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Safety education in the Oakland junior high school

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SAFETY EDUCATION IN THE OAKLAND JUNIOB HIGH SCHOOL
A T h e s is
P r e s e n te d t o
t h e F a c u l t y o f t h e S c h o o l o f E d u c a tio n
The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a
In P a r t i a l F u lfillm e n t
o f t h e R e q u ire m e n ts f o r t h e D egree
M a s te r o f S c ie n c e i n E d u c a tio n
by
W a lte r Edw in P eab o d y
A u g u st 1941
UMI Number: EP54282
All rights reserved
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T h i s thesis, w r i t t e n u n d e r the d ir e c t io n of the
C h a i r m a n o f the c a n d id a t e ’s G u i d a n c e C o m m i t t e e
a n d a p p r o v e d b y a ll m e m b e r s o f the C o m m i t t e e ,
has been p r e s e n t e d to a n d a c c e p t e d b y the F a c u l t y
of the S c h o o l of E d u c a t i o n of T h e U n i v e r s i t y of
S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t of the
r e q u ir e m e n t s f o r the d e g r e e of M a s t e r o f S c ie n c e
in E d u c a t i o n .
D a te
J ^
e ..
6 .V ..1 9 .4
2 . ......................... .
D ea n
G uidance C o m m itte e
0 . R . Hul l
C hairm an
I r v i n g R. Melbo
L oui s P . Thorpe
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I.
PAGE
THE PROBLEM................................................................................
P u rp o se o f t h i s s t u d y .
1
....................................................
Need f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f O a k la n d ^ s a f e t y p ro g ram
R eview o f r e l a t e d s t u d i e s . . . . . . ..............
4
S o u rc e s o f d a t a and m ethod o f p r o c e d u r e .........
5
O r g a n iz a tio n o f r e m a in d e r o f t h e t h e s i s ...................
II.
2
3
9
11
THE TRAFFIC PATROL IN OAKLAND.....................................
L o c a tio n o f O akland and r e l a t i o n t o s u r r o u n d in g
c o u n t r y . • • • • ........................................................
11
P o p u la ti o n an d a v e ra g e d a i l y a t te n d a n c e ...................
12
Number o f j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o ls an d t e a c h e r s
12
P u rp o s e o f t h e p a t r o l • • • •
. . .
............................................12
O r g a n iz a tio n o f th e p a t r o l ........................................ 13
The t r a f f i c sq u a d
.....................................
13
Squad p r o c e d u r e • • • • • • • • • . . . • • . . .
P a t r o l e q u i p m e n t .................................................................
P a re n ta l consent
Summary
III.
. . . . .
................................
. . . .
..........................................
HOME SAFETY.................................................................
14
• 15
16
17
18
P r e s e n t d ay h a z a r d s i n w h ich i n s t r u c t i o n i s n ee d ed 18
P ro c e d u r e u s e d i n o t h e r c i t i e s a n d s t a t e s a b o u t
home h a z a r d s
........................................................................20
ill
CHAPTER
PAGE
P ro c e d u r e i n O akland f o r home s a f e t y ............................. 35
Summary and r e c o m m e n d a tio n s ..................................................... 37
If.
f .
PLAY H A ZA R D S.........................................
30
C o n d itio n s t h a t c a l l f o r s a f e t y i n s t r u c t i o n . . .
30
P ro c e d u r e i n o t h e r c i t i e s an d s t a t e s
31
........................
P ro c e d u r e u s e d i n O a k l a n d .....................................
33
Summary an d r e c o m m e n d a tio n s ................................
35
MOTOR VEHICLE HAZARDS.......................................................................36
The g e n e r a l s i t u a t i o n i n j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l
i n s t r u c t i o n ......................................................................................36
The p r o c e d u r e i n o t h e r c i t i e s an d s t a t e s
. . . .
30
The m ethod u s e d i n O a k l a n d .....................................................41
Summary an d reco m m en d a tio n s • • • • • . • • • • .
V I.
V II.
43
CLASSROOM HAZARDS................................................................................ 45
C lassro o m h a z a r d s i n w h ich i n s t r u c t i o n i s n e e d e d
45
The p r o c e d u r e o f o t h e r c i t i e s and s t a t e s
. . . .
46
O ak lan d * s p r o c e d u r e f o r c la s s r o o m a c c i d e n t s . . .
49
Summary an d reco m m en d atio n s
51
. . . . . . . . . . .
FIRST AID AHD H E A L T H .......................................................................53
I n s t r u c t i o n i n f i r s t a i d an d h e a l t h i n o t h e r c i t i e s
and s t a t e s
............................................................................ 53
The m ethod u s e d i n O akland
..............................
• 55
Summary an d r e c o m m e n d a tio n s .....................................................56
iv
CHAPTER
V III.
PAGE
EIRE PREVENTION......................................................................................57
P ro c e d u r e i n o tla e r c i t i e s
.....................................................57
O akland p r o c e d u r e .......................................................................
60
Summary and r e c o m m e n d a tio n s ............................................ 61
IX .
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECQMMSNDATIONS.........................64
Summary
.................................
64
C o n c lu s io n s an d reco m m en d a tio n s . . . . . . . . .
67
BIBLIOGRAPHY . .........................................................................................................72
APPENDICES..................................................................................................................79
PART I
T hose p o r t i o n s o f th e v a r i o u s s a f e t y c o u r s e s o f
s tu d y a p p e r t a i n i n g t o j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l i n s t r u c t i o n
A.
HOME S A F E T Y ...................................................................................................81
Check l i s t u s e d i n C le v e la n d
j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o ls
.
T o p ic s an d p r a c t i c e s u s e d i n
K an sas C i t y j u n i o r h ig h
.......................
s c h o o ls
The W o r c e s te r home i n s p e c t i o n
• 81
84
re p o rt. . . . . . . .
88
The A m erican N a t i o n a l Red C ro s s c h e c k l i s t f o r
common h a z a r d s i n an d a b o u t th e h o m e .................................. 90
O u tlin e o f s a f e t y i n th e home u s e d i n th e L o u is ia n a
s c h o o ls
B.
. . .
....................................................
. . . . . .
91
PLAY HAZARDS...................................................................................................93
O u tlin e o f s a f e p l a y d i s c u s s i o n s u s e d by th e
C le v e la n d p u b l i c s c h o o ls . . . .
..................................
94
V
APPENDIX
PACE
S a f e t y g u id e s u s e d i n C le v e la n d p u b l i c s c h o o ls • .
The K ansas- C ity r e c r e a t i o n a l s a f e t y
p ro g ra m
. . .
96
, 99
A l i s t o f s e a s o n a l d a n g e rs u s e d i n th e M in n e a p o lis
p u b l i c s c h o o ls . . . . . . ................................ . . . .
102
S a f e t y i n r e c r e a t i o n and gam es i n th e A labam a
s c h o o l s ...................................................
103
L o u is ia n a s t a t e o u t l i n e i n te a c h i n g
C.
w a te r s p o r t s . 104
MOTOR VEHICLE H A ZA R D S..............................................................109
C le v e la n d ’ s p la n f o r j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l i n s t r u c ­
t i o n i n m o to r v e h i c l e h a z a r d s ........................ . . .
M in n e a p o lis j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l t r a f f i c
S a f e t y on t h e h ig h w ay s i n L o u is ia n a
D.
s a fe ty
. .
. . . . . . .
CLASSROOM HAZARDS
110
112
114
117
S a f e t y i n t h e j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o ls o f C le v e la n d . .
118
K an sas C i ty o u t l i n e o f s a f e t y i n th e s c h o o l
120
. . .
L o u is ia n a s t a t e c la s s ro o m and p la y g ro u n d s a f e t y
o u t l i n e .....................................
- E.
123
FIRST AID AND HEALTH.................................................................. 125
F i r s t a i d d e m o n s tr a tio n s f o r © lassw o rk i n th e
j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o ls o f C le v e la n d
F i r s t a i d i n t h e A labam a s c h o o ls
F.
. . . . . . . .
126
.........................128
FIRE PR EV EN TIO N ............................................................................131
S a f e ty g u id e s f o r f i r e p r e v e n t i o n c o u r s e i n th e
C le v e la n d j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o ls
......................................
132
vi
APPENDIX
PAGE
O u tlin e f o r f i r e p r e v e n t i o n and c o n t r o l u s e d i n
t h e K an sas C ity s c h o o l s ..........................................................138
F i r e p r e v e n t i o n i n t h e Alabam a s c h o o l s ............................. 139
PART I I
P o s t e r s and p a m p h le ts r e f e r r e d t o i n t h i s s tu d y
PAM PHLETS...................................................................................................
141
O akland p u b l i c s c h o o ls : H ighway s a f e t y ..........................
142
F ly in g k i t e s w ith s a f e t y ...........................................................
145
O akland p u b l i c s c h o o l s : S a f e t y i n s t r u c t i o n f o r
m a c h in e , e l e c t r i c , m e ta l and a u to
shops
. . . .
146
O ak lan d p u b l i c s c h o o l s : S a f e t y i n s t r u c t i o n f o r
wood sh o p s . . . .
........................................................
•
147
S a f e t y T e s t No. 1 - G e n e ra l r u l e s f o r s a f e t y i n
th e s c h o o l sh o p
...............................................
S a f e t y T e s t No. 7 - J i g Saw
• • • • • • • . • • •
148
149
S a f e t y T e s t No. 21 - S o ld e r in g f u r n a c e an d s o l d e r i n g
iro n
............................................................. ....
• • •
150
S a f e t y T e s t No. 30 - S q u a r in g s h e a r s an d b a r f o l d e r 151
S a f e t y T e s ts f o r O akland p u b l i c s c h o o ls - Wood sh o p 152
P O S T E R S ............................................................................ ................................153
W atch Your D r iv in g . . . . . .
You A re N ot Immune . • •
Why Take C hances?
• • • • .
154
..................................................
.................................. 156
155
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE
I.
BAGS
Number o f P e r s o n s I n te r v ie w e d Who T each S a f e t y i n
O ak lan d J u n i o r H igh S c h o o l s ................................
II.
III.
L e a d in g C au ses o f Home A c c id e n ts
V.
V I.
6
........................................31
Where F a t a l F a l l s an d F a t a l B u rn s O cc u rred i n
O akland Homes i n 1939
IV .
. . .
................................................
28
M otor V e h ic le D ea th s by C i t i e s , 1939
43
C le v e la n d , M in n e a p o lis a n d O akland F i r e F a c t s , 1939
62
The C o r r e l a t i o n o f S a f e t y I n s t r u c t i o n w ith O th e r
S u b j e c t s i n t h e S ix C i t i e s and Two S t a t e s S tu d ie d
66
CHAPTER I
THE PROBLEM
The n e c e s s i t y f o r h e a l t h an d s a f e t y e d u c a ti o n i n
s c h o o ls h a s b e e n g e n e r a l l y r e c o g n i z e d .
S chool a u th o r itie s
who p l a n t h e c u r r ic u lu m h av e tw o d i s t i n c t r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s
w ith r e s p e c t t o s a f e t y : f i r s t , t h e g e n e r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f
a l l s c h o o ls t o d e v e lo p a n a t t i t u d e o f m ind w h ich w i l l f i t th e
p u p i l f o r s a f e l i v i n g ; s e c o n d , and more s p e c i f i c a l l y , t o
e d u c a te young p e o p le t o become s a f e t y c o n s c io u s w o rk e rs i n
t h e i r f u tu r e p la c e s o f liv e lih o o d .
I t i s o f t e n s t a t e d t h a t p e a c e tim e s a r e m ore d e a d ly
th a n w a r.
The m e c h a n iz a tio n o f l i v i n g an d t h e s p e e d in g up o f
s te a m , e l e c t r i c , a u to m o b ile and a i r p l a n e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n h av e
b ro u g h t i n t h e i r wake in n u m e ra b le co m p lex s i t u a t i o n s an d
h a z a r d s w h ich a r e r e s u l t i n g i n a g r e a t e r num ber o f a c c i d e n t s
each y e a r.
W ith a l l t h e s k i l l shown i n i n v e n t i n g l a b o r an d
tim e s a v in g d e v i c e s i t i s a sa d com m entary t h a t u n t i l now i t
had n o t b e e n p o s s i b l e t o d e v e lo p e q u a l l y e f f e c t i v e s k i l l s i n
th e s a v in g o f l i f e an d lim b .
I n g e n e r a l , s a f e t y w ork may be c o n s id e r e d a s d iv id e d
b e tw e e n t h e f i e l d s o f i n d u s t r y , law e n f o r c e m e n t, an d e d u c a t i o n .
Much h a s b e e n a c c o m p lis h e d th r o u g h t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f s a f e r
m a c h in e ry an d o f g u a rd s f o r d a n g e ro u s m a c h in e ry .
The in v e n ­
t i o n s o f t h e a i r b r a k e and a u to m a tic c o u p l e r hav e s a v e d
h u n d re d s o f l i v e s *
G re a t im p ro v em en ts i n ro a d c o n s t r u c t i o n and
c i t y p la n n in g h av e a l s o b e e n made i n th e i n t e r e s t o f s a f e t y .
Laws h av e b ee n e n a c te d f o r th e p r o t e c t i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l w o rk e rs
and a r e i n f o r c e i n m o st s t a t e s .
The v a r i o u s s t a t e s h a v e e n ­
a c t e d la w s f o r s a f e o p e r a t i o n o f m o to r c a r s on t h e p u b l i c
h ig h w a y s•
The m o st im p o r ta n t s i n g l e f a c t o r , h o w ev e r, i n t h e move­
m ent f o r th e p r e v e n t i o n o f a c c i d e n t s i s e d u c a t i o n .
C a re le s s ­
n e s s and ig n o r a n c e a r e t h e m o st f r e q u e n t c a u s e s o f a c c i d e n t s .
What i s th e v a lu e o f p e r f e c t m e c h a n ic a l eq u ip m e n t i f t h e r e i s
no k n ow led g e o f how t o u s e i t s a f e l y o r o f g u a r d s f o r m a c h in e s
i f p e o p le n e g l e c t t o k eep them i n p la c e ?
Why e n a c t la w s f o r
p r o t e c t i o n i f th e y a r e n o t to b e o b ey ed ?
To p r e v e n t a c c i d e n t s ,
i t is
n o t o n ly n e c e s s a r y to know t h e c o r r e c t way
firs t
t o p o s s e s s t h e c o r r e c t way o f t h i n k i n g .
o f d o in g , b u t
T h is c o r r e c t
way o f t h i n k i n g an d d o in g comes o n ly w ith p r o p e r t r a i n i n g .
It
i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t t h e s a f e t y p ro g ra m s o f t h e s c h o o ls b e s t u d i e d ,
a n a ly z e d , an d k e p t u p - t o - d a t e a lo n g w ith th e e v e r a d v a n c in g
m e c h a n ic a l m odes o f l i v i n g .
P u rp o s e o f t h i s s t u d y . . I t i s t h e p u rp o s e o f th e a u t h o r
t o e v a lu a t e t h e s a f e t y e d u c a ti o n
p ro g ra m t h a t i s
now in c lu d e d
i n t h e c u r r ic u lu m o f th e j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o ls o f th e O akland
P u b lic S c h o o ls i n o r d e r t o p o i n t o u t n e e d s an d p ro b le m s , e s t a b ­
l i s h c u r r i c u l a r o b j e c t i v e s and p r o c e d u r e s w h ich may s e r v e a s
3
a g u id e o r s ta n d a r d w ith w h ich th e s a f e t y c u r r i c u l a m u st
h a rm o n iz e , and t o make s u g g e s tio n s f o r t h e im provem ent o f t h e
p ro g ra m w h e re v e r p o s s i b le *
An a n a l y s i s o f t h e p ro b le m r e v e a l s th e n e c e s s i t y f o r a
k n o w le d g e , f i r s t , o f s i t u a t i o n s c o n d u c iv e t o a c c i d e n t s i n
O ak la n d , an d s e c o n d , o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s an d te c h n iq u e s o f s a f e t y
e d u c a tio n a s r e l a t e d t o t h e s a f e t y e d u c a ti o n p ro g ra m o f th e
O akland P u b lic S c h o o ls*
Need f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f O ak la n d ^ s s a f e t y p ro g ra m *
W ith in r e c e n t y e a r s t h e r e h av e b e e n many t h i n g s t h a t h a v e
changed th e w ays o f l i v i n g i n O akland*
The S an F r a n c i s c o Bay
B rid g e h a s b e e n c o m p le te d , and w ith i t w ide a r t e r i a l s t r e e t s
h a v e b e e n l a i d th r o u g h o u t th e c i ty *
A new l o w - l e v e l t u n n e l
h a s b e e n c u t th r o u g h th e e a s t e r n h i l l s , b r i n g i n g w i t h i n c l o s e
t r a v e l i n g tim e o f t h e c i t y a v a s t a c r e a g e f o r b o th r e s i d e n c e
and r e c r e a t i o n .
The P o se y Tube t o A lam eda b r i n g s t h a t c i t y
w i t h i n s h o r t e r t r a v e l i n g tim e to O akland*
Wide new h ig h w ay s
c o n n e c t c i t i e s , t u n n e l s , a n d n ew ly o p e n e d -u p t e r r i t o r y .
The
r e c e n t P u b lic Works P ro g ram h a s b e e n t h e m eans f o r th e co n ­
s t r u c t i o n o f a b e a u t i f u l s c e n ic ro a d a lo n g th e to p o f t h e
h i l l s b a c k o f th e c i t y .
T h ese t r a n s p o r t a t i o n im p ro v em en ts h a v e c a u s e d a n e v e r
i n c r e a s i n g num ber o f p e o p le t o come to O akland t o l i v e an d i n
many c a s e s t o s e e k em ploym ent t h e r e .
B ecau se o f th e new t u n n e l
4
th r o u g h t h e e a s t e r n h i l l s t h e p o p u l a t i o n h a s s p r e a d o u t i n t o
su b u rb a n homes*
The S an F r a n c is c o Bay B rid g e h a s c a u s e d many
p e o p le who f o r m e r ly l i v e d i n S an F r a n c i s c o t o come t o O akland
o r t o go o u t t o c o u n tr y homes beyond t h e h i l l s .
T ra ffic
p ro b le m s h av e i n c r e a s e d and w h i l e , w ith th e new im p ro v em en ts
i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , t h e r e a r e s u f f i c i e n t num bers o f t r a f f i c
o f f i c e r s , i t i s t h e t r a v e l i n g p u b l i c w h ich m u st b e e d u c a te d
to d r i v e s a f e l y .
A l a r g e r e c r e a t i o n a l a r e a w ith tw o l a k e s h a s r e c e n t l y
b e e n open ed up t o t h e p u b l i c .
T h ere cam p in g , g o l f , b o a t i n g ,
swimming, an d many o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s may be e n jo y e d .
W eek-ends
when l a r g e crow ds th r o n g t h e p l a c e , a c c i d e n t s o c c u r , many o f
w h ich a r e u n n e c e s s a r y .
A s a f e ty - m in d e d p u b l i c i s th e o n ly
rem ed y .
R eview o f r e l a t e d s t u d i e s .
A se arch fo r in v e s tig a tio n s
r e l a t i n g t o s a f e t y e d u c a tio n i n t h e j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o ls o f
O akland r e v e a l e d n o n e .
H ow ever, t h e r e w ere t o b e fo u n d s i x
s t u d i e s on s a f e t y e d u c a t i o n , t h r e e o f w h ic h r e l a t e d t o s a f e t y
e d u c a tio n i n t h e L os A n g e le s s c h o o ls *
A s tu d y made by Farnham 1
i n 1926 o f s c h o o l s a f e t y c o m m itte e s i n S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a and
t h e i r e f f e c t u p o n c i t i z e n s h i p was one o f t h e s e .
T h is s tu d y i s
1 Norma H. F arn h am , "A S tu d y o f S c h o o l S a f e t y C om m ittees
i n S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a and T h e ir E f f e c t u p o n C i t i z e n s h i p , ”
( u n p u b lis h e d M a s t e r ’s t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e r n
C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s , 1 9 2 8 ), 74 p p .
5
b r i e f and g e n e r a l i n c h a r a c te r *
M cG u ire’ s s tu d y 2 i n 1932 was
l i m i t e d t o th e s a f e t y o f t h e p u p i l i n s t r e e t t r a f f i c .
A v ery
good s tu d y o f th e c o r r e l a t i o n o f s a f e t y e d u c a ti o n w ith o t h e r
h ig h s c h o o l s u b j e c t s was made b y M in e r3 i n 1 9 3 0 .
S tre itz 4
made a g r a d u a t e s tu d y i n T e a c h e r s ’ C o lle g e , C olum bia U n i v e r s i t y ,
on s a f e t y e d u c a tio n i n t h e e le m e n ta r y s c h o o l .
T h is i s a com­
p r e h e n s iv e s tu d y o f te c h n iq u e i n d e v e lo p in g s u b j e c t m a t t e r i n
s a fe ty .
I t c o n t a i n s a h i s t o r y o f t h e s a f e t y movement w ith i t s
u n d e r l y i n g p h ilo s o p h y and a c o u r s e o f s tu d y f o r t h e f i r s t n in e
g rad es.
A g r a d u a te s tu d y by H en ig 5 was made a t New Y ork
U n iv e rs ity .
He d e s c r i b e s t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a c u r r ic u lu m
f o r a c c i d e n t p r e v e n t i o n , an d r e p o r t s d e t a i l e d s u b j e c t m a t t e r
on s a f e t y i n g e n e r a l f o r v o c a t i o n a l s c h o o ls .
S o u rc e s o f d a t a and m ethod o f p r o c e d u r e .
In o rd e r to
g a i n some id e a o f . t h e s a f e t y e d u c a ti o n p ro g ra m t h a t i s p a r t
o f th e c u r r ic u lu m i n j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l e d u c a ti o n , f i v e c o u r s e s
^ H onora B. M cG u ire, "The S a f e ty o f t h e P u p i l on t h e Way
t o an d fro m S c h o o l ,” ( u n p u b lis h e d M a s te r ’ s t h e s i s , The U n iv e r ­
s i t y o f S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s , 1 9 3 2 ), 83 p p .
® F r a n c i s M in e r, ”How t o T each S a f e t y i n t h e H igh S c h o o l ,”
( u n p u b lis h e d M a s t e r ’s t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e rn
C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s , 1 9 3 0 ), 84 p p .
^ R u th S t r e i t z , S a f e ty E d u c a tio n i n t h e E le m e n ta ry S c h o o l
(New Y ork : N a ti o n a l B u reau o f C a s u a lty an d S u r e ty U n d e r w r it e r s ,
1 9 3 8 ), 142 p p .
5
Max S . H e n ig , S a f e t y i n V o c a tio n a l S c h o o ls (New Y ork:
N a ti o n a l B u rea u o f C a s u a lty a n d S u r e ty U n d e r w r i t e r s , 1 9 2 9 ),
110 p p .
6
o f s tu d y fro m a s many c i t i e s and tw o fro m s t a t e d e p a rtm e n ts
w ere exam ined.®
L e t t e r s w ere s e n t t o t h e o f f i c e o f s u p e r i n ­
te n d e n t o f s c h o o ls i n t e n c i t i e s s e l e c t e d a s i n d u s t r i a l c e n t e r s .
S ix o f t h e s e c i t i e s w ere i n t h e same p o p u l a t i o n g ro u p a s O akland,
t h r e e i n a g ro u p o f l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n , an d one i n a g ro u p o f
le s s p o p u la tio n .
S ev en s e n t c o u r s e s o f s tu d y on s a f e t y e d u c a ­
t i o n and t h r p e r e p l i e d t h a t t h e i r c o u r s e s i n s a f e t y w ere b e in g
r e v i s e d , w ere o u t o f p r i n t , an d w ould b e s e n t l a t e r .
Two
c o u r s e s o f s tu d y w ere fro m s t a t e d e p a r tm e n ts , a s t h e c i t i e s
o f Hew O rle a n s a n d B irm ingham w ere u s i n g th e s a f e t y c o u r s e o f
s tu d y from th e s t a t e d e p a rtm e n t o f e d u c a tio n i n t h e i r r e s p e c ­
tiv e s ta te s .
E x a m in a tio n o f O ak lan d * s e o u r s e o f s tu d y w as au g m en ted
6 C le v e la n d P u b lic S c h o o ls , S a f e t y E d u c a tio n . A C o u rse
o f S tu d y f o r E le m e n ta ry and J u n i o r H igh S c h o o ls ( C le v e la n d .
O h io : (The C le v e la n d S a f e t y C o u n c il im c o o p e r a tio n w ith th e
C le v e la n d B oard o f E d u c a tio n , 1 9 3 7 ), 96 p p . ; K an sas C i t y P u b lic
S c h o o ls , S a f e ty i n t h e C u rric u lu m , E le m e n ta ry S c h o o ls . K in d e r a r t e n , G rad es I ^ T l T K ansas C i t y . M o.: B oard o f E d u c a tio n ,
9 3 7 ) , 123 p p . ; “"K ansas C i ty P u b lic S c h o o ls , S a f e t y i n t h e
C u r r ic u lu m . J u n i o r an d S e n io r H ig h S c h o o ls (K an sas C i t y , M o.:
B oard o f E d u c a tio n , 1 9 3 ^ ) , 150 p p . ; M in n e a p o lis P u b lic S c h o o ls ,
C o u rse o f S tu d y , S a f e t y an d H e a lth E d u c a tio n „ K in d e r g a r te n
through"™ !? (M in n e a p o lis ,~ M ln n ♦: B oard o f E d u c a tio n , 1 9 3 2 ),
161 p p . ; W o rc e s te r P u b lic S c h o o ls , C o u rse o f S tu d y i n S a f e t y
E d u c a tio n ( W o r c e s te r , M a s s .: B oard o f E d u c a tio n , 1 9 2 6 ), 128 p p . ;
D e t r o i t P u b lic S c h o o ls , Handbook o f S a f e t y R e g u la t io n s ( D e t r o i t ,
M ic h .: B oard o f E d u c a tio n , 1 9 3 3 ), 101 p p . ; L o u is ia n a S t a t e
D e p a rtm e n t o f E d u c a tio n , C o u rse o f S tu d y i n S a f e t y E d u c a tio n ,
B u l l e t i n No. 325 (B a to n R ouge: The D e p a rtm e n t, 1 9 3 6 ), 7^ p p . ;
A labam a S t a t e D ep a rtm en t o f E d u c a tio n , A C o u rse o f S tu d y i n
S a f e t y E d u c a tio n . B u l l e t i n No. 15 (M ontgom ery, A l a . : The
D e p a rtm e n t, 1 9 3 2 ], 192 p p .
f
7
toy p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s w ith o f f i c i a l s and t e a c h e r s h a v in g t o
do w ith t h e t e a c h i n g o f j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l s a f e t y .
The t e a c h e r s
s e l e c t e d w ere c h a irm e n o f th e d e p a rtm e n ts i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e
s c h o o ls o r w ere members o f c u r r ic u lu m c o m m itte e s .
The i n t e r ­
v iew s w ere i n th e fo rm o f d i s c u s s i o n s w ith no p a r t i c u l a r s e t
o f q u e s t i o n s b e in g u s e d .
shown i n T ab le I .
The num ber o f p e r s o n s in te r v ie w e d i s
B r i e f n o t e s w ere ta k e n d u r in g t h e i n t e r v i e w s
and t h e s e w ere ex p an d ed a t th e f i r s t o p p o r t u n i t y a f t e r t h e
in te rv ie w s .
V a r io u s c i t y an d s t a t e c o u r s e s o f s tu d y i n s a f e t y e d u c a ­
t i o n w ere c r i t i c a l l y a n a ly z e d an d t a b u l a t e d .
T hese t a b u l a t i o n s
w ere th e n sum m arized t o s u p p ly th e b a s i s f o r c e r t a i n s t a t e m e n t s
made i n s u c c e e d in g c h a p t e r s a s w e l l a s t h e f o u n d a t i o n f o r th e
reco m m en d a tio n s p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s t h e s i s .
In th e c o u rse s o f
s tu d y on s a f e t y e d u c a tio n fro m t h e f i v e c i t i e s an d tw o s t a t e
d e p a r tm e n ts o f e d u c a tio n l i s t e d
i n f o o t n o t e 6 , t h e ite m s f a l l
u n d e r th e f o llo w in g s i x h e a d in g s :
h a z a rd s,
(1 ) home s a f e t y ,
(3 ) m o to r v e h i c l e h a z a r d s ,
(2 ) p la y
(4 ) c la s s r o o m h a z a r d s ,
(5 ) f i r s t a i d an d h e a l t h , an d (6 ) f i r e p r e v e n t i o n .
I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e c o u r s e s o f s tu d y i n s a f e t y s t a t i s t i c s ,
o t h e r f a c t s w e re o b ta in e d w h ic h h a v e b ee n t a b u l a t e d .
The s o u r c e
o f t h e s e f a c t s i s g iv e n i n t h e t a b l e s w h ich a p p e a r th r o u g h o u t
t h e s tu d y an d a r e c o n s id e r e d a c c o r d in g t o t h e f a c t s t h a t a r e
c o n ta in e d i n th e m .
fro m t h i s in f o r m a tio n t h e w r i t e r h a s ta k e n e a c h ite m an d
8
TABLE I
NUMBER OF PERSONS INTERVIEWED WHO TEACH
SAFETY I N I OAKLAND JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOIS
Number
i n d e p a rtm e n t
In te rv ie w s
Number
Per cent
O akland P o l i c e o f f i c e r s
9
Members o f E a s t Bay S a f e t y
C o u n c il
4
J u n i o r H igh S o h o o l t e a c h e r s
te a c h in g :
S o c ia l S tu d ie s
66
26
39
P h y s ic a l E d u c a tio n
37
17
46
S c ie n c e
31
21
68
I n d u s t r i a l A rts
35
14
40
Home E conom ics
28
12
43
I n c h a rg e o f S a f e t y P a t r o l
13
10
78
9
s e t up a t t h e end o f e a c h c h a p t e r reco m m en d a tio n s an d s u g g e s ­
t i o n s f o r a b e t t e r s a f e t y p ro g ra m i n t h e j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o ls
i n O a k la n d .
O r g a n iz a tio n o f r e m a in d e r o f t h e t h e s i s*
The c o n t e n t
o f th e r e m a in d e r o f t h i s t h e s i s i s o r g a n iz e d a s f o l l o w s :
I n C h a p te r I I i s d e s c r i b e d t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e
j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l t r a f f i c p a t r o l i n O a k la n d .
The im p o rta n c e
o f t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n i s s e e n n o t o n ly i n th e s a f e t y o f s t u ­
d e n ts a t s t r e e t c ro s s in g s b u t i n i t s
c o n t r i b u t i o n to t h e
c h a r a c te r o f th e boys in th e o r g a n iz a tio n .
I n C h a p te r I I I a s tu d y i s made o f s a f e t y i n th e home
b e c a u s e i t i s t h e r e t h a t a g r e a t many s e r i o u s a c c i d e n t s o c c u r .
I n C h a p te r IW p la y h a z a r d s a r e s t u d i e d , s i n c e t h i s p a r ­
t i c u l a r ty p e o f h a z a r d v i t a l l y c o n c e r n s t h e p u p i l i n h i s p l a y
and v a c a t i o n t i m e .
I n C h a p te r ¥ m o to r v e h i c l e h a z a r d s a r e c o n s id e r e d *
A
g r e a t d e a l o f a t t e n t i o n i s p a i d t o t h i s ty p e o f h a z a r d an d
ju s tly so .
I t h a s a l a r g e an d im p o r ta n t p a r t i n s a f e t y e d u c a ­
tio n .
I n C h a p te r ¥1 c la s s ro o m h a z a r d s a r e s t u d i e d i n o r d e r t o
g iv e th e r e a d e r in f o r m a ti o n on t h i s ty p e o f h a z a r d .
A c c id e n ts
t h a t o c c u r i n t h e c la s s ro o m s s h o u ld be a lm o s t e l im in a te d by
p ro p er in s tr u c tio n .
I n C h a p te r ¥ 1 1 f i r s t a i d and h e a l t h a r e c o n s id e r e d .
10
T hese im p o r ta n t s u b j e c t s s h o u ld be s t u d i e d , s i n c e t h e y a r e
c l o s e l y c o n n e c te d w ith a c c i d e n t s and h a z a rd s *
I n C h a p te r T i l l f i r e p r e v e n t i o n i s ta k e n up b e c a u s e i t
i s a v e r y im p o r ta n t s tu d y i n c o n n e c tio n w ith a c o u r s e i n s a f e t y
e d u c a tio n *
I n C h a p te r IX a r e g iv e n t h e summary, c o n c l u s i o n s , and
re c o m m e n d a tio n s •
The B i b lio g r a p h y i s i n two p a r t s .
The m a t e r i a l s u se d
i n t h e m aking o f t h i s t h e s i s a r e l i s t e d i n t h e f i r s t p a r t .
The
se co n d p a r t i s a l i s t o f m a t e r i a l s t h a t w i l l b e fo u n d u s e f u l i n
te a c h in g s a f e ty to sc h o o l c h ild r e n .
The A p p en d ix i s a l s o i n two p a r t s .
In th e f i r s t p a r t i s
fo u n d th o s e p o r t i o n s o f th e v a r i o u s s a f e t y c o u r s e s o f s tu d y a p ­
p e r t a i n i n g t o j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l i n s t r u c t i o n .
The se c o n d p a r t
o f t h e A p p en d ix c o n s i s t s o f p o s t e r s and p a m p h le ts r e f e r r e d t o
i n t h i s s tu d y .
CHAPTER I I
THE TRAFFIC PATROL IN OAKLAND
A v e r y im p o r ta n t p h a s e o f s a f e t y - e d u c a t i o n i s t h e
d i r e c t p r o v i s i o n s made b y t h e s c h o o l f o r t h e s a f e t y o f th e
p u p ils .
T h ese p r o v i s i o n s a r e b r o u g h t t o t h e a t t e n t i o n o f
th e p u p i l s i n t h e O akland j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o ls th r o u g h t h e
o r g a n i z a t i o n o f th e t r a f f i c p a t r o l w h ich i s h e r e t o be d i s ­
cussed,
A f t e r a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f O akland and i t s s c h o o l
sy ste m th e t r a f f i c p a t r o l i s d e s c r i b e d a s t o i t s p u r p o s e , i t s
o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e t r a f f i c s q u a d , t h e w o rk in g s o f t h i s s q u a d ,
t h e e q u ip m e n t o f th e p a t r o l , an d p a r e n t a l c o n s e n t.
L o c a tio n o f O ak lan d an d r e l a t i o n t o s u r r o u n d in g c o u n t r y .
The c i t y o f O ak lan d i s l o c a t e d i n A lam eda c o u n ty on th e e a s t
s h o r e o f S an F r a n c i s c o b a y .
I t i s th e t h i r d la r g e s t c i t y in
C a l i f o r n i a , a n d , b e c a u s e o f i t s l o c a t i o n , i s t h e f a s t e s t grow ­
in g i n d u s t r i a l c i t y i n t h e I f e s t .
O ak lan d h a s 714 m ile s o f
p av ed s t r e e t s , a n a r e a o f 6 1 ,6 s q u a r e m i l e s , and 27 m i l e s o f
deep w a te r f r o n t a g e ,
O ak lan d i s c o n n e c te d t o S an F r a n c is c o b y a r e c e n t l y
co m p le te d 77 m i l l i o n d o l l a r b r i d g e .
T h is b r i d g e c a r r i e s d o u b le
t r a c k s f o r i n t e r u r b a n t r a i n s and a s i x - l a n e hig h w ay f o r t r u c k s
and h eav y t r a f f i c .
The P o sey tu b e c o n n e c ts O akland t o th e c i t y
o f A lam eda, an d a n ew ly c o m p le te d l o w - l e v e l t u n n e l b r i n g s O akland
12
e l o s e t o a v a s t r e s i d e n t i a l an d r u r a l d i s t r i c t e a s t o f t h e c i t y
i n C o n tra C o sta co u n ty *
B e r k e le y an d t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a a r e s i t u a t e d
.
on t h e n o r t h e r n b o r d e r o f O ak la n d , an d S an L ean d ro an d Hayward
a d j o i n i t t o t h e s o u th e a s t *
M a jo r h ig h w ay s r u n n o r t h t o
S a c ra m e n to an d s o u th t o S an J o s e , th r o u g h r i c h fa r m in g d i s t r i c t s *
P o p u la ti o n an d a v e r a g e d a i l y a t te n d a n c e *
A c c o rd in g t o
t h e 1950 c e n s u s , O akland h a s a p o p u l a t i o n o f 2 8 4 ,0 6 3 ; an d
a c c o r d in g t o a Chamber o f Commerce e s t i m a t e , i n 1 9 4 0 , a p o p u ­
l a t i o n o f 3 1 4 ,3 2 4 *
The p u b l i c s c h o o ls o f t h e c i t y , h a d , d u r in g
t h e s p r i n g s e m e s te r , a n a v e r a g e d a i l y a tte n d a n c e o f 4 7 ,3 0 9 .
Of
t h i s num ber 1 1 ,3 2 0 w ere i n th e j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o ls i n t h e c i t y .
Number o f j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o ls and t e a c h e r s *
I n th e
O ak lan d p u b l i c s c h o o l s y s te m t h e r e w ere d u r in g t h e s p r i n g
s e m e s te r , 1 9 4 0 , 75 s c h o o ls em p lo y in g a p p r o x im a te ly 1 ,7 0 4
t e a c h e r s and p r i n c i p a l s .
Of t h i s num ber a p p r o x im a te ly 390
t e a c h e r s w e re i n t h e j u n i o r h ig h s e h o o l s .
T h is in f o r m a ti o n
was o b ta in e d fro m t h e p a y r o l l o f f i c e o f t h e O ak lan d P u b lic
S c h o o ls i n M arch, 1 9 4 0 .
T h ere w ere t h i r t e e n j u n i o r h ig h
s c h o o ls i n t h e system *
P u rp o se o f t h e p a t r o l .
The t r a f f i c p a t r o l i n t h e
j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o ls ^ f O ak lan d was o r g a n iz e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e
o f d i r e c t i n g c h i l d r e n s a f e l y a c r o s s b u s y s t r e e t s on t h e i r way
13
to and fro m s c h o o l .
I t i s n o t th e d u ty o f t h e p a t r o l t o
d ir e c t v e h ic u la r t r a f f i c .
O r g a n iz a tio n o f t h e p a t r o l .
In each o f th e t h i r t e e n
j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o ls o f O akland a f a c u l t y member w as r e s p o n s i b l e
f o r th e t r a f f i c p a t r o l o f t h a t s c h o o l.
Boys w ere c h o s e n f o r
t h i s w ork b e c a u s e o f t h e i r r e l i a b i l i t y , r e l a t i v e m a t u r i t y , and
a t le a s t a
"B "
in c itiz e n s h ip .
At th e b e g in n in g o f th e s c h o o l
y e a r b o y s a s k e d t o b e members o f t h e p a t r o l .
T h ere a lw a y s
seem ed t o b e p l e n t y o f b oys a n x io u s t o do t h i s w o rk .
The
p a t r o l w as u n d e r th e s u p e r v i s i o n o f th e O akland P o l i c e D e p a r t­
m ent and a p o l i c e o f f i c e r was a s s ig n e d t o v i s i t e a c h j u n i o r
h ig h s c h o o l, m e e t w ith th e b o y s , t a l k w ith th em , and g iv e
d i r e c t i o n s c o n c e r n in g t h e d u t i e s o f t h e p a t r o l w h ile on d u ty .
T hese v i s i t s w ere u s u a l l y once a m onth t o e a c h s c h o o l .
The t r a f f i c
sq u ad .
T h ere was a t r a f f i c sq u a d f o r each
d a n g e ro u s c r o s s i n g w h ich th e c h i l d r e n c r o s s e d on th e way to
an d fro m s c h o o l .
T h is sq u a d c o n s i s t e d o f a s e r g e a n t and fro m
two t o f o u r o f f i c e r s .
A t b u sy c r o s s i n g s t h e r e w ere f o u r
o f f i c e r s and a t q u i e t e r c r o s s i n g s , two o f f i c e r s .
had d i r e c t c h a r g e o f t h e i r s q u a d .
The s e r g e a n t s
They saw t h a t t h e o f f i c e r s
u n d e r th em w ere on d u ty a t t h e c o r r e c t tim e , t h a t th e s i g n s
w ere c a r r i e d i n th e r i g h t m an n er, and t h a t t h e o f f i c e r s *
d u c t was ab o v e r e p r o a c h w h ile on d u ty .
con­
They w ere d i r e c t l y
r e s p o n s i b l e f o r th e s a f e t y o f p a s s in g c h i l d r e n .
They d i r e c t e d
14
t h e o f f i c e r s to r a i s e an d lo w e r t h e i r s i g n s .
The o f f i c e r s w ere b o y s n o t a f r a i d o f w o rk .
They had t o
b e w i l l i n g t o go o u t i n t h e c o ld a n d t h e r a i n , an d had t o be
th o r o u g h ly r e l i a b l e .
t o b e on t h e s q u a d .
They c o n s id e r e d i t a d i s t i n c t p r i v i l e g e
They w ere e x p e c te d t o k e e p th e m s e lv e s
c l e a n and n e a t an d a t a l l tim e s c o n d u c t th e m s e lv e s i n a m anner
b e f i t t i n g th e h o n o r t h a t h ad b e e n p la c e d u p o n th em .
They h a d
t o c a r e f o r t h e i r r a i n c o a t s , h a t s , s i g n s , an d o t h e r e q u ip m e n t.
Squad p r o c e d u r e .
s im p le .
The a c t u a l m eth o d s t h e b o y s u s e d w ere
F iv e m in u te s b e f o r e th e y w e re to b e a t t h e i r p o s t s
th e y a s se m b le d b e f o r e t h e eq u ip m e n t room .
They g o t t h e i r h a t s ,
s i g n s , w h i s t l e s , and i f n e c e s s a r y , t h e i r r a i n c o a t s , and m arched
o u t t o t h e i r p o s t s i n a n o r d e r l y m a n n er, t h e s e r g e a n t l e a d i n g ,
f o llo w e d by h i s tw o o r f o u r o f f i c e r s , d e p e n d in g on t h e s i z e o f
th e sq u ad .
They to o k up t h e i r p o s i t i o n a s f o l l o w s :
The
s e r g e a n t s to o d a t t h e s t r e e t i n t e r s e c t i o n w h ere h e h ad a c l e a r
v ie w o f a p p r o a c h in g t r a f f i c .
A t b u sy c r o s s i n g s w h ere a sq u a d
o f f i v e was u s e d , two o f t h e o f f i c e r s to o k up p o s i t i o n s a b o u t
t e n f e e t fro m t h e c o r n e r s an d d ia g o n a l fro m e a c h o t h e r .
The
o t h e r tw o o f f i c e r s s to o d u p an d down t h e s t r e e t r e s p e c t i v e l y ,
a b o u t f i f t y f e e t fro m t h e f i r s t tw o o f f i c e r s .
Thus a m o t o r i s t
w ould be a b l e t o come t o a s t o p b e f o r e r e a c h in g t h e i n t e r s e c ­
t i o n ev e n i f t h e s i g n s w ere lo w e re d a g a i n s t him j u s t a s h e came
a b r e a s t o f th e f i r s t o n e , i t b e in g p e r m i s s i b l e t o p a s s by t h e
15
f i r s t s ig n .
I n o t h e r w o rd s , t h e r e was no e x c u s e f o r a n y
m o t o r i s t r u n n in g th r o u g h tw o lo w e re d s i g n s .
At q u ie te r
c r o s s i n g s o n ly th e s e r g e a n t an d tw o o f f i c e r s w orked w ith o u t
th e d o u b le s i g n f e a t u r e .
W h ite l i n e s w h ich i n d i c a t e d th e
p e d e s t r i a n l a n e s w ere p a i n t e d on t h e s t r e e t .
I t w as t o be
p a r t i c u l a r l y n o te d t h a t t h e b o y s d id n o t s ta n d i n t h e s t r e e t
b u t r a t h e r on t h e ed g e o f t h e c u r b i n g .
When t h e s e r g e a n t saw t h a t t h e s t r e e t was c l e a r an d
t h a t t h e r e w as n o n e a r a p p r o a c h in g c a r h e b lew h i s w h i s t l e
once, a sh a rp , c le a r b l a s t .
The o f f i c e r s lo w e re d t h e i r s i g n s
and t h e c h i l d r e n c r o s s e d th e s t r e e t .
They w ere n o t a llo w e d
t o c r o s s u n l e s s t h e s i g n s w ere lo w e re d and w ere i n s t r u c t e d t o
c r o s s q u i c k l y an d i n o r d e r w ith o u t l o i t e r i n g .
Two b l a s t s o f
th e s e r g e a n t 's w h i s t l e m ean t t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n h ad c r o s s e d and
t h a t t h e s i g n s w ere t o b e r a i s e d s o t h a t m o to r t r a f f i c c o u ld
p ro cee d .
A l l b o y s h ad t o b e c o n t in u o u s ly on t h e a l e r t i n
o r d e r t o h av e a w e l l f u n c t i o n i n g p a t r o l .
I t m u st be made c l e a r t h a t t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e b o y s
was n o t t o d ir e c s t t r a f f i c , b u t m e re ly t o d i r e c t c h i l d r e n
a c ro s s th e s t r e e t .
The p a t r o l h ad no pow er t o s t o p a c a r , b u t
i f a c a r s h o u ld go th r o u g h t h e s i g n s t h e m o t o r i s t , when r e ­
p o r te d t o a p o lic e m a n by a member o f t h e p a t r o l , w as s u b j e c t
to a r r e s t .
P a t r o l e q u ip m e n t.
The f o llo w in g e q u ip m e n t was u s e d by
th e j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l t r a f f i c p a t r o l s and was f u r n i s h e d by th e
16
C ity o f O a k la n d .
S to p s i g n s w ere made o f c i r c u l a r m e ta l d i s c s
one a n d o n e - h a l f f e e t i n d ia m e te r w ith b la c k l e t t e r s on a n
o ra n g e b a c k g ro u n d .
The l e t t e r s on b o th s i d e s o f th e s i g n
r e a d , •’S to p ” ( s i x in c h e s h i g h ) , and b e lo w , "O.P.D.** (two in c h e s
h ig h ).
The s i g n s w ere f a s t e n e d t o w ooden p o l e s one an d o n e -
h a l f in c h e s i n d ia m e te r and s i x f e e t lo n g .
The b o y s w ere s u p p li e d w ith o v e r s e a s c a p s o f o ra n g e
c o lo r.
T hese c a p s b o r e t h e l e t t e r s , " O .F .D ." and w ere w orn
o n ly when t h e b o y s w ere on d u ty .
The b o y s w ere f u r t h e r
s u p p li e d w ith m e ta l b a d g e s w i t h t h e r a n k an d num ber o f t h e i r
o ffic e .
R a in c o a ts and h a t s w ere a l s o f u r n i s h e d f o r in c le m e n t
w e a th e r .
P a r e n ta l c o n s e n t.
The c o n s e n t o f p a r e n t s t o p a r t i c i p a ­
t i o n o f t h e b o y s i n p a t r o l w ork w as one b a s i c r e q u ir e m e n t.
It
was o b ta in e d i n w r i t i n g , and f o r t h a t p u rp o s e a p r i n t e d fo rm
w as u s e d .
T h is c o n s e n t was o b ta in e d by th e p r i n c i p a l o f th e
s c h o o l, an d i t was e x p l a in e d t o t h e p a r e n t s t h a t t h e b o y s d id
n o t and w ere n o t t o a t te m p t t o d i r e c t v e h i c u l a r t r a f f i c .
F u r th e r m o r e , no s t u d e n t w as a s s ig n e d t o p a t r o l d u ty a g a i n s t
h is w ill.
Two f r e e p a s s e s p e r m onth w ere g iv e n b y m o tio n p i c t u r e
t h e a t e r s t o e a c h t r a f f i c p a t r o l m em ber.
In a d d itio n th e s e
t h e a t e r s g av e two p a r t i e s p e r te rm t o a l l members o f t h e
O ak lan d t r a f f i c p a t r o l .
17
The t r a f f i c p a t r o l h a s b e e n o r g a n iz e d i n O ak lan d f o r
tw e lv e y e a r s and d u r in g t h a t tim e t h e r e h a s b e e n b u t one
a c c id e n t.
On t h a t o c c a s io n a m o t o r i s t d ro v e th r o u g h t h e s i g n s
and i n j u r e d o n e t r a f f i c boy and f o u r p u p ils *
Summary.
O a k la n d f s j u n i o r t r a f f i c p a t r o l was f o r th e
p u rp o s e o f d i r e c t i n g c h i l d r e n s a f e l y a c r o s s b u s y s t r e e t s on
t h e i r way t o an d fro m s c h o o l.
I t w as o r g a n iz e d by a member
o f t h e f a c u l t y a t e a c h s c h o o l and o p e r a t e d a c c o r d in g t o s t a n d ­
a r d iz e d p r o c e d u r e s u n d e r th e s u p e r v i s i o n o f t h e p o l i c e d e p a r t ­
m e n t.
D u rin g t h e tw e lv e y e a r s o f i t s o p e r a t i o n up t o t h e tim e
o f t h i s s tu d y t h e r e had b ee n b u t one a c c i d e n t .
CHAPTER I I I
HOME SAFETY
Home s a f e t y h a s b e e n n e g l e c t e d i n s c h o o l i n s t r u c t i o n .
The f a c t t h a t m o ra l s u a s i o n i s th e p r im a r y im p lem e n t o f e n ­
fo rc e m e n t o f s a f e home c o n d i t i o n s c r e a t e s a d i f f i c u l t t a s k .
T h is d ep en d en ce u p o n i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o m a in ta in a
s a f e home p r e s e n t s a d i s t i n c t c h a rg e to e d u c a t i o n .
I n co n ­
s i d e r i n g t h e s c h o o l ’ s f u n c t i o n i n e d u c a ti n g to w a rd home
s a f e t y , p r e s e n t day h a z a r d s i n w h ich i n s t r u c t i o n i s n e e d e d
h av e f i r s t b e e n c o n s id e r e d , f o llo w in g w h ich t h e i n s t r u c t i o n
c a r r i e d o n i n o t h e r c i t i e s an d s t a t e s w ith r e g a r d t o t h i s
s u b je c t i s in v e s tig a te d .
A fte r c o n s id e rin g th e p r a c t i c e s i n
th e O akland j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o ls i n t h i s p h a s e o f s a f e t y e d u c a ­
t i o n , reco m m en d a tio n s a r e m ad e.
P r e s e n t d ay h a z a r d s i n w h ich i n s t r u c t i o n i s n e e d e d .
One
o f t h e b a s i c p u r p o s e s o f e d u c a tio n i s w o rth y home m e m b e rsh ip .
Can o u r e d u c a t i o n a l e f f o r t s to w a rd t h i s outcom e b e j u s t i f i e d
i f we ig n o r e hom e. h a z a r d s , i n s a n i t a r y c o n d i t i o n s , an d d a n g e ro u s
c o n d u c t t h a t f o llo w fro m ig n o r a n c e , c a r e l e s s n e s s , and i n d i f f e r ­
ence?
F a l l s , f i r e s , b u rn s , e x p lo s io n s , s u f f o c a tio n s , p o is o n in g s ,
c u t s and b r u i s e s , an d e l e c t r o c u t i o n s " i n th e home e x a c te d a
g r e a t e r t o l l l a s t y e a r th a n t h e t o l l fro m t r a f f i c . " 1
1 F ra n k K. F o s t e r , "A S t a t e P ro g ram o f S a f e t y E d u c a tio n ,"
C a l i f o r n i a J o u r n a l o f S e c o n d a ry E d u c a tio n , 1 4 :4 6 0 , D ecem ber, 19B9.
19
Home a c c i d e n t s s ta n d o u t fro m a l l o t h e r t y p e s o f a c c i ­
d e n t s f o r t h e i r m u l t i p l i c i t y and n e g l e c t *
"E ach y e a r m ore t h a n
t h i r t y th o u s a n d p e o p le a r e a c c i d e n t a l l y k i l l e d i n and a b o u t
o u r A m erican h o m e s .1,2
B eh in d m o st o f t h e s e a c c i d e n t s l i e
p r im a r y c a u s e s r e a c h in g d eep i n t o t h e h id d e n r e c e s s e s o f human
c o n d i t i o n s and c o n d u c t.
Long e s t a b l i s h e d c u s to m s , t r a d i t i o n s ,
h a b i t s , an d a t t i t u d e s a r e in v o lv e d .
So, to o , a re p h y s ic a l
and m e n ta l i n f i r m i t i e s and w e a k n e s s e s , f a t i g u e , f r a y e d n e r v e s ,
d u l l e d r e f l e x e s , an d a s c o r e o f o t h e r c o n d i t i o n s i n h e r e n t i n
th e p s y c h o lo g y o f t h e human b e i n g .
As i n o t h e r p h a s e s o f s a f e t y t e a c h i n g , t h e home s a f e t y
c u r r ic u lu m s h o u ld be p la n n e d w i t h c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r t h e f r e ­
q u ency and s e v e r i t y o f v a r i o u s ty p e s o f a c c i d e n t s i n w h ich
s t u d e n t s o f j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l a g e a r e in v o lv e d .
I t i s im­
p o r t a n t t o know, f o r ex a m p le , t h a t f a l l s a r e t h e g r e a t e s t
s i n g l e c a u s e o f home a c c i d e n t s , w i t h b u r n s , s c a l d s , and e x p lo ­
s io n s ta k in g th e n e x t g r e a t e s t t o l l .
N ex t i n o r d e r a r e s l i p ­
p in g on o r s t r i k i n g a g a i n s t o b j e c t s , b e in g s t r u c k b y f a l l i n g
o r f l y i n g o b j e c t s , c u t s and s c r a t c h e s , h a n d l in g , l i f t i n g o r
c a r r y i n g o b j e c t s , p o i s o n i n g s , and m is c e l la n e o u s o t h e r c a u s e s .
A s u r v e y c o n d u c te d by t h e N a ti o n a l S a f e t y C o u n c il i n
1936 on home a c c i d e n t s i n Cook C o u n ty , I l l i n o i s , show ed some
2 The A m erican Red C r o s s , " A c c id e n t C a u s e s ," p a m p h le t,
in f o r m a ti o n f o r t e a c h e r s , A u g u s t, 1 9 3 8 , p . 4 .
in te re s tin g r e s u lt s .3
Of 4 ,6 0 2 a c c i d e n t s a n a ly z e d , eq u ip m e n t
p la y e d a p a r t i n t h e g r e a t e s t num ber— 9 5 7 .
T h is in c lu d e d ,
" im p ro p e r u s e o f s u i t a b l e e q u ip m e n t," " u s e o f e q u ip m en t n o t
s u i t e d t o t h e w o rk ," an d " u s e o f e q u ip m e n t n e e d in g r e p a i r o r
r e p l a c e m e n t ."
N ex t i n im p o rta n c e a s a m e c h a n ic a l f a c t o r w as " d i s ­
o r d e r " c h a rg e d w ith 810 c a s e s .
O th e r f a c t o r s w e re : "h o u se
p o o r ly p la n n e d o r i n n ee d o f r e p a i r , 390 c a s e s ; i c e on s t e p s
o r s id e w a lk , 191 c a s e s ; i n s u f f i c i e n t l i g h t , 168 c a s e s ; and
m i s c e l l a n e o u s , 447 c a s e s . "
An i n t e r e s t i n g t a b l e o b ta in e d fro m t h i s s u r v e y i s g iv e n
on t h e n e x t p a g e .
P ro c e d u r e u s e d i n o t h e r c i t i e s and s t a t e s a b o u t home
h az ard s.
Of t h e s e v e n p ro g ra m s o f home h a z a r d s s t u d i e d , f i v e
had home c h e c k l i s t s .
The home eco n o m ics d e p a rtm e n t i n m o st
o f t h e s e p ro g ra m s w as t h e p la c e f o r i n s t r u c t i o n i n home s a f e t y .
I n th e C le v e la n d j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l s , t h e v a r i o u s t o p i c s
o f s a f e t y w ere a s s ig n e d t o t h e e i g h t te a c h i n g m o n th s o f th e
sch o o l y e a r.
D ecem ber.
Home s a f e t y was g iv e n d u r in g t h e m onth
of
Home-room t e a c h e r s w ere a s s ig n e d th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y
f o r s a f e ty in s t r u c tio n f o r t h e i r s p e c if ic g ro u p s.
Much o f th e
3 N a ti o n a l S a f e t y C o u n c il, A c c id e n t F a c t s (C h ic a g o :
N a ti o n a l S a f e t y C o u n c il, 1 9 3 7 ), p . 5 5 .
21
TABLE I I
LEADING CAUSES OF HOME ACCIDENTS8
M e c h a n ic a l c a u s e s
Fer
cent
P e rso n a l cau ses
Per
cent
D is o r d e r
18
P o o r ju d g m en t
34
Im p ro p e r e q u ip m e n t
10
10
Im p ro p e r u s e o f eq u ip m en t
10
C h ild i n j u r y
f a u lt o f a d u lt
P h y s ic a l f r a i l t y
8
H u rry
6
In to x ic a tio n
5
P h y s i c a l h a n d ic a p s
3
H ouse n e e d e d r e p a i r
8
I c e on w a lk
4
Lack o f l i g h t
4
O th e r m e c h a n ic a l
9
No m e c h a n ic a l f a c t o r
37
O th e r p e r s o n a l
12
No p e r s o n a l f a c t o r
32
a N a t i o n a l S a f e t y C o u n c il, A c c id e n t F a c t s , p . 5 5 .
zz
same home s a f e t y i n s t r u c t i o n w as g iv e n i n home eco n o m ic s
c l a s s e s r e s u l t i n g i n some o v e r la p p in g o f i n s t r u c t i o n *
The f o llo w in g r e p r e s e n t s an a p p ro a c h t o t h e p ro b le m
o f s a f e t y i n t h e home*
E ach s t u d e n t exam ined h i s own home,
p r e p a r e d a l i s t o f home h a z a r d s , an d p r e s e n t e d i t t o h i s
c l a s s c o m m itte e .
From t h i s a. c h e c k l i s t was m a d e .4
E ach
s t u d e n t was a s k e d to c h e c k h i s home and p l a c e a c h e c k a g a i n s t
a n ite m i f h i s home was s a f e fro m t h i s p a r t i c u l a r h a z a r d .
A s t u d e n t a c c i d e n t r e p o r t t h a t to o k a c c o u n t o f a l l
a c c i d e n t s in c lu d e d home a c c i d e n t s .
T h is r e p o r t w as made f o r
th e p u rp o s e o f c o l l e c t i n g c o m p le te d a t a f o r s tu d y and
p re v e n tio n .
I n t h e K an sas C i ty s c h o o ls i n s t r u c t i o n i n home s a f e t y
was p a r t o f th e Home E conom ics c o u r s e .
I n t h i s c o u r s e su g ­
g e s t e d t o p i c s t o be c o n s id e r e d w ere g iv e n , t o g e t h e r w ith s a f e
p r a c tic e s in th e sch o o l la b o r a to r y .5
O u ts id e o f t h e s c h o o l s , b u t i n c l u d i n g th e s c h o o l c h i l ­
d r e n i n K an sas C i t y , w as t h e C h i l d r e n ’ s B u reau d i r e c t e d by
Rosamond L o s h ., T h is b u re a u s t u d i e d t h e c a u s e and p r e v e n t i o n
o f home a c c i d e n t s i n t h a t c i t y b e s i d e s g i v i n g t h e c h i l d r e n
p . 31.
p . 81.
4 C le v e la n d C o u rse o f S tu d y i n S a f e t y E d u c a tio n » 1 9 3 7 ,
A t y p i c a l c h e c k l i s t w i l l b e fo u n d " in t h e A p p en d ix ,
5
A l i s t o f t h e s e t o p i c s an d p r a c t i c e s a r e g iv e n i n t h e
A p p e n d ix , p . 8 4 .
83
a t r a i n i n g i n home s a f e ty *
ft
I n t h e s c h o o ls o f M in n e a p o lis home s a f e t y w as t a u g h t
u n d e r th e t o p i c a rra n g e m e n t s u c h a s : f a l l s , f i r e , b u r n s ,
s c a l d s , e l e c t r i c a l h a z a r d s ■, and so f o r t h .
T h ese t o p i c s w ere
c o n s id e r e d i n t h e home eco n o m ic s and sh o p c o u r s e s .
In th is
i n d i r e c t m ethod th e home s a f e t y p r o j e c t s f u r n i s h t h e b a c k ­
g ro u n d and m a t e r i a l f o r e x t r a a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e home eco n o m ies
and i n d u s t r i a l s u b j e c t s . 7
The W o r c e s te r j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l home s a f e t y p ro g ra m
c o n s i s t e d o n ly o f a home i n s p e c t i o n r e p o r t f o r s t u d e n t s .
was a s u g g e s te d p r o j e c t f o r F i r e P r e v e n t i o n Week.
T h is
The r e p o r t
was p r i m a r i l y e d u c a t i o n a l i n n a t u r e and was n o t in te n d e d f o r
" r e p o r t i n g c o n d i t i o n s t o an y a u t h o r i t y . "
The r e p o r t w as
h e a d e d , " S a f e ty C o n d itio n s i n My H om e," and was ta k e n fro m
th e c o u r s e o f s tu d y i n s a f e t y e d u c a ti o n o f t h e W o r c e s te r
p u b lic s c h o o ls .8
The D e t r o i t home s a f e t y p ro g ra m a s in c lu d e d i n t h e
H andbook o f S a f e t y R e g u la t io n s 9 w as an o u t l i n e o f s a f e t y
6
" S a f e t y B e g in s a t H om e," R e a d e rs * D i g e s t . M arch , 19 4 0 ,
p . 9 1 , i s c o n d e n s e d fro m a n a r t i c l e a p p e a r in g i n t h e K iw an is
M a g a z in e .
7 M in n e a p o lis , S a f e t y a n d H e a lth E d u c a tio n . A C o u rse o f
S tu d y f o r a l l G ra d e s , 1 9 3 2 , p . 7 2 .
8 A copy o f t h i s r e p o r t w i l l be fo u n d i n th e A p p e n d ix ,
p . 88.
9 D e t r o i t P u b lic S c h o o ls , Handbook o f S a f e t y R e g u l a t i o n s
( D e t r o i t , M ic h .: D e t r o i t B oard o f E d u c a tio n , 1 9 3 3 ), 101 p p .
24
p r a c t i c e s and p a r t o f t h e c o u r s e i n home e c o n o m ic s .
T h e re was
no m e n tio n o f s a f e home p r a c t i c e s h u t th e same p r o c e d u r e s
w ould a p p ly t h e r e . A c h e c k l i s t b a s e d on t h e A m erican N a ti o n a l
Red G ro ss l i s t o f common h a z a r d s , i n an d a b o u t t h e home, was
a p a r t of th is o u tlin e .
T h is was u s e d f o r home c h e c k i n g ,10
I n t h e j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l g r a d e s o f A labam a th e c o u r s e
i n home s a f e t y w as c o r r e l a t e d w ith th e s t u d i e s i n c i v i c s .
In
t h i s u n i t o f w ork t h e s t u d e n t s r e p o r t e d on w eekend s u r v e y s o f
s a fe ty n eed s.
Among th e n e e d s t h a t i n t e r e s t e d t h e s t u d e n t s
m o st w ere th o s e c o n c e r n in g home s a f e t y .
D a ily r e p o r t s on home
s a f e t y n e e d s so o n b r o u g h t i n a m ass o f m a t e r i a l w h ich was
s o r t e d o u t an d fro m w h ic h an o u t l i n e was fo rm e d .
I n t h i s way
s t u d e n t s becam e c o n s c io u s o f home s a f e t y n e e d s r e s u l t i n g i n
th e v i t a l i z i n g o f t h e c i v i c s c o u r s e an d th e p ro m o tio n o f
s a f e t y i n t h e h o m e.11
The L o u is ia n a S t a t e home s a f e t y p ro g ra m i s ta k e n from
th e c o u r s e o f s a f e t y s tu d y f o r t h e L o u is ia n a s c h o o l s .
T h is
b u l l e t i n s t a t e s t h a t ”t w e n t y - f i v e m in u te s p e r w eek of t h e tim e
a l l o t t e d t o h e a l t h an d p h y s i c a l e d u c a ti o n i s r e q u i r e d f o r a
le s s o n in S a f e ty E d u c a tio n .”
The j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l p a r t o f
t h i s b u l l e t i n d e v o te d t o home s a f e t y s t a t e s :
10 A co p y o f t h e Red C ro ss c h e c k l i s t a p p e a r s i n t h e
A p p e n d ix , p . 9 0 .
11 Alabama C o u rse o f S tu d y i n S a f e t y E d u c a tio n ,
B u l l e t i n No. 1 5 , 1 9 5 2 , p , 7 6 .
25
F o r s a f e t y i n t h e home t o h e m o st e f f e c t i v e , i n s t r u c ­
t i o n m u st h e s t a r t e d i n t h e lo w e r - e le m e n ta r y g r a d e s and
c o n tin u e d on th r o u g h t h e h ig h s c h o o l . The tw o t h i n g s
t h a t c a u s e th e m a j o r i t y o f a c c i d e n t s a t home a r e c a r e l e s s ­
n e s s and i g n o r a n c e . I f we e d u c a te o u r c h i l d r e n , t h e s e
two c a u s e s w i l l h e e l i m i n a t e d . 12
The te a c h i n g o f home s a f e t y i n th e j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l g r a d e s
was l e f t t o t h e d i s c r e t i o n o f t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a ti o n t e a c h e r
a s t o sc o p e and m anner o f p r e s e n t a t i o n .
An o u t l i n e , " S a f e t y
i n t h e Home,” was a l s o p r o v i d e d . 13
P ro c e d u re i n O akland f o r home s a f e t y .
The O akland
p u b l i c s c h o o ls h a v e h ad no d e f i n i t e p ro g ra m f o r t h e t e a c h i n g
o f home s a f e t y i n th e j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l s .
L esso n s in s a f e ty
in c lu d e d i n home eco n o m ics c o u r s e s n a t u r a l l y c a r r y o v e r t o t h e
home k i t c h e n a s w ould o t h e r s a f e t y p r a c t i c e s ta u g h t e ls e w h e r e
a p p ly th e m s e lv e s t o c o r r e s p o n d in g c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e home.
T h is was a l s o t r u e i n th e sh o p s a f e t y i n s t r u c t i o n .
H ere a
v e r y d e f i n i t e c o u r s e w as g iv e n t o f o r e s t a l l a c c i d e n t s i n t h e
sch o o l sh o p s.
T h is c o u r s e in c lu d e d f a l l s , h r u i s e s , b u r n s ,
e l e c t r i c s h o c k , e s c a p in g g a s ,
u se o f m a c h in e ry .
c u t s , and t h e p r o p e r c a r e and
A s e t o f tw o b o o k l e t s c o v e r in g a l l sh o p
h a z a r d s was a v a i l a b l e t o a l l sh o p s t u d e n t s .
C o p ies o f t h e s e
two b o o k l e t s w i l l be fo u n d i n th e A p p en d ix on p p .
12 L o u is ia n a C o u rse o f S tu d y i n S a f e t y E d u c a tio n ,
B u l l e t i n No. 3 2 5 , p . 5 4 .
13 A co p y o f t h i s o u t l i n e i s l i s t e d i n th e A p p e n d ix ,
p . 91.
26
T h is s a f e t y c o u r s e i n t h e sh o p s w i l l b e d e s c r ib e d i n a l a t e r
c h a p te r.
Some a t t e n t i o n was g iv e n home s a f e t y i n th e s c ie n c e
c la s s e s .
S uch h a z a r d s a s a r e c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to t h e s tu d y o f
,s c ie n c e w ere c o n s i d e r e d .
T h ese in c lu d e d e s c a p in g g a s , e l e c t r i c
h a z a r d s and o t h e r s u c h ite m s t h a t n a t u r a l l y come i n th e s tu d y
o f j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l s c i e n c e .
T h ere w ere some t e a c h e r s o f
j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l s c i e n c e i n O ak lan d who g av e c o n s i d e r a b l e
tim e t o home an d o t h e r ty p e s o f s a f e t y i n s t r u c t i o n .
d id n o t .
O th e rs
T h ere w ere no r e g u l a r o u t l i n e s o r r e g u l a t i o n s f o r
te a c h i n g home s a f e t y i n t h e j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l s , and t h e am ount
o f i n s t r u c t i o n g iv e n w as a t th e d i s c r e t i o n o f t h e t e a c h e r o r
p r i n c i p a l o f th e p a r t i c u l a r s c h o o l .
I n s o c i a l s t u d i e s , i n s t r u c t i o n i n home s a f e t y was a l s o
g iv e n a t t h e d i s c r e t i o n o f th e p a r t i c u l a r t e a c h e r o r h e a d o f
th e s c h o o l.
s tu d e n ts .
The S a f e t y E d u c a tio n M ag azin e was a v a i l a b l e t o
T h is i s a m o n th ly m ag azin e p u b lis h e d b y th e e d u c a ­
t i o n a l d i v i s i o n o f t h e N a t i o n a l S a f e t y C o u n c il.
T h ere was no
s e t d i v i s i o n o f tim e f o r s a f e t y i n s t r u c t i o n i n s o c i a l s tu d y
c l a s s e s , b u t , a s i n s c i e n c e , some t e a c h e r s g av e i t m ore tim e
th a n o th e r s .
The c h e c k l i s t f o r common, h a z a r d s i n an d a b o u t t h e home
t h a t i s p u t o u t by t h e Red C ro s s was a v a i l a b l e i n t h e O ak land
s c h o o ls an d was u s e d by s c ie n c e an d s o c i a l s tu d y t e a c h e r s f o r
home c h e c k in g o f h a z a r d s .
27
Summary an d re c o m m e n d a tio n s > Home s a f e t y s h o u ld h a v e
a m ore d e f i n i t e p l a c e i n t h e O akland j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l c u r r i c ­
u lu m .
M ore and m ore e d u c a to r s o v e r t h e c o u n tr y a r e b e g in n in g
to s e e t h e n eed o f g i v i n g home s a f e t y i n s t r u c t i o n e a r l y i n th e
s e c o n d a ry s c h o o ls *
d ire c tio n .
o f s tu d y .
Some c i t i e s h a v e go n e q u i t e f a r i n t h i s
C le v e la n d and K an sas C i ty h a v e v e r y good c o u r s e s
I n O ak lan d t h e r e s h o u ld b e a m an u al so t h a t e a c h
j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l i n t h e c i t y w o u ld h a n d le t h e s u b j e c t w ith
r e g u l a r i t y and c o v e r a g iv e n am ount o f stu d y *
A m a n u al o f home s a f e t y i n s t r u c t i o n s h o u ld b e e l a s t i c
enough t o f i t a n y ty p e o r g ra d e o f s tu d e n t*
L o c a tio n o f s e h o o l
and s u r r o u n d in g homes w ould a l s o make a d i f f e r e n c e a s t o how
home s a f e t y s h o u ld be h a n d l e d .
As i n C le v e la n d home s a f e t y
s h o u ld b e g iv e n a p r o m in e n t p la c e i n th e t e a c h i n g o f o t h e r
s a fe ty s u b je c ts .
The f o r e s t a l l i n g o f home a c c i d e n t s c a n v e r y n i c e l y be
c o r r e l a t e d w i t h g e n e r a l s c ie n c e and h o u s e h o ld a r t s .
A s tu d y
o f th e t a b l e on t h e f o llo w in g p ag e w i l l show w here f a t a l a c c i ­
d e n t s o c c u r i n th e home and h e lp t e a c h e r s t o s t r e s s s a f e t y
m e a su re s a g a i n s t f a l l s i n t h e bedroom an d b u r n s i n t h e k i t c h e n .
F i r e p r e v e n t i o n c o u ld b e c o r r e l a t e d w i t h g e n e r a l s c i e n c e .
Gas a c c i d e n t s an d e l e c t r i c a l h a z a r d s s h o u ld f i t i n w ith s c ie n c e .
C a u tio n i n t h e o p e r a t i o n o f home m a c h in e ry s h o u ld be t h e s u b j e c t
of s p e c ia l in s tr u c tio n .
Use and c a r e o f m a c h in e ry a r e t a u g h t
i n t h e i n d u s t r i a l sh o p c o u r s e s , b u t t h i s i n s t r u c t i o n i s g iv e n
28
TABLE I I I
WHERE FATAL FALLS AND FATAL BURKS OCCURRED
IB OAKLAND .HOMES IN 1939a
Room
Per cent of f a lls
P e r c e n t o f b u rn s
L iv in g room
21
19
D in in g room
6
5
11
56
5
5
Bedroom
39
11
S ta irs
15
K ite b e n
B athroom
E ls e w h e re
3
4
a E a s t Bay S a f e t y C o u n c il, R e p o r t , 1 9 3 9 , p . 1 4 .
29
a lm o s t e n t i r e l y t o t h e b o y s .
I t i s th e g i r l s who n eed i n s t r u c ­
t i o n i n t h e s a f e o p e r a t i o n o f m a c h in e ry i n t h e m odern home.
A ch e ck l i s t s i m i l a r t o th e one u s e d by C le v e la n d
s h o u ld b e g iv e n e v e r y s t u d e n t t o ch e ck home c o n d i tio n s a t
l e a s t e v e ry s e m e s te r.
A copy o f t h i s l i s t a p p e a r s i n t h e
A p p e n d ix , on p ag e 8 1 . T h ese c h e c k l i s t s s h o u ld b e b r o u g h t b a c k
t o s c h o o l and gone o v e r i n c l a s s .
T hrough t h e s t u d e n t th e
p a r e n t ca n be r e a c h e d so t h a t home c o n d i t i o n s may be im p ro v e d .
CHAPTER IV
PLAY HAZARDS
A l a r g e p o r t i o n o f a c h i l d ’ s tim e i s d e v o te d t o p l a y .
S in c e t h e r e a r e many o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r i n j u r y t o t h e c h i l d
d u r in g h i s p l a y , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t h a t t h e c h i l d l e a r n how t o
a v o id su c h i n j u r y .
tio n in s a f e ty .
H e re , th e n , i s a f u r t h e r need f o r ed u ca­
Some c o n d i t i o n s t h a t c a l l f o r s a f e t y i n s t r u c ­
t i o n a r e c o n s id e r e d h e r e , a s w e ll a s w h at o t h e r c i t i e s an d
s t a t e s h a v e done a h o u t i t .
A f t e r e x a m in in g w h at O a k la n d h a s
d o n e , re c o m m e n d a tio n s a r e m ade.
C o n d itio n s t h a t c a l l f o r s a f e t y i n s t r u c t i o n .
In c re a se d
l e i s u r e tim e an d th e p r e s e n t v a r i e t y o f l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s h a v e
c r e a t e d a n eed f o r a ty p e o f s a f e t y e d u c a ti o n w h ic h may he
c a lle d r e c r e a tio n a l s a f e ty .
Freedom fro m to o c l o s e s u p e r v i s i o n
in r e c r e a tio n i s a n a tu r a l d e s ir e , h u t t h i s se a rc h f o r r e c r e a ­
t i o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n s i n v i t e s many h a z a r d s .
The ty p e o f a c t i v ­
i t y may demand s k i l l h ey o n d t h e c a p a c i t y o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l .
The u r g e o f a d v e n tu r e may d r i v e t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o e x c e e d h i s
ju d g m e n t.
S tr a n g e e n v iro n m e n ts may p r e s e n t f e a t u r e s w h ich
w i l l h e a c t e d upon w ith f a m i l i a r t o o l s .
N a tu r a l f o r c e s may
n o t he w e ig h e d w ith r e l a t i o n t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l ’ s l i m i t a t i o n s .
P u p i l s s h o u ld he t a u g h t t o c o n s i d e r t h e s e f a c t o r s , f o r a h a s i e
p u r p o s e o f p u b l i c e d u c a tio n i s t h e w is e u s e o f l e i s u r e t i m e .
31
P ro c e d u r e i n o t h e r c i t i e s and s t a t e s .
The c o u r s e s o f
s tu d y i n p l a y s a f e t y o f t h e f i v e c i t i e s and tw o s t a t e d e p a r t ­
m e n ts s t u d i e d r e v e a l t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e d a n g e rs o f p l a y
i s ta k e n u p fro m d i f f e r e n t a n g l e s i n t h e d i f f e r e n t s y s te m s .
N a t u r a l l y p h y s i c a l e d u c a ti o n c l a s s e s r e c e i v e d m ore r e c r e a t i o n a l
s a f e t y i n s t r u c t i o n th a n o t h e r c l a s s e s .
The C le v e la n d j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l p la n w as f o r s a f e t y i n
p la y t o be s t u d i e d i n A p r i l and c a l l e d " S p r in g S a f e t y . "
At
t h i s tim e o f t h e y e a r b oys an d g i r l s e x p e r i e n c e a n i n c r e a s e d
u r g e t o p la y o u t o f d o o r s .
M ost o f t h e i r d a y tim e h o u r s when
no t in sc h o o l a re sp e n t ou t of d o o rs.
W ith t h i s i n m ind a
p ro g ra m f o r s a f e l e i s u r e tim e was b e in g t a u g h t i n t h e j u n i o r
h ig h s c h o o ls o f C le v e la n d .
D is c u s s io n s f o r t h e p r e v e n t i o n o f
a c c i d e n t s i n p l a y w ere i n v i t e d and e n th u s ia s m was r o u s e d f o r
s p rin g c le a n - u p s .
Summer r e c r e a t i o n was e m p h a siz e d an d c o n ­
s i d e r a b l e d i s c u s s i o n on i t e n c o u r a g e d .1
I n t h e j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o ls o f K an sas C i ty t h e p ro g ra m
o f p l a y s a f e t y was c o n s id e r e d i n t h e s o c i a l s tu d y c l a s s e s .
H ere i t w as c a l l e d " S a f e ty i n S e a s o n a l R e c r e a t i o n , " and v a r i o u s
t o p i c s w ere s t u d i e d an d d i s c u s s e d a c c o r d in g t o th e tim e o f y e a r .
Thus d u r in g t h e s p r i n g s e m e s te r s p r i n g an d summer a c t i v i t i e s
w ere s t u d i e d .
I n th e f a l l s e m e s te r d a n g e rs o f s to r m , snow,
1 An o u t l i n e f o r s a f e p l a y d i s c u s s i o n s an d s a f e t y
g u id e s a s u s e d i n t h e C le v e la n d j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o ls w i l l be
fo u n d i n t h e A p p e n d ix , p . 9 4 .
32
and o t h e r w i n t e r h a z a r d s w ere d i s c u s s e d . 2
I n th e s c h o o ls o f M in n e a p o lis , s e a s o n a l s a f e t y w as
s t u d i e d an d d i s c u s s e d d u r in g t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a ti o n p e r i o d .
The m a jo r o b j e c t i v e w as "To d e v e lo p a s e n s e o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y
f o r th e s a f e t y of o t h e r s a s w e l l a s th e s a f e t y o f o n e s e l f . "
C o n t r i b u t i n g h a b i t s , s k i l l s , an d a t t i t u d e s w e re c o n s id e r e d .
A l i s t o f s e a s o n a l d a n g e rs w as g iv e n a t t e n t i o n . 3
The r e c r e a t i o n a l s a f e t y p ro g ram i n t h e W o r c e s te r s c h o o ls
w as in c o r p o r a t e d i n t h e v a r i o u s s u b j e c t s t a u g h t .
I n E n g lis h
w r i t t e n l e s s o n s m ig h t h a v e b e e n on su c h a s u b j e c t a s h o l i d a y
h a z a rd s.
O th e r t o p i c s on p l a y h a z a r d s w ere in c lu d e d i n t h e
v a r i o u s s u b j e c t s i n a l i k e m a n n e r.
I n t h e D e t r o i t s c h o o l s , b o th e le m e n ta r y an d s e c o n d a r y ,
s p e c i a l e m p h a sis was g iv e n t o t h e a v o id a n c e o f d a n g e rs t o
w h ich c h i l d r e n w ere p a r t i c u l a r l y l i a b l e d u r in g t h e summer v a c a ­
tio n .
I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e d a n g e rs i n h e r e n t i n s t r e e t p l a y an d
b a t h in g i n s tr e a m s an d p o o ls a t t e n t i o n w as g iv e n t o s i t u a t i o n s
r e l a t e d t o summer o u t i n g s .
Road h a z a r d s i n c i d e n t t o h i k i n g
t r i p s , and a s p e c i a l l e s s o n on th e r e c o g n i t i o n o f p o is o n iv y
w as d e f i n i t e l y i n c l u d e d .
B e ca u se o f so many d ro w n in g s c h i l d r e n
w ere s t r o n g l y u r g e d t o l e a r n t o swim an d t o be e x tr e m e ly c a r e f u l
2 An o u t l i n e o f t h e K an sas C ity r e c r e a t i o n a l s a f e t y
p ro g ra m w i l l b e fo u n d i n th e A p p e n d ix , p . 9 9 .
3 A t y p i c a l l i s t w i l l b e fo u n d i n t h e A p p e n d ix , p . 1 0 2 .
33
w h ile ro w in g and c a n o e in g .
The u n i t o b j e c t i v e i n t h e r e c r e a t i o n s a f e t y p ro g ra m
o f th e A labam a j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l g r a d e s w as "To l e a r n t h e
s o u r c e s o f d a n g e r i n r e c r e a t i o n and gam es an d how t o d e c r e a s e
o r e lim in a te th e h a z a r d s ."
As i n t h e s tu d y o f "Home H a z a r d s ,"
th e s tu d y o f r e c r e a t i o n a l d a n g e rs w as c o n s id e r e d i n th e e i v i c s
c l a s s e s i n th e s c h o o ls o f A labam a,
The am ount o f tim e g iv e n
f o r t h i s w ork was n o t s t a t e d . 4
The p ro g ra m o f p l a y s a f e t y i n th e j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o ls
o f L o u is ia n a c o n f in e d i t s e l f t o w a te r s p o r t s .
A p ro g ra m was
g iv e n f o r e le m e n ta r y g r a d e s w h ich in c lu d e d o t h e r fo rm s o f
re c re a tio n .
The t e a c h i n g o f w a te r s p o r t s was c a r r i e d on a s
p a r t o f t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a tio n p r o g ra m .^
P ro c e d u r e u s e d i n O a k la n d .
The r e c r e a t i o n d e p a rtm e n t
o f t h e C i ty o f O ak lan d h a s s u p e r v i s i o n o f t h e c i t y ’ s p l a y ­
g ro u n d s and r e p o r t s s u c c e s s i n k e e p in g t h e b o y s and g i r l s
i n t e r e s t e d an d o u t o f h arm ’ s w ay.
S c h o o l g ro u n d s and r e c r e a ­
t i o n a l p a rk s have been c a r e f u l ly s u p e rv is e d .
H ow ever, i t i s
th e t r a i n i n g o f t h e j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l p u p i l t h a t he may be
s e l f r e l i a n t , t h a t s h o u ld be c o n s id e r e d h e r e .
T h is t r a i n i n g
4 An o u t l i n e o f t h e c o u r s e on s a f e t y i n r e c r e a t i o n w i l l
be fo u n d i n t h e A p p e n d ix , p . 1 0 3 .
5 An o u t l i n e sh o w in g t h e p r o c e d u r e o f t h i s w ork w i l l be
fo u n d i n t h e A p p e n d ix , p p . 104 and 1 2 3 .
34
i n t h e j u n i o r high, s c h o o ls o f O akland w as c o n f in e d t o t h e
c l a s s e s i n S o c i a l S t u d i e s , S c ie n c e , and P h y s i c a l E d u c a tio n ,
w h ere s u c c e s s w as r e p o r te d *
Many p u p i l s o f j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l
age w ere n o t a b l e t o swim, an d w h ile o w n ers o f p lu n g e s and
p o o ls th r o u g h o u t th e c i t y e n c o u ra g e d t h e i r p a t r o n a g e , many
b o y s an d g i r l s d id n o t l e a r n t o swim w e l l enough t o s a v e them ­
s e l v e s o r o t h e r s i n e v e n t o f a n a c c id e n t*
One h u n d re d tw e n t y - f o u r c h i l d r e n w ere o u t o f s c h o o l
b e c a u s e o f p o is o n oak o r iv y , a c c o r d in g t o th e s c h o o l n u r s e ’ s
r e p o r t f o r 1939-1940*
T h is w as b e c a u s e t h e r e was n o t enough
e m p h a sis up o n t h e r e c o g n i t i o n an d a v o id a n c e o f t h i s p l a n t .
T h o u san d s o f p e o p l e , m o s tly y o u n g , go i n t o t h e snow
e v e ry w i n t e r fro m O a k la n d .
L ittle
o r no i n s t r u c t i o n w as b e in g
g iv e n a b o u t t h e d a n g e rs o f t h e snow c o u n t r y .
The w r i t i n g o f p l a y s show ing t h e a d v a n ta g e s o f s a f e
p l a y i n g a n d t h e d r a m a tiz i n g o f s c e n e s ,
i n w h ich B e a so n , J u d g ­
m e n t, C a r e l e s s n e s s , and D anger w ere p e r s o n i f i e d , w ere e n c o u r ­
a g ed i n E n g lis h an d S o c i a l S t u d i e s c l a s s e s . ^
I n s t r u c t i o n s w ere g iv e n on t h e s a f e f l y i n g o f k i t e s .
.
The P a c i f i c Gas an d E l e c t r i c Company h a s p u t o u t a s m a ll pam­
p h le t o f in s t r u c tio n s re g a rd in g k ite s *
t o th o s e who w a n te d i t ,
T h is p a m p h le t w as f r e e
and t h e s c h o o ls w ere fo u n d t o be w e ll
6 E ig h th g ra d e u n i t , H ighw ay S a f e t y , O ak lan d S c h o o ls .
A co p y o f t h i s p a m p h le t w i l l , be fo u n d i n th e A p p e n d ix , p . 1 4 2 .
35
s u p p lie d .
7
The Boy S c o u ts , th r o u g h t h e i r p ro g ra m e m p h a s iz in g f i r s t
a i d an d s a f e t y , a tte m p te d t o t r a i n th e young p e o p le i n s a f e
m eth o d s o f e n jo y in g r e c r e a t i o n .
Summary and re c o m m e n d a tio n s.
The O ak lan d R e c r e a tio n
D e p a rtm e n t, t h e Boy S c o u t s , a n d o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s a s w e l l a s
th e s c h o o ls c a r r y on many a c t i v i t i e s to f o s t e r s a f e t y i n p l a y .
C e r t a i n m a t t e r s , s u c h a s i n s t r u c t i o n i n swim m ing, t h e r e c o g n i ­
t i o n o f p o is o n oak a n d i v y , an d t h e d a n g e r s o f t h e snow
c o u n tr y do n o t seem t o h e a d e q u a te ly m e t.
As i n t h e c a s e o f home s a f e t y t h e s u b j e c t o f p l a y
h a z a r d s s h o u ld o cc u p y a m ore p ro m in e n t p la c e i n t h e j u n i o r
h ig h s c h o o l c u r r ic u lu m .
A d e f i n i t e p r o v i s i o n s h o u ld b e made
f o r th e s tu d y an d d i s c u s s i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n a l h a z a r d s .
W hile
t h e r e was some good w ork done b y th e Boy S c o u ts and o t h e r
a g e n c i e s , t h e t r a i n i n g o f y o u th i n th e w is e u s e o f l e i s u r e
tim e , e s p e c i a l l y t h e y o u th o f j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l a g e , s h o u ld
c e r t a i n l y be a b a s i c p u rp o s e o f p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n .
A s a f e t y g u id e o u t l i n e l i k e t h a t o f t h e C le v e la n d
sc h o o ls® c o u ld w e ll be a d o p te d and f i t t e d i n t o t h e c u r r ic u lu m
o f t h e j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o ls o f O ak la n d .
^ A sa m p le c o p y o f t h i s p a m p h le t i s i n th e A p p e n d ix ,
p . 145.
® T h is o u t l i n e i s g iv e n i n t h e A p p e n d ix , p . 9 6 .
CHAPTER V
MOTOR VEHICLE HAZARDS
I n v ie w o f t h e p ro m in e n t p la c e .w h ic h t r a f f i c
a c c id e n ts
o ccu p y i n A m erican l i f e t o d a y , i t i s im p e r a tiv e t h a t t h e
s c h o o ls do s o m e th in g to w a rd i n s t r u c t i n g th e p u p i l s i n t h e
p rin c ip le s of t r a f f i c
s a fe ty .
T h is s tu d y f i r s t c o n s i d e r s
t h e g e n e r a l s i t u a t i o n i n j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l i n s t r u c t i o n , th e n
w h at o t h e r c i t i e s and s t a t e s h a v e done and w hat h a s b e e n done
i n O a k la n d .
R ecom m endations a r e t h e n m ade.
The g e n e r a l s i t u a t i o n i n j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l i n s t r u c t i o n .
S a f e t y i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e o p e r a t i o n o f m o to r v e h i c l e s i n t h e
j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l h a s r e c e i v e d i n c r e a s i n g e m p h a s is .
The im­
p o r ta n c e o f th e a u to m o b ile becom es a v i t a l i s s u e b e c a u s e t h e
l e g a l p e r m is s iv e d r i v i n g ag e a r r i v e s so o n a f t e r t h e j u n i o r
h ig h s c h o o l y e a r s .
E d u c a tio n o f d r i v e r s i s i m p e r a t i v e .
T h ere
i s a g r e a t chasm b e tw e e n t h e d r i v i n g s k i l l o f y o u th an d th e
u s e o f t h a t s k i l l i n c o n f o r m ity w ith s a f e p r a c t i c e s i n t r a f f i c .
A t t i t u d e s a r e u s u a l l y blam ed f o r t h e a n t i s o c i a l t r a f f i c
p r a c t i c e s o f y o u th w h ile t h e i n t a n g i b l e s w h ich c r e a t e th o s e
a t t i t u d e s c h a lle n g e th e g e n i u s o f e d u c a ti o n .
R e s p e c t f o r la w ,
r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e w e l f a r e o f o t h e r s , c o u r t e s y , an d a l l th e
o t h e r c i v i c a t t i t u d e s deem ed e s s e n t i a l f o r t r a f f i c
p r o d u c ts o f e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e .
s a fe ty are
D is p la y s o f o p p o s it e
37
a t t i t u d e s a re n o t in n a te c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , h u t r a t h e r a r e th e y
th e p r o d u c ts o f m ore p o w e r fu l i n f l u e n c e th a n t h o s e w h ic h e d u c a ­
t i o n h a s d e v i s e d t o d i s p l a c e th e m .
Our s c h o o ls f a c e th e
g r e a t e s t an d m o st p r a c t i c a l l a b o r a t o r y f o r e d u c a ti o n i n a t t i ­
tu d e s i n a s tu d y o f t r a f f i c s a f e t y .
The s o l u t i o n t o t h e
p ro b le m s h o u ld b e th e p r o d u c t o f s y s t e m a tic e d u c a ti o n i n r e ­
s p o n s ib ilitie s fo r tr a f f ic
s a fe ty .
T h e re i s a n enorm ous am ount o f m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e on
m o to r v e h i c l e h a z a r d s an d t r a f f i c s a f e t y .
M a g a z in e s , n ew s­
p a p e r s , p a m p h le ts , b o o k s , p o s t e r s , d o d g e r s , an d o t h e r v a s t
num bers o f p e r i o d i c a l s a r e f u l l o f a l l s o r t s o f m a t e r i a l on
t h e w ays an d m eans t o c u rb t h e m o u n tin g num ber o f d e a th s and
i n j u r i e s c a u s e d by m o to r v e h i c l e s an d t r a f f i c
a c c id e n ts .
Out
o f t h i s m ass o f m a t e r i a l h a s come a m ore o r l e s s s y s t e m a t i c
l i s t o f r e g u l a t i o n s from w h ich c a n be draw n th o s e o f v a l u e f o r
j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l p u p i l s .
From s t u d i e s o f th e c a u s e s o f t r a f f i c a c c i d e n t s t o
c h i l d r e n a c o u r s e o f p r o c e d u r e h a s b e e n s e t up by t h e N a ti o n a l
S a f e t y C o u n c il an d i t i s fro m t h i s t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n f o r boys
and g i r l s o f j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l a g e i s o b t a i n e d .
N a tio n a l
c h i l d s a f e t y e d u c a ti o n b e g a n i n 1922 an d a u t h o r i t i e s a g r e e
t h a t t h i s p ro g ra m i s l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r th e d e c l i n e i n
th e num ber o f t r a f f i c a c c i d e n t s among c h i l d r e n o f s c h o o l a g e . 1
1 N a t i o n a l S a f e t y C o u n c il, A c c id e n t F a c t s , p . 3 0 .
38
The p r o c e d u r e i n o t h e r c i t i e s an d s t a t e s .
In th e seven
c o u r s e s o f s tu d y i n s a f e t y e d u c a t i o n , i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e s a f e
o p e r a t i o n o f m o to r v e h i c l e s w as g iv e n i n s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t
c la s s e s *
I n one c u r r ic u lu m p a r t o f th e homeroom tim e w as
d e v o te d t o i t an d o t h e r s c o r r e l a t e d i n s t r u c t i o n i n a u to m o b ile
s a f e t y w ith v a r i o u s s u b j e c t s , d e p e n d in g on t h e t o p i c u n d e r
s tu d y .
The C le v e la n d p u b l i c s c h o o l p ro g ra m l i s t e d a num ber o f
p r e c a u t i o n s an d o u t l i n e d th e way t r a f f i c
s a f e t y s h o u ld be
t a u g h t i n t h e j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o ls o f t h a t c i t y .
A c c o rd in g t o
t h i s p l a n t r a f f i c s a f e t y was e m p h a siz e d i n November when
c l a s s e s d i s c u s s e d s p e c i a l p h a s e s o f th e p ro b le m , made s u r v e y s
o f n e ig h b o rh o o d c o n d i t i o n s , a n d s t u d i e d l o c a l t r a f f i c r e g u l a ­
tio n s .2
The K an sas C i ty B u l l e t i n e n t i t l e d S a f e t y i n t h e C u r r ic u ­
lum f o r J u n i o r an d S e n io r H ig h S c h o o ls c o n t a i n s a t r e a t i s e on
tra ffic
s a fe ty .
P a r t IV o f t h e b u l l e t i n , c o v e r in g s e v e n ty - o n e
p a g e s o r a lm o s t h a l f o f t h e b u l l e t i n , i s d e v o te d t o "How t o
Become a C om petent D r i v e r . ”
T h is s u b j e c t i s t r e a t e d u n d e r
su c h t i t l e s a s :
I.
II.
III.
D ev elo p C o r r e c t D r iv in g H a b its
U n d e rs ta n d t h e M o to r C ar
Become F a m i l i a r w ith t h e H ighw ays
2 An o u t l i n e o f C l e v e la n d ’ s p l a n f o r j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l
i n s t r u c t i o n i n m o to r v e h i c l e h a z a r d s i s g iv e n i n t h e A p p e n d ix ,
p . 110.
39
IV .
Y.
C o n s id e r a l l U s e r s o f t h e H ighw ays
O b serv e T r a f f i c R e g u la t io n s
W h ile t h i s s t u d y was in te n d e d p r i n c i p a l l y f o r s e n i o r
h ig h s c h o o l b o y s an d g i r l s ,
i t seem s t o le n d i t s e l f t o t h e
s t u d y o f m o to r v e h i c l e h a z a r d s an d t r a f f i c s a f e t y by j u n i o r
h ig h s c h o o l p u p i l s .
Knowing c o r r e c t d r i v i n g , u n d e r s ta n d in g
t h e m o to r e a r , b eco m in g f a m i l i a r w ith h ig h w a y s , and so o n ,
h e l p s one t o b e a b e t t e r and w i s e r p e d e s t r i a n .
I n a d d i t i o n t o P a r t IV o f t h e b u l l e t i n , d i f f e r e n t
j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l s t u d i e s h a v e t r a f f i c
s a f e ty in c o rp o ra te d
i n t o th e m . A s u g g e s te d t o p i c f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n u n d e r S o c i a l
S tu d ie s i s ,
"The m o to r c a r i n r e l a t i o n t o h a z a r d s an d s a f e t y . "
A n o th e r s u g g e s te d a c t i v i t y u n d e r I n d u s t r i a l A r t s i s , "M aking
a s tu d y o f e a rb o n -m o n o x id e g a s and i t s
t o r y s y s te m ."
e f f e c t on t h e r e s p i r a ­
I n t h i s way e a c h s u b j e c t h a s a t o p i c r e l a t i n g
to m o to r c a r h a z a r d s and t r a f f i c s a f e t y .
T r a f f i c s a f e t y w as t a u g h t i n t h e s c h o o ls o f M in n e a p o lis
by t h e t e a c h e r s o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a tio n i n t h e p e r i o d s a l t e r ­
n a t i n g w ith th e p h y s i c a l e d u c a ti o n p e r i o d .
T h is d id n o t m ean,
h o w ev e r, t h a t t h e r e g u l a r homeroom t e a c h e r w as n o t r e s p o n s i b l e
f o r s t i m u l a t i n g i n t e r e s t i n s a f e t y m a t t e r s , an d f o r u t i l i z i n g
an y s i t u a t i o n s t h a t m ig h t a r i s e i n d i c a t i n g a n eed f o r a s tu d y
of tr a f f ic
«2
p.
118.
s a f e ty .3
An o u t l i n e u s e d i n M in n e a p o lis a p p e a r s i n th e A p p en d ix ,
40
T r a f f i c s a f e t y i n th e j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o ls o f W o r c e s te r ,
l i k e o t h e r p h a s e s o f s a f e t y , w as t a u g h t i n c o n n e c tio n w ith th e
re g u la r s u b je c t.
I n E n g lis h c o m p o s itio n p u p i l s w ere e n c o u r ­
a g e d t o w r i t e on su c h s u b j e c t s a s " T r a f f i c S a f e t y " o r "A u to ­
m o b ile A c c id e n ts . n4:
G raphs w ere made i n a r i t h m e t i c c l a s s e s ,
w h ile p o s t e r s w ere e n c o u ra g e d i n a r t c l a s s e s .
on t r a f f i c
O th e r t o p i c s
s a f e t y w ere i n c o r p o r a t e d in t h e v a r i o u s s c h o o l
s tu d ie s .
I n D e t r o i t ’ s H andbook o f R e g u l a t i o n s , t r a f f i c s a f e t y
was e m p h asiz ed i n t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e s c h o o l s , e x p l a i n i n g su c h
d a n g e rs a s a r e e n c o u n te r e d i n s t r e e t p l a y i n g an d i n t r a f f i c .
The c o n t e n t o f t h i s s a f e t y e d u c a ti o n w as p r e s e n t e d i n tw o
w ay s: f i r s t ,
i n c i d e n t a l l y , a s o c c a s io n s a r i s e ; s e c o n d , a s
c o r r e l a t e d m a t e r i a l w ith v a r i o u s s c h o o l s t u d i e s .
I n t h e s a f e t y e d u c a ti o n c o u r s e o f s tu d y o f th e A labam a
S t a t e D e p a rtm e n t, j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l p u p i l s i n t h e i r c i v i c s
s t u d i e s w ere e n c o u ra g e d t o o r g a n iz e a m o to r t r a f f i c
c lu b o r a
m o to r d r i v e r s ’ c lu b w i t h i n t h e i r s c h o o l, f o llo w in g t h e s u g g e s ­
t i o n s o f an a u to m o b ile a s s o c i a t i o n p a m p h le t .5
A n in e weeks*
u n i t o f s tu d y d e a l i n g w ith d r i v i n g an d o p e r a t i o n o f a u to m o h ile s
w as s u g g e s te d an d p r o v id e d f o r i n t h e s t a t e p ro g ra m o f s t u d i e s
f o r t h e j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l g r a d e s .
As i n t h e c o u r s e i n Home
4 W o r c e s te r , M a s s a c h u s e t ts , C o u rse o f S tu d y i n S a f e t y
E d u c a tio n . 1 9 2 6 , p . 8 0 .
5 A m erican A u to m o b ile A s s o c i a t i o n , The D r i v e r (W ashing­
t o n , D .C .; The A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 9 3 6 ) .
""
41
S a f e t y , p u p i l s w ere a s k e d to r e p o r t on w e e k -e n d s u r v e y s o f
m o to r t r a f f i c n e e d s d u r in g t h e s a f e t y stu d y *
B u l l e t i n No. 325 o f S a f e t y E d u c a tio n o f t h e S t a t e De­
p a r tm e n t o f L o u is ia n a g a v e a n o u t l i n e t h a t t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a ­
t i o n t e a c h e r s m ig h t f o llo w i n t h e t e a c h i n g o f s a f e t y on th e
h ig h w a y s .6
T w e n ty - fiv e m in u te s p e r w eek was a l l o t t e d t o t h i s
w ork.
By t r a i n i n g and e d u c a ti o n make o u r j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l
s t u d e n t s s t r o n g l y c o n s c io u s o f t h e a p p a l l i n g num ber o f
a u to m o b ile a c c i d e n t s o c c u r r i n g a n n u a l l y and o f th e c o n s e ­
q u e n t l o s s s u f f e r e d i n l i f e an d m o n ey .^
The m eth o d u s e d i n O a k la n d .
A p a m p h le t on h ig h w ay
s a f e t y f o r j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o ls w as o r g a n iz e d i n 1936 f o r u s e
in O a k la n d .8
A co p y o f t h i s p a m p h le t w as s e n t t o e a c h s c h o o l .
T h at an e f f e c t i v e p i e c e o f w ork h a s b e e n done was i n d i c a t e d by
a c i t a t i o n r e c e n t l y is s u e d t o O akland b y t h e C a l i f o r n i a S a f e t y
C o u n c il.
An ite m i n a l o c a l n e w sp a p e r s t a t e s i n p a r t ,
"O a k la n d 's
c o n s p ic u o u s a c h ie v e m e n t i n a c c i d e n t r e d u c t i o n and s a v in g o f
liv e s in t r a f f i c
i n 1939 w as r e c o g n iz e d i n a c i t a t i o n i s s u e d
to d a y b y t h e C a l i f o r n i a S a f e t y C o u n cil.* * 9
H ow ever, a g la n c e
6 T h is o u t l i n e . i s g iv e n i n t h e A p p e n d ix , p . 1 1 4 .
7 L o u i s i a n a , S a f e t y E d u c a t i o n . B u l l e t i n No. 3 2 5 , p . 5 2 .
Q
A copy o f t h i s p a m p h le t w i l l b e fo u n d i n t h e A p p e n d ix ,
p . 142.
9 O ak lan d T r ib u n e , i s s u e o f A p r i l 1 2 , 1 9 4 0 .
42
a t th e t a b l e on t h e f o llo w in g p a g e w i l l show t h a t i n c o m p a riso n
w ith th e e a s t e r n c i t i e s s t u d i e d O ak lan d s t i l l l e a d s i n t h e
r a t e o f d e a th s due t o m o to r v e h i c l e a c c i d e n t s .
In sch o o l
c l a s s e s th e ab o v e p a m p h le t w as u s e d t o good a d v a n ta g e i n c o r ­
r e l a t i n g t r a f f i c s a f e t y w ith th e v a r i o u s s t u d i e s a s i n d i c a t e d .
A s e r i e s o f l e c t u r e s by a t r a f f i c o f f i c e r h a s b e e n
g iv e n t o m em bers o f t h e h ig h n in e c l a s s e s a t s p e c i a l a s s e m b lie s
a t a l l t h e j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l s .
T h ese l e c t u r e s a c co m p a n ied by
s l i d e s and f i l m s w e re g iv e n w e e k ly f o r t e n w eeks e a c h s e m e s te r
d u r in g 1938 and 1 9 3 9 .
A t t h e end o f t h e s e r i e s e x a m in a tio n s
w ere g iv e n and c e r t i f i c a t e s i s s u e d , w h ic h w e re l a t e r r e c o g n iz e d
when t h e h o l d e r a p p l i e d f o r a d r i v e r * s l i c e n s e .
S a f e t y f i l m s w ere a l s o shown d u r in g t h e r e g u l a r a s se m b ly
p e rio d s .
T h ese p i c t u r e s p ro m p ted d i s c u s s i o n s w h ich w ere e n ­
c o u ra g e d i n t h e v a r i o u s c l a s s e s .
Summary an d re c o m m e n d a tio n s .
E d u c a tio n f o r t r a f f i c
s a f e t y i s l a r g e l y a m a t t e r o f e d u c a ti o n i n a t t i t u d e s .
O rg a n i­
z a t i o n s s u c h a s th e N a ti o n a l S a f e t y C o u n c il, t h e A m erican
A u to m o b ile A s s o c i a t i o n , an d l o c a l g ro u p s a r e i n t e r e s t e d in
t h e p ro b le m , s tu d y i n g i t fro m many a n g l e s and i s s u i n g p u b l i c a ­
t i o n s on t h e s u b j e c t .
The j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o ls i n a l l t h e
c i t i e s an d s t a t e s s t u d i e d r e c o g n iz e t h e p ro b le m and make some
p r o v i s i o n f o r i t s s t u d y b y th e p u p i l s , u s u a l l y i n c o n n e c tio n
w ith t h e r e g u l a r c u r r i c u l a r s u b j e c t s , a lth o u g h t h e r e a r e a l s o
43
TABLE IV
MOTOR VEHICLE DEATHS BY C IT IE S, 1939a
C i ty
D e a th s
P o p u l a t i o n d e a th r a t e
W o r c e s te r
24
1 2 .1
New Orleans**
71
1 5 .1
M in n e a p o lis
82
1 7 .2
K a n sa s C i t y
75
1 8 .2
357
2 1 .4
63
2 3 .1
216
2 3 .5
80
2 7 .1
D e tro it
B irm ingham 1*
C le v e la n d
O ak lan d
a I n f o r m a t io n fro m A u to m o b ile A s s o c i a t i o n s o f
tlie abo v e c i t i e s .
** New O rle a n s w as s e l e c t e d f o r th e S t a t e o f
L o u is ia n a and B irm ingham f o r th e S t a t e o f A labam a i n
t h i s t a b l e b e c a u s e t h e s e tw o c i t i e s w ere i n t h e same
p o p u l a t i o n g ro u p a s O a k la n d .
44
c lu b s o r g a n iz e d f o r t h e p u rp o s e and s p e c i a l a s s e m b l i e s .
The
O akland j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o ls h a v e f o llo w e d s i m i l a r p r o c e d u r e s
w ith t h e o t h e r s s t u d i e d .
The t r a i n i n g o f t h e p o t e n t i a l o p e r a t o r o f a m o to r
v e h i c l e h a s tw o r e s u l t s .
N ot o n ly i s t h e f u t u r e d r i v e r
t r a i n e d , b u t some o f t h i s t r a i n i n g i s c a r r i e d i n t o t h e home
and t o o l d e r d r i v e r s .
F o r t h i s r e a s o n i t i s recom m ended t h a t
m ore tim e be d e v o te d t o t h i s w ork i n t h e j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o ls
o f O a k la n d .
T h e re i s a c e r t a i n r e c k l e s s n e s s o f y o u th a t t h e
w h ee l o f t h e a u to m o b ile t h a t n e e d s t o b e c o r r e c t e d .
A m an u al
e s p e c i a l l y f o r t r a f f i c s a f e t y i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e j u n i o r h ig h
s c h o o ls o f O akland s h o u ld b e p r e p a r e d , i n d i c a t i n g s p e c i f i c
m eth o d s o f p r o c e d u r e f o r t h i s im p o r ta n t p h a s e o f s a f e t y .
T h is m anual s h o u ld b e i n th e h a n d s o f e v e r y j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l
c la s s r o o m t e a c h e r so t h a t a u n if o rm m eth o d o f i n s t r u c t i o n
c o u ld b e e f f e c t e d i n e a c h o f t h e s c h o o l s .
CHAPTER YI
CLASSROOM HAZARDS
In s p i t e o f h ig h e r s ta n d a rd s o f s a f e ty in c o n s tr u c tio n
o f s c h o o l b u i l d i n g s , g r e a t e r p r o t e c t i v e f e a t u r e s i n t h e e q u ip ­
m ent o f b u i l d i n g s , and i n c r e a s e d e f f i c i e n c y i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n
and s u p e r v i s i o n o f s t u d e n t c o n d u c t i n s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s , t h e
s c h o o l s a f e t y p ro b le m h a s n o t b e e n s o l v e d .
T h ere a r e s t i l l
p o t e n t i a l h a z a r d s t o p u p i l s i n an d a b o u t s c h o o l p l a n t s a n d
p u p i l s a r e s t i l l b e in g i n j u r e d on s c h o o l p r e m is e s .
In th is
c h a p t e r i t i s p r o p o s e d t o s tu d y t h e c la s s r o o m h a z a r d s i n
w h ich i n s t r u c t i o n i s n e e d e d , w h at o t h e r c i t i e s and s t a t e s
h a v e done a b o u t i t , w h a t O ak lan d h a s d o n e , and t o make reco m ­
m e n d a tio n s on t h e s u b j e c t .
C la ssro o m h a z a r d s i n w h ich i n s t r u c t i o n i s n e e d e d .
A u th e n tic r e p o r t s fro m n a t i o n a l s o u r c e s i n d i c a t e t h a t 4 4 p e r
c e n t o f a l l a c c id e n ts to sc h o o l c h ild r e n a r e sc h o o l a c c id e n ts .
N in e te e n p e r c e n t o f a l l a c c i d e n t s t o c h i l d r e n o c c u r i n t h e
s c h o o l b u i l d i n g s , an d 13 p e r c e n t o f t h e s e b u i l d i n g a c c i d e n t s
o c c u r i n t h e c la s s r o o m s , 31 p e r c e n t i n t h e gym nasium , 12 p e r
c e n t i n t h e s h o p s an d 19 p e r c e n t i n t h e h a l l s an d on t h e
s ta irs .
B e g in n in g w ith t h e j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l g r a d e s , s c h o o l
b u ild in g a c c id e n ts in c re a s e .
The gym nasium an d v o c a t i o n a l
sh o p s a c c o u n t f o r t h i s i n c r e a s e .
46
The -p ro ced u re o f o t h e r c i t i e s and s t a t e s *
In th e
c la s s r o o m s a f e t y c o u r s e s o f s tu d y t h e t r e n d seem ed t o be
to w a rd th e id e a o f t h e p u p i l s th e m s e lv e s p la n n in g t h e b e s t
p r o c e d u r e o f p r e v e n t i n g c la s s r o o m a c c i d e n t s .
I n th e j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o ls o f C le v e la n d t h e p r e v e n t i o n
o f c la s s r o o m a c c i d e n t s to o k t h e fo rm o f s a f e t y i n s t r u c t i o n
a c c o r d in g to t h e ty p e o f c la s s r o o m .
I n a c a d e m ic c la s s r o o m s
s t r e s s was p la c e d u p o n c a r e i n r e g a r d t o d o o r s , a i s l e s ,
c lo a k ro o m s, d e s k s , an d c h a i r s , and s u c h o t h e r e q u ip m e n t a s
was u s e d i n c la s s r o o m s o f t h i s k i n d .
I n t h e gym nasium w h ere t h e g r e a t e s t num ber o f a c c i d e n t s
o c c u r , r u l e s an d i n s t r u c t i o n d e a l t m o s tly w ith t h e u s e o f t h e
a p p a r a tu s and c o n d u c t on t h e p l a y g r o u n d s .
I n t h e s h o p s lo o s e
c l o t h i n g , m a c h in e ry , an d t o o l s r e c e i v e d th e m o st a t t e n t i o n i n
s a fe ty in s tr u c tio n .1
U n d er t h e c a p t i o n ^ S a f e ty i n th e S c h o o l s , ” t h e K an sas
C ity p ro g ra m f o r c la s s r o o m s a f e t y w as o u t l i n e d .
T h is o u t l i n e
was s i m i l a r t o t h e C le v e la n d p ro g ra m f o r p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t
©
c la s s r o o m h a z a r d s *
S a f e t y i n t h e c la s s r o o m s o f t h e M in n e a p o lis s c h o o ls ,
p r e s e n t e d i n o u t l i n e fo rm , d e a l t w ith m ovem ents a b o u t h a l l s ,
1 A s h o r t o u t l i n e sh o w in g t h i s w ork i s g iv e n i n th e
A p p e n d ix , p . 1 1 8 .
s T h is K an sas C i ty o u t l i n e w i l l b e fo u n d on p a g e 120
o f t h e A p p e n d ix •
47
on s t a i r s ,
and i n th e y a r d .
F i r e d r i l l s w ere c o n s id e r e d an d
a p la n o f t r a f f i c r e g u l a t i o n i n th e b u i l d i n g w as s u g g e s te d .
S a f e t y m e a su re s i n th e gym nasium an d sh o p s w ere s i m i l a r t o
th o s e o f o t h e r c i t i e s a l r e a d y c o n s i d e r e d .
U n d e r th e h e a d in g , " C i v i l G overnm ent f o r Our S c h o o l,"
th e C i v ic s c l a s s e s o f t h e j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o ls o f W o r c e s te r
p la n n e d an d c a r r i e d o u t a s y s te m o f f o r e s t a l l i n g c la s s r o o m
a c c id e n ts .
T h is sy ste m i n c l u d e s s h o r t , t e r s e l i s t s o f " d o n ’ t s "
f o r t h e v a r i o u s c la s s r o o m s i n c l u d i n g sh o p s an d gym nasium .
In
a d d i t i o n t h e r e a r e o t h e r s a f e t y i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r b o th s h o p s
and gym nasium .
T hese i n s t r u c t i o n s a r e o f th e v a r i e t y t h a t
a p p ly t o c a r e f u l u s e o f m a c h in e ry i n t h e s h o p s and o f a p p a r a t u s
i n t h e gym nasium .
C la ssro o m s a f e t y i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e
s c h o o ls o f D e t r o i t g av e t h e o r d i n a r y r u l e s a b o u t s h a r p , p o i n t e d
o b j e c t s , d e f e c t i v e s e a t s , and th e c a r r y i n g o f h e a v y o b j e c t s .
T h ree t y p e s o f d o o r a c c i d e n t s w ere l i s t e d :
1.
I n s t a n c e s w h ere d o o rs a r e p u sh e d o p en s u d d e n ly an d
th e d o o r s t r i k e s someone on
2.
C a s e s w h ere t h e g l a s s i n a d o o r i s b ro k e n
t h e d o o r o r p u s h in g a g a i n s t
3.
th e o th e r s id e .
M ish ap s i n w h ic h
b y slam m ing
t h e p an e w ith t h e h a n d .
f i n g e r s a r e p in c h e d b e tw e e n th e
door
and t h e f r a m e .
T h ese may b e p r e v e n te d b y :
1.
slam m ed.
I n s i s t i n g t h a t d o o r s n e v e r be o p en ed s u d d e n ly o r
48
2.
P r o v id in g g l a s s d o o r s w ith p r o t e c t i v e b a r s o v e r
th e lo w e r p o r t i o n o f th e g l a s s .
3.
P o i n t i n g o u t t o a l l p u p i l s how f i n g e r s ca n h e
p in c h e d i n d o o r s , b o th on th e l a t c h and h in g e e d g e s .
P a p e r c u t t e r s w ere t o be h a n d le d o n ly b y o l d e r s t u d e n t s
and g u a rd s w ere recom m ended f o r h o t p i p e s and r a d i a t o r s .
C o r­
r i d o r and s t a i r w a y h a z a r d s w ere m e n tio n e d , i n c l u d i n g w orn
s p o t s , h o l e s i n f l o o r s , o b s t r u c t i o n s on s t a i r s , an d t h e w e a r ­
in g o f h ig h h e e l s on s t a i r s .
The u s u a l sh o p and gym nasium
r u l e s w ere g i v e n .
The p ro m o tio n o f " S a f e ty M in d e d n e s s** i n t h e s c h o o ls
o f A labam a was c a r r i e d on i n th e C i v ic s s t u d i e s .
C la ssro o m
h a z a r d s a n d s a f e t y w ere h a n d le d by th e m embers o f th e c l a s s
who e a c h d ay b r o u g h t i n m a t e r i a l d e a l i n g w ith a n y t h in g o f t h i s
n a tu re .
D a ily r e p o r t s w ere made f o llo w e d by d i s c u s s i o n .
S u p e r v is io n o f h a l l s , s t a i r s , an d b a se m e n t was i n th e h an d s
o f a s a f e t y c o u n c i l fo rm e d f o r t h i s p u r p o s e .
A canvass o f
a c c i d e n t s i n t h e gym nasium was made an d t h e c a u s e s d e te r m in e d .
S u g g e s tio n s w e re made t o f o r e s t a l l r e c u r r e n c e s .
The s c h o o l
sh o p s h ad r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s t h a t a p p ly p r i n c i p a l l y t o t h e
h a n d lin g o f m a c h in e s an d t o o l s .
The a c c i d e n t p r e v e n t i o n p ro g ra m i n t h e j u n i o r h ig h
s c h o o l c la s s r o o m s o f L o u is ia n a was a c o o p e r a t i v e u n d e r t a k i n g .
S tu d e n ts w ere e n c o u ra g e d t o d e v e lo p a f o r e s i g h t a g a i n s t d a n g e r
and t o fo rm h a b i t s o f t r y i n g t o a v o id t h e m o st common c a u s e s
49
o f a c c i d e n t s i n th e s c h o o l c la ssro o m s.* ^
T h ese c a u s e s a r e
g iv e n a s f o l l o w s :
1.
Ig n o ra n c e .
2.
H e g lig e n c e .
3.
W illfu l v io la tio n o f s a f e ty r u l e s .
4.
M e n ta l an d p h y s i c a l f a t i g u e .
O a k la n d *s p r o c e d u r e f o r c la s s r o o m a c c i d e n t s .
I n th e
j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o ls o f O ak lan d a c c i d e n t s w ere fo u n d t o b e v e r y
few .
O u ts id e t h e s h o p s t h e r e w ere no p a r t i c u l a r p a m p h le ts o r
b o o k l e t s on t h e p r e v e n t i o n o f a c c i d e n t s , b u t t h e s t u d e n t s
w ere w e l l t r a i n e d a g a i n s t t h e common s o r t o f h a z a r d t h a t
m ig h t o c c u r i n th e c la s s r o o m .
E q u ip m en t w as k e p t i n o r d e r
and h a z a r d s p e c u l i a r t o a n y one room w ere w e l l a d v e r t i s e d t o
th e s tu d e n ts .
D u rin g t h e p a s s in g o f c l a s s e s , h a l l s , s t a i r w a y s , and
d o o r s w e re p o l i c e d b y m o n it o r s c h o s e n f o r t h e i r r e l i a b i l i t y .
T hese m o n ito r s w ere e x c u s e d a few m in u te s e a r l y so a s t o be
r e a d y and i n p l a c e f o r d u ty when t h e c l a s s e s p a s s e d b e tw e e n
p e rio d s .
I n gym nasium c l a s s e s l i t t l e
in s tru c tio n .
tim e w as g iv e n t o s a f e t y
C a re w as ta k e n t o s e e t h a t a l l a p p a r a t u s an d
g ro u n d s w ere i n o r d e r an d a few rtd o n f t s ” w ere g i v e n .
In s tru c tio n
3 A s h o r t o u t l i n e f o r c la s s r o o m s a f e t y i n t h e s c h o o l s
o f L o u is ia n a i s g iv e n i n t h e A p p e n d ix , p . 1 2 3 .
50
i n f i r s t a i d w as so m e tim e s g iv e n a t th e d i s c r e t i o n o f t h e
gym nasium t e a c h e r , a l th o u g h no s e t o f r e g u l a t i o n s g o v e rn e d
s a f e t y i n s t r u c t i o n i n j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l gym nasium c l a s s e s *
S a f e t y i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l sh o p s i n
O akland h a s b e e n b r o u g h t up t o t h e h i g h e s t ty p e o f i n s t r u c t i o n *
T h e re w ere tw o b o o k l e t s t h a t c o v e re d e v e r y p h a s e o f damage i n
th e sh o p s.
One b o o k l e t w as f o r t h e wood sh o p s an d t h e o t h e r
f o r th e m a c h in e , e l e c t r i c , m e t a l , and a u t o s h o p s .
E ach i n ­
s t r u c t o r h ad en ough o f t h e s e b o o k l e t s t h a t e a c h s t u d e n t m ig h t
h a v e one t o s t u d y .
An a v e ra g e o f tw o w eeks w as s p e n t b y t h e
shop c l a s s e s a t . t h e b e g in n in g o f e a c h s e m e s te r on t h e s tu d y
and e x a m in a tio n o f t h e s e b o o k le ts *
Upon s a t i s f a c t o r y p a s s i n g o f w r i t t e n e x a m in a tio n s ,
b a s e d up o n t h e m a t e r i a l i n t h e s e b o o k l e t s , s t u d e n t s s ig n e d
p r o f i c i e n c y s t a t e m e n t s w h ic h i n d i c a t e d t h a t t e s t s o n t h e v a r i ­
ous u n i t s h a d b e e n c o m p le te d .
E xam ples o f s a f e t y b o o k l e t s ,
t h e s a f e t y t e s t s , an d t h e p r o f i c i e n c y s t a t e m e n t s c a n b e fo u n d
i n th e A p p e n d ix , p p . 1 4 6 -1 5 2 .
P o s t e r s f u r n i s h e d b y t h e S t a t e C o m p en sa tio n I n s u r a n c e
Fund o f S an F r a n c i s c o w ere r e c e i v e d m o n th ly by t h e s c h o o l
shops.
E xam ples o f t h e s e p o s t e r s w i l l be f o u n d i n t h e A p p e n d ix .
T hese p o s t e r s w e re p o s t e d on b u l l e t i n b o a r d s an d t h e a t t e n t i o n
o f t h e b o y s was c a l l e d t o th e m .4
4 S ee A p p e n d ix , p p . 1 5 4 ^ 1 5 6 .
Summary an d re c o m m e n d a tio n s > Many o f th e a c c i d e n t s
i n v o l v i n g s c h o o l c h i l d r e n o c c u r i n th e s c h o o l s .
V o c a tio n a l
sh o p s and gym nasium s i n t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o ls a c c o u n t f o r
many o f t h e a c c i d e n t s .
I n t h e v a r i o u s s c h o o l s y s te m s s t u d i e d
c la s s r o o m s a f e t y was a s u b j e c t o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n th e v a r i o u s
c l a s s e s a n d a l s o t h e s u b j e c t o f r u l e s an d r e g u l a t i o n s a s t o
p r o c e d u r e d e s ig n e d t o p ro m o te s a f e t y i n t h e u s e o f s c h o o l
e q u ip m e n t•
A b o o k l e t o r p a m p h le t f o r e a c h ty p e o f c la s s r o o m o r
s u b j e c t w o u ld b e h e l p f u l t o t e a c h e r s i n t h e O ak lan d j u n i o r
h ig h s c h o o ls f o r i n s t r u c t i o n i n c la s s r o o m s a f e t y .
As i n t h e
c a s e o f t h e s h o p s , w h ere e x c e l l e n t b o o k l e t s w ere p r o v id e d ,
e a c h s u b j e c t s h o u ld h av e a n o u t l i n e o f s a f e t y i n s t r u c t i o n
a p p e rta in in g to th a t s u b je c t.
C o n s id e r in g t h a t c la s s r o o m
e q u ip m e n t i n O ak lan d was k e p t i n f i r s t c l a s s r e p a i r , i n s t r u c ­
t i o n a l p a m p h le ts o f t h i s k in d w ould r e d u c e a c c i d e n t s t o th e
minimum.
As i n t h e c a s e o f th e sh o p s a f e t y b o o k l e t s , p a m p h le ts
f o r i n s t r u c t i o n i n o t h e r c la s s r o o m s w o u ld make u n if o rm t h e
t e a c h i n g o f s a f e t y i n a l l o f t h e j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o ls o f th e
c ity .
CHAPTER V II
FIRST AID AM) HEALTH
S in c e h e a l t h an d s a f e t y a r e p rim e r e q u i s i t e s o f a
h a p p y , z e s t f u l , and u s e f u l l i f e , t h e p r e v e n t i o n a n d c o n t r o l
o f h a z a r d s t o h e a l t h a r e c o n d u c iv e t o t h e w e l f a r e a n d p r o g r e s s
o f t h e com m unity.
A p ro g ra m s u i t a b l e f o r j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l
s t u d e n t s t h a t w i l l s e t f o r t h a few p r i n c i p l e s g o v e r n in g f i r s t
a i d t r e a t m e n t an d some s im p le m e a s u re s t o u s e i n c a s e o f
in ju ry o r i l l n e s s ,
c u r r ic u lu m .
s h o u ld be p a r t o f
th e j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l
I t s h o u ld b e rem em bered
t h a t " F i r s t A id i s th e
im m e d ia te , te m p o ra ry t r e a t m e n t g iv e n i n c a s e o f a c c i d e n t o r
su d d e n i l l n e s s b e f o r e th e s e r v i c e s o f a p h y s i c i a n c a n b e
s e c u r e d ." 1
T h is s tu d y c o n s i d e r s f i r s t w h a t o t h e r c i t i e s an d s t a t e s
h av e done w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o f i r s t a i d a n d h e a l t h i n s t r u c t i o n ,
th e n s u r v e y w h at h a s b e e n done i n O a k la n d .
F i n a l l y recom m enda­
t i o n s w i l l b e m ad e.
I n s t r u c t i o n i n f i r s t a i d an d h e a l t h i n o t h e r c i t i e s a n d
s ta te s .
A su rv e y
o f th e f iv e c i t i e s
o f th e c o u rse s o f
s t u d y i n s a f e t y e d u c a ti o n
a n d tw o s t a t e s s t u d i e d show s t h a t
p ro g ra m s
f o r f i r s t a i d an d h e a l t h i n t h e j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o ls a r e b a s e d
1 A m erican Red C ro s s F i r s t A id T ex tb o o k (W a s h in g to n , D .C .
P . B i a k i s t o n ’ s Son an d Company, I n c . , 1 9 3 3 ), p . 3 .
53
upon th e A m erican Bed G ro s s F i r s t A id T ex tb o o k i n s i x
in s ta n c e s .
The p ro g ra m o f f i r s t a i d an d h e a l t h i n t h e j u n i o r h ig h
s c h o o ls o f C le v e la n d w as a u n i t o f i n s t r u c t i o n f o r u s e i n
M arch and A p r i l .
T h is f o llo w e d t h e same p r o c e d u r e t h a t th e
C le v e la n d c o u r s e o f s tu d y i n s a f e t y e d u c a ti o n u s e d i n p r e s e n t ­
in g t h e d i f f e r e n t t o p i c s o f s a f e t y i n s t r u c t i o n .
The m a t e r i a l
f o r t h i s u n i t w as ta k e n fro m t h e A m eric an Bed C ro s s F i r s t A id
T e x tb o o k .2
As i n t h e C le v e la n d s c h o o l s , th e K a n sa s C i ty p ro g ra m
f o r f i r s t a i d an d h e a l t h w as b a s e d on t h e A m eric an Bed C ro ss
F i r s t A id T e x tb o o k . b u t h e r e i n s t r u c t i o n w as g iv e n a s p a r t
o f t h e s t u d i e s i n home e c o n o m ic s , s c i e n c e , an d p h y s i c a l
e d u c a tio n .
I n e a c h o f t h e s e d e p a r tm e n ts a s p e c t s o f f i r s t a i d
a n d h e a l t h c o r r e l a t i n g m o st c l o s e l y t o t h e w o rk i n h an d was
s tre s s e d .
I n home e c o n o m ic s f i r s t a id f o r b u r n s , a s p h y x i a t i o n ,
p o is o n i n g , a n d so f o r t h w as s t u d i e d .
I n p h y s i c a l e d u c a ti o n
t r e a t m e n t f o r b ro k e n b o n e s , d ro w n in g , and so on w as g iv e n
p re fe re n c e .
I n t h e s c h o o ls o f M in n e a p o lis t h e s t u d y o f f i r s t a i d
and h e a l t h was c o r r e l a t e d w ith t h e w o rk i n s c ie n c e an d p h y s i c a l
e d u c a tio n .
O b je c tiv e s o f t h e c o u r s e w e re t o know how t o a d ­
m i n i s t e r f i r s t a i d , t o know good h e a l t h h a b i t s , a n d t o know
2 A s h o r t o u t l i n e sh o w in g t h i s w ork i s g iv e n i n th e
A p p e n d ix , p . 1 2 6 .
54
how t o g u a rd a g a i n s t t h e common t y p e s o f d i s e a s e .
The u n i t s
o f t h i s f i r s t a i d a n d h e a l t h c o u r s e w ere t a k e n fro m t h e
A m erican Red G ro ss F i r s t A id T e x tb o o k ,
The c o u r s e i n f i r s t a i d an d h e a l t h p r e c a u t i o n s a s
g iv e n i n t h e j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o ls o f W o r c e s te r w as a l s o fo u n d e d
upon th e A m eric an Red C ro s s F i r s t A id T e x tb o o k ,
A l i s t of
f i r s t a i d s u p p l i e s f o r t h e home w as g iv e n , f o llo w e d b y a l i s t
o f p o is o n s and a n t i d o t e s .
I n th e handbook o f r e g u l a t i o n s o f t h e p u b l i c s c h o o ls
o f D e t r o i t was g iv e n a m ethod o f p r o c e d u r e i n c a s e o f a c c i d e n t .
A l i s t o f f i r s t a i d m a t e r i a l s w as g i v e n , 3
m e n tio n e d :
Two te x tb o o k s a r e
H a b it s f o r S a f e t y , by G e n tle s an d B e t t s , 4 and t h e
A m erican Red C ro s s F i r s t A id T e x tb o o k . 3
The p ro g ra m o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n f i r s t a i d an d h e a l t h i n
th e s c h o o ls o f A labam a w as b a s e d on t h e b o o k , H a b it s f o r
a
S a fe ty .
S uch t o p i c s a s p o i s o n i n g , s u f f o c a t i o n , an d a s p h y x ia ­
t i o n w ere c o n s id e r e d i n home eco n o m ic s c l a s s e s an d h e a l t h
h a b i t s w ere t a u g h t i n s c i e n c e .
The S c h a f e r M ethod o f R e s u s c i­
t a t i o n was t a u g h t i n th e p h y s i c a l e d u c a ti o n c l a s s e s , 7
p . 10.
3 D e t r o i t P u b l i c S c h o o ls , H andbook o f S a f e t y R e g u l a t i o n s ,
4 H a r r y W. G e n tle s and G eo rg e H. B e t t s , H a b i t s f o r
S a f e t y (New Y o rk : B o b b s - M e r r ill Company, 1 9 3 2 ), 2 2 8 p p •
^ A m erican Red C ro s s F i r s t A id T e x tb o o k . 256 p p .
® G e n tle s an d B e t t s , o p . c i t .
7 A c h e c k l i s t u s e d i n A labam a w i l l b e f o u n d i n t h e
A p p e n d ix , p . 1 2 8 .
55
A l l s tu d y on f i r s t a i d an d t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f h e a l t h
i n th e j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o ls o f L o u is ia n a was ta k e n fro m t h e
A m erican Red C ro s s F i r s t A id T ex tb o o k w h ic h w as on t h e s t a t e a d o p te d f r e e te x tb o o k l i s t .
I n s t r u c t i o n in f i r s t a id and th e
p r e s e r v a t i o n o f h e a l t h w as c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e r e g u l a r w ork
i n t h e home e c o n o m ic s , s c i e n c e , a n d p h y s i c a l e d u c a ti o n
d e p a r t m e n ts •
A h e a l t h c r e e d , i s s u e d by t h e M a s s a c h u s e tts S t a t e
D e p a rtm e n t o f
H e a l t h , w as a s f o l l o w s :
My Body i s t h e Tem ple o f My S o u l
T h e re fo re :
I w i l l k e e p my body c l e a n w i t h i n an d w i t h o u t ;
I w i l l b r e a t h e p u r e a i r and I w i l l l i v e i n t h e s u n l i g h t ;
I w i l l do no a c t t h a t w i l l e n d a n g e r t h e h e a l t h o f
o th e rs ;
I w i l l t r y t o l e a r n an d p r a c t i c e t h e r u l e s o f h e a l t h f u l
liv in g ;
I w i l l w ork and r e s t a n d p l a y a t t h e r i g h t tim e an d i n
t h e r i g h t w ay, so t h a t my m ind w i l l be s t r o n g an d my body
h e a l t h y an d s o t h a t I w i l l l e a d a u s e f u l l i f e and be a n
h o n o r to my p a r e n t s , t o my f r i e n d s , an d t o my c o u n t r y . 6
The m eth o d u s e d i n O a k la n d .
The t e a c h i n g o f f i r s t a i d
and h e a l t h i n t h e j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o ls o f O akland w as done on
th o s e o c c a s i o n s and i n th o s e c la s s r o o m s w h ere t h e n e e d f o r su c h
i n s t r u c t i o n was s e e n .
I n p h y s i c a l e d u c a ti o n c l a s s e s i n s t r u c ­
t i o n was g iv e n on s p e c i a l o c c a s i o n s , b u t t h e r e w as no r e g u l a r i t y
8
L o u is ia n a C o u rse o f S tu d y i n S a f e t y E d u c a tio n ,
B u l l e t i n No. 3 2 5 , p . 8 4 .
56
i n t h i s s o r t o f w o rk .
P h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s h ad l i t t l e
tim e f o r t h i s an d o u t s i d e o f s h o r t l e c t u r e s an d d e m o n s tr a tio n s
in f i r s t a id , l i t t l e
c la s s e s .
i n s t r u c t i o n w as g iv e n i n t h e r e g u l a r
S c h o o l n u r s e s on s p e c i a l o c c a s i o n s g av e d e m o n s tra ­
t i o n s i n f i r s t a i d an d t a l k s a b o u t t h e a v o id a n c e o f common
d is e a s e s .
Summary and re c o m m e n d a tio n s .
The A m erican Bed C ro ss
F i r s t A id T ex tb o o k w as t h e b a s i s f o r th e s tu d y o f t h i s s u b j e c t
i n s i x o f th e s e v e n s c h o o l s y s te m s s t u d i e d , t h e w o rk b e in g
c o r r e l a t e d w ith r e g u l a r s u b j e c t s i n t h e c u r r ic u lu m .
In s tru c ­
t i o n i n t h i s s u b j e c t i n O ak lan d j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o ls was g iv e n
o n ly a s o c c a s io n s f o r i t a r o s e .
F i r s t a i d s h o u ld b e
T h is im p o r ta n t
f i r s t a i d w o rk .
ta u g h t a s a s e p a r a t e s u b j e c t .
w ork s h o u ld b e g iv e n b y a p e r s o n t r a i n e d i n
A Red C ro s s man o r woman, o r a t r a i n e d n u r s e ,
s h o u ld h a v e a r e g u l a r s c h e d u le t o v i s i t e a c h s c h o o l f o r one
p e r i o d o r m ore p e r w eek .
A rra n g e m e n ts w i t h t h e v a r i o u s s c h o o ls
s h o u ld be made s o t h a t a l l j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e
in s tru c tio n .
A v o id an c e an d p r e v e n t i o n o f t h e common d i s e a s e s s h o u ld
a l s o be t a u g h t b y t h e s e n u r s e s o r Red C ro ss p e o p l e .
In a d d itio n
t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f h e a l t h s h o u ld b e t a u g h t o r d i s c u s s e d i n
th o s e c l a s s e s w h ere i t w o u ld b e s t f i t .
H e a lth p r e s e r v a t i o n
m ig h t n a t u r a l l y come up f o r d i s c u s s i o n i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n ,
home eco n o m ics an d s c i e n c e .
CHAPTER V I I I
FIRE PREVENTION
The n e c e s s i t y f o r te a c h i n g f i r e p r e v e n t i o n i s b r o u g h t
o u t by t h e f o llo w in g q u o t a t i o n :
Somewhere i n t h e U n ite d S t a t e s , e v e r y m in u te o f
t h e d a y an d n i g h t , a home i s b u r n in g . In n u m e ra b le
f i r e s a r e c o n s t a n t l y c a u s in g a n x i e t y , p r o p e r t y l o s s ,
an d d e a t h . T h ere i s a n a v e ra g e l o s s o f a b o u t f o r t y
l i v e s an d a m i l l i o n d o l l a r s o f p r o p e r t y damage d a i l y .
I t i s s a id th a t over s e v e n ty -fiv e p e r c e n t o f f i r e
l o s s e s a r e p r e v e n t a b l e .1
S t u d e n t s s h o u ld b e t a u g h t t o do a l l i n t h e i r p ow er t o make
t h e i r homes an d com m unity s a f e a g a i n s t t h e i n v a s i o n o f f i r e .
The s c h o o ls a r e a t t e m p t i n g t o h e lp i n t h i s p h a s e o f i n s t r u c ­
tio n .
1/?hat o t h e r c i t i e s h av e done a b o u t i t w i l l f i r s t be
c o n s i d e r e d , th e n w h at h a s b e e n done i n t h e j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o ls
o f O a k la n d , f o llo w in g w h ich reco m m en d a tio n s w i l l be m ade.
P ro c e d u r e i n o t h e r c i t i e s .
The t e a c h i n g o f f i r e p r e ­
v e n t i o n w as c a r r i e d on i n t h e . s c i e n c e c l a s s r o o m s , i n a lm o s t
a l l o f th e c i t i e s s tu d ie d .
The c a u s e s o f c o m b u s tio n , b e in g
a . s c i e n t i f i c t o p i c , n a t u r a l l y made t h e d i s c u s s i o n s o f f i r e s ,
t h e i r c a u s e s , an d p r e v e n t i o n f i t i n a p p r o p r i a t e l y w ith t h e
s c ie n c e le s s o n s .
The u n i t o f s tu d y i n f i r e p r e v e n t i o n i n t h e j u n i o r h ig h
p .
15.
1 C le v e la n d C o u rse o f S tu d y i n S a f e t y E d u c a tio n , 1 9 3 7 .
—
58
s c h o o ls o f C le v e la n d w as p la c e d f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n and s tu d y
d u r in g th e m onth o f O c to b e r.
The o b j e c t o f t h e u n i t was t o
d e v e lo p c o r r e c t a t t i t u d e s on th e p a r t o f t h e s t u d e n t to w a rd
f i r e p r e v e n t i o n and t o p r o v id e him w i t h n e c e s s a r y k n ow ledge
t o t h e end t h a t h e m ig h t do h i s p a r t i n r e d u c in g f i r e h a z a r d s . 2
Mine s a f e t y c o u r s e s w ere g i v e n . 3
J u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s
d i s c u s s e d th o s e s a f e t y g u id e s t h a t a p p l i e d t o t h e i r g r a d e ,
f o r m u la te d p ro b le m s , h ad c o m m itte e r e p o r t s and d i s c u s s e d th o s e
p h a s e s a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e i r own s i t u a t i o n s .
F i r e p r e v e n t i o n was c o n s id e r e d i n t h e s c i e n c e c l a s s e s
o f t h e K an sa s C ity j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l s .
U n d er t h e t o p i c ,
" F i r e p r e v e n t i o n an d c o n t r o l , " w ere f i v e h e a d in g s i n o u t l i n e
fo rm , w h ich s e r v e d a s s a f e t y g u id e s i n t h e s tu d y o f f i r e c o n ­
t r o l i n th e s c i e n c e c l a s s w o rk .4
The p h a s e o f s a f e t y d e a l i n g w ith f i r e p r e v e n t i o n i n
th e Alabam a s c h o o ls w as t a u g h t i n th e s c i e n c e c l a s s e s .
The
o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s u n i t o f s a f e t y w a s: "To f u l l y a c q u a i n t
p u p i l s o f j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l g r a d e w ith t h e d a n g e rs o f f i r e
and e n l i s t t h e i r a i d i n t h e p r e v e n t i o n o f and p r o t e c t i o n fro m
p . 15.
2 C le v e la n d C o u rse o f S tu d y i n S a f e t y E d u c a tio n , 1 9 3 7 ,
3 T hese g u id e s w i l l b e f o u n d i n t h e A p p e n d ix , p . 1 3 2 .
4 T h is o u t l i n e a p p e a r s i n t h e A p p e n d ix , p . 1 3 8 .
59
f i r e . 1,5
D is c u s s io n s , r e p o r t s , p e rs o n a l e x p e rie n c e s , and f i r e
p r e v e n t i o n p l a y s w ere u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y .
ft
The f / o r c e s t e r f i r e p r e v e n t i o n p ro g ra m c o n s i s t e d o f
s t u d e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d i s c u s s i o n s , r e p o r t s , an d p l a y s d e a l ­
in g w ith t h i s p h a s e o f s a f e t y .
U n ifo rm e d f ir e m e n w ere i n v i t e d
to g iv e t a l k s t o t h e s t u d e n t s an d home i n s p e c t i o n r e p o r t s b y
th e s t u d e n t s w ere p a r t o f s c ie n c e c l a s s w o r k .7
The s tu d y o f f i r e p r e v e n t i o n an d f i r e h a z a r d s o f th e
s c h o o l b u i l d i n g i n t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e s c h o o ls o f D e t r o i t was
c o n s id e r e d and i n s t r u c t i o n g iv e n i n p r o t e c t i v e m e a s u r e s , i n
case o f sc h o o l f i r e s . 8
R e p o r ts o f i n s p e c t i o n s in t h e homes
w ere d i s c u s s e d by t h e c l a s s and s u g g e s t i o n s w ere made f o r th e
im provem en t o f c o n d i t i o n s f o u n d .
A c c o rd in g t o t h e m a n u a l o f s a f e t y e d u c a ti o n u s e d i n
t h e s c h o o ls o f M in n e a p o lis , th e m a jo r o b j e c t i v e w as: "To
d e v e lo p a n u n d e r s ta n d in g o f t h e c a u s e s o f f i r e s an d a w i l l i n g ­
n e ss to a id in p re v e n tin g f i r e s . ”9
An o u t l i n e o f s tu d y v e r y
5 A labam a C o u rse o f S tu d y i n S a f e t y E d u c a tio n ,
B u l l e t i n No. 1 5 , 1 9 5 2 , p . 9 1 .
p.
139.
6 A l i s t o f c la s s r o o m m a t e r i a l s i s g iv e n i n th e A p p e n d ix ,
7 W o r c e s te r C o u rse o f S tu d y f o r A l l G ra d es i n S a f e t y
E d u c a tio n , 1 9 2 6 , p . 1 5 7 .
8 D e t r o i t P u b lic S c h o o ls , H andbook o f S a f e t y R e g u l a t i o n s ,
1933, p . 3 8 .
9 M in n e a p o lis C o u rse o f S tu d y f o r A l l G rad es i n S a f e t y
and H e a lth E d u c a tio n , 1 9 3 2 , p . 7 1 .
60
s i m i l a r t o t h a t u s e d in: t h e Alabam a s c h o o ls was u se d f o r i n ­
s t r u c t i o n i n f i r e c o n t r o l an d p r e v e n t i o n .
H ere to o i n s t r u c ­
t i o n was c o r r e l a t e d w ith t h e s t u d i e s i n s c i e n c e .
The t e a c h i n g o f f i r e s a f e t y i n t h e s c h o o ls o f L o u is ia n a
a l s o w as c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e s c ie n c e c o u r s e s .
T w e n ty - fiv e
m in u te s p e r week w ere a l l o t t e d t o s a f e t y i n s t r u c t i o n , ^
£n
o u t l i n e g i v i n g t h e c h i e f c a u s e s o f f i r e s w as g iv e n i n t h e
s a f e t y e d u c a ti o n c o u r s e o f s t u d y .
T h is o u t l i n e w as i d e n t i c a l
w ith t h a t o f A labam a.
O akland p r o c e d u r e .
The te a c h i n g o f f i r e p r e v e n t i o n i n
t h e j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o ls o f O ak lan d h a s b e e n c a r r i e d o n i n many
o f th e c la s s s u b je c ts .
I n s t r u c t i o n f o r t h e m o st p a r t h a s b e e n
i n s c i e n c e , home e c o n o m ic s, home m e c h a n ic s , a n d s o c i a l s t u d i e s .
I t i s i n t h e s e s u b j e c t s t h a t f i r e q u e s t i o n s a r e r a i s e d and
d i s c u s s i o n s m o st f r e q u e n t l y a r e h e l d .
A s m a ll p a m p h le t is s u e d
by t h e Red C r o s s ^ w as u s e d b y many o f t h e t e a c h e r s d u r in g
f i r e d i s c u s s i o n s , a s was th e m an u al *on f i r e p r e v e n t i o n p u b ­
l i s h e d by th e n a t i o n a l B o ard o f F i r e U n d e r w r i t e r s . ^
D u rin g F i r e P r e v e n t i o n Week i n O c to b e r f ir e m e n sp e a k
t o a s s e m b lie s im a l l O ak lan d s c h o o l s .
I n a d d i t i o n to t h i s
The A m erican N a t i o n a l Red C r o s s , A c c id e n t C a u s e s . 14 p p .
The N a ti o n a l B o ard o f F i r e U n d e r w r i t e r s , S a f e g u a r d in g
t h e N a tio n a g a i n s t F i r e , a f i r e p r e v e n t i o n m an u al f o r h ig h
s c h o o ls T n ®w Y ork: The N a t i o n a l B o ard o f F i r e U n d e r w r i t e r s ) ,
96 p p .
r e q u e s t s fro m v a r i o u s s c h o o ls f o r f u r t h e r t a l k s b y f ir e m e n
b r in g t h e a v e r a g e num ber o f v i s i t s o f f ir e m e n t o a l l s c h o o ls
up t o tw o .
Summary and re c o m m e n d a tio n s .
I n t h e j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o ls
o f m o st o f th e s c h o o l s y s te m s s t u d i e d , t h e s u b j e c t o f f i r e
p r e v e n t i o n was in c lu d e d i n t h e s c i e n c e c l a s s e s .
The O akland
j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o ls h av e in c lu d e d i t n o t o n ly i n t h e s c i e n c e
c l a s s e s b u t a l s o i n home e c o n o m ic s , home m e c h a n ic s , an d s o c i a l
s tu d ie s .
I n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s t h e r e a r e s p e c i a l a s s e m b l ie s on
th e s u b j e c t h e l d d u r in g F i r e P r e v e n t i o n Week i n O c to b e r g iv e n
b y f ir e m e n .
W h ile t h e t e a c h i n g o f f i r e p r e v e n t i o n i s w e l l t a k e n
c a r e o f i n th e O ak lan d s c h o o ls o f j u n i o r h ig h g r a d e s , t h e
s u b j e c t c o u ld b e b e t t e r h a n d le d by t e a c h e r s i f t h e r e w as a
m an u al o r p a m p h le t w ith s a f e t y g u id e s s i m i l a r t o th o s e o f
C lev elan d ^ -3 w h ic h d e a l t p a r t i c u l a r l y w ith th e f i r e s i t u a t i o n
i n O a k la n d .
A lso t h e f i r e p r e v e n t i o n t e a c h i n g w o u ld b e m ore
u n if o r m i n a l l o f t h e j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l s .
A s tu d y o f t h e
t a b l e f o llo w in g t h i s p a g e shows t h a t i n 1939 O ak lan d h ad m ore
th a n h e r s h a r e o f f i r e s c a u s e d fro m " s p a r k s fro m c h im n ey s" i n
c o m p a riso n w ith tw o e a s t e r n c i t i e s when c o n s id e r e d fro m a
p o p u la tio n s ta n d p o in t.
13
p . 132.
T h is i s c a u s e d , w ith o u t d o u b t, by t h e
T h ese s a f e t y g u id e s may b e fo u n d i n t h e A p p en d ix ,
TABLE J
CLEVELAND, MINNEAPOLIS AND OAIOAND EIRE FACTS - 1939a
C lev elan d
1 . P o p u la tio n
2 . Number o f p ro p erty -d a m ag in g f i r e s
3. C ost of p r o p e r ty damage
4. L oss p e r p ro p erty -d a m ag in g f i r e
5. P e r c a p ita c o s t o f p r o p e r ty damage
464,356
303,324
3,629
732
$ 1 ,1 5 8 ,0 5 1
$275,263
319.11
8 8 .1 4
1 .2 3
.885
1 ,7 0 4
7. T o ta l number o f alarm s
9,209
8. Number o f fire m e n
1,060
10. Causes o f f i r e s :
A utom obile f i r e s
C a re le s s smokers
C a re le s s n e s s w ith m atches
D e fe c tiv e chim neys, f l u e s
D e fe c tiv e w irin g
S parks from chimney
C a re le s s u se o f h e a tin g equipm ent
Spontaneous i g n i t i o n
I n c e n d ia r y , s u s p ic io u s
Oakland
900,429
6. Number o f f a l s e alarm s
9. Number o f p e rso n s k i l l e d
M in n e ap o lis
297
346
3,1 2 3
54
37
3
769
465
375
357
235
216
207
117
40
530
276
114
202
181
61
66
35
235
28
18
21
43
253
62
a S o u rce: E ir e p re v e n tio n b u re a u s o f th e th r e e c i t i e s .
63
l i g h t e r an d c h e a p e r r o o f c o n s t r u c t i o n i n O a k la n d , w h ic h i s a
p o i n t t o c o n s i d e r when p ro g ra m in g f i r e p r e v e n t i o n f o r j u n i o r
h ig h s c h o o l p u p i l s .
" C a r e le s s sm o k e rs ” an d " a u to m o b ile f i r e s ”
f i g u r e s w ere a l s o l a r g e .
I f t h e b o y s an d g i r l s o f j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l ag e c a n b e
t r a i n e d t o p r e v e n t m ore f i r e s , n o t o n ly w i l l t h e r e b e l e s s
f i r e s in th e f u tu r e b u t b ecau se o f th e c a rry in g of f i r e p r e ­
v e n t i o n t r a i n i n g i n t o t h e home t h e r e w i l l be fe w e r f i r e s now.
CHAPTER IX
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Summary.
The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o p o i n t o u t
n e e d s an d p ro b le m s o f s a f e t y e d u c a ti o n i n t h e j u n i o r h ig h
s c h o o ls o f O ak la n d , an d t o make s u g g e s t i o n s f o r im p ro v e m e n ts .
S i t u a t i o n s i n O akland c o n d u c iv e t o a c c i d e n t s w ere s t u d i e d
a n d , i n c o m p a riso n w i t h t h e t r e a t m e n t o f s a f e t y e d u c a ti o n i n
f i v e e a s t e r n c i t i e s and tw o s t a t e d e p a r tm e n ts o f e d u c a t i o n ,
t h e p r o c e d u r e s i n t h e O ak lan d s c h o o ls w ere ex am in ed t o d e t e r ­
m ine how t h e y m et t h e n e e d s o f t h e p u p i l i n t h i s r e g a r d .
The c i t y s c h o o ls o f C le v e la n d and t h e s t a t e d e p a r tm e n t
o f e d u c a ti o n i n L o u is ia n a w ere fo u n d t o h av e p r o v id e d d e f i n i t e
c o u r s e s o f s tu d y i n s a f e t y w ith a d e f i n i t e tim e i n t h e p ro g ra m
f o r th e te a c h in g o f th e s u b je c t.
I n C le v e la n d t h e homerooms
s t u d i e d v a r i o u s s a f e t y t o p i c s , a c c o r d in g t o t h e m o n th o f t h e
y e a r , w h ile i n L o u is ia n a th e u n i t s i n s a f e t y w ere t a u g h t i n
th e p h y s i c a l e d u c a ti o n c l a s s e s w ith t w e n t y - f i v e m in u te s p e r
week r e q u i r e d f o r t h e s t u d y .
C o u rs e s o f s tu d y i n M in n e a p o lis , K an sa s C i t y , f f o r c e s t e r ,
and t h e s t a t e o f A labam a recom m ended t h a t t o p i c s i n s a f e t y be
c o rre la te d
w ith th e r e g u l a r c u r r ic u lu m , w ith p r e c a u t i o n s f o r
th e p r e v e n t i o n o f a c c i d e n t s an d th e a v o id a n c e o f d a n g e r s
t a u g h t i n w h a te v e r c l a s s an d i n c o n n e c tio n w ith w h a te v e r u n i t
th e y m ig h t b e a p p r o p r i a t e .
65
'The D e t r o i t . s c h o o ls w ere fo u n d t o h av e no c o u r s e o f
s tu d y o r o t h e r p u b l i c a t i o n on t h e s u b j e c t o f s a f e t y e x c e p t
b h e i r H andbook o f S a f e t y R e g u la t io n s f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o ­
c e d u r e s i n th e s c h o o l s .
O akland w as fo u n d t o b e one o f t h e c i t i e s i n w h ich
s a f e t y w as c o r r e l a t e d w ith r e g u l a r s u b j e c t s o f t h e c u r r ic u lu m ,
l e a v i n g t o t h e d i s c r e t i o n o f t h e t e a c h e r s w hen an d how t h e
t o p i c s w ere t o b e h a n d le d .
The a v o id a n c e o f h a z a r d s an d t h e
p r e v e n t i o n o f a c c i d e n t s w ere o f t e n in c lu d e d w h ere a p p r o p r i a t e
i n i n d u s t r i a l a r t s c l a s s e s , home e c o n o m ic s , s c i e n c e , a n d
s o c ia l s tu d ie s .
O th e r a g e n c ie s i n t h e c i t y , su c h a s t h e f i r e
d e p a rtm e n t and t h e pow er com pany, w o rk ed th r o u g h t h e s c h o o ls
t o g iv e s p e c i a l i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h o s e p h a s e s o f s a f e t y i n w hich
th e y w ere m o st i n t e r e s t e d .
The m e th o d s o f t e a c h i n g s a f e t y i n t h e s c h o o l s y s te m s
s t u d i e d g e n e r a l l y made u s e o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n s by t h e p u p i l s ,
i n hom e, s e h o o l , an d com m unity, o f h a z a r d o u s c o n d i t i o n s and
s a f e ty p re c a u tio n s ta k e n .
The t o p i c s o f home s a f e t y , p l a y h a z a r d s , m o to r v e h i c l e
h a z a r d s , c la s s r o o m h a z a r d s , f i r s t a i d and h e a l t h , an d f i r e
p r e v e n t i o n , a s t r e a t e d b y t h e v a r i o u s c i t i e s and s t a t e s , w ere
com pared w ith t h e c o r r e s p o n d in g p r o c e d u r e s i n O a k la n d .
A
t a b l e sh o w in g t h i s c o m p a ris o n w i l l b e fo u n d on t h e f o llo w in g
page •
t a b u : vi
THE CORRELATION OF SAFETY INSTRUCTION WITH OTHER SUBJECTS IN THE SIX CITIES AND TWO STATES STUDIED
Motor vehicle
Play hazards
hazards
Classroom F irst Aid
hazards
Health
Fire prevention
All class­
Home room
rooms
Assemblies
Home room
City or
state
Home safety
Cleveland
Home room
Home Econ.
Home room
Home room
Home Scon,
Indus. Arts
Social Study
Social Study
Indus. Arts
tt
P .E ., Sci.
Home Econ.
Assemblies^
Science
Civics
Civics
Civics
Civics
Other
classes
P .E ., Sci.
Home Econ.
Home Economics
Assembly, Civics
Science
Minneapolis
Home Economics
Industrial Arts
Physical
Education
Home room
Phys. Educ.
Louisiana
Phys. Educ.
Home Econ,
25 min. per wk.
n
Worcester
Not stated
Various
subjects
All subjects
Civics
Other Not stated
classrooms
Assemblies
Science
Detroit
Home Economics
Not stated
Various
school
studies
All
Not stated
classrooms
Assemblies
Home Economics
Science
Oakland
Home Economics
Social Study
Indus. Arts
Science
Kansas City
Alabama
Phys. Educ.
English, Art
Social study Assembly, P.E.
Phys. Educ.
Indus. Arts
Science
Social Study
All class­
rooms
Science
P. E.
it
Home Econ.
Science
P. E.
*
Home Econ.
Special
occasions
Assemblies
Assemblies
Science
Assemblies
Science
25 min. per week
Assembly, Science
Social Study
Home Economics
Industrial Arts
67
C o n e lu s io n s an d re c o m m e n d a tio n s .
The p o l i c y o f th e
O akland j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o ls w ith r e f e r e n c e t o s a f e t y e d u c a t i o n
seem s t o b e s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f t h e s o h o o ls i n M in n e a p o lis ,
K an sa s C i t y , W o r c e s te r , an d t h e s t a t e o f A lab am a, i n t h a t
s a f e t y t o p i c s a r e c o r r e l a t e d w ith t h e r e g u l a r s u b j e c t s o n th e
c u r r ic u lu m .
I n n e i t h e r O ak lan d n o r t h e s e o t h e r s c h o o l s y s te m s
h a s i t a n a s s u r e d p l a e e o f i t s own on t h e s c h o o l p ro g ra m .
Much d i s c r e t i o n i s l e f t t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r s i n O ak land
a s t o when a n d w h e re t h e s e t o p i c s a r e t o b e t a u g h t .
I t w ould seem t h a t t h i s p o l i c y i n O akland l e a v e s to o
much t o c h a n c e , t h a t t h e r e s h o u ld b e a m ore d e f i n i t e an d
s y s t e m a t i c p ro g ra m o f s a f e t y e d u c a tio n i n e v e ry j u n i o r h ig h
s c h o o l i f i t i s t o r e a c h a l l th e p u p i l s .
S uch a p ro g ra m
s h o u ld c o n s i d e r t h e h a z a r d s w h ic h a c h i l d i s l i k e l y t o m eet
i n h i s d a i l y e x p e r i e n c e s , w h e re v e r h e may b e , an d s h o u ld g iv e
a t t e n t i o n t o l e s s common h a z a r d s t h a t a c h i l d s h o u ld be p r e ­
p a re d to fa c e i n e x c e p tio n a l c irc u m s ta n c e s .
The t e a c h i n g
s h o u ld aim a t f o s t e r i n g i n t h e c h i l d p e rm a n e n t h a b i t s o f f o r e ­
s ta lli n g p o te n tia l a c c id e n ts .
I f t h i s o b j e c t i v e i s c o n s id e r e d
d e s i r a b l e i n a l l c h i l d r e n , th e t e a c h i n g f o r i t s h o u ld b e
s y s te m a tic r a t h e r th a n h a p h a z a rd .
I n t h e j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o ls o f O a k la n d , w h ic h a r e d e p a r t ­
m e n ta liz e d i n o r g a n i z a t i o n , b o th t h e p l a n s , c o r r e l a t i o n and
s e p a r a t e s u b j e c t s , s h o u ld b e u s e d .
Of t h e s i x s o u r c e s o f
h a z a r d s c o n s id e r e d i n t h i s s tu d y — home s a f e t y , p l a y h a z a r d s ,
68
m o to r v e h i c l e h a z a r d s , c la s s r o o m h a z a r d s , f i r e p r e v e n t i o n ,
and f i r s t a i d an d h e a l t h - - a l l b u t f i r s t a i d c a n , s h o u ld , and
u s u a lly a r e c o r r e la te d w ith th e r e g u la r s u b j e c t s .
F ir s t a id ,
h o w e v e r, s h o u ld b e t a u g h t a s a s e p a r a t e s u b j e c t b y a t e a c h e r
e s p e c ia lly tra in e d in i t .
The s p e c i a l a s s e m b l ie s an d o t h e r
i n s t r u c t i o n i n h a z a r d s c o n c e r n in g f i r e an d m o to r v e h i c l e s ,
w h ich now seem t o be d o in g e f f e c t i v e w o rk , s h o u ld b e c o n t i n u e d .
The e l a b o r a t e c o u r s e s o f s tu d y i n e f f e c t i n C le v e la n d
and L o u i s i a n a , w h ile a p p a r e n t l y q u i t e e f f e c t i v e , do n o t seem
f e a s i b l e i n O ak lan d on a c c o u n t o f t h e a l r e a d y crow ded p ro g ra m ,
and i n g e n e r a l a r e p r o b a b ly n o t n e c e s s a r y i f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n
o f s a f e t y w ith t h e o t h e r s u b j e c t s i s s y s t e m a t i c a l l y c a r r i e d
o u t*
Many t h i n g s w h ic h h a v e b e e n done i n C le v e la n d c a n , how­
e v e r , be w e l l u t i l i z e d i n O a k la n d .
A m an u al o f s a f e t y i n s t r u c ­
t i o n , f o r e x a m p le , s i m i l a r t o t h e o n e p r e p a r e d f o r u s e i n t h e
C le v e la n d s c h o o l s , s h o u ld be a v a i l a b l e t o a l l j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l
t e a c h e r s i n O a k la n d .
By t h i s m e an s, s a f e t y i n s t r u c t i o n c o u ld
be m ore u n if o r m ly s y s t e m a t i z e d th r o u g h o u t t h e s y s te m .
Home s a f e t y s h o u ld h a v e a m ore d e f i n i t e p l a c e i n t h e
O a k la n d j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l c u r r ic u lu m .
W h ile t h i s i s a l r e a d y
c o n s id e r e d i n home e c o n o m ic s , s c i e n c e , s o c i a l s t u d i e s , an d t h e
s h o p s , i t s h o u ld be g iv e n a r e g u l a r p o r t i o n . o f t h e s c h o o l ’s
tim e r a t h e r t h a n j u s t s u c h o c c a s io n s a s a r i s e .
T h is c o u ld be
a c c o m p lis h e d e v e n th o u g h i t b e c o r r e l a t e d w ith t h e o t h e r s u b ­
j e c t s , p r o v id e d th e t e a c h e r s o f t h o s e s u b j e c t s u n d e r s ta n d t h a t
69
th e t e a c h i n g o f home s a f e t y i s a d e f i n i t e p a r t o f t h e i r d u t i e s .
I n g e n e r a l , t h e O akland j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o ls seem to
h av e w e l l ta k e n c a r e o f p l a y h a z a r d s .
T h ese a r e c o n s id e r e d
i n t h e s c i e n c e , s o c i a l s t u d i e s , a n d p h y s i c a l e d u c a ti o n c l a s s e s .
O u ts id e a g e n c i e s a l s o h e l p .
C e rta in p h ases in r e c r e a tio n a l
s a f e t y s h o u ld , h o w e v e r, r e c e i v e m ore e m p h a s is .
H ere a s a f e t y
m a n u al s u c h a s t h a t i n C le v e la n d w o u ld h e v a l u a b l e .
D a n g e rs
in t h e snow c o u n t r y , t h e a v o id a n c e o f p o is o n o u s p l a n t s , and
swimming l e s s o n s s h o u ld r e c e i v e m ore a t t e n t i o n .
A t l e a s t one
p e r io d o f t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a ti o n tim e p e r w eek s h o u ld b e d e ­
v o te d t o i n s t r u c t i o n i n r e c r e a t i o n a l h a z a r d s .
T h ere s h o u ld be
m ore c o r r e l a t i o n o f t h i s p h a s e o f s a f e t y w ith o t h e r s c h o o l
s u b j e c t s ; t h i s w ould be m ore u n if o r m th r o u g h t h e u s e o f a
s a f e t y m an u al su c h a s t h a t i n C le v e la n d .
The t e a c h i n g o f t r a f f i c s a f e t y i n t h e O akland j u n i o r
h ig h s c h o o ls i s s u p p le m e n te d by a p a m p h le t o u t l i n i n g w ork i n
c o n n e c tio n w ith t h e v a r i o u s c l a s s e s .
L e c tu r e s by t h e s p e c i a l
p o l i c e o f f i c e r s t o t h e n i n t h g r a d e c l a s s e s on d r i v i n g an d
t r a f f i c h a z a r d s a r e g iv e n a t s p e c i a l a s s e m b l i e s .
Some good
w ork h a s b e e n done an d th e r e s u l t s o b ta in e d a r e g r a t i f y i n g ,
b u t t h e j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l p u p i l s s h o u ld r e c e i v e ev en m ore
in s tru c tio n .
The w ork o f t h e O ak lan d J u n i o r T r a f f i c R e s e rv e
h a s b e e n o u t s t a n d i n g i n i t s s u c c e s s i n m aking t h e s t r e e t s
a b o u t t h e s c h o o ls s a f e f o r p e d e s t r i a n s ; i t i s j u s t i f i a b l y
p ro u d o f i t s
r e c o r d o f tw e lv e y e a r s w ith b u t one s i n g l e a c c i d e n t
70
i n a s c h o o l s y s te m w ith n e a r l y f i f t y th o u s a n d p u p i l s .
J u n io r
h ig h s c h o o l p u p i l s a r e a p p r o a c h in g t h e a g e w hen t h e y w i l l
b e g in t o u s e a u to m o b ile s an d s h o u ld be p r e p a r e d f o r t h e i r
i n t e l l i g e n t u s e th r o u g h s c h o o l i n s t r u c t i o n .
A m an u al p r e p a r e d
e s p e c i a l l y f o r i n s t r u c t i o n i n t r a f f i c s a f e t y and a u to m o b ile
d r i v i n g s h o u ld b e i n th e h a n d s o f j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s
f o r c o r r e l a t e d w o rk , a n d s p e c i a l c l a s s i n s t r u c t i o n s h o u ld be
c o n tin u e d th r o u g h t h e n i n t h g r a d e f o r one p e r i o d p e r w eek
th r o u g h o u t t h e s e m e s t e r .
O u ts id e t h e sh o p s t h e j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o ls o f O akland
h a v e no s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n s a b o u t c la s s r o o m h a z a r d s .
E q u ip ­
m ent w as k e p t i n good r e p a i r a n d h a l l s , ro o m s, an d g ro u n d s
w e ll s u p e r v i s e d .
B o o k le ts f o r s a f e t y i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e s h o p s
w e re o f t h e b e s t an d a c c i d e n t s t h e r e w e re k e p t a t a minimum.
A b o o k le t o r p a m p h le t f o r s a f e t y i n s t r u c t i o n i n e a c h
ty p e o f c la s s r o o m s h o u ld b e i n th e h a n d s o f j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l
in s tru c to rs .
I n t h i s way c la s s r o o m s a f e t y i n s t r u c t i o n w o u ld
b e u n if o rm an d a c c i d e n t s r e d u c e d t o a minimum.
C la ssro o m
s a f e t y s h o u ld b e c o r r e l a t e d w i t h e a c h s u b j e c t .
I n s u f f i c i e n t i n s t r u c t i o n i n f i r s t a i d w as g iv e n i n t h e
O akland j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l s .
As o c c a s io n s a r o s e some d i s c u s ­
s i o n was h e l d a s was t h e c a s e w i t h t h e common d i s e a s e s .
S chool
n u r s e s g av e some i n c i d e n t a l i n s t r u c t i o n , b u t no f o r m a l l e s s o n s
w ere g iv e n .
F i r s t a i d s h o u ld be t a u g h t a s a s e p a r a t e s u b j e c t
by a p e r s o n t r a i n e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e , who w o u ld f o l l o w a r e g u l a r
71
s c h e d u le f o r v i s i t i n g e a c h o f t h e O ak lan d j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o ls
in t u r n .
P r e v e n t i o n o f th e common d i s e a s e s s h o u ld a l s o be
t a u g h t by t h i s p e r s o n a s w e l l a s b e in g c o r r e l a t e d by r e g u l a r
t e a c h e r s w i t h s u b j e c t s w h e re i t b e s t f i t s i n .
I n s t r u c t i o n i n f i r e p r e v e n t i o n w as c a r r i e d o n im s e v e r a l
j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l c l a s s e s .
Red C ro s s p a m p h le t u s e d .
D is c u s s io n s w ere h e l d an d a s m a ll
L e c t u r e s by f ir e m e n a v e r a g e d tw o t o
e a c h s c h o o l d u r in g t h e y e a r .
S p e c i a l d i s c u s s i o n s w e re h e l d
i n v a r i o u s c l a s s e s d u r in g F i r e P r e v e n t i o n W eek.
More u n ifo rm
t e a c h i n g i n c o r r e l a t i o n w ith r e g u l a r w o rk c o u ld be h a d i f a
m a n u al o f s a f e t y i n s t r u c t i o n c o n t a i n i n g a c h a p t e r on f i r e p r e ­
v e n t i o n w ere a v a i l a b l e .
One s i m i l a r t o t h e c o u r s e o f s a f e t y
s tu d y p r e p a r e d f o r u s e i n t h e C le v e la n d s c h o o ls w o u ld make
f i r e p r e v e n t i o n te a c h i n g m ore e f f e c t i v e .
The re c o m m e n d a tio n s o f t h i s s tu d y ca n b e su m m arized a s
fo llo w s :
S a f e t y e d u c a ti o n i n t h e O ak lan d j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o ls
s h o u ld i n g e n e r a l be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h o t h e r s u b j e c t s o f th e
c u r r ic u lu m , b u t s h o u ld b e s y s t e m a tiz e d th r o u g h t h e p u b l i c a t i o n
o f h an d b o o k s sh o w in g j u s t how t h i s c o r r e l a t i o n s h o u ld b e
c a r r ie d o u t in th e v a rio u s f i e l d s .
C o r r e l a t e d s a f e t y e d u c a ti o n
s h o u ld b e s y s t e m a t i c an d c e r t a i n r a t h e r th a n l e f t t o c h a n c e .
Some a s p e c t s o f m o to r v e h i c l e a n d f i r e
s a f e t y s h o u ld r e c e i v e
s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n o u t s i d e t h e o t h e r c o u r s e s and f i r s t a i d s h o u ld
h a v e a c l a s s an d t e a c h e r o f i t s own.
The p r i n c i p a l n e e d , t h e n ,
o f s a f e t y i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e O ak lan d j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o ls i s
t h a t i t b e s y s t e m a t i c r a t h e r th a n s u b j e c t t o c h a n c e .
BIBLIOGRAPHY
BIBLIOGRAPHY
PART I
A.
BOOKS
B e a rd , H a r r i e t E . , S a f e t y F i r s t f o r S e h o o l an d Home.
M a c m illa n Company, 1 9 2 4 . 223 p p .
New Y o rk :
I n f o r m a t io n a s t o t h e c a u s e s o f s t r e e t a n d home a c c i d e n t s
w ith s u g g e s t i o n s f o r t h e i r e l i m i n a t i o n .
G e n tl e s , H a r ry W ., an d G eorge H . B e t t s , H a b it s f o r S a f e t y .
New Y o rk : Bobbs M e r r i l l Company, 1 9 3 7 . 228 p p .
D e v o te d t o f i r s t a i d an d t o g e n e r a l s a f e t y p r o c e d u r e s .
Home, com m unity an d s c h o o l a r e c o n s i d e r e d .
H i p p i e r , C .A ., and H . B. D u r f e e , S a f e L i v i n g . B o s to n :
B e n jam in H. S a n b o rn and Company, 1 9 3 1?. 188 p p .
S t o r i e s a n d " t h i n g s t o d o " a b o u t a n e ig h b o rh o o d an d s c h o o l .
H yde, F lo r e n c e S . , an d R u th C. S lo w n , S a f e t y P ro g ram s a n d
A c t i v i t i e s . C h ic a g o : B e e k le y -C a rd y Company, 1 9 3 5 . 265 p p .
A s e r i e s o f s a f e t y p ro g ra m s an d a c t i v i t i e s f o r t h e j u n i o r
h ig h s c h o o l .
K rem l, F r a n k l i n M ., D o n ald S t i v e r , an d Thurman R ic e , P u b l i c
S a f e t y . I n d i a n a p o l i s : B obbs M e r r i l l Company, 193'/'. 318 p p .
Home s a f e t y , s a f e d r i v i n g , and f i r s t a i d .
e . G e o rg e , E d u c a tio n i n A c c id e n t P r e v e n t i o n .
L yons and C a rn a h a n , 1 9 1 9 . i? 6 p p .
Payne,
New Y o rk :
The t e a c h i n g o f s a f e t y th r o u g h c o r r e l a t i o n w ith th e
v a r i o u s s u b j e c t s o f t h e e le m e n ta r y s c h o o l c u r r ic u lu m .
The g e n e r a l p r o c e d u r e may be f o llo w e d i n t h e j u n i o r
h ig h s c h o o l .
P a y n e , E. G e o rg e , an d L o u is C. S c h r o e d e r , H e a lth an d S a f e t y i n
t h e New C u r r ic u lu m . New Y ork: A m eric an V ie w p o in t S o c i e t y .
1 3 5 5 . 317 p p .
74
A h an d b o o k f o r t e a c h e r s d e s c r i b i n g t h e i n c l u s i o n o f
s a f e t y e d u c a ti o n a s l i v e t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l •
S te v e n s o n , I d a b e l l e , S a f e t y E d u c a tio n .
an d Company, 1 9 3 1 . 157 p p .
New Y o rk : A .3* B a rn e s
A han d b o o k o f s a f e t y a c t i v i t i e s f o r t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l .
D is c u s s e s t h e p ro b le m s an d m eth o d s o f t e a c h i n g s a f e t y ,
t h e s e t t i n g up o f s t u d e n t s a f e t y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and
s a f e ty in a t h l e t i c s .
B.
PAMPHLETS
A m erican A u to m o b ile A s s o c i a t i o n , S p o rts m a n s h ip D r i v i n g .
P a r t I , The D r i v e r . W a sh in g to n , D .C .: 'm e A s s o c i a t i o n ,
1938. . © F p p .
C o m p reh en siv e t e x t on c la s s r o o m an d c a r i n s t r u c t i o n i n
d riv e r tr a in in g .
A m erican Red C r o s s , A c c id e n t C a u s e s .
Red C r o s s , 1 9 3 8 . 14 p p .
W a s h in g to n , D .C .: The
D is c u s s io n o f c a u s e s and p r e v e n t i o n o f a c c i d e n t s .
C o t t r e l l , H, L o u i s e ," C o n s t r u c t i n g a C o u rse i n S a f e t y E d u c a t i o n ,”
(m im e o g ra p h e d ). New Y o rk : C e n te r f o r S a f e t y E d u c a tio n ,
1 9 3 9 . 13 p p .
S u g g e s tiv e o u t l i n e o f p r o c e d u r e t o be f o llo w e d b y c u r r i c u ­
lum c o m m itte e •
I r e l a n d , A lle n G ., S c h o o l S a f e t y O r g a n i z a t i o n s . T r e n to n , N . J . :
New J e r s e y S t a t e D e p a rtm e n t o f P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n , 1 9 3 2 .
A p a m p h le t c o n t a i n i n g s u g g e s t i o n s f o r t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f
s a f e t y c l u b s , c o m m itte e s and p a t r o l s .
N a t i o n a l B oard o f F i r e U n d e r w r i t e r s , S a f e g u a r d in g t h e Home
a g a i n s t F i r e . New Y o rk : N a ti o n a l B oard o f F i r e U n d e r­
w rite rs .
96 p p .
A p a m p h le t p r e p a r e d w ith t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f t h e U n ite d
S t a t e s B u re a u o f E d u c a tio n , d e s c r i b i n g t h e c a u s e s o f
f i r e w ith s u g g e s te d m e th o d s f o r t h e i r p r e v e n t i o n .
75
N a ti o n a l B u re a u o f C a s u a lty an d S u r e ty U n d e r w r i t e r s , A G uide
Book o f S a f e t y E d u c a tio n . New Y o rk : N a t i o n a l C o n s e rv a ­
t i o n B u re a u , 1 9 3 1 . 89 p p .
O b je c tiv e s and a c t i v i t i e s f o r t e a c h i n g s a f e t y on a l l
s c h o o l l e v e l s , a l s o n o te s on e x t r a c u r r i c u l u m a c t i v i t i e s .
N a t i o n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c i a t i o n , R e s e a r c h D i v i s i o n , C h e c k l i s t
o f S a f e t y an d S a f e t y E d u c a tio n . W a sh in g to n , D .G .: The
A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 9 3 9 . 30 p p .
O ver tw o h u n d re d q u e s t i o n s d e s ig n e d t o a i d t h e s c h o o l
p r in c ip a l o r s u p e rin te n d e n t in a p p r a is in g h is s a f e ty
p ro g ra m . A ls o a c o m p le te b i b l i o g r a p h y o f e x i s t i n g
c h e c k lis ts •
N a ti o n a l S a f e t y C o u n c il, A c c id e n t F a c t s .
S a f e t y C o u n c il, 1 9 3 7 . 8 8 p p .
C h ic a g o :
N a tio n a l
An a n n u a l r e p o r t c o n t a i n i n g t h e m o st r e c e n t d a t a i n
re fe re n c e to a c c id e n ts .
R o g e rs , Jam es F . , S a f e t y an d H e a lth o f t h e S c h o o l C h i l d .
W a s h in g to n , D . 6 . : U n ite d S t a t e s D e p a rtm e n t o f t h e I n t e r i o r ,
C i r c u l a r N o. 6 5 , 1 9 3 2 . 29 p p .
A s u r v e y o f s c h o o l c o n d i t i o n s a f f e c t i n g t h e s a f e t y o f th e
school c h ild .
W h ite H ouse C o n fe re n c e on C h ild H e a lth an d P r o t e c t i o n , S a f e t y
E d u c a tio n i n t h e S c h o o ls . New Y o rk : The C e n tu ry Company,
1 9 3 1 . 61 p p .
An e x c e l l e n t g u id e c o n t a i n i n g m a t e r i a l on a l l p h a s e s o f
s a f e t y e d u c a t i o n , i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , m a t e r i a l , m e th o d s
o f te a c h in g , e t c .
0.
PERIODICAL ARTICLES
B u c k le y , H. M ., " C le v e la n d T e a c h e s C a u t i o n , ” S a f e t y E d u c a tio n .
1 8 :3 4 - 5 7 , O c to b e r , 1 9 3 8 .
An a r t i c l e on how C le v e la n d s c h o o ls t e a c h s a f e t y .
C o t t r e l l , H. L o u is e , " S a f e ty d u r in g S c h o o l H o u r s ,” S a f e t y
E d u c a tio n . 1 8 :2 4 - 2 5 , S e p te m b e r, 1 9 3 8 .
An o u t l i n e o f f i v e s a f e t y l e s s o n s . A ls o a c c i d e n t g r a p h s
an d t a b l e o f s t u d e n t s k i l l e d an d i n j u r e d , b y g r a d e s .
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D o la n , G. R ., " A p p r e n tic e d t o S a f e t y , " S a f e t y E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 :
2 6 0 -2 6 1 , F e b r u a r y , 1 9 4 0 .
What a s c h o o l i n B e g in a , S a s k a tc h e w a n , i s d o in g .
F o s s e , A g a th a B . , " S a f e t y E d u c a tio n a s F r o v id e d i n E le m e n ta ry
and H ig h S c h o o l C o u rs e s o f S tu d y i n L a rg e C i t i e s , "
R e s e a rc h Q u a r t e r l y o f t h e A m erican F h y s i c a l E d u c a tio n
A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 0 :1 0 5 - 1 1 8 , O c to b e r, 19&9.
O r g a n iz a tio n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f v a r i o u s c o u r s e s .
K i e s e l , F . J . , " T r a f f i c P a t r o l , ” S i e r r a E d u c a tio n a l News,
3 6 :1 6 - 1 7 , F e b r u a r y , 1 9 4 0 .
O r g a n iz a tio n an d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f a j u n i o r t r a f f i c
p a t r o l i n a j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l .
S c h e r e r , F r a n c i s R . , " I n C ase o f F i r e , ” S a f e t y E d u c a t i o n ,
1 9 :1 9 4 - 2 3 8 , J a n u a r y , 1 9 4 0 .
An e x c e l l e n t a r t i c l e on t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f f i r e d r i l l s .
S c h o r , E u g e n ia , "D an g er L u rk s i n t h e H om e,” S a f e t y E d u c a tio n ,
1 8 :2 5 0 -2 5 1 , A p r i l , 1 9 3 9 .
An a r t i c l e o n t h e common h a z a r d s o f th e home an d t h e i r
s u g g e s te d e l i m i n a t i o n .
PART I I
SELECTED REFERENCES USEFUL IN TEACHING SjUETY
A m erican A u to m o b ile A s s o c i a t i o n , P e d e s t r i a n P r o t e c t i o n .
W a sh in g to n , D .C .: The A s s o c i a t i o n , 1939*1 90 p p .
How c i t i e s a r e m e e tin g an d may m e e t t h e p ro b le m o f
p e d e s tria n a c c id e n ts .
A m erican Red C r o s s , F i r s t A id T e x tb o o k .
The Red C r o s s , 1937• §56 p p .
W a sh in g to n , D .C .:
T ho ro u g h t r e a t m e n t o f a l l a s p e c t s o f f i r s t a i d .
illu s tra te d .
F u lly
77
B annerm an, G. W ., A G uide Book i n S a f e t y E d u c a tio n * W ausau,
W is c o n s in : E m p lo y e rs f M u tu a l I n s u r a n c e Company, 1 9 3 8 .
109 p p .
S a fe ty m a te r ia l a rra n g e d fo r c o r r e la te d in s t r u c tio n f o r
g r a d e s fro m k i n d e r g a r t e n th r o u g h h ig h s c h o o l .
Bowman, E a r l C ., and P a u l B o s to n , L iv in g S a f e l y .
The M a c m illa n Company, 1 9 3 8 . - 178 p p .
New Y o rk:
E i g h t y - e i g h t l e s s o n s , one f o r e a c h day o f t h e s e m e s t e r ,
t e a c h i n g s a f e t y a s a p a r t o f t h e t r a i n i n g f o r good
c i t i z e n s h i p . F o r j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l s .
B r o w n e ll, C l i f f o r d L . , A lle n G. I r e l a n d , and C h a r le s F . Towne,
A d v e n tu re s i n S a f e t y . New Y o rk : Rand M cN ally an d Gompany,
1939.
pp.
A te x tb o o k f o r j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l , d i v i d e d i n t o u n i t s o f
s a f e t y i n t h e home an d s c h o o l , on t h e h ig h w a y , i n o c c u p a ­
t i o n s , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and com m unity l i f e .
E v a n s, W illia m A ., and M a t t i e B. F r y , S a f e t y - Y our P ro b le m
and M in e . C h ic a g o : L yons a n d C a rn a h a n , 1 9 3 8 . 307 p p .
A t e x t f o r ju n io r h ig h s c h o o l.
s a fe ty s u b je c ts .
H ighw ay E d u c a tio n B o a rd , A S a f e t y
W a sh in g to n , B .C .: The B o a rd ,
C h a p te r s t r e a t i n g a l l
L e ss o n f o r E aoh
1 9 3 5 . 88 p p .
G ra d e .
P r i z e w in n in g l e s s o n p l a n s d e v e lo p e d by c la s s r o o m t e a c h e r s .
" M a t e r i a l s and M ethods o f T e a c h in g S a f e t y E d u c a tio n ," (mimeo­
g r a p h e d ) . New Y ork: C e n te r f o r S a f e t y E d u c a tio n , 1 9 3 9 .
F i f t e e n b a s i c u n i t s f o r e le m e n ta r y an d s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l
te a c h e rs .
N a t i o n a l F i r e P r o t e c t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , 1000 S c h o o l F i r e s .
B o s to n : The A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 9 3 9 . 72 p p .
C ase h i s t o r i e s o f s c h o o l f i r e s , w ith s t a t i s t i c s o n c a u s e s
and f a t a l i t i e s , and s u g g e s tio n s f o r f i r e d r i l l s .
N a t i o n a l S a f e t y C o u n c il, S a f e t y i n t h e S m a ll Com m unity.
C h ic a g o : The C o u n c il, 1 9 3 7 .
34 p p .
L a rg e s e c t i o n d e v o te d t o s c h o o l s a f e t y p ro g ra m .
78
N a t i o n a l S a f e t y C o u n c il, The J u n i o r S a f e t y C o u n c i l •
The C o u n c il, 1 9 3 5 . 7£ p p .
C h ic a g o :
O r g a n iz a tio n a n d a c t i v i t i e s o f j u n i o r s a f e t y c o u n c i l ,
s c h o o l hoy p a t r o l , s a f e t y c l u b s , an d o t h e r s c h o o l s a f e t y
g ro u p s•
N e ls o n , F l o r e n c e , O t i s G. J a m is o n , a n d Raymond 1 . S p a r k s ,
S a f e t y th r o u g h t h e Y e a r . New Y ork: M cG raw -H ill Book
Company, 1937* 1£7 p p .
A w orkbook o f n i n e u n i t s on s a f e t y , c o m p le te i n th e m s e lv e s ,
f o r j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l.
U n ite d S t a t e s D e p a rtm e n t o f Commerce, A c c id e n t P r e v e n t i o n
C o n f e r e n c e , How t o S to p Home A c c i d e n t s . W a sh in g to n , D .C .:
The D e p a rtm e n t, 1 9 3 6 . 14 p p .
S tu d y o f a c c i d e n t s b y t h e i r p l a c e o f o c c u r r e n c e , w i t h
s u g g e s tio n s f o r t h e i r p r e v e n t i o n .
W h itn e y , A l b e r t W ., Man a n d t h e M o to r C a r .
C o n s e r v a tio n B u re a u , 1 9 3 6 . £56 p p .
New Y o rk : N a ti o n a l
H i s t o r y o f t h e .a u to m o b ile an d a d v ic e on good d r i v i n g
p ra c tic e s .
T e a c h e rs* m an u al a v a i l a b l e .
APPENDXX
PART I
APPENDIX A
HOME SAFETY
81
HOME SAFETY
C heck L i s t U sed i n C le v e la n d J u n i o r H ig h S c h o o ls 3*
C heck y o u r home
D ire c tio n s ,
Take t h i s b u t l i n e and p l a c e a c h e c k i n t h e
s p a c e p r o v id e d , i f y o u f i n d y o u r home i s s a f e fro m t h i s h a z a rd *
S ta ir w a y s r
1*
O b je c ts s t o r e d on s t a i r s o f a l l k in d s
2*
L o o se o r w o rn - o u t s t e p s
3*
T ack s l o o s e on c a r p e te d o r tr e a d e d s t a i r s
4*
L o o se r u b b e r t r e a d on s t a i r s
5*
Hug t h a t s l i d e s a t f o o t o f s t a i r s
6*
C u rv e i n s t e p s
7*
L o o se lin o le u m on s t a i r w a y s
8«
L o o se o r weak b a n n i s t e r s
9*
S te e p s t a i r w a y s
10*
M e ta l s t r i p s on s t a i r s lo o s e o r w o rn o u t
L ig h tin g :
1*
Poor lig h tin g f a c i l i t i e s n ear s ta ir s
2.
P o o r o r no l i g h t i n g i n a t t i c
3*
P o o r l i g h t i n g i n b a se m e n t
4.
P o o r l i g h t s i n h a llw a y an d c l o t h e s c l o s e t
^ C le v e la n d P u b l i c S c h o o ls , S a f e t y E d u c a t i o n . A C o u rse
o f S tu d y f o r E le m e n ta ry an d J u n i o r H ig h S c h o o ls ( C le v e la n d ,
O h io ) , p . 87*
82
5*
L o o se c o rd i n lam p
6*
S h o rt c i r c u its
7#
L o o se p lu g s i n room
8«
E l e c t r i c w i r e s w i th o u t i n s u l a t i o n
9*
S h o r t s i n s w itc h e s
10*
Bad e l e c t r i c c o n n e c tio n s n e a r b a th ro o m
B ath ro o m :
1*
S l i p p i n g i n b a t h tu b on so a p
2*
T u rn in g on l i g h t w i t h w e t h a n d s
Old r a z o r b la d e s l y i n g a ro u n d
4*
L e a v in g p o is o n s w h e re s m a ll c h i l d r e n c a n r e a c h them
F ir e H az ard s:
!•
N ew sp a p ers s t o r e d i n a t t i c o r b a se m e n t
2.
A shes i n w ooden c o n t a i n e r
5*
In fla m m a b le s i n b a s e m e n t* a t t i c , o r g a r a g e
4*
O ily r a g s aro u n d
5*
M a tc h e s n e a r h e a t
6*
M a tc h e s w i t h i n r e a c h o f c h i l d r e n
7*
P o l i s h i n g c l o t h s l y i n g a ro u n d
8*
F o r g e t y o u h a v e e l e c t r i c a l a p p l i a n c e s c o n n e c te d
9*
T h ro w in g l i g h t e d m a tc h e s o r c i g a r e t t e 's on f l o o r
10*
S e t t i n g f i r e t o ch im n ey t o b u r n s o o t o u t
11*
W a s te b a s k e t n e a r s t o v e
12*
B ro k en f u r n a c e p ip e
13 •
F u rn a c e p ip e t h a t f i t s i n t o ch im n ey l o o s e l y
83
14.
F u rn a c e p ip e o r f u r n a e e w ith o u t a s b e s t o s
M is c e l l a n e o u s :
1*
M a r b le s , s k a t e s , and o t h e r s u c h t o y s on f l o o r
2*
Lumber s t o r e d w h ere i t may f a l l o n som eone
3*
F ire a r m s lo a d e d and w i t h i n r e a c h o f c h i l d r e n
4#
No b a n n i s t e r on p o r c h o r s t a i r s
5*
Low c l o t h e s l i n e s
6*
Low v e n t i l a t o r p ip e
7.
S c i s s o r s , n e e d l e s , and p i n s i n r e a c h o f c h i l d r e n
6.
P e ts t h a t c o n tin u a lly g e t under y o u rf e e t
9.
P u t t y f a l l i n g o u t o f window
10*
S l i p p e r y k i t c h e n f l o o r w i t h lo o s e r u g
11•
B o t t l e s u n la b e le d i n m e d ic in e c a b i n e t
12.
N a i l s l y i n g on f l o o r i n a t t i c , b a s e m e n t, o r o t h e r
p la c e
13*
R a t t r a p s l y i n g aro u n d
14*
E le c tr ic fa n s n e a r c h ild re n
15.
F i s h h o o k s l y i n g aro u n d
16.
L eg s o f c h a i r s and t a b l e s l o o s e
17.
Rugs on v a r n is h e d o r w axed f l o o r s
18.
B a c k in g c a r w i t h c h i l d r e n a b o u t
19 •
B ro k e n s id e w a lk
20.
S m a ll c h i l d r e n w i t h f i r e c r a c k e r s
21.
H o le i n d r a i n p i p e t h a t may f r e e z e i n w i n t e r
84
HOME SAFETY
T o p ic s an d P r a c t i c e s Used i n K a n sa s C i ty J u n i o r H ig h S c h o o ls
2
G e n e ra l O b je c tiv e s :
To know t h e h a z a r d s and d a n g e r s o f t h e home an d t o
l e a r n how t o m e e t o r t o p r e v e n t th em .
To r e a l i z e t h a t c a r e , t h o u g h t , and v i g i l a n c e a r e a s
n e c e s s a r y t o s a f e t y i n t h e home a s on t h e s t r e e t .
To p u t t o p r a c t i c a l u se i n t h e home p e r t i n e n t k n o w l­
ed g e and s k i l l s g a in e d i n home e c o n o m ic s .
S u g g e s te d T o p ic s f o r C o n s i d e r a t i o n :
Home a c c i d e n t s :
e x te n t, k in d s , c a u s e s ♦
Home a c c i d e n t s i n a g e g r o u p s :
u n d e r 5 y e a r s ; 5 -1 4 y e a r s ;
1 5 -2 4 y e a r s ; 2 5 -6 4 y e a r s ; o v e r 65 y e a r s .
P la n n in g t h e home f o r s a f e l i v i n g .
S a n i t a t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o h e a l t h an d s a f e t y .
Im p o rta n c e i n v e n t i l a t i o n , c l e a n l i n e s s , o r d e r , a r r a n g e m e n t.
C a re o f t h e home.
How t o i n s t a l l r a d i o a e r i a l s .
S e l e c t i o n , p r e p a r a t i o n , and c a r e o f f o o d .
C o n ta g io u s d i s e a s e s and t h e i r c o n t r o l .
C a re o f t h e s i c k and t h e s i c k room .
2
K a n sa s C i ty P u b l i c S c h o o ls , S a f e t y i n th e C u r r ic u
lum , J u n i o r an d S e n io r H ig h S c h o o ls , C u r r ic u lu m B u l l e t i n
N o. 15 (K a n sa s C i t y , M is s o u r i , 1 9 3 7 ) , p . 4 9 .
85
C a re and c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r young c h i l d r e n and o ld p e o p le *
F i r e p r e v e n t i o n an d c o n t r o l *
How t o u se g a s h e a t e r s *
M a t e r i a l s f o r a f i r s t a i d c a b i n e t an d how t o u s e th e m .
T re a tm e n t and f i r s t a i d m e a s u re s f o r m in o r e m e rg e n c ie s*
D u t i e s , r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and p r i v i l e g e s o f home l i f e *
U se o f c o s m e ti c s , d e o d o r a n t s , and t h e l i k e .
S a f e B r a c t i c e s i n t h e L a b o r a to r y t o P r e v e n t :
a.
C u ts
U se s h a r p in s t r u m e n t s ( k n i v e s ) c a r e f u l l y an d han d them t o
o t h e r s w ith h a n d le to w a rd t h e r e c e i v e r .
I n o p e n in g a t i n c a n , k e e p t h e han d h o ld in g t h e c a n o u t
o f t h e way o f t h e o p e n e r .
P ic k up b ro k e n g l a s s o r d i s h c a r e f u l l y an d w rap i n p a p e r
b e f o r e p l a c i n g i n w a s te b a s k e t*
b.
In fe c tio n
C le a n s e c u t and s c r a t c h e s and t r e a t w ith good a n t i s e p t i c *
Remove s p l i n t e r s fro m v a r i o u s p a r t s o f t h e bo d y w i t h
p r o p e r i n s t r u m e n t s an d a p p ly a n a n t i s e p t i c *
H a n d le s h a r p - p o i n t e d o b j e c t s , su c h a s s c i s s o r s , s t i l e t t o ,
and c r o c h e t n e e d l e , c a r e f u l l y *
K eep f i n g e r s away fro m n e e d le w h ile u s in g t h e se w in g m achine*
Use m i n e r a l w o o l w ith w ooden h a n d le a t t a c h e d .
B ra is e s
W alk , do n o t r u n .
K eep c u p b o a rd d o o r s c l o s e d .
Work d e l i b e r a t e l y .
Pound i c e i n gunny s a c k , w ith w ooden m a l l e t .
K eep d r a w e r s c lo s e d #
S i t in e h a irs p ro p e rly .
B u rn s an d s h o c k s
L i g h t m a tc h b e f o r e t u r n i n g on g a s#
Open o v en a few m in u te s b e f o r e t u r n i n g on g as#
Low er fo o d s lo w ly i n t o k e t t l e o f h o t f a t #
A void c ro w d in g a ro u n d s to v e when f r y i n g t i m b a l e c a s e s .
U se e x tre m e c a u t i o n when w a lk in g w i t h a h o t p a n o r when
h a n d l in g h o t f o o d .
W a it u n t i l s to v e i s c o o l b e f o r e c l e a n i n g i t #
Use h o t - p a n h o l d e r s i n h a n d l in g h o t p a n s an d re m o v in g l i d s #
T urn l i d
o f w ash b o i l e r away w hen re m o v in g i t #
B e f o r e e m p ty in g t h e w ash b o i l e r , a llo w t h e w a te r t o c o o l#
A void p l a c i n g c a k e o r p i e t i n s to o c l o s e t o g e t h e r i n t h e
oven#
U se h o t - p a n h o l d e r when m ak in g t o a s t i n t h e o v e n .
U se c a r e i n h a n d l in g e l e c t r i c i r o n s .
H a n d le a l l e l e c t r i c e q u ip m e n t w ith d r y h a n d s .
A void t o u c h in g tw o e l e c t r i c a l a p p l i a n c e s a t t h e same t im e .
e.
F a lls
Remove w a t e r , s o a p , o r g r e a s e s p o t s fro m t h e f l o o r a t once*
S ta n d on s u b s t a n t i a l s t o o l o r l a d d e r when u s in g t h e u p p e r
s h e l v e s o f t h e c u p b o a rd .
I f p o s s ib le , have a n o th e r
p erso n a s s is t*
S te p c a r e f u l l y fro m t h e f i t t i n g t a b l e *
W alk c a r e f u l l y on w axed f l o o r s *
f .
A s p h y x ia tio n
Be s u r e t o t u r n g a s b u r n e r s o f f c o m p le te ly .
F u r n is h good v e n t i l a t i o n *
g.
H eadaches
Check and r e g u l a t e g a s b u r n e r s *
Do n o t t u r n g a s to o h i g h .
Work w i t h p r o p e r l i g h t i n g an d v e n t i l a t i o n *
h.
F ire s
K eep m a tc h e s , o i l y c l o t h s , and mops i n m e ta l c o n t a i n e r s .
P l a c e m i r r o r s s o t h a t th e y w i l l n o t r e f l e c t t h e s u n 's r a y s *
D is c o n n e c t e l e c t r i c a p p l i a n c e s a s so o n a s th e y h a v e b e e n
used*
A void p u l l i n g t h e c o rd when d i s c o n n e c t i n g .
P l a c e i r o n s on m e ta l r e s t s when n o t i n u se*
88
THE WORCESTER HOME INSPECTION REPORT3
S a f e t y C o n d i tio n s i n My Home
1*
Name_______________________ S t r e e t and No*._______________________
2«
I s t h e r e a n y r u b b i s h , s u c h a s o ld p a p e r s , b r o k e n f u r n i t u r e ,
e tc * , in th e a t t i c ?
3#
I s t h e r e a n y r u b b is h o r s c a t t e r e d k i n d l i n g i n t h e b a s e m e n t
o r c e lla r?
4•
5.
I s t h e r e a n y in fla m m a b le r u b b i s h i n t h e y a r d ?
A re t h e f l o o r s u n d e r s t o v e s p r o t e c t e d by m e ta l o r o t h e r ­
w is e ?
6*
A re w a l l s , c e i l i n g s and p a r t i t i o n s p r o t e c t e d fro m o v e r ­
h e a t i n g o f s t o v e s , f u r n a c e s and p i p e s ?
7.
How do y o u d is p o s e o f y o u r a s h e s ?
8*
A re t h e ch im n ey s i n good r e p a i r ?
9•
When w e re t h e ch im n ey s l a s t c le a n e d ?
10*
W here i s t h e f i r e a la r m box n e a r e s t y o u r home?
11♦
A re y o u c a r e f u l w ith h o t a s h e s ?
12*
Do you u s e common m a tc h e s o r s a f e t y m a tc h e s ?
Do you k e e p
y o u r m a tc h e s away fro m h e a t and o u t o f t h e r e a c h o f c h i l ­
d ren ?
13*
I s c o m b u s tib le m a t e r i a l k e p t n e a r t h e s t o v e o r f u r n a c e ?
3
W o r c e s te r P u b l i c S c h o o ls , C o u rse o f S tu d y i n S a f e t y
E d u c a tio n ( W o r c e s te r , M a s s a c h u s e t ts : B o ard o f E d u c a tio n , 1 9 2 6 ) ,
p . 150*
89
14.
A re t h i n g s k e p t p i l e d i n t h e h a llw a y s o r on t h e s t a i r s ?
15.
Name a l l t h e p u r p o s e s f o r w h ic h k e r o s e n e i s u se d i n
th e
house.
16.
A re a n y g a s c o n n e c ti o n s made w i t h r u b b e r tu b in g ?
17.
W here a r e t h e " d u s t l e s s " o i l mop and f u r n i t u r e p o l i s h i n g
c lo th s k e p t?
18.
A re t h e r e f i r e e x t i n g u i s h e r s i n t h e h o u se ?
19*
Do s to v e p i p e s p a s s th r o u g h a t t i c
o r c lo s e t?
30.
W hat i s t h e m a t e r i a l o f t h e r o o f ?
El*
Do y o u know how t o t u r n i n a n a la rm ?
EE.
A re an y g a s j e t s n e a r c u r t a i n s ?
S3.
A re o i l y r a g s o r p a p e r s s t o r e d i n c l o s e t , c e l l a r ,
34.
Do you k e e p f i r e a r m s i n y o u r home?
35.
Can t h e c h i l d r e n g e t them t o p l a y w ith ?
36.
W hat c a r e s h o u ld b e ta k e n i n u s in g a n e l e c t r i c i r o n ?
37.
A re b o t t l e s o r b o x e s o f p o is o n s k e p t
38.
Do y o u k e e p m ilk b o t t l e s , o r p l a n t p o t s o r b o x e s
a ttic ?
in th e house?
W here?
on t h e
window s i l l s ?
T h is i n s p e c t i o n made on t h e ________ d a y o f _________ 194
by___________________________ , a p u p i l i n _Room________
o f _____ .
S c h o o l•
Form 1479 Aug., 1939
___________________________________________________________________________________
lo te to P aren ts or G u ard ia n s: The A m erican Red Cross is providing this check list in a n effort through th e co o p eratio n of hom em akers,
arm ers a n d te a c h e rs for sell-discovery a n d correction of th e se a n d o th er conditions w hich com m only le a d io a c c id e n ta l in ju ries a n d
atalities. This check list n e e d not b e retu rn ed , only the p a rt a t th e bottom . You m a y w a n t to in q u ire of y o u r lo cal R ed C ross C h a p te r
ts to d iscu ssio n g ro u p s in a c cid en t prevention, cla sse s in first a id a n d instruction in w a te r safety.
THE AMEBICAN NATIONAL BED CBOSS
C h e c k List for C o m m o n H a z a r d s
Iltf A N D A B O U T T H E H O M E
re than 3 1 ,0 0 0 p e rso n s a re k ille d in h o m e accidents each year.
e-th ird o f all fa ta l acciden ts a n d o v e r h alf o f all in ju rie s occu r in a n d a b o u t th e h om e.
Falls a n d Broken Bones
A re ste p s c le a r of to y s a n d o th er
o bjects?
A re s ta irw a y s a m p ly lig h ted ?
A re sm all ru g s s e c u re d a g a in s t
slip p in g ?
Is ice c le a re d from o u tsid e ste p s a n d
w alk s?
A re p o rch ra ilin g s a n d floors so u n d ?
Is p la y a p p a r a tu s in g o o d condition?
Bum s a n d S calds
A re h ot c o n ta in e rs b e y o n d re a c h of
sm all ch ild ren ?
A re c h ild ren p ro te c te d from tu b s of
h o t w a te r?
A re m a tc h e s k e p t from ch ild ren ?
Ts s c re e n u s e d a t firep lace?
A re c h im n ey s c le a n e d re g u la rly ?
Is w o o d w o rk p ro te c te d from
stov e p ip es?
Is tra s h d isp o se d of p rom ptly?
A sphyxiation a n d Suffocation
A re g a s b u rn e rs a d ju s te d for p ro p e r
com b u stio n ?
A re all g a s c o n n ec tio n s su b sta n tia l?
A re g a r a g e d o o rs o p e n w h e n ru n n in g
e n g in e ?
Is b a b y 's b e d d in g s e c u re d a g a in s t
p o ssib le sm o th erin g ?
(CHECK V)
(CHECX V )
4. Electric Shock
A re e le ctrica l a p p lia n c e s in g o o d
condition?
A re w o rn a n d b ro k e n co rd s p ro m p tly
d isc a rd e d ?
A re in sta lla tio n s a n d re p a irs m a d e
b y c o m p e te n t p e rso n ?
5. Bleeding a n d Infection
A re toys w ith s h a rp p o in ts a n d e d g e s
d isc a rd e d ?
A re s h a rp e d g e d tools k e p t a w a y
from ch ild ren ?
Is c arefu l u se of k n iv es ta u g h t?
G. Poisonings
A re p o iso n s s e p a ra te ly stored?
A re p o iso n c o n ta in e rs cle arly
identified?
A re old m ed icin e s p rom ptly
d isc a rd e d ?
7. G un Shot W ounds
A re firearm s a b o u t p rem ise s
u n lo a d e d ?
A re all firearm s o u t of re a c h of
children?
TO THE TEACHER:
My child has brought hom e the Check-List fo r Com mon Hazards.
S ignature— P aren t or G uardian
N ote to P aren ts or G uardians: The A m erican R ed C ross is providing this check list in a n effort th ro u g h th e co o p eratio n of hom em akers,
farm ers a n d te a c h e rs for self-discovery a n d correction of th e se a n d other conditions w hich com m only le a d to ac c id e n ta l in ju ries and
fata lities. This check list n e e d not b e retu rn ed , o n ly th e p a rt a t th e bottom. You m a y w an t to in q u ire of your local R ed Cross C haptei
a s to discussion groups in accid en t prevention, c la sse s in first aid a n d instruction in w a te r safety.
THE AMERICAN NATIONAL RED CROS
C h e c k List for C o m m o n H a z a r d s
ON THE F A R M
Each yea r m o re than fo u r th ou san d fa rm e rs a re k ille d b y accident,
rate.
No o th e r occu p a tio n has such a high accidi
(CHECK V )
1. M achinery
(CHECK
4. Farm H ome
Is m a c h in e ry k e p t in g o o d re p a ir?
A re facto ry in structions follow ed?
A re ch ild ren k ep t a w a y from
m a c h in e ry ?
Is m a c h in e ry c arefu lly stored?
Is o u tw o rn m a c h in e ry d isp o se d of?
2. Tools a n d Equipm ent
A re tools in re g u la r p la c e s?
Is in stru ctio n g iv e n in h a n d lin g
s h a r p a n d p o in te d tools?
A re a x e s a n d h a m m e rs solid on
h a n d le s?
A re d a n g e ro u s tools k e p t a w a y from
c h ild re n 's p la y p la c e s?
Is h a y -h o istin g e q u ip m e n t carefu lly
e x a m in e d b efo re h a rv e s t se a so n ?
3. F arm Y ard
(Use check-list on o th er side)
5. Buildings
A re b u ild in g s g e n e ra lly in g o o d
re p a ir?
A re d e c a y e d sh ed s, etc., to m d o w n ?
A re n e w stru c tu re s p la n n e d for
p ro tectio n a g a in s t a c c id e n ts?
A re sta irs k ep t c le a r of p ails, b o x es,
etc.?
A re sta irs a n d all la d d e rs so u n d ?
A re th ere railin g s a t loft o p e n in g s?
Is c a re g iv en to u s e of la n te rn s?
Is g a so lin e sto re d se p a ra te ly ?
A re b u ild in g s p ro te c te d a g a in s t
lightning?
H as sp o n ta n e o u s c o m b u stio n b e e n
c o n sid ere d ?
6. A nim als
A re ra c k s a n d fen ces in g o o d re p a ir?
A re w ells a n d cistern s a d e q u a te ly
p ro tec te d ?
A re n a ils p ro m p tly re m o v e d from
loose b o a rd s?
Is u n u s e d lu m b e r carefu lly sta ck e d ?
A re d a n g e ro u s a n im a ls (bulls, b o a rs,
etc.) se c u re ly p e n n e d ?
A re child ren in stru cted in h a n d lin g
y o u n g a n im a ls a n d pets?
Is instruction g iv en in c a re a n d
h a n d lin g of w ork a n im als?
TO THE TEACHER:
My ch ild lias brou gh t h o m e
the Check-List fo r C om m on Hazards.
Signature— P a ren t or G uardian
91
HOME SAFETT
" S a f e t y i n t h e Home" O u tlin e ^
A*
U n it o b j e c t i v e ;
B.
S p e c ific o b je c tiv e s
1*
To t e a c h s a f e t y i n t h e home
To d e v e lo p h a b i t s o f c o n d u c t w h ic h w i l l e n a b le c h i l ­
d r e n t o m eet t h e s i t u a t i o n s o f d a i l y l i f e w i t h o u t
u n n e c e ssa ry a c c id e n ts *
2.
To i n s t r u c t c h i l d r e n i n o r d e r t o e l i m i n a t e a l l p r e ­
v e n t a b l e a c c i d e n t s i n t h e home*
C*
M eth o d s o f p r e v e n t i n g a c c i d e n t s i n t h e home
1*
K eep a l l s h a r p an d p o i n t e d a r t i c l e s i n t h e i r p r o p e r
p la c e s *
2*
H an d le s h a r p and p o i n t e d i n s t r u m e n t s w i t h c a re *
3*
P re v e n t
f a l l s by t a k i n g c a re *
a*
N ot to
s ta n d on b o x e s an d r o c k in g c h a i r s ,
b.
N ot to
p l a y on s t a i r s *
c*
N ot to
w a lk i n a room t h a t
i s d ark ,
d.
N ot to
l e a n o u t o f w indow s
or a g a in s t
sc re e n s,
e*
N ot to
l e a v e p l a y t h i n g s on
f l o o r s and
in th e s tr e e t
4.
Go up and down s t a i r s p r o p e r ly *
5*
Be c a u t i o u s o f p o is o n *
Do n o t le a v e i t i n a n o p en
p la c e *
S t a t e D e p a rtm e n t o f E d u c a tio n , A C o u rse o f S tu d y i n
S a f e t y E d u c a tio n f o r t h e L o u is ia n a S c h o o l s . B u l l e t i n No* 3 2 5 ,
p • 53 •
6*
Be c a r e f u l a b o u t b a t h t u b s and sh o w ers#
7«
Bo n o t a llo w b ro k e n g l a s s
8*
A void f a l l i n g o b j e c t s .
9.
Bo n o t p la y w i t h f i r e .
a ro u n d th e home*
10.
Be c a r e f u l w h ile l i f t i n g , c a r r y i n g o b j e c t s .
11.
Bo n o t p la y w i t h a c i d s and c h e m ic a ls .
12*
Bo n o t p l a y w ith g u n s and a m m u n itio n .
C a u se s o f a c c i d e n t s i n homes
1*
F a lls
2.
S c a ld s and b u r n s
3*
P o is o n s
4.
E l e c t r i c a l sh o c k s
5.
A s p h y x ia tio n
6.
F l o o r s an d f l o o r i n g
7.
S t a i r s and s t a i r w a y s
8*
F ire
APPENDIX B
PLAY HAZARDS
94
OUTLINE OF SAFE PLAY DISCUSSIONS®
1.
D is c u s s :
a.
The r e a s o n s f o r t h e s p r i n g c l e a n - u p .
In c lu d e i t s
s a f e t y , h e a l t h , an d c i v i c i m p l i c a t i o n s .
b.
What t h e v a r i o u s l o c a l a g e n c i e s a r e d o in g t o f u r t h e r
t h e s p r i n g c le a n - u p #
c.
2#
3#
What i n d i v i d u a l s can do t o f u r t h e r t h e s p r i n g c le a n - u p #
C o n d u c t a s c h o o l c l e a n - u p c a m p a ig n .
a*
Make p o s t e r s #
b#
Have a s s e m b lie s *
c*
I n s p e c t d e s k s , l o c k e r s , c lo a k ro o m s , e tc #
d.
C le a n up s c h o o l g ro u n d s#
E n c o u ra g e p u p i l s t o assum e t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f c l e a n i n g
up t h e i r home p r e m i s e s .
4*
Make a s u r v e y o f t h e n e ig h b o rh o o d .
a.
D e te rm in e w h a t u n s i g h t l y c o n d i t i o n s e x i s t .
b.
A p p o in t c o m m itte e s t o i n v e s t i g a t e p o s s i b i l i t y o f
re m e d y in g th e s e *
c.
O rg a n iz e s q u a d s t o c l e a n up u n s i g h t l y p l a c e s when
t h i s i s a d v is a b le #
d.
A f t e r a s u r v e y o f t h e n e ig h b o rh o o d , d raw up a r o l l
o f honor o f th e n e a te s t y a rd s .
5
C le v e la n d P u b l i c S c h o o ls , S a f e t y E d u c a t i o n : A C o u rse
o f S tu d y f o r E le m e n ta r y an d J u n io r H igh S c h o o ls C C le v e la n d .
O h io }, p . 54#
95
5.
D is c u s s a c c i d e n t p r e v e n t i o n i n s p r i n g p la y #
In c lu d e s a f e
p ra c tic e in ;
6#
a#
P la y in g b a s e b a ll*
b.
F ly in g k i t e s .
D is c u s s r a i l r o a d s a f e t y .
I n c l u d e su c h t o p i c s a s :
a.
The s a f e way t o c r o s s r a i l r o a d t r a c k s *
b.
Why c h i l d r e n s h o u ld n o t p l a y on t h e r ig h t- o f - w a y #
c#
The s e r i o u s n e s s o f t h r o w lin g m i s s i l e s a t t r a i n s and
s ig n a l lig h ts *
96
SAFETY GUIDES6
S p r in g C lean -U p
1*
R eview f i r e p r e v e n t i o n g u id e s an d home c h e c k l i s t *
2*
P ro g ra m f o r C lean -U p W eek.
S ee n e w s p a p e rs f o r l o c a l
C lean -U p C o m m itte e 's p l a n s f o r t h e c a m p a ig n .
P la y g r o u n d s
1.
K eep t h e g ro u n d s f r e e fro m g l a s s , n a i l s , b r i c k , e tc *
2*
Have p e r i o d i c i n s p e c t i o n o f a p p a r a t u s .
Make n e c e s s a r y
r e p a i r s a t once*
3*
Do n o t u s e a p p a r a tu s when i t i s w et*
4*
E x e r c i s e c a r e f o r o t h e r s b y p l a y i n g games a t s a f e d i s t a n c e
fro m o t h e r g ro u p s o f c h i l d r e n .
5•
Look a h e a d when r u n n i n g •
6*
K eep d r i n k i n g f o u n t a i n s f r e e fro m p a p e r s , p e e l i n g s , and
o t h e r r u b b is h *
7*
R e f r a i n fro m th r o w in g s a n d , s t o n e s , s t i c k s , e t c *
8*
S ta y o f f w a l l s , f e n c e s , f i r e e s c a p e s , and g a t e s .
9.
A void u s e o f d a n g e ro u s t o y s , s u c h a s a i r r i f l e s , s l i n g
s h o t s , p e a s h o o t e r s , bows and a r r o w s , e tc *
10*
R e p o r t a c c i d e n t s p ro m p tly *
g
C le v e la n d P u b l i c S c h o o ls , S a f e t y E d u c a t i o n : A C o u rse
o f S tu d y f o r E le m e n ta ry an d J u n i o r H ig h S c h o o ls ( C l e v e l a n d ,
O h io ) , p . 54•
S p r in g S p o r ts
B a s e b a ll
1*
P la y i n s a f e p l a c e s .
S t r e e t s w ith t r a f f i c a r e n o t s a f e
p l a c e s i n w h ic h t o p l a y b a l l #
2.
Look b o th w ays b e f o r e g o in g i n t o t h e s t r e e t a f t e r a b a l l
3#
U se a s o f t b a l l u n l e s s y o u a r e p l a y i n g i n a l a r g e f i e l d .
4.
S ta y away fro m t h e b a t t e r #
5.
The b a t t e r s h o u ld d ro p t h e b a t , n o t .throw i t .
6#
T hose w a tc h in g t h e game s h o u ld s t a y a t a s a f e d i s t a n c e .
K ite s
1.
K eep k i t e s c l e a r o f e l e c t r i c w ir e s o f an y k in d #
2.
I f a k i t e f a l l s on w i r e s , do n o t c lim b a p o le t o d i s ­
e n ta n g le i t .
3.
You m ig h t r e c e i v e a n e l e c t r i c s h o c k .
The u s e o f w i r e , o r s t r i n g w ith w ir e i n i t , f o r a k i t e
s t r i n g i s d a n g e ro u s.
Wet s t r i n g i s a l s o a c o n d u c to r o f
e le c tric ity *
4.
Be c a r e f u l n o t t o r u n a c r o s s s t r e e t s o r h ig h w a y s w h ile
f ly in g a k ite #
R a in y Days
1.
C a rry a n op en u m b r e lla h ig h enough t o h a v e c l e a r v i s i o n .
C a r r y a c lo s e d u m b r e lla w ith p o i n t down.
2*
Be e s p e c i a l l y c a r e f u l i n c r o s s i n g s t r e e t s on a r a i n y d ay
Make a llo w a n c e f o r s k i d d i n g c a r s .
3.
P r o p e r r a i n y d ay c l o t h i n g ( l i g h t r a i n c o a t s f h a t s ,
and
ru b b e rs ) w i l l h e lp p re v e n t a c c id e n ts #
4#
Be c a r e f u l o f muddy s id e w a lk s an d w e t f l o o r s #
R a ilro a d s
1#
Look b o th w ays b e f o r e c r o s s i n g r a i l r o a d t r a c k s .
Make s u r e
t h a t t h e r e i s no d a n g e r fro m a p p r o a c h in g t r a i n s .
3.
C ro s s r a i l r o a d t r a c k s o n ly a t r e g u l a r c r o s s i n g s .
I t is
d a n g e ro u s t o u s e a r a i l r o a d r i g h t - o f - w a y a s a s h o r t c u t .
3.
B e fo re c r o s s in g r a i l r o a d t r a c k s , w a it u n t i l th e p a s s in g
t r a i n h as re a c h e d such a d is ta n c e t h a t you can se e i f
a n o t h e r t r a i n i s com ing fro m t h e o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n on
a n o th e r tra c k #
4.
When n e a r i n g a r a i l r o a d c r o s s i n g i n a n a u to m o b ile , w a tc h
s o t h a t y o u may s e e a p p r o a c h in g t r a i n s , and g iv e t i m e l y
w a rn in g t o t h e d r i v e r i f n e e d e d .
5.
T hro w in g s t o n e s o r o t h e r o b j e c t s a t p a s s i n g t r a i n s o r a t
a s i g n a l o r s w itc h l i g h t s e n d a n g e r s t h e l i v e s and p r o p e r t y
o f o th e rs .
6.
T am p erin g w i t h s w itc h e s o r s i g n a l s o f an y ty p e m ig h t c a u s e
a s e r i o u s w re c k .
7.
C lim b in g u n d e r , b e tw e e n , o r o v e r r a i l r o a d c a r s i s a d a n g e r ­
ous p r a c t i c e .
8.
S ta n d in g c a r s may be moved a t a n y t im e .
"H o p p in g " t r a i n s i s a d a n g e ro u s p r a c t i c e .
A p e r s o n may l o s e
h i s g r i p o r may s tu m b le and f a l l w hen a t t e m p t i n g t o g e t o f f #
9.
I t i s n o t s a f e t o p l a y on a r a i l r o a d r ig h t- o f - w a y #
99
THE KANSAS CITT RECREATIONAL SAFETT PROGRAM7
S a f e ty in S e a so n a l R e c re a tio n
A.
S p r in g and summer
1*
K ite s
F ly k i t e s i n o pen s p a c e s an d a v o id t r e e s ,
e le c tric
w i r e s , an d p o l e s .
A void u s in g s i l k o r m e ta l i n c o n s t r u c t i o n o f k i t e s *
A void r e s c u i n g a k i t e t h a t i s e n ta n g le d i n e l e c t r i c
w ir e s o r t r e e s *
2.
P i c n i c s , H ik e s , Camps
C hoose a s a f e p l a c e t o b u i l d a f i r e , p r e f e r a b l y n e a r
w a te r an d aw ay fro m t r e e s #
Know p r o p e r way t o make a f i r e *
Make s u r e t h a t t h e f i r e i s o u t b e f o r e l e a v i n g g r o u n d s .
Wash h a n d s b e f o r e e a t i n g .
Use k n iv e s and t o o l s w ith c a re *
W atch f o r and a v o id p o is o n i v y .
Be s u r e t h e w a te r i s s a f e b e f o r e d r i n k i n g i t *
N ev er c lim b t r e e s n e a r e l e c t r i c w ir e s *
K eep camp g ro u n d s f r e e fro m g l a s s , n a i l s $ an d t i n s *
C le a n o u t swim m ing a r e a *
7
K a n sa s C i t y P u b l i c S c h o o ls , S a f e t y i n t h e C u r r ic u lu m .
E le m e n ta r y S c h o o l s . K i n d e r g a r t e n . G ra d e s I - V I {K ansas C i t y ,
M i s s o u r i : B o ard o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 3 7 ) , p . 26*
F a l l and W in te r
1.
H a llo w e e n
R e a l i z e t h a t w holesom e f u n i s e n j o y a b le an d d o e s n o t
cau se annoyance to o th e r s .
A void a l l p r a c t i c e s t h a t e n d a n g e r l i v e s , d e f a c e p r o p ­
e r t y , or cau se d is tu rb a n c e to o th e r s .
2•
C h r is tm a s
Remember t h a t t h e s p i r i t o f C h r is tm a s i s one o f p e a c e
an d good w i l l .
C o n s id e r t h e s a f e t y and h a p p in e s s o f b o th y o u r s e l f and
o th e rs *
U se e l e c t r i c l i g h t s r a t h e r th a n c a n d l e s .
A void l e a v i n g t r e e l i g h t e d when away fro m i t .
S e l e c t s a f e to y s f o r g i f t s *
3*
C o a s tin g
C o a s t on s l e d s i n p a r k s o r on s t r e e t s c l o s e d t o t r a f f i c .
Do n o t o v e r lo a d t h e s l e d .
Do n o t c o a s t a c r o s s i n t e r s e c t i o n s .
Do n o t hook s l e d s t o c a r s .
K eep a s a f e d i s t a n c e fro m t h e p r e c e d in g s le d *
4.
S n o w b a llin g
A void u s in g h a r d , i c y s n o w b a l ls .
S n o w b a ll i n a p p ro v e d p l a c e s — away fro m b u i l d i n g s ,
p e d e s t r i a n s , and t r a f f i c .
S a f e t y i n Time o f S to rm
1*
L ig h tn i n g
N ev e r t a k e s h e l t e r u n d e r a lo n e t r e e d u r in g an e l e c ­
tric
s to r m .
The s a f e s t p l a c e i s a t some d i s t a n c e
fro m an y h ig h o b j e c t .
T o rn a d o e s
G et away fro m t h e h o u s e and l i e f l a t on t h e g r o u n d .
Do n o t m ind t h e r a i n , b u t a c t q u i c k l y .
103
A L IST OF SEASONAL DANGERS8
Used f o r t h e s tu d y o f s e a s o n a l s a f e t y i n th e M in n e a p o lis
j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o ls *
1*
2*
3*
4•
5.
W in te r
a•
S n o w b a llin g
b*
C o a s tin g
o*
H itc h in g s l e d s t o a u to m o b ile s
C h r is tm a s
a*
F ire s
b*
C a n d le s
Summer
a*
P ic n ic f i r e s
b*
Swimming
c*
C a n o e in g
d*
G o lf b a l l s
e*
P o is o n o u s w eeds
S p r in g
a.
B ic y c le r id in g
b*
B a s e b a ll
c*
R o lle r s k a tin g
d.
K ite f ly in g
F o u r th o f J u l y
a*
S
S a f e w ays o f c e l e b r a t i n g t h e F o u r th o f J u l y
M in n e a p o lis P u b l i c S c h o o ls , C o u rse o f S t u d y , S a f e t y
and H e a lth E d u c a t i o n , K i n d e r g a r t e n th r o u g h G rad e V I (M inne­
a p o l i s , M in n e s o ta : B oard o f E d u c a tio n , 1 9 3 2 ), p* 75*
103
SAFETY IN RECREATION AND GAMES IN THE ALABAMA SCHOOLS9
O b je c tiv e s
1*
To l e a r n t h e h a z a r d s i n a t h l e t i c s p o r t s and how t o
a v o i d th em .
2.
To l e a r n t h e c a u s e and p r e v e n t i o n o f h a z a r d s i n v a c a ­
tio n sp o rts.
3.
To l e a r n how t o a v o i d d a n g e r i n h a n d l i n g a g u n .
C la s s ro o m m a t e r i a l s
D a n g e rs i n a t h l e t i c s :
From
From
From
From
From
From
u n f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e r u l e s o f t h e game
la c k of c o n d itio n
im p r o p e r p r o t e c t i o n
h azard s of p la y in g s u rfa c e s
o v e r d e v e lo p m e n t
" a th le te * s fo o t”
D a n g e rs i n v a c a t i o n s p o r t s :
From
From
From
From
From
From
From
From
From
From
d ro w n in g
b o a tin g
e l e c t r i c a l s to r m s
p o is o n o u s r e p t i l e s and p l a n t s
p to m a in e p o i s o n i n g
camp f i r e s
d r i n k i n g unknown w a t e r
e a t i n g unknown b e r r i e s
s u n b u r n and s u n s t r o k e
v a r i o u s i n f e c t i o n s (ringw orm * hookworm)
D a n g e rs i n h a n d l i n g a g u n :
W h ile
W h ile
W hile
W h ile
W h ile
W h ile
tra v e lin g
h u n tin g
s h o o t i n g a t a m ark
p o i n t i n g a gu n — " d i d n ’ t know i t was l o a d e d "
p l a y i n g w i t h t o y guns
u s i n g bows and a r r o w s
9 Alabama S t a t e D e p a rtm e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , A C o u rse of
S tu d y i n S a f e t y E d u c a t i o n f o r a l l G r a d e s , B u l l e t i n No. 15
(M ontgom ery, A lab a m a} , p . 1 0 1 .
104
LOUISIANA STATE OUTLINE IN TEACHING WATER SPORTS10
A.
To t e a c h s a f e t y i n w a t e r s p o r t s
1.
Swimming
a.
O b je c tiv e s:
1)
2)
3)
4)
To t e a c h c h i l d r e n t o swim
To t e a c h l i f e s a v i n g
To t e a c h a r t i f i c i a l r e s p i r a t i o n
To g e t p u p i l s t o u n d e r s t a n d and a p p r e c i a t e t h e
c a u s e s o f a c c i d e n t s t o swimmers
5) To g e t p u p i l s t o u n d e r s t a n d and a p p r e c i a t e t h e
c a u s e s o f a c c i d e n t s t o non-sw im m ers
b*
P r i n c i p a l c a u s e s o f a c c i d e n t s t o sw im m ers:
1 ) Cramps and h e a r t t r o u b l e
2} C u r r e n t s and u n d e rto w
3) A tte m p t o f p e r s o n s i g n o r a n t o f l i f e - s a v i n g
m e th o d s t o s a v e a d ro v /n in g p e r s o n
4 ) D iv in g i n t o s h a l l o w w a t e r
5) G oing i n t o w a t e r t o o s o o n a f t e r e a t i n g
6) S t a y i n g i n t h e w a t e r t o o lo n g
7) G oing i n t o w a t e r when t i r e d o r o v e r - h e a t e d
8) G oing swimming a l o n e
9} G oing beyond d e p t h .
1 0 ) T r y in g t o swim a s h o r e a f t e r b o a t o r c a n o e h a s
ca p siz e d
c.
C a u se s o f a c c i d e n t s t o n o n -s w im m e rs :
1) G oing beyond d e p t h when w ad in g o r s t e p p i n g i n t o
a h o le
2 ) G oing o u t i n a b o a t o r c a n o e w i t h o u t know ing
how t o swim
3) U n d erto w s and r i v e r c u r r e n t s
d*
P re v e n tiv e m easu res:
1 ) To n o t swim i n a s t r a n g e body o f w a t e r w i t h o u t
f i r s t fin d in g out about sh o re, slo p e s, h o le s,
l o c a t i o n and s w i f t n e s s o f c u r r e n t s , and t i d e s
o f u n d e rto w i n a s e a o r l a r g e l a k e
L o u i s i a n a S t a t e D e p a rtm e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , A C o u rs e o f
S tu d y i n S a f e t y E d u c a t i o n (B a to n R o u g e , L o u i s i a n a : The D e p a r t m e n t, 1 9 3 6 )'; p p . 3 7 - 3 1 .
10 5
2} Do n o t swim i n d eep w a t e r u n t i l y o u c a n swim
w e ll.
3) Choose swimming p l a c e s w h e re l i f e g u a r d s a r e
em ployed i n p r e f e r e n c e t o t h o s e t h a t do n o t
o f f e r such p r o t e c t i o n .
4 ) Do n o t go swimming a l o n e . Use t h e Boy S c o u t
" b u d d y " p l a n i n w h ic h two swimmers a lw a y s
keep n ea r each o th e r ,
5) Do n o t go swimming s o o n a f t e r e a t i n g a h e a v y
m eal* W a it a t l e a s t a n h o u r .
6) D iv e o n l y w here w a t e r i s a s a f e d e p t h and make
s u r e t h a t t h e r e a r e no r o c k s o r o t h e r p r o j e c ­
t i o n s a g a i n s t w h ic h y o u may s t r i k e y o u r h e a d .
L earn to d iv e w ith your eyes open.
7) J o i n a l i f e - s a v i n g c l a s s i f y o u h a v e a n o p p o r ­
tu n ity .
I f n o t , se n d t o t h e Red C r o s s f o r a
l i f e - s a v i n g i n s t r u c t i o n book and p r a c t i c e t h e
s im p le l i f e - s a v i n g m e th o d s o u t l i n e d f o r t h e
ju n io r t e s t .
8) When swimming w h ere t h e r e i s no l i f e g u a r d , t r y
t o h a v e someone on s h o r e w i t h a l i f e buoy and
r o p e , w h ic h c a n b e th ro w n i n a n e m e rg e n c y ; o r
h a v e a b o a t a t hand*
9 ) I f swimming m akes y o u t i r e d o r g i v e s y ou a weak
f e e l i n g , h a v e y o u r h e a r t exam ined an d f o l l o w
y o u r d o c t o r ’ s a d v i c e a b o u t swimming i n t h e
fu tu re *
10) Do n o t swim i n s t a g n a n t w a te r * I f you u s e a
p o o l , make s u r e t h a t s a n i t a r y m e a s u r e s a r e
o b s e r v e d by o t h e r swimmers and t h a t t h o s e i n
cch arg e o f th e p o o l have th e w a te r p r o p e r ly
d i s i n f e c t e d a t a l l t i m e s an d c h a n g ed f r e q u e n t l y .
Some p u b l i c b a t h i n g b e a c h e s a r e v e r y u n s a n i ­
t a r y , e s p e c i a l l y when u se d by l a r g e n u m b e rs .
1 1 ) L e a r n t h e p r o n e - p r e s s u r e m ethod o f r e s u s c i t a ­
t i o n o f a p e r s o n who a p p a r e n t l y h a s d ro w n e d .
106
e.
A c tiv itie s
1) T ea ch s a f e t y i n w a t e r s p o r t s u n d e r t h e f o l l o w ­
in g h e a d in g s :
a)
b)
c)
d)
e ),
f)
g)
h)
T e m p e ra tu r e o f w a t e r
D e p th o f w a t e r
Rough w a t e r
D uck in g swimmers
M e a ltim e and swimming .
R o c k in g b o a t
K e e p in g calm
Knowing w h ic h end o f t h e p o o l o r swimming
p l a c e i s d ee p
i ) Knowing c h a r a c t e r o f b o tto m o f swimming h o l e
j ) L e a r n t y p e s o f f i s h w h ic h may b e i n w a t e r i n
w h ic h y ou i n t e n d t o swim. G a r s , s h a r k s , e t c .
k) F a tig u e
2) C o lle c t c lip p in g s of w a te r a c c id e n ts .
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
D row ning
D iv in g i n s h a l l o w w a t e r
C a re le s s d iv in g
Swimming i n s t r o n g c u r r e n t s
P o o r swimmers i n d e e p w a t e r
3 ) Make a l i s t o f p r e c a u t i o n s t o u s e i n swimming.
4 ) Make s u r e t h a t e a c h c h i l d i s t a u g h t how t o
a d m in iste r a r t i f i c i a l r e s p ir a t io n .
5) T e l l o f w ork o f Red C r o s s i n m a k in g good
swimmers o f c h i l d r e n i n summer*
6) B r i n g Red C r o s s m e d a ls t o s c h o o l: t o d i s p l a y .
7} E x p l a i n d a n g e r o f g o i n g i n t o w a t e r t o o s o o n
a f t e r a m e a l.
8)
2.
I f t h e r e i s a p o o l i n y o u r home tow n, s e e t h a t
l i f e - s a v i n g le s s o n s a r e g iv e n .
B o a tin g
a.
O b je c tiv e s:
1)
2}
3.
To t e a c h s a f e w ays i n b o a t s , c a n o e s , and r a f t s
To t e a c h c a u t i o n when n e a r , i n , o r on w a t e r
To t e a c h im p o r ta n c e o f l e a r n i n g t o swim
107
4 ) To t e a c h d a n g e r o f p l a y i n g on r a f t s and c a n o e s
5) To s t r e s s t h e f o l l y o f j o k i n g l y c a l l i n g f o r h e l p
6} To t e a c h t h e n e c e s s i t y o f e x e r c i s i n g c a r e when
in boat
b.
C a u se s o f a c c i d e n t s n e a r # i n , o r on w a t e r :
1)
2)
3)
4}
5)
6}
7)
c.
L ack o f p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e w a t e r f r o n t
O v e r lo a d i n g b o a t s o r c a n o e s
F o o lin g or p la y in g w h ile in b o a ts o r canoes
In a d e q u a te l i f e p r e s e r v e r s f o r p a s se n g e rs
R i d i n g i n w a t e r y o u do n o t know
B o rro w in g a b o a t o r c a n o e you a r e u n f a m i l i a r w i t h
Use o f a l c o h o l i c d r i n k s on p l e a s u r e t r i p s
P re v e n tiv e m easu res:
1} Do n o t u s e a b o a t , c a n o e , o r r a f t t h a t l e a k s
2) Do n o t go i n a can o e o r r a f t on a r i v e r o r on
d ee p w a t e r u n l e s s you know how t o swim w e l l
3) C a r r y a l i f e buoy f o r e a c h p e r s o n when y o u go
on a r i v e r o r d ee p l a k e i n a b o a t o r c a n o e
4} L e a r n how t o row o r p a d d l e p r o p e r l y b e f o r e a t ­
t e m p t i n g t o do so by y o u r s e l f and l e a r n how t o
do t h i s i n t h e b o a t o r c a n o e y o u p l a n t o u se
5) S i t i n t h e b o a t s o i t w i l l r e m a in e v e n l y b a l ­
a n c e d . N e v e r clo w n w h i l e i n a b o a t . I f n e c e s ­
s a r y t o move a b o u t , do t h i s i n a way t h a t w i l l
n o t d is t u r b th e b o a t ’ s b alan ce
6) I f y o u r b o a t o f c a n o e u p s e t s , t r y t o h a n g on t o
i t and f l o a t u n t i l h e l p a r r i v e s , u n l e s s y o u c a n
swim t o s a f e t y
d.
A c tiv itie s:
1) T a lk w i t h c h i l d r e n a b o u t t h e s a f e p l a c e s f o r
b o a t i n g an d c a n o e in g
2) A f t e r d i s c u s s i o n , l e t c h i l d r e n s e t up s t a n d a r d s
w i t h r e g a r d t o b o a t i n g and c a n o e i n g . Some o f
- t h e s e may b e :
a ) We n e v e r go b o a t i n g o r c a n o e i n g u n l e s s an
o l d e r p e r s o n who c a n swim comes a l o n g
b ) We s t a y n e a r t h e l i f e l i n e when b o a t i n g o r
c a n o e in g
c ) We n e v e r r o c k t h e b o a t o r c a n o e
d} We do n o t h a n g o u t on t h e s i d e s
e ) We a r e c a r e f u l t o r e m a in i n o u r p l a c e s
f ) We n e i t h e r make n o r t a k e a d a r e when i n a
b o a t o r canoe
108
g ) We a r e a lw a y s c a r e f u l t o know w h a t k i n d o f
w a t e r we a r e on
h ) We a v o id p l a y i n g on r a f t s and i n c a n o e s and
b o a ts
i ) We n e v e r j o k i n g l y c a l l f o r h e l p
3 ) F in d n e w sp a p e r c l i p p i n g s t e l l i n g o f a c c i d e n t s
t h a t o c c u r r e d i n b o a t s an d c a n o e s .
APPENDIX C
MOTOR VEHICLE HAZARDS
110
CLEVELAND’S PLAN FOR JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL INSTRUCTION
IN MOTOR VEHICLE HAZARDS11
1*
D isc u ss th e t r a f f i c s i t u a t i o n i n your n eig h b o rh o o d .
2.
F o r m u l a t e a r i t h m e t i c p r o b le m s and make g r a p h s u s i n g
s t a t i s t i c s r e la tin g to t r a f f i c a c c id e n ts.
3.
D isc u ss:
a.
The d a n g e r o f h i t c h i n g .
b.
The r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e p e d e s t r i a n and t h e
m o to rist.
c.
By whom t r a f f i c la w s a r e m ade; la w e n f o r c e m e n t .
d.
What t h e com m unity c a n do t o k e e p c h i l d r e n fro m
p la y in g in th e s tr e e t*
4.
S tu d y l o c a l t r a f f i c r e g u l a t i o n s .
Have a c o m m itte e v i s i t
th e n e a r e s t p o lic e s t a t i o n f o r in fo rm a tio n .
5.
R e p o r t on c u r r e n t m a g a z in e a r t i c l e s d e a l i n g w i t h t r a f f i c
sa fe ty *
6.
C l i p f ro m d a i l y p a p e r s f o r a m o nth a l l news a r t i c l e s on
t r a f f i c a c c id e n ts.
7*
L i s t th e s a f e ty r u le s v i o la te d .
Have t h e c l a s s p r e p a r e a l i s t o f s a f e t y r u l e s f o r p e d e s ­
tria n s .
Have a c o m m itte e o b s e r v e t h e b e h a v i o r o f p e d e s ­
t r i a n s a t a b u s y c o r n e r f o r a n h o u r and k e e p a r e c o r d o f
11
C l e v e l a n d P u b l i c S c h o o l s , S a f e t y E d u c a t i o n * A C o u rs e
o f S tu d y f o r E l e m e n t a r y and J u n i o r H ig h S c h o o ls ( C l e v e l a n d .
O h io ) , p . 2 8 .
Ill
b o t h o b s e r v a t i o n s and v i o l a t i o n s o f s a f e p r a c t i c e s .
D is c u s s f i n d i n g s i n c l a s s *
8.
Make a s e l f - m e a s u r e m e n t c h e c k bn t h e k n o w led g e and s k i l l s
n e e d e d by a good b i c y c l e r i d e r *
112
MINNEAPOLIS JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL TRAFFIC SAFETT
1?
O b je c tiv e !
To h a b i t u a t e t h e c h i l d i n c e r t a i n inodes o f c o n d u c t
t h a t w i l l aid in s a f e ty in t r a f f i c .
1*
2.
Make t r a f f i c r u l e s , s u c h a s :
a.
C r o s s p r o m p tly when t h e t r a f f i c s i g n a l i s g i v e n .
b.
Obey t h e t r a f f i c
s ig n a ls.
F o r m u l a t e a r i t h m e t i c p r o b le m s u s i n g s t a t i s t i c s r e l a t i n g
t o f a t a l and n o n - f a t a l a c c i d e n t s •
3.
I f r e p o r ts of t r a f f i c a c c id e n ts a re bro u g h t in to sc h o o l,
stu d y th e s a f e t y r u l e s v i o l a t e d .
4.
D i s c u s s t h e p a r t w h ic h t h e c i t y and s t a t e p l a y i n m akin g
h ig h w a y s s a f e .
5.
B rin g i n new spaper r e p o r t s of a c c id e n ts *
6.
Make a map o f d a n g e r o u s s c h o o l c r o s s i n g s .
7.
E n u m e ra te t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e p e d e s t r i a n an d o f
th e m o to ris t.
8.
A s s ig n n e w s p a p e r and m a g a z in e a r t i c l e s f o r r e a d i n g l e s ­
s o n s ; d i s c u s s t h o s e w h ic h a r e ju d g e d m o st w o r t h w h i l e ;
s e l e c t th e b e s t f o r a scrap b o o k f o r f u t u r e u s e .
9.
S tu d y t h e c i t y o r d i n a n c e s a s t h e y p e r t a i n t o p u b l i c s a f e t y .
12
M i n n e a p o l i s P u b l i c S c h o o l s , C o u rse o f S t u d y . S a f e t y
and H e a l t h E d u c a t i o n . K i n d e r g a r t e n t h r o u g h G rade~Y I (M in nea p o l i s , M in n e s o t a : B oard o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 3 2 ) , p . 7 0 .
D isc u sst
a.
D u t i e s o f a m o t o r c y c l e p o lic e m a n *
b.
S peed l a w s •
c.
By whom t r a f f i c r u l e s a r e m ade; la w e n f o r c e m e n t .
114
SAFETT OK THE HIGHWAYS IK LOUISIANA1 3
A.
G en eral o b je c tiv e s :
1#
To p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n f o r p r o s p e c t i v e d r i v e r s w h ic h
w i l l make s a f e o p e r a t i o n o f a m o to r v e h i c l e p o s s i b l e .
2.
To p ro m o te a n a t t i t u d e o f m ind w h ich w i l l make s a f e
o p e r a t i o n o f a m o to r v e h i c l e p o s s i b l e .
3.
To e n c o u ra g e h a b i t s o f t h o u g h t and a c t i o n w h ic h a r e
c o n d u c iv e t o s a f e t y , e i t h e r a s an a u t o m o b i l e d r i v e r
or as a p e d e stria n .
4.
To p ro m o te t h e s u p p o r t o f e f f e c t i v e l e g i s l a t i o n f o r
r e d u c i n g h ig h w ay h a z a r d s .
B.
S p e c ific o b je c tiv e s :
1.
The p e d e s t r i a n
a.
To p r e s e n t s u c h h ig h w ay f a c t s and d a t a a s w i l l
p r o v i d e b o y s and g i r l s w i t h a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g
o f t h e b e s t m e th o d s f o r p r o t e c t i o n w h i l e w a lk i n g
on o r a c r o s s s t r e e t s and h ig hw ay s*
b.
To i n s t i l l i n t h e p e d e s t r i a n a f e e l i n g o f r e s p o n ­
s i b i l i t y f o r h i s own s a f e t y .
c.
To a i d p u p i l s i n r e c o g n i z i n g t h e r i g h t s and p o i n t s
o f v ie w o f t h e m o t o r i s t s .
L o u i s i a n a S t a t e D e p a rtm e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , C o u rse of
S tu d y i n S a f e t y E d u c a t i o n . B u l l e t i n No. 325 (B a to n R ouge,
L o u i s i a n a : The D e p a r tm e n t, 1 9 S 6 ) , p . 4 9 .
The d r i v e r
a*
To p r o v i d e a d e t a i l e d k n o w le d g e o f New O r l e a n s ’
m o to r v e h i c l e r e g u l a t i o n ,
b.
To p r e s e n t t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i n a m an n er w h ic h
w i l l p r o j e c t upon t h e m in d s o f t h e d r i v e r s a
c l e a r e r p i c t u r e o f t h e s k i l l f u l d r i v e r — one who
knows and c a r e f u l l y o b s e r v e s t h e r u l e s , one who
i s u n f a i l i n g l y c o u r t e o u s and u n r u f f l e d , one who
i s p ro u d o f h i s r e c o r d un m arred b y a c c i d e n t .
A c t i v i t i e s t h a t w i l l im p ro v e t h e s i t u a t i o n f o r :
a.
The p e d e s t r i a n
A lw ays u se a s i d e w a l k i f t h e r e i s a c h o ic e *
On a h ig h w ay w alk on t h e l e f t s i d e f a c i n g t h e
oncom ing t r a f f i c .
H ighw ays a r e f o r v e h i c l e s .
Do n o t p l a y games on
th e m .
E n t e r t a i n a w holesom e r e s p e c t f o r d a n g e r*
P u t y o u r s e l f i n t h e p l a c e o f t h e m o t o r i s t and s e e
h i s p r o b le m s o f t r a f f i c l i g h t s , c o n d i t i o n o f h i g h
way and w e a t h e r , and t h e m a c h in e h e i s h a n d l i n g .
A lw ays b e c o n s i d e r a t e .
A void r i s i n g w i t h o r g r a n t i n g r i d e s t o s t r a n g e r s *
b.
The d r i v e r
Know who h a s t h e r i g h t o f w ay.
R educe s p e e d when a p p r o a c h i n g a c u r v e , c r o s s i n g
stre e ts,
or o b stru c te d c o rn e r.
Always s t o p b e f o r e c r o s s i n g a r a i l r o a d c r o s s i n g .
Be e s p e c i a l l y c a r e f u l when m e e ti n g a n i m a l s o f an y
k in d on t h e highw ay*
Do n o t p a s s a s t r e e t c a r when i t i s
s to p p e d a t
an i n t e r s e c t i o n .
S to p a t i n t e r s e c t i o n b e f o r e c r o s s i n g .
G ive r i g h t o f way t o f i r e e n g i n e s and a m b u lan c es*
A lw ays o b s e r v e t r a f f i c l i g h t s *
Obey t h e p o l i c e o f f i c e r s *
D r i v e s l o w l y and c a r e f u l l y on s t r a n g e r o a d s .
Conform t o t h e r u l e s o f t h e ro a d *
Do n o t f a i l t o r e c o g n i z e t h e r i g h t s o f o t h e r s *
Sound h o r n when p a s s i n g an y v e h i c l e .
See t h a t y o u r c a r i s i n good c o n d i t i o n a s t o l i g h t s
b ra k e s , h o rn , e t c .
APPENDIX D
CLASSROOM HAZARDS
118
SAFETY IN THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS OF CLEVELAND1 4
An o u t l i n e f o r t h e u s e o f j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s
i n th e c la ssro o m s of th e C lev elan d s c h o o ls :
1,
D i s c u s s a l l s a f e t y g u i d e s w h ic h a p p l y t o y o u r w o rk .
If
t h e y a r e f o llo w e d t h e r e w i l l b e f e w e r a c c i d e n t s .
8.
Have b u l l e t i n , b o a r d s i n s h o p s , k i t c h e n s , l a b o r a t o r i e s ,
g y m n asiu m s, and o t h e r room s upon w h ic h t o p l a c e s a f e t y
m a t e r i a l p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e s p e c i a l t y p e o f w ork b e i n g
c a rrie d on.
3.
R e q u i r e s t u d e n t s t o know s a f e t y f o r p a r t i c u l a r m a c h in e s
an d a p p a r a t u s b e f o r e t h e y u s e th e m .
4.
A p p o in t a s t u d e n t s a f e t y i n s p e c t o r i n e a c h c l a s s *
d u t i e s w i l l vary w ith th e n a tu r e of th e c l a s s .
H is
F o llo w in g
i s a l i s t o f d u t i e s f o r a sh o p s t u d e n t s a f e t y i n s p e c t o r :
a.
E n f o r c e s a f e t y sh o p r u l e s .
b.
I n s p e c t a l l m a c h in e s b e f o r e s t u d e n t s b e g i n work and
r e p o r t a l l u n s a tis f a c to r y c o n d itio n s*
c.
I n s p e c t f l o o r s and rem ove a l l d a n g e r o u s o b j e c t s .
d.
S u p e r v i s e o p e r a t o r s o f m a c h in e s and e n f o r c e a l l
s a f e t y m e a s u r e s p e r t a i n i n g t o e a c h m a c h in e .
e.
C heck up on a l l hand t o o l s and rem ove a l l u n s a f e o n e s .
14
C l e v e l a n d P u b l i c S c h o o l s , S a f e t y E d u c a t i o n , A C o u rse
o f S tu d y f o r E l e m e n t a r y an d I u n i o r H ig h S c h o o ls ( C l e v e l a n d ,
O h io : The C l e v e l a n d S a f e t y C o u n c i l i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h t h e
C l e v e l a n d B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 3 7 ) , p . 1 4 .
f.
S u p e r v i s e t h e u s e o f a l l h an d t o o l s t o b e c e r t a i n
t h a t t h e y a r e u se d c o r r e c t l y .
g.
I n s p e c t th e c lo th in g of each s tu d e n t
w ork t o s e e t h a t t i e s a r e tu c k e d i n ,
b e f o r e he b e g in s
sle e v e s r o lle d ,
an d l o o s e c l o t h i n g e l i m i n a t e d .
h.
R e p o r t e v e r y a c c i d e n t , no m a t t e r how s l i g h t , t o t h e
in stru c to r.
i.
E s c o r t e v e r y one i n j u r e d t o t h e f i r s t a i d s t a t i o n ,
j.
F i l l i n th e a c c id e n t r e p o r t card f o r
each c a se .
A p p o in t s t u d e n t c o m m itte e s t o s u r v e y v a r i o u s p a r t s o f
t h e s c h o o l b u i l d i n g and g r o u n d s f o r h a z a r d s .
Have s t u d e n t s d raw up s e t s o f s a f e t y g u i d e s f o r v a r i o u s
p a r t s o f t h e b u i l d i n g and g r o u n d s .
Send w o r t h w h i le f i n d i n g s and re c o m m e n d a tio n s t o t h e s c h o o l
s a fe ty c o u n c il.
S tu d y s c h o o l b u i l d i n g c o d e s .
120
KANSAS CITY' OUTLINE OF SAFETY IN THE SCHOOL15
A.
The b u i l d i n g
1*
C la s s r o o m
Keep c h a i r s and t a b l e s i n p l a c e
Keep f e e t u n d e r d e s k o r c h a i r
Avoid p u l l i n g c h a i r o u t o f p l a c e fro m b e h i n d a
sta n d in g c h ild
A void r u n n i n g o r s l i d i n g i n t h e room
Keep a i s l e s open
H elp k e e p t h e f l o o r c l e a n
Hang up w ra p s p r o p e r l y
Keep r u b b e r s o r g a l o s h e s a g a i n s t t h e w a l l
P u t s u p p l i e s and p l a y t h i n g s i n p r o p e r p l a c e s
Keep c a b i n e t d o o r s c l o s e d
Use a l l d o o r s p r o p e r l y
K eep a l l m a t e r i a l s o u t o f m outh
C a r r y and p a s s s c i s s o r s , w i t h p o i n t s p r o t e c t e d ;
hand b l u n t end t o a n o t h e r p e r s o n .
K eep b o o k s c l e a n
Read w i t h p r o p e r l i g h t o n book
2*
S t a i r w a y , h a l l , and b a s e m e n t room s
K eep t o t h e r i g h t
Look s t r a i g h t a h e a d
Take o n e s t e p a t a tim e on s t a i r w a y s
W alk, n e v e r r u n , on s t a i r w a y s
Use b a n n i s t e r s o n ly f o r s u p p o r t
A void p u s h i n g and t r i p p i n g
K eep s h o e s t r i n g s t i e d
Keep a n y t h i n g s h a r p o u t o f t h e m outh when w a l k i n g .
Do n o t p l a y o r i n t e r f e r e w i t h o t h e r s a t t h e d r i n k i n g
fo u n ta in
Avoid s p l a s h i n g w a t e r on t h e f l o o r
2*
Gymnasium
"Walk, r u n , o r s k i p . Do n o t s l i d e
A void u s i n g w a l l a s a b a s e
W alk up t o a p p a r a t u s
15
K ansas C ity P u b lic S c h o o ls, S a f e ty i n th e C u rric u lu m ,
E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l s , K i n d e r g a r t e n , G ra d e s I - V I (K a n sa s C i t y ,
M i s s o u r i : B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 3 7 ) , p . 2 1 .
121
Hold o n t o a p p a r a t u s w ith, b o t h h a n d s
Be s u r e a p p a r a t u s i s s t i l l b e f o r e l e a v i n g
S ta n d t o one s i d e w h i l e w a i t i n g t u r n
S to p p l a y i n g on a p p a r a t u s b e f o r e b ecom ing f a t i g u e d
A void p u s h i n g o r t o u c h i n g t h e s w in g e r
Use r o p e s and p o l e s f o r c l i m b i n g , n o t s w in g in g
B.
The p la y g r o u n d
1.
F re e p la y
P la y f a i r
P l a y on p a r t o f g ro u n d d e s i g n a t e d
A void th r o w i n g s t i c k s and s t o n e s
Hun a r o u n d p l a y e r s r a t h e r t h a n t h r o u g h games
Do n o t jump on o r t r i p o t h e r s
Do n o t c lim b on w a l l s o r f e n c e s
K eep a r t i c l e s o u t o f m outh w h i l e p l a y i n g
L eav e r o l l e r s k a t e s and s c o o t e r s a t home
L e a v e dog s a t home
A void p e t t i n g o r t e a s i n g s t r a n g e d o g s o r o t h e r a n i m a l s
A void r i d i n g b i c y c l e s on t h e p la y g r o u n d
When l e a v i n g t h e p la y g r o u n d a f t e r s c h o o l go t o t h e
co rn er b e fo re c ro ssin g th e s t r e e t
2*
O r g a n iz e d games
B a l l games
Know and o bey t h e r u l e s o f t h e game
Aim b e f o r e th r o w in g b a l l t o a v o i d h i t t i n g h ea d of
a n o th e r p la y e r
Drop b a t t o g ro u n d a f t e r h i t t i n g b a l l .
Do n o t
th r o w t h e b a t
A void s t a n d i n g t o o n e a r t h e b a t t e r
R u n n in g games
A void u s i n g w a l l o r f e n c e a s b a s e
Look s t r a i g h t a h e a d when r u n n i n g
Tag r a t h e r t h a n p u s h when c h a s i n g a n o t h e r p l a y e r
3.
A p p a r a tu s
G en eral
H old on w i t h b o t h h a n d s when u s i n g a p p a r a t u s
Go t o end o f l i n e w h i l e w a i t i n g t u r n
A void c ro w d in g and p u s h i n g w h i l e w a i t i n g
Ladder
Use one end o f l a d d e r f o r b e g i n n i n g , t h e o t h e r f o r
th e drop
122
A void w a l k i n g u n d e r t h e l a d d e r when someone i s on
it
A void c r a w l i n g o r s i t t i n g on l a d d e r
A void h a n g i n g by k n e e s
H o riz o n ta l b a rs
B e g in w i t h l o w e s t b a r d u r i n g a s e l f - t e s t i n g a c t i v i t y
A void s i t t i n g on b a r s
C.
S p e c ia l a c t i v i t i e s
1.
F ire d r ills
Know t h e s i g n a l s
Obey s i g n a l s and d i r e c t i o n s p r o m p tly
F o llo w l e a d e r s
Walk q u i c k l y , b u t do n o t r u n
Look s t r a i g h t a h e a d
Go t o d e s i g n a t e d p l a c e
Know l o c a t i o n o f e x i t s and f i r e e x t i n g u i s h e r s
2#
E x c u rsio n s
O b se rv e a l l r u l e s and p l a n s made b e f o r e g o in g
Obey a l l r u l e s f o r s t r e e t s a f e t y
Keep w i t h t h e g ro u p
Be c o u r t e o u s t o t h o s e i n c h a r g e o f p l a c e s v i s i t e d
A void h a n d l i n g a n y a r t i c l e o r f i x t u r e u n l e s s g i v e n
p e rm issio n
R e f r a i n fro m t o u c h i n g a n y m a c h in e r y
3.
S c h o o l a s s e m b l i e s and e n t e r t a i n m e n t s
E n t e r and l e a v e a u d i t o r i u m i n a q u i e t , o r d e r l y way
Take s e a t s a s d i r e c t e d p r e v i o u s l y o r a s d e s i g n a t e d by
u sh ers
G ive q u i e t , c o u r t e o u s a t t e n t i o n t o t h e p ro g ra m
Use f l a s h l i g h t s on s t a g e i n s t e a d o f c a n d l e s
Be s u r e t h e s t a g e s e t i s p l a c e d s e c u r e l y
Use s t r o n g l a d d e r s e c u r e l y p l a c e d when d e c o r a t i n g
A void u se o f p a p e r d e c o r a t i o n s o v e r l i g h t b u l b s
1S3
LOUISIANA STATE CLASSROOM AND PLAYGROUND SAFETY OUTLINE16
A#
G en eral o b j e c t i v e :
To s a f e g u a r d t h e p u p i l a g a i n s t h i s
own i g n o r a n c e and c a r e l e s s n e s s and t o t r a i n h im t o a v o id
o r overcom e t h e h a z a r d s h e e n c o u n t e r s i n h i s s c h o o l a c t i v ­
itie s .
B.
S p e c ific o b je c tiv e :
To p o i n t o u t t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l p u p i l
some p r a c t i c e s t o f o l l o w i n a v o i d i n g t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f
a c c i d e n t s an d i n j u r i e s i n h i s s c h o o l l i f e #
1#
Keep t o t h e r i g h t on w a l k s , i n h a l l s , an d i n g o in g up
an d down s t a i r s .
2.
A scend and d e s c e n d s t a i r s o n e s t e p a t a t i m e .
3.
Do n o t r u n up and down s t a i r s .
4.
Do n o t s i t o r p l a y i n t h e windows o f a b u i l d i n g .
5#
Use t h e b a n i s t e r s f o r p r o t e c t i o n
6#
Upon t h e so und o f a f i r e s i g n a l , r i s e q u i e t l y
o n ly #
and
l e a v e t h e b u i l d i n g p r o m p t l y ; do n o t s t o p o r r e t u r n
fo r p erso n al e ffe c ts#
7.
A void h a n d l i n g c h e m i c a l s and c h e m ic a l a p p a r a t u s o f t h e
la b o ra to ry ,
u n le s s under th e d i r e c t i o n o f an i n s t r u c ­
to r.
8.
Do n o t m o l e s t t h e r a d i a t o r s , h e a t o r s , o r o t h e r fo rm s
16
L o u i s i a n a S t a t e D e p a rtm e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , C o u rs e of
S tu d y i n S a f e t y E d u c a t i o n , B u l l e t i n N o. 325 ( B a to n R o u ge,
L o u i s i a n a : The D e p a r tm e n t, 1 9 3 6 ) , p . 4 0 .
124
of h e a tin g a p p a ra tu s .
L eav e t h e s e t o t h e c a r e o f t h e
ja n ito r.
9.
P la y g r o u n d a p p a r a t u s s h o u ld b e s e l e c t e d w i t h c a r e .
H ig h sw in g s an d s l i d e s s h o u ld be a v o i d e d .
10.
Use c a r e i n p l a c i n g t h e p l a y g r o u n d , a p p a r a t u s .
See
t h a t i t i s s o l o c a t e d t h a t t h e u s e o f one p i e c e w i l l
n o t i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e u s e of a n o t h e r .
11*
The e q u ip m e n t
s h o u ld b e g ro u p e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e
ag e o f t h e g r o u p s w h ic h
a re to use i t .
12.
The a p p a r a t u s
s h o u ld b e i n s p e c t e d r e g u l a r l y .
13.
S t u d e n t s s h o u ld f o l l o w t h e r u l e s o f t h e games p l a y e d .
A l l u n n e c e s s a r y r o u g h n e s s s h o u ld b e a v o i d e d i n p l a y i n g .
14.
The s c h o o l g r o u n d s s h o u ld b e k e p t f r e e o f g l a s s , n a i l s
or l i t t e r .
15.
P u p i l s s h o u ld n o t r u n
in to s t r e e t s a f t e r b a l l s or p la y ­
t h i n g s w i t h o u t f i r s t l o o k i n g b o t h t o t h e l e f t an d t o
th e r i g h t .
16.
P u p i l s s h o u ld n o t c lim b t r e e s , f l a g p o l e s ,
e tc .,
on
th e p la y g ro u n d s.
17.
P u p i l s s h o u ld o b s e r v e
a l l s a f e ty r u le s r e g a r d in g th e
u se of s w i n g s , r i n g s ,
and o t h e r p la y g r o u n d e q u ip m e n t.
APPENDIX E
FIRST AID AND HEALTH
126
FIRST AID DEMONSTRATIONS FOR CLASSWORE: IN THE
JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS OF CLEVELAND17
1.
Have p u p i l s d e m o n s t r a t e f i r s t a i d f o r :
a.
b.
c.
d•
e•
f .
S*
h.
i.
2•
B ru ise s
M inor c u t s
Removing s p l i n t e r s
In sec t b ite s
A nim al b i t e s
N o s e b le e d
C h ok ing
B u rn s
S u n b u rn
k.
1.
m.
n.
o.
P.
q*
F r o s t b i t e and e x p o s u r e
P o iso n in g
B liste rs
F a in tin g
S hock
S tra in s
S p ra in s
S evere b le e d in g
U nder t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f t h e t e a c h e r , p e r m i t p u p i l s t o
a d m i n i s t e r f i r s t a i d when someone i s h u r t a t s c h o o l .
3.
Have f i r s t a i d k i t i n t h e c l a s s r o o m .
S ee t h a t p u p i l s
a r e f a m i l i a r w ith th e a r t i c l e s in i t .
4.
P r a c ti c e f in d in g th e p r e s s u r e p o i n ts .
5.
P r a c t i c e a p p ly in g to u r n iq u e ts .
6.
Have t h e Boy S c o u t s i n t h e b u i l d i n g d e m o n s t r a t e s im p le
b a n d a g in g .
7.
Have t h e Boy S c o u t s i n t h e b u i l d i n g d e m o n s t r a t e t h e way
to ap p ly s p l i n t s .
8.
D isc u ss:
a.
G e n e r a l f i r s t a i d p r i n c i p l e s t h a t e v e ry o n e s h o u ld
know .
C l e v e l a n d P u b l i c S c h o o l s , S a f e t y E d u c a t i o n . A C o u rse
o f S tu d y f o r E l e m e n t a r y a n d J u n i o r H ig h S c h o o ls ( C l e v e l a n d ,
O h io : The C l e v e l a n d S a f e t y C o u n c i l i n C o o p e r a t i o n w i t h t h e
C l e v e l a n d B o ard o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 3 7 ) , p . 5 2 .
b.
What i s m e an t by i n f e c t i o n and how i t
can b e a v o i d e d .
c.
Why o l d i o d i n e s h o u ld n o t b e u s e d .
d.
How t o t e l l t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n b l e e d i n g fro m
a r t e r i e s and b l e e d i n g fro m v e i n s .
e.
Why p e o p l e w i t h b r o k e n b o n e s s h o u ld n o t be moved*
f.
Common s u b s t a n c e w h ic h c a u s e v o m i t i n g .
g.
C a u ses f o r t h e s t o p p i n g o f b r e a t h i n g .
D e m o n s tr a te t h e S c h a e f e r m ethod o f r e s u s c i t a t i o n .
Have a v o l u n t e e r w ork on a member o f t h e c l a s s a s th o u g h
h e had s t o p p e d b r e a t h i n g .
The o t h e r members o f t h e c l a s s
c a n c h e c k t h e p r o c e d u r e t o s e e i f i t d i f f e r s fro m t h e
s u g g e s t i o n s and p i c t u r e s i n t h e u n i t .
128
FIRST AID IN THE ALABAMA SCHOOLS
18
A c h e c k l i s t d e s i g n e d t o t e s t a s t u d e n t ’ s k n o w le d g e
o f f i r s t a i d a s used i n t h e Alabama s c h o o l s :
1#
E x p l a i n w h at i s m e a n t by f i r s t a i d .
2.
What a r e some o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t t e a c h f i r s t a i d ?
3*
Why p r a c t i c e c a lm n e s s i n f i r s t a i d ?
4.
Make a c r a v a t b a n d a g e f o r t h e knee*
5.
Make a trf o u r ~ t a i l ” b a n d a g e .
6.
D e m o n s tr a te t h e m akin g o f a l l t h e d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f
bandages.
7.
What k i n d o f a s l i n g i s u se d i n s u p p o r t i n g a n i n j u r e d
h an d ?
8*
T e l l f i r s t and t h e n d e m o n s t r a t e : how t o a p p l y p r e s s u r e t o
s t o p b l e e d i n g fro m a c u t i n t h e arm , t h e h a n d , a wound
j u s t abo v e t h e k n e e , fro m a c u t i n t h e t e m p l e , t h e c a r o t i d
a r t e r y i n t h e n e c k , fro m a wound i n t h e elb ow o r k n e e .
9.
10*
D e s c rib e th e tr e a tm e n ts f o r c h o k in g .
T e l l how t o rem ove fro m a b u r n i n g b u i l d i n g a p e r s o n
overcom e by sm oke.
11*
What s h o u ld b e d o n e upon f i n d i n g a p e r s o n l y i n g a p p a r e n t l y
d ea d fro m t h e e x h a u s t of a g a s o l i n e e n g in e ?
18
Alabama S t a t e B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , A C o u rse o f S tu d y
i n S a f e t y E d u c a t i o n f o r A l l G r a d e s , B u l l e t i n No. 15 (M ontgom ery,
A labam a, The D e p a r tm e n t, 1 9 3 2 ) , p . 165*
129
12•
How w ould y ou a t t e m p t t o r e s c u e a d ro w n in g p e r s o n i f
you c a n n o t swim?
13*
How many p e r s o n s l o s e t h e i r l i v e s a n n u a l l y fro m p o i s o n i n g ?
14.
T e l l w h at i s m e a n t b y s h o c k and how sh o c k s h o u ld b e
tre a te d .
15.
A l a d y m e an t t o t a k e h e a d a c h e t a b l e t s i n t h e d a r k .
g o t t h e w rong b o t t l e and to o k s l e e p i n g t a b l e t s .
She
How
c o u ld s u c h m i s t a k e s b e p r e v e n t e d ?
16.
¥/hy s h o u ld a l l m e d i c i n e b o t t l e s b e l a b e l e d ?
17.
E x p l a i n t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n a s im p le f r a c t u r e and a
compound f r a c t u r e .
IS .
E x p l a i n t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n a b r u i s e and a s p r a i n .
19.
D e s c r i b e how t o a p p l y s p l i n t s i n d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s .
20.
?/h at i s t h e u se o f t h e X - r a y i n f r a c t u r e ?
21.
How many s p l i n t s o r t o u r n i q u e t s be made when t h e r e a r e
no s u i t a b l e m a t e r i a l s a t h an d ?
22.
Name a t l e a s t s i x c a u s e s o f u n c o n s c i o u s n e s s .
23.
Make a l i s t o f t h e d i f f e r e n t ways i n w h ic h a n i n j u r e d
p e r s o n may be c a r r i e d .
24.
Now f i t t h e m ethod t o t h e i n j u r y ?
D e m o n s tr a te w i t h a c l a s s m a t e a s p a t i e n t t h e tw o -h a n d e d
se a t carry .
25.
W ith a c l a s s m a t e a s p a t i e n t d e m o n s t r a t e how t o c a r r y
an in ju r e d p e rso n w ith o u t a s t r e t c h e r .
26.
What i s a n e m e t i c ?
An a n t i d o t e ?
An a n a e s t h e t i c ?
130
27.
What i s m e a n t by a n t i s e p t i c ?
28.
O th e r o c c a s i o n s f o r f i r s t a i d r e l i e f w i l l c a l l f o r a
s tu d y o f th e b e s t m easures to be ta k e n i n c a se of h i c ­
co u g h , f o r e i g n s u b s t a n c e i n t h e e y e , t e e t h k n o ck ed
o u t, p o iso n in g , f r o s t b i t e ,
s p l i n t e r s in th e f le s h , f i t s ,
h e a t e x h a u s t i o n , and s u n s t r o k e *
APPENDIX F
FIRE PREVENTION
132
SAFETY GUIDES
F i r e P r e v e n t i o n C o u rs e i n t h e C l e v e l a n d J u n i o r H ig h S c h o o ls
19
M a tch e s
1.
P u r c h a s e m a tc h e s by b r a n d .
Do n o t buy t h o s e w h ic h b r e a k ,
l o s e t h e i r h e a d s , o r glow a f t e r b e i n g b lo w n o u t .
G iv e
p r e f e r e n c e to s t r i k e - o n - t h e - b o x or s a f e t y m a tc h e s.
2.
Keep m a tc h e s i n m e t a l o r e a r t h e n w a r e c o n t a i n e r s ,
re a c h of l i t t l e
c h ild re n ,
o u t of
and away fro m t h e h e a t o f
s t o v e s and p i p e s .
3.
Be c a r e f u l a b o u t d i s p o s i n g o f b u r n t m a t c h e s .
ev ery sp a rk i s o u t.
Be s u r e t h a t
I f i n d o o r s , p u t e v e r y b u r n t m a tc h i n
a n o n - in f l a m m a b le c o n t a i n e r ; i f o u t d o o r s , b r e a k t h e s t i c k
i n two and s t e p on t h e h e a d .
4.
P i c k up a l l m a tc h e s t h a t a r e s p i l l e d .
5.
C a r r y m a tc h e s i n a m e t a l m a tc h s a f e .
C h i l d r e n s h o u ld
n o t c a r r y them a t a l l .
6.
S t r i k e m a tc h e s away fro m y ou so t h a t i f t h e head f l i e s
o ff i t w ill not s e t f i r e to your c lo th e s .
7.
T a k in g a l i g h t e d m a tc h i n t o c l o s e t s ,
o r n e a r in f la m m a b le
m a te r ia l in o th e r p la c e s , i s d an g ero u s.
19
Use a f l a s h l i g h t .
C l e v e l a n d P u b l i c S c h o o l s , S a f e t y E d u c a t i o n , A C o u rse
o f S tu d y f o r E l e m e n t a r y and J u n i o r H ig h S c h o o ls ( C l e v e l a n d ,
O h io : The C l e v e l a n d S a f e t y C o u n c i l i n C o o p e r a t i o n w i t h t h e
C l e v e l a n d B oard o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 3 7 ) , p . 1 6 .
133
C a n d l e s . Lamps
1*
P l a c e l i g h t e d c a n d l e s and lam ps i n s a f e p l a c e s w h ere
th e y
w i l l n o t f a l l o r be s t r u c k .
a
Make s u r e t h a t t h e y a r e
s a f e d i s t a n c e fro m window c u r t a i n s o r o t h e r in f la m m a b le
m a te ria l.
2.
-Allow f o r su d d e n d r a f t s o r g u s t s o f wind*
F i t c a n d l e s s n u g ly i n t o c a n d l e s t i c k s w i t h h e a v y b a s e s .
S t i c k i n g them upon s a u c e r s o r b o a r d s i s a d a n g e r o u s
p ra c tic e *
3*
I f you u se o i l la m p s , f i l l them o n ly i n d a y l i g h t and
away fro m an y f l a m e .
4.
Be c a r e f u l t o e x t i n g u i s h c a n d l e s , la m p s , o r o t h e r o pen
f l a m e s b e f o r e l e a v i n g t h e h o u s e o r g o in g t o b e d .
S to v e s . F u rn aces
1*
C o v er wooden s u r f a c e s n e a r s t o v e s , f u r n a c e s , and p i p e s
w ith a s b e s to s b o ard , s h e e t ir o n , or t i n .
I f iro n or
tin
i s u s e d , l e a v e an a i r s p a c e b e h i n d i t .
2.
P r o t e c t th e f l o o r b e n e a th th e s to v e w ith s h e e t m e ta l
w h ic h e x t e n d s a t l e a s t a f o o t o u t fro m t h e s t o v e d i r e c t l y
b e n e a th th e door of th e a s h p i t .
3.
I n s p e c t c h im n e y s , f l u e s , and p i p e s .
Make s u r e t h a t p i p e s
a r e f r e e fro m r u s t and t h a t a l l j o i n t s and c o n n e c t i o n s
a r e sound and t i g h t .
4.
I n s t a r t i n g a f i r e , use d ry k i n d l i n g ; n ev e r use k e r o s e n e .
5.
P la c e ash es in m e ta l c o n ta in e rs o n ly .
U s in g c a r t o n s and
134
wooden c o n t a i n e r s f o r t h i s p u r p o s e c a u s e s many f i r e s .
6.
R e g u l a t e t h e s t o v e o r f u r n a c e so t h a t i t d o e s n o t become
r e d h o t*
7.
K eep in f la m m a b le m a t e r i a l away fro m s t o v e s and p i p e s .
Do
n o t h an g c l o t h e s n e a r t h e s t o v e t o d r y .
8.
C a u t i o n s h o u ld b e t a k e n i n l i g h t i n g g a s o v e n s .
Open t h e
d o o r s o f b o t h b r o i l e r and b a k i n g o v e n s b e f o r e l i g h t i n g t h e
m a tc h .
9.
S o a p s u d s may b e u sed t o f i n d l e a k s i n g a s p i p e s .
Use a
f l a s h l i g h t to s e e .
10.
I f g a s l e a k s o c c u r , f i r s t o p en t h e d o o r s and w in do w s, t h e n
t u r n o f f t h e g a s a t t h e m e t e r and c a l l a g a s f i t t e r .
11.
E x tin g u is h b u rn in g f a t w ith e a r t h , san d , o r a m e ta l c o v e r.
P o u r i n g w a t e r upon b u r n i n g f a t s p r e a d s t h e f l a m e s .
12.
E x e r c i s e c a r e i n u s i n g f l o u r o r c o r n s t a r c h a ro u n d a s to v e *
They may e x p lo d e *
O ily r a g s , W aste
1.
K eep o i l y r a g s and mops i n a t i g h t l y c o v e r e d m e t a l c o n ­
t a i n e r t o a v o id f i r e by s p o n ta n e o u s c o m b u s tio n .
2.
Do n o t a l l o w r u b b i s h t o a c c u m u l a te i n a t t i c ,
c l o s e t s , or elsew h ere.
3.
c e lla r,
Remember t h a t " F i r e f i n d s f i l t h * "
E x c e lsio r i s a f i r e h azard .
E le c tric ity
1*
Have w i r i n g done o r c o n n e c t i o n s made by e x p e r t and c a r e f u l
e le c tric ia n s.
135
2.
Always d i s c o n n e c t e l e c t r i c a l a p p l i a n c e s a t t h e s o c k e t
when n o t i n u s e ,
3.
R e p la c e "b lo w n o u t " f u s e s w i t h new ones o f t h e p r o p e r
k in d .
The u s e o f m a k e s h i f t f u s e s i s d a n g e r o u s .
C l e a n i n g F l u i d s , K e r o s e n e , G a s o l in e
1.
C lea n in g f l u i d s , c o n ta in in g g a s o lin e o r b e n z in e , a r e
h i g h l y d a n g e r o u s and s h o u ld n o t be u s e d .
2.
K e ro s e n e an d g a s o l i n e s h o u ld b e k e p t i n c l o s e d m e t a l con ­
ta in e rs.
A g a s o l i n e c a n s h o u ld be p a i n t e d r e d and h a v e
t h e word " g a s o l i n e " p a i n t e d i n c o n s p ic u o u s l e t t e r s .
Do
n o t le a v e g a s o lin e or k ero sen e cans n ear th e fu rn a c e or
sto v e .
3.
O b j e c t t o p e o p l e sm oking i n a g a r a g e o r n e a r an a u t o m o b ile
when t h e g a s t a n k i s b e i n g f i l l e d .
4.
S h o u ld a g a s o l i n e o r k e r o s e n e f i r e o c c u r , u s e a c h e m ic a l
f i r e e x t i n g u i s h e r o r s m o th e r i t w i t h e a r t h , s a n d , o r a
ru g .
P o u r i n g w a t e r upon b u r n i n g g a s o l i n e o r k e r o s e n e
sp read s th e f i r e .
5.
Use s t o v e p o l i s h o r c l e a n i n g f l u i d on c o l d s t o v e s o n l y .
6.
F l u i d s c o n t a i n i n g g a s o l i n e s h o u ld n o t b e e m p tie d i n t h e
sew er.
A c c u m u la tio n o f g a s e s may c a u s e an e x p l o s i o n .
Open F i r e s
1.
I t i s d a n g e r o u s f o r c h i l d r e n t o p l a y a ro u n d b o n f i r e s , or
a ro u n d f i r e p l a c e s , e i t h e r s c r e e n e d o r u n s c r e e n e d .
136
2.
A b o n f i r e s h o u ld n o t be s t a r t e d on a w indy d ay o r n e a r
tre e s ,
s h ru b s , f e n c e s , b u ild i n g s , o r dry g r a s s .
Make
a b s o lu te ly c e r t a in t h a t i t i s o u t b e fo re le a v in g i t .
3.
Use a n i n c i n e r a t o r f o r b u r n i n g w a s t e .
F i r e E s c a p e s and E x i t s
1.
I t i s i l l e g a l t o k e e p p l a n t s , b e d d i n g , m ilk- b o t t l e s o r
o t h e r o b j e c t s on t h e f i r e e s c a p e .
2.
Yifhen e n t e r i n g a t h e a t e r o r o t h e r p u b l i c b u i l d i n g , lo o k
around f o r th e n e a r e s t e x it*
When F i r e O cc u rs
1*
C a ll th e f i r e d e p a rtm e n t.
2.
I f f i r e i s d i s c o v e r e d i n t h e b u i l d i n g yo u a r e i n , c l o s e
a l l t h e d o o r s a f t e r you a s yo u go o u t so t h a t t h e d r a f t
w i l l n o t ca u se th e f i r e to spread*
3.
To e x t i n g u i s h a s m a l l f i r e , b e a t i t o u t w i t h a broom , p o u r
w a t e r on i t ,
4.
o r sm o th e r i t w i t h a b l a n k e t o r r u g .
I f y o u r own c l o t h i n g c a t c h e s f i r e , l i e down and r o l l .
N ev er r u n f o r h e l p a s t h i s f a n s t h e f l a m e s .
I f someone
e l s e ’ s c l o t h i n g c a t c h e s f i r e , g e t him down on t h e f l o o r ,
w rap him t i g h t l y i n a r u g , c o a t , o r b l a n k e t , b e g i n n i n g a t
t h e h e a d t o k e e p t h e f la m e s away fro m t h e f a c e , and b e a t
o u t t h e f l a m e s o r r o l l him on t h e f l o o r #
5.
I f c a u g h t i n a b u r n i n g b u i l d i n g f i l l e d w i t h smoke, wind a
w e t to w e l a ro u n d y o u r head and o v e r y o u r m outh and n o s e
t o p r o t e c t y o u fro m smoke, and s t o o p low o r c r a w l on y o u r
h a n d s and k n e e s , a s smoke i s t h i n n e s t n e a r t h e f l o o r .
Keep y o u r h e a d f o r y o u r own s a k e and f o r t h e s a k e o f o t h e r s .
O b serv e t h e s e s u g g e s t i o n s when yo u h e a r t h e f i r e s i r e n :
a.
Don’ t r u s h .
b.
Keep on t h e s id e w a lk when g o in g t o a f i r e .
c.
K eep o u t o f t h e f i r e m e n ’ s w ay.
You may ham per t h e i r
w o rk .
d.
S t a y a s a f e d i s t a n c e fro m t h e b u r n i n g b u i l d i n g ,
e•
K eep c a lm .
f.
Do n o t to u c h an y w i r e s .
138
FIRS PREVENTION AND CONTROL
An O u t l i n e Used i n t h e K a n s a s C i t y S c h o o l s 20
1.
Common c a u s e s o f f i r e
C a re le ssn e ss
F a u l t y c o n s t r u c t i o n o f b u i l d i n g s and h e a t i n g d e v i c e s
2•
H a z a rd s
H ea tin g d e v ic e s
F lam e s f o r l i g h t
M a tc h e s
E l e c t r i c iro n s
C lean in g f l u i d s
I n fla m m a b le m a t e r i a l s
S p o n ta n e o u s c o m b u s tio n
3*
M eans o f p r e v e n t i o n
C a re le ssn e ss, c le a n lin e s s , o rd e r
In s p e c tio n s , c le a n -u p s
P ro p er c o n s tru c tio n of b u ild in g s
P ro p er in s u la tio n
E l e c t r i c w i r i n g t o co n fo rm w i t h N a t i o n a l E l e c t r i c Code
P r o p e r p la c e m e n t o f f u r n a c e , s t o v e , p i p e s
S c r e e n i n g o f open f i r e s
S to rin g of h o t ash es in m e ta l c o n ta in e rs
Use o f s a f e t y m a tc h e s
C a re i n u se o f k e r o s e n e , g a s o l i n e , c l e a n i n g f l u i d s
4.
P rin c ip le s of f i r e c o n tro l
S h u t t i n g o f f oxygen s u p p ly
Removing c o m b u s t i b l e m a t e r i a l
C o o l in g b elo w k i n d l i n g t e m p e r a t u r e
5.
Means o f f i r e c o n t r o l
Use o f w a t e r
S m o th e r in g
C h e m ic a l e x t i n g u i s h e r s
F i r e d e p a rtm e n ts
20
K ansas C ity P u b lic S c h o o ls, S a f e ty in th e C u r r ic u ­
lu m , J u n i o r and S e n i o r H ig h S c h o o l s , C u r r ic u lu m b u l l e t i n No,
15 (K a n sa s C i t y , M i s s o u r i : B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 3 7 ) , p . 36#
139
FIRE PREVENTION IN THE ALABAMA SCHOOLS2 1
The c h i e f c a u s e s o f f i r e s :
C a r e l e s s n e s s w i t h m a tc h e s
C a r e l e s s n e s s w i t h c i g a r e t t e and c i g a r s t u b s
D e fe c tiv e e l e c t r i c w irin g
B o n fire s , c a m p fire s, g ra s s f i r e s , f o r e s t f i r e s
O v e r h e a te d h e a t i n g p l a n t s
D e fe c tiv e f lu e s
I n fla m m a b le r o o f i n g
A c c u m u la tio n o f r u b b i s h
Use o f g a s o l i n e and o t h e r in f la m m a b le m a t e r i a l s
fo r s ta rtin g f ir e s
E x p lo sio n s
S p o n ta n e o u s c o m b u s tio n
C a r e l e s s n e s s and f i r e w o r k s
L ig h th in g
C a re le s s n e s s in u sin g c le a n in g m a te r ia l s
F l u e s i m p r o p e r l y hung
H ot a s h e s
Open f i r e s
L ig h tin g ap p a ra tu s
21
Alabama S t a t e D e p a rtm e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , A C o u rse of
S tu d y i n S a f e t y E d u c a t i o n f o r A l l G r a d e s . B u l l e t i n No. 15
(M ontgom ery, A labam a: D e p a rtm e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 3 2 ) , p . 91*
APPENDIX
PART I I
APPENDIX
PAMPHLETS
OAKLAND PUBLIC SCHOOLS
O f f ic e o f th e D ir e c to r o f I n s t r u c t io n
f o r E lem entary and J u n io r High S c h o o ls
EIGHTH GRADE UNIT
-
HIGHWAY SAFETY
O b j e c t iv e s ,
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f .
To red uce th e t o l l o f a c c id e n t s in v o lv in g c h ild r e n o f t h i s age group.
Through in fo r m a tio n , exam p le, and e x p e r ie n c e t o make p u p ils s a f e t y
c o n s c io u s .
To make p rop er conduct upon s t r e e t s and highw ays h a b it u a l.
I n d i r e c t l y , t o a s s i s t TODAY i n th e developm ent o f th e s a fe d r iv e r s
o f TOMORROW.
To f u r t h e r th e cause o f p u b lic s a f e t y by c o n tin u in g th e p r o c e s s o f
making e ig h t h grade c h ild r e n t r a f f i c c o n s c io u s .
To b r in g abou t an im m ediate and l a s t i n g r e d u c tio n i n t r a f f i c a c c id e n ts
cau sed by th e o a r e l e s s n e s s , r e c k l e s s n e s s , o r ig n o r a n c e o f c h ild r e n
o f t h i s age group.
A c tiv itie s
a.
Study n a t io n a l and l o c a l s t a t i s t i c s on th e c a u se s o f a c c id e n ts
in v o l v in g s c h o o l c h ild r e n . D is c u s s and a n a ly s e th e s t a t i s t i c s
and a ttem p t to a r r iv e a t c o n c lu s io n s as t o th e s o l u t i o n o f
th e problem th e y p r e s e n t . * ( 6 ) O ct. * 3 8 , pp. 4 5 -4 6 . * ( 3 ) pp. 1 6 3 -1 6 6 .
b.
U sin g a t y p i c a l c a se in v o lv in g a c h ild in ju r e d i n a t r a f f i c a c c id e n t ,
d e v e lo p a le s s o n around th e s u f f e r i n g , a n x ie t y , econom ic w a ste and
in c o n v e n ie n c e t o a l l p a r t ie s con cern ed o f such an a c c id e n t . (S ee d a i l y
p ap ers)
P la c e a sm a ll com m ittee o f two o r th r e e p u p ils w ith a sto p w atch on
th e s id e w a lk o f a s t r e e t u se d b y s c h o o l c h ild r e n * P la c e a s im ila r
group a g iv e n d is t a n c e from th e f i r s t . By a p rearran ged sy stem o f
s ig n a ls ch eck th e sp eed s o f p a s s in g c a r s , work o u t a s e r i e s o f
t a b l e s o r graphs w hich w i l l show th e number o f m otor v e h i c l e s
tr a v e lin g a t le g a l sp eed s.
c.
d.
From a map o f th e c i t y c o n s tr u c t an e n la r g e d map o f your l o c a l s c h o o l
d is tr ic t,
(T h is map sh o u ld be about two f e e t s q u a r e .) W ith a
c o lo r e d g la s s -h e a d e d p in mark th e r e s id e n c e o f ea ch p u p il. T his
i s c a l l e d a s p o t map. (R esea rch D epartm ent has b la n k m a p s.)
N e x t, make a t r a f f i c s u r v e y show ing th e v a r io u s t r a f f i c h azard s
w h ich t h e s e c h ild r e n f a c e i n g e t t i n g t o and from s c h o o l. * ( 3 ) p . 273
The in fo r m a tio n fu r n is h e d by t h e s e s t u d ie s can be u se d a s a b a s is
f o r a t r a f f i c s a f e t y program i n th e s c h o o l.
e.
S a f e t y s lo g a n s and p o s t e r s w i l l s e r v e a s v a lu a b le le s s o n s i n E n g lis h
and A rt c l a s s e s .
f .
I n v i t e a t r a f f i c o f f i c e r o r member o f th e S a f e t y C o u n cil t o g iv e a t a l k
or p o s s i b l y a s e r i e s o f t a l k s b e fo r e th e s c h o o l. * ( 4 ) p p . 8 4 -8 5 .
* (6 ) - p .84.
♦Numbers r e f e r t o co rresp o n d in g numbers o f ite m s l i s t e d i n b ib lio g r a p h y .
L is t e d book s a re n o t e s s e n t i a l b u t r e f e r e n c e s have b een in c lu d e d f o r th e
co n v e n ie n c e o f t e a c h e r s .
143
g.
Hold a s c h o o l a ssem b ly and ask r e p r e s e n t a t iv e s o f th e p o l i c e t r a f f i c
dep artm en t, t r a n s i t company, e l e c t r i c power company and a r e p r e s e n t a t iv e
o f a tr u c k in g company t o t e l l th e s tu d e n t body how t o a v o id t r a f f i c
d a n g e r s, * ( 4 ) pp. 2 6 9 -2 7 1 . * ( 4 ) p . 8 5 .
h.
W rite a p la y i l l u s t r a t i n g th e a d van tages o f P la y in g s a f e .
i.
D ram atize a sce n e i n w h ich R eason, Judgment, C a r e le s s n e s s , and Danger
are p e r s o n i f i e d .
j.
D em onstrate c o r r e o t p ro ced u res
th e dan gers o f f l y i n g k i t e s
have c i r c u l a r s on h a n d .)
k.
Hold a s e r i e s o f d e m o n str a tio n s on th e p laygrou n d show ing c o r r e c t t r a f f i c
h a b its •
1.
O btain p e r m is s io n f o r c l a s s or s m a lle r groups' t o v i s i t a t r a f f i c c o u r t.
Have them r e p o r t on t h e i r im p r e s s io n s . * ( 3 ) p . 27 9 .
m.
W rite t o a la r g e in s u r a n c e company, or t o th e a u to a s s o c i a t i o n , a s k in g
f o r s t a t i s t i c s on a c c id e n t p r e v e n tio n .
n.
D evote s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n t o b i c y c l e r id in g and r o l l e r s k a t in g .
S e p t. *38. * ( 2 ) pp . 6 8 -6 9 .
i n k i t e f l y i n g , em p h a sizin g in p a r t ic u la r
on th e s t r e e t s . ( E l e c t r i c power com panies
*(7)
p. 12,
O rganize com m ittees t o draw up a code f o r s k a t e r s . O rganize a s im ila r
group composed o f b ik e r i d e r s . * ( 7 ) p . 1 2 , S e p t. *38, * ( 2 ) p p . 6 8 -6 9 .
* ( 4 ) p . 166.
o.
D evelop le s s o n s around th e e s p e c i a l l y hazardous p r a c t i c e s o f t e n in d u lg e d
i n by c h ild r e n such a s:
(1 )
(2 )
(3 )
(4)
(5)
(6 )
(7 )
(8)
(9)
p.
S k a tin g a c r o s s b u sy s t r e e t s .
* ( 3 ) pp . 1 6 4 -1 8 0 .
D a r tin g in t o s t r e e t s from b eh in d parked c a r s .
* ( 2 ) p. 1 1 2 .
C hasing b a l l s in t o s t r e e t s .
* ( 2 ) p„ 1 1 2 . * ( 1 ) p. 2 4 .
R id in g d ou b le on b ik e s . * ( 7 ) S e p t. *38, • p. 1 2 .
D is r e g a r d in g t r a f f i c r u le s w h ile r id in g b i k e s .
* ( 7 ) p. 1 2, S e p t. * 3 8 .
* ( 2 ) pp . 6 8 -6 9 . * ( 3 ) p. 16 6 .
v
F a i l i n g t o c a r r y p rop er l i g h t s on b i c y c l e s .
* ( 7 ) -p. 1 2 , S e p t. *38.
* ( 2 ) pp. 68-69*.
H it c h - h ik in g . * ( 1 ) p. 31. * ( 4 ) p. 87*
’’Hooking" r i d e s .
*(6) p. 87.
W alking on wrong s id e o f highw ay. * ( 1 ) pp. 2 4 , 32.
Hold a S a f e t y F i r s t A ssem bly a t w hich th e T r a f f ic P a t r o l g iv e s d em o n stra tio n s
o f how t o c r o s s s t r e e t s s a f e l y . * ( l ) pp . 2 4 - 3 0 .
(S e v e r a l S a f e t y P la y s may be o b ta in e d from th e N a tio n a l S a fe ty C o u n c il,
120 - W. 42d S t r e e t , N. Y . )
♦Numbers r e f e r t o c o rr e sp o n d in g numbers o f ite m s l i s t e d i n b ib lio g r a p h y . L is t e d
books are n o t e s s e n t i a l b u t r e f e r e n c e s have been in c lu d e d for* th e co n v e n ie n c e o f
te a c h e r s.
144
3*
4.
B ib lio g r a p h y
(1 )
A lle n ., Thomas: S afe and Sane Use o f th e H ighw ays.
M ilw aukee, 19 36.
E. M. H ale & Co. ,
(2 )
Bowman* E arl and B o sto n , P au l: L iv in g Saf e l y . M acm illan , N. Y . , 1 9 3 8 .
(F or te a c h e r u s e . Not t o be u sed a s a” consum able work b o o k . )
(3)
E van s, W illia m and F r y , M a ttie :
and Carnahan, C hicago, 1 9 3 8 .
(4 )
N e ls o n , F lo r e n c e , Jam ison , O l i s G. and S p a rk s, Raymond E . : S a f e t y
Through th e Y ear. • M cG raw -H ill, N. Y . , 1 9 3 7 . (F or te a c h e r r e f e r e n c e .
N ot t o be u sed as a consum able work b o o k . )
(5)
N a tio n a l S a f e t y C ou n cil:
Sammy S p ro ck et Says . The A s s o c ia t io n , 20 N orth
Wacker D r iv e , C h ica g o , I l l i n o i s .
(Copy w i l l be s e n t to s c h o o ls
r e q u e s t in g i t . )
(6)
P u b lic S a f e t y . C hicago N a tio n a l S a f e t y C o u n c il, 20 N orth Wacker D r iv e ,
C h icago, I l l i n o i s .
(M onthly, #3 p er y e a r . )
(M agazine)
(7 )
S a f e t y E d u c a tio n . N a tio n a l S a f e t y C o u n c il, 20 N orth Wacker D r iv e ,
C h ica g o , I l l i n o i s . (M agazine)
S a f e t y , Your Problem and M ine.
Lyons
V is u a l M a te r ia l.
F ilm s
C h e v r o let Motor Company. ( C a l l E d u c a tio n a l D epartm ent f o r s a f e t y
f il m s c u r r e n t ly a v a i l a b l e . )
E astb ay S a f e t y C ou n cil (T ribun e B u ild in g .)
"Remember Jim m ie”
"Saving Seconds"
P repared by th e J u n io r High S ch o o l
S o c ia l S tu d ie s Committee
APPROVED:
I n s t r u c t i o n a l C ou n cil
1 0 /2 1 /3 8
JH-
ALWAYS REMEMBER:
Never fly a kite near elec­
tric or trolley wires.
Never clim b poles to u n ­
tangle a kite.
Never let
a kite go over
radio aerials.
□ □□
Never build
or fly a kite
w ith metal or wire in the
frame or tail.
Never ru n
across h ig h ­
ways while flying kites.
Never use
tin se l strin g ,
wire, or any kind of twine
th a t h as a m e ta llic su b ­
stance. Use p la in c o tto n
cord.
SAVE YOURSELF
KITES can be Fun i f
S p r i n g winds are with us and the customary urge
is in the hearts and minds of thousands of boys
and girls to make and fly a kite. Kite flying is one
of the most innocent and healthful outdoor sports
for children—a sport in which parents delight to
participate. It represents a natural creative im ­
pulse to build something that will control the ele­
ments of nature. It can be compared to sailing a
boat, or building radio sets or m iniature airplanes.
Properly done, kite flying is a splendid outlet
for youthful enthusiasm. But our m odern civili­
zation has created obstacles and real dangers to
the sport in city areas. Chief among these dangers
are the electric lines installed in the streets of
every community and along highways to bring
light and power to homes and industries. Kites
become entangled easily in the electric lines.
W hen kites are constructed w ith any metal or
wire or metallic string, these materials act as elec­
tric conductors. Children have been killed and
maimed and thousands of dollars in property
damage has occurred through the use of metallic
materials in making and flying kites.
If the six simple rules for flying kites printed on
the cover page of this pam phlet are followed, the
danger of accidents will be minimized. These
rules are for the attention of parents as well as for
the boys and girls who engage in the pastime.
T here is a right way and a wrong way to make
a kite. T h e right way will bring pleasure, satisfac­
tion and safety. T h e wrong way includes the haz­
ards of physical harm to yourself and others and
of serious damage to property.
M A K IN G KITES • C o n stru ctin g a
kite that will fly well and safely is comparatively
simple. T h e kite framework should be made of
strong b u t light wood. Any packing case will sup­
ply the wood or you can obtain the desired type
at your local lum ber yard. Split bamboo is an
you fly them SAFELY1
excellent wood for kites, as it can be bent to make
complicated designs.
String for the framework and bridles and for
flying the kite should be good strong cotton or
linen cord. Never use the brightly colored tinsel
or metallic cord which is chiefly utilized for tying
gift packages during the holiday season. This type
of string is an electric conductor and is extremely
dangerous.
T he framework covering for small kites is us­
ually paper. Tissue paper is the most popular,
although newspapers are frequently used. For
large kites, it is necessary to use either cloth or a
stronger paper such as manila or bond.
THE C O M M O N KITE .
BUTTERFLY
KITES • Buttefly kites
offer almost unlim ited de­
sign and color schemes. T he
best results in color are ob­
tained by pasting the colors
over the covering. Tails are
required for this type of kite.
S p lit bam boo strips are
used by Chinese boys in con­
structing these odd design
kites, because they are easily
bent to form the curved pat­
terns.
tws s
made w ith an upright stick to which a cross stick
is tied about a fifth of the distance from the top.
String is then tied around the sticks to make the
frame, and either tissue paper or newspaper is
pasted upon this frame to make a flat surface. T he
bridle is attached to the ends of the cross bar and
the top of the perpendicular bar, and the kite­
flying string is fastened to the bridle. This kite
requires a tail, made of string or cloth, hanging
about six feet from the bottom.
A BIRD KITE
4-way bridle
People of the Oriental
countries are enthusiastic
kite fliers. They are adept
in the construction of kites
representing birds, b u tter­
flies, animals, fish, dragons, and flowers.They have
the knack of decorating their kites in beautiful
colors. This type of kite makes a picturesque sight
against a background of blue sky.
THE C O N Y N E KITE
A combined box and
plane kite, tailless
T h e Conyne kite is a com­
bination box and plane kite
and is re fe rre d to as the
French war kite. It is an e x /
cellent flier. It is made with
four sticks of equal length,
each marked into thirds. A fifth stick is used as a
bottom brace. Two sticks are laid parallel, a third
is laid across them and lashed at the one-third
marks. T he short stick is lashed across the bottom.
T he frame is then bounded w ith string and cov­
ered, leaving the center square open. Tw o bands
of covering are cut as wide as the one-third di­
mension and twice as long. T he edges of the bands
are glued to the upper and lower bays, leaving
the center open. T h e rem aining stick is glued to
the exact center line of the bands. T h e bridle is a
loop long enough to reach from the top of each
cell and sufficiently wide to reach the side corner.
T H E E D D Y KITE
A tailless b o w kite
T h e Eddy tailless k ite is \
A
/
one of th e easiest to m ake
\/ \
/
an d th e m ost p o p u lar. I t has
/ \
\
/
only tw o sticks an d is a steady /
\ \
/
flier in very little breeze. T h e /
/
E ddy k ite can b e m ade in
any size from five inches u p to th irty feet.
U se two sticks of eq u al length. T h e vertical
stick is straig h t an d is know n as th e spine. T h e
bow stick is placed ab o u t one-fifth th e distance
fro m th e to p of th e spine. O u tlin e yo u r k ite w ith
th e fram e of cord, th e n bow th e cross stick w ith
a strin g . T h e com m on practice is to bow ab o u t
th ree inches for a three-foot kite. T h e b rid le is a
single strin g attach ed at th e crossing p o in t and
th e b o tto m of th e vertical stick a n d lo n g enough
to reach to th e en d of th e cross stick.
S T A R KITES
3-way bridle
A star k ite is a n o th er type
th at is p o p u la r am ong A m er­
ican boys an d girls. T h e ir
co nstruction is sim ple, re ­
q u irin g sticks of eq u al le n g th
to form the n u m b e r of star points desired. T h e
star excels all others from a decorative stan d p o in t
because of th e exact spacings.
F o r a d d itio n al in fo rm atio n an d details of con­
stru ctio n of th e in tricately designed kites, it is
suggested th a t you consult your local lib rary for
stan d ard books on kite-craft, o r the Boy Scouts
of A m erica.
T h is C om pany is in debted to the B oy Scouts of
America for the use o f their pam phlet N o. 3146 for con ­
struction details o f the kites listed above.
N o te :
146
O A K LA N D
P U B L IC
SCHOOLS
Safety Instruction
fo r
M achine, Electric, Metal,
A uto Shops
Ju n io r and S en io r H ig h S c h o o l
A p p ro v ed by
O akland B oard of E d u catio n
Ju n e, 1939
Note to Students: This booklet
is the property o f the school and
must be returned to the instructor
at the end o f the period.
SA F E T Y ED U C A T IO N
A m o n g a ll t h e v a r i e d r e s p o n s i b i l iti e s t h a t a t e a c h e r m u s t
a s s u m e , n o n e is m o r e i m p o r t a n t t h a n t h e s a f e g u a r d i n g of t h e
s t u d e n t s u n d e r h is c h a r g e . O n t h e p l a y g r o u n d , in t h e c l a s s ­
r o o m s , in t h e s h o p s o r l a b o r a t o r i e s , m o s t a c c i d e n t s c a n b e
a v o id e d b y w i s e f o r e t h o u g h t .
P r e c a u t i o n is m o s t e ffe c tiv e
w h e n a p l a n n e d p r o g r a m o f s a f e t y e d u c a t i o n is c a r e f u l l y fo l­
lo w e d .
I t is h o p e d t h a t t h e s e le s s o n s in s a f e t y w ill n o t o n ly m a k e
t h e s c h o o l s h o p a s a fe p la c e in w h i c h to w o r k , b u t w ill h a v e a
d e fin ite c a r r y - o v e r i n t o e v e r y d a y life.
E. W .
J ac o bsen
Superintendent of Schools
CONTENTS
Page
_
T H E T E A C H IN G O F S A F E T Y
..............................
1
G E N E R A L ' R U L E S ——
______ ..___ ._____________________ 3
S e c tio n 1— S a f e t y in t h e S c h o o l S h o p
......
3
___ ._______. 5
2— S a f e t y A r o u n d M a c h i n e r y
3— S a f e t y in t h e M a c h i n e S h o p a n d G e n e r a l
M e t a l S h o p ...........................................
7
4— S a f e t y W i t h E l e c t r i c i t y . ...........................
9
S P E C I F I C R U L E S .............
....... 11
S e c tio n 5— G r i n d e r ___
... 11
6— D r i l l P r e s s ...................
12
7— Jig- S a w
.......
13
8— W o o d T u r n i n g L a t h e
.............
IS
*19— S p r a y G u n ___
19
20— M e t a l W o r k i n g L a t h e
_____
20
21— S o l d e r i n g F u r n a c e a n d S o l d e r i n g I r o n
22
22— F o r g i n g a n d P o w e r H a c k S a w .—.................... 23
...........
24
23— T o r c h
24— B u f f e r ......
25
25— M i l le r ________________________
25
26— B l a s t o r M e l t i n g F u r n a c e ...................
26
27— P o u r in g M o lte n M e ta l
...........
28
28— S p i n n i n g L a t h e .......
29
29— M e t a l S h a p e r ___
30
30
30— S q u a r i n g S h e a r s a n d B a r F o l d e r .........
G E N E R A L R U L E S F O R S A F E T Y IN T H E
A U T O S H O P _______________
32
S e c tio n 31— A u t o S h o p , P a r t ....I .............
32
32— A u t o S h o p , P a r t I I
__
33
33— A u t o S h o p , P a r t I I I
.............
34
34— A u t o S h o p , P a r t I V
........
36
*The section numbers omitted are included in the booklet S a fe ty Instruction
fo r W ood Shops.
T H E T E A C H IN G O F SA F E T Y
T h e e m p h a s is u p o n s a fe ty in o u r s h o p s s h o u ld b e c o n ­
s t r u c t i v e — t h e b u i l d i n g u p o f c o n f id e n c e b a s e d o n u n d e r ­
s t a n d i n g , s k ill, a n d c a u t i o n : a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p o t e n ­
t i a l d a n g e r s , a s k ill in h a n d l i n g t o o l s a n d e q u i p m e n t , a
c a u t i o n in a v o i d i n g c a r e l e s s a c ts .
S a f e t y i n s t r u c t i o n m u s t b e c a r r i e d o n in a n o r g a n i z e d
a n d p la n n e d p ro g ra m a n d sh o u ld n o t be le ft to th e s tu d e n t
to l e a r n b y t r i a l 1a n d e r r o r .
T o a s s i s t t h e s t u d e n t a n d t e a c h e r in t h e s a f e t y p r o g r a m ,
d e f in ite r u l e s a n d r e a s o n s f o r t h o s e r u l e s h a v e b e e n p r e p a r e d
in b o o k l e t f o r m . E a c h s h o p is t o b e f u r n i s h e d w i t h a p p r o x ­
i m a t e l y t h i r t y c o p ie s w h i c h a r e t o b e u s e d a s t e x t s t o b e
p a s s e d o u t t o t h e s t u d e n t s in c la s s a n d c o l l e c t e d a t t h e e n d o f
t h e p e r io d . T h e s e s h o u l d b e p r o p e r l y c a r e d fo r. E x t r a c o p ie s
w ill b e p l a c e d in t h e g e n e r a l l i b r a r y o f t h e s c h o o l t o b e l o a n e d
o u t t o s t u d e n t s w h o m a y w a n t to s t u d y t h e m o u t s i d e t h e s h o p
p e r io d .
S in c e s t u d e n t s m a y n o t k n o w s o m e o f t h e t e r m s u s e d in
th e w r i t t e n in s tr u c tio n s a n d m a y n o t b e a b le to v is u a liz e th e
p o i n t t h a t is b e i n g e x p l a i n e d , it is n e c e s s a r y t h a t t h e t e a c h e r
g i v e a d e m o n s t r a t i o n in t h e s a fe a n d p r o p e r h a n d l i n g o f t h e
t o o l o r m a c h i n e b e f o r e o r d u r i n g t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e r u le .
E a c h d e m o n s t r a t i o n s h o u l d b e w e l l p l a n n e d a n d a ll n e c e s ­
s a ry ap p lia n c e s, g u a rd s , an d sto c k sh o u ld be re a d y a t h a n d .
D e m o n s t r a t i o n s s h o u l d f o llo w lo g ic a l s e q u e n c e , a n d o n l y t h e
c o m m o n ly u sed p ro c e sse s sh o u ld be d e m o n s tra te d — n o t th e
u n u s u a l o n e s . A c l a s s d r ill s h o u l d b e g i v e n in t h e id e n t i f i c a ­
tio n of im p o r ta n t p a r ts of th e m a c h in e .
T h e te a c h e r s h o u ld re a d th e ru le a n d th e re a s o n s fo r th e
r u l e a l o u d to t h e c l a s s a n d i m m e d i a t e l y f o ll o w t h e r e a d i n g
w i t h a c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n f o r f u r t h e r c l a r if ic a t io n . Q u e s t i o n s
fro m s tu d e n ts sh o u ld be en c o u rag ed .
1
T h e j o b o f s a f e t y i n s t r u c t i o n is n o t som eth ing* t o g e t o v e r
q u ic k ly a n d h a v e d o n e w ith , b u t m u s t be c a rrie d on w ith c o n ­
t i n u a l v ig i l a n c e t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r a s t h e n e e d f o r u s i n g
n e w m a c h i n e s a r is e s . I t is m o s t e f fe c tiv e to g i v e t h e i n s t r u c ­
t i o n a t t h e t i m e t h e s t u d e n t n e e d s it a n d c a n u s e i t ; t h e r e f o r e
s t u d e n t s s h o u l d b e i n s t r u c t e d a t o n c e in t h e g e n e r a l s a f e t y
r u l e s o f t h e s h o p a n d in t h e r u l e s c o v e r i n g t h e m a c h i n e s t h e y
w ill i m m e d i a t e l y u se.
R u le s c o v e rin g m a c h in e s w h ic h th e s tu d e n ts m a y n o t use
u n t i l l a t e r in t h e t e r m s h o u l d b e t a u g h t l a t e r in t h e t e r m .
I t is n e c e s s a r y t h a t e a c h s t u d e n t s i g n a s t a t e m e n t t o t h e
e f fe c t t h a t h e h a s r e c e iv e d i n s t r u c t i o n in t h e o p e r a t i o n o f a n y
m a c h i n e h e u s e s in t h e s h o p . S p e c ia l f o r m s a r e h e r e w i t h f u r ­
n is h e d . T h e t e a c h e r m u s t a ls o s ig n t h e b l a n k a s i n d i c a t e d .
2
GENERAL RULES
SE C T IO N 1— S A F E T Y IN T H E SC H O O L S H O P
1. N o s t u d e n t s h a l l u s e a t o o l o r o p e r a t e a n y m a c h i n e u n t i l
a f te r h e h a s re c e iv e d p ro p e r in tr u c tio n a n d h a s sa tisfie d
th e te a c h e r th a t h e k n o w s a n d u n d e rs ta n d s th e sa fe ty
ru le s co n cern ed .
E v ery tool and m achine is dangerous if used incorrectly. W hile
th ere is but one co rrect w ay, th ere a re m any incorrect w ays of using
m achines and tools. T h e co rrect w ay is alw ays the safest because all
safety facto rs have been taken into consideration. T he student should
learn the co rrect w ay b efo re attem pting to use a tool o r machine.
2. A l l scuffling-, p l a y i n g , t h r o w i n g , l o u d t a l k i n g , a n d r u n ­
n in g a re fo rb id d e n .
T h e shop is a w orkroom , not a p la y g ro u n d ! Scuffling, playing,
throw ing, and loud talk in g will d istract the w o r k e d attention and
accidents m ay result. Shop floors are usually slippery from oil and
shavings and running is dangerous.
3. T h e f lo o r m u s t b e k e p t c l e a r o f a ll s c r a p m a t e r i a l a n d
to o ls .
I f sh o rt ends, blocks, rippings, and o th er refu se m aterial, or tools
and clamps, are left on the floor, students m ay slip or stum ble over
them , causing a serious accident. I f boards w ith nails in them are le ft
lying on th e floor, someone m ay step on them and puncture a foot,
causing an infection.
4. A ll s t o o l s , w h e n i n u s e , m u s t r e s t w i t h f o u r le g s u p o n
t h e flo o r.
I f a student while sittin g upon a stool tips it back until it rests upon
only one o r tw o legs, it is v ery apt to slip from under him and cause
him to fall. Such an accident m ay result in a serious injury to his head
or spine.
5. O n l y t h e o p e r a t o r is a l l o w e d t o s t a n d i n s id e t h e s a f e t y
li n e s w h i c h a r e p a i n t e d u p o n t h e flo o r a r o u n d t h e m a ­
c h in e .
C row ding the o p erator of a machine not only d istracts his attention
fro m his w ork, but in te rferes w ith his free use of the machine and its
3
appliances. Such crow ding and interference m ay cause him to be in­
jured.
6. A ll i n j u r i e s , e v e n t h e s l i g h t e s t s c r a t c h o r c u t , m u s t b e
r e p o r te d to th e in s tr u c to r im m e d ia te ly .
Cuts and scratches o ften become infected if they are not properly
treated imm ediately. T h e in stru cto r m ust determ ine upon the serious­
ness of the in ju ry and give the necessary first-aid treatm ent.
7. A ll e d g e d t o o l s m u s t b e k e p t s h a r p .
A dull topi is m ore dangerous th an a sh arp one because it will slip
over and aw ay fro m the w o rk it is supposed to do. I t is necessary to
put m ore pressure upon a dull tool. T his makes it m ore difficult to
control and m ay cause it to slip and cut the hand or arm or cause other
injuries.
8. T o o l s h a v i n g s h a r p e d g e s m u s t n e v e r b e c a r r i e d in t h e
p o c k e ts.
T he sharp edge m ay cut th e clothes o r it m ay cut the hand if the
hand should be th ru st into the pocket. In case the student should slip
or stumble, it m ay puncture the body.
9. W h e n u s i n g e d g e d to o l s a p e r s o n s h o u l d a l w a y s c u t a w a y
f r o m h i m s e l f , a n d t h e s t o c k m u s t b e s e c u r e l y c l a m p e d in
t h e v is e , l e a v i n g b o t h h a n d s f r e e t o c o n t r o l t h e to o l.
I f th e tool should slip w hile the student is cutting tow ard him self,
it m ay be th ru st into his hand or cut his arm o r body.
10. A file w h i c h h a s n o h a n d l e m u s t n o t b e u s e d .
T h e pointed end o r ta n g of the file is sharp, and, if not protected
by a handle, m ay be th ru st into the hand. A puncture is the m ost dan­
gerous kind of a wound as it is the m ost difficult to clean thoroughly.
11. I f a s t u d e n t s h o u l d b r e a k a t o o l o r d i s c o v e r o n e t h a t is
b r o k e n o r n o t in g o o d r e p a i r , h e m u s t r e p o r t i t t o t h e i n ­
s tr u c to r a t once.
A broken tool represents an accident w hich m ight have been avoided
if the tool had been properly used. I f it is reported, the in stru cto r will
be able to assist the student in determ ining the cause of the breakage,
can teach him the correct method of using the tool, and can thus pre­
vent a recurrence of the accident.
4
S E C T IO N 2— S A F E T Y A R O U N D M A C H IN E R Y
1. N o m a c h i n e m a y b e s t a r t e d w i t h o u t p e r m i s s i o n f r o m t h e
i n s t r u c t o r , a n d a ll s e t - u p s m u s t b e i n s p e c t e d b y t h e i n ­
s tru c to r b efo re th e p o w e r m a y be tu rn e d on.
U n til the student has gained enough skill and experience, it w ill be
necessary fo r the in stru cto r to ju d g e before the m achine is started
w hether or not the m achine has been properly set up and all safety
precautions provided fo r.
2. N o m a c h i n e m a y b e o p e r a t e d w i t h o u t h a v i n g 1 t h e p r o p e r
g u a r d s e c u r e l y fix e d in p la c e .
T h e guards are put on a m achine fo r the purpose of p ro tectin g the
operator. T o rem ove them increases the danger. E v ery type o f job
w hich students may p e rfo rm upon the m achines can be done w ith the
reg u lar or special g u ard in place. A ny student w ho refu ses or neglects
to use the g uards w ill be deprived of th e use o f the pow er m achinery.
3. S p e c i a l p e r m i s s i o n m u s t b e s e c u r e d f r o m t h e i n s t r u c t o r
t o r e m o v e a g u a r d o r t o s u b s t i t u t e a s p e c ia l g u a r d .
C ertain types of jobs require th e rem oval of the stan d ard guards.
In each case the student m ust first secure perm ission from the in stru c­
tor, n ex t pull th e m ain sw itch on the machine to be used, and then p ro ­
ceed to m ake the set-up fo r the job to be undertaken, getting help from
the in stru c to r if necessary. A fte r the set-up has been completed and
the required special guards are in place, he m ust obtain th e in stru c­
to r's approval and supervision before sta rtin g the machine. Possible
accidents m ay be avoided in this way.
4. T h e m a i n s w i t c h m u s t a l w a y s b e t h r o w n o ff w h e n c l e a n ­
in g , l u b r i c a t i n g , o r c h a n g i n g k n i v e s o r s a w s u p o n a m a ­
c h in e .
Since m achines are sometim es accidentally sta rted by the operating
sw itch, it is best th at the m ain sw itch be th ro w n off before attem pting
to clean, lubricate, o r m ake any changes about a m achine. T he oper­
ato r's atten tio n is directed tow ard the w ork he is doing and not the
sta rtin g s w itc h ; therefore, if it should be pressed accidentally, his
hands m ight be in a position w here they could be severely injured. T o
pull the main sw itch gives a double protection against such accidents.
5
5. L o o s e c l o t h i n g , l o n g u n b u t t o n e d s le e v e s , d a n g l i n g n e c k ­
tie s, a n d g lo v e s s h o u ld n e v e r b e w o r n a r o u n d m a c h in e ry .
T o w ear such clothing when operating m achinery endangers the
operator. H is hand or arm m ay be caught in revolving p arts and draw n
into the machine. W e a rin g gloves is also very dangerous because they
cause the o p erato r to lose p artially his sense of touch and m ay cause
him to allow his fingers to come too close to m oving parts.
6. P o w e r m a c h i n e s s h o u l d n e v e r b e u s e d f o r w o r k t h a t c a n
b e d o n e a s w e l l w i t h h a n d to o ls .
A s long as any pow er'm achine is operating, th ere is constant danger
of accidents happening upon it. T h erefo re, to avoid as m any accidents
as possible, th e m achines should not be operated except fo r necessary
w ork.
M achines a re placed in the shop to broaden experience and to sup­
plem ent han d w ork, not to do aw ay w ith it. T h erefo re , the student m ust
learn to use hand tools well before he can expect to use machines.
7. S t u d e n t s m u s t n o t t a l k t o o r in a n y w a y i n t e r f e r e w i t h
th e o p e r a to r of a m a c h in e .
T o ta lk to a student w ho is operating a m achine or to in te rfe re
w ith him in any w ay d istracts his atten tio n fro m his w ork and m ay
cause him to have an accident. T o operate a m achine safely is as much
as one can do or th in k about at any one time.
8. A ll a d j u s t m e n t s m u s t b e m a d e s e c u r e a n d t h e m a c h i n e
c l e a r e d o f t o o l s o r o t h e r o b j e c t s b e f o r e t h e i n s t r u c t o r ’s
in s p e c tio n .
U nless all adjustm ents on th e m achine are securely locked in place
before it is started, the vibration m ay cause one o r m ore of them to
slip o r change position. T h is m ay cause an in ju ry to the o perator or
m ay dam age th e m achine or stock.
I f tools o r other loose objects are allow ed to rem ain on the machine
w hile it is being operated, the vibration m ay cause them to be draw n
into th e m oving p arts o r to come in contact w ith the revolving knives
o r saws, resu ltin g in a dam aged m achine and, m ost likely, an injured
operator.
6
9. S t u d e n t s m u s t n e v e r o v e r l o a d a m a c h i n e .
O verloading any m achine is dangerous because th e m otor will slow
dow n or stall completely. V ery o ften th e stock is th ro w n back w ith
g re a t force. I f the o p erato r or anyone else should be struck w ith flying
pieces, a serious in ju ry m ight result.
10. T h e o p e r a t o r a l o n e is in c h a r g e o f t h e m a c h i n e w h i l e i t is
in o p e r a t i o n .
Once the m achine sta rts one person m ust assum e control of it and
decide exactly w h at is to be done. H e is responsible fo r the care of the
m achine as well as the stock w hich is being w orked. T h erefo re, he
m ust be sure th a t he has th e m achine properly set up, understands the
operation he wishes to p erfo rm , and is follow ing the correct method.
H e m ust sta rt and stop th e m achine him self unless the in stru cto r has
assigned a helper.
11. A p e r s o n m u s t n e v e r s t a n d in d i r e c t l i n e w i t h t h e m a c h i n e
w h i l e i t is b e i n g o p e r a t e d .
I f a saw should break o r a m achine become overloaded, if the stock
is im properly held o r a k n o t o r larg e sliver should come loose, these
objects would be th ro w n out w ith terrific force. Serious accidents often
happen when pieces are thus th ro w n by a fa st revolving saw.
S E C T IO N 3— S A F E T Y I N T H E M A C H IN E S H O P A N D
G EN ER AL M ETA L SH O P
1. N o g l o v e s o f a n y k i n d s h a l l b e u s e d a r o u n d m o v i n g m a ­
c h in e s .
Gloves can easily get caught in the m achine. W hen the fingers are
covered the sense of touch is partially lost, and the fingers or hand will
not be so sensitive to danger.
2. L o n g h a i r s h o u l d b e c o v e r e d w i t h a c l o s e - f i t t i n g c a p .
L o n g h air can easily g et caught in m achinery.
3. G o g g l e s s h o u l d a l w a y s b e u s e d w h e n w o r k i n g o n t h e
g r in d e r u n le ss th e re a re s a fe ty g la s s g u a r d s on th e m a ­
c h in e .
7
T h e eyes are the m ost precious of our possessions. A little particle
of steel or stone m ay cause perm anent dam age to them.
4. A ll oil o r g r e a s e s p ille d o n t h e flo o r s h o u l d b e c l e a n e d u p
a t once, a n d s a n d o r s a w d u s t sh o u ld be sp rin k le d o v e r th e
s p o t.
V ery serious accidents can happen because of slippery floors.
5. M u s h r o o m h e a d s o n c h is e ls a n d p u n c h e s
g r o u n d off b e f o r e t h e s e t o o l s a r e u s e d .
sh o u ld
be
S harp pieces from a ru n -o v er chisel or punch head fly off at te r ­
rific speed and m ay bury them selves deep into the flesh.
6. A file s h o u l d n e v e r b e h i t w i t h a n o t h e r p ie c e of m e t a l o r
u s e d a s a h a m m e r o r p u n c h o r c h is e l.
Files are as b rittle as glass and may fly to pieces if so treated.
7. W r e n c h e s w i t h c r a c k e d , s p r u n g , o r w o r n - o u t j a w s s h o u l d
n o t be used.
Should a w rench slip around a nut, the student’s hand m ight easily
be th ru st into the machine.
8. H a r d e n e d s u r f a c e s s h o u l d n o t b e h i t w i t h a h a m m e r ; i. e.,
a h a m m e r on th e h a r d face of th e a n v il o r tw o h a m m e r s
to g e th e r.
H ardened steel w ill chip, and fragm ents will fly and m ay cause a
serious injury.
9. S t u d e n t s s h o u l d n o t s t a n d in lin e w i t h t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e
s w i n g of a s le d g e h a m m e r o r d i r e c t l y in f r o n t o f a b o l t o r
r i v e t b e i n g c u t off w i t h c h is e l a n d h a m m e r .
If th e ham m er flies off the handle, it will travel in the direction of
the swing. R ivets and bolts, w hen cut off by chisel and ham m er, fly off
at bullet speed.
10. T o o l s s h o u l d n o t b e u s e d t o p l a y c a t c h w i t h ; t h e y s h o u l d
a lw a y s be h a n d e d , n o t th r o w n o r to ssed .
Eyes, handsi or body can easily be injured by throw ing tools or
tossing them.
11. I f c l o t h i n g s h o u l d b e c o m e i g n i t e d , d o n o t r u n , lie d o w n
8
a n d ro ll o v e r a n d o v e r , o r w r a p s o m e th in g - a r o u n d y o u to
s m o t h e r t h e fla m e s .
R unning only fans the blaze.
12. O n l y t h e p e r s o n o p e r a t i n g t h e m a c h i n e s h o u l d t u r n o n o r
off t h e s w itc h .
T he operator cannot very well have his hands in a dangerous place
while he is tu rn in g on or off the switch.
13. L o n g p ie c e s o f w o r k e x t e n d i n g t h r o u g h t h e l a t h e s p i n d l e
o r o u t b e y o n d t h e l a t h e s h o u l d b e fla g g e d .
T h is w ill w arn passing students who may otherw ise accidently run
against a revolving o r sharp point.
14. W h e n a s t u d e n t is c u t t i n g t h r e a d o n a p ip e , o t h e r s t u d e n t s
s h o u l d s t a y a w a y , p a r t i c u l a r l y w h e n t h e s t o c k a n d d ie is
s p u n f r o m t h e p ip e .
T h e heavy, spinning stock handle m ight bruise a person severely if
he were to get in the way.
15. N e w p ip e t h r e a d s s h o u l d n o t b e t o u c h e d w i t h t h e f in g e r s .
T he sharp raw threads can cut severely.
S E C T IO N 4— S A F E T Y W I T H E L E C T R IC IT Y
1. O n l y i n s u l a t e d w i r e s h o u l d b e u s e d f o r e l e c tr ic a l h o o k ­
ups.
B are w ires may cause fire or shock.
2. W i r e s o n a n o t h e r s t u d e n t ’s w o r k s h o u l d n e v e r b e t o u c h e d .
These w ires may be connected to an electrical circuit, and the per­
son touching them m ay be badly burned or shocked.
3. I t is d a n g e r o u s t o h a n d l e e l e c tr ic a l w i r e s w i t h b a r e
h a n d s ,* i t is d o u b l y d a n g e r o u s if h a n d s a r e w e t o r if f e e t
a r e w e t o r o n a n o n - i n s u l a t e d floor.
T he body is a fine conductor of electricity, especially if grounded.
W a ter is a good conductor.
9
4. A ll e le c tr ic a l w o r k m u s t b e c h e c k e d b y t h e i n s t r u c t o r b e ­
f o r e t h e c u r r e n t is a p p lie d .
T his will o ften prevent an accident.
5. F o r b e ll o r b u z z e r c i r c u it s a n d all l o w - v o l t a g e t r a n s f o r m ­
ers, c o tto n -c o v e re d w ire can be u se d ; ru b b e r-c o v e re d w ire
s h o u l d b e u s e d f o r l i g h t a n d p o w e r c ir c u it s .
P oorly insulated w ires used on power or light circuits may cause
fire and shock. Rubber is a good insulating m aterial.
6. P l i e r s m u s t n o t b e i n s u l a t e d w i t h ta p e .
T ape w ears through and the pliers are then no longer insulated.
7. A p e r s o n s h o u l d n e v e r lo o k d i r e c t l y a t a n e l e c tr ic a rc .
T he electric arc sends out ultra-violet rays which can badly burn
and perm anently injure the eyes.
8. E l e c t r i c w i r e s s h o u l d n e v e r b e t a m p e r e d w i t h o r c h a n g e d
u n l e s s t h e p e r s o n d o i n g so is c e r t a i n t h a t t h e c u r r e n t is
c u t off.
Serious accidents and even fatalities may result if this rule is dis­
regarded.
9. N e v e r s h o r t e l e c tr ic w i r e s b y t o u c h i n g t h e m t o g e t h e r o r
t o u c h i n g b o t h e n d s to t h e s a m e p ie c e o f m e ta l .
Severe burns often result. W hen w ires are shorted, the electricity
makes the w ire w hite hot.
10. N e v e r in c r e a s e t h e s iz e of a n y f u s e ; a l w a y s le a v e t h i s to
t h e j u d g m e n t o f a c o m p e t e n t e le c tr ic ia n .
T he fuse is fo r protection of persons and m aterial from shock and
burns. T he fuse determ ines the am ount of cu rren t to flow through the
circuit.
10
SPE C IFIC R U L E S
S E C T IO N 5— G R IN D E R
1. G o g g le s o r a g l a s s g u a r d m u s t a l w a y s b e u s e d w h e n
g rin d in g u p o n th e h ig h -sp e e d w h ee ls.
T hey a re used to protect the eyes and face from flying particles of
abrasive o r steel.
2. T h e t o o l r e s t m u s t a l w a y s b e a s c lo s e a s p o s s i b l e t o t h e
w h e e l.
I f a wide space is le ft between the wheel and th e rest, there is
danger th a t the w ork m ay be caught, causing an in ju ry to th e oper­
ato r’s hands.
3. W h e n s t a r t i n g t h e g r i n d e r , t h e o p e r a t o r m u s t a l w a y s
s t a n d to o n e s id e o f it.
I f the wheel should break during the startin g period, there is danger
of in ju ry to the o perator if he stands directly in fro n t of the wheel.
4. O n l y t h e h a n d s m a y b e u s e d t o h o l d w o r k a g a i n s t t h e
h i g h - s p e e d g r i n d i n g w h e e l.
W h en it becomes necessary to grind a piece of stock th a t is so small
th a t it would b ring the operator’s hands closer than a safe distance
fro m the grinding wheel, the student should ask the instructor to grind
it fo r h im ; or, if the metal is soft, he should place it in a vise and use a
file. P liers should never be used to hold w ork against a grinding wheel.
W hen grinding plane irons o r chisels on the slow wheels, the slid­
ing tool holder may be used. In this w ay the o p erato r’s hands are fully
protected.
5. G r i n d i n g s h o u l d n e v e r b e d o n e a g a i n s t t h e s id e o f a t h i n
w h e e l.
P ressu re against the side of a thin wheel while it is rotating may
cause it to break and injure the operator.
11
SEC TIO N 6— D R IL L PR ESS
1. S p e c ia l p e r m i s s i o n to o p e r a t e t h e d r ill p r e s s m u s t b e s e ­
c u re d fro m th e in s tru c to r.
W hile the drill press used in the wood shop is not a very dangerous
machine to operate, it runs a t a much higher speed than a m etal w ork­
ing press. I t is possible, th erefo re, fo r a student to be injured upon it
if he does not use considerable care. T here is even more danger that
the student m ay dam age the machine if he does not understand how to
adjust and m anipulate it. T herefore, he must get permission and advice
from the instructor before he attem pts to use the machine.
2. T h e s t u d e n t m u s t h a v e t h e i n s t r u c t o r i n s p e c t e a c h s e t - u p
u p o n t h e d r il l p r e s s b e f o r e t h e p o w e r is t u r n e d o n .
E ven though drilling is a very simple m achine operation, the in­
stru cto r will w ant to be sure the student has made the proper set-up.
T he student m ust be sure the chuck is properly fastened to the
spindle, the drill is securely locked in the chuck, the belt is in place for
the correct speed, the stops are properly set, and the table is located in
the correct position and adjusted to the proper height.
An inspection by the instructor will aid the pupil in avoiding pos­
sible in ju ry to him self and dam age to the machine or stock.
3. A ll a d j u s t m e n t s m u s t b e s e c u r e l y f a s t e n e d b e f o r e t h e
d rill p r e s s is s t a r t e d .
If adjustm ents are attem pted while the machine is running, the
operator’s attention is directed tow ard the adjustm ent and not the re­
volving drill. A slip or a careless move may bring his hand, a sleeve,
or his h air into contact w ith the revolving drill. T he drill m ay also be
projected against the stock or the table. In either case, an unnecessary
accident would result.
4. T h e s t u d e n t m u s t b e s u r e h e is u s i n g ’ t h e c o r r e c t s p e e d f o r
t h e s iz e o f d r ill a n d k i n d o f s t o c k h e is w o r k i n g .
T h ere is a correct speed fo r each type and size of drill and each kind
of m aterial. I f too much speed is used or if the drill is forced too ra p ­
idly into the m aterial, especially hard wood, the shavings cannot be
12
cleared from the hole fa s t enough to avoid burning o r possibly breaks
ing the drill.
W hen a person is boring deep holes or w orking w ith hard woods,
the drill should be raised from the hole frequently to clear out the
shavings and avoid burning o r breaking the drill.
T he student m ust secure the advice of the instructor if he is in
doubt as to the proper speed o r kind of drill to use.
5. T h e c h u c k w r e n c h m u s t b e t a k e n o u t b e f o r e t h e d r i l l is
sta rte d .
T he w rench w ill be th ro w n out d f the revolving chuck o r w ill tear
the hand.
6. S h a v in g 's a n d c h i p s m u s t n o t b e h a n d l e d w h e n t h e d r i l l is
ru n n in g .
I f metal shavings and chips are picked up by the operator, the saw ­
like edges m ay seriously cut th e fingers.
7. T h e s t u d e n t m u s t k e e p h is h a i r a w a y f r o m r e v o l v i n g
p a rts.
A lock of h air m ight get caught in the drill, the chuck, o r the
spindle and be pulled out.
8. T h e o p e r a t o r 's fa c e m u s t b e k e p t a w a y f r o m t h e w o r k .
A person could easily in ju re his eyes or his face if the drill should
break. H o t oil m ay fly o r sharp shavings m ay cut the face.
9. T h e d r ill s h o u l d n o t b e f e d to o f a s t i n t o t h e w o r k .
T he drill may get caught in the w ork, particularly as it is coming
thro u g h the other side, and fly into several pieces.
S E C T IO N 7— JIG S A W
1. S p e c ia l p e r m i s s i o n m u s t b e s e c u r e d f r o m t h e i n s t r u c t o r
b efo re a s tu d e n t m a y o p e ra te th e p o w e r jig saw .
13
Since the power jig saw is rath e r lightly constructed and operates
at high speed* much care m ust be used in operating it if accidents are
to be avoided and the machine is to last a reasonable length of time.
T herefore, the student m ust secure the perm ission and advice of the
instructor and have him inspect the set-up before the saw may be
started.
2. A f t e r a s t u d e n t s e t s u p t h e j i g s a w h e m u s t t u r n i t b y h a n d
a c o u p le o f t i m e s b e f o r e s w i t c h i n g o n t h e p o w e r .
By operating the saw a few strokes by hand, th e operator will note
the length of stroke and the position of the saw. T he upper saw clamp
m ust not be allowed to strik e the hold-dow n guard, and the saw m ust
be fixed in a vertical position clear of th e back rest.
3. T h e h o l d - d o w n c l a m p , o r p r e s s e r f o o t, m u s t b e a d j u s t e d
t o h o l d t h e s t o c k f ir m l y u p o n t h e t a b l e w h i l e t h e s a w is
o p e ra tin g .
I f the w ork is not held dow n firm ly upon th e table, it will be ca r­
ried up and down w ith the saw. T his may break the saw, crush the
fingers, or cause the band to slip against the saw.
4. T h e s p e e d m u s t b e r e g u l a t e d t o t h e s iz e o f t h e s a w a n d
th e th ic k n e ss a n d h a rd n e ss of th e w ood.
E ach size and kind of saw is designed to be operated at a given
speed. T h e student m ust consult the speed ch art attached to the m a­
chine to be sure he has m ade the proper speed adjustm ent fo r the p a r­
ticular job he wishes to do. I f these speeds are exceeded, there is dan­
g er of breakage which m ay result in accidents such as those previously
mentioned.
Caution m ust also be used w hen cu ttin g ex tra thick pieces or ex­
cessively hard pieces o f stock which m ay cause the saw to heat and
break.
5. I n o r d e r t o c le a n s c r a p s off t h e j i g s a w t a b l e , t h e s t u d e n t
s h o u l d u s e a s h o r t s tic k .
T o use the fingers fo r clearing scraps off the jig saw table is dan­
gerous because the student m ay carelessly th ru st his hand against the
m oving saw.
14
6. A ll t i l t e d t a b l e w o r k u p o n t h e j i g s a w m u s t b e s u p e r v i s e d
b y th e in stru c to r.
T he spring hold-dow n guard m ust be tilted to parallel the table on
all such work.
Since tilted table w ork requires a greater am ount of skill than
ord in ary straig h t saw ing and because there is m ore danger of jam m ing
the saw with resulting accidents, the student m ust secure help and
*uper vision from the instructor.
7. A ll s a b r e s a w w o r k u p o n t h e j i g s a w m u s t b e c h e c k e d b y
t h e i n s t r u c t o r b e f o r e t h e p o w e r m a y b e t u r n e d on.
In sabre saw w ork, only th e low er end of the saw is clamped to the
th ru st arm . T h erefo re, care m ust be taken to be sure th a t the saw w ill
' ru n in the guide and th a t only a light pressure of the stock is exerted
against it.
I f these precautions are not observed, the saw m ay be tw isted or
bent and broken w hich m ay cause an injury to the operator and dam ­
age to the machine.
' 8. T h e s t u d e n t m u s t d i s c o n n e c t t h e c o r d p l u g o r o p e n t h e
m a in s w itc h b efo re m a k in g a n y a d ju s tm e n ts a b o u t th e
m a c h in e , c h a n g in g th e saw , o r c h a n g in g th e p o sitio n of
t h e b e lt.
I f the operator should attem pt to make adjustm ents, change the
saw, or change the position of th e belt while the pow er is connected to
the m otor, he m ight be injured in case the machine w ere accidentally
started. By pulling the m ain switch or disconnecting the extension
cord from the power socket, he may be sure no accident can happen.
S E C T IO N 8— W O O D T U R N I N G L A T H E
1. A f t e r c e n t e r i n g u p a p ie c e o f s to c k , t h e s t u d e n t m u s t r o ­
t a t e t h e l a t h e a c o u p le o f t i m e s b y h a n d b e f o r e t u r n i n g o n
th e p o w er.
15
By revolving the stock by hand, the operator may be certain th a t
the stock clears the tool rest, tu rn s freely, and is securely fixed be­
tw een centers.
2. A p e r s o n s h o u l d n e v e r t u r n g l u e d - u p s t o c k u n t i l h e is s u r e
t h e g l u e is t h o r o u g h l y d r y .
I f glued-up stock is turned at high speed before the glue has had
tim e to set, the pieces will separate and be th ro w n from the lathe. T he
operator m ay be struck by flying pieces and may be badly injured.
3. T u r n i n g t o o l s m u s t b e h e l d f ir m ly a g a i n s t t h e t o o l r e s t .
I f the tool is held firm ly against the rest w ith both hands, the tool
will be prevented from catching in the wood and being w renched from
the hands or caught between the stock and the tool rest. By holding the
tool firmly, better control and sm oother, faster cutting action can be
had.
4. A ll s t o c k m u s t b e r o u g h e d d o w n a t a s p e e d b e lo w t h e
p o in t of v ib ra tio n .
U n til the stock has been turned dow n to rough dimensions, or trued
up, it is out of perfect balance. T his condition causes it to wobble or
vibrate. I f too much speed is used while it is out of balance, it puts an
excessive stra in on the centers, and the stock may w ork loose and be
throw n out of the la th e ; also, the tool is m ore apt to be caught and
to m from the o p erato r’s hands.
5. W h e n p o s s ib le , t h e c o r n e r s m u s t b e c h a m f e r e d o ff o n a ll
s to c k th re e in ch es s q u a re , o r m o re , b e fo re b e in g tu r n e d
in a l a t h e .
I t is particularly dangerous to tu rn large square stock in a lathe
because of the space between the flat sides of the stock and the tool
rest. I f the corners are cham fered off, it makes it possible to place the
rest closer to the stock and thus avoid possible accidents.
T he tool is very easily caught when large square stock is being
turned and may be w renched fro m the o p erato r’s hands. The stock also
is som etim es torn from the lathe. In either case the operator may be
injured.
6. O u t s i d e c a l i p e r s m u s t n e v e r b e u s e d u p o n a p ie c e o f s t o c k
w h i l e it is in m o t i o n u n l e s s i t is r o u n d a n d s m o o t h .
16
T he calipers will catch on the corners of rough stock and will be
thro w n into the operator’s face or will pull his hands into the revolving
stock.
7. T h e to o l r e s t m u s t n e v e r b e c h a n g e d w h i l e t h e s t o c k is in
m o t io n .
I t is liable to catch the revolving stock and throw it out of the lathe,
or the o p erato r’s hands m ay be caught betw een the rest and the stock.
8. T h e to o l r e s t a t a ll t i m e s m u s t b e p l a c e d a s c lo s e a s p o s ­
s ib le to t h e s to c k .
I f a wide space is left between the tool rest and the stock, there is
danger of having the tool draw n into the space and w renched from the
o p erato r’s hands, or the fingers may be caught and severely injured.
T h e tool rest m ust be moved fo rw ard frequently as the stock de­
creases in diam eter. T his makes it easier to tu rn a smooth surface and
to prevent accidents.
9. L o n g f l o w i n g n e c k t i e s o r l o o s e l y f i t t i n g s le e v e s m u s t
n e v e r b e w o r n w h e n o p e r a t i n g a t u r n i n g l a th e .
F low ing neckties or loosely fitted sleeves m ay be caught on the re ­
volving stock and may cause a severe in ju ry to the operator.
10. T h e b e l t s h o u l d n e v e r be s h i f t e d o n a b e l t - d r i v e n l a t h e
w h i l e i t is in m o t io n .
T h e fingers or hand may be crushed between the belt and the pulley
if this is attem pted.
11. T h e s t u d e n t s h o u l d n o t a t t e m p t t o t u r n l a r g e p ie c e s of
sto c k w ith o u t th e a p p ro v a l o f th e in stru c to r.
O w ing to the varying tex tu re of wood, large pieces of stock are
usually badly out of balance. This makes them p articu larly dangerous
to tu rn on a lathe. Also large pieces th at have been glued or put to ­
gether w ith m etal fastenings are liable to be to rn ap a rt by centrifugal
action if too high a speed is used. I f such stock separates when re­
volving at high speed, the pieces w ill be th ro w n from the lathe with
terrific force.
17
12. T h e to o l r e s t m u s t a l w a y s b e r e m o v e d b e f o r e d o i n g a n y
s a n d p a p e rin g u p o n th e la th e .
If the tool rest is le ft in position w hen sandpapering, the fingers
may be pulled in betw een the rest and the revolving stock. T o test for
smoothness, while turning, the fingers should be touched lightly against
the fa r side o f the stock, away from the tool rest.
13. T h e t a i l s t o c k m u s t b e s e c u r e l y f a s t e n e d i n t o p o s i t i o n b e ­
fore t u r n in g o n th e p o w e r.
* If the tailstock is not fastened securely, it will back aw ay fro m the
revolving piece, ow ing to vibration, and will allow it to be th ro w n from
the lathe.
i
14. T h e p u s h r o d m u s t n e v e r b e l e f t in t h e h e a d s to c k .
T he push rod will g rad u ally w ork out of the head stock w hile the
spindle is revolving, and will be th ro w n from the lathe.
15. T h e d e a d c e n t e r e n d o f t h e s t o c k m u s t b e o ile d b e f o r e i t is
p la c e d u p o n t h e l a th e .
T o oil the dead center end o f th e stock reduces the friction between
it and the dead center and prevents it from ja rrin g loose.
16. C h e c k e d s p l i t s t o c k o r p ie c e s h a v i n g k n o t s m u s t n e v e r be
tu r n e d u p o n th e lath e.
Such pieces w ill separate, ow ing to centrifugal action, and will be
throw n fro m the lathe.
17. I n s i d e c a li p e r s m u s t n e v e r b e u s e d o n a n y t y p e o f f a c e ­
p l a t e w o r k , s u c h a s c u p s o r b o w ls , w h i l e t h e s t o c k is r e ­
v o lv in g .
T he calipers w ill be caught by the revolving stock and m ay pos­
sibly be th ro w n into the operator's face, or the operator's hand m ay be
jam m ed between the stock and the rest.
18. O n m o t o r h e a d l a t h e s e q u i p p e d w i t h a s p e c ia l s p e e d c o n ­
t r o l le v e r , t h e c o n t r o l l e v e r m u s t n e v e r b e u s e d to d e ­
c r e a s e t h e s p e e d w h e n f a c e - p l a t e w o r k is b e i n g t u r n e d .
18
T he pow er m ust always be turned off before decreasing the speed,
or the sudden slowing of the speed will cause the face plate to unscrew
from the spindle and to be th ro w n from the lathe.
19. T h e g o u g e m u s t n e v e r b e u s e d f o r a n y t y p e o f in s i d e f a c e ­
p l a t e tu rn in g -.
T he gouge will roll in the o p erato r's hands and will catch in the
stock which w ill break o r spoil the w o rk and m ay injure the operator.
20. W o o d s c r e w s m u s t b e c a r e f u l l y p la c e d o n f a c e - p l a t e j o b s
t o a v o i d b e i n g s t r u c k b y t h e l a t h e t o o l w h i le t h e s t o c k is
r e v o lv i n g .
W hen a lathe tool strikes a screw projecting into the back o f a
face-plate job, the sudden ja r to the stock m ay cause it to split and to be
throw n from the lathe.
S E C T IO N 19— S P R A Y G U N
1. S p e c ia l p e r m i s s i o n m u s t b e s e c u r e d f r o m t h e i n s t r u c t o r
b efore a s tu d e n t m a y o p e ra te th e sp ra y g un.
Since the spray gun is a special piece of equipment to be used
m ainly by the instructor, and since it requires special skills and
knowledge to operate it correctly and safely, the instructor will re ­
strict its use to those who he believes possess the necessary aptitude
for operating it efficiently.
2. A d e q u a t e v e n t i l a t i o n m u s t b e p r o v i d e d in a n y r o o m o r
s h o p w h e r e t h e s p r a y g u n is t o b e u s e d .
T he w orking principle of the spray gun is to break up into very
small particles the finishing m aterial to be used and to project it in
the fo rm of a very fine spray by means of air pressure upon the su r­
face to be covered. Because this very fine vapor is as light or lighter
than the surrounding air, much of it d rifts off into the atm osphere of
the room. T herefore, if adequate ventilation is not provided to carry
this spray out of the room, the air w ithin the room soon becomes heav­
ily charged w ith the liquid sprayed fro m the gun.
19
T here are tw o serious hazard s involved under these conditions.
One is th at breathing such vapor is very injurious to the health, and
the other, th a t such heavily charged air becomes very volatile o r ex­
plosive, and if a spark w ere introduced by n^eans of a m atch o r an
electrical sw itch an explosion or a fire m ight result.
3. T h e a i r p r e s s u r e u p o n t h e g u n m u s t b e r e g u l a t e d a n d
c h e c k e d b e f o r e t h e s p r a y i n g o p e r a t i o n is b e g u n .
T h e air taken from a central air tan k is under heavy pressure and
m ust be regulated through a reducing valve. T he regulators m ust be
adjusted and checked. O n the portable com pression type, the safety
valve m ust be adjusted and checked before the spraying operation is
begun. If too much pressure is applied, there is danger of bursting
the paint ja r in the operator’s hands w ith the possibility of injuring
him and dam aging the equipment.
4. A ll s t u d e n t s w h o a r e p e r m i t t e d t o u s e t h e s p r a y g u n m u s t
w e a r t h e a i r filte r m a s k .
T he air filter m ask is covered w ith a heavy piece of felt which
strain s the particles of spray m aterial from the air before it is passed
into the lungs. This precaution is required in order to protect the
operator’s health.
5. A t t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f a s p r a y i n g j o b t h e o p e r a t o r m u s t
w a s h a n d w ip e c le a n a n d d r y a ll t h e p a r t s o f t h e g u n a n d
t h e c o n t a i n e r s u s e d in t h e p r o c e s s o f h is jo b .
U nless the gun is taken ap art and all the orifices and parts are
thoroughly washed and wiped d ry before the gun is put away, the
paint or lacquer left in the gun will dry h ard and clog the passages
so th a t the gun will not operate properly again until this m aterial is
removed. T herefore, it is the student’s responsibility to attend to this
clean-up w ork while the m aterial is still so ft and easily removed.
S E C T IO N 20— M E T A L W O R K IN G L A T H E
1. T h e m a c h i n e m u s t n o t b e o ile d o r c l e a n e d w h e n i t is in
m o t io n .
Rags, oil can spouts, or brushes can easily get caught in the mov­
ing parts w ith dangerous results.
20
2. T h e c e n t e r h o le s m u s t n o t b e c l e a n e d o u t w h i l e t h e l a t h e
is in m o t io n .
A finger can easily be severely tw isted or cut by rough edges.
3. C h u c k w r e n c h e s m u s t b e r e m o v e d b e f o r e t h e l a t h e is
sta rte d .
T h e w rench m ay be th ro w n out or may catch the hand or clothing.
/
4. N o r e p a i r s a r e to b e m a d e o n a m a c h i n e u n l e s s t h e f u s e s
a r e r e m o v e d o r t h e s w i t c h lo c k o p e n e d .
Someone may sta rt the machine—chances m ust not be taken.
5. T h e p e r s o n o p e r a t i n g - t h e l a t h e s h o u l d n o t t a l k t o a n y o n e ,
n o r sh o u ld a n y o n e ta lk to th e o p e ra to r.
T alking tends to distract attention and accidents can happen m ore
easily.
6. A ll g e a r s m u s t b e c o v e r e d w h i l e t h e l a t h e is r u n n i n g .
Exposed gears are danger spots.
7. T h e l a t h e m u s t n o t b e s t a r t e d u n t i l t h e w o r k is s e c u r e l y
h e l d a n d p r o p e r l y p la c e d . T u r n t h e l a t h e b y h a n d b e f o r e
t u r n i n g o n t h e s w itc h .
W o rk im properly set in the lathe m ay fly out.
8. C u r l i n g c h i p s o f m e t a l s h o u l d n o t b e h a n d l e d w h i l e t h e
l a t h e is in m o tio n .
T he jagged edges of the chips or curls of metal can cut the fingers
badly. Cast iron chips often fly while the lathe is running.
9. T h e c h u c k o r fa c e p l a t e m u s t n o t b e s c r e w e d o n t o t h e
s p i n d l e w h i l e t h e l a t h e is in m o t io n . A l w a y s s c r e w o n t h e
c h u c k o r face p la te b y h an d .
T he chuck or face-plate threads can be easily crossed on the spindle
and can lock w ith dangerous results.
21
10. T h e b e l t m u s t n o t b e s h i f t e d b y h a n d w h i l e t h e p o w e r is
o n ; u s e t h e b e l t p o le .
Serious cuts can result o r the hands can be caught between belt
and pulley.
11. T h e l a t h e m u s t be s t o p p e d b e f o r e t h e o p e r a t o r le a v e s t h e
m a c h in e fo r a n y p u rp o s e w h a tso e v e r.
N ot only can in ju ry to the machine result, but someone m ay pull
the main switch and sta rt it again while the machine switch is still on.
S E C T IO N 21— S O L D E R IN G F U R N A C E A N D
S O L D E R IN G IR O N
1. W h e n l i g h t i n g s o l d e r i n g f u r n a c e s , t h e l i g h t e d m a t c h
s h o u l d b e p l a c e d in t h e f u r n a c e b e f o r e t h e g a s is t u r n e d
o n . T h e fa c e s h o u l d b e k e p t a w a y , a n d t h e g a s t u r n e d o n
s lo w ly .
If this is not done, accumulated gas will explode in the student’s
face.
2. H o t s o l d e r i n g c o p p e r s s h o u l d n o t b e c a r r i e d a r o u n d t h e
room .
Serious burns can be caused.
3. A ll a c id s h o u l d b e k e p t o ff h a n d s a n d c l o t h i n g .
Acid will severely b u rn flesh and ruin cloth.
4. C a r e s h o u l d b e t a k e n n o t to s p l a s h a c id w h e n a p p l y i n g it
w ith a b ru sh .
A cid w ill burn flesh and clothing and will ru st tools.
5. J a r s of a c id s h o u l d n o t b e c a r r i e d a r o u n d t h e r o o m .
Someone may get burned, o r clothing m ay be ruined.
22
S E C T IO N 22— F O R G IN G A N D P O W E R H A C K S A W
F
o r g i n g
’
1. O n l y o n e s t u d e n t a t a t i m e s h o u l d w o r k a t a n a n v il e x c e p t
w h e r e o n e s t u d e n t is t h e “ b l a c k s m i t h 's ” h e lp e r .
W hen tw o students w o rk independently a t an anvil, there is dan­
ger of severe burns from h o t iro n ; also, one student’s ham m er may
strike the other student.
2. W h e n h o t o r c o ld s t e e l is b e i n g c u t , it s h o u l d a l w a y s b e
c u t o n t h e b a s e o f t h e h o r n ; n e v e r o n t h e fa c e o f t h e a n v il.
I f a tem pered tool is struck on the hardened face of the anvil, small
chips of steel m ay fly off and injure the operator.
3. H o t p ie c e s o f m e t a l s h o u l d n o t b e c a r r i e d a r o u n d t h e s h o p .
Someone may be seriously burned.
4. H o t t o n g s s h o u l d n o t b e p l a c e d in t h e ra c k .
Some student may take hold of the hot end.
5. T o n g s s h o u l d a l w a y s f it t h e w o r k .
I f the tongs do not fit the work, the piece of metal may flip out
and h u rt or burn someone.
6. T h e h a r d e n e d fa c e o f t h e a n v i l s h o u l d n e v e r b e h a m ­
m ered .
Steel chips m ay fly w ith considerable force and get into the eyes
or otherw ise injure th e operator.
7. A ll h a m m e r h e a d s s h o u l d b e f a s t e n e d s e c u r e l y to t h e i r
h a n d le s w ith su ita b le w ed g e s.
I f a ham m er flies off its handle, it may strike someone in the head
even quite a distance away.
8. W a t e r s h o u l d n e v e r b e p o u r e d d i r e c t l y i n t o t h e fire t o
e x t i n g u i s h it.
23
Steam will be form ed, and the hot coals will probably be blown
out and burn someone.
9. T o o l s t h a t h a v e m u s h r o o m h e a d s s h o u l d n o t b e u s e d .
Pieces of steel th at have been ham m ered over on the head of the
tool may chip off and h u rt someone.
P
o w
e r
H
a c k
S a w
10. T h e w o r k s h o u l d b e s e c u r e a n d t h e b l a d e s h o u l d r e s t o n
th e m a te ria ls b efo re sta rtin g ' th e p o w e r h a c k saw .
I f the blade drops on the m aterial or th e w ork moves, the blade,
being brittle, will break. T he pieces of blade w ill fly in all directions
and cut someone near or at a distance.
11. N o p a r t o f t h e p o w e r h a c k s a w o r t h e p ie c e o f w o r k s h o u l d
b e t o u c h e d w h i l e t h e p o w e r h a c k s a w is in m o t io n .
T he o p erato r’s hand m ay slip into the moving parts of the m achine
and be injured.
S E C T IO N 23— T O R C H
1. If n o p i l o t l i g h t is p r o v i d e d f o r t h e t o r c h , a l w a y s h o l d a
l i g h t e d m a t c h t o t h e o rific e a s t h e g a s is t u r n e d on.
T here is danger from burning or explosion if unlighted gas is
allowed to accumulate.
2. A ll g a s v a l v e s s h o u l d b e t u r n e d off w h e n l e a v i n g t h e
to rch .
If all valves are not properly shut off, explosion and fire from
escaping gas may result.
3. F i r e b r i c k o n t h e b u r n e r b e n c h s h o u l d n e v e r b e t o u c h e d
w i t h o u t f ir s t t e s t i n g f o r h e a t.
T here is danger of severely burning the hands.
4. N o p e r s o n s h o u l d s t a n d in t h e lin e of t h e fla m e w h e n
24
l i g h t i n g t h e b u r n e r ; n o r s h o u l d t h e t o r c h b e h e l d in s u c h
a w a y t h a t t h e o p e r a t o r w ill b e b u r n e d b y a flare.
T here is danger of someone being burned.
S E C T IO N 2A— B U F F E R
1. W o r k m u s t n o t b e b u ffe d w h i c h h a s s h a r p p r o j e c t i o n s o n
i t t h a t m i g h t c a tc h o n t h e c lo th w h e e l.
T here is danger of the w ork being throw n with terrific force and
speed, possibly in ju rin g hands, face, or body.
2. W o r k s h o u l d n o t b e h e ld w i t h a r a g w h i l e b u ffin g .
T here is danger of the rag catching in the wheel causing serious
injury.
3. W o r k s h o u l d b e h e l d b e lo w t h e c e n t e r o f t h e w h e e l s in c e
t h e w h e e l r e v o lv e s d o w n w a r d .
If the piece being buffed is held above the center of the wheel,
which is revolving against the w ork, there is serious danger of the
edge of the w ork catching against the wheel and being forced into
the body of the operator.
4. I f t h e r e is n o g u a r d o n th e b u ffe r, t h e o p e r a t o r s h o u l d
a l w a y s w e a r g o g g le s .
T here is danger to the eyes from flying dust and particles of polish.
S E C T IO N 25— M IL L E R
1. T h e f e e d - s c r e w w r e n c h m u s t n o t b e le ft o n t h e f e e d ­
screw .
T here is a possibility of getting the hands caught between the
revolving w rench and the bed of the miller.
25
2.
H a n d s o r a b a r o f ir o n s h o u l d n o t b e u s e d to c le a n c u t ­
t i n g s off t h e c u t t e r a n d t h e b e d o f t h e m ille r.
T h ere is danger of crushing the fingers or of getting a solid bar
jam m ed in the machine.
3.
B e l t s m u s t n o t b e s h i f t e d w h e n t h e p o w e r is t u r n e d o n .
T h e hands m ay be caught in the pulley.
4. T h e c u t t e r m u s t r e v o lv e in t h e o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n t o t h e
fe e d .
I f the cutter is revolving w ith the w ork, it w ill tend to “ride,”
causing danger from breaking p arts and springing the machine out
of shape.
5. W o r k s h o u l d b e s e c u r e d t i g h t l y in a v is e o r b o l t e d s e ­
c u r e l y to t h e b e d .
O therw ise, there is danger of the w ork flying out of the machine.
6. T h e m i l l e r s h o u l d b e t u r n e d o v e r b y h a n d b e f o r e t u r n i n g
on th e pow er.
T his is to test all adjustm ents and to make sure th at the machine is
properly adjusted.
7. T h e m a c h i n e m u s t b e p r o p e r l y o ile d w i t h t h e p r o p e r k i n d
o f o il b e f o r e t u r n i n g o n t h e p o w e r .
A poorly lubricated machine is not a safe machine.
S E C T IO N 26— B L A S T O R M E L T IN G F U R N A C E
1.
T o lig h t a m e ltin g fu rn a ce, th e fo llo w in g in s tru c tio n s
m u st be fo llo w e d :
a. C lo s e t h e a i r i n t a k e s h u t t e r .
b. T u r n o n t h e b lo w e r .
26
c. P u t a l i g h t e d p a p e r o r r a g in t h e f u r n a c e .
d. T u r n o n t h e g a s s lo w ly .
V ery serious explosions occur when these steps are not followed.
2. T h e m e t a l s h o u l d b e p la c e d in t h e c r u c i b le b e f o r e t h e
c r u c i b le is p u t i n t o t h e f u r n a c e .
I t is safer and easier to handle cold metal.
3. T h e r e m u s t b e n o m o i s t u r e o n t h e m e t a l o r t o n g s w h e n
t h e y a r e u s e d in o r n e a r m o l t e n m e ta l .
M olten metal will splatter or blow up if the sm allest am ount of
w ater comes in contact w ith it.
4. T h e g a s a n d b l o w e r m u s t b e s h u t off w h e n a d d i n g flu x t o
m o l t e n m e t a l o r w h e n r e m o v i n g t h e c r u c i b le f r o m t h e
fu rn ace.
T here is danger of being burned by the fire shooting up out of the
furnace.
5. T h e p ig , o r i n g o t m o ld , s h o u l d b e w a r m a n d t h e p a t h t o
t h e m o l d s s h o u l d b e c le a r e d b e f o r e r e m o v i n g t h e c r u c i b le
fro m th e fu rn a ce.
A wet pig mold w ill blow up, and if the path is not clear th e stu­
dent m ight fall w ith a crucible of molten metal.
6. P r o p e r t o n g s a n d a c r u c ib le s h a n k s h o u l d b e u s e d w h e n
p o u rin g .
A full crucible of m olten metal m ight be broken or dropped if the
righ t tools w ere not used.
7. F l a s k s s h o u l d n o t b e d u m p e d u n t i l t h e m e t a l h a s h a d t i m e
t o cool.
T he metal m ight run and burn the operator.
27
SEC TIO N 27— PO U R IN G M O LT EN M ET A L
1. T h e t e m p e r o r d a m p n e s s o f t h e m o ld in g : s a n d s h o u l d b e
t e s t e d b e f o r e m o l d i n g is s t a r t e d .
I f the sand is too damp, it will cause molds to “b lo w /’
2. A ll m o l d s s h o u l d b e s e t u p a n d r e a d y f o r p o u rin g - b e f o r e
t h e f u r n a c e is s t a r t e d .
A n operator cannot take care of the furnace and mold at the same
time.
3. M o ld s le ft o v e r n i g h t s h o u l d b e o p e n e d a n d i n s p e c t e d f o r
d a m p n e s s b e f o r e p o u r in g .
M oisture will collect on the inside o f a mold when left standing
overnight and will cause the mold to blow. I f damp, it should be dried
w ith a torch.
•
4. A ll c o r e s s h o u l d b e v e n t e d . T h e c o p e a n d d r a g s h o u l d
a ls o b e w e ll v e n t e d .
T he gas and steam m ust have a way of escape through the sand
so it will not blow the hot metal back out of the mold.
5. M o l d i n g s a n d is t h e o n ly m a t e r i a l t h a t s h o u l d b e u s e d fo r
m a k i n g m o ld s .
O ther m aterials, such as plaster of P a ris and clay, are not porous
enough to let the gas and steam escape and are consequently apt to
blow up.
6. A ll m o l d s s h o u l d b e w e i g h t e d b e f o r e p o u r i n g .
T his will prevent “run-outs.”
7. T h e r e s h o u l d b e a t l e a s t o n e - h a lf in c h o f s a n d b e t w e e n
t h e p a t t e r n a n d t h e flask.
T his will prevent “run-outs.”
28
8. C l e a r g l a s s e s s h o u l d be w o r n to p r o t e c t t h e e y e s ; g l o v e s
s h o u l d b e w o r n to p r o t e c t t h e h a n d s w h e n p o u r i n g m o l t e n
m e t a l f r o m t h e c r u c ib le .
M olten metal, especially brass and bronze, is apt to spatter when
poured.
9. M o l t e n m e t a l s h o u l d n o t b e s p ille d o n a c o n c r e t e floor.
M olten m etal touching cold concrete, especially if the floor is damp,
. will spatter.
S E C T IO N 28— S P I N N I N G L A T H E
1. T h e r u l e s f o r t h e w o o d l a t h e o r m e t a l l a t h e m u s t b e fo l­
lo w e d w h e n m a k in g ch u c k s fo r sp in n in g . S o m e sp in n e rs
u s e w o o d l a t h e s , w h ile o t h e r s u s e m e t a l la t h e s .
2. C h u c k s s h o u l d b e m a d e t r u e .
I f chucks are out of round, they do not hold metal securely; then,
when the spinning operation starts, the metal will fly out and may
cause serious injury, not only to the operator, but to others who may
be near.
3. C h u c k s m u s t b e s e c u r e o n lin e c e n te r .
E xtrem e precaution m ust be taken in fastening a chuck on the
lathe since the speed and pressure used in spinning is apt to split the
chuck, and the pieces may fly w ith g reat speed. T his m ight even cause
a fatal accident.
4. T h e t a i l s t o c k m u s t b e v e r y s e c u r e .
M aterial which is being spun m ust be held firmly between the
chuck and the follower. I f not secure, metal will fly out fro m between
the chuck and the follower.
5. T h e b e l t m u s t n o t b e c h a n g e d b y h a n d w h ile t h e l a t h e is
r u n n i n g — s t o p t h e l a t h e o r u s e t h e b e l t p o le.
M etal belt lacing m ight tear the hand if the belt is in motion, or
the hand may be pinched between the belt and pulley.
29
SEC TIO N 29— M ETA L SH A P E R
1. T h e s h a p e r s h o u l d n e v e r b e s t a r t e d u n l e s s t h e w o r k a n d
t h e to o l a r e p r o p e r l y s e c u re d .
I f the w ork or the tool is loose, the tool will dig into the w ork.
This will cause tool breakage or will throw the m aterial from the
machine. M any a mechanic has lost the sight of an eye w hen the
shaper tool has broken and a piece struck his eye. T he student may
also be injured by being struck by m aterial throw n from the machine.
2. T h e c u ttin g - to o l s h o u l d b e c le a r a n d t h e m a c h i n e s t a r t e d
v e r y s l o w l y a f t e r se ttin g - t h e s t r o k e .
I f the stroke is too long and the machine is started at full speed,
the movement cannot be checked in time to avoid an accident.
3. N o s t u d e n t s h o u l d s t a n d in f r o n t o f t h e s h a p e r a t a n y
tim e .
I f th e tool should snap, it would fly forw ard.
4. C h ip s s h o u l d n e v e r b e r e m o v e d f r o m t h e w o r k o r m e a s ­
u r e m e n t s m a d e w h i l e t h e s h a p e r is in o p e r a t io n .
Severe hand cuts may result.
S E C T IO N 30— S Q U A R IN G S H E A R S
A ND BAR FO LDER
S q u a r i n g
S h e a r s
1. T h e f i n g e r s s h o u l d n e v e r b e f o r c e d u n d e r t h e s a f e t y g u a r d
o r a l l o w e d to e x t e n d u n d e r it.
T he safety guard is fo r the purpose of keeping the fingers from
being cut off.
30
2. U n d e r n o c i r c u m s t a n c e s s h o u l d a p e r s o n c u t f r o m t h e
b a c k o f a squaring" s h e a r .
T he cutting edge of the shears is hidden from view in the back.
T o cut from the back a person would have to extend his hands out
of sight. T here is no guard on the back.
3. T h e f e e t s h o u l d b e k e p t c l e a r o f t h e f o o t t r e a d le .
W hen the shears cut through the metal, the foot treadle comes
down to the floor w ith much force, enough to in ju re a foot seriously.
4. O n l y o n e o p e r a t o r m a y w o r k a t t h e s h e a r a t a tim e .
If two or more students attem pt to use the squaring shears at the
same time, one may step on the treadle while the other has his foot
in the way or his fingers under the knife.
B
a r
F
o l d e r
1. F i n g e r s m u s t b e k e p t c l e a r o f t h e f o l d i n g b l a d e w h e n t h e
b a r f o l d e r is u s e d .
W hen the folder closes, it can easily and seriously smash the hand
or fingers.
31
G E N E R A L R U L E S FO R SA F E T Y IN T H E
A U T O SH O P
S E C T IO N 31— A U T O S H O P , P A R T I
1. S t u d e n t s m u s t n o t w o r k u n d e r a c a r u n t i l a c a r e f u l c h e c k
h a s b e e n m a d e to s e e t h a t t h e c a r is n o r m a l l y restin g - o n
t h e flo o r o r is so s u s p e n d e d o r b l o c k e d t h a t t h e r e is n o
d a n g e r of its f a l l i n g o r of s o m e o n e k n o c k i n g o u t t h e
b lo c k s . S t u d e n t s s h o u l d n o t d e p e n d s o le ly u p o n h o i s t s
a n d c h a in s to s u p p o r t a c a r. T h e c a r s h o u l d a l w a y s b e
b l o c k e d u p so t h a t s h o u l d t h e c h a in fa il t h e r e is a s e c o n d
s u p p o r t s u f f ic ie n tly s t r o n g t o h o l d i t u p . M e t a l s u p p o r t s
s h o u l d b e u s e d in p r e f e r e n c e t o w o o d e n b lo c k s .
A very serious accident m ight happen if the car is not so supported.
2. C a r d o o r s m u s t b e k e p t c lo se d .
I f left open, a passing student may strike a door hard enough to
injure him or to knock the car from its blocking.
3. A c r a n k s h o u l d n e v e r b e u s e d to t u r n a n e n g in e o v e r u n ­
le ss i t fits s e c u r e l y i n t o t h e s o c k e t a n d is in p e r f e c t c o n ­
d itio n .
T he crank will slip out and the hand m ay be smashed and the flesh
knocked from the knuckles.
4. A c r e e p e r s h o u l d n o t b e le f t l y i n g o n t h e floor.
Someone may step on it and receive a bad fall.
5. B e fo r e s t a r t i n g w o r k o n a m o t o r , c l u t c h , o r t r a n s m i s s i o n ,
t h e c a b le f r o m t h e b a t t e r y to t h e s t a r t e r m u s t b e d i s ­
c o n n e c te d .
T his will prevent an accident should anyone accidentally press the
starter button.
32
6. W r e n c h e s t h a t a r e n o t t h e p r o p e r s iz e s o r fit m u s t n o t b e
used.
A wrench of the w rong size will slip, causing serious in ju ry to the
hand.
7. C r e e p e r s , rolling- j a c k s , etc. m u s t n o t be r id d e n .
O ther students may be run into and h u r t ; also damage may be done
to equipment in the shop.
8. A u t o s , m a c h i n e s , o r p ie c e s of e q u i p m e n t m u s t n o t b e
p la y e d w ith .
A heavy piece may be knocked off of the bench or its support and
someone may be injured. M any other accidents can happen because
of useless playing w ith or handling of equipment.
9. "W hen using- a c h is e l to c u t off fly w h e e l t e e t h , t h e s t u d e n t
s h o u l d s t a n d so t h e t e e t h w ill fly t o w a r d a b l a n k w a ll.
T he flying teeth may hit someone in the eye or face, causing the
loss of an eye or a serious injury.
10. O p e n p a n s o f g a s o l i n e m u s t n o t b e u s e d in s id e t h e b u i l d ­
in g , w h e t h e r f o r c l e a n i n g o r a n y o t h e r p u r p o s e .
T he gasoline m ay come in contact with a spark and cause a serious
fire.
S E C T IO N 32— A U T O S H O P , P A R T II
1. W h e n h o le s a r e to b e b o r e d t h r o u g h t w o p ie c e s o f s h e e t
m e t a l , t h e p ie c e s s h o u l d be s e c u r e l y c l a m p e d t o g e t h e r .
O therw ise the drill w ill bind and w hirl the metal around or break
the drill.
2; T h e s t u d e n t m u s t a l w a y s w e a r g o g g l e s w h e n t u r n i n g t h e
c o p p e r c o m m u t a t o r o r a n y m e t a l s t h a t t e n d to fly w h e n
b e i n g c u t.
Too much care cannot be taken to safeguard the eyes.
3. A ll w o r k o n t h e p r e s s ta b le m u s t b e so s e c u r e l y f a s t e n e d
t h a t p r e s s u r e w ill n o t c a u s e it to g iv e w a y .
33
As the pressure becomes heavier, the object being pressed may slip
and fly through the room.
4. M o l t e n m e t a l m u s t n o t b e p o u r e d u n t i l ev e ry th in g * h a s
b e e n i n s p e c t e d b y t h e i n s t r u c t o r , a n d t h e n o n l y u n d e r h is
su p e rv isio n .
M oisture in m olten metal will cause a violent explosion, throw ing
hot m etal in all directions.
5. C lo s e d t a n k s o r c a n s t h a t h a v e c o n t a i n e d g a s o l i n e o r
o t h e r e x p lo s iv e liq u id s a r e n o t to b e s o ld e r e d , b r a z e d , o r
w e l d e d u n d e r a n y c o n s i d e r a t io n .
Even gas tanks th at have been washed out w ith w ater will often
explode because of gas remaining in them should a flame be used.
6. H o t m e t a l s h o u l d a l w a y s b e p u t w e l l o u t o f t h e w a y t o
k e e p s t u d e n t s f r o m handling" it o r step p in g - o n it. W h e n
h o t m e t a l c a n n o t b e p u t a w a y in a sa fe p la c e , it s h o u l d
a l w a y s b e m a r k e d “ h o t ” w i t h c h a lk .
T he person who gets burned will hold responsible the person who
le ft the hot m etal unmarked.
7. G r e a t c a r e s h o u ld be t a k e n in h a n d lin g - h o t s o l d e r i n g
ir o n s .
B urns fro m the irons are very painful, and infection may result.
8. T h e s u r f a c e to b e s o l d e r e d s h o u l d a l w a y s b e d rie d .
A ttem pting to solder a damp o r wet surface will cause the solder
to spatter and may cause serious in ju ry to the eyes.
i
9. C a u t i o n s h o u l d be t a k e n in u s i n g s o l d e r i n g flu x a n d a c id s
as th e y m a y g e t in to th e eyes a n d o n to th e c lo th in g .
Acid will Cause a bad burn and will ruin clothing.
10. A fla m e o r a l i g h t e d m a t c h m u s t n o t b e u s e d in, t e s t i n g
a l e a k i n g b r a z i n g t o r c h o r a n y g a s c o n n e c t io n .
If the to rch is leaking, it may cause an explosion.
S E C T IO N 33— A U T O S H O P , P A R T III
1. A b u r n i n g b r a z i n g t o r c h s h o u l d a l w a y s b e t u r n e d off
w h e n n o t in use.
34
It is w asteful and can cause a serious burn.
2. O i l y o r g r e a s y r a g s s h o u l d n o t b e le f t in l o c k e r o r o v e r a lls .
They will very often ignite by spontaneous combustion.
3. T o l i g h t a s o l d e r i n g f u r n a c e , t h e m a t c h s h o u l d b e a p p lie d
to t h e s m a ll h o le a t th e t o p o f t h e f u r n a c e a n d t h e g a s
t h e n t u r n e d o n s lo w ly .
If an attem pt is made to light it from in fro n t w ith the gas on,
flames m ay flare up into the face.
4. W h i l e u s i n g a c o m p r e s s e d a i r h o s e t h e s t u d e n t m u s t
n e v e r t o u c h a n y o n e w i t h t h e a i r n o z z le o r p l a y w i t h t h e
c o m p r e s s e d a ir. M u c h c a re s h o u l d b e t a k e n in u s i n g t h e
a i r to b l o w o u t d i r t a n d filin g s.
Serious accidents have occurred w ith compressed air. W hen using
compressed air in cleaning, particles of d irt and g rit can be blown into
the eyes.
5. T h e s t u d e n t s h o u l d n e v e r u s e a s p r a y g u n in a c lo s e d
r o o m o r in a v e r y p o o r ly v e n t i l a t e d ro o m .
The lacquers are inflammable and the fumes are dangerous to
inhale.
6. W h e n p u t t i n g o n o r t a k i n g off a b a t t e r y f r o m t h e c h a r g ­
i n g lin e, t h e c u r r e n t m u s t be t u r n e d off.
T he gas from a battery is explosive and is easily ignited from a
spark.
7. W h e n le a d b u r n i n g is to b e d o n e o n a b a t t e r y , t h e i n ­
s t r u c t o r m u s t c h e c k o v e r t h e b a t t e r y b e f o r e t h e t o r c h is
lit. H y d r o g e n g a s a c c u m u l a t e s in a b a t t e r y w h e n i t is
b e i n g c h a r g e d . T h i s g a s is h i g h l y e x p lo s iv e .
A flame may cause the battery to explode.
8. T h e s t u d e n t m u s t n e v e r s t a n d o v e r a b a t t e r y w h i l e w o r k ­
i n g o n it.
I t may explode and throw acid into the face causing blindness.
35
9. W a t e r m u s t n o t b e p o u r e d in t o a c id w h e n d i l u t i n g . P u t
t h e a c id in t o t h e w a t e r .
A small am ount of w ater poured into a ja r of acid will cause the
acid to boil and spatter. S tro n g fumes will be given off.
10. T h e g a s fla m e m u s t n o t b e le ft b u r n i n g , n o r u n l i t g a s le ft
t u r n e d on.
The flame m ay go out and fill the room w ith gas. A spark or a
lighted m atch may cause an explosion.
S E C T IO N 34— A U T O S H O P , P A R T IV
1. A s t u d e n t m u s t g e t s p e c ia l p e r m i s s i o n f r o m t h e i n s t r u c ­
t o r b e f o r e t e s t i n g a car.
The instructor will decide who shall test the car and when and
where it is to be tested.
2. T h e s t u d e n t m u s t h o ld a d r i v e r ’s lic e n s e b e f o r e t e s t i n g
c a r s in t h e s t r e e t.
This is required by state law.
3. E n g i n e s s h o u l d b e t e s t e d o u t o f d o o r s o r in a w e ll v e n t i ­
la te d space.
T he gas from the m otor is carbon monoxide gas and is deadly
poison.
4. W h e n c r a n k i n g a c a r a lw a y s lo o k t o s e e if t h e s p a r k is
re ta rd e d .
Failure to do so may cause the engine to kick back, spraining or
breaking the arm .
5. A p e r s o n s h o u l d n e v e r s it in a c a r w h ile i t is s t a n d i n g
w ith th e m o to r ru n n in g .
Carbon monoxide gas may filter in through the floor boards causing
illness or even death.
36
6. W h e n t e s t i n g a c a r, n o t o v e r t w o p e r s o n s i n c l u d i n g t h e
d r i v e r a r e to r id e in t h e f r o n t s e a t. N o o n e is a llo w e d t o
rid e on th e r u n n in g b o a rd s o r fe n d e rs o r b u m p e rs.
T h e driver must have room to operate the machine. If students
are riding- on the running board, fenders, or bumper, they may be
throw n off and hurt.
7. A p e r s o n s h o u l d n e v e r d r iv e d i r e c t l y t o w a r d a n y o n e o r
t r y t o see h o w c lo s e h e c a n c o m e to a n y o n e .
H e m ay become confused and may be injured.
8. A ll s a f e t y r u l e s a n d p r e c a u t i o n s l e a r n e d in p r e v i o u s u n i t s
of t h i s s h o p s h o u l d b e o b s e r v e d .
I t is only by constant thinking of safety and observing the safety
rules and precautions th at accidents can be avoided.
9. S t u d e n t s s h o u l d a l w a y s h e lp f e llo w s t u d e n t s b y r e m i n d ­
i n g t h e m in a f r i e n d l y w a y w h e n t h e y a r e b r e a k i n g t h e
s a f e t y ru le s.
T his w ill keep them constantly thinking of safety.
37
147
O A K L A N D P U B L IC S C H O O L S
Safety Instruction
for
W o o d Shops
Junior and Senior H ig h Sch ool
A pproved by
O akland B oard of E d u catio n
Ju n e, 1939
N ote to Students: This booklet
is the property of the school and
must be returned to the instructor
at the end of the period.
S a fe ty I n s tr u c tio n fo r W o o d S h o p s
J u n io r a n d S e n io r H ig h S ch o o l
Prepared by;
F re d e ric k C a n h a m
C h e ste r C arlso n
C lin to n R . G l a d d e n
R u el L. R e e d
R o b ert W . S aund ers
R o b e r t E . G ilb e r t, General Chairman
S u b -C o m m itte e :
A lf r e d T . A n d e r s o n
C a rl G. B e r g g r e n
H a r r y G. C la rk e , Chairman
Compiled by:
W i l l C. M a t h e w s , Supervisor of Industrial A rts
SA FE T Y ED U C A TIO N
A m o n g a ll t h e v a r ie d r e s p o n s i b i l i ti e s t h a t a t e a c h e r m u s t
a s s u m e , n o n e is m o r e i m p o r t a n t t h a n t h e s a f e g u a r d i n g o f th e
s t u d e n t s u n d e r h is c h a r g e . O n th e p l a y g r o u n d , in t h e c l a s s ­
ro o m s , in t h e s h o p s o r l a b o r a to r ie s , m o s t a c c i d e n t s c a n be
a v o id e d b y w is e f o r e t h o u g h t .
P r e c a u t i o n is m o s t e ffe c tiv e
w h e n a p l a n n e d p r o g r a m o f s a f e ty e d u c a t i o n is c a r e f u l l y fo l­
lo w e d .
I t is h o p e d t h a t t h e s e le s s o n s in s a f e t y w ill n o t o n ly m a k e
t h e s c h o o l s h o p a sa fe p la c e in w h i c h to w o r k , b u t w ill h a v e a
d e fin ite c a r r y - o v e r in to e v e r y d a y life.
E. W .
J a c o b s e n
Superintendent of Schools
CO NTENTS
Page
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G E N E R A L R U L E S ..................................
S e c tio n 1— S a f e t y in t h e S c h o o l S h o p ---------------2— S a f e t y A r o u n d M a c h i n e r y ...................................
3— S a f e t y in t h e M a c h in e S h o p a n d G e n e r a l
M e t a l S h o p ...............................................................
4— S a f e t y W i t h E l e c t r i c i t y ......................................
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S P E C IF IC R U L E S
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S e c tio n 5— G r i n d e r .......................................................................
6— D r ill P r e s s ..................................................................
7— J i g S a w .......................................................................
8— W o o d T u r n i n g L a t h e ...........................................
9— P l a n e r ...............................
10— C ir c u l a r S a w .........................
11— J o i n t e r .........................................................................
12— B a n d S a w ............. - ...................
13— M o r t i s e r ..........................
14=— D is c a n d S p in d le S a n d e r ......................................
15— B e l t S a n d e r ..................................
16— B o r i n g M a c h in e ..................................
17— P o r t a b l e S h a p e r - R o u t e r ......................................
18— W o o d S h a p e r ......
19— S p r a y G u n ............................
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TH E TEA C H IN G OF SA F E T Y
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T H E TEA C H IN G OF SA FETY
T h e e m p h a s is u p o n s a f e t y in o u r s h o p s s h o u ld b e c o n ­
structive^— t h e b uildin g- u p o f c o n fid e n c e b a s e d o n u n d e r ­
s t a n d i n g , skill, arid c a u t i o n : a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g of th e p o t e n ­
tia l d a n g e r s , a sk ill in h a n d l i n g to o ls a n d e q u i p m e n t , a
c a u ti o n it! a v o i d i n g c a r e le s s a c ts .
S a f e ty i n s t r u c t i o n m u s t b e c a r r ie d o n in a n o r g a n iz e d
a n d p l a n n e d p r o g r a m a n d s h o u ld n o t b e l e f t t o t h e s t u d e n t
to le a r n b y trial' a n d e r r o r .
T o a s s i s t t h e s t u d e n t a n d t e a c h e r in th e s a f e t y p r o g r a m ,
d e fin ite r u le s a n d r e a s o n s f o r t h o s e r u le s h a v e b e e n p r e p a r e d
in b o o k l e t fo rm . E a c h s h o p is to b e f u r n i s h e d w i t h a p p r o x ­
i m a t e l y t h i r t y c o p ie s w h i c h a r e to b e u s e d as t e x t s to b e
p a s s e d o u t t o t h e s t u d e n t s in c la s s a n d c o lle c te d a t th e e n d o f
t h e p e rio d . T h e s e s h o u l d b e p r o p e r l y c a r e d for. E x t r a c o p ie s
w ill be p la c e d in t h e g e n e r a l l i b r a r y of t h e sc h o o l to b e l o a n e d
o u t to s t u d e n t s w h o m a y w a n t to s t u d y t h e m o u t s i d e th e s h o p
p e rio d .
S in c e s t u d e n t s m a y n o t k n o w s o m e o f t h e t e r m s u s e d in
t h e w r i t t e n i n s t r u c t i o n s a n d m a y n o t b e a b le t o v is u a liz e t h e
p o i n t t h a t is b e i n g e x p la in e d , it is n e c e s s a r y t h a t t h e t e a c h e r
g iv e a d e m o n s t r a t i o n in t h e s a fe a n d p r o p e r h a n d l i n g o f t h e
to o l o r m a c h i n e b e f o r e o r d u r i n g t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e ru le .
E a c h d e m o n s t r a t i o n s h o u l d b e w e ll p l a n n e d a n d all n e c e s ­
s a r y a p p lia n c e s , g u a r d s , a n d s to c k s h o u l d b e r e a d y a t h a n d .
D e m o n s t r a t i o n s s h o u l d fo llo w lo g ic a l s e q u e n c e , a n d o n l y t h e
c o m m o n l y u s e d p r o c e s s e s s h o u ld b e d e m o n s t r a t e d — n o t t h e
u n u s u a l o n e s . A c la s s d r ill s h o u ld b e g iv e n in t h e id e n tific a ­
t io n of i m p o r t a n t p a r t s o f t h e m a c h in e .
T h e t e a c h e r s h o u l d r e a d t h e r u l e a n d th e r e a s o n s f o r t h e
r u le a lo u d to t h e c la s s a n d i m m e d i a t e l y fo llo w t h e r e a d i n g
w i t h a c la s s d is c u s s io n f o r f u r t h e r c la rific a tio n . Q u e s t i o n s
fro m s t u d e n t s s h o u ld b e e n c o u r a g e d .
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T h e j o b o f s a f e t y i n s t r u c t i o n is n o t so m eth in g - to g e t o v e r
q u ic k ly a n d h a v e d o n e w i t h , b u t m u s t b e c a r r i e d o n w i t h c o n ­
t i n u a l v ig ila n c e t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r a s t h e n e e d f o r u s i n g
n e w m a c h in e s a ris e s . I t is m o s t e ffe c tiv e t o g iv e t h e i n s t r u c ­
tio n a t th e tim e th e s tu d e n t need s it a n d can u se i t ; th e re fo re
s t u d e n t s s h o u l d b e i n s t r u c t e d a t o n c e in t h e g e n e r a l s a f e t y
r u le s of t h e s h o p a n d in t h e r u le s c o v e r in g t h e m a c h i n e s t h e y
w ill i m m e d ia t e l y u se .
R u le s c o v e r i n g m a c h i n e s w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t s m a y n o t u s e
until' l a t e r in t h e t e r m s h o u l d be t a u g h t l a t e r in t h e t e r m .
I t is n e c e s s a r y t h a t e a c h s t u d e n t s ig n a s t a t e m e n t to th e
e ffe c t t h a t h e h a s re c e iv e d i n s t r u c t i o n in t h e o p e r a t i o n o f a n y
m a c h i n e h e u s e s in t h e s h o p . S p e c ia l f o r m s a r e h e r e w i t h f u r ­
n is h e d . T h e t e a c h e r m u s t a ls o s ig n t h e b l a n k a s in d ic a te d .
2
G ENERAL R U LES
SEC TIO N 1— SA FE T Y IN T H E SCHOOL SH O P
1. N o s t u d e n t s h a ll u s e a to o l o r o p e r a t e a n y m a c h i n e u n t i l
a f t e r h e h a s r e c e iv e d p r o p e r i n t r u c t i o n a n d h a s s a tis fie d
th e te a c h e r th a t h e k n o w s an d u n d e rs ta n d s th e sa fe ty
ru le s co n c ern ed .
E very tool and machine is dangerous if used incorrectly. W hile
there is but one correct way, there are many incorrect ways of using
machines and tools. The correct way is always the safest because all
safety factors have been taken into consideration. The student should
learn the correct w ay before attem pting to use a tool or machine.
2. A ll scu fflin g , p l a y i n g , t h r o w i n g , lo u d t a l k i n g , a n d r u n ­
n i n g a r e f o r b id d e n .
T he shop is a workroom , not a p lay g ro u n d ! Scuffling, playing,
throw ing, and loud talking will distract the w orkers’ attention and
accidents may result. Shop floors are usually slippery from oil and
shavings and running is dangerous.
3. T h e flo o r m u s t b e k e p t c le a r of a ll s c r a p m a t e r i a l a n d
to o ls .
I f short ends, blocks, rippings, and other refuse m aterial, or tools
and clamps, are left on the floor, students may slip o r stumble over
them, causing a serious accident. I f boards w ith nails in them are left
lying on the floor, someone may step on them and puncture a foot,
causing an infection.
4. A ll s to o ls , w h e n in u s e , m u s t r e s t w i t h f o u r le g s u p o n
t h e floor.
I f a student while sitting upon a stool tips it back until it rests upon
only one or two legs, it is very apt to slip from under him and cause
him tp fall. Such an accident may result in a serious injury to his head
or spine.
5. O n l y t h e o p e r a t o r is a llo w e d to s t a n d in s id e t h e s a f e t y
lin e s w h i c h a r e p a i n t e d u p o n t h e flo o r a r o u n d t h e m a ­
c h in e .
C row ding the operator of a machine not only distracts his attention
from his w ork, but interferes with his free use of the machine and its
3
appliances. Such crowding and interference may cause him to be in­
jured.
6. A ll i n j u r i e s , e v e n t h e s l i g h t e s t s c r a t c h o r c u t, m u s t b e
r e p o r t e d to t h e i n s t r u c t o r im m e d ia te ly .
Cuts and scratches often become infected if they are not properly
treated immediately. The instructor must determ ine upon the serious­
ness of the injury and give the necessary first-aid treatm ent.
7. A ll e d g e d to o ls m u s t b e k e p t s h a r p .
A dull tool is m ore dangerous than a sharp one because it will slip
over and away from the w ork it is supposed to do. It is necessary to
put more pressure upon a dull tool. This makes it m ore difficult to
control and may cause it to slip and cut the hand or arm or cause other
injuries.
8. T o o l s h a v i n g s h a r p e d g e s m u s t n e v e r b e c a r r i e d in t h e
p o c k e ts .
T he sharp edge may cut the clothes or it may cut the hand if the
hand should be thrust into the pocket. In case the student should slip
or stumble, it may puncture the body.
9. W h e n u s i n g e d g e d to o ls a p e r s o n s h o u l d a l w a y s c u t a w a y
f r o m h im s e lf , a n d th e s t o c k m u s t b e s e c u r e ly c la m p e d in
t h e v is e , l e a v i n g b o t h h a n d s fre e to c o n t r o l t h e to o l.
I f the tool should slip while the student is cutting tow ard himself,
it may be th ru st into his hand or cut his arm or body.
10. A file w h i c h h a s n o h a n d l e m u s t n o t be u s e d .
T he pointed end o r tang of the file is sharp, and, if not protected
by a handle, may be th ru st into the hand. A puncture is the most dan­
gerous kind of a wound as it is the most difficult to clean thoroughly.
11. I f a s t u d e n t s h o u l d b r e a k a to o l o r d i s c o v e r o n e t h a t is
b r o k e n o r n o t in g o o d r e p a ir , h e m u s t r e p o r t it t o t h e i n ­
s t r u c t o r a t o n ce.
A broken tool represents an accident which might have been avoided
if the tool had been properly used. I f it is reported, the instructor will
be able to assist the student in determ ining the cause of the breakage,
can teach him the correct method of using the tool, and can thus pre­
vent a recurrence of the accident.
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SEC TIO N 2—SA FETY A R O U N D M ACH INERY
1. N o m a c h i n e m a y be s t a r t e d w i t h o u t p e r m i s s i o n f r o m t h e
i n s t r u c t o r , a n d a ll s e t - u p s m u s t b e i n s p e c t e d b y t h e in ­
s t r u c t o r b e f o re t h e p o w e r m a y b e t u r n e d o n .
U ntil the student has gained enough skill and experience, it will be
necessary fo r the instructor to judge before the machine is started
w hether or not the machine has been properly set up and all safety
precautions provided for.
2. N o m a c h i n e m a y b e o p e r a t e d w i t h o u t h a v i n g t h e p r o p e r
g u a r d s e c u r e ly fixed in p la c e .
T he guards are put on a machine fo r the purpose of protecting the
operator. To remove them increases the danger. E very type of job
which students may perform upon the machines can be done with the
regular or special guard in place. A ny student who refuses or neglects
to use the guards will be deprived of the use of the power machinery.
3. S p e c ia l p e r m i s s io n m u s t b e s e c u r e d f r o m t h e i n s t r u c t o r
to r e m o v e a g u a r d o r t o s u b s t i t u t e a s p e c ia l g u a r d .
C ertain types of jobs require the removal of the standard guards.
In each case the student m ust first secure permission from the instruc­
tor, next pull the main switch on the machine to be used, and then pro­
ceed to make the set-up for the job to be undertaken, getting help from
the instructor if necessary. A fte r the set-up has been completed and
the required special guards are in place, he m ust obtain the instruc­
tor's approval and supervision before starting the machine. Possible
accidents may be avoided in this way.
4. T h e m a in s w i t c h m u s t a l w a y s b e t h r o w n off w h e n c le a n ­
in g , l u b r i c a t i n g , o r c h a n g i n g k n i v e s o r s a w s u p o n a m a ­
c h in e .
Since machines are sometimes accidentally started by the operating
switch, it is best that the main switch be throw n off before attem pting
to clean, lubricate, or make any changes about a machine. The oper­
ator's attention is directed tow ard the w ork he is doing and not the
startin g sw itch ; therefore, if it should be pressed accidentally, his
hands might be in a position where they could be severely injured. To
pull the main switch gives a double protection against such accidents.
5
5. L o o s e c lo th in g , lo n g u n b u t t o n e d sle e v e s , d a n g l i n g n e c k ­
ties, a n d g lo v e s s h o u l d n e v e r b e w o r n a r o u n d m a c h i n e r y .
To w ear such clothing when operating machinery endangers the
operator. H is hand or arm may be caught in revolving parts and draw n
into the machine. W earin g gloves is also very dangerous because they
cause the operator to lose partially his sense of touch and may cause
him to allow his fingers to come too close to moving parts.
6. P o w e r m a c h i n e s s h o u l d n e v e r b e u s e d f o r w o r k t h a t c a n
be d o p e a s w e ll w i t h h a n d to o ls.
As long as any power machine is operating, there is constant danger
of accidents happening upon it. T herefore, to avoid as many accidents
as possible, the machines should not be operated except for necessary
work.
Machines are placed in the shop to broaden experience and to sup­
plement hand work, not to do away w ith it. T herefore, the student m ust
learn to use hand tools well before he can expect to use machines.
7. S t u d e n t s m u s t n o t t a l k to o r in a n y w a y i n t e r f e r e w i t h
th e o p e r a t o r of a m a c h in e .
To talk to a student who is operating a m achine or to in terfere
with him in any way distracts his attention from his w ork and may
cause him to have an accident. T o operate a machine safely is as much
as one can do or think about at any one time.
8. A ll a d j u s t m e n t s m u s t be m a d e s e c u r e a n d t h e m a c h i n e
c le a r e d of to o ls o r o t h e r o b j e c t s b e f o r e t h e i n s t r u c t o r ’s
in s p e c tio n .
Unless all adjustm ents on the machine are securely locked in place
before it is started, the vibration may cause one or more of them to
slip o r change position. T his may cause an in ju ry to the operator o r
may dam age the machine or stock.
I f tools o r other loose objects are allowed to remain on the machine
while it is being operated, the vibration may cause them to be draw n
into the moving parts or to come in contact with the revolving knives
or saws, resulting in a damaged machine and, most likely, an injured
operator.
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9. S t u d e n t s m u s t n e v e r o v e r lo a d a m a c h in e .
O verloading any m achine is dangerous because the m otor w ill slow
down or stall completely. V ery often the stock is throw n back with
great force. If the operator or anyone else should be struck w ith flying
pieces, a serious in ju ry m ight result.
10. T h e o p e r a t o r a l o n e is in c h a r g e o f t h e m a c h in e w h i l e i t is
in o p e r a t io n .
Once the m achine starts one person must assume control of it and
decide exactly w hat is to be done. H e is responsible fo r the care of the
machine as well as the stock which is being worked. T herefore, he
m ust be sure that he has the machine properly set up, understands the
operation he wishes to perform , and is following the correct method.
H e m ust start and stop the machine himself unless the instructor has
assigned a helper.
11. A p e r s o n m u s t n e v e r s t a n d in d i r e c t lin e w i t h t h e m a c h i n e
w h ile it is b e i n g o p e r a t e d .
If a saw should break or a machine become overloaded, if the stock
is im properly held or a knot or large sliver should come loose, these
objects would be throw n out w ith terrific force. Serious accidents often
happen when pieces are thus throw n by a fast revolving saw.
S E C T IO N 3— S A F E T Y IN T H E M A C H IN E S H O P A N D
G EN ER A L M ETAL SH O P
i
*
1. N o g lo v e s of a n y k in d s h a ll b e u s e d a r o u n d m o v i n g m a ­
c h in e s .
Gloves can easily get caught in the machine. W hen the fingers are
covered the sense of touch is partially lost, and the fingers or hand will
not be so sensitive to danger.
2. L o n g h a i r s h o u l d b e c o v e r e d w i t h a c lo s e - f ittin g c a p .
L ong hair can easily get caught in machinery.
3. G o g g le s s h o u l d a l w a y s be u s e d w h e n w o r k i n g o n t h e
g r i n d e r u n le s s t h e r e a r e s a f e ty g l a s s g u a r d s o n t h e m a ­
c h in e .
7
T he eyes are the most precious of our possessions. A little particle
of steel or stone may cause perm anent damage to them.
4. A ll o il o r g r e a s e s p ille d o n t h e flo o r s h o u l d b e c le a n e d u p
a t once, a n d san d o r s a w d u s t sh o u ld be sp rin k le d o v er th e
s p o t.
x
V ery serious accidents can happen because of slippery floors.
5. M u s h r o o m h e a d s o n c h is e ls a n d p u n c h e s s h o u l d b e
g r o u n d off b e f o re t h e s e to o ls a r e u s e d .
Sharp pieces from a run-over chisel or punch head fly off at te r­
rific speed and may bury themselves deep into the flesh.
6. A file s h o u l d n e v e r b e h i t w i t h a n o t h e r p ie c e of m e t a l o r
u s e d a s a h a m m e r o r p u n c h o r c h is e l.
Files are as brittle as glass and may fly to pieces if so treated.
7. W r e n c h e s w i t h c r a c k e d , s p r u n g , o r w o r n - o u t j a w s s h o u ld
n o t be used.
Should a w rench slip around a nut, the student’s hand m ight easily
be th ru st into the machine.
8. H a r d e n e d s u r f a c e s s h o u l d n o t be h i t w i t h a h a m m e r ; i. e.,
a h a m m e r o n t h e h a r d fa c e o f t h e a n v il o r t w o h a m m e r s
to g eth er.
H ardened steel will chip, and fragm ents will fly and may cause a
serious injury.
9. S t u d e n t s s h o u l d n o t s t a n d in lin e w i t h t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e
s w i n g of a s le d g e h a m m e r o r d i r e c t l y in f r o n t o f a b o l t o r
r i v e t b e i n g c u t off w i t h c h is e l a n d h a m m e r .
If th e ham m er flies off the handle, it will travel in the direction of
the swing. Rivets and bolts, when cut off by chisel and ham m er, fly off
at bullet speed.
10. T o o l s s h o u l d n o t b e u s e d to p l a y c a tc h w i t h ; t h e y s h o u l d
a l w a y s b e h a n d e d , n o t t h r o w n o r to s s e d .
Eyes, hands, o r body can easily be injured by throw ing tools or
tossing them.
11. I f c l o t h i n g s h o u ld b e c o m e i g n ite d , d o n o t r u n , lie d o w n
8
a n d ro ll o v e r a n d o v e r , o r w r a p so m e th in g - a r o u n d y o u to
s m o t h e r t h e flam es.
R unning only fans the blaze.
12. O n l y t h e p e r s o n o p e r a t i n g t h e m a c h i n e s h o u ld t u r n o n o r
off t h e s w itc h .
T he operator cannot very well have his hands in a dangerous place
while he is turning on or off the switch.
13. L o n g p ie c e s of w o r k e x t e n d i n g t h r o u g h t h e la t h e s p in d le
o r o u t b e y o n d t h e l a t h e s h o u l d b e fla g g e d .
T his will w arn passing students who may otherw ise accidently run
against a revolving or sharp point.
14. W h e n a s t u d e n t is c u t t i n g t h r e a d o n a p ip e , o t h e r s t u d e n t s
s h o u l d s t a y a w a y , p a r t i c u l a r l y w h e n t h e s t o c k a n d d ie is
s p u n f r o m t h e p ip e.
T h e heavy, spinning stock handle might bruise a person severely if
he w ere to get in the way.
15. N e w p ip e t h r e a d s s h o u l d n o t b e t o u c h e d w i t h t h e fin g e rs.
T h e sharp raw threads can cut severely.
S E C T IO N 4— S A F E T Y W I T H E L E C T R IC IT Y
1. O n l y i n s u la t e d w i r e s h o u l d b e u s e d f o r e le c tr ic a l h o o k ­
ups.
Base wires may cause fire o r shock.
2. W i r e s o n a n o t h e r s t u d e n t ’s w o r k s h o u l d n e v e r b e to u c h e d .
These w ires may be connected to an electrical circuit, and the per­
son touching them may be badly burned or shocked. *
3. I t is d a n g e r o u s to h a n d l e e l e c tr ic a l w i r e s w i t h b a r e
h a n d s ; i t is d o u b l y d a n g e r o u s if h a n d s a r e w e t o r if fe e t
a r e w e t o r o n a n o n - i n s u l a t e d floor.
T he body is a fine conductor of electricity, especially if grounded.
W a ter is a good conductor.
9
4. A ll e l e c tr ic a l w o r k m u s t b e c h e c k e d b y t h e i n s t r u c t o r b e ­
fo re t h e c u r r e n t is a p p lie d .
T his will o ften prevent an accident.
5. F o r b e ll o r b u z z e r c i r c u its a n d all l o w - v o l t a g e t r a n s f o r m ­
ers, c o t t o n - c o v e r e d w i r e c a n b e u s e d ; r u b b e r - c o v e r e d w i r e
s h o u l d b e u s e d f o r l i g h t a n d p o w e r c ir c u its .
Poorly insulated wires used on power or light circuits may cause
fire and shock. Rubber is a good insulating m aterial.
6. P l ie r s m u s t n o t b e i n s u l a t e d w i t h ta p e .
T ape w ears through and the pliers are then no longer insulated.
7. A p e r s o n s h o u l d n e v e r lo o k d i r e c tl y a t a n e l e c tr ic a rc .
T he electric arc sends out ultra-violet rays which can badly burn
and perm anently injure the eyes.
8. E l e c t r i c w i r e s s h o u ld n e v e r b e t a m p e r e d w i t h o r c h a n g e d
u n le s s t h e p e r s o n d o i n g so is c e r t a i n t h a t t h e c u r r e n t is
c u t off.
Serious accidents and even fatalities may result if this rule is dis­
regarded.
9. N e v e r s h o r t e le c tr ic w i r e s b y t o u c h i n g t h e m t o g e t h e r o r
t o u c h i n g b o t h e n d s to t h e s a m e p ie c e of m e ta l.
Severe burns often rfesult. W hen wires are shorted, the electricity
makes the w ire w hite hot.
10. N e v e r in c r e a s e t h e s iz e o f a n y f u s e ; a lw a y s le a v e t h i s to
t h e j u d g m e n t o f a c o m p e t e n t e le c tr ic ia n .
T he fuse is for protection of persons and m aterial from shock and
burns. The fuse determ ines the am ount of current to flow through the
circuit.
10
SPEC IFIC R U LE S
S E C T IO N 5— G R IN D E R
1. G o g g le s o r a g l a s s g u a r d m u s t a l w a y s b e u s e d w h e n
g r i n d i n g u p o n t h e h i g h - s p e e d w h e e ls .
They are used to protect the eyes and face from flying particles of
abrasive o r steel.
2. T h e to o l r e s t m u s t a l w a y s b e a s c lo se a s p o s s ib le t o t h e
w h e e l.
If a wide space is le ft between the wheel and th e rest, there is
danger th at the w ork may be caught, causing an injury to the oper­
ator's hands.
3. W h e n s t a r t i n g t h e g r i n d e r , t h e o p e r a t o r m u s t a l w a y s
s t a n d to o n e s id e o f it.
I f the wheel should break during the starting period, there is danger
of injury to the operator if he stands directly in fro n t of the wheel.
4. O n l y t h e h a n d s m a y b e u s e d to h o ld w o r k a g a i n s t t h e
h i g h - s p e e d g r i n d i n g w h e e l.
W hen it becomes necessary to grind a piece of stock th at is so small
th a t it would bring the operator’s hands closer than a safe distance
from the grinding wheel, the student should ask the instructor to grind
it fo r him ; or, if the metal is soft, he should place it in a vise and use a
file. Pliers should never be used to hold w ork against a grinding wheel.
W hen grinding plane irons or chisels on the slow wheels, the slid­
ing tool holder may be used. In this w ay the operator’s hands are fully
protected.
5. G r i n d i n g s h o u l d n e v e r b e d o n e a g a i n s t t h e s id e o f a t h i n
w h e e l.
P ressure against the side of a thin wheel while it is rotating may
cause it to break and injure the operator.
IX
SECTIO N 6—D R IL L PR ESS
1. S p e c ia l p e r m i s s i o n to o p e r a t e t h e d r ill p r e s s m u s t b e s e ­
cu re d fro m th e in s tru c to r.
W hile the drill press used in the wood shop is not a very dangerous
machine to operate, it runs at a much higher speed than a metal w ork­
ing press. It is possible, therefore, fo r a student to be injured upon it
if he does not use considerable care. T here is even more danger that
the student may damage the machine if he does not understand how to
adjust and manipulate it. T herefore, he must get permission and advice
from the instructor before he attem pts to use the machine.
2. T h e s t u d e n t m u s t h a v e t h e i n s t r u c t o r i n s p e c t e a c h s e t - u p
u p o n t h e d r ill p r e s s b e f o r e t h e p o w e r is t u r n e d on.
Even though drilling is a very simple m achine operation, the in­
structor will want to be sure the student has made the proper set-up.
The student must be sure the chuck is properly fastened to the
spindle, the drill is securely locked in the chuck, the belt is in place for
the correct speed, the stops are properly set, and the table is located in
the correct position and adjusted to the proper height.
An inspection by the instructor will aid the pupil in avoiding pos­
sible in ju ry to him self and dam age to the machine or stock.
3. A ll a d j u s t m e n t s m u s t b e s e c u r e l y f a s t e n e d b e f o r e t h e
d rill p r e s s is s t a r t e d .
If adjustm ents are attem pted while the machine is running, the
operator's attention is directed tow ard the adjustm ent and not the re­
volving drill. A slip or a careless move may bring his hand, a sleeve,
or his hair into contact w ith the revolving drill. T he drill may also be
projected against the stock or the table. In either case, an unnecessary
accident would result.
4. T h e s t u d e n t m u s t be s u r e h e is using- t h e c o r r e c t s p e e d f o r
t h e s iz e of d rill a n d k i n d o f s t o c k h e is w o r k i n g .
T here is a correct speed fo r each type and size of drill and each kind
of m aterial. If too much speed is used or if the drill is forced too rap­
idly into the m aterial, especially hard wood, the shavings cannot be
12
cleared from the hole fast enough to avoid burning or possibly break­
ing the drill.
W hen a person is boring deep holes or w orking w ith hard woods,
the drill should be raised from the hole frequently to clear out the
shavings and avoid burning or breaking the drill.
T he student must secure the advice of the instructor if he is in
doubt as to the proper speed or kind of drill to use.
5. T h e c h u c k w r e n c h m u s t b e t a k e n o u t b e f o r e t h e d rill is
started .
T he w rench will be throw n out of the revolving chuck or will tear
the hand.
6. S h a v i n g s a n d c h ip s m u s t n o t be h a n d l e d w h e n t h e d r ill is
ru n n in g .
I f metal shavings and chips are picked up by the operator, the saw ­
like edges may seriously cut the fingers.
7. T h e s t u d e n t m u s t k e e p h is h a i r a w a y f r o m r e v o l v i n g
p a rts.
A lock of h air m ight get caught in the drill, the chuck, or the
spindle and be pulled out.
8. T h e o p e r a t o r 's fa c e m u s t b e k e p t a w a y f r o m t h e w o r k .
A person could easily in ju re his eyes or his face if the drill should
break. H ot oil m ay fly or sharp shavings may cut the face.
9. T h e d rill s h o u l d n o t b e fe d t o o f a s t i n t o t h e w o r k .
T he drill may get caught in the w ork, particularly as it is coming
thro u g h the other side, and fly into several pieces.
S E C T IO N 7— JIG S A W
1. S p e c ia l p e r m i s s i o n m u s t be s e c u r e d f r o m t h e i n s t r u c t o r
b efo re a s tu d e n t m a y o p e ra te th e p o w e r jig saw .
Since the power jig saw is rath er lightly constructed and operates
13
I
at high speed, much care m ust be used in operating it if accidents are
to be avoided and the machine is to last a reasonable length of time.
T herefore, the student m ust secure the permission and advice of the
instructor an d have him inspect the set-up before the saw m ay be
started.
2. A f t e r a s t u d e n t s e t s u p t h e j i g s a w h e m u s t t u r n i t b y h a n d
a c o u p le o f t i m e s b e f o r e s w i t c h i n g o n t h e p o w e r .
By operating the saw a few strokes by hand, th e operator will note
the length of stroke and the position of the saw. T he upper saw clamp
m ust not be allowed to strik e the hold-down guard, and the saw m ust
be fixed in a vertical position clear of the back rest.
3. T h e h o l d - d o w n c la m p , o r p r e s s e r fo o t, m u s t b e a d j u s t e d
t o h o l d t h e s t o c k f ir m ly u p o n t h e t a b l e w h i l e t h e s a w is
o p e ra tin g .
If the w ork is not held down firmly upon the table, it will be ca r­
ried up and down w ith the saw. T his may break the saw, crush the
fingers, or cause th e band to slip against the saw.
4. T h e s p e e d m u s t b e r e g u l a t e d to t h e s iz e o f t h e s a w a n d
th e th ic k n e ss a n d h a rd n e ss of th e w ood.
E ach size and kind of saw is designed to be operated at a given
speed. T he student m ust consult the speed ch art attached to the m a­
chine to be sure he has made the proper speed adjustm ent fo r the p a r­
ticular job he wishes to do. I f these speeds are exceeded, there is dan­
ger of breakage which may result in accidents such as those previously
mentioned.
Caution m ust also be used when cutting ex tra thick pieces or ex­
cessively hard pieces of stock which may cause the saw to heat and
break.
5. I n o r d e r t o c le a n s c r a p s of! t h e j i g s a w t a b le , t h e s t u d e n t
s h o u l d u s e a s h o r t s tic k .
To use th e fingers fo r clearing scraps off the jig s a w table is d a n ­
gerous because the student may carelessly th ru st his hand against the
m oving saw.
14
6. A ll t i l t e d t a b l e w o r k u p o n t h e j i g s a w m u s t b e s u p e r v i s e d
by th e in s tru c to r.
T he spring hold-dow n guard must be tilted to parallel the table on
all such work.
Since tilted table w ork requires a greater amount of skill than
ordinary straight saw ing and because there is more danger of jam m ing
the saw w ith resulting accidents, the student must secure help and
supervision from the instructor.
7. A ll s a b r e s a w w o r k u p o n t h e j i g s a w m u s t b e c h e c k e d b y
t h e i n s t r u c t o r b e f o r e t h e p o w e r m a y b e t u r n e d on.
In sabre saw work, only the lower end of the saw is clamped to the
th ru st arm. T herefore, care m ust be taken to be sure th at the saw will
run in the guide and th a t only a light pressure of the stock is exerted
against it.
If these precautions are not observed, the saw may be twisted or
bent and broken which may cause an injury to the operator and dam ­
age to the machine.
8. T h e s t u d e n t m u s t d i s c o n n e c t t h e c o r d p l u g o r o p e n t h e
m a in sw itc h b efo re m a k in g a n y a d ju s tm e n ts a b o u t th e
m a c h i n e , c h a n g i n g t h e s a w , o r c h a n g i n g t h e p o s i t io n o f
t h e b e lt.
If the operator should attem pt to make adjustm ents, change the
saw, or change the position of the belt while the power is connected to
the motor, he m ight be injured in case the machine were accidentally
started. By pulling the main switch or disconnecting the extension
cord from the power socket, he may be sure no accident can happen.
S E C T IO N 8— W O O D T U R N I N G L A T H E
1. A f t e r c e n t e r i n g u p a p ie c e o f s to c k , t h e s t u d e n t m u s t r o ­
t a t e t h e l a t h e a c o u p le o f t i m e s b y h a n d b e f o re t u r n i n g o n
th e po w er.
By revolving the stock by hand, the operator may be certain th at
15
the stock clears the tool rest, turns freely, and is securely fixed be­
tween centers.
2. A p e r s o n s h o u l d n e v e r t u r n g l u e d - u p s t o c k u n ti l h e is s u r e
t h e g l u e is t h o r o u g h l y d ry .
If glued-up stock is turned at high speed before the glue has had
time to set, the pieces will separate and be throw n from the lathe. T he
operator may be struck by flying pieces and may be badly injured.
3. T u r n i n g to o l s m u s t b e h e ld f ir m ly a g a i n s t t h e to o l r e s t.
If the tool is held firm ly against the rest w ith both hands, the tool
will be prevented fro m catching in the wood and being wrenched from
th e hands or caught between the stock and the tool rest. By holding the
tool firmly, better control and smoother, faster cutting action can be
had.
t
4. A ll s t o c k m u s t b e r o u g h e d d o w n a t a s p e e d b e lo w t h e
p o in t of v ib ra tio n .
U ntil the stock has been turned down to rough dimensions, or trued
up, it is out o f perfect balance. This condition causes it to wobble or
vibrate. If too much speed is used while it is out of balance, it puts an
excessive strain on the centers, and the stock may w ork loose and be
throw n out of the la th e ; also, the tool is m ore apt to be caught and
to rn from the operator’s hands.
5. W h e n p o s s ib le , t h e c o r n e r s m u s t b e c h a m f e r e d off o n all
s t o c k t h r e e in c h e s s q u a r e , o r m o r e , b e f o r e b e i n g t u r n e d
in a la th e .
It is particularly dangerous to tu rn large square stock in a lathe
because of the space between the flat sides of the stock and the tool
rest. I f the corners are cham fered off, it makes it possible to place the
rest closer to the stock and thus avoid possible accidents.
The tool is very easily caught when large square stock is being
turned and may be w renched from the operator’s hands. T he stock also
is sometimes torn from the lathe. In either case the operator may be
injured.
6. O u t s i d e c a li p e r s m u s t n e v e r b e u s e d u p o n a p ie c e o f s t o c k
w h i l e it is in m o t i o n u n l e s s it is r o u n d a n d s m o o t h .
16
The calipers w ill catch on the corners of rough stock and will be
throw n into the operator’s face or w ill pull his hands into the revolving
stock.
7. T h e to o l r e s t m u s t n e v e r b e c h a n g e d w h i l e t h e s t o c k is in
m o t io n .
It is liable to catch the revolving stock and throw it out of the lathe,
or the o p erator’s hands may be caught between the rest and the stock.
8. T h e t o o l r e s t a t all t i m e s m u s t b e p l a c e d a s c lo se a s p o s ­
s ib le to t h e s to c k .
I f a wide space is left between the tool rest and the stock, there is
danger of having the tool draw n into the space and w renched from the
op erato r’s hands, or the fingers may be caught and severely injured.
T h e tool rest m ust be moved forw ard frequently as the stock de­
creases in diam eter. This makes it easier to tu rn a smooth surface and
to prevent accidents.
9. L o n g f lo w in g n e c k ti e s o r lo o s e ly f i t t i n g s le e v e s m u s t
n e v e r b e w o r n w h e n o p e r a t i n g a t u r n i n g la th e .
F low ing neckties or loosely fitted sleeves m ay be caught on the re­
volving stock and may cause a severe in ju ry to the operator.
10. T h e b e l t s h o u l d n e v e r b e s h i f t e d o n a b e l t - d r i v e n l a t h e
w h i l e it is in m o tio n .
T h e fingers or hand may be crushed between the belt and the pulley
if this is attem pted.
11. T h e s t u d e n t s h o u l d n o t a t t e m p t t o t u r n l a r g e p ie c e s of
s t o c k w i t h o u t t h e a p p r o v a l of t h e i n s t r u c t o r .
O w ing to the varying tex tu re of wood, large pieces of stock are
usually badly out of balance. T his makes them particularly dangerous
to tu rn on a lathe. Also large pieces that have been glued or put to ­
gether w ith metal fastenings are liable to be to rn ap a rt by centrifugal
action if too high a speed is used. I f such stock separates when re­
volving at high speed, the pieces w ill be th ro w n from the lathe with
terrific force.
12. T h e to o l r e s t m u s t a l w a y s b e r e m o v e d b e f o r e d o i n g a n y
17
s a n d p a p e r i n g u p o n t h e la th e .
If th e tool rest is left in position w hen sandpapering1, the fingers
may be pulled in between the rest and the revolving stock. T o test for
smoothness, while turning, the fingers should be touched lightly against
the fa r side o f the stock, away from the tool rest.
13. T h e t a i l s t o c k m u s t b e s e c u r e l y f a s t e n e d i n t o p o s it io n b e ­
fo re t u r n i n g o n t h e p o w e r .
If the tailstock is not fastened securely, it will back aw ay from the
revolving piece, ow ing to vibration, and will allow it to be throw n from
the lathe.
14. T h e p u s h r o d m u s t n e v e r b e le f t in t h e h e a d s to c k .
T he push rod will gradually w ork out of the head stock w hile the
spindle is revolving, and will be throw n from the lathe.
15. T h e d e a d c e n t e r e n d o f t h e s t o c k m u s t b e o ile d b e f o r e i t is
p la c e d u p o n t h e l a th e .
To oil the dead center end of the stock reduces the friction between
it and the dead center and prevents it from ja rrin g loose.
16. C h e c k e d s p l i t s t o c k o r p ie c e s h a v i n g k n o t s m u s t n e v e r be
t u r n e d u p o n t h e l a th e .
Such pieces will separate, ow ing to centrifugal action, and will be
throw n from the lathe.
17. I n s i d e c a li p e r s m u s t n e v e r b e u s e d o n a n y t y p e o f f a c e ­
p l a t e w o r k , s u c h a s c u p s o r b o w ls , w h i l e t h e s t o c k is r e ­
v o lv in g .
The calipers will be caught by the revolving stock and may pos­
sibly be throw n into the operator's face, or the operator's hand m ay be
jam m ed between the stock and the rest.
18. O n m o t o r h e a d l a t h e s e q u i p p e d w i t h a s p e c ia l s p e e d c o n ­
t r o l l e v e r , t h e c o n t r o l le v e r m u s t n e v e r b e u s e d to d e ­
c r e a s e t h e s p e e d w h e n f a c e - p la te w o r k is b e i n g t u r n e d .
T he power m ust always be turned off before decreasing the speed,
18
or the sudden slowing of the speed will cause the face plate to unscrew
from the spindle and to be throw n from the lathe.
19. T h e g o u g e m u s t n e v e r b e u s e d f o r a n y t y p e o f in s id e f a c e ­
p la te tu rn in g .
T he gouge will roll in the operator's hands and w ill catch in the
stock which will break o r spoil the w ork and may injure the operator.
20. W o o d s c r e w s m u s t b e c a r e f u l l y p la c e d o n f a c e - p l a t e j o b s
t o a v o id b e i n g s t r u c k b y t h e l a t h e to o l w h il e t h e s t o c k is
r e v o lv in g .
W hen a lathe tool strikes a screw projecting into the back of a
face-plate job, the sudden ja r to the stock may cause it to split and to be
throw n from the lathe.
S E C T IO N 9— P L A N E R
1. T h e p l a n e r m u s t b e a d j u s t e d to t a k e n o t m o r e t h a n a o n e s i x t e e n t h in c h c u t b e f o r e t h e m a c h i n e is s t a r t e d .
A n attem pt to cut m ore th an one-sixteenth of an inch at a cut on
the average run of stock, risks stalling the machine and causing pos­
sible damage.
2. S t o c k le s s t h a n o n e - q u a r t e r in c h in t h i c k n e s s m u s t n o t b e
ru n th ro u g h th e p la n e r u n less su p p o rte d b y a h e a v y b e a r­
in g b oard.
W hen thin pieces are run through the planer w ithout the support of
a heavy bearing board, they usually are to rn to pieces by the action of
the knives and throw n out of the machine w ith g reat force. Someone
may be struck by these flying pieces and seriously injured.
3. S t o c k le s s t h a n fifte e n i n c h e s in l e n g t h m u s t n o t b e r u n
th ro u g h th e p la n e r u n le ss a p p ro v e d b y th e in s tru c to r.
Stock th at is not long enough to reach across the planer bed from
the pressure bars to the outw ard feed rolls would tip up into the knives
or tu rn sideways under the revolving head. This action would cause it
19
to be to m or whipped to pieces and throw n out of the machine in
splinters or chunks. T he operator is liable to be injured when this
occurs.
4. W h e n o p e ra tin g - t h e p l a n e r , t h e s t u d e n t m u s t n o t a llo w
h is h a n d s to c o m e in c o n t a c t w i t h t h e in fe e d ro lls.
The infeed rolls are corrugated or grooved to give them a firm er
grip upon the stock so as to force it through the machine. H ands or
clothing are therefore m ore liable to be caught and draw n into the m a­
chine than if th e surface of these rolls w ere smooth.
5. S t u d e n t s m u s t n o t a t t e m p t to m o v e o r s h i f t s h o r t b o a r d s
in t h e p l a n e r a f t e r t h e y h a v e b e e n g r i p p e d b y t h e in f e e d
ro lls .
This is dangerous as loose clothing o r fingers may be caught be­
tween the board and the planer bed. If a short board starts to run side­
ways while going through the machine, the infeed rolls must be stopped
before any attem pt is m ade to straighten it out.
6. W h e n i n s e r t i n g s h o r t p ie c e s i n t o t h e p l a n e r , t h e o p e r a t o r
m u s t k e e p h is h a n d s a n d f in g e r s o n t o p o f t h e b o a r d .
S hort stock will often tip up off the planer bed and then slam down
hard ju st as the infeed roll takes hold of it. I f the operator is not alert,
his fingers will be caught between the stock and the bed and severely
crushed.
7. T h e s h a v i n g s e x h a u s t h o o d m u s t n o t b e r a is e d w h il e t h e
p l a n e r is r u n n i n g .
This is very dangerous as the revolving knives will be exposed.
8. S t u d e n t s s h o u l d n o t a t t e m p t t o p u s h s to c k t h r o u g h t h e
p la n e r .
T o do this m ight cause the o perator’s hand to slip and be caught by
the infeed rolls. If a piece of stock will not go through w ithout forcing,
som ething is w rong w hich should be called to the attention of the in ­
structor.
S E C T IO N 10— C IR C U L A R S A W
1. T h e c i r c u l a r s a w m u s t n o t b e r a i s e d h i g h e r t h a n o n e - h a lf
in c h t h r o u g h t h e s t o c k b e i n g c u t .
20
W hile this may not be the most efficient cutting position, it is the
safest. The less of the moving saw th at extends through the work, the
less danger there is of the operator’s hands coming in contact w ith it.
2. A p u s h s t i c k m u s t a l w a y s b e u s e d w h e n ripping" s t o c k less
t h a n t e n in c h e s in w i d t h .
T h e hand m ust never be passed between the ripping fence and the
saw unless there is ample room for it to pass safely. By using a push
stick the o perator’s hand is kept high enough above the fence and the
guard to protect him from injury.
3. W h e n t h e o p e r a t o r is r i p p i n g , t h e s p l i t t e r g u a r d m u s t
a l w a y s b e r a is e d a b o v e t h e t a b l e a t l e a s t a s h i g h a s th e
saw .
A splitter guard is attached behind the rip saw fo r the purpose of
keeping the stock separated as it passes the saw to prevent it from
binding the saw and from being throw n back against the operator.
4. A c l e a r a n c e b lo c k m u s t a l w a y s b e a t t a c h e d t o t h e r i p p i n g
fe n c e w h e n i t is u s e d a s a n e n d s t o p f o r c r o s s c u t t i n g .
T he clearance between the moving saw and the ripping fence must
always be g reater than the length of the piece cut off. I f this extra
space is not provided, the revolving saw catches the end of the loose
piece and throw s it out w ith considerable force. T he piece, or a p art of
a broken saw, may strike someone.
5. T h e s l i d i n g t a b l e m u s t a l w a y s b e lo c k e d in p la c e w h e n
n o t in u s e .
I f the sliding table is not locked in place w hen it is not being used,
it m ay be moved fo rw ard unexpectedly and cause the operator to bring
his hands in contact w ith the saw.
6. W h e n t h e o p e r a t o r is c r o s s c u t t i n g , h is h a n d s m u s t b e so
p l a c e d u p o n t h e s t o c k a n d c r o s s c u t f e n c e a s to c l e a r th e
s a w b y a t l e a s t t w o in c h e s .
T o place the hands closer to the running saw th an is necessary
would be taking an unnecessary risk. If the operator’s arm should be
21
ja rred or the stock should slip from his grasp, his hands m ight be
th ru st against the saw.
7. S t u d e n t s m u s t n o t c l e a r s c r a p s f r o m t h e s a w t a b l e w i t h
t h e i r fin g e r s .
If a student attem pts to clear scraps away from the saw w ith his
fingers while it is running, he is very apt to overreach or m isjudge the
distance and allow his hand to come in contact w ith the saw.
Scraps can be cleared from the table ju st as well and w ith g reater
safety by using the push stick.
The push stick should be used for this purpose even though the saw
is standing still, fo r in this w ay the student develops the habit o f always
using the stick rath e r th an the fingers.
8. T h e h e lp e r , w h e n t a i l i n g off t h e r i p s a w , m u s t n e v e r p u ll
t h e s t o c k u n l e s s t h e o p e r a t o r so d ir e c ts .
W henever a student wishes to rip stock th at is longer than he can
easily handle alone, he should secure a helper from the instructor.
T he helper's job is simply to support the end of the stock which is
being ripped, keep it against the fence as it passes the saw, and dispose
of the pieces when the cut is completed.
T he operator's job is to feed the stock into the saw and also keep it
against the fence from his side of the machine.
If the helper should pull on the stock while it is being ripped, it
would take it out of the operator’s control. W hen the end of the board
comes to the table the o p erato r m ust reach fo r the push stick to move
the final end of the stock past the saw. I f the helper should pull the
stock while the operator’s attention is thus diverted, he would very
likely pull the o p erato r’s le ft hand into the saw. P ulling on a board
being ripped also has the tendency of causing it to climb up on the saw,
or to raise off the table. T his is one of the most dangerous things th at
can happen on the rip saw because the operator is usually throw n off
his balance and his hands slide under the board and into the saw.
W hen the operator stops pushing on the stock it must stop moving
instantly.
9. C y lin d r ic a l, c i r c u la r , a n d irreg ularl}^ s h a p e d s t o c k m u s t
n o t be c u t u p o n th e c irc u la r sa w w ith o u t th e u se of an
a p p r o v e d jig .
22
Cylindrical pieces have the tendency to roll w hen in contact w ith
the revolving saw, and circular pieces tend to spin. In each case the
hands are apt to be th ru st into the saw. Irreg u la rly shaped pieces usu­
ally tw ist and jam the saw which may shatter the stock o r break the
saw o r both. Such accidents usually resu lt in serious injuries to the
operator.
10. T h e s t u d e n t m u s t n e v e r l o w e r s t o c k o v e r a c i r c u l a r s a w .
T his is a particularly difficult and dangerous o p eratio n ; therefore
the instructor, alone, is perm itted to do it. I f the stock is not held firmly
in the hands, securely pressed against the fence, and properly blocked
to prevent it from slipping, it is liable to be throw n back and the hands
pulled into the saw.
11. S t o c k m u s t n e v e r b e c u t off u p o n t h e c i r c u l a r s a w w i t h o u t
t h e u s e o f t h e c r o s s c u t fe n c e o r r i p p e d w i t h o u t t h e r i p ­
ping- fe n c e in p la c e .
T o attem pt either to rip or crosscut upon a circular saw w ithout the
use of the proper fence to keep the stock in alignm ent would cause the
piece to tu rn and jam the saw. T he stock would be throw n back and the
saw m ight be broken.
12. A t t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f h is jo b , t h e o p e r a t o r m u s t l o w e r t h e
s a w b e l o w t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e ta b l e .
If the saw is turned below the surface of the table when it is not in
use, it is then in the most satisfacto ry position both fo r the safety of
the saw and the students. The saw is then fully protected from being
dam aged and from causing injury to w orkers.
13. T h e f e n c e s m u s t n e v e r b e r e m o v e d f r o m o r p la c e d u p o n
t h e s a w t a b l e w h e n t h e s a w p r o j e c t s a b o v e t h e s u r f a c e of
th e t a b l e o r is in m o tio n .
W hen the operator’s attention is on the adjustm ents of the fence
and not upon the saw, he may allow his hand to come in contact w ith
the saw. The fence may also be pushed against the saw and cause con­
siderable damage.
14. T h e o p e r a t o r h i m s e l f m u s t b e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s t a r t i n g a n d
s to p p in g th e saw .
T he operator alone knows best when he wishes the saw to sta rt or
23
to stop. F o r anyone to attem pt to do this fo r him, unless directed by
him to do so, m ight result in a serious accident.
15. A ll dadoing" a n d t e n o n i n g m u s t b e s u p e r v i s e d b y t h e in ­
stru c to r.
Since these operations require the rem oval of the regular guards
and the substitution of special guards, it is necessary th at the student
set up the m achine and perform such operations under the supervision
of the instructor.
16. A ll r e s a w i n g u p o n t h e c i r c u l a r s a w m u s t b e d o n e u n d e r
th e su p e rv isio n of th e in s tru c to r.
Resaw ing upon the circular saw requires the use of a sharp saw
w ith the correct am ount of set. I t sometimes requires the use of special
guards. M ore pressure is needed to feed the stock against the saw. T his
makes it m ore difficult to control and th erefo re more hazardous.
Since the student has had little opportunity to gain experience in
this type of work, he must secure the approval and supervision of the
instructor on all resaw ing jobs.
S E C T IO N 11— J O IN T E R
1. P u p i l s m u s t n o t a t t e m p t to w o r k s t o c k s h o r t e r t h a n
tw e lv e in ch es o n th e jo in te r.
V ery sh o rt pieces are apt to tip endwise into the knives and be
throw n back fro m under the operator’s hands. This may cause him to
thrust his fingers into the revolving knives. The piece to be jointed
must always have sufficient bearing surface resting upon the table to
prevent it from tipping as it is projected forw ard over the knives.
2. A p u s h s t i c k m u s t a l w a y s b e u s e d w h e n e d g e j o i n t i n g n a r ­
r o w s to c k .
By means of a properly shaped push stick the operator’s hands are
kept a safe distance from the knives. If it becomes necessary to joint
stock th at is less th an one inch square, feath er boards should be used.
These should be clamped into place on the fence and table w ith hand
screws, and the set-up m ust be approved by the instructor before the
machine may be operated.
24
3. Before face jo in tin g an y piece of stock, th e s tu d e n t m u st
have had d em o n stratio n s and am ple instruction, and m u st
secure special perm ission from the in stru cto r.
Face jointing is a particularly dangerous operation if not done
properly.
For all face jointing, an approved pusher must be used. It must be
so constructed as to provide a broad bearing surface and must be long
enough to prevent tipping. It must have a large handle and must be so
shaped that it may be comfortably and securely grasped in the right
hand. Very light cuts must be taken when face jointing to avoid over­
loading the motor and having the piece thrown back.
4. All end g rain jo in tin g is forbidden except u n d e r the su p e r­
vision of the instructor.
Unless the board is twelve inches or more in width and long enough
to give the operator a good hold on the piece, it is apt to be tipped sidewise when it contacts the knives and to be whirled out of the operator’s
hands.
5. T h e helper m u st never pull on th e stock w hen tailin g off
long pieces from the jointer.
If the helper were to pull on the stock, it would take the piece out
of the control of the operator which might pull his hands into the
knives. The helper must hold the weight of the stock, and keep it flat
on the table in line with the fence as it passes over the knives. It is the
operator’s job to move the stock across the table.
6. All special operations upon th e jointer, such as rabbeting,
tapering, beveling, an d cham fering, m u s t be done u n d er
th e direct supervision of th e instructo r.
Such operations as these are an advanced type of work upon this
machine and require much skill and considerable experience to accom­
plish them safely. Therefore, as the student has had,no opportunity to
gain these skills, it is necessary that the instructor either do the job
for him or supervise the work very closely.
7. T h e hands m u st not be used for clearing shavings from
th e jo in te r table.
25
W hen jointing stock, shavings will collect upon the surface of the
table afte r the piece has passed over it. In order th at a second cut may
be made correctly, the table m ust be cleared of these shavings so the
stock will rest flat upon it. T o attem pt to brush the shavings off the
table w ith the hand would expose the fingers to the revolving knives.
T he student should use a piece of wood to clear the table.
8. N o a d j u s t m e n t s u p o n t h e ta k e - o f f ta b l e m a y b e m a d e b y
a stu d e n t.
T he take-off table of the jointer is the one upon which the stock
rests a fte r it has passed over the knives. I f the jointer is to w ork prop­
erly, this table must be adjusted very accurately for height and tilt.
T hese adjustm ents require a thorough knowledge of the w orking p rin­
ciples of the machine and skill to achieve them. T h erefo re all such ad­
justm ents m ust be made by the instructor.
9. T h e f r o n t a n d b a c k g u a r d s m u s t n e v e r b e r e m o v e d f r o m
t h e j o i n t e r w h e n i t is in o p e r a t io n .
T he fro n t guard is placed upon the machine in such a m anner as to
close over the knives by spring action and bear against the stock as it
passes over the table. T his guard m ust be left free to move into place
whenever the m achine is used.
T he back guard is the one placed over the knives and attached to
the fence in such a m anner as to follow the fence when it is moved
forw ard o r back upon the table. T o rem ove this guard would expose
the knives in back of the fence.
S E C T IO N 12— B A N D S A W
1. T h e u p p e r g u i d e m u s t b e s e t n o t m o r e t h a n o n e - h a l f in c h
a b o v e t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e s t o c k to b e c u t.
Setting the upper guide a t a distance greater than one-half inch
above the stock unnecessarily exposes a section of the saw and en­
dangers the operator’s h a n d s ; also, if the saw should break while ru n ­
ning, it m ight be projected out of the guards through this gap, glancing
off the table and striking someone.
26
2. T h e u p p e r g u i d e m u s t be a d j u s t e d f o r h e i g h t b e f o r e t h e
s a w m a y be s t a r t e d .
T o attem pt to adjust this guide while the saw is running is verydangerous since the operator may disregard the saw when reaching
fo r the suspension bar and allow his hand to come in contact w ith the
saw. T here is also danger of throw ing the band saw off the wheels.
3. S t u d e n t s s h o u l d n o t a llo w t h e i r fin g e r s to c o m e c lo s e r
th a n tw o in ch es fro m th e saw .
Should it become necessary to saw small pieces which would bring
the fingers closer than two inches from the saw, the student should use
a coping saw or ask the instructor to do the job for him.
4. S t u d e n t s m u s t n o t s t a n d a t t h e r i g h t - h a n d s id e o f t h e
b a n d s a w w h e n it is r u n n i n g .
W hen a band saw breaks, it usually is throw n sidew ays; even
though it is well guarded, it may break through and strike someone.
5. S t u d e n t s m u s t n e v e r a t t e m p t t o b a c k t h e s a w o u t of a
c i r c u l a r o r i r r e g u l a r c u t.
U ntil the student has had sufficient experience on the band saw, he
must secure instruction as to how to avoid the necessity of backing the
saw out of a circular or irreg u lar cut. If he should attem pt to w ith­
draw the piece from the saw, or back the saw out of a circular or ir ­
regular cut, he is apt to pull the saw off the wheels which would cause
the saw to break and possibly injure someone.
6. A w id e b a n d s a w m u s t n e v e r b e f o r c e d a r o u n d a s m a l l
r a d i u s c u t.
T o do so would cause the saw to tw ist and bend which would throw
an excessive strain upon it. This would cause it to heat and possibly
break. The instructor has th e proper w idth o f saw- fo r each type of
w ork. The student should discuss his band saw problems w ith the in­
structor before attem pting to use the machine.
7. C y lin d r ic a l o r c u r v e d s t o c k m u s t n o t b e c u t u p o n t h e
b a n d sa w .
27
U nless cylindrical stock is held firmly in a properly designed jig,
the down th ru st of the saw will cause it to roll and draw the operator’s
hands against the saw. Stock having a curved or irreg u lar base is apt
to rock or collapse upon the table while being cut, thus binding or
jam m ing the saw. T his m ight cause the saw to break and in ju re the
operator or it m ight cause his hands to be th ru st against the running
saw.
8. A s t u d e n t m u s t n o t u n d e r t a k e a l o n e a n y t y p e of t i l t e d
ta b le w o rk on th e b a n d saw .
T ilted table w ork is a special set-up and is a particularly dangerous
operation if not properly done. Such w ork must th erefo re be super­
vised by the instructor.
9. A n y u n u s u a l o r click in g' s o u n d a b o u t t h e b a n d s a w m u s t
b e r e p o r t e d to t h e i n s t r u c t o r im m e d ia t e l y .
T h e constant flexing or bending of the saw over the wheels some­
tim es causes the saw to crack a t a weak point. T his is specially true if
too much tension has been applied. W hen a saw has cracked, it will give
a clicking sound each tim e the crack in the saw passes through the
w ork on the table. T his is a w arning to the operator th at the saw is
about to break. H e must therefore move back aw ay from the saw im ­
mediately, w arn other students who may be near the machine, and turn
off the power at the main switch.
10. W h e n a b a n d s a w b r e a k s , t h e o p e r a t o r m u s t i m m e d i a t e l y
j u m p b a c k a w a y f r o m t h e m a c h in e , t u r n off t h e p o w e r a t
t h e m a i n s w i t c h a s q u ic k ly a s p o s s ib le , a n d n o t i f y t h e
in stru c to r.
A band saw will sometimes break fo r no apparent reason and w ith­
out any forew arning. W hen the saw has broken, the operator is pow er­
less to do anything about it. H e should remember th at any damage
done to the saw or to the stock he was w orking on is of fa r less im­
portance th an his own safety o r that of others near him. H is first re­
sponsibility is to tu rn off the power at the main switch. H e m ust make
no attem pt to save his stock or to approach the machine until it has
come to a complete stop. As long as the wheels are in motion, there is
the possibility that the saw may be caught and jerked or whipped about.
In such a case, if the student w ere to take hold o f an end of the saw,
28
his hands m ight be badly c u t; if he w ere to stand too close, he m ight
be struck by a w hirling end of the saw.
11. A ll r e s a w i n g u p o n t h e b a n d s a w m u s t b e s u p e r v i s e d b y
th e in s tru c to r.
To resaw a piece of stock means to divide it edgewise. T o do this
safely requires more than average skill in operating the band saw. The
saw m ust be sharp and have sufficient set. It must be the proper size
fo r the depth of cut and kind of wood to be resawed. The fence and
guide m ust be properly adjusted. U ntil the student has gained enough
skill and experience, he m ust secure the instructor’s assistance upon
resaw ing jobs.
12. A ll a d j u s t m e n t s f o r t e n s i o n a n d t r a c k i n g m u s t be d o n e b y
th e in stru c to r.
A fte r the band saw has been placed upon the wheels, it m ust be
stretched or tensioned, according to the gauge and size of the saw. This
is accomplished by forcing the wheels apart by means of a screw ad­
justm ent. The saw m ust also be made to run straig h t upon the wheels,
or to track properly. This is done by means of another adjustm ent
screw which tilts the upper wheel forw ard or back. T his tilting causes
the saw to run upon th at p art of the wheel fo r which it is set.
I f too much tension is placed upon the saw, it will crystallize and
break. If the wheel is tilted too much in either direction, the saw will
either run off the wheels entirely or exert too much pressure against
the guide wheel. In this case the saw will soon break.
Since these adjustm ents require much skill and a thorough know l­
edge of the w orking principles of the machine, the instructor must
make them in order to avoid injury to students and damage to the
machine.
13. T h e h a n d s m u s t n e v e r b e u s e d f o r c l e a r i n g s c r a p s f r o m
t h e b a n d s a w ta b le .
Scraps which accum ulate upon the table should be removed by using
a stick or small board rath er than the hands. If the hands w ere used,
the student m ight overreach and allow his hand to come into contact
w ith the running saw.
29
14. S c r a p m a t e r i a l o r p a r t s o f a p r o j e c t m u s t n o t b e p ile d u p o n
th e s t a t i o n a r y p a r t of t h e b a n d s a w ta b le .
To pile scrap or other m aterial upon this section of the table would
crowd the w orking area and m ight cause the operator to jam or tw ist
the saw. T he entire surface of both tables should at all times be kept
clear of such m aterials and tools. This will give the operator freedom
of movement and thus aid in avoiding accidents.
S E C T IO N 13— M O R T IS E R
1. T h e s t u d e n t m u s t s e c u r e t h e i n s t r u c t o r ’s a p p r o v a l o n e a c h
set-u p b efo re th e m a c h in e m a y be sta rte d .
This will assure the safe and proper operation of the machine and
avoid possible damage to the stock.
2. A ll a d j u s t m e n t s t o t h e tra v e lin g - h e a d , ta b le , a n d s t o p s
m u s t be m a d e b e f o re t h e m a c h in e is s t a r t e d .
W hile the m ortiser, when used as such, is not a particularly d an­
gerous machine to operate, it is good practice, nevertheless, to make
all adjustm ents and complete the set-up before turning on the power.
3. I n e v e r y s e t - u p u p o n t h e m o r t i s e r , t h e d o w n w a r d t h r u s t
o f t h e h e a d m u s t b e s t o p p e d a t a p o i n t w h e r e t h e c h is e l
w ill c le a r t h e ta b le .
I f the chisel should be th ru st through the stock and into the m etal
table it would dam age the bit and chisel: A possible accident m ight re­
sult from a broken bit.
4. T h e s t o c k t o b e m o r t i s e d m u s t b e s e c u r e l y c la m p e d in to
p o s itio n b e f o r e th e c h is e l is f o r c e d i n to it.
I f a student should attem pt to m ortise a loose piece of stock, it
would be carried up or lifted off the table w ith the chisel on the return
stroke. This would dam age the chisel and bit and m ight injure the
operator.
30
5. T h e s li d in g t a b l e m u s t n o t b e m o v e d u n t i l t h e c h is e l is
c le a r of t h e w o r k .
If the table should be moved while the chisel is down in the m ortise,
the chisel m ight be sprung or bent to one side, causing the bit to break.
This m ight result in a serious accident fo r the operator.
S E C T IO N 14— D IS C A N D S P I N D L E S A N D E R
1. A ll a d j u s t m e n t s m u s t b e p r o p e r l y lo c k e d , a n d t h e t a b l e
s e t t h e c o r r e c t d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e d is c b e f o r e t h e p o w e r is
t u r n e d on.
Should the student attem pt to make any adjustm ents about the m a­
chine while it is running, his hands might be caught between the disc
and the table or he m ight allow his hands to come in contact w ith the
abrasive surface of the disc.
2. T h e o p e r a t o r s h o u l d c h e c k t h e s a n d p a p e r b e f o r e s t a r t i n g
t h e m a c h i n e t o b e s u r e i t is f a s t e n e d s e c u r e l y t o t h e disc.
If the sandpaper is loose o r torn, it will catch on the stock being
sanded. It may w rench the stock fro m the operator’s hands and throw
it from the machine or it may jam between the disc and the table. In
each case, the operator’s fingers are liable to be torn or crushed.
3. T h e w o r k m u s t b e a p p lie d to t h a t p a r t of t h e d isc t h a t is
tra v e lin g d o w n w a rd .
To apply the w ork to the upw ard travel of the disc would cause it
to be snapped from the operator’s grasp, and his hands would be th ru st
against the disc.
4. V e r y s m a l l p ie p e s o f s t o c k o r i r r e g u l a r l y s h a p e d p ie c e s
s h o u l d n o t b e s a n d e d o n t h e d is c s a n d e r .
Small and irregularly shaped pieces of stock are very difficult to
grasp and control when sanding them upon a d is c ; therefore, the pupil
must use extrem e care so that the piece may not be wrenched from his
hand. Only a very light pressure may be applied.
31
5. O n l y a n a p p r o v e d s p in d le m a y b e u s e d f o r s a n d i n g o n
t h e la th e .
Spindle sanding on the lathe is permissible of a properly con­
structed sander spindle is used. I f the sandpaper or belting is not
properly attached to the roll, it may come loose and damage the oper­
a to r’s hands or strike him in the face.
6. E a c h s e t - u p o f t h e s p in d le s a n d e r o n t h e l a t h e m u s t b e
in sp e c te d b y th e in s tr u c to r b efo re th e p o w e r m a y be
t u r n e d on.
A fte r a lathe spindle sander has been used frequently, the centers
become badly worn. This makes it difficult to m ount it in the lathe
accurately in balance. I f the spindle is used when out of balance, it
may w ork loose and be throw n from the lathe. T he dead center end
m ust be well lubricated before it is mounted in place.
S E C T IO N IS— B E L T S A N D E R
1. T h e o p e r a t o r m u s t s t a n d o u t of r a n g e o f t h e b e l t w h e n
f ir s t t u r n i n g o n t h e p o w e r.
If the belt has been damaged since the machine was last used or if
the rolls are out of proper adjustm ent, the belt may break or run off
the rolls during the starting period. In either case it may result in a
serious injury to the operator if he stands in an unprotected position.
2. T h e t a b l e s h o u ld b e a d j u s t e d f o r h e i g h t a n d t h e h o l d e r b a r
p la c e d in p o s i tio n b e f o re t h e m a c h i n e is s t a r t e d .
T o attem pt to make any adjustm ents on or about the table while the
belt is in motion may result in an injury to the operator’s hands as his
attention is directed tow ard the adjustm ent and not the moving belt.
3. A n a p p r o v e d s a n d e r b lo c k m u s t b e u s e d o n a ll s a n d e r jo b s .
The sander block should be broad and long enough to cover suffi­
cient surface to prevent easy tipping either sideways o r endways. It
must be provided w ith a large and securely fastened handle. T he under
32
surface of the block may be covered with a padding of heavy canvas
or carpet. The sander block m ust be held firmly, and a light pressure
exerted. The operator m ust be careful not to allow the block to slip
from his grasp and travel along on the belt, as it m ight wedge in be­
tween the driving pulley and the belt and cause the belt to break. If
the belt should break, it might strike the operator across the face and
hands before he could jum p back out of the way.
4. L a r g e b r o a d s u r f a c e s , o n ly , m a y b e s a n d e d u p o n t h e b e lt
sand er.
Small and irregularly shaped pieces will not lie in position under
the belt because of the speed and friction exerted by it. T herefore,
such pieces are apt to be draw n into the moving parts and wedged in
such a way as to break or tear the b^lt o r damage the machine. In
either case the operator is liable to be injured.
5. U n d e r n o c i r c u m s t a n c e s m a y f r e e - h a n d s a n d i n g b e d o n e
u p o n th e b e lt san d er.
Students sometimes wish to sand small and irregularly shaped
pieces under the belt of the sander by holding them in the hand w ithout
the support of the table. This practice is particularly dangerous for
the follow ing reasons : F irst, the vision is obscured and the hands may
come into contact w ith the abrasive surface of the belt o r its sharp
cutting edge; second, the piece may be snapped from the student's
fingers and throw n into the machine, which might break or tear the
belt, or the pieces may be throw n with considerable force and strike
someone.
6. O n l y o n e p e r s o n a t a tim e m a y u s e t h e b e l t s a n d e r .
W hen m ore than one person attem pts to use the belt sander, it
alm ost invariably results in an accident fo r one or both students be­
cause they cannot coordinate their movements so as not to interfere
w ith each other.
7. E v e r y s t u d e n t m u s t s e c u r e t h e i n s t r u c t o r ’s a p p r o v a l b e ­
f o re s t a r t i n g t h e s a n d e r .
U ntil the student has gained considerable experience in using the
belt sander, it will be safer for him to have the instructor's advice
upon each sanding job. Each type of job presents a different problem,
33
and, since dam age can be done so quickly both to the operator and to
the stock being sanded, the student m ust secure advice and suggestions
from the instructor.
S E C T IO N 16— B O R IN G M A C H IN E
1. B o ring - j o b s t o b e d o n e o n t h e m o r t i s e r m u s t b e s u p e r ­
v ise d b y th e in s tru c to r .
Since the m ortiser operates a t a higher speed th an is commonly
used fo r standard boring machines, such operations become slightly
m ore hazardous. T h erefo re, the student should secure the help and
advice of the instructor until he has gained sufficient experience.
2. I n e v e r y s e t - u p u p o n t h e m o r t i s e r f o r b o r i n g , t h e d o w n ­
w a rd th r u s t of th e h ea d m u s t be sto p p e d a t a p o in t w h ere
t h e b i t w ill c l e a r t h e t a b l e b y a t l e a s t o n e - h a l f in c h .
In boring a hole entirely through a piece, another piece o f stock
of the same w idth m ust be placed beneath the stock to protect the bit
fro m strik in g the table. I f the bit should be allowed to strik e the
m etal table while revolving, it would break, and a piece of th e broken
bit would be throw n from the machine w ith terrific force.
3. T h e s t o c k m u s t b e s e c u r e l y c l a m p e d i n t o p o s i t i o n b e f o r e
t h e m a c h i n e is s t a r t e d .
I f a student should attem pt to bore a hole in a loose piece of stock
on the m ortiser, the piece would immediately climb up on th e bit, be
jerked from the operator’s hands, w hirled around a t high speed, and
the bit would be broken. T he result m ight be a bad in ju ry fo r the
operator.
4. T h e m a c h i n e m u s t be s t o p p e d w h e n e v e r i t b e c o m e s n e c ­
e s s a r y to c h a n g e t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e s t o c k u p o n t h e t a b le .
I f the student should attem pt to change the position of the stock
while the bit is revolving a t high speed directly above it, there is the
possibility th a t the stock m ight slip from the o p erato r’s hands and
34
come in contact with the bit. I f it should strike the bit above the end.
it would be bent to one side, or, if the lead screw should come in con­
tact w ith the piece, it would draw the stock up on the bit so suddenly
that the operator would lose control of it. T he result would be the
same as stated above in the previous rule.
5. T h e sliding' ta b l e m u s t n e v e r b e m o v e d w h i l e th e b i t is
in t h e h o le b e i n g b o re d .
I f the table should be moved before the bit is raised clear o f the
stock, the bit would be bent to one side and broken. I t would be throw n
from the machine with great force.
S E C T IO N 17— P O R T A B L E S H A P E R -R O U T E R
1. S t u d e n t s m u s t h a v e s p e c ia l p e r m i s s i o n f r o m t h e i n s t r u c ­
to r b efore th e y m a y use th e p o rta b le sh a p e r-ro u te r.
T his machine is constructed of very light weight m aterial and
therefore is very easily broken or damaged. It is a high speed (18,000
r.p.m .) machine which makes it a particularly dangerous one to operate
if handled carelessly. T he instructor may refu se to allow the student
to use this machine if, in his judgm ent, the student cannot or will not
handle it carefully and operate it properly.
2. T h e e x te n s io n c o r d m u s t a l w a y s b e r e m o v e d f r o m t h e
e le c tr ic p o w e r s o c k e t b e f o re c h a n g i n g t h e b i t s o r c u t t e r s ,
o r befo re m a k in g a n y o th e r a d ju s tm e n ts u p o n th e m a ­
c h in e .
Disconnecting the extension cord from the power socket eliminates
all possibility of an accidental starting of the machine.
3. T h e o p e r a t o r m u s t b e s u r e t h e s w i t c h o n t h e m o t o r is off
b e f o r e t h e c o r d m a y b e p l u g g e d in t o t h e p o w e r s o c k e t.
Should the switch on the motor be on when the cord is plugged
into the power socket, the machine would immediately start which
might damage the jo b o r the bench; also, the machine m ight vibrate
off the bench and fall to the floor, dam aging the machine and possibly
injuring someone.
35
4. T h e m a c h i n e m u s t b e h e ld f irm ly b y t h e h a n d l e s w h e n
t h e p o w e r is t u r n e d on.
T his is a portable m achine; therefore it is not fastened down.
It m ust be steadied when it is put into motion. The operator m ust keep
a firm hold on the machine during the entire time it is running.
5. T h e s h a p e r - r o u t e r m u s t a l w a y s be h e ld firm ly b y b o t h
h a n d l e s w h e n it is b e i n g o p e r a t e d .
H olding the machine firmly by both handles when it is operating
reduces the possibility of its tipping or jum ping and steadies it. In this
way smoother and more uniform cutting may be done. The possibility
of an accident is also lessened.
S E C T IO N 18— W O O D S H A P E R
1. A ll a d j u s t m e n t s t o t h e ta b le , fe n c e , g u a r d s , a n d s p in d le
m u s t b e s e c u r e l y f a s t e n e d b e f o r e t h e m a c h i n e is s t a r t e d .
If the student should attem pt to make any of the adjustm ents while
the machine is running, his hands m ight slip and come in contact with
the revolving cutters o f he m ight move the fence or guards into the
cutters.
2. S p e c ia l p e r m i s s i o n m u s t b e s e c u r e d f r o m t h e i n s t r u c t o r
b e f o re a n y s t u d e n t m a y u s e t h e s h a p e r .
T he shaper is a machine that is particularly dangerous to operate,
and considerable skill is required to m anipulate the stock. T h ere are
special m ethods for doing each type o f work. It is therefore neces­
sary that the instructor closely supervise the w ork done upon this
machine.
3. A ll a t t a c h m e n t s , h o l d - d o w n c la m p s , a n d s t o p s m u s t b e
s e c u r e ly f a s t e n e d i n t o p o s itio n b e f o r e t h e m a c h i n e is
s t a r te d .
T he shaper is operated at very high speed. The odd-shaped cutters
and the design of some of the machines cause severe vibration at full
36
speed. This vibration will shake the adjustm ents loose unless they are
securely locked in place. If any adjustm ent should slip while the m a­
chine is running, it m ight result in a very severe accident to the
operator.
4. I n s h a p in g , t h e s t o c k m u s t a l w a y s b e p u s h e d a g a i n s t th e
r o t a t i o n of t h e c u t t e r s .
I f the operator should attem pt to back the piece up or to pass it
across the table in the direction of the rotation of the cutters, the
stock would be wrenched from his hands and throw n from the ma­
chine with considerable force. T he operator’s hands might be throw n
against the revolving cutters.
5. T h e s to c k m u s t n o t b e f o rc e d a g a i n s t t h e k n iv e s f a s t e r
t h a n t h e y w ill e a s ily c u t a w a y t h e w a s t e m a te r ia l.
T o force the stock against the knives too fast would cause the
machine to stall or to w rench the stock from the operator’s hands.
6. E a c h s e t- u p u p o n t h e s h a p e r m u s t b e c a r e f u lly in s p e c te d
b y t h e i n s t r u c t o r b e f o r e t h e m a c h in e m a y b e s t a r t e d .
Since shaping is a highly specialized type of machine w ork and the
student has had very little experience w ith this machine, it is neces­
sary th at the instructor use extrem e care in inspecting the set-up and
instructing the student upon the job he wishes to do. If there is any
doubt as to the student’s safety, the instructor may do the job for him.
S E C T IO N 19— S P R A Y G U N
1. S p e c ia l p e r m i s s i o n m u s t b e s e c u r e d f r o m t h e i n s t r u c t o r
b e f o re a s t u d e n t m a y o p e r a t e t h e s p r a y g u n .
Since the spray gun is a special piece of equipment to be used
mainly by the instructor, and since it requires special skills and
knowledge to operate it correctly and safely, the instructor will re­
strict its use to those who he believes possess the necessary aptitude
for operating it efficiently;
37
2. A d e q u a t e v e n t i l a t i o n m u s t b e p r o v i d e d in a n y r o o m o r
s h o p w h e r e th e s p r a y g u n is to b e u se d .
The w orking principle o f the spray gun is to break up into very
small particles the finishing m aterial to be used and to project it in
the form of a very fine spray by means of air pressure upon the sur­
face to be covered. Because this very fine vapor is as light or lighter
than the surrounding air, much o f it d rifts off into the atmosphere of
the room. T herefore, if adequate ventilation is not provided to carry
this spray out of the room, the air within the room soon becomes heav­
ily charged w ith the liquid sprayed from the gun.
There are tw o serious hazards involved under these conditions.
One is that breathing such vapor is very injurious to the health, and
the other, th at such heavily charged air becomes very volatile or ex­
plosive, and if a spark w ere introduced by means of a m atch or an
electrical switch an explosion or a fire m ight result.
3. T h e a ir p r e s s u r e u p o n t h e g u n m u s t b e r e g u l a t e d a n d
c h e c k e d b e f o re t h e s p r a y i n g o p e r a t io n is b e g u n .
The air taken from a central air tank is under heavy pressure and
must be regulated through a reducing valve. The regulators must be
adjusted and checked. On the portable compression type, the safety
valve m ust be adjusted and checked before the spraying operation is
begun. If too much pressure is applied, there is danger of bursting
the paint ja r in the operator's hands w ith the possibility of injuring
him and dam aging the equipment.
4. A ll s t u d e n t s w h o a r e p e r m i t t e d to u s e th e s p r a y g u n m u s t
w e a r th e a ir filte r m a s k .
The air filter m ask is covered w ith a heavy piece of felt which
strains the particles of spray m aterial from the air before it is passed
into the lungs. This precaution is required in order to protect the
operator’s health.
5. A t t h e c o m p le tio n of a s p r a y i n g jo b t h e o p e r a t o r m u s t
w a s h a n d w ip e c le a n a n d d r y a ll t h e p a r t s o f t h e g u n a n d
t h e c o n t a in e r s u s e d in t h e p r o c e s s of h is jo b .
38
U nless the gun is taken apart and all the orifices and parts are
thoroughly washed and wiped dry before the gun is put away, the
paint or lacquer left in the gun will dry hard and clog the passages
so th at the gun will not operate properly again until this m aterial is
removed. T herefore, it is the student’s responsibility to attend to this
clean-up w ork while the m aterial is still soft and easily removed.
39
O A K L A N D
P U B L IC
S C H O O L S
148
SAFETY TEST NO. 1
hipil's N am e............................................-...........................................
Ceacher's S ig n atu re.................................. -............................
D ate.
School.
GENERAL RULES FOR SAFETY IN THE SCHOOL SHOP
N o t e to P u p i l :
D o n o t a t t e m p t to a n s w e r q u e stio n s b e f o r e y ou h a v e h a d n e c e s s a r y i n s tr u c t io n
an d d e m o n s tr a t io n s o r until you a r e su re yo u can do so c o rr e c tly .
1. W hy m ust students not use tools or operate m achines upon w hich they h av e not receiv ed instruction?
2. W hy a re scuffling, playing, throw ing, loud talking, an d running not perm itted in the cab in et shop?
3. W hy m ust the floor be kept clear of all scrap m aterial a n d tools?
4. W hy m ust the four legs of a stool rest sq u arely u pon the floor while it is in use?
5. W hy should only the operator b e allow ed close to a m achine while it is being op erated ?
(Over)
6. W h y m u s t e v e n th e s lig h te s t in ju rie s b e r e p o r t e d i m m e d i a t e l y to th e in stru cto r?
7. W h y s h o u ld all e d g e tools b e k e p t sharp?
8. W h y s h o u ld s h a r p - e d g e tools n e v e r b e c a rrie d in the pockets?
9. W hy should the student alw ay s clam p the stock to the bench a n d cut a w a y from himself w h en using
ed g e tools?
10. W hy should a file w hich h a s no h a n d le not b e used?
11. V/hy should a broken tool, or one not in good repair, b e called to the attention of the instructor?
Oakland Public Schools
SAFETY TEST NO. 7
149
’upil's N am e.................................................. ..........................
D ate............................................
’each er's S ignature.................................................................
S chool
..................................
JIG SAW
N ote to P up il: Do n o t a tte m p t to a n s w e r q u e s tio n s b e fo re y o u h a v e h a d n e c e s s a r y in stru c tio n
a n d d e m o n s tra tio n s or u n til y o u a r e s u re y o u c a n do so co rrectly .
1. W hy m ust special perm ission be secured from the instructor before a student m ay o perate the pow er jig
saw ?
2. W hy m ust the jig saw b e turned over a couple of times by h a n d before sw itching on the power?
3. W hy m ust the hold-dow n clam p, or presser foot, be adjusted to hold the stock firmly upon the tab le while
the saw is operating?
4. W hy m ust the speed be reg u lated to the size of the saw a n d the thickness a n d h ard n ess of the w ood?
5. W hy should a short stick b e used w hen clean in g scraps off the jig saw table?
(Over)
6. W hy must all tilted tab le work upon the jig saw b e supervised by the instructor?
7. W hy m ust all sab re saw w ork upon the jig saw be checked by the instructor before the pow er m ay be
turned on?
8. W hy must the extension cord plug or the m ain switch be disconnected before m aking a n y adjustm ents
ab o u t the m achine, changing the saw or the position of the belt?
O AK LAND P U B L I C SC H O O L S
SAFETY TEST NO. 21
3upil's Name.......................
D ate....
Teacher's Signature..........
School.
SOLDERING FURNACE AND SOLDERING IRON
N o te to Pupil: D o not attempt to answer questions before you have had necessary instruction
and demonstrations or until you are sure you can do so correctly.
1. W hy should a lighted m atch be placed in the furnace before the g as is turned on?
2. W hy shouldn't hot soldering coppers be carried aro u n d the room?
3. W hy should all acid be kept off hands an d clothing?
4. W hy shouldn't acid be sp attered w hen applying it with a brush?
5. W hy shouldn't jars of acid be carried a ro u n d the room ?
JL ,*wr W
3 A K L A N D P U B L I C SC H O O L S
SAFETY TEST NO. 30
hipil's N am e.....................
Date.................................... .........
^eacher's S ig n a tu re ............................
School.............................. ............
SQUARING SHEARS AND BAR FOLDER
N o t e to P upil:
D o not attempt to answer questions before you have had necessary instruction
and dem onstrations or until you are sure you can do so correctly.
1. W hy m ust the operator's fingers never be forced u n d er the safety g u ard ?
2. W hy should the student never cut from the back of the sq u arin g shears?
3. W hy should the student keep his feet from u n d er the tread le or the sq u arin g shears?
4. W hy should only one person b e a ro u n d the sq u arin g sh ears at one time?
5. W hy should the student keep his h ands off the b a r folder w hen it is b ein g used?
OAKLAND PUBLIC SCHOOLS
Industrial Arts Department
(Grade)
(Period No.)
(School)
(P u p il’s Name— L ast Name First)
(Age)
(Beginning Date)
Safety Tests—Wood Shop
PROFICIENCY STATEMENT
This is to certify that my instructor has demonstrated and explained to me how to operate safely tools and machines indicated in the units I have signed below. I promise to
observe all safety precautions and not to use or operate any machine until I have been given instruction and learned the safety rules and until I have passed the required tests thereon.
If I am ever in doubt regarding the doing of any operation, I promise to get first the necessary information.
( S i g n e d ) ............................................................................................................................... ...............................................
(Pupil)
UNIT
PUPIL’S SIGNATURE
TEST
DATE
........ -................................
9
^rrfotv A r m m d M a c h in e ry
q
^rffotv in M a c h i n e S h a n and G eneral Metal Shop.--.................
4
Srrfpfv w ith F]ectricitv
7
Tin S o w
Q
Planer
....................................................
..
................................................................... .
................................................................
Ifl
C i r r i i l a r Saw
19
Band Saw
14
D iqr a n d Snindle Sander
15
Belt Sander
1fi
Borina Machine
17
Portable Shaaer-Router
18
W ood Shaoer
..................................
lQ
Sarav Gun
..................................
Form H & JH 29— 10-27-39
Instructor's Initials
...........................................................
......................................................
..
...........................................
............................................................
..................................................
...........................................
tn
ro
UJatch Vour DRIVIDG
Days Of
RECREATION
Too Often Become
Days Of
WRECK-CRE AT IO N
(A p p ro v e d by the Industrial A ccident Com m ission)
State Compensation Insurance Fund9 450 McAllister Street9 San Francisco
B U L L E T I N 537
YOU Are Not Immune.
ACCIDENTS
Don't All Happen To
The Other Fellow.
(A p p ro v e d b y the Industrial A ccident Com m ission)
S ta te C om pen sation Insurance F u nd, 4 5 0 M c A lliste r S tr e e t , San Francisco
B U L L E T I N 5 18
-e o re k ji
*75
156
SAFETY
SERVICE
W H Y TAKE
CHANCES?
The Law Of
Averages Still
Holds
(A p p ro v e d b y the Industrial A ccident Com m ission)
State Compensation Insurance Fund, 450 M cAllister Street, San Francisco
B U L L E T I N 533
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