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Deficiencies found in elementary urban Negro schools of the South with a suggested program for their elimination

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DEFICIENCIES FOUND IN ELEMENTARY URBAN NEGRO
SCHOOLS OF THE SOUTH WITH A SUGGESTED
PROGRAM FOR THEIR ELIMINATION
A Thesis
Presented to
the Faculty of the School of Education
University of Southern California
In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Master of Science in Education
by
Olalee McCall
August 1941
UMI Number: EP54254
All rights reserved
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UMI EP54254
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789 East Eisenhower Parkway
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c/
T h is thesis, w r it t e n u n d e r the d ir e c t io n o f
C h a ir m a n o f the ca n d id a te 1s G u id a n c e C o m m itte e
a n d a p p r o v e d by a l l m em bers o f the C o m m itte e ,
has been p resen ted to a n d accep ted by the F a c u lt y
o f the S c h o o l o f E d u c a t io n o f T h e U n iv e r s it y o f
S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f the
re q u ire m e n ts f o r the degree o f M a s t e r o f Science
in E d u c a tio n .
1941.....
Dean
Guidance Committee
Irving R. Mel 1)0
Chairman
Louis P. Thorpe
0. E. Hull
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I.
PAGE
I NTRODUCTION...............................
The problem
.......................
1
Statement of the p r o b l e m ................
1
Importance of the study
2
................
Limitations of the study
Definitions of terms used
4
................
4
. .
......................
4
Method of procedure
......................
5
Deficiencies
Source of d a t a .........................
5
.....................
6
The questionnaire
Organization of the study
II.
RELATED INVESTIGATIONS
Local surveys
................
.....
............
.........
Other studies
. .
...........................
Summary
6
8
8
Studies of achievement and intelligence
III.
1
..........
13
16
17
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF NEGRO EDUCATION
...
19
..........
19
Education after the Civil W a r ..............
20
Education before the Civil War
The Freedmen's Bureau
Industrial education
Philanthropy
.........
. Y. Y Y
' '22
.....................
23
.............................
24
iii
CHAPTER
PAGE
The' Interracial Commission
IV.
. . . ............
28
The effect of the d e p r e s s i o n ................
29
Summary
33
............... . . . .
.
THE EFFECT OF DEFICIENCIES UPON THE EDUCATIONAL
ACHIEVEMENT OF THE NEGRO
36
Dual school s y s t e m .........................
3?
School statistics for 1930
37
National Advisory Committee on Education
. .
................
National Education Survey
School statistics, 1935-1936
43
44
45
Negro intelligence and educability
..........
45
Findings of the psychologists..............
45
Environmental factors in Negro education
...
54
.......................
54
Effect of limited educational
opportunities
Superiority of northern Negroes
..........
56
Ability and willingness of the South to
educate the N e g r o .........................
58
Ability to educate
58
..............
. ....
Willingness to e d u c a t e ............. . . . .
---------Need, to ..educ.ate_Negroes
Trends in Negro education
. ...
. .
. .
59
62
................
64
Bases for educational p l a n n i n g ............
65
Summary
67
.
.........
iv
CHAPTER
V.
PAGE
ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION..............
Gathering the d a t a ...................
Compulsory attendance laws
The attendance officer
VI.
. .
72
..........
72
....................
78
School opportunities................. . .
79
Summary...................................
81
PERSONNEL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION
...
83
Selection of school employees ..............
83
Teachers1 salaries
.......................
84
Community leaders
. .....................
93
Professional training
VII.
70
. . . ,............
Cumulative pupil records
70
....
............
93
Supervision...............................
97
Summary
98
.....................
THE INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM
.................
101
Local environment and local n e e d s ..........
101
Studying the curriculum....................
101
Projects and excursions
112
..................
Correlation and integration
..............
113
Health p r o g r a m ...........................
114
Safety instruction
114
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Visual aids and radio
....................
114
Remedial work and g u i d a n c e ................
115
Pupil achievement.........................
116
CHAPTER
PAGE
S u m m a r y .........
116
VIII. SPECIAL SERVICES FOR PUPILS
'..................
School doctors and nurses
. .
............
120
120
C a f e t e r i a .................................
126
.........................
127
.............................
127
IX. HOUSING AND E Q U I P M E N T ........................
130
Special guidance
Summary
B u i l d i n g s ...........
Equipment and supplies
130
....................
Books and reference material
............
S u m m a r y ...................................
X. PUBLIC RELATIONS
....................
Parent-teacher association
Home visits
................
.............
131
138
139
142
142
148
American Education W e e k ...............
14-8
S u m m a r y ...................
148
XI. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS AND C O N C L U S I O N S ..........
151
Summary of f i n d i n g s .......................
151
C o n c l u s i o n s ...............................
156
BIBLIOGRAPHY
.
.....................................
APPENDIX
......................
Letter to principals
Questionnaire
160
...............................
171
........................
List of schools returning questionnaire
...........
175
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE
PAGE
I. Per Capita Expenditure for Education of Negro
Children in the Southern States
.'.........
39
II. Percentages of Children 5 to 17 Years of Age
Inclusive, Attending School in 18 States by
Type of Community and by R a c e ..............
41
III. Distribution of Public School Enrollment by
Grades 1935-36; Total, White and Negro in 18
Separate School Systems
.
................
46
IV. Conclusions of Twelve Reviewers of the Litera­
ture of the Intelligence Test Performance of
Negroes and W h i t e s .........................
50
V. Ability to E d u c a t e ............................
VI.
Effort or Willingness to E d u c a t e ............
.
VII. Effort or l¥illingness to E du c a t e ..............
60
61
63
VIII. Organization and
Administration in Alabama . . .
73
IX. Organization and
Administration in Florida . . .
74
X. Organization and
Administration in Georgia . . .
75
Administration in Louisiana . .
76
Administration in Texas . . . .
77
Summary of Organization and Administration . . .
82
XI. Organization and
XII.
XIII.
XIV.
Organization and
Personnel Administration and Supervision
in Alabama
...............................
85
vii
TABLE
XV.
PAGE
Personnel Administration and Supervision
in Florida
XVI.
.........................
. .
Personnel Administration and Supervision
87
in Georgia............................
XVII.
Personnel Administration and Supervision
in Louisiana..........................
XVIII.
88
Personnel Administration and Supervision
in Texas
XIX.
.........................
89
Distribution of Average Salaries Paid Urban
and Rural Public SchoolTeachers. . . . . .
XX.
92
Per Cent of Negro Apportionment Used for
Teachers1 Salaries in 35 EastTexas
XXI.
86
Cities .
94
Number and Levels of Training of Present
Teaching Force, 1930 .........
95
XXII. Summary of Personnel Administration and
Supervision
99
XXIII*
The Instructional Program in Alabama ........
102
XXIV.
The Instructional Program in Florid a........
104
XXV.
The Instructional Program in Georgia........
106
XXVI.
The Instructional Program in Louisiana . . . .
108
-XXVII.
The Instructional Program in T e x a s ..........
110'
XXVIII.
Summary of the Instructional P rogram..
118
XXIX.
Special Services for Pupils in Alabama
....
121
XXX.
Special Services for Pupils in Florida
....
122
viii
TABLE
PAGE
XXXI. Speeial Services for
Pupils in Georgia
XXXII.
Special Services for
Pupils in Louisiana
XXXIII.
Special Services for
Pupils in Texas
XXXIV.
. .
.
123
.
.
124
....
Summary of Special Servicesfor Pupils
.
.
XXXV.
Housing and
Equipment in A l a b a m a ....
XXXYI.
Housing and
Equipment in Florida. . . . . .
XXXVII.
Housing and
Equipment in G e o r g i a ....
XXXVIII.
Housing and
Equipment in Louisiana
'XXXIX.
125
.
128
132
133
134
.....
Housing and Equipment in T e x a s ......... . .
135
136
XL. Expenditures for Teaching Equipment in
Nine Southern States, 1928
XLI.
137
Summary of Housing and Equipment. . . . . .
140
XLII.
Public Relations
in Alabama ................
143
XLIII.
Public Relations
in Florida ................
144
XLIV.
Public Relations
in Georgia ................
145
XLV.
Public Relations
in Louisiana .
146
XLST.
Public Relations
in T e x a s .........
XLVII.
..........
Summary of Public Relations................
147
149
LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE
1.
PAGE
The Southern Education Board and the Agencies
Growing out of it or Collateral with
2.Average
3.
it . . . .
Yearly Expenditure per P u p i l ............
27
42
Trends in the Average Annual Teachers1 Salaries
in 13 Southern States by Race, 1900-1930 . . . .
86
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION '
Little or no consideration was given to the education
of the Negroes during the early history of the United States,
but with the enforcement of the Emancipation Proclamation,
the illiteracy of the freedmen became a serious problem.
Although the need for educational opportunities for the
Negroes was generally recognized, adequate schooling was sel­
dom provided for them.
In the southern states the Negroes
were required to attend separate schools from the whites,
where the educational standards were considerably lower.
In
recent years, however, throughout the South a more friendly
interest in the education of the Negro has been noticeable,
and although much has been accomplished, the conditions under
which Negro children are taught leave much to be desired.
I.
THE PROBLEM
Statement of the problem.
It was the purpose of this
study to make a survey of the deficiencies found in the ele­
mentary urban schools in.the South, particularly in the
states of Texas, Louisiana, Florida, Mississippi, Georgia,
and Alabama.
The phases of education considered were: the
types of school buildings and the equipment provided; teacher
training, supervision, salaries, and assignment; library
facilities and visual aids; and auxiliary and special ser­
vices rendered.
Finally, a program for the elimination of
these deficiencies was suggested.
Importance of the study.
The question of education
for Negro children has not only been uppermost in the minds
of the Negro race since the close of the Civil War, but has
been considered of importance by the white race as well.
In
an address before the Fourth Annual Educational Conference
for Negroes, T. 0. Watson of Texas stated that all must dis­
charge their duties in the education of boys and girls.
As the teachers of the last generation were, so
shall the men and women of tomorrow be. If we ean• not hold up a standard of training for our boys and
girls, based upon an ethical foundation, we are not
worth our keep. As a teacher and as an administra­
tor, I am almost convinced that if we do not train
men and women properly for constructive living, if
we do not train a generation of men and women pro­
perly capable of unselfish and patriotic leadership,
which is necessary for the growth of a great nation
and state, then we have failed miserably in the dis­
charge of our sacred duty.I
It is then, the obligation of the Negro teachers to employ
every available means offered in the community and, with the
aid of the school patrons, to train the Negro youth how to
live most and serve best.
^ T. 0. Watson, Proceedings of the Fourth Educational
Conference for Negroes (Prairie View, Texas: Prairie View
State College, WSS'J',' XXVI, 77.
3
During the past ten years there have been numerous
economic and social changes, yet among the many agencies
contributing to the welfare of the people, the school still
stands out as the main institution for training youth, so
that they may be qualified to cope with life’s problems.
It is the conviction of the writer of this study that
the elementary school teachers should hold their obligation
very sacred, indeed, and should put forth every effort to
train desirable American Negro citizens.
In addition, the
administrative officers who preside over these schools should
be sincere in considering the best interests of their pupils,
teachers, and school communities.
It is the hope that-this survey of the deficiencies
existing in the elementary Negro schools will prove of value
to administrators, teachers, parents, and friends of the
Negro youth, and that the suggested program for their elimin­
ation will make a small contribution toward improving the
educational opportunities of Negro children.
The study will attempt to show that if the future
Negro citizen is to measure up to the standards of citizen­
ship expected of him by his group, his state, and country,
the present status of hio educational opportunities must be
enlarged and improved in accordance with those offered to
other citizens of these United States.
Limitations of the study*
Because of the widely di­
vergent conditions under which Negro children are taught in
the South, this study did not purport to be either comprehen­
sive or exhaustive.
Rather was it confined to a close scru­
tiny of the conditions prevalent in the states of Texas,
Georgia, Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Florida.
The
survey was then further limited to the elementary and urban
Negro schools, in order not to attempt to cover too large a
territory.
No cognizance was given in this study to the ethical
principles involved in providing suitable educational oppor­
tunities for all children.
Neither is this study to be con­
sidered in any sense a solution of the problem of Negro edu­
cation.
On the other hand, the writer hoped that by present­
ing a clear conception of the many important deficiencies in
Negro education, the first step would be taken necessary for
the formulation of plans for betterment and progress.
II.
Deficiencies.
DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED
The term deficiency refers to a state of
being incomplete, insufficient, lacking, inadequate, scanty,
or defective with an implied sense of failure.
Educational
deficiencies, then, would be those factors in a school system
which rendered it ineffective in achieving the best results.
In this study environmental factors, such as social and
economic status or community organization, will not be con­
sidered.
The term deficiencies will be understood to mean
the inadequacy of such tangible school factors as buildings,
equipment, teachers and supervisors— their qualities and
conditions which prevent the best interests of the pupils
from being satisfied.
Other limitations of meaning are: (l) elementary, re­
ferring to the first eight primary grades;
(Z)
urban, refer­
ring to city schools where there are at least four teachers;
(3) Negro schools, designating those schools for Negroes
only; and (4) the South, including only the states of Texas,
Mississippi, Louisiana, Florida, Alabama, and Georgia.
III.
Source of data.
METHOD OF PROCEDURE
In order to present a true picture of
the status of Negro education in the South, considerable
library research was necessary.
Some of the documents con­
sulted were: bulletins of the United States Bureau of Educa­
tion; reports of the State Department of Education in Texas,
Louisiana, Florida, Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi; re­
ports of special funds and foundations; surveys made by state
schools and other institutions; unpublished Master's theses;
together with periodical literature and books on the subject.
The findings of the Special Supervisor of Negro Education for
the State Department will also be available.
The questionnaire. An inquiry blank was prepared and
presented for approval to-a Jury of a state superintendent of
schools, an assistant superintendent of schools, and an asso­
ciate professor of education.
It was then sent to several
educators’in each of the six states included in the study,"the
questions having been formulated as a simple check list.
The
questions were based upon the following topics: school build­
ings and equipment; teacher training, supervision, salaries,
and assignment; library facilities and visual aids; and
auxiliary and special services rendered.
The returns from the
questionnaire were then tabulated statistically and the re­
sults carefully analyzed.
IV.
ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This chapter has attempted to present the problem to be
studied and to show the importance and need of this investiga­
tion.
Chapter II summarizes briefly the numerous related in­
vestigations, in order to orient the reader with previous
studies made in the field under consideration.
Then follows
a brief historical sketch in Chapter III of the education of
the Negro, to give a background to the investigation.
The ef­
fect of deficiencies upon the educational achievement of Negro
pupils is traced in Chapter IV.
The next six chapters deal with the deficiencies in the
six states being studied.
The plan of discussion for each
7
chapter is to present facts about the deficiency being dis­
cussed, which were gathered from other sources, together with
those facts gleaned from the questionnaire, the latter being
tabulated according to states.
Chapter V will present de­
ficiencies about organization and administration; Chapter VI,
personnel administration and supervision; Chapter VII, the
instructional program; Chapter VIII, special services for
pupils; Chapter IX, housing and equipment; and Chapter X,
public relations.
A summary of the study will be given in Chapter XI,
and also the findings of the questionnaire, as well as a pro­
gram of elimination of the deficiencies found in the Negro
schools of the South.
Finally, there will be a bibliography
of the references consulted and an appendix containing a copy
of the questionnaire and the letter accompanying it, together
with a list of the schools returning the questionnaire.
CHAPTER II
RELATED INVESTIGATIONS
Since the status of education in the South has re­
cently attracted the interest .of many progressive educators,
a variety of surveys have been made and results published,
relative to the educational opportunities for the white and
Negro populations.
Some of these surveys are pertinent to
this study and present a picture of Negro education in
southern localities, yet because none of them are directly
related to the problem at hand, they will be but briefly
summarized.
I.
LOCAL SURVEYS
A survey of the public school system of Atlanta,
Georgia, by Strayer and Engelhardtl showed that the Negro
schools in no sense conformed to standards of modern school
housing, since no plan for adequate housing had ever existed
there.
The study of Du Bois2 concerning the Negro common
1 George D. Strayer and N. L. Engelhardt, Report of
the Survey of the Public School System of Atlanta, Georgia
l9"£l-22 "(Institute' o’f Educational Research, Teachers College
Columbia University, New York, 1923), two volumes.
2 W. E. Burghardt Du Bois, "The Negro Common School in
Georgia," The Crisis, 53:248-64, September, 1926.
school of Georgia was based upon state and city school re­
ports, which indicated the inequalities of school expendi­
tures and the resultant inefficiency of the Negro schools.
Frank S. Horne^ investigated the present status of Negro ed­
ucation in some of the southern states, particularly Georgia.
His was an exhaustive study of the effect of tradition, in­
competence, and economic conditions upon the educational
provision for Negro children.
He stressed the necessity of
offering Negro children of the South equal educative oppor­
tunities and facilities, in order that they might become
national assets instead of possible liabilities.
In his study of Negro education, Horne pointed out
several tendencies, among them:
1.
There is a growing sentiment to consider Negro
education as an investment in the future.
2.
The Negro is not getting a square deal in educa­
tional expenditures, as the proportionate expenditure for
white and colored schools has not materially altered in
twenty years.
3.
There is a gradual change for the better in the
southern attitude toward Negro educability and mental
® Frank S. Horne, T,The Present Status of Negro Educa­
tion in Certain of the Southern States, Particularly Georgia,”
(unpublished Master’s thesis, University of Southern Califor­
nia, los Angeles, 1932), 231 pp.
10
endowment,
4.
There is a marked decrease in Negro illiteracy,
when he has access to adequate educational opportunities.
5.
There is a growing federal interest in the problem
of Negro education.
6.
The Special Agent for Negro schools in the south­
ern states is beneficial to the progress of Negro education.
7.
There is a tendency to adjust, the curriculum to
fit the needs of Negro pupils.
8.
An effort is being made to maintain an adequate
and efficient Negro teaching force.
‘Two local surveys have been made in Texas.
In the
earlier one about the entire school system of Galveston, the
University of Texas^ found that, on the whole, the Negroes
seemed to enjoy the same opportunities as the whites.
In the
later survey of Wood County, Laura B* SmithS rated the Negro
schools, most of them rural, according to the official score
card for standardizing Texas schools, and found all of them
unable to meet the standards.
However, she rated the work
being done by these schools fairly good, considering the
4 University of Texas, Bulletin, University of Texas,
August 8, 1926.
^ Laura B. Smith, HA Survey of Negro Schools in Wood
County, Texas,” (unpublished MasterTs thesis, University of
Southern California, Los Angeles, 1936), 112 pp.
11
conditions under which the teachers had to work,
A more extensive survey embracing the entire state of
Texas, as to the present status of secondary education for
Negroes, was conducted by Lane.6
He found that the education
of the Negro throughout the South has always followed the
same trend as that of the whites, but on a lower, plane.
Al­
though Texas is one of the most progressive southern states
in Negro education, a large proportion of the Negro pupils
who do not live in cities are pitifully neglected.
A study somewhat related to the present one dealt
with the Negro elementary schools in Texas.
Pauline Watkins7
centered her endeavor mainly in the rural Negro schools of
eastern Texas, where in the great majority of cases the ex­
penditures for salaries of principals and teachers consti­
tuted practically all of the expenditures for the education
of Negro children.
Using the same section of Texas as a basis for study,
another investigation was made of the present status of Negro
a
Harry B. Lane, "The Present Status of Secondary
Education for Negroes in Texas," (unpublished Master's thesis,
University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1932), 95 pp.
7 Pauline M. Watkins, "An Investigation of Negro Ele­
mentary Schools in the State of Texas," (unpublished Master's
thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1937),
132 pp.
12
education.
William R. Davis8 began with the type of educa­
tion received by the Negro during the period of slavery.and
traced 'the development of a state school system which finally
included the Negro in its program, giving particular atten­
tion to factors, which retarded or prevented further progress
in Negro education in this section of Texas.
His study
showed that the progress of Negro education has been exceed­
ingly slow throughout the entire period of Texas educational
history; and that there have existed down to the present time
many conditions which have been adverse to further develop­
ment of Negro schools.
The Texas system has been a dual one
in name only, because it is essentially a white system with
Negro education incidental to it.
In reporting on an investigation made by the Texas
Educational Survey Commission of Austin, Texas, George A.
Q
Works* enumerated some of the gains and desirable changes in
Texas Negro school facilities, recommending adjustments and
better teacher-training opportunities.
The United States
Bureau of Education^ early made a comprehensive study of
8 William R. Davis, The Development and Present Status
Negro Education in East Texas (Teachers College Contribu­
tions to Education No. 626, New York: Teachers College, Colum­
bia University, 1934), 150 pp.
9 George A. Works, Texas Educational Survey Report
(Austin: Texas Educational Survey Commission, 1925), pp. 217-'
226.
10 "An Educational Study of Alabama,” United States
Bureau of Education Bulletin No. 41, 1919.
13
education of both white and Negro children in Alabama.
Most
of the statistics dealt with the rural schools and the find­
ings revealed that much prejudice still lingers against the
education of the Negro.
A local survey in Caddo Parish,11 a
county of Louisiana, was conducted to improve the standards
of its school system.
Comparisons between the housing and
supervision of white and Negro children resulted in the recom­
mendation that if colored schools are worth having, they are
worth supervising.
II.
STUDIES OE ACHIEVEMENT AND INTELLIGENCE
In comparing the intelligence of Mexican and Negro
children, Randals1^ indicated that the education of the Negro
is a true American problem.
Smith
13
reviewed standard stud­
ies of Negro intelligence in the light of factors tending to
impede the development of Negro students.
A study of gifted
Negro children in the Los Angeles city schools found them
11
"'Survey of Caddo Parish, Louisiana," Louisiana
State Department of Education Bulletin, April, 1922.
^ E. H. Kandals, "A Comparative Study of the Intelli­
gence of Mexican and Negro Children," (unpublished'Master *s
thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1929),
65 pp.
13
A. I. Smith, "A Critique of Some Negro Intelligence
Test Results," (Unpublished Master’s thesis, University of
Southern California, Los Angeles, 1928), 86 pp.
14superior in special abilities, such as music and art.
A plea
was voiced by W h i t a k e r ^ that gifted Negro children be given
those advantages which are most conducive to calling into
play their best qualities.
An early study of the achievement of Negro and white
pupils in the tenth grades of New Orleans was made by Reitnover,*^5 in which he showed distinct retardation in reading
ability and vocabulary on the part of the Negro children.
In comparing the achievements of the two races in a southern
school system, Hewitt^® emphasized the contributing factors
which lowered the rating of the Negro pupils.
Willis,in
his comparative study of the reading achievements of white
and Negro children in the seventh grades of the Nashville
city schools, found that: chronologically the Negro children
were older than the white children; that the Negro children
14
Hazel C. Whitaker, "A Study of Gifted Negro Chil­
dren in the Los Angeles City Schools,” (unpublished Masterfs
thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles,1931),
8 6 pp.
15
M. G. Reitnover, "A Comparative Study of Achieve­
ments of New Orleans Tenth Grade Negroes,” (unpublished Mas­
ter’s thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles,
1928), 100 pp.
A. Hewitt, ”A Comparative Study of White and Col­
ored Pupils in a Southern System,” Elementary School Journal,
31:111-119, October, 1930.
17
Larry J. Willis, An Abstract of a Comparative Study
of the Reading Achievements of White and Negro Children
TNashville: Greorge Peabody College for Teachers, 1939), 6 pp.
^
15
had a lower mean intelligence quotient than the white chil­
dren; and that the reading environment of the white children
was superior to that of the Negro children in certain re­
spects.
Foreman-*-8 attempted to disprove the assertion made by
many psychologists that the Negroes of the United States are
innately inferior to the white people in general intelli­
gence.
He studied the problem from its environmental aspect,
dividing the factors into two groups: (a) school factors,
such as the superintendent, supervisors, length of term,
text-books, teachers, and schoolhouses; and (b) non-school
factors, such as social and economic status, community organ­
ization and health.
His results were based upon the scores
of the Stanford Achievement tests given to over ten thousand
elementary Negro pupils in sixteen southern counties.
Con­
sistently, the educational achievement of the pupils in urban
schools surpassed that of those in the same grade in rural
ones, showing the effect of environmental factors, such as
the school community upon educational achievement.
18
Glark Foreman, Environmenta1 Factors in Negro Ele­
mentary Education, published for the Julius Rosenwald Fund,
Chicago (New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 1932), 88 pp.
16
III.
OTHER STUDIES
Investigations on the secondary level were made by
Boone^ and Owens.2^
The former put forth a plea for the
higher education of the Negroes; the latter emphasized the
limitations of the Negro colleges, due to their lowered en­
trance requirements.
Bower2! evaluated the contribution of
Booker T. Washington, a pioneer leader in the field of indus­
trial education.
Richards22 analyzed sociological literature
for adverse criticism of the Negro’s position in American
schools.
A study by Peterson23 dealt with the effect of race
prejudice as the greatest obstacle to a fair educational
deal for the American Negro.
In discussing the status of
F. T. Boone., "Higher Education for the Negro," {un­
published Master’s thesis, University of Southern California,
Los Angeles, 1925), 92 pp.
^ C. C. Owens, "A Study of Church Schools for Negroes
to Determine Their Usefulness in Negro Education," (unpub­
lished Master’s thesis, University of Southern California,
Los Angeles, 1933), 79 pp.
21
M. E. Bower, "The Contributions of Booker T. Wash­
ington to Education," (unpublished Master’s thesis, University
of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1922), 107 pp.
E. S. Richards, "A Study of Materials Dealing With
Race Education Problems," (unpublished Master’s thesis, Uni­
versity of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1931), 79 pp.
*
M. E. Peterson, "Obstacles to Negro Education in the
United States," (unpublished Master’s thesis, University of
Southern California, Los Angeles, 1935), 102 pp.
17
Negro education, especially as to the manner in which secon­
dary and higher education of the Negro has been conditioned
by the deficiencies of elementary education, Monroe WorkS4
pointed out the necessity for the elementary schools to be
raised to the place where their progress will be commensurate
with the progress that is being made in the secondary schools
and colleges.
The training of Negro public school teachers
and the dual system of education in the southern states was
investigated by Ambrose Caliver,25 who stated that the prep­
aration of elementary teachers should be one of the chief
concerns of the state, in view of the large number of chil­
dren and teachers involved.
IV.
SUMMARY
A large group of surveys and investigations have been
reviewed in this chapter and many phases of the education of
Negro children have been considered.
Local surveys all proved
the inadequacy of the educational opportunities offered to
Negro pupils in the southern states.
The majority of the
school systems studied were elementary and rural, although
24
Monroe N. Work, "The Status of Elementary Negro
Education," Bulletin. National Association of Teachers for
Colored Schools, 11:14-17. 1950.
25
Ambrose Caliver, "National Survey of the Education
of Negro Teachers," Bulletin, No. 10 (Washington, D. G.: De­
partment of the Interior, 1§33).
18
secondary and collegiate levels were represented.
Several comparative studies of the intelligence and
achievement of groups of white and Negro children agree in
rating the Negro inferior to the white pupil.
Foreman, how­
ever, explained the seeming inferiority of the Negroes on the
basis of environmental factors. . Other investigators made a
plea for the higher education of the Negro, for better trained
teachers, and for adequately equipped school buildings.
Since none of these researches are closely related to
the present study, which is concerned entirely with the urban
elementary schools in the southern states, the writer hopes
that the findings of this investigation may make a slight
contribution to the understanding of and acquaintance with
the deficiencies under which instruction is offered in the
elementary schools of the southern cities.
CHAPTER III
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF NEGRO EDUCATION
Irr order to develop a background whereby one may
understand the present status of Negro elementary education
in the South, it is necessary to trace briefly the history of
the education of the Negro.
In keeping with the geographical
limitations of this study, the discussion of the educational
advantages offered to the colored race will not include in
detail those endeavors which took place in the northern
states, but rather will emphasize the educational attempts in
the South, especially in those six states in which the pres­
ent investigation is particularly interested.
Education'before the Civil War.
Previous to the Civil
War there was little interest in the education of the Negro.
Since practically no formal education was necessary to per­
form the ordinary affairs of life, illiteracy was not such a
handicap.
The slave holder, for economic reasons, believed
in the mental incapacity of the Negro by making laws to pre­
vent the slaves from acquiring knowledge.
The general opin­
ion throughout the country was that the Negro was an inferior
being, existing merely to serve the interests of the whites;
that any education which tended to change his status would
endanger the supremacy of the whites; and that his usefulness
20
as an unskilled laborer would thereby be destroyed.
This distinct opposition to Negro education was ex­
pressed in the enactment of laws prohibiting literacy educa­
tion of any kind.
The more commercial a proposition slavery
became, the more drastic were the laws enacted against edu­
cation, which might make the Negro discontented with his lot.
As early as 1770 Georgia fined any person who taught a slave
to read or write, but in 1829 more rigid laws were enacted
there:
If any slave, Negro, or free person of color, or
any white person shall teach any other slave, Negro,
or free person of color, to read or write, either
written or printed characters, the same free person
of color o r slave, shall be punished by fine and
whipping, or fine or whipping, at the discretion of
the court, and if a white person so offend, he, she,
o r they shall be punished with a fine not exceeding
#500 and imprisonment in the common jail at the dis­
cretion of the court.1
However, Negroes continued to receive education through pri­
vate or clandestine sources, and more than one slave learned
the alphabet while entertaining the son of his master.
Education after the Civil War.
The task of educating
the freedmen began before the drums of war were silent.
As
the Union armies pressed into the Confederacy, army and mis­
sion schools were established in Louisiana, Mississippi, and
1
W. E. Burghardt Du Bois, rtThe Negro Common Schools
of Georgia," The Crisis, 33:249, September, 1926.
21
elsewhere.
This was the first real opportunity for education
open to the mass of Negroes in the South, many of whom es­
caped from the plantations and made their way to the Union
forces.
Immediately teaching began and schools sprang up,
some in the basements of Negro churches, in temporary bar­
racks, or in abandoned buildings, *
After the emancipation of the slaves the best citizens
of the South, although they doubted whether the Negroes would
benefit from it, realized that four million recently liber­
ated slaves needed some kind of education to meet their new
social condition.
The philanthropists who sponsored these
schools assumed that what the Negroes needed was the same
sort of education which fitted the white man.
Consequently,
most of the schools were patterned on those of New England.
The records show that the Negroes were anxious to be
educated.
As Van Deusen explained:
Believing that illiteracy was the cause of their
inferiority, they looked upon education as a sort of
talisman which could protect its possessor from the
curse of Adam and insure a life of dignified ease.
Children and old men sat side by side. The 90,000
pupils enrolled at the opening of 1866 grew to
nearly 150,000 in 1870.2
"The general status of the free Negroes," Brawley
stated, "was better in Louisiana than anywhere else in the
2
John G. Van Deusen, The Black Man in White America
(Washington, D. C.: Associated Publishers, Inc., 1938), p.
159.
22
country, North or South.
Many of these people enjoyed edu­
cational advantages and lived amidst refined surroundings
equal to any possessed by their white n e i g h b o r s . "3
What was
true of Louisiana was also true of Mobile, Alabama, and other
less important free Negro centers in the South.
The Freedmen*s Bureau.
The real work of educating the
Negro population of the Southern states did not begin until
the establishment of the Freedmen’s Bureau by a Congressional
Act of March 3, 1865 as a charge of the War Department.
This
was not exactly a missionary organization, but its efforts
were largely philanthropic and it became connected with more
distinctly missionary enterprises.
however, by an act of July 16, 1866.
Its powers were enlarged,
"It was rendered neces­
sary by the presence within the Federal lines of vast numbers
of Negroes who had escaped or had been rescued from slavery
and of whom at least a million were at the time of the passing
of the act dependent for support upon the Federal Government*"4
When the Freedmenfs Bureau went out of existence in
1870, its educational- work was taken over by the states, al­
though many of the schools continued under private control,
financed by Northern religious organizations.
"The greatest
3
Benjamin Brawley, A Short History of the American
Negro (New York: The Macmillan Company, 19317, p. 163.
4 Ibid - , P. 124.
23
success of the Freedmen* s Bureau,” Brawley Believed, **lay in
the planting of the free school among Negroes and the idea
of free elementary education among all classes in the
South.**5
The first acts of the Reconstruction governments in
which the Negroes participated had been the establishment of
free schools.
Considerable sums were appropriated to educa­
tion but there was little to show for it, as much of the
school money was stolen and more was wasted.
buildings nor equipment were in evidence.®
Neither school
However, consti­
tutional and legislative enactments from time to time defin­
itely fixed the legal status of the common schools for
Negroes, and since 1875 there has been no question on this
score.
Thus, Negro schools have become a permanent part of
the legal public school machinery of the South.7
Industrial education.
The obvious need of the freed­
men was an education which stressed practical knowledge and
would enable them to become productive workers.
The Negro
required training to become self-supporting and an intelligent
5
Ibid., p. 126.
g
Fan Deusen, op. cit., p. 160.
7
N. C. Newbold, "Common Schools for Negroes in the
South,** Annals of the American Academy of Political and
Social Science,”140:210, November, 1928.
24
and respected citizen of his community.
The vocational move­
ment gradually gained momentum and several institutes were
founded for the industrial education of the Negro.
The most
noteworthy of them was the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial
Institute under the direction of Booker T. Washington.
He
believed that the Negro should be taught to connect his edu­
cation with some industrial pursuit.
After 1895 the indus­
trial school was fully recognized as the answer to a combined
educational and economic crisis.®
Today these schools form
an indispensable part of the existing educational provision
for the colored people, and the principles and ideas for
which they stand are an integral part of the educational pol­
icy of the South.
Philanthropy.
Even though the most princely gifts
would have been inadequate for the great work to be done,
private philanthropy was not lacking.
These special funds
have worked from the very beginning in closest harmony with
the state departments of education, and with local county,
city, and district school officials.
Much of the stimulus to
greater activity in the development of public education for
Negroes in the South, both on the part of individual states
and local communities, has been provided by the wise
8
Brawley,
0 £.
cit., p. 132.
25
administration of privately controlled funds.
In 1867, George Peabody, a great American merchant and
patriot, established the Peabody Educational Fund for the
purpose of promoting intellectual, moral, and industrial edu­
cation in the most destitute portions of. the Southern states.
The purpose of the Slater Fund, the gift of John F. Slater in
1882, has been to encourage the development of county train­
ing schools to prepare instructors for small rural schools.
Marked improvement in Negro education in the South has
resulted in school housing through the assistance of the
Rosenwald Fund.
Originating in 1914, and incorporated three
years later, this fund has concentrated in the South upon the
building of sorely needed schoolhouses for Negro children.
It is significant to note that the Fund has induced coopera­
tion on the part of the local whites of the community, and
has stimulated the Negroes to contribute the vast sum of four
millions for their own schools, resulting in more than seven­
teen millions being spent on Negro schools from the public
tax funds, far more than all the common school property for
Negroes was worth at the beginning of the twentieth c e n t u r y . ^
Since its organization in 1902 by John D. Rockefeller,
the activities of the General Education Board have been many
9 Report on Schoolhouse Construction, Transportation,
and School Libraries to July 1, 1951 (Issued by Julius HosenwaTd Fund, Southern Office, Nashville, Tennessee, 1931), 4 pp.
86
and varied, encouraging and assisting every phase of Negro
education in the South.10
Phelps-Stokes Fund was created
in 1911 in answer to the need for a comprehensive study and
survey of Negro education in the South.
The Fund retains a
corps of research workers in the field of Negro education and
also maintains a Southern Publicity Committee, devoted to ob­
taining publicity for constructive aspects of raee relations
in the South.
The purpose of the Jeanes Fund, established in 1907 by
a gift of a million dollars from Anna T. Jeanes, a Quakeress
of Philadelphia, is the employing of well-prepared Negro
teachers, mostly women, called County Jeanes Industrial Teach­
ers.
As stated by Dillard:
The business of these traveling teachers, working
under the direction of the county superintendents, is
to help and encourage the rural teachers; to introduce
into small county schools simple home industries; to
give lessons on sanitation, cleanliness, and so forth;
to promote improvements of school houses and school
grounds; and to organize clubs for the betterment of
the school and neighborhood.H
The chart on the following page shows pictorially the
relation of the Southern Education Board to the many agencies
The General Education Board, "Negro Education," Beport of the Activities of the Board 1908-1914, Chapter VIIT7
pp. 19^-269.
11
James H. Dillard, Fourteen Years of the Jeanes Fund
1909-1923, Reprint from the South Atlantic Quarterly, 25:1-9~~
July, 1923.
27
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r
cT
22
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31 CoYwtn'vss'ioti
FIGURE 1
’HE SOUTHERN EDUCATION BOARD AND THE AGENCIES GROWING
OUT OF IT OR COLLATERAL WITH IT*
* Charles William Dabney, Universal Education in the
South Volume II (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina
Press, 1956), p. 514.
28
growing out of it and to those existing collaterally with it.
The essential elements of the effective services rendered by
these philanthropic organizations have been summarized by
Thomas Jesse Jones:
First, genuine knowledge and appreciation of con­
ditions; second, personal participation through co­
operation with local communities and governments;
third, financial cooperation with local agencies
willing to share in the initial expenditures and in
the continuing support of the educational undertak­
ings. . . ♦ The results in interracial understanding
and goodwill have been quite equal to if not greater
than the educational values to the white and colored
people of the Southern States.12
The Interracial Commission.
The Interracial Commis­
sion has been influential in every state in securing new
buildings, large appropriations, new trade schools, and close
cooperation between school officials and Negro teachers.
It
is composed of about one hundred white and Negro men and
women of standing in Southern life.13
Following the World
War a very simple plan was adopted of promoting cooperation
between white and colored leaders in improving conditions
affecting Negroes by working through state and local com­
mittees.
12
In fact, the entire scheme of education for the
Thomas Jesse Jones, "Trends in Negro Education,"
Twenty Year Report of the Phelps-Stokes Fund 1911-1931 (New
York: The Phelps-Stokes fund, 1932), p. 49.
13
W. W. Alexander, "The Negro in the New South," The
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social
Science, 140:151, November, 1928.
29
colored children of the South is a huge cooperative plan.
One of the most significant contributions of the various
funds has been their stimulus to the states in.arousing them
to a fuller sense of their own responsibility to provide more
adequate public educational facilities for Negro children.
In tracing the steady growth of formal education for
Negroes which has advanced with increasing tempo since the
Civil War, Harl R. Douglass stated:
The assumption of responsibility by Southern states
for the education of Negroes has exceeded the expecta­
tions of most students of education, who were fearful
of the effects upon Negro-white relationships of the
abortive attempts of Northern carpetbaggers to operate
schools in Southern states open to white and colored
alike. The superiority complex of Southern whites,
their antagonism to Northern pressure, and their fear
of the free Negro— all have operated to make the real­
ization of equal educational opportunities a long
drawn-out process.^4
The effect of the depression.
The retrenchments in
public school expenditures which resulted from the depression
of 1929 have been described by Ambrose Caliverl^ as no less
than drastic.
In 1933 there were fifty-eight per cent of the
schools in 485 southern counties that failed to open or closed
earlier than usual.
14
The number of teachers was reduced and
Harl R. Douglass, "The Education of Negro Youth
for Modern America: A Critical Summary," Journal of Negro
Education, 9:540, July, 1940.
15
Ambrose Caliver, "Negro Education in the Depres­
sion," School Life, 18:111-112, February, 1933.
30
their salaries cut.
Building construction stopped and needed
repairs were not made.
The following year federal aid was
indispensable to the continuance of the majority of these
school systems.
During recent years the federal government has inaug-*
urated several emergency education programs which have con­
tributed significantly to the enlargement of opportunities
for public education.
Among those of special importance are
the programs of adult education, nursery schools, student aid,
and school-building construction*
These programs have en­
larged the educational opportunities of both the white and
Negro populations of the South.
Beginning in the latter part of 1933, the Federal Emer­
gency Relief Administration, in cooperation with the United
States Office of Education, initiated a number of educational
projects, the most extensive being literacy education, gen­
eral adult education, and vocational training.
At present
this program is administered by the Works Progress Adminis­
tration.
During the spring of 1935 the Julius Rosenwald Fund
conducted a comprehensive survey of emergency educational ac­
tivities among the white and Negro populations of the South.
In this way detailed information was obtained concerning en­
rollments, teachers, and salaries in the programs of thirteen
southern states.
While Negroes represented twenty-six per
31
cent of the total population in the states concerned, they
constituted thirty-eight per cent of the enrollment and
thirty-one per cent of the teachers in emergency education
classes.16
Wilkerson17 explained, however, that while the funds
for emergency education expenditures were apportioned fairly
equally between the two races upon the basis of Negro-total
population ratios, yet on the basis of relative educational
need, there was devoted to work among Negroes only about twothirds as much as would seem warranted.
In recognition of the great and growing importance of
all questions relating to Negro education, the Secretary of
the Interior, at the recommendation of the Commissioner of
Education, on September 36, 1930, created a new office ap­
pointing Ambrose Caliver, a Negro, as Specialist in Negro Ed­
ucation to stimulate interest in the present status and future
possibilities of Negro education.
During the last fifteen years an elaborate arrangement
of cooperative activities has been developed for the education
of the youth of America through the Smith-Hughes Act, which
16
Doxey A. Wilkerson, Special Problems of Negro Edu- .
cation, prepared for the Advisory Committee on Education
TWasETngton, D. C.: United States Government Printing Office,
1939), p. 136.
17
Ibid., p. 140.
32
provides funds cooperatively with the state and local govern­
ment for the education of boys in agriculture, of girls in
home economics, of urban boys in trades, and of those who are
to be teachers of the above subjects.
A due proportion of
the amount allotted to each of the southern states is expended
for Negroes in accordance with the same plans.
It has aided
greatly in preparing teachers to give instruction in agricul­
ture and home economics in Negro high schools and training
schools— the kind of instruction they need most.18
While the important educational influence already
achieved by the Smith-Hughes Act is very gratifying, it is de­
sirable, Jones believes, that the progress shall be considered
in relation to the extensive vocational needs of the Negro
youth.
Nevertheless the need for more and better facili­
ties for vocational education is still very large.
In a sense the progress to date is little more than
a good beginning. More funds are required to pre­
pare more teachers and to maintain them on an effec­
tive basis. To this end there is need for a more
intelligent appreciation of the vital place of rural
activities and vocational skill in the economic and
social life of the nation. This is essential to
both white and colored people, but it is acutely
necessary to those who are especially concerned in
the welfare of the Negro people of America.19
18 Dabney, ojd. cit., p. 205.
^
Jones,
0 £.
cit., p. 44.
33
SUMMABY
Previous to the Civil War there was very little inter­
est in the education of the Negro, since no formal education
was necessary to perform the ordinary affairs of life.
In
fact, for commercial reasons there was distinct opposition to
Negro education.
However, the task of educating the freedmen
began before the drums of war were silent, with the estab­
lishment of army and mission schools in many of the southern
states.
The Freedmen1s Bureau which was established in 1865.
was a philanthropic organization, serving vast numbers of
Negroes who were dependent for support upon the federal gov­
ernment.
Its greatest success lay in the planting of the
free school among Negroes and the idea of free elementary
education among all classes in the South.
The obvious need of the freedmen was an education
which stressed practical knowledge and would enable them to
become productive workers.
The vocational movement gradually
gained momentum and several institutes were founded for the
industrial education of the Negro.
The most noteworthy of
these was the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute under
the direction of Booker T. Washington.
Much of the stimulus to greater activity in the devel­
opment of public education for Negroes in the South has been
34
provided by the wise administration of privately controlled
funds.
The Peabody Educational Fund promoted intellectual,
moral and industrial education in the most destitute portions
of the southern states.
The Slater Fund encouraged the de­
velopment of county training schools to prepare instructors
for small rural schools.
The Rosenwald Fund assisted in the
construction of school buildings.
The General Education
Board organized by John D. Rockefeller has sponsored every
phase of Negro education in the South.
The Phelps-Stokes
Fund was created for a comprehensive study of Negro education
in the South.
The Jeanes Fund employed well-prepared Negro
teachers for county supervision.
The effect of the depression in the southern states
was drastic retrenchment in school expenditures.
The length
of the school term was shortened, fewer teachers were em­
ployed, and the teaching load increased.
Building construc­
tion ceased and without federal aid the majority of these
school systems could not have continued.
Beginning in 1933, the Federal Emergency Relief Asso­
ciation initiated a number of educational projects which are
now administered by the Works Progress Administration.
While
the funds for emergency education have been apportioned
fairly equally between the two races upon the basis of Negrototal population ratios, yet on the basis of relative educa­
tional need, there was devoted to work among Negroes only
35
about two thirds as much as would seem warranted.
The Negro youth has also benefitted during the past
fifteen years from the Smith-Hughes Act,which provides funds
cooperatively with the state and local government for voca­
tional education.
While gratifying progress has been
achieved, the heed for increased facilities for vocational
education is still very great.
CHAPTER IV
THE EFFECT OF DEFICIENCIES UPON THE EDUCATIONAL '
ACHIEVEMENT OF THE NEGRO
Many of the southern states, sharing the general be­
lief in the intellectual inferiority of the Negro, have not
provided equal educational opportunity for both Negro and
white children.
Even as late as 1908 the governor of Missis­
sippi recommended that the legislature strike out all appro­
priations for Negro schools on the ground that it was a waste
of money to maintain public schools for Negroes.^
When intelligence testing came into vogue, psycholo­
gists asserted that the Negroes of the United States were in­
nately inferior to the white people in general intelligence,
because there was a preponderance of evidence to prove that
white people made better scores than Negroes on the intelli­
gence tests.
A discussion of environmental factors, such as inade­
quate school buildings and equipment, short terms, poorly
prepared teachers, and discouraging home conditions will show
in this chapter that the lower educational achievement of the
Negroes is the result of deficiencies, rather than any racial
1 Albert B. Hart, The Southern South (New York: D.
Appleton and Company, 1912 j, p. 327.
difference in either educability or intelligence.
I.
DUAL SCHOOL SYSTEM
Persons accustomed to the average, unsegregated schools
of the North and West, under the direction of teachers welltrained in the normal schools and teachers’ colleges, with a
school term of ten months and teachers well paid, can with
difficulty, if at all, visualize some of the public schools
provided for Negroes in the South, especially in the small
towns and rural sections.
School statistics for 1930.
Approximately one million,
or thirty per cent, of the Negro children of school age in the
South never entered any kind of school in 1930.
Reports from
the state departments of education giving enrollments by
grades show that more than sixty per cent of all Negro ele­
mentary children are in the first three grades and that eightyfive per cent of all children quit school before entering the
seventh grade.2
These two million physically and mentally under devel­
oped children and the other millions who have preceded them
constitute one of the South’s greatest social and economic
2 Fred McGuiston, The South’s Negro Teaching Force
(Nashville, Tennessee: Julius Rosenwald Fund, March 1931}, p.
10
.
58
losses, as well as one of its grestest sources of potential
wealth.
The provision of meager educational facilities and the
low economic resources of the southern states have resulted
in the Negro pupil of the South being the most underprivileged
and poorly provided for pupil in .America.
Despite their pov­
erty eighteen of the southern states most heavily populated
by Negroes are required by law to maintain separate schools
for them.
School authorities usually consider it their first
duty to provide good schools for white children.
After the
white schools are given such funds as are needed, the colored
schools get what is left.
Thousands of Negro children cannot
even go to school beeause the school commissioners have pro­
vided no school for them.
Ordinarily the per capita expendi­
ture on white schools is five or six times that on colored
schools.
Although the expenses for white and colored educa­
tion vary from year to year, the following table represents
the customary distribution of funds.
"Elementary education for Negroes in the states where
four-fifths of them live," Long3 observed, "is far below that
offered to any other racial group in the United States."
3
In
Howard H. Long, "The Negro Secondary School Popula­
tion," Journal of Negro Education, 9:458, July, 1940.
391
TABLE I
PER CAPITA EXPENDITURE FOR EDUCATION OF NEGRO
CHILDREN IN THE SOUTHERN STATES (1930)*
Expenditure
White
Negro
$ 36*43
$ 10.09
Arkansas
38.15
13.02
Florida
57*16
14.45
Georgia
35.42
6.38
Louisiana
67.47
16.54
Mississippi
45.34
5.45
North Carolina
40.07
15.71
South Carolina
60.06
7.84
Texas
38.76
16.02
State
Alabama
* Clark-Foreman, Environment a1 Factors in Negro
Elementary Education (New York: W. W. Norton an3* Company,
1932), p. Z%~.
~
1930 the proportions of white and Negro children five to
seventeen years of age attending schools in eighteen states
as shown in Table II were: for urban communities eighty and
seventy-five per cent; for rural communities seventy-four and
sixty-seven per cent.
The average length of school term for
Negro children is. only eighty-seven per cent of that for
white children.
On the average in the South the Negro pupil
must spend 9.2 years to get the same amount of school attend­
ance as the white child gets in eight years of elementary
education.
In eleven southern states in 1930 the total expendi­
tures for the Negro schools were about forty millions of dol­
lars short of what was necessary to bring the expenditure per
pupil in the Negro schools up to the average of the white
schools in the same states.
To bring the expenditures for
both white and Negro children in the same eleven states up to
the average of the nation, Dabney4 explains, would require an
additional annual expenditure of 430 millions.
A comparison of the average yearly expenditures per
pupil from 1900 until 1930 is shown graphically in Figure £.
Throughout that period the average expenditure for every pupil
^ Charles Wm. Dabney, Universal Education in the South
(Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1936),
II, 491.
TABLE II
PERCENTAGES OF CHILDREN 5 TO 17 YEARS OF AGE,
INCLUSIVE, ATTENDING SCHOOL, IN 18 STATES,
BY TYPE OF COMMUNITY AND BY RACE (1930)*
State
•.Percentage of children 5 to 17
:years of age attending school
:Urban&Rurai
Urban
Rural
:Difference
: between
:white&Negro
:percentage
:White Negro White Negro White Negro:White Negro
Alabama
Arkansas
Delaware
District of
Columbia
Florida
Georgia
75
76
81
64
73
76
79
82
82
72
78
80
88
80
75
83
67
64
88
83
79
83
77
68
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland
Mississippi
Missouri
N. Carolina
73
77
78
84
81
75
74
67
72
74
78
70
79
82
78
85
83
76
Oklahoma
S. Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Virginia
W. Virginia
80
74
75
72
73
76
79
63
72
71
68
76
Average
76
69
74
75
80
62
72
73
—
—
77
73
78
75
75
76
81
72
84
78
78
75
80
80
• 80
7
4
2
12
3
7
60
63
5
7
11
18
11
71
73
77
83
79
75
71
64
68
73
72
70
1
7
4
9
3
4
1
10
8
10
6
5
82
70
75
76
74
80
78
73
74
70
71
74
78
62
70
69
66
74
1
8
3
-1
6
1
11
4
1
5
75
74
67
5
—
“
— *
7
* Doxey A, Wilkerson, Special Problems of Negro
Education (Washington, D. C.: United States Government Printing Office, 1939), p. 7.
42
72
60
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rt
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43
in the nation exceeded the expenditure for the white pupils
in the South, while the expenditures for the latter group ex­
ceeded the expenditures for the Negro pupils.
The average expenditure for every pupil in the nation
in 1930 was $99.00.
For white children in the South it was
$44.31; and for Negro children, #12.57, or only about onefourth that of the southern whites and one-eighth that of the
average of the nation.
In the Black Belt the discrimination was even greater.
Georgia spent an average of $35.42 for each white pupil and
only $6.38 for each Negro.
Mississippi spent for white chil­
dren $45.34, but only $5.45 for Negro pupils.
In other words,
two million enrolled Negro children in the South received less
than one-fifteenth the opportunity for education of average
American children.6
National Advisory Committee on Education.
The three
Negro members of the National Advisory Committee on Education
indicated that a combination of circumstances serves to set
apart Negro education as an unique and challenging problem in
the field of American education.6
They stated that because
5 Ibid., p. 495.
6 National Advisory Committee on Education, Federal
Relations to Education, Part I (Washington, D. C.: National
dapital Press, Inc., 1931), pp. 155-161.
44
of the dual system of schools, this group of Negro children
is by far the most heavily disadvantaged group of children in
the entire field of education under state jurisdiction*
The oft-repeated charge that the relative backwardness
of the South is due to the large numbers of Negroes, Angoff
and Mencken7 believe, opens the possibility that the lack of
enterprise and slower cultural advancement of the southern
Negro may be partly due to their fewer and far inferior
schools.
In fact, Van Deusen8 considers it little short of
phenomenal that the Negro pupils have been able to progress
as much as they have under such terrific handicaps.
National Education Survey.
In a national education
survey it was found that in practically every phase of educa­
tion, the Negroes lag far behind the accepted standards in
the states maintaining separate schools for them.
In availability and accessibility of schools,
term length, facility .and equipment, curriculum,
age-grade progress, and general financial support
the divergencies between Negro and white are marked.
. . . More important, however, and closely related
to certain of the factors already mentioned, are the
differences found in the qualifications and salaries
of Negro and white teachers; for the extent to which
the general educational level of a people may be
7 Charles Angoff and H. I. Menchen, "The Worst Ameri­
can State,” The American Mercury, 24:371, November, 1931
® lohn G. Van Deusen, .The Black Man in White America
(Washington, D. C.: Associated Publishers, Tnc., 1938J, p .175.
45
raised depends in large measure upon the amount and
quality of the professional preparation of the
teachers.9
School statistics, 1955-1956.
A study of the statis­
tics presented in Table III showed the Negro school enroll­
ment disproportionately concentrated in the elementary
grades.
While seventy-three per cent of the total school en­
rollment was found on the elementary, level, more than ninety
per cent of the Negro enrollment was on this level.
In 1936
the average student in the nation was in the second half of
the fifth grade and the average white student in the eighteen
states with dual school systems was in the second half of the
fourth grade.
At the same time, however, the average Negro
student in the separate schools was in the first half of the
third grade.
The most glaring disparity noted in the table
was the large group of Negro pupils in the first grade, nearly
twice as many as the number of white pupils in the eighteen
states supporting dual schools.
II.. NEGRO INTELLIGENCE AND EDUCABILITY
Findings of the psychologists.
One of the chief fac­
tors that has operated against the provision of educational
^ "Education of Negro Teachers," National Education
Survey of Teachers, Bulletin No. 10 (Washington, D. C.: United
States Department of the Interior, Office of Education, 1933),
p. 2.
46
TABLE III
DISTRIBUTION OF PUBLIC SCHOOL ENROLLMENT BY
. GRADES 1935-36; TOTAL, WHITE AND NEGRO
IN 18 SEPARATE SCHOOL SYSTEMS*
Grades
First
2.30
fo
Separate Schools in 18 States
White
Negro
0.70
1o
o
to»
o
Kindergarten
T°tal
Enrollment
13.39
15.80
30.10
Second
9.70
10.90
13.80
Third
9.57
10.70
12.50
Fourth
9.48
10.50
11.30
Fifth
9.23
10.00
9.30
Sixth
8.80
9.20
7.40
Seventh
8.27
8.30
5.60
Eighth
6.60
4.30
2.00
* Charles H;~ Thompson, ftThe Status of Education of
and for the Negro in the American Social Order," Journal of
Negro Education, 8:491, July, 1939.
47
opportunities for Negroes in the South has been the prevalent
belief in their low degree of educability and inferior mental
endowment.
This view was further upheld by many of the
psychologists who applied standardized intelligence tests
about the close of the first decade of the twentieth century.
A more extreme view was held by Pintner:
Our conclusions can be briefly summarized by
saying that results show the Negro decidedly in­
ferior to the white on standard intelligence tests.
This difference is present among infants,elementary
school children, high school pupils, university
students, and adult men.10
Recent critical studies of intelligence and achieve­
ment test results in the light of modern psychology, however,
severely challenge the tenability of such a belief regarding
the Negro.. After a detailed and extensive survey of various
comparative studies of the white and colored races, Johnsonll
concluded that the inefficiency of Negro pupils is at least
as much the result of a poor educational system and an in­
ferior background as of an inferior inherited mental consti­
tution.
Smithl^ came to a similar conclusion in his critique
■j n
Rudolph Pintner, Intelligence Testing (New York;
Henry Holt and Company, 1931), p. 443.
^ Charles S. Johnson, The Negro in American Civiliza­
tion (New York: Henry Holt and Gompany, 1§30), pp. 273-87.
12 A. I. Smith, tfA Critique of Some Negro Intelligence
Test Results,tf (unpublished Master’s thesis, University of
Southern California, Los Angeles, 1928), pp. 86.
48
of Negro intelligence test results.
With reference to the educational achievements of
Negro children, Thompson-^ challenged the doctrine of an in­
herent mental inferiority of the Negro as a myth unfounded by
the most logical interpretation of scientific facts.
He held
that the mental and scholastic achievements of both white and
Negro children appear to be direct functions of their envir­
onment and school opportunities, rather than functions of
some inherent difference in mental ability.
Lance Jones^-4 finds it advisable, too, to be cautious
in making assertions about the educability of the Negro.
In
the past it has been customary to point to outstanding indi­
viduals as evidence that the Negro race can produce men of
ability and genius, but far more significant is the fact that
it has now an intellectual and professional elite, which by
the steady increase taking place in its numbers is well on
the way to becoming an educated upper and middle class.
Here,
indeed, is proof that numbers of Negroes, not merely individ­
uals, are educable to a higher degree than has generally been
supposed.
ls Charles H. Thompson, "The Educational Achievements
of Negro Children," Annals of the American Academy of Politi­
cal and Social Science, 140:193-208, November, 1928.
14 Lance G. E. Jones, Negro Schools in the Southern
States (Oxford: Clarendon Press7 1928), p. 28.
49
It is the consensus of opinion, Thompson3-5 states,
among America’s most eminent psychologists, educationists,
sociologists, and anthropologists, based upon their critical
appraisal.of investigations of racial differences, that there,
is no adequate evidence to support an assumption of inferior
native learning ability on the part of Negro children.
The
presumption is that, by original nature, Negro children are
quite as educable as children of any other race.
Thompson
adds that it has been demonstrated many times in scientific
literature that the relatively low social-economic background
of the average Negro pupil operates to limit realization of
his scholastic potentialities.
Only when the race has en­
joyed the same social and educational advantages as the white
man for a sufficient period of time will it be possible to
attempt an answer to so difficult a question.
Conclusions of twelve reviewers of the literature of
the intelligence test performance of Negroes and whites are
presented in Table IV.
From the numerous studies which have
attempted to prove the theory of racial difference in mental
ability, Jenkins holds that the following generalizations
among others appear tenable.
Charles H. Thompson, "The Conclusions of Scientists
Relative to Racial Differences," Journal of Negro Education,
3:494-512, July, 1934.
50
TABLE IV
CONCLUSIONS OF TWELVE REVIEWERS OF THE LITERATURE
OF THE INTELLIGENCE TEST PERFORMANCE
OF NEGROES AND WHITES*
Reviewer
Year
Bruner
1914
Woodworth
1916
Pintner
1923
Garth
1925
Viteles
1928
Yoder
1928
Conclusions
No conclusion; the three studies cited
(Baldwin, Strong, Mayo) all emphasize
the inferiority of the Negro groups.
No conclusion; the investigators without
exception accept the hypothesis of race
differences in intelligence.
All results show the Negro decidedly in­
ferior to the whites on standard intel­
ligence tests. These results are suffi­
ciently numerous to point to a racial
difference in intelligence.
These studies altogether seem to indi­
cate the mental superiority of the white
race. Altogether it may be said that
the investigators recognize these exper­
imental results are crude and so must be
taken tentatively.
Prom among the varied conclusions it is
possible for anyone interested in the
problem of Negro-white differences to
choose one which best suits his particu­
lar bias. The varied character of the
findings themselves and the difficulties
of interpretation suggest extreme cau­
tion in generalizing on differences be­
tween the Negro and the white.
It may be correctly concluded that the
.consensus of competent scientific
thought contemplating the inability of
mental testers to define intelligence,
the inadequacy of all attempts to take
such factors as education, social status
and language into proper consideration
and the deficiencies of testing condi­
tions finds no proof of racial inferior­
ity or superiority.
51
TABLE IY CONTINUED
Reviewer
Year
Conclusions
Eor the present it may be said that (a)
individual differences among the members
of a given race are always much larger
Witty
1930
than the so-called race differences and
and
Lehman
that therefore, (b) any sweeping state­
ment of the intellectual status of the
so-called inferior races would be pre_______mature.
g____ ___ ______________
It would appear that it (the racialdifferences hypothesis) is no nearer being
established than it was five years ago.
In fact many psychologists seem ready
for another, the hypothesis of racial
Garth
1930 equality. But the problem in either
case is the same as it was— to obtain
fair samplings of the races in question,
to control the factors of nurture, and
to secure a testing device and technique
________ _ _ _ ______ fair to the races compared.
______ Much of the difference found m the re­
sults of studies of racial differences
Garth
1934 in mental traits is due to differences
in nurtural factors and the rest is due
to racial mobility, so that one race has
_____________________a temporary advantage over another.
It seems safe to conclude that until the
validity of these assumptions is more
thoroughly tested than they have been,it
Price
1934 is only futile to attempt to compare
whites and Negroes, but that meanwhile
there should be suspended the belief
________ — _________ that the Negro is inferior mentally.
The general conclusion is that there is'
no scientific proof of racial differ­
ences in mentality. This does not mean
Klineberg
1935 necessarily that there are no such dif­
ferences. In the present stage of our
knowledge we have no right to assume
.
_______________ that they exist.________________________
52
TABLE IV CONCLUDED
Reviewer
Garth
Year
1937
Conclusions
Any differences so far found in these
traits must of necessity be laid at the
door of differences in experience and
the environmental factors, In racial
ideals, and in social status. In fact,
any difference so far found may be said
to be due to one of two factors, the
factor of selection or the factor of
nurture.
* Martin D. Jenkins, "The Mental Ability of the Amer­
ican Negro," Journal of Negro Education, 8:519, July, 1939.
53
1. There Is a difference in test intelligence
between white and Negroes in the United States
when group averages are considered.
2. Differences within the two groups are
greater than differences between the two groups.
3. Intelligence test scores reflect both en­
vironmental and hereditary factors; differences
between the average test score of white and Negro
groups may be attributable, either in whole or in
part, to the environmental factor.
4. An improvement in environment effects an
improvement in intelligence test performances.
5. Negro children of superior intelligence
occur normally in many Negro populations.-*-6
One of the most significant conclusions to be drawn
from the literature, Jenkins believed, was that effective
functioning of the individual is greatly enhanced when en­
vironmental conditions are optimum.
No one familiar with the generally sub-average
educational facilities which exist for Negro chil­
dren, cognizant of the squalor and privation which
characterize the lives of individuals, Negro and
white, whom our social order consigns to the lower
economic levels, appreciative of the essential
-lack of cultural stimulation and intellectual chal­
lenge which exist for the mass of Negroes in Amer­
ica, can be surprised at the generally sub-average
performance of Negro groups on measures of intel­
ligence. Amelioration of these conditions, in
order that each individual might develop near the
upper limit of his hereditary potentiality, would
yield social dividends of the highest sort.l7
^ Martin D. Jenkins, "The Mental Ability of .the Amer­
ican Negro," Journal of Negro Education, 8:518, July, 1939.
54
III.
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS IN NEGRO EDUCATION
Effect of limited educational opportunities.
Numerous
studies of racial differences in scholastic achievement and
their relationship to corresponding differences in school
environment have been summarized by Wilkerson, as demon­
strating these facts:
1. That the extent of racial differences in
scholastic achievements varies markedly among dif­
ferent school systems;
2. That such differences are greater in segre­
gated than in non-segregated schools;
3. That there is close correspondence between
the extent of racial differences in scholastic
achievement and racial differences in school en­
vironment ; and
4. That differences between the achievement of
white and Negro pupils in Northern school systems
are attributable almost entirely to scholastic
deficiencies on the part of Negro migrants from
impoverished school systems in the South.18
There can be no doubt that the marked inequalities ex­
isting between white and Negro schools seriously curtail the
scholastic achievements of Negro pupils.
It is even reason­
able to assume, Wilkerson believes, that the extent to which
these Negro pupils now attending these schools are able, as
adult citizens, to effect suitable adjustments to the demands
of social-civic-economic life will have been severely impaired
Yfilkerson, ££. cit., pp. 152-53.
55
by the limited and inferior ecucational opportunities afforded
to them during youth.19
It is not alone among Negroes, however, that the ef­
fects of their limited educational opportunities-are felt.
Wilkerson explains that because the Negroes bear such close
economic and social-civic relations to the white people, the
deficiencies resulting from educational restrictions upon
the one-fourth minority cannot but affect the welfare of the
three-fourths majority.
He mentions especially such social
ills as spread of disease, crime and delinquency, excessive
need for public health and welfare services, costs of econ­
omic dependency, and unnecessarily restricted retail markets,
all of which are aggravated—by ignorance.
Thus, the white
population shares the effects of low standards of public edu­
cation for Negroes.^0
Because of the high rate of interstate migration,
northern communities also share directly in the ill effects,
resulting from the educational deficiencies of Negroes in the
southern states.
The extent of migration is shown by the
fact that in the cities of New York, Chicago, Philadelphia,
Washington, Detroit, Cleveland, and Pittsburgh in 1930, more
19 Ibid., p. 154.
29 Loc. cit.
56
than fifty per cent of the Negro population had come from
other states.
The public education of Negroes in the South, Wilker­
son warns, is of vital concern to the country as a whole,
since
. . . the existence of any large group of unedu­
cated citizens is a constant threat to the stabil­
ity of social, economic, and political institutions.
Thus, both the American ideal of equality of edu­
cational opportunity and the necessities of the
general welfare of the Nation require improvement
in the public education provided for Negroes in the
South.21
Superiority of northern Negroes.
After a very care­
ful study of the relative ability of the children of Negro
migrants, Klineberg^2 concluded that, in general, white
children do better on achievement tests than Negroes; and
that Negroes in the North do very much better than those in
the South, tending, on the whole, to approach very closely
the standing of the whites.
Since there is no evidence for
a selective migration of the more intelligent Negroes north­
ward, he asserted this result must be due to the superior
northern environment.
Furthermore, he found that the differ­
ence between white and Negro children in intelligence test
21 Ibid., p. 155.
^ Otto Klineberg, ?tThe Question of Negro Intelligence/*
Opportunity, 9:367, October, 1931.
57
scores tends to disappear as the environments of the two
groups approach equality.
If the achievement of Negro pupils can be shown to
vary with the environment and to approach the results of the
white pupils, as their environment approaches that of the
white pupils, then Foreman2^ contends, there will be strong
reason for.concluding that environment plays a most impor­
tant part in the present inferior showing of the Negro pupils.
He stated, further, that the inferiority in educational
achievement may be expected to decrease as .the environment of
the Negro pupils becomes more similar to that of the white
pupils.
Many investigators have found a superiority of the
urban over the rural schools.
The better showing of the
urban Negroes, Foreman2^ believes, may be accepted as sound
evidence of the effect of environment in educational achieve­
ment.
In the cities both school and non-school factors are
important, as the expenditures for schools are higher and the
opportunities and incentives are much greater.
In an analysis made by Wilkerson in which he attempted
to survey and critically interpret the findings and tech­
niques of investigations of Negro-white differences in
Foreman,
0 £.
24 Ibid., p. 27.
cit., pp. 6-7.
58
scholastic achievement, these conclusions among others were
drawn': (1) Negro children, in general, particularly in segre­
gated school systems, achieve on a lower level than white
children in the same grades and school systems; and (2)
■Racial differences in home and school environment are prob­
ably the major causes of racial differences in scholastic
achievement.
TV.
ABILITY AND WILLINGNESS OE THE SOUTH
TO. EDUCATE THE NEGRO
Ability to educate.
Many sidelights on the ability
of the South to educate school children can be obtained from
census figures.
The census of 1930 showed that for the
southern states, the average per capita wealth was #1,785 as
compared with #3,009 for the other states.
A better measure of the ability of a community to
support education is the total wealth per school child.
national average in 1930 was #10,200 per child.
The
In thirteen
southern states the average was #4,900, or less than half the
national a v e r a g e . T h e value of school property per pupil
enrolled is also used as an ability measure, because it is
25 Doxey A. Wilkerson, "Racial Differences in Scholas­
tic Achievement," Journal of Negro Education, 3:477, July,
1934.
26 Dabney, 0 £. cit. , p. 491.
59
considered that a state having a high value of school proper­
ty has accumulated an ability to educate future children not
possessed by states having a small capital investment.
Table
V gives a comparison of both the true wealth and the value of
school property per pupil enrolled .for fourteen southern
states.
■Perhaps the best way of measuring the financial abil­
ity of a community to. support schools is its total annual
income per school child.
The national average income per
child of school age is $3,171.
In the southern states the
average income of each child of school age is $873.
There­
fore, if the South spends far less for schools than the aver­
age of the other states, it is because she does not have the
money to spend.27
Willingness to educate.
The South has made a good
showing in supporting her schools when consideration is given
to her effort in proportion to her ability.
In 1930 the South
spent a larger proportion of her funds on schools than did the
other sections.2®
The average state in the Union spent 40.3
per cent of all tax collections for schools, while the aver­
age of the fourteen southern states listed in Table VI was
2-7 I^id. , p. 493.
Loc. cit.
60
TABLE V
ABILITY TO EDUCATE*
State
True Wealth
Per Pupil
Enrolled
Alabama
$
5.303
Value of
School Property
Per Pupil Enrolled
$
70.00
Arkansas
5.982
66.00
Florida
8.318
208.00
Georgia
6.188
69.00
Kentucky
6 •843
89.00
Louisiana
8.947
142.00
16.280
191.00
Mississippi
4.074
66.00
N. Carolina
6.305
119.00
Oklahoma
6.305
119.00
S. Carolina
5.893
83.00
Tennessee
7.732
46.00 ’
Texas
8.332
145.00
10.085
112.00
Maryland
Virginia
* Fred McCuiston, Financing Schools in the South
(Nashville: State Directors of Educational Hesearch in the
Southern States, 1930), p. 23.
61
TABLE VT
EFFORT OR WILLINGNESS TO EDUCATE*
State
Fer cent of
all revenue
expended for
education
Expenditure
per pupil enrolled
White
Colored
Alabama
47.10
36.43
10.09
Arkansas
41.10
38.15
13.02
Florida
33.59
57.16
14.45
Georgia
34.93
35.42
6.38
Kentucky
39.75
Louisiana
36.38
67.47
16.54
Maryland
39.36
64.86
43.16
Mississippi
39.93
45.34
5.45
N. Carolina
52.63
40.07
15.71
Oklahoma
41.43
43.86
34.25
S. Carolina
44.92
60.06
7.84
Tennessee
42.80
-- --
-- —
Texas
43.15
38.76
16.02 .
Virginia
41.54
- -
Average of
entire country.
41.33
44.31
.
-—
—
—
—
--
- -
12.57
* Fred McCuiston, Financing Schools in the South
(Nashville: State Directors of Educ ational He sear ch in the
Southern States, 1930), p. 25.
62
41.3 per cent.
However, the expenditure per pupil enrolled,
as shown in the same table, was nearly four times as much
per white as Negro pupil.
Another measure of willingness or effort to educate is
shown by the number of school days per year and the teaching
load, or number of pupils per teacher.
In 1930 provision for
the white pupils in the South measured up fairly well with
that of the nation as a whole.
Table VII gives statistics
for both the length of the term in days and the number of
pupils enrolled per teacher.
Here again, there was discrim­
ination in favor of the white pupils who had a six weeks
longer term.
Need to e ducate Negroes.
In order that the people of
the South may compete with those of other states, Dabney^
affirmed, they must educate all their children, not only the
white, but also the black; and they must educate them, not
poorly for a few years, but thoroughly for a long series of
years.
He stated further that a people’s poverty is the
most unanswerable argument for providing good schools, since
the right kind of school is the only remedy for poverty.
If the South spent more money for education, he added, they
would not only save much in'criminal prosecution, but would
29 Ibid.. pp. 79-80.
63
TABLE VII
EFFORT OR WILLINGNESS TO EDUCATE*
State
Length of term
in days
White Colored
Number Pupils
Enrolled per Teacher
vVhite Colored
Alabama
158
127
46
64
Arkansas
150
132
42
46
Florida
163
124
32
41
Georgia
154
137
45
49
Kentucky
---
---
44
35
Louisiana
173
114
43
54
Maryland
189
178
44
39
Mississippi
162
112
29
56
N. Carolina
154
138
44
43
Oklahoma
150
142
46
35
S. Carolina
172
116
42
48
Tennessee
167
149
42
41
Texas
157
130
46
43
Virginia
165
142
41
40
Average of
entire country
165
134
43
47
* Fred McCuiston, Financing Schools in the South
(Nashville: State Directors of Educational Research in the
Southern States, 1930), p. 25.
64
increase enormously their earning power.
When Walter Hines Page, a southern educator,, gave an
address on "The Forgotten Man” at the North Carolina State
College for Teachers in 1897, he said in part:
In making as estimate of a civilization it is the
neglected and forgottan man more.than any other that
must be taken into account. . . I n considering the
level of the life of any community, you must not
give undue value to any class of men. A community
is not rich because it contains a few rich men; it
is not healthful because it contains a few strong
men; it is not intelligent because it contains a
few men of learning; not is it of good morals because it contains good women— if the rest of the
population also be not well-to-do, or healthful,
or intelligent, or of good morals.30
Thus, he expressed the principle of the solidarity of
all mankind, which applied to the present problem would mean
that the education of the Negro was not the burden alonf of
any city or state, but the obligation of the entire nation.
Trends in Negro education.
The increase in Negro
education by all measurements, according to Thomas Jesse
J o n e s , h a s been "little less than marvelous.”
He also ex­
presses the belief that the progress will continue until the
quantity and quality of Negro education will attain to the
prevailing American standard.
30
Ibid., p. 238.
Thomas Jesse Jones, "Trends in Negro Education,"
Twenty Year Report of the Phelps-Stokes Fund 1911-1931 (New
YorKT'PEeTps~3t~5IcesH^unsT
T,' p T W T ------
65
Some of the trends in Negro education noted by Jones
are that: (1) the methods and objectives of the Negro schools
are more and more in the direction of the current require­
ments of the state educational departments and teacher train­
ing colleges; (2) there is a steady increase in the proportion
of Negro teachers; and (3) there is increasing development of
cooperation between federal, state, county and local govern­
ment, philanthropic funds and religious boards for the ad­
vancement and improvement of Negro
s c h o o l s *32
Bases for educational planning. As bases for planning
to equalize the educational opportunities of the white and
Negro children in the states which maintain separate schools,
V/ilkerson listed what he considered realizable objectives in
public provisions for -the education of Negroes.
1* Compulsory school attendance laws should be en­
forced equally for the children of both races.
2. The average length of term for Negro elementary
and secondary schools in a given state would be in­
creased to the corresponding average for white schools
in that state.
3. Transportation facilities would be provided to
an extent which would make schools as accessible to
Negro pupils as they are to white pupils.
4. Steps would be taken to supply the approximately
16,000 Negro teachers necessary on the basis of the
1933-34 enrollments to equalize the pupil-loads of white
Loc. cit.
66
and Negro teachers at the current level for white
teachers.
5. The minimum period of education above high school
required for appointment to given types of teaching
positions would be made equivalent for white and Negro
teachers in a given state or community.
6. The annual salaries of Negro teachers would be
made equal to those for white teachers with comparable
qualifications and responsibilities in the same com­
munity.
7. Negro school buildings and equipment would be
made quite as adequate as those for white pupils in
the same communities.
8. Steps would be taken to provide secondary school
facilities for the 158,900 Negroes of high school age
in 230 counties in which no Negro high schools exist.
9. There would be expended for Negro schools in a
given state or community at least a proportionate
amount of whatever local state or federal funds there
are available for public education.
10. There would be extended to Negro citizens an
equitable opportunity to participate in the formulation
of educational policies in each state and in each com­
munity within a state.33
As it is impossible for a single locality to meet more
than a smalT^part of the expenses of the school, making it
necessary for the state to help, so it has come about that
the state cannot bear all the expenses of its schools, making
it necessary for the federal government to help.
So unequal has educational opportunity become that
President Roosevelt’s Advisory Committee on Education has
^ Doxey A. Wilkerson, Special Problems of Negro Edu­
cation (Washington, D.C.: United St"ates Government Printing
Office, 1939), pp. 158-59.
67
recommended that Federal funds be allocated to the states on
the basis of financial ability and has found it necessary to
ask for a special provision
• . . that for all states maintaining separate
schools for Negroes, the proposed grants be con­
ditioned upon the formulation of joint plans that
will provide for an equitable distribution of
Federal grants between white and Negro schools
without reduction of the proportion of state and
local funds spent for Negro schools.34
The American Federation of Labor is at the very present urging
Federal aid to equalize educational opportunities for the
citizens of all sections of the country.
V.
SUMMARY
Persons accustomed to the average schools of the North
and West can with difficulty visualize some of the public
schools provided for Negroes in the South.
Approximately one
million, or thirty per cent, of the Negro children of school
age in the South never entered any kind of school in 1930.
More than sixty per cent of all Negro elementary children
are in the first three grades^ and eighty-five per cent of all
Negro children quit school before entering the seventh grade.
The Negro pupil of the South is the most underprivi­
leged and poorly provided for pupil in America.
Despite
Walter Lobar, "The Social Objectives of Education,"
Educational Trends,.9:5-12, March-April, 1941.
34
68
their poverty, eighteen of the southern states most heavily
populated by Negroes are required by law to maintain separate
schools for them.
School authorities usually consider it
their first duty to provide good schools for white children.
After the white schools are given such funds as are needed,
the colored schools get what is left.
One of the chief factors that has operated against
the provision of educational opportunities for Negroes in the
South has been the prevalent belief in their low degree of
educability and inferior mental endowment.
Recent critical
studies of intelligence and achievement test results in the
light of modern psychology, however, severely challenge the
tenability of such a belief regarding the Negro.
On the con­
trary, the conclusion has been reached that the inefficiency
of Negro pupils is at least as much the result of a- poor edu­
cational system and an inferior background as of an inferior
inherited mental ability.
Investigations of racial differ­
ences proved that there is no adequate evidence to support
an assumption of inferior native learning ability on the part
of Negro children.
There can.be no doubt that the marked inequalities ex­
isting in the South between white and Negro schools seriously
curtail the scholastic achievements of Negro pupils.
It has
been found that Negroes in the North do very much better on
achievement tests than those in the South.
Furthermore, the
69
difference between white and Negro children in intelligence
test scores tends to disappear as the environments of the two
groups approach equality.
If the South spends far less for schools than the
average of the other states, it is because she does not have
the money to spend.
The South has made a good showing in sup­
porting her schools, when consideration is given to her effort
in proportion to her
larger proportion
ability. In 1930 the South spent a
of her funds on schools than did the other
sections of the United States.
However, the expenditure per
pupil enrolled was nearly four times as much per white as per
Negro pupil.
The advance in education made by the members of the
Negro race in the United States, Ickes recognizes as a chal­
lenge to the admiration of the world.
No other people has ever made such a broad and
quick advance
in the same space of time. And this
has been done
in spite of tremendous obstacles.
Politically handicapped, the Negroes in many states
do not have the advantage of the educational facili­
ties furnished for white children. Where the need is
the greatest, schools are the fewest. . . But with
remarkable fortitude the Negro as a race has moved
steadily forward under the encouragement and inspir­
ation of intelligent courageous and far-visioned
leaders of their own race. The qualities of mind and
heart that have brought them in the short span of 70
years from where they were to where they are. are
such as to merit our admiration and respect.*5
35
Harold L. Ickes, "The Education of the Negro in the
United States," Journal of Negro Education, 3:6, June, 1934.
CHAPTER V
ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION
Gathering the data.
The data for this study was se-
■cured from questionnaires which were sent to principals of
elementary schools for Negroes in selected southern states.
The field of inquiry was narrowed to city schools having at
least four teachers.
The lists of principals of elementary Negro schools
in Texas, Florida and Alabama were compiled by the writer
from recent bulletins published by the department of. educa­
tion of those states.
However, as no such information was
available for Mississippi, Louisiana and Georgia, it was
necessary for the writer to be more resourceful.
Personal letters v^ere written to the Supervisor of
Negro Schools in Mississippi; the Agent of Schools for
Negroes in Louisiana; and the Director of Negro Education in
Georgia.
Each sent a state bulletin containing a list of
Negro high schools.
As the bulletin from Louisiana also con­
tained a list of the parish superintendents, twenty were con­
tacted personally, requesting their cooperation in the study
by furnishing the names of principals in the elementary Negro
schools in their parish.
Letters were received from nine
superintendents and questionnaires were then sent to the
principals whose names were suggested.
71
In Georgia and Mississippi the method for securing
the data was to send a personal letter to the principal of a
Negro high school, asking for his cooperation and a list of
the principals of elementary Negro schools in his city.
From twenty letters sent to high school principals in Georgia
eleven replies were received; and from fifteen sent to prin­
cipals of Negro high schools in Mississippi nine were re­
ceived.
However, only three of the latter suggested names
of principals for this study, their explanation "being that
most of the elementary schools for Negroes were one-teacher
schools.
Finally, a total of 214 questionnaires were mailed to
principals of elementary Negro schools in the six southern
states in this study: thirty to Alabama; thirty-eight to
Florida; thirty-four to Georgia; forty-two to Louisiana;
twenty to Mississippi; and fifty to Texas.
Fifty-one ques­
tionnaires were returned: eleven from Alabama; nine from
Florida; eight from Georgia; eight from Louisiana; two from
Mississippi; and thirteen from Texas.
Unfortunately, one
from Louisiana was not filled out on the second page and had
to be discarded, leaving fifty for use in this study.
In analyzing these data separate tables have been made
for each of the six divisions of the questionnaire.
Each
division has been further subdivided by states, with the ex­
ception of Mississippi.
However, the two replies from this
72
state have been Included in the summary table of each divi­
sion of the questionnaire.
Cumulative pupil records.
Replying to the question,
f,Are satisfactory cumulative pupil records being maintained
and used?” seven principles in Alabama answered "always"';
one, "occasionally” ; one, "seldom"; and two, "never."
All
nine of the principals from Florida replied "always."
In
Georgia five principals indicated "always" and three "occa­
sionally."
There was a diversity of opinion in Louisiana:
three for "always," three for "frequently" and one for "oc­
casionally."
"always."
The-two principals in Mississippi agreed on
In Texas twelve of the thirteen replies stated
"always" with the dissenter indicating "occasionally."
(See
Tables VIII-XII).
Compulsory attendance laws.
The replies indicated a
rather general laxity in the enforcement of the attendance
laws.
Only one principal in Alabama considered that the com­
pulsory attendance laws were effectively though sanely en­
forced.
Two voted for "occasionally"; four for "seldom"; and
four for "never."
In Florida two principals believed the laws
were always enforced; five indicated "occasionally" and two
"never."
There was some disagreement in Georgia: two record­
ing "always"; one, "occasionally"; two, "seldom” ; and three,
"never."
The picture was not so bright in Louisiana.
Three
73
TABLE Till
ORGANIZATION
AND ADMINISTRATION IN ALABAMA
Question
A
P
0
s
N
1. Are satisfactory cumulative
pupil records being maintained
and used?
7
0
1
1
2
2. Are the compulsory attend­
ance laws effectively though
sanely enforced?
1
0
2
4
4
5. Is the attendance officer
primarily a social worker
rather than a police officer?
5
1
1
1
3
4. Are school opportunities
provided for all children of
elementary school age?
7
1
1
0
2
NOTE: The symbols are to be read as follows: A-Always;
F=Frequently; 0=Oceasionally; S»Seldom; and NsNever.
74
TABLE IX
ORGANIZATION AND'ADMINISTRATION IN FLORIDA
Question
A
F
0
S
N
1. Are satisfactory cumulative
pupil records being maintained
and used?
9
0
0
0
0
B. Are the compulsory attend­
ance laws effectively though
sanely enforced?
2
0
5
0
2
3. Is the attendance officer
primarily a social worker
rather than a police officer?
3
3
1
1
1
4. Are school opportunities
provided for all children of
elementary-school age?
6
0
2
1
0
NOTE: The symbols are to be read as follows: A=Always;
F=Frequently; 0=0ceasionally; S=Seldom; and N»Never.
75
TABLE X
ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION IN GEORGIA
Question
A
F
0
n
O
N
1. Are satisfactory cumulative
pupil records being maintained
and used?
5
0
3
0
0
2. Are the compulsory attend­
ance laws effectively though
sanely enforced?
2
0
1
2
3
3. Is the attendance officer
primarily a social worker
rather than a police officer?
3
0
1
1
3
4, Are school opportunities
provided for all children of
elementary-school age?
6
1
0
1
0
NOTE: The symbols are to be read as follows: A=Always;
F-Frequently; O=0ceasionally; S-3eldom; and N-Never.
76
TABLE XI
ORGANIZATION
AND ADMINISTRATION IN LOUISIANA
Question
A
5*
0
S
N
1. Are satisfactory cumulative
pupil records being maintained
and used?
3
3
1
0
0
2. Are the compulsory attend­
ance laws effectively though
sanely enforced?
0
0
3
2
2
3. Is the attendance officer
primarily a social worker
rather than a police officer?
1
0
1
1
3
4. Are. school opportunities
provided for all children of
elementary-school age?
5
0
1
0
0
NOTE: The symbols are to be read as follows: A=Always;
F=Erequently; 0=0ccasionally; S*rSeldom; and NaNever •
77
TABLE XII
ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION IN TEXAS
Question
A
F
0
S
12
0
1
0
2. Are the compulsory attend­
ance laws effectively though
sanely enforced?
3
2
4
3
1
3. Is the attendance officer
primarily a social worker
rather than a police officer?
4
2
2
2
3
0
1
0
0
1. Are satsifactory cumulative
pupil records being maintained
and used?
4. Are school opportunities
provided for all children of
elementary-school age?
12
N
.
0
NOTE: The symbols are to be read as follows: A=Always;
F=Frequently; O=0ccasionally; S»Seldom; and N«Never.
78
checked "occasionally” ; two, "seldom"; and two "never."
A
more serious situation was shown by the principals from the
state of Mississippi, for both agreed the attendance laws
were never enforced.
There was diversity of opinion in Texas
as three principals checked "always"; two, "frequently” ; four
"occasionally"; three "seldom"; and one "never."
The attendance officer.
In Alabama five principals
indicated that the attendance officer was always a social
worker rather than a police officer.
However, others dis­
agreed with them: one indicated "frequently"; one "occasion­
ally"; one "seldom"; and three "never."
In Florida three
principals stated "always"; three "frequently"; one "occa­
sionally"; one "seldom"; and one "never."
There was also a
difference of opinion in Georgia• three principals voting
"always” ; one "occasionally"; one "seldom"; and three "never."
Two of the latter stated that they had no attendance officer.
Only one principal in Louisiana said the attendance officer
was always a social worker; one each "occasionally" and "sel­
dom" ; and three "never."
The one Mississippi principal ans­
wering the question checked "never."
In Texas there was a
variety of answers: four, "always"; two, "frequently"; two,
"occasionally"; two, "seldom"; and three,"never."
the latter stated her officer was a statistician.
One of
School opportunities.
The majority of the principals
seemed to feel that school opportunities were provided for
all children of elementary-school age*
In Alabama seven
answered "always"; one each "frequently" and "occasionally";
and two "never,"
In Florida six stated "always"; two, "occa­
sionally"; and one. "seldom."
Six principals in G-eorgia
agreed on "always"; and one each indicated "frequently" and
"seldom."
There were six principals in Louisiana checking
"always" and only one "occasionally."
The two Mississippi
principals believed that opportunities were always provided.
In Texas there was one dissenting vote, for "occasionally";
the other twelve all voted for "always."
The length of the school term and the per cent of at­
tendance are both a general indication of school opportuni­
ties.
Between 1920 and 1930 the number of Negroes between
five and twenty years of age attending school increased by
447 thousand and the number not attending school decreased by
115 thousand.
This change represents a growth in population
and also improved conditions and greater interest in educa­
tion.!
Poor school attendance is a major problem among Negroes
Negroes in the United States 1920-1952, United States
Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census (Washington, D.C.
United States Government Printing Office, 1935), p. 208.
Approximately a half million children, constituting more
than one-fifth of the Negro enrollment are out of school
each day.
The character of the educational facilities, Cal-
iver2 believes, has some relation to the poor attendance.
The average length of the school terra for Negro
schools in the United States in 1931-32 was 135 days with an
average attendance of 74.8 per cent, or three-fourths of the
enrollment.
In the states■considered in this study, the
length of school term that year in Negro schools was as fol­
lows: Alabama, 127 days;.Florida, 162; Georgia. 121; Louisi­
ana, 119; Mississippi, 105; and Texas, 137.
The per cent of school attendance is higher in the
urban Negro schools than the general average of the country.
Census figures4 compiled in 1930 for Negro children seven to
thirteen years of age attending city schools indicated the
following per cent of attendance in the states of this study
Alabama, 91.3; Florida, 94.2; Georgia, 87.5; Louisiana, 92.8
Mississippi, 92.8; and Texas, 93.0.
2
Ambrose Caliver, "Elementary Education of Negroes,"
School Life, 25:243, May, 1940.
3 Monroe N. Work, Negro Year Book 1937-1958 (Tuskegee
Institute, Alabama: Negro "Tear Book Publishing Company,1937)
p. 171.
^ Negroes in the United States, op. cit., p. 218.
Summary.
In Table XIII a summary is presented of the
information regarding organization and administration given
in the fifty questionnaires from the six southern states in
this study.
The following general trends were noted.
There
were seventy-six per cent of the principals who considered
that satisfactory cumulative pupil records were being main­
tained and used.
A small group, sixteen per cent, held~that
the compulsory attendance laws were effectively though sanely
enforced, while thirty per cent held they were enforced only
occasionally and twenty-eight per cent that they were never
enforced.
Two approximately equal groups represented extreme
points of view regarding the attendance officer being a social
worker rather than a police officer, thirty-two per cent
checking "always” and twenty-eight per cent, "never."
There
was almost uniformity of opinion as to the school opportunities
provided for all children of elementary-school age, seventyeight per cent of the principals agreeing that these opportunities were always provided.
82
TABLE XIII
3OTMARY OF ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION
Question
Always
No. %
Frequently
No. •% '
Occasionally
%
No.
Seldom
No. Jo
Never
No.
%
1
38
76
3
6
6
12
1
.2
2
4
2
8
16
2
4
15
30
11
22
14
28
3*
16
32
6
12
6
12
6
12
14
28
4
39
78
2
4
5
10
2
4
2
4
* Two principals omitted this question.
CHAPTER VI
PERSONNEL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION
It is only in recent years that Negro teaching per­
sonnel haYe come into their own.
Formerly the education of
the Negro was dominated in a large measure by religious in­
struction.
Long regards this change which has taken place
in the higher institutions of learning as "among the most
efficacious movements in education for Negroes.
This means
a more realistic outlook for the teaching personnel.
Selection of school employees.
The ideal way of
choosing school employees, of course, would be solely on the
basis of merit.
The group of principals answering the ques­
tionnaire were divided in their opinion.
A large number felt
that selections were made on the basis of merit, while others
indicated that other factors entered into the selection.
In
Alabama the vote was four "always” , three "frequently” , two
"occasionally", and two "never."
The Florida principals were
nearly evenly divided as to "always" and "occasionally",
three:checking the former and four the latter, while the two
remaining checked "frequently."
In Georgia a majority of
five agreed on "always" and the other two indicated their
■** Howard H. Long, "The Negro Secondary School Popula­
tion," Journal of Negro Education, 9:458, July, 1940.
84
choice as "occasionally."
A majority of those in Louisiana,
or four, answered "occasionally", while one each answered
"always", "frequently", and "seldom."
The opinion of the two
principals from Mississippi was divided between "seldom" and
"occasionally."
The Texas principals seemed sure of fair
play, seven voting "always" and five "frequently", with only
one dissenter voting "seldom."
Teachers * salaries.
(See Tables XIV to XVIII).
All teachers in southern schools
are poorly paid, but the salaries of colored teachers are
especially meager.
This discrimination is found not only in
the rural but also in the city schools.
The lower wage of
the Negro teacher, Van Deusen^ explains, is due partly to
the fact that she is poorly trained and less efficient than
the white teacher.
However, the lower wages also preclude
the possibility of securing better teachers.
A comparison of the salaries of white and Negro
teachers in thirteen southern states over a period of years
is shown in Figure 3.
In 1900 the average annual salary of
white teachers in elementary schools in the South, of three
to five months 1 terms, was $162 and that of Negro teachers
c
was $106, or sixty-five per cent.
By 1930 the school terms
had lengthened and all the conditions in the schools, both
^ John G-. Van Deusen, The Black Man in White America
(Washington, D.O.: Associated Publishers , Inc. ,X§3"8), p. 168.
85
TABLE XIV
PERSONNEL
ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION IN ALABAMA
Question
A
F
Q
S
N
1. Are school employees
chosen solely on the basis
of merit?
4
3
2
0
2
2.
0
0
2
2
7
3. If salaries are not ade­
quate, do they represent the
maximum which the district
can afford?
0
0
0
3
8
4* Are teachers encouraged to
remain year after year in the
same school and to become real
leaders and builders of the
community?
5
4
1
1
0
5. Are teachers encouraged to
continue their professional
training?
7
1
3
0
0
6 . Is a helpful program of inservice growth for teachers
carried out?
2
2
5
2
0
7. Are there supervisory of­
ficers from whom every teacher,
can obtain sufficient help and
guidance with general teaching
problems?
4
0
2
2
3
. Are supervisors available
to give sufficient help with
music, art, and other subjects
requiring special training and
skill?
4
0
2
2
3
Are salaries adequate?
8
NOTE: The symbols are to be read as follov^s: AsAlways;
F=Frequently; 0=Gccasionally; S^Seldom; and N-Never.
86
TABLE XV
PERSONNEL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION IN FLORIDA
Question
A
F
0
s
N
1* Are school employees
chosen solely on the basis
of merit?
3
2
4
0
0
2.
Are salaries adequate?
0
1
0
2
6
3. If salaries are not ade­
quate, do they represent the
maximum which the district can
afford?
1
0
1
0
6
4. Are teachers encouraged to
remain year after year in the
same school and to become real
leaders and builders of the
community?
6
2
1
0
0
5. Are teachers encouraged to
continue their professional
training?
8
0
0
0
0
6.
Is a helpful program of
in-service growth for teachers
carried out?
3
4
1
1
0
7. Are there supervisory of­
ficers from whom every teacher
can obtain sufficient help and
guidance vALth general teaching
problems?
6
1
0
1
0
8 . Are supervisors available
to give sufficient help with
music, art, and other subjects
requiring special training and
skill?
2
2
1
3
•.
1
NOTE: The symbols are to be read as follows: A=Always;
FrFrequently; 0=0ccasionally; -S=Seldom; and N=Never.
87
TABLE XVI
PERSONNEL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION IN GEORGIA
Question
A
F
0
S
N
1. Are school employees
chosen solely on the basis
of merit?
5
0
2
0
0
S.
1
0
1
2
4
3. If salaries are not ade­
quate, do they represent the
maximum which the district
can afford?
0
0
2
2
3
4. Are teachers encouraged to
remain year after year in the
same school and to become real
leaders and builders of the
community?
5
1
1
1
0
5. Are teachers encouraged to
continue their professional
training?
5
1
2
0
0
. Is a helpful program of
in-service growth for teachers
carried out?
3
2
1
2
0
7. Are there supervisory of­
ficers from whom every teacher
can obtain sufficient help and
guidance with general teaching
problems?
4
2
1
1
0
. Are supervisors available
to give sufficient help with
music, art, and other subjects
requiring special training and
skill?
3
0
1
1
3
Are salaries adequate?
6
8
NOTE: The symbols are to be read as follows: A-Always;
FssFrequently; ©^Occasionally; S.-Seldom; and N-Never •
88
TABLE XVII
PERSONNEL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION IN LOUISIANA
Question ■
A
F
0
S
N
1. Are school employees
chosen solely on the basis
of merit?
1
1
4
1
0
2.
0
0
3
3
1
3. If salaries are not adequate
do they represent the maximum
which the district can afford?
1
0
2
1
2
4. Are teachers encouraged to
remain year after year in the
same school and to become real
leaders and builders of the
community?
3
2
2
0
0
5, Are teachers encouraged to
continue their professional
training?
6
1
0
0
0
6.
Is a helpful program of
in-service growth for teachers
carried out?
3
2
1
1
0
7. Are there supervisory of­
ficers from whom every teacher
can obtain sufficient help and
guidance with general teaching
problems?
4
1
1
0
1
. Are supervisors available
to give sufficient help with
music, art, and other subjects
requiring special training and
skill?
0
1
2
1
3
Are salaries adequate?
8
NOTE: The symbols are to be read as follows: A=Always;
F=Frequently; 0«0ecasionally; S-Seldom; and N=Never.
89
TABLE XVIII
PERSONNEL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION IN TEXAS
Question
A
F
0
S
N
1. Are school employees
chosen solely on the basis
of merit?
7
5
0
1
0
2
1
1
2
7
3. If salaries are not adequate
do they represent the maximum
which the district can afford?
0
2
2
2
5
4. Are teachers encouraged to
remain year after year in the
same school and to become real
leaders and builders of the
community?
8
2
2
1
0
5. Are teachers encouraged to
continue their professional
training?
8
4
1
0
0
6.
Is a helpful program of
in-service growth for teachers
carried out?
3
5
2
1
2
7. Are there supervisory of­
ficers from whom every teacher
can obtain sufficient help and
guidance with general teaching
problems?
7
3
0
2
1
. Are supervisors available
to give sufficient help with
music, art, and other subjects
requiring special training and
skill?
4
3
2
1
3
2
.. Are salaries adequate?
8
NOTE: The symbols are to be read as follows: Ar Always;
F=Frequently; 0=0ccasionally; S=Seldom; and N-Never.
90
900
rrr
600
300
100
r+
m
+i-ft--BC
■;
t- ■,
+
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ii;f
DoaeV ^
Bduclatlqn+ ;(\\ a sh l ngtc >n;?;pi )V r 6 ;rrrjlft ii,te< i
HrHlTfiiTOfi ic e :, tIO v >9:)“:: :p .bJ fs i r L r if }-1
N o. 6302, U n iv e r s ity B oo k s to re, Los A n g eles
M'
es:-G-ovj5X mm mfr-
91
town and country, had improved materially.
But while the
average annual salary of the white teachers had increased to
$901, the average of the Negroes was only $423, or fortyseven per cent of the white teacher*s salary.
A further distribution of the average yearly and
monthly salaries paid white and colored teachers for the
school year 1928-29 in twelve of the southern states is shown
in Table XIX.
In 1935-36 the average salary of all Negro
teachers was $510; for Negro teachers in regular and voca­
tional high schools, $814; and only $439 for all elementary
school teachers.^
Most of the principals answering the questionnaire
agreed that teachers* salaries were seldom or never adequate.
However, there was an exception in the case of one principal
in Georgia and two in Texas who felt that the salaries were
always adequate.
As to whether or not the salaries represented the
maximum the district-eould afford, most of the principals
again agreed that they seldom or never did.
Only one princi­
pal in Louisiana and one in Florida attributed such fairness
to their districts.
D. T. Blose and A. Galiver, "Statistics of the Edu­
cation of Negroes, 1933-34 and 1935-36," Elementary School
Journal, 40:253, December, 1939.
92
TABLE XIX
DISTRIBUTION OF AVERAGE SALARIES PAID URBAN AND
RURAL PUBLIC SCHOOL TEACHERS, 1928-29*
State
Average Annual
Salaries
White
Colored
Alabama
*
838. 0 0
354.00
667. 0 0
Average Monthly
Salaries
White
Colored
106.07
55.75
436.00
89.29
66.26
,235. 25
482.96
152.50
76.40
Georgia
792. 32
306.76
100.29
44.78
Kentucky
-------
829.61
--------—
97.80
Arkansas
Florida
1
—
#
Louisiana
1
,124. 03
477.60
129.20
85.28
Maryland
1
,352. 0 0
947.00
143.98
107.74
N. Carolina
1
,406. 75
464.98
114.89
68.38
------- —
107.64
82.94
316.39
121.05
55.51
526.29
--------—
—
Oklahoma
S. Carolina
--------
1
—
,047. 14
—
Tennessee
--------
Virginia
794. 98
434.00
92.44
—
60.28
* Fred McCuiston, The South*s Negro Teaching Force
(Nashville: Julius Rosenwald Fund, 1931), p. 22.
93
An interesting study shown in Table XX has been made
of the per cent of Negro apportionment used for teachers1
salaries in thirty-five east Texas cities during the school
year 1929-30.
The per cent used for salaries ranged from
thirty-two to one hundred with a median of fifty-seven per
cent.
Community leaders.
Usually it is considered a wise
policy to encourage teachers to remain year after year in the
same school, thus becoming real leaders and builders of the
community.
The principals in all six states were in agree­
ment on this subject.
The majority of them answered "always”
and with a few exceptions the remainder of them answered
"frequently."
Professional training.
Both white and colored schools
in the South suffer from poorly trained teachers.
Homrever,
the colored schools suffer more in this respect because there
are fewer Negroes capable of teaching.
They are themselves
the product of short terms, poor teachers, and low standards.
As late as 1930 Fred McCuiston declared that there were more
than eighteen thousand city and rural Negro teachers in.the
southern states who possess less than a high school education.
For comparison the number having attended college is .also
shown in Table XXI.
94
TABLE XX
PER CENT OF NEGRO APPORTIONMENT USED FOR TEACHERS'
SALARIES IN 35 EAST TEXAS CITIES, 1929-30*
City
. Apportionment
Amount
Used for
Salaries
-
Amount not
Used for
Salaries
Per cent
Used for
Salaries
-
Athens '
Beaumont
Center
Clarksville
Coldspring
Corsicana
Crockett
Gilmer
Greenville
Henderson
Houston
Huntsville
Jasper
Jefferson
Kerens
Long View
Lufkin
Marshall
Mexia
Montgomery
Nacogdoches
Navasota
Orange
Palestine
Paris
Pittsburg
Port Arthur
San Augustine
Sulphur Springs
Teague
Texarkana
Timpson
Trinity
Tyler
Wa skom
Total
|
7,333
84,310
6,860
5,302
8,925
13,772
12,075
6,037
10,745
8,137
235,112
4,550
11,672
10,325
9,485
19,985
10,027
44,082
12,845
9,240
15,610
16,030
13,125
19,022
28,647
5,932
40,687
5,022
9,327
5,302
23,607
9,397
7,000
23,730
13,090
$ 766,247
|
4,762
78,175
2,770
3,825
6,160
13,522
4,610
3,040
4,872
3,915
374,279
4,915
8,735
5,929
5,620
8,970
4,015
28,797
10,478
5,050
6,588
8,355
10,790
10,651
17,770
3,160
34,316
2,190
2,992
2,475
16,306
5,940
2,530
12,604
4,785
| 723,891
I
2,571
6,035
4,090
1,477
2,765
250
7,465
2,997
5,873
4,222
65
92
40
72
69
98
38
50
45
48
100
100
2,937
4,396
3,865
11,015
15,285
2,367
4,190
9 ,022
7,675
2,335
8,371
10,877
2,772
6,‘
871
2,832
6,335
2,827
7,310
3,457
4,470
11,126
8,305
74
57
59
45
40
65
81
54
42
52
82
56
62
53
84
43
32
46
69
63
36
53
36
$ 181,888
76
6,012
* The Prairie View Standard, August 1931 , pp. 16-17.
95
TABLE XXI
NUMBER AND LEVELS OF TRAINING OF
PRESENT TEACHING FORCE, 1930*
State
Alabama
Arkansas
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland
Mississippi
Missouri
N. Carolina
Oklahoma
S. Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Virginia
Total
Having less
than high
school
2,250
850
1,680
3,200
150
27
24
3,500
Two years
college or
equivalent
2,000
300
1,200
B. S. degree
or
equivalent
325
75
300
103
150
255
146
500
75
568
1,322
750
2,423
656
748
450
494
750
555
1,206
1,500
600
1,679
300
1,824
700
1,535
800
103
500
972
250
18,130
15,443
4,422
100
100
* Fred McCuiston, The South1s Negro Teaching Force
(Nashville: Julius Rosenwald Fund, 1931), p. 19.
96
The shortage of properly equipped colored teachers
has been partially met by the establishment of county train­
ing schools and state normal schools.
There are also city,
normal schools for.Negroes, as well as teacher training
courses in several Negro high schools.
Some states require
Negroes to attend sehool to renew their certificates.
As a
result, the salaries of teachers have more than doubled in
some states and the length of the school term has been in­
creased.4
The majority of the principals agreed that teachers
are always encouraged to continue their professional train­
ing with a small minority checking "frequently* or "occasion­
ally."
However, there was quite a variety of answers re­
garding the helpful program of in-service growth.
In Alabama
five of the principals agreed that the program was carried
out occasionally, while two each indicated "always", "fre­
quently" and "seldom."
In Florida three principals checked
"always" and "frequently", with one each checking "occasion­
ally" and "seldom."
In Georgia three principals voted for
"always" with two each voting for "frequently" and "seldom"
and one for "occasionally."
In Louisiana three principals
indicated "always" and two "frequently" with one each
"occasionally" and "seldom."
^ Van Deusen,
0 £.
The two principals from'
cit., p. 170.
97
Mississippi agreed on "always.”
Five of the Texas principals
checked "frequently” and three "always” , with two each check­
ing "occasionally” and "never” and one "seldom.”
Supervision.
Supervision has as its chief object the
further education of teachers, the proper induction of teach­
ers into the profession, and the interpretation of the best
and latest teaching procedures to those in service.
Until
recently the Negro school has been almost wholly without
supervision.
Many county superintendents visit their Negro
schools once or twice a year; others do not visit them at
all.
According to Leo M. Favrot, in 19£3, there were seven
hundred counties in the South without supervision.5
A survey of the status of supervision of schools for
Negroes in the south-eastern states reveals that there is a
great need for the services of helping teachers or super­
visors to give guidance, professional assistance, and en­
couragement to teachers of the schools; that the status of
supervision of schools for Negroes, while far from adequate,
is encouraging; and there is a tendency for states and coun­
ties to assume more and more of the financial obligation for
providing state and county supervisory services for N e g r o e s . ^
5
6
Thih., P- 168.
John E. Brewton, "The Status of Supervision of
Schools for Negroes in the Southeastern States," Journal of
Negro Education, 8:164-69, April, 1959.
98
Regarding supervisory officers from whom teachers can
obtain guidance with general teaching problems, a uniform
picture was presented by all six of the states.
In each case
the largest number of principals checked "always."
There was
also uniformity regarding supervisors for subjects requiring
special training and skill.
The replies were rather evenly
scattered from "always" to "never" with the exception of
Louisiana.
"always."
"never."
None of the principals from this state checked
Both of the principals from Mississippi marked
One principal in Texas and one in Georgia ex­
plained that there was supervision in music only.
Summary.
The summary of personnel administration and
supervision shown in .Table XXII reveals the fact that in the
six states being studied forty-two per cent of the teachers
are always and twenty-two per cent are frequently chosen
solely on the basis of merit.
Twenty-four per cent of the
principals considered that the salaries of the teachers were
seldom adequate and fifty-two per cent that they were never
so.
They also agreed that they did not represent the maxi­
mum the district was able to afford, fifty per cent checking
"never."
Fifty-eight per cent of the principals said that
teachers were always encouraged to remain year after year
and become leaders in the community.
Seventy-four per cent
asserted that teachers were urged to continue -their training.
99
TABLE XXII
SUMMARY OF PERSONNEL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION
Question
Frequently
NoT
%
Occasionally
tio.
To
Seldom
Wol
To
Never
No. %
21
42
11
22
13
26
2
4
2
4
3
6
2
4
7
14
12
24
26
52
2
4
2
4
7
14
9
18
25
50
4
29
58
11
22
7
14
3
6
0
0
5
37
74
7
14
6
12
0
0
0
0
6
16
32
15
30
10
20
7
14
2
4
17*
26
52
7
14
4
8
6
12
6
12
8
10
20
7
14
7
14
6
12
20
40
1
*
2
**
Always
No. fo
* One principal omitted this question.
Five principals omitted this question.
.
100
A majority added that a helpful program of in-service growth
was carried out, thirty-two per cent checking "always” and
thirty per cent, ."frequently.”
Supervisory officers for
general teaching problems were always found available in
fifty-two per cent of the schools, but' forty per cent of the
schools were without supervision in music, art, and other
subjects requiring special skill.
CHAPTER ¥11
THE INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM
No longer is the instructional program of a modern
school based entirely upon text-book information.
With the
general acceptance of progressive education and the project
method of acquiring first-hand information, educators have
been encouraged to adapt the curriculum to the immediate
needs of the pupils.
Local environment and local needs.
Throughout the
six southern states being studied the same general trend was
noted in making use of the local resources, local environment
and local history in the instructional program.
Almost half
of the principals checked "frequently* with nearly all the
others checking either "always* or "occasionally."
From the
questionnaires it was also indicated that many of the courses
of study were being built in terms of local needs.
However,
in this respect the states fell into two general groups.
In
Louisiana and Texas the large majority of the principals
answered "always", while in the remaining states the major­
ity answered "frequently" with the exception of Alabama
answering "occasionally."
(See Tables XXIII to XXVII),
Studying the curriculum.
The teachers in the six
southern states under consideration are devoting much time
10 2
TABLE XXIII
THE INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM IN ALABAMA
Question
A
F
0
S
N
1. Are teachers making suffi­
cient use of the local environ­
ment, local resources, and
local history?
2
5
2
2
0
4
1
. Is the course of study built
in terms of local needs?
2
3. Are teachers now studying
the curriculum with a view to
adapting and strengthening it?
1
4. Is special effort being made
to strengthen the work at some
grade level or in some depart­
ment or area where it has been
weak?
5
5
1
5. Are pupils taught by means of
first-hand experience activities
and projects whenever possible,
with the minimum use of formal
textbook recitation procedures?
3
5
3
0
0
6.
Is suitable opportunity pro­
vided for excursions and other
chances to observe real objects,
processes and relationships?
1
4
3
3
1
2
7. Is a genuine and successful
attempt being made to correlate
the work in various subjects and
departments and to minimize sub­
ject matter lines?
1
4
2
0
2
4
3
. Does the daily' schedule con­
sist of a few periods for care­
fully integrated activities rather
than numerous 5 to 15 minute
recitations?
3
4
1
3
2
2
0
0
1
8
2
1
103
TABLE XXIII CONTINUED
Question
A
F
0
S
N
9. Does the health program deal
primarily with local health prob­
lems and health needs?
5
6
: 0
0
0
. Is safety instruction given
to all pupils?
6
4
0
1
0
11. Does safety instruction
deal primarily with local school
and community hazards?
4
4
1
1
1
IB. Is maximum use being made of
visual aids, maps, pictures, and
specimens, as well as slides and
motion pictures?
S
3
0
3
3
13. Is full advantage taken of
radio facilities and programs?
1
3
0
2
5
14. Is provision made for indi­
vidual help and remedial work for
those who need it?
3
2
3
2
1
15. Is every teacher a guidance
worker, interested in and capable
of giving help to pupils with
their personal and educational
problems?
4
1
2
2
2
16. Do teachers make good use
of objective tests in evaluating
pupil achievement?
2
2
5
1
0
17. Are pupils interested pri­
marily in what they have learned
rather than in the marks they
have received?
0
3
4
3
1
10
NOTE: The symbols are to be read as follows: A«Always;
F=Frequently; 0=0ccasionally; S-Seldom; and N=Never.
104
TABLE XXIV
THE INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM IN FLORIDA
Question
■gi
A
0
1. Are teachers making suffi­
cient use of the local environ­
ment, local resources, and local
history?
S
N
0
0
. Is the course of study built
in terms of local needs?
2
0
3. Are teachers now studying
the curriculum with a view to
adapting and strengthening it?
4
0
0
0
4. Is special effort being made
to strengthen the work at some
grade level or in some department
or area where it has been weak?
0
0
0
0
5. Are pupils taught by means of
first-hand experience activities
and projects whenever possible,
with the minimum use of formal
textbook recitation procedures?
3
0
0
6.
Is suitable opportunity pro­
vided for excursions and other
chances to observe real objects,
processes and relationships?
7. Is a genuine and successful
attempt being made to correlate
the work in various subjects and
departments and to minimize sub­
ject matter lines?
. Does the daily schedule con­
sist of a few periods for care­
fully integrated activities rather
than numerous 5 to 15 minute
recitations?
0
.
2
0
0
0
0
0
8
105
TABLE XXIV CONTINUED
Question
A
F
0
S
N
9, Does the health program deal
primarily with looal health prob­
lems and health needs?
7
1
1
0
0
. Is safety instruction given
to all pupils?
7
2
0
0
0
11. Does safety instruction deal
primarily with local school and
community hazards?
6
3
0
0
0
12. Is maximum use being made of
visual aids, maps, pictures, and
specimens, as well as slides and
motion pictures?
2
3
2
1
1
13. Is full advantage taken of
radio facilities and programs?
1
1
4
3
0
14. Is provision made for indi­
vidual help and remedial work for
those who need it?
3
2
4
0
0
15. Is every teacher a guidance
worker, interested in and capable
of giving help to pupils with
their personal and educational
problems?
3
3
3
0
0
16. Do teachers make good use
of objective tests in evaluating
pupil achievement?
0
5
3
1
0
17. Are pupils interested pri­
marily in what they have learned
rather than in the marks they
have received?
0
2
6
1
0
10
NOTE: The symbols are to be read as follows: A=Always;
F=Frequently; 0=0ccasionally; S=Seldom; and N=Never.
106
TABLE XXV
THE INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM IN GEORGIA
Question
A
F
N
0
1. Are teachers making suffi­
cient use of the local environ­
ment, local resources, and local
history?
0
.2. Is the course of study built
in terms of local needs?
0
3* Are teachers now studying the
curriculum with a view to adapt­
ing and strengthening it?
4. Is special effort being made
to strengthen the work at some
grade level or in some department
or area where it has been weak?
0
5. Are pupils taught by means of
first-hand experience activities
and projects whenever possible,
with the minimum use of formal
textbook recitation procedures?
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
6 . Is suitable opportunity pro­
vided for excursions and other
chances to observe real objects,
processes and relationships?
7. Is a genuine and successful
attempt being made to correlatethe work in various subjects and
departments and to minimize sub­
ject matter lines?
. Does the daily schedule con­
sist of a few periods for care­
fully integrated activities
rather than numerous 5 to 15
minute recitations?
0
8
107
TABLE XXV CONTINUED
Question
A
F
0
S
N
9. Does the health program deal
primarily with local health prob­
lems and health needs?
6
2
0
0
0
10. Is safety instruction given
to all pupils?
5
2
1
0
0
11. Does safety instruction deal
primarily with local school and
community hazards?
6
1
0
0
0
IS. Is maximum use being made of
visual aids, maps, pictures, and
specimens, as well as slides and
motion pictures?
1
'4
2
0
1
13. Is full advantage taken of
radio facilities and programs?
1
1
1
2
2
14. Is provision made for indi­
vidual help and remedial work for
those who need it?
3
1
2
1
1
15. Is every teacher a guidance
worker, interested in and capable
of giving help to pupils with
their personal and educational
problems?
4
1
1
1
0
16. Do teachers make good use of
objective tests in evaluating
pupil achievement?
2
4
1
1
0
17. Are pupils interested pri­
marily in what they have learned
rather than in the marks they
have received?
2
1
2
3
0
NOTE: The symbols are to be read as follows: A=Always;
F=Frequently; 0=0ccasionally; S-Seldom; and N*Never.
108
TABLE XXVI
THE INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM IN LOUISIANA
Question
A
1. Are teachers making suffi­
cient use of the local environ­
ment, local resources, and local
history?
E
S
N
2
0
0
2. Is the course of study built
in terms of local needs?
5
0
0
3. Are teachers now studying
the curriculum with a view to
adapting and strengthening it?
3
0
0
4. Is special effort being made
to strengthen the work at some
grade level or in some department
or area where it has been weak?
3
5. Are pupils taught by means of
first-hand experience activities
and projects whenever possible,
with the minimum use of formal
textbook recitation procedures?
2
6 . Is suitable opportunity pro­
vided for excursions and other
chances to observe, real objects,
processes and relationships?
1
0
7. Is a genuine and successful
attempt being made to correlate
the work in various subjects and
departments and to minimize sub­
ject matter lines?
1
0
. Does a daily schedule con­
sist of a few periods for care­
fully integrated activities
rather than numerous 5 to 15
minute recitations?
4
0
0
0
8
0
0
0
109
TABLE XXVI CONTINUED
Question
A
F
0
S
N
9* Does the health program deal
primarily with local health prob­
lems and health needs?
5
2
0
0
0
10, Is safety instruction given
to all pupils?
4
3
0
0
0
11. Does safety instruction deal
primarily with local school and
community hazards?
0
5
1
0
0
IB. Is maximum use being made of
visual aids, maps, pictures, and
specimens, as well as slides and
motion pictures?
2
2
1
1
1
13. Is full advantage taken of
radio facilities and programs?
1
1
3
2
1
14. Is provision made for indi­
vidual help and remedial work for
those who need it?
1
2
4
0
0
15. Is every teacher a guidance
worker, interested in and capable
of giving help to pupils with their
personal and educational problems?
3
3
1
0
0
16. Do teachers make good use of'
objective tests in evaluating
pupil achievement?
2
2
1
0
2
17. Are pupils interested pri­
marily in what they have learned
rather than in the marks they
have received?
1
3
1
2
0
NOTE: The symbols are to be read as follows: A=Always;
F-Frequently; 0=0ccasionally; S=Seldom; and N-Never.
110
TABLE XXVII
THE INSTRUCTIONAL P ROGRAM IN TEXAS
0
S
N
1. Are 'teachers making suffi­
cient use of the local environ­
ment, local resources, and local
history?
4
0
0
2 . Is the course of study huilt
in terms of local needs?
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Question
A
F
3. Are teachers now studying
the curriculum with a view to
adapting and strengthening it?
4. Is special effort being made
to strengthen the work at some
grade level or in some department
or area where it has been weak?
8
5. Are pupils taught by means of
first-hand experience activities
and projects whenever possible,
with the minimum use of formal
textbook recitation procedures?
6. Is suitable opportunity pro­
vided for excursions and other
chances to observe real objects,
processes and relationships?
3
7. Is a genuine and successful
attempt being made to correlate
the work in^various subjects and
departments and to minimize sub­
ject matter lines?
0
8 . Does the daily schedule
consist of a few periods for
carefully integrated activities
rather than numerous 5 to 15
minute recitations?
0
111
TABLE XXVII CONTINUED
Question
A
F
0
S
N
9. Does the health program deal
primarily with local health prob-.
lems and health needs?
8
4
1
0
0
10
2
0
0
0
11. Does safety instruction deal
primarily with local school and
community hazards?
5
6
0
1
1
IS. Is maximum use being made of
visual aids, maps, pictures, and
specimens, as well as slides and
motion pictures?
2
5
2
4
0
13. Is full advantage taken of
radio facilities and programs?
5
2
4
1
1
14. Is provision made for indi­
vidual help and remedial work for
those who need it?
3
6
3
1
0
15. Is every teacher a guidance
worker, interested in and capable
of giving help to pupils with their
personal and educational problems?
6
3
1
3
0
16. Do teachers make good use
of objective tests in evaluating
pupil achievement?
7
4
2
0
0
17. Are pupils interested pri­
marily in what they have learned
rather than in the marks they
have received?
1
6
4
2
0
10. Is safety instruction given
to all pupils?
NOTE: The symbols are to be read as follows: A«Always;
F-Frequently; O-Occasionally; S-Seldom; and N=Never.
112
to the study of the curriculum with a view to adapting and
strengthening it.
A large majority said that they always
did so and most of the others that they frequently did so.
Less interest was shown in Alabama, with two principals mark
ing "seldom" and two others "never.”
Also in Texas there
were two checking "seldom" and one "never."
However, there
was a larger group reporting in the latter state.
Special effort is also being made to strengthen the
work at some grade level or in some department or area where
it has been weak.
Almost without exception the replies to
this question were "always" or at least "frequently."
How­
ever, one principal in Louisiana reported "seldom" and one
in Mississippi reported "never."
Projects and excursions.
The pupils in the six
southern states under investigation as a rule are taught by
means of first-hand experience activities and projects when­
ever possible with the minimum use of formal textbook reci­
tation procedures.
None of the principals gave the answer
"seldom" or "never" to this question.
The distribution of
replies was almost uniform, with a total of twenty-four for
"always" and twenty for "frequently."
The opportunities provided for excursions and other
chances to observe real objects, processes and relationships
in these schools were varied.
Only one principal in Alabama
113
indicated "always” , four "occasionally” and three each "sel­
dom” and "never.”
In Florida three answered "frequently”
and two each "always” , "occasionally” and "seldom."
Four
principals in Georgia checked' "always", the largest number
in any of the states; one each checked "frequently” , "occa­
sionally", "seldom" and "never."
Three of the principals in
Louisiana marked "frequently" and two "seldom” , with one each
"always" and "occasionally."
Five of the principals in Texas
voted for "frequently" and three for "occasionally", with two
each for "always" and "seldom" and one for "never."
Both of
the principals in Mississippi said excursions were never
taken.
Correlation and integration.
The majority of the
principals in the six states represented were in favor of
correlating the work in various subjects and departments to
minimize subject matter lines.
There were nineteen who indi­
cated that the correlation was always carried out and twenty
who frequently did so.
The best showing was made by Texas,
and Alabama was the only state in which one principal said
that it was never done.
Most of the principals agreed that the daily schedule
consisted of a few periods for carefully integrated activi­
ties, rather than numerous five to fifteen minute recitations.
Twenty-seven of the fifty principals checked "always" and
114
thirteen checked "frequently.”
Two principals said that it
was never done, one in Alabama and one in Louisiana.
Health program.
A very good showing was made by the
schools studied in regard to the health program.
Thirty-two
of the principals stated that the program dealt primarily
with local health problems and health needs.
None of the
states checked either the answer "seldom” or "never."
Safety instruction.
It was the consensus of opinion
that safety instruction was given to all pupils in these
six southern states.
Thirty-three of the principals agreed
that such instruction was always given to the entire school.
All the others indicated that safety instruction was fre­
quently given to all the pupils, with the exception of one
principal in Alabama and one in Georgia.
It was further agreed that safety instruction dealt
primarily with local school and community hazards.
Twenty-
two of the principals said that safety instruction always
dealt with local hazards, while all but six of the remainder
of the questionnaires were checked "frequently" on this item.
Visual aids and radio.
The use of visual aids was
not at all general in the fifty schools studied.
In each
state the answers were scattered throughout the five-point
scale.
Not more than two principals in any state indicated
115
that visual aids were always used, while a total of seventeen
indicated that they were frequently used.
Three principals
in Alabama and one each in Florida, Georgia, and Louisiana
never use visual aids, maps, pictures, and specimens, as
well as slides and motion pictures.
Even less use was made of the radio in these southern
schools than of visual aids.
Only one principal in each of
the six states checked "always", with the exception of Texas
where this reply was checked by five principals.
A total of
eight replies indicated that advantage was frequently taken
of radio facilities.
Five principals in Alabama never made
any use of radio facilities.
In cheeking "never" to this
question, one of the principals in Georgia explained that
her school had no electricity.
Remedial work and guidance.
Some attempt was made in
these fifty schools for individual help and remedial work,
although the plans were not very definite.
Three principals
each in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, and Texas always provide
for individual help.
Most of the schools occasionally pro­
vided for remedial work, with three making no provision
whatsoever.
It was found that the majority of the teachers were
guidance workers.
Twenty-one principals stated that their
teachers were interested and capable of giving help to pupils
116
with their personal and educational problems.
This prepara­
tion seemed quite evenly divided among the states.
Only two
principals in Alabama said that their teachers were never
guidance workers.
Pupil achievement.
i » nwr~i» —
-
—
—
—
—
The schools in Texas were out-
standing in the group in regard to the use of objective
tests, seven of them stating that they always used such tests
to evaluate pupil achievement.
The majority of the princi­
pals in the other five states in this study indicated that
objective tests were either "frequently” or "occasionally”
used in their schools.
Louisiana was the only state in
which objective tests were "never" used, two of the princi­
pals giving this response.
Four principals, one each in Louisiana and Texas and
two in Georgia agreed that their pupils were always more in­
terested in what they had learned than in the marks they had
received.
There seemed to be general agreement among the six
states upon this question, the majority of the principals
checking either "frequently" or "occasionally."
Alabama was
the only state in which one principal said that her pupils
were never more interested in what they had learned than in
the marks they had received.
Summary.
Several general trends were noted in the
instructional programs in these six southern states being
117
studied. -Forty-four per cent of the principals agreed that
their teachers frequently made sufficient use of the local
environment, local resources, and local history.
XXVIII).
(See Table
Thirty-four per cent showed that their course of
study was "always" and twenty-eight per cent that it was
"frequently” built in terras’ of local needs.
Forty per cent
of the teachers were "always" and thirty per cent were "fre­
quently" studying the curriculum with a view to adapting and
strengthening it.
In sixty per cent of the schools special
effort was "always" being made to strengthen the work at
some grade level or in some department or area where it had
been weak.
Forty-two per cent of these schools "always" teach
their pupils by means of first-hand experiences and projects
whenever possible and forty per cent frequently do so.
How­
ever, only twenty per cent were "always" able to provide
excursions and fourteen per cent were "never" able to do so.
A genuine attempt was "always" made by thirty-eight per cent
and "frequently" by forty per cent to correlate the work in
the various subjects.
Fifty-four per cent of the schools
"always" had a daily schedule, consisting of a few periods
for carefully integrated activities.
The health program in sixty-four per cent of these
schools "always" dealt primarily with local health needs.
In seventy per cent of the schools safety instruction was
118
TABLE XXVIII
SUMMARY OF INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM
Question
22
14
15
14
20.
12
20
13
16
13
20
17
8
14
12
18
16
44
28
30
28
40
24
40
26
32
26
40
34
16
28
24
36
32
12
8
8
4
9
11
8
5
2
1
2
7
13
16
8
13
18
24
16
16
8
18
22
16
10
4
2
4
14
26
32
16
26
36
* One principal omitted this question.
** Two principals omitted this question.
Seldom
4
7
4
1
0
10
2
3
0
1
2
10
9
4
6
3
11
8
14
8
2
0
20
4
6
0
2
4
20
18
8
12
6
22
Never
•
o
24
34
40
60
42
20
38
54
64
70
44
20
18
26
42
26
8
Occasionally
No. " fo
sR
12
17
20
30
21
10
19
27
32
35
22
10
9
13
21
13
4
Frequently
No. fo
•
0
{2;
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11**
12
13*
14
15*
16*
17
Always
Nfo. fo
0
4
3
1
0
7
1
2
0
0
2
6
10
3
2
2
1
0
8
6
2
0
14
2
4
0
0
4
12
20
6
4
4
2
119
"always" given to all pupils.
Safety instruction in forty-
four per cent of the schools "always" and in forty per cent
"frequently" dealt with community hazards.
The maximum use of visual aids was "always" being made
in only twenty per cent of the schools, while in twelve per
cent visual aids were "never" used.
Even less use was made
of the radio; only eighteen per cent of the schools "always"
took advantage of the programs, while twenty per cent "never"
did so.
Provision for remedial work was "always" made in
twenty-six per cent of the schools and "frequently" in twentyeight per cent of them.
Forty-two per cent of the principals
stated that their teachers were "always" guidance workers.
Objective tests are "always" used by twenty-six per cent and
"frequently" by thirty-six per cent of the schools.
A large
number of the principals stated that their pupils were more
interested in what they learned than in the marks they had
received.
In thirty-two per cent of the schools this inter­
est "frequently" existed and in thirty-six per cent "occa­
sionally" so, while in only two per cent were they "always"
more interested in their marks than in what they had learned.
CHAPTER VIII
SPECIAL SERVICES FOR PUPILS
Rising standards of efficiency have brought it about
that one responsibility after another, formerly the obliga­
tion of the home, has been passed on to specialists better
trained or to some social agency better qualified to perform
them.
Today in the majority of homes there is increasing
reliance upon expert guidance in matters of health.
The
functions of the schools have been expanding as civilization
advanced, until the school nurse and school doctor and often
a psychologist or vocational counselor are members of the
school personnel.
School doctors and nurses.
The returns from the
questionnaires sent to the six southern states indicated that
a large majority of the schools in this study were without
adequate health inspection.
(See Tables XXIX to XXXIII).
Most of them stated that they frequently or occasionally had
such service.
The best showing was made by Texas, where six
principals said they always had adequate health inspection.
On the other hand, three schools in Alabama and one each in
Florida and Georgia never had adequate health inspection.
Similar information was received in answer to the
question regarding health examinations.
Only thirteen
121
TABLE XXIX
SPECIAL SERVICES FOR PUPILS IN ALABAMA
Question
A
F
0
S
N
1. Are doctors and nurses avail­
able for the adequate health in­
spection and health care of all
pupils?
1
3
3
0
3
2. Are the health examinations as
thorough and as frequent as seems
feasible and desirable?
1
3
1
2
4
3. Does the immunization work
being done reach all pupils?
3
0
0
4
3
4. Are tuberculin tests provided
for all pupils, with X-ray followups as needed?
1
2
0
3
5
5, Are special tests given to
discover vision, hearing, and
speech defects?
0
0
4
2
5
6. Is cafeteria or hot lunch
service available for all pupils
who do not go home for lunch?
1
2
2
0
6
?. Is there a psychologist or
special guidance counselor to
assist with difficult guidance
problems?
0
1
0
0
10
NOTE: The symbols are to be read as .follows: AsrAlways;
F=Frequently; O-Occasionally; S-Seldom; and N-Never.
182
TABLE XXX
SPECIAL SERVICES FOR PUPILS IN' FLOR±DA
Question
A
F
0
S
N
1. Are doctors and nurses avail­
able for the adequate health in­
spection and health care of all
pupils?
3
3
2
0
1
2. Are the health examinations as
thorough and as frequent as seems
feasible and desirable?
1
2
1
3. Does the immunization work
being done reach all pupils?
4
1
4. Are tuberculin tests provided
for all pupils, with X-ray followups as needed?
3
2
5. Are special tests given to
discover vision, hearing, and
speech defects?
0
1
3
1
2
2
1
2
1
1
2
3
3
6 . Is cafeteria or hot lunch ser­
vice available for all pupils who
do not go home for lunch?
6
3
0
0
0
7. Is there a psychologist or
special guidance counselor to
assist with difficult guidance
problems?
0
0
0
2
7
NOTE: The symbols.are to be read as follows: A=Always;
F-Frequently; 0-0ccasionally; S-Seldom; and N=Never.
123
TABLE XXXI
SPECIAL SERVICES FOR PUPILS IN GEORGIA
Question
A
F
0
s
N
1. Are doctors and nurses avail­
able for the adequate health in­
spection and health care of all
pupils?
2
4
1
0
1
2. Are the health examinations as
thorough and as frequent as seems
feasible and desirable?
3
2
1
1
1
3. Does the immunization work
being done reach all pupils?
2
3
1
1
0
4. Are tuberculin tests provided
for all pupils, with X-ray followups as needed?
3
0
0
2
3
5, Are special tests given to
discover vision, hearing, and
speech defects?
1
2
2
1
2
6. Is cafeteria or hot lunch ser­
vice available for all pupils who
do not go home for lunch?
3
1
1
1
2
7, Is there a psychologist or
special guidance counselor to
assist with difficult guidance
problems?
0
0
0
2
5
NOTE: The symbols are to be read as follows: A=Always;
F=Frequently; 0=0ccasionally; S-Seldom; and N-Never.
124
TABLE XXXII
SPECIAL SERVICES FOR PUPILS IN LOUISIANA
Question
A
F
0
S
N
1. Are doctors and nurses avail­
able for the adequate health in­
spection and health care of all
pupils?
3
2
o
2
0
2. Are the health examinations as
thorough and as frequent as seems
feasible and desirable?
2
1
1
1
2
3. Does the immunization work
being done reach all pupils?
1
1
3
1
1
4. Are tuberculin tests provided
for all pupils, with X-ray followups as needed?
1
1
2
0
2
5. Are special tests given to
discover vision, hearing, and
speech defects?
1
1
G
2
3
6. Is cafeteria or hot lunch ser­
vice available for all pupils who
do not go home for lunch?
4
1
1
0
1
7. Is there a psychologist or
special guidance counselor to
assist with difficult guidance
problems?
0
0
1
1
5
NOTE: The symbols are to be read as follows: A-Always;
F=Frequently; O=0ccasionally; S=Seldom; and N-Never.
125
TABLE XXXIII
SPECIAL SERVICES^FOP PUPILS IN TEXAS
Question
A
F
0
s
N
1, Are doctors and nurses avail­
able for the adequate health in­
spection and health care of all
pupils?
6
2
2
3
0
2. Are the health examinations as
thorough and as frequent as seems
feasible and desirable?
6
3
0
1
3
3, Does the immunization work
being done reach all pupils?
5
3
1
3
1
4. Are tuberculin tests provided
for all pupils, with X-ray followups as needed?
4
1
1
1
6
5. Are special tests given to
discover vision, hearing, and
speech defects?
6
2
1
1
3
6.
Is cafeteria or hot lunch ser­
vice available for all pupils who
do not go home for lunch?
6
0
0
0
7
7. Is there a psychologist or
special guidance counselor to
assist with difficult guidance
problems?
1
0
1
1
10
NOTE: The symbols are to be read as follows * A=Always;
F»Frequently; O-Occasionally; S=Seldom; and N-Never.
schools, six of them in Texas, reported that their health
examinations were always given as frequently as seemed desir­
able, whereas twelve reported that they never were.
Sixteen principals stated that the immunization work
in their schools always reached all pupils, as against seven
stating that it never reached all pupils.
Here again an ex­
cellent showing was made by Texas, five principals checking
"always” and three, "frequently.”
Tuberculin tests seemed more generally given to all
pupils in Florida, as three of the principals from that state
checked "always” and two "frequently.”
Most of the answers
were spread over the five-point scale, although five princi­
pals in Alabama and six in Texas agreed that tuberculin tests
were never given to all pupils.
A very poor showing was made in these states in giving
special tests to discover vision, hearing, and speech defects
Only eight of the fifty principals reported that such tests
were always given, six of the principals being from Texas.
Eleven other principals reported that special tests for de­
fects were occasionally given and sixteen admitted that they
were never given in their schools.
Cafeteria.
In Florida and Louisiana cafeteria or hot
lunch is available for many pupils who do not go home for
lunch.
Six principals in Florida and four in Louisiana said
that it was always available.
The schools in Georgia and
Texas seemed equally divided between always and never providing/ cafeteria or hot lunch service, whereas six schools in
Alabama never provided it.
Special guidance.
There was general agreement among
the schools regarding the absence of the services of a psych­
ologist or special guidance counselor, since thirty-nine out
of the fifty reported that they never had such service.
One
school in Texas reported that they always had guidance ser­
vice and one in Alabama that they frequently were helped with
guidance problems.
Summary.
There were several general trends in the pro­
vision of special services for the pupils in the fifty schools
studied.
In thirty-two per cent of the schools doctors and
nurses were always available and in thirty per cent they were
frequently available for adequate health inspection of all
pupils.
(See Table XXXIV).
As for health examinations being
as thorough and frequent as desirable, approximately one third
of the group indicated each "always", "frequently", and "never.
In thirty-two per cent of the schools immunization work
always reached all the pupils.
The next largest group report­
ing was twenty-two per cent stating that this work seldom
reached all the pupils.
As for tuberculin tests, in twenty-
four per cent of the schools they were always provided for all
128
TABLE XXXIV
SUMMARY
Question
Always
Ho. %
OF SPECIAL SERVICES FOR PUPILS
Frequently
Ho. 1o
Occasionally
Ho.
%
Seldom
No. Q/o
Never
No. fo
1*
16
32
15
30
8
16
5
10
2
13
26
14
28
5
10
6
12
16
32
8
16
6
12
11
22
7
14
12
24
7
14
4
8
7
14
19
38
5
8
16
6
12
11
22
9
18
16
32
6
21
42
8
16
4
8
1
2
16
32
1
2
1
2
2
4
6
12
39
78
4
*
* This question was omitted by one principal.
** This question was omitted by two principals.
5
12
10
24
129
pupils and in thirty-eight per cent they were never provided
for all of them.
Special tests to discover defects in vision
and hearing were always given in only sixteen per cent of the
schools, whereas in twice as many, or thirty-two per cent,
they were never given.
The cafeteria or hot lunch service seemed rather popu­
lar, being always provided in forty-two per cent of the
schools for the pupils who did not return home for lunch.
However, no provision was made for an almost equally large
group, thirty-two per cent, for whom there was never a cafe­
teria service.
In four fifths of the schools, or seventy-eight per
cent, there was never a psychologist or special guidance
counselor to assist with difficult guidance problems.
Ten
per cent of the schools in the study reported having such
service "always”, "frequently” , or "occasionally."
CHAPTER IX
HOUSING AND EQUIPMENT
A federal survey conducted in 1933 discovered a large
number of Negro schools were without seats or desks, black­
boards, or any kind of playground equipment.
Adequate pro­
vision for health, comfort, heating, lighting, and ventila­
tion were found only in the newest buildings.
Even these
were often equipped with heating plants, desks, manual train­
ing and cooking-room equipment which white schools had dis­
carded. 1
Buildings.
The replies to the question regarding the
school buildings were divided roughly into two large groups.
A total of twenty principals reported that every obsolete,
unsafe and unhealthful building was always replaced or its
use discontinued.
This group of twenty principals included:
three from Alabama, two from Florida, four from Georgia, five
from Louisiana, and six from Texas.
On the other hand, fif­
teen principals reported that obsolete buildings were never
replaced.
In this group there were five from Alabama, two
from Florida, two from Georgia, two from Mississippi, and
four from Texas.
1
Louisiana was the only state in which none
John G. Van Deusen, The Black Man in White America
(Washington, D. C.: Associated IhblisEers, 1938), p. 164.
131
of the principals replied either "seldom” or "never" to this
question.
(See Tables XXXV to XXXIX).
The replies given to the question regarding remodel­
ings and alterations were varied, being rather evenly divided
along the five-point scale.
However, there was an exception
in Alabama, where seven principals stated that urgently
needed alterations were never carried out; and also in Texas
where four principals checked "always" and four others "fre­
quently" in answer to this question.
Equipment and supplies.
Most of the principals agreed
that all obsolete fixtures and equipment had seldom or never
been replaced, a total of sixteen giving the latter reply.
Georgia was the only state in which none of the principals
indicated that all obsolete fixtures and equipment had never
been replaced.
There were in all seventeen principals who thought
that supplies were always provided in sufficient quantity for
all pupils, five from Georgia and five from Texas.
The
majority of the others voted either "seldom" or "never*" five
from Alabama giving the latter reply.
Although the statistics
in Table XL are not recent, they show the trend in 1928 in the
division of expenditures for teaching equipment between the
white and colored schools in nine southern states.
132
TABLE
U X V
HOUSING AND EQUIPMENT IN ALABAMA
Question
A
F
0
S
N
1. Has every obsolete, unsafe
and unhealthful building been
replaced or its use discontinued?
3
1
0
2
5
2. Have all urgently needed
alterations and. remodelings been
carried out?
1
0
1
2
7
3. Have all obsolete fixtures
and equipment been replaced?
0
0
1
3
7
4. Are equipment and supplies
provided in sufficient quantity
for.all pupils?
1
1
1
3
5
5. In selecting materials and
supplies, is their educational
value the first consideration?
2
3
3
0
2
. Does the library in the school
meet at least the minimum standard
suggested by the state department
of public instruction?
0
0
1
4
6
7, Does some good type of circu­
lating library bring the school a
supply of books in addition to
its own?
0
0
0
2
9
. Is the school provided with
suitable maps, dictionaries,
and other standard reference
materials?
2
0
3
3
3
6
8
NOTE: The symbols are to be read as follows: A=Always;
F-Frequently; G-Occasionally; S=Seldom; and N-Never.
133
TABLE XXXVI
HOUSING AND EQUIPMENT IN FLORIDA
Question
A
F
0
S
N
1. Has every obsolete, unsafe
and unhealthful building been
replaced or its use discontinued?
2
2
0
3
2
2 . Have all urgently needed
alterations and remodelings been
carried out?
1
2
1
2
3
3. Have all obsolete fixtures and
equipment been replaced?
1
0
3
1
3
4. Are equipment and supplies
provided in sufficient quantity
for all pupils?
3
0
0
5
1
5. In selecting materials and
supplies, is their educational
value the first consideration?
6
1
0
2
0
6 . Does the library in the school
meet at least the minimum standard
suggested by the state department
of public instruction?
4
1
1
1
2
7. Does some good type of circu­
lating library bring the school a
supply of books in addition to
its own?
2
1
0
0
6
. Is the school provided with
suitable maps,, dictionaries,
and other standard reference
materials?
3
1
2
1
2
8
NOTE: The symbols are to be read as follows• A=Always;
F=Frequently; O=0ccasionally; S-Seldom; and N-Never.
134
TABLE XXXVII
HOUSING AND EQUIPMENT IN GEORGIA
Question
A
F
0
S
•N
1. Has every obsolete, unsafe
and unhealthful building been
replaced or its use discontinued?
4
1
0
1
2
2. Have all urgently needed
alterations and remodelings been
carried out?
2
2
2
1
1
3. Have all obsolete fixtures
and equipment been replaced?
2
3
1
2
0
4. Are equipment and supplies
provided in sufficient quantity
for all pupils?
5
0
1
0
2
5. In selecting materials and
supplies, is their educational
value the first consideration?
4
2
0
2
0
6.
Does the library in the school
meet at least the minimum standard
suggested by the state department
of public instruction?
2
1
1
2
1
7. Does some good type of circu­
lating library bring the school a
supply of books in addition to
its own?
1
2
0
0
5
, Is the school provided with
suitable maps, dictionaries,
and other standard reference
material?
2
4
2
0
0
8
NOTE: The symbols are to be read as follows: A»Always;
F=Frequently; 0=0ccasionally; S=Seldom; and NsNever.
135
TABLE XXXVIII
HOUSING AND EQUIPMENT IN LOUISIANA
Question
A
F
0
8
N
1. Has every obsolete, unsafe
and unhealthful building been
replaced or its use discontinued?
5
1
1
0
0
2. Have all urgently needed
alterations and remodelings been
carried out?
2
2
1
1
1
3. Have all obsolete fixtures
and equipment been replaced?
0
1
3
1
1
4. Are equipment and supplies
provided in sufficient quantity
for all pupils?
2
2
2
1
0
5. In selecting materials and
supplies, is their educational
value the first consideration?
3
2
1
0
1
6 . Does the library in the school
meet at least the minimum standard
suggested by the state department
of public instruction?
5
0
0
1
1
7. Does some good type of circu­
lating library bring the school a
supply of books in addition to
its own?
4
2
1
0
0
. Is the school provided with
suitable maps, dictionaries,
and other standard reference
materials?
3
1
2
1
0
8
NOTE: The symbols are to be read as follows: A=Always;
F-Frequently; O.Occasionally; S-Seldom; and N-Never.
136
TABLE XXXIX
HOUSING AND EQUIPMENT IN TEXAS
Question
A
1. Has every obsolete, unsafe
and unhealthful building been
replaced or its use discontinued?
6
F
0
s
N
0
2. Have all urgently needed
alterations and remodelings been
carried out?
3. Have all obsolete fixtures
and equipment been replaced?
4
4. Are equipment and supplies
provided in sufficient quantity
for all pupils?
5. In selecting materials and
supplies, is their educational
value the first consideration?
6 . Does the library in the school
meet at least the minimum standard
suggested by the state department
of public instruction?
10
0
0
7. Does some good type of circu­
lating library bring the school a
supply of books in addition to
its own?
. Is the school provided with
suitable maps, dictionaries,
and other standard reference
materials?
8
0
NOTE: The symbols are to be read as follows: A=*Always;
F=Frequently; 0-0ccasionally; SsSeldom; and N=Never,
137
TABLE XL
EXPENDITURES FOR TEACHING EQUIPMENT'IN
NINE SOUTHERN STATES, 1928*
State
Per cent of
enrollment
White Colored
Per cent spent for
teaching equipment
White
Colored
Alabama
63
37
84
15
Arkansas
77
23
89
11
Florida
71
29
94
6
Georgia
66
34
99
1
Louisiana
62
38
90
10
N. Carolina
67
33
—
—
S. Carolina
55
45
Oklahoma
92
8
Virginia
70
Average
69
.
—
—
—
30
—
— —
31
91
9
NOTE: This tahle is to he read as follows: In the
state of Alabama with 63 per cent of the enrollment white and
37 per cent colored, 84 per cent of the money for equipment
is spent on white schools and 16 per cent is spent on colored
schools.
*
Fred McCuiston, The Southern Negro Teaching Force, p. 24.
138
In selecting materials and supplies, twenty-five of
the principals stated that first of all they always consid­
ered the educational value of the supplies.
The largest
group of the others stated that they frequently did, although
there were five principals who stated they never considered
the educational value first in selecting their supplies.
Books and reference material. "The lack of library
facilities is especially unfortunate in an area in which
homes are in such great numbers without newspapers, magazines
and books of real educational value.n&
Only seventeen of the
principals indicated that their school library always met the
minimum standard suggested by the state department of public
instruction.
Four of them were from Florida and five each
from Louisiana and Texas.
Alabama made the poorest showing,
for in that state four of the principals checked "seldom"
and six checked "never."
The schools .in this study were divided into two groups
on the point of the circulating library.
Nine principals as­
serted that they always had the services of a circulating
library, while seven others asserted that they frequently did.
However, the large majority of twenty-nine principals never
did.
The best showing on this question was made by Louisiana
Z
Harl R. Douglass, "The Education of Negro Youth for
Modern America," Journal of Negro Education, 9:544, July,1940.
139
and both Alabama and Texas made equally poor -showings, for
nine principals in each state admitted that they never prof­
ited from the services of a circulating library.
A variety of answers were given as to whether or not
the school was provided with maps, dictionaries, and other
reference materials.
In all the states the answers were
scattered over the five-point scale, but Texas seemed to be
better supplied with reference materials than any of the
other states.
Summary.
The general trends in the matter of housing
and equipment are shown in Table XLI.
In forty per cent of
the schools the obsolete buildings were always replaced or
their use discontinued, while this was never true in thirty
per cent of the schools.
In forty per cent of the schools
urgently needed alterations were either always or frequently
carried out, but in twenty-six per cent they never were.
In
thirty-two per cent of the schools obsolete fixtures and
equipment were never replaced.
There was a sufficient quan­
tity of supplies for all pupils always provided in only thirtyfour per cent of the schools.
Fifty per cent of the princi­
pals always selected their supplies by giving first consid­
eration to their educational value.
The minimum standard
suggested by the state department of public instruction was
always met by thirty-four per cent of the school libraries,
140
TABLE XLI
SUMMARY OF HOUSING AND EQUIPMENT
Question
Always
Frequently
No.
%
Occasionally
•
fa
o
•
o
*3
cT
o7
Jo
1
20
40
6
12
3
6
E
10
20
10
20
8
16
5
10
4
8
12
24
4
17
34
5
10
6
12
5*
25
50
10
20
4
8
6*
17
34
4
8
4
9
18
7
14
18
36
20
8
10
-
Seldom
No. *
Never
No. Jo
6
12
15
30
'9
18
13
26
10
20
16
32
12
24
10
20
5
10
5
10
8
13
26
11
22
2
4
2
4
29
58
10
20
7
14
5
10
.
* One principal omitted this question.
*** Three principals omitted this question.
141
whereas forty-eight per cent of the school libraries either
seldom or never met this standard.
Fifty-eight per cent of
the schools did not enjoy the advantages of a circulating
library at any time.
Suitable maps, .dictionaries, and other
standard reference materials were always provided for only
thirty-six per cent of the schools studied.
CHAPTER X
PUBLIC RELATIONS
Education is a necessary step in bringing about econ­
omic and community improvements.
Education also plays the
more direct role of helping each individual to make better
use of community resources.
It is in this second function,
especially,that the schools can participate.
Parent-teacher association.
Both educational leaders
and social workers have recognized the need of education for
family living.
One of the most important opportunities pro­
vided along this line is parent education, which arose from
the increasing difficulty of managing children in urban com­
munities.
This type of education brings to parents the best
knowledge available concerning the child’s physical and men­
tal health.
The answers to the question, whether or not there was
an active parent-teacher association in the school, were
scattered along the five-point scale with the exception of
Georgia and Texas.
Five of the former and six principals of
the latter state reported that they.always had such an organ­
ization in their school.
(See Tables XLII to XLVI).
143
TABLE XL11
PUBLIC RELATIONS IN ALABAMA
Question
A.
F
0
S
N
1* Is there an active and con­
structive parent-teacher asso­
ciation in the school?
3
1
3
2
2
2. Do teachers systematically
visit the homes of all their
pupils?
1
1
2
6
1
3. Is American Education Week
observed so as to interpret the
schools to the public?
6
1
3
0
1
4. Are school aims and activities
explained and demonstrated through
commencement exercises and other
special programs?
6
2
2
0
1
5. Is the school a genuine cul­
tural and social center for the
community which it serves?
6
1
3
0
1
NOTE: The symbols are to be read as follows: A=Always;
F«Frequently; (^Occasionally; 3-Seldom; and N-Never.
144
TABLE XLIII
PUBLIC RELATIONS IN FLORIDA
Question
A
F
0
s
N
. Is there an active and con­
structive parent-teacher asso­
ciation in the school?
2
2
1.
3
1
2. Do teachers systematically
visit the homes of all their
pupils?
5
2
0
1
1
5. Is American Education Week
observed so as to interpret the
schools to the public?
6
1
0
2
C
4. Are school aims and activities
explained and demonstrated through
commencement exercises and other
special programs?
6
3
0
0
0.
5. Is the school a genuine cul­
tural and social center for the
community which it serves?
5
4
0
0
0
1
NOTE: The symbols are to be read as follows: A-Always;
F=Frequently; 0«Occasionally; S-Seldom; and N-Never.
145
TABLE XLIV
PUBLIC RELATIONS IN GEORGIA
Question
A
E
0
S
N
1. Is there an active and con­
structive parent-teacher asso­
ciation in the school?
5
2
1
0
0
2. Do teachers systematically
visit the homes of all their
pupils?
1
3
3
1
0
3. Is American Education Week
observed so as to interpret the
schools to the public?
2
1
1
1
2
4. Are school aims and activities
explained and demonstrated through
commencement exercises and other
special programs?
6
1
0
0
1
5. Is the school a genuine cul­
tural and social center for the
community which it serves?
4
2
2
0
0
NOTE: The symbols are to be read as follows: A=Always;
F=Erequently; 0=0ccasionally; S-Seldom; and N«Never.
146
TABLE XLV
PUBLIC RELATIONS IN LOUISIANA
Question
A
F
"0
s
N
1. Is there an active and con­
structive parent-teacher asso­
ciation in the school?
1
3
2
0
1
2. Do teachers systematically
visit the homes of all their
pupils?
1
3
2
1
0
3. Is American Education Week
observed so as to interpret the
schools to the public?
1
2
2
1
1
4. Are school aims and activities
explained and demonstrated through
commencement exercises and other
special programs?
6
1
0
0
0
5. Is the school a genuine cul­
tural and social center for the
community which it serves?
4
2
0
1
0
NOTE; The symbols are to be read as follows; AsAlways;
F=Frequently; 0«0ccasionally; S=Seldom; and NsNever.
147
TABLE XLVI
PUBLIC RELATIONS IN TEXAS
Question
A
F
0
s
N
1. Is. there an active and con­
structive parent-teacher asso­
ciation in the school?
6
3
1
0
3
2. Do teachers systematically
visit the homes of all their
pupils?
2
4
3
2
2
3. Is American Education Week
observed so as to interpret the
schools to the public?
6
3
3
1
0
4. Are school aims and activities
explained and demonstrated through
commencement exercises and other
special programs?
8
4
0
1
0
5. Is the school a genuine cul­
tural and social center for the
community which it serves?
7
4
1
0
1
NOTE: The symbols are to be read as follows: A-Always;
F=Frequently; Q-Occasionally; S-Seldom; and N=Never.
148
Home visits.
Most of the principals stated that the
teachers frequently, occasionally, or seldom made systematic
visits to the homes of their pupils.
Fourteen principals
cheeked "frequently", eleven, "occasionally", and eleven,
"seldom."
The best showing was made in Florida, where five
principals stated that their teachers always made these
systematic visits.
American Education Week.
Twenty-one principals re­
ported that American Education Week was always observed in
their schools and only five that it was never observed.
The
most ardent observers were Alabama with six schools; Florida
with six schools; and Texas with six schools.
Commencement exercises and other special programs,
demonstrating school aims and activities, were very popular
in all of the states,.as thirty-three principals reported
that such programs were always held.
Only two schools, one
in Georgia and one in Alabama never held these programs.
A consistent effort was made by all the principals in
this study to have their school a genuine cultural and social
center for the community which it serves.
Twenty-seven of
the principals always made this attempt, with only two
schools, one. in Alabama and one in Texas never doing so.
Summary.
A summary of public relations is presented
in Table XLVII, which indicates the following trends in the
149
TABLE XLVII
SUMMARY OF PUBLIC RELATIONS
Question
Always
No. %
Frequently
No.
%
Occasionally
No.
%
Seldom
No. %
Never
No. fo
1
17
34
11
22
10
20
5
10
7
14
2
10
20
14
28
11
22
11
22
4
8
3*
21
42
8
16
9
18
6
12
5
10
4
S3
66
12
24
2
4
1
2
2
4
5
27
54
14
28
6
12
1
2
2
4
* One principal omitted this question.
150
schools being studied.
Thirty-four per cent of the princi­
pals always organized an active parent-teacher association.
In twenty-eight per cent of the schools the teachers fre­
quently made systematic visits to the homes of their pupils.
American Education Week was always observed in forty-two per
cent of the schools.
Sixty-six per cent of the schools
always demonstrated their aims and activities through special
programs.
Fifty-four per eent of the schools were always a
genuine cultural and social center for the community, they
served.
CHAPTER XI
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS
I.-
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
An analysis of the results of the questionnaire
showed that many general trends existed in the fifty urban
Negro elementary schools in Alabama, Florida, Georgia,
Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas.
However, in summing up
the findings of the questionnaire, only these marked tenden­
cies were considered significant and, therefore, all parts
of the questions are not included.
1
.
Seventy-six per eent of the principals considered
that satisfactory cumulative pupil records were always being
maintained and used in their schools.
2.
A small group, sixteen per cent, held that the
compulsory attendance laws were effectively though sanely
enforced at all times.
3.
Two approximately equal groups represented oppos­
ing views regarding the attendance officer being a social
worker, rather than a police officer; thirty-two per cent of
the principals stating he always was a social worker as
against twenty-eight per cent stating he never was.
4.
Seventy-eight per cent agreed that school oppor­
tunities were always provided for all children of elementary
school age,
5.
Forty-two per cent of the principals considered
that school employees were always chosen solely on the basis
of merit.
6.
Salaries were never adequate in fifty-two per cent
of the schools.
7.
Salaries never represented the maximum the dis­
trict could afford in fifty per cent of the schools.
8.
Teachers were always encouraged to remain year
after year in the same school and to become real leaders and
builders of the community in fifty-eight per cent of the
schools.
9.
Teachers were always encouraged to continue their
professional training in seventy-four per cent of the schools.
10.
A helpful program of in-service growth was always
carried out in thirty-two per cent of the schools and fre­
quently in thirty per cent of them.
11.
In fifty-two per cent of the schools there were
always supervisory officers from whom every teacher could
obtain sufficient help and guidance with general teaching
problems.
12.
Supervisors were never available in forty per cent
of the schools to give sufficient help with music, art, and
other subjects requiring special training and skill.
155
13.
In forty-four per cent of the schools the
teachers frequently make use of the local environment, local
resources, and local history.
14.
In thirty-four per cent of the schools the course
of study is always built in terms of local needs.
15.
In forty per cent of the schools the teachers are
always studying the curriculum with a view to adapting and
strengthening it and in thirty per cent of the schools they
frequently do so.
16.
Special effort is always being made to strengthen
the work at some grade level or in some department where it
has been weak in sixty per cent of the schools.
17.
Pupils are always taught with the minimum use of
formal text-book recitation procedures in forty-two per cent
of the schools, and frequently in forty per cent.
18.
A genuine and successful attempt is always being
made to correlate the work in various subjects and depart­
ments in thirty-eight per cent of the schools and frequently
in forty per cent of them.
19.
In fifty-four per eent of the schools the daily
schedule always consists of a few periods for carefully
integrated activities.
EO.
In sixty-four per cent of the schools the health
program always deals primarily with local health problems and
needs.
154
21•
Safety instruction is always given to all the
pupils in seventy per cent of the schools.
22.
In forty-four per cent of the schools safety in­
struction always deals with local school and community haz­
ards and in forty per cent of the schools it frequently does.
23.
Maximum use is frequently made of visual aids in
thirty-four per cent of the schools.
24.
Full advantage is occasionally taken of radio
facilities in twenty-six per cent of the schools.
25.
Provision for remedial work is occasionally made
in thirty-two per eent of the schools.
26.
In forty-two per cent of the schools every teacher
is always a guidance worker.
27.
In thirty-six per cent of the schools teachers
frequently make good use of objective tests in evaluating
pupil achievement.
28.
Pupils are frequently interested primarily in
what they have learned, rather than in the marks they have
received in thirty-two per cent of the schools and occasion­
ally in thirty-six per cent of them.
29.
Doctors and nurses are always available for ade­
quate health inspection of all pupils in thirty-two per cent
of the schools and frequently in thirty per cent of them.
30.
In thirty-two per cent of the schools immuniza­
tion work always reaches all pupils.
155
31.
Tuberculin tests are never provided for all the
pupils in thirty-eight per cent of the schools.
32.
Special tests are always given to discover de­
fective vision, hearing and speech in forty-two per cent of
the schools and never in thirty-two per cent of them.
33.
Cafeteria or hot lunch service is always avail­
able to pupils who do not go home for lunch in forty-two per
cent of the schools and never in thirty-two per cent of them.
34.
In seventy-eight per cent of the schools there
never is a psychologist or special guidance counselor.
35.
In forty per cent of the schools the principals
stated that every obsolete and unsafe building had always
been replaced or its use discontinued.
On the other hand,
thirty per cent of them stated that this replacement had
never been made.
36.
Thirty-two per cent of the principals stated that
all obsolete fixtures and equipment
37.
Thirty-four per cent of
had never been replaced.
the principals stated
that supplies were always provided in sufficient quantities
for all pupils.
38.
In selecting materials and supplies fifty per
cent of the principals always give their first consideration
to the educational value.
39.
that
Thirty-four per cent of
the principals stated
their school library always met at least the minimum
156
standard suggested by the state department of public in­
struction,
However, there was another twenty-six per cent
whose school library .seldom did and twenty-two per cent whose
school library never did.
40.
Fifty-eight per cent of the schools never had the
advantage of a circulating library.
41.
Thirty-six per cent of the schools were always
provided with suitable maps, dictionaries, and other standard
reference material.
42.
Active parent-teacher associations were always
organized in thirty-four per cent of the schools.
43.
American Education Week was always observed in
forty-two per cent of the schools.
44.
School aims and activities were always explained
and demonstrated through special programs in sixty-six per
cent of the schools.
45.
Fifty-four per cent of the principals always
considered their school a genuine cultural and social center
in the community it served.
II. - CONCLUSIONS
In the summary of the findings the general trends were
indicated, for the most part, in percentages.
In this sec­
tion, however, broader, more general, and more inclusive
observations will be made.
157
1.
There was a marked tendency toward providing
school opportunities for all children of elementary-school
age, but only occasionally were the school attendance laws
enforced.
2.
In general, teachers’ salaries were always found
to be inadequate and not representative of the maximum the
district could afford.
3.
Marked encouragement was given to the teachers to
continue their professional training.
4.
Supervisors were usually available to assist with
general teaching problems, but there seldom were supervisors
of music and art.
5.
Most of the schools had adopted, at least in part,
the progressive method of instruction.
6.
There was a marked trend in adapting health and
safety instruction to local needs.
7.
There was a growing interest in the use of visual
aids and radio programs in the classroom.
8.
Some recognition was given to making provision for
remedial help.
9.
Use was frequently made of objective tests in
evaluating pupil achievement.
10.
Health inspection and health care of the pupils
was usually found to be inadequate.
158
11.
An effort was often made to provide a hot lunch
for pupils who did not go home for lunch.
12.
The services of a psychologist or special guid­
ance worker were practically unknown in these schools.
13.
Occasionally the use of all' unsafe and unhealth­
ful buildings had been discontinued.
14.
Seldom or never had the needed alterations or
repairs been made.
15.
The equipment and supplies were usually inade­
quate for the number of pupils.
16.
There ¥/as a marked tendency in selecting mater­
ials and supplies to give first consideration to their
educational value.
17.
Some effort
was
made to provide a suitable school
library, but very seldom did the schools have the advantage
of a circulating library.
18.
A
growing interest in parent-teacher associations
was apparent and there was a marked attempt to make the
school the cultural and social center of the community.
From the findings in this study, it appears that dur­
ing the'last ten years there has been very little improvement
in the urban elementary schools for Negroes in the southern
states in school attendance, buildings, equipment, supplies,
teachersf salaries, supervision, health service and guidance.
159
The one hopeful note is the sincere effort on the part of the
teachers to become leaders in the community and the growing
activity of the parent-teacher associations, whereby the aims
and objectives of the school can be interpreted to the other
members of the community.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
161
A.
BOOKS
Blanch, Lloyd E. , and J. 0. Powers, Public Education in the
District of Columbia. Washington, D. C^: Government
Printing UTfice, 1938. Pp. 109.
Negro schools in the District of Columbia used as a
model.
Brawley, Benjamin, A Short History of the American Negro.
New York: The Macmillan Company, 1931. Pp. 311.
A comprehensive treatment of Negro problems.
, Negro Builders and Heroes. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1937. Pp. 315.
An introduction to Negro biography.
Dabney, Charles William, Universal Education in the South.
Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1936.
2 volumes.
The southern education movement beginning with the con­
ference for education held in the South in 1898.
Davis, William R ., The Development and Present Status of
Negro Education'T n East TexasT Teachers College Contributions to Educa’tTon, No. 626. New York: Teachers
College, Columbia University, 1934. Pp. 150.
The development of Negro education in East Texas from
the period of slavery to the present time.
Foreman, Clark, Environments1 Factors in Negro Elementary
Education. New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 1932.
Pp. 88.
An attempt to disprove the assertion made by many
psychologists that the Negroes of the United States are
innately inferior to the white people in general intel­
ligence.
Johnson, Charles S., The Negro in American Civilization.
York: Henry Holt and Company, 1930. Pp. 538.
New
A scholarly and faithful contemporary picture of Negro
life. Excellent chapters on the Southern common schools.
162
Jones, Lance G. E., Negro Schools in the Southern States.
Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1926’. Pp. 160.
An English schoolman’s evaluation.
Jones, Thomas Jesse, Trends in Negro Education.
The -Phelps-Stokes Eund, T932. Pp~ 127.
New York:
A series of studies of Negro progress and a-discussion
of the present outlook.
Klineberg, Otto, Race Differences.
1935. Pp. 367.
New York: Harper Brothers,
The author concluded that no scientific proof existed of
racial differences in mentality.
Locke, Alan, The New Negro: An Interpretation.
Albert and dharles Boni, 1925. Pp. 452.
New York:
A record of the new Negro, culturally and socially.
Nearing, Scott, Black America.
1929. Pp. 275:
New York: The Vanguard Press,
Discussion of the American Negro as an oppressed race.
Van Deusen, John G., The Black Man in White America.
ington, D.C.: Ass oc lated Pub11sEers, IncT, 1938.
Wash­
Pp. 318.
Chapter XII deals with the public schools for Negroes,
tracing their development in the Southern states and
discussing their present deficiencies.
Work, Monroe N . , editor, Negro Year Book 1937-1938. Tuskegee
Institute, Alabama: Negro Year Book Publishing Company,
1937. Pp. 575.
An annual encyclopedia of the Negro.
B.
PERIODICALS
Angoff, Charles and H. L. Mencken, "The Worst American State,"
The American Mercury, 24:371, November, 1931.
A comparative study of educational conditions in the
various states with appropriate ranking.
163
Beale, Howard K . , "The Needs of Negro Education in the United
States," Journal of Negro Education, 3:8-19, January,1934.
A discussion of problems peculiar to Negro education,
Blose, D. T., and A. Caliver, "Statistics of the Education of
Negroes, 1933-34 and 1935-36," Elementary School Journal,
40:252-4, December, 1939.
Statistics of various phases of Negro education.
Brewton, John E . , "The Status of Supervision of Schools for
Negroes in the Southeastern States," Journal of Negro
Education, 8:164-69, April, 1939.
A survey of supervision in Negro schools.
Caliver, Ambrose, "Elementary Education of Negroes," School
Life, 25:243-44, May, 1940.
A summary of elementary education of the Negroes.
i "Negro Education in the Depression," School Life,
137111-112, February, 1933.
~
Enumerates the various ways in which Negro education was
curtailed during the depression.
_
"Supervision of the Education of Negroes," School
Li'fe , 26:265-67, June, 1941.
Discusses the effect of the decision of the G-eneral
Education Board to withdraw its support from the program
of supervision in the South.
'Douglass, Earl R . , "The Education of Negro Youth for Modern
America: A Critical Summary," Journal of Negro Education,
9:534-46, July, 1940.
A summary of the educational opportunities for southern
Negroes from the standpoint of the secondary school.
Elder, Alfonso, "The Articulation of Negro Elementary and
Secondary School and College," Journal of Negro Education,
9:525-33, July, 1940.
Suggestions for promoting better articulation of school
units for Negroes.
164
Frazier, 1. Franklin, "The Negro Family and Negro Youth,"
Journal of Negro Education, 9:290-99, July, 1940.
Discusses the problem of the migrant Negro family.
Garth, Thomas R. , "The Hypothesis of Racial Differences,"
Journal of Social Philosophy, 2:224-231, April, 1937.
The author traced differences in intelligence to the
factor of selection or to the factor of nurture.
Harvey, 0. L., "Negro Representation in Public School Enroll­
ments," Journal of Negro Education, 8:26-30,January,1939.
A comparison of the enrollment of Negro children in the
public schools in 1926 and 1936.
Hewitt, A., "A Comparative Study of White and Colored Pupils
in a Southern System," Elementary School Journal, 31:111119, October, 1930.
A study of comparative achievement with emphasis upon the
contributing factors.
Ickes, Harold L. , "The Education of the Negro in the United
States," Journal of Negro Education, 5:6, June, 1934.
A recognition of the advance in education made by the
Negro in spite of tremendous handicaps.
Jenkins, Martin D., "The Mental Ability of the American
Negro," Journal of Negro Education, 8:511-20, July, 1939.
The problem of this study was to test the validity of
the hypothesis of racial difference in mental ability.
Jones, William H., "Some Theories Regarding the Education of
the Negro," Journal of Negro Education, 9:39-43, January,
i940.
A discussion of the vocational and cultural theories of
Negro education.
Klineberg, Otto, "The Question of Negro Intelligence,"
Opportunity, 9:367, October, 1931.
A study of the relative ability.of the children of Negro
migrants.
165
, "Factors in Intelligence Test Performance," Journal
of Negro Education, 3:478-83, July, 1934.
A discussion of environmental handicaps faced by Negro
children taking intelligence tests.
Long, Howard H ., "The Intelligence of Colored Elementary
Pupils, in Washington, D. C.," Journal of Negro Education,
3:205-222, January, 1934.
A condensed report of a survey of intelligence ratings
of colored elementary pupils in Washington, B. C.
, "The Negro Secondary School Population," Journal of
Negro Education, 9:454-63, July, 1940.
The limitations of the Negro secondary school population
in the light of the deficiencies in the elementary school.
Newbold, N. C., "Common Schools for Negroes in the South,"
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social
Science, 140:209-224, Novembe r ,T 9 2 8 •
The struggle of the schools against poverty and prejudice.
Price, J. St.Clair, "Negro-White Differences in General In­
telligence," Journal of Negro Education, 3:447,July, 1934.
The author considered it futile to attempt to compare the
mentality of whites and Negroes.
Thompson, Charles H . , "The Educational Achievements of Negro
Children," Annals of the American Academy of Political
and Social Science, 140:193-208, November, 1928.
A challenge to the doctrine of an inherent mental in­
feriority of the Negro.
_____ , "The Conclusions of Scientists Relative to Racial
Differences," Journal of Negro Education, 3:494-512,July,
1934.
The purpose of the discussion was to present the results
of an investigation, purporting to determine the present
status of the problem of racial differences.
_______ , "The Status of Education of and for the Negro in the
American Social Order," Journal of Negro Education, 8:
489-510, July, 1939.
166
A statistical presentation of conditions in schools for
Negroes with suggestions for future improvement.
?i/ilkerson, Doxey A. , "Racial Differences in Scholastic
Achievement," Journal of Negro Education, 3:453-77, July,
1934.
A review of the findings of significant investigations
of Negro-white differences in scholastic achievement.
G.
PUBLICATIONS OF LEARNED ORGANIZATIONS
McCuiston, Fred, Financing Schools in the South. State
Directors of Educational Research in the Southern States.
Nashville, Tennessee, 1931. Pp. 29.
Data regarding sources, amounts, and distribution of
public school revenue in the South for 1930.
, The South’s Negro Teaching Force. Julius Rosenwald
fund. Nashville, March, 1931. Pp. 28.
A brief study of the teacher-training schools and of the
present status of teachers.
Moton, Robert R . , "Progress in Negro Education in the South,"
National Education Association Proceedings, 1929. Vol.
67, pp. 107-11.
Traces the change of sentiment on the part of white
school officials in the southern states toward Negro
education.
National Advisory Committee on Education, Federal delations
*
to Education* Washington, D. C.: National Capitol Press,
T931. 2 volumes.
A report of the educational situation in the United
States and its territories.
Negroes in the United States 1920-1932. United States De­
partment of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. Washington,
D. C.: United States Government Printing Office, 1935.
Pp. 845.
Statistics regarding the Negroes in United States, pre­
pared by Charles E. Hall, Specialist in Negro Statistics.
167
Payne, E. George, An Estimate of Our Negro Schools. The
American Church Institute for Negroes. New York, 1931.
Pp. 27.
The contribution of the Institute schools.
£ Teacher Training Program for Colored Schools. Bulletin
No. 61, State of MississTppT, Department of Education,
1930. Pp. 87.
Report of an investigating committee.
Wilkerson, Doxey A ., Special Problems of Negro Education.
Prepared for the Ad visor y Coinmi11 ee on Educa tx on.
Washington, D. C.: United States Government Printing
Office, 1939. Pp. 171.
A study of the existing program of Federal aid for voca­
tional education.
D.
UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS
Boone, F. Theresa, "Higher Education for the Negro." Unpub­
lished Masterfs thesis, University of Southern California,
Los Angeles, 1925. Pp. 92.
A plea for the extension of higher education for Negroes.
Bower, M. E., "The Contributions of Booker T. Washington to
Education." Unpublished Master’s thesis, University of
Southern California, Los Angeles, 1922. Pp. 107.
Records his work as a pioneer in the field of industrial
education.
Horne, Frank S., "The Present Status of Negro Education in
Certain of the Southern States, Particularly Georgia."
Unpublished Master’s thesis, University of Southern
California, Los Angeles, 1932. Pp. 231.
An exhaustive study of the effect of tradition, incom­
petence, and economic conditions upon the educational
provision for Negro children.
168
Lane, Harry B. , "The Present Status of Secondary Education
for Negroes in Texas.” Unpublished Master's thesis,
University of Southern California:, Los Angeles, 1932.
Pp. 95.
A statistical study of teacher training, personnel, load,
salaries, school buildings, and equipment in secondary
schools.
Owens, C. C., ”A Study of Church Schools for Negroes to De­
termine Their Usefulness in Negro Education.” Unpub­
lished Master’s thesis, University of Southern California,
Los Angeles, 1933. Pp. 79.
A study of the Negro colleges.
Peterson, Mozart E ., ”Obstacles to Negro Education in the
United States.” Unpublished Master’s thesis, University
of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1935. Pp. 102.
This study deals with the effect of race prejudice as the
greatest obstacle to a fair educational deal for the
American Negro.
Randals, E. H . , ”A Comparative Study of the Intelligence of
Mexican and Negro Children.” Unpublished Master’s thesis,
University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1929.
Pp. 65.
The comparison of the intelligence of the two groups of
children indicates that the education of the Negro is a
true American problem.
Reitnouer, M. G., ”A Comparative Study of Achievements of
New Orleans Tenth Grade Negroes.” Unpublished Master’s
thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles,
1928. Pp. 100.
Shows retardation of the Negro pupils in New Orleans in
reading ability and vocabulary.
Richards, E. S., ”A Study of Materials Dealing with Race
Educational Problems.” Unpublished Master’s thesis,
University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1931.
Pp. 79.
An analysis of sociological literature for adverse criti­
cism of the Negro’s position in American schools.
169
Smith, A. I., "A Critique of Some Negro Intelligence Test
Results." Unpublished Master's thesis, University of
Southern California, Los Angeles, 1928. Pp. 86.
A review of standard studies of Negro intelligence in the
light of factors tending to impede the development of
Negro students.
Smith, Laura B., "A Survey of Negro Schools in Wood County,
Texas." Unpublished Master's thesis, University of
Southern California, Los Angeles, 1936. Pp. 112.
The Negro schools in Wood County, Texas, are rated
according to the official score card for standardizing
Texas schools.
Watkins, Pauline M . , "An Investigation of Negro Elementary
Schools in the State of Texas." Unpublished Master's
thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles,
1937. Pp. 132.
This investigation was centered largely in the rural
Negro schools of eastern Texas.
Whitaker, Hazel C., "A Study of Gifted Negro Children in the
Los Angeles City Schools." Unpublished Master's thesis,
University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1931.
Pp. 86.
A plea that gifted Negro children be given educational
advantages conducive to calling into play their abilities.
Willis, Larry J., "An Abstract of a Comparative Study of the
Reading Achievements of White and Negro Children." Un­
published Doctor's dissertation, George Peabody College
for Teachers, Nashville, Tennessee, 1939. Pp. 6.
A comparative study of the reading achievements of the
children in the seventh grades in Nashville.
APPENDIX
171
3231 White Oaks Street
El Paso * Texas
As part of my graduate work in the Uni­
versity of Southern California, I am making a
study of certain problems in Negro urban ele*^
mentary schools in your state.
In order to help me obtain data for my
thesis, will you be good enough to fill out
the enclosed questionnaire and return it to me
as early as possible?
If you wish a copy of my findings, I
shall be happy to send it to you. Thanking you
for your assistance, I am
Yours very truly,
Olalee McCall
172
A QUESTIONNAIRE CONCERNING NEGRO URB AN ELEMENTARY
''SCHOOLS IN SELECTED SOUTHERN STATES
Please indicate the answer to the following questions for your school,
using the five point scale: A ». Always; F * Frequently; 0 « Occasionally;
S = Seldom; N « Never.
For example, if y o u w i s h e d to indicate the answer
"frequently” to the question,
Do your teachers attend institute?
A (IP ) O
S N
you wo uld circle the F as shown above.
DIVISION I. ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION
1. Are satisfactory cumulative pupil records being
maintained and used?
2. Are the compulsory attendance laws effectively
though sanely enforced?
3. Is the attendance officer primarily a social worker
rather than a police officer?
1+. Are school opportunities provided for all children
of elementary-school age?
DIVISION II.
PERSONNEL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION
1. Are school employees chosen solely on the basis of
merit?
2. Are salaries adequate?
3. If salaries are not adequate, do they represent the
max imu m which the district can afford?
If.. Are teachers encouraged to remain year after year in
the same school and to become real leaders and
builders of the community?
5. Are teachers encouraged to continue their
professional training?
6. Is a helpful program of in-service growth for
teachers carried out?
7. Are there supervisory officers from ■whom, every
teacher can obtain sufficient help and guidance with
general teaching problems?
8. Are supervisors available to give sufficient help
with music, art, and other subjects requiring special
training and skill?
DIVISION III.
THE INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM
1. Are teachers maki ng sufficient use of the local
environment, local resources, and local history?
2. Is the course of study built in terms of local
needs ?
3. Are teachers now studying the curriculum with a view
to adapting and strengthening it?
it. Is special effort being made to strengthen the w o rk
at some grade level or in some department or area
where it has been weak?
A
F
0
s
N
A
F
0
s
N
A
F
0
s
N
/■
F
0 s
N
A
A
F
F
0
0
s
s
N
N
A
F
0
s
N
A
F
0
s
N
A
F
0
s
N
A
F
0
s
N
A
F
0
s
N
A
F
0
s
N
A
F
0
S
N
A
F
0
S
N
A
J'X
F
0
S
N
. t.
.C.
F
0
s
N
173
-2-
F
0
S
N
A
F
0
S
N
A
F
0
S
N
A
F
0
s
N
A
A
F
F
0
0
s
s
N
N
A
F
0
s
N
A
F
0
s
N
A
F
0
s
N
A_
F
0
s
N
A
F
0
s
N
n
2 '~
F
0
s
N
F
0
s
N
A
F
0
s
N
A
F
0
s
N
A.
F
0
s
N
A
F
0
s
N
A
F
0
s
N
A
F
0
s
N
A
F
0
s
N
0J
A
i— 1
5. Are pupils taught by means of first-hand
experience activities and projects whenever
possible, with the min i m u m use of formal
textbook recitation procedures?
6. Is suitable opportunity provided for excursions
and other chances to observe real objects,
processes and relationships?
7* Is a genuine and successful attempt being made
to correlate the w o r k in various subjects and
departments and to minimize subject matter lines?
8. Does the daily schedule consist of a few periods
for carefully integrated activities rather than
numerous 5 to 15 minute recitations?
9. Does the health program deal '-primarily with local
health problems and health needs?
10. Is safety instruction given to all pupils?
11. Does safety instruction deal primarily w i t h local
school and community hazards?
Is m a x i m u m use being made of visual aids, maps,
pictures, and specimens, as well as slides and
mot ion pictures,
13. . Is full advantage taken of radio facilities and
programs ?
iU. Is provision m ade for individual help and remedial
w or k for those who need it?
15. Is every teacher a guidance worker, interested in
and capable of giving help to pupils w it h their
personal and educational problems?
16. Do teachers make good use of objective tests in
ovaluating p u p i 1 achi evement ?
Are
pupils interested primarily in what they have
17.
learned rather than in the marks they hrve
received?
DIVISIOM IV.
SPECIAL SERVICES FOR PUPILS
1. Are doctors and nurses available for the adequate
health inspection and health care of nil pupils?
Are the health examinations as thorough and p.s
2.
frequent as seems feasible and desirable?
3. Does the immunization work being done .reach all
pupils ?
Are tuberculin tests provided for all pupils , with
X-ray follow-ups as needed?
5* Are special tests given to discover vision, hearing,
and speech defects?
6. Is cafeteria yr hot lunch service available for all
pupils who do not go home for lunch?
7. Is there a psychologist or special guidance counselor
to assist w i t h difficult guidance problems?
u.
174
-3-
DIVISION V.
HOUSING AND EQUIPMENT
1. Has every obsolete, Unsafe and unhenlthful
building been replaced or its use discontinued?
2. Have all urgently needed alterations and re­
modelings been carried out?
3. Have all obsolete fixtures and equipment been
replaced?
I4 . Are equipment and supplies provided in sufficient
quantity for all pupils?
5 . In selecting materials and supplies, is their
educational value the first consideration?
6. Does the library in the school meet at least the
m i nim um standard suggested by the state department
of public instruction?
7. Does some gc cd type of circulating library bring
the s c h o o l a supply of books in addition to its own?
8. Is the school provided w i t h suitable mops, diction­
aries, and other standard reference materials?
DIVISION VI.
PUBLIC RELATIONS
1. Is there an active and constructive parent-tea.cher
association in the s c h o o l ?
2. Do teachers systematically visit the homes of all
their pupils?
3. Is American Education W e e k observed so as to
interpret the schools to the public?
I4.. Are school aims and .activities explained and
demonstrated through commencement exercises and
ether special programs?
5 . Is the school a genuine cultural and social center
for the community which it serves?
NOTE
Do y o u w is h a copy of the findings of m y thesis?
A
F
0
s
N
A
F
0
s
N
A
F
0
s
N
.(
-• F
0
s
N
A
F
0
s
N
/• F
0
s
N
A
F
0
s
N
A
F
0
s
N
A
F
0
s N
A
F
0
s
N
A
F
0
s
N
A
F
0
s
N
* F
0
s
N
Yes
Signature of Principal
Name of School
City
State
No
175
SCHOOLS RETURNING QUESTIONNAIRE
St 9t©
School
City
Alabama
Castle Hill
Central
City •
Dothan Colored
Frederick Douglass
George W. Carver
Greenville
Lane
Selma Colored
Tarrant Colored
Tan Buren
Tuscaloosa
Tuscaloosa
Evergreen
Dothan
Fort Payne
Montgomery
Greenville
Birmingham
Selma
Tarrant
Eufaula
Florida
Coconut Grove
Cookman
Dillard
Douglas
Lincoln
Lomax
Phyllis Wheatley
Plant City Negro
Rigby
Coconut Grove
Jacksonville
Ft. Lauderdale
Miami
Tallahassee
Tampa
Miami
Plant City
Ormond
Georgia
Brooks
Florance
Gray Street
Hazel Street
Mornen
Peach
Tift
West Savannah
Quitman
Savannah
Atlanta
Macon
Mornen
Fort Valley
Albany
Savannah
Louisiana
Bernice Colored
Fisher
Negreet
Perkins
Poplar
Union
Zwolle
Bernice
Fisher
Negreet
Baton Rouge
Bogalusa
Farmerville
Zwolle
176
State
School
City
Mississippi
Sandy
Southside
Laurel
Laurel
Texas
Cooper
Blackshear
Ghireno Colored
Clarksville
Clinton Avenue
Douglass
Emmett Scott
Harrisburg
N. W. Harlee
E. A, Kemp
Pacific Avenue
Mt. Prairie
Oakland
Fort W o r t h
Houston
Chireno
Austin
Fort Xforth
Mexia
Tyler
Houston
Dallas
Bryan
Dallas
Neches
Freeport
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