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Evaluation of certain guidance techniques at Metropolitan School of Business

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EVALUATION OF CERTAIN GUIDANCE TECHNIQUES AT
METROPOLITAN SCHOOL OF BUSINESS
A T h e s is
P re se n te d to
th e F a c u lty o f th e S c h o o l o f E d u c a tio n
The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a
In P a r t ia l F u lfillm e n t
o f th e R e q u ire m e n ts f o r th e D egree
M a ste r o f S c ie n c e i n E d u c a tio n
by
M a r g a r e t J o a n M c K ie n e a v y
Ju n e 1941
UMI Number: EP54080
All rights reserved
INFORMATION TO ALL USERS
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a note will indicate the deletion.
Dissertation PWblisMng
UMI EP54080
Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author.
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ProQuest LLC.
789 East Eisenhower Parkway
P.O. Box 1346
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f t ly\ is&\
O
*
Th is thesis, writ ten under the direction of the
Chairman of the candidate’s G ui dan ce C o m m it te e
and a p p r o v e d by all me m be rs of the C o m m it te e ,
has been pr ese nte d to and ac ce pt e d by the F acu lty
of the S c h o o l of Ed uc at io n in p a r tia l fu lfillment
of the requirements f o r the degree of M a s t e r of
Science in Education.
~
June 7, 1941
D ate .................:.................................
Dean
Guidance Committee
D. Welty Lefever
Chairman
Louis P. Thorpe
0. R. Hull
/y/J?.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I *
v
PACE
INTRODUCTI O N .............................................
1
The p r o b le m
2
• S ta te m e n t o f th e p ro b le m
Im p o rta n c e o f th e p ro b le m
Scope o f th e s tu d y
*
2
...............................
...................................
5
6
D e f i n i t i o n o f t e r m s .............................................. .....
.
6
S ources o f d a ta
.
9
and m e th o d s o f p r o c e d u r e
O rg a n iz a tio n o f c h a p te rs
II.
. . . . . . . . . .
.
. . . . . . . . . . .
RELATED S T U D I E S .............................................................................
R e v ie w o f r e l a t e d
stu d ie s
. . . . .
11
12
.....................
13
........................................................................
13
S l a u g h t e r ’ s s t u d y ..............................................................
14
S tra w ’s stu d y
..............................
A ndrew ’ s s t u d y
16
W a l l e r ’ s s t u d y ........................................................
16
L a r s o n ’ s s t u d y .........................
17
le s s o n ’ s stu d y
........................................................................
P om eroy’ s s tu d y
. . . . . . . .
..........................
17
16
W e is m a n n ’ s s t u d y . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18
C o rson ’s stu d y
19
..........................................
G annon’ s s tu d y
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20
M a rtin ’ s stu d y
........................................................................
21
Fox’s stu d y
....................................
C avanaugh’ s s tu d y
. . . . . . . .
..............................................................
21
21
iii
CHAPTER
PAGE
T r a i l l ’s stu d y
........................................................................
B a r d e n f s s t u d y ......................................................... .
.
.
T a a f e ’ s s t u d y ...................................................
K e l l e y ’ s s t u d y ............................................................
III.
22
22
23
2U
A DESCRIPTION OF COUNSELING PROCEDURES AT
METROPOLITAN SCHOOL OF B U S I N E S S ...................
2$
P e r s o n n e l o f th e C o u n s e lin g D e p artm en t a t
M e tro p o lita n s c h o o l o fB u sin e ss
. . . . . .
25
P e r s o n n e l and d u t i e s o f t h e c o u n s e l i n g s t a f f
P rin c ip a l
..............................................................• • •
C o u n s e l o r ......................................................................
C o o rd in a to r
2 5>
26
.........................................
A s s is ta n t c o u n se lo r
25
26
.........................................................
26
.........................................................
27
i
E m p lo y m e n t o f f i c e
C l a s s r o o m .........................
S t a t e E m p lo y m e n t O f f i c e
27
.........................................
27
S t a t e E m p lo y m e n t O f f i c e a s s i s t s C o u n s e l i n g
D e p a r t m e n t ............................ ................................................
B u s i n e s s c l u b s ..................................................................
27
28
Young M en’ s B u s i n e s s " C l u b a n d Y oung Women’ s
B u s i n e s s C l u b ........................................
28
Types o f v o c a t io n a l g u id a n c e o f f e r e d s tu d e n ts
o f M e tro p o lita n School
o f B u sin e ss
. . . . .
S e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l ..................................................
29
29
iv
CHAPTER
PAGE
On e n t e r i n g M e t r o p o l i t a n .................................
29
S tu d e n ts a t M e tro p o lita n S ch o o l o fB u sin e ss
30
..........................
31
..............................................
32
On e n t e r i n g t h e b u s i n e s s w o r l d
On t h e j o b
S e l li n g M e tro p o lita n to th e c o n tr ib u tin g
s c h o o l s .............................................
32
S e l l i n g M e t r o p o l i t a n t o b u s i n e s s men . . . .
IV .
METHOD OF PROCEDURE
.........................................................
S o u r c e s o f d a t a a n d m eth o d s o f p r o c e d u r e
V.
33
.
.
PERSONAL DATA AND O R I E N T A T I O N ............................
.
A ge o f s t u d e n t s ......................................................
a n d e m p lo y m e n t
47
47
. . .
47
R a c e a n d n a t i o n a l i t y ...........................................
M ajo r s t u d i e s i n h ig h s c h o o l .
36
47
P e r s o n a l d a t a ..................... ........................................ .....
Sex, m a r ita l s t a t u s ,
34
50
.....................
50
H ig h s c h o o l s t u d i e s i n w h ic h s t u d e n t s d i d
t h e i r ,l > e s t w o r k ................................................... .....
Summary o f f i n d i n g s
in r e s p e c t to p e rs o n a l
d a t a ...............................................................................
D ata c o n c e r n in g o r i e n t a t i o n
S tu d e n ts need h e lp
53
53
....................................
53
in a d j u s t i n g th e m se lv e s
t o t h e p r o g r a m ......................................................
S tu d e n ts fin d p r in te d m a te r ia l h e lp f u l
55
.
.
57
....................................................
57
P r in te d m a te r ia l e x p la in s re q u ire m e n ts o f
v a rio u s p o s itio n s
V
CHAPTER
PAGE
S u g g e s tio n s f o r im p ro v in g p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l
.
60
S tu d e n ts s a t i s f i e d w ith t h e i r co u rse o f
s tu d y and o c c u p a tio n a l c h o ic e
V I.
DATA CONCERNING THE CURRICULUM ,
C le r ic a l co u rse o f stu d y
A c c o u n tin g c o u rs e o f s tu d y
....................................
.
. . . . . . . . .
co u rse o f s tu d y
63
70
...............................
70
71
.....................
71
. . . .
72
M a c h in e -b o o k k e e p in g c o u r s e o f s tu d y
S e llin g
60
. . . . . . . . . .
S e c r e t a r i a l co u rse o f stu d y
Comp to m e t r y
. . . . * .
c o u r s e o f s t u d y ............................... ....
A d d itio n a l c o u rs e s needed by s tu d e n ts
.
.
. . .
72
72
T y p in g s p e e d s a d e q u a te f o r th e h a n d l i n g o f
j o b s ........................................................
74
S h o rth a n d sp e e d s a d e q u a te f o r th e h a n d lin g
o f j o b s .........................
74
N um ber o f s t u d e n t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e i r c o u r s e
76
Types o f b o o k k e e p in g and r e c o r d - k e e p i n g u s e d
by s tu d e n ts
...................................................
Sum m ary o f f i n d i n g s i n r e s p e c t t o c u r r i c u l u m
V II.
DATA CONCERNING GUIDANCE
80
.....................
80
.
S tu d e n ts*
. . . . . . .
F a c to rs e n te rin g in to
76
.....................
P re lim in a ry p la n s of s tu d e n ts
s e le c tio n of co u rses
76
c h o ic e o f c o u rse
. . .
80
94
C hanges i n c o u rs e s o f s tu d y a f t e r e n t e r i n g
M e t r o p o l i t a n ..........................................................................
95
vi
CHAPTER
PAGE
New c o u r s e s c h o s e n a f t e r e n t e r i n g
.
.
.
.
.
95
P e r s o n s who i n f l u e n c e d s t u d e n t s t o c h a n g e
th e ir p la n s
.
.
.........................
.
Change i n p l a n s a s r e s u l t o f t r y - o u t c o u r s e
96
96
U se o f c o u n s e l i n g o f f i c e by s t u d e n t s d u r i n g
tr a in in g p e rio d
.........................................................
M a in s o u r c e s o f g u i d a n c e
..........................................
96
97
A dequacy o f g u id a n c e o f f e r e d by c o u n s e lin g
o ffic e
.....................
.........................................................
A d d itio n a l needs o f s tu d e n ts
...............................
97
98
S im ila r ity o f f i r s t p o s itio n to co u rse o f
t r a i n i n g .............................................................................
98
98
S t u d e n ts 1 r e a c t i o n to g u id a n c e r e c e iv e d
S u g g e s t i o n s f o r im p ro v e m e n t o f t h e p ro g ra m
a t M e tro p o lita n
.........................................................
Sum m ary o f f i n d i n g s i n r e s p e c t t o d a t a
c e rn in g g u id a n c e
T ill.
.
99
con­
. . ...........................................
99
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOM­
MENDATIONS
Sum m ary o f f i n d i n g s
..............................................
101
.........................................................
101
.
108
...................................................................
111
BIBLIOGRAPHY......................................................................................................
115
C o n c lu sio n s
. . . . . . . .
R e c o m m e n d a ti o n s
...............................
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE
I.
PASS
D is t r i b u ti o n o f R esponses i n R e sp e c t to P e rso n ­
n e l D a t a o n A g e ........................................................................
II.
D is tr ib u tio n o f R esponses in R e sp e ct to Sex,
M a r r i a g e , a n d E m p l o y m e n t .......................................
III.
48
49
D i s t r i b u t i o n o f R e s p o n s e s i n R e s p e c t t o R ace
a n d N a t i o n a l i t y ...................................................
IV .
D i s t r i b u t i o n o f R e sp o n se s i n R e s p e c t t o M a jo r
S t u d i e s i n H ig h S c h o o l
V.
51
...............................
52
D i s t r i b u t i o n o f R e s p o n s e s i n R e s p e c t t o H ig h
S c h o o l S t u d i e s i n w h i c h S t u d e n t s D id T h e i r
B e s t W o r k .......................... ............................................. .....
V I.
. .
54
D i s t r i b u t i o n o f R e s p o n s e s w i t h R e s p e c t t o H e lp
N eeded i n A d j u s t i n g to th e P ro g ra m o f t h e
S c h o o l .....................................................................................
V II.
D istrib u tio n
o f R e s p o n s e s i n R e s p e c t t o A m ount
o f H e lp R e c e iv e d fro m P r i n t e d M a t e r i a l
‘V III.
56
.
.
.
58
D i s t r i b u t i o n o f R e s p o n s e s w i t h R e s p e c t t o How
W ell P r i n t e d M a t e r i a l E x p la in e d Jo b R e q u ir e ­
m e n ts
IX .
.........................................
59
D i s t r i b u t i o n o f R e sp o n se s a s to D eg ree o f S a t i s ­
f a c t i o n w i t h O c c u p a t i o n a n d S t u d i e s .....................
X.
61
D is tr ib u tio n o f R esponses i n R e sp e c t to th e
A dequacy o f th e C l e r i c a l C ourse o f S tu d y
.
.
64
v iii
TABLE
X I.
PAGE
D i s t r i b u ti o n o f R esponses
A dequacy o f
X II.
X III.
XV.
A dequacy o f
X V I.
65
.
66
.
67
.
68
in R e sp e ct to th e
C ourse o f S tu d y
in R espect to th e
t h e B o o k k e ep in g
D is tr ib u tio n o f R esponses
.
in R esp ect to th e
t h e C o m p to m e tr y
D i s t r i b u ti o n o f R esponses
A dequacy o f
C ourse o f S tu d y
t h e A c c o u n tin g C ourse o f S tu d y
D i s t r i b u ti o n o f R esponses
A dequacy o f
X IV .
th e S e c r e ta r ia l
D is t r i b u ti o n o f R esponses
A dequacy o f
in R esp ect to th e
C ourse o f S tu d y
i n R e sp e c t to th e
th e S e l l i n g C o u rse o f S tu d y . . .
D is tr ib u tio n o f R esponses
69
i n R e sp e c t to O th e r
C o u r s e s a n d E x t r a c u r r i c u l a r A c t i v i t i e s W h ich
W ould H a v e B e e n U s e f u l t o S t u d e n t s i n T h e i r
W o r k ......................................................................................
X V II.
D is tr ib u tio n o f R esponses
73
i n R e s p e c t t o Type­
w r i t i n g Speed C o n s id e re d A d e q u ate f o r
H a n d lin g
o f J o b s ..............................................
X V III.
D i s t r i b u ti o n o f R esponses
75.
in R esp ect to S h o rt­
h an d S peed C o n s id e re d A d e q u ate f o r H a n d lin g
o f J o b s .......................... ..................................................................
X IX .
D is tr ib u tio n o f R esponses
77
i n R e s p e c t t o W h eth er
o r N o t S t u d e n t s Had C o m p l e t e d T h e i r C o u r s e o f
S t u d y .............................................. .....
XX.
D is tr ib u tio n o f R esponses
78
i n R e s p e c t t o W h eth er
S t u d e n t s E n te r e d w i t h D e f i n i t e P l a n t o Take a
C e r t a i n C ourse
..........................................................................
81
IX
TABLE
X X I.
PAGE
D is tr ib u tio n o f R esponses in R esp ect to S tu ­
d e n t s 1 S e l e c t i o n o f C o u rse B e fo re E n te r in g
X X II.
.
82
D i s tr ib u tio n o f R esponses in R e sp e c t to R easons
f o r S e l e c t i n g C o m m e r c ia l C o u r s e a n d T h e i r
O r d e r o f C h o i c e ........................................................................ 83
X X III.
D i s t r i b u t i o n o f R e sp o n se s i n R e s p e c t t o W h eth er
S t u d e n t s C hanged C o u r s e s A f t e r E n t e r i n g
XXIV.
. . .
D i s t r i b u t i o n o f R e s p o n s e s i n R e s p e c t t o New
C o u rse s C hosen A f t e r E n t e r i n g
XXV.
84
.
D is tr ib u tio n o f R esponses in R esp ect to
85
th e I n ­
f l u e n c e s C a u s in g S t u d e n t s t o Change T h e i r
O r i g i n a l P l a n s .............................................................................. 86
XXVI.
D i s t r i b u t i o n o f R e s p o n s e s i n R e s p e c t t o W h e th e r
S t u d e n t s Changed O r i g i n a l P l a n a s R e s u l t o f
T r y - o u t C o u r s e s .............................................................................. 87
X X V II.
D i s t r i b u t i o n o f R e s p o n s e s i n R e s p e c t to U se o f
C o u n se lin g O f f ic e by S tu d e n ts D u rin g T h e ir
T r a i n i n g P e r i o d .................. ....... ..............................................88
X X V III.
D is tr ib u tio n o f R esponses in R esp ect to S tu d e n ts ’
M a in S o u r c e s o f G u i d a n c e
XXIX.
..............................
.
89
D i s t r i b u t i o n o f R e sp o n se s i n R e s p e c t t o A dequacy
o f G u id a n ce O f f e r e d
XXX.
.
byth e C o u n se lin g O f f ic e
90
D i s t r i b u t i o n o f R e s p o n s e s i n R e s p e c t t o A d d i­
t i o n a l N e e d s o f S t u d e n t s .............................................
91
PAGE
TABLE ,
XXXI.
D i s t r i b u t i o n o f R e s p o n s e s i n R e s p e c t t o W h eth er
S tu d e n ts *
F i r s t P o s i t i o n Was t h e T y p e f o r
W h ic h T h e y R e c e i v e d T r a i n i n g ....................................
X X X II.
92
D is tr ib u tio n o f R esponses in R e sp e ct to S tu ­
d e n t s ’ R e a c tio n to G u id a n ce R e c e iv e d
. . . .
93
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
So g e n e r a l i s
t h e a c c e p t a n c e on t h e p a r t o f b o t h
sc h o o lm e n and t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c
t h a t y o u th n e e d s g u id a n c e o f
some k i n d t h r o u g h o u t h i s e d u c a t i o n a l l i f e ,
re s p o n sib ility
of th e
sc h o o ls to
and t h a t i t
o f f e r such g u id a n c e ,
se e m s h a r d l y n e c e s s a r y t h e s e d a y s t o a t t e m p t t o
e x is te n c e o f s c h o o l d e p a rtm e n ts o f g u id a n c e.
seem t h a t t h o s e
s c h o o ls w h ich h a v e f a i l e d
i s th e
th a t i t
ju s tify
R a th e r,
th e
i t w o u ld
t o s e t up s u c h
p r o g r a m s w o u ld f e e l t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r d e f e n d i n g t h e i r s t a n d .
T he f a c t t h a t a s c h o o l c a n b o a s t o f a w e l l - o r g a n i z e d
p rogram o f g u id a n c e , ho w ev er,
co m p la c e n c y on t h e p a r t o f i t s
i s n o t in i t s e l f a cause f o r
a d m in istra to rs.
s c h o o l g u id a n c e s e r v i c e s one n a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y ,
In d isc u ssin g
0 . G. V /renn,
w rite s:
A c o n s t a n t c h e c k m u s t b e m ade u p o n w h a t h a s b e e n d o n e
so t h a t p r o c e d u r e s c a n b e c h a n g e d i n t h e l i g h t o f w h a t
is le a rn e d ; . . .
no l a r g e c la im s a s t o t h e v a lu e o f
t h e s e new p r o c e d u r e s s h o u l d be m ade ^ m l e s s t h e r e i s a t
l e a s t some o b j e c t i v e p r o o f . 1
T h i s a u t h o r c o n t e n d s t h a t g u i d a n c e i s by n o m e a n s o n e o f t h e
m ost e f f i c i e n t e d u c a tio n a l s e r v i c e s a t p r e s e n t ,
and t h a t a
fu n d a m e n ta l s t e p i n t h e p r o c e s s o f im p ro v em en t i s t h e e v a l u a t o
in g o f e x is tin g s e rv ic e s .
W ren r e f e r s t o t h e r e s u l t s o f
1 C. G. ¥ / r e n n , " E v a l u a t i o n o f S t u d e n t P e r s o n n e l W ork;
a C r i t i q u e o f t h e G u i d a n c e M o v e m e n t ," S c h o o l a n d S o c i e t y . 5 2 :
4 1 0 , N ovem ber 2 , 1 9 4 0 .
^ Loc. c i t .
e v a l u a t i o n s t u d i e s su c h a s The C o o p e r a t iv e S tu d y o f S e c o n d a r y
S c h o o l S e r v i c e s r e p o r t e d b y A l t s t e t t e r , who s t a t e s :
R e p o r ts fro m th e v i s i t i n g c o m m itte e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t
th e g u id a n c e s e r v i c e i s p ro b a b ly 'l e s s w e ll o rg a n iz e d
and i s o p e r a t in g l e s s e f f e c t i v e l y th a n any o t h e r p h a se
o f seco n d ary scho ol a c t i v i t y . 3
In th is
sam e s t u d y W. C. E e l l s o f S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y r e p o r t s
o n t h e j u d g m e n t o f s e v e n t h o u s a n d p a r e n t s who r a n k e d t h e
e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f th e v o c a tio n a l g u id a n c e f u n c tio n s o f th e
s e c o n d a ry s c h o o l a t t h e b o tto m o f a l i s t o f tw e lv e a s p e c t s
of school l i f e .^
I.
THE PROBLEM
S ta te m e n t o f th e p ro b le m .
B u sin e ss,
M e tro p o lita n S chool o f
th e p o s t - g r a d u a t e co m m erc ial d e p a r tm e n t o f
M e t r o p o l i t a n H ig h S c h o o l, Los A n g e l e s , h a s a s p a r t o f i t s
o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p la n a C o u n se lin g D e p a rtm e n t,
so p la n n e d a s to
c o o rd in a te th e v a rio u s fu n c tio n s o f th e sc h o o l.
m ent i s
The d e p a r t ­
d e s c r ib e d i n d e t a i l in C h a p te r I I I o f t h i s
th e re fo re ,
stu d y ,
and,
o n l y b r i e f m e n t i o n i s m ade h e r e o f som e o f i t s
m a jo r d u t i e s .
new s t u d e n t s i s
The s e l e c t i o n , p ro g ra m m in g ,
and o r i e n t a t i o n o f
th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h a t d e p a rtm e n t; th e
^ M. L . A l t s t e t t e r , " G u i d a n c e S e r v i c e i n Two H u n d r e d
S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s , tf O c c u p a t i o n s , 1 6 : 5 1 4 , M a r c h , 1 9 3 6 .
^ W. C. H e l l s , " J u d g m e n t o f P a r e n t s C o n c e r n i n g A m e r i c a n
S c h o o l s ,w S c h o o l and S o c i e t y , 4 6 :4 0 9 -4 1 6 , S e p te m b e r, 1935,
( s e e t a b l e on p a g e 4 1 1 ) .
s e t t i n g up o f t h e c u r r i c u lu m , a f t e r t h e l a t t e r h a s b een p a s s e d
u p o n by t h e c u r r i c u l u m c o m m itte e , an d t h e p ro g ra m m in g o f
te a c h e r sc h e d u le s i s a n o th e r of i t s
fu n c tio n s;
m o s t i m p o r t a n t o f i t s m any a c t i v i t i e s
b u t p erh ap s
is th e o ffe rin g o f voca­
t i o n a l a d v ic e t o p u p ils o f th e sc h o o l.
Many f o l l o w - u p s t u d i e s h a v e b e e n c o n d u c t e d b y t h e
P la c e m e n t O f f ic e o f th e
s c h o o l, w h ic h ,
a lth o u g h in r e a l i t y
a p a r t o f t h e w h o le g u id a n c e p l a n , o p e r a t e s a s a s e p a r a t e
d e p a rtm e n t.
b ility
T h e s e s t u d i e s w e r e m ade t o d e t e r m i n e t h e s u i t a ­
o f p la c e m e n ts,
b o th from e m p lo y e r an d p u p i l p o i n t s o f
v ie w , t o e s t a b l i s h f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e tw e e n b u s i n e s s
men a n d t h e s c h o o l ,
and to a s c e r t a i n th e n e e d s o f b u s in e s s
i n o r d e r t h a t th e s c h o o l m ig h t so a r r a n g e i t s
fill
th o se n e ed s.
program a s t o
To t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , h o w e v e r , n o g e n e r a l
c h e c k - u p h a s b e e n m ade t o d e t e r m i n e t h e
C o u n s e lin g D e p artm en t.
E d w in A. L e e ,
e f f ic ie n c y o f th e
f o r m e r l y on t h e s t a f f
o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a a t B e r k e l e y a n d o f C o lu m b ia
U n i v e r s i t y , a n d now D e an o f t h e S c h o o l o f E d u c a t i o n a t t h e
U n iv e r s ity of C a li f o r n ia a t Los A n g e le s, u rg e s th e n eed f o r
research :
T he a r e a i n w h i c h we h a v e m o s t t o do i n t h e r e a l m
of re se a rc h l i e s in e v a lu a tio n .
Too l o n g h a v e we
assum ed t h a t o u r a c c o m p lis h m e n t m atch e d o u r o b j e c t i v e s .
I s i t to o b r u t a l t o s u g g e s t t h a t m ost c o u n s e lo r s h a v e n ’ t
th e s l i g h t e s t e v id e n c e to p ro v e t h a t t h e i r g u id a n c e h as
been t r u l y e f f e c t i v e ?
We h a v e b e e n s t r o n g o n g u e s s i n g a n d w i s h i n g , b u t w e a k
on f o l l o w i n g t h r o u g h .
I f we a r e t o m a i n t a i n o u r
p r o f e s s i o n a l s e l f - r e s p e c t we m u s t a c c e p t t h e f u l l
r e s p o n s ib ility o f re s e a rc h — to e v a lu a te f e a r l e s s l y th a t
w h i c h we do a n d t o m o d i f y o u r p r o g r a m s i n a c c o r d a n c e
th e re w ith * 5
M e tro p o lita n School o f B u sin e ss h a s been in e x is te n c e o n ly
a few y e a r s ;
and from i t s
o rig in
g ro w n so r a p i d l y b o t h i n i t s
in F eb ru ary ,
p r i n c i p a l o f th e
serv e,
s to p and e v a lu a te th e
th a t th e re has
re s u lts .
B o th t h e
sch o o l and th e c o u n s e lo r and h is a s s i s t a n t s ,
h o w ev er, a r e v e ry p r o g r e s s i v e
fav o r resea rch ,
i t has
c o u n s e lin g f u n c t i o n s and i n t h e
n u m b ers o f p u p i l s w h ic h i t a t t e m p t s t o
b een h a r d l y tim e t o
1935,
in t h e i r o u tlo o k .
b u t a r e m o re t h a n w i l l i n g
They n o t o n ly
to a c c e p t th e
r e s u l t s o f s t u d i e s w h ic h m easu re t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f p r a c t i c e s
w ith in th e sc h o o l.
It
i s w ith t h e i r a p p ro v a l and h e a r t y co­
o p e ra tio n t h a t th e i n v e s t i g a t o r h a s a tte m p te d to e v a lu a te
th e v a r i o u s f u n c t i o n s o f t h e C o u n s e lin g D e p artm en t o f M e tro ­
p o lita n S chool o f B u sin e ss.
th e
T he t e c h n i q u e
e m p lo y e d i n m a k i n g
e v a l u a t i o n was t h a t o f s e n d in g a q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o
groups o f fo rm er p u p ils o f th e sc h o o l.
tw o
A p p r o x i m a t e l y 50 p e r
c e n t o f th e s e p u p ils had o b ta in e d t h e i r f i r s t
p o sitio n s
th r o u g h th e s e r v i c e s o f th e s c h o o l P la c e m e n t O f f i c e ;
th e o th e r
50 p e r c e n t h a d s e c u r e d e m p lo y m e n t t h r o u g h o t h e r m e a n s . • A
copy o f th e
5
q u e s t i o n n a i r e a p p e a r s i n C h a p t e r IV o f t h i s
E d w in A. L e e , "A L o o k T o w a rd t h e F u t u r e , ”
O c c u p a t i o n s , 1 6 : 7 1 9 - 7 2 3 , M ay, 1 9 3 8 .
stu d y .
5
A n a ly s is o f t h e p ro b lem .
T he e v a l u a t i o n s t u d y c e n t e r s
a ro u n d th e t h r e e m a jo r f u n c t i o n s o f t h a t d e p a r tm e n t, and
en d eav o rs to answ er th e fo llo w in g q u e s tio n s :
1.
How may t h e o r i e n t a t i o n o f new s t u d e n t s b e i m p r o v e d ?
2.
How m ay c o u n s e l i n g o f s t u d e n t s be m ade m o re
e f f e c t i v e and h e lp f u l to th e c o u n se le e s ?
3*
How m ay t h e c u r r i c u l u m b e i m p r o v e d t o m o re a d e ­
q u a t e l y m e e t t h e n e e d s o f s t u d e n t s who e n t e r t h e m a j o r
o c c u p a tio n a l f i e l d s o f b u s in e s s .
Im p o rta n c e o f t h e p ro b le m .
Ho b u s i n e s s man who i s
w o r t h y o f t h e name w o u l d c o n t i n u e t o o p e r a t e a b u s i n e s s ,
re g a r d le s s o f th e tu r n - o v e r o r th e fre q u e n c y o f tr a n s a c tio n s ,
w i t h o u t k n o w in g t h a t h i s e f f o r t s w e re , r e s u l t i n g
t o h im .
Ho m o re s h o u l d a s c h o o l ,
w h ic h i s n o t o n l y e x p e n d in g
a good d e a l o f m oney f o r p e r s o n n e l ,
o v erh ead ,
in a p r o f it
e q u ip m e n t, and g e n e r a l
b u t w h ic h i s a s s u m in g t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f o c c u p a ­
t i o n a l a d ju s tm e n t f o r th o u s a n d s o f young p e o p le e v e ry y e a r ,
n e g le c t to m easure th e r e s u l t s
o f i t s w o rk .
A l i c e L . W eeks w r i t e s o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f f o l l o w - u p
s t u d i e s i n t h e g u id a n c e pro g ram :
W h ile t h e e m p h a s is i n a l l g u id a n c e w ork i s a s s i s t a n c e
f o r th e in d iv id u a l p u p i l, th e v a lu e o f fo llo w -u p f o r th e
c o u n s e lo r , t h e p la c e m e n t o f f i c e , t h e s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a ­
t i o n a n d h e n c e t h e c o m m e r c i a l d e p a r t m e n t c a n r e a d i l y be
seen.
To t h e c o u n s e l o r t h e s t u d i e s g i v e n o t o n l y a m e a s u r e
o f th e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f h i s g u id a n c e i n i n d i v i d u a l
i n s t a n c e s , b u t k e e p h im i n t o u c h w i t h w h a t i s h a p p e n i n g
6
o u ts id e sc h o o l.
T rends in b u s in e s s p r a c t i c e s a r e
r e v e a l e d , a n d f i r s t - h a n d i n f o r m a t i o n , m o re u p - t o - t h e m in u te th a n an y t e x tb o o k , i s s e c u re d c o n c e rn in g o ccu p a­
tio n s and o c c u p a tio n a l o p p o r tu n itie s .6
Scope o f th e
stu d y .
T he s t u d y w a s l i m i t e d
in sco p e to
an e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e C o u n s e lin g D e p artm en t
o n ly ,
a n d n o a t t e m p t w a s m ad e t o e s t i m a t e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s
o f th e P la c e m e n t O f f ic e ,
s in c e th e p e rso n n e l o f th a t o f f ic e
c o n d u c ts fo llo w -u p s t u d i e s f o r t h a t p u rp o se .
D e fin itio n o f te rm s.
T he t e r m s Mg u i d a n c e ” a n d
" c o u n s e lin g ” have been used in te rc h a n g e a b ly in t h i s stu d y .
T he i n v e s t i g a t o r r e a l i z e d
of d iffe re n c e
t h a t t h e r e m ay b e some f i n e p o i n t s
i n t h e m e a n in g o f t h e s e w o rd s ,
such a n a ly tic a l d i s t in c t i o n
but f e lt.th a t
o f t e r m s w o u l d n o t i n a n y way a d d
to a c le a r u n d e rsta n d in g o f th e d a ta re p o rte d .
R. A. H i n d e r m a n 7
t o u c h e s on t h e m i s u s e o f t h e t e r m " g u i d a n c e ” i n h i s a r t i c l e
on " F o llo w - u p ."
w rite s,
"A q u a r t e r o f a c e n t u r y a g o , " t h e a u t h o r
" e d u c a to r s and l a y p e o p le t a l k e d a g r e a t d e a l o f
g u id in g boys in to v a rio u s o c c u p a tio n s .
Some p e o p l e e v e n s p o k e
o f g u id a n c e a s e x p e r t s t e e r i n g . ”
A lth o u g h t h i s
i s t h e m e a n in g
o f th e term even to d a y in c e r t a i n
d ic ta to r c o u n trie s ,
H in d e rm a n
A l i c e L . ¥ /ee k s, " G u id a n c e T e c h n iq u e s a s A id s t o
C o m m e r c ia l E d u c a t i o n , ” N i n t h Y e a r b o o k o f t h e E a s t e r n C o m m e r c ia l
T e a c h e r s * A s s o c i a t i o n ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : E a s t e r n C o m m ercial
T each ers* A s s o c ia t io n , 1 9 3 6 ), p. 36.
7 R. A. H i n d e r m a n , " F o l l o w - u p , ” I n d u s t r i a l A r t s a n d
V o c a tio n a l E d u c a tio n , 2 9 :3 1 2 , O c to b e r, 1940.
sta te s,
it
as ou rs.
i s not tru e
in a se lf-g o v e rn in g ,
fre e so c ie ty
such
And t h e n h e g i v e s h i s own i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f g u i d a n c e
T r u e g u i d a n c e s e e m s t o o c c u r w hen a y o u t h a n d a
c o u n s e l o r w o rk c o o p e r a t i v e l y o n a d j u s t m e n t p r o b l e m s t h a t
th e y o u th re c o g n iz e s and w ish e s to s o lv e , in a m anner t h a t
e n g e n d e rs m u tu a l c o n fid e n c e s t r o n g enough t o p ro m p t th e
y o u t h t o s e e k f u r t h e r a i d f r o m t h e c o u n s e l o r a s new
a d ju s tm e n t p ro b lem s a r i s e . 8
To i l l u s t r a t e
it
is
th e
s im ila r ity in
com m only i n t e r p r e t e d ,
0 . G i l b e r t W renn i s
t h e m e a n in g o f t h e t e r m s ,
a q u o t a t i o n fro m an a r t i c l e
as
by
g i v e n b e lo w :
C o u n s e l i n g i s a p e r s o n a l a n d d y n a m ic r e l a t i o n s h i p
b e t w e e n tw o p e o p l e who a p p r o a c h a m u t u a l l y d e f i n e d
p ro b le m w ith m u tu a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r e a c h o t h e r t o t h e
end t h a t t h e y o u n g e r , o r l e s s m a t u r e , o r m ore t r o u b l e d
o f t h e tw o i s a i d e d t o a s e l f - d e t e r m i n e d r e s o l u t i o n o f
h i s p ro b le m .9
T h e a b o v e q u o t a t i o n s f r o m H i n d e r m a n a n d W re n n , r e s p e c t i v e l y ,
a p tly ex p ress th e
i n v e s t i g a t o r ’ s u n d e rs ta n d in g o f th e te rm s.
E d w in A. L e e e x p r e s s e s a s i m i l a r i d e a i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e ­
m en t:
"G u id a n c e i m p l i e s a l t e r n a t i v e s .
g u id a n c e i f
th e re
i s w h en we h i t
life
T h e r e i s no n e e d f o r
i s b u t one t h i n g t o do o r o n e w ay t o
go.
It
c r o s s r o a d s o r f o r k i n g r o a d s on t h e h ig h w a y o f
t h a t we n e e d g u i d a n c e .
H in d e rm a n , l o c .
c it.
9
C. G i l b e r t W re n n , " C o u n s e l i n g w i t h S t u d e n t s , "
T h i r t y - S e v e n th Y earb o o k o f th e n a t i o n a l S o c ie ty f o r th e S tu d y
o f E d u c a t i o n .. P a r t I ( B l o o m i n g t o n , I l l i n o i s : P u b l i c S c h o o l
P u b l i s h i n g C o m pany, 1 9 3 8 ) , p . 1 2 1 .
E d w in A. L e e , " I n d i v i d u a l G u i d a n c e f o r O c c u p a t i o n s
and H e a l t h , " A m e ric an S c h o o l B o ard J o u r n a l , 9 7 :2 7 , S e p te m b e r ,
1938.
8
I n a s m u c h a s g u i d a n c e i m p l i e s a g r e a t d e a l m o re t h a n
t h e m ere g i v i n g o f v o c a t i o n a l a d v i c e ,
tio n a l,
so c ia l,
h u t d e a ls w ith educa­
m o ra l, and h e a l t h p ro b lem s a s w e l l ,
it
seem s
a d v i s a b l e t o d e f i n e t h a t p h a s e o f g u id a n c e w h ic h d e a l s
p r im a r ily w ith v o c a tio n a l a d ju s tm e n t p ro b lem s.
J o h n M.
B re w er, D i r e c t o r o f t h e B u reau o f V o c a t i o n a l G u id a n ce o f t h e
G ra d u a te S ch o o l o f E d u c a tio n , H a rv ard U n i v e r s i t y ,
d e fin e s
v o c a tio n a l g u id a n c e a s
. . .
a s y s t e m a t i c e f f o r t b a s e d on k n o w le d g e o f t h e
o c c u p a tio n s and on p e r s o n a l a c q u a in ta n c e w ith a s tu d y
o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l , to in fo rm , a d v is e , o r c o o p e ra te w ith
a p e rso n in c h o o sin g , p re p a rin g f o r . e n te r in g upon, o r
m ak in g p r o g r e s s i n h i s o c c u p a t i o n .
A lth o u g h t h e em p h a sis a t M e t r o p o li t a n C o u n s e lin g
D ep artm en t i s
on o c c u p a t i o n a l a d j u s t m e n t p r o b l e m s ,
c o u n s e l i n g s t a f f do n o t c o n f i n e t h e m s e l v e s s t r i c t l y
g iv in g o f v o c a tio n a l a d v ic e .
P a r s o n s , who i s
th e
to th e
As l o n g a g o a s 1 9 0 9 , P r a n k
f r e q u e n t l y r e f e r r e d ; to : a s t h e f a t h e r o f t h e
g u i d a n c e m o v e m e n t, a d v o c a t e d t h a t v o c a t i o n a l , g u i d a n c e s h o u l d
p ro v id e f o r a s c i e n t i f i c
a n a ly s is o f th e in d iv id u a l as a
b a s is f o r v o c a tio n a l c h o ic e .
p le x c re a tu re s ,
I n d i v i d u a l s a r e e x t r e m e l y com­
a n a n a l y s i s o f whom i n v o l v e s h e a l t h f a c t o r s ,
p e r s o n a l i t y and c h a r a c t e r p ro b le m s,
back g ro u n d ,
race, n a tio n a lity ,
s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m ic
and g e n e r a l a p p e a ra n c e .
No
H R ic h a r d S. C l a i r e , "G u id an c e A c t i v i t i e s i n t h e *
P r i v a t e B u s in e s s S c h o o l," N in th Y earbook o f t h e E a s te r n
C o m m e r c ia l T e a c h e r s * A s s o c i a t i o n - ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : E a s t e r n
C o m m e r c ia l T e a c h e r s * A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 9 3 6 ) , p . 1 9 2 .
v o c a t i o n a l g u id a n c e c o u ld be c o m p le te w i t h o u t c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f
12
th e o t h e r a s p e c ts o f g u id a n c e a s w e ll.
One o t h e r t e r m ” o c c u p a t i o n a l a d j u s t m e n t ” m ay n e e d some
c la rific a tio n .
It
g u id a n c e ” t h a t th e
c h a n g e a b ly .
is
so c l o s e l y
re la te d to
" v o c a tio n a l
i n v e s t i g a t o r h a s u s e d t h e tw o t e r m s i n t e r ­
E d w in A. L e e * ^ e x p l a i n s t h a t
O c c u p a tio n a l a d ju s tm e n t . . . c o n n o te s a p ro g ram ,
g e n e r a lly u n d er p u b lic school a u s p ic e s , th e p u rp o se s o f
w h ic h i s t o b r i n g a b o u t f o r e a c h i n d i v i d u a l a r e a s o n a b l e
r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e w o rk t h a t i n d i v i d u a l d e s i r e s t o
d o , t h e w ork he i s q u a l i f i e d t o d o , an d t h e w o rk w h ic h
n e e d s to be done.
He l i s t s
f o u r m a jo r s te p s in an o c c u p a tio n a l a d ju s tm e n t
p ro g ram :
1.
S e le c tio n
( I n f o r m a tio n and try -o u t c o u r s e s )
2.
P re p a ra tio n
3.
I n d u c t i o n (P la c e m e n t w ith a c o n n o ta ti o n o f
so m e th in g c o n t i n u i n g , r a t h e r th a n c o m p le te d )
4*
P ro m o tio n and s e lf-im p ro v e m e n t
S o u rc e s o f d a ta a n d m eth o d s o f p r o c e d u r e .
n a ire ,
in v o lv in g
some t w e n t y - s i x q u e s t i o n s ,
p e rs o n a l d a ta p ag e,
A q u e stio n ­
as w e ll a s a
i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r a n sw e rin g , and a l e t t e r
a d d r e s s e d t o M e t r o p o l i t a n A lu m n i a n d s i g n e d by t h e C o u n s e l o r
o f M e t r o p o l i t a n S c h o o l o f B u s i n e s s w as m a i l e d t o
12 P r a n k P a r s o n s , C h o o s in g a V o c a tio n
H o u g h t o n M i f f l i n Coinpany, 1 9 0 9 ) , 1 1 0 p p .
995 f o r m e r
(New -Y ork:
1 3 E d w in A. L e e , " M a j o r P r o b l e m s i n O c c u p a t i o n a l
A d ju s tm e n t," E d u c a tio n a l R e co rd , 2 1 :5 8 , J a n u a ry , 1940.
10
s t u d e n t s o f t h a t sch o o l*
h u n d red o f th e s e
A p p ro x im a te ly one h a l f ,
o r fiv e
s t u d e n t s h a d h e e n re c o m m e n d e d f o r e m p lo y ­
m ent by th e P la ce m e n t O f f ic e .
M ost o f th e o t h e r 495 s t u d e n t s
had d ro p p ed o u t o f sc h o o l b e fo re c o m p le tio n o f t h e i r c o u rs e s
of tra in in g ,
a n d a l l o f th e m h a d s e c u r e d t h e i r p o s i t i o n s
w ith o u t a s s is ta n c e
from th e s c h o o l P la c e m e n t O f f ic e .
g r o u p s w e re u se d t o p r e v e n t skew ed r e t u r n s ,
as i t
th a t th e
th in k w e ll o f
first
g r o u p w o u ld b e m o re p r o n e t o
th e sch o o l and i t s
l a t t e r g ro u p .
is
T he tw o
e v id e n t
C o u n s e l i n g D e p a r t m e n t t h a n w o u l d be t h e
Ho p a r t i c u l a r c l a s s w a s c h o s e n f o r t h e s t u d y ,
but ra th e r a c ro s s-s e c tio n
o f a l l fo rm er s tu d e n ts o f th e
p o s t-g ra d u a te b u s in e s s d e p a rtm e n t.
T he r e t u r n s w e r e t a l l i e d ,
in te rp re ta tio n
V II o f t h i s
of re s u lts
ta b le s
s e t up,
and an
i s g i v e n i n C h a p t e r s V, V I , a n d
stu d y .
A c ritic a l
su rv ey o f o th e r r e s e a r c h s tu d ie s in th e
f i e l d s o f g u id a n c e and b u s i n e s s e d u c a tio n d i s c l o s e d w h at h a d
a lr e a d y been a c c o m p lish e d d u rin g th e p a s t f i v e o r s i x y e a r s .
B ooks, p e r i o d i c a l s ,
and p u b l ic a t i o n s by le a r n e d
o rg a n iz a tio n s
s u p p lie d b ack g ro u n d m a t e r i a l .
The p r i n c i p a l a n d m e m b e rs o f t h e c o u n s e l i n g s t a f f a t
M e tr o p o lita n S ch o o l o f B u sin e ss gave g e n e ro u s ly o f t h e i r
, tim e b o th in c r i t i c i z i n g
and o f f e r i n g h e l p f u l s u g g e s tio n s
r e g a r d i n g th e q u e s tio n n a ir e ',
and in e x p la in i n g i n d e t a i l th e
v a rio u s f u n c t i o n s o f th e C o u n se lin g D e p a rtm e n t.
11
II.
ORGANIZATION OF CHAPTERS
C h a p te r I b e g in s w ith an i n tr o d u c ti o n o f th e
stu d y ,
and th e n fo llo w s w ith a s ta te m e n t o f th e p ro b le m , an a n a l y s i s
o f t h e p ro b le m , a s ta te m e n t a s to th e im p o rta n c e o f th e
p ro b le m ,
stu d y ,
some m e n t i o n o f t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o r s c o p e o f t h e
a d e fin itio n
of d a ta ,
o f t e r m s , a n ack n o w le d g em en t o f s o u r c e s
and a b r i e f e x p l a n a t i o n o f p r o c e d u r e s e m p lo y ed .
C h a p te r I I p r e s e n t s an i n t r o d u c ti o n t o
and o u tlin e s
re la te d
stu d ie s,
th e r e s u l t s o f o t h e r s t u d i e s w h ic h have been
m ade i n t h e f i e l d s
o f g u id a n c e ,
t io n d u rin g th e p a s t f iv e y e a rs .
fo llo w -u p , and b u s in e s s ed u ca­
T he c h a p t e r c l o s e s w i t h a
b r i e f sum m ary o f t h e f i n d i n g s .
C h a p te r I I I
c o n ta in s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f th e C o u n se lin g
D e p artm en t a t M e tr o p o lita n S c h o o l o f B u s in e s s ,
its
p e rso n n e l,
a n d t h e v a r i o u s d u t i e s a n d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f e a c h m em ber
o f t h a t d e p a rtm e n t.
C h a p t e r IV o f f e r s a b r i e f e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e m e t h o d
e m p lo y ed i n m ak in g t h e s t u d y , a n d t h e
so u rc e s of d a ta used .
C h a p t e r s V, V I , a n d V I I c o n t a i n t h e a n s w e r s t o
q u e s tio n n a ire d isp la y e d
th e
in t a b u l a r form , t o g e t h e r w i t h an
i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f th e d a ta
secu red .
C h a p te r V III o u t l i n e s th e f in d in g s and th e c o n c lu s io n s
draw n fro m an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n
m ade t h e r e f r o m .
o f th e d a ta ,
and reco m m e n d atio n s
CHAPTER I I
RELATED STUDIES
A r e v i e w o f s t u d i e s w h i c h h a v e b e e n m ade i n t h e f i e l d s
o f g u id a n c e and b u s i n e s s e d u c a tio n d u r in g th e p a s t f i v e y e a r s
d isc lo s e s th a t se v e ra l lib r a r y
in v e s tig a te
s t u d i e s h a v e b e e n m ade t o
some p h a s e o f v o c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e ,
A few h i g h
s c h o o l g u id a n c e p ro g ra m s h a v e b e e n e v a l u a t e d by c h e c k in g t h e
p ro c e d u re s and f a c i l i t i e s
i d e a l s y s te m .
to
in e x iste n c e a g a in s t a th e o r e tic a lly
One q u e s t i o n n a i r e
s t u d y w a s m ade i n a n a t t e m p t
c o m p a re t h e g u i d a n c e p r o g r a m t h e n i n e x i s t e n c e w i t h t h e
one f o r m e r ly u se d .
As f a r a s t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r c o u l d d e t e r m i n e , n o c h e c k
h a d b e e n m ade i n a n y o f t h e s e s t u d i e s on t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s
o f th e c o u n s e lin g o ffe re d .
Two c o m p a r a t i v e l y r e c e n t s t u d i e s h a v e b e e n c o m p l e t e d
in th e f i e l d
o f b u s in e s s e d u c a tio n .
A su rv ey o f th e g ra d u a te
c o m m erc ial h ig h s c h o o l s in th e U n ite d S t a t e s d i s c l o s e d t h e
i n t e r e s t i n g f a c t t h a t o n ly th r e e such s c h o o ls e x is te d
fifty -fiv e
th re e
th e
la rg e st c itie s
in th e U n ite d S ta te s ,
in th e
and t h a t a l l
o f th e s e s c h o o ls s t a t e d a s t h e i r m o st s e r i o u s p ro b lem
se le c tio n ,
re te n tio n ,
and f o llo w - u p o f s t u d e n t s — a
p ro b le m w h ic h i s d e f i n i t e l y
re la te d to
g u id a n c e .
A n o th e r v e ry s i g n i f i c a n t s tu d y in th e f i e l d
e d u c a t i o n sh o w e d a d e f i n i t e
o f b u sin e ss
t r e n d to w a rd t h e u p w ard e x t e n s i o n
13
o f v o c a tio n a l b u s in e s s e d u c a tio n to th e p o s t-h ig h s c h o o ls ,
ju n io r c o lle g e s,
and u n i v e r s it y sc h o o ls o f b u s in e s s .
I.
REVIEW OF RELATED. STUDIES
S t r a w 1s s t u d y .
A lv a E. S tr a w 1
c o n c lu d e d a v e ry
c o m p re h e n s iv e s tu d y i n 1939 f o r th e p u rp o s e o f d e te r m in in g
th e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f v o c a tio n a l g u id a n c e t o
on th e
b u sin e ss e d u c a tio n
j u n i o r c o ll e g e l e v e l , w ith s p e c i a l em p h a sis on t h a t
p h a s e o f v o c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e know n a s p l a c e m e n t a n d f o l l o w - u p .
H is f i n d i n g s w ere n u m erous, and o n ly th o s e p a r t i c u l a r l y
a p p lic a b le to t h i s
s tu d y w i l l be m e n tio n e d h e r e .
T he f u n c t i o n s o f v o c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e S t r a w f o u n d t o be
f i v e f o l d : n a m e ly , a s s i s t i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l
su ita b le
tio n ,
c h o ic e o f o c c u p a tio n ,
(3 ) t o f i n d
he is tra in e d ,
su ita b le
(2*) t o t r a i n
( 1 ) t o m ake a
fo r th a t occupa­
p la c e m e n t i n t h e o c c u p a tio n f o r w h ic h
(4 ) t o s u p e r v i s e t h e i n d i v i d u a l s w ork an d
w a tc h h i s p r o g r e s s by m eans o f f o llo w - u p s t u d i e s ,
p ro m o te f r i e n d l y
th e in d iv id u a l,
e c o n o m ic a n d s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s
th e sc h o o l,
b u sin e ss,
and s o c i e t y .
and t o
b e tw e e n
The p l a c e ­
m ent and fo llo w -u p f u n c t i o n s o f v o c a t io n a l g u id a n c e he found
to be th e w e ak e st l i n k s
i n m ost sc h o o l g u id a n c e p ro g ra m s.
1 A l v a E . S t r a w , rtAn A n a l y t i c a l S t u d y o f V o c a t i o n a l
G u id a n ce i n J u n i o r C o lle g e B u s in e s s E d u c a tio n w i t h S p e c i a l
E m p h a sis on P la c e m e n t a n d F o l l o w - u p , ” ( u n p u b l is h e d M a s t e r s
t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , L o s A n g e le s ,
C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 9 ) , 321 p p .
14
The i n v e s t i g a t o r f o u n d a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n
t h e a im s an d o b j e c t i v e s o f v o c a t i o n a l b u s i n e s s e d u c a t i o n a n d
th e a im s and o b j e c t i v e s o f v o c a t i o n a l g u id a n c e ,
t h a t th e b e s t r e s u l t s
and b e l i e v e s
i n b u s i n e s s e d u c a t i o n c a n be r e a c h e d
o n ly th ro u g h th e a p p li c a t io n o f th e f u n c tio n s o f v o c a tio n a l
g u id a n c e .
He e n u m e r a t e s t h e v o c a t i o n a l a i m s a n d o b j e c t i v e s
o f ju n io r c o lle g e b u s in e s s e d u c a tio n a s b e in g :
th e in d iv id u a l in th e
o ffer tra in in g
tra its
su ita b le
se le c tio n
in te c h n ic a l s k i l l s ,
and a d j u s t a b i l i t y ,
m e n ta l to o l s u b j e c t s ,
(1 ) t o a s s i s t
of a fie ld ,
(3 ) t o
(2 )
d e v e lo p p e rs o n a l
(4) t o d e v e lo p t h e u se o f t h e f u n d a ­
(5 ) t o d e v e lo p a s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c a t t i ­
tu d e o f b u s in e s s p r i n c i p l e s and p r a c t i c e s ,
(6) t o d e v e lo p
s y m p a th e tic r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e tw e e n s c h o o l a n d b u s i n e s s ,
p la c e th e
to
stu d e n t in a s u ita b le p o s itio n ,
and
(8 ) t o
(7 ) to
conduct
e m p lo y m e n t s u p e r v i s i o n a n d a d j u s t m e n t t h r o u g h f o l l o w - u p . ^
The e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f a b u s i n e s s e d u c a t i o n g u i d a n c e
p ro g ram , S tra w s t a t e s ,
its
sh o u ld be m easu red by th e r e s u l t s
of
p la c e m e n t and f o llo w -u p a c t i v i t i e s .
S l a u g h t e r 1s s t u d y .
R o b e r t E dw ard S l a u g h t e r
c o m p re h e n siv e l i b r a r y r e s e a r c h i n v e s t i g a t i o n
a n a ly z e d th e m a te r ia l s e le c te d f o r h is
3
m ade a
in 1936, and
stu d y as i t r e l a t e d
2 I b i d . , p. 252.
3
R o b e r t E d w a r d S l a u g h t e r , "An A n a l y s i s o f P r o f e s s i o n a l
L i t e r a t u r e R e la tin g to th e F u n c tio n and T e c h n ic s in th e P r a c ­
t i c e o f V o c a tio n a l G u id a n c e ," (u n p u b lis h e d M a s te r’ s t h e s i s ,
The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , L o s A n g e l e s , C a l i f o r n i a ,
1 9 3 6 ) , 328 p p .
15
to
(1) d e v e lo p m e n t and c a u s e s f o r t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f t h e
v o c a t i o n a l g u id a n c e m ovem ent i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ,
f u n c tio n s o f v o c a tio n a l g u id a n c e and i t s
e sts,
(2 ) t h e
fo u r m a jo r i n t e r ­
( 3 ) t e c h n i c s e m p lo y e d i n s e c u r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t
th e in d iv id u a l and ab o u t o c c u p a tio n s ,
(4) t e c h n i c s i n c o u n s e l ­
in g and ty p e s o f r e c o r d s u se d f o r t h i s p u rp o s e ,
a n d (5 )
te c h ­
n i c s e m p lo y ed i n p la c e m e n t a n d f o l l o w - u p .
M ost o f S l a u g h t e r ’ s f i n d i n g s do n o t d i f f e r m a t e r i a l l y
f r o m t h o s e m ade b y o t h e r r e s e a r c h w o r k e r s i n t h e f i e l d
v o c a tio n a l g u id a n c e ,
a re p e c u lia r to h is
of
a n d o n ly th o s e a r e m e n tio n e d h e r e w h ic h
stu d y .
He m a k e s a d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n v o c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e a n d
v o c a tio n a l e d u c a tio n .
i s n o t,
stric tly
T r a in in g f o r an o c c u p a tio n , he b e lie v e s ,
sp e a k in g ,
one o f t h e f u n c t i o n s o f v o c a t io n a l
g u id a n c e .
In a d d i t i o n t o t h e f o u r fu n d a m e n ta l p r i n c i p l e s
v o c a t io n a l g u id an c e a c t i v i t i e s
S la u g h te r m en tio n s a f i f t h ;
g o v e rn in g
a s su m m arized by S tr a w ,
n a m e ly , t h e r e a l i z a t i o n
of th e
n e e d f o r b e t t e r e c o n o m ic a n d s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n o c c u p a ­
tio n a l l if e .
F u rth e rm o re ,
he s t a t e s
th a t th e s o c ia l n a tu re
o f th e v o c a tio n a l g u id a n c e f u n c tio n i s
re c e iv in g
in c re a s in g
a tte n tio n .
S la u g h te r w arns h i s r e a d e r s
in asm u c h a s i t
e x p e c te d to
t h a t v o c a tio n a l g u id a n c e ,
i s c e n te r e d aro u n d th e
be e x e c u te d w i t h
in d iv id u a l,
s c ie n tific
p re c isio n .
c a n n o t be
V o c a tio n a l
16
g u id a n c e i s
sta te s,
a d v is o ry in n a tu r e ,
r a t h e r th a n p r e s c r ip tiv e ,
a n d t h e a im s and p h i l o s o p h y b e h in d i t
he
have n o t changed
i n s u b s t a n c e s i n c e t h e f o r m a l b e g i n n i n g s o f t h e m ovem ent i n
th e. U n ite d S t a t e s u n d e r F ra n k P a r s o n s i n 1908.
A n d r e w 1s s t u d y .
A. 0 . A n d re w ^ m ade a n e v a l u a t i o n o f
t h e B r e a - O lin d a H ig h S c h o o l g u id a n c e p ro g ra m i n
1936,
by
c o m p a rin g i t w i t h a d e f i n i t e s t a n d a r d g u id a n c e p ro g ra m ..
The
a u th o r u se d t h e s c o r e c a r d d e v is e d by V /illia m M a r tin P r o c t o r
5
and a g roup o f g ra d u a te s tu d e n ts a t S ta n f o r d U n iv e r s ity
a g a i n s t w h i c h t o .c h e c k t h e
e f f i c i e n c y o f th e B re a -O lin d a
p ro g ram o f g u id a n c e .
W a l l e r 1s s t u d y .
L l o y d W. W a l l e r
6 com pared t h e g u id a n c e
p ro g ram o f a S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a h ig h sc h o o l w ith a s ta n d a r d
g u id a n c e p ro g ram , and p o in te d o u t th e w eak n esses o f th e
p a r t i c u l a r p ro g ram o f g u id a n c e u n d e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n .
He f o u n d
t h a t t h e r e w a s n o p l a n o f g r o u p g u i d a n c e , n o c o u n s e l o r who
o r g a n i z e s and c e n t r a l i z e s t h e w ork o f g u i d a n c e , a n d t h a t t h e
r e g i s t r a r ’ s c h i e f c o n c e r n w a s t o k e e p t h e n u m b e r o f re c o m m e n ­
d a t i o n s f o r i m p r o v e m e n t o f t h e g u i d a n c e p r o g r a m w h i c h h e m ade
^ A. 0 . A n d re w , ftAn E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e B r e a - O l i n d a H i g h
S c h o o l G u i d a n c e P r o g r a m , ” ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ’ s t h e s i s , T he
U n i v e r s i ty o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s, C a li f o r n i a ,
1 9 3 6 ), 112 pp.
^ W i l l i a m M a r t i n P r o c t o r , ’’E v a l u a t i o n o f G u i d a n c e A c t i v i ­
t i e s , ” V o c a t i o n a l G u id a n c e M a g a z in e , 9 : 5 8 - 6 9 , N ovem ber, 1 9 3 0 .
L l o y d W. W a l l e r , ”An E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e G u i d a n c e P r o g r a m
o f a S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a H ig h S c h o o l , ” ( u n p u b lis h e d M a s t e r ’ s
t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a , L os A n g e le s ,
C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 6 ) , 111 pp.
17
h i s p a r t i c u l a r stu d y .
L a r s o n 1s s t u d y .
tio n n a ire ,
a tte m p te d to
7
F . W. L a r s o n , ' b y m e a n s o f a q u e s ­
com pare th e p r e s e n t s y s te m o f g u i d ­
a n c e a n d p ro g ra m m ak in g i n a c e r t a i n s i x - y e a r h i g h s c h o o l w i t h
th e
s y s te m f o r m e r ly u s e d .
He re c o m m e n d s o n t h e b a s i s o f h i s
f i n d i n g s t h a t e a c h s t u d e n t p r e p a r e h i m s e l f f o r some l i f e
and t h a t he t r a i n
h im s e lf to m eet a l l
i n h i s o c c u p a tio n and h i s l e i s u r e .
L a r s o n 1s s t u d y ,
w ork,
so c ia l re la tio n s h ip s
To q u o t e d i r e c t l y f r o m
th e a u th o r s t a t e s t h a t " th e
sc h o o l m ust fa c e
th e f a c t t h a t o c c u p a tio n i s t h e m ost im p o rta n t c o n c e rn o f
e d u c a tio n ,
ex cep t th e a s s o c ia tio n w ith s o c ie ty ,
e a c h d e p en d s c l o s e l y upon th e o t h e r . "
le s so n ^ s stu d y .
and even th e r e
8
R a l p h W. l e s s o n
9
in v e s tig a te d th e
p ro g ra m o f g u id a n c e a t P o l y t e c h n i c H ig h S c h o o l i n L os A n g e le s ,
com pared h i s f i n d i n g s t o
a s ta n d a r d p rogram o f g u id a n c e , and
t h e n d r e w up a p l a n f o r t h e
o rg a n iz a tio n
o f an i d e a l program
o f g u id a n c e a t t h a t s c h o o l.
7
F . W. L a r s o n , "An E v a l u a t i o n o f a P r o g r a m o f G u i d a n c e
f o r a S i x Y e a r H ig h S c h o o l , " ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r s t h e s i s ,
T he U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , L o s A n g e l e s , C a l i f o r n i a ,
1 9 3 7 ), 126 pp.
8 I b id . , p. 116.
Q
R a l p h W, J e s s o n , "An E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e G u i d a n c e
P ro g ra m i n a L a r g e C i t y H ig h S c h o o l ," ( u n p u b l is h e d M a s t e r 1s
t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a , L os A n g e le s ,
C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 1 1 6 pp.
18
A t l e a s t tw o s t u d i e s h a v e b e e n m ade o f t h e g u i d a n c e
p ro g ram s i n t e a c h e r s 1 c o l l e g e s ,
P o m e ro y 1s s t u d y ,
of th e
E d w a rd E a r l P o m e r o y
10
m ade a s u r v e y
c u r r i c u l a r o f f e r i n g s and g u id a n c e te c h n iq u e s o f t h r e e
A rizo n a t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g
in s titu tio n s .
The a p p a r e n t d e f i c i e n ­
c i e s o f a g ro u p o f e n t e r i n g fre sh m e n in e a c h c o l l e g e w ere
a n a ly z e d to d e te r m in e th e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f g u id a n c e p r a c t i c e s
i n t h e s t a t e w h ic h w ere due t o t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g .
An a t t e m p t
w a s m ade t o d e t e r m i n e t o w h a t e x t e n t c o l l e g e g u i d a n c e h a d
been d e f i c i e n t ,
i n o r d e r t o fo rm a b a s i s f o r a g u id a n c e p rog ram
w ith in th e c o lle g e .
P o m e ro y f o u n d
(1)
t h a t g u id a n c e o f f e r i n g s
a n d t e c h n i q u e s i n som e o f t h e t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g
in s titu tio n s
w ere in a d e q u a te t o m eet th e n e e d s o f t e a c h e r s in th e f i e l d ,
(2) t h a t t h e r e w e re n o t a s u f f i c i e n t n u m b er o f t r a i n e d g u i d ­
ance w o rk ers i n h ig h sc h o o l in o r d e r to p re p a re g ra d u a te s t o
m ake m o s t e f f e c t i v e u s e o f t h e i r t i m e i n c o l l e g e , a n d
t h e r e w as a n e ed f o r o r i e n t a t i o n
th e
of c o lle g e
(3 ) t h a t
fresh m en, and f o r
c o r r e c t i o n o f d e f e c t s w h ic h h a v e b e en a llo w e d t o d e v e l o p
am ong u p p e r c l a s s m e n .
W e is m a n n 1 s s t u d y .
John J .
'Weismann
11
m ade a n
-*-0 E d w a rd E a r l P o m e r o y , "A S u r v e y o f G u i d a n c e i n
A r i z o n a S c h o o l s , 11 ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r 1s t h e s i s , T h e U n i v e r s i t y
o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , L o s A n g e l e s , C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 9 )> 1 3 9 PP*
11
■ J o h n J . W e ism a n n , ,fT h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f a G u i d a n c e
P e r s o n n e l P r o g r a m i n a T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , ’1 ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ’ s
t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a , L os A n g e le s ,
C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 4 ) , 1 5 9 pp*
19
in v e s tig a tio n
in 1934 t o d e te rm in e w hat p o l i c i e s s h o u ld g u id e
th e p la n n in g o f a g u id a n c e p ro g ram f o r a t e a c h e r s c o ll e g e ,
t h e s e p o l i c i e s to he b a se d upon a c t u a l n e e d s o f th e
a s d i s c l o s e d by t h e
s tu d e n ts ,
in v e s tig a tio n .
Many o t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s h a v e b e e n m a d e w h i c h a r e
r e la te d to
some p h a s e o f t h e p r o b l e m b e i n g s t u d i e d .
A fe w
o f th em a r e m e n tio n e d b e lo w .
C o r s o n 1s s t u d y ,
la m e s H unt C o rso n
p re h e n siv e in v e s tig a tio n
a n a ly z e th o se p r a c tic e s
in
1936 i n w h ic h h e a tte m p te d t o
in lib e r a l a r t s c o lle g e s.
c h a p t e r on v o c a t i o n a l g u id a n c e i s
C orson f i n d s t h a t a s s i s t i n g
tio n
first,
co n feren ces,
th is
stu d y .
choose a v o c a tio n
a ssistin g
th e
stu d e n t to
( f a c ts about o c c u p a tio n s),
U nder th e f i r s t
v o c a tio n a l su rv ey c o u rse s,
sp e c ia l le c tu r e s ,
d iv is io n he l i s t s
v o c a tio n a l g u id a n c e
books, p a m p h le ts,
b u lle tin s ,
c o n ta c ts w ith o c c u p a tio n s th ro u g h t r y - o u t c o u r s e s ,
tio n ,
H is
th e s tu d e n t to g a in p e rs o n a l in fo rm a ­
(fa c ts about h im se lf).
th e fo llo w in g :
a p p lic a b le to
stu d e n ts to
a c q u ire v o c a tio n a l in fo rm a tio n
and second, a s s i s t i n g
c o m p l e t e d a com­
in c u r r e n t use in s tu d e n t g u id a n c e
and p e rs o n n e l a d m in is tr a tio n
h a s tw o m a i n d i v i s i o n s :
12
o b serv a­
v i s u a l a id s , p e rs o n a l in te r v ie w s w ith p e rso n s engaged
-*-2 J a m e s H u n t C o r s o n , " C u r r e n t P r a c t i c e s i n S t u d e n t
G u id a n ce a n d P e r s o n n e l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n L i b e r a l A r t s
C o l l e g e s , " ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ’ s t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f
S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , L o s A n g e l e s , C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 6 ) , 2 2 3 PP*
20
in th e o c c u p a tio n ,
o r c o n su ltin g p ro fe s s o rs ,
v o c a tio n a l
g u id a n c e b o a rd s a n d c o m m itte e s, w e s te r n p e r s o n n e l s e r v i c e ,
o th e r m isc e lla n e o u s p r a c tic e s .
U nder th e second d iv is io n ,
th a t, o f a s s is tin g stu d e n ts to a c q u ire
se lv e s,
te s ts ,
i n f o r m a ti o n a b o u t th em ­
C orson m e n tio n s o b j e c t i v e t e s t s ,
a p titu d e t e s ts ,
p e rs o n a lity ra tin g s ,
and
such a s i n t e l l i g e n c e
and t r a d e o r p r o f i c i e n c y t e s t s ,
v o c a tio n a l i n te r e s t
in v e n to rie s,
v id u a l c o u n s e lin g , and c u m u la tiv e r e c o r d s .
in d i­
The a u t h o r a l s o
m e n t i o n s p l a c e m e n t a n d f o l l o w - u p a s tw o i m p o r t a n t s t e p s i n
v o c a tio n a l g u id a n c e a s p r a c t ic e d
Gannon* s s t u d y .
a tte m p te d to
d e te rm in e
in l ib e r a l a r ts
J o s e p h F r a n c i s Gannon
13
c o lle g e s.
i n 1933
to w hat e x te n t o c c u p a tio n a l and t r y ­
o u t c o u rs e s w ere b e in g o f f e r e d in
th e p u b lic
seco n d ary s c h o o ls ,
w h at fo rm a l p la c e m e n t and f o llo w - u p p ro g ram s e x i s t e d
sc h o o ls,
in th e se
and w h a t w ere t h e m o st s a t i s f a c t o r y m eth o d s o f p l a c e ­
m ent and f o llo w - u p .
E x c e p t f o r t h a t p h a se o f h i s s tu d y w h ic h
d e a ls w ith j u n i o r c o ll e g e p lac e m e n t and f o llo w - u p , G annon*s
f in d in g s a re n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p lic a b le t o th e stu d y u n d er
c o n sid e ra tio n ;
first,
b e c a u s e t h e y d a t e b a c k t o a t i m e w hen
n e i t h e r b u s i n e s s n o r s c h o o l c o n d i t i o n s w ere q u i t e n o r m a l;
second,
b e c a u se o f th e u p g ra d in g o f v o c a tio n a l t r a i n i n g w ith in
13
* J o s e p h F r a n c i s G annon, " P la c e m e n t and F o llo w -u p
in th e P u b lic S eco n d ary S c h o o ls o f C a l i f o r n i a , " (u n p u b lis h e d
M a s t e r ’ s t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a ,
Los A n g e le s , C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 3 ), 227 PP.
21
th e l a s t few y e a r s to t h e
j u n i o r - c o l l e g e and p o s t - g r a d u a t e
l e v e l s , w h i c h w o u l d t e n d t o m ake p l a c e m e n t a n d f o l l o w - u p a
l e s s im p o r ta n t f u n c t i o n o f th e h ig h s c h o o ls th a n th e y w ere a t
\ *
t h a t tim e .
M a r t i n 1s s t u d y .
p le te d a lib ra ry
I n 1 9 3 5 , L o u i s H a r o l d M a r t i n 1 ^** com­
s tu d y co n cern ed w ith
th e p ro b le m s in v o lv e d in
th e g u id a n c e , s e l e c t i o n , and t r a i n i n g o f p u p ils a s c l e r i c a l
w o r k e r s , p l a c i n g s p e c i a l e m p h a sis on t h e s e l e c t i o n o f s t u d e n t s ,
w h ic h th e a u th o r c la im s h a s b e e n a n e g le c t e d a s p e c t o f g u id a n c e .
Fox* s s t u d y .
J o h n G. Fox
15
m ade a l i b r a r y r e s e a r c h a n d
q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n 1 9 3 4 t o d e t e r m i n e who w a s r e ­
s p o n s ib le f o r a g u id a n c e p ro g ram ,
in h ig h sc h o o ls o f C a lif o r n ia ,
th e
th e
ty p e s o f g u id a n c e o f f e r e d
in d iv id u a ls w ith in th e
s c h o o l s who a c t a s c o u n s e l o r s , a n d w h a t p e r s o n a l f a c t o r s
s tu d e n ts re c e iv e th e a t t e n t i o n o f c o u n s e lo rs .
o f th e
Fox fo u n d a t
t h a t tim e t h a t t h e r e was no u n i f o r m i t y i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n
o f g u id a n c e
in C a lif o r n ia h ig h s c h o o ls .
C avanaugh* s s t u d y .
A f i v e - y e a r f o l l o w - u p w a s m ade i n
^ L o u i s H a r o l d M a r t i n , T1A C r i t i c a l S t u d y o f t h e
G u i d a n c e , S e l e c t i o n a n d T r a i n i n g o f C l e r i c a l W o r k e r s , 11
( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r * s t h e s i s , T he U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n
C a l i f o r n i a , L os A n g e le s , C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 5 ) , 138 p p .
15
J o h n G . F o x , "A S t u d y o f C e r t a i n A s p e c t s o f t h e
P u p i l G u i d a n c e P r o g r a m s i n C a l i f o r n i a H ig h S c h o o l s , 11 ( u n p u b ­
l i s h e d M a s t e r * s t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a ,
Los A n g e le s , C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 4 ), 111 p p .
22
1 9 3 4 b y D o r e t h a M a ry C a v a n a u g h
16
o f a c e r ta i n g ra d u a tin g c la s s
fro m W h i t t i e r U n io n H ig h S c h o o l t o d e t e r m i n e w h a t f a c t o r s
a f f e c t and in f lu e n c e h ig h sch o o l p u p ils
o c c u p a tio n s in
th e y e a r s im m e d ia te ly f o llo w in g g ra d u a tio n *
was fo u n d t h a t g e n e r a l i n t e l l i g e n c e
p a rt in success.
o th e r f a c to r s ,
in t h e i r c h o ic e of
It
p la y s a v e ry im p o rta n t
T he a u t h o r f o u n d , h o w e v e r , t h a t c e r t a i n
such as i n t e r e s t in th e f i e l d
w i l l t o s u c c e e d , w ere a l s o n e c e s s a r y t o
chosen,
and th e
s u c c e s s in any cho sen
fie ld .
T r a ill* s stu d y .
v e s tig a te d th e
I n 1 9 3 8 , A n n i e K aw kes T r a i ll - * - ? i n ­
use o f c u m u la tiv e p e rs o n n e l r e c o r d s in
Los A n g e le s s c h o o ls .
T he a u t h o r f o u n d t h a t r e c o r d s a n d r e p o r t s
i n u s e i n m o s t s c h o o l s h a d becom e c o m p l e x ,
co n fu sin g ,
c o m p lic a te d and
a n d re c o m m e n d s t h a t t h e r e b e l e s s
m o re s i m p l i c i t y i n r e c o r d i n g d a t a ,
o f th e d a ta a f t e r i t
c e rta in
is
B a r d e n 1s s t u d y .
re c o rd -k e e p in g ,
a n d t h a t m o r e u s e h e m ade
reco rd ed .
I n 1 9 3 4 , a s u r v e y w a s m ade o f t h e
D e p artm en t o f R e s e a rc h and G u id an ce o f t h e Los A n g e le s C i t y
16
D o r e t h a M ary C a v a n a u g h , " F i v e - Y e a r F o l l o w - u p o f
I f h i t t i e r U n i o n H ig h S c h o o l G r a d u a t e s , ” ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ’ s
t h e s i s , T he U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , L o s A n g e l e s ,
C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 4 ) , 205 pp.
A n n i e H aw k es T r a i l l , "A S t u d y o f t h e U s e o f C u m u la ­
t i v e P e rs o n n e l R eco rd s i n C e r ta in Los A n g e le s S c h o o ls ,”
( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ’ s t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n
C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s , C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 8 ) , 262 p p .
23
S c h o o l s b y . H a r o l d E d w a rd B a r d e n .
1&
The a u t h o r d e s c r i b e s t h e
v a rio u s f u n c tio n s and d u tie s o f t h a t d e p a rtm e n t.
r e p o r t he d efen d s re s e a rc h a s fo llo w s:
"R esearch i s th e to r c h
b y w h i c h e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e m u s t be g u i d e d i f
a r e n o t t o b e c o n f r o n t e d b y m uch w a s t e ,
In h is
c o m m u n itie s
b o th f i n a n c i a l and
h u m an .
Two r a t h e r r e c e n t s t u d i e s h a v e b e e n c o m p l e t e d i n t h e
fie ld
o f b u sin e ss e d u c a tio n .
T a a fe ’ s stu d y .
su rv ey o f th e
c itie s
20
co m p lete d a
g r a d u a te co m m erc ial h ig h s c h o o ls i n th e U n ite d
S ta te s in Ju n e, 1940.
la rg e s t
L eonard L o u is T aa fe
in
An i n q u i r y w as s e n t t o t h e f i f t y - f i v e
th e U n ite d S ta te s to a s c e r t a i n w h e th e r o r
n o t t h e y m a in ta in e d a g r a d u a te s c h o o l o f b u s i n e s s t o w h ic h
o n ly h ig h s c h o o l g r a d u a te s w ere a d m itte d .
lo c a te
o n ly th r e e
such s c h o o ls :
T a a fe was a b l e t o
n a m e ly , M e r r i t t B u s in e s s
S ch o o l o f O a k lan d , C a l i f o r n i a ; M e tr o p o li t a n S c h o o l o f B u s in e s s ,
L o s A n g e l e s , a n d t h e M a y b in S c h o o l f o r G r a d u a t e s , New O r l e a n s ,
IB
H a r o l d E d w a rd B a r d e n , "A S u r v e y o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t
o f R e s e a rc h and G u id a n ce o f th e Los A n g e le s C ity S c h o o l s ,"
(u n p u b lish e d M a s te r’ s t h e s i s , T h e' U n iv e r s ity o f S o u th e rn
C a l i f o r n i a , L o s A n g e l e s , C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 4 ) , 1 0 7 PP .
19 ;I b ld . , p .
20
69.
L e o n a r d L o u i s T a a f e , f,A S u r v e y o f t h e G r a d u a t e
C o m m ercial H ig h S c h o o ls i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , " ( u n p u b l i s h e d
M a s t e r ’ s t h e s i s , T he U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , J u n e ,
1 9 4 0 ) , 1 3 2 pp .
24
L o u is ia n a .
T he c h i e f p r o b l e m o f e a c h o f t h e s e s c h o o l s t h e
a u th o r fo u n d to
re te n tio n ,
be o n e r e l a t e d
to g u id a n c e — th e
se le c tio n ,
and f o llo w - u p o f s t u d e n t s .
K e lle y 1s s tu d y .
E a r l L ew is K e l l e y
21
re c e n tly
c o m p lete d
an i n v e s t i g a t i o n t o d is c o v e r to w hat e x te n t v o c a tio n a l b u s in e s s
t r a i n i n g h a d becom e a p o s t - h i g h s c h o o l ,
ju n io r-c o lle g e ,
U n iv e rs ity sc h o o l-o f-b u s in e s s fu n c tio n ,
and to w hat e x te n t
it
s t i l l re m a in s a h ig h sc h o o l f u n c tio n .
and
He f o u n d t h a t 6 8 . 31
p e r c e n t o f t h e 306 e m p lo y e rs s u rv e y e d p r e f e r r e d t h a t t h e i r
j u n i o r b u s i n e s s e m p lo y ee s be t r a i n e d . a b o v e t h e h ig h s c h o o l
le v e l,
1 3 .7 2 p e r c e n t p r e f e r r e d h i g h - s c h o o l - t r a i n e d e m p lo y e e s,
and 1 7 .9 7 p e r c e n t s t a t e d no p r e f e r e n c e .
21
E a r l L e w i s K e l l e y , "T h e U p w ard E x t e n s i o n o f V o c a ­
t i o n a l B u sin e ss E d u c a tio n ," (u n p u b lis h e d D o c to r’ s d i s s e r t a ­
t i o n , T he U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 4 0 ) , 381 p p .
CHAPTER I I I
A DESCRIPTION OP COUNSELING PROCEDURES AT
METROPOLITAN SCHOOL OF BUSINESS
B efo re a tte m p tin g to
e v a lu a te th e e ffe c tiv e n e s s of
p r o c e d u r e s e m p lo y e d b y t h e C o u n s e l i n g D e p a r t m e n t o f M e t r o ­
p o l it a n School o f B u sin e ss,
it
i s w e l l t o know j u s t w h a t
th o se p ro c e d u re s a re and w hat th e d e p a rtm e n t u n d e rta k e s to
a c c o m p l i s h b y th e m .
A d e s c r ip tio n o f th e p e rso n n e l o f t h a t
o f f i c e , to g e th e r w ith t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ,
is
f o llo w e d b y an a c c o u n t o f t h e v a r i o u s t y p e s o f g u id a n c e
w h ich t h e
I.
stu d e n ts a c tu a lly re c e iv e .
PERSONNEL OF THE COUNSELING DEPARTMENT AT
METROPOLITAN SCHOOL OF BUSINESS
P e rs o n n e l and d u tie s o f th e c o u n s e lin g s t a f f .
g iv in g o f v o c a tio n a l a d v ic e a t M e tro p o lita n
t o a few g u id a n c e s p e c i a l i s t s .
sh a res th e r e s p o n s ib ility
o c c u p a tio n a l su c c e ss.
The
i s n o t c o n fin e d
E v ery d e p a rtm e n t o f th e sch o o l
o f g u id in g th e s tu d e n ts to w a rd
The c o u n s e l i n g d u t i e s a r e d i v i d e d
b e tw e e n f i v e f u n c t i o n i n g b r a n c h e s o f t h e C o u n s e lin g D e p a rtm e n t,
w h ic h v i r t u a l l y
i n c l u d e e v e r y m em ber o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e ,
c o u n s e lin g , and te a c h in g
sta ff.
P r i n c i p a l . A ll m ajo r p o l i c i e s a re p r e s e n te d to t h e
26
p r in c ip a l o f th e sch o o l f o r a p p ro v al o r d isa p p ro v a l b e fo re
b e in g a c t e d upon by t h e f i v e
fu n c tio n in g b ranches o f th e
g u id a n c e d e p a rtm e n t.
C o u n se lo r,
T h e c o u n s e l o r , who i s
c h arg e o f t h e C o u n s e lin g D e p a rtm e n t,
man w i t h t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d .
fo rm a tio n .
sc h o o ls.
He h a n d l e s a l l
im m e d ia te ly in
i s th e c h ie f c o n ta c t
He h a s c h a r g e o f a l l p o l i c y
p u b lic r e l a t i o n s w ith c o n tr ib u tin g
A l l c o m m e rc ia l f u n c t i o n s w h ic h a r e b e in g u s e d a s
a m eans o f g u id a n c e a r e u n d e r h i s s u p e r v i s i o n .
h as charg e o f th e
se le c tio n
of tra in e e s,
d u ty o f p a s s i n g upon d i s m i s s a l s .
d u tie s,
T he C o u n s e l o r
and th e u n p le a sa n t
In a d d itio n to th e s e s p e c if ic
th e c o u n s e lo r a s s i s t s w ith g e n e r a l g u id a n c e p ro b lem s.
C o o rd in a to r.
The c o o r d i n a t o r h a s c h a r g e o f t h e
o r g a n iz a tio n o f th e d e p a rtm e n t.
in te rn a l
He p e r s o n a l l y d e s i g n s a l l
r e c o r d fo rm s, and i n s t r u c t s t e a c h e r s in
th e ir p ro p er use.
He
v ^ r ite s t h e d a i l y b u l l e t i n s w h ic h a r e i s s u e d t o c o m m e rc ia l
te a c h e rs.
A f te r th e c o n te n t o f th e c u rric u lu m h a s been a p ­
p r o v e d by t h e C u r r i c u l u m C o m m itte e ,
th e m a s te r program .
to
o rg a n iz e th e
It
is
t h e c o o r d i n a t o r m akes up
th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f th e
c o o rd in a to r
e n t e r i n g s e n i o r s on r e g i s t r a t i o n day and t o
ta k e ch arg e o f r e g i s t r a t i o n
A s s is ta n t c o u n se lo r.
p ro ced u res.
At th e o p e n in g o f e a c h s e m e s te r,
t h e r e a r e a lw a y s a num ber o f s p e c i a l p ro b le m c a s e s .
The
27
h a n d lin g
of th e se d i f f i c u l t
th e a s s i s t a n t c o u n se lo r*
c a se s i s th e p a r t i c u l a r d u ty o f
I n a d d i t i o n t o h a n d lin g p ro b lem c a s e s ,
th e a s s i s t a n t c o u n se lo r a s s i s t s w ith g e n e ra l c o u n se lin g ,
a ls o has c h a rg e o f e n r o l l in g s tu d e n ts in c e r t a i n
as key punch,
c o m p to m e try ,
E m p lo y m e n t o f f i c e *
a se p a ra te
it
and
c la ss e s,
such
an d P .B .X .
T he e m p lo y m e n t o f f i c e o p e r a t e s a s
f u n c t i o n fro m th e C o u n se lin g D e p a rtm e n t, a lth o u g h
i s r e a l l y an im p o r ta n t p a r t o f th e g u id a n c e p ro g ram , and
a c tu a lly does a la r g e p e rc e n ta g e of th e c o u n se lin g .
o ffic e ,
d u r in g n o rm al t im e s ,
p la c e s- a t l e a s t a th o u sa n d
s tu d e n ts a y e a r in b u s in e s s p o s itio n s th ro u g h o u t th e
Los A n g e le s.
C lassro o m *
jo b .
A lth o u g h th e c la s s ro o m i s n o t a p a r t o f
th e g u id a n c e o f f i c e ,
it
is
in a v e ry r e a l se n se a p a r t o f th e
sc h o o l program o f g u id a n c e .
fo r m a tio n and a d v ic e g iv e n
d ire c t
in t h e
The v o c a t i o n a l i n ­
c la ss ro o m i s a fo rm o f i n ­
g u id a n c e w h ic h h a s b e en v e ry e f f e c t i v e .
T he t e a c h e r s
a t M e tro p o lita n School o f B u sin e ss a re e x p e rie n c e d in
fie ld s,
c ity of
T he e m p lo y m e n t o f f i c e c o n d u c t s n u m e r o u s f o l l o w -
up s t u d i e s o f s t u d e n t s o n t h e
in te g ra te d
T h is
th e ir
a n d m o s t o f - th e m h a v e h a d p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e i n
th e a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h 'th e y t e a c h .
They a r e w e l l q u a l i f i e d t o
o f f e r g u id a n c e i n t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t f i e l d .
II.
STATE EMPLOYMENT OFFICE
S t a t e E m p lo y m e n t O f f i c e a s s i s t s C o u n s e l i n g D e p a r t m e n t .
The S t a t e E m p lo y m e n t O f f i c e , w h i c h h a s o f f i c e
s p a c e on t h e
28
second f l o o r o f th e
school b u ild in g ,
o fte n a s s i s t s
th e sch o o l
C o u n s e lin g D e p a rtm e n t by g i v i n g b a t t e r i e s o f s t a n d a r d i z e d
j te s ts
to c e r ta in
s t u d e n t s who h a v e h a d d i f f i c u l t y
t h e i r p r o p e r o c c u p a tio n a l sphere*
i s n o t s u p p lie d w ith e la b o r a te
th e re fo re
g r e a t l y . in d e b te d to
T he C o u n s e l i n g D e p a r t m e n t
t e s t i n g e q u ip m e n t, a n d i s
t h e S t a t e E m p lo y m e n t O f f i c e
p e r s o n n e l , who so g r a c i o u s l y e x t e n d t h i s
III.
in fin d in g
c o u rte sy .
BUSINESS CLUBS
Y oung M e n 's B u s i n e s s C l u b a n d Y oung Y/omen* s B u s i n e s s
C lu b .
Much h a s b e e n d o n e t o p r o m o t e g o o d w i l l f o r M e t r o p o l i t a n
S c h o o l o f B u s i n e s s among b u s i n e s s men b y t h e o f f - c a m p u s
g r o u p s o f t h e Y o u n g M en’ s a n d Y oung Women’ s B u s i n e s s C l u b s .
Each o f
th e se
c lu b s h a s b o th an o n -ca m p u s a n d a n o f f - c a m p u s
g ro u p .
T he o n - c a m p u s g r o u p o f e a c h c l u b i s
m e m b e rs who h a v e b e e n c a r e f u l l y
e m p lo y a b ility .
w o rk .
lim ite d to
se le c te d because o f t h e i r
B a c h m em ber t a k e s a n a c t i v e p a r t i n
T he o f f - c a m p u s ,
tw e n ty
th e c lu b
o r a lu m n i g ro u p o f e a c h c lu b a t t e m p t s
t o b r i n g b a c k k n o w le d g e o f b u s i n e s s p r o c e d u r e s t o t h e o n cam pus m em b ers,
and t o
The a lu m n i g ro u p s a r e
a c t i n a n a d v i s o r y c a p a c i t y t o th em ;
in c re a sin g
i n num bers e v e r y y e a r and
now f o r m q u i t e a s i g n i f i c a n t b o d y o f o u t s t a n d i n g b u s i n e s s
e m p lo y ee s w hose i n t e r e s t
in
b o t h t h e i r Alma M a t e r a n d t h e
w o rld o f b u s i n e s s te n d t o p ro m o te h a rm o n io u s r e l a t i o n s h i p s
b e tw e e n t h e
tw o .
29
IV .
TYPES OF VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE OFFERED STUDENTS OF
METROPOLITAN SCHOOL OF BUSINESS
I n o r d e r t o p r e s e n t a c l e a r p i c t u r e o f j u s t how t h e
g u id a n c e p ro c e d u re s a f f e c t th e
stu d e n ts,
th e d if f e r e n t
c o u n s e l i n g a c t i v i t i e s w ere g ro u p e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s c h o o l
an d o c c u p a ti o n a l l e v e l a t w h ic h th e y w ere m o st e f f e c t i v e l y
h e lp fu l.
S e n io r h ig h s c h o o l.
F o ld e rs o f p r in te d
in fo rm a tio n
a b o u t c o u rse o f f e r in g s and re q u ire m e n ts a re s e n t to c o n tr i b u t ­
in g s c h o o ls by M e tr o p o lita n C o u n s e lin g D e p a rtm e n t.
T he
c o u n s e lo r and h i s a s s i s t a n t s f r e q u e n t l y g iv e l e c t u r e s to
h ig h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s on M e t r o p o li t a n ’ s o f f e r i n g s an d r e q u i r e ­
m e n ts.
F ro m t i m e t o
t i m e t h e c o u n s e l o r a r r a n g e s f o r a s h o w in g
o f sound m o tio n p i c t u r e s t o h ig h s c h o o l g r o u p s , e n t i t l e d
" T r a i n i n g f o r B u s i n e s s P o s i t i o n s , " w h ic h d e m o n s tr a te t h e
d iffe re n t a c tiv itie s
o f th e sc h o o l.
A s e n i o r p ro b lem s c o u rs e
in c i t y h ig h s c h o o ls .
stu d ie d .
is o ffe re d to a l l
se n io rs
In t h i s co u rse d i f f e r e n t v o c a tio n s a re
One s e c t i o n o f t h e t e x t u s e d , " P l o t t i n g Y o u r C o u r s e , "
d e a ls e x c lu s iv e ly w ith M e tr o p o lita n ’ s program .
On e n t e r i n g M e t r o p o l i t a n .
When s t u d e n t s f r o m t h e
c o n tr ib u tin g sc h o o ls e n te r M e tro p o lita n School o f B u sin e ss,
t h e y a r e g i v e n tw o s e t s
o f e n tra n c e t e s t s :
th e O tis B o r D
30
H i g h e r F orm a n d a n a r i t h m e t i c a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t *
o f th e se t e s ts
fre q u e n tly
th e
are
file d
T he r e s u l t s
in th e c o u n s e lin g o f f i c e ,
and
s e r v e a s a b a s i s f o r i n t e l l i g e n t p ro g ra m m in g o f
s tu d e n t’ s co u rse o f tr a in in g .
A f t e r th e y h a v e c o m p le te d th e t e s t s ,
th e
stu d e n ts a re
g iv e n an o p p o r tu n ity t o v i s i t th e v a r io u s d e m o n s tra tio n room s,
and ah o p p o r tu n ity t o t a l k w ith t h e i n s t r u c t o r s
th e d i f f e r e n t d e p a rtm e n ts o f th e sc h o o l.
p rin te d m a te ria l d e sc rib in g
in ch arg e o f
They a r e a l s o g iv e n
t h e nu m ero u s c o u r s e o f f e r i n g s .
S tu d e n ts a t M e tro p o lita n School o f B u s in e s s .
A fte r a
d e c is io n h a s been re a c h e d , o f te n w ith th e a id o f t h e C o u n se lin g
D e p a r tm e n t, a s t o w h ic h c o u r s e o f s t u d y i s
in te re s ts
and a b i l i t i e s ,
a te
s c h o o l, and to
sc h o o l,
its
t o h e l p t h e m f i n d t h e i r w ay
f a m i l i a r i z e th em w i t h t h e w h o le g r a d u ­
c u rric u la ,
T he o r i e n t a t i o n c o u r s e a l s o
o u t o f t h e i r stu d y ,
and e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s .
t e a c h e s t h e m how t o g e t t h e m o s t
a n d how t o m a k e t h e d i f f i c u l t a d j u s t m e n t
b e tw e e n h i g h s c h o o l a n d a t e c h n i c a l
school o f b u s in e s s .
P a rt of th e s tu d e n t’ s o rie n ta tio n
m ent i s
to t h e i r
th e s t u d e n t s e n r o l l i n an o r i e n t a t i o n
c o u r s e , th e p u rp o se o f w h ic h i s
about th e
best su ite d
t o h i s new e n v i r o n ­
a c c o m p l i s h e d by m e a n s o f a s s e m b l i e s .
f i r s t w eek o f s c h o o l ,
D u rin g th e
th e s tu d e n ts a re in v ite d to a s p e c ia l
a s s e m b ly a t w h ich t h e y a r e
i n t r o d u c e d t o m e m b e rs o f t h e
a d m in is tr a tio n and th e f a c u lty ,
and a t w h ic h t h e y a r e
u rg ed
t o a v a i l . t h e m s e l v e s o f t h e m any o p p o r t u n i t i e s w h i c h t h e s c h o o l
31
has to o f f e r ,
a n d t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l c o u n s e l i n g a n d e m p lo y m e n t
a s s i s t a n c e w h ic h i s
th e irs
to
command.
At o th e r a sse m b lie s,
d e m o n s tr a tio n s a r e g iv e n by d i f f e r e n t
d e p a rtm e n ts o f th e
sc h o o l, th u s f a m ilia r iz in g th e e n tir e
s t u d e n t body w ith
w hat ta k e s p la c e in eac h d e p a rtm e n t,
F re q u e n tly th e school
o ffers
s t u d e n t s an o p p o r t u n i t y to l i s t e n
fro m th e b u s in e s s w o rld .
to
s p e a k e r s draw n
T h is p r a c t i c e n o t o n ly a c q u a in ts
b u s i n e s s m en w i t h M e t r o p o l i t a n S c h o o l o f B u s i n e s s , b u t i t
a c q u a i n t s s t u d e n t s t o som e e x t e n t w i t h
A c h iev e m e n t t e s t s
th e w o rld o f b u s in e s s .
a re g iv e n p e r i o d i c a l l y
c la ss ro o m s , and c la ss ro o m c o u n s e lin g and a d v ic e
stu d e n ts as a r e s u lt o f th e ir
in a l l
i s g iv e n
s c o r e s on t h e s e t e s t s ,
as w e ll
a s on th e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e i r r e g u l a r c l a s s w o rk.
W henever a s t u d e n t h i m s e l f ,
ro o m t e a c h e r f e e l s
th e c o u n se lo r,
or a c la ss­
t h a t a s tu d e n t n eeds i n d iv id u a l g u id a n c e ,
th e c o u n se lin g s t a f f
i s m o re t h a n r e a d y t o o f f e r s u c h a s s i s t ­
ance.
C e rta in s tu d e n ts a re su b je c te d to
in te re s t,
b a tte rie s
of a p titu d e ,
and p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t s w henever th e y p r e s e n t a
p ro b le m w h ic h c a n n o t be s o lv e d w i t h o u t a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n
w h ic h o n l y a b a t t e r y o f t e s t s w i l l s u p p ly .
d o n e b y t h e S t a t e E m p lo y m e n t O f f i c e s ,
T he t e s t i n g
is
a s a c o u rte sy to
M e t r o p o l i t a n C o u n s e lin g 'D e p a r tm e n t.
On e n t e r i n g t h e b u s i n e s s w o r l d .
s a tis fa c to rily
c o m p le te d h i s
?/h en a s t u d e n t h a s
co u rse o f t r a i n i n g ,
and i s
32
re c o m m e n d e d b y h i s
th e
in stru c to rs
e m p lo y m e n t o f f i c e ,
in a p o s itio n
f o r e m p lo y m en t, he c o n t a c t s
w h i c h m a k e s e v e r y e f f o r t t o p l a c e h im
i n w h ic h h e w i l l be b o th h ap p y and s u c c e s s f u l ,
and, w h erev er p o s s ib le ,
f o r a d v an c em en t.
o n e i n w h ic h t h e r e
i s an o p p o rtu n ity
J u s t b efo re e n te rin g a p o s itio n ,
th e
s t u d e n t i s u s u a l l y g i v e n some e x c e l l e n t l a s t - m i n u t e a d v i c e
by t h e
e m p lo y m e n t s u p e r v i s o r s .
On t h e
jo b .
T he e m p lo y m e n t s u p e r v i s o r s k e e p i n c l o s e
c o n t a c t w i t h s t u d e n t s who h a v e b e e n p l a c e d on t h e j o b i n
o r d e r to a s c e r t a i n w h e th e r o r n o t th e y a r e
sa tis fa c to rily ,
g e t t i n g a lo n g
and w hat f u r t h e r a s s i s t a n c e and a d v ic e can
be g i v e n t h e m t o h e l p th e m m a k e t h e i r j o b a s u c c e s s .
V.
SELLING METROPOLITAN TO THE CONTRIBUTING SCHOOLS
N ot o n ly i s
e v e r y e f f o r t m ade t o a c q u a i n t s t u d e n t s o f
c o n tr ib u tin g s c h o o ls w ith th e v a rio u s c o u rse o f f e r in g s o f
M e t r o p o li t a n S c h o o l o f B u sin e ss;,
p ic tu re s,
p rin te d m a te ria l,
th ro u g h l e c t u r e s ,
sound
and a s e n i o r p ro b le m s c o u rs e ,
t e a c h e r s and g u id a n c e w o rk e rs a t th o s e s c h o o ls a r e con­
t a c t e d th r o u g h l e c t u r e s by M e tr o p o lita n * s c o u n s e l o r ,
and
c o rre s p o n d e n c e e m a n a tin g fro m th e C o u n s e lin g D e p artm en t a t
M e tro p o lita n .
O c c a sio n a lly a v i s i t i n g day i s a rra n g e d f o r
such te a c h e r s ,
i n o r d e r t h a t t h e y m ay v i s i t
s c h o o ls w h ic h
a r e l i k e l y t o a b s o r b m any o f t h e i r g r a d u a t i n g s e n i o r s ,
and
33
a c q u a in t th e m se lv e s p e r s o n a l l y w ith th e o f f e r i n g s o f th e s e
sc h o o ls.
V I.
SELLING METROPOLITAN TO
BUSINESS MEN
By s e c u r i n g t h e c o o p e r a t i o n o f o u t s t a n d i n g l e a d e r s
in
th e B u s in e s s w o rld t o t a l k t o M e t r o p o l i t a n ’ s s t u d e n t s , by
s p o n s o r i n g tw o r a p i d l y g r o w i n g o f f - c a m p u s b u s i n e s s c l u b s o f
fo rm er M e tro p o lita n s tu d e n ts ,
an d , m ost im p o rta n t o f a l l ,
by
t h e h i g h s t a n d a r d o f t r a i n i n g w h ic h t h e s c h o o l dem ands o f i t s
s t u d e n t s b e f o r e r e c o m m e n d i n g th e m f o r e m p l o y m e n t , M e t r o p o l i t a n
S ch o o l o f B u sin e ss i s
g r a d u a l l y g a i n i n g t h e good w i l l an d
r e s p e c t o f b u s i n e s s men t h r o u g h o u t t h e c i t y
o f Los A n g e le s .
CHAPTER IV
METHOD OF PROCEDURE
C. G. W r e n n ,^ i n
e m p h a siz e s t h e
a c ritiq u e
o f t h e g u i d a n c e m o v e m e n t,
im p o rta n c e o f e v a l u a t i o n s t u d i e s o f g u id a n c e
p ro g ram s a s a c h ec k on th e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f c o u n s e lin g a c ­
tiv itie s ,
to
and c l a s s i f i e s
in to th r e e g ro u p s th e u s u a l a p p ro a c h e s
such s tu d ie s .
I n th e l o g i c a l o r s u rv e y m e th o d , th e a u th o r i n c l u d e s
t h o s e s t u d i e s w h ic h a t t e m p t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e n e e d s o f
a n d t o reco m m end t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n
m eet th e s e n e e d s.
S o m e ti m e s t h e
stu d e n ts
o f c o u n se lin g s e rv ic e s to
s u r v e y m e th o d t a k e s t h e f o r m
o f s tu d y in g t h e o b j e c ti v e s of an i n s t i t u t i o n and c h e e k in g such
o b je c tiv e s . a g a in s t th e f a c i l i t i e s
and g u id a n c e p r o c e d u r e s i n
e x is te n c e .
d e v i s e d by e x p e r t s i n t h e
fie ld
A sco re
o f g u id a n c e i s
c r i t i c i z i n g w hat i s
c ritic iz e s
because
th e
card o r c h a rt
fre q u e n tly used a s a c r i t e r i o n f o r
b e in g done in a p a r t i c u l a r s c h o o l.
s u rv e y a p p ro a c h t o t h e p ro b lem o f e v a l u a t i o n
i t p r o v i d e s f o r no o b j e c t i v e
n e ss o f th e c o u n se lin g a c t i v i t i e s
In to
W renn
check on th e e f f e c t i v e ­
under c o n sid e ra tio n .
a s e c o n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n W renn g r o u p s a l l
e x p erim e n ­
t a l s t u d i e s i n w h ich c o n t r o l g ro u p s a r e u s e d , b u t p o i n t s o u t
I
C. G. W re n n , " E v a l u a t i o n o f S t u d e n t P e r s o n n e l W o rk ;
a C r i t i q u e o f t h e G u i d a n c e M o v e m e n t ," S c h o o l a n d S o c i e t y . 5 2 ;
4 0 9 - 4 1 4 * N o v e m b e r 2 , 1940*
35
th e d if f ic u lty of c o n tro llin g a l l
b e in g s tu d ie d .
v a r ia b le s e x c e p t t h e ' one
T he v e r y c o m p l e x i t y o f p e r s o n n e l
t h e a u t h o r c l a i m s , m akes s u c h a t a s k
stu d ie s,
" w e ll-n ig h in s u r ­
m o u n ta b le .
D e v e lo p m e n ta l s t u d i e s i n
t h i r d g ro u p in g .
e v a l u a t i o n c o m p r i s e W re n n * s
In t h i s l a t t e r ap p ro ach ,
th e a c t i v i t i e s o f
s t u d e n t s a r e n o te d o v e r a c o m p a r a tiv e ly lo n g p e r i o d o f tim e
in o rd e r to
c h e c k th e p erm an en cy o f an y c h an g e t h a t h a s
ta k e n p la c e a s a r e s u l t o f g u id a n c e .
In o u tlin in g
some o f t h e
e v a lu a tio n
s t u d i e s t h a t w ere
i n p ro g re s s in th e f a l l o f 1940, th e a u th o r m e n tio n s
" q u e s tio n n a ir e and in te r v ie w
a n d o f t h o s e who h a v e l e f t
c la s s if i e s th e se
fo llo w -u p s tu d ie s o f g ra d u a te s
school f o r o th e r re a s o n s ."
stu d ie s in to :
first,
3
W renn
in d ire c t stu d ie s of
s t u d e n t n e e d s t h a t t h e s c h o o l m ay c o n s i d e r i t s e l f r e s p o n s i b l e
f o r m e e tin g ;
second,
" s tu d ie s o f d ir e c t fo rm e r-stu d e n t r e ­
a c t i o n s to any p a r t o f th e i n s t r u c t i o n a l o r g u id a n c e
4
p ro g ra m ."
The a u t h o r s u g g e s t s t h a t I t i s e m i n e n t l y w o r t h ­
w h ile to c o n ta c t th e
stu d e n ts d ir e c tly .
"F in d o u t w hat
s tu d e n ts sa y d i r e c t l y a re t h e i r p ro b le m s ," he a d v is e s ,
"w hat
th e y th in k o f th e p re s e n t c o u n se lin g and e x tra -c la s s ro o m
2 I b id . , p. 411.
3 Ib id . , p.
4
Loc. c i t .
413.
36
s e r v i c e , w h a t a d d i t i o n a l s e r v i c e s t h e y w o u ld s u g g e s t . "
I.
5
SOURCES OF DATA M D METHODS OF PROCEDURE
A fte r d isc u ssin g th e a d v is a b ility
e v a lu a te c e r ta in
o f a tte m p tin g to
c o u n s e lin g a c t i v i t i e s a t M e tro p o lita n School
o f B u sin e ss w ith th e p r i n c i p a l and c o u n s e lo r o f t h a t s c h o o l,
and v e r i f y i n g th e p r a c t i c a l b e n e f i t s o f s u c h an i n v e s t i g a t i o n
to th e
s c h o o l p ro g ram o f g u id a n c e ,
th e m annner of a tta c k i n g
th e p ro b lem n e ed e d to be d e te rm in e d .
to
in te rv ie w f i f t y
h ig h ly -s e le c te d
T he o r i g i n a l p l a n w a s
s tu d e n ts , tw e n ty -fiv e
of
whom h a d o b t a i n e d t h e i r f i r s t p o s i t i o n t h r o u g h t h e r e c o m m e n d a ­
tio n o f th e
had l e f t
p la c e m e n t o f f i c e ;
t h e o t h e r t w e n t y - f i v e o f whom
sc h o o l b e fo re c o m p le tio n o f t h e i r t r a i n i n g ,
o r had
a t l e a s t s e c u r e d t h e i r own p o s i t i o n s .
The p e r s o n a l r e a c t i o n s o f o n l y f i f t y
even th o u g h t h e s e
s tu d e n ts ,
h o w ever,
s tu d e n ts had been c a r e f u l l y chosen as
r e p r e s e n t a t i v e t y p e s o f t h e w h o le s t u d e n t b o d y , w o u ld h a v e
been h a r d ly a d e q u a te a s a b a s is f o r e v a lu a tio n .
O n ly b y a q u e s t i o n n a i r e
s tu d y c o u ld a s u f f i c i e n t num ber
o f f o m e r s tu d e n ts be c o n ta c te d t o
p ra c tic a l b e n e fit
to th e sc h o o l.
m eth o d w as c h o s e n .
re n d e r th e
stu d y o f any
F or th a t reason,
th e l a t t e r
T he o r i g i n a l p l a n o f d i v i d i n g t h e
stu d e n ts
i n t o tw o g r o u p s , i n o r d e r t h a t t h e i r r e s p o n s e s w o u l d b e n e i t h e r
5
y W re n n , l o o ,
c it.
37
u n fa irly e u lo g is tic
n o r u n f a i r l y c r i t i c a l , w as r e t a i n e d .
T he
n um bers o f e a c h g ro u p w ere i n c r e a s e d , h o w ever, t o f i v e
h u n d r e d o f G ro u p I
o ffic e ),
( s t u d e n ts p la c e d by th e s c h o o l p la c e m e n t
a n d 4 9 5 o f G ro u p I I
( s t u d e n t s n o t p l a c e d by t h e
s c h o o l p la c e m e n t o f f i c e ) .
N in e h u n d re d n i n e t y - f i v e
in g tw e n ty - s ix
q u e stio n n a ire s,
q u e s tio n s , a p e rs o n a l d a ta s h e e t,
f o r a n sw e rin g th e
c o u n se lo r o f th e
q u e stio n n a ire ,
each c o n ta in ­
d ire c tio n s
and a l e t t e r s ig n e d by t h e
s c h o o l , w e r e m a i l e d t o y o u n g p e o p l e who h a d
re c e iv e d a t l e a s t a p a r t o f t h e i r t r a in in g a t M e tro p o lita n ,
a n d who h a d ,
sin c e le a v in g th e
e x p e rie n c e .
A copy o f th e q u e s t io n n a ir e a p p e a rs a t t h e end
of th is
c h a p te r.
One h u n d r e d s e v e n t y - f i v e r e p l i e s w e r e r e ­
c e i v e d f r o m t h e G ro u p I
a s G ro u p I I .
s tu d e n ts ,
and 114 from t h o s e c l a s s i f i e d
T he r e p l i e s w e r e t a l l i e d ,
o f th e fin d in g s a re
stu d y .
s c h o o l , h a d some o c c u p a t i o n a l
and an i n te r p r e ta tio n
g i v e n i n C h a p t e r s V, V I , a n d V I I o f t h i s
C e r t a i n c o n c lu s io n s and reco m m e n d atio n s a r e l i s t e d
C h a p te r V III.
in
M etropolitan School of Business
234 Venice Boulevard
Los Angeles, C alifo rn ia
Dear M etropolitan Alumnus:
In what ways could we have been more h elp fu l to you
while you were a t M etropolitan?
The enclosed q u estio n n aire attem pts to evaluate our
course o ffe rin g s, as w ell as the vocational guidance of
our Graduate School of Business* A sin cere expression of
opinion from sev eral hundred M etropolitan stu d en ts to whom
we are sending th ese q u estio n n aires are th e b est c r i t e r i a
f o r discovering our own shortcomings* They w ill suggest
ways by which our program may be improved*
A ll inform ation w ill be held co n fid en tial* You need
not sign your name* But please don’t delay. F i l l in th e
questio n n aire and re tu rn i t in th e enclosed envelope as
soon a s possible* No postage i s required*
Thank you very much fo r your cooperation. I t i s in ­
dispensable to th e su ccessfu l completion of t h i s study*
Very sin c e re ly yours.
Sics.
M etropolitan School of
Business
39
QUESTIONNAIRE
Please fill in the correct answers by either
underlining the correct words, or by; supplying
the information on the blanks provided,
(1)
Age last birthday? _______________
(2)
Sex:
(3)
To what race and nationality do you belong?(Underline correct
Male?
Female?
ans,)
(a)
White, Negro, Oriental
(b)
Spanish, Mexican, Hebrew, Japanese, Chinese,
Italian, Irish, Scotch, EJnglish, French, Swedish,
Norwegian. Other nationality? _________________
(4)
Are you married?
Yes
_____ No
(Check correct ans.)
(5)
Are you employed at present?
(6)
What was your major study inhigh school?__ _______ ________
(7)
In which studies did you do your best workwhile
_____ Yes
No
in high school?
Directions for answering this
Quest ionnaire
In most cases, only an (X) is required after the correct answer.
In two of the questions, however, you have been asked to number the
answers in the order of their importance to you.
Please follow the di­
rections carefully, in all instances stating your sincere and unbiased
opinion,
40
QUESTIONNAIRE
1*
Did you enter Metropolitan with a definite plan to take a certain
course? (Please place an X before the correct answer*)
(____ } Yes
(____ ) No
29
What was this course?,_______ _ __________________________ ____________
3*
How did you happen to choose this course?
(Please number the following in the order of their importance
in your case, omitting those which had no bearing on your
decision*)
{____ ) Pleasant working conditions.
{____ ) Social advantages.
(____ ) Interest in, and liking for the work.
(____ ) Relative brevity of training period.
(____ ) Remuneration good compared to length of training period.
4.
(
) Opportunity to obtain free training.
(
)
Other reasons? _________________________________________
(List other reasons here)
Were you persuaded to change from one course to another after entering
Metropolitan?
(____ ) Yes
(____ ) No
5.
If you changed, what was the new course? ____________ ________________
6.
Who influenced you to change your original plans?
(Please place an X in front of the correct answer.)
(____ ) A classroom teacher.
(____ ) A Counselor
(____ ) Employment supervisor.
.
41
(____ ) Others? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _______
(List other influences here)
'/
Bid you change because of a try^out course?
7#
(
) Yes
(____ ) No
Bo new students need help in adjusting themselves to the program of
Metropolitan School of Business?
(____ ) Yes
(_______)
8.
HO
What difficulties are they most likely to encounter when they first
enter our school?
(Write comments here)
9#
Bid you find Metropolitan pamphlets and other printed material clear
and'*'helpful? (Please place an X in front of Correct answer*)
(_
) Of little help
(
) Of some help
(____ ) Quite helpful
(
10*
) Very helpful
Bid this printed material give you a good understanding of the re­
quirements of the position for which you decided to train? (Place
X in front of correct answer.)
(____ ) Little understanding from printed material
(____ ) Some understanding from
(
printed material
.) Good understanding from.printed material
(____ ) Excellent understanding from printed material*
11*
How could,the printed material be improved?
(Please write comments.)
42
12*
Do you wish you had selected;
(a)
another occupation?
{
(b)
other studies:
) Yes
{
{____ ) No
13#
14*
) Yes
(_____ ) No
(c)
What occupation do you wish you had chosen? ___
(d)
What other studies?-_______________ ;_____ _____
(©)
Reason for wishing this change?
•
Did you go to the Counseling Department for assistance whenever you
were having trouble with your program during your training period
at Metropolitan?
(___ )
Never
(___ )
Seldom
{___ )
Occasionally
(___ )
Frequently
Which were your main sources of help, guidance and advice while at
Metropolitan?
(Please number the following in the order of their importance in
your case, omitting those from whom you received no advice.)
(___ )
Classroom
teacher
(___ )
Counselor
(___ )
Another student or students
(___ )
Employment Supervisor
(___ )
A Friend
(___ )
Parents
(___ )
Others?
_____________ ______________________________ _____
(List others here, numbering in order of
importance •)
43
15*
Bo you consider the guidance offered by the Counseling Office at
Metropolitan adequate?
(_____ )Inadequate
(______J Somewhat adequate
(_____ )Very adequate
If it was inadequate, what .was the deficiency? ___________
16*
Would you not say that your vocational guidance at Metropolitan should
have been more helpful in terms of the following: (Place an X in
front of correct answer*)
(____) More information given regarding courses of study?
(____) More help given regarding job requirements?
(____) More training in the art of job-hunting?
(
) Counseling should have been more sympathetic?
(____) More practical?
{
) More personal?
(____) Less dictatorial?
(
) More adequate in terms of time and effort?
(
) More standardized tests?
Other comments
17*
,
____________________________________
(Please add any other comments here.)
Place an X in the correct column after those courses in which your
school training proved inadequate for your job, and those in which
the training was more than adequate for your job, and those in which
the training was the correct amount for your job*
44
List of courses
Less training would
have been adequate.
Right amount of
training given for
job.
More training
needed for the
job.
Accounting
Addre ssograph
Arithmetic
Billing
Bus, Cor,
Civil Ser
Compt•
Dictaphone
Duplicating
English
Filing
Key Punch
Meeh, Bkkg.
Off, Exp,
Off, Training
P.B.X.
Penmanship
Record keeping
Retail Tr,
Salesmanship
Shorthand
(Sec. Tr.)
Stenotype
Typing
(Sten, Bur,)
18*
Please fill in the Occupational History Chart below, using the
example given on the first line as a guide:
Occupational History
Positions (Company)
May Co.
Nature of work
Cashier
Begin
*How many
Salary
promotions
From To
per mo.
Sept, Mar.
#70
None
193? 193$
Final
salary
#70
45
19,
Check which added courses of extra-curricular activities would you
now consider useful in your work?
(
20*
(a)
)
Job Ethics
(___ )
Public speaking
(___ )
Course in salesmanship
(___ )
Training in how to interview
{___ )
Training in the use of the telephone
(___ )
Hobbies
(___ )
More personality development
(___ )
Character training
(___ )
Social clubs
(___ )
More contacts with the business world
(___ )
More health guidance
(
Others_________________ ____________________
)
Did you complete your course of training at Metropolitan?
(____ ) Yes
(b)
(____ )
No
If your answer to the above question is tTnoM t check the reason
or reasons for leaving before having completed your course*
{___ ) The work was too difficult
{___ ) Obtained position before completion
(___ ) Financial reasons
(___ ) Married
(___ ) Illness
(___ ) Needed at home
(___ ) Home conditions not conducive to study
(
) Other reasons
46
21.
Did the Metropolitan Employment Office obtain a position for you?
{
22.
) Yes
(____ ) No
Was your first position the type for which you received training at
Metropolitan?
(
) A different type of position
(
) Approximately the same type
(____ ) The same type for which I trained
23.
Do you use bookkeeping or seme other:'form of record-keeping in your
work? Describe briefly.
24.
What speed in typewriting and shorthand do you consider adequate for"
the handling of your job? (Please draw a circle around the correct
answer. Do not answer if you don’t use typing or shorthand on your
job.)
25.
26.
Typing
Shorthand
40 w.p.m.
45 w.p.m.
50 w.p.m.
55 w.p.m.
60 w.p.m.
65 w.p.m.
70 w.p.m.
Other speed
60 w.p.m.
70 w.p.m.
80 w.p.m.
90 w.p.m.
100 w.p.m.
110 w.p.m.
120 w.p.m.
Other speed
In the light of your present experience, are you satisfied with the
actual training and counseling you received at Metropolitan?
(____) Dissatisfied
(
) Quite satisfied
(____) Fairly satisfied
(
) Perfectly satisfied
Do you wish to offer any further suggestions? If so, please write
them below. Any helpful suggestions you can offer for the improvement
of our program will be greatly appreciated.
Use other side if necessary.
CHAPTER V
PERSONAL DATA AND ORIENTATION
B e f o r e a t t e m p t i n g *t o
i n t e r p r e t th e f in d in g s ,
c o n s id e r e d a d v is a b l e t o group th e
ta b le s
i t was
in to fo u r c l a s s i f i ­
c a tio n s and d is c u s s each of th e s e fo u r g ro u p s as a s e p a r a te
u n it*
To i n t e r p r e t
first
th e p e rs o n a l d a ta and th e n to
a n a ly z e t h e m a te r ia l d e a lin g w ith th e
tio n ,
c u rric u lu m ,
and g u id a n c e ,
o r d e r o f p ro ced u re*
to v io la te
th e
q u e stio n s o f o r i e n t a ­
re s p e c tiv e ly ,
In fo llo w in g t h i s
p la n ,
seem ed a l o g i c a l
i t was n e c e s s a r y
o rd e r o f th e q u e s tio n s a s th e y a p p e a r in th e
que s t i onna i r e .
I.
Age o f s t u d e n t s *
G roup I
PERSONAL DATA
T a b le I c l a s s i f i e s
( p l a c e d by s c h o o l ) , a n d G ro u p I I
th e s tu d e n ts in
(n o t p l a c e d by
sc h o o l),
a c c o rd in g to ag es.
stu d e n ts
in e a c h g ro u p w ere n i n e t e e n y e a r s o f a g e ,
a g e f o r G ro u p I w a s 2 0 y e a r s ,
G ro u p I I i t w a s 1 9 y e a r s ,
Sex, m a rita l
A lth o u g h th e g r e a t e s t num ber o f
3 m o n t h s , a n d 22 d a y s ; f o r
11 m o n t h s ,
page 49.
s t u d e n ts w ere g i r l s .
and 8 d a y s .
s t a t u s , a n d e m p lo y m en t. . I n f o r m a t i o n
re sp e c t to sex , m a rita l s ta tu s ,
T a b le I I ,
t h e m ean
a n d e m p lo y m e n t i s
in
g iv e n in
By f a r t h e g r e a t e r p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e s e
O n ly 1 2 p e r c e n t o f t h o s e who r e t u r n e d
48
TABLE I
DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES IN RESPECT TO PERSONNEL DATA ON AGE
Age
Group I I
T otal
20
21
23
24 25
Frequency
22 47
42
24 14 10
2 11
3
175
Frequency
0
Percentage
0 13
Frequency
4
Percentage
4
26
22
24 14
8
6
1
6
2
27
23 23 16
7
3
2
7
2
23
20
20 14
6
3
2
6
2
Frequency
4 49
70
65 40
21
13
4
18
5
Percentage
1 17
24
23 14
8
4
1
6
2
NOTE: Group I —mean age, 20 y e a rs, 3 months, 22 days.
Group I I —mean age, 19 y ea rs, 11 months, 8 days.
Percentage
17 18 19
No mention
Group I
T otal
100
114
100
289
100
TABLE I I
DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES IN RESPECT TO SEE, MARRIAGE, AND EMPLOYMENT
Sex
Total
>>
©
a
©
H
©
S
Group I
Group I I
Total
Frequency
<d
©
H
S
*
d6 o' 04
O P
Pn
16 159
Percentage
9
91
Frequency
19
95
Percentage
17
83
Frequency
35 254
Percentage
12
88
Married
®
fl
to
©
-p
a
®
©
©
fM
17S«
114
100
289
100
^
p?
o
*h
«p
Q
<D
s
h
o
»
{
15 160
100
T otal
9
z
0
91
0
8 105
1
7
92
1
23 265
1
8
92
o
«
2
P,
o1
0
u
£©
S
o
0
s
S
Employed
a t present
'
®
to
©
-p
S
®
o
(4
©
p^
175
100
114
100
289
100
O
©
^
o
Sa
a
o
•H
4»
a
©
6
o
53
156 17
2
89 10
1
94 19
1
82 17
1
250 36
3
87 12
1
T otal
>>
©
d
©
o*
s
©
CO
©
•p
d
©
©
©
P4
175
100
114
100
289
100
t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e w ere m a le s tu d e n ts *
A g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e y o u n g b u s i n e s s p e o p l e w ere
s till
sin g le .
T he r e s p o n s e s t o t h i s
q u e stio n in d ic a te d t h a t
92 p e r c e n t w e r e u n m a r r i e d .
A lth o u g h a l l
o f th e
s tu d e n ts c o n ta c te d by th e
tio n n a ir e had had o c c u p a tio n a l e x p e rie n c e ,
ques­
12 p e r c e n t o f t h e m
s t a t e d t h a t t h e y w e r e n o t e m p lo y e d a t t h e t i m e o f w r i t i n g *
R ace a n d n a t i o n a l i t y *
O n ly tw o f o r m e r s t u d e n t s
a s b e in g o f o t h e r th a n th e w h ite race*
r e p r e s e n t e d m o re t h a n o n e n a t i o n a l
re p o rte d
Many s t u d e n t s
o rig in ,
so t h a t th e t o t a l
a n s w e r s do n o t r e p r e s e n t t h e n u m b e r o f s t u d e n t s r e p o r t i n g .
A lm o st e v e r y
g ro u p ;
c o n c e i v a b l e n a t i o n a l i t y was r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e
b u t E n g lish ,
nu m b ers,
Irish j
and S c o tc h c la im e d th e g r e a t e s t
a s sho w n i n T a b l e I I I .
M a jo r s t u d i e s
d is c lo s e s th e
in h ig h s c h o o l.
fa c t th a t
T a b le IV , p a g e 5 2 ,
q u i t e a l a r g e num ber o f t h e
w ere a c a d e m ic m a jo r s i n h ig h s c h o o l ,
m a jo r s w ere i n th e m a j o r i t y .
s tu d e n ts
a lth o u g h t h e c o m m erc ial
E n g lish ,
la n g u a g e s,
m a th e m a tic s ,
and h i s t o r y w ere m o st f r e q u e n t l y g iv e n a s m a jo r s o f t h a t g ro u p
o f s t u d e n t s h a v in g an a c a d e m ic b a c k g ro u n d .
S h o rth a n d seem s
t o have b een th e m ost p o p u la r m a jo r s u b j e c t f o r th o s e r e p o r t i n g
a co m m erc ial b a c k g ro u n d .
N e a rly one h a l f o f a l l
num ber o f co m m erc ial m a jo r s f e l l
th e t o t a l
i n t h a t g ro u p , w h ic h w as
s l i g h t l y l a r g e r t h a n t h e n um bers o f t h e b o o k k e e p in g a n d t y p i n g
TABLE I I I
DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES IN RESPECT TO RACE AND NATIONALITY
Race
Total
N ationality
Total
s £ IS *o
g«
-2
j s g o ' S ^ i S
o ' S
n§ g i &
r 2s - a s s a s s i n 0
m oP m© S
©
Group I
Frequency
Percentage
Group I I
Frequency
Percentage
Total
Frequency
Percentage
S*
©
100
111 2 1 114
97 2 1
100
J
d
o
S
^
|
.
H
O
©
^
©
9 13
7 27 33
26 13 11
6
6
4
6
3 11 14
43 23 14
8
8
8
8
8 24 21
26 14
5
5
5
5
5 14 13
8
104 55 41 22 21 17 21 15 51 54
284 2 3 289
98 1 1
H
61 32 27 14 13
173 0 2 175
99 0 1
*
100
26 14 10
6
5
4
5
4 13 13
&
S’
§ S
eI l I
J3
<B
236
100
165
100
401
100
vn
H
TABLE 17
DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES IN RESPECT TO MAJOR STUDIES IN HIGH SCHOOL
a
0
•H
p
09
S’
£
Group I
Group I I
Frequency
29
Percentage
11
to
td
09
3
©
i I
O
1
o
p
09
•H
a
9
&
©
P
10 11 24 30
4 4
8
.8
£
fa
104
9 12
Frequency
9
7 14 14 22
Percentage
7
6 10 10 17
CO
<d
p
aa>
o
0
I
>»
o
P<
©
Io
2P
•H
m
&♦
o
ft
09
M
J§
P
O
32 70 40 10
40
13 27 16
50
9 20
rt
©
o4
9
U
£
8 13
9
Cfl
0
P
G
d
0
to
0
p
O
d
a4
0
o
d
©
0
u
fa
152
4
12 26 10 17
66
Grand
Total
Commercial * Total
College preparatory Total
d
U
0
Pk
256
60
65
100
131
50
100
53
m a jo r s c o m b in ed .
H ig h s c h o o l s t u d i e s
w ork.
i n w h ic h s t u d e n t s d i d t h e i r b e s t
T he sam e a c a d e m i c s u b j e c t s , w i t h t h e a d d i t i o n
s c i e n c e , w ere g iv e n by s t u d e n ts a s th o s e
t h e i r b e s t w ork.
stu d e n ts
(S ee T a b le V . )
of
in w h ic h t h e y d id
M any o f t h e c o m m e r c i a l
d id t h e i r b e s t w ork i n t y p i n g ,
a l t h o u g h some o t h e r
s u b j e c t m ay h a v e b e e n t h e i r m a j o r .
Sum m ary o f f i n d i n g s
p e rso n al d a ta in t h i s
1.
in r e s p e c t t o p e r s o n a l d a t a .
The
stu d y r e v e a le d th e f o llo w in g :
T he a g e r a n g e o f t h e s t u d e n t s who r e s p o n d e d t o t h e
q u e s t i o n n a i r e w as fro m s e v e n te e n to t w e n t y - s i x y e a r s ,
th e
m a j o r i t y o f th em b e in g n i n e t e e n y e a r s o f a g e .
2.
E ig h ty -e ig h t p er cent of th e s e
s t u d e n t s w ere g i r l s ;
92 p e r c e n t o f t h e m w e r e u n m a r r i e d .
3*
N in e ty -n in e p e r cen t of th e s e
th e w h ite r a c e ,
in
th e
stu d e n ts
b e lo n g e d t o
b u t a lm o st e v e ry n a t i o n a l i t y w as r e p r e s e n te d
g roup.
4*
F o r t y p e r c e n t o f t h e s e s t u d e n t s h a d b e e n a c a d e m ic
m a jo rs in h ig h s c h o o l;
60 p e r c e n t o f t h e m h a d b e e n c o m m e r c i a l
m a jo rs.
II.
DATA CONCERNING ORIENTATION
A new o r i e n t a t i o n c o u r s e w a s a d d e d t o t h e c u r r i c u l u m
in F eb ru ary ,
1 9 4 1 , t h e p u rp o s e o f w h ic h w as to a s s i s t
s tu d e n ts
<r>
1
•O
M
S
2
M
W
H
M
-a
<1
•<1
M
O
o
M
<*
M
to
CO
CO M
M
W
to
o>
u
©
•g
©
op
to
*o
8
to
03
H istory
00
C
O
to
Language
00
03
o
to
03 .
Mathematics
H*
Ol
H-*
O
Oll
I-*
o>
H*
O
M
03
m
X
03
to
M
to
M
o
Frequency
M
o»
O
l
to
Typing
Ol
H
M*
O thers
H
52
Frequency
Bookkeeping
Shorthand
3
cf
O
3
§d*
|
©
H
O
H*
P.
O
€+•
Percentage
03
8
►
i
©
P
to
to
O
l
to
o
o
M
M
©
a>
Percentage
03
O
Ol
M
oo
O thers
03
M
03
03
00
£
oi
Science
to
©
o>
Ol
E nglish
Frequency
Percentage
P.
►
3P
O
H
* g
& P*
DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES IN RESPECT TO HIGH SCHOOL STUDIES IN WHICH
STUDENTS DID THEIR BEST WORK
©
5
P
3
©
»o
£©
«©
<
Percentage
►
0
w
55
in
a d ju s tin g
th e m se lv e s t o
th e
sc h o o l.
T he t r a n s i t i o n
fro m
h ig h sc h o o l to M e tr o p o lita n G ra d u a te S ch o o l o f B u sin e ss i s
p e rh a p s ev ery b i t a s d i f f i c u l t f o r th e
o f h ig h sch o o l to a u n iv e r s ity .
s tu d e n ts a s i s
th a t
T he s t u d e n t s s c a r c e l y h a v e
t i m e t o a c q u a i n t t h e m s e l v e s w i t h t h e m any o p p o r t u n i t i e s w h i c h
th e
sch o o l a ffo rd s because
of th e i n t e n s i t y o f th e t r a i n in g
p ro g ram ,- w h i c h , g e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g ,
c a lls fo r fiv e
d a y o f c l a s s w o r k a n d a s m any m o re h o u r s ,
stu d y .
T he n ew o r i e n t a t i o n
u su a lly ,
h o u rs a
o f home
c o u r s e was d e s ig n e d t o h e lp t h e s e
s t u d e n t s n o t o n ly t o becom e b e t t e r a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t h e
fa c ilitie s
o f th e sc h o o l,
b u t t o g e t th e m ost o u t o f t h e i r
stu d ie s.
S tu d e n ts need h e lp
program .
in a d j u s t i n g th e m se lv e s t o th e
In Q u e stio n 7 o f th e q u e s tio n n a ir e ,
page 41,
i n q u i r e s , w h e th e r o r n o t s tu d e n ts need h e lp , w h ile in sc h o o l,
i n a d ju s ti n g th e m se lv e s to th e program a t M e tr o p o lita n S chool
o f B u sin e ss.
A la rg e m a jo rity of stu d e n ts
(p la c e d by sc h o o l)
answ ered t h i s
a n d G ro u p I I
q u e stio n ,
re p lie d
i n d ic a t e d by t h e a n a l y s i s
i n b o t h G ro u p I
( n o t p l a c e d b y s c h o o l ) who
in th e a f f i r m a t i v e ,
as is
i n T a b le V I.
In Q u e stio n 8 o f th e q u e s tio n n a ir e ,
page 41, th e
s t u d e n t s w ere a s k e d w h at d i f f i c u l t i e s t h e y w ere m o st l i k e l y
t o e n c o u n t e r on e n t e r i n g
th e s c h o o l.
m ad e i n a n s w e r t o t h a t q u e s t i o n .
N u m e ro u s c o m m e n ts w e r e
One v e r y f o r c e f u l a n d
56
TABLE VI
DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES WITH RESPECT TO HELP NEEDED IN ADJUSTING
TO THE PROGRAM OF THE SCHOOL
T o tal
0
O
Group I
Group I I
©
M
•H
•P
©
0
0
a©
©
-P
5*
O
®4
©
P
p*
_
O
H
S5
S3
r
Frequency
78
50
47
175
Percentage
44
28
28
Frequency
59
30
25
Percentage
52
26
22
C
O
0
©
100
114
100
57
o fte n -re p e a te d answ er to th e
i n q u i r y w as t h a t t h e y f o u n d i t
d i f f i c u l t t o a d j u s t th e m se lv e s to th e p e r s i s t e n t
h o m ew o rk .
M any s t u d e n t s
ta sk of
s t a t e d t h a t b e c o m in g a d j u s t e d t o
an e n t i r e l y .b u s in e s s c u r r ic u lu m and w o rk in g in s t r i c t l y
b u sin e ss o f f ic e
c o n d i t i o n s w as no e a s y ta s k .
m i t t e d t h a t i t t o o k some t i m e f o r th e m t o
S ev eral ad­
re a liz e
th a t th e y
w e r e n o l o n g e r i n h i g h s c h o o l , a n d t h a t t h e y m u s t " g e t down
to
b u s in e s s ."
so c ia l l i f e
Q u ite a num ber c o m p lain e d o f t h e a b s e n c e o f
in th e sc h o o l,
had d i f f i c u l t y
i n g e t t i n g a c q u a in t e d an d w ere t h e r e f o r e
l o n e l y a s n ew s t u d e n t s t o
S tu d e n ts fin d
d u tie s o f th e
and o th e r s rem ark ed t h a t th e y h ad
th e sc h o o l.
p rin te d m a te ria l h e lp fu l.
One o f t h e
c o o rd in a to r in th e c o u n se lin g o f f ic e
is
to
p r e p a re p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l d e s c r i b i n g c o u rs e o f f e r i n g s and jo b
re q u ire m e n ts .
trib u tin g
C o p ies o f t h i s m a t e r i a l a re
sc h o o ls,
upon t h e i r c o u r s e s o f s tu d y .
page 41,
t o a s s i s t th e m i n d e c i d i n g
T he r e p l i e s t o
h e lp fu l,"
Q u e stio n 9 of
a r e p r e s e n te d i n T a b le V II,
M ost o f t h e s t u d e n t s a n s w e r in g t h e
m a te ria l " q u ite
con­
a n d o t h e r c o p i e s a r e d i s t r i b u t e d a m on g
t h e new s t u d e n t s a t M e t r o p o l i t a n ,
th e q u e s tio n n a ire ,
s e n t to th e
q u e s tio n found th e p r in te d
a n d m any o f t h e m f o u n d i t
"v ery
h e lp fu l."
P r in te d m a te r ia l e x p la in s re q u ire m e n ts o f v a rio u s
p o sitio n s.
T a b le V I I I ,
page 59,
illu s tra te s
t h a t m ost s t u d e n ts
58
TABLE V II
DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES IN RESPECT TO AMOUNT OF HELP RECEIVED
FROM PRINTED MATERIAL
T otal
p*
«H
<8
A
©
*-i
«
*»
-P
•H
Group I
Group I I
p
P<
H
©
A
©
g
o
(0
•H
©
*
©
*P
.
P.
&
in
S3
iH
*H
Pi
O
8
>>
.©
^
1?
©
6
_o
Frequency
4
22
64
38
47
Percentage
2
13
36
22
27
Frequency
1
18
43
23
29
Percentage
1
16
37
20
26
<D
O
W)
©
S i ?
si
©
o * o
<
d
£
©
PH
P*
175
100
114
100
I
» -*
I
1
►
d
<D
H
O
(0
a
I
Ip
P
O
CD
Cct>
J
3
o>
-o
to
*
»
>
5
8
H*
Ol
CO
CO
Some
understanding
CO
03
Good
understanding
<D
L ittle
understanding
CO
M
fif*
I-*
09
CO
CO
E x cellent
understanding
CO
CO
09
Ol
£•
No mention
-a
oi
Frequency
Ol
<0
M
i-*
oo
o
Percentage
DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES WITH RESPECT TO HOW WELL PRINTED MATERIAL
EXPLAINED JOB REQUIREMENTS
<D
o(D
P
st
CD
60
who a n s w e r e d Q u e s t i o n 10 o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e o n p a g e 41
f e l t t h a t t h e y h ad r e c e i v e d a "good u n d e r s t a n d i n g ” o f t h e
jo b r e q u ir e m e n ts fro m th e p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l .
Q u ite a num ber
s t a t e d t h a t t h e y h a d r e c e i v e d "so m e u n d e r s t a n d i n g f r o m t h e
p r in te d m a te r ia l o f th e re q u ire m e n ts o f th e p o s itio n f o r
w h ic h t h e y h a d d e c i d e d t o t r a i n ,
a n d a l m o s t a s m an y r e p o r t e d
t h a t t h i s m a t e r i a l h a d g i v e n th e m a n " e x c e l l e n t u n d e r s t a n d i n g ”
o f w h a t a p a r t i c u l a r t y p e o f p o s i t i o n w a s l i k e l y t o dem and o f
th em .
S u g g e s tio n s f o r im p ro v in g p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l .
Q u e s t i o n 1 1 o n p a g e 41 o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e ,
th e s tu d e n ts
w e r e a s k e d t o g i v e t h e i r own c o m m e n ts r e g a r d i n g t h e
m ent o f th e p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l .
it
go m o r e i n t o d e t a i l ,
S ev eral stu d e n ts
and t h a t i t
In
im p ro v e ­
su g g e ste d t h a t
g i v e m o re c o n c i s e e x p l a n a ­
t i o n s o f r e q u i r e m e n ts and d u t i e s ,
as w e ll as th e o p p o r tu n itie s
i n v a r i o u s l i n e s o f w ork.
o th e r hand,
s tu d e n ts
On t h e
a num ber o f
s ta te d t h a t th e y p re fe rre d o r a l in s tr u c tio n s to
p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l b e c a u s e t h e f o r m e r l e a v e s ro o m f o r d i s c u s s i o n .
S tu d e n ts s a t i s f i e d w ith t h e i r c o u rs e o f stu d y and
o c c u p a tio n a l c h o ic e .
W h a te v e r i n f l u e n c e s m ig h t h a v e e n t e r e d
in to t h e i r d e c isio n s,
T a b l e IX o f t h i s
on th e w h o le ,
s t u d e n t s w ere q u i t e
stu d y in d ic a te s
s a tis fie d
th a t,
b o th w ith t h e i r
c o u r s e s o f s tu d y a n d t h e o c c u p a tio n s f o r w h ic h t h e y had
tra in e d .
c h o ic e .
O n l y a f e w o f t h e m se e m t o h a v e r e g r e t t e d
th e ir
TABLE IX
DISTRIBUTION OP RESPONSES AS TO DEGREE OP SATISFACTION WITH
OCCUPATION AND.STUDIES
Another
Total
occupation
fl
©
o
«P
a
§
I
a
Group I
Group I I
o
&
§
Frequency
6
122
47
Percentage
3
70
27
Frequency
13
68
33
Percentage
11
60
29
Other studies
3o
4»
a©
3
o
a
to
of
4*
8
£
©
P4
175
100
114
100
to
*2
32
84
59
18
48
34
29
46
39
26
40
34
Total
>
o►
a©
a4
1
©
u>
<d
©
£
©
04
175
100
114
100
Sum m ary o f f i n d i n g s
1.
in re sp e c t to
o rie n ta tio n ,
T he m a j o r i t y o f t h e s t u d e n t s who a n s w e r e d t h e
q u e stio n n a ire
a s s e r te d t h a t th e y needed h e lp in a d ju s tin g
th e m se lv e s t o th e pro g ram w h ile a t M e tr o p o lita n S ch o o l o f
B u sin e ss.
2.
A lth o u g h t h e p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l was h e l p f u l i n g i v i n g
t h e m a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f j o b r e q u i r e m e n t s , m an y s t u d e n t s f e l t
th a t i t
s h o u l d h a v e b e e n m o re d e t a i l e d r e g a r d i n g t h e
m e n ts, d u t i e s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n
S ev eral s tu d e n ts
re q u ire ­
v a r i o u s l i n e s o f w ork.
su g g e ste d t h a t th e p r i n te d m a t e r i a l sh o u ld
h a v e been su p p le m e n te d by v e r b a l d i s c u s s i o n .
CHAPTER VI
DATA CONCERNING THE CURRICULUM
A lth o u g h th e C o u n s e lin g D e p a rtm e n t d o es n o t d e c id e
upon th e c o n te n t o f th e
c u rric u lu m , i t
d o e s re c o m m e n d t h a t
c u r r ic u lu m i n t h e fo rm o f c o u r s e s o f s tu d y to s t u d e n t s .
is
It
im p o s s ib le t o s e p a r a t e e d u c a t i o n a l fro m v o c a t i o n a l g u id ­
ance,
f o r one su p p le m e n ts th e o t h e r .
a ssu ra n ce th a t th e
T h e re c a n be n o d e f i n i t e
c o u rs e s of stu d y a d e q u a te ly t r a i n
fo r
d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f b u s i n e s s p o s i t i o n s u n l e s s som e o b j e c t i v e
c h e c k i s m ad e w i t h
s t u d e n t s who h a v e e v a l u a t e d t h e i r t r a i n i n g
in th e l i g h t o f o n -th e -jo b e x p e rie n c e .
The O c c u p a t i o n a l H i s t o r y C h a r t
q u e stio n n a ire ,
(Q u e stio n . 18 o f t h e
p ag e 4 4 ) , was a n a ly z e d t o d e te r m in e
o c c u p a tio n a l g ro u p s th e
in to w hat
s t u d e n t s m ig h t be c l a s s i f i e d .
S ix
m a j o r j o b c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s w e r e s e t up* o n t h e b a s i s o f t h i s
a n a ly sis.
I n Q u e s t i o n 17 on p a g e 43 o f t h e
s t u d e n ts w ere a sk e d t o
lu m , n o t fr o m t h e
c ritic iz e
p a r t i c u l a r ty p e o f jo b .
th e y had re c e iv e d th e
to f i t
t h e c o u r s e s on t h e c u r r i c u ­
sta n d p o in t o f c o n te n t,
o f th e -a m o u n t o f t r a i n i n g
o ffered
q u e stio n n a ire ,
but r a t h e r in te rm s
in each co u rse f o r t h e i r
T h e ir d e c is io n s a s to w h e th e r o r n o t
r i g h t am ount o f t r a i n i n g
th e m f o r t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r
i n T a b l e s X t o XV i n c l u s i v e .
jo b a re s t a t e d
in each c o u rse
in p e rc e n ta g e s
T he f a c t t h a t m an y o f t h e
s t u d e n ts h ad n o t c o m p le te d t h e i r c o u rs e o f s tu d y b e f o r e
le a v in g
64
TABLE X
DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES IN RESPECT TO THE ADEQUACY OF THE
CLERICAL COURSE OF STUDY*
IN TERMS OF PERCENTAGES
Group I
SP
•H
a
S?
PI
2
•h
5
2
«P $p
-a n
I -a
H *©
-P ©
*«
<d
-p •*>
©
©
si
© © to *-t
«
*2
a
2
S 51
3 <0
15
at**
•H O
«
*o
©
©
.2
*
a
S «
S° I*
32
25
15
22
19
55
32
32
27
5
14
37
25
10
12
35
6
6
40
29
17
5
27
14*
33
43
50
65
56
62
40
52
48
50
70
80
38
33
62
67
57
38
50
20
42
62
85
56
71
54
25
25
20
22
19
27
16
20
23
25
6
25
42
28
21
8
56
45
40
29
21
10
17
15
13
33
9
31
17
15
56
10
42
19
16
19
33
25
8
20
15
31
9
40
11
28
14
17
11
0
48
64
38
33
45
33
60
29
56
57
62
67
50
64
60
31
15
36
40
33
67
72
66
65
100
$ <D
4»
•O
© <D
OB <D
Accounting
Addre ssograph
A rithm etic
B illin g
Business correspondence
C iv il serv ice
Comptometry
Dictaphone
D uplicating
E nglish
F ilin g
Key punch
Machine bookkeeping
O ffice experience
O ffice tra in in g
P.B.X ,
Penmanship
Record keeping
R e ta il tra in in g
Salesmanship
Shorthand
S e c re ta ria l tra in in g
Stenotype
Typing
Stenographic bureau
Group I I
-P ©
S
-P ©
©
©
u ©
19
27
31
50
40
11
30
29
25
27
19
0
25
28
20
54
54
55
20
56
5
14
17
24
0
Includes ty p is ts , d u p lic a to rs, P.B.X. o p e ra to rs, and C iv il
S ervice w orkers.
65
TABLE X I
DISTRIBUTION 0 ? RESPONSES IN RESPECT TO THE ADEQUACY OF THE
SECRETARIAL COURSE OF STUDY*
BJ TERMS OF PERCENTAGES
Group I
Accounting
Addre s sograph
A rithm etic
B illin g
Business correspondence
C iv il serv ice
Comptometry
Dictaphone
D uplicating
E nglish
F ilin g
Key punch
Machine bookkeeping
O ffice experience
O ffice tra in in g
P*B.X.
Penmanship
Record keeping
R e ta il tra in in g
Salesmanship
Shorthand
S e c re ta ria l tra in in g
Stenotype
Typing
Stenographic bureau
48
43
16
47
0
63
38
23
28
2
9
33
57
13
11
26
13
13
25
17
9
0
14
5
9
4> 4»
*Sv«
w-» O
«
28
43
50
33
68
24
54
46
60
81
82
67
14
58
61
53
56
69
75
50
74
100
86
80
91
S
P 13
a
2g ^trl
g*
-f> •d
©
©©
°
s
a
r
i
24
14
28
20
32
13
8
31
12
17
9
0
29
29
29
21
31
18
0
33
17
0
0
15
0
29
0
13
67
17
80
50
29
13
6
16
33
100
0
9
0
0
0
50
50
16
10
50
10
0
42
0
62
33
58
20
25
42
74
72
68
34
0
58
64
60
33
67
50
50
79
80
50
70
100
29
100
25
0
25
0
25
29
13
22
16
33
0
42
27
40
67
33
0
0
5
10
0
20
0
*3
* Includes dictaphone and Edlphone w orkers.
8 ©
4j» +>
9
d
needed
.13
VH
More tra j
needed
Less tra j
needed
9
•H
Group I I
66
TABLE X II
DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES IN RESPECT TO THE ADEQUACY OF THE
ACCOUNTING COURSE OF STUDY
IN TERMS OF PERCENTAGES
Group I
S?
•h
Co
b tS
4» •tS
©
n ©
© ©
$ *
Accounting
Addre ssograph
A rithm etic
B illin g
B usiness correspondence
C iv il serv ice
Comptometry
Dictaphone
D uplicating
E nglish
F ilin g
Key punch
Machine bookkeeping
O ffice experience
O ffice tra in in g
P.B.X.
Penmanship
Record keeping
R e ta il tra in in g
Salesmanship
Shorthand
S e c re ta ria l tra in in g
Stenotype
Typing
Stenographic bureau
46
50
9
14
13
60
14
0
40
0
38
0
33
18
25
100
0
0
0
0
22
0
0
14
0
$
o
a
E *H
«3 atf
*4
.d
g o
-P P
36
0
74
57
49
20
86
0
60
67
54
0
34
27
13
0
20
80
100
67
34
50
100
72
100
Group I I
2
a
*H
$4*d
4*©
*©
©©
U ©
go
^
d
•H
©
h Ti
■P ©
«Qf©
©
©©
3 ©
9Q *P
h
J
6 *rt
© ©
14
42 P
,©
ej>*4
Tl o
0i
3
18
50
17
29
38
20
0
100
0
33
8
0
33
55
62
0
80
20
0
33
44
50
0
14
0
0
0
25
0
0
50
100
100
0
0
0
0
0
0
33
0
0
0
0
0
50
0
0
40
0
60
50
50
0
0
0
0
0
100
100
0
100
50
100
67
50
0
0
0
0
50
0
0
60
100
40
50
25
0
0
50
0
0
0
0
100
0
50
0
0
50
100
0
0
100
100
03
jp
a
©
U *d
4* ©
© 'O
©
14 ©
o a
*H
o'
0
0
0
67
TABLE X I I I
DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES IN RESPECT TO THE ADEQUACY OF THE
COMPTOMETRY COURSE OF STUDY
IN TERMS OF PERCENTAGES
Group I
4f tt
95
q d
<pl
d
©
ft
©
oj a>
4»
TJ
tO <D
X *
Accounting
Addressograph
A rithm etic
B illin g
Business Correspondence
C iv il serv ice
Comptometry
Dictaphone
D uplicating
E nglish
F ilin g
Key punch
Machine bookkeeping
O ffice experience
O ffice tra in in g
P «B«X*
Penmanship
Record keeping
R e ta il tra in in g
Salesmanship
Shorthand
S e c re ta ria l tra in in g
Stenotype
Typing
Stenographic bureau
33
0
0
0
20
100
14
80
50
25
50
33
0
0
25
0
0
0
0
0
50
0
0
22
0
i 'd
u
4» 4s
Jd
*W
H) O
«
67
0
80
100
80
0
86
20
50
75
50
0
67
75
62
50
33
50
0
0
50
0
0
78
100
Group I I
•H
d
at
ft x>
4s
O
$
ft
o 0©
5
d d
oP *dH
I 'd
43 4ft3
•d..
•H O
Ctf
0
0
20
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
67
33
25
13
50
67
50
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
100
0
0
0
0
0
0
100
100
0
100
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
100
0
0
33
0
0
0
100
100
0
100
100
0
0
100
0
0
0
100
50
100
100
50
0
100
0
0
0
67
100
©©
d
•H
<0
•p ©
•o
© ©
©©
d
•H
d
ft «d
+» ©
T3
©©
ft ©
g«
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
50
0
0
50
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
68
TABLE XIV
DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES IN RESPECT TO THE ADEQUACY OF THE
BOOKKEEPING COURSE OF STUDY*
IN TERMS OF PERCENTAGES
Group I
Less tra in in g
needed
Right amount
of tra in in g
More tra in in g
needed
Less train in g
needed
Right amount
of train in g
More tra in in g
needed
Accounting
Addressograph
A rithm etic
B illin g
B usiness correspondence
C iv il serv ice
Comptometry
Dictaphone
D uplicating
E nglish
F ilin g
Key punch
Machine bookkeeping
O ffice experience
O ffice tra in in g
P.B.X.
Penmanship
Record keeping
R e ta il tra in in g
Salesmanship
Shorthand
S e c re ta ria l tra in in g
Stenotype
Typing
Stenographic bureau
Group I I
50
50
0
25
40
50
60
67
67
0
0
0
35
25
25
100
0
0
100
100
50
50
100
40
100
50
50
87
50
40
0
40
33
33
67
100
100
67
50
50
0
33
67
0
0
50
50
0
60
0
0
0
13
25
20
50
0
0
0
33
0
0
0
25
25
0
67
33
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
50
50
100
100
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
50
50
0
0
100
0
0
0
100
100
50
100
67
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
50
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
100
0
0
50
0
33
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
50
0
* Includes key punch and adding m achine.
69
TABLE XV
DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES IN RESPECT TO THE ADEQUACY OF THE
SELLING COURSE OF STUDY
IN. TERMS OF PERCENTAGES
Group I
Group I I .
W)
0
a
•©
4> rcJ
©
09 ©
n ©
3
Accounting
Addre ssograph
A rithm etic
B illin g
B usiness correspondence
C iv il serv ice
Comptometry
Dictaphone
D uplicating
E nglish
F ilin g
Key punch
Machine bookkeeping
O ffice experience
O ffice tra in in g
P.B.X.
Penmanship
Record keeping
R e ta il tra in in g
Salesmanship
Shorthand
S e c re ta ria l tra in in g
Stenotype
Typing
Stenographic bureau
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
33
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
17
0
100
0
0
©
1P t£H
O0
£a ©
0
A 4„®
CsOV4
«H O
«
67
100
67
33
33
0
100
34
50
100
100
0
33
100
80
50
0
100
0
100
33
100
0
87
0
SP
s •©
4» •©
©
© ©
s §
a
33
0
33
67
67
0
0
33
50
0
0
0
67
0
20
50
0
0
0
0
50
0
0
13
0
<0
(4 <d
4» •p
©
©©
®©
a
3
50
0
25
0
20
100
0
0
0
14
0
0
0
0
50
0
25
0
50
0
0
0
50
20
0
»
©©
0
«P +»
iN
WVi
<H O
m
50
0
25
0
20
0
0
0
0
57
67
0
0
0
50
100
0
0
50
100
100
0
50
80
0
Sf
©
f-»
TJ
4»
©
©
©
©
0 ©
^ «
0
0
50
100
60
0
100
100
100
29
33
100
0
100
0
0
75
100
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
70
j
th e
school
( s e e T a b l e X IX , p a g e 7 8 } m u s t b e t a k e n
c o n sid e ra tio n .
T h is i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e
c e n t o f whom h a d l e f t
tra in in g .
s t u d e n t s w as em p lo y ed i n
o n ly th o s e p e r c e n t a g e s w h ic h
By f a r t h e l a r g e s t g r o u p o f
some f o r m o f c l e r i c a l w o r k .
im p ra c tic a l,
c l e r i c a l group.
o p e ra to rs,
Among t h e
th e y w ere c l a s s i f i e d w i t h th e
l a t t e r w ere t y p i s t s ,
and c i v i l
s e rv ic e w o rk ers.
d u p lic a to rs,
It
is
t o n o t e t h a t m any c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s i n b o t h G r o u p I
th e
B ecause
o c c u p a t i o n s c l a i m e d s o f e w s t u d e n t s a s t o m ak e s e p a r a t e
c la ss ific a tio n s
P .B .X .
84 p e r
la r g e w i l l be d is c u s s e d .
C le r ic a l co u rse o f stu d y .
c e rta in
o f G roup I I ,
s c h o o l b e fo re th e y had c o m p le te d t h e i r
B ecause o f t h i s f a c t ,
appear sig n ific a n tly
in to
sc h o o l)
a n d G ro u p I I
(n o t p la c e d by t h e s c h o o l)
an a d e q u a te h a n d lin g o f t h e i r
in b illin g ,
jo b s c a lle d
(p la c e d by
fe lt
th a t
f o r m ore t r a i n i n g
E n g l i s h , m a c h in e b o o k k e e p in g , o f f i c e
p en m a n sh ip , r e c o r d k e e p in g , and s a le s m a n s h ip .
m o re t r a i n i n g
in te re s tin g
e x p e rie n c e ,
The n e e d f o r
i n p e n m a n sh ip and i n r e c o r d k e e p in g a p p e a re d
m ost im p e r a tiv e f o r b o th g ro u p s .
A la rg e p e rc e n ta g e o f s tu d e n ts
i n G ro u p I I w o u l d h a v e ' p r e f e r r e d a l s o m o r e t r a i n i n g i n
b u sin e ss
c o r r e s p o n d e n c e a n d i n P .B .X .
T he s t a t e m e n t s o f t h e l a t t e r
g roup, a s re g a rd s c u rric u lu m ,
a re n o t so s i g n i f i c a n t ,
h o w ev er,
in a sm u c h a s a g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e s t u d e n t s h a d l e f t
b efo re
school
c o m p le tio n o f t h e i r t r a i n i n g .
S e c r e t a r ia l co u rse o f stu d y .
An a n a l y s i s o f a n s w e r s
71
f r o m G ro u p I o f t h e s e c r e t a r i a l w o r k e r s d i s c l o s e d t h a t a num­
b e r o f th em f e l t
a d e f i c ie n c y in th e am ount o f t r a i n i n g th e y
had r e c e iv e d , i n a r i t h m e t i c ,
phone j o f f i c e
e x p e rie n c e ,
sa le sm a n sh ip .
b u sin e ss c o rre sp o n d e n c e , d i c t a ­
o ffic e
tra in in g ,
p en m a n sh ip , an d
A s i g n i f i c a n t n u m b e r o f t h e sam e g r o u p se e m e d
t o h a v e h a d m o re t r a i n i n g t h a n was n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e i r j o b s
in a c c o u n tin g ,
try ,
ad d resso g rap h ,
b illin g ,
c iv il se rv ic e ,
c o m p to m e ­
d u p l i c a t i n g , a n d m a c h in e b o o k k e e p in g .
The r e p l i e s
o f s t u d e n t s i n G roup I I ,
s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m t h o s e o f G ro u p I ,
g re a tly
in asm u ch a s
w here t h e y d i f f e r
sh o u ld be d isc o u n te d
s o .m a n y o f t h e m d i d n o t c o m p l e t e t h e i r
co u rse of t r a in in g .
A c c o u n tin g c o u rs e o f s t u d y .
So f e w a c c o u n t a n t s w e r e
f o u n d am ong s t u d e n t s c l a s s i f i e d a s G r o u p I I
sc h o o l)
Of t h e
( n o t p l a c e d by
t h a t t h e i r a n sw e rs fo rm no a d e q u a te b a s i s f o r a n a l y s i s .
stu d e n ts
m ore t r a i n i n g i n
e x p e rie n c e ,
i n G ro u p I ,
h o w e v e r , m an y f e l t
b u sin e ss c o rre sp o n d e n c e , E n g lish ,
o ffic e
tra in in g ,
and p e n m a n sh ip .
a p p a r e n t l y , w o u ld h a v e b een a d e q u a te
se rv ic e ,
a need f o r
and f i l i n g
fro m c o m p to m e te rs i n G roup I
a n e e d f o r m o re t r a i n i n g
o f th e s tu d e n ts f e l t
L ess tr a in in g ,
in a c c o u n tin g ,
f o r a num ber o f s t u d e n t s
C o m p to m e tr y c o u r s e o f s t u d y .
O ffic e
c iv il
i n G ro u p I .
An a n a l y s i s o f r e p l i e s
(p la c e d by th e
sc h o o l)
in d ic a te d
i n k e y pu n ch a n d p e n m a n sh ip .
t h a t th e y had been o v e r t r a i n e d ,
Some
h ow ever,
72
in c iv il
s e rv ic e , d ic ta p h o n e ,
filin g ,
c o m p t o m e t r y w o r k e r s i n G ro u p I I
and sh o rth a n d .
c la ss ific a tio n
The
w ere t o o few
t o he a n a l y z e d .
M a c h in e - b o o k k e e p in g c o u r s e o f s t u d y .
of a n a ly sis,
in th is
For th e p u rp o se s
k e y -p u n c h and a d d in g -m a c h in e w o rk e rs w ere p la c e d
o c c u p a tio n a l g ro u p in g .
M ost o f t h o s e
stu d e n ts
c l a s s i f i e d a s G ro u p I m a c h i n e - b o o k k e e p e r s f e l t t h a t t h e y c o u l d
have m et t h e r e q u ir e m e n ts o f t h e i r p o s i t i o n s w ith l e s s t r a i n ­
in g th a n th e y had re c e iv e d
in m ost c o u rs e s .
H ow ever, a few
o f th em r e c o g n i z e d a d e f i c i e n c y i n t h e am ount o f t r a i n i n g
th e y had re c e iv e d
in
E n g lish ,
p en m a n sh ip , and r e c o r d k e e p in g .
S e llin g co u rse of s tu d y .
Some o f t h e G ro u p I
s tu d e n ts
i n s e l l i n g p o s i t i o n s e x p r e s s e d a n e e d f o r m o re t r a i n i n g
b illin g ,
b u s i n e s s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , a n d m a c h in e b o o k k e e p in g .
The n e e d s o f s t u d e n t s
a p p e a r even g r e a t e r ,
i n G ro u p I I
used as c r i t e r i a
( n o t p l a c e d by t h e
b u t in a s m u c h a s so m any o f t h e s e
had n o t c o m p le te d t h e i r t r a i n i n g ,
sc h o o l)
stu d e n ts
t h e i r a n sw e rs c o u ld n o t be
f o r a l t e r i n g th e co u rse o f stu d y .
A d d itio n a l c o u rs e s n e ed e d by s t u d e n t s .
of th e
in
q u e stio n n a ire ,
page 45,
I n Q u e s tio n 19
s t u d e n t s w ere a s k e d w h a t
a d d i t i o n a l c o u r s e s o r e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s w o u ld h a v e
b e e n u s e f u l t o th e m i n
o f t h e i r answ ers.
t h e i r w ork.
T a b l e XVI i s a su m m a ry
A su g g e stio n t h a t th e
sc h o o l p ro v id e an
0
1
3&
Ȥ
Percentage
5*
©
g
S
©
N
Vi
©
H
S
0)
93
©
to
M
00
to
8
H
CO
©
05
P u b lle speaking
CO
00
OR
C
O
05
Salesm anship
M
©
g
-3
03
Ol
T ra in in g i n how
t o in te rv ie w
T ra in in g in th e use
o f th e te le p h o n e
H
H
I<
P
1
3
Job e t h i c s
05
Cl
to
03
tO
CO
to
Hobbies
H>
05
3
M
W
03
05
More p e r s o n a lity
development
05
CO
H
-3
03
C
O
C h a ra c te r
development
CO
O
to
H
CO
o>
H*
S o c ia l c lu b s
More c o n ta c ts w ith
th e b u s in e s s w orld
M
to
03
»-*
Ol
03
03
©
to
K
More h e a lth
guidance
8
No m ention
476
H»
W
CD
Frequency
5f
o
Cl
100
100
(0
I-*
P e rce n tag e
DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES IN RESPECT TO OTHER COURSES AND EXTRACURRICULAR ACTIVITIES
WHICH WOULD HAVE BEEN USEFUL TO STUDENTS IN THEIR WORK
M
H
74
o p p o r t u n i t y f o r m o re c o n t a c t s w i t h t h e
b u s in e s s w o rld
r e c e i v e d 19 p e r c e n t o f t h e a n s w e rs fro m s t u d e n t s i n
group*
T ra in in g in
each
th e u se o f t h e te le p h o n e r e c e iv e d 14 p e r
c e n t and 15 p e r c e n t o f t h e a n s w e r s fr o m G ro u p s I a n d I I ,
re s p e c tiv e ly .
E q u a l ly p o p u l a r w i t h t h e l a t t e r w as t h e
f o r m o re p e r s o n a l i t y d e v e l o p m e n t ,
d e sire
c l a i m i n g 13 p e r c e n t o f t h e
a n s w e r s f r o m G r o u p I a n d 16 p e r c e n t f r o m G r o u p I I .
S tu d e n ts
i n e a c h g r o u p p l a c e d n e x t i m p o r t a n c e on t h e n e e d f o r t r a i n i n g
in
p u b lic
sp e a k in g .
T r a i n i n g i n how t o
k n o w le d g e o f jo b e t h i c s
in te rv ie w , and a
sh a re e q u a l h o n o rs in th e
freq u en cy
w i t h w h ic h t h e y w ere c h e c k e d .
T y p in g s p e e d s a d e q u a te f o r t h e h a n d li n g o f j o b s .
seem ed a d v i s a b l e t o
a s c e r ta in th e
ra te
It
of speed in ty p in g and
s h o r th a n d w h ic h th e s t u d e n t s had fo u n d a d e q u a te f o r th e h a n d lin g
of th e ir
answ er to
jo b s.
T he t y p i n g s p e e d m o s t f r e q u e n t l y c h e c k e d i n
Q u e stio n 24,
s i x t y w ords a m in u te .
on. p a g e 46, o f t h e
(S ee T a b le X V II).
q u e stio n n a ire
w as
The n e x t l a r g e s t
num ber o f s t u d e n t s c h e c k e d a sp e e d o f s i x t y - f i v e w o rd s a
m in u te a s b e in g n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r
l a r g e s t num ber o f answ ers f e l l
m in u te c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ,
jo b . ' The t h i r d '
i n th e f i f t y - f i v e w ords a
and f i f t y w o rd s a m in u te r e c e i v e d
fo u rth p la c e .
S h o rth a n d
sp eed s a d e q u a te f o r th e h a n d lin g o f jo b s .
M ost s t u d e n t s i n b o th G roup I an d G roup I I f e l t t h a t 100 w o rd s
TABLE m
i
DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES IN RESPECT TO TYPEWRITING SPEED CONSIDERED ADEQUATE
FOR HANDLING OF JOBS
Typing speed
40
Group I
Group H
45
50
55
60
T otal
65
70
75
80
No
mention
Frequency
8
7
24
26
39
24
16
0
2
29
Percentage
5
4
14
15
22
14
9
0
1
16
Frequency
9
6
9
9
24
13
3
1
1
39
Percentage
8
5
8
8
21
11
3
1
1
34
>
o*
fl
©
s*
o©*
u
tk
<D
tjO
+a>J.
fi
©
o
©
(k
175
100
114
100
-n3
76
a m in u te ,
of th e ir
w as an a d e q u a te s p e e d i n s h o r t h a n d f o r t h e h a n d l i n g
jo b s.
The s e c o n d l a r g e s t g ro u p o f s t u d e n t s c h e c k e d
t h e 90 w o rd s a m in u te c o lu m n .
The n e x t t h r e e p l a c e s o f im ­
p o r t a n c e w e re g i v e n t o 120 w o rd s a m in u te ,
an d 110 w ords a m in u te ,
80 w o rd s a m i n u t e ,
r e s p e c t i v e l y , a s show n i n T a b l e X V I I I .
N u m b e r o f s t u d e n t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e i r c o u r s e .
tio n
20 o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e ,
I n Q ues­
p a g e 45 > t h e s t u d e n t s w e r e a s k e d
w h e th e r o r n o t th e y h ad c o m p le te d t h e i r c o u r s e s o f s tu d y .
an sw ers to t h i s
n ific a n t
q u e stio n a re
s u m m a r i z e d i n T a b l e X IX .
It
T h e ir
is
sig ­
t h a t a g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f s t u d e n t s i n G ro u p I h a d com ­
p le te d t h e i r co u rse,
and t h a t an ev en g r e a t e r m a j o r i t y o f t h o s e
i n G ro u p I I h a d n o t c o m p le te d t h e i r t r a i n i n g .
re a s o n s f o r h a v in g l e f t
o f s tu d y , m ost o f th e
In s ta tin g t h e i r
sc h o o l b e fo re c o m p le tio n o f t h e i r c o u rse
s t u d e n t s i n b o t h G ro u p I a n d G r o u p I I e x ­
p la in e d t h a t th e y had o b ta in e d p o s itio n s
b e fo re c o m p le tio n .
T ypes o f b o o k k e ep in g and r e c o r d - k e e p in g u se d by s t u d e n t s .
I n Q u e s tio n 23 o f th e q u e s t i o n n a i r e on page 4 6 , t h e
stu d e n ts
w e r e a s k e d i f t h e y u s e d b o o k k e e p i n g o r some o t h e r f o r m o f
r e c o r d - k e e p in g in t h e i r w ork, and i f
th e ty p e u se d .
k e e p in g p a y r o ll r e c o r d s ,
so c ia l s e c u rity re tu rn s ,
and r e p o r t s t h a t m ust be b a la n c e d ,
k e e p in g s t a t i s t i c a l
s tu d e n ts d id use
reco rd s.
an d sim p le
sto c k sta te m e n ts
p o s tin g to le d g e r ,
and
I t w as fo u n d t h a t m ost o f th e
some f o r m o f b o o k k e e p i n g o r r e c o r d - k e e p i n g .
Sum m ary o f f i n d i n g s
1.
b rie fly
The t y p e s o f r e c o r d - k e e p i n g m o s t f r e q u e n t l y
m e n tio n e d w ere a s f o l lo w s :
re p o rt sh e e ts,
so, to d e sc rib e
Many s t u d e n t s
in re s p e c t to
c u rric u lu m .
in each o f th e m a jo r o c c u p a tio n a l
TABLE x m i
DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES IN RESPECT TO SHORTHAND SPEED CONSIDERED ADEQUATE
FOR HANDLING OF JOBS
Shorthand speed
Total
Id
•N
60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170
Croup I
Group I I
Frequency
3
1 16 21 27
Percentage
2
.5
Frequency
2
1
Percentage
2 1 3 5 2 1
«
I
g
8
o
52$
®
h
<D
Ps
175
17
2
2
1
1
1
71
9 12 15
7
10
1
1
*5
*5
*5
41
4
3
6
0
0
0
0
0
68
3
5
0
0
0
0
0
S
cdP
g
g
12
6 24
®
o
60
u
£» .
100
114
100
78
TABLE XIX
DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES IN RESPECT TO WHETHER OR NOT STUDENTS
HAD COMPLETED THEIR COURSE OF STUD?
T otal
§
•H
13
£19
}S
Group I
Group I I
o
a
o
S3
o1
a>
u
PH
175
Frequency
110
64
1
Percentage
65
36
1
Frequency
18
96
0
Percentage
16
84
0
©
«>
<a
4»
&
©
o
©
P<
100
1 14
100
79
fie ld s f e lt
in c e rta in
th a t th e
am ount o f t r a i n i n g t h e y h a d r e c e i v e d
c o u r s e s was i n a d e q u a t e f o r t h e p r o p e r h a n d l i n g
o f t h e i r jo b s.
I n a s m u c h a s s o m an y o f t h e s e
s tu d e n ts had
se cu re d , p o s i t i o n s b e fo r e th e c o m p le tio n o f t h e i r t r a i n i n g ,
h o w e v e r , m any o f t h e s e
e a n t.
ev er,
fin d in g s
are n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i
The n e e d f o r m ore t r a i n i n g
i n some f e w c o u r s e s ,
how­
seem s t o h a v e been m e n tio n e d by s t u d e n t s i n e v e r y
o c c u p a tio n a l g rou p.
M o s t n o t a b l e am ong t h e s e c o u r s e s a r e
p en m a n sh ip a n d r e c o r d k e e p in g .
2.
S e v e ra l f a c t o r s in f lu e n c e d th e s t u d e n ts i n th e
c h o ic e o f a n o c c u p a tio n and a c o u rs e o f t r a i n i n g
C h i e f am on g t h e s e w a s " i n t e r e s t
3.
fo r it.
in and l i k i n g f o r t h e w ork. "
A p p r o x i m a t e l y 85 p e r c e n t o f t h e
s tu d e n ts
*
t h e i r o r i g in a l p la n s in re g a rd to a co u rse o f stu d y .
pursued
CHAPTER V I I
DATA CONGEENING GUIDANCE
T he m o s t i m p o r t a n t w o rk o f t h e C o u n s e l i n g D e p a r t m e n t
is
t h a t o f g iv in g e d u c a tio n a l and v o c a tio n a l a d v ic e .
h a lf of th e
q u e s t io n n a ir e w as d e v o te d t o
s p e c if ic a lly to v o c a tio n a l
c o u n se lin g .
One
in q u irie s re la tin g
T he a n s w e r s t o
th e se
i n q u i r i e s h a v e b e e n sum m arized i n T a b l e s XX t o XXXII i n c l u s i v e
P re lim in a ry p la n s o f s tu d e n ts .
stu d y ,
In C h a p te r I I I
of th is
t h e d o w n w ard e x t e n s i o n o f v o c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e i n t o
t h e s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o ls w as e x p l a i n e d .
O c c u p a tio n a l in fo rm a ­
t i o n re a c h e s th e s tu d e n ts o f c o n t r i b u t i n g s c h o o ls th ro u g h
p rin te d m a te ria ls ,
p ro b le m s c o u r s e .
l e c t u r e s , m o tio n p i c t u r e s ,
T he e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f s u c h i n f o r m a t i o n i n
in flu e n c in g stu d e n ts
fie d
i n T a b l e XX.
in t h e i r o c c u p a tio n a l c h o ic e i s
In response to th e
e n te r M e tro p o lita n w ith a d e f i n i te
c o u r s e , ” 94 p e r c e n t o f G ro u p I ,
q u e stio n :
p la n t o
"D id yo u
ta k e a c e r t a i n
p la n b e fo re
S tu d e n ts* s e le c tio n o f c o u rse s.
o f th e
q u e stio n n a ire ,
n a tu re
of th e c o u rse s e le c te d , d is c lo s e d
e n te rin g .
A n sw ers t o Q u e s tio n 2
page 4 0 , w h ic h i n q u i r e d a s t o t h e
t h a t 60 p e r c e n t o f a l l
if
e x e m p li­
a n d 92 p e r c e n t o f G ro u p I I
in d ic a te d t h a t th e y had had a d e f i n i t e
c u rric u lu m ,
and a s e n i o r
th e s t a r t l i n g
fact
th e s tu d e n ts had chosen a s e c r e t a r i a l
t h e l a t t e r c an be i n t e r p r e t e d t o
in c lu d e b o th
81
TABLE XX
DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES IN RESPECT TO WHETHER STUDENTS ENTERED WITH
DEFINITE PLAN TO TAKE A CERTAIN COURSE
T otal
a
*o
rl
-P
a
§
a
OS
Group I
Group I I
Frequency
165
9
1
Percentage
94
5
1
Frequency
105
8
1
Percentage
92
7
1
po%
a<D
ao'
C
D
©
(30
a
•p
a
®
o
**
©
P4
175
100
114
100
H
sa 1
P
(D
hj
C
D
$
£o>
rf*
Ol
o»
I-*
H*
tO
e
<o
H
tO
Oi
*-*
*»
05
15
oC*Dj
9
12
tO
htj
3
►
o©* 'S
©
ad- £
op
P
93
6
C
O
©
4
tcr>
o
Stenographic
H
Ol
Stenotype
05
Comptometer
»-»
m
©> s ©
Bookkeeping
to
l-*
to
to
o>
O
O thers
-O
00
to
W
No mention
Oi
Ol
Frequency
CD
O
to
I-*
0
01
to
o
100
ZB
C
D
54
Percentage
C
D
M
O
O
»o-*
o
H
Percentage
DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES IN RESPECT TO STUDENTS* SELECTION OF COURSE BEFORE ENTERING
P*
H
3
O
O
€
M
o
H
O
4
M
5?
TABLE XXXI
DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES IN RESPECT TO REASONS FOR SELECTING
COMMERCIAL COURSE AND THEIR ORDER OF CHOICE
Group I
Order of choice
P leasant working conditions
1
2
3
9
36
4
5
6
<gj* g
1
2
3
4
v
5
6
7
II
g- $
<►
q S
1
1
2*82
9 22 14
8
4
1
0 2*59
7 13
3 12
1
4,30
1
8
6
3
0
0
1.52
6 23
6
6
1
1
2.67 12
Remuneration good, compared
to length of tra in in g
17 32 16 11
5
0
0
Opportunity to obtain
free tra in in g
10 21 14 19
8
5
Other reasons
22
2
0
Social advantages
3
1
In te re st in , and lik in g
' fo r the work
90 20
R elative b rev ity of
tra in in g period
20
5
21 11 10
il
7
Group I I
Order of choice
4
4
6
7
6
3
4
2 3.83
65 11
7
2
1
1
0 1.46
11 11
3
3
3
0 2.60
2.44
5 11 10
8
4
0
0 2.87
1
3.17
9 19
9
8
4
2
0 2.71
1
2.03
0
0
0
0
0
0 0
0
84
TABLE XXIII
§
Frequency
Frequency
26
147
2
175
Percentage
15
84
1
Frequency
18
94
2
Percentage
16
82
2
03
Group I
Group I I
H
Percentage
£
No mention
(9
«§!+•
DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES IN RESPECT TO WHETHER STUDENTS CHANGED
COURSES AFTER ENTERING
100
114
100
H-*
H
sCD
*s
p
5-
p
a
IHI
'
©
Percentage
?
1P
to
o
O
CD
s
CD
f2
00
Comptometer
CA
M
to
CD
Key punch
©
P
©
I 3
A
3
1P©
O
A ccounting
CA
O
M
CA
00
00
tO
*►
H*
H
CO
00
to
S e c r e ta r ia l
M
£>>
cr*
M
H*
CO
l-»
CD
*•
Machine
bookkeeping
O
o
H*
Stenotype
I-*
C le r ic a l
to
H*
to
!►
M
<1
CA
<i
CA
H*
H*
CO
CO
M
Ol
M
T yp ist
O
O
O thers
w
©
Frequency
100
100
P ercentage
T otal
5
*
DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES IN RESPECT TO NEW COURSES CHOSEN AFTER ENTERING
©
Q
2
€
M
M
Percentage
►
3
86
TABLE XXV
DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES IN RESPECT TO THE INFLUENCES CAUSING
STUDENTS TO CHANGE THEIR ORIGINAL PLANS
Others
No mention
Frequency
T otal
Counselor
Group I I
Classroom
teacher
Group I
-P o
Frequency
6
10
6
15
138
175
Percentage
3
6
3
9
79
Frequency
8
13
3
7
S3
Percentage
7
11
3
6
73
U
23
9
22
221
8
3
8
76
Frequency
Percentage
5
o ©
rH
0<
04 00
g
)
Percentage
T otal
100
114
100
289
100
87*
TABLE XXVI
DISTRIBUTION OP RESPONSES IN RESPECT TO WHETHER STUDENTS CHANGED
ORIGINAL PLAN AS RESULT OF TRY-OUT COURSES
T otal
o>>
S3
<
D
cr1
0)
Sn
pH
Group I
Group I I
Frequency
3
34
Percentage
8
92
Frequency
6
25
Percentage
19
81
&
(T
)
•P
a
©
ou
©
p-t
37
100
31
100
as
TABLE XXVII
DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES IN RESPECT TO USE OF COUNSELING OFFICE BY
STUDENTS DURING THEIR TRAINING PERIOD
T otal
£C
C
T
J
u
©
>
0
53
)
&
o
TJ
rH
0
CO
)
0
o
.h
•H
©w
©©
O
O
o
O
K
rH
P>
„
C
©
©
Ssj
J
c
Cr
T>
*
©
©
Pi
a
o
•H
-P
cCJ
©
©
6
O
O
S
Q
S5
©
ttf)
c6
a
©
O
c
©
©
s
sii
oc r1
©
fP
-»
cm
C
m
-P
P
©
CM
\
Group I
Group I I
Frequency
35
54 '
67
13
6
Percentage
20
31
3B
8
3
Frequency
29
24
42
15
4
Percentage
25
21
37
r 13
175
100
114
100
TABLE XXVIII
DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES IN RESPECT TO STUDENTS* MAIN SOURCES OF
GUIDANCE
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Classroom teacher
44
19
13
1
0
0
0
Counselor
24
50
24
'3
1
0
Employment supervisor
14
18
15
7
3
A frien d
21
24
19
8
Parents
a
9
7
Another student
1
4
2
Others
5
4
Average
ra tin g
Order of choice
Order of choice
Average
ra tin g
Group I I
Group I
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1,62
54
27
9
2
2
0
0
1.63
0
2.09
25
24
14
3
0
1
0
1.99
2
0
2.54
13
16
9
4
0
1
0
2.19
0
1
0
2.25
3
7
8
1
3
3
0
3.12
4
7
3
0
3.05
9
7
9
3
4
2
1
2.89
2
5
0
0
3.43
8
11
14
8
2
1
0
2.73
12 . 9
2
0
1
3.09
1
2
2
1
0
0
0
2.50
oa
so
90
TABLE XXIX
DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES IN RESPECT TO ADEQUACY OF GUIDANCE OFFERED
BY THE COUNSELING OFFICE
©
Group I I
T otals
d
©
a
M
9
■S'S
•g &
©
g0) TJ
O eU
CO
Frequency
5
28
128
14
P ercen tage
3
16
73
8
Frequency
6
29
66
13
Percen tag e
5
26
58
11
1&
Group I
0
-p
3
cr
9
Tt
as
o
•H
-P
a
S2
tr
9
o
53
o>»
fi
0
d
o<
0
d
©
cm
0}
+3
d
0
O
0
cu
175
100
114
100
9
8
8
TS
❖
05
C
D
<
©
c+
g
s*
o
p
c**
C
D
O
S'D
C
O
S'
C
D
C
D
►
OJ
C
D
3P
O
C
J
C
D
I—
M*
3
1
P
I?
©
*o■*
C
D
£P
®
g
©
to
N)
©
P
3
Vj©
H
vn
1
N) Os
0© «$-
More h e lp needed
re g a rd in g jo b
re q u ire m e n ts
More t r a i n i n g needed
i n th e a r t of
jo b - h u n tin g
8
3
NJ
§CD
More in fo rm a tio n
needed re g a r d in g
c o u rses o f study
ro
■o5;
H*
0©
vn
so
Vjj
4>~
->3
N)
nO
H
On
£3©
H
©
H2
->
fO
4>-
\j©
->3
Vj ©
*>3
I—*
b->
Vj ©
Vj©
NO
•>3
fo
fo
C ounseling should have
been more
sym pathetic
0*
3®
vn
C ounseling should
have been more
p ra c tic a l
Counseling should
have been more
p e rs o n a l
C ounseling should
have been l e s s
d ic ta to ria l
More tim e and e f f o r t
should have been
g iv en t o s tu d e n t
problems
More sta n d a r d iz e d
t e s t s should have
been given
No mention
h3
Frequency
o
C+"
$
p
I—*
C
O
P ercentag e
16
DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES IN RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL NEEDS OF STUDENTS
I
H
92
TABLE XXXI
DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES IN RESPECT TO WHETHER STUDENTS1 FIRST
POSITION WAS THE TYPE FOR WHICH THEY RECEIVED TRAINING
T otals
g
•H
•P
C
0
6
O
53
Group I
Group I I
Frequency
28
62
80
5
Percen tage
16
35
46
3
Frequency
39
44
26
5
P ercen tag e
34
39
23
4
0
d
0
3
c
2
Pm
0
bO
(6
C
QJ)
O
0u
C
175
100
114
100
93
TABLE XXXIX
DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES IN RESPECT TO STUDENTS* REACTION TO
GUIDANCE RECEIVED
T o ta ls
TJ
•H
t
•H
C
D
C
D
*,■55
m
0)
•H
Q
Group I
Group I I
r-f «H
k -P
C
O
C
D*H
+5 -P
•pi ct)
•H cd
S3 C
D
C
m
O’
c6 03
X3
i
XJ
•H
S S
■P «H
o m
C
D*H
S-i
rt
C
DC
D
Pi
oa
•H
■p
a
£
o
8
Frequency
3
6
47
115
4
P e rce n tag e
2
3
27
66
2
Frequency
5
20
39
47
3
P erce n tag e
4
18
34
41
3
o
£C
D
=1
O*
C
D
C
m
175
114
o>
tiJ
D
C
O
1w
2
0)
Pu
94
sh o rth a n d and s te n o ty p e
stu d e n ts *
T he c l a s s i f i c a t i o n
of
s t u d e n ts i n t o o c c u p a tio n a l g ro u p in g s on th e b a s i s o f t h e i r
O c c u p a tio n a l H is to ry C h a rts ,
m a jo rity o f th e se
stu d e n ts
how ever,
la te r
in d ic a te d t h a t a
becam e c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s ,
r a t h e r th a n s te n o g r a p h e rs and s e c r e t a r i e s .
The o r d e r o f p r e f e r e n c e
fo r stu d e n ts
by s c h o o l)
seem s to h a v e b e e n s t e n o g r a p h i c ,
ste n o ty p e ,
and b o o k k e e p in g ;
s c h o o l)
ste n o g ra p h ic ,
i n G roup I
co m p to m etry ,
t h a t o f G roup I I
b o o k k e e p in g ,
(p la c e d
(n o t p la c e d by
c o m p to m etry , and s t e n o t y p e .
( S e e T a b l e X X I, p a g e 8 2 )
F a c to rs e n te rin g
o f th e
q u e stio n n a ire ,
in to
c h o ic e o f c o u rs e .
page 40,
I n Q u e stio n 3
s t u d e n t s w ere a s k e d t o num ber
in th e o r d e r o f t h e i r im p o rta n c e c e r t a i n
f a c t o r s w h i c h may
h a v e i n f l u e n c e d th e m i n t h e i r c h o i c e o f c o u r s e .
T a b le X X II,
p a g e 83 , n o t o n l y g i v e s t h e f r e q u e n c i e s o f t h e i r a n s w e r s t o
th is
q u e stio n ,
b u t th e a v e ra g e r a t i n g g iv e n by t h e s t u d e n ts
o f G r o u p I a n d G ro u p I I
t<3 e a c h i n d i v i d u a l f a c t o r .
i n b o th g ro u p s gave f i r s t
p la c e to
rfi n t e r e s t
in and l i k i n g
f o r th e w o r k ,” and l a s t p la c e o f im p o rta n c e t o
a d v a n ta g e s ."
In o th e r re s p e c ts ,
h o w ev er,
a s to th e im p o rta n c e o f th e s e f a c t o r s
c h o ic e o f c o u rs e d i f f e r e d .
p la c e o f im p o rta n c e to
of tra in in g
S tu d e n ts
"so c ia l
th e ir
ju d g m e n ts
in in f lu e n c in g t h e i r
S t u d e n t s i n G ro u p I g a v e s e c o n d
" r e m u n e r a t io n good com p ared t o l e n g t h
p e rio d ," t h ir d
p la c e to
" re la tiv e
b re v ity of
95
t r a i n i n g p e r i o d ,” and f o u r th p la o e to
tio n s .”
S tu d e n ts c l a s s i f i e d
a s G ro u p I I ,
" p l e a s a n t w o rk in g c o n d i t i o n s ” th e
in g / " re la tiv e
com pared t o
how ever,
gave
seco n d m ost im p o rta n t r a t ­
b re v ity of tra in in g
" re m u n e ra tio n good,
" p l e a s a n t w o rk in g c o n d i­
p e rio d ” th ir d
ra tin g ,
and
le n g th of tr a in in g p e rio d ”
fo u rth ra tin g .
C hanges in
c o u rs e s o f stu d y a f t e r
In Q u e stio n 4 o f th e
q u e stio n n a ire ,
e n te rin g M e tro p lita n .
page 40,
s tu d e n ts w ere
ask ed w h e th e r o r n o t th e y changed t h e i r o r i g i n a l p la n s a f t e r
e n te rin g M e tro p o lita n .
p e r c e n t o f G roup I I
p re se n te d
O n ly 1 5 p e r c e n t o f G ro u p I ,
a n d 16
changed to a n o th e r c o u rse of s tu d y ,
as
in T ab le X X III, page 6 4 .
Hew c o u r s e s c h o s e n a f t e r e n t e r i n g .
O f t h e s t u d e n t s who
w ere i n f l u e n c e d t o c h a n g e t h e i r c o u rs e , o f s t u d y a f t e r e n t e r ­
in g th e s c h o o l,
try ,
30 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l g r o u p c h o s e c o m p to m e ­
18 p e r c e n t c h o s e k e y p u n c h , 14 p e r c e n t c h o se m a c h in e
b o o k k e ep in g ,
a c c o u n tin g ,
and 9 p e r c e n t e n te r e d e a c h o f t h e
s e c r e t a r i a l and c l e r i c a l .
g ro u p s o f s tu d e n ts ,
h o w ev er, d is c lo s e d
t h a t 1 5 p e r c e n t o f G ro u p I
p e rsu a d e d to change to
fie ld s
of
A c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e tw o
th e i n te r e s ti n g
(p la c e d by sc h o o l)
fact
had been
an a c c o u n tin g c o u r s e , and t h a t none
o f t h e s t u d e n t s i n G roup I I
(n o t p la c e d by sc h o o l)
a c c o u n tin g as a second c h o ic e o f c o u rs e .
had ch o sen
On t h e o t h e r h a n d ,
17 p e r c e n t o f t h e s t u d e n t s i n G roup I I h a d t r a n s f e r r e d t o a
96
c l e r i c a l c o a r s e o f s t u d y , w h e r e a s o n l y 4 p e r c e n t o f G ro u p I
had e n te re d th e c l e r i c a l f i e l d .
P e r s o n s who i n f l u e n c e d
It is
s tu d e n ts to change t h e i r p la n s .
i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o te w h ic h f u n c t i o n i n g body i n ^ t h e g u id a n c e
d e p a rtm e n t e x e r te d g r e a t e s t in f lu e n c e
in p e rsu a d in g s tu d e n ts
t o e n r o l l i n d i f f e r e n t c o u r s e s o f s tu d y th a n t h o s e w h ic h t h e y
had o r i g i n a l l y p lan n e d t o ta k e .
tra te s
th a t th e c o u n se lo r,
m e n ta l i n
T a b l e XXV, p a g e 8 6 ,
illu s ­
o r c o u n s e l o r s , w ere m o st i n s t r u ­
i n f l u e n c i n g s t u d e n t s o f b o th g ro u p s to change t h e i r
o r i g i n a l p la n s , and t h a t th e
c la ssro o m te a c h e r s
form ed t h e
n e x t m ost im p o r ta n t c o u n s e l i n g body in t h i s p a r t i c u l a r .
C hange i n p l a n s a s r e s u l t o f t r y - o u t c o u r s e .
sm a ll p e rc e n ta g e o f th e
o r ig in a l p la n s
s t u d e n t s i n e a c h group chan g ed t h e i r
in r e s p e c t to a c o u rs e o f stu d y a s a r e s u l t o f
a tr y -o u t co u rse,
a s show n i n T a b l e XXVI, p a g e 8 7 .
U se o f c o u n s e l i n g o f f i c e
p e rio d .
o ffic e
A v ery
by s t u d e n t s d u r i n g t r a i n i n g
M ost s t u d e n t s o f e a c h g ro u p u s e d t h e c o u n s e l i n g
"o c c a sio n a lly "
t h a t s o m any o f t h e
th a t o ffic e ,
d u rin g t h e i r t r a i n in g p e rio d .
s tu d e n ts n ev er used th e
The f a c t
s e r v i c e s g iv e n by
a n d t h a t o t h e r s u s e d th e m o n l y on r a r e o c c a s i o n s ,
m e re ly i n d i c a t e s
th a t th e m a jo rity o f stu d e n ts a re n o t con­
f r o n t e d by t h e ty p e o f p ro b le m w h ic h i s
o f tr a in e d c o u n se lo rs.
so lv e d o n ly by th e a i d
T h o s e who u s e d t h e c o u n s e l i n g s e r v i c e s
97
" f r e q u e n t l y " m ay r e p r e s e n t a c e r t a i n n u m b e r o f p r o b l e m c a s e s ,
a s w e l l a s a n u m b e r o f s t u d e n t s who w e r e a g g r e s s i v e l y i n t e r ­
e ste d in th e ir v o c a tio n a l fu tu re s .
( S e e T a b l e XX VII o n
page 8 8 .)
M a in s o u r c e s o f g u i d a n c e .
S t u d e n ts w ere a s k e d i n
Q u e stio n 14 o f t h e q u e s t io n n a ir e ,
page 42,
t o num ber in th e
o r d e r o f t h e i r i m p o r ta n c e t h e i r m ain s o u r c e s o f g u id a n c e w h i l e
a t M e tro p o lita n .
T a b le X X V III, p a g e 8 9 ,
show s t h e a v e r a g e
r a n k g i v e n t o e a c h . o f t h e s e s o u r c e s b y t h e tw o g r o u p s .
c la ss ifie d
its
m a in s o u r c e s o f g u id a n c e i n t h e i r o r d e r o f
im p o rta n c e a s fo llo w s :
c la ss ro o m t e a c h e r ,
e m p lo y m e n t s u p e r v i s o r ,
p a re n ts,
G ro u p I I a l s o
G ro u p I
g iv e s f i r s t
o th e rs,
a frie n d ,
and a n o th e r stu d e n t.
and se c o n d p la c e t o t h e c la s s ro o m
te a c h e r and c o u n s e lo r, b u t ran k e d th e
e m p lo y m e n t s u p e r v i s o r ,
c o u n se lo r,
o th e rs,
o th e r so u rces a s fo llo w s:
a n o th e r s tu d e n t,
p a re n ts , and
a frie n d .
A dequacy o f g u id a n c e o f f e r e d b y c o u n s e l in g o f f i c e .
S t u d e n ts w ere a s k e d i n
on page 43,
o ffic e
to
c ritic iz e
i n te r m s of. i t s
s tu d e n ts
Q u e s tio n 15 o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e ,
th e g u id a n c e o f f e r e d
adequacy.
in e a c h g ro u p fo u n d th e g u id a n c e o f f e r e d
G roup I I fo u n d i t
is
c o u n se lin g
A g re a t m a jo rity of th e
a d e q u a t e , " a n d o n l y 3 p e r c e n t o f G ro u p I ,
tio n
by t h e
fo u n d
and 5 p e r c e n t o f
" in a d e q u a te " f o r t h e i r n eed s.
g i v e n i n T a b l e XXIX, p a g e 9 0 .
"v ery
T h is in fo rm a ­
A d d itio n a l n eed s o f s tu d e n ts .
q u e s tio n n a ire ,
page 43,
s tu d e n ts w ere a sk e d i f t h e i r v o c a ­
tio n a l ' g u id a n c e a t M e tr o p o lita n
in c e r ta in
re sp e c ts*
r e a c tio n s to th a t
b o th g ro u p s i s
m e n ts,
I n Q u e s t i o n 16 o f t h e
s h o u l d h a v e b e e n m o re h e l p f u l
T a b l e XXX, p a g e 9 1 ,
q u e stio n .
su m m arizes t h e i r
O u tsta n d in g ly s i g n i f ic a n t in
t h e n e e d f o r m o r e h ’e l p r e g a r d i n g
t h e n e e d f o r m ore t r a i n i n g i n t h e a r t
jo b r e q u i r e ­
o f jo b -h u n tin g ,
a n d t h e n e e d f o r m ore i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g c o u r s e s o f s t u d y .
S im ila r ity o f f i r s t p o s itio n to
I n Q u e s t i o n 22 o f t h e
asked to
co u rse o f t r a i n i n g .
q u e s tio n n a ire , page 46,
s t u d e n t s w ere
com pare t h e i r f i r s t p o s i t i o n w i t h t h e t y p e f o r w h ic h
th e y re c e iv e d tr a i n in g a t M e tro p o lita n .
g roup s t a t e d
th a t i t
A m a jo rity
in each
w a s e i t h e r t h e sa m e t y p e o f p o s i t i o n ,
or
a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e sam e - ty p e a s t h a t f o r w h i c h t h e y h a d t r a i n e d .
It
th e
is
in te re s tin g ,
h ow ever,
s tu d e n ts o b ta in e d
th e
t h a t i n G ro u p I ,
sam e t y p e o f p o s i t i o n a s t h a t f o r
w h i c h t h e y h a d t r a i n e d , w h e r e a s i n G ro u p I I ,
w ere e q u a l l y f o r t u n a t e ,
46 p e r c e n t o f
o n l y 23 p e r c e n t
a n d 34 p e r c e n t o f t h i s
l a t t e r group,
w ere f o r c e d t o a c c e p t a d i f f e r e n t - t y p e o f p o s i t i o n .
(S ee
T a b l e XXXI, p a g e 9 2 . )
S tu d e n ts* re a c tio n to
o f th e
q u e stio n n a ire ,
g u id a n c e r e c e iv e d .
page 4 6 , s t u d e n ts w ere a sk e d to
t h e i r d eg ree o f s a t i s f a c t i o n w ith th e
G roup I ,
I n Q u e s t i o n 23
66 p e r c e n t s t a t e d
sta te
g u id a n c e r e c e iv e d .
t h a t t h e y w ere " p e r f e c t l y
In
s a tis fie d
99
a n d 41 p e r c e n t o f G roup I I g a v e a s i m i l a r a n s w e r .
p e r c e n t o f G ro u p I ,
O n ly 2
a n d 4 p e r c e n t o f G roup I I r e p l i e d
t h a t t h e y w ere d i s s a t i s f i e d
w ith th e g u id a n c e th e y had r e ­
c e iv e d w h ile a t M e tro p o lita n .
S u g g e s t i o n s f o r im p ro v e m e n t o f t h e p ro g ra m a t
M e tro p o lita n .
of th e
q u e stio n n a ire ,
num ero u s.
sc h o o l,
T h e c o m m e n ts o f f e r e d
its
in re sp o n se to
Q u e s t i o n 26
p a g e 4 6 , w ere b o th i n t e r e s t i n g an d
M ost o f th e m w e re e x t r e m e l y c o m p lim e n ta r y t o t h e
t r a i n i n g p ro g ram , and i t s
I n t h e f e w c o m m e n ts w h i c h o f f e r e d
C o u n s e lin g D e p a rtm e n t.
su g g e stio n s f o r th e
im ­
p ro v em e n t o f t h e p ro g ra m , t h e r e was no d u p l i c a t i o n o f i d e a s .
Sum m ary o f f i n d i n g s
in r e s p e c t to d a ta
c o n c e rn in g
g u id a n c e .
1.
th e
to
T h e d o w n w a rd e x t e n s i o n o f v o c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e i n t o
s e n i o r h ig h s c h o o ls i s m ost e f f e c t i v e
in a s s is tin g
s tu d e n ts
choose a c o u rse o f s tu d y b e fo re e n te r in g M e tro p o lita n
S chool o f B u sin e ss.
who a n s w e r e d t h e
N in e ty -th re e p e r cen t o f a l l
stu d e n ts
q u e s tio n n a ir e had chosen a c o u rse o f t r a i n ­
in g b e fo re e n te rin g M e tro p o lita n .
s tu d e n ts had chosen a s e c r e t a r i a l
2.
th e
M o re t h a n h a l f o f t h e s e
c u rric u lu m .
A m a jo r ity o f th e s tu d e n ts
in b o th g ro u p s s t a t e d
t h a t t h e i r m a in s o u r c e o f g u id a n c e w h ile
c la ssro o m t e a c h e r s ,
a t M e t r o p o l i t a n was
and t h a t th e c o u n s e lin g s t a f f w as t h e i r
n e x t m ost im p o r ta n t so u rc e o f g u id a n c e .
3.
M ost o f t h e
stu d e n ts
hy th e c o u n s e lin g o f f i c e v e r y a d e q u a te
needs,
fo u n d th e g u id a n c e o f f e r e d
to m eet m ost o f t h e i r
b u t a g r e a t m an y o f th e m w o u ld h a v e l i k e d m o r e h e l p
r e g a r d i n g j o b r e q u i r e m e n t s , m ore t r a i n i n g
h u n tin g ,
in th e a r t
of jo b ­
and m ore i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g c o u r s e s o f s t u d y .
CHAPTER Y I I I
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, .CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The p ro b le m u n d e r ta k e n i n t h i s
e v a lu a tin g c e rta in
s tu d y w as t h a t o f
g u id a n c e a c t i v i t i e s
o f th e C o u n se lin g
D e p a rtm e n t a t M e tr o p o lita n S ch o o l o f B u s in e s s .
Q u e stio n s
c e n te r in g aro u n d th e t h r e e m a jo r f u n c t i o n s o f t h a t d e p a rtm e n t,
n a m e ly , o r i e n t a t i o n
c u rric u lu m ,
c o rp o ra te d
o f n ew s t u d e n t s ,
arran g em en t of th e
and t h e g iv in g o f v o c a t io n a l a d v ic e ,
in to
a q u e s tio n n a ire of tw e n ty -s ix
q u e s t i o n n a i r e was m a ile d t o
School o f B u sin e ss.
q u e stio n s .
T h is
9 95 f o r m e r s t u d e n t s o f M e t r o p o l i t a n
F iv e h u n d red o f th e s e
p la c e d by th e s c h o o l p la c e m e n t o f f i c e ,
s e c u r e d t h e i r own p o s i t i o n s .
w ere i n ­
s tu d e n ts had been
and th e
o t h e r 495 h a d
A ll of th e s tu d e n ts had had
o c c u p a tio n a l e x p e rie n c e .
Two h u n d r e d e i g h t y - n i n e r e s p o n s e s w e r e r e c e i v e d ,
o f w h ich w e re fro m t h e s t u d e n t s
by t h e
c l a s s i f i e d a s G roup I
175
(p la c e d
s c h o o l p la c e m e n t o f f i c e ) , and 114 o f w h ic h w ere fro m
G ro u p I I ,
(n o t p la c e d by th e s c h o o l) .
a n s w e r s f r o m t h e s e tw o s e t s
A ta b u la tio n
o f th e
of q u e stio n n a ire s re s u lte d
in a
nu m b er o f f i n d i n g s w h ic h a r e su m m arize d b e lo w .
I.
The f i n d i n g s ,
of th is
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
as s e t f o r th
i n C h a p t e r s V, V I ,
s t u d y , m ay b e s u m m a r i z e d a s f o l l o w s :
and V II
102
1*
th e
O f t h e 2 8 9 s t u d e n t s who a n s w e r e d t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e ,
ra n g e i n age w as fro m s e v e n te e n t o tw e n ty - f i v e y e a r s ,
m a jo rity
in e a c h group b e in g n in e te e n y e a r s o f a g e .
m ean a g e f o r G roup I
(p la c e d by th e
3 m o n th s,
and 22 d a y s ,
19 y e a r s ,
11 m o n th s , and 8 d a y s .
2.
Of t h e
g roup,
T he
s c h o o l ) , w a s 20 y e a r s ,
a n d f o r G ro u p I I
e n tire
th e
( n o t p l a c e d by s c h o o l ) ,
88 p e r c e n t w e r e g i r l s .
N in e ty - tw o p e r c e n t o f a l l t h e s t u d e n t s w ere u n m a r r ie d .
3.
A ll o f th e s tu d e n ts had had o c c u p a tio n a l e x p e rie n c e ,
a n d 8 ? p e r c e n t o f t h e m w e r e e m p l o y e d w hen t h e y a n s w e r e d t h e
q u e stio n n a ire .
4#
O n ly 1 p e r c e n t o f t h e s t u d e n t s
o th e r th a n th e w h ite ra c e .
re p re s e n te d In th e
g ro u p ,
re p o rte d a s b e in g
A lm o st e v e r y n a t i o n a l i t y w as
b u t E n g lish ,
Irish ,
and S c o tc h
c la im e d th e g r e a t e s t n um bers.
5.
O f t h e s t u d e n t s i n G ro u p I
( p la c e d by s c h o o l ) ,
40 p e r c e n t h ad been a c a d e m ic m a jo r s i n h ig h s c h o o l ,
p e r c e n t c o m m erc ial m a jo r s .
a n d 60
T h o s e i n G ro u p I I w e r e e q u a l l y
d i v i d e d b e tw e e n a c a d e m ic a n d c o m m e rc ia l m a j o r s .
6.
C o l l e g e - p r e p a r a t o r y s t u d e n t s d i d t h e i r b e s t w ork
in E n g lis h , m a th e m a tic s , s c ie n c e ,
h isto ry ,
and la n g u a g e s ;
c o m m e rc ia l m a j o r s d i d t h e i r b e s t w o rk i n t y p i n g ,
sh o rth a n d ,
and b o o k k e ep in g .
7.
The m a j o r i t y o f s t u d e n t s
in e a c h g roup a s s e r t e d
t h a t s tu d e n ts a t M e tro p o lita n S chool o f B u sin e ss need h e lp
in
103
a d j u s t i n g th e m se lv e s to th e
p ro g ram , p a r t i c u l a r l y
t o g e t ‘t h e m o s t o u t o f t h e i r s t u d y ,
se lv e s
in le a rn in g
and in a d a p tin g
th em ­
to an e n t i r e l y b u s in e s s c u rric u lu m ,
8.
M ost o f t h e
s t u d e n t s who a n s w e r e d t h e
fo u n d th e p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l
q u ite h e lp f u l,
gave th em a good u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f
s u g g e s t i o n s w ere m ade, h o w e v e r,
q u e stio n n a ire
and s t a te d
jo b r e q u i r e m e n t s .
f o r th e
tu n itie s
d e t a i l re g a rd in g re q u ire m e n ts ,
in v a rio u s l i n e s
9.
10.
S ev eral
d u tie s,
it
go
and o p p o r­
o f w o rk,
A la r g e m a jo r ity o f th e
f i e d w ith t h e i r e h o ic e
it
im p ro v e m e n t o f t h e
p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l , m o s t f o r c e f u l am ong w h i c h w a s t h a t
m o re i n t o
th a t
s t u d e n t s w ere q u i t e
s a tis ­
in b o th c o u rse o f s tu d y and o c c u p a tio n .
C l e r i c a l w o rk e rs in b o th g ro u p s f e l t t h a t an a d e ­
q u a te h a n d lin g o f t h e i r
jo b s c a lle d
f o r m o re t r a i n i n g
in a
num ber o f s u b j e c t s , m o st s i g n i f i c a n t o f w h ic h w e re p en m a n sh ip
and re c o rd k e e p in g ,
11.
S e c r e t a r i a l w o r k e r s i n G ro u p I
( p l a c e d by s c h o o l ) ,
n e e d e d m o re t r a i n i n g i n a n u m b e r o f c o u r s e s .
o f th e s tu d e n ts
in t h i s
g roup f e l t
O v e r 30 p e r c e n t
a d e fic ie n c y
in th e
am ount
o f t r a i n i n g th e y had r e c e iv e d in b u s in e s s c o rre sp o n d e n c e ,
d ic ta p h o n e ,
12.
p e n m a n sh ip , and
sa le sm a n sh ip .
The m o s t u r g e n t n e e d s o f t h o s e s t u d e n t s e m p lo y ed
a s a c c o u n t a n t s seem s t o h a v e b e e n b u s i n e s s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e ,
E n g lish ,
o ff ic e e x p e rie n c e ,
sa le sm a n sh ip ,
and s h o rth a n d .
o ffic e
tra in in g ,
p e n m a n sh ip ,
104
13.
C o m p t o m e t e r s i n G ro u p I n e e d e d m o re t r a i n i n g
i n k e y p u n ch an d i n p en m a n sh ip .
14*
M a ch in e b o o k k e e p e r s f e l t
in E n g lish ,
15.
p o sitio n s
p e n m a n sh ip ,
S tu d e n ts
and re c o r d - k e e p in g .
i n G ro u p I who w e r e e m p l o y e d i n
s t a t e d a n e e d f o r m o re t r a i n i n g
c o rresp o n d en ce,
16.
17.
M o s t p o p u l a r am ong t h e
(4 ) t r a i n i n g
su g g e stio n s f o r a d d itio n a l
in p u b lic
in
20.
an o p p o rtu n ity
(2 ) t r a i n i n g
A m a j o r i t y o f s t u d e n t s i n b o t h G ro u p I a n d
s i x t y w ords a m in u te
jo b s.
The s h o r th a n d s p e e d c o n s i d e r e d a d e q u a te by m o st
e a c h g ro u p was 100 w o rd s a m in u t e .
O f t h e s t u d e n t s i n G ro u p I ,
a m a jo rity
h a d com­
p le te d t h e i r c o u rse o f stu d y , b u t m ost o f th e s tu d e n ts
G ro u p I I h a d l e f t
21.
in
sp e a k in g .
w as a d e q u a te f o r t h e h a n d l i n g o f t h e i r
stu d e n ts
(1)
(3 ) m o re p e r s o n a l i t y d e v e l o p m e n t ,
f e l t t h a t a ty p in g speed o f
19.
of
g ro u p w ere n o t
th e c u rr ic u lu m w ere:
th e use o f th e te le p h o n e ,
G ro u p I I
i n G roup I I
had n o t c o m p le te d t h e i r c o u rs e
f o r m ore c o n t a c t s w i t h t h e b u s i n e s s w o r l d ,
18.
b u sin e ss
s ig n ific a n t.
c o u rs e s to be added t o
and
in b illin g ,
In asm u ch a s t h e m a j o r i t y o f s t u d e n t s
th e c u rric u lu m fin d in g s f o r t h i s
p a rtic u la rly
se llin g
and m a c h in e b o o k k e e p in g .
( n o t p la c e d by s c h o o l ) ,
stu d y ,
a n e e d f o r m o re t r a i n i n g
sch o o l b efo re
in
c o m p le tio n o f t h e i r t r a i n i n g .
T he r e a s o n m o s t f r e q u e n t l y g i v e n b y s t u d e n t s
in
105
each group f o r h a v in g l e f t
school b e fo re co m pletion o f t h e i r
t r a i n i n g was t h a t t h e y h a d o b t a i n e d em ploym ent.
22.
Most o f t h e s t u d e n t s
i n b o t h g r o u p s u s e d some
form o f b o okkeeping o r r e c o r d - k e e p in g f o r t h e i r work.
The
t y p e s o f r e c o r d - k e e p i n g m o st f r e q u e n t l y m e n tio n e d w ere a s
fo llo w s:
keeping p a y ro ll re c o rd s ,
secu rity retu rn s,
be b a la n c e d ;
sto c k -re p o rt
sh eets,
and s i m p le s t a t e m e n t s a n d r e p o r t s
p o stin g to th e led g e r,
so cial
t h a t m ust
and k eep in g s t a t i s t i c a l
records.
2.3.
M o s t o f t h e s t u d e n t s who a n s w e r e d t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e
had chosen a co u rse of t r a i n i n g b e fo re
e n te rin g M etro p o litan .
T h i s n u m b e r i n c l u d e d 94 p e r c e n t o f G r o u p I ,
a n d 92 p e r c e n t
o f Group I I .
24.
More t h a n h a l f o f a l l
th e s e s tu d e n ts had chosen
a s e c r e t a r i a l cu rricu lu m .
25.
A m ajo rity of th e
c id ed to t r a i n
in and l ik i n g
stu d en ts
i n e ac h g ro u p had d e ­
f o r a c e r ta in o ccu p atio n because o f i n t e r e s t
f o r t h e w ork.
O t h e r f a c t o r s w h i c h h a d some
b e a r i n g on t h e i r d e c i s i o n s w ere th e f a c t t h a t r e m u n e r a tio n
f o r t h a t t y p e o f w o rk was g o o d ,
tr a in in g p erio d req u ire d ;
p arativ ely b rie f;
c o n d itio n s,
tag es.
of a ll
th at
and th a t
The l a t t e r ,
com pared t o t h e
length of
t h a t t h e t r a i n i n g p e r i o d w a s com­
t h e work a f f o r d e d p l e a s a n t w o r k i n g
o f f i c e w ork o f f e r s c e r t a i n
how ever,
s o c ia l advan­
seem s t o have been l e a s t
im p o rtan t
t h e f a c t o r s w h ich i n f l u e n c e d them i n t h e i r c h o i c e .
106
26*
A p p r o x i m a t e l y 85 p e r c e n t o f a l l t h e s t u d e n t s
pursued t h e i r o r ig in a l
27*
Of t h e
were p e rs u a d e d to
p la n s a f t e r e n te r in g M etro p o litan *
re la tiv e ly
s m a l l g r o u p o f s t u d e n t s who
change to a n o th e r c o u rse o f stu d y a f t e r
e n te rin g M etro p o litan ,
30 p e r c e n t c h o s e c o m p t o m e t r y ;
18 p e r
c :e n t k e y p u n c h ; 1 4 p e r c e n t , m a c h i n e b o o k k e e p i n g ; a n d 9 p e r
cent e n te red each o f the f i e l d s
and c l e r i c a l ,
d isclo sed
sch oo l),
o f acco u n tin g ,
A s tu d y of e ach group i n d i v i d u a l l y ,
th e f a c t
t h a t 15 p e r c e n t o f Group I
how ever,
( p la c e d by
had changed to an a c c o u n tin g c o u rs e , w hereas none o f
the stu d e n ts
i n Group I I
(n o t p la c e d by s c h o o l ) , had ch o sen
a c c o u n tin g as a second c h o ic e .
the
secretarial,
I n Group I I ,
stu d en ts had tr a n s fe r r e d to a c l e r i c a l
course.
p e r c e n t o f Group I h a d e n t e r e d t h e c l e r i c a l
28.
m ental in
O nly 4
field *
M e m b ers o f t h e c o u n s e l i n g s t a f f w e r e m o s t i n s t r u ­
in flu en cin g stu d e n ts
o rig in a l p lan s.
o f both g ro u p s to change t h e i r
C lassroom te a c h e r s
c o u n s e lin g body i n t h i s
29.
17 p e r c e n t o f
form t h e
n e x t m ost im p o r ta n t
p articu lar.
O nly a v e r y s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e o f s t u d e n t s i n e a c h
group changed t h e i r o r i g i n a l p la n s a s a r e s u l t o f a t r y - o u t
course.
30.
Most o f t h e
co u n selin g o ffic e
stu d e n ts
o f each group used th e
o cca sio n ally du rin g t h e i r tr a in in g p erio d .
A few s t u d e n t s f r e q u e n t l y t o o k a d v a n t a g e o f t h e s e r v i c e s
o f f e r e d by t h a t o f f i c e ,
a n d so m e o t h e r s n e v e r u s e d t h e s e
107
s e r v i c e s a f t e r h a v in g com pleted t h e i r e n ro llm e n t i n th e
school.
31.
Both g ro u p s o f s t u d e n t s
source o f guidance w h ile
in
the
s t a t e d t h a t t h e i r m ain
s c h o o l was g i v e n b y c l a s s r o o m
teach ers,, and t h a t th e c o u n s e lo r,
o r co u n selin g s t a f f ,
was
t h e i r n e x t m ost im p o rtan t source o f g u idance.
32.
found th e
A g rea t m a jo rity of th e stu d e n ts
in each group
g u id a n c e o f f e r e d by t h e c o u n s e l i n g o f f i c e
very
a d e q u a te t o m eet m ost o f t h e i r n e e d s.
33.
A g r e a t many o f t h e s t u d e n t s
in each group,
e v e r , w o u ld h a v e a p p r e c i a t e d m ore h e l p r e g a r d i n g
how­
job r e q u i r e ­
m e n t s , more t r a i n i n g i n t h e a r t o f j o b - h u n t i n g , a n d m ore
in fo rm atio n re g a rd in g courses o f study.
34.
M ost o f t h e s t u d e n t s
sa m e t y p e o f p o s i t i o n ,
o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e sa me t y p e a s t h a t
f o r w hich th e y had t r a i n e d .
i n t h a t 46 p e r c e n t o f
same t y p e
T he t w o g r o u p s d i f f e r ,
the stu d en ts
how ever,
i n Group I o b t a i n e d t h e
o f p o s i t i o n a s t h a t f o r w hich th e y had t r a i n e d ,
o n l y 23 p e r c e n t o f t h o s e
Of t h e l a t t e r
e n tirely
in b o th groups o b ta in e d th e
group,
d ifferen t
35.
i n Group I I w e re e q u a l l y f o r t u n a t e .
34 p e r c e n t w e re f o r c e d t o a c c e p t a n
type of p o s itio n .
On t h e w h o l e ,
p e rfe ctly sa tisfie d *
s t u d e n t s i n e a c h g ro u p w ere e i t h e r
o r q u ite s a t i s f i e d w ith th e guidance
th ey had re c e iv e d a t M e tro p o lita n .
and 4 p e r c e n t o f Group I I
sa tisfie d .
and
sta te d
O nly 2 p e r c e n t o f Group I ,
t h a t th e y had been d i s ­
108
II.
CONCLUSIONS
On t h e b a s i s o f t h e f i n d i n g s s u m m a r i z e d a b o v e ,
c ertain
c o n c l u s i o n s w e re draw n;
1.
It
c a n b e a s s u m e d t h a t t h e 2 8 9 s t u d e n t s who
answ ered th e q u e s t io n n a ir e
are f a ir ly
re p re s e n ta tiv e of th e
t y p e s o f s t u d e n t s who e n r o l l a t M e t r o p o l i t a n ,
and th a t
th eir
p r o b l e m s a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f o t h e r s who h a v e r e c e i v e d
t h e ir b usin ess
2.
t r a i n in g a t t h a t school.
The m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e
seventeen to tw e n ty -fiv e y e ars.
are
to
g irls,
stu d e n ts range
i n ag es from
A g rea t m ajo rity
a n d m o s t o f them a r e u n m a r r ie d .
o f them
Those b e lo n g in g
o th e r th a n t h e w h ite r a c e form a v e ry sm all m in o r i t y —
p e r h a p s n o t more t h a n 1 o r 2 p e r c e n t o f a l l
en ro lled
a t a n y one tim e .
rep o rted th a t
(O nly 1 p e r c e n t o f t h o s e
th e y belonged t o
E very n a t i o n a l i t y
is
the stu d en ts
stu d ied
o th e r th a n th e w hite ra c e . )
rep resen ted
in th e sch o o l,
but stu d e n ts
o f n o r t h e r n E u ro p e a n d e s c e n t form t h e g r e a t e s t num ber.
3.
A p p r o x i m a t e l y 40 p e r c e n t o f t h e s e s t u d e n t s h a v e
a c a d e m ic b a c k g r o u n d s when t h e y e n t e r M e t r o p o l i t a n ;
60 p e r c e n t h a v e b e e n c o m m e r c i a l m a j o r s
4.
Most o f t h e s e
the
o th er
in h ig h school.
stu d e n ts need h elp in a d ju s tin g
th e m se lv e s t o t h e c o m p le te ly b u s in e s s c u rr ic u lu m a t M etro­
p o lita n , w ith
5.
its
in ten siv e
s tu d y program .
The p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l d i s s e m i n a t e d b y t h e s c h o o l i s
109
h e l p f u l i n g i v i n g them a b e t t e r
req u irem en ts,
u n d e rstan d in g of job
b u t i t w o u ld be e v e n more h e l p f u l
in to g r e a te r d e t a il about those req u irem en ts,
if
i t went
and e x p la in e d
som ething a b o u t th e d u t i e s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n v a r i o u s
lin e s
o f w ork.
6.
choice
M o s t o f t h e s t u d e n t s do n o t l a t e r r e g r e t t h e i r
in c o u rs e o f s tu d y and o c c u p a tio n .
7.
S tu d en ts in th e
o ften fe e l a f te r
e n te r in g an o c c u p a tio n t h a t th e y sh o u ld have
h a d m ore t r a i n i n g
be d u e ,
s ix m ajor o c c u p a tio n a l g ro u p s
in c e r ta in
in p a rt a t le a s t ,
s u b je c ts w hile
to
th e f a c t
in
to
8.
le a v in g M etro­
take a p o sitio n .
The v o c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e o f f e r e d
high sc h o o ls i s v ery e f f e c tiv e
a course o f study.
How ever,
o th er c u rric u la ,
in th e c o n trib u tin g
in a s s i s t i n g
stu d en ts
to choose
too la r g e a p e rc en tag e o f th e s e
s tu d e n ts choose a s e c r e t a r i a l c u rric u lu m ,
c ertain
T h i s may
t h a t m a n y o f t h e m do
n o t com plete t h e i r c o u rse o f t r a i n i n g b e fo re
p o litan
school.
to th e n e g le c t o f
such a s k e y p u n c h , m achine b o o k k e e p in g ,
and c l e r i c a l .
9.
it
train s
Most s t u d e n t s ch o o se t h e i r c o u r s e o f s t u d y b e c a u s e
them f o r an o c c u p a t i o n w h ic h t h e y l i k e — one i n
w hich th e y a re i n t e r e s t e d .
such a s t h a t
C ertain o th e r f a c to rs ,
of rem u n eratio n ,
p le a s a n t w orking c o n d itio n s ,
how ever,
b re v ity of tra in in g p erio d ,
and s o c ia l ad v an tag es,
a lso
i n f l u e n c e them i n c h o o s in g an o c c u p a t i o n and a c o u r s e
of
110
tra in in g fo r it.
10.
The c o u n s e l i n g s t a f f a t M e t r o p o l i t a n f i n d
it
n e c e s s a r y t o p e r s u a d e o n l y a b o u t 15 p e r c e n t o f t h e s t u d e n t s
who e n t e r t h e s c h o o l t o
to a co u rse o f study.
t o t a k e com ptom etry,
change t h e i r o r i g i n a l p la n s in r e s p e c t
Many o f t h i s l a t t e r g r o u p a r e a d v i s e d
because
of i t s
t h e a s s u r a n c e o f employm ent w h ic h i t
b r i e f t r a i n i n g p e r i o d and
offers.
m achine b o o k k e e p in g a l s o o f f e r u n u s u a l l y f i n e
for
Key p u n c h a n d
o p p o rtu n ities
em ploym ent, a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y a b o u t one t h i r d
s t u d e n t s who c h a n g e t h e i r
of th e
c o u r s e s o f s t u d y s i g n up f o r t h e s e
courses.
11.
N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g th e num erous c u r r i c u l u m o f f e r i n g s
a l r e a d y a f f o r d e d by M e t r o p o li t a n ,
c e rta in a d d itio n al
courses
and e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s w ould p r o v e v e r y h e l p f u l t o
th e
stu d en ts.
M o st p r o m i n e n t among t h e s e a r e
(1) a n o p p o r ­
tu n ity
f o r more c o n t a c t s w i t h t h e b u s i n e s s w o r l d ,
ing in
the use o f th e te le p h o n e ,
developm ent,
12.
and
(4)
train in g
A lthough th e
a 'm in u te in t y p i n g ,
stu d e n ts fin d
(3) m ore p e r s o n a l i t y
in p u b lic
speaking.
sc h o o l s e t s a g o a l o f s e v e n ty w ords
a n d 120 w o rd s a m i n u t e i n s h o r t h a n d , m o st
t h a t an ad eq u ate h a n d lin g o f t h e i r
f o r n o t m ore t h a n s i x t y w o rd s a m in u te
h u ndred w ords a m in u te i n
13.
(2) t r a i n ­
in ty p in g ,
jobs c a l ls
and. one
shorthand.
Many s t u d e n t s l e a v e
of t h e i r course o f tr a in in g ,
school b e fo re th e co m pletion
but t h e i r m ost f r e q u e n t re a so n
111
f o r d o in g so i s t h a t
14.
th e y h a v e o b t a i n e d em ploym ent.
Most s t u d e n t s t r a i n e d a t M e t r o p o l i t a n f i n d t h a t
a f t e r e n t e r i n g a n o c c u p a t i o n t h e y u s e some f o r m o f b o o k ­
k e e p in g o r r e c o r d - k e e p i n g i n t h e i r w ork.
15.
. A lthough c la ss ro o m t e a c h e r s a re
so u rce o f guidance to
of th e
the m ost im p o rta n t
stu d e n ts a t M etro p o litan ,
t h e members
c o u n s e l i n g s t a f f assum e m o st o f t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y
h a n d lin g c e r t a i n problem s.
One o f t h e s e
persuading c e r ta in stu d e n ts to
i s t h a t of
change t h e i r o r i g i n a l p la n s in
r e s p e c t t o a c o u r s e o f s t u d y when i t
16.
d u ties
in
seem s a d v i s a b l e
t o do s o .
The g u i d a n c e o f f e r e d by t h e c o u n s e l i n g o f f i c e
seem s t o be a d e q u a te f o r m o s t s t u d e n t s 1 n e e d s ,
b u t many
s t u d e n t s a f t e r e n t e r i n g an o c c u p a t i o n f i n d t h a t m ore h e l p
r e g a r d i n g j o b r e q u i r e m e n t s , more t r a i n i n g i n t h e a r t
h u n tin g ,
of job­
and m ore i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g c o u r s e s o f s t u d y w ould
have been h e lp f u l.
17.
Most o f t h e
s t u d e n t s who c o m p l e t e t h e i r
of tr a in in g a t M etro p o litan fin d p o s itio n s of th e
o r ap p ro x im ately the
train ed .
course
sa m e t y p e ,
sa m e t y p e a s t h a t f o r w h i c h t h e y h a v e
A l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e o f t h o s e who do n o t c o m p l e t e
t h e i r c o u r s e b e f o r e e n t e r i n g em ploym ent a c c e p t p o s i t i o n s
of
a d i f f e r e n t ty p e from t h a t f o r w hich th e y have t r a i n e d .
III.
RECOMMENDATIONS
The c o n c l u s i o n s b a s e d u p o n t h e f i n d i n g s
seem t o
in t h i s
study
s u g g e s t c e r t a i n reco m m en d atio n s f o r im provem ent o f
112
th e program a t M e tr o p o lita n School o f B u sin e ss.
These
r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s m a y be s t a t e d a s f o l l o w s :
1.
T h a t t h e new o r i e n t a t i o n
f o r th e f i r s t tim e in F ebru ary,
to provid e
d u tie s,
(b)
1 941*
expand i t s
(a) m ore i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e
and o p p o r t u n i t i e s
in v ario u s
c o u r s e w h ic h was o f f e r e d ,
req u irem en ts,
l i n e s . o f o f f i c e w ork;
com plete f a m i l i a r i t y w ith th e s c h o o l and i t s
o fferin g s;
(c)
stu d y a id s ;
th e b u sin e ss w orld;
(e)
a c tiv itie s
course
(d) m ore o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o
some m e a n s f o r a l l t h e
co n tact
stu d en ts
to
become a c q u a i n t e d . s o c i a l l y .
It
i s tr u e th a t th e p rin te d m a te ria l ex p lain s
r e q u i r e m e n t s and c o u r s e o f f e r i n g s ,
th at i t
b u t most s t u d e n t s f i n d
d o e s n o t go s u f f i c i e n t l y i n t o d e t a i l a b o u t t h e s e
m atters.
It
has a lso
b e e n s u g g e s t e d b y some s t u d e n t s t h a t a
v e r b a l e x p l a n a t i o n l e a v e s room f o r d i s c u s s i o n ,
a t w hich tim e
an y m a t t e r s w h ich r e m a in vague c an be c l a r i f i e d .
it
job
w o u ld seem a d v i s a b l e t h a t t h e s c h o o l
C o n seq u en tly ,
supplem ent t h e p r i n te d
m a te r ia l w ith v e rb a l e x p la n a tio n s and d is c u s s io n s .
The new
o r i e n t a t i o n c o u r s e p r o v i d e s an e x c e l l e n t o p p o r t u n i t y t o do
th is.
A lthough s tu d e n ts r e c e iv e a f a i r l y good id e a o f c o u rse
o fferin g s
from t h e p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l ,
th e o rd en ta tio n .course
c o u l d g i v e t h e m a m uch c l e a r e r p i c t u r e o f t h e s c h o o l - w o r k
p ro g ram by a r r a n g i n g f o r v i s i t s
f o r v erb al d iscu ssio n s
to th e v a rio u s cla ssro o m s,
reg ard in g th e
and
sp e c ia l a p titu d e s req u ired
113
fo r success
in d if f e r e n t
m ate l e n g t h
of train in g
f o r p lacem en ts,
ty p e s o f o f f i c e w ork, th e a p p r o x i­
p erio d n e ce ssa ry ,
th e o p p o rtu n itie s
and t h e re m u n e ra tio n w h ich a t r a i n e d w orker
c o u ld e x p ec t.
M o s t h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s h a v e n e v e r l e a r n e d how t o
budget t h e i r tim e to g e t th e m ost o u t of t h e i r s tu d y p e r io d s .
The t r a i n i n g
in ten siv e,
program a t M e tr o p o lita n i s n e c e s s a r i l y v e ry
in o rd e r th a t
a s soon as p o s s i b l e .
m atters
s t u d e n t s may b e r e a d y f o r p l a c e m e n t
New s t u d e n t s
o f te n need h e lp i n th e s e
to p r e v e n t t h e i r g e t t i n g b eh in d in t h e i r
becom ing d i s c o u r a g e d ,
s tu d ie s and
som etim es t o t h e p o i n t o f d r o p p in g o u t
of sch o o l.
O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c o n t a c t i n g t h e b u s i n e s s w o r l d m ay be
p r o v i d e d i n two w a y s:
(1)
by s t u d e n t t o u r s
of bu sin ess
(2)
b y b r i n g i n g b u s i n e s s m en i n t o
concerns;
school to meet the s tu d e n ts
and t a l k
to d if f e r e n t ty p es
t o them a b o u t t h e
the
re­
quirem ents and o p p o r tu n itie s o f v a rio u s ty p e s o f b u s in e s s .
(T h e s c h o o l a l r e a d y p r o v i d e s f o r o c c a s i o n a l l e c t u r e s
by
b u sin ess m en .)
A lthough th e
b e tte r stu d en ts
do h av e a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o
beco m e a c q u a i n t e d t h r o u g h t h e a c t i v i t i e s
o f th e B usiness
G i r l s 1 C lub and t h e B u s i n e s s Men’ s C l u b ,
the g r e a t m a jo r ity
of s tu d e n ts a re n ev er a d m itted to
little
o p p o rtu n ity t o m eet t h e i r
The n a t u r e
o f com m ercial t r a i n i n g
th ese
fello w
c lu b s,
and hence have
stu d en ts
i s more o r l e s s
so c ially .
in d iv id u al,
114
so t h a t t h e
s t u d e n t s do n o t have t h e
exchange o f id e a s ,
a n d a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f o n e a n o t h e r a s do
stu d e n ts pu rsu in g th e
are,
of course,
so cial lif e ,
same o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a n
so c ia l stu d ies.
M etro p o litan stu d e n ts
e x tre m e ly bu sy , and have l i t t l e
n ev erth eless,
break th e te n s io n
tim e f o r
some m e a n s s h o u l d b e p r o v i d e d t o
o f " a l l work and no p l a y . "
s p o n s o r a s w im m in g p o o l a n d g a m e s o n t h e
The s c h o o l d o e s
roof.
The l a t t e r
p ro v id e an o p p o rtu n ity f o r h e a l th f u l o u td o o r a c t i v i t y ,
u n fo rtu n ately ,
o n l y a - f e w o f t h e m ore c o u r a g e o u s a n d
a th le tic a lly -in c lin e d
2.
stu d en ts ever p a r tic ip a te .
From t h e f i n d i n g s
w ould seem a d v i s a b l e t h a t a l l
m ajor o r co u rse of stu d y ,
reco rd -k eepin g .
are:
ad d itio n
(1)
h u n tin g ,
train in g
t o P .B .X . );
in g in p u b lic
in re s p e c t to
stu d en ts,
be r e q u i r e d t o
cu rricu lu m ,
reg ard less
of th e ir
t a k e penm anship and
C e r t a i n o t h e r c o u r s e s m i g h t be a d d e d t o t h e
cu rricu lu m as e le c tiv e s .
la tte r
bu t,
M o s t u r g e n t l y n e e d e d among t h e s e
in th e use of th e telep h o n e
(2) p e r s o n a l i t y d e v e lo p m e n t;
speaking;
and
(4) t r a i n i n g
(in
(3)
in the a r t
and o f in te r v ie w in g p r o s p e c tiv e em ployers.
tra in ­
of job­
it
BIBLIOGRAPHY
BIBLIOGRAPHY
A.
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““
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B l o o m f i e l d , M . , "W h a t i s P r a c t i c a l B u s i n e s s E d u c a t i o n ? ”
F i f t h Y e arb o o k o f t h e Coinm ercial E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n
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P h i l a d e l p h i a : ‘T he A s s o c i a t i o n * 1 9 3 6 .
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M a s t e r ’ s t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a ,
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t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , L o s A n g e l e s ,
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D a v i e s , A lb a n G le n n , "The C h i l d G u id a n c e C o n f e r e n c e i n
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The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , L os A n g e l e s ,
1934.
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F o x , J o h n G . , ”A S t u d y o f C e r t a i n A s p e c t s o f t h e P u p i l
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U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ’ s t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n
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M a s t e r 1s t h e s i s , T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a ,
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G i b s o n , C h a r l o t t e , ’’P l a c e m e n t a n d F o l l o w - u p P r o g r a m s U s e d
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t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a , 1939.
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G o o d e l l , Marne E l e a n o r , ”A C r i t i c a l A n a l y s i s o f t h e P l a c e m e n t
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U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ’ s t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n
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G le n d a le J u n i o r C o lle g e a s i t A f f e c t s th e S o c i a l and
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L arge C ity H igh S c h o o l . ” U n p u b lish ed M a s te r ’ s t h e s i s ,
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B u sin ess E d u c a ti o n .” U npublished D o c to r’ s d i s s e r t a t i o n ,
The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s , 1940.
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P r a c t i c e o f Y o c a tio n a l G u id a n ce ."
U npublished M a s te r’ s
t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s ,
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, H igh S c h o o ls i n th e U n ite d S t a t e s . ” U n p u b lish e d M a s t e r ’ s
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T o l h u r s t , M i l d r e d C l e e , ”An A n a l y s i s o f G u i d a n c e P r o b l e m s
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t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , Los
A ngeles, 1936.
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Los A n g e l e s , 1 9 3 4 .
139 P P .
W i l l i a m s , D o n a l d T u r n e y , "Som e V a l u e s a n d L i m i t a t i o n s o f
G uidance Program s in Seven S e le c te d S eco n d ary S c h o o l
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U npublished M a s te r ’ s
t h e s i s . , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , Los
A n g eles, 1937.
130 p p .
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