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A survey of the guidance practices in the junior high schools of Los Angeles

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A SURVEY OF THE GUIDANCE PRACTICES '
IN THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS OF LOS ANGELES
A Thesis
Presented to
the Faculty of the -School of Education
University of Southern California
In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Master of Science in Education
t>y
Elizabeth Sands
June 194-1
UMI Number: EP54118
All rights reserved
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Dissertation Bubi sbsng
UMI EP54118
Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author.
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Cs
T h is thesis, w r it t e n u n d e r the d ir e c t io n o f the
C h a ir m a n o f the ca n d id a te fs G u id a n c e C o m m itte e
a n d a p p ro v e d by a l l m em bers o f the C o m m itte e ,
has been presen ted to a n d accep ted by the F a c u lt y
o f the S c h o o l o f E d u c a t io n in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t
o f the re q u ire m e n ts f o r the degree o f M a s t e r o f
Science in E d u c a tio n .
D a te
I?.4.3:
Dean
Guidance Committee
Irving R . Mel/bo
Chairman
D. welty Lefever
0. R. Hull
v r
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
•I .
PAGE
THE P R O B L E M ..................................
1
Purpose of the study.......................
1
The need for the s t u d y . ...................
1
The importance of guidance.................
.4
The changing concepts/ of g u i d a n c e ........
4
Current points of view on guidance.
. . . .
5
Defining and administering guidance . . . . .
9
Scope of the study............................ 11
Organisation of the remainder of the
thesis.......................................13
II.
HISTORY OF THE GUIDANCE MOVEMENT AND
RELATED RESEARCH.
. .
Recency of guidance
..................... 14................. 14-
Investigations dealing with the
administration of guidance..........
15
Investigations dealing with guidance in
relation to an educational philosophy . .
19
Investigations dealing with the needs,
growth, and development of youth........... 21
Summary of the chapter........................27
III.
EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE.
............... 30
Purpose of the chapter........................3^
iii
CHAPTER
PAGE
Setting up the problem.................
JO
Two aspects of the s t u d y . ..........
3^
k-J
Planning the questionnaire..................
Summary of the chapter . .
IV.
.............. .
.
. 4-6
THE FINDINGS......................................
4S
General information, point of view and
practice.
......................................*J-S
Administrative function . . .
...............
5^
Surveying and analyzing the need forguidance .
59
Teacher-pupil continuity.
62
. ...................
Meeting individual needs through the master
p r o g r a m ..................................
Trends in the direction of good guidance.
.
. Gk
67
...
Classification of pupils................... ..
.
69
..........
7^
Ways and means of affecting guidance...........
SO
Knowing'pupils..........
S3
Guidance and a theory of learning
Guidance in out of school activities and
community resources . . .
S5
...................
Case studies and social adjustment..........
S7
Health and g u i d a n c e ........................
S9
Orientation and articulation.
.......... ..
.
Vocational guidance ...........................
V.
A GUIDANCE PLAN FOR A JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL.......107
92
96
iv
CHAPTER
PAGE
Purpose of the chapter............................ 107
The background upon which the guidance
* 107
program was planned . . . . ..........
Problem of purpose................ . . . . . . . .
10$
Problem of personnel.............................. Ill
Problem of procedure......................
115
Summary and recommendations ....................
IV.
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Conclusions
Recommendations
........... 140
.....................
............
BIBLIOGRAPHY.........................................
APPENDIX.
.
137
............................
ito
. .
ikM-
1^7
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE
PAGE
I.. Size of Enrollment of Los Angeles Junior
50
High Schools Included in the Study . . . . . .
II.
Points of View and Practices of Guidance in
the Los Angeles Junior High Schools.
III.
. . . . .
52
The Administrative Staff, Time Allotment and
Responsibility for the Administration of the
Guidance Program .‘ ........ .............. ..
IV.
V.
VI.
.
The Social and Educational Factors which
Affect the Guidance Program...................
6l
Teacher-Pupil Continuity ........................
63
Pertinent Guidance Data Relating to the Master
Programs of the Los Angeles Junior High Schools
VII.
6S
Method of Classifying and Grouping Children for
Purposes of Instruction................... ..
IX.
65
Extent to which Certain Educational Trends and
Practices Affect Guidance.....................
VIII.
55
.
70
Certain Factors which Influence Grouping Pupils
for Instruction and Extent to which Individual
Differences are Taken into Account ..........
X.
The Theory of Learning which Characterizes
Glassroom Practice in the Academic Fields.
XI.
J2
. .
75
Ways and Means of Affecting Guidance Through
Meetings
....................................
SI
vi
TABLE
XII.
PAGE
Ways and Means of Affecting Guidance Through
Conferences.
XIII.
XIV.
XV.
........
..........
. . . . . .
$2
Knowing Individual Pupils Through Data on Pupils
Extent of Guidance in Out of School Activities
Extent to which the School Brings Community
Resources into the C l a s s r o o m ..............
XVI.
SS
Important Factors in Relation to Health and
Guidance
XVII.
S6
.
....................................
90
Extent to which Certain Techniques are used to
' Articulate the Activities of the Elementary
and the Junior High School
...........
93
XVIII. Extent to which Certain Techniques are used to
Articulate the Activities of the Junior High
School and Those of the Senior High School
XIX.
95
Extent of Vocational Guidance Offered in the
Junior High S c h o o l s ........................ *
97
LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE
PAGE
1*
Personnel
Relationships in the Guidance Program . . 112
2.
General Guidance Plan of the School.................. 116
CHAPTER I
THE PROBLEM
Since the modern school has taken over much of the
responsibility formerly met by the home, and education to­
day is concerned with more than just intellectual learn­
ing, guidance is becoming one of its important functions.
Purpose of the study.
The primary purpose of this
study is to investigate the current guidance practices and
procedures which provide for the educational needs of ado­
lescents of the junior high school level in the Los Angeles
City School system.
In addition, it is the purpose of this
study to evaluate these data as one means of determining
what practices and procedures can be. incorporated in the
planning of an effective guidance program for a recently
organized junior high school.
The need for the study.
The need for such a study is
two fold, the first having to do with a point of view as to
the meaning of guidance.
Unfortunately there seems to be
little agreement on the meaning of guidance as evidenced by
a restricted, limited program on one hand, and a broad con­
cept of guidance as a function of all positive aspects of
school life on the other.
At one extreme is to be found the
formal, lesson learning type of school; at the other, the
creative school in which early and later adolescents are
participating members of a democratic group life.
In the
former type, the tendency is toward teacher direction;-in
the latter, self guidance is the aim.
A survey of guidance
practices in the junior high schools of Los Angeles reveals
a need for some such common understandings to be used as a
basis for planning a more uniform program at this level.
The second need for the study has to do with the
daily living of youth and their needs which the school
through its guidance program must help them to meet.
For
some youth the home environment.is an asset in which is
found security and an opportunity to grow into useful citi­
zens.
The guidance program for them should expand their
insights, abilities, and appreciations.
For some youth the
home environment is a liability which makes for maladjust­
ment and all of its attendant problems.
The difference
between home and school in such cases is often times so
great youth lives one life in the school and goes home to
another life, frequently one of poverty, distress, strife,
and unwholesome surroundings.
Guidance for such youth can­
not be limited to an academic program.
In some instances the community is not planned to be
a positive guidance factor.
The church, as well as the home,
which formerly furnished guidance is, weakening in its con­
trol.
Economic stress is affecting the lives of youth.
3
Society is becoming increasingly complex and rapidly chang­
ing.
The influx of youth, all of the children of all of
the people, into the schools has made new demands on the
guidance program.
The new education, which is youth
centered, calls for new procedures and new understandings.
The psychology of individual'differences is an important
factor in guidance.
makes new demands.
The organ!smic theory of learning
A realization of the complexity of
the human body and its bearing on learning must be taken
into account.
The emotional factors in learning add to
the problem.
The dynamics which motivate behavior; what
makes youth get along well with himself and others, as well
as what makes.him fail to do so, must be reckoned with in
the guidance of youth.
There is a growing tendency toward
crediting environment with a greater contribution to the
development of intelligence.
And last of all, the in­
creasing emphasis on the understanding, the meaning, and
the implementation of democracy calls for a new approach
to the guidance program.
These are the problems which
have a bearing on the guidance of youth as. he is living
today, making new demands, and calling for a study of the
problem.
That educators today realize the need for an adequate
guidance program is evidenced by the fact that guidance to-
day takes first place among educational movements.**- -..A
survey of current educational books and periodicals bears .
out that statement.
The importance of guidance.
A recent study prepared
for the commission on Secondary School Curriculum of the
Progressive Education Association devotes a chapter to
guidance.
They have this to say about its importance:
The reorganization of the secondary school is
dependent upon a number of conditions among which
a fully and properly conceived guidance program is
perhaps the first. For without guidance it is un­
likely that the individual student will meet his
needs in ways that lead toward democratic living,
or in the process form a personality which moves
"of itself" in the direction of democratic ideals.
But to make guidance serve these ends requires a
rethinking and redefinition of its scope and
function in the s c h o o l . 2
Changing concepts of guidance.
The present concept
of guidance has evolved with a changing concept of education
which in turn has come about through living in an expanding
world where the content of human knowledge is becoming in­
creasingly greater, and human institutions are becoming more
complicated.
At the close of the nineteenth century, Presi-
1 P.W.L. Cox and J. C. Duff, Guidance by the ClassRoom Teacher, (Prentice - Hall, Inc. , 193$)> P* XXIII.
^ Ruth Kotinsky, V. T. .Thayer and Caroline B. Zachry,
Reorganizing Secondary Education, (New York: D. Appleton Century Company, Inc., 1939)> P* 359*
5
dent Harper of the University of Chicago prophesied con­
cerning guidance:
The step will be a scientific study of the pupil
himself.
The data thus gathered will determine the
character of all advice given the student. . ... The
material will determine, likewise, in large measure,
the career of the student.3
In 1 9 0 9 Frank Parsons, one of the earliest and most
profound students of guidance, said:
In the mere choice of a vocation there are three
broad factors: (1) a clear understanding of yourself,
your aptitudes, abilities, interests, and ambitions.
. . . (2) a knowledge of the requirements and cor­
relations of success, advantages and disadvantages,
compensation, opportunities, and prospects in dif­
ferent lines of work.
(3 ) true reasoning on the
relations of these two groups of facts.
From these two statements we realize that guidance
began in an effort to help youth find a vocation.
Current points of view on guidance.
It is a charac­
teristic of educational thought and planning to find a wide
variance of opinion and practice in many of its phases.
That this is true of guidance is born out in the current
material.on guidance.
One group holds to the point of view
of guidance as restricted to the vocational area.
Guidance consists in distributing as effectively
as possible all of the children to educational and
^ Burton Elsworth Davis, Guidance in the Junior High
School, (Doctor's Dissertation, U. S. C., 1935) > p* 1*
^ Ibid. p. 2 .
vocational opportunities and in helping the individ­
ual to make optimal adjustments to these opportuni­
ties........ ........................................
Gruidance proper hears important relationships to
discipline and social conduct, hut it should not he
confused with disciplinary control or oversight . .
. . Guidance and methods of teaching may at times
have elements of procedure in common, hut teaching
cannot often he guidance and guidance does not com­
prehend methods of teaching. . . . .................
Supervision of instruction is concerned-with the
improvement of teaching and is not guidance........
The upshot of the whole matter is that guidance is
not the whole of education.5'
According to the point of view of these writers, the
teacher hecomes the guidance officer only in instances when
she is instructing in courses in occupations, or exploratory
courses where she is administering or interpreting.tests for
guidance purposes.
Guidance steps in when, after a study of
the individual, adjustments have to he made in his program
or he is advised to shift from one subject in the curriculum
to another.
In contrast with,the ahove statement another
viewpoint holds that:
Guidance is a function of all aspects of school
life. . . . . Such'guidance cannot he separated from
the functions of all who come in contact with youth.
T e a c h e r s a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , supervisors, parents, li­
brarians, custodians, social workers, nurses, munic­
ipal officers, religious leaders, and all other
associates of youth are finding a unity of purpose
in this' expansion of the guidance function.
5 Leonard V. Koss and Grayson Kefanver, Guidance in
The Secondary Schools', (New York: The Macmillan Company,
193*0. P- 19r
P. W. L. Cox and J. C. Duff, Guidance by the Class­
room Teacher, (Prentice - Hall, Inc., 193S)., p. VIII.
These authors conceive of education as a process hy which
personalities of children are developed and guidance is
merely the direction of personality development*
They also
place the responsibility for guidance with any group of
children in the hands of a single person, the teacher-
This
is a very significant statement since it places the responsi­
bility on the teacher who is already carrying a heavy one.
Such a statement immediately gives rise to the question,
which teacher, for in the junior high school every child has
several teachers.
Another current point of view held by one of the
first teachers of guidance in the country contends that most
educators agree that the final purpose of education is simply
that students may learn to live better lives.
feels, is essentially the guidance aim.
This, he
The school, accord­
ing to him, has but one function: to guide young people in
improving, extending, and organizing their individual and
cooperative activities.?
In the Los Angeles Gity Schools., the Guidance and
Research Division clears up the confusion which arises from
defining guidance as education.
It is their contention that
if guidance and education are one and the same, guidance can
be discarded altogether./ In so doing there would be taken
? John M. Brever, Education as Guidance, (The Mac­
Millan Oompany, 1932), p* 9*
3
from us. the hard-won concept of the individual needs of
young people born into a complex and confusing world.
It
is claimed that education is the mastery, up to each studentfs
capacity, of the tools and knowledge which the race has
developed through its powers and its environment.
Guidance,
they claim, is the application of these tools and knowl­
edges to the capacities and needs of the individual in order
to help him make his choices and find his way.
From the above viewpoints it will be noted there is
a great divergence of current opinion from that of limiting,
guidance to the field of vocations alone, to that of guidance
as synonymous with all education.
It is evident that guid­
ance which at first was limited to vocations has since
evolved from educational guidance, then social, and finally
child guidance.
The administration of guidance has likewise
been through a process of changes and evolution.
Vocational
guidance was in the hands of experts trained in the field of
vocations.
Educational guidance was exclusively the func­
tion of a specially trained staff who assumed much of the
responsibility for guidance.
Clinics were organized to give
special service to those in need of guidance.
Experts, the
psychiatrists, and the social workers combined their learn-
Elizabeth Woods, Guidance and Research Bulletin,
Los Angeles City Schools, September 1939> PP- 1-2.
ing and their efforts in giving guidance to the unadjusted
child.
This service was usually carried on outside of the
school in a situation remote and unrelated to the teaching.
Defining guidance and fixing the responsibility for
its admini strati on.
Before undertaking a research on guid­
ance practices it will he necessary to give some attention
to defining guidance, which by the very meaning of the term
has two broad implications: one, that of guiding; and the
other, that of being guided.
Out of this simple statement
arises the questions of who will give the guidance and what
kind of guidance is to be given.
Obviously the one to give
guidance must be the individual who has a close relation­
ship with the person who needs guidance; who sees him as
an individual with many problems, some of which are those of
health and social adjustments.
emotional problems.
Some are intellectual, and
Every child has the right to be known
well by one person in the school, and that person is a
teacher.
Since no one knows the child better than the teach­
er she is the one who must assume much of the responsibility
for pupil guidance in the junior high school.
Having placed
the responsibility for guidance squarely on the shoulders
of the teacher, it does not necessarily follow that a.good
guidance program has been assured.
The extent to which the
teacher can successfully carry out the guidance functions
depends on how well the administration of the guidance
program is carried out.
It is therefore very important
that the school administrator assume definite administrative
responsibilities in connection with guidance, some of which
are:
(1) setting up the guidance program and selecting the
personnel to carry it out.
(2) planning a program of educa­
tion which is suited to the particular needs, purposes,
abilities, interests and home background of the pupils for
whom the guidance program is planned.
A program which is
not functional, flexible and inherent in the lives of the
pupils who seek guidance is incompatible with good guidance,
(j) delegating to a trained counselor the responsibility of
directing the program.
(^) helping teachers to focus at­
tention on the individual child through personal inventories
of pupils and cumulative records thereby helping them to
individualize instruction.
(5 ) making frequent use of a
research and measurement program.
(6) making available to
teachers all pupil records and data pertaining to pupils.
(7 ) keeping teachers informed on current research in the
field of adolescent needs.
(2>) planning conferences with
parents and teachers of child with a particular problem,
using the case study technique.
(9) endeavoring to estab­
lish a friendly relationship with parents, interpreting to
them the program of education.
(10) studying community
resources and their influence on learning, making intel­
ligent use of them.
(11) surveying the community liabili­
ties in relation to youth.
(12) encouraging group activ­
ities within the school such as the student congress and
court, safety and traffic groups, sport activities, as­
semblies, service clubs, character building and hobby
groups.
(13) making the best possible use of the school
resources to build an adequate health program.
(1*0 pro-
,
viding means for the implementation of democracy.
Scope of the study.
To plan and administer a pro­
gram of guidance, based on the assumption that all of the
educational needs of all of the pupils in a given school
will be taken care of, is a problem demanding careful study
and investigation in all of its aspects.
How others are
solving this problem in their several situations is the
field for this particular research.
There are in the City
of Los Angeles twenty-nine Junior high schools, varying in
size from the small semi-rural school to the large junior
high school located in the more compact areas of the city.
Each of these schools has its own problems with different
children and different situations, and each one demands its
own kind and amount of guidance.
Every child has a problem.
If he comes from a well adjusted home his problems have a
better chance for solution.
If his home cannot take care of
his problem, the school must assume that responsibility.
It
12
is, therefore, the intent of this study to determine through
conference, interview, and questionnaire to what extent in
the Los Angeles junior high schools there is being adminis­
tered a guidance program which provides the essentials
previously enumerated*
Basic considerations which guide the practice*
In
surveying the guidance practices and procedures in a given
situation, it is necessary to determine first the philoso­
phy which guides the practice.
Since there are several cur­
rent points of view on the subject of guidance it is im­
portant that these be given consideration.
Many recent
contributions to the field of guidance have been made by
individuals and by groups working through professional
organizations of educators and lay people.
these furnishes background for the study.
A review of
Hot all contribu­
tions, however, have come directly through the study of
guidance.
Researches into adolescent development and needs
have not only added new knowledge to the field of guidance,
but they have confirmed and strengthened what has been
known concerning youth and their needs.
These studies help
those who live with youth to understand their behavior
better.
They point out the school*s responsibility toward
adolescent needs.
A summary of these studies is presented
in Chapter Two of this study.
13
Organization of the remainder of the thesis*
Chapter
Two of the thesis will he devoted to a brief history of
guidance, a review of important contributions of research
and study in the field of guidance.
This will be followed
by the proposed contributions of the present study.
Chapter
Three will present the experimental procedure including the*
setting up of the problem, constructing the questionnaire
and the use to which it will be put.
In
Chapter Four there
will be presented the results of the questionnaire, includ­
ing the tabulation and evaluation of the findings.
Chapter
Five will present a guidance program based on the best
practices and procedures which are revealed in the study and
research.
Chapter Six will include recommendations and a
summary of the study.
CHAPTER II
HISTORY OF GUIDANCE MOVEMENT AND RELATED RESEARCH
The guidance movement in education is a comparatively
new one*
Only rarely in educational writings of the nine­
teenth century can the word ^guidance” be found.
Until the
first decade of the twentieth century the idea that youth
were to be guided was rarely suggested.
The development of
guidance has come about through three stages:
first, as an
occasional incident in education; second, as a useful pro­
cedure in education; third, as a necessary foundation for,
and process of, education.^*
Its development has been
paralleled by the scientific movement in education; by a
shifting of emphasis from subject matter set out to be
learned, to the child and his individual needs and an effort
on the part of teachers to give intelligent diagnosis and
treatment of individuals; by a shifting of responsibility
for the training of the really important matters of prac­
tical living from the home and community to the school.
The
various forces at work building up new conditions from those
which surrounded the pioneer have forced guidance upon the
schools.
During those years which mark the development of
1 M. R. Trabue, The Scientific Movement in Education,
Thirty-seventh Yearbook, Part I I . , (Bloomington: Public
School Publishing Co., 193^77 PP* 223-37*
15
the guidance movement, much comprehensive and extensive
research has been carried on in the fields of administration
of guidance; the educational philosophy underlying the dif­
ferent practices in the school, the needs, purposes, and
development of students who are the center of education.
Organizing and administering a guidance program.
Since the effectiveness of a guidance program depends upon
the organization and staff which administers it at all
educational levels, it is important in the development of
this thesis to investigate what has been done in this field.
A significant contribution suggests three sets of workers
which are likely to be involved in the administration of
guidance.
(1) teachers, functioning in the classroom and
all others who have frequent contacts with youth;
(2) leaders in guidance who stimulate, coordinate
and supplement the work of the first group, various­
ly called principals, supervisors, school counselors,
class advisers, deans, directors of guidance; and
(3) specialists in certain areas of guidance, as in
medicine, psychiatry, psychology* social work,
vocational choice and placement.2
A fourth group includes community institutions such as
hospitals, clinics, social agencies, and recreational de­
partments which are organized to make definite contributions
to the guidance of youth.
p
The role of teachers in the guid-
Francis G. Hosecranee, Guidance in Educational
Institutions, Thirty-seventh Yearbook, ParT I_. , (Sloomington: Public School Publishing Co., 193&)7 P* 267*
ance. program, according to this authority, is a most im­
portant one since they are the ones who are closest to the
students.
Assisting the teacher in this guidance function
is the guidance leader who coordinates the teachers1 efforts
in meeting the needs of their pupils.
Another member of the
staff is the guidance specialist whose work it is to educate
teachers, guidance leaders, and other members of the staff
of the school system; to act as consultants; and to take
over cases which need special handling.
To carry out such
a program it is suggested that a core-teacher-counselor be
assigned a group of thirty to forty boys and girls for a
period of three or four years.
This would enable the teach­
er to know well each individual.
In a small school the
principal would be the guidance leader; in a large school a
staff member could take over the responsibility.
In either
event the principal would be expected to coordinate and
administer the program.
In a large school system the super­
intendent coordinates the work of the specialists.
A teach­
er training program is recommended as a very essential part
of the administration of guidance.
A Proposed guidance plan.
As a result of a research
on the guidance and counseling services in
193
junior high
schools in thirty-one states of the United States, a plan
for the administration of guidance in a school of 1,000 to
17
1,500 pupils was recommended to include:^ an administrative
council to include the principal, vice-principal, and three
counselors whose function it is to plan the guidance work;
a guidance council composed of three specialists, one an
expert in vocational information and counseling, another
qualified in psychology and statistics; and a third, a
case-social worker as well as a counselor.
Their work is
to overview the entire program of studies, and to serve as
a guidance clinic.
Each of the three counselors is assign­
ed to one of the three grades, seventh, eighth, and ninth.
The psychologist has charge of the seventh grade, the social
worker the eighth grade, and the vocational, specialist works
with the ninth grade.
Working directly with these counselors
is the home room teacher who is concerned with orientation,
teaching how to study, social adjustments, and personality
development.
The classroom teacher gives guidance in ex­
ploratory shops, physical adjustment classes, cases for
counselor, hobby clubs, and carrying out instructions of
counselors.
A home visiting teacher is to-work under the
head counselor, cooperating with home room and classroom
teachers, in coordinating home' and community forces.
The
plan also takes into account the community to which the edu-
J
Burton Elsworth Davis, Guidance in the Junior High
School, (Doctor's Dissertation, U. S. 0., 1935)> PP* 129-3?*
IB
eational program is geared-
A point in favor of this program
is the low pupil-counselor ratio; namely, a guidance worker
for each five hundred pupils, an attainment few school
systems can reach.
The writer claims that the low pupil
load plus clerical time enables the counselor to make case
studies and to supervise the school program.
The investi­
gator is apparently overlooking the value to be gained from
having the home room teacher make the case studies.
The
same criticism may be made concerning a special home visit­
ing teacher.
The person who needs to know the most about
the child is the one to visit the home; and that person is
the home room or guidance teacher.
The re sponsibility of the principal in the guidance
program of a j-unior high school. In a recent survey of his
ii
school, the principal found he had three responsibilities
in the improvement of factors which contribute to effective
guidance in his particular school.
These factors include:
setting up a careful administrative policy; providing educa­
tional leadership; and, coordinating all aspects of the
educational program.
His chief administrative responsibility
is that of classifying pupils and making the Master Program.
J. W. Scudder, An Analysis of the Improvement
Factors Contributing to Effective Pupil Guidance in a
Junior High School, (Master of Arts Thesis presented to
the School of Education, University of Southern California,
1931)-
His educational leadership finds an outlet in promoting
teacher growth.
Success in coordinating the program, he
found, is somewhat conditioned by the degree to which he
delegates responsibility.
The summary of his findings shows
that factors which promote successful teaching are also
those that contribute to satisfactory guidance.
An analysis
of the improvement factors contributing to an effective
guidanoe program in the school shows: (1) improvement
through careful administration, classification of pupils,
teacher training and coordinating; (2 ) properly trained
counselors who must be responsible for the guidance pro­
gram; (3 ) wise selection of teachers; (ty.)' personal develop­
ment paramount;
(5) broad interests to meet all types.
The
emphasis in this thesis seems to be improvement of teachers
with very little attention to the study of pupil needs and
how to meet them.
Since pupil needs, the development of
personality, and the concern for social adjustments of
pupils is a comparatively- recent concept, a thesis written
nine years ago might: be expected to give little attention
to this phase of guidance.
Guidance in relation to an educational -philosophy.
The educational program of American schools has undergone
basic change and is in process of still further change.
This is evidenced by developments in the nature of instruc­
tion which have in turn affected the role of guidance.
20
Developments in the curriculum, social change, increased
knowledge of the individual, and a new concept of education
have all had a bearing on the general nature of the guidance
service.
The underlying philosophy which guides good prac­
tice in education today centers attention primarily on the
needs and purposes of children and this point of view is
basic to an adequate guidance program.
Jones and. Hand^
present some "basically important considerations" which they
suggest should underlie the guidance practices of a school:
first, the objectives of teaching are now primarily conceiv­
ed to be in terms of desired changes of behavior rather than
in terms of subject matter} second, if the work of the
teacher is to be student-goal centered it is important that
the nature of human purposes or goals, and the principles
underlying their development be understood; third, if edu­
cation is to be effective it must start with the child as
he is, and help him so to organize his experiences in order
that*he will gradually develop a fundamental life purpose,
or goal, that will be socially desirable and personally
satisfying; and fourth, such goals should be chosen as will
permit the integration of the entire life.
This philosophy
of education looks upon the life of an individual as an
^ Arthur J. Jones, and Harold 0. Hand, Guidance In
Educational Institutions, Thirty-seventh Yearbook, Part I .,
(Bloomington: Public School Publishing C o . , 193$)> PP* 3“ 2 9 •
21
organic whole.
The curriculum of the school must be so con­
ceived and administered as to give constant assistance in
the formulation of objectives and goals by the students
themselves and accepted by them as basis for their work.
The
present inadequacies of theory and practice of guidance are
pointed out by the authors.
They condemn the practice of
separating guidance as a function to be set apart and car­
ried on by a few specialists; on the contrary they regard
guidance as an inseparable aspect of the educational process
concerned with helping individuals discover their needs,
assess their potentialities, develop their life purposes,
formulate plans of action, and proceed to their realizations.
The person best qualified to do this type of guidance work
is the classroom teacher, aided by the services of such
specialists as are needed, and working with an administra­
tion which will coordinate a guidance service involving the
entire school staff.
In summing up their educational phil­
osophy which they deem fundamental to a guidance program,
they include diagnosing needs, assisting in developing of
purposes and formulating goals, and providing needed func­
tional learning experiences.
guidance in relation to the individual.
Placing the
individual in relation to guidance last in this background
study does not signify it is of.-,the least importance in the
consideration of guidance.
Quite to the contrary, intensive
study of individual children has furnished the basis for
philosophies of education, for generalizations on growth and
behavior, and for guidance practices.
The last ten to fif­
teen years have witnessed a remarkable spread of the study
of children.
A number of important centers of child study
have developed, among which are the Institute of Ohild
Welfare of the University of California, the Child Welfare
Research Station of the University of Iowa, the Merill
Palmer School of Detroit, the Institute of Child Welfare at
the University of Minnesota, and the Clinic of Child Devel­
opment in Yale University.
The studies and materials which
have grown out of these efforts to know more about children
have had no doubt much influence on guidance programs
throughout the country.
Since a basic principle of guid­
ance has to do with meeting the needs of students, it is
important to plan an educational program to meet those
needs.
What those needs are can be determined only through
information about the children as individuals.
These needs
have to do not only with abilities, interests, attitudes
and appreciations, but also with the genetic or development
studies which give background and development to their
present status.
Information needed for child guidance.
The chief
kinds of information that must be studied in order that a
counselor or teacher may understand the student, and the
23
student understand himself are:
6
(1 ) the record of his previous school experience;
. (2 ) his aptitudes and abilities; (3 ) his home back­
ground and community background; (4) his goals and
purposes; (5 ) his interests, likes and dislikes;
(6 ) his social development and adjustments; (7 ) bis
emotional status; (S) his health record and present
health status; (9 ) his economic and financial status*
This seems to suggest that a complete inventory is necessary
to furnish background from which to promote guidance for the
individual.
How to get this information is a problem to be
met by the administration of the program.
A discussion of
the techniques to be used in gathering information will be
discussed in the final chapter of this thesis.
A state seeks-to evaluate its educational program in
terms of pupil heeds.
One of the most significant and far-
reaching investigations into the needs of children, and the
adequacy of a guidance program to meet them, is the state­
ment of the findings and recommendations of the Regents*
Inquiry of the schools of the State of New York.
The result
of the survey shows that the schools are now turning'out a
great number of youth each year who are not adequately edu­
cated; who are not prepared to play a helpful part in the
life of the state.^
The reasons for this failure are:
fi
Alvin 0. Eurich and 0. Gilbert Wrenn, Guidance in
Educational Ihstitutions, Thirty^seventh Yearbook, Part I .,
(Bloomington: Public School Publishing C o . , 193^)> P* 3^«
7 Luther Halsey Gulick, Education For American L i f e ,
(New York: The McGraw - Hill Book Co., 193^)> PP* 3~35*
(1 ) the educational program was not adjusted to meet the
need of all of the children of all of the people; (2 ) the
program of education was not designed to fit boys and girls
for the present economic life; (3 ) the school program does
not recognize the increased difficulties of becoming and be­
ing a good citizen;
(k-)
it has not caught up with the flood
of new scientific knowledge about the natural and social
world, thus failing to give boys and girls a scientific
point of view and an understanding of the world; (5 ) the edu­
cational system has not been replanned to meet the new
conditions of modern life and the new ways of living, in
which the family, the church, and early work now exercise
less influence, and in which increasing leisure in later
life calls, and makes possible a rich and growing inner
life; and, (6 ) there* is no specific agreed upon goal in the
program of education.
This survey defines a new goal and
finally presents a specific program for achieving it.
The needs of children in a democracy.
years, since 1909
Once every ten
& White House Conference has reviewed
what is being done, and what ought to be done, for the
nation's children.
This Conference, meeting in 19*K), dis-
cussed the problem, Children in a Democracy♦
Their con-
White House Conference, Children in a Democracy,
A Summary, The Journal of the national Education Association,
March 1940, p . 6 9 •
elusions are summed up as follows:
The conference of 19^0
found many signs of progress since 1930 in the health and
.care of children and the public services for their benefit*
It also reported that much more would be required to make
the nation1s future secure in 1950*
The first need of the
child is the security of a good home.
too many families from giving this.
Poverty prevents all
More than half of the
children of the country live in families whose annual in­
come is less than $1200 a year; incomes inadequate to
provide children with what they need.
In such cases public
agencies are bound to provide for these families to save
these children from lasting harm.
The safety of children
is not charity, but a necessity for national self-preserva­
tion.
The Conference found that three million farm houses
and four million other dwellings are not fit places for
bringing up children.
Many neighborhoods were found to be
menaced by disease, by fire, by traffic, by evil associa­
tions.
This too, was found to be the responsibility of
the government to correct with low-cost housing.
It was
further observed that about half the children in this country
are given no organized
religious teaching.
The conference
recommended that great efforts be made to bring the re­
sources of religion to children.
The need for play facili­
ties, of child labor laws, of providing work, and training
for work were made imperative.
The Conference further
26
recommended that the federal government increase its work
for health and medical care, with increased attention to
the welfare of handicapped and minority groups.
The meeting
of all of these needs in relation to a defense program and
the security o f .the nation was clearly enunciated.
A study of the growth, interests and behaviors of
adolescents.
There is still another type of research which
has a definite bearing on the guidance program and that has
to do with the study of adolescents.
The junior high school
age was investigated and reported in a study of one hundred
boys and one hundred girls covering the three year period of
their junior high school.
Out of the study has come one
certain conclusion; namely,
that it is not possible to outline any general
pattern of development which can be considered
typical of this age group.9
For that reason it is not possible, they point out, to give
valid general statements which will apply, except in terms
of individuals, or perhaps for small groups of like-sexed
individuals.
Another important conclusion of this study
tends to point out the fact that approximately nine-tenths
of the girls, and three-fourths of the boys, pass through
9 Herbert R. Stolz, Mary Oover Jones, Judith Chaffer,
The Junior High School A g e , (University High School Journal,
Vol. 15, No. 2, January 1937).
the psycho-biological changes which cluster around puberty
during the three years they are attending junior high school
Accompanying these changes are certain changes in interests,
attitudes, and activities.
There is an overwhelming desire
to be with other children.
The desire for group approval
was found to be one of the most potent drives.
Adult ap­
proval or disapproval meant almost nothing to these young
adolescents except as it might affect the attainment of
their goal.
The second impelling force toward social
activity seemed to be the awakening of heterosexual inter­
ests, the girls beginning earlier than the boys.
It was
found that most boys did not acquire their adolesoent
status until well in the ninth or tenth grade.
One im­
portant observation, which constitutes an important guid- .
ance factor, was found to be the need to give special
guidance for those who deviate in respect to growth and
maturation.
This study provides helpful suggestions in
that it emphasizes the variety of interests and attitudes
which are normal for junior high school period.
According
to the authors it will serve to illuminate our understanding
of an individuals needs, but it will not substitute for the
investigation of specific problems of individual guidance.
Summary of the hi story and contributions in the field
of guidance.
The guidance movement is a twentieth century
2$
development brought about by a new point of view in educa­
tion, a shifting of responsibility from the home to the
school, and a growing complexity of life.
Three approaches
were considered in reviewing the material: (1 ) the field of
administration; (2 ) the educational philosophy which under­
lies the practice of guidance; and, (3 ) the needs, interests
and development of youth.
In the field of administration
the trend is definitely in the direction of distributing the
guidance function among all who have frequent contacts with
youth, and away from guidance as a separate function carried
out by specialists.
Guidance councils, headed up by a
school administrator who coordinates the program, are strong­
ly recommended.
A teacher training program is essential to
a good guidance program.
In the field of educational philosophy, it is evident
that the point of view which guides the program of guidance
centers attention on the needs, purposes, and growth of
children; starting with the child as he is, and helping him
to organize his life in ways that will be personally and
socially satisfying.
This approach has led to a remarkable
spread of child study clinics, out of which have come valu­
able materials available for those who are planning guidance
programs.
What information is necessary to provide an ef­
fective guidance program was discussed, including his total
personality, his school, home and community background, his
29
goals and purposes, his health and emotional status, all of
which furnish a background for individual guidance.
An analysis of causes of failure on the part of a
state-wide school system sets up a frame work for a good
guidance program.
The national aspect of the subject places
a definite responsibility on the nation in terms of a better
environment for youth.
CHAPTER III
THE RESEARCH PROCEDURE
Purpose of the chapter*
It is the purpose of this
chapter to present the problem of guidance and to devise
ways and means of determining, in so far as possible, the
guidance practices which are current in the junior high
schools of Los Angeles; guidance in this instance meaning
the direction of personality development in keeping with
our ideals for living in a democracy.
Through interviews
and conferences it has been possible to determine the prob­
lems involved in guidance, and by means of a questionnaire
to find the answers in terms of actual practice in guidance.
The problems of junior high schools are brought to
the attention of principals*
For the past three years the
junior high school principals, under very able and under­
standing leadership, have been holding monthly conferences
in which the whole field of education in the junior high
school has been discussed.
Some conferences were planned
for the entire group in which problems common to all prin­
cipals were discussed and recommendations were made.
In
some instances small groups having like interests and other
factors., such as community environment, in common met to dis­
cuss their problems.
One series was planned to include those
31
having wide differences of opinion, on a basic philosophy of
education.
Out of these conferences has come much discus­
sion that brings to light the problems which a well planned
guidance program must take into account.
The scope of the problems taken up in these confer­
ences is revealed in the following topics which were made
the subject of conference:
The techniques for bringing the home and the junior
high school together.
This discussion revealed a wide di­
versity of practice, one of which limited contacts to those
made through the Parent Teacher Association on one extreme,
to the other extreme in which the school has built a prac­
tice of consistently drawing the home into every phase of
the school program.
Planning a program of articulation between contributi
ing elementory schools and the junior high school.
This
conference again showed a need for setting up some basic
practices for bringing about a better transition for in­
coming B7*s.
Some very excellent techniques developed in
this conference were made available through the curriculum
division.
Individualizing instruction.
This discussion brought
out the problem of classification of pupils and adapting
curriculum to individual needs.
Coordination of health and the techniques for making
32
teachers aware of the health needs of pupils.
Some schools
depend largely upon the nurse and doctors and physical edu­
cation teachers to take care of the health of pupils.
A
few schools endeavor to draw every teacher and the home into
the health problems of their children.
A study of the present report card.
Here again there
was revealed wide differences of opinion as to the purposes
of such reporting and the point of view underlying the con­
cept of grading a pupil, and upon what basis a pupil is to
be graded.
Those who still think in terms of subject matter
coverage could easily devise an objective scale of rating.
Others who think in terms of the growth process of education
would devise a very different type of evaluation.
The contributions of the various subject fields such
as science, social studies, art, music, practical arts.
These have all been subjects of study which open up many
areas relating to teaching techniques of fusion and integra­
tion.
Evaluating the contribution of the school library
raised the question of those intangibles of learning which
we have not found the techniques to evaluate.
How can we
determine to what extent the library, for example, improves
reading grade placement, ability to do research, to use
reference material?
All of these and many more topics have been made the
33
subject of these conferences which are making us aware of
the many problems demanding our attention.
In the discussions principals were likewise made
aware of a need for continued conferences, since by means
of them the attention of administrators is drawn to the
problems which they face in planning their programs of guid­
ance.
They indicate further the need to continue to show
results in terms of greater informity in many aspects of
junior high school education.
These conferences are not limited to those called
for principals.
A series similar to those just described
is conducted regularly by
the vice principals, by counse­
lors working under the direction of chief of research staff,
curriculum supervisors, and librarians, each group working
on its own individual problems.
At a recent meeting of vice
principals from schools contributing to a senior high school,
the question of guidance records to be sent with the junior
high school graduates was discussed.
With only one excep­
tion the opinion of the group was unanimous in limiting the
so called guidance material to objective evidence as it is
revealed in objective tests and health examinations.
In the
opinion of these administrators it was a violation of their
code of ethics to set down a personal comment or reference
in any of the records which were to accompany the pupils.
There was a difference of opinion, however, on the part of
3^
the receiving senior high school personnel, some requesting
real guidance records, the others being satisfied with the
objective findings.
The consensus of the group was likewise opposed to
delving into the personal matters of children going so far
as to say all home visits should be taken care of by attend­
ance supervisors and nurses.
This point of view was quite
revealing in as much as one vice principal in the group
represented a school which makes note of important reac­
tions of children, follows up with home visits, and confers
with parents on all cases of health and social and education­
al adjustment.
With such extremes of point of view in one
administrative group it is quite possible that other similar
groups would disagree on this vital point which is the very
core of the guidance program; namely, analyzing the needs,
stresses, and purposes, inherent in the. lives of the young,
people for whom our educational program is planned.
Devising a questionnaire which will open up for
study the specific practices of how the principal administers
the guidance program, what philosophy of education guides
the planning of the program, and to what extent the program ’
fulfills its purpose, is an important step in this study.
Two aspects of the study to be considered in making
the questionnaire.
Before surveying the guidance practices
35
in the junior high schools of Los Angeles, it was necessary
to analyze two aspects of the study, one of which has to do
with the administration of guidance, the other with the daily
living of youth in school and out.
This investigation,
therefore, was first directed toward an examination of the
philosophy of education which gives meaning to the educa­
tional program set up by the administrator .in his school.
Upon his understanding and his interpretation of what edu­
cation is conceived to be will depend the type of guidance
program he plans for his school.
For example, if the prin­
cipal conceives of guidance as a separate function, which
should be the concern of a specialist, he will, no doubt,
delegate all of the responsibility for the direction of his
pupils to a guidance counselor.
If on the other hand, the administrator holds to the
point of view that guidance is so wide in scope that it is
synonymous with all education he will feel justified, if he
has good teaching in the classroom, in delegating much of
the guidance function to the teacher.
If guidance to him is limited to the concept of pro­
viding facilities for the classification and grouping of
children, he will set up a research and testing program and
upon the basis of the results of this program group and
classify his pupils for instruction.
This responsibility
may easily be delegated to a research assistant.
If, however, the administrator conceives of guidance
as concerned with every aspect of school life and the total
environment which impinges on the life of every child in the
school, as concerned with the development of the total
personality of the child, with helping pupils to set up
life goals and purposes, with training youth to live in a
democracy and to make it better; he will have blocked out
for him the most important responsibility he has to meet,
one for which he must be responsible, the success of which
will challenge his leadership to the utmost.
It will in­
volve the making of a program which will draw in every
member of the school staff, using every resource of the
school and the community to make it function, and an
intimate knowledge of all of the pupils for whose guidance
he is responsible.
Practice and theory.
It is quite possible to conceive
of an administrator having a well defined modern point of
view about how good guidance can be achieved, but in prac­
tice he is unable to carry it out.
How his practice rates
in comparison to his point of view must be determined.
Provision for this was made in the questionnaire.
Administration has a broad guidance function.!
The
administrative aspect must be analyzed and evaluated to
determine what seem to be the most effective ways and means
37
of administering a guidance program.
This involved in­
vestigating such problems as:
1. Centering the responsibility for carrying out
the program.
2. Delegating’certain responsibilities for implement­
ing the program.
3- Coordinating the activities of, guidance.
k *
Adjusting the pupil load of those who carry the
extra work entailed in guidance activities.
5* Keeping up-to-date, reliable records of guidance
materials which are flexible and easily accessable to
teachers.
6 . Grouping pupils for instruction.
7* Reporting to parents.
g. Providing a health program which does not end in
mere knowledge of health, but has for its objective the
maintenance of health through teaching good health habits
and correcting physical difficulties.
9 . Making use of community resources which contribute
to teaching and learning.
10. Being aware of and working to improve community
liabilities.
The investigation was set up to evaluate to what extent the
above responsibilities were carried out.
Administration must recognize the individual differ-
33
ences of schools*
The investigation is next concerned with
the extent to which the principal recognizes the various
types of need in the particular school situation, for upon
those needs will depend the kind of guidance that must be
provided.
For example, it will be necessary for the princi­
pal to know to what extent the majority of the children can
profit by an academic program.
The median intelligence of
the group will include the direction and emphasis the gen­
eral program will take*
If the median intelligence of the
school population is well below ninety, an extensive shop
curriculum and practical arts program would be appropriate
for the school.
If, after surveying the home background,
the principal finds inadequate home supervision, economic
stress, broken homes, foreign language background, and
other environmental factors which create many problems of
social, emotional, and educational adjustment, it will be
necessary to take these into account in planning and set­
ting up
the guidance program.
The teachers1 viewpoint in relation to the guidance
program*
Another factor upon which the adequacy of a guid­
ance program may depend has to do with the extent to which
teachers have developed a modern point of view on what edu­
cation means today.
The changing philosophies of education,
the development of new trends, the recent research in the
39
field of adolescent needs, are all factors which must be
considered in evaluating the teachers1 concept of education,
and these in turn must be taken into account by the admin­
istrator in planning and developing guidance activities*
The effect of change on guidance.
The extent to
which old traditions and mores are being discarded and new
centers are being formed presents a need for guidance.
Social controls, .such as the home and church, are breaking
down in some communities and the guidance program must take
this into account.
In some instances the school must as­
sume many of the responsibilities formerly met by the home.
The extent to which principals are aware of the effect of
social change was investigated in the study.
A guidance program must take into account the youth
for whom it is planned.
Two aspects of this study were
pointed out earlier in this chapter, one dealing with the
administration of the program which has just been discussed,
the second having to do with the daily living of youth.
The
questionnaire was designed to bring out the extent to which
the school was aware of pupil needs through:
1. Planning a functional curriculum.
2. Individualizing instruction which has for its
objective helping boys and girls attain individual and
social adjustments; the well rounded development and growth
*K)
of boys and girls.
3* Preventing the master program from interfering
with individual needs and interests of boys and girls.
k-.
Finding out what pupils can do if they are forced
to leave school, even at the junior high school level, to
make a place for themselves in society.
5* Being alert to stimulate and encourage pre-vocational interests and aptitudes.
6 . Working through case study techniques to maintain
a good mental hygiene program for those who are in special
need of such a program.
The responsibility for administering; the guidance
program.
Questions concerning the administration of the
guidance program must be answered:
Who is to have an
important part in the guidance program?
Who is to direct
it? How shall the pupil load be adjusted to take care of
the added responsibility taken over by the teacher who is
asked to assume the key position in guidance?
Others too,
such as: How much unassigned time does the teacher need
for this work?
teacher contact?
What provision is made for extended pupilDoes some one know every child suffi­
ciently well to help him adjust to the school program and
to his daily living?
The master program.
Planning a master program which
41
is flexible enough to take care of individual needs is a
problem peculiar to secondary education.
Must the program
be served or can instruction be individualized?
Does the
pupil have time to follow through a problem or must he con­
tinue on his day's schedule leaving his problem unfinished?
Does the master program and all that it involves ever con­
flict with what .the. principal believes about guidance?
If
the principal is not satisfied, what can he do about it?
Are there any trends or devices which will help him to do
away with the practice of serving this mechanized device we
call the Master Program?
What are some of the factors which
prevent him from carrying out his philosophy pertaining to
pupil needs and guidance?
Classifying and grouping.
The matter of grouping
children enters into the guidance program in all of its
phases.
How shall the principal group pupils?
Shall he
just shuffle the names and let them drop where they may, or
shall he have a plan for grouping?
ned, upon what basis is it made?
If the grouping is plan­
Planned or otherwise, is
opportunity provided for the bright child to achieve to the
best of his ability?
Does the dull child have a program
which is satisfying to him?
Is the program sufficiently
flexible to permit a pupil to change his program if a better
adjustment is needed for him?
Are pupils with problems of
adjustment given special programs to meet their needs and
interests?
Theory of learning*
Some positive aspects*
One of
the most serious and unconscionable reasons for the continu­
ance of a guidance program, which is narrowly conceived, has
to do with the theory of learning which characterizes teach­
ing.
The reasons for this are many, chief among them being
recency of training and failure on the part of many school
people to continually rationalize their philosophy of educa­
tion.
An investigation of guidance practices must include
an analysis of the theory of learning which characterizes
classroom practice in the academic fields.
Do the teachers
of foreign languages, science, mathmatics, social living,
English, and social studies, believe and carry out in their
practice the theory that:
1. Purpose and interest are the core of the learning
process.
2 . Study and learning are a part of the effort to
enable pupils to face new situations in the best possible
manner.
3 . The objectives of teaching and learning are to
be found in the pupils themselves.
4-. The subject matter is adapted and used to meet
the needs, interests, and experiences of pupils in real
^3
situations.
5* Integration takes place in the reconstruction of
the pupil*s experience to the end that he is becoming a
changed personality.
Negative aspects.
Iii contrast to these positive
aspects of the teaching-learning situation, it will he
helpful to determine to what extent the teachers of aca­
demic subjects:
1. Use subject matter as the basis for stimulus
and response.
2. Use the text book as a mass of facts to be learned.
3* Employ the method of assignment and recitation
most frequently.
Plan and initiate the activities.
Ways and means of effecting guidance.
Determining
the devices and techniques of guidance used in terms of
meetings and conferences by means of which the guidance
program is planned and implemented.
Knowing individual pupils.
Since the chief aim of
guidance is to help boys and girls to do better the things
which are .most desirable for them to do, it is important to
examine into the various devices and facilities by which
the teachers and the administrators know their pupils.
How
1)4
can they know them, and what shall they try to discover
about them?
Having in mind that boys and girls are physi­
cal, mental, emotional, and social beings, it will be nec­
essary to make case studies, to collect health data, mental
test results, achievement records, personality inventories,
knowledge of special abilities, home background and economic
status, special interests and aptitudes, ability to adjust
to the group.
An important phase of this accumulation of data is
how to make it available in affecting guidance.
Community resources.
The out of school activities
of youth today may be an asset or a liability, depending
on the effect they have on their lives.
Often times these
activities are such that the school and the pupil suffer
greatly.
How to make them an asset is definitely a part of
the school's responsibility.
Community resources in the classroom.
How to use
these resources such as the radio, motion pictures, cur­
rent news, excursions, and lay people must be investigated.
These offer a rich opportunity to enable the pupils to be­
come a part of the community, and in turn enable the com­
munity to become a part of the school.
Health guidance.
Ho guidance program can overlook
**•5
the fundamental importance of health and all that a good
health program implies.
How to coordinate the health
program; how to help teachers become health conscious; how
to bring about healthful living as a matter of habit on the
part of youth; how to follow up doctors1 and nurses1 recom­
mendations for correction of handicaps; to know what com­
munity resources are available are all problems which a
good guidance program must solve.
Orientation.
A sense of belonging and a sense of
security are essential to successful school living.
How to
orient incoming pupils to the life of the school is an im­
portant phase of guidance.
How this can be brought about is
the problem of both the elementary and junior high school.
The same problem exists in relation to the junior high
school pupil who enters the senior high school.
Articulation
of the learning activities is not the lease of these prob­
lems.
Vocational guidance.
While vocational guidance does
not enter into the junior high school program very extensive­
ly, there are still some important considerations in this
connection.
In some instances the average boy or girl is
little more than a year from making a place for himself in
the world of work.
Is an opportunity afforded for familiar­
izing him with the vocational opportunities available in
his community?
Do the exploratory courses inolude discus­
sions on vocations?
Is there an attempt to analyze the
aptitudes and interests of pupils in each exploratory unit
offered?
Does the school try to determine what the pupil
can do well before he leaves school?
The questionnaire,^ consisting of twelve sections
based upon the above problems, was submitted to the ad­
ministrators of the junior high schools of the Oity of Los
Angeles.
Upon the basis of the findings in the study, rec­
ommendations of good guidance practices and the underlying
principles which motivate practice have been made.
Summary of the chapter.
It has been the purpose of
this chapter to present the problems which arise in con­
nection with the guidance program.
These problems fall into
two groupings, one having to do with administrative func­
tions, and the other with youth and their daily living.
The administrator is faced with the responsibility
of planning a guidance program which has to take into ac­
count the individual differences of schools, his own phil­
osophy of education, the resources and liabilities of the
community, recenty of teachers1 training, and effect of
social change.
1 Appendix, p. 1 52.
^7
In order to plan a program which will meet the needs
of youth, the administrator must plan a functional curricu­
lum, individualize instruction, and become well acquainted
with the pupils for whom the guidance is planned.
Keeping
flexible and accessable records is an indispensable function
in relation to this part of the program.
Setting up a questionnaire, which would reveal the
extent to which practices meet the requirements of good
guidance, is the important contribution of this chapter.
The questionnaire was planned to investigate such problems
as: the point of view of the person administrating the pro­
gram; the need for a guidance program in each particular
situation; who administers the program; classification of
pupils;, methods and guidance; ways and means of affecting
guidance; knowing individual pupils;; orientation of B7*s;
and, articulation between elementary school and junior high
school.
GHAPTER IV
THE FINDINGS
Purpose of the chapter.
It is the purpose of this
chapter to tabulate the questionnaire data and to report
the findings of the study, making generalizations in
situations where there is sufficient evidence upon which
to generalize*
Report of the survey.
An eleven page questionnaire,
divided into twelve sections, was sent to the twenty-nine
junior high schools of Los Angeles.
Replies were received
from twenty-one schools, or seventy-one per cent of the
number to which the questionnaire was sent.
General information.
The first section of the ques­
tionnaire has to do with general information which furnishes
the background of the guidance program.
This information
includes such items as size of the schools, number of teach­
ers employed and the classification of the staff who spend
most of their time on administration.
The size of the schools surveyed.
The schools range
in size from the largest, having at the time the research
was made an enrollment of 1919 pupils and a teaching staff
of seventy-one teachers, to the smallest having an enroll-
iJ-9
ment of 950 Pupils with a teaching staff of forty-three
teachers.
Table I shows the size, by enrollment, of those
schools which are included in this study.
The median for
the schools is in the fifteen hundred brackets, the actual
enrollment being 159^ pupils.
Point of view on meaning of guidance.
In the opening
chapter of this study the administrative function of guidance
was emphasized.
Before surveying the administrative aspects
of the program it seemed essential to first determine if pos­
sible what principals were thinking in terms of the meaning
and function of guidance.
Accordingly there was set up in
the questionnaire a section vtfiich would not only reveal the
pr i n c i p a l s viewpoint, but would also indicate to what ex­
tent the guidance practices coincide with the theory of
guidance.
The concepts were set up on a five point scale,
on one end of which was the concept of guidance as being
just good teaching, at the other, guidance was defined as
entering into every aspect of school life, as giving direc­
tion to personality development and life purposes.
The
principals were asked to rate the concepts in numerical
order from one to five, giving a fating of one to the con­
cept which in their opinion expressed best their concept
of guidance and so on down the scale until each concept
had been rated.
In the same manner they were asked to rate
these five concepts in terms of guidance practices in their
50
TABLE I
SIZE BY ENROLLMENT OF LOS ANGELES
JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS INCLUDED IN THE STUDY
Number of Schools
Enrollment
One school
1900 to 2000 pupils
Six schools
1S00 to 1900 pupils
Three schools
1700 to 1S00 pupils
One school
1500 to 1600 pupils
Two schools
i k O O
Four schools
1300 to 1*K)0 pupils
Two schools
1200 to 1300 pupils
One school
1100 to 1200 pupils
One school
900 to 1000 pupils
to 1500 pupils
NOTE:
This table should read: one school has an
enrollment between 1900 and 2000 pupils.
51
schools.
Table II shows how the five concepts were rated,
both as to theory and practice.
From the data of Table II there seems to be evidence
that the principals of the twenty-one schools responding to
the questionnaire have a point of view on guidance which is
consistent with the best thinking today on what guidance is
conceived to be.
This is evidenced by the fact that fif­
teen, or seventy-one per cent, gave concept five fiTst rat­
ing.
On this one point was found the greatest unanimity of
opinion.
All of the others, who rated, gave first rank to
concepts two and three, both of which could be interpreted
as good guidance.
Here a weakness in the questionnaire is exposed in
that the five concepts chosen were not discreet in the sense
that certain aspects in one were as desirable as those in
another though not as complete.
For example, three is a
very desirable concept which a hasty judgment might easily
have given first rank.
Concept two could be given first
rank if good classroom teaching were conceived to comprehend
everything to be desired in education.
It was upon this
assumption, no doubt, that principals gave second place to
this concept.
Concept three ranked third and this again seems con­
sistent with good thinking.
Guidance as a separate func­
tion received fourth rank and guidance as a device for
52
.
TABLE II
POUTS OF VIEW AD PRACTICES OFGUIDANCE II LOS A M S JUNIORHIGH SCHOOLS
Points of View*
v,
5\
Ratingof.point ofview
_
4
3 2 1 lo •' ’
5
ans,
1,Guidance isa separate function '
and shouldhe the concernof spe­
cialists who will assume themajor
responsibility for the direction
of children*
7
IT
2, Guidance is sowide in scope that'
'itmust be considered as synonym­
ous with All education and there­
fore ifwehave good teaching in
the classroom good guidance will
be assured,
0
2
3, Guidance has to dowith pupils and
their problems as they relate to
an improvingdemocraticsociety.
2
0
,2
0'
6..
7
2
7 8
3
h
2'
0
11
6
1
1
2
2,4
3
2,5
11 6-
1
1.
3
1
9
4
1
3
3
2,8
3
3
1
9
'5
1
1
2
3
5,
4,4
5
3
15 ■ 1
1
0
3
4
12
2
1
1,2
1
1.4
6
1 1 0
5,Guidance enters into everyaspect
of school life, It gives direc­
tion to personalitydevelopment
and life'purposes,
0
0 5
2
1
Point ofview Practice
lo Rating Aver- 'Rating Averans,
age
age
O' 1
4, The chief functionof guidance is
to set up aresearch andmeasure­
ment program to facilitate the
placement and groupingofchildren. 12
0
Rating ofpractice
3 2
1
.4
3
,4
4,2
4
3,8
NOTE: This table shouldbe read'as follows: inpoint ofview concept 1was givenfifth rankby sevenprincipals, fourth rankby eleven,
third rankby two people, no one gave concept 1 first and second rank, one no answer. Inpractice concept 1was given fifthrankby sixprin­
cipals, etc, The consensus gave concept 1 fourthplace with anaverage of 4.2. Inpractice itwas also given fourth ratingwith anaverage of 3.8,
53
grouping children was given the last place.
It is interest­
ing to note how this concept of guidance which a few years
ago would have ranked first has been placed far down among
the guidance functions.
Two principals, however, still feel
it worthy of second and third consideration.
In the .evaluation of the second part of the table,'
which refers to practice, the question is to what extent a
subjective response could have value without some objective
evidence to confirm or reinforce the answers.
If twelve
principals, or fifty-seven per cent of them, feel that in
their schools they are able to administer a guidance pro­
gram in which guidance enters into every aspect of school
life, and that all of the educational program is so planned
that it gives direction to personality development and life
purposes, then an ideal situation obtains in each of their
schools.
In every instance, except one, principals rated
their practice and point of view alike.
In other words, it
is possible for the principal, in his opinion, to administer
a guidance program which is highly satisfactory to him and
one that is functional.
This is a very revealing finding,
one which may be colored somewhat by wishful thinking on the
part of the administrator, particularly when one has in mind
the scope of its function as implied in the new concept of
guidance.
This indeed speaks well for the principal's
ability to administer a guidance program.
In rating prac­
5^
tice, concepts two and three were ranked the same, there be­
ing only a slight difference in favor of concept two for
second place.
The admini strative function.
An attempt was made next
to survey the administrative and teaching personnel to dis­
cover how many persons and positions were involved in the
school guidance program, and the relative importance of each
person in terms of their responsibility for the program.
In
addition, it seemed important to know how much of their time
was spent on the work their positions, or titles, implied.
It was further attempted to determine to what extent certain
teachers, who were called upon to do much guidance work,
were given an adjustment of the pupil load and time allow­
ance.
Who makes
the master program or schedule of classes,
and who makes the individual pupil’s program was next in­
vestigated.
One other important item which is considered
essential to guidance was investigated; namely, the avail­
ability of guidance materials and records.
up these questions.
Table III takes
It will be noted that this table does
not follow the exact order of questions as they were set up
in the questionnaire.
A number-of items were selected at
this time for tabulation because the information could
easily be worked into one table, thus eliminating a number
of small tables.
TABLE III '
THE ADHIMTRATIVE STAFF, THE ALLOTMIIT AID RESPONSIBILITY
FDR THEADMINISTRATIONOF THEGUIDANCEPROGRAM
55
(O
hS tH
OS oi 0
■ '<H
b
o
Personnel
CO
id
(D P
s
H •ri
03
H (D
H >
•rl
I
P
b
fi
0
(D
<D
b
fi
(0
H
rl
fi
Eh
0
£
Eh•
fi
fi
’
H P
•rl H K
4 d
Eh
03
(D
(D
fi fi fi
0 0 0
b
4
P
a
bD
•H
H
(D
fi
0
.
(D
H
■fi
H
0)(0
fifi
00
(D CQP,
fi b c
o
0 (DID
8 WP5
<H (j tH h
(D bfl. (D O
1*^ ‘
H,
•rl
(D • 10fi
Hb fia 0
(DO
b
(D
&
HO
Order of importance
12
3 4 5 Yes
•rt& .*rl
00
Girls' Vice Prin.
17
3
18. 85,71 1
Boys' Vice Prin.
17
2
,6
Counselor
11. 3 1 2 1 3
Attend. Teacher
8 4
Librarian
21
28.57
Yes lo
1 2
o 0 o fi
' ss
i£
1
1
2
2
2
9,52
Grade Sponsors
1
4.76 2 1 3 2 3 3. 7 4s 5 1
-1 : 4,76
.1
1
Personnel Board
Health Coordinator
3 14,28 2 8 8 1
2:
*
4 13 8 11
5
6
.'
3 10 2. 1
8
8 6 12
1
1
1
.
1
4 11 8
96 7 5 4 3 7 5 1, 1 64
3
9
4,76
2 !9.52
Phys, Ed, Director
Totals
2
1 .4,76
B7 Guidance Teachers
Home Room Sponsor
2 14
2 0 3 5 5
Teachers
1
dP
<o
6 10 16
9.52
Social Liv, Teachers
hd
4' .3 14
2
Health Teacher
rl
4
15 71.43 14 2 2 1
3 2 1 1
OH
ftP ftrl
ID (0 (flp.
12 57,14 1
21
H H
fib
p
(DH
fi<rl
•nft
X)3
p
fi
(D
0
Principal.
2
bD
b
fid
7
20 39 27 35■
'
/
5:This table shouldbe readas follows: there aretwenty-one schoolshavingfull timeprincipals, Intwelve, or 57.14percent of
these schools theprincipal is theperson responsible for theguidanceprogram. Inone school theprincipal is first inorder of importance
in the guidance program. Infour schools theprincipal assumes themajor responsibility formakingthe schoolprogram orclass schedule. The
principal has no responsibility for themakingofpupils1programs. Records, data, andmaterials ofguidance arenot available in theprin­
cipal's office,
3■
It may be observed from tbe data of Table III that
not all schools have vice principals; all have full time
librarians.
The greatest variety of assignments is found
in the work of the guidance counselor and the attendance
teacher-, both of whom are in key positions for guidance.
The results of this study show a decided tendency to dis­
tribute the guidance functions among more people including
the counselor, attendance teacher, health coordinator, and
grade counselors.
This distribution of the guidance func­
tion is in keeping with recent trends in administration of
guidance.
The home room sponsors, the social living teach­
ers, the special
guidance teacher, the health teacher,
the grade sponsor, all of whom are teachers, and a person­
nel board are examples of the various types of counseling
being drawn into guidance.
The position of health coordinator is an example
of the new type of administrative position which is being
drawn into guidance.
This is due to the increased atten­
tion to health as an important factor in guidance.
Three
health teachers are assigned in three schools for one-half
and one-sixth time respectively.
It is interesting to note that one position in the
junior high schools which was mentioned most in column for
persons responsible for the guidance work is that of the
girls' vice principal.
This was true to the extent of
57
eighty-five per cent of the situations.
Fourteen schools
mentioned the counselor as first in importance.
In con­
trast to this the boys’ vice principal was reported in only
six schools as the person responsible for the guidance pro­
gram.
This seems inconsistent with what one might assume
concerning the work of the boys' vice principal.
In the
opening chapter of this study it was assumed that the per­
sons who were involved in guidance ?/ere those who were in
close relationship with the person who needs guidance.
The
boys' vice principal has an opportunity to know well the
boys who have problems of adjustment.
Another interesting point to be noted is the degree
to which the principal feels responsible.
Only in twelve
schools did the principal regard himself as the person
responsible for the guidance work.
It is fair to assume,
that the term responsibility might have been understood to
refer to the actual work done in connection with guidance.
The same might be said concerning what was just stated con­
cerning the boys' vice principal's position.
Another interesting and new trend is in the direction
of decentralizing the counseling function.
Formerly the
junior high schools had one counselor 'in whose office all of
the counseling and guidance were centralized.
It will be
noted that under general information on the chart to what ex­
tent principals are creating new administrative devices to
5&
facilitate guidance.
One other important point in connection with positions
and guidance will be noted in the report from one school
showing no attendance teacher as such.
In this particular
instance the three counselors take care of attendance prob­
lems, the clerical work in connection with attendance being
done by a clerk.
Attendance and guidance have so much in
common it is somewhat surprising to note that seven schools
give one-half time or less to one person to do that important
work.
One of the questions most frequently asked concerning
the administration of guidance is concerned with the time
allowance given to' those who carry other responsibilities
other than those of teaching, and in the same connection
the question of the extent to which the pupil load is less­
ened.
It is apparent from the tabulation there is very lit­
tle adjustment in this respect except in the case of the
home room sponsors, one-half of whom have a lighter load.
The health coordinator in one instance likewise has this
adjustment.
In the matter of time allowance, except in one
instance, the percentage is in favor of those who do not
have any allowance.
The major responsibility for the making of the pro­
gram is distributed among five positions, the counselor
mentioned the most frequently.
The same is true of those
who make the individual pupil*s programs*
Here again we
find in ten schools the counselor takes care of this*huge
task.
In five other instances one person, the vice prin­
cipal, boys* or girls*, is assigned to the task.
In five
other situations the home room sponsor or the grade sponsor
takes care of.this very important function.
This latter
practice is in keeping with the recent trend in guidance,
that of giving the responsibility to those who are in
closest contact with the pupils concerned.
That this per­
son to person relationship is assured is found in the
answer to the question concerning home room period during
which time teachers assist pupils with their problems.
Seventeen out of twenty-one schools provide this opportuni ty.
Since the success of guidance depends upon the
extent teachers may have access to the materials of guid­
ance, it is.important to note that in many instances data
is available in eight different places, the counselors
office being the most frequently mentioned.
Surveying the need for guidance.
In the opening
chapter of this study there was listed a number of social
and educational factors current today which affect the
daily living of youth in school, in the home, and in the
community.
In the questionnaire eight conditions which
6o
affect the guidance of youth were listed and principals
were asked to check the extent to which their schools were
affected by these conditions.
The' conditions were separat­
ed into three catagories and the frequencies checked.
Table
IV shows the results of the tabulation.
Analyzing the need.
In analyzing the need for guid­
ance as the principal sees it in his community and the
larger community of life, it is evident that those environ­
mental factors over which the school has little control, and
for which society itself is responsible, are acute in only
nine situations.
In eight other situations the school is
affected to some extent.
factor.
Four schools did not check this
When one realizes the affect social change has had
upon education and all that it implies, one questions the
consistency of the above tabulation.
The unique function
of education in a democracy, the great changes that have
come about in the lives of men and women and boys and girls,
particularly in the past two decades, the extent to which
human institutions are becoming more complex, are all
environmental factors which have changed and are changing
education today.
If these are not recognized in every
phase of the educational program, education cannot fit
boys and girls for living in this changing world.
Ineffective home supervision is an acute factor in
3^.09 per cent of the schools surveyed.
In two schools this
TABLE IV
THE SOCIAL AND EDUCATIONAL
FACTORS WHICH AFFECT THE GUIDANCE PROGRAM
Factors
Very acute To some extent Very little
Freq. Per
Freq. Per
Freq. Per
cent
cent
cent
1. Many environmental
factors due to in­
creasing complexity
of society.
2
^2.85
8
38.09
2* Ineffective home
supervision.
8
38.09
2
t e .85
2
9-52
3* Broken home.
5
2 3 .SO
12
61.90
1
1J-.76
Economic stress.
6
28.57
11
52-3S
2
9-52
5* Conflicting points
of view in educa­
tion.
2
9-52
6
28.57
10
11-8.57
6 . Changing philoso­
phies of education.
1
^.76
7
33-33
11
52.3S
7- Lack of social con­
trols.
It-
76
6>. Limitations of
teachers who have
not developed a mod­
ern educational point
of view.
2
Total frequency
37
19.05
1 2
61.90
1
9-52
1 2
5 7 .lit-
It-
79
^7
22
31
19.05
18
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: Factor I
was checked in nine schools as a very acute condition affect­
ing guidance. This is 4-2.S5$
'tiie total possibilities.
In eight schools, 3S.09$, this factor affects the program to
some extent. No school reported this factor of little im­
portance to the program.
62 '
is of no consequence.
In nine schools, however, it is to
some extent a factor.
Ineffective home supervision is due
to many social and economic causes for which children must
suffer.
In eighteen schools the broken home is a cause de­
manding guidance*
In five situations is this condition a-
cute.
Economic stress seems to be a factor to be reckoned
with.
Apparently changing and conflicting philosophies do
not give much concern.
The administration of guidance seem­
ingly has been able to keep pace with the changes and de­
mands that have come through this expanded concept of guid­
ance.
Lack of social controls, suoh as those formerly held
by the church and the home, are to some a factor to be con­
sidered.
It is not surprising to find that the teacher*s
point of view is to some extent another factor, since her op­
portunity to see the whole program as the administrator does
is limited.
The recency of the teacher*s training is also a
conditioning'factor.
One school listed the rapid growth of
the school, another said poor recreational facilities in the
community made extra demands on the guidance program.
Teacher-pupil continuity.
One of the criteria by
which a guidance program may be evaluated is the extent
to which every pupil is well known by at least one of the
teaching personnel.
The length of time pupils remain with
one teacher and the activity in which this relationship
exists are found in Table V.
TABLE V
TEACHER-PUPIL CONTINUITY
Semesters
Six
Number of Schools
Per
Hot
Freq.
cent
Reporting
13
Home
Room
Activity
Social
Grade
Not
Living Counselor Report:
61.90
12
1
1
Five
0
Four
2
9*52
Three
2
■ 9.52
a
Two
1
it--76
3
One
0
Totals
IS
3
13
5
1
2
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: thirteen schools, or 61.90 per
cent report a continuity of teacher and pupil for six semesters; twelve schools
report this continuity in home room and one with the grade counselor.
More Extended Continuity: One has four semesters of home room plus a combination
of B7 social living and home room. The same for A9* One reports six semesters of
home room and two semesters of social living. One school reports six semesters of
social living for a part of the school and four for the remainder.
^
Vjsl
6U*
One of the most frequent criticisms of the junior
high school is that of the constant readjustment to teacher
personality pupils have to make during the course of the
d a y ’s work.
It has been assumed by these critics that
junior high school pupils meet five, and in some instances
six classroom teachers daily, and in addition to this a
home room teacher.
Table V shows that a distinct gain has
been made in the direction of lessening the number of changes
pupils make in the course of the day’s program.
Another
criticism frequently expressed is that of the heavy teacher
load which makes it impossible for pupils to be well known
by any one in the school.
This table shows a continuity in
thirteen schools of teacher and pupil for six semesters, or
the entire period of junior high school.
Not one school .
reported a change every semester.
Meeting individual needs through the Master Program.
An index of the extent to which the program is set up to
meet the needs, abilities, capacities, and interests of boys
and girls, is found in the so-called Master Program.
The
principals, therefore, were asked certain questions concern­
ing the program; for example, if it is flexible; if so, to
what extent and at what grade levels; if they are satisfied
with the program; and in actual practice to what extent
individual needs must give away to the school schedule.
Table VI is a tabulation of the answers.
TABLE VI
PERTINENT GUIDANCE DATA RELATING TO THE
MASTER PROGRAMS OF THE LOS ANGELES JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS
1. Does the master program remain
substantially the same year
after year?
No
Yes
Number Per Number
Cent
Per
Cent
57-14-
3S.09
12
g
2. Check the grade in which the
program is most flexible.
3 . Are you satisfied to the extent
that it does not conflict with
the administrator’s point of
view on guidance?
4-. In actual practice do individual
needs generally have to give way
to the school schedule?
Grades
7th 8th 9th
1
l
15
71.4-2
6
25.55
3
14-. 2$
17
50.95
No
Ans.
5
11
4-
1.
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: in twelve schools, or 57*14per cent, the master program remains the same year after year. In eight schools,
or 3S .09 per cent, it changes. One school did not answer.
ON
vyi
66
The data of Table VI shows that over half of the
schools maintain a fixed schedule year after year.
This
practice is not consistent with a viewpoint which suggests
that schools are set up to meet the needs and change as
conditions, abilities, aptitudes, interests, and curriculums
change.
Where there is flexibility to the program, it will
be noted, the ninth grade shows the greatest amount.
This
is due to the fact that the greatest variety of offerings
is given at this grade level in terms of electives.
The
seventh grade is the least flexible, since at that level
the program is the same for all pupils, no electives being
offered*
The question concerning the extent to which the
principal*s program of guidance does or does not conflict
with his point of viev/ on guidance received twenty-one clear
cut answers.
Over seventy per cent expressed satisfaction.
This satisfaction may be explained by the fact that most of
the principals have been working .in their respective schools
over a period of years to develop a program of guidance
consistent with their philosophy.
Over eighty per cent see
to it that the individual needs of boys and girls do not
generally have to give way to the school schedule.
In order
to achieve this, much time must be devoted to individual
counseling and guidance, necessitating many changes in pro­
gram.
Trends in the direction of good guidance*
Since it
could not be anticipated that every administrator could be
satisfied with the master program in relation to individual
needs, it seemed advisable to suggest which of certain
trends in education might enable them to defend the program
in their schools.
Seven trends were set up to be checked
only if they were of definite help in the guidance situation.
Table YII is a tabulation of the responses to this section.
Since such a large percentage of the principals are
satisfied with their guidance programs to the extent they
do not conflict with their points of view on guidance, only
the few who were not satisfied responded to this unit of the
questionnaire.
It will be noted that grouping retarded
children in certain tool subjects received the largest
number of checks, meaning by that, this device of adminis­
tration is the most effective means of improving the guidance
function.
No one felt that the demands on the part of the
senior high school to meet subject matter requirements^was
a trend in the direction of good guidance.
One person felt
that the compartmentalization of subject matter as such
would be a help in setting up the program.
to defend this point of view.
It is not easy
One principal made the com­
ment that we need to realize our major problem is to teach,
guide, and help children, and while subject matter is im­
portant it is of secondary importance.
TABLE VII
EXTENT TO'WHICH CERTAIN EDUCATIONAL TRENDS '
AND PRACTICES A F F E C T .GUIDANCE
Educational Trends
1* The unit of study approach
in which there is a cor­
relation of several subjects
such as social studies.
Number checked
5
Per cent
2 3 *SO
2 . Courses in the various as­
pects of music, art, etc.,
which can be set up to take
care of individual needs,
interests, and capacities.
7
33*33
3« Grouping in certain tool sub­
jects for retarded children.
9
*J-2 .S5
2
9*52
5* Modifying traditional subject
matter courses to insure
better guidance.
7
33*33
6 . Compartmentalization of sub­
ject matter as such.
1
76
k-*
Segregating bright pupils
for special activities.
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: statement
one has been checked five times, or by 2 3 -SO per cent of the
principals, as a trend in the direction of improving their
guidance programs.
Classification of pupils. .The next section of the
questionnaire has to do with investigating the grouping of
pupils at grade levels; the basis upon which grouping is
made; and what is done with extremes of individual dif­
ferences.
One of the questions which confronts the school
administrator at every grade level from first grade through
senior high school is the question of how or upon what basis
shall pupils be grouped for instruction.
In the interest of
economy of teaching and facility of learning, the question
is whether children of like ability should be grouped or
should children be grouped by chronological age.
Disregard­
ing both of these factors should social adjustment be the
factor which determines the grouping?
An attempt has been
made in Table VIII to answer these questions.
According to the data of Table VIII there is ap­
parently not much basis for generalization on the results
of this tabulation because of* the distribution.
The ques­
tion of grouping should be followed up with a question of
which is the better practice from the standpoint of learn­
ing and teaching.
Is this wide spread difference in prac­
tice due to a difference in philosophy underlying the
practice of grouping, or is grouping done as a matter of
necessity due to the many factors over which the program
maker has little control.?
Electives, for example, in the
eighth and ninth grades largely determine the grouping in
70
TABLE VIII
METHOD OF CLASSIFYING AND GROUPING CHILDREN
FOR PURPOSES OF INSTRUCTION
Me thod
H omoge ne ou si y
Heterogeneously
Wholly
Yes
Par
Per
Per
cent tially cent
No
?/holly Per
No
cent ans.
6
23.57
^
19.05
10
47.61
1
10
1+7.61
k-
19.05
6
23.57
1
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: in six
schools, or 2&* 57 Per cent, the pupils are grouped homo­
geneously for instruction; in four, or 19*05 per cent of
the schools, the pupils are partially grouped homogeneously.
In ten, or 4*7*61 per cent of the schools, they are not.
One
school did not answer.
71
academic subjects.
The absence of electives in the seventh,
grade simplifies the problem at this level making it pos­
sible to group homogeneously.
The schools reporting the
practice of partial distribution explained as follows:
1. One groups homogeneously for arithmatic only.
2 . One draws off a group from the top, another from
the bottom, those in between are mixed.
3 . One groups heterogeneously for all grades except
the seventh grade.
One groups homogeneously in the lower division
leaving the upper group mixed.
In summing up the findings on grouping, the practice seems
to be in favor of heterogeneous grouping.
Factors which influence grouping.
Since the practice
of grouping pupils for instruction is so varied at the
junior high school level it is important that the factors
which influence grouping be investigated.
Table IX presents
a tabulation of some of the factors which are used as a
basis for grouping and certain other findings pertaining to
the question of grouping pupils for instruction.
It is apparent from the data of Table IX that the
factors which influence grouping are so many and so varied
it is difficult to single out any one of them as having the
greatest influence.
It is rather a combination of factors
12
. TABLE IX
CERTAIN FACTORS WHICH INFLUENCE GROUPINGPUPILS FOR INSTRUCTION '
.ANDEXTENTTOWHICH INDIVIDUALDIFFERENCESARE TAKENINTOACCOUNT
Factors
Intelligence quotient
ormental age.
Chronological age
Reading grade-placement
Per
Per No
Yes Cent No Cent Ans. 1 2 3 4' 5 6 7 8 9 10 11112 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
13 61.90 . 5 '23,80 3 x x x x 0 x x x x x x O x
8 38,09 10 47,61
3.
x
13 61,90 5 23,80 3 x x x
0
x x'
0
0
x x x x
0
x x x x x0 x
x x ." x x 0
x
x
Social Adjustment
7 33,33 11 52.38 3 x x
O
Alphabetical
3 14,28 15 71,42 3
O x
Health
1 4,76 I.: T.,
Arith. Fundamentals
1 4.76
Cross Section
1 4,76
Ox
xx
x0 x
x
O
x 0
x
0
x
x
x:
Other factors:
Are pupils ofverysuperior
intelligence grouped for
.academic instruction?
11 52,38' 10 47,62
Are pupils oflowmental
ability grouped for
academic instruction?
16 76,18
5 '23,81
x ‘ B7 x x
x
;x ,x-
x
\ x x x
B7 x x
x x
x x x x x x x x
x
x x
Are frequent adjustments
made throughout the
semester?
20 95,24 1 4,76
Are pupils withaprob­
lem ofadjustment given
special programs tomeet
theirneeds?
21 100,00
x xx
xx
x x xx
x xx
x x x xxx
x x
x x x x x x x x x x x x x.x x x x x x x x
j: This table shouldbe readas follows: theintelligence quotient, ormentalage, is thebasis for grouping inthirteen schools, or
61,90per cent, This isnot thebasis in five schools, or 23,80per cent, Three schools did not answer thequestion, In schools, No, 1, 2, 3,
4, etc,,,it isthebasis for grouping,
73
which seems to determine the grouping.
Intelligence quo­
tient, or mental age, and reading grade placement are men­
tioned most frequently.
These two are combined with
chronological age and social adjustment four times.
One
school classifies wholly on the alphabetical basis.
One
groups entirely on I.Q. basis but expects to group later on
reading grade placement.
It is difficult to generalize on
this tabulation, which shows such.a wide spread of findings.
In eleven schools, or slightly more than one-half of
the schools, pupils of superior intelligence are grouped
for academic instruction.
How extensively this practice is
maintained throughout the school was not investigated.
It
is a trend however, toward meeting the needs and challenges
which these children bring to the teaching learning situation.
The practice of segregating pupils of the low mental ability
groups is more extensive, over seventy-five per cent of the
schools reporting in favor of it.
Two schools reported
these two practices in the seventh grade only.
All schools, with but one exception, make frequent
adjustments to individual programs throughout the semester.
The fact that so many schools individualize instruction to
the extent that individual pupils are permitted to change
programs when better guidance is to be desired is one of the
important findings' of this study.
The same may be said for
the one hundred per cent response to the question of giving
7^
special programs to pupils with adjustment problems.
is another evidence of good guidance.
This
Pupils who are out of
adjustment because of any of many possible reasons for so
being are enabled to transfer to a situation to which they
may adjust.
Gruidance and a theory of learning.
Up to this point
in the study the emphasis has been upon guidance and ad­
ministration and individual* needs as they relate to the
program.
At this point the survey is focused upon guidance
in the actual teaching learning situation in the classroom.
An attempt was made to ascertain the theory of learning
which pervades practice in six academic fields, designated
as follows: foreign language, science, mathmatics, social
living, English, and social studies.
Three statements were
first set up each of which described a formal., subject
matter approach to learning.
Five statements were then
presented each having an informal, child purposing, and
pupil interest approach as the theory of learning.
Principals were asked to check- the theory of learning which
characterized the teaching of each subject in one of three
catagories; namely, very often, occasionally,
seldom.
The
results of the checking are found in Table X which is set
up in two sections as described above.
For purposes of analysis the first three statements
TAB1EX
.
THE'THEORYOF LEARNING1HICHCHARACTERIZES CLASSROOMPRACTICE IITHEACADEMIC FIELDS
75
0
bO
0
d
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d
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'
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O'
0
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03
a
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ri
a
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d
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i>
A
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hO
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bO
I
bfl
d
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p
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09
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’p
03
A
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ri
rl
0
ri
•ri
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•ri
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CO
H
bD
•ri
0
0
d.
a
ri
•ri
d
Ui
w
0
0
U
•ri
0
&
03
A
P
ri
a
0
•ri
0
0
03
rl
.
bO
d
H
bO
d
bO
d
d
ri
0
. ri
A
rl
,
ri
tS
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a
,
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rl
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60
ri
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03
' 0
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h
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rl
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p
03
ri
0
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0
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rl
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a
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d
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rl
p
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Occasionally______ .
Very often ■ ■
>
A
•ri
0
0
01
'
0
A
rl
bO
d
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rl
ri
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0
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01
Seldom
PART I
1. The text book is amass of
facts to be learned.
5
1
5'
1 •1
1
7
7
7
3
5
3
2, The teachingprocedure is
assignment recitation.■
6
1
4
1
1
2
5
6
7
5
6
4
3. Subject matter constitutes
the stimulusand response.
5
1
5
1
1
1
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
1. Purpose and interest are the
core of the learningprocess. 8
11
7
13
10
6
6
3
5
1 1
2
1
2. Studyand learning areapart
of the effort to enable pupils
to face new situations inthe
best possible manner.
10
12
13
13
...
10 '9, ;5
-3
4
3
3
3
2
2
2
1
8' 6 ' 6
3
1
2
3
2
2
PART II
3.3
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
3
3'
1
2
1
3. Attempts aremade to find the
objectives of teachingand
learning inthe pupils them-.
selves,
5
8
5"'■ 9
5
3
: .■*
7 . 5,‘ .6 1*7 14' 8 . 5
4. Subjectivematter is adapted
andused tomeet theneeds,
interests, and experiences of
the pupils inreal situations. 8
13
8
12
9
8
6
3 6
4
4
6 1
2
5. Integrationtakes place in
the reconstructionof the
pupils' experience to the
end thathe isbecominga '
changedpersonality,
10
6
11
8
9
9
6 8
6
7
5 2
2
6
1 1
...
I0TE: this table shouldbe readas follows: the textbook as amass of facts tobe learned isusedvery oftenas the theory of learningin
teaching foreign languages infive schools, of science inone school, ofmathmatics infive schools, of socialliving inone school,
76
In Table X may be grouped together since they represent the
formal, traditional theory of learning.
The last five may
be likewise grouped for analysis and comparison since they
represent the newer and more recent trends in relation to
teaching and learning.
For that reason the totals for each
of the two sections will serve as an index to the trend of
theory which motivates the classroom instruction.
It is apparent then that the lesson learning, text/
book subject matter as such approach characterizes the
teaching in the following subjects and in their order of
frequency.
Very often
Foreign Language........................ 16
Mathmatics.
. . . . . ..................14
Social Studies........................
4
Science ...................
. . . . .
3
English . . . . . . . . . . ........
3
Social Living . . . . .
3
.............
It is apparent from the above tabulation foreign language
is checked the most frequently for the formal type of teach­
ing v/hile social living is the least formal.
A tabulation
showing this approach used very seldom is as follows:
Social Living-.......................... 14Social Studies.
. . . . . . . . . . .
10
E n g l i s h ........ .....................
9
77
Science ..............................
7
Foreign Language...............
5
. . .
Mathmatics............................
3
This latter tabulation is quite consistently in reverse
order from the tabulation proceeding this one as it should
be.
In between these extremes we find the answer for
those schools which choose to answer at neither extreme as
follows:
Science . . . . .
...................
16
Mathmatics...............................16
Foreign Language
...............
1^
E n g l i s h ..........
13
Social L i v i n g .................
10
Social Studies.
. . . . . . . . . . .
9
It appears that occasionally science is the most formal
and social studies the least.
The last five statements in Table X suggest a dif­
ferent approach to teaching and learning; namely, that of
depending on purpose and interest as the core of the learn­
ing process.
Pupils study, and learn in order to become
more able to face new situations.
Objectives of teaching
are to be found in the pupils themselves.
Subject matter
is used and adapted to meet the needs and interests of boys
and girls.
The whole process of learning becomes a matter
7&
of enabling pupils to grow through a continuous reconstruc­
tion of experience to the end that they become well inte­
grated individuals.
The greatest frequency of this general type of
approach in the academic subjects is as follows:
Social Living . . .. . ^ . . ............. 5$
S c i e n c e ................................... 5^
E n g l i s h ................. ..
^2
Mathmatics................................. 39
Social Studies............................ 35
Foreign Language.......................... 37
It is apparent that this type of learning is most frequent
in social living and least frequent in foreign language.
This is not surprising when one considers the advantage
social living has over foreign language in terms of real
living and opportunity for real experience.
In the former,
the course is more flexible and the requirements less
demanding.
The academic subjects in which this approach is
seldom used are tabulated as follows:
Foreign Language.
..................10
Mathmatics.....................
10
S c i e n c e ................................
^
E n g l i s h ................................
4-
Social Studies..........................
3
79
Social Living . . * ...................
2
In between the two extremes this approach is used occasion­
ally as follows:
Foreign Language............
Mathmatics.
. .
33
........................ 29
................ ,2 k - :
Social Living
Social Studies............................ 21
S c i e n c e ..........
19
Engli s h ................................
19
Here again foreign language has the highest frequency and
social living the lowest.
It is difficult to generalize on data which is arriv­
ed at subjectively, being only the opinion of the adminis­
trator as he analyzes the various types of teaching which
characterize the departments of his school.
The practice
is often quite different even among teachers in the same
subject field.
In spite of this subjective evidence there
are certain general trends indicated which confirm what has
been the conviction of many; namely, that the teaching of
foreign language has had specific subject matter coverage
as an important objective, the matter of guidance being given
little consideration.
On the other extreme is to be found
social living which by the very nature of the materials of
teaching and the subject itself has been freed more than
any of the other subject fields from traditional practice.
so
Next to foreign language mathmatics has been the most
traditional.
Ways and means of affecting guidance.
Not all
schools devise the same methods of bringing about ways and
means of affecting guidance.
The extent to which meetings
affect guidance is found in Table XI.
It is apparent that the work of guidance depends upon
meetings largely as a means of motivation and coordination.
The practice of teachers of a given grade level meeting to­
gether seems to be quite frequent.
The old type of faculty
meeting is fast disappearing from the school program, only
four schools holding such meetings very often.
The ten­
dency is in the direction of meeting to take care of a
problem and only those who face that problem are called in
for conference.
Two important trends in guidance are
evidenced in two types of meetings which are being held
very often and occasionally.
These include meetings of
teachers of a grade level who have in these meetings an
opportunity to perform a high guidance function.
The same
can be said of the frequent meetings of health coordinator,
teachers, nurse, and doctor.
Guidance through conference.
The conference tech­
nique offers a means of affecting guidance to the extent
shown in Table X I I .
TABLE XI
WAYS AND MEANS OF AFFECTING GUIDANCE THROUGH MEETINGS
Meetings of:
Very
often
Sometimes
Not
at all
a. All teachers of a
given grade level.
J
b.
Entire faculty.
4-
16
1
c. Home room teachers
and administrators.
5
13
1
d. Teachers and a
supervisor.
2
17
1
e. Teachers and a re­
search director.
f. Teachers and a nurse
or doctor.
g.
Others, dep. groups.
1
6
15
1
^
^
-
13
1
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: all teach­
ers of a given grade level meet very often in seven schools;
sometimes in fifteen schools; not at all in no schools.
&2
TABLE XXI
WAYS AND MEANS OF AFFECTING GUIDANCE THROUGH CONFERENCE
Personnel involved
a.
Principal and staff.
b. Administration and physical
education staff.
c. Administration staff and
attendance supervisors
Very
often
Sometimes
Ik-
J
7
S
1*1-
d. Administrator and nurse or
physician.
13
e. Administrator and teachers
of a pupil with a problem
of adjustment.
20
2
f. Administrator, teachers and
parent of pupil with a prob­
lem of adjustment.
13
9
g.
1
Health coordinator.
H
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: the prin­
cipal and staff meet very often in fourteen schools, some­
times in seven schools.
^3
According to the data of Table XII the conference
technique is becoming an important technique in the ad­
ministration of guidance.
Among those listed in the above
table-it is significant to note that twenty schools reported
frequent conferences with the administrator and all of the
teachers of a pupil who has a problem of adjustment.
times the parent is called in to the conference.
schools reported this type of conference.
At
Thirteen
Since attendance
and guidance have much in common it is surprising that the
attendance supervisors do not confer often.
Only eight
schools reported frequent conferences of this type.
Knowing pupils.
An important function of the guid­
ance program is that of collecting data on individual
pupils.
A check of the various types of data used is found
in Table XIII.
From the above table it is apparent that all schools
included in the study use mental test data, achievement data,
cumulative records and health data.
All but three schools
have checked the interests of children.
All but four have
data on home background, economic status and special abili­
ties.
Only six keep personality inventories and fifteen
keep data on social adjustments.
These last two observa­
tions may be accounted for because of the comparative
recency of interest in personality development and social
SUI­
TABLE XIII
KNOWING INDIVIDUAL PUPILS THROUGH DATA ON PUPILS
Type of pupil data
Number of schools
3.* Mental test data
21
b . Achievement data
21
c . Cumulative record
21
d. Interests
IS
e . Home background
16
f . Economic status
16
g- Special abilities
16
h. Health data
21
i . Social adjustment
15
3 • Personality inventory
6
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: mental
test data are used in twenty-one schools.
^5
adjustments.
At this point there is a slight inconsistency
in the large percentage of satisfaction with the guidance
practice which was shown in Table II and a meagre accumula­
tion of data on personality development.
It was pointed
out in the analysis of Table II.that direction of personal­
ity was one of the main objectives of the guidance program.
Without objective data on personality development it is
difficult to give guidance.
It is therefore important that
more schools begin to collect data on this phase of child
growth.
Guidance in out of school activities.
Since educa­
tion is by no means limited to classroom teaching the ex­
tent to which the school attempts to guide the leisure time
activities of pupils is a very important aspect of the study.
Table XIV shows the extent to which attention is given to the
out of school activities of boys and girls.'
Since the pupils1 out of school life plays an im­
portant role in the direction of growth of personality, it
is important that the school give guidance to some of those
activities in which children spend much time.
It is ap­
parent that only a little time is spent on these activities
in a majority of the schools.
This is an indication of
weakness in the guidance program.
It will be noted, however,
that the greatest attention is given to character building
groups which is a very important factor in guidance*
&6
TABLE XIV
EXTENT OF GUIDANCE IN OUR OF SCHOOL ACTIVITIES
The activity
Attending movies
Listening to the radio
Reading newspapers
Much
Little
7
lH-
11
10
S
11
10
6
11
Attending church school
Special interests
10
Hobbies
10
10 •
Character building groups
1^
4-
School clubs
Not
at all
9
1
1
HOTE: This table should be read as follows: seven
schools give much guidance in amount of time spent in attend­
ing movies; fourteen little guidance; no school reported no
attention to this activity.
37
One interesting note was added by a school which
gives credit on service rating for merit if pupils attend a
certain number of Sundays at Church School.
Several comments on the question of church attendance
were made indicating it was out of the s c h o o l ^ province to
give guidance in this activity.
Community resources in the classroom.
To what extent
teachers draw upon the resources of the community to enrich
teaching is shown in Table XV.
Current news seem to be considered more frequently
than any other community resource.
the use of motion pictures.
Second to this comes
The.use of excursions is be­
coming an important factor in the educational program.
All
except three schools are taking some advantage of this op­
portunity.
The possibility of the use of lay people has
apparently not been realized.
are checked by two schools.
Musicians and service clubs
It is evident that the schools
are missing an opportunity to enrich the lives of youth
through all of the means available to them.
Case studies.
The use of the case study technique
is one of the new developments in a modern guidance'program*
The extent of its use in the schools surveyed reveals the
following: eleven schools make much use of it; twelve
schools make little use of it.
Since the case study offers
08-
TABLE XV
EXTENT TO WHICH THE SCHOOL BRINGS
COMMUNITY RESOURCES INTO THE CLASSROOM
Community
Resources
Radio
Motion pictures
Excursions
Current news
Lay people
Musicians
Much
8
Ik-
Little
12
Not
at all
1
7
8
10
17
3
"1
2
15
1
2
NOTE:
This table should be read as follows: eight
schools make much use of the radio in the classroom; twelve
make little use of it; one not at all.
&9
a very satisfactory method for guidance it appears a good
guidance technique is being overlooked.
Record of social adjustments.^ The extent to which
teachers and administrators check and keep a record of
noticeable behaviors on the part of-pupils is also a good
index to the effectiveness of the guidance program.
Thir­
teen schools use this method, one a little, eight do not.
This would indicate a weakness in the guidance which has to
do with social adjustments, for only through recording good
and bad social adjustments is the guidance teacher able to
observe the growth process in this very important factor in
the education process.
Guidance and health.
Ho guidance program could func­
tion without an emphasis on health.
How effectively this
part of the program is planned is shown in Table XVI.
Hone of the schools reported a full time health.co­
ordinator.
For that reason it seemed important to know
from what subject field these teachers were drawn.
Three
schools reported science teachers; six schools physical
education teachers; two schools girls1 vice principal.
One
school reported a boys* vice principal; one grade group
advisor; one attendance teacher; and one counselor.
In one
school the trained nurse is on the faculty health committee.
In this same school a. health council is composed of stu-
TABLE XVI
IMPORTANT FACTORS IN RELATION TO
HEALTH AND GUIDANCE
Important factors
Yes
No
a. A definite plan to make
teachers conscious of
pupils’ health.
21
0
b. A study of absence due.
to illness.
&
3
c . A plan to follow through
and carry out most of the
recommendations made by
doctors and nurses after
examinations.
21
0
d. A health coordinator.
1 8
2
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: a def­
inite plan to make teachers conscious of pupils’ health is
used in twenty-one schools, no school report having no
health plan*
91dents, faculty members, including those of physical educa­
tion, science, and household arts.
In another school the -
administrative staff including the counselor, attendance
teacher, nurse, and physical educational directors form the
health committee.
It is evident from the above tabulation
that all of the schools have definite plans to make teachers
health conscious without which an adequate program of guid­
ance could not be realized.
A study of absences due to illness reveals many of
the health needs of boys and girls.
Only eight out of
twenty-one schools realize the need for such a study.
This
is overlooking an excellent guidance technique.
For many years there has been in the Los Angeles City
Schools provision for nurse and doctor inspection of pupils
at all grade levels.
If the health program does not include
a follow-up of the recommendations made by the nurse and
physician, the program falls short of good guidance.
All
of the schools reporting do make a definite point of follow­
ing through until something is done to correct the condition
to which the doctor is calling attention.
Eighteen schools out of twenty-one have health co­
ordinators.
This is one of the most significant trends in
the direction of health guidance.
The health coordinator is
becoming an important member of the school staff.
Through
her the teaching of health is coordinated, the health prob­
92
lems .are followed.up, appointments to the clinic are made,
homes are visited and parents are drawn into conference to
discuss their children’s problems.
Orientation and articulation.
One phase of the guid­
ance program which has been receiving much attention is that
of bringing about a better articulation between the elemen­
tary and junior high school and again with the latter and
the senior high school.
The extent to which this has af­
fected the program is found in Table XVII.
It is apparent that the work which has been done by
the curriculum section and the assistant superintendents
working through conferences with principals and teachers has
born fruit.
Much has been done to bring about articulation
in the learning activities as well as the orientation of
B7 pupils to the junior high school.
Every school has a
well defined orientation program for B 7 pupils.
The. Question of how well planned is the exchange of
visits between schools is the key to its effectiveness in
guidance.
If during these visits the teacher of the upper .
level asks the teacher concerning specific subject matter
coverage the practice will deteriorate into the old per­
nicious custom of the upper school imposing its requirements
on the lower school.
For example, how far have you taught
in the arithmetic book; how many pages covered; have you
93
TABLE XVII
EXTENT TO WHICH CERTAIN TECHNIQUES ARE USED TO ARTICULATE
THE ACTIVITIES OF THE ELEMENTARY AND JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS
Techniques of articulation
Yes
No
a. Do the Incoming A 6 pupils visit
the junior high school before
entering?
11
9
b. Does the school have a well de­
fined program of orientation for
B 7 pupils?
21
0
c. Is there an exchange of visits
between the elementary school
and the junior high school?
15
6
d* Do the elementary schools furnish
sufficient data to facilitate
guidance?
IS
3
e. Do teachers of the elementary and
junior high school confer on prob­
lems of articulation of the learn­
ing activities?
20
1
NOTE; This table should be read as follows: the in­
coming A 6 pupils visit the junior high school in eleven
situations, in nine they do not.
I
taught adjectives yet?
If on the other hand, the upper
grade teacher asks about the pupils themselves; their abili­
ties to do certain things; their attitude toward work and
school; their behavior traits and their ability to work as
a group, then the teachers and the schools will be making
an effort in the direction of articulation*
This same problem enters into the last question in
the table; namely, articulation of, subject matter.
This
should include discussions on units of work covered, ex­
cursions engaged in, books which the pupils have read,
special interests they have developed, the understandings
they have gained, and to what extent the pupils are self­
directing and self-disciplined.
Preparation for senior high school.
In Table XVIII
the articulation between senior and junior high school is
shown.
Table XVIII indicates that only nine, or 42.65 per
cent of the schools, report an exchange of teacher visits.
A large portion of the teachers who are called upon to give
these beginners guidance in senior high school are therefore
not familiar with their background nor the type of living,
they have experienced in the junior high school.
To these
same pupils the senior high school is an unfamiliar place
in which there can be little security for a time at least.
95
TABLE XVIII
EXTENT TO WHICH CERTAIN TECHNIQUES ARE
USED TO ARTICULATE THE ACTIVITIES OF THE
JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL AND THOSE OF THE SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
Techniques of articulation
Yes
a. Do teachers of the senior
high school exchange visits?
'9
b. Do A9 pupils visit senior
high school?
c. Are conferences organized to
discuss the articulation of
learning activities?
d. Does the senior high school
guidance counselor meet the
A9 pupils before entering the
senior high school?
2
17
2 1
No
$
16
3
0
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: the teach­
ers of the senior high school exchange visits in nine situ­
ations, in eight they do not.
In the matter of conferences on the learning activi­
ties, the situation is better with only three schools re­
porting no such conferences.
If these meetings are con­
fined to discussions of subject matter coverage and
imposition of specifics there is little to be gained.
If
on the other hand, the senior high school is made aware of
the extent to which their new pupils have been self-direct­
ing, they may know where to begin.
If the senior high
school, through these conferences, has an opportunity to
know with what idealism they face the future, the courses
offered will take on new meaning.
There is much to be said in favor of the practice of
meeting the senior high school counselor and apparently all
of the schools reporting have this guidance service.
Vocational guidance.
Although many of the best
authorities on guidance leave vocational guidance to the
senior high school field there is still an important prevocational aspect to be considered.
Table XIX shows this
phase of guidance.
It is generally conceded that the courses offered in
junior high school are exploratory in nature.
For that
reason it might seem unnecessary to call attention to the
world of work.
In some schools the world of work is several
years away from the eighth or ninth grade boy or girl.
In
97
TABLE XIX
EXTENT OF VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE OFFERED.
IN THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS
Vocational offerings
a. Do you have courses in ori­
entation in which the ob­
jective is to familiarize
the children with the world
of work?
b. Do you have exploratory courses
other than the above in which
vocations are discussed?
c. If such courses are given, is
an attempt made to analyze the
aptitudes and interests of
pupils at the close of each
exploratory unit?
Yes
No
7
13
10
g
3
15
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: seven
schools have courses in oreientation to familiarize the
children with the world of work, thirteen do not.
other schools, however, where we find sixteen and seventeen
year old pupils, the realities of life are not far distant
and work is not far away.
-
The same may be said about a
study of vocations which apparently receives little atten­
tion in the junior high school.
Are all pupils of junior
age too young to begin to think about their abilities, ap­
titudes and vocational interests?
Apparently the junior
high school administrators think they are since only one
school reports an analysis of these at the end of each ex­
ploratory unit.
There is no doubt but that vocational guid­
ance in the junior high school needs to be given some con­
sideration to the end that children1s needs may be better
served in this important phase of education.
Summary of the chapter.
In this chapter there has
been presented the findings of a questionnaire submitted to
twenty-one administrators of the junior high schools of Los
Angeles.
The questionnaire attempted to investigate the
guidance practices and the point of view or philosophy which
guided the practice.
It included general information; point
of view; technique of guidance; extent to which the pupils
are known to their teachers; how the master program is made,
and who makes it; the degree of satisfaction the principal
finds in his school program; how pupils are classified and
upon what basis; how individual differences are cared for;
to what, extent pupils with problems are helped to solve
them; the theory of learning which motivates six of the
academic subjects; ways and means of affecting guidance;
what data is available to teachers in order they may know
their pupils as individuals; how is this information made
available to teachers; is every child known well by some
one person in the school; to what extent the school uses
the community resources; to what extent the case study
technique of guidance is being used; health and its im­
portance in the guidance program; how well pupils from the
elementary school are orientated in the new junior high
school; what attention is paid to the articulation of learn­
ing activities; what preparation is made for the transition
from junior high to senior high school;, to what extent
guidance is given in the field of vocations.
The administrative staff of the junior high school
assumes the responsibility of the guidance program.
The
greatest variety of assignments is found in the work of
the guidance counselor and the attendance teacher, both of
whom are in key positions for guidance.
Ten out of twenty-
one schools have partial time counselors.
Thirteen out of
twenty-one schools have partial time attendance teachers.
A new administrative,position.
The health coordina­
tor, a new guidance position, is developing as the need for
real guidance is recognized.
100
Distributing the guidance function.
being drawn into guidance.
More people are
This is one of the important
findings of this study.
A new point of view is evident.
the work of the specialist.
pect of school life.
Guidance is no longer
It is concerned with every as­
It gives direction to personality
development and life purposes.
Practice and point of v i e w .
agreement.
These are quite in
The administrator is able to set up a guidance
program which is satisfactory to him.
The need for guidance.
The need differs in schools
according to various environmental factors over which the
school has little control.
Economic stress, ineffective
home supervision and broken homes are acute conditions in
some sections.
Shared responsibility.
It is apparent that the re­
sponsibility of guidance is shared by the staff, the girls1
vice principal bearing the greatest load.
The teachers * position in the guidance program.
More
and more teachers are being drawn into the guidance program,
the home room teacher ranking next to the counselor.
The pupil load.
It is not adjusted to any noticeable
101
degree for those who have the added responsibility of guid­
ance .
Home room.
It is provided in seventeen out of twenty-
one schools.
Knowing every pupil.
Eighteen schools reported that
every pupil is known well as an individual personality by
the person who is responsible for his guidance.
Teacher pupil relationship.
Pupils remain continu­
ously with one teacher in sixty-one per cent of the schools
for six semesters.
cent of these.
Home room takes care of fifty-seven per
There is a definite trend in the direction
of extending the pupil teacher contacts through home room
and social living.
The administrative factors which affect guidance..
1. The master program remains the same, year after
year, in fifty-seven per cent of the schools surveyed.
This
is not consistent with the new point of view on guidance.
However, in spite of this mechanical device which does not
change,' seventy-one per cent of the principals felt they
were able to set up a program which does not conflict with
their point of view on guidance.
It is difficult to rec­
oncile these two findings.
2. Two trends in the direction of improving the
102
school program are: grouping retarded children in certain
tool subjects; and, modifying the subject matter to suit
individual needs.
3* Individual needs do not have to give way to the
school schedule in eighty per cent of the schools studied.
This is an important finding.
4. Pupils* programs are made by one or t?<ro persons
in seventy-one per cent of the schools.
This practice does
not insure individual guidance.
Grouping or classifying pupils.
The question of
grouping pupils for purposes of instruction needs further
study, since the practice as revealed in this study is as
varied as is the number of situations involved.
The prac­
tice of grouping on the basis of intelligence, or mental
age, is used more frequently than any other factor in group­
ing.
Pupils of low mental ability are grouped in seventy-
two per cent of the cases studied.
Superior intelligence is
given an opportunity to develop in special groupings in
sixty-one per cent of the schools.
Individual adjustments
are frequently made in all of the. schools.
Pupils with
problems of adjustment are given special programs.
Extent to which guidance enters into the teaching of
academic subjects.
The theory of learning which motivates
practice is not the same for all academic subjects.
The
103
more formal teaching is done most frequently in foreign
languages, the least formal in social living-
In the
formal classroom, guidance is limited.
Means of affecting guidance.
These were evaluated
in terms of types of meetings" and conferences.
The trend
is in the direction of meeting in small groups for those
who have a common problem.
The traditional faculty meet­
ing is no longer common.
Pupil data.
In keeping with the more recent trends
in guidance the schools are making available much data on
individual pupils.
These include intelligence, academic
achievement, health, and home background.
There is a
decided weakness in data on personality adjustments.
An
important aspect of the question of pupil data has to do
with its organization and accessibility to teachers.
This
study revealed the data was filed in administrative offices
where teachers had ready access to the files.
Guidance is not limited to school activities.
The
community has many resources from which the school can drawFull advantage of these is not being used by the schools,
current news and motion pictures being the exception.
OtheT
resources such as the radio:, excursions, lay people, and
musicians are used very little.
These are the positive
104
aspects of the community environment.
limited to these.
Guidance is not
The direction of personality development
must take into consideration all community factors, the
neglect of these shows a decided weakness in the guidance
program.
Case studies.
The case study technique is not "being,
used as extensively as might be expected in a well organized
guidance program, only thirty-eight per cent reported the
use of this technique.
It is through this method of study
one is able to discover emotional conflicts.
The absence
of c a s e .study records reflects a decided weakness in the
guidance program.
Health.
Health is now recognized as an important
phase of the guidance program.
This is one of the most
significant trends indicated in the study.
Eighty-three
per cent of the schools have health coordinators who are
members of the guidance staff.
Teachers are becoming health
conscious, follow up work insures proper clinic attention,
parents are being drawn into the school program.
Orientation.
The orientation of incoming BJ pupils
has become a regular part of the B7 curriculum.
A close
relationship exists between the elementary and junior high
school.
Articulation of the learning activities.
receiving some attention.
further investigation.
This is
It is a question which needs
Greater progress has been made in
the articulation between junior high schools and the ele­
mentary than that between the junior and senior high schools.
Preparation for senior high school has not received atten­
tion comparable to that which characterizes the transition
between elementary and junior high school.
Vocational guidance.
In the junior high school vo­
cational activities may be termed pre-vocational.
Most of
the industrial arts courses are exploratory in nature with
little attention given to a study of the world of work.
Aptitudes and interests are not analyzed.
General agreement.
It is quite evident on the whole
that the point of view of the principal and his practice
come close to agreement.
In other words, it is possible
for the principal to administer a guidance program which is
highly satisfactory to him and one that is functional.
This
is a very revealing finding, one which may be only wishful
thinking on the part of the administrator, particularly
when one has in mind the scope of its functions as implied
in the new concept of guidance.
Ratings of points of v iew.
A high percentage of the
106
principals has a point of view which seems consistent with
•the best current philosophy on guidance*
The need for guidance *
In analyzing the need for
guidance as the principal sees it in his community, it is
quite evident that the many environmental factors over
which the school has little control and for which adults
are responsible, are acute in nine situations and to some
extent in five*
Ineffective home supervision is another
factor due to many social economic causes for which child­
ren must suffer.
The broken home and economic stress are
also factors in some instances very acute.
Apparently
changing and conflicting philosophies of education are not
important factors.
The administration of guidance has been
able to keep pace with the changes and demands that have
come through this expanded concept of guidance.
Lack of
social controls such as those formerly held by the church
and the home are to some extent factors to be considered*
It is not surprising to find that the teacher*s point of
view is another factor since her opportunity to see the
whole program as the administrator does is limited.
CHAPTER V
A GUIDANCE PLAN FOR A JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL
Purpose of the chapter.
It is the purpose of this
chapter to present a guidance program which is in the process
of development in a junior high school in Los Angeles and
which is based upon what seem to be the best practices and
procedures revealed in this research.
The background upon which the guidance program was
planned.
In the school for which the program was planned
forty-three teachers including a counselor and an attendance
teacher, a b o y s 1 vice principal and a principal are assigned
to take care of an enrollment of 1075 pupils.
nationalities are represented in the school.
a Mexican.
Twenty-six
One in four is
Other nationalities are Armenians, Italians,
Slovaks, Jews, Yogoslavians, Japanese, Russians, Turks,
Arabians, and Syrians.
of the population.
These make up in part another fourth
The other half are Americans.
A survey
last year shows that one-third lives in a broken home or one
in which only one parent lives.
had fourteen members.
The largest family recorded
The median family was six.
The larg­
est religious group is Roman Catholic.
Less than half re­
ported religious training in the home.
Forty-five different
occupations of parents were reported, the largest number re­
corded for one occupation was that of thirty-three for truck-
log
ing, carpenters, mechanics and salesmen followed next in
order.
The summary of the pupils1 plans for their future
shows a wide variety of choices, sixty-six in all.
girls, nursing takes first place.
choose this as a vocation.
Sixty-five were hoping to
Teaching may engage twenty pupils
while forty-two want to be secretaries.
to become motion picture actors.
to join the Navy.
Forty in all aspire
Fourteen boys would l i k e '
Seven want to become farmers; fifty-four
would choose aviation.
hobbies.
For the
Only sixty-six pupils reported no
Social living received the highest number of fav­
orite subjects; mathmatics is the most difficult.
The med­
ian intelligence for the school in September 19^0 was
96.
These data which were compiled from the Students' Data
Cards-*- is valuable' as a background upon which the guidance
program was planned.
Problems to be met in planning: the program.
Three
problems had to be met in planning and carrying out the
guidance program: first, is' the problem of purpose of guid­
ance; second, is the problem of the personnel involved in
carrying out the program; third, is the problem of procedure.
Problem of purpose.
Before undertaking a plan of
guidance it is important that there be brought together the
1
Appendix, p.
153*
factors which are inherent in the purpose underlying guid­
ance.
The first has to do with the purpose of education.
Ho functional program of guidance could be planned without
a statement of the meaning of education.
Whatever takes
place in the school whether it be constructing curriculum,
improving classroom instruction, setting up a guidance pro­
gram, or working on any of the other aspects of the school
program, the basic consideration must be, what is education?
Education is an internal process and it is a social
process.
It is concerned with the biological, mental,
emotional, social, and vocational adjustments of individuals
It is the process by which the individual identifies himself
according to his capacity with the culture which is his
heritage in terms of knowledge, tools, skills, and apprecia­
tions.
Education is learning how to live and work success­
fully with others; to respect one's own personality as well
as the worth of others; to be concerned with the development
of ideals and habits in the individuals in keeping with our
ideals for a democratic society.
Since we live in an ex­
panding world, education cannot be static; it must change
not only to keep pace with these changes, but to keep ahead
of this vast on-going march of civilization as well.
The second factor has to do with the relationship of
guidance to education.
The latter has to do with the ad­
justments of individuals while guidance gives direction to
110
self adjustment.
It is the task of guidance to help indiv­
iduals set up goals and purposes which are inherent and
worth while.
Guidance is concerned with mental health or
the dynamics which motivate "behavior and learning; physical
health or the biological factors which influence behavior
and learning; intellectual adjustments or the extent to
which the individual identifies himself with the knowledge,
skills, and tools of the culture; ethical character which is
the most important of all, but it is accomplished in relation
to the whole program; social adjustments or the extent to
which he is a "star of attraction11, or rejection, or an
isolate; vocational aptitudes, interests, or points of sup­
eriority.
The third factor has to do with its scope.
Guidance
enters into all of the positive aspects of school life.
It
is not, however, an independent function but it has to do
with every individual child.
It has to do with the daily
living of youth in and out of school.
home and the community.
This involves the
The kind and amount of guidance
varies with different children in different situations and
at different times.
Provision must be made for group guid­
ance as well as individual guidance.
The fourth factor has to do with the objectives of
guidance which must be reasonable, worth while for the in­
dividuals concerned, dynamic and conceived in terms of de-
Ill
sired changes in behavior.
The problem of personnel. .Faced with the responsi­
bility of organizing the staff for guidance,
the principal
must determine first, to whom the details of■planning is to
be delegated;
second, to what other members of the staff are
the many and diverse guidance responsibilities to be given.
To insure a good program the duties and responsibilities must
be clearly defined thus avoiding confusion and duplication
of effort.
Figure I illustrates the organization of the guidance
program.
Hesponsibilities of personnel.
Working directly with
the superintendent and in charge of the divisions of instruc­
tion and curriculum and research is the deputy superinten­
dent of schools.
Through his division are made available
the resources of the following departments: commercial edu­
cation, vocational and practical arts, art, curriculum,
education for exceptional children, educational research
and guidance, library and visual education, music, physical
education, safety education and school savings.
Through
this division are made available many resources in terms of
supervisors, supervisory aids, materials of instruction,
research and guidance, psychologists, and mental hygienists.
Working directly with the superintendent and in charge of
F IG U R E
PERSONNEL
R E L A T IO N S H IP S
B o a rd
I
IN
■
THE
G U ID A N C E
PROGRAM
E d u c a tio n
and
S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f S c h o o ls
D e p u ty
r
In s tr u c tio n
C u r r ic u lu m
A s s t.
o f
S u p t.
D e p u ty
S u p t.
S u p t,
R e s e a rc h
D iv is io n
H e a lth
D e p t.
A tte n d .
D e p t.
P r x n c ip a l
C o m m u n it y
A s s t.
P r in
H e a lth
and
C lin ic
S e r v ic e s
P a re n ts
and
a ll
M e m b e rs
o f
th e
F a m ily .
A tte n d a n c e
C h a ra c te r
B u ild in g
A g e n c ie s
C o m m u n it y
A g e n c ie s
C o m m u n it y
R e s o u rc e s
T o ta l
E n v iro n m e n t
C la s s ­
ro o m
T e a c h e rs
Room
P u p ils
113
the service division is another deputy superintendent who
has charge of the health and attendance departments.
Through
this division are made available nurses, physicians, special­
ists, dentists from the health department, attendance super­
visors, and legal service from the attendance department. .
Working directly under the first deputy mentioned
above and assigned to the junior high schools is- the assist­
ant superintendent who* furnishes the educational leadership,
supervises, directs, and coordinates the activities of these
schools.
Within the school, the principal, working in co­
operation with the vice principal and through the teachers,
guidance with the pupils becomes effective.
The b o y s 1 vice principal holds a unique position in
both group guidance and guidance for the individual boy with
a problem.
Through his efforts and understanding the boys
are adjusted.
He confers with teachers, parents, nurses,
physicians, and attendance supervisors.
visits and works with community agencies.
He makes home
He helps to plan
the master program and the curriculum demonstrates teaching,
supervises instruction and recommends changes of programs.
Next to the principals, the counselor is the one
person who holds the key position in the group guidance pro­
gram.
In her office, center all of the guidance activities.
Here the materials of guidance are coordinated, including an
up-to-date, flexible and accessible file of guidance in­
formation.
Under her direction all students'
programs are
made; the program of studies for the school is planned; the
testing and research program is organized.
The counselor
helps to plan and carry out the articulations between the
junior high and the elementary schools and does the same
for the senior high school.
In her office is centered the
B7 orientation program and the A9 preparation for BIO;
special guidance for the B$ pupils who are beginning to chart
their future courses in education is given.
This involves
conferring with parents on choices of electives.
Next to the counselor in point of responsibility is
the attendance teacher, for many of the guidance problems
are brought into focus in his office.
This is particularly
true in relation to health and problems of social adjustment
involving non-attendance in school.
All teachers have def­
inite guidance responsibilities but the home room teacher,
in addition to making the programs for her pupils, is the
person directly responsible for individual guidance as well
as that of the group guidance activities of the school.
Outside of the school and having a direct bearing on
the guidance of pupils are the parents and all of the mem­
bers of the family on one hand, and all agencies and re­
sources of the community on the other.
It will be noted on
Figure I, page 112, that all of the above persons, services,
agencies, and resources center in the pupil who becomes an
115
important guidance factor himself as he becomes increasingly
capable of self guidance.
The problem of personnel further clarified.
Figure
II is set up on the basis of functions of guidance.
The
persons who perform the various functions are listed.
Special problems and their origin are suggested and the
possible disposition of the problem is explained.
The guidance plan or problems of procedure.
The
problem of procedure begins with creating a school environ­
ment in which pupils of junior high school age can grow in
desirable directions.
These directions must follow the
democratic tradition in which the worth of the person is
respected, in which self realization is the objective, the
self being a unit in.a democratic society.
Another desirable
direction of growth is in the nature of personality develop­
ment of the adolescent.
Growth must also take the direction
of health, both mental and physical as a "positive quality
of life itself."
This environment which the school creates
must lead in the direction of life goals and purposes.
This
can be accomplished through the combined efforts of teachers
and the administrative staff working together, planning to­
gether and providing the leadership which creates this
environment in which the democratic way of life becomes a
reality.
FIGURE II
GENERAL GUIDANCE PLAN OF THE SCHOOL
Health
Health
Mental
Education
in
School
Teachers:
Phys. Ed.
Classroom
Horne room
Nurse
Physicians■
Counselor
Attendance
Parents
Vice Prin.
Principal
Clinic •
Supervisors
Self
All teachers
Parents
Family
Counselor
Psychologist
Clinic
Supervisors
Vied Prin.
Principal
Self
All teachers
Librarian
Vice Prin.
Principal
Counselor
Supervisors
Superintendent
Self
Functions
Executed by
Special Problems
Out of
School
Life
Goals
Parents
Teachers
and
Counselor
Family
Vice Prin.
Church
Principal
Associates; Parents
Movi e s
Social
Radio
Institutions
Character
Church
agencies
Radio
Self
Movies
Character
agencies
World of work
Self
Health— Social— Mental— Emotional— Economic adjustment
Origin
Attendance office
Classroom
Home room
Principal's office
Disposition
Examination
Mental Tests
Treatment
Personality Tests
Change of program
.School history
Follow up
Case study
Home visit
Conference with all
Sent to Principal
teachers involved
Character building Change of school
agencies
Home
Classroom— Home room— Home— Community—
Nurse
Playground— Attendance office-?-supervisor
Doctor of attendance— Other pupils
116
Change of program
Home visits
New interests
New associates
Refer to welfare agencies
Coordinating Council
117
Creating an environment for democratic living.
Children must be taught how to live in a democracy for the
ways of democracy are no more a part of our native equip­
ment than are our abilities in any other field of learning.
Democracy must be experienced not just verbalized.
It must
have more meaning for youth than a means to achieve rights
and privileges.
bilities as well.
It must be realized in terms of responsi­
It is achieved through facing problems
and solving them to the satisfaction of the group.
This
calls for practice in groups yielding to group demands.
Some
of these problems are of their own seeking for a sensitivity
to social problems is a part of the learning in democratic
living.
Democracy has no meaning for youth until it is ac­
companied by real experience in self government.
growth process.
It cannot be hurried.
This is a
It cannot be imposed.
It must be the pupils1 own activity and own responsibility
under the careful guidance of teachers.
Experience in demo­
cracy can be achieved in the classroom, in the home room, and
in and through a well organized student government.
Growth in the direction of the democratic way of life.
The classroom offers, through the careful guidance of the
teacher, an ideal situation for learning the ways of demo­
cracy.
In the classroom there is given the opportunity for
pupils to choose their own officers, make their own rules,
help build their own standards of what is just and right.
11B
Here they learn to respect the rights and opinions of others;
to appreciate the contribution each is able to make to the
group; to yield to the will of the majority;
to respect the
minority; to be sensitive to problems and to learn how to
solve them; to share materials and privileges and opport­
unities; in short all of the problems of living together
provide the experience for learning the ways of democracyThe home room offers all that the classroom does and
more for in this situation is found the unit of the school
government, where group guidance is worked out.
From each
home room in the eighth and ninth grades a representative is
elected to the school Congress, which is the law making
group of the school.
In addition to this home room rep­
resentation the group is composed of student body officers,
members of the school court, the chief officers of the
service groups, and two A 7 pupils elected at large from the
A 7 class; B7 pupils are not directly represented but they
.are definitely a part of the school government and visit the
Congress frequently.
The Congress meets two periods every day, the students
being programmed for social living.
activity.
A teacher directs the
Strict parliamentary procedure is observed with
a president presiding.
The privilege of presiding is not
limited to him, for every member of the Congress has an
opportunity to preside several times during the semester's
119
work.
It is the responsibility of each home room represent­
ative to take back to his home room every morning a report
of the work done in the Congress the previous day.
He is
expected also to report to the Congress the opinions express­
ed by his group.
The first order of business was that of
writing a Constitution for the school with provision for
amendments as the need arises.
A thorough,study of the Con­
stitution of the United States furnished the background for
drawing up the school constitution.
Visits to the City
Hall, Courts, Garfield Senior High and various civic in­
stitutions helped also to give direction to the work.
Some of the problems taken up in the Congress were:
making a constitution by which the school could be governed;
naming the new school; approving service clubs; planning and
evaluating assemblies; what is done at Kern; what is not
done at Kern; what Kern means to me; care of school prop­
erty; what it means to be an American; conduct at the daily
flag ceremony; traffic in the neighborhood;
traffic and
safety at school; what smoking does to a Junior high school
pupil; what is a democracy; privileges in a democracy; and,
responsibilities in a democracy.
Many other problems too numerous to list here have
been discussed and taken care of by the Congress.
Many of
the problems have been of their own choosing as the need
arose.
Every day the work goes on under the patient, quiet
120
leadership of an understanding teacher who believes in and
understands the ways of democracy.
moment.
There is never a dull
?«hen a question of importance is under discussion
as many as five or six at a time are on their feet asking
for recognition, from the chair.
Congress is visited by other groups of the school.
It has been visited by the district assemblyman who was
invited to come to discuss a school problem.
As the result
of this visit he is introducing a bill to the California
Legislature to take care of the problem.
Many students
from other schools have exchanged visits with them.
The success of this enterprise in terms of value to
the members of the group, as well as to the school, is
largely dependent upon the ability of the teacher, who
directs and guides the activity, and the extent to which
the other teachers and the staff believe that a democracy
can function in a school; and the extent to which they are
willing to allow children to accept the responsibility this
type of activity demands.
The student court, composed of seven members appoint­
ed and sponsored by the principal, completes the school
government.
It meets on call to take care of the minor
offenses which occur during the course of the school day.
Guidance and personality.
The guidance plan of the
121
school begins with the individual.
Every individual has the
right to be known well by one person in the school.
In this
guidance plan it is the home room teacher who knows well all
of the members of her home room group.
Her acquaintance with
the student begins when he visits
the school as an A 6 pupil
and it continues
or his entire life in the
school.
for three years,
She meets him every day during those three years
for a home room period which is set up in the program for
fifteen minutes.
This period is always extended as a need
for extra guidance may demand.
The teacher1s responsibility begins when she receives
certain guidance materials from the elementary school through
the counselor.
.This material includes the following:
1. Orange
card which gives
birth record; pa,st school
experience, such as grades skipped or repeated;
days absent
and present; and number of schools attended.
2- Report cards showing school progress.
3 . Elementary test data including I . Q . , reading and
arithmatic grade achievement.
*4-. Anecdotal information from A 6 teachers.
5 . Autobiographies written in A 6 grade.
6 . Some outstanding creative work done by pupil while
attending elementary school.
7 . A health card which shows his health record and
his present health status.
This card is later filed in the
122
physical education office of the school.
All of these form the beginning of the cumulative
records to be used in guidance.
The B7 guidance, or home room teacher,
then begins a
series of personal interviews with each child and records her
findings on the student data card.
Two copies of this are
m a d e , o n e on heavier material for the guidance office, and
one for the teacher's file.
What teachers need to know about puoiIs.
Through
democratic planning and a careful analysis of the problem
of guidance, the teachers have made the following generali­
zations about what teachers need to know about pupils to
insure adequate guidance:
It is not necessary to know
everything about every pupil, but.there are some common
facts which should be known about all pupils.
The student
data card provides the common facts which should be known
about all pupils.
There is a group of children about whom
it is necessary to know everything that can be known.
These are the boys and girls who are unadjusted in one way
or another.
For them special guidance information must be
made available.
There is certain information about pupils
-that is of more 'value to som6 teachers than to others.
For
example, .the physical education teacher would find certain
data more useful to him than would the mathmatics teacher.
123
Procedure for accumulating: data on the unadjusted
pupil.
Being aware of the problem is the first step in the
guidance procedure.
Whoever locates the problem first re­
fers it to the counselor who in turn reports the problem to
the b o y s ’ vice principal if the person involved is a boy, or
to the principal if it is a girl, and to the home room teach­
er who immediately begins to make observations on a blank
provided for this purpose.
One copy of this blank is sent
to the principal or vice principal and later filed in the
counselor's office.
room teacher.
The duplicate is retained by the home
If the pupil continues to be a problem he is
referred to the principal or vice principal for counsel.
If
the problem still persists the parents are called in for a
conference.
Most problems are cleared up at this point,
but for those who still cannot adjust the home room teacher,
is asked to make a case study.
Starting with the statement
of the pupil’s problem the case study proceeds according to
the following plan:
1. Evaluating of classroom behavior by all of the
pupil's teachers.
2. Visiting the home to note the home background.
3* Listing personal data from the student data card
such as:
2 Appendix, p. 154-.
12^
a. Marital status of parents.
b. Number of children in the home.
c. Occupation of parents.
d. Religion in the home.
e. Interests or hobbies.
f. Leisure activities.
g. Work responsibilities.
h. Other pertinent data that may be revealed in the
study.
i. Teacher-pupil relationship,
j. Honesty,
k. Responsibility.
1. Work habits,
m. Social concern.
Education and intelligence test data including
elementary school evaluation if possible.
5* Health data.
a.
An examination by school doctor with the person
who writes the case study present if possible.
As soon as the teacher has the case well in hand with
all available data a conference of school staff and all teach­
ers involved is called.
The teacher presents the case and
asks for comments and recommendations.
It often happens
during such conferences that teachers for the first time have
an opportunity to look objectively at this person and to
125 ■
realize for the first time that he is a personality, that
some of his problems may not be of his own making.
Some of
these conferences are attended by former elementary teachers
and occasionally a parent is invited to participate.
ly the parents should always be present.
usually include home visits.
Ideal­
These case studies
The conferences are followed
by recommendations which it is hoped-will help the pupil to
make a better adjustment*
In every instance a sincere at­
tempt is made to determine the- cause of poor adjustment and
then in so far as possible to remove the cause.
If the case
can be adjusted in the school no means are spared to make
changes necessary to help the pupil.
As a last resort the
case is referred to the attendance division for placement.
Home visits and parent conferences.
During this pro­
cess of trying to solve the problems of the unadjusted pupil
it becomes necessary to make frequent contacts with the home.
To prepare teachers for this type of activity the following
procedure has been worked out for them.
Unless the case is
one of extreme emergency a letter is sent to the parent.^
Preparation for the interview.
In preparation for
the visit the teacher is given a list^ of suggestions which
3 A p p e n d i x p . 155*
^ Ibid, p. 156.
126
will help her in presenting the problem to the parents.
Reporting v isits.
After a visit has been made the
teacher makes a report on a form which is provided for this
purpose.^
A record of these visits is kept on file in the
guidance office.
Visits are made by teachers, the attendance
teacher, the counselor, attendance supervisors, nurse,-vice
principal and principal.
During the eighth month last year
192 home calls were made by the attendance teacher.
The
value in terms of guidance of such visits cannot be measured.
Report of a home visit.
This visit was made by a
home room, or guidance teacher.
Member of family interviewed: mother.
Purpose of visit: to discuss H's unsatisfactory notice
from the social living teacher and in response to mother’s
request that we visit the home.
Home conditions: broken home, mother married again.
Stepfather living in the home.
whil-e speaking about H.
Mother very nervous, wept
House clean, comfortably furnished,
family apparently not on relief.
Stepfather not the type
to help H.
Attitude of parent: anxious to cooperate, but very
strict with H.
All privileges have been taken away since
^ Appendix, p. 157*
127
unsatisfactory notice was sent home.
Teacher's comments:
I think the mother's mental
attitude has much to do with Helen's lack of interest in
her work.
She feels she has failed miserably with her
daughter.
H. was very beautiful when .small and was always
the center of attention.
Mother wonders if perhaps this
"always talking" is an effort to gain attention.
Plan for guidance:
a progress report.
Each Friday we are to send home
As each report shows improvement one
privilege will be restored.
Mother says Helen is always
careless about her-.personal appearance, does not like to
help around home.
kitchen.
off.
I suggested a chart to be hung in the
As each duty is performed, Helen should check it
If the duty is left undone, a fine should be taken
from her allowance.
It may be possible to create an in­
terest in desiring to get things done this way.
Miss S., the librarian, is going to try to encourage
her to read more.
The mother and I are working to see that
she makes some Christmas presents because of her sewing
teacher's comment on her ability to sew.
Hundreds such visits have been made to homes, some
of which are neat, modest, and inviting, others so poor it
is difficult to describe them.
Vi sits by parents to the school.
It sometimes be-
128>
comes necessary to invite parents to visit the school for a
conference in which problems of unadjusted pupils are dis­
cussed.
In such cases letters^ are sent to the home pre­
paring the parent for the type of problem which is giving
concern.
Educational guidance.
This phase of guidance.has its
beginning in. planning a curriculum, in so far as possible,
which.is inherent in the lives of the boys and girls for
whom it is planned.
carry out.
In actual practice it is difficult to
At this point it is interesting to note that
with only one exception, the'principals reporting in thisstudy rated their practice and point of view alike.
Better
educational guidance is provided if a different curriculum
is planned for the very low ability groups of whom there
are many in this school.
This is done and special programs
are provided for these pupils.
Frequent adjustment of pro­
grams are made for them and for those of the high ability
group of whom there are a few.
The educational guidance is
planned after sufficient testing has been done to indicate
the specific needs as revealed in the testing program, the
achievement in each case being worked out on the expectancy
basis.
Where great difficulty or weakness is indicated
^ Appendix, p. 15$*
129
pupils are grouped to receive special teaching.
This is
done particularly in mathmatics and science classes.
Out­
standing abilities, academic, mechanical, creative, artistic,
and dramatic are encouraged and special programs are pro­
vided to give opportunity for development.
A testing program, the results of which furnish the
background for educational guidance, is planned.
All B7
pupils are tested at the opening of the semester and grouped
for instruction according to their ability to succeed.
To
give greater stability to the program all B 7 pupils are pro­
grammed with one teacher for three periods a day during which
time social living and mathmatics are taught.
During the
first part of the semester a program of B 7 orientation is
carried on.
Parents meet teachers and visit the classrooms.
Every pupil is given a bulletin? which will be helpful to
him in adjusting to the new school.
The program for both
B J
and A 7 grades gives no op­
portunity for choices or electives.
Not until pupils reach
the BS grade are elective choices made.
All electives for
all grades are to be approved with parents’ signatures.
Three choices are given in order of preference and in case
the first two cannot be programmed.
Pupils are expected
to take one practical art and one fine art elective.
? Appendix, p. 159*
AB
130
pupils whose intelligence quotient is 110 or more are urged
to consider Spanish I seriously.
Pupils who plan a com­
mercial course in senior high school are not expected to
take typing in junior high school.
Five shops are available
for boys: general metal, electric, wood, print, and agri­
culture.
G-irls may take foods, clothing, and homecrafts.
Specific requirements are set up for each grade . &
Every ten weeks report cards are -sent home to parents.
If pupils are doing unsatisfactory work, notices are sent
home to parents and conferences are encouraged.
Frequent
Progress Reports^ "are sent to teachers to check on students
whose progress is questioned.
These reports are filed in
the guidance office for reference.
As a further check up on pupils whose social concern
is rated unsatisfactory the vice principal and the principal
call such pupils into the office for a personal interview.
Parents are often present at these conferences and the home
room teacher is kept informed of this procedure.
Another type of check up-^ which is frequently used
to collect more specific information on pupils1 progress is
also filed in the guidance office.
^ Appendix, p. 1.60«
9 I b i d ., p. l 6 l .
10 Ibid. , p. 162.
Cumulative envelopes for records.
Ho amount of care­
ful guidance on the part of teachers could he effective with­
out the guidance material which is filed in the cumulative
envelopes.
These are filed for all students in the attend­
ance office.
All materials- of value which reach the counse­
lor or the registrar are placed in these envelopes.
Teach­
ers are urged to investigate this material for students for
whom they work.
Because this material is valuable, and most
of it impossible to replace if misplaced or lost, teachers
are asked to use it in the counselor’s office whenever
possible.
They are. also urged to add to this material from
time to time valuable information concerning students for it
is from this material case studies are made.
Materials found in the cumulative envelopes may
include any one or more of the following items:
1. Orange card, or birth record.
2. Report cards.
3* Autobiographies written in A6 grade.
Anecdotal information from A6 teachers.
5- Elementary test data.
6. Front covers of tests given at Kern.,
7 . Transcripts from, other -schools.
2>. Observation slips from Kern faculty.
9 . Notes from parents.
10. Notes pertaining to students on probation.
3-32
Guidance and health.
That all teachers are becoming
aware of the importance of health as a guidance factor is
evidenced by the fact that health information topped the
list in frequency in answer to the question, what does the
teacher need to know about children.
Every teacher should
be able to detect obvious physical needs such as general
health conditions, under nutrition, eye strain, defective
hearing, postural defects, poor eating habits, hours of
sleep, and out of school habits affecting health.
When the.
teacher observes a need for a more careful check up she
sends a health follow card^-*- to the health- coordinator who
in turn refers the case to the nurse and if need be to the
doctor.
The disposition of the case is reported back to
the teacher who reported the case.
The classroom teacher must at all times take into
consideration the individual differences of pupils as to
rate of energy output and ability to work without strain or
fatigue.
She sees to it that glasses are worn if the stu- -
dent should be wearing them.
She adjusts the light and
temperature of her room so pupils may work under conditions
favorable to good health.
The greatest responsibility for health guidance rests
however, upon the teachers of physical education.
^
Appendix, p. 163*
Their
133
work includes the teaching of hygiene and physical education
through actual participation in physical activities*
Under
the supervision of this department a breakfast is served
free every morning and a nutrition period is provided in mid
morning.
Those who are underweight are invited to partici­
pate in this meal which is provided by Uni .ted States Surplus
Food Commodities.
The health program for girls may be described as
follows:
Every girl is given a white card*^ on which is
checked her weight, height, feet, head, nails, teeth, skin,
posture, and general appearance.
From this card it is
ascertained which pupils shall have breakfast and nutrition.
Approximately seventy-five pupils have breakfast each day
and close to 150 have nutrition.
The various items on the
cards are checked each term to see whether each individual
girl is getting help along the lines she needs most.
The
results from the use of these cards have been most gratify­
ing.
Another card‘d
is provided on which certain informa­
tion regarding her general health is recorded, such as heart,
vision, hearing, nutrition, etc.
These cards are checked in
the elementary school and go. with the girl to high school.
1 2
Appendix,' p. 164-.
13 I b id., p. 1 6 5 *
13^
They are filled out by the doctor at the time of examination.
If the girl shows a defect her card is clipped with a color­
ed flag, each color designating a different health program.
A red flag indicates a heart defect.
twenty such cases in the school.
nail biting.
There are
A black flag indicates
There are thirty such cases in the school.
A white flag indicates teeth need attention.
case.s in the school.
needs.
An orange flag indicates nutritional
There are 102 cases in the school.
indicates posture and feet defects.
such cases in the school.
fects.
There are 179
A green flag
There are eighty-four
A blue flag indicates eye de­
There are eighty-one such cases in the school.
pink flag indicates skin trouble.
A
There are twenty-one
such cases' in the school.
There is also a gold clip for the HHonor Health R o l l .11
It is the ambition of each girl to have her card cleared of
all the flags that are clipped to it.
If, through her ef­
forts and that of the school, she succeeds in doing this
her name is added to the tfHonor Health Roll.”
The ,,H H is
given as an award of achievement.
During the present year’ 250 clinic appointments have
been made for girls who need medical attention.
In addition to this there are many visits made to the
homes in the interest of health.
Parents come for conference.
Clinics cooperate and a continuous program of health improve-
135
ment is in process.
A careful check up of all A9 pupils who go to senior
high school is also made.
An effort is made to clear up all
defects "before that time comes.
A similar program for "boys is also in the process of
becoming.
Much emphasis is placed in Athletic Glubs,
Y. M. 0. A., and Scouting.
Physical education teachers have
an opportunity to do much guidance with boys and girls other
than that of health.
Their relationships with pupils are on
a less formal basis than those of the classroom teacher.
For that reason they have a rare opportunity to give social
guidance, to help build character, and to help the emotion­
ally unstable child to adjust.
The health program is well articulated with the
senior high school.
A personal record of every boy accom­
panies him to senior high school.
This includes such data
as height, weight, scholastic records, trust worthiness,
attitude, industry, physical coordinating, response to
coaching, athletic interests, out of school interests, work
status after school, and recommendation for teams.
This
information is invaluable for guidance in the BIO grade.
Vocational guidance.
Vocational guidance in the
junior high school is concerned with giving pupils an ac­
quaintance with the world of work.
What vocations, occupa­
tions or jobs are current in vocational trends today.
Such
136
questions as the following serve to bring out the knowledge
pupils need to have about jobs:
1 . What is the nature of the vocation as to duties;
a typical d a y ’s work; effect upon the worker as to mental
strains or physical hazards; advantages or serious dis­
advantages; as to satisfaction.
2. What are the qualifications, as to natural, es­
sential, aptitudes or personality traits.
3 . What preparation is essential in terms of general
education, special education; as to cost, time, where
secured; how to get the job; legal requirements; or capital
outlay.
4-. What is the compensation at the start, at one’s
prime, years of an active career, its permanence, demand,
availability, local possibilities, advancement rapid or
slow, leading onness, other rewards than salary.
5.
How to receive placement, employment agencies,
civil service examinations, influence of friends and rel­
atives, use of advertisements, a good form of letter of
application.
In junior high school it is important in vocational
guidance' to know if a pupil has the ability to take a col­
lege education and if there is a possibility of his going to
college.
It is important also in planning a guidance pro­
gram to know how soon a pupil will have to face the world of
137
work.
It is important to know what it takes in relation ,to
the business of earning a living.
Does he have interests -
and abilities which will lead him to success in any field?
It is important to know if the pupil has interests and
hobbies.which indicate vocational possibilities.
evidence of inclination toward a specific job?
Is there
Teachers of
junior high school children do not attempt to influence un ­
duly in the selection of a specific vocation even though
pupils think they know what they want to do.
Much opportu­
nity must be given in junior high school not only to know
about vocations but also to have an opportunity to take
exploratory courses in the several shops provided for this
purpose.
Every junior high school boy and girl should be­
gin to ask himself the question, what can I do very well.
Much emphasis is placed on what the answer to this question
will be, for from the answer to this question may* come an
indication of the direction his pre-vocational guidance
will take.
Summary of the chapter.
It was the purpose of this
chapter to present a guidance program based upon some of
the best practices revealed in the study.-
The school for
which the program was planned was surveyed to determine the
needs, interests, home and educational background of the
pupils.
The data from this survey furnished the background
for the guidance planning.
"
ljg
The program was discussed around three problems;
namely, purpose, personnel, and procedure.
The factors
inherent in purpose have to do with the meaning of educa­
tion; the relationship of guidance to education, the latter
having to do with the adjustments of individuals while
guidance gives direction to self adjustment;
the scope of
guidance which enters into all of the positive aspects of
school life; the objectives which are conceived in terms
of desired changes of behavior.
The problem of personnel was clarified by means of a
guidance chart which shows the lines of responsibility and
all of the personnel involved in guidance.
It was further
clarified by Figure II, page 116, which shows the functions
of guidance, who are involved in the function, where special
problems originate and the disposition of the problem.
The
point was brought out that in addition to all of the persons
involved in guidance the one person who is the most im­
portant guidance factor is the pupil himself as he becomes
increasingly capable of self guidance.
The remainder of the chapter takes up the problems
of group guidance or growth in the direction of the demo­
cratic way of life; educational guidance through a well
planned functional curriculum; guidance for the individual
and the techniques for keeping adequate guidance records;
how parents are brought into the program; the pre-vocation-
aspect of guidance in the junior high school.
CHAPTER VI
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
It seems evident from the findings of this study
that for the twenty-one schools surveyed the following
conclusions can be drawn.
Guidance is not a separate function.
Guidance is no
longer regarded as a separate function or a device for group­
ing children.
A large majority of the group conceive of
guidance as a function of all of the positive aspects of
school life*
Point of view and practice seem to coincide.
That
not only is the point of view on guidance consistent with
the best thinking on guidance today, but those who ad­
minister the program are able to put into practice a pro­
gram which is highly satisfactory to them and one that is
functional.
An- examination of the findings indicates that the
truth of the above statements is born out by the following
evidence:
1. The guidance functions are no longer limited to
one or.’two persons.
They are distributed among many people
who plan democratically together.
2. The persons who have the direct responsibility
1^1
for guidance are.those who are in closest contact .with the
pupiIs.
3.
That an effort is made to make every pupil in the
school well known by one person in the school, that person
being his guidance teacher.
k-.
That a distinct gain has been made in the direction
of lessening the number of pupil adjustments to teachers,
this having been brought about by extending the continuity
of the teacher-pupil relationship.
5 . That the individual needs of boys and girls do
not generally have to give way to the master program.
This
is accomplished by grouping retarded children in certain
tool subjects; by.giving special programs and frequently
changing programs for those who need adjustment.
6 . That special techniques for collecting data on
individual pupils have reached a high point, the greatest
emphasis being made on collecting health, intelligence, and
achievement data.
7 . That a special emphasis is made in the direction
of health guidance; a new guidance position, that of health
coordinator having developed as the result of this emphasis.
S.
That an articulation program between the elementary
and junior high school is a real achievement.
9.
That every school has a well defined orientation
program for incoming B 7 pupils.
14-2
10.
That vocational guidance in the junior high
school is limited to the pre-vocational aspect of guidance.
Weakness in the guidance program.
That some weak- '
nesses in the guidance program have been revealed is not
surprising in view of the scope of its function and the
number of situations involved.
While some of these weakness­
es are not general there is sufficient evidence to indicate
certain trends.
Guidance teachers carry a, heavy load.
As the work
entailed in guidance increases, due to the broadening con­
cept of guidance, there is no doubt that teachers who bear
the responsibility of the guidance program are called upon
to carry a heavy load of responsibility, which in addition
to teaching includes counseling and attendance problems.
It is apparent from the tabulation there is little adjust­
ment in the pupil load and in time allowance for guidance
teachers.
Basis for grouping*
The wide spread difference in
practice of grouping pupils for purposes of instruction is
either an indication of differences in philosophy underly­
ing the practice of grouping or the grouping.is done as a
matter of necessity.
Electives, for example, in the eighth
and ninth grades largely determine the grouping in academic
1^3
subjects.
For that reason a very heterogeneous group is
enrolled in these classes.
This presents a teaching prob­
lem which the guidance program must take into account.
Attendance and guidance.
The importance of the at­
tendance teacher as a key person in g u i d a n c e d u e
to the
very nature of his work and the opportunity he has for know­
ing pupils, is underestimated in some situations.
Recording adjustments.
The practice, of recording
good and bad adjustments by means of which the guidance
teacher is able to observe the growth process of pupils could
be more extensively used.
Absence and guidance.
An excellent guidance tech­
nique is being overlooked in the failure of many schools
to make a study of absences due to illness.
Such a study
often reveals many of the health needs of boys and girls.
Articulation with senior high school.
The problem
of articulation between the junior and senior high schools
has not been met as well as that with the elementary schools.
Personality direction.
Since the direction of per­
sonality is one of the main objectives of the guidance
program it is therefore important that schools collect guid­
ance data on this phase of child growth.
The study reveals
the fact that only six schools keep personality inventories.
lWGuidance out of school-.
Since the out of school life
plays an important part in the direction of growth of per­
sonality it is important that schools give guidance to some
of the activities.
The study shows that very little time is
spent on this phase of guidance.
Use of community resources.
It is evident also that
the schools are missing an opportunity to enrich the lives
of youth through a greater use of community resources.
The case study technique.
The use of the case study
technique which offers'a very satisfactory, method of guid­
ance is not extensively used.
Recommendations.
There has been an attempt through
this study to find the answers to a few of the problems
relating to guidance.
analysis.
developed.
Many still need further study and
Some of them have been suggested as the study
It is recommended that further investigations
be made:
1.
To determine what the teacher needs to know about
children to do effective guidance.
Teachers can't be spe­
cialists, nurses, doctors, psychologists, social workers.
After all they are only teachers and out of the vast avail­
able knowledge on the growth and development of children
and because of the increasing complexity of life, what must
they select as necessary for good guidance.
2* To analyze the theory of learning that motivates
practice in the academic' fields.
3* To develop a conference type of meeting to take the
place of the traditional faculty meeting which has little to
offer in terms of guidance.
4-. To bring about better articulation between junior
and senior high schools as a part of the guidance program.
In this study much attention should be given to the artic­
ulation of the learning activities as well as those of per­
sonality ’adjustment.
5- To improve the type of records needed to facili­
tate guidance.
How to make them available is an important
consideration in this connection.
6.
The extent to which teachers can delve into the
personal records of pupils, and how to keep those records
confidential.
7- To develop the techniques of bringing the home and
the junior high school closer together.
g>. To investigate further the basis of grouping child­
ren for instruction.
9 . To work out a plan for evaluating and reporting
to parents.’
10. To investigate the’extent to which practice and
theory on guidance coincide.
11. To determine how to utilize to advantage the
health resources of the school and community.
12- To find- out to what extent teaching is aimed at
growth or changed personality.
1'3 • To determine what type of vocational guidance
program v/ould he suited to the needs of pupils who leave
school at an early a g e .
lif. In connection with the learning activities of
bright children to determine to what extent they are re­
ceiving the guidance they need.
15* To determine to what extent social living teach­
ers are bearing the responsibility of the guidance program.
Guidance is not altogether a social problem.
It is a
personality problem.
l6. On how to plan a guidance program which will
have for its objective a pupil teacher continuity throughout
the six semesters of junior high school; this continuity to
be had in a home room or a classroom in which time enough
be allowed every day for guidance activities.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Brewer, John M . , Education as Guidance.
Macmillan C o . , 1932*
SSE pp.
New York:.The
A practical and philosophical treatment of the entire
field of guidance, his thesis being that the whole
purpose of education and guidance is to help pupils
live better lives.
Brovm, Marion, and others, Techniques of Treating Data on
Characteristics‘of High School Students. University
High School Journal, Vol. IS, No. 1., November 1939This material is a part of the research which is being
conducted in connection with a study of adolescence.
It is very very practical and suggestive.
Brown, Marion, and others, Techniques of Gathering Data on
Characteristics of High School Students. University
High School Journal, Vol. 17, No. 4-, June 1939, P 1S1-
233A part of study of adolescence.
Cox, Philip W. L., and John Carr Duff, Guidance by the
Classroom Teacher. New York: Prentice-Hall, Co., 193&*
535 pp.
A treatment of guidance as an integral function of all
of the positive-aspects of school life.' It sets up
criteria, purposes, and procedure to guide teachers in
guidance point of view and practice.
Davis, Burton Elsworth, Guidance in the Junior High School.
Unpublished Doctor1s dissertation, University of South­
ern California, Los Angeles, California, 1935*
15^.‘PP*
A survey of the guidance and counseling services in 193
junior high schools in thirty-one states.
Detj en,-Mary E. Ford, and Ervin W. Detjen, Home Room Guidance
Program for the Junior High School Years. Boston:
Houghton Mifflin Co., 19^0*
509 PP*
Designed for use in the presentation of guidance lessons,
it presents materials for home room activities covering
three years* work.
14s
Dewey, John A. , Democracy and Education.
Macmillan CoT, 1916".
pp.
Hew York: The
One of the first educational books to present the
democratic viewpoint in education, a new philosophy
which underlies the guidance movement.
Eurich, Alvin 0., and 0. Gilbert Wrenn, Guidance in Educational Institutions, Thirty-seventh Yearbook, Part I .,
Bloomington: Public School Publishing G o . , 193^ > P* 3*4”
39.
A discussion of the kinds of information needed to under­
stand students.
Gulick, Luther Halsey, Education for American Lif e.
York: The McGraw-Hill Book Co., 193$•
1&7
New
This is a statement of the findings and recommendations
of the Hew York Regents’ Inquiry. A practical state­
ment of what education needs today to meet the demands
of living today.
Jones, Aaron E . , Practices in Vocational Guidance in
Secondary Schools. California Schools, Vol. 9? No. 1,
January 1940, p* J-12.
Very practical for use in vocational planning.
Jones, Arthur J., and Harold C. Hand, Guidance in Educational Institutions, Thirty-seventh Yearbook, Part I .,
Bloomington:’Public School Publishing Co., 193^? PP* 3“
29An excellent presentation of the important considerations
which underlie guidance.
Koos, Leonard V., and Grayson H. Kefauver, Guidance in
Secondary Schools. Hew York: The Macmillan C o . , 193^*
640 pp.
Limits guidance to the distributive and adjustive phases
of the school program.
McKown, Harry C., Home Room Guidance.
Hill Book Co. , 193^~
*^7 PP*
Hew York: McGraw-
An excellent book for teachers of home rooms having
guidance responsibilities.
Ik-9
Meek, Lois. Hayden, and others, The Personal-Social Develop­
ment of Boys and Girls.. Hew York: Progressive Education
Association, 19^0” 2^3 pp.
A cooperative study made under the auspices of the Com­
mission on Secondary School Curriculum and the Committee
on Workshops of the Progressive Education Association,
it is concerned with studying and teaching boys and
girls during adolescence.
Rosecrance, Francis C., Guidance in Educational Institutions,
Thirty-seventh Yearbook, Part I., Bloomington: Public
School Publishing Co., 193$* P- 267*
A discussion of the personnel involved in guidance.
Scudder, Joseph M-‘, Guidance in the Junior High School ■
Unpublished Ma ste r’s thesis, University of Southern
California, Los Angeles, California, 1931*
This is an analysis of the improvement factors which
contribute to an effective pupil guidance program.
Stoddard, Alexander J., and others, Learning the Ways of
Democracy. Washington^ D. C.: national Education
Association, 19^0.
k S b
pp.
A case book of civic education, it is pointed deliber­
ately at implementation of the democratic way of life
in and through our schools.
Stolz, Herbert R . , Mary Cover Jones, Judith Chaffer, The
Junior High School A g e , University High School Journal,
Vol. 15? Ho. 2, January 1937*
10 pp.
Thayer, V. T . , Caroline B. Zachry, and Ruth Kotinsky, Re­
organizing Secondary Education.
Hew York: D. AppletonCentury Co., 1939*
^£>3 PP*
A survey of problems centering around the educational
needs of all classes of adolescents in contemporary
American society, commissioned by the Progressive Edu­
cation Association.
Trabue, M. R . , The Scientific Movement in Education, Thirtyseventh Yearbook, Part II., Bloomington: Public School
Publishing Co., 193^> PP- 223- 3 7 *
A presentation of the history of the guidance movement.
150
White House Conference, Children in a Democracy, A Summary,
The Journal of the National Education Association, March
19^0 , p. 69- 7 2 .
Woods, Elizabeth, Guidance and Research Bulletin, Los Angeles
City Schools, September 1 9 3 9 > PP- 1-2.
A clear presentation of relationship of guidance to
education.
APPENDIX
THE ADMINISTRATION OF A GUIDANCE
PROGRAM IN THE JUNIOR
HIGH SCHOOL
152
I. GENERAL INFORMATION
Enrollment . .
Number of teachers
Check (v) the following members of your staff and indicate
amount of time each one devotes to work implied by these titles;
for example, full time, half time, etc.
Check Here
Time
______
Principal .
......................................
______
Girls* Vice Principal........................... _____
______
Boys* Vice Principal.......... * .....................
______
Counselor..................................... _____
Attendance teacher
Others, name them
II. POINT OF VIEW ON GUIDANCE
Check (v) the following in numerical order (1, 2, 3, etc.) giving
first place to the statement which best coincides with your point of
view and so on until the five have been rated. Rate similarly with
reference to practice in your school.
Point of View Present Practice
Rate Here
Rate Here
1. Guidance is a separate function and
‘
'.should bo. the concern of specialists
who will assume the major responsibility
for the direction of children ......
2. Guidance is so wide in scope that it must
be considered as synonymous with all edu­
cation and therefore if we have good
teaching in the classroom good guidance
will be assured....................
3. Guidance has to do with pupils and their
problems as they relate to an improving
democratic society. . - .................
4. The chief function of guidance is to set up
a research and measurement program to facili­
tate the placement and grouping of children .
-2~
Point of View
Hate Here
5, Guidance enters into every aspect of
school life. It gives direction to
personality development and life
purposes.............................. .. ......
Present Practice
Hate Here
......
III. THU NEED POH GUIDANCE
Check (v) the following social and educational factors as they
apply to your school in relation to the degree of need for guidance:
Very acute To some extent Very little
1 . Liany environmental factors due to
increasing complexity of society,
______
2. Ineffective home supervision . . .
,
______
.
______
______
3. Broken home..................
4. Economic stress
5. Conflicting points of view in
education. . ,............
6 . Changing philosophies of education
7. Lack of social controls, . , . . .
8 . Limitations of teachers who have
not developed modern educational
point of view. , ......... .
9, Other factors, name them and
check as above . .......
IV. RESPONSIBILITY FOR TEES GUIDANCE PROGRAM
1. Check (v) which one of the following is responsible for the
administration of the guidance program.
Check Here
Principal...................................... ........
Girls* Vice Principal. .
...........* ................. -
Boys* Vice Principal ..................... . . . . . ______
Counselor...................................... ........
Others, name them and check as above
Rate in numerical order (lj 2, 3, etc.) the following with reference
to their responsibility in the guidance program, giving equal rating
to those who work in a group.
Hate Here
School counselor .............
i*.
.... .........
Home room teacher............................... .
......
Social living teacher.................. i ..................
Grade counselor.................... .......................
Attendance teacher ..................
...........
......
Others, name them and check (v) as above............. ........
With reference to each of the persons checked above, check (v)
the following:
Yes
Ho
a. Is the pupil load adjusted to take care of this
added responsibility for guidance? Home room teacher....................... ........
....
Social living teacher............. . . . * ;_______
____
Grade counselor . . . . .
......
....
._______
____
.................
Physical education directors.
..........
Others, name them and check (v) as above. . . . _____ _
____
b. Is the teacher free from teaching one or more periods
a day to take care of pupil adjustments?
Home room teacher....................... ........
....
Social living teacher ....................
......
....
Grade .counselor......................... ........
....
Physical education directors............... ........
....
Others, name them and check (v) as above. . . ._______ ______
c. Do you have a conference or home room period during
which time teachers assist pupils with thoir problems? ______
____
d. Does some teacher know every pupil well as an
individual personality?....................... .. ..... ......
_4~
Check Here
With Whom
e. Check (v) the number of semesters your pupils
remain with any one teacher continuously as
a part of your guidance.program.
. .
Six semesters........
Five semesters.......................
Four semesters*.........
.......
Three semesters . . . . . . .
..........
Two semesters
.............
One semester. . .
........... . . . . .
Y. GUIDANCE AND THE SCHOOL PBOGHAM
Check (v) your answer to the following questions:
Yes
No
1. Do you have a Master Program which remains substantially
.....................
the same year after year?
2. If there is a difference as to grade, check (v) the.
grade which i*s the most flexible.
Seventh grade.
...... . . . . . .............
Eighth grade . . . . . . . . . .
Ninbh grade.
Check Here
4
•
....................
....................... ...........
3. Check (v) the person who assumes the major responsibility
and work involved in making the program*
Principal............... ......... .
Girls* Vice Principal........ .....................
Boys1 Vice Principal .
...........................
Counselor......................... ‘ .............
4. Check (v) which one of the following generally makes the pupils5
programs.
Girls1 Vice Principal..............................
Boys 5 Vice Principal ..............................
Counselor. . . . .
................................
Check Here
Home room teacher.
Grade counselor.
.
Others:, name them.
Yes
No
5. Are you satisfied with the program to the extent that it
does not conflict with your point of view on guidance?
6. If you are not satisfied check only those of the follow­
ing statements which are trends towards helping you set
up a program which you can defend in your school.
Check Here
a. The unit of study approach in which there is a
correlation of several subjects such as social
Studies............... ...............................
b. Courses in the various aspects of music, art,
etc., which can be set up to take care of
individual needs, interests, and capacities . . . . .
c. Grouping in certain tool subjects for retarded
children..............................................
d. Segregating bright pupils for special activities. . . ,
e. Modifying traditional subject matter courses to insure
better guidance ........................... . . . . . .
f. Compartmentalization of subject matter as such. . . .
g. Demands on the part of the senior high school to meet
subject matter requirements ........ ..............
Yes
No
7. In actual practice do individual needs generally have to
give way to the school schedule?..........................
•
CLASSIFICATION OF PCJPILS
1. Check (v) which of the following is the basis for classifying
pupils at grade levels:
Check Here
a. Homogeneous......................................................
b. Heterogeneous..................... .................... ..........
-6-
Check Here
2. Chock (v) which of the following is used as a basis for
classification
Intelligence quotient or mental age.................. ........
Chronological age................................. ...... •
Reading grade placement............................ .......
Social adjustment........ . ....................... ........
Alphabetical .....................................
......
Others, name them................................. ........
Yes
3. Are pupils of very superior intelligence grouped for
academic instruction? .......................
4. Are pupils of low mental ability grouped for
instruction?.........................
5. Are frequent adjustments to individual programs made
thoughout the semester? . . . .
» ....
6 . Are pupils with a problem of adjustment given special
programs to meet their needs?..................
. ____
VII. UETHOD OF GUIDANCE
On the following page check (v) the theory of learning which
characterizes class room practice in the academic fields.
No
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Very Often
1. The text book is a
mass of facts to be
learned ............
2. The teaching pro­
cedure is assignmentrecitation..........
3. Subject matter consti­
tutes the stimulus
and response. . . . .
4. Purpose and interest
are the core of the
learning process. . .
5. Study and learning
are a part of the
effort to enable
pupils to face new
situations, in the
best possible manner.
6. Attempts are made to
find the objectives
of teaching and learn­
ing in the pupils
themselves..........
7. Subject matter is
adapted and used to
meet the needs,
interests, and ex­
periences of the
pupils in real
situations..........
8. Integration takes
place in the recon­
struction of the
pupils’ experience
to the end that he
is becoming a chang­
ed personality. . .
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~*8 ~
7111. WAYS AND MEANS OF EFFECTING GUIDANCE
Check (v) the following with reference to their frequency of use
in your gu idance program.
•Very often Sometimes Not at all
1 . Meetings of:
a. All teachers of a given grade
level » • • •« • • i • • • • •
b. Entire faculty. . , .
c; Home room teachers and
administrators. . . .
di Teachers and a supervisor . i *
e* Teachers and a research
director. . . . ; . *
. » . . .t
fi Teachers and a nurse or doctor*
g. Others, specify .......
2. Conference with:
a. Principal and staff . . .
b. Administrator and physical
education staff .......
c. Administration staff and
attendance supervisors.......
d. Administrator and nurse or
physician . ...............
e. Administrator and teachers
of a pupil with a problem
of adjustment.............
f. Administrator, teachers and
parent of pupil with a
problem of adjustment .......
g. Others, specify
_
_______
_______
-9-
IX. KNOWING INDIVIDUAL PUPILS
1. Chock (v) tho pupil data which is made available to tho
tcachor concorning her pupils:
Chock Here
Mental tost data
*
.............................. ........
Achievement data . . ........ ......... . ........ ........
Cumulative rocord........................................
Interests...... .
. ......... ........
Homo hack ground........................................
Economic status. . * . . : ....................... ........
Special abilities. . . . ; ....................... ........
Health data.
................ ........
Social adjustment.......! ....................... ........
Personality inventory. . . . ......................
Others, specify. . .
......
............................._______
2. Information and data are available in:
Boys1 Vico Principal's offico.....................
. ______
Girls’ Vice Principal’s office......................
Counselor’s office ..............................
‘
......
Grado counselor’s room.................'......... ........
Home room teacher’s room......................... ........
Social living teacher’s room
................ ........
Others, specify............. ............................
3. Cheek (v) the extent to which effort is being made by the school
to give guidance in the following out of school activities.
Much
Little
Nob at a11
Attending movies......................
...
...
Listening to tho radio.................
...
...
Heading newspapers........
Attending church school.
(
........ .....
„
...
...
-10Much
Littie
Not at all
...
...
Special interests......................
Hobbios............. ...........
Character buidling groups.......... .....
Others, name thorn
. ...
4. Chock (v) to V7hat extent the school brings tho
following community resources into the class room.
Radio................................
Motion pictures.................. .....
Excursions...........................
Current news
Lay people . . . * t1 *
Others, name them
»
*
. .
5. To what extent is the case study technique, of
guidance used?.......................
6 . Check (v) to what extent teachers and
administrators keep a cumulative record
of pupils’ noticablo behaviors, good and
bad................................
X. GUIDANCE AND HEALTH
1, Does your program include the following?
Yes
a. A definite plan to make teachers
conscious of pupils’ health...........
. .
b. A study of absence duo to illness..........
c. A plan to follow through and carry out
most of the recommendations made by
doctors’ and nurses' after examinations. . . .
d. A health coordinator ....................
Note:
What is the health coordinators
other assignment or position in
tho school? ...............
No
-11XI. ORIENTATION AND ARTICULATION
Yos
1. Does your program of orientation provide
tho following?
a- Visitation of school by incoming A6 classes .______
b. A well definied program of orientation
for B7 pupils......................... .......
c. Exchange of visits by teachers of your
school and contributing elementary schools. . _____
«
d. Sufficient data from tho elementary school
to facilitate guidance................ . . _____
e. Conferences with elementary schools on
problems of articulation of learning activities _______
2.
Does your program of preparation for Senior High
School include?
a. An exchange of visits by teachers of your
school and the receiving Senior high school .______
b. Visitation of A9 pupils to senior high school J____
c. Conferences on the articulation of learning
activities............................ .......
d. Guidance by the senior high school counselor
for the A9 pupils before entering senior high
XII. VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE
1. Do you have courses in orientation in which the
objective is to familiarizo the children with the
worid of work? ...........................
2. Do you have exploratory courses other than the above
in which vocations are discussed?...............
3. If such courses are given, is an attempt made to
analyze the aptitudes and interests of pupils at the
close of each exploratory unit?.................
4. Please describe
Student Data Card
Personal H istory
i.
READ.G.P.
Name________________________________________
Last
Grade. __
H.R.
H.R. Teacher_________________
Date.
Mo.
First
Birthplace___________________
Address________________________________________
3.
Father’s name____________________________
Occupation____________________
Address_____________________
Birthplace.
4.
Mother’s Name_________
Occupation___________ ____ _
A ddress.................................
Birthplace.
5.
Total no. in home___________
6.
Lives with:
7.
9.
iq
Phone.
Brothers-Names and ages
____________
____________________
Father and stepmother______________
_____ _____ ________
Mother and stepfather_______________
____________________
Others___________________________
_______ ____ _ ___
Sisters-Names and ages
Notes and Comments
What language is spoken at home?.
.
8.
Year
Day
Birth Date-------
i.
Father and mother
I. N.
KERN AVENUE JR. HIGH SCHOOL
What home duties have you?____
11. Do you go to church or Sunday school? Name__.___________
ii.
Do you have a regular allowance?_______
_______________
How often?______
How much?___________
13.
Do you earn money regularly?_______________
14.
Do you have a bicycle?_____
15.
Does your family have a car?
16,
Check health difficulties.
Headaches
Teeth
Seeing
Doing what?.
H
V>J
tjt
Colds
Stomach
Hearing.
Tired_____
15^
Observation On Pupil Adjustment
Date_______________
Pupil’s Name
Observation;
Grade
*
t
" * ( ?;
'J
.
r'
. * :
H.R.
«
■■
■;j
'
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,
, ~
„
Recommendation
Teacher
(OVER)
LOS ANGELES CITY HIGH SCHOOL DISTRICT
l&rn gfoenue Junior
ikfjool
4765 E A S T F O U R T H S T R E E T
LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA
VIERLING KERSY
SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS
ELIZABETH SANDS
PRINCIPAL
Dear Mrs.
I should like very much to make an appointment for one of our
teachers to call on you in your home at your convenience. TTe
are. making many such home calls to become better acquainted with
our parents.
believe that parents and teachers, working together, can
help boys and girls work more successfully in their school.
YJe
will be free from
to
and would like to call on you at that time if it is
convenient for you. Please fill out the blank below and
return by __
9
ierv sincerely yours,
Elikipbeth Sands*
Principal
I mil be glad to receive a call from the above teacher of
Kern Avenue Junior High School at ___________ o’clock on
Date
Signed:
SPECIAL BULLETIN
TO:
ALL TEACHERS
FROM:
ELIZABETH SANDS
SUBJECT:
I.
SUGGESTIONS PON- HOME VISITS
The technique of an interview:
1.
Make an* appointment by letter or phone in all but emergency
cases. Going unannounced often embarrasses the parent and pupil.
Letters for appointments are to be had in the office.
m
»
\
\
2.
Have the case well in mind before the interview.
3.
Explain your interest in improving the health or social adjust­
ments of the pupil, depending on the particular need.
4*.
Explain how the school may be improved through acquaintance *
with the parent.
5. Tell what the school is tiying to do for
the boys and girls.
6.
Try to determine how the parent feels toward the school. Is
satisfied with it?
7.
How does the pupil feel about the school.
dislike it?
8.
Invite the parent to come to the school.
If the problem is a
serious one, make an appointment for theparent to visit for
conference.
Does he like or
she
157
RECORD BLANK
TEACHERS’ HOME VISITS
H.R.
Pupil’s name
Member of family interviewed
Purpose of visit
Address
Date interviewed
.
Home conditions
Attitude of parent or guardian
Comments
Name of visiting teacher
LOS ANGELES CITY HIGH SCHOOL DISTRICT
2£ern gfoenue junior Htgf) ikfjool
4765 EAST FOURTH STREET
15&
LOS ANGELES. CALIFORNIA
VIERLING KERSY
ELIZABETH SANDS
PRINCIPAL
SUPERINDENT OF SCHOOLS
Dear M
Your child ,_________________ , is having difficulty in m aking the
proper adjustm ent to Kern Avenue Junior H igh School. We feel con­
fident th a t this trouble can be corrected and are anxious to have a
conference w ith you.
You w ill find a check m ark opposite the item below w hich is the
principle cause o f _________________ difficulties. I shall be very glad
to discuss this problem w ith you at earliest convenience.
i.
2..
3.
4.
5.
Poor citizenship.
U nsatisfactory w ork in class.
Frequent tardiness.
Frequent absence.
O ther.
Very truly yours,
Principal
KERN AVENUE JUNIOR HIOK SCHOOL
TO:
ALL NEW STUDENTS
FROM: ELIZABETH SANDS, Principal
159
Please note: On February 3, 1941 all nev students will meet in the cafeteria
at 8:30 a.m. for Homeroom Assignment and. other instructions.
ADMINISTRATORS:
Following are names of the persons responsible for planning and looking after
the business of running the school:
Miss Elizabeth Sands. . . . . Principal
Mr. Allen Campbell........ Vice-Principal
Mrs. Esther Sraoot..........Counselor
Mr. Stanley Taufman. . * . . .Registrar
LOCATION OP ROOMS IN VARIOUS BUILDINGS:
Administration Building (Where administrators offices are located)
First floor - administrative offices, Library, student store,
and Rooms 103 and 104*
Second floor - Rooms 200 to 204.
Classroom Building:
First floor - Rooms 300 to 30S.
Second floor - Rooms 400 to 409.
Shops:
Electric
Wood
Metal
Print
-Room
-Room
-Room
-Room
600
601
602
603
BELL SCHEDULE:
Warning bell...........
Homeroom.... .
Period X ........ .....
Perind II,.... ...... .
N^f Etion.............
Period III............
Period IV...........
Lunch....... ........
Period V.............
Period VI............
Clear Building........
8:20
Tardy
Passing
.... .......8130
8:45
9:40
10:35
10:50
11;40
12*35
1:25
2:15
3:10
,, ......... .9:45
........... 10:50
...........2:20
Bells rung at times -sthcr 4;haji tfecse on above schedule are-eall-hells or warnings
for clean-up in gym and shops. Pay no attention to them unless they apply to you*
RESIDENCE IN_SCHOOL DISTRICT:
If students are in doubt about whether or not they live within the district, please
cali> at the Attendance Office to check before school begins.
CAFETERIA:
A nutrition period is set aside at 10:30 every morning for those who wish to
purchase milk, orange juice, or fruit in the cafeteria.
Any vrho do not buy these things in the cafeteria may bring fruit from home and
eat on the grounds at that time.
Students may buy lunches in the cafeteria at noon.
Most things which are served cost 5?#,
On certain days an entire lunch of three items may be bought for 10?#.
The hash line at the vrost side of the cafeteria sells milk, candy, ice cream and
hamburgers at noon.
MEDICAL ATTENTION!
The girls’ doctor, Dr. Davis, comes to Kern on the Monday of the first and third
week of the school month.
The boys’ doctor, Dr. TajdLor, comes to Kern on the first and third Tuesdays of the
school month.
The school nurse, Mrs. Calkins, comes to Kern each Thursday.
LOCKERS:
Each student has two lockers.
The hall locker is given by the homeroom tea.chers and is used as a storage nlacc
for books, coats, lunches, etc.
The gym locker is given by the gym teachers and is a place where gym clothes are
kept.
FLAG CEREMONY:
Every morning at 8:20 the flag is raised with considerable ceremony. Every after­
noon at 3:15 the flog is lowered. All boys and girls arc asked to stand at
attention and remain quiet until the bugles have stonoed playing.
LOST AED FOUED:
Any Korn student who finds anything which does not belong to him is a.sked to take
it at once to the attendance office where it will be kept until the owner has
time to call there for it*
STUBEET BODY ORGAEIZATIOH:
Officers are - President
Girls Vice President
Boys Vice President
Secretary
Lower Grade Assemble Chairman
Congress is made uo from
two representatives from
period III and IV. Only
Social Living during the
representation from each H. R. excepting B7Ts who have
the entire grade. Congress meets as e. class each day
fine students nay be in Congress and they do not take
semester they attend Congress.
APUDEITI BODYt
It will be necessary for you to have in mind that certain expenses must be taken
care of upon entering school. The following is a list of the items for which you
v ill be exioected to pay:
For girls:
Towel fee
.Gym. blouse
Gym. shorts
Gym. socks
Gym. shoes
For boys?
$.60
.59
c;q
.10
fee
Gym. shirt \
Gym. trunkfe
Athletic sur/oorter
Gym. socks
Gym. shoes
Towel
$.80
.35
,44
.30
.25
All the above articles except the gym. shoes may be purchased at the student store
with no sales tax. Other items such as book covers, fountain nans, and school
supplies are also on sale at the student store at reasonable orices.
PERMITS TO LEAVE SCHOOL:
Bo pupil may leave the grounds during the school day without a remit. Pupils
wishing to go home for lunch must get a permit from the Attendance Office.'
Permission to leave the grounds for Illness or emergency must be obtained from
one of the principals. Boys will se Mr. Campbell; girls will see Miss Sands. If
they cannot be found, see Mr. Taufman or Mrs. Smoot.
SAFETY RULES:
1. Students must stay out of buildings before school, during nutrition period, and
during the lunch hour*
2. Students must not ride bicycles on the grounds* Bicycles must be racked.
3. Lunch permits must be shown when leaving the grounds and returning at noon
time.
4. Bo running, shoving, loitering, or sliding rails will be allowed on stairs.
5. We expect all students to practice safety at school, at hone, and on the way
to and from school*
KERN AVENUE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL
ATTENDANCE BULLETIN
The following rules are to be read and discussed with the Homeroom teacher
until thoroughly understood:
I UNDERSTAND THAT:
1. I must never go off the school grounds without permission.
2. A Permit to leave school must be obtained from the Principals or the
Counselor and MUST be taken to the Attendance Office before leaving
school.
3. If I wish to go home for lunch I must bring a note from home to the
Attendance Office to obtain a lunch permit.
4. Vvhen I have been absent I must go to the Attendance Office before going
to any class.
5. when I have been absent I must bring a note signed by my parent or
guardian telling why X was absent.
6. The following are acceptable excuses for absence!
a. Sickness of pupil.
b. Extreme emergeruay.
7. My absence card should be signed by every teacher whose class I missed
and when completely signed, I should take it to my HOMEROOM TEACHER, who
will keep it for one term as a record of my absence.
8 » If I wish to transfer from Korn Avenue Junior High School I must bring
a note from my parents requesting the transfer and giving the new
address. I must bring this note to the attendance office at 8:15 a-, m.
on the day I wish to transfer and must allow myself the entire day to
chock out.
9. The tardy bell rings at 8:30 a.m. and I should bo in my scat in my
Homeroom when the tardy bell rings.
10.
If I am late to school I should report to the Attendance Office before
.going to Homeroom.
MR. TAUFMAN, Registrar
Approved
ELI ZABPJTH SANDS , Principal
KERN AVENUE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL
TRAFFIC BULLETIN
January 14, 1940
To:
From:
All Homeroom Teachers
Mr. Good, Traffic Chairman
A service group called “Traffic,11 has been formed at Kern Avenue
Junior High School, to introduce safe traffic flow during
passing periods.
There are six g e.neral rules to follow:
1.
walk at all times, before or after the bell.
2.
Go around to the right of the traffic officer at
in t er s e c t i on s .
3.
Do not cross traffic between intersections until you
can go around to the right of a traffic officer.
4.
Always walk on the right*
5.
Do not touch traffic officers.
6
all
Do not inal-ie urn sees iary noise.
Following is a drawing of the traffic flow- in the Classroom
Building
L
C M
c
/; n
L
J
m
/
1
N
V
Traffic guards are represented by small rectangles..
Have some one put a. large copy of the above dr a:wing on the black­
board before Homeroom and discuss it during the period.
In the Administration Building: the steps near the library are for
UP traffic ONLY.
The front stairs in the Administration Build­
ing are for D07AI traffic ONLY.
This organization is trying' to help ttcu go safely from one place
to another at Kern Avenue.
Please do your part by cooperating'
with the officers.
Officers are identified b y a blue arm band
KERN
Z F
_ /~
F£
OtRt. S
P.0
B&ys>
-
^00.
GI RLS' F t E L D
ClASSXMm
PRM T
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tu u .
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fetterly
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BUtLP/NC
FI ELD
160
SPECIAL BULLETIN
To:
B7 parents send teachers
From:
Esther Smoot,, Counselor
Subject: A7 program
Required subjects for the A7 grade are:
10 PhySoEd,
4. Mathematics
20 Social Living
5. Art
3, Social Living
6 , Boys:
10 weeks Electricity
10 weeks Floodshop
Girls: Foods
Music of any kind may not be substituted for Art except in special cases which
require the approval of Miss Sands, Miss Rehor and Mrs, Smoot, Programs once
made mil not be changed except in very special cases.
Parent will please sign to indicate his approval of program.
Parentfs signature
*
(Students do not write below this line)
NEV PROGRAM
PRESENT PROGRAM
Name
Name_________
Grade
Grade
H.R.
Room
Subject
j. L/ j. r
i
1 !
!
------- ----------------
i
1
i
II !
I
I
in !
i
IV 1
_r
V !
i
VI 1
i
,
-
.
_______
H,R,__ _
Per,
.
i.
ii
i n
. ii...
v
VI
_____ Subje_ct__
Rocm
i
I
L . . . . . . ........
----
i!
i
!
;
...........
..............
.
SPECIAL BULLETIN
To:
From:
Subject:
A7 parents and teachers
Esther Smoot, Counselor
B8 program
The following subjects numbered one through four are required of all B8 students;
those numbered five and six are electives offered them. Parents and students
are asked to make elective choicescarefullyin order to avoid loss ofstudents1
time and energy caused when program changes are made after asemester has started.
Programs once made will not bo changed except in very special cases. Students
may take only one Fine Art but should indicate a second'choice also.
Fine Art:
(Mark 1st choice with 1,
2nd choice with 2)
Boys & Gir1s:
♦Art
♦Instruments
1, Phys<, Ed,
2, ‘Social Living
3, Social Living
"♦’
Journalism
4. Mathematics
♦Jr. Orch,
♦Library
♦Office
♦Orchestra
5, Practical Art:
Boys:
10 weeks Printship
10 weeks General Metal
Girls: (check one)
Foods
♦Library
"♦Office
Bovs :
Agriculture
“♦Glee Club
Girls:
Art Crafts
Homecrafts
♦Jr, Glee Club
"♦Sr. Glee Club
irents will please sign indicating that they approve choices made.
Parent*s signature
(Students do not write in this space)
PRESENT PROGRAM
NEM PROGRAM
Name
Name
Grade
Per.
H.R.____
Subject________ Room
u
II
ii
!
i
i
III I
:
'r
i
rv ! ... 1 ■
"'-un,,iT•
v
i
VI !
Grade_____
Per.
I
II
--"
...
H.R._____
Subject
Room
1
--- ---
III
IV
V
VI ■
\__
SPECIAL BULLETIN
To; B8 teachers and parents
From: Esther Smoot, Counselor
Subject: A8 Program
The following is a program required of all AS* s. Each will make three elective
choices marking them 1, 2, and 3 to show order of preference. If possible, the
program will be made to include the first and second choices. Parents and stu­
dents are asked to make elective choices carefully in order to avoid loss of
students’ time and energy resulting from program changes made after a semester
has started. Programs once made will not be changed except in very special cases
1. Physical Education
2. Social Living
3. Social Living
4, Science
5. Elective
S. Elective
A8 ’s may choose any two of the electives listed below. Typing is primarily for
college preparatory students; others may take it unless they plan a commercial
course in senior high school. Such students will postpone Tyoiiy
typing until that time,
Boys
Girls
Boys arid Girls
*Art (advanced)
Agriculture
Art Craft
^Dramatics'
*Drafting
Clothing, A8
Electricity
*Home Living
Foods, B8jl
*Foods
*Instruments
*Home Arts
♦Glee Club
*Journalism
Homecrafts
Fetal Shop
*Jr. Glee Club
*Jr. Orchestra
rint
Shop
^ lLibrary
*Sr. Glee Club
'ood Shop
'Office
^Orchestra
Note: 1 For those who have
not had it
Spanish I
Typing
Parerts will please sign to indicate that they approve choices made.
Parent1s signature
(Students do not write in this- space)
PRESENT PROGRAM
I':-A" PROGRAM
Name
Name
Grade
Per.
Grade
H.R.
Subject
Room
Per.
I
I
II
II
III
III
IV
IV
V
V
VI
VI
H.F
Subject
9
Boom
SPECIAL BULLETIN
To:
AS Parents and teachers
From:
Esther Smoot, Counselor
Subject: B9 Program
The following Is a program required of all B9 students. Each will make three
elective choices marking them with 1, 2, or 3 to show order of preference. If
possible the program will be made to include the first and second choices. Elec­
tives started in B9 are usually continued in the A9 grade. Parents and students
are asked to make elective choices carefully in order to avoid loss of students*
time and energy resulting from program changes made after a semester has started.
Programs once made mil not be changed except in very special cases,.
1, Phys, Ed,
2, Social Living
3, Social Living
4, Mathematics
5, Elective
6, Elective
39 students may choose any two electives listed below. Those ivho plan to take a
commercial course in senior high school may take one semester of typing if they
are willing to repeat it in senior high later, 39 students should choose
electives which they will continue in the AS,
Girls
Boys
♦Agriculture
Art Craft
♦Drafting
Clothing-A8]_
Electricity
Foods
♦Home Arts
♦Foods
Homecrafts
♦Glee Club
♦Jr, Glee Club
General Metal
♦Sr, Glee Club
Printing
'foodshop
Note 1: For those who
have not had it,
Parents will please sign indicating that they approve choices made,
Boys and Girls
♦Art (AdVo)
♦Jr. Orch,
♦Dramatics
’♦Library
Svday Bus,
’♦Office
♦Home Living
♦Orchestra
*Instruments
♦Span, II
♦Journalism
Typing I, ♦!!
Parent *s signature
(Students do not write in this space)
NETT PROGRAM
PEESENT PPQGRAM
Name
Grade
/or
Grade
H.R.Subject
Room
Per.
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
H,R,
Subject
Room
SPECIAL BULLETIN
To
B9 parents and teachers
From:
Esther Smoot, Counselor
Subject : A9 Pro gram
■;
The following is a program required of all A9 students„ Each will make three
elective choices marking them 1, 2 and 3 to show order of preference,, If pos­
sible, the program will be made to include the 1st and 2nd choices. Electives
started in B9 are usually continued in the A9 grade. Parents and students are
asked to make elective choices carefully in order to avoid loss of students?
time and energy resulting from program changes made after a semester has started,
Programs once made will be changed except in very special cases.
4o Math, or Science
5c. Elective
6o Elective
1* Phys„ Ed.
2-. Social Living
3o Social Living
A9 students may choose any two electives listed below. Those who plan to take a
commercial course in senior high school may take one semester of typing if they
are willing to repeat it in senior high later.
Boys and Girls
Girls
Boys
♦Jr. Orchestra
♦Library
♦Office
♦Orchestra
♦Spanish III
"Typing I,
♦Agriculture
Art Craft
♦Drafting
♦Clothings. A8-A9
Electricity
♦Foods B9p
“Homecrafts
♦Foods
♦Home Arts
General Metal
Jr., Glee Club
jGlee Club
~Sr„ Glee Club
Printing
♦II, *111
Woodwork
Note 1: For those who
have not had it,
Parents will please sign indicating that they approve choices made.
♦Art (AdVo)
*Dramat ics
■Kvday Business
♦Home Living
*Instrument s
*Journalism
Parent •
's signature
(Students do not write in this soace)
NE’"r PROGRAM
PRESENT PROGRAM
1 Name
Grade
Subject
ir'er.
II i
iv
i
T
II.R,
Grade
H.R.
Room
Per,
II
Subject
Room
l6l
KERN AVENUE JUNIOR HIGH
PROGRESS REPORT
Date
Pupilfs name
Per
____
Teacher
II
III
VI
Report requested by
_____________
T/ork done in class
Grade
H.R#
Citizenship
162
INDIVIDUAL OBSERVATION RECORD
Bequested by
Date
Pupil's Name
ER. ___
Subject Achievement:
Excellent
Good
Average
Fair____ Failing___
Remark
_______
____ _________
Citizenship : Excellent
Good
Average_____Fair___
Fai ling^____
Remark _____
Teacher's signature ___
____________
_______
______________ _
Note: Additional information may be written on back of card.
163
FORM 33.235
10M
1 0 -3 9
HEALTH FOLLOW-UP CARD
Health Report to H o m e R o o m or Classroom Teachers
Name.
Health Report from Classroom Teacher
Index.
.Grade.
.Date.
Seen by:.
Date.
Findings and recommendations:
Reason for referring pupil to school physician,
nurse, or health coordinator:
Signature o f Teacher
Signature of Health Coordinator
16^
Girls’ Gym Record Card
N AM E
Grade
Date
Per.
Age
Ht.
Wr.
N .W .
Plus or
Minus
Feet
Heads
N ails
Teeth
Skin
Gen. App.
Ay
165
r
N ame
F ir s t
R ESID EN C E
^
H ealth r e c o r d
N ame
| SEX
* y year
year
j^ j r e s u u t y e a r
B IR T H
SCHOOL
YR.
MO.
1
DAY
R m .N o .o r
ols— / ^ N e e d A tten tio n , grad e u r g e n c y 1, 2, 3, or 4
Slight
A — R eceived a tten tio n
S -S lig h t d e fe ct
Moderate
severe
F — F u r th e r e x a m in a tio n n eeded
N U T R IT IO N
PHYSICAL EXAMINATION
N O S E fit T H R O A T
EARS
EYES
|
W GT.
i
L ID S
H G T.
R
L
R
L
D1S*
TON­
CH A RG I
S IL S
A D EN ­
O ID S
DE­
CAY
ORTHO*
C LEAN­
IN G
GUMS
OR­
O O N T I/ G A N IC
FU N CT­ LUNGS
IO N A L
O— O ver
V — V a c cin a tio n
T— T oxoid
M— M antoux
HEART
TEETH
1
I
O r t h o p e d ic
N ER­
VOUS
h e a r in g
V IS IO N
E x a m in e r
G y m . Pe r .
|
NAME OF
ON
C H EST
SP E E C H
SK IM
SYSTEM
PO S­
TURE
RACE
FEET
[
j
T
1
-
THIS CARD
M U ST BE T R A N S F E R R E D W ITH OTHER R EC O R D C A R D S .
EVERY CHILD M U ST HAVE A HEALTH
C L E R K W I L L F IL L IN N A M E . R E S I D E N C E A N D B IR T H D A TA O F C H I L D .
CARD OR AN
EXCUSE CARD.
H A IR
ENDO­
C R IN E
M IS C .
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