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A comparative study of school adjustment problems of adolescent girls in a Los Angeles junior-senior high school

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A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SCHOOL ADJUSTMENT
PROBLEMS OF ADOLESCENT GIRLS IN A LOS
ANGELES JUNIOR-SENIOR HIGH
SCHOOL
A Thesis
Presented to
the Faculty of the School of Education
University of Southern California
In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Master of Science in Education
by
Martha Vavrfcer DuFault
August 19^1
UMI Number: EP54196
All rights reserved
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UMI EP54196
Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author.
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789 East Eisenhower Parkway
P.O. Box 1346
Ann Arbor, Ml 48106- 1346
o
T h i s the sis, w r i t t e n u n d e r th e d i r e c t i o n o f th e
C h a i r m a n o f th e c a n d id a te ’ s G u id a n c e C o m m i t t e e
a n d a p p r o v e d b y a l l m e m b e rs o f th e C o m m i t t e e ,
has been p re s e n t e d to a n d a c c e p te d b y th e F a c u l t y
o f th e S c h o o l o f E d u c a t i o n o f T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f
S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f th e
r e q u ir e m e n t s f o r th e d e g re e o f M a s t e r o f S c ie n c e
in E d u c a t i o n .
Date.Fy^m^...30 ,...1941
D ean
Guidance Com m ittee
W. H. LaPorte
Chairm an
Pauline Frederick
D. Welty Lefever
TABLE OP CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I.
PAGE
PRESENTATION OF THE P R O B L E M ..............
The p r o b l e m .........
1.
.
Statement of the problem
1
.
1
Scope of this investigation..........
2
Significance of the study
........
2
..........
k
..............
5
Educating the adolescent g i r l ........
7
Review of related liters,ture
Problems of adolescence
Specific adolescent cases
............
Method of p r o c e d u r e ...................
10
15
The questionnaire method of
p r o c e d u r e .........................
Methods of measuring attitudes........
16
Procedure for this study
17
............
School d a t a ...........................
19
...................
19
School personnel
Personal data
II.
15
..........
20
Organization of remainingchapters . . . .
20
PROBLEMS ARISING FROM THE GRADING SYSTEM . .
55
Unhappiness from grading system
....
55
The problem of c h e a t i n g ..............
56
Improvement of grades
58
..............
Objection to grades received
........
59
iii
CHAPTER
PAGE
Summary
III.
.........................
59
SCHOOL ATTENDANCE PROBLEMS ................
Daily attendance.....................
48
Cutting classes
48
.....................
Reasons for cutting classes
Class absences
..........
49
......................
49
S u m m a r y .............................
IV.
50
PROBLEMS CONCERNED WITH SUBJECT
R E Q U I R E M E N T ...........................
56
Reasons for disliking subjects . . . . .
56
Class enrollment p r o b l e m s ............
57
Importance of graduation requirements
57
Subject requirement guidance
•
........
S u m m a r y .............................
V.
57
58
..........
67
Club m e m b e r s h i p ......... ............
67
Reasons for non-participation inclubs
.
67
........
68
SCHOOL CLUBS AND COMMITTEES
Committee membership
VI.
48
Club o f f i c e r s .......................
68
Membership in Athletic Association
68
'.
Time schedule for c l u b s ..............
69
S u m m a r y .............................
69
PROBLEMS DUE TO STUDY AND TO HOME WORK
Problem of home work
..
74
................
74
CHAPTER
VII.
PAGE
Parents1 influence on s t u d y ..........
75
Environment for home study
. . . . . .
75
S u m m a r y .............................
76
PROBLEM OF MAKING FRIENDS
Individual insecurities
. ..............
85
..............
85
Guidance selection
........
Girl relationships
..................
Giri-teacher relationships
.....
..........
S u m m a r y .............................
VIII.
SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS..............
S u m m a r y ...............................
Grading system
...........
School attendance
Clubs and committees
.
86
86
87
89
89
90
....................
Subject requirement
86
.............
95
95
................
9^
Study and home w o r k ..................
9^
Making friends
9^
......................
Recommendations...................
95
Problems arising from the grading
system
...........................
School attendance problems
..........
95
96
Problems concerned with subject
r e q u i r e m e n t .......................
School clubs and committees
........
96
96
V
CHAPTER
PAGE
Problems due to study and home work
...
Problem of making f r i e n d s .............'
BIBLIOGRAPHY...................
A P P E H D I X .......................................
97
97
99
104
LIST OF TABLES
lGE
Problems Arising from the Grading
System--Grades
. . . . . .
..............
24
Problems Arising from the Grading
System--Grades (Percentages)
............
27
Problems Arising from the Grading
System--Ages...........................
30
Problems Arising from the Grading
System--Ages (Percentages)
. . . . . . . .
33
........
42
..................
43
School Attendance Problems--Ages..........
45
School Attendance Problems--Grades
School Attendance Problems— Grades
(Percentages) . . . . .
School Attendance Problems--Ages
(Percentages) ...........................
47
Problems Concerned with Subject Requirement-Grades
.................................
52
Problems Concerned with Subject Requirement-Grades (Percentages)
....................
53
Problems Concerned with Subject Requirement-Ages
.....................
. . .
54
Problems Concerned with Subject Requirement-Ages (Percentages)
.....................
School Clubs and Committees--Grs.des
. . . .
55
60
vii
TABLE
PAGE
XIV. School Clubs and Committees--Grades
(Percentages)
.........................
62
XV. School Clubs and Committees— A g e s ........
64
XVI. School Clubs and Committees— Ages
(Percentages)
.
66
XVII. Problems due to Study and to Home Work—
Gra.des
XVIII.
...............................
71
Problems due to Study and to Home Work-Grades (Percentages)
XIX.
72
Problems due to Study and to Home Work-Ages
.................................
73
XX. Problems due to Study and to Home Work-Ages (Percentages)
XXI.
XXII.
.................
Problem of Making Friends--Grades........
74
78
Problem of Making Friends--Grades
(Percentages)
.........................
XXIII.
Problem of Making Friends— Ages
XXIV.
Problem of Making Friends— Ages
80
. . . . . .
82
• • • • • • • • . . . • . •
84
Significant School Adjustment Problems . . .
91
(Percentages)
XXV.
.
CHAPTER I
PRESENTATION OF THE PROBLEM
Happy adjustments toward school, home, friends, and
self are becoming more and more important in the school of
today.
Too many conflicts in the girl*s relationships have
caused maladjustments, unhappiness, and often failures.
Within a group of so-called adjusted girls many problems
are apparent, the solution of which are meaningful and
important to the girl in her adolescent period.
A lack of
understanding often exists between the pupil and the edu­
cators with reference to the many relationships which are
important during the time the girl is in school.
To bring
about a better understanding of the conflicts which assail
the girl during this period of life, her problems must be
known and studied.
I.
THE PROBLEM
Statement of the problem.
It was the purpose of
this investigation (l) to collect opinions from the girls
themselves concerning problems of school adjustment' by
means of a questionnaire; (2) to make a comparative study
of these views as given by girls of a six-year city high
school; (3) to analyze and summarize the results; and
(4) from the results revealed to draw conclusions and
2
inferences of significance in the field of the relationship
of the adolescent girl toward the school.
Scope of this investigation.
This study was planned
to secure responses from girls in each grade of a Los
Angeles six-year high school.
The investigation included
only the so-called adjusted girls.
The girls who, because
of physical, social, or mental maladjustments, have had to
have special programming or help in school and social rela­
tionships by the administrative office are not included in
this study.
Significance of the study.
The building of a well-
adjusted, happy individual is of chief concern to an edu­
cator.
To become a leader of youth during the period of
conflict and growth known as adolescence, the educator must
become acquainted with the problems, interests, background,
aptitudes, and abilities of the pupils under his super­
vision.
Arthur Gould of the Los Angeles City Schools point­
ed out that a general recognition exists among those in
curriculum and guidance activities that more attention needs
to be given to problems of maturation and growth.
He fur­
ther stated that there is not sufficient information now
available with reference to problems of adolescence to
provide a satisfactory basis for developing a scope and
sequence of learning, at least in the secondary schools.
3
In the next few years it is reasonable to anticipate that
schools will have to make a number of adjustments in their
programs in accordance with findings regarding the develop1
2
mental characteristics of youth*
Stolz and others have
pointed out that classifications of junior high school age
needs are valuable only as a setting against which patterns
of individual development may be projected.
They may help
to illuminate our understanding of an individual's needs,
but they should in no sense be considered a substitute for
the investigation of specific problems.
Pintner^ stated
that the modern school is expected not only to teach the
pupil a certain amount of knowledge and to make him pro­
ficient in certain skills, but also to play a large part
in helping him to adjust satisfactorily to his social en­
vironment.
Knowing the problems of adolescents is the
first step in the study of how to prevent these problems
from arising.
How to deal with them when they do arise is
2i
what Kuth Strang pointed out in her study based upon
*** Arthur Gould, ’’Studies of Adolescent Needs and
Interests,” (unpublished bulletin from Los Angeles City
School District, Secondary Curriculum Section, May 20, 1937).
^ H. H. Stolz, M. C. Jones, J. Chaffey, ’’The Junior
High School Age,” University High School Journal, January,
1937.
“
“:
“
—
’
^ Rudolf Pintner, et. al., ’’The Measurement of Pupil
Adjustments,” Journal of Educational Research, 28:33^-^6>
January, 1935* •
li
,,
Ruth Strang, ’’Problems of Adolescents Which Come
to Deans,” Junior-Senior Clearing House, 7:29-34, September,
1932.
.
“ “
4
responses from twenty-seven deans in New York State.
Par­
ents and teachers need to keep before themselves the
persistent, universal problems of adolescence in order that
they may preserve an adequate sense of the reality and
seriousness of these problems.
II.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Many studies have been made which deal directly or
indirectly with the child, his characteristics, interests,
abilities, attitudes, and the like.
For the purpose of
this study, research was selected which would further the
information which has been gathered regarding the problems
which assail youth during the period of growth known as
adolescence.
To provide a better understanding for the
girl during this period of life, investigation was made of
the studies of adolescent characteristics.
There is a
wealth of information handling this problem of adolescence.
Much of it places emphasis on the unadjusted girl.
Some
of the more recent literature deal with the girl as a whole.
There is need for great wisdom in the guidance of
adolescents and in selecting the factors in understanding
the individuals or the group as a whole.
Symonds pointed
5 Leta S. Hollingworth, The Psychology of the
Adolescent (New York: D. Appleton and 0ompany,“T928), viii.
5
out an interesting factor in relation to the individual:
Dealing -with the individual is important from the
standpoint of checking with his environment and home
conditions. Society is responsible to a large extent
for the individualf8 behavior. It cannot allow him to
grow up acquiring bad habits-and attitudes and then
later condemn such behavior. ^
Douglas Thom gave his interesting interpretation:
Spanning the gulf between childhood and adulthood
comes one of the most interesting and important periods
in the entire life cycle. During these intervening
years the individual stretches back and clings to the
pleasures and protection of childhood with one arm,
while with the other he reaches out to grasp some of
the privileges and responsibilities of maturity.'
While on the other hand, Burnham^ stated that adolescence
looks not at the past but rather anticipates the future.
Problems of adolescence.
Some of the more signifi- ,
cant changes normally to be found during adolescence, ac­
cording to
Brooks,9
are increased self-assertion, inde­
pendence, gregariousness, and a critical questioning atti­
tude.
All adolescent children find growing-up difficult.
Parents must be intelligent in their effort to understand
6 Percival Symonds, Psychological Diagnosis in Social
Adjustment (New York: American Book Co. , 193?), p7 "27
7
1 Douglas A. Thom, Normal Youth and Its Everyday
Problems (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1952), p. 16.
^ William H. Burnham, The Wholesome Personality
(New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1932), p. ’45.
^ F. D. Brooks, "Modern Views on Adolescence," JuniorSenior Clearing House, 5:261-70, January, 1931*
6
the children and undoubtedly will be met half-way."^
Grace
Elliott felt that:
The adolescent girl is both the delight and the
despair of the adults with whom she is associated. No­
where is the ideal of the abundant life, which has
caught the imagination of men and women for nineteen
centuries more clearly validated than in her spontane­
ous enthusiasm, her vivid interests, her idealistic
hopes, and her whole-hearted affections.il
Of all the adolescent behavior problems which cause teachers
and parents concern, none is more common than that having
to do with the child*s ability to keep pace with others of
IP
his age in his school work.
Questions of girls of adolescent age can be found
under one of these three headings: (l) the girl*s relation
to her community; (2) her relation to her family and her
friends; (3) her own personality and its self-expression.^
Adults have three types of relationships with
adolescents: (l) there is domination in which the adult at­
tempts to take complete control; (2) there is leadership
in which the adult temporarily assumes large responsibility
¥. Richmond, "Meeting the Problems of Youth, "
Parents, 8;18-19, March, 1933* ■
11 Grace Laucks Elliott, Understand the Adolescent
Girl (New York: Henry Holt and Company,1930), P« 5*
'Thom, op. cit., p. 152.
Jesse E. Gibson, On Being a Girl (New York: The
Macmillan Company, 1930), p. "5~*
7
for the adolescent in those areas of life in which she is
still immature or unskilled; (3) there is comradeship in
12l
which various interests and adventures are shared.
Good school citizenship of the adolescent girl de­
pends to a large extent upon her attitude toward activity,
her friendliness, cooperation with teachers, school spirit,
and her scholarship. 15
Educating the adolescent girl.
Symonds presented
his ideas of a planned society in his book, Psychological
Diagnosis in Social Adjustment:
In a planned society one would study individuals to
help them make the best adjustments possible. Those
discovered with criminal tendencies would be re-educated,
so as to prevent these from finding over expression.
Vocational guidance would become interested in the best
placement of each individual rather than In the selection
of the most fit. Society would be looking for leaders
rather than waiting until they forced themselves to the
front. In a planned society the needs of the individual
and the demands of society would become identical.16
The youth of today is infinitely more concerned
about the works of the leaders in the social sciences,
psychology, sociology, anthropology, economics, and politics,
rather than being preoccupied with the classics, social
thought, or l i t e r a t u r e . ;The great need today is not to
1^ Elliott, op. cit., p. 121.
Gibson, op. cit., pp. 61-64.
Symonds, op. cit., p. vii.
c. Hartley Grattan, MWhat the Younger Generation
Thinks,1’ North American Review, 235:261-8, March, 1933*
do something for youth hut to help youth do something for
"i o
themselves. °
Tests show that adolescents generally have more
mental ability at eighteen than at fifteen, or sixteen, or
seventeen.
Sometimes it is held that mental development
after fourteen or fifteen is due to the greater number of
experiences or a greater familiarity with life situations,
rather than growth of intelligence.1^
Academic records made in school are a fairly good
measure of character, and it is undoubtedly true that a boy
or girl who has made a good high school record tends to
possess characteristics of honesty, regularity, and patience.
Many who were unsuccessful in industry were found to be un­
successful scholars in school.
Those with longer schooling
tend to rise to higher salaries. 20
.
The result of the relation between paternal occupa­
tion and the intelligence of the offspring is invariably
tha,t the offspring of professional men have the highest I.Q.
while the children of manual laborers are at the bottom.
The following is a study as taken in Madison, Wisconsin:
18 ppajxk
Hubbard, nToday!s Youth Problems,” The
Journal of the National Education Association, 25:13-28,
Tahuary,“T9 36T------ - “—
19 Brooks, loc. cit.
20 Hollingsworth, op. cit., p. 62.
9
Occupational Status
Mean I. Q. of Offspring
Professional m e n ...................... 115
Clerical workers . . . . . . . . . . .
106
Business men ........ . . . . . . . .
104
Skilled manual workers (trades) . . . .
99
.........
92
Semi-skilled manual workers
Unskilled manual workers . . . . . . . .
89^**Ignorance and lack of schooling are coupled with
poverty as among the evident factors in crime, whether
po
juvenile or adult.
The answer to the question of what subjects should
be prescribed for all students must necessarily be the
studies that are recognized as supremely useful to all.
Re­
quired subjects should be English, some phases of the histoxy
of civilization, modern civic and social problems, and the
electives should depend absolutely upon the studentfs apti­
tudes, interests, needs, and aims in life.^3
During the junior high school age it is not possible
to outline any general pattern of development which can be
considered typical of this age.
There is overwhelming
desire among typical students of this age to be with other
children and to understand themselves in their relations to
others in their group.
There is quite a feeling among them
21 Ibid., p. 65.
pp
R. C. Dexter, Social Adjustment (New York and
London: Alfred A. Knopf^ 1927), p. 128.
23
R. A. Mackie, Education During Adolescence (New
York: E. P. Dutton and Company, 1920), p. 60.
10
for group approval.
It is during this period that girls
feel they must become more feminine and boys attempt to
attain more masculine qualities.
pli
To the teacher desirous
of understanding children to the fullest degree, the ex­
periences with these children are offered with this sugges­
tion:
Study the child in whom you are interested from all
angles. His physique, medical history illnesses, early
development, and physical handicaps are all important
predeterminants of his present condition. Family
history, especially a detailed analysis of parental
traits and the individual attributes of brothers and
sisters, is an aid in determining potentialities.
Previous school history, and all accounts of behavior
as seen at school, at home, and on the playground are
also necessary, A detailed statement of the everyday
program should also be included. Then study the child
himself, his likes and dislikes, his little triumphs
and difficulties, his fears, desires, and (defiances.
Gain perspective by allowing a day or two to pass be­
fore a final decision is made, and you will find your­
self realizing, no matter what the child!s problem,
that his behavior has been the only possible set of
reactions that could have developed out of the.condi­
tions under which he has lived. In other words, his
behavior, in nine cases out of ten, has been ”just
normal.”25
Specific adolescent cases.
There is a great deal of
information concerning adolescent cases, problems, and
.their treatment.
The writer will point out just a few of
the interesting ones.
^
Stolz, loc. cit.
Florence Mateer, Just Normal Children (New York
and London: D. Appleton and Company, 1929), p. x.
11
Lake View High School in Chicago had a very success­
ful mental hygiene clinic.2^
The clinic (l) gives study and
treatment to individual students; (2) offers this service to
teachers to help them in better understanding students; (3)
uses the material for research.
This school classified the
problems into five headings: scholarship, truancy, person­
ality, delinquency, and special problems such as physical
difficulties.
Many students who had been aided kept in
touch with the clinic during their college years.
Over a
period of five years there was very little delinquency re­
ported.
It is hard to say how many problems of truancy and
personality might have turned into delinquency if they had
not been handled correctly.
Another interesting study was made by Ethel Andrus 27'
of adolescent girls in the eleventh and twelfth grades.
The
first question asked was, "if you could have your dearest
wish, what would it be?"
Twenty-two per cent of the girls
wanted success through attainment, either in college or in
a desired vocation as artist, musician, teacher, business
woman, novelist, or social worker.
The next 20 per cent
Marion McBee, nA Mental Hygiene Clinic in a High
School," Mental Hygiene, 19:238-80, April, 1935*
2^ Ethel P. Andrus, "What the Girl of Today Asks of
the School," Journal of the America,n Association of
University Women, 2b:T^'6-^B, April, "1932*
12
wanted happiness in marriage and the next group, 18 per cent,
desired to bring a contented happiness or general financial
return to their mothers and fathers*
Ten per cent desired
love and happiness, but did not specify through what
particular channel it should come.
asked for travel.
Another 10 per cent
Good health was desired by 3 P©** cent
either for themselves or for their parents.
Two per cent
wanted homes of their own so they could be alone and another
2 per cent wanted many friends who might bring happiness to
them.
Approximately 20 per cent hoped for an outdoor life.
Beauty, honesty, poise, culture, and admiration were checked
last among ”dearest wishes.”
Ethel Andrus continued further to point out some
very interesting figures.
The high school girl plans to.be
a secretary more often than she trains to be a teacher.
Kinety-six girls out of a hundred desire marriage; only
ninety-one of these desire a family.
Eight girls out of
ten were willing to work after marriage to help out.
The requests of the high school by the girls in the
study previously mentioned revealed the following few sug­
gestions: (l) courses offering an immediate enrichment for
community, for home, and for self; (2) a happy and efficient
teacher; (3) to choose the subject desired, already enriched
by the girlfs own interest.
The mothers of the P.T.A. were given an opportunity
13
to give their views of the problems of these girls.
Among
their suggestions were: (l) training in morals and conduct,
(2) sex instruction, (3 ) courses in psychology so that the
girls might learn to think, (4) more training in manners
and in social conduct in public, (5) a counselor who might
serve as confidante of the girls who seek comfort outside
of the home, (6) round table for parents and teachers where
problems of adolescents might be discussed.
Another interesting study was made in the Isaac C.
28
Elston Senior High School in Indiana by Engle,
The stu­
dent body was divided into three groups namely: (l) under­
privileged— pupils from homes which had public assistance,
(2) random— groups selected at random, {3 ) privileged-pupils from the ’’better” homes of the community.
In the
comparison of their school grades it showed that the pupils
from the underprivileged group received lower grades while
the opposite was true of the privileged group.
group fell between the other two groups.
The random
In vocational
subjects the pupils from privileged homes made better grades
than the students in the underprivileged homes.
In the
study of the I.Q. of the three groups the median for the
underprivileged group was ninety-six; random group, one
^ T. L. Engle, ’’Home Environment and School Records,”
School Review, 42:590-98, October, 1934.
14
hundred two; and the privileged group, one hundred eight.
It was further pointed out that children from underprivi­
leged homes present more disciplinary problems than children
from privileged homes.
A survey of youth in a rural district in Wisconsin
revealed that youth knows what it wants.
First, these
young people wanted recreation and increased recreational
facilities; second, they wanted work with pay; third, they
desired organizations for young people and group leader­
ship; and last, they wanted more education both in school
and out of school.
The measurement of pupil adjustment presented by
Rudolf Pintner, et. al.,^° gave many interesting viewpoints.
The study dealt with the construction of an adjustment test
for elementary school pupils in grades four to eight.
The
tests covered the following relationships: pupil to school,
to teachers, to classmates, to himself, and to his family.
It was found that the tests helped draw attention to many
children who were maladjusted in school but who had not
attracted the attention of the teacher.
29 D. B. Cammell, ’’Highlights on America* s Youth
Problem,” School Life, 21:75-75* December, 1935*
Rudolf Pintner, et. al., "The Measurement of Pupil
Adjustment,” Journal of Educational Research, 28:334-46,
January, 19357* ~~
"
15
III.
METHOD OF PROCEDURE
The questionnaire method of procedure.
Since this
study involved the gaining of opinions and attitudes which
are prevalent at the present time, the questionnaire, a
form of the normative-survey method, was chosen.
Good-^
pointed out that the questionnaire is primarily concerned
with history in the making.
Symonds-'52 stated that the
questionnaire has been used to explore and tap attitudes
on various socia,l and ethical issues and that it is valua­
ble as an instrument of research.
Wylie has said that answers to a school question­
naire may be relied upon with a reasonably high degree of
assurance if the following rules are observed:
. . . (1) asking only plainly worded questions con­
cerning familiar facts and everyday experiences; (2)
asking fairly large numbers of questions so that mediums
may be reached; (3) asking the questions of a sufficient­
ly large number of individuals so that errors of judge­
ment and of statement will have an opportunity to
balance and correct one another. 23
The attempts to measure opinions or attitudes range
all the way from the simple summation of judgments of true
^ Carter V. Good, Methodology of Educational Research
(New York: D. Appleton-Century Company, 1956), p. 33%~»
”52
^ Symonds, op. cit., p. 287.
33
A. T. Wylie, **To What Extent May We Rely upon the
Answers to a School Questionnaire?** The Journal of Educa­
tional Method, 6:252-57* February,.192Y*
16
and false statements to very elaborate attempts to construct
a rational scale of equal steps.
"Attitudes that do not
motivate adjustment (as maladjustment) have little significance for human beings."5^
Methods of measuring attitudes.
Droba presented
various methods of measuring attitudes; some of them were:
(1) Method of absolute ranking--this term used in
the place of questionnaire; (2) case method--essay type
of description of attitude consisting of at least one
paragraph. Either oral or written descriptions may be
used; (3) relative ranking--decision about an indicator
is relative to another indicator; (^) graphic rating
scale— this is meant a line along which steps represent­
ing the various degrees of attitudes are indicated by
words, numbers, or phrases; (5) method of paired com­
panions— indicators are presented to the subject in
pairs and he has to decide which of the two is prefera­
ble; (6) method of equal appearing intervals--this
method differs from the method of relative ranking only
in the construction of the scale. There is difference
in scoring and the practical application of the
methods.55
Gertrude Hildreth expressed her opinion when she
made the following statement:
Casual observation is recognized as inadequate for
the study of adolescent problems. Successful adjustment
of the pupil to the school situation requires that
teachers have adequate information concerning the childfs
interests and preferences with respect to a large number
of activities and fields of interest, companions, sports,
5^ Read Bain, "Theory and Measurement of Attitudes and
Opinions," Psychological Bulletin, 27:357-79, May, 1930.
^ D. D. Droba, "Methods of Measuring Attitudes,"
Psychological Bulletin, 29:309-23, May, 1932.
17
social activities, reading, study habits, and school
subjects. 3o
There are several methods of obtaining pupil interest
and attitude; among them: personal interview, observation of
the pupil while he is engaged in a variety of activities in
and out of school, and the pupilfs use of prepared blanks to
record statements concerning his activities and preferences.
The teacher can accomplish little toward producing desired
social changes unless he determines what the opinions of
•57
his students are and teaches to change them. 1
Procedure for this study.
From a study of the re­
lated literature and from observation and conversation with
many girls in the school studied, the investigator prepared
a questionnaire naming supposed problems with reference to
the school life.
This preliminary questionnaire was given
to a group of 105 girls from the junior and senior high
school.
These students, selected at random, were given an
opportunity to indicate problems by checking nyesn-
,!non
to questions under the following headings:
1.
Problems arising from the grading system.
36 Gertrude Hildreth, nAn Interest Inventory for High
School Personnel Work,11 Journal of Educational Research,
27:11-19, September, 1953"^
37 X,. D. Zeleny, nA Measure of Social Opinions of
Students,” Journal of Applied Sociology, 11:56-64, SeptemberOctober, 1926"-
2
.
School a,ttendance problems.
3.
Problems concerned with subject requirement.
4.
School clubs and committees.
5.
Problems due to study and to home work.
6.
Problem of making friends.
Space was provided all questions for each girl to write the
reasons why she considered the items marked nyesu as prob­
lems.
A n •opportunity was given to write in additional
problems, but no others were listed.
A sample of the pre­
liminary questionnaire may be found in the appendix.
Sufficient affirmative responses were secured from
the preliminary questionnaire to indicate that these six
main headings were definite problems to the students with
reference to their school life.
The final questionnaire was formulated as a check­
list.
The items were chosen from the reasons discovered
from the preliminary questionnaire and from the authorities
studied.
The questionnaire may be found in the appendix.
The statements marked with an asterisk were the problems
suggested by the girls.
The investigator presented the final questionnaire
to sixty-five girls of grade seven, seventy-four girls of
grade eight, fifty-seven girls of grade nine, seventy-five
girls of grade ten, forty-six girls of grade eleven, and
thirty-one girls of grade twelve, making a total of 3^8
19
cases.
An explanation as to the purpose of the study was
given in brief before the girls checked their papers.
Since
one purpose of the study was to discover reasons why school
problems do exist, the pupil was not limited to one response
but checked as many statements as fitted her particular case.
Space was provided for additional problems to be written in.
No signatures were required.
After the questionnaires had
been checked and returned to the investigator, the responses
were tabulated and recorded both as to age and grade levels.
K o o s ^ has stated that the unsigned blank is of
particular value in gathering information which may reflect
unfavorably upon the respondent.
Thurstone-^ has said that
statements in the final questionnaire should be so selected
that they constitute as nearly as possible an evenly gradu­
ated series of scale values.
IV.
School personnel.
SCHOOL DATA
The school personnel of the Los
Angeles school selected for this study consists of the socalled "middle class" group of students.
The students seem
38
Leonard V. Koos, The Questionnaire in Education
(New York: The Macmillan Company, 1932), p. 157
L. L. Thurstone, "Attitudes Can Be Measured,"
American Journal of Sociology, 33:529-5^, January, 1928.
20
to have the benefit of a good family life.
The school is
located in a district where there are few transient students
and a large percentage of the student body remains the same
throughout the six-year curriculum.
As long as it is a six-
year high school, there seems to be more opportunity to make
comparisons for they are made over longer periods of time.
This school is a fairly small school compared with other Los
Angeles High Schools.
Personal data. A careful study of the figures
showed that a larger number of the families of students in­
cluded in this study owned their own homes than the number
who rented.
This fact placed further emphasis on the point
that the student body as a whole was more or less permanent.
Further consideration of the facts showed that there were
very few unemployed fathers among the group.
A majority of
the fathers were employed, while only approximately 15 per
cent of the mothers were employed in full-time work.
The
figures showed that the group represented medium-sized
families and that the majority of them lived in homes that
were adequately large for their individual families.
V.
ORGANIZATION OF REMAINING CHAPTERS
The remaining chapters deal with the comparison and
analysis of data collected in the questionnaire.
Tables
are presented showing grade and age tabulations by raw
scores and by percentages.
basis for comparisons.
Percentage scores were used as a
Each problem as presented in the
preliminary questionnaire included grade by grade and age
by age studies.
Chapter II deals with problems arising from the
grading system.
A detailed study was made of reasons why
the grading system causes unhappiness, cheating, improve­
ment of grades, and discontent over grades received.
In
Chapter III school attendance problems are presented with
special emphasis upon daily attendance, class absences, and
cutting classes.
quirements.
Chapter IV is concerned with subject re­
A study was made of the reasons for disliking
school subjects, class enrollment difficulties, importance
of graduation requirements, and the need for guidance.
Chapter V deals with the problems of membership in school
clubs and committees, indicating the need for social en­
vironments within the school.
A particular study was made
of the Girls1 Athletic Clubs and of the time schedule for
club activities.
Chapter VI deals with home work and study.
The reasons why home work is a problem are presented to­
gether with the influence of the parents and the environ­
ment for home study.
cussed in Chapter VII.
Problems of making friends are dis­
Individual insecurities, guidance
selections, girl relationships, girl-teacher relationships,
and the need for group approval are given.
Chapter VTII
includes the summary and recommendations of the study*
CHAPTER II
PROBLEMS ARISING PROM THE GRADING SYSTEM
The system of school marks and grades has been a
problem for both the teacher and the pupil.
From time to
time systems have been changed to meet the needs of the
pupils; however, misunderstandings between teacher and
pupil frequently exist.
Very often the individual reac­
tions of the student towa,rd the grading system is not
known.
The opinions of the girls toward this particular
part of school life may bring to light some adjustments
which should be made.
In response to the questionnaire
reasons were indicated why the grading system caused un­
happiness.
A study of cheating was shown.
Evidences were
shown for the need to improve grades and the causes of dis­
content over grades received were noted.
The results were
tabulated in tables I and III under the headings of grades
and ages.
Percentages may be found in tables II and IV.
Only the outstanding figures have been pointed out.
•Unhappiness from grading system.
For all ages and
grades the chief factor causing unhappiness because of the
grading system was the unfairness felt when pupils who did
little work on assignments received better grades than those
who made additional preparations.
In many cases the grading system was a greater
u
TABU I
PROBLEMSARISINGFROMTHEGRADINGS M
GRADES
t
8
9
10
11
7 18
15 8
12 16
5 ;7
20 25
12 30
2 6
6 16
4 13
4 6
9
18
10
3
17
33
3
17
13
6
15
26
18
7
32
35
6
25
23
13
2
8
20
6
17
26
3
14
17
9
5
5
3
2
8
8
0
3
4
0
56
60
69
30
119
144
20
81
74
38
22
0
36
U
26
9
25
11
33
5
33
11
28
13
18
11
31
3
34
11
36
13
21
25
50
1
43
24
32
13
39
39
22
2
33
11
20
12
18
28
5
0
12
5
8
4
5
14
163
11
193
73
150
64
126
128
10 15
9 17
14 25
0 4
a 5
23 27
6 9
3 10
15
28
12
5
4
26
9
9
8
27
16
4
2
36
11
7
2
16
2
3
3
16
6
5
5
5
3
2
0
8
2
3
55
102.
72
18
14
136
43
37
7
12 Total
oesthegradingsystemevereauseyouunhappinessbecause:
Youwanttorankhighest inyourclass?
Youwanttobeanhonorstudent?
Yourparentsscoldyouoraredisappointed inyouwhenlowgradesarereported?
Yourparentswilltakeprivilegesfromyou?
Youwantacollegerecommendation?
Otherswhoworklessthanyougetbettergrades?
Youareteasedbecauseofyourlowgrades?
Youaredisappointedinthegradesyoureceive?
Teachersdonotgradefairly?
Youareembarrassedtoshowyourgradestoyourfriends?
)oesitbotheryoutohavethosewhocheatgetabettergradethanyoubecause:
Itisnothonest?
Youdonothaveanopportunitytocheat?
Youhavestudiedandthosewhoeheathavenot?
Youarenotwillingtocheat?
Gradesmadebycheatingarenotgrades earned?
Thosewhocheatareconsidered smarterthanthosewhodonot?
Itisnotfair?
Thevalueofanhonestgradeislowered?
Ischeatingaproblembecause:
Yousitsoclosetoaneighboryoucannothelplookingathispaper? '
Youhave toomuchworktodo, socomeunpreparedforsomeofit?
Youdonotunderstandtheassignments?
Theteacherdoesn'tseemtocareifsomecheat?
Yourfriendsexpectyoutoeheat?
Otherslookatyourpaper?
Youareneversuccessfulatcheating?
Itissoeasytocheat?
25
TABU 1 (continued)
PROBLEMSARISINGfROMT® GRADINGSYST1
GRADES
7
8
9
10
11
12 Total
31
31
31
42
21 15
34 •56
12
29
12
17
122
209
20
1
0
1
22
18
30
?
5
8
0
10
11
30
3
5
3
8
28
35
15
14
24
2
14
13
37
3
2
3
30
17
24
16
40
7
2
18
16
41
6
4
6
49
13
43
17
20
37
5
27
25
25
6
8
2
21
17
17
15
12
25
6
14
12
8
1
12
0
7
6
6
6
9
12
7
6
6
161
20
31
15
137
99
155
76
100
113
22
89
83
40
21
0
48
21
2
44
15
0
56
23
0
27
15
0
24
5
0
239
100
2
22
1
5
17
32
0
8
32
26
1
13
2?
36
3
20
33
22
3
10
25
9
2
3
9
147
10
59
143
4. Areyourgradesasgoodasyouthinkyoucanearn?
Yes
NO
)uldyouearnbettergradesif;
Youhadmoretimeto studyduringschoolhours?
Yourparentsurgedyoutostudy?■
Youdidnotbelongtosomanyclubs?
Youwere inbetterhealth?
Your subjectsweremoreinteresting?
Youplannedmoretimeforstudying?
Teacherswouldexplainassignmentsmoreclearly?
Youwouldnotwaste timeduringclassperiods?
Yourout*of*schoolactivitiesdidnottakesomuchofyourtime?
Youhadlesshomeworktodo?
You"playedup"totheteachers?
Youpaidstrictattentiontoclassdiscussions?
Youshowedmoreinterestinthesubjectmatter?
nyourschoolworkdoyouaverage:
Above "0"?
«n *.
BelowW
oyouobjecttothegradesyoureceivebecause:
Youthinkyourworkdeservesabettergrade?
Youdonotgetashigh.agradeasyourbestfriend?
Youthinktheteacherisnotfair?
Yourgradeisn'tbasedupontheamountofworkyoudo?
26
TABLE I (continued)
PROEMSARISINGFROMTHEGRADINGSYSTEM
•
•
GRADES
7
8
9
10
11
12 Total
9
50
17
.48
9
41
8
20
15
24
5
24
65, 74 .57
75
46
31
8, Aresomeofyoursubjectssodifficultthatyoumaybeindangeroffailing?
Yes
No
Numberofcases—348
63
207
27
TABLE II
PROBLEMS ABISIG M l THE GRADING SYSTEM
(PERCENTAGES)
grades
7
8
9
10
11
Average
12 percent
1. Doesthegrading systemevercauseyouunhappinessbecause:
Youwanttorankhighestinyourclass?
Youwanttoheanhonorstudent?
Yourparentsscoldyouoraredisappointed inyouwhenlowgrades
arereported?
Yourparentswilltakeprivilegesfromyou?
Youwantacollegerecommendation?
Otherswhoworklessthanyougetbettergrades?
Youareteasedbecause ofyourlowgrades?
Youaredisappointedinthegradesyoureceive?
Teachersdonotgradefairly?
Youareembarrassedtoshowyourgradestoyourfriends?
10,8 24.3 15.8 20,0 4,3 16.1
23,1 10,8 31,6 34.7 17.4 16,1
15,2
22.2
18,5
7,7
30,8
18,5
3,1
9.2
6,2
6,2
8,1
9,5
33,8
40,5
8,1
21.6
17,6
8.1
17,5
5,3
29,8
57,9
5,3
29,8
22,8
10,5
24.0 '43,5 9,7
9,3 13,0 6,5
42,7 36,1 25.8
46,7 56,5 25,8
8,0 6,5
0
33.3 30,4 9,7
30,7 36,1 12,9
0
17,3 19,6
20.2
8,5
33,1
40,9
5,1
22.3
21.0
10,2
33,8
0
58,5
16,9
40,0
13.8
38,5
16,9
44.6
6.8
44,6
14,9
37.8
17,6
24.3
14,9
54,4
5.3
59,7
19,3
63,2
22,8
36.8
43.9
66,7
1,3
57.3
32,0
42,7
17,3
52.0
52,0
47,8
4.3
71,7
23,9
43,5
26,1
39,1
60,9
16,1
0
38.7
16,1
25.8
12,9
16,1
45,2
43,9
2,9
55,0
20,5
42,1
18.4
34,4
38,9
15,4
13,8
21,5
0
0
35.4
9,2
4,6
20.3
23,0
33,8
5.4
6.8
36.5
12,2
13.5
26,3
49.1
21,1
8.8
7,0
45.6
15,8
15.8
10,7
36,0
34,7
5.3
2,7
48,0
14,7
9,3
4,3 16.1
34,8 16.1
4.3 9,7
6,5 6,5
0
6,5
34,8 25.8
13,0 6.5
10,9 9,7
15,5
28,8
20,8
5,4
3,8
37,6
11,9
10,6
2, Doesitbotheryoutohavethosewhocheatgetabettergradethanyoubecause:
Itisnothonest?
Youdonothaveanopportunitytocheat?
Youhavestudiedandthosewhocheathavenot?
Youarenotwillingtoeheat?
Gradesmadeby cheatingarenotgradesearned?
Thosewhocheatareconsideredsmarterthanthosewhodonot?
Itisnotfair?
Thevalueofanhonestgradeislowered?
3. Ischeatingaproblembecause:
Yousitsoclosetoa neighboryoucannothelplookingathispaper?
Youhavetoomuchwork todoso comeunpreparedforsomeofit?
Youdonotunderstandtheassignments?
Theteacherdoesn'tseemtocareifsomecheat?
Yourfriendsexpectyouto cheat?
Otherslookatyourpaper?
Youareneversuccessfulatcheating?
Itissoeasytocheat?
28
TABLE II (continued)
PBOBLBB ABIS0S FSOK THE OEADBB STSM
M
shades
7
8
9
10
11
Average
12 percent
4. Areyourgradesasgoodasyouthinkyoucanearn?
Yes
Ho
47,7 41,9 36,8 20,0 26,1 38,7
47,7 56,6 59,7 74,7 63,0 54,8
35,2
59,4
5. Couldyouearnbettergradesif:
Youhadmoretimetostudyduringschoolhours?
Yourparentsurgedyoutostudy?
Youdidnot belongtosomanyclubs?
Youwereinbetterhealth?
Yoursubjectsweretore interesting?
Youplannedmoretimeforstudying?
Teacherswouldexplainassignmentsmore clearly?
Youwouldnotwastetimeduringclassperiods?
Yourout-of-schoolactivitiesdidnottakesomuchofyourtime?
Youhadlesshomeworktodo?
You"playedup"toyourteachers?
Youpaid strictattentiontoclassdiscussions?
Youshowedmoreinterest inthesubjectmatter?
30,8
1,5
0
1.5
33,8
27,7
46,2
10,8
7,7
12,3
0
15,4
16,9
40,5
4.1
6,6
4,1
10,8
37,8
47,3
20,3
18,9
32,4
2,7
18,9
17,6
64,9
5,3
3,5
5,3
52,6
29,8
42,1
28,1
70,2
12,3
3,5
31,6
28,1
54,7
8,0
5,3
-8,0
65,3
17,3
57,3
22,7
26,7
49,3
6,7
36,0
33,3
54,3
13,0
17,4
4,3
45,7
36,1
36,1
32,6
26,1
54,3
13,0
30,4
26,1
25,8
3,2
38,7
0
22,6
19,4
19,4
19,4
29,0
38,7
22,6
19,4
19,4
45,1
5,8
11,9
3,8
38,4
28,0
41,4
22,3
29,7
33,2
8,0
25,2
23,5
61,5 64.9 77,2 74,7 58,7 77,4
32,3 28,4 26,3 30,7 32,6 16,1
0
0 2,7
0
0
0
69,0
27,7
,4
33,8 43,2 45,6 48,0 47,8 29,0
1,5
0 1,8 4,0 6,5 6,5
7,7 10,8 22,6 26,7 21,7 9,7
26,2 43,2 47,4 44,0 54,3 29,0
41,2
3,3
16,5
40,6
6, Inyour schoolworkdoyouaverage:
Above"C"
»C"
Below'"C7, Doyouobjecttothegradesyoureceivebecause:
Youthinkyourworkdeservesabettergrade?
Youdonotgetashighagradeasyourbestfriend?
Youthinktheteacherisnotfair?
Yourgradeisn’tbasedupontheamountofworkyoudo?
29
TABLE II (continued)
PBOBLEBABISHGFBCKTHESBADBBSYS®
(mu)
?
8
GRADES
9 10
11
Average
12 percent
8. Aresomeofyoursubjectssodifficultthatyounaybeindangeroffailing?
Yes
No
Bomberofcaaea--348
13,8 23,0 15,8 10,7 32,6 16,1
76,9 64,9 71,9 26,7 52,2 77,4
65
74
57
75
46
51
18,6
61,6
30
mm hi
PROBLEMSARISINGFROMTHEGRADINGSYST1
AGES
11.
12
13
14
15
16
17
0
Youwanttorankhighest inyourclass?
1
Youwanttoheanhonorstudent?
Yourparentsscoldyouoraredisappointedin
0
youwhenlowgradesarereported?
0
Yourparentswilltakeprivilegesfromyou?
Youwantacollegereeomendation?
1
Otherswhoworklessthanyougetbettergrades? 1
Youareteasedbecauseofyour lowgrades?
0
Youaredisappointed inthegradesyoureceive? 0
0
Teachersdonotgradefairly?
Youareembarrassed toshowyourgradesto
yourfriends?
1
5
6
7
15
14
25
11
21
9
16
8
4
13
4
0
5
0
7
3
24
25
6
9
7
13
6
28
37
7
21
19
19
7
26
31
1
16
24
1
6
7
1
0
2
1
2
16
0
26
8
13
23
2
27
12
26
1
1
0
6
14
2
0
19
20
Total
2
3
0 - 0
0
1
0
0
48
88
15
6
15
30
4
23
14
5
4
12
12
0
5
8
2
0
1
3
2
2
2
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
70
30
120
144
20
81
74
6
14
2
1
0
0
38
43
6
44
13
45
38
1
40
16
26
31
2
36
15
26
9
0
15
5
7
3
0
3
2
4
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
164
11
194
72
150
14
19
13
11
24
24
13
28
38
12
30
30
5
5
18
1
2
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
63
123
128
5
11
18
8
8
3
1
1
0
55
5
13
28
26
22
,10
3
0
0
107
18
1. Doestiiegradingsystemevercauseyon
unhappinessbecause;
2. Doesitbotheryoutohavethoseriiocheatget
abetter gradethanyoubecause;
Itisnothonest?
Youdonothaveanopportunitytoeheat?
Youhavestudiedandthosewhocheathavenot?
Youarenotwillingtocheat?
Gradesmadebycheatingarenotgradesearned?
Thosewhocheatareconsidered starterthan
thosewhodonot?
Itisnotfair?
Thevalueofanhonestgradeislowered?
3. Ischeatingaprobleibecause:
Yousitso closetoaneighboryoucannot
helplookingathispaper?
Youhavetootuchworktodo, socote
unpreparedforsomeofit?
J
31
W E III (continued)
PROBLEMS ARISING FROM THE SRADBS SYSTEM
AGES
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
£0
Total
0
0'
0
3
1
0
8
0
0
1?
3
0
£1
3
£
£0
6
•5
£0
4
5
33
10
12
10
6
6
30
11
10
11
0
0
19
11
7
£
5
£
8
£
£
0
0
0
3
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
7£
18
14
134
45
37
£
£
£4
£0
18
40
34
38
18
47
12
39
9
£0
3
3
1
0
1
0
122
£09
Youhadmoretimetostudyduring schoolhours? 1
1
Yourparentsurgedyoutostudy?
0
Youdidnotbelongtosomanyclubs?
0
Youwere inbetterhealth?
Your subjectsweremore interesting?
1
Youplannedmoretimeforstudying?
1
Teacherswouldexplainassignmentsmoreclearly? £
Youwouldnotwastetimeduringclassperiods? 0
Yourout-of-schoolactivitiesdidnottakesomuch
0
ofyourtime?
0
Youhadlesshomeworktodo?, ,
0
You“playedup",totheteachers?
Youpaid strictattentiontoclassdiscussions? 1
Youshowedmoreinterestinthesubjectmatter? 1
13
0
0
0
££
7
£0
5
£7
£
3
3
31
12
£7
12
37
1
3
3
3£
19
33
17
36
6
5
5
39
13
33
16
33
6
7
£
30
19
£5
19
10
3
10
£
11
8
11
5
3
1
3
0
£
1
3
£
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
161
£0
31
15
168
80
155
76
3
4
0
6
7
11
£6
£
8
7
9
42
.1
£5
££
16
37
5
19
19
18
£7
6
££
£0
7
13
6
6
4
1
3
1
1
3
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
65
153
££
88
83
3£
13
0
38
19
0
51
15
1
48
££
1
36
17
0
19
9
0
5
£
0
1
0
0
0
£
0
232
101
£
Youdonotunderstandtheassignments?
Theteacherdoesn'tseemtocareifsomecheat?
Yourfriendsexpectyoutocheat?
Otherslookatyourpaper?
Youareneversuccessfulatcheating?
Itissoeasyto cheat?
4. Areyourgrades asgoodasyouthinkyoucanearn?
Yes
Ho
5, Gouldyouearnbettergradesif:
6, Inyourschoolworkdoyouaverage?
Above"G*
»c»
Belowl,C“
£
£
0
32
TABLE III (continued)
PROBLEMSARISINGFROMTHEGRADINGSYSTEM
AGES
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Total
1
12
27
34
32
22
15
3
1
0
147
1
0
0
2
0
5
0
17
0
15
4
12
2
7
0
1
0
0
0
0
7
59
1
9
26
34
32
24
23
3
1
0
153
0
4
2
38
18
42
14
58
17
49
17
36
11
19
2
5
0
1
0
2
81
256
4
45
62
73
.68
56
29
8
1
2
7, Doyouobjecttothegradesyoureceivebecause;
Youthinkyourworkdeservesabettergrade?
Youdonotgetas highagradeasyourbest
friend?
Youthinktheteacherisnotfair?
Yourgrade isn’tbasedupontheamountof
workyoudo?
8. Aresomeofyour subjectssodifficultthat
youmaybeindangeroffailing?
Yes
No
Humberofcases-348
33
TABU IT
PROBLEMS ARISING FROM THE GRADING SYSTl
(PERCENTAGES)
AGEEj
12
11
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
Average
20 percent
1, Doesthegradingsystemevercauseyou
unhappinessbecause:
Youwanttorankhighest inyourclass?
Youwanttoheanhonorstudent?
Yourparentsscoldyouoraredisappointed
inyouwhenlowgradesarereported?
Yourparentswilltakeprivilegesfromyou?
Youwantacollegerecommendation?
Otherswhoworklessthanyougetbetter
grades?
Youareteasedbecauseofyourlowgrades?
Youaredisappointedinthegradesyou
receive?
Teachersdonotgradefairly?
Youareembarrassedtoshowyourgradesto
yourfriends?
0 11.1 11,3 19,2 16.2 16,1 6,9
0
25,0 13.3 24,2 34,2 30,9 28,6 10,3 12,5
0
0
0
0
8,0
17,9
0 17.8 11,3 17,8 27,9 26.8 17,2 25,0 100,0
0 8.9 4.8 8.2 10.3 10,7 13,8 -0
0
25,0 28.9 38.8 38.4 38,2 26,8 41,4 12,5
0
0
0
0
24.3
5,6
25,0
8.9 40.3 50,7 45,6 53,6 a,4 37,5 100,0
0 9,7 9,6 1,5 7,1
0 25,0
0
0
0
40,3
5,2
0
0
0
0
16.1
15,0
0
0
9,9
0
37.5
0
0
37,5 100,0
25,0
0
50,0 100.0
0
0
0
0
TO
33,6
1,6
52,3
17,2
44,1
0
0
0
0
0
0
17,1
25,6
26.7
0 11.1 17,7 24.6 11,8 14,3 10,3 12,5 100,0
0
20,2
25.0
0
0 11.1 14,5 28,8 23.6 41,1 17.2 25,0
0
0 11,3 26.0 25.2 25,0 27,8 25,0
25.0
2.2
9,7
9,6
8,8 25.0
6,9 12,5
25.0
Itisnothonest?
0
Youdonothaveanopportunitytocheat?
Youhave studiedandthosewhocheathavenot? 50.0
25.0
Youarenotwillingtocheat?
Gradesmadeby cheatingarenotgradesearned? 50.0
Thosewhocheatareconsideredsmarter
50.0
thanthosewhodonot?
25.0
Itisnotfair?
0
Thevalueofanhonestgrade islowered?
35.6
0
57.8
17.8
28,9
37,1
3,2
43,5
19.4
41.9
58,9
8,2
60,2
17,8
61,6
55.8
1.5
58,8
23,6
38,2
31,0
0
51,7
17,2
24,1
2, Doesitbotheryoutohavethosewhocheatgeta
bettergradethanyoubecause:
55,4
3,6
64,3
26,8
46,4
13.3 22,6 15,1 19.1 21.4 17,2 12.5
31,1 30.6 32,9 41.2 53,6 17.2 25,0
4.4 20,9 32.9 55,8 53.6 62.1 37,5
3. Ischeatingaproblembecause:
Yousitsoclosetoa neighboryoucannot
helplookingathispaper?
34
TABLE IT (continued)
P R O M S ARISING FROM THE GRADING STSTQi
(PMTAGJS)
AGES
11
12
13
14
Youhavetoomuchworktodoso come
unpreparedforsomeofit?
0 11,1 20,9 38,4
0 17.8 33,9 27,4
Youdoaotunderstandtheassignments?
0 4,8 5,5
Theteacherdoesn't seemtocareifsomecheat? 0
Yourfriendsexpectyoutocheat?
0
0 3,2 6.9
75.0 37,8 32,3 45,2
Otherslookatyourpaper?
25,0 6,7 9,7 13,7
Youareneversuccessfulatcheating?
0
0 8,1 16,4
Itissoeasytocheat?
15
16
38,2
14,7
8,8
7.4
44,1
16,2
14,7
0
39,3 34,5 37,5
6
,
9
0
0
19,6
0
0 17,2
0
0
0 6.9
0
33,9 27,8 37,5 100,0
0
19,6 6,9 12,5
0
12,5 6,9 12,5
17
18
19
Average
20 percent
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
21,9
12,0
3,6
2,4
43,3
11.0
7,1
50,0 53,4 29,0 46.6 26,5 21,4 31,0 37,5 100,0 50,0
0
50,0 44,4 64,6 52,0 69,1 69,6 69,0 37,5
0
44,5
45,6
4. ireyourgradesasgoodasyouthinkyou
canearn?
Yes
Ho
5, Couldyouearnbettergradesif:
Youhadmoretimetostudyduringschoolhours?25,0
25,0
Yourparentsurgedyoutostudy?
0
Youdidnotbelongtosomanyclubs?
0
Youwere inbetterhealth?
Yoursubjectsweremore interesting?
25,0
25,0
Youplannedmoretimeforstudying?
Teacherswouldexplainassignmentsmore
50,0
clearly?
Youwouldaotwastetimeduringschool
0
periods?
Yourout-of-schoolactivitiesdidnottake
0
somuchofyourtime?
0
Youhadlesshomeworktodo?
0
You"playedup"toyourteachers?
Youpaid strictattentiontoclassdiscussions?25,0
Youshowedmore interestinthe subjectmatter?25,0
28,9 43,5 50,7 52,9 58,9 34,5
0 3,2 .1,4 8,8 10,7 10,3
0 4,8 4,1 7,4 12,5 34,5
0 4,8 4,1 7,4 3,6. 6,9
48,9 50,0 53,8 57,4 53,6 37,9
15,5 19,4 26,0 19,1 33,9 27.8
37,5
12,5
37,5
0
25,0
12,5
0 50.0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
38,1
7,1
10,0
2,6
35,1
17,9
44,4 43,5 45,2 48,5 44,6 37,9 37,5
0 50.0
40,1
11,1 19,4 23.3 23,6 33,9 17,2 25,0
0
0
15.3
12,5
0
37,5
0
12,5 100,0
12,5
0
37,5
0
0
0
0
0
0
12,9
29,3
15,5
18,5
19,6
6,7
8,9
0
13,3
15,5
17,7
41,9
3,2
12,9
11,3
12,3
57,6
1,4
34,2
30,1
23,6
54,4
7,4
27,9
27,9
32,1
48,2
10,7
39,3
35,7
24,1
44,8
20,7
20.7
13,8
95
TABLE 17 (continued)
PROBIffi A R M FROM IB! SBAJI1G SYSTEM
(PERCHiTAGES)
AGES
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
Average
20 percent
6, Inyour schoolworkdoyouaverage:
AboveT?
*C"? .
BelowW
50,0 71,1 61,3 69,9 70.6 64,3 65.5 62.5 100,0
0
50.0 28,9 30,6 20,5 32,4 30,4 31,0 25,0
0 100,0
0
0
0 1,4 1.5
0
0
0
0
0
61,5
34,8
.2
7, Doyouobjecttothegradesyoureceivebecause:
Youthinkyourworkdeservesabettergrade? 25,0 26,7 43.5 46.6 47,1 39,3 51,7 37.5 100,0
Youdid notgetashighagradeasyour
25,0
0
0
0
bestfriend?
0
0 7,1 6.9
0
0 4,4 8,1 23,3 22,1 21,4 24.1 12,5
0
Youthinktheteacherisnotfair?
Yourgradeisn'tbaseduponthenount ofwork
25.0 20,0 41,9 46.6 47.1 42.9 79.3 37,5 100,0
youdo?
0
41,7
0
0
3.9
11.5
0
44,0
0 4,4 29,0 19,2 25.0 30.4 37,9 25.0
0
0
100.0 84,0 67,7 79,5 72.1 67,9 65,5 62.5 100,0 100,0
17,0
79,9
8. Aresomeofyoursubjectssodifficultthat
youmaybeindangeroffailing?
Yes
No
Numberofcases-348
4
45
62
73
68
56
29
8
1
2
36
problem for one group of pupils than for another.
Among
these differences, only the most outstanding have been cited.
Pupils of the eighth grade indicated by a percentage of
eighteen that the. grading system caused them unhappiness
because of the competition of striving for the highest
marks in the class.
very little concern.
For other grades, this reason caused
Girls in the tenth grade indicated that
the desire to secure a college recommendation and to become
honor students were real problems.
These reasons for un­
happiness ¥ere felt by a greater percentage among girls
thirteen, fourteen, and seventeen years of age.
Among the
girls eighteen years old and in the eleventh and twelfth,
grades, 25 peu cent were teased because of low marks.
Dis­
appointment because of low grades received was felt most
keenly by the sixteen year old girls.
For all grades and ages the most significant reasons
causing unhappiness because of the grading system were:
a)
others who worked less got better grades; (2) desire for a
college recommendation; (5) disappointment in the grades
received; (4) desire to be an honor student; (5) unfairness
of teachers* grading; (6) parental attitude toward grades.
The problem of cheating.
The chief factor which
made cheating a problem was the unfairness felt because of
the grades received by girls who did not study and who dis­
honestly passed examinations.
The total average per cent
37
for this response was 53.
Other significant reasons why
cheating was a source of worry for all girls were: (l) cheat­
ing is not honest, (2) grades made by cheating are not grades
earned, (3) the value of an honest grade is lowered, (4)
cheating is not fair.
(See total average per cents, Table
II page 27).
There was a noticeable difference between the junior
and senior grade levels in the responses to the question:
”Does it bother you to have those who cheat get a better
grade because the value of an honest grade is lowered?”
Forty-three and nine tenths to 60.9 pe^ cent of the high
school girls answered in the affirmative'while only 14.9 to
16.9 per cent of the junior girls responded thus.
In response to the question, ”Does it bother you to
have those who cheat get a better grade than you because it
is not honest?” the affirmative responses by grades were as
follows:
Grade
10
9
11
8
7
12
Percentage
66.7
54.4
47.8
44.6
33.8
16.1
A significant difference was found among the eighth
and tenth grade girls, who indicated by the greatest per­
centage that cheating was a problem because they did not
understand the assignments.
38
In considering cheating as a problem -without refer­
ence to the grades received, the chief sources of worry were:
(l) others looking at examination papers and (2) too much
home work.
Many felt they needed to cheat because they did
not have time for all the home work so came unprepared to
class.
(See Table II, page 27)*
Improvement of grades.
ways of improving grades.
Many Ideas were suggested as
Most significant of these were:
(l) provision for additional study time during school hours
and (2) better explanations of assignments by the teachers.
The total average percentage for all grades desiring more
study time was 45.1*
The total average percentage for all
grades asking for more detailed explanations of assignments
was 41.4.
Among the girls who showed desire for school study
time, the greatest need was felt by the ninth grade, 64.9
per cent of whom felt they could improve their grades if
additional opportunity for preparation were given them.
Many girls felt they could improve their grades if the sub­
ject matter were more interesting.
Among these, the great­
est need was expressed by 65*3 per cent of the tenth grade
girls, the majority of whom were fifteen years old.
Out-
of-school activities caused poor grades for 70.2 per cent
of the ninth grade girls, many of whom were fourteen years
old.
This is surprising especially since just 26.1 per
cent of the eleventh grade girls and 29 P©p cent of the
twelfth grade girls allowed out-of-school activities to in­
terfere with school study.
The high school girls indicated
they could earn better grades if they had less home work to
do.
(See Table II, page 28).
Objection to grades received.
The chief objection
to grades received was due to the difference in the mark
received from the one expected by the pupil.
From the
average grade scores, 41.2 per cent felt they deserved bet­
ter grades than they received.
Many felt their grades were
not based upon the amount of work done in preparation for
the subjects concerned; 54.3 pe:r cent of the eleventh grade
girls and 47.4 per cent of the ninth grade girls felt this
objection most keenly.
The average percentage for all
grades for this response was 40.6.
Summary.
The grading system presented problems, for
girls of all grades and all ages.
The most important fac­
tors causing worry and adjustments were: (l) unhappiness
caused by grades when others who worked less received better
grades, (2) desire for college recommendation, (3) disap­
pointment over grades received, (4) desire to become an
honor student, (5) unfairness of grades because those who
studied received lower grades than those who did not make
preparations and were dishonest, (6) conflict with ethical
4o
standards because grades made by dishonest methods of cheat­
ing were not grades rightfully earned, (7) temptations to
cheat caused by too much home work and opportunity to look
at examination papers, (8) too little school study time and
difficulty of understanding assignments interfered with im­
provement of grades, (9) conflict of teacher1s mark and
grade pupil expected, (10) inability of pupil to correlate
mark with amount of study done.
CHAPTER III
SCHOOL ATTENDANCE PROBLEMS
Regular attendance in school and in classes often
constitutes a problem for the teen age girl who may be
’seeking a thrill or, because of home work not prepared,
may lack courage to face the classroom situation.
On the
whole, the school has met this problem by providing an
interesting and challenging environment.
A careful study
of the reasons why school attendance is a problem may be
helpful for the few who prefer not to come to school.
To
discover the reasons why girls cut classes is the first
step toward correcting the truancy.
Daily attendance.
In all grade and age levels
school attendance was found to be no great problem.
tables V and VII).
(See
From the average grade scores, 65,7
per cent were attending school by choice.
Twenty-nine per
cent of the girls of the ninth and tenth grades found school
attendance a problem.
Cutting classes.
(Tables VI and VIII).
The majority of all the girls were
attending classes regularly.
The average of scores for all
grade levels and for all age levels indicated that just 7
per cent of the girls cut classes more than three times.
42
TABLE 7
SCHOOL ATTENDS PROBLEMS
8
GRADES
9 10
11
12
Total
56
9
59
9
42
17
43
22
27
9
12
6
239
72
7
2
1
0
15
5
0
0
8
1
5
5
16
3
1
8
9
4
0
7
2
3
3
3
57
18
10
23
0
0
0
1
0
0
4
1
0
2
3
2
5
4
1
3
7
1
3
9
7
5
3
8
0
6
3
5
2
1
12
8
17
10
2
4
9
11
10
10
7
9
8
8
5
4
8
7
3
7
4
2
2
2
2
5
5
1
1
3
33
26
35
33
10
22
36
26
19
32
25
17
6
4
10
33
18
12
7
10
26
23
8
4
15
38
34
13
6
,6
29
28
10
9
4
18
12
3
4
1
169
132
52
34
46
3
. . . . . . 60
8
65
4
33
11
59
13
26
18
11
57
254
65
74
57
75
46
51
7
1. Are you coming to school because;
You want to come?
You must come?
2, Have you ever cut or ditched class;
One time?
Two times?
Three times?
More than three times?
5. Did you cut or ditch class because;
You disliked the subject?
You were not prepared to recite?
Your companions tempted you?
You disliked the teacher?
You had some club work to do?
You had something more interesting to do?
Of the weather?
Of the fun of it?
You wanted something exciting to do?
You wanted to try it just one time?
4, Do you object to being called out of class by a teacher because;
You miss explanations given by the teacher?
You get behind in your studies?
The teacher who calls you keeps you waiting?
You feel your time is wasted?
It embarrasses you to walk out in front of your classmates?
5. Are you called out of class frequently by teachers?
Yes
No
Humber of cases— 348
......................
43
M i n
SCHOOL ATTIMCS HOBfflS
(PERCENTAGES)
GRADES
Average
per cent
7
8
.9
10
11
.12
86.2
13,8
79.7
12,2
73.7
29,8
57.3
29.3
58.7
19,6
38.7
19.4
65,7
20,6
10,8
3.1
1.5
0
20,3
6.8
0
0
14,0
1.8
8.8
8.8
21,3
4.0
1.3
10.7
19,6
8,7
0
15.2
6.5
9.7
9.7
9,7
15,4
5.6
3,5
7.4
0
0
0
1.5
0
0
6.2
1.5
0
3.1
4.1
2,7
6.8
5.4
1.4
4.1
9.5
1.4
4,1
12.2
12,3
8.8
5.3
14.0
0
11,5
5.3
8.8
3,5
1.8
16,0
10.7
22.7
13.3
2,7
5,3
12.0
14.7
13,3
13.3
15.2
19.6
17.4
17.4
10,9
8,7
17.4
15.2
6.5
15,2
12,9
6.5
6.5
6.5
6.5
16,1
16.1
3,2
3,2
9,7
10.0
8,0
9.7
9,6
3,5
7.6
11,0
7,4
5,1
9,2
38,5
26.2
9.2
6.2
15.4
44,6
24,3
16.2
9,5
13,5
45,6
40.4
14,0
7,0
26.3
50,7
45.3
17.3
8.0
8.0
63,0
60.9
21.7
19,6
8.7
58.1
38.7
9,7
12,9
3.2
50,1
39.3
14,6
10,5
12,5
1. Are you coming to school because;
You want to come?
You lust come?
2, Have you ever cut or ditched class;
3, Did you cut or ditch class because;
You disliked the subjeet?
You were not prepared to recite?
Your companions tempted you?
You disliked the teacher?
You had some club work to do?
You had something more interesting to do?
Of the weather?
Of the fun,of it?
’ You wanted''something exciting to do?
You wanted to try it Just one time?
4. Do you object to being called out of class by a teacher because:
You miss explanations given by the teacher?
You get behind in your studies?
The teachers who call you keep you wefting?
You feel your time is wasted?
44
TABU 71 (continue!)
SCHOOL ATTIDAHCI PROBLEMS
(PERCITAGES)
GRADES
7
8
9
4,6
. . . . . . 92,3
10,8
.87,8
7,0
57,9
65
74
57
10
Average
11
12
5, Are you called out of class frequently by teachers?
Yes
Ho
Humber of cases— 346
14,7 28,3
78,7 , 56,5.
58,1
35,6.
75 . .46.... . 31
20,5
68.1
45
TABLE HI
SCHOOL ATTIDAHCI PROBLEMS
AGES
11
IE
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Total
3
0
42
4
43
19
62
10
48
22
44
13
23
6
5
3
0
1
2
0
272
78
0
0
0
0
5
0
0
0
7
4
1
1
13
3
5
4
20
4
0
9
8
5
1
11
4
3
2
9
2
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
59
19
10
34
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
3
0
0
0
E
0
3
4
0
1
7
1
E
3
6
5
7
7
0
6
7
7
4
;io
11
10
15
12
4
3
8
12
8
15
8
6
8
6
5
8
12
7
5
4
5
5
5
5
1
6
4
3
1
4
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
r0
33
26
39
34
10
25
41
30
21
38
1
0
0
0
17
14
3
3
27
14
7
8
40
28
15
5
31
26
13
5
30
28
8
9
18
17
5
5
5
3
2
2
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
169
130
53
38
1
6
7
12
9
5
1
1
o
0
42
1. Are you coming to school because:
You want to cote?
You must come?
2, Hare you ever cut or ditched class:
One time?
Two times?
Three times?
More than three times?
3. Did you cut or ditch class because:
You disliked the subject?
You were not prepared to recite?
Your companions tempted you?
You disliked the teacher?
You had some club work to do?
You had something more interesting to do?
Of the weather?
Of the fun of it?
You wanted something exciting to do?
You wanted to try it just one time?
.
4. Do you object to being called out of class
by a teacher because:
You miss explanations given by the teacher?
You get behind in your studies?
The teachers t o call you keep you waiting?
You feel your time is wasted?
It embarrasses you to walk out in front
of your classmates?
46
TABLE YII (continued)
school
emsm problis
AGES
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
.IB
19
20
Total
0
4
1
43
8
51
11
37
15
53
17
39
16
13
2
5
0
1
0
2
70
248
4
45
61
73
68.
56
89
8
1
2
348
5. Are you called out of class frequently
by teachers?
Yes
Ho
Humber of eases— 348
47
TABLE VIII
AGES
Average
per cent
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
75,0
0
93,3
8,9
69,4
30,6
84,9
13,7
70,6
32,4
78,6
23,2
79.3
20,7
0 100,0
62.5
0
37,5 -100.0
0
0
0
0
11,1
0
0
0
11,3
6.5
1.6
1.6
17,8
4.1
6.9
5,5
29,4
5,9
0
13,2
14,3
8,9
1,8
19,6
13,8
10,3
6,9
31,0
25,0
0
12,5
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
12,2
3,5
2,9
7,0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2,2
6,7
0
0
0
3.2
0
4.8
6.5
0
1,6
11,3
1.6
3.2
4,8
8,2
6.9
9.6
9.6
0
8,2
9.6
9,6
5,5
13,7
16.2
14,7
22,1
17,6
5.4
4,4
11,8
17,6
11,8
22,1
14,3
10,7
14,3
10,7
8.9
14,3
21,4
12,5
8,9
7,1
17.2
17.2
17.2
17,2
3,4
20.7
13.8
10.3
3,4
13,8
12,5
0
12,5
0
0
0
0
0
12,5
25,0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
7.1
4.9
8.0
6,1
1,7
5,1
7,4
5,1
4,5
8,6
25,0
0
0
0
37,8
31,1
6,7
6,7
43,5
22,6
11,3
12,9
54,8
36,4
20,5
6.9
54,6
38,2
19.1
7,4
53,6
50,0
14,3
16,1
62,1
58,6
17,2
17.2
0
57*i
0
25,0
0
25.0 100,0
0
0
0
0
39,3
27.6
11,4
19.2
25,0
13,3
11,3
16.4
13,2
8,9
3,4
0
0
10,4
19
20
1. Are you coming to school because:
You want to come?
You must come?
71.3
26,7
2, Have you ever cut or ditched class:
One time?
Two times?
Three times?
More than three times?
3. Did you cut or ditch class because:
You disliked the subject?
You were not prepared to recite? ,
Your companions tempted you?
You disliked the teacher?
You had some club work to do?
You had something more interesting to do?
Of the weather?
Of the fun of it?
You wanted something exciting to do?
You wanted to try it just one time?
4, Do you object to being called out of class by
a teacher because:
You miss explanations given by the teacher?
You get behind in your studies?
The teachers who call you keep you waiting?
You feel your time is wasted?
It embarrasses you to walk out in front of
your classmates?
12,5
48
M R VIII (continued)
SCHOOL ATT1MNCI PH0BL1S
(M IM E S )
AGrlS
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
0
100,0
2,2
95,5
12,9
82,3
15,1
50,7
22,1
78,0
30,4
69,6
55,6
44,8
25,0
0
0
62.5 100,0 100,0
45
62
73
68
56
29
19
20
per cent
5. Are you called out of class frequently by
teachers?
Humber of cases-348
4
8
1
2
16,3
78.3
49
Reasons for cutting classes*
The chief reasons for
class absences were: (l) the weather, (2) dislike for class,
(5) failure to have assigned work, (4) influence of friends,
(5) dislike for the teacher, (6) desire to try cutting just
once to see how it felt*
Significant differences were found in the following
instances:
(l) cutting classes was more of a problem to
pupils in the tenth and eleventh grades and to girls of fif­
teen, sixteen, and seventeen years; (2) in the tenth and
eleventh grades the chief reasons for cutting classes were
the influence of friends and the failure to make class
preparations; (5) among the fifteen, sixteen, and seventeen
year old girls the chief causes for cutting classes were the
influence of companions, the d.esire to try it out just once,
the weather, and the desire to seek something more interest­
ing to do.
Class absences*
In some instances girls are called
out of class for testing or for particular service to the
school.
The request for the absence does not originate with
the pupil.
The average of 50.1 per cent of girls of all
grades objected to being called out of class because they
missed important explanations given by the teachers.
The
average of 20.5 pel* cent of girls of all grades indicated
they were called out of class frequently.
50
Summary,
Twenty-six and six tenths per cent of the
girls required to attend school found attendance a real
problem.
The chief factors for class absences were: (i)
weather and (2) failure to prepare home work.
The girls
of sixteen and seventeen seemed more eager to cut classes
than girls of other age levels.
CHAPTER IV
PROBLEMS CONCERNED WITH SUBJECT REQUIREMENT
The school program of classes often is the key to
the adjustment for a happier life at school.
If the girl
is not taking classes she desires to take or if she finds
herself ready to graduate -without having taken a required
course,* she feels resentful toward the school.
Sometimes
a change of classes is all that is required to make the
school life a happier one.
A better understanding of pro­
gram making, of college and course requirements, may be one
way the school can help the adolescent girl in her adjust­
ments at school.
If teachers are cognizant of the reasons
certain subjects are disliked by pupils, perhaps a better
relationship may be established between the girl and the
teacher.
Reasons for disliking subjects.
For both age and
grade groupings the chief factors causing dislike for a sub
ject were: (l) the classes were not interesting and (2) the
subject matter was not understandable.
(Tables IX, X, XI,
and XII).
Group differences were found in the following in­
stances: Girls of grades eight, ten, eleven, and girls fif­
teen years of age disliked a subject because of the teacher
In the eleventh gra.de 58.7 pe** cent of the girls disliked a
§2
TABU n
PROBLEMS C0HCM5B HTH SUBJECT 1EQPIBMEHT
7
8
GRADES
• 9. 10
21
8
5
14
3
8
31
23
12
23
2
20
23
12
7
30
2
17
47
23
20
18
6
21
24
16
27
13
4
14
8
4
4
8
3
5
154
86
75
106
2©
85
2
11
8
8
2
6
12
13
21
10
3
24
16
15
24
9
40
37
22
35
1
26
18
3
23
2
13
10
2
10
23
133
102
71
104
18
34
31
33
51
9
57
15
40
2
26
3
223
96
8
10
14
6
14
15
11
13
14
15
17
13
9
9
18
14
6
13
13
23
7
6
9
9
11
3
1
0
9
5
64
47
58
60
86
65
74
57
75
46
31
11
12 Total
1. Bo you dislike a subject because:
It is not interesting?
You do not like the teacher?
You feel the subject is not important to learn?
You do not understand the subject matter?
You are not allowed to express an opinion?
You do not like the home woik of the subject?
2. If you are not enrolled in a subject you wished to take, is it because:
Your parents want you to take subjects which do not interest you?
Your course requirements do not allow you to choose other desired classes?
Besired classes are not offered at school?
The class enrollment is limited? *
Of program conflicts?
3. Have you been advised regarding the importance of graduation requirements so
that the senior year will not be crowded?
Yes
Ho
4» Are subject requirements a problem to you because:
You have never been told just what is best for you to take?
You do not understand graduation requirements?
You are not taking the course and the subjects you wi& to take?
Of changes made from year to year?
You cannot take classes you wish?
Number of cases— 348
53
TABLEX
PROBLEMS CONCERNED WITH SUBJECT REQUIREMENT
(PERCENTAGES)
GRADES
.. 7
8
9 ' 10
11
12
Average
per cent
1, Do you dislike a subject because:
It is not interesting?
You do not like the teacher?
You feel the subject is not important to learn?
You do not understand tbe subject natter?
You are not allowed to express an opinion?
You do not like tbe bone wrk of tbe subject?
32,3
IE. 3
7.7
21,5
4,6
IE,3
41,9
31.1
16,2
31.1
2,7
27,0
40,4
21,1
12,5
52,6
3,5
29,8
62,7
30.7
26,7
24,0
8,0
28,0
52,2
34.8
58,7
28,3
8,7
30,4
25,8
12,9
12,9
25,8
9,7
16,1
42,5
23,8
22,4
30.5
6,2
23.9
3,1
16,9
IE.3
IE,3
3,1
8,1
25,7
17,6
28,4
13.5
5,3
42,1
28,1
26,3
42,1
12,0
53.3
49.3
29,3
46,7
2,2
56,5
39,1
6,5
50,0
6,5
41,9
32,3
6,5
32,3
6,2
39,1
29,7
18.2
31.2
27,7
52,3
41.9
44,6
89,5
15,8
56,7
20,0
87,0
4.3
83,9
9,7
64,4
24.4
12,3
15,4
21,5
9,2
21,5
20,3
14,9
17,6
18,9
20,3
29,8
22.8
15,8
15,8
31,6
18,7
8,0
17,3
17.3
30,7
15,2
13.0
19.6
19.6
23,9
9,7
3,2
•0
29,0'
16,1
17,6
12,8
15,3
18,3
24,0
65
74
57
75
46
31.
2. If you are not enrolled in a subject you wished to take, is it because;
Your parents want you to take subjects whicb do not interest you?
Your course requirements do not allow you to cboose otber desired classes?
Desired classes are not offered at school?
Tbe class enrollment is limited?
Gf program conflicts?
3. Have you been advised regarding tbe importance of graduation requirements
so that tbe senior year will not be crowded?
Yes
Ho
4. Are subject requirements a problem to you because:
You have never been told just what is best for you to take?
You do not understand graduation requirements?
You are not taking tbe course and the subjects you wish to take?
Of changes from year to year?
You cannot take classes you wish?
Number of cases— 548
54
TABLE XI
PROBLEMS CONCERNED II1H SUBJECT REQUIREMENT
AGES
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Total
1
1
0
0
0
0
15
5
1
7
2
5
23
18
12
15
2
20
30
16
10
31
8
20
42
23
12
18
9
13
29
15
30
19
1
20
12
7
9
9
3
5
2
1
1
1
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
;o
0
0
0
0
0
154
86
75
100
27
85
0
1
3
6
6
3
3
1
0
0
23
1
0
0
0
3
6
7
1
20
5
13
9
30
21
21
24
33
37
22
27
31
21
4
23
13
9
3
11
3
2
2
4
0
1
0
0
Q:
0
0
0
134
102
72
99
0
4
17
18
22
32
51
17
52
14
47
7
29
2
6
2
0
1
2
0
226
97
0
2
2
5
13
11
15
13
11
7
15
6
3
3
1
0
1
0
0
0
61
47
0
1
1
8
1
9
13
11
14
12
11
21
14
14
20
7
12
15
2
7
3
2
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
58
60
86
4
45
62
73
66
56
29
8
1
2
1, Do you dislike a subject because;
It is not interesting?
You do not like the teacher?
You feel the subject is not important to learn?
You do not understand the subject matter?
You are not allowed to express an opinion?
You do not like the home work of the subject?
2, If you are not enrolled in a subject you
. wished to take, is it because:
Your parents want you to take subjects which
do not interest you?
Your course requirements do not allow you
to choose other desired classes?
Desired classes are not offered at school?
The class enrollment is limited?
Of program conflicts?
3. Have you been advised regarding the importance
of graduation requirements so that the senior
year will not be crowded?
Yes
No
4. Are subject requirements a problem to you because:
You have never been told just what is best
for you to take?
You do not understand graduation requirements?
You are not taking the course and the
subjects you wish to take?
Of changes made from year to year?
You cannot take classes you wish?
Number of cases«*348
55
TABLE XII
PROBLEMS CONCERNED WITH SUBJECT REQUIREMENT
(PERCENTAGES)
AGES
12
11
13
14
15
37.1
29,0
19,4
24.2
3.2
32.3
41,1
21,9
13,7
42,5
11,0
27,4
61,8 51,9
33,8 26,8
17.6 53,6
26.5 33,9
13,2 ■ 1.8
19,1 35.7
16
17
18
41,4
24,1
31.0
31,0
10,3
17.2
25,0
12,5
12,5
12,5
25,0
25,0
19
Average
per cent
20
1, Bo you dislike a subject because;
25.0 33,3
It is not interesting?
25.0 11,1
You do not like the teacher?
2,2
You feel the subject is not important to learn? 0
You do not understand the subject matter?
0 • 15,5
0
You are not allowed to express an opinion?
4,4
0 11,1
You do not like the home work of the.subject?
.
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
31,6
18,4
15,0
18,6
6,8
16,7
2. If you are not enrolled in a subject you wished
to take, Is it because;
Your parents want you to take subjects which
do not interest you?
Your course requirements do not allow you to
choose other desired classes?
Desired classes are not offered at school?
The class enrollment is limited? **
Of program conflicts?
0
2,2
4,8
8.2
8.8
5,4
10,3
12,5
0
0
5,2
25.0
0
0
0
6,7
13,3
15,5
2,2
32,3
8,1
20.9
14,5
41,1
28,8
28,6
32,9
48,5
54,4
32,4
39,7
55.4
37.5
7.1
41.1
44,8
31,0
10.3
37,9
0
37,5
25.0 100,0
0
25,0
50.0
0
0
0
0
0
29,1
29,8
14,0
21,6
0
100,0
37,8
40.0
35,4
51,6
69,9
23,3
76,5
20,6
83,9 100,0
12,5
6,9
75,0
0 100,0
0
25.0 100,0
57,8
37,9
you have never been told just what is best
for you to take?
0 4,4
You do not understand graduation requirements? 50,0 11,1
20.9
17,?
20,5
17,8
16,2
10.3
26,8
10,7
12,5 100,0
0
0
21,1
12,7
3. Have you been advised regarding the importance
of graduation requirements so that the senior
year will not be crowded?
Yes
' No
4. Are subject requirements a problem to you
because;
10,3
10.3
0
0
55
TABU H I (continued)
AGES
You are not taking the course and the
subjects you wish to take?
Of changes made from year to year?
You cannot take classes you wish?
Humber of cases-346
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
0
25,0
25.0
17.8
2,2
20.0
20.9
17,7
22,6
16,4
15,1
28,8
20,6
20.6
29.4
12,5
21.4
26.8
6,9
24,1
10,3
25,0
37,5
37,5
4 ..45..
62
73
68
56
29
8
19
0
0
0
1
20
0
0
0
2
Average
per cent
12,0
16,3
20.0
57
subject because they felt the material was not Important to
learn.
Among all grades except seven and twelve, 25 per
cent of the girls disliked a subject because of the home
work.
Class enrollment problems.
The chief reasons for
not enrolling in a subject were because the desired class
was not offered at school.
For many girls of all grades and
ages the course requirements did not allow them to make suf­
ficient choice of elective classes.
This was especially
true for girls of the tenth, eleventh, and twelfth grades.
Program conflicts prevented 50 per cent of the eleventh
grade girls from enrolling in desired classes.
Importance of graduation requirements.
garding graduation requirements was adequate.
Guidance re­
From the
average for all grades, 61.5 per cent indicated that they
had been advised regarding the importance of fulfilling
requirements so that their programs for the senior year
would not be crowded.
Subject requirement guidance.
Guidance was found to
be most needed with reference to a better pupil understand­
ing of course requirements.
The chief problem stressed in
this regard was that the girls were not allowed to take the
subjects they wished to take.
Approximately 12 per cent of
girls of all grades indicated that they did not understand
58
graduation requirements.
Girls in the ninth grade and girls
eleven years old especially stressed this problem.
Summary.
Data of both grade and age groupings indi­
cated that many of the girls desired the following: (l) more
interesting subjects; (2) more likeable teachers; (3) a bet­
ter understanding of subject matter; (4) more elective
courses, especially for ages fourteen, fifteen, sixteen,
seventeen, and eighteen; (5) a more varied program of classes
offered; (6) more advice for course, guidance, especially for
sixteen year old girls.
The chief protests were: (l) sub­
jects were not interesting; (2) study material was not
understandable; (3) desired classes were not offered; .(4)
there was little opportunity for elective classes.
CHAPTER V
SCHOOL CLUBS AND COMMITTEES
Membership in school clubs and committees meets a
need for adolescent girls by providing opportunities for
social growth, by enlarging their interest fields, and by
gaining the approval of their own age group.
There are
normal girls who need club work, but for various reasons
fail to belong.
The feeling of not belonging, of not be­
ing needed, of having no opportunity for service may react
upon the entire school life.
A study of the reasons why
girls do not belong to clubs may help the guidance teacher
in making the necessary adjustments.
Statistics according
to grades and ages are given in tables XIII and XV" with
percentages in tables XIV and XVI.
Club membership.
Approximately 30 per cent of all the
girls indicated they did not belong to any club.
This prob­
lem of non-membership was especially stressed by girls of
the seventh, eighth, and ninth grades, and pupils fourteen
and sixteen years old.
Too much club activity was noted as
a problem for girls of the twelfth grade, the majority of
whom were seventeen years old.
Reasons for non-participation in clubs.
Many girls
did not belong to clubs because they felt they did not have
60
TABLE XIII
SCHOOL CLUBS AND COMMITTEES
GRADES
7
6
9
10
11
12
Total
27
18
8
5
2
33
7
18
5
9
21
18
5
9
3
16
16
12
8
12
12
16
8
8
9
5
3
1
3
18
114
78
52
38
53
8
5
9
8
8
6
0
14
3
9
8
7
5
0
21
2
5
3
6
8
1
20
3
9
7
15
11
6
12
2
5
4
8
2
7
4
2
0
1
2
1
0
79
17
37
31
46
33
14
19
17
6
8
22
23
9
9
22
18
9
7
24
21
10
7
14
11
5
4
1
1
3
0
102
93
42
35
3
9
10
11
10
14
8
9
9
9
10
6
4
6
5
1
3
0
36
47
44
2
3
0
3
1
10
1
14
2
11
0
3
6
44
1, Are you a member of:
No clubs?
One dub?
Two clubs?
Three clubs?
More than three clubs?
2. If you do not belong to a elut; is it because;
You haven’t the time?
You can’t afford to be a member?
You have never been asked to join?
You do not know what clubs are available?
You cannot stay after school?
You are not interested in any club?
You are not eligible for membership because of class grades, et cetera?
3. If you have never served on a committee, is it because;
You have never been asked to?
You would like to but do not wish to suggest ybur own name?
You do not care to?
You are not popular?
4, If you have never been an officer of a class or club, is it because;
You do not have friends who will nominate you?
You do not wish to serve?
Your friends will criticize you if you suggest your own name?
5. If you do not belong to the junior or senior Girls* Athletic Association,
is it because:
You were absent from school too many days?
You have to stay too late after school?
61
TABU XIII (continued]
SCHOOL CLUBS A D COMMITTEES
.
7
You are not able to stay after school?
You are not interested in sports?
You feel you do not play the gases well enough?
Your health prevents your joining?
You cannot afford the time?
You cannot afford the money necessary?
Your school program is too heavy?
,
.
8
.
GRADES
9 10
11
12
Total
11
1
4
1
1
2
5
11
1
11
2
5
5
2
14
2
8
2
4
5
8
14
7
7
3
8
1
1
13
2
1
1
10
1
5
3
3
1
1
0
0
0
66
16
32
10
28
10
19
24
9
8
24
8
27
22
9
22
27
15
26
14
8
13
1
10
5
112
59
101
65
74. . 5?
75
46
31
6. Would you like to have club activities during the school day because;
You are not able to stay after school for such activities?
Attendance at different club Meetings makes you late getting home nearly every night?
You would have more time for your own recreation?
Number of cases«*348
62
TABLE XIV
SCHOOL CLUBS I B C011ITT1ES
(PERCENTAGES)
GRADES
9
10
11
12
per cent
1. Are you a member of:
No clubs?
One club?
Two clubs?
Three clubs?
More than three clubs?
41,5
27.7
12,3
7.7
3.1
44,6
9,5
24,3
6,3
12,2
36,8
31,6
8,8
15,8
5.3
21,3
21,3
16,0
10.7
16,0
26,1
34.8
17,4
17.4
19.6
16,1
9,7
3.2
9,7
58,1
31,0
22.4
13,6
11.3
19,0
12.3
7,7
13,8
12.3
12,3
9.2
0
18,9
4,1
12,2
10,8
9,5
6.8
0
36.8
3,5
8,8
5,3
10,5
14.0
1,8
26,7
4,0
12,0
9,3
20,0
14,7
8,0
26.1
4,3
10,9
8.7
17.4
4,3
15.2
12,9
6,5
0
3,2
5.5
3,2
0
22,2
5,0
9,6
8,2
12,7
8,7
4,1
29,2 29,7
26,2 33,8
9.2 . 12,2
12.3 12,2
38,6
31,6
15,8
12,3
32,0
28.0
13,3
9.3
30.4
23,9
10,9
8,7
3,2
3.2
9,7
0
27.1
24.4
11,8
9.1
4,6
13.8
15,4
14,9
13.5
18,9
14,0
15.8
15.8
12,6
13,3
8,0
8,7
13,0
10,9
3,2
9.7
0
9,6
13,1
11,5
3*1
0
1.8
1,3
4,3
0
1,7
2, If you do not belong to a club, is it because;
You haven't the time?
You can't afford to be a member?
You have never been asked to join?
You do not know what clubs are available?
You cannot stay after school?
You are not interested in any club?
You are not elibible for membership because of class grades, et cetera?
3. If you have never served on a committee, is it because;
You have never been asked to?
You would like to, but do not wish to suggest your own name?
You do not care to?
You are not popular?
4. If you have never been an officer of a class or club, is it because;
You do not have friends who will nominate you?
You do not wish to serve?
Your friends will criticize you if you suggest your own name?
5, If you do not belong to tbe Junior or senior Girls' Athletic
Association, is it because;
You were absent from school too many days?
63
SCHOOL CLUBS AHD COMMITTEES
(PERCENTAGES)
SHADES
You have to stay too late after school?
You are not able to stay after school?
You are not Interested in sports?
You feel you do not play the games well enough?
Your health prevents your Joining?
You cannot afford the time?
You cannot afford the money necessary?
Your school program is too heavy?
Average
per cent
7
8
9
10
11
4,6
16,9
1.5
6,S
1.5
1.5
3,1
4,6
4,1
14,9
1.4
14,9
2*7
6,8
4,1
2,7
17,5
24,6
3,5
14,0
3,5
7,0
5,3
14,0
18,7
18,7
9,3
9,3
4.0
10.7
1,3
1.3
23,9
26,3
4,3
2,2
2,2
21,7
2,2
10.9
9,7
9,7
9,7
3.2
3,2
0
0
0
13,0
18,8
4,9
8,3
2,8
7,9
2,6
5,5
36,9
32,4
38,6
36,0
30,4
3.2
29,5
13,8
12,3
10.8
36.5
15.8
38,6
20,0
34,7
17.4
28.3
32,3
16,1
18.3
27,7
65
74
57 ,
75
46
31
,
12
6. Would you like to have club activities during the school day because:
You are not able to stay after school for such activities?
Attendance at different club meetings makes you late getting
home nearly every night?
You would have more time for your own recreation?
Number of cases-348
64
AGES
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
1
1
1
0
0
12
17
7
2
3
19
18
11
7
6
23
22
13
10
5
15
24
10
7
10
19
8
7
5
15
2
4
2
7
12
1
G
0
0
0
0
2
2
2
4
3
4
11
3
13
7
6
7
26
2
6
5
11
9
18
5
8
7
13
7
13
2
6
7
10
5
0
G
0
1
3
0
12
19
25
2
0
0
9
6
3
20
4
12
0
0
3
6
1
3
19
20
Total
2
2 •
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
96
96
52
38
51
5
0
2
0
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
79
16
38
31
46
33
6
2
2
0
0
14
22
24
1
1
1
0
105
21
13
7
22
9
4
14
6
6
2
3
2
2
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
92
42
35
10
5
8
3
7
8
5
9
2
5
1
1
0
0
0
0
36
37
14
10
7
5
2
2
0
0
44
18
1. Are you a member of;
No clubs?
One club?
Two clubs?
Three clubs?
More,than three clubs?
2. if you do not belong to a dub, is it because:
You haven’t the time?
You can’t afford to be a member?
You have never been asked to join?
You do not know what clubs are available?
You cannot stay after school?
You are not interested in any dub?
You are not eligible for membership because
of class grades, et cetera?
3, If you have never served on a committee,
is it because:
You have never been asked to?
You would like to, but do not wish to
suggest your own name?
You do not care to?
You are not, popular?
4. If you have never been an officer of a class
or club, is it because:
You do not have friends who will nominate you?
You do not wish to serve?
Your friends will criticize you if you
suggest your own name?
65
TABU XV (continued)
SCHOOL CLUBS AND COMMITTEES
ages
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
5
1
4
1
0
2
1
0
3
10
1
7
1
2
1
3
3
11
15
2
8
3
7
3
7
0
14
17
4
7
1
8
3
2
1
9
13
6
4
2
8
1
5
1
4
1
2
1
2
2
0
1
1
12
26
27
23
16
0
6
7
11
15
o
5
22
25
4 . . 45
62
19
2()
Total
1 •
2
1
0
;i
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
6
44
66
16
32
10
28
10
19
2
3
0
0
110
13
5
2
0
0
59
23
15
9
2
0
0
101
73. . 68
56
29
8
1
2
18
5, If you do not belong to the junior or senior
Girls’ Athletic Association, is it because:
You were absent from school too many days?
You have to stay too late after school?
You are not able to stay after school?
You are not interested in sports?
You feel you do not play the games well enough?
Your health prevents your joining?
You cannot afford the time?
You cannot afford the money necessary?
Your school program is too heavy?
Would you like to have club activities during
the school day because:
You are not able to stay after school and so
miss being in a club?
Attendance at different club meetings.makes
you late getting home nearly every night?
You would have more time for your own
recreation?
Number of cases— 348
66
m m
SCHOOL CLUBS IND COMITIES
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
25,0
25,0
25,0
0
0
26,?
3?,8
15,5
4.4
6,?
30.6
29,0
17.7
11.3
9.7
31,5
30,1
17.8
13.7
6.9
22.1
35.2
14,7
10.3
14,7
33,9
14.3
12,5
8.9
26,8
6.9
13,8
6.9
24.1
41.4
25,0 100,0 100,0
25,0
0
0
25,0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
40.1
21.0
13,5
7,2
10.6
25,0
0
0
0
0
0
4.4
4.4
4.4
8,9
6.7
8.9
17.7
4.8
20.9
11.3
9,7
11.3
35.6
2,7
8,2
6.9
15,1
12,3
26,5
7.4
11,8
10.3
19.1
10.3
23,2
3,6
10,7
12.5
17.9
8.9
17.2
0
6,9
0
3,4
3,4
25,0 100.0
25,0
0
0
12,5
12,5
0
12,5 100,0
o0
0
0
0
0
0
0
27.4
4,7
7.5
6,2
18.4
5.5
0
0
0
1,4
4,4
10,7
6.9
25,0
0
0
4,8
0
26.7
30.6
34,2
32,4
42,9
3,4
12.5 100,0
0
28.2
50.0
0
0
20.0
13.3
6.7
32,3
6.5
19.4
28.8
17.8
9.6
32.4
13,2
5.4
25,0
10.7
10,7
6,9
10.3
6,9
25,0
12,5
12.5
0.
0
0
0
0
0
22.0
8.4
7.1
0
You do not have friends who will nominate you?
0
You do not wish to serve?
Your friends will criticize you if you
25,0
suggest your own name?
6,7
13,3
16,1
8,1
11,0
4,1
10.3
11,8
8.9
16,1
6,9
17,2
12.5
12,5
0
0
0
0
7.2
8.3
6,7
22,6
13,7
10.3
8,9
6,9
25,0
0
0
11,9
18
20
19
per cent
1. Are you a member of;
No clubs?
One club?
Two clubs?
Tbree clubs?
More than three clubs?
2, If you do not belong to a club, is it because:
You haven’t the time?
You can't afford to be a teiber?
You have never been asked to join?
You do not know what clubs are available?
You cannot stay after school?
You are not interested in any club?
You are not eligible for membership because
of class grades, et cetera?
3, If you have never served on a committee, is it
because:
You have never been asked to?
You would like to, but do not wish to
suggest your own name?
You do not care to?
You are not popular?
4, If you have never been an officer of a class
or club, is it because:
67
TABLE XVI (continued)
SCHOOL CUBS ANDC O M B S
(PERCEHTAGES)
AGE3
Average
per cent
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
0
2,2
11.1
2.2
8,9
2.2
0
4,4
2,2
0
4.8
16,1
1,6
11.3
1.6
3,2
1,6
4.8
4.1
15.1
20.5
2,7
11.0
4.1
9,6
4.1
9.6
0
20,6
25,0
5.4
10.3
1.5
11,8
4,4
2.9
1,8
16,1
23,2
10.7
7,1
3.6
14,3
1.8
8.9
3.4
13.8
3.4
6.9
3,4
6,9
6.9
0
3.4
0
12.5
0
25,0
0
0
12.5 100,0 100,0
0
0
0
0
0
12,5
0
0
0
0
0
12.5
0
0
0
0
0
0
25,0
26,7
41.9
37.0
33,8
28.6
6.9
37,5
0
0
23,7
0
15,3
11,3
15.1
22,1
23.2
17,2
25.0
0
0
12,7
0
11.1
35.4
34,2 . 33,8
26.8
31.0
25.0
0
0.
19,7
4
45
68
56
89
8
11
19
20
5, If you do not belong to t lie junior or senior
Girls' Athletic Association, is it because:
0
You were absent from school too many days?
0
You have to stay too late after school?
25,0
You are not able to stay after school?
0
You are not interested in sports?
You feel you do not play the games well enough? 0
0
Your health prevents your joining?
0
You cannot afford the time?
0
You cannot afford the money necessary?
0
Your school program is too heavy? .
2,1
9,7
33,6
2,9
6.4
1,9
5.8
1,6
3,1
6. Would you like to have club activities during
the school day because:
You are not able to stay after school for
such activities?
Attendance at different club meetings makes
you late getting home nearly every night?
You would have more time for your own
recreation?
Number of cases--346
73
68
1
8
68
the time, or could not stay after school.
Little evidence
was found that girls did not belong to clubs because (l)
they could not afford it, (2) they knew no available clubs,
(3) they were not interested, or (4) they were not eligible
for membership.
Committee membership.
Many girls indicated they
were not serving on committees because they had never been
asked.
An average of 2^.4 per cent of the girls of all
grades stressed they wished to serve but hesitated to sug­
gest their own names.
Club officers.
The chief reasons for girls not
serving as officers were: (1) they did not wish to and (2)
they feared criticism of friends if they suggested their
own names for nomination.
A few girls indicated they did
not have friends who would nominate them for offices.
Among this small group the majority of the girls were in
the eighth, ninth, and tenth grades.
Membership in Athletic Association.
The chief fac­
tor for girls not belonging to the Athletic Association was
because they could not stay after school.
The majority of
the girls indicated they were interested in sports, and
that their health, school program, inability to play the
games expertly, or lack of money did not prevent them from
participating in the Girls* Athletic Association.
69
Time schedule for clubs.
An average of 29.5 per
cent of the girls ■wished club activities during school hours
because they were unable to stay after school.
An average
of 27*7 per cent of the girls would like to use-the afterschool-time for their own recreation; they preferred club
activities during the regular school day.
In the twelfth
grade 32.3 pe** cent and in the tenth grade 20 per cent in­
dicated they were late getting home nearly every night be­
cause of different club meetings.
In these two grades the
ages represented were fifteen, sixteen, and seventeen.
Summary.
Approximately 65 per cent of the girls of
the school were enjoying membership in at least one club.
The girls did not belong to clubs or serve as committee
members or officers because of: (l) insufficient time, (2)
failure to receive invitations to join, (3 ) reluctance in
suggesting their own names for nomination, (4) lack of de­
sire to serve, (5) fear of criticism of friends if they sug­
gest serving, and (6) inability to stay after school.
CHAPTER VI
PROBLEMS DOE TO STODY AND TO HOME WORK
Home work and study may always be problems for the
adolescent.
Often it is not until after school years are
completed that the need for self-improvement by the way of
study is felt.
However, such phases as a home work schedule,
proper environment for study, and the need for parent approv­
al may eliminate some of the disapproval toward home work
and study.
Problem of home work.
The chief reasons why home
work constituted a problem were: (l) irregular study sched­
ules and (2) more work assigned than could be finished in
one evening.
(Tables XVII, XVIII, XIX, and XX.).
Ah .
average of 22.2 per cent of girls of all grades indicated
that their study time at home was two hours or more per
day.
Of this group the majority of girls were in the
eleventh grade and were sixteen years old.
The tenth grade
girls especially stressed this problem of home work.
In
this group 20 per cent did not have a quiet place at home
for study, 58 per cent had more home work than they could
get finished each evening, 29 per cent studied on the
average of two hours or more per day, 27 per cent allowed
club activities to interfere with study time, 21 per cent
permitted out-of-school activities to encroach upon study
71
TABLE n i l
PROBLEMS DUE TO STUDY ANDTO HOME IOHK
7
8
GRADES
9
10
2
8
2
14
1
7
5
7
0
39
3
10
16
7
1
38
6
13
22
15
4
44
1?
16
20
5
4
27
3
12
7
1
1
10
6
10
72
43
12
17-2
36
68
5
26
34
52
31
17
165
32
28
57
23
38
18
51
24
26
16
22
6
226
115
6
45
9
11
52
9
6
45
6
1
60
14
0
29
15
0
17
12
24
248
15
32
24
19
31
34
23
25
23
24
33
46
44
22
22
24
14
14
17
157
163
151
65
74
57
75
46
31
11
12
Total
1. Is borne work a problem to you because;
Your average borne study time is two hours or more per day?
You do not have a quiet place at borne to study?
You do not have a c o f ortable place a t borne to study?
The teachers give more to do than you can get done in one evening?
Your club activities interfere with your study time?
Your out*of*school activities take too much of your time?
The study schedule is irregular? (Some evenings assignments are required in a ll
classes).
2, Do your parents urge you to study?
Yes
Ho
3. Do your parents help you with your studies?
Regularly
Occasionally
Never
.
4. Do you study:
In your own room?
In room with other members of the family?
When the radio is going?
Humber of cases—348
n
mu m u
GRADES
Average
12 , per cent.
7
8
9
10
11
3,1
12,3
3,1
21,5
1.5
10.8
6.8
9,5
0
52,7
4,1
13,5
28,1
12,3
1,8
66,7
10,5
22,8
29,3
20,1
5,3
58,7
22,7
21.3
43,5
10,9
8,7
58.7
6,5
26,1
32,6
3,2
3,2
32,3
19,4
32.3
22,2
11,3
3,6
48.4
10,7
21,1
7.7
35,1
59,7
69,3
67.4
GO
IO
,
49.0
49,2
43,1
77,0
31,1
66,7
31,6
68.0
32.0
56,5
34.8
71.0
19.4
64,7
32.0
9,2
69.2
13,8
14,9
70,3
12.2
10,5
78,9
10,5
1.3
80,0
18.7
0
63.0
32,6
0
54,8
38.7
5,9
69.3
21,1
49,2
36,9
29.2
41,9
45,9
31.1
43,9
40.4
42,1,
44.0
61.3
58,7
47.8
47.8
52,2
45,2
45.2
54.8
45,3
46.2
44,6
65
74
57
75
46
31
1, Is borne work a problem to you because;
Your average home study time is two hours or more per day?
You do not have a quiet place at home to study?
You do not have a comfortable place a t home to study?
fhe teachers give more to do than you can get done in one evening?
Your club activities interfere with your study time?
Your out-of-school activities take too much of your time?
The study schedule is irregular? (Some evenings assignments are required
in a ll classes.)
2, Do your parents urge you to study?
Yes
Io
3, Do your parents help you with your studies?
Regularly
Occasionally
Never
4. Do you study:
In ydur own room?
In a room with other members of the family?
Ihen the radio is going?
Number of cases—548
73
TABLE I E
PROBLEMS DUE TO STUDY AND TO HOME TORE
AGES
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
0
0
2
6
4
3
17
10
17
12
23
9
7
1
0
1
0
2
6
2
0
0
8
29
47
38
32
0
1
2
6
13
0
5
10
9
0
5
19
1
3
33
17
0
4
0
5
32
4
18
19
20
Total
3 ■• 0
2
0
0
0
73
43
1
0
0
12
14
4
0
0
172
9
3
2
0
0
36
18
14
9
3
0
0
68
36
42
35
20
4
1
1
165
36
24
49
23
48
17
35
20
18
8
3
3
1
0
2
0
226
115
5
48
7
9
53
11'
3
51
13
2
38
15
0
15
12
0
4
3
0
1
0
0
2
0
24
248
65
2
1
1
30
22
22
18
.11. . 20-
33
30
31
28
42
36
25
32
29
13
13
18
4
3
4
0
0
1
0
2
0
157
163
151
4
45
73
68
56
29
8
1
2
1, Is home work a problem to you because:
Your average borne study is two bours or
lore per day?
You do not bave a quiet place at boie to study?
You do not bave a comfortable place at borne
to study?
Tbe teachers give more to do tban you can get
done in one evening?
Your club activities interfere witb your
study time?
Your out-of-school activities take too mucb
of your time?
Tbe study schedule is irregular? (Some evenings
assignments are required in all classes).
.
2. Do your parents urge you to study?
Yes
No
3. Do your parents help you with your studies?
Regularly
Occasionally
Never
4, Do you study:
In your own room?
In a room with other members of tbe family?
When tbe radio is going?
Number of cases—348
62
.
74
TABLE XX
PROBLEMS DUE TO STUDY I D TO HOME I E
(PERCENTAGES)
AGE8
11
Average
per cent
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
0
0
4,4
13,3
6,5
4,6
23,3
13,7
25,0
17,6
41,1
16,1
24,1
3.4
37,5
25,0
0
0
0
0
16,1
9,3
0
2,2
0
2,7
8,8
3,6
0
12,5
0
0
2,9
0
17,8
46,8
64,4
22,1
57,2
48,3
50,0
0
0
30,6
0
2,2
3,2
8,2
19,1
16,1
10,3
25,0
0
0
8,4
0
11,1
16,1
12,3
26,5
25,0
31,0
37.5
0
0
15,9
0
11,1
30,6
52,1
61,8
62,5
69.0
50,0 100,0
50,0
48,7
25,0
75.0
73,3
37,8
58,1
38,8
67,1
31,5
70,6
25,0
62,5
35,7
62,1
27,8
37,5 100,0 100,0
37.5
0
0
65,6
30,9
0
100,0
0
11,1
11,1
8,9
8,1
67,6
11.3
12,3
72,6
15,1
4,4
75.0
19,1
3,6
67,9
26,8
0
51,7
41,4
0
0
0
50,0 100.0 100,0
0
0
37.5
3,9
69,5
16,0
50,0
25,0
25,0
48,9
40,0
24,4
48,4
35,4
32,3
45,2
41,1
42,5
51,2
61,8
52,9
44,6
57,2
51,9
44.8
44,8
62,1
50,0
0
0
0 100,0
37,5
0
50,0 100,0
38,3
44,2
44,1
4
45
62
73
68
56
19
20
1. Is home work a problem to you because;
Your average home study is two hours or more
per day?
You do not have a quiet place at home to study?
You do not have a comfortable place at home
to study?
The teachers give more to do than you can get
done in one evening?
Your club activities interfere with your
study time?
Your out-of-school activities take too much
of your time?
The study schedule is irregular? (Some evenings
assignments are required in a ll classes,)
2. Do your parents urge you to study?
Yes
Ho
3, Do your parents help you with your studies?
Regularly
Occasionally
Never
4, Do you study:
In your own room?
In a room with other members of the family?
then the radio is going?
Number of cases—348
.2 9
8
1
2
75
time, and 69 per cent objected to the irregularity of the
study schedule.
Out-of-school activities interfered "with the study
time for more girls fifteen, sixteen, seventeen, and eight­
een years old than for any other age group.
For many of the
girls the away-from-school interests interfered with study
time to a greater extent than did club activities.
In check­
ing the responses to these problems an average of 10.7 per
cent indicated club activities interfered with study time,
while an average of 21.1 per cent of the girls of all grades
stressed the time conflict of out-of-school activities.
ParentsT influence on study.
The parents of 64.7 per
cent of the girls urged their daughters to study (Table XVIU,
page 72); 69*5 P©3? cent of the parents occasionally helped
their girls with their home work; 21.1 per cent of the girls
indicated their parents never gave them assistance.
Few
differences were noted by grade or age classifications, how­
ever; the groups indicating by the largest percentage that
they never received help from parents were found in the
eleventh and twelfth grades.
Environment for home study.
The chief need for im­
proving home study conditions was the provision for a quiet
environment for study.
An average of 46.2 per cent indi­
cated they studied in a room with other members of the fami­
ly.
An average of 45*3 PC*1 cent of girls of all grades
76
studied with the radio going.
No noticeable differences
were found for particular grade or age groupings with refer­
ence to this problem.
Summary.
The chief sources for worry and adjustment
because of home work were found to be: (l) irregularity of
study schedule, (2) too much home work .per evening, and (3)
poor provision for a quiet environment for home study.
CHAPTER VII
PROBLEM OF MAKING FRIENDS
The adolescent girl needs friends of her own age or
grade level.
The problem of making friends is a real one
for many so-called norma,! girls.
Some girls find it diffi­
cult to make friends because they think they are not pretty,
or because they feel their clothes are not in fashion.
A
detailed study of the various reasons may help the teacher
in her guidance work with these girls.
A study of girl-
teacher relationships may reveal the need for a better
understanding.
Since this particular phase of school life
is very important to the girl and very necessa,ry for the
best development of her personality, a careful study is
warranted.
This problem is tabulated in tables XXI and XXIH
with percentages given in tables XXII and XXIV.
Individual insecurities.
The majority of the girls
did not have difficulty in making friends, but for those
who found getting acquainted a real problem the following
reasons were indicated: (l) they were, too timid to speak to
classmates, (2) they felt left out of every group, (3) they
felt no one was interested in them, (4) they were selfconscious because of their clothes.
Girls in grades eight
and nine stressed the problem of making friendly adjustments.
78
mum
BOBUM 0? M M MUDS
GRADES
7
8
9
10
11
12
Total
3
2
3
4
9
7
6
7
7
2
7
4
5
6
6
7
2
3
3
6
1
0
6
1
27
20
31
29
15
18
24
20
37
29
12
31
21
8
43
33
7
19
18
8
10
8
70
158
133
2
7
6
2’
6
1
4
3
21
8
3
6
1
4
9
8
8
8
1
•4
3
11
12
13
12
0
4
3
7
7
3
2
0
3
1
4
7
3
16
59
48
32
34
3
17
8
9
:;21
11
11
12
11
24
23
27
20
18
20
23
18
11
12
20
21
16
27
20
44
23
26
25
23
16
11
21
8
13
14
15
3
10
4
2
5
8
99
77
147
78*
90
97
96
44
11
52
17
45
10
44
28
27
17
24
6
236
89
1. Do you find it difficult to make friends because:
You feel no one is interested in you?
You do not bare the proper clothes and so you are self conscious?
You are too timid to speak to classmates?
You feel le ft out of every group?
2, When you are in trouble at school, do you seek advice from:
A teacher?
A schoolmate friend?
Someone outside of school?
3, If you feel you are not liked, is it because:
You have been alone so much you find it difficult to Join a group of girls?
You think you cannot do things as well as others?
You think you are not pretty?
You find it difficult to talk with other people?
You do not live close to any other school pupil?
You do not like games?
You are new at the school?
ifah uo
Aa w\f
om
■Pn^onAlvr
foallflCptAUfoiiA
no u uho&vvdta &
enaiy leeiing
vowaru
4, liT'f* you
2
•o
0
0
i e l f Koocause,
aaoiioa*
She is unreasonable?
She is unfair?
She has pets?
She does not like you?
She does not understand you?
She is too strict?
She is unfriendly?
24
6
5, Do you feel that you can confide in at least one of your teachers?
Yes
Uo
79
TABLE XXI (continued)
PROBLEM 0! IKING FRIENDS
V S
7
8
9
10
11
12
Total
36
7
62
7
44
7
45
19
30
11
13
12
230
63
37
8
58
8
44
7
48
11
27
7
13
11
227
52
16
35
29
44
17
14
40... 50
11
.31
90
3
23 . 223
65
74
57
46
31
6. Would you lllce to be chosen more often to take part in games and in other activities?
Yes
No
7. Would you be happier if your classmates liked you better?
Yes
No
8. ire many of your classmates so unkind or unfriendly that you avoid them?
Yes
No
Number of cases-348
75..
80
TABLE m i
SHADES
Average
per cent
7
8
9
10
11
12
4.6
. 3,1
4,6
6,2
12,2
9,5
8,1
12,2
12,3
3,5
12,3
7,0
6,7
8,0
8,0
9.3
4.3
6.5
6.5
13,0
3,2
0
19,4
3.2
7,2
5,1
9,8
8,4
23,1
27.7
36,9
27,0
50,0
39.2
21,1
54.4
36,8
10,7
57.3
44.0
15,2
41.3
39,1
25,6
32,3
25,8
20,4
43,8
36,9
3,1
10.8
9.2
3,1
9,2
1,5
6,2
4,1
28,4
10,8
4,1
8,1
1,4
2,7
7.0
15,8
14.0
14,0
14,0
1,8
7,0
4,0
14,7
16,0
17.3
16,0
0
5,3
6.5
15,2
15,2
6,5
4,3
0
6,5
3,2
12,9
22,6
9,7
0
0
0
4,6
16,3
14,6
9,1
8.6
,8
4,6
12.3'
13,8
32,3
16.9
16.9
18,5
16.9
32,4
31,1
36,5
27,0
24.3
27,0
31,1
31,1
19,3
42,1
21,1
35,1
36,8
28,1
36,0
26,7
58,7
30.7
34,7
33,3
30,7
.34,8
23,9
45,7
17,4
28,3
30,4
32,6
19.4
9,7
32,3
.12,9
6,5
16.1
25,8
27,7
20,7
41,2
21,0
24,3
27.0
27.5
1, Do you find it d ifficult to make friends because;
You feel no one is interested in you?
You do not have the proper clothes and so you are self«conscious?
You are too tiiid to speak to classmates?
You feel le ft out of every group?
2, When you are in trouble at school, do you seek advice from:
A teacher?
A schoolmate friend?
Someone outside of school?
3. If you feel you are not liked, is it because;
You have been alone so u c h you find it difficult to join a group of girls?
You think you cannot do things as well as others?
You think you are not pretty?
You find it difficult to talk with other people?
You do not live close to any other school pupil?
You do not like games?
You are new a t the school?
4. If you do not have a friendly feeling toward a teacher, is it because:
She is unreasonable?
She is unfair?
She has pets?
She does not like you?
She does not understand you?
She is too strict?
She is unfriendly?
81
TABLB m i (continued)
GRADES
?
8
9
10
11
12
Average
per cent
6?,?
16.9
70.3
23.0
78.9
17.5
58.7
37.3
58.7
36.1
77,4
19,4
68,6
23,0
55.4
10.8
83.8
9.5
77.2
12.3
60,0
25.3
65.2
23,9
41,9
38,7
63.9
20,0
56.9
12.3
78.4
10.8
77.2
12.3
64.0
14.7
58.7
15,2
41,9
35.5
62,8
16.8
24.6
53.8
39.2
59.1
24.6
70.2
22.7
66.7
23.9
67,4
9.7
74.2
24,1
65,2
65
74
57
75
46
31
5, Do you feel that you can confide in a t least one of your teachers?
les
Ho
6. Would you like to be chosen lore often to take part in games
and other activities?
les
Ho
?. iould you be happier if your classmates liked you better?
Yes
Ho
8. Are many of your classmates so unkind or unfriendly that you avoid them?
Yes
Ho
Humber of cases-348
8a
TABLE mil
PROBLEM OF MAKING MENDS
•
AGES
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Total
0
1
8
8
4
2
3
2
0
0
26
0
0
0
0
1
1
6
5
10
4
9
4
7
7
6
3
4
7
0
2
1
0
3
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
20
31
31
2
0
2
9
12
19
16
26
22
22
38
32
5
41
27
10
27
18
7
12
10
3
2
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
74
158
133
0
1
4
3
5
2
0
2
0
0
17
0
0
0
1
0
0
4
4
0
6
0
2
15
6
4
12
1
3
13
12
7
10
4
4
12
6
9
12
0
3
9
13
7
5
0
2
3
4
3
0
0
1
3
3
3
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
59
48
33
46
5
17
0
0
0
0
1
4
6
10
6
5
18
20
27
20
15
29
17
33
16
23
23
18
36
21
19
17
10
25
9
18
7
6
14
4
5
1
0
1
1
4
0
0'
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
99
77
147
77
90
1. Do you find it d ifficu lt to make friends because:
You feel no one is interested in you?
You do not have the proper clothes and so
you are self-conscious?
You are too timid to speak to classmates?
You feel le ft out of every group?
E. then you are in trouble at school, do you seek
advice from:
A teacher?
A schoolmate friend?
Someone outside of school?
5. If you feel you are not liked, is i t because:
You have been alone so much you find it
difficult to join a group of girls?
You think you cannot do things as well as
others?
You think you are not pretty?
You find it d ifficult to talk with other people?
You do not live close to any other school pupil?
You do not like games?
You are new at the school?
4. If you do not have a friendly feeling toward
a teacher, is it because:
She is unreasonable?
She is unfair?
She has pets?
She does not like you?
She does not understand you?
83
m
She is too strict?
She is unfriendly?
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Total
1
1
7
8
18
18
27
23
22
21
16
15
6
11
4
0
0
0
0
0
101
97
1
2
32
8
45
11
5?
14
37
27
36
19
20
5
8
1
0
1
1
0
237
88
2
0
30
8
52
0
56
8
46
13
34
18
12
12
4
1
1
0
1
0
240
60
2
2
25
8
47
9
54
5
51
7
33
11
13
10
4
1
1
0
0
0
230
53
2
1
9
30
24
34
20
40
18
44
13
40.
3
23
2
2
0
1
0
0.
91
215
4
. 45
6E
73
68
56
29
8
1
2
5, Do you feel that you can confide in at least
one of your teachers?
Yes
No
6, Would you like to he chosen tore often to take
part in games and in other activities?
Yes
No
7. lould you he happier if your classmates
liked you better?
Yes
No
8, Are many of your classmates so unkind or
unfriendly that you avoid them?
Yes
No
Number of cases-348
.
84
AGES
15
16
17;
18
12.9
11,0 .
5,4
3,6
10.3
25,0
0
0
7,0
0
2.2
2,2
9.7
8.1
16.1
5.5
12,3
5.5
10,3
10,3
8,8
5,4
7,1
12,5
0
6,9
3.4
0
37,5
25,0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3,0
8,4
7,3
50.0
0
50.0
20.0
26.7
42.2
25.8
41.9
35.4
30.1
52.1
53,8
7,4
60.3
39,7
17,9
48,2
32,1
24,1
41,4
34,5
37.5
25.0
37.5
0
0
0
0
0
0
21,2
29,5
32.5
0
2.2
6.5
4,1
7,4
3,6
0
25,0
0
0
4,8
0
0
8.9
8.9
24.2
9.7
17,8
16.4
17,6
8,8
16,1
23.2
10,3
13,8
37,5
37,5
0
0
0
0
13,2
11,8
0
0
6.5
9.6
13,2
12.5
10,3
37,5
0
0
8,9
25.0
0
0
13.3
0
4.4
19.4
1.6
4.8
13,7
5,5
5.5
17,6
0
4.4
8,9
0
3,6
0
0
3,4
0
0
25,0
0
O'
0
0
0
0
9,7
,7
5.1
0
0
8,9
13,3
29.0
32,3
39,7
23.3
33,8
26,5
30.4
17,9
24,1
20,7
12,5
0
0
0
0
0
17.8
13,4
12
13
0
2,2
0
0
0
19
Average
per cent
■14
11
20
1. Do you find it d ifficu lt to make friends because;
You feel no one is interested in you?
You do not have the proper clothes and so
you are self-conscious?
You are too timid to speak to classmates?
You feel left out of every group?
a. Ihen you are in trouble at school,,do you seek
advice from;
A teacher?
A schoolmate friend?
Someone outside of school?
3, If you feel you are not liked, is it because;
You have been alone so much you find it
difficult to join a group of girls?
You think you cannot do things as well
as others?
You think you are not pretty?
You find it difficult to talk with other
people?
You to.not live close to any other school
pupil?'
• You do not like games?
You are new at the school?
.
4* If you do not have a friendly feeling toward
a teacher, is it because:
She is unreasonable?
She is unfair?
TABLE HIT (continuod)
AGES
She has pets?
She does not like you?
She does not understand you?
She is too strict?
She is unfriendly?
Average
per cent
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
0
0
25.0
25.0
25.0
22.2
13.3
11.1
15.5
17.8
43,5
32,3
24.2
29,0
29.0
45,2
21,9
31.5
37,0
31,5
52,9
30,9
27.9
32,4
30.9
44,6
16,1
32.1
28.6
26,8
48,3
13,8
17,2
20,7
37.9
0
0
0
0
0
36,9
14.0
21,9
23,8
19,8
25.0
50.0
71.1
17.8
72,6
17.7
78,1
19,2
54,4
39,7
64.3
33,9
0 100,0
69,0 100,0
17.2 12,5 100.00
63,4
30.8
50.0
0
66,6
17.8
83,8
0
76,8
11,0
70,6
19,1
60,7
32,1
41,4
41.4
50,0 100.0
0
12,5
50,0
0
64.9
13,3
50.0
50.0
55,6
17.8
75.8
14,5
74,0
6.9
75,0
10,3
58,9
19.6
44.8
34,5
50.0 100,0
0
12.5
0
0
58,4
16,6
50.0
50.0
20.0
66.6
38,8
54,8
27,4
54,8
26.5
64.8
23,2
71,4
10.3
79,3
25,0
0
25,0 100,0
0
0
22,1
56,6
4
45
62
75
68
58
29
18
19
12,5 100,0
0
12,5
0
50.0
0
50.0
0
0
20
5. Do you feel that you can confide in at least
one of your teachers?
Yes
No
6. Would you like to be chosen more often to take
part in games and in other activities?
Yes
No
7, Would you be happier if your classmates liked
you better?
Yes
No
8. Are many of your classmates so unkind or
unfriendly that you avoid them?.
Yes
No
Number of cases-348
8
1
2
86
Guidance selection.
When in need of advice because
of difficulties at school, an average of 43.8 per cent of
the girls of all grades indicated they would seek help from
a schoolmate friend.
Someone outside of school would next
be sought, and lastly, the teacher would be consulted.
Girls fifteen years old and pupils in the tenth grade seemed
less likely to go to a teacher for guidance.
Most girls
indicated they would get advice from friends of their own
age or grade level.
Girl relationships.
The majority of the girls of all
grades and ages showed evidences of happy adjustments among
school friends.
For those girls who felt they were not
liked the chief reasons were: (l) inability to do things as
well as others, and (2) lack of beauty.
Of the group who
felt their lack of beauty influenced their acquaintances,
22.6 per cent were in the twelfth grade.
The girls of the
eighth grade expressed by 28.4 per cent that they were not
liked because they had less ability than others.
Very few
age or grade differences were noted for this problem.
Other reasons expressed why girls were not liked were: (l)
inability to talk with others, (2) distance of home from
other school girls, (3) being alone too much, (4) being new
at the school, and (5) not liking games.
Girl-teacher relationships.
The chief factors why
87
the girls did not have friendly feelings toward their
teachers were: (l) she had pets, (2) she was unreasonable,
(3) she was unfriendly, (4) she was too strict, (5) she
did not understand them, (6) she did not like them, or (7 )
she was unfair.
Grade and age differences were noted in the follow­
ing instances:
Girls of grades eight, ten, and eleven, and ages
thirteen, fifteen, and seventeen stressed the reason that
teachers were not fair.
Girls in grades nine, ten, eleven, and ages thirteen,
fourteen, fifteen, sixteen, and seventeen were emphatic about
the teacher having pets.
More girls in the ninth, tenth, and eleventh grades
felt the teachers did not like nor understand them.
Girls fourteen, fifteen, and sixteen, felt they were
less understood.
The average of 68.6 per cent of girls of all grades
felt they could confide in at least one of their teachers.
Fewer of the girls in grades ten and eleven indicated they
could bring any of their troubles to a teacher.
Summary.
The chief factors stressed in the problem
of making friends were: (l)s pupils made poor adjustments
with other girls because they were too timid, felt left out,
and thought no one was interested in them; (2) teachers
88
■were third on the following list as sources for advice with
reference to school troubles: a teacher, a schoolmate friend,
someone outside of school; (3) girl relationships were dif­
ficult because of a feeling of inferiority and of a lack of
personal beauty; (4) many of the girls felt teachers had
pets, were unreasonable, and were too strict; (5) many of
the girls wished to be chosen more often for various activi­
ties; (6) the majority of the girls wanted their classmates
to like them better.
CHAPTER VIII
SUMMARY AM) RE COMMEMDATI OHS
I.
SUMMARY
Many studies have been made with reference to the
adolescent girl and her efforts to have a happy, well
balanced life.
Many of the adjustments she must make de­
pend upon her home situation, financial status, and many
out-of-school relationships.
In this study the investi­
gator attempted to discover if there were problems which
assail the girl in her relationship with the school.
If
such problems existed, what were they? why did they exist?
and what means might be used to help the girl during the
period of life when adjustments are many?
In response to a questionnaire presented to 105
girls of a Los Angeles Junior-Senior High School, the fol­
lowing problems were presented:
(l) problems arising from
the grading system, (2) school attendance problems, (5)
problems concerned with subject requirements, (4) problems
with reference to school clubs and committees, (5) problems
due to study and home work, and (6) problems of making
friends.
Many reasons were given for the problems mentioned
above.
These statements of the girls together with sugges­
tions found among the authorities of studies of adolescence
90
■were incorporated in a final questionnaire and presented to
all girls of the school who were considered normally adjust­
ed.
The data were organized in group headings 3379
9 338,
A8, 339, A9, BIO, A10, Bll, All, B12, and A12; hut, because
of the detail of information, the results were tabulated in
the larger headings of seventh, eighth, ninth, tenth,
eleventh, and twelfth grades.
also compiled.
Age level groupings were
A summary of affirmative response percent­
ages is given in Table XXV.
A review of the study as a whole indicated there
were no significant differences between the responses of
age and grade groupings.
The data revealed that the so-called adjusted
adolescent girl has many problems with reference to her
school life.
Among these are problems with reference to
the grading system, school attendance, subject requirement,
school clubs and committees, study and home work, and mak­
ing Mends.
Grading system.
The most important factors stressed
under, problems arising from the grading system were: (l)
unhappiness because others who worked less received better
grades, (2) desire for college recommendation, (3) disap­
pointment over grades received, (4) desire to become an
honor student, (5) unfairness of grades because those who
studied received lower grades than those who did not make
91
TABLE nr
SIGNIFICANT SCHOOL ADJUSTMENT PROBLEMS
Average
per cent
affirmative
1. Would you like to be chosen more often to take part in games and in
other activities?
63.9
2. Would you be happier if your classmates liked you better?
62.8
3. If you are not enrolled in a subject you wish to take, is it because desired classes are not offered at school?
61.5
4. Does it bother you to have those who cheat get a better grade than you because you have studied and those whocheat have not?
55.0
5. Do you object to being called out of class by a teacher because youmiss explanations given by the teacher?
50.1
6. Is home work a problem to you because the study schedule is irregular?
49.0
7. Is home work a problem to you because the teachers give more to do than you can get done in one evening?
48.4
8. Do you study in a room with other members of the family?
46.2
9. Could you earn better grades if you had more time to study during school hours?
45.1
10. Do you study when the radio is going?
44.6
11. Does it bother you to have those who cheat get a better grade than you because it is not honest?
43.9
12. ffhen you are in trouble at school, do you seek advice from a schoolmate friend?
43.8
13. Does the grading system cause you unhappiness because others who work less than you get better grades?
42.6
14. Do you dislike a subject because it is not interesting?
42.5
15. Does it bother you to have those who cheat get a better grade than, you because grades made by cheating are not grades earned?
42.1
16. Could you earn better grades if teachers would explain assignments more clearly?
41.4
17. Do you object to the grades you receive because you think your work deserves a better grade?
41.2
18. If you do not have a friendly feeling toward a teacher, is it because she has pets?
41.2
19. Do you object to the grades you receive because your grade isn 't based upon the amount of work you do?
40.6
TABU XXV (continued)
SIGNIFICANT SCHOOL ADJUSTMENT PBQELEMS
Average
per cent
affirmative
responses
20, Do you object to being called out of class by a teacher because you get behind in your studies?
39.3
21. If you are not enrolled in a subject you wish to take, is it because your course requirements do not
allow you to choose other desired classes?
39,0
22, Does it bother you to have those who cheat get a better grade than you because the value of an honest grade is lowered?
38,9
23. Could you earn better grades if your subjects were more interesting?
38.4
24. Is cheating a problem because others look at your paper?
37,6
25, Ihen you are in trouble at school, do you seek advice from someone outside of school?
36,9
26, Does it bother you to have those who cheat get a better grade than you because it is not fair?
34,4
27, Could you earn better grades if you had less home work to do?
33.2
28. Does the grading system cause you unhappiness because you want a college recommendation?
33.1
93
preparations and were dishonest, (6) conflict with ethical
standards because grades made by dishonest methods of cheat­
ing were not grades rightfully earned, (7) temptations to
cheat caused by too much home work and opportunity to look
at examination papers, (8) too little school study time and
difficulty of understanding assignments interfered with im­
provement of grades, (9) conflict of teacherfs mark and the
grade pupil expected, (10) inability of pupil to correlate
mark with amount of study done.
School attendance.
The most important factors
stressed under the problems arising from school attendance
were: (l) the majority of the girls liked to attend schoolj
(2) the few girls for whom cutting classes was a problem
indicated that the weather and failure to prepare home work
were the chief causes of class absences; (3) girls objected
to being summoned from classes because of missing explana­
tions given by teachers.
Subject requirement.
The most important factors
stressed under the problems arising from subject requirement
were the desires and protests expressed by the girls.
Their
desires were for: (1) more interesting subjects, (2) more
likeable teachers, (3 ) a better understanding of subject
matter, (4) more elective courses, (5) more varied program
of classes offered, and (6) more course guidance.
The chief
94
protests -were: (l) subjects were not interesting, (2) study
material was not understandable, (3) desired classes were
not offered, and (4) little opportunity for elective classes
was given.
Clubs and committees.
The most important factors
stressed under problems arising from school clubs- and com­
mittees were: (1) the majority of the girls were enjoying
membership in at least one club; (2) the girls who did not
belong to clubs indicated the following reasons: insuffi­
cient time, failure to receive invitations to join, reluc­
tance in suggesting their own names for nomination, lack of
desire to serve, fear of criticism of friends if they sug­
gest serving, and inability to stay after school.
Study and home work.
The most important factors
stressed under problems arising from study and home work
were: (1) irregularity of the study schedule, (2) too much
home work per evening, and (3) poor provision for a quiet
environment for home study.
Making friends.
The most important factors stressed
under problems of making friends were: (l) pupils made poor
adjustments with other girls because they were too timid,
felt left out, and thought no one was interested in them;
(2) teachers were third on the following list of sources for
advice with reference to school troubles: a teacher, a school­
95
mate friend, someone outside of school; (5) girl relation­
ships were difficult because of a feeling of inferiority
and of a lack of personal beauty; (4) many of the girls
felt that teachers had pets, were unreasonable, and were
too strict; (5) many of the girls wished to be chosen more
often for various activities; (6) the majority of the girls
wanted their classmates to like them better.
II.
RECOMMENDATIONS
Sufficient problems are presented for the so-called
normal girls in their relationship to the school to warrant
further investigation and study.
Recommendations may be
made with reference to the following problems:
Problems arising from the grading system.
It is
recommended:
1.
That teachers study examination and home work
assignments with reference to eliminating opportunities for
cheating;
2.
That a further study be made for girls in grades
nine and ten since they emphasized the problems arising
from the grading system;
3.
That the desirability of additional study time
during school hours be considered;
4.
That teachers attempt to clarify the standards of
96
grading for the pupils;
5*
That teachers give more detailed explanations of
assignments.
School attendance problems.
1.
It is recommended:
That a detailed study be made for girls in grs,des
nine and ten with reference to making school attendance more
desirable;
2.
That extra-curricular activities be arranged so
as not to interfere with regular class instruction;
3.
That case studies be made of the fe¥ girls for
whom ditching classes is a problem.
Problems concerned with subject requirement.
It is
recommended:
1.
That an attempt be made to make classes more in­
teresting and challenging;
2.
Ths,t teachers make the subject matter more under­
standable to pupils;
3.
That a greater variety of classes be offered;
4.
That pupils be advised that course and graduation
requirements affect the number of elective selections they
may make.
School clubs and committees.
1.
It is recommended:
That the club possibilities for girls of the
junior high school level be studied;
97
2.
That teachers consider the advisability of limit­
ing club activities for girls in the twelfth grade;
3.
That an attempt be made to give opportunity to
many girls for club membership and school service;
4.
That further study be made regarding the desira­
bility of giving club experiences during school time.
Problems due to study and home work.
It is recom­
mended:
1.
That teachers consider a plan whereby the study
schedule for all classes may be coordinated;
2.
That an attempt be made to estimate the minimum
and maximum time needed for each assignment;
3.
That teachers present to pupils the advantages
of correct study habits,
PPQb3-eK1 of making friends.
1,
It is recommended:
That case studies be made of the girls who indi­
cated they had difficulty making friends because they were
too timid, felt left out, thought they were not pretty, and
felt no one was interested in them;
2,
That teachers attempt to.establish a friendlier
rapport with girls so that guidance may be given;
3,
That further study be made of teacher-girl re­
lationships particularly in grades nine and ten.
It is the hope of the investigator that this study
will be valuable to educators who are interested in girls
98
and their problems.
Perha,ps further study should he made
in the field of school life situations so that more informa­
tion may be collected -with reference to adjustments which
may be made by the educator to bring about a happy relation­
ship between the girl and her teacher, and to relieve some
of the stress and strain which is experienced during
adolescence.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
BIBLIOGRAPHY
BOOKS
Brooks, Fowler D., Psychology of A.dolescence.
- Houghton Mifflin Company, 11929^ 652 pp.
Boston:
This book covers the first twelve years of the child!s
life. It has a broad biological background and in­
cludes a survey of the psychology of young adolescents
in a well-organized and comprehensive way. It presents
results of many individual investigations with refer­
ence to physical growth, mental, moral, social, and
religious development of young people during adolescent
and pre-adolescent years.
Burnham, ¥. II., The Wholesome Personality.
Appleton and Company, 19321 713 PP*
Hew York: D.
Mental hygiene is studied with reference to the whole­
some personality.
Dexter, R. C. , Social Adjustment. Hew York and London:
Alfred A. Knopf, 1997. 424 pp.
An attempt is made to give a bird’s-eye view of the
whole field of social adjustment in a descriptive and
practical way. The problems of society are named to­
gether with the successes and failures of the attempts
so far made to meet them.
Elliot, Grace Loucks, Understanding the Adolescent Girl.
Hew York: Henry Holt and Company"; 1930. 219 PP*
This study deals with adolescence from the point of
view of the girl. Some of the common problems of
adolescent girls are pointed out. An attempt is made
to analyze the factors that produce them, and to indi­
cate the equipment necessary for leadership. The dif­
ficulties are described in a simple straightforward way,
avoiding technical terminology.
Gibson, Jessie E., On Being a Girl.
Company, 1930. ~326 pp.
Hew York: The Macmillan
This study represents the product of long and wide ex­
perience with the problem of developing sound evalua­
tions in young women. It is a guide for the study of
101
problems of young girls. Material was secured through
discussion groups. It has been found that the problems
lead especially to the fields of biology and sociology.
The outgrowth of the experience of the girls themselves
is represented.
Good, Carter V., The Methodology of Educational Research.
New York: D. Appleton Century~“T7ompany, 1936. 325 pp.
An excellent study of the various methods of educa­
tional research.
Hollingworth, Leta S., The Psychology of the Adolescent.
New York: D. Appleton and Company,~ T 9 3 ^
PP.
The understanding of the psychology of the adolescent
is presented by this discussion of the problems of the
adolescent, as they appear at present, under conditions
of our time. The study attempts a formulation of the
universal problems of the adolescent.
Koos, Leonard V., The Questionnaire in Education.
The Macmillan Company, 1932. 1815”"pp.
New York:
A book of practical value for information regarding the
value and desirability of the questionnaire in research
study.
Leonard, Eugenia Andruss, Concerning Our Children and Nhat
They Tell Us. New York: Teachers“T5ollege, Columbia
NnTversr5y7~5L930. 192 pp.
A study of some relationships of mothers and adolescent
daughters.
Mackie, Ransom A . , Education During Adolescence.
E. P. Dutton and Company, 1920.
pp.
New York:
An attempt is made to present curricula to meet the needs
and nature of the child, based upon the psychology of
adolescence.
Mateer, Florence, Just Normal Children.
ton, 1929. 29Tt?p.“----------- r-
New York: D. Apple­
This book gives, in case method form, the studies of many
adolescents including information of the physique, medical
history, illnesses, early development, physically handi­
caps, and all important predeterminants of the present
102
conditions. Included in each study is the family his­
tory, school history, everyday program of the child to­
gether with his likes and dislikes, triumphs and diffi­
culties, fears, desires, and defiances.
Symonds, Percival M. , Diagnosing Personality and Conduct.
■ Hew York: The Century Company, 1932. 602 pp.
A practical study of educational psychology, personality,
and conduct. Excellent samples of character tests are
given.
, Psychological Diagnosis in Social Adjustment.
York: American Book Company, T 9 3 ^
362 pp.
Hew
This book points out the applications that diagnostic
psychology can make in the field of human endeavor. A
survey is given of the principles of social diagnosis;
presenting a description of the principles of diagnosis
and individual study. Problems of social reconstruction
are described. The study includes list of tests, ques­
tionnaires, and rating scales for study of personality
and conduct.
Thom, D. A. , Hormal Youth and Its Everyday' Problems.
York: D. Appleton and Company, I952. 56Y pp.
Hew
A book dealing with the psychology and problems of
adolescence.
PERIODICAL ARTICLES
Andrus, Ethel Percy, ’’What the Girl of Today Asks of the
School,” Journal of the American Association of
University Women, 2b:146-48, ApriT^ 1932.
Bain, Read, ’’Theory and Measurement of Attitudes and
Opinions,” Psychological Bulletin, 27:357-79, May, 1930.
Cammell, D. B. , ’’Highlights on America1s Youth Problem,”
School Life, .21:74-75, December, 1935.
Droba, D. D ., ’’Methods of Measuring Attitudes,” Psycho­
logical Bulletin, 29:309-23, May, 1932.
Engle, T. L. . ’’Home Environment and School Records,” School
Review, 42:590-98, October, 193^.
103
Gratton, C. H. , "What the Younger Generation Thinks, " North
American Review, 235:261-68, March, 1933*
Gould, Arthur, "Studies of Adolescent Needs and Interests,"
Unpublished bulletin, Los Angeles City School District,
Secondary Curriculum Section, May 20, 1937*
Hildreth, Gertrude, "An Interest Inventory for High School
Personnel Work," Journal of Educational Research,
27:11-19, September',' 1'933^-- --- ----------- ---Hubbard, Frank ¥., "Today*s Youth Problems," The Journal of
the National Education Association, 25:
January,
T9J6~.------ -------------- -----
McBee, Marian, "A Mental Hygiene Clinic in a High School,"
Mental Hygiene, 19:238-o0, April, 1935.
Pintner, Rudolf, et. al., "The Measurement of Pupil Adjust­
ment," Journal of Educational Research, 28:354-46,
Janua ry, 1935.
Richmond, W. , "Meeting the Problems of Youth, " Parents,
8:18-19, March, 1935.
. ““
~~
Strang, Ruth, "Problems of Adolescents Which Come to Deans, "
Junior-Senior Clearing House, 7:29-54, September, 1932,
Stolz, H. R., M. C. Jones, J, Chaffey, "The Junior High
School Age," University High School.Journal, 15:63-72,
January, 19577“
Thurstone, L. L., "Attitudes Can be Measured," American
Journal of Sociology, 55:529-54, January, .I928i
Wylie, A. T. , I'To What Extent May We Rely Upon the Answers
to a School Questionnaire," The Journal of Educational
Method, 6:252-57, February, 19271
Zelany, L. D . , "A Measure of Social Opinions of Students,"
Journal of Applied Sociology, 11:56-64, SeptemberDctober,“ 19^81---------- ---
APPENDIX
PRELIMINARY QUESTIONNAIRE
AGE
GRADE
The following questions are asked in order to
understand better the problems of girls during
their school life. Will you please check the
following statements, and write, on the lines
provided, the reasons for your answers. You
do not need to sign your name.
PROBLEMS ARISING FROM THE GRADING SYSTEM
1.
Does the grading system ever cause you unhappiness?
Yes
No
Why?
2.
Does It bother you to have those who cheat gef'‘lT"Tle't~ter
grade than you? Yes
No
Why?
3.
Is cheating a problem' to you?
"Yes
TTo
Why?
4.
Gould you earn better grades?
Yes
TTo
"Why?"
5.
Do you object to the grades you receive?
Why?
.
6.
Please write any other problems you may have with refer­
ence to the grading system. Why?
Y es
No
SCHOOL ATTENDANCE PROBLEMS
Are you coming to school because you want to come?
Yes
No
Why?
H ave you
e v e r d itc h e d
o r c u t c la s s ?
Yes"
No
W hy?
Do you object" to being called out of class by a teacher?
Yes
No
Why?
Please write anyother problems you may have withreference to school attendance. Why?
PROBLEMS CONCERNED WITH SUBJECT REQUIREMENT
Do you dislike a subject?
Yes
No
Why?
Are you enrolled in all the subjects you wished to take?
Yes
No
Why?
Have you been advised regarding the importance of graduation requirements so that the senior year will not be
crowded? Yes
No
Why?
A re
Why?
s u b je c t r e q u ir e m e n ts
a p r o b le m
to
you?
Yes
No
Please write any other problems you may have with refer­
ence to problems concerned with subject requirements*
Why?
SCHOOL CLUBS AND COMMITTEES
Do you belong to a club?
Yes
No
Have you ever served on a committee?
Why?
Yes
YSo
Why?
Have you ever been ah officer of a class or club?
Yes
No
Why?
Do 'you belong to the junior or senior Girls1 A "emetic
A-ssociation? Yes
No
Why?
Would you like to have club activities during the school
day? Yes
No
Why?
Please write any other problems you may have with, reference to school clubs and committees. Why?
PROBLEMS DUE TO STUDY AND TO HOME WORK
Is home work a problem to you?
Yes
No
Why?
108
2.
Do your parents urge you to study?
Yes
3*
Do your parents help you vith your studies?
No
Why?
No
Why?
Yes
PYe'ash^ ^iTfe™al^ 'o'ther~^rdDT^^'™you may “have wXtTf reTer
ence to problems due to study and to home work* Why?
PROBLEM OP MAKING FRIENDS
1.
Do you find it difficult to make friends at school?
Yes
No
Why?
2.
DcTyou feel you are riot likecT?~ Yes’
3.
Do you have a friendly Teelirig toward all your~teachers?
Yes
No
Why?
4.
Do you feeY'thari you can ’confide in at least one of
your teachers? Yes
No
Why?
5*
Would "you like to be chosen more' often to take part in
games and in other activities? Yes
No
Why?
W o
Why?
109
6.
Would you be happier if your classmates liked you bet­
ter? Yes
No
Why?
7.
Are many of your classmates unkind or unfriendly to you?
Yes
No
Why?
8.
Please 'write any other problems you may have with reference to making friends. Why?
If you have any problems dealing with your school life
that have not been mentioned in this set of questions,
will you list them?
FINAL QUESTIONNAIRE^AGE
GRADE
The following questions are ashed in order
to understand better the problems of girls
during their school life. Will you please
check the statement or statement's- which are
true in your case? You do not need to sign
your name.
PROBLEMS ARISING PROM THE GRADING SYSTEM
1.
Does the grading system ever cause you unhappiness be­
cause:
*
*
*
*
*
*
2.
You want to rank highest in your class?
You want to be an honor student?
Your parents scold you or are disappointed in you
when low grades are reported?
Your parents will take privileges from you?
You want a college recommendation?
Others who work less than you get better grades?
You are teased because of your low grades?
You are disappointed in the grades you receive?
Teachers do not grade fairly?
You are embarrassed to show your grades to your
friends?
Does it bother you to have those who cheat get a better
grade than you because:
*
*
*
*
*
It is not honest?
You do not have opportunity to cheat?
You have studied and those who cheat have not?
You are not willing to cheat?
Grades made by cheating are not grades earned?
Those who cheat are considered smarter than those
. who do not?
It is not fair?
The value of an honest grade is lowered?
-1
- The questions marked with an asterisk were the prob­
lems written in by the gir3.s themselves. The other state­
ments are those suggested by noted authorities.
Ill
3.
Is cheating a problem because:
*
*
*
4.
You sit so close to a neighbor you cannot help look­
ing at his paper?
You have too much -work to do, so come unprepared for
some Of it?
You do not understand the assignments?
The teacher doesn*t seem to care if some cheat?
Your friends expect you to chea,t?
Others look at your paper?
You are never successful at cheating?
It is so easy to cheat?
Are your grades as good as you think you can earn?
Yes
No
5*
Could you earn better grades if:
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
6.
You had more study time during school hours?
Your parents urged you to study?
You did not belong to so many clubs?
You -were in better health?
Your subjects were more interesting?
You planned more time for studying?
Teachers would explain assignments more clearly?
You would not waste time during class periods?
Your out-of-school activities did not take so much
of your time?
You had less home work to do?
You "played up" to the teachers?
You paid strict attention to class discussions?
You showed more interest in the subject matter?
In your school work do you average:
Above "C"?
"c"?
Below "C"?
7.
Bo you object to the grades you receive because:
*
*
*
*
You think your work deserves a better gra.de?
You do not get as high a grade as your best friend?
You think the teacher is not fair?
Your grade i snft based upon the amount of work you
do?
112
8.
Are some of your subjects so difficult that you may be
in danger of failing?
a
Yes
No
SCHOOL ATTENDANCE PROBLEMS
1#
Are you coming to school because:
You want to come?
You must come?
2.
Have you ever cut or ditched class:
One time?
Two times?
Three times?
More than three times?
3*
Did you cut or ditch class because:
*
*
*
*
*
*
4.
Do you object to being called out of class by a teacher
because:
*
*
*
*
5.
You disliked the subject?
You were not prepared to recite?
Your companions tempted you?
You disliked the teacher?
You had some club work to do?
You ha,d something more interesting to do?
Of the weather?
Of the fun of it?
You wanted something exciting to do?
You wanted to try it just one time? -
You miss explanations given by the teacher?
You get behind in your studies?
The teachers who call you keep you waiting?
■
You feel your time is wasted?
It embarrasses you to walk out infrontof your class­
mates?
Are you called out of class frequently by teachers?
Yes
No
113
PROBLEMS CONCERNED WITH SUBJECT REQUIREMENT
1.
Do you dislike a subject because:
*
*
*
*
*
2.
If you are not enrolled in a subject you wished to take,
is it because:
*
*
*
3.
It is not interesting?
You do not like the teacher?
You feel the subject is not important to learn?
You do not understand the subject matter?
You are not allowed to express an opinion?
You do not like the home work of the subject?
Your parents want you to take subjects which do not
interest you?
Your course requirements do not allow you to choose
other desired classes?
Desired classes are not offered at school?
The class enrollment is limited?
Of program conflicts?
Have you been advised regarding the importance of gradua­
tion requirements so that the senior year will not be
crowded?
Yes
No
4.
Are subject requirements a problem to you because:
*
*
*
*
*
You have never been told just what is best for you
to take?
You do not understand graduation requirements?
You are not taking the course and the subjects you
wish to take?
Of changes made Drom year to year?
You cannot take classes you wish?
SCHOOL CLUBS AND COMMITTEES
1.
Are you a member of:
No clubs?
One club?
Two clubs?
Three clubs?
More than three clubs?
114
2.
If you do not belong to a clul^ is it because:
You
You
* You
You
* You
You
You
havenft the time?
canft afford to be a member?
have never been asked to join?
do not know what clubs are available?
cannot stay after school?
are not interested in any club?
are not eligible for membership because of class
grades, et cetera?
3* If you have never served on a committee, is it because:
* You have never been asked to?
You would like to, but do not wish to suggest your
own name?
* You do not care to?
* You are not popular?
4.
If you have never been an officer of a class or club, is
it because:
You do not have friends who will nominate you?
You do not wish to serve?
Your friends will criticize you if you suggest your
own name?
5*
If you do not belong to the junior or senior Girls1
Athletic Association, Is it because:
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
6.
You were absent from school too many days?
You have to stay too late after school?
You are not able to stay after school?
You are not interested in sports?
You feel you do not play the games well enough?
Your health prevents your joining?
You cannot afford the time?
You cannot afford the money necessary?
Your school program is too heavy?
Would you like to have club activities during the school
day because:
*
*
You are not able to stay after school for such activi­
ties?
Attendance at different club meetings makes you late
getting home nearly every night?
You would have more time for your own recreation?
115
PROBLEMS DDE TO STUDY AND TO HOME WORK
1.
Is home "work a problem to you because:
*
*
*
*
*
2.
Your average home study time is two hours or more
per day?
You do not have a quiet place at home to study?
You do not have a comfortable place at home to study?
The teachers give more to do 'than you can get done
in one evening?
Your club activities interfere with your study time?
Your out-of-school activities take too much of your
time?
The study schedule is irregular? (Some evenings
assignments are required in all classes).
Do your parents urge you to study?
Yes
No
5.
Do your parents help you with your studies?
Regularly
Occasionally
Never
4.
Do you study:,
In your own room?
In room with other members of the family?
When the radio is going?
PROBLEM OF MAKING FRIENDS
1.
Do you find it difficult to make friends at school be­
cause:
You feel no one is interested in you?
You do not have the proper clothes to wear and so
you are self-conscious?
You are too timid to speak to classmates?
You feel left out of every group?
■»
2.
When you are in trouble at school do you seek advice
from:
A teacher?
A schoolmate friend?
Someone outside of school?
116
5.
If you
*
feel you are not liked,isitbecause:
You
have been alone so muchyoufind it difficult to
join a group of girls?
You think you can not do things as well as others?
You think you are not pretty?
You find it difficult to talk with other people?
You do not live close to any other school pupil?
You do not like games?
You are new at the school?
If you do not have a friendly feeling toward a teacher,
is it "because:
*
*
*
5.
She
She
She
She
She
She
She
is unreasonable?
is unfa,ir?
has pets?
does not like you?
does not understand you?
is too strict?
is unfriendly?
Bo you feel that you can confide in at least one of
your teachers?
Yes
No
6*
Would you like to be chosen more often to take part in
games and in other activities?
Yes
No
7.
Would you be happier if your classmates liked you bet­
ter?
Yes
No
8.
Are many of your classmates so unkind or unfriendly
that you avoid them?
Yes
No
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