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An investigation of state, school, and community provision for the treatment of delinquents

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AN INVESTIGATION OF STATE, SCHOOL, AND COMMUNITY PROVISIONS
FOR THE TREATMENT OF DELINQUENTS
A T h e s is
P re se n te d to
th e F a c u lty o f th e S c h o o l o f E d u c a tio n
The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a
In P a r t ia l F u lfillm e n t
o f th e R e q u ire m e n ts f o r t h e D egree
M a ste r o f S c ie n c e in E d u c a tio n
by
J o h n W i l l i s Down
Ju n e 1941
UMI Number: EP54001
All rights reserved
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UMI EP54001
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This thesis, written under the direction of the
Chairman of the candidate's Guidance Committee
and approve d by all members of the Committee ,
has been presented to and accepted by the Faculty
of the School of Education in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of M ast er of
Science in Education.
D a ic .^ e . 7 >.. Iо4! .....................
Guidance C om m ittee
...........
Chairman
Irv in g R. Melbo
Wm.
Gr*
Cam pbell
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I*
PAGE
THE PROBLEM......................................................... . * .........................
A n a ly s is and im p o rta n c e o f t h e p ro b lem
.
. .
1
S ta te m e n t of th e p ro b le m
. ? .......................... .
,
1
A n a ly s is o f th e p ro b le m .
............................... .
.
2
Im p o rta n c e o f th e p ro b le m
....................................
6
D e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y ....................................
10
D e f i n i t i o n o f term s
10
. . . . . . . . . . . .
S o u rc e s o f d a t a , m eth o d s o f p r o c e d u r e ,
and
o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e s t u d y ..........................................
11
S o u rces o f d a ta
11
. * .
M e th o d s o f p r o c e d u r e
.
? ....................................
....................................................
G en eral o r g a n iz a tio n o f th e t h e s i s
II*
1
.
. .
.
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ON DELINQUENCY . . . .
L ite r a tu r e on s t a t e p ro v isio n s*
o n c o m m u n ity p r o v i s i o n s
L ite r a tu r e on sch o o l p ro v is io n s
13
17
The
C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e S c h o o l C o d e .........................
L ite ra tu re
13
.
17
. . . .
IS
. . . . . .
19
The p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s u n d e r l y i n g d e l i n н
quent te n d e n c ie s
........................................
L im ita tio n s o f p re v io u s s tu d ie s
.
20
.....................
23
P resen t s ta tu s
o f th e p ro b le m .
.....................
24
Sum m ary o f t h e
c h a p t e r ...............................................
25
iii
CHAPTER
III.
PACE
THE NATURE OP THE FACTORS AND INFLUENCES REн
LATING TO DELINQUENCY
................................................27
The n a t u r e o f t h e c a u s e s ........................................ .
E n v iro n m e n ta l f a c t o r s r e l a t i n g
quency.
27
to d e li n н
.....................................................
P h y s ic a l c o n d itio n s v e rs u s d e lin q u e n c y
.
28
. .
34
.
35
P sy c h o lo g ic a l fa c to r s r e l a ti n g to d e lin н
quency
........................................................................ .
In te llig e n c e
of d e lin q u e n ts
....................................
40
Sum m ary o f t h e c h a p t e r .....................................................43
IV .
LEGAL PROVISIONS IN CALIFORNIA FOR THE EDUCAн
TION AND TREATMENT OF DELINQUENTS . . . . . .
47
L egal b ack g ro u n d f o r p r e s e n t tre a tm e n t
47
. . .
T re a tm e n t o f c h i l d r e n u n d e r C a l i f o r n i a
j u v e n i l e law s
...............................................................49
D e f i n i t i o n s u n d e r t h e l a w ............................................... 49
P u r p o s e s a n d i n t e n t o f C a l i f o r n i a la w s
d e a lin g w ith y o u th fu l o ffe n d e rs
J u r i s d i c t i o n o f th e
ju v e n ile c o u rt
. . . . .
50
. . . .
53
C o m m itm e n t o f p e r s o n s u n d e r t h e a g e o f
six te e n
C a lifo rn ia
........................................................
56
c o u rt p ro c e d u re in h a n d lin g
d e l i n q u e n t s .............................................................................. 57
C h ild re n ?s C o u rt of C o n c ilia tio n
.....................
60
iv
CHAPTER
PAGE
P ro b a tio n a ry tre a tm e n t of ju v e n ile d e lin н
q u e n ts
...................................................
.
.
63
*
67
L eg al p r o v is io n s f o r th e e d u c a tio n and t r e a t н
m ent o f d e lin q u e n ts
in s ta te
D e t e n t i o n h o m es a n d s c h o o l s
P a r e n ta l sc h o o ls
A d ju stm en t s c h o o ls
in stitu tio n s
. . . . . . . .
67
................................................................
68
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
70
T w e n ty -fo u r-h o u r e le m e n ta ry s c h o o ls
. . . .
71
C o r r e c tio n a l s c h o o ls p ro v id e d by th e S t a te
o f C a l i f o r n i a ........................................... ........
73
A d m in is tra tio n o f c o r r e c tio n a l sc h o o ls . . .
74
A d m i s s i o n ......................................................................
74
E d u c a t i o n a l o f f e r i n g ........................................... ........
75
D is m is s a ls fro m c o r r e c t i o n a l s c h o o ls
76
. . .
F in a n c ia l su p p o rt o f c o r r e c tio n a l sc h o o ls.
F o r e s t r y c am p s
..............................................................
Sum m ary o f l e g a l p r o v i s i o n s
77
in C a lifo rn ia fo r
th e e d u c a tio n and tre a tm e n t
7.
76
o fd e lin q u e n ts
.
78
........................................................................
81
EDUCATIONAL PROVISIONS FOR THE TREATMENT OF
DELINQUENTS AND POTENTIAL DELINQUENTS IN
CALIFORNIA .
.
Aims a n d o b j e c t i v e s o f s c h o o l p r o g r a m s r e l a t i n g
t o d e l i n q u e n c y ........................................................................
81
P ro g ram o f C a l i f o r n i a s c h o o ls t o ch eck and
t r e a t d e l i n q u e n c y ..............................................................
83
V
CHAPTER
PAGE
V a rie ty o f tre a tm e n t ? ? .
,
.................................. 83
P re lim in a ry c o u n se llo r p ro ced u res
.....................
84
.
85
The a t t e n d a n c e a p p r o a c h
The c l i n i c a l a p p r o a c h
School f a ilu r e
. ? л .................................. 86
and d e lin q u e n c y . . . . . . .
E f f e c t i v e p r o c e d u r e s ................................... .
T eacher in flu e n c e
.
. .
87
?
. # ...................................................
T he s p e c i a l t e a c h e r
.
89
90
..............................................
91
S h o rtc o m in g s i n th e p r e s e n t e d u c a t i o n a l o f н
fe rin g
..............................................
92
A c a d e m ic c u r r i c u l u m
94
S h o r t c o m i n g s s u m m a r i z e d ............................................ 9 4
S u g g e ste d program f o r C a l i f o r n i a sc h o o ls
* .
95
The C e n t r a l B u r e a u * .........................
95
The r e c r e a t i o n a l a p p r o a c h
..........................................
96
. .........................................................
97
S tu d e n t in v e n to ry
C h a ra c te r and s o c i a l tr a in in g
G u id a n ce p ro g ra m . . . . . .
C rim e c o s t .
.
* .........................
97
....................................
99
........................................................
. ?
Sum m ary o f t h e c h a p t e r ..........................
V I#
?
COMMUNITY COOPERATION IN. PREVENTION PROGRAMS .
D e v e l o p m e n t o f c o m m u n ity a c t i v i t y .........................
99
100
. 102
1Q2
The C o o r d i n a t i n g C o u n c i l P l a n o f c o m m u n ity
a c tio n ?
104
vi
CHAPTER
PAGE
B e g in n in g s o f th e C o o r d in a tin g C o u n c il P la n
104
The o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d f u n c t i o n o f t h e c o н
o r d i n a t i n g c o u n c i l ............................................................... 1 0 7
................................................1 0 9
S u ccess o f th e p la n
O t h e r s u c c e s s f u l p r o g r a m s o f c o m m u n ity a c t i o n
110
The d i r e c t o r - a t - l a r g e p l a n ................................................1 1 0
D e lin q u e n c y p r e v e n t io n th r o u g h b o y ?s c lu b s
.
Ill
Sum m ary o f t h e c h a p t e r ...............................................................1 1 2
V II.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
. . .
115
S u m m a r y ...................................................................................................1 1 5
C ausal fa c to rs
...............................................................11 5
The n a t u r e o f t h e f a c t o r s a n d i n f l u e n c e s r e н
la tin g
to d e lin q u e n c y
. . . . . . . . . .
115
E n v iro n m e n ta l f a c t o r s
...............................................
116
P s y c h o lo g ic a l f a c to r s
.
In te llig e n c e
.
..................................... 1 1 6
a n d d e l i n q u e n c y ..................................... 1 1 7
L e g a l p r o v i s i o n s ......................................................................... 1 1 8
P u rp o se s and i n t e n t of C a li f o r n ia J u v e n ile
L a w s ........................................................
118
The j u v e n i l e c o u r t s t r u c t u r e
in C a lifo rn 3 a tll9
J u r i s d i c t i o n o f th e
ju v e n ile c o u rt . . .
119
C o iirt p r o c e d u r e i n h a n d l i n g d e l i n q u e n t s
120
The C h i l d r e n ? s C o u r t o f C o n c i l i a t i o n
.
.
120
P ro b a tio n a ry tre a tm e n t o f ju v e n ile deн
lin q u e n ts
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
121
v ii
PAGE
CHAPTER
E d u c a tio n a l tre a tm e n t o f d e lin q u e n ts in
sta te
in s titu tio n s ,
sc h o o ls
* .
d e t e n t i o n hom es, and
...................................
P a r e n ta l sc h o o ls
.
A d ju stm e n t s c h o o ls
122
....................................................
.
. ............................................... *
T w e n ty -fo u r-h o u r e le m e n ta ry s c h o o ls
.
.
.
123
12 3
.
1 23
C o rre c tio n a l s c h o o ls su p p o rte d by th e S ta te
of C a lifo rn ia
F o r e s t r y cam p s
. . . . . . .
.
. . . . .
......................... ?
.
124
.....................................
123
E d u c a tio n a l p r o v is io n s f o r th e tre a tm e n t o f
d e lin q u e n ts and p o t e n t i a l d e lin q u e n ts
P ro g ram o f C a l i f o r n i a s c h o o ls to
. . .
123
check and
t r e a t d e l i n q u e n c y .............................................
123
S c h o o l c u r r i c u l a ........................................
B e h a v io r c l i n i c s
R e ta rd a tio n
126
...............................................................1 2 ?
..............................
127
S u c c e s s f u l p rogram s
........................................
S h o rtc o m in g s o f th e
e d u c a tio n a l o f f e r in g
128
.
128
C o m m u n ity c o o p e r a t i o n i n p r e v e n t i v e p r o g r a m s
C o o rd in a tin g c o u n c il p la n
.........................
.
1 30
.
130
F u n c tio n and o r g a n iz a tio n o f th e c o o r d in a tн
i n g c o u n c i l .............................................................................. 1 3 1
S u ccess o f th e c o o rd in a tin g c o u n c il . . . .
132
T he d i r e c t o r - a t - l a r g e p l a n .......................................... 1 3 2
v iii
CHAPTER
PAGE
D e lin q u e n c y p r e v e n tio n th ro u g h b o y f s c lu b s
133
C o n c l u s i o n s ............................................................................. *
134
T he c a u s a l p a t t e r n
* ....................................................
134
....................................................
135
T re a tm e n t p r o c e d u r e s
P e r s o n a l i t y g ro u p in g s
N a tio n a l id e o lo g y
...............................
.
? .
135
* # .............................................
136
T r a i n e d w o r k e r s ..................................................................
137
T he a p p r o a c h .................................... .............................. *
137
E u tu re tre a tm e n t
138
.
? .
* .........................................
C o rre c tio n a l in s t it u t io n s
# .....................................
C a s e w o r k a p p r o a c h .........................
14 0
R e c o m m e n d a ti o n s * ...................................................................
G e n e ra l reco m m en d atio n s
R e c o m m e n d a ti o n s r e l a t i v e
139
140
141
t o th e
le g a l t r e a t н
m ent o f d e lin q u e n ts i n C a l i f o r n i a
.
* .
.
143
R e c o m m e n d a tio n s f o r t h e t r e a t m e n t o f d e l i n н
q u e n ts th ro u g h e d u c a tio n
....................................
146
R e c o m m e n d a ti o n s f o r c o m m u n ity c o o p e r a t i o n i n
t h e p r e v e n t i o n o f d e l i n q u e n c y ..........................
149
BIBLIOGRAPHY............................................................................................................
151
APPENDIX
164
L IS T OF TABLES
TABLE
I*
PAGE
T o t a l Hum ber o f C o n t r i b u t i n g F a c t o r s C a u s i n g
M a l b e h a v i o r ................................................................................. .
II.
I n t e l l i g e n c e o f J u v e n ile D e lin q u e n ts
G ro u p o f 1 , 0 0 0 D e l i n q u e n t s )
S c h o o lC h ild r e n
IV .
29
.
32
C au ses o f S c h o o l W ith d ra w a l o f J u v e n i l e D e l in н
q u e n ts.
III.
.
(G lu e c k
and o f M a ss a c h u se tts
( D e a r b o r n G ro u p
o f 3 ,6 3 3
H o r m a l) 44
D i s p o s i t i o n o f C a se s H a n d led b y t h e C h i l d r e n s
C o u rt of C o n c ilia tio n ,
Los A n g e le s , C a l i f o r n i a ,
f o r t h e P e r i o d fro m S e p te m b e r 2 7 , t o M arch 2 6 ,
1940
V*
62
Ju v e n ile P ro b a tio n S t a t i s t i c s D is p o s itio n o f I n н
form al C ases,
J u l y 1 , 1 9 3 6 , T hrough Ju n e 30,
1933
S p e c ia l S c h o o ls and C la s s e s
66
93
L IS T OF CHARTS
CHAKT
I*
PAGE
B e rk e le y P u b lic S c h o o ls O r g a n iz a tio n C h a rt
P r o g r a m o f C h i l d A d j u s t m e n t * .....................................
II.
88
O rg a n iz a tio n C h a rt o f th e C o o rd in a tin g C o u n c il
B e rk e le y , C a lif o r n ia
? ? ? ?
.....................................
106
CHAPTER I
THE PROBLEM
D e lin q u e n c y c a n n o t be c l a s s i f i e d
d i f f e r e n t p ro b le m a s i t
has been in
hum an h i s t o r y h a s b e e n r e c o r d e d .
have d e a lt w ith th e v a rio u s
a s b e i n g a new o r
e x is te n c e a s lo n g as
Many s t u d i e s
in th e p a s t
a s p e c ts o f th e p ro b le m ,
h a v e a t t e m p t e d t o su m m a riz e a n a l y t i c a l l y
g e n e r a l l y b e en a c c o m p lish e d to w a rd i t s
b u t few
j u s t w hat has
so lu tio n .
T he a s s u m p н
t i o n o f t h e p r e s e n t t h e s i s was t h a t i f w o r k e r s i n t h e f i e l d o f
j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y knew p r e c i s e l y w h a t s t a t e ,
c o m m u n ity p r o g r a m s w e r e a l r e a d y i n f o r c e ,
e a s i l y be a b le to o r i g i n a t e
s c h o o l, and
t h e y w o u l d m o re
a m ore c o m p r e h e n s iv e and s u c c e s s н
f u l r e m e d i a l p r o g r a m i n t h e i r own l o c a l s i t u a t i o n s .
fe lt
t h a t m any w o r k e r s i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d
I t w as
c o u ld u t i l i z e
a d d itio n a l in fo rm a tio n re g a rd in g th e p re v e n tio n and a l l e v i a t i o n
o f d e lin q u e n c y a lo n g th e g e n e r a l l i n e s
resea rch e x p e rts.
in d ic a te d by le a d in g
I t w a s w i t h t h e s e t h o u g h t s i n m in d t h a t
t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was u n d e r t a k e n .
I.
ANALYSIS AND IMPORTANCE OF THE PROBLEM
S ta te m e n t o f th e p ro b le m .
stu d y
(1 )
I t was t h e p r o b le m o f t h i s
to i n v e s t i g a t e by m eans o f l i b r a r y ,
le g a l,
and
d o c u m e n ta ry r e s e a r c h w h at i s p r o v id e d i n t h e S t a t e o f
C a lifo rn ia
th ro u g h i t s
sta tu te s ,
p u b lic a g e n c ie s ,
co u rt
d e c is io n s , d e p a rtm e n ta l r u lin g s ,
a u th o ritie s
fo r, th e
tre a tm e n t o f ju v e n ile d e lin q u e n ts ;
(2) t o d i s c o v e r w h at i s
in stitu tio n s
and i n
and o p in io n s o f l e g a l
b e in g done i n C a li f o r n ia
and a d j u n c t s ,
e d u c a tio n a l
in s p e c i a l c l a s s e s and c l i n i c s ,
c o r r e c t i o n a l s c h o o ls i n c o p in g w ith t h a t segm ent o f
t h e y o u t h f u l p o p u l a t i o n t e n d i n g t o c o m m it a c t s o f a d e l i n q u e n t
n a tu re ;
( 3 ) to p o i n t o u t w hat i s b e in g done th ro u g h p r o g r e s s iv e
c o m m u n ity e f f o r t i n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f w o r k a b l e p r o g r a m s o f
a re m e d ia l and p r e v e n tiv e n a tu r e .
These th r e e av en u es o f
a p p ro a c h t o p ro b le m s w ere a n a ly z e d i n a n e f f o r t t o p r e s e n t an
i n t e g r a t e d v iew o f d e l i n q u e n c y , i t s
A n a l y s i s o f t h e -p r o b le m .
be an sw ered by t h i s
in in v e s tig a tio n :
p r e v e n tio n and tr e a tm e n t.
In g e n e r a l th e q u e s tio n s to
s t u d y m ay b e g r o u p e d u n d e r f o u r a s p e c t s
( 1 ) t h e m a n ifo ld f a c t o r s and i n f lu e n c e s
r e l a t i n g to d e lin q u e n c y ;
( 2 ) t h e l e g a l p r o v i s i o n s m ade b y t h e
S t a te o f C a lif o r n ia and i t s
s u b d iv is io n s f o r th e e d u c a tio n
and tr e a tm e n t o f ju v e n i l e d e lin q u e n ts ;
by th e sc h o o ls f o r t h e i r tr e a tm e n t;
( 3 ) th e program s p ro v id e d
and (4 ) th e v a r io u s o u tн
s t a n d i n g c o m m u n ity p r o g r a m s t h a t e v o l v e d .
d e ta il,
I.
answ ers to
Vftiat i s
re la te
A.
i n m o re
th e f o llo w in g q u e s tio n s w ere s o u g h t:
th e n a tu r e o f th e f a c t o r s and in f lu e n c e s t h a t
to d e lin q u e n c y ?
W hat i s
to
S ta te d
t h e r e l a t i o n o f t h e f a m i l y a n d home b a c k g r o u n d
th e in c id e n c e and d ev elo p m e n t o f d e lin q u e n c y ?
3
B*
W hat s p e c i a l f a c t o r s t e n d t o l e a d t o . w i t h d r a w a l
fro m s c h o o l?
0.
How d o c e r t a i n p h y s i c a l f a c t o r s r e l a t e
to d e lin q u e n c y ?
B.
W hat a r e t h e b a s i e p h y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s u n d e r l y i n g
t h e p ro b lem ?
E.
Is
i n t e l l i g e n c e an im p o rta n t c o n s id e r a tio n w ith
re g a r d to d e lin q u e n c y ?
P.
Is
i t p o s s ib le ,
by m eans o f p h y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t s
to
p r e d ic t a c c u ra te ly fu tu re d e lin q u e n ts?
II.
W hat a r e t h e l e g a l p r o v i s i o n s m ade b y t h e S t a t e o f
C a lifo rn ia
f o r th e e d u c a tio n and tr e a tm e n t o f d e lin q u e n ts ?
A.
How d o e s t h e s t a t e
d e fin e d e lin q u e n c y ?
B.
W hat a r e t h e p u r p o s e s a n d i n t e n t o f C a l i f o r n i a
law s
d e a lin g w ith d e lin q u e n ts?
C.
W hat i s
th e n a tu re o f th e J u v e n ile C o u rt s t r u c tu r e ?
D.
To w h a t e x t e n t h a s t h e c o u r t J u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r m i n o r s ?
E.
W hat i s
th e le g a l p ro c e d u re w ith re g a rd
to th e
h a n d lin g o f d e lin q u e n t c h ild re n ?
F.
W hat i s
1.
G.
th e C h ild re n ? s C ourt o f C o n c ilia tio n ?
W hat i s
its
re la tio n
to d e lin q u e n c y ?
W hat a r e t h e v a r i o u s p r o b a t i o n a r y p r o c e d u r e s t h a t
fu n c tio n in th e S ta te o f C a lifo rn ia ?
H.
W hat a r e d e t e n t i o n hom es a n d w h a t a r e t h e e d u c a t i o n a l
f a c i l i t i e s p ro v id e d ?
1.
Why a r e
such i n s t i t u t i o n s n e c e s s a ry ?
2.
How a r e t h e y o r g a n i z e d an d . a d m i n i s t e r e d ?
W hat a r e t h e l e g a l p r o v i s i o n s f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t
o f a d ju s tm e n t sc h o o ls?
1.
How d o t h e y d i f f e r f r o m o t h e r s t a t e
sc h o o ls?
2.
How d o t h e y f u n c t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r s t a t e
a g e n c ie s and s u b d iv is io n s ?
3.
Do t h e y f u l f i l l a n e e d i n t h e s t a t e ?
W h at i s
th e n a tu re o f th e p ro v is io n s fo r th e
e sta b lis h m e n t o f p a r e n ta l sc h o o ls?
1.
W hat t y p e o f c h i l d r e n c a n b e l e g a l l y s e n t t o
th e m ?
2.
How d o s u c h i n s t i t u t i o n s
3*
How a r e t h e y f i n a n c e d a n d s u p p o r t e d ?
W hat a r e
1.
fu n c tio n ?
tw e n ty -fo u r-h o u r sc h o o ls?
F or w hat gro u p s o f c h ild r e n a re th e s e sc h o o ls
d e sig n e d ?
2#
W hat i s
th e n a tu r e o f th e c u rric u lu m ?
W hat s p e c i a l c o r r e c t i o n a l s c h o o l s a r e p r o v i d e d b y
th e S ta te of C a lifo rn ia ?
1.
How do t h e s e s t a t e
s c h o o ls d i f f e r from r e g u l a r l y
o rg a n iz e d e d u c a tio n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s ?
2.
W h at t y p e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s m ay b e a d m i t t e d t o
th e m ?
3.
W hat i s
th e e d u c a tio n a l o f f e r i n g p ro v id e d ?
4.
How a r e t h e y f i n a n c e d ?
5
5.
How do s t a t e
fo re s try
cam ps o p e r a t e a s a d j u n c t s
o f th e c o r r e c tio n a l sc h o o ls?
III.
W hat i s t h e n a t u r e o f t h e r e g u l a r a n d s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a l
o f f e r in g in th e p u b lic
sc h o o ls o f C a lif o r n ia
fo r th e
tre a tm e n t o f d e lin q u e n ts ?
A.
W hat a r e t h e a i m s a n d o b j e c t i v e s o f s c h o o l p r o g r a m s
re la tin g
B.
to
d e lin q u e n ts?
W hat a r e C a l i f o r n i a
sc h o o ls d o in g to
check and t r e a t
d e lin q u e n ts?
1.
W h at a r e
som e o f t h e ra o re p r o g r e s s i v e s c h o o l s
d o in g ?
2.
W hat a d m i n i s t r a t i v e
3.
W hat i s
in n o v a tio n s h av e e v o lv e d ?
th e n a tu r e o f th e r e l a t i o n s h i p
b e tw e e n
t h e home a n d s c h o o l a n d c o m m u n ity w i t h r e g a r d t o
tre a tin g
C.
d e lin q u e n ts?
W hat a r e som e o f t h e s h o r t c o m i n g s o f t h e p r e s e n t
school o ffe rin g ?
B.
W hat a d d i t i o n a l f u n c t i o n s c a n t h e s c h o o l p e r f o r m i n
o r d e r to s u c c e s s f u l l y h a n d le th e s i t u a t i o n ?
IT .
How may t h e c o m m u n ity a i d
in th e su c ce ss o f a p re v e n tiv e
p ro g ram ?
A.
W hat a r e C o o r d i n a t i n g C o u n c i l s a n d how do t h e y
fu n c tio n ?
1.
W hat a r e t h e a i m s a n d o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e c o u n c i l ?
2.
Ho tv do t h e c o u n c i l s f u n c t i o n ?
3.
W h at h a s b e e n t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e C o o r d i n a t i n g
C o u n c il i n c o m b a ttin g ju v e n i l e d e lin q u e n c y ?
B.
W hat i s t h e n a t u r e o f t h e D i r e c t o r - a t - l a r g e P l a n ?
C.
How h a v e b o y s ? c l u b s s u c c e e d e d i n c h e e k i n g a n d
tr e a tin g d e lin q u e n ts?
Im p o rta n c e o f th e p ro b le m .
It
h a r d l y seem s n e c e s s a r y
t o em p h a size t h e g r a v i t y o f t h e c rim e an d d e lin q u e n c y p ro b le m
i n th e U n ite d S t a t e s ,
in a sm u c h a s t h e d a i l y n e w s p a p e r s ,
m ag a zin es, and r a d io
c o n sta n tly d r i l l
ears o f th e p u b lic .
It
is
th e m essage i n to
th e
e x tre m e ly d i f f i c u l t .to g a th e r
a c c u r a t e and c o m p le te f i g u r e s on th e a c t u a l e x t e n t o f t h e
d e l i n q u e n c y p r o b l e m . b e c a u s e o f t h e f a i l u r e o f m any c i t i e s
sta te s
to r e p o r t t h e i r f ig u r e s
to a n a ti o n a l c le a r i n g house
fo r th e d iss e m in a tio n o f th e f a c ts
th e f ig u r e s
and
in v o lv e d .
q u o te d i n n a t i o n a l and s t a t e
V ery n e a r l y a l l
c rim in a l s t a t i s t i c s
a r e th o s e o f th e a c t u a l p e rs o n s a r r e s t e d and ta k e n in to
c u sto d y .
T h u s , t h e g r e a t n u m b e r o f d e l i n q u e n t s who a r e n o t a r r e s t e d
who a r e n o t c a u g h t a r e n o t . r e c o r d e d i n t h e f i g u r e s
th e a c t u a l f i g u r e s w ere a v a i l a b l e ,
q u o te d ,
or
if
th e im p o rta n c e o f th e
p r o b le m w o u ld s t a n d o u t m ore c l e a r l y .
D.
M. L a d d , s p e c i a l a g e n t i n c h a r g e o f t h e F e d e r a l
B u reau o f I n v e s t i g a t i o n i n C h ic a g o , r e c e n t l y s t a t e d
ence to
S ta te s:
in r e f e r н
th e e x te n t o f ju v e n ile d e lin q u e n c y in th e U n ite d
7
' . . * d u r in g th e c a le n d a r y e a r 1936 th e f e d e r a l 'B u r e a u o f
I n v e s t i g a t i o n e x a m in e d 4 6 1 ,3 6 9 a r r e s t r e c o r d s a s r e p r e н
s e n te d hy f i n g e r p r i n t c a r d s 'th r o u g h o u t th e c o u n try *
A lm o st
o n e - f i f t h o f t h o s e r e c o r d s r e p r e s e n t e d p e r s o n s who w e r e
l e s s t h a n 21 y e a r s o f a g e * . * . T h e r e w e r e 7 4 3 p e r s o n s
u n d e r 20 y e a r s o f a g e who w e r e c h a r g e d w i t h m u r d e r ; 3 , 5 3 8
c h a r g e d w i t h r o b b e r y ; 2 ,6 3 5 w i t h a s s a u l t ; 1 1 ,5 9 9 w i t h
b u r g l a r y ; 1 4 ,9 3 2 w i t h l a r c e n y a n d 5 ,4 7 2 w i t h a u t o t h e f t .
T h ese p e r s o n s num ber a p p r o x im a te ly o n e - h a l f o f t h e 7 4 ,8 0 4
p e r s o n s l e s s t h a n 20 y e a r s o f age- a r r e s t e d a n d f i n g e r н
p r i n t e d d u r i n g 1936*
T hose f i g u r e s i n d i c a t e t h a t y o u t h f u l
p e r s o n s a r e c o m m ittin g a v e ry l a r g e am ount o f t h e c rim e
in th e U n ite d S t a t e s and t h a t th e p ro b lem o f th e y o u th f u l
c rim in a l c o n s t i t u t e s one o f th e im p o rta n t p h a se s o f th e
crim e p ro b le m . . . .
37 p e r c e n t o f a l l p e r s o n s a r r e s t e d
a n d f i n g e r p r i n t e d l a s t y e a r w e r e u n d e r 25 y e a r s o f a g e . l
i
L add f u r t h e r w e n t on to
in d ic a te
th a t th e r e s p o n s ib ility f o r
t h e c u r b i n g o f t h i s v a s t a rm y o f c r i m i n a l s r e s t e d w i t h t h e
s o c i a l le a d e r s and th e e d u c a to rs o f th e n a ti o n .
T h is s i t u a t i o n p r e s e n t s a d i r e c t c h a lle n g e to a d m in is н
t r a t o r s o f e d u c a tio n a l and s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and i t i s
s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e i r e f f o r t s b e d i r e c t e d a l o n g tw o l i n e s ?
f i r s t , to e x e r c i s e e v e r y e f f o r t to w a rd th e p r e v e n t i o n o f
th e d e v elo p m e n t o f j u v e n i l e d e lin q u e n c y , and se c o n d to
en d eav o r to re c o g n iz e d e lin q u e n c y in i t s e a r l i e r s t a g e s . 2
W ith r e f e r e n c e t o t h e p r o b le m o f p r o v i d i n g a n e d u c a t i o n a l
program w ith th e p u rp o se o f th e e s ta b lis h m e n t o f a re m e d ia l
p l a n o f f u t u r e p r o c e d u r e , m an y s o u r c e s i n d i c a t e
is
grav e*
The p ro b le m o f d e l i n q u e n c y i s
b le m is h w h ic h c a n be e r a s e d w ith e a s e .
w eakness and m a la d ju stm e n t i n th e e n t i r e
t
t h a t th e need
not a su p e rfic ia l
It
is
an in d ic a tio n o f
s o c i a l o rg a n ism .
D.
M. L a d d , " P r e v e n t i o n o f J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n c y , "
The D e p a r t m e n t o f P u b l i c W e l f a r e a n d t h e B i g B r o t h e r s a n d
S i s t e r s A s s o c ia tio n , 3 :3 4 -4 4 , 1937.
2
L pc c i t *
8
E ach y e a r i n t h e U n ite d S t a t e s o u t o f e ac h 1 0 0 ,0 0 0 b o y s
a n a v e r a g e o f 1 ,2 0 0 b e tw e e n t h e a g e s o f s i x t e e n and tw e n ty - o n e
3
y e a r s a r a , se n te n c e d to p r i s o n s , r e f o r m a t o r i e s , and j a i l s .
In
1937 o u t o f 6 3 , 5 5 2 s e n t e n c e s t o
i n th e U n ite d S t a t e s ,
age o f tw e n ty -o n e .^
in d ic a te s
1 2 ,1 8 8 o r 1 9 .2 p e r c e n t w e re u n d e r t h e
A f u r th e r p e ru s a l o f c rim in a l s t a t i s t i c s
t h a t th e se v e n te e n to
h ig h e st a r r e s t r a tio
s t a t e and f e d e r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s
tw e n ty ag e gro u p h a s th e
f o r s e r io u s c rim e o f an y f o u r - y e a r age
g ro u p i n th e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n .
S ta tis tic ia n s
o f t h e A m e r i c a n Law I n s t i t u t e
l e a s e d t h e f o llo w in g n a t i o n a l c rim e s t a t i s t i c s
o f th e s e r i o u s n e s s o f j u v e n i l e c rim e in t h i s
have r e н
a s an i n d ic a t i o n
c o u n try :
. . . p e r s o n s f r o m 16 t o 21 c o n s t i t u t e 50 p e r c e n t o f a l l
a u t o t h i e v e s , 4 0 p e r c e n t o f b u r g l a r s , 28 p e r c e n t o f a l l
r o b b e r s a n d t h i e v e s . . . . T h i s g r o u p o n l y m a k e s up 13 p e r
c e n t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n . . . b u t th e y d o u b le t h e i r e x p e c te d
q u o ta i n r o b b e r i e s a n d t h e f t s , t r e b l e i t i n b u r g l a r i e s and
n e a r ly q u a d ru p le i t i n a u to t h e f t s . ^
I n t h e y e a r 1 9 3 0 , w hen d e l i n q u e n c y w a s v e r y l i t t l e
le ss
o f a p ro b lem th a n a t p r e s e n t , o n ly 5 p e r c e n t o f th e c i t i e s
in
t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s m ade a n y s p e c i a l p r o v i s i o n f o r t h e t r a i n i n g
and tr e a tm e n t o f ju v e n ile d e li n q u e n t s .^
T h is la c k o f e d u c a ti o n a l
^ L e o n a rd е . H a r r i s o n an d P r y o r M c N e ill G r a n t , Y o u th
i n t h e T o i l s (New Y o r k : M a c m i l l a n , 1 9 3 8 ) , p p . 4 4 - 4 8 .
^ Loc. c i t .
^ Loг. c i t .
6 C h a r l e s S . B e r r y , c h a i r m a n , " R e p o r t o f t h e C o m m i t te e
o n S p e c i a l C l a s s e s , " W h i t e H o u s e C o n f e r e n c e o n Ch i l d H e a l t h
a n d P r o t e c t i o n (New Y o r k : T he C e n t u r y C om pany, 1 9 3 1 5 , p p . 4 9 3 494.
fa c ilitie s
f o r t h e m a lia d ju s te d was l a r g e l y d u e t o
th e f a c t
t h a t sc h o o l a d m in is tr a to r s a s w e ll as tr a in e d .p s y c h o lo g is ts
and p s y c h i a t r i s t s knew o f no g e n e r a l l y e f f e c t i v e p ro g ra m t h a t
w o u ld s e r v e t h e , n e e d s of. t h e s p e d i a l g r o u p m e n t i o n e d a b o v e .
S i n c e 1930 t h e d e li n q u e n c y p ro b le m h a s l e s s e n e d so m e w h at;
la r g e ly because o f th e p re s e n t c o n c e rte d e f f o r t s
o f p ro g re ssiv e le a d e rs
The G lu e c k s ,
i n som e o f o u r m o d e r n c o m m u n i t i e s .
i n t h e i r s u r v e y o f th e B o sto n J u v e n i l e
C ourt c a se s in 1934,
d e lin q u e n ts,
f o u n d t h a t 88 p e r c e n t o f t h e
d u rin g th e f iv e - y e a r p e r io d ,
c rim in a l c a re e rs a f t e r re c e iv in g
th e ju v e n ile c o u r t.
on t h e p a r t
7
ju v e n ile
c o n tin u e d on t h e i r
t h e b e s t t r e a t m e n t know n b y .
T he i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e j u v e n i l e
co u rt
a s a m e a n s o f r e h a b i l i t a t i n g w a y w a rd b o y s w a s s t r i k i n g l y
i n d i c a t e d by th e G lu e ck s t u d y .
Many a d d i t i o n a l f a c t s m i g h t b e q u o t e d o f a s i m i l a r
n a tu re ,
b u t th e y a l l le n d e v id e n c e to th e t h e s i s
t h a t we
c e r t a i n l y h av e n o t y e t fo u n d th e p r o p e r e d u c a tio n a l o r s o н
c i o l o g i c a l p ro g ram f o r th e tr e a tm e n t o f d e l i n q u e n t s .
In asm u ch
a s th e s c h o o l h a s t h e m ost c o m p le te c o n t r o l o f t h e c h i l d
p o p u la tio n o f any s o c ia l agency,
it
n a t u r a l l y sh o u ld ta k e th e
le a d i n r e s e a r c h and s tu d y t h a t w i l l le a d
b e t t e r u n d e rs ta n d in g o f th e
7
e v e n tu a lly to a
e n t i r e p ro b le m .
S h e l d o n G l u e c k a n d E l e a n o r T . G l u e c k , One T h o u s a n d
J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n t s (C a m b rid g e: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ,
1 9 3 4 ), p p . 1 6 7 -1 6 8 .
10
D e lim ita tio n s o f th e s tu d y .
th is
stu d y to
R a th e r,
No a t t e m p t w a s m ade i n
i n c l u d e t h e w h o le f i e l d
o f ju v e n ile d e lin q u e n c y .
t h e e m p h a sis a s i n d i c a t e d i n t h e s t a te m e n t o f t h e
p r o b le m was l i m i t e d t o t h e f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s :
( 1 ) th e le g a l
p r o v i s i o n s m ade b y t h e S t a t e o f C a l i f o r n i a ,
a s e v id e n c e d by
th e s t a t u t e s and r u l i n g s o f o th e r p u b lic a g e n c ie s su ch a s
th e fo llo w in g :
r u le s o f p ro b a tio n d e p a rtm e n ts,
p o l i c i e s o f g o v e rn in g b o a rd s , and t h e l i k e ;
in c lu d e d
co u rt d e c isio n s,
(2 ) th e p ro v isio n s
i n t h e m ore p r o g r e s s i v e s c h o o l p ro g ra m s f o r t h e
tre a tm e n t o f
ju v e n ile d e lin q u e n c y ;
(3 ) th e o u ts ta n d in g
c o m m u n ity p r o g r a m s , a s p r e s e n t e d b y t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r
e x p o n e n ts
i n t h e c i t i e s w h ere t h e s e p ro g ra m s h a v e m et w i t h s u c c e s s .
No a t t e m p t w a s m ade t o c o n s i d e r t h e
cau sal fa c to rs
le a d in g to w ard d e lin q u e n c y o t h e r th a n a s th e y a r e g e n e r a l l y
p re se n te d in th e e d u c a tio n a l, p s y c h o lo g ic a l,
lite ra tu re .
and c l i n i c a l
I n s t i t u t i o n a l t r e a t m e n t o f d e l i n q u e n t s w as n o t .
c o n sid e re d o th e r th a n in c i d e n t a ll y in th e g e n e ra l c o n s id e ra н
t i o n o f t h e p r o v i s i o n s m ade b y t h e S t a t e
tre a tin g
of C a lifo rn ia
in
th o se o ffe n d e rs .
D e fin itio n o f term s.
T he i n c l u s i v e d e f i n i t i o n o f
ju v e n ile d e lin q u e n c y o f f e r e d by th e N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n a l
A s s o c i a t i o n w as a d o p t e d i n t h i s
to d e lin q u e n ts r e l a t e s
to
th e sis,
and a l l r e f e r e n c e
th is d e fin itio n :
J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n c y may be d e f i n e d a s v i o l a t i o n o f
t h e la w by p e r s o n s o f J u v e n i l e - C o u r t a g e o r c o n d u c t on
11
t k e p a r t o f su c h p e rs o n s so s e r i o u s l y a n t i - s o c i a l a s to
i n t e r f e r e w ith t h e r i g h t s o f o t h e r s o r m enace t h e w e l f a r e
o f t h e d e l i n q u e n t h i m s e l f o r o f t h e c o m m u n ity .8
T he t e r m s " t r u a n t " a n d " h a b i t u a l t r u a n t " w e r e c o n н
sid e re d
so a s t o
c o in c id e w ith th e fo llo w in g p r o v is io n s o f th e
C a l i f o r n i a S c h o o l C od e w h i c h f o l l o w :
A ny c h i l d m ay
have been a b s e n t
th a n th r e e d a y s,
Any c h i l d m ay b e
been re p o rte d a s
II.
b e r e p o r t e d a s a t r u a n t . . . , who s h a l l
f r o m s c h o o l w i t h o u t v a l i d e x c u s e m o re
o r t a r d y on m o re t h a n t h r e e d a y s , . . .
d e e m e d a n h a b i t u a l t r u a n t who s h a l l h a v e
t r u a n t t h r e e o r m o re t i m e s . 9
SOURCES OF DATA, METHODS'OF PROCEDURE,
AND ORGANIZATION OF TEE STUDY
S o u rces o f d a ta .
be c l a s s i f i e d
T h i s s t u d y i s p r i m a r i l y o n e t h a t may
as th e a n a ly s is o r re s e a rc h
ty p e.
The c h i e f
s o u r c e s o f f a c t u a l d a t a w ere p r o c u r e d from l i b r a r y and l e g a l
r e s e a r c h , w h ic h i n c lu d e d s u c h m a t e r i a l s a s t h e f o l lo w in g :
p s y c h o l o g i c a l e x p e r im e n ts , c a s e s t u d i e s a s d e r i v e d fro m t h e
c o u rt d e c isio n s;
te x tb o o k s on c rim in o lo g y , d e lin q u e n c y , and
p s y c h o lo g y ; g ov ern m en t r e s e a r c h b u l l e t i n s ,
s ta tis tic s ,
ju v e n ile c o u rt
r e p o r t s fro m th e D e p artm en t o f th e I n t e r i o r ,
C h ild re n * s - B u re au ; and p e r s o n a l c o rre s p o n d e n c e , i n t e r v i e w s ,
C r im e P r e v e n t i o n T h r o u g h E d u c a t i o n ( R e s e a r c h B u l l e t i n
o f t h e N a t i o n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c i a t i o n , No. 2 ; W a sh in g to n , D . C . :
N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 9 3 2 ) , X, 1 3 2 .
^ S c h o o l C od e o f t h e S t a t e o f C a l i f o r n i a
C a lif o r n ia S ta te P r i n t in g O ffic e , 1 9 3 7 ), p . 2 0 .
(S a c ra m e n to :
and d i s c u s s i o n s w ith p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s ,
tra to rs,
and ju d g e s .
la w y e rs, a d m in isн
T hese so u rc e s a r e o f f e r e d
to in d ic a te
t h e g e n e r a l n a t u r e o f t h e f a c t u a l m a t e r i a l s r a t h e r t h a n to ^
lis t
in d e ta il a l l
th e so u rc e s u t i l i z e d .
I n an a tte m p t to l e a r n w hat th e p r a c t i t i o n e r s
fie ld
in
th e
o f ju v e n ile d e lin q u e n c y c o n sid e re d e s s e n t i a l as v i t a l
fa c to rs
to be i n v e s t i g a t e d ,
some f o r t y p e r s o n s w e r e i n t e r н
v ie w e d ,
e i t h e r p e r s o n a l l y o r by c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , and t h e i r
i d e a s w ere i n c lu d e d i n t h e r e p o r t a s a w h o le .
A g r e a t d e a l o f a d d i t i o n a l p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e was
g a i n e d f r o m t h e w r i t e r ? s own e x p e r i m e n t s a s a n i n s t r u c t o r o f
a so -c a lle d
" a d ju s tm e n t c l a s s ? w h ich i n c lu d e d h a n d lin g
p u p i l s t h a t c o u ld be c l a s s i f i e d a s b e in g i n c o r r i g i b l e s ,
fe c tiv e s ,
and d e l i n q u e n t s .
deн
For th e p a s t s e v e r a l y e a rs th e
w r i t e r h a s b e e n a m em ber o f t h e M o n t e r e y C o u n t y C o o r d i n a t i n g
C o u n c il,
t h e p u r p o s e o f w h ic h i s
to
c o o rd in a te th e
e ffo rts of
a l l s o c i a l a g e n c i e s i n t h e c o u n t y i n o r d e r t o c o m b a t m o re
e f f e c t i v e l y d e lin q u e n c y and c r i m e . ^
E v e ry p o s s i b l e s o u r c e o f d a ta w as s t u d i e d i n o r d e r t o
g iv e a c o m p lete h a n d lin g o f th e f a c t o r s r e l a t i n g
to d e lin q u e n c y .
O n l y t h e m o re r e c e n t f a c t s a n d f i g u r e s w e r e q u o t e d i n t h e
s t u d y i n a s m u c h a s m any g r e a t f o r c e s h a v e v i t a l l y
^
R e f e r t o C h a p t e r VI o f t h i s
stu d y , pp.
shaken th e
102-114*
13
so c ia l stru c tu re
o f th e n a tio n s in c e th e
t e x t s w ere w r i t t e n on d e lin q u e n c y .
e a r l y m o n u m en tal
Such f o r c e s a s th e
V o ls te a d A c t, th e a d v e n t o f th e a u to m o b ile , d e v elo p m e n t o f
m o v in g p i c t u r e s ,
th e g ro w th o f th e ra d io ,
and th e d is a s tr o u s
e c o n o m ic d e p r e s s i o n h a v e a l l c a u s e d much o f t h e r e f e r e n c e
m a t e r i a l p r i o r t o 1929 t o becom e o b s o l e t e a n d o f l i t t l e
v a lu e
i n c o m b a tin g p r e s e n t p ro b le m s o f an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l
w o rld *
Many b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s ,
th e se e a rly te x ts ,
h o w e v e r, w e re l e a r n e d fro m
and th e y w ere u t i l i z e d
to
c o m p le te th e
background o r s e t t i n g f o r th e s tu d y .
F ro m t h e s o u r c e s o f d a t a m e n t i o n e d a b o v e , t h e m o s t
g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t a b l e a n d w o r k a b le m eth o d s an d r e m e d ia l p r o н
c e d u r e s o f t h e v a r i o u s , s c h o o l s an d c o m m u n itie s w ere su m m arize d
and c l a s s i f i e d .
M e t h o d s o f p r o c e d u r e .,
A f t e r th e p ro b le m i t s e l f had
been s tu d ie d a n d .a n a ly z e d and th e m u ltif a r io u s r a m if ic a tio n s
sc ru tin iz e d ,
it
becam e e s s e n t i a l t o d e te r m in e w h at m e th o d s o f
p r o c e d u r e w o u ld b r i n g o u t t h e d e s i r e d
s o lu tio n to
som e o f t h e
p ro b le m s r e l a t i n g to d e lin q u e n c y .
F irst of a ll,
ev ery so u rc e o f d a ta r e l a t i n g
to d eн
l i n q u e n c y w a s ,a n a l y z e d by m eans o f a w id e s t u d y i n t o
lite ra tu re
o f e d u c a ti o n , p s y c h o lo g y , s o c i o lo g y , and la w .
T e x ts, d i s s e r t a t i o n s ,
and c a s e h i s t o r i e s ,
reco rd s,
th e
s ta tu te s ,
t h e s e s , m onographs, and l e g a l t r e a t i s e s
c o u rt o p in io n s ,
su g g e ste d
c o u rt d e c is io n s , p o lic e
le g isla tio n ,
and a h o s t o f o t h e r
14
s o u r c e s w ere a l l
stu d ie d
in an e f f o r t to a s c e r t a i n v i t a l
fa c to rs re la tin g
to d e lin q u e n c y and i t s
tre a tm e n t.
T he p r o н
c e d u r e i n e v e r y i n s t a n c e was t o d e t e r m i n e e a c h s o u r c e t h a t had
a v i t a l b e a r in g upon th e p ro b le m u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n .
F o llo w in g t h i s
m a te ria ls a v a ila b le ,
segm ent o f th e d a ta
e x h a u stiv e
it
research in to
th e so u rce
becam e a p p a r e n t t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t
g a t h e r e d w as o f a t h e o r e t i c a l n a t u r e a n d
t h a t i t o f n e c e s s i t y m u st be a u g m e n te d by m a t e r i a l s o f a m ore
p ra c tic a l s o rt.
d e sira b le
to
p ro b a tio n ,
In o rd e r to
need,
c o n su lt o u tsta n d in g a u th o r itie s
ju v e n ile d e lin q u e n c y ,
e d u c a ti o n , a n d law .
u tiliz e d
su p p ly t h i s
it
seem ed
in th e f i e l d s
ju v e n ile c o u rt,
of
p sy c h o lo g y ,
T he i d e a s o f t h e s e p e r s o n s w e r e t h e n
t o t e m p e r a n d i n t e r p r e t m uch o f t h e t h e o r e t i c a l d a t a
p re v io u s ly g a th e re d .
T he p e r s o n s i n t e r v i e w e d ,
c o rresp o n d en ce,
d a ta s tu d ie d
serv ed to
e i t h e r by i n te r v ie w o r by
s u p p ly s o u r c e s o f c o m p a riso n a g a i n s t
e a rlie r.
The a u t h o r i t i e s
'
se le c te d
f o r i n t e r v i e w w e re so c h o se n
a s to a c h ie v e a r e l a t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n fro m th e v a r i o u s
f i e l d s r e l a t i n g to p ro b lem u n d e r c o n s i d e r a ti o n .
in sta n c e s th e
fie ld
w o rk e rs w ere in te r v ie w e d p e r s o n a l l y a s
th e y w ent a b o u t t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r t a s k s .
ju v e n ile
I n m ost
F o r e x a m p le , t h e
c o u r t ju d g e s w ere o b se rv e d i n th e a c t o f t r y i n g
c a s e s and w ere t h e n i n te r v ie w e d a f t e r w a r d r e g a r d i n g t h e i r
re a c tio n s
to th e w r i t e r ?s f a c t u a l m a t e r i a l s .
O th e r a u t h o r i н
t i e s w e r e i n t e r v i e w e d i n m uch t h e sam e m a n n e r s o t h a t m any
15
v a l u a b l e s u g g e s t i o n s w ere g a in e d .
In th e ev en t th a t th e a u th o r i ti e s
p e rso n a lly ,
c o u ld n o t be re a c h e d
a d e t a i l e d o p i n io n w as r e q u e s t e d an d r e c e i v e d
th ro u g h p e rs o n a l c o rre sp o n d e n c e .
I t m ust be r e i t e r a t e d
a t t h i s p o in t t h a t th e f a c t s
o p in io n s th u s r e c e i v e d w ere u t i l i z e d
i n c h e c k in g p o i n t s
and
in
q u e s tio n r a t h e r th a n i n m a t e r i a l l y a u g m e n tin g p r e v i o u s l y
g a th e re d d a ta .
P rom t h e o n e h u n d r e d odd p e r s o n s i n t e r v i e w e d
e i t h e r p e r s o n a l l y o r by c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , t h e r e a c t i o n s o f
som e t w e n t y e x p e r t s w e r e o f s u c h i m p o r t a n c e a s t o
be i n c l u d e d
in th e s tu d y .
F o llo w in g th e in te r v ie w s and d is c u s s io n s w ith a u t h o r i н
tie s ,
a f u r t h e r s t u d y o f t h e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l s was a d v i s a b l e
and in d e e d e n l i g h t e n i n g .
E x t e n s i v e s t u d i e s w e r e m ade o f l e g a l
and p s y c h o l o g ic a l s o u r c e s i n an e f f o r t to
f a c tu a l bases f o r th e c h a p te rs r e la tin g
su p p ly a d d i t i o n a l
to th e p r e v e n tio n and
tre a tm e n t o f d e lin q u e n c y .
The f i n a l p r o c e d u r e w a s t o c o m b in e a n d i n t e r p r e t a l l
o f th e f a c t s ,
o p i n i o n s , an d r e s e a r c h e s p r e v i o u s l y e x a m in e d .
T h e s e m a t e r i a l s w e r e t h e n c a r e f u l l y w o v en i n t o a n i n t e g r a t e d
c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e w h o le p ro b le m w ith w h ich t h e p r e s e n t
stu d y i s
co n cern ed .
G en eral o rg a n iz a tio n o f th e t h e s i s .
C h a p t e r s Two a n d
T hree o f t h e s tu d y began t h e a c t u a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f w h at th e
e tio lo g ic a l fo rces re la tin g
to d e lin q u e n c y w ere.
These
16
f a c t o r s w ere r e l a t e d ,
a n a ly z e d ,
c la ss ifie d ,
and t a b u l a t e d
a c c o rd in g to th e im p o rta n c e o f e a c h .
In C h a p te r F our th e l e g a l p r o v is io n s o f th e C a li f o r n i a
S ta te S chool Code,
tio n a l f a c i li t ie s
w h ic h p e r m i t t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f e d u c a н
f o r t h e h a n d lin g o f d e l i n q u e n t s , w ere
e n u m e rated and e x p la in e d .
o f e x c e rp ts
T h is c h a p te r c o n s i s t s
t o som e e x t e n t
q u o te d from t h e code i t s e l f .
The m ore s u c c e s s f u l r e m e d i a l p ro g ra m s f o r t h e h a n d l i n g
o f d e lin q u e n ts i n th e p u b l ic s c h o o ls w ere a n a ly z e d and c l a s s i н
f i e d i n C h a p te r F iv e .
and th e v i s i t i n g
T he c l i n i c a l p r o g r a m , s p e c i a l c l a s s e s ,
t e a c h e r w ere d is c u s s e d
in
th e ir re la tio n
to
th e p re v e n tio n o f d e lin q u e n c y .
C h a p te r S ix r e l a t e s
s i v e c o m m u n itie s c o n s id e r e d
and t r e a t i n g
c h ie f ly to w hat a c t i v i t i e s
p ro g resн
to be o u t s t a n d i n g i n p r e v e n t i n g
ju v e n ile d e lin q u e n c y .
The f a m i l y ,
th e c o o r d in a te d c o u n c il w ere a l l d is c u s s e d
d e m o n s t r a t e how a n i n t e g r a t e d
th e p o lic e ,
and
i n s u c h a w ay a s t o
c o m m u n ity p r o g r a m o p e r a t e d .
T he f i n a l c h a p t e r , C h a p t e r S e v e n ,
c o n c lu d e s th e stu d y
a n d c o n s i s t s o f t h e s u m m a ry , c o n c l u s i o n s , a n d r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s
as to th e fu tu re
tre a tm e n t o f ju v e n ile d e lin q u e n ts .
11 R e f e r t o C h a p t e r IY o f t h i s s t u d y , " L e g a l P r o v i s i o n s
in C a l i f o r n i a f o r th e E d u c a tio n and T re a tm e n t o f D e lin q u e n ts ,"
p p . 47-60*
CHAPTER I I
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ON DELINQUENCY
It
is
th e p u rp o se o f t h i s
n a tu re o f th e l i t e r a t u r e
m ent and p re v e n tio n *
re la tin g
c h a p te r to e x p la in th e g e n e r a l
to d e lin q u e n c y , i t s
tre a tн
For p u rp o se s o f c l a r i t y p re v io u s to
an
a c tu a l c o n s id e ra tio n o f th e m u ltif a r io u s f a c to r s ana in flu e n c e s
re la tin g
to d e lin q u e n c y i t
becom es e s s e n t i a l to c o n s i d e r w hat
so u rce m a te ria ls a re a v a ila b le .
The p a r a g r a p h s w h ic h f o l l o w a r e i n g e n e r a l g ro u p e d
\
u n d e r f i v e h e a d in g s ;? (1 ) th e l i t e r a t u r e on s t a t e p r o v ls o n s f o r
th e tre a tm e n t o f ju v e n ile d e lin q u e n ts ,
c o m m u n ity p r o v i s i o n s ,
fa c to rs,
(U)
(3) th e
(2 )
lite ra tu re
th e l i t e r a t u r e
on p s y c h o lo g ic a l
th e l i m i t a t i o n s o f p re v io u s s t u d i e s ,
p resen t sta tu s
on
and
(3)
th e
o f th e p ro b le m .
L i t e r a t u r e on s t a t e p r o v i s i o n s .
T he C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e
S c h o o l C o d e ^ - w a s - n a t u r a l l y t h e s o u r c e f o r m any o f t h e m a j o r
le g a l p ro v isio n s
in c lu d e d in
th e stu d y ; b u t sin c e th e s e p ro v iн
s io n s r e l a t e d o n ly to s c h o o l a f f a i r s ,
i t w as n e c e s s a r y t o
r e f e r t o T h e W e l f a r e a n d I n s t i t u t i o n s C o d e . T he C i v i l C o d e .
T he P e n a l C o d e , a s w e l l a s t o
th e C o n s titu tio n and S t a tu t e s o f
^ S c h o o l Code o f S t a t e o f C a l i f o r n i a ( S a c r a m e n to :
C a li f o r n ia S t a te P r i n t i n g O f f ic e , 1 9 3 7 ), 6 6 l p p .
IS
th e S ta te o f C a lif o r n ia .
2
C o u rt d e c is io n s ,
a c t u a l c o u r t c a s e s , an d num erous d i g e s t s
le g a l o p in io n s ,
of le g a l m a te ria ls
fu rn is h e d v a lu a b le d a ta w ith re g a rd to le g a l p ro v is io n s o f
th e S ta te o f C a lifo rn ia *
T he n u m e r o u s l e g a l
j o u r n a l s and
re v ie w s w ere e s p e c i a l l y v a lu a b le a s th e y i n t e r p r e t e d
fin e
p o i n t s o f t h e la w t h a t w ere o b s c u r e d by l e g a l p h r a s e o l o g y i n
th e v a r io u s co d es and s t a t u t e s . .
L i t e r a t u r e o n c o m m u n ity - p r o v i s i o n s .
T he G l u e c k s ,
t h e i r v o lu m e e n t i t l e d P r e v e n t i n g C r i m e , ^ p r e s e n t e d
in
ra th e r
c o m p l e t e l y t h e e s s e n t i a l f a c t s r e g a r d i n g c o m m u n ity e f f o r t s
to w a rd c rim e p r e v e n t i o n .
T he s a l i e n t f a c t s
r e g a r d in g w hat
t h e m o re p r o g r e s s i v e c o m m u n i t i e s w e r e d o i n g w e r e p r e s e n t e d b y
t h e l e a d e r s o f t h e d e l i n q u e n c y p r e v e n t i o n m ovem ent i n t h e
c itie s
co n cern ed .
K enyon S c u d d e r, f o r e x a m p le , d e s c r i b e d i n
d e t a i l t h e L os A n g e le s C o o r d i n a t i n g C o u n c il p l a n f o r c o m b a tн
in g ju v e n ile d e lin q u e n c y .
W illia m H e a ly ,
i n h i s l a t e s t v o lu m e e n t i t l e d P e r s o n a l i t y
i n F o rm a tio n and A c t io n .^ o u t l i n e d v e r y d e f i n i t e l y w hat th e
f a m i l y a n d t h e c o m m u n ity c o u l d do t o w a r d r e l i e v i n g
th e
2 P u b lic a tio n s o f th e C a lif o r n ia S ta te P r in tin g O ffic e .
(C o m p le te r e f e r e n c e s l i s t e d i n b i b l i o g r a p h y . )
3
S h e ld o n G lu e ck and E le a n o r T. G lu e c k , P r e v e n tin g
C r im e (New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l Book C om pany, 1 9 3 6 ) .
U
W illia m H e a ly , P e r s o n a l i t y i n F o rm a tio n an d A c tio n
{New Y o r k : W. W. N o r t o n a n d C om pany , I n c . , 1 9 3 8 ) .
19
e m o tio n a l s t r e s s b r o u g h t a b o u t by c o n tin u e d f r u s t r a t i o n on
th e p a r t o f d e lin q u e n ts and p o t e n t i a l d e lin q u e n ts .
w as b a s e d t o a l a r g e
e x t e n t o n e c o n o m ic
H is p l a n
re h a b ilita tio n
and
slu m c l e a r a n c e i n d e l i n q u e n c y a r e a s .
T he W h i t e H o u s e C o n f e r e n c e s , ' * c a l l e d b y E x - P r e s i d e n t
H oover, have r e s u l t e d
i n m any a d v a n c e s i n t h e s t u d y o f comн
m u n ity c o o p e r a tio n f o r th e p r e v e n tio n o f j u v e n i l e d e lin q u e n c y .
O u t s t a n d i n g w o r k e r s fro m fam o u s c l i n i c s
sh ared in
in th e U n ite d S t a t e s
t h e c o m p i l a t i o n o f t h e f i n d i n g s a n d m ade t h e m a v a i l н
a b le to th e w ork ers in th e f i e l d .
Many p r a c t i c a l s u g g e s t i o n s
a r e o f f e r e d t o c o m m u n ity l e a d e r s d e s i r o u s o f i n f o r m a t i o n .
T he R e s e a r c h D i v i s i o n o f t h e N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n
A s so c ia tio n ^ has p ro v id e d a w e a lth o f m a te r ia l f o r th e e s ta b н
l i s h m e n t o f c o m m u n ity p r o g r a m s f o r d e l i n q u e n c y p r e v e n t i o n .
L ite rs tu re
on s c h o o l p r o v i s i o n s .
sin g le c o n trib u tio n
p a rtic ip a tio n
in
th e l i t e r a t u r e
P erh ap s th e f i n e s t
re fe rrin g
to sc h o o l
i n p r e v e n t i n g d e l i n q u e n c y was f o u n d i n t h e
s y m p o s iu m e d i t e d b y S h e l d o n a n d E l e a n o r G l u e c k e n t i t l e d
P r e v e n t i n g C r i m e .?
I n t h e v o lu m e, s e v e r a l lo n g c h a p t e r s d e a l t
5
C h a r l e s S . B e r r y , C h a irm a n , " R e p o r t o f t h e C o m m itte e s
on S p e c i a l C l a s s e s , " W h ite H o u se C o n f e r e n c e o n C h i l d H e a l t h and
P r o t e c t i o n . 640 p p .
6
D o r o t h y W. B u r k e , C r i m e P r e v e n t i o n T h r o u g h E d u c a t i o n
( R e s e a r c h B u re a u o f t h e N a t i o n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c i a t i o n No. 4 ;
W a s h in g to n , D .C .: The N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 9 3 2 ) ,
X, 1 3 2 -2 0 1 .
7
. G l u e c k , o p . c i t . . 509 p p .
20
d i r e c t l y w ith a c t u a l p ro c e d u re s t h a t c o u ld he a d o p te d in o u r
p u b lic
sc h o o ls.
T he d e l i n q u e n c y p r o g r a m s o f C h i c a g o , New
Y ork, and o t h e r p r o g r e s s i v e
c i t i e s w ere a n a ly z e d i n d e t a i l .
The p l a c e o f m e n t a l h y g i e n e i n t h e p u b l i c
s c h o o l s was
a p t l y p o i n t e d o u t b y B e n n e t t a n d H e r s c h b e r g e r , who h a v e , c o n н
trib u te d se v e ra l a r tic le s to
th e C a lifo rn ia Jo u rn a l o f
S econ dary E d u c a tio n .
The p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s u n d e r l y i n g d e l i n q u e n t
te n d e n c ie s.
Among t h e v a r i o u s c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e l i t e r a t u r e
on p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s t h a t r e l a t e to d e li n q u e n c y , B r id g e s
9
and B rid g e s
have g iv e n th e p o s itio n o f th e g e n e tic p sy c h o lo н
g i s t s w ith r e g a rd to th e p ro b lem .
in d iv id u a l e m o tio n a l t r a i t s
ta b u la te d a c c o rd in g to
o v er,
In t h e i r stu d y th e
o f d e li n q u e n t s w ere a n a ly z e d and
t h e i r f r e q u e n c y and i m p o r ta n c e ; m oreн
th e e m o tio n a l c o n f l i c t s w ere c o n s id e r e d i n t h e i r c r o s s
r e l a t i o n s w ith p e r s o n a l i t y and d e lin q u e n t r e s p o n s e s .
fo u n d l i t t l e
They
c o r r e l a t i o n b e tw e e n t h e v a r i o u s f a c t o r s l e a d i n g
t o w a r d d e l i n q u e n t t e n d e n c i e s , a s t h e y se e m e d t o o c c u r i n
d iffe re n t p a tte rn s
in d iffe re n t in d iv id u a ls .
M a r g a r e t B e n n e t t a n d M. H e r s c h b e r g e r , " M e n t a l H y g i e n e
i n th e S c h o o l P ro g ra m ,? C a l i f o r n ia J o u r n a l o f S eco n d ary
E d u c a t i o n . 1 1 : 3 1 3 - 3 1 8 , May, 1 9 3 6 .
9 j . W. B r i d g e s a n d K . M. B r i d g e s , ?A P s y c h o l o g i c a l
S t u d y o f J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n c y b y G ro u p M e t h o d s , ? G e n e t i c
P s y c h o lo g y M o n o g ra p h s. 1 :4 .0 7 -5 0 6 , S e p te m b e r , 1 9 2 6 .
21
F ro m t i m e t o t i m e t h e l i t e r a t u r e
of c e rta in w rite rs
h a s e m p h a s i z e d t h e common b e l i e f t h a t t h e b a s i c
ju v e n ile d e lin q u e n c y la y in a g r e a t d e g re e
ta lity
in th e c h il d .
e x p lo d e d t h i s
tio n s h ip
cause o f
i n d e f i c i e n t menн
M odern r e s e a r c h e x p e r t s , h o w e v e r, h a v e .
t h e o r y s o m e w h a t a n d h a v e sho w n t h a t t h i s r e l a н
s h o u ld n o t be s t r e s s e d u n d u ly .
le a d e r o f th o se o f t h i s
are a p tly s ta te d
b e lie f.
T e rm a n i s b y f a r t h e
H is c o n c l u s i o n s on th e s u b j e c t
in th e fo llo w in g q u o ta tio n :
. . . , t h e c o r r e l a t i o n i s n o t s u c h a s t o a f f o r d m uch o f
a b a sis f o r p r e d ic tin g th a t a m e n ta lly i n f e r i o r in d iv id u a l
w i l l p r o b a b l y b e co m e d e l i n q u e n t .
He m a y , a n d i n d e e d i s
m o re l i k e l y t o t h a n t h e p e r s o n o f a v e r a g e i n t e l l i g e n c e ,
b u t t h e r e a r e f a r m o re c h a n c e s t h a t h e w i l l n o t b ecom e
d e l i n q u e n t th a n t h a t he w i l l .
In te llig e n c e te s ts of
d e l i n q u e n t s a r e w o r t h w h i l e , b u t t h e y do n o t c a r r y u s v e r y
f a r i n t h e p r o b l e m w i t h w h i c h we a r e h e r e c o n c e r n e d .
R a u b e n h e i m e r , a m em ber o f t h e T e rm a n s c h o o l o f t h o u g h t ,
h o l d s m uch t h e sam e o p i n i o n i n r e g a r d t o t h e r e l a t i o n o f
m e n ta lity to d e lin q u e n c y .* ^
E l s i e M a r t e n s m ade o n e o f t h e p i o n e e r e x p e r i m e n t s i n
th e e sta b lis h m e n t o f a c l i n i c
in th e B e rk e le y s c h o o ls .
f o r th e tre a tm e n t o f d e lin q u e n ts
By m e a n s o f a c o n t r o l g r o u p o f n o n н
p ro b le m c h i l d r e n and a group o f d e li n q u e n t s ,
check th e v a lu e o f th e tre a tm e n t to l e a r n
sh e was a b l e t o
i f any o f th e c a u s a l
^ L . M. T e r m a n , " R e s e a r c h i n D i a g n o s i s o f P r e - d e l i n q u e n t
T e n d e n c i e s ,? J o u r n a l o f J u v e n i l e D e lin q u e n c y , 9 ?1 2 4 -1 3 0 , A p r i l ,
1925.
11
A. S . R a u b e n h e i m e r , ?An E x p e r i m e n t a l S t u d y o f Some
B e h a v io r T r a i t s o f t h e P o t e n t i a l l y D e lin q u e n t B o y ,? { U n p u b lish e d
D o c to r ? s d i s s e r t a t i o n , L e la n d S ta n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y , P a lo A lto ,
C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 2 ) , 107 p p .
f a c t o r s h ad b e e n rem oved o r w h e th e r t h e r e m e d ia l p ro g ra m h a d
been e f f e c tiv e .
12
Of t h e l a r g e n u m b e r o f t h e s e s r e a d i n t h e s u r v e y o f
lite ra tu re
on j u v e n i l e d e li n q u e n c y ,
t h a t m ade b y A l l e n ^ w a s
one o f th e m ost o u t s t a n d i n g .
One o f t h e v i t a l s i n g l e c o n t r i b u t i o n s
to w a rd t h e s o l u н
t i o n o f t h e p r o b le m o f d e l i n q u e n c y i n t h e s c h o o l was t h a t o f
th e N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia tio n , p u b lis h e d i n th e b u l l e t i n
e n t i t l e d C r im e P r e v e n t i o n T h r o u g h E d u c a t i o n . O
f
sp e c ia l
im p o rta n c e to th e c a u s a t i o n o f d e lin q u e n c y w ere th e d a ta
fu rn ish e d
c o n c e rn in g th e p ro g re s s and f a i l u r e
o f re m e d ia l
p ro g ram s in v a r io u s s e c t i o n s o f th e U n ite d S t a t e s .
T he p s y c h i a t r i c a s p e c t s o f r e m e d i a l t r e a t m e n t w e r e
15
s t r e s s e d by A n d erso n ,
a n o te d p s y c h i a t r i s t .
A c c o rd in g to
th e p re m ise o f t h i s book, th e p e r s o n a l i ty o f th e in d iv id u a l
12
A E l s i e H. M a rte n s , A d ju stm e n t o f th e B e h a v io r P ro b le m s
o f S c h o o l C h ild r e n (U n ite d S t a t e s D e p artm en t o f th e I n t e r i o r ,
O f f i c e o f E d u c a tio n B u l l e t i n No. 18; W a sh in g to n , B .C .: U n ite d
S t a t e s G o v ern m en t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 3 2 ) , 101 p p .
.E d w a rd 0 . A l l e n , "An E d u c a t i o n a l a n d S o c i o l o g i c a l
D e l i n q u e n c y F a c t o r S u r v e y o f t h e L o s A n g e l e s B o y Ts W e l f a r e
C e n t e r , ? ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ? s t h e s i s , T he U n i v e r s i t y o f
S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s , C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 7 ), 104 p p .
^ B u r k e , ojq. c i t . . p p . 1 - 2 2 1 .
15
Y e r n o n V. A n d e r s o n , P s y c h i a t r y i n E d u c a t i o n
H a rp e r and B r o th e r s P u b l i s h e r s , 1 9 3 2 ), 430 p p .
(New Y o r k
23
d e l i n q u e n t was o f p r i m a r y c o n s i d e r a t i o n a s a f a c t o r i n h i s
fu tu re
su c c e ss i n sc h o o l and l i f e .
E ls ie M a rte n s,
an
a u t h o r i t y on p sy c h o lo g y , d is c u s s e d d e lin q u e n c y p r e v e n tio n
fro m th e p s y c h o l o g i s t s p o i n t o f v ie w .
In h er p o s itio n in
t h e B e r k e l e y S c h o o l S y s te m sh e was a b l e t o w ork o u t a c l i n i c a l
p ro g ram f o r th e tr e a tm e n t o f p ro b le m c a s e s and d e li n q u e n t s
th a t re s u lte d
in an e x c e lle n t p ie c e o f re s e a rc h .
A c c o rd in g to r e s e a r c h
E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia tio n ,
in
tie
c a r r i e d on by th e N a tio n a l
th e te a c h e r is
th e s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r
d e v e lo p m e n t o f c h a r a c t e r i n i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n .
a d d itio n to
th is p rin c ip le ,
t h e a s s o c i a t i o n re c o m m e n d e d a
d e f i n i t e p r o g r a m o f c o m m u n ity a c t i v i t i e s
on by th e s c h o o l;
17
(
L im ita tio n s o f p re v io u s s tu d ie s .
to
t h a t sh o u ld be c a r r i e d
t h i s b e i n g one o f t h e m o st s u c c e s s f u l m eans
o f c o m b a tin g j u v e n i l e d e li n q u e n c y .
in th e f i e l d
In
T he l i s t
o f so u rces
o f d e lin q u e n c y , w r itte n w ith s p e c ia l r e f e r e n c e
e d u c a tio n a l n e e d s and dem ands, r e v e a l s a s c a r c i t y o f
sc h o la rly research s tu d ie s .
T he m a j o r i t y o f t h e t h e s e s h a v e
s u r v e y e d some s p e c i a l p r o g r a m o f d e l i n q u e n c y c a r r i e d
on i n a
p a r t i c u l a r lo c a tio n and hence a re o f in c o n s e q u e n tia l v a lu e to
t h e e d u c a t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r who i s
lo o k in g f o r d e f i n i t e
id e a s a s to w hat can be done in th e sc h o o l to
16
^
M a r t e n s , op., c i t . .
B u r k e , op., c i t . , p .
101 p p .
1 7 A.
c u rb t h e g ro w th
24
o f th e p ro b le m .
A p e r u s a l o f th e books and j o u r n a l s i n th e e d u c a tio n
l i b r a r y re v e a le d a r a t h e r gen ero u s l i s t ,
in v e s tig a tio n v ery l i t t l e
of a s c ie n tific
d e lin q u e n c y c o u ld be d is c o v e r e d .
n ecessary to
tu rn to
b u t o n m o re m i n u t e
n a tu re r e l a ti n g
C o n se q u e n tly ,
it
to
becam e
t h e m ore t e c h n i c a l r e s e a r c h o f t h e p s y н
c h o l o g i s t s and p s y c h i a t r i s t s u n d e r th e h e a d in g o f "c rim e
p re v e n tio n " b e fo re d e f i n i te p r in c ip le s
c o u ld be fo rm u la te d .
O f n e c e s s i t y , i t was e s s e n t i a l t o r e a d a l a r g e num ber o f b o o k s ,
jo u rn a ls, research b u lle tin s ,
and m ono graph s i n
f ie ld s o u tsid e
t h a t o f e d u c a t i o n i n o r d e r t o m ake a n y a d d i t i o n a l c o n t r i b u t i o n
to th e f i e l d
o f school a d m in is tra tio n .
P r e s e n t sta tu s * * o f th e p ro b le m .
\ *
T he l a r g e m a j o r i t y o f
w r i t i n g s and th e s e s c o n c e rn in g d e lin q u e n c y in th e e d u c a tio n
l i b r a r y have d e a l t w ith d a ta
fro m f i v e t o
co n sid e re d
th a t a re ,
f if te e n y ears o ld .
a t th e p re s e n t w r itin g ,
V e ry few i n v e s t i g a t i o n s h a v e
th e c o n tr ib u tio n s o f r e s e a rc h d u rin g th e l a s t fo u r
o r fiv e y ears,
and hence l i t t l e
house o f e d u c a tio n a l l i t e r a t u r e
m odern p o i n t o f v ie w .
has been added to
th a t a tta c k s
t h e p ro b le m i n th e
A t th e p r e s e n t tim e th e p ro b le m o f
w h a t c a u s e s d e l i n q u e n c y a n d -w hat s h o u l d b e d o n e t o
still
th e s to r e н
cu rb i t ,
re m a in s w h o lly u n s o lv e d .
On t h e b a s i s o f r e c e n t s t a t i s t i c s ,
h a s te n d e d to
ju v e n ile d e lin q u e n c y
l e v e l o f f t o a s l i g h t d e g re e i n c i t i e s w here a
25
c o n c e rte d e f f o r t i s
b e i n g m ade w i t h r e m e d i a l p r o g r a m s .
T h e c h i e f c o n c e r n now i s
fu lly
18
to s e l e c t and a n a ly z e c a r e н
th e t e c h n i c a l d a ta f u r n i s h e d by t h e p s y c h o l o g i s t s and
r e s e a r c h e r s and e x p e r im e n te r s and from t h e s e d a ta c o n s t r u c t an
-e d u c a tio n a l program t h a t w i l l p ro v id e f o r th e i n d iv i d u a l n eed s
of d e lin q u e n ts.
to rs,
reg ard
te a c h e rs,
to
T he e x p e r i e n c e d a d v i c e o f s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a н
and p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s was c o n s u l t e d w i t h
th e program s e t f o r t h .
a n a tu r e a s to
T h is p ro g ram m u st be o f su ch
check th e c a u s a l f a c t o r s
lin q u e n c y and a ls o
l e a d i n g to w a rd d e н
to p ro v id e e f f e c t i v e re m e d ia l m ea su re s.
Sum m ary o f t h e c h a p t e r . ? The l i t e r a t u r e
re la tin g
to
t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e t r e a t m e n t a n d p r e v e n t i o n o f d e l i n q u e n c y was
re v ie w e d i n o r d e r t o p r o v id e a b a s i s upon w h ic h t o b u i l d a n
a d e q u a te m eans o f s o l v i n g t h e p ro b le m .
T he l i t e r a t u r e
o n s t a t e p r o v i s i o n s w as s e l e c t e d
fro m
t h e m any c o d e s a n d s t a t u t e s
d e a lin g w ith le g a l a s p e c ts o f
e d u c a tio n and d e lin q u e n c y .
T h e s e s e l e c t i o n s w e re a u g m e n te d
w ith p e r t i n e n t d a ta
s e c u re d from c o u r t d e c i s i o n s ,
o p in io n s , a c tu a l c o u rt c a s e s ,
m a te ria ls fu rn ish e d
T he l i t e r a t u r e
le g a l
an d num erous d i g e s t s o f l e g a l
i n law l i b r a r i e s .
o n t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h p r o g r e s s i v e comн
m u n itie s have a tte m p te d to
s o lv e th e p ro b le m w ere s e c u r e d t o
^ ' W i l l i a m C . M a x w e l l , "An I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f B oy D e l i n н
q u e n c y i n Long B e a c h , C a l i f o r n i a , an d I t s I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r
P u b l i c S c h o o l s , " ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ? s t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y
o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s, C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 5 ), p p . 175-
176.
26
som e e x t e n t f r o m r e p o r t s o f s u c h p l a n s a s
in te rp re te d
in
jo u r n a ls and t e x t u a l s o u rc e s .
The l i t e r a t u r e
on s c h o o l p r o v i s i o n s was r a t h e r g e n e r o u s
i n m o st c a s e s h u t f o r t h e m o st p a r t som ew hat to o g e n e r a l .
The r e s e a r c h e s o f o t h e r s
in te re s te d
in th e f i e l d
t i o n a l t r e a tm e n t o f d e li n q u e n t s w ere u t i l i z e d
le a rn
o f th e educaн
in an e f f o r t to
j u s t w h a t w a s a l r e a d y known w i t h r e g a r d t o
th e p ro b le m .
The p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s u n d e r l y i n g d e l i n q u e n t
t e n d e n c i e s w e r e p r e s e n t e d i n th e p s y c h o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e
th e fo rm o f m o n o g rap h s, t h e s e s ,
j o u r n a l s , and s i m i l a r s o u r c e s .
P u b l i c a t i o n s o f th e C h i l d r e n s B u reau and o f th e N a tio n a l
E d u c a tio n A s s o c i a t i o n w ere i n v a l u a b l e i n s e c u r i n g a w e l l ro u n d ed v iew o f t h e p ro b le m .
in
CHAPTER I I I
THE MATURE OF THE FACTORS AND INFLUENCES
RELATING TO DELINQUENCY
It
is
th e p u rp o se o f t h i s
c h a p te r to
e x p la in th e g e n e ra l
n a t u r e o f th e m u l t i f a r i o u s f a c t o r s and i n f l u e n c e s
to
th e in c id e n c e o f d e lin q u e n c y .
m ust he i n v e s tig a te d
It
is
fe lt
th a t th e se f a c to rs
a n d c l e a r l y k e p t i n m in d i f
pro g ram o f re m e d ia l .tr e a tm e n t i s
th a t re la te
an i n t e l l i g e n t
l a t e r t o he u n d e r t a k e n .
a l s o becom es e s s e n t i a l to u n d e r s ta n d t h e s e
f a c t o r s w hen e x a m i n н
in g th e le g a l p r o v is io n s o f th e S ta te o f C a lif o r n ia
tre a tm e n t o f d e lin q u e n ts .
It
fo r th e
I t w i l l t h e n b e c o m e m o re e a s i l y
e v i d e n t w h e t h e r t h e s e l e g a l p r o v i s i o n s a r e a d e q u a te t o
tre b t
t h e s e c h i l d r e n w hose d e l i n q u e n c y was c a u s e d by a c e r t a i n
set
o f c o n d itio n s.
The n a t u r e o f t h e c a u s e s .
It
is
e sp e c ia lly d if f ic u lt
to a tte m p t to e n u m e ra te th e c a u s e s and f a c t o r s
th a t r e l a te to
d e lin q u e n c y b e ca u se o f th e a lm o st h o p e le s s i n t e r r e l a t i o n
th e m u ltitu d e o f in flu e n c e s
f a c t sta n d s,
a re m u ltip le .
t h a t m ust be c o n s id e r e d .
h o w ev er, and t h a t i s
These c a u s a l f a c t o r s ,
h o w ever, one s i n g l e
One
t h a t th e c a u se s o f d e lin q u e n c y
t o m a k e t h e p r o b l e m m o re
c o m p lex , d i f f e r fro m one i n d i v i d u a l t o t h e o t h e r .
g iv e n c a s e s ,
of
In c e rta in
cau se such a s an i l l n e s s ,
d e a t h o f a m o t h e r , o r m a k i n g a n ew f r i e n d , may b e m o r e p r o m i н
n e n t in th e c a u s a l p a tte r n
t h a n m any c o n t r i b u t o r y f a c t o r s .
28
T he f a c t s
g iv e n i n T a b le I
v a rie ty of fa c to rs
serv e to
t h a t m ust be ta k e n in to
in d ic a te
th e
c o n sid e ra tio n in
s tu d y in g th e p ro b le m .
B u rt h as found i n h i s s tu d y o f d e lin q u e n c y t h a t d eн
l i n q u e n t s and n o n d e lin q u e n ts o f t e n w ere i n f lu e n c e d b y t h e
sam e o r v e r y s i m i l a r s e t s o f c o n d i t i o n s ,
as fo llo w s:
?. .
so he h a s c o n c lu d e d
. t h a t i t m u st be t h e num ber o f f a c t o r s
p r e s e n t p lu s th e c o m b in a tio n t h a t p ro d u c e s d e lin q u e n c y .
O th e r, w o r k e r s i n t h e f i e l d
have r e la te d
t h a t m any c o n d i t i o n s c a n b e p o s i t i v e l y
th e th e s is
c o rre la te d , w ith d e lin н
q u e n c y , b u t no o n e c a u s e c a n b e c o r r e l a t e d t o a v e r y h i g h
d eg ree.
One f a c t o r d o e s s t a n d o u t , h o w e v e r , a n d t h a t i s
d e lin q u e n c y i s d e f i n i t e l y r e l a te d
d e fin ite
is
to
th a t
c h r o n o l o g i c a l ag e and a
in c re a s e in a n t i - s o c i a l te n d e n c ie s in th e d e lin q u e n t
n o te d a t th e age o f n in e to te n y e a r s .
E n v iro n m e n ta 1 f a c t o r s r e l a t i n g
to d e lin q u e n c y .
P erh ap s
t h e m o s t l o g i c a l p l a c e t o com m ence o u r c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e
v a r i o u s c o n d i t i o n s l e a d i n g to w a rd d e l i n q u e n c y w o u ld b e t h e
home a n d i t s
in g t h i s
in flu e n c e on th e c h il d .
Many r e s e a r c h e s r e g a r d -
i m p o r t a n t home i n f l u e n c e h a v e d e f i n i t e l y
sh o w n t h a t
b r o k e n h o m es a r e t h e m o s t v i t a l s i n g l e f a c t o r s r e l a t i n g
d e lin q u e n c y in th e c h il d .
to
C o n s t a n t c o n t e n t i o n b e tw e e n t h e
^ C y r i l B u r t , T he Y o un g D e l i n q u e n t (New Y o r k : D.
A p p l e t o n a n d C om p an y, 1 9 2 5 ) , p . 5 7 7 .
29
TABLE I a
TOTAL NUMBER OF CONTRIBUTING FACTORS CAUSING MAXBEHAVIOR*
F a c to rs
B r o k e n h o m es
E m o tio n a l i n s t a b i l i t y
Lack o f p a r e n t a l c o n t r o l
Low m e n t a l a b i l i t y
N eig h b o rh o o d e n v iro n m e n t p o o r
P o o r e c o n o m ic a l c o n d i t i o n
Bad c o m p a n i o n s
D o e s n o t w o r k up t o a b i l i t y
L acks s u s ta in e d e f f o r t
D e sire f o r re c o g n itio n
Poor stu d y h a b its
Poor p h y s ic a l c o n d itio n
M em ber o f t h e " G a n g ?
P o o r m o r a l ju d g m e n t
P a re n ts u n c o o p e ra tiv e
P a r e n ts to o in d u lg e n t
U n a b le to a d j u s t i n l a r g e g ro u p s
C u ltu ra l c o n flic ts
D e sire f o r a d v e n tu re
Language h a rd
N erv o u s i n s t a b i l i t y
O ver ag e f o r group
Nomadic l i f e o f f a m i l y
A b o u t t o r e a c h 18 y e a r s o f a g e
S u p e r i o r i t y c o m p le x
R a c i a l co m p lex
P la y s one p a re n t a g a in s t th e o th e r
S p eech h a n d ic a p
R a p id p h y s i c a l g ro w th
Too m uch s p e n d i n g m oney
T o ta l (c a se s)
N um ber
223
18 9
186
170
157
157
1 55
138
89
87
84
65
63
57
53
45
45
30
29
27
25
18
15
15
13
13
13
5
4
4
2 ,1 7 3
Per cent
1 0 .3
8 .7
8 .6
7 .9
7 .3
7 .3
7 .2
6 .4
4 .1
4 .0
3 .8
3 .0
2 .9
2 .6
2 .4
2 .1
2 .1
1 .4
1 .3
1 .2
1 .1
.8
.7
.7
.6
.6
.6
.3
.2
.2
1 0 0 .0 0
NOTE: T h e s e f i g u r e s w e r e t a k e n f r o m a s u r v e y o f
t e a c h e r s and p r i n c i p a l s o f s c h o o ls i n Los A n g e les and f a c t o r s
th e y c o n s id e r e d to be c a u s e s o f m a lb e h a v io r .
a E d w a rd C . A l l e n , tfAn E d u c a t i o n a l a n d S o c i o l o g i c a l
D e l i n q u e n c y F a c t o r S u r v e y o f t h e L o s A n g e l e s B o y 's W e l f a r e
C e n t e r , ? ( u n p u b l is h e d M a s t e r ? s t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f
S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s , C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 7 ), p . 4 4 .
30
p a r e n t s a llo w s b e h a v io r p ro b le m s to d e v e lo p to a s e r i o u s
d eg ree b e fo re any e f f o r t s
a r e m ade t o w a r d c h e c k i n g t h e s e t e n н
d e n c ie s.
In a d d itio n ,
th e la c k o f n o rm al p a r e n t a l s u p e r v i s io n ,
g u id a n c e ,
an d c o m p a n io n s h ip c o n t r i b u t e
to th e u n s o c ia l t r a i t s
th a t a re lik e ly to appear in th e o ffs p rin g .
I n m an y o f t h e c a s e s
s t u d i e d by th e w r i t e r t h e c h i l d
in v o lv e d in d e lin q u e n t a c t i v i t i e s
s a tis fa c tio n
d id n o t d e riv e p le a s u re o r
f r o m h i s home a n d t h u s h i s i n t e r e s t s w e r e s h i f t e d
t o o t h e r m o re i n t e r e s t i n g
sp h eres of a c t i v i t y .
o f fo re ig n -b o rn p a re n ts a re s p e c ific
s o r t o f home i n f l u e n c e
T he c h i l d r e n
illu s tra tio n s
of th is
i n m any i n s t a n c e s .
A d v e rse r e a c t i o n s w h ich o f t e n
c o n trib u te to th e
d e l i n q u e n t t e n d e n c i e s o h t h e p a r t o f c h i l d r e n m any t i m e s a r e
t h e d i r e c t r e s u l t o f t o o m uch o r t o o l i t t l e
or d isc ip lin e .
can,
Ill-a d v is e d
i n m an y c a s e s t u d i e s ,
p a re n ta l c o n tro l
d i s c i p l i n a r y m easu res o f t h i s
be d i r e c t l y
so rt
tra c e d to o v e rt a c ts
o f a d e lin q u e n t n a tu re .
H e a l y a n d B r o n n e r f o u n d i n t h e i r s t u d y o f tw o t h o u s a n d
c a s e s t h a t o n l y 7 . 6 p e r c e n t o f t h e d e l i n q u e n t s cam e f r o m
r e a s o n a b ly s a t i s f a c t o r y hom es.
a t e t h e r o l e o f home l i f e
m ent o f th e c h i l d .
2
C rim in a ls
2
T h is f i n d i n g t e n d s t o a c c e n tu н
as a m ajo r f a c t o r i n th e d e v e lo p -
As a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r
W illia m H e a ly and A u g u s ta B r o n n e r, D e l in q u e n ts and
(New Y o r k : T h e M a c m i l l a n C o m p any, 1 9 2 6 ) , p . 1 2 9 .
31
s u rv e y H e a ly c o n c lu d e d :
We h a v e n o o t h e r f i g u r e s s h o w i n g s u c h h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n
b e tw e e n b a c k g ro u n d c o n d i t i o n s an d i n c i d e n c e o f d e li n q u e n c y .
W h ere t o p l a c e a l a r g e m e a s u r e o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , w h e r e t o
. d i r e c t a s t r o n g a t t a c k i n tr e a tm e n t and f o r p r e v e n tio n o f
d e lin q u e n c y , s ta n d s o u t w ith s t r i k i n g c le a r n e s s .^
I n a l a r g e num ber o f c a s e s s t u d i e d by t h e w r i t e r
e x tre m e n e g l e c t b y t h e p a r e n t s was u s u a l l y a f a c t o r t h a t
e n te re d s tr o n g ly in to
th e c a u s a l p a tte r n .
In o th e r re s p e c ts
t h e h o m es o f d e l i n q u e n t s w e r e d e c i d e d l y u n s a t i s f a c t o r y b e c a u s e
o f th e la c k o f d i s c i p l i n e o r to o s t e r n d i s c i p l i n e and e x c e s s iv e
q u a r r e l i n g b e tw e e n p a r e n t s .
T a b le I I
i n d i c a t e s t h a t 65 p e r c e n t o f t h e w i t h d r a w a l s
fro m s c h o o l w ere d i r e c t l y
h o m e.
t h e r e s u l t o f e c o n o m ic n e e d i n " . t h e
I n d i r e c t l y th e w ith d ra w a l o f th e c h ild
fro m s c h o o l
p l a c e d h im i n a n e c o n o m ic a n d s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n m o r e l i k e l y
to le a d
to d e lin q u e n c y th a n i f he had re m a in e d i n th e r e l a t i v e l y
m ore h e l p f u l s u r r o u n d i n g s o f t h e s c h o o l .
D is s a tis f a c tio n w ith
s c h o o l c a u s e s som e 15 p e r c e n t o f t h e l a t e r d e l i n q u e n t s
w ith d ra w fro m s c h o o l, a c c o r d in g to
to
sta tistic s .
In a c o m p a ra tiv e s tu d y o f d e lin q u e n ts and r e g u l a r sc h o o l
c h ild re n
th e G lu e c k s fo u n d t h a t a s m a ll p e r c e n ta g e o f d e l i n н
q u e n ts had gone beyond th e n i n t h g r a d e
3
H e aly and B ro n n e r,
in s c h o o l.^
T hese f a c t s ,
lo c . c i t .
^ S h e l d o n G l u e c k a n d E l e a n o r T . G l u e c k , One T h o u s a n d
J u v e n ile D e lin q u e n ts . p . 88.
32
TABLE I I a
CAUSES OF SCHOOL WITHDRAWAL OF JUVENILE DELINQUENTS
C auses o f w ith d ra w a l
E c o n o m ic r e a s o n s
(fa m ily needed a id )
D i s s a t i s f a c t io n w ith sc h o o l
Per cent
6 5 .7
1 5 .1
E x p e lle d fro m s c h o o l
A .3
C o m m i t te d t o
4 .3
re fo rm a to ry o r s im ila r i n s t i t u t i o n
G ra d u a te d
(th is
g iv e n a s o n ly re a s o n )
In a b ility
t o do s c h o o l w ork
P h y sic a l d is a b il ity
V a rio u s o t h e r r e a s o n s
T o ta l
a S h e ld o n G lu e c k and E le a n o r T. G lu e c k ,
Ju v e n ile D e lin q u e n ts. p . 88.
3 .7
2 .9
.8
3 .2
1 0 0 .0 0
One T h o u s a n d
33
c o u p le d w ith th e u n s a t i s f a c t o r y
h o m e,
te n d to
e c o n o m ic b a c k g ro u n d i n t h e
sh o w t h a t s c h o o l w i t h d r a w a l a n d d e l i n q u e n c y a r e
c lo s e ly re la te d .
A l t h o u g h t h e home p l a y s a n e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t r o l e
in fix in g fu tu re a ttitu d e s
in th e c h ild ,
th e r e a re o th e r enн
v iro n m e n ta l f a c t o r s c o n tr ib u tin g to d e lin q u e n c y in th e c h i l d .
T he e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n f l u e n c e o f t h e s c h o o l m ay, i n som e
cases,
be f a v o r a b l e to w a rd th e w e ll- r o u n d e d d e v e lo p m e n t o f
th e c h il d and i n o th e r in s ta n c e s be u n f a v o r a b le ;
f o r e x a m p le ,
a c h i l d who h a s d i f f i c u l t y w i t h t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s ,
and o t h e r
a u t h o r i t i e s o f t e n becom es d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h h i s w h o le e n v i r o n н
m en t an d e s p e c i a l l y w i t h h is s c h o o l e n v ir o n m e n t a n d a s a r e s u l t
becom es a "p ro b le m c h i l d . "
v a rio u s so u rc e s.
T h i s d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n m ay a r i s e
I n som e i n s t a n c e s
fro m
i t may b e d u e t o m e n t a l
r e t a r d a t i o n w h e r e t h e p u p i l c a n n o t a c t u a l l y do t h e w o r k t h a t
is
a ssig n e d ;
t h i s m ay b e t h e f a u l t o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m w h i c h i s
p o o r ly a d a p te d to h i s n e e d s .
g ro w th o f t h i s
F ru s tra tio n
so rt of d is sa tis fa c tio n ,
is
o fte n th e o u tн
and a s an end r e s u l t
t r u a n c y o r so m e o t h e r d e l i n q u e n t a c t m ay f o l l o w .
I n som e i n s t a n c e s 1 v a r i o u s t y p e s o f m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s
a rise
l a r g e l y o u t o f t h e l a c k o f harm o n y b e tw e e n t h e t e a c h e r ,
p rin c ip a l,
and a tte n d a n c e o f f i c e r w ith r e g a r d
s h o u ld be done w ith th e p o t e n t i a l l y
w ith t h i s f a c t i s
th e
to
j u s t w hat
d e lin q u e n t c h ild .
s i t u a t i o n w h ere p o o r l y t r a i n e d
C o u p led
te a c h e rs
a r e a l l o w e d t o h a n d l e a n d d e a l w i t h c h i l d r e n o f t h e s o r t we
34
a re c o n sid e rin g .
M a lb e h a v io r and tr u a n c y u s u a l l y f o llo w t h e
d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n o r f r u s t r a t i o n o f th e c h ild .
Many u n t h i n k i n g
p e rso n s have n o tic e d t h a t d e lin q u e n ts a re o f te n tr u a n ts
w e ll; and,
c o n s e q u e n tly , have d e c id e d t h a t tru a n c y i s
o f d e lin q u e n c y .
In re a lity ,
s e rio u s u n d e rly in g f a c to r s
in v e s tig a tio n .
tru a n c y i s
or se ts
o f c o n d i t i o n s w h ic h n e ed
to f in d o u t j u s t
w hat f a c t o r s have le d to th e d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n
in o v e rt a c ts
a cause
a sy m p to m o f m o re
T he i m p o r t a n t move t h e n i s
w h ic h h av e r e s u l t e d
as
or fru stra tio n
s u c h a s t r u a n c y o r som e
o th e r a c t o f m a lb e h a v io r.
The u n s a t i s f a c t o r y e c o n o m ic c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e home m ay
even fo llo w
th e c h ild
in to
th e
s c h o o l e n v iro n m e n t and th u s
c a u s e h im e m b a r r a s s m e n t , h u m i l i a t i o n , a n d a f e e l i n g o f n o t
b e lo n g in g .n
F a l l i n g i n w i t h t h e w ro n g g r o u p s a t s c h o o l i s
o n e o f t h e p r i m e r e a s o n s why a c h i l d
o fte n
w i t h a r a t h e r w eak m o r a l
and m e n ta l s t r u c t u r e w i l l tu r n and fo llo w th e le a d o f o th e r s
h a r d e n e d i n t h e ways o f d e l i n q u e n c y .
Thus i t
is
th a t th e
sc h o o l,
d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y , may b e o n e o f t h e c h i e f f a c t o r s w h i c h
c a u se an u n c o o p e ra tiv e c h il d to
b e co m e i n i t i a t e d
in to
d e lin н
quency.
F h y s ic a l c o n d itio n v e rs u s d e lin q u e n c y .
d e lin q u e n t? s c o n d itio n is
av erag e c h ild
c lo s e ly s im ila r to
o f t h e sa m e a g e ,
so t h i s
an im p o rta n t cau se o f d e lin q u e n c y .
P h y s ic a lly th e
t h a t o f th e
c a n n o t t r u l y be c a l l e d
H o w e v e r , i n som e b o r d e r l i n e
3f>
c a s e s w h e re t h e c h i l d ? s r e s i s t a n c e h a s b e e n w eakened by
p h y sic a l d i f f i c u l t i e s ,
one c o u ld s a y t h a t p h y s i c a l c o n d it i o n s
p la y e d a c o n tr ib u to r y r o l e .
Some o f t h e i m p o r t a n t d i s e a s e s
o r d e f e c t s w h ic h seem t o h a v e a n i n f l u e n c e a r e l i s t e d
fo llo w s:
so rts.
in
eyes,
te e th ,
p o stu re ,
F a c to rs o f t h i s
as
and n e rv o u s d i s o r d e r s o f v a r io u s
s o r t are u s u a lly o f l i t t l e
t h e m odern s c h o o l w h e re p e r i o d i c
consequence
d e n t a l and p h y s i c a l e x a m in a н
tio n s a re ro u tin e p ro ce d u res.
P sy c h o lo g ic a l f a c to r s r e l a ti n g
th e m ost l o g i c a l a p p ro a c h e s to th e
d e lin q u e n ts
is
by m eans o f a p s y c h o l o g i c a l m eth o d t h r o u g h s t u d y
f o r c e s b e h in d c e r t a i n s p e c i f i c
We m u s t know t h e m o v in g
a c t s o f c o n d u c t b e f o r e we c a n
s u c c e s s f u lly t r e a t d e lin q u e n c y .
M o d e rn p s y c h o l o g i s t s h a v e
t h e hum an p e r s o n a l i t y i n t o
th re e
s e lf,"
"se lv e s" :
sc io u s
s e l f , ? th e " in s tin c tiv e
F irst,
l e t us c o n s i d e r w hat i s m eant by t h e
T h is i s
One o f
stu d y and tre a tm e n t o f
o f t h e hum an p e r s o n a l i t y o r " s e l f . ?
d iv id e d
to d e lin q u e n c y >
th e
"con-
and th e " su p e r s e l f . "
"c o n sc io u s s e l f . "
a s e l f o f b r a i n and b raw n , o f e d u c a ti o n and e x p e r ie n c e
and c o n s c io u s p u r p o s e ? a s p e a rh e a d o f m an? s im p a c ts w ith th e
w o r l d a b o u t him.** I t
a sp e c t o f th e c h ild
is
l a r g e l y th e s t r e n g th o r w eakness o f t h i s
t h a t d e c id e s w h e th e r he can a d a p t h im s e lf
to h i s p e c u l i a r e n v iro n m e n t.
5
T h is i s
th e o n ly s e l f o r p a r t o f
^ S h e ld o n G lu e c k and E le a n o r T . G lu e c k , e d i t o r s ,
P r o b a t i o n a n d C r i m i n a l J u s t i c e (New Y o r k : T he M a c m i l l a n C o m p an y,
1 9 3 3 ), p p . 2 3 8-249.
36
t h e hum an p e r s o n a l i t y w i t h w h i c h t h e s c h o o l h a s a n y i n f l u e n c e .
T he s e c o n d b a s i c a s p e c t o f t h e hum an p e r s o n a l i t y i s
th e
so -c a lle d
" in s tin c tiv e
s e lf.?
T h is p a r t i c u l a r segm ent
o f t h e hum an p e r s o n a l i t y i n c l u d e s a l l
th o se e x tra n e o u s c ra v in g s
f o r s a t i s f a c t i o n a n d u n a d j u s t e d s t r i v i n g s h a n d e d down f r o m
a n c e s t r a l to
lo w e r fo rm s o f l i f e .
S o c ia l a g e n c ie s
s c h o o l h av e th e d i f f i c u l t t a s k o f w e an in g th e c h i l d
such a s th e
fro m t h i s
i n s t i n c t i v e a s p e c t o f h i s p e r s o n a l i t y a n d o f a d j u s t i n g h im f o r
h a rm o n io u s s o c i a l l i v i n g .
tre a tin g
I n l a r g e th e s c h o o ls and c rim e
a g e n c ie s have d e a l t o n ly w ith th e
and h av e a lm o st c o m p le te ly o v e rlo o k e d t h i s
"c o n sc io u s s e l f "
in n e r a s p e c t o f th e
c h ild .
T he t h i r d
a s p e c t o f t h e hum an p e r s o n a l i t y w a s f o r m u l a t e d
l a r g e l y on th e b a s i s o f r e c e n t c l i n i c a l r e s e a r c h and c a s e
stu d y .
se lf"
It
b e g in s and d e v e lo p s a s a p a r t o f th e
and in
its
"c o n sc io u s
e a r l i e r s t a g e s becom es d iv o r c e d a s t h e p e r н
s o n a lity d e v e lo p s.
T h is " s e l f "
la te r
b e c o m e s w h a t we com m only
l a b e l " t h e c o n s c i e n c e ? o r s o r t o f r e g u l a t o r o f hum an c o n d u c t .
I n t h e p a s t o u r t r a d i t i o n a l m eth o d s o f t r e a t m e n t have had b u t
lim ite d u se fu ln e ss
in th e
s o l u t io n o f p e r s o n a l i t y p ro b le m s.
C h e m ic a l, p h y s i c a l , an d s o c i a l m eth o d s a s p r a c t i c e d
in th e
p a s t have been s u c c e s s f u l o n ly to a sm a ll d e g re e in t r e a t i n g
p e rs o n a lity d if f ic u ltie s .
G -lu e c k , l o c .
c it.
A t th e p r e s e n t tim e th e s c h o o ls
37
have th e b e s t f a c i l i t i e s
p e rso n a lity ,
so p e rh a p s
in
th e ir h is to ry fo r stu d ie s of
t h e s e " s e l v e s " c a n be f u r t h e r i n н
v e s t i g a t e d w i t h t h e v ie w to w a rd e n la r g e m e n t o f th e 'm e th o d s
of c lin ic a l research .
I n t h e few i n v e s t i g a t i o n s
th a t have
a l r e a d y b e e n m ade, g r e a t s t r i d e s - h a v e b e e n ta k e n i n l i n k i n g
t h e s e a lm o s t unknown a s p e c t s o f p e r s o n a l i t y w i t h s p e c i f i c
a c ts o f d e lin q u e n c y .
"T he s o - c a l l e d
n o rm al p e r s o n a l i t y
i s m e r e l y a c o m p r o m is e
b e tw e e n f o r c e s c o n te n d in g f o r c o n t r o l o f p e r s o n a l i t y and
7
c o n d u c t . S o sa y s one r e s e a r c h e r in t h i s f i e l d .
Each
in d iv id u a l d if f e r s
h is
if
in th e s tre n g th o f h is
"c o n sc io u s s e l f , "
re m e d ia l e f f o r t s
and h i s
are
in s tin c tiv e
"super s e l f . ?
to be e f f e c t i v e
It
h e rita g e ,
fo llo w s t h a t
th e y m ust ta k e
in to
c o n s id e r a tio n th e s t r e n g th o r w eakness o f each o f th e s e a s p e c ts
o f hum an p e r s o n a l i t y .
Now t h a t som e o f t h e b a s ic u n d e r l y i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l
in flu e n c e s have been c o n sid e re d ,
tra its
som e o f t h e m o re o b v i o u s
e v id e n c e d by d e l i n q u e n t s m u st be s t u d i e d .
m ost n o t ic e a b l e t r a i t s
o f d e lin q u e n ts i s
One o f t h e
e g o t i s m , w h i c h m ay b e
e x p la in e d a s an e x a g g e ra te d f e e l in g o f s e l f - a s s e r t i o n
w ith o v e rd e v e lo p e d s e n s a tio n s o f p l e a s a n tn e s s .
a g g re ss iv e n e s s is
7
G lu e c k ,
to be i n t e r p r e t e d
lo c . c i t .
c o u p le d
The t r a i t o f
a s an e x a g g e ra te d f e e lin g
38
of se lf-a sse rtio n
co n cern ed .
and p u g n a c i ty on t h e p a r t o f t h e c h i l d
T h is t r a i t o f a g g r e s s iv e n e s s i s
u s u a l l y a c c o m p a n ie d
b y a t y p e o f im p u d e n c e w h ic h p l a c e s m ore t h a n o r d i n a r y e m p h a s is
on s e l f a s s e r t i o n
and o v e rc o m p e n sa te d s e l f a b a se m e n t.
The s u g g e s t i b i l i t y
to
o f d e l i n q u e n t s h a s p e r h a p s l e d th e m
t h e p o s i t i o n w h i c h t h e y a r e now i n ;
th e su b m issio n to
in d iv id u a ls .
it
is
b ro u g h t a b o u t by
th e e x a g g e ra te d s e l f abasem ent o f o th e r
In asm u ch a s t h e d e l i n q u e n t h a s th e ab o v e t r a i t s ,
he m ust o f n e c e s s i t y be d e c e p tiv e f o r h i s
s e lf p ro te c tio n .
T h i s d e c e p t i v e f e e l i n g h a s g ro w n o u t o f h i s f e e l i n g
of
in fe rio rity
and s e l f ab asem en t and f e a r .
s e n sitiv ity
t o s o c i a l a p p r o v a l a n d d is a p p r o v a l h a s l e d h im t o
becom e u n d i s c i p l i n e d .
in lig h t of h is
H is d e f i c i e n c y i n
T h i s l a c k o f d i s c i p l i n e m ay b e e x p l a i n e d
la c k o f t r a in in g .
A l a r g e num ber o f d e l i n q u e n t s a l s o ,
tra its
in a d d itio n
m e n tio n e d a b o v e , a r e s e x u a l l y d e li n q u e n t ;
b ro u g h t a b o u t th ro u g h th e a b b e r a tio n o f h i s
to th e
a c o n d itio n
sex i n s t i n c t s .
T h ie v in g and p i l f e r i n g a r e o u tg ro w th s o f t h e s e v e r a l t r a i t s
m e n t i o n e d , a n d m ay b e i n t e r p r e t e d
a s an o v e rd e v e lo p e d i n s t i n c t
of a c q u is itio n .
The a v e r a g e d e l i n q u e n t ,
in a d d itio n to
th e se t r a i t s ,
& J o h n W. B r i d g e s a n d K . M* B r i d g e s , "A P s y c h o l o g i c a l
S t u d y o f J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n c y by G r o u p M e t h o d s , ? G e n e t i c
P sy c h o lo g y M onographs. 1 :4 2 1 , S e p te m b e r, 1926.
is
39
o fte n
q u ic k te m p e re d ,
gro u ch y ,
la z y ,
an d m oody, d u e l a r g e l y
t o h i s f e e l i n g o f d e p r e s s i o n and a n g e r ? a r e a c t i o n o r com penн
s a tio n f o r h is p r e s e n t p re d ic a m e n t.
T hese p s y c h o lo g ic a l t r a i t s w i l l ,
o f c o u r s e , v a ry from
i n d i v i d u a l t o i n d i v i d u a l a n d i n n o tw o i n s t a n c e s w i l l t h e
sa m e c o m b i n a t i o n o f f a c t o r s
be fo u n d .
T he hum an p e r s o n a l i t y ,
a f t e r o u r c o n s id e r a tio n o f h is p s y c h o lo g ic a l and m e n ta l t r a i t s ,
m ay b e d e f i n e d s o m e w h a t a s b e i n g :
. . . an i n t e g r a t e d sy s te m o f h a b i t u a l a d ju s tm e n ts to th e
e n v iro n m e n t, p a r t i c u l a r l y to th e s o c i a l e n v iro n m e n t.
P e r s o n a l it y i s th e in d iv id u a l s p e c i f i c and o r d in a r y
e x h ib ite d a t t i t u d e s , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and b e h a v io r t e n н
d e n c i e s . . . o u r s p e c i f i c ju d g m e n t c o n c e r n i n g h i s
p e r s o n a l i t y i s b u i l t up o n how h e a p p e a r s a n d b e h a v e s i n
th e eyes o f o t h e r s .9
D e l i n q u e n t s h a v e b e e n f o u n d t o p o s s e s s m any u n d e s i r a b l e
e m o tio n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h ereas n orm al p u p ils te n d to
u p .?
T h e r e a r e m an y d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f c o n f l i c t s
d e lin q u e n ts ;
a few o f t h e s e a r e a s f o l l o w s :
"grow
among
c o n f l i c t w i t h home
and s c h o o l, m ild d e lu s io n s o f p e r s e c u t io n , p h y s i c a l a ilm e n ts ,
f r e q u e n t m o to r i n c o o r d i n a t i o n ,
d e p re ss io n ,
a b n o rm a l i m p u l s e s , m o rb id
ab n o rm al te n d e n c y to b u l ly o t h e r s ,
few i n t e r e s t s
b u t m an y w o r r i e s .
I n m any o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h e d e l i n q u e n t s e e m s t o
b e v e r y much l i k e
9
p.
11.
norm al sc h o o l c h i l d r e n .
D e lin q u e n ts u s u a lly
W illia m H e a ly , P e r s o n a l i t y i n F o rm a tio n and A c tio n ,
40
do n o t d i f f e r a s t o
th e d eg ree i t
th e ty p e o f e m o tio n a l c o n f l i c t h u t a s to
is possessed.
I n te llig e n c e o f d e lin q u e n ts.
o n e w ay a n d a n o t h e r i n
Much h a s b e e n w r i t t e n
r e g a r d t o th e r e l a t i o n s h i p h e tw e e n
i n te l li g e n c e and d e lin q u e n c y .
use of in te llig e n c e te s tin g
As a r e s u l t o f t h e i n c r e a s e d
in th e s c h o o ls ,
now b e c o n s i d e r e d o n a m u ch m o r e s c i e n t i f i c
b efo re.
th e s u b je c t can
b a sis
th a n e v e r
One o f t h e m o s t t y p i c a l r e s e a r c h e s o f t h i s n a t u r e
was c a r r i e d o n i n M a s s a c h u s e t t s i n w h ic h o n e t h o u s a n d d e l i n н
q u e n ts w ere com pared w ith 3 ,6 3 8 c h i l d r e n o f t h e D e a rb o rn
10
s c h o o l s who w e r e n o t d e l i n q u e n t .
The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y
a re to be fo u n d in
T ab le I I I ,
page 4 4 .
On t h e b a s i s o f t h i s
s t u d y o n e may: sees t h a t t h e r e w e r e 3 7 p e r c e n t f e w e r d e l i n q u e n t s
i n th e n o rm al group
(I.Q .
o f 91 o r o v e r ) ;
l in q u e n ts i n th e d u l l g ro u p
( I . Q . o f 81 t o 9 0 ) ;
m ore d e l i n q u e n t s i n t h e b o r d e r l i n e g ro u p
1 1 . 6 p e r c e n t m o re d e l i n q u e n t s
70 o r b e l o w ) .
1 4 p e r c e n t m o re d e н
(I.Q .
1 1 .6 p e r c e n t
71 t o 8 0 ) ;
and
i n t h e d e f e c t i v e g ro u p (I.Q *
I t was f o u n d t h a t t h e
av erag e in te llig e n c e
l e v e l o f d e l i n q u e n t s was c o n s i d e r a b l y lo w e r t h a n t h a t o f a n
a v e ra g e group o f n o rm al s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . ^
f o u n d m u ch t h e sa m e r e s u l t s
in h is
R a u b e n h e im e r h a s
stu d ie s in
th e p r e d ic tin g
E l e a n o r T . G l u e c k , f,M e n t a l R e t a r d a t i o n a n d J u v e n i l e
D e lin q u e n c y ,? M e n tal H y g ie n e . 1 9 :5 4 9 -5 7 2 , O c to b e r, 1935.
11 L oo. c i t .
41
o f d e lin q u e n ts on th e b a s is
of s p e c ia l ty p es o f p r e t e s t s .
. . . w h ile i n t e l l i g e n c e is a v e ry im p o rta n t f a c t o r
i n b r in g in g a b o u t and m a in ta in in g d e s ir a b le a d j u s t н
m e n t s m o r a l l y a n d s o c i a l l y , t h e b o y who g e t s s t e e p e d
i n d e l i n q u e n t i n t e r e s t s a n d p r a c t i c e s g o e s t h a t w ay
i n s p i t e o f h i s i n t e l l i g e n c e . . . . One o f t h e m a i n
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f th e p o t e n t i a l l y d e lin q u e n t i s h is
l a c k o f a p p r e c i a t i o n o f m o r a l a n d s o c i a l v a l u e s . ? - '*
S e v e r a l f a c t s s t a n d o u t w i t h r e g a r d t o lo w i n t e l l i н
g en ce and d e lin q u e n c y . - F i r s t ,
tio n
o f lo w i n t e l l i g e n c e
a r e m ore l i k e l y
h ig h e r in te llig e n c e .
o f lo w i n t e l l i g e n c e
is
a h ig h e r p ro p o rн
q u o tie n ts i n d e lin q u e n t g roups th a n
in th e g e n e ra l p o p u la tio n .
ta lity
th a t th e re
Second,
t h a t t h o s e o f l o w m en н
t o b eco m e d e l i n q u e n t t h a n t h o s e o f
T h ird ,
th a t
th e p a r e n t s o f d e lin q u e n ts
a re l e s s a b le th a n th o s e
te llig e n c e to p a r tic ip a te
of h ig h e r in н
c o n s t r u c t iv e l y i n a p ro g ram f o r th e
s u p e r v is io n and tr e a tm e n t o f such c h ild r e n .
I t w o u ld seem t h a t i f
lo w i n t e l l i g e n c e ,
th e s e d e lin q u e n ts a re u s u a lly
one c o u ld a c c u r a t e l y f o r e t e l l f u t u r e and
p o t e n t i a l d e lin q u e n ts by c lo s e ly s c r u t i n i z i n g
l o w e r I .Q ,. b r a c k e t s .
and c o n d u c t.
t h i s v ery m a tte r,
c h ild r e n i n th e
S e v e ra l o u ts ta n d in g re s e a r c h e s have
b e e n c o n d u c t e d i n w h i c h a t t e m p t s w e r e m ade t o
te llig e n c e
of
T e rm a n s a i d ,
c o rre la te
a f te r h is
in н
r e s e a rc h w ith
th a t:
. . .
t h e c o r r e l a t i o n i s n o t s u c h a s t o a f f o r d m uch
o f a b a s is ro r p re d ic tin g th a t a m e n ta lly in f e r io r
i n d i v i d u a l w i l l p r o b a b l y b ecom e d e l i n q u e n t .
He m a y ,
A l b e r t S . R a u b e n h e i m e r , "An E x p e r i m e n t a l S t u d y o f
Some B e h a v i o r T r a i t s o f t h e P o t e n t i a l l y D e l i n q u e n t B o y , "
P. 105.
42
a n d i n d e e d i s m ore l i k e l y t o t h a n th e p e r s o n o f a v e r н
a g e i n t e l l i g e n c e , b u t t h e r e a r e f a r m ore c h a n c e s he
w i l l n o t b e co m e d e l i n q u e n t t h a n t h a t h e w i l l .
In te lliн
gence t e s t s o f d e lin q u e n ts a re w o rth w h ile , b u t th e y
d o n o t c a r r y u s v e r y f a r i n t h e p r o b l e m w i t h w h i c h we
a r e h e r e c o n c e r n e d . 13
D e l i n q u e n t s h a v in g lo w i n t e l l i g e n c e , h o w e v e r, h a v e
e i t h e r b e e n t r u a n t s o r o th e r w is e m isb e h a v e d i n s c h o o l .
of h ig h e r in te llig e n c e
d i d n o t s e e m t o sh o w t h e sam e e x t e n t
o f sc h o o l m a la d ju stm e n t.
t h a t t h e lo w I . Q .
T h is , p e r h a p s , was due t o
th e f a c t
d e l i n q u e n t h a d m o re d i f f i c u l t y k e e p i n g u p
a c a d e m ic a ll y and a s a r e s u l t becam e d i s s a t i s f i e d .
m ay b e c o n c l u d e d t h a t l o w i n t e l l i g e n c e ,
c au se o f d e lin q u e n c y i s
T hus,
it
th o u g h n o t a d e f i n i t e
a c o m p lic a tin g f a c t o r .
A n o th e r a u t h o r i t y i n t h i s
f ie ld has sa id th a t
th e exн
p e c t a n c y o f d e l i n q u e n c y am ong t h e m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d i s
fiv e
T hose
about
tim e s a s g r e a t a s f o r th o s e o f h ig h i n t e l l i g e n c e . 1^
P erh ap s th e n ,
it
sh o u ld be s t a t e d
p le d w ith o th e r f a c to r s
re sista n c e
t h a t lo w i n t e l l i g e n c e
couн
t e n d s t o b r e a k down t h e i n d i v i d u a l Ts
to a n tis o c ia l b e h a v io r.
G lu e o k ?s c o n t r o l l e d g ro u p s o f d e lin q u e n ts and nonн
d e lin q u e n ts in d ic a te s g e n e ra lly th a t
som ew hat l e s s
d e lin q u e n ts te n d to
be
i n t e l l i g e n t th a n norm al s c h o o l p u p ils o f a
13
L e l a n d M. T e r m a n , " R e s e a r c h o n t h e D i a g n o s i s o f
P re -D e lin q u e n t T e n d e n c ie s ," J u v e n ile D e lin q u e n c y , 9 :1 2 4 -1 3 0 ,
A p ril, 1925.
^
E le a n o r T. G lu e c k , o p . c i t . . p p .
54 9 -3 7 2 .
43
s im ila r age g ro u p .
These f a c t s
are i ll u s t r a te d
i n T ab le I I I ,
p ag e 44 i n t a b u l a r fo rm .
Sum m ary o f t h e
c h a p te r.
I n d e te rm in in g th e n a tu re o f
th e . c a u s e s t h a t o f t e n le a d to b e h a v io r o f a d e lin q u e n t n a н
tu re ,
one f a c t s t o o d o u t c l e a r l y an d t h a t w as t h a t no s i n g l e
f a c t o r was a l l i m p o r t a n t .
I t ap p eared ,
a f t e r a m in u te s tu d y
o f th e p ro b le m t h a t d e li n q u e n c y w as t h e r e s u l t o f a w h o le
p a tte r n of c o n trib u to ry f a c to r s ,
to a c e r ta in o v e rt a c t.
one o f w h ic h p e r h a p s l e a d
To r u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e
th e p ro b le m ,
i t was f o u n d t h a t a s i m i l a r s e t o f e n v ir o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s l e a d
to
d e lin q u e n c y i n one c a s e and n o t i n a n o th e r c a s e .
I t was
c o n c lu d e d by th e w r i t e r t h a t d e lin q u e n c y w as, t h e r e f o r e ,
r e s u l t o f a num ber o f f a c t o r s p l u s th e
a ll
im p o rta n t.
Many f a c t o r s
th e
c o m b i n a t i o n t h a t was
can be c o r r e l a t e d w ith d e l i n н
quency b u t no one c a u se can be c o r r e l a t e d to a h ig h d e g re e .
In c o n sid e rin g s in g le
causal p a tte rn ,
ance,
th e
i t w as f o u n d t h a t b r o k e n hom es w as p e r h a p s
th e g r e a t e s t s i n g l e
In a d d itio n ,
fa e to rs th a t e n te r in to
c a u s e o f a c h i l d b e c o m in g d e l i n q u e n t .
th e la c k o f n o rm al p a r e n t a l s u p e r v is io n ,
and c o m p a n io n s h ip c o n t r i b u t e d t o u n s o c i a l t r a i t s
o fte n le a d to a n tis o c ia l a c ts .
g u id н
th a t
I n t h e m an y c a s e s s t u d i e d ,
i t was f o u n d t h a t o n ly b e tw e e n 7 an d 10 p e r c e n t o f j u v e n i l e
d e lin q u e n ts had w hat c o u ld be c l a s s i f i e d a s s a t i s f a c t o r y
home r e l a t i o n s h i p s .
No o t h e r f i g u r e s
show ed su c h h ig h c o r н
r e l a t i o n b e tw e n b a c k g ro u n d c o n d i t i o n s and th e in c id e n c e o f
TABLE I I I
INTELLIGENCE OF JUVENILE DELINQUENTS (GLUECK GROUP
OF 1 , 0 0 0 DELINQUENTS}* AND OF MASSACHUSETTS SCHOOL
CHILDREN (DEARBORN GROUP OF 3 , 6 3 8 NORMAL)a
1
.In te llig e n c e le v e l
Ju v e n ile d e lin q u e n ts
K um ber
Per cent
School c h ild re n
N um ber P e r c e n t
N orm al a n d s u p e r n o r m a l
( I . Q. 9 1 o r o v e r )
407
4 1 .6
2 ,8 7 2
7 9 .0
D u ll
(I.
Q. 8 1 t o 9 0 )
276
2 8 .2
511
1 4 .0
B o rd e rlin e
( I . Q. 7 1 t o 8 0 )
168
1 7 .1
199
5 .5
D e f e c tiv e ? fe e b le m in d e d
( I . Q. 7 0 o r b e l o w )
128
1 3 .1
56
1 .5
979
1 0 0 .0
3 ,6 3 8
1 0 0 .0
T o ta ls
* I n tw e n ty -o n й o f t h e 1 ,0 0 0 c a s e s i n t e l l i g e n c e l e v e l
was u n a s c e r t a i n e d .
a E le a n o r T . G lu e c k , "M e n tal R e t a r d a t i o n and J u v e n i le
D e lin q u e n c y ,? J u v e n ile D e lin q u e n c y . 9 :5 5 1 , O c to b e r, 1935.
45
d e lin q u e n c y .
The e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n f l u e n c e o f t h e s c h o o l w as i n m an y
i n s t a n c e s a v i t a l f a c t o r t h a t l e a d to w a rd d e lin q u e n c y .
ta in
C erн
t y p e s o f c h i l d r e n becam e d i s s a t i s f i e d b e c a u s e o f s u c h
fa c to rs
a s r e t a r d a t i o n a n d f r u s t r a t i o n w h i c h i n som e i n s t a n c e s
w as due d i r e c t l y
ric u lu m .
to th e
in flu e n c e
I n som e i n s t a n c e s ,
o f th e te a c h e r and th e c u rн
th e d e lin q u e n t b eg an to d r i f t
a w ay f r o m n o r m a l a s a r e s u l t o f h i s a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h c e r t a i n
g ro u p s o f c h i l d r e n h a rd e n e d i n th e w ays o f j u v e n i l e
c rim e .
I t was fo u n d t h a t t h e p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n o f t h e d e l i n н
q u e n t was c l o s e l y s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f t h e a v e r a g e c h i l d o f
t h e sam e a g e , s o t h i s
fa c to r
c o u ld n o t t r u l y b e c a l l e d a n
im p o rta n t cause o f d e lin q u e n c y .
I n sem e o b s c u r e c a s e s t h e
p h y s ic a l c o n d itio n o f th e c h ild p la y e d o n ly a c o n tr ib u to r y
ro le
in th e
causal p a tte rn .
P sy c h o lo g ic a l f a c to r s
th e
o f p e r s o n a lity sto o d h ig h in
c a u s a l p a t t e r n w h ic h l e a d t o d e l i n q u e n t a c t s
o f th e
c h ild .
on t h e p a r t
I t w as fo u n d t h a t i n d i v i d u a l c l i n i c a l c a s e
s t u d y a c c o m p lis h e d m ore t h a n a n y o t h e r m e th o d o f t r e a t m e n t
a tte m p te d .
It
fo llo w e d t h a t i f
th is
be t r u e
t h a t d e lin q u e n c y
w a s c l o s e l y , c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e h um an p e r s o n a l i t y .
D e lin q u e n ts
w e r e f o u n d t o p o s s e s s m an y u n d e s i r a b l e e m o t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s н
t i c s w h ereas norm al p u p i ls
ten d e d to
"grow u p ? e m o t i o n a l l y .
I n a d d i t i o n , m an y d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f c o n f l i c t s w e r e n o t e d
am ong d e l i n q u e n t s ,
a few o f th e m o st p ro m in e n t f o llo w :
conн
f l i c t w i t h hom e a n d s c h o o l , m i l d d e l u s i o n s o f p e r s e c u t i o n ,
46
p h y sic a l d i f f i c u l t i e s ,
f r e q u e n t m o to r i n c o o r d i n a t i o n ,
im p u ls e s , m o rb id d e p r e s s i o n ,
o th e rs,
and few i n t e r e s t s
a b n o rm al t e n d e n c ie s t o b u l l y
b u t m an y w o r r i e s .
u s u a l l y do n o t d i f f e r a s t o
D e lin q u e n ts
th e ty p e o f e m o tio n a l c o n f l i c t ,
b u t a s t o t h e d e g re e t o w h ic h i t
is possessed.
W ith r e g a r d t o i n t e l l i g e n c e
d e lin q u e n c y ,
ab n o rm al
a s a f a c t o r le a d in g to w a rd
i t was fo u n d t h a t t h e a v e r a g e i n t e l l i g e n c e l e v e l
o f d e l i n q u e n t s was c o n s i d e r a b l y lo w e r t h a n t h a t o f a n a v e r a g e
g ro u p o f n o rm al s c h o o l c h i l d r e n .
w i t h r e g a r d t o lo w i n t e l l i g e n c e
th e re
is
S ev eral f a c ts
sta n d out
and d e lin q u e n c y .
F irst,
a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f l o w i n t e l l i g e n c e am ong d e l i n н
q u e n t g r o u p s t h a n am ong n o r m a l c h i l d r e n .
o f lo w m e n t a l i t y a r e m ore l i k e l y
th o se o f h ig h e r in te llig e n c e .
Second,
t h a t th o se
t o becom e d e l i n q u e n t t h a n
T h ird ,
d e l i n q u e n t s o f lo w i n t e l l i g e n c e
t h a t th e p a r e n ts o f
are le s s w illin g
th a n th o se o f h ig h e r i n t e l l i g e n c e
tiv e ly
th a t
to p a r tic ip a te
and a b le
c o n stru c н
i n a p ro g ram f o r th e s u p e r v i s i o n and tr e a tm e n t o f su ch
c h ild re n .
In te llig e n c e
t e s t s w ere fo u n d to be w o rth w h ile i n
som e i n s t a n c e s i n f o r e t e l l i n g
w as s l i g h t .
T hus,
d e lin q u e n c y b u t th e c o r r e l a t i o n
i t m ay b e c o n c l u d e d t h a t lo w i n t e l l i g e n c e ,
th o u g h n o t a d e f i n i t e
cause o f d e lin q u e n c y ,
f a c t o r t h a t m ust n o t be o v e rlo o k e d .
i s a c o m p lic a tin g
CHAPTER IV
LEGAL PROVISIONS IN CALIFORNIA. FOR THE EDUCATION
AND TREATMENT OF DELINQUENTS
It
is
th e p u rp o se o f t h i s
c h a p te r to p re s e n t th e r e s u l t s
of a le g a l re s e a rc h in to th e s ta tu te s ,
d e p a rtm e n t r u l i n g s ,
C a lifo rn ia
quency.
and o p in io n s o f o f f i c i a l s
as th e y p e c u l ia r l y r e l a t e
F u rth e r,
c o u rt re c o rd s, p ro b a tio n
to
o f th e S ta te o f
th e p ro b le m o f d e l i n н
th e w r i t e r t r a c e s by m eans o f r e l a t i n g
a c tu a l c a se s, c o u rt d e c isio n s,
c e d u re s and tre a tm e n ts
a n d o p i n i o n s how p r e s e n t p r o н
e v o lv e o v e r a p e r io d o f y e a r s .
P ro b a tio n a ry p ro c e d u re s and p r o v is io n s a re e x p la in e d in
re la tio n
M o reo v er,
t o t h e l e g a l s t r u c t u r e upon w h ic h t h e y a r e b a s e d .
th e stu d y p ro p o se s to e x p la in w hat p ro v is io n s th e
S t a t e o f C a l i f o r n i a m akes f o r t h e e d u c a ti o n an d t r e a t m e n t o f
d e lin q u e n ts.
L a s tly ,
th e
s t u d y sh o w s w h a t a d d i t i o n a l l e g a l p r o c e d u r e s '
h a v e e v o lv e d m a k in g f o r im p ro v e m e n ts i n
d e lin q u e n ts in
Iv
th e tre a tm e n t o f
th e S ta te o f C a lif o r n ia .
LEGAL BACKGROUND FOR PRESENT TREATMENT
D u rin g t h e p a s t d e ca d e a deep and g e n u in e i n t e r e s t h a s
d e v e lo p e d w ith r e g a r d to
w here i t
th e o p e ra tio n o f th e
la w , e s p e c i a l l y
h a s to u c h e d th e p ro b lem s o f f a m ily l i f e .
and c o u r ts have been i n v e s tig a te d ,
stu d ie d ,
T he l a w s
and s e r i o u s l y
48
c ritic iz e d
as. t o t h e i r tr e a tm e n t o f th e p ro b le m s o f d e l i n н
quency and c rim e .
S e v e r a l s o c i o l o g i c a l phenom ena h av e d e v e lo p e d i n r e c e n t
y e a r s w h i c h m ake a l e g a l s t u d y p a r t i c u l a r l y t i m e l y a n d e s s e n н
tia l.
F irst of a ll,
t h e c o u r i p r o c e d u r e s w h ic h h av e re m a in e d
s ta tic
f o r so lo n g a p e r i o d h a v e c h an g e d r a d i c a l l y o f l a t e
t h e i r m eth o d s o f h a n d li n g c h i l d r e n ? s c a s e s .
F orm al c o u r t
p r o c e d u r e h a s b e e n a b a n d o n e d i n m an y i n s t a n c e s
in fo rm a l h e a rin g s .
Second,
th e c o u rts a re
in
favor o f
in c re a s in g ly re ly in g
on th e e x p e r t o p in io n s o f p s y c h o l o g i s t s , p s y c h i a t r i s t s ,
s o c i o l o g i s t s w ith re g a rd to
of C a lifo rn ia
it
in
c h ild re n ?s cases.
T h ird ,
and
th e p e o p le
a r e n o t s a t i s f i e d w ith h ap h azard p ro c e d u re s , and
a p p e a r s t h a t t h e w h o le p r i s o n and c o u r t s y s te m a r e d u e f o r
e x te n s iv e r e v is io n in th e v e ry n e a r f u tu r e .
F le x n e r h as a p tly
d e s c r i b e d t h e m o d e r n a t t i t u d e w hen h e s a y s t h a t :
The e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e la w i s b e i n g m o re a n d m ore c o n н
s id e re d n o t a c c o rd in g to th e t h e o r e ti c a l a cc u ra c y o f i t s
p h ilo s o p h y b u t in th e l i g h t o f i t s r e s u l t s . 1
I n t h e o p i n i o n o f som e a u t h o r i t i e s
d e v e lo p m e n t i s
a new s t a g e
b e in g e n t e r e d w h ic h m ig h t be l a b e l e d
j u r i s p r u d e n c e ? w h e r e m o re a n d m o re e m p h a s i s i s
on t h e f e a l i z a t i o n . a n d
c o n s id e ra tio n th a t th e
of le g a l
??s o c i a l
b e in g p la c e d
in te re s ts
o f th e
B ern ard F le x n e r and o t h e r s ,
T he C h i l d , t h e F a m i l y , a n d
th e C o u rt (U n ite d S t a t e s D e p a rtm e n t o f L a b o r, C h i l d r e n ? s
B u r e a u , B u l l e t i n H o. 1 9 3 ; W a s h i n g t o n , B . C . : U n i t e d S t a t e s
G o vernm ent P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 3 9 ) , p . 2 .
U9
p eo p le a re o f im p o rtan ce.
T h e e a r l i e s t c h i l d r e n * s c o u r t s w o r t h y o f t h e name
began around I 89O i n A u s t r a l i a ,
slow u n t i l th e l a s t d e c a d e .
b u t g e n e r a l a p p ro v a l has been
Every s t a t e
in th e U n ited S ta te s
b u t two now h a s made some p r o v i s i o n f o r t h e t r e a t m e n t o f c h i l н
d r e n , , b u t o n l y a> f e w p r o g r e s s i v e s t a t e s h a v e e v o l v e d c o u r t s
th a t a re a t a l l doing an e f f i c i e n t
h a b ilita tin g
tio n
th eir
job i n t r e a t i n g and r e н
y o u th fu l v i o l a t o r s o f th e law .
U po n i n v e s t i g a н
i t was f o u n d t h a t many s t a t e s h a v e c h a n g e d t h e names o f
co u rts
so t h a t t h e y sound more p r o g r e s s i v e ,
b u t i n m any
c a se s th e p ro c e d u re s and u n d e rly in g p h ilo s o p h y rem ain u n a l t e r e d .
I I .
TREATMENT OF CHILDREN UNDER CALIFORNIA JUVENILE .LAWS
D e fin itio n s under th e law .
out a t the o u ts e t th a t
recognize th e
sta tu tes.
term s
It
i s p e rh a p s w e ll to p o in t
le g a ll y th e S ta te o f C a lifo rn ia does not
"delinquency** and " d e l i n q u e n t "
in i t s
The t e r m w h i c h c o n v e y s a s i m i l a r d e n o t a t i o n and
w h ic h a v o i d s t h e c a l l i n g o f names t o
c h ild re n h a ile d before
c o u r t , was c h o s e n i n s t e a d b y t h e l e g a l a u t h o r s o f j u v e n i l e
leg isla tio n .
Hence, th e term " d e lin q u e n t" does n o t a p p ear
in the s t a t u t e s ;
in stea d ,
c h i l d r e n who r u n a f o u l o f t h e l a w
a r e l e g a l l y d e s i g n a t e d a s "w ards o f t h e c o u r t . "
2
2
.
P e r s o n a l c o rre sp o n d e n c e o f th e a u th o r , l e t t e r from
John P. P lo v e r, S u p e rv is o r o f J u v e n ile P r o b a tio n , S t a t e o f
C a l i f o r n i a , J u n e 1 7 , 194-0.
'
the
50
P u rp o s e s and i n t e n t o f C a l i f o r n i a
y o u th fu l o ffe n d e rs .
law s d e a l i n g w i t h
T hese law s a r e b e s t d e s c r ib e d
language of th e s t a t u t e s
in th e
th e m s e lv e s , w hich f o llo w :
. . . purpose of th e a c t . . . t o p ro v id e fo r th e custody
a n d c a r e o f c h i l d r e n who h a v e s h o w n , o r who f r o m l a c k o f
c a re a re l i k e l y to develop c rim in a l te n d e n c ie s , in o rd e r
t o h a v e them t r a i n e d t o good h a b i t s and c o r r e c t p r i n c i p l e s ;
. . . and i s a m a t t e r w hich c o n c e rn s th e w hole s t a t e a s
much a s a n y o t h e r e x t e n s i o n o f t h e j u d i c i a l s y s t e m . ^
I n s e t t i n g up t h e s e r i e s
to as th e
o f law s,
som etim es r e f e r r e d
? J u v e n i l e C o u r t L aw ? i n C a l i f o r n i a ,
did not p reten d
was t h e p u r p o s e ,
to
th e le g is la tu r e
s e t up a n e n t i r e l y new c o u r t s y s t e m .
how ever,
It
to c o n fe r upon th e s u p e r i o r c o u r ts
th e le g a l a u th o r ity n e c e ssa ry to h an d le c h il d r e n ?s c a s e s .^
I t m ay b e s e e n t h r o u g h a c a r e f u l s t u d y o f t h e s t a t u t e s a n d
c o u r t d e c i s i o n s t h a t t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e law s was n o t f u l l y
estab lish ed u n til sp e c ific
in
q u estio n .
Hence,
it
c o u rt cases decided im p o rtan t is s u e s
becomes e s s e n t i a l to
d e c i s i o n s made by t h e c o u r t s
exam ine t h e s e
to le a r n what p re s e n t p r a c t ic e s
are.
In o rd er f u rth e r to p r o te c t th e c h ild re n of th e
law s h a v e b e en p a s s e d fro m tim e t o
v ario u s s t a t e
c o u rts have decided
to th e p u rp o se s o f th e
ju v en ile
sta te ,
tim e, b u t th e d e c is io n s o f
im p o rtan t is s u e s r e l a t i n g
law s.
One o f t h e c a s e s w h i c h
3
W i l l i a m M. M c K i n n e y , c o m p i l e r , Hew C a l i f o r n i a D i g e s t
(S a n F r a n c i s c o : B a n c r o f t - W h i t n e y C om pany,' 1 9 3 1 ) , IX , 1 7 9 .
^ C a s e No. 1 ? 6 , P e o p l e v .
o f th e S t a t e o f C a l i f o r n i a , V ol.
Budd, D i s t r i c t C o u r t o f A p p e al
24, p . 714.
51
ex ten d ed th e scope o f th e law c o n s id e r a b ly to in c lu d e n o t
only a c ts
com m itted by c h i l d r e n b u t a l s o a c t s
a d u l t s w hich te n d e d to
c o m m itted by
c a u s e c h i l d r e n t o become d e l i n q u e n t ,
was t h e f o l l o w i n g d e c i s i o n o f t h e c o u r t :
The p u r p o s e o f t h e J u v e n i l e C o u r t Law i s t o make
c r i m i n a l th e com m ission o f any a c t t e n d i n g t o cause m in o rs
t o become d e p e n d e n t o r d e l i n q u e n t and t o p r o t e c t an d s a f e н
g u ard c h i l d r e n from t h o s e i n f l u e n c e s w hich m a n i f e s t l y i n н
c l i n e them to w a rd e n t e r i n g a s t a t e o f d e p en d e n cy o r
delin q u en cy * ?
A l t h o u g h a c h i l d may b e t a k e n i n t o
a u th o ritie s,
th e charge o f d elin q u en cy i s
c u sto d y by th e
not to
be c o n s i d e r e d
a c rim in a l ch arg e b u t to be d e cid ed under th e p r o v is io n s o f th e
J u v e n ile C ourt A ct.
6
T h u s i t m ay b e s e e n t h a t e v e r y a t t e m p t
i s m ade t o d i v o r c e t h e c h i l d r e n ? s c a s e s f r o m t h e u s u a l c r i m i n a l
procedures.
These b a s ic
c a s e s w e r e p r e s e n t e d t o d e m o n s t r a t e ho w t h e
l e g a l tr e a tm e n t o f c h i l d r e n has ev o lv ed from b o th th e s t a t u t e s
and from t h e d e c i s i o n s r e n d e r e d by t h e c o u r t s
from tim e t o
tim e.
The J u v e n i l e C o u r t s t r u c t u r e
in C a lif o r n ia .
com prehend more e a s i l y t h e n a t u r e o f t h e
delin q u en cy i t
In o rd er to
le g a l asp ects of
i s n e c e ssa ry a t t h i s p o in t to d e sc rib e b r i e f l y
^ Case
Appeal o f th e
No. 6 6 6 , P e o p l e v . M c D o u g a l , D i s t r i c t C o u r t o f
S t a t e o f C a l i f o r n i a , V ol. 94, p . 365.
^ Case
Appeal of th e
No* 4 0 2 , P e o p l e v . B l a c e , D i s t r i c t C o u r t
S t a t e o f C a l i f o r n i a , V ol. 7 4 , p . 598.
of
52
th e ju v e n ile c o u rt s tr u c tu r e .
court is
say,
In C a lifo rn ia ,
th e
an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f th e s u p e r io r c o u rt;
the s u p e rio r c o u rt i s
th at is
to
convened a t tim e s a s a j u v e n i l e
c o u r t, and th e s u p e r i o r c o u r t ju d g e p r e s i d e s a s
judge.
ju v en ile
ju v en ile
court
Each c o u n ty m u st, a c c o rd in g to t h e law , have a t l e a s t
one s u p e r i o r c o u r t ju d g e .
T his p r o v is o n ,
t h a t each c o u n ty h as a t l e a s t one j u v e n i l e
o f c o u r s e , means
judge and j u v e n ile
co u rt.
The p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r i s
s u p e r io r ju d g e , and i t
th e c h ie f a s s i s t a n t to
i s h is d u ty to a s s i s t th e
judge i n
c a r r y i n g o u t and e n f o r c i n g t h e law s o f th e s t a t e
ju v en iles.
Each c o u n ty i n t h e s t a t e
p ro b atio n o f f ic e r ,
is
in regard to
re q u ire d to have a
a s s is ta n t p ro b atio n o f f ic e r,
and d e p u ty
p r o b a tio n o f f i c e r i f p r o v is io n s o f th e law a r e to
Each c o u n ty ,
in ad d itio n ,
a p p o in te d by t h e j u v e n i l e c o u r t ju d g e .
se lec ts
t h e p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r and h i s a s s i s t a n t ,
a p p r o v e s an d makes t h e a e t u a l a p p o i n t m e n t .
T h is com m ittee
and th e
judge
The d e p u t y o f t h e
a p p o in ted by th e p ro b a tio n o f f i c e r w ith
th e a p p ro v a l o f th e p r o b a t i o n com m ittee and t h e
d ep u ty ?s d u ty is
be f u l f i l l e d . 7
h a s a p r o b a t i o n com m ittee
w hich i s
p ro b atio n o f f ic e r is
the
to a s s i s t
judge.
th e p ro b a tio n o f f i c e r to
The
enforce
? I n t e r v i e w by t h e a u t h o r w i t h Ney O t i s , P r o b a t i o n
O f f i c e r o f M onterey C ounty, C a l i f o r n i a , Ju n e 12, 1940.
53
t h e law s o f th e s t a t e
in th e co u n ty .
J u r is d ic tio n o f th e
c>
.ju v en ile c o u r t .
B efore c o n s id e rin g
f u r t h e r th e v a r i o u s r a m i f i c a t i o n s o f t h e law w ith r e g a r d to
ju v en iles
o f the
the
it
is
e s s e n t ia l to c o n sid e r e x a c tly th e j u r i s d i c t i o n
ju v e n ile c o u rt w ith r e l a ti o n
to
ch ild ren .
In C alifo rn ia
ju r is d ic tio n o f th e ju v e n ile co u rt in clu d es a l l persons
u n d e r t h e a g e o f t w e n t y - o n e y e a r s who come w i t h i n a n y o f t h e
d e s c r i p t i o n s w hich a r e
Law i t s e l f ;
any m in o r,
( a ) Who i s
a l m s , :. . .
(b)
q u o ted i n p a r t from t h e J u v e n i l e C o u rt
found beg g in g ,
rec eiv in g or g ath erin g
Who h a s n o p a r e n t o r g u a r d i a n ,
.
.
.
(c)
Who i s d e s t i t u t e , o r who i s n o t p r o v i d e d w i t h t h e
n e c e s s i t i e s o f l i f e by h i s p a r e n t s , . . .
{d ) Whose home i s
( e ) Who i s
an u n f i t p la c e .
found w a n d erin g
.
.
.
.
.
(f)
Who i s a v a g r a n t o r who f r e q u e n t s t h e c o m p a n y
c rim in a ls, v ag ran ts, o r p r o s titu te s , . . .
of
( g ) Who h a b i t u a l l y v i s i t s , w i t h o u t p a r e n t o r g u a r d i a n ,
a p u b l i c b i l l i a r d room o r p u b l i c p o o l r o o m , o r a s a l o o n ,
o r a p l a c e w here a n y s p i r i t u o u s , v in o u s , o r m a lt l i q u o r s
a r e s o l d , b a r t e r e d , e x c h a n g e d , o r g i v e n away.
( h ) Who h a b i t u a l l y u s e s i n t o x i c a t i n g l i q u o r s , h a b i t u a l l y
smokes c i g a r e t t e s , o r h a b i t u a l l y u s e s o p iu m , c o c a i n e ,
m o rphine, o r o t h e r s i m i l a r d ru g w ith o u t t h e d i r e c t i o n o f a
co m p eten t p h y s i c i a n .
F l o r e n c e L . T u r n e r , d i r e c t o r , Laws R e l a t i n g t o t h e
D epartm ent o f S o c i a l W elfare (S acram ento: C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e
P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 3 9 i , P . "6.
H
(i)
Who p e r s i s t e n t l y o r h a b i t u a l l y r e f u s e s t o o b e y
th e r e a s o n a b l e and p r o p e r o r d e r s o f h i s p a r e n t s , g u a r d ia n ,
o r c u s t o d i a n : o r who i s b e y o n d t h e c o n t r o l o f s u c h p e r s o n .
( j ) Who i s h a b i t u a l l y t r u a n t f r o m s c h o o l w i t h i n t h e
m eaning o f t h e law o f t h i s S t a t e .
(k) W ho-is l e a d i n g ,
im m oral l i f e .
.
,
.a n
id le ,
d isso lu te,
lew d,
or
(1)
Who i s i n s a n e , f e e b l e - m i n d e d , o r s o f a r m e n t a l l y
d e f i c i e n t t h a t h is p a re n ts o r g u a rd ia n ^ a re u n ab le to
e x e r c i s e p r o p e r p a r e n t a l c o n t r o l o v e r him , . . .
(m) Who v i o l a t e s a n y l a w o f t h i s S t a t e o r a n y o r d i n a n c e
o f a n y tow n, c i t y , o r c o u n ty , o f t h i s S t a t e d e f i n i n g c r im e .
( n ) Who i s a f f l i c t e d w i t h s y p h i l l i s , g o n o r r h e a , o r
c h a n c r o i d , and i s i n need o f m e d ic a l and ( o r) c u s t o d i a l
care, or b o th .9
In a d d i t i o n to t h e p e rs o n s s p e c i f i e d above t h e law
sta te s
t h a t p e r s o n s who a r e d e c l a r e d f r e e
co n tro l o f his p aren ts are also
the ju v e n ile c o u rt.
law i s
*1 A
s u b j e c t to th e
ju risd ic tio n of
T h u s i t may b e n o t e d t h a t t h e C a l i f o r n i a
q u ite d e f i n i t e and a l l
persons under i t s
from t h e c u s to d y and
in c lu s iv e w ith reg a rd to th e
ju risd ic tio n .
These p r o v is io n s o f th e
law
h a v e grown o u t o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e s o f c o u r t . t r i a l s , c o u r t d e c i н
sio n s,
and o u t o f a ch an g ed econom ic s o c i e t y ;
c o n s t a n t l y b e i n g amended and i n t e r p r e t e d
hence th ey a re
d i f f e r e n t l y w ith th e
p a ssa g e of tim e.
T h e j u v e n i l e c o u r t 1s e x c l u s i v e
9 I b i d . . pp.
11-12.
10 I b i d . . p p .
13-15.
ju ris d ic tio n over ju v en ile
55
c a s e s i s g u a r a n t e e d b y t h e s t a t u t e s when t h e y s p e c i f y t h a t
"no c o u r t s h a l l h a v e j u r i s d i c t i o n t o t r y
p e rso n under th e age o f e ig h te e n y e a rs ,
has f i r s t been su b m itted
p ro v is io n of the
to th e
ju v en ile
law was w r i t t e n
p r a c t i c e o f m any c o u r t s
to
try
th e c a se o f any
.
. u n less
th e m a tte r
c o u r t , T h i s
in b ecause o f th e form er
j u v e n i l e c a s e s when j u r i s d i c t i o n
was d o u b t f u l .
A ccording to th e p r e s e n t p ro c e d u re ,
a c c u se d o f a crim e and he a p p e a rs b e f o r e
if
a person is
th e s u p e r i o r ju d g e
and he f i n d s t h a t t h e p e r s o n i s u n d e r t h e age o f e i g h t e e n ,
t h e c o u r t can be t u r n e d i n t o
a ju v en ile
c o u r t by means o f t h e
f o r m a l i t y o f r e c e s s i n g and re c o n v e n in g a s a j u v e n i l e c o u r t ,
w here a d i f f e r e n t p r o c e d u r e i s
When t h e p e r s o n i s
tw enty-one y e a rs o f ag e,
to be fo llo w e d .
betw een th e a g e s o f e ig h t e e n and
th e
judge has th e d i s c r e t i o n w h eth er
t o t r y him a s a j u v e n i l e o r a s a r e g u l a r c r i m i n a l c a s e .
any e v e n t th e c h i l d m ust c a l l a t t e n t i o n
is
u n der age i f he w ishes to
be t r i e d
In
to th e f a c t t h a t he
as a m inor? o th e rw is e
t h e r e g u l a r c o u r t p r o c e d u r e w i l l be f o l l o w e d .
I t m u st be
rem em bered t h a t t h e age o f t h e c h i l d d o e s n o t e x c u se t h e
crim e
b u t o fte n changes the p o s s ib le p e n a lty f o r t h a t crim e.
The j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e
j u v e n i l e c o u r t was ex pan ded
g r e a t l y by a c a se d e c id e d o n l y r e c e n t l y w here th e a u t h o r i t y
11 I b i d . . p. 26.
56
o f t h e c o u r t was e n l a r g e d t o c o n t r o l m i n o r s , when i t
t o be f o r t h e te m p o r a l , m e n t a l ,
t o do s o .
12
appears
o r m oral w e lfa re o f th e c h ild
T h i s sa m e d e c i s i o n a l s o u p h e l d t h e a u t h o r i t y
o f th e c o u r t to aw ard th e c u s to d y o f th e d e li n q u e n t to th e
p ro b atio n o f f ic e r i f
it
a p p e a r e d b e s t t o do s o .
L ater,
on
t h e b a s i s o f t h e same c a s e t h e C a l i f o r n i a S u p rem e C o u r t d e н
c la re d th a t d ivo rce c o u rts
of the ju v e n ile
court i f
cannot a l t e r
th e custody r u lin g
such a d e c is io n has p r e v io u s ly been
rendered.
Once a g a i n ,
th e power and a u t h o r i t y o f th e
j u v e n i l e was .
u p h e ld and a p p la u d e d i n c a s e s w here t h e c u s to d y o f c h i l d r e n .
was i n d i s p u t e .
en la rg in g the
b e liev e
T h is i s a v i t a l and im p o r ta n t s t e p i n t h e
ju risd ic tio n
of ju v en ile
co u rts,
and e x p e r ts
i t w i l l make f o r f a i r e r a n d m o r e i m p a r t i a l t r e a t m e n t
o f w ards o f t h e c o u r t in v o lv e d w ith t h e i r p a r e n t s in d iv o r c e
pro ceed in g s.
Commitment o f p e r s o n s u n d e r t h e a g e o f s i x t e e n .
th e m ost f a r - r e a c h i n g
One o f
im p ro v e m e n ts i n t h e . com m itm ent o f m in o r s
was e n a c t e d s e v e r a l y e a r s ago when a l a w was w r i t t e n f o r b i d d i n g
p o lic e and c o u rt o f f i c i a l s
from d e t a in i n g c h i l d r e n i n
o r p l a c e s w here h a rd e n ed c r i m i n a l s w ere a l s o k e p t .
12
13
M c K i n n e y , op., c i t . ,
p.
jails
T h is law
28.
C ase No. 6100, S m ith v . S m ith , T h ird A p p e la te
D i s t r i c t C o u rt o f th e S t a t e o f C a l i f o r n i a , V ol. 31, p p . 276277.
57
was p a s s e d when i t was l e a r n e d ,
th at
a fte r c arefu l in v estig atio n ,
j u v e n i l e s and f i r s t o f f e n d e r s o f t e n became h a rd e n e d a s
a r e s u l t o f t h e i r c o n ta c ts w ith o ld e r and e x p erien c ed c r im in a ls .
T h e l a w now p r o v i d e s
t h a t c h i l d r e n m ust be lo d g ed i n a d e te n н
t i o n home o r b o a r d i n g home t h a t i s p r o v i d e d b y t h e c o u n t y . ^
C alifo rn ia
c o u rt procedure in h an d lin g d e lin q u e n ts .
F o r m an y y e a r s t h e c o u r t s i n C a l i f o r n i a
h an dled
ju v en ile cases
c rim in al c a se s.
c rim in a ls.
in a m anner q u i te s i m i l a r to a d u l t
T his c o n d itio n ,
and f i r s t o f f e n d e r s
and in o th e r s t a t e s
how ever, o f t e n caused
juveniles
to be on an e q u a l f o o t i n g w ith a d u l t
A u t h o r i t i e s on t h e s u b j e c t o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n
p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t o f s u c h t r i a l s m ade
it
ex trem ely d i f f i c u l t
to
b rin g th e
ju v e n i l e o f f e n d e r around
t o n o rm a l ways o f t h i n k i n g a s he f e l t h i m s e l f a l r e a d y a c r i m i н
n a l,
a n d s o d i d m an y o f h i s f o r m e r a s s o c i a t e s .
These d i f f i c u l t i e s
led
ju v en ile a u th o ritie s
to w rite
and s e c u r e t h e e n a c t i o n o f law s w hich p r o v id e d t h a t j u v e n i l e
o ffe n d e rs should be t r i e d
under d i f f e r e n t ju d ic ia l pro ceed in g s.
T hus i t was t h a t a m ore i n f o r m a l t r i a l p r o c e d u r e was i n s t i g a t e d
i n C a l i f o r n i a and i n o t h e r p r o g r e s s i v e s t a t e s .
S ev eral h ig h ly
im p o rta n t c ase s have been decided in C a lif o r n ia
co u rts in
w hich t h e r i g h t o f t h e j u v e n i l e
ings in
ju v en ile
T urner,
judge to h o ld in fo rm a l h e a r н
c a s e s was u p h e l d .
op. c i t . , p.
17.
One o f t h e d e c i s i o n s w h i c h
58
e s ta b lis h e d p re c e d e n t f o r such p ro c e d u re s fo llo w s:
The j u v e n i l e c o u r t i s n o t d e s i g n e d a s a t r i a l , c o u r t i n
t h e o r d i n a r y s e n s e o f t h e word and i t s m ethod o f o p e r a t i o n
i s v e ry d i f f e r e n t from th e one g o v e rn in g i n th e t r i a l o f
c r im in a l e a s e s , m a in ly 'b e c a u s e th e t e c h n i c a l i t i e s a r e
l a r g e l y e l i m i n a t e d . 15
It
is
ju v en ile
l a r g e l y on th e b a s i s o f t h i s
d ecisio n th a t
judges l e g a l l y have th e r i g h t to conduct t h e i r
in f o r m a ll y so a s to av o id
th e stigm a a tta c h e d
co u rts
to a p u b lic
tria l.
T his c a s e a s w e ll a s o t h e r s have done a g r e a t d e a l to l a y t h e
ground w ork,
leg a lly ,
f o r a m o re l o g i c a l a n d humane p r o c e d u r e
f o r th e -treatm ent o f d e lin q u e n ts i n C a l i f o r n ia .
ju v en ile
j u d g e s may now c o n s i d e r t h e c o n f i d e n t i a l r e p o r t s
th e p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r t h a t a r e n o t on f i l e
tio n .
M oreover,
fo r p u b lic
of
in sp ecн
T h i s f o r w a r d s t e p now m a k e s i t p o s s i b l e f o r t h e j u d g e
to keep th e d e t a i l s
of in d iv id u a l case h is to r ie s
strictly
c o n f i d e n t i a l a n d o u t o f t h e h a n d s o f p e r s o n s who w i s h t o p u b н
lic iz e
them .
T his i s a d e s i r a b l e p ro c e d u re i n view o f
the
many c a s e s w h e r e p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e f a c t s o f a j u v e n i l e c a s e
have m a t e r i a l l y ham pered t h e e f f o r t s
of th e a u th o ritie s
to
h e l p i n d i v i d u a l s b a c k t o a more n o rm a l e x i s t e n c e .
From a n i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e p r o c e d u r e s c a r r i e d on by
C alifo rn ia
ju v en ile co u rts a s trik in g
s i m i l a r i t y m ay b e n o t i c e d
in th e r o u t i n e p ro c e d u r e s i n th e h a n d lin g o f c a s e s w here
d e lin q u en c y i s
a p art.
For purposes of i l l u s t r a t i o n
i t may b e
C a se No. 1 0 4 , P e o p l e v . S u p e r i o r C o u r t , D i s t r i c t
C o u rt o f A ppeal o f th e S t a t e o f C a l i f o r n i a , V ol. 34, PP. 8283.
w e ll to n o te
j u s t w hat happens to
in a ty p ic a l
cou n ty i n C a l i f o r n i a .
(1)
is
t h e l o c a l p o l i c e w here
t h e a c t was com m itted ;
hooked by
(2)
th e c i t y
arrested
th e d e lin q u e n t youth
o r county p ro b a tio n a r y s t a f f d is c o v e rs th e case
d u rin g a p e rio d ic
(3)
t h e c h i l d who i s
check-up in th e t e r r i t o r y
under co n sid eratio n
t h e p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r n o t e s t h e n am e a n d a d d r e s s a n d s u c h
o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n a s seem s e s s e n t i a l and c a l l s
o f th e c h ild ;
p o in t)
on t h e p a r e n t s .
( i n m inor c a s e s th e p ro c e d u re ends a t t h i s
(4) more s e r i o u s c a s e s a r e t a k e n i n t o
c u s t o d y by t h e
c i t y o r c o u n ty p r o b a t i o n o f f i c i a l s , and t h e f a c t s a r e
recorded
on r e g u l a r c a s e h i s t o r y c a r d s w h ic h a r e r e q u i r e d by l a w ; 1 ^
(5)
cases a re th en brought to
c o u r t j u d g e who i s
ex -o fficio
the a tte n tio n
judge o f th e
.{Here a g a i n t h e c a s e may b e s e t t l e d
c e d u r e g o i n g no f u r t h e r ; )
(6)
of the su p e rio r
ju v en ile co u rt;
in fo rm a lly w ith th e p ro н
ex ceed in g ly s e rio u s
t a k e n n e x t t o t h e d e t e n t i o n home t o a w a i t t r i a l ;
th is
cases are
(Homes o f
s o r t m ust be p ro v id e d by each c o u n ty i n th e s t a t e .
som e i n s t a n c e s
a sh o rt p erio d of d e te n tio n is
In
s u f f ic ie n t to
im p re ss upon th e y o u t h f u l v i o l a t o r th e s e r i o u s n e s s o f th e
o f f e n s e and t h e c a s e i s d ro p p e d f o r t h w i t h .
17
case has n o t been s e t t l e d b e fo re t h i s p o in t,
)
(7)
the
if
c h ild
th e
i s th en
16
L a r g e c i t i e s and c o u n t i e s m a i n t a i n a p h y s i c i a n and
p s y c h i a t r i s t who e x a m i n e e a c h c a s e a f t e r b o o k i n g .
17
I n f o r m a t i o n f u r n i s h e d i n a n i n t e r v i e w w i t h Ney O t i s ,
P r o b a t io n O f f i c e r o f M onterey C o u n ty , C a l i f o r n i a .
60
g iven a h e a rin g b e fo re th e
ju v en ile
c o u rt judge;
the h e a rin g
u s u a l l y c o n s i s t s o f an in f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n betw een ju d g e ,
p ro b atio n o f f ic e r ,
p aren ts,
th ese d e lib e ra tio n s
o r be r e l e a s e d ,
and th e c h i l d .
As a r e s u l t o f
t h e o f f e n d e r may b e p l a c e d o n p r o b a t i o n
or sent to a s ta te
in stitu tio n
for fu rth er
treatm en t.
I n m any i n s t a n c e s t h e
m itte d to t r y
s t a t e ?s ju v en ile co u rts are p e rн
c h i l d r e n ? s c a s e s when t h e y have b e e n t a k e n i n t o
c u s to d y by f e d e r a l a u t h o r i t i e s .
to the
s t a t e when i t
th e c h ild to
These c a se s a re tu rn e d over
a p p e a rs to be f o r th e b e s t i n t e r e s t o f
do s o . ^
C h ild re n ?s C ourt o f C o n c ilia tio n .
The m o s t r e c e n t
l e g a l developm ent c o n c e rn in g th e tr e a tm e n t o f c h i l d r e n in
C a l i f o r n i a was t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a c o u r t c a l l e d
C h ild r e n ?s C ourt o f C o n c i l i a t i o n .?
"The
T his c o u r t does n o t d i r e c t l y
concern th e tre a tm e n t o f d e lin q u e n ts ,
b u t i t ' w i l l p r o b a b l y do
a g r e a t d e a l i n t h e f u t u r e t o a v o id b ro ken hom es,
th e y a re caused by d iv o rc e o f th e p a r e n t s .
i n so f a r a s
Inasm uch a s b ro k e n
homes h a v e b e e n shown t o b e a n i m p o r t a n t c a u s e o f d e l i n q u e n c y ,
perhaps th e co n n ectio n i s n o t rem ote.
A c c o r d i n g t o t h e n ew l a w w r i t t e n b y J u d g e L i n d s e y ,
is
th e purpose o f t h i s
18
new c o u r t t o s e t t l e
it
d i v o r c e c a s e s when
D o r o t h y W. B u r k e , F a c t s a b o u t J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n c y
(U n ited S t a t e s D epartm ent o f L ab o r, C h i l d r e n ?s B ureau,
B u l l e t i n H o . 2 1 5 ; W a s h i n g t o n : U. S . G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e ,
1935), p. 35.
61
ch ild ren are
in v o lv ed .
I f p o ssib le the p a re n ts are reco n ciled
and d i v o r c e I s p r e v e n t e d .
reco n ciled ,
S hould th e co u p le f a i l
th e p erso n s in v o lv ed
in th e
w ait t h i r t y days b efo re f u r th e r a c tio n
to
b e co m e
s u i t a re re q u ire d to
is
tak en .
D uring th e
in te r im th e p a re n ts a re brought to g e th e r a t the co n feren ce
t a b l e and p o i n t s a t i s s u e a r e d i s c u s s e d .
As a d i r e c t r e s u l t
o f t h i s new p r o c e d u r e many d i v o r c e a c t i o n s a r e a c t u a l l y d r o p p e d
and th e p a r t i e s
are reco n ciled ,
D uring th e f i r s t
use,
t h u s k e e p i n g t h e home i n t a c t .
s i x m onths t h a t
t h i s new c o u r t was i n
8 0 .2 p e r c e n t o f th e c a s e s , p r o p e r l y b e fo re th e c o u r t ,
b ein g t r i e d
19
se ttle d .
f o r d iv o r c e w ere e i t h e r r e c o n c i l e d o r a m ic a b ly
The t h e o r y o f t h e C h i l d r e n ? s C o u r t o f C o n c i l i a t i o n i s
t h a t c h ild r e n have th e p re c io u s r i g h t to
both p a re n ts a re
l i v i n g i n harm ony.
o f t e n been d e n ie d ,
co n trib u ted
to
a se p aratio n .
h a v e a home w h e r e
T his r i g h t
in th e p a s t has
and t h e p a r e n t s h a v e o f t e n i n a d v e r t e n t l y
th e d e lin q u e n c y o f t h e i r o f f s p r i n g by o b talin in g
A ccording to Judge L in d sey ,
p a r t of our war a g a in s t c rim e."
T he f a c t s
"T his c o u r t i s
a
20
i n T a b l e IV i n d i c a t e
sta tistic a lly
o f th e C h ild r e n ?s C o u rt o f C o n c il i a t i o n d u rin g i t s
the success
b rief
e x isten ce.
^ J u d g e Ben L i n d s e y , R e p o r t o f t h e S i x M o n t h s ? P e r i o d
f r o m S e p t e m b e r 2 7 . 1 9 3 9 , t o M a r c h 2 8 . 194-0. o f t h e C h i l d r e n ? s
C o u r t o f C o n c i l i a t i o n ( L o s A n g e l e s : J u n e , 19 4 -0 ), p . 2 .
20 L o c .
c it.
62
TABES I T
DIS PO SITIO N OF CASES HANDLED BY THE CHILDREN? S COURT OF
CONCILIATION, LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA, FOR THE PERIOD
FROM SEPTEMBER 2 7 , TO MARCH 2 6 , 1 9 4 0 a
R eco n ciled
A m icably s e t t l e d
Off c a l e n d a r
D iv o r c e recommended
Under i n v e s t i g a t i o n
No j u r i s d i c t i o n
R eferred to le g a l a id
R e fe rre d to p sy ch o p ath ic c o u rt
C ustody o r d e r s
Number o f
cases
P ercentage
195
197
9
22
8
19
7
2
29
39.9
40 ? 4
1 .8
4 .5
1 .6
3 .8
1 .4
.4
5 .9
a J u d g e Ben L i n d s e y , R e p o r t o f t h e S i x M onths*
P e r i o d from S e p te m b e r 2 7 , 1939, t o M arch 2 8 , 1 9 4 0 , o f t h e
C h i l d r e n ? s C o u rt o f O o n c ilia tio n ~ T L o s A n g e le s, M arch,
1940), p. 1.
P r o b a tio n a r y tr e a tm e n t o f .ju v en ile d e l i n q u e n t s .
An
e x p la n a t i o n o f w hat i s m eant by t h e term " p r o b a tio n " i s
perhaps
in o rd e r as a la r g e m a jo r ity o f p erso n s ten d to
fuse th is
t e r m w i t h t h e word " p a r o l e , " w h ic h i s ,
an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t m a tte r .
conн
of course,
As d e f i n e d b y P l o v e r , p r o b a н
t i o n may b e d e f i n e d a s f o l l o w s :
P r o b a tio n i s a p r i v i l e g e g ra n te d to an o f f e n d e r f o r an
o p p o r t u n i t y " t o m ak e g o o d " w i t h o u t p r i s o n s e n t e n c e ,
a lth o u g h such a s e n te n c e i s alw ays a p o s s i b i l i t y i f th e
p r i v i l e g e d i n d iv i d u a l sh o u ld n ot f u l f i l l th e term s o f
t h e p r o b a t i o n . 21
P ro b a tio n i s a co u n ty f u n c tio n ,
by th e p r o b a tio n o f f i c e r .
P aro le is
and i t
a sta te
is
carried
out
f u n c tio n and i s
m e re ly an e x te n s io n o f a p r i s o n e r ?s se n te n c e o u ts id e th e w a lls
of the p ris o n .
P ro b a tio n o f te n c o n ju re s an e v i l p i c t u r e
t h e m i n d s o f v i n d i c t i v e p e r s o n s who l i k e
to see
How ever,
it
in
each j u v e n i l e
o ffen d er receiv e h is
ju s t d esert.
seems upon
c a r e f u l ex am in atio n ,
t o be t h e b e s t means so f a r d e v i s e d f o r
t h e t r e a t m e n t o f j u v e n i l e o f f e n d e r s by o f f i c i a l s
When f i r s t u t i l i z e d
by C a l i f o r n i a
if
o f treatm en t in i t s e l f .
in te llig e n t
for in stitu tio n a l
a n y t h o u g h t was g i v e n t o
As t h e
term i s
ju v en ile a u th o r itie s ,
co u n ty .
so m e t h i r t y - e i g h t
y e a r s a g o p r o b a t i o n was a s o r t o f s u b s t i t u t e
t r e a t m e n t and l i t t l e
in th e
it
a s a means
co n ceiv ed to d a y by
p ro b atio n g iv es th e c h ild
a
John P . P lo v e r , S u p e rv is o r o f J u v e n ile P ro b a tio n ,
B ie n n ia l R e p o rt o f t h e D epartm ent o f S o c i a l W elfare (S acram ento
C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 3 9 ) , P* 7 1 .
64
c h a n c e t o mend h i s w a y s t h r o u g h t h e c o u n s e l o f t h e p r o b a t i o n
d epartm ents.
The m o d e r n w e l l - t r a i n e d p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r w e i g h s
th e
m u l t i t u d e o f symptoms o f e a c h o f f e n d e r a n d t h e n c h o o s e s t h e
b e s t co u rse o f tre a tm e n t to a d ju s t th e d i f f i c u l t i e s .
However,
l e t u s h a s t e n t o a d d t h a t many o f t h e p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s
in
C a l i f o r n i a a r e n o t so w e ll t r a i n e d a s th e y m ig h t be and o f t e n
a p p o in tm e n ts have been upon p o l i t i c a l r a t h e r th a n upon t e c h н
n ic a l c o n sid eratio n s.
has,
to
some e x t e n t ,
T his a ls o te n d s to
failed
s h o u l d i n m an y p a r t s o f t h e
e x p l a i n why p r o b a t i o n
to p la y the p a r t i t
rig h tfu lly
state*
The w h o l e p h i l o s o p h y o f p r o b a t i o n i s
th at i t
is a
c o n tin u o u s g u id an ce program r a t h e r th a n a punishm ent f o r crim es
com m itted.
T he p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r m u s t c o n s i d e r s u c h f a c t o r s
as th e fo llo w in g :
tio n s,
h ered ity ,
o p p o rtu n ities,
f a m ily b ack g ro u n d , m e n ta l and p h y s i c a l c o n d iн
s p iritu a l id e a ls,
ed u catio n ,
re c rea tio n a l
and s o c i a l s u r r o u n d in g s .
The p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r m u st c h e c k h i s c a s e s
carefu lly
and f r e q u e n t l y to l e a r n w h e th e r th e c o n d itio n s o f th e p ro b a tio n
a re b ein g s t r i c t l y k e p t.
P e r i o d i c a l r e p o r t s m u s t b e m ad e b y
t h e o f f e n d e r and he m u st n o t a s s o c i a t e w i t h bad com panions and
in o th er m atters
d i s a s s o c i a t e h im s e lf from h i s o ld l i f e .
The D i r e c t o r o f P r o b a t i o n i s
p r o b a tio n a r y program in C a l i f o r n i a ,
su p erv iso ry d u tie s
to f u l f i l l .
the c h ie f o f f i c i a l o f th e
a lth o u g h he has l i t t l e
H is c h i e f r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a r e
65
a d v is o ry r a t h e r th an s u p e rv is o ry ,
a program o v e r th e e n t i r e
o fficers
sta te
to
inasm uch a s he c a r r i e s
e d u c a te co unty p r o b a tio n
i n m odern t e c h n i q u e s .
Perhaps th e fe a tu re o f p ro b a tio n th a t
app lau d ed by th e s t a t e
It
is
on
above a l l o t h e r s i s
is p a rtic u la rly
t h a t o f economy.
a g r e a t d e a l m ore e c o n o m ic a l t o h a n d l e a y o u t h f u l
o f f e n d e r . t h r o u g h p r o b a t i o n t h a n t o m a i n t a i n him i n a s t a t e o p erated i n s t i t u t i o n .
1938,
D uring th e f i s c a l y e a r en d in g June 3 0 ,
som e 1 5 , 0 6 4 j u v e n i l e s w e r e u n d e r p r o b a t i o n a r y s u p e r v i s i o n
a t a c o s t o f $ 3 5 .5 1 to c a r e f o r e ac h .
Over a s i m i l a r p e r i o d
some $ 2 0 0 w a s e x p e n d e d f o r t h e c a r e o f e a c h p e r s o n h e l d i n a
22
sta te in s titu tio n .
The t r e n d o v e r t h e l a s t d e c a d e h a s b e e n t o
u se o f p r o b a t i o n and to a tt e m p t t o r e h a b i l i t a t e
punish th e y o u th fu l o ffe n d e r.
ten d to
in d ic ate
The f i g u r e s
in cre ase the
r a t h e r th an to
quoted i n T ab le V
th e p re s e n t p ro p o rtio n s of the p ro b a tio n a ry
case lo ad .
A ccording to c r im in a l a u t h o r i t i e s ,
use of p ro b atio n a ry procedures is
en co u rag e d so t h a t
in c re a se in th e
com m endable and s h o u l d be
t h e w o r k may b e e x t e n d e d t o a n e v e n g r e a t e r
degree.
22 I b i d . .
th is
p . 73
66
TABLE V
JUVENILE PROBATION STATISTICS
DISPOSITION OF INFORMAL CASES, JULY 1 ,
THROUо JUNE 3 0 , 1 9 3 8 a
J u ly 1, 1936,
through
Ju n e 3 0, 1937
D isp o sitio n
P laced in p riv a te i n s t i н
tu tio n
P laced w ith r e l a ti v e s
P la c e d elsew h ere
P la c e d by p r o b a t i o n
o fficer
R e t u r n e d own home
O ther d i s p o s i t i o n
T o tals
1936,
J u ly 1, 1937,
through
Ju n e 30, 1938
Boys
G irls
Boys
G irls
43
228
175
51
238
145
55
203
179
56
197
197
246
2,3 19
941
147
1 ,6 6 1
431
183
3 ,155
968
87
2 ,1 1 3
431
3,952
2,673
4 ,7 4 3
3,081
a F lo r e n c e L. T u r n e r , D i r e c t o r , B i e n n i a l R e p o rt o f th e
S t a t e D epartm ent o f S o c i a l W e lfa re (S acram en to : C a lifo r n T a
S t a te - P r i n t in g O ffic e , 1938), p. 77.
67
III.
LEGAL PROVISIONS FOR THE EDUCATION AND TREATMENT
OF DELINQUENTS IN STATE INSTITUTIONS
D e t e n t i o n homes a nd s c h o o l s . .
have been tak en in to
th ey m ust,
if
c u s t o d y by t h e
When y o u t h f u l o f f e n d e r s
co u n ty p r o b a tio n o f f i c e r
th e y a r e to be h e ld o v e r n i g h t ,
be lodged in
t h e d e t e n t i o n home o f t h e c i t y o r c o u n t y a s p r o v i d e d b y t h e
co u n ty board o f s u p e r v i s o r s . ^
A ccording to th e
j u v e n i l e law
t h e s e d e t e n t i o n homes a r e n o t t o be c o n n e c t e d o r j o i n e d
county o r c i t y
to any
j a i l o r p l a c e w here r e g u l a r a d u l t o f f e n d e r s o f
th e law a r e i n c a r c e r a t e d . ^
T h is p r o v i s i o n was w r i t t e n i n t o
t h e l a w b e c a u s e o f t h e p r a c t i c e o f m any c o u n t i e s ,
p r i o r to
such law , o f k e e p in g ju v e n i l e w ards o f th e c o u r t i n th e
sa me
b u i l d i n g an d e v e n i n t h e same c e l l w i t h h a r d e n e d a d u l t
c rim in a ls.
I n m any i n s t a n c e s c h i l d r e n m u s t b e k e p t i n t h e d e t e n t i o n
home f o r a p e r i o d o f t i m e a n d a s a r e s u l t t h u s l o s e t i m e f r o m
re g u la r school c la s s e s .
In o rd er to p rev e n t th is
co n d itio n
th e l e g i s l a t u r e has g iv en th e co u n ty board o f s u p e r v is o r s
a u th o rity to
e stab lish
e le m e n ta ry and se c o n d a ry s c h o o ls i n
co n ju n c tio n w ith d e te n tio n h o m e s . T h e
sch o o ls th u s e s ta b lis h e d
a r e g o v e rn e d by th e s c h o o l b o a rd o f th e d i s t r i c t w here th e
23
T urner,
o jd .
Loc. o i t .
Loc.
c it.
cjL t., p .
9.
68
school i s
lo cated ,
and a r e supposed to be co n d u cted ?i n th e
sam e m a n n e r a n d u n d e r t h e s a m e c o n d i t i o n s
26
o th e r sch o o ls in the school d i s t r i c t . ?
.
.
.
, as are
I n m o s t r e s p e c t s t h e d e t e n t i o n home s c h o o l s a r e s i m i l a r
to th e o th e r sc h o o ls o f th e
d ifferen ce,
in cid en t
cou n ty ;
in one r e s p e c t th e r e
how ever, and t h a t r e l a t e s
to th e
e stab lish m en t o f th e
to
is
a
th e allow ance o f funds
in stitu tio n .
The l a w
w ith re g a r d to t h i s p r o v i s i o n re a d s a s fo llo w s :
. . . , th e board o f s u p e rv is o rs s h a l l p ro v id e s u ita b le
g ro u n d s, b u i l d i n g s , and f u r n i s h i n g s f o r th e s c h o o l, and
s h a l l l e a s e t h e same . . .
t o t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t i n w hich
t h e d e t e n t i o n home i s l o c a t e d . . . . $ 1 6 0 0 s h a l l b e a l l o w e d
f o r e a c h t e a e h e r e m p l o y e d i n s u c h d e t e n t i o n home s c h o o l
f o r t h e f i r s t s c h o o l y e a r . 27
P a ren ta l sch o o ls.
o f e ig h t and f i f t e e n
"D elin q u e n t c h i l d r e n betw een th e a g e s
years are o ften req u ired
s c h o o l kn o w n a s a p a r e n t a l s c h o o l .
e sta b lish e d in d i s t r i c t s
T h e s e s c h o o l s may b e
h a v i n g t h r e e h u n d r e d o r more p u p i l s .
The p u r p o s e o f e s t a b l i s h i n g s u c h i n s t i t u t i o n s
to pro v id e a s p e c ia l c la s s ,
tru an ts,
to a tte n d a
b u ild in g ,
d iso rd e rly stu d e n ts,
of ed u ca tio n i s
o r sc h o o l w here h a b i t u a l
and th o s e i r r e g u l a r
m ay be a f f o r d e d p a r t i c u l a r t r e a t m e n t .
in atten d an ce
S chools o f t h i s
sort
m ay b e e s t a b l i s h e d o n l y w i t h t h e e x p r e s s p e r m i s s i o n o f t h e
c ity ,
city -co u n ty ,
26
o r cou n ty e d u c a tio n a u t h o r i t i e s .
T u r n e r , Laws R e l a t i n g t o t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f S o c i a l
W elfare. l o c . c i t .
27
Loc. c i t .
69
P a r e n ta l sc h o o ls a re p a r t i c u l a r l y d esigned to
treat
c h i l d r e n o f e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l a g e who s h o w s i g n s o f a n t i н
s o c i a l b e h a v i o r w h ic h w ould u n d o u b t e d l y l a t e r
serio u s
form s o f d e lin q u e n c y .
m ost r e s p e c ts
l e a d t o mor.e
The e d u c a t i o n a l o f f e r i n g
in
c lo s e ly fo llo w s t h a t o f r e g u la r elem entary
sch o o ls w ith the a d d itio n o f s p e c ia l co u rses to a ttem p t to
re a d a p t the p u p ils to t h e i r
su rro u n d in g s.
C h i l d r e n who a r e t r u a n t s
or d iso rd erly or irre g u la r
i n a t t e n d a n c e may b e c o m m i t t e d t o o n e o f t h e s e
by th e cou nty s u p e r in te n d e n t o f s c h o o ls ,
ten d en t,
o r board o f e d u c a tio n .
in q u estio n re fu se
th e term i s
not to
o r th e c it y
su p erin н
I f th e p a re n ts of th e c h ild
t h e i r consent the
com m itm ent t h r o u g h r e g u l a r
in stitu tio n s
s c h o o l may p r o c e e d w i t h
leg al procedure.
In any ev en t
exceed th e rem ain d er o f th e
The p a r e n t a l s c h o o l a t t e m p t s
to
so t h a t th e c h i l d r e n com m itted to i t
sch o o l term .
so c o n d u c t i t s
can re tu rn
o fferin g
to t h e i r
r e g u l a r s c h o o l c l a s s e s a s q u ic k ly a s p o s s i b l e and w ith th e
l e a s t amount o f m a l a d j u s tm e n t .
P a re n ta l sch o o ls a re fin an ced
in th e r e g u l a r m anner
i n so f a r a s s a l a r i e s and s u p p l i e s a r e c o n c e rn e d ,
but a ll
a d d iti o n a l e x p e n d itu re s o f funds a re p a id o u t o f th e p a r e n t a l
s c h o o l fu n d w h ic h h a s b e en s e c u r e d by means o f a s p e c i a l t a x
lev y .
S e v e r a l d i s t r i c t s may u n i t e
f o r t h e p u rp o se o f form ing
a jo in t d i s t r i c t f o r th e estab lish m en t o f a p a re n ta l sc h o o l.
S u c h p r o c e d u r e would, o f c o u r s e ,
b e m o r e common i n t h e a r e a s
70
w here th e s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n i s
A djustm ent s c h o o l s .
r a t h e r sm all
To p r o v i d e f o r t h e e d u c a t i o n a n d
tre a tm e n t o f d e lin q u e n t c h ild re n under th e age o f e ig h te e n
years
th e S t a t e o f C a l i f o r n i a h a s v e s te d power in c o u n ty
governing b o d ies to
ment s c h o o ls *
e stab lish
i n s t i t u t i o n s known a s a d j u s t н
The p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e la w w i t h r e g a r d t o
the
e sta b lish m e n t o f such sch o o ls fo llo w in p a r t :
P o w e r a n d a u t h o r i t y a r e h e r e b y v e s t e d i n t h e . .* .
g o v ern in g b o d ies o f th e c o u n tie s and c o n s o lid a te d c i t i e s
th ro u g h o u t th e S ta te o f C a lifo rn ia to o rg a n iz e , e s t a b l is h ,
e q u i p , and m a i n t a i n , . . . one o r more a d j u s t m e n t s c h o o l s
i n each such co u n ty o r c o n s o lid a te d c i t y and co u n ty f o r
the purpose o f fu rn is h in g c a re , custody, ed u catio n ,
t r a i n i n g , a n d a d j u s t m e n t t o good c i t i z e n s h i p , . . . 8
C h ild ren a re se n t to
t h e s e a d ju s tm e n t s c h o o ls by t h e
j u v e n i l e c o u r t o f th e c o u n ty w hich m a in ta in s t h e s c h o o l o r
schools*
T his c o u r t h a s f u l l power to
d eterm in e th e le n g th
o f t h e com m itm ent and t h e c o n d i t i o n s a r i s i n g
appears th a t a c e r ta in
sch o o l,
th e
ch ild
is
from i t *
It
it
a d e trim e n t to th e ad ju stm en t
s u p e r i n t e n d e n t m ay s e n d t h e c a s e b a c k t o
fo r fu rth e r co n sid era tio n .
If
th e c o u rt
f r e q u e n t l y beoomes n e c e s s a r y t o
rem ove c e r t a i n p e r s o n s fro m a d j u s t m e n t s c h o o l s and t o se n d
them t o a d i f f e r e n t t y p e o f i n s t i t u t i o n .
The c o u r s e o f s t u d y o f t h e s c h o o l s ,
is
to be s i m il a r to
th a t of the o th e r
a c c o rd in g to law ,
schools o f th e
S c h o o l Code o f t h e S t a t e o f C a l i f o r n i a . A r t i c l e V I,
P.
179 *
71
sta te ,
w ith f a c i li t ie s p ro v id ed f o r v o c a tio n a l t r a i n in g .
Svery c h ild
train ed
com m itted t o
su c h a s c h o o l m ust ch o o se and be
f o r a t l e a s t o n e t r a d e o r v o c a t i o n s o t h a t h e may
w o r k a t t h a t t a s k a n d l e a r n how t o s u p p o r t h i m s e l f w h e n h e i s
released .
A djustm ent sc h o o ls have been u t i l i z e d
but not n e a rly to
o f d elin q u en cy .
\
O nly t h e l a r g e s t c o u n t i e s
to m a in ta in such i n s t i t u t i o n s
number o f d e l i n q u e n t s
because o f th e sm all
in th e s p a rs e ly p o p u lated re g io n s .
m ost o f th e s m a lle r c o u n tie s
p ro b atio n ary procedures
it
th an to
seem s m ore d e s i r a b l e
thro u g h i t s
In
to u t i l i z e
e s ta b lis h ad ju stm en t sc h o o ls.
T w enty-four-hour elem en tary s c h o o ls .
C a lifo rn ia ,
some e x t e n t
th e e x te n t t h a t th e y have been a r e a l fo rc e
i n stem m ing t h e t i d e
a re ab le
to
sta tu te s,
The S t a t e o f
p ro v id es a n o th e r type of
s c h o o l w h e r e c e r t a i n t y p e s o f d e l i n q u e n t s may b e e d u c a t e d a n d
trea te d .
T w enty-four-hour sch o o ls a re
e s p e c ia lly designed
to t r e a t c h i l d r e n betw een t h e a g e s o f e i g h t and s i x t e e n y e a r s .
P u p ils a re m aintained in th e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s to p ro v id e
v o c atio n a l,
hom em aking, m e n t a l , m o r a l , p h y s i c a l ,
tr a i n in g as w i l l tend
to s tr e n g th e n and d e v e lo p
29
becom ing u s e f u l c i t i z e n s . 7
The a u t h o r i t i e s
in charge of th e s e
attem p t to r e tu rn th o se c h ild re n p laced
I b i d . , p . 184.
sp ecial
and such o th e r
them i n t o
s p e c ia l schools
in t h e i r charge to
72
n o r m a l com m unity l i f e
p o ssib le
as soon a s p r a c t i c a b l e .
W henever i t
is
q u a l i f i e d p u p i l s a r e p l a c e d i n p r i v a t e homes w h e r e a
m o r e n o r m a l e n v i r o n m e n t m ay b e p r o v i d e d .
S chools o f t h i s
ty p e a re governed by th e r e g u l a r sc h o o l
b o a r d and i n t h e same m an n er a s t h e r e g u l a r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s .
A dm ission to t w e n ty - f o u r - h o u r s c h o o ls i s
th e s c h o o l b o a rd o r by a board o f a d m is s io n s ,
c o n tr o l le d by
should th e
su p e rin te n d e n t o f sc h o o ls o f th e d i s t r i c t re q u e s t such a
com m ittee t o
be form ed .
The c h i l d r e n s e n t t o t h e s e s c h o o l s
a r e t h o s e t h a t c a n n o t be d e a l t w i t h e f f e c t i v e l y i n t h e r e g u l a r
elem entary o r p a r e n ta l sc h o o ls.
Those a d m itte d r e p r e s e n t
" s u c h s e r i o u s b e h a v i o r p r o b l e m s a s t o n e e d c o n s t a n t c a r e ; who
n e e d m o r e t h a n f o s t e r home p l a c e m e n t a n d d e f i n i t e l y r e q u i r e
tw en ty -fo u r-h o u r s u p e r v i s i o n . T h e
b o a r d o f a d m i s s i o n may,
a f t e r a c a r e f u l s t u d y o f t h e p r o g r e s s made b y p u p i l s ,
d eterm in e
when t h e y s h o u l d r e t u r n t o t h e r e g u l a r s c h o o l f r o m w h ic h t h e y
came.
When t h e g o v e r n i n g b o a r d d e t e r m i n e s t h a t a m i n o r b e t w e e n
th e ag es o f e ig h t and s i x t e e n i s
i n d a n g e r o f becom ing a
d e lin q u e n t and b ein g s u b je c t to p r o v is io n s o f th e
law s,
it
can send th e c h i l d
the d i s t r i c t .
refuses h is
ju v en ile court
to th e tw en ty -fo u r-h o u r school o f
I f th e p a re n t o r g u a rd ia n of th e c h ild
co n sen t,
concerned
t h e b o a r d m ay p r o c e e d b y l a w t o f o r c e
ad m issio n .
30 I b i d . . p. 18S.
the
73
It
is
signed to
ex p ected t h a t th e p a re n ts o f th e c h ild r e n a s н
th e s e sc h o o ls should pay f o r th e s u p p o rt o f t h e i r
o ffsp rin g .
Should th e p a r e n t s r e f u s e
may b e p r o c e e d e d a g a i n s t
cannot a ffo rd
i n c o u r t . 3^
to give th is
to g iv e t h i s
Of c o u r s e ,
su p p o rt to th e c h ild ,
su p p o rt, th ey
if
th e p a re n ts
th e d i s t r i c t
w i l l do s o .
T he c o u r s e o f s t u d y i n t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s
co n sists
l a r g e l y o f v o c a tio n a l and tr a d e c o u rse s d e sig n e d to a id th e
c h ild ren
in l a t e r years
th a t schools of t h i s
to
earn a liv e lih o o d .
s o r t may c o n d u c t c l i n i c s
and o b s e r v a tio n o f th e
The la w s t a t e s
fo r th e d iag n o sis
c h i l d r e n h e l d i n c u s to d y so t h a t
the
b e s t t r e a t m e n t may b e p r o v i d e d .
C o r r e c tio n a l s c h o o ls p ro v id e d by th e S t a t e o f
C a lifo rn ia .
sta tu tes
T he S t a t e o f C a l i f o r n i a p r o v i d e s t h r o u g h i t s
th a t th e fo llo w in g e d u c a tio n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s
t a i n e d f o r t h e r e c e p t i o n o f w ards o f th e
(1) P r e s t o n S ch o o l o f I n d u s t r y ,
ju v en ile
be m a in н
co u rt:
(2) W h i t t i e r S t a t e S c h o o l,
(3) V en tu ra. S c h o o l f o r G i r l s .
The g o v e rn m e n t a n d s u p e r v i s i o n o f t h e s e t h r e e
tio n s
th is
in stitu н
i s v e s te d i n th e S t a t e D epartm ent o f I n s t i t u t i o n s ,
and
d e p a rtm e n t h a s f u l l power t o d e te rm in e t h e ty p e and sco p e
of th e
e d u c a tio n a l c u rric u lu m to
law d e s c r i b i n g th e d u t i e s o f t h e
31 I b i d . .
p.
185.
be o f f e r e d . A ccording to
d e p artm e n t,th e c h ild r e n
th e
7U
com m itted to
tio n ,
th e se schools a re to re c e iv e
train in g ,
em ploym ent d i s c i p l i n e ,
su p erv isio n ,
educaн
and governm ent
A r e s e a r c h l a b o r a t o r y w as p r o v i d e d i n t h e 1939 .law s
rela tin g
to th e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s and a c c o rd in g to th e p r o v is io n s
p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h was t o be p r o v i d e d a t ' t h e W h i t t i e r
S ta te S chool.
R e c e n t am endm ents t o
p r e t e d b y som e a u t h o r i t i e s
th e code have been i n t e r н
to i n d i c a t e t h e abandonm ent o f th e
lab o rato ry .
A d m in istratio n o f c o rre c tio n a l s c h o o ls .
tio n o f th e W h itte r, P re s to n ,
is
and V entura c o r r e c t i o n a l s c h o o ls
c o n t r o l l e d b y*the D epartm ent o f I n s t i t u t i o n s ,
i s a d v is e d by i n d iv id u a l boards o f t r u s t e e s
g o v e rn o r.^
is
The a d m i n i s t r a н
w hich i n t u r n
a p p o in t e d by t h e
T he a c t u a l m a n a g e m e n t o f e a c h o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s
v e s t e d i n s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s who a r e a p p o i n t e d b y t h e D e p a r t m e n t
of In stitu tio n s.
A dm ission.
J u v e n i l e o f f e n d e r s m ay b e c o m m i t t e d t o
t h e P r e s t o n S c h o o l o f I n d u s t r y by any co m p eten t c o u r t i n t h e
s ta te .^
ru les
A dm ission to W h i t t i e r S t a t e S ch o o l i s
r e g u l a te d by
e s t a b l i s h e d by th e D epartm ent o f I n s t i t u t i o n s .
The
3 2 W e l f a r e an d I n s t i t u t i o n s Code o f t h e S t a t e o f
C a lif o r n ia (S acram ento: C a lif o r n ia S t a te P r i n t in g O ffic e ,
1 9 3 9 ) , p . 39.
33 i b i d . .
p.
60.
32 I b i d . , p . 61.
75
W h i t t i e r S c h o o l may r e c e i v e b o y s o v e r e i g h t y e a r s o f a g e who
a r e w ards o f th e
ju v en ile co u rt.
eare of the sch o o l,
B oy s who a r e c o m m i t t e d i n
o n p r o b a t i o n , m ay a l s o b e a d m i t t e d u p o n
recom m endation o f a c o m p eten t ju d g e .
The C e n t u r a S c h o o l f o r G i r l s m u s t r e c e i v e a l l
co m m itted by t h e
g irls
j u v e n i l e c o u r t s a s p r o v i d e d by law .
i t may b e n o t e d t h a t a d m i s s i o n t o
c o rr e c tio n a l sch o o ls i s
Thus,
each o f th e s t a t e ?s th r e e
som ewhat d i f f e r e n t a s p r o v i d e d by
d i f f e r e n t law s.
2.
E d u catio n al o f f e r i n g .
I n s t i t u t i o n s has been g iv e n th e power to
T he S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t o f
e s ta b lis h a course
o f in s tr u c tio n in each o f th e c o rr e c tio n a l sch o o ls
so t h a t
c h i l d r e n who a r e s e n t t h e r e m a y r e c e i v e v a l u a b l e a n d a p p r o p r i a t e
e d u ca tio n al tr a in in g .
t h e law i s
The o n l y c o u r s e a c t u a l l y s p e c i f i e d
in
th a t of v o catio n al p re p a ra tio n .
The v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g a s w e l l a s o t h e r c o u r s e s o f
the cu rricu lu m a re under th e g en eral a p p ro v al of th e S ta te
D epartm ent o f I n s t r u c t i o n ,
in c lu d e s th e fo llo w in g :
cu ltu re,
a g ric u ltu re,
and in th e V entura S chool f o r G ir ls
d om estic s c ie n c e ,
d ressm aking, h o r t i н
and p r a c t i c a l b u s in e s s
tra in in g .
These
c o u r s e s a r e p r o v i d e d w i t h t h e v i e w t h a t t h e g i r l s m ay f i n d
e m p l o y m e n t f o r t h e i r own s u p p o r t a f t e r t h e y a r e d i s c h a r g e d f r o m
the
sch o o l.
The e d u c a t i o n a l o f f e r i n g o f t h e P r e s t o n S c h o o l i s n o t
m i n u t e l y s p e c i f i e d by la w b u t i n c l u d e s v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g and
7&
m i l i t a r y d r i l l and d i s c i p l i n e .
a s t h e o t h e r two s t a t e
sale,
In a d d itio n , Preson as w ell
s c h o o l s , may m a n u f a c t u r e g o o d s f o r
s o a s t o b e n e f i t t h e i n m a t e s a n d p r e p a r e t h e m f o r com н
p e titio n
in
th e w o rld o u t s i d e th e w a l ls a t such tim e as t h e y
sh o u ld be r e l e a s e d .
3.
D is m is s a ls from c o r r e c t i o n a l s c h o o l s .
The D e p a r t н
ment o f I n s t i t u t i o n s h as f u l l c h a rg e o f d i s m i s s a l s and p a r o l e s
from any o f th e t h r e e s t a t e
sc h o o ls m entioned above.
I t has
b e e n t h e p o l i c y o f t h e d e p a r t m e n t to r e l e a s e on p a r o l e o n l y
t h o s e p e r s o n s who h a v e m ad e a g o o d r e c o r d a n d who w i l l h a v e a
d e f i n i t e p o s i t i o n o r r e p u t a b l e home u p o n r e l e a s e .
p a r o l e d i n m a t e h a s shown h i s a b i l i t y
h o n o rab ly f o r a p e rio d o f tim e,
g r a n ts a co m plete d is c h a r g e .
p aro le are v io la te d ,
When a
to support h im self
th e D epartm ent o f I n s t i t u t i o n s
H o w ev e r, when t h e t e r m s o f t h e
th e person th u s re le a se d
is retu rn ed
th e sc h o o l and m ust s e r v e th e re m a in in g p e r i o d o f h i s
4.
F in an cial support of c o rre c tio n a l sch o o ls.
e x p e n s e s o f t h e s c h o o l s d e s c r i b e d a b o v e come j o i n t l y
s t a t e and from t h e c o u n ty i n w hich t h e c h i l d
c o m m itta l.^
to
sen ten ce.
The
from th e
resid ed before
In th e case o f boys a d m itte d to W h ittie r S ta te
S chool, P re s to n School o f In d u s try ,
and V e n tu ra S c h o o l f o r
G i r l s t h e c o u n t y m ay r e q u i r e t h e p a r e n t s o f t h e p e r s o n comн
m itted
to re im b u rs e th e amount t h a t
35 I b i d . . p. 65
t h a t c o u n ty m ust f u r n i s h to
77
th e c o rre c tio n a l sch o o l.
O n l y t h o s e p a r e n t s who a r e f i n a n н
c i a l l y a b le to pay f o r t h i s
support a re
required
to do s o ,
how ever.
F o r e s t r y c am ps.
in s ta te
In o rd e r to r e lie v e th e
co n g estio n
c o r r e c t i o n a l sc h o o ls and in o r d e r to p ro v id e a b e t t e r
c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and s e g r e g a t io n , law s p r o v i d in g f o r f o r e s t r y
camps w e re e n a c t e d .
T h e s e camps w e r e e s t a b l i s h e d t o r e c e i v e
j u v e n i l e s f r o m t h e c o u r t who w o u l d o t h e r w i s e b e c o m m i t t e d t o
W h ittie r o r P re sto n S ta te C o rre c tio n a l S chools.
th a t th e f o r e s tr y
sp ecific
cases,
camp i s
th e
If
it
appears
th e m ost a p p r o p r i a t e l o c a t i o n f o r
ju v en ile co u rt has th e a u th o rity to
commit w a rd s o f t h e c o u r t .
If
t h e b o y d o e s n ? t make a g o o d
r e c o r d i n t h e c a m p , h e may b e r e t u r n e d t o
com m itted to t h e p r o p e r s t a t e
so
t h e c o u r t and be
in stitu tio n .
T h e b o y s who a r e s e n t t o t h e f o r e s t r y c a m p s a r e r e q u i r e d
t o do s u c h d u t i e s a s a r e u s u a l l y n o w ad ay s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e
C iv ilia n C o n serv atio n C orps.
as to h elp in f i r e
co n tro l.
Roads a r e b u i l t by t h e boys so
P ublic
i m p r o v e d a n d m an y o t h e r d u t i e s
a s s o c ia te d w ith l i f e
lands a re re fo re s te d
are f u l f i l l e d
and
t h a t a r e commonly
in th e f o r e s t.
Some o f t h e s e c a m p s a r e c o n d u c t e d a s s m a l l " c i t i e s ?
w i t h a boy m ayor, c h i e f o f p o l i c e ,
lesso n s in
c iv ic
life
and c i t y c o u n c i l .
become p a r t o f t h e e v e r y d a y r o u t i n e ;
and th e boys o fte n f e e l f o r th e f i r s t
th a t th ey r e a l ly
Thus,
"b elo n g .?
tim e in t h e i r l i v e s
78
F o r e s t r y c a m p s may b e e s t a b l i s h e d ,
acco rd in g to a r e н
c e n t law , ..in c o n n e c tio n w ith t h e W h i t t i e r S t a t e S c h o o l,
P resto n School o f In d u stry ,
thus
and t h e V e n tu ra S c h o o l f o r G i r l s ,
e x t e n d i n g t h e b e n e f i t s o f t h e s e new i n s t i t u t i o n s
th o s e a l r e a d y co m m itted to a s t a t e
tim e.
Of c o u r s e ,
the
to
s c h o o l a t so m e p r e v i o u s
o n l y t h o s e who h a v e s h o w n a d e f i n i t e a t t i i
t u d e f o r r e f o r m w ould be t h u s t r a n s f e r r e d .
The D e p a r t m e n t o f I n s t i t u t i o n s
has th e a u th o r ity
s e l e c t w ards to be com m itted o r t r a n s f e r r e d
to
a nd t o make r u l e s
a n d r e g u l a t i o n s f o r t h e e f f i c i e n t o p e r a t i o n o f t h e camps..
a d d itio n ,
th is
body h as th e power to
anyone so c o m m itte d .
In
term in ate th e s ta y of
I n so m e i n s t a n c e s w h e r e t h e w a r d s h a v e
sh ow n d e s i r a b l e p r o g r e s s a n d w h e r e f u n d s f o r r e p a r a t i o n p a y н
m ents a r e a d v i s a b l e ,
s a la r y to
t h e a u t h o r i t i e s m ay s e e f i t
th e in d iv id u a l.
Thus,
i s achieved through d e s ir a b le ,
to pay a sm all
i n m ay i n s t a n c e s r e h a b i l i t a t i o n
h e a lth fu l,
and u s e f u l l a b o r
expended to th e a d v an tag e o f th e c i t i z e n r y o f C a l i f o r n i a .
IV.
SUMMARY OF LEGAL PROVISIONS I N CALIFORNIA FOR THE
EDUCATION AND TREATMENT OF DELINQUENTS
╗ i
In th e
e a r l i e r paragraphs of th is
leg al d e fin itio n s
liste d
ch ap ter v ario u s b asic
r e l a t i n g t o d e l i n q u e n t s and d e lin q u e n c y w ere
as th ey r e la te d
S o c i a l W e lfa re Laws.
t o t h e p u rp o s e s and i n t e n t o f C a l i f o r n i a
79
B a sic s t a t u t e s
Law w e r e p r e s e n t e d
th e
and p r o v is io n s o f th e J u v e n ile C o u rt
in o rd e r to
sh o w t h e n a t u r e a n d e x t e n t o f
le g a l tre a tm e n t o f ju v e n ile s
c o u rt? in C a lifo rn ia .
th e s t a t e
c la s s ifie d
a s ,fw a r d s o f t h e
C o u rt d e c is io n s and le g a l o p in io n s in
h av e b e e n e n u m e ra te d and d e s c r i b e d
in th e
d eg ree
t h a t th e y have in flu e n c e d c u rr e n t le g a l tre a tm e n t o f c h ild re n
by th e
c o u rts and e n fo rcem en t a g e n c ie s .
T h e C a l i f o r n i a P r o b a t i o n a r y L aw s h a v e b e e n p r e s e n t e d
w ith i l l u s t r a t i v e
s t a t i s t i c s p e rtin e n t to
a b a s ic u n d e rsta n d in g
o f p r e s e n t tre a tm e n t and p ro c e d u re s .
The j u r i s d i c t i o n
fa rio u s
o f j u v e n i l e c o u r t s and t h e i r m u l t i н
i n f lu e n c e s w ere o f f e r e d t o e x p la in th e
e x te n t th a t
th e c o u r t s depend on s t a t u t o r y and p r e c e d e n t a u t h o r i t y to
c a r r y on th e a c t i v i t i e s
u n d e rta k e n .
Q u o ta tio n s c i t i n g
th e
a c t u a l j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e c o u r t s w ere in c lu d e d to o f f e r a
c o m p le te p i c t u r e
o f th e
j a w s a s t h e y now e x i s t .
T r i a l a n d c o m m itm e n t p r o c e d u r e s o f c h i l d r e n u n d e r t h e
age o f tw e n ty -o n e y e a r s have been e x p la in e d w ith e l u c i d a t i n g
ta b le s .
T he C h i l d r e n ? s C o u r t o f C o n c i l i a t i o n , r e c e n t l y e s t a b н
l i s h e d b y p r o p o n e n t s o f m o r e e q u i t a b l e a n d h u m an e t r e a t m e n t
o f m in o rs in v o lv e d by t h e d i v o r c e o f t h e i r p a r e n t s , was
d e sc rib e d
t o show w h a t m o d ern l e g a l m in d s a r e d o i n g t o r e d u c e
d e lin q u e n c y e m in a tin g fro m b ro k e n hom es.
th e f i r s t
s ix m o n th s * o p e ra tio n o f t h i s
S ta tistic s
b a s e d on
co u rt illu s tr a te d
th a t
80
t h i s n ew e f f o r t h a s b r o u g h t a b o u t t h e r e c o n c i l i a t i o n o r
a m i c a b l e s e t t l e m e n t o f som e 80 p e r c e n t o f t h e d i v o r c e c a s e s
i n w h ic h m in o r c h i l d r e n w e re a f a c t o r .
The v a l u e a n d e x t e n t o f p r o b a t i o n a s a c u r a t i v e t r e a t н
m e n t w e r e u n f o l d e d w i t h c o m m e n ts a s t o
a c tiv itie s
th e f u tu r e
tre n d o f
o f a s im ila r n a tu re .
The S t a t e o f C a l i f o r n i a ? s e d u c a t i o n a l o f f e r i n g s w e r e
expounded th ro u g h an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n
d e t e n t i o n hom es, p a r e n t a l s c h o o l s ,
tw e n ty -fo u r-h o u r s c h o o ls .
o f t h e w ork b e in g d o n e b y
a d ju s tm e n t s c h o o ls ,
and
C o r r e c tio n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s p ro v id e d
u n d e r t h e W e lf a r e a n d I n s t i t u t i o n s Code w ere d e s c r i b e d th r o u g h
e x p la n a tio n s o f f f h i t t i e r S ta te S c h o o l, P re s to n S chool o f
In d u stry ,
and t h e Y e n tu ra S c h o o l f o r G i r l s .
F in a lly ,
t h e s t a t e ? s n e w e s t m eth o d o f d e a l i n g w i t h
d e lin q u e n ts by th e u se o f f o r e s t r y
w as d e s c r i b e d t o
illu s tra te
cam ps f o r b o y s a n d g i r l s
to w hat e x te n t th e s e e x p e rim e n ts
h a v e a i d e d i n t h e im p ro v e m e n t o v e r p r e v i o u s p r o c e d u r e s *
CHAPTER V
EDUCATIONAL PROVISIONS IFOR THE TREATMENT OF. DELINQUENTS
AND POTENTIAL DELINQUENTS I N CALIFORNIA
It
is
t h e a im o f t h i s
im p a rtia l p ic tu re
and e ls e w h e re t o
o f w hat is
c h a p t e r to p r e s e n t a c o m p le te and
b e in g done i n C a lif o r n ia s c h o o ls
check and p re v e n t d e lin q u e n c y .
The a im s a n d
o b j e c t i v e s o f a w o rk a b le p ro g ram o f a c tio n a r e l a i d
th e purp o se o f
dow n w i t h
e s ta b lis h in g p ro p e r g o a ls to be a c h ie v e d .
The C a l i f o r n i a p ro g ra m s a r e com pared w i t h t h o s e o f o t h e r
s e c tio n s o f th e c o u n try in o rd e r to
l e a r n how m u ch i s
b e in g
a c c o m p l i s h e d an d , how m u ch c a n b e a c c o m p l i s h e d .
The re m a in d e r o f th e b a s ic
d a ta re v ie w e d i n t h i s
c h a p te r
c o n c e r n C a l i f o r n i a s c h o o l s a n d w h a t t h e y c a n do t o t r e a t a n d
p re v e n t d e lin q u e n c y .
I .
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF SCHOOL PROGRAMS
RELATING TO DELINQUENCY
B e fo re an y s o r t o f p ro g ram o f tr e a tm e n t c an be c o n s id e r e d ,
t h e g e n e r a l a im s o r g o a l s to w a r d w h ic h a l l
be c o n s id e re d .
s c h o o ls s t r i v e m ust
I t m u st be r e a l i z e d t h a t d e lin q u e n ts a re a b n o rн
m al c h i l d r e n and w h at m ig h t b e a d e q u a te g o a ls f o r n o rm al c h i l н
d r e n w o u ld n o t n e c e s s a r i l y be a d e q u a te f o r d e li n q u e n t s ^
o rd e r to
In
p r e s e n t a ro u n d e d o u t g ro u p o f a im s a n d o b j e c t i v e s ,
m ust be n o te d a t th e o u t s e t t h a t g o a ls
fo r a l l c h ild re n of a
it
82
d e m o c r a tic s o c i e t y w o u ld n e c e s s a r i l y b e t o
and a s
th o se
co n seq u en ce i t m ig h t be w e ll to
som e d e g r e e s i m i l a r
c o n sid e r c h ie f ly
t h a t m ust be th o u g h t o f w ith re g a rd to
th e so -c a lle d
"p ro b le m c h i l d r e n , ? t h e d e l i n q u e n t s .
T he a im s o r g o a l s o f a n a d e q u a t e p ro g ra m f o r t h e t r e a t н
m ent o f d e lin q u e n ts i n C a lif o r n ia s c h o o ls a re o f f e r e d a s f o l н
lo w s:
( 1 ) To a n a l y z e a n d t r e a t a l l c h i l d r e n who show a n y e v i н
dence o f a n t i s o c i a l o r m a lb e h a v io r p ro b le m s;
th e se
c h il d r e n to w a rd norm al l i f e
t u r b i n g hom e, s c h o o l ,
h a b its;
(2 )
(3)
to
to a d ju s t
re lie v e
and p la y g ro u n d te n s io n s t h a t a re e v i н
denced in th e b e h a v io r of th e
c h ild ;
(4 )
to
in v e s tig a te
e c o n o m ic a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l c a u s e s f o r p r e s e n t b e h a v i o r ;
to re a d ju s t th e
c h ild in h is
s c h o o l e n v iro n m e n t t o
m o re n o rm a l l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n ;
c h a ra c te r p a tte rn s
d isн
(6)
(5 )
in su re a
to b rin g about d e s ira b le
so a s t o e n a b l e t h e c h i l d t o becom e a r e н
s p e c t e d m em ber o f c h i l d s o c i e t y ;
(7 )
to u t il i z e
c e d u r e s i n a d j u s t i n g b e h a v io r p ro b lem c h i l d r e n ;
s e lf - c o n tr o l and d is c ip lin e ;
(9)
s o c ia l p ro н
(8 )
to d e v e lo p
to a id th e c h ild i n h is
se lf-
d i s c o v e r y s o t h a t h e m ay s e e h i s p o s i t i o n i n s o c i e t y a s a
w h o le ;
(10)
sc io u sn e ss;
(12)
t o aw aken i n th e c h i l d a f e e l i n g o f s o c i a l conн
(11) t o a i d th e
p u p il in th e m a s te ry o f h im s e lf ;
t o p r o v id e f o r p h y s i c a l a n d m e n ta l im p ro v e m e n t;
a s s i s t t h e s t u d e n t t o m ak e g o o d u s e o f h i s l e i s u r e
t o t e a c h h i m how t o
fa c ilitie s
(13) t o
tim e ;
p l a y a n d m ake u s e o f t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l
a v a ila b le ;
(1 5 ) t o h e l p h im e v o l v e a p e r s o n a l
(14)
83
s t a n d a r d ofL r i g h t a n d w r o n g ;
(16)
h e m ay d e v e l o p new i n t e r e s t s ;
t o a ro u s e a s p i r i t w hereb y
(1 7 ) t o
d e v e l o p w i t h i n h im t h e
f e e l i n g o f b e in g w a n ted o r o f " b e lo n g in g ? ; (18)
in th e d e lin q u e n t a r e a l iz a t i o n
to b rin g about
o f h is o b lig a tio n s in th e
A m e ric a n d em o cracy *
II.
PROGRAM OF CALIFORNIA SCHOOLS TO CHECK
AND TREAT DELINQUENCY
I t was f o u n d ,
g ram s i n C a l i f o r n i a ,
a f te r a d e ta ile d a n a ly sis o f school p ro н
th a t v ery l i t t l e
c e n te re d on d e lin q u e n c y ,
siz e d c i t i e s
o f th e
a tte n tio n
is
b e in g
e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e s m a l l a n d m e d iu m
sta te .
In th e m a jo rity of th e se
d istric ts
d e l i n q u e n t s a r e c a r e d f o r m uch i n t h e sam e m a n n e r a s a r e m en н
ta lly
re ta rd e d c h ild re n .
That i s ,
i n a s p e c i a l ro o m o r p a r t o f t h e
th e y a re o fte n se g re g a te d
sc h o o l b u ild in g and g iv e n
m uch t h e sa m e s o r t o f t r e a t m e n t a s a r e t h e a v e r a g e n o r m a l s t u н
d e n ts.
The m a t e r i a l s t a u g h t a r e o f t e n s i m p l i f i e d a n d th e
c la ss e s are
som ew hat s m a l l e r t h a n t h e
o rd in a ry c la s s e s o f th e
sc h o o l.
V a rie ty o f tre a tm e n t.
d is tric ts
c la ss ifie d
th e re
are not la rg e
as d e lin q u e n t.
i s m ad e a t a l l ,
Of c o u r s e ,
in th e sm a lle r sch o o l
g r o u p s o f c h i l d r e n who c o u l d b e
As a c o n s e q u e n c e ,
if
any se g re g a tio n
th e d e lin q u e n ts , m e n ta lly re ta rd e d ,
and behavн
i o r p ro b le m c h i l d r e n a r e o f t e n p l a c e d i n one room u n d e r one
te a c h e r.
T hese c h ild r e n a re u s u a lly g iv e n an o p p o rtu n ity and
S4.
e n c o u ra g e d t o e m p h a siz e su ch c o u r s e s a s m an u a l t r a i n i n g ,
a rts,
and s im ila r p r a c tic a l o ffe rin g s*
The p i c t u r e
i n th e l a r g e r s c h o o l sy s te m s i s
f e re n t in C a lifo rn ia and in c e r ta in
to w a rd f u l f i l l i n g
la id
dow n w i t h a v i e w
o r a t t a i n i n g t h e a i m s p r e v i o u s l y s e t up*
Some o f t h e m o r e o u t s t a n d i n g p r o g r a m s o f t h e
th e s t a t e
q u ite d i f н
l o c a l i t i e s w here d e f i n i t e
w e ll-p la n n e d c o u rse s o f tre a tm e n t a re
in
home
p ro g re s s iv e sc h o o ls
w ill be e x p la in e d .
P re lim in a ry c o u n s e llo r p ro c e d u re s.
M any s c h o o l s h a v e b e н
g u n t h e i r t r e a t m e n t o f d e l i n q u e n t s b y g i v i n g th e m a t h o r o u g h
p h y s ic a l ch eck up w ith th e th o u g h t o f th e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s b e in g
th a t p h y sic a l i n f ir m itie s o fte n cause s tu d e n ts to
c o u rse t h a t o f f e r s
th e l e a s t p h y s ic a l r e s i s t a n c e .
w h ere a d e q u a te fu n d s a r e a v a i l a b l e
is
ta k e th e
In sc h o o ls
a w e ll- tr a in e d p sy c h o lo g is t
a l s o h i r e d a n d h i s d u t i e s w e l l a c q u a i n t h im w i t h t h e s t u d e n t s
o f th e s c h o o l.
s c h o o l s we a r e
We m u s t r e m e m b e r t h a t t h e s e a r e
p ro g re ssiv e
d e sc rib in g .
The n e x t s t e p i n th e h a n d lin g o f d e lin q u e n ts u s u a l l y h a s
t o do w i t h t h e
th e ag e,
c o m p ila tio n o f a l l a v a ila b le
i n t e l l i g e n c e , r a c i a l b ack g ro u n d ,
m e n t, r e c r e a t i o n ,
in te re s ts ,
and th e
lik e .
d a ta w ith re g a rd to
so c ia l s ta tu s ,
T hese m a te r ia ls a re
p la c e d on a m a s te r c a se h i s t o r y c a rd and a re f i l e d
re c o rd .o f th e c h ild
in q u e stio n .
A ll o f t h i s
a i d s t h e p s y c h o l o g i s t , o r c o u n s e l l o r who i s
a d j u s t t h e ab n o rm al c h i l d
a c h ie v e н
a s a p erm an en t
in fo rm a tio n g r e a tly
try in g
to w a r d m ore d e s i r a b l e
to
a d v is e and
c h a n n e ls o f
85
a c tiv ity .
A ll o f t h i s
in fo rm a tio n i s
a u g m e n te d b y c o n f i d e n н
t i a l r e p o r t s g a t h e r e d f r o m i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r s who a r e w e l l
a c q u a in te d w ith in d iv id u a l s tu d e n ts .
W ith t h i s m a s s o f i n f o r m a t i o n b e f o r e h im , t h e a d v i s e r
o r c o u n se llo r is
in a p o s itio n
to a d v is e a c o u rse o f tre a tm e n t.
I n o r d e r to a c h ie v e any d e g re e o f s u c c e s s , h o w ev er, t h e a d v is e r
m ust have a r e l a t i v e l y f r e e hand to
o u t o f th e p ro g ram o u t l i n e d .
n orm al r e a c t i o n s ,
are
keep h i s f i l e s up to
in s u re th e a e tu a l c a rry in g
A ll f u t u r e a b n o rm a l, a s w e l l a s
r e p o r t e d t o t h e c o u n s e l l o r s o - t h a t h e m ay
d a te .
I n m any i n s t a n c e s m i l d c a s e s c a n b e
a c e q u a te ly t r e a t e d th ro u g h changes o f te a c h e r s ,
t r a n s f e r to
d i f f e r e n t d e p a rtm e n ts o r s c h o o ls ,
c o u rse o f stu d y ,
and s im ila r ty p e s
4
o f tre a tm e n t.
C a se s w h ic h f a i l t o re s p o n d t o
o f n e c e s s ity be r e f e r r e d
s u c h h a n d l i n g m ay
to th e p r o b a tio n d e p a rtm e n t f o r f u r t h e r
d isp o sitio n -*
T he w o rk o f s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s h a s b e e n h a m p e re d i n m any
d is tric ts
by th e l a r g e num ber o f c a s e s t h a t m u st be h a n d le d .
T h is c o n d itio n m akes i t
p ra c tic a lly
im p o ssib le f o r th e a d v is e r
t o f o l lo w up and f u r t h e r t r e a t c a s e s w h ic h n e e d a d d i t i o n a l
tre a tm e n t.
stric tly
lo rs
B ecause o f th e
ro u tin e
e x a m in a tio n s and t e s t s
i n m an y l o c a l i t i e s
re h a b ilita tin g
g r e a t am ount o f tim e consum ed i n
c a n do l i t t l e
and th e l i k e ,
c o u n se lн
m ore t h a n j u s t t h a t i n
d e l i n q u e n t s who w o u l d p r o f i t b y f u r t h e r c o n s i d н
e ra tio n .
The a t t e n d a n c e a p p r o a c h .
in th e
A som ew hat d i f f e r e n t a p p r o a c h
tre a tm e n t o f d e lin q u e n ts has been th ro u g h th e a tte n d a n c e
86
d e p a rtm e n ts o f th e l a r g e r sc h o o ls*
T h is d e p a rtm e n t i s
e s p e c i a l l y a p p ro p r ia te p la c e to c o n s id e r and t r a c e
m ent o f c h i l d r e n b e in g c o n s id e r e d .
T h is i s
an
th e d e v e lo p н
tr u e because o f i t s
c l o s e c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n a n d w i t h t h e i r home l i v e s .
The a tt e n d a n c e o f f i c e r s ,
ho w ev er,
e q u ip p e d a c a d e m ic a lly t o
c a r r y on an e x te n s iv e program o f
tre a tm e n t*
a re o f te n none to o w e ll
In a d d itio n to th e se f a c ts
th a t such o f f i c e r s
a ls o have a la rg e
i t m u st be rem em bered
am ount o f r o u t i n e w ork
t h a t c a n n o t be n e g le c te d .
The c l i n i c a l a p p r o a c h .
A v ery e ffe c tiv e
program h a s b een
c a r r i e d o n f o r som e y e a r s b y m e a n s o f b e h a v i o r c l i n i c s .
c l i n i c s h a v e show n t h e m s e l v e s t o b e e x c e e d i n g l y e f f e c t i v e
re d u c in g d e lin q u e n c y a s w e ll a s in t r e a t i n g
o u tsta n d in g c lin ic s
of th is
v e ry fa v o ra b le re s u lts *
s c h o o l sy ste m i s
it.
T hese
in
One o f t h e
s o r t was o r g a n i z e d i n B e r k e le y w i t h
T he o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e B e r k e l e y
in d ic a te d by th e f a c ts
g iv e n i n th e c h a r t on
page 88.
The t e a c h e r s an d p r i n c i p a l s
fo llo w
in th e s c h o o ls o f B e rk e le y
a p ro ced u re o f n o tin g c a r e f u lly ,
e v id e n c e o f n e rv o u s , r e t i r i n g ,
a l l c h i l d r e n who sh o w
and a n tis o c ia l p e r s o n a litie s
a s w e l l a s t h o s e sh o w in g b e h a v i o r p r o b le m s .
T h ese c a s e s w ere
m in u te ly d e s c r ib e d in th e r e p o r t o f th e te a c h e r co n ce rn e d and
th is
i n f o r m a ti o n w as s e n t t o t h e c l i n i c .
th e n a tu re o f th e d i f f i c u l t i e s
th e r e p o r t.
In fo rm a tio n re g a rd in g
in v o lv e d w ere a l s o
The b e h a v i o r c l i n i c
in c lu d e d in
t h e n c o m b in ed t h e v a r i o u s r e н
p o r t s c o n c e rn in g e ac h i n d i v i d u a l c a s e and c o m p ile d a m a s te r
87
rec o rd card .
E x a m in a tio n s by p s y c h i a t r i s t s ,
p sy c h o lo g is ts,
an d p e d i a t r i c i a n s w e re i n c l u d e d on t h i s m a s te r r e c o r d ,
p a n ie d o f c o u rse by th e I.Q .
ra tin g .^
The c l i n i c a l s t a f f t h e n e x a m in e d t h i s
fo llo w e d i t
in f o r m a tio n and
up w ith in te r v ie w s w ith th e c h i l d ,
th e te a c h e r.
s t a f f m ade i t s
On t h e
b a sis of th is
rec o m m e n d atio n s.
fo llo w e d up and th e
re s u lts
c lin ic
p a r e n t s , and
in fo rm a tio n th e
c lin ic a l
A ll c a s e s w ere c a r e f u l l y
o f th e tre a tm e n t n o te d .
M a rte n s c o n d u c te d a c a r e f u l s tu d y a s t o
v a lu e o f t h i s
accom н
th e re m e d ia l
a n d fo u n d a f t e r c h e c k in g fro m tim e to
tim e t h a t t h e p ro b le m g ro u p h a d im p ro v e d g r e a t l y a s a r e s u l t
o f c l i n i c a l t r e a t m e n t an d t h a t t h e n o n p ro b lem g ro u p h a d r e н
m a i n e d a b o u t t h e sa m e u n d e r o r d i n a r y r o u t i n e p r o c e d u r e s n o t
c o n n e c te d w ith c l i n i c a l p ro c e d u re .
The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f th e
o
B e rk e le y p u b lic
S c h o o ls i s
in н
d ic a te d on th e fo llo w in g p ag e.
T h u s o n e m ay n o t e t h e r e l a t i v e
p o s itio n o f th e b e h a v io r c l i n i c
in th e g e n e ra l a d m in is tr a tiv e
p la n .
School f a ilu r e
and d e lin q u e n c y .
A l a r g e num ber o f
s c h o o l s i n t h e S t a t e o f C a l i f o r n i a h a v e s o u g h t t o rem ove w h a t
m any e x p e r t s b e l i e v e t o b e a n i n d i r e c t c a u s e o f m a lb e h a v io r an d
1 E l s i e M a r te n s , A d ju s tm e n t o f t h e B e h a v io r P ro b le m o f
S c h o o lC h ild r e n , pp. 6 2 -6 9 .
2
L oc. c i t .
aa
B o ard o f E d u c a tio n
S u p e rin te n d e n t o f S c h o o ls
A s s i s t a n t S u p e r in te n d e n t o f S c h o o ls
D i r e c t o r o f B u re a u o f R e s e a r c h a n d G u id a n ce
C o o rd in a tin g
C o u n c il
S c h o o l P ro g ram
C o u n s e l l i n g G u id an ce
B e h a v io r C l in i c
P sy c h o lo g ic a l
and
P h y sic a l
P sy c h o lo g ic a l
S e rv ic e
P rin c ip a ls
C o u n se llo rs
T each ers
S o c ia l
S e r v ic e D e p a rtm en t
P a re n ts
C h ild re n
CHART I
BERKELEY PUBLIC SCHOOLS ORGANIZATION CHART
PROGRAM OF CHILD ADJUSTMENT*
a E l s i e M a r te n s , A d ju stm e n t o f t h e B e h a v io r P ro b le m s o f
C h i ld r e n ( U n ite d S t a t e s D e p a rtm e n t o f t h e I n t e r i o r , O f f ic e o f
E d u c a t i o n , B u l l e t i n N o . 1 8 ; W a s h i n g t o n , D. C # : U n i t e d S t a t e s
G overnm ent P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 3 2 ) , p . 6 7 .
89
d e lin q u e n c y , t h a t c au se b e in g sc h o o l f a i l u r e .
program i s
The s c h o o l
so a d ju s te d t h a t p u p ils a r e s u c c e s s f u l w ith th e
c o u rse th a t i s
g iv e n to
th em .
T h is o f c o u rs e i s
a c h ie v e d by
g iv in g t h e c h i l d r e n w ork t h a t th e y c a n a c c o m p lish an d th u s
a v o id in g d isa p p o in tm e n t,
s o c i a l m a la d ju stm e n t, an d m e n ta l r e - ,
a c tio n s t h a t a re o f te n th e r e s u l t o f f a i l i n g
to
pass.
Boys i n r e f o r m a t o r i e s s p e a k a lm o s t u n a n im o u s ly o f t h e i r
d islik e
f o r s c h o o l a n d o f n o t b e i n g a b l e t o do t h e w o r k .
In
New. Y o r k S t a t e r e f o r m a t o r i e s 8 4 p e r c e n t o f t h e b o y s h a d b e e n
r e ta r d e d w h ile in s c h o o l .3
i
E ffe c tiv e p ro ced u res.
a g e d w hen t h e y a t t e m p t t o
b e h a v io r p ro b le m s.
In d iv id u a l te a c h e rs are d isc o u rн
e x p e l . ; s t u d e n t s who m a y b e p o t e n t i a l
R a th e r, th e
s y s te m i n m any C a l i f o r n i a
sc h o o ls has been to t r a n s f e r th e c h ild to a d if f e r e n t
school
o r t o a d i f f e r e n t d e p a r t m e n t w h e r e f r e s h e f f o r t s m ay b e m ade t o
e f f e c t a f a v o r a b l e r e a c t i o n fro m t h e s t u d e n t .
M any s c h o o l s y s t e m s h a v e w o r k e d o u t a s y s t e m q u i t e
sim ila r to
th a t p ra c tic e d
som e d e g r e e o f s u c c e s s . ^
n o t re v o lu tio n a ry in t h e i r
in
th e B in e t S c h o o ls and hav e r e p o r te d
The p r o c e d u r e s t h a t h a v e e v o lv e d a r e
scope b u t have been s u c c e s s f u l beн
cause o f t h e i r p r a c t ic a b i l it y .
W h e re p o s s i b l e a l l t h e , c h i l d r e n
3 Ib id ., p. 91.
4
S h e ld o n G lu e ck a n d E le a n o r T . G lu e c k ,
v e n tin g C rim e . p . 176.
e d ito rs, P reн
90
o f th e sc h o o l a re g iv e n a y e a r ly s e r i e s
o f e x a m in a tio n s w h ic h
in c lu d e p h y s i c a l , m e n ta l, and a c h ie v e m e n t t e s ts *
F o llo w in g th e r o u tin e
in te llig e n t
ch eck -u p s each y e a r a s in c e r e
sy s te m o f g ra d e p la c e m e n t i s
f o llo w e d so a s t o
a v o id th e
in e v ita b le
sc h o o ls*
T h e s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r o r h o m e ro o m t e a c h e r m a k e s a
s p e c ia l e f f o r t to
a c c o rd in g to h i s
d iffic u ltie s
and
c o m m o n ly e x p e r i e n c e d i n
som e
a d v is e th e c o r r e c t c o u rse s f o r each c h ild
a b ility
a n d te m p e rm e n t.
In a d d itio n , th o se
i n c h a rg e o f p u p il p la c e m e n t e n co u rag e each c h i l d t o engage in
som e s o r t o f e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t y
so a s t o a llo w a n o rm al
and w e ll- r o u n d e d d e v e lo p m e n t.
Of l a t e m o r e e m p h a s i s h a s b e e n p l a c e d b y C a l i f o r n i a
s c h o o l s o n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e home a n d t h e
c o m m u n ity .
T h is a c t i v e
sch o o l and
c o o p e r a t i o n t e n d s t o m ak e f o r a b e t t e r
u n d e r s ta n d in g o f t h e p ro b le m s o f e a c h g ro u p .
d e lin q u e n ts and p o te n tia l d e lin q u e n ts t h i s
in f o r m a tio n o f t e n m akes i t
p o s s ib le to
In d e a lin g w ith
s o rt o f tra d in g of
d is c o v e r c a u s e s o f m a lн
a d j u s t m e n t a n d m a l b e h a v i o r b e f o r e t h e y becom e a c u t e a n d t h u s
m ak e t h e p r o p e r a d j u s t m e n t p r i o r t o a n y o v e r t a c t s
tru a n c y ,
ste a lin g
such as
and s i m i l a r d i f f i c u l t i e s .
T eacher in flu e n c e .
A d m in is tra to rs have le a rn e d t h a t a
g r e a t d e a l o f th e program o f d e lin q u e n c y p r e v e n tio n d ep en d s to
a v e ry l a r g e d e g re e , upon th e c la ss ro o m t e a c h e r s and c o u n s e l l o r s
who h a v e d i r e c t c o n t a c t w i t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n .
When p e r н
so n n e l a d d itio n s a re b e in g c o n s id e re d , th o s e w ith s p e c ia l
91
t r a i n in g a re g a in in g i n fa v o r.
H ow ever, i n l o c a l i t i e s w h e re
f e w new t e a c h e r s a r e b e i n g h i r e d ,
th e p ro g re ssiv e
t o r enco u rag es t r a i n in g in s e r v ic e .
a c h ie v e d b y th e fo llo w in g m eans:
T h i s t r a i n i n g m ay b e
s t a f f m e e tin g s, p r o f e s s io n a l
u n i v e r s i t y c l a s s w ork, l o c a l l e c t u r e s by th e
fie ld ,
a d m in istra н
le a d e rs
in th e
and r e a d in g o f h e lp f u l books and j o u r n a ls .
The s p e c i a l t e a c h e r .
a re a v a ila b le v is itin g
I n d i s t r i c t s w h ere a d e q u a te fu n d s
t e a c h e r s c a r r y on a v e r y i m p o r t a n t w ork
i n b r i n g i n g a b o u t c o o p e r a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e hom e a n d t h e
school
a n d o f t e n t i m e s t h u s r e m o v e som e o f t h e c o n d i t i o n s l e a d i n g t o
m a la d ju stm e n t._ ? A v i s i t i n g
te a c h e r m ust be w e ll t r a i n e d b o th
i n a c a d e m ic a s w e l l a s i n p r a c t i c a l s o c i a l w o rk .
a re a b le
is
to
T hese t e a c h e r s
do a g r e a t d e a l m o r e t h a n t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r who
o f t e n a s n o t c a r r y i n g a h e a v y t e a c h i n g l o a d w h ic h p r e v e n t s
e x tra a c t iv i t y o f th is
so rt.
The v i s i t i n g
c o n ju n c tio n w ith th e c la ss ro o m t e a c h e r ,
tra tio n ,
t e a c h e r w orks i n
and w ith th e
a d m in isн
and w ith th e v o c a tio n a l b u re a u , o r te a c h e r - c o u n s e llo r .
C lo se c o n ta c t m ust a ls o be k e p t w ith s o c i a l a g e n c ie s d e a lin g
w ith d e lin q u e n ts and p o te n tia l d e lin q u e n ts .
w here t h i s
sy s te m h a s b e e n a d o p te d ,
h a s found i t
a d v a n ta g e o u s t o
th e v i s i t i n g
t e a c h e r who i s
th e
I n som e c i t i e s
j u v e n i l e c o u r t ju d g e
t u r n m any c a s e s d i r e c t l y
over to
in a s itu a tio n b e tte r s u ite d to
c a r r y on a p ro g ra m o f a d ju s tm e n t a n d t r e a t m e n t .
T hese s p e c i a l te a c h e r s a re
a b l e to w ork w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n
92
i n d i v i d u a l l y w h e re a r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r c a n n o t do s o ,
a n d h e n c e m uch m o r e c a n b e -th u s a c c o m p l i s h e d .
th e c o o p e ra tio n o f th e v i s i t i n g
is
o fte n a b le to
M oreover, w ith
t e a c h e r t h e .c la ss ro o m t e a c h e r
a c h ie v e g r e a te r te a c h in g s u c c e s s .
S h o rtc o m in g s i n th e p r e s e n t e d u c a tio n a l o f f e r i n g .
t h e f o r e g o i n g p a r a g r a p h s som e o f t h e m o r e p r o g r e s s i v e
f o r s c h o o l tr e a tm e n t o f d e li n q u e n ts w ere p r e s e n t e d .
m any s c h o o l s h a v e m ade v e r y l i t t l e ,
f o r d e a lin g w ith d e lin q u e n ts ,
if
a fa c t th a t is
sc h o o ls a re
o b n o x io u s s t u d e n ts o r m e re ly to
p la n s
H ow ever,
any, s p e c ia l p ro v isio n
common t o o t h e r
s c h o o l s i n t h e n a t i o n a s sh o w n i n T a b l e V I .
m in is tra to rs o f th e se
T each ers and adн
c o n te n t e i t h e r to e x p el
t u r n t h e m o v e r "to t h e c o u n t y
p r o b a tio n d e p a rtm e n t an d th u s a v o id any u n p le a s a n tn e s s .
sc h o o ls p ro v id e th e
c h ild b u t a ls o
e n v iro n m e n t t h a t n o t o n ly f a i l s
a c tu a lly c o n trib u te s to
l i n q u e n c y o f t h e s t u d e n t s u p o n whom i t
above c iti z e n s h ip .
to a id th e
e x e rts
in flu e n c e .
sc h o o l o f th e s o r t
e m p h a s iz e s a c a d e m ic s c h o l a r s h i p
T hat i s ,
i s t r a t o r and o f th e te a c h e rs
tra n c e in to
T hese
th e m a lb e h a v io r and deн
P e r h a p s a common s h o r t c o m i n g o f t h e
m e n tio n e d above i s t h a t i t
In
t h e m a j o r c o n c e r n o f t h e ad m in н
is
t o a im a t h i g h g r a d e s an d e n н
t h e S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y r a t h e r t h a n t o a im a t w e l l
d e v e lo p e d p e r s o n a l i t i e s and good c i t i z e n s h i p ,
so e s s e n t i a l i n
a s u c c e s s f u l d em o cracy .
E d u c a tio n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s have f a i l e d
to a c h ie v e su c c e ss
w ith th e d e lin q u e n t and p o te n tia l d e lin q u e n t because o f
93
TABLE V I
SPECIAL SCHOOLS AM) CLASSESa
N um ber o f c i t i e s a b o v e 1 0 , 0 0 0 i n p o p u l a t i o n i n
U n ite d S t a te s
N um ber o f c i t i e s i n U n i t e d S t a t e s r e p o r t i n g
N um ber o f c i t i e s i n U n i t e d S t a t e s h a v i n g d i s c i p l i n a r y
sc h o o ls
N u m b er o f c i t i e s i n U n i t e d S t a t e s w h e r e s c h o o l s a r e
e sta b lis h e d
N um ber o f c i t i e s i n U n i t e d S t a t e s h a v i n g c l a s s e s i n
sc h o o ls
N u m b er o f p u p i l s i n s c h o o l s
N u m b er o f s e p a r a t e d i s c i p l i n a r y c l a s s e s
N u m b er o f p u p i l s i n j u s t t h e c l a s s e s
N um ber o f c l a s s e s ( t o t a l ) .
N um ber o f p u p i l s e n r o l l e d ( t o t a l )
N um ber o f t e a c h e r s ( f u l l t i m e )
N u m b er o f t e a c h e r s ( p a r t t i m e )
N um ber o f h e l p e r s ( f u l l t i m e )
N um ber o f h e l p e r s ( p a r t t i m e )
762
736
16
26
186
3 ,5 1 2
88
1 ,9 5 0
274
5 ,4 6 2
285
15
18
9
a A. 0 . H e c k , S p e c i a l S c h o o l s a n d C l a s s e s ( U n i t e d
S t a t e s D e p artm en t o f th e I n t e r i o r , O f f ic e o f E d u c a tio n ,
B u l l e t i n N o. 7 ; W a s h i n g t o n , D. C . : U n i t e d S t a t e s G o v e r n m e n t
P r i n t in g O ffic e , 1 9 3 0 ).
94
a n tiq u a te d a tte n d a n c e and d is c ip lin a r y
h ere
lie s
p ro ced u res.
Tiie f a u l t
i n th e f a c t t h a t p r o c e d u r e s w h ic h d ep en d on c o e r c i o n
a n d t h r e a t s f o r g o o d a t t e n d a n c e an d d i s c i p l i n e m ore o f t e n
a c h i e v e t h e o p p o s i t e ? t r u a n c y a n d m a l b e h a v i ?o r .
he le d and n o t d riv e n ,
o th e r reaso n to
S tu d e n ts m ust
e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e c h i l d r e n who h a v e
becom e d e l i n q u e n t , a n d n e e d l i t t l e
en co u rag eн
m e n t t o m ake a c o m p l e t e b r e a k w i t h s c h o o l a u t h o r i t y .
A c a d e m ic c u r r i c u l u m .
th e ir ta le n ts
M any c h i l d r e n f i n d n o o u t l e t f o r
i n e d u c a tio n a l i n s t u t u t i o n s d e sig n e d to t r a i n
s tu d e n ts on s t r i c t l y
a c a d e m ic l i n e s .
Some u l t r a c o n s e r v a t i v e
s c h o o ls o n ly g ru d g in g ly o f f e r v o c a t i o n a l c o u r s e s
and th e s e a r e
w h e r e t h e s t u d e n t s o f lo w m e n t a l i t y who c a n n o t l e a r n l a t i n
F ren ch a re
se n t,
b e c a u se th e y m u st ta k e so m e th in g .
c o u r s e s a r e f r o w n e d u p o n b y m any o f t h e
or
V o c a tio n a l
" o ld ty p e ? sch o o l adн
m i n i s t r a t o r s a n d a s a c o n s e q u e n c e t h e m e c h a n i c a l l y m in d e d s t u н
dent fin d s l i t t l e
Such a s i t u a t i o n
o u t l e t f o r such t a l e n t a s he does p o s s e s s .
o fte n le a d s to
v a t e d , m ay l e a d t o
f r u s t r a t i o n s w h ic h , i f
o v e r t a c t s o f d e lin q u e n c y .
S h o rtc o m in g s su m m a riz e d .
I n su m m in g u p t h e
o f m a n y o f C a l i f o r n i a 1s e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s
is
o f f e r e d , b a s e d u p o n w id e i n v e s t i g a t i o n ,
o f s c h o o l s m ak e l i t t l e
or p o te n tia lly
is
th a t th e
ag g raн
if
an o b se rv a tio n
t h a t a l a r g e num ber
any s p e c ia l p ro v is io n f o r d e lin q u e n t
d e lin q u e n t c h ild re n .
sc h o o ls a re
sh o rtc o m in g s
The c h i e f s h o r tc o m in g t h e n
a tte m p tin g to a d a p t th e
stu d e n t to th e
c u rric u lu m r a t h e r th a n th e c u rric u lu m
to th e
stu d e n t.
who h a n d l e d e l i n q u e n t s o r p o t e n t i a l d e l i n q u e n t s ,
have had l i t t l e
if
T hose
i n m ost c a s e s ,
any s p e c ia l tr a in in g in u n iv e r s itie s
s o c i a l w o rk w h ic h w o u ld p r e p a r e th em t o
o r in
d e a l w ith s tu d e n ts o f
th e ty p e u n d e r c o n s id e r a tio n .
III.
SUGGESTED PROGRAM FDR CALIFORNIA SCHOOLS
In asm u ch a s t h e r e a r e v a r i o u s a v e n u e s o f a p p ro a c h t o
th e p ro b lem o f d e lin q u e n c y p r e v e n t io n and t r e a t m e n t ,
be w e ll to
i t m ig h t
c o n s i d e r som e o f t h e p l a n s u t i l i z e d b y s c h o o l s
t h a t m ak e p r o v i s i o n f o r c h i l d r e n who a r e m a l a d j u s t e d .
The C e n t r a l B u re au .
h as been s e t up to
I n som e c i t i e s
a s p e c ia l b u reau
d e a l w ith t h e p ro b le m u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . ^
T h is b u r e a u h a s b e e n c a l l e d v a r i o u s d i f f e r e n t nam es b u t t h a t
is
of l i t t l e
a re h ere
consequence as i t
in te re ste d .
The a g e n c y known a s t h e
c o m b in es t h e a c t i v i t i e s
i c a l , m e d ic a l,
i s w ith th e p r in c ip le
" C e n tr a l B ureau"
o f th e sch o o l a tte n d a n c e ,
and g u id a n c e d e p a rtm e n ts i n to
t h a t we
p sy c h o lo g н
one u n i t .
A ll
c a s e s o f m a lb e h a v io r and tr u a n c y and s im il a r d i f f i c u l t i e s
pass f i r s t
th ro u g h t h i s
g iv e n and a d e f i n i t e
o u t.
c e n t r a l b u re a u w here c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s
i n d i v i d u a l p l a n o f p r o c e d u r e i s w orked
E a c h m e m b e r o f t h e b u r e a u m a k e s h i s own i n v e s t i g a t i o n
5
I b i d . , p. 115.
96
so t h a t th e r e s u l t i n g p la n o f tr e a tm e n t i s
e ffe c tiv e
schem e w h ic h t a k e s m any f a c t o r s
A p la n o f t h i s
a sy s te m a tic
and
in to c o n s id e ra tio n .
s o r t can o f co u rse he b e s t c a r r ie d o u t
i n a l a r g e c i t y w here a d e q u a te f i n a n c i a l a rra n g e m e n ts c a n be
secu red .
H ow ever, t h e t h e o r y b e h in d t h e p l a n c o u ld b e u t i l н
iz e d ev en i n a s m a ll s c h o o l sy ste m .
c e rn e d w ith a c e r t a i n p ro b le m c h i l d
That i s ,
a l l th o se conн
sh o u ld p o o l t h e i r in fo rm a н
t i o n a n d i n t h i s w ay a d e q u a t e l y p l a n a c o n c e r t e d m eth o d o f
tre a tm e n t.
The r e c r e a t i o n a l a p p r o a c h .
M any s c h o o l s h a v e g r e a t l y
re d u c e d d e lin q u e n c y i n t h e i r l o c a l i t i e s
t h r o u g h t h e m e d iu m o f
r e c r e a t i o n a l p ro g ram s and s i m i l a r p la n s to
a c tiv ity fo r c h ild re n
in th e ir le is u re
p ro v id e m e a n in g fu l
tim e .
C h i l d r e n when
id le
a r e m ore l i k e l y t o
becom e i n v o l v e d i n a n t i s o c i a l a c t i v i н
tie s
t h a n w h en o c c u p i e d w i t h w e l l - p l a n n e d p l a y o r r e c r e a t i o n .
T h i s f a c t i s b o r n o u t b y c r i m i n a l a u t h o r i t i e s who h a v e n o t e d
th e in c re a s e
In o rd e r to
fe a sib le
i n d e l i n q u e n c y d u r i n g sum m er v a c a t i o n p e r i o d s .
cope w ith t h i s
h a s b e e n sh o w n t o b e
to o rg a n iz e v a c a tio n sc h o o ls t h a t a re
d u r i n g t h e su m m er m o n t h s .
under C a lifo rn ia
c a r r ie d on
V a c a tio n s c h o o ls can be e s t a b l is h e d
law a n d w h e re t h e y h a v e b e e n t r i e d
proved s u c c e s s f u l.
6
tre n d i t
The c h i e f v a lu e o f su c h s c h o o ls i s
S c h o o l C od e o f t h e S t a t e o f C a l i f o r n i a , p .
.
?
have
'
'i
5
1S3.
to
97
keep th e c h ild r e n o c c u p ie d w ith i n t e r e s t i n g a c t i v i t i e s
tim e w hen d i f f i c u l t i e s
a re m ost l i k e l y to
S tu d e n t in v e n to ry .
is
a rise .
The e d u c a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s s h o u ld
keep a c lo s e r in v e n to ry o f each o f th e
I f th is
at a
c h ild re n in a tte n d a n c e .
d o n e , m any s t u d e n t s c a n b e p r e v e n t e d fro m b e c o m in g
l a t e r p ro b le m s i n a p a r t i c u l a r l o c a l i t y .
c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s knew s o m e th in g o f t h e
M oreover, i f
th e
c h i l d r e n w i t h whom
t h e y a r e i n a l m o s t c o n s t a n t c o n t a c t a m uch m o re s a t i s f a c t o r y
program c o u ld b e c a r r i e d o n .
te s tin g
I n n o t a few s c h o o l s e l a b o r a t e
p ro g ram s c o u ld be c a r r i e d on t o
and t h i s
a m uch g r e a t e r e x t e n t
i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d b e m ad e a v a i l a b l e t o
t e a c h e r s who c o u l d p e r h a p s u s e i t
A g r e a t l a c k , w h ic h
c o u ld be p ro v id e d f o r w ith e x is ti n g f a c i l i t i e s
c a tio n .
is
at little
a d d iн
n o te d w ith re g a rd to c h a r a c te r and s o c ia l eduн
N ow adays, p e r h a p s m ore t h a n a t a n y p r e v i o u s t i m e ,
c h ild re n need to
ic a lly
in d iv id u a l
to th e b e s t a d v a n ta g e .
C h a ra c te r and s o c ia l t r a i n i n g .
tio n a l c o st,
th e
d e v e lo p th e m se lv e s to
and m e n ta lly , and to
m ust be ta k e n .
re a liz e
th e u tm o st b o th p h y sн
th is
a p p ro p ria te m easu res
A g r e a t d e a l can be done I n t h i s r e g a r d
th ro u g h a c o n s ta n t s t r i v i n g
f o r th e w e ll e s ta b lis h e d g o a ls .
S t u d e n t s n e e d a l s o t o know t h e m s e l v e s a n d t o l e a r n how
to g e t a lo n g w ith o t h e r s i n a c h a n g in g w o rld .
A sense of
v a l u e s n e e d s t o b e d e v e l o p e d s o t h a t e a c h c h i l d m ay know how
to choose w hat i s
b e s t f o r h im a s t h e
situ a tio n
i s p re se n te d
98
t o h im .
M a rk h a m h a s s a i d w i t h r e g a r d t o t h i s
c h i l d m ust s a t i s f y h i s n eed s f o r s e c u r i t y ,
la c k th a t a
s e lf - m a s te r y , and
s e lf-fu lfillm e n t.^
C h ild re n need to be ta u g h t th e h a b i t o f s u c c e s s r a t h e r
t h a n t o b e t o l d t h a t t h e y c a n o n l y do c e r t a i n t h i n g s a n d c a n н
n o t do c e r t a i n o t h e r t h i n g s .
sta n c e s,
to
School re ta rd a tio n ,
n o t o n ly d isc o u ra g e s th e c h ild b u t a ls o
seek s a tis f a c tio n
in
som e o t h e r f o r m .
i n m any i n н
c a u s e s h im
O fte n enough t h a t
o u t l e t c o n c e r n s s o m e t h i n g w h i c h m ay v e r y e a s i l y l e a d h i m
to w a rd d e lin q u e n c y .
P e r h a p s w hen p r o p e r t e s t s h a v e b e e n d e v e l o p e d , one
w o u ld b e a b le t o
te ll
i n a d v a n c e w i t h m o r e c e r t a i n t y t h a n now
p o s s i b l e , w h ic h c h i l d r e n a r e p o t e n t i a l l y d e l i n q u e n t .
U n til
su c h tim e th e s c h o o l m u st e x p e rim e n t and u t i l i z e t h e b e s t
a v a ila b le p ro c e d u re s and n o t be s a t i s f i e d
f u l l y w ith any
s in g le p ro ced u re.
T e a c h e r s o f d e l i n q u e n t s m u st rem em ber t h a t t h e s o c i a l
im p u lse s o f th e s tu d e n t m ust be s tr e n g th e n e d so a s to o f f s e t
a n tis o c ia l te n d e n c ie s.
S a t i s f a c t o r y o u t l e t s m ust be p ro v id e d
f o r t h e d r i v e s w h ic h m u st b e s a t i s f i e d .
I f th e se
im p u lse s o f
th e c h i l d a re n o t s tr o n g o r d e v e lo p e d to a s u f f i c i e n t d e g re e
h e w i l l i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y becom e a d a y -d r e a m e r a n d d r i f t
a l o n g o r becom e " s m a r t a l e c k y . "
7
The s c h o o l , t h e n i t
seem s,
' E l e a n o r a M a rk h a m , " M a l a d j u s t m e n t , " S i e r r a E d u c a t i o n a l
N ew s. 3 4 : 2 0 - 2 1 , O c t o b e r , 1 9 3 8 .
99
s h o u ld e n c o u ra g e t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f d e s i r a b l e
so d o in g d e -e m p h a s iz e u n d e s i r a b l e im p u ls e s .
by p r a c t ic e ,
p o in t to
im p u lse s and i n
C h ild re n le a r n
so t h e c l a s s r o o m w o u ld b e a n e x c e l l e n t s t a r t i n g
b e g in t h i s
d e v e lo p m e n t.
G u id a n ce p ro g ra m .
The s c h o o l c a n be o f g r e a t b e n e f i t
- to th e c h i l d th r o u g h an a d e q u a te and w e ll- p la n n e d g u id a n c e
pro g ram .
a ls o
The c o u n s e l l o r m u st r e a l i z e h i s l i m i t a t i o n s
tr e a d l i g h t l y upon th e
c h ild * s in n e r f e e lin g s .
and
f a c t s le a r n e d c o n c e rn in g th e
C e r t a i n l y m ore o f t h i s
so rt of
c o u n s e llin g c o u ld be d e v e lo p e d .
T e a c h e rs m u st be sy m p a th e tic to w a rd th e e m o tio n a l r e н
q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e c h i l d r e n a n d t h u s m any b l o c k e d o r f r u s t r a t e d
g
e m o t i o n a l n e e d s m ay b e p r o v i d e d w i t h s a t i s f a c t o r y o u t l e t s .
The s c h o o l c l a s s r o o m c a n p r o v i d e s u b s t i t u t e
sa tis fa c tio n s
of
s u c c e s s and le a d e r s h ip th ro u g h o r d in a r y a c t i v i t i e s ? an e x c e lle n t
o p p o rtu n ity to
a id in th e a d ju s tm e n t o f th e c h ild .
C r im e c o s t .
tio n a l f a c ilitie s
g re a t.
C r i ti c s o f e d u c a tio n o fte n say t h a t educaн
s h o u ld be e x te n d e d b u t t h a t th e c o s t i s
On t h e o t h e r h a n d , i t
g re a t d e a l c h e a p e r to
to
try
h a s b e e n show n t h a t
it
is
to o
a
to p re v e n t d e lin q u e n c y th ro u g h eduн
c a tio n th a n i t
is
d e a l l a t e r w ith th e s tu d e n t a s a c rim in a l.
The s t a t i s t i c s
sh o w t h a t c r i m e c o s t s a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h r e e
о M i l t o n A. S a f f i r , " B e h i n d t h e D e l i n q u e n t , " C h i c a g o
S c h o o l s J o u r n a l . 2 0 : 1 0 5 - 1 0 9 , J a n u a r y , 19 3 9 *
100
tim e s as la r g e a s e x p e n d itu re s f o r a l l
9
t i o n i n th e U n ite d S t a te s .
IV .
The f a c t s
s c h o o ls and a l l e d u ea -
SUMMARY OF THE CHAPTER
o u t lin e d i n C h a p te r V
in d ic a te d b r ie f ly
th e
a im s a n d o b j e c t i v e s o f s c h o o l t r e a t m e n t o f d e l i n q u e n t s a n d
som e o f t h e m e a n s w h e r e b y s u c h g o a l s c o u l d b e a c h i e v e d .
e f f o r t s m ade b y s c h o o l s i n
re la te d
to
to p ro v id e
som e s e c t i o n s o f C a l i f o r n i a w e r e
i l l u s t r a t e w hat i s
b e in g done a t th e p r e s e n t tim e
s p e c i a l pro gram s f o r th e
o f d e l i n q u e n t s ....
The
d i a g n o s i s ,a n d t r e a t m e n t
I t w as fo u n d t h a t t h e t r e a t m e n t , w h ere i t
does e x is t in th e sc h o o ls,
is
in a d e q u a te to m eet th e needs
o f c h i l d r e n who m ay b e c l a s s i f i e d
as d e lin q u e n ts o r p o te n tia lly
so.
An a t t e m p t w a s m a d e t o
C a lifo rn ia
d e te rm in e th e sh o rtc o m in g s o f th e
s c h o o ls i n h a n d lin g t h i s p ro b lem .
The c h i e f c r i t i н
c i s m b e i n g t h a t v e r y f e w s c h o o l s m ak e a n y p r o v i s i o n w h a t e v e r
to
d e a l w ith t h i s
s p e c i a l g ro u p o f c h i l d r e n , o r w here su c h p r o н
g ram s a r e a t t e m p t e d v e r y l i t t l e
m ore h a s b e e n d o n e t h a n t o
c h a n g e t h e nam es o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f p r e v i o u s m e th o d s o f
tre a tm e n t.
L a s tly ,
sp e c ific
p la n s and p ro g ram s w ere o f f e r e d t o
9 S a m u e l R y e r s o n , c o m p i l e r , *fR e p o r t o f t h e A n n u a l C o nн
f e r e n c e on P r e v e n t i o n o f J u v e n i l e D e lin q u e n c y ,? The D e p a rtm e n t
o f P u b l i c W e lf a r e an d B ig B r o th e r s * a n d S i s t e r s * A s s o c i a t i o n
o f I l l i n o i s , 1 9 3 4 -1 9 3 8 , V o l. I l l , p . ? 3 4 .
*
101
i l l u s t r a t e w hat th e s c h o o ls i n C a l i f o r n i a c o u ld a c c o m p lish
if
th e
school a d m in istra tio n ,
in an in te g ra te d e f f o r t.
p e r s o n n e l , a n d p a r e n t s c o m b in ed
CHAPTER V I
COMMUNITY COOPERATION IN PREVENTION PROGRAMS
The r o l e
o f t h e c o m m u n i ty i n p r o g r e s s i v e p l a n s f o r t h e
p re v e n tio n and tre a tm e n t o f d e lin q u e n c y can n o t be to o h ig h ly
stre sse d .
I n t h i s c h a p t e r som e p l a n s f o r c o o r d i n a t e d c o m m u n i ty
e f f o r t a re d isc u sse d in r e la tio n
to t h e i r e ffe c tiv e n e s s in
t r e a t i n g a n d d e a l i n g w i t h y o u n g p e o p l e who h a v e b e c o m e a s s o н
c i a t e d w ith u n d e s i r a b l e e le m e n ts i n th e to w n ? s p o p u l a t i o n .
I.
DEVELOPMENT OF COMMUNITY ACTIVITY
The p r o b le m o f e f f i c i e n t u t i l i z a t i o n
le is u re
tim e i s v e r y c l o s e l y r e l a t e d
p re v e n tio n .
ta in
N e ig h b o rh o o d l i f e
se c tio n s o f c it i e s
to
o f e v e r-in c re a sin g
to d e lin q u e n c y and i t s
has d e te rio ra te d
g re a tly in
such an e x te n t t h a t i t
c e a se d t o be an in f lu e n c e f o r th e good o f th e
cerн
h a s a lm o st
liv e s of i t s
young p e o p le .
C h ild re n la c k a f e e lin g o f s e c u r ity and hope f o r th e
f u t u r e , b o t h o f w h ic h a r e r e l a t e d
ec o n o m ic d e p r e s s i o n .
A fa ta lis tic
to th e e f f e c t s o f p ro lo n g e d
a t t i t u d e h as been slo w ly in
f o rm a tio n a s th e young p e rs o n s have been f r u s t r a t e d r e p e a te d ly
in th e ir e f f o r ts to
s e c u re an a d e q u a te o u t l e t f o r t h e i r in n e r
th o u g h ts and u rg e s .
M o d e r n c h i l d r e n do n o t h a v e d e f i n i t e
d u tie s o r ch o res
a b o u t t h e hom e t h a t i n t h e p a s t h a v e a i d e d i n t h e e f f i c i e n t
103
use o f le is u r e
tim e *
in u se fu l p u rsu its,
I n s te a d o f h a v in g i d l e
th e s e c h ild re n a re w ont to
io u s m e th o d s o f e n t e r t a i n m e n t .
have n o t t h i s
tim e t o
fa c ility
d isp o se
in v e n t in g e n н
When u n i m a g i n a t i v e c h i l d r e n
f o r p la y , th e y a re e s p e c ia lly
to o u ts id e in flu e n c e s o f v a rio u s s o r ts .
su b je c t
S o m e tim e s m in o r
c r i m i n a l o r a n t i s o c i a l a c t s h av e b e e n c o m m itte d i n a n e f f o r t
i
to re a liz e
a t h r i l l o r t o h a v e so m e th in g t o d o .
R a d io p ro g ra m s w h ic h d e p i c t t h e t h r i l l i n g
escapades o f
n o t o r i o u s g u n m en a r e o f t e n t h e s o u r c e o f new i d e a s f o r c e r t a i n
ty p e s o f young p e o p le .
H o w ev er, d u r i n g t h e p a s t y e a r la w e n н
fo rcem en t a g e n c ie s and ju v e n ile a u t h o r i t i e s have b ro u g h t ab o u t
th e abandonm ent o f a t l e a s t one o f th e s e p ro g ram s c a r r i e d o v e r
n a t i o n a l h o o k u p s .'* '
In an a tte m p t to
p r o v i d e w h o leso m e o u t l e t s
f o r young
c h i l d r e n i n t h e c i t i e s m any g r o u p s h a v e i n s t i g a t e d a c t i v i t i e s
an d i n f l u e n c e s w h ic h a r e d e s ig n e d t o be a t t r a c t i v e
g r o u p we a r e c o n s i d e r i n g .
to
th e
T he e m p h a s i s o f t h e s e p l a n s a s a
w h o le h a s b e e n t o p r o v i d e f o r t h e c h i l d ? s s e c u r i t y a n d t o a d 2
j u s t th w a rte d d e s ir e s . ? I t h as been r e a liz e d by c i t i z e n s ,
s e rv ic e c lu b s ,
a n d law e n fo rc e m e n t a g e n c ie s t h a t a n e tw o rk o f
c o m m u n i ty a c t i v i t i e s ,
in flu e n c e s,
and f o r c e s need to be c re a te d
**? R a d i o a u t h o r i t i e s h a v e b a n n e d n G an g B u s t e r s ? b e c a u s e
o f t h e c o m p la in ts o f law e n fo rc e m e n t a g e n c ie s t h a t t h e p ro g ram
le d to im ita tio n by y o u th fu l d e lin q u e n ts .
2 D o r o t h y W. B u r k e , F a c t s A b o u t J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n c y ,
p.
36.
104
t o m ake l i f e
r i c h e r and f u l l e r f o r c h ild r e n a s w e ll a s f o r
a d u lts .
When i n s t i t u t i o n a l t r e a t m e n t w a s f o u n d t o b e u n s u c c e s s н
f u l i n m any i n s t a n c e s ,
cover i f
c o m m u n i ty p r o g r a m s w e r e s t a r t e d
to d is н
t h e y w o u ld s u c c e e d when i n c a r c e r a t i o n f a i l e d .
A
v a r i e t y o f schem es h a v e th u s s p ru n g up o v e r t h e n a t i o n w ith
su rp risin g re s u lts
i n m an y c i t i e s .
B ecause o f t h i s
p a rtia l
s u c c e s s t h e r e h a s b e e n i n c r e a s i n g e m p h a sis on t r e a t i n g l e s s
s e r i o u s c a s e s o f d e l i n q u e n c y i n t h e home c o m m u n i ty w h i l e t h e
se rio u s eases are
tu rn e d o v e r to
in stitu tio n s
f o r tre a tm e n t.
Some o f t h e m o r e s u c c e s s f u l p l a n s f o r c o m m u n i ty t r e a t н
m ent and p re v e n tio n a re
p re se n te d
II.
e x p la in e d i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n w h ic h i s
in th e fo llo w in g c h a p te r .
THE COORDINATING COUNCIL PLAN OF COMMUNITY ACTION
B e g in n in g s o f t h e C o o r d in a tin g C o u n c il P l a n .
C a lifo rn ia c it i e s
In se v era l
i t was f o u n d t h a t m any o f t h e w e l f a r e a n d la w
e n fo rcem en t a g e n c ie s o f te n o v e rla p p e d in t h e i r
and because o f t h i s
if
.
d u p lic a tio n
som e o f t h e
ju ris d ic tio n s ,
e x e c u tiv e s w ondered
som e s o r t o f c l e a r i n g h o u s e o r a g e n c y c o u l d b e c r e a t e d
i
so
t h a t c o m m u n i ty e f f o r t c o u l d b e u n i f i e d a n d c o o r d i n a t e d .
As e a r l y a s 1 9 1 9 t h e c i t y o f B e r k e l e y b e g a n t o
a p la n o f th is
c i l P la n ."
s o r t a n d i t w as c a l l e d
d e v e lo p
"The C o o r d i n a t i n g Counн
T h i s p l a n grew o u t o f a d e f i n i t e
a n d w a s d e v e l o p e d b y p e r s o n s who w e r e i n
c o m m u n i ty n e e d
a p o s itio n to r e a liz e
105
its
o b v io u s a d v a n ta g e s o v e r p r e v io u s m eth o d s o f p r o c e d u r e .
T he a im s a n d o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e p l a n a s o r i g i n a t e d i n
B e r k e l e y m ay b e b r i e f l y
and sim p ly s t a t e d a s f o llo w s :
(1 ) t o
p ro m o te t h e p h y s i c a l , m o r a l , a n d m e n ta l w e l f a r e o f t h e c h i l н
d r e n i n t h e co m m u n ity ;
(2)
to c o o rd in a te th e a c t i v i t i e s
of
e x i s t i n g a g e n c ie s so a s t o p re v e n t d u p l ic a t i o n o f e f f o r t ;
(3 )
t o p r o m o t e p e r s o n a l a c q u a i n t a n c e a n d e s p r i t d e c o r p s am ong t h e
e x e c u tiv e s o f th e v a r io u s a g e n c ie s d e a lin g w ith c h ild re n .-^
W ith t h e s e g o a l s i n m in d t h e e x e c u t i v e s o f a l l w e l f a r e
a n d law e n f o r c e m e n t a g e n c i e s d e a l i n g w i t h c h i l d r e n w e re i n н
v i t e d t o a m e e tin g w h ere p ro b le m s w o u ld be d i s c u s s e d .
The
m e e tin g w as su c h a s u c c e s s t h a t a l l p r e s e n t a g r e e d t h a t a r e g u н
l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n s h o u ld be s e t up so a s t o
im p ro v e c o n d i t i o n s
in th e c i t y .
a g reed upon,
The o r g a n i z a t i o n ,
as f in a lly
is
show n o n p a g e 1 0 6 #
The r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e a g e n c ie s c o n c e rn e d h a v e c o n н
tin u e d to m eet and have found th e o r g a n iz a tio n to be o f g r e a t
v a l u e i n t a l k i n g o v e r common p r o b l e m s .
p o s s ib le f o r each agency to
le a rn i t s
t h e c i t y a s a w h o le a n d i n r e l a t i o n
s im ila r n a tu re .
re g a rd to
S u c h a p l a n m ad e i t
fu n c tio n i n r e l a t i o n to
to o th e r a g e n c ie s o f a
A c o o r d i n a t e d p l a n o f c o m m u n i ty a c t i o n w i t h
d e lin q u e n c y becam e a n e s t a b l i s h e d f a c t .
At th e o u tн
set it
was d e c i d e d t h a t e a c h a g e n c y s h o u l d s t i l l
c a r r y on
School
^ E l s i e H. M a r t e n s , A d ju s tm e n t o f B e h a v io r P ro b le m s o f
C h i l d r e n , p . 7*
106
P u b lic S c h o o ls
S u p e rin te n d e n t
C i t y G overnm ent
C ity M anager
P o lic e
54 w o r k e r s
S o c ia l
W e lfa re
10 w o r k e r s
H e a lth
22 w o r k e r s
R e c re a tio n
86 w o r k e r s
B u re a u o f Reн
se a rc h and
G u id a n ce
640 w o r k e r s *
C o o rd in a tin g C o u n c il
(R e p re se n tin g th e above a g e n c ie s)
CHART I I
ORGANIZATION CHART OF THE COORDINATING COUNCIL
BERKELEY, CALIFORNIAо
e n tire
* In c lu d e s a d m in is tra to rs and te a c h in g s t a f f f o r th e
s c h o o l sy s te m *
a E l s i e M a r te n s , A d ju s tm e n t o f B e h a v io r P ro b le m s o f
C h ild re n *
107
in d e p e n d e n tly and t h a t th e
c o u n c i l w o u ld be a d e l i b e r a t i v e
body o n ly .
S h o r t l y a f t e r t h e p l a n w as s t a r t e d
l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n was i n s t i g a t e d
i n B e rk e le y a s im iн
am ong t h e m an y g r o u p s o f w e l н
f a r e an d la w e n fo rc e m e n t a g e n c ie s o f L os A n g e le s an d s u r r o u n d н
i n g c o m m u n itie s .
o f a c o u n c il,
I n th e y e a rs t h a t fo llo w e d th e e s ta b lis h m e n t
som e f i f t y - e i g h t o t h e r c o u n c i l s w e r e e s t a b l i s h e d .
I n 1934 a n a t i o n a l a d v i s o r y c o m m itte e was o r g a n i z e d t o
th e d e v elo p m e n t o f th e id e a
a id in
in w id e ly s c a t t e r e d a r e a s o v e r th e
e n t i r e U n ite d S ta te s .
The o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d f u n c t i o n o f t h e
c il.
to
c o o rd in a tin g counн
One o f t h e c h i e f f u n c t i o n s o f a c o o r d i n a t i n g c o u n c i l i s
c o n d u ct su rv e y s t o d is c o v e r a re a s and g ro u p s n e e d in g s p e c i a l
a tte n tio n .
In fo rm a tio n i s
th e n d i s t r ib u t e d
to th e
g a th e re d a t t h i s
c e n t r a l body and
p a r t i c u l a r a g e n c ie s e s p e c i a l l y c o n ce rn e d .
The c o u n c i l s a r e u s u a l l y d i v id e d i n t o
th re e
c o m m itte e s
com posed o f l o c a l p e o p le w i t h i n th e h ig h s c h o o l d i s t r i c t .
c o m m itte e s a r e nam ed a s f o l l o w s ;
b u ild in g ,
(3)
and e n v iro n m e n t.
(1 ) a d ju s tm e n t ,
(2 )
The
c h a ra c te r
As t h e c a s e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d b y
t h e c o u n c i l a s a w h o le , th e y , a r e th e n r e f e r r e d t o
b e s t s u ite d to c o n sid e r th e d i f f i c u l t i e s
The a d ju s tm e n t c o m m itte e 's t u d i e s
t h e c o m m itte e
in v o lv e d .
th e p a r t i c u l a r c a se s
a s s i g n e d b y t h e c o u n c i l a s a w h o l e a n d t h e n t h e m e m b e rs o f t h e
c o m m itte e d i s c u s s t h e c a s e an d r e f e r t o
agency b e s t s u i t e d to h a n d le
it.
to th e p ro p er w e lfa re
I n Los A n g e le s f i f t e e n h u n d re d
108
c a s e s w ere c l e a r e d b y t h e c o u n c i l i n t h i s m an n e r; a l l o f w h ic h
show s t h e m a g n itu d e o f t h e p ro b le m s u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . ^
The c h a r a c t e r b u i l d i n g c o m m itte e o f t h e c o u n c i l d e a l s
w i t h t h e v a r i o u s c a s e s a f f e c t i n g t h e Y . M . C . A . , t h e B oy S c o u t s ,
G irl S c o u ts,
a n d s i m i l a r a g e n c i e s o f t h e c o m m u n ity .
in v e s tig a tio n s
th is
th o u sa n d j u v e n i l e
In i t s
c o m m itte e fo u n d t h a t o u t o f t h e f o u r t e e n
c o u r t c a s e s i n L o s A n g e l e s , o n l y ▒U p e r c e n t
b e lo n g e d t o a n y c h a r a c t e r b u i l d i n g a g e n c y and th e re m a in in g
86 p e r c e n t b e lo n g e d t o
no a g e n c y o r c l u b . ^
g ro u p o f c o u r t c a s e s re v ie w e d by t h i s
1195 b oys w a n te d t o
Out o f t h e
sa m e
s e c tio n o f th e c o u n c il,
j o i n som e c h a r a c t e r b u i l d i n g a g e n c y b u t
th e y had n e v er re c e iv e d an i n v i t a t i o n .
T h is c o n d i t i o n w as
q u ic k ly re m e d ie d by th e a g e n c ie s c o n c e rn e d and a l a r g e p e r c e n t н
age o f t h e b o y s w ere g iv e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o
jo in by s p e c ia l
in v ita tio n .
The P a r e n t T e a c h e r s A s s o c i a t i o n a lo n g w i t h t h e A m e ric an
L e g io n an d t h e s e r v i c e c lu b s w ere g ro u p e d by t h e
c o o rd in a tin g
c o u n c i l i n L os A n g e le s i n t o w h a t w as c a l l e d "T he E n v ir o n m e n t a l
C o m m i t t e e . 11
T h is g roup a tte m p te d to
i m p r o v e t h e home a n d comн
m u n ity e n v iro n m e n t and su ch c e n t e r s a s t h e a t r e s ,
an d am usem ent h a l l s .
F o llo w in g t h i s
p o o l ro o m s,
in v e s tig a tio n d e fin ite
re c o m m e n d a tio n s f o r im p ro v em en t w ere r e l a y e d t o
th e p ro p e r
^ S h e ld o n G lu e ck an d E le a n o r T . G lu e c k , P r e v e n t i n g
C rjja e .
A r t i c l e b y K enyon S c u d d e r , " C o o r d i n a t i n g C o u n c ils i n
Los A n g e le s ," p . 2 5 .
5
Loc. c i t .
109
a u th o ritie s.
In a d d itio n ,
t h e c o m m i t t e e re c o m m e n d e d a w e l l -
ro u n d e d program o f c o u n te r a t t r a c t i o n s
flu e n c e s.
to o f f s e t th e had in н
C o m m u n ity d a n c e s w e r e o r g a n i z e d a s a p a r t o f t h e
p ro g ra m o f im p ro v e m e n t, a l s o
e f f o r t s w e r e maide t o
in a d e q u a te r e c r e a t i o n a l p ro g ram s.
expand th e
I t w as f e l t t h a t b e f o r e
s u c h a cam p aig n c o u ld b e s u c c e s s f u l t h e p a r e n t s o f t h e c h i l d r e n
m ust a ls o be re a c h e d .
As a r e s u l t a n e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m ,
a d a p te d f o r a d u l t s , w as i n s t i g a t e d .
Success of th e
r e la tin g to
p la n .
th e su c c e ss o f th e c o o rd in a tin g c o u n c il p la n , as
p r a c t i c e d - i n Los A n g e le s ,
h a n d le d by
1931 to
An i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e s t a t i s t i c s
th e c o u rts
show ed a d e c r e a s e i n
ju v e n ile cases
fro m a t o t a l o f 3 ,9 9 9 c a s e s i n t h e y e a r
a t o t a l o f 2 ,8 0 6 e a s e s i n t h e
F u rth e r s t a t i s t i c s ,
y e a r 1 934 *
a s ta b u la te d by S cu d d er,
sh o w i n
s t r i k i n g f ig u r e s th e v a lu e o f th e c o o rd in a tin g c o u n c il p la n in
t h e p r e v e n t io n an d t r e a t m e n t o f d e lin q u e n c y i n Los A n g e le s .
S cu d d er* s s t a t i s t i c s
fo llo w :
T h e re w ere 3 ,0 1 3 b o y s a r r e s t e d i n 1934 a s co m p ared
w ith 3 ,5 5 2 i n , 1 9 3 3 .
T h is m eans a r e d u c t i o n o f 509.
T h i s l a r g e d e c r e a s e o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 13 p e r c e n t c a n
n o t be a t t r i b u t e d to any change i n th e p o lic y o f th e
p o lic e d e p a rtm e n t a f f e c t i n g ju v e n ile a r r e s t s . T here
a r e now m an y m o r e o f f i c e r s a s s i g n e d t o j u v e n i l e w o r k
th a n e v e r b e f o r e , and f o r t h i s re a s o n few er c a s e s
sh o u ld e sca p e o u r a t t e n t i o n .
We m u s t , t h e r e f o r e ,
a t t r i b u t e t h i s m arked d e c r e a s e i n d e lin q u e n c y t o o t h e r
i n f l u e n c e s o f w h ic h t h e C o o r d i n a t i n g C o u n c il w o u ld seem
to d eserv e th e lio n * s sh a re .
T h e i r w ork w i t h f i r s t
o f f e n d e r s and p r e - d e lin q u e n ts h a s been u n d e n ia b ly e f н
f e c t i v e a s sh o w n b y t h i s u n b i a s e d a n n u a l r e p o r t . 6
I b id . , p . 4 4 .
lie
III.
OTHER SUCCESSFUL FROGRAMS OF COMMUNITY ACTION
The d i r e c t o r - a t - l a r g e
p la n .
A d e v i a t i o n fro m th e c o н
o r d i n a t i n g c o u n c i l i d e a i s t h e S a n F r a n c i s c o c o m m u n i ty p l a n
f o r th e p re v e n tio n and tre a tm e n t o f ju v e n ile
d e lin q u e n ts.
T h is p l a n grew o u t o f a n e x h a u s t i v e s u r v e y t h a t w as c a r r i e d
on by th e r e c r e a t io n
d e p a rtm e n t o f th e bay c i t y .
On t h e b a s i s
o f r e c o m m e n d a tio n s m ade b y t h i s g r o u p a m o d i f i e d c o o r d i n a t i n g
c o u n c i l p l a n w as o r g a n i z e d .
The w e l f a r e , r e c r e a t i o n ,
and *
j u d i c i a l d e p a rtm e n ts o f San F ra n c is c o fo rm ed th e m s e lv e s i n t o
a c o o r d in a tin g c o u n c il and a f t e r a p ro lo n g e d s tu d y o f th e
l o c a l d e l i n q u e n c y p r o b le m a p l a n o f c o m m u n ity a c t i o n w as fo rm u н
la te d .
A r e c r e a t i o n l e a d e r was s e l e c t e d a n d c a l l e d
D ire c to r-A t-L a rg e ."
"The
T hrough h i s e f f o r t s and th ro u g h th e co н
o p e r a t i o n o f c o m m u n i ty a g e n c i e s a s e r i e s o f t w e n t y - t h r e e b o y ? s
c lu b s w ere o r g a n iz e d th r o u g h o u t t h e c i t y .
A bandoned c h u rc h e s
and w areh o u ses w ere c o n v e rte d i n t o r e c r e a t i o n a l c lu b c e n t e r s ,
and such a c t i v i t i e s
iz e d in th e
a s b o x in g , w r e s t l i n g , a n d p o o l w ere o rg a n н
b u ild in g s th u s c o n v e rte d in to
g y m n a sia .
The ty p e
o f r e c r e a t i o n a l o f f e r i n g was d e te r m in e d by a s u r v e y o f t h e
y o u th p o p u l a t i o n a n d o f t h e gam es a n d a c t i v i t i e s
t h a t w ere e n н
jo y e d m ost by each p a r t i c u l a r g ro u p .
The d i r e e t o r - a t - l a r g e
p la n h a s p ro v ed to be a s u c c e s s f u l
c o m m u n i ty p r o g r a m f o r t h e p r e v e n t i o n a n d t r e a t m e n t o f j u v e n i l e
d e lin q u e n c y i n th e
s e v e r a l c i t i e s w here i t
has been in p r a c tic e .
I ll
D e l i n q u e n c y p r e v e n t i o n t h r o u g h h o y *s c l u b s .
p ro g re s siv e c i t i e s have sought to
M any
s o lv e th e p ro b lem o f w hat
t o do w i t h d e l i n q u e n t s a n d p o t e n t i a l d e l i n q u e n t s ,
by th e o r н
g a n iz a t i o n o f c lu b s an d r e c r e a t i o n c e n t e r s f o r young p e o p le
u n d e r th e age o f tw e n ty -o n e y e a r s .
c lu b s o f t h i s
One o f t h e b e s t kno w n
s o r t w as e s t a b l i s h e d i n L os A n g e le s i n 1927 and
w as a p p r o p r i a t e l y c a l l e d
"The A l l N a tio n s Boy? s C lu b ."
The p l a n o r i g i n a t e d o u t o f a s t u d y o f t h e b e s t m ean s t o
e x p e n d a g i f t o f m o n e y d o n a t e d b y t w o w e a l t h y m en f o r u s e
am ong t h e y o u n g p e o p l e o f t h e
c i t y o f Los A n g e le s .
A l a r g e b r i c k b u i l d i n g was e r e c t e d t o h o u s e t h e c l u b
and s u ita b le a t h l e t i c
tim e to
fifty
tim e .
c e n ts,
a n d s o c i a l e q u ip m e n t w as i n s t a l l e d
The b o y s w e re a llo w e d t o
and i f
th is
from
j o in upon paym ent o f
c o u ld n o t be p a id th e f e e c o u ld be
w orked o u t by d o in g c h o re s a b o u t t h e b u i l d i n g .
7
The A l l N a t i o n s C lu b w as p l a c e d u n d e r a w e l l - t r a i n e d
e x e c u t i v e who w a s a s s i s t e d
c lu b w as s u b d iv id e d i n t o
by c o u n s e llo r s and te a c h e r s .
a s e r i e s o f s m a lle r c lu b s
P io n e e rs , F rie n d ly In d ia n s ,
and th e l i k e .
The
such a s
E ach c lu b had i t s
h e a d q u a rte rs in th e
c e n tr a l b u ild in g .
c lu b m ust b e lo n g to
one o f t h e s u b s i d i a r y c l u b s w h ere su c h
a c tiv itie s
as h ik e s,
p ic n ic s,
A ll o f th e boys o f th e
a n d sum m er c a m p s , a r e c a r r i e d o n .
The s u c c e s s o f t h e p ro g ram a f t e r t h r e e y e a r s o f o p e r a t io n
7 I b id ., p. 431.
112
w as f a r b e t t e r th a n th e a u t h o r i t i e s h a d e x p e c te d .
D e lin q u e n c y
i n t h e a r e a f o u r s q u a r e m i l e s a ro u n d t h e c lu b w as r e d u c e d b y
67*4 p e r c e n t i n th e
th re e y e a rs .^
A b r a n c h o f t h e c l u b w as l a t e r s e t up i n Echo P a r k , a n н
o t h e r d e l i n q u e n c y s e c t i o n o f L o s A nge-l-es, a n d d e l i n q u e n c y i n
th is
s e c t i o n w as r e d u c e d fro m 660 c a s e s i n
1932 t o 156 c a s e s
in 1935.
Ju v e n ile c o u rt s t a t i s t i c s
f o r L o s A n g e l e s sh o w t h a t t h e
b o y s o f A l l N a t i o n s C lu b s e ld o m a p p e a r i n c o u r t .
to
in d ic a te
q u ite
d e fin ite ly
T h is seem s
th e v a lu e o f su ch a program
s p o n s o r e d b y a c o m m u n i ty w i l l i n g t o
and fu n d s f o r th e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n
sh a re th e n e c e ssa ry e f f o r t
of th e y o u th fu l p o p u la tio n .
P ro g ram s o f a s i m i l a r n a tu r e h a v e e n jo y e d a g r e a t d e a l
o f s u c c e s s i n New Y o r k a n d i n C o l u m b u s , I n d i a n a w h e r e c o m m u n i ty
g ro u p s have jo in e d t o
p ro v id e a u n i t e d an d i n t e g r a t e d program
o f d e lin q u e n c y p r e v e n tio n .
s p i r i t o f t h e c o m m u n i ty i s
I t h a s been fo u n d t h a t th e g e n e r a l
one o f th e s t r o n g e s t i n f l u e n c e s
to w a rd g e n e r a l good i n th e c i t y .
IV .
In th is
SUMMARY OF THE CHAPTER
c h a p te r th e n a tu r e o f t h e c h a n g in g s o c i a l o r d e r
w as e x p l a i n e d i n t h e l i g h t o f a g r e a t e c o n o m ic u p h e a v a l w h e re
e f f i c i e n t u s e o f l e i s u r e t im e was a p e r t i n e n t f a c t o r .
G lu e ck a n d G lu e c k , l o c . c i t .
E ffo rts
113
. b y t h e t o w n o r c o m m u n i ty t o p r o v i d e f o r t h e a d j u s t m e n t a n d
s e c u r i t y o f th e m o d ern c h i l d w e re e x a m in e d w i t h a v ie w to w a rd
t h e i r a m e lio ra tio n .
I n s t i t u t i o n a l tre a tm e n t has f a i l e d i n m ost c a se s to
refo rm o r to
re h a b ilita te
th ro u g h t h e i r g a te s ,
t h e u n f o r t u n a t e s who h a v e p a s s e d
th u s le a v in g an e x c e e d in g ly im p o rta n t
t a s k f o r t h e c o m m u n i ty t o a c c o m p l i s h .
T h e c o o r d i n a t i n g c o u n c i l , "w h ic h i n c l u d e s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s
fro m a l l th e s o c i a l and w e lf a r e a g e n c ie s o f t h e c i t y ,
s tr o n g e v id e n c e o f b e in g an e f f e c t i v e and e f f i c i e n t
c o m m u n i ty a c t i o n a t a h i g h l e v e l .
T hrough t h i s
show ed
schem e o f
o rg a n iz a tio n
d e lin q u e n ts re c e iv e a s y s te m a tic p la n f o r t h e i r s o c ia l r e h a b ilн
ita tio n
th ro u g h re c o m m e n d a tio n s o f f e r e d t o
th e p a r t i c u l a r s o c ia l
agency in ch arg e o f th e c a s e .
I n s u r v e y i n g t h e v a r i o u s p r o g r a m s o f c o m m u n i ty c o o p e r a н
tio n and c o o rd in a te d e f f o r t to
b r i n g a b o u t a m ore p e r f e c t
h a n d l i n g o f d e l i n q u e n t s , m any p l a n s w e re e x a m in e d a n d e x p l a i n e d
w ith in d ic a tio n s a s to th e
im p o rta n c e o f e a c h .
The c o o r d i n a t i n g c o u n c il p ro v e d t o
be an e x c e lle n t and
w o rk a b le p l a n f o r c o m m u n itie s i n t e r e s t e d i n d o in g w h a t i s
best
f o r t h e b o y s a n d g i r l s who h a v e o r m i g h t s o o n b e d e c l a r e d w a r d s
of th e
ju v e n ile c o u rt.
The s t a t i s t i c s
re la te d in
th e p re se n н
ta tio n
r e g a r d i n g t h e p l a n show ed t h a t i t h a s b e e n a d e c id e d
success.
A d d itio n a l p la n s such a s r e c r e a tio n c e n te rs and b o y ? s
114
c lu b s have a ls o
co m e-u n d er c o n s i d e r a ti o n w ith th e m e r i ts o f
each e x p la in e d i n d e ta il*
I t was o f i n t e r e s t t o n o t e t h a t i n
e a c h c o m m u n i ty o r l o c a l i t y w i t h i n a c i t y w h e r e som e s o r t o f
e f f o r t w as b e i n g m ade t o
ste m t h e t i d e
o f d e lin q u e n c y ,
th e re
was a n o t i c e a b l e d e c l i n e i n t h e c a s e s o f n e c e s s i t a t i n g c o u r t
a c tio n *
I t w a s a l s o f o u n d t h a t c o m m u n i ty p r o g r a m s f o r t h e
t r e a t m e n t o f d e l i n q u e n t s w e re u n i f o r m l y m ore e f f e c t i v e
th o se c a r r i e d on by C a lif o r n ia
stitu tio n s .
th a n
i n d u s t r i a l and re fo rm a to ry i n н
CHAPTER Y I I
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND EECOMMENDATIQNS
It
i s th e p u rp o se
and s p e c i f i c
I t is
fe lt
tio n s
is
term s th e
of. t h i s
c h a p te r
to e x p la in i n g e n e r a l
c h i e f f i n d i n g s o f th e s tu d y a s a w h o le .
t h a t a su m m a ry i n c l u d i n g c o n c l u s i o n s a n d r e c o m m e n d a н
e s s e n t i a l to a c o m p le te u n d e r s ta n d in g o f th e v a r i o u s
f a c to rs and in flu e n c e s d e sc rib e d in e a r l i e r
o v e r, a r e c a p i t u l a t i o n o f th e v i t a l
sta te ,
th e sc h o o l, and th e
c h a p te rs*
M o re н
c o n tr i b u ti o n s o f th e
c o m m u n ity i n f l u e n c e s
te n d s to
p r e s e n t a c o m p le te v ie w o f th e m u l t i f a r i o u s f a c t o r s
be c o n s id e re d i n a w e ll-ro u n d e d d is c u s s io n o f th e
t h a t m ust
tre a tm e n t
and p re v e n tio n o f d e lin q u e n c y .
I*
A.
The n a t u r e o f t h e
SUMMARY
CAUSAL FACTORS
f a c t o r s and in f lu e n c e s r e l a t i n g
d e lin q u e n c y .
I t was fo u n d a t
th e o u t s e t t h a t
th e re i s
sin g le o r a l l
im p o rta n t cause o f d e lin q u e n c y .
R a th e r,
is
a se rie s
tio n ,
it
o f c a u s e s w h ich l e a d
t o som e o v e r t a c t *
to
no
th e re
In a d d iн
was n o t e d t h a t t h e c a u s a l p a t t e r n w as q u i t e v a r i e d
in th e in d iv id u a l c a se s s tu d ie d .
C e rta in s e ts
i n som e c a s e s h a v e d e f i n i t e l y
to d e lin q u e n c y w h ile in
le d
o f c o n d itio n s
o th e rs a v e ry s im ila r s e t o f c o n d itio n s has caused l i t t l e
n o a n t i s o c i a l b e h a v i o r on t h e p a r t o f t h e
c h ild .
Many
or
116
c o n d itio n s can be p o s i t i v e l y
c o r r e l a t e d w ith d e lin q u e n c y b u t
no one c o n d it i o n can be c o r r e l a t e d
E n v iro n m e n ta l f a c t o r s .
to a v e ry h ig h d e g re e .
The i n f l u e n c e o f t h e home c a n н
n o t be o v e re m p h a s iz e d w h ile c o n s i d e r i n g f a c t o r s w h ic h i n н
flu e n c e th e
c h ild .
of d e lin q u e n ts,
A f t e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f m any c a s e h i s t o r i e s
a v ery c lo s e r e la tio n s h ip
w as n o t e d w i t h r e н
g a r d t o u n s a t i s f a c t o r y hom e c o n d i t i o n s a n d t h e
d e lin q u e n c y .
fo llo w in g :
U n s a t i s f a c t o r y hom es i n c l u d e d c o n d i t i o n s a s t h e
b ro k e n hom es,
r e l i n g b e tw e e n p a r e n t s ,
fic u ltie s ,
fe e lin g
in c id e n c e o f
la c k
of s u p e r v is io n by p a r e n ts ,
l a c k o f c o m p a n io n s h ip ,
d is c ip lin a r y tro u b le s
of in se c u rity ,
fru stra tio n ,
q u arн
e co n o m ic d i f н
(to o s t e r n o r to o w eak ),
sc h o o l m a la d ju stm e n ts
d isc ip lin a ry d if f ic u ltie s ,
(re ta rd a tio n ,
p e rs o n a lity
c o n flic t
w i t h t e a c h e r o r p r i n c i p a l ) , w r o n g s o r t o f c o m p a n i o n s a t home
o r a t sc h o o l.
M any a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r s
c o u ld be r e l a t e d
t o show t h e
w id e v a r i e t y o f i n f l u e n c e s w h ic h o f t e n l e a d t o d e l i n q u e n c y .
P sy c h o lo g ic a l f a c t o r s .
M odern p s y c h o l o g i s t s h a v e a t н
te m p te d t o a p p ro a c h t h e p ro b le m o f c a u s e s b y m in u te i n v e s t i g a н
t i o n s o f t h e h u m an p e r s o n a l i t y .
T he c h i l d ? s p e r s o n a l i t y m ay
be c o n s id e re d to be d iv id e d in to
th re e
a n a ly sis:
s u p e rse lf.
th e
c o n sc io u s
se lf,
a s p e c ts f o r p u rp o ses o f
th e i n s t i n c t i v e
se lf,
and th e
T he c o n s c i o u s s e l f m ay b e d e s c r i b e d a s t h e a s p e c t
o f p e r s o n a l i t y w h ic h i s
t io n and e x p e rie n c e .
com posed o f b r a i n and b raw n ,
The i n s t i n c t i v e
of educaн
s e l f in c lu d e s such
117
a s p e c ts o f p e r s o n a lity as c ra v in g s
ju ste d a n c e s tra l s triv in g s *
T he t h i r d
p e r s o n a lity h as been c a lle d th e
th a t e lu s iv e
fo r sa tis fa c tio n
d iv is io n
and unadн
o f t h e hum an
su p e rs e lf as i t
in c lu d e s
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c w h i c h som e c a l l c o n s c i e n c e ? a
re g u la to r o f a c tio n .
E ach o f th e s o - c a lle d
se lv e s has a d e f in ite
in flu e n c e
u p o n t h e h u m an b e i n g a n d d e l i n q u e n c y r e s u l t s w h e n t h e
r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n th e s e f a c t o r s f a l l s
in te rн
o u t of b a la n c e .
D e l i n q u e n t s h a v e b e e n f o u n d t o p o s s e s s n u m e r o u s emoн
tio n a l and p e rs o n a lity
have le d to
c o n f l i c t s w h ic h d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y
a b n o rm a l b e h a v i o r i n m any o f t h e c a s e s s t u d i e d .
Some o f t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t c o n f l i c t s w i l l b e l i s t e d
(1 ) c o n f l i c t w i t h hom e,
s c h o o l , a n d w i t h o t h e r s a b o u t th e m ;
(2 ) m ild d e lu s io n s o f r e f e r e n c e and p e r s e c u t io n ;
a ilm e n ts
in g s;
b e lo w ;
c a u sin g f a tig u e ,
la c k o f en erg y ,
(3 ) p h y s i c a l
and d is tu r b e d f e e l н
(4 ) f r e q u e n t m o to r i n c o o r d i n a t i o n s u c h a s s t u t t e r i n g ,
stu m b lin g ,
a n d o t h e r aw kw ard t r a i t s ;
s t e a l and to
set fire s;
(г )
a b n o rm al im p u ls e s t o
(6) m o rb id d e p r e s s i o n ;
(7 ) few i n t e r н
e s t s b u t m any w o r r i e s an d a n x i e t i e s .
In te llig e n c e
g en eral in te llig e n c e
and d e lin q u e n c y .
le v e l o f th e
I t w as f o u n d t h a t t h e
d e lin q u e n t i s
lo w e r th a n t h a t o f no rm al s c h o o l s t u d e n ts .
o f lo w i n t e l l i g e n c e
c o n sid e ra b ly
M oreo ver,
th o se
a r e som ew hat m ore l i k e l y t o becom e d e н
lin q u e n t th a n th o s e o f no rm al i n t e l l i g e n c e .
s t u d i e s show t h a t th e p a r e n t s
F in a lly ,
o f t h e lo w i n t e l l i g e n c e
th e
g roup
118
a re n o t c a p a b le o f c a r r y in g o u t o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g
f o r tb e
i n prog ram s
tre a tm e n t and s u p e r v is io n o f t h e i r c h il d r e n .
M any h a v e a t t e m p t e d t o c o r r e l a t e l o w i n t e l l i g e n c e
w ith d e lin q u e n c y and h av e c o n c lu d e d t h a t th e r e s u l t s
are n o t
c o n c lu s iv e enough to w a r r a n t f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n .
I n su m m in g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p
l i n q u e n c y i t may b e s t a t e d
b e tw e e n m e n t a l i t y an d d e н
t h a t c h i l d r e n o f lo w i n t e l l i g e n c e
a r e a b o u t f i v e t i m e s m ore l i k e l y
c h il d r e n o f no rm al i n t e l l i g e n c e .
t o becom e d e l i n q u e n t t h a n
F u rth e r,
t h a t lo w i n t e l l i н
g e n c e c o u p le d w i t h v a r i o u s o t h e r f a c t o r s nam ed a b o v e t e n d t o
lo w e r th e i n d i v i d u a l ?s r e s i s t a n c e
B.
to
a n tis o c ia l b e h a v io r.
IE GAL PROVISIONS
P u r p o s e s and i n t e n t o f C a l i f o r n i a J u v e n i l e L aw s.
T he
r e a l p u rp o s e and i n t e n t o f t h e s e law s p a s s e d f o r t h e p r o t e c н
t i o n o f j u v e n i l e s w ere n o t f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d u n t i l
t e s t c a s e s a n d d e c i s i o n s w ere w r i t t e n i n t o
I n m an y i n s t a n c e s
th e
c e rta in
co u rt re c o rd s.
th e r e a l an d p r a c t i c a l m e a n in g s o f t h e la w s
w ere n o t d e te r m in e d u n t i l d e c i s i o n s ,
c a s e s w ere a c t u a l l y d e c id e d .
le g a l o p in io n s ,
A c tu a l e a se s d e c id e d in s t a t e
c o u rts e s ta b lis h e d th e p r in c i p le
th a t th e
c h a rg e o f d e lin q u e n c y
was n o t t o b e c o n s i d e r e d a c r i m i n a l c h a r g e .
c a s e s m ade c r i m i n a l c e r t a i n
and t e s t
C e rta in o th e r
a c t s on th e p a r t o f a d u l t s w h ic h
d ir e c tly o r in d ir e c tly le d to
th e d e lin q u e n c y
of a m in o r.
S p e c i f i c la w s h ave a l s o b e e n e n a c te d t o p r o t e c t t h e
ju v e n ile
119
on t h i s
sco re.
%
T he j u v e n i l e
C a lif o r n ia th e
co u rt s tru c tu re
ju v e n ile
co u rt is
su p e rio r c o u rt s tru c tu re
d is c r e tio n of th e
try
th is
an in te g r a l p a rt of th e
ju d g e , he convened as a ju v e n ile
th e
c o u r t and
jg a c h c o u n t y i n t h e s t a t e m u s t ,
have a t l e a s t one s u p e r io r c o u rt ju d g e ;
a l s o m eans t h a t e a c h c o u n ty m u st a l s o h av e a t l e a s t one
ju v e n ile
c o u rt and ju d g e .
T he p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r i s
under th e
ju v e n ile
c o rd in g to
th e
t h e w o rk o f t h e
c o u r t and th e
ju v e n ile
ju v e n ile
c o u rt.
ju v e n ile
c o u r t ju d g e .
Acн
e ac h c o u n ty m u st have a
in
T hese p r o b a tio n a r y o f f i c i a l s
c o u n ty p r o b a t i o n c o m m itte e and th e
ju d g e
c o u rt.
J u r i s d i c t i o n o f th e
ju v e n ile
c h ie f o f f i c i a l se rv in g
and d e p u ty p r o b a tio n o f f i c e r t o a s s i s t
a re a p p o in te d by th e
of th e
th e
J u v e n i l e C o u r t Law,
p ro b a tio n o f f ic e r ,
th e
In
in a s m u c h a s t h a t c o u r t m ay, a t
c a se s c o n c e rn in g m in o rs,
a c c o r d i n g t o la w ,
in C a lifo rn ia .
ju v e n ile
c o u rt.
In C a lifo rn ia ,
c o u r t h a s c o m p le te c o n t r o l o v e r a l l p e rs o n s
u n d e r t h e a g e o f t w e n t y - o n e who come w i t h i n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n
o f th e law .
c la re d fre e
In a d d itio n to
th e s e m in o rs ,
t h o s e who a r e d e н
fro m p a r e n t a l c o n t r o l f a l l u n d e r th e g e n e r a l
s u p e rv is io n of th e
ju v e n ile
c o u rt.
o f p e rs o n s u n d e r tw e n ty -o n e ,
c o n s id e r e ach c a se even I f
it
th e
In th e m a tte r o f th e
ju v e n ile
la te r is
tria l
c o u rt m ust f i r s t
to be t r a n s f e r r e d
to
a
120
d iffe re n t t r i a l
c o u rt.
T he j u r i s d i c t i o n
o f th e
ju v e n ile c o u rt
w as g r e a t l y e x p a n d e d b y a c a s e d e c i d e d o n ly r e c e n t l y w h e re
th e
c o u rt?s a u th o rity to
t h e i r te m p o ra l, m e n ta l,
c o n t r o l m in o r s when i t
ap p ears fo r
o r m o r a l w e l f a r e was u p h e l d .
I n a c a s e t h a t f i n a l l y r e a c h e d t h e S t a t e S uprem e C o u r t ,
t h e p r i n c i p l e was e s t a b l i s h e d w h e re b y t h e
d e c la re d t o have c o n tro l o f th e
pow er of a d iv o rc e
th e
co u rt to a l t e r
ju v e n ile
c o u r t w as
c u sto d y o f c h i l d r e n and th e
su c h c u s to d y w as d e n ie d .
C ases such a s th e above have g r e a t ly
a u th o rity of
ju v e n ile
c o u rt in
in c re a s e d th e pow er and
c a s e s w here m in o rs a r e
co n cern ed ? a v e ry e n c o u ra g in g tr e n d .
C o u rt p ro ce d u re in h a n d lin g d e lin q u e n ts .
lo n g l e g a l
o p in io n s,
n ile
stru g g le ,
d u r i n g w h i c h t i m e m an y i m p o r t a n t d e c i s i o n s ,
a n d r u l i n g s w e re h a n d e d down, t h e r i g h t o f th e
ju d g e t o c o n d u c t h i s
firm ly e s ta b lis h e d .
lo w s t h e
ju v e n ile
T h is p r i n c i p l e
c o u rt to
u n lik e ly
th a t th e
is
a v i t a l one a s i t
c h ild w ill
m akes i t
a c r im in a l w h ile
p o s s ib le f o r th e
g re a te r la titu d e
a lн
a c t in a m anner q u ite d i f f e r e n t
c o u rt,
and th u s
i t m akes
e x p e rie n c e th e p u b l ic i ty
e m b a r r a s s m e n t, w h ic h o f t e n m ake h im becom e b i t t e r a n d t o
m u ch l i k e
ju v e н
c o u r t i n a n i n f o r m a l m a n n e r was
from t h a t o f a r e g u l a r c r im in a l t r i a l
it
A fte r a
on t r i a l .
ju v e n ile
and
feel
T he p r e s e n t p r a c t i c e
ju d g e t o p ro c e e d w ith
a n d o n a m o r e p e r s o n a l a n d h u m an e b a s i s .
T he C h i l d r e n ? s C o u r t o f C o n c i l i a t i o n .
One o f t h e m o s t
r e c e n t l e g a l d e v e lo p m e n ts c o n c e rn in g th e w e l f a r e
and i n d i r e c t l y
c o n c e rn in g d e lin q u e n c y , w as th e e s ta b lis h m e n t
of th e C h i l d r e n s C o u rt o f C o n c ilia tio n *
of th is
of c h ild re n
c o u rt to h e a r a l l
It
is
th e p u rp o se
d iv o rc e c a s e s w h ere c h i l d r e n a r e
i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e v i e w t h a t m an y d i v o r c e s c a n b e p r e v e n t e d
and th u s a v o id th e
c o n trib u to ry
" b r o k e n hom e e v i l " w h i c h i s
c au ses o f d e lin q u e n c y .
D u rin g th e f i r s t
th is
s i x m o n th s p e r i o d o f f u n c t i o n i n g ,
new c o u r t b r o u g h t a b o u t r e c o n c i l i a t i o n
t l e m e n t o n BO. 2 p e r
to l i v e
p a re n ts.
o f a m ic a b le s e t н
c e n t of th e c ase s b ro u g h t b e fo re
c o u r t w as e s t a b l i s h e d
rig h t
one o f th e
on th e t h e o r y t h a t i t
is
it.
T he
th e c h i l d ?s
i n a home w i t h c o m p l e t e h a r m o n y b e t w e e n h i s
T h is r i g h t h a s o f t e n b e e n o v e rlo o k e d o r d e n ie d i n
p a s t y e a r s a n d t h u s m an y u n t h i n k i n g p a r e n t s h a v e i n a d v e r t e n t l y
c o n trib u te d to
th e d e lin q u e n c y o f t h e i r o f f s p r in g s .
P r o b a tio n a r y tr e a tm e n t o f .ju v e n ile d e li n q u e n t s .
b a tio n is
a c o u n ty f u n c t i o n t h a t i s
c a rrie d
P ro н
on by t h e c o u n ty
p r o b a tio n o f f i c e r u n d e r th e g e n e r a l s u p e r v i s i o n o f th e
ju v e n ile
(su p e rio r)
In i ts
c o u r t ju d g e .
b e g in n in g s i n C a lif o r n ia ,
y e a r s a g o , p r o b a t i o n was u t i l i z e d
fo r in s titu tio n a l
g iv e n i t
as a s o rt of s u b s titu te
tre a tm e n t and l i t t l e
as a ty p e o f tre a tm e n t i n i t s
p h ilo so p h y of p r o b a tio n ,
som e t h i r t y - e i g h t
c o n s i d e r a t i o n was
own r i g h t .
a s c o n c e iv e d a t
a c o n tin u o u s p ro g ram o f g u id a n c e r a t h e r
T he w h o l e
th e p r e s e n t tim e ,
is
th a n a p u n ish m e n t f o r
122
a c rim e c o m m itte d .
T he m o d e r n a n d w e l l - t r a i n e d p r o b a t i o n
o f f i c e r m ust c o n s id e r su ch f a c t o r s a s th e fo llo w in g :
b a c k g ro u n d , m e n ta l and p h y s ic a l
h e re d ity ,
s p ir itu a l id e a ls ,
re c re a tio n ,
c o n d itio n of th e c h ild ,
r a c ia l in flu e n c e s,
and s o c i a l s u rro u n d in g s .
e d u c a tio n ,
Each o f th e s e f a c t o r s
m ust be c a r e f u l l y s tu d ie d i n an e f f o r t to p r e s c r i b e
tre a tm e n t b e s t s u ite d fo r
of in s titu н
tre a tm e n t as p ro v id e d by refo rm sc h o o ls and s im ila r
in stitu tio n s
in to
th e
each in d iv id u a l c a se .
B e ca u se o f th e a lm o s t c o m p le te f a i l u r e
tio n a l
fa m ily
to
th e w o rld ,
c h e c k d e l i n q u e n c y am ong c h i l d r e n r e l e a s e d
p ro b a tio n is
b e in g in c r e a s in g ly u t i l i z e d
as
a m eth o d o f t r e a t m e n t .
As a r e s u l t o f c a r e f u l i n v e s t i g a t i o n
and c o n tr o lle d s t u d i e s ,
p ro b a tio n a ry p ro ced u res a re c o n s ta n tly
b e c o m in g m o re s u c c e s s f u l i n t h e i r s c o p e o f t r e a t m e n t .
E d u c a tio n a l tre a tm e n t o f d e lin q u e n ts
t i o n s . d e t e n t i o n hom es, and s c h o o l s .
in s ta te
in s titu н
In c e rta in in sta n c e s
y o u t h f u l o f f e n d e r s m u st be d e t a i n e d f o r a p e r i o d o f tim e
p r io r to t r i a l
of th is
and o f t e n a f t e r t r i a l .
c o n d itio n has s ta te d
e d u c a tio n a l f a c i l i t i e s
c o n tin u e w ith t h e i r
s o c i a l tim e .
a re
t h a t d e t e n t i o n hom es p r o v i d e
to a llo w c h ild r e n th u s
c o m m itte d to
e d u c a t i o n w i t h o n l y a m in im u m l o s s o f
In m ost r e s p e c ts ,
c o n d u c te d a lo n g l i n e s
under th e
The l a w i n r e c o g n i t i o n
t h e s e d e t e n t i o n home s c h o o l s
s im ila r^ to
th o se o th e r sc h o o ls
c o n tro l o f th e lo c a l sc h o o l d i s t r i c t .
P a re n ta l sc h o o ls.
who a r e
P u p ils
in re g u la r sch o o l c la s s e s
ir r e g u la r in a tte n d a n c e , h a b itu a l tr u a n ts ,
o rd e rly are o fte n tra n s fe rre d
tre a tm e n t.
or d isн
to p a r e n ta l sc h o o ls f o r s p e c ia l
E le m e n ta ry d i s t r i c t s h a v in g an a v e ra g e d a i l y a t н
t e n d a n c e o f t h r e e h u n d r e d o r m o r e m ay e s t a b l i s h s c h o o l s o f
th is
s o r t w hen t h e n e e d e x i s t s .
A d ju stm e n t s c h o o l s .
p r o v id e d b y law f o r
c h i l d r e n u n d e r t h e a g e o f e i g h t e e n who
h a v e heeom e d e l i n q u e n t .
lis h e d
A d ju stm en t s c h o o ls h av e b e e n
Such i n s t i t u t i o n s have b een e s ta b н
s o t h a t t h e y m ay b e e n t r u s t e d w i t h t h e
and a d ju s tm e n t to good c i t i z e n s h i p ,
by th e
ju v e n ile
sc h o o ls is
c o u rt.
sta te ,
c a tio n a l e d u c a tio n .
c o m m itte d t o
se n t to
T he e d u c a t i o n a l
s i m i l a r i n m ost r e s p e c ts
l a r sc h o o ls o f th e
c h i l d r e n c o m m itte d
c u rric u lu m o f th e s e
to th a t
o ffe re d by reg u н
O n ly th e m i l d e r c a s e s o f d e l i n q u e n c y a r e
th e m ore s e r i o u s
(refo rm )
v io la to rs
are
sc h o o ls.
T w en ty -fo u r- h o u r e le m e n ta ry s c h o o ls .
ru n n in g on a f u l l
c u sto d y ,
w i t h s o m e w h a t m o re e m p h a s i s o n v o н
th e se sc h o o ls;
c o rre c tio n a l
of a ll
care,
S p e c ia l sc h o o ls
t w e n t y - f o u r - h o u r b a s i s m ay b e e s t a b l i s h e d
f o r th e p u rp o se o f t r e a t i n g
and e d u c a t i n g c h i l d r e n b e tw e e n
t h e a g e s o f e i g h t a n d s i x t e e n y e a r s who r e p r e s e n t s u c h s e r i н
ous b e h a v io r p ro b le m s a s to n e e d c o n s t a n t c a r e
over a f u l l
day and n ig h t s c h e d u le .
T he c u r r i c u l u m , w h i c h
sista n c e
is
d e sig n e d to be o f r e a l a s н
i n d e v e lo p in g c h il d r e n o f t h i s
so rt,
in c lu d e s th e
124
fo llo w in g
c o u rse s: v o c a tio n s ,
p h y sic a l tra in in g *
v isa b le ,
h o m e m a k in g , m e n t a l , m o r a l ,
I n som e s p e c i a l c a s e s w h e r e i t
c h i l d r e n who w o u l d n o r m a l l y a t t e n d
th is
and
seem s a d н
so rt of
s c h o o l a r e p l a c e d i n p r i v a t e hom es w h e re a m o re n a t u r a l e n н
v i r o n m e n t m ay b e f o u n d .
T w e n ty -fo u r-h o u r s c h o o ls a r e r e g u la te d and g o v ern e d
i n m u ch t h e sam e m a n n e r a s a n y o t h e r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n
d i s t r i c t i n w h ic h i t
is
lo c a te d .
C o rre c tio n a l sc h o o ls
C a lifo rn ia .
th e
W a rd s o f t h e
su p p o rte d by th e S ta te o f
ju v e n ile
c o u r t who a r e f o u n d g u i l t y
o f c r i m i n a l a c t s m ay b e c o m m i t t e d b y s u c h c o u r t t o
one o f t h e
th re e
as fo llo w s:
c o r r e c t i o n a l s c h o o ls m a in ta in e d by th e s t a t e
P r e s to n S c h o o l o f I n d u s tr y , Y /h ittie r S ta te S c h o o l, and V e n tu ra
S c h o o l f o r G -irls.
C o m p le te c o n t r o l o f t h e s e
i n th e S t a t e D e p a rtm e n t o f I n s t i t u t i o n s ,
a u th o r i ty a s to th e ty p e and sco p e o f th e
sc h o o ls i s
v e ste d
w h ic h bod y h a s f u l l
c u rric u lu m to be
m a in ta in e d .
The e d u c a t i o n a l o f f e r i n g i n
sc h o o ls i s
th e se s ta te
c o rre c tio n a l
u n d e r th e g e n e r a l a p p r o v a l o f th e S t a t e D e p a rtm e n t
o f I n s tr u c tio n and is
la r g e ly v o c a tio n a l in n a tu re .
n e c tio n w ith th e P re s to n S chool o f In d u s try ,
c a lly p ro v id e s
In conн
th e la w s p e c i f i н
t h a t m i l i t a r y d r e s s and d i s c i p l i n e m u st be
in c lu d e d in th e c u rric u lu m .
In g e n e ra l,
each o f th e s t a t e
d e sig n e d to t r a i n
sc h o o ls i s
m itte d in th e s k i l l s
of a d e fin ite
tra d e
th e
c u rric u lu m o f
c h i l d r e n comн
o r v o c a tio n ,
so
125
t h a t th e
c h i l d m ay b e a b l e t o
upon h is
re le a se *
F o r e s t r y cam ps.
earn a liv e lih o o d
In o rd er to
re lie v e
in
in d u stry
c o n g e s tio n and
t o p r o v i d e m ore v a r i e d a n d u s e f u l c o u r s e s o f i n s t r u c t i o n
S t a te C o r r e c tio n a l S c h o o ls,
in
c e r ta in p ro v is io n s have been enн
a c t e d w h e r e b y j u v e n i l e o f f e n d e r s m ay b e c o m m i t t e d t o f o r e s t r y
c am p s s u p p o r t e d b y t h e s t a t e .
T h ese cam ps r e c e i v e d e l i n q u e n t s
who m i g h t o t h e r w i s e b e c o m m i t t e d t o o n e o f t h e t h r e e
tio n a l in s titu tio n s .
T he j u v e n i l e
ju d g e h a s th e
c o m m it s u c h j u v e n i l e s t o f o r e s t r y c a m p s w h e n i t
s u ite d to th e
in d iv id u a l under c o n sid e ra tio n .
l i n q u e n t s who w o u l d d e r i v e
try
cam ps i n s t e a d
C o rp s.
c o u n c il*
seem s b e s t
O n ly t h e s e d e н
th e m ost b e n e f it a re s e n t to f o r e s н
o f th e
cam p s a r e
to a la r g e
e x te n t
th o se c a r r ie d on by th e C i v il i a n C o n se rv a tio n
I n som e i n s t a n c e s , s u c h c am p s a r e
tu re c itie s ,
a u t h o r i t y to
Of t o a r e g u l a r c o r r e c t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n .
The a c t i v i t i e s
q u ite s im ila r to
co rrecн
w i t h a boy m ayor,
I n t h i s w ay, l e s s o n s
c o n d u c te d as m in ia н
c h ie f of p o lic e ,
and c ity
in p ro p er c iv ic l i f e
becom es
a p a r t of th e ev ery d ay r o u tin e .
C.
EDUCATIONAL PROVISIONS FOR THE TREATMENT OF
DELINQUENTS AND POTENTIAL DELINQUENTS
P rogram o f C a l i f o r n i a s c h o o ls to c h e c k a n d t r e a t
d e lin q u e n c y .
An a n a l y s i s o f t h e s c h o o l o f f e r i n g s
show ed t h a t v e r y l i t t l e
a tte n tio n is
in C a lifo rn ia
b e in g c e n te re d on th e
126
p ro b le m o f d e lin q u e n c y .
sc h o o ls in c i t i e s
G e n e ra lly sp e a k in g ,
over fiv e
th e la r g e r
th o u s a n d p o p u l a t i o n a r e m ak in g
m ore e f f o r t t o
t r e a t and p r e v e n t d e lin q u e n c y th a n a re
sm a lle r o n es.
The s t a n d a r d t r e a t m e n t p r o c e d u r e i n m o s t s m a l l
sc h o o ls i s
th e
to a d m in iste r s e v e ra l s o r ts
i n t e l l i g e n c e l e v e l o f th e
of te s ts
th e
to d e te rm in e
c h ild r e n in th e sc h o o l and
t h e n p u p i l s a r e s e g r e g a t e d on t h a t b a s i s a n d th o s e o f lo w
in te llig e n c e
and t h o s e sh o w in g d e l i n q u e n t t e n d e n c i e s a r e
p l a c e d i n a n " o p p o r t u n i t y ro o m ."
g u ilty of d isc ip lin a ry a c ts ,
in th is
room w i t h t h o s e
School c u rric u la .
a ll
C h i l d r e n who h a v e b e e n
i n m an y s c h o o l s , a r e a l s o p l a c e d
o f lo w i n t e l l i g e n c e .
The c u r r i c u l a f o r s u c h c l a s s e s i s
com posed o f c o u r s e s s u c h a s m a n u a l t r a i n i n g ,
home a r t s ,
and
o th e r s im ila r v o c a tio n a l s tu d ie s .
The p r o g r a m s o f t h e l a r g e r s c h o o l s a r e
d i f f e r e n t i n m an y r e s p e c t s f r o m t h o s e
d is tric ts.
o ffered
o fte n q u ite
in th e s m a lle r
The p r o g r a m o f t e n b e g i n s w i t h a t h o r o u g h p h y s i c a l
and m e n ta l c h e c k in g by p h y s ic ia n s and p s y c h o l o g i s t s
(w here
funds a re a v a i l a b l e ).
N u m e ro u s s c h o o l s c o n c e n t r a t e
to p ro v id e
w e ll s u ite d
it
is
t h e i r a tt a c k in a tte m p tin g
co u rses o f stu d y th a t w i l l be i n te r e s tin g
t o t h o s e s h o w in g d e l i n q u e n t sy m p to m s.
and
Of c o u rs e ,
e x tre m e ly d i f f i c u l t to a c c u r a te ly f o r e t e l l f u tu r e d e н
l i n q u e n t s and th u s th e p ro b le m i s
c o m p lic a te d f u r t h e r .
G u id н
ance c o u n s e llo rs a tte m p t to d e a l w ith each in d iv id u a l and to
12?
try
t o a d j u s t h im i n
p la n is v ery lik e l y
th e b e s t p o s s i b l e m anner.
The c o u n s e l l o r
to be e x tre m e ly lim ite d i n i t s
l a r g e num ber o f c a s e s t o b e h a n d le d .
success
due t o
th e
I n m an y
cases,
o n ly th e m ost p e r f u n c to r y s o r t o f a p ro g ram can be
c a r r i e d o u t b e c a u s e o f t h e m any l i m i t a t i o n s o f tim e a n d f i н
n a n c ia l su p p o rt.
B e h a v io r c l i n i c s .
B e h a v io r c l i n i c s have b e e n c a r r i e d
on w ith s u c c e s s i n c e r t a i n p r o g r e s s iv e s c h o o ls .
p la n ,
th e in d iv id u a l te a c h e r s i n
U nder t h i s
th e v a rio u s s c h o o ls n o te th e
s t u d e n t s who a r e a n t i s o c i a l o r o t h e r w i s e m a l a d j u s t e d a n d
th e ir
case h is to r ie s a re
forw arded t o
a c e n t r a l c l i n i c w here
a c o m p le te e a se r e c o r d i s k e p t by a t r a i n e d p s y c h o l o g i s t .
The c l i n i c
in te rv ie w s th e p u p ils , p a r e n ts ,
c ern ed w ith each c a s e ,
and a f t e r
conн
c a re fu l c o n sid e ra tio n a
c o u rs e o f t r e a t m e n t i s w o rk ed o u t .
program has b een c l o s e l y
and te a c h e rs
The a c t u a l v a l u e o f t h i s
checked u n d er c o n tro lle d c o n d itio n s
and th e p la n h as p ro v ed e m in e n tly s u c c e s s f u l.
R e ta rd a tio n .
M any t h i n k i n g a d m i n i s t r a t o r s h a v e s u b н
s c r ib e d t o th e th e o ry t h a t d e lin q u e n c y i s
n e c te d w ith sc h o o l f a i l u r e s
lem on t h i s g r o u n d .
fa ilu re
d e fin ite ly
conн
and have th u s a tta c k e d th e p ro b н
P ro g ra m s h a v e b e e n o r g a n iz e d w h ere
by i n f e r i o r p u p ils
does n o t ta k e p la c e as each does
w h a t h e i s b e s t a b l e t o do a n d n o m o r e .
p u p i l m ay b e t r a n s f e r r e d t o
I n som e c a s e s ,
th e
a d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l w h e r e h e m ay
128
m ak e a new s t a r t o n a n e q u a l f o o t i n g w i t h o t h e r s t u d e n t s
in
th e s c h o o l.
New e f f o r t s a r e b e i n g m a d e t o p r o m o t e b e t t e r a n d
c l o s e r r e l a t i o n s . b e tw e e n th e s c h o o l an d t h e
c o m m u n ity a n d
t h e hom e, w i t h t h e v i e w t h a t a m o re c o m p le te u n d e r s t a n d i n g
w i l l m ak e i t
p o ss ib le
in flu e n c e s and f a c to r s
t o d i s c o v e r so m e o f t h e m o r e s u b t l e
th a t le a d
S u c c e ss fu l p ro g ram s.
to m a la d ju stm e n t.
M ost a u t h o r i t i e s
ag ree th a t a
s u c c e s s f u l p ro g ram f o r th e p r e v e n t io n and tr e a tm e n t o f d e н
lin q u e n ts
depends a lm o st e n t i r e l y
o n i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r s who
have d i r e c t d a ily c o n ta c t w ith th e s tu d e n ts .
I t fo llo w s
th a t
th e program o f p r e v e n tio n m u st be c a r r i e d on by th e m o st
h ig h ly t r a i n e d te a c h e r s and c o u n s e llo rs a v a i la b l e .
cases,
tra in in g
I n so m e
i n s e r v i c e m ay a c h i e v e a d e g r e e o f s u c c e s s
w here a d e q u a te p e r s o n n e l c a n n o t be s e c u r e d .
V i s itin g te a c h e rs have been c a rry in g th e a ll- im p o r ta n t
w o r k o f d r a w i n g t h e s c h o o l a n d t h e hom e m o re c l o s e l y t o н
g e th e r.
Ju v e n ile
ju d g es have fo und in c e r t a i n
in sta n c e s th a t
v is itin g
te a c h e rs
c a n o f t e n t r e a t a n d f o llo w up c e r t a i n
ty p e s
o f o f f e n d e r s w i t h m ore s u c c e s s t h a n p o s s i b l e u n d e r c o u r t
c o n d itio n s and p ro ced u res*
S h o rtc o m in g s o f th e e d u c a tio n a l o f f e r i n g *
P erh ap s th e
m ost s e r i o u s sh o rtc o m in g t h a t can be m e n tio n e d i s
th e f a i l u r e
o f a l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e o f s c h o o l s t o m ak e a n e f f o r t t o
tre a t
129
o r p re v e n t d e lin q u e n c y .
M any a d m i n i s t r a t o r s f i n d i t
t o e x p e l o b n o x io u s s t u d e n t s
o r to
d isc o u ra g e
e a sie r
th e ir e ffo rts
t o w a r d h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n s o t h a t u n p l e a s a n t n e s s m ay t h u s b e
a v o id e d .
Many o f o u r C a l i f o r n i a s c h o o l s s t i l l
e m p h a siz e a c a н
d e m ic s c h o l a r s h i p a b o v e p r e p a r a t i o n f o r s o c i a l l i v i n g
d em ocracy.
in a
P e r h a p s som e p o r t i o n o f t h e b l a m e c a n b e l e v e l e d
a t t h e u n i v e r s i t i e s who d e m a n d c e r t a i n c o u r s e s a n d g r a d e s
p r i o r to e n tra n c e .
T h is i n e v i t a b l y
se rio u sly lim its
th e
e d u c a t i o n a l o f f e r i n g o f th e. l o w e r s c h o o l s t o a p r o g r a m t h a t
w i l l s u c c e s s f u lly p re p a re s tu d e n ts f o r e n tra n c e to h ig h e r
in stitu tio n s
of le a rn in g .
In r e a lity ,
p r o c e d u r e s w h ic h d ep en d on c o e r c i o n and
th re a ts
f o r g o o d a t t e n d a n c e an d d i s c i p l i n e m ore o f t e n a c h i e v e
a q u ite
o p p o s ite e f f e c t ? tr u a n c y and m a lb e h a v io r*
The v o c a t i o n a l o f f e r i n g s
i n m ost s c h o o ls a r e n o t
n e a r l y a s h i g h l y r e s p e c t e d b y a d m i n i s t r a t o r s who h a v e g r u d g н
in g l y in c lu d e d su c h o f f e r i n g s f o r th e b e n e f i t o f backw ard
p u p i l s who d o n o t f i t
e ffo rts
in to
h a v e b e e n m ade t o
t h e a c a d e m ic g ro o v e*
e n ric h v o c a tio n a l and u s e f u l a r t s
u n t i l o n l y v e r y r e c e n t l y when t h e
fen se
Ho g r e a t
in te re s ts
o f n a tio n a l deн
dem anded a g r e a t e r d e v e lp p m e n t.
By a n d l a r g e
th e
sh o rtc o m in g s o f o u r C a l i f o r n i a
s c h o o ls w ith r e g a r d t o th e p ro g ram f o r th e p r e v e n tio n and
t r e a t m e n t o f d e l i n q u e n c y r e v o l v e a r o u n d t h e t h e s i s t h a t m any
130
sc h o o ls a re
fa ilin g
in th e ir e ffo rts
to
t r e a t d e lin q u e n ts and
o t h e r e x t r a o r d i n a r y s t u d e n t s " b e c a u se o f t h e a t t e m p t t o a d a p t
th e s tu d e n t to th e
c u rric u lu m r a t h e r th a n th e c u rric u lu m
to
th e s tu d e n t.
D.
COMMUNITY COOPERATION IN PREVENTIVE PROGRAMS
C o o rd in a tin g c o u n c il p la n .
The c o o r d i n a t i n g c o u n c i l
p la n o r i g in a te d a s e a r l y a s 1919 i n th e c i t y
o f B e rk e le y as
a r e s u l t o f a w i d e - f e l t need f o r th e c o o p e ra tiv e a c t i o n o f
a l l th e
to
c i t y ?s a g e n c ie s d e a lin g w ith d e lin q u e n ts .
P re v io u s
t h i s p l a n , m an y o f t h e w e l f a r e a n d l a w e n f o r c e m e n t a g e n c i e s
fo u n d t h a t s e v e r a l g r o u p s o f c i t i z e n s o r o f f i c i a l s w ere a t н
t e m p t i n g t o h a n d l e t h e sa m e c a s e s a n d e a c h g r o u p h a d a d i f н
f e r e n t c o n c e p tio n a s to w hat sh o u ld be d o n e .
The c o u n c i l
grew o u t o f a c o o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t t o
th is
e lim in a te
o v e rla p p in g
and i n d e c i s i o n on th e p a r t o f th e v a r i o u s a g e n c ie s t h a t d e a l t
w ith d e lin q u e n t c h ild r e n .
B r i e f l y , th e p la n c a l l s f o r th e f o rm u la tio n o f one
c e n t r a l body o r c o u n c il w hich i s made up o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s
from a l l th e w e lf a re and law en fo rcem en t and e d u c a tio n a l
a g e n c ie s o f th e c i t y .
T his c o u n c il m eets a t r e g u l a r p e r io d s
and d is c u s s e s problem s w hich co n cern th e members i n d i v id u a ll y
o r as a g ro u p .
The aim s o r o b je c tiv e s o f th e c o o r d in a tin g
c o u n c il show i n b r i e f w hat s o r t s o f a c t i v i t i e s a re c a r r i e d
on: (1) to prom ote th e p h y s ic a l, m o ra l, and m en tal w e lf a re o f
131
th e
tie s
c h i l d r e n i n t h e c o m m u n ity ;
(2)
to
c o o rd in a te th e a c t i v i н
o f e x is ti n g a g e n c ie s so as to p r e v e n t d u p lic a tio n o f
e ffo rt;
(3)
to p ro m o te p e r s o n a l a c q u a in t a n c e a n d e s p r i t de .
c o r p s am ong t h e
e x e c u tiv e s o f th e v a rio u s a g e n c ie s d e a lin g
w ith c h ild r e n .
T he c o o r d i n a t i n g c o u n c i l p l a n h a d m ad e i t p o s s i b l e
fo r each in d iv id u a l agency to u n d e rsta n d i t s
f u n c t i o n i n t h e c o m m u n ity a n d t o
of th e o th e r a g e n c ie s.
p o s i t i o n and
l e a r n a b o u t th e a c t i v i t i e s
A c o o r d i n a t e d p l a n o f c o m m u n ity a c t i o n
t h u s becam e a n e s t a b l i s h e d f a c t w i t h th e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e
c o u n c il.
The c o u n c i l h a s a lw a y s r e m a in e d a s t r i c t l y
t i v e g r o u p a s e a c h m em ber a g e n c y s t i l l
c o m p le te c o n t r o l o v e r i t s
c a rrie s
c o o rd in a tin g c o u n c il.
The c h i e f f u n c t i o n o f a g ro u p o f t h i s s o r t i s
tio n s .
on and h a s
s p e c ia l fu n c tio n s.
Fu n c ti o n and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f th e
d isse m in a te
d e lib e ra н
to g a th e r and
in f o r m a tio n d e r iv e d fro m s u rv e y s and i n v e s t i g a н
The c e n t r a l b o d y g a t h e r s t h e f a c t s
th em t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r a g e n c y e s p e c i a l l y
and th e n sen d s
c o n cern ed w ith t h a t
in fo rm a tio n .
The c o u n c i l i s m a d e u p o f t h r e e c o m m i t t e e s c o m p o s e d
of re p re se n ta tiv e s
fro m t h e l o c a l h i g h s c h o o l d i s t r i c t :
a b ju s tm e n t c o m m itte e ;
v iro n m e n t.
c h a r a c t e r b u i l d i n g ; , ah # . ( 3 ) e n н
The a d j u s t m e n t c o m m i t t e e c o n s i d e r s t h e
c ase s b ro ught b e fo re
case to
(2)
(1 )
in d iv id u a l
th e e n t i r e body and th e n r e f e r s
th e p ro p e r agency w ith
each
i n f o r m a t i o n a n d a d v i c e a s how
132
to p ro ceed .
T he c h a r a c t e r - b u i l d i n g g r o u p h a n d l e s
th e
cases
a f f e c t i n g s u c h o r g a n i z a t i o n s a s t h e Y .M .C .A ., Boy S c o u t s ,
and s im ila r a g e n c ie s .
m itte e
I n Los A n g e le s ,
p a r t i c u l a r comн
found t h a t o u t o f f o u r te e n th o u sa n d ju v e n ile
c a s e s o n ly 14 p e r c e n t had b e lo n g e d to
agency.
th is
any c h a r a c te r b u ild in g
I n t h e sa m e g r o u p o f c o u r t c a s e s ,
d ic a te d a d e sire
1 ,1 9 5 b oy s i n н
to b e lo n g to su c h a c h a r a c t e r - b u i l d i n g group
b u t t h a t th e y had n e v e r r e c e iv e d a n i n v i t a t i o n .
m en t c o m m itte e , com posed o f s e r v i c e
is
S u ccess o f th e
c lu b s and P .T .A . g ro u p s,
and p la y c e n t e r s .
c o o rd in a tin g c o u n c il.
r e s u l t o f th e p la n i n Los A n g e le s,
ju v e n ile
As a t r a c e a b l e
c a s e s h a n d le d by
c o u r t s d ro p p e d fro m a t o t a l o f 3>999 i n 1931 t o
o f 2 ,8 0 6 i n 1 9 3 4 .
th e
The e n v i r o n н
c o n c e r n e d w i t h i m p r o v e m e n t o f hom e a n d c o m m u n i ty e n v i r o n н
m e n ts su c h a s t h e a t e r s , p o o l ro o m s,
th e
co u rt
F u rth e r s t a t i s t i c s
c o o rd in a tin g c o u n c il i s
in d ic a te
a to ta l
c le a rly th a t
one o f t h e s t r o n g e s t f o r c e s y e t
d e v is e d f o r th e tr e a tm e n t and p r e v e n tio n of d e lin q u e n c y in
th e y o u th p o p u la tio n .
The d i r e c t o r - a t - l a r g e
to
p la n .
A p la n ,
som ew hat s i m i l a r
th e c o o rd in a tin g c o u n c il o u tlin e d above,
w as o r g a n i z e d i n
San F ra n c is c o f o r th e p u rp o se o f p re v e n tin g
quency.
ju v e n ile d e lin н
T h is i d e a g rew o u t o f a n i n v e s t i g a t i o n
th e r e c r e a t i o n d e p a rtm e n t o f th e b ay c i t y .
re c re a tio n ,
c a r r i e d on by
The w e l f a r e ,
and j u d i c i a l d e p a rtm e n ts o rg a n iz e d th e m se lv e s
133
in to
a sin g le
g r o u p w h e r e common p r o b l e m s c o u l d b e d i s c u s s e d *
The d i r e c t o r - a t - l a r g e p l a n g r e w o u t o f t h e d e l i b e r a t i o n s
th e se
th re e
im p o rta n t c i t y d e p a rtm e n ts.
o f h ig h c a l i b r e w as s e l e c t e d
e s ta b lis h in g
A re c re a tio n le a d e r
and g iv e n th e a ssig n m e n t of
a s e r i e s o f c lu b s and r e c r e a t io n c e n te r s
o u t th e c ity -c o u n ty .
of
th ro u g h н
E ach n e ig h b o rh o o d g ro u p th u s o rg a n iz e d
w as com posed o f l o c a l b o y s a n d g i r l s
and th e a c t i v i t i e s
of
e a c h c lu b w ere e s p e c i a l l y a d a p te d t o m ee t th e n e e d s o f t h a t
lo c a lity .
The p l a n ,
p ro v ed i t s e l f
a c c o rd in g to San F ra n c is c o a u th o r i ti e s ,
to be a p o te n t f a c t o r in re d u c in g th e in c id e n c e
o f d e lin q u e n c y o v e r th e e n t i r e
tie s
has
a re a th u s se rv ed w ith f a c i l i н
a t th e p r e s e n t tim e .
D e l i n q u e n c y p r e v e n t i o n t h r o u g h b o y ys c l u b s .
p ro g re ssiv e
c itie s
Many
in C a lif o r n ia have so u g h t th e s o lu tio n
t h e p r o b l e m o f d e l i n q u e n c y t h r o u g h t h e m e d iu m o f b o y ? s
of
c lu b s .
The A l l N a t i o n s B o y ? s C l u b o f L o s A n g e l e s i s p e r h a p s o n e o f
th e m o st s u c c e s s f u l a n d w e ll-k n o w n g ro u p s o f t h i s
so rt.
The A l l N a t i o n s C lu b w as o r g a n i z e d i n 1 9 2 7 t h r o u g h a
g i f t from a n e s t a t e
and th e
id e a o rig in a te d in a su rv e y as
to w hat b e s t c o u ld be done t o u t i l i z e
th e s e fu n d s i n a m anner
m ost h e l p f u l to th e young p e o p le o f th e c i t y .
was e r e c t e d
known t o
in th e s e c tio n o f th e
De t h e g r e a t e s t .
T he c l u b h o u s e
c i t y w h ere d e lin q u e n c y w as
T he b u i l d i n g w a s m ade i n t o
a
h e a d q u a r t e r s f o r a l l o f t h e b o y s o f t h e l o c a l i t y who c a r e d
134
to
th e
jo in .
S u b d iv isio n s o f th e
c lu b
in c lu d e d such g ro u p s a s
fo llo w in g : P io n e e rs , F r ie n d ly In d ia n s ,
C ubs, a n d s i m i l a r
c h a ra c te r-b u ild in g g ro u p s.
In asm u ch a s th e c lu b was l o c a t e d i n one o f t h e w o r s t
se c tio n s
o f Los A n g e le s ,
it
becam e q u i t e s im p le
i n f l u e n c e o f t h e w ork u p o n th e
A fte r in v e s tig a tio n o f th e
to c h ec k th e
c h ild r e n o f th e l o c a l i t y .
in flu e n c e
of th e
c lu b upon th e
su rн
r o u n d in g f o u r s q u a r e m il e a r e a i t was fo u n d t h a t d e lin q u e n c y
h a d d e c r e a s e d o v e r 67 p e r c e n t .
y e a r s 1932 t o 1935?
ap p eared in th e
T hese f i g u r e s c o v e re d th e
V ery few o f th e A ll N a tio n s Boys e v e r
ju v e n ile
c o u r ts i n Los A n g e le s? a t r i b u t e
to
th e v a lu e o f th e program i n th e p r e v e n tio n o f d e lin q u e n c y .
I t was f o u n d t h a t t h e
in
c itie s
t h a t a re m ost s u c c e s s f u l
c o n t r o l l i n g and c o m b a tin g d e lin q u e n c y w e re t h o s e i n w h ic h
t h e g e n e r a l s p i r i t o f t h e c o m m u n i ty w a s t h e s t r o n g e s t i n f l u н
en ce to w a rd g o o d .
II*
CONCLUSIONS
A fte r c a r e f u l c o n s id e ra tio n o f th e
l e g a l p r o v i s i o n s a n d c o m m u n i ty e f f o r t s
lem o f d e l i n q u e n c y ,
sev eral
The c a u s a l p a t t e r n .
t h e r e a s o n w hy o n e c h i l d i s
causal fa c to rs,
re la tin g
to
th e p ro b н
im p o rta n t c o n c lu sio n s a re e v id e n t.
T he q u e s t i o n o f t e n a r i s e s a s t o
d e l i n q u e n t a n d a n o t h e r n o t , w hen
b o th a p p a r e n tly have s i m i l a r b a ck g ro u n d s and e n v iro n m e n t.
T he f a c t s
seem t o
in d ic a te
th e
th a t th e d e lin q u e n t has been
!35
b lo c k e d i n h is
fa m ily l i f e .
need fo r s a t i s f a c t o r y r e la tio n s h ip s
A fe e lin g
o f in a d e q u a c y a r i s e s ,
in h is
a s s o c ia te d to
h is f e e l i n g o f d e p r iv a tio n and th e th w a rtin g o f h i s d e s i r e s .
T h e s e d e p r i v a t i o n s o f t e n m ay l e a d
to
o t h e r fo rm s o f e x p r e s s io n
v / h ic h a r e a s o f t e n a s n o t d e l i n q u e n t i n n a t u r e .
l i n q u e n t a c t h a s m e a n in g t o
o f a w ay o u t o f a s t a t e
Each deн
th e d e l i n q u e n t h i m s e l f a s a m eans
of d issa tis fa c tio n .
m ay b e c o n c l u d e d t h a t d e l i n q u e n c y i s
T h erefo re,
it
th e r e s u l t o f an i n t e r н
p la y o f fa c to rs
th a t o fte n fo llo w in d e f in ite
d e lin q u e n t th u s
c o m p e n sa te s f o r h i s l a c k o f s a t i s f a c t i o n by
b o l s t e r i n g up h i s
ego and a c h ie v in g s t a t u s
T re a tm e n t p r o c e d u r e s .
I f th e
sequency.
T he
as a d e lin q u e n t.
above f a c t s be t r u e ,
it
f o l lo w s t h a t an y t r e a t m e n t o f d e l i n q u e n t s w h ic h e m p h a siz e d
p u n ish m e n t w i l l f a i l b e c a u s e
th e c h i l d i s
s t r u c ti o n r a th e r th a n o f r e p r e s s io n .
sc h o o l? is
in need o f re c o n н
T he " c r i m e d o e s n o t p a y
l a b o r i n g on t h e a s s u m p tio n t h a t a c t s a r e
c o m m itte d
o f a n a n t i s o c i a l n a t u r e f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f g a i n b u t a s we
have in d ic a te d ,
to
he p e r f o r m s t h e s e
a c ts because
of r e a c tio n
f r u s t r a t i o n s and th w a rtin g s .
I t w o u ld seem t h a t no one p l a n o f t r e a t m e n t w i l l be
s a tis f a c to r y fo r a l l d e lin q u e n ts; r a th e r ,
th e c a u se s o f each
i n d i v i d u a l c a s e m u st be a n a ly z e d and a p p r o p r i a t e
d e te rm in e d w ith r e l a t i o n
to
tre a tm e n t
th e m .
P e r s o n a lity g ro u p in g s.
In re a lity
th e re a re th re e
136
g ro u p s o f d e l i n q u e n t s w hen c o n s i d e r e d on th e b a s i s
so n a lity ;
(1)
of p erн
c h i l d r e n who a r e u n s t a b l e a n d h a v e w e a k p o w e r s
of in h ib itio n ;
(2 )
w h o le so m e;
c h i l d r e n w ith r a t h e r a n o rm al b a ck g ro u n d b u t
(3 )
c h i l d r e n w hose f a m ily r e l a t i o n s a r e u n н
h a v in g f a u l t y e m o tio n a l d i s t u r b a n c e s due t o f a m ily r e l a t i o n н
sh ip s th a t a re u n s a tis f a c to r y .
T here i s
a t p resen t l i t t l e
t h a t can be done in th e
t r e a t m e n t o f t h o s e w ho f a l l i n t o g r o u p
g ro u p
(2 )
(1) a b o v e .
T hose i n
c a n b e p l a c e d i n f o s t e r hom es b u t no r e a l
be hoped f o r u n t i l su c h f a c t o r s a s h o u sin g ,
n o m ic c o n d i t i o n s ,
are r a d ic a lly
s o c i a l and eco н
r e c r e a t i o n and p l a y f a c i l i t i e s
im p ro v e d .
T he c h i l d r e n i n
re a c h e d th ro u g h t h e i r p a r e n ts ,
p erh ap s
cu re can
gro u p
and th e l i k e
(3) m ust b e
th ro u g h an e x te n s io n
o f p a r e n t a l e d u c a ti o n a s t h e b e s t m eans o f t r e a t i n g d e l i n н
q u e n ts and o f p r e v e n tin g r e o c c u r r e n c e s .
N a tio n a l id e o lo g y .
is
c lo s e ly
T he p r o b l e m o f t r e a t i n g
c o n n e c te d w ith o u r w h o le n a t i o n a l i d e o l o g y .
w e a lth and h ig h i d e a l s a r e c o n s t a n t l y b e f o r e th e
b e in g d e s ir a b le
re s u ltin g
d e lin q u e n ts
g o a ls ,
fru stra tio n
a n d w hen h e f a i l s
to
G reat
c h ild as
a c h i e v e th em ,
o f t e n l e a d s t h e w ay t o
th e
th e a tta in m e n t
o f s a t i s f a c t i o n th ro u g h a c ts o f a d e lin q u e n t n a tu r e .
T he p h i l o s o p h y a n d p r a c t i c e s
o f our b u sin e ss s tr u c tu r e
i n A m erica a t tim e s seem t o b o r d e r u p o n a c t u a l c r i m i n a l i t y so
it
is
e x tre m e ly d i f f i c u l t to
o v e r l o o k th e m w hen t r y i n g
t r e a t d e l i n q u e n t s . ' C rim e i s b a l l y h o o e d i n
th e
th e a te r,
to
over
137
th e ra d io ,
p ro fits
and i n th e n e w sp a p ers to
such an e x te n t t h a t th e
o f c rim e a r e b a l d l y i n d i c a t e d an d t h e b a r r i e r t o
crim e i s
th u s lo w e re d *
T ra in e d w o rk ers *
T here i s
tr a in e d w o rk ers in th e f i e l d
p re v e n tio n *
H e aly f e e l s
a c ry in g need fo r b e tte r
o f s o c i a l w ork a n d i n d e lin q u e n c y
q u ite s tro n g ly
on th e back w ard ness
o f p r e s e n t - d a y d e l i n q u e n c y t r e a t m e n t w h e n h e c o m m e n ts t h a t :
W ith a l l t h a t i s a t s t a k e i n t h e t r e a t m e n t o f y o u n g
hu m an b e i n g s t h e r e a r e o r d i n a r i l y l e s s t r a i n i n g r e н
q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h o s e who a r e e x p e c t e d t o a l t e r t h e c o n н
d u c t te n d e n c ie s of d e lin q u e n ts th a n th e r e a re f o r th o se
who t r e a t s i c k c a t t l e *1
The r o l e
o f th e te a c h e r and sc h o o l a d m in is tr a to r canн
n o t be o v e rlo o k e d o r u n d e rv a lu e d i n c o n s id e r in g w hat can be
done to
ch eck th e g ro w th d e lin q u e n c y *
A ll young c h ild r e n
sh o w in g d e l i n q u e n t t e n d e n c i e s s h o u l d b e d e a l t w i t h a s s o o n
a s p o s s ib le and a p la n o f f u tu r e
s h o u l d b e m ad e t o
in su re
w ith c h ild r e n , be i t
The a p p r o a c h .
tre a tm e n t o u tlin e d .
c o o p e r a t i o n b e t w e e n a l l who d e a l
th ro u g h th e s c h o o l,
o r p o lic e *
own p e c u l i a r r a m i н
T he g e n e r a l p h i l o s o p h y o f t r e a t m e n t s h o u l d n o t b e
to p u n ish b u t to t r e a t th e c h il d
1
ch u rch ,
T he a p p r o a c h t o e a c h d e l i n q u e n t m u s t
b e m ad e i n d i v i d u a l l y a s e a c h c a s e h a s i t s
fic a tio n s*
E ffo rts
and to r e g a r d th e o ffe n s e
W i l l i a m E* H e a l y a n d A u g u s t a B r o n n e r , New L i g h t o n
D e l i n q u e n c y a n d I t s T r e a t m e n t (New H a v e n : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y
P re s s , 19 3 6 ), p . 221.
and n o t th e
o ffen d er.
P ro b a tio n has b een u t i l i z e d
t o som e d e g r e e a s a m e t h o d
o f t r e a t m e n t b u t i n m any i n s t a n c e s t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s
of th is
*
ty p e o f h a n d lin g have been s a d ly o v e rlo o k e d ,
h a s b e e n m ad e t o
m e n t,
c o n tin u e i n fo llo w -u p p ro c e d u re s .
in any e v e n t, m ust be f i t t e d
th e in d iv id u a l to th e
The t r e a t н
to th e in d iv id u a l and n o t
The k e y n o t e o f f u t u r e r e s e a r c h ,
w h ic h i s a b s o l u t e l y e s s e n t i a l ,
th e pro g ram i s
effo rt
tre a tm e n t.
F u tu re tr e a tm e n t.
if
and l i t t l e
s h o u l d be a im e d a t p r e v e n t i o n
t o b e im p ro v e d .
Im p ro v em en ts i n
m eth o d s o f h a n d lin g m u s t b e a c h ie v e d a t t h e r i s k
th e p r e s e n t
of ev er-
i n c r e a s i n g t r e n d s to w a rd m a lb e h a v io r and d e lin q u e n c y .
S ta tis tic s
te ll
th e s t u d e n t t h a t i f
a d u l t h o o d w i t h o u t b e c o m in g d e l i n q u e n t ,
lih o o d o f h i s e v e r d o in g s o .
M o reover,
a c h i l d grow s t o
th e re is
little
lik e н
i t h a s a l s o b e e n sh o w n
t h a t w ith e x p e r t tr e a tm e n t d e lin q u e n c y can be h eaded o f f .
fu tu re
co u rse o f a c tio n i s
re m a in in g o b s ta c le l i e s
c l e a r l y d e fin e d so t h a t th e
in th e le th a r g y o f p u b lic
who h a v e t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o
tre a tm e n t.
T he
c h ie f
se rv a n ts
im p ro v e p r e s e n t m eth o d s o f
S p o ra d ic c am p aig n s h a v e o f t e n b e e n i n s t i g a t e d due
t o g e n u i n e p u b l i c r e a c t i o n a f t e r som e s p e c t a c u l a r c a s e h a s
draw n w id e a t t e n t i o n ,
b u t i n a s h o r t p e r i o d o f tim e t h i n g s
seem t o f a l l b a c k i n t o p r e v i o u s g ro o v e s a n d l i t t l e
I n v iew o f t h e s t a t i s t i c s
stu d ie d ,
it
is
g a in e d .
seem s f u t i l e
to
a t t e m p t t o re d e e m a d u l t c r i m i n a l s a s t h e y h a v e becom e s e t i n
139
th e ir a c tio n s
o v e r a p e r i o d e x t e n d i n g f o r m any y e a r s .
T he
r e a l c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t s h o u l d h e m ade d u r i n g t h e c h i l d h o o d
y e a r s w hen t h e r e
a c h ie v e d .
A g a in ,
i s so m e p o s s i b i l i t y
le t
fo r success
to be
i t be n o te d t h a t th e s c h o o l o c c u p ie s an
a d v a n ta g e o u s p o s i t i o n w ith i t s
m any f a c i l i t i e s
f o r th e handн
l i n g o f c h i l d r e n t o a s s e r t i t s e l f m ore a g g r e s s i v e l y i n t h e
p ro b le m b e in g c o n s id e r e d .
C o rre c tio n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s .
a r e n o t d o in g a g r e a t d e a l to
C o rre c tio n a l i n s titu tio n s
check o r t r e a t d e lin q u e n ts ,
a l t h o u g h m an y p e r s o n s s u f f e r u n d e r a d e l u s i o n a s t o t h i s
The s t r o n g p o i n t s
w h ic h a r e
of th is
s o r t o f tre a tm e n t l i e
d e te r r e n t and re fo rm a tiv e ,
c o m p lish ed *
p o in t.
i n m eth o d s
n e i t h e r o f w h ic h i s
acн
H e rd in g d e li n q u e n t s t o g e t h e r i n re fo rm s c h o o ls
d o e s m ore t o i n c r e a s e d e l i n q u e n c y t h a n t o
check i t
because of
th e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h o t h e r c r i m i n a l s i n an a tm o sp h e re w h ic h
is
d e c id e d ly a b n o rm al and o f te n tim e s
in h u m a n e .
Even i f
som e
p r o g r e s s i s m ad e i n t h e
c o r r e c tio n a l sc h o o ls i n th e h a n d lin g
o f th e s e y o u th s,
o r no a f t e r
little
tre a tm e n t i s
a tte m p te d
and c h ild r e n e a s i l y f a l l back in to t h e i r o ld h a b its
h a v io r p a tt e r n s o n ly t o re a p p e a r a t a l a t e r
and b e н
tim e a s s e c o n d
o ffen d ers.
B e c a u s e o f m a n ' s l i m i t e d k n o w l e d g e o f hum an n a t u r e
th e re i s
a p o ss ib ility
w ill be of a s s is ta n c e
p o p u la tio n ,
th a t rese a rc h w ill uncover fa c ts th a t
in th e tre a tm e n t o f t h is
gro u p o f o u r
b u t th e se e f f o r t s w ill be in v a in i f
th e g e n e ra l
140
s p i r i t o f th e p u b lic i s
n o t th o ro u g h ly and a c t i v e l y
C ase w ork a p p r o a c h .
Of a l l
in siste n t.
t h e m e t h o d s now b e i n g f o l н
lo w e d i n t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f y o u t h f u l o f f e n d e r s ,
th e c a se
w o rk a p p r o a c h h a s show n t h e m o s t c o n s i s t e n t s u c c e s s .
p o te n t in flu e n c e
in th e liv e s
e r a l s p i r i t of th e
th a t an a ttitu d e
of
ju v e n ile s l ie s
A n o th e r
in th e genн
c o m m u n ity , a s n u m e ro u s s t u d i e s
in d ic a te
o f law a b id a n c e te n d s t o re d u c e th e
in c id e n c e
o f d e lin q u e n c y t o a c o n s id e ra b le e x te n t.
The k e y n o t e o f f u t u r e r e s e a r c h m u s t b e d i r e c t e d
l e a r n i n g m o r e w i t h r e g a r d t o how b e s t t o
ra th e r
t r e a t d e lin q u e n c y ,
t h a n a s t o how b e s t t o e l i m i n a t e i t s
causes.
M ore
fo llo w -u p s t u d i e s n eed to be c o n d u c te d and th e r e s u l t s
a te d b e fo re
any g r e a t s t r i d e s
to w a rd
e v a lu н
c a n be e x p e c te d i n t h e s u c c e s s н
f u l h a n d lin g o f t h i s m a lb e h a v e d se g m en t o f th e
y o u th fu l popuн
la tio n .
III.
I t is
BEC GMMEHDATIOKS
th e p u rp o se o f t h i s
to p r e s e n t th e r e c e m e n d a tio n s
s e c tio n o f th e f in a l c h a p te r
t h a t h a v e becom e a p p a r e n t f o l н
lo w in g an e x h a u s tiv e s tu d y o f f a c t o r s r e l a t i n g
and i t s
tre a tm e n t.
to
d e lin q u e n c y
S uch re c o m m e n d a tio n s a r e b a s e d upon th e
w r i t e r * s own o p i n i o n s w h i c h i n t u r n w e r e s h a p e d t o so m e e x н
t e n t from th e
lite ra tu re
on d e lin q u e n c y c o u p le d w ith t h e
f a c t s g a in e d fro m i n t e r v i e w s and d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h a u t h o r i t i e s
in
th is
fie ld .
141
The r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a r e f i r s t
d isc u sse d in g e n e ral
t e r m s a n d t h e n m o re m i n u t e l y p r e s e n t e d a s s p e c i f i c s u g g e s t i o n s .
G e n e ra l re c o m m e n d a tio n s.
C la r ity o f p u rp o se i s
th e
p rim e e s s e n t i a l to th e s u c c e s s f u l h a n d lin g o f d e li n q u e n t s ;
th is
c la rity
o b je c tiv e ,
sh o u ld be rounded upon
(2 )
a
e n lig h te n e d p u b lic
sc ie n tific
(1 ) a c l e a r l y d e f i n e d
and w o rk a b le t e c h n iq u e ,
(3) a n
o p in io n .
I n g e n e ra l, m ost at
th e l a r g e r c i t i e s
in th e S ta te o f
C a l i f o r n i a h a v e som e s o r t o f p r o g r a m o u t l i n e d f o r t h e p r e н
v e n tio n and tr e a tm e n t o f y o u th fu l o f f e n d e r s ,
b u t m any r u r a l
a r e a s n e e d a m ore c l e a r l y d e f i n e d c o u n ty o r g a n i s t i o n t h a t
w ill tie
in w ith th e
sc h o o l,
and w ith c h ild p r o t e c ti v e
ju v e n ile
a c tiv itie s .
c o u rt* fa m ily w e lfa r e ,
L ocal o rg a n iz a tio n s
m u s t b e e n c o u r a g e d w h e r e som e t y p e o f c o o r d i n a t e d e f f o r t c a n
be e s t a b l i s h e d and c a r r i e d o u t.
A l t h o u g h c e r t a i n s t a t e w i d e r e c o r d s a r e now b e i n g t a b u н
la te d ,
a d e f i n i t e and u n ifo rm sy ste m o f r e c o r d s and s t a t i s t i c s
m ust be e s t a b l is h e d o v e r a l l
t i o n b e tw e e n n a t i o n a l ,
sta te ,
of C a lifo rn ia .
C lo s e r co o p eraн
and c o u n ty f a c t - f i n d i n g a g e n c ie s
w o u ld m ake a u n i f o r m s y s te m o f a c t i o n m ore f e a s i b l e
p re se n t.
F ed eral fin a n c ia l a s s is ta n c e
th an a t
th ro u g h su c h a g e n c ie s
a s N .Y .A ., C .C .C .,
and S o c ia l S e c u r ity c o u ld be u t i l i z e d
in su re
o f a p ro g ram o f u t i l i z i n g
th e su c c e ss
to
e x is tin g f a c i l i н
tie s .
A f u l l e r c o o p e r a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e m an y p u b l i c a g e n c i e s
1A2
suck as th e c o u rts ,
v e lo p e d i f
and th e
sc h o o ls,
a n d c o m m u n ity g r o u p s m u s t ^be d e н
d u p lic a tio n o f e f f o r t and expense i s
ty p e
o f t r e a t m e n t im p ro v e d .
d i t i o n a l c o m m u n i ty f a c i l i t i e s
m ent o f d e lin q u e n ts ;
to
T here i s
to be re d u c e d
a need f o r a d н
e n la rg e and c o o rd in a te
tre a tн
f u r t h e r d e v e lo p m e n t o f th e f o llo w in g
a g e n c ie s i s
recom m ended: s m a l l d e t e n t i o n h o m es, m ore s u p e r v i s e d
re c re a tio n ,
c lu b s ,
g e t a d v ic e ,
c h ild c lin ic s
c e n te rs,
f a m i ly c l i n i c s w here p a r e n t s
to
can
t r e a t th o s e sh o w in g t h e f i r s t
s i g n s o f a n t i s o c i a l b e h a v i o r , a n d p o l i c e an d c rim e p r e v e n t i o n
d e p a rtm e n ts.
P u b lic
i n d i f f e r e n c e m u s t b e b r o k e n down t h r o u g h w e l l -
d ire c te d p u b lic ity ,
hom e v i s i t s ,
o p in io n i s a ro u se d s u f f i c i e n t l y
easy to
re g u la te ro ad h o u ses,
and th e l i k e .
it
s h o u ld be c o m p a ra tiv e ly
g a m b lin g , l i q u o r s a l e s
and o th e r d e m o ra liz in g in f lu e n c e s
C rim e p r e v e n t i o n i s
When p u b l i c
to m in o rs ,
i n t h e c o m m u n ity .
o v e r l o o k e d i n m any c i t i e s
because
o f t h e p r o b l e m o f how t o d e a l w i t h k n o w n d e l i n q u e n t s .
It
m u st b e rem em b ered t h a t m o st c r i m i n a l s show d e f i n i t e a n t i н
s o c ia l te n d e n c ie s in
e a r ly c h ild h o o d so t h a t a p r e v e n tiv e
p rog ram m ust s t a r t a s e a r l y a s p o s s i b l e .
C h ild re n m ust be
k e p t aw ay fro m t h e h a r d e n i n g i n f l u e n c e s o f t h e p o l i c e ,
and j a i l s .
c o u rts,
The w h o l e p r o g r a m s h o u l d e m p h a s i z e p r e v e n t i o n m o r e
th a n cu re b eca u se o f th e g r e a t e r p r o b a b i l i t y
ex p e rim e n ta l a t t i t u d e
of success.
The
m ust be d e v e lo p e d f o r c rim e p r e v e n tio n
pro gram s and a d e q u a te r e c o r d s ,
te s ts ,
and fo llo w -u p s tu d ie s
U3
c a rrie d on.
T he s c h o o l s h a v e p e r h a p s t h e b e s t s e t u p f o r
stu d y in g c h ild re n b ecause o f th e n a tu r a l r e la tio n s h i p
a lre a d y
e sta b lis h e d .
One o f t h e p r i m e e s s e n t i a l s
o f c rim e p r e v e n t io n i s
th a t
each case i s
d i f f e r e n t and no m ass tr e a tm e n t w i l l b e u n if o rm ly
su c c e ss fu l.
B e h a v io r t r a i t s
a p p lie d
o f th e c h ild m ust be s tu d ie d and
to p re v e n tio n p ro g ram s.
can? o f te n be r e d ir e c te d
b u ild in g g roup.
For in sta n c e ,
gang a c t i v i t i e s
i n t o a w h o leso m e c l u b o r c h a r a c t e r - ~
T r a i n e d w o r k e r s s h o u l d b e u t i l i z e d a s m an y
c o m m e n d a b le p r o g r a m s f a i l b e c a u s e o f t h e p o o r q u a l i t y
of
le a d e rs h ip .
R e c o m m e n d a tio n s r e l a t i v e
d e lin q u e n ts
in C a lifo rn ia .
to th e le g a l
tre a tm e n t o f
I n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e f o r m o r e comн
p l e t e p s y c h o lo g ic a l and p h y s i c a l e x a m in a tio n s
of c h ild re n in
C a lif o r n ia s te p s sh o u ld be u n d e rta k e n to a l t e r c e r t a i n s e c н
tio n s o f th e le g a l s tr u c tu r e
w h i c h now a c t s a s a c h e c k u p o n
p r o g r e s s i v e m eth o d s o f p r o c e d u r e .
H a v in g d one t h i s
i t w ill
becam e i n c r e a s i n g l y e a s i e r t o l e a r n m ore a b o u t c h i l d r e n a n d
i n so d o in g p e rh a p s a c c o m p lish v i t a l s t r i d e s
to w a rd th e p r e н
v e n tio n and tre a tm e n t o f d e lin q u e n c y .
Laws m u s t b e e n a c t e d w h i c h w o u l d m ake c o m p u l s o r y s u c h
s u c c e s s fu l p la n s of
c o m m u n ity r e c r e a t i o n now b e i n g c a r r i e d
o u t b y so m e o f o u r m o r e p r o g r e s s i v e
c itie s .
T he u n d e r l y i n g
p h ilo s o p h y sh o u ld be to p r e v e n t d e lin q u e n c y and n o t t o w a ste
so m uch e f f o r t a n d m oney i n t r y i n g t o c u r e i t .
144
M any a g e n c i e s a n d p e r s o n s who d e a l w i t h d e l i n q u e n t s
o f t e n s p e a k o f v a r i o u s l e g a l r e s t r i c t i o n s w h ic h te n d t o
s e t o r check th e scope o f th e
fre e hand i s
ju v e n ile program .
o ffн
M ore o f a
need ed by en fo rcem en t a g e n c ie s i n d e a lin g w ith
d e lin q u e n ts a s o fte n tim e s
f e r e n t h a n d lin g ;
e a c h c a s e dem ands a som ew hat d i f н
t h e r e f o r e , m ak in g a d e f i n i t e l y p r e s c r i b e d
le g a l tre a tm e n t in a d v is a b le .
J u v e n ile
c o u r t s n e e d to be i n c r e a s e d b o th i n num ber
and i n th e scope o f th e
tre a tm e n t o ffe re d .
F u r th e r d e v e lo p н
m ent o f th e " in f o r m a l m e th o d ? o f j u r is p r u d e n c e m u st b e f o r t h н
c o m in g i f s t r i d e s a r e
c o u rt.
A ll tr a c e s
t o b e m ade i n d e a l i n g w i t h w a rd s o f t h e
o f th e p re s e n t c rim in a l c o u rt p ro ce d u re
m ust d is a p p e a r.
P e r s o n s h a v in g t o do w ith d e l i n q u e n t s m u st be a d e н
q u a te ly tr a in e d
in p sy c h o lo g ic a l and s o c ia l f i e l d s
g r e a te r e x te n t th a n a t p r e s e n t.
If
t o a m uch
th e s e w e l l- t r a i n e d w o rk ers
a r e p r o v id e d w ith p r o p e r f i n a n c i a l and a d v is o r y a s s i s t a n c e ,
th e a l l - i m p o r t a n t i n d i v i d u a l c a s e w ork c a n be e x p an d e d t o a
p o i n t w h e re e v e n m ore g o o d w ork w i l l f o l l o w .
Laws r e l a t i n g t o
fa irly
c h i l d r e n b e lo w n i n e t e e n y e a r s a r e
a d e q u a te a t p r e s e n t ,
i f p ro p e rly a d m in iste re d ,
so i t
i s . w i t h t h e a g e g r o u p b e t w e e n n i n e t e e n a n d t w e n t y w h e r e new
la w s a r e n e e d e d .
T h is g ro u p m akes up a l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e o f
t h e d e l i n q u e n c y a n d s t i l l we h a v e ^aй f e w l a w s w i t h w h i c h t o
le g a lly
t r e a t th e # .
145
The f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s a r e l i s t e d
a s b e in g d e s ir a b le
rec o m m e n d atio n s f o r c h a n g e s i n th e l e g a l
tre a tm e n t o f d e lin н
q u e n ts,
1* C r im e p r e v e n t i o n am ong y o u n g p e r s o n s who c a n b e
re m o ld e d s h o u ld be e m p h a siz e d .
2 . J u d g e s s h o u l d n o t m ak e t h e i r s e n t e n c e s t o o e x p l i c i t
o v e r c h i l d r e n a b o u t whom t h e y know l i t t l e .
3 . P ro m pt an d f a i r
tria ls
are e s s e n tia l.
4 . E a c h o f f e n d e r s h o u l d b e e x a m in e d t h o r o u g h l y by
p s y c h o lo g is ts and p h y sic ia n s b e fo re
t r i a l and th e n e c e ssa ry
in fo rm a tio n p la c e d i n th e h ands o f th e
ju d g e s b e fo r e t r i a l .
5. L egal p ro c e d u re s m ust be s im p lif ie d and d e le g a liz e d
&o t h a t t h e
in fo rm a lity
is
e m p h a siz e d .
6 . The j u d g e s h o u l d a c t a s a r e f e r e e
s o n who s i t s
and n o t as a p e r н
i n ju d g m en t t o d e te r m in e a d e q u a te p u n is h m e n t.
7* J u v e n i l e o f f e n d e r s s h o u l d a l w a y s b e k e p t u n d e r o b н
s e r v a t i o n and p e r i o d i c a l l y t r e a t e d u n t i l each c a se i s
c lo se d ;
i n som e c a s e s t h i s
fin a lly
t r e a t m e n t m ay e x t e n d o v e r a p e r i o d
of y ears or a lif e tim e .
8. S e g re g a tio n o f c u ra b le and in c u r a b le
d e lin q u e n ts i s
recom m ended.
9 . Ho y o u t h s h o u l d b e r e l e a s e d f r o m a n i n s t i t u t i o n
or
fro m s u p e r v i s i o n i f h e h a s n o t show n e v i d e n c e o f im p ro v e m e n t.
10.
as to
E x a m in a tio n o f v i o l a t o r s
check th e p ro g re s s o r f a i l u r e
s h o u ld be c o n tin u o u s so
o f t h e mode o f t r e a t m e n t
U6
b e in g fo llo w e d .
1 1 . One s p e c i a l b o d y o r b o a r d s h o u l d h a v e c o m p l e t e
c o n tr o l o v er th e
th e
tre a tm e n t o f th e y o u th f u l o ffe n d e r d u rin g
c o u rse o f h is
d e lin q u e n t c a re e r.
1 2 . J u v e n ile c o u r ts s h o u ld n o t be a b o lis h e d b u t e x н
p a n d e d and im p ro v e d t o m e e t t h e dem ands o f m o d ern s o c i e t y .
13* F a c t - f i n d i n g b o d i e s s h o u l d b e e s t a b l i s h e d s o t h a t
t h e l e s s o n s l e a r n e d i n one s e c t i o n o f t h e c o u n t r y m ig h t be
trie d
in o th e r l o c a l i t i e s .
1 4 . T he p r e s e n t p r i s o n a t m o s p h e r e o f c o r r e c t i o n a l
s c h o o l s a n d j u v e n i l e a g e n c i e s m u s t b e r e p l a c e d b y m ore n o rm a l
an d i n f o r m a l m eth o d s o f t r e a t m e n t .
1 5 . P r o b a t i o n s h o u l d b e u t i l i z e d m o re t h a n i t h a s i n
t h e p a s t i n a s m u c h a s i t h a s b e e n s h o w n t o b e m o re e f f e c t i v e
an d e v en m ore e c o n o m ic a l t h a n i n s t i t u t i o n a l i n c a r c e r a t i o n .
1 6 . New m o d e s o f l e g a l
tre a tm e n t such as th e C h ild re n * s
C o u r t o f C o n c i l i a t i o n a r e recom m ended t o c o p e w i t h t h e s o c i a l
d iffic u ltie s
a r i s i n g fro m d i v o r c e an d b r o k e n hom es a n d t h e
lik e .
R e c o m m e n d a tio n s f o r t h e
th ro u g h e d u c a tio n .
tre a tm e n t o f d e lin q u e n ts
The m o s t e f f e c t i v e w o r k o f t h e s c h o o l i s
to p r e s e r v e and s a n e ly d e v e lo p c h ild r e n o f norm al p e r s o n a l i t y .
I n so d o in g a c o n s t a n t v i g i l
so n a lity
c o n flic ts
sh o u ld be k e p t to
d isc o v e r p e rн
as e a r l y a s p o s s ib le so t h a t a p p r o p r ia te
s t e p s m ay b e t a k e n a t a t i m e w h e n t h e r e
is
a r e a s o n a b le hope
147
f o r su c c e ssfu l tre a tm e n t.
S t u d i e s a n d r e s e a r c h , on th e a s p e c t s
o f p e r s o n a l i t y w i l l show d i v i d e n d s i n th e f u t u r e b o t h i n t h e
w e ll-d e v e lo p e d p e r s o n a lity and i n
The t e a c h e r i s
th e
term s o f d o l l a r s and c e n ts .
c r u c ia l f a c to r in th e
e d u c a tio n a l
schem e a n d ev en g r e a t e r c a r e s h o u ld be t a k e n i n t h e s e l e c t i o n
of p ro p e rly
tr a in e d and w e ll- a d ju s te d p e rs o n n e l.
Too m u c h .e m н
p h a s i s h a s b e e n p l a c e d u p o n a c a d e m ic r e q u i r e m e n t s a n d c r e d e n н
tia ls
and to o l i t t l e
e m p h a sis p la c e d upon v i t a l p e r s o n a l i t y
fa c to rs.
T he f o l l o w i n g s u g g e s t i o n s a r e
f o r th e
tre a tin g
o f f e r e d a s rec o m m e n d atio n s
of d e lin q u e n ts and p o t e n t i a l d e lin q u e n ts
th r o u g h e d u c a t i o n a l m eans and f a c i l i t i e s .
1.
T he s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n s h o u l d b e m ade m o re f l e x i b l e
and s e n s itiv e
to
change.
2 . T each ers s h o u ld be c a r e f u l l y t r a i n e d and s e le c te d
w ith due c o n s i d e r a ti o n g iv e n
a lity
fa c to rs
to th e im p o rta n c e o f th e p e rs o n н
in v o lv e d .
3. S p e c ia l te a c h e rs d e a lin g w ith d e lin q u e n ts
sh o u ld conн
t i n u o u s l y k e e p a b r e a s t o f t h e a d v a n c e s i n n ew m e t h o d s o f t r e a t н
m e n t.
4 . C l o s e r c o o p e r a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e s c h o o l a n d t h e home
is
d e s ira b le and n e c e ssa ry .
3.
T here i s
o p in io n so t h a t d e s i r a b l e
be a c c e p te d .
a d e fin ite
need f o r an e n lig h te n e d p u b lic
changes i n o rth o d o x tr e a tm e n t w i l l
14S
6 . B e h a v io r an d g u id a n c e c l i n i c s
w o rth u n d e r c o n t r o l l e d e x p e rim e n t,
th is
lin e
h en ce a n e x te n s io n a lo n g
i s reco m m ended.
7.
S c h o o ls need to a v o id c o n d itio n s
p ro ced u res,
c e rta in
h a v e sh o w n t h e i r
sev ere
causes
to d e lin q u e n c y ,
S.
d is c ip lin e ,
such as lo c k -s te p
and r i d i c u l e by p la y m a te s i f
o f t r u a n c y an d m a lb e h a v io r , w h ic h o f t e n l e a d
a r e t o be rem o v ed .
A d e q u ate t e s t i n g
and d ia g n o s tic program s sh o u ld be
e x te n d e d .
9. V o c a tio n a l g u id a n c e i s
e s s e n t i a l i n a w e ll ro u n d ed
c u rric u lu m .
1 0 . F u r t h e r d e v e lo p m e n t o f r e c r e a t i o n i s
v ie w o f i t s
e s s e n tia l in
v a lu e a s a d e te r r e n t to a n t i s o c i a l b e h a v io r.
1 1 . T e a c h e r s m ay w e l l u t i l i z e
p h a s i z e w h o le s o m e i d e a l s
c la ssro o m
c o n t a c t s t o emн
o f good s p o r ts m a n s h ip an d f a i r p l a y .
1 2 . A d u lt e d u c a t i o n , when p r o p e r l y d i r e c t e d ,
v ita l
can be a
c o n n e c t i n g l i n k b e t w e e n t h e home a n d t h e s c h o o l .
13. C la s s e s sh o u ld be sm a ll enough to b r in g a b o u t th e
m aximum i n p u p i l - t e a c h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s .
14.
The t r a d i t i o n a l s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m m u s t b e a d a p t e d t o
m odern n e e d s e s p e c i a l l y w i t h r e g a r d t o
m ent o f th e
th e
in d iv id u a l d e v e lo p н
c h ild .
1 5 . D e m o c ra tic p u p i l - t e a c h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s s h o u ld be e n н
c o u rag ed .
149
R e o o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r c o m m u n i ty c o o p e r a t i o n i n t h e p r e н
v e n tio n o f d e lin q u e n c y .
m u n ity a s a n in f lu e n c e
he u n d e re stim a te d .
s p i r i t o f th e
The e x t r e m e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e comн
to w a rd d e lin q u e n c y p r e v e n t i o n c a n n o t
I t h a s r e p e a t e d l y b e e n sh o w n t h a t t h e
c o m m u n ity i s
a r e a l and v i t a l i n f lu e n c e to w a rd
p r e v e n tin g and c h e c k in g d e lin q u e n t te n d e n c ie s .
S u g g e s te d re c o m m e n d a tio n s f o r a f u l l e r
?th e i n f l u e n c e
o f th e
d e v e lo p m e n t o f
c o m m u n ity f o l l o w i n d e t a i l :
1 . A n e t w o r k o f n e i g h b o r h o o d a n d c o m m u n ity a c t i v i t i e s
is
needed to p ro v id e c o u n te r a t t r a c t i o n s
fo r th o se
in d iv id u a ls
who a r e i n c l i n e d t o w a r d d e l i n q u e n c y .
2 . P u b lic r e c r e a t i o n m u st be g r e a t l y e x te n d e d and
d e v e lo p e d .
3. A f u l l e r u tiliz a tio n
such as sc h o o ls,
th e l i k e
is
ch u rch es,
o f e x i s t i n g c o m m u n i ty f a c i l i t i e s
and r e c r e a t i o n c e n t e r s and p a rk s and
recom m ended.
4 . P a r e n ts sh o u ld be a s s i s t e d by q u a li f ie d
e x p e rts
in
d e a l in g w ith s p e c i a l b e h a v io r and p e r s o n a l i t y p ro b le m s h a v in g
to
do w i t h c h i l d r e n .
3.
tra in in g
P a r e n ts m ost c e r t a i n l y s ta n d in need o f f u r t h e r
in th e c a re and tre a tm e n t of t h e i r c h ild r e n .
6 . C l i n i c a l g u id a n c e , m e d ic a l,
c e n te rs
d e n ta l,
and p sy c h o lo g ic a l
s h o u l d b e d e v e l o p e d a n d e x t e n d e d w h e r e now i n e x i s t e n c e .
7 . P a r e n t a l c e n t e r s a r e n e e d e d w here m a r i t a l a n d s o c i a l
p r o b l e m s c a n b e a d j u s t e d s o a s t o p r e v e n t b r o k e n h o m es
(one o f
150
th e g r e a te s t s in g le
fa c to rs
l e a d in g to w a rd th e d e lin q u e n c y o f
th e ir c h ild re n )*
8 . C o o r d i n a t i n g c o u n c i l s a n d s i m i l a r p l a n s o f c o m m u n ity
c o o p e r a t i o n a r e h i g h l y recom m ended a s b e i n g e f f e c t i v e
in
th e
h a n d lin g of J u v e n ile s w ith a n t i s o c i a l te n d e n c ie s .
9 . A m i l i t a n t and s c i e n t i f i c program t h a t w i l l g u id e ,
a d v is e , en co u rag e, and s u s t a i n p a r e n t a l e f f o r t s i s p e rh a p s th e
b a s ic need o f th e community in i t s endeavor to t r e a t and p r e н
v e n t ju v e n ile d e lin q u e n c y .
BIBLIOGRAPHY
BIBLIOGRAPHY
A.
BOOKS
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The
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of j u v e n i l e d e lin q u e n ts w ere l i s t e d a lo n g
w ith re c o m m e n d a tio n s f o r f u t u r e c h a n g e s .
G lu e c k , S h e ld o n , and E l e a n o r T ., e d i t o r s , P r e v e n t i n g C rim e .
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509 PP .
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as th e y a f f e c t our n a tio n ? an e x c e lle n t so u rc e .
_________ , P r o b a t i o n a n d C r i m i n a l J u s t i c e .
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M a c m i l l a n C o m p an y , 1 9 3 3 .
344 PP.
A v e ry good book on th e s u b j e c t o f p r o b a tio n .
The
H a r r i s o n , L e o n a rd V ., a n d P r y o r M c N e ill G r a n t , Y o u th i n t h e
T o ils .
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T h is book p r e s e n t s an a p p e a lin g and e n li g h t e n i n g p i c t u r e
o f y o u th p ro b le m s.
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t i c s c o n c e rn in g y o u th and c rim e .
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A p u b l i c a t i o n o f th e Judge B ak er
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A d e sc rip tio n
A m e ric an c i t i e s *
_______ , New L ig h t on D elinquency and I t s T re a tm e n t,
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H aven: Y a le U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 3 6 ,
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New Y o r k : W, W*
N o r t o n a n d C o m p an y , 1 9 3 3 *
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M a t e r i a l s o f p e r s o n a l i t y f o r m a tio n w ere d is c u s s e d w i t h
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K a p la n , A lb e r t J . , A S tu d y o f th e B e h a v io r P ro b le m P u p i l i n a
S econdary S c h o o l,
P h i l a d e l p h i a : A* J . K a p l a n , 1 9 3 3 .
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A p u b lis h e d d o c to r ?s d i s s e r t a t i o n c o n c e rn in g a d u lt and
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o f S t a t u t o r y M a t e r i a l s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s " ! C a m b r i d g e :'
H arv ard U n iv e rs ity P r e s s , 1974.
191 PP.
An e x c e l l e n t s o u r c e f o r l e g a l b i b l i o g r a p h i e s .
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A boo k o f t a b l e s a n d s t a t i s t i c s w h ic h i l l u s t r a t e th e e x н
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B e n n e t , M a r g a r e t E . , a n d M. E . H e r s c h b e r g e r , " M e n t a l H y g i e n e
i n th e S c h o o l P ro g ra m ," C a l i f o r n i a J o u r n a l o f S e c o n d ary
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The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f p e r s o n a l i t y a n d e d u c a t i o n a l p r o н
ced u re and c o n d itio n s t h a t d e v e lo p i t a re d e s c rib e d i n
d e ta il.
B r i d g e s , J . W ., a n d K. M. B r i d g e s , " A P s y c h o l o g i c a l S t u d y o f
J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n c y b y G ro u p M e t h o d s , " G e n e t i c P s y c h o l o g y
M ono g rap h s, 1 :4 0 7 -3 0 6 , S e p te m b e r, 1 9 2 6 .
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A good s o u rc e o f c a u se s o f d e lin q u e n c y .
' ,
C a l i f o r n i a P r o b a t i o n N e w s.
D iv isio n o f P ro b a tio n ,
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T h is
w ork p r o v id e d e x c e l l e n t b a c k g ro u n d m a t e r i a l w i t h r e g a r d
to g u id a n c e an d p e r s o n a l i t y d e v elo p m e n t.
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H u n t e r , G e o rg e , "C o u n ty -W id e P ro g ra m o f M e n ta l H y g i e n e , "
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O u t l a n d , G e o r g e E . , " T h e S c h o o l a s a D i r e c t D e t e r m i n a n t i n B oy
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A d e s c r i p t i o n o f th e s p e c i a l c a s e s w here t h e s c h o o l c a u s e s
b o y s t o becom e t r a n s i e n t s .
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A b r i e f d is c u s s io n o f th e r i s i n g need f o r s p e c i a l i s t s to
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One o f t h e f e w f i n e s t u d i e s c o n c e r n i n g d i a g n o s t i c e f f o r t s
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An e x t r e m e l y t e c h n i c a l s t u d y o f p e r s o n a l i t y r e a c t i o n s
p lo tte d m a th e m a tic a lly .
C.
PARTS OF SERIES
C h a s s e l l , C l a r a F . , T he R e l a t i o n B e t w e e n M o r a l i t y a n d I n t e l l e c t .
T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e C o n t r i b u t i o n t o E d u c a t i o n N o. 6 0 7 .
New
Y o rk : T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , C o lu m b ia U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 3 5 .
A t e c h n ic a l r e s e a r c h c a r r i e d on a t T ea ch e rs C o lle g e .
C o u r t h i a l , A n d ree, E m o tio n a l D if f e r e n c e s o f D e lin q u e n t and
N o n - D e l i n q u e n t G i r l s o T ~ N orm al I n t e l l i g e n c e .
A rc h iv e s o f
P s y c h o l o g y , N o. 1 3 3 .
New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 3 1 .
A s c i e n t i f i c s tu d y o f th e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n e m o tio n a n d
d e lin q u e n c y .
D a n i e l , R. R ., A P s y c h o l o g i c a l S tu d y o f D e l in q u e n t a n d NonD e lin q u e n t N egro B o y s.
T each ers C o lle g e C o n tr ib u tio n to
E d u c a ti o n No. 5 4 6 .
New Y o r k : T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , C o l u m b i a
U n iv e rs ity , 1932.
A s c h o l a r l y s t u d y c a r r i e d o n b y a m em b er o f t h e c o l o r e d
ra c e w ith s e l e c te d gro u p s o f c o lo re d b o y s.
M c K in n e y , W i l l i a m M . , New C a l i f o r n i a D i g e s t *
V o l. 9 .
San
F r a n c i s c o : B a n c r o f t - W h i t n e y C o m p an y , 1 9 3 1 .
754 p p .
A s e r i e s o f l e g a l v o lu m e s l i s t e d a c c o r d i n g t o s p e c i f i c
s u b je c ts and f i e l d s .
A c u m u la tiv e r e c o r d fro m e a r l i e s t
C a lif o r n ia l e g a l c a se s and d e c is io n s to th e p r e s e n t.
157
McKinney, W illiam M., New C a l i f o r n i a D ig e s t. S upplem ent, V ol.
9* San F ra n c is c o : B a n c ro ft-W h itn e y Company, 1 9 3 9 .
127 pp.
A c o n tin u a tio n o f c a se s and d e c is io n s from 1 9 3 1 to 1 9 3 9 .
W h itin g , R a n d o lp h V . , r e p o r t e r , R e p o r ts o f C a se s D e te rm in e d
in th e D i s t r i c t C o u rts of A ppeal o f th e S ta te o f
C a lifo rn ia .
v o l s . ; San F r a n c is c o : B a n e ro ft-W h itn e y
C o m p an y , 1 9 0 0 - 1 9 4 0 .
A s e r i e s o f v o lu m e s c o n t a i n i n g a l l o f t h e m a jo r d e c i s i o n s
o f c a s e s t h a t r e a c h e d t h e D i s t r i c t C o u rt o f A p p e a ls d u r in g
th e l a s t f o r ty y e a rs .
Each c a s e i s c i t e d i n d e t a i l w ith
a rg u m e n ts and f i n a l d e c i s i o n s t h a t w ere r e n d e r e d .
T h is
s e r ie s is a sta n d a rd so u rce f o r le g a l s tu d e n ts .
_________ , R e p o r t s o f C a s e s D e t e r m i n e d i n t h e D i s t r i c t C o u r t s
o f A ppeal o f th e S t a t e o f C a l i f o r n i a . V o l. 31, 1 939, 894 p p .
S o u rce o f s p e c i f i c c a s e s u se d and q u o te d i n t h i s s tu d y .
________,
V o l. 3 2 , 1 9 3 9 ,
903 P P .
_______ ,
V o l. 3 3 , 1 9 3 9 ,
8 9 9 PP.
_________ ,
V o l. 34, 1939,
909 PP.
I ________,
V o l. 35, 1940,
896 p p .
D.
PUBLICATION OF LEARNED ORGANIZATIONS
B e r r y , C h a r l e s S . , " R e p o r t o f t h e C o m m itte e o n S p e c i a l C l a s s e s , "
W h ite H ouse C o n f e re n c e o n C h i l d H e a l t h an d P r o t e c t i o n .
New Y o r k : T he C e n t u r y C o m p an y , 1 9 3 1 .
604 PP.
An e x c e l l e n t su m m ary o f t h e p r o b l e m a n d i t s a i m s a n d o b j e c н
tiv e s .
V a lu a b le i n s t r u c t i o n i s g iv e n i n s p e c i f i c m eth o d s
o f h a n d lin g d e lin q u e n ts .
B o w l e r , A l i d a C . , a n d R u t h S . B l o o d g o o d , *I n s t i t u t i o n a l
T re a tm e n t o f D e lin q u e n t B o y s. P a r t I .
U n ite d S ta te s
D e p a r tm e n t o f L a b o r , C h i l d r e n ? s B u r e a u B u l l e t i n No. 2 2 8 .
W a s h in g to n , D .C .: U n ite d S t a t e s G overnm ent P r i n t i n g O f f i c e ,
1935.
T h is p u b l i c a t i o n and th e one t h a t f o llo w s b e lo w i n c l u d e a
c o m p le te s tu d y o f th e i n s t i t u t i o n a l tr e a tm e n t o f d e lin q u e n t
b o y s ; s t a t i s t i c s a r e q u o te d on th e p ro b le m .
_________ , I n s t i t u t i o n a l T r e a t m e n t o f D e l i n q u e n t B o y s . P a r t I I .
U n ite d S t a t e s D e p a rtm e n t o f L a b o r, C h i l d r e n ? s B u re au
B u l l e t i n No. 2 2 8 .
W a sh in g to n , D .C .: U n ite d S t a t e s G o v ern н
m ent P r i n t i n g O f f ic e , 1935.
158
B r e c k i n r i d g e , S o p h o n i s b a , a n d H e l e n R . J e t e r , A Sum m ary o f
J u v e n ile C o u rt L e g is la tio n in th e U n ite d S t a t e s .
U n ite d S t a t e s D e p a rtm e n t o f L a b o r, C h i l d r e n ?s B u re au
B u l l e t i n N o, 1 9 6 .
W a sh in g to n , D .C .: U n ite d S t a t e s
G overnm ent P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 2 0 .
110 pp.
A v a lu a b le so u rc e book f o r r e fe re n c e and f o r b i b l i o н
g ra p h ic a l re fe re n c e .
B u r k e , D o r o t h y W ., Y o u t h a n d C r i m e . U n i t e d S t a t e s D e p a r t m e n t
o f L a b o r, C h i l d r e n ? s B u re a u B u l l e t i n No. 1 9 6 .
W ash in g to n ,
B .C .; U n i t e d S t a t e s G o v ern m en t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 3 0 .
109 P P .
G en eral re fe re n c e m a te r ia l in c lu d e d in t h i s p u b lic a tio n
w i t h e m p h a sis on th e c a u s e s an d m eth o d s o f h a n d li n g
d e lin q u e n ts.
_________ , C r i m e P r e v e n t i o n T h r o u g h E d u c a t i o n .
R e se a rc h B u reau
o f t h e N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n B u l l e t i n N o. 4 .
W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . : The N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n ,
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226 p p .
A c o m p le te h a n d l i n g o f th e w h o le q u e s t i o n w i t h d a t a
re g a rd in g p ro ced u res in p r a c tic e in v a rio u s s e c tio n s
o f th e U n ite d S t a t e s .
, F a c ts About J u v e n ile D e lin q u e n c y .
U n ite d S ta te s
D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o r , C h i l d r e n ? s B u r e a u B u l l e t i n N o. 2 1 5 .
U n ite d S t a t e s G overnm ent P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 3 5 .
44 PP.
F l e x n e r , B e r n a r d , R e u b en O p e n h e im e r, a n d o t h e r s , The C h i l d ,
The F a m i l y , a n d The C o u r t . U n i t e d S t a t e s D e p a r t m e n t o f
L a b o r, C h i l d r e n ? s B u re a u B u l l e t i n No. 1 9 3 .
W ash in g to n ,
D .C .: U n ite d S t a t e s G overnm ent P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 3 9 .
100 p p .
A r ic h so u rce o f le g a l s t a t i s t i c s re g a rd in g ju v e n ile
d e lin q u e n c y .
H eck,
A. 0 . , S p e c i a l S c h o o l s a n d C l a s s e s .
O ffic e o f E d u c a tio n
B u l l e t i n No. 7 .
W a sh in g to n , D .C .: U n ite d S t a t e s
G o v ern m en t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 3 0 .
The r e s u l t s o f a n a t i o n a l s u r v e y o f s p e c i a l s c h o o l s a n d
c la s s e s w ith s t a t i s t i c s and c h a r t s a r e in c lu d e d i n t h i s
so u rce.
_________ , J u v e n i l e C o u r t S t a t i s t i c s a n d F e d e r a l J u v e n i l e
O f f e n d e r s . ?U n i t e d S t a t e s D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o r , C h i l d r e n ? s
B u re a u B u l l e t i n No, 2 4 5 .
W a sh in g to n , D .C .: U n ite d
S t a t e s G overnm ent P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 3 9 .
155 P P .
S t a t i s t i c s f o r a l l th e s t a t e s a r e t a b u l a t e d i n t h i s
so u rce.
159
M a rte n s , E l s i e H ., A d ju stm e n t o f t h e B e h a v io r P ro b le m s o f
S c h o o l C h i ld r e n , U n ite d S t a t e s D e p a rtm e n t o f th e I n t e r н
i o r , O f f i c e o f E d u c a t i o n B u l l e t i n N o. I B . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . :
U n i t e d S t a t e s G overnm ent P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 3 2 .
101 p p .
N u m e ro u s c h a r t s a n d c a s e h i s t o r i e s a r e o f f e r e d i n a com н
p l e t e h a n d li n g o f t h e p ro b le m o f b e h a v io r p ro b lem c h i l d r e n .
e
;
u n p u b l is h e d m a t e r ia l s
A l l e n , E . C . , ?An E d u c a t i o n a l a n d S o c i o l o g i c a l D e l i n q u e n c y
F a c to r S u rv e y o f t h e Los A n g e le s Boy? s W e lfa re C e n t e r . ?
U n p u b lis h e d M a s t e r ? s t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n
C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s, 1937.
104 p p .
One o f t h e t h e s e s m a k i n g s u r v e y s o f t h e w e l f a r e c e n t e r s ,
m e th o d s u s e d a n d re c o m m e n d a tio n s.
D a n i e l s , E d g a r E . , ?P s y c h o l o g i c a l M ech an ism s I n v o l v e d i n J u v e н
n i l e D e l i n q u e n c y . ? U n p u b lis h e d M a s t e r ? s t h e s i s , The U n iн
v e r s i t y o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s, 1931.
78 p p .
A d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s c o m p le x e s a n d m ec h an ism s r e н
la t e d to p e r s o n a lity and i n te lli g e n c e in th e d e lin q u e n t
a s s ta te d by a p s y c h o lo g is t.
K i m b a l l , D o r o t h y , ?An I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f C e r t a i n C o n t r i b u t o r y
C auses o f J u v e n ile D e lin q u e n c y .? U n p u b lish e d M a s te r ? s
t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s ,
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107 p p .
T he w r i t e r p o i n t s w h a t t h e r e l a t i o n o f m e n t a l i t y t o d e н
lin q u e n c y i s and th e f a c t o r s u n d e r l y i n g th e p ro b le m .
M a x w e l l , W i l l i a m C . , ?An I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f Boy D e l i n q u e n c y i n
Long B each , C a l i f o r n i a , an d I t s I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r P u b lic
S c h o o l s . ? U n p u b lis h e d M a s t e r ? s t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f
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346 p p .
A s u r v e y o f t h e c a u s e s o f d e lin q u e n c y an d t h e m eth o d s u s e d
i n Long B each t o c h e c k t h e s e t e n d e n c i e s .
P a t c h e t t , W a lte r C . , ?A S u rv e y o f C e r t a i n A c ts o f J u v e n i le
D e l in q u e n c y i n t h e S a n t a R osa H ig h S c h o o l D i s t r i c t . ?
U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ? s t h e s i s , T he U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n
C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s, 1937.
162 p p .
A s e r i e s o f c a s e s t u d i e s c o l l e c t e d fro m t h e f i l e s o f th e
S a n t a R osa H ig h S c h o o l D i s t r i c t .
P e r r y , G len n E . , " J u v e n i l e D e lin q u e n c y i n t h e J u n i o r a n d S e n i o r
H ig h S c h o o ls o f L os A n g e le s ; I t s P r e v a l e n c e , M a n i f e s t a t i o n s ,
a n d C a u s e s . ? U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ? s t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f
S o u th e rn .C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s , 1 9 3 7 .
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160
The c a u s e s a n d e x t e n t o f d e lin q u e n c y i n t h e Los A n g e le s
s c h o o ls w ere p o in te d o u t i n a n e x te n s iv e s u r v e y .
P e r r y , H a r r y M . , "A S t u d y o f t h e O r i g i n , " B a c k g r o u n d , I n t e l l i н
g e n c e , R ace, and O th e r F a c to r s C o n tr ib u tin g to th e B e h a v io r
o f B o y s C o m m i t te d t o L o s A n g e l e s W e l f a r e C e n t e r s 1 9 3 0 - 1 9 3 4 . ?
U n p u b lis h e d M a s t e r ? s t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e r n
C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s , 1938.
105 p p .
A s t u d y o f t h e f a c t o r s r e l a t i n g t o b e h a v i o r o f b o y s comн
m i t t e d t o v a r i o u s w e l f a r e c e n t e r s i n Los A n g e le s o v e r a
fo u r-y e a r p e rio d .
R a u b e n h e i m e r , A. S . , "An E x p e r i m e n t a l S t u d y o f Some B e h a v i o r
T r a i t s o f th e P o t e n t i a l l y D e lin q u e n t B o y .? U n p u b lis h e d
D o c to r? s d i s s e r t a t i o n , L e la n d S ta n fo rd U n iv e r s ity , P a lo
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107 p p .
R a u b e n h e i m e r t e l l s how h e s e t u p h i s t e s t s t o d e t e r m i n e
v a rio u s b e h a v io r t r a i t s .
The r e s u l t s a lo n g w i t h t h e i r r e н
l i a b i l i t y are s ta te d .
T h is s t u d y i s one o f t h e few i n w h ic h
a s p e c ts o f t h i s s o r t o f b e h a v io r a re c o n sid e re d .
S m a lle n b u rg , H a r r y , " S e l e c t i o n , S e g r e g a tio n , and T r a in in g o f
B e h a v io r P ro b le m Boys i n L os A n g e l e s ." U n p u b lis h e d M a s t e r ? s
t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s ,
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211 p p .
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p e c ts o f ju v e n ile d e lin q u e n c y in i t s v a rio u s s ta g e s .
F.
LEGAL SOURCES
A d d r e s s e s C o n c e r n i n g T h e A m e r i c a n Law I n s t i t u t e ? s P r o p o s a l s o n
C r i m i n a l J u s t i c e ? Y o u tK \
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Y o rk , 194^1
A b o o k l e t o f s p e e c h e s b y a u t h o r i t i e s o n a new p r o p o s a l f o r
th e tr e a tm e n t o f y o u th i n c rim e .
A n n u a l R e p o r t o f t h e C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t o f S o c i a l W e lн
f a r e , D i v i s i o n o f P r o b a t i o n , f o r th e F i s c a l Y e ar E n d in g
June 30, 1939.
S a c r a m e n to : M im e o g ra p h e d r e l e a s e .
The a c t u a l s t a t i s t i c s o f t h e D e p a rtm e n t o f P r o b a t i o n a r e
p r e s e n t e d i n m im e o g ra p h e d f o r m .
B i l l s P r o p o s e d t o 1939 C a l i f o r n i a L e g i s l a t u r e .
C a lifo rn ia .
S ta te P r in tin g O ffic e .
S a c ra m e n to : M im eo g rap h ed , 1 9 3 9 .
A m im e o g ra p h e d r e l e a s e o f s i x t e e n b i l l s p r e s e n t e d t o t h e
L e g i s l a t u r e o f C a l i f o r n i a b y J u d g e B en L i n d s e y , S u p e r i o r
C o u rt- J u d g e , Los A n g e le s , 1939.
" C a s e N o . 1 0 4 , P e o p l e V. S u p e r i o r C o u r t , D i s t r i c t C o u r t o f
A p p e a l o f t h e S t a t e o f C a l i f o r n i a , ? V o l . 34╗ p p . 8 2 - 8 3 .
One o f t h e m a n y c a s e s t o w h i c h r e f e r e n c e i s m a d e i n t h i s
th e s is .
161
" C a s e N o . 1 7 6 , P e o p l e V. B u d d , D i s t r i c t C o u r t o f A p p e a l o f t h e
S t a t e o f C a l i f o r n i a , " V o l . 24, p p . 7 1 4 - 7 2 4 .
" C a s e N o . 4 0 2 , P e o p l e V. B l a c e , D i s t r i c t C o u r t o f A p p e a l o f
th e S t a t e o f C a l i f o r n i a , " V o l. 74, P P . 5 9 8 -6 6 7 .
" C a s e N o. 6 6 6 , P e o p l e V . M c D o u g a l, D i s t r i c t C o u r t o f A p p e a l o f
th e S t a te o f C a l i f o r n i a , " V o l. 94, PP. 3 6 5 -3 7 2 .
" C a s e N o . 6 1 0 0 , S m i t h V. S m i t h , T h i r d A p p e l a t e D i s t r i c t C o u r t
o f t h e S t a t e o f C a l i f o r n i a , " V o l. 31, p p . 2 7 6 -2 7 7 .
C i v il Code o f th e S t a t e o f C a l i f o r n i a .
San F ra n c is c o , 1 9 3 9 .
A. V. Lake and Company,
One o f t h e m an y l e g a l s o u r c e b o o k s u t i l i z e d
in th e s tu d y .
C od e o f C i v i l P r o c e d u r e o f t h e S t a t e o f C a l i f o r n i a . A . V. L a k e
a n d C o m p an y , S a n F r a n c i s c o , 1 9 3 9 .
C o u r ts o f J u s t i c e , C i v i l a c t i o n s , and o t h e r p e r t i n e n t i n н
f o r m a tio n a r e d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s w ork.
T he s p e c i a l p r o c e e d н
in g s o f a c i v i l n a tu r e a re in c lu d e d .
P e e r i n g *s C o d e s o f t h e S t a t e o f C a l i f o r n i a .
B a n c ro ft-W h itn e y
C om pan y, S a n F r a n c i s c o , 1 9 3 8 .
T he W e l f a r e a n d I n s t i t u t i o n s C o d e w a s i n c l u d e d i n t h i s w o r k .
L a d d , D. M . , " P r e v e n t i o n o f J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n c y , " T he D e p a r t н
m en t o f P u b l i c W e lf a r e and th e B ig B r o t h e r s a n d S i s t e r s
A s so c ia tio n .
C h i c a g o , V o l . 3 , 1937*1
189 p p .
An a d d r e s s g i v e n t o t h e a s s o c i a t i o n b y M r. L a d d , a n a g e n t
o f th e F e d e ra l B u reau o f I n v e s t i g a t i o n .
The e x t e n t o f
c rim e a n d d e l i n q u e n c y i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s was f u l l y
d e sc rib e d .
L a n e , W i n t h r o p , "W h at M a k e s C r i m e , " P u b l i c A f f a i r s C o m m i t t e e
I n c o r p o r a t e d . New Y o r k : 1 9 3 9 .
31 P P .
A l a y d i s c u s s i o n o f c rim e a n d w hat c a u s e s i t .
Law s R e l a t i n g t o t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e .
(Ju v e n ile
C o u r t Law) S a c r a m e n t o : C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 4 0 .
35 P P .
A p a m p h l e t d e s c r i b i n g c h a n g e s m ad e i n t h e s t a t u t e s t h a t h a v e
c h a n g e d p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e J u v e n i l e C o u r t L aw .
L in d sey , Ben B ., E x p la n a tio n s , S u g g e s tio n s , and Recommendations
C o n cern in g The C h ild r e n ^ C ourt o f C o n c ila tio n . Los A ngeles,
June 18, 1940.
A m im e o g ra p h e d p a m p h le t d e s c r i b i n g
t h e n ew c o u r t .
162
L in d s e y , B en B . , R e p o r t o f t h e
2 7 > 1939 t o M arch 2 6 , 1 9 4 0 ,
C o n c ilia tio n ,
Los A n g e le s,
A s t a t i s t i c a l r e p o r t o f th e
t e r p r e t e d from p ro c e e d in g s
trib u n a l.
S i x M o n th P e r i o d f r o m S e p t e m b e r
o f th e C h ild r e n ?s C o u rt o f
June, 1940.
v a l u e o f t h e new c o u r t a s i n н
o f th e Los A n g e les b ra n c h
P e n a l C od e o f t h e S t a t e o f C a l i f o r n i a . A . V. L a k e a n d C o m p an y ,
San F ra n c is c o , 1939.
I n c l u d e s f a c t s c o n c e rn in g c rim e and p u n ish m e n t a s w e l l a s
c rim in a l p ro c e d u re and th e l i k e .
P l o v e r , J o h n P.,, S u p e r v i s o r o f J u v e n i l e P r o b a t i o n , B i e n n i a l
R e p o rt o f th e D e p a rtm e n t o f S o c i a l W e lf a r e . S a c ra m e n to :
C a lifo rn ia S ta te P r in tin g O ffic e , 1939.
. A p re s e n ta tio n o f c h ild w e lfa re a c t i v i t i e s and s t a t i s t i c s .
P r o b a t e C o d e o f t h e S t a t e o f C a l i f o r n i a . A . Y. L a k e a n d Comн
pany, San F ra n c isc o , 1939.
U sed to d e te rm in e c e r t a i n o b s c u re f a c t s o f a l e g a l n a t u r e .
R y e r s o n , Sam , c o m p i l e r , R e p o r t o f t h e A n n u a l C o n f e r e n c e o n
P r e v e n tio n o f J u v e n ile D e lin q u e n c y .
The D e p a r t m e n t o f
P u b l i c W e lfa re and B ig B r o t h e r s ? an d S i s t e r s ? A s s o c ia t io n
o f I l l i n o i s , Y o l. 3, 1 9 3 4 -1 9 3 6 .
A c o m p i l a t i o n o f o u t s t a n d i n g s p e e c h e s m ade t o t h e c o n f e r н
e n c e s by a u t h o r i t i e s on c rim e and d e lin q u e n c y .
S c h o o l Code o f t h e S t a t e o f C a l i f o r n i a T o g e t h e r w i t h E x t r a c t s
fro m t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n . S a c ra m e n to : C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e P r i n t in g O f f ic e , 1937.
SFl pp.
A s o u rc e f o r th e l e g a l p r o v i s i o n s o f th e C a l i f o r n i a law
r e l a ti n g to tre a tm e n t o f d e lin q u e n ts in s p e c ia l sc h o o ls and
c la ss e s.
S ta tu te s of
O ffic e ,
G en eral
stitu tio
C a lifo rn ia .
S a c ra m e n to : C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e P r i n t i n g
1937.
401 p p .
l a w s , a m e n d m e n ts t o c o d e s , r e s o l u t i o n s , a n d c o n н
n a l a m e n d m e n ts a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s o u r c e .
T u rn e r, F lo re n c e * L*, d i r e c t o r ,
B ie n n ia l R eport o f th e S ta te
D e p a rtm e n t o r S o c i a l W e lf a r e .
S a c ra m e n to : C a lT f o r n ia S t a t e
P rin tin g O ffic e , 1938.
122 p p .
S t a t i s t i c s a re o f f e r e d o f s t a t e law s, c h ild w e lfa re a c t i v н
i t i e s , and s i m i l a r a g e n c ie s .
T he a c t i v i t i e s a n d i d e a l s o f
t h e D e p artm en t o f S o c i a l W e lfa re a r e p r e s e n t e d c o v e r in g th e
p e r io d 1936-19 38 .
16 3
T u rn e r, F lo re n c e L.-, d i r e c t o r , Laws R e la tin g to th e D epartm ent
o f S o c ia l W e lfa re . S acram ento: C a l if o r n ia S t a te P r i n t i n g
O ff ic e , 1 9 3 7 . 1 3 5 PP.
S e le c te d p o r tio n s o f th e v a rio u s codes a f f e c t i n g t h i s d eн
p a rtm e n t a r e in c lu d e d i n t h i s r e p o r t .
W elfare and I n s t i t u t i o n s Code o f the S t a t e o f C a l i f o r n i a .
S a c ra m en to : C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1939.
253 p p .
A r a t h e r c o m p l e t e s o u r c e f o r l e g a l m a t e r i a l s r e l a t i n g to~
th e e x te n t o f S ta te c o n tr o l o f d e lin q u e n c y .
Youth C o rre c tio n A u th o rity A c t. P h ila d e lp h ia : The Am erican Law
I n s t i t u t e , June 22, 1940. 42 p p .
A model s e r i e s of law s t h a t sh o u ld be e n a c te d i n th e s e v e r a l
s t a t e s i f th e maximum r e s u l t s a re to be r e a l i z e d r e l a t i v e
to d e lin q u e n ts .
Youth in C rim e. P h ila d e lp h ia : The Am erican Law I n s t i t u t e , M arch,
1940. 23 p p .
A pam phlet p r e s e n tin g th e r e s u l t s o f two y e a rs o f r e s e a r c h
c a r r i e d on by th e I n s t i t u t e . P r a c t i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l ad н
v ic e o f f e r e d .
APPENDIX
APPENDIX
CORRESPONDENCE AND INTERVIEWS
C h e rn in , M ilto n , B u reau o f P u b lic A d m in is tr a tio n , t h e U n iv e rн
s i t y o f C a li f o r n ia , B e rk e le y , J u ly 10, 1940.
C o rresp o n d en ce o f th e a u th o r in c lu d in g a d v ic e i n r e f e r e n c e
to le g a l d a ta u se d i n th e t h e s i s .
Down, R o b e r t H . , D i s t r i c t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l s ,
P a c i f i c G rove, C a l i f o r n i a , A u g u s t, 1940.
In te rv ie w w ith re g a r d to th e in c id e n c e o f d e lin q u e n c y in
t h e P a c i f i c G rove s c h o o l s .
F e n t o n , N orm an, D i r e c t o r o f t h e B u re a u o f J u v e n i l e R e s e a r c h o f
th e S chool o f E d u c a tio n , S ta n fo rd U n iv e r s ity , June 19,
1940.
C o rrespondence to o b ta in in fo rm a tio n c o n c e rn in g th e
C a l i f o r n i a B ureau o f J u v e n i l e R e s e a rc h .
F r i e l , E ld o n , A tto r n e y a t law , San F r a n c is c o , C a l i f o r n i a ,
O c to b e r, 1940.
I n t e r v i e w i n w h ic h a g r e a t d e a l o f a d v ic e w as o b t a i n e d by
th e a u th o r.
F r i n k , E l l e n , L i b r a r i a n f o r t h e C o u n ty o f M o n te r e y , S a l i n a s ,
C a lif o r n ia , J u ly , 1940.
I n t e r v i e w i n w h ic h m any l e g a l q u e s t i o n s w e re d i s c u s s e d .
F o r c e , Jam es G ., C o u n ty S u p e r i n te n d e n t o f S c h o o ls , S a l i n a s ,
C a lif o r n ia , J u ly , 1940.
I n t e r v i e w i n w h ic h d e lin q u e n c y w as d i s c u s s e d w i t h r e g a r d
t o t h e M o n te re y C o u n ty s c h o o l s .
H a z e l r i g g , H . W ., S p e c i a l a d v i s o r t o t h e A m e r i c a n Law I n s t i t u t e ,
New Y o r k , J u l y 1 5 , 1 9 4 0 .
P e rs o n a l c o rre sp o n d e n c e to o b ta in l e g a l a d v ic e r e l a t i v e to
d e lin q u e n c y .
H i l l , L i l l i a n B . , C h ie f o f th e B u reau o f M e n ta l H y g ie n e , A tte n н
d a n c e , an d M ig r a to r y S c h o o ls o f th e S t a t e D e p a rtm e n t o f
E d u c a tio n , S a c ra m e n to , C a l i f o r n i a , Ju n e 1 8 , 1940.
C o rresp o n d en ce o f th e a u th o r to o b ta in in fo rm a tio n c o n c e rn н
in g s p e c ia l o f f e r in g s to d e lin q u e n ts in C a lif o r n ia .
166
J o r g e n s o n , H en ry G ., Ju d g e o f t h e S u p e r i o r C o u r t, M o n te re y
C o u n t y , C a l i f o r n i a , J u l y , 19 40*
I n t e r v i e w i n w h ic h M o n te re y C o u n ty p r o c e d u r e s w ere d i s н
c u s s e d , a l s o l e g a l p ro b lem s*
L e n tz , A l f r e d E . , A d m i n is tr a t iv e a d v is o r o f t h e D e p a rtm e n t o f
E d u c a tio n , S a c ra m e n to , C a l i f o r n i a , A u g u s t, 1 9 4 0.
C o rresp o n d en ce w ith re g a rd t o d e lin q u e n c y and th e s ta tu t e s *
L i n d s e y , B en B . , J u d g e o f t h e C h i l d r e n ' s C o u r t o f C o n c i l i a t i o n
o f t h e S u p e r io r C o u rt o f Los A n g e le s , J u n e , 1940.
P e r s o n a l c o rr e s p o n d e n c e o f t h e a u t h o r i n w h ic h i n f o r m a t i o n
w a s o b t a i n e d c o n c e r n i n g t h e c r e a t i o n o f a new c h i l d r e n ' s
c o u rt.
M o o re, G eo rg e H . , S t a t e P r i n t e r f o r t h e S t a t e o f C a l i f o r n i a ,
S a c ra m e n to , C a l i f o r n i a ,~ 0 c t o b e r , 1940.
P e r s o n a l c o r r e s p o n d e n c e i n w h ic h t h e r e l a t i v e m e r i t s o f
v a r i o u s p u b l i c a t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o d e lin q u e n c y w ere d i s c u s s e d .
O t i s , N ey, P r o b a t i o n O f f i c e r f o r t h e C o u n ty o f M o n te re y ,
S a l i n a s , C a l i f o r n i a , J u l y , 1 940*
I n te r v ie w i n w h ic h th e a u th o r l e a r n e d o f th e p r o b a t i o n a r y
p r o c e d u r e s o f - M o n te r e y C o u n ty .
P l o v e r , Jo h n P . , A c tin g S u p e r v i s o r o f A d o p tio n s , D e p a rtm e n t o f
S o c ia l W e lfa re , S a c ra m e n to , -J u n e , 1940.
P e rs o n a l c o rre sp o n d e n c e o f th e w r i t e r c o n c e rn in g c e r t a i n
l e g a l a s p e c ts o f d e lin q u e n c y i n C a li f o r n ia .
g s t h e r e a r e o r d i n a r i l y l e s s t r a i n i n g r e н
q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h o s e who a r e e x p e c t e d t o a l t e r t h e c o n н
d u c t te n d e n c ie s of d e lin q u e n ts th a n th e r e a re f o r th o se
who t r e a t s i c k c a t t l e *1
The r o l e
o f th e te a c h e r and sc h o o l a d m in is tr a to r canн
n o t be o v e rlo o k e d o r u n d e rv a lu e d i n c o n s id e r in g w hat can be
done to
ch eck th e g ro w th d e lin q u e n c y *
A ll young c h ild r e n
sh o w in g d e l i n q u e n t t e n d e n c i e s s h o u l d b e d e a l t w i t h a s s o o n
a s p o s s ib le and a p la n o f f u tu r e
s h o u l d b e m ad e t o
in su re
w ith c h ild r e n , be i t
The a p p r o a c h .
tre a tm e n t o u tlin e d .
c o o p e r a t i o n b e t w e e n a l l who d e a l
th ro u g h th e s c h o o l,
o r p o lic e *
own p e c u l i a r r a m i н
T he g e n e r a l p h i l o s o p h y o f t r e a t m e n t s h o u l d n o t b e
to p u n ish b u t to t r e a t th e c h il d
1
ch u rch ,
T he a p p r o a c h t o e a c h d e l i n q u e n t m u s t
b e m ad e i n d i v i d u a l l y a s e a c h c a s e h a s i t s
fic a tio n s*
E ffo rts
and to r e g a r d th e o ffe n s e
W i l l i a m E* H e a l y a n d A u g u s t a B r o n n e r , New L i g h t o n
D e l i n q u e n c y a n d I t s T r e a t m e n t (New H a v e n : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y
P re s s , 19 3 6 ), p . 221.
and n o t th e
o ffen d er.
P ro b a tio n has b een u t i l i z e d
t o som e d e g r e e a s a m e t h o d
o f t r e a t m e n t b u t i n m any i n s t a n c e s t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s
of th is
*
ty p e o f h a n d lin g have been s a d ly o v e rlo o k e d ,
h a s b e e n m ad e t o
m e n t,
c o n tin u e i n fo llo w -u p p ro c e d u re s .
in any e v e n t, m ust be f i t t e d
th e in d iv id u a l to th e
The t r e a t н
to th e in d iv id u a l and n o t
The k e y n o t e o f f u t u r e r e s e a r c h ,
w h ic h i s a b s o l u t e l y e s s e n t i a l ,
th e pro g ram i s
effo rt
tre a tm e n t.
F u tu re tr e a tm e n t.
if
and l i t t l e
s h o u l d be a im e d a t p r e v e n t i o n
t o b e im p ro v e d .
Im p ro v em en ts i n
m eth o d s o f h a n d lin g m u s t b e a c h ie v e d a t t h e r i s k
th e p r e s e n t
of ev er-
i n c r e a s i n g t r e n d s to w a rd m a lb e h a v io r and d e lin q u e n c y .
S ta tis tic s
te ll
th e s t u d e n t t h a t i f
a d u l t h o o d w i t h o u t b e c o m in g d e l i n q u e n t ,
lih o o d o f h i s e v e r d o in g s o .
M o reover,
a c h i l d grow s t o
th e re is
little
lik e н
i t h a s a l s o b e e n sh o w n
t h a t w ith e x p e r t tr e a tm e n t d e lin q u e n c y can be h eaded o f f .
fu tu re
co u rse o f a c tio n i s
re m a in in g o b s ta c le l i e s
c l e a r l y d e fin e d so t h a t th e
in th e le th a r g y o f p u b lic
who h a v e t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o
tre a tm e n t.
T he
c h ie f
se rv a n ts
im p ro v e p r e s e n t m eth o d s o f
S p o ra d ic c am p aig n s h a v e o f t e n b e e n i n s t i g a t e d due
t o g e n u i n e p u b l i c r e a c t i o n a f t e r som e s p e c t a c u l a r c a s e h a s
draw n w id e a t t e n t i o n ,
b u t i n a s h o r t p e r i o d o f tim e t h i n g s
seem t o f a l l b a c k i n t o p r e v i o u s g ro o v e s a n d l i t t l e
I n v iew o f t h e s t a t i s t i c s
stu d ie d ,
it
is
g a in e d .
seem s f u t i l e
to
a t t e m p t t o re d e e m a d u l t c r i m i n a l s a s t h e y h a v e becom e s e t i n
139
th e ir a c tio n s
o v e r a p e r i o d e x t e n d i n g f o r m any y e a r s .
T he
r e a l c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t s h o u l d h e m ade d u r i n g t h e c h i l d h o o d
y e a r s w hen t h e r e
a c h ie v e d .
A g a in ,
i s so m e p o s s i b i l i t y
le t
fo r success
to be
i t be n o te d t h a t th e s c h o o l o c c u p ie s an
a d v a n ta g e o u s p o s i t i o n w ith i t s
m any f a c i l i t i e s
f o r th e handн
l i n g o f c h i l d r e n t o a s s e r t i t s e l f m ore a g g r e s s i v e l y i n t h e
p ro b le m b e in g c o n s id e r e d .
C o rre c tio n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s .
a r e n o t d o in g a g r e a t d e a l to
C o rre c tio n a l i n s titu tio n s
check o r t r e a t d e lin q u e n ts ,
a l t h o u g h m an y p e r s o n s s u f f e r u n d e r a d e l u s i o n a s t o t h i s
The s t r o n g p o i n t s
w h ic h a r e
of th is
s o r t o f tre a tm e n t l i e
d e te r r e n t and re fo rm a tiv e ,
c o m p lish ed *
p o in t.
i n m eth o d s
n e i t h e r o f w h ic h i s
acн
H e rd in g d e li n q u e n t s t o g e t h e r i n re fo rm s c h o o ls
d o e s m ore t o i n c r e a s e d e l i n q u e n c y t h a n t o
check i t
because of
th e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h o t h e r c r i m i n a l s i n an a tm o sp h e re w h ic h
is
d e c id e d ly a b n o rm al and o f te n tim e s
in h u m a n e .
Even i f
som e
p r o g r e s s i s m ad e i n t h e
c o r r e c tio n a l sc h o o ls i n th e h a n d lin g
o f th e s e y o u th s,
o r no a f t e r
little
tre a tm e n t i s
a tte m p te d
and c h ild r e n e a s i l y f a l l back in to t h e i r o ld h a b its
h a v io r p a tt e r n s o n ly t o re a p p e a r a t a l a t e r
and b e н
tim e a s s e c o n d
o ffen d ers.
B e c a u s e o f m a n ' s l i m i t e d k n o w l e d g e o f hum an n a t u r e
th e re i s
a p o ss ib ility
w ill be of a s s is ta n c e
p o p u la tio n ,
th a t rese a rc h w ill uncover fa c ts th a t
in th e tre a tm e n t o f t h is
gro u p o f o u r
b u t th e se e f f o r t s w ill be in v a in i f
th e g e n e ra l
140
s p i r i t o f th e p u b lic i s
n o t th o ro u g h ly and a c t i v e l y
C ase w ork a p p r o a c h .
Of a l l
in siste n t.
t h e m e t h o d s now b e i n g f o l н
lo w e d i n t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f y o u t h f u l o f f e n d e r s ,
th e c a se
w o rk a p p r o a c h h a s show n t h e m o s t c o n s i s t e n t s u c c e s s .
p o te n t in flu e n c e
in th e liv e s
e r a l s p i r i t of th e
th a t an a ttitu d e
of
ju v e n ile s l ie s
A n o th e r
in th e genн
c o m m u n ity , a s n u m e ro u s s t u d i e s
in d ic a te
o f law a b id a n c e te n d s t o re d u c e th e
in c id e n c e
o f d e lin q u e n c y t o a c o n s id e ra b le e x te n t.
The k e y n o t e o f f u t u r e r e s e a r c h m u s t b e d i r e c t e d
l e a r n i n g m o r e w i t h r e g a r d t o how b e s t t o
ra th e r
t r e a t d e lin q u e n c y ,
t h a n a s t o how b e s t t o e l i m i n a t e i t s
causes.
M ore
fo llo w -u p s t u d i e s n eed to be c o n d u c te d and th e r e s u l t s
a te d b e fo re
any g r e a t s t r i d e s
to w a rd
e v a lu н
c a n be e x p e c te d i n t h e s u c c e s s н
f u l h a n d lin g o f t h i s m a lb e h a v e d se g m en t o f th e
y o u th fu l popuн
la tio n .
III.
I t is
BEC GMMEHDATIOKS
th e p u rp o se o f t h i s
to p r e s e n t th e r e c e m e n d a tio n s
s e c tio n o f th e f in a l c h a p te r
t h a t h a v e becom e a p p a r e n t f o l н
lo w in g an e x h a u s tiv e s tu d y o f f a c t o r s r e l a t i n g
and i t s
tre a tm e n t.
to
d e lin q u e n c y
S uch re c o m m e n d a tio n s a r e b a s e d upon th e
w r i t e r * s own o p i n i o n s w h i c h i n t u r n w e r e s h a p e d t o so m e e x н
t e n t from th e
lite ra tu re
on d e lin q u e n c y c o u p le d w ith t h e
f a c t s g a in e d fro m i n t e r v i e w s and d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h a u t h o r i t i e s
in
th is
fie ld .
141
The r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a r e f i r s t
d isc u sse d in g e n e ral
t e r m s a n d t h e n m o re m i n u t e l y p r e s e n t e d a s s p e c i f i c s u g g e s t i o n s .
G e n e ra l re c o m m e n d a tio n s.
C la r ity o f p u rp o se i s
th e
p rim e e s s e n t i a l to th e s u c c e s s f u l h a n d lin g o f d e li n q u e n t s ;
th is
c la rity
o b je c tiv e ,
sh o u ld be rounded upon
(2 )
a
e n lig h te n e d p u b lic
sc ie n tific
(1 ) a c l e a r l y d e f i n e d
and w o rk a b le t e c h n iq u e ,
(3) a n
o p in io n .
I n g e n e ra l, m ost at
th e l a r g e r c i t i e s
in th e S ta te o f
C a l i f o r n i a h a v e som e s o r t o f p r o g r a m o u t l i n e d f o r t h e p r e н
v e n tio n and tr e a tm e n t o f y o u th fu l o f f e n d e r s ,
b u t m any r u r a l
a r e a s n e e d a m ore c l e a r l y d e f i n e d c o u n ty o r g a n i s t i o n t h a t
w ill tie
in w ith th e
sc h o o l,
and w ith c h ild p r o t e c ti v e
ju v e n ile
a c tiv itie s .
c o u rt* fa m ily w e lfa r e ,
L ocal o rg a n iz a tio n s
m u s t b e e n c o u r a g e d w h e r e som e t y p e o f c o o r d i n a t e d e f f o r t c a n
be e s t a b l i s h e d and c a r r i e d o u t.
A l t h o u g h c e r t a i n s t a t e w i d e r e c o r d s a r e now b e i n g t a b u н
la te d ,
a d e f i n i t e and u n ifo rm sy ste m o f r e c o r d s and s t a t i s t i c s
m ust be e s t a b l is h e d o v e r a l l
t i o n b e tw e e n n a t i o n a l ,
sta te ,
of C a lifo rn ia .
C lo s e r co o p eraн
and c o u n ty f a c t - f i n d i n g a g e n c ie s
w o u ld m ake a u n i f o r m s y s te m o f a c t i o n m ore f e a s i b l e
p re se n t.
F ed eral fin a n c ia l a s s is ta n c e
th an a t
th ro u g h su c h a g e n c ie s
a s N .Y .A ., C .C .C .,
and S o c ia l S e c u r ity c o u ld be u t i l i z e d
in su re
o f a p ro g ram o f u t i l i z i n g
th e su c c e ss
to
e x is tin g f a c i l i н
tie s .
A f u l l e r c o o p e r a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e m an y p u b l i c a g e n c i e s
1A2
suck as th e c o u rts ,
v e lo p e d i f
and th e
sc h o o ls,
a n d c o m m u n ity g r o u p s m u s t ^be d e н
d u p lic a tio n o f e f f o r t and expense i s
ty p e
o f t r e a t m e n t im p ro v e d .
d i t i o n a l c o m m u n i ty f a c i l i t i e s
m ent o f d e lin q u e n ts ;
to
T here i s
to be re d u c e d
a need f o r a d н
e n la rg e and c o o rd in a te
tre a tн
f u r t h e r d e v e lo p m e n t o f th e f o llo w in g
a g e n c ie s i s
recom m ended: s m a l l d e t e n t i o n h o m es, m ore s u p e r v i s e d
re c re a tio n ,
c lu b s ,
g e t a d v ic e ,
c h ild c lin ic s
c e n te rs,
f a m i ly c l i n i c s w here p a r e n t s
to
can
t r e a t th o s e sh o w in g t h e f i r s t
s i g n s o f a n t i s o c i a l b e h a v i o r , a n d p o l i c e an d c rim e p r e v e n t i o n
d e p a rtm e n ts.
P u b lic
i n d i f f e r e n c e m u s t b e b r o k e n down t h r o u g h w e l l -
d ire c te d p u b lic ity ,
hom e v i s i t s ,
o p in io n i s a ro u se d s u f f i c i e n t l y
easy to
re g u la te ro ad h o u ses,
and th e l i k e .
it
s h o u ld be c o m p a ra tiv e ly
g a m b lin g , l i q u o r s a l e s
and o th e r d e m o ra liz in g in f lu e n c e s
C rim e p r e v e n t i o n i s
When p u b l i c
to m in o rs ,
i n t h e c o m m u n ity .
o v e r l o o k e d i n m any c i t i e s
because
o f t h e p r o b l e m o f how t o d e a l w i t h k n o w n d e l i n q u e n t s .
It
m u st b e rem em b ered t h a t m o st c r i m i n a l s show d e f i n i t e a n t i н
s o c ia l te n d e n c ie s in
e a r ly c h ild h o o d so t h a t a p r e v e n tiv e
p rog ram m ust s t a r t a s e a r l y a s p o s s i b l e .
C h ild re n m ust be
k e p t aw ay fro m t h e h a r d e n i n g i n f l u e n c e s o f t h e p o l i c e ,
and j a i l s .
c o u rts,
The w h o l e p r o g r a m s h o u l d e m p h a s i z e p r e v e n t i o n m o r e
th a n cu re b eca u se o f th e g r e a t e r p r o b a b i l i t y
ex p e rim e n ta l a t t i t u d e
of success.
The
m ust be d e v e lo p e d f o r c rim e p r e v e n tio n
pro gram s and a d e q u a te r e c o r d s ,
te s ts ,
and fo llo w -u p s tu d ie s
U3
c a rrie d on.
T he s c h o o l s h a v e p e r h a p s t h e b e s t s e t u p f o r
stu d y in g c h ild re n b ecause o f th e n a tu r a l r e la tio n s h i p
a lre a d y
e sta b lis h e d .
One o f t h e p r i m e e s s e n t i a l s
o f c rim e p r e v e n t io n i s
th a t
each case i s
d i f f e r e n t and no m ass tr e a tm e n t w i l l b e u n if o rm ly
su c c e ss fu l.
B e h a v io r t r a i t s
a p p lie d
o f th e c h ild m ust be s tu d ie d and
to p re v e n tio n p ro g ram s.
can? o f te n be r e d ir e c te d
b u ild in g g roup.
For in sta n c e ,
gang a c t i v i t i e s
i n t o a w h o leso m e c l u b o r c h a r a c t e r - ~
T r a i n e d w o r k e r s s h o u l d b e u t i l i z e d a s m an y
c o m m e n d a b le p r o g r a m s f a i l b e c a u s e o f t h e p o o r q u a l i t y
of
le a d e rs h ip .
R e c o m m e n d a tio n s r e l a t i v e
d e lin q u e n ts
in C a lifo rn ia .
to th e le g a l
tre a tm e n t o f
I n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e f o r m o r e comн
p l e t e p s y c h o lo g ic a l and p h y s i c a l e x a m in a tio n s
of c h ild re n in
C a lif o r n ia s te p s sh o u ld be u n d e rta k e n to a l t e r c e r t a i n s e c н
tio n s o f th e le g a l s tr u c tu r e
w h i c h now a c t s a s a c h e c k u p o n
p r o g r e s s i v e m eth o d s o f p r o c e d u r e .
H a v in g d one t h i s
i t w ill
becam e i n c r e a s i n g l y e a s i e r t o l e a r n m ore a b o u t c h i l d r e n a n d
i n so d o in g p e rh a p s a c c o m p lish v i t a l s t r i d e s
to w a rd th e p r e н
v e n tio n and tre a tm e n t o f d e lin q u e n c y .
Laws m u s t b e e n a c t e d w h i c h w o u l d m ake c o m p u l s o r y s u c h
s u c c e s s fu l p la n s of
c o m m u n ity r e c r e a t i o n now b e i n g c a r r i e d
o u t b y so m e o f o u r m o r e p r o g r e s s i v e
c itie s .
T he u n d e r l y i n g
p h ilo s o p h y sh o u ld be to p r e v e n t d e lin q u e n c y and n o t t o w a ste
so m uch e f f o r t a n d m oney i n t r y i n g t o c u r e i t .
144
M any a g e n c i e s a n d p e r s o n s who d e a l w i t h d e l i n q u e n t s
o f t e n s p e a k o f v a r i o u s l e g a l r e s t r i c t i o n s w h ic h te n d t o
s e t o r check th e scope o f th e
fre e hand i s
ju v e n ile program .
o ffн
M ore o f a
need ed by en fo rcem en t a g e n c ie s i n d e a lin g w ith
d e lin q u e n ts a s o fte n tim e s
f e r e n t h a n d lin g ;
e a c h c a s e dem ands a som ew hat d i f н
t h e r e f o r e , m ak in g a d e f i n i t e l y p r e s c r i b e d
le g a l tre a tm e n t in a d v is a b le .
J u v e n ile
c o u r t s n e e d to be i n c r e a s e d b o th i n num ber
and i n th e scope o f th e
tre a tm e n t o ffe re d .
F u r th e r d e v e lo p н
m ent o f th e " in f o r m a l m e th o d ? o f j u r is p r u d e n c e m u st b e f o r t h н
c o m in g i f s t r i d e s a r e
c o u rt.
A ll tr a c e s
t o b e m ade i n d e a l i n g w i t h w a rd s o f t h e
o f th e p re s e n t c rim in a l c o u rt p ro ce d u re
m ust d is a p p e a r.
P e r s o n s h a v in g t o do w ith d e l i n q u e n t s m u st be a d e н
q u a te ly tr a in e d
in p sy c h o lo g ic a l and s o c ia l f i e l d s
g r e a te r e x te n t th a n a t p r e s e n t.
If
t o a m uch
th e s e w e l l- t r a i n e d w o rk ers
a r e p r o v id e d w ith p r o p e r f i n a n c i a l and a d v is o r y a s s i s t a n c e ,
th e a l l - i m p o r t a n t i n d i v i d u a l c a s e w ork c a n be e x p an d e d t o a
p o i n t w h e re e v e n m ore g o o d w ork w i l l f o l l o w .
Laws r e l a t i n g t o
fa irly
c h i l d r e n b e lo w n i n e t e e n y e a r s a r e
a d e q u a te a t p r e s e n t ,
i f p ro p e rly a d m in iste re d ,
so i t
i s . w i t h t h e a g e g r o u p b e t w e e n n i n e t e e n a n d t w e n t y w h e r e new
la w s a r e n e e d e d .
T h is g ro u p m akes up a l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e o f
t h e d e l i n q u e n c y a n d s t i l l we h a v e ^aй f e w l a w s w i t h w h i c h t o
le g a lly
t r e a t th e # .
145
The f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s a r e l i s t e d
a s b e in g d e s ir a b le
rec o m m e n d atio n s f o r c h a n g e s i n th e l e g a l
tre a tm e n t o f d e lin н
q u e n ts,
1* C r im e p r e v e n t i o n am ong y o u n g p e r s o n s who c a n b e
re m o ld e d s h o u ld be e m p h a siz e d .
2 . J u d g e s s h o u l d n o t m ak e t h e i r s e n t e n c e s t o o e x p l i c i t
o v e r c h i l d r e n a b o u t whom t h e y know l i t t l e .
3 . P ro m pt an d f a i r
tria ls
are e s s e n tia l.
4 . E a c h o f f e n d e r s h o u l d b e e x a m in e d t h o r o u g h l y by
p s y c h o lo g is ts and p h y sic ia n s b e fo re
t r i a l and th e n e c e ssa ry
in fo rm a tio n p la c e d i n th e h ands o f th e
ju d g e s b e fo r e t r i a l .
5. L egal p ro c e d u re s m ust be s im p lif ie d and d e le g a liz e d
&o t h a t t h e
in fo rm a lity
is
e m p h a siz e d .
6 . The j u d g e s h o u l d a c t a s a r e f e r e e
s o n who s i t s
and n o t as a p e r н
i n ju d g m en t t o d e te r m in e a d e q u a te p u n is h m e n t.
7* J u v e n i l e o f f e n d e r s s h o u l d a l w a y s b e k e p t u n d e r o b н
s e r v a t i o n and p e r i o d i c a l l y t r e a t e d u n t i l each c a se i s
c lo se d ;
i n som e c a s e s t h i s
fin a lly
t r e a t m e n t m ay e x t e n d o v e r a p e r i o d
of y ears or a lif e tim e .
8. S e g re g a tio n o f c u ra b le and in c u r a b le
d e lin q u e n ts i s
recom m ended.
9 . Ho y o u t h s h o u l d b e r e l e a s e d f r o m a n i n s t i t u t i o n
or
fro m s u p e r v i s i o n i f h e h a s n o t show n e v i d e n c e o f im p ro v e m e n t.
10.
as to
E x a m in a tio n o f v i o l a t o r s
check th e p ro g re s s o r f a i l u r e
s h o u ld be c o n tin u o u s so
o f t h e mode o f t r e a t m e n t
U6
b e in g fo llo w e d .
1 1 . One s p e c i a l b o d y o r b o a r d s h o u l d h a v e c o m p l e t e
c o n tr o l o v er th e
th e
tre a tm e n t o f th e y o u th f u l o ffe n d e r d u rin g
c o u rse o f h is
d e lin q u e n t c a re e r.
1 2 . J u v e n ile c o u r ts s h o u ld n o t be a b o lis h e d b u t e x н
p a n d e d and im p ro v e d t o m e e t t h e dem ands o f m o d ern s o c i e t y .
13* F a c t - f i n d i n g b o d i e s s h o u l d b e e s t a b l i s h e d s o t h a t
t h e l e s s o n s l e a r n e d i n one s e c t i o n o f t h e c o u n t r y m ig h t be
trie d
in o th e r l o c a l i t i e s .
1 4 . T he p r e s e n t p r i s o n a t m o s p h e r e o f c o r r e c t i o n a l
s c h o o l s a n d j u v e n i l e a g e n c i e s m u s t b e r e p l a c e d b y m ore n o rm a l
an d i n f o r m a l m eth o d s o f t r e a t m e n t .
1 5 . P r o b a t i o n s h o u l d b e u t i l i z e d m o re t h a n i t h a s i n
t h e p a s t i n a s m u c h a s i t h a s b e e n s h o w n t o b e m o re e f f e c t i v e
an d e v en m ore e c o n o m ic a l t h a n i n s t i t u t i o n a l i n c a r c e r a t i o n .
1 6 . New m o d e s o f l e g a l
tre a tm e n t such as th e C h ild re n * s
C o u r t o f C o n c i l i a t i o n a r e recom m ended t o c o p e w i t h t h e s o c i a l
d iffic u ltie s
a r i s i n g fro m d i v o r c e an d b r o k e n hom es a n d t h e
lik e .
R e c o m m e n d a tio n s f o r t h e
th ro u g h e d u c a tio n .
tre a tm e n t o f d e lin q u e n ts
The m o s t e f f e c t i v e w o r k o f t h e s c h o o l i s
to p r e s e r v e and s a n e ly d e v e lo p c h ild r e n o f norm al p e r s o n a l i t y .
I n so d o in g a c o n s t a n t v i g i l
so n a lity
c o n flic ts
sh o u ld be k e p t to
d isc o v e r p e rн
as e a r l y a s p o s s ib le so t h a t a p p r o p r ia te
s t e p s m ay b e t a k e n a t a t i m e w h e n t h e r e
is
a r e a s o n a b le hope
147
f o r su c c e ssfu l tre a tm e n t.
S t u d i e s a n d r e s e a r c h , on th e a s p e c t s
o f p e r s o n a l i t y w i l l show d i v i d e n d s i n th e f u t u r e b o t h i n t h e
w e ll-d e v e lo p e d p e r s o n a lity and i n
The t e a c h e r i s
th e
term s o f d o l l a r s and c e n ts .
c r u c ia l f a c to r in th e
e d u c a tio n a l
schem e a n d ev en g r e a t e r c a r e s h o u ld be t a k e n i n t h e s e l e c t i o n
of p ro p e rly
tr a in e d and w e ll- a d ju s te d p e rs o n n e l.
Too m u c h .e m н
p h a s i s h a s b e e n p l a c e d u p o n a c a d e m ic r e q u i r e m e n t s a n d c r e d e n н
tia ls
and to o l i t t l e
e m p h a sis p la c e d upon v i t a l p e r s o n a l i t y
fa c to rs.
T he f o l l o w i n g s u g g e s t i o n s a r e
f o r th e
tre a tin g
o f f e r e d a s rec o m m e n d atio n s
of d e lin q u e n ts and p o t e n t i a l d e lin q u e n ts
th r o u g h e d u c a t i o n a l m eans and f a c i l i t i e s .
1.
T he s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n s h o u l d b e m ade m o re f l e x i b l e
and s e n s itiv e
to
change.
2 . T each ers s h o u ld be c a r e f u l l y t r a i n e d and s e le c te d
w ith due c o n s i d e r a ti o n g iv e n
a lity
fa c to rs
to th e im p o rta n c e o f th e p e rs o n н
in v o lv e d .
3. S p e c ia l te a c h e rs d e a lin g w ith d e lin q u e n ts
sh o u ld conн
t i n u o u s l y k e e p a b r e a s t o f t h e a d v a n c e s i n n ew m e t h o d s o f t r e a t н
m e n t.
4 . C l o s e r c o o p e r a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e s c h o o l a n d t h e home
is
d e s ira b le and n e c e ssa ry .
3.
T here i s
o p in io n so t h a t d e s i r a b l e
be a c c e p te d .
a d e fin ite
need f o r an e n lig h te n e d p u b lic
changes i n o rth o d o x tr e a tm e n t w i l l
14S
6 . B e h a v io r an d g u id a n c e c l i n i c s
w o rth u n d e r c o n t r o l l e d e x p e rim e n t,
th is
lin e
h en ce a n e x te n s io n a lo n g
i s reco m m ended.
7.
S c h o o ls need to a v o id c o n d itio n s
p ro ced u res,
c e rta in
h a v e sh o w n t h e i r
sev ere
causes
to d e lin q u e n c y ,
S.
d is c ip lin e ,
such as lo c k -s te p
and r i d i c u l e by p la y m a te s i f
o f t r u a n c y an d m a lb e h a v io r , w h ic h o f t e n l e a d
a r e t o be rem o v ed .
A d e q u ate t e s t i n g
and d ia g n o s tic program s sh o u ld be
e x te n d e d .
9. V o c a tio n a l g u id a n c e i s
e s s e n t i a l i n a w e ll ro u n d ed
c u rric u lu m .
1 0 . F u r t h e r d e v e lo p m e n t o f r e c r e a t i o n i s
v ie w o f i t s
e s s e n tia l in
v a lu e a s a d e te r r e n t to a n t i s o c i a l b e h a v io r.
1 1 . T e a c h e r s m ay w e l l u t i l i z e
p h a s i z e w h o le s o m e i d e a l s
c la ssro o m
c o n t a c t s t o emн
o f good s p o r ts m a n s h ip an d f a i r p l a y .
1 2 . A d u lt e d u c a t i o n , when p r o p e r l y d i r e c t e d ,
v ita l
can be a
c o n n e c t i n g l i n k b e t w e e n t h e home a n d t h e s c h o o l .
13. C la s s e s sh o u ld be sm a ll enough to b r in g a b o u t th e
m aximum i n p u p i l - t e a c h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s .
14.
The t r a d i t i o n a l s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m m u s t b e a d a p t e d t o
m odern n e e d s e s p e c i a l l y w i t h r e g a r d t o
m ent o f th e
th e
in d iv id u a l d e v e lo p н
c h ild .
1 5 . D e m o c ra tic p u p i l - t e a c h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s s h o u ld be e n н
c o u rag ed .
149
R e o o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r c o m m u n i ty c o o p e r a t i o n i n t h e p r e н
v e n tio n o f d e lin q u e n c y .
m u n ity a s a n in f lu e n c e
he u n d e re stim a te d .
s p i r i t o f th e
The e x t r e m e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e comн
to w a rd d e lin q u e n c y p r e v e n t i o n c a n n o t
I t h a s r e p e a t e d l y b e e n sh o w n t h a t t h e
c o m m u n ity i s
a r e a l and v i t a l i n f lu e n c e to w a rd
p r e v e n tin g and c h e c k in g d e lin q u e n t te n d e n c ie s .
S u g g e s te d re c o m m e n d a tio n s f o r a f u l l e r
?th e i n f l u e n c e
o f th e
d e v e lo p m e n t o f
c o m m u n ity f o l l o w i n d e t a i l :
1 . A n e t w o r k o f n e i g h b o r h o o d a n d c o m m u n ity a c t i v i t i e s
is
needed to p ro v id e c o u n te r a t t r a c t i o n s
fo r th o se
in d iv id u a ls
who a r e i n c l i n e d t o w a r d d e l i n q u e n c y .
2 . P u b lic r e c r e a t i o n m u st be g r e a t l y e x te n d e d and
d e v e lo p e d .
3. A f u l l e r u tiliz a tio n
such as sc h o o ls,
th e l i k e
is
ch u rch es,
o f e x i s t i n g c o m m u n i ty f a c i l i t i e s
and r e c r e a t i o n c e n t e r s and p a rk s and
recom m ended.
4 . P a r e n ts sh o u ld be a s s i s t e d by q u a li f ie d
e x p e rts
in
d e a l in g w ith s p e c i a l b e h a v io r and p e r s o n a l i t y p ro b le m s h a v in g
to
do w i t h c h i l d r e n .
3.
tra in in g
P a r e n ts m ost c e r t a i n l y s ta n d in need o f f u r t h e r
in th e c a re and tre a tm e n t of t h e i r c h ild r e n .
6 . C l i n i c a l g u id a n c e , m e d ic a l,
c e n te rs
d e n ta l,
and p sy c h o lo g ic a l
s h o u l d b e d e v e l o p e d a n d e x t e n d e d w h e r e now i n e x i s t e n c e .
7 . P a r e n t a l c e n t e r s a r e n e e d e d w here m a r i t a l a n d s o c i a l
p r o b l e m s c a n b e a d j u s t e d s o a s t o p r e v e n t b r o k e n h o m es
(one o f
150
th e g r e a te s t s in g le
fa c to rs
l e a d in g to w a rd th e d e lin q u e n c y o f
th e ir c h ild re n )*
8 . C o o r d i n a t i n g c o u n c i l s a n d s i m i l a r p l a n s o f c o m m u n ity
c o o p e r a t i o n a r e h i g h l y recom m ended a s b e i n g e f f e c t i v e
in
th e
h a n d lin g of J u v e n ile s w ith a n t i s o c i a l te n d e n c ie s .
9 . A m i l i t a n t and s c i e n t i f i c program t h a t w i l l g u id e ,
a d v is e , en co u rag e, and s u s t a i n p a r e n t a l e f f o r t s i s p e rh a p s th e
b a s ic need o f th e community in i t s endeavor to t r e a t and p r e н
v e n t ju v e n ile d e lin q u e n c y .
BIBLIOGRAPHY
BIBLIOGRAPHY
A.
BOOKS
A n d e r s o n , V e r n o n V . , P s y c h i a t r y i n E d u c a t i o n * New Y o r k :
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470 p p .
An e x c e l l e n t a n d r e a d a b l e s o u r c e t h a t s t r e s s e d t h e r e l a н
t i o n o f p e r s o n a l i t y d ev elo p m e n t to s u c c e s s i n l i f e a c t i v i н
tie s.
I t c o n t a i n s m any c h a r t s a n d c a s e h i s t o r i e s .
B a k e r , H . I . , a n d V i r g i n i a T r a p h a g e n , T he D i a g n o s i s a n d
T r e a t m e n t o f B e h a v i o r - P r o b l e m C h i l d r e n . New Y o r k : The
M a c m i l l a n C o m p an y , 1 9 3 3 *
393 p p .
T h is s o u rc e p r e s e n t s th e D e t r o i t B e h a v io r S c a le a n d
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o f C h ic a g o P r e s s , 19291
189 p p .
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D e lin q u e n ts.
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341 p p .
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The
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of j u v e n i l e d e lin q u e n ts w ere l i s t e d a lo n g
w ith re c o m m e n d a tio n s f o r f u t u r e c h a n g e s .
G lu e c k , S h e ld o n , and E l e a n o r T ., e d i t o r s , P r e v e n t i n g C rim e .
New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l B o o k C o m p an y , I n c . , 1 9 3 6 .
509 PP .
A C o l l e c t i o n o f c h a p t e r s b y a u t h o r i t i e s on y o u th p ro b le m s
as th e y a f f e c t our n a tio n ? an e x c e lle n t so u rc e .
_________ , P r o b a t i o n a n d C r i m i n a l J u s t i c e .
New Y o r k :
M a c m i l l a n C o m p an y , 1 9 3 3 .
344 PP.
A v e ry good book on th e s u b j e c t o f p r o b a tio n .
The
H a r r i s o n , L e o n a rd V ., a n d P r y o r M c N e ill G r a n t , Y o u th i n t h e
T o ils .
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lS 7 PP.
T h is book p r e s e n t s an a p p e a lin g and e n li g h t e n i n g p i c t u r e
o f y o u th p ro b le m s.
I t c o n ta in s , in p a r t, a c tu a l s t a t i s н
t i c s c o n c e rn in g y o u th and c rim e .
153
H e a ly , W illia m , an d A u g u sta B ro n n e r,
New Y o r k : T he M a c m i l l a n C o m p an y ,
A p u b l i c a t i o n o f th e Judge B ak er
o f t h e s t u d i e s c a r r i e d o n i n tw o
D e lin q u e n ts and C r im in a ls *
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317 P P .
F o u n d a tio n ,
A d e sc rip tio n
A m e ric an c i t i e s *
_______ , New L ig h t on D elinquency and I t s T re a tm e n t,
New
H aven: Y a le U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 3 6 ,
226 p p .
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R e la tio n s ,
The n e w e s t d a t a a r e p r e s e n t e d i n d e t a i l ,
_________ , P e r s o n a l i t y i n F o r m a t i o n a n d A c t i o n ,
New Y o r k : W, W*
N o r t o n a n d C o m p an y , 1 9 3 3 *
204 P P .
M a t e r i a l s o f p e r s o n a l i t y f o r m a tio n w ere d is c u s s e d w i t h
a l l th e im p lic a tio n s f o r th e f u tu r e d i r e c ti o n of e f f o r t ,
K a p la n , A lb e r t J . , A S tu d y o f th e B e h a v io r P ro b le m P u p i l i n a
S econdary S c h o o l,
P h i l a d e l p h i a : A* J . K a p l a n , 1 9 3 3 .
137 PP.
A p u b lis h e d d o c to r ?s d i s s e r t a t i o n c o n c e rn in g a d u lt and
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K e i t t , L a u r e n c e , An A n n o t a t e d B i b l i o g r a p h y o f B i b l i o g r a p h i e s
o f S t a t u t o r y M a t e r i a l s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s " ! C a m b r i d g e :'
H arv ard U n iv e rs ity P r e s s , 1974.
191 PP.
An e x c e l l e n t s o u r c e f o r l e g a l b i b l i o g r a p h i e s .
R e c k le s s , W a lte r C ., an d S m ith M apheus, J u v e n i l e D e lin q u e n c y ,
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R ic h a r d s , E s t h e r L . , B e h a v io r A s p e c ts o f C h ild C o n d u c t*
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"
A boo k o f t a b l e s a n d s t a t i s t i c s w h ic h i l l u s t r a t e th e e x н
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The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f p e r s o n a l i t y a n d e d u c a t i o n a l p r o н
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B r i d g e s , J . W ., a n d K. M. B r i d g e s , " A P s y c h o l o g i c a l S t u d y o f
J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n c y b y G ro u p M e t h o d s , " G e n e t i c P s y c h o l o g y
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' ,
C a l i f o r n i a P r o b a t i o n N e w s.
D iv isio n o f P ro b a tio n ,
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T h is
w ork p r o v id e d e x c e l l e n t b a c k g ro u n d m a t e r i a l w i t h r e g a r d
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