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A survey of recreational opportunities in Kings County, California

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A SURVEY OF RECREATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES
IN KINGS COUNTY, CALIFORNIA
A Thesis
Presented to
the Faculty of the School of Education
The University of Southern California
In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Master of Science in Education
by
Raymond Kaufman
September 19^1
UMI Number: EP54242
All rights reserved
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UMI EP54242
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This thesis, written under the direction of the
Chairman of the candidate’s Guidance Committee
and approved by a ll members of the Committee
has been presented to and accepted by the Faculty
of the School of Education of The University of
Southern California in p artial fu lfillm e n t of the
requirements fo r the degree of Master of Science
in Education.
,
......
Dean
Guidance Committee
Pauline M. Frederick
Chairman
Irving R. Melbo
W. Ralph LaPorte
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I.
PAGE
THE P R O B L E M ................................
Nature and purpose of the s t u d y
*1
The importance of the p r o b l e m ........
Related investigations
3
.................
4
Method of p r o c e d u r e .....................
12
Definitions of terms used
........
13
Active participation
.................
13
Passive participation
.................
14
Organization of the remaining chapters . .
II.
1
14
PREPARATION FOR WORTHY USE OF LEISURE­
TIME THROUGH PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN
SECONDARY S C H O O L S .......................
16
The present challenge of the new
leisure to the schools
.............
18
The worthy use of leisure-time
through physical activity
23
..........
Physical values in the carry-over
program--games that can be played
in adult l i f e .......................
26
Active.instead of passive participation
29
Activities of a co-educational nature
.
S u m m a r y ................................
30
31
ill
CHAPTER
III.
PAGE
PHYSICAL RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES OF THIRTYTWO CLUBS, LODGES, AND VARIOUS
ORGANIZATIONS IN KINGS COUNTY
...........
J>k
Survey of clubs, lodges, and various
organizations in Kings County
Summary
IV.
. . . .
35
................................
41
PHYSICAL RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES OF
EIGHTEEN CHURCHES IN KINGS COUNTY
. . . .
44
The recreation and leisure-time
obligation of the church
...........
45
Physical recreational activities of
various churches in Kings County
Summary
V.
...
46
................................
51
PHYSICAL RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES OF SEVEN
COMMUNITY RECREATION AGENCIES IN
KINGS C O U N T Y ...........................
.
5^
Survey of seven agencies in Kings
C o u n t y ............
Summary
VI.
55
.................
59
COMMERCIAL PHYSICAL RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES
OF THREE COMMUNITIES IN KINGS COUNTY
...
6l
Commercial physical recreation as found
in three communities of Kings County
Summary
.
................................
62
66
iv
CHAPTER
VII.
PAGE
THE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY PROGRAMS IN THE
HIGH SCHOOLS OF KINGS C O U N T Y .............
68
The high school programs in Kings
VIII.
C o u n t y ................................
68
S u m m a r y ............... ■.................
69
COMPARISON OP FINDINGS PROM
THE CHECK LIST
.
75
Physical recreational activities of
clubs* churches, community recrea­
tional agencies, commercial recrea­
tional agencies, and high schools . . .
75
Physical recreational activities of
80
combined g r o u p s .................... .‘
Degree of participation of activities
in combined recreational agencies and
IX.
high schools in Kings C o u n t y ........
84
S u m m a r y ..................................
88
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS,AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Summary
.
.
..................................
Conclusions
..............................
Recommendations............
BIBLIOGRAPHY
APPENDIX
.
90
91
95
.
......................................
90
98
104
LIST OP TABLES
TABLE
I.
II.
PAGE
Recreational Activities for Men and Women
.
28
............................
38
Participation in Physical Recreational
Activities by Thirty-Two Clubs In
Kings County
III.
Physical Recreational Activities of
Thirty-Two Clubs in Kings County..........
IV.
40
Degree of Participation of Physical
Recreational Activities of ThirtyTwo Clubs in Kings C o u n t y ...............
V.
k2
Participation in Physical Recreational
Activities of Eighteen Churches of
Kings County
VI.
.....................
Physical Recreational Activities of
Eighteen Churches in Kings County . . . .
VII.
48
50
Degree of Participation of Physical
Recreational Activities of Eighteen
Churches in Kings County .................
VIII.
52
Participation in Physical Recreational
Activities by Seven Community Recreation
Agencies in Kings County .................
IX.
56
Physical Recreational Activities ofSeven
Community Recreation Agencies in Kings
County
..................................
58
vi
TABLE
X.
PAGE
Degree of Participation of Physical
Recreational Activities of Seven Com­
munity Recreational Agencies in Kings
C o u n t y ...................................
XI.
60
Participation in Physical-Recreational
Activities Through Commercial Agencies
by Three Communities in Kings County
XII.
...
63
Physical Recreational Activities Through
Commercial Agencies of Three Communities
in Kings C o u n t y ........................
XIII.
65
Degree of Participation of Physical Recrea­
tional Activities Through Commercial
Agencies of Three Communities in
Kings C o u n t y ..........................
XIV.
67
Participation in Physical Recreational
Activities by High Schools in Kings
C o u n t y .................................
XV.
Physical Recreational Activities in the
Pour High Schools in Kings County
XVI.
70
. . . .
72
Degree of Participation of Physical Recrea­
tional Activities of Pour High Schools
in Kings C o u n t y ........................
XVII.
73
Physical Recreational Activities of All
G r o u p s .................................
76
vii
TABLE
XVIII.
PAGE
Average Number of Physical Recreational
Activities Offered by Various Organiza­
tions in Kings C o u n t y .....................
XIX.
79
Physical Recreational Activities of Sixty
Recreational Agencies and Four High
Schools in Kings County
XX.
....................
8l
Degree of Participation of Physical
Recreational Activities in Four High
Schools and Sixty Recreational Agencies
in Kings C o u n t y ............................
85
CHAPTER I
THE PROBLEM
The purpose of this investigation was to determine
whether the physical education program for hoys in the
secondary schools of Kings County, California, provides
adequate training in the leisure-time physical activities
that may be carried over to after school hours and adult
life through the community recreational opportunities.
I.
NATURE AND PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
In discussing this problem the writer has endeavored
to ascertain whether physical education in Kings County,
California, is primarily a phase of education concerned
only with the immediate physical, social, and mental impli­
cations or whether it merits a place along with other
school activities in preparing the student for more whole­
some social adjustment and physical welfare in adult life.
In these times when working hours are shortened and
leisure periods lengthened, physical education, because of
its contribution toward the wise spending of leisure-time,
becomes of paramount importance to the welfare of the
nation.
In dealing with the problem the author did not in­
tend to evaluate either the recreational or physical
2
education programs in Kings County.
The research covered
merely one phase of the physical education program, that
dealing with carry-over values and leisure-time education,
and the possibility of evaluating this phase of physical
education with a measuring rod: namely, community recrea­
tional opportunities.
1.
The observer has attempted to:
Investigate the physical recreational activity
programs of some of the various clubs, lodges, civic
organizations, churches, community recreation agencies,
commercial recreation agencies, and high schools in Kings
County;
2.
Determine whether the secondary schools of
Kings County are offering physical activities of a carry­
over nature in their physical education program;
3*
Ascertain whether the physical education pro­
grams in Kings County secondary schools prepare and enable
students to take advantage of community recreational
\
activities and facilities;
4.
Give Kings County a broad survey of the type of
recreation offered therein;
5*
Determine the popularity of the various physical
recreational activities offered by the combined recreational
agencies and high schools in Kings County;
6.
Make suggestions concerning the organization
and administration of physical recreational programs by
various agencies.
3
/
The importance of the problem.
Because of the
rapidly changing economic conditions throughout the world,
there has appeared in modern social life a greater amount
of leisure-time than ever before.
Consequently, the use
of this additional leisure is having a vital effect upon
the character of society, mentally, socially, and ethically.
It is essential that some agent of society prepare the
youth of this nation for worthy use of leisure-time for
leisure can be both a curse and a blessing.
It may be
used to profitable advantage, but men often deteriorate
during the idleness of this period.
lenge to American educators.
Here indeed is a chal­
It has been stated by Edwin
C. Broome of Philadelphia:
The future use of leisure will depend upon how
clearly our school masters see the problem and how
adequately they provide the children with resources
for the appreciation and enjoyment of higher life.l
The problem does not rest alone with the schools
of the nation.
Other important agencies may be found in
community recreational organizations.
The Federal government is realizing the importance
of play. A recreational specialist is. serving on the
staff of the Children!s Bureau; the Bureau of Educa­
tion is promising recreation through the literature
and activities of the Division of Physical Education
and School Hygiene; The Department of Agriculture
through the States Relation Service and with its
•*- E. T. Lies, The New Leisure Challenges the Schools
(New York: National Recreation Association, 1933)7" P *" 36*
/
intensive club work and summer camp program, and the
Bureau of Forestry of the department with its constant
ly broadening program for the recreational use of
national parks, is adding materially to the leisure
time opportunities of the n a t i o n . 2
There has been much criticism as to the worth of
the general physical education program.
physical education is at the crossroads.
Without a doubt
In the last few
years there has been talk of eliminating this activity
from the curriculum; the high cost of maintenance versus
the value received have been the main factors in the prob­
lem.
There is no doubt that many programs have failed to
get results, that physical education administrators have
not looked to the future, and that the program has been to
satisfy immediate needs only in many cases.^
There is a
general agreement by students in this field that the carry
over value in physical education leisure-time program is
determined by its preparation of the individual for the
use of the local community opportunities.
II.
RELATED INVESTIGATIONS
Because of the recently awakened interest of
2 Playground and Recreation Association of America,
Normal Course in Play (New York: A. S. Barnes & Company,
T925T7 p T 23¥.
^ Agnes R. Wayman, "Physical Education for the
Future,11 Journal of Health and Physical Education, July,
1935, PP.T^BI
5
educators in the relationship of the secondary school cur­
ricula to the problems of leisure, the studies upon the
subject are few and of recent date.
Past investigations
deal with recreation and recreational movements; few
*■
evaluate the physical education program by a survey of the
community opportunities.
The writer has found the follow­
ing studies helpful.
Cost^ through an evaluation score card has made a
survey of the Fresno City recreation program.
She has
found that the present program does not meet the needs of
the community and makes the following recommendations:
1.
Coordination of recreation and school programs;
2.
Greater financial support for the program;
5*
More provision for an aquatic program and for
general public use of pools;
4.
A course in recreation by the Fresno State
College.
In 19^8 Davis^ made a personal survey of recreation
in Greenville, Texas, using ”A Schedule for the Appraisal
of Community Recreation” from the National Recreation
^ Emily Dorthy Cost, ”A Survey of the Recreation in
Fresno,” (unpublished Master's thesis, University of South­
ern California, Los Angeles, 1956), pp. 117-19•
G. N. Davis, 3,A Survey of Public Recreation in
Greenville, Texas,” (unpublished Master's thesis, University
of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1958), 127 PP*
6
Association for the community.
The methods used in this
study contributed to the background of the present' study
and offered guidance in planning a survey.
On the basis
of his findings, Davis made the following recommendations:
1.
More land should be acquired for parks and play­
grounds .
2.
Present sites should be beautified.
3.
The program of swimming activities should be
enlarged so that more people will use the pool.
4.
There is a need for one hard baseball diamond,
one municipal golf course, soccer fields, bowling and green
courts, and volley ball courts.
5.
The schools should open their plants after
school hours.
6.
A field or shelter house should be built in
each park.
7.
The schools should open their plants after
school hours for playground and community center work.
£
Holtz’s study was concerned with the school as a
center in the recreational program of the community and
was made in 1935*
The problems considered were the changes
^ Doris Holtz, ”A Study of the Changes Necessary in
Readjusting the School as a Community Recreation Center,”
(unpublished Master’s thesis, University of Southern
California, Los Angeles, 1935)> PP* 155-64.
necessary in methods, leadership, program, facilities,
equipment, and administration to make the school an effect
ive community center.
This study disclosed the growing
practice of using'the school as the recreation center.
Holtz made the following observations:
1.
Recreation leaders must be well-trained if the
program is to be effective.
2.
The schools must serve the needs of the com­
munity in recreation.
3*
Greater cooperation between schools and com­
munity recreation is necessary.
Norviel^ in 193^ made a survey of recreation in
Glendale.
His methods were to review literature, to send
letters of inquiry, and to make personal interviews in
order to obtain an unbiased picture of the acutal public
recreation program of Glendale.
A careful study was made
of the possibility of coordinating school and community
recreation.
1.
The following problems were covered:
The justification of the plea for public sup­
port of the program.
2.
What form of administrative control should be
adopted in Glendale?
7
J. W. Norviel, nA Survey of Recreation in Glendal
California,” (unpublished Master's thesis, University of
Southern California, Los Angeles, 193*0> PP* 8, 152.
8
3.
What recreation areas were needed for Glendale?
4.
What recreation services should he provided for
the people?
Norviel made the following recommendations:
lic support of recreation was advisable;
(l) Pub­
(2) A coordinated
administrative program by both school and recreation
leaders was needed;
(3) No new areas were needed for
recreation.
Noble® made a study in 1936 with the aid of an
evaluation score card.
This survey was made to enlighten
the people of Kern County in regard to their community
recreational programs.
Noble found that every community
in Kern County falls short of the recommended score via
the rating scale.
He made the following recommendations
to the county:
1.
All cities with organized programs could make
improvements.
2.
It was found that in most instances areas and
facilities are not adequate.
3.
It was recommended that there be a broader
range of activities.
4.
It was recommended that each community should
8 Orland W. Noble, ”A Survey of Recreation in Kern
County,11 (unpublished Master’s thesis, University of South­
ern California, Los Angeles, 1936), pp. 106-10.
9
set up a coordinating recreation commission, composed of
representatives of the schools, churches, municipal bodies,
and. service clubs.
5*
Adequequate recreational facilities were urged
for each community and the necessity for trained leaders
was stressed.
6.
Recreation to be installed on an all year basis.
Noble included in his study methods of survey that
were followed in the present study.
Reed^ made a study in 1934 in which he attempted to
ascertain the most popular activities in adult recreation
and education.
He used the questionnaire method to survey
all the evening high schools in Los Angeles and found that
the first ten ranking activities in order of importance in
Los Angeles were:
(3) boxing,
(l) basket ball,
(4) volley ball,
(6) handball,
(2) setting-up exercises,
(5 ) social games and relays,
(7 ) striking bag,
cine ball, and (10) wrestling.
(8) rope climb,
(9) medi­
From this survey Reed was
able to formulate and recommend a program to each of the
evening high schools in Los Angeles.
9 C. M. Reed, ”The Physical Education Needs and
Desires of Adult Men in Los Angeles,11 (unpublished Master*s
thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles,
1934), pp. 67-68 .
10
Reynolds'^ made an historical investigation to bring
together the literature relating to the community recrea­
tion movement, to classify this information, and to deter­
mine the probable future of the movement in the United
States.
From this study he was able to conclude the follow­
ing:
1.
There is a greater amount of leisure-time now
than ever before, due to the rapid development of the
machine age.
2.
Preparations must be made to fill this leisure­
5*
There are variations in all communities as to
time .
the type of program.
4.
There must be trained leaders of recreation.
5.
School and recreation departments must cooperate.
In 1952 Hendrickson-**! made a study to bring together
all the material on the major objectives of physical educa­
tion in which he stressed the importance of new recreational
objectives and preparation for leisure-time.
After much
!0 F. P. S. Reynolds, **The Community Recreation Move­
ment in the United States,*1 (unpublished Master’s thesis,
University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 195*0 >
pp. 115-17.
11 L. E. Hendrickson, ^Physical Education,*1 (unpub­
lished Master’s thesis, University of Southern California,
Los Angeles, 1952), pp. 120-27.
11
investigation he found that there are four major objectives
of physical education:
(l) physical,
(2) mental,
(3) social,
and (4) recreational.
The writer has used this study to organize the
second chapter of this problem, "Objectives in Physical
Education."
Righter
12
made a survey of the adult recreational
facilities in Los Angeles.
The problem dealt with two
types of facilities: playgrounds and school.
The method
of procedure was by personal interview, survey of play­
ground records, city records, and questionnaire.
His sum­
mary revealed that there is a great variety of recreational
opportunities in Los Angeles, but that there should be a
better balance between active and passive participation;
the passive is now more popular.
Righter made the following recommendations:
There should be a higher organization of program;
activities should be encouraged;
should be encouraged;
(l)
(2) Club
(3) Mixed group activities
(4) An investigation should be made
of mortality (drop out);
(3) Social activity should be in­
corporated in the physical program;
(6) The activities
should be advertised more extensively.
R. V. Righter, flA Survey of Adult Recreational
Facilities in Los Angeles," (unpublished Master’s thesis,
University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1934),
pp. 130-32.
y
In a study made in 1957 R i t t e r ^ attempted to show
the relation of leisure to the activities found in the pro­
gram of physical education for girls in the secondary
schools.
There was an attempt made to examine the carry­
over value of individual and dual games, team activities,
and rhythmic activities to the leisure-time of youth and
middle age.
The conclusions of the study were:
(l) Lei­
sure-time is increasing;
(2 ) There is an increasing inter­
est in varied activities;
(5) There is a fast development
of modern recreation;
(4) The leisure-time program in
schools needs definite program planning;
(5) Emphasis is on
carry-over activities; and (6) Individual and dual activi­
ties are popular.
III.
METHOD OF PROCEDURE
In making this study the author has used the norma­
tive survey procedure, obtaining detailed information
through the use of check lists.
The sources of necessary
data were spread over a wide area and could only be ap­
proached through this method.
Koos, Hobson,' and Douglass,
l4 authorities, however,
^ Edith Ritter, ,?The Relation of Leisure to the
Girls Physical Education Program of Secondary Schools,”
(unpublished Master’s thesis, University of Southern
California, Los Angeles, 1957)> PP* 150-55*
^ J. C. Almack, Research in Thesis Writing (Boston:
Houghton, Mifflin Company, 1950 ), pp. 211 -1 7 *
15
agree that there are several pertinent weaknesses In the
check list method of getting information: namely, unrelia­
bility, lack of response, and varied interpretations.
The
author realized these weaknesses and has tried to protect
his study from such difficulties as much as possible.
The author proceeded to review all available litera­
ture in this field.
The most recent books, magazines,
pamphlets, bulletins, theses, annual reports, and surveys
served as a background for this study.
Clubs, lodges, civic organizations, community recrea­
tion agencies, commercial recreation agencies, churches,
and high schools were reached by the check list.^*5
When
all the data concerning the surveyed community recreational
agencies and the high schools were obtained, the findings
of the recreational agencies were tabulated on tables.
The findings of the surveyed high schools were also tabu­
lated.
From a comparison of the two sets of tables the
findings were evaluated in the light of this study.
On
this basis conclusions were drawn and recommendations made.
IV.
DEFINITIONS OF TEEMS USED
Active participation.
Active participation was
interpreted as engaging in the activity as a playing member
-*-5 The check list will be found in the appendix.
14
of the group.
Passive participation.
Throughout the report of
this investigation, the term ^passive participation11 shall
be interpreted as meaning: taking part as a spectator.
V.
ORGANIZATION OP THE REMAINING CHAPTERS
In Chapter Two the investigator has dealt with the
value and importance of preparation for worthy use of lei­
sure-time through physical education in secondary schools.
Chapter Three is a survey of the physical recrea­
tional activities of various clubs, lodges, and civic
organizations in Kings County.
Chapter Four is an account of the part various
churches have played in offering leisure-time physical
recreational activities and includes a broad view of church
recreation in Kings County.
Chapter Five is a survey of certain community rec­
reation activities of a physical nature in Kings County.
Chapter Six deals with the commercial recreation
offered in Kings County.
Chapter Seven is a survey of the joint activity pro­
grams of the four high schools in Kings County.
Chapter Eight is a comparison of the secondary
school physical activity programs and the leisure-time
physical recreation in Kings County.
15
Chapter Wine is devoted to summary, conclusions
based on the result of this paper, and recommendations.
CHAPTER II
PREPARATION FOR WORTHY USE OF LEISURE-TIME THROUGH
PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
This chapter deals with the recreational objective
of physical education and considers the relationship of
the recreational program to preparation for worthy use of
leisure-time.
Authorities generally agree that classroom
education in the past has been more progressive than
physical education.
In connection with this trend LaPorte
states:
Recent developments in educational research have
established certain objective criteria that call
physical education to a show down. General phrase.ology and haphazard methods will no longer suffice.
In a survey of the objectives of physical education, how­
ever, Hendrickson has found that the leaders in the field
generally recognize four major objectives to be considered
when formulating the physical education program: namely,
2
physical, mental, social, and recreational.
In reviewing the recreational objective of physical
education the investigator has found that it is the duty
W. R. LaPorte, f,The Changing Conception of College
Physical Education,11 Research Quarterly, 2:1, March, 1931.
^ L. E. Hendrickson, ^Physical, Mental, Social, and
Recreational Values of High School Physical Education,11
(unpublished Master’s thesis, The University of Southern
California, Los Angeles, 1932), pp. 126-27*
17
of physical education to offer to the child a program of
varied activities.
Team games have great value and hold
the immediate interest of the adolescent child, hut if the
child is ever to he introduced into the individual or dual
activities, that have carry-over value, the period of
adolescence is the time.
During this period the child has
more time to become proficient in these activities.
Skill
of more than beginners1 level is desirable, for if an in­
dividual does a thing well, he is likely to enjoy that
particular thing.
3
It is also desirable to have activities that include
both sexes for much of a m a n ’s leisure-time is spent in the
company of the opposite sex.
In most physical education
programs there is a sharp line drawn between the sexes.
In this respect it would seem that physical education is
lacking in social tendencies.
Recreational departments are
supplementing the work of the physical education departments
in this respect for they have realized the importance of co­
educational activity.
The theory of recreation has been stressed by many
writers who hold that play recreates the mind and body, and
that its primary function is restoration.
The most generally
2 Ralph D. Owen, Principles of Adolescent Education
(New York: Ronald Press C o ., 1929)> P • 236•
18
accepted physiological theory of play is that of relaxation,
clearly expressed by Patrick, who centers his interest
around the play of adults, since the play of children would
hardly be regarded as relaxation.
The child does not play because of surplus energy,
for under normal conditions, all his energy is expended
in play; the child is a playing animal, nor does he
play because of an instinctive need of practice and
preparation for all life’s serious duties since the
form of the latter is constantly changing while the
plays of the children remain the same from year to year
and century to century. Neither does he play because
it is necessary for his complete growth that he should
pass through the several stages of racial history. He
plays because he is a child, and to the child’s natural
and active life we give the name lfplayfl to distinguish
it from the life of conscious self direction."^
The future of the younger generation should be im­
proved by the formation of recreational attitudes and habits
that will enable them to meet the challenge of leisure and
thereby attain a more abundant life than the older genera­
tion has known.
Education--especially physical education--
should not neglect the opportunity for furthering this
creative evolution.
The present challenge of the new leisure to the
schools.
The substantial increase in leisure as a result
of adjustments in the national economic policy presents a
real challenge to public education.
4
Greater than ever is
A. W. T. Patrick, The Psychology of Relaxation
(Boston: Houghton and Mifflin C o ., 191671 pp. 79-80*
19
the need for fullest possible utilization of the resources
of public education.
According to Norman Thomas:
. . . Nothing can be clearer than the duty laid
upon our educational institutions to help provide for
the leisure of the adults--sometimes even the bitter
leisure of total unemployment.5
It has been only in recent years that public schools
have recognized the vital importance of the leisure-time
problem.
More and more schools are accepting the full re­
sponsibility of this problem along with academic and voca­
tional responsibilities.
There is little doubt that the
schools more than any other agency of society are able to
handle the problem of leisure-time that Is so interrelated .
with other educational objectives.
6
Education--intended to teach people to live on high
levels and to the limit of their capacity--must train them
to use their free time wisely.
philosophy of education.
This idea is needed in the
The teacher who has a progressive
philosophy regarding the significance of leisure-time Is
bound to have a new sense of direction for his effort.
Kinneman states:
. . . There is no problem in modern education which
ought to challenge the attention of teachers to a
Norman Thomas, 11Schools at the Cross Hoads,11
Journal of Health and Physical Education, 6:5> February,
1935.
£
J. H. Morris, 4,Training Teen Age Boys and Girls in
Leisure Time Activities,11 Journal of Health and Physical
Education, 6:3^-35* February, 1935*
20
greater degree than one of the major aims of education
--that of providing skills, techniques, and attitudes
for the development of avenues for spending of leisure
time wisely. The wise use of leisure becomes a major
aspect of citizenship.
If the school fails to meet
the situation one of the major problems of life will go
untouched.7
The following excerpt from Campbell expresses the
responsibility of the school in training for the use of
leisure time.
If public education is to prepare the coming genera­
tion for happy and successful living, it must consider
carefully conditions of the society in which we live.
We are now in a new age, an age which requires new
schools, schools which differ in their outlook and re­
quirements as much as the age differs from the old.
In the past our schools have been chiefly engaged
in training youth largely for the work side of life.
A program which was defensible, for the work side occu­
pied most of life. With the new age however, increasing
the leisure side of life, it becomes necessary for the
school to develop such attitudes, habits, and skills as
will leave the future citizens free to function success­
fully and happily in his leisure time as well as his
work-time. . . . It should not be our purpose to force
people to enjoy themselves our way, rather should we
try to open up as many avenues for profitable and happy
use of leisure time as is possible, so that each indi­
vidual may use his leisure in a way in keeping with his
own desires and needs.°
/ O n e of the vital problems in physical education to­
day deals with the lack of carry-over values in the program.
The formative period of recreation and habits lies in the
7 E. T. Lies, The New Leisure Challenges the Schools
(New York: National Recreation Association, 1 9 3 3 p . 36.
® H. G. Campbell, ,!The New Leisure and the School,ft
Recreation, 27/66-67> January, 193^*
21
adolescent age of the pupil.
It is during this period that
the school may grasp its opportunity to formulate good
recreational habits, so that when the child is ready to go
forth into the industrial world, he will have something to
counteract the effects of specialized w o r k . 9
For a number of years certain leaders in the realm
of education and recreation have been pointing out that an
education which trains people for work but not for play and
leisure-time activities is at best a half-done job.
Up to
the present time young people have been educated primarily
in book knowledge of an academic and vocational nature.
They have been thrust into the world with no aptitudes,
skill, or interest for the occupation of their leisure time.
The importance of how leisure time is spent may be
seen with the realization that millions of men and women
have had more than a normal amount of leisure thrust upon
them during the past decade through unemployment or reduced
hours of l a b o r . ^
Nicholas Murray Butler of Columbia
University in his 192*J--25 report stated:
. . . There has been lifted from many millions of
workers with hand and with brain the intolerable burden
of unending occupation through pretty much all the
9 W. P, Bowen and E. Mitchell, The Theory of Organ­
ized Play (New York: A. S. Barnes and C o ., 1932), p. 507*
J. B. Nash, Interpretations of Physical Education
(New York: A. S. Barnes and Co., 1952T7 Vol. Ill, pp. 95-96.
22
waking hours, while at the same time a new and unfamil­
iar measure of leisure has been added to their lives.
With these changes there comes a new and difficult but
very pressing educational and social problem.
This
problem is that of finding ways and means for the use­
ful and agreeable occupation of leisure.
Guidance in the right use of leisure is vastly more
important than what is now called vocational guidance.
One hundred youths will find vocations unaided where
one will know what to do with such leisure as he may
obtain.
It cannot be too often repeated that the edu­
cational process Is an unending one. While it is based
on infancy and Its prolongation in man, It reaches out
to Include the whole of human life, with its constantly
new adjustments between man and his environment.
The
right balance between work and leisure, the development
of those wants which increase the value of work and of
those tastes which increase the value of leisure, are
at the bottom of the problem of human education.H
There is little doubt that leisure Is the most
precious gift which the past century has bestowed upon man,
but it is also a dangerous gift.
The fact that no great
civilization has ever developed leisure and lived is a
direct challenge to the field.
The waste of poorly spent
leisure consists not only of anti-social acts but results
in a lethargy of mind and body.
Nash stated: "Civiliza­
tion will, in the end be judged by this use of leisure,
this use of excess energy."
12
That leisure should itself be a new and distinct
problem has never been seriously considered.
It is not un­
fair to say that the assumption generally made Is that
Lies, o£. cit., p. 274.
12 J. B. Nash, Spectatoritis (New York: Sears Pub­
lishing Company Incorporated, 1932), p. 99*
23
leisure and happiness are practically synonymous so that if
one attains leisure and fails in happiness it is in some
special way o n e 1s own fault.
Numerous sociological investigations have shown the
relationship between lawlessness and leisure--a problem not
often discussed.
In the past long hours and more difficult
working conditions left a man physically tired at the close
of each working day.
Such a man is far less likely to com­
mit crime or indulge in anti-social conduct than the one
who finds his energies still fresh at the end of his task.
The problem now is to create a preparedness for this new
leisure.
This can only be done by recognizing that leisure
is and must be a means and not an end; that its true volume
l^
is measured by social progress through it. ^
x ^ The worthy use of leisure time through physical
activity.
Within the physical education program there is a
need for the teaching of skills which can be used both now
and in adult life.
Actual experience in playing the games,
not isolated techniques, are to be desired.
Practice in
the techniques are sometimes necessary, but in some schools
the students practice the words over and over and never
experience the thrill of putting the words into a sentence.
U g. w. Alger, rtLeisure--For What?" Atlantic Monthly,
135:483-92, April, 1925.
24
They never play a real game of tennis or baseball.
There
is a need within the program for activities which can be
used indoors and outdoors, in large and small spaces, in
summer and in winter, in city streets and in wide open
spaces; activities which require little equipment and for
which equipment can be easily made; activities which can
be enjoyed by groups or teams; but more especially those
which can be enjoyed alone such as archery, golf, swimming,
riding, and skating; or which can be indulged in by t w o ’s
or four’s.
For various reasons programs in the past have
overemphasized the team games at the expense of the indi­
vidual and dual sports and games which will have the
greatest carry-over value for future enjoyment.
In a recent survey Miss Agnes Wayman, Head of the
Department of Physical Education, Barnard College, Columbia
University, distributed a questionnaire among the girls of
Barnard College.
Answers to the questions on the physical^
activities provided in the high school program seemed to
indicate a failure on the part of the secondary schools
to develop skills in the individual and dual sports and
activities--tennis, tenikoit, golf, archery, riding, hik­
ing, camping, et cetera--which will be most useful after
school.
In their answers to the questions on hobbies fortytwo girls indicated -they had no hobbies and fifty-eight
^
25
different hobbies were cited by others.
These were divided
into four groups: sports and games, academic, artistic, and
miscellaneous hobbies.
Sports and games were mentioned
most frequently with 104; the second and third groups al­
most tied with 70 and 72 ;* and the fourth group was men14
tioned 37 times.
Swimming was the activity in which the girls of
Barnard College had more skill, and tennis, basketball,
riding, hockey, volleyball, baseball, dancing, tenikoit,
et cetera, followed in this order.
It is interesting to
note that the freshmen from their high school experience
preferred swimming, tennis, basketball, archery, clogging,
golf, diving, dancing, hockey, riding, volleyball, folkdancing, et cetera, in this order.
Now note the similarity
between these and the preference of a college graduating
class after four years of exposure to a program that cov­
ered a broad field.
Their preference follows in order:
swimming, tennis, riding, dancing, tenikoit, volleyball,
basketball, and golf.*^
In planning the physical education program the c o m - /
munity facilities must be kept in mind so that the activi­
ties learned in school may be carried out in the future.
Agnes R. Wayman, ,fPhysical Education for the
Future,” Journal of Health and Physical Education, January,
1935, PP. 6-7.
15
^ Loc. cit.
In pants of the country -where the winter is cold, winter
sports may he included within the program.
In communities
where swimming is a leading recreational activity, it
should he stressed on the program.
In Wayman’s survey, a
graduating college class answered a question in regard to
what facilities their communities offered, in the following
order: swimming, tennis, hiking, riding, golf, tenikoit,
l6
badminton, archery, volleyball, and dancing.
Although
these activities are provided for within the communities,
they are not stressed in the physical education program.
Physical values in the carry-over program--games
that can he played in adult life.
There is a definite
place within the physical education program for such highly
active sports as baseball, basketball, football, track,
boxing, wrestling, hockey, et cetera, for they serve their
immediate purposes.
In considering their carry-over value,
however, from an active standpoint little can be said for
these activities; but from a passive standpoint a founda­
tion in them helps to a better enjoyment of the performances
of others.
Paul D. Guernsey, ^
Instructor of Physical Education
16 Ibid.> p. 7.
^ P. D. Guernsey, ffA Program of College Physical
Education,’1 Health and Physical Education, January, 1933 >
pp. 11-13*
27
at Antioch College, has made a survey of carry-over activi­
ties among the students at his college.
These students had
taken courses in various activities and upon graduation had
taken positions in many parts of the country.
After they
had worked for-a while, questionnaires were sent out in
regard to their recreational habitsTJ
It is obvious from
Table I that recreational activity for both men and women
while on the job is a seasonal thing.
The men, of course,
have a greater range of activity than have the women.
Activities of the contact type are not favored for several
reasons: first, they prevent mixed sex participation;
second, the people were too tired from a hard working day;
third, there is always the possibility of injury; and
fourth, lack of condition.
Those activities that had the
greatest participation were the ones that required the
least equipment and preparation.
Activities of an indi­
vidual and dual nature were the most popular.
Such activities as golf, tennis, archery, hiking,
swimming, volleyball, squash, and other games of similar
noncontact type may be enjoyed and participated in until
the later years of life.
Through these less strenuous
activities, individuals may keep physically fit and enjoy
themselves at the same time.
In this way two purposes are
served, each with a major objective: first, the physical;
and second, the social.
28
TABLE I
RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES FOR MEN AND WOMEN3,
Type of activity
Swimming
Number of graduates
using 'this activity
on the job
Women
Men
10
39
Number of students
using 'this activity
on the campus ■
Men
Women
53
27
Tennis
29
4
59
23
Hiking
22
17
40
34
Basketball
18
0
37
32
Handball
9
0
43
11
Softball
6
0
60
26
Riding
3
2
1
4
Golf
7
1
26
16
Volleyball
5
0
59
26
Ice Skating
6
0
Wrestling
2
0
17
Gymnastics
5
0
. 18
Boxing
1
0
24
Squash
1
0
-
-
Ice Hockey
2
0
-
-
Folk Dancing
-
-
-
Archery
-
-
5
Touch Football
-
-
49
aa
-
-
9
-
10
7
-
a P. D. Guernsey, f,A Program of College Physical
Education,tl Health and Physical Education, January, 1933*
p. 60 .
aa - Not appearing on questionnaire.
29
In the past It has heen the policy of the physical
educators to develop and organize a program fitting only
the immediate physical requirements of the students.
Edu­
cation in the activities of a carry-over nature was dele­
gated to outside organizations such as the Y.M.C.A.,
Y.W.C.A., Boys Clubs, Scouts, Recreation Departments, and
other similar institutions.
These institutions have faith­
fully carried on their work with little help from the
school departments.
In many cases there were open con­
flicts and boys were not allowed to participate in these
activities because the coaches felt they would not extend
their best- efforts in competitive play with other schools.
The above-mentioned organizations are leaders in the rec­
reational field and the investigator from his experience
feels that the school administrators may well look over the
program of clubs and find many desirable elements that are
entirely left out of the school program.
Active instead of passive participation.
It is
generally agreed among experts that one of the weaknesses
of the current physical education program is the failure-'
to produce a greater number of active participants.
This
is especially true of the extracurricular or after school
program.
It would seem that extracurricular activity should
30
be a program for the development of the entire student body
so that each student may realize the thrill' of competitive
athletics.
numbers.
Instead the teams are limited to definite squad
The most.common practice of limitation may be
found in interschool athletics.
Here when a hundred men
turn out for football, the squad is quickly cut to perhaps
a third of the number.
Those cut are vitally interested in
football, but are denied the right to play simply because
they are not as agile as their fellowmen, or the coach
thinks that their football ability is limited.
As a result
their outlet is through passive participation: they are the
rabid rooters who were denied the right to actively partici­
pate.
letics.
The same may be said for all interscholastic ath­
Fundamentally they are sound'; the fault lies within
the administration.
Activities of a coeducational nature.
More and more
there is a need for mixed recreational opportunities in
noncontact games: activities which can be enjoyed by both
boys and girls together.
In the future there will be an
increasing interest in community recreation with both sexes
participating.
There are many opportunities offered for
this phase of the physical education program in such activi­
ties as tennis, tenikoit, archery, golf, badminton, swim­
ming, shooting, riding, hiking, camping, winter sports of
31
all kinds, tap and clog dancing, country dances, and social
dancing, and in the -wide variety of activities directly and
indirectly related to physical education.
In the coeducational field there is opportunity for
developing a program directly related to life and living.
This will mean in many situations a different type of
physical education, a different approach or a different
emphasis; it will mean a greater concentration upon the
activities generally neglected in the past.
As the trend
is away from interschool competition, an increase in
activities never before a part of the program in which both
sexes may participate will be noted.
Many groups already
belong to the Inter-Collegiate Outing Association and meet
occasionally for week-end conferences and participation in
outing activities together.
The activities of the various
mountain clubs are well-known.
Public schools and colleges
may take the lead in this field, and later these activities
will be carried on by various adult organizations.
Summary.
Physical education can make its contribu­
tion to the common culture'by developing,- expanding, and
distributing the idea that play is a worthy part of the
good life; that fine recreation is not only compatible with
but essential to fine living;, and that devotion to work and
neglect of play are as injurious to a fine life as
32
overproduction of goods is injurious to economic life.
Physical education in its cultural contribution to
society is to be judged by the interests and skills it pro­
duces for leisure-time.
The physical illiterates of the
present age are dependent largely upon passing amusements
for their leisure hours.
M a n ’s great amount of leisure-time finds him -unpre­
pared in facilities and skills to give himself to the joys
of creative and expressive activities.
Physical education will enrich the cultural life as
it awakens interest and promotes skills that serve people
in their leisure hours;
The formal programs of the class­
rooms of yesterday, still found in many schools of today,
are responsible for those people who in adult life have to
depend upon the radio and similar equipment for exercise.
Little progress may be expected in preparation for
the worthy use of leisure-time until it is more generally
realized that play may be profitable— not profitable in
monetary form, but profitable in that it makes leisure
hours golden ones instead of drab dragging moments with
little or no accomplishment.
A physical education that
awakens interest and promotes skills for leisure hours is
a significant cultural agency.
In the educational world there is a growing interest
in the problem of leisure.
Many educational systems have
33
accepted the new leisure challenge and are rapidly formu­
lating programs to educate for the wise use of leisure-time.
It is during this period that the school may grasp its op­
portunity to formulate good recreational hahits so that
when the child is ready to go forth into the industrial
world he will have something to counteract the effects of
specialized work.
CHAPTER III
PHYSICAL RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES OF THIRTY-TWO CLUBS,
LODGES, AND VARIOUS ORGANIZATIONS IN KINGS COUNTY
The role of clubs and lodges in American life has
been rich and constant.
They are a refuge from loneliness,
and like the church they touch all phases of iife.1
These
groups, usually organized for the protection of individuals
and for mutual aid, are also in the nature of social clubs
with hundreds of varied activities of a recreational nature.
In the large cities some have well-equipped halls with gym­
nasium, showers, social rooms, billiard and game tables, et
cetera.
However, in rural agricultural districts such
facilities are indeed rare.
Few organizations claim their
2
own buildings, but meet in rented halls.
The various types of clubs in America reach an im­
portant group of the population.
In viewing the work of
m e n ls clubs in America as a whole, one must recognize that
these groups have been an important instrument in adjusting
the lives of millions of members to a rapidly changing world
The club gives mental, aesthetic, and skill stimuli to
C. W. Ferguson, Fifty Million Brothers (New York:
Farrar and Rinehart, Incorporated, 1931), p. 1.
p
Council of Social Agencies, The Leisure of a People
(Report of a Recreation Survey of Indianapolis.
Indlanapoli
C. E. Crippen, 1929), p. 450.
35
millions of men.
Men of service and business clubs speak
■with deep conviction of the influence exerted upon them by
contacts with other men.
The information and ideals of
conduct gathered in conferences, talks, and through printed
word are helpful in social adjustment.^
Survey of clubs, lodges, and various organizations
in Kings County.
The investigator contacted thirty-two
clubs of various types in Kings County in regard to their
physical recreational programs.
These clubs were located
in the towns of Hanford, Avenal, Lemoore, Corcoran, Kettleman City, and Armona.
The clubs and the towns in which
they were found are as follows:
Lemoore
Lemoore Golf Club
Odd Fellows
Lemoore Gun Club
Kiwanas
Masons
Chamber of Commerce
Hanford
Y.M.C.A. Men1s Club
Chamber of Commerce
^ F. E. Hill, Man Made Culture (New York: American
Association for. Adult Education,-T 93B ) , pp. 144-51.
International Rotary Club
Avenal
Chamber of Commerce
Masonic
Standard Oil Employees Club
Fire Department Club
Kettleman North Dome Oil Association
American Legion
Avenal Coalinga Sportsmen Club
Lions
Amoranth
Demoley
Avenal Rifle Club
International Rotary
Palvadero Golf Club
Redmen
Pocahantas
Armona
Firemen’s Club
Chamber of Commerce
Kettleman City
Rifle Club.
The leader of each organization mentioned above,
when possible--and if not, a prominent member--was asked
to fill out the check list to determine the popularity of
37
physical recreational activities within his club.
When the
results were compiled, it was found that twenty-two clubs
or 68.75 per cent offered physical recreational activities.
The physical recreational activities of the thirty-two
clubs in Kings County are shown in Table II.
It must, how­
ever, not be assumed that each organization offered the
entire twenty-five activities checked.
Six organizations -
offered one activity; six organizations offered two activi­
ties; three organizations offered three activities; two
organizations, four activities; one organization, five
activities; one organization, eight activities; one organi­
zation, nine activities; and one organization, fourteen
activities.
Ten organizations offered no physical recrea­
tional activities.
It must be understood that in many instances these
activities were not formally arranged by the club, but that
in some cases small groups within the organization arranged
for some activity and participated without general club
sponsorship.
Since these activity groups originated during
club meetings and were carried out by club members, they
were regarded for this purpose as a club activity.
Table III, page 40, shows that bowling was the most
popular activity, checked by nine or 28.12 per cent of the
clubs contacted.
Softball was next most popular, with
eight clubs offering this activity.
The others in order of
38
TABLE II
PARTICIPATION IN PHYSICAL RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES
BY THIRTY-TWO CLUBS IN KINGS COUNTY
Activities offered
on check list
Apparatus
Archery
Badminton
Baseball
Basketball
Bicycling
Billiards
Boating
Bowling
Boxing
Cageball
Camping
Canoeing
Clog-dancing
Croquet
Darts
Decathlon
Diving
Fencing
Fieldball
Field-hockey
Football
Golf
Gymnastics
Handball
Hiking
Horse-riding
Horse-shoes
Life-saving
Ping-pong
Quoits
Rifle-shooting
Roller-skating
Rowing
Shuffle-board
Soccer
Softball
Social-dancing
Skeet-shooting
Speed-ball
Squash
Participation
NonParticipation
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
39
TABLE II (continued)
PARTICIPATION IN PHYSICAL- RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES
BY THIRTY-TWO CLUBS IN KINGS COUNTY
Activities offered
on check list
Swimming
Tap-dance
Tennis
Touch-football
Trap-shooting
Volley-ball
Water-polo
Wrestling
Participation
NonParticipation
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
40
TABLE III
PHYSICAL RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES OF THIRTY-TWO
CLUBS IN KINGS COUNTY
♦
Activity
Bowling
Softball
Camping
Badminton
Golf
Rifle-shooting
Social-dancing
Basketball
Swimming
Hiking
Tennis
Volley-ball
Trap-shooting
Skeet-shooting
Bicycling
Billiards
Boxing
Life-saving
Horseshoes
Baseball
Football
Touch-football
Boating
Quoits
Number of
times
mentioned
9
8
7
5
5
5
6
4
4
3
3
3
3
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
Percentage
28.12
25-00
21.88
15-62
15.62
15.62
18.75
12.05
12.05
9-57
9-57
9-57
9-37
6.25
6.25
6.25
6.25
6.25
5.12
3.12
3.12
3.12
3.12
3*12
NOTE: The table is to be read thus: Bowling is
offered by 9 or 28.12 per cent of the clubs in Kings County.
41
popularity vere: camping (7)* social dancing (6), ’basket­
ball and swimming (4), hiking, tennis, volleyball, and trapshooting (5)> skeet-shooting, bicycling, billiards, boxing,
and lifesaving (2), horseshoes, baseball, football, touchfootball, boating, and quoits (l).
Table IV shows that participation was generally of
the active type, ranging from the extensive to the slight
in degree.
There was a fair showing of passive participa­
tion in seven activities of the contact type; namely, soft­
ball, basketball, boxing, football, touch-football, and
volleyball.
Rifle-shooting was also checked as passive--
possibly due to the fact that so few own firearms.
Summary.
Generally speaking, clubs, lodges, and
civic organizations are playing an important role in ad­
justing individuals to a rapidly changing world.
It is
true that the better work is being accomplished in the
metropolitan areas where membership is greater and experts
in the various fields more common.
However, in rural areas
the same advantages are offered to a lesser degree.
Worthy
use of leisure-time has been for the past several years a
topic of discussion among clubs.
In Kings County, 68.75 P©*1 cent of the clubs con­
tacted had physical recreational activities.
These organi­
zations, except in a few instances, had very limited
42
TABLE IV
DEGREE OP PARTICIPATION OP PHYSICAL RECREATIONAL
ACTIVITIES OF THIRTY-TWO CLUBS IN KINGS COUNTY
Activity
Active participation
Passive participation
(a few participate,
others watch)________
0
0
>
I—I
cd
+3
O
EH
Bowling
Softball
Camping
Badminton
Golf
Rifle-shooting
Social dancing
Basketball
Swimming
Hiking
Tennis
Volley-ball
T rap-sho ot ing
Skeet-shooting
Bicycling
Billiards
Boxing
Life-saving
Horseshoes
Baseball
Football
Touch-football
Quoits
Boating
•H
CQ
a
0
+3
K
m
3
1
9
6
7
5
5
4
6
2
4
3
3
2
3
2
2
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
3
1
6
1
2
>
-p
•H
ttO
0
i— I
ccl
-P
CO
4
2
3
1
2
3
5
l
2
3
o
d
0
•P
•H
xi
0
&
to
•H
(— I
CO
Eri
2
2
1
1
1
1
3
2
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
-p
BO
1
1
1
1
NOTE: The table is to be read thus: Bowling, nine clubs
participate actively; three, to an extensive degree; four to
a medium degree; and two to a slight degree. There is no
passive participation in bowling.
programs with little central organization.
The activities
offered were of the finer physical recreational nature
including many activities of individual* dual, and coeduca­
tional nature of the carry-over type.
In most cases
participation was of the active type, varying in degree
from extensive to slight.
ties of the contact type.
There were a few passive activi­
CHAPTER IV
PHYSICAL RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES OF EIGHTEEN
CHURCHES IN KINGS COUNTY
The responsibility for providing adequate recrea­
tional and leisure-time activities is a moral duty that
cannot lightly be evaded, and the church may take an in1
telligent interest therein.
Its ministry may be physical,
mental, and social— not confined merely to the spiritual—
if it is to contribute to every phase of life.
There is no
disposition on the part of society to lure the church aside
.from the path of its great duty, that of training individu­
als in the principles of religion and the practice of
Christian living.
istence.
This is its function and reason for ex­
However, in the present movement toward education
for leisure, the church is taking a new attitude and is com­
ing to realize its opportunity to develop the wholesome life
through this medium as well as through its other forms of
ministry.
Charles R. Bacon, in a study of church recreation in
the San Fernando Valley,2 has found that a carefully planned
-** H. ¥. Gates, Recreation and the Church (Chicago:
Chicago Press), p. 20.
^ C. M. Bacon, lfChristian Education through Recrea­
tion in Certain Semi-Rural Churches,11 (unpublished Master* s
thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1958)>
p. 78.
45
and supervised recreation and leisure-time program seems to
increase the influence of the church upon the community.
Many young people are attracted to a church with a recrea­
tional program and thereby come under the moral and reli­
gious influence of the church.
Parents are naturally inter­
ested in the activities of their children and so they also
come under the influence of the church.
3
Very often recreational programs of a physical
nature are undertaken with one of the major purposes being
to attract the young people.
These people are then converted
into regular church membership and held by a continuation of
such programs.
h
It is quite true that there are still many influ­
ential members of the church who feel that play has no
proper place in that institution, nor in life itself.
Even
among those who fully comprehend the educational potentiali­
ties of recreation there is often a ffhands off” attitude so
far as a church recreational program is concerned.
The recreation and leisure-time obligation of the
church.
Many religious leaders have noted the poor effect
of commercial recreational activities upon young people.
3 Ibid., p. 79W. T. Powell, Recreation In the Church and Community (New York: Abingdon Press, 193&)V P* 24.
46
The church cannot allow the exploitation of recreation for
profit and sit idly by offering no constructive program for
its own constituency.
In the case of commercial recreation­
al activities, profit--not standards of behavior or education--determines the nature of the activities and the en­
vironment in which they are held.
Since leisure is both a
precious and a dangerous gift, the church may use its
influence in keeping the leisure activities of its members
on a high moral level.^
Physical recreational activities of various churches
in Kings County.
The investigator contacted eighteen
churches in Kings County.
They were located In the com­
munities of Hanford, Avenal, Corcoran, Lemoore, Armona, and
Kettleman City.
The churches reached were of various de­
nominations of the Christian Church, namely: Gospel Taber­
nacle, Episcopal, Latter Day Saints, Community Church,
Methodist, Catholic, St. Thomas Episcopal, Presbyterian,
Federated Church, Baptist, Full Gospel, and Christian
Science.
The leader of each church when possible, and if
not a prominent member, was asked to fill out the check
list to determine the popularity of physical recreational
activities within his church.
After tabulating the data
received through the check list, it was found that eight or
5 Ibid., p. 25.
47
41.66 per cent of the churches offered physical recrea­
tional activities.
This is shown in Table V.
However, it
must he stated that the activity was limited in general.
Out of forty-nine activities offered on the check
list, with the opportunity to fill in any activity not
listed, there were a total of twenty activities offered by
eighteen churches in Kings County.
It is not to be assumed
that each church engaged in all twenty activities nor that
all activities checked were organized under the direction
of the church.
In many instances small groups within the
church arranged for some activity and went ahead without
any church sponsorship.
However, since these activities
were planned at church gatherings and consisted of church
members, it must be assumed for the purposes of this study
that they were church activities.
Table VI, page 50* shows the frequency of mention
in order of importance of recreational activities of a
physical nature of the eighteen churches.
From this table
it may be gathered that there was very limited physical
activity of a recreational nature.
Hiking and camping, the
two most popular activities, were used by five or 22'.77 P er
cent of the churches.
Basketball and swimming, the next
most popular, were used by three or 16.66 per cent of the
churches.
Badminton, ping-pong, softball, and social danc­
ing, the third most popular group, were used by two or
48
TABLE V
PARTICIPATION IN PHYSICAL RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES
OF EIGHTEEN CHURCHES OF KINGS COUNTY
Activities offered
on check list
Apparatus
Archery
Badminton
Baseball
Basketball
Bicycling
Billiards
Boating
Bowling
Boxing
Cage-ball
Camping
Canoeing
Clog-dancing
Croquet
Darts
Decathlon
Diving
Fencing
Field-ball
Field-hockey
Football
Golf
Gymnastics
Handball
Hiking
Horse-riding
Horseshoes
Lifesaving
Ping-pong
Quoits
Rifle-shooting
Roller-skating
Rowing
Shuffleboard
Soccer
Softball
So c ial-danc ing
Skeet-shooting
Speedball
Participation
NonParticipation
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
x .
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
^9
TABLE V (continued)
* PARTICIPATION IN PHYSICAL RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES
OF EIGHTEEN CHURCHES OF KINGS COUNTY
Activities offered
on check list
Squash
Swimming
Tap-dancing
Tennis
Touch-football
Trapshooting
Volleyball
Water polo
Wrestling
Participation
NonParticipation
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
50
TABLE VI
PHYSICAL RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES OF
EIGHTEEN CHURCHES IN KINGS COUNTY
Activity
Hiking
Camping
Basketball
Swimming
Badminton
Ping-pong
Softball
Social-dancing
Bicycling
Bowling
Golf
Tennis
Tap dance
Clog dance
Diving
Lifesaving
Gymnastics
Apparatus
Trapshooting
Volleyball
Number of
times
Mentioned
5
5
5
3
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Percentage
27-77
27-77
16.66
16.66
11.11
11.11
11.11
11.11
5-55
5-55
5-55
5-55
5-55
5-55
5-55
5-55
5-55
5-55
5-55
5-55
NOTE: The table is to be read thus : Hiking was offered by 5 or 27 •77 per cent of churches respending in
Kings County.
51
11.11 pep cent of the churches.
The other activities
checked--bicycling, bowling, golf, tennis, tap dance, clog
dance, diving, lifesaving, gymnastics, apparatus, trapshooting, and volleyball--were mentioned once each or 5*55 P©**
cent.
Of the eight churches engaging in physical recrea­
tional activities, one church had a well-organized and
planned program consisting of nineteen activities, all of
the active participation type.
Another church had six
activities; a third church had four activities; a fourth,
three activities; and the other four churches had one
activity each.
Table VII shows that in every case but one
the activities were of active participation and fifteen of
them were participated in to an extensive degree.
In gen­
eral, the popular church activities were primarily those of
individual, dual, coeducational types that may be used by
both sexes of all ages.
Summary.
Experts agree that provision for leisure­
time physical recreational activity may be one of the obliga­
tions of the church in providing for the full life of its
members.
A well-organized recreational program may be used:
as a recruiting agent in swelling church membership; to
hold and stimulate active members; to increase the influ­
ence of the church upon the community; and to offset the
52
TABLE VII
DEGREE OF PARTICIPATION.OP PHYSICAL RECREATIONAL
ACTIVITIES OF EIGHTEEN CHURCHES IN KINGS COUNTY
Activity
Active .participation
©
>
•H
to
a
<D
•P
rH
cd
-P
o
Hiking
Camping
Basketball
Swimming
Badminton
Ping-pong
Softball
Social-dancing
Bicycling
Bowling
Golf
Tennis
Tap dance
Clog dance
Diving
Lifesaving
Gymnastics
Apparatus
Trapshooting
Volleyball
£4
W
5
4
3
3
1
1
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Passive participation
(a few participate,
others watch)
_
©
>
•H
-P
p
•H
&
©
S
bO
•H
i— 1
CQ
2
2
-P
m
rH
cd
-p
o
Ert
a
©
-p
p
•H
X
©
pq
&
bO
•rH
rH
CO
3
3
1
2
1
1
1
1
2
2
,
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
NOTE: The table is to be read thus: Hiking, five
churches participated actively, one to an extensive degree;
two to a medium degree; one to a slight degree. There was
no passive participation.
53
poor effect of some types of commercial recreational activi­
ties .
Prom the data collected it would seem that the
churches of Kings County do not have an adequate physical
recreational program.
The survey clearly showed that only
41.66 per cent of the contacted churches in Kings County
have a physical recreational program; that only one church
has an adequate program.
grams organized.
In only two cases were the pro­
In the other six cases the activities
were of a spontaneous nature and covered only small select
groups.
The variety of activities offered was too limited
to attract and hold a greater number of participants.
How­
ever, the degree of active participation was favorable.
Participation was heaviest in activities of a coeducational
and carry-over nature; which would seem to indicate that, if
more churches would offer such activities, there would be a
greater interest and a heavier participation by church
members.
If facilities are not to be found in the community,
the church may act as an agent in arousing public interest
so that they may be provided.
6
6
Bacon, op. cit., pp. 77-84.
CHAPTER V
PHYSICAL RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES OF SEVEN COMMUNITY
RECREATION AGENCIES IN KINGS COUNTY
One must recognize the importance of public recrea­
tional programs and opportunities.
Assuming that recreation
today has an important place in the lives of people, it
would seem most desirable to bring this to the attention of
each community and most advantageous for each community to
know whether their recreation program meets the public
needs.
It was hot the purpose of this study to evaluate
the community recreation in Kings County, but to make a sur­
vey of the physical recreational activities offered by
various community recreation agencies in the county so
that the high schools within the county might properly
plan their physical education program--based upon community
facilities.
In making this study the investigator surveyed com­
munity recreation programs in Hanford, Lemoore, Avenal,
Corcoran, Armona, and Kettleman City.
It was found that
only In Hanford was there an all year program.
Other com­
munities --Lemoore, Avenal, and Corcoran--had evening high
school classes in recreation and physical education.
Corcoran operated a directed summer community recreation
55
program*
Avenal had a limited program sponsored hy the
National Youth Administration.
Armona and Kettleman City
had no organized program.
Survey of seven agencies in Kings County.
Seven
organizations that could be classed as community recrea­
tional agencies ■were contacted.
their programs were ascertained.
By means of the check list
The activities offered
by these agencies are shown in Table VIII.
However, it
must not be assumed that each organization offered every
activity checked as participated In.
One offered thirteen
activities; one, twelve activities; two, ten activities;
one, six activities; one, four activities; and one, three
activities.
It was found that basketball and swimming were the
most popular activities, used by five agencies or 71.45
per cent as shown in Table IX, page 58 .
Badminton, ping-
pong, softball, rated next most popular,'mentioned four
tim.es or 57*14 P e^ cent.
Touch football, tennis, diving,
and horseshoes followed, mentioned three times or 42.85 per
cent.
Hiking, camping, boxing., wrestling, and baseball
were next In popularity, mentioned twice or 28.57 per cent.
Bicycling, lifesaving, croquet, rowing, gymnastics, appa­
ratus, roller-skating, handball, soccer, and darts were
last in popularity, mentioned once each or 14.28 per cent.
56
TABLE VIII
PARTICIPATION IN PHYSICAL RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES BY SEVEN
COMMUNITY RECREATION AGENCIES IN KINGS COUNTY
Activities offered
on check list
Apparatus
Archery
Badminton
Baseball
Basketball
Bicycling
Billiards
Boating
Bowling
Boxing
Cage-ball
Camping
Canoeing
Clog dancing
Croquet
Darts
Decathlon
Diving
Fencing
Field-ball
Field-hockey
Football
Golf
Gymnastics
Handball
Hiking
Horse-riding
Horseshoes
Lifesaving
Ping-pong
Quoits
Rifle-shooting
Roller-skating
Rowing
Shuffleboard
Soccer
Softball
Social-dancing
Skeet-shooting
Speedball
Squash
Participation
NonParticipation
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
57
TABLE VIII (continued)
PARTICIPATION IN PHYSICAL RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES BY SEVEN
COMMUNITY RECREATION AGENCIES IN KINGS COUNTY
Activities offered
on check list
Swimming
Tap dance
Tennis
Touch-football
Trapshooting
Volleyball
Water polo
Wrestling
Participation
NonParticipation
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
58
TABLE IX
PHYSICAL RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES OF SEVEN COMMUNITY
RECREATION AGENCIES IN KINGS COUNTY
Activity
Basketball
Swimming
Badminton
Ping-pong
Softball
Volleyball
Touch-football
Tennis
Diving
Horseshoes
Hiking
Camping
Boxing
Wrestling
Baseball
Bicycling
Lifesaving
Croquet
Rowing
Gymnastics
Apparatus
Roller-skating
Handball
Soccer
Darts
Number of
times
mentioned
Percentage
5
5
4
4
4
4
3
3
3
3
2
2
2
2
2
71.43
71.4?
57-14
57-14
57-14
57-14
42.85
42.85
42.85
42.85
28.57
28.57
28.57
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
28.57
28.57
14.28
14.28
14.28
14.28
14.28
14.28
14.28
14.28
14.28
14.28
NOTE: The table is to be read thus: Basketball was
offered by 5 or 71*43 per cent of recreation agencies re­
sponding in Kings County.
59
Nearly all participation was active in nature, varying
evenly from extensive to slight as shown in Table X.
The
activities most popular in the community recreation program
were of the contact type, possibly denoting that a younger
group participated.
Summary.
Community recreation programs may play an
important role in offering proper physical activities for
worthy use of leisure-time.
The survey of Kings County has
shown that community recreational agencies are very limited
in number.
program.
Several communities within the county had no
Other communities had inadequate programs.
Only
one community had an all year program.
Twenty-five activities were offered by seven
agencies of community recreation and were primarily of the .
active contact type.
The degree of participation varied,
ranging from extensive to slight.
60
TABLE X
DEGREE OF PARTICIPATION OF PHYSICAL RECREATIONAL
ACTIVITIES OF SEVEN COMMUNITY RECREATIONAL
AGENCIES IN KINGS COUNTY
Activity
Active participation
Passive participation
(a few participate,
others watch)______ _
0
<i>
-p
o
Eh
Basketball
Swimming
Badminton
Ping-pong
Softball
Volleyball
Touch-football
Tennis
Diving
Hiking
Camping
Boxing
Wrestling
Baseball
Bicycling
Lifesaving
Croquet
Rowing
Gymnastics
Apparatus
Roller-skating
Handball
Soccer
Darts
Horseshoes
4
5
4
4
3
3
3
3
2
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
>
m
£
<D
P
X
m
2
2
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
>
4-3
*H
60
•H
<D
2
3
3
2
1
2
2
2
rH
CO
i
—I
td
-p
o
Eh
-P
X
w
+3,
•H
TJ
0
1
60
•H
rH
CO
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
l
1
l
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
l
1
l
l
1
3
OQ
3
0
1
3
NOTE: The table is to be read thus: Basketball, four
agencies participated actively— two to an extensive degree,
two to a medium degree.
One agency participated passively
to a slight degree.
CHAPTER VI
COMMERCIAL PHYSICAL RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES OF
THREE COMMUNITIES IN KINGS COUNTY
Commercial recreation may be defined as any form of
recreation which is carried on primarily for financial gain
and in which the public participates or to which it is ad­
mitted on payment of a fee.'*'
The investigator has not taken the attitude that
there is anything inherently objectionable in the so-called
commercialization” of recreation.
Under present conditions
commercial recreation may have a place in taking care of the
new leisure.
There are certain types of recreation which, if they
were not furnished by commercial recreational agencies,
would not be furnished at all.
Commercial recreation may
appeal to small groups which demand a particular type of
activity not sufficiently widespread to justify public
operation, or on the other hand activities the community
recreation agencies have not yet adopted as their own.
Bowling may be taken as a popular example.
It is rapidly
becoming one of the most popular physical recreational
Council of Social Agencies, The Leisure of a People
(Report of Recreation Survey of Indianapolis, Indianapolis:
C. E. Crippen, 1929)*
62
activities, enjoyed by millions, young and old alike, and
of both sexes.
Yet, bowling is not commonly found in the
community programs.
In many instances taxpayers are not
yet ready to support activities of this nature.
Commercial physical recreation as found in three
communities of Kings County.
This survey covered possible
commercial physical recreational activities in Hanford,
Lemoore, Armona, Avenal, Corcoran, and Kettleman City.
It
revealed, as shown in Table XI, that three of the communi­
ties in Kings County offered seven such activities: one
community offered all seven activities; a second community,
two activities; and the third community, one activity.
Billiards and pool were offered in all three com­
munities; bowling was offered in two communities; golf,
rifle-shooting, roller-skating, social-dancing, and horseriding were offered by one community each.
These statis­
tics are given in Table XII, page 65 . *
It must be realized that there are other commercial
activities of a nonphysical nature offered by these towns
and from the results of the survey it would seem that the
opportunity for commercial recreation of a physical nature
is limited.
The total population of Kings County is
35 >168; of these 17,137 are located in the six major com­
munities.
Hanford has a population of 8,234; Avenal,
4,500; Lemoore, 1,711; Kettleman City, 350; and Armona,
63
TABLE XI
PARTICIPATION IN PHYSICAL RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES THROUGH
COMMERCIAL AGENCIES BY THREE COMMUNITIES IN KINGS COUNTY
Activities offered
on check list
Apparatus
Archery
Badminton
Baseball
Basketball
Bicycling
Billiards
Boating
Bowling
Boxing
Cage-ball
Camping
Canoeing
Clog dancing
Croquet
Dart s
Decathlon
Diving
Fencing
Field-ball
Field-hockey
Football
Golf
Gymnastics
Handball
Hiking
Horse-riding
Horseshoes
Lifesaving
Ping-pong
Quoits
Rifle-shooting
Roller-skating
Rowing
Shuffleboard
Soccer
Softball
Social dancing
Skeet-shooting
Speedball
Participation
NonParticipation
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x.
x
x
■
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
64
TABLE XI (continued)
PARTICIPATION IN PHYSICAL RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES THROUGH
COMMERCIAL AGENCIES BY THREE COMMUNITIES IN KINGS COUNTY
Activities offered
on check list
Squash
Swimming
Tap dance
Tennis
Touch-football
Trapshooting
Volleyball
Water polo
Wrestling
Participation
NonParticipation
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
65
TABLE XII
PHYSICAL RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES THROUGH COMMERCIAL
AGENCIES OF THREE COMMUNITIES IN KINGS COUNTY
Activity
Billiards
Bowling
Golf
Rifle-shooting
Roller-skating
Social dancing
Horse-riding
Number of
times
mentioned
Percentage
3
2
1
1
1
1
1
100,00
66,66
33*33
33-33
33-33
33-33
33-33
NOTE: The table is to be read thus: Billiards is
offered by 5 or 100 per cent of the communities through
commercial recreational agencies.
66
250.
2
Since any form of commercial recreation is primarily
a profit-seeking business, Kings County obviously cannot
support, or does not have private capital to invest in,
this type of business enterprise.
It will be noted in Table XIII that the seven activi­
ties offered were of a high level in desirable physical
activity; that all of the commercial recreational activity
in Kings County was of an active nature, ranging from ex­
tensive to slight in degree of activity.
Summary.
Commercial recreation has a legitimate
place in providing activity for worthy use of leisure-time.
Certain types of specialized activity would not be availa­
ble to the community other than through commercial agencies.
However, community recreation is gradually taking over many
activities that were entirely commercial in the past.
The physical commercial recreational activities in
Kings County were limited due to the population element.
A total population of 35>l68, which includes an urban popu­
lation of 17>137> cannot support an extensive commercial
activity program conducted on a profit basis.
The physical recreational activities of the com­
mercial agencies in Kings County were of an active nature.
2
Rand and McNally, Commercial Atlas and Marketing
Guide (Chicago: Rand, McNally & Co., 19^1)> P* 5^87
67
TABLE XIII
DEGREE OF PARTICIPATION OF PHYSICAL RECREATIONAL
ACTIVITIES THROUGH COMMERCIAL AGENCIES
OF THREE COMMUNITIES IN KINGS COUNTY
Activity
Active Participation
1
—1
cd
-p
o
Eh
Billiards
Bowling
Golf
Rifle-shooting
Roller-skating
Social-dancing
Horse-riding
3
2
1
i
1
1
1
<D
>
•H
m
a
0
-p
K
W
•H
Ti
0
S
-p
,3
50
•H
rH
CO
2
1
p
Passive Participation
(a few participate,
others watch)________
i—1
cd
-p
o
Eh
0
>
•H
m
£
0
-p
X
p
•H
*0
0
S
•P
£
50
•H
i
—1
CO
2
1
1
1
1
1
NOTE: The table is to be read thus: Billiards, three
communities had active participation through commercial
agencies, two to a medium degree, one to a slight degree.
CHAPTER VII
THE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY PROGRAMS IN THE HIGH SCHOOLS
OF KINGS COUNTY
In formulating the high school physical education
program consideration of community recreational activities
and opportunities should he made.
A program based entirely
upon a recognized evaluation scale does not necessarily
justify the offerings.
So far as carry-over values are
concerned a program rich in these activities could not be
justified unless community facilities were available to
carry on some of these activities in adult life.
General
education prepares one for the future; physical education
must also meet the demands of the future by preparing for
an attractive recreational aspect of life.
It would be
foolish to offer in high school only physical activities
that were not practical so far as their application to the
proper use of leisure-time after graduation was concerned.
The high school programs in Kings County.
The check
list was sent to each of the four high schools in Kings
County to determine what physical activities were offered
on their programs.
The high schools contacted were Hanford,
Lemoore, Avenal, and Corcoran.
The director of physical
education or a member of the staff checked each list.
A total of thirty-two activities were offered as
69
shown in Table XIV.
Table XV, page 72, shows that basket­
ball, horseshoes, baseball, softball, tennis, football, and
touch-football were the most popular, being offered by all
schools. • Three schools offered the following activities:
badminton, boxing, wrestling, swimming, gymnastics, golf,
volleyball, speedball, ping-pong, and soccer.
Two schools
checked the following activities: archery, diving, appara­
tus, shuffleboard, and decathlon.
The following activities
were offered by one school each: bicycling, billiards, hik­
ing, lifesaving, water polo, rifle-shooting, roller-skating,
handball, field-ball, darts, and social-dancing.
The activities involved in interschool competition
were the most popular.
This may indicate that the athletic
program receives more attention than does the general pro­
gram.
Nearly all activity was of the active type of partici­
pation, ranging about evenly from extreme to slight in de­
gree, as shown in Table XVI, page 73-
There was a fair
sampling of the passive type of participation often found
in high schools.
This may have been due to a shortage of
equipment and facilities, or because the general student
body, in some cases, was excluded from active participation
in interschool athletic contests.
Summary.
In formulating the high school physical
70
TABLE XIV
PARTICIPATION IN PHYSICAL RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES
BY HIGH SCHOOLS IN KINGS COUNTY
Activities offered
on check list
Apparatus
Archery
Badminton
Baseball
Basketball
Bicycling
Billiards
Boating
Bowling
Boxing
Cage-ball
Camping
Canoeing
Clog dancing
Croquet
Darts
Decathlon
Diving
Fencing
Field-ball
Field-hockey
Football
Golf
Gymnastics
Handball
Hiking
Horse-riding
Horseshoes
Lifesaving
Ping-pong
Quoits
Rifle-shooting
Roller-skating
Rowing
Shuffleboard
Soccer
Softball
Social-dancing
Skeet-shooting
Speedball
* Participation
NonParticipation
*
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
71
TABLE XIV (continued)
PARTICIPATION IN PHYSICAL RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES
BY HIGH SCHOOLS IN KINGS COUNTY
Activities offered
on check list Squash
Swimming
Tap dance
Tennis
Touch-football
Trapshooting
Volleyball
Water polo
Wrestling
Participation
NonParticipation
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
72
TABLE XV
PHYSICAL RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES IN THE
POUR HIGH SCHOOLS IN KINGS COUNTY
Activities
Tennis
Basketball
Horseshoes
Baseball
Softball
Football
Touch-football
Badminton
Boxing
Wrestling
Swimming
Gymnastics
Golf
Volleyball
Speedball
Ping-pong
Soccer
Archery
Diving
Apparatus
Shuffleboard
Decathlon
Bicycling
Billiards
Hiking
Lifesaving
Water polo
Rifle-shooting
Roller-skating
Handball
FieId-ball
Darts
Social-dancing
Number of
times
mentioned
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
’1
-
Percentage
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
75.00
75 •00
75.00
75*00
75.00
75-00
75-00
75-00
75.00
75-00
50.00
50.00
50.00
50.00
50.00
25.00
25.00
25.00
25.00
25.00
25.00 •
25.00
25.00
25.00
25.00
25.00
NOTE:. The table is to be read thus: Tennis was of­
fered by four or 100*. 00 per cent of the high schools in
Kings County.
73
TABLE XVI
DEGREE OF PARTICIPATION OF PHYSICAL RECREATIONAL
ACTIVITIES OF FOUR HIGH SCHOOLS IN KIUGS COUNTY
Activity
Active part ic ipat ion
0
>
*rH
s/U
a
0
i^
rr\
i
—i
cd
-p
o
Basketball
Tennis
Horseshoes
Baseball
Softball
Football
Touch-football
Badminton
Boxing
Wrestling
Swimming
Gymnastics
Golf
Volleyball
Speed-ball
Archery
Ping-pong
Diving
Apparatus
Shuffleboard
Soccer
Decathlon
Bicycling
Billiards
Hiking
Lifesaving
Water polo
Rifle-shooting
Roller-skating
Handball
Field-ball
Darts
Social-dancing
Eh
4
4
3
3
3
4
4
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
3
2
3
2
2
2
3
2
-p
X
w
4
3
1
1
1
3
2
3
•0
0
50
rH
•H
rH
cd
-p
CO
Eh
2
1
1
1
o
0
>
*H
vJ
d
0
-p
X
•p
§
•H
&
50
.
0
S
#H
i
—1
CO
1
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
Passive participation
(a few participate,
others watch)
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
NOTE: The table is to be read thus: Basketball, four
schools participated actively to an extensive degree.
74
education program consideration of community recreation
programs and opportunities should be made.
Students should
be prepared, so that upon graduation they will be able to
take advantage of opportunities offered.
There were thirty-two physical activities offered to
boys by the high schools in Kings County.
The most popular
of these activities were those of a body contact type availa­
ble for interschool athletic competition.
Most activities were of active participation, ranging
about equally from extensive to slight in degree.
There
was also a fair sampling of passive participation possibly
due to lack of equipment and facilities, or because active
participation was limited.
CHAPTER VIII
COMPARISON OP FINDINGS PROM THE CHECK LIST
The programs of the various clubs, churches, com­
munity recreation agencies, commercial recreation agencies,
and secondary schools contacted in Kings County have been
discussed in preceding chapters.
The returns from the
check list were compared in this chapter according to the
following subjects:
all groups;
(l) physical recreational activities of
(2 ) physical recreational activities of com­
bined high schools and combined recreational agencies in
Kings County;
(3 ) degree of participation of activities in
combined high schools and combined recreational agencies in
Kings County.
Physical recreational activities of clubs, churches,
community recreational agencies, commercial recreational
agencies, and high schools.
Softball was the most popular
activity, offered by eighteen organizations or 28.12 per
cent.
The other activities, as shown in Table XVII, were
rated in the following order: basketball, sixteen or 25 per
cent; camping and swimming, fifteen or 23*^3 per cent; bad­
minton, fourteen or 21.87 per cent; bowling, twelve or
18.75 per cent; hiking, golf, tennis, and volleyball,
eleven or 17.18 per cent; social-dancing, ten or 15*62 per
76
TABLE XVII
m
Softball
Basketball
Camping
Swimming .
Badminton
Bowling
Hiking
Golf
Tennis
Volleyball
Social-dancing
Ping-pong
Touch-football
Horseshoes
Boxing
Diving
Rifle-shooting
Baseball
Billiards
Wrestling
Lifesaving
Gymnastics
Football
Soccer
Trapshooting
Apparatus
Roller-skating
Speed-ball
Skeet-shooting
Darts
Decathlon
Archery
Handball
Shuffleboard
0
Xi
O
ro Clubs
Activity
xi
O
18
8
4
8
4
5
9
5
5
3
5
6
0
1
l
2
1
5
1
2
0
2
0
1
0
3
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
2
5
5
5
2
1
5
1
1
1
2
2
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
U
P
Organizations
— ~UI'~ ■
1
—1
d r-t d
O
hO , O
O
-p
*H-P O -P
O
d etf fn ctf
CQ
30
0 0
i
—!
gd
S U
&
cd
so
SO
bO
-p
o0
o 0
«h
o
O Jh O
m
Eh
7
3
4
64
4
5
2
5
4
0
2
1
3
4
0
4
5
3
2
3
0
2
0
2
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
4
0
3
3
0
1
3
4
3
1
3
4
4
3
2
1
4
1
3
1
3
4
3
0
2
1
3
0
1
2
2
1
2
18
16
15
15
14
12
11
11
11
11
10
9
8
8
7
:?
7
7
6
5
5
5
5
4
4
4
3
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
Percentage
based on 64
organizations
PHYSICAL RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES OP ALL GROUPS
28.12
25.00
23.^3
23-43
21.87
18.75
17.18
17.18
17.18
17.18
15.62
14.06
12.50
12.50
10.93
10.93
10.93
10.93
9-37
7.81
7.81
7.81
7.81
6.25
6.25
6.25
4.68
4 .68
3-12
3-12
3-12
3-12
3-12
3.12
77
TABLE XVII (continued)
PHYSICAL RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES OF ALL GROUPS
Organizations
CO
w
0
m
A -h ttH -t*
Ac u i v i x y
00
00
0
p
d cd
3 0
O+O
f-* cd
0 0
,Q
£j
g fe
g Fh
0
0
g o
g o
rH
O
32
Tap-dancing
Clog dancing
Water polo
Croquet
Rowing
Field-ball
Boating
Quoits
Horse-riding
0
^=3
L C
J
rH £
P ^O dJO
P »H
*H «H
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
«
O 0
O O S h
■ lb
7
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
■=? o
O
O
;C
«
0 VO *H
SO
-P
(tid e d
O
a>
- P O N
£ * H
&
W
rH
ctf
-P
O 0
O?h
3
W
4
O
Eh
64
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
*H
0 rd C 3
O 0 a}
fiOOCjQ
0 o5 Ih
Ph ,Q O
1.56
1.56
1.56
1.56
1.56
1.56
1.56
1.56
1.56
NOTE: The table is to be read thus: Softball was of­
fered by 8 clubs, 2 churches, 4 community recreation
agencies, no commercial recreation agencies, 4 high schools,
for a total of 18 times or 28.12 per cent of the total 64
organizations.
78
cent; ping-pong, nine or 14.06 per cent; touch-football and
horseshoes, eight or 12.50 per cent; boxing, diving, and
rifle-shooting, seven or 10.93 per cent; billiards, six or
9.37 per cent; wrestling, lifesaving, and gymnastics, five
or 7.81 per cent; soccer, trapshooting, and apparatus, four
or 6.25 per cent; roller-skating and speedball, three or
4.68 per cent; skeet-shooting, darts, decathlon, archery,
handball, shuffleboard, two or 3-12 per cent; tap dance,
clog dance, water polo, croquet, rowing, field-ball, boat­
ing, quoits, and horse-riding, one or I .56 per cent.
The clubs offered a total of twenty-four various
activities; churches, nineteen; community recreation agen­
cies, twenty-four; commercial recreation agencies, seven;
and high schools, thirty-one.
It will be noted in Table
XVIII that the four high schools offered more activities
than any other single group.
The high schools led in aver­
age number of different activities for each unit, or 19*50
activities for each high school in Kings County; followed
by community recreational agencies with an average of 8.28
activities for each organization; commercial recreation fol­
lowed with an average of 4.33 different activities for each
community offering commercial recreation; the clubs fol­
lowed with an average of 2.53 activities for each club;
churches were last with an average of 1.94 activities for
each church.
79
TABLE XVIII
AVERAGE NUMBER OP PHYSICAL RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES
OFFERED BY VARIOUS ORGANIZATIONS IN KINGS COUNTY
Organizations
Number of
organizations
Clubs
32
Churches
* Total
activities
offered
Average number
of activities
for each organi­
zation in each
group
8l
2.53
18
35
1.94
Community
recreational
agencies
7
58
8.28
Communities
offering
commercial
recreation
3
13
^.35
High schools
4
78
19-50
■*
NOTE: Thirty-two clubs offered a total of eighty-one
activities or an average of 2.53 activities for each club.
80
Physical recreational activities of combined groups.
Table XIX presents the findings concerning the popularity
of the offered activities by combined recreational agencies
and all high schools in Kings County.
Camping was the most
popular activity of the recreational agencies, offered by
fifteen agencies; this activity was not offered by the high
schools.
Softball was next highest on the recreation list,
offered by fourteen agencies and rated as one of the seven
top activities of the four high schools.
Basketball, bowl­
ing, and swimming were offered by twelve of the agencies.
Basketball was also offered by all of the high schools;
swimming, by three; but there was no bowling.
Badminton
was the next most important activity, offered by eleven
agencies and three high schools.
Hiking was offered by ten
agencies and one secondary school.
Social-dancing rated
next most popular with the agencies, offered by nine of
them; it was checked, by only one school.
Volleyball and
golf were offered by eight agencies as against three high
schools.
Tennis followed with a score of seven by the
agencies and four by the schools.
Rifle-shooting and ping-
pong were offered by six agencies; one high school offered
rifle-shooting and three, ping-pong.
Billiards and diving
followed by the agencies with a score of five; billiards
was offered by one high school and diving by two.
Boxing,
bicycling, horseshoes, lifesaving, touch-football, and trap-
81
TABLE XIX
PHYSICAL RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES OP SIXTY RECREATIONAL
AGENCIES AND FOUR HIGH SCHOOLS IN KINGS COUNTY
Activity
Apparatus
Archery
Badminton
Baseball
Basketball
Bicycling
Billiards
Boating
Bowling
Boxing
Cage-ball
Camping
Canoeing
Clog dancing
Croquet
Darts
Decathlon
Diving
Fencing
Field-ball
Field-hockey
Football
Golf
Gymnastics
Handball
Hiking
Horse-riding
Horseshoes
Lifesaving
Ping-pong
Quoits
Rifle-shooting
Roller-skating
Rowing
Shuffleboard
Soccer
Softball
Social-dancing
Number of
recreational
agencies offer­
ing activity
2
0
11
5
12
4
5
1
12
4
0
15
0
1
1
1
0
5
0
0
0
1
8
2
1
10
1
4
4
6
1
6
2
1
0
1
14
9
'
Number of
high schools
offering
activity
2
2
3
4
4
1
1
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
1
2
2
0
1
0
4
3
3
1
1
0
4
1
3
0
1
1
0
2
3
4
1
82
TABLE XIX (continued)
PHYSICAL RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES OP SIXTY RECREATIONAL
AGENCIES AND POUR HIGH SCHOOLS IN KINGS COUNTY
Activity
Skeet-shooting
Speedhall
Squash
Swimming
Tap-dancing
Tennis
Touch-football
Trapshooting
Volleyball
Water polo
Wrestling
Number of
recreational
agencies offer­
ing activity
2
0
0
12
1
7
4
4
8
0
2
Number of
high schools
offering
activity
0
3
0
3
0
4
4
0
3
1
3
83
shooting were the next most popular agency activities with
a score of four.
Horseshoes and touch-football were of­
fered in all four high schools, boxing in three, bicycling
and lifesaving were each offered by one high school, but
there was no trapshooting in secondary schools.
Baseball
followed, offered by three recreational agencies and four
high schools.
Apparatus, gymnastics, roller-skating, skeet-
shooting, and wrestling were offered by two recreational
agencies; gymnastics was offered by three high schools;
apparatus, by two; roller-skating, by one; and no skeetshooting.
Boating, clog dancing, croquet, darts, football,
handball, horse-riding, quoits, rowing, soccer, and tapdancing were offered by one recreational agency each.
Foot­
ball was popular in all high schools, soccer was offered by
three schools, darts and handball by one school each; the
high schools did not offer boating, clog dancing, croquet,
horse-riding, quoits, rowing, or tap-dancing.
Recreational agencies offered the following activi­
ties not found in the high school programs: boating, bowling,
camping, clog and tap-dancing, croquet, horse-riding, quoits,
rowing, skeet-shooting, and trapshooting.
Horse-riding was
a popular individual and dual activity in the county,
participated in primarily by people owning their own horses.
Camping and bowling were the only popularly rated
activities offered by agencies that did not appear on the
84
high school program.
Activities offered by high schools
but not found on the general community programs were:
archery, decathlon, field-ball, shuffleboard, speedball,
and water polo.
Of these speedball was the most popular,
with archery, decathlon, and shuffleboard following, water
polo being least popular.
Degree of participation of activities in combined
recreational agencies and, high schools in Kings County.
The degree of active or passive participation by combined
recreational agencies and high schools is presented in Table
XX.
From compiled results it was found that most activities
offered by the agencies were of active participation.
Out
of forty-three activities listed, passive participation
was mentioned only nine times.
In six of these nine cases
the activities were of the contact type, namely: baseball,
softball, football, touch-football, boxing, and volleyball.
Only the younger men participated actively, while the older
groups participated in a passive way as spectators.
Two
others mentioned--darts,and rifle-shooting--were passive
probably because of lack of equipment to take care of large
groups.
Camping was also mentioned once as passive in
nature; the investigator has no explanation for that.
The majority of the high school activities were active
in participation.
Thirteen activities out of a total of
forty-three had some degree of passive participation.
This
TABLE XX
DEGREE OF PARTICIPATION OF PHYSICAL RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES
IN FOUR HIGH SCHOOLS AND SIXTY RECREATIONAL AGENCIES
IN KINGS COUNTY
High Schools
3
o
Activ itie s
B a sket b a l l
F ootba l l
T ouch- f o o t b a l l
Horses h o e s
Baseba l l
Softball
Gymnastics
Speedball
Ping-p o n g
Soccer
Badminton
Box i n g
Wrestling
Swimming
Golf
Volley b a l l
Archery
Divi n g
A ppara t u s
•H
P
cd
ft
•H
<D O
l> vI
•H P
-P 3
o cd
<3 ft
3
o
0
>
•H
m
3
0
P
K
ft
4
4
4
4
3
3
5
3
3
3
;3
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
Recreational Agencies
2
.l
l
l
1
P
'd
0
S
p
,3
feiO
•(—j
rH
CO
P
P
cd
ft
0 P
> O
P P
mp
w U
cd cd
ft ft
3
o
0
>
•H
m
3
0
p
ft
g
p
P
'd
0
s
p
r3
bQ
H
CO
1
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
o
P
P
cd
ft
P
O
P
P
3
cd
ft
0
>
P
0
3
0
P
K
ft
9
6
2
3
2
1
2
11
2
1
1
2
4
1
6
2
2
2
7
1
l
5
5
6
5
2
1
4
2
1
2
0
P
P
o
<
g p
P ,3
•H bO
>d •H
0 i
—1
£ co
2
P
P
cd 0
ft >
0P
•H
00
> O
j 3
WP
0
00
p
cd cd
ft ft ft
p
•H
*d
0
£
p
,3
bO
•H
i
—1
CQ
1
5
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
2
1
3
l
1
2
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
11
1
2
12
7
2
i
2
1
2
1
2
2
1
3
3
2
2
TABLE XX (continued)
DEGREE OF PARTICIPATION OF PHYSICAL RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES
IN FOUR HIGH SCHOOLS AND SIXTY RECREATIONAL AGENCIES
IN KINGS COUNTY
High Schools
d
o
Activities
-t-'
a3
ft
•H
0 O
> *H
•H -P
P U
o cd
< ft
S huffl e d o a r d
Decathlon
Bicycling
Billiards
Hiking
Lifesaving
W a t e r polo
Rifle-shooting
Roller-skating
Hand b a l l
Field-ball
Darts
S ocial- d a n c i n g
Camping
B owl i n g
Trapshooting
S k e e t -s h o o t i n g
T ap-da n c i n g
2
2
0
>
•H
w §
d
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TABLE XX (continued)
DEGREE OF PARTICIPATION OF PHYSICAL RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES
IN FOUR HIGH SCHOOLS AND SIXTY RECREATIONAL AGENCIES
IN KINGS COUNTY
High Schools___________
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NOTE: This table is to be read thus: Basketball, in the high schools there
was active participation in all four schools to an extensive degree; in nine rec­
reational agencies there was active participation-six to an extensive degree, two
to a medium degree, and one to a slight degree.
oo
-a
88
may have been due to a limitation of equipment and facili­
ties, interschool sports, and the fact that some experts
in various activities monopolize the equipment and facili­
ties .
Summary.
Prom the findings and a comparison brought
about through Tables XVII, XVIII, XIX, and XX, the follow­
ing points of summary may be stated:
1.
The secondary schools in Kings County offered a
physical education program that covered all activities and
facilities offered by all other agencies in Kings County
with the exception of boating, rowing, camping, bowling,
tap-dancing, clog dancing, croquet, horse-riding, quoits,
skeet-shooting, and trapshooting.
2.
Activities of all organizations were primarily
of an active participation type, reverting to passive
participation when they were of the strenuous body contact
nature or through lack of equipment and facilities to care
for the larger groups.
3.
The high schools offered the highest average
number of activities for unit, followed In order by com­
munity recreation agencies, commercial recreation agencies,
clubs, and churches.
4.
Commercial recreation played a minute part in
offering physical recreational activities to Kings County.
89
5.
Church recreation in Kings County was limited.
It would seem that the communities herein studied did not
realize their social obligation in offering leisure-time
activity, that they left this responsibility largely to
church groups, and that these organizations failed to
respond sufficiently to meet the needs of the community.
6.
Clubs, lodges, and civic organizations offered
little more than the churches in the way of physical rec­
reational opportunities.
7.
Public community resources were very limited;
this resulted in a lack of equipment for some activities,
which might otherwise be enjoyed, and a shortage of equip­
ment in others, which limited the number of participants.
CHAPTER IX
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
I.
SUMMARY
The amount of leisure-time has increased to such an
extent that all social organizations must recognize it as
their problem.
The present ways and means of enjoying
leisure have changed as rapidly as has the economic world.
However, the organization and administration of community
recreation has not maintained this rapid pace and lags be­
hind the other modern social innovations.
There must be close cooperation between school and
community agencies in planning and administrating the com­
munity recreational program.
The problem of this investi­
gation has been to make a study of the physical recreational
program in Kings County to determine if the high schools of
this county are providing adequate training In leisure-time
physical carry-over activities that are offered by various
community recreational agencies.
The questionnaire method for gathering information
was used and as many personal contacts as possible were
made.
Besides being practical for the use to which it has
been put, the questionnaire, used in a survey of this type,
often points out the Inadequacy of a physical recreational
91
program by listing possible activities and then making a
comparison with those checked.
The investigation of the significance of leisure­
time preparation and activity, found in Chapter Two, has
been historical in nature; it was intended to incorporate
the principal findings of previous studies in such a con­
clusive manner that the importance of the secondary school
physical education program preparing for worthy use of
leisure-time would be evident.
II.
CONCLUSIONS
After weighing available sources of information the
following conclusions have been reached.
They are discussed
under their specific problems which are again enumerated
here.
Problem 1.
ftInvestigate the physical recreational
program of some of the various clubs, lodges, civic organi­
zations, community recreation agencies, commercial recrea­
tion, churches, and high schools in Kings County."
Of the thirty-two clubs, lodges, and civic organiza­
tions surveyed it was found that twenty-two or 68.75 P©**
cent had physical recreational activities.
The thirty-two
organizations averaged 2.52 activities per organization,
Indicating rather weak physical recreational programs.
Eighteen churches were contacted resulting in the
92
information that eight or 41.66 per cent had physical rec­
reational activity.
activities each.
These eighteen churches averaged 1.94
It would appear from the results that the
physical recreational opportunities offered by the churches
in Kings County were limited.
The survey reached seven, community recreational
agencies which offered a total of fifty-eight activities,
an average of 8.28 activities for each agency.
Three communities offered commercial recreational
activity of a physical nature.
*There were a total of thir­
teen activities, an average of 4.33 activities for each
community.
The four high schools of Kings County offered
seventy-eight activities of a physical recreational nature,
an average of 19*30 activities per school.
Problem 2.
’’Determine whether the secondary schools
of Kings County are offering, in their physical education
program, physical activities of a carry-over nature.H
From the results of the survey it has been found
that the high schools of Kings County had a program that
covered all activities offered by various joint recrea­
tional agencies (Table XVII, page 76 ) with the exception of
boating, rowing, camping, bowling, tap-dancing, clog danc­
ing, croquet, horse-riding, quoits, skeet-shooting, and
trapshooting.
Horse-riding was a popular individual and
93
dual activity in the county, participated in primarily hy
people owning their own horses.
It would be rather diffi­
cult to organize this activity in the high schools because
of the cost of renting horses and the scarcity of horse
rental establishments.
Skeet-shooting and trapshooting
would be difficult to offer because of cost of equipment
and the possible danger entailed.
The activities of high carry-over value offered by
the high schools were horseshoes, softball, badminton,
swimming, golf, volleyball, archery, ping-pong, diving,
shuffleboard, bicycling, billiards, hiking, lifesaving,
rifle-shooting, roller-skating, handball, darts, and
social-dancing.
Problem 3*
”Ascertain whether the physical educa­
tion program in Kings County secondary schools prepares and
enables students to take advantage of community recreational
activities and facilities.”
It has been found that the secondary schools are
doing a good job of supplying the needs of the community as
they are now evident; what seems to be needed is more com­
munity interest in recreation.
Many activities--archery, decathlon, fieldball,
shuffleboard, speedball, and water polo--were offered by
the high school which were not found on the general com­
munity program.
Speedball, decathlon, and fieldball are
94
activities of too strenuous a nature to be used to any
great degree in community recreation, but archery and shuffleboard have a place on the community program.
Problem 4.
’’Give Kings County a broad survey of the
type of recreation offered therein.”
The results of the survey have shown limited recrea­
tional opportunities by various agencies in Kings County.
There is no trained leadership except the physical educa­
tion teachers and no financial provision for recreation in
the rural county other than for school.
Only one community
has a planned and supervised all year recreation program.
Several communities offer evening high school physical edu­
cation classes of a recreational nature.
Two communities
offer summer community recreation programs.
The various
clubs, lodges, civic organizations, and churches have weak
physical recreational programs.
The commercial physical
recreational activities are limited due to the small sup­
porting population.
Problem 5*
’’Determine the popularity of the various
physical recreational activities offered by combined rec­
reational agencies and high schools in Kings County.”
The activity ratings in order of popularity of sixtyfour recreational agencies in Kings County were pointed out
in Table XVII, page 76 .
95
III.
Problem 6.
RECOMMENDATIONS
f,Make suggestions concerning the organi­
zation and administration of physical recreational pro­
grams by various agencies.,T
It is recommended that each organization and church
within the county assume the responsibility of providing,
when possible, some type of physical recreation for worthy
use of leisure-time.
Each civic agency should form a rec­
reation committee to plan and supervise programs of a
permanent nature to hit all levels and interests of the
groups.
Such activities must be offered regularly so that
worthy recreational habits may be formed and that partici­
pants may plan and look ahead for these occasions.
It is suggested that there be more elasticity in
the physical education program of the high schools to meet
changing community physical recreational desires and
facilities.
There should be a broad program covering many
activities so that there will be some sport that will
appeal to each student.
There should be no limitation in
squads; the squads can be divided and competition found
for each group.
Activities of the noncontact type and
carry-over value type should be included as also should
individual and dual activities.
A study of community and
recreational habits and opportunities should be made and
96
from this study should he determined the trend of the pro­
gram.
If the community has a recreational department, it
is an advisable practice to work jointly on the extracur­
ricular program so that advantage may be taken of the
greater opportunities offered by the combined departments.
It would be possible for the high schools to include
the activities--rowing, boating, and camping--using Tulare
Lake as a site; the lake is within a short distance of all
high schools and Is used for these purposes by other agen­
cies.
Bowling facilities are found In two communities with
high schools; it would be possible for Hanford and Avenal
to arrange for that activity.
Clog dancing, croquet, quoits,
and tap-dancing may easily be arranged for in the secondary
school program.
It is suggested that steps be taken to formulate a
proper physical recreational program for each church.
How­
ever, it is necessary to first educate the church members
of the true motives and advantages of such a movement.
Edu­
cation of this type may be given in several ways: first,
lectures by recognized leaders in the field of recreation;
second, by providing reading material to advertise the pro­
gram; third, much education may be gained by conventions
and institutes among the country churches--almost every
group this large has recreational authority; fourth, rec­
reational discussions could be held in the church school,
97
young peoples1 organizations, and church evening groups.
The church should not compete with other recreational agen­
cies, hut should cooperate with them.
The community should realize its social obligation
in offering physical activities for leisure-time.
Communi­
ty recreation boards should be set up in each town and
wherever possible all year programs be started.
The com­
munity should be responsible for the carry-over of such
activities as archery and shuffleboard which are found on
the school programs but not provided for in the community
programs.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
BIBLIOGRAPHY
A.
BOOKS
Almack, J. C., Research and Thesis Writing. Boston:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 1930.
310 pp.
Atkinson, H. A., The Church and the Peoples Play.
York: Abingdon Press, 1938•
259 PP«
New
Bowen, W. P., and E. D. Mitchell, The Theory of Organized
Play. New York: Barnes and Company, 1932. 4-02 pp.
Busch, H. M., Leadership in Group W o r k .
tion Press, 1934• 305 PP«
New York: Associa­
Crawford, C. C., Technique of Research in Education.
Boston: Warwick and York Company, 1928. 320 pp.
Gates, H. W . , Recreation and the Church. Chicago: Univer­
sity of Chicago Press, 1917*
185 PPGood, Carter, How to do Research in Education.
Warwick and York Company, 192HT 298 pp.
Boston:
Heaton, K. L., Character Building Through Recreation.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1929*
230 pp.
Hill, F. E., Man Made Culture. New York: American Associa­
tion for Adult Education, 1938.
166 pp.
Johnson, G. B., The New Physical Education. Minneapolis:
Burgess Publishing Company, 1935*
79 PP«
Lies, E. T., The New Leisure Challenges the Schools. New
York: National Education Association, 1933326 pp.
Mathias, E., Deeper Meaning of Physical Education.
York: A. S. Barnes and Company, 1929~ 88 pp.
New
Nash, J. B., Interpretations of Physical Education. 5 vols
New York: A. S. Barnes and Company, 1932. Vol. III>
315 PP.
_______ , Spectatoritis.
Incorporated, 1932".
New York: Sears Publishing Company
284 pp.
100
Owen, R. D., Principles of Adolescent Education*
The Ronald Press Company, 1929*
433 PP*
Pangborn, ¥. ¥., Adventures in Recreation.
Barnes and Company, 1936.
13b P P •
New York:
New York: A. S.
Patrick, ¥. T., The Psychology of Relaxation.
Houghton Mifflin Company, 19l6~
280 pp.
Boston: -
Powell, ¥. T., Recreation in Church and Community.
York: The Abingdon Press, 193b*
136 pp.
New
Rand and McNally, Commercial Atlas and Marketing Guide.
Chicago: Rand McNally and Company, 1941.
546 pp.
Sharmon, J. R., Introduction to Physical Education.
York: A. S. Barnes and Company, 1934. 317 PP*
Shaver, E. L., A Christian1s Recreation.
sity of Chicago Press, 192fT
54 p p .
New
Chicago: Univer­
¥illiams, J. P., Organization and Administration of Physical
Education. New York: Macmillan and Company, 1922.
325 PP_______ , Athletics in Education. Philadelphia: ¥. B.
Saunders and Company, 1930.
414 pp.
_______ , Health and Physical Education for Public School
Administrators. New York: Macmillan and Company, 1930.
Vol. 1, 117 PP*
¥ood, T. D., and R. P. Cassidy, The New Physical Education.
New York: Macmillan and Company, 1927*
457 PP*
B.
PERIODICALS
Alger, G. ¥., "Leisure--For ¥hat?" Atlantic Monthly,
135:483-92, April, 1925 .
Beals, E. E., “Physical Education Versus Competitive Ath­
letics, “ Journal of National Education Association,
21:250, November, 1932.
Campbell, H. G., "New Leisure in the Schools,” Recreation,
27:466-67, January, 1934.
101
Guernsey, P. D., "A Program of College Physical Education,"
Health and Physical Education, 4:11-14, January, 1933*
Harmon* J. M., "The Future of Coaching in Secondary Schools,”
Education, 53:471-74, April, 1933.
LaPorte, W. -R., "Physical Education in a Changing Society,”
Journal of Health and Physical Education, 6:3-5*
September, 1935*
_______ _, "The Changing Conception of College Physical Edu­
cation," Research Quarterly, 2:1, March, 1931*
Morris, J. H., "Training Teen Age Boys and Girls in Leisure
Time Activities," Journal of Health and Physical Educa­
tion, 6:34-35* February, 1935.
Partridge, E. D., "How One High School Trains for Leisure,"
Recreation, 35:24-26, April, 1941.
Rule, J. N., "Health and Physical Education Face the
Future," Journal of Health and Physical Education,
6:3-4, June, 1935*
Thomas, N., 4The School at the Cross Roads," J ournal of
Health and Physical Education, 6:5-6, February, 1935*
Wayman, Agnes G . , "Physical Education for the Future,"
J ournal of Health and Physical Education, 6:3-7* 50-51*
January, 1935*
C.
PUBLICATIONS OF LEARNED ORGANIZATIONS
Commercial Recreation. Cleveland Recreation Survey.
Cleve­
land: Cleveland Foundation Committee, 1920.
155 PP*
Comrades in Play.
WT3P~
New York: Community Service, Inc., 1920.
Playground and Recreation Association of America, Normal
Course in Play. New York: A. S. Barnes and Company,
1935* 26l PP*
The Leisure of a People. Report of Recreation Survey of
Indianapolis conducted under the auspices of the Council
of Social Agencies and financed by the Indianapolis
Foundation directed by E. T. Lies.
Indianapolis: C. E.
Crippin, 1929.
571 pp.
102
D.
UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS
Bacon, C. M., flChrIstian Education Through Recreation in
Certain Semi-Rural Churches.11 Unpublished Master's
thesis, The University of Southern California, Los
Angeles, 1938.
88 pp.
Cost, E. D., flA Survey of Recreation in Fresno.11 Unpub­
lished Masterfs thesis, The University of Southern
California, Los Angeles, 1938.
130 PP*
Davis, G. N., 1,A Survey of Public Recreation in Greenville,
Texas.” Unpublished Master's thesis, The University of
Southern California, Los Angeles, 1938.
127 pp.
Hendrickson, L. E., f,Physical Education.” Unpublished
Master's thesis, The University of Southern California,
Los Angeles, 1932.
133 PP*
Holtz, Doris, ”A Study of the Changes Necessary In Readjust­
ing the Schools as a Community Recreation Center.” U n ­
published Master's thesis, The University of Southern
California, Los Angeles, 1935*
192 pp.
Millet, ¥. F., ”An Evaluation of Recreation Programs in
Selected Communities in Utah.” Unpublished Master's
thesis, The University of Southern California, Los
Angeles, 1939*
125 PP*
Noble, 0. ¥., i!A Survey of Recreation in Kern County.” U n ­
published Master's thesis, The University of Southern
California, Los Angeles, 1 9 3 6 .
1 1 9 PP*
Norviel, J. ¥., ”A Survey of Recreation in Glendale, Cali­
fornia.” Unpublished Master's thesis, The University
of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1934. 172 pp.
Reed, C. M., ”The Physical Education Needs and Desires of
Adult Men in Los An^Les.” Unpublished Master's thesis,
The University of Southern California, Los Angeles,
1934.
84 pp.
Reynolds, F. P. S., ”The Community Recreation Movement in
the United States.” Unpublished Master»s thesis, The
University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1934.
126 pp.
103
Righter, R. V . , TfA Survey of Adult Recreational Facilities
in Los Angeles.11 Unpublished Master's thesis, The
University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1934.
184 pp.
Ritter, E., The Relation of Leisure to the Girls Physical
Education Program of Secondary Schools.11 Unpublished
Master's thesis, The University of Southern California,
Los Angeles, 1937*
133 pp*
appendix;
CHECK LIST TO DETERMINE THE POPULARITY
OF PHYSICAL RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES
Community
______
Organization
1-High School
2-Club____ 3 -Church
4 -Com­
munity Recreation__________________
5-Commercial Recreation___________
Procedure:
1 -Kindly give an expression of the recreational physical ac­
tivities in your organization.
2 -Below you will find a list of physical activities, will you
check in the proper column the degree of participation in
your organization program?
3 -In the last two columns (active participation and passive
participation) the following meaning is implied: Active,
does everyone get the opportunity to participate?
Passive, participation is limited to a select few, others
as spectators.
4-Fill in any physical activities not listed that have a place
on your program, evaluate and check these activities like
those listed.
Activity
Degree of Pa.rticipation
Extensive Medium Slight None Active
Partici­
pation
archery
badminton
bicycling
bowling
golf
billiards
hiking
camping
tennis
ping-pong
hoxing
wrestling
Passive
Partici­
pation
106
Activity
Degree of Participation
Passive
Extensive Medium Slight None Active
Partici­ Partici­
pation
pation
fencing
horseshoes
tap dancing
clog dancing
swimming
diving
lifesaving
water polo
squash
croquet
canoeing
rowing
gymnastics
apparatus
rifleshooting
rollerskating
handball
shuffle­
board
hard base­
ball
softball
field-ball
cage-ball
basketball
volleyball
football
touchfootball
speedball
soccer
107
Degree of Participation
Activity
Passive
Extensive Medium Slight None Active
Partici­ Partici­
pation
pation
fieldhockey
others
Checked by_____________________ Position
Do you -wish a copy of the results of this check list?
yes_______ no_______
Thank you for your kind cooperation
Raymond Kaufman
Director of Physical Education
Avenal High School,
Avenal, California
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