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A personnel survey of the student body of the Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte high school, Monrovia, California

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A PERSONNEL SURVEY OF THE STUDENT BODY OF
THE MONROVIA^ARCADIA-DUARTE HIGH
.SCHOOL, MONROVIA, CALIFORNIA
A Thesis
Presented to
The Faculty of the School of Education
University of Southern California
In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Master of Science in Education
fey
Ruth E. Foreman
May 1941
UMI Number: EP54015
All rights reserved
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T h is thesis, w r i t t e n u n d e r the d ir e c t io n o f t h e ^ > ^ &
C h a ir m a n o f the c a nd id a te Js G u id a n c e C o m m itte e
a n d a p p ro v e d by a l l m embers o f the C o m m itte e ,
has been presented to a nd accepted by the F a c u l t y
o f the S c h o o l o f E d u c a t io n in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t
o f the re q u ire m e n ts f o r the degree o f M a s t e r o f
S cience in E d u c a tio n .
1 .........
Guidance Com m ittee
P. J. Weersing
C hairm an
Louis P. Thorpe
D. Welty Lefever
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter
Page
I. THE NATURE AND PURPOSE OF THE INVESTIGATION............. 1
Importance of the Problem.............................. 3
Review of literature and related studies............... 4
Review of literature.................... ............. 4
Related studies................ .................. ..*.6
Sources of data and method of procedure................ 8
Sources of data....................
8
Methods of procedure........ *....... ................ .9
II. THE NATURE OF THE COMMUNITY AND THE SCHOOL
The Community.
..........11
................
12
History of relationship between community and
the school......................12
physical factors affecting community life
.15
Characteristics of the school...... *................... 18
The housing situation................................ 18
Organization and teaching personnel.............
19
Attendance. ;........................................ 21
Socio-economic background of pupils...................22
Summary.*...... •••••••••••
III. THE PLACEMENT AND PROGRESS OF PUPILS.........
••.82
35
Grading system......................................... 38
Enrollment by grades*............ .„........ *.......... 39
ii
Age-grade classification..................... ..••••••41
Definition of terms....... .........
41
Age-grade classification of entire school*..........44
Classification of racial groups.....................48
Summary........
52
IV. MENTAL MATURITY-OF PUPIL PERSONNEL..................
Definition of terms...........................
Plan and scope of mental testing.......
60
..61
Distribution of intelligence quotients................62
Distribution of entire school................
Distribution of racial groups
62
.................. 63
Distribution of intelligence quotients by grades
Summary......
.68
68
V. EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT OF PUPIL PERSONNEL......... ...73
Definition of terms......
..75
plan and scope of achievement testing................ 75
Educational achievement........................
77
Results in English.............
77
Results in American history..................
89
Results in French, Spanish, and Latin
........ 89
Summary...............................
.100
VI. IMPLICATIONS FOR THE CURRICULUM......................107
Definition of terms
.................
108
Curriculum objectives............................... 109
pattern of the curriculum..............
110
iii
Orientation courses......................
112
Senior problems course........ ............
117
Distribution by major courses..............
.121
Distribution of entire school..........
.121
Distribution by racial groups
.121
............
Mental ability classification of major course groups..125
Summary...............
130
VII. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS........... 3-34
Summary of findings
............................134
Statement of problem......
...134
The nature of the community and the school......... 135
The placement and progress of pupils................136
The mental maturity of pupil personnel............. 137
The educational achievement of pupil personnel..
Implications for the curriculum..........
Conclusions ........
Recommendations
138
.....138
139
......
BIBLIOGRAPHY...............................
140
143
LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE
PAGE
1. Race distribution.
Entire School, October, 1939...... 25
2. Enrollment by Grades, October, 1959................... 42
3. Age-Grade Classification, By Separate Grades, October,
1959............ ........
..............
47
4. Distribution of I.Q. Among Negro Pupils, October,1939.66
5. Distribution of I.Q. Among Mexican Pupils, October,
1939................................................ 67
6. Distribution of I.Q. Among Japanese Pupils, October,
1939......................................... ....70
7. Distribution of Percentile Sank Scores in Cross English
Tests.
Entering 9-B Pupils, September 1939......... 80
8. Median Percentile Rank of 9-B English Classes in Sep­
tember r(Cross English Test, 1932 to 1940).... ....81
9. Median Percentile Rank Scores of Entering 9-B Classes
in English (Cross English Test.
February Classes,
1935-1940).......................................... 82
10. Distribution of Percentile Rank Scores in Cross English
Test.
9-A Classes, May, 1940....................... 83
11. Improvement of Freshman Boys and Girls in English, as
Shown by Median Percentile Rank in Cross English Test
At Beginning and End of Year.
1939-1940.................
End-Year Class,
.....84
V
12. Distribution of Percentile Rank on Cross English Test
Given to Senior 12-B Class.
September, 1939....... 86
13. Distribution of Percentile Ranh Scores in Cross
English Test.
12-A Class, May, 1940...... ..........87
14. Improvement of Senior Boys and Girls in English, as
Shown by Median Percentile Rank in Cross English
Test at Beginning and at End of Year.
1939-1940....88
15. Median Scores in Columbia Research Bureau American
History Test.
1933-1940...............
91
16. Median Scores in Columbia Research Bureau French
Test.
French 1-AClasses.
1933-1940.......
92
17. Median Scores in Columbia Research Bureau French
Test.
French 2-A
Classes.
1933-1940.............93
18. Median Scores of Spanish 1-A Classes in Columbia
Research Bureau
Spanish Test. 1933-1940........... 97
19. Median Scores of Spanish 2-B Classes in Columbia
Research Bureau
Spanish Test. 1933-1940........... 98
20. Median Scores of Spanish 2-A Classes in Columbia
Research Bureau
Spanish Test. 1933-1940........... 99
21. Median Scores of Latin 1-A Classes in White Latin
Test.
1933-1940...................
102
22. Median Scores of Latin 2-A Classes in White Latin
Test.
1933-1940..................
.103
23. Median Scores of Latin 2-B Classes in White Latin
Test.
1933-1940....................
104
vi
24.
Enrollment by Major Courses.
1939............
25.
Entire School, October,
..............
Trend of Enrollment by Major Courses.
122
Entire School.
1929-1939........................................ 123
26.
Distribution of Major Courses by Racial Grouping.
October, 1939.................................... 127
27.
Mental Ability Classification of Major Course
Groups, October, .1939......................
28.
Median I.Q. of Pupils by Grades.
October,
1939............
29.
128
129
Distribution of Major Courses in Each of the Mental
Ability Groups, October, 1939.....................132
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE
PAGE
I. Attendance Report, October 1, 1959................... S3
la. Race Distribution, 1931 to 1940, October Data....... S4
II. Provisional Level of Socio-Economic Status from
Sims Score Cards........................
27
III. Classification of Occupations According to Sims
Socio-Economic Scale ...............
29
IV. Median Rating in Sims Socio-Economic Scale.......... 31
V. Enrollment by Grades, October, 1939.................. 40
VI. Normal Progress in Earning of Credits for High
School Graduation............
43
VII. Age-Grade Distribution, October, 1939.............. 46
VIII. Age-Grade Distribution of Japanese Pupils, October,
1939........................
49
IX. Age-Grade Progress of Japanese Pupils, October, 1939.50
X. Age-Grade Distribution of Negro Pupils, October, 1939.51
XI. Age-Grade Status of Negro Pupils, October, 1939..... 53
XII. Age-Grade Distribution of Mexican Pupils, October,
1939..........................
54
XIII. Age-Grade Progress of Mexican Pupils, October,
1939................................................ 55
XlVa. Classification of Intelligence Quotients According
to the Terman Scale.......................
64
v iii
XIV. Classification of Intelligence Quotients of Racial
Groups
....
65
XV. Distribution of I.Q. by Grades, October, 1939....... 69
XVI. Results of the Cross Test in English Given to Ninth
Grade Pupils..........
....79
XVII. Results of the Cross Test in English Given to
Twelfth Grade Pupils ....
85
XVIII. Results of the Columbia Research Bureau Test in
American History, Form A . .................
90
XIX. Results of the Columbia Research Bureau Test in
French, Form A ........
95
XX. Results of the Columbia Research Bureau Test in
Spanish, Form A. •••••••••••••••.......
96
XXI. Results of the White Latin Test................... 101
XXII. Trend of Enrollment in Courses, in Percentage.... 124
XXIII. Major Course Distribution of Racial Groups...... 126
XXIV. Distribution of Terman I.Q. By Major Courses..... 131
CHAPTER I
THE PURPOSE AND NATURE OF THE INVESTIGATION
The American schools have been from their beginning
greatly influenced by democratic ideals and they stand today
as an expression of the faith of democracy in education.
The common acceptance, in American thinking, of the equality
of opportunity and the necessity for equivalent facilities
for training in order that the welfare of the democracy
might be preserved set a pattern for growth which has expan­
ded immeasurably the scope, forms, and functions of our
schools.
The last few years have seen a rapid extension of
free public education from the nursery school to the univer­
sity and a marked characteristic of the growth has been the
enormous increase during the last twenty-five years in the
percentage of boys and girls of high school age who attend
secondary schools.
With this increase has come, as one of the most
absorbing problems of modern education, the question of the
adaptation of the high school to the pupil and of the pupil
to the school.
These large numbers of -pupils have greatly
varied interests, abilities, and vocational outlooks; and it
is to the detriment of education as it is now developed that
it does not do more to adapt the curriculum to these diverse
2
needs.
In order to obtain a better knowledge of each pupil’s
needs and of those of the school as a whole, investigators
have discovered the value of making a study of data pertinent
to each individual case.
When these data are available and
are brought together frequently and analyzed critically, it
becomes more possible to adjust the school to meet the needs
of the individual pupils rather than adjusting the pupils to
the school.
It was the purpose of this study, therefore, to gather
and analyze critically such data as will reveal the present
status of the pupil personnel of the Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte
High School, in order that it may be determined to what
extent this school meets the needs of the pupils, and what
further needs, as revealed by the investigation, should be
met.
It was the investigator’s purpose to organize the data,
as described in the following paragraphs, in order that they
might serve as a guide in revising the curriculum for the
ensuing year.
The materials used in this study consisted of stan­
dard tests and other records which included the records of
the mental distribution, enrollment distribution, educational
achievement, occupational desires, economic background of
pupils, and the status of the teaching personnel.
In an analysis of the pupil personnel one becomes
involved in a study of the factors of age-grade placement,
3
distribution of major courses, enrollment according to
grades and courses, and achievement of pupils.
Numbers of
questions arise, the answers to which are of iaiportance to
the success of teaching and administration, and to the
welfare and success of the pupil:
Were the pupils progress­
ing through the grades at the normal rate?
pupil distribution in the major courses?
What was the
Were the pupils up
to the standards in their achievement in proportion to their
mental maturity?
pupils?
What was the economic background of these
What were their vocational choices, and were they
enrolled in the course which would best help them to attain
these choices?
When the importance of answers to these questions is
seen, the general value of the careful consideration of the
problem can be understood.
In the case of this investiga­
tion there were also specific values to be gained.
IMPORTANCE OF THE PROBLEM
This survey was the result of a desire on the part of
the administration and the investigator to secure recent
data on certain phases of the educational procedures of
BConrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High School, and to secure a general
picture of the pupil personnel status in that institution.
By means of such an educational survey, the problems of the
school may be determined and a more intelligent procedure
4
for their solution may be formulated than by uninformed
experiment.
It is hoped that this investigation will reveal
the educational problems of the pupils involved, in order
that it may assist in determining future changes in the
curriculum of the school.
The primary purpose of a survey is to better con­
ditions in the locality surveyed, but as Hollis L. Caswell
says, the influence of the investigation by no means ends at
this point.
Standards and methods of measurement for admin­
istrative purposes, which are the result of surveys, have
vitally influenced all educational development.
1
The importance of the problem is further seen when
one notes the recent literature which is devoted to it.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND RELATED STUDIES
During the past ten or fifteen years, educational
procedures have experienced considerable change as a result
of the emphasis being placed on school survey work of a
pupil personnel nature.
The revelations of these surveys
have made clear the paths which the modifications and
changes had to take in order for education to give the best
service to the pupil.
Such surveys, then, are now recog-
^City School Surveys, and Interpretation and Apprais­
al. (Contributions to Education No. 358. New York: Teachers1
College, Columbia University, 1929.)
5
nized as occupying a fundamentally important place in the
scientific development of education.
About 1919, a new note, the introduction of sections
on individual differences in pupils, began to appear in the
reports on classification and progress.
By the end of the
third decade of the century this new concept was well enough
established to be competently formulated by George D. Strayer:
The schools of a democracy should offer to each pupil
those unique opportunities for acquiring shills, for
practice in precise thinking, and for growth in power of
appreciation which are attainable by one of this intelli­
gence. This ideal requires that we adjust our standards
to the abilites of our pupils. Every pupil in the ideal
school system is judged by the best which he can do and
not by the media of a non-selected group.2
This field of individualization in meeting pupil needs
is one in which most important contributions have been made
in the form of surveys.
Caswell in his interpretation and
appraisal of city school surveys has brought out clearly
that the best survey of today may be expected to consider
the problems of the classification and progress of children
in these three questions:
1) How adequately do the educational opportunities
provided meet the needs of the individual pupils?
2) Where should adjustments be made to meet the needs of
individual pupils? 3) How may these adjustments be
made continuously?^
Paxil R. Mort, The Individual Pupil, (New York:
American Book Company, 1928), Editor»s Introduction by George
D. Strayer, p. 5.
3
Caswell, op. cit.. p. 95.
6
Not only should the individual pupil be met according
to his individual needs, but the
received by the school should
whole bodyof pupil material
be developed with the degree
of efficiency practiced in the business world,
W. C. Reavis
brings this home when he states that:
Large numbers of pupils fourteen to eighteen years of
age withdraw from the secondary school each year for no
other reason than inability to become adjusted to its
procedures and purposes, when many of these might be
retained longer in school
if they could be helped to
understand themselves and
if work couldbe provided
which they could profitably do and through which they
could develop such capacities as they may p o s s e s s ,4
It is at this point of contribution to the educational
end of more desirable adjustments of the school to the
individual pupil that the present investigation orients
itself to the field of the professional literature.
Related Studies,
A number of the surveys made in
more recent years have been used as a basis for this study,
and have given excellent suggestions in both methods and
results.
The surveys studied and found useful for the
purposes of this investigation were School Housing Survey
for the Monrovia Union High School District, a special study
by Osman R, Hull and Willard S, Ford,5 and the following
theses, listed in chronological order: A Pupil Personnel
^Pupil Adjustment (New York: Heath, 1926), p, 96.
5University of Southern California, Los Angeles,
1927, 48pp.
7
Study of a Large Junior High School in Los Angeles, by Eleanor
H. Connell;6 A Survey of the Riverside Senior High School, by
Fred L. McBuen;? A Personnel Survey of the Student Body of
Central Junior High School. by James C. Reinhard;6 A Survey
of the Educational Program of Monrovia Arcadia Duarte High
School, by Glenn P. Hollingsworth;^
a
Pupil Personnel Survey
of the Escondido Union Schools. Escondido. California, by
Jens H. Hutchens;-^0 and A Pupil Personnel Survey of the
Washington School. San Diego. California, by Constance A.
Jenkins.*^
Other more comprehensive surveys, such as those
covering all phases of the school system, were of general
use in this investigation.
Of these the most beneficial
were The Pasadena School Survey. ^ The Chicago City School
^Unpublished Master’s Thesis, University of Southern
California, Los Angeles, 1935, 161 pp.
^Unpublished Master’s Thesis, University of Southern
California, Los Angeles, 1933, 156 pp.
^Unpublished Master’s Thesis, University of Southern
California, Los Angeles, 1935, 161 pp.
^Unpublished Master’s Thesis, University of Southern
California, Los Angeles, 1938, 221 pp.
^Unpublished Master’s Thesis, University of Southern
California, Los Angeles, 1939, 112 pp.
^Unpublished Master’s Thesis, University of Southern
California,'Los Angeles, 1939, 154 pp.
^California Tax Payers Association, Survey of the
Pasadena City Schools (Los Angeles: California Tax Payers’
Association Inc., 1931), Association Report No. 119, 331 pp.
8
Survey,-*-5 The Survey of the Los Angeles City School by Hull
and Ford,i4 and the Survey Report of the Cincinnati Public
Schools.-*-5
SOURCES OF DATA AND METHOD OF PROCEDURE
Sources of data.
The data for this study were
collected by the investigator while inactual contact with
the school involved.
They were obtained from the following
sources: 1) enrollment cards, permanent record cards, and
personal cards on file in the offices; 2) results from
personal questionnaires, concerning training and experience,
from each teacher and from the files in the superintendents
office in the high school; 3) results of the tabulation of
intelligence and achievement tests given by the Research
Department of the Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High School.
The technique used in the survey was one that has
been, in general principle, employed in scores of previous
cases; it differs, however, in that every educational system
presents its own individual problems and situations, to
■^George D. Strayer, Report of the Survey of the
Schools of Chicago (New York: Columbia Teachers1 College,
1932), 5 vols.
14?Osman R. Hull and Willard S. Ford, Survey of the
Los Angeles City School (Los Angeles City School District,
1934), 395 "pp.
^United States Office of Education, Survey Report
of the Cincinnati Public Schools (Cincinnati Bureau of
Government Research, 1935), 476'pp.
9
which no procedure that has been strictly standardized is
applicable.
Method of Procedure.
In presenting the results of
the survey, the study has been divided into seven chapters,
of which the general contents are here described.
In Chapter I, the investigator states the problem,
giving a review of the literature in the professional field
as well as that which has been directly useful as related
to this study, and a concise statement concerning the source
of the data used in this investigation.
The next chapter includes a brief description of the
community for the purpose of giving to the reader an idea of
the community background of the school.
This chapter, also,
contains an explanation of the local school organization,
including a review of the housing situation, the training
end experience of the teaching staff, and the enrollment of
the school.
The third step in the survey wras to give, in Chapter
III, an insight into the grading system of the school, and
the relation of the pupilsT ages to their grade placement,
in order to point out the number and per cent of the pupils
who were of normal age, over age, and under age for their
grade.
This section included a review of enrollment by
grades.
Chapter IV surveyed the mental ability of the pupil
10
personnel, with tables showing the distribution of I.Q.»s,
within the school as a whole, among the racial groups, and
in the grades.
Psychological testing here indicated the
place of the pupils at the time of testing, and the point of
departure for further individualized study.
The investigation of educational achievement, in
Chapter V, attempted to determine, by means of achievement
tests, the ability of £he pupils in English, American History,
and languages.
In this section, the purpose was to determine
whether the pupils were retarded, accelerated, on normal,
according to the standard norms given.
The curriculum objectives of the school were related
in Chapter VI, emphasizing the points at which the curriculum
is especially adapted to the individual needs of the pupils,
and suggesting the places at which further adaptation is
needed, and what form it might take.
Tables concerning the
major course distribution show the situation in the school
as a whole, among the racial groups, and by mental ability
classification.
The summary occupies Chapter VII, with recommendations
in respect to the findings of the survey.
The study is
completed Tfith a selected, annotated bibliography.
CHAPTER II
THE NATURE OF THE COMMUNITY AND THE SCHOOL
In order* to make possible a fuller under standing of
the phases of study brought out in this investigation, an
insight into the nature of the school and the community
under investigation is necessary.
The research on which
this chapter is based, therefore, has been concerned with
the general nature of the community, its relation to the
school, and a general survey of the physical setup, organi­
zation, and personnel of the school in question.
This
general vie?/ of the community and school has been given with
special reference to its bearing upon the subsequent chapters.
The increasing emphasis upon the importance of
relations between school and community promises to become:-a
major development in American education.
Since the chief
aim of educators has changed from the teaching of certain
specified subject-matter to the new ideal of understanding
and serving the special needs of the child, the study of the
relationships between school and community have become
increasingly important.
As Cyr explains it,
The immediate community in ?/hich the child lives
usually constitutes his chief environment, physical and
social. The modern teacher needs to study the educa­
tional implications of this community environment just
12
as he needs to study the childfs physical and psychologi­
cal characteristics. An understanding of the individual
community is as important as an understanding of the
individual child. This twofold problem of education in
a democracy has focussed attention upon the necessity for
developing and maintaining closer and more effective
relationships between school and community.
It is impossible to serve the needs of the child with­
out understanding those needs, and it is impossible to under­
stand the child and estimate his needs without understanding
his environment.
It seemed pertinent to the investigator,
therefore, to give a concise survey of the nature of the
community before giving that of the school, in order to gain
a better knowledge and understanding of the school which has
grown out of the district.
THE COMMUNITY
History of the relationship between the community and
the school.
In 1932 there was a great deal of opposition
among certain members of the community to the prevailing tax
rate.
The objection was led by a small group of taxpayers
and aided by a semi-weekly newspaper.
Few' of those in
opposition had children in school; on the other hand, how­
ever, the parents of the school population did not come to
the defense of the school, and most citizens, as well as the
one daily newspaper published in the district, maintained a
^Frank W. Cyr, An Introduction to Modern Education
(New York: Heath, 193777 p. 80.
13
more or less neutral attitude.
The positive objections of this one section of the
community, unchecked by any counter movement, naturally had
its effect on the teachers of the whole area.
The high
school instructors, through committees, suggested economies
which resulted in substantial savings for the district.
In
addition, salaries of all teachers were reduced twelve per
cent in 1932—33.
During this period of opposition, as records show, the
district was able to support its schools.
As compared with
the legal tax-rate limit of seventy-five cents for each
hundred dollars assessed valuation, which was reached in
1929, the 1936-37 tax rate was sixty-four cents.
In the
same year the assessed valuation was $15,851,495, with an
average daily attendance of 1073 pupils.
In 1939-40, the situation was evenbetter,
with an
assessed valuation for the district of $19,660,845, a tax
rate of .6407, and an average daily ‘
attendance of 1248.
In
the same year the teachers* salaries, which had been restored
seven per cent in 1936-37, were raised the remaining five per
cent to the 1932 level.
These facts show, therefore, that
the community was well able to support its schools.
There is, however, another point of discussion
regarding the financing of the school.
This is the fact that
of the total assessed valuation taxed for 1939-40, $10,191,045
14
of it, or 51 per cent, appertained to Arcadia,
This means
that Arcadia, with 39,6 per cent of the school population,
contributed more money per pupil per year than either of the
other two communities involved.
Such a condition explains
the growing feeling during the last few years that Arcadia
would be able to support its own high school.
The strength
of the movement has been limited by the results of test cases
in similar districts, as for example in San Marino, which
seceded from South Pasadena High School without accomplishing
the purpose of acquiring better facilities and increased
efficiency.
There is a plan proposed, however, whereby
Arcadia will have its own junior high school.2
On the ?»rhole, however, the feeling in the community
toward the school, and vice versa, has been very healthy.
Hollingsworth, in his survey of the same school district in
1938, made the following suggestion:
In order to combat the lethargic attitude toward the
schools on the part of the community, it is recommended
that a definite program be instituted by the high school
for the purpose of cultivating the friendship of the
community.^
Since that time such a program has been definitely
2This plan is described further in the section on the
housing situation, p. 18 below.
3Glenn P. Hollingsworth, A Survey of the Educational
Program of Monrovia Arcadia Duarte High School (Unpublished
Master’s Thesis, University of Southern California, Los
Angeles, 1938), pp. 19-20.
15
organized to bring about a closer feeling of friendship
between the school and the community.
In the last year, for
instance, the school made extra efforts to help the ParentTeachersT Association by explaining the purpose and program of
the institution in the meetings of that organization.
School
staff members were very active in the work of the Coordinating
Council, and the staff and pupils cooperated fully in commun­
ity Christmas work.
Many assembly programs during the year
were given in cooperation with various representative portions
of the community, such as the Christmas pageant, the armistice
program, and speech contest programs sponsored by the American
Legion and the Daughters of the American Revolution.
In these
and other ways the school and community have bettered their
relationships, with the result that the school year of 1939-40
saw at its close an unprecedented friendliness of feeling.
Physical factors affecting community life.
The Monro­
via -Ircadia-Duarte Eigh School serves the foothill district
between Pasadena and Azusa.
The Sierra Madre Mountains form
a natural boundary to the north, and the San Gabriel River
bounds the east and south.
The three communities comprising this high school
district are all interesting, but very different in type.
None of these three communities has any particular industrial
interest.
Arcadia has a very small weaving mill, and a lemon
and orange cannery.
Monrovia has a small textile factory and
16
two hot-water-heater factories; Duarte has two citrus
packing houses.
Monrovia, the largest of the three coimnunities, with
a population of over twelve thousand, lies between the other
two.
The population of Monrovia consists of a large number
of professional and working people, with a considerable
number of well-to-do persons who have retired.
There are
also many invalids and convalescents in the city, as the
climate of the area is considered beneficial to those suffer­
ing from lung trouble.
There is a comparatively large negro
population, practically all of which is centered in the south­
east section of the city.
Arcadia, situated west of Monrovia, covers an area in
which over nine thousand persons live.
In the last ten years,
the population has increased seventy-four per cent.
Except
for a few families living in the new homes located near Foot­
hill Boulevard, Arcadia has few wealthy people.
The average
resident is of modest means, lives in a five-room house, and
has a few fruit trees and some chickens.
He commutes to Los
Angeles daily, and usually works in a bank, office, or store.
The famous ”Lucky Baldwin” Ranch covers a large area
in the north-west portion of the city, and part of this
historic old ranch has been recently subdivided into large
lots, on which some beautiful homes have been built within
the last two years.
In 1939, nearly two million dollars
were invested in new buildings, which indicates the rapid
17
growth which Arcadia is experiencing.
All of this growth
heconies increasingly significant to school authorities, not
only in regard to the housing situation, but also in reference
to the feasibility of establishing an Arcadia high school or
junior college on the present high school site.
Duarte lies between the east limit of Monrovia and the
San Gabriel River.
It is a rural community, given over mainly
to the growing of oranges.
Most of its white population,
numbering about two thousand persons, is to be found living
on small privately-owned groves.
The negro settlement in
Duarte is an outgrowth of the several negro families which
E. J. "Lucky” Baldwin imported many years ago for the purpose
of caring for his horses and serving as domestics in his home.
These colored people, now numbering about three hundred, work
in orange groves, or as janitors, domestics, or chauffeurs.
A number of them also find employment at the Santa Anita Race
Track in Arcadia.
Thus, the Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High School serves
a population of approximately twenty-four thousand persons,
scattered over a considerable area, and with no definite
industrial background.
With such an increase of population
as is indicated in Arcadia alone, and no definitive industri­
al setup, a close study of the economic background is
demanded.
With a population of such varied character, such
a study would have great significance in the efforts of the
18
school administration to set up a school program conforming
to the needs of the pupils.
THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SCHOOL
The housing situation.
A thorough study of the
housing situation made hy Osman R. Hull and Willard S. Ford
in 1927 revealed the trends in population growth and the
need for new buildings for adequate housing of the high
school.
The recommendations of this survey were closely
followed by the school board: a new site was purchased near
the predicted center of population, and upon it was erected
a splendid set of buildings, valued at $500,000.
-Enrollment has increased considerably since the above
survey was made, however, and the present buildings are
outgrown.
Originally built to house one thousand pupils,
the school plant now out of necessity serves over 1200.
In order to meet the needs caused by this rapid
growth, two junior high schools are being planned, one for
Monrovia, and one for Arcadia.
The present plant will be
left as a senior high school and possibly as a junior
college.
With these changes, the buildings will be adequate
for some years to come.
40sman R. Hull and Willard S. Ford, School Housing
Survey of the Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High School District
(Los Angeles: The University of Southern California, 1927.)
19
Even more important than the housing facilities, of
course, are the school organization and teaching personnel,
which are housed in the school plant, for it is their duty
and effort to see that the needs of the pupils are met.
Organization and teaching personnel.
The Monrovia-
Arcadia-Duarte High School is a four-year high school of
approximately 1245 pupils, with a course of study which is
primarily academic.
There are shop courses of various kinds
for the hoys, home economics courses for the girls, and the
regular commercial subjects for both; there are, however, no
vocational courses.
The explanation for this condition can
be found in the fact that (as shown in Table XXII below)
fifty per cent of the pupils enrolled took college prepara­
tory majors, with almost twenty per cent more enrolled in
the commercial major.
The personnel of the Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High
School for the year 1939-40 consisted of a principal, vice­
principal, dean of girls, dean of boys, attendance super­
visor, librarian, assistant librarian, and fifty-two teachers.
The principal served the board of trustees and the faculty as
contact man with the public.
To him the trustees looked for
the determination of general policies, and for the supervision
and improvement of instruction.
He called, at frequent inter­
vals, faculty meetings in which important trends in educa­
tional philosophy and psychology were discussed.
20
The vice-principal was the curriculum director.
He
was responsible for the scheduling of classes, extra­
curricular activities, student government, some disciplinary
work among the boys, and many routine matters, such as
secretarial work for the meetings of the board of trustees.
The dean of girls handled the disciplinary cases among
the girls, advised the girls about their courses of study,
and acted, as the advisor of the Girls* League.
She also
served as advisor to the entire senior class each year, and
in this capacity counseled the pupils individually about
their courses before the beginning of their senior year.
The dean of boys handled some of the disciplinary
cases in which boys were involved, acted as advisor to the
Boys* League, and assisted in counseling the senior pupils.
The attendance supervisor was employed by the two
local elementary school districts as well as by the high
school.
His duties at the high school included the super­
vision of the attendance office where all attendance records
were kept and where matters of absence and tardiness were
adjusted.
The fifty-two teachers in the school were distributed
throughout eleven departments, of which only one, the English
Department, was organized as a distinct division, with a
recognized head.
Of the fifty-eight employees of the school district,
21
including those in administrative positions, forty-seven had
either A.B. or B.S. degrees.
Fourteen of these had M.A. de­
grees; eight were teaching under the provisions of special
credentials, each in his own field, without holding any other
degrees.
The remaining fifty teachers had general secondary
credentials, as provided for in the California state law.
The range of teaching experience of these instructors
is from one year to forty-four years.
The majority of
teaching years of any one teacher has been passed in this
high school; there is thus a very definite trend for teachers
to remain in this school after once obtaining a position in
it.
The average number of years of total experience among
these teachers is 19.01, and the average number in this par­
ticular high school is 13.94.
These figures will compare
favorably with any other California high schools of similar
size and situation.
Attendance,
As was stated earlier, the average daily
attendance at Monrovia Arcadia Duarte High School for the
year 1939-40 was 1248 pupils.
Of this total amount, 52 per
cent were from Monrovia proper, 39.6 per cent from Arcadia,
4.2 per cent from Duarte, and 4.2 per cent from outlying
districts.
At the time that the majority of the tests which
appear in this investigation were given, the total enroll­
ment for the month was 1340.
Of these pupils, 678 were boys,
22
and 662 girls (see Table I*)
Table I is an example of the
complete statements issued monthly by the attendance super­
visor, and is included in this investigation partly for the
purpose of giving a typical monthly report on the attendance
of this high school.
In addition to this distribution, another phase of
attendance was considered throughout this investigation.
This aspect was that of enrollment by races.
(See Table la,
also Figure 1.)
Socio-economic background of pupils.
It had generally
been assumed by the administrators of this high school that
the pupils, coming from the districts described in the first
part of the chapter, were from above-average homes.
For the
purpose of this investigation, however, it was felt necessary
to determine the facts.
In pursuance of this end, the inves­
tigator chose for testing a sample group from the student
body, a total of 100 pupils chosen by pulling the name of
every twelfth pupil from the master file in the office of
the registrar.
The Sims Score Card for Socio-Economic
Status, Form C, was administered, in a group test, to each of
these pupils
Since the range of age of high school pupils
is from 14 to 18 years, it was felt that these pupils, with
an average age of 16.16 years, were representative.
^Verner M. Sims, Sims Score Card for Socio-Economic
Status (Public School Publishing Co.: Bloomington, 111.,1927).
TABLE I
ATTENDANCE REPORT, OCTOBER 18, 1939
MONROVIA ARCADIA DUARTE HIGH SCHOOL*
CLASS
ENROLMENT
Boys
Girls
12A
12B
Total
19
92
HI
24
65
89
43
157
200
25
114*20
139,20
35.90
84.05
119.95
350
1694.80
2044.80
441.10 17.50
1187.95 84.74
1629.05 102.24
22.05 93.33
59.40 93.69
81.45 93.63.
92.49
93.32
93,1<|
11A
11B
Total
69
108
177
55
117
172
124
225
349
86
■105*35
191.35
123.10
159.25
282.35
1258
2001.65
3529 *65
940*90 62*90
2120.75 100.08
3259*65 162*98
47.05 93.60
106.03 95
153.08 94.46
88.42
93.02
91.56
10A
10B
Total
57
118
175
62
121
183
119
239
358
82*95
88
170*95
123*65
103 *80
227.45
1056*05
2177
3233.05
1089*35 52*80
2226*20 108*85
3315.55 161.65
89.81
54.47 92.72
111.31 96*11
95.55
165.78 94.98 .93.58
9A
9B
64
145
62
149
126
294
80*60
109.25
84.80
123.40
1177*40
2732.75
1146.20 58.87
2765.60 136.64
57.31 93*59
138*28 96.16
93*11
95*73
Total
209
211
420
189.85
208.20
3910.15
3911*80 195.51
159*59 95.37
94.95
6
7
13
9*30
13.55
80*20
678
662
1340
700.65
?.G.»s &
Specials
irand
Total
TOTAL
ENROLLMENT
DAIS ABSENT
DAIS PRESENT
Girls
Boys
Girls Boys
A. D. A.
PER CENT
Boys
Girls
Girls Boys
r
4*01
4*85 89.61
88.54
851.50 12527.85 12015,05 626.39
600.75 94.70
93.38
97
This table should be read as follows: There were 69 boys and 35 girls enrolled in the 11A class,
a total of 124 pupils; the boys were absent a total of 86 days, the girls, a total of 123*10 days; the
boys were present a total of 1258 days, the girls, 940*90, making an average daily attendance of 62*90
days, or 93*60 per cent, for the boys; and 47*05 days, or 88*43 per cent, for the girls.
24
TABLE la
SAGE DISTRIBUTION, 1931 to 1940
OCTOBER DATA
Year
White
No*
$
Negro
No.
$
Japanese
No*
$
Mexican
No.
$
Total
No.
1940
1335
91.2
58
4*0
29
2.0
42
2.8
1464
1939
1232
91.6
53
4*0
35
2.6
24
1.8
1344
1938
1198
92*4
39
3*0
36
2*8
23
1.8
1296
1937
1124
92*7
35
2*9
40
3.3
13
1.1
1212
1936
1039
92*2
39
3*5
33
2*9
16
1.4
1127
1935
1019
92*2
41
3*7
28
2*5
17
1.6
1105
1934
998
92*9
33
3*1
23
2*1
20
1*9
1074
1933
939
94*9
21
2a
22
2*2
8
0*8
990
1932
952
94*7
32
3*2
16
1*6
5
0.5
1005
1931
886
94.5
32
3*4
14
1*5
a
0*6
938
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: In 1934, out of a
total of 1074 pupils, 998 or 92*9$ were white, 33 or 3*1$ Negro, etc*
FIGURE 1
RACE DISTRIBUTION.
ENTIRE SCHOOL, OCTOBER, 1939
86
In order to understand and determine the significance
of the test in relation to this investigation, an interpre­
tation of the test must be given.
The word nStatus” in the
title of the test suggests relative position; it is well to
recognize the fact that the condition being measured is
usually of significance in connection with the group within
which the child lives.
The questions asked may not have
like significance in different communities.
In order to
determine, however, what was high, average, or low, it was
necessary to present a typical distribution of scores.
For
this purpose, the percentile rank and descriptive interpre­
tation as based on various possible scores are given in
tabulated form in Table II.
These percentiles were based
upon scores from a fairly unselected group of 686 sixth,
seventh, and eighth grade children from the schools of Hew
Haven, Connecticut; these scores are listed by the authors
of the test manual, with this caution:
Users of this Manual will understand that these
percentiles and interpretations relate to conditions
at Hew Haven; they should be considered as merely
provisionally applicable elsewhere.6
With this theory of interpretation in mind, then, the
investigator attempted to extract the full significance of
this test from the results derived from the examination of
the typical portion of the group studied.
6Sims, op. cit.. p. 11.
It was generally
27
TABLE II
PROVISIONAL LEVEL OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS PROM
SIMS SCORE CARDS.
Score
56
29,2
24,5
17.6
13.2
10
7.5
5.1
3.2
1.8
0.0
Corresponding
percentile
Suggested
rating
94.5
88.5
78.8
65,5
50
34.5
21,2
12.5
5.5
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Corresponding level
of spcio-econ. statue
Indeterminately high
Highest
Very high
High
Medium high.
Medium
Medium low
Low
Very low
Lowest
Indeterminately low
The table should be read as follows: A score of 17.6 on the Sims Score
Card for Socio-Economic Status (or 78.8 per cent) represents a "high”
level of socio-economic status (according to the figures presented by
testing a group at New Haven, Connecticut.) The numbers 1-10 preceding
the levels represent suggested ratings that may for convenience be used
to designate strata of homes graded, from 0 (no home at all) to 10
(theoretically perfect home,)
28
assxaiaed that, on the whole, the occupation of the father
played a very significant part in determining the standard of
living of the family.
With this in mind, the author of the
test has derived from Question 23 (which asks the pupil his
father’s occupation, ?/hether he owns part, all, or none of
his business, whether he has a title, and how many-persons
work for him), a five-fold classification of occupations.
The five groups which he sets up are as follows:
Group I. Professional men, proprietors of large
businesses, and higher executives.
Group II. Commercial services, clerical services,
large land-owners, managerial service of a lower order
than in Group I, and business proprietors employing
from five to ten men.
Group III. Artisan proprietors, petty officials,
printing trades employees, skilled laborers with some
managerial responsibility, shop owners, and business
proprietors employing one to five men.
Group IV". Skilled laborers (with exception of
printers) who work for someone else, building trades,
transportation trades, manufacturing trades involving
skilled labor, personal service. Small shop owners
doing their own work.
Group V. Unskilled laborers, common laborers,
helpers, «hands,n peddlers, varied employment, venders,
unemployed (unless it represents the leisured class of
people, or those retired.)7
The 100 cases examined at Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High
School have been classified according to the above groupings.
(See Table III.)
However, the author of the test made no
provision for the leisure or retired class, or for the cases
7Ibid.» p. 9,
29
TABLE III
CLASSIFICATION OF OCCUPATIONS
ACCORDING TO S B © SOCIO-ECONOMIC SCAIE
Group
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
Number of cases
8
88
16
28
11
12
5
Rating (author)
5
1
3
2
4
-
Rating (investi«
gator)
6
1
3
2
5
4
7
Groups VI and 711 represent, respectively, cases In which father
is deceased, and cases in which father is retired or of leisure class*
These groups have been added to the Sims listing by the investigator.
NOTE; This table should be read as follows: In the economic
group rated TV by Sims, there were among the 100 pupils rated at Monrovia
Arcadia Duarte High School 22 cases; this was second largest of the
author’s five groups, and also second largest in the investigator’s
seven groups*
50
of deceased fathers.
The investigator has added these two
additional classes, therefore, in order to clarify more
fully the actual statuses of the group.
Of the authorfs five groups, number II leads the
investigated cases in number, thus supporting the contention
that the student body as a whole has a high level.
Only six
points below Group II was Group IV, the skilled-labor group.
Following in order were Groups III, V, and I.
It should be
noted that twelve out of the hundred, a rather high percent­
age, had fathers not living.
This group, if counted as one
of the accepted segregations, would rank fourth.
A final
group could be found in those among the hundred who had
fathers in the leisure or retired class; of these there
were three.
The one hundred tests were scored on the basis
suggested by the author (see Table II).
entire group was 18.7.
The median for the
The numbers of cases falling in the
various groupings suggested by the author, from ten to zero,
are presented in Table IV.
The median rating of seven
designated a "high” level for the socio-economic background
of the total number of cases tested.
Assuming provisionally, therefore, that there is a
comparatively high correlation between the occupations of
the fathers and the final results of the descriptive level
of the homes, the results of this test served to round out
31
TABLE IV
MEDIAN RATING IN SIMS SOCIO­
ECONOMIC SCAIE
Number of
cases
0
3
14
38
18
17
5
4
1
0
0
Median rating:
Author*s suggested
rating
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
Z
1
0
7
Corresponding level of
socio-economic status
Indeterminately high
Highest
Very high
High
Medium high
Medium
Medium low
Low
Very low
Lowest
Indeterminately low
High
NOTE; This table should he read as follows; There were 14 pupils
in the class rated 8, or ”very high,” among the 100 oases tested at
Monrovia Arcadia Duarte High School*.
32
the total picture which this study has attempted to convey of
the student-body of the Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High School.
The picture seems to he that of a community fortunate in a
high general level of social conditions and economic status.
Since it is generally accepted in the educational world that
the personal background of a pupil will affect his placement
and progress, his mental maturity, and his educational
achievement, it may therefore be expected that, if this test
served as a reliable indication, the pupils of this high
school possessed a rather sound socio-economic background
upon which to proceed upon an educational career.
SUMMARY
The findings of this portion of the survey, which was
undertaken in order to serve more adequately the needs of
the child by understanding the community and school environ­
ment in which he lives, have been on the whole satisfactory.
Even during the period of the depression, the community was
well able to support its schools, as is shown by the records
of property value, assessment rates, teachers’ salaries, etc.
Although there have been differences in the past
between the school administration and the community, the
year 1939-40 showed a growing cooperative spirit between
the two, further influenced by the activities of staff and
pupils in the affairs of the' community.
Any feeling caused
33
by the fact that Arcadia, as the richer district, contributes
more money per pupil and might therefore feel entitled to a
separate school, will be partially Removed in the near future
by the construction of a proposed junior high school for
Arcadia.
The communities which the Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High
School serves have no definite industrial set-up.
The
district is characterized by small industries, citrus
growing, and ranching carried on on a small scale by those
employed regularly in stores or business.
Despite this
varied industrial character, however, the general economic
level is good, and the population has shown a marked increase
in the past few years.
Conditions in the school itself also seemed satisfac­
tory.
Though somewhat crowded at the present, the buildings
will be adequate for some years when the two proposed junior
high schools have been built.
The administrative staff
appeared adequate, and the comparatively lengthy period of
employment of the teachers in this one school showed satis­
faction and contentment among the faculty in reference to
the conditions and aims of the school.
Testing of the socio-economic level of the pupils
showed that it was comparatively high; and this indication,
plus the high assessed valuation of school-taxable property,
showed a sound economic background among the pupils and in
34
the community from which they come.
The general picture of the school and its community,
therefore, is of a cooperative interrelationship, soundly
based economically, and possessing a school plant which is
adequate and a school administration snd faculty which are
confident and progressive.
Thus a good basis is assured
for aid to the pupils and general progress in methods,
ideas, and practices.
CHAPTER III
THE PLACEMENT AND PROGRESS OF PUPILS
The function of this third division of the study is
three fold.
In the first place, it presents and evaluates
to a degree the grading end failure policies of the Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High School.
Secondly, it gives the
total enrollment of the school by grades.
Lastly, it offers
a classification of pupils made on the basis of age-grade
studies, and an examination of the amount of acceleration
and retardation found in this high school.
A study of the placement and progress of pupils has
many values.
It reveals the amounts of acceleration,
normality, and retardation, thus indicating the rate of
pupil progress.
It provides a means of making a check on
the grading and failure policies of the school.
More
important than the mere presentation of statistical data is
the opportunity which such a study affords to determine in
part the degree to which the course of study is fulfilling
its purpose: for the larger the proportion of normal age
pupils in a school, the better the curriculum is accomo­
dating itself to the pupil needs.
It is the final purpose of this chapter to determine
and analyze the classification and progress of the pupils,
36
and to compare the progress of the racial groups with the
white group in order to determine the extent of maladjust­
ment of the more foreign group.
GRADING SYSTEM
The question of the value of teachers1 grades has
been a fertile source of discussion for many years, chiefly
because of the great lack of uniformity in the meaning of
grades.
Since the prevailing diversity among teachers in
the interpretation of grades is a result of natural human
differences rather than-.of any remediable lack of standardi­
zation, there is not much hope that the problem will ever
be completely solved.
The many different systems of grading
which have been tried in an effort to overcome this diffi­
culty to some degree have all sooner or later been abandoned.
Attempts have been made to do away with grades
altogether, but this has not proved to be satisfactory.
In
the first place, in every teaching situation, the instructor
is inevitably'making an evaluation of the pupil»s work,
judging this pupil every time he makes a contribution,
whether oral or written.
Moreover, on the secondary level
it is necessary to provide a transcript of record to the
college or university chosen by the high school graduate;
and in California, as in many other states, this transcript
must be made out with certain specified letter-grades.
37
The system of grading which prevails in the MonroviaArcadia-Duarte High School is that which is practiced in
most secondary schools in California.
passing grades, 4 , B, C,- and D.
It includes four
The letter F is used to
indicate failing work, and the abbreviation Inc. shows that
the grade has been withheld until certain work is completed.
The grades A and B are college-recommending marks, C is
average, and D indicates work that is barely passing.
The
teachers in this high school are familiar with the different
ideas and curves used in distributing grades in some school
systems.
However, conformity to any of these systems is
wholly optional, since the school has never had any definite
policy along that line.
A survey of the school’s grading system recently made
by Glenn P. Hollingsworth gives some valuable facts concern­
ing the particular conditions which obtain at the HonroviaArcadia-Duarte High School.
According to this study,
The marks given in Monrovia High School for the year
1S36-37 showed a decided variability as given by individ­
ual teachers and by departments. The school averages of
distribution also varied from the normal curve. The
Dramatics, Home Economics, and Mechanical Arts Depart­
ments had very high percentages of college recommending
grades, and extremely low percentages of failures,
there being no F ’s in some of the courses....Of the
academic departments, the most college recommending
grades were given in the Mathematics Department, and
the fewest in the English Department. The school as a
whole was very high in college recommending grades,
have had almost twice as many as was provided for in
the Missouri plan....A study of I.Q.’s and achievement
ratings of all pupils receiving grades of "A” or TTF !T
38
<
in the fields covered by the testing program seemed to
indicate that the teachers were justified in assigning
those grades for the semester.^
Any school system, of course, will find that its
results vary from normal expectations.
For example, it is
generally accepted that a child will enter the freshman year
of high school at the age of fourteen and complete the
i
senior year at the age of eighteen; yet there are frequent
divergences from this average.
The causes for such variances
from the normal may be very difficult to discover.
When a
child fails, there has been a maladjustment of some type;
but it may be any one or a combination of several of the
following: (l) irregular attendance, (2) mental incapacity
or inability, (3) illness, (4) effect of out-of-school
environment, or (5) lack of effort.
The percentage of
failure offers a real challenge to the school, because the
trend in this percentage indicates the efficiency with
which the institution is handling its pupils.
As far as failure is concerned, it is the individual
that is the important thing: any system of grading which is
employed should enable each child to make the best possible
use of his time and aptitudes.
With this in mind, it has
been the aim of the Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High School to
^Glenn P. Hollingsworth, A Survey of the Education
program of Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High School (Unpublished
Master’s Thsis, University of Southern California, Los
Angeles, 1938), pp. 148-9.
59
maintain a school able to adjust itself to the needs and
abilities of all its various types of pupils, in such a
manner as to allow continuous progress.
The fact that
pupils may still be failed indicates that the aim has not
yet been fully realized.
Although this is true, and although
the elimination of failure is of course the dream-ideal of
every administrator who does not foster a complete non­
failure program, it is still the true hope of the MonroviaArcadia-Duarte administration so to adjust pupils, through
the classroom and extra-curricular work, that the failures
will not be necessary.
The year 1939-40 saw great strides being made in the
direction of this aim, the number of failures being reduced
to a considerable degree.
This result was due, this investi­
gator believes, to a far more efficient system of counseling
than has been in existence previous to this year.
ENROLLMENT BY GRADES
Enrollment by grades for the Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte
High School in October, 1939, is given in Table V.
The
total enrollment is shown, as well as the enrollment of boys
and girls separately.
The range of separate grades was from forty-four in
grade 12-A to two hundred ninety-four in grade 9-B.
The 9-B
enrollment is the largest ever recorded for any grade in the
40
TABLE Y
ENROLLMENT BY GRADES IN THE MONROVIA ARCADIA
DUARTE HICK SCHOOL,.OCTOBER, 1939
Grade * 9-B
9-A
10-B
10-A
IIS
11A
12-B
P*G«&Sp«
Total
Boys
145
62
116
61
105
70
93
21
6
679
Girls
149
61
124
61
115
57
67
23
8
665
Both
294
123
240
122
220
127
160
44
14
1344
history of the school*
The enrollment in this year of
grades nine and ten approximates that of the entire school
in 1927*
(See also Figure 2, which gives in graphic form
the same material which is tabulated in Table V.)
AGE-GRADE CLASSIFICATION
Definition of terms *
Normal progress, for the
purpose of this study, consists of the earning by the pupil
of a number of credits sufficient to gain him promotion to
the next grade.
Table IV explains in tabulated form the
course of normal progress.
The credits earned in each
semester are indicated cumulatively, and the totals earned
in each year are separately listed.
Credit for ten semester hours is given in every
course that meets for an hour a day for five days of each
week of the school year.
Any subject requiring less
meetings received credit in proportion.
Progress is considered rapid if it takes a pupil less
than the normal school year to complete the credits indi­
cated in Table VI.
If a pupil enters a grade when his age
is less than that stated as normal, he is termed under age.
Slow progress occurs when a pupil takes longer than
the indicated time to complete the required number of
credits for the year’s work, thus taking more than four
years to finish high school.
Such a pupil would be older
42
No# of Pupils
300 “
250
200
150
100
50
—
294
123
240
122
9-B
9-A
10-B
10-A
220
127
160
11-B
11-A
12-B
FIGURE 2
ENROLLMENT BY GRADES, OCTOBER, 1939
12-A
P.G# and
Special
43
TABLE 71
NORMAL PROGRESS IN EARNING OF CREDITS
FOR HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION
Academic
credits
Phys. ed*
credits
9-A
15
5
10-B
35
10
10-A
55
15
11-B
75
20
11—A
95
25
12-B
115
30
12-A
135
35
(At graduation)
160
40
Grade of student
Sensster hours credit far graduation:
Total credits at
end of each year
45
50
50
55
200
NOTE: This table should be read as ft?Hows: By the time he
has reached grade 12-B, the normally-progressing pupil has to his
credit 115 academic orsdits and 30 physical education credits,
having earned 50 of those doling the preceding year*
44
than the normal one upon graduation, and would be termed
over age.
Age-grade classification of entire school.
The
graded school system had been in operation almost fifty
years before any serious consideration was given to its
effect on pupil progress.
Finally, a few of the leading
city administrators began to question existing conditions;
the result was the development of devices for ascertaining
and presenting in concrete fashion the data on pupil
progress.
It is now generally- recognized that such instru­
ments are of great value, even invaluable, to the teacher
and administrator.
As one authority has stated, "Statistics
showing pupil placement in and progress through school with
relevant data are essential to the successful administration
of a modern school system."2
The first device employed in the local survey was the
age-grade table.
Fundamentally, this table merely indicates
the general situation with respect to the ages and grades of
the pupils.
Included are the actual numbers of pupils who
are under age, of normal age, or over age for their respec­
tive grades.
Early or late entrance, illness, absence, or
failure are among the causes of deviation from the normal
^David T. Blose, An Age-grade Study of 7652 Elemen­
tary Pupils in 45 Consolidated Schools Toffice of Education
Bulletin No. 19, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington
D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1930), p. 1.
45
age-grade situation.
It should he kept in mind that the
quality of being over age does not always imply slow pro­
gress and failure,nor is the under age pupil necessarily
a performer of exceptionally
praiseworthy school work.
1\
In Table VII, the numbers enclosed within the red
lines indicate the number of pupils in the entire school
who were of normal age for their grades.
The numbers above
the red lines signify the number of pupils who were under
age for their grades; and the numbers below the lines, those
who were over age.
A summary of the number and the per cent
of the pupils in each grade who were normal, accelerated or
under age, and retarded or over age is given at the bottom
of the table.
(See also Figure 3.)
In terms of age progress by grades, the situation in
the Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High School is favorable.
Of
the total enrollment this year, exclusive of special and
post-graduate pupils, 52.1 per cent were in the normal
grades for their respective ages; 19.7 per cent were accel­
erated, having exceeded the normal rate of progress; and
28.2 per cent were retarded.
The percentages of retardation
in the separate grades ranged from 34.4 per cent in the 10-A
grade to 20.5 per cent in the 12-A grade.
The highest per
cent of acceleration, 34.1 per cent, was in the 12-A grade.
The percentage of retarded pupils in the entire school, 28.2>
was lower than that of the preceding year.
The percentage
46
TABLE VII
AGB-GRAl)E DISTRIBUTION
LIOKROVIA. ARCAD IA DUARTE HIGH SOHDOL
OCTOBER, 1939
Age in Years
and months
B9
12-6 to 12-11
2
13-0 to 13-5
4
A9
BIO A10
311
All
B12
A12 Special
&, P. G.
—
Total
2
4
3
—
—
61
4
—
—
110
13-6 to 13-11
49
14-0 to 14-5
95
U
14-6 to 14-11
52
38
37
4
3
15-0 to 15-5
33
27
88
12
11
1
15-6 to 15-11
27
14
38
35
43
4
1
—
—
162
16-0 to 16-5
18
10
35
29
59
18
5
—
—
174
16-6 to 16-11
9
4
16
22
55
33
26
3
—
168
17-0 to 17-5
3
5
11
6
23
34
49
12
1
144
1
6
5
11
13
41
15
1
93
2
4
9
15
19
5
3
60
4
4
7
11
6
2
36
1
2
6
1
1
11
2
1
2
7
17-6 to 17-11
—
9
18-0 to 18-5
1
2
18-6 to 18-11
1
1
—
19-0 to 19-5
19-6 to 19-11
~
20-0 to 20-5
—
—
20-6 to 20-11
—
—
21-over
Total
Median Age
1
—
—
1
134
—
172
1
—
—
—
—
—
—
1
1
1
—
3
—
4
—
1
—
44
14
1344
294 123
240 122
220 127
160
16.1
14*4 15.1 15.4 15.7 16.4 17.1 17.5 17.7 19.0
—
—
—
Accelerated
32
—
23
15
262 19.7$
55 20
44
16
57
—
693 52.1#
64
114
90 20
65
126
67
At agel47
Retarded
—
375 28.2#
9
37
38
92
38
49
70 42
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: Of the stidents who
were 14 years to 14 years and 5 months, 95 were in grade 39, 11 in 19, and
4 in BIO* The numbers enclosed in the red lines indicate those whose agegrade classification was nonual.
Suumary
47
45.5
56.3
12-B
12-A
11-B
11-A
ENTIRE SCHOOL
ACCELERATED
10-B
10-A
AT ACE
m
1
RETARDED
M
y
9-B
FIGURE 3
9-A
AGE-GRADE CLASSIFICATION, IN PERCENTAGE, BY SEPARATE GRADES,
OCTOBER, 1939
48
of accelerated pupils, 19.7, was the lowest yet recorded in
the history of the school.s
The trend toward an increase
in the percentage of normal-age pupils would seem to be
indicative of improving adaptation of the curriculum to the
needs of the various age-levels.
Age-grade classification of racial groups.
The
thirty-five Japanese pupils enrolled in October of 1939
were represented in all grades.
Their distribution by age
among the respective grades is shown in Table VIII.
This
is followed by a summarization of the age-grade classifica­
tion of Japanese in relation to the entire school, in Table
IX.
The proportion of Japanese pupils who have adhered to
the normally expected rate of progress is 60.0 per cent, an
exceptionally high ratio.
The percentage of retardation is
22.8 , lower than the 28.2 per cent of the school as a whole.
However, relatively few Japanese pupils became accelerated,
as is indicated by the low percentage, 17.2, in that class­
ification.
The fifty-three negro pupils were enrolled in all
grades with the exception of the 12-A.
All but nine of
these pupils were in the ninth and tenth grades.
distribution is given in Table X.
Their
This is followed by a
^Report Ho. 48, Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High School
Department of Research (Monrovia, California, 1939), I, 19.
49
TABLE VIII
AGE-GRADE DISTRIBUTION OF JAPANESE PUPILS,
OCTOBER, 1939
Age in years
and months
9B
13-6 to 13-11
—
14-0 to 14-5
1
14-6 to 14-11
1
15-0 to 15-5
1
9A
10B
11B
11A
12B
12A
Total
1
1
2
3
1
—
1
2
4
15-6 to 15-11
—
—
—
16-0 to 16-5
—
—
—
16-6 to 16-11
10A
6
—
1
1
1
3
4
4
1
17-0 to 17-5
2
1
17-6 to 17-11
—
—
—
—
18-0 to 18-5
—
—
—
—
-1
—
1
—
—
1
18-6 to 18-11
—
2
1
—
1
—
19-0 to 19-5
1
—
6
5 "
2
—
1
2
0
19-6 to 19-11
—
Total
Median Ago
4
15.0
1
5
14.4
1
4
15.3
2
16»0
10
16.6
4
17.8
4
17.5
2
• 35
18.0 16.5
NOTE: This table should be read as followsj Of a total of six
Japanese pupils between the ages of 16 years and 6 months, and 16 years
and 11 months, one was in grade 9-B, 4 in 11-B, and one in 12-B. The
figures enclosed in red lines represent normal age-grade placement.
TABLE IX
AGE-GRADE PROGRESS 03? JAPANESE PUPIIS
OCTOBER, 1939.
Age-grade
classification
Accelerated
At age
Retarded
Total
Japanese pupils
No. Per cent
Entire school
No.
Per cent
6
17.2
262
19.7
21
60.0
693
52.1
8
22.8
375
28.2
35
100.0
1330
100.0
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: Eight Japanese pupils
out of the total of 35, or 22.8$, were retarded, as compared with 375 of
the total school registration of 1330, or 28*.2$.
51
TABLE X
ACJE-GrRAQE D 33TRIBLTI0H OF EEGRO PTPIL3
OCTOBER 1939
Age in years
and months
13-0 to 13-5
13-6 to 13-11
14-0 to 14-5
14-6 to 14-11
15-0 to 15-5
15-6 to 15-11
16-0 to 16-5
16-6 to 16-11
17-0 to 17-5
17-6 to 17-11
18-0 to 18-5
18-6 to 18-11
9B
9A
10B
10A
11B
11A
12B
121
1
1
1
, i
i
2
1
2
3
2
1
—
1
Total
2
2
1
4
!
~ 1
I 2
i
2
—
1
—
3
1
2
2
1
2
—
Total
15
12
10
Median age
15*6
16*4
16.0
1
3
—
—
—
] •••
—
—
—
-
5
5
8
2
1—
i
—
1
I—
i i
i
—
1
—
7
3
4
2
15.6
15*6
17*7
17.7
i
i
I 2
—
mmmm
8
8
3
5
4
—•
0
—
2
53
16.2
NOTE: This table should fee read as follows: Among the five
negro pupils aged 14 years and 6 months to 14 years and 11 months, 2 were
enrolled in grade 9B, 2 in 9A, and one in 10A. The figures enclosed in
red lines represent the normal age-grade level.
52
summarization of this classification in relation to the
entire school, in Tahle XI.
The proportion of retardation
among the negro pupils, 56.6 per cent, is very high in
comparison with the 28.2 per cent of the whole school; and
acceleration continues to be rare.
There were twenty-four Mexican pupils enrolled in
October, listed in all grades except 12-B and 12-A.
age-grade distribution is given in Table XII.
The
This, again,
is followed by a comparison of this classification with
that of the whole school, in Table XIII.
Two of the
Mexican pupils, or 8.3 per cent, were accelerated with
respect to age.
Only 20.8 per cent of them were at the
expected grade levels for their ages, and 70.9 per cent
were retarded.
This is in comparison with 28.2 per cent
for the entire school, and with the 22.5 and 56.6 per cent
of retardation in the Japanese and Negro groups, respec­
tively.
SUMMARY
In spite of a large amount of literature dealing
with the progress made by pupils through the grades, the
questions arising from the various aspects of pupil pro­
motion are still confused and unsolved.
Much statistical
and suggestive material has been collected, but little has
been done to clarify the proper and necessary methods of
TABLE XI
AGE-GRADE STATUS OP NEGRO PUPILS
OCTOBER, 1939
Number of
Negro pupils
Per cent
7
13.2
262
19.7
At age
16
30.2
693
52.1
Retarded
30
56.6
375
28.2
Total
43
100.0
1330
100.0
Age-grade status
Accelerated
Toted no.
of pupils
Per cent
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: Out of the total
of 43 Negro pupils, 30 (56.6$) were retarded, as compared with 375 (2 8 *2%)
out of the whole-school total of 1330*
54
TABLE XII
AGE-GRADE DISTRIBUTION OF MEXICAN PUPIIS
OCTOBER 1939
Age in Years
and months
13-6
14-0
14-6
15-0
15-6
16-0
16-6
17-0
17-6
18—0
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
13-11
14-5
14-11
15-5
15-11
16-5
16-11
17-5
17-11
18—5
9B
9A
10B
10A
11B
12B
11A
12A
2
2
1
6
— L
1
l
1
—
1
—
—
Total
12
Median age
15*6
2
—
5
16*3
1
1 i -1~
1
- i —
"
1
—■
~
I
—
— * 1
4
1
1
i
,
—
i !~
1
16*5 (15*9) (17*3 )(18*3)
—
0
—
0
—
Total
2
2
0
2
9
2
2
3
1
1
24
15*8
NOTE: This tab la should be read as follows: Of the two Mexican
pupils whose ages were from 16 years and 6 months to 16 years $nd 11
months, one was enrolled in grade 9B, one in grade 10B*
55
TABLE XIII
AGE-GRADE PROGRESS OF MEXICAN PUPIIS
OCTOBER, 1939
Age-grade
classification
Mexican pupils
No.
Per cent
Entire school
No* Per cent
Accelerated
2
8.3
262
19.7
At age
5
20.8
693
52.1
Retarded
17
70.9
375
28.2
Total
24
100.0
1332
100.0
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: Two Mexican pupils
out of the total of 24, or 8*3$, were accelerated, as compared with 19.7$
of the total registration*
56
improvement which that material should indicate.
The
Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High School, however, is attempting
to meet these questions in the light of accepted standards
and progressive philosophy of that school of thought which
does not agree with the non-failure program.
In summarizing the material collected and discussed
for the purpose of this chapter, the investigator noticed
first that the grading system maintained in this school is
that which is in practice in most secondary schools in
California.
Although there is a natural lack of uniformity
in the interpretation of the grades, it is accepted that
when a pupil fails, the school feels that it has not met
the needs of that pupil.
By an improved counseling system
this year, the school has attempted to meet the needs of
failing pupils, and to prevent as many such cases as is
humanly possible.
The enrollment shows the largest number of pupils in
the history of the school.
The increase in the enrollment
in the freshman class is an indication of what may be
expected in future years in the way of proportionate in­
crease, and also suggests that further problems in connec­
tion with placement and progress may arise with a greatly
enlarged student body.
The age-grade studies were included with a realization
of the definite value they have in a school survey, in
57
revealing the general situation with respect to the ages
and the grades of the pupils.
Any age-grade study affords
an inadequate estimate of the adjustment of the curriculum
to the pupil, but it does indicate the existence of the
special problems of the presence of excessive numbers of
over-age or under-age pupils.
In the terms of age-grade
progress, the situation at Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High
School is very favorable, since over half of the total
pupils enrolled are in the normal grade for their age.
The
fact that there.is a larger per cent retarded than acceler­
ated is probably accounted for by the racial groups.
The
greatest proportion of non-white pupils who are retarded
occurs in the Mexican group, with the Negroes holding
second place, and the Japanese third.
Acceleration is
rather rare among the non-white proportion of the enrolled
pupils.
The survey revealed, then, that although there seems
to be progress in adapting the curriculum to the needs of
the children and hence in increasing the number of averageage pupils, special efforts should be made to reduce the
percentage of slow progress among the foreign children.
The proportion of over-age pupils and the amount of slow
progress, two closely-related factors, suggest that the
teaching staff should be responsible for better adaptation
of the curriculum to the needs of this special group of
58
children.
The acutely maladjusted pupils should be care­
fully studied and put in groups where their opportunities
for success in school work will be greatest.
If these
improvements are made, the welfare of the pupil will be
promoted; the efficiency of the school will be increased;
and the ultimate ideal of modern education, to give each
pupil the type of education from which he will profit most,
will be nearer a reality.
CHAPTER IV
MENTAL MATURITY OF PUPIL PERSONNEL
The purpose of this chapter was to present the
results of a study of the mental maturity of the pupils
enrolled in the Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High School, in an
attempt to determine the needs of the individual pupil,.
This purpose was accomplished 1) by giving the distribution
of the intelligence quotients in the school as a whole;
2) by comparing this intelligence measure of the Japanese,
Mexican, and Negro groups with that of the remainder of the
student body; and 3) by giving the distribution of this
measure by grades.
One of the chief values of intelligence measurements
•is the rscientific classification of pupils according to their
native capacities to learn, in order to provide a basis for
the separate teaching of pupils who differ markedly from the
norm in their ability to progress in schools.
Consideration
of the measurement of mental ability with the measurement of
achievement, which is given in the next chapter, shows
whether the pupils are working up to their maximum capacity,
and points out their strengths and weaknesses.
Again,
measurement affords valuable information which, in conjunc­
tion with our knowledge concerning other factors such as
60
social environment, maturation level, health, etc., enables
the educator to make a continually improving adjustment of
the curriculum to the needs and interests of the pupils.
In order to facilitate the attainment of this end,
however, it is necessary for the educator to have an under­
standing of what is meant by mental maturity.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Intelligence, when considered in a school situation,
is generally thought of as a pupil’s inherent ’’ability to
learn,” or his ability to do the usual school work: in
brief, his school ability.
As explained by Wilson and Hoke,
Mentality may be defined as the inborn capacity of
acquiring intelligence. Intelligence, as commonly
understood, represents the extent to which an individual
can adjust himself to his environment. An appropriate
environment is necessary in order that an individual
may acquire intelligence commensurate with his ability.”1'
Mental maturity is really thinking ability, and is
measured in terms of scores on mental ability tests.
Mental
age considered apart from chronological age does not, of
course, tell us whether a child is average, dull, or bright;
it merely indicates the school grade in which a child
normally belongs at a given time.
The intelligence quoti­
ent, however, is the ratio, expressed decimally, between the
■^Guy M. Wilson and Kremer J. Hoke, How to Measure
(New York? Macmillan, 1928), p. 317.
61
mental age and the chronological age, and is found by dividing
the mental by the ^chronological age.
An intelligence quotient is a matter of a score on a
test, and performing intelligence may differ materially from
that intelligence quotient, as the next chapter will show.
The I.Q. has been considered to be a prediction in regard to
the child*s later mental development.
Recent investigations,
however, seem to reveal that intelligence as measured by
tests varies with environment.
It appears from this that
intelligence has come to be regarded as something that is
amenable to training.
In any case, mental ability tests have become an
invaluable aid to school administrators, and as such have
been given regularly at the Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High
School.
PLAN AND SCOPE OF MENTAL TESTING
In keeping with the established policy of the school,
at least one mental test record was available for each pupil;
for the majority of the pupils, there were two.
Members of
the senior class who had been enrolled in the school for the
entire four-year period would have had three tests before
graduation.
Mental tests used in making this study begin in the
eighth grade of the local elementary districts, in which
62
prospective high school entrants were given the Terman Group
Test under direct supervision of the high school authorities.
Following the enrollment in September, all new pupils who
were not included in the eighth grade surveys were tested as
soon as possible,' Other new pupils were tested as they
entered.
Pupils already enrolled in the other grades were
tested in order.
Thus, each student enrolled was given the
Terman Group Test for Mental Maturity, Form B.
The resultant information was then filed and tabula­
ted so that it might be of use in general analyses as well
as for individual cases.
DISTRIBUTION OF INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENTS
The distribution of -intelligence quotients was classio
fied under the seven terms instituted by Terman.
Although
these divisions, ranging from TTnearfT genius or genius to
definite feeble-mindedness, are admittedly separated by
purely arbitrary boundaries, forming groups whose individuals
do not make up a homogenous type, Terman*s classification is
convenient to use and widely accepted.
Distribution of the entire school.
Classification of
Intelligence Quotients at Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High School
indicated that according to Terman*s standards, the situation
^Lewis M. Terman, Measurement of Intelligence (Boston:
Houghton Mifflin, 1916), p. 79.
63
from the standpoint of intelligence level represented a
normal average.
Out of a total of 1317 pupils, 53,5 per
cent, or slightly more than one half, tested normal or
average intelligence, and only 11.8 per cent, or less than
one-eighth, tested dull.
As may be seen by the material
presented in Table XlVa, while the percentage testing normal
is two per cent below the norm, the other groups compare
very favorably with the norm, showing a larger percentage of
pupils with I.Q.’s above 110, and a smaller of those below
SO.
Twenty-nine pupils of the 1317 had I.Q«»s of 130 or over,
indicative of very superior mental ability.
Distribution of racial groups.
The situation with
regard to the non-white portion of the school population
was quite different.
The combined non-white pupils tested
only 35.8 per cent, or slightly over one-third, in the normal
intelligence group, while nearly as many, or 34.8 per cent,
placed in the dull group.
110.
Only 5.6 per cent placed above
These figures, placed in comparison with the individual
racial groups and the whole school rating, are presented in
Table XIV.
Lowest among the non-white pupils was the Negro group,
with only 30 per cent, or three-tenths, in the normal group,
and two-thirds, or 66 per cent, below 90.
In the Mexican
group, 33.3 per cent, or one-third, tested normal, and 68 .5
64
TABLE XTVa
CLASSIFICATIGN OF IMELLIGEENCE
QUOTIENTS OF PUPIIS OF MQNROYIA ARCADIA
DUARTE HIGH SCHOOL ACCORDING TO TEE TERMAN SCALE
Terman
classification
Intelligence
quot ients
Number of pupils
Per cent
Normal
per cen1
5
0.4
0.9
Very superior intelligence 120 to 139
120
9*1
2.8
110 to 119
250
19.0
18.5
Normal or average
90 to 109
704
53*5
55*5
Dullness
80 to 89
157
11.8
18.5
Borderline deficiency
70 to 79
54
4*1
2.8
27
2.1
0*9
1317
100.0
100.0
“Near" genius or genius
Superior intelligence
Above 140
Definite feeble-mindedness Below 70
1 Total
NOTE: Tills table should be read as follows: At Monrovia Arcadia
Duarte High School in October, 1939, there were 250 pupils of superior
intelligence (I.Q. of H O to 119), comprising 19# of the entire student
body, as compared with the norm of 18.5#.
65
TABLE XIV
CLASSIFICATION OF E3TEILIGENCE QUOTIENTS
OF RACIAL GROUPS AT THE MONROVIA ARCADIA DCARTE HIGH SCHOOL
Intelligence
quotients
All
white
All non­
white
Japanese
Mexican
Negro
All
school
Above 140
5
0
0
0
0
5
120 to 139
117
3
2
0
1
120
110 to 119
247
3
1
1
1
250
90 to 109
665
39
16
8
15
704
80 to
89
119
33
13
9
16
157
70 to
79
38
16
3
3
10
54
Below
70
17
10
0
3
7
27
Total
1208
109
35
24
50
1317
Normal
per cent
AH
white
All non­
white
Japanese
Mexican
Negro
All
school
0*9
0*4
0*0
0,0
0.0
0*0
0*4
2.8
9.7
2.8
5.7
0,0
2.0
9.1
;110-119) 18.5
20*4
2*8
2*9
4*2
2.0
19.0
(90-109) 55*5
55.0
35,8
45*7
33*3
30.0
53.5
(80-89)
18.5
10*0
34.8
37,1
37.5
32,0
11*8
(70-79)
2.8
3*1
14.7
8*6
12.5
20,0
4.1
(70-)
0,9
1*4
9*1
0*0
12.5
14.0
2.1
100*0
100.0
100*0
100.0
100*0
100.0
(14Q-)
[120-139)
Total
NOTE: This table is to be read as follows: In the group of pupils
with intelligence quotients 70 to 79, 38 were white and 16 (3 Japanese,
3 Mexican, and 10 Negro) were non-white* In tenna of percentage, this I.Q.
group contained 3.1# of tie white pupils and 14,7# of the non-white (8.6#
of the Japanese, 12.5# of the Mexicans, aid 20*0# of the Negroes), A total
of 54 pupils, or 4*1# of the whole school population, belonged in this I.Q.
group*
66
NEGRO
No. of
pupils
15
w
a
10
•
•
•
•
a
•
•
•
•
o
o
o
o
•
Q
•
O
•
O
•
O
MENTAL ABILITY
CLASSIFICATION
HIGH Q
AVERAGE
LOW
_L_
70-79
80-89
90-99
85.0
e
o
_J
60-69
^
MEDIAN I.Q.
—
o
o
• O o o
IQ 50-59
O
L
0
1
100-109 110-119 120-129
FIGURE 4
DISTRIBUTION OF I.Q. AMONG NEGRO PUPILS, OCTOBER, 1939
67
HEX/CAN
MENTAL ABILITY
CLASSIFICATION
HIGH
£
AVERAGE
Q
LOTT £
No. of
pupils
MEDIAN I.Q. 86.7
!0 --------------------------------------------------------
5
o
&
©
©
• •
• •
• •
I.Q. 50-59
60-69
70-79
80-89
90-99
o
o
0
G
100-109 110-119 120-129
FIGURE 5
DISTRIBUTION OF I.Q. AMONG MEXICAN PUPILS, OCTOBER, 1939
68
per cent below 90.
Highest among these were the Japanese
pupils, who had 45.7 per cent, or nearly half, in the normal
register.
This group tested the same percentage, 45.7,
below 90, but also placed 8.6 per cent, or three per cent
above the average for the non-white group, above 110*
It will be seen, however, that the percentages for
all these is much below that of the all-white group, and
consequently considerably below the all-school average.
DISTRIBUTION OF I.Q.'S BY GRADES
In considering the distribution of intelligence
quotients among the grades, it was noticed that the I.Q.*s
rose with each subsequent grade, with a sharp rise at the
12th grade, as is shown in Table XV.
This is probably due
to the fact that promotion is a wedding-out process, elimi­
nating with each higher year those less able to proceed in
school work.
The fact that there is a drop from the B to the A
half in each grade is probably due to the fact that those
pupils in the A half in the fall semester are apt to be
largely made up of those who are making up failed work or
who are otherwise slow.
SUMMARY
In summary of this chapter it is to be noted that the
69
TABLE XV
DISTRIBUTION OP I.Q. BY GRADES
MONROVIA ARCADIA DUARTE HIGH SCHOOL, OCTOBER 1939
10-A
11-B
11-A ' 12-B' T2-T=rt61:aT
150-154
1
145-149
140-144
1
1
135-139
2
1
2
1
130-134
5
1
4
3
1
2
125-129
8
5
7
1
10
3
8
1
120-124
11
3
12
1
9
6
9
2
115-119
19
11
23
6
18
10
11
6
110-114
34
16
23
10
24
12
21
6
TO 5-109
31
10
35
21
43
13
26
12
100-104
38
13
30
25
33
18
31
4
95-99
35
17
32
26
31
20
26
7
90-94
29
9
29
10
20
20
9
1
85-89
29
10
19
7
16
9
7
3
80-84
14
14
10
6
5
4
3
1
75-79
14
2
3
4
2
3
4
70-74
6
5
3
2
2
4
65-69
9
3
1
2
1
2
60-64
2
55-59
4
Total
Median
1
1
292
123 233
122
219
125
100.5 100.2 103.3 100.8 104.9 100.0
High
/
Low
159
44 1317
104.7 107.1 102.6
70
JAPANESE
PUPILS
No. of
pupils
15
—
MENTAL ABILITY
CLASSIFICATION
HIGH
AVERAGE
0
O
LOW Q
MEDIAN I.Q.
SI.7
10
o o
o o
o
O o
o
o
-e—
----- '
0 — 1
I.Q. 50-59
60-69
a
1
70-79
80-89
90-99
100-109 110-119 120-129 130-130
FIGURE 6
DISTRIBUTION OF I.Q. AMONG JAPANESE PUPILS, OCTOBER, 1939
71
purpose, to determine the individual needs of the pupils in
Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High School by tabulating their
mental maturity, has in part been fulfilled by the study of
Intelligence Quotients; for in spite of the fact that the
Terman tests are not always indicative of performing intel­
ligence, they do indicate the groupings of high and low
mental ability, and they do suggest the places where work
must be concentrated if, as authorities are now beginning to
believe, intelligence can be regarded as amenable to training.
In the first place, the situation at Monrovia-ArcadiaDuarte High School seemed to be adequate as far as the
general status of the white pupils was concerned, with a
normal average.
The fact that the I.Q.fs rise with advancing
grades is a natural process, since the selective process of
promotion is normal.
The only suggestion here is that atten­
tion to the varying needs of pupils might be concentrated on
the lower grades, in order to train and assist some of those
who are able to improve, but might, without assistance of a
special sort, be weeded out by promotion.
The most important result shown by the universal
application of Terman tests at Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High
School was the great discrepancy between the mental ability
of the white and non-white groups.
The lowest groups are the
Mexican and Negro groups, which as was pointed out in the
last chapter are also the most retarded.
These combined
72
findings suggested that attention should he concentrated on
these groups for the purpose of aiding these sections of the
school population to bring their mental ability averages
nearer to the normal, and to secure a better adjustment
between the school and the capacities of each pupil.
CHAPTER V
EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT OF PUPIL PERSONNEL
It was the purpose of this chapter to evaluate
through the use of standardized tests the educational
achievement of the pupils of Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High
School.
In order to obtain succinctness and brevity in the
evaluation, this study was limited to a survey of three
general subjects, English, American history, and languages.
The value of such achievement tests in aiding the
teacher to determine the growth of the pupils under instruc­
tion may be determined when it is understood that the
factors which influence educational achievement are complex
and varied.
The intelligence, race, and nationality of the
pupil, and the quality of teaching, type of supervision,
course of study, and the general policy of administration
mjty all play a part; and all these factors are under the
influence of constant change.
Specifically, the achievement survey is valuable in
several ways.
First, this type of check has value for the
individual pupil, since the administrator can, in uncovering
the pupilts weaknesses, make progressive adjustments and
help the pupil to develop in a degree commensurate with his
real ability.
Second, in discovering the strengths and weak-
74
nesses of a whole school or class, the survey can perform
the same service for the group that it did for the individu­
al, preparing the way for understanding and efficient
solving of group difficulties.
Third, the appraisal program
offers to the teachers and administrators an evaluation and
preparation for intelligent consideration of those teaching
devices and methods of organizing educational experiences
which have heen found worth while.
Fourth, the school may
use this evaluation to inform the public of the school’s
educational program, and of its effectiveness, making known
its progress in any results achieved.
This is of value in
establishing public confidence as well as for the intrinsic
value of the progress which is brought to light.
Finally,
such a survey helps pupils, teachers and administrators, and
public alike in explaining and emphasizing the real objec­
tives which the pupils ought to be attaining: objectives
which are too often obscured by those which are ordinarily
taught.
Although it is understood that the ultimate answer to
the question as to whether a school is satisfactory or not
lies in the effect it has on the children who are compelled
to attend, no completely objective way of measuring how
much and how T#ell the school cares for the interests, needs,
and capacities of its pupils has yet been discovered.
Standardized tests, however, covering subject matter commonly
75
taught in schools throughout the country, furnish one very
useful objective way of comparing pupil achievement.
Since the term achievement is capable of widely
divergent definitions, it is well to explain the specific
and definite meaning with which the word is used in this
connection.
Definition of terms.
Achievement refers to acquired
abilities rather than inherent abilities; it may be far
below the actual possibilities of any given pupil.
Achieve­
ment tests are given at the end of a course of instruction,
in order to determine the pupil’s proficiency or accomplish­
ment in a particular subject.
Such a test aids the teacher
in diagnosis of pupil difficulties.
Plan andscope of achievement testing.
The
plan for
the testing of achievement at Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High
School during the year 1939-40 included the measurement of
English achievement at the beginning and end of the year in
the ninth and twelfth grades, and the end-year testing of
classes in American History, French, Spanish, and Latin.
These examinations were carried out
tests for which
with fully
national norms were available,
standardized
andwithdue
regard for correct procedures in administration, scoring,
and interpretation.
For the purpose of this study, the Cross English Test
76
was given to the freshman boys and girls, Form C in September
1959, and Form A in May, 1940,
This test, designed especial­
ly for high school students and college freshmen, examines a
wide area of skills: it is divided into eight parts, covering
spelling, punctuation, sentence structure, pronunciation,
verb forms, pronoun forms, idiomatic expressions, and miscel­
laneous faulty expressions.
This survey when first given to
the freshmen measured, of course, learning obtained before
their entrance into high school.
The second administration
of the test provided data to aid in determining the progress
made in English through the Freshman year.
The identical testing procedure was carried out with
the Senior class of September, 1939, and with the same group
in May, 1940.
The Columbia Research Bureau American History Test,
Form A, was given in May to 201 pupils in eight class sec­
tions,
This is a test of broad scope, including a sampling
of two hundred important facts, relations, and judgments; it
is important in that it is more than a memory test, being
designed to measure ability to make judgments and to draw
inferences from facts.
The French and Spanish tests, also a product of the
Columbia Research Bureau, are quite similar to each other,
comprising two forms, each of which covers vocabulary, com­
prehension, and grammar.
These 90-minute tests, devised
77
from material typical in most high-school courses, were given
to 34 pupils in 1-A and 2-A French classes and 132 in Spanish
1-A, 2-B, and 2-A, in May, 1S40.
Form A was given in each
case.
The White Latin Test differs slightly from those in
the other languages, being of shorter duration (35 minutes)
and including a vocabulary of 100 words from the classic
authors, with twenty sentences to translate, grouped accord­
ing to their increasing difficulty of syntax.
This test was
given to 120 pupils in 1-A, 2-B, 2-A, and 3-B classes, in
May, 1940.
In each of the tests given, the results were compared
with the norms which the authors of the examinations had set
up from observing the results of administration of the tests
all over the country.
This comparison, as well as that with
former results at Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High School, gave
meaning and significance to the current results.
EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT
The results of the Cross English Test, Form C, given
to the 9-B class in dctober, 1939, were not particularly
encouraging, showing a class median of 38.7 per cent, much
lower than that of the preceding two years, and 12 per cent
lower than 50 per cent, the norm.
Much improvement was
shown by the class at the end of the 9-A semester, when Form
78
A of the test was administered.
An increase of nearly 20 per
cent in the class median was achieved, the resultant 57.8 per
cent being above the norm and also above the corresponding
median for the preceding year.
These results, shown in Table XVI, suggest that the
school*s teaching of English is effective, although the prehigh school preparation appears to have fallen off somewhat.1
The discrepancy between the grades of boys and girls indi­
cates that attention should be paid to improving the English
ability of the former group especially.
In the case of the Cross English Tests applied to the
senior class in October 1939 and May 1940, the gain of 22.4
per cent in median was commendable, but the 12-B median at
the beginning of the year was the lowest recorded, and the
gain did not bring the class median up far enough to meet
the lowest end-year median in preceding years.
The implication of these figures, presented in Table
XVII,
p
is that the beginning-year median of 38.1 per cent,
nearly 12 per cent belo?7 the norm (under which no preceding
recorded class had dropped more than 2 per cent), indicated
that the class had not received adequate training in English
during the first three years of its high school career.
The
improvement shows the efficacy of the work in the 12th grade,
^See also Figures 7-11.
2See also Figures 12-14.
79
TABLE XVI
RESULTS OF THE CROSS TEST IN ENGLISH GIVEN TO
NINTH GRADE PUPIIS AT MONROVIA ARCADIA DUARTE HIGH SCHOOL
Percentile
rank
9-B
October 1939 Form C
Boys
Girls
Both
100
95-99
90-94
85-89
80-84
75-79
70-74
65-69
60-64
55-59
50-54
45—49
40—44
35-39
30-34
25-29
20-24
15-19
10-14
5- 9
0- 4
3
1
2
3
4
1
4
7
2
6
6
4
7
8
7
6
11
12
10
10
3
8
1
7
6
5
6
5
7
9
7
7
6
8
8
1
7
7
12
1
Total
114
121
0
6
9
3
10
10
6
10
12
9
15
13
11
13
16
15
7
18
19
22
11
235
9-*A
May 1940
Boys
Girls
4
13
16
5
4
16
9
3
7
10
6
6
4
7
4
4
Form A
Both
7
13
9
8
4
2
5
7
4
19
25
10
9
21
12
11
13
16
14
13
6
10
12
12
0
11
15
14
15
126
136
262
6
9
5
5
5
3
8
6
6
8
7
2
3
8
8
—
—
Median
30.6
47.5
38.7
48.6
68.3
57.8
Md.1938-39
Ml.1937-38
Ml .1936-37
Ml.1935-36
Ml.1934-35
31.3
40.0
25.8
38.2
45.5
52.7
51.4
40.0
55.0
61.9
45.2
46.9
31.6
46.7
53.5
51.3
60.5
49.0
65.8
54.2
60.3
75.8
66.2
79.2
77.1
55.3
65.4
54.4
73.9
70*4
High
Average
Low
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: Three boys and three
girls received a grade from 95 to 99# in October, 1939, as compared with
six boys and thirteen girls who were graded in the same group at the end
of the year, in May, 1940*
BO
9-B ENGLISH
B OY S
PERCENTILE
RANK
GIRLS
90-99
80-89
70-79
60-69
50-59
40-49
30-39
20-29
10-19
0- 9
20
10
0
20
FIGURE 7
DISTRIBUTION OF PERCENTILE RANK SCORES IN CROSS ENGLISH
TESTS. ENTERING 9-B PUPILS, SEPTEMBER 1939
81
Percentile
rank
9 B ENGLISH
100
90
80
70
60
NOUM
50
40
30
20
10
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
FIGURE 8
MEDIAN PERCENTILE RANK OF 9-B ENGLISH GLASSES IN SEPTEMBER
(CROSS ENGLISH TEST, 1932 TO 1940)
1940
82
9 B ENGLISH
Fereentile rank
IOC
90
OR M
40
30
20
10
1935
1936
1937
1938
1959
FIGURE 9
MEDIAN PERCENTILE RANK SCORES OF ENTERING 9-B CLASSES IN ENGLISH
(CROSS ENGLISH TEST. FEBRUARY GLASSES, 1935-1940)
1940
83
BOYS
PERCENTILE
RANK
9 -A ENGLISH
GIRLS
ICO
90-99
80-89
70-79
60-69
50-59
40-49
30-39
20-29
10-19
0- 9
30
30
No. of
pupils
FIGURE 10
DISTRIBUTION OF PERCENTILE RANK SCORES IN CROSS ENGLISH TEST
9-A CLASSES, MAY, 1940
84
FRESHMAN ENGLISH
Percentile
rank
100
90
SO
70
60
NORM
40
30
20
10
9-B
Sept. 1939
9-A
May 1940
FIGURE 11
IMPROVEMENT OF FRESHMAN BOYS AND GIRLS IN ENGLISH, AS SHOWN BY MEDIAN
PERCENTILE RANK IN CROSS ENGLISH TEST AT BEGINNING AND END OF YEAR
END-YEAR CLASS, 1939-1940
85
TABLE XVII
RESULTS OP THE CROSS TEST IN ENGLISH GIVEN TO
TWELFTH GRADE PUPILS AT MONROVIA ARCADIA DUARTE HIGH SCHOOL
------Percentile
rank
95-99
90-94
85-89
80-84
75-79
70-74
65-69
60-64
55-59
50-54
45-49
40-44
35-39
30-34
25-29
20-24
15-19
10-14
5-9
0-4
12-A
0oT5Ferl939'
Eoyi
—
Girls
—
3
1
2
3
3
5
1
2
3
2
1
3
7
6
2
5
May 1940
Girls
Mi
b
1
2
3
4
—
1
6
1
1
3
—
2
4
4
6
3
6
2
—
—
2
3
4
1
1
2
1
3
1
1
1
—
2
—
—
5
12
2
6
8
1
5
5
4
6
5
7
5
1
1
3
3
6
1
1
4
—
5
5
1
—
2
—
—
1
3
1
—
4
6
1
5
5
1
3
1
Form A
Both
0
4
1
5
8
2
2
5
3
5
2
5
4
2
6
4
9
9
6
5
—
—
1
TormT'CT
Both
—
—
Total
50
37
87
50
37
87
Median
32.5
44.2
38.1
52.5
77.5
60.5
Md.1938-39
Md.1937-38
Md.1936-37
Md.1935-36
Md.1934-35
Md.1933-34
58.3
41.2
40.4
33.7
29.4
42.5
64.4
55.0
71.3
51.7
69.6
66.7
61.8
52.8
48.7
48.7
54.0
54.7
53.5
57.5
50.0
47.5
61.0
70.0
68.6
83.8
75.0
54.4
88.7
80.0
63.9
77.5
60.7
51.6
78.3
77.8
High
Average
Low
NOTE*. This table should be read as follows: Three boys and five
girls of the 12-B class received grades between 75 and 79^ in October,
1939, as compared with three boys and five girls who received the same
range when the test was administered to the 12-A class in May, 1940.
86
BOYS
GIRLS
Percentile
rank
90-99
80-89
70-79
60-6S
50-59
30-39
20-29
--
!
10-19
!
10
No* of
pupils
rr
0- 9
0
0
15
FIGURE 12
DISTRIBUTION OF PERCENTILE RANK ON CROSS ENGLISH TEST GIVEN TO
SENIOR 12-B CLASS. SEPTEMBER, 1939
10
87
12-A ENGLISH
PERCENTILE
RANK
90-99
80-89
70-79
60-69
50-89
40-49
30-39
20-29
10-19
0- 9
No. of
pupils
FIGURE 13
DISTRIBUTION OF PERCENTILE RANK SCORES IN CROSS ENGLISH TEST
12-A CLASS, MAY, 1940
38
ENGLISH
SENIOR
Percentile
rank
IOC
90
80
70
50
NORM
40
30
20
10
-
12-A
May 1940
12-B
Sept* 1939
FIGURE 14
IMPROVEMENT OF SENIOR BOYS AND GIRLS IN ENGLISH, AS SHOWN BY
MEDIAN PERCENTILE RANK IN CROSS ENGLISH TEST AT BEGINNING AND AT END
OF YEAR* 1939-1940
39
however, and the fact that this same class upon its entrance
to the high school in September, 1936, showed an unusually
low median (see Table XVI), suggests that the class may have
had an unusually poor pre-high school start.
The discrepancy
between boys and girls remains largely the same, with the
girls not only showing a much higher median at the beginning
of the year, but increasing that gain by the end of the year.
Results in American History.
In the case of the
Columbia Research Bureau American History Test, the median
scores of the eight classes to which the test was adminis­
tered were 50.8, 58.7, 61.2, 62.5, 70.8, 75.0, and 80.0,
respectively, the last approaching closely the norm of 81.0.
The individual scores ranged from 18 to 146 points; the
median for all the groups combined was 66.2, the highest yet
obtained with the test in this school.
The distribution of
scores and a comparison with that of previous years is given
in Table XVIII .3
Results in French, Spanish, and Latin.
Results in the
Columbia Research Bureau French Test were diverse.
Of the 19
French 1-A pupils, only one surpassed the norm of 100.0, with
a score of 107.
The class median was 63.5, far below the
norm, and considerably below the median of the preceding year,
although it compared favorably with the medians of the three
5See also Figures 15-17.
90
TABLE XVIII
RESULTS OF THE COLUMBIA RESEARCH BUREAU TEST IN
AMERICAN HISTORY GIVEN TO PUPILS OF MONROVIA ARCADIA DUARTE HIGH SCHOOL
(FORM A)
Soore
120+
115-119
110-114
105-109
100-104
95- 99
90- 94
85- 89
80- 84
75- 79
70- 74
65- 69
60- 64
55- 59
50- 54
45- 49
40- 44
35- 39
30- 34
25- 29
20- 24
15- 19
10- 14
Total
May1933
May1934
4
—
3
3
3
6
6
4
5
16
15
13
21
12
13
19
20
9
9
5
10
2
1
199
May
1935
May
1936
1937
4
--
3
1
1
4
3
3
4
4
8
3
15
15
12
16
22
10
13
9
2
2
2
—
—
—
—
2
1
1
3
1
4
4
8
13
13
5
13
6
19
16
13
8
8
3
3
1
1
1
3
4
5
9
4
8
14
9
9
10
14
21
10
12
10
2
—
1
2
6
2
4
9
8
10
8
16
16
14
13
13
10
4
8
3
5
3
152
144
151
158
May
1938
May
1939
May
1940
4
1
5
4
8
6
8
5
5
10
10
6
17
9
17
15
13
16
12
5
4
1
1
2
1
2
3
—
3
1
2
11
7
11
16
6
14
15
11
18
12
7
6
3
1
8
5
6
4
7
9
7
8
6
10
19
15
19
13
15
12
13
10
7
7
—
1
182
152
201
Median
60.0
60.0
51.7
53.2
61.9
58.9
56.1
66
Norm
81.0
81.0
81.0
81.0
81.0
81.0
81.0
81
High
Average
Low
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: Seven pupils placed
between 100 and 104 in the Columbia Researoh Bureau American History Test
given in May, 1940, as compared with three in 1933, three in 1934, one in
1935, etc*
91
AMERICAN HISTORY
Score
120
~
100
80
NORM
40
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
FIGURE 15
MEDIAN SCORES IN COLUMBIA RESEARCH BUREAU AMERICAN HISTORY TEST
1933-1940
1940
92
FRENCH
IA
Score
20C -
150
IOC
NORM
1933
1934
1335
1936
1337
1938
1939
FIGURE 15
MEDIAN SCORES IN COLUMBIA RESEARCH BUREAU FRENCH TEST
FRENCH 1-A CLASSES. 1933-1940
1940
93
FRENCH
Score
2A
200
150;
NORM
100
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
FIGURE 17
MEDIAN SCORES IN COLUMBIA RESEARCH BUREAU FRENCH TEST FOR
FRENCH 2-A CLASSES. 1933-1940
1940
94
years in which the test was given previous to that.
The
median among the 15 pupils in French 2-A was 132.5, twenty
points below the norm of 152, but considerably higher than
most class medians since 1933.
The results, as shown in
Table XIX, seem to show a general gain at the school, although
as in the case of the American History, the whole average is
far below the norm.
In the
Columbia Research Bureau Spanish Test, the
medians of all classes were above the norms: 95.8 as compared
with the norm of 91.0 in Spanish 1-A; 138.8 as contrasted
with 126.0 in Spanish 2-B; and 166.5 over 161.0 in Spenish
2-A.
In comparison with the medians of the corresponding
classes in past years, these of the 2-B and 2-A classes in
May 1940 continued the record of consistent gain; the 1-A
median, however, suffered a drop of ten points.
The constancy
of improvement is more marked here, nevertheless, than in the
French classes, and as the figures in Table XX show, the
comparison with national norms is much more favorable.4
the White Latin Test, administered to four classes,
showed gains in two and a slight drop in one.
The 3-B class,
comprising only four pupils, achieved a median of 140.0, five
points above the norm of 135.0; this class, however, was
given no basis of comparison, since the test had not been
administered to a 3-B class at this school before.
4
See also Figures 18-20.
The median
95
TABLE XIX
RESULTS OF THE COLUMBIA RESEARCH BUREAU TEST IN FRENCH
GIVEN TO PUPIIS OF OHS MONROVIA ARCADIA DUARTE HIGH
SCHOOL
(Form A)
Score
170160-169
150-159
140-149
130-139
120-129
110-119
100-109
90- 99
80- 89
70- 79
60- 69
50- 59
40- 49
Below 40
Total
1-A
2-A
mm
2
2
—
~
1
3
1
1
3
-—
—
1
1
1
4
6
3
1
2
••
19
15
-M.
—
—
1
—
Median
63.5
132.5
Norm
100.0
152.0
Mi.1939
Md.1938
Mi.1937
Mi .1936
Md.1935
Mi .1934
Mi.1933
103.8
—
58.3
53*3
49*2
75.0
85*0
75.0
117.5
87.5
95.0
130.0
132.5
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: One pupil
in French 1-A received a grade between 100 and 109, as compared
with three pupils in French 2-A who received the same grade*
96
TABLE XX
RESULTS OF THE COLUMBIA RESEARCH BUREAU TEST IN SPANISH
GIVEN TO PUPILS OF THE MONROVIA iUiCiiDIA DUARTE HIGH SCHOOL
(FORM A)
Soore
1-A
2-B
2-A
Total
65
24
43
Median
95.8
138.8
166.5
Norm
91.0
(126.0)
161.0
200+
195-199
190-194
185-189
180-184
175-179
170-174
165-169
160-164
155-159
150-154
145-149
140-144
135-139
130-134
125-129
120-124
115-119
110-114
105-109
100-104
95- 99
90- 94
85- 89
80- 84
75- 79
70- 74
65- 69
60- 64
55- 59
Below 55
Md.
Md.
Md.
Md.
Md.
Md.
Md.
1939
1938
1937
1936
1935
1934
1933
105.8
87.5
162.5
106.5
135.0
150.0
113.0
120.0
155.0
162.5
140.0
94.4
94.1
115.0
125.0
78.9
116.2
105.8
112.5
108.5
85.0
"" N0TE7~ This table Is to be read as follows; Two students in Spanisn
1-A received grades between 135 and 139, as compared with four in 2-B
and one in 2-A,
SPANISH
IA
Score
200
150
100
-
NORM
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
FIGURE 18
MEDIAN SCORES OF SPANISH 1-A CLASSES IN COLUMBIA RESEARCH
BUREAU SPANISH TEST. 1933-1940
1940
98
SPANISH
2
B
Score
2CC
150
NORM
100
19 33
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
FIGURE IS
MEDIAN SCORES OF SPANISH 2-B CLASSES IN COLUMBIA RESEARCH
BUREAU SPANISH TEST. 1933-1940
1940
99
5PANISH
2A
Score
200
NORM
150-
IOC
1933
1934
1935
1936
1938
1939
FIGURE 2C
MEDIAN SCORES OF SPANISH 2-A CLASSES IN COLUMBIA RESEARCH
BUREAU SPANISH TEST. 1933-1940
1940
100
in the 2-B class, 91.2, was considerably lower than the norm
of 105.0, and also under the medians of the two preceding
years.
The 1-A and 2-A classes, hoY/ever, continued consis­
tent gains in the median rating of their respective grades,
and surpassed the norm in both cases.
These figures, presen­
ted in Table XXI, shoY/ about the same rate of progress and
comparison with the norm as did the Spanish test results.5
SUMMARY
Such an achievement survey as was here presented,
although it cannot be completely satisfactory, since it v/as
a statistical and objective method of dealing with a problem
concerning varied and complex individuals, still had a
definite value.
Acquired abilities were measured and tabu­
lated, and progress indicated by comparison with the work of
previous years at the same school and with the results
achieved in other schools all over the country.
Such exami­
nations as were used in the above survey are made up by
experts to test the pupils in the wisest and most helpfpl
way, and the results were, if properly presented and used,
of aid to teacher, pupil, and public.
Specifically, the figures presented shov^ed in general
a positive rather than a negative movement at MonroviaArcadia-Duarte High School in all the courses surveyed.
5See also Figures 21-23.
The
101
TABLE XXI
RESULTS OF THE WHITE LATIN TEST
GIVEN TO PUPIIS OF MONROVIA ARCADIA DUARTE HIGH SCHOOL
Score
170-174
165-169
160-164
155-159
150-154
145-149
140-144
135-139
130-134
125-129
120-124
115-119
110-114
105-109
100-104
95- 99
90-94
85-89
80-84
75-79
70-74
65-69
60-64
Below 60
1—A
2-B
2—A
—
--
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
—
..
..
...
..
..
..
1
1
2
3
1
1
3-B
1
—
~
1
2
3
3
3
3
3
7
3
1
--
2
—
6
2
—
..
1
1
—
12
..
8
11
4
5
1
3
1
7
2
3
2
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
4
—
..
—
—
—
i—
—
—
..
Total
62
11
43
4
Median
96.9
91.2
127.7
140.0
Norm
84.0
105.0
121.0
135.0
79.1
93.6
82.2
82,9
81.7
59.0
74.1
97.5
105.6
87.5
82.5
90.0
90.6
97.5
112.5
123.1
108.7
112.7
100.0
95.6
107.5
Ml. 1939
Md. 1938
m . 1937
Md. 1936
Md. 1935
Ml. 1934
Ml. 1933
——
2
1
1
1
tmmm
1
—
—
—
—
—
—
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: Of the pupils who
received grades from 120 to 124, one was in 1-A, one in 2-B, three in
2-A, none in 3-B.
102
L A T IN
IA
Score
2CC—
150
100
'
NORM
1933
1934
1935
1936
193?
1S38
1939
FIGURE 21
MEDIAN SCORES OF LATIN 1-A CLASSES IN WHITE LATIN TEST
1933-1940
1940
L A T IN 2 A
Score
200
150
NORM
100
50
1033
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
FIGURE 22
MEDIAN SCORES OF LATIN 2-A CLASSES IN WHITE LATIN TEST
1933-1940
1940
104
LATIN
2 B
Soore
200
~
150
NORM
100
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
FIGURE 23
MEDIAN SCORES OF LATIN 2-B CLASSES IN WHITE IATIN TEST
1933-1940
1940
105
occasional drops and discrepancies, such as the drop in the
class median of Spanish 1-A, in comparison with the gain in
the other two classes tested, may be attributed to any number
of circumstances not shown by the statistics, such as a
chance grouping in one class of those of low mental ability,
the failure of some experiment in teaching method, or the
like.
In the case of the latter, the survey results would
suggest action to the individual teacher; in the event of the
former, the suggestion comes to mind that a complete listing,
in separate form, of the mental ability ratings in the
various classes surveyed, data now uncompiled, would aid in
making the whole investigation more useful.
As far as the present data are concerned, it may be
said that in comparison with the mental ability ratings of
the whole school as shown in Chapter IV, the general progress
of the classes tested seemed adequate.
The majority of the
classes tested rated above the norm; this seems to indicate
that the ratio between the achievement ability of the pupils;
the all-school mental ability percentage of 53.5 in th4
average I.Q. group, slightly lower than the norm; and the
fairly high percentage of retardation found in the school,
points to a successful teaching program.
The great improve­
ment shown by the end-year tests in English also points to
the efficacy of the teaching.
Only in American history and French were the classes
106
consistently below the norm.
The specific suggestions of this investigator, then,
would be that the following matters should be given particu­
lar attention and work: 1) the great discrepancy between the
abilities of boys and girls in English; 8) the low standards,
as compared with national ratings, of the classes in American
history and French; and 3) the non-characteristic breaks in
progress, such as that of Spanish 1-A mentioned above, which
attention to special problems by the individual teachers
could probably remedy.
With these matters given their proper
cure, the progress in achievement at Monrovia-Areadia-Duarte
High School would be able to continue at a steady rate.
CHAPTER VI
IMPLICATIONS OF THE CURRICULUM
It was the purpose of this chapter to set forth the
curriculum objectives of the Bfonrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High
School, to give a brief outline of the courses of study
offered, to point out special attempts that have been made
to adapt the courses to the changing needs of pupils, to
present the distribution by major courses of the entire
school and the racial groups, and finally, to present the
mental ability classification of the major course groups.
With this general picture of the relationship of the pupils
to the courses of study, the investigator hoped to be able
to determine whether the pupils have fitted into the courses
of study and if the courses of study have fitted the pupils,
in order to determine if the greatest possible degree of
efficiency is being obtained both from the school and the
child.
Before presenting these points, it is necessary to
explain and define some of the terms used.
The modern
educational process involves five rather distinct factors:
the child to be educated, the teacher, the school plant and
equipment, the administrative and supervisory machinery
necessary to insure an integrated and effective program, and
108
the materials of instruction.
It is in the latter field
that definitions are especially required.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Confusion will be avoided if the two terms "curricu­
lum” and bourse of study,” commonly employed in any consider­
ation of materials of instruction, are definitely limited in
meaning.
For the purpose of this study the curriculum will
be interpreted as meaning a particular arrangement of courses
or subjects which aims to attain certain general and specific
objectives for a special group of children.
For example,
this high school has made provision for a college preparatory
curriculum, a commercial curriculum, and a manual arts curri­
culum, each of which has certain rather specific objectives
in addition to the more general aims of secondary education.
In contrast to a curriculum, a course of study may be
defined as a working plan for a particular division of the
curriculum which is composed of materials closely enough
related to make a definite unit.
For example, this high
school has four years of mathematics, which as an integrated
plan of study forming an effective division of a curriculum,
would be known as the mathematics course of study.
As explained by Leo M, Chamberlain,
At any particular school level there will be as many
curricula as there are distinct groups of children to be
provided for, and as many courses of study as there are
109
Tonified subject divisions in the curriculum or the
curricula offered.^-
The first point to be taken up, then, concerns the
objectives of those group plans known as curricula.
CURRICULUM OBJECTIVES
In recent years a great deal of serious thought has
been given to the redetermination of the essential purposes
of secondary education in America.
In general, two concepts
have gained widespread acceptance.
The first Is that effec­
tive education must be based upon the interested experiencing
and participation of the learner rather than upon the ful­
fillment of mechanical memorization tasks set by the teahcer;
the second is that secondary education should be definitely
focussed upon the pupil for the purpose of enabling him to
live more satisfactorily in the present, to adjust himself
better to changing conditions, and to assume both intelligent
leadership and intelligent followership in helping to improve
society.
The secondary school must devote itself to three great
services, as follows:
1.
The
of essential
important as
end aimed at
mastery of the tool subjects; the acquisition
skills called the "fundamentals.I! They are
a means to an education rather than as an
by it.
^The Teacher and School Organization. (New York:
Prentice-Ilall, 1937), p. 391.
110
2. The transmission of our heritage, consisting of
1 ) the race culture as embodied in literature, music,
the arts, and the social graces; 2) material things both
in the form of natural resources and of man-made wealth;
and 3) our great political heritage of democracy,
justice, and liberty.
3. The production of courageous citizens capable of
discriminate thinking, and able to grapple with the
problems of an increasingly complex social order.
More directly, then, the primary objective of the
Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High School curriculum is to furnish
the best possible guidance and opportunities to the youth of
the school, in order that the pupils may receive training in
the fundamental principles and practices of citizenship,
morality, and culture; and that they may secure basic
training of a pre-vocational nature, both in preparation for
the further pursuit of educational and professional studies,
and for entrance into commercial and semi-technical positions.
If the pupil is unable to decide upon the specific
vocation which he wishes to follow, he may at least determine
in a general way what his aptitudes and interests are, and
may use the facilities of the school for further exploration
both of his own aptitudes and of the world of work.
The organization of the curriculum which is described
in the following section was made with the objectives which
have been outlined above in mind.
PATTERN OF THE CURRICULUM
A serious attempt has been made to adjust the types
Ill
and kinds of work offered at the Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte
High School to the changing needs of the pupils as described
in the preceding section.
To this end the courses of the
school are grouped into majors under the broad classifica­
tion of a college preparatory and a non-college preparatory
curriculum, with a guided but wide choice of electives
outside of each pupilTs major course.
Each pupil, in order
to be eligible for graduation, must secure a specified
number of credits in English, science, American history and
civics, American problems, orientation, senior problems,
physical education and health, and such others as are speci­
fied in the major course.
Every pupil, regardless of major,
must have 200 semester hours of credit for graduation.
The college preparatory course, for those pupils who
intend to go on with college or university work after
graduation from high school, presents four majors, in
history, language, mathematics, and science.
Each major
requires not only the entrance requirements of the Univer­
sity of California, but also 30 hours credit in the major
subject chosen.
If a pupil carries four subjects, physical
education, and the customary study hall, he will have
choice of from one to three electives, chosen from any field
in the curriculum, during his four-year high school course.
The non-college curriculum is for those pupils who
will go to business or trade school or will try to find a
112
job upon completion of the high school career.
Three years
of English, four of physical education, and one each of
orientation, American history, and American and senior
problems are required of pupils in this curriculum, plus
from 30 to 70 hours, depending on the course, in one of the
five possible majors: art, manual arts, commerce, music, or
the "general” major.
In the latter, 30 semester hours of a
college preparatory subject are required in addition to the
above requirements.
In these courses there is more of an
opportunity to take electives than in the college prepara­
tory course; this is especially true in the "general” major.
Great care is taken to guide the pupil when he enters
high school, in order to fit his needs and to avoid any
confusing changes later that may lead to maladjustments.
There is, however, never any hesitancy in changing a major
course for a pupil if it is deemed necessary.
Of the many subjects offered, there are two which
the investigators feel are of particular significance in
the new attempt to make the materials of instruction fit
the pupil.
These are the orientation course for freshmen,
and the senior problems class, both of which have been
reorganized in the last few years with the precise purpose
of attampting to meet the needs of the pupil.
Orientation course.
Four years ago a so-called
orientation course was organized for the freshman girls,
113
with the boys being left to choose an elective, in most
cases general science.
This orientation course was required
for girls, and was divided into four sections, each taught
by a different teacher of home economics, and arranged so
that each of four groups of pupils spent nine weeks with
each teacher.
Each section was planned to aid in one section of the
future woman*s home and social life.
One division, on child
care, instructed in the physical care of the infant and pre­
school child, and also emphasized the importance of habit
formation and mental health.
In the home and social problems
section, an effort was made to teach courtesy and social
responsibility, and to make each pupil conscious of home
privileges as well as home responsibilities.
The section on
meal planning included not only the study of foods and the
planning of menus, but also some practical aid in learning
social poise and appreciating the art of living with others.
In the fourth division, dress appreciation, the girls learned
to sew enough to make one garment, and developed standards of
simplicity, suitability, appropriateness, and becomingness in
dress.
This course, which has been carried on in much the
same way for the last four years, has also used the visual
education films made available by the United States
Department of Labor.
1X4
Two years ago it was agreed that an orientation
course should be organized for boys as well.
The arrange­
ment into four sections followed the same plan as the girlsT
course.
One section on vocational guidance gave insight in­
to the available vocations for men and the training required
for each, in order to assist the boys in their later choice
of vocation.
The woodshop division gave not only practical
experience but also some insight into the methods, character,
and social importance of modern industry, as well as some
appreciation of both the creative and the practical side of
workmanship.
The section on mechanical drawing gave
training in precision and reasoning.
The fourth section was
concerned with social arts, and aimed to give the boy an
appreciation of his home responsibilities and, through
actual experience, courtesy and social ease.
In considering these plans for the so-called orienta­
tion courses at this high school, the investigator is apt
to inquire whether the title is a correct one, or whether it
should be retained and the subject-matter changed.
Certainly the usual interpretation of the term
orientation does not apply here.
As defined by Mr. Tril-
lingham, the assistant county superintendent of schools for
Los Angeles County, orientation courses are aimed at
bringing together the children of varied priraary-school
experience who enter California high schools:
115
Some of these pupils attended elementary schools with
very small enrollments and were under the direction of
one teacher during the entire school day....Some of them
attended junior high schools.
Those responsible for the senior high school program
have long recognized the necessity for some type of class
situation which would bring together these incoming
students for the purpose of orienting them with the edu­
cational offerings and possibilities of the new institu­
tion. There has long been a felt need for a course
experience which would give boys and girls a perspective
of the total high school environment as well as to
reveal the necessary adjustments to be made by both the
pupil and the school.
The course in ninth-grade orientation seems to be a
worth while possibility for fulfilling that need. This
is particularly true for the four-year high school.
This course outline offers not only opportunities for
the consideration of problems and activities involved in
getting acquainted with the high school but includes
also sections for the study of the interrelations of the
individual pupil with his home and community.2
There is very little time spent in the orientation
course of Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High School in making a
mutual adaptation of pupil, school, and community, although
the courses offered certain information which every boy and
girl will need and probably have some occasion to use,
particularly in the case of those who are non-white or who
do not finish the entire high school course.
The writer felt, however, that adjustments needed to
be made in the course in order to give the pupils a better
understanding of the school and community of which they were
a part.
Also, it was suggested that boys ana girls should
2Ninth Grade Orientation, (Office of the Secondary
Education Division, County Superintendent of Schools, Los
Angeles County, September, 1937), Introduction [no pagination].
116
be together for part of the time, if not all of it.
At an
age when the pupils are very conscious of the opposite sex,
adjustment to the ordinary conditions of society will make
their later social relationships easier.
The very purpose
of the present emphasis in the orientation course on social
arts is contradicted by dividing the sexes.
Finally, the
division of the course into four sections, each with a
different teacher, defeats in part one purpose of orienta­
tion: to develop and maintain a very friendly feeling between
the pupil and the teacher.
With these criticisms in mind, the writer makes the
following suggestions for the organization of an improved
orientation course at Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High School:
1. Grouping.
A. Pupils should be classified only by chance in
registration. In this way the pupils will
learn to adjust themselves to all types and
races of children.
B. Both sexes should be in all classes for most of
the time.
C. Classes should be set up on the year basis,
with not more than two teachers handling each
group, and if possible, only one teacher.
2. Course of study: the course should be divided into
the following sections.
A. Your school and You, a unit for the purpose of
orienting the freshman pupil to his new school
environment, enabling him to use the library
effectively, and fostering in him the develop­
ment of useful skills and study habits.
B. Your Community and Home, in which an attempt is
made to allow the pupil to discover for himself
those social agencies which contribute to his
own physical and mental well-being, and to
determine what contributions he may make to
benefit his home and the community, as well as
117
what conduct he shall maintain in relation to
his home, his school, and his community.
C. School Arts, a unit aiding the teacher in an
attempt to instill in the pupil a manner of
behavior acceptable in the democratic society
in which he lives; the unit aims also to give
the student poise through a knowledge of
manners, and an awareness of a winning person­
ality.
D. Vocational Interests and Social Living, a unit
for the purpose of orienting students with the
occupational life of the community, making
them acquainted with a variety of vocations.
In this section the sexes might be advantage­
ously separated, though in this age of indus­
try the procedure would be questionable.
E. You and Your Personality, where the sexes
could be separated for the study of some of
the original course, such as personal grooming,
meal planning, clothing appreciation, and
child care, for the girls, under a home econom­
ics teacher; and personal grooming, shop work
and mechanical drawing under a teacher quali­
fied to teach both, for the boys.
In defense of the school, it is only fair to state
that the administration is not satisfied with the present
organization of the course, and is seriously considering an
adjustment.
These suggestions are made in the hope that
they may aid in any reorganizations made.
Having attempted to meet some of the pupil *s personal
problems in this orientation course, the school gives
further attention to these matters in the senior problems
course.
Senior Problems Course.
Prior to 1939-40, the school
offered a year course in American problems, intending to
give the pupil a definite knov/ledge of some of our social,
118
economic, and political problems.
Indoctrination was
avoided, but the fundamental principles of American democracy
were required as a basic condition of all discussions and as
a valid element in all conclusions to be drawn; and the
course attempted to set up attitudes of intelligent citizen­
ship through training in habits of alert curiosity, openminded investigation, and slow judgment in the affairs which
perplex our statesmen, politicians, judges, etc.
This
course remains as a requirement for graduation, but has been
reduced in duration to one semester.
The second semester of the course was changed in
title and content at the recommendation of a survey made by
a curriculum investigating committee headed by Aubrey A.
Douglass in October, 1938, which recommended that class
exercises in the last semester of American Problems be built
around some of the problems of living and working which the
pupils would meet on graduating.3
Following this recommendation, then, a course was
built on the following plan.
Divided into three sections, each of six ?/eeks’
duration, and each supervised by a separate teacher (two
from the social science department and one from the home
economics department), the course met during the last
semester of the pupil’s senior year.
One section covered
3Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High School Report of the
Survey Committee. October, 1938, pp. 14, 16.
119
vocational and educational guidance, giving this time
definite guidance in choosing a career or a further educa­
tional plan.
Pupils learned about colleges, universities,
business and trade schools; they heard about many different
types of vocations through class reports, of which each
individual gave two, one about a vocation which he had
newly studied, and one concerning some vocation in which he
had previously been interested.
The second section was
occupied with the studies of family relationships; by various
methods of discussion, the pupils reviewed their place in the
home, the family as an institution, and marital relation­
ships in view of their own lives.
The third division was
concerned with consumer education for four weeks, and social
arts for two.
Outside members of professions and industries
discussed such things as budgeting and testing of materials,
and other activities were planned with the purpose of making
the pupil an intelligent consumer.
During the study of
social arts such things as social introductions, behavior
on "dates,” etc., were discussed in a free and open way.
At the end of the section, the pupils put into practice
what they had learned in social living by giving a dinner.
Visual education aids were used in this course also;
no textbooks were employed, but the pupils used a wealth of
reference material in the library.
A very definite method of classification was followed
120
in these three groups, two of them being composed of collegepreparatory pupils, and one of the non-college preparatory
group.
All sections met during two consecutive periods of
the day, a convenient set-up whereby the senior adviser
might use the groups as a point of contact, and senior
meetings might be held with a minimum of disturbance to
classes other than the senior problems class.
In this arrangement, however, the writer would again
offer some criticism.
As in the case of the orientation
course, the advisability of having three teachers handle a
child during one semester may be questioned.
In a guidance
course it would seem only logical to believe that a teacher
with whom the child is well acquainted would be able to
achieve better results.
Furthermore, the time offered to
the social arts is much too short.
Past experience has
proved that pupils want to devote more time to this subject,
which they are at the age to be intensely interested in and
to profit by at the maximum.
It is suggested, therefore, that such a senior
problems course as exists at this high school contains vital
and timely subject matter, but that it might be wise to have
the pupil under the same teacher for the whole time, and
that the reorganization of the third section to give more
time to social arts would be advisable.
In considering these adaptations of the curriculum
121
to special problems, it is of great help to have in mind also
the more statistical information concerning the distribution
of the pupils in the major courses, and also the mental
ability classification by majors.
DISTRIBUTION BY MAJOR COURSES
Distribution of entire school.
The college prepara­
tory group claimed exactly half of the pupils enrolled in
Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High School in October, 1939.
The
commercial course ranked next highest with 18.4 per cent;
the general major included 15.9 per cent; and the practical
arts, art, and music claimed 9.4 per cent, 3.0 per cent, and
3.3 per cent, respectively.
These percentages represent a
rather constant order at this school; figures for the last
eleven years show no appreciable or progressive change in
the proportions of pupils in the various majors.
The figures
presented in Table XXII show as the only steady changes the
very slight rise in the general major and an equal falling
off in the practical arts.
The decline of the college
preparatory group during some of the depression years does
not actually constitute a trend, since it was not constant
and apparently not permanent.
Distribution by racial groups.
The varying emphasis
placed upon the major fields of study by the different
racial groups also remained fairly constant from year to
122
COLLEGE PREPARATORY
50
MUSIC
ART
3.3#
PRACTICAL
GENERAL
ARTS
9.4#
15.9#
FIGURE 24
BNROLIMBNT BY MAJOR COURSES.
ENTIRE SCHOOL, OCTOBER, 1939
123
60
COLIE GE
Pf
repAR> vt(>?;
50-
40'
3a
2a
10
GEMER
AE
M U Ml
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
FIGURE 25
TREND OF ENROLLMENT BY MAJOR COURSES.
ENTIRE SCHOOL.
1929-1939
1939
124
TABLE XXII
TREND OF ENROLLMENT 3N COURSES, IN PERCENTAGE,
AT MONROVIA ARCADIA DUARTE HIGH SCHOOL
Major course
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1935
College prep. 53.8
53.5
55.9
55.1
51.7
49.7
48.9
50.5
52.4
48.6
50 .C
Comaereial
16.3
17.8
18.8
18.7
18.4
20.8
20.0
18.7
17.7
19.2
18.4
General
10.8
10.9
9.6
10.7
14.4
12.4
13.4
14.0
14.7
15.1
15.S
Pract. arts
13.4
11.9
11.6
10.5
9.2
11.8
11.7
11.2
11.1
11.5
9.^
Art
3.3
3*1
2.3
2.0
2.7
2.9
3.3
4.0
2.8
3.2
3.C
Music
2.4
2.8
1.8
2.3
2.0
2.0
1.8
1.6
1*3
2.4
3.2
—
—
0.7
1.6
0.4
0.4
—
_
—
—
Not classified —
0
1
Total
100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.C
NOTE: This table dfcouFL be read as follats: 13.4$ of the total enroll­
ment In 1929 was registered In -foe Practical Arts course; in 1930, 11*9$, etc*
125
year.
The white pupils chose the college preparatory course
most frequently, 52,3 per cent of their number being enrolled
in it in October, 1939.
For the Negroes, the leading choices
were college preparatory and commercial, 28.6 per cent of
their number being enrolled in each.
A plurality of the
Japanese pupils, 34.3 per cent, chose practical arts, with
college preparatory next in favor.
Of the Mexicans, 45.8
per cent chose the commercial course, and 33.3 practical
arts.
The whole distribution is shown in Table XXIII, on
which are also presented the distribution for the last two
years, for the purpose of comparison.
The racial distribution seems to be based partly on
the mental ability ratings of the various groups, as seen
in Chapter IV, and partly, probably, on the fact that there
are certain social discriminations against the non-white
groups.
Significant in this connection is the mental ability
rating of pupils according to their major groups.
MENTAL ABILITY CLASSIFICATION OF MAJOR COURSE GROUPS
Each of the major courses is represented by a group
of pupils whose I.Q. distribution is characteristic in that
it tends to follow a similar pattern from year to year.
The
college preparatory group, which this year ranges in I.Q.
from 61 to 151, with a median of 108.3, is the highest each
year in central tendency, but usually overlaps all other
126
TABLE XXIII
MAJOR COURSE DISTRIBUTION OF RACIAL GROUPS
Total
No.
%
28.6
25.7
8.6
34.3
2.8
0.0
3
11
1
8
1
665
245
211
125
40
44
100.0
35 100.0
24
51.3
18.3
14.7
10.4
2.9
2.4
12.8
28.2
20.5
28.2
2.6
7.7
22.2
25.0
13.9
30.6
8.3
0.0
13.0
39.2
26.1
13.0
8.7
0.0
48.6
19.2
15.1
11.5
3.2
2.4
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
54.3
16.6
14.7
10.2
2.9
1.3
31.5
34.3
17.1
17.1
0.0
0.0
30.0
27.5
7.5
30.0
5.0
0.0
23.1
38.4
23.1
15.4
0.0
0.0
52.4
17.7
14.7
11.1
2.8
1.3
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
Iffiiite
No.
%
College prep.
Commercial
General
Fract. arts
Art
Music
637
210
198
97
36
40
Total
October, 1 W “
College prep.
Commercial
General
Pract. arts
Art
Music
Total
October, 1937
College prep.
Commercial
General
Pract. arts
Art
Music
Total
Japanese
No.
fo
Mexican
No*
%
Major course
October, 1939
52.3
17.2
16.3
8.0
2.9
3.3
1218 100.0
Negro
No.
%
15
15
9
8
2
4
53
28.3
28.3
17.0
15.1
3.8
7.5
10
9
3
12
1
MM
12.5
45.8
4.2
33.3
4.2
0.0
50.0
18.4
15.9
9.4
3.0
3.3
100.0 1330 100.0
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: Three Japanese pupils,
or 8.6% of those enrolled in 1939, were registered in the general major,
as compared with 13. % in 1938 and , % in 1937.
9
75
College
College
Prepafatot
I Coroy«*rc\al
ractical
Arts
vtnv%
CovnvwerciaA
Atwf
l&>3%
'Practical
Arts
cenerai
33,3 X
iT.o^
College
TVeyavo-t-cv-^
Si, 3 X
ovntnsraa
koneroA
FIGURE 26
DISTRIBUTION OF MAJOR COURSES BY RACIAL GROUPING.
1939
OCTOBER
128
MENTAL ABILITY
CLASSIFICATION
HIGH
AVERAGE
LOW
Per cent
of pupils
100
'
6.4
6.2
28.5
80
46.0
43.7
19.6
23.1
*v
AL£
60
6 65
40
375"
49.6
24.1 i
i
6.7
ENTIRE
SCHOOL
practical
music
ART
ARTS
COMMERCIAL
GENERAL
COLLEGE
PREPARATORY
FIGURE 27
MENTAL ABILITY CLASSIFICATION OF MAJOR COURSE GROUPS, OCTOBER 1939
129
120
110
100
90
80
Grade 9-B
9-A
10-B
10-A
11-B
11-A
12-B
FIGURE 28
MEDIAN I.Q. OF PUPILS BY GRADES.
OCTOBER, 1939
12-A
150
groups.
The trend of the median I.Q. in each major group is
downward, indicating however superior testing methods rather
than a decline in average mental ability among the pupils.
The figures for this section are presented in Table XXIV.
SUMMARY
The statistics presented above show a rather constant
interrelation between mental ability, racial groups, and
choice of major subject, a relationship which nowhere seems
to contradict what would be expected.
The connection is one
which will remain constant unless other factors, such as the
mental ability of racial groups, are changed; and as such
the brief survey above is interesting as an indication
rather than as a very significant phenomenon.
The important revelations of the chapter, considering
the new emphasis on the necessity of teaching the pupil his
place in the social, industrial, and political world, and of
Keeping him interested in learning to fit into his own
community, are those which deal with the changes made and
proposed in the curriculum,
Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High
School has already gone far, by the creation of special
student-interest classes and by attention to careful
choosing of the major, towards creating and maintaining
student interest and profit in the high school career.
It
is hoped that if the suggestions outlined in detail in the
151
TABLE XXIV
DISTRIBUTION OF TERMAN I.Q,. BY MAJOR COURSES
Terman
I.Q.
College
prep.
Commer­
cial
General
....
—
1
1
2
8
15
38
46
79
97
123
100
65
38
22
12
5
3
1
1
—
Total
657
Median
108.3
96.8
99.1
109.2
110.0
110.9
110.8
109.4
110.7
111.9
112.2
112.4
112.0
97.3
97.8
98.3
100.3
101.7
101.0
101.9
10016
100.9
100.4
98.7
98.9
99.3
99.7
100.9
102.2
102.1
101.1
100.7
100.0
Md,
Ml.
Ml,
Ml.
Ml.
Ml.
Ml.
Ml.
!Ml.
Ml.
1938-39
1937-38
1936-37
1935-36
1934-35
1933-34
1932-33
1931-32
1930-31
1929-30
1
2
1
5
14
26
38
55
44
25
15
8
4
6
—
—
—
1
1
4
12
24
22
32
50
17
17
11
7
5
5
2
—
245
209
~
Music
__
L50-154
L45-149
L40-144
L35-139
L30-134
L25-129
L20-124
L15-119
110*114
L05-109
LOO-104
95- 99
90- 94
85- 89
80- 84
75- 79
70- 74
65- 69
60- 64
55- 59
—
Practical Art
arts
Total
3
1
1
2
8
16
43
53
104
146
191
192
194
127
100
57
32
22
19
3
5
39
43
1317
90.8
99.4
95.4
102.6
92.9
95.0
96.9
96.3
96.2
95.6
97.0
95.2
94.8
96.3
98.3
101.2
97.9
97.5
97.3
99.5
100.0
101.2
102.1
105.0
94.4
96.2
93.7
99.4
102.5
106.2
106.5
102.5
104.3
110.0
103.4
104.6
104.6
104.6
104.7
105.7
107.2
106.6
107.1
106.7
__
—
-——
-1
4
3
9
14
14
20
24
14
8
7
5
—
1
3
5
6
4
4
5
4
4
1
—
2
—
1
124
—
—
1
1
1
3
5
4
6
3
8
1
3
3
—
--
NOTE: This table is to be read as follows: Among the 191 pupils
whose I.Q* was 105 to 109, 123 were college preparatory majors, 26 com­
mercial majors, 22 general majors, etc.
Per cent
of pupils
132
100
MUSIC
7.i
ART
4.6%
MUSIC 2.6%
ART 2.7%
PRACTICAL
ARTS
.%
8 1
MUSIC 1.9%
ART 2.4%
a r t s -s t i %
COMMERCIAL
10.9%
GENERAL
PRACTICAL
COMMERCIAL
16.1%
ARTS
75
23.1
24.8%
COLLEGE
GENERAL
COMMERCIAL
17.2%
PREPARATORY
50
24.1
COLLEGE
76.6%
GENERAL
PREPARATORY
19.7%
25
46.:
COLLEGE
PREPARATORY
18.5%
LOW GROUP
(I.Q. below 90)
AVERAGE GROUP
(I.Q. 90-109)
HIGH GROUP
(I.Q. 110 and higher)
FIGURE 29
DISTRIBUTION OF MAJOR COURSE'S IN EACH OF THE MENTAL ABILITY
GROUPS, OCTOBER,
1939
153
chapter are followed, the school will, through enlarging the
social activity, making closer friendships between guiding
teachers and pupils, and making a more definite effort to
orient the pupil in his community, succeed in making the
school’s educational program of even more worth and profit
to teachers, pupils, and the public.
CHAPTER VII
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This survey was undertaken, as has been suggested
before, in the hope that it might in some matters aid the
progress of educational methods, and assist in particular in
aiding the administration of Monrovia-Arcaaia-Duarte High
School to keep their school in the march of progressive
improvements.
The investigator attempted, by collecting and
analyzing data concerning personnel conditions at the school,
not only to present a useful picture of those conditions
during the school year of 1939-40, but also, by indicating
certain lacks and discrepancies, to offer to the school
administration valuable recommendations for improvement.
It
was the hope of the investigator that these recommendations
might assist the school in going forward toward its
educational ideal of fitting the program to the needs of
each individual pupil.
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
Statement of problem.
The problem, then, concerns in
general the question of the adaptation of the high school to
the pupil in order to give that pupil the most useful and
valuable education possible.
Specifically, it concerns
135
itself in this investigation with conditions of pupil and
teacher personnel at Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High School,
and with all the secondary problems which must be solved if
this institution is to continue its progress.
Some of
these matters which are discussed here concern the back­
ground of the pupils; the status of the faculty; the rate
of progress of pupils, and how satisfactory it is; the
ratio between pupil achievement and mental maturity; and
the relationship between major distribution, economic
status, and vocational choice, in reference to the sound­
ness and success of that choice.
The nature of the community and the school.
In
analyzing the communities of Monrovia, Arcadia, and Duarte,
and their relation with the school, it was found that the
economic background of the pupils was in general quite
sound, with a high socio-economic rating.
There was an
assurance of adequate income for the school from the rather
high tax rate and the considerable amount of taxable
property.
Housing, which wras not altogether adequate during
1939-40 and the fev/ years previous, had a promise of ameli­
oration in the near future, in the plans for construction
of two new junior high schools.
The teaching and adminis­
trative staffs gave evidence by their long service that
they found satisfaction and inspiration in their work, and
their organization seemed to the present investigator
136
adequate doth for attending to present problems and for
pointing the way toward future progress.
As for the pupils themselves, the socio-economic
rating of the one hundred representative pupils tested was
above the average, with the two largest classes coming from
the homes of the higher types of business and skilled labor.
This assured a satisfactory pupil background for present
success, as well as for future improvement in school
methods.
The placement and progress of pupils.
Age-grade
studies, included in the survey in order to shed light on
the still-confused problem of the relation of grades to the
studentfs progress, revealed that the situation at MonroviaArcadia-Duarte High School was in general favorable; that is,
that adjustments in the curriculum and attention to the
individual needs of pupils had a net result of retaining
over fifty per cent of those enrolled in the normal grade
for their age.
Improvement in this field can be credited
at least partly to an improved counseling system instituted
in the year 1939-40.
Since the school^s grading system is
the normal one used in California secondary schools, and
does not agree with the non-failure program, this increas­
ing age-grade normality and the corollary of decreasing
number of failures indicates progress in fitting the
curriculum to pupil needs.
137
There is still large room for improvement, however,
particularly in reference to the proportion of retarded
pupils, which is greater than that of accelerated pupils
mainly because the average is pulled down by the large
numbers of retarded cases among the non-white pupils.
It
is ’
with these, increasing in number with the general rapid
growth of the school population, that a great deal of 7/ork
must be done to solve individual and group problems of
placement and age-grade ratio.
Mental maturity of pupil personnel.
In studying the
mental maturity of the pupils at Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte
High School, the investigator found through tabulations of
various mental tests that the general status of the white
pupils was adequate, with a normal average.
The only
phenomenon here was the rising of tne I.Q. with advancing
grades, which however is probably the normal result of the
weeding-out process of promotion.
On the other hand, the situation among the non­
white pupils appeared to be quite unsatisfactory, with a
large number of I.Q.ts below 90, especially in the Negro
and Mexican groups.
Not only is this very much below the
accepted average, but also there is a wide discrepancy
between these grades and those of the white pupils from
the same district, attending the same school.
138
Educational achievement of pupil personnel.
The
investigator studied results of achievement tests in three
fields, English, foreign languages, and American history,,, in
order to determine as well as possible what progress was
being made in pupil achievement.
Such statistical, objective
tests cannot, of course, be used as absolute rneasureraents of
such an intricately motivated thing as individual pupil
achievement, and in this brief survey, the very paucity of
the records tabulated worked against their value for any
wide-spread conclusions.
Nevertheless, they did have certain specific values.
They showed, for instance, that the general progress in the
classes tested seemed to be commensurate with the expecta­
tions arising from the evidence of the mental ability and
pupil achievement records.
The movement was in general
toward a higher achievement in the courses studied.
Specific
need for improvement was fohnd in the classes in American
history and French, both below national norms; and in the
success of boys, as compared with girls, in the study of
English.
Implications of the curriculum.
In studying the
offerings and methods of administration of the curriculum,
the investigator found that the attempt to progress in
educational method was being aided by a program which
offered both interest and variety of major choice to the
139
student.
The wide choice of possible majors was made more
helpful in pointing toward a future vocation by a careful
and conscientious counseling system.
In order to meet the special problems of the incoming
freshman in becoming oriented to the school, and the out­
going senior in being prepared for adult life, the school
has set up special courses which aim to give instruction and
practice in all the social, vocational, and personal prob­
lems which can be covered.
These innovations have proved of
great help, although there is still room for improvement.
The records show that there is a fairly constant
relationship between the pupil1s choice of major and his
racial and mental ability groups.
The large percentage of
college preparatory students is to be expected in a school
with the rather high I.Q. average of Monrovia-ArcadiaDuarte High School.
Choice of other majors indicates an
attempt on the part of the counselors to fit the pupil into
a vocational group which will be ?*rithin the field of his
ability and interest, although doubtless economic and social
reasons also play a part in these choices.
CONCLUSIONS
In general, this cross-section of personnel problems
has revealed a satisfactory situation.
The socio-economic
status of pupils, the general good relations between the
140
community and school, and the adequacy of school buildings
and administration, plus the apparent satisfaction of the
teaching staff, indicated a good baclcground for the
building of a progressive excellence in methods and results.
In all of the pupil records and tests, results were either
fairly satisfactory or better; pupils’ mental ability and
age-grade placing were considerably above average.
This
not only affords additional firm foundation upon which to
base future progress, but also seems to indicate that
present efforts are finding a fair success.
The curriculum itself shows evident effort on the
part of the administration to effect a program which will
be of maximum interest and aid to each individual pupil,
and which will incorporate the findings of educational
experimenters into the best possible form.
Nevertheless, although conditions are in general
good, there still remain, as this survey shows, great
possibilities for improvement.
RECOMMENDATIONS
In the first place, this investigator believes,
great assistance could be rendered in forming a program of
maximum aid to each individual by improving and increasing
the amount and handling method of data available for study.
There are numerous relationships, such as that for instance
141
between studies which are below the national norm in
achievement and the I.Q. of students taking those subjects,
which it would benefit investigators to have.
more individual records would help.
In some cases
Most important of all,
perhaps, would be records of the pupils outside of school: a
more comprehensive home survey, more detailed records of the
elementary school career, and records of post-high school
activity.
The latter might be garnered by questionnaires
sent out, and would be of great assistance in determining
the success of the school*s vocational guidance.
Certain specific needs have come to light also during
the course of this investigation.
In particular the
deficiencies in I.Q., age-grade placement, and achievement
of the non-white portion of the school population were
noticed.
Just what could be done to alleviate this is not
clear, since social conditions figure largely in the cause;
however, some attention should be concentrated on the
problems of this group.
There are certain points at which the administration
of the curriculum administration appears to fall down.
In
particular was noticed the failure of American history and
French classes to come up to the norm in achievement.
Here
more specific records would be needed before any actual
recommendations could be made; suffice it to say here that
some notice should be paid to the problem.
142
The rapid increase of the school population suggests
another general field in which definite problems will later
arise; it is a field which those seeking to improve the
curriculum will have to keep in mind.
Most specific of the recommendations which the
investigator is called upon to make are in the field of
implications for the curriculum, as discussed in Chapter VI,
In the field of the freshman orientation work and the senior
problems course, there have been suggested very definite
reforms which might have the effect of enlarging the social
activity and social consciousness of the pupils by establish­
ing closer relations between pupil and teacher, and by giving
more social practice by letting boys and girls learn together.
Both confidence in the teacher and more effective vocational
guidance could also be accomplished by keeping the classes
for the most part under one teacher.
The final aims of
these courses, to give the best possible guidance and help
to each pupil, should guide all changes made.
It is felt that if these general present or future
problems are kept in mind, and some of the particular
reforms are instituted, that the school will continue in
and even improve in the progress and success which have
characterized its administration up to the present.
145
BIBLIOGRAPHY
REPORTS, SURVEYS, ETC.
Blose, David T., Axl Age-Grade Study of 7»652 Elementary
Pupils in 45 Consolidated S c h o o l s United States
Department of Interior, Department of Education, Bulle­
tin No. 19. Washington: Govt. Printing Office, 1950.
The study presents very good material dealing with agegrade studies.
California Taxpayers1 Association, A Survey of the Pasadena
City Schools. Association Report No. 119. Los Angeles:
California Taxpayers1 Associatioh, 1951. 551 pp.
Caswell, Hollis L., City School Surveys, an Interpretat-ion
and Survey. Teachers College Contributions to Educa­
tion, No. 558. New York: Teachers College, Columbia
University, 1929. 150 pp.
An excellent discussion of city school surveys.
Hull, Osman R., and Willard S. Ford, School Housing Survey
of the Monrovia Union High School District. Los Angeles:
University of Southern California, 1927. 48 pp.
A housing survey of vital importance when made.
, Survey of the Alhambra Public Schools. University
of Southern California Studies, Second Series, No. 5.
Los Angeles; University of Southern California, 1929.
107 pp.
Judd, Charles Hubbard, ,fSuinmary of Typical School Surveys,
National Society for the Study of Education, Thirteenth
Yearbook. 1914. Part II, pp. 69-85.
Los Angeles County, Ninth Grade Orientation. Los Angeles:
Office of the County Superintendent of Schools, Division
of Secondary Education, September, 1957. 87 pp.
A teaching guide of tentative suggestions for an orien­
tation course suitable to the first year of the senior
high school.
144
Monroe, George W., Survey of the Owensmouth High School.
Unpublished, 1931. 205 pp.
A study of the conditions find policies of the Owensmouth
High School.
Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High School Department of Research,
Reports No. 48 and 49, June, 1940. 2 vols., 129 and 68pp.
Monrovia A,rcadia High School, Report of the Survey Committee
[Aubrey Douglass, Chairman J, October, 1938. 53 pp.
A cooperative study of curricular offerings, instructional
and administrative procedures, and general organization in
the Monrovia Arcadia High School.
Sims, Verner M., Manual of Directions, Sims Score Card for
Socio-Economic Status, Bloomington, Illinois: Public
School Publishing Company, 1927.
Strayer, George D., Report of the Survey of the Schools of
Chicago. New York: Columbia Teachers College, 1932.
5 vols.
United States Office of Education, Survey Report of the
Cincinnati Public Schools. Cincinnati Bureau of Govern­
ment Research, 1935. 476 pp.
BOOKS AND ARTICLES
Chamberlain, Leo M., The Teacher and School Organization.
New York: Prentice-Hall, 1937. 656 pp.
An excellent treatment of the relationship of the teacher
to the different parts of the school organization.
Cubberley, Ellwood P., tTSchool Surveys,TT National Education
Association Journal of Addresses and Proceedings (1915).
pp. 10o2—33.
Cyr, Frank W., An Introduction to Modern Education.
York: Heath, 1937.
New
Greene, H. A., and A. W. Jorgenson, The Use and Interpretation
of High School Tests. New York: Longmans, Green, 1938.
614 pp.
145
Discussion of essential principles of measurement designed
especially for the high school teacher and the students
of education.
Heck, A. 0., Administration of Pupil Personnel. Boston: Ginn &
Company, 1929. 479 pp.
The best methods in using the whole school plant, and the
best ways of meeting the needs of each pupil, although
the school may be a large one.
Kandel, I. L., Twenty-Five Years of American Education. Hew
York: Macmillan, 1924.
Briefly discusses the part surveys have played in educa­
tional advance. Gives primary attention to early surveys.
Mort, Paul, The Individual Pupil. New York: American Book
Company, 1928. 385 pp.
A worthy contribution presenting suggestions for the
improvement and development of practices leading to
instruction aimed at the needs of individual pupils of
varying ability.
Reavis, W. C.> Pupil Adjustment. New York: Heath, 1926.
A timely message to teachers, placing all responsibility
for failure of their pupils squarely on their shoulders
for want of an adequate effort of diagnosis.
Sears, Jesse B., The School Survey.
Company, 1925. 440 pp.
New York: The World Book
A textbook which is organized around the techniques used
in city school surveys.
Skinner, Charles E., and others, An Introduction to M o d e m
Education. New York: Heath, 1937. 491 pp.
A survey of the social, historical, psychological, and
philosophical aspects of modern education.
Terman, Lewis M., The Intelligence of School Children.
York: Houghton Mifflin, 1919. 317 pp.
New
A book disclosing principles, results of tests on all age
levels, their interpretation, and practical suggestions.
146
Terman, Lewis M., Measurement of Intelligence.
Houghton Mifflin, 1916. 179 pp. ~
Boston,
A testing manual dealing with problems and their results,
and presenting detailed instructions relating to the
standard achievement tests.
Wilson, Guy M., and Kremer J. Hoke, How to Measure.
Macmillan, 1928. 597 pp.
Hew York,
This work treats new-type tests and mental tests as well
as a study of statistical procedures.
THESES
Connell, Eleanor H., !fA Pupil Personnel Study of a Large
Junior High School in Los Angeles.” Unpublished MasterTs
Thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles,
August, 1933.
A study of mental age, failures, and their relation to I.
Q., with recommendation for improvement. Good for
statistics.
Ferguson, Aleck L., ”Survey of the Educational program of the
Herbert Hoover High School, Glendale, California,”
Unpublished Master*s Thesis, University of Southern
California, Los Angeles, 1932. 187 pp.
An excellent report of the investigation of a large new
school.
Hippier, Claude William, !TA Personnel Study of Boys in the
Eliot Junior High School of Pasadena, California.”
Unpublished Master?s Thesis, University of Southern
California, Los Angeles, June, 1933.
A study of 100 selected boys in regard to school progress,
mental ability, physical and social behavior, interests,
and backgrounds. To give counsellor valuable information.
Good for related studies.
Hutchens, Jens H., ”A Pupil Personnel Survey of the Escondido
Union Schools, Escondido, California.” Unpublished
Master»s Thesis, University of Southern California, Los
Angeles, June, 1939. 112 pp.
147
A survey to determine whether the school*s educational
program was serving efficiently the needs of the children
of the Escondido district, and the legitimate demands of
the community.
Jenkins, Constance A.* ”A Pupil Personnel Survey of the
Washington School, San Diego, California.” Unpublished
Master’s Thesis, University of Southern California, Los
Angeles, July, 1959. 154 pp.
A survey made to determine to what extent the Washington
school, through its organization and curricula, is
meeting the needs of each child, whether he is normal or
one of the special types at the upper or lower end of the
ability scale.
MeEuen, Fred L., ITA Survey of the Riverside Senior High
School,” Unpublished Master’s thesis, University of
Southern California, Los Angeles, 1933. 156 pp.
An interesting survey of the housing situation and
educational program.
Ralston, Merle C., ”A Personnel Study of Ninth Grade Pupils
in the San Benito County High School.” Unpublished
Master’s thesis, University of Southern California,
August, 1937. Ill pp.
Reinhard, James Clarence, ”A Personnel Study of the Student
Body of Central Junior High School, Los Angeles, Cali­
fornia.” Unpublished Master’s Thesis, University of
Southern California, Los Angeles, June, 1935. 161 pp.
Smith, G. Wheeler, ”A Survey of the Simi Valley Union
Districts.” Unpublished Master’s Thesis, University of
Southern California, Los Angeles, June, 1930. 235 pp.
Wright, Frank M., ”A Survey of the El Monte School District,
El Monte, California.” Unpublished Master’s Thesis,
University of Southern California, Los Angeles, June,
1930. 338 pp.
Complete survey with recommendations for improvement.
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