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A PERSONNEL SURVEY OF THE STUDENT BODY OF THE MONROVIA^ARCADIA-DUARTE HIGH .SCHOOL, MONROVIA, CALIFORNIA A Thesis Presented to The Faculty of the School of Education University of Southern California In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Science in Education fey Ruth E. Foreman May 1941 UMI Number: EP54015 All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion. Dissertate n Publ sh*ng UMI EP54015 Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author. Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 4 81 0 6- 1346 £ & % } ?1 \ € T h is thesis, w r i t t e n u n d e r the d ir e c t io n o f t h e ^ > ^ & C h a ir m a n o f the c a nd id a te Js G u id a n c e C o m m itte e a n d a p p ro v e d by a l l m embers o f the C o m m itte e , has been presented to a nd accepted by the F a c u l t y o f the S c h o o l o f E d u c a t io n in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f the re q u ire m e n ts f o r the degree o f M a s t e r o f S cience in E d u c a tio n . 1 ......... Guidance Com m ittee P. J. Weersing C hairm an Louis P. Thorpe D. Welty Lefever TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page I. THE NATURE AND PURPOSE OF THE INVESTIGATION............. 1 Importance of the Problem.............................. 3 Review of literature and related studies............... 4 Review of literature.................... ............. 4 Related studies................ .................. ..*.6 Sources of data and method of procedure................ 8 Sources of data.................... 8 Methods of procedure........ *....... ................ .9 II. THE NATURE OF THE COMMUNITY AND THE SCHOOL The Community. ..........11 ................ 12 History of relationship between community and the school......................12 physical factors affecting community life .15 Characteristics of the school...... *................... 18 The housing situation................................ 18 Organization and teaching personnel............. 19 Attendance. ;........................................ 21 Socio-economic background of pupils...................22 Summary.*...... ••••••••••• III. THE PLACEMENT AND PROGRESS OF PUPILS......... ••.82 35 Grading system......................................... 38 Enrollment by grades*............ .„........ *.......... 39 ii Age-grade classification..................... ..••••••41 Definition of terms....... ......... 41 Age-grade classification of entire school*..........44 Classification of racial groups.....................48 Summary........ 52 IV. MENTAL MATURITY-OF PUPIL PERSONNEL.................. Definition of terms........................... Plan and scope of mental testing....... 60 ..61 Distribution of intelligence quotients................62 Distribution of entire school................ Distribution of racial groups 62 .................. 63 Distribution of intelligence quotients by grades Summary...... .68 68 V. EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT OF PUPIL PERSONNEL......... ...73 Definition of terms...... ..75 plan and scope of achievement testing................ 75 Educational achievement........................ 77 Results in English............. 77 Results in American history.................. 89 Results in French, Spanish, and Latin ........ 89 Summary............................... .100 VI. IMPLICATIONS FOR THE CURRICULUM......................107 Definition of terms ................. 108 Curriculum objectives............................... 109 pattern of the curriculum.............. 110 iii Orientation courses...................... 112 Senior problems course........ ............ 117 Distribution by major courses.............. .121 Distribution of entire school.......... .121 Distribution by racial groups .121 ............ Mental ability classification of major course groups..125 Summary............... 130 VII. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS........... 3-34 Summary of findings ............................134 Statement of problem...... ...134 The nature of the community and the school......... 135 The placement and progress of pupils................136 The mental maturity of pupil personnel............. 137 The educational achievement of pupil personnel.. Implications for the curriculum.......... Conclusions ........ Recommendations 138 .....138 139 ...... BIBLIOGRAPHY............................... 140 143 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1. Race distribution. Entire School, October, 1939...... 25 2. Enrollment by Grades, October, 1959................... 42 3. Age-Grade Classification, By Separate Grades, October, 1959............ ........ .............. 47 4. Distribution of I.Q. Among Negro Pupils, October,1939.66 5. Distribution of I.Q. Among Mexican Pupils, October, 1939................................................ 67 6. Distribution of I.Q. Among Japanese Pupils, October, 1939......................................... ....70 7. Distribution of Percentile Sank Scores in Cross English Tests. Entering 9-B Pupils, September 1939......... 80 8. Median Percentile Rank of 9-B English Classes in Sep tember r(Cross English Test, 1932 to 1940).... ....81 9. Median Percentile Rank Scores of Entering 9-B Classes in English (Cross English Test. February Classes, 1935-1940).......................................... 82 10. Distribution of Percentile Rank Scores in Cross English Test. 9-A Classes, May, 1940....................... 83 11. Improvement of Freshman Boys and Girls in English, as Shown by Median Percentile Rank in Cross English Test At Beginning and End of Year. 1939-1940................. End-Year Class, .....84 V 12. Distribution of Percentile Rank on Cross English Test Given to Senior 12-B Class. September, 1939....... 86 13. Distribution of Percentile Ranh Scores in Cross English Test. 12-A Class, May, 1940...... ..........87 14. Improvement of Senior Boys and Girls in English, as Shown by Median Percentile Rank in Cross English Test at Beginning and at End of Year. 1939-1940....88 15. Median Scores in Columbia Research Bureau American History Test. 1933-1940............... 91 16. Median Scores in Columbia Research Bureau French Test. French 1-AClasses. 1933-1940....... 92 17. Median Scores in Columbia Research Bureau French Test. French 2-A Classes. 1933-1940.............93 18. Median Scores of Spanish 1-A Classes in Columbia Research Bureau Spanish Test. 1933-1940........... 97 19. Median Scores of Spanish 2-B Classes in Columbia Research Bureau Spanish Test. 1933-1940........... 98 20. Median Scores of Spanish 2-A Classes in Columbia Research Bureau Spanish Test. 1933-1940........... 99 21. Median Scores of Latin 1-A Classes in White Latin Test. 1933-1940................... 102 22. Median Scores of Latin 2-A Classes in White Latin Test. 1933-1940.................. .103 23. Median Scores of Latin 2-B Classes in White Latin Test. 1933-1940.................... 104 vi 24. Enrollment by Major Courses. 1939............ 25. Entire School, October, .............. Trend of Enrollment by Major Courses. 122 Entire School. 1929-1939........................................ 123 26. Distribution of Major Courses by Racial Grouping. October, 1939.................................... 127 27. Mental Ability Classification of Major Course Groups, October, .1939...................... 28. Median I.Q. of Pupils by Grades. October, 1939............ 29. 128 129 Distribution of Major Courses in Each of the Mental Ability Groups, October, 1939.....................132 LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I. Attendance Report, October 1, 1959................... S3 la. Race Distribution, 1931 to 1940, October Data....... S4 II. Provisional Level of Socio-Economic Status from Sims Score Cards........................ 27 III. Classification of Occupations According to Sims Socio-Economic Scale ............... 29 IV. Median Rating in Sims Socio-Economic Scale.......... 31 V. Enrollment by Grades, October, 1939.................. 40 VI. Normal Progress in Earning of Credits for High School Graduation............ 43 VII. Age-Grade Distribution, October, 1939.............. 46 VIII. Age-Grade Distribution of Japanese Pupils, October, 1939........................ 49 IX. Age-Grade Progress of Japanese Pupils, October, 1939.50 X. Age-Grade Distribution of Negro Pupils, October, 1939.51 XI. Age-Grade Status of Negro Pupils, October, 1939..... 53 XII. Age-Grade Distribution of Mexican Pupils, October, 1939.......................... 54 XIII. Age-Grade Progress of Mexican Pupils, October, 1939................................................ 55 XlVa. Classification of Intelligence Quotients According to the Terman Scale....................... 64 v iii XIV. Classification of Intelligence Quotients of Racial Groups .... 65 XV. Distribution of I.Q. by Grades, October, 1939....... 69 XVI. Results of the Cross Test in English Given to Ninth Grade Pupils.......... ....79 XVII. Results of the Cross Test in English Given to Twelfth Grade Pupils .... 85 XVIII. Results of the Columbia Research Bureau Test in American History, Form A . ................. 90 XIX. Results of the Columbia Research Bureau Test in French, Form A ........ 95 XX. Results of the Columbia Research Bureau Test in Spanish, Form A. •••••••••••••••....... 96 XXI. Results of the White Latin Test................... 101 XXII. Trend of Enrollment in Courses, in Percentage.... 124 XXIII. Major Course Distribution of Racial Groups...... 126 XXIV. Distribution of Terman I.Q. By Major Courses..... 131 CHAPTER I THE PURPOSE AND NATURE OF THE INVESTIGATION The American schools have been from their beginning greatly influenced by democratic ideals and they stand today as an expression of the faith of democracy in education. The common acceptance, in American thinking, of the equality of opportunity and the necessity for equivalent facilities for training in order that the welfare of the democracy might be preserved set a pattern for growth which has expan ded immeasurably the scope, forms, and functions of our schools. The last few years have seen a rapid extension of free public education from the nursery school to the univer sity and a marked characteristic of the growth has been the enormous increase during the last twenty-five years in the percentage of boys and girls of high school age who attend secondary schools. With this increase has come, as one of the most absorbing problems of modern education, the question of the adaptation of the high school to the pupil and of the pupil to the school. These large numbers of -pupils have greatly varied interests, abilities, and vocational outlooks; and it is to the detriment of education as it is now developed that it does not do more to adapt the curriculum to these diverse 2 needs. In order to obtain a better knowledge of each pupil’s needs and of those of the school as a whole, investigators have discovered the value of making a study of data pertinent to each individual case. When these data are available and are brought together frequently and analyzed critically, it becomes more possible to adjust the school to meet the needs of the individual pupils rather than adjusting the pupils to the school. It was the purpose of this study, therefore, to gather and analyze critically such data as will reveal the present status of the pupil personnel of the Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High School, in order that it may be determined to what extent this school meets the needs of the pupils, and what further needs, as revealed by the investigation, should be met. It was the investigator’s purpose to organize the data, as described in the following paragraphs, in order that they might serve as a guide in revising the curriculum for the ensuing year. The materials used in this study consisted of stan dard tests and other records which included the records of the mental distribution, enrollment distribution, educational achievement, occupational desires, economic background of pupils, and the status of the teaching personnel. In an analysis of the pupil personnel one becomes involved in a study of the factors of age-grade placement, 3 distribution of major courses, enrollment according to grades and courses, and achievement of pupils. Numbers of questions arise, the answers to which are of iaiportance to the success of teaching and administration, and to the welfare and success of the pupil: Were the pupils progress ing through the grades at the normal rate? pupil distribution in the major courses? What was the Were the pupils up to the standards in their achievement in proportion to their mental maturity? pupils? What was the economic background of these What were their vocational choices, and were they enrolled in the course which would best help them to attain these choices? When the importance of answers to these questions is seen, the general value of the careful consideration of the problem can be understood. In the case of this investiga tion there were also specific values to be gained. IMPORTANCE OF THE PROBLEM This survey was the result of a desire on the part of the administration and the investigator to secure recent data on certain phases of the educational procedures of BConrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High School, and to secure a general picture of the pupil personnel status in that institution. By means of such an educational survey, the problems of the school may be determined and a more intelligent procedure 4 for their solution may be formulated than by uninformed experiment. It is hoped that this investigation will reveal the educational problems of the pupils involved, in order that it may assist in determining future changes in the curriculum of the school. The primary purpose of a survey is to better con ditions in the locality surveyed, but as Hollis L. Caswell says, the influence of the investigation by no means ends at this point. Standards and methods of measurement for admin istrative purposes, which are the result of surveys, have vitally influenced all educational development. 1 The importance of the problem is further seen when one notes the recent literature which is devoted to it. REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND RELATED STUDIES During the past ten or fifteen years, educational procedures have experienced considerable change as a result of the emphasis being placed on school survey work of a pupil personnel nature. The revelations of these surveys have made clear the paths which the modifications and changes had to take in order for education to give the best service to the pupil. Such surveys, then, are now recog- ^City School Surveys, and Interpretation and Apprais al. (Contributions to Education No. 358. New York: Teachers1 College, Columbia University, 1929.) 5 nized as occupying a fundamentally important place in the scientific development of education. About 1919, a new note, the introduction of sections on individual differences in pupils, began to appear in the reports on classification and progress. By the end of the third decade of the century this new concept was well enough established to be competently formulated by George D. Strayer: The schools of a democracy should offer to each pupil those unique opportunities for acquiring shills, for practice in precise thinking, and for growth in power of appreciation which are attainable by one of this intelli gence. This ideal requires that we adjust our standards to the abilites of our pupils. Every pupil in the ideal school system is judged by the best which he can do and not by the media of a non-selected group.2 This field of individualization in meeting pupil needs is one in which most important contributions have been made in the form of surveys. Caswell in his interpretation and appraisal of city school surveys has brought out clearly that the best survey of today may be expected to consider the problems of the classification and progress of children in these three questions: 1) How adequately do the educational opportunities provided meet the needs of the individual pupils? 2) Where should adjustments be made to meet the needs of individual pupils? 3) How may these adjustments be made continuously?^ Paxil R. Mort, The Individual Pupil, (New York: American Book Company, 1928), Editor»s Introduction by George D. Strayer, p. 5. 3 Caswell, op. cit.. p. 95. 6 Not only should the individual pupil be met according to his individual needs, but the received by the school should whole bodyof pupil material be developed with the degree of efficiency practiced in the business world, W. C. Reavis brings this home when he states that: Large numbers of pupils fourteen to eighteen years of age withdraw from the secondary school each year for no other reason than inability to become adjusted to its procedures and purposes, when many of these might be retained longer in school if they could be helped to understand themselves and if work couldbe provided which they could profitably do and through which they could develop such capacities as they may p o s s e s s ,4 It is at this point of contribution to the educational end of more desirable adjustments of the school to the individual pupil that the present investigation orients itself to the field of the professional literature. Related Studies, A number of the surveys made in more recent years have been used as a basis for this study, and have given excellent suggestions in both methods and results. The surveys studied and found useful for the purposes of this investigation were School Housing Survey for the Monrovia Union High School District, a special study by Osman R, Hull and Willard S, Ford,5 and the following theses, listed in chronological order: A Pupil Personnel ^Pupil Adjustment (New York: Heath, 1926), p, 96. 5University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1927, 48pp. 7 Study of a Large Junior High School in Los Angeles, by Eleanor H. Connell;6 A Survey of the Riverside Senior High School, by Fred L. McBuen;? A Personnel Survey of the Student Body of Central Junior High School. by James C. Reinhard;6 A Survey of the Educational Program of Monrovia Arcadia Duarte High School, by Glenn P. Hollingsworth;^ a Pupil Personnel Survey of the Escondido Union Schools. Escondido. California, by Jens H. Hutchens;-^0 and A Pupil Personnel Survey of the Washington School. San Diego. California, by Constance A. Jenkins.*^ Other more comprehensive surveys, such as those covering all phases of the school system, were of general use in this investigation. Of these the most beneficial were The Pasadena School Survey. ^ The Chicago City School ^Unpublished Master’s Thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1935, 161 pp. ^Unpublished Master’s Thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1933, 156 pp. ^Unpublished Master’s Thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1935, 161 pp. ^Unpublished Master’s Thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1938, 221 pp. ^Unpublished Master’s Thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1939, 112 pp. ^Unpublished Master’s Thesis, University of Southern California,'Los Angeles, 1939, 154 pp. ^California Tax Payers Association, Survey of the Pasadena City Schools (Los Angeles: California Tax Payers’ Association Inc., 1931), Association Report No. 119, 331 pp. 8 Survey,-*-5 The Survey of the Los Angeles City School by Hull and Ford,i4 and the Survey Report of the Cincinnati Public Schools.-*-5 SOURCES OF DATA AND METHOD OF PROCEDURE Sources of data. The data for this study were collected by the investigator while inactual contact with the school involved. They were obtained from the following sources: 1) enrollment cards, permanent record cards, and personal cards on file in the offices; 2) results from personal questionnaires, concerning training and experience, from each teacher and from the files in the superintendents office in the high school; 3) results of the tabulation of intelligence and achievement tests given by the Research Department of the Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High School. The technique used in the survey was one that has been, in general principle, employed in scores of previous cases; it differs, however, in that every educational system presents its own individual problems and situations, to ■^George D. Strayer, Report of the Survey of the Schools of Chicago (New York: Columbia Teachers1 College, 1932), 5 vols. 14?Osman R. Hull and Willard S. Ford, Survey of the Los Angeles City School (Los Angeles City School District, 1934), 395 "pp. ^United States Office of Education, Survey Report of the Cincinnati Public Schools (Cincinnati Bureau of Government Research, 1935), 476'pp. 9 which no procedure that has been strictly standardized is applicable. Method of Procedure. In presenting the results of the survey, the study has been divided into seven chapters, of which the general contents are here described. In Chapter I, the investigator states the problem, giving a review of the literature in the professional field as well as that which has been directly useful as related to this study, and a concise statement concerning the source of the data used in this investigation. The next chapter includes a brief description of the community for the purpose of giving to the reader an idea of the community background of the school. This chapter, also, contains an explanation of the local school organization, including a review of the housing situation, the training end experience of the teaching staff, and the enrollment of the school. The third step in the survey wras to give, in Chapter III, an insight into the grading system of the school, and the relation of the pupilsT ages to their grade placement, in order to point out the number and per cent of the pupils who were of normal age, over age, and under age for their grade. This section included a review of enrollment by grades. Chapter IV surveyed the mental ability of the pupil 10 personnel, with tables showing the distribution of I.Q.»s, within the school as a whole, among the racial groups, and in the grades. Psychological testing here indicated the place of the pupils at the time of testing, and the point of departure for further individualized study. The investigation of educational achievement, in Chapter V, attempted to determine, by means of achievement tests, the ability of £he pupils in English, American History, and languages. In this section, the purpose was to determine whether the pupils were retarded, accelerated, on normal, according to the standard norms given. The curriculum objectives of the school were related in Chapter VI, emphasizing the points at which the curriculum is especially adapted to the individual needs of the pupils, and suggesting the places at which further adaptation is needed, and what form it might take. Tables concerning the major course distribution show the situation in the school as a whole, among the racial groups, and by mental ability classification. The summary occupies Chapter VII, with recommendations in respect to the findings of the survey. The study is completed Tfith a selected, annotated bibliography. CHAPTER II THE NATURE OF THE COMMUNITY AND THE SCHOOL In order* to make possible a fuller under standing of the phases of study brought out in this investigation, an insight into the nature of the school and the community under investigation is necessary. The research on which this chapter is based, therefore, has been concerned with the general nature of the community, its relation to the school, and a general survey of the physical setup, organi zation, and personnel of the school in question. This general vie?/ of the community and school has been given with special reference to its bearing upon the subsequent chapters. The increasing emphasis upon the importance of relations between school and community promises to become:-a major development in American education. Since the chief aim of educators has changed from the teaching of certain specified subject-matter to the new ideal of understanding and serving the special needs of the child, the study of the relationships between school and community have become increasingly important. As Cyr explains it, The immediate community in ?/hich the child lives usually constitutes his chief environment, physical and social. The modern teacher needs to study the educa tional implications of this community environment just 12 as he needs to study the childfs physical and psychologi cal characteristics. An understanding of the individual community is as important as an understanding of the individual child. This twofold problem of education in a democracy has focussed attention upon the necessity for developing and maintaining closer and more effective relationships between school and community. It is impossible to serve the needs of the child with out understanding those needs, and it is impossible to under stand the child and estimate his needs without understanding his environment. It seemed pertinent to the investigator, therefore, to give a concise survey of the nature of the community before giving that of the school, in order to gain a better knowledge and understanding of the school which has grown out of the district. THE COMMUNITY History of the relationship between the community and the school. In 1932 there was a great deal of opposition among certain members of the community to the prevailing tax rate. The objection was led by a small group of taxpayers and aided by a semi-weekly newspaper. Few' of those in opposition had children in school; on the other hand, how ever, the parents of the school population did not come to the defense of the school, and most citizens, as well as the one daily newspaper published in the district, maintained a ^Frank W. Cyr, An Introduction to Modern Education (New York: Heath, 193777 p. 80. 13 more or less neutral attitude. The positive objections of this one section of the community, unchecked by any counter movement, naturally had its effect on the teachers of the whole area. The high school instructors, through committees, suggested economies which resulted in substantial savings for the district. In addition, salaries of all teachers were reduced twelve per cent in 1932—33. During this period of opposition, as records show, the district was able to support its schools. As compared with the legal tax-rate limit of seventy-five cents for each hundred dollars assessed valuation, which was reached in 1929, the 1936-37 tax rate was sixty-four cents. In the same year the assessed valuation was $15,851,495, with an average daily attendance of 1073 pupils. In 1939-40, the situation was evenbetter, with an assessed valuation for the district of $19,660,845, a tax rate of .6407, and an average daily ‘ attendance of 1248. In the same year the teachers* salaries, which had been restored seven per cent in 1936-37, were raised the remaining five per cent to the 1932 level. These facts show, therefore, that the community was well able to support its schools. There is, however, another point of discussion regarding the financing of the school. This is the fact that of the total assessed valuation taxed for 1939-40, $10,191,045 14 of it, or 51 per cent, appertained to Arcadia, This means that Arcadia, with 39,6 per cent of the school population, contributed more money per pupil per year than either of the other two communities involved. Such a condition explains the growing feeling during the last few years that Arcadia would be able to support its own high school. The strength of the movement has been limited by the results of test cases in similar districts, as for example in San Marino, which seceded from South Pasadena High School without accomplishing the purpose of acquiring better facilities and increased efficiency. There is a plan proposed, however, whereby Arcadia will have its own junior high school.2 On the ?»rhole, however, the feeling in the community toward the school, and vice versa, has been very healthy. Hollingsworth, in his survey of the same school district in 1938, made the following suggestion: In order to combat the lethargic attitude toward the schools on the part of the community, it is recommended that a definite program be instituted by the high school for the purpose of cultivating the friendship of the community.^ Since that time such a program has been definitely 2This plan is described further in the section on the housing situation, p. 18 below. 3Glenn P. Hollingsworth, A Survey of the Educational Program of Monrovia Arcadia Duarte High School (Unpublished Master’s Thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1938), pp. 19-20. 15 organized to bring about a closer feeling of friendship between the school and the community. In the last year, for instance, the school made extra efforts to help the ParentTeachersT Association by explaining the purpose and program of the institution in the meetings of that organization. School staff members were very active in the work of the Coordinating Council, and the staff and pupils cooperated fully in commun ity Christmas work. Many assembly programs during the year were given in cooperation with various representative portions of the community, such as the Christmas pageant, the armistice program, and speech contest programs sponsored by the American Legion and the Daughters of the American Revolution. In these and other ways the school and community have bettered their relationships, with the result that the school year of 1939-40 saw at its close an unprecedented friendliness of feeling. Physical factors affecting community life. The Monro via -Ircadia-Duarte Eigh School serves the foothill district between Pasadena and Azusa. The Sierra Madre Mountains form a natural boundary to the north, and the San Gabriel River bounds the east and south. The three communities comprising this high school district are all interesting, but very different in type. None of these three communities has any particular industrial interest. Arcadia has a very small weaving mill, and a lemon and orange cannery. Monrovia has a small textile factory and 16 two hot-water-heater factories; Duarte has two citrus packing houses. Monrovia, the largest of the three coimnunities, with a population of over twelve thousand, lies between the other two. The population of Monrovia consists of a large number of professional and working people, with a considerable number of well-to-do persons who have retired. There are also many invalids and convalescents in the city, as the climate of the area is considered beneficial to those suffer ing from lung trouble. There is a comparatively large negro population, practically all of which is centered in the south east section of the city. Arcadia, situated west of Monrovia, covers an area in which over nine thousand persons live. In the last ten years, the population has increased seventy-four per cent. Except for a few families living in the new homes located near Foot hill Boulevard, Arcadia has few wealthy people. The average resident is of modest means, lives in a five-room house, and has a few fruit trees and some chickens. He commutes to Los Angeles daily, and usually works in a bank, office, or store. The famous ”Lucky Baldwin” Ranch covers a large area in the north-west portion of the city, and part of this historic old ranch has been recently subdivided into large lots, on which some beautiful homes have been built within the last two years. In 1939, nearly two million dollars were invested in new buildings, which indicates the rapid 17 growth which Arcadia is experiencing. All of this growth heconies increasingly significant to school authorities, not only in regard to the housing situation, but also in reference to the feasibility of establishing an Arcadia high school or junior college on the present high school site. Duarte lies between the east limit of Monrovia and the San Gabriel River. It is a rural community, given over mainly to the growing of oranges. Most of its white population, numbering about two thousand persons, is to be found living on small privately-owned groves. The negro settlement in Duarte is an outgrowth of the several negro families which E. J. "Lucky” Baldwin imported many years ago for the purpose of caring for his horses and serving as domestics in his home. These colored people, now numbering about three hundred, work in orange groves, or as janitors, domestics, or chauffeurs. A number of them also find employment at the Santa Anita Race Track in Arcadia. Thus, the Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High School serves a population of approximately twenty-four thousand persons, scattered over a considerable area, and with no definite industrial background. With such an increase of population as is indicated in Arcadia alone, and no definitive industri al setup, a close study of the economic background is demanded. With a population of such varied character, such a study would have great significance in the efforts of the 18 school administration to set up a school program conforming to the needs of the pupils. THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SCHOOL The housing situation. A thorough study of the housing situation made hy Osman R. Hull and Willard S. Ford in 1927 revealed the trends in population growth and the need for new buildings for adequate housing of the high school. The recommendations of this survey were closely followed by the school board: a new site was purchased near the predicted center of population, and upon it was erected a splendid set of buildings, valued at $500,000. -Enrollment has increased considerably since the above survey was made, however, and the present buildings are outgrown. Originally built to house one thousand pupils, the school plant now out of necessity serves over 1200. In order to meet the needs caused by this rapid growth, two junior high schools are being planned, one for Monrovia, and one for Arcadia. The present plant will be left as a senior high school and possibly as a junior college. With these changes, the buildings will be adequate for some years to come. 40sman R. Hull and Willard S. Ford, School Housing Survey of the Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High School District (Los Angeles: The University of Southern California, 1927.) 19 Even more important than the housing facilities, of course, are the school organization and teaching personnel, which are housed in the school plant, for it is their duty and effort to see that the needs of the pupils are met. Organization and teaching personnel. The Monrovia- Arcadia-Duarte High School is a four-year high school of approximately 1245 pupils, with a course of study which is primarily academic. There are shop courses of various kinds for the hoys, home economics courses for the girls, and the regular commercial subjects for both; there are, however, no vocational courses. The explanation for this condition can be found in the fact that (as shown in Table XXII below) fifty per cent of the pupils enrolled took college prepara tory majors, with almost twenty per cent more enrolled in the commercial major. The personnel of the Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High School for the year 1939-40 consisted of a principal, vice principal, dean of girls, dean of boys, attendance super visor, librarian, assistant librarian, and fifty-two teachers. The principal served the board of trustees and the faculty as contact man with the public. To him the trustees looked for the determination of general policies, and for the supervision and improvement of instruction. He called, at frequent inter vals, faculty meetings in which important trends in educa tional philosophy and psychology were discussed. 20 The vice-principal was the curriculum director. He was responsible for the scheduling of classes, extra curricular activities, student government, some disciplinary work among the boys, and many routine matters, such as secretarial work for the meetings of the board of trustees. The dean of girls handled the disciplinary cases among the girls, advised the girls about their courses of study, and acted, as the advisor of the Girls* League. She also served as advisor to the entire senior class each year, and in this capacity counseled the pupils individually about their courses before the beginning of their senior year. The dean of boys handled some of the disciplinary cases in which boys were involved, acted as advisor to the Boys* League, and assisted in counseling the senior pupils. The attendance supervisor was employed by the two local elementary school districts as well as by the high school. His duties at the high school included the super vision of the attendance office where all attendance records were kept and where matters of absence and tardiness were adjusted. The fifty-two teachers in the school were distributed throughout eleven departments, of which only one, the English Department, was organized as a distinct division, with a recognized head. Of the fifty-eight employees of the school district, 21 including those in administrative positions, forty-seven had either A.B. or B.S. degrees. Fourteen of these had M.A. de grees; eight were teaching under the provisions of special credentials, each in his own field, without holding any other degrees. The remaining fifty teachers had general secondary credentials, as provided for in the California state law. The range of teaching experience of these instructors is from one year to forty-four years. The majority of teaching years of any one teacher has been passed in this high school; there is thus a very definite trend for teachers to remain in this school after once obtaining a position in it. The average number of years of total experience among these teachers is 19.01, and the average number in this par ticular high school is 13.94. These figures will compare favorably with any other California high schools of similar size and situation. Attendance, As was stated earlier, the average daily attendance at Monrovia Arcadia Duarte High School for the year 1939-40 was 1248 pupils. Of this total amount, 52 per cent were from Monrovia proper, 39.6 per cent from Arcadia, 4.2 per cent from Duarte, and 4.2 per cent from outlying districts. At the time that the majority of the tests which appear in this investigation were given, the total enroll ment for the month was 1340. Of these pupils, 678 were boys, 22 and 662 girls (see Table I*) Table I is an example of the complete statements issued monthly by the attendance super visor, and is included in this investigation partly for the purpose of giving a typical monthly report on the attendance of this high school. In addition to this distribution, another phase of attendance was considered throughout this investigation. This aspect was that of enrollment by races. (See Table la, also Figure 1.) Socio-economic background of pupils. It had generally been assumed by the administrators of this high school that the pupils, coming from the districts described in the first part of the chapter, were from above-average homes. For the purpose of this investigation, however, it was felt necessary to determine the facts. In pursuance of this end, the inves tigator chose for testing a sample group from the student body, a total of 100 pupils chosen by pulling the name of every twelfth pupil from the master file in the office of the registrar. The Sims Score Card for Socio-Economic Status, Form C, was administered, in a group test, to each of these pupils Since the range of age of high school pupils is from 14 to 18 years, it was felt that these pupils, with an average age of 16.16 years, were representative. ^Verner M. Sims, Sims Score Card for Socio-Economic Status (Public School Publishing Co.: Bloomington, 111.,1927). TABLE I ATTENDANCE REPORT, OCTOBER 18, 1939 MONROVIA ARCADIA DUARTE HIGH SCHOOL* CLASS ENROLMENT Boys Girls 12A 12B Total 19 92 HI 24 65 89 43 157 200 25 114*20 139,20 35.90 84.05 119.95 350 1694.80 2044.80 441.10 17.50 1187.95 84.74 1629.05 102.24 22.05 93.33 59.40 93.69 81.45 93.63. 92.49 93.32 93,1<| 11A 11B Total 69 108 177 55 117 172 124 225 349 86 ■105*35 191.35 123.10 159.25 282.35 1258 2001.65 3529 *65 940*90 62*90 2120.75 100.08 3259*65 162*98 47.05 93.60 106.03 95 153.08 94.46 88.42 93.02 91.56 10A 10B Total 57 118 175 62 121 183 119 239 358 82*95 88 170*95 123*65 103 *80 227.45 1056*05 2177 3233.05 1089*35 52*80 2226*20 108*85 3315.55 161.65 89.81 54.47 92.72 111.31 96*11 95.55 165.78 94.98 .93.58 9A 9B 64 145 62 149 126 294 80*60 109.25 84.80 123.40 1177*40 2732.75 1146.20 58.87 2765.60 136.64 57.31 93*59 138*28 96.16 93*11 95*73 Total 209 211 420 189.85 208.20 3910.15 3911*80 195.51 159*59 95.37 94.95 6 7 13 9*30 13.55 80*20 678 662 1340 700.65 ?.G.»s & Specials irand Total TOTAL ENROLLMENT DAIS ABSENT DAIS PRESENT Girls Boys Girls Boys A. D. A. PER CENT Boys Girls Girls Boys r 4*01 4*85 89.61 88.54 851.50 12527.85 12015,05 626.39 600.75 94.70 93.38 97 This table should be read as follows: There were 69 boys and 35 girls enrolled in the 11A class, a total of 124 pupils; the boys were absent a total of 86 days, the girls, a total of 123*10 days; the boys were present a total of 1258 days, the girls, 940*90, making an average daily attendance of 62*90 days, or 93*60 per cent, for the boys; and 47*05 days, or 88*43 per cent, for the girls. 24 TABLE la SAGE DISTRIBUTION, 1931 to 1940 OCTOBER DATA Year White No* $ Negro No. $ Japanese No* $ Mexican No. $ Total No. 1940 1335 91.2 58 4*0 29 2.0 42 2.8 1464 1939 1232 91.6 53 4*0 35 2.6 24 1.8 1344 1938 1198 92*4 39 3*0 36 2*8 23 1.8 1296 1937 1124 92*7 35 2*9 40 3.3 13 1.1 1212 1936 1039 92*2 39 3*5 33 2*9 16 1.4 1127 1935 1019 92*2 41 3*7 28 2*5 17 1.6 1105 1934 998 92*9 33 3*1 23 2*1 20 1*9 1074 1933 939 94*9 21 2a 22 2*2 8 0*8 990 1932 952 94*7 32 3*2 16 1*6 5 0.5 1005 1931 886 94.5 32 3*4 14 1*5 a 0*6 938 NOTE: This table should be read as follows: In 1934, out of a total of 1074 pupils, 998 or 92*9$ were white, 33 or 3*1$ Negro, etc* FIGURE 1 RACE DISTRIBUTION. ENTIRE SCHOOL, OCTOBER, 1939 86 In order to understand and determine the significance of the test in relation to this investigation, an interpre tation of the test must be given. The word nStatus” in the title of the test suggests relative position; it is well to recognize the fact that the condition being measured is usually of significance in connection with the group within which the child lives. The questions asked may not have like significance in different communities. In order to determine, however, what was high, average, or low, it was necessary to present a typical distribution of scores. For this purpose, the percentile rank and descriptive interpre tation as based on various possible scores are given in tabulated form in Table II. These percentiles were based upon scores from a fairly unselected group of 686 sixth, seventh, and eighth grade children from the schools of Hew Haven, Connecticut; these scores are listed by the authors of the test manual, with this caution: Users of this Manual will understand that these percentiles and interpretations relate to conditions at Hew Haven; they should be considered as merely provisionally applicable elsewhere.6 With this theory of interpretation in mind, then, the investigator attempted to extract the full significance of this test from the results derived from the examination of the typical portion of the group studied. 6Sims, op. cit.. p. 11. It was generally 27 TABLE II PROVISIONAL LEVEL OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS PROM SIMS SCORE CARDS. Score 56 29,2 24,5 17.6 13.2 10 7.5 5.1 3.2 1.8 0.0 Corresponding percentile Suggested rating 94.5 88.5 78.8 65,5 50 34.5 21,2 12.5 5.5 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Corresponding level of spcio-econ. statue Indeterminately high Highest Very high High Medium high. Medium Medium low Low Very low Lowest Indeterminately low The table should be read as follows: A score of 17.6 on the Sims Score Card for Socio-Economic Status (or 78.8 per cent) represents a "high” level of socio-economic status (according to the figures presented by testing a group at New Haven, Connecticut.) The numbers 1-10 preceding the levels represent suggested ratings that may for convenience be used to designate strata of homes graded, from 0 (no home at all) to 10 (theoretically perfect home,) 28 assxaiaed that, on the whole, the occupation of the father played a very significant part in determining the standard of living of the family. With this in mind, the author of the test has derived from Question 23 (which asks the pupil his father’s occupation, ?/hether he owns part, all, or none of his business, whether he has a title, and how many-persons work for him), a five-fold classification of occupations. The five groups which he sets up are as follows: Group I. Professional men, proprietors of large businesses, and higher executives. Group II. Commercial services, clerical services, large land-owners, managerial service of a lower order than in Group I, and business proprietors employing from five to ten men. Group III. Artisan proprietors, petty officials, printing trades employees, skilled laborers with some managerial responsibility, shop owners, and business proprietors employing one to five men. Group IV". Skilled laborers (with exception of printers) who work for someone else, building trades, transportation trades, manufacturing trades involving skilled labor, personal service. Small shop owners doing their own work. Group V. Unskilled laborers, common laborers, helpers, «hands,n peddlers, varied employment, venders, unemployed (unless it represents the leisured class of people, or those retired.)7 The 100 cases examined at Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High School have been classified according to the above groupings. (See Table III.) However, the author of the test made no provision for the leisure or retired class, or for the cases 7Ibid.» p. 9, 29 TABLE III CLASSIFICATION OF OCCUPATIONS ACCORDING TO S B © SOCIO-ECONOMIC SCAIE Group I II III IV V VI VII Number of cases 8 88 16 28 11 12 5 Rating (author) 5 1 3 2 4 - Rating (investi« gator) 6 1 3 2 5 4 7 Groups VI and 711 represent, respectively, cases In which father is deceased, and cases in which father is retired or of leisure class* These groups have been added to the Sims listing by the investigator. NOTE; This table should be read as follows: In the economic group rated TV by Sims, there were among the 100 pupils rated at Monrovia Arcadia Duarte High School 22 cases; this was second largest of the author’s five groups, and also second largest in the investigator’s seven groups* 50 of deceased fathers. The investigator has added these two additional classes, therefore, in order to clarify more fully the actual statuses of the group. Of the authorfs five groups, number II leads the investigated cases in number, thus supporting the contention that the student body as a whole has a high level. Only six points below Group II was Group IV, the skilled-labor group. Following in order were Groups III, V, and I. It should be noted that twelve out of the hundred, a rather high percent age, had fathers not living. This group, if counted as one of the accepted segregations, would rank fourth. A final group could be found in those among the hundred who had fathers in the leisure or retired class; of these there were three. The one hundred tests were scored on the basis suggested by the author (see Table II). entire group was 18.7. The median for the The numbers of cases falling in the various groupings suggested by the author, from ten to zero, are presented in Table IV. The median rating of seven designated a "high” level for the socio-economic background of the total number of cases tested. Assuming provisionally, therefore, that there is a comparatively high correlation between the occupations of the fathers and the final results of the descriptive level of the homes, the results of this test served to round out 31 TABLE IV MEDIAN RATING IN SIMS SOCIO ECONOMIC SCAIE Number of cases 0 3 14 38 18 17 5 4 1 0 0 Median rating: Author*s suggested rating 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 Z 1 0 7 Corresponding level of socio-economic status Indeterminately high Highest Very high High Medium high Medium Medium low Low Very low Lowest Indeterminately low High NOTE; This table should he read as follows; There were 14 pupils in the class rated 8, or ”very high,” among the 100 oases tested at Monrovia Arcadia Duarte High School*. 32 the total picture which this study has attempted to convey of the student-body of the Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High School. The picture seems to he that of a community fortunate in a high general level of social conditions and economic status. Since it is generally accepted in the educational world that the personal background of a pupil will affect his placement and progress, his mental maturity, and his educational achievement, it may therefore be expected that, if this test served as a reliable indication, the pupils of this high school possessed a rather sound socio-economic background upon which to proceed upon an educational career. SUMMARY The findings of this portion of the survey, which was undertaken in order to serve more adequately the needs of the child by understanding the community and school environ ment in which he lives, have been on the whole satisfactory. Even during the period of the depression, the community was well able to support its schools, as is shown by the records of property value, assessment rates, teachers’ salaries, etc. Although there have been differences in the past between the school administration and the community, the year 1939-40 showed a growing cooperative spirit between the two, further influenced by the activities of staff and pupils in the affairs of the' community. Any feeling caused 33 by the fact that Arcadia, as the richer district, contributes more money per pupil and might therefore feel entitled to a separate school, will be partially Removed in the near future by the construction of a proposed junior high school for Arcadia. The communities which the Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High School serves have no definite industrial set-up. The district is characterized by small industries, citrus growing, and ranching carried on on a small scale by those employed regularly in stores or business. Despite this varied industrial character, however, the general economic level is good, and the population has shown a marked increase in the past few years. Conditions in the school itself also seemed satisfac tory. Though somewhat crowded at the present, the buildings will be adequate for some years when the two proposed junior high schools have been built. The administrative staff appeared adequate, and the comparatively lengthy period of employment of the teachers in this one school showed satis faction and contentment among the faculty in reference to the conditions and aims of the school. Testing of the socio-economic level of the pupils showed that it was comparatively high; and this indication, plus the high assessed valuation of school-taxable property, showed a sound economic background among the pupils and in 34 the community from which they come. The general picture of the school and its community, therefore, is of a cooperative interrelationship, soundly based economically, and possessing a school plant which is adequate and a school administration snd faculty which are confident and progressive. Thus a good basis is assured for aid to the pupils and general progress in methods, ideas, and practices. CHAPTER III THE PLACEMENT AND PROGRESS OF PUPILS The function of this third division of the study is three fold. In the first place, it presents and evaluates to a degree the grading end failure policies of the Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High School. Secondly, it gives the total enrollment of the school by grades. Lastly, it offers a classification of pupils made on the basis of age-grade studies, and an examination of the amount of acceleration and retardation found in this high school. A study of the placement and progress of pupils has many values. It reveals the amounts of acceleration, normality, and retardation, thus indicating the rate of pupil progress. It provides a means of making a check on the grading and failure policies of the school. More important than the mere presentation of statistical data is the opportunity which such a study affords to determine in part the degree to which the course of study is fulfilling its purpose: for the larger the proportion of normal age pupils in a school, the better the curriculum is accomo dating itself to the pupil needs. It is the final purpose of this chapter to determine and analyze the classification and progress of the pupils, 36 and to compare the progress of the racial groups with the white group in order to determine the extent of maladjust ment of the more foreign group. GRADING SYSTEM The question of the value of teachers1 grades has been a fertile source of discussion for many years, chiefly because of the great lack of uniformity in the meaning of grades. Since the prevailing diversity among teachers in the interpretation of grades is a result of natural human differences rather than-.of any remediable lack of standardi zation, there is not much hope that the problem will ever be completely solved. The many different systems of grading which have been tried in an effort to overcome this diffi culty to some degree have all sooner or later been abandoned. Attempts have been made to do away with grades altogether, but this has not proved to be satisfactory. In the first place, in every teaching situation, the instructor is inevitably'making an evaluation of the pupil»s work, judging this pupil every time he makes a contribution, whether oral or written. Moreover, on the secondary level it is necessary to provide a transcript of record to the college or university chosen by the high school graduate; and in California, as in many other states, this transcript must be made out with certain specified letter-grades. 37 The system of grading which prevails in the MonroviaArcadia-Duarte High School is that which is practiced in most secondary schools in California. passing grades, 4 , B, C,- and D. It includes four The letter F is used to indicate failing work, and the abbreviation Inc. shows that the grade has been withheld until certain work is completed. The grades A and B are college-recommending marks, C is average, and D indicates work that is barely passing. The teachers in this high school are familiar with the different ideas and curves used in distributing grades in some school systems. However, conformity to any of these systems is wholly optional, since the school has never had any definite policy along that line. A survey of the school’s grading system recently made by Glenn P. Hollingsworth gives some valuable facts concern ing the particular conditions which obtain at the HonroviaArcadia-Duarte High School. According to this study, The marks given in Monrovia High School for the year 1S36-37 showed a decided variability as given by individ ual teachers and by departments. The school averages of distribution also varied from the normal curve. The Dramatics, Home Economics, and Mechanical Arts Depart ments had very high percentages of college recommending grades, and extremely low percentages of failures, there being no F ’s in some of the courses....Of the academic departments, the most college recommending grades were given in the Mathematics Department, and the fewest in the English Department. The school as a whole was very high in college recommending grades, have had almost twice as many as was provided for in the Missouri plan....A study of I.Q.’s and achievement ratings of all pupils receiving grades of "A” or TTF !T 38 < in the fields covered by the testing program seemed to indicate that the teachers were justified in assigning those grades for the semester.^ Any school system, of course, will find that its results vary from normal expectations. For example, it is generally accepted that a child will enter the freshman year of high school at the age of fourteen and complete the i senior year at the age of eighteen; yet there are frequent divergences from this average. The causes for such variances from the normal may be very difficult to discover. When a child fails, there has been a maladjustment of some type; but it may be any one or a combination of several of the following: (l) irregular attendance, (2) mental incapacity or inability, (3) illness, (4) effect of out-of-school environment, or (5) lack of effort. The percentage of failure offers a real challenge to the school, because the trend in this percentage indicates the efficiency with which the institution is handling its pupils. As far as failure is concerned, it is the individual that is the important thing: any system of grading which is employed should enable each child to make the best possible use of his time and aptitudes. With this in mind, it has been the aim of the Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High School to ^Glenn P. Hollingsworth, A Survey of the Education program of Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High School (Unpublished Master’s Thsis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1938), pp. 148-9. 59 maintain a school able to adjust itself to the needs and abilities of all its various types of pupils, in such a manner as to allow continuous progress. The fact that pupils may still be failed indicates that the aim has not yet been fully realized. Although this is true, and although the elimination of failure is of course the dream-ideal of every administrator who does not foster a complete non failure program, it is still the true hope of the MonroviaArcadia-Duarte administration so to adjust pupils, through the classroom and extra-curricular work, that the failures will not be necessary. The year 1939-40 saw great strides being made in the direction of this aim, the number of failures being reduced to a considerable degree. This result was due, this investi gator believes, to a far more efficient system of counseling than has been in existence previous to this year. ENROLLMENT BY GRADES Enrollment by grades for the Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High School in October, 1939, is given in Table V. The total enrollment is shown, as well as the enrollment of boys and girls separately. The range of separate grades was from forty-four in grade 12-A to two hundred ninety-four in grade 9-B. The 9-B enrollment is the largest ever recorded for any grade in the 40 TABLE Y ENROLLMENT BY GRADES IN THE MONROVIA ARCADIA DUARTE HICK SCHOOL,.OCTOBER, 1939 Grade * 9-B 9-A 10-B 10-A IIS 11A 12-B P*G«&Sp« Total Boys 145 62 116 61 105 70 93 21 6 679 Girls 149 61 124 61 115 57 67 23 8 665 Both 294 123 240 122 220 127 160 44 14 1344 history of the school* The enrollment in this year of grades nine and ten approximates that of the entire school in 1927* (See also Figure 2, which gives in graphic form the same material which is tabulated in Table V.) AGE-GRADE CLASSIFICATION Definition of terms * Normal progress, for the purpose of this study, consists of the earning by the pupil of a number of credits sufficient to gain him promotion to the next grade. Table IV explains in tabulated form the course of normal progress. The credits earned in each semester are indicated cumulatively, and the totals earned in each year are separately listed. Credit for ten semester hours is given in every course that meets for an hour a day for five days of each week of the school year. Any subject requiring less meetings received credit in proportion. Progress is considered rapid if it takes a pupil less than the normal school year to complete the credits indi cated in Table VI. If a pupil enters a grade when his age is less than that stated as normal, he is termed under age. Slow progress occurs when a pupil takes longer than the indicated time to complete the required number of credits for the year’s work, thus taking more than four years to finish high school. Such a pupil would be older 42 No# of Pupils 300 “ 250 200 150 100 50 — 294 123 240 122 9-B 9-A 10-B 10-A 220 127 160 11-B 11-A 12-B FIGURE 2 ENROLLMENT BY GRADES, OCTOBER, 1939 12-A P.G# and Special 43 TABLE 71 NORMAL PROGRESS IN EARNING OF CREDITS FOR HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION Academic credits Phys. ed* credits 9-A 15 5 10-B 35 10 10-A 55 15 11-B 75 20 11—A 95 25 12-B 115 30 12-A 135 35 (At graduation) 160 40 Grade of student Sensster hours credit far graduation: Total credits at end of each year 45 50 50 55 200 NOTE: This table should be read as ft?Hows: By the time he has reached grade 12-B, the normally-progressing pupil has to his credit 115 academic orsdits and 30 physical education credits, having earned 50 of those doling the preceding year* 44 than the normal one upon graduation, and would be termed over age. Age-grade classification of entire school. The graded school system had been in operation almost fifty years before any serious consideration was given to its effect on pupil progress. Finally, a few of the leading city administrators began to question existing conditions; the result was the development of devices for ascertaining and presenting in concrete fashion the data on pupil progress. It is now generally- recognized that such instru ments are of great value, even invaluable, to the teacher and administrator. As one authority has stated, "Statistics showing pupil placement in and progress through school with relevant data are essential to the successful administration of a modern school system."2 The first device employed in the local survey was the age-grade table. Fundamentally, this table merely indicates the general situation with respect to the ages and grades of the pupils. Included are the actual numbers of pupils who are under age, of normal age, or over age for their respec tive grades. Early or late entrance, illness, absence, or failure are among the causes of deviation from the normal ^David T. Blose, An Age-grade Study of 7652 Elemen tary Pupils in 45 Consolidated Schools Toffice of Education Bulletin No. 19, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1930), p. 1. 45 age-grade situation. It should he kept in mind that the quality of being over age does not always imply slow pro gress and failure,nor is the under age pupil necessarily a performer of exceptionally praiseworthy school work. 1\ In Table VII, the numbers enclosed within the red lines indicate the number of pupils in the entire school who were of normal age for their grades. The numbers above the red lines signify the number of pupils who were under age for their grades; and the numbers below the lines, those who were over age. A summary of the number and the per cent of the pupils in each grade who were normal, accelerated or under age, and retarded or over age is given at the bottom of the table. (See also Figure 3.) In terms of age progress by grades, the situation in the Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High School is favorable. Of the total enrollment this year, exclusive of special and post-graduate pupils, 52.1 per cent were in the normal grades for their respective ages; 19.7 per cent were accel erated, having exceeded the normal rate of progress; and 28.2 per cent were retarded. The percentages of retardation in the separate grades ranged from 34.4 per cent in the 10-A grade to 20.5 per cent in the 12-A grade. The highest per cent of acceleration, 34.1 per cent, was in the 12-A grade. The percentage of retarded pupils in the entire school, 28.2> was lower than that of the preceding year. The percentage 46 TABLE VII AGB-GRAl)E DISTRIBUTION LIOKROVIA. ARCAD IA DUARTE HIGH SOHDOL OCTOBER, 1939 Age in Years and months B9 12-6 to 12-11 2 13-0 to 13-5 4 A9 BIO A10 311 All B12 A12 Special &, P. G. — Total 2 4 3 — — 61 4 — — 110 13-6 to 13-11 49 14-0 to 14-5 95 U 14-6 to 14-11 52 38 37 4 3 15-0 to 15-5 33 27 88 12 11 1 15-6 to 15-11 27 14 38 35 43 4 1 — — 162 16-0 to 16-5 18 10 35 29 59 18 5 — — 174 16-6 to 16-11 9 4 16 22 55 33 26 3 — 168 17-0 to 17-5 3 5 11 6 23 34 49 12 1 144 1 6 5 11 13 41 15 1 93 2 4 9 15 19 5 3 60 4 4 7 11 6 2 36 1 2 6 1 1 11 2 1 2 7 17-6 to 17-11 — 9 18-0 to 18-5 1 2 18-6 to 18-11 1 1 — 19-0 to 19-5 19-6 to 19-11 ~ 20-0 to 20-5 — — 20-6 to 20-11 — — 21-over Total Median Age 1 — — 1 134 — 172 1 — — — — — — 1 1 1 — 3 — 4 — 1 — 44 14 1344 294 123 240 122 220 127 160 16.1 14*4 15.1 15.4 15.7 16.4 17.1 17.5 17.7 19.0 — — — Accelerated 32 — 23 15 262 19.7$ 55 20 44 16 57 — 693 52.1# 64 114 90 20 65 126 67 At agel47 Retarded — 375 28.2# 9 37 38 92 38 49 70 42 NOTE: This table should be read as follows: Of the stidents who were 14 years to 14 years and 5 months, 95 were in grade 39, 11 in 19, and 4 in BIO* The numbers enclosed in the red lines indicate those whose agegrade classification was nonual. Suumary 47 45.5 56.3 12-B 12-A 11-B 11-A ENTIRE SCHOOL ACCELERATED 10-B 10-A AT ACE m 1 RETARDED M y 9-B FIGURE 3 9-A AGE-GRADE CLASSIFICATION, IN PERCENTAGE, BY SEPARATE GRADES, OCTOBER, 1939 48 of accelerated pupils, 19.7, was the lowest yet recorded in the history of the school.s The trend toward an increase in the percentage of normal-age pupils would seem to be indicative of improving adaptation of the curriculum to the needs of the various age-levels. Age-grade classification of racial groups. The thirty-five Japanese pupils enrolled in October of 1939 were represented in all grades. Their distribution by age among the respective grades is shown in Table VIII. This is followed by a summarization of the age-grade classifica tion of Japanese in relation to the entire school, in Table IX. The proportion of Japanese pupils who have adhered to the normally expected rate of progress is 60.0 per cent, an exceptionally high ratio. The percentage of retardation is 22.8 , lower than the 28.2 per cent of the school as a whole. However, relatively few Japanese pupils became accelerated, as is indicated by the low percentage, 17.2, in that class ification. The fifty-three negro pupils were enrolled in all grades with the exception of the 12-A. All but nine of these pupils were in the ninth and tenth grades. distribution is given in Table X. Their This is followed by a ^Report Ho. 48, Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High School Department of Research (Monrovia, California, 1939), I, 19. 49 TABLE VIII AGE-GRADE DISTRIBUTION OF JAPANESE PUPILS, OCTOBER, 1939 Age in years and months 9B 13-6 to 13-11 — 14-0 to 14-5 1 14-6 to 14-11 1 15-0 to 15-5 1 9A 10B 11B 11A 12B 12A Total 1 1 2 3 1 — 1 2 4 15-6 to 15-11 — — — 16-0 to 16-5 — — — 16-6 to 16-11 10A 6 — 1 1 1 3 4 4 1 17-0 to 17-5 2 1 17-6 to 17-11 — — — — 18-0 to 18-5 — — — — -1 — 1 — — 1 18-6 to 18-11 — 2 1 — 1 — 19-0 to 19-5 1 — 6 5 " 2 — 1 2 0 19-6 to 19-11 — Total Median Ago 4 15.0 1 5 14.4 1 4 15.3 2 16»0 10 16.6 4 17.8 4 17.5 2 • 35 18.0 16.5 NOTE: This table should be read as followsj Of a total of six Japanese pupils between the ages of 16 years and 6 months, and 16 years and 11 months, one was in grade 9-B, 4 in 11-B, and one in 12-B. The figures enclosed in red lines represent normal age-grade placement. TABLE IX AGE-GRADE PROGRESS 03? JAPANESE PUPIIS OCTOBER, 1939. Age-grade classification Accelerated At age Retarded Total Japanese pupils No. Per cent Entire school No. Per cent 6 17.2 262 19.7 21 60.0 693 52.1 8 22.8 375 28.2 35 100.0 1330 100.0 NOTE: This table should be read as follows: Eight Japanese pupils out of the total of 35, or 22.8$, were retarded, as compared with 375 of the total school registration of 1330, or 28*.2$. 51 TABLE X ACJE-GrRAQE D 33TRIBLTI0H OF EEGRO PTPIL3 OCTOBER 1939 Age in years and months 13-0 to 13-5 13-6 to 13-11 14-0 to 14-5 14-6 to 14-11 15-0 to 15-5 15-6 to 15-11 16-0 to 16-5 16-6 to 16-11 17-0 to 17-5 17-6 to 17-11 18-0 to 18-5 18-6 to 18-11 9B 9A 10B 10A 11B 11A 12B 121 1 1 1 , i i 2 1 2 3 2 1 — 1 Total 2 2 1 4 ! ~ 1 I 2 i 2 — 1 — 3 1 2 2 1 2 — Total 15 12 10 Median age 15*6 16*4 16.0 1 3 — — — ] ••• — — — - 5 5 8 2 1— i — 1 I— i i i — 1 — 7 3 4 2 15.6 15*6 17*7 17.7 i i I 2 — mmmm 8 8 3 5 4 —• 0 — 2 53 16.2 NOTE: This table should fee read as follows: Among the five negro pupils aged 14 years and 6 months to 14 years and 11 months, 2 were enrolled in grade 9B, 2 in 9A, and one in 10A. The figures enclosed in red lines represent the normal age-grade level. 52 summarization of this classification in relation to the entire school, in Tahle XI. The proportion of retardation among the negro pupils, 56.6 per cent, is very high in comparison with the 28.2 per cent of the whole school; and acceleration continues to be rare. There were twenty-four Mexican pupils enrolled in October, listed in all grades except 12-B and 12-A. age-grade distribution is given in Table XII. The This, again, is followed by a comparison of this classification with that of the whole school, in Table XIII. Two of the Mexican pupils, or 8.3 per cent, were accelerated with respect to age. Only 20.8 per cent of them were at the expected grade levels for their ages, and 70.9 per cent were retarded. This is in comparison with 28.2 per cent for the entire school, and with the 22.5 and 56.6 per cent of retardation in the Japanese and Negro groups, respec tively. SUMMARY In spite of a large amount of literature dealing with the progress made by pupils through the grades, the questions arising from the various aspects of pupil pro motion are still confused and unsolved. Much statistical and suggestive material has been collected, but little has been done to clarify the proper and necessary methods of TABLE XI AGE-GRADE STATUS OP NEGRO PUPILS OCTOBER, 1939 Number of Negro pupils Per cent 7 13.2 262 19.7 At age 16 30.2 693 52.1 Retarded 30 56.6 375 28.2 Total 43 100.0 1330 100.0 Age-grade status Accelerated Toted no. of pupils Per cent NOTE: This table should be read as follows: Out of the total of 43 Negro pupils, 30 (56.6$) were retarded, as compared with 375 (2 8 *2%) out of the whole-school total of 1330* 54 TABLE XII AGE-GRADE DISTRIBUTION OF MEXICAN PUPIIS OCTOBER 1939 Age in Years and months 13-6 14-0 14-6 15-0 15-6 16-0 16-6 17-0 17-6 18—0 to to to to to to to to to to 13-11 14-5 14-11 15-5 15-11 16-5 16-11 17-5 17-11 18—5 9B 9A 10B 10A 11B 12B 11A 12A 2 2 1 6 — L 1 l 1 — 1 — — Total 12 Median age 15*6 2 — 5 16*3 1 1 i -1~ 1 - i — " 1 —■ ~ I — — * 1 4 1 1 i , — i !~ 1 16*5 (15*9) (17*3 )(18*3) — 0 — 0 — Total 2 2 0 2 9 2 2 3 1 1 24 15*8 NOTE: This tab la should be read as follows: Of the two Mexican pupils whose ages were from 16 years and 6 months to 16 years $nd 11 months, one was enrolled in grade 9B, one in grade 10B* 55 TABLE XIII AGE-GRADE PROGRESS OF MEXICAN PUPIIS OCTOBER, 1939 Age-grade classification Mexican pupils No. Per cent Entire school No* Per cent Accelerated 2 8.3 262 19.7 At age 5 20.8 693 52.1 Retarded 17 70.9 375 28.2 Total 24 100.0 1332 100.0 NOTE: This table should be read as follows: Two Mexican pupils out of the total of 24, or 8*3$, were accelerated, as compared with 19.7$ of the total registration* 56 improvement which that material should indicate. The Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High School, however, is attempting to meet these questions in the light of accepted standards and progressive philosophy of that school of thought which does not agree with the non-failure program. In summarizing the material collected and discussed for the purpose of this chapter, the investigator noticed first that the grading system maintained in this school is that which is in practice in most secondary schools in California. Although there is a natural lack of uniformity in the interpretation of the grades, it is accepted that when a pupil fails, the school feels that it has not met the needs of that pupil. By an improved counseling system this year, the school has attempted to meet the needs of failing pupils, and to prevent as many such cases as is humanly possible. The enrollment shows the largest number of pupils in the history of the school. The increase in the enrollment in the freshman class is an indication of what may be expected in future years in the way of proportionate in crease, and also suggests that further problems in connec tion with placement and progress may arise with a greatly enlarged student body. The age-grade studies were included with a realization of the definite value they have in a school survey, in 57 revealing the general situation with respect to the ages and the grades of the pupils. Any age-grade study affords an inadequate estimate of the adjustment of the curriculum to the pupil, but it does indicate the existence of the special problems of the presence of excessive numbers of over-age or under-age pupils. In the terms of age-grade progress, the situation at Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High School is very favorable, since over half of the total pupils enrolled are in the normal grade for their age. The fact that there.is a larger per cent retarded than acceler ated is probably accounted for by the racial groups. The greatest proportion of non-white pupils who are retarded occurs in the Mexican group, with the Negroes holding second place, and the Japanese third. Acceleration is rather rare among the non-white proportion of the enrolled pupils. The survey revealed, then, that although there seems to be progress in adapting the curriculum to the needs of the children and hence in increasing the number of averageage pupils, special efforts should be made to reduce the percentage of slow progress among the foreign children. The proportion of over-age pupils and the amount of slow progress, two closely-related factors, suggest that the teaching staff should be responsible for better adaptation of the curriculum to the needs of this special group of 58 children. The acutely maladjusted pupils should be care fully studied and put in groups where their opportunities for success in school work will be greatest. If these improvements are made, the welfare of the pupil will be promoted; the efficiency of the school will be increased; and the ultimate ideal of modern education, to give each pupil the type of education from which he will profit most, will be nearer a reality. CHAPTER IV MENTAL MATURITY OF PUPIL PERSONNEL The purpose of this chapter was to present the results of a study of the mental maturity of the pupils enrolled in the Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High School, in an attempt to determine the needs of the individual pupil,. This purpose was accomplished 1) by giving the distribution of the intelligence quotients in the school as a whole; 2) by comparing this intelligence measure of the Japanese, Mexican, and Negro groups with that of the remainder of the student body; and 3) by giving the distribution of this measure by grades. One of the chief values of intelligence measurements •is the rscientific classification of pupils according to their native capacities to learn, in order to provide a basis for the separate teaching of pupils who differ markedly from the norm in their ability to progress in schools. Consideration of the measurement of mental ability with the measurement of achievement, which is given in the next chapter, shows whether the pupils are working up to their maximum capacity, and points out their strengths and weaknesses. Again, measurement affords valuable information which, in conjunc tion with our knowledge concerning other factors such as 60 social environment, maturation level, health, etc., enables the educator to make a continually improving adjustment of the curriculum to the needs and interests of the pupils. In order to facilitate the attainment of this end, however, it is necessary for the educator to have an under standing of what is meant by mental maturity. DEFINITION OF TERMS Intelligence, when considered in a school situation, is generally thought of as a pupil’s inherent ’’ability to learn,” or his ability to do the usual school work: in brief, his school ability. As explained by Wilson and Hoke, Mentality may be defined as the inborn capacity of acquiring intelligence. Intelligence, as commonly understood, represents the extent to which an individual can adjust himself to his environment. An appropriate environment is necessary in order that an individual may acquire intelligence commensurate with his ability.”1' Mental maturity is really thinking ability, and is measured in terms of scores on mental ability tests. Mental age considered apart from chronological age does not, of course, tell us whether a child is average, dull, or bright; it merely indicates the school grade in which a child normally belongs at a given time. The intelligence quoti ent, however, is the ratio, expressed decimally, between the ■^Guy M. Wilson and Kremer J. Hoke, How to Measure (New York? Macmillan, 1928), p. 317. 61 mental age and the chronological age, and is found by dividing the mental by the ^chronological age. An intelligence quotient is a matter of a score on a test, and performing intelligence may differ materially from that intelligence quotient, as the next chapter will show. The I.Q. has been considered to be a prediction in regard to the child*s later mental development. Recent investigations, however, seem to reveal that intelligence as measured by tests varies with environment. It appears from this that intelligence has come to be regarded as something that is amenable to training. In any case, mental ability tests have become an invaluable aid to school administrators, and as such have been given regularly at the Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High School. PLAN AND SCOPE OF MENTAL TESTING In keeping with the established policy of the school, at least one mental test record was available for each pupil; for the majority of the pupils, there were two. Members of the senior class who had been enrolled in the school for the entire four-year period would have had three tests before graduation. Mental tests used in making this study begin in the eighth grade of the local elementary districts, in which 62 prospective high school entrants were given the Terman Group Test under direct supervision of the high school authorities. Following the enrollment in September, all new pupils who were not included in the eighth grade surveys were tested as soon as possible,' Other new pupils were tested as they entered. Pupils already enrolled in the other grades were tested in order. Thus, each student enrolled was given the Terman Group Test for Mental Maturity, Form B. The resultant information was then filed and tabula ted so that it might be of use in general analyses as well as for individual cases. DISTRIBUTION OF INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENTS The distribution of -intelligence quotients was classio fied under the seven terms instituted by Terman. Although these divisions, ranging from TTnearfT genius or genius to definite feeble-mindedness, are admittedly separated by purely arbitrary boundaries, forming groups whose individuals do not make up a homogenous type, Terman*s classification is convenient to use and widely accepted. Distribution of the entire school. Classification of Intelligence Quotients at Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High School indicated that according to Terman*s standards, the situation ^Lewis M. Terman, Measurement of Intelligence (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1916), p. 79. 63 from the standpoint of intelligence level represented a normal average. Out of a total of 1317 pupils, 53,5 per cent, or slightly more than one half, tested normal or average intelligence, and only 11.8 per cent, or less than one-eighth, tested dull. As may be seen by the material presented in Table XlVa, while the percentage testing normal is two per cent below the norm, the other groups compare very favorably with the norm, showing a larger percentage of pupils with I.Q.’s above 110, and a smaller of those below SO. Twenty-nine pupils of the 1317 had I.Q«»s of 130 or over, indicative of very superior mental ability. Distribution of racial groups. The situation with regard to the non-white portion of the school population was quite different. The combined non-white pupils tested only 35.8 per cent, or slightly over one-third, in the normal intelligence group, while nearly as many, or 34.8 per cent, placed in the dull group. 110. Only 5.6 per cent placed above These figures, placed in comparison with the individual racial groups and the whole school rating, are presented in Table XIV. Lowest among the non-white pupils was the Negro group, with only 30 per cent, or three-tenths, in the normal group, and two-thirds, or 66 per cent, below 90. In the Mexican group, 33.3 per cent, or one-third, tested normal, and 68 .5 64 TABLE XTVa CLASSIFICATIGN OF IMELLIGEENCE QUOTIENTS OF PUPIIS OF MQNROYIA ARCADIA DUARTE HIGH SCHOOL ACCORDING TO TEE TERMAN SCALE Terman classification Intelligence quot ients Number of pupils Per cent Normal per cen1 5 0.4 0.9 Very superior intelligence 120 to 139 120 9*1 2.8 110 to 119 250 19.0 18.5 Normal or average 90 to 109 704 53*5 55*5 Dullness 80 to 89 157 11.8 18.5 Borderline deficiency 70 to 79 54 4*1 2.8 27 2.1 0*9 1317 100.0 100.0 “Near" genius or genius Superior intelligence Above 140 Definite feeble-mindedness Below 70 1 Total NOTE: Tills table should be read as follows: At Monrovia Arcadia Duarte High School in October, 1939, there were 250 pupils of superior intelligence (I.Q. of H O to 119), comprising 19# of the entire student body, as compared with the norm of 18.5#. 65 TABLE XIV CLASSIFICATION OF E3TEILIGENCE QUOTIENTS OF RACIAL GROUPS AT THE MONROVIA ARCADIA DCARTE HIGH SCHOOL Intelligence quotients All white All non white Japanese Mexican Negro All school Above 140 5 0 0 0 0 5 120 to 139 117 3 2 0 1 120 110 to 119 247 3 1 1 1 250 90 to 109 665 39 16 8 15 704 80 to 89 119 33 13 9 16 157 70 to 79 38 16 3 3 10 54 Below 70 17 10 0 3 7 27 Total 1208 109 35 24 50 1317 Normal per cent AH white All non white Japanese Mexican Negro All school 0*9 0*4 0*0 0,0 0.0 0*0 0*4 2.8 9.7 2.8 5.7 0,0 2.0 9.1 ;110-119) 18.5 20*4 2*8 2*9 4*2 2.0 19.0 (90-109) 55*5 55.0 35,8 45*7 33*3 30.0 53.5 (80-89) 18.5 10*0 34.8 37,1 37.5 32,0 11*8 (70-79) 2.8 3*1 14.7 8*6 12.5 20,0 4.1 (70-) 0,9 1*4 9*1 0*0 12.5 14.0 2.1 100*0 100.0 100*0 100.0 100*0 100.0 (14Q-) [120-139) Total NOTE: This table is to be read as follows: In the group of pupils with intelligence quotients 70 to 79, 38 were white and 16 (3 Japanese, 3 Mexican, and 10 Negro) were non-white* In tenna of percentage, this I.Q. group contained 3.1# of tie white pupils and 14,7# of the non-white (8.6# of the Japanese, 12.5# of the Mexicans, aid 20*0# of the Negroes), A total of 54 pupils, or 4*1# of the whole school population, belonged in this I.Q. group* 66 NEGRO No. of pupils 15 w a 10 • • • • a • • • • o o o o • Q • O • O • O MENTAL ABILITY CLASSIFICATION HIGH Q AVERAGE LOW _L_ 70-79 80-89 90-99 85.0 e o _J 60-69 ^ MEDIAN I.Q. — o o • O o o IQ 50-59 O L 0 1 100-109 110-119 120-129 FIGURE 4 DISTRIBUTION OF I.Q. AMONG NEGRO PUPILS, OCTOBER, 1939 67 HEX/CAN MENTAL ABILITY CLASSIFICATION HIGH £ AVERAGE Q LOTT £ No. of pupils MEDIAN I.Q. 86.7 !0 -------------------------------------------------------- 5 o & © © • • • • • • I.Q. 50-59 60-69 70-79 80-89 90-99 o o 0 G 100-109 110-119 120-129 FIGURE 5 DISTRIBUTION OF I.Q. AMONG MEXICAN PUPILS, OCTOBER, 1939 68 per cent below 90. Highest among these were the Japanese pupils, who had 45.7 per cent, or nearly half, in the normal register. This group tested the same percentage, 45.7, below 90, but also placed 8.6 per cent, or three per cent above the average for the non-white group, above 110* It will be seen, however, that the percentages for all these is much below that of the all-white group, and consequently considerably below the all-school average. DISTRIBUTION OF I.Q.'S BY GRADES In considering the distribution of intelligence quotients among the grades, it was noticed that the I.Q.*s rose with each subsequent grade, with a sharp rise at the 12th grade, as is shown in Table XV. This is probably due to the fact that promotion is a wedding-out process, elimi nating with each higher year those less able to proceed in school work. The fact that there is a drop from the B to the A half in each grade is probably due to the fact that those pupils in the A half in the fall semester are apt to be largely made up of those who are making up failed work or who are otherwise slow. SUMMARY In summary of this chapter it is to be noted that the 69 TABLE XV DISTRIBUTION OP I.Q. BY GRADES MONROVIA ARCADIA DUARTE HIGH SCHOOL, OCTOBER 1939 10-A 11-B 11-A ' 12-B' T2-T=rt61:aT 150-154 1 145-149 140-144 1 1 135-139 2 1 2 1 130-134 5 1 4 3 1 2 125-129 8 5 7 1 10 3 8 1 120-124 11 3 12 1 9 6 9 2 115-119 19 11 23 6 18 10 11 6 110-114 34 16 23 10 24 12 21 6 TO 5-109 31 10 35 21 43 13 26 12 100-104 38 13 30 25 33 18 31 4 95-99 35 17 32 26 31 20 26 7 90-94 29 9 29 10 20 20 9 1 85-89 29 10 19 7 16 9 7 3 80-84 14 14 10 6 5 4 3 1 75-79 14 2 3 4 2 3 4 70-74 6 5 3 2 2 4 65-69 9 3 1 2 1 2 60-64 2 55-59 4 Total Median 1 1 292 123 233 122 219 125 100.5 100.2 103.3 100.8 104.9 100.0 High / Low 159 44 1317 104.7 107.1 102.6 70 JAPANESE PUPILS No. of pupils 15 — MENTAL ABILITY CLASSIFICATION HIGH AVERAGE 0 O LOW Q MEDIAN I.Q. SI.7 10 o o o o o O o o o -e— ----- ' 0 — 1 I.Q. 50-59 60-69 a 1 70-79 80-89 90-99 100-109 110-119 120-129 130-130 FIGURE 6 DISTRIBUTION OF I.Q. AMONG JAPANESE PUPILS, OCTOBER, 1939 71 purpose, to determine the individual needs of the pupils in Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High School by tabulating their mental maturity, has in part been fulfilled by the study of Intelligence Quotients; for in spite of the fact that the Terman tests are not always indicative of performing intel ligence, they do indicate the groupings of high and low mental ability, and they do suggest the places where work must be concentrated if, as authorities are now beginning to believe, intelligence can be regarded as amenable to training. In the first place, the situation at Monrovia-ArcadiaDuarte High School seemed to be adequate as far as the general status of the white pupils was concerned, with a normal average. The fact that the I.Q.fs rise with advancing grades is a natural process, since the selective process of promotion is normal. The only suggestion here is that atten tion to the varying needs of pupils might be concentrated on the lower grades, in order to train and assist some of those who are able to improve, but might, without assistance of a special sort, be weeded out by promotion. The most important result shown by the universal application of Terman tests at Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High School was the great discrepancy between the mental ability of the white and non-white groups. The lowest groups are the Mexican and Negro groups, which as was pointed out in the last chapter are also the most retarded. These combined 72 findings suggested that attention should he concentrated on these groups for the purpose of aiding these sections of the school population to bring their mental ability averages nearer to the normal, and to secure a better adjustment between the school and the capacities of each pupil. CHAPTER V EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT OF PUPIL PERSONNEL It was the purpose of this chapter to evaluate through the use of standardized tests the educational achievement of the pupils of Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High School. In order to obtain succinctness and brevity in the evaluation, this study was limited to a survey of three general subjects, English, American history, and languages. The value of such achievement tests in aiding the teacher to determine the growth of the pupils under instruc tion may be determined when it is understood that the factors which influence educational achievement are complex and varied. The intelligence, race, and nationality of the pupil, and the quality of teaching, type of supervision, course of study, and the general policy of administration mjty all play a part; and all these factors are under the influence of constant change. Specifically, the achievement survey is valuable in several ways. First, this type of check has value for the individual pupil, since the administrator can, in uncovering the pupilts weaknesses, make progressive adjustments and help the pupil to develop in a degree commensurate with his real ability. Second, in discovering the strengths and weak- 74 nesses of a whole school or class, the survey can perform the same service for the group that it did for the individu al, preparing the way for understanding and efficient solving of group difficulties. Third, the appraisal program offers to the teachers and administrators an evaluation and preparation for intelligent consideration of those teaching devices and methods of organizing educational experiences which have heen found worth while. Fourth, the school may use this evaluation to inform the public of the school’s educational program, and of its effectiveness, making known its progress in any results achieved. This is of value in establishing public confidence as well as for the intrinsic value of the progress which is brought to light. Finally, such a survey helps pupils, teachers and administrators, and public alike in explaining and emphasizing the real objec tives which the pupils ought to be attaining: objectives which are too often obscured by those which are ordinarily taught. Although it is understood that the ultimate answer to the question as to whether a school is satisfactory or not lies in the effect it has on the children who are compelled to attend, no completely objective way of measuring how much and how T#ell the school cares for the interests, needs, and capacities of its pupils has yet been discovered. Standardized tests, however, covering subject matter commonly 75 taught in schools throughout the country, furnish one very useful objective way of comparing pupil achievement. Since the term achievement is capable of widely divergent definitions, it is well to explain the specific and definite meaning with which the word is used in this connection. Definition of terms. Achievement refers to acquired abilities rather than inherent abilities; it may be far below the actual possibilities of any given pupil. Achieve ment tests are given at the end of a course of instruction, in order to determine the pupil’s proficiency or accomplish ment in a particular subject. Such a test aids the teacher in diagnosis of pupil difficulties. Plan andscope of achievement testing. The plan for the testing of achievement at Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High School during the year 1939-40 included the measurement of English achievement at the beginning and end of the year in the ninth and twelfth grades, and the end-year testing of classes in American History, French, Spanish, and Latin. These examinations were carried out tests for which with fully national norms were available, standardized andwithdue regard for correct procedures in administration, scoring, and interpretation. For the purpose of this study, the Cross English Test 76 was given to the freshman boys and girls, Form C in September 1959, and Form A in May, 1940, This test, designed especial ly for high school students and college freshmen, examines a wide area of skills: it is divided into eight parts, covering spelling, punctuation, sentence structure, pronunciation, verb forms, pronoun forms, idiomatic expressions, and miscel laneous faulty expressions. This survey when first given to the freshmen measured, of course, learning obtained before their entrance into high school. The second administration of the test provided data to aid in determining the progress made in English through the Freshman year. The identical testing procedure was carried out with the Senior class of September, 1939, and with the same group in May, 1940. The Columbia Research Bureau American History Test, Form A, was given in May to 201 pupils in eight class sec tions, This is a test of broad scope, including a sampling of two hundred important facts, relations, and judgments; it is important in that it is more than a memory test, being designed to measure ability to make judgments and to draw inferences from facts. The French and Spanish tests, also a product of the Columbia Research Bureau, are quite similar to each other, comprising two forms, each of which covers vocabulary, com prehension, and grammar. These 90-minute tests, devised 77 from material typical in most high-school courses, were given to 34 pupils in 1-A and 2-A French classes and 132 in Spanish 1-A, 2-B, and 2-A, in May, 1S40. Form A was given in each case. The White Latin Test differs slightly from those in the other languages, being of shorter duration (35 minutes) and including a vocabulary of 100 words from the classic authors, with twenty sentences to translate, grouped accord ing to their increasing difficulty of syntax. This test was given to 120 pupils in 1-A, 2-B, 2-A, and 3-B classes, in May, 1940. In each of the tests given, the results were compared with the norms which the authors of the examinations had set up from observing the results of administration of the tests all over the country. This comparison, as well as that with former results at Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High School, gave meaning and significance to the current results. EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT The results of the Cross English Test, Form C, given to the 9-B class in dctober, 1939, were not particularly encouraging, showing a class median of 38.7 per cent, much lower than that of the preceding two years, and 12 per cent lower than 50 per cent, the norm. Much improvement was shown by the class at the end of the 9-A semester, when Form 78 A of the test was administered. An increase of nearly 20 per cent in the class median was achieved, the resultant 57.8 per cent being above the norm and also above the corresponding median for the preceding year. These results, shown in Table XVI, suggest that the school*s teaching of English is effective, although the prehigh school preparation appears to have fallen off somewhat.1 The discrepancy between the grades of boys and girls indi cates that attention should be paid to improving the English ability of the former group especially. In the case of the Cross English Tests applied to the senior class in October 1939 and May 1940, the gain of 22.4 per cent in median was commendable, but the 12-B median at the beginning of the year was the lowest recorded, and the gain did not bring the class median up far enough to meet the lowest end-year median in preceding years. The implication of these figures, presented in Table XVII, p is that the beginning-year median of 38.1 per cent, nearly 12 per cent belo?7 the norm (under which no preceding recorded class had dropped more than 2 per cent), indicated that the class had not received adequate training in English during the first three years of its high school career. The improvement shows the efficacy of the work in the 12th grade, ^See also Figures 7-11. 2See also Figures 12-14. 79 TABLE XVI RESULTS OF THE CROSS TEST IN ENGLISH GIVEN TO NINTH GRADE PUPIIS AT MONROVIA ARCADIA DUARTE HIGH SCHOOL Percentile rank 9-B October 1939 Form C Boys Girls Both 100 95-99 90-94 85-89 80-84 75-79 70-74 65-69 60-64 55-59 50-54 45—49 40—44 35-39 30-34 25-29 20-24 15-19 10-14 5- 9 0- 4 3 1 2 3 4 1 4 7 2 6 6 4 7 8 7 6 11 12 10 10 3 8 1 7 6 5 6 5 7 9 7 7 6 8 8 1 7 7 12 1 Total 114 121 0 6 9 3 10 10 6 10 12 9 15 13 11 13 16 15 7 18 19 22 11 235 9-*A May 1940 Boys Girls 4 13 16 5 4 16 9 3 7 10 6 6 4 7 4 4 Form A Both 7 13 9 8 4 2 5 7 4 19 25 10 9 21 12 11 13 16 14 13 6 10 12 12 0 11 15 14 15 126 136 262 6 9 5 5 5 3 8 6 6 8 7 2 3 8 8 — — Median 30.6 47.5 38.7 48.6 68.3 57.8 Md.1938-39 Ml.1937-38 Ml .1936-37 Ml.1935-36 Ml.1934-35 31.3 40.0 25.8 38.2 45.5 52.7 51.4 40.0 55.0 61.9 45.2 46.9 31.6 46.7 53.5 51.3 60.5 49.0 65.8 54.2 60.3 75.8 66.2 79.2 77.1 55.3 65.4 54.4 73.9 70*4 High Average Low NOTE: This table should be read as follows: Three boys and three girls received a grade from 95 to 99# in October, 1939, as compared with six boys and thirteen girls who were graded in the same group at the end of the year, in May, 1940* BO 9-B ENGLISH B OY S PERCENTILE RANK GIRLS 90-99 80-89 70-79 60-69 50-59 40-49 30-39 20-29 10-19 0- 9 20 10 0 20 FIGURE 7 DISTRIBUTION OF PERCENTILE RANK SCORES IN CROSS ENGLISH TESTS. ENTERING 9-B PUPILS, SEPTEMBER 1939 81 Percentile rank 9 B ENGLISH 100 90 80 70 60 NOUM 50 40 30 20 10 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 FIGURE 8 MEDIAN PERCENTILE RANK OF 9-B ENGLISH GLASSES IN SEPTEMBER (CROSS ENGLISH TEST, 1932 TO 1940) 1940 82 9 B ENGLISH Fereentile rank IOC 90 OR M 40 30 20 10 1935 1936 1937 1938 1959 FIGURE 9 MEDIAN PERCENTILE RANK SCORES OF ENTERING 9-B CLASSES IN ENGLISH (CROSS ENGLISH TEST. FEBRUARY GLASSES, 1935-1940) 1940 83 BOYS PERCENTILE RANK 9 -A ENGLISH GIRLS ICO 90-99 80-89 70-79 60-69 50-59 40-49 30-39 20-29 10-19 0- 9 30 30 No. of pupils FIGURE 10 DISTRIBUTION OF PERCENTILE RANK SCORES IN CROSS ENGLISH TEST 9-A CLASSES, MAY, 1940 84 FRESHMAN ENGLISH Percentile rank 100 90 SO 70 60 NORM 40 30 20 10 9-B Sept. 1939 9-A May 1940 FIGURE 11 IMPROVEMENT OF FRESHMAN BOYS AND GIRLS IN ENGLISH, AS SHOWN BY MEDIAN PERCENTILE RANK IN CROSS ENGLISH TEST AT BEGINNING AND END OF YEAR END-YEAR CLASS, 1939-1940 85 TABLE XVII RESULTS OP THE CROSS TEST IN ENGLISH GIVEN TO TWELFTH GRADE PUPILS AT MONROVIA ARCADIA DUARTE HIGH SCHOOL ------Percentile rank 95-99 90-94 85-89 80-84 75-79 70-74 65-69 60-64 55-59 50-54 45-49 40-44 35-39 30-34 25-29 20-24 15-19 10-14 5-9 0-4 12-A 0oT5Ferl939' Eoyi — Girls — 3 1 2 3 3 5 1 2 3 2 1 3 7 6 2 5 May 1940 Girls Mi b 1 2 3 4 — 1 6 1 1 3 — 2 4 4 6 3 6 2 — — 2 3 4 1 1 2 1 3 1 1 1 — 2 — — 5 12 2 6 8 1 5 5 4 6 5 7 5 1 1 3 3 6 1 1 4 — 5 5 1 — 2 — — 1 3 1 — 4 6 1 5 5 1 3 1 Form A Both 0 4 1 5 8 2 2 5 3 5 2 5 4 2 6 4 9 9 6 5 — — 1 TormT'CT Both — — Total 50 37 87 50 37 87 Median 32.5 44.2 38.1 52.5 77.5 60.5 Md.1938-39 Md.1937-38 Md.1936-37 Md.1935-36 Md.1934-35 Md.1933-34 58.3 41.2 40.4 33.7 29.4 42.5 64.4 55.0 71.3 51.7 69.6 66.7 61.8 52.8 48.7 48.7 54.0 54.7 53.5 57.5 50.0 47.5 61.0 70.0 68.6 83.8 75.0 54.4 88.7 80.0 63.9 77.5 60.7 51.6 78.3 77.8 High Average Low NOTE*. This table should be read as follows: Three boys and five girls of the 12-B class received grades between 75 and 79^ in October, 1939, as compared with three boys and five girls who received the same range when the test was administered to the 12-A class in May, 1940. 86 BOYS GIRLS Percentile rank 90-99 80-89 70-79 60-6S 50-59 30-39 20-29 -- ! 10-19 ! 10 No* of pupils rr 0- 9 0 0 15 FIGURE 12 DISTRIBUTION OF PERCENTILE RANK ON CROSS ENGLISH TEST GIVEN TO SENIOR 12-B CLASS. SEPTEMBER, 1939 10 87 12-A ENGLISH PERCENTILE RANK 90-99 80-89 70-79 60-69 50-89 40-49 30-39 20-29 10-19 0- 9 No. of pupils FIGURE 13 DISTRIBUTION OF PERCENTILE RANK SCORES IN CROSS ENGLISH TEST 12-A CLASS, MAY, 1940 38 ENGLISH SENIOR Percentile rank IOC 90 80 70 50 NORM 40 30 20 10 - 12-A May 1940 12-B Sept* 1939 FIGURE 14 IMPROVEMENT OF SENIOR BOYS AND GIRLS IN ENGLISH, AS SHOWN BY MEDIAN PERCENTILE RANK IN CROSS ENGLISH TEST AT BEGINNING AND AT END OF YEAR* 1939-1940 39 however, and the fact that this same class upon its entrance to the high school in September, 1936, showed an unusually low median (see Table XVI), suggests that the class may have had an unusually poor pre-high school start. The discrepancy between boys and girls remains largely the same, with the girls not only showing a much higher median at the beginning of the year, but increasing that gain by the end of the year. Results in American History. In the case of the Columbia Research Bureau American History Test, the median scores of the eight classes to which the test was adminis tered were 50.8, 58.7, 61.2, 62.5, 70.8, 75.0, and 80.0, respectively, the last approaching closely the norm of 81.0. The individual scores ranged from 18 to 146 points; the median for all the groups combined was 66.2, the highest yet obtained with the test in this school. The distribution of scores and a comparison with that of previous years is given in Table XVIII .3 Results in French, Spanish, and Latin. Results in the Columbia Research Bureau French Test were diverse. Of the 19 French 1-A pupils, only one surpassed the norm of 100.0, with a score of 107. The class median was 63.5, far below the norm, and considerably below the median of the preceding year, although it compared favorably with the medians of the three 5See also Figures 15-17. 90 TABLE XVIII RESULTS OF THE COLUMBIA RESEARCH BUREAU TEST IN AMERICAN HISTORY GIVEN TO PUPILS OF MONROVIA ARCADIA DUARTE HIGH SCHOOL (FORM A) Soore 120+ 115-119 110-114 105-109 100-104 95- 99 90- 94 85- 89 80- 84 75- 79 70- 74 65- 69 60- 64 55- 59 50- 54 45- 49 40- 44 35- 39 30- 34 25- 29 20- 24 15- 19 10- 14 Total May1933 May1934 4 — 3 3 3 6 6 4 5 16 15 13 21 12 13 19 20 9 9 5 10 2 1 199 May 1935 May 1936 1937 4 -- 3 1 1 4 3 3 4 4 8 3 15 15 12 16 22 10 13 9 2 2 2 — — — — 2 1 1 3 1 4 4 8 13 13 5 13 6 19 16 13 8 8 3 3 1 1 1 3 4 5 9 4 8 14 9 9 10 14 21 10 12 10 2 — 1 2 6 2 4 9 8 10 8 16 16 14 13 13 10 4 8 3 5 3 152 144 151 158 May 1938 May 1939 May 1940 4 1 5 4 8 6 8 5 5 10 10 6 17 9 17 15 13 16 12 5 4 1 1 2 1 2 3 — 3 1 2 11 7 11 16 6 14 15 11 18 12 7 6 3 1 8 5 6 4 7 9 7 8 6 10 19 15 19 13 15 12 13 10 7 7 — 1 182 152 201 Median 60.0 60.0 51.7 53.2 61.9 58.9 56.1 66 Norm 81.0 81.0 81.0 81.0 81.0 81.0 81.0 81 High Average Low NOTE: This table should be read as follows: Seven pupils placed between 100 and 104 in the Columbia Researoh Bureau American History Test given in May, 1940, as compared with three in 1933, three in 1934, one in 1935, etc* 91 AMERICAN HISTORY Score 120 ~ 100 80 NORM 40 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 FIGURE 15 MEDIAN SCORES IN COLUMBIA RESEARCH BUREAU AMERICAN HISTORY TEST 1933-1940 1940 92 FRENCH IA Score 20C - 150 IOC NORM 1933 1934 1335 1936 1337 1938 1939 FIGURE 15 MEDIAN SCORES IN COLUMBIA RESEARCH BUREAU FRENCH TEST FRENCH 1-A CLASSES. 1933-1940 1940 93 FRENCH Score 2A 200 150; NORM 100 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 FIGURE 17 MEDIAN SCORES IN COLUMBIA RESEARCH BUREAU FRENCH TEST FOR FRENCH 2-A CLASSES. 1933-1940 1940 94 years in which the test was given previous to that. The median among the 15 pupils in French 2-A was 132.5, twenty points below the norm of 152, but considerably higher than most class medians since 1933. The results, as shown in Table XIX, seem to show a general gain at the school, although as in the case of the American History, the whole average is far below the norm. In the Columbia Research Bureau Spanish Test, the medians of all classes were above the norms: 95.8 as compared with the norm of 91.0 in Spanish 1-A; 138.8 as contrasted with 126.0 in Spanish 2-B; and 166.5 over 161.0 in Spenish 2-A. In comparison with the medians of the corresponding classes in past years, these of the 2-B and 2-A classes in May 1940 continued the record of consistent gain; the 1-A median, however, suffered a drop of ten points. The constancy of improvement is more marked here, nevertheless, than in the French classes, and as the figures in Table XX show, the comparison with national norms is much more favorable.4 the White Latin Test, administered to four classes, showed gains in two and a slight drop in one. The 3-B class, comprising only four pupils, achieved a median of 140.0, five points above the norm of 135.0; this class, however, was given no basis of comparison, since the test had not been administered to a 3-B class at this school before. 4 See also Figures 18-20. The median 95 TABLE XIX RESULTS OF THE COLUMBIA RESEARCH BUREAU TEST IN FRENCH GIVEN TO PUPIIS OF OHS MONROVIA ARCADIA DUARTE HIGH SCHOOL (Form A) Score 170160-169 150-159 140-149 130-139 120-129 110-119 100-109 90- 99 80- 89 70- 79 60- 69 50- 59 40- 49 Below 40 Total 1-A 2-A mm 2 2 — ~ 1 3 1 1 3 -— — 1 1 1 4 6 3 1 2 •• 19 15 -M. — — 1 — Median 63.5 132.5 Norm 100.0 152.0 Mi.1939 Md.1938 Mi.1937 Mi .1936 Md.1935 Mi .1934 Mi.1933 103.8 — 58.3 53*3 49*2 75.0 85*0 75.0 117.5 87.5 95.0 130.0 132.5 NOTE: This table should be read as follows: One pupil in French 1-A received a grade between 100 and 109, as compared with three pupils in French 2-A who received the same grade* 96 TABLE XX RESULTS OF THE COLUMBIA RESEARCH BUREAU TEST IN SPANISH GIVEN TO PUPILS OF THE MONROVIA iUiCiiDIA DUARTE HIGH SCHOOL (FORM A) Soore 1-A 2-B 2-A Total 65 24 43 Median 95.8 138.8 166.5 Norm 91.0 (126.0) 161.0 200+ 195-199 190-194 185-189 180-184 175-179 170-174 165-169 160-164 155-159 150-154 145-149 140-144 135-139 130-134 125-129 120-124 115-119 110-114 105-109 100-104 95- 99 90- 94 85- 89 80- 84 75- 79 70- 74 65- 69 60- 64 55- 59 Below 55 Md. Md. Md. Md. Md. Md. Md. 1939 1938 1937 1936 1935 1934 1933 105.8 87.5 162.5 106.5 135.0 150.0 113.0 120.0 155.0 162.5 140.0 94.4 94.1 115.0 125.0 78.9 116.2 105.8 112.5 108.5 85.0 "" N0TE7~ This table Is to be read as follows; Two students in Spanisn 1-A received grades between 135 and 139, as compared with four in 2-B and one in 2-A, SPANISH IA Score 200 150 100 - NORM 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 FIGURE 18 MEDIAN SCORES OF SPANISH 1-A CLASSES IN COLUMBIA RESEARCH BUREAU SPANISH TEST. 1933-1940 1940 98 SPANISH 2 B Score 2CC 150 NORM 100 19 33 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 FIGURE IS MEDIAN SCORES OF SPANISH 2-B CLASSES IN COLUMBIA RESEARCH BUREAU SPANISH TEST. 1933-1940 1940 99 5PANISH 2A Score 200 NORM 150- IOC 1933 1934 1935 1936 1938 1939 FIGURE 2C MEDIAN SCORES OF SPANISH 2-A CLASSES IN COLUMBIA RESEARCH BUREAU SPANISH TEST. 1933-1940 1940 100 in the 2-B class, 91.2, was considerably lower than the norm of 105.0, and also under the medians of the two preceding years. The 1-A and 2-A classes, hoY/ever, continued consis tent gains in the median rating of their respective grades, and surpassed the norm in both cases. These figures, presen ted in Table XXI, shoY/ about the same rate of progress and comparison with the norm as did the Spanish test results.5 SUMMARY Such an achievement survey as was here presented, although it cannot be completely satisfactory, since it v/as a statistical and objective method of dealing with a problem concerning varied and complex individuals, still had a definite value. Acquired abilities were measured and tabu lated, and progress indicated by comparison with the work of previous years at the same school and with the results achieved in other schools all over the country. Such exami nations as were used in the above survey are made up by experts to test the pupils in the wisest and most helpfpl way, and the results were, if properly presented and used, of aid to teacher, pupil, and public. Specifically, the figures presented shov^ed in general a positive rather than a negative movement at MonroviaArcadia-Duarte High School in all the courses surveyed. 5See also Figures 21-23. The 101 TABLE XXI RESULTS OF THE WHITE LATIN TEST GIVEN TO PUPIIS OF MONROVIA ARCADIA DUARTE HIGH SCHOOL Score 170-174 165-169 160-164 155-159 150-154 145-149 140-144 135-139 130-134 125-129 120-124 115-119 110-114 105-109 100-104 95- 99 90-94 85-89 80-84 75-79 70-74 65-69 60-64 Below 60 1—A 2-B 2—A — -- .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. — .. .. ... .. .. .. 1 1 2 3 1 1 3-B 1 — ~ 1 2 3 3 3 3 3 7 3 1 -- 2 — 6 2 — .. 1 1 — 12 .. 8 11 4 5 1 3 1 7 2 3 2 — — — — — — — — — 4 — .. — — — i— — — .. Total 62 11 43 4 Median 96.9 91.2 127.7 140.0 Norm 84.0 105.0 121.0 135.0 79.1 93.6 82.2 82,9 81.7 59.0 74.1 97.5 105.6 87.5 82.5 90.0 90.6 97.5 112.5 123.1 108.7 112.7 100.0 95.6 107.5 Ml. 1939 Md. 1938 m . 1937 Md. 1936 Md. 1935 Ml. 1934 Ml. 1933 —— 2 1 1 1 tmmm 1 — — — — — — NOTE: This table should be read as follows: Of the pupils who received grades from 120 to 124, one was in 1-A, one in 2-B, three in 2-A, none in 3-B. 102 L A T IN IA Score 2CC— 150 100 ' NORM 1933 1934 1935 1936 193? 1S38 1939 FIGURE 21 MEDIAN SCORES OF LATIN 1-A CLASSES IN WHITE LATIN TEST 1933-1940 1940 L A T IN 2 A Score 200 150 NORM 100 50 1033 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 FIGURE 22 MEDIAN SCORES OF LATIN 2-A CLASSES IN WHITE LATIN TEST 1933-1940 1940 104 LATIN 2 B Soore 200 ~ 150 NORM 100 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 FIGURE 23 MEDIAN SCORES OF LATIN 2-B CLASSES IN WHITE IATIN TEST 1933-1940 1940 105 occasional drops and discrepancies, such as the drop in the class median of Spanish 1-A, in comparison with the gain in the other two classes tested, may be attributed to any number of circumstances not shown by the statistics, such as a chance grouping in one class of those of low mental ability, the failure of some experiment in teaching method, or the like. In the case of the latter, the survey results would suggest action to the individual teacher; in the event of the former, the suggestion comes to mind that a complete listing, in separate form, of the mental ability ratings in the various classes surveyed, data now uncompiled, would aid in making the whole investigation more useful. As far as the present data are concerned, it may be said that in comparison with the mental ability ratings of the whole school as shown in Chapter IV, the general progress of the classes tested seemed adequate. The majority of the classes tested rated above the norm; this seems to indicate that the ratio between the achievement ability of the pupils; the all-school mental ability percentage of 53.5 in th4 average I.Q. group, slightly lower than the norm; and the fairly high percentage of retardation found in the school, points to a successful teaching program. The great improve ment shown by the end-year tests in English also points to the efficacy of the teaching. Only in American history and French were the classes 106 consistently below the norm. The specific suggestions of this investigator, then, would be that the following matters should be given particu lar attention and work: 1) the great discrepancy between the abilities of boys and girls in English; 8) the low standards, as compared with national ratings, of the classes in American history and French; and 3) the non-characteristic breaks in progress, such as that of Spanish 1-A mentioned above, which attention to special problems by the individual teachers could probably remedy. With these matters given their proper cure, the progress in achievement at Monrovia-Areadia-Duarte High School would be able to continue at a steady rate. CHAPTER VI IMPLICATIONS OF THE CURRICULUM It was the purpose of this chapter to set forth the curriculum objectives of the Bfonrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High School, to give a brief outline of the courses of study offered, to point out special attempts that have been made to adapt the courses to the changing needs of pupils, to present the distribution by major courses of the entire school and the racial groups, and finally, to present the mental ability classification of the major course groups. With this general picture of the relationship of the pupils to the courses of study, the investigator hoped to be able to determine whether the pupils have fitted into the courses of study and if the courses of study have fitted the pupils, in order to determine if the greatest possible degree of efficiency is being obtained both from the school and the child. Before presenting these points, it is necessary to explain and define some of the terms used. The modern educational process involves five rather distinct factors: the child to be educated, the teacher, the school plant and equipment, the administrative and supervisory machinery necessary to insure an integrated and effective program, and 108 the materials of instruction. It is in the latter field that definitions are especially required. DEFINITION OF TERMS Confusion will be avoided if the two terms "curricu lum” and bourse of study,” commonly employed in any consider ation of materials of instruction, are definitely limited in meaning. For the purpose of this study the curriculum will be interpreted as meaning a particular arrangement of courses or subjects which aims to attain certain general and specific objectives for a special group of children. For example, this high school has made provision for a college preparatory curriculum, a commercial curriculum, and a manual arts curri culum, each of which has certain rather specific objectives in addition to the more general aims of secondary education. In contrast to a curriculum, a course of study may be defined as a working plan for a particular division of the curriculum which is composed of materials closely enough related to make a definite unit. For example, this high school has four years of mathematics, which as an integrated plan of study forming an effective division of a curriculum, would be known as the mathematics course of study. As explained by Leo M, Chamberlain, At any particular school level there will be as many curricula as there are distinct groups of children to be provided for, and as many courses of study as there are 109 Tonified subject divisions in the curriculum or the curricula offered.^- The first point to be taken up, then, concerns the objectives of those group plans known as curricula. CURRICULUM OBJECTIVES In recent years a great deal of serious thought has been given to the redetermination of the essential purposes of secondary education in America. In general, two concepts have gained widespread acceptance. The first Is that effec tive education must be based upon the interested experiencing and participation of the learner rather than upon the ful fillment of mechanical memorization tasks set by the teahcer; the second is that secondary education should be definitely focussed upon the pupil for the purpose of enabling him to live more satisfactorily in the present, to adjust himself better to changing conditions, and to assume both intelligent leadership and intelligent followership in helping to improve society. The secondary school must devote itself to three great services, as follows: 1. The of essential important as end aimed at mastery of the tool subjects; the acquisition skills called the "fundamentals.I! They are a means to an education rather than as an by it. ^The Teacher and School Organization. (New York: Prentice-Ilall, 1937), p. 391. 110 2. The transmission of our heritage, consisting of 1 ) the race culture as embodied in literature, music, the arts, and the social graces; 2) material things both in the form of natural resources and of man-made wealth; and 3) our great political heritage of democracy, justice, and liberty. 3. The production of courageous citizens capable of discriminate thinking, and able to grapple with the problems of an increasingly complex social order. More directly, then, the primary objective of the Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High School curriculum is to furnish the best possible guidance and opportunities to the youth of the school, in order that the pupils may receive training in the fundamental principles and practices of citizenship, morality, and culture; and that they may secure basic training of a pre-vocational nature, both in preparation for the further pursuit of educational and professional studies, and for entrance into commercial and semi-technical positions. If the pupil is unable to decide upon the specific vocation which he wishes to follow, he may at least determine in a general way what his aptitudes and interests are, and may use the facilities of the school for further exploration both of his own aptitudes and of the world of work. The organization of the curriculum which is described in the following section was made with the objectives which have been outlined above in mind. PATTERN OF THE CURRICULUM A serious attempt has been made to adjust the types Ill and kinds of work offered at the Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High School to the changing needs of the pupils as described in the preceding section. To this end the courses of the school are grouped into majors under the broad classifica tion of a college preparatory and a non-college preparatory curriculum, with a guided but wide choice of electives outside of each pupilTs major course. Each pupil, in order to be eligible for graduation, must secure a specified number of credits in English, science, American history and civics, American problems, orientation, senior problems, physical education and health, and such others as are speci fied in the major course. Every pupil, regardless of major, must have 200 semester hours of credit for graduation. The college preparatory course, for those pupils who intend to go on with college or university work after graduation from high school, presents four majors, in history, language, mathematics, and science. Each major requires not only the entrance requirements of the Univer sity of California, but also 30 hours credit in the major subject chosen. If a pupil carries four subjects, physical education, and the customary study hall, he will have choice of from one to three electives, chosen from any field in the curriculum, during his four-year high school course. The non-college curriculum is for those pupils who will go to business or trade school or will try to find a 112 job upon completion of the high school career. Three years of English, four of physical education, and one each of orientation, American history, and American and senior problems are required of pupils in this curriculum, plus from 30 to 70 hours, depending on the course, in one of the five possible majors: art, manual arts, commerce, music, or the "general” major. In the latter, 30 semester hours of a college preparatory subject are required in addition to the above requirements. In these courses there is more of an opportunity to take electives than in the college prepara tory course; this is especially true in the "general” major. Great care is taken to guide the pupil when he enters high school, in order to fit his needs and to avoid any confusing changes later that may lead to maladjustments. There is, however, never any hesitancy in changing a major course for a pupil if it is deemed necessary. Of the many subjects offered, there are two which the investigators feel are of particular significance in the new attempt to make the materials of instruction fit the pupil. These are the orientation course for freshmen, and the senior problems class, both of which have been reorganized in the last few years with the precise purpose of attampting to meet the needs of the pupil. Orientation course. Four years ago a so-called orientation course was organized for the freshman girls, 113 with the boys being left to choose an elective, in most cases general science. This orientation course was required for girls, and was divided into four sections, each taught by a different teacher of home economics, and arranged so that each of four groups of pupils spent nine weeks with each teacher. Each section was planned to aid in one section of the future woman*s home and social life. One division, on child care, instructed in the physical care of the infant and pre school child, and also emphasized the importance of habit formation and mental health. In the home and social problems section, an effort was made to teach courtesy and social responsibility, and to make each pupil conscious of home privileges as well as home responsibilities. The section on meal planning included not only the study of foods and the planning of menus, but also some practical aid in learning social poise and appreciating the art of living with others. In the fourth division, dress appreciation, the girls learned to sew enough to make one garment, and developed standards of simplicity, suitability, appropriateness, and becomingness in dress. This course, which has been carried on in much the same way for the last four years, has also used the visual education films made available by the United States Department of Labor. 1X4 Two years ago it was agreed that an orientation course should be organized for boys as well. The arrange ment into four sections followed the same plan as the girlsT course. One section on vocational guidance gave insight in to the available vocations for men and the training required for each, in order to assist the boys in their later choice of vocation. The woodshop division gave not only practical experience but also some insight into the methods, character, and social importance of modern industry, as well as some appreciation of both the creative and the practical side of workmanship. The section on mechanical drawing gave training in precision and reasoning. The fourth section was concerned with social arts, and aimed to give the boy an appreciation of his home responsibilities and, through actual experience, courtesy and social ease. In considering these plans for the so-called orienta tion courses at this high school, the investigator is apt to inquire whether the title is a correct one, or whether it should be retained and the subject-matter changed. Certainly the usual interpretation of the term orientation does not apply here. As defined by Mr. Tril- lingham, the assistant county superintendent of schools for Los Angeles County, orientation courses are aimed at bringing together the children of varied priraary-school experience who enter California high schools: 115 Some of these pupils attended elementary schools with very small enrollments and were under the direction of one teacher during the entire school day....Some of them attended junior high schools. Those responsible for the senior high school program have long recognized the necessity for some type of class situation which would bring together these incoming students for the purpose of orienting them with the edu cational offerings and possibilities of the new institu tion. There has long been a felt need for a course experience which would give boys and girls a perspective of the total high school environment as well as to reveal the necessary adjustments to be made by both the pupil and the school. The course in ninth-grade orientation seems to be a worth while possibility for fulfilling that need. This is particularly true for the four-year high school. This course outline offers not only opportunities for the consideration of problems and activities involved in getting acquainted with the high school but includes also sections for the study of the interrelations of the individual pupil with his home and community.2 There is very little time spent in the orientation course of Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High School in making a mutual adaptation of pupil, school, and community, although the courses offered certain information which every boy and girl will need and probably have some occasion to use, particularly in the case of those who are non-white or who do not finish the entire high school course. The writer felt, however, that adjustments needed to be made in the course in order to give the pupils a better understanding of the school and community of which they were a part. Also, it was suggested that boys ana girls should 2Ninth Grade Orientation, (Office of the Secondary Education Division, County Superintendent of Schools, Los Angeles County, September, 1937), Introduction [no pagination]. 116 be together for part of the time, if not all of it. At an age when the pupils are very conscious of the opposite sex, adjustment to the ordinary conditions of society will make their later social relationships easier. The very purpose of the present emphasis in the orientation course on social arts is contradicted by dividing the sexes. Finally, the division of the course into four sections, each with a different teacher, defeats in part one purpose of orienta tion: to develop and maintain a very friendly feeling between the pupil and the teacher. With these criticisms in mind, the writer makes the following suggestions for the organization of an improved orientation course at Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High School: 1. Grouping. A. Pupils should be classified only by chance in registration. In this way the pupils will learn to adjust themselves to all types and races of children. B. Both sexes should be in all classes for most of the time. C. Classes should be set up on the year basis, with not more than two teachers handling each group, and if possible, only one teacher. 2. Course of study: the course should be divided into the following sections. A. Your school and You, a unit for the purpose of orienting the freshman pupil to his new school environment, enabling him to use the library effectively, and fostering in him the develop ment of useful skills and study habits. B. Your Community and Home, in which an attempt is made to allow the pupil to discover for himself those social agencies which contribute to his own physical and mental well-being, and to determine what contributions he may make to benefit his home and the community, as well as 117 what conduct he shall maintain in relation to his home, his school, and his community. C. School Arts, a unit aiding the teacher in an attempt to instill in the pupil a manner of behavior acceptable in the democratic society in which he lives; the unit aims also to give the student poise through a knowledge of manners, and an awareness of a winning person ality. D. Vocational Interests and Social Living, a unit for the purpose of orienting students with the occupational life of the community, making them acquainted with a variety of vocations. In this section the sexes might be advantage ously separated, though in this age of indus try the procedure would be questionable. E. You and Your Personality, where the sexes could be separated for the study of some of the original course, such as personal grooming, meal planning, clothing appreciation, and child care, for the girls, under a home econom ics teacher; and personal grooming, shop work and mechanical drawing under a teacher quali fied to teach both, for the boys. In defense of the school, it is only fair to state that the administration is not satisfied with the present organization of the course, and is seriously considering an adjustment. These suggestions are made in the hope that they may aid in any reorganizations made. Having attempted to meet some of the pupil *s personal problems in this orientation course, the school gives further attention to these matters in the senior problems course. Senior Problems Course. Prior to 1939-40, the school offered a year course in American problems, intending to give the pupil a definite knov/ledge of some of our social, 118 economic, and political problems. Indoctrination was avoided, but the fundamental principles of American democracy were required as a basic condition of all discussions and as a valid element in all conclusions to be drawn; and the course attempted to set up attitudes of intelligent citizen ship through training in habits of alert curiosity, openminded investigation, and slow judgment in the affairs which perplex our statesmen, politicians, judges, etc. This course remains as a requirement for graduation, but has been reduced in duration to one semester. The second semester of the course was changed in title and content at the recommendation of a survey made by a curriculum investigating committee headed by Aubrey A. Douglass in October, 1938, which recommended that class exercises in the last semester of American Problems be built around some of the problems of living and working which the pupils would meet on graduating.3 Following this recommendation, then, a course was built on the following plan. Divided into three sections, each of six ?/eeks’ duration, and each supervised by a separate teacher (two from the social science department and one from the home economics department), the course met during the last semester of the pupil’s senior year. One section covered 3Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High School Report of the Survey Committee. October, 1938, pp. 14, 16. 119 vocational and educational guidance, giving this time definite guidance in choosing a career or a further educa tional plan. Pupils learned about colleges, universities, business and trade schools; they heard about many different types of vocations through class reports, of which each individual gave two, one about a vocation which he had newly studied, and one concerning some vocation in which he had previously been interested. The second section was occupied with the studies of family relationships; by various methods of discussion, the pupils reviewed their place in the home, the family as an institution, and marital relation ships in view of their own lives. The third division was concerned with consumer education for four weeks, and social arts for two. Outside members of professions and industries discussed such things as budgeting and testing of materials, and other activities were planned with the purpose of making the pupil an intelligent consumer. During the study of social arts such things as social introductions, behavior on "dates,” etc., were discussed in a free and open way. At the end of the section, the pupils put into practice what they had learned in social living by giving a dinner. Visual education aids were used in this course also; no textbooks were employed, but the pupils used a wealth of reference material in the library. A very definite method of classification was followed 120 in these three groups, two of them being composed of collegepreparatory pupils, and one of the non-college preparatory group. All sections met during two consecutive periods of the day, a convenient set-up whereby the senior adviser might use the groups as a point of contact, and senior meetings might be held with a minimum of disturbance to classes other than the senior problems class. In this arrangement, however, the writer would again offer some criticism. As in the case of the orientation course, the advisability of having three teachers handle a child during one semester may be questioned. In a guidance course it would seem only logical to believe that a teacher with whom the child is well acquainted would be able to achieve better results. Furthermore, the time offered to the social arts is much too short. Past experience has proved that pupils want to devote more time to this subject, which they are at the age to be intensely interested in and to profit by at the maximum. It is suggested, therefore, that such a senior problems course as exists at this high school contains vital and timely subject matter, but that it might be wise to have the pupil under the same teacher for the whole time, and that the reorganization of the third section to give more time to social arts would be advisable. In considering these adaptations of the curriculum 121 to special problems, it is of great help to have in mind also the more statistical information concerning the distribution of the pupils in the major courses, and also the mental ability classification by majors. DISTRIBUTION BY MAJOR COURSES Distribution of entire school. The college prepara tory group claimed exactly half of the pupils enrolled in Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High School in October, 1939. The commercial course ranked next highest with 18.4 per cent; the general major included 15.9 per cent; and the practical arts, art, and music claimed 9.4 per cent, 3.0 per cent, and 3.3 per cent, respectively. These percentages represent a rather constant order at this school; figures for the last eleven years show no appreciable or progressive change in the proportions of pupils in the various majors. The figures presented in Table XXII show as the only steady changes the very slight rise in the general major and an equal falling off in the practical arts. The decline of the college preparatory group during some of the depression years does not actually constitute a trend, since it was not constant and apparently not permanent. Distribution by racial groups. The varying emphasis placed upon the major fields of study by the different racial groups also remained fairly constant from year to 122 COLLEGE PREPARATORY 50 MUSIC ART 3.3# PRACTICAL GENERAL ARTS 9.4# 15.9# FIGURE 24 BNROLIMBNT BY MAJOR COURSES. ENTIRE SCHOOL, OCTOBER, 1939 123 60 COLIE GE Pf repAR> vt(>?; 50- 40' 3a 2a 10 GEMER AE M U Ml 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 FIGURE 25 TREND OF ENROLLMENT BY MAJOR COURSES. ENTIRE SCHOOL. 1929-1939 1939 124 TABLE XXII TREND OF ENROLLMENT 3N COURSES, IN PERCENTAGE, AT MONROVIA ARCADIA DUARTE HIGH SCHOOL Major course 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1935 College prep. 53.8 53.5 55.9 55.1 51.7 49.7 48.9 50.5 52.4 48.6 50 .C Comaereial 16.3 17.8 18.8 18.7 18.4 20.8 20.0 18.7 17.7 19.2 18.4 General 10.8 10.9 9.6 10.7 14.4 12.4 13.4 14.0 14.7 15.1 15.S Pract. arts 13.4 11.9 11.6 10.5 9.2 11.8 11.7 11.2 11.1 11.5 9.^ Art 3.3 3*1 2.3 2.0 2.7 2.9 3.3 4.0 2.8 3.2 3.C Music 2.4 2.8 1.8 2.3 2.0 2.0 1.8 1.6 1*3 2.4 3.2 — — 0.7 1.6 0.4 0.4 — _ — — Not classified — 0 1 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.C NOTE: This table dfcouFL be read as follats: 13.4$ of the total enroll ment In 1929 was registered In -foe Practical Arts course; in 1930, 11*9$, etc* 125 year. The white pupils chose the college preparatory course most frequently, 52,3 per cent of their number being enrolled in it in October, 1939. For the Negroes, the leading choices were college preparatory and commercial, 28.6 per cent of their number being enrolled in each. A plurality of the Japanese pupils, 34.3 per cent, chose practical arts, with college preparatory next in favor. Of the Mexicans, 45.8 per cent chose the commercial course, and 33.3 practical arts. The whole distribution is shown in Table XXIII, on which are also presented the distribution for the last two years, for the purpose of comparison. The racial distribution seems to be based partly on the mental ability ratings of the various groups, as seen in Chapter IV, and partly, probably, on the fact that there are certain social discriminations against the non-white groups. Significant in this connection is the mental ability rating of pupils according to their major groups. MENTAL ABILITY CLASSIFICATION OF MAJOR COURSE GROUPS Each of the major courses is represented by a group of pupils whose I.Q. distribution is characteristic in that it tends to follow a similar pattern from year to year. The college preparatory group, which this year ranges in I.Q. from 61 to 151, with a median of 108.3, is the highest each year in central tendency, but usually overlaps all other 126 TABLE XXIII MAJOR COURSE DISTRIBUTION OF RACIAL GROUPS Total No. % 28.6 25.7 8.6 34.3 2.8 0.0 3 11 1 8 1 665 245 211 125 40 44 100.0 35 100.0 24 51.3 18.3 14.7 10.4 2.9 2.4 12.8 28.2 20.5 28.2 2.6 7.7 22.2 25.0 13.9 30.6 8.3 0.0 13.0 39.2 26.1 13.0 8.7 0.0 48.6 19.2 15.1 11.5 3.2 2.4 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 54.3 16.6 14.7 10.2 2.9 1.3 31.5 34.3 17.1 17.1 0.0 0.0 30.0 27.5 7.5 30.0 5.0 0.0 23.1 38.4 23.1 15.4 0.0 0.0 52.4 17.7 14.7 11.1 2.8 1.3 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Iffiiite No. % College prep. Commercial General Fract. arts Art Music 637 210 198 97 36 40 Total October, 1 W “ College prep. Commercial General Pract. arts Art Music Total October, 1937 College prep. Commercial General Pract. arts Art Music Total Japanese No. fo Mexican No* % Major course October, 1939 52.3 17.2 16.3 8.0 2.9 3.3 1218 100.0 Negro No. % 15 15 9 8 2 4 53 28.3 28.3 17.0 15.1 3.8 7.5 10 9 3 12 1 MM 12.5 45.8 4.2 33.3 4.2 0.0 50.0 18.4 15.9 9.4 3.0 3.3 100.0 1330 100.0 NOTE: This table should be read as follows: Three Japanese pupils, or 8.6% of those enrolled in 1939, were registered in the general major, as compared with 13. % in 1938 and , % in 1937. 9 75 College College Prepafatot I Coroy«*rc\al ractical Arts vtnv% CovnvwerciaA Atwf l&>3% 'Practical Arts cenerai 33,3 X iT.o^ College TVeyavo-t-cv-^ Si, 3 X ovntnsraa koneroA FIGURE 26 DISTRIBUTION OF MAJOR COURSES BY RACIAL GROUPING. 1939 OCTOBER 128 MENTAL ABILITY CLASSIFICATION HIGH AVERAGE LOW Per cent of pupils 100 ' 6.4 6.2 28.5 80 46.0 43.7 19.6 23.1 *v AL£ 60 6 65 40 375" 49.6 24.1 i i 6.7 ENTIRE SCHOOL practical music ART ARTS COMMERCIAL GENERAL COLLEGE PREPARATORY FIGURE 27 MENTAL ABILITY CLASSIFICATION OF MAJOR COURSE GROUPS, OCTOBER 1939 129 120 110 100 90 80 Grade 9-B 9-A 10-B 10-A 11-B 11-A 12-B FIGURE 28 MEDIAN I.Q. OF PUPILS BY GRADES. OCTOBER, 1939 12-A 150 groups. The trend of the median I.Q. in each major group is downward, indicating however superior testing methods rather than a decline in average mental ability among the pupils. The figures for this section are presented in Table XXIV. SUMMARY The statistics presented above show a rather constant interrelation between mental ability, racial groups, and choice of major subject, a relationship which nowhere seems to contradict what would be expected. The connection is one which will remain constant unless other factors, such as the mental ability of racial groups, are changed; and as such the brief survey above is interesting as an indication rather than as a very significant phenomenon. The important revelations of the chapter, considering the new emphasis on the necessity of teaching the pupil his place in the social, industrial, and political world, and of Keeping him interested in learning to fit into his own community, are those which deal with the changes made and proposed in the curriculum, Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High School has already gone far, by the creation of special student-interest classes and by attention to careful choosing of the major, towards creating and maintaining student interest and profit in the high school career. It is hoped that if the suggestions outlined in detail in the 151 TABLE XXIV DISTRIBUTION OF TERMAN I.Q,. BY MAJOR COURSES Terman I.Q. College prep. Commer cial General .... — 1 1 2 8 15 38 46 79 97 123 100 65 38 22 12 5 3 1 1 — Total 657 Median 108.3 96.8 99.1 109.2 110.0 110.9 110.8 109.4 110.7 111.9 112.2 112.4 112.0 97.3 97.8 98.3 100.3 101.7 101.0 101.9 10016 100.9 100.4 98.7 98.9 99.3 99.7 100.9 102.2 102.1 101.1 100.7 100.0 Md, Ml. Ml, Ml. Ml. Ml. Ml. Ml. !Ml. Ml. 1938-39 1937-38 1936-37 1935-36 1934-35 1933-34 1932-33 1931-32 1930-31 1929-30 1 2 1 5 14 26 38 55 44 25 15 8 4 6 — — — 1 1 4 12 24 22 32 50 17 17 11 7 5 5 2 — 245 209 ~ Music __ L50-154 L45-149 L40-144 L35-139 L30-134 L25-129 L20-124 L15-119 110*114 L05-109 LOO-104 95- 99 90- 94 85- 89 80- 84 75- 79 70- 74 65- 69 60- 64 55- 59 — Practical Art arts Total 3 1 1 2 8 16 43 53 104 146 191 192 194 127 100 57 32 22 19 3 5 39 43 1317 90.8 99.4 95.4 102.6 92.9 95.0 96.9 96.3 96.2 95.6 97.0 95.2 94.8 96.3 98.3 101.2 97.9 97.5 97.3 99.5 100.0 101.2 102.1 105.0 94.4 96.2 93.7 99.4 102.5 106.2 106.5 102.5 104.3 110.0 103.4 104.6 104.6 104.6 104.7 105.7 107.2 106.6 107.1 106.7 __ — -—— -1 4 3 9 14 14 20 24 14 8 7 5 — 1 3 5 6 4 4 5 4 4 1 — 2 — 1 124 — — 1 1 1 3 5 4 6 3 8 1 3 3 — -- NOTE: This table is to be read as follows: Among the 191 pupils whose I.Q* was 105 to 109, 123 were college preparatory majors, 26 com mercial majors, 22 general majors, etc. Per cent of pupils 132 100 MUSIC 7.i ART 4.6% MUSIC 2.6% ART 2.7% PRACTICAL ARTS .% 8 1 MUSIC 1.9% ART 2.4% a r t s -s t i % COMMERCIAL 10.9% GENERAL PRACTICAL COMMERCIAL 16.1% ARTS 75 23.1 24.8% COLLEGE GENERAL COMMERCIAL 17.2% PREPARATORY 50 24.1 COLLEGE 76.6% GENERAL PREPARATORY 19.7% 25 46.: COLLEGE PREPARATORY 18.5% LOW GROUP (I.Q. below 90) AVERAGE GROUP (I.Q. 90-109) HIGH GROUP (I.Q. 110 and higher) FIGURE 29 DISTRIBUTION OF MAJOR COURSE'S IN EACH OF THE MENTAL ABILITY GROUPS, OCTOBER, 1939 153 chapter are followed, the school will, through enlarging the social activity, making closer friendships between guiding teachers and pupils, and making a more definite effort to orient the pupil in his community, succeed in making the school’s educational program of even more worth and profit to teachers, pupils, and the public. CHAPTER VII SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS This survey was undertaken, as has been suggested before, in the hope that it might in some matters aid the progress of educational methods, and assist in particular in aiding the administration of Monrovia-Arcaaia-Duarte High School to keep their school in the march of progressive improvements. The investigator attempted, by collecting and analyzing data concerning personnel conditions at the school, not only to present a useful picture of those conditions during the school year of 1939-40, but also, by indicating certain lacks and discrepancies, to offer to the school administration valuable recommendations for improvement. It was the hope of the investigator that these recommendations might assist the school in going forward toward its educational ideal of fitting the program to the needs of each individual pupil. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS Statement of problem. The problem, then, concerns in general the question of the adaptation of the high school to the pupil in order to give that pupil the most useful and valuable education possible. Specifically, it concerns 135 itself in this investigation with conditions of pupil and teacher personnel at Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High School, and with all the secondary problems which must be solved if this institution is to continue its progress. Some of these matters which are discussed here concern the back ground of the pupils; the status of the faculty; the rate of progress of pupils, and how satisfactory it is; the ratio between pupil achievement and mental maturity; and the relationship between major distribution, economic status, and vocational choice, in reference to the sound ness and success of that choice. The nature of the community and the school. In analyzing the communities of Monrovia, Arcadia, and Duarte, and their relation with the school, it was found that the economic background of the pupils was in general quite sound, with a high socio-economic rating. There was an assurance of adequate income for the school from the rather high tax rate and the considerable amount of taxable property. Housing, which wras not altogether adequate during 1939-40 and the fev/ years previous, had a promise of ameli oration in the near future, in the plans for construction of two new junior high schools. The teaching and adminis trative staffs gave evidence by their long service that they found satisfaction and inspiration in their work, and their organization seemed to the present investigator 136 adequate doth for attending to present problems and for pointing the way toward future progress. As for the pupils themselves, the socio-economic rating of the one hundred representative pupils tested was above the average, with the two largest classes coming from the homes of the higher types of business and skilled labor. This assured a satisfactory pupil background for present success, as well as for future improvement in school methods. The placement and progress of pupils. Age-grade studies, included in the survey in order to shed light on the still-confused problem of the relation of grades to the studentfs progress, revealed that the situation at MonroviaArcadia-Duarte High School was in general favorable; that is, that adjustments in the curriculum and attention to the individual needs of pupils had a net result of retaining over fifty per cent of those enrolled in the normal grade for their age. Improvement in this field can be credited at least partly to an improved counseling system instituted in the year 1939-40. Since the school^s grading system is the normal one used in California secondary schools, and does not agree with the non-failure program, this increas ing age-grade normality and the corollary of decreasing number of failures indicates progress in fitting the curriculum to pupil needs. 137 There is still large room for improvement, however, particularly in reference to the proportion of retarded pupils, which is greater than that of accelerated pupils mainly because the average is pulled down by the large numbers of retarded cases among the non-white pupils. It is ’ with these, increasing in number with the general rapid growth of the school population, that a great deal of 7/ork must be done to solve individual and group problems of placement and age-grade ratio. Mental maturity of pupil personnel. In studying the mental maturity of the pupils at Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High School, the investigator found through tabulations of various mental tests that the general status of the white pupils was adequate, with a normal average. The only phenomenon here was the rising of tne I.Q. with advancing grades, which however is probably the normal result of the weeding-out process of promotion. On the other hand, the situation among the non white pupils appeared to be quite unsatisfactory, with a large number of I.Q.ts below 90, especially in the Negro and Mexican groups. Not only is this very much below the accepted average, but also there is a wide discrepancy between these grades and those of the white pupils from the same district, attending the same school. 138 Educational achievement of pupil personnel. The investigator studied results of achievement tests in three fields, English, foreign languages, and American history,,, in order to determine as well as possible what progress was being made in pupil achievement. Such statistical, objective tests cannot, of course, be used as absolute rneasureraents of such an intricately motivated thing as individual pupil achievement, and in this brief survey, the very paucity of the records tabulated worked against their value for any wide-spread conclusions. Nevertheless, they did have certain specific values. They showed, for instance, that the general progress in the classes tested seemed to be commensurate with the expecta tions arising from the evidence of the mental ability and pupil achievement records. The movement was in general toward a higher achievement in the courses studied. Specific need for improvement was fohnd in the classes in American history and French, both below national norms; and in the success of boys, as compared with girls, in the study of English. Implications of the curriculum. In studying the offerings and methods of administration of the curriculum, the investigator found that the attempt to progress in educational method was being aided by a program which offered both interest and variety of major choice to the 139 student. The wide choice of possible majors was made more helpful in pointing toward a future vocation by a careful and conscientious counseling system. In order to meet the special problems of the incoming freshman in becoming oriented to the school, and the out going senior in being prepared for adult life, the school has set up special courses which aim to give instruction and practice in all the social, vocational, and personal prob lems which can be covered. These innovations have proved of great help, although there is still room for improvement. The records show that there is a fairly constant relationship between the pupil1s choice of major and his racial and mental ability groups. The large percentage of college preparatory students is to be expected in a school with the rather high I.Q. average of Monrovia-ArcadiaDuarte High School. Choice of other majors indicates an attempt on the part of the counselors to fit the pupil into a vocational group which will be ?*rithin the field of his ability and interest, although doubtless economic and social reasons also play a part in these choices. CONCLUSIONS In general, this cross-section of personnel problems has revealed a satisfactory situation. The socio-economic status of pupils, the general good relations between the 140 community and school, and the adequacy of school buildings and administration, plus the apparent satisfaction of the teaching staff, indicated a good baclcground for the building of a progressive excellence in methods and results. In all of the pupil records and tests, results were either fairly satisfactory or better; pupils’ mental ability and age-grade placing were considerably above average. This not only affords additional firm foundation upon which to base future progress, but also seems to indicate that present efforts are finding a fair success. The curriculum itself shows evident effort on the part of the administration to effect a program which will be of maximum interest and aid to each individual pupil, and which will incorporate the findings of educational experimenters into the best possible form. Nevertheless, although conditions are in general good, there still remain, as this survey shows, great possibilities for improvement. RECOMMENDATIONS In the first place, this investigator believes, great assistance could be rendered in forming a program of maximum aid to each individual by improving and increasing the amount and handling method of data available for study. There are numerous relationships, such as that for instance 141 between studies which are below the national norm in achievement and the I.Q. of students taking those subjects, which it would benefit investigators to have. more individual records would help. In some cases Most important of all, perhaps, would be records of the pupils outside of school: a more comprehensive home survey, more detailed records of the elementary school career, and records of post-high school activity. The latter might be garnered by questionnaires sent out, and would be of great assistance in determining the success of the school*s vocational guidance. Certain specific needs have come to light also during the course of this investigation. In particular the deficiencies in I.Q., age-grade placement, and achievement of the non-white portion of the school population were noticed. Just what could be done to alleviate this is not clear, since social conditions figure largely in the cause; however, some attention should be concentrated on the problems of this group. There are certain points at which the administration of the curriculum administration appears to fall down. In particular was noticed the failure of American history and French classes to come up to the norm in achievement. Here more specific records would be needed before any actual recommendations could be made; suffice it to say here that some notice should be paid to the problem. 142 The rapid increase of the school population suggests another general field in which definite problems will later arise; it is a field which those seeking to improve the curriculum will have to keep in mind. Most specific of the recommendations which the investigator is called upon to make are in the field of implications for the curriculum, as discussed in Chapter VI, In the field of the freshman orientation work and the senior problems course, there have been suggested very definite reforms which might have the effect of enlarging the social activity and social consciousness of the pupils by establish ing closer relations between pupil and teacher, and by giving more social practice by letting boys and girls learn together. Both confidence in the teacher and more effective vocational guidance could also be accomplished by keeping the classes for the most part under one teacher. The final aims of these courses, to give the best possible guidance and help to each pupil, should guide all changes made. It is felt that if these general present or future problems are kept in mind, and some of the particular reforms are instituted, that the school will continue in and even improve in the progress and success which have characterized its administration up to the present. 145 BIBLIOGRAPHY REPORTS, SURVEYS, ETC. Blose, David T., Axl Age-Grade Study of 7»652 Elementary Pupils in 45 Consolidated S c h o o l s United States Department of Interior, Department of Education, Bulle tin No. 19. Washington: Govt. Printing Office, 1950. The study presents very good material dealing with agegrade studies. California Taxpayers1 Association, A Survey of the Pasadena City Schools. Association Report No. 119. Los Angeles: California Taxpayers1 Associatioh, 1951. 551 pp. Caswell, Hollis L., City School Surveys, an Interpretat-ion and Survey. Teachers College Contributions to Educa tion, No. 558. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 1929. 150 pp. An excellent discussion of city school surveys. Hull, Osman R., and Willard S. Ford, School Housing Survey of the Monrovia Union High School District. Los Angeles: University of Southern California, 1927. 48 pp. A housing survey of vital importance when made. , Survey of the Alhambra Public Schools. University of Southern California Studies, Second Series, No. 5. Los Angeles; University of Southern California, 1929. 107 pp. Judd, Charles Hubbard, ,fSuinmary of Typical School Surveys, National Society for the Study of Education, Thirteenth Yearbook. 1914. Part II, pp. 69-85. Los Angeles County, Ninth Grade Orientation. Los Angeles: Office of the County Superintendent of Schools, Division of Secondary Education, September, 1957. 87 pp. A teaching guide of tentative suggestions for an orien tation course suitable to the first year of the senior high school. 144 Monroe, George W., Survey of the Owensmouth High School. Unpublished, 1931. 205 pp. A study of the conditions find policies of the Owensmouth High School. Monrovia-Arcadia-Duarte High School Department of Research, Reports No. 48 and 49, June, 1940. 2 vols., 129 and 68pp. Monrovia A,rcadia High School, Report of the Survey Committee [Aubrey Douglass, Chairman J, October, 1938. 53 pp. A cooperative study of curricular offerings, instructional and administrative procedures, and general organization in the Monrovia Arcadia High School. Sims, Verner M., Manual of Directions, Sims Score Card for Socio-Economic Status, Bloomington, Illinois: Public School Publishing Company, 1927. Strayer, George D., Report of the Survey of the Schools of Chicago. New York: Columbia Teachers College, 1932. 5 vols. United States Office of Education, Survey Report of the Cincinnati Public Schools. Cincinnati Bureau of Govern ment Research, 1935. 476 pp. BOOKS AND ARTICLES Chamberlain, Leo M., The Teacher and School Organization. New York: Prentice-Hall, 1937. 656 pp. An excellent treatment of the relationship of the teacher to the different parts of the school organization. Cubberley, Ellwood P., tTSchool Surveys,TT National Education Association Journal of Addresses and Proceedings (1915). pp. 10o2—33. Cyr, Frank W., An Introduction to Modern Education. York: Heath, 1937. New Greene, H. A., and A. W. Jorgenson, The Use and Interpretation of High School Tests. New York: Longmans, Green, 1938. 614 pp. 145 Discussion of essential principles of measurement designed especially for the high school teacher and the students of education. Heck, A. 0., Administration of Pupil Personnel. Boston: Ginn & Company, 1929. 479 pp. The best methods in using the whole school plant, and the best ways of meeting the needs of each pupil, although the school may be a large one. Kandel, I. L., Twenty-Five Years of American Education. Hew York: Macmillan, 1924. Briefly discusses the part surveys have played in educa tional advance. Gives primary attention to early surveys. Mort, Paul, The Individual Pupil. New York: American Book Company, 1928. 385 pp. A worthy contribution presenting suggestions for the improvement and development of practices leading to instruction aimed at the needs of individual pupils of varying ability. Reavis, W. C.> Pupil Adjustment. New York: Heath, 1926. A timely message to teachers, placing all responsibility for failure of their pupils squarely on their shoulders for want of an adequate effort of diagnosis. Sears, Jesse B., The School Survey. Company, 1925. 440 pp. New York: The World Book A textbook which is organized around the techniques used in city school surveys. Skinner, Charles E., and others, An Introduction to M o d e m Education. New York: Heath, 1937. 491 pp. A survey of the social, historical, psychological, and philosophical aspects of modern education. Terman, Lewis M., The Intelligence of School Children. York: Houghton Mifflin, 1919. 317 pp. New A book disclosing principles, results of tests on all age levels, their interpretation, and practical suggestions. 146 Terman, Lewis M., Measurement of Intelligence. Houghton Mifflin, 1916. 179 pp. ~ Boston, A testing manual dealing with problems and their results, and presenting detailed instructions relating to the standard achievement tests. Wilson, Guy M., and Kremer J. Hoke, How to Measure. Macmillan, 1928. 597 pp. Hew York, This work treats new-type tests and mental tests as well as a study of statistical procedures. THESES Connell, Eleanor H., !fA Pupil Personnel Study of a Large Junior High School in Los Angeles.” Unpublished MasterTs Thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, August, 1933. A study of mental age, failures, and their relation to I. Q., with recommendation for improvement. Good for statistics. Ferguson, Aleck L., ”Survey of the Educational program of the Herbert Hoover High School, Glendale, California,” Unpublished Master*s Thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1932. 187 pp. An excellent report of the investigation of a large new school. Hippier, Claude William, !TA Personnel Study of Boys in the Eliot Junior High School of Pasadena, California.” Unpublished Master?s Thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, June, 1933. A study of 100 selected boys in regard to school progress, mental ability, physical and social behavior, interests, and backgrounds. To give counsellor valuable information. Good for related studies. Hutchens, Jens H., ”A Pupil Personnel Survey of the Escondido Union Schools, Escondido, California.” Unpublished Master»s Thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, June, 1939. 112 pp. 147 A survey to determine whether the school*s educational program was serving efficiently the needs of the children of the Escondido district, and the legitimate demands of the community. Jenkins, Constance A.* ”A Pupil Personnel Survey of the Washington School, San Diego, California.” Unpublished Master’s Thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, July, 1959. 154 pp. A survey made to determine to what extent the Washington school, through its organization and curricula, is meeting the needs of each child, whether he is normal or one of the special types at the upper or lower end of the ability scale. MeEuen, Fred L., ITA Survey of the Riverside Senior High School,” Unpublished Master’s thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1933. 156 pp. An interesting survey of the housing situation and educational program. Ralston, Merle C., ”A Personnel Study of Ninth Grade Pupils in the San Benito County High School.” Unpublished Master’s thesis, University of Southern California, August, 1937. Ill pp. Reinhard, James Clarence, ”A Personnel Study of the Student Body of Central Junior High School, Los Angeles, Cali fornia.” Unpublished Master’s Thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, June, 1935. 161 pp. Smith, G. Wheeler, ”A Survey of the Simi Valley Union Districts.” Unpublished Master’s Thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, June, 1930. 235 pp. Wright, Frank M., ”A Survey of the El Monte School District, El Monte, California.” Unpublished Master’s Thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, June, 1930. 338 pp. Complete survey with recommendations for improvement.