
Boys
total
responses
School disappointments-i.e., spelling is too hard,
arithmetic is hard, couldn’t get my arithmetic
and had to stay after school, was scolded be­
cause I couldn’t get my spelling, tests,
couldn’t go on school trips, colored folks
should have a school of their own, got blamed
for things I didn’t do, afraid I w o n ’t pass,
my chair is. too small, had to miss a work
period, studying is too hard, can’t play base­
ball well, etc*
29
Personal disappointments and interference-i.e., had
a flat tire, couldn’t go to the mountains, c a n ’t
.sell magazines, had to do
home work, got lost,
other children d o n ’t play
fair, have no money*
28
Nothing-i*e., (either, the word nothing was written
in or the space was left blank).
20
Home conditions-i.e., got spanked (predominated),
Dad flew off the handle, Mother yelled at me,
had to practice the clarinet, finances, quarrels
with my parents, father left home, mother went
away, etc*
15
Priends-i.e., other children
ignore me, I fought
with friends, my friends d o n ’t like me, I d o n ’t
mix well, my school mates -and I get mad at each
other, the boys w o n ’t play with me, etc*
14
Lack of material things-i.e*,
I lost my bike, we
haven’t enough money, haven’t got a bike, want
a tool set, had a flat tire and couldn’t get
it fixed.
12
45
TABLE V (continued)
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONSE OF BOYS
TO THE QUESTION: WHAT ARE THE THREE THINGS
THAT HAVE MADE YOU MOST UNHAPPY THIS YEAR?
Cause of Unhappiness
Boys
total
responses
Loss of pets-i.e., my dog died, my cat died,
Daddy gave my dog away, etc.
19
Accidents-i.e., I was in an auto accident, a
bicycle accident, I stubbed my toe, I broke
my arm, etc.
9
Illness of self-i.e., I got sick, had the measles,
had the flu, when I almost died.
9
Illness of relatives-i.e,, my mother was sick, my
father is not able to work, my sister got
whooping cough, etc.
8
Loss of relatives-i.e., my mother died, my aunt and
uncle died, my brother was killed, my sister
was smothered, etc.
6
Teacher-i.e., my teacher gave me a. poor grade,
teacher got cross, my teacher has it in for me,
I would like to tell the teachers what I think
of them, I wish we had a good teacher, etc.
4
Lack of self-control-I.e., I didn!t play fair, I
do things I shouldn't do, I am naughty, I'm
stubborn, etc.
4
World conditions-i.e., too many wars, stop Hitler,
many people are killed, hope we don't have war.
5
Weather-i,e., I'm unhappy when it rains, I have to
stay in when it rains, etc.
* 2
46
TABLE VI
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF .THE RESPONSE OF GIRLS
TO THE QUESTION: WHAT ARE THE THREE THINGS
THAT HAVE MADE YOU MOST UNHAPPY THIS YEAR?
Cause of Unhappiness
Girls
total
responses
Personal disappointments and interference-i.e., my
brother fights, had to leave my home town and
move here, I ’m too short, have to do dishes when
I want to play, spilled paint on my new bag,
breaking a China dish I brought to school, not
getting to go to the beach, canft go places I
want to, my uncle is not a Christian, c a n ft tell,
etc •
36
Friends-i.e., I donft have any friends, they get mad
at me, my friend moved away, they like me part
of the time and then they d o n ’t like me, my
friend died, I d o n ’t like these girls, the girls
gang up on me, they w o n ’t let me play with them,
24
Nothing-i.e., (either the word nothing was written
in or the space was left blank).
18
School disappointments-!.e., c a n ’t work arithmetic,
d o n ’t like spelling, writing is hard, cannot
draw, d o n ’t like corrective, didn’t get good
grades, we didn’t have open house when we
planned to, I don’t like to give oral reports,
I can’t think fast when I take a test.
16
Loss of relatives-i.e., my mother died, my father
died, my sister and. brother were killed, an
auto killed my uncle..
12
Loss of pets-i.e., my dog was stolen, my cat died,
I lost my dog, my M r d got out, etc.
13
47
TABLE VI (continued)
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONSE OF GIRLS
TO THE. QUESTION: WHAT ARE THE THREE THINGS
THAT HAVE MADE YOU MOST UNHAPPY THIS YEAR?
Cause of Unhappiness
Girls'
total
responses
Illness of self-i.e., I got sick and Had to stay
home from school, I had the whooping cough,
had the flu and had to stay in bed.
* 10
Home conditions-i.e., I want my daddy to come back
home, daddy is out of work, when mom left us, ,
mother isnft happy, mother doesn’t get our break­
fast, father doesn’t make enough money, we have
an old car, we live in an old house, mother
doesn’t keep our house clean.
9
Illness of relatives-i.e., mother got sick, father
is sick all the time, my brother got very sick,
my grandmother is in bed.
8
Lack of material things-!.e., c a n ’t have a bicycle,
d o n ’t have a doll buggy, c a n ’t have cookies,
d o n ’t have good clothes, etc.
7
Accidents-i.e., I fell off my bicycle, I broke my
arm, our auto accident, etc*
5
Teacher-i.e., she doesn’t like me, has it in for me,
w o n ’t let me be a leader, is crabby, gets cross
over nothing, w o n ’t help me.
4
World conditions-i.e., Hitler, war in Europe, etc.
4
Lack of self-control-i.e., getting mad at others,
not doing what I should, not playing fair, being
selfish, not being kind to other girls.
2
the remarks made by boys and girls.
Such remarks as:
ffMy
brother fights,” "I am too short,” ”1 have to do dishes
when I want to play,” "I can’t sell magazines,” ”Other
children d o n ’t play fair,” ”My uncle is not a Christian,”
”1 c a n ’t tell,” etc., were among the items listed.
Friends were very important as a cause of unhappi­
ness to girls, and ranked second in importance.
They seem
far less important to boys, ranking only fifth.
The remarks
made by boys and girls were very similar, for instance,
”1
don’t have any friends,” ”Other children ignore me,” ”1
d o n ’t like these girls,.” "The boys gang up on m e , ” ”1 d o n ’t
mix well," etc.
Nineteen per cent of all the children could
think of no cause for unhappiness.
Loss of pets were a
source of sadness to both boys and girls.
"My dog died,”
"My cat was stolen,” "my bird got out," "Daddy gave my dog
away” were among the remarks made by both boys and girls.
Sickness with both boys and girls rated evenly as to
cause of unhappiness with 9 per cent.
Remarks over illness
of relatives and accidents of both boys and girls were
similar.
The remarks about the teacher from both boys and
girls were similar.
For example, "My teacher gave me a
poor grade,” "She doesn’t like me," "She has it in for me,”
"Is crabby,” "Gets cross over nothing and w o n ’t help me,"
"I would like to tell the teacher what I think of her,” etc.
49
Lack of self-control was mentioned by only three per
cent of the1 boys and girls.
Such items as ”1 didn!t play
fair,” ”1 do things I shouldn11 1do,” ”1 am stubborn,” ”1
am selfish,” were causes of unhappiness.
World conditions
were mentioned by three per cent of the boys and four per
cent of the girls.
instance,
The remarks were very similar, for
”We have too many wars,” ”1 wish we could stop
Hitler,” etc.
Two per cent of the boys mentioned the weather.
They especially did not like the rain.
Summary.
1. Unhappiness was very prevalent in the
lives of boys and girls of the fifth and sixth grades.
The
greatest number of causes was that of personal disappoint­
ments and interference.
There was no significant difference
in the responses made by the boys and girls as to the cause
of this unhappiness.
2.
School disappointments were second in number,
the boys having 13 per cent more disappointments in school
than girls.
Both boys and girls recorded much the same
causes of unhappiness in school.
3.
Friends were also a great cause of unhappiness
between both boys and girls.
However, 10 per cent more girls
.than boys, had difficulty with their friends which caused
unhappiness.
Their remarks as to the cause of .'unhappiness
between boys and girls were very similar.
50
4.
Home conditions were also a source of great
unhappiness to both boys and girls.
The boys listed the
home as causing much more unhappiness to them than did
girls.
There-was no significant difference in the remarks
of boys and girls concerning the home.
5.
No significant difference was noted between the
boys and the girls for the causes of the following unhappi­
ness:
illness, loss of relatives, accidents, the teacher,
and lack of self-control.
CHAPTER V
AH ANALYSIS OP THE RESPONSES OP CHILDREN AS TO
WHAT THEY WOULD LIKE TO BE ABLE TO DO
What children would like to be able to do.
It was
the desire of the study, by. obtaining free responses from
children as to what they would like to be able to do, to
secure their most individual and personal wishes.
these responses?
mining needs?
What are
Do they have any significance in deter­
Are there any marked differences in the type
of response between sexes?
Comparison of b o y s 1 and girlsf responses as to what
they would like to be able to do.
Sports received the
greatest average number of responses of boys and girls than
any other response (see Table VII).
much higher than the girls.
The boys rated sports
They exceeded the girls in
sport responses by 54 per cent.
They placed among the four
most important sports, flying in a plane and flying model
planes, swimming, hiking and baseball.
The girls placed among their most important sports,
horseback riding, skating and hiking.
Boys also favored to
a lesser extent, fishing, horseback riding, and skating.
Girls gave as a minor choice, swimming, baseball, playing
and dancing.
52
TABLE VII
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OP THE RESPONSE OP BOYS AND GIRLS
TO THE QUESTION: WHAT THREE THINGS WOULD
YOU MOST LIKE TO BE ABLE TO DO?
. in
t H
able to ao
t
Boys
Girls
All Pupils
Single-Total SingTe-Total Single-Total
responses
responses
responses
Sports
Swim
Hike in the mountains
Fly model planes
and go up in a
plane
Play
Baseball
Ride a horse
Skate-roller and ice
Pish
Dance
Professions and
occupations
Musician
Mechanic
Miscellaneous
Artist
Teacher
Pilot
Army-navy
Actor-actress
Nurse
Carpenter
Secretary
Airplane hostess
Business of own
Scientist-Explorer
Author
52
86
69
17
12
7
9
12
11
19
0
10
12
11
5
3
7
0
5
6
12
11
0
2
9
9
9
7
4
1
54
4
16
10
5
0
4
6
0
0
3
0
0
■ 0
4
0
56
16
0
2
4
8
1
0
6
5
0
4
3
3
0
2
55
10
8
6
5
4
3
3
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
53
TABLE VII (continued)
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONSE OF BOYS AND GIRLS
TO THE QUESTION: WHAT THREE THINGS WOULD
YOU MOST LIKE TO BE ABLE TO DO?
_
vn
able to do
Boya
Girla
All pupils
Single-Total Single-Total Single-Total
responses
responses
responses
Take trips
29
35
32
Excel in studies
11
10
11
Personal enjoyment
8
14
11
Care of the home
1
17
9
Altruistic tendencies
3
11
7
Be a squad leader in school
3
5
4
Make toy boats and airplanes
6
0
3
Work and earn money
6
0
3
Become a good citizen
4
1
3
Nothing
4
0
2
54
Occupations of boys and girls received the second
largest response.
There was no significant difference in
the number of responses between boys and girls.
ference came in the choice of occupations.
The dif­
The boys listed
as top choices, of definite occupations that of mechanic,
and the army and navy.
and teacher.
The girls listed that of musician
Boys’ minor choices were artist, musician,
scientist and explorer.
nurse, and secretary.
Girls’ minor choices were actress,
Miscellaneous rating was high among
the boys, including that of being a
magician, a detective, etc.
farmer, a senator, a
No boy mentioned that he would
like to teach, be an actor, a nurse, a secretary, or have
a business of his own.
No girl mentioned that she would
like to be a mechanic, in the army or navy, a carpenter, or
a sceitnist and explorer.
The boys seemed to make very little connection between
their major sport of flying model planes and that of learning
how.to be a pilot.
However, the connection might come in
the top choice of professions, that of mechanic.
Travel rated high as
a third choice in percentage
of
responses for both boys and girls. There was an equal
distribution among boys and girls to excel in their studies.
Personal enjoyment such as being happy, playing all the
time, etc. was far more important to girls than boys.
55
Seventeen per cent of the girls rated care of the home as
one of the things that they would like most to be able to
do,-while only one per cent of the boys considered this as
an ambition.
Girls showed higher percentage of altruistic
tendencies than boys.
For instance, girls were more con­
cerned about helping the poor, making others happy, and
being kind, than boys.
Boys and girls alike mentioned that
they would like to be able to be squad leaders or leaders
in gamss in the physical education class.
Boys especially
wanted to
make toy boats andairplanes, to work and
money, to
be a good citizen.
listed nothing
question.
earn
Four per cent of the boys
or left blank the space dealing with this
All the girls answered this question.
Comparison of the comments made by boys and girls
under responses as to what they would most like to be able
to do.
The boys (Table.VIII) in their eager desire to be
able to excel in sports, mentioned most,
model plane,” and ”going up in a plane.”
’’The flying of a
The girls!
(Table IX.) made no mention of a plane or a plane ride.
Both girls and boys liked to swim, but boys mentioned it
twice as many times as girls.
Boys mentioned such comments
as: “Swim all day,” ”Be a good swimmer,” ”Go to the beach
and swim. ”
Boys emphasized excelling in swimming while
girls were content just to swim.
Both boys*and girls *
56
TABLE VIII
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONSE OF BOYS
TO THE QUESTION: WHAT THREE THINGS WOULD YOU
MOST LIKE TO BE ABLE TO DO?
Like to be able to do
Sports
Fly a model plane-i.e., I would like to be
able to fly a plane, go up in a plane,
have a plane of my own.
Swim-i.e., swim all day, be a good swimmer,
go to the beach and swim.
Boys
Single-Total
responses
86
19
17
Hike in the mountains-1 .e., hike in the snow , 12
go on a long hike, hike and hike*
Play-i.e., play all day, play with my
friends, just play.
12
Baseball-i.e., be a good baseball player,
play nothing but baseball.
11
Fish-i.e., go on a fishing trip, go fishing
with daddy, fish from a boat.
7
Ride a horse-i.e., go for long horseback
rides, ride on top of a horse, ride a
horse in the country.
5
Skate-i.e., roller skate, ice skate In the
mountains♦
3
Professions and occupations.
Mechanic-electriclan-i.e., to take cars
apart, work on autos, be an engineer,
be. an electrician.
Miscellaneous-i.e., be a farmer, be a
senator, a policeman, a magician,
lecturer, a detective.
54
16
10
57
TABLE VIII (continued)
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONSE OF BOYS
TO THE QUESTION: WHAT THREE THINGS WOULD YOU
MOST LIKE TO BE ABLE TO DO?
Like to be able to do
Boys
Single-Total
responses
Professions or occupations (continued)
Army-Navy^T.e., be a sailor, be a soldier,
fight Russia, kill Hitler.
6
Artist-i.e., be a painter, draw better than
anyone else.
5
Musician-i.e., be a great singer, play in a
band.
4
Pilot-i.e., be a pilot, pilot a big plane.
4
Carpenter-i.e., build
3
houses.
Radio Announcer-i.e., announce the news over
the radio, be an honest-to-goodness
announcer.
2
Scientist-i.e., be a Marconi,; discover
things, be a real scientist.
2
Explorer-i.e., go with Byrd, explore new lands.2
Trips-i.e. , go to Nev/ York, go East, take a trip
m a trailer, go on a long train trip.
29
Excel*in Studies-i.e., be smart like others,pass
my grade, be able to concentrate, go to
college, do better in spelling and arithmetic.
11
Personal En.joyment-i.e .. be happy, be promoted,
have my wishes come true, draw all day, read
all I want to.
8
58
TABLE VIII (continued)
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONSE OF BOYS
TO THE QUESTION: WHAT THREE THINGS WOULD YOU
MOST LIKE TO BE ABLE TO DO?
Like to be able to do
Boys
Single-Total
responses
Make toy boats and airplanes-i.e., have work'
period oftener so I can build boats and air­
planes, work on boats, work on a radio in
my plane.
6
Work and earn money-i.e., have a paper route,
work and have my own money, grow flowers and
sell them.
6
Be a good citizen-1.e.t get along better, be a
great man, have more self-control.
4
No response-i.e., (either left space blank or
wrote the word vn o thing.11
4
Altruistic tendencies-i.e., help people when
they are in trouble, get a car for mother,
help mother so she doesnft have to work so hard.
Be a squad leader-i.e., be a leader on the playgrounds, help children play fair, lead the gang
in basketball. -
.3
3
59
remarks in regard to hiking in the mountains were similar.
Both of them mentioned play, for instance,
’’Play all day,"
"Play with my friends," "Play and not have to work. "
How­
ever, the hoys mentioned this twice as many times as the
girls.
Baseball was mentioned by both boys and girls, but
twice as many times by the boys.
The girls wanted to just
"play baseball," while the boys wanted to be "A good base­
ball player," "play nothing but baseball."
"Hiding horse­
back" was the favorite sport of the girls and was mentioned
twice as many times by them as by the boys.
Skating, both
ice and roller skating, was the second choice of the girls,
and was listed three times more than the boys.
The girls' first choice of the things they would most
like to be able to do was in the line of some type of work
or occupation.
The boys gave this their second choice.
The
girls' first choice of occupations was to "Be a musician,"
while the boys put "Be a musician" as the fifth choice.
Their comments, however, were very similar.
Both mentioned
"Be a great singer," "Be a musician," "Play the piano,"
"An orchestra," etc.
the girls.
fession.
"Being a teacher" ranked second with
The boys made no mention of teaching as a pro­
Their choice in professions were that of mechanic
and electrician.
They wanted to "Take cars apart," "Work
on autos," "Be an. engineer," "Be an electrician."
made no mention of this type of occupation.
Girls
60
TABLE IX
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OP THE RESPONSE OP GIRLS
TO THE QUESTION: WHAT THREE THINGS WOULD YOU
MOST LIKE TO BE ABLE TO DO?
Like to be able to do
Girls
Single-Total
responses
Professions or Occupations
Musician-i.e., be a singer, be a musician,
play the piano well.
56
16
Teacher-i.e., be a school teacher and teach
kindergarten children how to play.
8
Actress-i.e., act on the stage, be a great
dancer, be like Shirley Temple.
6
Nurse-i.e., take care of the sick, be a nurse .
5
Secretary-i.e., type in an office, be a
secretary to a great man.
4
Artist-i.e., be able to paint well, be an
artist.
4
Airplane Hostess-i.e., be a hostess.
3
Business of my own-i.e., have a store, work
in my own shop.
3
Author-i.e., write stories, be an author.
2
Miscellaneous-i.e., pilot, doctor, etc.
2
Sports
Go horseback riding-i.e., ride a horse.
12
Roller and ice skate-i.e., ice skate well.
Hike in the mountains-i.e., go on long
hikes, go to the mountains.
52
11
9
61TABLE IX (continued)
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OP THE RESPONSE OP GIRLS
TO THE QUESTION: WHAT THREE THINGS WOULD YOU
MOST LIKE TO BE ABLE TO DO?
Like to be able to do
Sports (continued)
Swim-i.e., go to the beach and swim, swim
in the pool.
Girls
Single-Total
responses
7
Baseball-i.e., play baseball.
6
Play-i.e., play and not have to work, play
all the time.
5
Dance-i.e., go to a dance, dance at school.
2
Trips-i.e.t travel on the train, go East, take
a long trip, travel around the world, go:',
on a boat trip.
35
Care of- the home-i.e., take care of the babies,
ge"E~married, have a garden, clean the house,
sew and make my clothes, cook a meal.
17
Personal en joyment-i.e., see more movies, see
relatives, join Girl Scouts, see famous
people, have everything I want.
14
Excel in studies-i.e . g o to college, finish school,
get better grades in spelling and arithmetic,
do as well as John, be good in studies, be
smart in reading..
10
Altruistic tendencies-i.e.t get a new car for
daddy, help the poor, make others happy, be kind.
11
Be a squad leader in school-i.e.. be a leader, help
others to play safe.
5
Become a good citizen-i.e.t be good in school.
1
62
The army and navy was the second choice of a defi­
nite occupation for the boys.
They wanted ”To be a sailor,”
”Be a soldier,” ”Fight Russia,” and ’’Kill Hitler.”
Girls
wanted to ’’Take care of the sick,” ’’Type in an office,”
Both boys and girls wanted to be ’’Able to paint well, ” ”Be
an artist.”
Boys wanted especially to ’’Draw better than
anyone else.”
Girls* minor desires were ”To be an airplane
hostess,” ’’Have a store of my own,” ”To write stories,” ”Be
an author,” while the b o y s 1 minor desires were to ’’Announce
news over the radio” ’’Build houses,” ”Be a Marconi,” ’’Dis­
cover things,” ”Go with Byrd,” and ’’Explore new lands.”
Trips rated third with both boys and girls, and their
responses were
very similar.
They wanted to ’’Travel on the
train,” ”Go to
Hew York,” ”Go on a boat trip,” etc.
To excel
in studies received an equal amount of response from both
boys and girls and there was no significant difference in
their comments.
They wanted ”To be smart like others,”
”Go to college, ” ’’Get better grades in spelling and arith­
metic,” and ”Be able to concentrate better. ”
Personal enjoyment ranked almost twice as high with
girls as with boys.
However, the comments were very similar.
Remarks such as ”Be happy,” ’’Join the Girl Scouts,” ’’See
famous people,” ’’Read all I want to,” ’’Draw all day,” etc.
were mentioned.
Six per cent of the boys wanted to ’’Work
and earn money, ” ’’Have a paper route, ” or ”To grow flowers
and sell them.”
No girls mentioned earning money.
wanted to ’’Make toy boats and airplanes.”
Boys
They wanted to
65
have more frequent work periods in school.
They wanted to
be able "To work on the radio," "Work on their airplanes,"
while girls did not mention this type of activity.
The girls1 fourth choice was the "Care of the home."
Boys did not mention this.
Such comments as "Taking care of
babies," "Getting married," "Having a garden," "Clean the
house," "Sew and make my own clothes," and "Cook a meal"
were made.
These items were mentioned many times by the
girls.
SUMMARY
1.
Sports received the greatest average number of
responses of the children in answer to the question on w h a t
they would like to be able to do.
Boys1 responses to sports
were higher than the girlsT by 34 per cent.
2.
ponse.
Occupations received the second greatest res­
There was no significant difference in the number
of responses between the boys and girls.
There was a signi­
ficant difference in the choice of occupations. .The boys
listed mechanics, and the army and navy as favored choices
while the girls listed musician and teacher.
3.
Travel rated high with both sexes as a third
4.
Minor mention was made by both sexes of the
choice.
following:
excel in studies, personal enjoyment, and squad
leader in physical education classes.
64
6.
home.
Girls alone were interested in the care of the
They also showed far more altruistic tendencies than
the boys.
6.
Personal enjoyments ranked twice as high with the
girls as compared to the boys while boys wanted to work
and earn money.
They wanted longer work periods in<school
so they could work on their airplanes, radio, etc.
did not mention this type of activity.
Girls
CHAPTER VI
AN.ANALYSIS OP THE RESPONSES OF CHILDREN
AS TO WHAT THEY WOULD MOST LIKE TO HAVE
What children would like to have.
Lorraine Sherer
states that:
Human beings have some needs that are basic to their
growth, their stability, and their ability to function.
They also have countless wants arising out of circum­
stances in their environment— wants or desires suffi­
ciently imperative to be confused with needs, or to be
construed as needs.
In reality, these wants are
symptoms of basic needs♦
What is it children want most?
Are the items listed under
what they would like to have, of any importance as symptoms
for determining needs?
Are there any differences in the
comments made by boys and girls in regard to responses for
various things they would like to have?
A comparison of boys f and girls1 responses as to
what they would most like to have.
Material possessions
rated first with both boys and girls, as shown in Table X,
An equal number of boys and girls wanted a bicycle.
This
was their first choice listed under material possessions.
They each wanted any number of miscellaneous objects, such
**■ Lorraine Sherer, and others, Their First Years in
School (Los Angeles, California: Los Angeles County Board
of Education, 1939).
p. 59.
66
TABLE X
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONSE OF BOYS AND
GIRLS TO THE QUESTION: WHAT THREE THINGS
WOULD YOU MOST LIKE TO HAVE?
Would like to have
Boys
Girls
All Pupils
Single-Total Single-Total Single-Total
responses
responses
responses
Material Possessions
Bicycle
38
Miscellaneous
25
Ice and roller
8
skates
Racer-cars
24
Glider-airplane
14
Radio and telegraph
14
sets
Electric train sets
15
Musical instruments
6
Watch .
1
Books
4
Doll, with clothes
—
and furniture
Ball and bat
9
New furniture
—
Typewriter
— .
Camera
1
Pets
Horses
Dogs
Other pets
Good home
159
135
39
23
13
-5
4
12
10
9
—
8
13
8
8
8
7
7
6
4
—
4
2
2
1
5
4
2
28
14
8
6
147
39
20
19
28
20
5
3
28
17
7
4
27
17
22
Clothes
6
18
17
Friends
6
9
8
Nothing
14
2
8
67
TABLE X (continued)
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONSE OF BOYS AND
GIRLS TO THE QUESTION: WHAT THREE THINGS
WOULD YOU MOST LIKE TO HAVE?.
Would like to have
Boys
:
Girls
All Pupils
Single-Tota1 Single-Total Single-Total
responses
responses
responses
Money
6
4
5
Intelligence and personal
attractiveness
2
8
5
--
3
4
3
Longer recesses and vacations 5
Brother or sister
2
Good teacher
1
A family with children
—
Food
1
Health
—
3
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
68
as a telescope, a knife, a saw, jewelry, etc,
The next
greatest desire for the girls were ice and roller skates .
and for the boys, racers, gliders, radio and telegraph sets,
and electric train sets.
The girls saw very little use for
any of these last four articles.
They wanted watches, books,
dolls with clothes, doll house furniture, and furniture for
their rooms.
Minor wants were many.
About an equal number of girls
and boys wanted musical instruments.
Boys put in a request
for ball and bat while girls wanted new furniture, a type­
writer, and a camera.
There was a significant difference
between the wants of the boys and those of the girls, with
the exception of the bicycle.
An equal number of boys and girls wanted pets.
Horses led first, followed by dogs, birds, and cats.
Both
boys and girls rated a good home as third on their list of
wants.
The girls definitely showed a greater want for
clothes and friends than did boys.
Fourteen per cent of
the boys listed nothing or neglected to fill in the blanks
while only two per cent of the girls listed nothing.
Only
five per cent of the boys and girls would like to have
money.
Eight per cent of the girls wanted intelligence and
personal attractiveness while only two per cent of the boys
mentioned this want.
tions.
Boys wanted longer -recesses and vaca­
"A good teacherff and food were two minor wants.
69
A few of the hoys wanted brothers and sisters.
Minor wants
of the girls w e r e '”A good teacher, ” ftA family with children,”
’’Food, ” and ’’Health. ”
I
A comparison of the comments made by boys and girls
under the'responses in regard to what they would like to have.
There was no material difference as to comments regarding
bicycles (Tables XI and XII).
Such items as ”1 would like
to have a bicycle,” ”My old bicycle needs repairing,” ’’Get­
ting a horn for my bicycle,”
boys and girls.
etc. were similar with both
Boys wanted such things as a wagon, desk,
games, telescope, saw or workbench, while girls wanted a
permanent, jewelry, manicure, a box to hold jewelry, etc.
Both boys and girls realized the value of a good
home.
Their wishes were very much the same, for example,
”1 would like to have a father,” ”1 would like to have mother
come back home,” ”1 would like to live with my mother and
father,” ”1 want a good hone with nice furniture,” ”1 want
a beautiful home with flowers.”
SUMMARY
1.
Material possessions rated first and very high
with both boys and girls in response to what they would most
like to have.
An equal number of boys and girls wanted as
their first choice, a bicycle.
70
TABLE XI
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OP THE RESPONSE OP BOYS
TO THE QUESTION: WHAT THREE THINGS WOULD
YOU MOST LIKE TO HAVE?
/"Boys
Would like to have
Material Possessions
Bicycle-i.e., like to own a bicycle, get
my bicycle fixed, get a born for my
bicycle.
Single
Total
responses
159
58
Miscellaneous-!.e., like to have a wagon,
desk, games, telescope, knife, saw, work
bench, etc.
25
Racer-i.e., like to have a car, want a
racer, want an automobile.
24
Electric train sets-i.e., want a large
long train, I want a train that goes
by itself.
15
Radio and telegraph sets-i.e., like to
have an amateur radio set, tools so I
could make a radio, sound effects for
my radio, a. telegraph set.
14
Glider, airplane-i,e., want a glider, a
real airplane, a glider I can ride in,
to make a glider. *.
14
Ball and bat-i.e., ball and bat of my own.
9
Skates-i.e., ice and roller, pair of
skates.
8
Musical Instruments-i.e., want a bugle,
want a drum, a piano.
6
Books-i.e., want some good war stories,
good books.
4
71
TABLE XI (continued)
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OP THE RESPONSE OP BOYS
TO THE QUESTION: WHAT THREE THINGS WOULD
YOU MOST LIKE TO HAVE?
Would like to have
Boys
Single-Total
responses
Pets
Horses-i.e., like to have a horse, a horse
of my own, a horse I can ride.
28 .
14
Dog-i.e., want a dog.
8
Other pets-i.e., a monkey, a cat, a bird,
some pigeons.
6*
Good home-i.e., live with my mother and father,
a father, a home, a good home, a new home with
a swimming pool, nice furniture.
24
Nothing-i.e., either the word "nothing” was
written in or the line was left blank.
14
Clothes-i.e., boots, shoes, cowboy hat, football
suit.
6
Friends-i.e., have more friends, have a good friend,
join a club, have a girl friend.
6
Money-i.e., be rich, have more money.
6
Longer recesses and vacations-i.e., more time to make
things, have more vacations, have longer recesses.
5
Intelligence-i.e., have more ability, have better
self-control, ability to get more customers for
my paper route.
2
72
TABLE XII
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OP THE RESPONSE OP GIRLS
TO THE QUESTION: WHAT THREE THINGS WOULD
YOU MOST LIKE TO HAVE?
Would like to have
Girls
Single-Total
responses
Material Possessions
Bicycle-i.e., I would like to have a
hicycle, a new bicycle, my old bicycle
repaired.
Miscellaneous-!.e., a permanent, jewelry,
car, science laboratory, a manicure, a
box to hold my jewelry.
135
39
20
Skates-i.e., ice and roller-i.e., ice skates, 19
new skates, a pair of skates (the wish for
ice skates far outnumbered roller skates). •
Watch^i.e., to have a wrist watch, a real
watch^ a gold watch^
13
Dolls with clothes and furniture-i.e., a
beautiful doll, clothes for my doll, many
dolls, a mama doll, furniture for my doll
house.
8
Musical instruments-!.e., would like a piano,
auto harp, violin.
8
Books-i.e., some new books, some beautiful
books, a good book.
7
New furniture-i.e., desk, new furniture for
my room.
5
Glider-airplane-i.e., an airplane, a glider,
a real plane.
5
Radio-i.e., a radio for my room, a new radio.
4
Typewriter-i.e., a typewriter of my own.
4
Camera-i.e., a small camera.
2
73
TABLE X-Ll (continued)
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OP THE RESPONSE OP GIRLS
TO THE QUESTION: WHAT THREE THINGS WOULD
YOU MOST LIKE TO HAVE?
Would like to have
Girls
Single-Total
responses
Pets-i.e.,
Horses-a horse to ride, etc.
Dogs-a dog like my brothers have, etc.
Other pets-a canary bird, cat, etc.
28
20
5
3
Clothes-i.e., nice clothes, a new dress, lots
of clothes, pretty clothes.
18
Good home-i.e., a father, mother to come back
home, a happy home, a home in the country, a
room of my own, a beautiful home with flowers,
17
Priends-i.e., a boy friend, more girl friends,
girls to like me, Jimmy for a boy friend.
9
Intelligence and personal attractiveness-i.e., I
would like to have a good mind, a good education,
be a good woman, a good girl, have poise, kind­
ness, good manners, beauty, popularity, health.
8
Brother or Sister-i.e., I would like to have a baby
brother, a baby sister.
4
Money-i.e., I would like to have lots of money,
all the money we need.
4
Good teacher-i.e., always have a good teacher, have
a good teacher for once.
3
Nothing-i.e., wrote the word nothing or left the
space blank.
?2
A family with' children-i.e ., many children, children
of my own.
2
74
2. Boys would like to have gliders, racers, electric
trains and telegraph sets.
these things.
etc.
Girls were not interested in
They wanted watches, books, dolls with clothes,
Boys did not mention these items.
3. Pets and a good home were important wants of both
boys and girls.
4. Both b o y s 1 and girls1 wants are important to
teachers as symptoms for determining needs.
Decided interests
of boys and girls of these grade levels have been brought out.
CHAPTER VII
AN ANALYSIS.OP THE RESPONSES OF CHILDREN AS TO WHAT
THEY WOULD LIKE TO M O W MORE ABOUT
What children would like to know more about*
are naturally curious about many things.
Children
Just what are the
things that children would like to know more about?
these responses have educational implications?
Do
Are the
things that boys would like to know more about, the same
as those of girls?
A comparison of boys * and girlsf responses as to what
they would like to know more about.
The school subjects,
rated first among the things which both boys and girls would
like to know more about.
(See Table;:XIII).
Social studies
rated first among the school subjects with 50 per cent more
boys responding than girls.
Next in importance as far as
boys were concerned came science, arithmetic, art and spelling.
Arithmetic, art, music and science respectively, were of
importance as listed by the girls.
Other subjects of minor
mention was made by the girls of reading, spelling, dramatics,
penmanship, and dancing?
Minor mention was made by the boys
of sports, reading and music.
People, were second on the list of things that children
would like to know more about.
Girls especially were inter­
ested in knowing more about their friends, themselves, and
76
TABLE XIII
:PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONSE OF BOYS AND
•GIRLS TO THE QUESTION: WHAT THREE THINGS
WOULD YOU LIKE TO KNOW MORE ABOUT?
Like to know
more about
School subjects
Social Studies
Science
Arithmetic
Art
Spelling
Music
Reading
Sports
School in general
Dramatics
Dancing
Penmanship
People
Friends
Self
Relatives
Opposite sex
Boys
All Pupils ,
Girls
Single-^otal Single-Total Single-Total
responses
responses
responses
185
144
165
45
12
19
18
7
13
8
3
4
7
4
4
100
29
15
10
9
4
5
7
5
1
1
1'
73
21
17
14
8
8
6
5
4
4
2
2
15
11
10
1
5
Church
1
4
3
Designing
3
0
The Future
2
2
2
Love
1
2
1
Miscellaneous
2
0
1
Nothing listed
8
8
4
2
1
5
1
1
1
'
2
relatives,-
Only one per cent of the boys and girls showed
interest in knowing more about the opposite sex.
not seem curious to know more about themselves.
Boys did
However,
they were interested in knowing about their friends.
Ten
per cent of the boys listed nothing or left the space blank,
indicating that there was nothing they could think of that
they would like to know more about.
the girls left this space blank.
Only one per cent of
Minor interests of girls
were the church, the future, and love.
Minor interests
of boys were designing, the future, and love.
Comparison of the comments made by boys and girls
under responses as to what they would like to know more about
There was no significant difference to the responses listed
under the social studies by both boys and girls,
XIV and XV).
(See Tables
They both wanted to know more about radio,
electricity, television, communication, transportation, and
the world in general.
The significant thing was that the
boys listed over 50 per cent more items than the girls.
of the comments made were:
Some
!,How boats float,” f,How to run
a tug," ,fHow to drive a racer,” ,fHow a plane works,” ”How it
feels to ride in a plane,” while girls Just mentioned the
fact that they would like to know more about airplanes, radio
history and geography.
Boys were far more specific in noting
definite things which they would like to know more about.
78
TABLE XIV .
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE' RESPONSE OF-BOYS TO
THE QUESTION: WHAT THREE'THINGS WOULD YOU
LIKE TO ENOW MORE ABOUT?
Y/ould like to know more about
School Subjects
Social Studies
I would like to know-more about
pioneers, Chinese, radio, electricity,
television, machines, communication,
transportation.
(34;
Boys
Single-Total
responses
185
100
Aviation-i.e., how a plane works, how
to run a plane, how to build a plane,
how it feels to ride in a plane. (26)
World in general-i.e ., how the world
was made, more about maps, great men
in history, the world.
(2 0 )
Boats-i.e., how submarines stay under
water, how boats float, how to make
boats, and more about boats, how to
run a tug.
(1 1 )
Cars and racers-i.e., how to drive a
racer, how to make a car, more about
autos.
(9)
Science-i.e., more about chemistry, planets, 29
farms, my dog, sea animals, my pets.
Arithmetic-i.e ., more about how to work
arithmetic, arithmetic problems.
15
Art-i.e., how to draw, how to paint,
how to draw a train well.
10
Spelling-i.e., how to learn to spell, how
not to miss so many words in spelling.
9
79
TABLE XIV (continued)
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONSE OF BOYS TO
THE QUESTION: WHAT THREE THINGS WOULD YOU
LIKE TO KNOW MORE ABOUT?
Would like to know more about
Boys
Single-Total
responses
Sports-i.e., how to play good baseball,
run faster, how to get more time to
play, how to play football.
7
General school work-i.e., how to get
longer work periods, in all my school
work, how to be a squad leader.
5
Reading and English-i.e., good books, how
to read faster, how to sound my words,
how to remember what I read, how to talk
so people will listen.
5
Music-i.e., singing, more about music,
piano, flute.
4
10
Nothing listed-i.e., blank left unfilled or
word ’‘nothing” written in.
8
People
Friends-i♦e ., scouts, why teachers get so
crabby, problems.
5
Self-i.e., why I !m good, why I*m not
honest.
1
Relatives-!.e ., where they are.
1
Girls-i.e., what makes girls so silly.
1
Designing-i.e., how to design homes.
3
Miscellaneous-i.e., pirates, stamps, church,
love, dramatics.
5
Future-i.e., what the future will be, who will
win the war.
2
80
All other school subjects were of minor importance
as compared to social studies.
Science rated next in impor­
tance as far as boys were concerned.
Science rated fifth
with girls. Boys mentioned such things as chemistry, planets,
sea animals, my dog, my pets, etc.
Girls mentioned simpler
forms of science which were the farm, the sea, my pets, etc.
. Arithmetic received second in importance as far as
girls were concerned and third as far as boys were concerned.
Both b o y s ’ and girls’ comments were much the same.
Both
wanted to know more about "How to work arithmetic," ’About
arithmetic problems."
Art rated third with the girls and
fourth with the boys, and the comments were very similar.
Both wanted to know "How to draw well," "How to draw
people," "How to make clay animals," etc.
fourth with girls and ninth with boys.
very much the same.
Some of them were:
Masic ranked
The remarks were
"How to sing better,"
"How to play the piano," "How to play the flute," etc.
Reading and English received about the same stress from
both boys and girls.
books,
They wanted to know more about good
"How to read faster," "How to speak better before the
class," and "How to talk so people will listen,"etc.
People ranked second in importance with both the boys
and girls.
Comments in regard to their friends were similar.
Some comments were;
"Why my friends get mad," "I want to
understand people better," "Why teachers get so crabby,"
81
TABLE XV
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONSE OF GIRLS TO
THE QUESTION: WHAT THREE THINGS WOULD YOU
LIKE TO KNOW MORE ABOUT?
Would like to know more .about
School Subjects
Social Studies
Units of Work-i.e., pioneers, radio,
communication, transportation,
freight yards, airplanes.
(25)
Girls
Sing 1 e-T'ota 1
responses
133
44
World in general-i;e ., history, geo­
graphy, the presidents, Germany,
the countries in the war.
(20)
Arithmetic-i.e., how to do better arithme tic, how to get my arithmetic.
19
Art-i.e., drawing, drawing people, painting, making clay animals, flower
arranging.
18
Music-i.e., how to sing, play the piano,
play the accordion.
13
Science-i.e., the farm, my pets, science,
the sea.
12
Reading and English-i.e ., how to read
better, how to speak better before the
class, how to write better stories.
8
Penmanship-i.e., writing (I scribble so),
how to write backhand.
4
Sports-i.e., how to play baseball.
3
People
FrTends-1.e ., why my friends get mad, my
friends1 parents, understand people.
8
15
Self-i.e., why I get mad, what people
think of me, my body.
4
82
TABLE XV (continued)
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONSE OF GIRLS TO
THE QUESTION: WHAT THREE THINGS WOULD YOU
LIKE TO KNOW MORE ABOUT?
Would like to know more about
Girls
Single-Total
responses
People (continued)
Relatives-i.e., my father, my mother.
2
Opposite sex-i.e., romance, love, boys.
1
Dramatics-i.e., how to be a movie star, a
radio star, how to be a better ac.tress.
7
Dancing-i.e., ballroom dancing.
4
Church-i.e., the Bible, church.
4
Loye-i.e.,. why people love, love.
2
83
scouts, etc.
Four per cent of the girls and one per cent
of the boys would like to know more about themselves.
Such remarks as:
"Why I am good,1’ "Why I am-riot honest,"
"Why I get mad," "What people think of me," were made by
both.
Boys wanted to know "What makes girls so silly, "
and girls wanted to know more above love, romance, and boys.
Only one per cent of the boys were interested in girls and
only one per cent of the girls remarked about boys.
Seven
per cent of the girls were interested in dramatics.
They
wanted to know "how to be a better actress," "How to be a
movie star," "How to be a radio star."
mentioned church.
Four per cent
They wanted to know more about the
"Bible and the church."
Four per centwDuld like to know
more about ballroom dancing.
Two per cent wanted to know
about love, and why people love.
SUMMARY
1.
School subjects rated first among the items
which both boys and girls would like to know more about.
They rated out of all proportion to anything else mentioned.
2.
Social studies rated first of all school subjects.
A large percentage of the boys* responses referred to some
phase of social studies.
ponse of the girls.
They more than doubled the res­
This would imply that boys were far
interested in the social studies of these grades than were
the girls.
84
3.
Science, arithmetic, art, spelling, and music
were among the next school subjects in importance to both
girls and boys.
4.
Children were eager to know more about people.
People rated next to school subjects in importance.
The
social need is implied in this finding.
5.
There was no significant difference in the
types of responses given by boys as compared to girls.
CHAPTER VIII
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The purpose of this study was to determine if pos­
sible, some of the growth needs of fifth and sixth grade
children.by the questionnaire method.
This study planned
to arrive at the growth needs of children through the
c hildr ens responses that would be indicated by the things
that had made them happy, the things that had made them
unhappy, the things that they would like to be able to do,
the things that they would most like to have, and the
things they would most like to know more about.
I.
1.
SUMMARY
Boys and girls alike derived the greatest amount
of pleasure from school experiences.
School in general,
teachers, the school journey, and school sports received
significant mention.
2.
Gifts and possessions ranked second in importance
to botli boys and girls as a cause of happiness.
Boys
especially mentioned money, radio, boats, while girls men­
tioned items concerning the home such as dolls, clothes,
games, and desks.
3.
Girls were far more impressed with the happiness
derived from their homes than were boys.
However, the ideas
regarding the value of home life were similar.
86
4.
Both boys and girls received much enjoyment from
personal accomplishments and pleasures.
Boys were especially
interested in working and earning money while girls were
more interested in dramatics, parties, and dancing.
5.
Friends were far more important to girls than
to boys as far as a source of happiness was concerned.
6.
Minor sources of happiness mentioned were good
health, cultural possessions, being an American, and
helping others.
7.' Unhappiness and sorrow was prevalent in the lives
of boys and girls of the fifth and sixth grades.
Personal
disappointments and interference of rights were the causes
of most of the unhappy situations.
There was no significant
difference in, the responses made between boys and girls as
to the cause.
8.
School disappointments were second in number as
the cause of unhappiness.
The boys suffered far more
disappointments in school than did girls.
Both boys and
girls recorded much the same causes for unhappiness in
school.
Friends were a cause of unhappiness to both boys
and girls.
However, 10 per cent more girls than boys had
difficulty with their friends.
9.
Home conditions were also a source of unhappiness.
Girls seemed to get along much better at home than did boys.
87
10*
A small percentage of both boys and girls were
made unhappy because of sickness, loss of relatives, acci­
dents, the teacher, and lack of self-control.
11.
Sports received the greatest average number of
responses in answer to the question concerning what they
would like to be able to do.
were
34 per
cent higher
12. Occupations
The b o y s f responses to sports
than that of the girls.
received the second largest response.
There was no significant difference in the number of res­
ponses between boys and girls.
There was a great significant
difference in the choice of occupations.
The boys listed
mechanics and the army and navy as choices while the girls
listed musician and teacher.
13.
Travel rated high with both sexes as to choice
of the things they would like to be able to do.
14.
care
Girls alone
of the
home.
cies than the boys.
showed significant interest in the
They
also showed more altruistic tenden­
Personal enjoyment ranked twice as
high with the girls as compared to the boys.
Boys wanted
to have longer work periods in school so that they could
work on airplanes, radio, etc.
Girls did not mention to
any degree, this type of activity.
15.
In response to what they would most like to have,
material possessions rated first and very high with both
boys and girls.
An equal number of boys and girls wanted
88
a bicycle as their first choice in material possessions.
16.
There was a decided difference in the type of
things wanted by boys and girls.
Boys would like to have
gliders, racers, electric trains, and telegraph sets while
girls were interested in watches, books, dolls, and clothes.
17.
Pets, and a good home were very important to
both boys and girls.
18.
In answer to the question on what they would
like to know more about, children rated school subjects as
first choice.
subjects.
Social studies rated first among all school
Both boys and girls rated social studies as the
most important.
However, the boys more than doubled the
responses of the girls.
19.
Science, arithmetic, art, spelling, and music
were among the next school subjects in importance to both
girls and boys.
20.
Children also wanted to know more about people.
There was no significant difference in the types of res­
ponses given by boys and girls in this regard.
II.
CONCLUSIONS WITH EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS
The following conclusions seemed to evolve from the
s tudy.
1.
The school in general was by far, the greatest
source of happiness to both sexes.
Although more girls
89
recorded the teacher as a source of happiness and more boys
recorded sports, there seems to be no significant difference
in causes of happiness of boys and girls that would be of
import to education.
2.• Gifts and possessions were of second importance
as to the cause of happiness for both sexes.
Articles
children receive and own mean much to their happiness.
3.
There was a significant difference in the type
of things boys and girls are interested in that was of
import to education.
A.
Boys
1. Considering gifts and possessions, boys
received greatest happiness from radios, boats,
skates, bicycles, chemical sets, cowboy
suits, etc.
2. They listed sports first in the things
they would like to be able to do.
sports were in order:
fly a model plane,
These
-go up in a plane, and
swim, hike, and play
baseball.
3. Material possessions rated first and
very high with boys.
In response to the ques­
tion on what they would most like to have,
according to responses received, they are:
bicycles, racers, cars, gliders, airplanes,
90
radio and telegraph sets, electric 'train sets,
and balls and bats.
4.
In answer to the question on what they
would like to know more about,'boys chose by
a great majority, the social studies.
They
mentioned television, electricity, machines,
aviation, great men in history, boats, cars,
and racers.
They.listed science as second.
These responses would tend to imply that
b o y s 1 main interests were sports, mechanics,
and the various methods and machines$ftrans­
portation, communication, and science.
B. Girls.
1. Considering gifts, girls received
greater happiness from gifts and possessions
of the following nature:
dolls, doll clothes
and furniture, games, desks, and skates.
2. Twice as many girls recorded home life
as a means of happiness as did boys.
3. Friends meant twice as much to the girls
as a source of happiness t h a n .to the boys.
4. Girls would like to. follow certain occupa
tions, especially that of musician and teacher.
They preferred to take trips and care for the
home.
Personal enjoyment and altruistic
tendencies rated higher than that of the boys.
5. Girls would most like to have bicycles,
books, clothes, watches, dolls and any number
of feminine trinkets.
6 . Girls also would like to know more about'
social studies than any other thing although
they were only half as enthusiastic as the boys.
7. These responses would tend to imply that
girlsT interests were somewhat different from
those of boys.
The home, gifts that deal with
the home, friends, and occupations which
include musician and teacher, are vital in­
terests of girls.
Girls tend to be more
mature in their interests and wants than boys.
4.
Unhappiness v,ras prevalent to a marked degree in
the lives of boys and girls.
The greatest number of causes
of unhappiness was that of personal disappointments, inter­
ference, school, friends, and home conditions.
5. . There was no significant difference in the res­
ponses made between boys and girls as to the cause of
unhappiness although 13 per cent more boys than girls had
unhappy experiences in school, and more than 10 per cent
more girls than boys had unhappy experiences with their
friends.
92
6.
The children made practically no mention of
physical needs, such as adequate nutrition, health habits,
rest, etc,
A quasi-need was implied through interest in
sports for outside activity and development of large
muscle coordination, .
7.
The results implied a recognition of social
adjustment and need for status at school and at home.
8.
Very few recognized their own faults.
They men­
tioned the unhappiness caused by friends but only three per
cent mentioned their own shortcomings as a cause for
unhappiness.
9.
Ego and integrative needs and quasi-needs were
indicated through the responses by both sexes.
10•
Educational Implications.
a.
Happy and successful school life would
satisfy both the social and ego or integrative needs
to some degree while gifts and personal possessions would
give the child a sense of ownership which would aid in
establishing stability and a sense of worth.
Possessions
would satisfy the cumulative desire which may be a
symptom of a need of the child of this age.
Physical needs were negligible as far as a cause
of happiness was concerned.
This would Imply that
children do not realize as a group, the value of good
health.
93
Status comes with doing things well and receiving
recognition.
Items under personal accomplishments and
pleasures tend to emphasize the satisfaction from activity,
accomplishments,
and recreation.
Sixteen per cent more girls mentioned friends as a
source of happiness than did boys*
This would tend to show
the need to girls, especially, of a sense of status and
worthiness and the value of getting along with people as
one of the basic needs.
The home was a greater source of
happiness to the girls than to the boys.
Shuttleworth,^ in
his study on sexual maturity, found that girls developed
two years earler than boys.
In this study, girls seem more
mature in recognizing more basic causes of happiness.
Because the school journey and travel were considered a
source of happiness,
this technique of education would tend
to imply that the school journey offered mental satisfac­
tions to the child in his effort to gain concepts outside
the immediate environment.
b.
The findings on the causes of unhappiness show
that the problems and sorrows of young children are many.
Personal disappointments and- interference denotes a lack of
status and social recognition.
The mention of friends with
”1-------Prank K. Shuttlev/orth, Sexual Maturation and the
Physical Growth of Girls Age 6 to 19 Years. Monographs of
the Society for Research in ChiTcI Development, Vol. II,
No. 5, Series No. 12, (Washington, D.C.: National Research
Council), 1937, p. 189.
94
all the reasons given for the causes of unhappiness shows
much need for social awareness and ability to get along
with others.
The lack of self-control denotes a need for
social and self-understandings, physical adjustments and
integrative development.
c.
The study shows a great interest in occupations.
Children of these grades are beginning to think about types
of work they would like to be able to do.
It is first in
the thoughts of the girls and second in the thoughts of the
boys.
Girls here appear to be more mature in their thinking
than boys.
These free responses seem to have a very definite
educational implication, that of mental development.
The curriculum should be a broadening experience at this
level, taking into consideration many interests and types
of occupations.
The fact that children wanted to be able
to do the many occupations listed denotes a desire or
interest or need for knowledge along these lines.
The fact
that so many, occupations were mentioned may be an indication
of interest established in the study.of such units of work
as, transportation, communication, and Westward Movement.
Since sports were among the first things children
list that they would like to be able to do, it appears that
this would have definite educational implications and would
95
give leads as to child interests.
The desire to be able
to do different types of sports well, may signify a
physical need; also an integrative need, a feeling of
worthiness in the eyes of his fellow companions and ability
to excel for recognition.
The social need is also revealed
since most sports mentioned would be carried on in
Since boys
groups.
seem far more interested in sports than girls
and since they tend toward more vigorous games, division of
sexes is justified in physical education classes.
The desire for travel as a third choice for both
boys and girls and the fact that school journeys were very
important as a source of happiness would imply a need at
this level for broadening concepts and satisfying curiosity
as to what
goes on in the world.
To excel
in studies would indicate the need for
recognition and status, either by the other children, the
teacher, or the childrens1 parents.
Seventeen per cent of
the girls at this age were interested in the care of the
home and children.
field at this age?
.Should’ they have instruction in this
The fact that only five per cent of all
the children wanted intelligence and personal attractive­
ness and the greatest number of wants were for material
possessions, shows a lack of knowledge or realization on
the part of the child as to how material possessions are
secured.
96
Jersild,^ in his study, also noted that children
.wanted to have good marks, but they did not mention the
intelligence that would enable them to make good marks.
The study brought out that the desire for pets were
basic interests of both boys and girls.
Ownership of pets
affords an outlet for the emotions, a sense of pride and
companionship.
Ownership aids in the establishment of
status.
d.
Are the social studies geared more to boys*
interests than to girls1?
The fact that boys f wants ran to racers, cars, gliders,
airplanes, radio, telegraph sets, and electric train sets
seemed to have definite educational implications.
The fact
that girls hardly mentioned these items might signify that
their interests were not along these lines.
Fifth and sixth grade units of work included the
study of many of the items children want.
Transportation,
for instance, involves the study of airplanes, cars, trains,
etc. and Communication includes radio, telegraph sets, etc.
This decided interest on the part of the boys may indicate
the influence of the school environment.
Lack of mention
of these items or other items due to school environment by
g
Arthur T. Jersild, Frances V. Markey, and Catherine
L. Jersild, Children1s Fears, Dreams, Wishes, Daydreams, Likes,
Dislikes, Pleasant and Unpleasant Memories. (Mew Yorks' Bureau
of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1933).
97
the girls might signify a lack of interest on the part of
the girls or a stronger interest in out of school activities,
such as roller and ice skating,.playing with dolls, dollclothes and furniture, etc.
Why did so many children want bicycles?
Is it
because the bicycle gave the child an opportunity to be
self-dependent?
escape?
Does the bicycle offer him a means of
Does it give him a feeling of freedom from all res­
ponsibilities?
Does it establish the ego and develop a
pride in ownership?
Many of the boys and. girls have bicycles
in this school district.
This environment mayrinfluence
the wishes of other boys and girls who do not have bicycles.
The bicycle also gives an opportunity for vigorous physical
exercise and the development of large body muscles.
The children tend to record the things they d o n ft
have that other children have in their immediate environment.
Only an average of 22 per cent of the children mentioned a
good home.
A good home implies food, shelter and clothing
and other physical and social needs.
This may imply that
78 per cent of the children were supplied with the good
home, while the others were not fully satisfied with theirs.
A good home was recognized by the child as something
desirable,
A good home fulfils a definite felt need that
establishes status.
Clothes were very important to the girls
of this age but were only casually considered by the boys.
98
Many children coming from poorer homes in a district where
the majority of children have beautiful homes may develop
the sense of inferiority or lack of worthiness.
Should the school follow interest leads of children?
The school, in order to attain functional effectiveness,
should seek to understand the interests and expressed
wishes of children.
Children acquire wholesome personalities
by working out their needs to their satisfaction.
When
basic physical, social and integrative needs are not satis­
fied, personalities are warped and unhappiness and dissatis­
faction with life, results.
e.
The fact that studies taught in school ranked
first of all the things that children would like to know
more about would tend to imply that the school had set an
environment which was of some vital interest to children.
The social studies receiving such a high rank as
73 per cent of all children would tend to imply that the
childrens1 interests were being challenged by the many
and varied topics studied in these grades.
Science, arithmetic, art, and music, the only other
subjects of significant--' mention, tend to denote interests
and quasi-needs in these fields.
Knowledge of people received the only other signifi­
cant rating (that of 11 per cent) with regard to what
children would like to know more about.
This would tend to
99
imply that social needs are beginning to be recognized.
The need for understanding people, the reality that
they need to get along with others.
In this study, the children did not recognize all
of their most vital needs.
However, their interests
and wishes may be viewed as valuable symptoms of needs.
Ill.
RECOMMENDATIONS
On the basis of the findings of this study, the
following recommendations were noted:
1.
Because of the importance of the development of
a wholesome personality through adjustment of the child to
his many and complicated needs, an attempt to understand
each child as an individual should be made by the schools.
2.
Because of the diversity of interests of boys
and girls as noted from the frequency of mention of such
interests, would indicate that the school should make group
adjustments in the curriculum to meet the varied interests
and needs of both boys and girls.
3.
Further study should be made of both sexes on
these grade levels as to growth needs.
Group studies such
as this one may give strong indications as to basic needs,
and should aid the teacher in the guidance of the group.
4.
Case studies of many children on these grade
levels would be valuable in arriving at generalizations as
to needs.
100
5.
The school could provide opportunity to aid the
child to become aware of his basic needs and attempt to
meet them intelligently.
6.
Many valuable studies have been made of the needs
of children.
teachers.
These studies should be made available to
The findings of such studies as were carried on
by groups of teachers in this district in regard to needs
of children are of much value to teachers in recognizing
needs and in aiding the children in their attempts to make
successful adjustments to our complicated society.^
2
Growth Needs of Fifth and Sixth Grade Children as
Organized by Teachers of these Grade Levels.
See Appendix.
-BIBLIOGRAPHY
BIBLIOGRAPHY
A.
BOOKS
Bell, Howard M., Youth Tell Their Story.
American Council on Education,"“1938.
Washington, D.C.:
261 pp.
Bennett, Margaret E . , and others, Guidance in the Educa­
tional Program. Curriculum Monograph, Pasadena City
Schools, November, 1940.
246 pp.
Dimock, Hedley D., Rediscovering the Adolescent.
Associated Press," 193’/. 277 pp.
New York:
Franzen, Raymond, An Evaluation of School Health Procedure.
New York: American Child Health Association, 1933.
127 pp.
Jersild, Arthur, Children1s Fears, Dreams, Wishes, Daydreams,
Likes, Dislikes, Pleasant and Unpleasant Memories. New
York: Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia
University, 1933.
172 pp.
Kilpatrick, William H . , Remaking the Curriculum.
Nelson and Company, 1936.
128 pp.
New York:
Murphy, Gardner, and Theodore M. Newcomb, Experimental
Social Psychology.
New York: Harper and Brothers, 1937.
IT S
pp
.
Prescott, Daniel Alfred, Emotion and the Educative Process.
Washington, DvC.: American Council of Education, 1938.
293 pp.
Sherer, Lorraine, and others, "Their First Years in School.
Los Angeles, California: Los Angeles' County Board of
Education, 1939. 282 pp.
Shuttleworth, Frank K., Sexual Maturation and the Physical
Growth of Girls Age Six to Nineteen Years. Monographs
of the Society for Research in Child Development,
Volume II, No. 5, Series No. 12. Washington, D.C.:
National Research Council, 1937.
253 pp.
103
B.
PERIODICAL ARTICLES
Floyd, Earl H., ,fAn Analysis of the Expressed Reeds and
Interests of Junior High School Pupils,” Unpublished
Master’s thesis, University of Southern California,
Los Angeles, 1939.
102 pp.
Hopkins, L. Thomas, "Curriculum Development,” Teachers
College Record, 37:441, February, 1936.
Jones, Mary C., "Guiding the Adolescent,” Progressive
Education, 15:605-09, December, 1938.
Kilpatrick, Y/illiam H., "New Developments, Hew Demands,”
National Education Association Journal, 24:261-62,
November, 1935.
Meek, Lois,H., ”The Immediate Social Relations of Students
in Junior and Senior High Schools,” Progressive Educa­
tion, 15:610-16, December, 1938.
Stack, Herbert J., ”What We Can Contribute to Safety,”
The Journal of Health and Physical Education, 8:6-7,
January,. 1937.
Stolz, Herbert R., "Growth Needs of Children in the Elemen­
tary Grades,” Educational Method, 175157-62, January,
1938.
_______ , and others, "The Junior High School Age,” University
"""
High School Journal, 15:63-72, January, 1937.
Strange, Ruth, "Child Development and the Curriculum,”
Thirty-eighth Yearbook of the National Society for the
Study of Educatldn,, Part I. Bloomington, Illinois:
Public School Publishing Company, 1939.
442 pp.
Thayer, V. T., Caroline B. Zachry, and Ruth Kotinsky, ”A
New Education for Youth," Progressive Education, 16:398,
October, 1939.
Zachry, Caroline B., "Some General Characteristics of
Adolescence,” Progressive Education, 15:591-97, December,
1938.
APPENDIX
104
DIRECTIONS
Please answer truthfully the questions which have been
asked below.
Do NOT sign your name.
The papers will all be
shuffled as they are collected, so no one will ever know
what you say or ask for.
1.
Name of your school?
2.
Your grade in school?________ 5.
4.
What are the three things that have made you most happy
this year?___________
5.
____ *
(School)
____ ______ _____
(Town)
(State)
Boy
Girl______
•
What are the three things that have made you most unhappy
this year?______ __ _____
_________________________________ _
6.
What three things would you most like to be able to do?
7.
What three things would you most like to have?
8.
What three things would you most like to know more about?
105
GROWTH WEEDS OF FIFTH AND SIXTH GRADE CHILDREN AS
ORGANIZED BY THE TEACHERS OF THESE CHILDREN IN
RESPONSE TO THE QUESTION: WHAT ARE SOME OF
THE MOST IMPORTANT GROWTH NEEDS OF CHILDREN
AT THIS LEVEL?
A*. What physical growth needs must be recognized and con­
sidered in guiding the child’s school experiences?
1. Adequate nutrition.
2. Detection and correction of physical handicaps.
3. Good health habits such as cleanliness, posture,
care of the eyes. .
4. Developing wholesome attitude toward sex.
Accurate sex information.
5. Fresh air, sunshine, and outdoor activity,
6 . Sufficient rest and relaxation.
Adjustment of
activities to physical changes Involved in pre­
adolescent period especially in sixth grade.
7. Freedom of activity.
Varied activity.
8 . Opportunity for continued development of large
muscle coordination and increased emphasis on
fine muscle coordination.
B. What social growth needs must be recognized and considered
. in guiding the child’s school experiences?
1. Increasing need for status and sense of belonging
in social groups.
a. Sense of being wanted and needed.
b. Need for improved group living.
1. Need for getting along with others.
2. Need for sharing.
3. Need for desirable leadership and
followership.
2. Beginning break fro#i adult authority, especially
in sixth grade.
3. Likeness to others.
Doing the acceptable thing. .
4. Social cooperation.
Recognition by children of each
other’s ability and contribution each has to make.
5. Growing consideration of right of others.
Growing
self-control.
6 . Group approval. Recognition by group.
7. Association of other persons of the same sex, boys
with men, etc., especially in the sixth grade.
106
GROWTH NEEDS OF FIFTH AND SIXTH GRADE CHILDREN AS
ORGANIZED BY THE TEACHERS OF THESE CHILDREN IN
RESPONSE TO THE QUESTION: WHAT ARE SOME OF
THE MOST IMPORTANT GROWTH NEEDS OF CHILDREN
AT THIS LEVEL?
C. What emotional growth needs must be recognized and con­
sidered in guiding the child*s school experiences?
1. Sense of security, self-confidence, and pease.
2. Recognition and a feeling of success.
Sense of
personal worth?
3. Avoidance of strain, tension, and over-stimulation.
4. Need for sympathetic understanding of child*s reasons
;and feelings.
Need for someone to confide in.
5. Happiness.
6 . Constructive outlets for natural urges and emotional
responses.
7. Creative expression.
8 . Opportunity for growing independence for development
of individual responsibility and initiative.
9. Ability to face facts squarely— disappointments and
failures as well as successes.
(Ability to face a problem situation objectively and
work toward a solution).
D. What mental growth needs must be recognized and considered
in guiding the child*s school experience?
1. Increasing understanding of child*s own environment.
Satisfaction of curiosity.
2. Extension of experience and growing understanding of
other people. Beginning social consciousness.
3. Activity appropriate to level of development.
4. Continuity of experience and gradual development.
5. Improved ability In self-expression and in sharing
ideas and experiences.
6 . Increasing•ability to gain needed information from
books, etc. through reading.
•7. Manipulation and construction.
8 . Developing those number concepts and skills needed in
child*s experience.
9. Development of effective work habits.
Need for devel­
oping "research techniques." Need for learning how to
plan and organize materials in solving problems.
10. Ability to distinguish between reality and imaginative
thinking.
11. Creative self-expression. *
'
12. Developing varied individual interests. Worthwhile
use of leisure time.
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