A survey of the equipment and materials used in social studies classes in the seventh and eighth grades of Orange Countyкод для вставкиСкачать
A SURVEY OF THE EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS USED IN SOCIAL STUDIES CLASSES IN THE SEVENTH AND EIGHTH GRADES OF ORANGE COUNTY A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the School of Education The University of Southern California In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Science in Education by Reylas J. Perry June 19^1 UMI Number: EP54101 All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion. Dissertation Pubi.sh?ng UMI EP54101 Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author. Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 48106- 1346 T h is thesis, w r it t e n u n d e r the d ir e c t io n o f the C h a ir m a n o f the candidate's G u id a n c e C o m m itte e a n d a p p r o v e d by a l l m em bers o f the C o m m itte e , has been presen ted to a n d accepted by the F a c u lt y o f the S c h o o l o f E d u c a t io n in p a r t i a l f u lf illm e ! n t o f the re q u ire m e n ts f o r the degree o f M a s t e r o f Science in E d u c a tio n . 1 ......... Guidance C om m ittee 0. R* Hull C hairm an M. M. Thompson Irving R. Melho TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I. PAGE PRESENTATION OF THE P R O B L E M ............. 1 The p r o b l e m .............. 1 Importance of the problem ............... 2 ........... 4 Delineation of the problem . Analysis of the problem II. ........ 5 Method of securing d a t a .......... 7 Organization of the remainder of the study . 9 A REVIEW OF RELATED INVESTIGATIONS....... The social studies laboratory 12 ............. Findings of the s t u d y ............... The social studies laboratory (continued) 12 13 . 15 A survey of equipment materials, and m e t h o d s .............. 15 The results of the s t u d y ............. Social studies equipment and materials A survey of equipment and materials . . . 16 ... Results of the s u r v e y ............... Laboratory methods in social sciences 16 16 17 ... 18 A comparison of the laboratory method ■with the recitation method ................. Results of the s t u d y .................. 18 18 Materials and methods for enriching the social studies ............................ 18 iii CHAPTER PAGE The social studies laboratory .......... . Results of the s t u d y ..................... Summary III. 19 . . ....................... 19 THE AMOUNT AND TYPE OFCLASSROOM MATERIALS . . 21 Construction materials .............. The use of the texts and dictionary IV. 18 21 . . . . 25 The use of maps and g l o b e s ................. 29 S u m m a r y ........................... 50 THE FURNISHING OF THE SOCIAL STUDIES CLASS ROOM ........................................ 52 Desks and tables 52 .......... The adequacy of bulletin board and blackboard s p a c e ......................... 54 Filing cases, cabinets, and cupboards for t o o l s ................................ .. . S u m m a r y .......... V. 56 THE USE OF VISUAL AID M A T E R I A L S ............. Motion picture projectors 5^ 58 ................. 59 Sources of obtaining films ................. 40 Difficulties in the way of greater.use of. f i l m s ................................... 45 The administration of f i l m s ............... 45 Use of the slide p r o j e c t o r ................. 44 Mounted picture collections and travel iv CHAPTER PAGE f o l d e r s ........................... Summary VI. 45 . . . . ..................... 46 THE SOCIAL STUDIES TEACHER IN RELATION TO THE USE OF MATERIALS ................... . . Major and minor s u b j e c t s ............ 48 48 Experience of the social studies teacher . 49 Classes taught in addition to social s t u d i e s ........................... 51 Permanent social studies classrooms . . . 5^ Comparison of the more experienced teacher with the less e x p e r i e n c e d ......... . Summary VII. . 5^ .............................. 55 THE USE OF AUDIO AIDS AND THE USE OF THE LIBRARY IN RELATION TO THE SOCIAL STUDIES PROGRAM AND REASONS FOR LACK OF SOCIAL STUDIES M A T E R I A L S .......... 58 Use of the radio and radio program . . . . 58 Use of the p h o n o g r a p h ............... 59 Talks by e x p e r t s ..................... 60 Use of the library . ................... 60 Reasons for lack of social studies VIII. m a t e r i a l s .......................... 6l S u m m a r y .............................. 62 SUMMARY AND R E C O M M E N D A T I O N S ........... 64 V CHAPTER PAGE S u m m a r y ................................. 64 Recommendations......................... 67 B I B L I O G R A P H Y .......... • APPENDIX .......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 77 L IS T OF TABLES* TABLE I. PAGE Availability and Use of Construction Materials, Maps, and Globes II. III. IV. V. A List of Magazines in Use in the Schools VII. 24 .. . Use of Seating E q u i p m e n t ................. 26 35 Motion Picture and Slide Equipment . . . . . . 4l Percentage of College Majors and Minors of Social Studies Teachers VI. ............... ................... Teaching Experience in Social Studies 50 . . . . 52 Number of Daily Classroom Periods Devoted to the Social Studies Reported by Fiftynine T e a c h e r s .......................... VIII. 55 Comparative Use of Equipment for Teachers of Greater and Lesser Experience ........... 56 * All tables refer to the present investigation in Orange County, California. CHAPTER I PRESENTATION OF THE PROBLEM Authorities at the present time are constantly urging school people to enrich and vitalize the social studies curriculum hy the use of a variety of teaching aids and materials. The situation, they say, can be made real and purposeful by a wide and varied use of these devices.' Bagley and Alexander in The Teacher of the Social Studies make the following statement, ’’Progressiveness among superior teachers is revealed by the introduction into the classroom of a great variety of current materials. I. THE PROBLEM It was the purpose of this study to make a survey of the social studies equipment and materials in the schools of Orange County, California, in order to evaluate the ade quacy of available materials and to determine standards for desirable minimum equipment for Orange County in line with the current objectives for instruction in the social studies. This purpose was subdivided as follows: 1. The determination of the constituents for a ^ William Bagley and Thomas Alexander, The Teacher of the Social Studies (New York: Charles Scribner!s Sons, 193777 P- 4B. satisfactory minimum amount of equipment and, materials. 2. The determination of the need for the establish ment of centers, of materials. 3. The determination of responsibility for the care and manipulation of instructional materials. Importance of the problem. Recent educational phil osophy and psychology emphasize the importance of the school providing an environment which will encourage creative and self-expressive activity through which pupils may acquire information and skills while giving expression to ideas and emotions. While leaders in education keenly realize these facts, there Is yet practically no agreement as to the kind and quantity of teaching aids necessary for effective teach ing aids; consequently, the administrator is without profes sional guidance in making provisions for the teaching of these subjects. This condition pertains to the situation in Orange County as well as other localities throughout the United States. Practices indicate that there Is a definite need for uniformity in space to be utilized and kind and quantity of equipment to be provided. In the physical sciences there are clearly defined standards of equipment to be used. For example, if a new diemistry laboratory were to be erected, the builders would know exactly how to equip It. Such Is not the case with 3 provision for social studies. Uniformity does not exist throughout the country and is seldom found in different schools of the same local system. The subjects within the social studies curriculum are usually taught in regular classrooms or in rooms equipped for some other subject. In many instances they are taught by teachers whose major in terest is in some subject field other than that of social studies. In a large percentage of the schools social studies teachers occupy different rooms at different periods throughout the day.2 The investigator for this study sub scribes to the opinion that development of reasonably uni form standards with regard to space requirements and the kind and quantity of equipment for teaching aids in the field of social studies would do much to remedy unsatisfac tory conditions.3 It was also hoped that through this investigation some of the following purposes would be accomplished: 1. That teachers and administrators would realize the materials constituting desirable social studies equip ment; 2. That teachers and administrators would gain a 2 J. W. Baldwin, The Social Studies Laboratory (New York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 1929 )> P« 3* 2 Ibid., p. 4. 4 knowledge of the sources of supplies available for the teaching of social studies, thereby enabling them to secure the necessary materials for the most effective teaching of this study; 3. That superintendents and principals would realize that it is their job to provide adequate materials for in struction; and 4. That a broader experience for pupils will be realized through the greater use of these materials and that interest and participation in rich group living, appro priate to their ages and abilities, will result. Delineation of the problem. In recent years there has been an increased emphasis upon social studies. Social studies has grown from an abstract, theoretical, textbook subject into a study requiring a maximum amount of student activity and demanding equipment to make the presentation effective. Yet in spite of this development, many teachers remain unaware' of the equipment necessary or available for a good social studies program. The problem in Orange County is not unlike that found throughout the nation. Orange County consists of approximately forty-two elementary school districts, each supporting elementary schools. In addition to this number there are three junior high schools. The standards for social studies equipment 5 is as widely divergent here as anywhere. This fact is accounted for in part by the variance in financial condi tions throughout the school districts. Some districts are able to afford the best of materials yet fail to benefit from them because of lack of understanding of their possi bilities as aids to good teaching. Other districts simply cannot afford the modern supplies and equipment. Many teachers and administrators throughout the country seem to lack a consciousness of the elements consti tuting social studies material; and, consequently, overlook opportunities to have sound programs. However, the chief detriment to success in carrying out an adequate program is the lack of materials.^ In some cases, if the indivi dual school lacks social studies equipment, adequate equip ment may be obtained from other sources, such as the county office or a visual aid center. Orange County. Such is not the case in Orange County lacks these supplementary sources, and in many instances teachers are not aware of the sources that are obtainable. Analysis of the problem. No previous study of this type has been made of Orange County. The forty-two eleman- tary districts present a varied financial situation, and ^ Herbert B. Bruner and Mabel C. Smith, Social Studies in the Intermediate Grades (New York: Charles E. Merrill and Company, l93b), PP* 3-4. 6 opportunities vary according to specific localities.. Some districts have a great deal of money, while others have very little. For example, Huntington Beach, with approxi-, mately 700 pupils, has $24,000,000 assessed valuation. Oh the other hand, Buena Park, with 500 students has an assessed valuation of $2,500,000. Thus one of the major difficulties in the way of a comparison of equipment between the districts is this variation in the ability to afford necessary equipment. Even if the poorer districts become aware of the lack of equipment, little can be done to remedy the. situation. However, the wealthier districts may become conscious of their inadequacies and remedy them. Be cause of the peculiar situation within the county studied, interests has been focused upon adequacy of materials rather than upon amount, the chief concern being whether the space is sufficient for all needs. Also because of this local situation the present study has been divided into three parts. The first is a presentation of the current set-up in Orange County. The second is a comparison of the data or practices in Orange County with the findings from accepted standard authorities on the subject. And the third is a formulation of a schedule or list of desirable minimum equipment. Under the first division of the subject the fol lowing questions were asked: 1. What are the standard recommended materials 7 (films, projectors, radios, phonographs, maps, supplies, books, desks, blackboards, bulletin boards)? 2. How and by whom are- these materials administered? 3. What are the sources of materials and how and where can they be obtained? This survey was made only to determine the aids and materials which are in use or are available and to formulate a list of essential aids to social studies teaching coupled with the administration of the same. No attempt was made to measure the skill with which the teacher uses the tools at her disposal. In connection with this investigation of equipment and activity, it should be remembered that activity should not over-shadow the learning and awareness of certain skills , although it should be recognized that activities provide opportunity for the development of many skills, which in turn are necessary to effective work in social studies. II. METHOD OF’SECURING DATA Many of the most recent publications on social studies were investigated in order to determine what materi als are necessary to a good social studies program. This method was useful in serving as a check list of the essen tial materials which were formulated as two sets of question naires, designed to secure information regarding the second and third item mentioned in the divisions of the subject. These questionnaire check lists were used as the basis for determining the adequacy of the equipment provisions in Orange County for social studies. The extent to which Orange County practice meets the check list provisions is shown in the following chapters of this study. Ample provision was made for recording all types of social studies materials submitted in the replies to the questionnaire. The questions were also formulated so as to determine whether the teacher considered her material ade quate. One questionnaire was sent to the department head or principal(since most of the Orange County schools do not have department heads). The other questionnaire was sent to the social studies teacher. Both questionnaires con tained similar questions, except that the questionnaire to the department head or social studies teacher was more con cerned with the administration of the materials. A copy of each questionnaire has been included in the Appendix at the end of this study. The questionnaires were first sent to each elemen tary school; but, as they were returned rather slowly, it became necessary to make a personal visit to many of the schools. This proved to be very worth while since many points were clarified during discussion. In cases where the information was not at hand at the moment, the question naire and an addressed, stamped envelope were left at the school. The replies were forwarded to the investigator as soon as all the facts were available. The result of this procedure was that excess of 80 per cent replies were re ceived. Two questions were discussed and reported, upon which are not vitally related to the social studies materials. One was concerned with the background of the teacher and the other was an inquiry regarding the make and type of motion picture projector in use in the schools. These two questions were somewhat intangible and difficult to tabulate. Never theless, it was hoped that they would prove of value to some administrator. The first, it was thought, would be helpful in selecting teachers. The second, it was believed, might aid in the selection of desirable projectors. III. ORGANIZATION OP THE REMAINDER OF THE STUDY In Chapter Two the various investigations which have been made are reviewed. A brief outline of each one is given and its conclusion enumerated. No attempt was made to evaluate each individual study, but at the conclusion of Chapter Two an evaluation of the entire group of similar studies was made. This review was made for a twofold pur pose: first, to acquaint the reader with aims and trends in this field; second, to provide the investigator with a basis 10 for comparison for his findings. In Chapter Three the materials of the social studies classroom are dealt with. The plan is to consider actual unattached material such as books, magazines, paper, con struction materials, and so forth. In Chapter Four the furnishings of the social studies classroom are dealt with. The furnishings discussed herein consist mostly of desks, bulletin boards, and tables. These were evaluated and compared with the desired equipment according to practice and authority. In Chapter Five the visual aid materials in use in the classroom as listed In the questionnaire are discussed. The tabulation of the material used and the reasons for not using certain equipment were found to be helpful in analyz ing the data in this study. In Chapter Six the teacher of social studies is dis cussed. A listing of her experience was made. A tabulation of the number of classes she teaches other than social studies is of interest, while a report on the teacher’s major and minor subjects taken in college should throw some light on the subject of whether social studies teachers are teaching In their major field. In Chapter Seven the amount of such equipment as the audio aids Is determined. Use of the library and facilities is discussed and report is made on reasons for the lack of XI social studies equipment. The reasons are those given by- teachers and administrators in Orange County, also reasons apparent from the study of existing conditions. In Chapter Eight a summary is made of the entire in vestigation -with a comparison of best practice as suggested by other studies and by authorities on the subject. Recom mendations are made according to comparisons with other prac tices and opinions of authorities and in accordance with what were believed to be minimum essentials and needs determined by the facts disclosed in the investigation. A Bibliography of sources consulted follows the final chapter. The Appendix, containing the questionnaires, is placed at the end of the study. CHAPTER I I A REVIEW OP RELATED INVESTIGATIONS The contents of this chapter are devoted to a sum marization of related studies in this field. found to he the same. No two were Many dealt with the equipment of social studies, hut no previous investigation has heen made of the geographical location concerned in the present study. I. In 1929 THE SOCIAL STUDIES LABORATORY W. Baldwin^ of Columbia University made an investigation of social studies laboratories in teacher training institutions which were recommended as being the most progressive. Baldwinfs study was selected for review because it was the only investigation of social studies equipment, in so far as the writer has been able to deter mine, made by a university professor. Baldwin*s study is also valuable because he attempts to determine what consti- , tutes a minimum of equipment, thus giving the writer a basis for comparison. A large section of Baldwin*s study also deals with the junior high school. Five hundred twenty-five blanks were mailed by Baldwin to supervisors and teachers in 5 J. W. Baldwin, The Social Studies Laboratory (New York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 1929)> 98 pp. 13 grades four to twelve; 3 ^ 9 usable replies were* received. In addition he visited thirty-nine schools in order to make a first-hand study. tionnaires. Thus he received 388 replies to the ques Prom these he made a tabulation from which to base his conclusions and recommendations. Findings of the study. The following condensed con clusions relative to the social studies laboratory were formulated by Baldwin. 1. In the intermediate grades or in the junior high school the same room or laboratory should serve all the social studies. 2. as: The activities housed by the laboratory are such (a) drawing of maps, graphs, and charts; (b) construc tion of models, relief maps, replicas; (c) consulting refer ence books, maps, periodicals, dictionaries, and atlases; (d) arranging exhibits of pictures, clippings, charts, sta tistics, cartoons, drawings, models, relics, et cetera; (e) making note books, scrap books, and various kinds of group activities; (f) carrying on club work and various kinds of group activities; (g) indexing and filing collections of pictures, and clippings; (h) reciting in a group or groups and holding individual conferences with the teacher. 3. The materials that are most often mentioned in these sources as being a part of the equipment for the 14 social studies room are: boards, (a) black boards, (c) bookcases,.(d) filing eases, (b) bulletin (e). cupboards, (f) map cases, (g) map rails, (h) land tables, ence books, reading, (j) newspapers, (k) periodicals, (m) maps, atlases, and globes, other visual aids, (i) refer (l) collateral (n) pictures and (o) projection lantern, (p) supplies for drawing, modeling, mounting, construction, et cetera, (q) general miscellaneous museum exhibits, and articles of minor importance. 4. The laboratory method should be employed in the teaching of the social studies whenever this is possible even though the workroom may not be available. 5* The social studies room should have an area in floor space at least one and one-half times that of the classrooms that do not require the use of laboratory equip ment and do not provide for laboratory activities. The laboratories should be equipped with tables and chairs rather than desks and the tables should be large enough to accommodate either two or four pupils at one time. Fifty per cent of the workrooms now in use are equipped with such tables. 6. The majority of even the most progressive schools are poorly equipped for teaching the social studies. 7* Much of the money spent for equipment for the social studies in the junior high school is invested un- 15 wisely. 8. Half of the social studies teachers in the junior high school make very little use of the community as a laboratory. 9. Half of the teachers in the junior high school do not make much use of the materials that may be had without cost. 10. At least one room in every social studies depart ment in junior high schools should be equipped so as to provide for construction, first-hand investigation, and problem-solving activities.^ II. THE SOCIAL STUDIES LABORATORY (CONTINUED) A survey of equipment materials, and methods. In 1934 Long wrote a thesis at the University of Southern Cali fornia on the social studies laboratory.? An investigation of the social studies equipment in the junior and senior high schools of California was made. Long was reviewed be cause she has a study which closely parallels the investiga tion being made in this study. Two hundred questionnaires were sent out by Long to teachers of California. Returns 6 Baldwin, loc. cit. ? Katherine Long, nThe Social Studies Laboratory,n (unpublished Master!s thesis, University of Southern Cali fornia, Los Angeles, 193^)> 110 pp. 16 were received from l6l teachers. Of this number, fifty- eight were from junior high schools. The results of the study. Long found that 50 per cent of the teachers in the social studies field considered a laboratory or workroom necessary for attaining the best results in teaching. At the same time it was found that less than 10 per cent of the high school buildings in Cali fornia were provided with social studies laboratories. More than one half of the high schools lacked the necessary equip ment. Two thirds of the social studies classrooms had the fixed desk type of seating arrangement. Many pupils lacked supplementary text and reference books. Most teachers of social studies majored in social sciences while.in college. The average social studies teacher had had approximately six years1 experience. III. SOCIAL STUDIES EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS A survey of equipment and materials. In 1950 Wiechmaii made a survey of equipment and materials used in junior high schools of Los Angeles.8 Wiechman!s survey resembles very much the present investigation, the study being made in Los ^ Janet Wiechman, "A Survey of Equipment and Materials Used in the Social Studies Departments of the Los Angeles Junior High Schools” (unpublished Master!s thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1950), 75 PP- 17 Angeles. In making this study Wiechman sent questionnaires to all chairmen and teachers of social studies in Lbs Angeles junior high schools. Replies were received from thirty chairmen and 203 teachers. Results of the survey. From the questionnaires the following conclusions were recorded. They are given In condensed form here. 1. The social studies classroom should he somewhat larger than the standard classroom. 2. Narrow tables and chairs are recommended for seating. 3. An entire side of the room is not too much to give to bulletin board space. 4. Social studies classrooms are not equipped ade quately for activity or laboratory methods. 5. Facilities for visual education are inadequate. 6. The majority of social studies teachers teach no other subject. 7* The training of the majority of social studies teachers has been recent; 63 per cent have taught no more than seven years. 8. Social studies classrooms should be centralized in one part of the building.9 9 Wiechman, loc. cit. 18 IV. LABORATORY METHODS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES A comparison of the laboratory method with the recita tion method. Using a different type of procedure, Slagle in 1928 compared the two methods in a thesis presented to the University of Southern California.10 Her procedure was to instruct two groups by both the recitation and the labora- - tory method of study.Each group was given instruction by each method for seven weeks. Results of the study. Briefly, her results were summarized as follows: the laboratory method is slightly superior to the recitation method; the students prefer laboratory activities; students believe that they learn more by laboratory methods; and as the differences are small, it is unsafe to make a positive statement of superiority. V. MATERIALS AND METHODS FOR ENRICHING THE SOCIAL STUDIES The social studies laboratory. In 1929 Dixon made a study of the materials and methods for enriching the L. M. Slagle, ^Relative Value of Recitations and Laboratory Activities in Social Science,” (unpublished MasterTs thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1928), p. 46. 19 social studies curriculum.H Data for this study were col lected by the personal interview method. In her study Dixon devoted a major portion of her survey to the literature to be used in the. social studies field. With this plan in mind she prepared an extensive bibliography of books in the social studies field and compared her results with the literature in the field. Results of the study. were interviewed. Teachers from fifteen states It was found that they were strongly in .favor of the laboratory method. At the conclusion of her study a list of materials that make social studies more real were to be found. Among them are books, maps, visual aids, newspapers and periodicals, and construction materials. Her bibliography of reference books for social studies books for children was very extensive and might be used by a laboratory-type classroom. VI. SUMMARY Throughout the preceding pages the investigator has reviewed similar studies in the social studies field. No attempt has been made to evaluate each study separately. ^ Maude Dixon, "Materials and Methods for Enriching the Social Studies in the Junior High School for Acceler ated Groups,” (unpublished Masterfs thesis, University of Southern California, 1929) » 204 pp. Each differed from the other in some respect, and it was felt that this review of related studies was valuable in aiding the investigator to formulate questionnaire check lists that served as a basis on which.to compare the Orange County situation. This review was also worth while in giv ing the reader a picture of what had been done previously in the field. CHAPTER I I I THE AMOUNT AND TYPE OP CLASSROOM MATERIALS This chapter-includes carefully tabulated items of the results of the present study of classroom materials. The purpose was to determine the materials of the social studies classroom in Orange County. According to litera ture and investigations the use of the social studies materials mentioned here provides a better learning situa tion , greater interest on the part of the student, and en riched understanding. Teachers are constantly being ex horted to use these materials and methods, yet these things cannot be attained without adequate facilities. I. CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS Horn states that availability of instructional material is one of the most important items to be consid ered before making any changes in curriculum.12 Rugg also states that, 11After ten years in reorganizing the junior high school courses, it is perfectly apparent that the most immediate need is for curriculum materials properly adapted 12 Ernest Horn,Methods of Instruction in the Social Studies (New York: C. Scribner's Sons, 1957), p« 265- 22 to these grades . U In the Journal of Educational Research for January, 1937 > R» J* Feony gives a list of the materials which he considers necessary for a social studies labora tory. Other books re-emphasized certain materials and added others to the lists with the result that a “list of minimum essential materials is possible. It has been stated that paste, scissors, cardboard, models, paper, and wood are some of the homely but useful features.^5 Tools and construction materials are always valuable In suggest ing activities. A tabulation of questionnaires sent to principals revealed that 100 per cent of schools reporting used draw ing materials, scissors, and crayons. used travel folders in their work. Eighty-eight per cent Cardboard for construc tion and graphs and charts was used by 85 per cent of the schools. al Soap, clay, or some other form of modeling materi was made use of by 7^ per cent. The item which was used 13 Harold Rugg, The Social Studies in the Elementary School (Bloomington, Illinois: Rational Society for the Study of Education, Twenty-second Yearbook, 1923 )j P» 185* R. J. Feony, ”Survey of Instructional Practices and Equipment Used in the Social Studies In Grades Six, Seven, and Eight in Selected Cities, in the Middle West," Journal of Educational Research, XXX (January, 1937 )> 348-56. 15 Maude Hamilton, MThe Teaching of Greek History,11 Social Education, V (March, 191*0, 81-86. ing Gordon, Melvin, The Technique of Progressive Teach (New York: The John Day Company, 1932), p. 9 6 . 23 the least was the sand table, only 43 per cent making use of it as most schools preferred to use it in the lower grades. Table I shows the available material for social studies activities and the percentage and number of schools using it. II. MAGAZINES IN USE Literature in the field favors use of the magazine in social studies classes. One writer has the following to say concerning periodical literature: Periodical literature, including magazines and newspapers, has been accorded an increasingly prom inent place in recent years in the teaching of social studies. This literature is a valuable source of knowledge and thought about present and past times; for the present age, like the ages that have gone b e fore, writes itself down in its newspapers and maga zines. Much of this periodical literature, however, is disturbingly low in quality.17 Prom the sixty teachers reporting, it was found that forty-five different magazines were in use or available for the social studies classroom. The National Geographic was found to be the most popular, being the choice of thirtytwo or 53 per cent of the teachers. Other publications which received large percentages were the Current Events, reported by 36.6 per cent of the teachers, and Header1s Digest, listed by 20 per cent. ^ This differs somewhat from Ernest Horn, ojd. cit., p. 234. 24 TABLE I AVAILABILITY AND USE OF THE CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS, MAPS, AND GLOBES IN ORANGE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Item Schools using Per cent Cardboard 30 85 Carving materials 26 74 Graphs 30 85 Drawing materials 35 100 Sand table 15 43 Scissors 35 100 Crayons 35 100 Travel folders 31 88 Maps Political Physical Historical Desk 26 26 11 10 75 75 32 29 Globes 29 80 Atlases 17 49 comparative surveys which as a rule show the Literary Digest to be the most widely used. Wiechman found only sixteen different magazines in use. Current Events and Literary Digest were used by 60 per cent in her s t u d y . ^ Of the 11junior” magazines, that is, publications prepared espe cially for the junior audience, the following were listed: Current Events, Every Week, Young America, Junior Scholas tic, Junior Review, and Weekly Reader. Events was used by 36.6 per cent. Of these Current Every Week was next with 21.6 per cent, followed by Young America with 18 per cent. Eleven per cent of the teachers reported that they did not use any magazines at all. Magazines used and the number of teachers reporting them are shown in Table II. III. USE OF THE TEXTS AND DICTIONARY Textbooks originated at a time in American education when teachers were poorly trained and could do little more than read materials which they digested for their pupils. Today teachers are much better trained and should be able to outline their course from available sources of material. The textbook is not to be used as a course outlined or a Janet Wiechman, "Equipment and Materials Used in the Social Studies Departments of Los Angeles Junior High Schools," (unpublished Master1s thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1930), p. 27* 26 TABLE I I A LIST OF MAGAZINES IN USE IN THE SCHOOLS OF ORANGE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Magazines Number of teachers reporting use Per cent Life 20 33 1/3 Time 11 18 National Geographic 32 53 Reader’s Digest 12 20 Instructor 2 3 Travel 8 13 School Arts 3: 5 Current Events 22 36 Every Week 13 22 Popular Mechanics 11 18 Young America 11 18 American Boy 3 5 American Girl 2 3 Art 1 2 Nature Magazine 7 12 4 H Horizon 1 2 Open Road for Boys 1 2 Boy* s Life 3 5 Building America 3 5 Junior Scholastic 9 15 27 TABLE II (continued) A LIST OP MAGAZINES IN USE IN THE SCHOOLS OF ORANGE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Magazines Number of teachers reporting use Per cent News Week 6 10 Consumerfs Guide 1 2 Popular Science 6 10 Farm Journal 1 2 Junior Red Cross 2 3 Junior Review 8 13 Weekly Reader 3 5 Fortune 2 3 Scholastic 3 5 Our Times 7 12 Home Craft 2 3 Story Parade 1 2 Westways 1 2 Popular Aviation 1 2 Nation 2 3 Outdoor Life 1 2 Asia 2 3 Current History 3 3 Harper*s 1 2 Congressional Digest 1 2 Classroom Teacher 1 2 Pathfinder 1 2 State Science Bulletin 1 2 California History Nugget 2 3 Children*s Activities 1 2 28 crutch, but as a tool.^9 It Is, therefore, most useable, but it is not to be followed slavishly. Wilgus states that classrooms should be furnished with two texts.20 One author suggests that each room should be provided with an encyclo pedia and a dictionary.21 Replies indicated that the basic text was used in 55 per cent of the classrooms. Slightly more than 25 per cent of the classrooms did not have the basic text available, while 21 per cent did not reply. Obviously, this was due to a failure to understand the term, f,basic text." In 58 per cent of the classrooms an Individual dic tionary for each pupil was supplied. Thirty-eight per cent did not have an Individual copy, while 5 per cent failed to reply. In use In 47 per cent of the classrooms was one large dictionary to each classroom. Forty per cent did not have one on hand, and 15 per cent failed to reply for no obvious reason. Twenty-eight per cent of the schools re ported that they had neither an Individual copy of the dic tionary for each student nor a large one for each room. 19 Otis -Amis, Dynamic Education (Chicago: The Quarrie Corporation, 1940), p. 56* 20 A. C. Wilgus, "Laboratory Methods in the Teaching of Social Studies,” Historical Outlook, XXIII (January, 1951), 25. 2-*- Robert Kutak, "The Ideal Social Studies Classroom,” pp. 554-56, Fourth Yearbook of the Department of Superin tendents (Washington, D. C.: Office of EducatIon, 1926), 520 pp. 29 This condition, of course, should he remedied as some means of identifying new words as well as practice in dictionary use should he available to all pupils. IV. THE USE OF MAPS AND GLOBES Rugg strongly favors the use of maps as shown hy his statement, Each topic and sub-topic of the course shall be illustrated by detailed episodes, and by a wealth of maps, graphs, and pictorial material far in excess of the present use of them.22 Literature favors the use of the desk outline map. Such outline maps are especially valuable in testing either directly for knowledge of facts or by incorporating such graphical exposition In a composition or d i s c u s s i o n . 2 ^ Also on behalf of the desk outline maps, another writer states that they offer another desirable opportunity for pupil activity. Several different types of maps were considered. It was discovered that 75 P©* cent of the principals reported the use of the political wall map. Seventy-five per cent 22 Harold Rugg, op. cit., p. 188. 2^ Otis Amis, op. cit., p. 24. 2^ J. W. Baldwin, The Social Studies Laboratory (Hew York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 1929)> p. 48. 50 used the physical map. Historical maps were used in only 32 per cent of the departments. Greater use could have been made of the desk map as only 29 per cent took advantage of this inexpensive aid. of the globe. Eighty per cent reported the use Nearly k 9 per cent had an atlas in the de partment . V. . 1. SUMMARY Nearly 100 per cent of those reporting indicated the use of various construction supplies such as drawing; materials, scissors, and crayons. used travel folders. for construction. cent. Eighty-eight per cent Eighty-five per cent used cardboard Modeling materials are used by 7^ per Forty-three per cent use the sand table. 2. in use. Forty-three different magazines were found to be The most widely used was the National Geographic. It was used by 55 per cent of the schools. A considerable number of magazines on current events and current history were in evidence. 3* The basic text is available in but 55 per cent of the classes. k. An individual copy of the dictionary is sup plied in 53 per cent of the classrooms. 5wall map. Seventy-five per cent reported the use of the The globe was used by 80 per cent; atlases and 31 desk maps were used by 49 and 29 per cent, respectively. 6. The basic text should be made available to more classes, for while getting away from text book teaching is advocated, many suggest the text as an outline and as a guide. 7. Care should be maintained in the selection of magazines. 8. Greater supplies of dictionaries are needed, desk maps could be more widely used, and atlases would be an aid to teaching if provided in larger quantities. 9‘ The sand table could be more widely used in the seventh and eighth grades. CHAPTER IV THE FURNISHING OF THE SOCIAL STUDIES CLASSROOM An attempt to determine the furnishings of the classroom is reported in this chapter. It was necessary to determine the adequacy of the present furnishing. This was done by comparison with standards set by authority and by inquiry as to whether the person reporting deemed the equipment to be adequate. In this chapter the attempt was made to determine the answers to the following points: 1. What type seating is most frequently in use? 2. Does the classroom have sufficient bulletin board space? 3. Does the classroom have sufficient blackboard 4. Are classrooms equipped with cabinets, filing space? cases, and cupboards? I. DESKS AND TABLES A tabulation of findings showed that 33 per cent of teachers reported that they had immovable desks in their classrooms. This, of course, is in direct contrast to the recommendations of authorities. Most authorities contend that a social studies classroom, in order to teach the 33 progressive laboratory type of instruction, should be equipped with tables or moveable desks. The tables are preferred. J. W. Baldwin in reporting his visit in 1926 to the Citizenship Laboratory in the Horace Mann School at Teachers College, Columbia University, described the laboratory as follows: It consisted of a large room equipped with tables and chairs instead of desks, much of the space which formerly had been occupied by blackboard was being utilized for bulletin board and display space--there were a few good pictures--drawers and storage space for materials.25 As far back as 1921 the table was advocated for social studies rooms. Wilgus says thab "the desk is merely a wooden table with several drawers in I t . "26 Orange County data show, however, that 45 per cent of the class rooms are furnished with moveable desks, usually screwed in groups to runners. Five per cent reported the use of tables and chairs, while only 5 per cent indicated the presence of work benches. Of sixty teachers reporting, only one classroom was equipped exclusively with tables. ^ J. W. Baldwin, The Social Studies Laboratory (New York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 1929)> PP« 8 -9 . ^ A. C. Wilgus,"Laboratory Methods In the Teaching of Social Studies,” Historical Outlook, XII (January, 1921), 25. 54 This classroom also had work benches available. er reported both moveable desks and work benches. One teach Three reported moveable desks together with tables, and three reported the use of immoveable desks with tables. The kind of seating equipment and the number and percentage used are shown in Table III. II. THE ADEQUACY OF BULLETIN BOARD AND BLACKBOARD SPACE Each teacher was asked to reply whether he had suffi cient blackboard and bulletin board space. Nearly 97 per cent reported that their blackboard space was adequatew One teacher or about 1^ per cent reported that blackboard space was adequate. One teacher failed to reply. In the matter of bulletin board space slightly more than 83 p e r cent reported that they had adequate space for all purposes. Slightly more than 1 3 per cent indicated a lack of bulletin board space. Of the sixty teachers reply ing to this question one failed to state and one replied that she did not know. The above variations in practice and in needs might well be attributed to a tendency to use more paper work and written materials in these classes. III. FILING CASES, CABINETS, AND CUPBOARDS FOR TOOLS In the opinion of Melvin considerable space will be 55 TABLE III IJSE OF SEATING EQUIPMENT Equipment Number Per cent Immovable desks 52 55 Movable desks 27 45 Tables 7 11 Movable desks and tables 5 5 Immovable desks and tables 5 5 Work benches 2 5 Movable desks and work benches 1 1.5 Tables and work benches 1 1.5 36 taken up with, closets for storing materials.2? Considering the matter of these items a tabulation revealed that nearly 22 per cent of the classrooms were equipped with cabinets and filing cases. tools. Twenty-five per cent had cupboards for Further tabulation revealed that almost 42 per cent had access to both cabinets or filing cases and cupboards for tools. Slightly in excess of 11 per cent had none of these facilities at their disposal. IV. 1. able desks. SUMMARY Fifty-three per cent reported the use^of immove This situation could be improved by the use of tables and chairs or moveable desks, which would allow greater flexibility and a wider use of the activity program. 2. Only one classroom was reported as fully equip ped with tables. 3* Blackboard aind bulletin board space seemed adequate as 93 per cent of the schools reported adequacy of space. Bulletin board space was slightly less adequate than blackboard space. 4. Forty-two per cent of the rooms were equipped with filing cases and cupboards. A very small percentage 2? Gordon Melvin, The Technique of Progressive Teach ing (New York: The John Day Company, 1932), p. 92. was without either of these facilities. 5. The furnishings of the social studies rooms in Orange County are generally adequate with the important ex ception that 53 per cent of the schools do not have move able desks or tables. 6. The furnishings in these classrooms should be brought up to date by the provision of tables instead of fixed desks. Whenever new seatings are purchased, they should be in the form of tables and chairs until at least the social studies classrooms are equipped with this kind of furnishing. CHAPTER V THE USE OF VISUAL AID MATERIALS In this chapter there has been an attempt to make the reader familiar with the possibilities of visual aids and to ascertain the adequacy of visual materials in Orange County. Findings are grouped under several headings as follows: 1. Does the school have access to a motion picture projector or slide projector? 2. If so, what size and make is it? 5. How are films exhibited? 4. Where are films obtained? 5- Are collections of mounted 6. What are the difficulties in the way of greater pictures kepton hand? use of visual materials? Investigations indicate that instruction is improved to a significant degree by the addition of motion pictures to the instructional media--they have the unique advantage of continuity and movement.2° Visual aids are more neces sary if the immediate environment is limited and specializ ed. Pupils of less than average ability are said to benefit pH Ernest Horn, Methods of Instruction in the Social Studies (New York: C. Scribner*s Sons, 1937 )> 3 7 2 PP* 39 especially. For these reasons visual aids must be regarded as basic rather than merely as means of enrichment.^9 At present the silent motion picture is used exten sively in social studies instruction. The sound picture is rapidly becoming more important with an increase in the number of projectors, a decrease in the cost and equipment, and attempts being made to prepare films especially for social-studies use. A good sound projector (Ampro, for example), can now be purchased for as little as $285* These prices range as high as $450 and $500 (Bell and Howell). Prices are rather reasonable and the projector can be easily transported. Films especially for classroom use are being produced. Films produced by the Erpi Company are excellent. for approximately $40. that price. They sell Castle produced films for about half Other concerns are now commencing to produce classroom films. The writer will testify to the excellency of the Erpi films, having seen many of them. I. MOTION PICTURE PROJECTORS Each social studies department shall maintain sound and silent projectors, slide machines, plugs for each room, and inexpensive material for darkening.30 Of the schools 29 Ibid., p. 572. 3° J. A. Baldwin, The Social Studies Laboratory (New York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 1929"), P * 77* 40 reporting, 71*4 per cent had some type of motion picture projector. Twenty-eight and six-tenths per cent had no pro jectors at all. A check up on schools with projectors re vealed that 76 per cent of the projectors were of the silent type, while 24 per cent of the schools possessed the newer sound projectors. Twelve per cent reported having both sound and silent projectors. All schools having projectors reported the use of 16 m.m. size. An inquiry as to the make of projector was made for the purpose of assisting future purchasers of projectors. Six makes of projectors were reported. They were the Ampro, Bell and Howell, Victor, De Vry, Keystone, and Apex. The Victor proved to be the most widely used, and was reported "by 36 per cent of the schools owning projectors. Bell and Howell projectors were used by 24 per cent, and 20 per cent used the Ampro projector. Further comparison of the differ ent makes of projectors can be found in Table I V . . II. SOURCES OF OBTAINING FILMS Films might be obtained from three possible sources— the county library, free films from advertising concerns, and by rental. Very few films were obtained from the Orange County Library, indicating that films from this source are very inadequate, consisting mainly of slides. Only 5*9 pei* cent of the schools obtained films from this source. The 41 TABLE IV MOTION PICTURE AND SLIDE EQUIPMENT Equipment Size or number owned Schools reporting 16 m.m. 9 36 16 m.m. 6 24 Ampro 16 m.m. 5 20 De Vry 16 m.m. 2 8 Keystone 16 m.m. 1 4 Apex 16 m.m. 1 4 Projectors none Victor Bell and Howell 15 Per cent 49 1 12 59 2 5 10 5 1 3 42 remainder of the schools usually rented films or obtained them free from commercial concerns. Sixty-five per cent received their films in this manner. Each school was asked to report places where films might be obtained. The following sources were listed: 1. University of California, Berkeley, California 2. Bell and Howell Library, Los Angeles, California 3. California State Visual Education, Sacramento, California« 4. United States Department of Films, Washing ton, D.C. 5. Motion Picture Bureau of Y. M. C. A., 35 Turk Street, San Francisco, California 6. University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 7* Women's Christian Temperance Union 8. United States Bureau of Mines 9* Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce 10. Bureau of Power and Light 11. General Motors Corp. 12. Chrysler Motor Corp. 13* Associated Oil Company 14. Union Oil Company of California 15• General Electric Corporation 16. Dennis Film Libraries 43 III. DIFFICULTIES IN THE NAY OF GREATER USE OF FILMS Inadequate use of the visual aids would likely be due to three things; rooms not equipped for projection, lack of projectors, and lack of suitable films. Seventy-one and six-tenths per cent of the teachers reported that lack of suitable films hindered greater use. Forty-five per cent blamed lack of projectors, and 45 per cent said it was due to the fact that rooms were not equipped for projection. Thirty-three per cent of the teachers listed all three things as being the cause of their difficulties. Twenty-one and six-tenths per cent failed to report, indicating that their visual aids were sufficient and that no difficulties were in the way of greater use. Several teachers advanced other reasons; among these were; 1. Cost of films 2. Afraid to use the equipment for fear of damag ing the film and projector 3- Did not know how to operate the projector IV. THE ADMINISTRATION OF FILMS Information relative to the administration of films is rather scarce, and literature in the field concerning this item is lacking. In ¥iechman!s study it was found that 44 the usual practice in the presentation of motion pictures is to show them to a small group rather than to an auditorium group .3 1 Films might readily be shown in three ways: 1. To a single class 2. To classes combined 2. To assembly groups One school reported using all three methods while several used two of the suggested plans. films to individual classes. Nearly 22 per cent showed Twenty per cent showed them to classes combined, and 11 per cent showed social studies films to assembly groups. Over 25 per cent failed to reply to this question. V. USE OF THE SLIDE PROJECTOR Lantern slides must be given consideration in speak ing of visual material as in many ways they offer great flexibility in the classroom. In this study schools were found to be very poorly provided with slide projectors. was found that 51 per cent had no slide projectors. It Nearly 49 per cent had one or more slide projectors; 27 per cent had one projector only; 8.5 per cent had two; and the remain2.8 per cent reported three. '31 Janet Wi'echman, ^Equipment and Materials Used in the Social Studies Departments of the Los Angeles Junior High Schools,11 (unpublished M a s t e r ^ thesis, University of South ern California, Los Angeles, 1930), p. 22. 45 Slide projectors may be written upon, drawn upon, or lettered by the pupil; and are especially valuable in making v map enlargements. The child gains considerable satisfaction in seeing his work projected upon the screen. Lantern slides are well adapted to group work and class discussion. They are also good in introducing a unit.^2 VI. MOUNTED PICTURE COLLECTIONS AND TRAVEL FOLDERS Prints should be mounted and filed according to their place in temporary or permanent classifications. The prac tical collection for use in the classroom should be based on a centralized accumulation in the school. It has been almost wholly true that most collections are the results of the initiative of individual teachers so that often useful material is not available to other teachers in the same building or in neighboring schools. Individual teachers* collections should form the nucleus for the central collec tion since this material as a rule has been thoroughly tested. Eighty-three per cent of the teachers indicated that they had access to a collection of mounted pictures, and ^2 Charles Hoban, Visualizing the Curriculum (New York: The Cordon Company, 1937) > P- 193* 55 Ibid., p. 195. 46 17 per cent had no picture collections at all. However, It was reported that such pictures might he obtained from the Orange County Library. Among the most inexpensive yet valuable teaching aids are the travel folders which can be obtained free of charge. Results indicate that teachers are taking advantage of this source of material as 85 per cent reported their use in con trast to 15 per cent not using them. VII. 1. SUMMARY Seventy-one per cent of the schools had some type of projector. 2. Silent type comprised 76 per cent of all pro jectors. 3. The Victor projector was used by 36 per cent of all schools having projectors. 4. No definite distributive center for films was in evidence. 5. A List of sixteen free sources of films was 6. Lack of suitable films was the greatest hinder- found. ance to use of films. Other frequently listed reasons were lack of provisions for projections and lack of projections. 7* Methods of showing films were rather evenly divided with 23 per cent showing films to individual classes 47 and 20 per cent to combined classes* 8. Fifty-one per cent had no slide projectors. 9« Collections of mounted pictures were available to 83 per cent of the teachers. 10. some ways. Facilities for visual education were adequate in However, all schools should be equipped with motion picture projectors, preferably sound; and newly pur chased projectors should be of the sound type. A county- wide system of film distribution is badly needed. Such a system would eliminate one of the major sources of inadequacy in visual aids. projectors. More schools should be equipped with slide Each social studies room should have one slide projector available for u s e . All teachers and administra tors should become aware of sources of film material. CHAPTER V I THE SOCIAL STUDIES TEACHER IN RELATION TO THE USE OP MATERIALS In this chapter various findings concerning the social studies teacher are reported. In brief, the follow ing items are reported: 1. The major and minor subjects of the social studies teacher. 2. The experience of the social studies teacher. 3* The percentage of part and full time social studies teachers. I. THE MAJOR AND MINOR SUBJECTS Findings revealed that the largest percentage of the teachers are teaching the subject in which they had majored in college. Twenty per cent reported a major in history, while 16.6 per cent reported a major in social science. Com bining the two, as history is regarded as a social science, it is found that ^6.6 per cent majored in social science or social studies. The next most popular major was education, which was the choice of 15 per cent of those reporting. However, in teaching the seventh and eighth grades, education might well be a good major. Prom the sixty teachers answer ing the questionnaires, sixteen different majors were 49 reported. A listing of the various majors is given in Table V. The most frequently found minor of the social studies teachers was English, which was the choice of 26.6 per cent. History was next in popularity as 18.5 per cent listed it as their minor subject. II. EXPERIENCE OF THE SOCIAL STUDIES TEACHER Similar to other phases of this chapter this section derived its best comparisons from related investigations. Wiechman discovered that the median experience was from five to seven years,34 while Long reported that the average teacher has had approximately six years of teaching experi ence in the social studies field.35 A great variety of experience in the teaching of social studies was discovered. to twenty-three years. Experience ranged from one The largest single group of teachers had but two years* experience. In this group nine teachers or 15 per cent had taught social studies for three years, 34. Janet. Wiechman, ^Equipment and Materials Used in the Social Studies Department of Los Angeles Junior High Schools,11 (unpublished Master*s thesis, University of Southern Cali fornia, Los Angeles, 1920), p. 48. 35 Katherine Long, ,TThe Social Studies Laboratory,” (unpublished Master*s thesis, University of Southern Cali fornia, Los Angeles, 1924), p. 87* 50 TABLE V PERCENTAGE OF COLLEGE MAJORS AND MINORS OF SOCIAL STUDIES TEACHERS Major Education Per cent 15 Minor Per cent Education 5 3 Chemistry 1.6 Language English 8 English 26 Social Science 16 Science 3 History 20 Psychology 1.6 Home Economics 1.6 History 18 Physical Education 5 Economics 1.6 Economics 6 Music 6 Biology 3 Social Science 6 Languages 5 Sociology 1.6 Psychology 1.6 Political Science 6 Sociology 1.6 Art 1.6 Music 1.6 Literature 1.6 Mathematics 3 Geography 1.6 Speech 1.6 Architecture 1.6 51 while at the same time slightly more than 8 per cent had taught the subject for ten years. social studies for twelve years. Ten per cent had taught Eleven and six-tenths per cent had taught this subject for four years. The median number of years experience was found to be seven years. The number of teachers reporting one to twenty-three years1 experience are listed in Table VI. III. CLASSES TAUGHT IN ADDITION TO SOCIAL STUDIES One writer reports that 78.8 per cent of the social studies teachers investigated teach only social studies.36 Horn states that social studies teachers carry an especially heavy l o a d . 37 A tabulation revealed that only 26.6 per cent of the social studies teachers taught social studies exclusively. This figure would indicate that 75.4 per cent are part-time teachers of social studies. Thirty-one per cent of the teachers taught but one social studies class each day. Twenty-one per cent taught two social studies classes per day, and 18 per cent taught five classes each day. Table VII, page 539 shows the number and percentage of teachers devoting 56 Ibid., p. 1537 Ernest Horn, Methods of Instruction in the Social Studies (New York: C. Scribner1s Sons, 1957)> p. "7 8 . 52 TABLE VI TEACHING EXPERIENCE IN SOCIAL STUDIES Number of years 1 2 5 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Number of teachers 2 9 5 7 4 2 4 3 1 5 3 6 2 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 53 TABLE VII NUMBER OP DAILY CLASSROOM PERIODS DEVOTED TO THE SOCIAL STUDIES REPORTED BY FIFTY-NINE TEACHERS Periods Teachers Per cent 1 19 32 2 13 22 3 8 4 4 8 4 5 11 18 54 one to five periods daily to social studies. Twenty-four per cent reported that they taught four classes in addition to social studies. One teacher said that she taught ten additional classes. IV. PERMANENT SOCIAL STUDIES CLASSROOMS A similar study shows that the majority of social studies teachers use the same classroom throughout the day.^8 it vas found that 70 per cent of the teachers had a permanent social studies classroom for social studies. From the schools reporting it was found that 51-4 per cent did not use the departmental system in the seventh and eighth grades. However, this system was used by 45-7 per cent of the schools. One school reported the use of a partial departmental system. V. COMPARISON OF THE MORE EXPERIENCED TEACHER WITH THE LESS EXPERIENCED The investigator desired to determine whether the formal type of teaching was especially prevalent among the older teachers. The usual feeling is that more recent gradu ates are more inclined to teach the activity type of instruc tion. To arrive at some estimate three things were selected ^ Janet Wiechman, o£. cit., p. 45- 55 which might be a clue to the type of instruction. Classroom seating, cupboard for tools, and mounted pictures were used, as possible items indicative of a less formal program. Teach ers who had taught from one to ten years were compared with those whose experience ranged from ten years upward. Natur ally, there were fewer teachers who had worked more than ten years. It was found that while about one half of the younger teachers had moveable seating, only 55 per cent of the older teachers had this arrangement. On the matter of space for tools somewhat less than 65 per cent of the younger teachers had such conveniences, while 70 per cent of the older teach ers had storage for tools. Sixty-nine per cent of the young er group had collections of mounted pictures in contrast to 95 per cent of the older group. From these findings it was concluded that age and ex perience make little difference in the type of teaching, although the older teachers appeared to prefer a fixed seat ing arrangement. Table VIII shows the comparative use of equipment by teachers of greater and lesser experience. VI. 1. in social science. SUMMARY Thirty-six per cent of the teachers had majored As they were the largest number who had majored In one field, their number would reveal that the majority were employed in the subject of their choice. 56 TABLE VIII COMPARATIVE USE OP EQUIPMENT FOR TEACHERS OF GREATER AND LESSER EXPERIENCE One to ten years1 experience Ten years1 or more experience Yes No Yes No Moveable desks or tables and chairs 22 20 7 15 Cupboards and space for tools 25 15 14 6 Mounted picture collections 27 12 19 1 57 2. Twenty-six per cent of the teachers minored in English. 5. The median years of experience was found to he approximately seven years. 4. It was found that 26 per cent taught social studies exclusively. 5. Thirty-one per cent taught but one social studies class each day. This would indicate that most of their time was spent with other subjects. 6. Seventy per cent had the use of a permanent so cial studies classroom. 7. In the seventh and eighth grades 51 per cent did not use the departmental system. 8. Age and experience make little difference in whether teaching is formal or progressive. 9- Best results are most likely to be found if all teachers are employed in the field of their training. If it were possible more effective teaching would result from teachers who have only social studies classes. A permanent class for social studies will greatly improve the availa bility of materials. CHAPTER V I I THE USE OP AUDIO AIDS AND THE USE OF THE LIBRARY IN RELATION TO THE SOCIAL STUDIES PROGRAM AND REASONS FOR LACK OF SOCIAL STUDIES MATERIALS In this chapter the aim was to include a number of small but necessary items which have not yet been covered. First, a tabulation was kept of the uses of materials, such as the radio, phonograph, and speaker, as aids to the social studies program; second, an attempt was made to determine the usual practice in the use of the library; and third, a listing was made of the reasons for any lack of social studies materials that might be of value. I. USE OF THE RADIO AND THE RADIO PROGRAM With the appreciation of the growing importance of the radio as a social force has come an increasing interest in its potential use in education.59 its use is increasing at all levels from elementary school to c o l l e g e . T h e r e are many programs on the various commercial networks that may be listened to with interest and profit by students of the •50 ^ Ernest Horn, Methods of Instruction in the Social Studies (New York: C. Scribner*s Sons, 1937 )> P* 396T Ibid., p. 332. 59 social studies and much of what is contained in them may not be secured by any other m e a n s . ^ More than 7^ per cent of the schools reported avail able radios. Of these schools 8l per cent used radios for social studies, leaving a remainder of 19 per cent who failed to use the radio in spite of the fact that one was provided. The chief obstacle reported in the way of greater use of the radio was that the programs did not always come at the proper time for use by the social studies class. II. THE USE OP THE PHONOGRAPH The phonograph record has two advantages In its favor: it records and brings to the classroom the addresses, songs, and circumstances of past days; and it is readily integrated with class w o r k . Another writer makes this statement: 11A phonograph with records to play, a radio, and a wealth of books. Such things are called materials of impression. Thirty-one per cent of the schools had phonograph records on hand. At the same time but 25• 7 P©** cent made use of phonograph records for social studies. ^ Possibly, if Ibid., p. 332. 42 Ibid., p. 335^ Gordon Melvin, The Technique of Progressive Teaching (New York: John Day Company, 1952), p. 92. the matter was given careful consideration, a wide and valu able use could be made of the phonograph in vitalizing the social studies programs. III. TALKS BY EXPERTS Horn seems to feel that the speaker is superior to radio or phonograph because the speaker is more enlivening and affords opportunity for questions.^ One of the most stimulating means of introducing or livening a social studies subject is to secure an outside speaker, an expert on the subject who will come and present a talk before the class. It was found that nearly 43 per cent of the classes had used this aid to teaching during the year. IV. USE OP THE LIBRARY Both literature and comparative surveys are avail able regarding use of the library. It is recommended by one that at least twice as much use would be made of materi als if they were near at hand instead of in the general library. Rugg definitely encourages the practice of plac ing books in the c l a s s r o o m . R e l a t e d investigations state ^ Ernest Horn, o£. cit., p. 3^8. ^5 J. W. Baldwin, The Social Studies Laboratory (New York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 1929)> P* ^7* ^6 Harold Rugg, The Social Studies in the Elementary School (Bloomington, Illinois: National Society for the Study of Education, Twenty-second Yearbook, 1923 )> P* 262. 6l that in less than one half of the schools there is no defin ite library schedule.^7 Use of the library often becomes a great problem. In fact, the problem sometimes becomes so great that it is often a question as to whether it is advisable to use the library for social studies. are employed. Several practices in using the library The entire class might use it on a regular schedule, there might be occasional use by the class, or pupils could be sent individually to the library. Questionnaires reveal that 25*7 per cent of the schools prefer to send classes to the library on a regular schedule. Fourteen per cent have occasional use by the class, and 11.4 per cent send pupils to the library indi vidually. Many schools find it practical to use a combina tion of these systems. In 14 per cent of the schools it was found that the library was not used at all. These schools either did not have a library or they preferred to keep materials for the unit in the classroom. V. REASONS FOR LACK OF SOCIAL STUDIES MATERIALS Quite a variety of reasons were advanced for defi ciencies in social studies equipment. Forty-eight and five- ^7 Janet Wiechman, ^Equipment and Materials Used in the Social Studies Department of the Los Angeles Junior High S c h o o l s , ( u n p u b l i s h e d Master’s thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1930), p. 58* 62 tenths per cent of the schools said that lack of equipment was due to lack of funds. Thirty-four per cent stated they lacked equipment but gave no reasons for not having it. In adequate distributive centers were reported by 28.5 per cent. Fourteen per cent said that it was caused by insuffi cient time to use materials at hand, while 17 per cent said that it was due to failure of teachers to make use of avail able sources. Of course, some reported that their diffi culties were a combination of these reasons. Only 5*5 per cent said that they had no deficiency in social studies equipment. Other reasons given were as follows: 1. Misunderstandings with County Library. 2. Arrangement of building for radio use. 3* Booms improperly equipped for film projection. 4. Tradition. VI. 1. for use. 2. SUMMARY Three fourths of the schools had radio available Rot all schools having radios made use of them. About one third of the schools had phonographs, while only one fourth of the schools used the phonograph for social studies. 3. Almost one half of the schools reported that social studies classes had used talks by experts as a means of instruction. 63 4. One fourth of the schools sent pupils to the library on the basis of regular schedule for each class. Over one tenth sent the pupils to the library individually. Quite a number of schools preferred not to use the library for social studies, but to keep necessary references in the classroom. 5. Hearly one half of the schools maintained that the lack of social studies equipment was due to insufficient funds. This reason is difficult to remedy. zation could possibly remedy other factors. A little organi Several other reasons were given. 6. Audio aids in Orange County appear to be gen erally adequate except that greater use could be made of the phonograph as a means of varying the presentation. The same is true of the speaker obtained from outside the school, provided such persons are available. 7« While it is vitally necessary to maintain a good school library, the practice of bringing social studies reference books to the classroom should be encouraged. CHAPTER V I I I SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS I. SUMMARY There has been an attempt throughout this study to determine several points concerning social studies equipment. This attempt was focused mainly upon three aims, (l) to determine what constitutes a satisfactory minimum amount of equipment and materials; (2) to show the need for the establishment of centers of materials; (3) to establish responsibility for the provision, care, and manipulation of Instructional materials. With these points in mind the study has been summarized. 1. A review of the related studies proved valuable in forming a basis upon which to compare the situation in Orange County. 2. Nearly 100 per cent of those reporting indicated the use of various construction materials, such as scissors and crayons. struction. Eighty-five per cent used cardboard for con Modeling materials were used by 7^ per cent. Forty-three per cent used the sand table. . 3- A basic text was available in 55 per cent of the classes, 58 per cent of the classrooms were supplied with dictionaries, forty-three different magazines were used, the 65 most widely being the National Geographic which was used by 53 per cent of the schools. 4. Desk maps, atlases, wall maps, and globes were used by 29* 49 > 75* and 80 per cent respectively. 5» Only one classroom was reported as completely equipped with tables, 53 per cent reported the use of im moveable desks, 95 per cent reported blackboard and ade quate bulletin board space, bulletin board space being slightly less adequate than blackboard space. 6. Forty-two of the rooms were equipped with filing cases and cupboards, a very small percentage possessing neither. 7. Fifty-three per eent of the schools did not have moveable desks or tables. 8. About 20 per cent of the schools had no library. 9. Seventy-one per cent of the schools had some type of projector, the silent type comprising 76 per cent of the entire number. 10. A list of sixteen free sources of films was 11. Lack of suitable films was the greatest hinder- found. ance to greater use of films. Lack of provisions for pro jections and lack of projections were among the reasons given for the lack of films. One third of the schools listed each of the above reasons. 66 12. Films were shown to separate and combined classes. 13* Fifty-one per cent had no slide projectors. 14. Collections of mounted pictures were available to 83 p e r cent of the teachers. 15• Thirty-six per cent of the teachers had majored in social science; 26 per cent had minored in English. The median years of experience was found to be approximately seven years. Twenty-six per cent taught social studies ex clusively; 31 p e r cent taught only one social studies class each day. This would indicate that most of their time was spent with other subjects. Seventy per cent had the use of a permanent social studies classroom. Age and experience, it was discovered, made little difference in whether teach ing is formal or progressive. 16.In the seventh and eighth grade 51 P©** cent did not use the departmental system. 17• able. Not all of these made use of the radio, however. 18. while Three fourths of the schools had radios avail About one third of the schools had phonographs, one fourth used the phonograph for social studies. 19* Almost one half of the schools reported that social studies classes had used talks by experts as a means of instruction. 20. One fourth of the schools sent pupils to the library on the basis of regular schedule for each class. 67 Over one tenth sent pupils to the library individually. Quite a number of schools preferred not to use the library for social studies, but to keep necessary references in the classroom. 21. of Nearly one half of the schools claimed that lack funds was the cause of the scarcity of social studies equipment in their schools. Several other reasons were given. 22. to be Audio aids in Orange County adequate except appeared in general that greater usecould be made of the phonograph as a means for varying the presentation. The same is true of the speaker obtained from outside the school, provided such persons are available. II. 1. equipment. RECOMMENDATIONS There is definitely a need for more and better At least social studies classrooms should be equipped with tables and moveable chairs. should be brought up-to-date. Furnishings Whenever new seatings are purchased, they should be in the form of tables and chairs until at least the social studies classrooms are equipped with this kind of furnishing. 2. More sound machines could be used and teachers should learn how to operate projectors with which all schools should be provided, and which should be used by the social studies classes. 3* A film library should be established for the care and distribution of films. 4. Greater use should be made of the radio and phonograph as means for varying presentations. This is also true of speakers obtained from outside the school provided such persons are available. 5. More use of the library is recommended, and the practice of bringing social studies reference books to the classroom is encouraged. 6. Basic texts should be made available to more classes so that a general guide can be provided by this source. Also, more supplies of dictionaries should be pro vided, as well as other books and periodicals. 7* A permanent classroom for social studies classes would greatly improve the availability of materials. It is also recommended that sand tables be more widely used in the seventh and eighth grades. 8. Teachers and administrators should keep them selves informed regarding materials and equipment available. 9. The principal or head of the department should inform the teachers of available equipment and materials. It is also recommended that it be the duty.of the principal to provide 10. teachers with adequate materials. Teachers should be employed in the field of their 69 training. More effective teaching would result from teachers who have only social studies classes. BIBLIOGRAPHY BIBLIOGRAPHY A. BOOKS Amis, Otis C., Dynamic Education. Corporation, 19^0. 52 pp. Chicago: The Quarrie A practical pamphlet on the equipment and management of rural school problems. Bagley, William Chandler and Thomas Alexander, The Teacher of the Social Studies. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1937. 328 pp. A study of the social studies teacher and the personal qualities essential in a superior teacher of the social studies. Baldwin, J. W . , The Social Studies Laboratory. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 192998 pp. A study of equipment and teaching aids for the social studies. Barr, Arvil S., William H. Burton, and Leo J. Brueckner, Supervision. New York: D. Appleton-Century Company, 1938. 9817"pp. Principles and practice in the improvement of instruc tion. A portion included upon the equipment and teach ing of social studies. Barr, Arvil Sylvester, Characteristic Differences in the Teaching Performances of Good and Poor Teachers of the Social Studies. Bloomington, Illinois: Public School Publishing Company, 1929* 127 PPConcerns the teaching and study of social studies. Beard, Charles Austin, The Nature of the Social Sciences in Relation to Objectives of Instruction. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 193^1 236 pp. A report on social science study, equipment and teach ing. 72 Bruner, Herbert Bascon, and C. Mabel Smith, Social Studies. New York: Charles E. Merrill Co., 1936. A textbook for the intermediate grades which suggests the use of various activities and materials in the social studies program. Butterheim, Harold S., editor, American School and University, 11th Edition. New York: American School Publishing Corporation, 1939* 658 pp. A yearbook of the latest classroom equipment. Hatch, H. ¥., Training in Citizenship. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1 9 2 6 • Chapters XII, XIII. The use of the library, historical fiction, and dramatiz ation in class work. Horn, Ernest, Methods of Instruction in the Social Studies. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1937* 523 PP« The study and teaching of the social studies with treat ment upon various types of equipment. Johnson, Henry, The Teaching of History. New York: The Mac millan Company, 1915* Chapters VII to XII. A bit old but catches the idea of using models, maps, and pictures. Knox, R. B., School Activities and Equipment. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1927* Chapters II to VI. Equipment materials, and aids to the laboratory method. Knowlton, D. C . , History and the Other Social Studies in the Junior High School. . New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1926. Chapters III to V. Use of cartoons, charts, graphs, maps, and other equip ment . Rugg, Harold Ordway, The Social Studies in the Elementary and Secondary School. Bloomington, Illinois: National Society for the Study of Education, Twenty-second Year book, 1923* 326 pp. In this yearbook a proposed social science course for junior high school is discussed. 73 Schwarz, John, Social Studies in the E l e m e n t a r y School. New York: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1938• 215 PP« The study and teaching of social studies in the ele mentary school. Wadell, Charles Wilkin, Major Units in the Social Studies for the Intermediate Grades. New York: The John Day Company, 1932. How to teach the social studies; sample units and sug gested materials. B. PERIODICAL ARTICLES Baesden, Leo B., and E. P. O fReilly, "Elementary Social Studies Curriculum,11 Curriculum Journal, X (February, 1939), 60-63. A review of the Sacramento, California, social studies curriculum with emphasis on the need for activities and reading. Bain, Read, "Teaching the Social Studies in the Washington High Schools,” School and Society, XXVI (December, 1927)* 754-58. Recommendations for social studies materials in junior high school grades as well as senior high school. Barr, A. S., ,fStudy Methods in History," Historical Outlook, XII (January, 1931)* 28-29• Criteria by which the teacher may estimate the worth of his own supervision of pupil activity. Brown, R. M., "Aids and Activities in Teaching Junior High School History,"Historical Outlook, XXI (December, 1930), 384-86. A collection of methods for using such laboratory de vices as maps, construction materials, et cetera. Crawford, Claude C., and L. M. Slagel, "The Use of the Labor atory Method in the Social Studies," Historical Outlook, XXI (March, 1930), 113-15Results of data collected and compared to show relative merits of laboratory and recitation methods. 74 Davis, Mary D., "Teaching Aids for Teachers," School Life, XXIV (February, 1 9 3 9 ) , 144-47A listing of sources of supplementary teaching aids. Farr, Henry L., "Collecting and Using Current Materials," Social Education, IV (March, 1940), 174-76. An energetic effort to provide pupils with current materials and how they are kept. Feany, P. J., "Survey of Instructional Practices and Equip ment Used in Observed Lessons in the Social Studies in Grades Six, Seven, and Eight in Selected Cities in the Middle West," Journal of Educational Research, XXX (January, 1937)7 348-557 A comparison of social.studies practices and materials. Gray, H. A., "Social Science and the Educational Sound1 Picture," Historical Outlook, XXIII (May, 1932), 232-34. Shows the value of both sound and silent pictures in the social studies program. A recommended program of sound pictures is given. Grim, Paul R., "Social Studies in the Junior High.Schools," Curriculum Journal, X (October, 1939)> 274-75. An explanation of a social studies course based upon "doing functions." Grillis, Helen A., "Teaching Slow Learning Children," Social Education, III (March, 1939), 167-72. A description of some of the material and methods em ployed in teaching slow pupils. Hill, H. C., "The Teaching of Civics in the Junior High School," Historical Outlook, XVII (January, 1926), 7-14. Suggestions given for various activities and equipment in a civic course. Hodgkins, George W . , "Skills in the Social Studies," Social Education, IV (March, 1940), 194-96. The writer speaks of various skills developed by certain social studies activities. 75 Knowlton, D. C., "The Teaching of History in Junior High Schools,” Historical Outlook, XVI (February, 1925), 76-84. Plan of work at Lincoln School, Teachers College, Columbia University. Lipman, Henry.T., ”A New Concept of Social Studies,” School and Society, L (December, 1 9 3 9 )9 8 3 4 - 3 6 . The means and methods of teaching social studies to the foreign born. Mason, Marcella, ITGroup Activity in the Elementary School,” Social Education, III (December, 1 9 3 9 )9 635-37* How to arrange for social studies activities. section on the material necessary. Also a McGuire, Edna, "Social Studies Skills in the Elementary Schools,” Social Education, I (November, 1937)* 569-71* Attention is called to some of the important skills resulting from social studies activities.* Michener, James A., ”A Design for Social Studies,” Elementary School Journal, XL (February, 1940), 443-51* A formulation of problems to be solved for satisfactory social studies curriculum--emphasis on sequence of ex periences . Mclver, Marie, "Materials Bureau--A Cooperative,” Phi Delta Kappan, XXIII (December, 1940), 168-70. Suggestions for a materials bureau to aid rural teachers. Ormsby,. Wallace D., "An Educational Service Bureau,"Phi Delta Kappan, XXIII (December, 1940), 165-6 7 * Suggestions for an educational service bureau to distri bute film equipment. Lists sources of free films. Smith, Gerald, "Teaching Social Studies," Sierra Educational News, XXXV (October, 1939)* 34. The philosophy and objectives to social studies. 76 Stone, Edna H., ’’Teaching the Social Studies in the Seventh Grade,” Historical Outlook, XVI (October, 1925)* 262-74. Explains the laboratory method used at University High School, Oakland, California. Wilgus, A. C., ’’Laboratory Methods in the Study and Teaching of History,” Historical Outlook, XII (January, 1921), 23* Discusses modern laboratory methods in the teaching of history and lists reference materials■and aids. C. UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS Dixon, Maude, "Materials and Methods for Enriching the Social Studies in the Junior High School for Accelerated Groups” Unpublished Master’s thesis, University of Southern Cali fornia, Los Angeles, 1929* 204 pp. A study of materials and methods used in progressive schools. Long, Katherine, "The Social Studies Laboratory.” Unpublished Master’s thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1934. 110 pp. An investigation of materials and methods of social studies teaching in California. Slagle, L. M., ’’Relative Values of Recitations and Labora tory Activities, in Social Science,” Unpublished Master’s thesis. University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1928. 52 pp. A study of civics classes to contrast the values of the recitation and the laboratory methods. Wiechman, Janet, ”A Survey of Equipment and Materials Used in the Social Studies Departments of the Los Angeles Junior High Schools.” Unpublished Master’s thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1930. 73 PP* An investigation of materials and aids. APPENDIX QUESTIONNAIRE TO THE PRINCIPAL OR HEAD OF SOCIAL STUDIES DEPARTMENT Name of school_____________ Size of school • ____ Person making report____________ _____________________ ________ 1. How many full time teachers of social studies do you have? __________ 2. How many part time teachers of social studies do you have? _________ _ 3* How many pupils in social studies do you have?_____ 4. Are all social studies (seventh and eighth grade) carried on in the same room? __________ Departmental system?_____ 5. Is material inter-changed between social studies rooms? FILMS AND PROJECTORS 6. How many sound projectors do you have?___________ Do you use them?________ 7* How many silent projectors do you have?___________ Do. you use them? 8. What size is your projector? (16 m.m., 8 m.m.)_________ 9. What make is your projector?_____________________________ 10. How many slide projectors do you have?__________________ Do you use them? ________ 11. Where do you obtain films? a. b. c. 12. Orange County Library?________ Commercial Concerns (free films)?_________ By rental?__________ List any other sources of obtaining films.______________ ■ 79 13 • How do you ordinarily show social studies films? a. b. c. To a single class?__________ To classes combined?________ To the assembly group?______ AUDIO AIDS 14. List the number of the following which you have or use. Have a. b. c. d. Use Radios Phonographs Records Talks by experts MAPS, GLOBES, ATLASES 15* List the number of the following which you have or use. Have a. Use Maps political physical ^ wall desk b. Globes c. Atlases CONSTRUCTIONS MATERIALS 16. Check the supplies which you have available or use. Available a. b. c. d. e. f. Cardboard for construction Soap, clay, modeling materials Chart and graph paper Drawing materials Sand table Scissors Use 80 16 . (continued) Available g. h. ________________ Crayons Travel folders Use LIBRARY USE 17. What is the usual practice regarding use of the library? a. b. c. d. e. Regular schedules for use by the entire class?_____ Occasional use by the class?_____ Pupils sent individually to the library?^___________ Used at random?________ _ _ Collection of books and materials kept in the room? CAUSES 18. To what do you attribute any lack of social studies material? a. b. c. d. e. f. Lack of funds?__________ Lack of equipment ? Inadequate distribution centers?__________ Insufficient time to use m a t e r i a l s ? _______ Failure of teachers to make use of available sources?__________ Other reasons? QUESTIONNAIRE TO THE TEACHER OP SOCIAL STUDIES Name of. school?_______ . ■ Size of school?___________ Person making r e p o r t ___________________________________ 1. What was your college major?__________ minor?_______ _ 2. How many years have you taught social studies?_______ 5- How many social studies classes do you teach each day?__________ 4. How many classes each day other than social studies? 5 . Do you use a permanent social studies classroom?____ 6. Check the type of seating in the room you use. a. b. c. d. Immoveable desks_____ • Moveable desks_________ _ Tables for two or more Work benches_______ . ____ _ 7- Do you feel that you have sufficient.blackboard spac e ?_______ _ 8. Do you feel that you have sufficient bulletin board space ?_______• 9 . Check the following which you have. a. b. Cabinets and filing casesi__________ Cupboards for tools__________ 10. Does each pupil; have a copy of the state text?______ 11. Does each pupil have an individual dictionary? 12. Does the room contain a single large dictionary?____ 13 • Check the difficulties in the way of greater use of visual materials. a. b. c. Rooms not equipped for projection?__________ Lack of p r o j e c t o r s ? _______ Lack of suitable films? 82 14. Do you keep in your library or elsewhere about the school a collection of mounted pictures or materials? 15- What plan do you have for the use of the library? a. b. Regular schedule?__________ Classes go at any hour?__________ 16. List magazines which you take that are available and suitable to social studies classes. 17• Do you use travel folders for social studies classes?