A STUDY OF OKI-THOUSAND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the School of Education The University of Southern California In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Science in Education by Don C. Lillywhite July 1911 UM! Number: EP54251 All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion. Dissertation Publishing UMI EP54251 Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author. Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code ProOuest' ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 48106- 1346 C c L ‘fx. X 7a 7 cy T h is thesis, w r it t e n u n d e r the d ir e c t io n o f the C h a ir m a n o f the candidate\s G u id a n c e C o m m itte e a n d a p p ro v e d by a l l m em bers o f the C o m m itte e , has been presen ted to a n d accepted by the F a c u lt y o f the S c h o o l o f E d u c a t io n in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f the re q u ire m e n ts f o r the degree o f M a s t e r o f Science in E d u c a tio n . D a t e . . A m * . ....... Guidance Com m ittee C. C. Crawford C hairm an D. Welty Lefever Irving R. Melbo m j c ACraOWLEDGEMENTS The investigator wishes to express his sincere apprecia tion to two people for their valuable assistance in obtain ing the data and tabulating the results for this thesis. To Charles L. Lillywhite, brother of the investigator, and Juvenile Officer of the Los Angeles Police Department, the investigator is deeply grateful for making it possible to examine the files from which the data was obtained. The most sincere appreciation is also expressed for the valuable assistance rendered by Edith C. Lillywhite in compiling the data and tabulating the results. Without her help the com pilation would have been well nigh impossible. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I. II. III. PAGE THE PROBLEM....................................... 1 Statement of the problem...................... 2 Importance and justification of the problem... 3 Limitations of the study...................... 6 Summary........................................ 7 A REVIEW OF RELATED STUDIES..................... 8 Related studies...,............................ 8 Summary........................................ 1.6 SOURCES OF DATA AND METHODS OF PROCEDURE........ 18 Source of data......................... 18 Difficulties encountered...................... 18 Number of cases and time span to be IV. considered................................... 19 Method of sampling............................. 20 Factors to be considered...................... 22 Distribution tables............................ 26 Summary........................................ 27 RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE OFFENSE COMMITTED AND VARIOUS SOCIAL FACTORS...... 28 Age and offense................................ 28 Grad§ in school and offense................... 31 Descent and offense............................ 33 School reputation and offense................. 37 CHAPTER V. PAGE Club activities and offense.................... 39 Part-time employment and offense............... 41 Previous record and offense.................... 43 Occupation of father and offense............... 45 Marital condition of parents and offense...... 47 Economic condition of parents and offense..... 50 Number of brothers and sisters and offense 53 Summary......................................... 56 RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PREVIOUS RECORD AND VARIOUS SOCIAL FACTORS.......... 60 Age and previous record........................ 60 Grade in school and previous record............ 62 School reputation and previous record......... 64 Club activities and previous record............ 64 Descent and previous record.................... 67 Part-time employment and previous record...... 70 Occupation of the father and previous record... 70 Marital condition of the parents and previous record............................... 74 Economic condition of the parents and previous record............................. Summary......................................... VI. . 76 79 RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN VARIOUS EACTORS AID THE DISPOSITION OF THE CASE........................ 82 CHAPTER PAGE Age and disposition.............................. 82 Grade in school anddisposition. . ............... 84 Marital condition of the parents and the disposition................................ 86 Economic condition of the parents and the disposition VII. 89 Previous record and thedisposition.............. 91 Summary.......................................... 94 CONCLUSIONS, SUMMARY,ANDRECOMMENDATIONS.......... 97 Conclusions.................. .................... 97 Summary.......................................... 103 Recommendations.................................. 105 BIBLIOGRAPHY................................................ 110 LIST OF TABLES TABLE I. PAGE Distribution, by Age, of 1,000 Juvenile Delinquency Offenses........................... II. Distribution, by School Grade, of 1,000 Juvenile Delinquency Offenses................. III. 42 Distribution of 1,000 Juvenile Offenses According to Previous Arrests................. VIII. 40 Distribution of 1,000 Juvenile Offenses According to part-time Employment............. VII. 38 Distribution, by Club Activities, of 1,000 Juvenile Delinquency Offenses................. VI. 34 Distribution of 1,000 Juvenile Offenses According to School Reputation................ V. 32 Distribution, by Descent, of 1,000 Juvenile Delinquency Offenses.......................... IV. 29 44 Distribution of 1,000 Juvenile Offenses According to the Occupation of the Father of the Offender................................ IX. 46 Distribution of 1,000 Juvenile Offenses According to the Marital Condition of the Parents of the Offender....................... X. ^ Distribution of 1,000 Juvenile Offenses According to the Economic Condition of the Parents of the Offender................... 51 vi TABLE XI. PAGE A Comparison of the Number of Brothers and Sisters of, and the Offenses of, 1,000 Juvenile Offenders............................. XII. A Comparison of the Age and Previous Record of 1,000 Juvenile Offenders............ XIII. 66 A Comparison of the Previous Record and the Descent of 1,000 Juvenile Offenders........... XVII. 65 A Comparison of the Previous Record and the Club Affiliation of 1,000 Juvenile Offenders.. XVI. 63 A Comparison of the Previous Record and School reputation of 1,000 Juvenile Offenders. XV. 61 A Comparison of the Previous Record and the Grade in School of 1,000 Juvenile Offenders... XIV. 54 69 A Comparison of the Previous Record and the Part-Time Employment of 1,000 Juvenile Offenders...................................... XVIII. 71 A Comparison of the Previous Record and the Occupation of the Fathers of 1,000 Juvenile Offenders............................. XIX. 12 A Comparison of the Previous Record and the Marital Condition of the Parents of 1,000 Juvenile Offenders............................. XX. A Comparison of the Previous Record and the Economic Condition of the Parents or Guard- 75 vii TABLE PAGE ians of 1,000 Juvenile Offenders.............. XXI. Distribution, by Age, of 1,000 Juvenile Delinquency Dispositions...................... XXII. 82 Distribution, by School Grade, of 1,000 Juvenile Delinquency Dispositions............. XXIII. 77 85 Distribution of 1,000 Juvenile Delinquency Dispositions According to the Marital Con dition of the Parents of the Offender........ XXIV. 87 Distribution of 1,000 Juvenile Delinquency Dispositions According to the Economic Condition of the Parents of the Offender..... XXV. 90 Distribution of 1,000 Juvenile Delinquency Dispositions According to Previous Arrests Of the Offender................................ 92 CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM There has probably never been, since history began, so much attention directed toward the education and gui dance of the "younger generation” as there is today, es pecially in the United States. ding school than ever before. More children are atten Paralleling this movement is the increasing demands for higher standards of certification for teachers. In the school curriculum itself, more and more time is being devoted to vocational and educational guidance courses, designed to guide the student to a happy and success ful adjustment of himself to his surroundings, and to better fit him for the task of earning a living for himself and family, while at the same time taking an active part in the governmental activities of his community and nation. While this increased attention is being turned toward the child by the educational institutions of the land, we find America1s law enforcement bodies concentrating upon the same subject, by devoting more and more of their time, money, and personnel to the study and correction of juvenile de linquency. An increasing number of cities throughout the United States are requiring that juvenile officers take special training in juvenile delinquency treatment and diag nosis as a prerequisite to their positions. Statement of the -problem. With such nation-wide at tention directed toward this very important subject, it would certainly not be amiss to inquire into the nature of the problem of juvenile delinquency. The effect of various social factors on the life of a child should not be over looked. Various studies have been made to determine which factors contribute most prominently to the delinquency of children. The majority of these studies, however, were made concerning the latter stages in the treatment of cases of delinquency. This investigator has been unable to find any study concerning the first step in the apprehension and treatment of* juvenile offenders. How do the juvenile officers handle the case from its first appearance? What social factors lie back of this initial step in juvenile procedure? Did the offender have a previous record? If so, why did the previous record not deter this child from further crime? How was the case disposed of? Did the occupation of the father, or the marital or economic condition of the parents influence the officers any in the disposition of the case? It was to answer such questions as these that the following investigation was made. In general, the investigation was four-fold in purpose, namely: (l) to collect data from a reliable source on vari- social and delinquency factors; (2) to arrange the data in 3 tables for the purpose of comparisons; (3) to seek unusual or extraordinary relationships as shown by the comparisons, and the possible explanations of these relationships; and U> on the basis of these relationships to make pertinent and practical recommendations concerning juvenile guidance to schools, churches, law enforcement, recreational, and other institutions engaged in child education and guidance. It was the belief that such a study would reveal cer tain relationships between social and delinquency factors heretofore overlooked, which would throw more light on the problems of juvenile delinquency, and thereby lead to the improvement of present methods of handling such problems, as well as to indicate methods of procedure for the preven tion of a majority of such problems. Importance and justification of the problem. The juvenile delinquency situation in the United States has been given a very black painting, indeed. Prominent educators and criminologists could be quoted by the page, stating that the problem is disgraceful beyond description. But the following two will suffice to show the general trend of thought. J. Edgar Hoover, Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, recently wrote: rfI cannot repeat too often the dull, hard, dis heartening truth of the record of youth in crime. The persons who are described as juvenile delinquents are building a disreputable record. From January 1. 1939, to September 30, 1939, children in the United States 4 under fifteen years of age were arrested for four mur ders, forty-seven assaults, fifty robberies, 163 auto thefts, 824 burglaries, and 911 larcenies, ”In the slightly higher age bracket the record is even more disheartening. Youths less than twenty-one years of age constituted 20 per cent of all persons arrested in the United States. Almost 13 per cent of the murderers, 30 per cent of the robbers, 47 per cent of the burglars, 34 per cent of the thieves, and 50 per cent of the auto thieves with whom the law enforcement officers of America must deal are youths who have not yet reached the voting age. These figures indicate that the crime problem is essentially a youth problem. A gloomy picture indeed, but one no less gloomy is given by Scudder:^ n0ur country has the highest crime rate of any civilized nation on earth--more than twice that of Italy, and more than nine times that of England. We support 11,000,' jails and 3j000 penal institutions, housing hundreds of thousands of prisoners and inmates. Statistics show that over 75 per cent of these criminals started their career in youth. The greatest number of offenses today occur with individuals sixteen to twentyone years of age.11 The first part of this last statement might have been based on facts not comparable for different countries. Has it never occurred to those who would condemn America1s youth in the manner quoted above, that it is quite possible that our country has a more efficient law enforcement body than other countries, or that the laws of this country may be more severe than in other countries? It is a known fact that J. Edgar Hoover, "The Task of the Teacher,” editorial, The Phi Delta Kappan. 22:329-30, March, 1940* ^ J. W. ScuddAr, "Guidance vs Delinquency,” Educational Method. 15i97, November, 1935. 5 many acts which are called crimes in this country are thought of as natural social acts in other countries, occurring in the daily tasks of life with no thought of breaking the laws of the land. In such cases it seems foolish to attempt a comparison of crime rates. If the above statistics were based on criminal cases in; ^proportion to the population of one country as compared with the number of cases in propor tion to the population in another, and also included a com parable list of laws, the violation of which constituted a crime, from each country, then the statement could carry greater meaning. As it now stands it is vague, but still pertinent enough to warrant seriotxs attempts to alleviate such conditions. From Mr. Hoover1s statement, however, a good insight into America’s juvenile delinquency problem can be obtained. If these figures are true, and certainly J. Edgar Hoover is in a splendid position to know, then the figures alone should justify any study which could effect in some way a measure of improvement in the problem of preventing delinquency. Be that as it may. Our lives today are very complex, so complex, in fact, that hundreds and hundreds of laws have been passed, and increased efforts are being constantly made to enforce them. In such a bewildering number of ”rules of the game” our youths face a veritable maze of life. Laws which a gneration or two ago were unheard of are broken 6 right and left, some unconsciously, some consciously. Broken laws mean police records, and police records mean life-long stigmas. One of the most outstanding duties of' society today should he to so arrange the order of life that these stigmas should he reduced to a minimum. Such, it has seemed to the investigator, is certainly ample justification for this investigation. Limitations of the study. Due to the complexity of the problem of juvenile delinquency, it was necessary to limit the study in certain respects. Partly because of the writers particular interest, and partly due to the fact that there was a vast majority of male cases, only hoy cases were considered. Also as a matter of personal interest, with the hope of revealing heretofore un-noticed relationships, the study was limited to only the original luvenile Arrest Reports, the first report filed on a hoy following his arrest on any charge. To avoid any misunderstanding it would he well to ex plain the meaning of the term ”arrest report” . Every time a juvenile is arrested in Los Angeles a report of the crime committed and the circumstances surrounding the same, is made. This is the ffarrest report.” To he sure, other reports are made as the case is investigated further, hut the 11arrest report” is the first report made by any juvenile officer on 7 any particular offense. A child may have been arrested before, or he may be arrested again later, but even so, whenever he is arrested the arrest is reported on the afore-mentioned blank, and filed. This is the report about which the inves tigation is concerned. It should be further understood that the word ”juvenile” as used in this study refers to the definition under crim inal law, and not under civil law. The former refers to ,fany person under the age of eighteen,” while the latter refers to ”any person under the age of twenty-one.” Summary. It was pointed out in this chapter that the problem of juvenile delinquency is of such magnitude in this country that it justifies an unlimited amount of research in attempts to alleviate the conditions or eliminate the condition altogether. It was pointed out that the study was limited to male cases, and to the original arrests reports, which were ex plained in detail. The meaning of the word ” juvenile” as used in this study was also explained. 8 CHAPTER II A REVIEW OE RELATED STUDIES The subject of juvenile delinquency is one which is still exceedingly fascinating, regardless of the great em phasis which has been placed upon it in the last thirty or forty years. It has received the most concentrated efforts of some of the finest educators and crime prevention author ities in the world. Yet the causes of juvenile delinquency are so widespread and elusive that the problem of preventing it is by no means solved. Most of the studies in this field increase the light into which the problem of juvenile delinquency is constantly being pushed, and it is always in the hope that factors of more vital significance will be discovered, that so many in vestigators are spending so much time, and have spent so much to date, on this problem. Related studies. One of the earliest crusaders against juvenile delinquency was made in England, and there the prob lem was studied in great detail, and the resulting progress reported by a man whose works have marked |iim as a true cru sader in this field. It is hard to find anywhere a book so interestingly written, nor so vitally important to the entire question of juvenile delinquency as is the book "The 9 Young Delinquent11^ by Cyril Burt. Burt made a very careful study of a number of case histories of delinquent juveniles in an about the city of London, England. Although his study was made many years ago, it is interesting to note how closely some of his con clusions resemble those reached within the past few years by authorities in this country. He found that the delin quents came from congested areas, had very little wholesome recreation, poor environmental conditions, were retarded in school, came from families in humble circumstances generally, and were usually below the average physically. He found the young delinquents running generally in gangs, and committing their crimes because of a desire for thrills and adventure. Juvenile investigations made in this country during the last decade have revealed causal factors which usually are in agreement with those found by Burt. However, it must not be assumed that all authorities are in perfect agreement as to the basic causes and factors of juvenile delinquency. On the contrary, it is rather amusing to note some of the extreme differences of opinion based on careful studies that many investigators have. A review of some of these studies, most of which were made in California, will suffice ^ Cyril Burt, The Young Delinquent, (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1925")", §19 pp. 10 to show the differences.and similarities between various studies. Perry^ studied 7,000 cases of problem boys who had been transfered from regular schools to various welfare centers in the city of Los Angeles, California. He found that, at the time of their transfer, the boys averaged fif teen years of age, were of average grade 8.5#,. and that the span of highest delinquency was from twelve to seventeen years of age. He found that only 1.409 per cent of all the boys in the Los Angeles schools, from 1925-36, inclusive, were transfered to social welfare centers, and that of these, 72 per cent were of the white race, 9*2 per cent were Negroes, 0.2 per cent were Japanese, and the remainder were of vari ous other races. Perry found that more than half of the boys came from broken homes, that 49 per cent came from homes where the average income was less than $100 per month, that 75 per cent of the boys belonged to no clubs, that most of them engaged in no church activities, that less than one-fourth were in normal physical health, and that the average I.Q. among the boys was 87.06. Perry by no means spared the schools in the question ^ Glenn Edwin Perry, ”Juvenile Delinquency in the Junior and Senior High Schools of Los Angeles; Its Prevalence, Manifestations and Causes,” (unpublished Master*s thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1937) 11 of responsibility for the delinquency of the boys, 'and placed plenty of blame as well upon the home, the church, youth clubs,and the community. Another study was made at about the same time, in the same city, and concerning boys in the same type of in- ■ stitution, by Allen.^ Allen studied the histories of 741 cases in the Los Angeles Welfare Center during the 1933-34 school year. He found that the average age was 13-3 years, the average school grade was 8.67, and the average I.Q. was 90.52. He also found the delinquents to be retarded in school from one and one-half to three years. He found that 87 per cent of the. boys suffered physical abnormalities, that broken homes was a determining factor in the boys’ delinquency, that the boys came from homes in meager financial circumstances, that 75 per cent belonged to no clubs, and that 25 per cent of the boys were on probation. The above discoveries agree very well with those found £ by Perry, but in the way of disagreement, Allen found that religion was no factor in causing delinquency, and most im5 Eugene Clyde Allen, ”An Educational and Sociological Delinquency Factor Survey of the Los Angeles Boys Welfare Center,” (unpublished Master’s thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1937) ^ Perry, crq. cit. 12 portant of all of the differences, Allen decided that upon the basis of evidence presented in his study, ”most of the causal factors of juvenile delinquency originate outside of the schools, and hence are beyond the schools* 7 control,11 The last statement shows very clearly the difference of conclusions which may be arrived at by two people study ing the same thing and obtaining results which agree to an amazing degree. Still another study was made of boys in a welfare B center in Los Angeles at about the same time by Pagliassotti, whose investigation concerned the status of boys from broken homes sent to the Port Hill school in 1934-35. He found the average age of the boys to be fourteen years, six months, and that the average intelligence of the boys was below the average for boys in the city in general. In a different locality a study was made some time 9 later by Thomas, who attempted to determine the factors associated with school delinquency among gunior high school problem boys, and to contrast this group with a normal group 7 . Allen, on. cit. B Louis Prank Pagliassotti, f,A Comparison of Problem Boys Prom Normal and Prom Broken Homes,” (unpublished Master* s thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1937). 9 Charles William Thomas, ”An Investigation of the Bactors Associated with School Delinquency Among Boys in a Junior High School,” (unpublished Master’s thesis. The Uni versity of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1940/. of the same age in the same school. Thomas1 study concerned "boys in a junior high school in St. Joseph, Missouri. Proceding along a carefully devised scheme, he contrasted and compared the delinquent group with a normal and a near-normal group on the basis of school, leisure-time, personal, and home factors. Some of the re sults were surprising, some to be expected, but all very in teresting. Among others, he found a wide range of I.Q., that the delinquent group vras retarded one s^ear on the average, and that the non-academic fields offered greater opportunities for readjustment to the lower group. Thomas found that all three groups enjoyed and at tended the movies, but that the delinquent group attended more times per week, and preferred gangster pictures. He found that all three groups read books freely, but that the lower group read less, and preferred adventure, western, and detective stories, in that order. The lower group engaged in less Boy Scout work, and made less use of their leisure-time in general. He found the delinquent boys physically inferior, using more tobacco and using it more frequently, that they had less life ambitions definitely fixed in mind, and that they had less allowance and received what they did have less regularly. He also found that the delinquents came more fre- 14 quently from broken homes, and that the homes were broken most frequently by divorce. He found that the lower group came from smaller houses, from larger families, from families with less per capita income, and that they had a greater per centage of unemployed fathers. Although Thomas* study was made in a different lo cality some of the same general results show in it as do in some of the other studies. An investigation was made in Long Beach, California in 1935 by Maxwell 10 in an attempt to clarify the juvenile delinquency situation in that city. He reported on the case studies of some 1200 boys from 1927-28 to 1933-34. In this study, Maxwell found that the delinquents compared favorably in intelligence with normal children, that a little more than half were retarded in school, 32.7 per cent were a^e, and 10.4 per cent were accelerated at school. He found, further, that two-thirds of them lived in normal homes with their mothers and fathers, that as nearly as could be determined, 40 per cent of the fathers were day-laborers, and that only 398 out of the 1200 boys had odd jobs. ^ William Calvin Maxwell, "An Investigation of Boy Delinquency in Long Beach. California, and its Implications for the Public Schools," (unpublished Master*s thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1935). 15 Maxwell also found that only 2.0 per cent of the "boys were Negroes, that over 46 per cent were first offenders, that the average age was 13.6 years, and that the worst of fenders were from grades seven, eight, and nine. Maxwell concluded that there was no crime wave in Long Beach, "but that, on the contrary, the increase in de linquency was only half as rapid as the increase in population in the city. He also concluded that voluntary probation in Long Beach was a failure. Gordon*^ also investigated actual case histories of a large number of problem cases in the schools of Los Angeles, covering a period of ten years. He found the median age to be fifteen years, one month, and the median grade to be in the low eighth. He found that the three most important fac tors contributing to delinquency, according to frequency, were lack of parental control, broken,homes, and bad com panions. The boys in Gordon's study were found to be intellec tually below normal, retarded from one to two and one-half years in school, in poor physical condition, and were pro portionately more often the sons of Negroes, Mexicans, Ital ians, and Russians. More than 50 per cent of the boys were Edmond David Gordon, "Problem Boys in the Special Schools of Los Angeles,” (unpublished Master's thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1936). 16 from homes which were considered abnormal from.,a financial or a marital standpoint, more of them were motherless than were fatherless, more were from lafge families than were from small when considering families of five or more as large, only 22 per cent of the boys were members of any clubs, and 33.3 per cent had previous records in court. Summary. It will be seen that, in general, many of the results obtained by these investigators are quite similar while others are entirely different. The average age was us- 12 ually found to be in the fifteenth year, although Maxwell 13 found it to be 13.6 years, and Pagliassotti found it to be fourteen years and six months. The usual grade average was found to be in the eighth grade. Usually the juvenile were found to be retarded in school from one to three years, al though Maxwell found very little retardation and found that 10 per cent of the boys in his study were definiteljr acceler ated in school. Maxwell also was the only investigator men tioned to find the delinquents to be of near normal intelli gence. All of the six investigators mentioned found that the delinquents came from homes in poor financial condition, and all of them found that broken homes was a major factor in the Maxwell, .op. pit. 13 Pagliassotti, pp. cit. 17 delinquency, although Maxwell differed again to a certain extent in that he found that two-third of the boys in his study came frpm normal homes. All of these investigators who studied it found the physical condition of the delinquents to be below normal. They, who made a study of the factors, also found that very few of the delinquents belonged to clubs, and that very few had odd jobs. Two of the investigators found that the boys came generally from large families. Only one of the investigations mentioned his boys as having a large number of previous records. Maxwell 14 found that the } percentage of previous records was 54 per cent of thei>total number of boys studied, while Gordon 15 found that 33*3 per cent of the boys in his study had pre vious records. Striking similarities on so many factors by so many investigators certainly indicates great opportunities for much remedial and preventative work in the field of juvenile delinquency. Each new study add a new part to the entire picture of delinquency, and it only by many of such studies that the problem may be successfully solved. ^ Maxwell, pp. cit. 15 Gordon, op. cit. CHAPTER III SOURCES OF DATA AND METHODS OF PROCEDURE Since the purpose of this study was to analyze a rep resentative number of cases of juvenile boy delinquency occuring within the city of Los Angeles, California, within the year 1939-40, the first step undertaken was the selec tion of a reliable source of data. Source of data. The investigator was fortunate in having a brother who was a juvenile officer in the Los Angeles Police Department. With his aid the Investigator found that the police records of all juvenile delinquency cases occurring within the city of Los Angeles were stored in a large filing cabinet in the Juvenile Record Bureau of the Police Department, with headquarters at the Georgia Street Police Station. It was soon determined that the reports which the in vestigator desired to examine were kept in the strictest confidence by the Police Department. This necessitated ob taining special permission to examine the files. This per mission was gained, after going through the proper channels, from the superintendent of the record bureau. Difficulties encountered. Upon gaining access to the files, the investigator found himself faced with a number of obstacles. 19 The first difficulty encountered in the analysis was the discovery that the arrest reports were not the only re ports in the files. There were also court petitions, letters to and from various agencies, reports to the county probation officer, and many others of various types. This difficulty was overcome by noting the name ffJuvenile Arrest Report” on the desired reports and choosing only these during the analysis, ignoring all others. The second difficulty encountered was the discovery that the reports were not kept in order chronologically, by successive days, months, or years, i.e., the reports were not filed one after the other as each successive arrest was made. Instead, the following method was used: Whenever a delinquent was arrested for the first time in his life in this city an arrest report was filled out and numbered, being given the number next following the last fresh case. If this juvenile was arrested again later, another arrest report blank, exactly like the first, was filled out. But, instead of filing it after the last previous fresh case report, it was clipped onto the back of the offender* s first arrest re port, even though the former offense may have occurred a month, a year, or even ten years before. This made it possible to keep each individual*s entire juvenile delinquency history in one folder, all stapled together. Number of cases and time span to be considered. The 20 reports on file in this record office extended back over a period of approximately ten years, and included approxi mately 40,000 cases of juvenile delinquency. It would have been very enlightening, if feasible, to have analyzed all of the arrest reports on file, but such would have required far more time than the investigator had at his disposal. Since the purpose of the investigation was to determine, if possible, the influence of the more recentsocial conditionson cer tain delinquency factors, it seemed advisable to limit the study to cases which had occurred within the past year. The 40,000 cases represented a time span of approximately ten year, or roughly 4,000 cases per year. Therefore, it was de cided to select, at random, 1,000 cases, or 25 per cent of the cases within the past year. It was the belief that 25 per cent, if careful sampling was used, would represent a very good cross-section of all of the cases occurring within the year. The method of sampling. After the number of cases to be considered was decided upon, attention was turned to a method of sampling. Within the file cabinet were a great many manila folders, each containing a number of reports of various kinds, as mentioned above. No two folders contained the same number of reports, some containing only one or two reports, while others contained forty or fifty. There seemed to be no particular system of filing them, other than that 21 mentioned above. To avoid this difficulty, it was decided to first note the dates of the fresh arrest reports, i.e., the numbered reports, in each folder. Then starting with the latest ones, those filed in July, 1940, select approxi mately eighty cases for each month, back through June, May, April, etc., to and including August, 1939. Of course, this system did not allow for the possibility of a greater fre quency of offenses during mne month than another, but it seemed the best possible solution, in view of the absence of a more definite system of filing. To make certain that cases were not chosen from one particular part of any month, usual ly alternated folders were chosen. It is readily admitted that such a system is not the most desirable one, but the fact that the reader must bear in mind is that the method as used by the police department was such as to prevent a more orderly method of selection. The system of filing, as used by the police, served their purpose very well, namely, to arrange the files in such a way that when Johnny Jones is arrested for some offense, the officer can call in to this central office, and ask if Johnny has ever been arrested here before. The secretary looks in a file containing small cards with only the names and numbers of each case.on them. If Johnny has been arrest ed in this city before she finds his card with the number. Then she goes to the large cabinet, looks up the folder with this particular number on it, takes it out, and has Johnny's entire juvenile record before her. In other words, the re ports of the cases, are filed in such a way as to facilitate the work or the police department, and not in such a way as to facilitate the task of the research worker. Factors to be considered. was someY/hat as follo?7s: selected. The analysis of each case First of all, a master table was On this table the numbers 1, 2, 3, etc., to cor respond with each case, were written vertically down the left side of the paper. Horizontally, across the top, were writ ten the various factors to be checked: age, grade in school, offense committed, ddscent of the offender, school reputation, club activities, part-time employment, previous record, oc cupation of the father, marital condition of the parents, ec onomic condition of the parents or guardians, number of brothers and sisters, and disposition of the case by the arresting officers. Some of these factors must be explained in more de tail. The classifications of each factor were numerous, and each one had quite a long description. To conserve time, and space on the master table, each classification vvas given a number and this code was kept separately. In this way it was possible to write down on the master table only numbers, except v/here the answer could be "yes" or "no," or any other one word ansv/er. Later, when the facts were transferred to 23 other tables, these numbers were translated into the appro priate classifications. The charges, listed by code•number, for which the offenders were arrested, included grand theft, petty theft, burglary, robbery, rape, sodomy, 700 B WIG (This item was always listed on the reports in this way, and is interpreted as "anyone in danger of becoming delinquent", similar to va grancy on the part of an adult. On the tables it is abbrevi ated as "Del. luv." for delinquent juvenile.), receiving stolen property, 4^0 VC (this item was also always listed in this manner, and referred to anyone who was responsible for a motor vehicle accident involving the death or injury of any person), 288 A (again, this item was always listed as such, and referred to sex perversion--using the mouth on the sexual organs of another person), and 250a VG (again, always listed as. such, and referring to anyone operating an- auto mobile without a driver*s license). It was assumed that the descent of each individual would include many nationalities. To simplify this, a purely arbitrary method of grouping various nationalities was used. Whenever it seemed advisable these grouping were made accord ing to geographical locations. In other cases nationalities were grouped according to social customs and language simil arities. In this way the English, Scotch, Irish, and Welsh nationalities were all classed as British. Norweigians, 24 Swedes, Danes, and Finns were all classed as Baltic nation alities. Chinese, Japanese, and Philippines were all classed as Orientals. Russians, Rumanians, Latvians, Lithuanians, and Poles were all classed as Russians. Germans, Austrians, Swiss, Netherlanders, Hungarians, and Czeckoslavakians were all listed as Germanic nationalities. Italians,. Greeks, Bulgarians, and Yugoslavians were all classed as Mediterran ean nationalities. All of the descendants of countries ly ing around Jerusalem were classed as Jev/ish nationalities. The Mexicans, Indians, Negroes, and French were each listed by themselves. As mentioned before, these groupings were purely arbitrary, and in reality were made up, in the main, of descendants of the people from England, Ireland, Scotland, France, Germany, Italy, Russia, Mexico, the Netherlands, China, Japan, and the Negroes of North America. The question of school reputation was ansv/ered simply as good, average, fair, poor, bad, and very bad. This mat ter was not delved into further by the police, and it was not the intention of the investigator to go.beyond these reports. The question of part-time employment was answered simp ly by wyes,f or f,no.n It was not the purpose of this study to go into this matter any more thoroughly. It was desired only to knoY/ whether or not the offender did engage in some form of part-time, or odd-job, employment. Again, in the case of club activities, a Y/ide range of 25 clubs was anticipated. To simplify these, they were grouped according to the following main headings: school clubs, scouts, church clubs, Young Men*s Christian Association, Reserve Officers Training Corp, All-Nations, boys clubs, and miscellaneous clubs. It was also necessary to simplify the anticpated widespread variety of occupations of the father of the offend er. So these were classified as unskilled laborer, semi skilled laborer, skilled laborer, clerical, business, exec utive, professional, retired, and relief. In some cases it was impossible to tell into exactly which group an occupation should fall, but in general the divisions given were quite definite. Again, the question of previous record was answered either as Myestf or t1no,” A more careful analysis of the previous record was not included in the purpose of this study, nor could it have been accomplished with the data available. It was also anticipated that the marital condition of the parents would cover a wide range. listed under the following titles: Therefore, they were normal— man and wife living together, both parents dead, widowed mother, widow er father, parents divorced, parents separated but not divorced, parents never married, and condition unknown. Since it was neither the purpose of this study, nor were the facts available from the reports, no attempt was 26 made to learn the actual financial conditions of the parents or guardians heyond the following classifications: good, average, fair, poor, or relief. The disposition of the case refers to the manner in which it was disposed of by the arresting officers. ways, listed by code, were as follows: These voluntary probation, action suspended, detained in the juvenile hall, detained in the county jail, released to the father, released to the mother, released to the parents, released because of insuf ficient evidence, referred to some welfare agency, and trans ferred to some other city or state. The number of brothers and sisters was given as a combined number, since the only purpose here was to determine the effect of the size of the family. Distribution tables. Following the checking of the factors described above, smaller distribution tables were made for the purpose of comparing such social factors as age, grade in school, occupation of father, etc., with such de linquency factors as offense, previous record, and disposition of the case. Bach table was then carefully analyzed, unusual relationships were noted, and the results interpreted into meaningful conclusions and recommendations to various insti tutions such as schools, churches, etc., engaged in child guidance. The tables, and the detailed description of each, age given in Chapters IV, V, and VI. 27 Summary. In this chapter it was pointed out that the data for the investigation was obtained from the Juvenile Record Bureau of the Los Angeles Police Department, The sources of difficulties encountered and the manner in which these difficulties were overcome were explained in detail. It was pointed out that 1,000 cases were considered and that these represented 25 per cent of the .cases filed from August 1, 1939, to July 31, 1940. Y/as carefully explained. The method of sampling* The classifications of each of the factors to be considered were discussed in detail, and a thorough description of the master table, as well as the subsequent frequency tables, was given. CHAPTER IV RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE OFFENSES COMMITTED AND VARIOUS SOCIAL FACTORS It is the purpose of this chapter to compare some of the relationships between the different types of offenses committed by the one-thousand boys and various social factors, such as the age of the boy, his grade in school, the marital condition and economic conditions of the parents, and the like. A study of the tables included for this chapter re veals some rather unusual and interesting facts which may throw some light on the questions raised in connection with juvenile delinquency. The personal beliefs of the inves tigator concerning these relationships are not included in Chapters IV, V, and VI, but are deferred and put Into Chapter VII in much greater detail. Age and offense. The age range was found to be from seven to eighteen years, as shown in Table I, with the most frequent offenses committed by boys of ages fourteen to seventeen, inclusive. Offenses committed during these four years comprised 81.6 per cent of the one-thousand cases studied. Of the younger boys, those seven to twelve years of age, the vast majority were charged with merely being in danger of becoming delinquent, and were classed as delinquent 29 TABLE I DISTRIBUTION, BY AGE, OE 1,000 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY OFFENSES Age Offense 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Del. juv. 1 3 2 13 4 11 22 39 55 107 99 1 357 2 7 5 10 20 37 48 46 30 1 206 2 1 3 8 29 62 42 46 6 6 17 21 33 34 19 21 1 8 5 7 8 3 1 A 1 4 1 1 8 2 3 6 2 5 3 5 4 4 Petty theft Grand theft Burglary 1 3 4 Robbery Runaway 1 1 Battery 1 1 Rape Rec. stolen property Involved in accidents 1 1 1 1 1 1 Narcotics Sex perver. 1 1 29 11 2 3 2 2 1 1 2 6 9 28 19 166 4 1 Murder Total 193 3 Unlie# dr. Sodomy Total 4-2 75 154 213 230 219 3 1000 30 juveniles for the want of a better term. However, an inter esting fact is that one of the two seven-year-old boys, three of the six eight-year-old boys, and four of the nine nine-year-old boys were arrested for burglary, a; very serious offense for boys no more than nine years of age. Further study of Table I shows the following sur prising facts: The one boy arrested for murder was only eleven years of age. This boy was found to have been re leased, however, due. to insufficient evidence. All of the six boys charged with sexual offenses were thirteen to fif teen years of age, inclusive. One case of rape was committed by a thirteen year old boy. An analysis of each offense committed shows that the boys most frequently in danger of becoming delinquent were those of ages sixteen and seventeen. Petty theft v/as committed most frequently by the fifteen and sixteen-yearold boys. Grand theft was committed far more frequently by fifteen-year-old boys than by boys of any other age. Burglary was committed most frequently by boys of ages four teen and fifteen. Robbery was about equally divided between the fourteen, fifteen, sixteen, and seventeen-year-old boys. Runaway cases were quite scattered among all the age groups, occuring a little more frequently among the fourteen and sixteen-year-old boys. Battery eases also were quite scattered, although confined to boys of ages eleven to seventeen. The 31 other cases--rape, receiving stolen property, involvement in vehicular accidents, peddling or using narcotics, driv ing without a license, and sex offenses— were fairly scatter ed over the various age groups, but confined, generally, to the older boys of thirteen years or older. All of the nar cotics offenses were committed by seventeen year old boys. Offense and the grade in school of the offender. A brief survey of Table II shows one unusual fact immediate ly. Of the one-thousand cases studied, 11..5 per cent of the boys were not even in school. Several of these were indicated on the reports as high school graduates, but the vast major ity were not. Grades eight, nine, ten, and eleven were the highest attainment of 62.7 per cent' of the boys, with a few more in grades nine and ten than in the other two. This fact, when compared with the,tabulations of Table I, seems to indicate that the boys were of quite normal scholastic advancement. In fact, whereas Table I shows only.three boys eighteen years of age, Table II shows forty-five boys in the twelfth grade. This also would seem to indicate that a large per-centage of these boys were of at least average intelligence. Table I also reveals that 106 boys were of ages ten or less, while Table II shows only fifty-four boys in grades four or less. 32 TABLE II DISTRIBUTION, BY SCHOOL GRADE, OF 1,000 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY OFFENSES Grade in school Offense 7 8 9 10 11 12 Total 5 14 9 16 31 44 53 61 41 18 357 2 5 9 8 20 29 52 32 31 8 206 1 2 3 T 26 41 54 30 12 193 9 9 17 17 32 24 20 12 1 166 2 5 6 4 3 1 29 2 1 1 3 1 1 1 8 2 1 1 6 2 5 None 1 2 3 Del. juv. 5S 1 6 Petty theft '8 2 Grand theft 16 1 Burglary 18 3 Robbery 8 Runaway 1 Battery 4 4 1 5 6 2 3 1 1 11 Rape Rec. stolen property Involved in accidents 1 Narcotics 1 Sex perver. 1 Unlic. dr. 1 2 3 Sodomy 1 1 2 1 1 1 Murder Total 1 1 2 2 1 1 5 1 4 3 1 1 115 4 1 12 11 30 34 45 SO 13S 186 177 126 45 1000 33 Disregarding the number of boys not in school, it is apparent that boys most frequently in danger of becoming delinquent were in grades nine and ten, followed closely by those in grades eight, eleven, and seven, in that order. Grand theft was committed most frequently by boys in the tenth grade, while petty theft was committed most fequently by those in the ninth grade. Burglary was committed most frequently by boys in the eighth grade, robbery most fre quently by boys in the ninth grade, and all of the other offenses were scattered over several age groups, but gener ally, as in Table I, confined to boys in the higher grade levels. It is interesting to note that while all of the boys arrested on narcotics charges were seventeen years of age, one was not in school, possibly a graduate, two were in grades eleven and twelve, while the other one was only in grade seven. This is one of the few instances in which the available facts seem to indicate that the boy was retarded in school, and in this case it seems to have been a retarda tion of about four years inasmuch as a seventeen year old person would most likely normally be in the eleventh grade. Offense and descent of the offender. A glance at Table III reveals the fact that, as one would naturally ex pect, the greatest percentage of offenders were of British descent. This group was followed closely by those of Mexican 34 TABLE III DISTRIBUTION, BY DESCENT, OF 1,000 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY OFFENSES Descent Offense Bal GriB r . tic. Med. ent. G-er. Fr. Russ. Jew Mex. Ind. Neg. Un. Tot. Del. juv. 114 8 8 1 37 16 5 8 66 Petty theft 62 6 3 10 20 7 1 2 53 Grand theft 68 3 8 2 16 3 2 55 Burglary 2 11 1 15 6 1 2 1 46 Robbery 7 Runaway 4 Battery 2 1 1 1 Rape 2 Rec. stolen property Involved in accidents 2 Narcotics 2 Sex perver. 3 48 357 29 13 206 18 16 193 54 18 10 166 8 7 3 29 2 11 1 8 2 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 Murder 19 32 15 95 34- 4 1 4 1 3 2 1 312 5 5 1 Sodomy 6 1 1 Unlic. dr. Total 2 40 6 1 8 14 249 8 118 96 1000 35 descent, and these two groups are then followed by offenders of Negroid descent. The investigator could find no figures indicating the proportion of the population of Los Angeles which was dis tinctly British or other nationalities. However, the 1930 federal census, which was the last federal census available at the time the study was made, shows that 7.8 per cent of the population of the city were Mexicans, and the present study shows more than three times this proportion, or 24.9 per cent, as being Mexicans. Also the 1930 census reported 3*1 per cent of the city1s population as Negroes, whereas 11.8 per cent, or nearly four times the proportion for the city, of the onethousand boys were Negroes. Possibly some of the other nationalities would show a larger percentage of boys in this study than is normal for the percentage of descendants of that nationality in the city, but such figures were not available. The two cases above are very outstanding and offer definite possibilities for improved racial adjustments. Of the one-thousand cases studied, only fifteen were of Oriental descent. This small amount might seem to be very significant, but actually the percentage of Orientals living in Los Angeles, according to the 1930 census, the latest avail able, was 1.9 per cent. Even so, possibly the Oriental 36 children receive some kind of training that could he very profitably used by people of other nationalities. Of further significance in the case of the Orientals, is the fact that of the fifteen juveniles, ten were arrested on the charge of petty theft. Another fact worthy of noting is that only eight of the one-thousand offenders were Indians, and six of these were charged merely with being in danger of becoming delin quent. Again, this seems a very small percentage, but actual ly only 0.05 per cent of the population of Los Angeles was Indians, by the 1930 census. A more careful analysis of Table III reveals that only on charges of rape, unlicensed driving, sodomy, and murder were boys of other descents arrested more frequently than the boys of British, Mexican, and Negro* . and these offenses occurred so infrequently that a fair comparison can hardly be made. A check across the table in the other direction shows that more than one third of the boys of British des cent were arrested on the delinquent juvenile charge. The same holds true for boys of Baltic descent, while almost one-third of the boys who descended from nationalities bor dering the Mediterranean Sea committed burglary. The Ger manic boys leaned mostly toward juvenile vagrancy, as did boys of all the remaining nationalities. 37 The offense committed and the school reputation of the offender. Table IV shows the results tabulated from a question of the report which was not carried to completion thoroughly enough to give very reliable results. As ex plained in a previous chapter, the officer making the arrest merely telephoned the school attended by the juvenile and asked the principal what kind of a reputation the particular boy had. The officer then classified the result as excellent, good, average, fair, poor, bad, or very bad. It may be seen at a glance that a good many officers did not even bother to answer this item, for it will be noted that the school reputation of 43.2 per cent of the offenders was not listed on the arrest reports, whereas only 11.5 per cent, as shown in Table II, were not in school. However, it will be seen that of the 56.8 per cent whose reputations were obtained, only 1.6 per cent had what the school authori ties termed a bad or very bad reputation. A few more, 7.5 per cent, had a poor reputation, but the most astounding fact is that 47.7 per cent of all of the boys (or approxi mately 84 per cent of the boys whose reputations were inves tigated) enjoyed what their teachers and principal termed a fair, good, and even an excellent reputation. This assured ly is not the result one would expect for a group of boys who are having to be investigated by the juvenile officers of the city. It hardly makes sense that a boy would have a good 38 TABLE IV DISTRIBUTION OF 1,000'JUVENILE OFFENSES ACCORDING TO SCHOOL REPUTATION School reputation Offense Unk. V.-bad Bad Poor Fair Ave. Good Excell. Total Del. juv. 187 2 31 70 17 45 3 16 73 18 35 2 8 53 10 29 15 47 7 34 166 3 6 1 29 - 2 3 1 2 1 Petty theft 61 Grand theft 81 Burglary 63 Robbery 18 Runaway c s Battery 2 Rape Rec. stolen property .involved in accidents 3 3 2 Narcotics 2 1 Sex perver. 1 3 Unlic. dr. 1 1 Sodomy 2 4 1 1 2 1 193 11 2 8 1 6 5 5 1 4 4 1 3 2 1 1 432 357 206 2 3 Murder Total 2 3 6 10 75 268 56 150 3 1000 39 reputation in school and cause so much trouble out of school that the juvenile authorities would have to take him in charge. The offense committed and the club activities of the offender. Even a passing glance at Table V reveals the most significant fact, that 86.5 per cent of all the offenders belonged to no club whatsoever. Of the remaining, the great est number belonged to the Boy Scouts of America or to the Sea Scouts, the next to some type of school club, and the remainder to various other clubs. It will be noted that one-hundred per cent of the boys committing the three offenses of driving without a license, sodomy, and murder belonged to no club, while all except one who committed each of the offenses of runaway, rape, receiving stolen property, and sexual perversion be longed to no club. Furthermore, no boy belonging to the Reserve Officers Training Corp or to a church club was ar rested on the charge of being in danger of becoming delin quent, or on any other charge other than petty theft, burglary, and sexual perversion. Of the four most frequently committed offenses, 90.5 per cent of the delinquent juveniles belonged to no club, 81.6 per cent of the boys committing petty theft belonged to no club, 91.2 per cent of the boys arrested for grand theft belonged to no club, and 80.7 per cent of those committing 40 TABLE V DISTRIBUTION, BY CLUB ACTIVITIES, OF 1,000 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY OFFENSES Clubs Offenses Scouts Church YMCA ROTC All-Nat Boys Sch Misc None Tota! Del. juv. 7 2 1 7 8 323 357 4 1 3 8 8 168 206 2 1 2 3 6 176 193 2 1 11 135 166 25 29 1 10 11 1 5 8 5 6 4 5 3 5 2 4 3 4 Unlic. dr. 3 3 Sodomy 2 2 Murder 1 1 863 1000 9 Petty theft 12 Grand theft 3 Burglary 12 2 1 Robbery 2 2 1 2 1 Runaway Battery 1 Rape Rec. stolen property Involved in accidents 1 Narcotics 2 1 1 Sex perver. Total 1 1 1 40 4 17 2 7 8 21 36 41 burglary belonged to no club, Thus, it can easily be seen that even for offenses where the frequency is sufficiently large for a safe check, a very small minority belonged to clubs of any sort. Offense committed and the part-time employment of the offender. The data tabulated in Table VI gives results which are as evident as were the results of Table V. Here again, we see that a vast majority, 84-7 per cent, of the one-thousand boys had no work whatsoever by which they might earn a little spending money. It will be noted that one-hundred per cent of the boys arrested for runaway, for involvement in vehicular ac cidents, for sex perversion, for unlicensed driving, for sodomy, and for murder were employed at no odd jobs, or steady employment during their otherwise leisure time. Again, all but one boy arrested for battery, rape, receiving stolen property, and narcotics were not employed in any way. Of the five most frequently committed offenses, 89.6 per cent of the delinquent juveniles, 76.2 per cent of the boys arrested for petty theft, 79.8 per cent of those com mitting grand theft, 91.0 per cent of the burglars, and 65.5 per cent of the robbers had no work to occupy their leisure time. Such a condition certainly indicates that much more juvenile delinquency in the cities could be prevented if the parents and other associates of the boys would see to it 42 TABLE VI DISTRIBUTION OF 1,000 JUVENILE OFFENSES ACCORDING- TO PART TIME-EMPLOYMENT Part-time employment Yes No Total Del. juv. 37 320 357 Petty theft 48 158 206 G-rand theft 39 154 193 Burglary 15 151 166 Robbery 10 19 29 11 11 Offense Runaway Battery 1 7 8 Rape Rec. stolen property InvolYed in accidents 1 5 6 1 4 5 5 5 Narcotics 1 3 4 Sex perver. 4 4 Unlic. dr. 3 3 Sodomy 2 2 Murder 1 1 &47 1000 Total 153 43 that the hoys had some form of odd job employment whereby they might earn at least a few dimes per week. The offense committed and the previous record of the offender. As explained in a previous chapter, no attempt was made by this study to determine the nature of the previ ous record that a delinquent boy might have. This investi gation determined merely ¥rtiether or not the boy had been ar rested before on any juvenile charge. One might suppose that at least 50 per cent of the boys would have had previous juvenile records, but a study of Table VII shows that 67-7 per cent of them had never been arrested before for any offense. Of the five most frequently committed offenses, there seems to have been no great variation in the percentage of boys who had had previous records. Thirty-three and one-tenth per cent of those in danger of becoming delinquent, 29.1 per cent of those committing petty theft, 38.9 Per cent of those committing grand theft, 30.1 per cent of those accused of burglary, and 41.4 per cent of the boys arrested for robbery had had previous records. So, about all that may be said is that petty theft seemed to attract the beginners more than did any of the four other leading offenses, while robbery and grand theft seem to have grown on the boys to such an extent that they were more apt, then, to continue committing crimes. All five boys who were arrested for receiving stolen 44 TABLE VII DISTRIBUTION OF 1,000 JUVENILE OFFENSES ACCORDING TO PREVIOUS ARRESTS Previous arrest Offense Yes No Del. juv. lid 239 357 Petty theft 60 146 206 Grand theft 75 118 193 Burglary 50 116 166 Robbery 12 17 29 Runaway 2 9 11 Battery 1 7 8 Rape Rec. stolen property Involved in accidents 1 5 6 5 5 1 4 5 Narcotics 1 3 4 Sex perver. 1 3 4 Unlic. dr. 1 2 3 Sodomy 2 2 Murder 1 1 677 1000 Total 323 Total 45 property were novices in crime, as were the boys arrested for sodomy and for murder. Very nearly all of the boys ar rested on charges of runaway, battery, rape, involvement in vehicular accidents, narcotics, sexual perversion, and un licensed driving had never been arrested before. The offense committed and the occupation of the father of the offender. Too large a number, 28.3 par cent of the total, as shown by Table VIII, of the fathers* cupations were not listed on the reports studied. oc This may have been due to a number of reasons including neglect .on the part of the juvenile officer, or the father being dead, or not living with the boy for various other reasons. However, of those listed, the greatest percentages were the unskilled and semi-skilled laborers. These two occupations, it should be remembered, were representative of all types of labor which required very little or no preparation for the job. Unskil led laborers comprised 25 . 8 per cent of the fathers, while 19.6 per cent were only semi-skilled. This makes a total of 45*5 per cent, or nearly half, of all of the fathers employed on jobs requiring little, or no, education or other preparation. A surprising fact is the very low percentage of fathers, 1.5 per cent, who were on relief. Contrary to pop ular belief, it apparently is not the children of families on relief who fill our juvenile courts. 46 TABLE V I I I DISTRIBUTION OF 1,000 JUVENILE OFFENSES ACCORDING TO THE OCCUPATION OF THE FATHER OF THE OFFENDER Occupation of father Offense Unsk Semi Skil lab lhb lab Cler Bus Exec Prof Not Ret Rel list Total Del. juv. 84 68 30 18 18 6 8 9 3 113 357 Petty theft 58 41 10 15 11 1 5 3 3 59 206 Grand theft 46 41 20 9 13 3 5 7 6 43 193 Burglary 52 28 17 6 12 3 2 2 44 166 Robbery 9 9 4 1 2 4 29 Runaway 3 2 5 11 Battery 1 2 2 8 Rape Rec. stolen property Involved in accidents 1 4 6 1 Narcotics 1 Sex perver. 1 Sodomy 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 Unlic. dr. 1 1 5 1 1 5 3 4 1 4 2 3 2 1 Murder Total 2 1 258 196 85 51 57 10 23 22 15 1 283 1000 47 The lowest percentage of all comes from homes where the father is an executive of some kind. Boys whose fathers held executive positions apparently were better trained than the sons of men in any other occupational group. It seems strange that of all boys in danger of becom ing delinquent, a larger proportion of boys under any one oc cupational group were the sons of executives, where 60.0 per cent were arrested on this charge. Only 20.0 per cent of the sons of men on relief were arrested on this charge. Approximately 30 per cent of the sons of men holding clerical positions were arrested for petty theft, while only 10 per cent of the sons of executives were arrested on the same charge. Forty per cent of the boys whose fathers were on re lief were arrested for grand theft, while only 17*6 per cent of the sons of clerks were arrested on this charge. Twenty-three per cent of the sons of skilled laborers committed burglary, while only 9*1 per cent of boys whose fathers were retired committed this offense. The offense committed and the marital condition of the parents of the offender. Table IX shows that almost one- half, actually 49.5 per cent, of all of the offenders came from normal homes, i.e., homes where the father and mother were living together. Of the remainder, the marital condition of 2.6 per cent of the parents was not listed on the reports; us TABLE IX DISTRIBUTION OE 1,000 JUVENILE OFFENSES ACCORDING TO THE MARITAL CONDITION OF THE PARENTS OF THE OFFENDER Marital condition of parents Offense Both Wid. W i d fr. Norm* dead mother father Del juv. Div* Separ. Unwed Unk. Total 160 20 52 27 45 41 12 357 Petty theft 108 9 36 5 29 18 1 206 Grand theft 100 5 19 15 33 17 4 193 Burglary 89 3 20 5 23 18 7 166 Robbery 16 1 3 3 6 Runaway 4 2 Battery 4 1 Rape Rec. stolen property Involved in accidents 2 1 1 1 3 2 Narcotics 1 2 Sex perver. 3 1 4 Unlic. dr. 2 1 3 Sodomy 2 1 29 1 3 2 8 1 2 3 6 5 5 1 4 1 4 95 11 2 Murder Total 1 1 38 139 1 59 145 97 1 26 1000 49 13.9 per cent came from homes in which the father was dead and the child was living with his mother; 14.5 per cent were sons of divorced parents; 9.7 per cent v/ere sons of parents who were separated, "but not divorced; 5.9 per cent were liv ing in homes in which the mother was dead and the father was keeping the home; 3*8 per cent were "boys whose parents were both dead; and in one cases the boy was born out of wedlock. Thus, in 50.5 per cent of all of the cases the boys came from broken homes, and 15.6 per cent of the total number came from homes which v/ere broken by divorce or separation. Or, in other words, nearly one-third of all of the homes we re broken by divorce and separation. In studying the proportion of boys from each type of home who committed various crimes, it may be shown that, 52.6 per cent of boys whose parents were both dead were ar rested on the charge of being in danger of becoming delin quent, while only 31 per cent of the sons of divorced parents were arrested on this charge. Twenty-five and nine-tehths per cent of the boys whose mothers v/ere dead committed petty theft, while only 8.5 per cent of the boys whose fathers v/ere dead committed this offense. A fraction more than 25 per cent of the boys whose fathers were dead committed grand theft, while only 13.1 per cent of the boys whose parents were both dead committed this 50 same offense. Burglary was committed By 22.6 per cent of the sons of normal parents, and only by 7*9 per cent of the boys 'whose parents were both dead. Robbery was committed by only 5*1 per cent of the sons of widower fathers, and even lower percentages of the sons of parents in other conditions. it is strange that there were no cases among the' thirty-eight whose parents were both dead where the boy was arrested for runaway, battery, rape, receiving stolen proper ty, involvement in accidents, narcotics, unlicensed driving, murder, or sex offenses. Boys who committed these crimes came generally from normal homes, homes in which the father or the mother was dead,and homes where the parents were di vorced. It is also very strange that five out of the six sex offenses should be committed by boys from normal homes. The offense committed and. the economic condition of the parents or guardians of the offender. Table X does not give a very accurate check on the actual monetary returns of each family inasmuch as no attempt was made to determine the actual wages earned by the wage earner of each family. As may be seen, in 132 cases no attempt was even made to de termine the economic condition of the home. Of the remaining 868 cases reported, Table X shows that in 112 cases the parents 51 TABLE X DISTRIBUTION OF 1,000 JUVENILE OFFENSES ACCORDING TO THE ECONOMIC CONDITION OF THE PARENTS OF THE OFFENDER Economic condition of parents Offense Relief Poor Fair Average Good Unlisted Total Del. juv. 36 72 108 46 34 61 357 Petty theft 24 36 79 28 19 18 206 Grand theft 23 23 67 30 27 23 193 Burglary 23 36 48 19 20 18 166 5 13 3 5 3 29 3 1 1 5 11 1 3 Robbery Runaway 1 Battery 1 Rape Rec. stolen property Involved in accidents 1 Narcotics 1 Sex perver. Unlic. dr. 1 2 1 1 6 1 1 1 2 5 2 1 Total 1 I 2 5 1 1 3 1 3 2 1 1 112 4 4 2 1 Sodomy Murder 8 3 1 186 324 132 114 132 1000 52 or guardians were on relief; in 186 cases the condition was described as poor; in 324 cases conditions were fair; in 132 cases conditions were average; and in 114 cases conditions were described as good. Just where the dividing line between poor and fair, and between fair and average, lay, was not explained. However, it may easily be shown t h a t .24.6 per cent of the cases came from homes where the economic condition was called average or better, and in 62.2 per cent of the cases the conditions were reported as no better than fair, with 29.8 per cent being in definitely poor circumstances, finan cially. One rather outstanding fact is that three of the four boys arrested for sex perversion were from homes where the economic condition was good, while the two who v/ere arrested for sodomy came from homes where the condition was at least fair. As one might expect, four out of the six cases of runav/ay came from homes in which the economic condition, when listed at all, was poor. Another strange fact is that none of the twenty-nine boys arrested for robbery came from |iomes where the family v/as on relief. The table shows that the danger of becoming delin quent v/as the most frequent cause of arrest, and this v/as followed in order by petty theft, grand theft, burglary, and 53 robbery— these being the five most frequently committed offenses. But the table also shows that in the case of boys from homes in good .economical condition the orderiis not the same as that for the totals. In this case delinquent juvenile is followed, in order, by grand theft, burglary, petty theft, and robbery. Apparently petty theft is not so appealing to these boys from homes in which the family is much more likely to provide the boys with more spending money. In the case of boys from poor homes it may be shown that burglary and petty theft are committed much more fre quently than grand theft, while in the case of boys shown to be from homes on relief, the frequency with which each of the three offenses, grand theft, petty theft, and burglary, was committed was very nearly the same. The number of brothers and sisters of the offender and the offense committed. The data tabulated in Table XI probably have greater significance than any other item of information gained in this investigation. One glance is sufficient to show that beyond any question of doubt one of the greatest factors contributing to the delinquency of these boys is the small size of their families. In a total of 791 cases of the one-thousand studied there v/ere no more than five children in each family, and in a total of 538 cases, or more than fifty per cent, there were no more than three children in each family. In an alarming number of cases, 54 TABLE XI A COMPARISON OF THE NUMBER OF BROTHERS AND SISTERS OF, AND THE OFFENSES OF, 1,000 JUVENILE OFFENDERS Number of brothers and sisters 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 74 69 55 51 39 17 26 5 10 3 1 1 Petty theft 18 48 43 31 17 15 13 7 4 2 2 G-rand theft 34 37 30 32 21 18 6 5 5 2 Burglary 17 35 29 27 16 17 11 5 3 2 7 9 3 5 2 1 2 2 5 1 1 1 1 4 1 2 2 Offense Del juv. Robbery Runaway Battery 1 Rape Rec. stolen R property Involved in accidents 1 1 Narcotics Sex perver. Murder Total 1 2 1 1 2 1 5 357 2 4 206 1 1 1 193 1 1 2 166 29 1 11 8 1 6 1 5 1 1 3 Unlic. dr. Sodomy 3 12 Unh Total 1 5 2 4 1 4 1 3 1 1 1 1 157 206 175 152 101 2 71 59 22 23 9 5 5 2 13 1000 55 15*7 per cent of the total, the delinquent was the only child in the family. Truly large families contributed a very small per centage of the total number of boys arrested. Only twenty- one of the one-thousand boys came from homes where there were ten or more children in the family, and only 209 came from families where the number of children was greater than five. However, the picture does not look so black when one considers the fact!that the 1930 federal census showed the average family size for the city of Los Angeles to be 2.57, with 85.2 per cent of the families having five or less in the family. There were no cases of battery, receiving stolen property, involvement in accidents, narcotics, sex perversion, unlicensed driving, or murder committed by boys from families having seven or more children. There were, furthermore, only two cases of robbery, one of runaway, one of rape, and one of sodomy committed by boys from families of this size. One peculiar fact shown is that not one of the eleven cases of runaway v/as an only child. Another strange fact is that grand theft v/as so much more popular for boys who were the only child than was either petty theft or burglary. In Table X it v/as shown that most of the sexual of fenses were committed by boys from homes in good financial 56 condition. How, in Table XI, we see that about the same proportion, or four out of six cases, were committed by boys who, in each case; were the only child in the family. Summary. A brief surfey of Chapter IV shows the following important facts: The age range of the boys was found to be from seven to eighteen years, inclusive, with the most frequent offenses committed by boys fourteen to seventeen j^ears of age, inclus ive.Boys of this age comprised 81.6 per cent of the total number of cases. The most serious offenses were, with few exceptions, committed by boys in the upper half of the age range. It was shown that 11.5 per cent of the boys v/ere not attending school. Of those who were in school the greatest proportion of offenders were in grades eight, nine, ten, and eleven, with a few more in nine and ten, than in the other two. The facts seem to indicate that the boys were of at least average scholastic advancement, and some definitely were accelerated in school. Only one case was definitely retarded as far as could be ascertained from the data. The most serious crimes were most frequently committed by boys in the ninth and tenth grades. The majority of the boys were descended from English speaking people. Next, in point of frequency, were the boys 57 of Mexican descent, and then those of Negro descent. There was a much greater proportion of Mexicans and Negroes in the study than is true for the city. The per centage of Mexicans in the study was more than three times the percentage of Mexicans in the total population of the city, and the percentage of Negroes in the study was nearly four times the percentage of Negroes in the population of the city. The tabulations on school reputations cannot "be ex tremely reliable since 43*2 per cent of the cases did not even have listed the school reputation, and the results which were obtained were very inconsistent. There were very few boys with either bad or poor reputations, and over 150 with good or excellent reputations. By far the greast majority, £6.5 per cent, belonged to no clubs of any sort. Of those who did belong, the most frequent membership was in the Boy Scouts with school clubs second. The vast majority, 84*7 per cent, also had no odd-job employment,, and the greatest proportion of those not working committed burglary. Just about two-thirds, 67.7 per cent, of the boys had no previous juvenile records. A little more than one-fourth, 28.3 per cent, of the fathers’ occupations were not listed on the arrest reports. 5S Almost half, 45-5 per cent, of the fathers were no better than semi-skilled laborers. There were very few fathers on relief, and least of all those listed were the sons of men holding executive positions. The study of the marital conditions of the parents of the offenders showed that 49*5 per cent of the boys came from homes where the father and mother lived together nor mally, and 50.5 per cent came from broken homes. One-third of the broken homes were broken by divorce or separation. The lowest proportion of serious crimes were com mitted by boys whose parents w.ere both dead. The majority of sexual offenses were committed by boys from normal homes. Homes in average economic conditions or better comprised 24.6 per cent of the total, while 62.2 per cent were fair or worse, with 29.8 per cent definitely poor. Boys who ran away from homes v/ere most frequently from poor homes, and boys committing sexual offenses were most frequently from homes in good economical conditions. Boys committing robbery were most frequently from homes on relief. The greatest majority of the boys were from truly small families, although the families v/ere large as compared witj£ the average sized family in the city of Los Angeles. Families of five or less comprised 53.8 per cent of the total, 59 and in 15.7 per cent of the cases the hoy was an only child. No cases of runaway were recorded for hoys who had no brothers nor sisters. Grand theft was committed most frequently hy the lone child, and the majority of sexual of fenses were committed hy hoys who had no brothers nor sisters. CHAPTER V RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE PREVIOUS RECORD OF THE OFFENDER AND VARIOUS SOCIAL FACTORS It frequently happens that persons who commit certain crimes will repeat them or commit other crimes later, while others will he taught such a lesson that they will not dip into crime again. There are various factors which probably influence an offender to such an extent that he does or does not again break the laws of his country or city. Chap ter V is devoted to a study of the effect of some of these factors on the tendency of the thousand boys to reappear in juvenile court after a previous appearance. The previous record and the age of the offender. Table XII shows that approximately one-third of all the boys had been arrested previously. The eight boys who were seven and eight years of age had no previous record. One-third of the nine-year-old boys had previous records with the police. After the ,age of nine the frequency of arrest increase©-, in general, with the increase in the age of the boys. Only one-seventh of the ten-year-old boys had been previously arrested. Previous arrests are then reported for approximate ly one-fifth of the eleven-year-olds, a little more than one-fourth of the twelve-year-olds, a little more than onefourth of the thirteen-year-olds, more than one-third of the 61 TABLE XII A COMPARISON OF THE AGE AND PREVIOUS RECORD OF 1,000 JUVENILE OFFENDERS Previous record Age Yes No Total 7 2 2 8 6 6 9 3 6 9 10 X 2x 28 11 X 15 19 12 11 31 X2 13 22 53 75 IX 59 95 15X 15 71 1X2 213 16 35 1X5 230 17 6x 155 219 IB Total 3 323 677 3 1000 62 fourteen-year-olds, just one-third of the fifteen-year- olds, a little more than one-third of the sixteen-yearolds, and a little less than one-third of the seventeenyear-olds. The greatest percentage was among the fourteen- year-old hoys where fifty-nine out of 154, or 38.3 per cent, had a previous record. This age group wasfollowed closely hy the sixteen-year-old group where eighty-five out of 230, or 37.0 per cent, had previous records. The previous record and the school grade of the offend er. Tahle XIII shows a condition in which the frequency of repetition is similar to that shown by Tahle XII. In gen eral, the frequency of repetition of offenses increases proportionately as the rise in grade level, up to about the tenth grade. The one first grader had no previous record and only one of the twelve second graders had previously been arrested. The third graders show a sharp rise with three of eleven having been arrested previously. The frequency among fourth graders drops back to six out of thirty, or one-fifth. From that point the frequency climbs quite steadily until the ninth grade where seventy-one out of 166, or 38.2 per cent had previous records. The boys not attending school show the highest fre quency of previous arrests of all. In this case forty- seven out of 115, or 40.9 per cent had previous arrests. 63 TABLE XIII A COMPARISON OF THE PREVIOUS RECORD AND THE GRADE IN SCHOOL OF 1,000 JUVENILE OFFENDERS Previous record Grade Not attending Yes No Total 47 68 115 1 1 1 2 1 11 12 3 3 8 11 4 .6 24 30 5 7 27 34 6 13 32 45 7 28 52 80 8 43 95 138 9 71 115; 186 10 58 119 177 11 34 92 126 12 12 33 45 323 677 1000 Total 64 The previous record and the school reputation of the offender. Tahle XIV shows some rather inconsistent results. Of the 432 hoys whose school reputation v/as not reported, 138, or 31-9 per cent, had heen arrested previously. Of the six whose reputations were listed as very had, 2, or 33.3 per cent had previous records, while of the three with excellent reputations two, or 66.6 percent had previous records. On the other hand, of the ten hoys whose reputa tions v/ere given as had, five, vious record, while of the 150 or 50 per cent, had a pre with good reputations, only thirty-nine, or 26.0 per cent had previous records. Of the seventy-five with poor reputations, twenty-eight, or 37.3 per cent had previous records, and 109 out of 3249 or 33.6 per cent, of those whose reputations v/ere average had pre vious records. Thus, the most persistent repeaters had excellent reputations in school, and these were followed, in order, by those whose reputations were had, poor, average, very had, and good. The offender. previous record and the cluh activities of the Tahle XV shows that of the hoys who hadprevious records, the greatest proportion of the total number v/as from those who belonged to a church cluh. In this case two out of four, or 50 percent, had heen arrested before. Next in order were hoys belonging to the Y.M.G.A. where 65 TABU] XIV A COMPARISON OF THE PREVIOUS RECORD AND SCHOOL REPUTATION OF 1,000 JUVENILE OFFENDERS Previous record Reputation Yes No Total Not listed 13 B 294 432 Very bad 2 4 6 Bad 5 5 10 28 47 75 109 215 324 39 111 150 2 1 3 323 677 1000 Poor Average G-ood Excellent Total 66 TABLE XV A COMPARISON OF THE PREVIOUS RECORD AND THE CLUB AFFILIATION OF 1,000 JUVENILE OFFENDERS Previous record Total Yes No Scouts 13 27 40 Church 2 2 4 Y.M.C.A. 7 10 17 2 2 • o H3 • O • • Club All-Nations 2 5 7 Boys Club 3 3 8 School 4 17 21 11 23 36 None 281 384 865 Total 323 677 1000 Miscell. 67 seven out of seventeen, or 4-1,2 per cent, had previous records; boys belonging to Boys* clubs where three out of eight, or 37.5 per cent had previous records; boys belonging to the scouts where thirteen out of forty, or 32.5 per cent had previous records; those belonging to no clubs where 281 out of 865, or 32,5 per cent, had previous records; those belong ing to miscellaneous clubs, where eleven out of thirty-six, or 30.7 per cent, had previous records; those belonging to the All-Nations club, where two out of seven, or 28,6 per cent, had previous records; and lastly, those belonging to school clubs, where four out of twenty-one, or 19.1 per cent had been arrested previously. Thus, it seems that, of the types of clubs listed, the school clubs were more beneficial to the boys from the standpoint of j.uvenile readjustment than any of the other clubs. It is interesting to note that while 32.3 per cent of all the one-thousand boys had previous records, practi cally the same percentage, namely 32.5 per cent, of those belonging to no clubs had previous records. Percentages of members in only two definite types of clubs, the school clubs, and the All-Nations club, fell below this mark of 32.5 per cnet. The previous record and the descent of the offender. The percentages of the boys who had previous records, arranged in order from the highest to the lowest, together with their descent, as shown in Table XVI, are as follows: first, boys of Baltic descent-eight out of nineteen, or 42.1 per cent; second--boys of Mexican descent— ninety-five out of 249, or 38.2 per cent; third, boys of Russian descent-three out of eight, or 37.5 per cent; fourth, boys of Germanic des cent— thirty-two out of ninety-five, or 33.7 per cent; fifth boys of Negroid descent— thirty-seven out of 118, or 31.4 per cent; sixth, boys of British descent— ninety-seven out of 312, or 31.1 per cent; seventh, boys of unlisted descenttwenty-eight out of ninety-six, or 29.2 per cent; eighth, boys of Jewish descent-four out of fourteen, or 28.6 per cent; ninth, boys of French descent— eight out of thirtyfour, or 23.5 per cent; tenth, boys of Mediterranean descent seven out of thirty-two, or 21.9 per cent; eleventh, boys of Oriental descent— three out of fifteen, or 20.0 per cent; and twelfth, boys of Indian descent; one of eight, or 12.5 per cent. Thus, the percentage range is quite large, from 42.1 per cent for the sons of Danes, Norweigians, Swedes, Finns, and the like, to 12.5 per cent for indian boys. Here again, may be seen the tendency on the part of the Oriental and Indian boys to have had no previous record as being greater than the tendency on the part of soms of men and women of any other nationalities mentioned. for these nationalities, This speaks quite well 69 TABLE XVI A COMPARISON OF THE PREVIOUS RECORD AND THE DESCENT OP 1,OOO JUVENILE OFFENDERS Previous record Descent Yes No Total British 97 215 312 Baltic 8 11 19 Mediterranean 7 25 32 Oriental 3 12 15 Germanic 32 63 95 French 8 26 34 Russian 3 5 8 Mexican 95 154 249 1 7 8 Negroid 37 81 118 J ewish 4 10 14 Unknown 28 68 96 323 677 1000 Indian Total 70 In this case, there were eight groups— British, Mediterranean, Oriental, French, Indian, Negroid, Jewish, and the unlisted group— whose percentages fell below the 32.3 per cent of previous records for the total number of cases studied. It may be rather significant that, although boys of British descent contribute most greatly to the total number of cases studied, they ranked sixth, or half way down the list, among those with previous records. The previous record and the part-time employment of the offender. Table XVII shows that fifty-eight out of 153, or 37.9 per cent, of the boys who worked at odd jobs, had previous records with the juvenile courts, while 265 out of 847, or 31.3 per cent of those not having odd jobs had previous records. This would seem to indicate that the mere working for f!pinfl money during the boy* s leisure hours was no insurance that he would not again appear in court. The previous record and the occupation of the father of the offender. The precentage of boys with fathers in the various occupational groups, who had previous records, as shown by Table XVIII ranged in order from the highest to the lowest are as follows: first, boys whose fathers were retired— twelve out twenty-two, or 54.6 per cent; second, boys whose fathers were on relief— eight out of 71 TABLE XVII A COMPARISON OF THE PREVIOUS RECORD AND THE PART TIME-EMPLOYMENT OF 1,000 JUVENILE OFFENDERS Previous record Yes No Total 58 95 153 No 265 582 84? Total 323 677 1000 Employment Yes 72 TABLE XVIII A COMPARISON OE THE PREVIOUS RECORD AND THE OCCUPATION OF THE FATHERS OF 1,000 JUVENILE OFFENDERS Previous record Father* s occupation Yes No Total Unskilled lahor 87 171 25S Semi-skill, labor 57 139 196 Skilled labor 30 55 85 Clerical 14 37 51 Business 12 45 57 Executive 4 6 10 Professional 7 16 23 12 10 22 8 7 15 92 191 283 323 677 1000 Retired Relief Unknown Total 73 fifteen, or $3*3 per cent; third, boys whose fathers held executive positions— four out of ten, or 40.0 per cent; fourth, sons of skilled laborers— thirty out of eightyfive, or 35*3 per cent; fifth, sons of unskilled laborers— eighty-seven out of 258, or 33*7 per cent; sixth, boys whose fathers1 occupations were not listed— ninety two out of 283, or 32.5 per cent; seventh, boys whose fathers held professional positions--seven out of twenty-three, or 30.4 per cent; eighth, sons of semi-skilled laborers— fiftyseven out of 196, or 29*1 per cent; Hinth, boys whose fath ers held clerical positions— fourteen out of fifty-one, or 27*4 per cent; and tenth, boys ¥/hose fathers v/ere in business for themselves— twelve out of fifty-seven, or 21.1 per cent. Apparently the parents or guardians who own their own business can keep their sons out of trouble more easily, after they have once been in trouble, than any other occu pational group. Also, it appears that sons of fathers who were retired or on relief have an extremely difficult task of readjusting themselves to normal life after one or more experience in the juvenile courts. Sons of these two groups show a much higher percentage of crime repetition than does any other group. It should be understood that throughout this dis cussion, whenever the occupation of a father is referred to, it means the occupation of the guardian in cases where the father is not the legal guardian of the boy. In some 74 cases studied the fathers were in prison, and the hoy was in the custody of either some other man, or the mother, or some agency. In these cases the occupations of these other individuals were used in the analysis. As mentioned previously, there was no sharp dividing line between the three groups of labor-unskilled, semi skilled, and skilled. If these three are grouped together it will be seen that there will be a total of 539 cases studied, and a total of 174 of these who had had previous records. This gives a percentage of 32.3, which is exactly the same as that for the total number of cases studied. However, as the data are arranged in Table XVII, the skilled laborers and the unskilled laborers hold the fourth and fifth places, respectively, while the semi-skilled group hold eighth place in the proportion with which their sons had had previous records. The previous record and the marital condition of the parents of the offender. The one boy arrested who had been born out of wedlock had no previous record. Of the remainder the percentage rank from the highest to lowest for those with previous records, as shown in Table XIX, is as follows: first, boys whose parents1 marital condition was not listed— ten out of twenty-six, or 38.5 per cent; second, boys v/hose parents were separated, but not divorced— thirty-seven out of ninety-seven, or 38.1 per cent; third, boys who were 75 TABLE XIX A COMPARISON OF THE PREVIOUS RECORD AND THE MARITAL CONDITION OF THE PARENTS OF 1,000 JUVENILE OFFENDERS Previous record Marital condition Yes No Total Normal 159 336 X95 9 29 33 Widowed mother XX 95 139 Widower father 22 • 37 59 Divorced X2 103 1X5 Separated 37 60 97 1 1 10 16 26 323 677 1000 Both dead Unwed Unknown Total living with a widower father— twenty-two out of fifty-nine, or 37.3 per cent; fourth, boys whose parents were married and living together normally--159 out of 495, or 32.1 per cent; fifth, boys living with a widowed mother— forty-four out of 139, or 31.7 per cent; sixth, sons of divorced parent forty-two out of 145, or 29.0 per cent; and seventh, boys whose parents were both dead— nine out of thirty-six, or 25.0 per cent. If all except the normal and unlisted groups are listed together and considered as broken homes, it would showr 154 out of 479, or 32.2 per cent, as having had pre vious records. This, compared to the percentage of repeti tion among boys whose parents are living together normally— 32.1 per cent— shows a difference of only 0.1 per cent. This is a very small difference indeed. Apparently then, there is no greater tendency for sons of broken homes to repeatedly commit crimes than there is for sons of normal parents. One very encouraging point shown by these results is that only 25 per cent of the boys whose parents were both dead had previous records. It is quite evident that these boys learn a lesson that they do not soon forget when they must be arrested for delinquency. The previous record and the economic condition of the parents or guardians of the offender. Table XX shows 77 TABLE XX A COMPARISON OF THE PREVIOUS RECORD AND THE ECONOMIC CONDITION OF THE PARENTS OR GUARDIAN OF 1,000 JUVENILE OFFENDERS Previous record Economic condition Tes No Total G-ood 33 81 114 Average 37 95 132 Fair 114 210 324 Poor 68 118 186 Relief 26 86 112 Unknown 45 8? 132 323 677 1000 Total 78 that sixty-eight out of 186 boys, or 36.6 per cent, coming from homes in poor economic condition had previous police records. This leads all of the other groups. Next, in order, follows boys from homes in fair economic condition with 114 out of 324, or 33*2 per cent; boys from homes whose economic condition was not listed— forty-five out of 132, or 34.1 por cent; boys from good economic conditions--thirtythree out of 114, or 28.9 per cent; and boys whose families were on relief--twenty-six out of 112, or 23.2 per cent. The last percentage mentioned is quite encouraging. It is quite surprising that the sons of parents who were on relief should be the ones least likely to reappear in juvenile courts after one appearance. This table shows results which, again, are rather inconsistent. According to the results show, familes on relief are most likely of all to keep their sons out of court after a first appearance, while those in poor homes are most likely to have sons who will repeatedly appear in court. 79 Approximately one-third, 32.3 per cent of all the hoys had a previous record with the juvenile author ities. It was found that the frequency of previous records increased proportionately as the age of the boys after about the age of nine years. The largest proportion of boys with previous records were those fourteen years of age. The frequency of previous records also increased proportionately as the grade level, but in this case only up to about the tenth grade. Of all of the boys, those not in school most fre quently had a previous record. A study of the relationships between the previous record and the school reputation showed results as incon sistent as appeared between the reputation and the offense. Two-thirds of the boys with excellent reputations had a previous record, while only one-third of those with a very bad reputation had a previous record. The frequency of previous records from highest to lowest was excellent, then bad, poor, average, very bad, and then good, in that order. The most frequent repeaters were members of church clubs, and the least frequent were members of school clubs. The percentage of frequency of previous record v/as almost identical for the total number of boys and for those who belonged to no club. 80 The most persistent offenders were of Baltic descent, and next most were of Mexican descent. The least persistent were the Indians, and then the Orientals'. The percentage of previous records of British descend ants was not nearly as great as the percentage of frequency of arrest for British descendants. A study of the part-time employment of the boys showed that there were more, who worked, who had previous records than there were of those who did not work. The most frequent repeaters were the sons of retirement, and relief. men in next most frequent were sons of men on The least frequent were sons of business men, and next were the sons of clerks. The percentage of repetition for sons of day laborers was exactly the same as the percentage of repetition for the total number of boys. The most frequent repeaters were the sons of separated parents, and the next most frequent were the sons of widower fathers. The least frequent were boys whose parents were both dead, and next were the sons of divorced parents. The percentage of repetition for boys from broken homes was almost identical with the percentage of repetition for the total number of boys. The most frequent repeaters were boys from homes in a poor economical condition. The least frequent were from homes op relief, with boys from good homes next. CHAPTER VI RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE DISPOSITION OF THE CASES AND VARIOUS SOCIAL FACTORS As stated in the chapter on procedure, upon the completion of the interrogation by the arresting officer, of each boy, his case was disposed of by one of a number of methods, including voluntary probation, suspension of the action, etc. Chapter VI concerns these methods of disposi tion and their relationships to some of the social factors. The disposition of the case and the age of the offen der. Table XXI shows that the action was quite frequently suspended. This was done in 280 cases. In 135 instances the action was referred to some child welfare agency. Onehundred and thirty-two were placed on probation, and the rest of the cases were disposed of in the manner indicated by the table. Some of the reports apparently were never completed, for in sixteen cases this very important item of disposition was not even listed. A brief survey that, in general, the of the table will suffice to show tendency to place the boy on probation increased proportionately as the age. Five out of twenty- eight, or 17.9 per cent, of the ten-year-old boys were placed on voluntary probation, while only nineteen out of 82 TABLE XXI DISTRIBUTION, BY AG®, OF 1,000 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY DISPOSITIONS Age Disposition 7 8 9 Vol. prob. 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 5 3 7 12 34 31 21 19 14 15 28 38 65 61 44 2 280 8 11 26 43 6 2 1 104 3 2 40 45 Act. susp. 2 3 8 Det. juv* hall 1 1 5 Det. co. jail Rel. to father Rel. to mother 1 Rel. to parents 3 2 Ref. co. prob. 2 Rel, insuf. evid. 1 1 Ref. spec. inv. 1 1 Ref. welf. agcy. 1 Transferred Not listed 2 1 Total 2 6 18 Total 132 90 1 1 2 2 3 1 6 8 6 11 8 41 6 4 13 21 14 21 84 5 5 10 4 26 2 2 6 6 18 1 3 5 4 3 9 18 1 1 2 3 12 18 39 58 135 1 1 1 6 3 11 14 10 47 1 3 3 2 2 16 2 9 28 19 42 75 154 213 230 219 3 1000 33 219, or 8.7 per cent of the seventeen-year-old boys were. The tendency to suspend the cases was, quite natur ally, less for boys from about the age of fourteen and up than it was for those of ages thirteen and down. None of the eleven-year-old boys were detained in the juvenile hall, and an unusually small percentage of the six teen and seventeen-year-old boys were. The next disposition shows, however, that a much higher percentage of these tv#o age groups were detained in the county jail. Quite natur ally also, no boy of thirteen years or less was detained in the county jail, and only five of the fourteen and fifteenyear-old boys were. Only one boy of less than twelve years was released to the custody of either parent separately, although five were released to both parents. It is interesting to note the small percentage of boys released because of insufficient evidence, and it is strange that most of these boys should be fairly old, from fourteen to seventeen years of age, inclusive. Neither were there very many cases referred for special investigation. Strange as it may seem, the older the boy, the great er was the tendency to refer his case to some welfare agency. Some cases were found to be out of the jurisdiction of the Los Angeles courts and were transferred to another city, county, or state. 84 The disposition of the case and the school grade of the offender. The case of the only boy in the first grade was referred to a welfare agency, as was the greater number of cases of boys who were not in school, and the greater number of boys in the second grade. Table XXII does not show as great a tendency to decrease the number on voluntary probation with increases in school grade as does Table XXI with respect to the ages of the boys. There was no gradual increase or decrease in the number as the grade level increased. Neither does the table show any general trend along the increasing grade level for the suspension of action, nor for detention in the juvenile hall. In the next disposition, however, it may be seen that there was an increased tendency to place boys in the county jail who were farther along in school. A curious fact in connection with this disposition is that Table XXI shows no boy under the age of fourteen as having been held in the county jail, whereas Table XXII shows six boys under the eighth grade being disposed of in this manner. Table XXII shows a much more widely spread distri bution along the grade scale for boys released to their par ents than Table XXI does along the age scale. The same is true for cases referred to the county probation department. Table XXI limits cases disposed of in this manner to £5 TABLE XXII DISTRIBUTION, BY SCHOOL GRADE, OF 1,000 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY DISPOSITIONS Grade in school 12 None Total 1 -2 3 4 5 6 7 S 9 10 11 Vol. prob. 1 3 2 8 7 13 26 26 21 14 2 9 132 Act. susp. 2 2 5 12 15 24 36 56 52 43 17 16 280 1 5 3 £ £ 21 31 14 5 8 104 1 1 1 2 1 10 26 15 26 90 2 1 1 9 Disposition Det. juv. hall Det. co. jail 1 Rel. to father Rel. to mother 2 Rel. to parents 1 1 6 1 6 1 4 4 10 4 6 12 2 4 10 17 16 13 6 5 84 1 3 6 7 4 1 2 26 1 1 4 3 3 3 1 18 2 18 31 135 5 41 Ref. co. prob. 2 Rel, insuf. evid. 1 1 Ref. spec. inv. 1 1 2 2 3 5 2 5 5 4 15 16 17 18 9 1 2 4 7 £ 6 12 47 3 3 2 1 2 16 1 12 11 30 34 45 80 13 S 186 177 126 45 115 1000 Ref. welf. agcy.l 4 Transferred Not listed Total 2 1 2 1 2 6 £ 86 five ages, while Table XXII shows them distributed over eight grade levels. In fact, if there is anything outstand ing at all about Table XXII it is the fact that the disposi tions were scattered over so many grade levels. Each type of disposition was used for boys in many school grades. The disposition of the case and the marital condition of the parents of the offender. Table XXIII shows that the largest proportion of boys on probation were sons of widowed mothers, and sons of divorced parents. Approximately one- fifth of the boys from each of these two types of homes were placed on probation. The greatest proportion of cases in which the action was suspended was for sons of parents living together, where exactly one-third of their sons1 cases were disposed of in this manner. Disregarding the cases in which the items were not listed on the reports, the greatest proportions for each of the other methods of disposition were as follows: detained in the juvenile hall--approximately one-sixth of the sons of separated parents; detained in the county jail--one-eighth of the sons of widowed mothers; released to the father— onefifteenth of the sons of widower fathers; released to the mother— approximately one-eighth of the sons of separated parents; released to the parents— a little less than one-sixth of the sons of normal parents; referred to the county probation 87 TABLE XXIII DISTRIBUTION OF 1,000 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY DISPOSITIONS ACCORDING TO THE MARITAL CONDITION OF THE PARENTS OF THE OFFENDER Marital condition of parents Disposition Vol prob. Bo tli Wid. W i d ’r. Norm. dead mother father Div. Separ. Unwed Unk. Tot 52 2 26 6 29 16 165 6 39 9 33 21 7 280 Det. juv. ball 37 2 11 10 17 21 6 104 Det. co. jail 45 4 17 4 14 3 3 90 4 1 2 12 12 Act. susp. Rel. to father 2 Rel. to mother 3 11 Rel. to parents 75 1 1 Ref. co. prob. 16 2 2 Rel, insuf. evid . 8 1 2 Ref. spec. inv. 9 1 4 Ref. welf. agcy. 52 17 21 2 4 Transferred 21 Not listed 10 Total 495 2 139 9 3 41 84 2 1 26 18 6 18 3 1 17 15 11 2 135 6 4 7 3 47 3 1 1 16 1 38 132 5 3 1 1 59 145 97 1 26 1000 88 department--approximately one-nineteenth of the boys whose parents were both dead; released due to insufficient evi dence— approximately one-twenty-fourth of the sons of divorced parents; referred to a special investigator--one-thirty-fifth of the sons of widowed mothers; referred to welfare agencies-— a little less than one-half of the boys whose parents were both dead; and transferred elsewhere— one-tenth of the sons of widower fathers. It seems, therefore, that in case the boysT parents lived together normally, most frequently the action was sus pended, or he was released to his parents. When both parents were dead the cases were most frequently referred to some welfare agency. There does seem to have been some slip-up in the case of boys with both parents dead, since one of them was reported to have been released to his parents. It might be assumed, however, that the report was meant to be that he was released to legal guardians. Where the father was dead the cases were most fre quently suspended, the boys placed on probation, or the case referred to some welfare agency. Where the mother was dead the cases were most frequently referred to welfare agencies, and next most frequently, the boys were detained in the juvenile hall. Where the parents were divorced the cases were most frequently suspended, or the boys were placed on voluntary 89 probation. Only one son of divorced parents was released to his father, while twelve sons of divorced parents were released to their mothers. Where the parents were separated the cases were most frequently suspended, or the boy was placed in the juvenile hall, or on probation. The disposition of the case and the economic condi tion of the parents or guardians of the offender. Table XXIV shows that for every economic condition except one the case was most frequently suspended. Where the economic condition was not listed the case was more frequently refer red to some welfare agency. The greatest proportion of boys placed on voluntary probation came from homes where the families were on relief, and, strange as it may seem, the tendency to place boys on probation decreased generally as the economic condition of the home became better. Twenty out of 112, or 17.9 per cent, from homes*on relief, twenty seven out of 186, or IX.5 per cent, from poor homes, fifty-one out of 324, or 15*7 per cent, from fair homes, sixteen out of 132, or 12.1 per cent, from average homes, and fourteen out of 114, or 12.3 per cent, from good homes, were placed on voluntary probation. The largest proportion of cases in which the action was suspended came from homes in good economic condition, where more than one-third of the cases of boys from this type 90 TABLE XXIV DISTRIBUTION OF 1,000 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY DISPOSITIONS ACCORDING TO THE ECONOMIC CONDITION OF THE PARENTS OF THE OFFENDER Economic condition of parents Good 51. 16 14 4 132 48 98 36 42 29 280 7 29 32 10 6 20 104 11 16 28 12 10 13 90 Rel. to father 1 1 2 3 1 1 9 Rel • to mother 9 5 11 8 4 4 41 11 7 33' 15 14 4 84 Ref. co. prob. 2 1 13 2 3 5 26 Re 1 f insuf. evid 3 4 2 1 4 4 18 Ref. spec. inv. 6 3 2 1 3 3 18 Ref. weIf. agcy. 9 30 35 19 10 32 135 Transferred 4 10 14 4 2 13 47 Not listed 2 5 3 5 1 112 186 324 132 114 Relief Poor Vol. prob. 20 27 A c t . susp. 2? D e t . juv. hall D e t . co. jail Rel. to parents Total Fair Unknown Total Average Disposition 16 132 1000 91 of home were suspended. The largest proportion of hoys detained in the juvenile hall came from poor homes, and the smallest proportion from hoys in good homes. The largest proportion of hoys detained in the county jail came from homes on relief. The largest proportion of hoys whose cases were dis posed of in the following manners are given helow: Released to their fathers— hoys from average homes; released to their mothers--hoys from homes on relief; released to their parents-hoys from good homes; referred to the county probation-hoys from average homes; released because of insufficient evidence— hoys from homes on relief, followed closely by boys from good homes; referred for special investigation-hoys from homes on relief; referred to welfare agencies— hoys from poor homes; and transferred elsewhere--boys from poor homes. Thus, for five different dispositions the great est proportion of cases came from homes on relief, and in three more cases they came from poor homes. The only times the largest proportion came from good homes was when the action was suspended and when the hoy was released to both parents. For no disposition did the largest proportion come from homes in a fair condition. The disposition of the cases and the previous record of the offenders. Table XXV shows that where the hoy was disposed of by each of the methods, the greatest proportions 92 TABLE XX? DISTRIBUTION OF 1,000 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY DISPOSITIONS ACCORDING TO PREVIOUS ARRESTS OF THE OFFENDER Previous record Yes No Total Vol. prod. 34 98 132 A c t . susp. 71 209 260 50 54 104 47 43 90 Rel. to father 3 6 9 Rel. to mother 11 30 41 Rel. to parents 23 61 84 Ref. co. prob. 13 13 26 R e l , insuf. evid. 3 15 18 Ref. spec. inv. 2 16 18 Ref. we If. agey. 31 104 135 Transferred 31 16 47 4 12 16 ' 323 677 Disposition Bet. juv. hall D e t . co. jail Not listed Total 1000 did or did not have previous records following: as is shown by the Placed on probation— thirty-four out of 323, or 10.5 per cent, had a previous record, while ninety-eight out of 677, or 14.5 per cent,,had not; action suspended-eeventy-one out of 323, or 22.0 per cent, had a previous record, while 209 out of 677, or 30*9 per cent, had not; detained in the juvenile hall, fifty out of 323, or 15*5 per cent, had a previous record, while only fifty-four out of 677, or 7*98 per cent, had not; detained in the county jailforty-seven out of 323, or 14.6 per cent, had a previous record, while only forty-three out of the 677, or 6.35 per cent had not; released to the father— 0.93 per cent had a previous record, while 0.89 per cent had not; released to the mother— 3*4 per cent had a previous record, while 4*4 per cent had not; released to the parents— 7*12 per cent had a previous record, while 9*0 per cent had not; referred to the county probation department— 4*0 per cent had a previous record, while 1.9 per cent had not; released due to insuffic ient evidence— 0.93 per cent had a previous record, v/hile 2.2 per cent had not; referred for special investigation— 0.62 per cent had a previous record, v/hile sixteen of the 677, or 2.4 per cent, had not; referred to welfare agencies9.6 per cent had previous records, while 15.4 per cent had not; transferred elsewhere— 9*6 per cent had a previous re cord, while 2.4 per cent had not. 94 Thus, for five types of dispositions— detention in the juvenile hall, detention in the county jail, reference to the county probation department, release to the father, and trans fer elsewhere— the largest proportion had had previous police records. For all the other dispositions the largest propor tions had had no previous records. Summary. The most frequent disposition used was the suspension of the case. This occurred in 28 per cent of the cases, and the next most frequent was the reference of the case to some welfare agency. The tendency to place boys on voluntary probation increased with the age of the boys, v/hile the tendency to suspend the action decreased with age. Very few boys were released because of insufficient evidence. The tendencies to refer the cases to welfare agencies, and to place the boys in the county jail increased with the ages of the boys. Most of the cases of boys not in school were referred to welfare agencies. The dispositions were much more widely scattered over the various grade levels than they were over various ages. The boys placed on voluntary probation v/ere most fre quently the sons of widowed mothers, and the sons of divorced 95 parents were next. The cases of suspended action were most frequently of boys from normal homes. Boys detained in the juvenile hall were most fre quently sons of separated parents while those detained in the county jail were most frequently the sons of widowed mothers. Gases referred to welfare agencies were most frequent ly those of boys whose parents were both dead. More sons of divorced parents were released to the parents than were to the fathers. The tendency to place the boys on probation decreased as the economic condition of the home increased. When five types of disposition— voluntary probation, detention in the county jail, release to the mother, release due to insufficient evidence, and reference to a special investigator— were used, the most frequent cases were of boys from homes on relief, and in three inore--detention in the juvenile hall, reference to welfare agencies, and transfer elsewhere--the cases were of boys from homes in poor finan cial condition. In the cases of only two dispositions, where the action was suspended, and when the bojr was released to his parents, were the cases most frequently from homes in good financial condition. When five different types of disposition— detention 96 in the juvenile hall, detention in the county jail, release to the father, reference to the county probation department, and transfer elsewhere--were used, the majority of boys had a previous record. ?/hen any of the other dispositions were used the majority of the boys had no previous police records. CHAPTER VII CONCLUSIONS, SUMMARY, AND RECOMMENDATIONS Enough facts have been presented in the preceding chapters of this thesis to form a sound basis for some gen eral conclusions which cannot be overlooked, and upon the basis of which recommendations should be made to various agencies engaged in educating and protecting juveniles. These conclusions, a comparison of some of them with some of the facts given in the chapter on related studies, a gener al summary, and the recommendations will be found in this chapter. Conclusions. On the basis of evidence presented in Chapters IV, V, and VI, it is the investigator’s opinion that the following conclusions may safely be drawn: 1. Juvenile delinquency covered a wide range of ages, being from seven to eighteen years, inclusive, with the highest frequency of offenses being committed by boys of ages fourteen to seventeen, inclusive. The related studies reported in Chapter II gave the average age of delinquency usually as in the fifteenth year. While this investigation did not determine the average age, it will be seen that the average age of the others falls within the area of highest frequency found in the present study. 98 2. school. Too many boys, 11.5 per cent, were not attending Of those attending, the area of highest frequency was found to he in grades eight, nine^ ten, and eleven, with a few more in nine and ten than in the other two. This differs slightly from the findings of other in vestigators mentioned in Chapter II, who found the average grade to he in the eighth year. 3. As far as can he determined from the data, the hoys were not retarded in school, and some were definitely accelerated. This is a decided difference from the findings of the others, who found in most cases that the delinquents were retarded anywhere from one to two and one-half years. 4. The tendency for hoys of Mexican and Negro descents to commit crimes was much greater than the tendency for hoys descended from any other nationality in the city of Los Ange les. This point is very significant, and agrees quite closely with the findings of 5. G-ordon.-^ The school reputation, as recorded on the reports for this study, is not an accurate measure of the hoys* in clination toward delinquency. The present study showed many more with good or excellent reputations than with had or poor Edmond David Gordon, "Problem Boys in the Special Schools of Los Angeles," (unpublished Master1s thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1936) 99 reputations having committed offenses, 6„ Very few of the boys belonged to any character building clubs, and of those who did belong, the most fre quent membership was with the Boy Scouts, with school clubs second. This also agrees quite closely with those found by others, although the percentage not belonging was shown to be much greater for the present study than for the earlier ones. The present study showed only 13*5 per cent belonging to clubs, while Gordon-^ found only 22 per cent, and Allen*^ and Perry"^ each found 25 per cent of the boys in their studies belonging to clubs, 7. The lack of odd-job employment was a decided factor in the delinquency of the boys in the present study. This also agrees quite well with the evidence found by Maxwell 20 and Thomas, 21 Gordon, o£. cit. 1S Eugene Clyde Allen, ffAn Educational and Sociologi cal Delinquency Pactor Survey of the Los Angeles Boys* Wel fare Center,” (unpublished Master1s thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1937) -*-9 Glenn Edwin Perry,”Juvenile Delinquency in the Junior and Senior High Schools of Los Angeles; Its Prevalence, Manifestations, and Causes,” (unpublished Master1s thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1937) William Calvin Maxwell, tfAn Investigation of Boy Delinquency in Long Beach, California, and its Implications for the Public Schools,” (unpublished Master’s thesis, the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1935) Charles William Thomas, ”An Investigation of the fac tors Associated with School Delinquency in a Junior High School,” (unpublished Master’s thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1940) 100 8. A previous juvenile record was an influencing factor in one-third of the cases studied, and those hoys with previous records leaned more strongly toward robbery and grand theft, while those without committed petty theft more frequently. This is exactly the same percentage of repeaters as pp was found by G-ordon^ but was considerably less than the 54 per cent found by Maxwell^? to have had previous records. 9. The fact that almost half of the fathers of the boys in the present study were no better than semi-skilled laborers was a great factor in the boys* delinquency. 10. Broken homes was a large contributing factor to the delinquency of the boys, and divorce and separation were all too frequently the cause of the homes being broken. In every study reported on in Chapter II, this was found to be the case, although Maxwell found it to be promi nent in a lesser portion of cases. 11. A rather large portion of the boys came from homes in poor financial circumstances. This also was found to be the case by all of the investigators mentioned in Chapter II, who studied this item. 12. Boys from homes in good economical conditions did not run away from home as often as do boys from poor homes, G-ordon, o£. cit. ^ Maxwell, crq. cit. 101 but they did .commit grand theft more often* 13. The delinquents in this study came most frequently from families having three children or less, and in all too many cases, 15.7 per cent, from families wherein the delin quent was the only child. Thus, it is safe to say that the small size of these families was a definited factor. In the studies of Gordon24 and Thomas*^ the families were found to be large. 14. Although the only child did not run away as often, he did commit grand theft and sexual offenses more frequently than the boy from larger families. 15. The frequency with which the delinquents had previous records increased with increasing age, after about the age of nine, and with the school grade, up to about grade ten. 16. The school reputation was not an accurate measure of the tendency to commit new crimes after a first offense. 17. Boys belonging to no clubs were no more prone to appear repeatedly in court than were other boys, but the study showed that, of those who did belong to clubs, the most fre quent of the repeaters were members of church clubs, and the least frequent repeaters were members of school clubs. IB. The fact that a boy worked at odd-jobs was no Gordon, o£. cit. 25 Thomas, o£. cit. 102 insurance that he would keep out of the juvenile courts, once he had been arrested* The present study showed that more working boys had previous records than non-working boys had. 19. Boys from broken homes were no more prone to re peat crimes than were the average of all the delinquent boys* 20* The most frequent repeaters came from homes in poor financial conditions, while the least frequent came from homes on relief, followed closely by boys from homes in good economic condition. Thus, we may have little to fear, according to the data in this study, of boys from good homes, or from homes on relief, repeatedly commiting crimes, 21, The tendency to dispose of the cases by volun tary probation, reference to welfare agencies, and detention in the county jail generally increased with advancing age, while the tendency to suspend action decreased with advanc ing age. 22, The tendency to place boys on voluntary probation became noticeably less as the financial conditions of the home increased. 23, The arresting officers were not as thorough as they could have been in making out their reports. The items not listed on the reports, together with the frequencies, included: descent, 96; sqhool reputation, 432; fathers* occupa tions, 283; parents* marital conditions, 26; parents* economic conditions, 132; size of a family, 13; and disposition of the 103 cases, 16. A much more accurate check could have been made of relationships between some of the factors had these items not been omitted from the reports. 24. The Los Angeles Police Department is doing a splendid job of preventing the attachment of lasting stig mas onto young delinquents. The fact that in 357 cases out of one-thousand, the charge against the arrested juveniles was listed merely as nbeing in danger of becoming delinquent,w shows the reluctance with which the police attach more serious charges to the delinquents* juvenile records. Summary. The present investigation was carried out in an attempt to illuminate and clarify the juvenile delin quency situation in the city of Low Angeles, California. The investigation seemed thoroughly justified in view of the great portion of criminals in the United States today who started their crime careers during their adolescence or earlier, and in view of the amazing amount of juvenile de linquency prevalent in our nation. The study was limited to male cases, and to the orig inal arrest reports, which were described in detail in Chap ter I. The study was also limited to juveniles as defined under criminal law, or those under the age of eighteen, al though a few cases were included who were in their eighteenth year. 104 The data were obtained from the files of the Juvenile Record Bureau of the Los Angeles Police Department, with headquarters in the Georgia Street Police Station* A method of representative sampling was used to obtain 25 per cent of the approximately 4,000 cases occuring during the year, August 1, 1939, to and including July 31, 1940. Each case was numbered to avoid exact identity, and the data were recorded on a master table for the fifteen items described in detail in Chapter III. Upon completion of the compilation of the data on the master table, the data were broken up and placed on twentyfive frequency tables which were arranged in such a way as to facilitate the comparison of the offense committed, the previous record, and the dispositions of the cases v/ith the various social factors. The frequency tables together with the results shown on each a condensation of one, and the summary for them, are to be found in Chapters IV, V, and VI. In Chapter II a review was given of the investigations carried out by other in the field of juvenile delinquency, particularly of those which dealt with delinquency as it occurred in the vicinity of Los Angeles, since it was believed that the findings of these were more closely related to the present study than would be the studies made in entirely different localities and under different circumstances. 105 The final step was the conclusions drawn by this investigator. These conclusions are to be found in this chapter. Recommendations. Upon the basis of evidence gained from the data presented in the foregoinginvestigation, and bearing in mind the facilities and limitations of existing institutions, the investigator feels thoroughly justified in making the following recommendations: 1. More attention should be given to boys during the ages of fourteen to seventeen, and particularly to boys in grades nine and ten who are of these ages, in an attempt to guide these boys of of the path toward juvenile delinquency. This might be done by methods described below. 2. State, city, and school authorities should coop erate one-hundred per cent in keeping boys in school until they are either eighteen years of age, or until they have graduated from high school. 3. Additional provisions must be made for the orien tation and integration of the Mexican and Negro boys. Much is already being done about this, but still not enough. These boys must be made to feel that they are American citi zens just as much as boys of any other nationality, and as such are entitled to just as much freedom, and are expected to be just as law-abiding. 4. Every school, particularly the junior and senior 106 high schools, should make every attempt to^establish a well balanced program of character building clubs, and should encourage every student, particularly the more backward and timid one, to become an active member of at least one club. 5. Parents in the city should encourage their sons to obtain odd jobs, for the two-fold purpose of earning a little "pin” money, and for keeping them occupied during at least some of their spare time. The parents should, by all means, help their sons to get started on these jobs, and should always follow their boys1 progress with sincere inter est and encouragement. o. When a boyrwho has had a juvenile court appear ance re-enters society, everyone should go more than half way to make the boy1s re-adjustment possible and pleasant. He should be treated not as a young criminal, but as one who has been corrected after making a grave mistake. Teach ers and other adults can do much to encourage other chil dren to be kind, courteous, and sincerely helpful to the young delinquents who return to the ways of normal life. 7. It would be an extremely helpful factor in reduc ing delinquency among juveniles if divorce laws were made much more strict, or if divorces and separations could be prevented by other means. It is quite possible that college courses on marriage and family relationships will improve the situation, but these courses do not reach a large enough pro- 107 portion of marriageable people. At present the number of cases wherein sacred marriage vows are treated so lightly and discarded so easily, ate seriously and alarmingly in creasing. 8. Determined efforts should be made to eliminate class favoritism and class conscousness in this country. In the elementary and high schools especially, children from poor homes must be treated no worse and no better than chil dren from homes in good economical conditions. Also'/ civic, county, state, and federal authorities must do all in their power to eliminate slum districts and to provide wholesome recreation for children from poor homes. It is still true that tfan ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.” 9. Parents in homes in good economical condition must be very careful that they do not rob their sons of the usual knocks and adventures of life to such an extent that the boys will turn to grand theft for their thrills. 10. It is hard their families are to convince the American people that too small, but the facts found in this investigation seem to warrant the recommendation that if couples wish to provide a valuable environment of compan ionship for their children, they had better plan on a family considerably larger than is the average family today. From the standpoint of reducing the rate of juvenile delinquency, a family of from six to nine, or ten, is a highly desirable 108 asset to any community. 11. It may have proven disastrous before to place boys from homes in good financial condition more frequently on voluntary probation, but it is the recommendation of this investigator to do so, in view of the fact that the evidence presented shows that the boys who repeated crimes came more frequently from poor homes than they did from homes in good financial condition. It seems only logical that parents in better homes are better equipped, in many ways, to insure the best and safest re-adjustment to normal conditions for any boy who has erred once already. 12. Finally, this investigator believes that the Los Angeles Police Department could improve even more the fine job they are doing in the handling of delinquents, by doing two things: First, by insisting upon completed reports in every detail by arresting officers; and second, by allow ing graduate students from well known universities to study, from a purely impersonal standpoint, the records of the juven ile cases in their files. This investigator, fully respecting the confident nature of the case reports, and desiring only to aid the schools as well as possibly the police, themselves, found it extremely difficult, and well-nigh impossible to examine the juvenile records in the Police Department files. As soon as the men in charge of these important files 109 recognize the difference between morbid curiosity and a sincere desire to improve existing conditions, by men and women who are in the best position to bring about this im provement, the progress made toward diminishing juvenile delinquency will move forward much more rapidly than it can possibly do today. BIBLIOGRAPHY Ill A. BOOKS Baker, Harry, J. , and. Virginia Traphagen, The Diagnosis and Treatment of Behavior-Problem Children. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1935* 393pp. A study of clinical work on problem children in the schools of Detroit, Michigan. Burt, Cyril, The Young Delinquent. and Company, 1925. 619 pp. New York: D. Appleton One of the earliest and most thorough works in the field. It concerns the prevalence and treatment of juvenile treatment in and about London. Cooley, Edwin J . , Probation and Delinquency. New York: Thomas Nelson and Sons, 1927. 544pp. Presents methods of probation as practiced by the Catho lic Charities Probation Bureau in the city of New York. G-lueck, Sheldon, and Eleanor Glueck, Juvenile Delinquents Grown U p . New York: The Commonwealth Publishers, 1940. 330 pp. A follow-up study of children who have passed through the Boston Juvenile Court. It was made with the aid of the Judge Baker Foundation. _______ , One-Thousand Juvenile Delinquents; Their Treatment by Court and Clinic. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1934. 341 pp. A thorough study of the records of delinquents after their cases were disposed.'of by the juvenile courts of Boston, Massachussetts. Goddard, Henry Herbert, Juvenile Delinquency. Dodd, Mead and Company, 1923. 120 pp. An early study of the problems of youth. but very interesting and worth while. Healy, William, The Individual Delinquent. Brown and Company, 1924. New York: It is short, Boston: Little, An early presentation of case work and the value of treat ing delinquency from an individual standpoint, rather than collectively. 112 Healy, William, and A. F. Brormer, Delinquents and Criminals. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1926. 317 pp. An investigation carried out v/ith the aid of the Judge Baker Foundation. It concerned the case studies of 3,000 juvenile delinquents in Chicago and Boston. Lindsey, Benjamin Barr, and Wainwright Evans, The Revolt of Modern Youth. New York: Boni and Liveright," 1925. 3&4 pp. An interesting and thorough study of the nature and treats ment of juvenile delinquency by Denver's famous early juvenile delinquency crusader, Judge Ben Lindsey. Reckless, ^falter Cade, and Mapheus Smith, Juvenile Delinquency. New York: The McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc.f 1932. 412 pp. A thorough and careful analysis of juvenile delinquency. It considers every phase of the problem and sharply criti cizes many efforts at the treatment of delinquency. It offers many suggestions and preventative measures. Slawson, John, The Delinquent B o y . C ompany, 192bT Boston: G. Badger and This book was offered first as a thesis at Columbia University. It treats delinquency among boys as it oc curred in institutions in the state of New York. White House Conference on Child Health and Protection, Yol. IY, The Delinquent Child. New York: The Century Company, 1932. 499 pp. B. PERIODICAL ARTICLES Bates, Sanford, "Unwarranted Criticism," The Phi Delta K a p p a n , 22:330-31, March, 1940. Hoover, J. Edgar, "The Task of the Teacher," Kappan, 22:329-30, March, 1940. Scudder, J. W . , "Guidance vs. Delinquency," Method, 15:97, November, 1940. The Phi Delta Educational 113 C. BULLETINS "Crime Prevention Through Education/1 National Education Association Research Bulletin, Yol, X, Number 4, Sep tember, 1932. D. UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS Abbott, J. L . , "An Analysis of 3,000 Cases of Discipline in a Junior High School." Unpublished Master1s thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1934. 67 pp. Allen, Eugene Clyde, "An Educational and Sociological Delin quency Factor Survey of the Los Angeles Boys Welfare Center." Unpublished Master*s thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1937. 104 pp. Cheney, W. L. , "A Comparison of Mental and Physical Ability of Delinquent Boys Assigned to Special Schools." U n published Master*s thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1934* H 4 PP* Dahl, Yirginia D. , "G-eographical Concentration of Juvenile Delinquency in Los Angeles County." Unpublished Master’s thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1932. 91 pp. Gordon, Edmond David, "Problem Boys in the Special Schools of Los Angeles." Unpublished Master’s thesis, The Uni versity of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1936. Katshy, M. J . , "How to Handle Incorrigible Boys in a Special School." Unpublished Master’s thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1930. 100 pp. Maxwell, William Calvin, "An Investigation of Boy Delinquency in Long Beach, California, and its Implications for the Public Schools." Unpublished Master’s thesis, The Uni versity of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1935. 346 pp. Pagliassotti, Louis Frank, "A Comparison of Problem Boys From Normal and From Broken Homes." Unpublished Master’s thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1937. 76 pp. 114 Paine, Arthur Elijah, "The Relationship and Treatment of Truancy and Delinquency." Unpublished D o c t o r s disser tation, The University of Southern California, L'os Angeles, 1939. 357 pp. Perry, Glenn Edwin, "Juvenile Delinquency in the Junior and Senior High Schools of Los Angeles; Its Prevalence, Mani festations and Causes." Unpublished Master*s thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1937. 75 PP. Skinner, Kenneth Ray, "A Survey of the Prevention of Crime Through Juvenile Summer Camps for Underprivileged Boys." Unpublished Master’s thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1939. 137 pp. Thomas, Charles William, "An Investigation of the Factors Associated with School Delinquency Among Boys in a Junior High School." Unpublished Master’s thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1940.