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The organization and administration of boys physical education in the Dodge City, Kansas high schools

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THE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION
OP BOYS PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN THE
DODGE CITY KANSAS HIGH SCHOOLS
A Thesis
Presented to the
Faculty of the School of Education
The University of Southern California
In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Master of Science in Education
by
Robert Lee f/ard
June 1941
UMI Number: EP54322
All rights reserved
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UM I
Dissertation Pubi &h*ng
UMI EP54322
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T h is thesis, w r it t e n u n d e r the d ir e c t io n o f the '
C h a ir m a n o f the ca n d id a te ’ s G u id a n c e C o m m itte e
a n d a p p r o v e d by a l l m em bers o f the C o m m itte e y
has been p resen ted to a n d accepted by the F a c u lt y
o f the S c h o o l o f E d u c a t io n in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t
o f the re q u ire m e n ts f o r the degree o f M a s t e r o f
Science in E d u c a tio n .
D ate-.kvm sX . .7.*.. 1941......... .....
D ean
Guidance Com m ittee
Paul Pi sher
C hairm an
E. E, Wagner
Louis P. Thorpe
PREPAGE
This thesis is hased upon a study of the physical edu­
cation programs of twenty selected high schools in second
class cities of Western Kansas.
(See appendix for definitions
of first and second class cities.)
I believe that there is
a definite need for a thorough investigation of the physical
education programs of our high schools today*
I wish to acknowledge my indebtedness to Dr. Paul
Fisher, Professor of Education, University of Southern Califor
nia, Los Angeles, for his assistance in the preparation of
this thesis.
His suggestions and helpful criticism have
been invaluable to me and his interest in my work is fully
appreciated*
I would like to express my gratitude to Dr* Irving R*
Melbo, Professor of Education, University of Southern Califor­
nia, Los Angeles, for his able assistance and kind considera-.
tion.
Also I v/ish to express my appreciation to Dr. Lester
B. Rogers, Dean of the Summer Sessions and of the School of
Education, University of Southern California, Los Angeles,
for his many helpful suggestions in the writing of this thesis
Acknowledgment is also made to Professor Lloyd E* Web­
ster, Associate Professor of Physical Education, University
of Southern California, Los Angeles, who so ’
willingly gave
i i i
his accurate and kindly counsel.
Also I wish to acknowledge my indebtedness to Dr.
Claude C. Cra?/ford, Professor of Education, University of
Southern California, Los Angeles, for his helpful suggestions
and invaluable assistance.
I want to express my sincere appreciation to the fol­
lowing physical education instructors, and school men, in
these Kansas High Schools who were kind enough to fill out
my questionnaire and grant interviews concerning their
physical education programs.
Leland Young, Harper, Kansas.
LeRoy Ajayeke, Hays, Kansas.
Dean Skaer, Russell, Kansas.
Wayne Gardner, Anthony, Kansas.
Ewin Cheney, Goodland, Kansas.
R. V. Phinney, Larned, Kansas*
J. L. Engelheart, Kingman, Kansas.
Fred Lighter, Pratt, Kansas.
K. R. Einkhouse, Caldwell, Kansas.
F. B. Toalson, Dodge City, Kansas.
Doral Grose, Dodge City, Kansas.
Ralph Churchill, Dodge City, Kansas.
Laurence Martin, Dodge City, Kansas.
A. B. Callaway, Dodge City, Kansas.
Homer Scarborough, Great Bend, Kansas.
iv
Eric T. Tebow, Harper, Kansas.
H. B. Mahuron, Liberal, Kansas.
C. E. St. John, Arkansas City, Kansas.
Kenneth A. Boyd, Hoisington, Kansas.
W. E. Woodward, Kinsley, Kansas.
Otis Darner, Garden City, Kansas.
TABLE OP CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I.
PAGE
THE PROBLEM AND DEFINITIONS OP TERMS USED ... . . .
The Problem . . . . . .
1
.....................
The purpose of the problem
Statement of the problem
1
.........
1
. ..........
2
Importance of the s t u d y ................
3
Definitions of terms u s e d ...........
3
Physical education defined
3
The purpose of physical education ..........
5
Principles of physical education
6
. . . . . .
Organization of remainder of t h e s i s ....
II.
REVIEW OP THE LITERATURE
Related investigations
8
..............
9
......................
9
. . .
The Rapeer S t u d y ...............
10
Swenson study
10
.......................
The Dunn investigation................
11
Hostetler study of O r e g o n .........
12
Survey of secondary education........... . .
12
Summary.................
III.
ORGANIZATION OP THE PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAM
Course of study .
14
.
.........................
Organization of the course of s t u d y ....
Activities
.....
16
........................
16
16
21
Activities taught in physical education
classes
21
Vi
CHAPTER
PAGE
Time
•
26
Time devoted to each activity . . . . . . . .
26
Percentage of time devoted to instruction . •
30
Summary
IV.
.
THE MEDICAL A HD PHYSICAL EXAMINATIONS..........
Extent of examinations
........
33
.
33
Extent of medical and physical examinations .
33
Frequency • • • • • • • . . • • . . . • . . • •
34
34
Frequency of examinations.............
Percentage
. • • • « . • • •
............
••
Percentage of pupils examined
.
37
37
Items included- in examination • • • • . . . •
39
Medical examinations for each season’s sport.
42
Summary
V.
32
.................
43
THE STAFF OF' THE PHYSICAL EDUCATION DEPARTMENT
.
•45
Scholastic training of the physical education
-instructors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
46
Instructors having a major or minor in
physical education
........ . . .
46
Degrees held by physical education
instructors
...............
48
University or college attended by
instructors.............................
Membership in professional organizations
...
50
52
v ii
CHAPTER
PAGE
Organizations, number of teachers and
percentages
• • ................. . . . •
Teaching load
52
........ •.
54
Teaching load of the instructors..........
54
Credit in physical education . . . . • • • • •
58
Should credit in physical education be
allowed toward graduation from secondary
school?
Summary
VT.
. . . . . . . . .
..............
.....................
58
59
THE INTRAMURAL PROGRAM.................... . .
61
Definitions and benefits of intramural . . . .
62
Intramurals defined
......................
62
Benefits of in tr a m u r a l s ..................
63
Sports included in the intramural program
. .
Activities included in the intramural program
Time allowed for program
........
64
65
69
Average number of weeks given to each
activity ................ . . . . . . . .
The classification of students
Summary
VII.
70
..........
.....................
INTERSCHOLASTIC ATHLETICS
73
74
............
Sports and p a rt ic ip an ts ...............
76
77
Purposes of interscholastic sports ........
77
Participants in interscholastic athletics
79
•
v iii
CHAPTER
PACE
.............
Games scheduled
80
Football...........
80
Basketball • • • • • • •
.....
Baseball.........
82
T r a c k .........
82
Tennis and golf
.........
Athletic eligibility reminders ............
VIII.
83
84
Sports participation records ...............
85
S u m m a r y ...................
90
FINANCING THE PROGRAMS........................
91
Physical education finance ..................
91
Intramural finance . .
91
...........
Interscholastic finance
...............
Athletic receipts and expenditures • • • • .
Handling high school funds ........
IX.
82
.....
92
95
95
Should there be gate receipts in athletics . .
100
Summary
101
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
Introduction
. . . . . . . . . . . .
.......................
103
103.
Relation of state and district educational
organization to physical education
....
103
. . . . . . . . .
104
Medical and physical examinations.........
104
Organization of the program
CHAPTER
PAGE
The staff of the physical education
department...........................
The intramural program
10
...................
106
.....................
107
Financing the athletic p r o g r a m s ...............
108
Limitations of study . . .
...................
113
Suggestions for further s t u d y .................
114
Outside the school . .
120
Interscholastic athletics
BIBLIOGRAPHY
APPENDIX
.
.......................
.................................
..........
. . . . . . .
123
130
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE
PAGE
I. Type of Course of Study
. . ..................
II. Persons who Decide Content of Course
Study for Each School
III.
of
. . ..................
25
Physical Education Requirements of these
Kansas Schools ..................
V.
20
Activities Engaged in by Kansas High Schools
in Physical Education Glasses ...............
IV.
18
. . . . . .
27
Boys Enrolled in Physical Education Classes of
these Kansas Schools, Day of Week Taught,
and Number in Each Class
29
VI. Percentage of Time Devoted to Instructioh in
Physical Education • • • •
VII.
VIII.
IX.
Medical and Physical Examinations
36
Percentage of Boys E x a m i n e d .................
38
Physical Defects Reported in 1913 (Baltimore
. . . . . . .............
41
Instructors Having a Major or Minor in Physical
E d u c a t i o n .....................
XI.
XII.
XIII.
XIV.
31
. . . . . . .
Survey)
X.
...............
47
Degrees Held by Physical Education Instructors .
49
University Attended by Instructors .
51
.......
Membership in Professional Organizations . . . .
53
Teaching Load in Minutes Per Week
56
. . . . . . .
x i
TABLE
PAGE
XV*
Teaching Load in Students Per Week and Day , .
57
XVI.
Activities Included in Intramural Programs . ♦
67
Time Allowed for Program
72
XVII.
.
...........
XVIII.
Number of Games and Length of S e a s o n .......
78
XIX.
Number of Games Scheduled . .................
81‘
Nine Sports Participation Records Broken. . . .
87
XX.
XXI.'
Means of 'Financing the Physical Education
Program, The Intramural Athletic Program,
and The Interscholastic Athletic Program
XXII.
. .
Money Spent and Received in Football, Basket­
ball, Baseball and T r a c k ............ . ..•
XXIII.
94
97
Means of Handling the Student Body Money in
High Schools of Western K a n s a s ......... ..
99
CHAPTER I
. THE PROBLEM AID DEFINITIONS OP TERMS USED
A difference of opinion has existed for many years in
regard to our physical education program*
Ciaims have been
based upon personal opinions, and in no instance have studies
been presented, to support the contention of either side*
It'should be the purpose of all physical education
programs to encourage the participation of all students
rather than a selected few, and an honest attempt to grade
the abilities of the students should be made, with special
attention to the sub-normal individual*
Neither “formal57
nor “informal11-work should be the method employed alone, but
rather should the two be used In a rational and proportionate
division of time.
Physical education must as nearly as pos­
sible use all the sciences available if it is to carry on an
efficient program of activity in any true sense of the word.
I.
THE PROBLEM
The problem of this thesis is to make a study of present
practices in physical education for boys in the Dodge City
High Schools.
On the basis of these findings and on the basis o f .
recommendations made by administrators, it is proposed to
present the most desirable method of organization, the pro-
gram of activities best suited to high school boys, certain
aspects of physical
plant and equipment, and the type of
extra-curricular activity best adapted to meet the individual
needs of high school boys.
The statement of the problem.
The purpose of this in­
vestigation was to study critically the present organization
and administration of boy’s physical education in the Dodge
City High Schools.
An attempt has been made to analyze cer­
tain difficulties .that have appeared and to suggest plans for
reducing these by comparing the Dodge City type of organiza­
tion* and administrative practices with those of similar city
high schools in second class cities in v/estern Kansas.
Analysis of the problem*
It was the purpose of this
study (1) to analyse the related literature on this subject;
(2) to study different physical education programs of western
Kansas; (3).to make a study of the physical education pro­
gram of the high schools of second class cities of western
Kansas; (4) to study the present organization and administra­
tion of physical education in the Dodge City High Schools;
(5) to find out the activities required in physical education
in the different high schools of Western Kansas; (6) to list
some of the purposes of physical education; and (7) the num­
ber and kinds of games scheduled by high schools of western
Kansas.
3
Importance of the study.
A great many principals,
superintendents, and school hoards have apparently been over­
looking the importance of the physical education field.
This
study has been conducted with a view to securing a sympathetic
understanding and cooperation of the principal department as
one of the most important units of the school system.
The traditional theory that physical education is an
extra-curricular activity, instead of an integral functioning
part of the curriculum is still held by many educational
leaders in Kansas.
This idea must be changed before a construc­
tive physical education program can be established.
The solu­
tion to the problem'must come through the understanding and
cooperation of the administrators and teachers.
II.
DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED
Physical education defined.
Eetherington*^ defines
physical education as ,fthat phase of education which is con­
cerned, first, with the organization and leadership of chil­
dren in big-muscle activities, to gain development and the
adjustment inherent in the activities according to social
standards; and second, with the control of health or growth
conditions naturally associated with the leadership of the
■^Clark W. Hetherington, School Program in Physical
Education (Yonkers: World Book Go,, 1922), 132 pp.
4
activities, so that the educational process may go on without
growth handicaps.”
Williams^ in. his Principles of Physical Education
states that Physical Education is the process of ”development
of the organic systems of the individual through physical
activities.
Development of the neuromuscular system in gen­
eral and in particular in relation to control over certain
fundamental skills.
Development of certain attitudes toward
physical activity, and particularly toward play.
Development
of standards of conduct.11
Physical education, or health education, is education
in general, approached from the viewpoint of the necessary
physical support to intellectual and moral excellence.^
What is physical training? It is putting into use all
parts of the body so that no one part shall be used at the
expense of any other part, but so that all shall receive
a sufficient amount of exercise to enable all the func­
tions of the vital organs to be performed harmoniously
and healthfully.^
Gymnastics, or physical training, is regulated and
supervised practice of muscular exercise under conditions
that tend to promote the health of the pupils, insure
normal growth, and develop motor control.®
P. Williams, Principles of Physical Education
(Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Co., T930), p. 233T
E. H. Heisner, Physical Education in Our Changing
Philosophy of Life (Emporia, Kansas: EmporTa Teachers College
Press, 1024T7 p. X2.
A
Baron N.. Posse, ”How Physical Training Affects the
Welfare of the Nation.1 American Physical Education Review,
(October, 1910), p. 494.
E
William A. Stecher, ?4Education Gymnastics for
Junior High Schools (Philadelphia: MeVey Co., 1918), p. 136.
5
The purpose of physical education*
The purpose of
physical education is, in the large, identical with the
rational purpose of general education, aimed at the same ulti­
mate goal as the other departments of education, in as much as
for human purposes and for the highest realization of human
effort the body is best considered as the instrument of the
mind, the organ of expression for the soul and personality
of the human being and not as an object of development of
the human being or culture for its own sake.
Three elements or kinds of content enter into Physical
Education: health knowledge by which we are intelligent
about what is required to keep well; personal habits in
caring for the body; and play attitudes and habit to
provide enjoyment and healthful bodily tone through forms
of pleasurable bodily activities.®
Physical education should be as nearly as possible, a
natural, not an artifical, process*
It should agree and be
founded upon the best educational theory.
Physical■education
should be guided by* the needs of the child as presented by
educational*psychology, physiology, biology, and sociology.
However, these needs are not based alone on their interests.
It must recognize the play tendency and.at the same time'
abandon the traditional theory of formal discipline; and in
its place must be substituted, activity which is wholesome,
purposeful, and sound, for the function and value of the
P. G. Bonser, The Elementary School Curriculum (Hew
York: Macmillan Co., 1920), p. S9.
..
6
teaching act are finally to he found in the life of the
learner*
In order that we know where we are going in physical
education, a very definite end or goal must he established#
If we do not know where v/eare going, how will we ever get
the re?
Dewey says:
Ends are end-in-view or aims# They arise out of natu­
ral effects or consequences which in the beginning are
hit upon, stumbled upon, so far as any purpose is con­
cerned.
Men like some of the consequences and dislike
others.
Henceforth attaining or averting similar conse­
quences are aims or ends# Roughly speaking, the course
of forming aims is as folloY/s# The beginning is with a
wish, an emotional reaction against the present state of
things and a hope for something different. It becomes an
aim or end only when it is worked out in terms of concrete
conditions available for its realization, that is in terms
of means.?
Principles of physical education.
If physical educa­
tion is to be considered a science it must have its principles
founded'upon a scientific background.
What are its needs,
how can these needs be. best met, and who do we need to have
physical education anyway, are all questions that might well .
be asked.
Who is to teach this work and what shall the edu­
cation of one who would teach physical education be?
These
and many more pertinent questions are confronting those in
the field today#
Is physical education a profession or a
^John Dewey, Human Nature and Conduct (New York: Holt,
Co., 1922), p. 128#
7
trade?. Can it be placed on the same level with other profes­
sions or is it largely a waste of time and energy with small
returns for the amount invested?
We must become more scientific, more careful in our
studies, and derive our principles from a source that is ac­
curate , if physical education is to live a broad and meaning­
ful life.
Every profession derives its principles from scientific
facts or it is not a profession.
Medicine;rests upon the
biological sciences, and derives its procedures from facts
that these sciences reveal.
Physical education as one as­
pect of education rests upon the facts of man's nature, as
shown by genetics, psychology, anatomy, physiology, and
sociology, and from these foundation sciences it derives
fundamental principles.
One of the great differences between
a profession and a trade is that the former is guided by prin­
ciples based upon scientific facts, while a trade is guided
largely by rules, methods, and directions.
It is important to remember that the work principle
implies truth. One meaning of the work connotes primary
substance, cause, fundamental truth. It is this spirit
that the phrase eternal principleT is used. It is a
significant thing that one may uphold a belief based upon
untruth as steadfastly as if it were resting on fact.
An opinion or belief that exercises a directing influence
on selecting subject matter or procedure in teaching is
a principle, but without scientific foundation these
principles may not be valid in their operation.®
8J. P. Williams, op. oit., 468 pp.
8
■III.
ORGANIZATION OP REMAINDER OP THESIS
The remaining chapters are arranged in the following
order:
Chapter II is a review of the literature on related
studies and Investigations,
Chapter III is on the organiza-.
tio.n of the physical education program.
Chapter IV is de­
voted to the medical and physical examinations.
In Chapter
V the staff of the physical education department is concerned.
Chapter VI deals with the intra-mural program.
is devoted to inter-scholastic athletics.
Chapter VII
Chapter VIII on
financing the programs, and Chapter IX -- Conclusions and
Summary.
.f-
CHAPTER II
REVIEW OP THE LITERATURE
Much has "been written in regard to physical education,
hut only a brief summary of the work of others on problems
closely related to the one at hand will be given.
At the present time there have been no investigations
dealing with the organization and administration of boys*
physical education in the Dodge City High Schools.
For this
reason all related investigations presented here are taken
from research work in other sections of the country.
Findings
in other schools have a direct bearing on the present topic
in that most schools require physical education and have some
form of organization and administration of physical education.
I.
RELATED INVESTIGATIONS
The studies below represent earlier investigations
into certain reflected problems in the field of physical edu­
cation.
A brief statement of the problem involved and the
suggested solution is given in each case.
While the material
used in these studies may be of slight relevance to our
present problem, it will, however, give some indication of
the nature of work already carried out in the field of physical
education.
10
The Rapeer Study* Ah article published-by Rapeer'in
1933 stated the minimum essentials for physical education.
In this study a scale was given for measuring results in
physical education.
In general, certain standards were set
up for school programs
Swenson study.
The Swenson** survey was a study of-
the organization and administration of physical education
for boys in the high school of Utah High Schools as ?/ell as
to determine responsibility for existing defects.
The results obtained in this study showed that the
Utah State Department of Public Instruction has no division
of health and physical education, that there were no parti­
cular written standards for the schools and that only a few
districts had special supervision.
The study made numerous recommendations for the im­
provement of physical education conditions.
All phases of
this problem were recommended for future study.
3-Louis W. Rapeer, f,Minimal Essentials of Physical
Education,n Sixteenth Yearbook of the National Society for
the Study of Education (Bloomington, Illinois: Public School
■FrlnTIng Cfo7, T§17)7 pp. 173-190.
^Reed K. Svrenson, A Survey of the Organization and
Administration of PhysicaT Education of Boys in ’the High
Schools of U€ah~Tunpublished Master*s thesis,~TFniversity of
Soutiiefn GalTfornia, Los Angeles, California, 1935).
11
The Dunn Investigation, The purpose of the William
K. Bunn^ investigation was to discover.- the opinions of admini­
strators of secondary schools regarding the physical education,
health, and athletic program as they were being carried out
in the state of California,
A questionnaire was answered by administrators in
eighty-four cities.
It was the unanimous opinion of the
administrators that physical education had an equal place
with other subjects in the educational program.
generally agreed on the following points:
Administrators
that physical edu­
cation instructors cooperate in all school activities and that
they be sufficiently trained; that a physical education pro­
gram provides cari'y-over value into leisure time activities;
that aims and objectives are known by the administrators and
executives; that five class hours a week should be devoted to
physical education.
This investigation is closely related to the subject
in that it dealt with opinions of administrators.
Certain
corresponding phases of the field of physical education were
studied in detail,
Dunn*s study helped to determine what
health and physical education standards should be adopted in
California.
^William K* Dunn, A Survey of Opinions of Admlnistrators Concerning Physical Education Tn the Secondary Schools of
O'alif orhTa ~(unpublished Mast er1s thesis, University oT Southern
California, Los Angeles, California, 1935).
12
Hostetler Study of Oregon.
A Critical Survey of Physi­
cal Education in the Secondary Schools of,1Oregon^ is the
title of this study, the purpose of which was to analyze the
status of physical education in general by a questionnaire
survey.
This study brought the fact that facilities of Oregon
schools were not properly used, and that there was serious
need for a motivated program.
As in the ease of other de­
partments, no specific certification was required for instruc­
tors in physical education .training.
It was also found that
school board subsidization was not prevalent in athletics;
that one third of the schools received aid for physical edu­
cation classes; that the success of the physical education
instructor depended on the victories made by the athletic
teams coming under his supervision; that intramurals are be­
low the standard recommended by experts; that- In most schools
there.was a lack of medical attention.
Thus, it may be con­
cluded from the investigation that all phases of the physi­
cal education programs in Oregon are below standard, and
Hostetler made general recommendations for improvement in
this field.
The National Survey of Secondary Education.
Orvie S.
^Lawrence W. Hostetler, A Critical Survey of Physical
Education in the Secondary Schools of Oregon (unpublished ■
Mas ter1s the sis, tJni"vers ity of Sout"Eern California, Los
Angeles, California, 1935).
'
Frederick and P. Roy Brammell,^
13
who were members of a nation­
al committee to survey secondary education, undertook and
completed a survey sponsored and financed by the federal
government.
The particular parts which are related to this investi­
gation are the reports on "intramural and Interscholastic
Athletics," and "Health and Physical Education.11
Three hundred twenty-seven schools were investigated
in regard to their intramural and interscholastic athletics,
and the following facts were established:
1.
large schools more commonly foster games which have
carry-over value, into adult life.
2.
Pupil sources of financial support for intramural
athletics outnumber the non-pupil sources five to
three.
3.
The frequency of athletic financial support increases
as the size of the school increases.
4.
Interscholastic competitions are confined mainly to
a few sports, most" of which have no recognized carry­
over value into adult life.
5.
Not all coaches have had training in physical educa­
tion.or In how to coach the sports whieh they direct.
^Orvie S. Frederick and P. Roy Brammell, "The National
Survey of Secondary Education." The Journal of Health and
Physical Education, IV (September '1'933), pp. 2-7.
14
6*
The feeling that both intramural and interscholastic
activities are necessary to a comprehensive program
of athletics seems to be gro?/ing.
' With respect to health and physical education four .
hundred sixty secondary schools of various types and sizes
were studied.
The following information resulted from a ques­
tionnaire to these schools;
1.
Health work has been lauched as a definite program
mainly since 1920.
2.
Forty-two per cent of the schools report that a
special health course is offered and required of all
pupils at some time during their secondary school
career.
3.- Approximately a third of the schools report satisfac­
tion with their present program of health.
4.
In physical education the trend" is away from calis­
thenics and formalized drill and toward games and
free play.
5.
The trend is definitely toward bringing intramural
athletics, interscholastic athletics, health and
physical education into one unified program to the
increased effectiveness of each.
ii.
summakt
The study so far has brought out certain conclusions
15
with regard to each of the above mentioned topics.
conclusions are as folloY/s:
These
certain standards*were set up
for school programs, and a scale was given-for measuring re­
sults in physical education.
Numerous recommendations were
made for the improvement of physical education conditions.
The actual conditions of physical education programs in high
schools were found, as well as responsibility for existing
defects.
Opinions of administrators of secondary schools re­
garding the physical education, health, and athletic program
as they were being carried out were listed.
The fact was
brought out that physical education facilities were not proper­
ly used and that there was serious need for a motivated pro­
gram.
To increase the effectiveness of each, the trend is
definitely toward bringing intramural athletics, inter­
scholastic athletics, health and physical education into one
unified program.
That both intramural and interscholastic
are necessary to a comprehensive program of athletics..
Chapter III deals with the organization of the physi­
cal education program.
The organization of the course of
study, activities taught in physical education classes, time
devoted to each activity, and the method of instruction.
CHAPTER III
' ORGANIZATION OF THE PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAM
The student should receive the training best suited to
his needs in the organization of any program.
Various fac­
tors and provisions must be taken into consideration in the
construction of such a program.
The specific problems con­
sidered in this chapter are: (1) Organization of the course
of study; (2) activities taught in physical education classes
(3) time devoted to each activity; and (4^ percentage of time
devoted to instruction.
I.
COURSE OF STUDY
Organization of the course of study. A written course
of study is one of the first steps in the establishment of
a school program.
It is a generally accepted principle that
a written-course of study be the guide;'in any subject or
field of education.
The Kansas state school laws in regard
to schools in second class cities makes no provision for the
teaching of physical education.
The type of course of study used by each school was
made the basis of this investigation.
Sixteen schools sup­
plied data on this question. (See table I).
Two,- or 12.5
per cent said that they followed a definite but unwritten
plan.
Seven, or 43.75 per cent, used a written course of
study constructed by the individual instructor,
Three or
18,75 per cent followed the state coiirse of study.
Thus,
ten or 62*5 per cent used a written course of study, and
37.5 per cent used an unwritten one.
18
TABLE I
TYPE OP COURSE OF STUDY
Type of
course of study
Number of
schools
Percentage
Definite plan, not written
2
12.50
Written by P. E, Instructor
7
43.75
State Course of Study
3
18.75
No definite plan
4
25.00
16
100,00
Total
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: A
definite plan, but not written, was the type of course of
study used by two, or 12.5 per cent, of the schools report­
ing data.
19
The individuals or groups who determined the content
of the course of study in these eighteen schools were as
follows: (see.table II). (1) the physical education instruc­
tor in four, or 22.22 per cent; (2) the superintendent and,
physical education instructor in nine, or.50 per cent; (3)
the superintendent, principal, and physical education in­
structor in three, or 16.67 per cent; (4) the principal and
physical education instructor in two, or 11.3.1 per cent.
Thus, eighteen, or 100 per cent of the schools decided their
course of study without aid or suggestion from other schools.
20
TABLE II
PERSONS WHO DECIDE CONTENT OF COURSE OF STUDY FOR EACH SCHOOL
Person
Schools
Percentage
P. E. Instructor
4
22.22
Supt. & P. E. Instructor
9
50.00
Supt., Principal 5c P. E. Instructor
3
16.67
Prin. 5c P. E. Instructor
2
11.11
All P. E. Instructors
0
0.00
18
100.00
Total
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: the
physical education instructor determined the content of his
course of study in four, or 22.22 per cent, of the schools
investigated.
21
II.
ACTIVITIES
*
Activities taught in Physical Education classes^
The
physical education curricula and program have been undergoing
a careful study that has brought about many changes in the
past few years.
Activities that are put into these programs
are carefully selected for the value they possess for the
students*
In choosing activities for the high school cur­
riculum the facilities each school has to carry on their
activities must be carefully considered.
This must be con­
sidered in figuring out the exact number of weeks each of
these activities should be taught.
The enrollment of the
schools should be kept in mind when choosing the activities
for the physical education curriculum so that classes may be
as even as possible in number.
It Is also important to have
an equal distribution of the different types of activities,
such as team games, individual events and rhythms, in order
to get. the best results from all students.
In Table III it is noted that these Kansas High Schools
have a variety of activities to offer their students, but
the distribution of the types of activities does not always
even up in proportion to bring about the best results.
Team
games are stressed too often in comparison with individual
events•
• It is not surprising to note that basketball and
22
football, two team games, are offered by all eighteen schools.
Softball, an activity that has been gradually eliminating
hard baseball in this section is included in most school pro­
grams.
Volleyball■and track are popular team games in these
schools being offered by sixteen and eleven respectively.
Touch football is popular as a spring sport in Kansas; its
popularity is partially due to the fact that spring football
is not allowed in Kansas, and this activity gives the coaches,
who are also the physical training instructors in practically
every case, a chance to work on football fundamentals.
The
popularity of volley ball in these schools comes about because
this activity was mentioned by schools as being taught during
regular physical education periods.
Handball is offered in
seven schools.' The fact that only a small'number of students
can actually engage in this activity at one time, makes it a
difficult activity to put into the curriculum.
Table tennis
and shuffle board are two activities that are finding their
way into the curriculums in these Kansas high schools.
These
two activities are offered by six and six schools respectively.
Probably nothing in the physical education program
furnishes so much amusement, and has such an appeal to *boys1
interests, as do relay races and combative contests.
In this
type of work, boys not only develop strength, endurance, and
health, but certain other desirable traits such as loyalty,
courtesy, and sportsmanship.
In making use of relays certain
25
fundamentals must be kept in mind#
Obedience is just as im­
portant to success in this' work as in any other.
The spirit
of fair play must be fostered by every means possible and
rule breakers must be handled accordingly.
We have in the past been devoting a large percent.of
our time in physical education to the playing of games.
There
is a possibility of a fault in the practice and it should be
corrected.
Relays have much to offer.
Little skill is re­
quired for them so they may be used in a group with little
previous practice; almost any size group can take part and
they have a high degree of hygienic content; they offer as
much fun and recreation, perhaps, as any other form of acti­
vity, and they have a good many educational values, such as
bodily control, physical development, and mental alertness.
These activities may be used for almost any length of time,
but a new relay may be substituted when found necessary.
In the conducting of this type of program it is always
advisable to have the last player in a relay marked in some
way to make them conspicuous.
This makes the selection of
the winner much easier and more accurate.
It is also ad­
visable in conducting relay races to make use o f■batons.
This method does away with quibbling and stealing at the
starting line.
The batons can easily be made in the indus­
trial art department.
Always have a leader for each group
appointed by the Instructor; this leader should be changed
24
from day to day*
This procedure helps very materially in
facilitating order and helps to develop leadership in the
student leading, and followship in others.
Combative contests are not a matter of recent develop­
ment historically, but are comparatively new in so far as
taking their place in the regularly organised program of physi­
cal education is concerned.
excellent all-round training.
This type of work provides an
The training is comparatively
natural and affords much interest and pleasure on the part of
the pupil.
Contests develop speed, strength, endurance,
skill and agility, as they bring into action practically all
the muscles of the body along with an increase to circulation
and respiration.
In this type of work we have the individual
or group in competition ¥/ith one another, an age-old practice,
and boys enjoy it...
25
•TABLE III
ACTIVITIES ENGAGED IN BY KANSAS HIGH SCHOOLS'
IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION CLASSES
Activity
Football
Touch Football
Basketball
Baseball
Track
Tennis
Golf
Volleyball
Swimming
Handball
Hockey
Archery
Hygi ene
Dancing
Gymnastics
Heavy Apparatus
Shuffle board
Horse shoes
Softball
Badminton
Aeria3. Dart Tennis
Table Tennis
Bowling
Relays and Games
Scooter
Low Organized Gaines
Calisthenics
Speed Ball
No. of Schoo3.s
13
12
17
4
11
7
1
16
0
7
1
3
7
3
14
7
6
4
12
• 4
3
6
1
1
1
1
4
2
Percentage
76.47
70.59
100.00
23.53
64.71
41.18
5.88
94.00
0.00
41.18
5.88
17.64
41.18
17.64
82.35
41.18
35.29
23.53
70.59
23.53
17.64
35.29
5.88
5.88
5.88
5.88
23.53
11.76
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: in physi­
cal education classes thirteen or 76.47 per cent of the
seventeen schools reporting engage In football.
III.
TIME
Time devoted to each, activity.
Making the physical
education classes required, seems to be a coming trend in
these Kansas schools.
Each one of the schools requires its
students to take physical education at least one year.
It
is interesting to note in Table IV- that only one school re­
quires physical education in every year of high school.
Thes
schools are large and have full time physical education in­
structors, with the exception of Anthony, which has only a
part time instructor; Dodge City and Hays have physical edu­
cation classes required for the junior high students, but
Dodge City requires only -two years in senior high, while
Hays requires three.
Russell, Kinsley, and Kingman, are
three other schools that require but two years of physical
education in senior high school.
It.is interesting to note
(Table- IV) that only two schools have physical education as
an elective,--Caldwell having it as an elective for two years
and Pratt having it as an elective for three years.
In making this survey it was found that none of these
Kansas schools require
athletics.
physical education for only the
27
TABLE IV
PHYSICAL EDO-CATION REQUIREMENTS OP THESE KANSAS SCHOOLS'
Schools
Anthony
Arkansas City
Caldwell
Dodge City Jr#
Dodge City Sr*
Garden City
G-oodland
Great Bend
Harper
Hays
Hoisington
Kingman
Kinsley
Earned
Liberal
Lyons
Pratt
Russell
No. of years
physical education required
4
4
0
3
2
4
1
4
4
4
3
2
2
' 3
3
0
2
Elective
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Athletics
only
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: Physical
Education is required for four years by Anthony, is not an
elective, and is not required in athletics only.
28
The number of boys enrolled in physical education in
these schools differs greatly (See Table V).
The highest
enrollment is at Hays where they have sixteen classes with
an average of thirty-four while Caldwell has only two classes
with an average of twenty-four.
Physical education is taught three days each week in
these schools, with W o exceptions.
Hays has physical educa­
tion being taught four days each week and Harper two days
each week.
The number of students enrolled in classes, varies
from 24 at Caldwell to 45 at Hodge City.
It is Interesting
to note that Kingman, Caldwell, and Dodge City Senior High
have less than 100 students enrolled in their respective
physical education classes.
The average length of physical education classes in
these Kansas schools is about sixty minutes,--Goodland having
the shortest period of forty minutes.
Dodge City Junior
High has the next shortest period which is fifty-four minutes
in length.
Hays, Hoisington, and Liberal have periods of
fifty-six minutes.
Dodge City Senior High and Great Bend
have periods of fifty-seven minutes in length.
29
TABLE V
BOYS ENROLLED IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION CLASSES.
OP THESE KANSAS SCHOOLS, DAY OP WEEK TAUGHT,
AND NUMBER IN .EACH CLASS '
Schools
Anthony
Arkansas City
Caldwell
Dodge City Jr.
Dodge City Sr.
Garden City
Goodland
Great Bend
Harper
Hays
Hoisington
Kingman
Kinsley
Larned
Liberal
Lyons
Pratt
Russell
Length
of class
60
60
60
54
57
60
40
57
60
56
56
60
60
60
56
60
60
60
Boys enrolled Days of No.
in physical
week
claseducation
taught
ses
140
540
48
275
90
260
180
360
150
544
140
. 60
130
162
175
150
180
120
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
2
4
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
15
2
11
2
10
6
12
5
16
5
2
7
6
5
5
5
4
Aver.
no. in
class
35
36
24
25
45
26
30
30
30
34
28
30
20
27
35
30
36
30
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: Anthony!s
classes are 60 minutes in length, 140 boys in physical edu­
cation, taught 3 days per week, has 4 classes and an average'
o f .35 in each class.
30
Percentage of time devoted to instruction* The number
of minutes per week that physical education is taught in
these schools shows a gre&fc variation*
Garden City, and
Dodge.City Junior High are the only schools that teach physi­
cal education 100 per cent of the time.
Caldwell, Dodge City
Senior High, Great Bend, and Kingman teach physical education
the least or only 20 per cent of the time. (Table VI).
It is interesting to note that Great Bend, and Dodge
City Senior, two of the larger ‘schools included in this survey,
are two of the four schools that give the least time to the
teaching of physical education.
In making this survey it was found that out of the
eighteen schools reporting, nine gave
fifty per cent or
more of their time to the teaching of physical education,
while nine gave, less than fifty per cent of the time*
31
CHAPTER VI
PERCENTAGE OF TIME DEVOTED TO INSTRUCTION IN
PHYSICAL EDUCATION
Schools
Anthony
Arkansas City
Caldvirell
Dodge City Jr.
Dodge City Sr.
Garden■City ■
Goodland
Great Bend
Harper
Hays
Hosington
Kingman
Kinsley
Earned
Liberal
Lyons
Pratt
Russell
Minutes per
week in
schedule
Minutes P. E.
taught per
week
Percentage
1800
1800
1800
1720
1710
1800
1600
1710
1800
1800
1680
1800
1800
1800 .
1680
1800
1800
1800
720
1350
360
1720
342
1800
720
342
600
1280
840
360
600
1080
830
900
900
720
40.00
75.00
20.00
100.00
20.00
100.00
45.00
20.00
33.33
71.11
50.00
20.00
33.33
60.00
50.00
50.00
50.00
40.00
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: Anthony
has 1800 minutes per week of teaching time in their schedule,
physical education being taught 720 minutes per week or 40
per cent of the time.
32
IV. ■•SUMMARY
. Each of the above mentioned topics has brought out
certain conclusions.
These conclusions are as follows:
More
schools follow a written course of study for the teaching of
physical education.
It was found that 62.5 per cent of the
schools reporting used a written course of study, while 37.5
per cent used an unwritten one.
Basketball, volley bail, soft­
ball, football and touch football are the activities that take
the lead in physical education classes.
offered in these Kansas schools.
Swimming is not
Handball, tennis, shuffle
board and table tennis are some of the activities that are
coming to the front in physical education classes in these
schools•
Physical education is required in all but. two of these.
Kansas schools.
Caldwell and Pratt offer' physical education,
as an elective, and all other schools investigated require
two or more years of' physical education.
There is a tendency to give more time to the teaching
of physical education in the schools of Kansas, and these
schools show a trend In that direction.
CHAPTER IV
MEDICAL AND PHYSICAL EXAMINATIONS
The health examination, which is composed of the medi­
cal and physical examination, is considered an important obli
gation of the school to the student.
This chapter deals with
the provision for giving the examinations, who should give
them, Y/hat should be tested, and what should be done with
the results.
I.
EXTENT OP EXAMINATIONS
Extent of medical and physical examinations♦
Practi­
cally all the leading educators and physical educators are
agreed that health examinations for all students is an im­
portant responsibility of the school.
The consensus of
authorities is expressed in the following passages:
A thorough examination should be given every pupil.
Examinations form the very basis of health teaching.
One of the most important functions of school health
supervision Is the physical examination of children for
the discovery of physical defects. These examinations
should be made by a physician assisted by nurses. It
is believed that for a complete, thorough physical exami­
nation by a physician including heart and lungs, at least
fifteen minutes will be required.
•^National Education Association, Sixth Yearbook, De­
partment of Superintendents (the Association), Part IT 1, 1928
p. 277.
34
This examination is primarily an educational experience
for parent, teacher, nurse, and child. It is desirable
that the parents be present, and this will usually provide
the first opportunity for the parent to understand the
nature and significance of a health examination as con­
ducted by an -interested and well trained pediatrist.
It should reveal the physician to the child in the new
role of an understanding friend, and the child to the
physician as a distinct personality requiring his best
wisdom to comprehend and advise.^
Yearly health examinations are a necessary and compara­
tively inexpensive means of discovering the capacity of the
individual for complete development and abundance of life-to determine the extent to which the individual is free
to be well to the optimum and to improve health to the
maximum.^
II.
FREQUENCY
Frequency of examinations.
All children in the high
schools should be examined each year by a physician;
those
with remediable defects should be reexamined at regular inter­
vals.
In schools where annual health examinations are im­
possible, it is suggested that children entering the junior
high school and those entering and leaving the senior high
school be examined.
If a school is organized on an eight-
grade and four-year high school basis, the examination should,
be given to those entering and to those leaving the high
^American Child Health Association,'A Health Survey
Eighty-six Cities (New York: Research Division, the
Xssocia11 on,““1925), p. 592.
^T. D. Wood and H. G. Rowell, Health Supervisions and
Medical Inspection of schools (Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders
Company, 1927).
35
school.
Attendance laws in many states permit children.to
leave school "before the average age for graduation from high
school.
Care should be taken to provide a thorough health
examination before these children enter industry.
In Table VII it is noted that these Kansas schools
all have medical examinations for each sport.
The Kansas
State Athletic Association requires that all members of
schools have medical examinations for each sport; therefore,
as members they must have these examinations.
Out of fifteen
schools seven or 46.67 per cent reported as having medical
examinations, and six or 50 per cent reported as having
physical examinations.
Ten or. 66.67 per cent reported that
they have yearly examinations.
Five or 33.33 per cent have
medical examinations for special students.
36
TABLE VII
MEDICAL ABD PHYSICAL EXAMINATIONS
Types of
examina ti ons
Humber of
schools
Percentage
Medical
7
46.67
Physical
6
40.00
Frequency
Medical for special students
Medical for each sport
10 (yearly)
66.67
5
33.33
18
100.00
BOTE: This table should be read as follows: of the
fifteen schools reporting, seven or 46.67 per cent have
medical examinations.
37
III.
PERCENTAGE
Percentage of boys examined*
Of the eighteen schools
reporting, four give examinations for all, or 100 per cent,
of their boys (Table VIII)*
Arkansas City, Garden City,
Great Bend and Hays being the four schools.
Out of two hun­
dred sixty boys in Bodge City Junior High School only thirty
or 11*54 per cent are examined,--this being the lowest per­
centage of those reporting*
Dodge City Senior High with
two hundred fifty-six boys reports the examination of only
fifty-one or 19.92 per cent.
The percentage of boys examined in these Kansas schools
is low because in most instances only boys for athletic teams
are examined.
This is because the State Athletics Association
requires that all boys that take part in athletics must pass
a satisfactory examination.
The Kansas State Athletic Asso­
ciation also has an insurance for member schools; therefore,
for a small fee boys may be insured against injur?/ during
practice or during games.
thi s insurance•
Boys must also be examined for
38
TABLE VIII
PERCENTAGE OF BOYS EXAMINED
Schools
Anthony
Arkansas City
Caldwell
Dodge City Jr.
Dodge City Sr.
Garden City
Goodland
Great Bend
Harper
Hays
Hoisington
Kingman
Kinsley
Earned
Liberal
Lyons
Pratt
Russell
Number of boys
in school
150
580
186
260
256
340
238
440
210
271
280
230
198
245
265
250
351
280
Number of boys
examined
100
580
44
30
51
340
70
440
55
271
50
80
45
70
68
75
85
65
Percentage
66.67
100.00
23.66
11.54
19.92
100.00
29.41
100.00
26.19
100.00
17.86
34*78
22.73
28*57
25.66
30.00
24.22
23.21
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: Anthony
has 150 in school, 100 or 66.67 per cent being examined.
39
IV*
ITEMS
Items included in examination.
In some states, there
are laws forbidding the removal of clothing for purposes of
examination.
This makes effective examinations difficult,
if not impossible.
Careful postural, cardiac, orthopedic,
and genital examinations are impossible without the removal
of clothing.
When laws thus interfere, an
adequate inspection can
be made only of eye, ear, nose., mouth, throat, and neck.
Cardiac examinations without removal of clothing will detect
only the more obvious cases, and these cases have probably
been previously recognized -in the home..
It is desirable to provide a thorough examination for
every child in school.
This can be secured only if the pub­
lic is educated to demand the best available scientific means
of educating its children.
In some communities public sup­
port for thorough examinations has been secured by urging
parents to be present at the time of the examination.
It
should be remembered that the cooperation of parents is es­
sential for the success of a health education program.
In examining school children, physicians may vary in
their classification of health defects; hence some will
report a larger number of certain defects than others in
charge of the same group.^
^Baltimore School Survey, 1921, Vol. 2, pp. 259-262.
When several examiners are working it is important
to have agreement on such matters. Determination of what
constitutes abnormality in tonsils, adenoids, flat feet,
adenitis, etc., requires that a nstandardized examination”
be set up as the basis for diagnosis and classification.^
Examinations should cover the following items:
vision
hearing, nasal passages, teeth, tonsils, glands, skin, lungs,
heart, blood, abdomen, bones, muscles, posture, feet, puberty
nervous system, height, and weight*
Examinations should
also be conducted for all children.
(See Table IX).
B. Hoag and L. M.- ferman, Health Work in the
Schools (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Go.”, 1914), pp. 22-23.
41
TABLE IX
PHYSICAL DEFECTS REPORTED IN 1913 (BALTIMORE SURVEY)
A
B
C
D
E
F
A-B--
404
132
970
781
122
713
C-D™
---
1192
795
1401
---
1505
---
418
138
B-F--
322
.365
1274
433
---
244
310
---
---
G-H--
---
521
185
571
---
675
---
216
---
I-J--
187
108
817
495
---
827
312 106
---
168
## Specific defects
A-- Eye strain
B— Pediculosis
C—- Teeth
D-- Adenoids
E-- Mental Deficiency
F-G-H-I—
J--
G
H
I
J
345 147
--,
---
Tonsils
Malnutrition
Rhinitis
Belpharitis
Adenitis
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: I-J with 108
cases of pediculosis, 827 cases of tonsils and 495 cases of
adenoids record 168 cases of adenitis, while C-B with 1192
cases of pediculosis, 1505 cases of tonsils, and 1401 of
adenoids, record no cases of adenitis.
42
Medical examinations for each season1s sport.
As has
been pointed out in Table VII it is necessary that all schools
that are members of the Kansas State Athletics Association,
have medical examinations for each seasonfs sport*
These
Kansas schools are all members of the association; therefore,
they all report medical examinations for each season’s sport*
And it is assumed that the conditions found will be followed
up and parents guided to various community sources of treat­
ment.
The school is interested in these examinations from a
number of different viewpoints.
Perhaps the foremost interest
is in the growth and health of the boys and in finding con­
ditions which if remedied will promote the health of the boys.
But it is also interested in the examinations because of con­
ditions that may be revealed v/hieh interfere with the boy’s
school progress.
We cannot expect the boy with poor vision
or poor hearing to get as much-from his school program as a
boy with normal conditions of the eyes and ears*
The school
is also interested in the examinations because it is through
this means that boys are discovered who need a modification
of their play and physical education activities.
I am think­
ing particularly of those with heart conditions whose play
should be restricted.
In all of the different programs of examination and
guidance following the examinations, the schoolfs program is
not one of treatment but of modifying school programs to the
individual needs of the boys and guiding parents to community
43
facilities for medical treatment.
The school should not be
expected to give treatment of any type.
IV.
SUMMARY
Many activities that we have in our classes are
strenuous, and a good examination is very essential.
Exami­
nations should be completed as early in the school year as
possible in order that corrections of remediable defects may
be made and the educative processes of the child permitted
to develop normally.
Under favorable conditions it is de­
sirable to complete the regular examinations by the first of
November.
For educational purposes the early examination is
always preferable.
The Summer Round-Up fostered by the
National Parent-Teacher Association, is an excellent example
of an organized effort to admit to school first-grade chil­
dren free from remediable physical defects.
Examinations for all school children should be a re­
quirement in all states.
Physicians may vary in their classification of health
defects; hence, some will report a larger number of certain
defects than others, in charge of the same group.
Determi­
nation of what constitutes abnormality in tonsiis, adenoids,
flat feet, adenitis, etc. requires that a [rstandardized exami­
nation” be set up as the basis for diagnosis and classifica­
tion.
It will make a better correlation of health v^ork with
44
other subjects and activities of the schools; increased in­
terest and cooperation on the part of the teachers; and re­
duction of absences due to acute communicable diseases.
Many students move from one school to another; there­
fore, with a'51standard examination" their health card would
fit into the new school.
Some students taking physical
training would be stopped from taking the training.
Doctors
would have to stop running children through *like so many
sheep.1 All defects would be reported in uniformity.
The standards should be set up by the State Board of
Health or Health Clinics.
The responsibility for controlling contagious disease
in all communities is placed in the hands of health officials,
but in all communities these officials need and are glad to
have the assistance of the schools.
in several ways.
The schools can assist
They can see that parents are informed re­
garding regulations governing the exclusion from school of
pupils who are sick with contagious diseases; they can report
suspected cases to the health officer; they can encourage
diphtheria immunization and vaccination against smallpox;
they can encourage parents to keep children home when they
are not well; and they can inform parents that many conta­
gious diseases begin like an ordinary cold and that children
with signs of a beginning cold should be kept out of school.
CHAPTER V
THE STAFF OF THIS PHYSICAL EDUCATION DEPARTMENT
In all administration,consideration must of course be
given to the teacher himself.
It is quite a commonly•accepted
thought that, one making a purchase gets about the quality of
merchandise in proportion to what he pays.
true of teachers.
This is somewhat
The preparation of teachers in physical
education varies considerably throughout the country as a
whole.
We have two year schools, three year schools, four
year schools, and some institutions that offer graduate study
in physical education.
The two year school provides the very
minimum amount of preparation, with the' three year school
slightly better*
The tendency today is to demand at least
graduation from a four year institution, granting the A. B.
or B. S* degree, with a major portion of the studentfs work
having been done in the physical education department.
In
some instances even the masterfs and doctorfs degrees are de^
manded.- Even here we find many individuals entering the pro­
fession with an education in other -lines of endeavor and
offering preparation only in athletics.
This is seldom con­
ducive to organizing a well-rounded program nor a proper,
philosophy relative to physical education.
If the teacher
of physical education is to be successful, he must be skilled
and thoroughly educated in the field of physical education
itself.
46
I.
SCHOLASTIC TRAINING OF THE PHYSICAL EDUCATION DEPARTMENT
Either athletics are a part of the school program of
physical education or they are not. If they are not,
they should he eliminated from school life. If they are
a part, then those who teach athletics should be members
of the staff. The same logic applies to any other part
of the school curriculum.
As a member of the staff, the teacher of athletics
must qualify as other teachers do; hence his educational
fitness for teaching games must equal the educational
fitness of other teachers for teaching other subjects.
In some states the certification by the state of those
who teach athletics demands professional and personal
qualifications equal to those required of teachers of
academic subjects. This is as it should be.I
The fact that our Kansas laws are such that athletic
coaches, who are generally the physical education instructors,
must supervise or teach fifteen hours per week, it is not
surprising that all of these schools require the physical
education instructors to have the same qualifications as an
academic class room teacher.
Instructors having- a major or minor in physical educa­
tion.
The eighteen schools reporting listed thirty-four
physical education instructors. (Not.e Table X).
Sixteen or
47.06 per cent of them have a major in physical education.
Fifteen or 44.12 per cent of them have a minor in.physical
education, and two or 5.88 per cent have neither a major or
minor in physical education.
Out of the thirty-four physical
education instructors, we find only one not having a degree.
-*-J. F. Williams and G. L. Brownell;, Health and Physical
Education for Public School Administrators (Hew York: Columbia
University, Teachers College, 1931), p. 124•
47
TABLE X
INSTRUCTORS HAVING A MAJOR OH MINOR IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION
Physical Education
Number of teachers
Percent
Holding degrees Ma jor
16
47.06
Minor
15
44.12
Neither
2
5.38
Not holding degree
1
2.94
34
' 100.00
Total
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: of the
instructors holding a degree, a major in Physical Education *
had been obtained by 16 or 47.06 per cent of the Instructors
investigated.
48
Degrees held by physical education instructors.
In
many states the requirements for the teacher of physical edu­
cation include a college degree.
The training implied in
this degree should comprise a major in health and physical
education of at least forty semester hours, or the equivalent.
Supervisors of physical education should hold a
bachelorfs degree with a major in health education and should
have had graduate work in this field and preferably a master's
degree.
Although in some cases rich experience and high
competence may be a substitute for the completion of the
advanced scholastic work, some graduate study should be re­
quired.
Out of the thirty-four physical education instructors
in these Kansas schools, fourteen or 41.18 per cent have the
A. B, degree (See Table XI).
Nine or 26.47 per cent have the B. S. degree.
We
find that three or only 8.82 per cent have the M. A. degree,
and seven or 20.59 per cent have the M. S. degree.
This
makes only ten or 29 per cent of the physical education in­
structors in these Kansas schools with masterfs degrees.
It
is very interesting to note that out of the thirty-four
physical education instructors .we find that one has no degree.
49
• TABLE XI
DEGREES HELD BY PHYSICAL EDUCATION INSTRUCTORS
Degree
Number of teachers
Per cent
A. B*
14
41.18
B. S.
9
26.47
M• A •
3
8.82
M. S.’
7
20.59
1
2.94
34
100.00
No degree
Total
'
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: the A. B.
degree was held by 14, or 41.18 per cent, of the instructors
investigated.
50
University or college attended by instructors.
These
Kansas schools reported in regard to the school attended by
twenty-four of their physical education instructors.
South­
western College, Winfield, Kansas; and Greeley State College,
Greeley, Colorado lead the list.
These schools each fur­
nished three or 12.5 per cent of the instructors. (See Table
XII).
Emporia Teacher College, Emporia, Kansas;
Kansas State,
Manhattan, Kansas; Baker University, Baldwin, Kansas; Ft. Hays
Teachers, Hays, Kansas; and Pittsburg State Teachers, Pitts­
burg, Kansas; each furnishes two or 8.33 per cent of the
physical education instructors.
Kansas University, Lawrence, Kansas; Colorado Univer­
sity, Boulder, Colorado; Oklahoma University, Norman, Okla­
homa; Bethel College, Newton, Kansas; Central Teachers, Ed­
mond, Oklahoma; Iowa University, Iowa City, Iowa; Washburn
College, Topeka, Kansas; and University of South Carolinaeach furnishes one physical education instructor. '
51
TABLE XII
UNIVERSITY ATTENDED BY INSTRUCTORS
School
Number of teachers attended
Southwestern, Winfield, Kansas
3
Percent
12.5
Kansas State Teacher College,
Emporia, Kansas
2
8.33
Kansas University, LaY/rence, Kansas
1
4.17
Kansas State, Manhattan, Kansas
2
8.33
Baker University, Baldvd.n, Kansas
2
8.33
Ft. Hays Teachers, Hays, Kansas
2
8.33
Greeley Teachers, Greeley, Colorado
Colorado University, Boulder,
Colorado
Oklahoma University, Norman,
Oklahoma
3
1
1
12.5
4.17
4 •17
Kansas State Teacher, Pittsburg,
Kansas
2
8.33
Bethel College, Newton, Kansas
1
4iX7
Central Teachers, Edmond, Oklahoma
1
4.17
University of Iowa
1
4*17
Washburn College, Topeka, Kansas
1
4.17
University of South Carolina
1
4.17
24
100.00
Total
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: 3, or
12.5 per cent, of the instructors attended Southwestern Col1 ege, Winfield, Kansas.
52
II.
MEMBERSHIP IN PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATIONS
Organizations, number of teachers and percentages.
Twelve physical education- teachers were reported as belonging
to some professional organization.
Eight or 66.67 per cent
belong to the State Athletic Association.
Two or 16.67 per
cent belong to the National Athletic Association.
One or
8.33 per cent belongs to the Reserve Officers1 Training Corps
and one or 8.33 per cent belongs to the Athletic Association
for Health and Physical Education.
(Table XIII).
55
TABLE XIII
MEMBERSHIP IN PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATIONS
Organizati on
Number of teachers
State Association
8
66.67
National Association
2
16.67
R* 0* T. C.
1
A. A* for Health and P. E.-
1
8.33
12
100*00
Total teachers reporting
.
Percent
8.53
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: 8 or
66*67 per cent of the teachers belonged to the state athletic
association*
-
54
III.
TEACHING LOAD
Teaching load of instructor.
The Sixth Yearbook gives
the following recommendations on teaching load:
It is generally considered that a teacher can serve up
to 250 pupils and teach 25 classes per week. Consultation
periods, special classes and after school play supervision
shall not call for more than ten additional hours per week,
making a total load of the teacher 35 periods per w e e k . 2
Most authorities agree that the teaching load of the
instructor is influenced by the number of classes plus the
number of students taught.
in this study.
Both of these items are included
Class periods range from forty to sixty
minutes; therefore, minutes per week were taken as the basis
for this study.
The teaching load should not be excessive. A pupilteacher ratio of 150 pupil periods a day to each teacher
shall be regarded as a maximum, with no class enrolling
more than thirty-five,sixty-minute periods a week,
including recitations, laboratory, study hall, and all
other work, shall be the maximum for any teacher of
academic subjects.3
The minutes per week ranged from 540 to 1800; 2 or
8.69 per cent of the instructors had over 1800 minutes, and
13.04 per cent had 540 or less.
However, 52.17 per cent of
the entire group had 1000 or over, and only 47.87 per cent
had 900 or below.
Student load ranged from 48 to 544.
The
o
National Education Association, Sixth Yearbook, De­
partment of Superintendents (the Association, 1928), part III,
p. 460.
^McClemny, George L., Handbook on Organization and
Practices for the Secondary ScHools TTf Kansas, 1939, "p. 4'2.
55
distributions ranged from 144 to 2176 students per week (See
Tables XIV and XV).
clock-hour s .
hour.
These facts were converted into student-
One student-clock-hour is one student for one
If thirty students were in a one hour class, there
would be thirty student-clock-hours*
56
-TABLE XIV
TEACHING LOAD IN MINUTES■PER WEEK
Minutes per week
Number of teachers
Percent
540
3
13.04
570
1
4.35
580
1
4.35
660
2
O
•
CO
714
1
- 4.35
720
1
4.35
900
2
O
•
CD
1020
5
21.74
1350
2
8.70
1440
2
8.69
1620
1
4.34
1800
2
8.69
11914
23
100.00
Total
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: a teach­
ing load of 540,' or under, minutes per week was carried by
3, or 13*04 per cent of the teachers investigated.
57
TABLE XV
TEACHING LOAD IN STUDENTS PER WEEK,AND DAY
Pupils
per week
Pupils
per day
Number of
teachers
Percent
144
48
1
4.35
180
60
1
4.35
270
90
1
4.34
480
120
2
8.70
420
140
4’
450
150
2
8.69
486
162
1
4.34
525
175
1
4.35
540
180
2
8.70
780
260
1
4.34
1080
270
2
8.70
1375
275.
1
4.35
2160
540
2
8.70
2176
544
2
8.70
23
100.00
Total
17.39
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: one, or
4.35 per cent of the instructors Investigated taught 144 or
under, students per week and 48, or under, per day.
58
IV.
CREDIT IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION
While a certain degree of proficiency in physical edu­
cation is not required by colleges and universities, several
institutions of higher learning allow entrance credit for
physical education upon an elective basis.
seems educationally' sound in every respect.
Such a procedure
The state should
establish standards for physical education just as it esta­
blishes standards for other units of education.
These stand­
ards may be approved by the authorized regional accrediting
agency for secondary schools in that district.
These minimum
regulations, based upon such factors as teacher certification,
teaching load, time specifications, facilities, equipment,
and program, should be so formulated as not to prevent local
initiative from establishing standards as far above the mini­
mum as conditions in a given community/will permit.
Should credit in physical education be allowed toward■
graduation from secondary school?
This is not the place to
discuss the merits or demerits of the credit system, but it
is appropriate to indicate tendencies of contemporary educa- ■
tional practice.
Several state laws requiring physical edu­
cation in the schools proclaim that credits and penalties
shall be awarded for physical education as for the other sub­
jects or programs.
Another commonly accepted principle main­
tains that physical education should receive the same con­
59
sideration which is afforded English, History, Mathematics,
or Science*
One of the attractions to physical education in these
western Kansas schools is the- fact that many of them give
credit toward graduation for this work.
It was found that
these schools where credit is given in physical education,
would not permit a student to drop physical education to go
out for a major sport and still allow him credit*
It means
that if a boy dropped physical education for a t?/o months
period to go out for basketball, he would lose his entire
full year of credit.
Also these schools would allow possibly
one or two credits toward graduation from combined extra cur­
ricular activities.
V*
SUMMARY
We find that the scholastic training of teachers of
physical education Is gradually being raised.
We should also
come to the conclusion that if the teacher of physical educa­
tion is to be successful, he must be skilled and thoroughly
educated in the field of physical education.
It was found
that In most instances the athletic coaches were also the
teachers of physical education, and that they must have the
same qualifications as an academic classroom teacher.
Degrees were held by all but one of the thirty-four
60
physical education teachers reporting.
Most of the physical
education instructors attended Kansas schools.
Of. the twenty-
four reporting as to the school they attended, sixteen or
66.67 per cent attended college in Kansas, while only eight,
or 33.33 per cent attended college outside of Kansas.
Only twelve physical education teachers were reported
as belonging to some professional organization.
The teaching load of the physical education teachers
of these western Kansas schools range from 540 to 1800 minutes
per week, and from 144 to 2176 pupils per v/eek.
In most of these schools credit in physical education
is allowed toward graduation,'which helps to make it more
attractive to the student.
CHAPTER VI
THE IHTRAMUKAL PROGRAM
. If a successful program of intramurals is to He car­
ried out, *varsity* competition must not He allowed to inter­
fere .
Intramurals should and will stand or- fall on their
own merits.
The success of the intramural program will depend
largely upon the classification made of the competing teams*
Teams should- as nearly as possible He equal in physical and
playing ability.
It is, therefore, necessary to classify
the players according to some definite plan.
One means,
which has been very successful, is one which takes into ac­
count all the factors of age, height, and ?/eight, and some­
times strength.
Mitchell outlines the objectives of intramural athletics
under eight main divisions; .some of the more important are as
follows:***
1. Recreation. That a part of the student !s leisure
time should He employed in wholesome physical activity is
.a significant factor of adolescent education. Extensive
organization may be considered secondary to enjoyable
participation in games and sports.
2. Social Contacts. Intramural athletics permit the
inter pla;/ of group relations in situations which are of
***E. D_. Mitchell, Intramural. Athletics (Hew York: A. S.
Barnes and Co., 1925), pp. 12-16.
62
vital interest to students. Proper organization and con­
duct of these activities should result in specific develop­
ment of qualities associated with sportsmanship, coopera­
tion, self-assurance, and friendliness.
3. Group Spirit. Devotion to a cause which prompts
one to sacrifice himself for the best interests of the
group is-a desirable social trait. Whereas interscholastic competition reserves this privilege for the few who
comprise the team, intramural athletics provide oppor­
tunity for large numbers of students to enjoy this rich
experience.
4. Health. Rational exercise is one of the best known
means of developing organic vigor. Intramural athletics
provide opportunity for wholesome exercise under conditions
of inherent interest to adolescent youth.
5. Permanent interest in sports. Without the speciali­
zation which is required for interscholastic competition,
intramural athletics alio?/ for the development of skills
in various types of activity, some of which may carry
over into the leisure time of adult life. This is an
important educational factor.
6. Development of varsity material. Although it Is
not the primary aim of Intramural competition to act as
a “feeder” for interscholastic athletics, many varsity
players are recruited from the ranks of intramural con­
testants. This, however, should be considered an inci­
dental objective*
I.
DEFINITION'AND BENEFITS OP INTRAMURALS
Intramurals defined,
“intramural sports may be de­
fined as the organized competitive activity among organiza­
tions or units within the walls of an Institution.11^
By
this is meant that competition is not only offered to all the
^J* P. Williams, The Organization and Administration
°** Physical Education (New York: Macmillan Co., 192l7), p. 88.
63
pupils of a given institution, but that all are encouraged
to take part in one or more activities*
The siogan VIathletics
for all1* is not a passing fancy any more but is becoming more
and more an actuality.
Benefits of Intramurals *
If intramurals are to be
really successful, to really accomplish the desired results,
there must be supervision, good equipment and good facilities
with which to work.
Without supervision, competition are
often in poor condition and the evils of overexertion are
liable to result.
Intramural sports should develop sportsmanship, cooper­
ation, friendliness and many other desirable attitudes, while
the physical values, such as speed, skill, development of the
vital organs, and general bodily control are of untold value.
Intramural sports noffer a rich field for the making
of decisions, partly because of the great number of decisions
each player must make.
Intramural athletics are sound biologi­
cally and psychologically.
Their content Is made up of big-
muscle activities, that is those activities which exercise
the muscles of the legs, trunk and arms.
Big-muscle activi­
ties are old in the scheme of muscular development and there­
fore are not fatiguing.
These activities, because of their
ease of performance, are pleasing, exhilarating, and natural.
^H. H. House, "An Interpretation of Play through Intra­
mural Sports.n Journal of Health and Physical Education,
September 1931.
‘
64
II.
SPORTS INCLUDED IN THE INTRAMURAL PROGRAM
Since intramural athletics are intended to provide
competition for the mass of students, and since inter-scholastic athletics restrict participation to those who exemplify
superior skill in certain events, it seems appropriate to state that, for educational purposes, the intramural program
is superior to varsity competition.
It must be remembered,
however, that varsity teams are a great incentive to the suc­
cessful conduct of the intramural program.
Many participants
in intramurals who never can develop sufficient skill to join
varsity squads find therein expression of an ideal which to
them may be an extremely beneficial educational experience.
For the favored youth of high potential ability, the intra­
mural program provides an opportunity to develop skills
which will later enable him to join the varsity squad, and
thus permit him to realize one of his highest ideals.
If, however, public.education accepts the principle
of “the greatest good for the largest number,11 their intra­
mural athletics are superior to the interscholastic program.
Intramural athletics is the term which has been accepted
as the proper designation for competitive sport between groups
In a particular school.
In the larger districts one person
in the department of physical education, called an intramural
director, may be assigned to organize and direct the program.
65
Frequently the head coach of a given sport has charge of
intramurals in that activity, with other faculty membehs desig
nated to assist him*
Since the gymnasium period may be used 'for teaching
fundamentals and developing skills which have a direct effect
on recreational activities after school, numerous seasonal
activities in the physical education program are best suited
for intramural competition; undoubtedly, a well-organized and
well-conducted intramural program is one of the most valuable
features of physical education.
Although physical education may be required because it
is part of the regular educational program, and because chil­
dren of secondary school age are not qualified to select the
types of activity best suited to their needs and capacities,
it is recommended that intramural athletics be placed upon an
elective basis.
Boys should be encouraged to join in this
activity, and if the physical education program is adequate,
the majority of boys will elect, to play on some one of the
competing -teams.
Much depends upon the initiative and leader­
ship of the intramural director; for this reason, and on ac­
count of the educational values inherent in this program, a
well qualified person should be chosen for the position.
Activities included in intramural programs.
In order
to reach all the students, a great variety of activities must
66
be offered.
Individual differences are so great that if every
individual is to be successfully drawn into activity, a
varied and challenging program is necessary.
In instituting
the program, it is best to rely at first on the older and
better known sports, and then gradually increase the scope.
Of the sixteen schools reporting, every one includes
basketball in its intramural program (See fable .XVI)»
Volley­
ball and track are in second place, ten or 62.5 per cent of
the sixteen having these activities in their intramural pro­
grams.
Football, tennis, and softball are In third place;
eight or 50 per cent have these activities in their intramural
programs.
Seven or ‘
43.75 per cent include shuffle board and
horseshoes; four or 25 per cent handball; three or 18.75 per
cent baseball; two or 12.5 per cent golf, archery, aerial
dart tennis, table tennis, and speed ball; and one or 6.25
per cent have badminton, relays and games, and scooter in'
their intramural programs*
It is interesting-to note that none of them have swim­
ming, hockey,-hygiene; dancing, gymnastics, heavy apparatus,
bowling, low organized games, calisthenics or touch football
in their intramural programs,--although a good number teach
touch football in their physical education classes.
67
TABLE XVI
ACTIVITIES INCLUDED IN INTRAMURAL PROGRAMS
Activities
Football
Basketball
Baseball
Track
Tennis
Golf
Volleyball
Swimming
Handball
Hockey
Archery
Hygiene
Dancing
Gymnastics
Heavy apparatus
Shuffle board
Horse shoes
Softball
Badminton
Aerial Dart Tennis
Table Tennis
Bowling
Relays and games
Scooter
Low Organized Games
Calisthenics
Speed Ball
Touch Football
Number of
schools
8
16
3
10
8
2
10
0
4
0
2
0
0
0
0
7
7
8
1
2
2
'0
1
1
0
0
2
0
Percent
50*00
100*00
18,75
62.50
50.00
12.50
62.50
0.00
25.00
0.00
12.50
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
43.75
43.75
50.00
6.25
12.50
12.50
0.00
6.25
6.25
0.00
0.00
•'12.50
0.00
Sixteen schools reported on their Intramural program.
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: 8, or
50 per cent of the schools reporting includes football in
their intramural program.
68
I was very much interested in.the intramural program
carried out by the Gran Technical High School of Ghicago.
Their intramural program recognized three recreational de­
sires of the student: (1) team competition; (2) individual
competition; and (3) social recreation.
nThe following program of sports and the events, held
in the activities have been used the past three years:
PALL SEMESTER —
(Sept. -- Oct.)
Tennis
Touch Football
Football Skills Contest
a. Throw for distance
b. Throw for accuracy
c. Punt for distance
d. Kick-off for distance
WINTER SEMESTER -- (Nov. -- March)
Ice Skating Meet
a. Junior 220-yard dash
b. Junior 440-yard dash
c. Senior 440-yard dash
Swimming Meet
a. 20-yard Free Style
b.. 40-yard Free Style
c. 20-yard Breast Stroke
d. 20-yard Back stroke
69
?/restling Meet
Basketball
Free-Throw Contest
Volleyball
Ping-Pong
SPRING SEMESTER —
(Apr. - June)
Track and Field Meet
60-yard Dash
High Jump
Shot Put
Running Broad Jump
440-Yard Relay
Horseshoes
Softball
The types of elimination used depend upon the number
of entries received for each tournament and the amount of
time that we are able to use both gymnasiums.
All of our
out-of-door activities .are held on the single elimination
basis, because the boys have some distance to travel for
/j,
those activities•
III.
TIME ALLOWED FOR ACTIVITIES IN PROGRAM
We rind that most schools use after school periods for
I. D. Farber,"Planning an Intramural Program”.
letic Journal, XX (June 1940), p. 11.
Ath­
70
their intramural program.
High schools should avoid evening
play or else do.not require the same students to come hack for
more than one evening a week.
Some utilize noon hours for
skill activities not requiring strenuous effort.
When no other
time is available some add an additional gym period per week
and devote to intramurals, and if no additional gym periods
can be secured they use one of the present gym periods.
Schools must adapt their programs to the available
facilities.
If the facilities are limited, they must use a
limited program of the best known activities, and if the fa­
cilities are plentiful, they can add many of the newer activitie s •
Most schools are overlooking opportunities to add many
novel facilities for student use during free time.
M. L*
Clevett, Purduefs intramural director, has placed targets
and darts in out of the way corners, unused before.
students are occupied with, this equipment.
Many
Wooden nets have
been substituted for the official table tennis equipment at
Purdue.
This is done now in many Y. M. G. A. and other
recreational halls, and according to some of the Purdue en­
thusiasts, is working out satisfactorily there.
Average number of weeks given to each activity.
The
western Kansas schools spend an average of twelve weeks or
33'.33 per cent of their time teaching basketball in their
71
intramural programs (Table XVII). ,-Basketball is closely
followed by football, as they give an average of ten weeks
or 27.78 per cent of their time teaching football.
Baseball
comes next with an average of eight weeks, or 22.22 per cent
of their time.
Other activities in order are: tennis, track,
golf, horse shoes, gymnastics, volleyball, shuffle board,
relays and games, speedball, table tennis, handball, badmin­
ton, aerial dart tennis, and bowling.
Scooter is at the bot­
tom of the list with an average of one week or 2.78 per cent
of the time.
72
TABLE XVII
TIME ALLOWED FDR.PROGRAM
Activities
Football
Basketball
Baseball
Track
Tennis
Golf
Volleyball
Handball
Gymnastics
Shuffle Board
Horse Shoes
Softball
Badminton
Aerial Dart Tennis'
Table Tennis
Bowling
Belays and Games
Scooter
Speedball
Average Number
of weeks
10
12
8
6
7
6
4
2
5
4
6
5
2
2
3
2
4
1
4
Per cent
of time
27.78
33.33
22.22
16.67
19.44
16.67
11.11
5.56
13.89
11.11
16.67
13.89
5.56
5.56
8.33
5.56
11.11
2*78
11.11
Thirty-six weeks of school
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: 10, or
27.78 per cent of the thirty-six weeks of school is given to
football in the intramural program.
73
IV.
THE CLASSIFICATION OF STUDENTS
It Has not been the general custom in the past to
classify students for physical education.
in several particulars.
they do mentally.
This is at fault
Students vary as much physically as
Some have been retarded in their school
work while others have been advanced.
Some come from tall
parents, others from small parents, with the result that
great differences in regard to physical ability, physical
capacity, and physical condition are always present.
Students should be classified in different groups ac­
cording to their capacity to do the various activities set
forth.
The capacities can be determined by the .physical
examination and certain skill and achievement tests.
It has
been found unsatisfactory to classify by use of age, weight,
or height alone; however, a combination of all three has '
proven very satisfactory.
The success of the intramural program will depend
largely upon the classification made of the competing teams.
Teams should as nearly as possible be equal in physical and ■
playing ability.
It is, therefore, necessary to classify
the players according to some definite plan.
One means,
which has been very successful, is one which takes into
account all the factors of age, height, and weight, and
sometimes strength.
74
There are many methods of forming the various organi­
zations.
Students may he divided according to class, e. g.
freshmen, sophomores, juniors, seniors, or by departments, e.
g., agriculture, mathematics, etc.
A newer method in second­
ary schools is to divide them according to home rooms.
Another
prevailing practice is to organize on the basis of color
groups, each group to furnish competitors for the various
events•
V.
SUMMARY
After visiting and investigation of the programs and
facilities of several schools, I am convinced that the intra­
mural directors are alert for new ideas and suggestions.
This
trend in the majority of cases is increasing the recreational
opportunities for our students.
A great need in the high
school physical education program is being filled in this
manner.
Intramural sports are growing in popularity since
the sports program is being made Interesting to the students
and they in turn are being equipped both physically and
mentally to use leisure time profitably.
A we 11-balanced intramural program can successfully
do away with all noon-hour problems, all disciplinary prob­
lems, and all problems of a general nature that may not be
serious but nevertheless are puzzling and constant threats
to the proper functioning of a school or group.
Students
75
are kept* busy, are taught to be self-reliant, learn the spirit
of cooperation as a group, are able to understand enough to
assist each other, and are trained in activities in which
they will spend time later.
CHAPTER VII
IHTERSCHOLASTIC ATHLETICS
Interscholastic athletics in large districts should
be administered by an athletic council and an executive com­
mittee appointed annually by the secondary school principal.
A desirable personnel for the council will include the prin­
cipal or vice-principal, two or three faculty members, all
head coaches of various sports, possibly a limited number of
students, and the director of health and physical education
as chairman.
The executive committee may comprise the prin­
cipal or vice-principal, the two or three faculty members,
and the director of, health and physical education.
It should be rembered that either the principal or the
superintendent consitutes the final authority in all matters
pertaining to athletics.
If athletics are viewed as an isolated and independent
activity quite outside-the chief purposes of the school,
the problems of interscholastic sport are intensified.
The broader issues of competition, the development of
activity programs, and the selection of leaders for the
programs fall inevitably Y/ithin the purview of the educa­
tional policy of every institution. More specifically,
all phases of athletics, interscholastic as well as intra■ mural, are to be conceived of as aspects of physical edu­
cation. That they have not been so viewed in the past
is common knowledge; that many of our athletic problems
arise from the attempt to isolate athletics from general
educational policy is not so generally appreciated.1
**-J. P. Williams and ¥. L. Hughes, Athletics in Educa­
tion (Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company, 19'30), p7 49.
77
I*
SPORTS AHD PARTICIPANTS
Purposes of Interscholastic sports. "The purposes of
any activity coriduct'ed"'n5y^tEe“ pubITc “school are clearly
educational. If this standard is accepted, the purposes
of Interschool sport may he stated as follows: (1) to
provide a field of competition for superior individuals
to rise to levels of achievement recognized by the group;
(2) to provide a stimulus to the mass of students to
train themselves to undergo discipline in order to attain
certain kinds of excellence; (3) to set standards in the
school under circumstances fraught with dramatic quali­
ties may be recognized as worthy and fine by many because
they represent the standards of a romantic, heroic, and
more or less idealistic group.”2
The emphasis given to interscholastic.competition has
resulted in practice periods that are too long and too numer­
ous.
Besides the undesirable effects of this procedure upon
the health of the players themselves, school facilities are
not available at suitable periods for interscholastic use.
As interscholastic programs have developed, there has
been a tendency to increase the number of games played, un­
til in many communities, the length of schedules is out of
all proportion to the educational values to be derived from
competitive games.
The preceding table establishes the
maximum number of games which should be played in the various
sports and the length of season for each (Table XVIII).
^J. P. Williams and C. L. Brownell, Health and Physical Education for Public School Administrators' (lew York: *
Teachers College, Columbia University, 1931), p. 114.
78
TABLE XVIII
NUMBER OP GAMES AND~ LENGTH OP SEASON
Activity
Football
Basketball
Number of Games
per season
6-7
Length of season
in weeks
8
12
12
Baseball
8
10
Track
5
10
Tennis
8
8
Golf
6
8
Swimming
5
8
Soccer
6
8
Ice Hockey
6
8
Speedball
6
8
10
12
Boxing
4
8
Wrestling
4 '
8
Volleyball
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: the
maximum number of football games per season should be 6 or
7 and the season 8 weeks in length.
79
Participants in interscholastic athletics*
In so far
as possible, those students competing in a major sport of
football, basketball, track, or baseball-, should be excused
from further activity as they are already receiving sufficient
work.
Whenever a major sport is completed, the participants,
if they do not continue in some other major sport, should be
required to enter some other activity in the program.
No
student should be allowed to enter a major sport without
first having passed a thorough medical examination.
This is
both a protection to the boy and to the school*
The senior high school boy is in the last stages of
adolescence.
He is gradually becoming an adult and is taking
on adult mannerisms and habits.
There is the tendency among
many at this age, owing to the many activities of life, to
become more sedentary in their daily life.
This should not
be conducive to his growth and development;
it is just as
important for the high, school boy to receive his guided exer­
cise as for the junior high school or intermediate.grade boy
to receive his exercise.
We see too many examples of develop­
ment of sideline exercisers which does not at all meet the
needs of developing youth.
Again as in the junior high school, a very greatly
enlarged group of activities should be carried on in the
program of physical education.
Athletics, both major and
minor, as well as intramural, should be had.
Tumbling
80
apparatus exercises, marching, swimming, and diving, and
calisthenics should all he included.
also have values to contribute.
Group games and relays
As studies will show, there
are many at this age who will still need postural work.
Classes for this special type of physical education should
be organized and pupils needing this work should be placed in
them as soon as the defects are noted.
II.
GAMES.SCHEDULED
The Kansas Activities Association limits the number
of games that may be played by member schools.
Football.
Football practice may start' no earlier
than September 1st and the rules require three full weeks of
practice before a game may be played.
The first Friday pos­
sible for a game is about September 20th, provided that
practice starts not later than September 1st.-
Teams may not
engage in practice or scrimmage against an outside group
until after the three weeks training period on its own field,
and no outsiders are permitted to scrimmage against the
team during this early training period.
Coaches are urged
to read the rules carefully, and if there are any questions
they should correspond with the commissioner1s office at
once.
Member schools are limited to one football game per
week; therefore, it is possible to play only ten games during
the football season, because the season ends the last week
in November.
(Table XIX).
Nine games is the average number scheduled
81
TABLE XIX
HUMBER OF GAMES SCHEDULED
Sports
Football
Basketball
Average Humber
9
18
Baseball
8
Track
7
Tennis
4
Golf
4
UOTE: This table should be read as follows: nine
is the average number of football games scheduled each year.
82
Basketball.
Ho team or player representing a member
* high school shall participate in more than eighteen games
during one season, exclusive of tournaments.
Allowance shall
be made for players who participate in both first and second
team games the same evening, but no player may take part in
more than five quarters of basketball in one evening or day.
Member schools can enter but one basketball tournament besides
the state tournaments.
The Association condemns any spring
basketball practice after the close of the state tournaments.
Hote: (Table XIX)
All schools surveyed played eighteen
games of basketball, which is the limit.
Baseball.
Principals and coaches must check their
baseball players carefully to see that all are eligible.
Playing for money or in games or tournaments where cash
prizes, or merchandise of intrinsic value, are offered make
boys ineligible for high school competition.
It is not
necessary that the boys receive the money offered.
prizes are offered —
not necessarily awarded
If any
the players
become ineligible for high school baseball.
The same rule
applies to soft ball players in that sport.
It does not
affect their eligibility for other sports.
Track. nThe Kansas State High School Activities Asso­
ciation championship track meet shall be held the third
week in May at a place designated by the Board of Control.
The Board of Control shall arrange to hold regional
track meets in convenient locations throughout the state
83
the second week in May. Winners of the first four places
in each event except the relays .shall he eligible to en­
ter the state championship meet. Winners of the first
three places in the relays shall be eligible for the
state meet*
Such county, league, district, or invitation meets as
may be approved by the Board of Control shall constitute
elimination meets for the regional meets; provided, that
no meet in which less than four schools are represented
shall be approved as qualifying meets for the regionals.
Winners- of the first three places in each event in the
approved preliminary meets shall be eligible to compete
in the regional meets, provided there are not less than
six schools represented in the approved preliminary meet.
In case there are less than six schools represented in
an approved preliminary meet, only the winners of the
first two places shall be eligible to compete.in the
regional meets.
In all interschool track and field meets, including
dual and triangular meets, a boy may not enter more than
three individual events and one relay, or two individual
events and two relays; provided, that he may not run
more than one race of 440 yards or more, whether it be
an open race or a lap in a relay, and if he runs such a
race, he may not compete in more than one relay in addi­
tion. A boy may not be permitted to compete in more
than two relays, under any condition.
Tennis and Golf. 11The Kansas State High School Champion­
ship tennis and golf tournaments shall be held at a time
and place designated by the Board of Control.
The Board of Control shall arrange and schedule re­
gional tennis tournaments to eerve as qualifying tourna­
ments for the state championship. Winners of first and
second places in both singles and doubles matches shall
be eligible to enter the state championship tournament.
Ho school may be represented by more than two contestants
in the singles matches and not more than one team in the
doubles matches. A boy may not represent his school in
both singles and doubles. The same rules shall apply for
golf. 4
^The Kansas State High School Activities Association,
Constitution Rules and By-Laws (Board of Control, 1940), p. 19.
^Ibid., p. 20.
84
Athletic Eligibility Reminders.
Coaches and principals
should read the eligibility rules with care and check all
their athletes before they compete in order to make sure that
all are eligible.
Copies of the constitution, rules and by­
laws are mailed to all member schools#
Following are some of
the items that should be checked carefully before' pupils are
permitted to represent their schools in any interschool con­
test :
1# Do not permit a player to compete until after he
has passed a satisfactory physical examination given by
a practicing physician. hone should be permitted to start
practice until after these examinations are passed.
2. Check ages with care.
below twenty years of age.
All participants must be
3. Pupils are eligible only during the first eight
semesters of their attendance, starting with the ninth
grade. As soon as a pupil attends classes as a ninth
grader the rule applies and as soon as he has completed
eight semesters of attendance his eligibility is over.
In three-year high schools the limit Is six semesters;
in two-year high schools it is four semesters. Attend­
ance for fifteen days or participation in a game or con­
test, counts as a semester's attendance.
4. Three-year senior high schools must check each
pupil’s ninth grade record. Those who attend more than
two semesters in the ninth grade must deduct the extra
semesters from their senior high competition period#
5. The seventh and eighth semesters must be consecu­
tive. A pupil who attends seven semesters, drops out of
school, and then comes back to complete his work,is not
eligible for athletics.
6. Schools are urged to use the athletic transfer
blanks to obtain data on pupils who change high schools.
Ordinary transcripts do not indicate parts of semesters
attended. See that the complete attendance record is
85
given before certifying a player as being eligible•
7. ' Mo summer make-up work is permitted for the purpose
of making a pupil eligible. Unless he has completed a
sufficient amount of work by the close of the semester to
receive passing grades in the required number of subjects,
he is hot eligible.
8. Pupils who complete their ninth grade work in a
regular junior high school and then enroll in an outside
senior high school are not eligible for eighteen weeks,
unless their parents make a bonafide and permanent move.
A graduate of a three-year junior high school is subject
to the same transfer regulations as one who finishes
the ninth grade in a regular four-year high school.
9. After a pupil has represented his high school in
a sport, he may not compete on an outside team nin any
sport” and retain his eligibility that season. Keep
high school athletes off outside teams after they start
their high school practices, in order to be safe. This
applies to boxing, wrestling, and all other outside con­
tests.
.10. The fifteen-day rule applies only to those who
start to school and then drop out entirely before they
have attended fifteen days* Transfer pupils who change
schools after attending only a few days must put in
eighteen weeks at the new school before becoming eligible.
The only exception to the eighteen weeks requirement is
in cases where the ps.rents make a bonafide, permanent
move which requires that the pupils change schools in
order to reside with their parents.
11. Second team, or reserve team, members must be
eligible according to the same rules as first team players.
12.
These rules apply to all contests by member schools.^
III.
SPORTS'PARTICIPATION RECORDS
The Kansas State Activities Journal of January, 1941
c
°Kansas High School Activities Journal, Topeka, Kansas,
September, 1940, p. W7
86
contains a table (Table XX), showing the nine sports records
from 1928-29 to 1939-40.
This record Is included to show
the trends in sports of Kansas schools.
87
TABLE XX
NINE SPORTS PARTICIPATION RECORDS BROKEN
Football
Year
^«
1928-29
1929-30
1930-31
1931-32
1932-33
1933-34
1934-35
1935-36
1936-37
1937-38
1938-39
1939-40
Q •
o
B.
398
392
419
399
388
372
348 8,914
347 9,376
339 9,579
330 9,764
367 11,027
318 10,631
6-man
Football
S.
73
B.
Basketball
B.
S.
629
638
646
635
631
644
648
634
644
661
664
1,127 660
11,324
11,778
12,181
12,843
13,571
13,937
Track
S.
B.
431
456
455
462
443
432
413
437
433
462
482
490
5,921
6,358
7,035
7,743
8,671
8,815
S means schools participating
B means boys participating
Year
1928-29
1929-30
1930-31
1931-32
1932-33
1933-34
1934-35
1935-36
1936-37
1937-38
1938-39
1939-40
Tennis
Baseball
S.
S.
B.
190
218
238
233
236
232
219
999
215
929
183
970
195 1,022
209 1,129
196 1,134
199
186
281
298
320
319
324
336
321
311
316
298
B.
4 ,464
4,840
4,862
5,073
5,035
4,625
Wrestling
S.
11
21
19
26
25
18
14
19
16
16
18
19
Golf
B.
S.
B.
215
232
271
274
302
346
20
41
26
47
39
45
35
50
49
50
47
50
176
200
206
207
260
278
88
TABLE .XX (Continued)
HIKE SPORTS PARTICIPATION RECORDS BROKEN
Softball
Year
S.
1928-29
1929-30
1930-31
1931-32
1932-33
1933-34
1934-35
1935-36
1936-37
1937-38
1938-39
1939-40
8
6
13
23
20
B.
127
76
182
357
358
Swimming
S.
2
3
3
3
3
3
5
4
4
5
6
6
Totals
B.
S.
61
63
79
106
131
109
645
660
665
654
646
656
661
665
658
668
668
667
B.
13,417
13,641
15,128
15,730
15,876
16,765
17,193
18,123
18,736
19,521
20,924
21,343
NOTE: This table lists the number of schools and the
number of boys participating in the nine different sports
from 1928-29 to 1939-40•
89
A continuation of the upward trend in sports partici­
pation among the member schools of the Association is
shown in a summary of athletic participation for 193940 school year. More than 21,000 boys took part in the
approved sports during the. year, representing an increase
of approximately 400 over the previous high established
in 1938-39.
Altogether nine new records were established as old
marks were broken in football, basketball, track, tennis,
wrestling, golf, and softball in addition to the total
number.
With 73 schools reporting six-man football teams, the
number of schools playing football jumped to 391, an in­
crease of 24 over the preceding year and the highest
number participating in the gridiron sport since 1931-32.
There were 318 eleven-man football schools with 10,631 boys
competing, while the 73 six-man schools had 1,127 boys
reporting. The combined total of 11,758 was the largest
number of individual football participants since records
have been kept and was a hike of more than 700 over last
year.
;
Although for less schools played basketball, the num­
ber of pupils continued to climb and reached 13,937,
another record, and an increase of approximately 350 over
the former mark. Track turned in a double record as
eight new schools took up the spring sport for a total
of 490, and a record-smashing total of 8,815 boys turned
out for the cinder competition. The number of tennis
schools dropped off slightly, but more boys than ever
before participated.
Wrestling increased both in the number of schools and
in the number of grapplers as 346 boys took part as repre­
sentatives of 19 schools. The total of 50 schools having
golf teams tied the number in 1935-36 and also in 193738, but the individual total of 278 was an all-time high.
Twenty schools playing softball had 358 players, another
record.°
^Kansas High School Activities Journal, Topeka,Kansas,
January l"94l, p. XT'.
90
III.
SUMMARY
The rules and regulations of the Kansas State High
School Activities Association, are very rigid, and furthermore,
they are enforced.
This, in the last few years, has brought
about higher class and clean athletics.
We often find schools in the state of Kansas reporting
their own ineligible cases, because if one slips by, the
schools are sincere enough to report it as soon as they dis­
cover the case.
From an educational point of view, there is a relation­
ship of eligibility to interscholastic athletics.
In a soundly conceived view of education as an educa­
tion of the whole person, a medium level of performance in
athletics would require no scholastic attainments as pre­
requisites.
With this view of coeducation of body and mind
established, a teacher might request a student to pay less
attention to athletics and- pursue more diligently the study
of French, or in another case to give less time to mathematics
and more to athletics.
On an interscholastic level, however, the skills per­
fected are quite beyond the novice class, and the interest is
already very high.
Therefore, under present conditions,
scholastic eligibility is imperative.
Other requirements for eligibility, age for example,
are essential if conditions are not to exist which render con­
tests unfair and correspondingly less profitable educationally.
CHAPTER VIII
FINANCING THE ATHLETIC PROGRAM
Athletics make contributions to the students physical
and emotional development that academic subjects cannot pro­
duce,
Of the three physical education programs of the school,
namely; physical education curricu 1urns,-intramural program,
and iterscholastic program; each makes certain definite
contributions,
I.
PHYSICAL EDUCATION FINANCE
Unfortunately these activities cannot be carried out
unless money is furnished, in some way to finance these pro­
grams,
Table XXI shows that in 15 high schools the financial
burden for physical education is borne by the school board.
When physical education is a part of the regular curriculum,
it should receive the same* financial, consideration as any
other school class.
This would mean a one hundred per cent
school board subsidy of physical education classes.
II.
INTRAMURAL FINANCE
Table XXI shows that in 16 schools, 94.12 per cent
of the total, is an intramural program subsidized by the
school board.
1 school, 5.88 per cent of the total number,
depends on admissions from interscholastic athletic contests
92
for the financial support of intramurals*
The danger of de­
pending on admissions for support lies in the fact that often­
times the admissions are insufficient.
commercialize the athletic teams.
This also tends to
The intramural program
needs and deserves to have just as much money as the others
even though it.is the varsity teams which draw the big gates.
Student body dues are the greatest sources of the
financial support for schools with intramural activities.
Payment of these dues work a hardship on some youngsters if
the dues are placed high enough to produce the necessary
funds.
There
is usually difficulty in getting one hundred
per cent of the dues collected.
III.
INTERSCHOEASTIC FINANCE
Table XXI also shows how the interscholastic programs
are financed.
12 schools, 80 per cent of the total number of
high schools surveyed, charge admission to athletic games and
use that money to promote their programs.
Oftentimes teams
do not draw enough money at the gate to pay for the transpor­
tation, equipment, and other incidental expenses involved in
athletic activities.
1 school, 6.67 per cent of the total
number, get financial support for interscholastic athletics
from the student body dues.
School Board subsidization of interscholastic athletics
Is quite rare.
Only 2 schools, 13.33 per cent of the total
93
number, report any such support.
If the school officials
would provide money from the regular school funds for athletics,
it would tend to equalize the opportunity of students.
Some
boys cannot afford to buy as good equipment as others, nor
pay student body dues.
Schools that depend on athletic ad­
missions must have good teams to draw big gates*
This means
that schools that have good teams can equip their teams bet­
ter.
Schools that are located in rural sections cannot draw
such big gates as urban schools, and consequently, their
athletic equipment is usually so poor that it is sometimes
unsafe.
94
TABLE XXI
MEANS OP FINANCING THE PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAM,
THE INTRAMURAL ATHLETIC PROGRAM, AND THE
INTERSCHOLASTIC ATHLETIC PROGRAM
Athletic
program
School board
subsidy
itudent body
dues
Admissions
from ath­
letic con­
tests
No.
No •
No.
Per
cent
1
5.88
12
80.00
Per cent
Physical Education
15
Intramural
16
94.12
2
13.33
Interscholastic
Per .
cent
100
1
6.67
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: the
physical education program is partially or entirely financed
by school board subsidy in 15 schools, 100 per cent of the
total number.
.
95
Athletic receipts and expenditures.
Table XXII shows
that in the 15 schools as a whole, football and basketball
are more than self-supporting.
money losers.
Baseball and track are both
It is Indeed fortunate that the fall and win­
ter sports provide enough revenue to carry the financial
burden of the spring sports.
There is very little spectator
interest in baseball or track in the high schools of Western
Kansas.
When high school athletics are dependent on gate re­
ceipts, they are fostered and selected by the pressure of
popular whim, with little or no regard for desirable physical
and educational outcomes.
The necessity of large gate receipts for carrying on
the athletic program must be eliminated just as rapidly as
possible.
If the boards of education can be educated to the
practice of paying for Interscholastic athletics, a great
step forward will be accomplished toward relief of the neces­
sity to win in order to pay expenses.
Emphasis must be
placed on desirable physical effects of athletics, not on
winning all the games.
When high school athletics are de­
pendent on gate receipts, they are not motivated with a
major regard for desirable outcomes and physical improvement.
IV.
HANDLING HIGH SCHOOL FUNDS
Since this survey has revealed that nearly all the
96
money used for athletics is derived from the gate receipts
and the student' body dues, it follows that the method of
handling the money is important.
It is not practical for
every school to meet this problem in the same manner*
Cer­
tain general rules should be followed to insure efficiency
and satisfaction for all concerned.
The financial end of athletics offers an opportunity
for pupil participation in a school activity.
The method
must be educational to those engaged in the activity.
It
must be amply supervised, and so must be a system that does
not require a great deal of time.
Table XXHX shows that in 4 schools, 22.22 per cent of
the total number surveyed in Western Kansas, the students
handle the money under faculty supervision.
In 10 schools,
55.56 per cent of the total number, the students do not
participate in the handling of these moneys.
These schools
are apparently missing an opportunity to utilize student
help in handling student money.
This opportunity is often
passed up with the thought that students are not efficient
enough for such an important post.
Special care, of course,
must be exercised in choosing those who will control athletic
finances, but with close faculty supervision the students
prove very successful in this capacity*
97
TABLE XXII
MONEY SFENT AND RECEIVED IN FOOTBALL,
BASKETBALL, BASEBALL, AND
TRACK
School reporting
Football
Spent
f
c
Received
Basketball
Spent
Received
827.56
1173.58
284.20
393.84
3400.00
3900.00
1800.00
2050.00
0.00
0.00
200.00
250.00
Dodge City Sr. High 1938.83
1813.29
1179.81
1237.98
Garden City
1850.00
1920.00
1000.00
1170.00
Great Bend
3600.00
4300.00
1190.00
1210.00
Hays
1041.15
949.43
751.91
590.97
Hoisington
1150.00
1290.00
500.00
600.00
Kingman
1105.92
1115.86
501.46
446.15
Kinsley
1480.00
1510.00
590.00
640.00
Earned
1520.00
1865.00
634.00
607.00
Liberal
1050.00
1040.00
750.00
670.00
Lyons
1750.00
1610.00
iooo.oo
1090.00
Pratt
1799.71
2060.00
1094.00
1072.00
700.00
800.00
300.00
600.00
Anthony
Arkansas City
Dodge City Jr. High
Russell
98
TABLE XXII (Continued)
MONET SPENT AND RECEIVED IN FOOTBALL,
BASKETBALL, BASEBALL, AND TRACK
School reporting
Baseball
Track
Spent
Received
Spent
Received
Anthony
0.00
0.00
73.19
0.00
Arkansas City
0.00
0.00
310.00
230.00
Dodge City Jr. High
50.00
40.00
0.00
0.00
Dodge City Sr. High
127.01
108.40
70.80
55.22
Garden City
0.00
0.00
300.00
260.00
Great Bend
0.00
0.00
250.00
200.00
Hays
0.00
0.00
50.00
0.00
Hoisington
0.00
0.00
75.00
35.00
Kingman
0.00
0.00
123.42
113.42
Kinsley
0.00
0.00
120.00
60.00
Larned
97.00
0.00
0.00
Liberal
0.00
0.00
200.00
100.00
Lyons
0.00
0.00
200.00
150.00
Pratt
0.00
0.00
387.75
99.24
Russell
0.00
0.00
200.00
0.00
0.00 '
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: Anthony
spent $827.56 and received $1,173.58 in football, spent
$284.20 and received §393.84 in basketball, spent nothing and.
received nothing in baseball, and spent $73.19 and received
nothing in track.
TABLE XXIII
MEANS OF HANDLING THE STUDENT BODY MONEY IN HIGH SCHOOLS OF
■ WESTERN KANSAS
Student body
treasurer
Number of
schools
Per cent of
schools
Student
4
22,22
Faculty
10
55*56
4
22.22
Student and Faculty
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: In
four schools, 22,22 per cent of the total number, the student
body moneys are handled by a student*
100
V.
SHOULD THERE BE GATE RECEIPTS IN ATHLETICS?
Theoretically, the answer is, no.
If athletics are
educational and if they are an integral part of the school
program, then there is every reason to believe that the
board of education should provide funds for these activities
just as it finances other forms of public education.
Un­
doubtedly such a procedure would help to remove the over­
emphasis and the outside domination which frequently charac­
terize various athletic events In communities where school
authorities have not been educated to'accept the principle
of financing interscholastic athletics.
In fact, boards of
education often allow gate receipts to carry at least part of
the financial burden of the physical'education and other school
programs.
While it is evident that emphasis on athletics and
gate receipts have stimulated the development of other fea­
tures of the physical education program, such as intramural
athletics, athletic fields, stadiums, and even gymnasiums,
a fundamental educational principle is herein violated.
How­
ever, among those school districts where it is customary to
depend upon gate receipts, the practice should hot be dis­
continued until the board of education has been educated to
the point of accepting the additional financial burden without
penalizing the development of these programs which have cus­
tomarily received aid from athletic funds.
101
Wagenhorst says, uThe practice of supporting high
school interscholastic athletics by means of gate receipts,
pupils1 fees and appeals to the public tends to demoralize
these activities.rl^
V.
SUMMAKT
In the general budget for health and physical education
there should be a section dealing with athletics, with sub­
divisions for each sport.
In preparing budgets for athletic
activities it is necessary to take into account the number of
boys to be outfitted, the amount and condition of equipment
on hand, team travel, guarantees, expense of officials,
probable gate receipts, and receipts from other sources.
Coaches of the different sports should be allowed to recom­
mend the type of equipment to be purchased with the appropri­
ation for this item.
The athletic council may be expected .to
approve or disapprove the budgets for each sport.
As previously stated, gate receipts cannot be defended
upon educational grounds.
Since such receipts should not
be discontinued until a satisfactory substitute has been
provided, it would seem appropriate that these funds be used
to benefit the entire student body.
With this purpose in
lL. E. Wagenhorst, The Administration and Cost of High
School Interscholastic Athiet1cs (Hew York:' Teachers College,
Columbia University, 1926), p. 110#
102
mind, it is recommended that these funds he used to benefit
the entire student body*
With this purpose in mind, it is
recommended that receipts from all school activities for
which an admission fee is charged be placed in the general
school fund and supervised by a bonded member of the faculty*
This general school fund may be used for dramatics, band,
glee club, orchestra, etc., as well as for intramural and
interscholastic athletics.
CHAPTER IX
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
Introduction.
marized as follows:
The purpose of this study may he sum­
(1) to find the actual conditions of the
physical education program in the Dodge City, Kansas, high
schools, with the aim of finding strength and weakness as a
basis for constructive work; (2) to determine the responsi­
bility for the existing defects; (3) to find basic principles
upon which suggestions adaptable to the Dodge City, Kansas,
high schools may be made.
As the whole field of physical
education was too extensive for this type
phases were left out.
of study, certain
The final selection was made and the
following topics chosen as chapter headings.
Relation of State and District Educational Organiza­
tion to Physical Education.
It is recommended that Dodge
City take steps toward the creation of a division of health
and physical education with a professional worker employed.
It should be the primary duty of this person to study condi­
tions, -hold conferences, give advice, disseminate facts and
results, and avoid being an inspector.
The Kansas State Department of Public Instruction
does not have specific written standards for the teaching
of physical education.
104
Organization of the program.
It is recommended that
the Kansas State Department of Public Instruction create and
publish standards for all phases of physical education.
Each
school should have a written course of study, constructed by
a committee of experts in physical education.
It is also recommended that the physical education in­
structors spend 75 per cent of the class time in instruction
and the other 25 per cent for roll call and other routine
duties.
That the Interest of the student in the activity
and the type of activity being taught should determine the
method of instruction used is recommended.
Medical and physical examinations.
It is recommended
that a thorough medical examination be given each student
each year;
that more time be devoted to the medical exami­
nation that the individual may receive a thorough examination;
that a careful record of the physical condition of each
student be made and reported to the parents; and that re­
examination and corrective work be given under guidance of
the physician and medical treatment and removal of defects
should be urged to the parents, but the work should be done
by the family physician or clinics.
Whenever possible the
classes should be grouped through the use of physical ability
tests•
We would recommend that physical education be required
for every “
boy in every year of the high schools in Kansas;
that modified activities should be provided that fit the
individual need of each student who is physically unfit;
that class periods be fifty minutes in length as a minimum,
in schools where the class schedule is less than fifty
minutes, double periods three times a week should be held;
that the physical education class be limited to forty stu­
dents whenever possible; that advice, of a competent physi­
cian be the only excuse permitted for exemption from physi­
cal education.
The physician should be consulted to deter­
mine what activities are safe for each individual.
tion rather than exemption should be followed.
Modifica­
Exempt stu­
dents should be under the supervision of the physician.
The staff of the Physical Education Department recommends
1.
That the superintendent follow the Kansas State
Board of Education1s recommendation;
2. That as far as possible a person be allowed to teach
only those subjects in which he has a major or minor;
5. That all instructors join and take an active part in
the state and national physical education associations
as well as the local, state and national education
associations;
4.
That the teaching load of
^
the physical education in­
structors be 1800 minutes per week.
Under no cir-
106
cumstances should this exceed 2100 minutes per week;
5.
That a physician be employed for regular hours at
each school.
In some districts one physician could
handle conveniently all schools.
In ethers,where
distance is a handicap, a physician for each city
should be available for examinations, consultations,
and medical supervision of the schools in that vi­
cinity.
The number of hours each spent would be de­
termined by the number of students he had under his
care.
The intramural program.
It was found that the intra­
mural programs are being made interesting, to the stud.ents.
Also, most intramural directors are alert for new ideas and
suggestions, and a great need in the high school physical
education program is being filled in this manner.
The study shows that there are several methods of
administering intramural athletics.
In the larger schools
it is well to have a regular Intramural Director.
The plan
of centralizing the organization and control in the hands of
one man allows for promoting and co-ordinating the various
phases of the work.
It does not necessarily follow that, the
Intramural Director shall be the Director of Physical Educa­
tion.
In the smaller schools where, the program and the duties
107
are not so heavy, it may he possible to relieve an instructor
for one or more periods a day to assume the responsibility.
If possible, he should be assisted by other faculty men,
especially in officiating and general oversight during the
progress of games.
Student managers of each sport offered are a great
help in maintaining interest and taking care of details.
The work does not require an intricate knowledge of the games
and sports, nor does it require a scientific knowledge of
physical education.
The man in charge should be a good organ­
izer, well liked by the boys and with their best interests in
mind,
tte mdst be willing to spend some time in study and
investigation in order to provide a program that meets the
needs and desires of his particular group of students.
It is recommended that wherever possible the students
be classified according to age, weight, and height.
Interscholastic athletics.
Interscholastic athletics
should be viewed as a part of the school program, because of
the fact that many of our problems arise from the attempt to
isolate athletics.
High class and clean athletics have been
brought about by strict rules and regulations of our State
High School Activities Association; therefore, the Dodge City,
Kansas, schools should be very careful that they abide by
these rules and regulations.
108
Class work comes first, and we should be very careful
in checking eligibility lists in regard to scholastic attain­
ment.
Students should be required to do average work or above
before taking part in interscholastic athletics.
Twenty years is the maximum age for boys taking part
in interscholastic athletics.
We should require birth certifi­
cates of all participants, which would eliminate unpleasant
circumstances in many instances.
Financing the athletic programs.
The trend of modern
public school administration is away from separate budgets for
specialized activities.
In preparing his annual budget, the
superintendent may request the heads of various departments
to submit a tentative list of proposed expenditures for the
coming year.
In such a case the assistant superintendent or
director in charge of physical education is expected to indi­
cate the amount
of money needed to carry on the operating
expenses of his department.
It should be understood, however,
that the head of a department may recommend, subject to the
approval of the school superintendent, a transfer of financial
aid from one division of his program to another.
Under the
more modern plan of generalized budgeting, the superintendent
constitutes the final authority in distributing funds to the
different departments within the educational system.
Physical education:
109
Evidence shows an increasing tendency of physical edu­
cation to "be functional*
Some of our expression of the point
of view 11Back to the Body51 -- function theme is running through
all education.
Experiments in schools are on the hypothesis
that lives of boys and girls should.function.
Ideas of the Dance as an expression of the people in
terms of modern life-movement, without regard to man but to
design, life, and function has become so large that all of
art has been taken over by the Dance forgetting Kinesiology
and Physiology —
but it will come back as the Dance will dis­
appear as did exercise.
Sport will continue is trend of present time to reflect
trails of American culture —
Carnegie Report showed no effect
on college students -- English sport is due to the customs of
the English people and cannot be transferred to this country.
Some manifestations in sport as of the times and of the
place.
If democratic ideals are maintained, we' will use less
gymnastic movements but will rely on functional-movements.
Physical Education must be looked at from the social needs
and standards that prevail.
This is a profession that is
going forward and becoming important, does not deal with
frills that will fall away.
There are people still coming into this field who do
not belong here due to poor guidance, as some counsellors
believe that students who are not bright will make a success
110
in this field*
This problem will not be solved by legisla­
tion but only by a set up within the profession by the nature
of scholarly work and professional achievements
to improve ourselves.
we have
Good physiques are necessary as an
advertisement of the profession-discipline ourselves.
There is the problem of the people who are cashing in
on their ability as coaches, etc., not educationally prepared
or qualified by state departments.
There is the problem of helping our .teachers to tech­
niques and procedures that will be accepted -- human traits
are like pendulums that swing from formal program to informal
program; some people think there is nothing to be taught,
no way to teach it.
The point is knowing what Physical Edu­
cation is.
The advance of physical education to its present posi­
tion in which athletic games play such a predominant part,
has been a slow and tedious one.
Undoubtedly one of the
greatest factors in the changing objectives and the better
programs has been the improved preparation and general back­
ground of the men who have, in recent years, been entering
the field of physical education and athletics*
We shall continue to have physical education and ath­
letics of one type or another.
All previous efforts to
abolish such activities for any length of time have failed.
Indeed there are many evidences which indicate that the
Ill
worthwhile group of these activities, should very definitely
.he continued under good leadership.
What constitutes good leadership in athletic activities?
The director, coach, or leader,' like any other good teacher,
should have a thorough teaching ability in his specialty, and
he should possess desirable character qualities which justify
his position of leadership.
The first of these requirements
sets the athletic coach or teacher aside as a specialist.
In other words it means that this field, If accepted as part
of the educational scheme, should not be turned over to a
non-specialist any more than any other department of the
school curriculum.
For this reason, well-prepared physical
education, athletic directors and coaches should be retained
on an equal basis with other■faculty members.
Many college speakers, both American and foreign,
seem to take delight in deriding the American student for his
apparent lack of Interest in community and public affairs,
and for his great interest in athletic games.
In so doing
they are indicating their lack of understanding concerning
the entire American philosophy of things.
Games have become
a part of the American style of living and there has been no
evidence presented to disprove their value in this connection.
The European student may have a great knowledge of and keener
112
interest in affairs of state, but, if this interest and this
knowledge do not help him to live in a more happy and contented
manner, of what good are they?
If the purpose of education
as stated above is to develop better citizens, whatever con­
tributes best to that purpose should be included in the school
programs•
We are passing through a time of tremendous stress and
strain*
Undoubtedly school budgets will have to be trimmed
down to fit smaller incomes from reduced taxes and decreasing
earnings from endowments.
It does not seem advisable, how­
ever, that these trimming down procedures should be aimed too
largely at departments which have come to serve, in one way
or another, the greater share of the students.
Changing eco­
nomic conditions will undoubtedly result in shorter days with
a resultant increasing of leisure time.
time will be a national asset, and to
A wise use of this
th±3
end excellent physi­
cal education programs, including all students, should be more
than ever fostered and developed.
Presumably, the same thing
may be said in support of most of the other so-called extra­
curricular activities, such as music, dramatics and speech,
as a greater interest in these things will surely be an aid
to a generally worthwhile use of leisure time.
Possibly we, who have called ourselves specialists in
physical education and athletics, are greatly to blame for
the general lack of knowledge concerning the objectives and
113
possibilities of our field.
Possibly too much thought has
been given in the past to methods of attracting people through
athletic gates, rather than to methods of informing them con­
cerning our activities and interesting them in actual prepa­
ration for participation in the activities.
With a general
reduction in spending possibility, people will, in a large'
measure, have to desert many of the commercialized forms of
amusement which have thrived in the past.
No better and less
expensive form of recreation can be formed than organized
physical education activities for every community, large and
small.
Directors of physical education and athletic coaches
have, in the main, entered their fields of work with the in­
tention of performing the most creditable service to the com­
munity which is employing them.
As recognized leaders in the
fields of physical education and athletic activities, these
men should therefore be exerting every available influence
toward the development of student bodies and communities
which not only enjoy watching physical education and athletic
games but which actually desire to participate actively in
these activities*
Limitations of the study.
first made by the writer.
This survey has been the
Careful consideration was given
the methods and techniques of research and survey. .Without
practice the application of these materials cannot be done
perfectly.
114
The topics selected were not selected as being the most
important, but rather the ones that had impressed the investi­
gator as being the most troublesome.
Suggestions for future study.
This study is more or
less a general survey of physical education; therefore, de­
tailed information of various phases was not made a part of
the investigation.
Therefore, further studies are recommended
in each of the fields.
Each chapter in the survey could be
made a separate study.
The following recommendations may be given as to
physical education in the Dodge City high schools.
1.
Senior and junior high school boys should be sepa­
rated in physical education classes.
2.
Students enrolled in physical education classes
should be assigned to their classes by year in school;
if Kansas schools would stress this point there would be
a possibility of more even and uniform classes.
3.
Physical examinations should be required of every
'student enrolled in physical education; Kansas schools
should insist on this examination plan.
This examination
should include a diagnosis of the heart, lungs, vision,
hearing, teeth, nose and throat, nutrition, skin, feet,
spinal deviation,'general posture, height and weight;
by this examination the class in physical education v/ould
mean more to the student.
115
4.
All physical *examinations should be given by a
competent physician; physical education instructors
could assist with this examination*
5*
After physical examinations are given, the students
should be divided for the type of work or activity they
could handle, as' to their physical ability,,
6*
Corrective classes should never be in the same
play area as other physical education classes, because
of the embarrassment it causes the students;
Kansas
could well afford to separate these classes.
7*
Physical education instructors should have the
same academic requirements as other teachers.
8.
Physical education instructors should have at
least twenty quarter hours of work in the field of physi­
cal education; Kansas programs in physical education
could be raised to a higher standard if the instructors
had more technical knowledge. ■
9.
The teaching load of the physical education instrue
tor should not exceed five clock hours dai ly, unless he
is also coaching some athletic sport, for which he should
receive extra pay.
10.
The instructor should have one free hour daily
for conferences and consultation.
11*
-Physical education instructors should not teach
any academic subjects; inhere the school is small and the
116
physical education program is limited as to attendance,
exceptions should be made.
12.
The athletic coach and physical education in­
structor should be two different individuals unless the
school is small, in which case it is better that the
physical education instructor fill in with academic sub­
jects rather than have one man teach both boys and girls
in physical education.
13.
The senior high school instructor should not be
asked to supervise activities in the. lower grades, unless
the school is small.
14.
Credit should be given to physical education stu­
dents in order that they may appreciate the program more.
15.
Grades for physical education should be given out
at the same' time as academic grades.
16.
The school should have open house and demonstrate
to the public just what they are doing in physical educa­
tion 'classes .
It is the writer’s opinion that this is
one of the best ways to advertise the programs carried
on in these Kansas high schools.
17.
Health instruction should not be limited to physi­
cal education classes when advisable; many of these Kansas
high schools could easily arrange this in their classes.
18.
A shower bath should be the first requirement in
any physical education program.
117
19*
All schools should furnish towels for their stu­
dents if they are at all financially able.
20.
Separate classes should be held for handicapped
students where they may be given individual attention
without interference of other classes.
21.
The school being somewhat responsible for the
health of the student, should do everything possible to
have clean, healthful environment at all times in the
school program.
22.
Physical education classes should be taught at
least four periods weekly, with each period forty minutes
in length.
23.
Every student in school should be required to
take physical education four years out of the six years
in junior and senior high school.
24.
Ten minutes should be given to students in order
to dress for class and fifteen minutes be given to dress
after the gym classes.
25.
The size of the physical education classes should
not exceed forty in number;,many of our Kansas schools
could make this a requirement and they v/ould be more
efficient.
26.
Ho student should be excused from some activity
because of some ailment or possible handicap; Kansas
schools should stress this point much more, so anyone
118
in this condition would receive some benefit.
27.
Clerical work, dispensing of towels or checking
roll should never be substituted for any form of-physi­
cal training activity; Kansas schools should enforce
this rule for a better program.
28.
Where students in physical education and athletics
have to use the same locker, an•inexpensive wooden locker
could be made by the manual training department; so lock­
ers for each grotxp would be available.
29.
The inside play areas should not be less than
eighty by forty feet to accomodate no more than forty
students; for more efficient instruction, Kansas schools
should try to limit their number of students in inside
areas «
30.
The inside areas that are made up
of one long
room can accommodate the following activities very con­
veniently if they are alternated:
apparatus work, boxing,
fencing, gymnastics, rhythms, tumbling, and wrestling.
31.
Inside play areas should have a ceiling at least
sixteen feet high, ¥/ell ventilated, and properly lighted.
32.
Outside play areas should be large enough to
accommodate all students enrolled in physical education
classes.
33.
For more convenience, outside areas should be
adjacent to locker and dressing rooms.
119
34.
Where boys and girls use the same outside area,
the schedule for boys classes should be at a different
time■than classes for girls; Kansas schools could easily
adopt this plan if they would re-arrange their schedules*
35.
Secondary schools should have larger outside areas
than elementary schools, because of the highly organized'
play they have.
36.
Outside play areas should be sloped in order
that complete drainage is possible;
more landscaping
should be done on all of our Kansas playgrounds.
37.
Outside play areas should be fenced off from the
streets; if this point were stressed, the number of acci­
dents would be eliminated somewhat.
38.
Trees and shrubbery should be planted outside
play areas, making for more beauty and comfort.
39.
A separate room should be provided where minor
exercises could be given to handicapped students.
40.
Depending upon the program given by the school,
the equipment should measure up to that need.
41.
If any outdoor space is available at all the
following equipment can easily be supplied at a nominal
cost-- archery equipment, badminton equipment, horseshoe
equipment, tennis equipment.
42.
For the indoor equipment list the following can
be furnished without much cost -- card and checker game
120
equipment, darts and targets, deck tennis sets, ping pong
equipment, paddle tennis racquets and balls, and shuffle
board equipment*
43.
If the school wants to add more elaborate equip­
ment to what has already been mentioned, the following
could be purchased —
bowling equipment and golf clubs
and balls•
--
With all this equipment just listed, it would mean
that the school would have more or less an ideal set up with
regard to equipment.
Most of this equipment can easily be made by the school!s
manual training department, and in this way it would be pos­
sible for the students to have a more varied choice of activi­
ties .
Outside the school.
The nation is fortunate in the
number of great agencies outside the school supplying the boy
with wholesome leisure time activities.
The Boy Scouts of
America with its million boys; the National Recreation Asso­
ciation, the Order of De Molay, Knights of Columbus and Catho­
lic Boys Brigade, Young Menfs Christian Association, Young
Men!s Hebrew Association, and similar organizations serveseveral million'boys.
Their permanent facilities entail the
expenditure of scores of millions of dollars.
budgets total millions.
Their annual
A remarkable combination of business
121
management and philanthropic organization, they are a power­
ful ally of the school and the church working for the welfare
of youth*
For financial support they depend upon the genero­
sity and public spirit of private citizens.
They enlist the
volunteer efforts of thousands 'who give their time, a contri­
bution at least as valuable as money.
Strong financial sup­
port for the work of these agencies would make possible the
expansion of their efforts.
The ideal would be that they
reach every boy in the land.
But private philanthropy is no
excuse for governmental inaction.
The work of the 4 H clubs
in the rural districts is a significant illustration that the
government realizes this.
Likewise municipalities and other
governmental units are establishing departments of recreation
and skilled leadership.
Parks, and playgrounds are being
multiplied and progress is marching all along the line.
Hope­
ful advance is being made by southern communities in supply­
ing recreational facilities for the negro population.
It is
hoped that more will be done and also that effective efforts
will be made to afford better facilities for the children of
the foreign born in the great cities, giving them equal opr.
portunity and hastening their integration into the common
stream of American life.
Enduring progress must be based upon scientific
knowledge.
This means increasing research.
Therefore, we
*
appeal to the great private philanthropic foundations and
122
agencies, to the institutions of learning and to the depart­
ments of government to carry forward with redoubled zeal
existing and new projects of research which must be the only
sure guide to sound progress*
We are concerned with the dynamic health of the child*.
Surrounded by all the safeguards of medical care, administra.tion and health education, the call is for a program of action *
that will guide the child into the abundant physical life of
virility, courage, independence, self-reliance, initiative,
the spirit of cooperation, fairness, loyalty, modesty, cheer­
fulness, chivalry and good citizenship*
BIBLIOGRAPHY
BIBLIOGRAPHY
A.
BOOKS
American Child Health Association, A Health Survey of 86
Cities. New York: the Association^ 19 25•
A survey of health with conclusions and recommendations.
Bonser, F. G-., The Elementary School Curriculum. Hew York:
- Macmillan Co., TOYO.
Bovard, J. F. and F. W. Cezens, Tests and Measurements in
Physical Education. Philadelphia: W. B • 3aunders Co.,
1930.
Excellent for tests suggestions, procedures, and test for
physical education.
Bowen, Wilber P., The Conduct of Physical Activities in Ele­
mentary and High Schools. New York: A . H T Barnes and Co.,
T§&r.
Excellent for technique in handling physical education
activities.
Brace, D. K., Measuring Motor Ability.
and Co., 1926.
Hew York: A. S. Barnes
A system of measuring motor ability with full explanation
and justification.
Gampbell, Harry W., The Organization and Content of Hequired
Courses in Physical Education for Men in Junior Colleges.
Unpublished Masterfs thesis, University of Southern Cali­
fornia, Los Angeles, California, 1932.
Collings, Ellsworth, School Supervision in Theory and Practice. Hew York: Thomas ¥~. Crowell ’Co., 192V.
Cubberly, Edwood P., Public School Administration.
Houghton Mifflin Co., 192*9.
Hew York:
A fine text on the fundamental principles of public school
administration.
125
Dewey, John, Human Nature and Conduct.
1922.
New York: Holt Co.,
Dunn, William K., A Survey of Opinions of Administrators Conearning Physical Education in the ~Secondary~~SchooTH oT~
California. Hnpubfished Master rs thesis of Hhe Hhiversity
of Southern Oalifornia, Los Angeles, Oalifornia, 1935.
..Engelhard t, Ered, Public School Organization and Admlnistration. New York, 1928.
Deals largely-with principles of organization of school
districts.
G-ood, C. V., How to do Research in Education.
Warwich and fork: §inn and Co., 1931.
Baltimore, Md:
Gilkerson, Johnnye, Procedures in Physical Education for Women
in College. Uhpublished MasTer1 s thesis, HniversTty oT
Southern California, Los Angeles, California, 1929.
Griffith, Coleman R., Psychology of Coaching. New York:
Charles Scribner*s Sons, -L9<}6.
A very fine treatment of methods of teaching physical ac­
tivities and athletics.
Hetherington, Clark W., School Program in Physical Education.
New York: World Book, 1922.
h
'
1
Hoag, E. B. and L. M. Terman, Health Work in the Schools.
Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1914.
Hostetler, Lawrence W., A Critical Survey of Physical Education
in the Secondary Schools of Oregon. Unpublished Master *s
tHesTs of ‘the University oF Southern California, Los
Angeles, California, 1935.
Johnson, franklin W., The Administration and Supervision of
the High School. New "fork: Ginn and Co. ,'1925.
Educational administration and supervision of the high
school.
McClemny, George L., Handbook on Organization and Practices
for Secondary Schools of Hansas, 1931H
126
McKenzie, R. Tait, Exercise in Education and Medicine. Phila­
delphia: W. B. Saunders Bo., 1915.
Mitchell, E. D., Intramural Athletics.
and Go., 1925.
New York: A. B. Barnes
Myers, Dorice Mirick, The Administrative, and Supervisory Duties
of ,Beads of Departments of Physical Education for HigE
"
"school Gir 1s. Unpublished Master1s thesis, University of
Southern Gal if ornia, 1928.
Nash, J. B., Administration of Physical Education. Hew York:
A. S. Barnes and Co., 1931.
National Education Association, Sixth Yearbook, Department of
Superintendents, the Association, 1928.
A report of a committee which included C. H. Keene, P. W.
Maroney, J* B. Nash, and. Carl T. Schroder, on recommenda­
tions for physical education and health. ^rery concise
and valuable for physical education worker.
Rapeer, Louis W., uMinimal Essentials of Physical Education.11
Sixteenth Yearbook of the National Society for the Study
of Education. Bloomingt on~ 11lino is: Public School
Printing Co., *1917.
Reeder, Ward G-., H oy / to ?/rite a Thesis.
Public School ’PubTTshing Co., 1925.
Bloomington, Illinois:
Reisner, E. H., Physical Education in Our Changing Philosophy
of Life. Emporia, Kansas, Emporia Teachers College Press,
March, 1924.
Requirements for Certification of Teachers, Supervisors and
Superintendents. Salt Lake City• State Department oY
Public Instruetion, 1928.
■Rogers, P. R., Physical Capacity Tests for the Administration
of Physical Educatiorn New York: Teachers College,
1
Columbia University, 1925•
Score Card for Evaluating Physical Education Programs for High
.School Bojs . - s&cramentoj California: State Department of
Education, Division of Health and Physical Education,
Bulletin No. 36, 1931.
Very practical score card for high school instructors.
127
School Laws* Bulletin Published by Department of Public
Instruction* Salt Lake City, Utah, 1931.
Reprint of school lav/s*
State Program of Instruction and Courses of Study in Health
and Physical Education* Salt Lake City, Utah:■ State
Department of Public Instruction, 1931.
An up to date program of instruction and course study.
Stecher, William-A., Education Gymnastics for Junior High
Schools. Philadelphia: McVey Co., lUlBI
Swenson, Reed K., A Survey of the Organization and Admini­
stration of Physical Education for Boys in' the' High
Schools of Utah J Unpublished MasterTs the sTs, Uni versity
of SouthernCalifornia, Los Angeles, California, 1935.
Wayman, A. R., Education through Physical Education. Phila­
delphia; Lea and Pebiger, 1^25.
Very fine for girls.1 physical education instructors with
a great deal of material applicable to boys* physical
education instruction.
Williams, J* P. and W. L* Houghes, Athletics in Education.
Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Co., 1930•
Ifilliams, J. F'. and C. L. Brownell, Health and Physical Bducation for Public School Administrators. New York;
Teachers College, Columbia University, 1931.
Williams, J. F., Principles of Physical Education. Philadel­
phia; W, b . Saunders Go., 193’
0.
Williams, J. F*, Organization and Administration of Physical
Education ’New York: Macmi11an Co., 19221 “
Wood, T. D. and G. H. Rowell, Health Supervision and Medical
Inspection of Schools. PhiladelphTa WI W. Sauhd’er s
Co., 1927.
~
B.
PERIODICAL ARTICLES
A Health Survey of 86 Cities. New York: Research Division,
American Child Health Association, 1925.
One of the best analysis of activities.
128
Baltimore School Survey, Vol. 2, 1921, pp. 259-262.
Brownell, Clifford Lee, "Standards in School Health and Physi­
cal Education,” Journal of Health and Physical Education,
II (March, 1951),p. 587
Farber, I. D.,"Planning an Intramural Program,” Athletic
Journal, XX, June 1940, p. 11.
Frederick, Orvie S. and P. Roy Brammell, "The National
Survey of Secondary Education.” The Journal of Health
and Physical Education, IV, September 1933, pp.* 2-7.
House, H. H., "An Interpretation of Play Through Intramural
Sports.” Journal of Health and Physical Education,
September,” l93l•
Kansas High School Activities Journal, Topeka, Kansas, Sep­
tember 1940, p. 9.
Kansas High School Activities Journal, Topeka, Kansas, January "i9'4l , p . 17.
Kansas State High School Activities Association, Constitution
Rules and %-Jaws, Published by the Board of Control, l94"0•
La Porte, W. R., "The Changing Conception of College Physical
Education,” American Physical Education Association
Research Quarterly, 11, March 1931, p. 5.
La Porte, W. R. and C. L. Brownell, "Report of the Committee
on Curriculum Research,” American Physical Education
Association Research Quarterly, IV, March, 1933, pp. 145xer:
Neilson, N. P., "A Curriculum for Professional Preparation of
Physical Education Teachers for Secondary Schools,”
American Physical Education Association Research Quarterly,
II, March, 1931, pp. 223-226. ~~ ~
Posse, Baron N., "How Physical Training Affects the Welfare
of the Nation.” American Physical Education Review,
October, 1910, p . 494.
"Report of the Committee on High School Administrative Stan­
dards for the Department of Physical Educations” Ameri­
can Physical Education Association Research Quarterly,
III, May, 193FT‘pp. 126*^1291
129
Report of the Committee on Professional .Objectives, 11Ten
Cardinal Points in the Platform of Health and Physical '
Education.11 Journal of Health and Physical Education,
I, February, 1931, p. 19..
Rogers, James E., 11State Health and Physical Education.11
Journal of Health and Physical Education, II, June, 1930,'
p. 25.
lrThe Seven Cardinal Principles and Physical Education.11 Jour­
nal of Health and Physical Education, II, January, 1931,
pp• 19, 53•
Relation of Physical Education to the seven cardinal
principles of education.
*
Sharman, J. R., "Standards in the Administration of a State
Department of Physical Education." Journal of Health
and Physical Education, I, June, 1930, pp. 25-27, .30-9.
APPENDIX
SAMPLE OF TEE LETTER THAT ACCOMPANIED TEE QUESTIONNAIRE
Dodge City, Kansas
October 1, 1940
Supt. John Doe
City, State
Dear Mr. Doe:
I am making a survey of the schools of western Kansas
in regard to boys1 physical education. I will appreciate
it very much if you will fill in, or have your director
of physical education fill In, the enclosed questionnaire,
and return it to me at your earliest convenience.
Cordially yours,
R, L. Ward
RLW/zls
132
DEFINITIONS OF FIRST AND SECOND CLASS CITIES
March 19, 1941
Mr. R. L# Ward
1205 Avenue C
Dodge City, Kansas
In re: First and second class
cities; definitions of.
Dear Mr. Ward:
In answer to your letter of March 18th and the subject
inquiry contained therein, I quote G. S. 1935, Sections 13101 and 14-101.
Section 13-101, titled "What cities in first class;
proclamation,” provides:
‘’Whenever it shall have been duly ascertained by any
census or enumeration taken under any law of the United States
or of the state of Kansas or hj any city that any city has
attained a population of over fifteen thousand inhabitants,
such fact shall there-upon by the governing body of such city,
be certified to th© governor of the state, who shall there­
upon by public proclamation declare such city to be, and the
same shall thereupon become, a city of the first class.”
Section 14-101, tilled ".Population required for secondclass city; proclamation, provides:
"All cities now organized and acting as cities of the
second class by virtue of the authority of former acts, and
all cities hereafter.attaining a population of over two thou­
sand and not exceeding fifteen thousand inhabitants, shall be
governed by the provisions of this act; and whenever any city
shall have hereafter attained a population exceeding two
thousand inhabitants, and such facts shall have been duly
ascertained and certified by the proper authorities of such'
.city to the governor, he shall declare, by public proclamation,
such city subject to the provisions of this act* * *"
I trust that this fully answers your Inquiry.
Very truly yours,
P/rw
Jay S. Parker
Attorney General
133
QUESTIONNAIRE
For High School Boys
Name of school • • • • • • • . • • • ...........
Date • • • .. . . . . . . •
_____......
'. . . •____________
Boys in Junior High School •
.____________
Do you have a Director of Physical Education?. .
Scholastic t r a i n i n g .......... ............... ............
University a t t e n d e d ..........................
____
Scholastic training of other P. E. instructors •____________
Membership in professional organizations (list)._____ _ _ _ _
Number of Instructors that have a major in P . E . . __________
Number of Instructors that have a minor in P.E..____________
Teaching load of P.E. instructors (mins. per day)
______
Do you follow the state requirement for teaching
p.E. ? ............ .........................
Do you have medical examinations?
............ ...... ......
Do you have physical examinations?........ ..
Medical-for special students.............
______ _
. ._______
No e x a m i n a t i o n s _______________________
-_
Frequency of examinations
.. _______ _
Number of boys e x a m i n e d ...................... ..
..
Do you have medical examinations for each
season’s sport? • • ....................
Type of Course of Study
_____.
Please check
Definite plan, not w r i t t e n ..............
.
_______
Written by P. E.' instructor................
State course of s t u d y ......... . . . . . .
Ho definite plan
........ .............. .
Person who decides content of
Course of Study for School
Physical Education Instructor
............
Supt. and P. E. Instructor
. .
Supt, Principal, and P. E. Instructor
. . .
Principal and P. E. Instructor ............
All P. E. Instructors of School
..........
Years Physical Education Is Required
Elective ....................
Humber of years
............
..........................
Athletics only ............................
Length of Class Periods in P. E ............
Days per week
............................
Number of classes
........................
Number in classes (average)
..............
How financed
Physical Education ............
Intramurals
..........
• • . ........................ *'
Interscholastic
..........
..............
Who handles high school funds? ..................
Do students help handle funds?............ . . . .
135
Expenditures and Receipts
Spent • ............ ..
Received . . ............
Basketball Spent . . . . ............
Received ................
Baseball
Spent . . • • . . . . ....
Received
........ ..
Track
Spent
.......... .
Received ................
Football
Please answer by Check or Number
'Taught in P.E . class<<S
In intramurals
Time devoted to eacl
interscholastic game s
No. in Jr. Hi
Interscholastic gam* IS
No • in Sr. Hi
No. boys taking
part
Medical examinations 1
Physical examina­
tions
Self supporting
Money losers
of boys in Im.
Taking part in Is.
Li
o
o
cd
£
o
apparatus .
O
•H
-P
m
nO
5h
cd
o 03
P CoD
CD p
rH CO
H CD
H 03
£ u
P o
tn w
Softball
CD
Archery
Hygiene
[Dancing
cd W
P £
i>*•rl
CD
Loi
£ u —i £
cd £ r-j H
U CD O
Kft
H EH C3
GO
03
Handball
i
—f
H
Baseball
r—I
iH
i—j cd
i— iP
a •p
p CD
-p Li
o m
o Cd
Pn P
[Heavy
... T
(List any other)
Name of person making report
Address of person making report
o >H
l
“3 O
!>*
P<
0
p
CQ
•H
Pi
©
s
0
TO
;f£3
©
3
P
CO
O
Height
Spine
Urine
Personal
-P £
£ O
>rl P*
history
5
Included in
medical examination
Included in
physical
examination
CQ
Hemoglohin
| Kidneys
| Reflexes
Eh
©
o
bl)
•H CQ
©
!21
0
•H
40
©
;
©
©
-p
I Throat
I Glands
-p
1 Lungs
Blood pressure
GJ
w
Heart
Eyes
CQ
xi
Pi
b
rS
i>i
rH
•H
§
Ph
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