A SURVEY OF THE GUIDANCE PRACTICES ' IN THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS OF LOS ANGELES A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the -School of Education University of Southern California In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Science in Education t>y Elizabeth Sands June 194-1 UMI Number: EP54118 All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion. Dissertation Bubi sbsng UMI EP54118 Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author. Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 48106-1346 Cs T h is thesis, w r it t e n u n d e r the d ir e c t io n o f the C h a ir m a n o f the ca n d id a te fs G u id a n c e C o m m itte e a n d a p p ro v e d by a l l m em bers o f the C o m m itte e , has been presen ted to a n d accep ted by the F a c u lt y o f the S c h o o l o f E d u c a t io n in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f the re q u ire m e n ts f o r the degree o f M a s t e r o f Science in E d u c a tio n . D a te I?.4.3: Dean Guidance Committee Irving R . Mel/bo Chairman D. welty Lefever 0. R. Hull v r TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER •I . PAGE THE P R O B L E M .................................. 1 Purpose of the study....................... 1 The need for the s t u d y . ................... 1 The importance of guidance................. .4 The changing concepts/ of g u i d a n c e ........ 4 Current points of view on guidance. . . . . 5 Defining and administering guidance . . . . . 9 Scope of the study............................ 11 Organisation of the remainder of the thesis.......................................13 II. HISTORY OF THE GUIDANCE MOVEMENT AND RELATED RESEARCH. . . Recency of guidance ..................... 14................. 14- Investigations dealing with the administration of guidance.......... 15 Investigations dealing with guidance in relation to an educational philosophy . . 19 Investigations dealing with the needs, growth, and development of youth........... 21 Summary of the chapter........................27 III. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE. ............... 30 Purpose of the chapter........................3^ iii CHAPTER PAGE Setting up the problem................. JO Two aspects of the s t u d y . .......... 3^ k-J Planning the questionnaire.................. Summary of the chapter . . IV. .............. . . . 4-6 THE FINDINGS...................................... 4S General information, point of view and practice. ......................................*J-S Administrative function . . . ............... 5^ Surveying and analyzing the need forguidance . 59 Teacher-pupil continuity. 62 . ................... Meeting individual needs through the master p r o g r a m .................................. Trends in the direction of good guidance. . . Gk 67 ... Classification of pupils................... .. . 69 .......... 7^ Ways and means of affecting guidance........... SO Knowing'pupils.......... S3 Guidance and a theory of learning Guidance in out of school activities and community resources . . . S5 ................... Case studies and social adjustment.......... S7 Health and g u i d a n c e ........................ S9 Orientation and articulation. .......... .. . Vocational guidance ........................... V. A GUIDANCE PLAN FOR A JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL.......107 92 96 iv CHAPTER PAGE Purpose of the chapter............................ 107 The background upon which the guidance * 107 program was planned . . . . .......... Problem of purpose................ . . . . . . . . 10$ Problem of personnel.............................. Ill Problem of procedure...................... 115 Summary and recommendations .................... IV. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Conclusions Recommendations ........... 140 ..................... ............ BIBLIOGRAPHY......................................... APPENDIX. . 137 ............................ ito . . ikM- 1^7 LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I.. Size of Enrollment of Los Angeles Junior 50 High Schools Included in the Study . . . . . . II. Points of View and Practices of Guidance in the Los Angeles Junior High Schools. III. . . . . . 52 The Administrative Staff, Time Allotment and Responsibility for the Administration of the Guidance Program .‘ ........ .............. .. IV. V. VI. . The Social and Educational Factors which Affect the Guidance Program................... 6l Teacher-Pupil Continuity ........................ 63 Pertinent Guidance Data Relating to the Master Programs of the Los Angeles Junior High Schools VII. 6S Method of Classifying and Grouping Children for Purposes of Instruction................... .. IX. 65 Extent to which Certain Educational Trends and Practices Affect Guidance..................... VIII. 55 . 70 Certain Factors which Influence Grouping Pupils for Instruction and Extent to which Individual Differences are Taken into Account .......... X. The Theory of Learning which Characterizes Glassroom Practice in the Academic Fields. XI. J2 . . 75 Ways and Means of Affecting Guidance Through Meetings .................................... SI vi TABLE XII. PAGE Ways and Means of Affecting Guidance Through Conferences. XIII. XIV. XV. ........ .......... . . . . . . $2 Knowing Individual Pupils Through Data on Pupils Extent of Guidance in Out of School Activities Extent to which the School Brings Community Resources into the C l a s s r o o m .............. XVI. SS Important Factors in Relation to Health and Guidance XVII. S6 . .................................... 90 Extent to which Certain Techniques are used to ' Articulate the Activities of the Elementary and the Junior High School ........... 93 XVIII. Extent to which Certain Techniques are used to Articulate the Activities of the Junior High School and Those of the Senior High School XIX. 95 Extent of Vocational Guidance Offered in the Junior High S c h o o l s ........................ * 97 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1* Personnel Relationships in the Guidance Program . . 112 2. General Guidance Plan of the School.................. 116 CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM Since the modern school has taken over much of the responsibility formerly met by the home, and education to day is concerned with more than just intellectual learn ing, guidance is becoming one of its important functions. Purpose of the study. The primary purpose of this study is to investigate the current guidance practices and procedures which provide for the educational needs of ado lescents of the junior high school level in the Los Angeles City School system. In addition, it is the purpose of this study to evaluate these data as one means of determining what practices and procedures can be. incorporated in the planning of an effective guidance program for a recently organized junior high school. The need for the study. The need for such a study is two fold, the first having to do with a point of view as to the meaning of guidance. Unfortunately there seems to be little agreement on the meaning of guidance as evidenced by a restricted, limited program on one hand, and a broad con cept of guidance as a function of all positive aspects of school life on the other. At one extreme is to be found the formal, lesson learning type of school; at the other, the creative school in which early and later adolescents are participating members of a democratic group life. In the former type, the tendency is toward teacher direction;-in the latter, self guidance is the aim. A survey of guidance practices in the junior high schools of Los Angeles reveals a need for some such common understandings to be used as a basis for planning a more uniform program at this level. The second need for the study has to do with the daily living of youth and their needs which the school through its guidance program must help them to meet. For some youth the home environment.is an asset in which is found security and an opportunity to grow into useful citi zens. The guidance program for them should expand their insights, abilities, and appreciations. For some youth the home environment is a liability which makes for maladjust ment and all of its attendant problems. The difference between home and school in such cases is often times so great youth lives one life in the school and goes home to another life, frequently one of poverty, distress, strife, and unwholesome surroundings. Guidance for such youth can not be limited to an academic program. In some instances the community is not planned to be a positive guidance factor. The church, as well as the home, which formerly furnished guidance is, weakening in its con trol. Economic stress is affecting the lives of youth. 3 Society is becoming increasingly complex and rapidly chang ing. The influx of youth, all of the children of all of the people, into the schools has made new demands on the guidance program. The new education, which is youth centered, calls for new procedures and new understandings. The psychology of individual'differences is an important factor in guidance. makes new demands. The organ!smic theory of learning A realization of the complexity of the human body and its bearing on learning must be taken into account. The emotional factors in learning add to the problem. The dynamics which motivate behavior; what makes youth get along well with himself and others, as well as what makes.him fail to do so, must be reckoned with in the guidance of youth. There is a growing tendency toward crediting environment with a greater contribution to the development of intelligence. And last of all, the in creasing emphasis on the understanding, the meaning, and the implementation of democracy calls for a new approach to the guidance program. These are the problems which have a bearing on the guidance of youth as. he is living today, making new demands, and calling for a study of the problem. That educators today realize the need for an adequate guidance program is evidenced by the fact that guidance to- day takes first place among educational movements.**- -..A survey of current educational books and periodicals bears . out that statement. The importance of guidance. A recent study prepared for the commission on Secondary School Curriculum of the Progressive Education Association devotes a chapter to guidance. They have this to say about its importance: The reorganization of the secondary school is dependent upon a number of conditions among which a fully and properly conceived guidance program is perhaps the first. For without guidance it is un likely that the individual student will meet his needs in ways that lead toward democratic living, or in the process form a personality which moves "of itself" in the direction of democratic ideals. But to make guidance serve these ends requires a rethinking and redefinition of its scope and function in the s c h o o l . 2 Changing concepts of guidance. The present concept of guidance has evolved with a changing concept of education which in turn has come about through living in an expanding world where the content of human knowledge is becoming in creasingly greater, and human institutions are becoming more complicated. At the close of the nineteenth century, Presi- 1 P.W.L. Cox and J. C. Duff, Guidance by the ClassRoom Teacher, (Prentice - Hall, Inc. , 193$)> P* XXIII. ^ Ruth Kotinsky, V. T. .Thayer and Caroline B. Zachry, Reorganizing Secondary Education, (New York: D. Appleton Century Company, Inc., 1939)> P* 359* 5 dent Harper of the University of Chicago prophesied con cerning guidance: The step will be a scientific study of the pupil himself. The data thus gathered will determine the character of all advice given the student. . ... The material will determine, likewise, in large measure, the career of the student.3 In 1 9 0 9 Frank Parsons, one of the earliest and most profound students of guidance, said: In the mere choice of a vocation there are three broad factors: (1) a clear understanding of yourself, your aptitudes, abilities, interests, and ambitions. . . . (2) a knowledge of the requirements and cor relations of success, advantages and disadvantages, compensation, opportunities, and prospects in dif ferent lines of work. (3 ) true reasoning on the relations of these two groups of facts. From these two statements we realize that guidance began in an effort to help youth find a vocation. Current points of view on guidance. It is a charac teristic of educational thought and planning to find a wide variance of opinion and practice in many of its phases. That this is true of guidance is born out in the current material.on guidance. One group holds to the point of view of guidance as restricted to the vocational area. Guidance consists in distributing as effectively as possible all of the children to educational and ^ Burton Elsworth Davis, Guidance in the Junior High School, (Doctor's Dissertation, U. S. C., 1935) > p* 1* ^ Ibid. p. 2 . vocational opportunities and in helping the individ ual to make optimal adjustments to these opportuni ties........ ........................................ Gruidance proper hears important relationships to discipline and social conduct, hut it should not he confused with disciplinary control or oversight . . . . Guidance and methods of teaching may at times have elements of procedure in common, hut teaching cannot often he guidance and guidance does not com prehend methods of teaching. . . . ................. Supervision of instruction is concerned-with the improvement of teaching and is not guidance........ The upshot of the whole matter is that guidance is not the whole of education.5' According to the point of view of these writers, the teacher hecomes the guidance officer only in instances when she is instructing in courses in occupations, or exploratory courses where she is administering or interpreting.tests for guidance purposes. Guidance steps in when, after a study of the individual, adjustments have to he made in his program or he is advised to shift from one subject in the curriculum to another. In contrast with,the ahove statement another viewpoint holds that: Guidance is a function of all aspects of school life. . . . . Such'guidance cannot he separated from the functions of all who come in contact with youth. T e a c h e r s a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , supervisors, parents, li brarians, custodians, social workers, nurses, munic ipal officers, religious leaders, and all other associates of youth are finding a unity of purpose in this' expansion of the guidance function. 5 Leonard V. Koss and Grayson Kefanver, Guidance in The Secondary Schools', (New York: The Macmillan Company, 193*0. P- 19r P. W. L. Cox and J. C. Duff, Guidance by the Class room Teacher, (Prentice - Hall, Inc., 193S)., p. VIII. These authors conceive of education as a process hy which personalities of children are developed and guidance is merely the direction of personality development* They also place the responsibility for guidance with any group of children in the hands of a single person, the teacher- This is a very significant statement since it places the responsi bility on the teacher who is already carrying a heavy one. Such a statement immediately gives rise to the question, which teacher, for in the junior high school every child has several teachers. Another current point of view held by one of the first teachers of guidance in the country contends that most educators agree that the final purpose of education is simply that students may learn to live better lives. feels, is essentially the guidance aim. This, he The school, accord ing to him, has but one function: to guide young people in improving, extending, and organizing their individual and cooperative activities.? In the Los Angeles Gity Schools., the Guidance and Research Division clears up the confusion which arises from defining guidance as education. It is their contention that if guidance and education are one and the same, guidance can be discarded altogether./ In so doing there would be taken ? John M. Brever, Education as Guidance, (The Mac Millan Oompany, 1932), p* 9* 3 from us. the hard-won concept of the individual needs of young people born into a complex and confusing world. It is claimed that education is the mastery, up to each studentfs capacity, of the tools and knowledge which the race has developed through its powers and its environment. Guidance, they claim, is the application of these tools and knowl edges to the capacities and needs of the individual in order to help him make his choices and find his way. From the above viewpoints it will be noted there is a great divergence of current opinion from that of limiting, guidance to the field of vocations alone, to that of guidance as synonymous with all education. It is evident that guid ance which at first was limited to vocations has since evolved from educational guidance, then social, and finally child guidance. The administration of guidance has likewise been through a process of changes and evolution. Vocational guidance was in the hands of experts trained in the field of vocations. Educational guidance was exclusively the func tion of a specially trained staff who assumed much of the responsibility for guidance. Clinics were organized to give special service to those in need of guidance. Experts, the psychiatrists, and the social workers combined their learn- Elizabeth Woods, Guidance and Research Bulletin, Los Angeles City Schools, September 1939> PP- 1-2. ing and their efforts in giving guidance to the unadjusted child. This service was usually carried on outside of the school in a situation remote and unrelated to the teaching. Defining guidance and fixing the responsibility for its admini strati on. Before undertaking a research on guid ance practices it will he necessary to give some attention to defining guidance, which by the very meaning of the term has two broad implications: one, that of guiding; and the other, that of being guided. Out of this simple statement arises the questions of who will give the guidance and what kind of guidance is to be given. Obviously the one to give guidance must be the individual who has a close relation ship with the person who needs guidance; who sees him as an individual with many problems, some of which are those of health and social adjustments. emotional problems. Some are intellectual, and Every child has the right to be known well by one person in the school, and that person is a teacher. Since no one knows the child better than the teach er she is the one who must assume much of the responsibility for pupil guidance in the junior high school. Having placed the responsibility for guidance squarely on the shoulders of the teacher, it does not necessarily follow that a.good guidance program has been assured. The extent to which the teacher can successfully carry out the guidance functions depends on how well the administration of the guidance program is carried out. It is therefore very important that the school administrator assume definite administrative responsibilities in connection with guidance, some of which are: (1) setting up the guidance program and selecting the personnel to carry it out. (2) planning a program of educa tion which is suited to the particular needs, purposes, abilities, interests and home background of the pupils for whom the guidance program is planned. A program which is not functional, flexible and inherent in the lives of the pupils who seek guidance is incompatible with good guidance, (j) delegating to a trained counselor the responsibility of directing the program. (^) helping teachers to focus at tention on the individual child through personal inventories of pupils and cumulative records thereby helping them to individualize instruction. (5 ) making frequent use of a research and measurement program. (6) making available to teachers all pupil records and data pertaining to pupils. (7 ) keeping teachers informed on current research in the field of adolescent needs. (2>) planning conferences with parents and teachers of child with a particular problem, using the case study technique. (9) endeavoring to estab lish a friendly relationship with parents, interpreting to them the program of education. (10) studying community resources and their influence on learning, making intel ligent use of them. (11) surveying the community liabili ties in relation to youth. (12) encouraging group activ ities within the school such as the student congress and court, safety and traffic groups, sport activities, as semblies, service clubs, character building and hobby groups. (13) making the best possible use of the school resources to build an adequate health program. (1*0 pro- , viding means for the implementation of democracy. Scope of the study. To plan and administer a pro gram of guidance, based on the assumption that all of the educational needs of all of the pupils in a given school will be taken care of, is a problem demanding careful study and investigation in all of its aspects. How others are solving this problem in their several situations is the field for this particular research. There are in the City of Los Angeles twenty-nine Junior high schools, varying in size from the small semi-rural school to the large junior high school located in the more compact areas of the city. Each of these schools has its own problems with different children and different situations, and each one demands its own kind and amount of guidance. Every child has a problem. If he comes from a well adjusted home his problems have a better chance for solution. If his home cannot take care of his problem, the school must assume that responsibility. It 12 is, therefore, the intent of this study to determine through conference, interview, and questionnaire to what extent in the Los Angeles junior high schools there is being adminis tered a guidance program which provides the essentials previously enumerated* Basic considerations which guide the practice* In surveying the guidance practices and procedures in a given situation, it is necessary to determine first the philoso phy which guides the practice. Since there are several cur rent points of view on the subject of guidance it is im portant that these be given consideration. Many recent contributions to the field of guidance have been made by individuals and by groups working through professional organizations of educators and lay people. these furnishes background for the study. A review of Hot all contribu tions, however, have come directly through the study of guidance. Researches into adolescent development and needs have not only added new knowledge to the field of guidance, but they have confirmed and strengthened what has been known concerning youth and their needs. These studies help those who live with youth to understand their behavior better. They point out the school*s responsibility toward adolescent needs. A summary of these studies is presented in Chapter Two of this study. 13 Organization of the remainder of the thesis* Chapter Two of the thesis will he devoted to a brief history of guidance, a review of important contributions of research and study in the field of guidance. This will be followed by the proposed contributions of the present study. Chapter Three will present the experimental procedure including the* setting up of the problem, constructing the questionnaire and the use to which it will be put. In Chapter Four there will be presented the results of the questionnaire, includ ing the tabulation and evaluation of the findings. Chapter Five will present a guidance program based on the best practices and procedures which are revealed in the study and research. Chapter Six will include recommendations and a summary of the study. CHAPTER II HISTORY OF GUIDANCE MOVEMENT AND RELATED RESEARCH The guidance movement in education is a comparatively new one* Only rarely in educational writings of the nine teenth century can the word ^guidance” be found. Until the first decade of the twentieth century the idea that youth were to be guided was rarely suggested. The development of guidance has come about through three stages: first, as an occasional incident in education; second, as a useful pro cedure in education; third, as a necessary foundation for, and process of, education.^* Its development has been paralleled by the scientific movement in education; by a shifting of emphasis from subject matter set out to be learned, to the child and his individual needs and an effort on the part of teachers to give intelligent diagnosis and treatment of individuals; by a shifting of responsibility for the training of the really important matters of prac tical living from the home and community to the school. The various forces at work building up new conditions from those which surrounded the pioneer have forced guidance upon the schools. During those years which mark the development of 1 M. R. Trabue, The Scientific Movement in Education, Thirty-seventh Yearbook, Part I I . , (Bloomington: Public School Publishing Co., 193^77 PP* 223-37* 15 the guidance movement, much comprehensive and extensive research has been carried on in the fields of administration of guidance; the educational philosophy underlying the dif ferent practices in the school, the needs, purposes, and development of students who are the center of education. Organizing and administering a guidance program. Since the effectiveness of a guidance program depends upon the organization and staff which administers it at all educational levels, it is important in the development of this thesis to investigate what has been done in this field. A significant contribution suggests three sets of workers which are likely to be involved in the administration of guidance. (1) teachers, functioning in the classroom and all others who have frequent contacts with youth; (2) leaders in guidance who stimulate, coordinate and supplement the work of the first group, various ly called principals, supervisors, school counselors, class advisers, deans, directors of guidance; and (3) specialists in certain areas of guidance, as in medicine, psychiatry, psychology* social work, vocational choice and placement.2 A fourth group includes community institutions such as hospitals, clinics, social agencies, and recreational de partments which are organized to make definite contributions to the guidance of youth. p The role of teachers in the guid- Francis G. Hosecranee, Guidance in Educational Institutions, Thirty-seventh Yearbook, ParT I_. , (Sloomington: Public School Publishing Co., 193&)7 P* 267* ance. program, according to this authority, is a most im portant one since they are the ones who are closest to the students. Assisting the teacher in this guidance function is the guidance leader who coordinates the teachers1 efforts in meeting the needs of their pupils. Another member of the staff is the guidance specialist whose work it is to educate teachers, guidance leaders, and other members of the staff of the school system; to act as consultants; and to take over cases which need special handling. To carry out such a program it is suggested that a core-teacher-counselor be assigned a group of thirty to forty boys and girls for a period of three or four years. This would enable the teach er to know well each individual. In a small school the principal would be the guidance leader; in a large school a staff member could take over the responsibility. In either event the principal would be expected to coordinate and administer the program. In a large school system the super intendent coordinates the work of the specialists. A teach er training program is recommended as a very essential part of the administration of guidance. A Proposed guidance plan. As a result of a research on the guidance and counseling services in 193 junior high schools in thirty-one states of the United States, a plan for the administration of guidance in a school of 1,000 to 17 1,500 pupils was recommended to include:^ an administrative council to include the principal, vice-principal, and three counselors whose function it is to plan the guidance work; a guidance council composed of three specialists, one an expert in vocational information and counseling, another qualified in psychology and statistics; and a third, a case-social worker as well as a counselor. Their work is to overview the entire program of studies, and to serve as a guidance clinic. Each of the three counselors is assign ed to one of the three grades, seventh, eighth, and ninth. The psychologist has charge of the seventh grade, the social worker the eighth grade, and the vocational, specialist works with the ninth grade. Working directly with these counselors is the home room teacher who is concerned with orientation, teaching how to study, social adjustments, and personality development. The classroom teacher gives guidance in ex ploratory shops, physical adjustment classes, cases for counselor, hobby clubs, and carrying out instructions of counselors. A home visiting teacher is to-work under the head counselor, cooperating with home room and classroom teachers, in coordinating home' and community forces. The plan also takes into account the community to which the edu- J Burton Elsworth Davis, Guidance in the Junior High School, (Doctor's Dissertation, U. S. 0., 1935)> PP* 129-3?* IB eational program is geared- A point in favor of this program is the low pupil-counselor ratio; namely, a guidance worker for each five hundred pupils, an attainment few school systems can reach. The writer claims that the low pupil load plus clerical time enables the counselor to make case studies and to supervise the school program. The investi gator is apparently overlooking the value to be gained from having the home room teacher make the case studies. The same criticism may be made concerning a special home visit ing teacher. The person who needs to know the most about the child is the one to visit the home; and that person is the home room or guidance teacher. The re sponsibility of the principal in the guidance program of a j-unior high school. In a recent survey of his ii school, the principal found he had three responsibilities in the improvement of factors which contribute to effective guidance in his particular school. These factors include: setting up a careful administrative policy; providing educa tional leadership; and, coordinating all aspects of the educational program. His chief administrative responsibility is that of classifying pupils and making the Master Program. J. W. Scudder, An Analysis of the Improvement Factors Contributing to Effective Pupil Guidance in a Junior High School, (Master of Arts Thesis presented to the School of Education, University of Southern California, 1931)- His educational leadership finds an outlet in promoting teacher growth. Success in coordinating the program, he found, is somewhat conditioned by the degree to which he delegates responsibility. The summary of his findings shows that factors which promote successful teaching are also those that contribute to satisfactory guidance. An analysis of the improvement factors contributing to an effective guidanoe program in the school shows: (1) improvement through careful administration, classification of pupils, teacher training and coordinating; (2 ) properly trained counselors who must be responsible for the guidance pro gram; (3 ) wise selection of teachers; (ty.)' personal develop ment paramount; (5) broad interests to meet all types. The emphasis in this thesis seems to be improvement of teachers with very little attention to the study of pupil needs and how to meet them. Since pupil needs, the development of personality, and the concern for social adjustments of pupils is a comparatively- recent concept, a thesis written nine years ago might: be expected to give little attention to this phase of guidance. Guidance in relation to an educational -philosophy. The educational program of American schools has undergone basic change and is in process of still further change. This is evidenced by developments in the nature of instruc tion which have in turn affected the role of guidance. 20 Developments in the curriculum, social change, increased knowledge of the individual, and a new concept of education have all had a bearing on the general nature of the guidance service. The underlying philosophy which guides good prac tice in education today centers attention primarily on the needs and purposes of children and this point of view is basic to an adequate guidance program. Jones and. Hand^ present some "basically important considerations" which they suggest should underlie the guidance practices of a school: first, the objectives of teaching are now primarily conceiv ed to be in terms of desired changes of behavior rather than in terms of subject matter} second, if the work of the teacher is to be student-goal centered it is important that the nature of human purposes or goals, and the principles underlying their development be understood; third, if edu cation is to be effective it must start with the child as he is, and help him so to organize his experiences in order that*he will gradually develop a fundamental life purpose, or goal, that will be socially desirable and personally satisfying; and fourth, such goals should be chosen as will permit the integration of the entire life. This philosophy of education looks upon the life of an individual as an ^ Arthur J. Jones, and Harold 0. Hand, Guidance In Educational Institutions, Thirty-seventh Yearbook, Part I ., (Bloomington: Public School Publishing C o . , 193$)> PP* 3“ 2 9 • 21 organic whole. The curriculum of the school must be so con ceived and administered as to give constant assistance in the formulation of objectives and goals by the students themselves and accepted by them as basis for their work. The present inadequacies of theory and practice of guidance are pointed out by the authors. They condemn the practice of separating guidance as a function to be set apart and car ried on by a few specialists; on the contrary they regard guidance as an inseparable aspect of the educational process concerned with helping individuals discover their needs, assess their potentialities, develop their life purposes, formulate plans of action, and proceed to their realizations. The person best qualified to do this type of guidance work is the classroom teacher, aided by the services of such specialists as are needed, and working with an administra tion which will coordinate a guidance service involving the entire school staff. In summing up their educational phil osophy which they deem fundamental to a guidance program, they include diagnosing needs, assisting in developing of purposes and formulating goals, and providing needed func tional learning experiences. guidance in relation to the individual. Placing the individual in relation to guidance last in this background study does not signify it is of.-,the least importance in the consideration of guidance. Quite to the contrary, intensive study of individual children has furnished the basis for philosophies of education, for generalizations on growth and behavior, and for guidance practices. The last ten to fif teen years have witnessed a remarkable spread of the study of children. A number of important centers of child study have developed, among which are the Institute of Ohild Welfare of the University of California, the Child Welfare Research Station of the University of Iowa, the Merill Palmer School of Detroit, the Institute of Child Welfare at the University of Minnesota, and the Clinic of Child Devel opment in Yale University. The studies and materials which have grown out of these efforts to know more about children have had no doubt much influence on guidance programs throughout the country. Since a basic principle of guid ance has to do with meeting the needs of students, it is important to plan an educational program to meet those needs. What those needs are can be determined only through information about the children as individuals. These needs have to do not only with abilities, interests, attitudes and appreciations, but also with the genetic or development studies which give background and development to their present status. Information needed for child guidance. The chief kinds of information that must be studied in order that a counselor or teacher may understand the student, and the 23 student understand himself are: 6 (1 ) the record of his previous school experience; . (2 ) his aptitudes and abilities; (3 ) his home back ground and community background; (4) his goals and purposes; (5 ) his interests, likes and dislikes; (6 ) his social development and adjustments; (7 ) bis emotional status; (S) his health record and present health status; (9 ) his economic and financial status* This seems to suggest that a complete inventory is necessary to furnish background from which to promote guidance for the individual. How to get this information is a problem to be met by the administration of the program. A discussion of the techniques to be used in gathering information will be discussed in the final chapter of this thesis. A state seeks-to evaluate its educational program in terms of pupil heeds. One of the most significant and far- reaching investigations into the needs of children, and the adequacy of a guidance program to meet them, is the state ment of the findings and recommendations of the Regents* Inquiry of the schools of the State of New York. The result of the survey shows that the schools are now turning'out a great number of youth each year who are not adequately edu cated; who are not prepared to play a helpful part in the life of the state.^ The reasons for this failure are: fi Alvin 0. Eurich and 0. Gilbert Wrenn, Guidance in Educational Ihstitutions, Thirty^seventh Yearbook, Part I ., (Bloomington: Public School Publishing C o . , 193^)> P* 3^« 7 Luther Halsey Gulick, Education For American L i f e , (New York: The McGraw - Hill Book Co., 193^)> PP* 3~35* (1 ) the educational program was not adjusted to meet the need of all of the children of all of the people; (2 ) the program of education was not designed to fit boys and girls for the present economic life; (3 ) the school program does not recognize the increased difficulties of becoming and be ing a good citizen; (k-) it has not caught up with the flood of new scientific knowledge about the natural and social world, thus failing to give boys and girls a scientific point of view and an understanding of the world; (5 ) the edu cational system has not been replanned to meet the new conditions of modern life and the new ways of living, in which the family, the church, and early work now exercise less influence, and in which increasing leisure in later life calls, and makes possible a rich and growing inner life; and, (6 ) there* is no specific agreed upon goal in the program of education. This survey defines a new goal and finally presents a specific program for achieving it. The needs of children in a democracy. years, since 1909 Once every ten & White House Conference has reviewed what is being done, and what ought to be done, for the nation's children. This Conference, meeting in 19*K), dis- cussed the problem, Children in a Democracy♦ Their con- White House Conference, Children in a Democracy, A Summary, The Journal of the national Education Association, March 1940, p . 6 9 • elusions are summed up as follows: The conference of 19^0 found many signs of progress since 1930 in the health and .care of children and the public services for their benefit* It also reported that much more would be required to make the nation1s future secure in 1950* The first need of the child is the security of a good home. too many families from giving this. Poverty prevents all More than half of the children of the country live in families whose annual in come is less than $1200 a year; incomes inadequate to provide children with what they need. In such cases public agencies are bound to provide for these families to save these children from lasting harm. The safety of children is not charity, but a necessity for national self-preserva tion. The Conference found that three million farm houses and four million other dwellings are not fit places for bringing up children. Many neighborhoods were found to be menaced by disease, by fire, by traffic, by evil associa tions. This too, was found to be the responsibility of the government to correct with low-cost housing. It was further observed that about half the children in this country are given no organized religious teaching. The conference recommended that great efforts be made to bring the re sources of religion to children. The need for play facili ties, of child labor laws, of providing work, and training for work were made imperative. The Conference further 26 recommended that the federal government increase its work for health and medical care, with increased attention to the welfare of handicapped and minority groups. The meeting of all of these needs in relation to a defense program and the security o f .the nation was clearly enunciated. A study of the growth, interests and behaviors of adolescents. There is still another type of research which has a definite bearing on the guidance program and that has to do with the study of adolescents. The junior high school age was investigated and reported in a study of one hundred boys and one hundred girls covering the three year period of their junior high school. Out of the study has come one certain conclusion; namely, that it is not possible to outline any general pattern of development which can be considered typical of this age group.9 For that reason it is not possible, they point out, to give valid general statements which will apply, except in terms of individuals, or perhaps for small groups of like-sexed individuals. Another important conclusion of this study tends to point out the fact that approximately nine-tenths of the girls, and three-fourths of the boys, pass through 9 Herbert R. Stolz, Mary Oover Jones, Judith Chaffer, The Junior High School A g e , (University High School Journal, Vol. 15, No. 2, January 1937). the psycho-biological changes which cluster around puberty during the three years they are attending junior high school Accompanying these changes are certain changes in interests, attitudes, and activities. There is an overwhelming desire to be with other children. The desire for group approval was found to be one of the most potent drives. Adult ap proval or disapproval meant almost nothing to these young adolescents except as it might affect the attainment of their goal. The second impelling force toward social activity seemed to be the awakening of heterosexual inter ests, the girls beginning earlier than the boys. It was found that most boys did not acquire their adolesoent status until well in the ninth or tenth grade. One im portant observation, which constitutes an important guid- . ance factor, was found to be the need to give special guidance for those who deviate in respect to growth and maturation. This study provides helpful suggestions in that it emphasizes the variety of interests and attitudes which are normal for junior high school period. According to the authors it will serve to illuminate our understanding of an individuals needs, but it will not substitute for the investigation of specific problems of individual guidance. Summary of the hi story and contributions in the field of guidance. The guidance movement is a twentieth century 2$ development brought about by a new point of view in educa tion, a shifting of responsibility from the home to the school, and a growing complexity of life. Three approaches were considered in reviewing the material: (1 ) the field of administration; (2 ) the educational philosophy which under lies the practice of guidance; and, (3 ) the needs, interests and development of youth. In the field of administration the trend is definitely in the direction of distributing the guidance function among all who have frequent contacts with youth, and away from guidance as a separate function carried out by specialists. Guidance councils, headed up by a school administrator who coordinates the program, are strong ly recommended. A teacher training program is essential to a good guidance program. In the field of educational philosophy, it is evident that the point of view which guides the program of guidance centers attention on the needs, purposes, and growth of children; starting with the child as he is, and helping him to organize his life in ways that will be personally and socially satisfying. This approach has led to a remarkable spread of child study clinics, out of which have come valu able materials available for those who are planning guidance programs. What information is necessary to provide an ef fective guidance program was discussed, including his total personality, his school, home and community background, his 29 goals and purposes, his health and emotional status, all of which furnish a background for individual guidance. An analysis of causes of failure on the part of a state-wide school system sets up a frame work for a good guidance program. The national aspect of the subject places a definite responsibility on the nation in terms of a better environment for youth. CHAPTER III THE RESEARCH PROCEDURE Purpose of the chapter* It is the purpose of this chapter to present the problem of guidance and to devise ways and means of determining, in so far as possible, the guidance practices which are current in the junior high schools of Los Angeles; guidance in this instance meaning the direction of personality development in keeping with our ideals for living in a democracy. Through interviews and conferences it has been possible to determine the prob lems involved in guidance, and by means of a questionnaire to find the answers in terms of actual practice in guidance. The problems of junior high schools are brought to the attention of principals* For the past three years the junior high school principals, under very able and under standing leadership, have been holding monthly conferences in which the whole field of education in the junior high school has been discussed. Some conferences were planned for the entire group in which problems common to all prin cipals were discussed and recommendations were made. In some instances small groups having like interests and other factors., such as community environment, in common met to dis cuss their problems. One series was planned to include those 31 having wide differences of opinion, on a basic philosophy of education. Out of these conferences has come much discus sion that brings to light the problems which a well planned guidance program must take into account. The scope of the problems taken up in these confer ences is revealed in the following topics which were made the subject of conference: The techniques for bringing the home and the junior high school together. This discussion revealed a wide di versity of practice, one of which limited contacts to those made through the Parent Teacher Association on one extreme, to the other extreme in which the school has built a prac tice of consistently drawing the home into every phase of the school program. Planning a program of articulation between contributi ing elementory schools and the junior high school. This conference again showed a need for setting up some basic practices for bringing about a better transition for in coming B7*s. Some very excellent techniques developed in this conference were made available through the curriculum division. Individualizing instruction. This discussion brought out the problem of classification of pupils and adapting curriculum to individual needs. Coordination of health and the techniques for making 32 teachers aware of the health needs of pupils. Some schools depend largely upon the nurse and doctors and physical edu cation teachers to take care of the health of pupils. A few schools endeavor to draw every teacher and the home into the health problems of their children. A study of the present report card. Here again there was revealed wide differences of opinion as to the purposes of such reporting and the point of view underlying the con cept of grading a pupil, and upon what basis a pupil is to be graded. Those who still think in terms of subject matter coverage could easily devise an objective scale of rating. Others who think in terms of the growth process of education would devise a very different type of evaluation. The contributions of the various subject fields such as science, social studies, art, music, practical arts. These have all been subjects of study which open up many areas relating to teaching techniques of fusion and integra tion. Evaluating the contribution of the school library raised the question of those intangibles of learning which we have not found the techniques to evaluate. How can we determine to what extent the library, for example, improves reading grade placement, ability to do research, to use reference material? All of these and many more topics have been made the 33 subject of these conferences which are making us aware of the many problems demanding our attention. In the discussions principals were likewise made aware of a need for continued conferences, since by means of them the attention of administrators is drawn to the problems which they face in planning their programs of guid ance. They indicate further the need to continue to show results in terms of greater informity in many aspects of junior high school education. These conferences are not limited to those called for principals. A series similar to those just described is conducted regularly by the vice principals, by counse lors working under the direction of chief of research staff, curriculum supervisors, and librarians, each group working on its own individual problems. At a recent meeting of vice principals from schools contributing to a senior high school, the question of guidance records to be sent with the junior high school graduates was discussed. With only one excep tion the opinion of the group was unanimous in limiting the so called guidance material to objective evidence as it is revealed in objective tests and health examinations. In the opinion of these administrators it was a violation of their code of ethics to set down a personal comment or reference in any of the records which were to accompany the pupils. There was a difference of opinion, however, on the part of 3^ the receiving senior high school personnel, some requesting real guidance records, the others being satisfied with the objective findings. The consensus of the group was likewise opposed to delving into the personal matters of children going so far as to say all home visits should be taken care of by attend ance supervisors and nurses. This point of view was quite revealing in as much as one vice principal in the group represented a school which makes note of important reac tions of children, follows up with home visits, and confers with parents on all cases of health and social and education al adjustment. With such extremes of point of view in one administrative group it is quite possible that other similar groups would disagree on this vital point which is the very core of the guidance program; namely, analyzing the needs, stresses, and purposes, inherent in the. lives of the young, people for whom our educational program is planned. Devising a questionnaire which will open up for study the specific practices of how the principal administers the guidance program, what philosophy of education guides the planning of the program, and to what extent the program ’ fulfills its purpose, is an important step in this study. Two aspects of the study to be considered in making the questionnaire. Before surveying the guidance practices 35 in the junior high schools of Los Angeles, it was necessary to analyze two aspects of the study, one of which has to do with the administration of guidance, the other with the daily living of youth in school and out. This investigation, therefore, was first directed toward an examination of the philosophy of education which gives meaning to the educa tional program set up by the administrator .in his school. Upon his understanding and his interpretation of what edu cation is conceived to be will depend the type of guidance program he plans for his school. For example, if the prin cipal conceives of guidance as a separate function, which should be the concern of a specialist, he will, no doubt, delegate all of the responsibility for the direction of his pupils to a guidance counselor. If on the other hand, the administrator holds to the point of view that guidance is so wide in scope that it is synonymous with all education he will feel justified, if he has good teaching in the classroom, in delegating much of the guidance function to the teacher. If guidance to him is limited to the concept of pro viding facilities for the classification and grouping of children, he will set up a research and testing program and upon the basis of the results of this program group and classify his pupils for instruction. This responsibility may easily be delegated to a research assistant. If, however, the administrator conceives of guidance as concerned with every aspect of school life and the total environment which impinges on the life of every child in the school, as concerned with the development of the total personality of the child, with helping pupils to set up life goals and purposes, with training youth to live in a democracy and to make it better; he will have blocked out for him the most important responsibility he has to meet, one for which he must be responsible, the success of which will challenge his leadership to the utmost. It will in volve the making of a program which will draw in every member of the school staff, using every resource of the school and the community to make it function, and an intimate knowledge of all of the pupils for whose guidance he is responsible. Practice and theory. It is quite possible to conceive of an administrator having a well defined modern point of view about how good guidance can be achieved, but in prac tice he is unable to carry it out. How his practice rates in comparison to his point of view must be determined. Provision for this was made in the questionnaire. Administration has a broad guidance function.! The administrative aspect must be analyzed and evaluated to determine what seem to be the most effective ways and means 37 of administering a guidance program. This involved in vestigating such problems as: 1. Centering the responsibility for carrying out the program. 2. Delegating’certain responsibilities for implement ing the program. 3- Coordinating the activities of, guidance. k * Adjusting the pupil load of those who carry the extra work entailed in guidance activities. 5* Keeping up-to-date, reliable records of guidance materials which are flexible and easily accessable to teachers. 6 . Grouping pupils for instruction. 7* Reporting to parents. g. Providing a health program which does not end in mere knowledge of health, but has for its objective the maintenance of health through teaching good health habits and correcting physical difficulties. 9 . Making use of community resources which contribute to teaching and learning. 10. Being aware of and working to improve community liabilities. The investigation was set up to evaluate to what extent the above responsibilities were carried out. Administration must recognize the individual differ- 33 ences of schools* The investigation is next concerned with the extent to which the principal recognizes the various types of need in the particular school situation, for upon those needs will depend the kind of guidance that must be provided. For example, it will be necessary for the princi pal to know to what extent the majority of the children can profit by an academic program. The median intelligence of the group will include the direction and emphasis the gen eral program will take* If the median intelligence of the school population is well below ninety, an extensive shop curriculum and practical arts program would be appropriate for the school. If, after surveying the home background, the principal finds inadequate home supervision, economic stress, broken homes, foreign language background, and other environmental factors which create many problems of social, emotional, and educational adjustment, it will be necessary to take these into account in planning and set ting up the guidance program. The teachers1 viewpoint in relation to the guidance program* Another factor upon which the adequacy of a guid ance program may depend has to do with the extent to which teachers have developed a modern point of view on what edu cation means today. The changing philosophies of education, the development of new trends, the recent research in the 39 field of adolescent needs, are all factors which must be considered in evaluating the teachers1 concept of education, and these in turn must be taken into account by the admin istrator in planning and developing guidance activities* The effect of change on guidance. The extent to which old traditions and mores are being discarded and new centers are being formed presents a need for guidance. Social controls, .such as the home and church, are breaking down in some communities and the guidance program must take this into account. In some instances the school must as sume many of the responsibilities formerly met by the home. The extent to which principals are aware of the effect of social change was investigated in the study. A guidance program must take into account the youth for whom it is planned. Two aspects of this study were pointed out earlier in this chapter, one dealing with the administration of the program which has just been discussed, the second having to do with the daily living of youth. The questionnaire was designed to bring out the extent to which the school was aware of pupil needs through: 1. Planning a functional curriculum. 2. Individualizing instruction which has for its objective helping boys and girls attain individual and social adjustments; the well rounded development and growth *K) of boys and girls. 3* Preventing the master program from interfering with individual needs and interests of boys and girls. k-. Finding out what pupils can do if they are forced to leave school, even at the junior high school level, to make a place for themselves in society. 5* Being alert to stimulate and encourage pre-vocational interests and aptitudes. 6 . Working through case study techniques to maintain a good mental hygiene program for those who are in special need of such a program. The responsibility for administering; the guidance program. Questions concerning the administration of the guidance program must be answered: Who is to have an important part in the guidance program? Who is to direct it? How shall the pupil load be adjusted to take care of the added responsibility taken over by the teacher who is asked to assume the key position in guidance? Others too, such as: How much unassigned time does the teacher need for this work? teacher contact? What provision is made for extended pupilDoes some one know every child suffi ciently well to help him adjust to the school program and to his daily living? The master program. Planning a master program which 41 is flexible enough to take care of individual needs is a problem peculiar to secondary education. Must the program be served or can instruction be individualized? Does the pupil have time to follow through a problem or must he con tinue on his day's schedule leaving his problem unfinished? Does the master program and all that it involves ever con flict with what .the. principal believes about guidance? If the principal is not satisfied, what can he do about it? Are there any trends or devices which will help him to do away with the practice of serving this mechanized device we call the Master Program? What are some of the factors which prevent him from carrying out his philosophy pertaining to pupil needs and guidance? Classifying and grouping. The matter of grouping children enters into the guidance program in all of its phases. How shall the principal group pupils? Shall he just shuffle the names and let them drop where they may, or shall he have a plan for grouping? ned, upon what basis is it made? If the grouping is plan Planned or otherwise, is opportunity provided for the bright child to achieve to the best of his ability? Does the dull child have a program which is satisfying to him? Is the program sufficiently flexible to permit a pupil to change his program if a better adjustment is needed for him? Are pupils with problems of adjustment given special programs to meet their needs and interests? Theory of learning* Some positive aspects* One of the most serious and unconscionable reasons for the continu ance of a guidance program, which is narrowly conceived, has to do with the theory of learning which characterizes teach ing. The reasons for this are many, chief among them being recency of training and failure on the part of many school people to continually rationalize their philosophy of educa tion. An investigation of guidance practices must include an analysis of the theory of learning which characterizes classroom practice in the academic fields. Do the teachers of foreign languages, science, mathmatics, social living, English, and social studies, believe and carry out in their practice the theory that: 1. Purpose and interest are the core of the learning process. 2 . Study and learning are a part of the effort to enable pupils to face new situations in the best possible manner. 3 . The objectives of teaching and learning are to be found in the pupils themselves. 4-. The subject matter is adapted and used to meet the needs, interests, and experiences of pupils in real ^3 situations. 5* Integration takes place in the reconstruction of the pupil*s experience to the end that he is becoming a changed personality. Negative aspects. Iii contrast to these positive aspects of the teaching-learning situation, it will he helpful to determine to what extent the teachers of aca demic subjects: 1. Use subject matter as the basis for stimulus and response. 2. Use the text book as a mass of facts to be learned. 3* Employ the method of assignment and recitation most frequently. Plan and initiate the activities. Ways and means of effecting guidance. Determining the devices and techniques of guidance used in terms of meetings and conferences by means of which the guidance program is planned and implemented. Knowing individual pupils. Since the chief aim of guidance is to help boys and girls to do better the things which are .most desirable for them to do, it is important to examine into the various devices and facilities by which the teachers and the administrators know their pupils. How 1)4 can they know them, and what shall they try to discover about them? Having in mind that boys and girls are physi cal, mental, emotional, and social beings, it will be nec essary to make case studies, to collect health data, mental test results, achievement records, personality inventories, knowledge of special abilities, home background and economic status, special interests and aptitudes, ability to adjust to the group. An important phase of this accumulation of data is how to make it available in affecting guidance. Community resources. The out of school activities of youth today may be an asset or a liability, depending on the effect they have on their lives. Often times these activities are such that the school and the pupil suffer greatly. How to make them an asset is definitely a part of the school's responsibility. Community resources in the classroom. How to use these resources such as the radio, motion pictures, cur rent news, excursions, and lay people must be investigated. These offer a rich opportunity to enable the pupils to be come a part of the community, and in turn enable the com munity to become a part of the school. Health guidance. Ho guidance program can overlook **•5 the fundamental importance of health and all that a good health program implies. How to coordinate the health program; how to help teachers become health conscious; how to bring about healthful living as a matter of habit on the part of youth; how to follow up doctors1 and nurses1 recom mendations for correction of handicaps; to know what com munity resources are available are all problems which a good guidance program must solve. Orientation. A sense of belonging and a sense of security are essential to successful school living. How to orient incoming pupils to the life of the school is an im portant phase of guidance. How this can be brought about is the problem of both the elementary and junior high school. The same problem exists in relation to the junior high school pupil who enters the senior high school. Articulation of the learning activities is not the lease of these prob lems. Vocational guidance. While vocational guidance does not enter into the junior high school program very extensive ly, there are still some important considerations in this connection. In some instances the average boy or girl is little more than a year from making a place for himself in the world of work. Is an opportunity afforded for familiar izing him with the vocational opportunities available in his community? Do the exploratory courses inolude discus sions on vocations? Is there an attempt to analyze the aptitudes and interests of pupils in each exploratory unit offered? Does the school try to determine what the pupil can do well before he leaves school? The questionnaire,^ consisting of twelve sections based upon the above problems, was submitted to the ad ministrators of the junior high schools of the Oity of Los Angeles. Upon the basis of the findings in the study, rec ommendations of good guidance practices and the underlying principles which motivate practice have been made. Summary of the chapter. It has been the purpose of this chapter to present the problems which arise in con nection with the guidance program. These problems fall into two groupings, one having to do with administrative func tions, and the other with youth and their daily living. The administrator is faced with the responsibility of planning a guidance program which has to take into ac count the individual differences of schools, his own phil osophy of education, the resources and liabilities of the community, recenty of teachers1 training, and effect of social change. 1 Appendix, p. 1 52. ^7 In order to plan a program which will meet the needs of youth, the administrator must plan a functional curricu lum, individualize instruction, and become well acquainted with the pupils for whom the guidance is planned. Keeping flexible and accessable records is an indispensable function in relation to this part of the program. Setting up a questionnaire, which would reveal the extent to which practices meet the requirements of good guidance, is the important contribution of this chapter. The questionnaire was planned to investigate such problems as: the point of view of the person administrating the pro gram; the need for a guidance program in each particular situation; who administers the program; classification of pupils;, methods and guidance; ways and means of affecting guidance; knowing individual pupils;; orientation of B7*s; and, articulation between elementary school and junior high school. GHAPTER IV THE FINDINGS Purpose of the chapter. It is the purpose of this chapter to tabulate the questionnaire data and to report the findings of the study, making generalizations in situations where there is sufficient evidence upon which to generalize* Report of the survey. An eleven page questionnaire, divided into twelve sections, was sent to the twenty-nine junior high schools of Los Angeles. Replies were received from twenty-one schools, or seventy-one per cent of the number to which the questionnaire was sent. General information. The first section of the ques tionnaire has to do with general information which furnishes the background of the guidance program. This information includes such items as size of the schools, number of teach ers employed and the classification of the staff who spend most of their time on administration. The size of the schools surveyed. The schools range in size from the largest, having at the time the research was made an enrollment of 1919 pupils and a teaching staff of seventy-one teachers, to the smallest having an enroll- iJ-9 ment of 950 Pupils with a teaching staff of forty-three teachers. Table I shows the size, by enrollment, of those schools which are included in this study. The median for the schools is in the fifteen hundred brackets, the actual enrollment being 159^ pupils. Point of view on meaning of guidance. In the opening chapter of this study the administrative function of guidance was emphasized. Before surveying the administrative aspects of the program it seemed essential to first determine if pos sible what principals were thinking in terms of the meaning and function of guidance. Accordingly there was set up in the questionnaire a section vtfiich would not only reveal the pr i n c i p a l s viewpoint, but would also indicate to what ex tent the guidance practices coincide with the theory of guidance. The concepts were set up on a five point scale, on one end of which was the concept of guidance as being just good teaching, at the other, guidance was defined as entering into every aspect of school life, as giving direc tion to personality development and life purposes. The principals were asked to rate the concepts in numerical order from one to five, giving a fating of one to the con cept which in their opinion expressed best their concept of guidance and so on down the scale until each concept had been rated. In the same manner they were asked to rate these five concepts in terms of guidance practices in their 50 TABLE I SIZE BY ENROLLMENT OF LOS ANGELES JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS INCLUDED IN THE STUDY Number of Schools Enrollment One school 1900 to 2000 pupils Six schools 1S00 to 1900 pupils Three schools 1700 to 1S00 pupils One school 1500 to 1600 pupils Two schools i k O O Four schools 1300 to 1*K)0 pupils Two schools 1200 to 1300 pupils One school 1100 to 1200 pupils One school 900 to 1000 pupils to 1500 pupils NOTE: This table should read: one school has an enrollment between 1900 and 2000 pupils. 51 schools. Table II shows how the five concepts were rated, both as to theory and practice. From the data of Table II there seems to be evidence that the principals of the twenty-one schools responding to the questionnaire have a point of view on guidance which is consistent with the best thinking today on what guidance is conceived to be. This is evidenced by the fact that fif teen, or seventy-one per cent, gave concept five fiTst rat ing. On this one point was found the greatest unanimity of opinion. All of the others, who rated, gave first rank to concepts two and three, both of which could be interpreted as good guidance. Here a weakness in the questionnaire is exposed in that the five concepts chosen were not discreet in the sense that certain aspects in one were as desirable as those in another though not as complete. For example, three is a very desirable concept which a hasty judgment might easily have given first rank. Concept two could be given first rank if good classroom teaching were conceived to comprehend everything to be desired in education. It was upon this assumption, no doubt, that principals gave second place to this concept. Concept three ranked third and this again seems con sistent with good thinking. Guidance as a separate func tion received fourth rank and guidance as a device for 52 . TABLE II POUTS OF VIEW AD PRACTICES OFGUIDANCE II LOS A M S JUNIORHIGH SCHOOLS Points of View* v, 5\ Ratingof.point ofview _ 4 3 2 1 lo •' ’ 5 ans, 1,Guidance isa separate function ' and shouldhe the concernof spe cialists who will assume themajor responsibility for the direction of children* 7 IT 2, Guidance is sowide in scope that' 'itmust be considered as synonym ous with All education and there fore ifwehave good teaching in the classroom good guidance will be assured, 0 2 3, Guidance has to dowith pupils and their problems as they relate to an improvingdemocraticsociety. 2 0 ,2 0' 6.. 7 2 7 8 3 h 2' 0 11 6 1 1 2 2,4 3 2,5 11 6- 1 1. 3 1 9 4 1 3 3 2,8 3 3 1 9 '5 1 1 2 3 5, 4,4 5 3 15 ■ 1 1 0 3 4 12 2 1 1,2 1 1.4 6 1 1 0 5,Guidance enters into everyaspect of school life, It gives direc tion to personalitydevelopment and life'purposes, 0 0 5 2 1 Point ofview Practice lo Rating Aver- 'Rating Averans, age age O' 1 4, The chief functionof guidance is to set up aresearch andmeasure ment program to facilitate the placement and groupingofchildren. 12 0 Rating ofpractice 3 2 1 .4 3 ,4 4,2 4 3,8 NOTE: This table shouldbe read'as follows: inpoint ofview concept 1was givenfifth rankby sevenprincipals, fourth rankby eleven, third rankby two people, no one gave concept 1 first and second rank, one no answer. Inpractice concept 1was given fifthrankby sixprin cipals, etc, The consensus gave concept 1 fourthplace with anaverage of 4.2. Inpractice itwas also given fourth ratingwith anaverage of 3.8, 53 grouping children was given the last place. It is interest ing to note how this concept of guidance which a few years ago would have ranked first has been placed far down among the guidance functions. Two principals, however, still feel it worthy of second and third consideration. In the .evaluation of the second part of the table,' which refers to practice, the question is to what extent a subjective response could have value without some objective evidence to confirm or reinforce the answers. If twelve principals, or fifty-seven per cent of them, feel that in their schools they are able to administer a guidance pro gram in which guidance enters into every aspect of school life, and that all of the educational program is so planned that it gives direction to personality development and life purposes, then an ideal situation obtains in each of their schools. In every instance, except one, principals rated their practice and point of view alike. In other words, it is possible for the principal, in his opinion, to administer a guidance program which is highly satisfactory to him and one that is functional. This is a very revealing finding, one which may be colored somewhat by wishful thinking on the part of the administrator, particularly when one has in mind the scope of its function as implied in the new concept of guidance. This indeed speaks well for the principal's ability to administer a guidance program. In rating prac 5^ tice, concepts two and three were ranked the same, there be ing only a slight difference in favor of concept two for second place. The admini strative function. An attempt was made next to survey the administrative and teaching personnel to dis cover how many persons and positions were involved in the school guidance program, and the relative importance of each person in terms of their responsibility for the program. In addition, it seemed important to know how much of their time was spent on the work their positions, or titles, implied. It was further attempted to determine to what extent certain teachers, who were called upon to do much guidance work, were given an adjustment of the pupil load and time allow ance. Who makes the master program or schedule of classes, and who makes the individual pupil’s program was next in vestigated. One other important item which is considered essential to guidance was investigated; namely, the avail ability of guidance materials and records. up these questions. Table III takes It will be noted that this table does not follow the exact order of questions as they were set up in the questionnaire. A number-of items were selected at this time for tabulation because the information could easily be worked into one table, thus eliminating a number of small tables. TABLE III ' THE ADHIMTRATIVE STAFF, THE ALLOTMIIT AID RESPONSIBILITY FDR THEADMINISTRATIONOF THEGUIDANCEPROGRAM 55 (O hS tH OS oi 0 ■ '<H b o Personnel CO id (D P s H •ri 03 H (D H > •rl I P b fi 0 (D <D b fi (0 H rl fi Eh 0 £ Eh• fi fi ’ H P •rl H K 4 d Eh 03 (D (D fi fi fi 0 0 0 b 4 P a bD •H H (D fi 0 . (D H ■fi H 0)(0 fifi 00 (D CQP, fi b c o 0 (DID 8 WP5 <H (j tH h (D bfl. (D O 1*^ ‘ H, •rl (D • 10fi Hb fia 0 (DO b (D & HO Order of importance 12 3 4 5 Yes •rt& .*rl 00 Girls' Vice Prin. 17 3 18. 85,71 1 Boys' Vice Prin. 17 2 ,6 Counselor 11. 3 1 2 1 3 Attend. Teacher 8 4 Librarian 21 28.57 Yes lo 1 2 o 0 o fi ' ss i£ 1 1 2 2 2 9,52 Grade Sponsors 1 4.76 2 1 3 2 3 3. 7 4s 5 1 -1 : 4,76 .1 1 Personnel Board Health Coordinator 3 14,28 2 8 8 1 2: * 4 13 8 11 5 6 .' 3 10 2. 1 8 8 6 12 1 1 1 . 1 4 11 8 96 7 5 4 3 7 5 1, 1 64 3 9 4,76 2 !9.52 Phys, Ed, Director Totals 2 1 .4,76 B7 Guidance Teachers Home Room Sponsor 2 14 2 0 3 5 5 Teachers 1 dP <o 6 10 16 9.52 Social Liv, Teachers hd 4' .3 14 2 Health Teacher rl 4 15 71.43 14 2 2 1 3 2 1 1 OH ftP ftrl ID (0 (flp. 12 57,14 1 21 H H fib p (DH fi<rl •nft X)3 p fi (D 0 Principal. 2 bD b fid 7 20 39 27 35■ ' / 5:This table shouldbe readas follows: there aretwenty-one schoolshavingfull timeprincipals, Intwelve, or 57.14percent of these schools theprincipal is theperson responsible for theguidanceprogram. Inone school theprincipal is first inorder of importance in the guidance program. Infour schools theprincipal assumes themajor responsibility formakingthe schoolprogram orclass schedule. The principal has no responsibility for themakingofpupils1programs. Records, data, andmaterials ofguidance arenot available in theprin cipal's office, 3■ It may be observed from tbe data of Table III that not all schools have vice principals; all have full time librarians. The greatest variety of assignments is found in the work of the guidance counselor and the attendance teacher-, both of whom are in key positions for guidance. The results of this study show a decided tendency to dis tribute the guidance functions among more people including the counselor, attendance teacher, health coordinator, and grade counselors. This distribution of the guidance func tion is in keeping with recent trends in administration of guidance. The home room sponsors, the social living teach ers, the special guidance teacher, the health teacher, the grade sponsor, all of whom are teachers, and a person nel board are examples of the various types of counseling being drawn into guidance. The position of health coordinator is an example of the new type of administrative position which is being drawn into guidance. This is due to the increased atten tion to health as an important factor in guidance. Three health teachers are assigned in three schools for one-half and one-sixth time respectively. It is interesting to note that one position in the junior high schools which was mentioned most in column for persons responsible for the guidance work is that of the girls' vice principal. This was true to the extent of 57 eighty-five per cent of the situations. Fourteen schools mentioned the counselor as first in importance. In con trast to this the boys’ vice principal was reported in only six schools as the person responsible for the guidance pro gram. This seems inconsistent with what one might assume concerning the work of the boys' vice principal. In the opening chapter of this study it was assumed that the per sons who were involved in guidance ?/ere those who were in close relationship with the person who needs guidance. The boys' vice principal has an opportunity to know well the boys who have problems of adjustment. Another interesting point to be noted is the degree to which the principal feels responsible. Only in twelve schools did the principal regard himself as the person responsible for the guidance work. It is fair to assume, that the term responsibility might have been understood to refer to the actual work done in connection with guidance. The same might be said concerning what was just stated con cerning the boys' vice principal's position. Another interesting and new trend is in the direction of decentralizing the counseling function. Formerly the junior high schools had one counselor 'in whose office all of the counseling and guidance were centralized. It will be noted that under general information on the chart to what ex tent principals are creating new administrative devices to 5& facilitate guidance. One other important point in connection with positions and guidance will be noted in the report from one school showing no attendance teacher as such. In this particular instance the three counselors take care of attendance prob lems, the clerical work in connection with attendance being done by a clerk. Attendance and guidance have so much in common it is somewhat surprising to note that seven schools give one-half time or less to one person to do that important work. One of the questions most frequently asked concerning the administration of guidance is concerned with the time allowance given to' those who carry other responsibilities other than those of teaching, and in the same connection the question of the extent to which the pupil load is less ened. It is apparent from the tabulation there is very lit tle adjustment in this respect except in the case of the home room sponsors, one-half of whom have a lighter load. The health coordinator in one instance likewise has this adjustment. In the matter of time allowance, except in one instance, the percentage is in favor of those who do not have any allowance. The major responsibility for the making of the pro gram is distributed among five positions, the counselor mentioned the most frequently. The same is true of those who make the individual pupil*s programs* Here again we find in ten schools the counselor takes care of this*huge task. In five other instances one person, the vice prin cipal, boys* or girls*, is assigned to the task. In five other situations the home room sponsor or the grade sponsor takes care of.this very important function. This latter practice is in keeping with the recent trend in guidance, that of giving the responsibility to those who are in closest contact with the pupils concerned. That this per son to person relationship is assured is found in the answer to the question concerning home room period during which time teachers assist pupils with their problems. Seventeen out of twenty-one schools provide this opportuni ty. Since the success of guidance depends upon the extent teachers may have access to the materials of guid ance, it is.important to note that in many instances data is available in eight different places, the counselors office being the most frequently mentioned. Surveying the need for guidance. In the opening chapter of this study there was listed a number of social and educational factors current today which affect the daily living of youth in school, in the home, and in the community. In the questionnaire eight conditions which 6o affect the guidance of youth were listed and principals were asked to check the extent to which their schools were affected by these conditions. The' conditions were separat ed into three catagories and the frequencies checked. Table IV shows the results of the tabulation. Analyzing the need. In analyzing the need for guid ance as the principal sees it in his community and the larger community of life, it is evident that those environ mental factors over which the school has little control, and for which society itself is responsible, are acute in only nine situations. In eight other situations the school is affected to some extent. factor. Four schools did not check this When one realizes the affect social change has had upon education and all that it implies, one questions the consistency of the above tabulation. The unique function of education in a democracy, the great changes that have come about in the lives of men and women and boys and girls, particularly in the past two decades, the extent to which human institutions are becoming more complex, are all environmental factors which have changed and are changing education today. If these are not recognized in every phase of the educational program, education cannot fit boys and girls for living in this changing world. Ineffective home supervision is an acute factor in 3^.09 per cent of the schools surveyed. In two schools this TABLE IV THE SOCIAL AND EDUCATIONAL FACTORS WHICH AFFECT THE GUIDANCE PROGRAM Factors Very acute To some extent Very little Freq. Per Freq. Per Freq. Per cent cent cent 1. Many environmental factors due to in creasing complexity of society. 2 ^2.85 8 38.09 2* Ineffective home supervision. 8 38.09 2 t e .85 2 9-52 3* Broken home. 5 2 3 .SO 12 61.90 1 1J-.76 Economic stress. 6 28.57 11 52-3S 2 9-52 5* Conflicting points of view in educa tion. 2 9-52 6 28.57 10 11-8.57 6 . Changing philoso phies of education. 1 ^.76 7 33-33 11 52.3S 7- Lack of social con trols. It- 76 6>. Limitations of teachers who have not developed a mod ern educational point of view. 2 Total frequency 37 19.05 1 2 61.90 1 9-52 1 2 5 7 .lit- It- 79 ^7 22 31 19.05 18 NOTE: This table should be read as follows: Factor I was checked in nine schools as a very acute condition affect ing guidance. This is 4-2.S5$ 'tiie total possibilities. In eight schools, 3S.09$, this factor affects the program to some extent. No school reported this factor of little im portance to the program. 62 ' is of no consequence. In nine schools, however, it is to some extent a factor. Ineffective home supervision is due to many social and economic causes for which children must suffer. In eighteen schools the broken home is a cause de manding guidance* In five situations is this condition a- cute. Economic stress seems to be a factor to be reckoned with. Apparently changing and conflicting philosophies do not give much concern. The administration of guidance seem ingly has been able to keep pace with the changes and de mands that have come through this expanded concept of guid ance. Lack of social controls, suoh as those formerly held by the church and the home, are to some a factor to be con sidered. It is not surprising to find that the teacher*s point of view is to some extent another factor, since her op portunity to see the whole program as the administrator does is limited. The recency of the teacher*s training is also a conditioning'factor. One school listed the rapid growth of the school, another said poor recreational facilities in the community made extra demands on the guidance program. Teacher-pupil continuity. One of the criteria by which a guidance program may be evaluated is the extent to which every pupil is well known by at least one of the teaching personnel. The length of time pupils remain with one teacher and the activity in which this relationship exists are found in Table V. TABLE V TEACHER-PUPIL CONTINUITY Semesters Six Number of Schools Per Hot Freq. cent Reporting 13 Home Room Activity Social Grade Not Living Counselor Report: 61.90 12 1 1 Five 0 Four 2 9*52 Three 2 ■ 9.52 a Two 1 it--76 3 One 0 Totals IS 3 13 5 1 2 NOTE: This table should be read as follows: thirteen schools, or 61.90 per cent report a continuity of teacher and pupil for six semesters; twelve schools report this continuity in home room and one with the grade counselor. More Extended Continuity: One has four semesters of home room plus a combination of B7 social living and home room. The same for A9* One reports six semesters of home room and two semesters of social living. One school reports six semesters of social living for a part of the school and four for the remainder. ^ Vjsl 6U* One of the most frequent criticisms of the junior high school is that of the constant readjustment to teacher personality pupils have to make during the course of the d a y ’s work. It has been assumed by these critics that junior high school pupils meet five, and in some instances six classroom teachers daily, and in addition to this a home room teacher. Table V shows that a distinct gain has been made in the direction of lessening the number of changes pupils make in the course of the day’s program. Another criticism frequently expressed is that of the heavy teacher load which makes it impossible for pupils to be well known by any one in the school. This table shows a continuity in thirteen schools of teacher and pupil for six semesters, or the entire period of junior high school. Not one school . reported a change every semester. Meeting individual needs through the Master Program. An index of the extent to which the program is set up to meet the needs, abilities, capacities, and interests of boys and girls, is found in the so-called Master Program. The principals, therefore, were asked certain questions concern ing the program; for example, if it is flexible; if so, to what extent and at what grade levels; if they are satisfied with the program; and in actual practice to what extent individual needs must give away to the school schedule. Table VI is a tabulation of the answers. TABLE VI PERTINENT GUIDANCE DATA RELATING TO THE MASTER PROGRAMS OF THE LOS ANGELES JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS 1. Does the master program remain substantially the same year after year? No Yes Number Per Number Cent Per Cent 57-14- 3S.09 12 g 2. Check the grade in which the program is most flexible. 3 . Are you satisfied to the extent that it does not conflict with the administrator’s point of view on guidance? 4-. In actual practice do individual needs generally have to give way to the school schedule? Grades 7th 8th 9th 1 l 15 71.4-2 6 25.55 3 14-. 2$ 17 50.95 No Ans. 5 11 4- 1. NOTE: This table should be read as follows: in twelve schools, or 57*14per cent, the master program remains the same year after year. In eight schools, or 3S .09 per cent, it changes. One school did not answer. ON vyi 66 The data of Table VI shows that over half of the schools maintain a fixed schedule year after year. This practice is not consistent with a viewpoint which suggests that schools are set up to meet the needs and change as conditions, abilities, aptitudes, interests, and curriculums change. Where there is flexibility to the program, it will be noted, the ninth grade shows the greatest amount. This is due to the fact that the greatest variety of offerings is given at this grade level in terms of electives. The seventh grade is the least flexible, since at that level the program is the same for all pupils, no electives being offered* The question concerning the extent to which the principal*s program of guidance does or does not conflict with his point of viev/ on guidance received twenty-one clear cut answers. Over seventy per cent expressed satisfaction. This satisfaction may be explained by the fact that most of the principals have been working .in their respective schools over a period of years to develop a program of guidance consistent with their philosophy. Over eighty per cent see to it that the individual needs of boys and girls do not generally have to give way to the school schedule. In order to achieve this, much time must be devoted to individual counseling and guidance, necessitating many changes in pro gram. Trends in the direction of good guidance* Since it could not be anticipated that every administrator could be satisfied with the master program in relation to individual needs, it seemed advisable to suggest which of certain trends in education might enable them to defend the program in their schools. Seven trends were set up to be checked only if they were of definite help in the guidance situation. Table YII is a tabulation of the responses to this section. Since such a large percentage of the principals are satisfied with their guidance programs to the extent they do not conflict with their points of view on guidance, only the few who were not satisfied responded to this unit of the questionnaire. It will be noted that grouping retarded children in certain tool subjects received the largest number of checks, meaning by that, this device of adminis tration is the most effective means of improving the guidance function. No one felt that the demands on the part of the senior high school to meet subject matter requirements^was a trend in the direction of good guidance. One person felt that the compartmentalization of subject matter as such would be a help in setting up the program. to defend this point of view. It is not easy One principal made the com ment that we need to realize our major problem is to teach, guide, and help children, and while subject matter is im portant it is of secondary importance. TABLE VII EXTENT TO'WHICH CERTAIN EDUCATIONAL TRENDS ' AND PRACTICES A F F E C T .GUIDANCE Educational Trends 1* The unit of study approach in which there is a cor relation of several subjects such as social studies. Number checked 5 Per cent 2 3 *SO 2 . Courses in the various as pects of music, art, etc., which can be set up to take care of individual needs, interests, and capacities. 7 33*33 3« Grouping in certain tool sub jects for retarded children. 9 *J-2 .S5 2 9*52 5* Modifying traditional subject matter courses to insure better guidance. 7 33*33 6 . Compartmentalization of sub ject matter as such. 1 76 k-* Segregating bright pupils for special activities. NOTE: This table should be read as follows: statement one has been checked five times, or by 2 3 -SO per cent of the principals, as a trend in the direction of improving their guidance programs. Classification of pupils. .The next section of the questionnaire has to do with investigating the grouping of pupils at grade levels; the basis upon which grouping is made; and what is done with extremes of individual dif ferences. One of the questions which confronts the school administrator at every grade level from first grade through senior high school is the question of how or upon what basis shall pupils be grouped for instruction. In the interest of economy of teaching and facility of learning, the question is whether children of like ability should be grouped or should children be grouped by chronological age. Disregard ing both of these factors should social adjustment be the factor which determines the grouping? An attempt has been made in Table VIII to answer these questions. According to the data of Table VIII there is ap parently not much basis for generalization on the results of this tabulation because of* the distribution. The ques tion of grouping should be followed up with a question of which is the better practice from the standpoint of learn ing and teaching. Is this wide spread difference in prac tice due to a difference in philosophy underlying the practice of grouping, or is grouping done as a matter of necessity due to the many factors over which the program maker has little control.? Electives, for example, in the eighth and ninth grades largely determine the grouping in 70 TABLE VIII METHOD OF CLASSIFYING AND GROUPING CHILDREN FOR PURPOSES OF INSTRUCTION Me thod H omoge ne ou si y Heterogeneously Wholly Yes Par Per Per cent tially cent No ?/holly Per No cent ans. 6 23.57 ^ 19.05 10 47.61 1 10 1+7.61 k- 19.05 6 23.57 1 NOTE: This table should be read as follows: in six schools, or 2&* 57 Per cent, the pupils are grouped homo geneously for instruction; in four, or 19*05 per cent of the schools, the pupils are partially grouped homogeneously. In ten, or 4*7*61 per cent of the schools, they are not. One school did not answer. 71 academic subjects. The absence of electives in the seventh, grade simplifies the problem at this level making it pos sible to group homogeneously. The schools reporting the practice of partial distribution explained as follows: 1. One groups homogeneously for arithmatic only. 2 . One draws off a group from the top, another from the bottom, those in between are mixed. 3 . One groups heterogeneously for all grades except the seventh grade. One groups homogeneously in the lower division leaving the upper group mixed. In summing up the findings on grouping, the practice seems to be in favor of heterogeneous grouping. Factors which influence grouping. Since the practice of grouping pupils for instruction is so varied at the junior high school level it is important that the factors which influence grouping be investigated. Table IX presents a tabulation of some of the factors which are used as a basis for grouping and certain other findings pertaining to the question of grouping pupils for instruction. It is apparent from the data of Table IX that the factors which influence grouping are so many and so varied it is difficult to single out any one of them as having the greatest influence. It is rather a combination of factors 12 . TABLE IX CERTAIN FACTORS WHICH INFLUENCE GROUPINGPUPILS FOR INSTRUCTION ' .ANDEXTENTTOWHICH INDIVIDUALDIFFERENCESARE TAKENINTOACCOUNT Factors Intelligence quotient ormental age. Chronological age Reading grade-placement Per Per No Yes Cent No Cent Ans. 1 2 3 4' 5 6 7 8 9 10 11112 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 13 61.90 . 5 '23,80 3 x x x x 0 x x x x x x O x 8 38,09 10 47,61 3. x 13 61,90 5 23,80 3 x x x 0 x x' 0 0 x x x x 0 x x x x x0 x x x ." x x 0 x x Social Adjustment 7 33,33 11 52.38 3 x x O Alphabetical 3 14,28 15 71,42 3 O x Health 1 4,76 I.: T., Arith. Fundamentals 1 4.76 Cross Section 1 4,76 Ox xx x0 x x O x 0 x 0 x x x: Other factors: Are pupils ofverysuperior intelligence grouped for .academic instruction? 11 52,38' 10 47,62 Are pupils oflowmental ability grouped for academic instruction? 16 76,18 5 '23,81 x ‘ B7 x x x ;x ,x- x \ x x x B7 x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Are frequent adjustments made throughout the semester? 20 95,24 1 4,76 Are pupils withaprob lem ofadjustment given special programs tomeet theirneeds? 21 100,00 x xx xx x x xx x xx x x x xxx x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x.x x x x x x x x j: This table shouldbe readas follows: theintelligence quotient, ormentalage, is thebasis for grouping inthirteen schools, or 61,90per cent, This isnot thebasis in five schools, or 23,80per cent, Three schools did not answer thequestion, In schools, No, 1, 2, 3, 4, etc,,,it isthebasis for grouping, 73 which seems to determine the grouping. Intelligence quo tient, or mental age, and reading grade placement are men tioned most frequently. These two are combined with chronological age and social adjustment four times. One school classifies wholly on the alphabetical basis. One groups entirely on I.Q. basis but expects to group later on reading grade placement. It is difficult to generalize on this tabulation, which shows such.a wide spread of findings. In eleven schools, or slightly more than one-half of the schools, pupils of superior intelligence are grouped for academic instruction. How extensively this practice is maintained throughout the school was not investigated. It is a trend however, toward meeting the needs and challenges which these children bring to the teaching learning situation. The practice of segregating pupils of the low mental ability groups is more extensive, over seventy-five per cent of the schools reporting in favor of it. Two schools reported these two practices in the seventh grade only. All schools, with but one exception, make frequent adjustments to individual programs throughout the semester. The fact that so many schools individualize instruction to the extent that individual pupils are permitted to change programs when better guidance is to be desired is one of the important findings' of this study. The same may be said for the one hundred per cent response to the question of giving 7^ special programs to pupils with adjustment problems. is another evidence of good guidance. This Pupils who are out of adjustment because of any of many possible reasons for so being are enabled to transfer to a situation to which they may adjust. Gruidance and a theory of learning. Up to this point in the study the emphasis has been upon guidance and ad ministration and individual* needs as they relate to the program. At this point the survey is focused upon guidance in the actual teaching learning situation in the classroom. An attempt was made to ascertain the theory of learning which pervades practice in six academic fields, designated as follows: foreign language, science, mathmatics, social living, English, and social studies. Three statements were first set up each of which described a formal., subject matter approach to learning. Five statements were then presented each having an informal, child purposing, and pupil interest approach as the theory of learning. Principals were asked to check- the theory of learning which characterized the teaching of each subject in one of three catagories; namely, very often, occasionally, seldom. The results of the checking are found in Table X which is set up in two sections as described above. For purposes of analysis the first three statements TAB1EX . THE'THEORYOF LEARNING1HICHCHARACTERIZES CLASSROOMPRACTICE IITHEACADEMIC FIELDS 75 0 bO 0 d bD bO d 0 0 ri A •ri d bQ •ri 0 H 0 & 0• ' 0 P O' 0 d 0 •ri 0 03 a A P ri a 0 •ri d •ri i> A 0 bO hO 0 0 •ri bO I bfl d d p A ri A ■ 09 0 > 0, rl •ri d 0 P d ’p 03 A 0 rl bO 0 ri rl 0 ri •ri ri •ri •ri 0 0 CO H bD •ri 0 0 d. a ri •ri d Ui w 0 0 U •ri 0 & 03 A P ri a 0 •ri 0 0 03 rl . bO d H bO d bO d d ri 0 . ri A rl , ri tS d •ri ■ 0 a , d ■' . rl rl 60 ri •ri •ri 0 0 03 ' 0 0 h 0 0 rl ■d d p 03 ri 0 P 0 ri rl 0 a ri •ri d 0 A rl p 0 ri a 03 Occasionally______ . Very often ■ ■ > A •ri 0 0 01 ' 0 A rl bO d H rl ri •ri 0 0 01 Seldom PART I 1. The text book is amass of facts to be learned. 5 1 5' 1 •1 1 7 7 7 3 5 3 2, The teachingprocedure is assignment recitation.■ 6 1 4 1 1 2 5 6 7 5 6 4 3. Subject matter constitutes the stimulusand response. 5 1 5 1 1 1 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 1. Purpose and interest are the core of the learningprocess. 8 11 7 13 10 6 6 3 5 1 1 2 1 2. Studyand learning areapart of the effort to enable pupils to face new situations inthe best possible manner. 10 12 13 13 ... 10 '9, ;5 -3 4 3 3 3 2 2 2 1 8' 6 ' 6 3 1 2 3 2 2 PART II 3.3 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 3 3' 1 2 1 3. Attempts aremade to find the objectives of teachingand learning inthe pupils them-. selves, 5 8 5"'■ 9 5 3 : .■* 7 . 5,‘ .6 1*7 14' 8 . 5 4. Subjectivematter is adapted andused tomeet theneeds, interests, and experiences of the pupils inreal situations. 8 13 8 12 9 8 6 3 6 4 4 6 1 2 5. Integrationtakes place in the reconstructionof the pupils' experience to the end thathe isbecominga ' changedpersonality, 10 6 11 8 9 9 6 8 6 7 5 2 2 6 1 1 ... I0TE: this table shouldbe readas follows: the textbook as amass of facts tobe learned isusedvery oftenas the theory of learningin teaching foreign languages infive schools, of science inone school, ofmathmatics infive schools, of socialliving inone school, 76 In Table X may be grouped together since they represent the formal, traditional theory of learning. The last five may be likewise grouped for analysis and comparison since they represent the newer and more recent trends in relation to teaching and learning. For that reason the totals for each of the two sections will serve as an index to the trend of theory which motivates the classroom instruction. It is apparent then that the lesson learning, text/ book subject matter as such approach characterizes the teaching in the following subjects and in their order of frequency. Very often Foreign Language........................ 16 Mathmatics. . . . . . ..................14 Social Studies........................ 4 Science ................... . . . . . 3 English . . . . . . . . . . ........ 3 Social Living . . . . . 3 ............. It is apparent from the above tabulation foreign language is checked the most frequently for the formal type of teach ing v/hile social living is the least formal. A tabulation showing this approach used very seldom is as follows: Social Living-.......................... 14Social Studies. . . . . . . . . . . . 10 E n g l i s h ........ ..................... 9 77 Science .............................. 7 Foreign Language............... 5 . . . Mathmatics............................ 3 This latter tabulation is quite consistently in reverse order from the tabulation proceeding this one as it should be. In between these extremes we find the answer for those schools which choose to answer at neither extreme as follows: Science . . . . . ................... 16 Mathmatics...............................16 Foreign Language ............... 1^ E n g l i s h .......... 13 Social L i v i n g ................. 10 Social Studies. . . . . . . . . . . . 9 It appears that occasionally science is the most formal and social studies the least. The last five statements in Table X suggest a dif ferent approach to teaching and learning; namely, that of depending on purpose and interest as the core of the learn ing process. Pupils study, and learn in order to become more able to face new situations. Objectives of teaching are to be found in the pupils themselves. Subject matter is used and adapted to meet the needs and interests of boys and girls. The whole process of learning becomes a matter 7& of enabling pupils to grow through a continuous reconstruc tion of experience to the end that they become well inte grated individuals. The greatest frequency of this general type of approach in the academic subjects is as follows: Social Living . . .. . ^ . . ............. 5$ S c i e n c e ................................... 5^ E n g l i s h ................. .. ^2 Mathmatics................................. 39 Social Studies............................ 35 Foreign Language.......................... 37 It is apparent that this type of learning is most frequent in social living and least frequent in foreign language. This is not surprising when one considers the advantage social living has over foreign language in terms of real living and opportunity for real experience. In the former, the course is more flexible and the requirements less demanding. The academic subjects in which this approach is seldom used are tabulated as follows: Foreign Language. ..................10 Mathmatics..................... 10 S c i e n c e ................................ ^ E n g l i s h ................................ 4- Social Studies.......................... 3 79 Social Living . . * ................... 2 In between the two extremes this approach is used occasion ally as follows: Foreign Language............ Mathmatics. . . 33 ........................ 29 ................ ,2 k - : Social Living Social Studies............................ 21 S c i e n c e .......... 19 Engli s h ................................ 19 Here again foreign language has the highest frequency and social living the lowest. It is difficult to generalize on data which is arriv ed at subjectively, being only the opinion of the adminis trator as he analyzes the various types of teaching which characterize the departments of his school. The practice is often quite different even among teachers in the same subject field. In spite of this subjective evidence there are certain general trends indicated which confirm what has been the conviction of many; namely, that the teaching of foreign language has had specific subject matter coverage as an important objective, the matter of guidance being given little consideration. On the other extreme is to be found social living which by the very nature of the materials of teaching and the subject itself has been freed more than any of the other subject fields from traditional practice. so Next to foreign language mathmatics has been the most traditional. Ways and means of affecting guidance. Not all schools devise the same methods of bringing about ways and means of affecting guidance. The extent to which meetings affect guidance is found in Table XI. It is apparent that the work of guidance depends upon meetings largely as a means of motivation and coordination. The practice of teachers of a given grade level meeting to gether seems to be quite frequent. The old type of faculty meeting is fast disappearing from the school program, only four schools holding such meetings very often. The ten dency is in the direction of meeting to take care of a problem and only those who face that problem are called in for conference. Two important trends in guidance are evidenced in two types of meetings which are being held very often and occasionally. These include meetings of teachers of a grade level who have in these meetings an opportunity to perform a high guidance function. The same can be said of the frequent meetings of health coordinator, teachers, nurse, and doctor. Guidance through conference. The conference tech nique offers a means of affecting guidance to the extent shown in Table X I I . TABLE XI WAYS AND MEANS OF AFFECTING GUIDANCE THROUGH MEETINGS Meetings of: Very often Sometimes Not at all a. All teachers of a given grade level. J b. Entire faculty. 4- 16 1 c. Home room teachers and administrators. 5 13 1 d. Teachers and a supervisor. 2 17 1 e. Teachers and a re search director. f. Teachers and a nurse or doctor. g. Others, dep. groups. 1 6 15 1 ^ ^ - 13 1 NOTE: This table should be read as follows: all teach ers of a given grade level meet very often in seven schools; sometimes in fifteen schools; not at all in no schools. &2 TABLE XXI WAYS AND MEANS OF AFFECTING GUIDANCE THROUGH CONFERENCE Personnel involved a. Principal and staff. b. Administration and physical education staff. c. Administration staff and attendance supervisors Very often Sometimes Ik- J 7 S 1*1- d. Administrator and nurse or physician. 13 e. Administrator and teachers of a pupil with a problem of adjustment. 20 2 f. Administrator, teachers and parent of pupil with a prob lem of adjustment. 13 9 g. 1 Health coordinator. H NOTE: This table should be read as follows: the prin cipal and staff meet very often in fourteen schools, some times in seven schools. ^3 According to the data of Table XII the conference technique is becoming an important technique in the ad ministration of guidance. Among those listed in the above table-it is significant to note that twenty schools reported frequent conferences with the administrator and all of the teachers of a pupil who has a problem of adjustment. times the parent is called in to the conference. schools reported this type of conference. At Thirteen Since attendance and guidance have much in common it is surprising that the attendance supervisors do not confer often. Only eight schools reported frequent conferences of this type. Knowing pupils. An important function of the guid ance program is that of collecting data on individual pupils. A check of the various types of data used is found in Table XIII. From the above table it is apparent that all schools included in the study use mental test data, achievement data, cumulative records and health data. All but three schools have checked the interests of children. All but four have data on home background, economic status and special abili ties. Only six keep personality inventories and fifteen keep data on social adjustments. These last two observa tions may be accounted for because of the comparative recency of interest in personality development and social SUI TABLE XIII KNOWING INDIVIDUAL PUPILS THROUGH DATA ON PUPILS Type of pupil data Number of schools 3.* Mental test data 21 b . Achievement data 21 c . Cumulative record 21 d. Interests IS e . Home background 16 f . Economic status 16 g- Special abilities 16 h. Health data 21 i . Social adjustment 15 3 • Personality inventory 6 NOTE: This table should be read as follows: mental test data are used in twenty-one schools. ^5 adjustments. At this point there is a slight inconsistency in the large percentage of satisfaction with the guidance practice which was shown in Table II and a meagre accumula tion of data on personality development. It was pointed out in the analysis of Table II.that direction of personal ity was one of the main objectives of the guidance program. Without objective data on personality development it is difficult to give guidance. It is therefore important that more schools begin to collect data on this phase of child growth. Guidance in out of school activities. Since educa tion is by no means limited to classroom teaching the ex tent to which the school attempts to guide the leisure time activities of pupils is a very important aspect of the study. Table XIV shows the extent to which attention is given to the out of school activities of boys and girls.' Since the pupils1 out of school life plays an im portant role in the direction of growth of personality, it is important that the school give guidance to some of those activities in which children spend much time. It is ap parent that only a little time is spent on these activities in a majority of the schools. This is an indication of weakness in the guidance program. It will be noted, however, that the greatest attention is given to character building groups which is a very important factor in guidance* &6 TABLE XIV EXTENT OF GUIDANCE IN OUR OF SCHOOL ACTIVITIES The activity Attending movies Listening to the radio Reading newspapers Much Little 7 lH- 11 10 S 11 10 6 11 Attending church school Special interests 10 Hobbies 10 10 • Character building groups 1^ 4- School clubs Not at all 9 1 1 HOTE: This table should be read as follows: seven schools give much guidance in amount of time spent in attend ing movies; fourteen little guidance; no school reported no attention to this activity. 37 One interesting note was added by a school which gives credit on service rating for merit if pupils attend a certain number of Sundays at Church School. Several comments on the question of church attendance were made indicating it was out of the s c h o o l ^ province to give guidance in this activity. Community resources in the classroom. To what extent teachers draw upon the resources of the community to enrich teaching is shown in Table XV. Current news seem to be considered more frequently than any other community resource. the use of motion pictures. Second to this comes The.use of excursions is be coming an important factor in the educational program. All except three schools are taking some advantage of this op portunity. The possibility of the use of lay people has apparently not been realized. are checked by two schools. Musicians and service clubs It is evident that the schools are missing an opportunity to enrich the lives of youth through all of the means available to them. Case studies. The use of the case study technique is one of the new developments in a modern guidance'program* The extent of its use in the schools surveyed reveals the following: eleven schools make much use of it; twelve schools make little use of it. Since the case study offers 08- TABLE XV EXTENT TO WHICH THE SCHOOL BRINGS COMMUNITY RESOURCES INTO THE CLASSROOM Community Resources Radio Motion pictures Excursions Current news Lay people Musicians Much 8 Ik- Little 12 Not at all 1 7 8 10 17 3 "1 2 15 1 2 NOTE: This table should be read as follows: eight schools make much use of the radio in the classroom; twelve make little use of it; one not at all. &9 a very satisfactory method for guidance it appears a good guidance technique is being overlooked. Record of social adjustments.^ The extent to which teachers and administrators check and keep a record of noticeable behaviors on the part of-pupils is also a good index to the effectiveness of the guidance program. Thir teen schools use this method, one a little, eight do not. This would indicate a weakness in the guidance which has to do with social adjustments, for only through recording good and bad social adjustments is the guidance teacher able to observe the growth process in this very important factor in the education process. Guidance and health. Ho guidance program could func tion without an emphasis on health. How effectively this part of the program is planned is shown in Table XVI. Hone of the schools reported a full time health.co ordinator. For that reason it seemed important to know from what subject field these teachers were drawn. Three schools reported science teachers; six schools physical education teachers; two schools girls1 vice principal. One school reported a boys* vice principal; one grade group advisor; one attendance teacher; and one counselor. In one school the trained nurse is on the faculty health committee. In this same school a. health council is composed of stu- TABLE XVI IMPORTANT FACTORS IN RELATION TO HEALTH AND GUIDANCE Important factors Yes No a. A definite plan to make teachers conscious of pupils’ health. 21 0 b. A study of absence due. to illness. & 3 c . A plan to follow through and carry out most of the recommendations made by doctors and nurses after examinations. 21 0 d. A health coordinator. 1 8 2 NOTE: This table should be read as follows: a def inite plan to make teachers conscious of pupils’ health is used in twenty-one schools, no school report having no health plan* 91dents, faculty members, including those of physical educa tion, science, and household arts. In another school the - administrative staff including the counselor, attendance teacher, nurse, and physical educational directors form the health committee. It is evident from the above tabulation that all of the schools have definite plans to make teachers health conscious without which an adequate program of guid ance could not be realized. A study of absences due to illness reveals many of the health needs of boys and girls. Only eight out of twenty-one schools realize the need for such a study. This is overlooking an excellent guidance technique. For many years there has been in the Los Angeles City Schools provision for nurse and doctor inspection of pupils at all grade levels. If the health program does not include a follow-up of the recommendations made by the nurse and physician, the program falls short of good guidance. All of the schools reporting do make a definite point of follow ing through until something is done to correct the condition to which the doctor is calling attention. Eighteen schools out of twenty-one have health co ordinators. This is one of the most significant trends in the direction of health guidance. The health coordinator is becoming an important member of the school staff. Through her the teaching of health is coordinated, the health prob 92 lems .are followed.up, appointments to the clinic are made, homes are visited and parents are drawn into conference to discuss their children’s problems. Orientation and articulation. One phase of the guid ance program which has been receiving much attention is that of bringing about a better articulation between the elemen tary and junior high school and again with the latter and the senior high school. The extent to which this has af fected the program is found in Table XVII. It is apparent that the work which has been done by the curriculum section and the assistant superintendents working through conferences with principals and teachers has born fruit. Much has been done to bring about articulation in the learning activities as well as the orientation of B7 pupils to the junior high school. Every school has a well defined orientation program for B 7 pupils. The. Question of how well planned is the exchange of visits between schools is the key to its effectiveness in guidance. If during these visits the teacher of the upper . level asks the teacher concerning specific subject matter coverage the practice will deteriorate into the old per nicious custom of the upper school imposing its requirements on the lower school. For example, how far have you taught in the arithmetic book; how many pages covered; have you 93 TABLE XVII EXTENT TO WHICH CERTAIN TECHNIQUES ARE USED TO ARTICULATE THE ACTIVITIES OF THE ELEMENTARY AND JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS Techniques of articulation Yes No a. Do the Incoming A 6 pupils visit the junior high school before entering? 11 9 b. Does the school have a well de fined program of orientation for B 7 pupils? 21 0 c. Is there an exchange of visits between the elementary school and the junior high school? 15 6 d* Do the elementary schools furnish sufficient data to facilitate guidance? IS 3 e. Do teachers of the elementary and junior high school confer on prob lems of articulation of the learn ing activities? 20 1 NOTE; This table should be read as follows: the in coming A 6 pupils visit the junior high school in eleven situations, in nine they do not. I taught adjectives yet? If on the other hand, the upper grade teacher asks about the pupils themselves; their abili ties to do certain things; their attitude toward work and school; their behavior traits and their ability to work as a group, then the teachers and the schools will be making an effort in the direction of articulation* This same problem enters into the last question in the table; namely, articulation of, subject matter. This should include discussions on units of work covered, ex cursions engaged in, books which the pupils have read, special interests they have developed, the understandings they have gained, and to what extent the pupils are self directing and self-disciplined. Preparation for senior high school. In Table XVIII the articulation between senior and junior high school is shown. Table XVIII indicates that only nine, or 42.65 per cent of the schools, report an exchange of teacher visits. A large portion of the teachers who are called upon to give these beginners guidance in senior high school are therefore not familiar with their background nor the type of living, they have experienced in the junior high school. To these same pupils the senior high school is an unfamiliar place in which there can be little security for a time at least. 95 TABLE XVIII EXTENT TO WHICH CERTAIN TECHNIQUES ARE USED TO ARTICULATE THE ACTIVITIES OF THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL AND THOSE OF THE SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL Techniques of articulation Yes a. Do teachers of the senior high school exchange visits? '9 b. Do A9 pupils visit senior high school? c. Are conferences organized to discuss the articulation of learning activities? d. Does the senior high school guidance counselor meet the A9 pupils before entering the senior high school? 2 17 2 1 No $ 16 3 0 NOTE: This table should be read as follows: the teach ers of the senior high school exchange visits in nine situ ations, in eight they do not. In the matter of conferences on the learning activi ties, the situation is better with only three schools re porting no such conferences. If these meetings are con fined to discussions of subject matter coverage and imposition of specifics there is little to be gained. If on the other hand, the senior high school is made aware of the extent to which their new pupils have been self-direct ing, they may know where to begin. If the senior high school, through these conferences, has an opportunity to know with what idealism they face the future, the courses offered will take on new meaning. There is much to be said in favor of the practice of meeting the senior high school counselor and apparently all of the schools reporting have this guidance service. Vocational guidance. Although many of the best authorities on guidance leave vocational guidance to the senior high school field there is still an important prevocational aspect to be considered. Table XIX shows this phase of guidance. It is generally conceded that the courses offered in junior high school are exploratory in nature. For that reason it might seem unnecessary to call attention to the world of work. In some schools the world of work is several years away from the eighth or ninth grade boy or girl. In 97 TABLE XIX EXTENT OF VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE OFFERED. IN THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS Vocational offerings a. Do you have courses in ori entation in which the ob jective is to familiarize the children with the world of work? b. Do you have exploratory courses other than the above in which vocations are discussed? c. If such courses are given, is an attempt made to analyze the aptitudes and interests of pupils at the close of each exploratory unit? Yes No 7 13 10 g 3 15 NOTE: This table should be read as follows: seven schools have courses in oreientation to familiarize the children with the world of work, thirteen do not. other schools, however, where we find sixteen and seventeen year old pupils, the realities of life are not far distant and work is not far away. - The same may be said about a study of vocations which apparently receives little atten tion in the junior high school. Are all pupils of junior age too young to begin to think about their abilities, ap titudes and vocational interests? Apparently the junior high school administrators think they are since only one school reports an analysis of these at the end of each ex ploratory unit. There is no doubt but that vocational guid ance in the junior high school needs to be given some con sideration to the end that children1s needs may be better served in this important phase of education. Summary of the chapter. In this chapter there has been presented the findings of a questionnaire submitted to twenty-one administrators of the junior high schools of Los Angeles. The questionnaire attempted to investigate the guidance practices and the point of view or philosophy which guided the practice. It included general information; point of view; technique of guidance; extent to which the pupils are known to their teachers; how the master program is made, and who makes it; the degree of satisfaction the principal finds in his school program; how pupils are classified and upon what basis; how individual differences are cared for; to what, extent pupils with problems are helped to solve them; the theory of learning which motivates six of the academic subjects; ways and means of affecting guidance; what data is available to teachers in order they may know their pupils as individuals; how is this information made available to teachers; is every child known well by some one person in the school; to what extent the school uses the community resources; to what extent the case study technique of guidance is being used; health and its im portance in the guidance program; how well pupils from the elementary school are orientated in the new junior high school; what attention is paid to the articulation of learn ing activities; what preparation is made for the transition from junior high to senior high school;, to what extent guidance is given in the field of vocations. The administrative staff of the junior high school assumes the responsibility of the guidance program. The greatest variety of assignments is found in the work of the guidance counselor and the attendance teacher, both of whom are in key positions for guidance. Ten out of twenty- one schools have partial time counselors. Thirteen out of twenty-one schools have partial time attendance teachers. A new administrative,position. The health coordina tor, a new guidance position, is developing as the need for real guidance is recognized. 100 Distributing the guidance function. being drawn into guidance. More people are This is one of the important findings of this study. A new point of view is evident. the work of the specialist. pect of school life. Guidance is no longer It is concerned with every as It gives direction to personality development and life purposes. Practice and point of v i e w . agreement. These are quite in The administrator is able to set up a guidance program which is satisfactory to him. The need for guidance. The need differs in schools according to various environmental factors over which the school has little control. Economic stress, ineffective home supervision and broken homes are acute conditions in some sections. Shared responsibility. It is apparent that the re sponsibility of guidance is shared by the staff, the girls1 vice principal bearing the greatest load. The teachers * position in the guidance program. More and more teachers are being drawn into the guidance program, the home room teacher ranking next to the counselor. The pupil load. It is not adjusted to any noticeable 101 degree for those who have the added responsibility of guid ance . Home room. It is provided in seventeen out of twenty- one schools. Knowing every pupil. Eighteen schools reported that every pupil is known well as an individual personality by the person who is responsible for his guidance. Teacher pupil relationship. Pupils remain continu ously with one teacher in sixty-one per cent of the schools for six semesters. cent of these. Home room takes care of fifty-seven per There is a definite trend in the direction of extending the pupil teacher contacts through home room and social living. The administrative factors which affect guidance.. 1. The master program remains the same, year after year, in fifty-seven per cent of the schools surveyed. This is not consistent with the new point of view on guidance. However, in spite of this mechanical device which does not change,' seventy-one per cent of the principals felt they were able to set up a program which does not conflict with their point of view on guidance. It is difficult to rec oncile these two findings. 2. Two trends in the direction of improving the 102 school program are: grouping retarded children in certain tool subjects; and, modifying the subject matter to suit individual needs. 3* Individual needs do not have to give way to the school schedule in eighty per cent of the schools studied. This is an important finding. 4. Pupils* programs are made by one or t?<ro persons in seventy-one per cent of the schools. This practice does not insure individual guidance. Grouping or classifying pupils. The question of grouping pupils for purposes of instruction needs further study, since the practice as revealed in this study is as varied as is the number of situations involved. The prac tice of grouping on the basis of intelligence, or mental age, is used more frequently than any other factor in group ing. Pupils of low mental ability are grouped in seventy- two per cent of the cases studied. Superior intelligence is given an opportunity to develop in special groupings in sixty-one per cent of the schools. Individual adjustments are frequently made in all of the. schools. Pupils with problems of adjustment are given special programs. Extent to which guidance enters into the teaching of academic subjects. The theory of learning which motivates practice is not the same for all academic subjects. The 103 more formal teaching is done most frequently in foreign languages, the least formal in social living- In the formal classroom, guidance is limited. Means of affecting guidance. These were evaluated in terms of types of meetings" and conferences. The trend is in the direction of meeting in small groups for those who have a common problem. The traditional faculty meet ing is no longer common. Pupil data. In keeping with the more recent trends in guidance the schools are making available much data on individual pupils. These include intelligence, academic achievement, health, and home background. There is a decided weakness in data on personality adjustments. An important aspect of the question of pupil data has to do with its organization and accessibility to teachers. This study revealed the data was filed in administrative offices where teachers had ready access to the files. Guidance is not limited to school activities. The community has many resources from which the school can drawFull advantage of these is not being used by the schools, current news and motion pictures being the exception. OtheT resources such as the radio:, excursions, lay people, and musicians are used very little. These are the positive 104 aspects of the community environment. limited to these. Guidance is not The direction of personality development must take into consideration all community factors, the neglect of these shows a decided weakness in the guidance program. Case studies. The case study technique is not "being, used as extensively as might be expected in a well organized guidance program, only thirty-eight per cent reported the use of this technique. It is through this method of study one is able to discover emotional conflicts. The absence of c a s e .study records reflects a decided weakness in the guidance program. Health. Health is now recognized as an important phase of the guidance program. This is one of the most significant trends indicated in the study. Eighty-three per cent of the schools have health coordinators who are members of the guidance staff. Teachers are becoming health conscious, follow up work insures proper clinic attention, parents are being drawn into the school program. Orientation. The orientation of incoming BJ pupils has become a regular part of the B7 curriculum. A close relationship exists between the elementary and junior high school. Articulation of the learning activities. receiving some attention. further investigation. This is It is a question which needs Greater progress has been made in the articulation between junior high schools and the ele mentary than that between the junior and senior high schools. Preparation for senior high school has not received atten tion comparable to that which characterizes the transition between elementary and junior high school. Vocational guidance. In the junior high school vo cational activities may be termed pre-vocational. Most of the industrial arts courses are exploratory in nature with little attention given to a study of the world of work. Aptitudes and interests are not analyzed. General agreement. It is quite evident on the whole that the point of view of the principal and his practice come close to agreement. In other words, it is possible for the principal to administer a guidance program which is highly satisfactory to him and one that is functional. This is a very revealing finding, one which may be only wishful thinking on the part of the administrator, particularly when one has in mind the scope of its functions as implied in the new concept of guidance. Ratings of points of v iew. A high percentage of the 106 principals has a point of view which seems consistent with •the best current philosophy on guidance* The need for guidance * In analyzing the need for guidance as the principal sees it in his community, it is quite evident that the many environmental factors over which the school has little control and for which adults are responsible, are acute in nine situations and to some extent in five* Ineffective home supervision is another factor due to many social economic causes for which child ren must suffer. The broken home and economic stress are also factors in some instances very acute. Apparently changing and conflicting philosophies of education are not important factors. The administration of guidance has been able to keep pace with the changes and demands that have come through this expanded concept of guidance. Lack of social controls such as those formerly held by the church and the home are to some extent factors to be considered* It is not surprising to find that the teacher*s point of view is another factor since her opportunity to see the whole program as the administrator does is limited. CHAPTER V A GUIDANCE PLAN FOR A JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL Purpose of the chapter. It is the purpose of this chapter to present a guidance program which is in the process of development in a junior high school in Los Angeles and which is based upon what seem to be the best practices and procedures revealed in this research. The background upon which the guidance program was planned. In the school for which the program was planned forty-three teachers including a counselor and an attendance teacher, a b o y s 1 vice principal and a principal are assigned to take care of an enrollment of 1075 pupils. nationalities are represented in the school. a Mexican. Twenty-six One in four is Other nationalities are Armenians, Italians, Slovaks, Jews, Yogoslavians, Japanese, Russians, Turks, Arabians, and Syrians. of the population. These make up in part another fourth The other half are Americans. A survey last year shows that one-third lives in a broken home or one in which only one parent lives. had fourteen members. The largest family recorded The median family was six. The larg est religious group is Roman Catholic. Less than half re ported religious training in the home. Forty-five different occupations of parents were reported, the largest number re corded for one occupation was that of thirty-three for truck- log ing, carpenters, mechanics and salesmen followed next in order. The summary of the pupils1 plans for their future shows a wide variety of choices, sixty-six in all. girls, nursing takes first place. choose this as a vocation. Sixty-five were hoping to Teaching may engage twenty pupils while forty-two want to be secretaries. to become motion picture actors. to join the Navy. Forty in all aspire Fourteen boys would l i k e ' Seven want to become farmers; fifty-four would choose aviation. hobbies. For the Only sixty-six pupils reported no Social living received the highest number of fav orite subjects; mathmatics is the most difficult. The med ian intelligence for the school in September 19^0 was 96. These data which were compiled from the Students' Data Cards-*- is valuable' as a background upon which the guidance program was planned. Problems to be met in planning: the program. Three problems had to be met in planning and carrying out the guidance program: first, is' the problem of purpose of guid ance; second, is the problem of the personnel involved in carrying out the program; third, is the problem of procedure. Problem of purpose. Before undertaking a plan of guidance it is important that there be brought together the 1 Appendix, p. 153* factors which are inherent in the purpose underlying guid ance. The first has to do with the purpose of education. Ho functional program of guidance could be planned without a statement of the meaning of education. Whatever takes place in the school whether it be constructing curriculum, improving classroom instruction, setting up a guidance pro gram, or working on any of the other aspects of the school program, the basic consideration must be, what is education? Education is an internal process and it is a social process. It is concerned with the biological, mental, emotional, social, and vocational adjustments of individuals It is the process by which the individual identifies himself according to his capacity with the culture which is his heritage in terms of knowledge, tools, skills, and apprecia tions. Education is learning how to live and work success fully with others; to respect one's own personality as well as the worth of others; to be concerned with the development of ideals and habits in the individuals in keeping with our ideals for a democratic society. Since we live in an ex panding world, education cannot be static; it must change not only to keep pace with these changes, but to keep ahead of this vast on-going march of civilization as well. The second factor has to do with the relationship of guidance to education. The latter has to do with the ad justments of individuals while guidance gives direction to 110 self adjustment. It is the task of guidance to help indiv iduals set up goals and purposes which are inherent and worth while. Guidance is concerned with mental health or the dynamics which motivate "behavior and learning; physical health or the biological factors which influence behavior and learning; intellectual adjustments or the extent to which the individual identifies himself with the knowledge, skills, and tools of the culture; ethical character which is the most important of all, but it is accomplished in relation to the whole program; social adjustments or the extent to which he is a "star of attraction11, or rejection, or an isolate; vocational aptitudes, interests, or points of sup eriority. The third factor has to do with its scope. Guidance enters into all of the positive aspects of school life. It is not, however, an independent function but it has to do with every individual child. It has to do with the daily living of youth in and out of school. home and the community. This involves the The kind and amount of guidance varies with different children in different situations and at different times. Provision must be made for group guid ance as well as individual guidance. The fourth factor has to do with the objectives of guidance which must be reasonable, worth while for the in dividuals concerned, dynamic and conceived in terms of de- Ill sired changes in behavior. The problem of personnel. .Faced with the responsi bility of organizing the staff for guidance, the principal must determine first, to whom the details of■planning is to be delegated; second, to what other members of the staff are the many and diverse guidance responsibilities to be given. To insure a good program the duties and responsibilities must be clearly defined thus avoiding confusion and duplication of effort. Figure I illustrates the organization of the guidance program. Hesponsibilities of personnel. Working directly with the superintendent and in charge of the divisions of instruc tion and curriculum and research is the deputy superinten dent of schools. Through his division are made available the resources of the following departments: commercial edu cation, vocational and practical arts, art, curriculum, education for exceptional children, educational research and guidance, library and visual education, music, physical education, safety education and school savings. Through this division are made available many resources in terms of supervisors, supervisory aids, materials of instruction, research and guidance, psychologists, and mental hygienists. Working directly with the superintendent and in charge of F IG U R E PERSONNEL R E L A T IO N S H IP S B o a rd I IN ■ THE G U ID A N C E PROGRAM E d u c a tio n and S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f S c h o o ls D e p u ty r In s tr u c tio n C u r r ic u lu m A s s t. o f S u p t. D e p u ty S u p t. S u p t, R e s e a rc h D iv is io n H e a lth D e p t. A tte n d . D e p t. P r x n c ip a l C o m m u n it y A s s t. P r in H e a lth and C lin ic S e r v ic e s P a re n ts and a ll M e m b e rs o f th e F a m ily . A tte n d a n c e C h a ra c te r B u ild in g A g e n c ie s C o m m u n it y A g e n c ie s C o m m u n it y R e s o u rc e s T o ta l E n v iro n m e n t C la s s ro o m T e a c h e rs Room P u p ils 113 the service division is another deputy superintendent who has charge of the health and attendance departments. Through this division are made available nurses, physicians, special ists, dentists from the health department, attendance super visors, and legal service from the attendance department. . Working directly under the first deputy mentioned above and assigned to the junior high schools is- the assist ant superintendent who* furnishes the educational leadership, supervises, directs, and coordinates the activities of these schools. Within the school, the principal, working in co operation with the vice principal and through the teachers, guidance with the pupils becomes effective. The b o y s 1 vice principal holds a unique position in both group guidance and guidance for the individual boy with a problem. Through his efforts and understanding the boys are adjusted. He confers with teachers, parents, nurses, physicians, and attendance supervisors. visits and works with community agencies. He makes home He helps to plan the master program and the curriculum demonstrates teaching, supervises instruction and recommends changes of programs. Next to the principals, the counselor is the one person who holds the key position in the group guidance pro gram. In her office, center all of the guidance activities. Here the materials of guidance are coordinated, including an up-to-date, flexible and accessible file of guidance in formation. Under her direction all students' programs are made; the program of studies for the school is planned; the testing and research program is organized. The counselor helps to plan and carry out the articulations between the junior high and the elementary schools and does the same for the senior high school. In her office is centered the B7 orientation program and the A9 preparation for BIO; special guidance for the B$ pupils who are beginning to chart their future courses in education is given. This involves conferring with parents on choices of electives. Next to the counselor in point of responsibility is the attendance teacher, for many of the guidance problems are brought into focus in his office. This is particularly true in relation to health and problems of social adjustment involving non-attendance in school. All teachers have def inite guidance responsibilities but the home room teacher, in addition to making the programs for her pupils, is the person directly responsible for individual guidance as well as that of the group guidance activities of the school. Outside of the school and having a direct bearing on the guidance of pupils are the parents and all of the mem bers of the family on one hand, and all agencies and re sources of the community on the other. It will be noted on Figure I, page 112, that all of the above persons, services, agencies, and resources center in the pupil who becomes an 115 important guidance factor himself as he becomes increasingly capable of self guidance. The problem of personnel further clarified. Figure II is set up on the basis of functions of guidance. The persons who perform the various functions are listed. Special problems and their origin are suggested and the possible disposition of the problem is explained. The guidance plan or problems of procedure. The problem of procedure begins with creating a school environ ment in which pupils of junior high school age can grow in desirable directions. These directions must follow the democratic tradition in which the worth of the person is respected, in which self realization is the objective, the self being a unit in.a democratic society. Another desirable direction of growth is in the nature of personality develop ment of the adolescent. Growth must also take the direction of health, both mental and physical as a "positive quality of life itself." This environment which the school creates must lead in the direction of life goals and purposes. This can be accomplished through the combined efforts of teachers and the administrative staff working together, planning to gether and providing the leadership which creates this environment in which the democratic way of life becomes a reality. FIGURE II GENERAL GUIDANCE PLAN OF THE SCHOOL Health Health Mental Education in School Teachers: Phys. Ed. Classroom Horne room Nurse Physicians■ Counselor Attendance Parents Vice Prin. Principal Clinic • Supervisors Self All teachers Parents Family Counselor Psychologist Clinic Supervisors Vied Prin. Principal Self All teachers Librarian Vice Prin. Principal Counselor Supervisors Superintendent Self Functions Executed by Special Problems Out of School Life Goals Parents Teachers and Counselor Family Vice Prin. Church Principal Associates; Parents Movi e s Social Radio Institutions Character Church agencies Radio Self Movies Character agencies World of work Self Health— Social— Mental— Emotional— Economic adjustment Origin Attendance office Classroom Home room Principal's office Disposition Examination Mental Tests Treatment Personality Tests Change of program .School history Follow up Case study Home visit Conference with all Sent to Principal teachers involved Character building Change of school agencies Home Classroom— Home room— Home— Community— Nurse Playground— Attendance office-?-supervisor Doctor of attendance— Other pupils 116 Change of program Home visits New interests New associates Refer to welfare agencies Coordinating Council 117 Creating an environment for democratic living. Children must be taught how to live in a democracy for the ways of democracy are no more a part of our native equip ment than are our abilities in any other field of learning. Democracy must be experienced not just verbalized. It must have more meaning for youth than a means to achieve rights and privileges. bilities as well. It must be realized in terms of responsi It is achieved through facing problems and solving them to the satisfaction of the group. This calls for practice in groups yielding to group demands. Some of these problems are of their own seeking for a sensitivity to social problems is a part of the learning in democratic living. Democracy has no meaning for youth until it is ac companied by real experience in self government. growth process. It cannot be hurried. This is a It cannot be imposed. It must be the pupils1 own activity and own responsibility under the careful guidance of teachers. Experience in demo cracy can be achieved in the classroom, in the home room, and in and through a well organized student government. Growth in the direction of the democratic way of life. The classroom offers, through the careful guidance of the teacher, an ideal situation for learning the ways of demo cracy. In the classroom there is given the opportunity for pupils to choose their own officers, make their own rules, help build their own standards of what is just and right. 11B Here they learn to respect the rights and opinions of others; to appreciate the contribution each is able to make to the group; to yield to the will of the majority; to respect the minority; to be sensitive to problems and to learn how to solve them; to share materials and privileges and opport unities; in short all of the problems of living together provide the experience for learning the ways of democracyThe home room offers all that the classroom does and more for in this situation is found the unit of the school government, where group guidance is worked out. From each home room in the eighth and ninth grades a representative is elected to the school Congress, which is the law making group of the school. In addition to this home room rep resentation the group is composed of student body officers, members of the school court, the chief officers of the service groups, and two A 7 pupils elected at large from the A 7 class; B7 pupils are not directly represented but they .are definitely a part of the school government and visit the Congress frequently. The Congress meets two periods every day, the students being programmed for social living. activity. A teacher directs the Strict parliamentary procedure is observed with a president presiding. The privilege of presiding is not limited to him, for every member of the Congress has an opportunity to preside several times during the semester's 119 work. It is the responsibility of each home room represent ative to take back to his home room every morning a report of the work done in the Congress the previous day. He is expected also to report to the Congress the opinions express ed by his group. The first order of business was that of writing a Constitution for the school with provision for amendments as the need arises. A thorough,study of the Con stitution of the United States furnished the background for drawing up the school constitution. Visits to the City Hall, Courts, Garfield Senior High and various civic in stitutions helped also to give direction to the work. Some of the problems taken up in the Congress were: making a constitution by which the school could be governed; naming the new school; approving service clubs; planning and evaluating assemblies; what is done at Kern; what is not done at Kern; what Kern means to me; care of school prop erty; what it means to be an American; conduct at the daily flag ceremony; traffic in the neighborhood; traffic and safety at school; what smoking does to a Junior high school pupil; what is a democracy; privileges in a democracy; and, responsibilities in a democracy. Many other problems too numerous to list here have been discussed and taken care of by the Congress. Many of the problems have been of their own choosing as the need arose. Every day the work goes on under the patient, quiet 120 leadership of an understanding teacher who believes in and understands the ways of democracy. moment. There is never a dull ?«hen a question of importance is under discussion as many as five or six at a time are on their feet asking for recognition, from the chair. Congress is visited by other groups of the school. It has been visited by the district assemblyman who was invited to come to discuss a school problem. As the result of this visit he is introducing a bill to the California Legislature to take care of the problem. Many students from other schools have exchanged visits with them. The success of this enterprise in terms of value to the members of the group, as well as to the school, is largely dependent upon the ability of the teacher, who directs and guides the activity, and the extent to which the other teachers and the staff believe that a democracy can function in a school; and the extent to which they are willing to allow children to accept the responsibility this type of activity demands. The student court, composed of seven members appoint ed and sponsored by the principal, completes the school government. It meets on call to take care of the minor offenses which occur during the course of the school day. Guidance and personality. The guidance plan of the 121 school begins with the individual. Every individual has the right to be known well by one person in the school. In this guidance plan it is the home room teacher who knows well all of the members of her home room group. Her acquaintance with the student begins when he visits the school as an A 6 pupil and it continues or his entire life in the school. for three years, She meets him every day during those three years for a home room period which is set up in the program for fifteen minutes. This period is always extended as a need for extra guidance may demand. The teacher1s responsibility begins when she receives certain guidance materials from the elementary school through the counselor. .This material includes the following: 1. Orange card which gives birth record; pa,st school experience, such as grades skipped or repeated; days absent and present; and number of schools attended. 2- Report cards showing school progress. 3 . Elementary test data including I . Q . , reading and arithmatic grade achievement. *4-. Anecdotal information from A 6 teachers. 5 . Autobiographies written in A 6 grade. 6 . Some outstanding creative work done by pupil while attending elementary school. 7 . A health card which shows his health record and his present health status. This card is later filed in the 122 physical education office of the school. All of these form the beginning of the cumulative records to be used in guidance. The B7 guidance, or home room teacher, then begins a series of personal interviews with each child and records her findings on the student data card. Two copies of this are m a d e , o n e on heavier material for the guidance office, and one for the teacher's file. What teachers need to know about puoiIs. Through democratic planning and a careful analysis of the problem of guidance, the teachers have made the following generali zations about what teachers need to know about pupils to insure adequate guidance: It is not necessary to know everything about every pupil, but.there are some common facts which should be known about all pupils. The student data card provides the common facts which should be known about all pupils. There is a group of children about whom it is necessary to know everything that can be known. These are the boys and girls who are unadjusted in one way or another. For them special guidance information must be made available. There is certain information about pupils -that is of more 'value to som6 teachers than to others. For example, .the physical education teacher would find certain data more useful to him than would the mathmatics teacher. 123 Procedure for accumulating: data on the unadjusted pupil. Being aware of the problem is the first step in the guidance procedure. Whoever locates the problem first re fers it to the counselor who in turn reports the problem to the b o y s ’ vice principal if the person involved is a boy, or to the principal if it is a girl, and to the home room teach er who immediately begins to make observations on a blank provided for this purpose. One copy of this blank is sent to the principal or vice principal and later filed in the counselor's office. room teacher. The duplicate is retained by the home If the pupil continues to be a problem he is referred to the principal or vice principal for counsel. If the problem still persists the parents are called in for a conference. Most problems are cleared up at this point, but for those who still cannot adjust the home room teacher, is asked to make a case study. Starting with the statement of the pupil’s problem the case study proceeds according to the following plan: 1. Evaluating of classroom behavior by all of the pupil's teachers. 2. Visiting the home to note the home background. 3* Listing personal data from the student data card such as: 2 Appendix, p. 154-. 12^ a. Marital status of parents. b. Number of children in the home. c. Occupation of parents. d. Religion in the home. e. Interests or hobbies. f. Leisure activities. g. Work responsibilities. h. Other pertinent data that may be revealed in the study. i. Teacher-pupil relationship, j. Honesty, k. Responsibility. 1. Work habits, m. Social concern. Education and intelligence test data including elementary school evaluation if possible. 5* Health data. a. An examination by school doctor with the person who writes the case study present if possible. As soon as the teacher has the case well in hand with all available data a conference of school staff and all teach ers involved is called. The teacher presents the case and asks for comments and recommendations. It often happens during such conferences that teachers for the first time have an opportunity to look objectively at this person and to 125 ■ realize for the first time that he is a personality, that some of his problems may not be of his own making. Some of these conferences are attended by former elementary teachers and occasionally a parent is invited to participate. ly the parents should always be present. usually include home visits. Ideal These case studies The conferences are followed by recommendations which it is hoped-will help the pupil to make a better adjustment* In every instance a sincere at tempt is made to determine the- cause of poor adjustment and then in so far as possible to remove the cause. If the case can be adjusted in the school no means are spared to make changes necessary to help the pupil. As a last resort the case is referred to the attendance division for placement. Home visits and parent conferences. During this pro cess of trying to solve the problems of the unadjusted pupil it becomes necessary to make frequent contacts with the home. To prepare teachers for this type of activity the following procedure has been worked out for them. Unless the case is one of extreme emergency a letter is sent to the parent.^ Preparation for the interview. In preparation for the visit the teacher is given a list^ of suggestions which 3 A p p e n d i x p . 155* ^ Ibid, p. 156. 126 will help her in presenting the problem to the parents. Reporting v isits. After a visit has been made the teacher makes a report on a form which is provided for this purpose.^ A record of these visits is kept on file in the guidance office. Visits are made by teachers, the attendance teacher, the counselor, attendance supervisors, nurse,-vice principal and principal. During the eighth month last year 192 home calls were made by the attendance teacher. The value in terms of guidance of such visits cannot be measured. Report of a home visit. This visit was made by a home room, or guidance teacher. Member of family interviewed: mother. Purpose of visit: to discuss H's unsatisfactory notice from the social living teacher and in response to mother’s request that we visit the home. Home conditions: broken home, mother married again. Stepfather living in the home. whil-e speaking about H. Mother very nervous, wept House clean, comfortably furnished, family apparently not on relief. Stepfather not the type to help H. Attitude of parent: anxious to cooperate, but very strict with H. All privileges have been taken away since ^ Appendix, p. 157* 127 unsatisfactory notice was sent home. Teacher's comments: I think the mother's mental attitude has much to do with Helen's lack of interest in her work. She feels she has failed miserably with her daughter. H. was very beautiful when .small and was always the center of attention. Mother wonders if perhaps this "always talking" is an effort to gain attention. Plan for guidance: a progress report. Each Friday we are to send home As each report shows improvement one privilege will be restored. Mother says Helen is always careless about her-.personal appearance, does not like to help around home. kitchen. off. I suggested a chart to be hung in the As each duty is performed, Helen should check it If the duty is left undone, a fine should be taken from her allowance. It may be possible to create an in terest in desiring to get things done this way. Miss S., the librarian, is going to try to encourage her to read more. The mother and I are working to see that she makes some Christmas presents because of her sewing teacher's comment on her ability to sew. Hundreds such visits have been made to homes, some of which are neat, modest, and inviting, others so poor it is difficult to describe them. Vi sits by parents to the school. It sometimes be- 128> comes necessary to invite parents to visit the school for a conference in which problems of unadjusted pupils are dis cussed. In such cases letters^ are sent to the home pre paring the parent for the type of problem which is giving concern. Educational guidance. This phase of guidance.has its beginning in. planning a curriculum, in so far as possible, which.is inherent in the lives of the boys and girls for whom it is planned. carry out. In actual practice it is difficult to At this point it is interesting to note that with only one exception, the'principals reporting in thisstudy rated their practice and point of view alike. Better educational guidance is provided if a different curriculum is planned for the very low ability groups of whom there are many in this school. This is done and special programs are provided for these pupils. Frequent adjustment of pro grams are made for them and for those of the high ability group of whom there are a few. The educational guidance is planned after sufficient testing has been done to indicate the specific needs as revealed in the testing program, the achievement in each case being worked out on the expectancy basis. Where great difficulty or weakness is indicated ^ Appendix, p. 15$* 129 pupils are grouped to receive special teaching. This is done particularly in mathmatics and science classes. Out standing abilities, academic, mechanical, creative, artistic, and dramatic are encouraged and special programs are pro vided to give opportunity for development. A testing program, the results of which furnish the background for educational guidance, is planned. All B7 pupils are tested at the opening of the semester and grouped for instruction according to their ability to succeed. To give greater stability to the program all B 7 pupils are pro grammed with one teacher for three periods a day during which time social living and mathmatics are taught. During the first part of the semester a program of B 7 orientation is carried on. Parents meet teachers and visit the classrooms. Every pupil is given a bulletin? which will be helpful to him in adjusting to the new school. The program for both B J and A 7 grades gives no op portunity for choices or electives. Not until pupils reach the BS grade are elective choices made. All electives for all grades are to be approved with parents’ signatures. Three choices are given in order of preference and in case the first two cannot be programmed. Pupils are expected to take one practical art and one fine art elective. ? Appendix, p. 159* AB 130 pupils whose intelligence quotient is 110 or more are urged to consider Spanish I seriously. Pupils who plan a com mercial course in senior high school are not expected to take typing in junior high school. Five shops are available for boys: general metal, electric, wood, print, and agri culture. G-irls may take foods, clothing, and homecrafts. Specific requirements are set up for each grade . & Every ten weeks report cards are -sent home to parents. If pupils are doing unsatisfactory work, notices are sent home to parents and conferences are encouraged. Frequent Progress Reports^ "are sent to teachers to check on students whose progress is questioned. These reports are filed in the guidance office for reference. As a further check up on pupils whose social concern is rated unsatisfactory the vice principal and the principal call such pupils into the office for a personal interview. Parents are often present at these conferences and the home room teacher is kept informed of this procedure. Another type of check up-^ which is frequently used to collect more specific information on pupils1 progress is also filed in the guidance office. ^ Appendix, p. 1.60« 9 I b i d ., p. l 6 l . 10 Ibid. , p. 162. Cumulative envelopes for records. Ho amount of care ful guidance on the part of teachers could he effective with out the guidance material which is filed in the cumulative envelopes. These are filed for all students in the attend ance office. All materials- of value which reach the counse lor or the registrar are placed in these envelopes. Teach ers are urged to investigate this material for students for whom they work. Because this material is valuable, and most of it impossible to replace if misplaced or lost, teachers are asked to use it in the counselor’s office whenever possible. They are. also urged to add to this material from time to time valuable information concerning students for it is from this material case studies are made. Materials found in the cumulative envelopes may include any one or more of the following items: 1. Orange card, or birth record. 2. Report cards. 3* Autobiographies written in A6 grade. Anecdotal information from A6 teachers. 5- Elementary test data. 6. Front covers of tests given at Kern., 7 . Transcripts from, other -schools. 2>. Observation slips from Kern faculty. 9 . Notes from parents. 10. Notes pertaining to students on probation. 3-32 Guidance and health. That all teachers are becoming aware of the importance of health as a guidance factor is evidenced by the fact that health information topped the list in frequency in answer to the question, what does the teacher need to know about children. Every teacher should be able to detect obvious physical needs such as general health conditions, under nutrition, eye strain, defective hearing, postural defects, poor eating habits, hours of sleep, and out of school habits affecting health. When the. teacher observes a need for a more careful check up she sends a health follow card^-*- to the health- coordinator who in turn refers the case to the nurse and if need be to the doctor. The disposition of the case is reported back to the teacher who reported the case. The classroom teacher must at all times take into consideration the individual differences of pupils as to rate of energy output and ability to work without strain or fatigue. She sees to it that glasses are worn if the stu- - dent should be wearing them. She adjusts the light and temperature of her room so pupils may work under conditions favorable to good health. The greatest responsibility for health guidance rests however, upon the teachers of physical education. ^ Appendix, p. 163* Their 133 work includes the teaching of hygiene and physical education through actual participation in physical activities* Under the supervision of this department a breakfast is served free every morning and a nutrition period is provided in mid morning. Those who are underweight are invited to partici pate in this meal which is provided by Uni .ted States Surplus Food Commodities. The health program for girls may be described as follows: Every girl is given a white card*^ on which is checked her weight, height, feet, head, nails, teeth, skin, posture, and general appearance. From this card it is ascertained which pupils shall have breakfast and nutrition. Approximately seventy-five pupils have breakfast each day and close to 150 have nutrition. The various items on the cards are checked each term to see whether each individual girl is getting help along the lines she needs most. The results from the use of these cards have been most gratify ing. Another card‘d is provided on which certain informa tion regarding her general health is recorded, such as heart, vision, hearing, nutrition, etc. These cards are checked in the elementary school and go. with the girl to high school. 1 2 Appendix,' p. 164-. 13 I b id., p. 1 6 5 * 13^ They are filled out by the doctor at the time of examination. If the girl shows a defect her card is clipped with a color ed flag, each color designating a different health program. A red flag indicates a heart defect. twenty such cases in the school. nail biting. There are A black flag indicates There are thirty such cases in the school. A white flag indicates teeth need attention. case.s in the school. needs. An orange flag indicates nutritional There are 102 cases in the school. indicates posture and feet defects. such cases in the school. fects. There are 179 A green flag There are eighty-four A blue flag indicates eye de There are eighty-one such cases in the school. pink flag indicates skin trouble. A There are twenty-one such cases' in the school. There is also a gold clip for the HHonor Health R o l l .11 It is the ambition of each girl to have her card cleared of all the flags that are clipped to it. If, through her ef forts and that of the school, she succeeds in doing this her name is added to the tfHonor Health Roll.” The ,,H H is given as an award of achievement. During the present year’ 250 clinic appointments have been made for girls who need medical attention. In addition to this there are many visits made to the homes in the interest of health. Parents come for conference. Clinics cooperate and a continuous program of health improve- 135 ment is in process. A careful check up of all A9 pupils who go to senior high school is also made. An effort is made to clear up all defects "before that time comes. A similar program for "boys is also in the process of becoming. Much emphasis is placed in Athletic Glubs, Y. M. 0. A., and Scouting. Physical education teachers have an opportunity to do much guidance with boys and girls other than that of health. Their relationships with pupils are on a less formal basis than those of the classroom teacher. For that reason they have a rare opportunity to give social guidance, to help build character, and to help the emotion ally unstable child to adjust. The health program is well articulated with the senior high school. A personal record of every boy accom panies him to senior high school. This includes such data as height, weight, scholastic records, trust worthiness, attitude, industry, physical coordinating, response to coaching, athletic interests, out of school interests, work status after school, and recommendation for teams. This information is invaluable for guidance in the BIO grade. Vocational guidance. Vocational guidance in the junior high school is concerned with giving pupils an ac quaintance with the world of work. What vocations, occupa tions or jobs are current in vocational trends today. Such 136 questions as the following serve to bring out the knowledge pupils need to have about jobs: 1 . What is the nature of the vocation as to duties; a typical d a y ’s work; effect upon the worker as to mental strains or physical hazards; advantages or serious dis advantages; as to satisfaction. 2. What are the qualifications, as to natural, es sential, aptitudes or personality traits. 3 . What preparation is essential in terms of general education, special education; as to cost, time, where secured; how to get the job; legal requirements; or capital outlay. 4-. What is the compensation at the start, at one’s prime, years of an active career, its permanence, demand, availability, local possibilities, advancement rapid or slow, leading onness, other rewards than salary. 5. How to receive placement, employment agencies, civil service examinations, influence of friends and rel atives, use of advertisements, a good form of letter of application. In junior high school it is important in vocational guidance' to know if a pupil has the ability to take a col lege education and if there is a possibility of his going to college. It is important also in planning a guidance pro gram to know how soon a pupil will have to face the world of 137 work. It is important to know what it takes in relation ,to the business of earning a living. Does he have interests - and abilities which will lead him to success in any field? It is important to know if the pupil has interests and hobbies.which indicate vocational possibilities. evidence of inclination toward a specific job? Is there Teachers of junior high school children do not attempt to influence un duly in the selection of a specific vocation even though pupils think they know what they want to do. Much opportu nity must be given in junior high school not only to know about vocations but also to have an opportunity to take exploratory courses in the several shops provided for this purpose. Every junior high school boy and girl should be gin to ask himself the question, what can I do very well. Much emphasis is placed on what the answer to this question will be, for from the answer to this question may* come an indication of the direction his pre-vocational guidance will take. Summary of the chapter. It was the purpose of this chapter to present a guidance program based upon some of the best practices revealed in the study.- The school for which the program was planned was surveyed to determine the needs, interests, home and educational background of the pupils. The data from this survey furnished the background for the guidance planning. " ljg The program was discussed around three problems; namely, purpose, personnel, and procedure. The factors inherent in purpose have to do with the meaning of educa tion; the relationship of guidance to education, the latter having to do with the adjustments of individuals while guidance gives direction to self adjustment; the scope of guidance which enters into all of the positive aspects of school life; the objectives which are conceived in terms of desired changes of behavior. The problem of personnel was clarified by means of a guidance chart which shows the lines of responsibility and all of the personnel involved in guidance. It was further clarified by Figure II, page 116, which shows the functions of guidance, who are involved in the function, where special problems originate and the disposition of the problem. The point was brought out that in addition to all of the persons involved in guidance the one person who is the most im portant guidance factor is the pupil himself as he becomes increasingly capable of self guidance. The remainder of the chapter takes up the problems of group guidance or growth in the direction of the demo cratic way of life; educational guidance through a well planned functional curriculum; guidance for the individual and the techniques for keeping adequate guidance records; how parents are brought into the program; the pre-vocation- aspect of guidance in the junior high school. CHAPTER VI CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS It seems evident from the findings of this study that for the twenty-one schools surveyed the following conclusions can be drawn. Guidance is not a separate function. Guidance is no longer regarded as a separate function or a device for group ing children. A large majority of the group conceive of guidance as a function of all of the positive aspects of school life* Point of view and practice seem to coincide. That not only is the point of view on guidance consistent with the best thinking on guidance today, but those who ad minister the program are able to put into practice a pro gram which is highly satisfactory to them and one that is functional. An- examination of the findings indicates that the truth of the above statements is born out by the following evidence: 1. The guidance functions are no longer limited to one or.’two persons. They are distributed among many people who plan democratically together. 2. The persons who have the direct responsibility 1^1 for guidance are.those who are in closest contact .with the pupiIs. 3. That an effort is made to make every pupil in the school well known by one person in the school, that person being his guidance teacher. k-. That a distinct gain has been made in the direction of lessening the number of pupil adjustments to teachers, this having been brought about by extending the continuity of the teacher-pupil relationship. 5 . That the individual needs of boys and girls do not generally have to give way to the master program. This is accomplished by grouping retarded children in certain tool subjects; by.giving special programs and frequently changing programs for those who need adjustment. 6 . That special techniques for collecting data on individual pupils have reached a high point, the greatest emphasis being made on collecting health, intelligence, and achievement data. 7 . That a special emphasis is made in the direction of health guidance; a new guidance position, that of health coordinator having developed as the result of this emphasis. S. That an articulation program between the elementary and junior high school is a real achievement. 9. That every school has a well defined orientation program for incoming B 7 pupils. 14-2 10. That vocational guidance in the junior high school is limited to the pre-vocational aspect of guidance. Weakness in the guidance program. That some weak- ' nesses in the guidance program have been revealed is not surprising in view of the scope of its function and the number of situations involved. While some of these weakness es are not general there is sufficient evidence to indicate certain trends. Guidance teachers carry a, heavy load. As the work entailed in guidance increases, due to the broadening con cept of guidance, there is no doubt that teachers who bear the responsibility of the guidance program are called upon to carry a heavy load of responsibility, which in addition to teaching includes counseling and attendance problems. It is apparent from the tabulation there is little adjust ment in the pupil load and in time allowance for guidance teachers. Basis for grouping* The wide spread difference in practice of grouping pupils for purposes of instruction is either an indication of differences in philosophy underly ing the practice of grouping or the grouping.is done as a matter of necessity. Electives, for example, in the eighth and ninth grades largely determine the grouping in academic 1^3 subjects. For that reason a very heterogeneous group is enrolled in these classes. This presents a teaching prob lem which the guidance program must take into account. Attendance and guidance. The importance of the at tendance teacher as a key person in g u i d a n c e d u e to the very nature of his work and the opportunity he has for know ing pupils, is underestimated in some situations. Recording adjustments. The practice, of recording good and bad adjustments by means of which the guidance teacher is able to observe the growth process of pupils could be more extensively used. Absence and guidance. An excellent guidance tech nique is being overlooked in the failure of many schools to make a study of absences due to illness. Such a study often reveals many of the health needs of boys and girls. Articulation with senior high school. The problem of articulation between the junior and senior high schools has not been met as well as that with the elementary schools. Personality direction. Since the direction of per sonality is one of the main objectives of the guidance program it is therefore important that schools collect guid ance data on this phase of child growth. The study reveals the fact that only six schools keep personality inventories. lWGuidance out of school-. Since the out of school life plays an important part in the direction of growth of per sonality it is important that schools give guidance to some of the activities. The study shows that very little time is spent on this phase of guidance. Use of community resources. It is evident also that the schools are missing an opportunity to enrich the lives of youth through a greater use of community resources. The case study technique. The use of the case study technique which offers'a very satisfactory, method of guid ance is not extensively used. Recommendations. There has been an attempt through this study to find the answers to a few of the problems relating to guidance. analysis. developed. Many still need further study and Some of them have been suggested as the study It is recommended that further investigations be made: 1. To determine what the teacher needs to know about children to do effective guidance. Teachers can't be spe cialists, nurses, doctors, psychologists, social workers. After all they are only teachers and out of the vast avail able knowledge on the growth and development of children and because of the increasing complexity of life, what must they select as necessary for good guidance. 2* To analyze the theory of learning that motivates practice in the academic' fields. 3* To develop a conference type of meeting to take the place of the traditional faculty meeting which has little to offer in terms of guidance. 4-. To bring about better articulation between junior and senior high schools as a part of the guidance program. In this study much attention should be given to the artic ulation of the learning activities as well as those of per sonality ’adjustment. 5- To improve the type of records needed to facili tate guidance. How to make them available is an important consideration in this connection. 6. The extent to which teachers can delve into the personal records of pupils, and how to keep those records confidential. 7- To develop the techniques of bringing the home and the junior high school closer together. g>. To investigate further the basis of grouping child ren for instruction. 9 . To work out a plan for evaluating and reporting to parents.’ 10. To investigate the’extent to which practice and theory on guidance coincide. 11. To determine how to utilize to advantage the health resources of the school and community. 12- To find- out to what extent teaching is aimed at growth or changed personality. 1'3 • To determine what type of vocational guidance program v/ould he suited to the needs of pupils who leave school at an early a g e . lif. In connection with the learning activities of bright children to determine to what extent they are re ceiving the guidance they need. 15* To determine to what extent social living teach ers are bearing the responsibility of the guidance program. Guidance is not altogether a social problem. It is a personality problem. l6. On how to plan a guidance program which will have for its objective a pupil teacher continuity throughout the six semesters of junior high school; this continuity to be had in a home room or a classroom in which time enough be allowed every day for guidance activities. BIBLIOGRAPHY Brewer, John M . , Education as Guidance. Macmillan C o . , 1932* SSE pp. New York:.The A practical and philosophical treatment of the entire field of guidance, his thesis being that the whole purpose of education and guidance is to help pupils live better lives. Brovm, Marion, and others, Techniques of Treating Data on Characteristics‘of High School Students. University High School Journal, Vol. IS, No. 1., November 1939This material is a part of the research which is being conducted in connection with a study of adolescence. It is very very practical and suggestive. Brown, Marion, and others, Techniques of Gathering Data on Characteristics of High School Students. University High School Journal, Vol. 17, No. 4-, June 1939, P 1S1- 233A part of study of adolescence. Cox, Philip W. L., and John Carr Duff, Guidance by the Classroom Teacher. New York: Prentice-Hall, Co., 193&* 535 pp. A treatment of guidance as an integral function of all of the positive-aspects of school life.' It sets up criteria, purposes, and procedure to guide teachers in guidance point of view and practice. Davis, Burton Elsworth, Guidance in the Junior High School. Unpublished Doctor1s dissertation, University of South ern California, Los Angeles, California, 1935* 15^.‘PP* A survey of the guidance and counseling services in 193 junior high schools in thirty-one states. Detj en,-Mary E. Ford, and Ervin W. Detjen, Home Room Guidance Program for the Junior High School Years. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 19^0* 509 PP* Designed for use in the presentation of guidance lessons, it presents materials for home room activities covering three years* work. 14s Dewey, John A. , Democracy and Education. Macmillan CoT, 1916". pp. Hew York: The One of the first educational books to present the democratic viewpoint in education, a new philosophy which underlies the guidance movement. Eurich, Alvin 0., and 0. Gilbert Wrenn, Guidance in Educational Institutions, Thirty-seventh Yearbook, Part I ., Bloomington: Public School Publishing G o . , 193^ > P* 3*4” 39. A discussion of the kinds of information needed to under stand students. Gulick, Luther Halsey, Education for American Lif e. York: The McGraw-Hill Book Co., 193$• 1&7 New This is a statement of the findings and recommendations of the Hew York Regents’ Inquiry. A practical state ment of what education needs today to meet the demands of living today. Jones, Aaron E . , Practices in Vocational Guidance in Secondary Schools. California Schools, Vol. 9? No. 1, January 1940, p* J-12. Very practical for use in vocational planning. Jones, Arthur J., and Harold C. Hand, Guidance in Educational Institutions, Thirty-seventh Yearbook, Part I ., Bloomington:’Public School Publishing Co., 193^? PP* 3“ 29An excellent presentation of the important considerations which underlie guidance. Koos, Leonard V., and Grayson H. Kefauver, Guidance in Secondary Schools. Hew York: The Macmillan C o . , 193^* 640 pp. Limits guidance to the distributive and adjustive phases of the school program. McKown, Harry C., Home Room Guidance. Hill Book Co. , 193^~ *^7 PP* Hew York: McGraw- An excellent book for teachers of home rooms having guidance responsibilities. Ik-9 Meek, Lois. Hayden, and others, The Personal-Social Develop ment of Boys and Girls.. Hew York: Progressive Education Association, 19^0” 2^3 pp. A cooperative study made under the auspices of the Com mission on Secondary School Curriculum and the Committee on Workshops of the Progressive Education Association, it is concerned with studying and teaching boys and girls during adolescence. Rosecrance, Francis C., Guidance in Educational Institutions, Thirty-seventh Yearbook, Part I., Bloomington: Public School Publishing Co., 193$* P- 267* A discussion of the personnel involved in guidance. Scudder, Joseph M-‘, Guidance in the Junior High School ■ Unpublished Ma ste r’s thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, 1931* This is an analysis of the improvement factors which contribute to an effective pupil guidance program. Stoddard, Alexander J., and others, Learning the Ways of Democracy. Washington^ D. C.: national Education Association, 19^0. k S b pp. A case book of civic education, it is pointed deliber ately at implementation of the democratic way of life in and through our schools. Stolz, Herbert R . , Mary Cover Jones, Judith Chaffer, The Junior High School A g e , University High School Journal, Vol. 15? Ho. 2, January 1937* 10 pp. Thayer, V. T . , Caroline B. Zachry, and Ruth Kotinsky, Re organizing Secondary Education. Hew York: D. AppletonCentury Co., 1939* ^£>3 PP* A survey of problems centering around the educational needs of all classes of adolescents in contemporary American society, commissioned by the Progressive Edu cation Association. Trabue, M. R . , The Scientific Movement in Education, Thirtyseventh Yearbook, Part II., Bloomington: Public School Publishing Co., 193^> PP- 223- 3 7 * A presentation of the history of the guidance movement. 150 White House Conference, Children in a Democracy, A Summary, The Journal of the National Education Association, March 19^0 , p. 69- 7 2 . Woods, Elizabeth, Guidance and Research Bulletin, Los Angeles City Schools, September 1 9 3 9 > PP- 1-2. A clear presentation of relationship of guidance to education. APPENDIX THE ADMINISTRATION OF A GUIDANCE PROGRAM IN THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL 152 I. GENERAL INFORMATION Enrollment . . Number of teachers Check (v) the following members of your staff and indicate amount of time each one devotes to work implied by these titles; for example, full time, half time, etc. Check Here Time ______ Principal . ...................................... ______ Girls* Vice Principal........................... _____ ______ Boys* Vice Principal.......... * ..................... ______ Counselor..................................... _____ Attendance teacher Others, name them II. POINT OF VIEW ON GUIDANCE Check (v) the following in numerical order (1, 2, 3, etc.) giving first place to the statement which best coincides with your point of view and so on until the five have been rated. Rate similarly with reference to practice in your school. Point of View Present Practice Rate Here Rate Here 1. Guidance is a separate function and ‘ '.should bo. the concern of specialists who will assume the major responsibility for the direction of children ...... 2. Guidance is so wide in scope that it must be considered as synonymous with all edu cation and therefore if we have good teaching in the classroom good guidance will be assured.................... 3. Guidance has to do with pupils and their problems as they relate to an improving democratic society. . - ................. 4. The chief function of guidance is to set up a research and measurement program to facili tate the placement and grouping of children . -2~ Point of View Hate Here 5, Guidance enters into every aspect of school life. It gives direction to personality development and life purposes.............................. .. ...... Present Practice Hate Here ...... III. THU NEED POH GUIDANCE Check (v) the following social and educational factors as they apply to your school in relation to the degree of need for guidance: Very acute To some extent Very little 1 . Liany environmental factors due to increasing complexity of society, ______ 2. Ineffective home supervision . . . , ______ . ______ ______ 3. Broken home.................. 4. Economic stress 5. Conflicting points of view in education. . ,............ 6 . Changing philosophies of education 7. Lack of social controls, . , . . . 8 . Limitations of teachers who have not developed modern educational point of view. , ......... . 9, Other factors, name them and check as above . ....... IV. RESPONSIBILITY FOR TEES GUIDANCE PROGRAM 1. Check (v) which one of the following is responsible for the administration of the guidance program. Check Here Principal...................................... ........ Girls* Vice Principal. . ...........* ................. - Boys* Vice Principal ..................... . . . . . ______ Counselor...................................... ........ Others, name them and check as above Rate in numerical order (lj 2, 3, etc.) the following with reference to their responsibility in the guidance program, giving equal rating to those who work in a group. Hate Here School counselor ............. i*. .... ......... Home room teacher............................... . ...... Social living teacher.................. i .................. Grade counselor.................... ....................... Attendance teacher .................. ........... ...... Others, name them and check (v) as above............. ........ With reference to each of the persons checked above, check (v) the following: Yes Ho a. Is the pupil load adjusted to take care of this added responsibility for guidance? Home room teacher....................... ........ .... Social living teacher............. . . . * ;_______ ____ Grade counselor . . . . . ...... .... ._______ ____ ................. Physical education directors. .......... Others, name them and check (v) as above. . . . _____ _ ____ b. Is the teacher free from teaching one or more periods a day to take care of pupil adjustments? Home room teacher....................... ........ .... Social living teacher .................... ...... .... Grade .counselor......................... ........ .... Physical education directors............... ........ .... Others, name them and check (v) as above. . . ._______ ______ c. Do you have a conference or home room period during which time teachers assist pupils with thoir problems? ______ ____ d. Does some teacher know every pupil well as an individual personality?....................... .. ..... ...... _4~ Check Here With Whom e. Check (v) the number of semesters your pupils remain with any one teacher continuously as a part of your guidance.program. . . Six semesters........ Five semesters....................... Four semesters*......... ....... Three semesters . . . . . . . .......... Two semesters ............. One semester. . . ........... . . . . . Y. GUIDANCE AND THE SCHOOL PBOGHAM Check (v) your answer to the following questions: Yes No 1. Do you have a Master Program which remains substantially ..................... the same year after year? 2. If there is a difference as to grade, check (v) the. grade which i*s the most flexible. Seventh grade. ...... . . . . . ............. Eighth grade . . . . . . . . . . Ninbh grade. Check Here 4 • .................... ....................... ........... 3. Check (v) the person who assumes the major responsibility and work involved in making the program* Principal............... ......... . Girls* Vice Principal........ ..................... Boys1 Vice Principal . ........................... Counselor......................... ‘ ............. 4. Check (v) which one of the following generally makes the pupils5 programs. Girls1 Vice Principal.............................. Boys 5 Vice Principal .............................. Counselor. . . . . ................................ Check Here Home room teacher. Grade counselor. . Others:, name them. Yes No 5. Are you satisfied with the program to the extent that it does not conflict with your point of view on guidance? 6. If you are not satisfied check only those of the follow ing statements which are trends towards helping you set up a program which you can defend in your school. Check Here a. The unit of study approach in which there is a correlation of several subjects such as social Studies............... ............................... b. Courses in the various aspects of music, art, etc., which can be set up to take care of individual needs, interests, and capacities . . . . . c. Grouping in certain tool subjects for retarded children.............................................. d. Segregating bright pupils for special activities. . . , e. Modifying traditional subject matter courses to insure better guidance ........................... . . . . . . f. Compartmentalization of subject matter as such. . . . g. Demands on the part of the senior high school to meet subject matter requirements ........ .............. Yes No 7. In actual practice do individual needs generally have to give way to the school schedule?.......................... • CLASSIFICATION OF PCJPILS 1. Check (v) which of the following is the basis for classifying pupils at grade levels: Check Here a. Homogeneous...................................................... b. Heterogeneous..................... .................... .......... -6- Check Here 2. Chock (v) which of the following is used as a basis for classification Intelligence quotient or mental age.................. ........ Chronological age................................. ...... • Reading grade placement............................ ....... Social adjustment........ . ....................... ........ Alphabetical ..................................... ...... Others, name them................................. ........ Yes 3. Are pupils of very superior intelligence grouped for academic instruction? ....................... 4. Are pupils of low mental ability grouped for instruction?......................... 5. Are frequent adjustments to individual programs made thoughout the semester? . . . . » .... 6 . Are pupils with a problem of adjustment given special programs to meet their needs?.................. . ____ VII. UETHOD OF GUIDANCE On the following page check (v) the theory of learning which characterizes class room practice in the academic fields. No P to © U O Ex. Pi •H i> •H p a CO o •ft p ad 0 © •H a P cd O CO S PI C © O © Xi (— i od •H c CO Very Often 1. The text book is a mass of facts to be learned ............ 2. The teaching pro cedure is assignmentrecitation.......... 3. Subject matter consti tutes the stimulus and response. . . . . 4. Purpose and interest are the core of the learning process. . . 5. Study and learning are a part of the effort to enable pupils to face new situations, in the best possible manner. 6. Attempts are made to find the objectives of teaching and learn ing in the pupils themselves.......... 7. Subject matter is adapted and used to meet the needs, interests, and ex periences of the pupils in real situations.......... 8. Integration takes place in the recon struction of the pupils’ experience to the end that he is becoming a chang ed personality. . . CO © •H bD Pi ad W) •H © © © hO od P P bD w cd cd W O •H Pi cd PJ CO p K) rH •H cd Pi 6tD •H © O Pi rH hO •H O © •H O © P O w CO EP CO p; P W) bn p bD O P cd 0 © pPl P ..3. pi •H *> rH ad •H O o CO CO p: CO •H rH bD Pi E3 Occasional ly? P txO © U o EP •H 0 > •H •H PI •H © •H t) S3 Pi cd P CO W) © o Pi © •H O CO P 1 © -P od P -P t-3 rH JA to •H »H O O CO co cS •H W> O Pi o W CO rH SelAon; ~*8 ~ 7111. WAYS AND MEANS OF EFFECTING GUIDANCE Check (v) the following with reference to their frequency of use in your gu idance program. •Very often Sometimes Not at all 1 . Meetings of: a. All teachers of a given grade level » • • •« • • i • • • • • b. Entire faculty. . , . c; Home room teachers and administrators. . . . di Teachers and a supervisor . i * e* Teachers and a research director. . . . ; . * . » . . .t fi Teachers and a nurse or doctor* g. Others, specify ....... 2. Conference with: a. Principal and staff . . . b. Administrator and physical education staff ....... c. Administration staff and attendance supervisors....... d. Administrator and nurse or physician . ............... e. Administrator and teachers of a pupil with a problem of adjustment............. f. Administrator, teachers and parent of pupil with a problem of adjustment ....... g. Others, specify _ _______ _______ -9- IX. KNOWING INDIVIDUAL PUPILS 1. Chock (v) tho pupil data which is made available to tho tcachor concorning her pupils: Chock Here Mental tost data * .............................. ........ Achievement data . . ........ ......... . ........ ........ Cumulative rocord........................................ Interests...... . . ......... ........ Homo hack ground........................................ Economic status. . * . . : ....................... ........ Special abilities. . . . ; ....................... ........ Health data. ................ ........ Social adjustment.......! ....................... ........ Personality inventory. . . . ...................... Others, specify. . . ...... ............................._______ 2. Information and data are available in: Boys1 Vico Principal's offico..................... . ______ Girls’ Vice Principal’s office...................... Counselor’s office .............................. ‘ ...... Grado counselor’s room.................'......... ........ Home room teacher’s room......................... ........ Social living teacher’s room ................ ........ Others, specify............. ............................ 3. Cheek (v) the extent to which effort is being made by the school to give guidance in the following out of school activities. Much Little Nob at a11 Attending movies...................... ... ... Listening to tho radio................. ... ... Heading newspapers........ Attending church school. ( ........ ..... „ ... ... -10Much Littie Not at all ... ... Special interests...................... Hobbios............. ........... Character buidling groups.......... ..... Others, name thorn . ... 4. Chock (v) to V7hat extent the school brings tho following community resources into the class room. Radio................................ Motion pictures.................. ..... Excursions........................... Current news Lay people . . . * t1 * Others, name them » * . . 5. To what extent is the case study technique, of guidance used?....................... 6 . Check (v) to what extent teachers and administrators keep a cumulative record of pupils’ noticablo behaviors, good and bad................................ X. GUIDANCE AND HEALTH 1, Does your program include the following? Yes a. A definite plan to make teachers conscious of pupils’ health........... . . b. A study of absence duo to illness.......... c. A plan to follow through and carry out most of the recommendations made by doctors’ and nurses' after examinations. . . . d. A health coordinator .................... Note: What is the health coordinators other assignment or position in tho school? ............... No -11XI. ORIENTATION AND ARTICULATION Yos 1. Does your program of orientation provide tho following? a- Visitation of school by incoming A6 classes .______ b. A well definied program of orientation for B7 pupils......................... ....... c. Exchange of visits by teachers of your school and contributing elementary schools. . _____ « d. Sufficient data from tho elementary school to facilitate guidance................ . . _____ e. Conferences with elementary schools on problems of articulation of learning activities _______ 2. Does your program of preparation for Senior High School include? a. An exchange of visits by teachers of your school and the receiving Senior high school .______ b. Visitation of A9 pupils to senior high school J____ c. Conferences on the articulation of learning activities............................ ....... d. Guidance by the senior high school counselor for the A9 pupils before entering senior high XII. VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE 1. Do you have courses in orientation in which the objective is to familiarizo the children with the worid of work? ........................... 2. Do you have exploratory courses other than the above in which vocations are discussed?............... 3. If such courses are given, is an attempt made to analyze the aptitudes and interests of pupils at the close of each exploratory unit?................. 4. Please describe Student Data Card Personal H istory i. READ.G.P. Name________________________________________ Last Grade. __ H.R. H.R. Teacher_________________ Date. Mo. First Birthplace___________________ Address________________________________________ 3. Father’s name____________________________ Occupation____________________ Address_____________________ Birthplace. 4. Mother’s Name_________ Occupation___________ ____ _ A ddress................................. Birthplace. 5. Total no. in home___________ 6. Lives with: 7. 9. iq Phone. Brothers-Names and ages ____________ ____________________ Father and stepmother______________ _____ _____ ________ Mother and stepfather_______________ ____________________ Others___________________________ _______ ____ _ ___ Sisters-Names and ages Notes and Comments What language is spoken at home?. . 8. Year Day Birth Date------- i. Father and mother I. N. KERN AVENUE JR. HIGH SCHOOL What home duties have you?____ 11. Do you go to church or Sunday school? Name__.___________ ii. Do you have a regular allowance?_______ _______________ How often?______ How much?___________ 13. Do you earn money regularly?_______________ 14. Do you have a bicycle?_____ 15. Does your family have a car? 16, Check health difficulties. Headaches Teeth Seeing Doing what?. H V>J tjt Colds Stomach Hearing. Tired_____ 15^ Observation On Pupil Adjustment Date_______________ Pupil’s Name Observation; Grade * t " * ( ?; 'J . r' . * : H.R. « ■■ ■;j ' ! ■ ji , , ~ „ Recommendation Teacher (OVER) LOS ANGELES CITY HIGH SCHOOL DISTRICT l&rn gfoenue Junior ikfjool 4765 E A S T F O U R T H S T R E E T LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA VIERLING KERSY SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS ELIZABETH SANDS PRINCIPAL Dear Mrs. I should like very much to make an appointment for one of our teachers to call on you in your home at your convenience. TTe are. making many such home calls to become better acquainted with our parents. believe that parents and teachers, working together, can help boys and girls work more successfully in their school. YJe will be free from to and would like to call on you at that time if it is convenient for you. Please fill out the blank below and return by __ 9 ierv sincerely yours, Elikipbeth Sands* Principal I mil be glad to receive a call from the above teacher of Kern Avenue Junior High School at ___________ o’clock on Date Signed: SPECIAL BULLETIN TO: ALL TEACHERS FROM: ELIZABETH SANDS SUBJECT: I. SUGGESTIONS PON- HOME VISITS The technique of an interview: 1. Make an* appointment by letter or phone in all but emergency cases. Going unannounced often embarrasses the parent and pupil. Letters for appointments are to be had in the office. m » \ \ 2. Have the case well in mind before the interview. 3. Explain your interest in improving the health or social adjust ments of the pupil, depending on the particular need. 4*. Explain how the school may be improved through acquaintance * with the parent. 5. Tell what the school is tiying to do for the boys and girls. 6. Try to determine how the parent feels toward the school. Is satisfied with it? 7. How does the pupil feel about the school. dislike it? 8. Invite the parent to come to the school. If the problem is a serious one, make an appointment for theparent to visit for conference. Does he like or she 157 RECORD BLANK TEACHERS’ HOME VISITS H.R. Pupil’s name Member of family interviewed Purpose of visit Address Date interviewed . Home conditions Attitude of parent or guardian Comments Name of visiting teacher LOS ANGELES CITY HIGH SCHOOL DISTRICT 2£ern gfoenue junior Htgf) ikfjool 4765 EAST FOURTH STREET 15& LOS ANGELES. CALIFORNIA VIERLING KERSY ELIZABETH SANDS PRINCIPAL SUPERINDENT OF SCHOOLS Dear M Your child ,_________________ , is having difficulty in m aking the proper adjustm ent to Kern Avenue Junior H igh School. We feel con fident th a t this trouble can be corrected and are anxious to have a conference w ith you. You w ill find a check m ark opposite the item below w hich is the principle cause o f _________________ difficulties. I shall be very glad to discuss this problem w ith you at earliest convenience. i. 2.. 3. 4. 5. Poor citizenship. U nsatisfactory w ork in class. Frequent tardiness. Frequent absence. O ther. Very truly yours, Principal KERN AVENUE JUNIOR HIOK SCHOOL TO: ALL NEW STUDENTS FROM: ELIZABETH SANDS, Principal 159 Please note: On February 3, 1941 all nev students will meet in the cafeteria at 8:30 a.m. for Homeroom Assignment and. other instructions. ADMINISTRATORS: Following are names of the persons responsible for planning and looking after the business of running the school: Miss Elizabeth Sands. . . . . Principal Mr. Allen Campbell........ Vice-Principal Mrs. Esther Sraoot..........Counselor Mr. Stanley Taufman. . * . . .Registrar LOCATION OP ROOMS IN VARIOUS BUILDINGS: Administration Building (Where administrators offices are located) First floor - administrative offices, Library, student store, and Rooms 103 and 104* Second floor - Rooms 200 to 204. Classroom Building: First floor - Rooms 300 to 30S. Second floor - Rooms 400 to 409. Shops: Electric Wood Metal Print -Room -Room -Room -Room 600 601 602 603 BELL SCHEDULE: Warning bell........... Homeroom.... . Period X ........ ..... Perind II,.... ...... . N^f Etion............. Period III............ Period IV........... Lunch....... ........ Period V............. Period VI............ Clear Building........ 8:20 Tardy Passing .... .......8130 8:45 9:40 10:35 10:50 11;40 12*35 1:25 2:15 3:10 ,, ......... .9:45 ........... 10:50 ...........2:20 Bells rung at times -sthcr 4;haji tfecse on above schedule are-eall-hells or warnings for clean-up in gym and shops. Pay no attention to them unless they apply to you* RESIDENCE IN_SCHOOL DISTRICT: If students are in doubt about whether or not they live within the district, please cali> at the Attendance Office to check before school begins. CAFETERIA: A nutrition period is set aside at 10:30 every morning for those who wish to purchase milk, orange juice, or fruit in the cafeteria. Any vrho do not buy these things in the cafeteria may bring fruit from home and eat on the grounds at that time. Students may buy lunches in the cafeteria at noon. Most things which are served cost 5?#, On certain days an entire lunch of three items may be bought for 10?#. The hash line at the vrost side of the cafeteria sells milk, candy, ice cream and hamburgers at noon. MEDICAL ATTENTION! The girls’ doctor, Dr. Davis, comes to Kern on the Monday of the first and third week of the school month. The boys’ doctor, Dr. TajdLor, comes to Kern on the first and third Tuesdays of the school month. The school nurse, Mrs. Calkins, comes to Kern each Thursday. LOCKERS: Each student has two lockers. The hall locker is given by the homeroom tea.chers and is used as a storage nlacc for books, coats, lunches, etc. The gym locker is given by the gym teachers and is a place where gym clothes are kept. FLAG CEREMONY: Every morning at 8:20 the flag is raised with considerable ceremony. Every after noon at 3:15 the flog is lowered. All boys and girls arc asked to stand at attention and remain quiet until the bugles have stonoed playing. LOST AED FOUED: Any Korn student who finds anything which does not belong to him is a.sked to take it at once to the attendance office where it will be kept until the owner has time to call there for it* STUBEET BODY ORGAEIZATIOH: Officers are - President Girls Vice President Boys Vice President Secretary Lower Grade Assemble Chairman Congress is made uo from two representatives from period III and IV. Only Social Living during the representation from each H. R. excepting B7Ts who have the entire grade. Congress meets as e. class each day fine students nay be in Congress and they do not take semester they attend Congress. APUDEITI BODYt It will be necessary for you to have in mind that certain expenses must be taken care of upon entering school. The following is a list of the items for which you v ill be exioected to pay: For girls: Towel fee .Gym. blouse Gym. shorts Gym. socks Gym. shoes For boys? $.60 .59 c;q .10 fee Gym. shirt \ Gym. trunkfe Athletic sur/oorter Gym. socks Gym. shoes Towel $.80 .35 ,44 .30 .25 All the above articles except the gym. shoes may be purchased at the student store with no sales tax. Other items such as book covers, fountain nans, and school supplies are also on sale at the student store at reasonable orices. PERMITS TO LEAVE SCHOOL: Bo pupil may leave the grounds during the school day without a remit. Pupils wishing to go home for lunch must get a permit from the Attendance Office.' Permission to leave the grounds for Illness or emergency must be obtained from one of the principals. Boys will se Mr. Campbell; girls will see Miss Sands. If they cannot be found, see Mr. Taufman or Mrs. Smoot. SAFETY RULES: 1. Students must stay out of buildings before school, during nutrition period, and during the lunch hour* 2. Students must not ride bicycles on the grounds* Bicycles must be racked. 3. Lunch permits must be shown when leaving the grounds and returning at noon time. 4. Bo running, shoving, loitering, or sliding rails will be allowed on stairs. 5. We expect all students to practice safety at school, at hone, and on the way to and from school* KERN AVENUE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL ATTENDANCE BULLETIN The following rules are to be read and discussed with the Homeroom teacher until thoroughly understood: I UNDERSTAND THAT: 1. I must never go off the school grounds without permission. 2. A Permit to leave school must be obtained from the Principals or the Counselor and MUST be taken to the Attendance Office before leaving school. 3. If I wish to go home for lunch I must bring a note from home to the Attendance Office to obtain a lunch permit. 4. Vvhen I have been absent I must go to the Attendance Office before going to any class. 5. when I have been absent I must bring a note signed by my parent or guardian telling why X was absent. 6. The following are acceptable excuses for absence! a. Sickness of pupil. b. Extreme emergeruay. 7. My absence card should be signed by every teacher whose class I missed and when completely signed, I should take it to my HOMEROOM TEACHER, who will keep it for one term as a record of my absence. 8 » If I wish to transfer from Korn Avenue Junior High School I must bring a note from my parents requesting the transfer and giving the new address. I must bring this note to the attendance office at 8:15 a-, m. on the day I wish to transfer and must allow myself the entire day to chock out. 9. The tardy bell rings at 8:30 a.m. and I should bo in my scat in my Homeroom when the tardy bell rings. 10. If I am late to school I should report to the Attendance Office before .going to Homeroom. MR. TAUFMAN, Registrar Approved ELI ZABPJTH SANDS , Principal KERN AVENUE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL TRAFFIC BULLETIN January 14, 1940 To: From: All Homeroom Teachers Mr. Good, Traffic Chairman A service group called “Traffic,11 has been formed at Kern Avenue Junior High School, to introduce safe traffic flow during passing periods. There are six g e.neral rules to follow: 1. walk at all times, before or after the bell. 2. Go around to the right of the traffic officer at in t er s e c t i on s . 3. Do not cross traffic between intersections until you can go around to the right of a traffic officer. 4. Always walk on the right* 5. Do not touch traffic officers. 6 all Do not inal-ie urn sees iary noise. Following is a drawing of the traffic flow- in the Classroom Building L C M c /; n L J m / 1 N V Traffic guards are represented by small rectangles.. Have some one put a. large copy of the above dr a:wing on the black board before Homeroom and discuss it during the period. In the Administration Building: the steps near the library are for UP traffic ONLY. The front stairs in the Administration Build ing are for D07AI traffic ONLY. This organization is trying' to help ttcu go safely from one place to another at Kern Avenue. Please do your part by cooperating' with the officers. Officers are identified b y a blue arm band KERN Z F _ /~ F£ OtRt. S P.0 B&ys> - ^00. GI RLS' F t E L D ClASSXMm PRM T N m s tu u . w ood ] CAfB V F B O YS' ? L*r A D r t M i S T M BU4L&IN6 T f Q f i L --------- \j___ _ "W fetterly CLAES BUtLP/NC FI ELD 160 SPECIAL BULLETIN To: B7 parents send teachers From: Esther Smoot,, Counselor Subject: A7 program Required subjects for the A7 grade are: 10 PhySoEd, 4. Mathematics 20 Social Living 5. Art 3, Social Living 6 , Boys: 10 weeks Electricity 10 weeks Floodshop Girls: Foods Music of any kind may not be substituted for Art except in special cases which require the approval of Miss Sands, Miss Rehor and Mrs, Smoot, Programs once made mil not be changed except in very special cases. Parent will please sign to indicate his approval of program. Parentfs signature * (Students do not write below this line) NEV PROGRAM PRESENT PROGRAM Name Name_________ Grade Grade H.R. Room Subject j. L/ j. r i 1 ! ! ------- ---------------- i 1 i II ! I I in ! i IV 1 _r V ! i VI 1 i , - . _______ H,R,__ _ Per, . i. ii i n . ii... v VI _____ Subje_ct__ Rocm i I L . . . . . . ........ ---- i! i ! ; ........... .............. . SPECIAL BULLETIN To: From: Subject: A7 parents and teachers Esther Smoot, Counselor B8 program The following subjects numbered one through four are required of all B8 students; those numbered five and six are electives offered them. Parents and students are asked to make elective choicescarefullyin order to avoid loss ofstudents1 time and energy caused when program changes are made after asemester has started. Programs once made will not bo changed except in very special cases. Students may take only one Fine Art but should indicate a second'choice also. Fine Art: (Mark 1st choice with 1, 2nd choice with 2) Boys & Gir1s: ♦Art ♦Instruments 1, Phys<, Ed, 2, ‘Social Living 3, Social Living "♦’ Journalism 4. Mathematics ♦Jr. Orch, ♦Library ♦Office ♦Orchestra 5, Practical Art: Boys: 10 weeks Printship 10 weeks General Metal Girls: (check one) Foods ♦Library "♦Office Bovs : Agriculture “♦Glee Club Girls: Art Crafts Homecrafts ♦Jr, Glee Club "♦Sr. Glee Club irents will please sign indicating that they approve choices made. Parent*s signature (Students do not write in this space) PRESENT PROGRAM NEM PROGRAM Name Name Grade Per. H.R.____ Subject________ Room u II ii ! i i III I : 'r i rv ! ... 1 ■ "'-un,,iT• v i VI ! Grade_____ Per. I II --" ... H.R._____ Subject Room 1 --- --- III IV V VI ■ \__ SPECIAL BULLETIN To; B8 teachers and parents From: Esther Smoot, Counselor Subject: A8 Program The following is a program required of all AS* s. Each will make three elective choices marking them 1, 2, and 3 to show order of preference. If possible, the program will be made to include the first and second choices. Parents and stu dents are asked to make elective choices carefully in order to avoid loss of students’ time and energy resulting from program changes made after a semester has started. Programs once made will not be changed except in very special cases 1. Physical Education 2. Social Living 3. Social Living 4, Science 5. Elective S. Elective A8 ’s may choose any two of the electives listed below. Typing is primarily for college preparatory students; others may take it unless they plan a commercial course in senior high school. Such students will postpone Tyoiiy typing until that time, Boys Girls Boys arid Girls *Art (advanced) Agriculture Art Craft ^Dramatics' *Drafting Clothing, A8 Electricity *Home Living Foods, B8jl *Foods *Instruments *Home Arts ♦Glee Club *Journalism Homecrafts Fetal Shop *Jr. Glee Club *Jr. Orchestra rint Shop ^ lLibrary *Sr. Glee Club 'ood Shop 'Office ^Orchestra Note: 1 For those who have not had it Spanish I Typing Parerts will please sign to indicate that they approve choices made. Parent1s signature (Students do not write in this- space) PRESENT PROGRAM I':-A" PROGRAM Name Name Grade Per. Grade H.R. Subject Room Per. I I II II III III IV IV V V VI VI H.F Subject 9 Boom SPECIAL BULLETIN To: AS Parents and teachers From: Esther Smoot, Counselor Subject: B9 Program The following Is a program required of all B9 students. Each will make three elective choices marking them with 1, 2, or 3 to show order of preference. If possible the program will be made to include the first and second choices. Elec tives started in B9 are usually continued in the A9 grade. Parents and students are asked to make elective choices carefully in order to avoid loss of students* time and energy resulting from program changes made after a semester has started. Programs once made mil not be changed except in very special cases,. 1, Phys, Ed, 2, Social Living 3, Social Living 4, Mathematics 5, Elective 6, Elective 39 students may choose any two electives listed below. Those ivho plan to take a commercial course in senior high school may take one semester of typing if they are willing to repeat it in senior high later, 39 students should choose electives which they will continue in the AS, Girls Boys ♦Agriculture Art Craft ♦Drafting Clothing-A8]_ Electricity Foods ♦Home Arts ♦Foods Homecrafts ♦Glee Club ♦Jr, Glee Club General Metal ♦Sr, Glee Club Printing 'foodshop Note 1: For those who have not had it, Parents will please sign indicating that they approve choices made, Boys and Girls ♦Art (AdVo) ♦Jr. Orch, ♦Dramatics ’♦Library Svday Bus, ’♦Office ♦Home Living ♦Orchestra *Instruments ♦Span, II ♦Journalism Typing I, ♦!! Parent *s signature (Students do not write in this space) NETT PROGRAM PEESENT PPQGRAM Name Grade /or Grade H.R.Subject Room Per. I II III IV V VI H,R, Subject Room SPECIAL BULLETIN To B9 parents and teachers From: Esther Smoot, Counselor Subject : A9 Pro gram ■; The following is a program required of all A9 students„ Each will make three elective choices marking them 1, 2 and 3 to show order of preference,, If pos sible, the program will be made to include the 1st and 2nd choices. Electives started in B9 are usually continued in the A9 grade. Parents and students are asked to make elective choices carefully in order to avoid loss of students? time and energy resulting from program changes made after a semester has started, Programs once made will be changed except in very special cases. 4o Math, or Science 5c. Elective 6o Elective 1* Phys„ Ed. 2-. Social Living 3o Social Living A9 students may choose any two electives listed below. Those who plan to take a commercial course in senior high school may take one semester of typing if they are willing to repeat it in senior high later. Boys and Girls Girls Boys ♦Jr. Orchestra ♦Library ♦Office ♦Orchestra ♦Spanish III "Typing I, ♦Agriculture Art Craft ♦Drafting ♦Clothings. A8-A9 Electricity ♦Foods B9p “Homecrafts ♦Foods ♦Home Arts General Metal Jr., Glee Club jGlee Club ~Sr„ Glee Club Printing ♦II, *111 Woodwork Note 1: For those who have not had it, Parents will please sign indicating that they approve choices made. ♦Art (AdVo) *Dramat ics ■Kvday Business ♦Home Living *Instrument s *Journalism Parent • 's signature (Students do not write in this soace) NE’"r PROGRAM PRESENT PROGRAM 1 Name Grade Subject ir'er. II i iv i T II.R, Grade H.R. Room Per, II Subject Room l6l KERN AVENUE JUNIOR HIGH PROGRESS REPORT Date Pupilfs name Per ____ Teacher II III VI Report requested by _____________ T/ork done in class Grade H.R# Citizenship 162 INDIVIDUAL OBSERVATION RECORD Bequested by Date Pupil's Name ER. ___ Subject Achievement: Excellent Good Average Fair____ Failing___ Remark _______ ____ _________ Citizenship : Excellent Good Average_____Fair___ Fai ling^____ Remark _____ Teacher's signature ___ ____________ _______ ______________ _ Note: Additional information may be written on back of card. 163 FORM 33.235 10M 1 0 -3 9 HEALTH FOLLOW-UP CARD Health Report to H o m e R o o m or Classroom Teachers Name. Health Report from Classroom Teacher Index. .Grade. .Date. Seen by:. Date. Findings and recommendations: Reason for referring pupil to school physician, nurse, or health coordinator: Signature o f Teacher Signature of Health Coordinator 16^ Girls’ Gym Record Card N AM E Grade Date Per. Age Ht. Wr. N .W . Plus or Minus Feet Heads N ails Teeth Skin Gen. App. Ay 165 r N ame F ir s t R ESID EN C E ^ H ealth r e c o r d N ame | SEX * y year year j^ j r e s u u t y e a r B IR T H SCHOOL YR. MO. 1 DAY R m .N o .o r ols— / ^ N e e d A tten tio n , grad e u r g e n c y 1, 2, 3, or 4 Slight A — R eceived a tten tio n S -S lig h t d e fe ct Moderate severe F — F u r th e r e x a m in a tio n n eeded N U T R IT IO N PHYSICAL EXAMINATION N O S E fit T H R O A T EARS EYES | W GT. i L ID S H G T. R L R L D1S* TON CH A RG I S IL S A D EN O ID S DE CAY ORTHO* C LEAN IN G GUMS OR O O N T I/ G A N IC FU N CT LUNGS IO N A L O— O ver V — V a c cin a tio n T— T oxoid M— M antoux HEART TEETH 1 I O r t h o p e d ic N ER VOUS h e a r in g V IS IO N E x a m in e r G y m . Pe r . | NAME OF ON C H EST SP E E C H SK IM SYSTEM PO S TURE RACE FEET [ j T 1 - THIS CARD M U ST BE T R A N S F E R R E D W ITH OTHER R EC O R D C A R D S . EVERY CHILD M U ST HAVE A HEALTH C L E R K W I L L F IL L IN N A M E . R E S I D E N C E A N D B IR T H D A TA O F C H I L D . CARD OR AN EXCUSE CARD. H A IR ENDO C R IN E M IS C .