PERSONAL PROBLEMS OF HIG-H SCHOOL SENIOR GIRLS A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the School of Education University of Southern California In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Science in Education by Erma Stevens August 1941 UMI Number: EP54310 All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion. Dissertation Publ shsng UMI EP54310 Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author. Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 48106- 1346 This thesis, written under the direction of the Chairman of the candidate’s Guidance Committee and approved by a ll members of the Committee has been presented to and accepted by the Faculty of the School of Education in partial fu lfillm e n t of the requirements fo r the degree of Master of Science in Education. , D ate... ...... Guidance Committee C. C. Crawford C hairman 0. E. Hull D. Welty Lefever t a b u : of contents CHAPTER PAGE I. THE PROBUM AND DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED........ 1 . 1 The problem* . . ......................... \ . . 1 Statement of the p r o b l e m ..................... . 1 Importance of the study......................... 2 Definitions of terms used......................... 5 Personal ..................................... 5 Problem. . ......................... 5 Guidance ................................... 5 "Problemsire"........................... .... 5 Limitations of the s t u d y ......................... 6 Scope of the s t u d y ............................. 6 Weaknesses of the study. ................. 6 Organization of remainder of thesis............... 7 U . REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ................... 9 Investigative literature ........................ 9 Questionnaire studies. ...................... 9 Studies of problems brought to d e a n s .......... 19 Case studies..................................21 General literature ............................ 23 Adolescence.................................... 23 Psychology....................................25 M Mental h y g i e n e......................... .26 ill CHAPTER PAGE III. THE MATERIALS AMD TECHNIQUES OF THE STUDY . . . . . 29 The formulation of the "problemsire" and methods used................... 30 The development of the "problemsirew. • . . • . 3 0 The method of procedure....................... 33 The groups studied............................. 34 Distribution and interpretation................. 35 Distribution................................... 35 Differentiation of g r o u p s ..................... 35 Interpretation of findings..................... 36 Comparison of results and m e t h o d s ........... . 3 7 IV. ANALYSIS OF THE RESULTS OF THE "PROBLSMAIRE" S T U D Y .......................................... 39 Problems of school l i f e ........................ 41 Problems of home life • • • • . . .............. 44 Problems of boy and girl relationships. . . . . . 48 Problems of vocation............................ 52 Problems concerning friends ........ 56 Problems of religion............................ 60 Problems of health. Problems of .......................... 63 recreation.......................... 67 Problems concerning money ...................... 71 Problems concerning clothes .................... 74 iv CHAPTER PAGE Miscellaneous problems. ......... 77 Additional problems ........................... 81 Areas of greatest number of problems. . . . . . . 83 The most serious problems.................... . 86 Outstanding problems......................... . 87 Problems not in tables........................... 89 Special comparisons ......................... *93 V. AN ANALYSIS OF GUIDANCE METHODS REPORTED BY COUNSELORS.......................................96 Technique ............... . . 96 Comparison of methods withinschools.............. 97 Comparison of methods with findings of "problemaire"............................... .110 VI. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS.......................... 118 Summary..................... . 118 Conclusions and recommendations............... .125 BIBLIOGRAPHY..........................................130 APPENDIX ............. 134 LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I* The TenMost Common Problems of School Life. • • 42 II. The TenMost Serious Problems of School Life . . 45 III. The TenMost Common Problems of Home Life. . . . 45 IV. The TenMost Serious Problems of Home Life . . . 46 V. The TenMost Common Problems of Boy and Girl Relationships.................................49 VI. The Ten Most Serious Problems of Boy and Girl Relationships. • • • . . • • . • • • • • • • • 5 0 VII. The TenMost Common Problems of Vocation . . . . 53 VIII. The TenMost Serious Problems of Vocation. . . . 54 IX. The TenMost Common Problems Concerning Friends.......................................57 X. The Ten Most Serious Problems Concerning Friends...................................... 58 XI. TheTen Most Common Problems of Religion . . . . 61 XII. TheTen Most Serious Problems of Religion. . . . 62 XIII. TheTen Most Common Problems of Health . . . . . 64 XIV* TheTen Most Serious Problems of Health......... 65 XV. The TenMost Common Problems of Recreation . . . 68 XVI. The TenMost Serious Problems of Recreation. . • 69 XVIX. The TenMost Common Problems Concerning Money. • 72 XVIII. The TenMost Serious Problems Concerning Money • 73 vi TABLE PAGE XIX* The Ten Most Common Problems Concerning Clothes* • • • ........... * . •. ............. 75 XX* The Ten Most Serious Problems Concerning < Clothes*.; * ................................ 76 t XXI* The Ten Most Common Miscellaneous Problems. . . . XXII# The Ten Most Serious Miscellaneous Problems. 78 . . . 79 CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED The senior girl has long been considered as another adolescent girl whose problems are the same as those of all high school girls. It is only within the last few years that educators have realized the importance of the senior year; and that the guidance of young people at this time is most influential upon their outlook and course to be followed in the future. Research pertaining to the personal problems of high school girls have given little consideration to the differ ences existing between the senior girl and high school girls in general. Until this information is at hand, the necessary guidance is limited. I. THE PROBLEM Statement of the problem. It was the purpose of this study (1) to discover the nature of the problems . which high school senior girls encounter relating to their personal difficulties; (2) to find which problems are of the greatest significance, and those which are of the most serious nature; (3) to learn the effectiveness of the guidance methods used to solve these problems; and (4) to determine what implications may be found in 2 adjusting the school program to meet these needs* Importance of the study* That there is a growing emphasis in education upon the need of guidance cannot he denied. Cox**' states that "among the educational movements in the twentieth century that of guidance has taken a first place*” But he stresses the fact that much progress is needed; and that changes in educational methods must he de vised if guidance is to he effective. He further states that: If the secondary school could really he organized and planned in terms of its stated objectives; if success in high school were actually to he regarded as improvement in health, true fundamentals, home membership, vocational preparation, citizenship, uses of leisure, and ethical character, personnel problems would he possible of so lution. But the academic tradition remains in control of marks, promotions, and graduation.2 In analyzing the functions of the high school, Whipple sees the importance of directing the high school student in further educational work. He declares that: One of the major guidance problems of students in the eleventh and twelfth grades should he that of becoming informed concerning educational practices of occupational opportunities that lie beyond the years of the senior high school. Too often the choice of a higher ■*\P. W. L. Cox and John Carr Duff, Guidance by the Classroom Teacher (New York: Prentice-Hall, 1938*77 P* 2Ibid., p. 36. Guy Montrose Whipple, "Guidance in Educational Institutions,” Thirty-Eifth Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, Part I, 1938, p. 152. 3 institution is based upon geographical location, personal friendships, or popular opinion, rather than upon the actual facts regarding student life, living facilities, educational resources, quality of the instructional staff, the advantages or disadvantages of coeducation and the extent to which the institution may contribute to the individual plans and the progress of the students.^ If, at the time the senior girl, is graduating from high school, she is struggling with tensions and conflicts, due to unsolved problems, she is inadequately prepared to meet and adjust herself to new difficulties when she no longer has the school to rely upon for guidance. at a loss to manage self-direction. She is Many who graduate from high school consider their education complete, and thus have no further educational guidance toward attaining a well-adjusted life. Those who seek higher training not only need to have definite purposes and tasks in mind, but need also*wholesome and integrated personalities to avoid failures which are possible in institutions of higher learning. The integrated personality, according to Thorpe, is one "characterized by unity of action in which the. re sponses of parts or aspects have meaning only in terms of their relation to a central self and in harmony with the ^Loc. cit. Louis P. Thorpe, Psychological Foundations of Personality (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1938), p. 553. 4 ft plans and purposes of the individual concerned*w The service which the high school provides should be an individual matter, taking into consideration that each pupil is an individual personality, with individually different needs* The school is responsible for the ' ~ development of the student's innate capacity, her attitudes and outlooks, and her ability to grow* This function is made more possible by the discovery of the personal problems of the students. To meet the needs of the senior girl, therefore, the school must learn the nature of the girls' problems from their point of view; and from this information work toward the development of those ideals, values, and methods of adjustment, which will enable her to live a better adjusted and more enriched life. Morgan n expresses the objective of adjustment as: From the simplest to the most complex phase of life, conflict is the normal order of the day. The objective of adjustment is not to enable the child to avoid conflict, but to select such modes of response as will provide the best solution for each dilemma as it arises. If neither the child nor the adults have any clear conception of the elements at issue, or of the different possible ways of meeting the issue, the child must de pend upon chance or the experiences he has gained in similar situations in the past. In some instances this sLoc cit* 7J. H. B. Morgan, Child Psychology Farrar and Rinehart, Inc., 1934), p. 454. (New York: 5 method is costly; and, for this reason, it may be a worthy task to analyze the types of problems the child must face, and to make a survey of the ways in which he may respond when confronted with them.8 II. Personal. DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED The meaning of the word was interpreted as pertaining to self. It included the problems belonging to each girl exclusively, in relation to her private affairs of everyday life. Problem. The word has been used to refer to a felt need or difficulty, that which has prevented an adequate adjustment, and has thus causes conflicts and. tensions. Guidance. Cox 9 The interpretation used here is that of who has defined guidance as "the methodology of self adjustment and, hence, of true education." "Problemsire.n The term has been used to denote the instrument used to secure the data which indicate the senior girls’ personal problems. The "problemsire" was developed through a series of investigations which desig nated the difficulties. The wording was developed Loc.cit. 9 P. W. L. Cox and John Carr Duff, Guidance by the Classroom Teacher (New Yorks Prentice-Hall, 1938)7 P* 6 according to the preliminary investigetion. III. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY Scope of the study. The range of the study in cluded 335 senior girls in three senior high schools of Los Angeles County, The study of guidance methods in dealing with the problems was conducted in the same schools. Details concerning the choice of schools are explained in the section of the study pertaining to the groups studied. The purpose was to secure an adequate sampling of senior girls <having different types of background^, in schools of varied economic status. Weaknesses of the study. To determine the nature of problems which the individual hesitates to admit, even to herself, is a delicate task, and yet one if satisfactorily accomplished toward effective guidance. offers many opportunites That the material would be reliable the senior girls were assured that no attempt would be made to identify any paper. They were fully informed as to the purpose of the study, its value, and the need of their co-operation. The nproblemairen was composed of the following divisions: school life, home life, boy and girl re lationships, vocation, friends, religion, health, 7 recreation, money, eloth.es, and miscellaneous problems. The statements of the "probleraaire" were worded as nearly as possible to those indicated by the girls in the preliminary investigation. The danger that the statements might be misinterpreted, however, was possible. In the attempt to cover all difficulties felt by the girls, there was a tendency toward overlapping in the statements; but it was hoped that any repetition would tend to m£ke the girls recognize difficulties which otherwise might be overlooked. In formulating the "problemsire" from the original essay problems, there existed the danger of eliminating some difficulties which would be important to certain students. It was also possible that the preliminary in vestigation might not include all needs. To meet these situations space was provided at the end of the "prob lems ire" for additional problems which, the girls felt, were not expressed. IV. ORGANIZATION OF THU REMAINDER OF THE THESIS Chapter II is devoted to a survey of the related literature. Chapter III presents a description of the method of procedure used in the formulation of the "problemsire? and its administration in final form. Chapter XV contains an analysis of the problems indicated 8 by the girls in relation to those most frequently re ported and those which were considered by the girls to be most ser ious. Chapter V presents an analysis of the guidance methods reported by the counselors in the schools studied, and their effectiveness in meeting the girls* problems. Chapter VI contains a summary of the findings of the study, with conclusions and recom mendations . The Appendix consists of copies of the "problemaire,** instructions to the counselors in the administration of the wproblemaire,w and the outline for guidance methods which was to be filled in by the counselors. CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE A research of the literature forming the background for this study reveals that considerable material has been wit ten pertaining to the present investigation. Only a brief summary of the work of investigators on material most closely related to the one at hand will be presented. I. INVESTIG-ATIVH LITERATURE In recent years a number of authorities have endeavored to determine the nature of problems of high school students and the characteristics of the adolescent. Some have studied exelusibely the personal problems of girls of this age, while others have dealt with their educational, home, and social environments. None, however, has been found to consider the senior girl as a separate unit. Questionnaire studies. An analysis of the problems of adolescent girls was recently made by Austin.1 Her investi gation was to determine the problems of a group of 800 high school girls, chosen at random, in a city near Los Angeles. Mary Alice Austin, ”An Analysis of Certain Personal Problems of an Unselected Group of High School Girls,” (un published Master’s thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1937), 310 pp. 10 The girls indicated, by means of a questionnaire, their environment, personality traits, health, home and school relationships, friendships, leisure-time activities, finane©.3, and religion. The results of the study reveal that home difficulties were considered the greatest problems to the girls; and problems relating to the plans of the future troubled them the least. The A 12 reported the largest number of problems; and the A 10 and A 11 girls were next in number. Many sug gestions were offered by the girls wherein the school might be improved. Reedy, 2 in a similar study of personal problems of high school students, approached the study by the method of a questionnaire in which a group of 363 girls and boys indi cated their difficulties in home and school relationships. It was the purpose of her study to discover the students’ problems as a means of help to individual counseling; and to assist in creating conditions in the home and school which would aid in the solving of these problems. Prom the problems listed in her questionnaire it was found that the most important to the group studied were, %olla A. Reedy, "A Study of the Personal Problems of High School Students,” (unpublished Master’s thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1937), 56 pp. 11 how to develop a desirable personality for the girl, and how to find the right vocation for the boy. Although the boys were more interested than the girls in finding the right vocation, yet the girls considered the problem of vocation second to personality development. 5 Andrus , in a dissertation, summarized the results of a study of girls and their needs as a basis for a course of study for high school girls. Questionnaires were sent to 3,000 girls who were asked to state their opinions about marriage, parenthood, curriculum offerings which they had found most helpful, avocations, and plans for the future. There wer'e 2,518 questionnaires answered. The conclusions of her study indicate that high school girls are in need of the following: 1. Helpful guidance in matters concerning social relations, personal conduct, marriage, and the question of sex. 2. Vocational guidance which will satisfy them as to personal and social needs and reasonable wages. 3. School courses which will help them in the com munity, the home, and personally. The attitudes of girls toward their high schools 3 Ethel PI Andrus, wThe Development of an Educational Program for the High School Girl Based on a Critical Study of Her Nature and Her Needs,?f (unpublished Doctor’s disser tation, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1930), 484 pp. IB differ. Many girls have a somewhat skeptical attitude regarding the lack of effort of the secondary school in solving problems of vital interest to them. 4 Stephan’s study was that of discovering the mental health problems of girls. three investigations. This was undertaken through The first part of the study was an analysis of the questions turned in by the physical education classes at Gerdena High School. A tabulation was made of the questions from the ninth to the twelfth grades, inclu sive. It was found that the major problems of the girls was that of boy and girl relationships. A different existed between the problems of ninth grade girls and those of other high school girls in that the ninth grade girls had more conflicts in the home relationship, a greater desire for sex knowledge, and a rapidly awakening interest in the boys. The second part of the study was to find out if the girls at Gardena High School had problems which were closely related to their environment. A comparison was made of the questions of Gardena girls with the questions handed in by girls at Chaffey Union High School. The results revealed that three problems were present at Gardena that had not been mentioned at Chaffey; namely, family relationships, ^Frances Stephan, ”An Investigation of the Mental Health Problems of the Girls of Gardena High School,” (unpublished Master’s thesis, The University of SouthernCalifornia, Los Angeles, 1936), 119 pp. 13 personality development, etiquette, and problems of re ligion. It is significant that questions concerning boy and girl relationships were the most frequently asked in each school. . The third part of the study was to find out the.re lationship between worthy home membership and mental health problems. This was done by a tabulation of ninth and tenth grade merit records and making a comparison of the two. It was disclosed that the ninth grade girls committed more than four times as many offenses as the tenth grade girls. 5 Kent , in a study of problems of girls at Chaffey Union High School, attempted to make an analysis of the need for instruction .in family relationships; and analyze the courses now being taught in the secondary schools. From the findings she suggested a plan for a unit of study • in family relationships including methods of teaching and 'materials which might be utilized. Her investigation con sisted of a tabulation of 313 questions presented through the "Question Bo2" in Chaffey Union High School, which reveal the following% 1. Of all the questions, 39 per cent related to boy and girl relationships. 5 Lois Kent, "Teaching of Family Relationships in Secondary Schools," (unpublished Master’s thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1933), p. 37. 14 2. Medical information received 19 per cent. 3. Marriage received 7 per cent. 4. Sex matters received 7 per cent. 5. Friendship received 5 per cent. 6. Smoking received 4 per cent. 7. Various recreations received 2 per cent. 8. Venereal diseases received 1 per cent. 9. Occupations and professions received 1 per cent. The results show that while 39 per cent of the questions had to do with hoy and girl relationships, prac tically all fields of social endeavor were ^questioned. By means of an attitude questionnaire Jones^ collected data concerning the attitudes of young people toward their parents. This included personal data, home relationships* parent relationships, social relationships, attitudes and habits, problems of young people, and general criticisms. The group studied consisted of 440 cases, 219 of which were girls, and 221 boys. There were 306 pupils living in normal homes, and 134 in broken homes. The following were selected by the group as the five most outstanding shortcomings.of the parents of today. ^Maud M. Jones, "An Investigation of the Adjustment Problems of High School Pupils," (unpublished Master’s thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1934), 95 pp. 15 Parents do not give their children adequate sex instruction. Parents worry too much over their children. Parents believe that the younger generation is "going to the dogs." Parents do not give their children enough responsibility. Parents are not pals to their children. In a comparative study and analysis of the problems of girls from the ninth to the tv/elfth grade inclusive, 7 Kast secured the attitudes of the girls through a questionnaire which was divided into the following fields: personal data, home relationships, parent relationships, social relationships, school relationships, health, church relationships, habits, attitudes, problems of young people, and the suggested criticisms of today. The data included the girls from one union high school consisting of 562 girls, 160 freshmen, 138 -sophomores, 146 juniors, and 117 seniors. The conclusions were that unhappy homes and an un happy childhood are less often due to the economic distress in the home than to the critical attitude of the parents toward one another, and the unsympathetic understanding which results from signs of favoritism. The evidence showed that the differences were more largely affected by 7Emma J. Kast, "A Comparative Study and Analysis of the Problems of Girls in a Four-Year High School," (un published Master’s thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1936), 151 pp. 16 the age of the respondents than by school grade. Her recommendations from the study were that the school’s curriculum include courses in which citizenship, hygiene, and home problems are given serious consideration. Leonard8 made a study of social problems of freshman girls for the purpose ‘of discovering what they felt-to be the best preparation for college life. She included an investigation of mother-daughter relationships to determine the correlation between the girls’ answers and the mothers’ indications of their problems. Her data were gathered from a brief questionnaire compiled from assembled questions snd submitted to one hundred freshman girls, of which fifty were later given short interviews, and identical question naires sent >to the mothers of the girls who took part in the study. The questionnaire included the following areas: academic pursuits, girl, and boy relationships, recreation, t clothes and personal adornment, religion, sex life, vo cational aspiration, use of,money, contacts with home, m d health habits. It was found that sixty-nine per cent of the girls’ responses to the questionnaires agreed with their responses in the interviews. There existed a sixty- three per cent agreement between the responses of the girls and their mothers. 8Eugenie A. Leonard, Problems of Freshman College Girls (Hew York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 1932), p. 139. 17 Jobe q endeavored to determine the responsibility of the secondary school in preparing youth for marriage. An investigation was made of the available courses of study, class activities, principals* opinions, and current liter ature dealing with the training for marriage. A check list, containing opinions and practices in the field of education for marriage, was submitted to approximately onethird of the high school principals in California; and instructors of marriage problems classes of four selected high schools were interviewed. The principals’ responses showed that more than half the schools offered courses, some part of which was devoted to educating for marriage. However, only £8.4 per cent of the schools reporting offered a special course on marriage; and in only 8*1 per cent of the schools were pupils re quired to take such instruction. Of the school repre sented in this study, 55.4 per cent are offering a course in which most of the tpics submitted in the check-list are included. Her recommendations are that:' there is definite need for more well trained teachers to give instruction for marriage; more books are needed for pupil reference; Claire W. Jobe, ’’Education for Marriage in Second ary Schools,” (unpublished Master’s thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1938), 143 pp. 18 there is a need of educating not only the pupils but also the parents and other adults of the community. Symonds*^ made a study of the interests and con cerns of young people, based on the replies from 1,641 adolescents to a questionnaire. the areas of: The problems included health, sex adjustment, safety, money, mental hygiene, study habits, recreation, personal and moral qualities, home and family relationships, manners and courtesy, personal attractiveness, daily schedule, civic interests, getting along with other people, and philosophy of life. The students were asked to rank these areas according to the difficulty they cause in their lives; the one causing most concern *'.ranking first* The results indicated that the ranking had not been solely on the basis of the students* personal problems but as a consideration of the importance of these problems to people in general. found to be: money, health, and personal attractiveness (particularly to the girl.) interest are: ness. The most important were The items ranked highest for recreation, health, and personal attractive The five items rated to be of least importance are: sex, daily schedule, and civic interests. M* Symonds, "Life Problems and Interests of Adolescents," School Review, 44:506-518, September, 1936. 19 An attempt to locate and describe the crises and tensions of adolescence is being made by Brown‘d through the guidance program of the University High School at Oakland, The study is intended to find characteristics which would be considered in planning adequate courses of study for senior high school students. methods of research are used: The following observations, stereo scopic pictures, hand-wrist x-rays, tests, questionnaires, interests, case conference records, guidance records, and anecdotal records. The study reveals progress in independence and shows the necessity of modifying guidance techniques as students change. Study of problems brought to deans. An investi gation of the personal problems of adolescent girls was recently made by Hertzler.^ Her thesis was to discover ^■Marion Brown, *fA Study of Adolescents in the Univer sity High School, Oakland, California,n _ Proceedings of the Twenty-First Annual Meeting of the National Association of Deans of Women (Washington, D. C.: National Association of Deans of Women, June, 1937), pp. 112-121. IP Alverda Elizabeth Hertzler, nA Study of the Personal Problems of High School Girls in Certain Southern California Secondary Schools,” (unpublished Master's thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1939), 194 pp. so the difficulties which adolescent girls encounter in various areas of their lives, and to compare these findings with the problems brought to the dean of girls. For her in vestigation she composed an expressionnaire which was given to S,079 girls in four senior high schools and one junior college, of which 103 were freshmen, 613 sophomores, 900 juniors, and 463 seniors. The study by the deans was made in eleven schools and included 330 interviews. areas covered in the expressionnaire were: The problems of school life, home life, boy and girl relationships, recreation, ■?*. friends, vocational choice, religion, health, clothes, money, and miscellaneous problems• The results of the investigation reveal that more problems were reported in the areas of school life, home life, boy and girl relatipnships, and money; the most common problems of which were reported by from 42 per cent to 52 per cent of the group. In the areas of the other problems the most commonly reported were from 21 per cent to 27 per cent of the group. In the comparison of problems brought to the dean of girls with those of the expression naire it was found that they were closely paralleled. There were some significant differences, however, betwen the problems discovered by the dean in the interviews and those recognized by the girls themselves. 21 Strang , in an investigation of the problems of adolescents which come to deans of girls, used the records of approximately two thousand interviews with the students concerning their personal problems. These were noted during one month by twenty-seven deans on all educational levels in the State of New York. fication of problems included: The classi academic, attendance, behavior, personal, health, social adjustment, and finances. The summary showed that the amount of time given to each pupil is insufficient to help individuals to acquire the knowledge and techniques needed in solving their own problems. From 194 cases of behavior difficulties recorded -in these interviews it was found that most were concerned with disobedience, stealing, and cheating. The majority of the interviews dealing with behavior problems were involuntary. Case studies. By means of extensive case studies Smithies^ investigated the problems of normal adolescent 1^ R. M. Strang, "Problems of Adolescents Which Come to Deans,n Junior Senior High School Clearing House, 7:29-34, September, 1932. 14 Elsie May Smithies, Case Studies of Norma 1 Adolescent Girls (New York: AppletonSCentury Co., 1933}, 277 pp. 22 girls to determine the typical problems met in the home and school situations. Eleven cases are presented as representing typical maladjustment, in which are outlined symptoms, approaches, methods of adjustment, and results obtained. cerning: The cases shown represent maladjustments con self-distrust, superior girl, physical disability, exhibitionism, volitional retardation, depression, inse curity, environmental pressure, parental dominance, shame, and inferiority fear. She concludes from her study that personal inter est, curriculum adjustments, changes of environment, and arousal of the desire on the part of the individual for a fuller life, are the factors which lead to satisfactory living* Zachry 15 analyzes cases of maladjustment and the factors causing them. Mechanisms of adjustment, through a study of individual case histories, are described as being the result of the .’effort that the individual makes to ad just his biological inheritance to his social environment. These are stated to be the beginning of serious disorders. Her study reveals that maladjusted children have feelings of insecurity which lead to much mental distress. 15Caroline B. Zachry, Personality Adjustments of School Children (New York: Charles ><Scribnerfs Sons, 1929), £98 pp. 23 Suggestions are made for the constructive development of personality through the curriculum, II. GENERAL LITERATURE Adolescence, Much literature of recent years deals with adolescence. Although authorities differ on minor points their attitudes on fundamental factors are essentially the same, A number of studies on adolescence by the various commissions have been made. These have attempted to survey and summarize the needs and problems of youth. Douglass 16 , in a report to the American Youth Commission, makes a summary of this nature. The most important problems and needs of youth he claims to be; to find a satisfying place among fellow youths, to experience personal achievement, to enter into and succeed in vocational life, to be able to estab lish and enjoy a happy home, to understand an improve po litical and economic conditions, to participate in enjoyable recreational activities, and to find a satisfying philosophy of life. To meet these needs he has recommended a complete program for the reorganization of the secondary sc'hools, i ft Harl Douglass, "Secondary Education for Youth m Modern America," A Report to the American Youth Commission of the American Council on Education .(Washington, D. C.: 193777 137 pp. 24 Bigelow17 , limiting the age of adolescence as be tween twelve and twenty, maintains that adolescence is the important period of life in which each individual is completing his physical, mental, and social preparation for his part as a citizen* It is rhis belief that the school should teach fundamental facts by presenting curriculums including courses in biology and social sciences, physical education, health education, household arts, general literature, and psychology* 1 ft Arlitt emphasizes the need of training adolescents emotionally* He contends that only the emotionally mature adult can expect to lead an adjusted life* The aid of the physician, psychologist, and psychiatrist may be neces sary as the emotional development with which the child leaves adolescence will probably last him throughout life* The parents’ help in guiding the adolescent is considered of major importance* Youth cannot always be kept away from people who have bad habits, but they can be so well trained at home, and have so much confidence in their parents that the contacts of questionable nature will have little effect* 17 Maurice A. Bigelow, Adolescence (New York: and Wagnalls Co., 1937), 99 pp* 1ft Ada Hart Arlitt, The Adolescent (New York: Hill Book Co., 1933), 242 pp. Funk McGraw- 25 Psychology* In a study of problems of health and 19 emotional development Pressey cites examples in which he points out that less than one-third of the children are free from physical defects, one-third have minor difficulties, and the remaining third are seriously handi capped by ill health or defects of some sort* He states that this is a condition which presents a serious handicap to child learning, that it is a challenge to school health programs, that it involves disciplinary problems, and that physical handicaps have important, though often neglected, long-time effects upon the de velopment of personality which are frequently determining influences upon the individual^ career* Morgan^, in dealing with the psychology of the maladjusted child, gives a mental hygiene program with concrete suggestions for assisting him toward adjustment* He states that the chief need of young people is to have insight into personal lives; and that the "main object of education is to fit an individual to become successful in his personal relations with his fellows*" 21 1Q S* L* Pressey, Psychology and the Hew Education (Hew York: Harper Brothers, 1933J, 594 pp* PO ° I. H. B. Morgan, The Psychology of the Unadjusted School Child (New York: The Macmillan Co., 1936), 339 pp. ^ Ibid*, p . 7 * 26 Averill2^ summarizes factors in the lives of adol escents which lead to delinquency as: loss of loyalty and security in the home situation, drabness of home en vironment as compared with glitter of cheap amusements, natural craving for adventure, focusing of limelight, the appeals of easy wealth, bad associates and influences, boredom arising out of idleness and an easy environment, and physical deficiencies and abnormalities. Mental hygiene. According to Sherman 23 the problems mentioned most frequently in mental hygiene literature in clude those of economic handicap, physical handicap, mental handicap, racial handicap, broken homes, parental ignorance and indifference, chronic illness in the family, chronic intoxication in the family, family tension, parental domi nation, parental over-solicitousness, minority group handi cap, hereditary constitutional factors, and bad companions. 24 Witty and Skinner declare that the schools are primarily concerned with the conformity of children to academic requirements rather than with the development of personalities ready to cope with new or troublesome social situations. They contend that mental hygiene is a means of forming a reconciliation between children’s physical S2L* A. Averill, Adolescence (Cambridge, Massachusetts Houghton Mifflin Co., 1936), 495 pp. 23Mandel Sherman, Mental Hygiene and Education (New York: Longmans, Green and Co., 1934), 320 pp. 27 mental, social, and emotional drives at an integrated, well-balanced orientation to life; and that the dis tinguishing characteristic of the hygienic approach in education is the nature and amount of wholesome growth it engenders. The. primary aim of mental hygiene, according to Burnham 25 , is the preservation and development of a wholesome personality and the prevention of personality disorders. It is his belief that the period when mental conflict is liable to be most common is that of puberty and adolescence; and that the storm and stress of this period cause conflict which is often intensely emotional. The positive and preventive measures of mental hygiene are emphasized by Symonds. 28 He states helpful suggestions and instructions regarding the teacher’s part in developing mental hygiene: It has been estimated that one out of twenty-two '“ persons'"becomes a patient in a hospital for mental diseases in a generation or lifetime, and that the chances of a white person fifteen years old contracting a s4:Paul A. Witty and Charles E. Skinner and Others, Mental Hygiene in Modern Education (New York: Farrar and Rinehart, 1939), 539 pp. 85 ¥/illiam H. Burnham, The Wholesome Persona (Hew Tork: D. Appleton-Century Co., Inc., 193S ),713 pp. 28 a psychosis or a severe incapacitating neurosis during a lifetime, whether sent to a hospital for mental diseases or not, are -somewhere near one in ten. These tendencies toward instability are increasing, as evi denced by a growth in the attendance at mental hospi tals greater than the growth of the general population.27 The study of literature pertaining to the problems of senior girls has given evidence that a consideration of the needs of high school girls in general has not been neglected. Particularly is this true of the nature of the adolescent girl, wherein a wealth of material is now available. To what extent the past investigations are related, and their value to the present investigation will be cited in the conclusions of this study. 26 P. M. Symonds, Mental Hygiene of the School Child (New York: The Macmillan Co., 1936), 301 pp. 27Xbid., p. 8. CHAPTER III THE MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES OF THE STUDY This chapter is devoted to a discussion of the procedure in the development of the ’’problemsire,n the methods used in its administration to secure the neces sary data, an analysis of the groups studied, and an interpretation of the findings. It includes the steps taken to determine the adequacy of the guidance methods used In the schools studied with the results of the "problemsire," For this type of study a method was sought whereby the girls would have an opportunity to express their innermost difficulties and needs, knowing all such expressions would be confidential, and used solely to help future high school girls overcome the same puzzling annoyances. A form of questionnaire was decided upon to accomplish this purpose. Because the function of the questionnaire was to determine the kinds of problems senior girls encounter, and because the name might be inspirational and intriguing to the girls, when the questionnaire was presented to them to answer, the name of "problemsire" was decided upon by the investigator. 30 I. THIS F0BMUIATI0H OF THE "PROBLEMAIRS" AND METHODS USED The development of the "problems ires:" A study of the everyday life of high school senior girls- revealed the fact that their interests naturally fall within certain major areas. These include: school life, home life, boy and girl relationships, vocation, friends, religion,.health, recreation, money, clothes, and miscel laneous* To obtain a free, unbiased expression of the girls, concerning their personal problems, the essay method of writing problems was decided upon as a preliminary step. The investigator secured unruled paper, twelve by eight and a half inches in size, which was taken to three senior high schools for the writing of this material* After explaining the purpose of the study, the value of its contribution, and the secrecy of the replies, the girls were asked to write their problems under the headings mentioned. When the papers from the three schools were in the hands of the investigator, a study was made of the answers toward the formulation of the "problemsire." By the nature of the replies certain characteristics of the preliminary "problemsire" were apparent. Several factors made it evident that the girls had taken the 31 reguest seriously, with a very fine attitude of co-oper ation, There was no element of flippancy in the answers. As the girls wrote their problems they offered suggestions whereby they thought their difficulties might be eased. In several cases, in the school wherein the investigator administered the research, the advice of the investigator , and her help towahd solving their problems, were reguested. Many of the essays were addressed to her, and were written in the form of a friendly letter. Typical expressions of their appreciation include, "Thank you," and, ^It’s a re lief to let the excess run off!” Another wrote, ”Like you- I ’m very interested in youth’s problems and think it would be very interesting to make such a study.” Many girls expressed a wholesome attitude in stating that in a measure they might be wrong in their outlook on some problems. Some of. the papers were very emotional in nature, showing anger about certain conditions; while others seemed des paired. This was seen in statements such as, "Oh meJ” and, "It is a terrible problem.” San situations in the home were related; some were appalling. Essay papers were received from BIB girls who had been chosen at random in the three schools. There were five girls who wrote that they had no problems. The essay writing ranged from a half sheet to three pages. 3B Most difficulties were written out in detail. Many were lengthy discussions. In tabulating the statements toward the formulation of the "problemaire," it was thought that the girls would recognize their own problems more easily, feel that ,the "problemaire* was their own expression, and be more enthusi astic about co-operating, if the wording of the statements in the "probt. emaire* were that of the essay papers. The statements, therefore, were worded as closely as possible to those written by the girls in the preliminary investi gation. To make the study as valuable as possible the most serious problems as well as those most common were to be determined. The instructions requested the girls to indi cate their problems by placing a circle around the word "Yes* in from of each statement which expressed a diffi culty to them, and "No* around those which did not. To indicate their most serious problems they were requested to place the numbers from *1* to *3," according to the degree of seriousness, in the space provided at the right of each statement. The compiled "problemaire,* when completed, was submitted to a number of interested adults and a few high school girls for their evaluations and suggestions. After considering their comments the final "problemaire" was drawn up and mimeographed for administration. Care was taken to make the form as attractive, stimulating, and easy to answer as possible. A copy of the problemaire" is in the appendix. The completion of the "problemaire" required approximately forty-five minutes. Individual differences made a wide range in the amount of time necessary. The method of procedure. The preliminary step toward collecting the data desired was to secure the essay material of the girls’ problems, as already ex plained in the development of the "problemaire." The investigator administered the preliminary research, and the counselor the "problemaire," in the first of the three buildings to be studied. In the other two build ings the counselors made the request that they conduct the study in their respective buildings as a part of the classroom work. Inasmuch as no identity of any girl* paper was possible, and the typewritten instructions for the essay material and for the finished "problemaire" would make the procedure uniform, the request was granted Therefore, a copy of the instructions used by the investi gator in the preliminary study, along with the necessary paper, were taken to the two schools where the counselors administered the preliminary research, and, later, the 34 completed "problemaire* with instructions on the front page, as a part of the work of the hygiene and senior problem classes, A copy of the instructions used to obtain the essay material is in the appendix# The groups studied. The three schools selected for the study are located in Los Angeles County. are widely separated geographically. They The descrimination of schools was due to the different economic status each represents. The purpose the differences, if any, of this method was to determine in the number and types of problems of the girls in the three buildings, which would be due, possibly, to the environment in the communities in which each of the schools are located. The request was made that the names of the schools be withheld. Inasmuch as the guidance methods being used to meet the girls’ problems would be evaluated, and con clusions drawn as to their effectiveness according to the results of the "problemaire," the request seemed a logical one to the investigator and therefore was granted. The school representing high economic status is designated throughout the study as the average economic status, "A" school; the school of as "B* school; and the school of low economic status, as ”Cn school. 35 II. DISTRIBUTION AND INTERPRETATION Distribution* The "problemaire** was answered by 335 high school senior girls. This total consisted of; 104 ub "A" school, 111 in "B" school,■and 120 in "C* school. While not every senior girl in the three buildings filled out a "problemaire," due to .-unavoidable school adtivities at the time of the administration, the counselors felt that the groups who responded in their respective schools represented the typical senior girl, and was an adequate sampling of all types of senior girls. Differentiation of groups. Of the 335 girls answering the problemaire" there were five who did not indicate their most serious problems when they had finished denoting which were their problems at the left of the statements of the "problemaire." It seemed proba ble to the investigator that these girls were not through at the end of the time allotted for answering the "problemaire." All five were from "C* school. Thus the number reporting their most serious problems amounted to 330. The enrollment in the three schools varied, as did the number of senior girls. The relationship in size, however, was close enough to consider their comparisons as 36 reliable. According to size they ranked: "C" school, "B" school, and "A" school, Interpretation of findings. The representation of high school senior girls which amounted to 335 in the three senior high schools was considered by the investigator to be an adequate sampling for the study of senior girls’ personal problems because of the con centrated are© studied. This consisted of one year of school, the senior year, exclusively; and of girls approximately the same age. The response within all three schools was en thusiastic and co-operative, as was to be expected from the nature of the preliminary papers. The attitudes were evidenced by the remarks written at the side of the state ments, and on the extra sheet at the end of the "problem aire*" "How often should you have a date,” was the state ment receiving the most comments. Several wrote the number which they thought advisable; it was interesting to note that in these cases the word "Yes" had a circle around it, indicating it to be a problem. are the following: Typical of other remarks by the statement, "How to keep the friendship of a boy without drinking or ’necking’," was written, "It isn’t necessary," and, "Don’t go the second 37 timeJ" By the statement, "How to keep from feeling inferior when your sister is more talented than you," was written, "By developing other interests." The question, "Should you go to college when your grades are low?" was modified to say, "If you know you will improve." In several cases the "Yes" at the left of the statement was heavily underlined for emphasis, and the statement marked "1." Mamy girls wrote on the extra sheet at the end of the "problemaire," "You have covered the problems very well." The span in the number of problems was great, ranging from two problems to one hundred and ninety-six; both of which were in "B" school. however, was close to one hundred. The average number, The difference in the number of problems in the comparison of the three schools is shown in the tables of the results of the "problemaire." Although there was overlapping in the statements there were problems listed on the additional sheet at the end of the "problemaire" which had been included in the different sections of the "problemaire." This will be discussed in the chapter dealing with the analysis of the results of the study. Comparison of results'and methods. To determine the adequacy of the guidance methods in the three schools 38 studied, according to the results of the "problemaire,n an outline containing the same areas covered in the "problemaire" was sent to the counselors of the respective schools with the request that they indicate the methods used to meet the problems. The details of the procedure and results are discussed in Chapter V. CHAPTER 17 ANALYSIS OF THE RESULTS OF THE "PROBLEMAIRE" STUDY This chapter is devoted to the presentation and discussion of the results of the "problemaire," and a resume of the findings. Inasmuch as it would be inad visable to present all of the problems of the girls in table form here, due to the bulk of the material, only the ten most common and the ten most serious are presented, and analyzed. The nature of the remaining problems of the "problemaire" are discussed in a general way. To determine the ten most common problems, or the ten problems which were reported by the largest number of girls, each statement of the "problemaire" marked "Yes," scored one point. The ten statements receiving the highest scores, in each division, were considered to be the most common. In the interpretation of these tables the fact must be kept in mind that in "Ranking by school" there were seven more girls answering the "problemaire" in "B" school than in "A" school, and nine more in "C" school than in "B" school. When the girls had indicated their problems, they then designated which of them were of the most serious nature. The investigator determined the ten most serious 40 by allowing three points to the statements marked "1," two points to the statements marked "B," and one point to those marked "3." The ten receiving the highest scores, in each division, were considered to be the most serious. This procedure of determining the most serious problems were used because of the fact that the instructions on the "problemaire" were interpreted differently by the girls taking the test. In each school the girls used one of two methods to indicate their most serious problems. Some understood the instructions to mean that only the three most serious in each section should be indicated, which was the intention of the In vestigator; while others thought the request was to allow to each of their problems a relative degree of seriousness, and thus mark each problem in the sections either "1," *S," or "3." As the percentage of girls using each of these procedures was not the ssme in the three schools, the total sum of each statement was the basis for judging the ten most serious problems. "Ranking by school," therefore, was not included in the tables of the most serious problems as it would be meaningless, due to the two different in terpretations . In summary, the tables of the most common problems indicate which statements represent difficulties to the largest number of girls; and the tables of the most 41 serious represent which them the most trouble. Problems of school life. The ten most common and the ten most serious problems of school life, are centered around the girls* present school conditions, rather than about college life. Not one of these problems pertain to college training, even though the "problemaire* was answered within two months of the close of the senior year of school. For the most part, the interest was in the efficiency of their school work. The solution of such problems as,-"How to concentrate," "How to budget your time when doing school work," "How to make better grades," and I’How to become interested in subjects you don’t like," and "How to stand up in front of the class and give an oral report," would be a great help in future schooling by aiding toward the acquisition of good work habits, and healthy mental attitudes. The highest rating problem of Table I, which is rated third in Table II, indicates a need of change in teaching methods, and possibly a change in curriculum. When over half the girls feel the need of the experience of appearing before others, it is indicative of a neces sity for more expression work in the previous grades to build confidence, and eliminate self-cpnsciousness• Disregarding this essential may result in serious emotional TABU! I THE TEN MOST COMMON PROBLEMS OF SCHOOL LIFE Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 6 9 10 Statement of problem Number of girls reporting How to become interested in subjects you don*t like. How to get more experience in appearing before people. How to concentrate. How to stand up in front Of the class and give an oral report. How to get all of the home work done. How to know which subjects will help you most when you graduate from high school. How to make better grades. How to get your home work done without staying up too late at night. How to have a good time and keep up with your school work. . How to budget.your time when doing school.work. Per cent Ranking by sclhool* A B C 225 67.1 65 78 82 £17 211 64.7 62.9 63 66 76 78 78 67 203 190 60.5 56.7 57 52 72 79 74 59 183 170 54.6 50.7 59 54 61 62 63 54 166 49.5 57 64 45 161 158 48.0 47.1 54 54 57 51 50 53 Total number reporting these problems most common— 335. *A refers to the school of high economic status; B, to average economic status; and C, to low economic status. This interpretation will be used in all of the tables of the most common problems. 43 TABLE IX THE TEN MOST SERIOUS PROBLEMS OF SCHOOL LIFE Renk ' Statementsof problem 1 How to get more experience in appearing before people. 317 s. How to concentrate* 312 5 How to become interested in submects you don*t like* 292 How to stand up in front of the class and give an oral report. 289 5 How to get all of the home work done. 269 6 How to know which subjects will help you most when you graduate from high school. 253 How to get your home work done without staying up too late at night. 241 8 How to make better grades. 219 9 How to prepare in high school to meet life when you can*t go to college* 217 How to have a good time and keep up with your school work. . 216 < 4 7 .0 Score of statement Total number reporting these problems most serious— 330 4:4: distress* The most value problem of knowing which subjects will be of to them later is a natural one*Solving the vocational problems should in part ,eliminate this diffi culty* * It is not surprising that, "How to prepare in high school to meet life when you can’t go to college," is listed among the serious problems, as it is a weighty issue* It reveals a feeling of inadequacy on the part of the girls to meet life situations when they are no longer dependent upon school supervision and guidance. In "Ranking difference by school,” there exists a noticeable between school ”B” and the othertwo schools, ”B ” school being considerably above in the number worrying over getting the home work done, which is consistent with the problem of getting home work done without staying up too late at night, wherein ”B" school is again much above ”C" school. Problems of home life* The first three problems in Table III and Table IV are the same* Furthermore, with the exception of one in Table III, HShould you work for good grades to please your parents,” and one in Table IV, "How to sit down with your mother and talk over your problems with her,” the problems listed in both tables are the same, but in a slightly different order. TABLE III THE TEN MOST COMMON PROBLEMS Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Statement of problem 01 HOME LIFE Number of girls reporting Per cent Ranking by school A B C 182 54.3 55 65 62 155 46.2 51 65 39 132 39.4 39 43 50 124 37/0 28 56 40 117 34.9 42 41 34 112 112 33.4 33.4 34 32 43 44 35 36 106 31.6 25 38 43 103 30.7 24 48 31 99 29.5 22, 40 37 How to keep your parents from worrying about you when you go out at night. How to convince your parents that you appre ciate what they are doing for you. How to get your folks to realize that you are grown up. Should you work for good grades to please your parents? How to have more companionship with your parents. How to get your parents to have more confi dence in you. How to keep quarreling out of the home. How to have a place to entertain your friends. How to get your work done at home and not be too tired to study when you have finished it, How to get your parents to let you take the car. Total number reporting these problems most common— 335• 46 TABLE IV THE TEN MOST SERIOUS PROBLEMS OF HOME LIFE Rank Statement of problem 1 How to keep your parents from worry* ing about you when you go out at night. 292 How to convince your parents that you appreciate what they are doing for you. 250 How to get your folks to realize that you are grown up. 198 How to sit down with your mother and talk over your problems with her. 190 How to have a place to entertain your friends. 176 How to get your work done at home and not be too tired to study when you have finished it. 164 7 How to have more companionship with your parents. 157 8 How to keep quarreling out of the home. 154 9 How to get your parents to let you take the car. 149 How to get your parents to have more confidence in you.- 148 2 3 4 5 6 10 Score of statement Total number reporting these problems most serious— 530 47 Problem I, in both tables, "How to keep your parents from worrying about you when you go out at night," is a matter which the girls should be taught to look- at objectively, and should be frankly discussed with them. With the exception of number 9, in Table III, and number 6, in Table IV, all statements in both tables show a lack of understanding between the girls and their parents, or a lack of harmony in the home. It is apparent, therefore, that not only do girls need more guidance concerning these matters in school, but the home must be contacted before a complete understanding is attainable. It is possible that to some extent the girls* de mands are unreasonable; but without the necessary com panionship of their parents, which they have expressed the desire to have, it wouid be difficult to change their atti tudes, "How to have a place to entertain your friends," is a problem of almost one-third of the girls. If this condition is neglected, the problems of boy and girl re lationships will become even more serious in nature, "Ranking by school" shows three outstanding differ ences between schools. The girls in "C" school are less interested in convincing their parents of their appreciation than either of the other two schools; the girls of "B" school are more interested in working for good grades to 48 please their parents than those of "A* and "C" schools; and the girls of "B" school seem to have more work to do at home which interferes with their studying, than those of "A** school. Problems of boy and girl relationships. It is interesting to note that where there is a difference in problems of the most common and the most serious, that the common ones are not of such a grave nature as those thought to be most serious. Two assertionsi in:Table V, the most common problems, would hardly be expected to appear in Table VI, the most serious ones. These are, "How to feel at home with new boy friends," and "How to keep up a conversation with a boy.” The highest rating statement in Table VI, "How to plan for marriage and a career, too," is not included in Table V. It received a large score of 336 points, wrhich shows that while it is a real appre hension to some girls, it is not a source of anxiety to a great many. The only other problem im Table VI which is not included in Table V, is number 10, "How to get ac quainted with the boys when you are new in school." This statement indicates that the newcomers in the building need a way of becoming acquainted. Although this condition is easily corrected, its neglect is serious as it results in feelings of inferiority. All statements, in both tables, have received large TABLE THE TIN MOST COMMON PROBLEMS Rank T OF BOY AND GIRL RELATIONSHIPS Statement of problem Number of girls reporting Per cent Ranking by school A B C 1 How to meet boys you would like to know. £05 61.1 76 66 63 2 How to be popular. 182 54.3 66 63 53 3 166 49.5 62 59 45 5 How you How are How 155 155 46.2 46.2 51 61 55 53 49 41 6 How to refuse a date gracefully * 154 45.9 51 68 35 7 How to get acquainted with the boys. 146 43.5 53 52 41 8 How to feel at home with new boy friends. 142 42.3 40 58 44 9 How to keep up a conversation with a boy. 140 41.7 48 54 38 10 How to know if your boy friend is the one you should marry. 135 .40.2 33 .63 39 4 to get the boys who are friendly with to ask for a date. to know what to talk about when you out with the boy friend. to get dates for the senior events. Total number reporting these problems most common— 335. 50 TABUS V I THE TEN MOST SERIOUS PROBLEMS OF BOY AND GIRL RELATIONSHIPS • Score of statement Rank Statement of problem 1 How to plan for marriage and a career, too. 336 Z How to meet boys you would like to know. 290 3 How to be popular. 248 4 How to get dates for the senior events. 230 5 How to know what to talk about when you are out with the boy friend*C 222 How to know if your boy friend is the one you should marry. 218 How to get the boys who ©re friendly with you to ask for a date. 216 8 How to refuse a date gracefully. 195 9 How to get acquainted with the boys. 193 How to get acquainted with the boys when you are new in the school. 169 ► 6 7 10 Total number reporting these problems most serious- -330 51 scores, the highest per cent in Table Y being 61.1; and the lowest, 40.2* There is a wide range in Table VI, being 167 points. The high scores of all statements indicate, however, that all problems need considerable attention. Credit is due to-those who counsel and guide these girls, because of the fact that while these problems seem very significant to the.girls, they are of a wholesome nature. All are remediable within the school, and can be handled right in the classroom. None of the ten most common or serious problems deal with sex anzieties. Now are the girls much troubled about the aquestion of drinking or smoking. It is improbable, due to the conditions under which the questionnaire was administered, which have already been explained, that they had reasons to withhold any problems. Table Y shows certain differences among schools con cerning boy and girl relationships. Considering that there were sixteen more girls answering the "problems ire" in "C" school than in "A" school, the problem of getting dates for the senior events was a minor annoyance in "C* school as compared to that of "A" and "B.w schools. This same condition is true regarding the problem of refusing a date gracefully. In knowing if "your boy friend is the one you should marry," WC” school ranks much below "B" school though not so far 52 below "A” school* Problems of vocation. The problems in Tables VII and VIII are the same, with the exception of one in each table. They are, however, arranged in different order* In Table VII, the most common problems, the statement, "How to overcome timidity so it won’t be a hindrance to your vocation," is the one not included in Table VIII, the most serious ones. This query is to be expected, ac cording to the girls’ expressions of lack of confidence, which have already been mentioned in former tables. The same methods used in other sections to build confidence would be useful here. Not included in Table VII, but presentr.in Table VIII, is the problem, "How 'to know if you have any talent.” Various kinds of tests, and individual study and guidance are the answers to this inquiry. The first problem in each table, "How to know what jobs are open to high school graduates," which is a problem to 61.1 per cent of the girls, and has a score of 329 points, would indicate, possibly, that many of the girls hope to find work after graduation, rather than continue further schooling. Four of the ten problems in Table VII are infor mational, as are three of the ten in Table VIII. These include, "How to know what jobs are open to high school graduates,” "How to apply for © job,” ’’How to know where to TABLE VII THE TIN MOST COMMON PROBLEMS OF VOCATION Hank 1 Statement of problem Number of girls reporting Per cent Hanking by school A B C 205 61.1 58 80 67 BOB 193 60.2 57.6 49 52 @2 71 71 70 3 How to know what jobs are open to high school graduates. How to secure a job when so many are without jobs. How to apply for a job. 4 How to choose a vocation to suit you. 191 57.0 68 67 56 $ How. to know where to apply for a job. 188 56.1 48 80 60 6 How to, determine your ability when choo^ihg a vocation. 171 51.0 64 55 52 How to have more poise so that you can hold a good job. 168 50.1 55 67 46 8 How to have more faith in your future. 158 47.1 50 62 46 9 How to know more about unusual vocations. 152 45.3 56 52 44 10 How to overcome timidity so it won’t be a Hindrance to your vocation. 149 44.4 37 63 49 2 7 Total number reporting these problems most common*— 335. 54 TABLE ¥111 THE TEH MOST SERIOUS PROBLEMS OF VOCATION Rank Statement of the problem . 1 How to know what jobs are open to high school graduates. 339 £ How to choose a vocation to suit you. 314 3 How to secure a job when so many are without jobs. 292 4 How to know where to apply for a job. 277 5 How to apply for a job. 256 6 How to have more poise so that you can hold a job. 239 How to determine your ability when choosing a vocation. 230 How to overcome timidity so it wonft be a hindrance to your vocation. 228 How to have more faith in your future. 210 How to know if you have any talent. 196 7 8 9 10 Score of statement Total number reporting these problems most serious— 330 55 apply for a job," and in Table VII, "How to know more about unusual vocations." Certain problems in the two tables are of the same nature; where this is the case they could be handled at the same time. In Table VII, problems 4 and 9 could be worked out together, "How to choose a vocation to suit you," and, "How to know more about unusual voca tions." The same applies to numbers 7 and 10, "How to have more poise so that you can hold a good job," and, "How to overcome timidity so that it won’t be a hindrance to your vocation;" and the solution, thereof, should help toward answering numbers 2 and 8, "How to secure a job when so many are without jobs," and, "How to have more faith in your future." In Table VIII, numbers 2 and 10 are remediable together, "How to choose a voca tion to suit you," and, talent." "How to know if you have any The combinations of problems mentioned above in regard to Table VII, and their solution, would also apply to Table VIII. "Ranking by school" reveals a number of marked differences within the three schools." 'The girls in "B" school were more anxious to know what jobs are open to high school graduates than the girls of "A" and "C" schools. There was not the interest in "A" school in "How to secure a job when so many are without jobs," 56 that was evident in the other two schools; nor were they as interested in knowing how or where to apply for jobs* In "B" school the girls were more worried as to the hindrance of timidity in a vocation, than were the other girls• Problems -concerning friends. The problems about friends are centered around interests in the qualities necessary to make new friends, rather than around the troubles which ©rise among friends. This is one indication of good mental hygiene on the part of the girls. In both of the tables concerning friends the problems listed are the same, with the exception of one in each table. They are also in much the same order. The problem in Table IX, the most ccmmon problems, which is not included in Table X, the most serious ones, is, "How to get a more friendly spirit in the .school." Because this query is more of an altruistic character than personal, it would hardly be expected to appear among the most serious difficulties. It is interesting to note that the tenth statement in Table X is not present in Table IX, "How to learn to like people." Probably, many of the girls did not realize the close relationship between, "How to make people like you,” which was a problem to 45.0 per cent of the girls, and, "How to learn to like people." TABU IX THE TEN MOST COMMON PROBLEMS CONCERNING FRIENDS Number of girls reporting Per cent Ranking by school A B C 2 How to keep up a conversation when you meet a new person. How to make people like you* 175 151 52.2 45.0 56 56 62 48 57 47 3 How to make a wide circle of friends* 151 45.0 56 53 42 4 How to make friends easily. 136 40.5 ' 45 47 44 5 How to make friends of the girls with whom you would like to associate. How to make friends when you are new in the building. How to act when you are with friends whom, you feel, are above you socially. How to get a more friendly spirit in the school. How to get into the best social cliques. 129 38.5 45 50 34 126 37.6 40 51 35 119 35.5 34 53 32 118 113 35.2 33.7 40 36 43 47 35 30 How to overcome sensitiveness so that you can make more friends. 103 30.7 29 40 34 Rank 1 6 7 8 9 10 Statement of problem Total number reporting these problems most common— 335* tabu: x THE TEN MOST SERIOUS PROBL5MS CONCERNING FRIENDS Rank Statement of problem 1 How to make people like you. 261 2 How to keep up a conversation when you meet a new person. 250 3 How to make a wide circle of friends. 198 4 How to make friends easily. 187 5 How to make friends of the girls with whom you woujd like to associate. 186 How to make friends when you are new in the building. 176 How to act when you are with friends whom you feel, are above you socially. 174 8 How to get into the best social cliques. 173 9 How to overcome sensitiveness so that you can make more friends. 145 How to learn to like people. 144 6 7 10 Score of statement Total number reporting these problems most serious— 330 59 It is amusingly interesting to note that the highest'rating problem in Table IX, which was rated second in Table X, is, ffHow to keep up a conversation when you meet a new person.” This annoyance of over half of the girls (52.S per cent) would probably dissolve itself with experience, but should not be difficult to remedy right in the classroom by practicing such situations. The most serious problem in Table X, rated second in Table3X, is rightfully first. to make people like you.” This statement is, nHow In the endeavor to clear up this difficulty it may be possible to teach the girls to look at themselves objectively. The solution of this problem is the answer to almost all of the problems in the two tables. It is a noticeable fact that the number of girls reporting problems concerning friends in "C* school is less than in either of the other schools. every problem in Table IX. This is true of By deducting sixteen points from },C W school, and seven from "B" school, to make up for that number of extra girls answering the wproblemeirew over nJkn school, it is apparent that the problems listed were minor ones to the girls of ffCn school, when compared to and T,BM schools; Particularly is this true of the problems expressing a longing for a higher social standing, such as getting into the best social cliques, knowing how 60 to act when with girls socially superior, making a wide circle of friends, and getting a more friendly spirit in the school. Problems of religion. The problems concerning religion are such as would be expected from mature thinking people. They are all of a serious nature. The percentage of girls having problems about religion, how ever, is low in comparison to that of other sections. That more girls are not troubled with religious diffi culties is encouraging; it is doubtful that the low percentage is due to a lack of interest. The statements of both tables are the same, with the exception of one in the most common problems, Table XI, "How to see good in each religion,1* and one in the most serious, -Table XII, "How to find a church that will fit your needs.* Beligious problems are more difficult to handly through the school than any other types of problems. Obviously, it is not wise to discuss religion in the classroom; nor can the counselor be of much service here* The best method of dealing with these troubles is through an indirect approach, that of teaching wholesome atti tudes, outlooks, and ways of living. Through this process the girls can find answers to such as, "How to live up to TABLE XI THE TEN MOST COMMON PROBLEMS OF RELIGION Rank Statement of problem Number of girls reporting Per cent Ranking by school A B C 1 How to live up to your religious ideals. 87 25.9 25 30 32 2 How to know what you should really believe. How to understand religion. 81 80 24.1 23.8 28 21 32 33 21 26 5 How to know if you should marry a boy of a different religion. How to have faith in religion. 75 73 22.3 21.7 17 19 31 31 27 23 6 How to have time for religious activities. 58 17.3 18 16 24 7 How to get yourself to go to church. 57 17.0 11 18 28 8 How to see good in each religion. 54 16.1 13 23 18 9 How to have more religion in the home. 44 13.1 11 13 20 10 How to have religion in the school. 43 12.8 09 19 15 3 4 Total number reporting these problems most common— 335. 62 TABUS XXI THE TEN MOST SERIOUS PROBLEMS OF RELIGION Rank Statement of problem 1 How to know what you should really believe. 184 How to know if you should marry a boy of a different religion. 168 3 How to live up to your religious ideals. 154 4 How to understand religion. 145 5 How to have faith in religion. 124 6 How to get yourself to go to church. 110 7 How to have time for religious activities. 80 8 How to have more religion in the home. 76 9 How to find a church that will fit your needs• 66 How to have religion in the school. 66 2 10 Score of statement Total number reporting these problems most serious--330 63 your religious ideals," "How to see good in each religion,1* and, "How to have more religion in the home," Encouraging the girls to attend their respective churches and seek help there to answer the problems not possible ‘".of manag ing in the school, is another avenue toward satisfactory adjustments. In comparing the number of girls reporting re ligious difficulties in each school, it is found that they are closely related. The number in WCW school, how ever, is comparatively less than in the other schools. Particularly is this true in the questions of having re ligion in the school, seeing good in each religion, and having more .religion in the homes* Problems of health. A comparison of the two tables on health problems reveals that the first five statements in each table are the same. Number six of the most common problems, Table XIII, ,fHow to know what causes a headache," is not included in the most serious ones, Table XIV; nor is number nine, "How to know what medicines you should take." The first statement mentioned above is a problem to 27.4 per cent of the girls. It may be indicative of a need of glasses, or of irregular health habits such as lack of sleep or improper eating. The girls with this ailment would probably be glad to let this condition be TABLE XIII THE TEH MOST COMMON PROBLEMS 0? HEALTH Hank Statement of problem Number of girls reporting Per cent Ranking by school A B C 1 How to take care of your skin* 157 46.8 49 62 46 2 How to keep from being tired in school* 147 43.8 60 53 34 3 How to reduce without harming your health* 104 31.0 31 39 34 4 5 How to do your home work without weakening your eyes* How to keep from being susceptible to colds 99 :95 29.5 28.3 38 29 32 39 29 27 6 How to know what causes a headache. 92 27.4 27 27 38 7 8 How to keep your health when you have so much to do at home and at school. How to increase your weight. 73 60 21.7 17.9 27 18 23 20 23 22 9 How to know what medicines you should take. 50 14.9 06 23 21 10 How to keep poor health from being a handi cap to your future. 44 13.1 10 23 11 Total number reporting these problems most common--335* 65 TABLE XIV THE TEN MOST SERIOUS PROBLEMS OF HEALTH Rank Statement of problem 1 How to take care of your skin* 302 2 How to keep from being tired in school. 274 3 How to reduce without harming your health. 208 4 How to do your home work without weaken ing your eyes. 193 How to keep from being susceptible to colds. 149 6 How to increase your weight. 129 7 How to keep your health when you have so much to do at home and at school. 99 How to keep poor health from being a handicap to your future. 60 How to plan your future when you know that you have a permanent physical defect. 44 How to have fun with people when you have poor health. 41 5 8 9 10 Score of statement Total number reporting these problems most serious— 330 66 known so that they could receive individual attention. The second statement is not one for the school to handle, except that the girls should he warned against the dangers of relying, upon advertisements, and should be taught the importance of taking medicines under the doctor1s orders. The two most serious problems not included among these most common are apparently problems to a small number og girls; but, nevertheless, are very serious difficulties to those having permanent physical handi caps. Help, in the manner of developing interests which would be worthwhile to these girls later, would alleviate the anxiety felt by these girls. The treating of health problems is relatively a simple matter in comparison to other types of problems, in that there is practically nothing secretive about health weaknesses. Not one problem listed in either table would be difficult to handle in the classroom. Most of them have arisen from a lack of knowledge of sub ject matter. There is a close relationship in the number of girls reporting health problems within the three buildings. Where there is a conspicuous difference it concerns fatigue, due to the amount of school work to be 67 done. Less girls in "Cw school suffer from troubles involving: "How to keep from being tired in school,* "How to do your home work without weakening your eyes,w and, "How to keep your health when you have so much to do at home and at school." The girls of "A* school are, in these instances, the most heavily burdened. Problems of recreation. The recreation problems are not centered around one special interest. cover a wide area, including need of: They leisure time, money, personal interest, parental interest, social approval of girls enjoying boys* activities, and suita ble places for recreation. The first three statements in Table T7f the most common problems, and Table XVI, the most serious ones, are the same. The first statement,"How to get your school work done and still have time for recreation,*’ is reported by 45.3 per cent of the girls, and has also re ceived the high score of 311 points. As has already been indicated in other tables, the home work is a burden to many. The second and third problems, scoring closely together, deal with money situations. Recreation super visors should note these conditions, and endeavor to remedy them through providing free or inexpensive fa cilities for young people’s recreation. In doing so, TABLE M THE TEN MOST COMMON PROBLEMS OE RECREATION Rank Statement of problem Number of girls reporting Per cent Ranking hy school A B. C 15i 45.3 52 59 41 125 37.3 25 50 50 113 33.7 30 46 37 103 30.7 23 46 34 ,99 29.5 19 39 41 85 25.3 30 29 26 8 How to get your school work done and still have time for recreation. How to have enough money for school and recreation, too. How to get enough money to join friends in recreation. How to be considered a lady and yet enjoy the games which boys play. How to get parents to agree with you on the hours you should com home in the evening. How to keep up with all of the senior activities. How to find suitable places for a high school girl to go in the evening. How to act when you go to nice places. 79 77 23.5 22.9 21 17 28 33 30 27 9 How to get better recreation places in the city. 76 22.6 13 33 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 4 10 How to.use your spare time. Total number reporting these problems most common— 335. 71 .21.1 14. .34 .23. 69 TABLE XVT THE TEN MOST SERIOUS PROBLEMS OF RECREATION Rank Statement of problem 1 How to get your school work done and still have t3me for recreation* 311 How to have enough money for school and recreation, too* 231 How to get enough money to join friends in recreation. 177 How to get parents to agree with you on the hours you should come home in the evenings• 153 How to be considered a lady and yet enjoy the games which boys play. 140 How to get better recreation places in the city. 130 How to keep up with all of the senior activities 129 8 How to act when you go to nice places. 118 9 How to find suitable places for a high school girl to go in the evening. 108 2 3 4 5 6 7 10 Score of statement How to have time for recreation when you will be working your way through university. Total number reporting these problems most serious— 330 94 70 the annoyance of getting better recreation places in the city would also be relieved. The school has put forth an effort in this direction, as is seen in the statement, "How to keep up with all of the senior activ ities;" but the problem indicates that these activities must be too costly for a large number of girls. "How to be considered a lady and yet enjoy the games which boys play," may be a serious problem to high school girls; but with the passing of adolescence, this problem will have been replaced by new interests which will counterbalance it. "How to act when you go to nice places," can easily be handled through classroom instruction. A number of problems show, by their rankings, considerable differences within the three schools. The girls of "C" school are not so worried about getting school work done and thereby having more time for recre ation. The girls of "A" school apparently have more money to spend for school and recreation, agree in a larger per cent with their parents on the hours they should come home in the evening, and are not so inter ested in getting better recreation places in the city. The outstanding problem in "B" school, as compared to the other two schools is, "How to be considered a lady;/ 71 and yet enjoy the games which hoys play*® Problems concerning money. It is interesting to note that all statements in Tablex XVII and XVIII are the same. They are arranged, with the exception of the first two, in a slightly different order. The first problem, "How to have as much spending money as other girls seem to have,® is a problem of 40.8 per cent of the girls; and has a high score of £36 points. By teaching, "How to save your money," and, "How to keep from spending your money foolishly," along with an appreciation of the cost of living and a wholesome attitude toward such, the pressure on the girls who havenft as much to spend would be relieved. Looking at the money situation objectively, and learning to live econ~ omically, should aid in, "How to help your parents when they are in financial difficulties," and, "How to get your parents to realize how much spending money it takes for everyday expenses." The expenses of the senior year burden 40.5 per cent of the girls; of 225 points. the statement received a high score It is possible that those in charge of these activities are unaware of this condition. A study of the expenses should be made in an effort to lower them* "How to get money enough to go to college," is a problem of 28*6 per cent of the girls. This discloses a TABU! XVII THE TEN MOST COMMON PROBLEMS CONCERNING MONEY Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Statement of problem Number of girls reporting Per cent Ranking by school A B C 137 40.8 32 56 49 136 40.5 34 54 48 119 35.5 36 42 41 116 112 34.6 33.4 32 43 42 34 42 35 106 31.6 23 46 37 105 96 31.3 . 28.6 24 40 53 24 28 32 96 28.6 23 33 40 90 26.8 27 27 36 How to have as much spending money as other girls seem to have. How to meet the expenses of the senior year. How to keep from spending your money foolishly. How to keep school affairs from requiring so much money. How to save your money. How to help your parents when they are in financial difficulties. How to decline an invitation gracefully when you haven’t the money to go. How to get enough money to go to college# How to have enough money to keep up with your friends. How to get your parents to realize how much money it takes for every da# expenses. Total number reporting these problems most common— 335, 73 TABUS XVIII THE TEN MOST SERIOUS PROBLEMS CONCERNING MONET Rank Statement of problem 1 How to have as much spending money as other girls seem to have* 236 2 How to meet the expenses of the senior year • 225 3 How to save your money* 179 4 How to keep school affairs from requiring so much money* 177 How to keep from spending your money foolishly. 178 6 How to get enough money to go to college* 168 7 How to decline an invitation gracefully when you haven*t the money to go. 159 How to have enough money to keep up with your friends. 158 How to help your parents when they are in financial difficulties* 153 How to get your parents to realize how much money it takes for everyday expenses. 141 5 8 9 10 Score of statement Total number reporting these problems most serious— 330 74 need for some type of organization in the school where by these girls could help themselves when their parents are unable to do so# Money problems were not the same in the three schools. Not as many in "A" school were troubled about having "as much spending money as other girls seem to have," helping their parents out of financial difficulties, nor declining an invitation because of the lack of money to go; but they were more concerned than those of the other schools in knowing how to save money, and getting enough to go to college. More girls in "B" school reported the first three problems mentioned above than in "C" school. Problems concerning clothes. There are two main interests concerning clothes, as expressed in Table XIX, the most common problems, and Table XX, the most serious ones. These have to do with the question of money to buy clothes, and the details of how to wear them becomingly* Number 9, in Table XIX, is the only problem not included in Table XX. "How to dress when you are going out with a boy," is expected to be a problem, but not a serious one. Number 9, in Table XX, "How to know the colors which make you the most attractive," would apply to more girls than the former one, as there are a number of girls, according to the "problemsire," who do not TABLE XIX THE TEN MOST COMMON PROBLEMS CONCERNING CLOTHES Rank Statement of problem Number of girls reporting Per cent Ranking by school A B C 1 How to have new clothes more often* 150 44.7 43 54 53 2 3 How to know what to wear on different occasions. How to dress to suit your personality. 189 180 38.5 35.8 41 36 53 45 35 39 4 How to know when to wear a hat. 120 35.8 37 50 33 5 114 34.0 37 43 34 7 How to dress nicely without depriving the ; family. How to feel well dressed with an ordinary amount of clothes. gow to know the best way to wear clothes. 107 107 31.9 3199 33 31 42 41 32 35 8 How to dress nicely but inexpensively. 98 29.2 27 39 32 9 How to dress when you are going out with a boy. How to know the colors which make you the most attractive. 94 28.0 24 49 21 93 27.7 26 36 31 6 10 Total number reporting these problems most common— 335. 76 fABLE XX THE TEN MOST SERIOUS PROBLEMS CONCERNING CLOTHES Rank Statement of problem 1 How to have new clothes more often* 247 a How to know what to wear on different occasions* 240 3 How to dress nicely but inexpensively* 171 4 How to dress to suit your personality. 166 5 How to know when to wear a hat. 162 6 How to dress nicely without depriving the family* 159 How to feel well dressed with an ordinary amount of clothes. 147 8 How to know the best way to wear clothes . 127 9 How to know the colors which make you the most attractive. 119 How to attend partiesswithout feeling inferior to the girls who have nicer clothes. 115 7 10 Score of statement Total number reporting these problems most serious— 330 77 keep company with boys, as yet. The problems listed in these tables are of an impersonal nature. Their solution should offer pleasur able instruction in the classroom, as the subject of clothes has a high rate of Interest to girls. Those problems having to do with lack of money to buy nice clothes can in part be helped through instruction in wise, economical buying; and in teaching the girls that being well-dressed is not entirely a matter of money* This information is opportune, considering that six of the ten problems in Table XIX, and five, in Table XX, have to do with knowing how to wear clothes correctly and effectively. The differences in ranking of problems are not as great as in former tables. In the three problems of the most noticeable ones, the girls of "B" school have the highest scores, the girls of "A* school next, and the girls of "C* school, the least. These problems are: "How to know what to wear on different occasions," "How to know when to wear a hat," and, "How to dress when you are going out with a boy." Miscellaneous problems. The problems of Tables XXJ the most common miscellaneous problems, and XXIJ, the most serious miscellaneous problems, are the same, although they are arranged in a different order» TABLE) XXJ THE ,TEN MOST COMMON MISCELLANEOUS PROBLEMS Rank Statement of problem Number of girls reporting Per cent Ranking by school A B C 1 How to learn to be charming. 177 52.8 62 59 56 2 How to get over being self-conscious* 171 510 50 64 57 3 How to have a nice personality. 160 47.7 56 58 46 4 How to keep from being moody. 150 44.7 46 50 54 5 How to develop confidence. 142 42.3 52 50 40 6 How to keep from day dreaming* 142 42*3 53 41 48 7 How to control your temper. 141 42.0 40 47 54 8 How to keep your mind away from your troubles. 133 39.7 .45 52 36 9 How to overcome blushing. 119 35*5 23 51 45 10 How to keep from.being irritable. . 116 34.6 45 33 38 Total number reporting these problems most common— 335. 79 TABLE XXII THE TEN MOST SERIOUS MISCELLANEOUS PROBLEMS Rank Statement of problem 1 How to keep from being moody. 500 2 How to have a nice personality. 278 3 How to learn to be charming. 270 4 How to get over being self-conscious. 244 5 How to control your temper. 232 6 How to develop confidence. 208 7 How to keep from day dreaming. 195 8 How to Overcome blushing. 191 9 How to keep your mind away from your troubles. 180 How to keep from being irritable. 145 10 Score of statement Total number reporting these problems most serious— 330 80 All statements, in both tables, received high scores; the highest in the most common ones being 52.8 per cent, and the lowest, 34.6 per cent. The range of the most serious ones was great, being 155 points. The problems listed are not of a surprising nature, but are those which are to be expected from matureminded girls. More than half of the annoyances are of an emotional nature. Such difficulties ass "How to keep from being moody," "How to get over being selfconscious," "How to control your temper,” "How to develop confidence," "How to keep from daydreaming," "How to keep your mind away from your troubles," and, "How to keep from being irritable," are disturbances which have been cheeked early in school life. These problems are difficult to handle as the sources leading to such troubles are puzzling; they may arise from any of the problems included in the other sections, or be a combination of difficulties over several sections. For example, the hindrance of being irritable is a symptom of other disturbances, the de tection of which would be hard to determine. "How to learn to be charming," and, "How to have a nice person ality," are easier to handle, as the direct method of teaching subject matter alleviates them. 81 The solution or correction of problems in the other sections would automatically reduce the anxiety expressed in the statements of the miscellaneous problems* The differences ©re not great in "Ranking by schools" The most striking is that of knowing how to develop confidence, in which the girls of "C" school worried less than the others; as was also the case in the problem of keeping their minds away from their troubles* The girls of "B" school were much more con cerned about the embarrassment of blushing; and the girls of "A" school were the most troubled about being irritable* Additional problems* Despite the fact that there were overlappings in the "problemsire," the effect of which was expected to be more complete recognition of problems, there were a number of difficulties expressed on the extra sheet at the end which had already been included in the "problemsire;* the only difference ex isting in a slight change of wording* It was thought, by the investigator, that these disturbances were of sufficient annoyance to those responding to have caused them to repeat for emphasis* The problems listed which :had not been covered in the "problemsire" are stated here for comparison* are as follows: They 82 "An school: How to get your parents to let you sleep in the morning when you*ve been out late the night before. Should engagements be announced during the senior year, or even at graduation? How to keep one boy out of your mind. How to have separate biology classes, boys from girls. How to know what to do if my aunt died, and I were left alone. "B* school: How to decide if you love someone; and what is love? Should you refuse dates with other girls* boy fr iends? How to show your parents you think of them, and would do anything for them. How to get boys and girls to aet decently in church, and not make a lot of noise unnecessarily. How to overcome procrastination. How to keep from being over-generous. How to have training in regard to sex problems. Should a girl be engaged while still going to high school? How much money should be had before marriage? Should there be a large number of years between the ages of girls and boys, for successful marriages? How often should you see a steady boy friend or the boy you are engaged to? Should boys and girls hold hands? How to get enough money to start a home. *0* school: How to take care of the family when you are the oldest and your mother is dead. How to keep your folks from thinking an innocent good-night kiss is bad, and not done by good girls. Why can a girl go to school for three years and never have a date, then change schools and never have to worry about dates, end then go back to the first school and again never have a date? In analyzing these problems it is found that out of the twenty-one indicated there ere thirteen be longing to the section of boy and girl relationships, four to home life, one to school life, one to religion, and two to miscellaneous. Of the thirteen relating to boy and girl relationships six pertain to questions of marriage. These results give additional importance to the section of boy and girl relationships, with an em phasis on the felt need of education for marriage. The type of problem in the additional list is much the same as that of the sections of the wproblemaire;" and the same methods used to appease the problems of the section would alleviate the additional ones. Areas of greatest number of problems. According to the results shown in the tables of the most common problems, the greatest number of disturbances exist in the areas of school life, boy and girl relationships, vocation, and home life. This conclusion was reached by finding the sections in which problems had been re ported by the largest number of girls, comparing the range from the highest to the lowest problem, counting the number of problems in the section, and considering the additional ones reported at the end of the "problemsire." Two sections of the "problemsire" were found to 84 be of almost equal importance: and girl relationships* school life, and boy There were thirty-eight prob lems listed in the latter section, with thirteen addition al ones at the end of the "problemsire*" Together, the fifty-one problems made a total of twenty-two more than in school life* The range of school life was from 67.1 per cent to 47*1 per cent, a difference of 20*0 points* The range of boy and girl relationships was from 61*1 per cent to 40*2 per cent, a degree of 20*9 points* Although the division of boy and girl relationships had more problems listed, those at the end of the "problemsire" were reported by one girl each which lessened the differ ence between sections* The highest ranking problem in the section of school life was reported by twenty more girls than that of boy and girl relationships, and the lowest ranking problem was reported by twenty-three more girls than in the latter section* The area of school life, therefore, had the greatest number of problems, with that of boy and girl relationships being almost the same* The section of vocation ranked next, with a close relati&nahlp to the above sections in the number of problems* The percentage of girls reporting the state ments to be problems ranged from 61*1 per cent to 44.4 85 per cent, a difference of 16*7 points# While the range was greater in the division of boy and girl re lationships , the number of problems showed such a wide difference that the section of vocation ranked third; vocation included twenty problems, boy and girl rela tionships, fifty-one# The section ranking fourth was that of home life, with thirty-three statements in the "problemsire,” and four listed at the end# The per cent of girls report ing problems was from 54.3 to 29*5 per cent, a differ ence of 24#8 points# This percentage was noticeably be low that of the first three sections discussed. The miscellaneous section of problems was fifth in number of problems reported. The range was from 52#8 per cent to 34#6 per cent, making a difference of 18#Z points. Thirteen problems were listed# Closely related to this section was that of friends which rated sixth due to the range in percentage; being from 52#2 per cent to 30#7 per cent, a degree of 21#5 points# There were twenty-one problems in the "problemaire#* The other sections of the "problemsire" rank close to the last 'two sections discussed, in the number of problems reported; all are fairly high# The most serious problems, The only method of discerning the problems of the most serious nature to the girls was by comparing the scores of the state ments , and the range of these scores, in the tables of the "problemaire,” According to this method it was found that the greatest of the difficulties existed in the areas of boy and girl relationships, vocation, school life, and miscellaneous problems. The division of boy and girl relationships Indicated scores from 336 to 169, revealing a difference of 167 points. The problems of vocation received scores from 339 to 196, having a range of 133 points. The scores of school life ranged from 317 to 316, showing a spread of 101 points. Mis cellaneous problems indicated a spread of 155, being from 300 to 145, 311 to 94, ence of 146* The range of recreation was 217, scoring from Home life ranged from 294 to 148, a differ Such figures as these show a serious need for more guidance. The other tables, ranking below the ones mentioned above, show wide ranges in scores; the most marked being in the section of health; here there existed a span of 261 points, ranging from 502 to 41, Where there are such differences between the highest and the lowest scores, the fact is apparent that not all of the statements of the section are vital problems to the girls. 87 Two significant facts signify a close relationship between the most serious problems and those most common: the three sections receiving the highest scores of the serious problems are the same as those of the common problems; the same three sections, in both types of tables, are also so closely related in their rankings that the lines of demarcation are difficult to make* Outstanding problems* The most outstanding problems would necessarily be judged according to the per centage of girls reporting them as annoyances, as indica ted in the tables of the most common problems9 and accord ing to their degree of seriousness as disclosed by the scores in the tables of those most serious* Due to limited space, only the five most outstanding disturbances of both types will be mentioned here* The five most common will be discussed first* The highest ranking three of those most frequently reported are found in the field of school life* The one ranking first was a problem to 67.1 per cent, "How to become interested in subjects you don’t like*" Here a need is seen of a change in the procedure of presenting subject materials; or the statement may indicate that the girls are taking subjects for which they have no special use. "How to get more experience in appearing before people,n was marked by 64.7 per cent, making it rank second. More training in the proceding grades would alleviate this condition which is puxgling to so many girls. "How to concentrate," by 62.9 per cent, ranked third. Considerable attention should be given t© the development of this habit in the lower grades, and the effort made to inhibit daydreaming. The fourth problem occurred in the area of boy and girl relationships "How to meet boys you would like to know," by 61.1 per cent. This disclosure should be a valuable discovery to high school counselors toward guiding the social activ ities. Suitable methods of getting young people e'.j :i acquainted might avoid such as public dance hall catas trophes, later. The fifth problem was one of vocation, "How to know which jobs are open to high school graduates, a question to 61.1 per cent. While annoying, it is of minor significance when compared to problems involving a change of attitudes and ideals. The imparting of this information is practically all that is needed toward the solution of this problem. The outstanding problems among those designated as most serious are found in the sections pertaining to boy and girl relationships, vocation, and school life. 89 The first belongs to boy and girl relationships, "How to plan for marriage and a career, too," having a score of 336. Attaining a satisfactory solution to this question is difficult as it is an unsolved problem, even to society* The second problem concerned vocation, "How to know what jobs are open to high school graduates," and scores 329 points* This statement was fifth among the outstanding common problems* The third is one of school life, "How to get more experience in appearing before people," scoring 31?, and was also listed among the five most common problems* The fourth is again one of vocation, "How to choose a vocation to suit you," by 314, and in volves individual guidance, as mentioned in the previous discussion of tables. The fifth refers again to school life, "How to concentrate," with a score of 312. It was another problem of the group of the five most common problems* Problems not in tables* There are a number of difficulties of considerable importance expressed in the sections of the "problemsire" which received high scores, but were not included in the tables, due to the extra bulk of the material* Those not contained in tables, throughout the sections, are much the same as the first 90 ten most common and most serious. The methods of pro cedure applicable to the problems in the tables would, therefore, alleviate the remaining ones. As an example, remedying, "How to get your home work done without staying up too late at night," would help solves, "How to study with the radio." Finding the answer to, "How to become interested in subjects you don’t like," would be the reply to, "How to get any good out of the courses you are taking." In many of the problems, not included in the tables, there are conditions expressed which the girls would be glad to acknowledge as their personal difficulties, and thereby receive the individual guidance needed, as in, "How to decide whether to go to college or to find a job." This would also be true of problems in the tables. In several of the sections of the "problemsire" there are statements which have received almost the same scores as these included in the tables. For instance, the tenth statement in Table H I of the most common prob lems of home life has a score of ninety-nine, while the eleventh problem received a score of ninety-eight, but is equally as important in nature, being, "How to sit down with your mother and talk over your problems with her." Taking this fact into consideration, it would be wise for anyone using this type of study for reference in guidance 91 work, to examine also the problems not in tables. There are a number of serious problems which, fortunately, do not represent difficulties to a great many, and therefore are not listed among those in the tables. Two of such problems will serve as examples: "How to make your father realize the harm he is doing to the family when he drinks," and, "How to keep the friendship of a boy without drinking or necking." Though a few in number, the girls having these diffi culties are in more need of help than large numbers of girls with problems requiring only information as the answers. Ten problems chosen from each section represents only a meager sampling of several sections. In the division of boy and girl relationships, for instance, there are fifty-one statements, including those at the end of the "problemsire," practically all of which received high scores. Hot all problems listed, however, ©re of a serious nature. The problems of school life, not included in tables, center basically around questions of success in the classroom. Several of these statements scored just below the tenth problem. The problems of h&me life mostly pertain to the 98 question of getting along with parents. Less than one- third of these problems eould be listed in tables, due to the fact that there were thirty-three statements in the section of the "problemsiren with four at the end. All of the problems of evocation are of a serious nature, including those in tables. They show, on the whole, a feeling of indefiniteness, and lack of security. Only one problem in the entire section was reported by less than one-hundred girls. On the whole, the difficulties concerning friends were of an impersonal nature, the same as those of the tables. Two problems, however, should be given at tention, regardless of the samll number reporting them, "How to keep out of bad company," and, "How to know if you should drink and smoke to make friends." was marked by forty-five girls; The first the secon, by thirty- seven. Most of the statements in the section of religion were included in the tables; the others would be even more difficult to solve in the classroom; the only help being through indirect methods as suggested in the discussion of tables. The problems of health, without exception, are those of girls with poor health, as seen in, "How to plan your future when you have poor health." It is encouraging to 93 know that a check on health records would find the girls who need this help, and individual guidance could then be given accordingly* The scores in the section on recreation are comparatively low. The nature of the statements do not reveal any particular anxiety. They are such as, "How to find the best places in the city for recreation." The tables of problems concerning money have included almost all of the problems of the section. Those remaining are such as would be expected of the average girl, "How to come to an agreement with your parents on an allowance." The same methods of adjustment would apply to all problems in this section. Practically all of the problems in the section concerning clothes have been included in the tables. Those remaining are the same type of difficulty and, therefore, could be handled together with those in the tables. Special comparisons. In each of the eleven sec tions of the "problemaire" there are problems whose trends are found in other sections. In making the com parisons, only one example from each section will be cited. Hie need of financial aid expressed In the division of school life, "How to work your way through the univer sity," is found in that of vocation,"How to find work 94 which will make it possible to ge through college.” ' The feeling of anxiety, found among those of school life, "How to keep from worrying about your studies," is also present among the miscellaneous, "How to keep your mind away from your troubles." An expression of lack of confidence is seen in the statement of school life, "How to get more experience in appearing before people," which is also in the division of vocation,"How to overcome timidity so it wonft be a hindrance to your vocation." A desire for more freedom and independence is sought in the section of home life, "How to have more freedom to come and go," in boy and girl relationships, "How to keep from having trouble with your parents over dates," and in vocation, "How to convince your parents that you want to choose your own vocation." The annoyance of being self-conscious is ex pressed among the problems concerning friends, "How to overcome shyness when with friends," and is present in the miscellaneous group, "How to keep from being easily embarrassed." A longing for harmony among the members of the family exists in the sections of religion and home life, "How to have more religion in the home," and, "How to keep quarreling out of the home." Indecision is expressed in the divisions of religion, vocation, and school life: "How to know what you should really believe," 95 "How to determine before entering college what you would really like to be,” and, "How to deeide whether to go to college or to find a job*" Concern over too much school work to be done at home is found in the problems of health, school life, and in recreation, "How to do your home work without weakening your eyes," "How to get your home work done without staying up too late at night," and, "How to get your school work done and still have time for recrea tion." Social approval is considered to be indispensable, as seen in problems of recreation, clothes, and miscellan eous} "How to act when you go to nice places," "How to know what to wear on different occasions," and, "How to learn to be charming*" Not all comparisons and examples could be cited or quoted here, but those chosen are representative of the "problemsire" as a whole* CHAPTER V AN ANALYSIS OF GUIDANCE METHODS REPORTED BY COUNSELORS This chapter presents a discussion of the procedure in determining the guidance methods used in the schools studied to meet the personal problems, the presentation and discussion of the findings, an evaluation of the methods as disclosed by the results of the "problemsire," and an analysis of the problems which are considered to be the result of the economic status of the respective build ings. Inasmuch as some problems were largely caused by the environment of the community in which the school is located, rather than through an inadequacy of the guidance methods used in the building, the analysis of the problems presumably influenced by the economic status will be dis cussed together with the evaluation of methods used in the respective schools. Technique. To ascertain the effectiveness of the guidance methods used to meet the girlsf personal problems, a method was sought whereby the specific procedure used for each division of the "problemsire* could be determined, and not Just guidance methods in general. The knowledge of all methods used in the building, toward the relief of 97 the girls* problems, was desired, regardless of how, or by whom, such was managed. Before beginning the procedure the oonsent of the respective counselors to co-operate in this study was obtained. An outline of the areas in cluded in the "problemsire" was therefore prepared, with space provided for the listing of the methods. The in structions requested that the counselors list the methods used, in each division, to meet the girls?* problems. One was taken to each of the three schools, together with the "problems ires j" to -/be completed during the time the "problemsires" were being administered in the respective buildings. When the forms had been completed, arid were again in the hands of the investigator, a study was made of the replies which had been mostly made in outline form. hering closely to the wording and Ad methods of response which had been used by the counselors, the information was consolidated into one outline. The finished form has been included in this chapter for purposes of reference and comparison. A copy of the form sent to the counselors is included in the Appendix. Comparison of methods within schools. Definite, accurate decisions of the degree of likeness or difference of the methods are difficult to make due to the brevity 98 METHODS USED IN EACH SCHOOL TO MEET THE GIRLS* PROBLEMS AS STATED BY THE COUNSELORS I« School A. School life 1. Girls* League work a. For girlstowork with one another h. For girlstowork for school 2. Clubs a. For girlstowork with one another b# For girlstowork for the school 3* Interview with the dean of girls a* Concerning program of studies 4. Interview with teachers a. On subjects being studied in the classrooms B. Home Life 1# Indirect help in various ways C. Boy and girl relationships 1* Opportunities for normal companionship and fun a* Five or six evening dances 1* Carefully supervised 2. Social occasions a* Arranged by school clubs 3* Occasional talks to students a* Made by "Tri Y* and **Hi Y w school clubs 4. Efforts toward finest type of everyday living 99 a. Talks in physical education classes b* Talks in sociology classes D* Vocation 1* Course in vocational English £« Talks to students a* Given in League meetings 3* Annual "Vocational Bay" a. Visits to the school byprominent men 1* Choice of group interviewgiven and women to each child b* Work in senior English classes c* Work in vocational courses E* Friends 1. Opportunities for girls to work together a* Big sister for each girl b* Gymnasium facilities c. Classroom work d* Club work e. Girls* League 1. Committee work to further friendship work F. Religion 1* Effort to live on highest plane possible a* Assembly programs* 1. Requirement of good music and fine enter tainment 100 G» Health 1* Yearly examination by school doctor 2* Notes or personal calls to families a. To settle troubles 3. Restricted or nrest gym" a« For those not able to take regular work 1. Oases checked on late in school year b« Health information 1« Recorded in girls9, folders 4* Talks to students a. Given in physical education classes 1* As a guide in school activities H* Recreation 1* Physical education program a. One hour a day 2* School clubs 3* After-school sports I* Money 1. N.Y.A* jobs 2. Positions secured through office of dean of girls 3# Assistance to girls in most need a. Necessities provided through P.T.A. 1* Money given to dean of girls for such purposes 101 I. Clothes 1. Uniforms required a. To encourage simplicity in dress 2. Annual talk a. On subject of, "Good Taste in Dress* 1. Given by a leading department store K. Miscellaneous (None given) II. "B" School A. School life 1. A study of the school manual 2. "Hello Day" 3. Stress on proper attitude B. Home Life 1. Unit on family relations a. Obligations *of- each member of the family b. Home makers c. Home visits d. Interviews with parents 2. Stress on proper attitude C. Boy and girl relationships 1« Unit on social arts 8. Good manners b. Stress wholesome attitude toward sex c. Encourage girls to have friends of opposite sex 102 2. Personal interviews 3* Stress on proper attitude D« Vocation 1* Unit on, "What about job?* a* Vocational guidance lectures 1* Personnel director B* Job Placement Bureau 3« College deans b* Stress on the need of personality in business 1* How to get the job 2* How to keep the job 2* Job Placement Bureau II. Friends 1* Unit on personality a* How to be a friend b« How to like people e* How to smile easily d* How to overlook the peculiarities of others 2* Personality tests F* Religion 1* Stress the need for spiritual as well as physical and mental development 2* Stress the need for tolerance C» Health !• Stress on the need of health 103 S« Talk oby the school nurse 3, Physical education H. Recreation 1* Unit on leisure time a. Contrast past and present b. Wholesome recreation c» Class parties and social functions I. Money 1* Unit on, "What about dollars?" a. Study consumer education b, Study personal budgets c* Study spending money 2. N.Y.A* Clothes 1. Unit on social arts— dress and personality a* Displays from leading stores in the community b. Styles shows o* fveryday illustrations £• Miscellaneous 1. Individual interviews on personal problems III, "C" School A* School life 1, Units in core classes 104 B« Home life 1* Close contact with counseling officer and attendance co-ordinations C* Boy and girl relationships 1. Individual conferences 2. Group guidance B. Vocation 1. Special employment service a. Handled in Vice Principals office 1. Friends 1. Individual guidance 2. Activity program 3. "Tri Y n and academic clubs F* Religion 1* Individual counseling G. Health 1. Counseling office a. Co-operating with physical education, and school nursefs office H* Recreation 1* Group and club guidance I. Money 1. Student loan fundc aids a. Handled through Vice Principals office J. Clothes 1. P.T.A* co-operation 105 2. Student Aid Fund K. Miscellaneous (None given) Note: "For the most part all these problems are taken care of through the core and girl problem classes, and individual counseling. Cur offices try to meet with each girl at some time. T The objective of our counseling service is to meet individual needs in every way possible. Much of the *more than we can do* type of problem has been referred and cared for by individual faculty members, core teachers, etc.1* 106 and lack of detail of the responses received* While the general nature of the methods used is possible to deter mine, yet lack of completeness in their indication' make the implications of a less certain nature. The manner of coping with the problems within the three schools is closely releted, but the approach in several of the sections is not the same* For example, a direct method may be used by one of the schools while the other two employ indirect methods* The extent to which the schools endeavor to meet the girls1 problems does not differ to a marked degree as each of them have both elab orate lists and practically neglected ones within the sections* The technique of meeting the school problems by the three schools is somewhat closely related. In general, It consists of getting the students acquainted with one another, and insuring their interests.in school which includes individual guidance concerning classroom subjects and program of studies* In "B" school, a stress on the proper attitude is listed, as it is in several other sections; but how such training takes place is not stated. It is assumed that "stress on the proper atti tudes" refers to the attempt to instill worthy ideals and attitudes whenever contact is made with the girls# In "C" school, the units in core classes is the only 107 method listed* A note at the end of the outline states to the effect that practically all problems are taken care of through core and girl problem classes, and when neces sary, by the faculty members. A noticeable difference exists among the schools in the meeting of problems of home life. The only comment in "A” school is, "Indirect help in various ways." The manner in nB" school is a direct one, that of working through a unit on family relations which includes necessary contacts with the home, and stressing the proper attitude. In "C" school, the help is again done indirectly, the counselor and the attendance co-ordinations having the responsibility. A more detailed system toward adjustment is seen in the section of boy and girl relationships, particularly in "A" and "B" schools. Numerous social activities are sponsored in "A" school, with talks to the students in the classroom and organization meetings. activity. The stress here is on In *B" school the approach is mostly through instruction in the unit on social arts, with philosophical emphasis on wholesome and proper attitudes; and personal interviews when necessary. Those of "G" school are in direct, consisting of individual conferences and group guidance; although the note at the end of the outline indicates that classroom instruction also plays a part. The predominant method in preparing the girls & 08 vocationally is that of classroom instruction* the In addition, school conducts talks to students in the League meetings, and arranges for outside authorities to visit the building and. help them* The instruction in "B" building includes lectures, and a particular emphasis upon the need of personality in getting and keeping the job. The major method as listed in "C" building is in the special employment service; the core and girl problem classes handles the instruction* In meeting the problems concerning friends the schools each employ a different philosopny. The nA n building is one of activities to get the girls acquainted, centering in organization work* The methods are much the same as those in the section of school life. In nBn school, personality is the main avenue through which the training takes place, supplemented by personality tests. The HC n school endeavors to handle the situation through personal contact, the girls1 activities, and school clubs. The approach to correcting religious difficulties widely differs within the schools. In "A" school it is an indirect method, consisting of attaining high standards through the best entertainment. A more direct approa ch is made in nB* school, emphasizing spiritual development along with the mental and physical, and stressing the need for tolerance. The sole method listed in nC n school is 109 that of counseling, done individually* The most detailed efforts toward the solution of health problems are in WAW building, with individual attention predominant as evidenced by physical examina tions, contact with the home when necessary, health records, and group instructions* Classroom instruction and physical education activities suffice in "Bw building* The counsel ing office assumes the responsibility in nGn school, con tacting the physical education department and the school nurseis office for those in need* Recreation problems are approached from different angles* In "A* school it is an activity program ex clusively, giving the girls opportunity to enjoy an hour of physical education activity, daily; and participate in further recreation through school clubs and afterschool sports* Classroom procedure and social functions are designated to be the methods of school; while n0m school meets the problems through group and club guidance* In general, the problems concerning money are man aged by means of personal assistance* This is the case in "A” school, and, additionally, through the provision of jobs; in nB ” school, through classroom study of money problems, and the facilities of the N*Y*A* for those in need; and in "C* school, by the Student Loan Fund aids* 110 Methods dealing with the difficulties concerning clothes differ considerably within the schools. Uniforms in ”A ” school are intended to meet the problems; while instruction by a department store constitutes the train ing. More importance is given to the division of clothes in ”B” school. A unit on social arts, including displays from stores, and instruction in the relationship of dress to personality is conducted for the alleviation of problems. * \ ■ The method in n0 n school consists of aiding the girls in financial distress. Core and girl problem classes probably have a part in this. In two of the three schools there are no comments listed under the miscellaneous section. "A” and "0” schools. These are the Those of the ”B” school are handled through individual interviews. Comparison of methods with findinggs of "problemaire.* In all problems of school life the percentage of girls reporting problems is high, as are the scores. dition exists in all three schools. This con The girls of ”B ” school, according to "Ranking by school,” felt the most heavily burdened by the assignments to be done at home. The ”A ” school is the only one mentioning individual help in the program of studies and subjects being studied in the classroom. The problems in the tables are of a Ill different nature than those which would he covered by the methods listed within the schools. The school load, a lack of satisfaction in the subjects being studied, and a lack of confidence to express one’s self, are the trends of the problems of this section, according to the tables* The same burden of school work to be done at home is found in the problems of home life, with "B" school again having the heaviest load. It is impossible to determine the exact methods used to lighten the troubles of home life in "A" school, the only statement being, "Indirect help in various ways." The unit on family relations in "B" school may have been responsible for the girls* especial desire to please their parents, as the numbers show that they were the most anxious to show their appreciation. The girls of nC* school were considerably less interested in showing appreciation than were the girls of the other two schools; they were also less interested in having a greater amount of companionship with their parents. The combination of these two problems seem, to the investigator, to be the result of economic status rather than of school methods, probably indicating that the "C" girls felt less confidence in their parents, and that they hadn’t an abun dance for which to be thankful. Making the methods more personal in dealing with problems of home life should aid toward the solution of several of them; yet, the content 112 of the listed difficulties reveal a need of more contact by the school, with the home* The percentages and scores are high in the division of boy and girl relationships. As has been explained be fore as a credit to the counselors, the problems of a serious nature are few. The "G* school had noticeably less problems in several instances than "A" and "Bw schools. According to the outline, the methods of wA tt and nBn schools should be equally as effective in handling the problems as those of ”C n school. The difference, therefore, would probably be due to the dissimilarity of the communities of the schools. More girls in nA n school not being able to get dates for the senior dates would indicate that aaong these wealthier homes there is not the element of democracy which exists in the less wealthy districts. This same as sumption would apply to other responses from WC W school, that not so many girls were worried about getting dates, knowing how to refuse them, nor puzzled about whether or not the boy friend is the right one to marry. A need for more opportunities to get boys and girls acquainted is manifested in the problems listed in the tables. Although "A" school has specifically mentioned a number of social occasions, none of the three schools have itemized ways of getting boys and girls acquainted. This is an outstanding problem to an equally large number of girls in each school* 113 The various lectures, authorities, vocational instruction, and job bureaus, have been unable to satisfy in the minds of the girls what jobs are open to high school graduates. The girls of "A" school were much less inter ested in securing jobs than those of the other two schools, which, doubtlessly, was due to a lack of worry over finan ces. This is consistent with the problems of knowing where to apply for a job, nA" school being noticeably less than the others. The stress on the need of personality in business in **BW school may have been responsible for the girls1 feeling of need of more poise to hold a job. The girls of all three buildings showed interest in vocation, due to the study of such in the buildings, but they were perplexed in knowing how to choose a vocation individually suited to them. There is no suggestion of this type of help in the listed methods. The methods within all three schools have been suc cessful in attaining harmony among the girls. The problems listed areootf the same wholesome nature as those of the division of boy and girl relationships. The girls of "B" school, which would represent the average girls* status, were more concerned about their social standing than the girls of the other schools. There were less girls in "C" school having problems concerning friends; 114 in factt the "Hanking by school” reveals that ”C ” school has the lowest scores in every statement in the tables but two, "How to keep up a conversation when you meet a new person,” and, "How to make people like you*” Such a situation shows the same democratic nature in this school as is evident in the section of boy and girl relationships, which resulted, mostly, from the environment of the school* The fact that the scores and percentages are high in certain problems in all three schools discloses that a more democratic feeling should be sought. The classroom situation could be adjusted to handle this situation as well as to cover the training requested by the problems listed* Methods to handle religious problems cannot be severely criticized, considering that very little can be done within the school. school” are slight. The differences in "Ranking by Communities differ in their atti tudes toward religious training in school, some being very prejudiced against any guidance, as was the case in one of these schools* It is, therefore, difficult to judge or compare methods used in this section* The highest rating problem, reported by 25.9 per cent, probably does not indicate a serious condition; but, rather, may indicate the girls* attempts to live up to high standards. As has been suggested previously, a number of these 115 problems could be alleviated through work in other sections* The most outstanding trend of the problems con cerning health is the fatigue caused by a heavy burden of school work. Although not as many girls in "Cn school felt the need for rest, yet the high percentage of girls in all three buildings reporting this problem indicates a serious need. The amount and the type of health in struction these girls received was not indicated, but a desire for personalized methods is expressed in the diffi culties listed. On the whole, the health worries are not of a serious nature; the individual &elp given to the girls, as revealed in the outline, probably was responsi ble for this encouraging condition. However, the girls in poor health apparently were in need of more help* The schools* provisions of recreation were evi dently felt to be adequate as manifested in the type of problem expressed by the girls. But the desire for more activity was stated by a large number, with the regret by the girls in all three buildings that school work required so much out of school time. The economic status of "A* school decidedly influenced the problems of the girls; they expressed much less concern about having enough money to enjoy recreation and to get better recreation places in the city, than did the girls 116 of "B" and "C* schools* Suggestions for the relief of these conditions have already been discussed* Economic status played a major part in the section of problems pertaining to money* The financial worries were not as significant to the girls of "A" school as they were to those of *BW and wCn schools; but the "A" girls were more puzzled about saving money, and getting enough to go to college. It is possible that a smaller per centage of girls in wB n and WG* schools considered the continuance of educational training* However, the methods listed in "A" school disclose the fact that there were girls who needed financial assistance in this school, too; as does the number of girls reporting such problems. Classroom procedure, not mentioned in "Aw school, might have helped to solve the remaining ones. The problems of wB tt and WC M schools are closely related; the outstanding characteristic is the felt need of more money. The class room situation and individual assistance should be able to alleviate most of the problems; efforts toward such are seen in the methods listed. The methods of the three schools to meet the diffi culties concerning clothes, including talks and demonstra tions on the correct and becoming ways of wearing them, were of the nature most needed by the girls according to the type of problem indicated. The number of girls having 117 annoyances of this nature after such training divulges that more detail is needed* Economic status seems to have had but one influence in regard to clothes, the girls of "Gn school expressed less interest in the de tails of being well-dressed. With the methods listed in "A" and nB w schools it is doubtful that the n0n girls received more training* The problems of the miscellaneous section might well be transferred to other divisions and be adequately handled there* methods listed. It is not surprising that there were no The only exception is one of ”B ” school, "Individual interviews on personal problems." Any problems arising of a special classification probably were handled through the counselor’s office, or referred to the classroom. CHAPTER VI SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Tlie findings, conclusions, and implications of the study of the senior girls* personal problems are presented in this chapter* This material consists of the problems of greatest significance and those of the most serious nature as found by means of the "problemaire," the effectiveness of the guidance methods to meet these problems, the influence of economic status upon the nature of the difficulties, the extent to which the former studies are related to the present one, and the deviation of the problems of the senior girl from those of all adolescent girls* Conclusions are drawn from the results, and im plications determined wherein the school program may be adjusted to meet these needs* Summary* The problems of greatest significance (those reported most frequently and therefore considered to be the most common) were found to be in the areas of school life, boy and girl relationships, vocation, and home life. Those of the most serious nature (causing the most difficulty to the girls) existed in the areas of c, boy and girl relationships, vocation, shool life, and 119 miscellaneous. The most common and the most serious problems were closely related in that the three sections having the greatest number of problems and the three of the most serious nature were the same; rankings of these divisions were so close to one another that the difference in importance was of minor consequence* Of the five most outstanding problems among those most frequently reported, three were in the division of school life, one was concerned with boy and girl relation ships, and one with vocation* Of the five most serious problems reported, one belonged to the area of boy and girl relationships, two to that of vocation, and two to school life* The most common and serious problems in each section had certain trends and characteristics peculiar to each. There were as followss School life difficulties were concerned with the present school conditions rather than with future educa tional training* The outstanding disturbances were, a heavy school load, lack of confidence to express onefs self, and a lack of satisfaction in the subjects being studied in regard to success achieved and their value in the future. The theme of the problems of home life was a lack of harmony in the home* Understanding and agreement c 120 between the girl and her parents, more companionship^ the ability to please and show appreciation, were the felt needs* Nine out of the ten most common and most serious problems pertained to matters involving girl and parent relationships* problems of the division of boy and girl relation ships arose from a lack of understanding of boys* The desire was to become acquainted and to be at ease with them. The queries involvedda wide area, from a way to become acquainted, to problems concerning marriage. Vocational difficulties revealed a lack of infor mation and indecision concerning the aspects of making a living* The needs were to learn abilities and aptitudes toward choosing a suitable vocation, become acquainted with available occupations, and know how to get and keep a job. The questions concerning friends pertained to the qualities necessary to make new friends rather than to troubles which arise among friends. They expressed an earnest desire to be liked, to be friendly, and to have a democratic spirit within the schools. The religious difficulties revealed serious thought. The trend of the problems was that of better understanding of religion, the endeavor to live up to high standards, and the wish to improve one*s self. 121 Health problems were of an Impersonal nature. need for information was the major request. The The only anxieties of a serious nature were those of girls with poor health who needed help in planning a future and avoiding maladjustments. No central tendency existed in the problems of recreation. A variety of perplexities were listed includ ing needs of time, money, personal interest, parental interest, approval of activities, and suitable places for recreation. Money annoyances were centered around two areas. The most troublesome was the lack of funds for such as school activities, recreation, and college entrance fees; the one of minor significance was the care of money to keep from spending it foolishly, and knowing how to save it. Two major queries were expressed in regard to clothes, that of money to buy clothes, and details of how to wear them becomingly. The problems were of an im personal nature. Miscellaneous problems pertained to self-improve ment. They were of an emotional nature including problems which cause mentcl distress. The problems not contained in tables throughout the sections were of the same general nature as the first ten most common and most serious ones. They received in many 122 instances almost the same scores as the first ten. In each of the three schools practically the same problems were most frequently reported, though the "Ranking by school" varied. While most of the students had a large number of difficulties, comparatively few were of a serious nature. The most serious problems, in degree of detriment, were reported by a small number of girls. Economic status was considered to have been the cause for certain differences which existed among the three schools concerning the importance of the problems to the girls within each building. Determined through "Ranking by school," the following facts were noted: In the division of home life the girls of school (the school of low economic status) were less interested in the companionship of their parents, or of convincing them of their appreciation. The section of the boy and girl relationships dis closed that the girls of "C" school were not so concerned about getting or refusing dates, and feeling at ease when in the presence of boys. In the area of vocation the girls of "A" school (the school of the high economic status) cared less about securing jobs, or worrying over finances. There was a smaller number of girls in "C" school 1£3 having problems concerning friends. Recreation worries were minor ones to the girls of "A" school wherever the problems concerned a need of money to enjoy activities and have better recreation places in the bity. The section concerning money distinctly revealed that money anxieties were insignificant to the girls of "A" school in comparison to those of the other two schools* The guidance methods used to meet the problems in the various sections within the schools were closely re lated, although the approach in several instances was from a different angle. According to the outline and the results of the "problemsire" the effects were as follows: The percentage of girls reporting difficulties in the area of school life was from 67.1 to 47.1 per cent, as of the most common problems. The disturbances listed were of a more personal nature than those which would be covered by the methods indicated. The schools were successful in teaching proper ideals and attitudes toward the home. The problems indicated a need for more personal methods and more con tact with the home, by the school. They were reported from 54.3 to 29.5 per cent. Problems of boy and girl relationships, from 61.1 124 to 40.2 per cent, disclosed a lack of promoting friendly relationships between the girls and the boys. The most serious difficulties had been reduced through the methods employed in the schools. Methods to meet vocational problems apparently created interest and acquainted the girls with the personal qualities necessary to be successful in onefs work; but the need was expressed for more information about occupations and aptitudes. knowledge of their abilities and Difficulties were reported from 61.1 to 44.4 per cent. Harmony predominated among the girls. The problems concerned in increasing onefs friendships were reported from 52.2 to 30.7 per cent. Religious problems, from 25.9 to 12.8 per cent of the girls, were alleviated as adequately as possible through school situations. Health hindrances were handled efficiently with two exceptions, that of relieving fatigue and helping the physically handicapped. The frequency was from 46.8 to 13.1 per cent. Recreation provided within the school was deemed sufficient. The money and places for after-school activ ities puzzled from 45.3 to 21.1 per cent of the girls. Methods used to eradicate money difficulties were 125 satisfactory as far as conducted. Classroom instruction and more individual help were wanted by 40,8 to 26,8 per cent. Problems pertaining to clothes required only more detail for solution. The frequency was from 44,7 to 27,7 per cent, Miscellaneous problems were very much in need of individual attention. The effect to meet these weakness es was indicated by one of the sehools, Conclusions and recommendations. The questionnaire method of conducting a study to determine the nature of senior girls* personal difficulties is an adequate one. Through this avenue the true needs and attitudes can be discovered. The original essay papers revealed reactions and conditions exceedingly valuable to those working with senior girls. The "problemsire* has been successful in discovering their innermost needs and difficulties. Co operation and sincerity on the part of those responding were evidenced by the written comments on the essay papers and "problemsires.n The 535 senior girls studied were considered to be an adequate sampling and valid in nature I because of the concentrated area, and the study being con ducted within two imarBths of the close of the senior year of school. 136 The most common and most serious problems of the various areas disclosed certain trends and needs. The following were the most pronounced; The requirements of home study were too severe, and took too much time from home life activities and recreation. The result was over-fatigue and anxiety. Acquisition of better study habits in earlier school life would have been helpful. Timidity, lack of confidence, and inferior feelings resulted either from not enough experience in self-express ion or too much negative criticism. These problems, if neglected, result in emotional disturbances. Indications were noted among the miscellaneous problems. Such conditions made it evident that the girls were unable to be self directing. Friendship problems among girls, and boys and girls, indicated a need for promoting democratic relationships. This applied to all three schools, in degree. The desire for more freedom and independence was a source of friction between the girls and their parents. Closer contact between school and home should help to pro mote better understanding. Difficulties caused by expenses should be disen tangled, including those of the senior year. 187 Guidance is needed in overcoming indecision, par ticularly in making a vocational choice. Economic status was responsible for the nature of some problems. These applied to areas of money, securing jobs instead of continuing schooling, democratic rela tions between girls, and between boys and girls, and parental companionship. The first two problems were more important to gi±ls of WC" school and comparatively in consequential to girls of "A" school; problems were the reverse. the second two The problems of "B" school were not outstanding in any particular manner; their scores were equally as high as those of the other two schools. These findings within the three schools would be expected to apply to other schools of similar environ ments, The implications would be that methods of meeting the problems of different areas should not be the same for all schools, but be individualized according to the needs. The exact degree of effectiveness of the guidance methods was difficult to determine because of the brevity and lack of detail of the responses received. It is pos sible that a number of methods were overlooked when they were being listed by the counselors. Wherein certain pro nounced weaknesses occurred a check on the methods revealed 138 that supplementary guidance was needed to make the neces sary adjustments. Credit is due to the counselors and others responsible for the girls* guidance. Without the help received the problems would doubtlessly have bhen of a much more serious nature. A small number of problems, particularly pertaining to the home, indicated that a few girls were sorely in need of help. The element of time may have been responsible for lack of more personal con tact and instruction. A comparison of the present with previous related studies discloses that the areas of interest of senior girls and those of all adolescent girls are much the same. The results of former studies have varied, the greatest number of problems not being in the same areas; although, on the whole, they are mostly centered around home life, boy and girl relationships, personality development, vo cation, school life, and money. The present study resulted in a combination of areas not found in any other research, that of school life, boy and girl relationships, vocation, and home life. An analysis of the problems of adolescent girls in general and of senior girls exclusively would probably reveal a difference in types of problems. Those listed by senior girls were the expression of mature mainds. It is regrettable that the problems of school life evi dently play such a major part in the lives of girls about 129 to graduate from high school* The general literature on adolescence, psychology, and mental hygiene indicated the needs to be the same as those found in this study. The girls crave a feeling of personal success and security. They are not aware of the purposes in their schooling, nor are they able to arrive at definite decisions for the future. Many are emotionally undeveloped. In general, they lack the knowledge and techniques which are essential to the management of personal problems. The following are recommended: 1. More time for helpful guidance to girls with particular problems and needs. 2. Provisions made in previous grades to relieve personal problems before the senior year. 3. Vocational guidance in building confidence, choosing a vocation according to interests and aptitudes, and securing a position for a satisfactory future. 4. More helpful guidance in matters concerning democratic relations with fellow students, marriage instruction, and leisure-time activities. BIBLIOGRAPHY BIBLIOGRAPHY Andrus, Ethel P., "The Development of an Educational Program for the High School Girl Based on a Critical Study of Her Nature and Her Needs*" Unpublished Doctorfs dissertation, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1930* 484 pp. Arlitt, Ada Hart, The Adolescent* Booh Co., Inc., 1938* 842 pp* New York: McGraw-Hill Austin, Mary Alice, "An Analysis of Certain Personal Problems of an Unselected Group of High School Girls." Unpublished Masterfs thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1937* 310 pp. Averill, Lawrence A., Adolescence* Cambridge, Mas sachusetts: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1936. 495 pp. Bigelow, Maurice A . , Adolescence. Wagnalls, Col, 193V. 99 pp. New York; Punk and Brown, Marion, "A Study of Adolescents in the University High School, Oakland, California," Proceedings of the Twenty-First Annual Meeting of the National Association of Deans of Women. Washington, ft.C,: Nationa1 Associa t ion of Deans of Women, June, 1937. pp. 112-121. Burnham, William H . , The Wholesome Personality. York: D* Appleton-Century 6o., Inc., 1932. New 713 pp. Cox, P.W.L., and John Carr Duff, Guidance by the Classroom Teacher. New York: Pren tic e-Hall Inc., 1938. 535 pp. Douglass, Harl, "Secondary Education for Youth in Modern America," A Report to the American Youth Commission of the American ZTouncll on Education. Washington,T. &.: American CounciT"on Education, 1937. 137 pp. Hertzler, Alverda Elizabeth, "A Study of the Personal Problems of High School Girls in Certain Southern California Secondary Schools." Unpublished Masterfs thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1939. 194 pp. 132 Jobe, Claire W . , "Education for Marriage in Secondary Schools." Unpublished Masterfs thesis, The Univer sity of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1938. 143 pp. Jones, Maud M . , "An Investigation of the Adjustment Problems of High School Pupils." Unpublished Masterfs thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1934. 95 pp. Kast, Emma «T., "A Comparative Study and Analysis of the Problems of £ iris in a Four-Year High School." Unpublished Master*s thesis, ?The University of Southern /California, Los Angeles, 1936. 151 pp. Kent, Lois, "Teaching of Family Relationships in Second ary Schools." Unpublished Master*s thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1933. 170 pp. Leonard, Eugenie , Problems of Freshman College Girls. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 1932. 139 pp; Morgan, I. H. B., Child Psychology. New York: and Rinehart, Inc.., 1934. 502 pp. Farrar . The Psychology of the Unadjusted School Child. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1936. 539 pp. 3h?essey, S. L., Psychology and the New Education. York: Harper Br o ther s , 1933. 594 pp. New Reedy, Rolls A . , "A Study of the Personal Problems of High School Students." Unpublished Masterfs thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1937. 56 pp. Sherman, Mandel, Mental Hygiene and Education. Longmans, Green and fioT, I&34. 326 pp. New York: Smithies, Elsie May, Case Studies of Normai Adolescent Girls. New York: D. Appleton^entury Co., Inc., 1933. 294 pp. Stephen, Frances, "An Investigation of the Mental Health Problems of the Girls of Gardena High School." Un published Masterfs thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1936. 119 pp. 133 Strang, Ruth M . , "Problems of Adolescents Which Come to Deans," Junior Senior High School Clearing House, 7:29-34* September, 1932• Symonds, P. M., "life Problems and Interests of Adol escents." School Review. 44:506-518. September. 1936. . Mental Hygiene of the School Child. the Macmillan C o 1936. 301 pp. New York: Thorpe, Louis P., Psychological Foundations of Person ality. New York; /llcSraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1938. Whipple, Guy Montrose, "Guidance in Educational Insti tutions," Thirty-Fifth Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education. Part I. Bloomington /Illinois: Public School Publishing Co., 1938. pp. 121-268 . Witty, Paul A., Charles E. Skinner, and others, Mental Hygiene and Modern Education. New York: Farrar and Rinehart, 1939. 539 pp. APPENDIX THE PERSONAL PROBLEMS OF SENIOR GIRIS Purpose of the study: to find the reel problems of senior girls, those that they feel to be their own personal difficulties* If the school could learn the nature of the girlsf problems, from their point of view, they would Enow wherein they could be of more help, and the school program arranged to fit their needs* youth would know more of For instance, counselors of the problems, special classes could be taught in an attempt to answer them, and P.T*A* programs might be able to include speakers who woujd give information to parents* Knowing the difficulties which senior girls have had during the year would contribute toward helping senior girls in the future. The troubles of senior girls seem to fall under the following headings: School life Home life Boy and girl relationships Vocation Friends Religion Health 136 Recreation Money Clothes Miscellaneous. The problems may be listed or written out in essay form. There is no need for the girls to sign their papers; no attempt will be made to identify any! The students, therefore, should feel perfectly free to write their difficulties# The value of the study rests wholly upon the girls* honesty and frankness. PLEASE LIST THE METHODS USED, IN EACH DIVISION, TO MEET THE GIRLS • PROBLEMS* I* SCHOOL LIFE II. HOME LIFE III. BOY AND GIRL RELATIONSHIPS IV. VOCATION V. FRIENDS VI. RELIGION VH. Villi HEALTH RECREATION IX. X. XI. MONEY CLOTHES MISCELLANEOUS WHAT IS THE ENROLLMENT OF THE SCHOOL? WHAT IS THE ENROLLMENT OF THE SENIOR GIRLS? SENIOR GIRLS* "PROBLEMAIRE" This "problemaire" is for the purpose of learning the senior girls* personal problems, and thereby to enable those who work with senior girls to be of more help in the solving of these problems* The problems listed ere those which other senior girls have expressed to be their own personal difficulties* Will you assist in helping the senior girls of the future by indicating your problems? No attempt will be made to identify a paper. The value of this study rests upon your henesty and frankness. Your co-operation will be greatly appreciated. INSTRUCTIONS In front of the statements on the following pages you will find the words "Yes" and "No." If the statement ex presses a difficulty which you feel is troubling you, circle the word "Yes." If It is not a problem to you, circle the word "No." Please circle one of these words for every problem given. In each section of the "problemsire" place the numbers from **1B to "3" after the statements which are the most serious to you; number "1" being the most serious, and number "3" the least serious* Example s Yes Yes No No How to get to school on time. How to keep from worrying about having a good time ( 1 ) (______ ) SENIOR GIRLS ? "PROBLEMAIRE" PART I - SCHOOL LIFE Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No 9 128 Yes No 65 Yes 61 Yes No No 57 Yes No 63 Yes No 88 3 160 6 141 8 130 89 Yes No 107 Yes No 10 125 Yes No 62 Yes No 82 Yes 5 146 Yes No No 111 Yes No 1 177 Yes No * 4 159 Yes No 57 Yes No 91 Yes No 2 170 Yes No 72 Yes No 92 123 7 131 67 Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No 55 Yes No How to decide what college to attend. How to concentrate. How to get all of the home work done* How to get your home work done without staying up too late at night* How to have a good time and keep up with your school work* How to get the teacher to understand you* How to work your way through the university* How to work on the outside of school and get your school work done, too. How to know the requirements of various colleges* How to deeide whether to go to college or to find a job* How to keep from worrying abour y6&r studies* How to budget your time when doing school work* How to have a place to study at home in privacy. How to become more finterested in school* How to know which subjects will help you most when you graduate from high school* How to prepare in high school to meet life when you can’t go to college* How to become interested in subjects you don’t like. How to stand up in front of the class and give an oral report. Should you go to college and take just the subjects you want to take? How' to get any good out of the courses you are taking. How to get more experience in appearing before people. How to know if good grades are worth the effort* How to hold school offices* How to learn to like to study. How to make better grades* How to keep illness at home from inter fering with your school work. How to study with the radio* H5 2lX 3 5 166 8 161 ~m 9 69 75 80 118 148 158 10 190 109 185 6 146 225 1 203 4 70 125 217 2 95 TTf 166 TTO 7 81 “T T 142 PART 72 Yes 9 77 Yes 4 93 Yes 5 89 Yes 59 Yes 49 Yes 39 Yes 7 87 Yes 1 142 Yes 59 Yes 68 Yes 8 86 Yes 62 Yes 33 Yes 57 Yes 60 Yes 48 Yes 3 107 Yes 49 Yes 66 Yes 35 Yes 41 Yes 20 Yes 42 Yes 42 Yes II - HOME LIFE How to sit down with your mother end talk over your problems with her. No How to get your work done at home and not he too tired to study when you have finished it. No How to have more companionship; with your parents. How to have a place to entertain your No friends. No How to have more freedom to come and go. No How to know the proper hour to get home from a date. No How to keep from being afraid of your parents. No How to get your parents to have more confidence in you. No How to keep your parents from worrying about you when you go out at night. No How to get along with the members of the family. No How to make the people with whom you live understand you. No How to keep quarreling out of the home. No How to convince your parents that you can be trusted. No Should your parents request you to go out with them a great deal? No How to get your parents to realize how important a date is to a girl. No Should you go out with your parents to please them, when you have made other iplans? No How to help your parents to get along better together. No How to get your folks to realize that you are grown up. No How to have more privacy in your home. No How to get your folks to reason with you. No How to get your parents to treat your friends courteously. No How to convince your parents that you are old enough to have a date. No Should you give up dancing because your parents believe it is wrong? No How often should you have a date? No How to keep from feeling inferior when your sister is more talented than you. No ( 98) (1031 9 (117) 5 (106) 8 nns) (62) (49) (112) 6 (182) 1 (84) ( 94) (US) 7 ( 76) ( 41) ( 76) (79) (63) (132) 3 r w j CSS) ( 38) ( 50) (25) ( 64) (55) 143 10 73 Yes No 6 89 Yes No 25 Yes 49 Yes No No 67 Yes Ncr 33 Yes No 52 Yes No 2 112 Yes No How to get your parents to let you take the car. Should you work for good grades to please your parents? , How to get' along with your older sister. How to keep your parents from planning your future. How to get your parents to tell you things a girl should know. How to make your father realize the harm 'he is doing to the family when he drinks. How to keep the family from using what belongs to you. How to convince your parents that you appreciate what they are doing for you. ( 99)10 (124) 4 ( 58) ( 60) ( 93) (45) ( 69) (155) 2 PART III - BOY AND GIRL RELATIONSHIPS 1 165 Yes 4 124 Yes No No 59 Yes No 5 122 Yes 6 114 Yes 2 144 Yes 10 99 Yes No No No No 76 Yes 3 128 Yes No No 81 Yes 76 Yes 44 Yes No No No 8 108 Yes 51 Yes No No 9 107 Yes 94 Yes 30 Yes No No No 41 Yes No 7 114 Yes 97 Yea No No How to meet hoys >you would like to know. (205) 1 How to know what to talk aboutnwheh you r (155) 4 are out.with the hoy friend. How oto keep the friendship of a boy without drinking or "necking." ( 81) How to get dates for the senior events. (155 r~5 How to get acquainted with the boys. (146) 7 How to be popular. 2 Should a senior girl go out with a college (129) boy? Should you go "steady"? (2HE) How to get the boys who are friendly (166) 3 with you to ask for a date. (U5) 3 How to better understand the boys. How to entertain boy friends. (101) How to know how many boy friends you should have. (62) How to feel at home with new boy friends. ( W ) 8 How to get your parents to like your boy friends. ( 71) How to keep up a conversation with a boy. (12*7) 9 Should you correnpond with boys? (Tgg) How to know what age your boy friend should be. ( 48) How to choose a boy friend whom your parents will like. ( 59) (154) 6 How to refuse a date gracefully. Should you go out with older boys if high (124) school boys seem too young for you? 144 96 Yes 54 Yes No No 42 Yes No 55 Yes No 48 Yes No 28 Yes No 32 Yes No 76 Yes No 63 Yes 64 Yes 87 Yes No No No 90 Yes No 69 Yes No 83 Yes No 67 Yes 64 Yes No No 99 Yes No 68 Yes No How to overcome shyness when with a boyt How to keep from having trouble with your parents over dates. How to keep your parents from embarrassing your boy friends. How to have boy friends without being talked about. Should you end your friendship with a boy if your parents don#t like him® How to convince your parents you are old enough to go out with a boy. How to be a lady when you are out with a boy. How to know whether or not to accept "blind dates." How to get your boy friend to dance. How to be interested in boys your own age. How to get acquainted with boys when you are new in the school. How to keep up a conversation while dancing. How to get boys to better understand girls. How to plan for marriage and a career, too. How to get information about marriage. How to determine the proper age for marriage. How to know if your boy friend is the one you should marry. How to know if you should get married now or wait until your boy friend can make more money. 118fr 75) 56) 75) 66) 37) 44) 109) n§F) jH) 120) lie) 99) 118) l6fe) 89) 155)10 90) PART IV - VOCATION p 1 157 Yes No 4 150 71 Yes No Yes No 8 118 9 116 Ill Yes No Yes No Yes No How to know what jobs are open to high school graduates. How to choose a vocation to suit you. How to find work which will make it possible to go through college. How to have more faith in your future. How to know if you have any talent. How to determine before entering college what you would like to be. (205) 1 (161) 4 (159) 145 5 137 Yes No 68 Yes No 6 137 Yes 3 151 Yes 104 Yes No No No 10 115 Yes 51 Yes No No 2 153 Yes No 81 Yes No 79 Yes No 82 Yes No 107 Yes No 83 Yes No 7 127 Yes No How to determine your ability when choosini a vocation. Should you attempt to go to college when your grades are low? How to know where to apply for a job. How to apply for a job. How to get information about vocations before reaching your senior year. How to know more about unusual vocations. How to convince your parents that you want to choose your own vocation. How to secure a job when so many are without jobs. How to develop more enthusiasm for a vocation. How to find wnrk when you are under the age limit. How to take more subjects in high school which would help you decide upon your vocation. How to overcome timidity so it wonft be a hindrance to your vocation. How to know if a career would be worth the money. How to have more poise so that you can hold a good job. 6 84) 188) 5 Tfg) 3 134) I%B) 9 149)10 168) 7 PART V - FRIENDS 8 87 Yes 63 Yes No No 5 95 Yes No 2 119 Yes 29 Yes No No 69 Yes 4 103 Yes 74 Yes No No No 69 Yes No 43 Yes No 60 Yes No How to get into the best social cliques. How to know whom to choose for your friends. How to make friends of the girls with whom you would like to associate. How to make people like you. How to know if you should drink and smoke to make friends. How to learn to like people. How to make friends easily. How to overcome sensitiveness so that you can make more friends. How to keep friends from talking about you. How to make friends when your home isnft as nice as you would like it to be. How to have a place, to entertain your friends. (113) 9 (Ig9) 5 (151) 2 ( 37) ( 9b) (136) 4 (103)10 146 10 33 Yes 82 Yes No No 7 90 Yes No 9 84 Yes No 70 Yes 3 115 Yes 51 Yes No No No 1 134 Yes No 98 Yes No 59 Yes No 6 How to keep out ofbad company! (45) How to have friends and yet keep out of cliques. (99) How to get a more friendly spirit in the school. (118)8 How to act when you are with friends whom* you feel* are above you socially. (119) 7 How to overcome shyness when with friends.( $3) How to make a wide circle of friends. (181)3 How to be at ease with people of your own age. ( 71) How to keep up a conversation when you meet a new person. (175)1 How to make friends when you are new in the building. (126)6 How to get your friends to co-operate in school activities. (84) PART VI - RELIGION 3 60 Yes No 5 51 Yes No - 2 9 7 1 4 6 10 8 61 36 49 65 54 89 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No 81 Yes No 50 28 31 30 Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No 28 Yes No 39 Yes No How to know what you should really be lieve. How to know if you should marry a boy of a different religion. How to understand religion. How to have more religion in the home. How to get yourself to go to church. How to live up to your religious ideals. How to have faith in religion. How to find a church that will fit your needs. How to decide between two different churches. How to have time for religious activities. How to organize church social clubs. How to have religion in the school. How to get along with a person of a different religion. . How to agree with your parents about religion. How to see good in each religion. (81) 2 (75) csd c m QE> rw) CVS) 4 3 9 7 1 5 (37) (31) rgg) 6 rwj (43)10 ( 42) (34) C5S) 8 147 PAST VII - HEALTH 3 82 Yes No 4 79 Yes No 10 29 Yes No 21 Yes No 19 Yes No 60 Yes No 7 - 69 Yes No 2 111 Yes 18 Yes No No 8 5 9 No No No 6 45 Yes 74 Yes 38 Yes 17 Yes No 1 123 Yes 20 Yes No No How to do your home work without weakening your eyes* How to reduce without nharming your health* How to keep poor health from being a handicap to your future* How to plan your future when you have poor health* How to have fun with people when you have poor health. How to keep your health when you have so much to do at home and at school* How to keep from being susceptible to colds. How to keep from being tired in school. How to choose your vocation when you haven9t good health* How to increase your weight. How to know what causes a headache. How to know what medicines you should take. How to enter into sports when your health isnft good* How to take care of your skin* How to plan your future when you know that you have a permanent physical defect. ( 99) 4 (104) 3 ( 44) 10 ( 33) ( 27) ( 73) 7 ( 95) 5 (T£7) 2 (30) fW) 8 6 CM) ( 50) 9 - ( 25) (IW ) 1 ( 59) PART VIII - RECREATION 42 Yes No 1 117 Yes No 48 Yes No 3 85 Yes No 2 96 Yes No 8 55 Yes No 10 61 Yes No 9 54 Yes 20 Yes No No How to find the best places in the city for recreation. How to get your school work done and still have time for recreation. How to have time for recreation when you will be working your way through the university* How to get money to join friends in recreation* How to have enough money for school and recreation, too. How to get better recreation places in the city. How to find suitable places for a high school girl to go in the evening. How to use your spare time. How to convince your parents of the importance of going with girls your own age. ( 59) ( 158) (61) (115) 3 (1S5) 2 ( 76) 9 ( 79) 7 (71)10 ( 29) 148 6 4 5 7 67 Yes No 43 Yes No 72 Yes No 42 Yes No 42 Yes No 29 Yes No 71 Yes No 25 Yes No 56 Yes No How to keep up with all of the senior activities, How to convince your parents that you need more time for recreation. How to get parents to agree with you on the hours you should come home in the evening. How to get your parents to realize the importance of recreation. How to know if it is proper for a high school girl to go to a night club. How to become more interested in recreation. How to be considered a lady and yet enjoy the games which boys play. How to get. your friends interested in recreation. How to act when you go to nice places. PART 1 104 Yes 6 No 83 Yes 69 Yes No No 43 Yes No 8 77 Yes No 9 75 Yes No 5 91 Yes No 61 Yes 2 101 Yes No No 46 Yes No 7 78 Yes No 10 75 Yes No 4 3 93 Yes 96 Yes No No 54 Yes No ( 85) 6 ( 56) ( 99) 5 ( 51) ( 57) ( 57) (105) 4 ( 58) (~77) 8 IX - MONEY How to have as much spending money as other girls seem to have. How to get enough money to go to college. How to come to an agreement with your parents on an allowance. How to get your weekly allowance to cover your lunches and school supplies. How to have enough money to keep up with your friends* How to get your parents to realize how much money it takes for everyday expenses. How to keep school affaires from requir ing so much money. How to budget your allowance. How to meet the expenses of the senior year. How to work for the things you need and keep up with school work. How to help your parents when they are in financial difficulties. How to decline an invitation gracefully when you havsnH the money to go. How to save your money. How to keep ;/from spending your money foolishly. How to have confidence without having money. 157) 1 ~sn>) 8 83) 58) 96) 9 90) 10 116) 4 "W) 156) 2 68) 106) 6 105) 7 Tig) 5 119) 3 71) 149 PART No 8 3 7 74 Yes 90 Yes 81 Yes No No No 1 118 Yes 4 88 Yes No No 5 88 Yes 66 Yes No No 6 10 84 Yes 68 Yes 64 Yes No No No 46 Yes No 70 Yes No 59 Yes No 9 How to know what to wear on different occasions* How to dress nicely hut inexpensively. How to dress to suit your personality. How to feel well dressed with an ordinary amount of clothes. How to have new clothes more often. How to dress nicely without depriving the family. How to know when to wear a hat. How to attend parties without feeling inferior to the girls who have nicer clothes. How to know the best way to wear clothes. How to choose your clothes. How to dress when you are going out with a boy. How to keep your sister from wearing your clothes. How to know the colors which make you the most attractive. How to keep your clothes in a good condition. (129) Z f“W ) 8 (TM) 3 H 98 Yes a z X - CLOTHES 6 (150) 1 (114) 5 (TzU) 4 ( 86) (W) 7 rss) ( 94) 9 ( 56) ( 93)10 (84) PART XT - MISCELLANEOUS 4 122 89 3 126 1 144 8 102 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No 66 Yes No 5 113 Yes 10 90 Yes No No 10 90 Yes 2 130 Yes 9 98 Yes 7 108 Yes 6 113 Yes No No No No No How to keep from being moody. How to overcome blushing. How to have a nice personality. How to le arn to be charming. How to keep your mind away from your troubles. How to tell the trivial things from the important ones. How to control your temper. How to keep from being easily embarrassed. How to keep from being sensitive. How to get over being self-conscious. How to keep from being irritable. How to develop confidence. How to keep from daydreaming.^ (150 4 (xnr 9 (I5ET 3 (177 (155 ) 8 ( 90 (til 7 (111 (TIT (TTY 2 ( T H 10 (T£S 5 (131 6 150 PLEASE WRIT! ANY PROBLEMS YOU HAVE WHICH ARE NOT INCLUDED IN THE "PROBLEMAIRE."