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A survey of the equipment and materials used in social studies classes in the seventh and eighth grades of Orange County

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A SURVEY OF THE EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS USED
IN SOCIAL STUDIES CLASSES IN THE SEVENTH
AND EIGHTH GRADES OF ORANGE COUNTY
A Thesis
Presented to
the Faculty of the School of Education
The University of Southern California
In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Master of Science in Education
by
Reylas J. Perry
June 19^1
UMI Number: EP54101
All rights reserved
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a note will indicate the deletion.
Dissertation Pubi.sh?ng
UMI EP54101
Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author.
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unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code
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T h is thesis, w r it t e n u n d e r the d ir e c t io n o f the
C h a ir m a n o f the candidate's G u id a n c e C o m m itte e
a n d a p p r o v e d by a l l m em bers o f the C o m m itte e ,
has been presen ted to a n d accepted by the F a c u lt y
o f the S c h o o l o f E d u c a t io n in p a r t i a l f u lf illm e ! n t
o f the re q u ire m e n ts f o r the degree o f M a s t e r o f
Science in E d u c a tio n .
1 .........
Guidance C om m ittee
0. R* Hull
C hairm an
M. M. Thompson
Irving R. Melho
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I.
PAGE
PRESENTATION OF THE P R O B L E M .............
1
The p r o b l e m ..............
1
Importance of the problem
...............
2
...........
4
Delineation of the problem .
Analysis of the problem
II.
........
5
Method of securing d a t a ..........
7
Organization of the remainder of the study .
9
A REVIEW OF RELATED INVESTIGATIONS.......
The social studies laboratory
12
.............
Findings of the s t u d y ...............
The social studies laboratory (continued)
12
13
.
15
A survey of equipment materials, and
m e t h o d s ..............
15
The results of the s t u d y .............
Social studies equipment and materials
A survey of equipment and materials
. . .
16
...
Results of the s u r v e y ...............
Laboratory methods in social sciences
16
16
17
...
18
A comparison of the laboratory method ■with
the recitation method
.................
Results of the s t u d y ..................
18
18
Materials and methods for enriching the
social studies ............................
18
iii
CHAPTER
PAGE
The social studies laboratory
.......... .
Results of the s t u d y .....................
Summary
III.
19
. . .......................
19
THE AMOUNT AND TYPE OFCLASSROOM MATERIALS . .
21
Construction materials ..............
The use of the texts and dictionary
IV.
18
21
. . . .
25
The use of maps and g l o b e s .................
29
S u m m a r y ...........................
50
THE FURNISHING OF THE SOCIAL STUDIES CLASS­
ROOM ........................................
52
Desks and tables
52
..........
The adequacy of bulletin board and
blackboard s p a c e .........................
54
Filing cases, cabinets, and cupboards for
t o o l s ................................ ..
.
S u m m a r y ..........
V.
56
THE USE OF VISUAL AID M A T E R I A L S .............
Motion picture projectors
5^
58
.................
59
Sources of obtaining films .................
40
Difficulties in the way of greater.use of.
f i l m s ...................................
45
The administration of f i l m s ...............
45
Use of the slide p r o j e c t o r .................
44
Mounted picture collections and travel
iv
CHAPTER
PAGE
f o l d e r s ...........................
Summary
VI.
45
. . . . .....................
46
THE SOCIAL STUDIES TEACHER IN RELATION TO THE
USE OF MATERIALS
................... .
.
Major and minor s u b j e c t s ............
48
48
Experience of the social studies teacher .
49
Classes taught in addition to social
s t u d i e s ...........................
51
Permanent social studies classrooms . . .
5^
Comparison of the more experienced teacher
with the less e x p e r i e n c e d ......... .
Summary
VII.
.
5^
..............................
55
THE USE OF AUDIO AIDS AND THE USE OF THE
LIBRARY IN RELATION TO THE SOCIAL STUDIES
PROGRAM AND REASONS FOR LACK OF SOCIAL
STUDIES M A T E R I A L S ..........
58
Use of the radio and radio program . . . .
58
Use of the p h o n o g r a p h ...............
59
Talks by e x p e r t s .....................
60
Use of the library .
...................
60
Reasons for lack of social studies
VIII.
m a t e r i a l s ..........................
6l
S u m m a r y ..............................
62
SUMMARY AND R E C O M M E N D A T I O N S ...........
64
V
CHAPTER
PAGE
S u m m a r y .................................
64
Recommendations.........................
67
B I B L I O G R A P H Y ..........
• APPENDIX
..........
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
70
77
L IS T OF TABLES*
TABLE
I.
PAGE
Availability and Use of Construction
Materials, Maps, and Globes
II.
III.
IV.
V.
A List of Magazines in Use in the Schools
VII.
24
.. .
Use of Seating E q u i p m e n t .................
26
35
Motion Picture and Slide Equipment . . . . . .
4l
Percentage of College Majors and Minors of
Social Studies Teachers
VI.
...............
...................
Teaching Experience in Social Studies
50
. . . .
52
Number of Daily Classroom Periods Devoted
to the Social Studies Reported by Fiftynine T e a c h e r s ..........................
VIII.
55
Comparative Use of Equipment for Teachers
of Greater and Lesser Experience ...........
56
* All tables refer to the present investigation in
Orange County, California.
CHAPTER I
PRESENTATION OF THE PROBLEM
Authorities at the present time are constantly
urging school people to enrich and vitalize the social
studies curriculum hy the use of a variety of teaching aids
and materials.
The situation, they say, can be made real
and purposeful by a wide and varied use of these devices.'
Bagley and Alexander in The Teacher of the Social Studies
make the following statement, ’’Progressiveness among
superior teachers is revealed by the introduction into the
classroom of a great variety of current materials.
I.
THE PROBLEM
It was the purpose of this study to make a survey of
the social studies equipment and materials in the schools
of Orange County, California, in order to evaluate the ade­
quacy of available materials and to determine standards for
desirable minimum equipment for Orange County in line with
the current objectives for instruction in the social studies.
This purpose was subdivided as follows:
1.
The determination of the constituents for a
^ William Bagley and Thomas Alexander, The Teacher
of the Social Studies (New York: Charles Scribner!s Sons,
193777 P- 4B.
satisfactory minimum amount of equipment and, materials.
2.
The determination of the need for the establish­
ment of centers, of materials.
3.
The determination of responsibility for the care
and manipulation of instructional materials.
Importance of the problem.
Recent educational phil­
osophy and psychology emphasize the importance of the school
providing an environment which will encourage creative and
self-expressive activity through which pupils may acquire
information and skills while giving expression to ideas and
emotions.
While leaders in education keenly realize these
facts, there Is yet practically no agreement as to the kind
and quantity of teaching aids necessary for effective teach­
ing aids; consequently, the administrator is without profes­
sional guidance in making provisions for the teaching of
these subjects.
This condition pertains to the situation in
Orange County as well as other localities throughout the
United States.
Practices indicate that there Is a definite
need for uniformity in space to be utilized and kind and
quantity of equipment to be provided.
In the physical sciences there are clearly defined
standards of equipment to be
used.
For example, if a new
diemistry laboratory were to be erected, the builders would
know exactly how to equip It.
Such Is not the case with
3
provision for social studies.
Uniformity does not exist
throughout the country and is seldom found in different
schools of the same local system.
The subjects within the
social studies curriculum are usually taught in regular
classrooms or in rooms equipped for some other subject.
In
many instances they are taught by teachers whose major in­
terest is in some subject field other than that of social
studies.
In a large percentage of the schools social
studies teachers occupy different rooms at different periods
throughout the day.2
The investigator for this study sub­
scribes to the opinion that development of reasonably uni­
form standards with regard to space requirements and the
kind and quantity of equipment for teaching aids in the
field of social studies would do much to remedy unsatisfac­
tory conditions.3
It was also hoped that through this investigation
some of the following purposes would be accomplished:
1.
That teachers and administrators would realize
the materials constituting desirable social studies equip­
ment;
2.
That teachers and administrators would gain a
2 J. W. Baldwin, The Social Studies Laboratory (New
York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 1929 )> P« 3*
2 Ibid., p. 4.
4
knowledge of the sources of supplies available for the
teaching of social studies, thereby enabling them to secure
the necessary materials for the most effective teaching of
this study;
3.
That superintendents and principals would realize
that it is their job to provide adequate materials for in­
struction; and
4.
That a broader experience for pupils will be
realized through the greater use of these materials and
that interest and participation in rich group living, appro­
priate to their ages and abilities, will result.
Delineation of the problem.
In recent years there
has been an increased emphasis upon social studies.
Social
studies has grown from an abstract, theoretical, textbook
subject into a study requiring a maximum amount of student
activity and demanding equipment to make the presentation
effective.
Yet in spite of this development, many teachers
remain unaware' of the equipment necessary or available for
a good social studies program.
The problem in Orange County
is not unlike that found throughout the nation.
Orange County consists of approximately forty-two
elementary school districts, each supporting elementary
schools.
In addition to this number there are three junior
high schools.
The standards for social studies equipment
5
is as widely divergent here as anywhere.
This fact is
accounted for in part by the variance in financial condi­
tions throughout the school districts.
Some districts are
able to afford the best of materials yet fail to benefit
from them because of lack of understanding of their possi­
bilities as aids to good teaching.
Other districts simply
cannot afford the modern supplies and equipment.
Many teachers and administrators throughout the
country seem to lack a consciousness of the elements consti­
tuting social studies material; and, consequently, overlook
opportunities to have sound programs.
However, the chief
detriment to success in carrying out an adequate program
is the lack of materials.^
In some cases, if the indivi­
dual school lacks social studies equipment, adequate equip­
ment may be obtained from other sources, such as the county
office or a visual aid center.
Orange County.
Such is not the case in
Orange County lacks these supplementary
sources, and in many instances teachers are not aware of the
sources that are obtainable.
Analysis of the problem.
No previous study of this
type has been made of Orange County.
The forty-two eleman-
tary districts present a varied financial situation, and
^ Herbert B. Bruner and Mabel C. Smith, Social
Studies in the Intermediate Grades (New York: Charles E.
Merrill and Company, l93b), PP* 3-4.
6
opportunities vary according to specific localities..
Some
districts have a great deal of money, while others have
very little.
For example, Huntington Beach, with approxi-,
mately 700 pupils, has $24,000,000 assessed valuation.
Oh
the other hand, Buena Park, with 500 students has an
assessed valuation of $2,500,000.
Thus one of the major
difficulties in the way of a comparison of equipment between
the districts is this variation in the ability to afford
necessary equipment.
Even if the poorer districts become
aware of the lack of equipment, little can be done to
remedy the. situation.
However, the wealthier districts may
become conscious of their inadequacies and remedy them.
Be­
cause of the peculiar situation within the county studied,
interests has been focused upon adequacy of materials
rather than upon amount, the chief concern being whether
the space is sufficient for all needs.
Also because of this
local situation the present study has been divided into
three parts.
The first is a presentation of the current
set-up in Orange County.
The second is a comparison of the
data or practices in Orange County with the findings from
accepted standard authorities on the subject.
And the third
is a formulation of a schedule or list of desirable minimum
equipment.
Under the first division of the subject the fol­
lowing questions were asked:
1.
What are the standard recommended materials
7
(films, projectors, radios, phonographs, maps, supplies,
books, desks, blackboards, bulletin boards)?
2.
How and by whom are- these materials administered?
3.
What are the sources of materials and how and
where can they be obtained?
This survey was made only to determine the aids and
materials which are in use or are available and to formulate
a list of essential aids to social studies teaching coupled
with the administration of the same.
No attempt was made to
measure the skill with which the teacher uses the tools at
her disposal.
In connection with this investigation of equipment
and activity, it should be remembered that activity should
not over-shadow the learning and awareness of certain skills ,
although it should be recognized that activities provide
opportunity for the development of many skills, which in
turn are necessary to effective work in social studies.
II.
METHOD OF’SECURING DATA
Many of the most recent publications on social
studies were investigated in order to determine what materi­
als are necessary to a good social studies program.
This
method was useful in serving as a check list of the essen­
tial materials which were formulated as two sets of question­
naires, designed to secure information regarding the second
and third item mentioned in the divisions of the subject.
These questionnaire check lists were used as the basis for
determining the adequacy of the equipment provisions in
Orange County for social studies.
The extent to which
Orange County practice meets the check list provisions is
shown in the following chapters of this study.
Ample provision was made for recording all types of
social studies materials submitted in the replies to the
questionnaire.
The questions were also formulated so as to
determine whether the teacher considered her material ade­
quate.
One questionnaire was sent to the department head
or principal(since most of the Orange County schools do not
have department heads).
The other questionnaire was sent
to the social studies teacher.
Both questionnaires con­
tained similar questions, except that the questionnaire to
the department head or social studies teacher was more con­
cerned with the administration of the materials.
A copy
of each questionnaire has been included in the Appendix at
the end of this study.
The questionnaires were first sent to each elemen­
tary school; but, as they were returned rather slowly, it
became necessary to make a personal visit to many of the
schools.
This proved to be very worth while since many
points were clarified during discussion.
In cases where
the information was not at hand at the moment, the question
naire and an addressed, stamped envelope were left at the
school.
The replies were forwarded to the investigator as
soon as all the facts were available.
The result of this
procedure was that excess of 80 per cent replies were re­
ceived.
Two questions were discussed and reported, upon which
are not vitally related to the social studies materials.
One was concerned with the background of the teacher and the
other was an inquiry regarding the make and type of motion
picture projector in use in the schools.
These two questions
were somewhat intangible and difficult to tabulate.
Never­
theless, it was hoped that they would prove of value to some
administrator. The first, it was thought, would be helpful
in selecting teachers.
The second, it was believed, might
aid in the selection of desirable projectors.
III.
ORGANIZATION OP THE REMAINDER OF THE STUDY
In Chapter Two the various investigations which have
been made are reviewed.
A brief outline of each one is
given and its conclusion enumerated.
No attempt was made to
evaluate each individual study, but at the conclusion of
Chapter Two an evaluation of the entire group of similar
studies was made.
This review was made for a twofold pur­
pose: first, to acquaint the reader with aims and trends in
this field; second, to provide the investigator with a basis
10
for comparison for his findings.
In Chapter Three the materials of the social studies
classroom are dealt with.
The plan is to consider actual
unattached material such as books, magazines, paper, con­
struction materials, and so forth.
In Chapter Four the furnishings of the social
studies classroom are dealt with.
The furnishings discussed
herein consist mostly of desks, bulletin boards, and tables.
These were evaluated and compared with the desired equipment
according to practice and authority.
In Chapter Five the visual aid materials in use in
the classroom as listed In the questionnaire are discussed.
The tabulation of the material used and the reasons for not
using certain equipment were found to be helpful in analyz­
ing the data in this study.
In Chapter Six the teacher of social studies is dis­
cussed.
A listing of her experience was made.
A tabulation
of the number of classes she teaches other than social
studies is of interest, while a report on the teacher’s
major and minor subjects taken in college should throw some
light on the subject of whether social studies teachers are
teaching In their major field.
In Chapter Seven the amount of such equipment as the
audio aids Is determined.
Use of the library and facilities
is discussed and report is made on reasons for the lack of
XI
social studies equipment.
The reasons are those given by-
teachers and administrators in Orange County, also reasons
apparent from the study of existing conditions.
In Chapter Eight a summary is made of the entire in­
vestigation -with a comparison of best practice as suggested
by other studies and by authorities on the subject.
Recom­
mendations are made according to comparisons with other prac­
tices and opinions of authorities and in accordance with what
were believed to be minimum essentials and needs determined
by the facts disclosed in the investigation.
A Bibliography of sources consulted follows the final
chapter.
The Appendix, containing the questionnaires, is
placed at the end of the study.
CHAPTER I I
A REVIEW OP RELATED INVESTIGATIONS
The contents of this chapter are devoted to a sum­
marization of related studies in this field.
found to he the same.
No two were
Many dealt with the equipment of
social studies, hut no previous investigation has heen made
of the geographical location concerned in the present study.
I.
In 1929
THE SOCIAL STUDIES LABORATORY
W. Baldwin^ of Columbia University made
an investigation of social studies laboratories in teacher
training institutions which were recommended as being the
most progressive.
Baldwinfs study was selected for review
because it was the only investigation of social studies
equipment, in so far as the writer has been able to deter­
mine, made by a university professor.
Baldwin*s study is
also valuable because he attempts to determine what consti- ,
tutes a minimum of equipment, thus giving the writer a basis
for comparison.
A large section of Baldwin*s study also
deals with the junior high school.
Five hundred twenty-five
blanks were mailed by Baldwin to supervisors and teachers in
5 J. W. Baldwin, The Social Studies Laboratory (New
York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 1929)> 98 pp.
13
grades four to twelve; 3 ^ 9 usable replies were* received.
In
addition he visited thirty-nine schools in order to make a
first-hand study.
tionnaires.
Thus he received 388 replies to the ques­
Prom these he made a tabulation from which to
base his conclusions and recommendations.
Findings of the study.
The following condensed con­
clusions relative to the social studies laboratory were
formulated by Baldwin.
1.
In the intermediate grades or in the junior high
school the same room or laboratory should serve all the
social studies.
2.
as:
The activities housed by the laboratory are such
(a) drawing of maps, graphs, and charts; (b) construc­
tion of models, relief maps, replicas;
(c) consulting refer­
ence books, maps, periodicals, dictionaries, and atlases;
(d) arranging exhibits of pictures, clippings, charts, sta­
tistics, cartoons, drawings, models, relics, et cetera;
(e)
making note books, scrap books, and various kinds of group
activities;
(f) carrying on club work and various kinds of
group activities;
(g) indexing and filing collections of
pictures, and clippings;
(h) reciting in a group or groups
and holding individual conferences with the teacher.
3.
The materials that are most often mentioned in
these sources as being a part of the equipment for the
14
social studies room are:
boards,
(a) black boards,
(c) bookcases,.(d) filing eases,
(b) bulletin
(e). cupboards,
(f) map cases, (g) map rails, (h) land tables,
ence books,
reading,
(j) newspapers,
(k) periodicals,
(m) maps, atlases, and globes,
other visual aids,
(i) refer­
(l) collateral
(n) pictures and
(o) projection lantern,
(p) supplies for
drawing, modeling, mounting, construction, et cetera,
(q)
general miscellaneous museum exhibits, and articles of
minor importance.
4.
The laboratory method should be employed in
the teaching of the social studies whenever this is possible
even though the workroom may not be available.
5*
The social studies room should have an area in
floor space at least one and one-half times that of the
classrooms that do not require the use of laboratory equip­
ment and do not provide for laboratory activities.
The
laboratories should be equipped with tables and chairs
rather than desks and the tables should be large enough to
accommodate either two or four pupils at one time.
Fifty
per cent of the workrooms now in use are equipped with such
tables.
6.
The majority of even the most progressive schools
are poorly equipped for teaching the social studies.
7*
Much of the money spent for equipment for the
social studies in the junior high school is invested un-
15
wisely.
8.
Half of the social studies teachers in the junior
high school make very little use of the community as a
laboratory.
9.
Half of the teachers in the junior high school do
not make much use of the materials that may be had without
cost.
10.
At least one room in every social studies depart­
ment in junior high schools should be equipped so as to
provide for construction, first-hand investigation, and
problem-solving activities.^
II.
THE SOCIAL STUDIES LABORATORY (CONTINUED)
A survey of equipment materials, and methods.
In
1934 Long wrote a thesis at the University of Southern Cali­
fornia on the social studies laboratory.?
An investigation
of the social studies equipment in the junior and senior
high schools of California was made.
Long was reviewed be ­
cause she has a study which closely parallels the investiga­
tion being made in this study.
Two hundred questionnaires
were sent out by Long to teachers of California.
Returns
6 Baldwin, loc. cit.
? Katherine Long, nThe Social Studies Laboratory,n
(unpublished Master!s thesis, University of Southern Cali­
fornia, Los Angeles, 193^)> 110 pp.
16
were received from l6l teachers.
Of this number, fifty-
eight were from junior high schools.
The results of the study.
Long found that 50 per
cent of the teachers in the social studies field considered
a laboratory or workroom necessary for attaining the best
results in teaching.
At the same time it was found that
less than 10 per cent of the high school buildings in Cali­
fornia were provided with social studies laboratories.
More
than one half of the high schools lacked the necessary equip­
ment.
Two thirds of the social studies classrooms had the
fixed desk type of seating arrangement.
Many pupils lacked
supplementary text and reference books.
Most teachers of
social studies majored in social sciences while.in college.
The average social studies teacher had had approximately
six years1 experience.
III.
SOCIAL STUDIES EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS
A survey of equipment and materials.
In 1950 Wiechmaii
made a survey of equipment and materials used in junior high
schools of Los Angeles.8
Wiechman!s survey resembles very
much the present investigation, the study being made in Los
^ Janet Wiechman, "A Survey of Equipment and Materials
Used in the Social Studies Departments of the Los Angeles
Junior High Schools” (unpublished Master!s thesis, University
of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1950), 75 PP-
17
Angeles.
In making this study Wiechman sent questionnaires
to all chairmen and teachers of social studies in Lbs
Angeles junior high schools.
Replies were received from
thirty chairmen and 203 teachers.
Results of the survey.
From the questionnaires the
following conclusions were recorded.
They are given In
condensed form here.
1.
The social studies classroom should he somewhat
larger than the standard classroom.
2.
Narrow tables and chairs are recommended for
seating.
3.
An entire side of the room is not too much to
give to bulletin board space.
4.
Social studies classrooms are not equipped ade­
quately for activity or laboratory methods.
5.
Facilities for visual education are inadequate.
6.
The majority of social studies teachers teach
no other subject.
7*
The training of the majority of social studies
teachers has been recent; 63 per cent have taught no more
than seven years.
8.
Social studies classrooms should be centralized
in one part of the building.9
9 Wiechman, loc. cit.
18
IV.
LABORATORY METHODS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES
A comparison of the laboratory method with the recita­
tion method.
Using a different type of procedure, Slagle in
1928 compared the two methods in a thesis presented to the
University of Southern California.10
Her procedure was to
instruct two groups by both the recitation
and the labora- -
tory method of study.Each group was given instruction
by
each method for seven weeks.
Results of the
study.
Briefly, her results
were
summarized as follows: the laboratory method is slightly
superior to the recitation method; the students prefer
laboratory activities; students believe that they learn
more by laboratory methods; and as the differences are small,
it is unsafe to make a positive statement of superiority.
V.
MATERIALS AND METHODS FOR ENRICHING
THE SOCIAL STUDIES
The social studies laboratory.
In 1929 Dixon made
a study of the materials and methods for enriching the
L. M. Slagle, ^Relative Value of Recitations and
Laboratory Activities in Social Science,” (unpublished
MasterTs thesis, University of Southern California, Los
Angeles, 1928), p. 46.
19
social studies curriculum.H
Data for this study were col­
lected by the personal interview method.
In her study Dixon
devoted a major portion of her survey to the literature to
be used in the. social studies field.
With this plan in mind
she prepared an extensive bibliography of books in the social
studies field and compared her results with the literature
in the field.
Results of the study.
were interviewed.
Teachers from fifteen states
It was found that they were strongly in
.favor of the laboratory method.
At the conclusion of her
study a list of materials that make social studies more real
were to be found.
Among them are books, maps, visual aids,
newspapers and periodicals, and construction materials.
Her bibliography of reference books for social studies
books for children was very extensive and might be used by
a laboratory-type classroom.
VI.
SUMMARY
Throughout the preceding pages the investigator has
reviewed similar studies in the social studies field.
No
attempt has been made to evaluate each study separately.
^ Maude Dixon, "Materials and Methods for Enriching
the Social Studies in the Junior High School for Acceler­
ated Groups,” (unpublished Masterfs thesis, University of
Southern California, 1929) » 204 pp.
Each differed from the other in some respect, and it was
felt that this review of related studies was valuable in
aiding the investigator to formulate questionnaire check
lists that served as a basis on which.to compare the Orange
County situation.
This review was also worth while in giv­
ing the reader a picture of what had been done previously
in the field.
CHAPTER I I I
THE AMOUNT AND TYPE OP CLASSROOM MATERIALS
This chapter-includes carefully tabulated items of
the results of the present study of classroom materials.
The purpose was to determine the materials of the social
studies classroom in Orange County.
According to litera­
ture and investigations the use of the social studies
materials mentioned here provides a better learning situa­
tion , greater interest on the part of the student, and en­
riched understanding.
Teachers are constantly being ex­
horted to use these materials and methods, yet these things
cannot be attained without adequate facilities.
I.
CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS
Horn states that availability of instructional
material is one of the most important items to be consid­
ered before making any changes in curriculum.12
Rugg also
states that, 11After ten years in reorganizing the junior
high school courses, it is perfectly apparent that the most
immediate need is for curriculum materials properly adapted
12 Ernest Horn,Methods of Instruction in the Social
Studies (New York: C. Scribner's Sons, 1957), p« 265-
22
to these grades . U
In the Journal of Educational Research
for January, 1937 > R» J* Feony gives a list of the materials
which he considers necessary for a social studies labora­
tory.
Other books re-emphasized certain materials and
added others to the lists with the result that a “list of
minimum essential materials is possible.
It has been
stated that paste, scissors, cardboard, models, paper, and
wood are some of the homely but useful features.^5
Tools
and construction materials are always valuable In suggest­
ing activities.
A tabulation of questionnaires sent to principals
revealed that 100 per cent of schools reporting used draw­
ing materials, scissors, and crayons.
used travel folders in their work.
Eighty-eight per cent
Cardboard for construc­
tion and graphs and charts was used by 85 per cent of the
schools.
al
Soap, clay, or some other form of modeling materi­
was made use of by 7^ per cent.
The item which was used
13 Harold Rugg, The Social Studies in the Elementary
School (Bloomington, Illinois: Rational Society for the
Study of Education, Twenty-second Yearbook, 1923 )j P» 185*
R. J. Feony, ”Survey of Instructional Practices and
Equipment Used in the Social Studies In Grades Six, Seven,
and Eight in Selected Cities, in the Middle West," Journal
of Educational Research, XXX (January, 1937 )> 348-56.
15 Maude Hamilton, MThe Teaching of Greek History,11
Social Education, V (March, 191*0, 81-86.
ing
Gordon, Melvin, The Technique of Progressive Teach­
(New York: The John Day Company, 1932), p. 9 6 .
23
the least was the sand table, only 43 per cent making use of
it as most schools preferred to use it in the lower grades.
Table I shows the available material for social studies
activities and the percentage and number of schools using
it.
II.
MAGAZINES IN USE
Literature in the field favors use of the magazine
in social studies classes.
One writer has the following to
say concerning periodical literature:
Periodical literature, including magazines and
newspapers, has been accorded an increasingly prom­
inent place in recent years in the teaching of social
studies.
This literature is a valuable source of
knowledge and thought about present and past times;
for the present age, like the ages that have gone b e ­
fore, writes itself down in its newspapers and maga­
zines. Much of this periodical literature, however,
is disturbingly low in quality.17
Prom the sixty teachers reporting, it was found that
forty-five different magazines were in use or available for
the social studies classroom.
The National Geographic was
found to be the most popular, being the choice of thirtytwo or 53 per cent of the teachers.
Other publications
which received large percentages were the Current Events,
reported by 36.6 per cent of the teachers, and Header1s
Digest, listed by 20 per cent.
^
This differs somewhat from
Ernest Horn, ojd. cit., p. 234.
24
TABLE I
AVAILABILITY AND USE OF THE CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS,
MAPS, AND GLOBES IN ORANGE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA
Item
Schools using
Per cent
Cardboard
30
85
Carving materials
26
74
Graphs
30
85
Drawing materials
35
100
Sand table
15
43
Scissors
35
100
Crayons
35
100
Travel folders
31
88
Maps
Political
Physical
Historical
Desk
26
26
11
10
75
75
32
29
Globes
29
80
Atlases
17
49
comparative surveys which as a rule show the Literary Digest
to be the most widely used.
Wiechman found only sixteen
different magazines in use.
Current Events and Literary
Digest were used by 60 per cent in her s t u d y . ^
Of the
11junior” magazines, that is, publications prepared espe­
cially for the junior audience, the following were listed:
Current Events, Every Week, Young America, Junior Scholas­
tic, Junior Review, and Weekly Reader.
Events was used by 36.6 per cent.
Of these Current
Every Week was next with
21.6 per cent, followed by Young America with 18 per cent.
Eleven per cent of the teachers reported that they did not
use any magazines at all.
Magazines used and the number of
teachers reporting them are shown in Table II.
III.
USE OF THE TEXTS AND DICTIONARY
Textbooks originated at a time in American education
when teachers were poorly trained and could do little more
than read materials which they digested for their pupils.
Today teachers are much better trained and should be able
to outline their course from available sources of material.
The textbook is not to be used as a course outlined or a
Janet Wiechman, "Equipment and Materials Used in
the Social Studies Departments of Los Angeles Junior High
Schools," (unpublished Master1s thesis, University of
Southern California, Los Angeles, 1930), p. 27*
26
TABLE I I
A LIST OF MAGAZINES IN USE IN THE SCHOOLS OF
ORANGE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA
Magazines
Number of teachers reporting use
Per cent
Life
20
33 1/3
Time
11
18
National Geographic
32
53
Reader’s Digest
12
20
Instructor
2
3
Travel
8
13
School Arts
3:
5
Current Events
22
36
Every Week
13
22
Popular Mechanics
11
18
Young America
11
18
American Boy
3
5
American Girl
2
3
Art
1
2
Nature Magazine
7
12
4 H Horizon
1
2
Open Road for Boys
1
2
Boy* s Life
3
5
Building America
3
5
Junior Scholastic
9
15
27
TABLE II (continued)
A LIST OP MAGAZINES IN USE IN THE SCHOOLS OF
ORANGE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA
Magazines
Number of teachers reporting use
Per cent
News Week
6
10
Consumerfs Guide
1
2
Popular Science
6
10
Farm Journal
1
2
Junior Red Cross
2
3
Junior Review
8
13
Weekly Reader
3
5
Fortune
2
3
Scholastic
3
5
Our Times
7
12
Home Craft
2
3
Story Parade
1
2
Westways
1
2
Popular Aviation
1
2
Nation
2
3
Outdoor Life
1
2
Asia
2
3
Current History
3
3
Harper*s
1
2
Congressional Digest
1
2
Classroom Teacher
1
2
Pathfinder
1
2
State Science Bulletin
1
2
California History Nugget
2
3
Children*s Activities
1
2
28
crutch, but as a tool.^9
It Is, therefore, most useable,
but it is not to be followed slavishly.
Wilgus states that
classrooms should be furnished with two texts.20
One author
suggests that each room should be provided with an encyclo­
pedia and a dictionary.21
Replies indicated that the basic text was used in
55 per cent of the classrooms.
Slightly more than 25 per
cent of the classrooms did not have the basic text available,
while 21 per cent did not reply.
Obviously, this was due
to a failure to understand the term, f,basic text."
In 58 per cent of the classrooms an Individual dic­
tionary for each pupil was supplied.
Thirty-eight per cent
did not have an Individual copy, while 5 per cent failed to
reply.
In use In 47 per cent of the classrooms was one
large dictionary to each classroom.
Forty per cent did not
have one on hand, and 15 per cent failed to reply for no
obvious reason.
Twenty-eight per cent of the schools re­
ported that they had neither an Individual copy of the dic­
tionary for each student nor a large one for each room.
19 Otis -Amis, Dynamic Education (Chicago: The Quarrie
Corporation, 1940), p. 56*
20 A. C. Wilgus, "Laboratory Methods in the Teaching
of Social Studies,” Historical Outlook, XXIII (January,
1951), 25.
2-*- Robert Kutak, "The Ideal Social Studies Classroom,”
pp. 554-56, Fourth Yearbook of the Department of Superin­
tendents (Washington, D. C.: Office of EducatIon, 1926),
520 pp.
29
This condition, of course, should he remedied as some means
of identifying new words as well as practice in dictionary
use should he available to all pupils.
IV.
THE USE OF MAPS AND GLOBES
Rugg strongly favors the use of maps as shown hy his
statement,
Each topic and sub-topic of the course shall be
illustrated by detailed episodes, and by a wealth of
maps, graphs, and pictorial material far in excess
of the present use of them.22
Literature favors the use of the desk outline map.
Such outline maps are especially valuable in testing
either directly for knowledge of facts or by incorporating
such graphical exposition In a composition or d i s c u s s i o n . 2 ^
Also on behalf of the desk outline maps, another writer
states that they offer another desirable opportunity for
pupil activity.
Several different types of maps were considered.
It
was discovered that 75 P©* cent of the principals reported
the use of the political wall map.
Seventy-five per cent
22 Harold Rugg, op. cit., p. 188.
2^ Otis Amis, op. cit., p. 24.
2^ J. W. Baldwin, The Social Studies Laboratory
(Hew York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 1929)>
p. 48.
50
used the physical map.
Historical maps were used in only
32 per cent of the departments.
Greater use could have
been made of the desk map as only 29 per cent took advantage
of this inexpensive aid.
of the globe.
Eighty per cent reported the use
Nearly k 9 per cent had an atlas in the de­
partment .
V.
. 1.
SUMMARY
Nearly 100 per cent of those reporting indicated
the use of various construction supplies such as drawing;
materials, scissors, and crayons.
used travel folders.
for construction.
cent.
Eighty-eight per cent
Eighty-five per cent used cardboard
Modeling materials are used by 7^ per
Forty-three per cent use the sand table.
2.
in use.
Forty-three different magazines were found to be
The most widely used was the National Geographic.
It was used by 55 per cent of the schools.
A considerable
number of magazines on current events and current history
were in evidence.
3*
The basic text is available in but 55 per cent
of the classes.
k.
An individual copy of the dictionary is sup­
plied in 53 per cent of the classrooms.
5wall map.
Seventy-five per cent reported the use of the
The globe was used by 80 per cent; atlases and
31
desk maps were used by 49 and 29 per cent, respectively.
6.
The basic text should be made available to more
classes, for while getting away from text book teaching is
advocated, many suggest the text as an outline and as a
guide.
7.
Care should be maintained in the selection of
magazines.
8.
Greater supplies of dictionaries are needed,
desk maps could be more widely used, and atlases would be
an aid to teaching if provided in larger quantities.
9‘
The sand table could be more widely used in the
seventh and eighth grades.
CHAPTER IV
THE FURNISHING OF THE SOCIAL STUDIES CLASSROOM
An attempt to determine the furnishings of the
classroom is reported in this chapter.
It was necessary
to determine the adequacy of the present furnishing.
This
was done by comparison with standards set by authority and
by inquiry as to whether the person reporting deemed the
equipment to be adequate.
In this chapter the attempt was made to determine
the answers to the following points:
1.
What type seating is most frequently in use?
2.
Does the classroom have sufficient bulletin
board space?
3.
Does the classroom have sufficient blackboard
4.
Are classrooms equipped with cabinets, filing
space?
cases, and cupboards?
I.
DESKS AND TABLES
A tabulation of findings showed that 33 per cent of
teachers reported that they had immovable desks in their
classrooms.
This, of course, is in direct contrast to the
recommendations of authorities.
Most authorities contend
that a social studies classroom, in order to teach the
33
progressive laboratory type of instruction, should be
equipped with tables or moveable desks.
The tables are
preferred.
J. W. Baldwin in reporting his visit in 1926 to the
Citizenship Laboratory in the Horace Mann School at Teachers
College, Columbia University, described the laboratory as
follows:
It consisted of a large room equipped with tables
and chairs instead of desks, much of the space which
formerly had been occupied by blackboard was being
utilized for bulletin board and display space--there
were a few good pictures--drawers and storage space
for materials.25
As far back as 1921 the table was advocated for
social studies rooms.
Wilgus says thab "the desk is merely
a wooden table with several drawers in I t . "26
Orange
County data show, however, that 45 per cent of the class­
rooms are furnished with moveable desks, usually screwed
in groups to runners.
Five per cent reported the use of
tables and chairs, while only 5 per cent indicated the
presence of work benches.
Of sixty teachers reporting,
only one classroom was equipped exclusively with tables.
^
J. W. Baldwin, The Social Studies Laboratory (New
York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 1929)> PP« 8 -9 .
^ A. C. Wilgus,"Laboratory Methods In the Teaching
of Social Studies,” Historical Outlook, XII (January, 1921),
25.
54
This classroom also had work benches available.
er reported both moveable desks and work benches.
One teach­
Three
reported moveable desks together with tables, and three
reported the use of immoveable desks with tables.
The kind
of seating equipment and the number and percentage used are
shown in Table III.
II.
THE ADEQUACY OF BULLETIN BOARD AND BLACKBOARD SPACE
Each teacher was asked to reply whether he had suffi­
cient blackboard and bulletin board space.
Nearly 97 per
cent reported that their blackboard space was adequatew
One
teacher or about 1^ per cent reported that blackboard space
was adequate.
One teacher failed to reply.
In the matter of bulletin board space slightly more
than 83 p e r cent reported that they had adequate space for
all purposes.
Slightly more than 1 3 per cent indicated a
lack of bulletin board space.
Of the sixty teachers reply­
ing to this question one failed to state and one replied
that she did not know.
The above variations in practice
and in needs might well be attributed to a tendency to use
more paper work and written materials in these classes.
III.
FILING CASES, CABINETS, AND CUPBOARDS FOR TOOLS
In the opinion of Melvin considerable space will be
55
TABLE III
IJSE OF SEATING EQUIPMENT
Equipment
Number
Per cent
Immovable desks
52
55
Movable desks
27
45
Tables
7
11
Movable desks and tables
5
5
Immovable desks and tables
5
5
Work benches
2
5
Movable desks and work
benches
1
1.5
Tables and work benches
1
1.5
36
taken up with, closets for storing materials.2?
Considering
the matter of these items a tabulation revealed that nearly
22 per cent of the classrooms were equipped with cabinets
and filing cases.
tools.
Twenty-five per cent had cupboards for
Further tabulation revealed that almost 42 per cent
had access to both cabinets or filing cases and cupboards
for tools.
Slightly in excess of 11 per cent had none of
these facilities at their disposal.
IV.
1.
able desks.
SUMMARY
Fifty-three per cent reported the use^of immove­
This situation could be improved by the use of
tables and chairs or moveable desks, which would allow
greater flexibility and a wider use of the activity program.
2.
Only one classroom was reported as fully equip­
ped with tables.
3*
Blackboard aind bulletin board space seemed
adequate as 93 per cent of the schools reported adequacy of
space.
Bulletin board space was slightly less adequate
than blackboard space.
4.
Forty-two per cent of the rooms were equipped
with filing cases and cupboards.
A very small percentage
2? Gordon Melvin, The Technique of Progressive Teach­
ing (New York: The John Day Company, 1932), p. 92.
was without either of these facilities.
5.
The furnishings of the social studies rooms in
Orange County are generally adequate with the important ex
ception that 53 per cent of the schools do not have move­
able desks or tables.
6.
The furnishings in these classrooms should be
brought up to date by the provision of tables instead of
fixed desks.
Whenever new seatings are purchased, they
should be in the form of tables and chairs until at least
the social studies classrooms are equipped with this kind
of furnishing.
CHAPTER V
THE USE OF VISUAL AID MATERIALS
In this chapter there has been an attempt to make
the reader familiar with the possibilities of visual aids
and to ascertain the adequacy of visual materials in Orange
County.
Findings are grouped under several headings as
follows:
1.
Does the school have access to a motion picture
projector or slide projector?
2.
If so, what size and make is it?
5.
How are films exhibited?
4.
Where are films obtained?
5-
Are collections of mounted
6.
What are the difficulties in the way of greater
pictures
kepton hand?
use of visual materials?
Investigations indicate that instruction is improved
to a significant degree by the addition of motion pictures
to the
instructional media--they have the unique advantage
of continuity and movement.2°
Visual
aids are more neces­
sary if the immediate environment is limited and specializ­
ed.
Pupils of less than average ability are said to benefit
pH
Ernest Horn, Methods of Instruction in the Social
Studies (New York: C. Scribner*s Sons, 1937 )> 3 7 2 PP*
39
especially.
For these reasons visual aids must be regarded
as basic rather than merely as means of enrichment.^9
At present the silent motion picture is used exten­
sively in social studies instruction.
The sound picture is
rapidly becoming more important with an increase in the
number of projectors, a decrease in the cost and equipment,
and attempts being made to prepare films especially for
social-studies use.
A good sound projector (Ampro, for example), can now
be purchased for as little as $285*
These prices range as
high as $450 and $500 (Bell and Howell).
Prices are rather
reasonable and the projector can be easily transported.
Films especially for classroom use are being produced.
Films produced by the Erpi Company are excellent.
for approximately $40.
that price.
They sell
Castle produced films for about half
Other concerns are now commencing to produce
classroom films.
The writer will testify to the excellency
of the Erpi films, having seen many of them.
I.
MOTION PICTURE PROJECTORS
Each social studies department shall maintain sound
and silent projectors, slide machines, plugs for each room,
and inexpensive material for darkening.30
Of the schools
29 Ibid., p. 572.
3° J. A. Baldwin, The Social Studies Laboratory (New
York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 1929"), P * 77*
40
reporting, 71*4 per cent had some type of motion picture
projector.
Twenty-eight and six-tenths per cent had no pro­
jectors at all.
A check up on schools with projectors re­
vealed that 76 per cent of the projectors were of the silent
type, while 24 per cent of the schools possessed the newer
sound projectors.
Twelve per cent reported having both
sound and silent projectors.
All schools having projectors
reported the use of 16 m.m. size.
An inquiry as to the make of projector was made for
the purpose of assisting future purchasers of projectors.
Six makes of projectors were reported.
They were the Ampro,
Bell and Howell, Victor, De Vry, Keystone, and Apex.
The
Victor proved to be the most widely used, and was reported
"by 36 per cent of the schools owning projectors.
Bell and
Howell projectors were used by 24 per cent, and 20 per cent
used the Ampro projector.
Further comparison of the differ­
ent makes of projectors can be found in Table I V . .
II.
SOURCES OF OBTAINING FILMS
Films might be obtained from three possible sources—
the county library, free films from advertising concerns,
and by rental.
Very few films were obtained from the Orange
County Library, indicating that films from this source are
very inadequate, consisting mainly of slides.
Only 5*9 pei*
cent of the schools obtained films from this source.
The
41
TABLE IV
MOTION PICTURE AND SLIDE EQUIPMENT
Equipment
Size or number
owned
Schools reporting
16 m.m.
9
36
16 m.m.
6
24
Ampro
16 m.m.
5
20
De Vry
16 m.m.
2
8
Keystone
16 m.m.
1
4
Apex
16 m.m.
1
4
Projectors
none
Victor
Bell and Howell
15
Per cent
49
1
12
59
2
5
10
5
1
3
42
remainder of the schools usually rented films or obtained
them free from commercial concerns.
Sixty-five per cent
received their films in this manner.
Each school was asked to report places where films
might be obtained.
The following sources were listed:
1.
University of California, Berkeley, California
2.
Bell and Howell Library, Los Angeles, California
3.
California State Visual Education, Sacramento,
California«
4.
United States Department of Films, Washing­
ton, D.C.
5.
Motion Picture Bureau of Y. M. C. A., 35 Turk
Street, San Francisco, California
6.
University of California at Los Angeles, Los
Angeles, California
7*
Women's Christian Temperance Union
8.
United States Bureau of Mines
9*
Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce
10.
Bureau of Power and Light
11.
General Motors
Corp.
12.
Chrysler Motor
Corp.
13*
Associated Oil Company
14.
Union Oil Company of California
15•
General Electric Corporation
16.
Dennis Film Libraries
43
III.
DIFFICULTIES IN THE NAY OF GREATER USE OF FILMS
Inadequate use of the visual aids would likely be due
to three things; rooms not equipped for projection, lack of
projectors, and lack of suitable films.
Seventy-one and
six-tenths per cent of the teachers reported that lack of
suitable films hindered greater use.
Forty-five per cent
blamed lack of projectors, and 45 per cent said it was due
to the fact that rooms were not equipped for projection.
Thirty-three per cent of the teachers listed all three
things as being the cause of their difficulties.
Twenty-one
and six-tenths per cent failed to report, indicating that
their visual aids were sufficient and that no difficulties
were in the way of greater use.
Several teachers advanced
other reasons; among these were;
1.
Cost of films
2.
Afraid to use the equipment for fear of damag­
ing the film and projector
3-
Did not know how to operate the projector
IV.
THE ADMINISTRATION OF FILMS
Information relative to the administration of films
is rather scarce, and literature in the field concerning
this item is lacking.
In ¥iechman!s study it was found that
44
the usual practice in the presentation of motion pictures is
to show them to a small group rather than to an auditorium
group .3 1
Films might readily be shown in three ways:
1.
To a single class
2.
To classes combined
2.
To assembly groups
One school reported using all three methods while several
used two of the suggested plans.
films to individual classes.
Nearly 22 per cent showed
Twenty per cent showed them
to classes combined, and 11 per cent showed social studies
films to assembly groups.
Over 25 per cent failed to reply
to this question.
V.
USE OF THE SLIDE PROJECTOR
Lantern slides must be given consideration in speak­
ing of visual material as in many ways they offer great
flexibility in the classroom.
In this study schools were
found to be very poorly provided with slide projectors.
was found that 51 per cent had no slide projectors.
It
Nearly
49 per cent had one or more slide projectors; 27 per cent
had one projector only; 8.5 per cent had two; and the remain2.8 per cent reported three.
'31 Janet Wi'echman, ^Equipment and Materials Used in the
Social Studies Departments of the Los Angeles Junior High
Schools,11 (unpublished M a s t e r ^ thesis, University of South­
ern California, Los Angeles, 1930), p. 22.
45
Slide projectors may be written upon, drawn upon, or
lettered by the pupil; and are especially valuable in making
v
map enlargements.
The child gains considerable satisfaction
in seeing his work projected upon the screen.
Lantern
slides are well adapted to group work and class discussion.
They are also good in introducing a unit.^2
VI.
MOUNTED PICTURE COLLECTIONS AND TRAVEL FOLDERS
Prints should be mounted and filed according to their
place in temporary or permanent classifications.
The prac­
tical collection for use in the classroom should be based
on a centralized accumulation in the school.
It has been
almost wholly true that most collections are the results of
the initiative of individual teachers so that often useful
material is not available to other teachers in the same
building or in neighboring schools.
Individual teachers*
collections should form the nucleus for the central collec­
tion since this material as a rule has been thoroughly
tested.
Eighty-three per cent of the teachers indicated that
they had access to a collection of mounted pictures, and
^2 Charles Hoban, Visualizing the Curriculum (New
York: The Cordon Company, 1937) > P- 193*
55 Ibid., p. 195.
46
17 per cent had no picture collections at all.
However, It
was reported that such pictures might he obtained from the
Orange County Library.
Among the most inexpensive yet valuable teaching aids
are the travel folders which can be obtained free of charge.
Results indicate that teachers are taking advantage of this
source of material as 85 per cent reported their use in con­
trast to 15 per cent not using them.
VII.
1.
SUMMARY
Seventy-one per cent of the schools had some type
of projector.
2.
Silent type comprised 76 per cent of all pro­
jectors.
3.
The Victor projector was used by 36 per cent of
all schools having projectors.
4.
No definite distributive center for films was in
evidence.
5.
A List of sixteen free sources of films was
6.
Lack of suitable films was the greatest hinder-
found.
ance to use of films.
Other frequently listed reasons were
lack of provisions for projections and lack of projections.
7*
Methods of showing films were rather evenly
divided with 23 per cent showing films to individual classes
47
and 20 per cent to combined classes*
8.
Fifty-one per cent had no slide projectors.
9«
Collections of mounted pictures were available to
83 per cent of the teachers.
10.
some ways.
Facilities for visual education were adequate in
However, all schools should be equipped with
motion picture projectors, preferably sound; and newly pur­
chased projectors should be of the sound type.
A county-
wide system of film distribution is badly needed.
Such a
system would eliminate one of the major sources of inadequacy
in visual aids.
projectors.
More schools should be equipped with slide
Each social studies room should have one slide
projector available for u s e .
All teachers and administra­
tors should become aware of sources of film material.
CHAPTER V I
THE SOCIAL STUDIES TEACHER IN RELATION
TO THE USE OP MATERIALS
In this chapter various findings concerning the
social studies teacher are reported.
In brief, the follow­
ing items are reported:
1.
The major and minor subjects of the social
studies teacher.
2.
The experience of the social studies teacher.
3*
The percentage of part and full time social
studies teachers.
I.
THE MAJOR AND MINOR SUBJECTS
Findings revealed that the largest percentage of the
teachers are teaching the subject in which they had majored
in college.
Twenty per cent reported a major in history,
while 16.6 per cent reported a major in social science.
Com­
bining the two, as history is regarded as a social science,
it is found that ^6.6 per cent majored in social science or
social
studies.
The next most popular major was education,
which was the choice of 15 per cent of those reporting.
However, in teaching the seventh and eighth grades, education
might well be a good major.
Prom the sixty teachers answer­
ing the questionnaires, sixteen different majors were
49
reported.
A listing of the various majors is given in
Table V.
The most frequently found minor of the social studies
teachers was English, which was the choice of 26.6 per cent.
History was next in popularity as 18.5 per cent listed it as
their minor subject.
II.
EXPERIENCE OF THE SOCIAL STUDIES TEACHER
Similar to other phases of this chapter this section
derived its best comparisons from related investigations.
Wiechman discovered that the median experience was from five
to seven years,34 while Long reported that the average
teacher has had approximately six years of teaching experi­
ence in the social studies field.35
A great variety of experience in the teaching of
social studies was discovered.
to twenty-three years.
Experience ranged from one
The largest single group of teachers
had but two years* experience.
In this group nine teachers
or 15 per cent had taught social studies for three years,
34. Janet. Wiechman, ^Equipment and Materials Used in the
Social Studies Department of Los Angeles Junior High Schools,11
(unpublished Master*s thesis, University of Southern Cali­
fornia, Los Angeles, 1920), p. 48.
35 Katherine Long, ,TThe Social Studies Laboratory,”
(unpublished Master*s thesis, University of Southern Cali­
fornia, Los Angeles, 1924), p. 87*
50
TABLE V
PERCENTAGE OF COLLEGE MAJORS AND MINORS
OF SOCIAL STUDIES TEACHERS
Major
Education
Per cent
15
Minor
Per cent
Education
5
3
Chemistry
1.6
Language
English
8
English
26
Social Science
16
Science
3
History
20
Psychology
1.6
Home Economics
1.6
History
18
Physical Education
5
Economics
1.6
Economics
6
Music
6
Biology
3
Social Science
6
Languages
5
Sociology
1.6
Psychology
1.6
Political Science
6
Sociology
1.6
Art
1.6
Music
1.6
Literature
1.6
Mathematics
3
Geography
1.6
Speech
1.6
Architecture
1.6
51
while at the same time slightly more than 8 per cent had
taught the subject for ten years.
social studies for twelve years.
Ten per cent had taught
Eleven and six-tenths per
cent had taught this subject for four years.
The median
number of years experience was found to be seven years.
The number of teachers reporting one to twenty-three years1
experience are listed in Table VI.
III.
CLASSES TAUGHT IN ADDITION TO SOCIAL STUDIES
One writer reports that 78.8 per cent of the social
studies teachers investigated teach only social studies.36
Horn states that social studies teachers carry an especially
heavy
l o a d .
37
A tabulation revealed that only 26.6 per cent of the
social studies teachers taught social studies exclusively.
This figure would indicate that 75.4 per cent are part-time
teachers of social studies.
Thirty-one per cent of the
teachers taught but one social studies class each day.
Twenty-one per cent taught two social studies classes per
day, and 18 per cent taught five classes each day.
Table VII,
page 539 shows the number and percentage of teachers devoting
56 Ibid., p. 1537 Ernest Horn, Methods of Instruction in the Social
Studies (New York: C. Scribner1s Sons, 1957)> p. "7 8 .
52
TABLE VI
TEACHING EXPERIENCE IN SOCIAL STUDIES
Number of years
1
2
5
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
Number of teachers
2
9
5
7
4
2
4
3
1
5
3
6
2
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
53
TABLE VII
NUMBER OP DAILY CLASSROOM PERIODS DEVOTED TO THE SOCIAL
STUDIES REPORTED BY FIFTY-NINE TEACHERS
Periods
Teachers
Per cent
1
19
32
2
13
22
3
8
4
4
8
4
5
11
18
54
one to five periods daily to social studies.
Twenty-four
per cent reported that they taught four classes in addition
to social studies.
One teacher said that she taught ten
additional classes.
IV.
PERMANENT SOCIAL STUDIES CLASSROOMS
A similar study shows that the majority of social
studies teachers use the same classroom throughout the
day.^8
it vas found that 70 per cent of the teachers had
a permanent social studies classroom for social studies.
From the schools reporting it was found that 51-4
per cent did not use the departmental system in the seventh
and eighth grades.
However, this system was used by 45-7
per cent of the schools.
One school reported the use of a
partial departmental system.
V.
COMPARISON OF THE MORE EXPERIENCED TEACHER
WITH THE LESS EXPERIENCED
The investigator desired to determine whether the
formal type of teaching was especially prevalent among the
older teachers.
The usual feeling is that more recent gradu­
ates are more inclined to teach the activity type of instruc­
tion.
To arrive at some estimate three things were selected
^
Janet Wiechman, o£. cit., p. 45-
55
which might be a clue to the type of instruction.
Classroom
seating, cupboard for tools, and mounted pictures were used,
as possible items indicative of a less formal program.
Teach­
ers who had taught from one to ten years were compared with
those whose experience ranged from ten years upward.
Natur­
ally, there were fewer teachers who had worked more than ten
years.
It was found that while about one half of the younger
teachers had moveable seating, only 55 per cent of the older
teachers had this arrangement.
On the matter of space for
tools somewhat less than 65 per cent of the younger teachers
had such conveniences, while 70 per cent of the older teach­
ers had storage for tools.
Sixty-nine per cent of the young­
er group had collections of mounted pictures in contrast to
95 per cent of the older group.
From these findings it was concluded that age and ex­
perience make little difference in the type of teaching,
although the older teachers appeared to prefer a fixed seat­
ing arrangement.
Table VIII shows the comparative use of
equipment by teachers of greater and lesser experience.
VI.
1.
in social science.
SUMMARY
Thirty-six per cent of the teachers had majored
As they were the largest number who had
majored In one field, their number would reveal that the
majority were employed in the subject of their choice.
56
TABLE VIII
COMPARATIVE USE OP EQUIPMENT FOR
TEACHERS OF GREATER AND LESSER EXPERIENCE
One to ten years1 experience
Ten years1 or more experience
Yes
No
Yes
No
Moveable desks or
tables and chairs
22
20
7
15
Cupboards and space
for tools
25
15
14
6
Mounted picture
collections
27
12
19
1
57
2.
Twenty-six per cent of the teachers minored in
English.
5.
The median years of experience was found to he
approximately seven years.
4.
It was found that 26 per cent taught social
studies exclusively.
5.
Thirty-one per cent taught but one social studies
class each day.
This would indicate that most of their
time was spent with other subjects.
6.
Seventy per cent had the use of a permanent so­
cial studies classroom.
7.
In the seventh and eighth grades 51 per cent did
not use the departmental system.
8.
Age and experience make little difference in
whether teaching is formal or progressive.
9-
Best results are most likely to be found if all
teachers are employed in the field of their training.
If it
were possible more effective teaching would result from
teachers who have only social studies classes.
A permanent
class for social studies will greatly improve the availa­
bility of materials.
CHAPTER V I I
THE USE OP AUDIO AIDS AND THE USE OF THE LIBRARY IN RELATION
TO THE SOCIAL STUDIES PROGRAM AND REASONS FOR
LACK OF SOCIAL STUDIES MATERIALS
In this chapter the aim was to include a number of
small but necessary items which have not yet been covered.
First, a tabulation was kept of the uses of materials, such
as the radio, phonograph, and speaker, as aids to the social
studies program; second, an attempt was made to determine
the usual practice in the use of the library; and third, a
listing was made of the reasons for any lack of social
studies materials that might be of value.
I.
USE OF THE RADIO AND THE RADIO PROGRAM
With the appreciation of the growing importance of
the radio as a social force has come an increasing interest
in its potential use in education.59
its use is increasing
at all levels from elementary school to c o l l e g e . T h e r e are
many programs on the various commercial networks that may be
listened to with interest and profit by students of the
•50
^ Ernest Horn, Methods of Instruction in the Social
Studies (New York: C. Scribner*s Sons, 1937 )> P* 396T
Ibid., p. 332.
59
social studies and much of what is contained in them may not
be secured by any other m e a n s . ^
More than 7^ per cent of the schools reported avail­
able radios.
Of these schools 8l per cent used radios for
social studies, leaving a remainder of 19 per cent who
failed to use the radio in spite of the fact that one was
provided.
The chief obstacle reported in the way of greater
use of the radio was that the programs did not always come
at the proper time for use by the social studies class.
II.
THE USE OP THE PHONOGRAPH
The phonograph record has two advantages In its
favor: it records and brings to the classroom the addresses,
songs, and circumstances of past days; and it is readily
integrated with class
w
o
r
k
.
Another writer makes this
statement: 11A phonograph with records to play, a radio, and
a wealth of books.
Such things are called materials of
impression.
Thirty-one per cent of the schools had phonograph
records on hand.
At the same time but 25• 7 P©** cent made
use of phonograph records for social studies.
^
Possibly, if
Ibid., p. 332.
42 Ibid., p. 335^ Gordon Melvin, The Technique of Progressive Teaching (New York: John Day Company, 1952), p. 92.
the matter was given careful consideration, a wide and valu­
able use could be made of the phonograph in vitalizing the
social studies programs.
III.
TALKS BY EXPERTS
Horn seems to feel that the speaker is superior to
radio or phonograph because the speaker is more enlivening
and affords opportunity for questions.^
One of the most
stimulating means of introducing or livening a social studies
subject is to secure an outside speaker, an expert on the
subject who will come and present a talk before the class.
It was found that nearly 43 per cent of the classes had
used this aid to teaching during the year.
IV.
USE OP THE LIBRARY
Both literature and comparative surveys are avail­
able regarding use of the library.
It is recommended by
one that at least twice as much use would be made of materi­
als if they were near at hand instead of in the general
library.
Rugg definitely encourages the practice of plac­
ing books in the c l a s s r o o m . R e l a t e d investigations state
^
Ernest Horn, o£. cit., p. 3^8.
^5 J. W. Baldwin, The Social Studies Laboratory (New
York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 1929)> P* ^7*
^6 Harold Rugg, The Social Studies in the Elementary
School (Bloomington, Illinois: National Society for the
Study of Education, Twenty-second Yearbook, 1923 )> P* 262.
6l
that in less than one half of the schools there is no defin­
ite library schedule.^7
Use of the library often becomes a great problem.
In
fact, the problem sometimes becomes so great that it is often
a question as to whether it is advisable to use the library
for social studies.
are employed.
Several practices in using the library
The entire class might use it on a regular
schedule, there might be occasional use by the class, or
pupils could be sent individually to the library.
Questionnaires reveal that 25*7 per cent of the
schools prefer to send classes to the library on a regular
schedule.
Fourteen per cent have occasional use by the
class, and 11.4 per cent send pupils to the library indi­
vidually.
Many schools find it practical to use a combina­
tion of these systems.
In 14 per cent of the schools it was
found that the library was not used at all.
These schools
either did not have a library or they preferred to keep
materials for the unit in the classroom.
V.
REASONS FOR LACK OF SOCIAL STUDIES MATERIALS
Quite a variety of reasons were advanced for defi­
ciencies in social studies equipment.
Forty-eight and five-
^7 Janet Wiechman, ^Equipment and Materials Used in
the Social Studies Department of the Los Angeles Junior High
S c h o o l s , ( u n p u b l i s h e d Master’s thesis, University of
Southern California, Los Angeles, 1930), p. 58*
62
tenths per cent of the schools said that lack of equipment
was due to lack of funds.
Thirty-four per cent stated they
lacked equipment but gave no reasons for not having it.
In­
adequate distributive centers were reported by 28.5 per
cent.
Fourteen per cent said that it was caused by insuffi­
cient time to use materials at hand, while 17 per cent said
that it was due to failure of teachers to make use of avail­
able sources.
Of course, some reported that their diffi­
culties were a combination of these reasons.
Only 5*5 per
cent said that they had no deficiency in social studies
equipment.
Other reasons given were as follows:
1.
Misunderstandings with County Library.
2.
Arrangement of building for radio use.
3*
Booms improperly equipped for film projection.
4.
Tradition.
VI.
1.
for use.
2.
SUMMARY
Three fourths of the schools had radio available
Rot all schools having radios made use of them.
About one third of the schools had phonographs,
while only one fourth of the schools used the phonograph
for social studies.
3.
Almost one half of the schools reported that
social studies classes had used talks by experts as a means
of instruction.
63
4.
One fourth of the schools sent pupils to the
library on the basis of regular schedule for each class.
Over one tenth sent the pupils to the library individually.
Quite a number of schools preferred not to use the library
for social studies, but to keep necessary references in the
classroom.
5.
Hearly one half of the schools maintained that
the lack of social studies equipment was due to insufficient
funds.
This reason is difficult to remedy.
zation could possibly remedy other factors.
A little organi­
Several other
reasons were given.
6.
Audio aids in Orange County appear to be gen­
erally adequate except that greater use could be made of
the phonograph as a means of varying the presentation.
The
same is true of the speaker obtained from outside the school,
provided such persons are available.
7«
While it is vitally necessary to maintain a good
school library, the practice of bringing social studies
reference books to the classroom should be encouraged.
CHAPTER V I I I
SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS
I.
SUMMARY
There has been an attempt throughout this study to
determine several points concerning social studies equipment.
This attempt was focused mainly upon three aims,
(l)
to determine what constitutes a satisfactory minimum amount
of equipment and materials;
(2) to show the need for the
establishment of centers of materials;
(3)
to establish
responsibility for the provision, care, and manipulation of
Instructional materials.
With these points in mind the
study has been summarized.
1.
A review of the related studies proved valuable
in forming a basis upon which to compare the situation in
Orange County.
2.
Nearly 100 per cent of those reporting indicated
the use of various construction materials, such as scissors
and crayons.
struction.
Eighty-five per cent used cardboard for con­
Modeling materials were used by 7^ per cent.
Forty-three per cent used the sand table. .
3-
A basic text was available in 55 per cent of the
classes, 58 per cent of the classrooms were supplied with
dictionaries, forty-three different magazines were used, the
65
most widely being the National Geographic which was used by
53 per cent of the schools.
4.
Desk maps, atlases, wall maps, and globes were
used by 29* 49 > 75* and 80 per cent respectively.
5»
Only one classroom was reported as completely
equipped with tables, 53 per cent reported the use of im­
moveable desks, 95 per cent reported blackboard and ade­
quate bulletin board space, bulletin board space being
slightly less adequate than blackboard space.
6.
Forty-two of the rooms were equipped with filing
cases and cupboards, a very small percentage possessing
neither.
7.
Fifty-three per eent of the schools did not have
moveable desks or tables.
8.
About 20 per cent of the schools had no library.
9.
Seventy-one per cent of the schools had some type
of projector, the silent type comprising 76 per cent of the
entire number.
10.
A list of sixteen free sources of films was
11.
Lack of suitable films was the greatest hinder-
found.
ance to greater use of films.
Lack of provisions for pro­
jections and lack of projections were among the reasons
given for the lack of films.
One third of the schools
listed each of the above reasons.
66
12.
Films were shown to separate and combined classes.
13*
Fifty-one per cent had no slide projectors.
14.
Collections of mounted pictures were available
to 83 p e r cent of the teachers.
15•
Thirty-six per cent of the teachers had majored
in social science; 26 per cent had minored in English.
The
median years of experience was found to be approximately
seven years.
Twenty-six per cent taught social studies ex­
clusively; 31 p e r cent taught only one social studies class
each day.
This would indicate that most of their time was
spent with other subjects.
Seventy per cent had the use of
a permanent social studies classroom.
Age and experience,
it was discovered, made little difference in whether teach­
ing is formal or progressive.
16.In the seventh and
eighth grade 51 P©** cent did
not use the departmental system.
17•
able.
Not all of these made use of the radio, however.
18.
while
Three fourths of the schools had radios avail­
About one third of the schools had phonographs,
one fourth used the phonograph for social studies.
19*
Almost one half of the schools reported that
social studies classes had used talks by experts as a means
of instruction.
20.
One fourth of the schools sent pupils to the
library on the basis of regular schedule for each class.
67
Over one tenth sent pupils to the library individually.
Quite a number of schools preferred not to use the library
for social studies, but to keep necessary references in the
classroom.
21.
of
Nearly one half of the schools claimed that lack
funds was the cause of the scarcity of social studies
equipment in their schools.
Several other reasons were
given.
22.
to
be
Audio aids in Orange County
adequate except
appeared in general
that greater usecould be made of the
phonograph as a means for varying the presentation.
The
same is true of the speaker obtained from outside the school,
provided such persons are available.
II.
1.
equipment.
RECOMMENDATIONS
There is definitely a need for more and better
At least social studies classrooms should be
equipped with tables and moveable chairs.
should be brought up-to-date.
Furnishings
Whenever new seatings are
purchased, they should be in the form of tables and chairs
until at least the social studies classrooms are equipped
with this kind of furnishing.
2.
More sound machines could be used and teachers
should learn how to operate projectors with which all schools
should be provided, and which should be used by the social
studies classes.
3*
A film library should be established for the care
and distribution of films.
4.
Greater use should be made of the radio and
phonograph as means for varying presentations.
This is
also true of speakers obtained from outside the school
provided such persons are available.
5.
More use of the library is recommended, and the
practice of bringing social studies reference books to the
classroom is encouraged.
6.
Basic texts should be made available to more
classes so that a general guide can be provided by this
source.
Also, more supplies of dictionaries should be pro­
vided, as well as other books and periodicals.
7*
A permanent classroom for social studies classes
would greatly improve the availability of materials.
It is
also recommended that sand tables be more widely used in
the seventh and eighth grades.
8.
Teachers and administrators should keep them­
selves informed regarding materials and equipment available.
9.
The principal or head of the department should
inform the teachers of available equipment and materials.
It is
also recommended that it be the duty.of the principal
to provide
10.
teachers with adequate materials.
Teachers should be employed in the field of their
69
training.
More effective teaching would result from teachers
who have only social studies classes.
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BIBLIOGRAPHY
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52 pp.
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A practical pamphlet on the equipment and management
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of the Social Studies.
New York: Charles Scribner’s
Sons, 1937.
328 pp.
A study of the social studies teacher and the personal
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New York: D. Appleton-Century Company,
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9817"pp.
Principles and practice in the improvement of instruc­
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A portion included upon the equipment and teach­
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127 PPConcerns the teaching and study of social studies.
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236 pp.
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72
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658 pp.
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Chapters XII, XIII.
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523 PP«
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Chapters VII to XII.
A bit old but catches the idea of using models, maps,
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Chapters III to V.
Use of cartoons, charts, graphs, maps, and other equip­
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326 pp.
In this yearbook a proposed social science course for
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73
Schwarz,
John,
Social
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215 PP«
The study and teaching of social studies in the ele­
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How to teach the social studies; sample units and sug­
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B.
PERIODICAL ARTICLES
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A review of the Sacramento, California, social studies
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Recommendations for social studies materials in junior
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Criteria by which the teacher may estimate the worth of
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A collection of methods for using such laboratory de­
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74
Davis, Mary D., "Teaching Aids for Teachers," School Life,
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A comparison of social.studies practices and materials.
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75
Knowlton, D. C., "The Teaching of History in Junior High
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How to arrange for social studies activities.
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Also a
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Attention is called to some of the important skills
resulting from social studies activities.*
Michener, James A., ”A Design for Social Studies,” Elementary
School Journal, XL (February, 1940), 443-51*
A formulation of problems to be solved for satisfactory
social studies curriculum--emphasis on sequence of ex­
periences .
Mclver, Marie, "Materials Bureau--A Cooperative,” Phi Delta
Kappan, XXIII (December, 1940), 168-70.
Suggestions for a materials bureau to aid rural teachers.
Ormsby,. Wallace D., "An Educational Service Bureau,"Phi
Delta Kappan, XXIII (December, 1940), 165-6 7 *
Suggestions for an educational service bureau to distri­
bute film equipment. Lists sources of free films.
Smith, Gerald, "Teaching Social Studies," Sierra Educational
News, XXXV (October, 1939)* 34.
The philosophy and objectives to social studies.
76
Stone, Edna H., ’’Teaching the Social Studies in the Seventh
Grade,” Historical Outlook, XVI (October, 1925)* 262-74.
Explains the laboratory method used at University High
School, Oakland, California.
Wilgus, A. C., ’’Laboratory Methods in the Study and Teaching
of History,” Historical Outlook, XII (January, 1921), 23*
Discusses modern laboratory methods in the teaching of
history and lists reference materials■and aids.
C.
UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS
Dixon, Maude, "Materials and Methods for Enriching the Social
Studies in the Junior High School for Accelerated Groups”
Unpublished Master’s thesis, University of Southern Cali­
fornia, Los Angeles, 1929*
204 pp.
A study of materials and methods used in progressive
schools.
Long, Katherine, "The Social Studies Laboratory.” Unpublished
Master’s thesis, University of Southern California, Los
Angeles, 1934.
110 pp.
An investigation of materials and methods of social
studies teaching in California.
Slagle, L. M., ’’Relative Values of Recitations and Labora­
tory Activities, in Social Science,” Unpublished
Master’s thesis. University of Southern California,
Los Angeles, 1928.
52 pp.
A study of civics classes to contrast the values of the
recitation and the laboratory methods.
Wiechman, Janet, ”A Survey of Equipment and Materials Used
in the Social Studies Departments of the Los Angeles
Junior High Schools.” Unpublished Master’s thesis,
University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1930.
73 PP*
An investigation of materials and aids.
APPENDIX
QUESTIONNAIRE
TO THE PRINCIPAL OR HEAD OF SOCIAL STUDIES DEPARTMENT
Name of school_____________
Size
of school
• ____
Person making report____________ _____________________ ________
1.
How many full time teachers of social studies do you
have? __________
2.
How many part time teachers of social studies do you
have? _________ _
3*
How many pupils in social studies do you have?_____
4.
Are all social studies (seventh and eighth grade) carried
on in the same room? __________ Departmental system?_____
5.
Is material inter-changed between social studies
rooms?
FILMS AND PROJECTORS
6.
How many sound projectors do you have?___________ Do
you use them?________
7*
How many silent projectors do you have?___________ Do. you
use them?
8.
What size is your projector? (16 m.m., 8 m.m.)_________
9.
What make is your projector?_____________________________
10.
How many slide projectors do you have?__________________
Do you use them? ________
11.
Where do you obtain films?
a.
b.
c.
12.
Orange County Library?________
Commercial Concerns (free films)?_________
By rental?__________
List any other sources of obtaining films.______________
■
79
13 •
How do you ordinarily show social studies films?
a.
b.
c.
To a single class?__________
To classes combined?________
To the assembly group?______
AUDIO AIDS
14.
List the number of the following which you have or use.
Have
a.
b.
c.
d.
Use
Radios
Phonographs
Records
Talks by experts
MAPS, GLOBES, ATLASES
15*
List the number of the following which you have or use.
Have
a.
Use
Maps
political
physical ^
wall
desk
b.
Globes
c.
Atlases
CONSTRUCTIONS MATERIALS
16.
Check the supplies which you have available or use.
Available
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
Cardboard for construction
Soap, clay, modeling materials
Chart and graph paper
Drawing materials
Sand table
Scissors
Use
80
16 .
(continued)
Available
g.
h.
________________
Crayons
Travel folders
Use
LIBRARY USE
17.
What is the usual practice regarding use of the library?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Regular schedules for use by the entire class?_____
Occasional use by the class?_____
Pupils sent individually to the library?^___________
Used at random?________ _ _
Collection of books and materials kept in the
room?
CAUSES
18.
To what do you attribute any lack of social studies
material?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
Lack of funds?__________
Lack of equipment ?
Inadequate distribution centers?__________
Insufficient time to use m a t e r i a l s ? _______
Failure of teachers to make use of available
sources?__________
Other reasons?
QUESTIONNAIRE
TO THE TEACHER OP SOCIAL STUDIES
Name of. school?_______ . ■
Size of school?___________
Person making r e p o r t ___________________________________
1.
What was your college major?__________
minor?_______ _
2. How many years have you taught social studies?_______
5-
How many social studies classes do you teach each
day?__________
4.
How many classes each day other than social studies?
5 . Do you use a permanent social studies classroom?____
6.
Check the type of seating in the room you use.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Immoveable desks_____ •
Moveable desks_________ _
Tables for two or more
Work benches_______ .
____ _
7-
Do you feel that you have sufficient.blackboard
spac e ?_______ _
8.
Do you feel that you have sufficient bulletin board
space ?_______•
9 . Check the following which you have.
a.
b.
Cabinets and filing casesi__________
Cupboards for tools__________
10.
Does each pupil; have a copy of the state text?______
11.
Does each pupil have an individual dictionary?
12.
Does the room contain a single large dictionary?____
13 • Check the difficulties in the way of greater use of
visual materials.
a.
b.
c.
Rooms not equipped for projection?__________
Lack of p r o j e c t o r s ? _______
Lack of suitable films?
82
14.
Do you keep in your library or elsewhere about the
school a collection of mounted pictures or materials?
15-
What plan do you have for the use of the library?
a.
b.
Regular schedule?__________
Classes go at any hour?__________
16.
List magazines which you take that are available and
suitable to social studies classes.
17•
Do you use travel folders for social studies classes?
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