close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

A study of the baseball throw as a predictive index of athletic ability

код для вставкиСкачать
A STUDY OF THE BASEBALL THROW AS A PREDICTIVE
INBEL OF ATHLETIC ABILITY
A T h e sis
P r e s e n te d to
th e F a c u lty o f th e School o f E d u c a tio n
U n iv e r s ity o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a
In P a r t i a l F u lfillm e n t
o f t h e R e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e D e g re e
M a ste r o f S c ie n c e in E d u c a tio n
by
Roy L u v e rn e C a r l s o n
A u g u s t 1941
UMI Number: EP54180
All rights reserved
INFORMATION TO ALL USERS
The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon,the quality of the copy submitted.
In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript
and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed,
a note will indicate the deletion.
Dissertation Publishing
UMI EP54180
Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author.
Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC.
All rights reserved. This work is protected against
unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code
ProQuest LLC.
789 East Eisenhower Parkway
P.O. Box 1346
Ann Arbor, Ml 48106- 1346
This thesis, written under the direction of the
Chairman of the candidate’s Guidance Com mitte e
and a p p r o v e d by all members of the Committee,
has been presented to and acce pted by the Faculty
of the School of Education in parti al fulfillment
of the requirements f o r the degree of M a s t e r of
Science in Education.
D a te ....A m is t_ .
7a..1941
.......................................
Guidance Com m ittee
Wm. Ralph LaPorte
Chairman
Pauline Frederick
D. Welty Lefever
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTM
I,
PAGE
INTROSUCTION . . . . . . . . . .
.....................
. . .
1
S t a t e m e n t o f t h e p r o b le m . . . . . . . . . . .
2
I m p o r ta n c e a n d s i g n i f i c a n c e o f th e
in v e s tig a tio n
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4
R e la te d i n v e s ti g a t i o n s . . . . . . . . . . . .
6
M ethod o f p r o c e d u r e
9
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
D e s c r ip tio n o f f i v e g rad e d form s ,
i n th ro w in g
D e lim ita tio n s
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . .
. # . . . . .
O r g a n iz a tio n o f re m a in d e r o f th e t h e s i s
II.
.
16
. . .
17
Summary o f C h a p t e r One « • • • « . . . • • • •
18
THE PHYSICAL EXPERIMENTAL DEVICE . . . . . . . .
20
In tro d u c tio n
20
The p h y s i c a l e x p e r i m e n t a l d e v i c e . . . . . . .
21
Time and e x t e n t o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t
22
. . . . . .
C o n stru c tio n o f th e t e s t
23
A d m in is tra tio n o f th e t e s t
23
E x p la n a tio n o f th e s c o re c a rd
III.
12
. . . . . . . .
25
METHODS USED TO DETERMINE RELIABILITY^
VALIDITY AND OBJECTIVITY OF THE BASE­
BALL TEST
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
28
In tro d u c tio n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
28
iii
c h a p te r
base
C rite ria
u sed f o r d e te rm in in g r e l i a b i l i t y . . .
28
C rite ria
used f o r d e te rm in in g v a l i d i t y
, .
29
C rite ria
used f o r d e te rm in in g o b j e c t i v i t y
. .
30
M ethod o f d e t e r m i n i n g r e l i a b i l i t y
31
M ethod o f d e t e r m i n i n g v a l i d i t y
32
Summary
IV .
. .
• • • • • • • •
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
33
A STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OP THE PREDICTIVE VALUE
OF THE BASEBALL TEST
E x p la n a tio n o f r e l i a b i l i t y
........................
35
o f th e d i f f e r e n c e
b e tw e e n m ean s
35
C o m p ariso n o f v a r i o u s a t h l e t e g r o u p s w i t h
each o t h e r , and w ith n o n - a t h l e t e group . . .
Summary
V,
• • • .
......................
36
50
STATISTICAL TREATMENT OF THE RESULTS FROM THE
METHODS USED TO ESTABLISH RELIABILITY AND
VALIDITY FOR THE BASEBALL T E S T ..................................
53
T e st-R e te st
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
53
O dd-E ven . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
53
B race T e s t c o r r e l a t i o n
56
MeCloy c o r r e l a t i o n
57
B ask et S h o o tin g c o r r e l a t i o n
B a sk e tb a ll A b ility
F o o tb a ll A b ility
•
• • • . • • » . •
60
62
65
tv
CHAPTER
SAGE
t
Form S c o r e
......................... . . "
Norms o f t h e B a s e b a l l T e s t s c o r e s
Summary
• V I,
65
. . . . . .
67
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
71
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AMD RECOMMENDATIONS
C h a p te r I ,
. . .
72
summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C h a p te r I I ,
C h a p te r I I I ,
summary
72
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
73
summary
73
C h a p t e r IV, summary
74
C h a p t e r V, summary
75
O b j e c t i v i t y o f t h e B a s e b a l l T e s t ..........................
•
76
C o n c lu s io n s
77
R e c c o m m e n d a tio n s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
79
BIBLIOGRAPHY
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
80
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE
I.
PAGE
R e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e D i f f e r e n c e B e tw ee n th e
Means o f t h e T o t a l Group an d a l l A t h l e t e s
on t h e B a s e b a l l T e s t
II,
37
R e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e D i f f e r e n c e B e tw ee n t h e
Means o f t h e A t h l e t e s and N o n - a t h l e t e s
on t h e
III*
B a se b a ll T est
•
39
R e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e D i f f e r e n c e B etw een t h e
M eans o f t h e P * o o tb a ll P l a y e r s , B a s k e t b a l l
P l a y e r s , N o n - a t h l e t e s an d T r a c k Men
on t h e
IV ,
B a s e b a ll Teat
40
R e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e D i f f e r e n c e B etw een t h e
Means o f t h e T r a c k Men and N o n - a t h l e t e s ,
B a s k e t b a l l P l a y e r s and F o o t b a l l P l a y e r s
on th e
V,
B a se b a llT est
, . . . . . . . . . .
•
42
R e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e D i f f e r e n c e B etw een t h e
Means o f t h e B a s k e t b a l l P l a y e r s and
N o n - a t h l e t e s , F o o t b a l l P l a y e r s , and T r a c k
Men on
V I,
th e B a se b a ll T est
43
R e l i a b i l i t y o f th e . D i f f e r e n c e B etw een t h e
Means o f t h e A t h l e t e s an d N o n - a t h l e t e s o f
t h e S e v e n t h G rade Boys b n t h e B a s e b a l l T e s t •
V II,
R e l i a b i l i t y o f th e D i f f e r e n c e B etw een t h e
M eans o f A t h l e t e s and N o n - a t h l e t e s o f t h e
45
vi
■m
E i g h t h G rad e B oys on t h e B a s e b a l l T e s t . • .
46
R e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e D i f f e r e n c e B etw een t h e
M eans o f t h e A t h l e t e s and N o n - a t h l e t e s
o f t h e N i n e t h G rade Boys o n t h e
B a se b a ll Test
.
47
t h e T e n th G rade Boys on t h e B a s e b a l l T e s t • *
48
R e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e D i f f e r e n c e B etw een t h e
M eans o f t h e A t h l e t e s and I f o n - a t h l e t e s o f
B a se b a ll T e s t—R e te s t S c a tte rg ra m
. . * • • •
54
B a s e b a l l T e s t — O d d -e v e n S c a t t e r g r a m
.........................
55
B a s e b a ll T e s t — B race T e st
S c a tte rg ra m
* ••
*•
58
B a s e b a l l T e s t —McOloy T e s t S c a t t e r g r a m
••
*•
59
B a s e b a ll T e s t— B a sk e t S h o o tin g T e st S c a tte rg ra m
61
B a s e b a ll T e s t— B ask et A b ility S c a tte rg ra m
63
• • *
B a se b a ll T e s t— F o o tb a ll A b i l it y S c a tte rg ra m
B a s e b a l l T e s t — Form S c o re
I n d i v i d u a l Age— T o t a l Age
B a se b a ll S co res
S c a tte rg ra m
••
• *
64
* •
66
D i s t r i b u t i o n o f th e
* ...................
. . . . . . . .
68
LIST OF FIGURES
' FIGURE
PAGE
1.
B lu e p rin t
o f t h e T e s t i n g D e v ic e . . . . . . . . .
2*
The S c o r e Card Used i n t h e T e s t
21
27
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
T h e r e a r e many k i n d s o f d e x t e r i t y *
The s i m p l e s t
d e x t r o u s m o v em en ts, s u c h a s t h o s e made i n p a c k i n g
c a r t o n s , r e q u i r e c o n t r o l o f o n ly th e l a r g e r m u sc le s o f
hand an d arm i n p i c k i n g up o b j e c t s and p l a c i n g them
q u i c k l y i n p o s i t i o n . O t h e r m ovem ents c a l l f o r g r e a t e r
d e lic a c y o f a d ju s tm e n t, in v o lv in g c o n tr o l o f th e sm a lle r
m u sc le s.
S t i l l o t h e r s , M k e ^ tt o o w ± n g - a - Jb a l - i , c a n be
made d e x t r o u s l y o n l y when t h e m u s c l e s o f e y e s , f i n g e r s ,
h a n d s and a rm s a r e w e l l c o o r d i n a t e d w i t h t h e a c t i o n o f
t h e s k e l e t a l m u s c l e s o f b a c k and l e g s w h ic h m a i n t a i n
b o d ily p o s t u r e .l
I n t h e f i e l d o f t e s t s and m e a s u r e m e n ts i n p h y s i c a l
e d u c a tio n l i t t l e
h a s b e e n done i n a n a t t e m p t to c o n s t r u c t
an d v a l i d a t e a t e s t f o r m e a s u r i n g a c c u r a c y i n t h r o w i n g .
The t e s t s t h a t h a v e b e e n d e v i s e d a r e n o t o b j e c t i v e i n t h e
t r u e s e n s e o f t h e w o rd .
No a t t e m p t h a s b e e n made to
e s t a b l i s h n o rm s, v a l i d i t y o r r e l i a b i l i t y .
The r e a s o n f o r
n o t h a v in g e s t a b l i s h e d th e s e s ta n d a r d s i s t h a t p h y s i c a l
t e s t s a r e so c o n s t r u c t e d a s n o t t o p e r m i t t h e m e a s u re m e n t
o f th r o w i n g a c c u r a c y w i t h o u t t h e s u b j e c t i v e f a c t o r .
The m e a su re m e n t o f w h o le c o o r d i n a t i o n s ,
such a s
th r o w i n g a b a s e b a l l , n e c e s s i t a t e s a n o b j e c t i v e t e s t o f
t h e t y p e w h ic h i s d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s t h e s i s .
4 W. Y. Bingham , A p t i t u d e s a n d A p t i t u d e T e s t i n g
(New Y o rk ; H a r p e r and B r o t h e r s , 1 9 3 7 } , p . 2 5 0 .
2
I,
THE PROBLEM
S ta te m e n t o f th e p ro b lem *
The p ro b le m i n v o l v e s t h e
d e v e lo p m e n t o f a n o b j e c t i v e t e s t i n m e a s u r i n g a c c u r a c y i n
th r o w i n g a r e g u l a t i o n b a s e b a l l ;
t h a t i s , a w h o le c o o r d i n ­
a t i o n t e s t w h ic h c a n be u s e d to p r e d i c t s u c c e s s i n w h o le
c o o r d i n a t e d a c t i v i t i e s s u c h a s b a s k e t b a l l , f o o t b a l l and
track *
The a s p e c t s i n c l u d e d i n t h e p r o b le m w e re t h e d e ­
v e lo p m e n t o f a t e s t i n g d e v i c e ,
t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f a s c o r e
c a r d f o r r e c o r d i n g s t a t i s t i c s and f o r p e rm a n e n t f i l i n g ,
e sta b lish m e n t o f an e n ti r e l y o b je c tiv e t e s t ,
th e
th e e s t a b l i s h ­
m en t o f v a l i d i t y , o b j e c t i v i t y a n d r e l i a b i l i t y , a n d t h e a n ­
sw erin g o f th e f o llo w in g s p e c i f i c q u e s t io n s :
1*
D oes t h e t e s t m e a s u r e a n y t h i n g o t h e r t h a n
accu racy ?
2.
I s i t p o s s i b l e t o e s t a b l i s h n o rm s f o r a l l a g e s
u s a b l e by o t h e r t e a c h e r s ?
3.
Bo b o y s i n t h e u p p e r g r a d e s make b e t t e r s c o r e s
on th e t e s t th a n th e boys i n th e lo w e r g ra d e s ?
4.
I s th e t e s t a m o tiv a tin g f a c t o r in p h y s ic a l
e d u c a tio n ?
5*
H as form a n y c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h a c c u r a c y ?
6*
Can t h e t e s t be u s e d f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f
p la y e rs?
7*
Can t h e t e s t be u s e d t o p r e d i c t a p l a y e r ' s
3
su ccess in d if f e r e n t sp o rts?
I n o r d e r t o make t h e t e s t o b j e c t i v e , o n e m u s t k e e p
i n m ind t h e f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a : 2
A* V a l i d i t y * The t e s t s h o u l d r e a l l y m e a s u r e w h at
i t i s i n t e n d e d t o m e a su re *
I t sh o u ld c o r r e l a t e h ig h ly
w ith an a cc e p te d c r i t e r i o n *
l a t a s h o u l d be a v a i l a b l e
sh o w in g t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e t e s t .
8* A c c u r a c y * A t e s t m u s t b e o b j e c t i v e l y m e a s u r e d
by u n i t s w h ic h a r e w h o l l y a p p r o p r i a t e an d w h ic h a r e
a b s o l u te ly e q u a l a t a l l p o i n t s on th e s c a l e .
I f poss­
i b l e , s c o r e s s h o u l d b e e x p r e s s e d i n f i g u r e s w h ic h may
be h a n d le d a r i t h m e t i c a l l y .
3.
R e l i a b i l i t y , A t e s t h as r e l i a b i l i t y to th e
e x t e n t t h a t two a p p l i c a t i o n s o f e q u i v a l e n t t e s t s t o
t h e same p u p i l s y i e l d i d e n t i c a l s c o r e s .
4* O b j e c t i v i t y * A t e s t i s p e r f e c t l y o b j e c t i v e when
two e x a m i n e r s u s i n g e q u i v a l e n t t e s t s u p o n i d e n t i c a l
p u p ils secu re id e n tic a l sc o re s.
5* Norma. A t e s t s h o u l d be a c c o m p a n ie d by n o rm s o f
ach iev em en t f o r a g e , s e x , g r a d e , and o t h e r d e s i r e d
fa c to rs.
Economy, The t e s t s h o u l d be e c o n o m ic a l i n p o i n t
o f tim e con su m ed, e q u ip m e n t , e x p e n s e , a n d e f f o r t o n t h e
p a r t o f t h e e x a m in e r a n d t h e p u p i l .
7. C o m p reh e n siv en e ss.
The t e s t s h o u l d a d e q u a t e l y
m easure a l l im p o rta n t p h a s e s o f th e t r a i t i n q u e s t io n .
8 . The t e s t s h o u l d b e n o n - c o a e h a b l e , i e , , s u c h t h a t
p u p i l s can n o t a s s i s t each o th e r to b e t t e r t h e i r s c o r e s .
9 . The t e s t s h o u l d b e s i m p l e a n d f r e e fro m a m b i g u i ­
t i e s and o t h e r i r r e l i v a n c i e s .
10.
t h e t e s t sh o u ld n o t :
0 . 1 . S u t t c l i f f e , " P r o b le m s o f T e s t i n g i n P h y s i c a l
E d u c a tio n ," (u n p u b lish e d M a ste r* s t h e s i s , U n iv e r s ity o f
S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s, 1 9 3 0 ), p . 125.
4
A*
Have i n s t r u c t i o n s i n v o l v i n g to o much t a l k i n g *
B.
D i s r u p t p u p i l s by t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e t e s t .
C.
Be to o l o n g a n d i n v o l v e f a t i g u e .
B.
M e a s u re o t h e r t r a i t s
1.
C o n c e rn i n s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t s o f p u p i l
p erfo rm an ce.
th a n th e ones, in te n d e d .
1 1 . The e l e m e n t s o f t h e t e s t s h o u l d be w e ig h e d i n t h e
optim um m a n n e r. W e ig h in g s h o u l d be d e t e r m i n d s t a t i s ­
tic a lly .
IS .
P u p i l s ’ r e a c t i o n s s h o u l d be a s b r i e f a s p o s s i b l e .
I S . The t e s t s h o u l d p e r m i t i t s u s e w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s
or w ith g ro u p s.
1 4 . T e s t i n s t r u c t i o n s s h o u l d b e b r i e f , i n c l u d e demon­
s t r a t i o n s , be a d a p t e d t o and u n i f o r m f o r a l l who a r e
t e s t e d , an d g i v e n i n t h e o r d e r i n w h i c h t h e t e s t w i l l be
e x e c u te d .
15.
The t e s t s h o u l d p r o d u c e no u n d i s t r i b u t e d s c o r e s .
A.
I t s h o u l d be d i f f i c u l t e n o u g h t h a t no p u p i l
w i l l make a p e r f e c t s c o r e .
B.
I t s h o u l d b e s o e a s y t h a t no p u p i l w i l l s c o r e
zero ,
0,
I t sh o u ld s e p a r a te p u p i l s i n t o a t l e a s t te n
g ro u p s and p r e f e r a b l y t h i r t e e n to tw e n ty .
1 6 . The t e s t s h o u l d be so c o n s t r u c t e d a s t o p e r m i t
u n i f o r m i t y o f p r o c e d u r e i n a p p l y i n g and s c o r i n g .
I m p o r t a n c e an d s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e p r o b l e m .
The
im p o rta n c e and s i g n i f i c a n c e o f th e p ro b lem l i e s i n th e
d e v e lo p m e n t o f a n o b j e c t i v e t e s t i n g d e v i c e w h ic h w i l l be
a n a i d t o i n s t r u c t o r s who d e s i r e t o c l a s s i f y p u p i l s i n t o
d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f c o o r d i n a t i o n f o r d i f f e r e n t a g e s , and
to p r e d i c t t h e p o s s i b l e s u c c e s s o f a boy i n a s p o r t w h ic h
r e q u ir e s c o n sid e ra b le c o o rd in a tio n .
I n any s p o r t , w h e t h e r f o r men o r women, a t h o r o u g h
u n d e r s ta n d in g o f th e fu n d a m e n ta ls in v o lv e d i s e s s e n t i a l to
c o n siste n t s k i l l .
I n te a c h in g any a c t i v i t y
t o b o y s , to o
much e m p h a s i s c a n n o t be p l a c e d on t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f p r a c t i c e
i n th e fu n d a m e n ta ls o f t h a t s p o r t .
As a n e x a m p le , b o y s
u s u a lly have a n a tu r a l a p t i t u d e f o r th ro w in g .
G rirls t e n d
to l o b t h e b a l l w i t h a w eak f o r e a r m s n a p , t h u s f a i l i n g
to
b r i n g i n t o p l a y t h e s h o u l d e r s and b a c k m u s c l e s , n o r do t h e y
t r a n s f e r t h e w e i g h t o f t h e body fro m r i g h t t o l e f t f o o t .
B o th o f t h e s e f u n d a m e n t a l s a r e i n d i s p e n s a b l e i n a c q u i r i n g
sp e e d , d i s t a n c e and a c c u r a c y .
From t h e t e a c h e r ’ s v ie w p o i n t ,
t h e b a s e b a l l t e s t may
b e o f v a l u e i n s i z i n g up s t u d e n t s , c o r r e c t i n g i n d i v i d u a l
f a u l t s and e s t i m a t i n g g r a d e s .
As B r a c e e x p r e s s e s i t :
M e asu rem en t m ak e s p o s s i b l e b e t t e r g r o u p i n g o f p u p i l s ,
o r p l a n n i n g i n s t r u c t i o n so t h a t g r e a t e r t e a c h i n g e f f i ­
c i e n c y may r e s u l t .
I f i t i s d e s i r a b l e t o im p ro v e t h e
game s k i l l s o f p u p i l s , i t becom es o f a d v a n t a g e t o know
t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f i n d i v i d u a l s so t h a t t h o s e n e e d i n g
s p e c i a l t e a c h i n g may b e g r o u p e d t o g e t h e r , o r so t h a t
te a m s o f e q u a l a b i l i t y may be fo rm e d .
I f g e n e ra l p la y ­
i n g a b i l i t y i s h e l d b a c k by d e f i c i e n c y i n some s p e c i f i c
s k i l l , i t i s w i s e p r o c e d u r e t o d i s c o v e r w h a t t h a t de­
f i c i e n c y i s and p l a n s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n f o r i t s c o r ­
re c tio n . 3
3
£ , K, B r a c e , M e a s u r i n
A, S , B a r n e s and Company, 1927
**■*--- *b l l i t y
(Hew Y o rk :
6
The s c o r i n g t a b l e s o f th e b a s e b a l l t e s t may be
p o s t e d on t h e gym nasium w a l l , b u l l e t i n b o a r d o r b a s e b a l l
b a c k s t o p w h e re t h e y w i l l be r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e
p l a y e r s * u s e . W eekly c h a r t s may b e f i l l e d
i n by t h e
p l a y e r s a s a m ea n s o f c o m p a rin g t h e r e l a t i v e p r o g r e s s o f
c la ss e s,
tea m s o r i n d i v i d u a l s .
The p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f a n o b j e c t i v e t e s t i n m e a s u r i n g
th e a c c u r a c y o f b a s e b a l l t h r o w i n g h a v e b e e n o u t l i n e d . The
s u b j e c t w as s e l e c t e d
to e s t a b l i s h t h e f i r s t o b j e c t i v e t e s t
i n m e a s u r i n g a c c u r a c y o f t h r o w i n g , and t o p r o v e w h e t h e r o r
n o t th r o w in g a c c u r a t e l y was r e l a t e d
tra its ,
to any o t h e r p h y s i c a l
s u c h a s , m o to r a b i l i t y , p o w e r ,
d e fin ite s k ills or
f u n d a m e n t a l s , o r a c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e s e . The t e s t may be
o f v a lu e to th e p r o f e s s i o n a s a m easurem ent o f s k i l l , o r
a m eth o d o f m o t i v a t i n g a d e s i r e t o im p ro v e t h e t e c h n i q u e
o f th ro w in g f o r a c c u ra c y .
■R e l a t e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n s .
B itc h in g f o r a c c u ra c y .
A p i t c h i n g t a r g e t u s e d o n l y f o r m e a s u re m e n t o f a c c u r a c y
may be made i n s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t w a y s . The f o l l o w i n g
■
4
d e s c r i p t i o n s w e re t a k e n from B a s e b a l l f o r G i r l s , by
G la d y s E. P a l m e r . Her d e s c r i p t i o n s a r e i d e n t i c a l a s to t h e
4 G la d y s E. P a l m e r , B a s e b a l l f o r G i r l s (New Y ork:
A. S . B a r n e s a n d Com pany)f p . 3 6 .
7
f u n d a m e n t a l i d e a s o f , t h e a c c u r a c y t e s t s fo u n d i n o t h e r
s o u r c e s * s u c h a s T e s t a an d M e a s u re m e n ts i n P h y s i c a l
E d u c a t i o n by B o y a rd and C o z e n s . 6
One v e r y s i m p l e way i s t o
p a i n t a r e c t a n g l e on t h e w a l l o f t h e gym nasium o r o n t h e
h a n d b a ll b o ard .
I t may be p a i n t e d on c a n y a s and hung on
t h e b a s e b a l l b a c k s t o p , o r i t may be a fra m e o f wood e r e c t e d
t o s t a n d on t h e g r o u n d i n a n y d e s i r e d s p o t*
The r e c t a n g l e
s h o u l d a lw a y s be e i g h t e e n i n c h e s w id e by t h i r t y - s e v e n i n c h e s
h ig h , o v e r a ll,
th e p a in te d l i n e s b o rd e rin g th e r e c ta n g le
b e i n g one i n c h w i d e .
The l o w e r e d g e o f t h e r e c t a n g l e s h o u l d
ebe t w e n ty - o n e i n c h e s a b o v e t h e l e v e l o f t h e f l o o r o r g r o u n d .
The a r e a w i t h i n t h e r e c t a n g l e d e s c r i b e s a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e
s t r i k e a r e a o v e r home p l a t e ,
b e tw e e n t h e k n e e s a n d s h o u l d e r s
o f t h e b a ts m a n .
T a k in g t h e c o r r e c t d i s t a n c e f o r p i t c h i n g , a n d u s i n g
t h e c o r r e c t form i n d e l i v e r y ,
w ith in th e r e c t a n g l e .
th r o w f o r t h e s t r i k e a r e a
T h i s t e a t may be u s e d f o r b o t h o v e r ­
h an d an d u n d e rh a n d p i t c h i n g .
A ll b a l l s h i t t i n g w ith in th e
r e c t a n g l e may be c a l l e d s t r i k e s ; a l l o t h e r s , b a l l s .
P itc h
f o r s t r i k e s and b a l l s and s c o r e a s f o l l o w s : 6
J , F , B o v ard and F . W. C o z e n s , T e s t s ja n d M e a s u r e m e n ts
i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : W, B. S a u n d e r s and
Company, 1 9 3 0 ) , p . 353•
& G la d y s E. P a l m e r , o p .
c i t . , p. 57.
3
B a lls.
S trik e s
P e r c e n t a g e - Sg,orgjt
.0 ...... .
3 ,
3
1 . . . . . .
•
3 . . . . . . .
2. . . . . . .
3 . . . . . . .
3. .
2 . . . . . . .
4. . . . . .
1 . . . . . . .
4. . . . . . .
0
.......
4
,7 5 0
,6 0 0
. ......................500
.
.3 3 3
.2 0 0
.......
T h row ing f o r a c c u r a c y .
1,000
.0 0 0
A v e r y s i m p l e t e s t w h ic h
th e i n v e s t i g a t o r used in v o lv e s a t a r g e t c o n s i s t i n g o f a
c irc le ,
f o u r a n d o n e h a l f f e e t i n d i a m e t e r , w h ic h may he
p a i n t e d on t h e gym nasium w a l l , h a n d b a l l c o u r t o r a c a n v a s .
The t a r g e t a r e a r e p r e s e n t s a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e a r e a w i t h i n
th e re a c h o f a p la y e r f i e l d i n g
F irst,
ta rg e t,
th e b a l l ,
s t a n d t h e d i s t a n c e b e tw e e n b a s e s away fro m t h e
t h e n t h e d i s t a n c e b e tw e e n f i r s t and t h i r d b a s e s and
re p e a t th e t e s t .
T ake f i v e t r i a l s a t e a c h d i s t a n c e a n d i s c o r e
a s fo llo w s:7
W ith in ’C ir c le
W it h o u t C i r c l e
P e rc e n ta g e
. . . . . . .
0
. 1 .0 0 0
4
. . . . . . .
1 . . . . . .
.
.8 0 0
3
. . . . . . .
2 . . . . . .
,
,6 0 0
2
. . . . . . . 3 .......................
1
. . . . . . .
4 . . . . . .
.
.2 0 0
0
. . . . . . .
5
.
,0 0 0
.
5
7 I b i d , , p:. 38
.
.4 0 0
9
A ta r g e t c o n s is tin g o f a b u l l ’ s eye, e ig h te e n in c h e s
i n d i a m e t e r , and two o u t e r c i r c l e s , n i n e i n c h e s and e i g h t e e n
i n c h e s d i s t a n t fro m t h e b u l l ’ s e y e , may be u s e d t o f u r t h e r
t e s t a c c u r a c y i n th ro w in g #
fake f iv e
t r i a l s and s c o r e a s
fo llo w s:®
B u l l ’ s Bye •
20 p o i n t s
M id d le Area#
10 p o i n t s
O u t e r A re a •
5 p o in ts
M ethod o f P r o c e d u r e #
F irst of a ll,
t h e t e s t h ad t o
be c o n s t r u c t e d an d a s c o r e c a r d f o r r e c o r d i n g s t a t i s t i c a l
d a ta arran g ed #
f h e d e v i c e w as made by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r ,
t h e c a n v a s e s by t h e M id w e st A t h l e t i e R e p a i r Company i n St#
P a u l, M in n e so ta,
f h e t e s t s w e re g i v e n i n t h e r e g u l a r
e l a s s e s , w h i c h , a t t h e W o r t h f i e l d H igh S c h o o l , m et t w i c e a
w eek,
f h e c l a s s e s w e re s m a l l e n o u g h ( t h e l a r g e s t b e in g
t h i r t y b o y s)
p e rio d s#
t o p e r m i t t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e t e s t i n two
f h e b o y s w e re g i v e n t h e t e s t o n e week and t h e
r e t e s t t h e f o l l o w i n g week u n d e r t h e same c o n d i d t i o n s .
B e f o r e g i v i n g t h e t e s t s , a s t a n d a r d d i s t a n c e had t o
be s e t ,
f h i s w as done by h a v i n g a few b o y s th r o w from
d i s t a n c e s v a r y i n g fro m tw e n ty f e e t t o s i x t y f e e t #
I t was
fo u n d by h a v in g a few b o y s from a l l e l a s s e s th ro w a t t h e
ta rg e ts ,
t h a t th e d i s ta n c e o f t h i r t y - f o u r f e e t produced a
8 I b id . . p. 39.
10
norm al c u rv e on th e s c o r e s ,
T h is f a c t *
t h a t th e t h i r t y -
f o u r f o o t l i n e w ould p r o d u c e a n o rm a l c u r v e o f s c o r e s , i s
shown by a s t u d y o f t h e t e s t - r e t e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s c a t t e r g r a m .
Beyond t h e t h i r t y - f o u r f o o t l i n e ,
t h e t e s t r e c o r d s showed
t h a t t h e a c c u r a c y d e c r e a s e d due t o t h e g r e a t e r f o r c e a p p l i e d .
T h i s m e a n t t h a t t h e b o y s t a k i n g t h e t e s t w e re n o t t h r o w i n g
w ith t h e i r n a t u r a l form ,
o f a c tio n s .
th u s d e c re a s in g th e c o o rd in a tio n
I t m u st b e rem em bered t h a t by m o v in g t h e th r o w ­
in g l i n e c lo s e r to th e f r o n t o f th e t a r g e t ,
i t w ould be
e a s i e r f o r a l l b o y s to s c o r e h i g h e r o n t h e t e s t .
I t m u st
a l s o b e k e p t i n mind t h a t a s t h e th r o w in g l i n e i s moved
f u r t h e r away fro m t h e t a r g e t ,
s c o r e s w ould b e ,
th e g r e a t e r th e d i s p e r s i o n o f
t o a c e r t a i n p o i n t ; a n d fro m t h i s p o i n t t h e
s c o r e s w ould t e n d to e q u a l i z e u n t i l a l l b o y s s c o r e d z e r o .
The p o i n t o f th r o w in g w h e re t h e s c o r e s t e n d e d t o e q u a l i z e t
to w a rd t h e h i g h e r r a n g e , a s t h e l i n e w as moved to w a rd t h e
t a r g e t , an d t h e p o i n t w h e re t h e s c o r e s t e n d e d t o e q u a l i z e
to w a rd a l o w e r r a n g e , a s i t w as moved away fro m t h e t a r g e t ,
w as t h i r t y - * f o u r f e e t .
The c o n c l u s i o n r e a c h e d was t h a t t h e
t h i r t y - f o u r f o o t t h r o w i n g l i n e p ro d u c e d a n o r m a l c u r v e f o r
s c o r e s on t h i s t e s t .
The n e x t s t e p w as t o f o r m u l a t e p l a n s f o r t h e j u d g ­
m e n t o f fo r m .
T h is in v o lv e d th e d e s c r i p t i o n o f f i v e
d i s t i n c t f o r m s , a n y o n e o f w h ic h c o u l d c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e boys*
c o o r d in a tio n w h ile th ro w in g .
XX
f h e a e t u a l ju d g m e n t o f fo rm w a s made by t h e i n v e s t ­
i g a t o r an d f o u r s t u d e n t s fro m e a c h o f s i x e l a s s e s , who w e re
s e l e c t e d b e c a u s e o f t h e i r g e n e ra X e x p e r i e n c e i n a t h l e t i c s ,
and t h e i r a b i l i t y
o rd in a tio n *
fic
to d i s t i n g u i s h b e tw e e n good and p o o r c o ­
f h e b o y s who s e r v e d a s j u d g e s w ere g i v e n s p e c i ­
i n s t r u c t i o n s on th e p u rp o s e o f th e t e s t ,
th e f i v e form s
w h i c h w ould be u s e d i n t h e j u d g i n g , an d t h e e s s e n t i a l d i f ­
f e r e n c e b e tw e e n them*
f h e f i v e f o r m s w e r e d e m o n s t r a t e d , so
t h a t t h e b o y s w ould h a v e a e X e a r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f e a c h
fo rm .
In th e t e s t i n g ,
th e f i v e ju d g e s f o r t h a t p a r t i c u l a r
e X a s s wouXd o b s e r v e t h e fo rm o f t h e boy t a k i n g t h e t e s t *
I t w a s d e c i d e d t o h a v e t h e fo rm ju d g e d d u r i n g t h e f i v e
p r a c t i c e th r o w s p r e c e d i n g t h e a c t u a l t e s t ,
fh ese p r a c tic e
t h r o w s w e re a l l o w e d t o a c q u a i n t t h e boy who w as t a k i n g t h e
t e s t w ith th e ran g e ,
t h e s p e e d a t w h ic h t h e b a l l h ad t o be
th r o w n , and t h e g e n e r a l a d j u s t m e n t s *
f h e b o y s j u d g i n g w e re
t o l d t o w r i t e t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n s i n t h e form o f a num ber
fro m o n e t o f i v e , a f t e r t h e boy t a k i n g t h e t e s t h a d com­
p le te d h is p ra c tic e
th ro w s*
f h i s w ould e l i m i n a t e any p r e ­
j u d i c e w h ic h m ig h t a r i s e i f t h e a c t u a l t e s t s e o r e w as known*
f h e boys* t h r o w i n g fo rm w ould be o b t a i n e d by a d d i n g t h e
n u m e r i c a l r a t i n g s o f t h e f i v e judges**, - f h i s t o t a l sum w as
d i v i d e d by f i v e *
Where t h e a v e r a g e e n d e d i n a h a l f n u m b er,
t h e boy w ould be g i v e n t h e r a t i n g o f t h e n e x t w h o le num ber
above i t .
12
g i v e fo rm e i n t h r o w i n g a s .judged i n t h e t e s t .
In
s e t t i n g t h e s t a n d a r d s f o r fo rm i n t h r o w i n g , t h e r e w as s t r i c t
a d h e r e n c e t o t h e k i n i e s i o l o g y i n v o l v e d i n p r o d u c i n g good
c o o rd in a tio n ,
f h e t y p e o f f o r m s w e re d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e
c a t e g o r i e s : A, B, C, B, a n d E,
C a t e g o r y "A” r e p r e s e n t e d t h e
b e s t fo rm a n d "E*1 t h e p o o r e s t .
C a te g o r y nA,f r e c e i v e d f i v e
p o in ts ,
”B*f f o u r p o i n t s ,
a n d ’’E" o n e p o i n t .
e a c h th r o w ,
th ro w s.
t?C,f t h r e e p o i n t s ,
"Bn two p o i n t s ,
I t w as n o t p o s s i b l e t o g i v e a g r a d e f o r
t h e r e f o r e t h e ju d g m e n t w as made o n t h e p r a c t i c e
A boy who r e c e i v e d a r a t i n g o f f o u r - o n h i s . p r a c t i c e
th r o w s w ould r e c e i v e f o r t y p o i n t s a s h i s t o t a l on j u d g e d
form ,
T h i s w as a r r i v e d a t by m u l t i p l y i n g t h e r a t i n g by t h e
num ber o f th r o w s u s e d i n t h e t e s t w h ic h was a r b i t r a r i l y
a t te n .
set
I t was f o u n d t h a t e a c h boy had a fo rm w h i c h c o u l d
be j u d g e d .
I t w as p o s s i b l e t o n o t e a d i f f e r e n c e i n d e g r e e
o f form and t o p l a c e t h e b o y * a form i n on e o f t h e f i v e c a t e *
g o r i e s w h ic h a r e e x p l a i n e d a s f o l l o w s :
^ orgl A#
F iv e P o i n t s ,
T h row ing i s g e n e r a l l y d i ­
v id e d i n t o t h r e e ty p e s , o v e rh a n d , u n d e rh a n d , and s id e a rm .
O n ly t h e o v e r h a n d a n d t h e s i d e a r m t h r o w s w ere a l l o w e d i n
th is te s t,
A d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p e r f e c t o v e r h a n d an d s i d e -
arm t h r o w s i s fo u n d i n 0 , B, W ard law * s b o o h . F u n d a m e n t a l s o f
B a s e b a ll,^
Form nAt! a s u s e d i n t h e t e s t i s t h e same a s
9 0 , B. W ardlaw , F u n d a m e n t a l s o f B a s e b a l l
S c r i b n e r an d S o n s , 1 9 2 0 ) , p . 7 5 ,
(New Y orh:
is
W a r d i a w 's d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e o v e r h a n d an d s i d e a r m th ro w s*
^ h e o v e rh a n d t h r o w * F o r t h e o v e r h a n d th r o w , w h i c h
s h o u l d he u s e d p r a c t i c a l l y a l l o f t h e tim e i n th r o w i n g
b e tw e e n b a s e s and from t h e f i e l d , t h e h a l l s h o u l d he
g r a s p e d by t h e thumb an d f i r s t two f i n g e r s . 4 s th e
r i g h t arm comes b a c k , , b r i n g i n g t h e h and to a p o s i t i o n
b a c k o f t h e h e a d and a b o u t s h o u l d e r h i g h , t h e w e i g h t o f
t h e body comes b a c k o n t h e r i g h t f o o t .
The l e f t l e g an d
arm a r e r a i s e d f o r w a r d f o r b a l a n c e a n d t h e t r u n k b e n d s
and t w i s t s s l i g h t l y t o t h e r i g h t , b r i n g i n g t h e l e f t s i d e
t o t h e d i r e c t i o n i n w h ic h t h e th r o w i s t o be m ade. As <.
t h e r i g h t arm g o e s u p , o v e r a n d f o r w a r d , t h e w e i g h t i s
s h i f t e d f o r w a r d to t h e l e f t f o o t a n d t h e b a l l r e l e a s e d .
When t h e b a l l i s a b o u t $6 be r e l e a s e d , t h e f i n g e r s
s h o u l d be up and t h e thumb down, g i v i n g t h e b a l l a c a r r y ­
in g r o t a t i o n .
The f o l l o w t h r o u g h c a r r i e s t h e r i g h t arm
a c r o s s t h e body a n d t h e r i g h t f o o t f o r w a r d i n a n a t u r a l
p o s i t i o n f o r f u r t h e r p l a y . Use t h e a r m s , s h o u l d e r s , b a c k
and l e g s f r e e l y a n d i n a c o o r d i n a t e d , sm o oth m ovem ent.
The o v e r h a n d th ro w u s u a l l y i s t h e b e s t f o r s p e e d .
The s i d e a r m t h r o w . I n t h i s th ro w t h e t e c h n i q u e
i s t h e same a s f o r t h e two f o r e g o i n g t h r o w s e x c e p t t h a t ,
i n s t e a d o f c a r r y i n g t h e arm fro m t h e b a c k up and o v e r , o r
s w in g i n g i t p a r a l l e l w i t h t h e b o d y , i t s w in g s t h r o u g h i n
th e h o r i z o n t a l p la n e .
T h i s th r o w , u n l e s s i t i s t h e
p a r t i c u l a r s t y l e o f th e p l a y e r , sh o u ld n o t be encouraged
i n p r e f e r e n c e t o t h e o v e r h a n d th ro w a s i t i s d i f f i c u l t
to c o n t r o l ,
I t may w e l l be u s e d f o r th r o w s by t h e s e c ­
ond b a se m a n , a n d i n f i e l d i n g b u n t s and slo w h i t b a l l s .
Form B.
Four P o in ts ,
T h i s form i s t h e same a s
form "A11 w i t h o n e d i s t i n c t d e v i a t i o n ; n a m e ly ,
th e absence
o f r a i s i n g t h e l e g a s t h e b a l l was b r o u g h t b a c k o f t h e b o d y .
T h i s d i d n o t p e r m i t t h e l o n g a r c t h a t t h e b a l l w ould t r a v e l
i f t h e l e g had b e e n r a i s e d .
The l a c k o f g r a c e f u l n e s s i n th e
p i v o t , arm m o t i o n a n d f o l l o w t h r o u g h , a n d a d e c r e a s e i n s p e e d
w e re n o t i c e a b l e .
14
3*
Form C.
T hree P o i n t s .
Form nCn d i f f e r s fro m
fo rm ,fBfl i n t h e c o m p l e t e l a c k o f body p i v o t , c a u s i n g p o o r
c o o r d i n a t i o n o f l e g and arm m o v e m e n ts, w i t h a l o s s o f s p e e d
and a p o o r f o llo w th ro u g h .
4.
Form D.
Two P o i n t s .
T h i s form h a s t h e same
d e f e c t s a s ,fC” p l u s t h e l a c k o f c o o r d i n a t e d f o o t m ovem ent.
The boy w o u ld u s u a l l y be h a l f f i n i s h e d w i t h t h e th ro w b e f o r e
any a t t e m p t w as made t o move t h e f e e t .
The arm was b e n t a t
a l l tim e and n e v e r t h e same o n any two t h r o w s .
T h is r e s u l t e d
i n a j e r k y d e l i v e r y , a n u n b a l a n c e d body a t t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f
t h e th r o w , and t h e t h r o w i n g o f t h e body i n t h e w rong d i r e c t ­
i o n when t h e th ro w p r e c e d e d t h e f o o t m o v em en ts.
Form E.
e a s i l y d e te rm in d .
One P o i n t .
T h i s form w as t h e m o st
I ts c h a ra c te ris tic s are:
and l e g movement a t a l l
la c k o f p iv o t
t i m e s , b e n t elbow a t a l l t i m e s ,
w e ak s n a p o f t h e f o r e a r m , p o o r body b a l a n c e and g e n e r a l
la c k o f c o o rd in a tio n .
The n e x t s t e p w as to g i v e t h e McCloy T e s t H
t o t a l group.
to th e
T h i s t e s t i s a m e a s u re m e n t o f p o w e r; a n d i t
i n c l u d e s t h e h i g h jum p , t h e b r o a d jum p, e ig & t pound s h o t
p u t , an d t h e h u n d r e d y a r d d a s h .
was c o m p l e t e d ,
A f t e r t h e McCloy T e s t
t h e e n t i r e g r o u p w as g i v e n t h e B ra c e M o to r
^ C. H. M cCloy, M e a su re m e n t o f A t h l e t i c Pow er
(New Y ork: A. S. B a r n e s and Company, 1 9 3 1 ) , p . 1 1 1 .
A b i l i t y T e s t , 12
T h i s t e s t i s a c o m b i n a t i o n o f tw e n ty
i n d i v i d u a l t e s t s o r s t u n t s w h ic h a r e e i t h e r p a s s e d o r
fa ile d .
Each s t u n t r e q u i r e s d i f f e r e n t c o o r d i n a t i o n s ,
A
h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f p a s s e s s h o u l d i n d i c a t e go o d m o to r a b i l i t y
A n o th e r i m p o r t a n t p h a s e o f p r o c e d u r e w as t o s e l e c t
f i f t y b a sk e tb a ll p la y e rs , f i f t y
th e ir a b ility
in each s p o rt,
f o o t b a l l p l a y e r s , and r a t e
f h e r a t i n g w as b a s e d upon t h e
boys* p e r f o r m a n c e i n r e l a t i o n to t h e w h o le g r o u p .
c o a c h e s and t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r r a t e d
th e boys.
Two
The m ethod
u s e d i n E d g i n g t h e a b i l i t i e s o f t h e s e a t h l e t e s was a s
fo llo w s:
The t h r e e j u d g e s r a t e d t h e a t h l e t e s
(by a t h l e t e s
i s m ean t t h o s e who had won l e t t e r s i n a s p o r t , o r who w e re
on t h e f i r s t o r s e c o n d s q u a d s i n b a s k e t b a l l , o r who w e re on
t h e : f i r s t s q u a d o r among t h e f i r s t tw e n ty o n t h e se c o n d
sq u a d i n f o o t b a l l )
fo r each s p o rt, b a s k e tb a ll o r f o o tb a ll.
E ach Ju d g e g a v e h i s r a t i n g i n d i v i d u a l l y ,
t h e n com bined i n t o
The r e s u l t s w e re
te n g ro u p s f o r each s p o r t .
had a n u m e r i c a l v a l u e o f f i v e ,
E ach g ro u p
th e lo w e st g ro u p h a v in g a \
v a l u e from o n e t o f i v e , and t h e h i g h e s t g r o u p h a v i n g a v a l u e
from f o r t y - f i v e
to f i f t y .
I f a d i s a g r e e m e n t o c c u r r e d among
t h e c o a c h e s on a b o y ’ s g r o u p i n g ,
t h e t h r e e r a t i n g s w ere
a v e r a g e d , an d t h e boy w as p l a c e d i n t h e n e a r e s t m e d ia n l e v e l
^ 2 , K. B r a c e , M e a s u r in g M o to r A b i l i t y
A, S, B a r n e s and Company, 1 9 2 ? ) t p p . 1 0 1 - 1 2 4 ,
(Hew Y o rk :
16
Upon c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e s e l e c t i v e a t h l e t e s *
ra tin g s,
th e y
w e re g i v e n t h e b a s e b a l l t e s t u n d e r t h e same c o n d i t i o n s a s
t h e b o y s who h ad t a k e n t h e t e s t i n t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n
c la ss e s.
A n o th e r p r o c e d u r e i n v o l v e d t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e
b a sk e t sh o o tin g t e s t
to a l l th e boys in th e r e g u l a r phys­
i c a l e d u c a tio n c l a s s e s ,
T h i s t e s t m e a s u r e s t h e num ber o f
b a s k e t s made i n a tim e l i m i t o f
two m i n u t e s .
The boy
t a k i n g t h e t e s t s t a r t s fro m a d e s i g n a t e d s p o t and k e e p s o n
s h o o t i n g fro m w h e r e v e r he r e c o v e r s t h e b a l l .
The a s s i m i l a t i o n o f t h e d a t a and i t s s t a t i s t i c a l
tr e a tm e n t i n an a tte m p t to e s t a b l i s h v a l i d i t y , r e l i a b i l i t y ,
and o b j e c t i v i t y o f t h e b a s e b a l l t e s t r e p r e s e n t s a n o t h e r
im p o rtan t p ro ce d u re in t h i s r e s e a r c h .
The f i n a l s t e p w as t h e a n a l y s i s o f th e boys* b a s e b a l l
s c o r e s to a s c e r t a i n th e p r e d i c ti v e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f th e te s t;
A l a p s e o f f o u r y e a r s was n e c e s s a r y t o g i v e t h e s e v e n t h
g r a d e b o y s , who a r e now s o p h o m o r e s , a c h a n c e t o become
team m em bers o f t h e m a j o r s p o r t s c o n s i d e r e d *
Bel i m i t a t i o n .
T h i s t e s t f o r t h e m e a s u re m e n t o f
t h r o w in g a c c u r a c y w as d e v e l o p e d
i n 1 9 3 7 -3 8 i n t h e N o r t h -
f i e l d , M in n e so ta, J u n io r - S e n io r
H ig h S c h o o l ,
C o n te sts
The num ber
of
B.
3 , Mason a n d E .B , M i t c h e l l , A c t i v e Games an d
(New Y o rk : A, S. B a r n e s an d Company, 1 9 3 4 ) , p , 3 8 5 ,
17
b o y s t e s t e d w as 1 8 8 , w h ic h i n c l u d e d a l l o f t h e b o y s i n t h e
p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n c la s s e s .
T h e i r a g e s r a n g e d from e l e v e n
th ro u g h n in e te e n .
They h ad no e x p e r i e n c e i n o r g a n i z e d
b a se b a ll p la y in g .
The b a s k e t b a l l an d f o o t b a l l p l a y e r s , who
w e re t e s t e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f e s t a b l i s h i n g v a l i d i t y , w e re
s t u d e n t s r a n g i n g fro m t h e f r e s h m a n t h r o u g h t h e s e n i o r
c la sse s.
A l l t h e t e s t i n g w as done by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r .
O r g a n iz a tio n o f th e re m a in d e r o f th e T h e s is .
The
c h a p t e r s to f o llo w in c lu d e th e s e d e v elo p m e n ts:
1.
E x p e rim e n ta l p ro c e d u re , c o n s t r u c t i o n o f th e t e s t ,
tim e and e x t e n t o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e
te st,
s c o r e c a r d a r r a n g e m e n t , d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e f i v e f o im a
w h ic h w e re b a s i c i n j u d g i n g th r o w in g f o r m .
2.
S t a t i s t i c a l p ro c e d u re , c r i t e r i a used f o r d e t e r ­
m in in g v a l i d i t y , r e l i a b i l i t y
and o b j e c t i v i t y w i t h t h e m e th ­
o d s u s e d i n d e t e r m i n i n g them .
3.
C o r r e l a t i o n s o f th e b a s e b a l l t e s t w ith th e
McOloy, B r a c e , and b a s k e t s h o o t i n g t e s t s , w i t h t h e i n t e r p r e ­
t a t i o n s o f th e se c o r r e l a t i o n s .
4.
A n a ly s is o f th e p r e d i c t i v e v a lu e s o f th e t e s t .
5.
C o r r e l a t i o n s o f b a s e b a l l s c o r e s an d c o a c h e s 1
r a t i n g s o f b a s k e t b a l l and f o o t b a l l p l a y e r s .
6.
H o n - s ta tis tie a l o b se rv a tio n s.
7.
C o n c l u s i o n s and summary.
18
Summary o f C h a p te r O ne,
D e x te rity has been d e fin e d
a s b e i n g e i t h e r a s i m p le movement s u c h a s p a c k i n g c a r t o n s ,
o r t h e m o re c o m p lex movement o f t h r o w i n g a b a s e b a l l ,
No
o b j e c t i v e t e s t s ha v e b e e n d e v i s e d t o m e a s u r e t h e a c c u r a c y o f
b a s e b a ll th ro w in g .
The s t a t e m e n t o f t h e p r o b le m a n d t h e r a i s i n g o f
q u e s t i o n s i n r e f e r e n c e to t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e b a s e b a l l
t e s t have been t r e a t e d .
The t r a i t s o f a good o b j e c t i v e t e s t
have been g iv e n an im p o rta n t p l a c e .
The i m p o r t a n c e a n d s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e p ro b le m d e a l s
w i t h t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e b a s e b a l l t e s t a s a n a i d to
te a c h e r s i n th e f i e l d o f p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n .
The s u b j e c t o f r e l a t e d
i n v e s t i g a t i o n s h as n o t been
g iv e n e x te n s i v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n a s t h e r e i s very l i t t l e
re­
s e a r c h on t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t .
The m eth o d o f p r o c e d u r e i s i m p o r t a n t , a s t h i s t h e s i s
i s b ased e n t i r e l y upon o r i g i n a l r e s e a r c h .
The m ethod o f
p ro c e d u re d e a l s w ith th e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f th e t e s t ,
th e
g i v i n g o f t h e t e s t t o t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n b o y s and t o
th e a t h l e t e s .
The e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a s u i t a b l e
d i s t a n c e w as a n i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r .
t h r o w in g
The f o r m u l a t i o n o f p l a n s
f o r t h e ju d g m e n t o f fo rm i n v o l v e d t h e e s t a b l i s h i n g o f f i v e
d i s t i n c t f o r m s t o be j u d g e d , and t h e s e l e c t i o n o f f o u r
ju d g es f o r each c l a s s .
I n s t r u c t i o n s on ju d g in g th e f i v e
t h r o w i n g f o r m s w e re e x p l a i n e d to t h e b o y s c h o s e n f o r e a c h
c la ss .
19
O th e r s t e p s b r i e f l y d e s c r ib e d w ere:
G iv in g t h e
MeGloy T e s t t o t h e e n t i r e g r o u p , g i v i n g t h e B r a c e M o to r
A b i l i t y T e s t to th e e n t i r e g ro u p , r a t i n g
th e a t h l e t e s , and
th e a s s i m i l a t i o n and s t a t i s t i c a l tr e a tm e n t o f th e d a ta ,
e s ta b lis h m e n t o f o b j e c t i v i t y , r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y f o r
th e b a s e b a ll t e s t ,
and t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e t e s t * s p r e d i c t i v e
p o ss ib ilitie s .
The f i n a l i t e m s o f c h a p t e r o n e a r e o n t h e s u b j e e t o f
d e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e r e s e a r c h and t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e
re m a in in g c h a p t e r s .
CHAPTER- IX
THE PHYSICAL EXPERIMENTAL DEVICE
In tro q u e tio n ,
o f t h e t e s t i n g d e v ic e *
C h a p te r I I d e a l s w i t h t h e d e s c r i p t i o n
A b l u e p r i n t o f th e d e v ic e i s in c lu d e d
a s s u p p l e m e n t a l m a t e r i a l to g i v e t h e r e a d e r a c o n c r e t e v i s u a l
c o n c e p tio n o f it*
The tim e i n v o l v e d i n g i v i n g t h e v a r i o u s
t e s t s i s g iv e n c o n sid e ra tio n *
A d e ta il e d acco u n t o f th e ad­
m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e t e s t i s r e l a t e d s t e p by s t e p ,
A sa m p le
o f th e s c o re c a rd used f o r r e c o r d in g th e r e s u l t s o f a l l
te s ts
i s in c lu d e d * in t h i s c h a p te r.
The d e v i c e f o r t h e m e a s u re m e n t o f a c c u r a c y i n t h r o w i n g
a b a s e b a l l , was c o n s t r u c t e d i n t h e m a n u a l t r a i n i n g d e p a r t m e n t
o f t h e N o r t h f i e l d H ig h S c h o o l a t N o r t h f i e l d , M i n n e s o t a .
The
c a n v a s e s , s e v e n i n n u m b er, w e re f a s t e n e d t o t h e c r o s s b a r s a t
t h e to p o f t h e fra m e *
q u a rte rs in ch es a p a r t.
th e l a s t
T hese c a n v a s e s w e re f i v e and t h r e e
The d i s t a n c e fro m t h e f i r s t c a n v a s to
w as t h i r t y - f o u r and o n e h a l f i n c h e s .
The f i r s t c a n v a s
had a c i r c u l a r h o l e w i t h a d i a m e t e r o f t h r e e f e e t ,
t h e se c o n d
two f e e t
an d
s i x i n c h e s , t h e t h i r d two f e e t ,
t h e f o u r t h one
f o o t and
six
in c h e s,
in c h e s.
L o o k in g a t t h e d e v i c e fro m t h e f r o n t v ie w , o n e r e ­
t h e f i f t h one f o o t , and t h e s i x t h s i x
c e iv e s a cone-sh ap ed im p re ssio n o f i t .
The c e n t e r o f t h e
b u l l ’ s e y e w as f o r t y - s i x i n c h e s fro m t h e f l o o r ,
{See p a g e 21)
The c a n v a s e s w e re w e i g h t e d a t t h e b o tto m w i t h a two i n c h e s
BASEBALL TARGET
s c a le
:rm*
by one q u a r t e r i n c h i r o n b a r , w h ic h was s l i p p e d i n t o
sdi
s l o t s t r e t c h i n g a c r o s s t h e b o t to m o f th e m . T h i s g a v e
an even d i s t r i b u t i o n o f w e ig h tin g a c r o s s th e c a n v a s.
The c a n v a s e s w ere made fro m f i f t e e n o u n c e d u ck m a t e r i a l
w h ic h c o r r e s p o n d s t o g o o d s u s e d i n t h e r e g u l a r gym nasium
m a ts*
The b o tto m o f t h e d e v i c e h a d a n a r r a n g e m e n t o f
c o m p a rtm e n ts w i t h t h e b o t t o m o f t h e c a n v a s e s i n t h e b a c k
o f e a c h s e c t i o n . When t h e b a l l s t r u c k num ber f o u r c a n v a s *
i t w o u ld d r o p i n t o t h e num ber f o u r c o m p a r tm e n t. A l l
j o i n t s : w e re f a s t e n e d by c a r r i a g e b o l t s ,
two i n e a c h j o i n t
t a p r e v e n t t w i s t i n g . The c a n v a s e s w e re f a s t e n e d t o t h e t o p
b y f i v e h o o k s . They w ere a l s o f a s t e n e d t o t h e two s i d e s
a n d t h e b a c k t o p r e v e n t t h e b a l l s fro m b o u n c in g o u t . One
s i d e o f t h e c a n v a s was l e f t p a r t i a l l y l o o s e t o f a c i l i t a t e
sc o rin g .
Time an d e x t e n t o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t ♦ The t e s t was
g i v e n t h e f i f t h a n d s i x t h w eeks o f t h e f a l l s c h o o l t e r m i n
1 9 5 7 . The f i r s t t e s t was g i v e n t h e f i f t h week a n d t h e r e ­
t e s t t h e s i x t h w e e k . E ac h c l a s s m et t w i c e a week f o r f i f t y s e v e n m i n u t e s e a c h t i m e . The a c t u a l t im e r e q u i r e d f o r e a c h
p u p i l on t h e t e s t was a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h r e e m in u t e s * T h is
i n c l u d e d t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s , f i v e p r a c t i c e th r o w s a n d t h e t e n
th r o w s o f t h e t e s t . A f t e r t h e r e g u l a r p u p i l s w e re t e s t e d ,
t h e f o o t b a l l a n d b a s k e t b a l l p l a y e r s w e re g i v e n t h e t e s t .
23
Of course;,, t h e r e w e re a b o u t one t h i r d o f t h i s g r o u p w h ic h
w ere i n c l u d e d i n t h e r e g p l a r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s %
a l s o , t h e r e was a d u p l i c a t i o n o f b a s k e t b a l l a n d f o o t b a l l
p l a y e r s , m ak in g t h e t o t a l n u m b ers o f p l a y e r s t e s t e d a b o u t
fifty *
B a s e b a l l i s n o t s p o n s o r e d a t t h e s c h o o l , so no
d a t a c o u l d b e s e c u r e d . The tim e r e q u i r e d f o r t h e B ra c e
M otor A b i l i t y T e s t was two c l a s s p e r i o d s . The McGloy T e s t
r e q u i r e d two c l a s s p e r i o d s . I n a l l o f t h e t e s t s ,
anyone
n o t t e s t e d d u r i n g t h e r e q u i r e d t i m e , was g i v e n t h e t e s t
a f t e r s c h o o l . T h i s num ber was v e r y s m a l l .
C o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e t e s t . The t e s t was made b e f o r e
t h e 1 9 3 7 -3 8 s c h o o l t e r m b e g a n . The fra m e w o rk was made i n
t h e s c h o o l ’ s m a n u a l t r a i n i n g d e p a r t m e n t . The c a n v a s e s
w ere made b y t h e M idw est A t h l e t i c R e p a i r Company, S t . P a u l ,
M i n n e s o t a . The c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e d e v i c e was n o t d i f f i ­
c u l t and d id n o t r e q u i r e a g r e a t d e a l o f tim e .
A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e t e s t . The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f
th e t e s t c o n s is te d o f th e fo llo w in g s t e p s :
1 . The t e s t was g i v e n i n t h e gym nasium .
2 . The d e v i c e was s e t o u t fro m t h e w a l l f i v e f e e t .
• 3 . A l i n e was draw n t o d e n o t e t h e p i t c h i n g d i s t a n c e .
4.
E ach c l a s s was g i v e n an e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e t e s t ,
th e i n s t r u c t i o n s i n d e t a i l a s to t h e i r p erfo rm an ce i n th e
te s t,
th e s c o r in g and o t h e r sm a ll d e t a i l s .
5 . E ac h b o y was g i v e n t h e t e s t a l p h a b e t i c a l l y so
t h a t no c o n f u s i o n e x i s t e d r e g a r d i n g who was t o b e n e x t *
6 . The f i v e j u d g e s w e re s e a t e d t o t h e s i d e a n d
i n f r o n t o f th e boy ta k in g th e t e s t *
7 . ^ h e boy was g i v e n i n s t r u c t i o n s i n t h e same
m an n e r a s t h e c l a s s i n s t r u c t i o n s w e re p r e s e n t e d . T h is
was done d i r e c t l y p r e c e d i n g t h e p r a c t i c e t h r o w s .
A. The b o y s h o u l d n o t s t e p o v e r t h e p i t c h i n g
lin e .
B. The boy s h o u l d t a k e f i v e p r a c t i c e t h r o w s ,
t h r o w i n g w i t h h i s n a t u r a l f o rm a n d a t t h e same
t i m e t im e a t t e m p t t o make a g ood s c o r e .
C. A f t e r t h e f i v e p r a c t i c e t h r o w s , t h e b o y
was t o l d t o th r o w t e n b a l l s i n r o t a t i o n , a s t h e
b a l l s w e re n u m b e re d o n e t h r o u g h t e n *
D. The boy m u st h a v e o n l y one b a l l
a t a tim e , th u s p r e v e n tin g any chance
i n h i s hand®
o f sp e ed in g
th e te s t*
8 . The f i v e j u d g e s w r o t e t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e
o f t h e b o y f s fo rm on a s m a l l s h e e t o f p a p e r .
The r a t i n g
was b a s e d on t h e f i v e p r a c t i c e t h r o w s . The a v e r a g e o f t h e
e v a l u a t i o n s was t h e b o y Ts fo rm s c o r e .
9* The f i v e n u m e r i c a l r a t i n g s w e re a d d e d a n d d i v i d e d
b y f i v e t o g i v e t h e a v e r a g e r a t i n g w h ic h was r e c o r d e d b e f o r e
t h e f i n a l t h r o w i n g t h r o w i n g h a d s t a r t e d . I f t h e num ber
h a p p e n e d t o be e x p r e s s e d i n f r a c t i o n s , s u c h a s f o u r a n d
one h a l f , t h e b o y w o u ld r e c e i v e t h e lo w e r w h o le number
w h ic h w o u ld b e f o u r i n t h i s c a s e .
10.
The s c o r e was t h e n o b t a i n e d b y g o i n g t o t h e
d e v i c e a n d r e c o r d i n g t h e b a l l s a s t h e y w e re l y i n g i n
t h e c o m p a r tm e n t, i e . ,
i f b a l l num ber f i v e was i n com­
p a r t m e n t num ber s i x , t h a t m e a n t t h e f i f t h b a l l th ro w n
had sc o re d s i x p o i n ts .
th e sc o re c a rd s .
The s c o r e was t h e n r e c o r d e d on
B a l l nu m b er o n e , i f i t h a p p e n e d t o ' b e
i n c o m p a rtm e n t f o u r , was r e c o r d e d w i t h a v a l u e o f f o u r
u n d e r num ber one on t h e c a r d .
The s c o r e c a r d . The s c o r e c a r d was a r r a n g e d b y
th e i n v e s t i g a t o r on a c a rd f i v e by e ig h t i n c h e s .
page 2 7 ) .
(See
S p a c e was g i v e n f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g i n f o r ­
m atio n :
1•
Name •
2•
Age•
3.
? /e ig h t. '
4.
H e ig h t i n i n c h e s .
5.
B a se b a ll t e s t s c o re s .
6.
B a se b a ll B e -te s t s c o re s .
7.
J u d g e d fo rm s c o r e s .
8.
B r a c e M otor A b i l i t y T e s t s c o r e .
9.
M cCloyf s m e a su re m e n t o f a t h l e t i c po w er t e s t s c o r e .
1.0.
B asket sh o o tin g t e s t s c o r e .
26
The l e f t h a n d s i d e o f t h e c a r d c o n t a i n s t h e f i v e ■
d i v i s i o n s o f form *
The b o t to m o f e a c h s e c t i o n c o n t a i n s ,
t h e s c o r e f o r e a c h b a l l throw n *
The r i g h t h a n d c o r n e r
o f t h e s e c t i o n c o n t a i n s t h e t o t a l j u d g e d fo rm on t h e
t o p , and th e t o t a l f o r th e t e s t on th e b o tto m .
The
r i g h t sid e o f th e c a rd c o n ta in s th e sc o re s o f th e B race,
McCloy a n d B a s k e t s h o o t i n g t e s t s .
T h i s t y p e o f ' c a r d was
found to be v e ry c o n v e n ie n t i n th e c o m p ila tio n o f s t a ­
t i s t i c s a s a l l o f t h e n e e d e d i n f o r m a t i o n was o n one p a g e *
27
^GRADE
FORM
I
2
3
4
5
5 A *j
B a s e b a ll T est C h art
N o r t h f i e l d ' H . S . 1937
I
8
6 , 7
9 10 TOTAL
!
!f
AGE__________
BRACE TEST
SCORE .
4 B
.
.
BASEBALL TEST
3 C
SCORE
2 D
McCLOY1S TEST
I E
SCORE..
SCORE'
II
I
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 TOTAL
5 A
MeCLOYfS
4 B
1 . BROAD JUMP(R)______
3 C
2 . HIGH JUMP___________
2 D
3 . 1 0 0 YD DASH_________
I E
4 . SHOT PUT( 8 ) _________
SCORE
RECORD_________ ________
FIGURE 2
THE SCORE
CARD USED IN THE TEST
CHAPTER I I I
METHODS USED TO DETERMINE RELIABILITY, VALIDITY
AND OBJECTIVITY FOR THE BASEBALL TEST
In tro d u c tio n *
C h a p te r I I I w i l l e x p la in th e a c t u a l
m e th o d s u s e d t o e s t a b l i s h v a l i d i t y , r e l i a b i l i t y a n d o b j e c ­
t i v i t y fo r th e b a se b a ll t e s t .
A th o ro u g h tr e a tm e n t by
e x p e r t s on t h e m e a n in g a n d s i g n i f i c a n c e o f v a l i d i t y , r e ­
l i a b i l i t y and o b j e c t i v i t y i s in c lu d e d a t th e b e g in n in g ;
t h i s i s done t o a c q u a i n t t h e r e a d e r w i t h t h e v a r i o u s
m e th o d s t h a t c a n b e u se d , t o e s t a b l i s h t h e t r a i t s w h ic h
a good t e s t s h o u ld h a v e .
The e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f c r i t e r i a ,
a l o n g w i t h t h e m eth o d s u s e d t o p r o v e t h a t t h e b a s e b a l l
t e s t has t h e s e t r a i t s , w i l l be d is c u s s e d l a t e r in t h i s
c h a p te r.
A d e ta ile d d e sc rip tio n o f v a lid ity , r e l i a b i l i t y
~
'
14
a n d o b j e c t i v i t y a s f o u n d i n S t u d e n t G u id a n c e T e c h n iq u e s
fo llo w s.
R e l i a b i l i t y . The r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e m e a su re m e n t i s
o n e o f t h e c h i e f c o n c e r n s o f t e s t u s e r s . A t e s t w h ic h
y i e l d s d i f f e r e n t , r e s u l t s on. the-, same i n d i v i d u a l : .from
one t im e t o a n o t h e r i s a p t t o b e more m i s l e a d i n g t h a n
„r e v e a l i n g . . i i , R e l i a b i l i t y r e f e r s to . a t e s t * - s i a b i l i t y t o
y i e l d t h e same r e s u l t s u p o n r e p e t i t i o n , o r , i n o t h e r
i w o r d s , t h e c o n s i s t e n c y w i t h w h ic h i t m e a s u r e s w h a t e v e r
i t m easures.
T h e r e a r e v a r i o u s m e th o d s f o r m e a s u r i n g a t e s t f s
c o n s i s t e n c y . The t e s t may b e a d m i n i s t e r e d a s e c o n d
14
^ o n a l d G. P a t t e r s o n , G. G. S c h n e i d e r , a n d E .
G. W i l l i a m s o n , S t u d e n t G u id a n c e T e c h n iq u e s (New Y o rk :
M c G ra w -H ill a n d Company, 1 9 3 5 ) , p p . 4 7 - 4 8 .
29
t im e t o t h e same i n d i v i d u a l s .
Its re lia b ility is
i n d i c a t e d b y t h e e x t e n t t o w h ic h t h o s e who r a n k i n
a c e r t a i n p o s i t i o n i n t h e g r o u p on t h e f i r s t t e s t
m a i n t a i n t h e same r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n u p o n r e p e t i t i o n .
When e q u i v a l e n t fo rm s a r e a v a i l a b l e , s c o r e s made
b y t h e same i n d i v i d u a l s on t h e two fo rm s may b e com­
p ared .
The e x t e n t t o w h ic h t h e i n d i v i d u a l s m a i n t a i n
t h e same r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n on t h e s e c o n d t e s t m e a s u r e s
t h e c o n s i s t e n c y o f t h e t e s t fo rm .
A, t h i r d m e th o d f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e
m e a s u r i n g d e v i c e i s t h e c o m p a ris o n o f r e s u l t s on o d d n u m b ered i te m s w i t h t h o s e on e v e n n u m b ere d i t e m s .
The m e th o d i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t u s e d when two f o r m s a a r e
c o m p a re d , e x c e p t t h a t t h e i t e m whose r e l i a b i l i t y i s
u n d e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s now o n l y h a l f t h e n u m b e r. T h i s
t e n d s t o r e d u c e r i t h e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t b e lo w
i t s a c t u a l v a l u e , f o r w h ic h a c o r r e c t i o n i s o f t e n
a p p l i e d b y u s i n g t h e Spearm an-B row n f o r m u l a .
S in ce t e s t s v a ry i n c o n s is te n c y , h ig h r e l i a b i l i t y
i s t h e f i r s t r e q u i r e m e n t demanded o f a t e s t w h ic h i s
t o be u s e d i n w ork w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s .
One m u st b e
a b l e t o d e p e n d on t h e s t a b i l i t y o f t h e t e s t s c o r e ,
o th e r th in g s b e in g e q u a l, th e h ig h e r th e c o e f f i c i e n t
o f r e l i a b i l i t y , t h e m ore c o n s i s t a n t t h e t e s t may be
c o n sid ere d .
T h e r e a r e v a r i o u s r e a s o n s f o b low r e l i a b i l i t y o f a
te s t.
I n d i v i d u a l s may a c t u a l l y v a ry , i n p e r f o r m a n c e
f ro m t im e t o t i m e .
D is tr a c tio n s d u rin g th e t e s t o r
v a r i a t i o n s i n e f f o r t may a c c o u n t f o r some o f t h e s e
i r r e g u l a r i t i e s w h ic h t h e e x a m in e r s h o u l d make a n e f f o r t
t o c o n t r o l . The s c o r i n g o f t h e t e s t may i t s e l f may
be u n r e l i a b l e .
E r r o r s so m e tim e s o c c u r , e v e n i n s c o r i n g
o f o b j e c t i v e t e s t s w h e re s u b j e c t i v e ju d g m e n t d o e s n o t
e n te r.
A l i m i t e d num ber o f i te m s i n a s h o r t t e s t may
n o t co v er s u f f i c i e n t ground to y i e l d r e l i a b l e r e s u l t s .
U s u a l l y a good t e s t may b e i n c r e a s e d i n r e l i a b i l i t y
by in c re a s in g i t s le n g th .
V a l i d i t y . To m e a s u r e a t r a i t i s o n e t h i n g , b u t t o
a s c e r t a i n t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h a t m e a s u re m e n t I s
q u i t e a n o t h e r t h i n g . M e r e ly t o name a t e s t a n i n ­
te llig e n c e ” te s t is not s u ffic ie n t.
P r o o f m u st be g i v e n
t h a t i t i s a c t u a l l y m e a su rin g w h a te v e r i t c la im s to
m e a su re . ‘ I n o t h e r w ords, th e v a l i d i t y o f a d e v ic e i s
a b a s ic p r e r e q u is ite to i t s p r a c t i c a l a p p lic a tio n .
The p r o b le m o f s e c u r i n g a n o u t s i d e c r i t e r i o n o f
a b i l i t y a g a i n s t w h ic h a t e s t may b e v a l i d a t e d i s
a d i f f i c u l t one.
V a r io u s t y p e s o f c r i t e r i a h a v e b e e n u s e d a g a i n s t
w h ic h t o c h e c k t e s t s c o r e s .
T h ese may b e c o n v e n ­
i e n t l y g r o u p e d i n two c l a s s e s :
1 . E x t e r n a l c r i t e r i a a r e t h o s e m e a s u r e m e n ts
o r e s t i m a t e s o u t s i d e t h e t e s t p r o p e r w h ic h h a v e
b e e n a c c e p t e d a s s t a n d a r d s f o r c o m p a r is o n s w i t h
te s t sco res.
I n t h i s g r o u p a r e o b j e c t i v e m ea­
s u r e m e n t s o f w ork a c c o m p l i s h e d a n d e s t i m a t e s o f
t r a i t s made b y t e a c h e r s , a s s o c i a t e s a n d o t h e r s .
I t i s so m e tim e s p o s s i b l e , a l s o , t o com pare r e ­
s u l t s w i t h t h o s e o b t a i n e d u p o n o t h e r t e s t s w h ic h
a re c o n sid e re d v a lid i n d ic a to r s o f th e t r a i t to
be m easu red.
2.
I n t e r n a l c r i t e r i a m u st be r e s o r t e d t o
when d e s i r a b l e o u t s i d e c r i t e r i a c a n n o t be o b ­
ta in e d .
I f t h e t r a i t i s one w h ic h s h o u l d show
p r o g r e s s w ith age and i f t e s t s c o r e s i n d i c a t e
f a i r l y r a p i d and d e f i n i t e age p r o g r e s s , th e
d e v i c e c o n t a i n s some e l e m e n t s o f v a l i d i t y .
In
some c a s e s r e l i a n c e m u st b e p l a c e d up on t h e
ju d g m e n t o f p e r s o n s who h a v e c o n s t r u c t e d t h e
sc a le .
When e v e r y e f f o r t i s made by s u b j e c t
m a t t e r a n d t e s t e x p e r t s t o s e l e c t i t e m s w h ic h
t h e y b e l i e v e t o be i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e t r a i t t o
b e m easured and r e s p o n s iv e o f th e f i e l d , v a l i d i ­
t y m u st so m e tim e s b e a s s u m e d . T h is i s e s ­
p e c i a l l y t r u e o f a ch iev em en t t e s t s .
An a d d i t i o n a l
c r i t e r i o n so m e tim e s r e s o r t e d t o i s t h a t o f g r o u p
d iffe re n c e s.
I f c o n t r a s t i n g g ro u p s a re found to
h a v e a v e r a g e s c o r e s w hose d i f f e r e n c e s a r e s t a ­
t i s t i c a l l y S i g n i f i c a n t , t h e n t h e r e i s some b a s i s
f o r th e a ssu m p tio n o f t h e t e s t ’s v a l i d i t y .
If
a group o f a r t i s t s ra n k s s i g n i f i c a n t l y h ig h e r
o n a t e s t p u r p o r t i n g t o m e a s u re a r t ju d g m e n t
th a n a group o f n o n - a r t m a jo rs i n c o l l e g e , t h e n
t h e t e s t i s t o some e x t e n t v a l i d .
O b j e c t i v i t y i s d e s c r i b e d by P .
W.
B o v a rd and J .
C ozens i n t h e i r b o o k , T e s t s a n d M e a su re m e n ts i n
P h y s ic a l E d u c a tio n
15
as fo llo w s :
O b j e c t i v i t y . One o f t h e f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o
th e r e l i a b i l i t y o f a t e s t i s th e d eg ree o f o b je c ­
t i v i t y w h ic h i s i n v o l v e d i n t h e s c o r i n g o f t h e t e s t
i t e m s . By o b j e c t i v i t y i s m eant t h e d e g r e e o f u n i ­
f o r m i t y w i t h w h ic h v a r i o u s t e a c h e r s may s c o r e t h e
t e s t s f I n w r i t t e n e x a m i n a t i o n s i t i s q u i t e o b v io u s
t h a t d i f f e r e n t o r e x a m in e r s w i l l n o t s c o r e t h e same
on p a p e r s i n w h ic h ju d g m e n t i s r e q u i r e d i n s c o r i n g .
I n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t y t e s t s , h o w e v e r, o b ­
j e c t i v i t y i n s c o r i n g d o e s n o t p r e s e n t much o f a p r o b ­
lem s i n c e s c o r e s a r e r e c o r d e d i n u n i t s , o f t i m e , d i s ­
t a n c e , h e i g h t o r i n a num ber o f t i m e s a p a r t i c u l a r
e x e r c is e i s a cco m p lish ed . O b j e c t iv i t y in s c o rin g
w i l l , o f c o u r s e , a f f e c t r e l i a b i l i t y i n any t e s t , b u t
t h e c h a n c e s o f r e c o r d i n g wrong s c o r e s a r e by no means
a s g r e a t i n p h y s i c a l t e s t s a s i n t e s t s i n a c a d e m ic
lin e s•
Two m e th o d s w e re u s e d t o e s t a b l i s h r e l i a b i l i t y o f
th e b a s e b a ll t e s t .
M ethods u s e d i n e s t a b l i s h i n g r e l i a b i l i t y . The t e s t r e t e s t a n d t h e o d d - e v e n c o r r e l a t i o n s w e re u s e d t o e s t a b ­
lis h r e l i a b i l i t y o f th e b a se b a ll t e s t .
The t e s t was g i v e n
t o a l l p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t s a n d a r e t e s t was g i v e n
two w eek s l a t e r .
The s t a t i s t i c a l t r e a t m e n t i n t h e fo rm
o f c o r r e l a t i o n w i l l b e d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r V.
The o d d -
e v e n c o r r e l a t i o n o f t h e f i r s t t e s t was t h e s e c o n d m eth od
u sed i n d e te rm in in g r e l i a b i l i t y o f th e b a s e b a ll t e s t .
In
t h i s m e th o d , t h e ' v a l u e o f - t h e odd n u m b ere d t h r o w s w ere
added and
c o o r e l a t e d a g a i n s t t h e sums o f t h e e v e n num­
b e re d th ro w s.
T h is c u ts th e l e n g t h o f t h e t e s t i n h a l f and
315
P . W. B o v a rd a n d J . P . C o z e n s , T e s t an d M e a s u re ­
m e n ts i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : W. B. S a u n d e r s
a n d Company, 1 9 3 0 ) , p .
235.
3E
s h o u l d lo w e r t h e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t .
The s t a t i s t i ­
c a l r e s u l t s o f th e odd-even c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t . i s
g i v e n i n C h a p t e r V.
I t m u st be made c l e a r a t t h i s t i m e , t h a t i n a t t e m p ­
t i n g to e s t a b l i s h v a l i d i t y ,
i t was n e c e s s a r y t o g i v e s e v e r a l
t e s t s t o t h e same b o y s who t o o k t h e t h r o w i n g t e s t ,
i n an
e f f o r t to f i n d s i m i l a r i t i e s in th e th ro w in g t r a i t w ith
t h o s e t r a i t s m e a s u r e d by t h e o t h e r t e s t s g i v e n .
The c o r ­
r e l a t i o n s o f th e s e v a rio u s t e s t s w ith th e b a s e b a l l th ro w ­
in g t e s t sh o u ld r e v e a l any s i g n i f i c a n t s i m i l a r i t i e s ,
if
th e c o r r e l a t i o n s a re h ig h , h en ce, th e g iv in g o f s e v e r a l
t e s t s w h ic h m e a s u r e d any a t h l e t i c t r a i t s .
tin g t e s t s w ith o u tsid e c r i t e r i a ,
In c o r r e la ­
one s h o u l d be f u l l y
aw are o f t h e l i m i t e d p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n c o e f f i c i e n t s a t t a i n ­
a b l e when t h e s e c r i t e r i a a r e f a u l t y .
I t i s ass\im ed t h a t v a l i d i t y m eans n o t o n l y d o e s a.
t e s t m easure w hat i t i s su p p o sed to m ea su re , h u t a l s o ,
what i s th e th e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f th e t r a i t m easured. T hat
i s , a g o o d d e a l o f t r i a l - a n d - e r r o r s e a r c h i s made to t d i s ­
c o v e r w i t h w h at a r e l i a b l e t e s t w i l l c o r r e l a t e .
In o th e r
w o r d s , t e s t m a k e rs c o r r e l a t e t e s t s w i t h many t h i n g s t o
d i s c o v e r w h at i s b e i n g m e a s u r e d .
T h is p ro c e d u re ev en ­
t u a l l y l e a d s t o a d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e m e a n in g o f t h e t e s t
i n t e r m s o f t h e t h i n g s w i t h w h ic h i t c o r r e l a t e s .
T h is
Must be d o n e , h o w e v e r, u n d e r t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t a l l c r i ­
t e r i a are s im ila r .
M ethods u s e d i n d e t e r m i n i n g V a l i d i t y *
F i v e m eth o d s
w ere u s e d i n e s t a b l i s h i n g v a l i d i t y f o r t h e B a s e b a l l t e s t .
The m e th o d s a r e :
1-.
C o r r e la tio n o f th e b a s e b a ll t e s t s c o re s w ith
v a l i d a n d r e l i a b l e t e s t s s u c h a s t h e B r a c e M o to r a b i l i t y T e s t , " ^ McCloy T e s t ,
2.
a n d a B a s k e t S h o o t i n g Te s t . ^ ®
C o rre la tio n o f th e b a s e b a ll t e s t sco re w ith
fo rm i n t h r o w i n g .
3.
(S e e p a g e s 1 0 - 1 4 ) .
C o r r e la tio n o f th e b a s e b a ll t e s t s c o re s w ith
f o o t b a l l and b a s k e t b a ll p lay e rs* a b i l i t i e s ,
th e rank
i n a b i l i t y g i v e n b y t h e ju d g m e n t o f t h r e e c o a c h e s •
(S e e p a g e 1 5 ) .
4.
The s e l f - v a l i d a t i o n m e th o d .
(S e e p a g e 3 9 ) .
5.
The p r e d i c t i v e v a l u e o f t h e t e s t i t s e l f .
(S e e
page 1 6 ) .
O b je c tiv ity .
i s o b v io u s.
The o b j e c t i v i t y o f t h e b a s e b a l l t e s t
(S e e p a g e s 2 3 - 2 5 , 3 1 ) .
No o t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n s
o f o b j e c t i v i t y o t h e r t h a n t h o s e fo u n d on p a g e s 2 3 - 2 5 , 3 1 ,
a n d 76 w i l l
be c o n s id e r e d i n t h i s t h e s i s .
Summary.
A d i s c u s s i o n o f r e l i a b i l i t y , v a l i d i t y an d
o b j e c t i v i t y as u se d i n r e l a t i o n to e s t a b l i s h i n g th o s e t r a i t s
16
D. K. B r a c e , 0£ .
c i t ., pp.
1 0 1-124.
17
C. H. McCloy, o p . c i t . , p .
111.
18
B. S . Mason a n d E . D. M i t c h e l l , £ £ . c i t ♦, p . 385
34
i n t h e b a s e b a l l t e s t was i n c l u d e d t o c l a r i f y t h e m e th o d s
th a t fo llo w e d .
The m eth o d s o f t e s t - r e t e s t a n d o d d - e v e n
c o r r e l a t i o n s w e re u s e d t o e s t a b l i s h r e l i a b i l i t y f o r t h e
b a se b a ll t e s t .
d ity fo r
F i v e m e th o d s w e re u s e d t o e s t a b l i s h v a l i
th e b a se b a ll t e s t .
T h ese m e th o d s a r e j
C orre­
l a t i o n o f t h e b a s e b a l l t e s t s c o r e s w i t h t h r e e v a l i d and
r e l i a b l e t e s t s , w i t h fo rm i n t h r o w i n g a n d w i t h f o o t b a l l
and b a s k e t b a ll p l a y e r s 1 a b i l i t i e s .
d e a ls
w ith w ith s e l f - v a l id a t io n .
The f o u r t h m e th o d
The f i n a l m e th o d i s
b a s e d upo n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e t e s t f s p r e d i c t i v e
v a lu e •
CHAPTM IV
A STATISTICAL ANALYSIS- OF THE PBEIICTIYE
VALUE OF THE BASEBALL TEST
T h is c h a p te r w i l l d e a l w ith th e s t a t i s t i c a l tre a tm e n t
o f t h e b a s e b a l l t e s t s c o r e s from t h e a n g l e o f a s c e r t a i n i n g
th e r e l i a b i l i t y o f m eans o f a t h l e t e s *
sco res.
s c o r e s and n o n - a t h l e t e s *
A l s o , a c o m p a r is o n o f s c o r e s b e tw e e n b a s k e t b a l l
p l a y e r s and f o o t b a l l p l a y e r s , b e tw e e n b a s k e t b a l l p l a y e r s
and t r a c k men, an d b e tw e e n b a s k e t b a l l p l a y e r s an d n o n ­
a t h l e t e s w i l l be c o n s id e r e d .
T h i s t r e a t m e n t i s a l s o g iY e n
f o r f o o t b a l l p l a y e r s a n d t r a c k m en.
A n o th er tr e a tm e n t i n ­
c l u d e s a c o m p a r is o n by g r a d e s o f a t h l e t e s and n o n - a t h l e t e s .
F irst of a ll, re lia b ility
made c l e a r .
o f m ean3 o f s c o r e s m u st be
The r e l i a b i l i t y o f a s t a t i s t i c a l q u a n t i t y t e l l s
t h e e x t e n t t o w h ic h o n e c a n a c c e p t i t a s b e i n g t r u l y r e p r e ­
s e n t a t i v e o f a n i n f i n i t e num ber o f c a s e s .
In t h i s tre a tm e n t
o f b a s e b a l l s c o r e s , r e l i a b i l i t y w i l l mean t h e e x t e n t t o whieh
o n e c a n p r e d i c t from a l i m i t e d o b s e r v e d s a m p li n g t h e o u tco m e
t h a t w o u ld be e x p e c t e d i f o n e w e re to e x a m in e a n d o b s e r v e
a l a r g e num ber o f c a s e s .
R e l i a b i l i t y i s s i m p ly a a s p e c t o f
t h e l a w s o f p r o b a b i l i t y , and i s d e p e n d e n t u p o n t h e num ber
and v a r i a b i l i t y o f th e c a s e s observed*
T h i s t r e a t m e n t o f t h e c o m p a r is o n o f t h e m e a n s o f d i f ­
f e r e n t s c o r e s on t h e b a s e b a l l t e s t w i l l d e a l w i t h t h e r e ­
l i a b i l i t y o f a d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n two m eans and d e t e r m i n i n g
36
t h e c h a n c e s t h a t th e r u e d i f f e r e n c e i s a b o v e z e r o .
The
m eth o d w i l l show t h e s u p e r i o r i t y o f o n e g r o u p o v e r a n o t h e r ,
and th e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h a t s u p e r i o r i t y .
At t h i s p o i n t t h e r e a d e r ©ay r e f e r t o S t a t i s t i c s f o r
T e a c h e r s , c h a p t e r IX , by E r n e s t W. T i e g s a n d C la u d e C*
Crawford*-9 f o r a d e t a i l e d e x p l a n a t i o n o f s t a t i s t i c a l m e t h o d s
used i n t h i s c h a p te r .
f a b l e I d e a l s w i t h t h e t o t a l g r o u p o f b o y s who t o o k
t h e b a s e b a l l t e s t i n a c o m p a r is o n w i t h a l l
who t o o k t h e t e s t .
gro u p .
th e a t h l e t e s
The a t h l e t e s a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e t o t a l
T h is te n d s to r a i s e
t h e mean o f th e t o t a l g r o u p .
The t a b l e show s t h a t t h e c h a n c e s a r e 770 t o o n e t h a t t h e
t r u e d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n t h e two m ea n s w ould n o t b e 3 E .D .
u n i t s b e lo w t h e o b s e r v e d d i f f e r e n c e , and t h a t a t h l e t e s com­
p r i s i n g a g e n e r a l g r o u p w i l l s c o r e b e t t e r on t h i s t e s t t h a n
n o n -a th le te s.
T a b l e I I d e a l s w i t h t h e a t h l e t e g r o u p and n o n - a t h l e t e
g r o u p .w ith th e a t h l e t e s l e f t o u t o f th e n o n - a th le te g ro u p .
T h i s t a b l e show s beyo nd a d o u b t t h a t t h e t r u e d i f f e r e n c e
b e tw e e n t h e two m e a n s w ould n o t be 5 . 8 E .B , u n i t s .below, t h e
observed d if f e r e n c e .
T h is i s a v ery c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n o f th e
s u p e r i o r i t y o f a t h l e t e s o v e r n o n - a t h l e t e s on t h e b a s e b a l l
te s t.
E r n e s t W. T i e g s a n d C la u d e C .! C r a w f o r d , St a t i s t i c s
f o r T e a c h e r s f B o s t o n : H o u g h to n M i f f l i n Company, 1930TT"
pp . 129-15 2.
37
TABLE I
RELIABILITY OR THE BIFFERMCE BETfEEH THE MEAUS OF THE TOTAL
GROUP AND ALL ATHLETES OH THE BASEBALL TEST
T o t a l Group
A ll A th le te s
H , . . , , 223
N ..
M . . , . ,
Li . . . .
S ,D . . . . . .
3 3 .0 6
7 .7 5
3 .D .
. . . .
. . . . .
75
. 3 5 ,5 7
6 ,4 2 5
HOTE: T h i s t a b l e s h o u l d be r e a d a s f o l l o w s :
D i f f e r e n c e o f t h e two m eans • . . 2 . 5 1
E.M. o f
t h e a t h l e t e g r o u p . . . . .7 4 4
E.M, o f
t h e t o t a l g r o u p , • * . . ,5 2
E .D . o f
t h e two m eans , • • • • •
.6 3
The r a t i o
i s 2 . 5 1 . o r 3 ! . B . u n i t s a b o v e z e r o . The c h a n c e s
,8 3
a r e 770 to o n e t h a t t h e t r u e d i f f e r e n c e w o u ld n o t be 3 E . 33.
u n i t s below t h e o b s e r v e d d i f f e r e n c e .
I t c a n be s a i d t h e n ,
t h a t i n so f a r a s t h e s e s c o r e s o f t h e g r o u p s a r e r e p r e s e n t ­
a t i v e , a t h l e t e s w i l l s c o r e b e t t e r th a n n o n - a t h l e t e s on th e
B a se b a ll T e s t,
38
T ab le I I I d e a l s w ith th e f o o t b a l l p la y e r s * g ro u p In
c o n s t r a s t to b a s k e t b a l l p l a y e r s ,
t r a c k m en, an d n o n - a t h l e t e s *
B a s k e t b a l l p l a y e r s h a v e a n a d v a n t a g e o f 2*68 I . D . u n i t s o v e r
f o o t b a l l p l a y e r s , o r th e c h an c es t h a t th e t r u e d i f f e r e n c e
w ould n o t b e b elow t h e o b s e r v e d d i f f e r e n c e i s 281 t o one*
I t m u s t be n o t e d h e r e t h a t some b a s k e t b a l l p l a y e r s w e re i n ­
c l u d e d i n t h e f o o t b a l l g r o u p and t h u s r a i s i n g t h e m eans o f
th e f o o t b a l l g ro u p .
I n T a b l e I I I , f o o t b a l l p l a y e r s h a v e a 5*8 E .B , u n i t s
ad v an tag e o v e r n o n - a t h l e t e s , o r th e c h an c es t h a t th e tr u e
d i f f e r e n c e w o u ld n o t be b e lo w t h e o b s e r v e d d i f f e r e n c e w o u ld
be t r u e beyond a d o u b t .
I n T ab le I I I ,
f o o t b a l l p l a y e r s h a v e 1 . 4 6 E .U . u n i t s
a d v a n t a g e o v e r t r a c k m en, o r t h e c h a n c e s t h a t t h e t r u e
d i f f e r e n c e w ou ld n o t be b e lo w t h e o b s e r v e d d i f f e r e n c e w ould
b e 1 2 . 6 to o n e .
I t m u s t be n o t e d h e r e t h a t some b a s k e t b a l l and f o o t ­
b a l l p l a y e r s w ere in e lu d e d i n th e t r a c k g ro u p , th u s r a i s i n g
t h e mean o f t h e t r a c k g ro u p *
The i m p o r t a n t f a c t t o n o t e i n
T a b l e I I I i s t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n t h e f o o t b a l l p l a y e r s and
b a s k e t b a l l p l a y e r s , w h ic h g i v e s t h e b a s k e t b a l l p l a y e r s ith e
e d g e , and t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n t h e f o o t b a l l p l a y e r s and t h e
n o n - a t h l e t e s , w h ic h g i v e s t h e f o o t b a l l p l a y e r s a d e c id e d
su p e rio rity .
T a b l e IV d e a l s w i t h th e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e
39
TABLE I I
RELIABILITY OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE MEANS OF THE
ATHLETES AND NON-ATHLETES ON THE BASEBALL TEST
A ll A th le te s
N o n -a th le te s
N
75
N. . . .
* 147
M
35*57
M. „ , , .
,
29*95
S,B* . * . *
.
7 .5 5
S .B .
6*425
NOTE: T h i s t a b l e s h o u l d be r e a d a s f o l l o w s :
D i f f e r e n c e o f t h e two m ean s • • . 5 , 6 2
E.M. o f t h e a t h l e t e g r o u p • » • • .7 4 4
E.M, o f t h e n o n - a t h l e t e g r o u p • • .6 2 4
E.D, o f t h e two m eans * • * • • *
.9 6 8
The r a t i o
i s 5 * 6 2 . o r 6 . 8 0 ^*B. u n i t s a b o v e z e r o .
The c h a n c e s
.9 6 8
a r e beyo nd d o u b t t h a t t h e t r u e d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n t h e two
m ean s w ould n o t be 5 . 8 2S.B. u n i t s b e lo w t h e o b s e r v e d d i f f e r ­
ence.
I t c a n b e s a i d t h e n , t h a t i n so f a r a s t h e s e s c o r e s
o f th e g ro u p s a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , a t h l e t e s w i l l s c o re b e t t e r
t h a n n o n - a t h l e t e s on t h e B a s e b a l l T e s t .
40
TABLE I I I
RELIABILITY OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE MEANS OF THE FOOT­
BALL PLAYERS, BASKETBALL PLAYERS, NON-ATHLETES AND
TRACK MEN ON .THE BASEBALL TEST
F o o tb a ll P la y e rs
N . . . . .
57
M , , . . , 3 5 ,7 5
3 .D . . . . . .
5 .8 8
T r a c k Men
N . . . . .
M . .
N . . . . .
41
M • . . • • 3 8 ,8 4
S .D .
. . . . .
5 .5 3
N o n -a th le te s
m
. . . 3 3 .8 7
S'. D. , « « . •
B a sk e tb a ll P la y e rs
5 .9 5
H .................... 147
M . . . . .
S.D . . . . . .
2 9 .9 5
7 .5 5
NOTE: T h i s t a b l e s h o u l d r e a d a s f o l l o w s : The r e l i a ­
b i l i t y o f th e d i f f e r e n c e o f th e d i f f e r e n t g ro u p s i s a s
fo llo w s?
B a s k e t b a l l p l a y e r s h a v e 2 , 6 8 E .D , u n i t s o v e r f o o t b a l l
p l a y e r s , o r t h e c h a n c e s t h a t t h e t r u e d i f f e r e n c e w ould n o t
be b e lo w t h e o b s e r v e d d i f f e r e n c e w ould b e 281 t o o n e .
F o o t b a l l p l a y e r s h a v e 5 . 8 E .D . u n i t s o v e r n o n - a t h l e t e s ,
o r t h e c h a n c e s t h a t t h e t r u e d i f f e r e n c e w ould n o t be b elow
t h e o b s e r v e d d i f f e r e n c e i s beyond a d o u b t t r u e .
F o o t b a l l p l a y e r s h a v e 1 .4 6 E .D , u n i t s o v e r t r a e k men,
o r t h e c h a n c e s t h a t t h e t r u e d i f f e r e n c e w o u ld n o t be b elow
t h e o b s e r v e d d i f f e r e n c e w o u ld be 1 2 ,6 t o o n e .
I t m u st be n o t e d h e r e t h a t t h e r e i s q u i t e a g r e a t d e a l
o f d u p l i c a t i o n * o f p l a y e r s , and t h a t t h e o n l y g r o u p w h ere no
d u p l ic a t i o n o c c u rs i s i n th e n o n - a t h l e t e g ro u p .
41
b e tw e e n t h e m eans o f t r a c k men and n o n - a t h l e t e s ,
and f o o t b a l l p l a y e r s .
b a sk e tb a ll
The t r a c k men h a v e a 3 . 2 ? E .D . u n i t s
a d v an tag e o v e r n o n - a t h l e t e s , o r th e ch an ces a r e re a so n a b ly
bey ond d o u b t t h a t th e t r u e d i f f e r e n c e w ould n o t b e 3 .2 7 E.D#
u n i t s b elow t h e o b s e r v e d d i f f e r e n c e .
B a s k e t b a l l p l a y e r s h av e
a n a d v a n t a g e o v e r t r a c k men a s w i l l be shown i n T a b l e V,
F o o t b a l l p l a y e r s h a v e a n a d v a n t a g e o v e r t r a c k men a s h a s b e e n
shown i n T a b l e IY ,
T ab le V d e a ls w ith th e r e l i a b i l i t y
o f th e d i f f e r e n c e
b e tw e e n t h e m ea n s o f b a s k e t b a l l p l a y e r s and n o n - a t h l e t e s ,
f o o t b a l l p l a y e r s a n d t r a c k m en.
B re v io u s t a b l e s i n th e
c h a p t e r h a v e b r o u g h t o u t t h e s u p e r i o r i t y o f b a s k e t b a l l men
i n t h e b a s e b a l l t e s t o v e r f o o t b a l l men and t r a c k men, t h e r e ­
f o r e , no d i s c u s s i o n w i l l be made h e r e .
T a b l e Y show s t h a t b a s k e t b a l l p l a y e r s h a v e a n a d v a n t ­
a g e o f 7 .6 6 E .D . u n i t s o v e r n o n - a t h l e t e s , o r t h e c h a n c e s a r e
bey ond d o u b t t h a t t h e t r u e d i f f e r e n c e w ould n o t b e 7 .6 6 E.D .
u n i t s b e lo w t h e o b s e r v e d d i f f e r e n c e .
T h is ad v an tag e o f
7 .6 6 E.D. u n i t s i s t h e g r e a t e s t o f any g r o u p o f a t h l e t e s
over n o n -a th le te s.
A summary o f t h e t a b l e s and d i s c u s s i o n s so f a r r e v e a l s
t h a t t h e b a s k e t b a l l p l a y e r s h a v e a n a d v a n t a g e o f 7 .6 6 E.D.
u n i t s o v e r t h e n o n - a t h l e t e s , 4 E .D . u n i t s o v e r t r a c k m en, and
2 . 6 8 E.D. u n i t s o v e r f o o t b a l l p l a y e r s .
T h is g iv e s th e b a s k e t­
b a l l p l a y e r s a s i g n i f i c a n t s u p e r i o r i t y o v e r a l l g ro u p s i n th e
42
R(SABLE IV
RELIABILITY OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE MEAN3 OF THE TRACK
MEN AND NON-ATHLETES, BASKETBALL PLAYERS AND FOOT­
BALL PLAYMS ON THE BASEBALL TEST
N o n -a th le te s
T r a c k Men
N . . . . .
Li . . . .
S.D .
. . . . .
33
. 3 3 .8 7
5 .9 5
B a sk e tb a ll f l a y e r s
N . . . . .
1 . . . .
S.D ,
. . . . .
41
. 3 8 .8 4
5 .5 3
N . . . . , 147
1 . . . .
S .D .
.
2 9 .9 5
. . . . .
7 .5 5
F o o tb a ll P la y e rs
N . . . . .
57
H • , • » * 3 5 ,7 5
S .D ,
. . , . .
5 .8 8
NOTE: T h i s t a b l e s h o u l d be r e a d a s f o l l o w s :
The t r a c k men h a v e a 3 . 2 7 E .D . u n i t s a d v a n t a g e o v e r
n o n -a th le te s.
The c h a n c e s a r e 2100 t o o n e t h a t t h e t r u e
d i f f e r e n c e w ou ld n o t be 3 .2 7 E.D, u n i t s b e lo w t h e o b s e r v e d *
d iffe re n c e .
The b a s k e t b a l l p l a y e r s h a v e 4 E .D . u n i t s a d v a n t a g e
o v e r t h e t r a c k m en. The c h a n c e s a r e 3 1 , 0 0 0 t o one t h a t t h e
t r u e d i f f e r e n c e w ould n o t be 4 E.D, u n i t s b e lo w t h e o b s e r v e d
d iffe re n c e .
The f o o t b a l l p l a y e r s h a v e a n a d v a n t a g e o f 1 . 4 6 E.D.
u n i t s a b o v e z e r o o v e r t r a c k men.
The c h a n c e s a r e i 2 , 6 t o
one t h a t t h e t r u e d i f f e r e n c e w ould n o t be 1 .4 6 E .D . u n i t s
b e lo w t h e o b s e r v e d m ean.
43
TABLE V
■RELIABILITY OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE MEANS OF THE BASKET­
BALL FLAYERS WITH NON-ATHLETES, FOOTBALL PLAYERS,
ANN TRACK MEN ON THE BASEBALL TEST
B a sk e tb a ll P la y e rs
N o n -a th le te s
N ....................41
N . . . . .
M ....................3 8 ,8 4
M . . . . .
S .B ........................
5 .5 3
T r a c k Men
N . . . . .
33
M . . • • . 3 3 .8 7
8 .B ........................ 5 .9 5
S .D .
147
2 9 ,9 5
. . . . .
7 ,5 5
F o o tb a ll P la y e rs
N . . . . .
57
M . . . . . 3 5 ,7 5
S .D .
. . . . .
5 .8 8
NOTE: T h i s t a b l e s h o u l d be r e a d a s f o l l o w s :
The b a s k e t b a l l p l a y e r s h a v e a n a d v a n t a g e o f 7 .6 6 E.D,
u n its over n o n -a th le te s .
The c h a n c e s a r e b eyond a d o u b t
t h a t t h e t r u e d i f f e r e n c e w ould n o t be 7 . 6 6 I . B , u n i t s b elow
th e observed d if f e r e n c e .
The b a s k e t b a l l p l a y e r s h a v e a n a d v a n t a g e o f 4 E .B ,
u n i t s o v e r t r a c k men. The c h a n c e s
a r e 3 1 ,0 0 0 t o one t h a t
t h e t r u e d i f f e r e n c e w ould n o t be 4 E .D . u n i t s b e lo w th e
observed d if f e r e n c e .
The b a s k e t b a l l p l a y e r s h a v e an a d v a n t a g e o f 2 .6 8 I . E .
u n its over f o o tb a ll p la y e rs .
The c h a n c e s a r e 285 t o one
t h a t t h e t r u e d i f f e r e n c e w ould n o t b e 2 ,6 8 E .B . u n i t s below
th e observed d i f f e r e n c e .
44
b a se b a ll t e s t .
The f o o t b a l l p l a y e r s hav e a s u p e r i o r i t y o f
5 . 8 E .$ . u n i t s o v e r n o n - a t h l e t e s , 1 . 4 6 E .B . u n i t s o v e r t r a c k
men, an d a r e i n f e r i o r o n l y t o t h e b a s k e t b a l l p l a y e r s on t h e
b a se b a ll t e s t ,
The t r a c k men a r e s u p e r i o r t o n o n - a t h l e t e s
by 3 .2 7 E .B . u n i t s , an d a r e i n f e r i o r t o f o o t b a l l an d b a s k e t ­
b a l l p l a y e r s on t h e b a s e b a l l t e s t .
B a s k e t b a l l r e q u i r e s m ore m o to r c o o r d i n a t i o n a n d f i n e r
sk ills
th a n t r a c k o r f o o t b a l l , o r everyday a c t i v i t i e s o f th e
n o n -a th le te s.
I t may be c o n c l u d e d t h e n ,
th a t th e b a s e b a ll
t e s t te n d s to s e g r e g a te a t h l e t e s i n t o g ro u p s a c c o rd in g to
th e d eg ree o f s k i l l needed f o r s u c c e s s i n t h a t p a r t i c u l a r
gro u p .
T a b l e s V I, V I I , V I I I , and IX d e a l w i t h s c o r e s o f t h e
b a s e b a l l t e s t f o r t h e s e v e n t h , e i g h t h , n i n e t h , and t e n t h
g rad es.
The a t h l e t e s f o r e a c h o f t h e s e g r a d e s w ere s e l e c t e d
f o u r y e a r s a f t e r t h e t e s t s w e re g i v e n .
The mean s c o r e s o f
t h e a t h l e t e and n o n - a t h l e t e g r o u p s w e re o b t a i n e d and t h e
i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f th e s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h e d i f f e r e n c e s
b e tw e e n t h e m eans o f t h e s e g r o u p s a r e fo u n d i n t h e t a b l e s
from s e v e n t e e n t h r o u g h t w e n t y .
To p l a c e a boy i n t h e a t h l e t e g r o u p , c e r t a i n s t a n d ­
a r d s w ere s e t u p ,
A boy had t o q u a l i f y i n a t l e a s t one o f
th e fo llo w in g g ro u p s:
1,
Be a member o f any f i r s t s<juad i n f o o t b a l l ,
b a sk e tb a ll o r tra c k .
45
TABLE YI
RELIABILITY OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE ME&NS OF ATHLETES
AND NON-ATHLETES OF THE SEVENTH SHADE BOYS
ON THE BASEBALL TEST
A th le te s
N o n -a th le te s
N , . . . , 20
N . . . . .
M . . . . . 36
ffi . . . . . 2 4 .4 5
S. D, ,
. , . .
6 .5
S .D . . . . .
18
.
6
NOTE: T h i s t a b l e s h o u l d be r e a d a s f o l l o w s :
F our y e a r s havee la p s e d s in c e th e s e v e n th g ra d e boys
w e re t e s t e d , and th e y a r e now so p h o m o re s i n 1 9 4 0 - 4 1 .
T h is
t a b l e i s a c o m p a r is o n o f t h e 1 9 4 0 -4 1 a t h l e t e s and n o n ­
a t h l e t e s based on t h e i r B a s e b a ll T e s t s c o r e s o b ta in e d fo u r
y e a rs b efo re.
A l l b o y s who had made t h e se c o n d s<juad i n
e i t h e r b a s k e t b a l l , f o o t b a l l , o r t r a c k w e re i n c l u d e d i n th e
a t h l e t e gro up .
The a t h l e t e g r o u p h a s 5 .7 7 E.D? u n i t s a d v a n t a g e o v e r
th e n o n - a t h l e t e g ro u p ,
C hances a r e t h a t th e t r u e d i f f e r e n c e
w ould n o t be 5 .7 7 E .D , u n i t s b elow t h e o b s e r v e d d i f f e r e n c e ,
m a k in g
i t c e r t a i n t h a t t h e b o y s i n t h e s e v e n t h g r a d e who
h a v e a p t i t u d e s f o r a t h l e t i c s w i l l s c o r e h i g h e r on t h e B a s e ­
b a l l T est th an th e n o n - a t h l e t e s .
46
-
TABLE V II
RELIABILITY OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE MEANS OF ATHLETES
AND NON-ATHLETES OF THE EIOHTH GRADE BOYS
ON THE BASEBALL TEST
A th le te s
N o n -a th le te s
as
N . , ,
N . . . . .
M . .
M . . . . . 3 5 .7 5
S .D .
.
. . . . .
4 ,0
S.D ,
, . . . .
7*10
NOTE; T h i s t a b l e s h o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d a s f o l l o w s :
Four y e a r s have e la p s e d s in c e th e e i g h t h g ra d e boys
w e re t e s t e d , and th e y a r e now j u n i o r s i n 1 9 4 0 - 4 1 , T h is
t a b l e i s a c o m p a r is o n o f t h e 1 9 4 0 -4 1 a t h l e t e s and n o n ­
a t h l e t e s based on t h e i r B a s e b a ll T e st s c o r e s o b ta in e d f o u r
y e a r s b e f o r e . A l l b o y s who had made t h e s e c o n d squad i n
e i t h e r b a s k e t b a l l , f o o t b a l l , o r t r a c k w e re i n c l u d e d i n t h e
a t h l e t e g ro u p *
The a t h l e t e g r o u p h a s 4 . 4 E .D , u n i t s a d v a n t a g e o v e r
th e n o n - a t h l e t e s .
The c h a n c e s a r e t h a t t h e t r u e d i f f e r e n c e
w o uld n o t be 4 . 4 E.D. u n i t s b elo w t h e o b s e r v e d d i f f e r e n c e *
m ak in g i t c e r t a i n t h a t b o y s i n t h e e i g h t h g r a d e who ha v e
a p t i t u d e s f o r a t h l e t i c s w i l l s c o r e h ig h e r a s a g ro u p on th e
B a s e b a ll T e st th a n th e n o n - a t h l e t e s .
47
TABLE T i l l
RELIABILITY OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE MEANS OF ATHLETES
AND NON-ATHLETES OF THE NINETH GRADE BOYS
ON THE BASEBALL TEST
A th le te s
N o n -a th le te s
N . . .
N . .
M , . ,
M . .
S .D .
. . ,. . . 12
S .D .
, . . . .
7
NOTE: T h i s t a b l e s h o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d a s f o l l o w s :
Four y e a r s have e la p s e d s i n c e th e n i n e t h g ra d e boys
w e re t e s t e d f and th e y a r e now s e n i o r s i n 1 0 4 0 - 4 1 . T h is
t a b l e i s a c o m p a r is o n o f t h e 1 9 4 0 - 4 1 a t h l e t e s and n o n ­
a t h l e t e s b a s e d on t h e i r B a s e b a l l T e s t s c o r e s o b t a i n e d f o u r
y e a r s b efo re*
A l l b o y s who had made t h e se c o n d sq u a d i n
e i t h e r b a s k e t b a l l , f o o t b a l l , o r t r a c k w e re i n c l u d e d i n t h e
a t h l e t e group.
The a t h l e t e g r o u p h a s a n a d v a n t a g e o f 1 . 7 4 E .D . u n i t s
o v e r th e n o n - a t h l e t e s .
The c h a n c e s a r e 24 t o one t h a t t h e
t r u e d i f f e r e n c e w ould n o t b e 1 . 7 4 E.D, u n i t s b e lo w t h e
observed d if f e r e n c e .
48
TABLE IX
RELIABILITY OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE MEANS OF ATHLETES
AND NON-ATHLETES OF THE TENTH SHADE BOYS
ON THE BASEBALL TEST
A th le te s
N o n -a th le te s
N . . . . .
30
H. . . . .
27
M , . . , .
3 9 .2
M. . . . .
30
S .D .
. . . . ,
4 .5
S.D . . . . .
.
8 ,6 5
NOTE: T h is t a b l e s h o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d a s f o l l o w s :
F o u r y e a r s ha v e e l a p s e d s i n c e t h e t e n t h g r a d e b o y s
w ere t e s t e d , and th e y a r e now g r a d u a t e s .
T h is t a b l e i s a
c o m p a r is o n o f t h e 1 9 4 0 -4 1 a t h l e t e s and n o n - a t h l e t e s b a s e d
on t h e i r B a s e b a l l T e s t s c o r e s o b t a i n e d f o u r y e a r s b e f o r e .
A l l b o y s who had made t h e s e c o n d sq u a d i n e i t h e r b a s k e t ­
b a l l , f o o t b a l l , o r t r a c k w e re i n c l u d e d i n t h e a t h l e t e g r o u p .
The a t h l e t e g r o u p h a s a n a d v a n t a g e o f 5 E .D . u n i t s
o v e r th e n o n - a t h l e t e s .
The c h a n c e s a r e beyond d o u b t t h a t
t h e t r u e d i f f e r e n c e w ould n o t be 5 E .D . u n i t s b elow t h e
observed d if f e r e n c e .
49
2*
Be a member o f t h e se c o n d team i n b a s k e t b a l l *
3.
Be a member o f t h e f i r s t team i n g o l f .
4.
Be a member o f t h e f i r s t s ^ u a d i n t u m b l i n g
and
g y m n a s tic s .
5.
Be a member o f t h e f i r s t tw e n ty p l a y e r s on
th e
s e c o n d sqpiad i n f o o t b a l l .
t a k i n g t h e g r a d e s a s a w h o le , t h e f a c t t h a t t h e mean
o f th e a t h l e t e gro u p i s g r e a t e r th a n t h a t o f th e n o n - a t h l e t e
g ro u p i s b ro u g h t o u t very c l e a r l y .
The s e v e n t h g r a d e a t h l e t e
g r o u p show s t h e g r e a t e s t d i f f e r e n c e o f any o f t h e g r a d e s , w i t h
a n a d v a n t a g e o f 5 .7 7 S .D . u n i t s .
The e i g h t h g r a d e a t h l e t e
g r o u p show s a s l i g h t l y l o w e r a d v a n t a g e o f 4 . 4 E .B , u n i t s .
The n i n e t h g r a d e a t h l e t e g r o u p show s t h e s m a l l e s t a d v a n t a g e
o f 1 .7 4 E .D . u n i t s .
The t e n t h g r a d e a t h l e t e g r o u p show s a n
a d v a n t a g e o f 5 . E .B . u n i t s .
An i n t e r e s t i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s h o u l d be n o t e d h e r e .
The
a d v an tag e s o f d i f f e r e n t a t h l e t e g ro u p s o v er o th e r g ro u p s
seem t o be i n r e l a t i o n
to t h e g r o w t h p e r i o d s o f t h e p r e ­
a d o l e s c e n t , a d o l e s c e n t , and p o s t - a d o l e s c e n t b o y .
That i s ,
t h e r e seem s to be a d e f i h t e c l a s s o f p o o r l y c o o r d i n a t e d
b o y s and a c l a s s o f w e l l c o o r d i n a t e d b o y s i n t h e p r e - a d o l ­
e s c e n t a g e , w h ic h o c c u r s a t t h e s e v e n t h g r a d e l e v e l .
T h en ,
th e re i s a g e n e ra l e q u a liz a tio n o f c o o rd in a tio n a s a d o le s ­
c e n c e i s a p p r o a c h e d , an d f o r t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e a d o l e s c e n t
p e rio d .
T h i s p e r i o d i s r e p r e s e n t e d by b o y s u s u a l l y i n t h e
50
e ig h th ana n in e th grades*
T h e re i s t h e n t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a
d i s t i n c t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f w e l l and p o o r l y c o o r d i n a t e d boys
in th e t e n t h g ra d e l e v e l .
The s t u d y o f t h e s e v e n t h , e i g h t h , n i n e t h ,
and t e n t h
g r a d e a t h l e t e and n o n - a t h l e t e g r o u p s i n d i c a t e s a r e l a t i o n
o f m o to r a b i l i t y
to g ro w th d u rin g th e m en tio n ed f o u r g rad e s*
From t h i s s t u d y , i t may be s a i d t h a t t h e b a s e b a l l t e s t i s a
m e a s u re m e n t o f m o to r a b i l i t y , o r i t i s a w h o le c o o r d i n a t e d
t e s t w h ic h m e a s u r e s o r p r e d i c t s t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f s u c c e s s
i n a t h l e t i c s w h ic h r e q u i r e w h o le c o o r d i n a t e d a c t i v i t i e s .
Summary.
C h a p t e r ITT h a s s t a t i s t i c a l l y
t r e a t e d th e
r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e m ea n s o f a t h l e t e s ’ s c o r e s and n o n - a t h l e
a th le te s*
sco res.
T h i s w as done t o e s t a b l i s h t h e s u p e r i o r ­
i t y o f v a r i o u s a t h l e t i c g r o u p s o v e r n o n - a t h l e t e g r o u p s on
th e b a s e b a l l t e s t .
1.
The s t a t i s t i c s r e v e a l t h a t :
The m e a n s o f a l l a t h l e t e g r o u p s e x c e l l t h e n o n ­
a t h l e t e groups* m eans.
2.
The b a s k e t b a l l g r o u p ’ s mean i s h i g h e r t h a n t h a t
o f t h e f o o t b a l l and t r a c k g r o u p s .
3.
The f o o t b a l l g r o u p * s mean i s h i g h e r t h a n t h e
t r a c k g r o u p ’ s m ean.
4.
The g e n e r a l a t h l e t i c g r o u p s * m eans a s t a k e n by
g ra d e s a re h ig h e r th an th e n o n - a th le te g ro u p s.
5*
T h e re seem s t o be a r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n t h e
b a s e b a l l t e s t and t h e d e c r e a s e o f m o t o r a b i l i t y
d u rin g
51
a d o le sc e n c e .
T h is i s shown by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e m e a n -
o f t h e a t h l e t e g r o u p s comes e l o s e r to t h e n o n - a t h l e t e
g r o u p a s a d o l e s c e n c e i s a p p r o a c h e d , and t h e n becom es
s i g n i f i c a n t l y h ig h e r a g a in in th e te n th g ra d e .
The p r e d i c t i v e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e b a s e b a l l t e s t
f o r g e n e r a l and s p e c i f i c a t h l e t i c s ,
a s r e v e a l e d by t h e
s t a t i s t i c a l tre a tm e n t o f th e r e l i a b i l i t y
o f th e d i f f e r e n c e
b e tw e e n "two m ean s i s a s f o l l o w s ;
1.
Any boy who s c o r e s t h i r t y - t h r e e p o i n t s o n t h e
b a s e b a l l t e s t sh o u ld have t r a c k p o s s i b i l i t i e s .
2.
Any boy who s c o r e s t h i r t y - f i v e p o i n t s o n t h e
b a s e b a l l t e s t sh o u ld have g e n e r a l a t h l e t i c a b i l i t y .
3.
Any boy who s c o r e s t h i r t y - f i v e p o i n t s o n t h e
b a s e b a ll t e s t sh o u ld a ls o have f o o t b a l l p o s s i b i l i t i e s .
4.
Any boy who s c o r e s t h i r t y - n i n e p o i n t s o n t h e
b a s e b a l l t e s t sh o u ld have b a s k e t b a l l p o s s i b i l i t i e s .
The p r e d i c t i v e p o s s i b i l i t i e s by g r a d e s a s t o g e n e r a l
a t h l e t i c a b i l i t i e s on th e b a s e b a l l t e s t a r e a s f o llo w s ;
1,
A s e v e n t h g r a d e boy who s c o r e s t h i r t y - s i x p o i n t s
on t h e b a s e b a l l t e s t s h o u l d h a v e g e n e r a l a t h l e t i c a b i l i t y .
2,
An e i g h t h g r a d e boy who s c o r e s t h i r t y - s e v e n
p o i n t s on th e b a s e b a l l t e s t s h o u ld have g e n e r a l a t h l e t i c
a b ility .
3,
A n i n e t h g r a d e boy who s c o r e s t h i r t y - f i v e p o i n t s
on t h e b a s e b a l l t e s t s h o u l d h a v e g e n e r a l a t h l e t i c a b i l i t y .
52
4*
A t e n t h g r a d e boy who s c o r e s t h i r t y - n i n e p o i n t s
on t h e b a s e b a l l t e s t s h o u l d haire g e n e r a l a t h l e t i c a b i l i t y *
CHAPTER V
STATISTICAL TREATMENT OP THE RESULTS PROM THE
METHODS USED TO ESTABLISH RELIABILITY
AHD VALIDITY FOR THE BASEBALL TEST
C h a p te r V w i l l c o n t a i n t h e s t a t i s t i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s
o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s b e tw e e n t h e B a s e b a l l T e s t and a l l o t h e r
t e s t s g iv en .
T h e s e t e s t s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n d i v i d u a l l y a s
t o t h e r e a s o n f o r g i v i n g them , a n d a l s o any s i g n i f i c a n c e
w h ic h t h e i r e o r r e l a t i i o n s w i t h t h e B a s e b a l l T e s t may h a v e .
I n c o n s id e rin g th e e s ta b lis h m e n t o f r e l i a b i l i t y o f
t'he B a s e b a l l T e s t ,
t h e p r o c e d u r e w as l i m i t e d
t e s t - r e t e s t and o d d -ev en c o r r e l a t i o n s .
31, 3 2 ).
t o two m e t h o d s ,
(S e e p a g e s 2 8 , 2 9 ,
T a b l e X show s t h e t e s t - r e t e s t s e a t t e r g r a m o f one
h u n d r e d and e i g h t y - e i g h t b o y s .
The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t
i s .7 7 an d t h e p r o b a b l e e r r o r i s . 0 1 5 .
It
3eem s t h a t t h e
c o r r e l a t i o n i s v e r y a c c e p t a b l e when c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s g i v e n
t o t h e t y p e o f t e s t , n a m e ly ,
th r o w in g a b a s e b a l l .
T a b l e XI r e p r e s e n t s a n o d d - e v e n s e a t t e r g r a m o f o ne
h u n d r e d and e i g h t y - s e v e n b o y s .
is
.7 5 a n d t h e B .E , i s
c ie n t is
.0 1 6 .
The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t
A lo w er c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i ­
t o be e x p e c t e d a s t h e num ber o f i t e m s i s r e d u c e d
by o n e * h a l f .
I t becom es o b v i o u s t h a t t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e B a se ­
b a l l T e s t i s c o n s i s t e n t u n d e r t h e two m e th o d s u s e d t o d e t e r -
54
TAB!*! X
BASEBALL TEST-RETEST SCATTEBQRAM
R e te st
sco res
T est sc o re s
15
19
10
14
20
24
25
29
30
34
35
39
T o ta l
45
49
40
44
5 0-54
50
54
1
1
1
1
1
3
40-44
1
7
13
2
3
11
13
4
32
12
26
9
1
48
3 5 -3 9
1
3 0 -3 4
1
7
45-49
23
25-29
?
10
22
7
2
44
2 0 -2 4
7
11
2
3
1
24
1 5 -1 9
3
4
1
1 0 -1 4
8
1
1
1
13
26
40
49
33 19
6
1
N .--------------188
r . ................ - . 7 7
B . E . ................ 015
NOTE: T h i s t a b l e s h o u l d be r e a d a s f o l l o w s :
The
l o w e s t s c o r e f a l l s i n t h e 1 0 -1 4 i n t e r n a l and t h e h i g h e s t
s c o r e f a l l s i n t h e 5 0 -5 4 i n t e r v a l .
T h i s s e a t t e r g r a m shows
t h e c l u s t e r i n g o f t h e s c o r e s a r o u n d t h e l i n e from t h e 1 0 -1 4
i n t e r v a l o f t h e r e t e s t s c o r e s t o t h e 5 0 -5 4 i n t e r v a l o f t h e
t e s t ^ sc o re s.
55
TABLE XI
BASEBALL TEST OLD-EVEN 8CATTERGBAM
Odd
sco res
Even l s c o r e s
5
9
10
14
15
19
20
24
T o ta l
25
29
1
5 0 -3 4
1
25-29
1
2
3
39
2 0 -2 4
;2
5
17
15
15-19
9
17
35
7
1 0 -1 4
8
24
17
5
54
5 -9
5
10
5
1
21
24
56
76
30
1
1
69
IT*— - •.......... 187
......................75
P . E*
,0 1 6
HOTEs T h i s t a b l e s h o u l d r e a d a s f o l l o w s ?
The t o t a l
o f t h e odd t h r o w s w e re p l o t t e d a g a i n s t t h e t o t a l o f t h e
even th ro w s.
T h is c o r r e l a t i o n i s lo w e r th an th e t e s t - r e t e s t
c o r r e l a t i o n b e c a u s e t h e r e a r e f e w e r i n t e r v a l s and t h e l e n g t h
o f th e t e s t i s c u t in h a l f .
56
m in e i t s r e l i a b i l i t y .
S t a t i s t i c s show t h a t r e l i a b i l i t y h a s
b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d and t h a t go od r e l i a b i l i t y
c a n be e s t a b ­
l i s h e d f o r t h e B a s e b a l l T e s t u n d e r t h e s e two m e t h o d s .
Many m e th o d s a r e u s e d i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e - v a l i d i t y o f
d i f f e r e n t ty p es o f t e s t s .
C o rre la tio n o f s c o re s w ith
a n o t h e r t e s t i s o n e m e th o d when p u r p o r t i n g t o m e a s u r e
t h e same t h in g *
J u d g m e n ts o f a b i l i t i e s made by t e a c h e r s ,
o r o t h e r e x p e r t s who h a v e had t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o obser-ve
t h e p e r s o n s t e s t e d i s a n o t h e r m e th o d . A n o t h e r i s s e l f ­
v a lid a tio n o f te s ts .
By t h a t i s m e a n t t h a t i f a t e s t
m e a s u r e s a t r a i t r e l i a b l y , t h e n , i p s o f a c t o , i t i s m ea­
su rin g th a t t r a i t v a lid ly *
I t c a n be s a i d f o r t h e l a s t
m etho d t h a t a t e s t i s v a l i d a t e d by m a k in g a v i g o r o u s
i te m a n a l y s i s to make c e r t a i n t h a t o n l y i t e m s w h ic h c o n ­
t r i b u t e to , o r c o r r e l a t e o p tim a lly w ith th e t o t a l s c o r e ,
a re in c lu d e d .
The n e x t s t e p i n v o l v e s d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f
t h e maximum v a l i d i t y p o s s i b l e , a s s u m in g a p e r f e c t c r i ­
t e r i o n w h ic h i s i t s e l f a n o t h e r m e a s u r e o f t h e t r a i t ,
a f f o r d e d by a s t a t i s t i c a l o r m a t h e m a t i c a l v a l i d a t i o n
and n o t by c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h a n o u t s i d e c r i t e r i o n .
A n o th e r m eth o d t o d e t e r m i n e v a l i d i t y i d t o c o r r e l a t e
t e s t s w ith o u ts id e c r i t e r i a , b u t w ith f u l l aw areness
o f t h e l i m i t e d c o e f f i c i e n t s a t t a i n a b l e when c r i t e r i a
a r e f a u l t y . 8P
The B r a c e M o to r A b i l i t y
T e s t was u s e d b e c a u s e i t i s
a v a l i d m e a su re m e n t o f m o to r a b i l i t y .
The t e s t was u s e d
d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t i t c o n s i s t e d o f many d i f f e r e n t s t u n t s
w h ic h i s q u i t e i n c o n t r a s t t o th e B a s e b a l l T e s t .
The t o t a l
B r a c e s c o r e was k e p t i n m ind when i t was s e l e c t e d a s a t o o l
t o be u s e d i n e s t a b l i s h i n g v a l i d i t y f o r t h e B a s e b a l l T e s t .
T a b le X I I show s t h e B r a c e T e s t - - B a s e b a l l T e s t
se a tte rg ra m .
The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t i s
.4 5 w i t h a
20
D * Gr. P a t t e r s o n , 0 * 0 .
W illia m so n , op. c i t . , p . 4 8 .
S c h n e i d e r , and E . G r .
57
P . E . o f *04*
U n d er o r d i n a r y c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h i s f i g u r e
w ould n o t h e to o a c c e p t a b l e .
o f t h e B ra c e T e s t ,
A f te r c o n s id e rin g th e n a tu r e
tw e n ty i n d i v i d u a l s t u n t s w h ic h a r e n o t
i n t h e m s e l v e s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d a s t h e am ount o f s t r e n g t h ,
c o o rd in a tio n ,
t e e h n i f u e , a g i l i t y and many o t h e r f a c t o r s
r e q u i r e d f o r p e r f o r m a n c e a r e n o t eq -u al, t h e r e a d e r c a n a p ­
p re c ia te
*45 a s a h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t .
The B a s e ­
b a l l T e s t i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e B r a c e T e s t i s v e ry s i m p l e i n
te c h n iq u e in s p i t e o f th e n e c e s s ity f o r w e ll c o o rd in a te d
m o v em en ts t o i n s u r e a c c u r a c y a s w i l l be shown l a t e r
in
T a b le XV.
The McCloy T e s t w as s e l e c t e d f o r c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h
th e B a s e b a ll T e s t to p ro v e , i f p o s s i b l e ,
little
s im ila rity o f t r a i t s
th a t th e re i s
i n th r o w in g a b a s e b a l l a c c u r ­
a t e l y and p e r f o r m i n g i n t r a c k e v e n t s , s u c h a s b r o a d ju m p ­
i n g , h i g h j u m p in g , s h o t p u t t i n g , and s p e e d r u n n i n g .
T a b l e X I I I shows th e McCloy T e s t — B a s e b a l l T e s t
s e a t t e r g r a m w i t h a c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t o f *34 and a
P .E , o f .0 6 ,
Such a lo w f i g u r e w as t o be e x p e c t e d a s t h e
McCloy T e s t i s p r i m a r i l y a m e a s u re m e n t o f p o w e r, t h e r e b y ,
p r o v i n g t h a t t h e B a s e b a l l T e s t i s n o t a m e a s u re m e n t o f
p o w e r.
The f o u r e v e n t s i n t h e McOloy T e s t do n o t r e s e m b l e
t h e b a s e b a l l th r o w .
The w e i g h t i n g o f t h e e v e n t s an d t h e
m a th e m a tic s in v o lv e d i n a r r i v i n g a t th e c o n t e s t a n t ’s t e s t
s c o r e p r o b a b ly a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r any c o r r e l a t i o n w ith
58
-TABLE X II
BASEBALL TEST— BRACE TEST SCATTERGRAM
B a se b a ll
n" ' '
s c o r e s ________
35
39
40
44
1....... .............
B raee s c o r e s
45
49
50
54
55
59
5 0 -5 4
60
64
_______
65
69
70
74
1
45-49
40-44
T o ta l
1
3
2
1
5
3
8
2
19
1
6
35-39
2
6
2
6
12
5
33
3 0 -3 4
4
5
4
17
13
5
48
25-89
3
6
5
14
11
2
41
2 0 -2 4
4
6
4
5
5
2
26
3
4
3
2
15-19
i;
13
1 0 -1 4
1
1
16
28
23
50
52
17
1
1
I , — ------188
r . ------ ,— — .4 5
P • E« ———«-«*-•* 04
KOTE: T h i s t a b l e s h o u l d be r e a d a s f o l l o w s :
Compare
t h e B ra c e t o t a l s e o r e s a t t h e l o w e r p a r t o f t h e s e a t t e r g r a m
w i t h th e t o t a l B a s e b a ll s c o r e s a t th e r i g h t o f th e s c a t t e r g ram .
59
SABLE X I I I
BASEBALL TEST—M- CLOY 8GATTERSHAM
B a se b a ll
sco res
58
66
6?
75
76
84
85 94
93 102
103
111
50 -5 4
112
120
121
129
130
139
1
49-45
3 9 -3 5
1
29-25
1
2
1
1
1
3
2
3
3
5
3
1
6
5
6
7
4
3
3
4
11
10
8
10
1
1
7
12
10
4
3
3
1
44-40
3 4 -3 0
T o ta l
Me Cl o.v s e o r e s
8
1
17
1
33
48
1
41
2 4 -2 0
1
1
6
5
4
8
19-15
2
2
3
4
1
1
13
1
1
14-10
4
r,
:8
28
41
35
35
25
26
9
3
K ,— 188
- ----- ,3 4
P . E . -----------.0 6
HOT!:
T h i s t a b l e s h o u l d be r e a d a s f o l l o w s :
Compare
t h e McCloy t o t a l s c o r e s a t t h e b o tto m w i t h t h e t o t a l B a se ­
b a l l s c o r e s a t th e r i g h t .
60
th e B a s e b a ll T e st w h a tso e v e r.
I t may be p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e
f o u r e v e n t s a s a w h o le h a s some r e l a t i o n t o t h e m o t i o n s
o f th ro w in g a b a s e b a l l ,
th a t o f s e ttin g a l l
t h e l a r g e r mus­
c l e s o f t h e body a s w e l l a s t h e f i n e r m u s c l e s o f t h e arm an d
eyes in to a c tio n .
The B a s k e t S h o o t i n g f e a t w as s e l e c t e d i n t h a t i t r e ­
p r e s e n t s a t r a i t o r a b i l i t y w h ic h r e q u i r e s a g r e a t am ount o f
sk ill.
The t e s t had one i m p o r t a n t w e a k n e s s ; n a m e ly ,
th a t
t h e t a l l e r b o y s had a n a d v a n t a g e o v e r t h e s h o r t e r o n e s .
T h i s was e v i d e n t i n t h e s c o r e s .
no r e l a t i o n s h i p to m o to r a b i l i t y ,
S in c e h e ig h t h a s l i t t l e
or
t h i s may a c c o u n t f o r th e
lo w e r t h a n e x p e c t e d c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t .
T a b l e XIV show s t h e B a s k e t S h o o t i n g T e s t — B a s e b a l l
T e s t s e a t t e r g r a m w i t h a c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t o f .4 8 and
a P .E . o f ,0 4 .
The B a s k e t S h o o tin g T e s t w as s u c h t h a t i t
gave th e p e rs o n w ith h e ig h t an a d v a n ta g e .
The t e s t c o n s i s t e d
o f s t a r t i n g from t h e f r e e th ro w l i n e a n d s h o o t i n g f o r two
m in u te s.
covery.
E ach s h o t had t o be t a k e n fro m t h e p o i n t o f r e ­
The B a s k e t S h o o t i n g T e s t — B a s e b a l l T e s t c o r r e l a t i o n
c o e f f i c i e n t i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h a t t h e B a s e b a l l T e s t m u s t be
a m e a s u re m e n t o f f i n e r m ovem ents o r c o n t r o l o f a c t i o n s , and
t h a t th e B ask et S h o o tin g T est a p p ro a c h e s th e s e f i n e r a c t i o n s
t o a g r e a t e r d e g r e e t h a n any t e s t d i s c u s s e d t h u s f a r i n t h i s
th e sis.
The c o r r e l a t i o n s o f t h e B a s e b a l l T e s t w i t h t h e r a t i n g s
61
TABLE XIV
BASEBALL TEST— BASKET SHOOTING TEST SCATTERGRAM
B a se b all
scores
______
3
8
9
14
B asket sh o o tin g s c o re s
15
20
21
26
5 0 -5 4
1
45-49
4
4 0 -4 4
3 5 -3 9
2
3 0 -3 4
27
32
33
38
45
50
51
56
1
1
1
6
3
6
2
4
1
B
1
19
6
4
6
8
3
2
1
32
a
16
10
9
4
1
1
49
2 5 -2 9
5
8
10
12
4
2
2 0 —24
3
7
6
5
2
2
1 5 -1 9
1
7
3
2
1 0 -1 4
39
44
T o ta l
41
1
13
1
11
40
26
1
45
42
27
13
.6
3
1
E . — — 188
r , , - — - —*,48
P . E . - --------- ,0 4
NOTE: T h i s t a b l e s h o u l d be r e a d a s f o l l o w s :
Compare
t h e t o t a l s c o r e s o f t h e B a s k e t S h o o t i n g T e s t a t t h e b o tto m
o f t h e s e a t t e r g r a m w i t h t h e t o t a l s c o r e s o f t h e B a s e b a l l !.
T e st a t th e r i g h t o f th e s e a tte r g r a m .
62
o f b a s k e t b a l l p l a y e r s a n d f o o t b a l l p l a y e r s w e re c o n s i d e r e d
a cc e p ta b le c r i t e r i a
i n a t t e m p t i n g to e s t a b l i s h v a l i d i t y .
The s u b j e c t i v e f a c t o r o f t h e ju d g m e n ts by t h e t h r e e c o a c h e s
may n o t have b e e n g ood s t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e d u r e .
H ow ever, no
e v i d e n c e was fo u n d t o p r o v e t h a t t h e s u b j e c t i v e f a c t o r
te n d e d t o r a i s e o r l o w e r t h e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s .
The
f a c t t h a t t h e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s w e r e .5 9 an d .5 3 f o r
b a s k e t b a l l and f o o t b a l l r e s p e c t i v e l y ,
show s t h a t t h e B a s e ­
b a l l T e s t does m easure g ro u p s o f t r a i t s b e lo n g in g to th e s e
two a c t i v i t i e s .
T a b l e XV and T a b l e XVI d e a l w i t h s e a t t e r g r a m s show­
i n g c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s o f b a s k e t b a l l an d f o o t b a l l
a b i l i t i e s w ith th e B a s e b a ll T e s t.
fo r each s p o r t.
F i f t y b o y s w e re p i c k e d
T h r e e c o a c h e s r a t e d e a c h boy g i v i n g him
a n u m e r i c a l r a t i n g fro m o n e t o f i f t y .
A ll th re e r a t i n g s
w e re a d d e d a n d t h e sum d i v i d e d by t h r e e t o o b t a i n t h e
a v e ra g e r a t i n g o f th e c o a c h e s.
The a v e r a g e w as p l o t t e d
a g a i n s t th e boy*s B a s e b a ll T e s t s c o r e .
(S e e p a g e s 3 2 - 3 3 ) .
The b a s k e t b a l l c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t i s .5 9 w i t h
a P .S . o f .0 3 .
The S p earm an Hank D i f f e r e n c e C o r r e l a t i o n
w as u s e d , and a c o e f f i c i e n t o f ,5 9 was o b t a i n e d .
The
b a s k e t b a l l c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t i s s i g n i f i c a n t and
e s p e c i a l l y when ju d g e d a b i l i t y i n b a s k e t b a l l i s c o r r e l a t e d
w ith b a s e b a l l th ro w in g a b i l i t y .
T a b le XVI show s t h e f o o t b a l l a b i l i t y
th e B a s e b a ll T e s t.
c o r r e la te d w ith
The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t i s .5 3 and
63
TABLE XV
BASEBALL TEST—BASKETBALL ABILITY SCATTERGRAM
!fhr owing
ranging
■" "" "
'' ........"' ..... "
'1
'
'
■■
____________ Coaches* ranking_________________ T otal
1
5
6
10
11
15
16
20
21
25
5 0 -4 6
1
4 5 -41
1
40-36
35-31
26
30
31
35
36
40
41
45
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
3Q-26
2
25-21
1
2
2 0 -1 6
1
2
1 5 -1 1
1
1
1
1 0 -6
2
1
5-1
1
3
4
7
1
.
1
5
1
5
3
1
5
1
1
5
1
1
1
1
2
46
50
1
5
1
5
1
5
1
5
1
4
7
4
5
5
3
3
10
5
3
■Iff.-.— 50
r , — ----- — .5 9
— *03
NOTE: T h i s t a b l e s h o u l d be r e a d a s f o llo w s .:
Compare
t h e t o t a l s c o r e s o f t h e c o a c h e s r a n k i n g a t t h e b o tto m o f th e
s e a tte r g r a m w ith th e s t a t i c t o t a l th ro w in g ra n k in g a t th e
r i g h t o f th e s c a t t e r i n g #
64
TABLE XVI
BASEBALL TEST— FOOTBALL ABILITY SCATTEROHAM
Coaches*
ran k in g
T h ro w in g r a n k
0
5
6
10
11
15
16
20
5 0 -4 6
1
4 0 -36
1
3 5-31
1
2
1 0 -6
2
r.
1
1
1
1
6
7
3
46
50
3
5
1
5
2
1
5
1
5
1
1
1
1
41
45
1
1
1
5
1
5
1
5
1
2
5
1
1
5
2
1
4
36
40
1
1
1
1
31
35
2
2
1 5 —11
5 -0
1
1
1
2 5 -2 1
2 0 -1 6
26
30
1
45-41
30-26
21
25
To t a l
5
6
4
5
1
1
5
5
5
NY........... 50
— .5 3
P . E . - --------- .0 4
NOTE: T h i s t a b l e s h o u l d be r e a d a s f o l l o w s :
The
c o a c h e s * r a n k i n g a t t h e r i g h t s h o u l d be com pared w i t h t h e
t h r o w i n g r a n k a t t h e b o tto m o f t h e s e a t t e r g r a m .
65
a B .l . o f .0 4 .
T h is c o r r e l a t i o n i s n o t im p o rta n t in t h a t
a b o u t t w e n ty o f t h e f i f t y
f o o t b a l l p l a y e r s w e re p i c k e d f o r
th e b a s k e t b a l l c o r r e l a t i o n .
T h i s w ould mean t h a t a much
l o w e r c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t w ould be t h e r e s u l t had a l l
th e b o y s b e e n s t r i c t l y
fo o tb a ll p la y e rs.
T h i s seem s l o g ­
i c a l a s a n a n a l y s i s o f th e s k i l l s r e q u i r e d i n f o o t b a l l a r e
not a s e x a c tin g a s th o se re q u ir e d in b a s k e t b a ll .
sa fe ly sta te d
I t may be
t h a t th e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t w ith o n ly
f o o t b a l l p l a y e r s w ou ld b e a b o u t t h e same a s t h e McCloy T e s t
c o r r e l a t i o n w h ic h w as . 3 4 .
T a b l e X V II show s t h e B a s e b a l l T e s t —rForm S c o r e s e a t ­
t e r g r a m w i t h a c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t o f .7 1 and a P . E , o f
.0 2 .
R a t i n g s on fo rm w e re made by f i v e f u d g e s o n t h e b a s i s
o f f i v e p r a c t i c e t h r o w s w h ic h w e re n o t c o u n te d i n t h e s c o r i n g .
S c o r e s a r e t h e num ber o f p o i n t s s c o r e d i n t h e t a r g e t box w i t h
te n th ro w s.
The t a r g e t b o x * s p e r f e c t s c o r e i n te r m s o f p o s s ­
i b i l i t y w as 7 0 .
One p o i n t w as s c o r e d f o r t h r o w i n g t h e b a l l
i n th e r i g h t d i r e c t i o n .
(S ee p a g e s 1 1 - 1 6 ) .
S c o r e on form w a s a r r i v e d a t by g i v i n g f i v e p o i n t s f o r
t h e h i g h e s t fo rm and on down to o n e f o r t h e l o w e s t f o rm .
The
r a t i n g s o f t h e f i v e j u d g e s w e re a d d e d and d i v i d e d by f i v e t o
g e t t h e mean s c o r e .
t e s t began.
A l l fo rm s c o r e s w e re r e c o r d e d b e f o r e t h e
The a s s u m p t i o n w as t h a t t h e t h r o w e r w ould n o t
and c o u ld n o t a l t e r h i s form d u r i n g t h e t e s t from t h a t o f t h e
66
TABltE XVII
BASEBALL f E S f — FOEM SCOBI SOA3FTERGHAM
B a se b all
sco res
Form s c o r e s
5
4 .5
4
3 .5
3
2 .5
2
1. 5
fa ta l
1
.5
5 0 -6 4
1
1
45-49
6
6
40-44
1
9
9
19
5 5 -5 9
4
15
13
32
3 0 -3 4
6
32
10
48
25-29
14
22
5
41
2 0 -2 4
13
12
25
B
2
13
15-19
3
1 0 -1 4
1
4
1
46
92
44
N.............
r f— — — - . 7 1
P . E . --------- . 0 2
I0 fE :
f h i s t a b l e s h o u l d be r e a d a s f o l l o w s :
Four
b o y s bad p e r f e c t form i n t h r o w i n g ; 46 had s u p e r i o r fo rm ;
92 h a d a v e r a g e fo rm ; a n d 44 h a d b e lo w a v e r a g e .
67
p ra c tic e
th ro w s.
I t i s f e l t t h a t t h i s m eth o d o f e s t a b l i s h i n g v a l i d i t y
is sig n ific a n t.
F irst,
i n o r d e r t o h a v e go od f o r m , t h e
t h r o w e r m u st h a v e good c o o r d i n a t i o n .
Second, th e c o r r e l a t i o n
c o e f f i c i e n t o f .7 1 i n d i c a t e s a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f form
o r c o o r d i n a ti o n and th ro w in g a b i l i t y , o r th e c o o r d i n a t i o n s
w h ic h p r o d u c e good o r bad s c o r e s a s t h e e a s e may b e .
T a b l e X V III g i v e s t h e no rm s f o r a l l a g e s , and show s
a c o m p a r is o n o f s c o r e s f o r b o y s i n t h e J u n i o r a n d s e n i o r
h ig h se h o o l.
I t a l s o d e a l s w i t h t e s t s c o r e s o f th e
t o t a l g r o u p and w i t h a g e s o f t h e b o y s w i t h r e s p e c t t o
t h e i r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s i n th e t e s t .
o b se rv a tio n i s
A v e ry i n t e r e s t i n g
t h a t t h e m e d ia n f o r t h e t o t a l g r o u p i s v e ry
c l o s e t o t h e m e d ia n s f o r t h e v a r i o u s a g e s .
A n o th e r o b s e r ­
v a t i o n i s t h e i n c r e a s e o f t h e m e d ia n fro m £ 8 .7 f o r t h e
t w e l v e y e a r o l d b o y s t o 30 f o r t h e t h i r t e e n y e a r o l d b o y s ,
and t o 33 f o r a g e f o u r t e e n .
Then i t
f i f t e e n and t o 31 f o r a g e s i x t e e n .
d r o p s to 3 1 .7 f o r a g e
A ges s e v e n t e e n , e i g h ­
t e e n and n i n e t e e n w e re g r o u p e d t o g e t h e r and th e m e d ia n
in ­
c re a s e d to 35.
A c o n c l u s i o n fro m s t u d y i n g t h e t a b l e s w ould be t h e
l a c k o f c o n s i d e r a b l e i n c r e a s e i n t h e m e d ia n s c o r e s from t h e
tw e lv e y e a r l e v e l th ro u g h th e s i x t e e n y e a r l e v e l .
T h is g iv e s
go od e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e t e s t may be a m e a s u re m e n t o f m o to r
a b i l i t y i n t h a t t h e m e d ia n s c o r e s a r e f a i r l y c o n s t a n t .
TABLE X V III
INDIVIDUAL ASE--TOTAL AOE DISTRIBUTION OF
THE BASEBALL SCORES
T o ta l gro u p
M e d ia n
31
Q3
37*5
C&
2 6 .7
St
5 .4 2
N«— 188
M ed ian
2 8 .7
Q3
34
QX
2 5 .3
%
4 .3
a r group
M edian
30
•52!
1
1
-a
12 Y e a r g r o u p
69
TABLE X V III (c o n tin u e d )
INDIVIDUAL AGrE--TOTAL AOE DISTRIBUTION OF
TEE BASEBALL SCORES
14 Y e a r g r o u p
M ed ian
33
03
3 7 .5
01
2 6 ,5
0
5 .5
N ,— 46
____________ 15 Y e ar g r o u p _____________
M edian
3 1 .7
03
40
01
26.'3
0
6 .8
N .— 43
16 Y e a r g r o u p
M ed ian
31
03
37
01
24
0
6 .5
N .—>37
70
TABLE X V III (c o n tin u e d )
ira n riK JA L
age
to ta l a g e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f
M E BASEBALL SCORES
17-18-*19 Y e a r g r o u p
M e d ian
35
03
40
01
29
0
5 .5
K . — 13
NOTE: T h i s t a b l e s h o u l d be r e a d a s f o l l o w s :
The m e d ia n s e o r e o f t h e t o t a l g r o u p i s 3 1 , t w e lv e
y e a r group h a s
m e d ia n s c o r e o f 2 8 . 7 , t h e t h i r t e e n
y e a r g r o u p h a s a m e d ia n s c o r e o f 3 0 , t h e f o u r t e e n
y e a r g r o u p h a s a m e d ia n s c o r e o f 3 3 , t h e f i f t e e n
y e a r g r o u p h a s a m e d ia n s c o r e o f 3 1 . 7 , t h e s i x t e e n
y e a r g r o u p h a s a m e d ia n s c o r e o f 3 1 ; and t h e
s e v e n t e e n , e i g h t e e n , and n i n e t e e n y e a r g r o u p h a s
a m e d ia n s c o r e o f 3 5 .
n
Summary.
C h a p te r V has c o v ered th e s t a t i s t i c a l i n t e r ­
p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s b e tw e e n t h e B a s e b a l l T e s t
s c o r e s and o t h e r s c o r e s .
T h i s w as done t o e s t a b l i s h r e l i a b i l ­
i t y and v a l i d t y f o r t h e B a s e b a l l T e s t .
The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r r e l i a b i l i t y a r e .7 6
and .7 5 f o r t h e t e s t - r e t e s t an d o d d - e v e n c o r r e l a t i o n s r e ­
sp e c tiv e ly .
T h e s e c o e f f i c i e n t s may be c o n s i d e r e d a s a c c e p t ­
a b le f o r th e e s ta b lis h m e n t o f r e l i a b i l i t y .
The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r v a l i d i t y o n t h e v a r ­
io u s t e s t s tre a te d a re :
B a s e b a l l T e s t — B r a c e M o to r A b i l i t y
T e s t w i t h a c o e f f i c i e n t o f . 4 5 , B a s e b a l l T e s t —McCloy T e s t
w ith a
c o e f f i c i e n t o f .3 4 ,
B a se b a ll T e st— F o o tb a ll p la y e rs
w ith a
c o e f f i c i e n t o f .5 3 ,
B a se b a ll T e st— B a sk e tb a ll p la y e r s
w ith a
c o e f f i c i e n t o f *59, and t h e B a s e b a l l T e s t — Form S c o r e s
w ith a
c o e f f i c i e n t o f ’. 7 1 .
From a n a n a l y s i s o f t h e s e c o e f ­
f i c i e n t s i t may b e s a i d t h a t t h e B a s e b a l l T e s t m e a s u r e s t r a i t s
w h ic h a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e r e q u i r e d f o r s u c c e s s i n a c t i v i t i e s
w h ic h p l a c e s a h i g h prem ium o n g o o d c o o r d i n a t i o n .
The l a s t ite m c o n s i d e r e d i n c h a p t e r 1 i s t h e e s t a b l i s h ­
m ent o f n o rm s f o r b o y s i n g r a d e s s e v e n t h r o u g h t e n , a n d show­
i n g t h e v a r i a n c e by g r a d e s and a g e s i n t h e m eans o f t h e B a s e ­
b a ll T est sc o re s .
CHAPTER VI
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND R ECCOMMENBAT10 NS
T h row in g a b a s e b a l l a c c u r a t e l y i s a c o m p l i c a t e s move­
m ent in v o lv in g f i n e m u sc u la r c o o r d i n a t i o n s o f th e e y e , f i n ­
g e r s , h a n d s , and a rm s w i t h t h o s e o f t h e b a c k a n d l e g s , w h ic h
m a in ta in b o sily p o s tu re .
Any boy t h r o w i n g a b a s e b a l l a c c u r ­
a t e l y w ith c o n s is te n c y sh o u ld be w e ll c o o r d in a te d s i n c e th e
l a t t e r i s n e c e ssa ry f o r th e f i r s t .
Any boy t h r o w i n g a b a s e ­
b a l l a c c u r a t e l y w i t h c o n s i s t e n c y s h o u l d h a v e s u p e r i o r fo rm
s i n c e form and go o d c o o r d i n a t i o n go t o g e t h e r a n d t h e l a t t e r
i s re s p o n sib le fo r accu racy .
S l n e e s u p e r i o r fo rm r e p r e ­
s e n t s h i g h e r c o o r d i n a t i o n and t h e l a t t e r i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r
a c c u r a c y i n t h r o w i n g , i t may be s a i d
t h a t b o y s who s c o r e
h ig h on a b a s e b a l l th ro w in g a c c u ra c y t e s t sh o u ld be o r be­
come good a t h l e t e s .
To p r o v e o r d i s p r o v e t h i s a s s u m p t i o n
i s th e purpose o f t h i s t h e s i s .
B e f o r e t h i s c o u l d b e d o ne,
i t w as n e c e s s a r y t o d e v e l o p a n r o b j e c t i v e t e s t t o m e a s u r e
a c c u ra c y i n th ro w in g a r e g u l a t i o n b a s e b a l l .
to be made r e l i a b l e ,
v a l i d , and o b j e c t i v e ,
T h i s t e s t had
th re e necessary
t r a i t s o f a good t e s t .
The summary w i l l b e d i s c u s s e d by c h a p t e r s .
C h a p te r I .
T h i s c h a p t e r r e l a t e s t h e p r o b le m w h ic h
h a s j u s t b e e n d i s c u s s e d a n d a s k s s e v e n q u e s t i o n s w h ic h a r e
t o be a n s w e r e d l a t e r i n t h i s summary.
S ix te e n c r i t e r i a o f
73
a good o b j e c t i v e t e s t a r e q u o te d f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f empha­
s i z i n g th e im p o rta n c e o f th e p ro b lem .
T here i s n o t a
le n g th y d e s c r ip tio n o f r e l a te d i n v e s ti g a t i o n s a s l i t t l e
n o th in g h a s been a cc o m p lish e d in t h i s f i e l d *
a c c o u n t o f t h e p r o c e d u r e m etho d i s g i v e n *
or
A d e ta ile d
T h is in c lu d e d
t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e p h y s i c a l e q u i p m e n t , tim e a l i o t e d f o r
th e t e s t i n g ,
e s ta b lis h m e n t o f a th ro w in g d i s t a n c e , s t a n d a r d s
f o r fo rm j u d g i n g , s e l e c t i o n and r a t i n g o f b a s k e t b a l l and
f o o t b a l l p l a y e r s f o r c o r r e l a t i o n s a g a i n s t th e B a s e b a ll T e s t,
a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e b a s k e t s h o o t i n g , B r a c e M o to r A b i l i t y ,
and t h e McCloy t e s t s *
The f i n a l p h a s e s i n t h e p r o c e d u r e
m eth o d w e re t h e a s s i m i l a t i o n o f d a t a and t h e s t a t i s t i c a l
t r e a t m e n t o f t h e B a s e b a l l T e s t s c o r e s i n a n a t t e m p t to
a n a ly z e th e p r e d i c t i v e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f th e t e s t*
D e l i m i t a t i o n and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f th e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e
t h e s i s c o n c l u d e s C h a p t e r I*
C h a p te r I I *
T h is c h a p t e r d e s c r i b e s in d e t a i l th e
c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e t e s t i n g d e v i c e an d s c o r e c a r d .
A b lu e ­
p r i n t o f th e d e v ic e i s in c lu d e d a s w e ll a s a r e p r o d u c tio n o f
th e s c o re c a rd .
The a c t u a l tim e and e x t e n t o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t
i s g iv e n c o n s id e ra tio n *
The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e t e s t i s
g iv e n in d e ta il*
C h a p te r I I I .
T h i s c h a p t e r d e a l s w i t h th e m e th o d s u s e d
to d e te rm in e r e l i a b i l i t y ,
v a lid ity ,
and o b j e c t i v i t y o f t h e
74
B a se b all T e st,
Q uoted m a t e r i a l o n t h e t h r e e m e n t i o n e d
t r a i t s w h ic h p e r t a i n e d t o th e p h a s e s t h a t w e re i m p o r t a n t
i n t h i s stu d y i s in c lu d e d b e f o r e th e d i s c u s s i o n o f m eth o d s.
C h a p te r IV .
A tre a tm e n t o f th e B a se b a ll T est s c o re s
to e s t a b l i s h t h e r e l i a b i l i t y
s i g n i f ic a n c e o f th e d if f e r e n c e
b e tw e e n t h e m eans o f t h e two s e t s o f s c o r e s i s
C h a p t e r IV .
th e b a s i s o f
A c o m p a r is o n o f m eans i s a s f o l l o w s :
g r o u p w as t e s t e d w i t h t h e t o t a l a t h l e t e g r o u p ,
The t o t a l
th e t o t a l
a t h l e t e group w ith th e t o t a l n o n - a t h l e t e g ro u p , th e f o o t b a l l
p l a y e r s w ith th e b a s k e t b a l l p l a y e r s ,
th e f o o t b a l l p la y e r s w ith
t h e t r a c k men, t h e f o o t b a l l p l a y e r s w i t h t h e n o n - a t h l e t e s ,
th e
b a s k e t b a l l p l a y e r s w i t h t h e n o n - a t h l e t e s , and t h e b a s k e t b a l l
p l a y e r s w i t h t h e t r a c k men*
A c o m p a r is o n by g r a d e s o f a t h l e r e s * m eans w i t h n o n ­
a th l e t e s i s g iv en .
An e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r a boy to be
c l a s s i f i e d a s an a t h l e t e i s g iv e n .
The c o n c l u s i o n fro m t h i s a n a l y s i s i n C h a p t e r IV i s ': .
1,
A t h l e t e s sc o re d h ig h e r on th e B a s e b a ll T e st th an
n o n -a th le te s.
2.
The d i f f e r e n c e i n th e m eans o f a t h l e t e s *
sco res
and n o n - a t h l e t e s i s s i g n i f i c a n t .
3.
B a s k e t b a l l men s c o r e d h i g h e r th a n f o o t b a l l and
t r a c k men,
4,
F o o t b a l l men s c o r e d h i g h e r t h a n t r a c k m en.
75
5*
b a ll,
I t may be p o s s i b l e t o p r e d i c t s u c c e s s i n f o o t ­
b a s k e t b a l l and t r a c k f o r a boy who t a k e s t h e
B a se b all T e s t,
6*
The B a s e b a l l T e s t may b e c o n s i d e r e d v a l i d i n t h a t
i t m easures g ro u p s o f t r a i t s r e q u i r i n g h ig h c o o rd in a tio n s
su ch a s i s fo u n d i n b a s k e t b a l l .
C h a p t e r V.
T est i s
R e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y o f t h e B a s e b a l l
t h e b a s i s f o r C h a p t e r V.
I t may b e s a i d
t h a t r e l i a b i l i t y w as e s t a b l i s h e d on
t h e b a s i s o f t h e t e s t - r e t e s t and o d d - e v e n m e th o d s w i t h c o r ­
r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s o f ,7 7 and .7 5 r e s p e c t i v e l y .
R e a s o n s w e re g i v e n f o r t h e u s e o f v a r i o u s t e s t s a s
a m eth o d i n e s t a b l i s h i n g v a l i d i t y
f o r th e B a s e b a ll T e s t,
A lo n g w i t h t h e s e r e a s o n s a r e t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f th e
c o rre la tio n c o e ffic ie n ts .
The h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f ­
f i c i e n t s w e re t h o s e w i t h b a s k e t b a l l and f o o t b a l l p l a y e r s .
I t may b e c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e B a s e b a l l T e s t i s v a l i d i n t h a t
i t m e a s u r e s g r o u p s o f t r a i t s w h ic h a r e n e c e s s a r y f o r s u c c e s s
i n b a s k e t b a l l and f o o t b a l l .
T h is c o n c lu s io n i s f u r t h e r
s u b s t a n t i a t e d by t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e m e th o d s u s e d i n C h a p te r
IV-,
I t i s a l s o s u b s t a n t i a t e d by t h e B a s e b a l l T e s t — Form
sc o re c o r r e la tio n c o e f f ic ie n t o f .7 1 .
Norms f o r a g e s a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e X V I I I .
A d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e B a s e b a l l T e s ts * o b j e c t i v i t y h a s
p u r p o s e l y b e e n l i m i t e d up t o t h i s p o i n t .
I t w as f e l t
th a t
a l l t h e f a c t s s h o u l d he c o n s i d e r e d f i r s t so t h a t t h e r e a d e r
w ou ld h a v e a b e t t e r b a c k g r o u n d w i t h w h ic h t o a n a l i z e th e
o b j e c t i v i ty o f th e te s t*
O b j e c t i v i t y o f th e B a s e b a ll T e s t *
O b j e c t iv i t y o f th e
B a s e b a l l T e s t i s s e l f - e v i d e n t i n t h a t any two p e o p l e g i v i n g
t h e t e s t t o a n y o n e i n d i v i d u a l w o u ld g e t t h e same r e s u l t s *
The t e s t i s so c o n s t r u c t e d and so a d m i n i s t r a t e d
b u t p e r f e c t o b j e c t i v i t y c a n be s e c u r e d .
w h at i t i s i n t e n d e d to m e a s u r e ,
b a l l th ro w in g .
th a t n o th in g
The t e s t m e a s u r e s
t h a t o f accu racy in b ase­
The t e s t i s o b j e c t i v e l y m e a s u r e d by u n i t s
w h ic h a r e w h o lly a p p r o p r i a t e and a b s o l u t e l y e q u a l t o a l l
p o i n t s on t h e s c a l e .
The s c o r e s a r e e x p r e s s e d i n f i g u r e s
w h ic h may be h a n d l e d a r i t h m e t i c a l l y .
h a v e b e e n s e t up f o r a g e and s e x .
Horms o f a c h i e v e m e n t
The t e s t i s e c o n o m ic a l
i n p o i n t o f tim e c o n su m ed , e q u ip m e n t , e x p e n s e , and e f f o r t
on t h e p a r t o f t h e e x a m in e r an d t h e p u p i l .
The t e s t mea­
s u r e s a d e q u a te ly a l l im p o rta n t p h a s e s o f th e t r a i t in
q u e stio n *
The t e s t i s n o n - e o a e h a b l e .
The t e s t i s s i m p l e
and f r e e from a m b i g u i t i e s s u c h a s i n s t r u c t i o n s i n v o l v i n g
t o o much t a l k i n g ,
te s t,
d i s r u p t i o n o f p u p i l s by c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e
i s n o t t o o l o n g and d o e s n o t i n v o l v e f a t i g u e .
The
e l e m e n t s o f t h e t e s t a r e w e ig h e d i n t h e optimum m an n er
and a r e d e t e r m i n e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y .
are b r ie f ,
The t e s t ' s i n s t r u c t i o n s
i n c l u d e d e m o n s t r a t i o n s , and a r e a d a p t e d t o and
u n i f o r m f o r a l l who t a k e i t .
The t e s t d o e s n o t p r o d u c e
77
u n d i s t r i b u t e d s c o r e s , m e a n in g t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t eno ugh
t h a t no p u p i l w i l l make a p e r f e c t s c o r e , a n d i t
i s easy
e n o u g h t h a t no p u p i l w i l l s c o r e z e r o .
The t e s t s e p a r a t e s
th e p u p i ls i n to a t l e a s t te n g ro u p s.
The num ber o f g r o u p s
p r o b a b l y w ould i n c r e a s e a s t h e t o t a l num ber o f p u p i l s t e s t e d
in c re a se d .
The t e s t i s so c o n s t r u c t e d a s t o p e r m i t u n i f o r m i t y
o f p r o c e d u r e i n a p p l y i n g and s c o r i n g i t .
The t e s t i s o f
d e f i n i t e v a lu e i n s e g r e g a tin g boys i n to g ro u p s w ith d i f f e r e n t
w h o le c o o r d i n a t i o n a b i l i t i e s and t o p r e d i c t f u t u r e a t h l e t e s
from t h e s e g r o u p s .
C o n c lu s io n s.
S ev en q u e s t i o n s w e re r a i s e d a t t h e b e ­
g in n in g o f th e f i r s t c h a p t e r .
The a n s w e r s t o t h e s e q u e s t i o n s
fo llo w :
1.
iQoes t h e t e s t m e a s u r e a n .y th in g b e s i d e s a c c u r a c y ?
T h i s c a n be a n s w e re d by t u r n i n g t o t h e m a t e r i a l on th e
e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f v a l i d i t y w h ic h r e v e a l s a c c e p t a b e c o r ­
r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s w i t h m o to r a b i l i t y ,
a b ility ,
and fo rm .
fo o tb a ll
b a s k e tb a ll a b i l i t y , b a sk e t sh o o tin g a b i l i t y
The p r e d i c t i v e v a l u e o f t h e t e s t i s d i s c u s s e d
i n C h a p t e r IV .
T h i s w o u ld mean t h a t th e t e s t m e a s u r e s . -
som ewhat t h e a b i l i t i e s , w h e t h e r g e n e r a l o r s p e c i f i c c a n ­
n o t be s a i d , o f b e t t e r a t h l e t e s .
S in c e i t c o r r e l a t e s
h i g h l y w i t h form a n d w i t h a t h l e t i c a b i l i t i e s r e q u i r i n g
h i g h c o o r d i n a t i o n and m o to r a b i l i t y ,
i t w ould seem t h a t
i t i s a m e a su re m e n t o f g e n e r a l m o to r a b i l i t y
i n t h e form
78
o f w h o le c o o r d i n a t e d m o v em en ts.
1 § 11 P o s s i b l e to e s t a b l i s h no rm s f o r a l l a g e s
2*
w h ic h c a n be u s e d by o t h e r t e a c h e r s ?
T h is h a s been
a c c o m p lish e d on a s n a i l s c a l e a s i s g iv e n in f a b l e X Y III.
It
i s o b v i o u s , h o w e v e r,
t h a t t r u e r no rm s c o u ld be s e c u r e d
fro m a much l a r g e r num ber and from a l l s e c t i o n s o f t h e
c o u n try .
5*
£ o b o y s i n t h e u p p e r g r a d e s make b e t t e r s c o r e s
on t h e t e s t t h a n b o y s i n t h e l o w e r g r a d e s ?
a n s w e re d i n f a b l e X Y III*
o f 2 8 .7 .
fh is is
f h e y o u n g e r b o y s h a v e a m e d ia n
f h e m ed ian s i n c r e a s e w i t h th e age o f th e
p u p i l s e x c e p t f o r t h o s e f i f t e e n and s i x t e e n y e a r s o f a g e .
I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t w i t h a g r e a t e r s a m p li n g t h e d i f f e r ­
e n c e w ou ld be e l i m i t e d .
f h e f a i l u r e o f t h e m e d ia n s to
i n c r e a s e , o r p r o b a b l y to d e c r e a s e i f a n y t h i n g , w ou ld
m o st l i k e l y
be due t o p h y s i o l o g i c a l r e a s o n s ,
such a s
a d o l e s c e n c e w h ic h h a s a e f f e c t o n g e n e r a l m o to r a b i l i t y .
4?
J[§ th e t e s t a m o t i v a t i n g f a c t o r i n p h y s i c a l e d u ­
c a tio n ?
E x p e r i e n c e i n g i v i n g t h e t e s t w i l l show t h a t
t h i s q u e s t i o n c a n be a n s w e r e d i n t h e a f f i r m a t i v e ,
fh e
b o y s i n t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s e n jo y e d t h e t e s t
and t o o k e v e r y a v a i l a b l e o p p o r t u n i t y to t e s t t h e i r s k i l l
and to im p ro v e t h e i r s c o r e s .
5*
Has form a n y c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h a c c u r a c y ?
fa b le
XYII g i v e s t h e n e e d e d i n f o r m a t i o n i n a n s w e r i n g t h i s
79
q u e stio n *
The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t o f .7 1 e s t a b l i s h e s
t h e f a c t t h a t form and a c c u r a c y a r e c l o s e l y r e l a t e d .
6*
Can t h e t e s t be u s e d i n t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f
p la y e rs?
T h i s q u e s t i o n c a n n o t be d e f i n i t e l y a n s w e re d
f o r t h e r e a s o n t h a t no t e s t c a n be u s e d e x c l u s i v e l y f o r
c la s s if ic a tio n o f p la y e rs.
I t c a n be u s e d t o d i s t i n g u i s h
a t h l e t e s from n o n - a t h l e t e s and p r e d i c t t h e s u c c e s s i n
a t h l e t i c s o f a boy when h i s t e s t s c o r e i s known*
Qan t h e t e s t be u s e d t o p r e d i c t f u t u r e s u c c e s s
in a t h l e t i c s f o r boys?
C h a p t e r V, w h e re i t
T h is h a s been answ ered i n
i s shown c l e a r l y
t h a t b o y s who s u c ­
c e e d i n a t h l e t i c s r e q u i r i n g h i g h c o o r d i n a t i o n s h a v e th e
h i g h e s t m e d ia n s c o r e s o f a l l g r o u p s c o n s i d e r e d .
I t may
b e p o s s i b l e t o p r e d i c t t h e s u c c e s s o f a boy i n b a s k e t ­
b a l l , f o o t b a l l , and t r a c k by h i s t a k i n g t h e B a s e b a l l T e s t*
R e c c o m m e n d a tio n s .
1.
I t i s reecom m ended t h a t :
T h i s r e s e a r c h s h o u l d be c a r r i e d o n i n t h e e l e v e n t h
and t w e l f t h g r a d e s i n h i g h s c h o o l , and on t h e c o l l e g e
l e v e l a s w e ll*
2.
T h i s r e s e a r c h s h o u l d be c a r r i e d on w i t h t h e a d d i ­
t i o n o f th e und erh an d th ro w .
3.
The s c o r e s o f t h e B a s e b a l l T e s t s h o u l d be s t u d i e d
i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l s t u n t s o f t h e B r a c e M o to r
A b ility T e s t.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
A.
BOOKS
B e r r y , K lm er, B a s e b a l l . N o te s f o r t h e C o a c h e s and P l a y e r s ,
Hew Y o rk ; i . 8 . jBarnes and Company, 1 9 3 4 .
A good b o o k f o r t h e c o a c h and p l a y e r *
C o n t a i n s many
-v a lu a b le s t r a t e g y s u g g e s t i o n s a s w e l l a s good i l l u s ­
t r a t e d d ia g ra m s o f f i e l d i n g s i t u a t i o n s , e tc *
Bingham , W* V ., A p t i t u d e s and A p t i t u d e T e s t i n g . New Y o rk :
H a rp e r a n d B r o t h e r s , 193?*
A v e ry f i n e b ook f o r any p e r s o n d e s i r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on
a p titu d e te s ts *
A v e ry v a l u a b l e b o o k f o r t h e g u i d a n c e
co u n selo r*
B o v a rd , J . P . a n d C o z e n s , F* W*, T e s t s a n d M e a s u re m e n ts i n
P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . P h i l a d e l p h i a : W, B, S a u n d e r s and
Company, 1 9 3 0 . 353 pp*
An e x c e l l e n t book c o v e r i n g t h e e n t i r e f i e l d o f p h y s i c a l
e d u c a t i o n t e s t s and m e a s u r e m e n ts .
Bowen and M i t c h e l l , The P r a c t i c e o f O r g a n iz e d P l a y . New Y o rk :
A. S* B a r n e s and Company, 1931*
A b ook t h a t d e a l s w i t h v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f t h e fun dam en­
t a l s o f gam es a s w e l l a s w i t h t h e gam es t h e m s e l v e s .
B r a c e , B. K*, M e a s u r in g M o to r A b i l i t y . New Y o rk : A. S.
B a r n e s a n d dom pany, 1 9 2 7 . 138 p p .
An e x c e l l e n t b o o k g i v i n g a g r o u p o f m o to r a b i l i t y t e s t s
w i t h t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n * and s c o r i n g
i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r them .
C o z e n s , F * W ., The M e asu rem en t o f G e n e r a l A t h l e t i e A b i l i t y
i n C o l l e g e M en. E u gene. O re g o n :
The U n i v e r s i t y o f
O rego n P r e s s , 1 9 2 9 .
A b o o k t h a t d e a l s w i t h many a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t s w h ic h a r e
t o be u s e d w i t h c o l l e g e men.
G a r r e t t , H, E . , S t a t i s t i c s i n P s y c h o lo g y and E d u c a t i o n . New
Y ork: L ongm ans, G re e n and Company, 1926* 317 p p .
A v e ry good b o o k on s t a t i s t i c s ,
c o v e r i n g t h e f i e l d fro m
81
t h e s i m p l e t o t h e com plex i n a v e r y e a s y m a n n e r.
M ason, B. 3 * , and M i t c h e l l , 1 . D . , A c t i v e flames an d C o n t e s t s .
New Y o rk : A, S. B a r n e s and Company, 1 9 3 4 .
The i n v e s t i g a t o r u s e d t h e B a s k e t S h o o t i n g T e s t fro m t h i s
hook.
I t c o n t a i n s p r a c t i c a l l y e v e r y t y p e o f game w i t h
r u l e s and d e t a i l e d p l a n s f o r f i e l d s o r c o u r t s f o r t h e
m ore i m p o r t a n t g am es.
M eCloy, H. J . , M e asu rem en t o f A t h l e t i c
B a r n e s and Company, 193X7
Bow er. le w Y ork :
A. S.
A b o o k w h ic h d e a l s w i t h a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n d e x by t h e
a u t h o r , and t h e m e a s u r e m e n t o f pow er on f o u r e v e n t s i n
t r a c k and f i e l d .
The f o u r e v e n t s a r e :
s h o t p u t, broad
jum p, h i g h jump, a n d th e 100 y a r d d a s h .
I t i s a good
t e s t to u se a s a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n in p h y s i c a l e d u c a tio n .
P alm er, flla d y s 1 . , B a s e b a ll f o r f l i r l s .
B a r n e s and Company,
Hew Y o rk : A. S.
P a l m e r , I . , T e s t s and M e a s u r e m e n ts . New Y ork :
a n d Company, 1 9 3 1 .
A, 3 . B a r n e s
A v ery c o n c is e book d e a lin g w ith s t a t i s t i c s u sed i n th e
f ie ld of te s tin g .
The m a t e r i a l i s v e r y c l e a r a n d e a s y
to f o l l o w .
P a t t e r s o n , B, f l . , S c h n e i d e r , A. A ,, and W i l l i a m s o n , E. A , ,
S t u d e n t flu !d a n c e T e c h n i q u e s . New Y o rk : M c flra w -H ill
and Company, 1 9 3 6 .
A good t r e a t m e n t o f v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y
i n t h i s b ook .
i s found
R o g e r s , F , R . , T e s t s and M e asu rem en t P ro g ra m s i n t h e
R e d i r e c t i o n o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . New Y ork: T e a c h e r s
C o l l e g e , U n i v e r s i t y o f C o lu m b ia , 1 9 3 7 .
The bo o k d e a l s w i t h t h e v a r i o u s p h a s e s o f t e s t i n g and
t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f them . A go o d book f o r a n y o n e w a n t i n g
a l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t view p o i n t fro m t h a t o f C ozen s and
N ie lso n ,
T i e g s , E r n e s t W, and C r a w f o r d , C la u d e 0 . , S t a t i s t i c s f o r
T e a c h e r s . B o s t o n : H ou g h to n M i f f l i n Company, 1 9 3 0 .
A c l e a r tr e a tm e n t o f th e s t a t i s t i c s used i n t h i s t h e s i s
c a n be f o u n d i n S t a t i s t i c s f o r T e a c h e r s * The s t a t i s ­
t i c s u s e d i n C h a p te r IV o f t h i s t h e s i s may be fo u n d i n
C h a p te r IX o f S t a t i s t i c s f o r T e a c h e r s *
W ardlaw , C. D*, F u n d a m e n t a l s o f B a s e b a l l . le w York:. S c r i b n e r
and S o n s , 1 9 2 9 ,
A s h o r t b o o k d e a l i n g w i t h th e i m p o r t a n t f u n d a m e n t a l s o f
b a se b a ll.
I t i s c l e a r l y w r i t t e n and o f v a l u e f o r a n y o n e
i n t e r e s t e d i n such m a t e r i a l .
B,
UNPUBLISHED MATERIAL
S u t t e l i f f e , C. E . , ^ P r o b le m s o f T e s t i n g i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a ti o n ?
U n p u b lish e d M a s t e r ’s t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i ty o f S o u th e rn
C a l i f o r n i a , L os A n g e l e s , 1 9 3 0 .
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
4 281 Кб
Теги
sdewsdweddes
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа