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Education for world friendship with special reference to practices in Texas

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A Thesis
Presented to
the Faculty of the School of Education
The University of Southern California
In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Master of Science in Education
Charles S. Andrews
August 1941
UMI Number: EP54164
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UMI EP54164
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T h is thesis, w r it t e n u n d e r the d ir e c t io n o f the
C h a ir m a n o f the cand ida te’ s G u id a n c e C o m m itte e
a n d a p p r o v e d by a l l m em bers o f the C o m m itte e ,
has been prese n te d to a n d a ccep ted by the F a c u lt y
o f the S c h o o l o f E d u c a t io n o f T h e U n iv e r s it y o f
S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f the
re q u ire m e n ts f o r the degree o f M a s t e r o f Science
in E d u c a tio n .
Guidance Com m ittee
Theodore H. E. Chen
C hairm an
E. J. Weersing
Welty Lefever
The importance of the problem . . . . . . . . .
,The present clash of interests among
The factors leading to international
The challenge presented to education by lack
of international understanding
. . . . . .
The importance of determining current
* .
The reasons for an investigation into
practices in Texas
* .................. ..
Review of related investigations
. . . . . . .
The purpose of the study
The method of procedure and the organization
of chapters
. . . .
* ................
Social and political efforts
The trend toward world organization w . . . .
Developments in political cooperation . . . .
Organizations which promote world understanding
' 15
Organizations not specifically related to
the schools
Organization which promote international
understanding in the schools
The growth of world friendship education in
the schools
• . .
. . . . . .
Early developments in education
. . . . . .
International understanding since
World War I
, . ..................., . . .
UNDERSTANDING IN THE S C H O O L S ..................
The need for internationalunderstanding . . .
The responsibility of education in the
promotion of world f r i e n d s h i p ............ ;
International understanding in the curriculum.
The content of international understanding
i n s t r u c t i o n ........... • ............
Methods, techniques, and devices in the
teaching of international understanding
. .
The importance of the teacher in international
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The training of teachers in international
. * .................................. ..
The findings from the questionnaire study
. .
International understanding- in the
. . . . . . . . .
The content of international understanding.
Methods, techniques, and devices
. . . . .
Extra curricularactivities ................
Teacher preparation for international
understanding .....................
The results of the examination of material
. • • • • . .
World friendship material in the leading
World friendship material in the Texas
course of study . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C o m p a r i s o n s ...........................
The responsibility of ■the schools regarding
international understanding . . . . . . .
The position of international understanding
in the curriculum . < .
Content for promoting international
u nderstanding............................
Methods and procedures in presenting
world friendship
Teacher preparation for international
Conclusions .
.................... . . . .
Specific program for world friendship . .
Position of world friendship in the
Content for international understanding
Methods, techniques, and devices for
international understanding . . . . . .
Teacher preparation for international
understanding . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Curricular organization of international
^ ^
The content of international
understanding . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Methods, techniques, and devices
. . . .
. . . . ........ .......... ..
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.‘ . .
Plans of Organization in Social Studies in
Relation to International Understanding * . .
Curricular Organization of International
Grade Distribution of Social Studies Subjects .
........ * ..............
The Distribution of Study on ¥arious nations
Methods of Teaching World Friendship
. * . . .
Extra-Curricular Activities in the Teaching of
International Understanding
Content Areas in the Teaching of World
The Course Distribution of Teacher Preparation.
Importance of the problem.
The events now transpiring
throughout the major part of the civilized world vividly
illustrate the need for a greater understanding between the
nations and peoples of the earth,
A generalization of out­
standing factors contributing to the evolution of existing
tensions is necessary in order to appreciate the role of
education in the production of a saner world order.
The chaotic condition of international politics which
has resulted in this present clash of interests has had its
inception in the past where intrique, greed, ethnological .
mistrust, and international political anarchy has been the
The cataclysm of 1914— 1918 enveloped the world in a
pall of fear and hate which exhausted the resources of the
belligerents, but failed to resolve the conflicts inherent
in a world order where the interdependence of national units
in matters economic, spiritual, and cultural, had been
established at a point far in advance of the political
organization for international cooperation.
We might conceivably inject other causative factors
involved in the generation of the current world impasse,
but those factors.which deal with the feelings of peoples
toward one another are of greatest significance for education.
The challenge to our educational program which is
presented by this chronic misunderstanding and lack of
cooperation between the citizens of the world, proposes
three questions.
What, relation does our past effort
bear to the present lack of world friendship?
What are
we now doing to promote a spirit of world cooperation?
In view of the results of past and present efforts,
what changes seem desirable?
In the light of these questions the determination of
the scope and probable efficiency of our present attempts to
promote toleration and world neighborliness among the young
assumes an important role.
Without a composite picturization
of current practices, the acquisition of the perspective
necessary to the proper formulation of future policies is
rendered extremely difficult.
An investigation of the policies, methods, and devices
employed in the state of Texas in the social studies field
toward the realization of international understanding is held
by the investigator to be constructive and worthwhile for the
following reasons:
Texas, with the longest international
border of any sta^te in the Union should be particularly
conscious of the need for international understanding.
Texas, as a state of nearly seven million inhabitants
should reveal trends somewhat representative of those
obtaining in other states.
The comparison of practices
in Texas with the policies projected by our foremost educators
should be productive of benefits to the teaching of inter­
national understanding in Texas and elsewhere.
A review of other investigations of like nature may
serve to clarify the purpose of this study.
Review of related investigations.
The literature in
the field of international understanding reveals a scarcity
of investigations regarding actual practices in given
geographical areas.
The most well known, and probably the most outstanding
investigation of actual practices in the promotion of inter­
national understanding, is the one which was carried out by
Daniel A. Prescott in the schools of Europe.
The results of
this investigation were published in 1930 by the Harvard
University press under the title;
Education and International
Prescott spent considerable time in England, France,
Switzerland, Austria, Czechoslovakia, and Germany in order
to gather material bearing on the status of international
understanding in the educational program of those countries.
He gathered his data through a study of textbooks, teachers’
1 Daniel A* Prescott, Education and International
(Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Harvard University
Press, 1930), 168 pp.
publications, educational literature, interviews with
teachers and laymen, observation of classroom procedure, and
through the aid of organizations interested in the promotion
of world understanding.
After bringing together the data gathered through the
various procedures and agencies, Prescott reported several
significant findings,
Tradition, in many of the countries visited,
presented a hindrance to world understanding.
Egotistic nationalism was found to be a prime
factor operating against world understanding in the schools.
Narrow nationalism was found to be less pronounced
in the public schools than in the private schools of the
upper classes.
A great majority of the teachers interviewed were
anti-war and pro-conciliation.
Organizations external to education were found to
exert considerable influence in the program of the schools
for international understanding.
In summarizing his investigation, Prescott sets forth
the educational implications of the study as he views them:
(1) That the struggle against the drag of tradition
should not take the form of a direct attack upon well
established educational methods and materials.
(2) That
the psychology of habit suggest the desireability of
developing the scientific attitude in the pupils of all
schools. This attitude includes; a clear insight into
the problems of society, the conscious search for all
the facts relating to these problems and the regarding
of solutions as tentative, to be measured by the results
secured by their application,
(5) That the settings in
which international problems are studied should be de­
(4) That the direction of social
evolution viewed on a humanitarian basis should determine
the perspective of education in dealing with international
Following the statement of educational implications,
Prescott concludes that the schools should utilize the
scientific method in portraying the interdependent nature of
nations to the pupil.
Furthermore, he insists that the
fostering of an abstract idealism in the student produces an
entire lack of loyalty.
Thus, the alternative, an unemotional-
factual approach, is considered the better method.
Another investigation of international relations in
the schools was conducted by Curtis G. Gentry entitled,
"Teaching International Civics in the Public schools.”
account of Mr. Gentry*s unpublished dessertation was given
by Edith E. Ware4 in her book, The Study of International
Belations in the United States.
Mr. Gentry attempted to
determine the status of the teaching of international civics
by means of a questionnaire sent to the heads of departments
2 rbid., p.-' 135.
3 Ibid.. p. 137.
4 Edith E. Ware, The Study of International Belationa
in the United States
(New York: The Columbia University
PressT, p* 310.
of civics in 100 schools east of the Mississippi.
The findings from the questionnaire revealed that
roughly 6 per cent of the schools questioned conducted some
sort of systematic study regarding international relations.
Since this percentage did not allow for those who failed to
return the questionnaire the investigator concluded that
actual usage was probably evdn lower than 6 per cent.
The studies of both Prescott and Gentry are related
to this present investigation insofar as they have attempted
to determine certain practices in the teaching of world
understanding in a given area, but they are dissimilar in
several respects.
Both are broader in geographical scope,
and the investigation by Prescott is infinitely more complete
than the present study both in scope and educational
An outline of the purpose of the present study
The purpose of the study.
This investigation has
attempted to determine the status of the teaching of inter­
national understanding in the social studies courses of the
secondary schools of Texas, and to compare the findings in
this primary investigation with national trends in theory,
as revealed by books, pamphlets, and magazine articles in
the field.
The questions proposed by this study necessarily
fall into three groups.
What do experts in the field think about the
teaching of international understanding?
Is the promotion of world friendship a responsi­
bility of education?
What place should international cooperation
occupy in the curriculum?
What should the content of the subject be?
In the light of defensible theory what devices
should be used for the promotion of international under­
How important is the teacher in the teaching of
international relations?
Should teachers be required to take special
college courses in international relations?
What is being done in the teaching of inter­
national understanding in Texas?
Do Texas schools in general have a specific
program for promoting international understanding?
What is the position of world friendship in the
What is the general content of the subject?
What devices and procedures are most generally
used in Texas to promote a spirit of international cooperation
among the young?
Do teachers in Texas have an adequate college
background in international relations?
How do Texas practices compare with the ideas of
educators regarding the best practices?
Do the schools of Texas recognize their responsi­
bility to teach international understanding?
Do Texas schools follow accepted practice in the
placement of international understanding in the curriculum? ■
How does the content of international understand­
ing, as presented in Texas schools, compare with the content
advocated by experts?
Are the procedures and teaching devices used in
Texas schools similar to the procedures accepted by
specialists in the field?
In the light of expert opinion, is background of
Texas teachers adequate for the proper teaching of inter­
national understanding*.
Method of procedure*
The data concerning current
.theory and practice in the teaching of international
cooperation were obtained by a library study during the
course of which all available books, pamphlets, and articles
were read with regard to their bearing on the questions
proposed in the statement of the problem.
The investigation
into status of the teaching of international cooperation in
the schools of Texas was carried on by means of questionnaires
sent to 100 teachers, and by an examination of the state
course of study for the social studies.
In addition, an
examination of the most widely used texts was made with a
view to determining the amount and nature of the world
friendship material each one.
The following
paragraph outlines the order in which the entire study is
The remainder of this thesis is composed of the
following divisons:
Chapter IX gives a brief history of the
movement for the teaching of international cooperation in the
Chapter III presents the findings of the library
study regarding expert opinion on the theory of the teaching
of international cooperation in the schools.
Chapter IV
outlines the results of the questionnaires, and the findings
of the course of study, and textbook examinations*
Chapter V
summarizes the findings of the investigation, and compares
world friendship education in Texas with the theory and
practice of world friendship education in the United States,
as revealed by the literature in the field.
The conclusions,
based on these comparisons, are followed by some recommen­
dations which seem appropriate to the investigator in the
light of the results of the investigation.
In modern times there have been varied attempts on the
part of nations to live together amicably, but many of these
have been brief and transitory.
The temporary nature of such
attempts at international cooperation can not be ascribed to
any one factor alone.
But if it were possible to sum all
social ills under one head, it is quite likely that we would
find the absence of a true understanding between peoples to
be a basic consideration in this respect.
The walled cities
and nations of the past are physical reminders of the
existence of more potent spiritual barriers which have
continually militated against sympathetic cooperation
between peoples.
There have been many advocates for the
reform of existing international relations from Grotius to
Wilson and Streit, but as yet the achievement side of the
ledger is meagerly inscribed.
Because of this doubtful
progress, many writers contend that the history of inter­
national cooperation should rightfully start with the close
of World War I.
With due regard for failures of the past we
may, however, note the hopeful beginnings of the latter
nineteenth century, and the fully established movement of the
twentieth century.
The trend toward world organization.
The growing
interdependence of world spheres due to technological
progress, has manifested itself ehiefly in the realms of
economics and cultural relationships.
While no steps of
comparable stature are, as yet, apparent in the field of
political organization, there are increasing indications of
a trend in that direction#
The earliest visible signs of modern world cooperation
appeared in the middle of the last c e n t u r y I n
1868 the
International Telegraph Union was formed, and from that
beginning has evolved the strong union of today in which
more than sixty nations actively participate.
The Universal
Stamp Union was formed in 1875, and has since provided the
impetus for innumerable international contacts which might
not otherwise have occurred.
Other steps of a partially
political nature have been made such as, the International
Union of Weights and Measures in 1875, and the International
Union for the protection of Industrial’property in 1878.
In succession followed the International Union for the
protection of Literary property in 1883, the International
1 George S. Counts, The social Foundations of
Education (New York: Charles Scribner1s Sons, 1934), p. 477.
Union for the publication of Customs Tariffs in 1890, and
the International Union of Bailway Freight Transportation in
In addition to the foregoing unions, two important
institutes were later formed.
In 1905 was founded the
International Institute of Agriculture, and in 1907 the
International Institute of Public Health.
Both of these
institutes, and particularly the latter, have grown very
strong with resultant beneficial effects in their respective
In contrast to these thriving ventures, others of
a more strictly political nature have not fared so well.
Developments in political cooperation.
Regardless of
permanent achievement, the significance of attempts at
international political solidarity before and after the
beginning of the twentieth century cannot be denied.
formation of the Pan-American Union in 1899, though productive
of small international benefit up to the present, has consti­
tuted an ever-present framework for understanding between the
Americas, when and if that possibility is ever seriously
In the same year, 1899, the first peace conference
assembled at The Hague.
This conference, and its counter­
part eight years later, seemed powerless to control affairs
2 Ibid,. p. 478.
between major powers, yet both have sinoe provided a
stimulus for further attempts in the same direction.
has1been particularly noticeable in the field of popular
education toward amicable international settlement.
fact that the permanent court of Arbitration has grown out
of these conferences means little in terms of actual achievem ent, since the court has been as helpless in the face of
major international wrangling * as were the conferences which
gave rise to it.
To understand why the significance of such
efforts has been championed by thinking people, one has only
to recall that the League of Nations was largely made
possible by these preliminary examples of international
The League of Nations, though itself a failure in
terms of its own objectives, has formed another and larger
stone in the foundation for eventual peaceful collaboration
between nations,
^he fact that the League was dominated by
'the victors of the war, and many of its most active adherents
were apparently not actuated by motives conducive to inter­
national respect, engendered a distaste for many of its
efforts among the remainder of the family of nations.
Notwithstanding the failure of this outstanding step, the
momentum it has created will undoubtedly be later felt.
The same revulsion toward war, which was instrumental in the
formation of the League, found expression in other related
The International Labor Organization, created by the
treaties at the close of the last war, has since held inter­
national conclaves for the purpose of studying labor
conditions in various countries of the world.
The Permanent
Court of International Justice, likewise a product of the
League of Nations, has provided the opportunity for nations
to air their grievances in non-belligerent style.
To date
few major issues have been brought before it, and little
benefit has been derived from it on an international scale.
How utterly unsuccessful! all of these political
ventures have been in terms of the immediate achievement of
international cooperation, is now painfully evident to any
reader of the daily newspaper.
But to discount their
ultimate effect is to insist that foundational structures
in international relations, built up by centuries of intrigue
and bad faith, must be changed overnight to be of signifi­
The trend of events in fields other than political,
as mentioned earlier in the chapter, give concrete expression
to the existence of a movement which is continually growing.
The growth of feeling for saner relationships
between nations is perhaps in no way better illustrated than
by the ever increasing number of organizations, foundations,
3 Ibid., p, 479.
and institutes rising up in the United States, and in other
countries, which seek to widen the avenues of understanding
between peoples through programs of research and popular
Roughly speaking, there are two major types of
organizations which attempt to influence public opinion in
regard to international relations.
Some organizations work'
for international understanding in general, while others
direct their efforts more specifically toward educating the
young in connection with the public school program.
Organizations not specifically related to the schools.
In the group of organizations which operate in a general way
toward international amity, are found several different types
of societies and councils ranging from the Council on
Foreign Relations, which requires only that its members be
actively interested in foreign affairs, to professional
societies where membership is strictly limited to members of
a given profession, as, for example, the Associations of
Edith Ware,4 who.edited The Study of International
4 Edith 1. Ware, editor, The Study of International
Relations in the United States
(New York: Columbia
University Press, 19341', pp. 75-130*
Relations in the United States, describes the work of those
organizations which purposely promote an understanding of
international affairs.
The Carnegie Endowment for international peace is
particularly outstanding among organizations working for the
betterment of international relations.
The Endowment is
composed of the divisions of Intercourse and Education,
International Law, and Economics and History.
The division
of Intercourse and Education conducts the greater part of
the Endowment’s Activities.
These activities range from the
sponsoring of teacher exchanges between the schools of
various countries to the maintenance of ”International
Alcove Libraries” in college and secondary school libraries.
In addition, the division of Intercourse and Education
distributes literature, both general and technical, relating
to current international problems.
These problems are
usually presented in the ”International Conciliation”
pamphlets which are issued by the Endowment,
There are a
number of other organizations which engage in similar
activity, but according to one authority ”It is not too
much to say that the activities of the division of Inter­
course and Education constitute the largest single effort of
an unofficial body anywhere in.,the world to further the
cause of international understanding.”^
5 Ibid. , p. 27
The council on Foreign Relations organized during
the first world war hy a group of New York's leading
citizens, and later merged with the American Institute of
International Affairs in 1921, carries on various activities
hearing on international understanding*
The council has
purchased a "Council House” in New York which provides
quarters for the executive offices, a library of inter­
national affairs, and the business offices of the council?:®
quarterly Foreign Affairs *
The council sponsors general
meetings, group meetings, and small expert study groups*
The group meetings are for the purpose of studying facts
concerning American Foreign policy.
The expert study groups
are similar to the group meetings, but go into a more
specific analysis of the problems up for discussion.
advice of these groups has been sought upon occasions by
governmental officials pursuant to the solution of specific
political problems.
In addition to publishing its
quarterly, Foreign Affairs, the council publishes volumes
relating to its research program in the international field,
and also sponsors the publication of study session reports.
A Directory of American Agencies Concerned with the Study of
International Affairs was released by the council in 1931.
The Institute of Current World Affairs,' in contrast
6 Ibid., p. 78.
to the Council on Foreign Relations, earries on its activities
directly in the countries on which information is desired*
Long term investigations are undertaken by members of the
organization who live in the country in question and speak
the languages of the people.
The investigators are chosen
according to proven ability for the task at hand*.
.The purpose
of the organization is to create a personnel thoroughly
intimate with developments throughout the world.
Because of its close association with the public
through luncheon discussion meetings and radio broadcasts,
the Foreign Policy Association is probably the most widely
known of all the international-minded organizations.
association acts as an agency for international goodwill
through educational activities, and through research in
international affairs.
These research studies are published
in a bi-monthly issue known as Foreign Policy Reports.
reports, originally published for limited use, have become
widely adopted by ne?/spaper men, men in public life, and
various organizations, as a base for editorials, political
considerations, and discussion groups.
A further research
activity of the association, concerning the social and
economic problems confronting Cuba, was undertaken at the
request of President Carlos Mendieta, and was carried on by
a committee with Dr. Raymond Leslie Buell as chairman.
the fortnightly reports, the association sends a weekly
’bulletin containing interpretative resumes of current
problems by the research staff.
The World Peace Foundation, in conjunction with the
Foreign Policy Association, has undertaken several cooper­
ative studies.
The joint committee on Latin-American Policy
issued Recommendations as to the Pan-American Conference at
A similar issue on the future of the Phillipines
was later released.
This collaboration has also resulted in
the publication of a number of world affairs pamphlets
designed "to assist the citizen in understanding the forces
underlying contemporary international problems."
labors of the foundation are directed in general toward
"educating the people of all nations to a full knowledge of
the waste and destructiveness of war."
In addition to joint
activities with the Foreign Policy Association, the World
Peace Foundation acts as agent for the sale of all League
of Nations publications in this country, and for the
publications of twelve other international organizations.
In this way the Foundation acts as distributor for a great
amount of authoritative material on international affairs.
Ull of the organizations treated thus far, have been
of a more or less general character, since they cover
practically all fields.
7 Ibid.. p. 85.
In contrast, there are several
groups which are interested mainly in only one field*
of the chief groups in this latter category is the American
Geographical Society*
The main contribution of this organi­
zation consists of expert discourses on economic and
ethnological problems existing in various parts of the world,
with emphasis on the relation of geographical factors to
these problems.
Though all of the activities of the society
are not of an international nature, it has made a major
contribution with its publication, The Geographical Review,
and its various other issues, both in book and pamphlet
Its membership list includes most of the better known
experts in the field of geography.
Another organization
which operates largely in one field, is the Brooking1s
Institution of Washington D. 0.
In the economic field this
institution has made a number of international studies, and
has published the results of its research in several
different languages.
The National Bureau of Economic
Research is somewhat like the Brookingss Institution in that
both operate as much in the business world as in the academic
The Bureau is chiefly concerned with economic problems
in ’the United States, but has released several international
studies, such as Business Annals, by Tfillard Thorp (1926),
and German Business Cycles, by Carl T. Schmidt (1934).
National Industrial Conference Board also operates in the
business world, but has definitely contributed to
international knowledge by its contact with economic and
business problems the world over.
The findings of this
organization have been published in several volumes entitled,
k Picture of World Economic Conditions (yearly, 1928 to 1933).
The membership of the Board consists solely of business men,
but distinguished statesmen and scholars are invited to
participate as counselors.
The Taylor Society in the field
of scientific management has also turned its labors
increasingly toward international problems.
one fourth of the membership of this society is non-American.
Its purpose is to develop the principles of Scientific
Management throughout the world.
The Industrial Relations
Counselors, like the Taylor Society, began as an American
organization, but later modified its objectives to include
questions of industrial counseling in other nations.
Among the societies and groups which contribute to
international understanding in a general way, is found a
number of professional associations.
Association is one of these.
The American Medical
Despite the fact that it has
no international affiliations as such, the association is
represented at all international medical gatherings, and
conducts considerable research in other countries.
Casualty Actuarial Society is affiliated with the Comite
Permanent des Gongres International D ’Acturies, which
publishes international studies in the insurance field.
Other groups of similar nature include the International
Congress on Recounting, the American Institute of Engineers,
the American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers,
the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, the American
Society of Civil Engineers, and the several associations of
The four engineering societies are naturally
international in outlook since a large part of their
respective memberships reside abroad for considerable lengths
of time.
The Main American Lawyers Association, The American
Bar Association, because of its many dealings in the field
of international law, formed a new section of the association
directly concerned with research and practice in international
Members of the bar association particularly interested
in international legal affairs,
joined with teachers of
international law to form the American Society of Inter­
national Law.
Aside from strictly professional societies which
contribute to the promotion of international understanding
in a broad sense, there are a number of groups which are
generally called the learned societies.
The oldest of these
is the American Statistical Association, which has maintained
international contacts since its beginning in I860..
American Historical Association has also been active in
foreign affairs through its preservation of international
documents, its helps to teachers of international
understanding in the Historloal Outlook, and through its
participation in the Congresses of the International
Committee of Historical Sciences.
The American Economic
Association, founded a year after the American Historical
Association, is interested in the economic phases of inter­
national historical development, and manifests this interest
through various reports on international economic research
in its publication the American Economic Beview.
In the
Sociological field, the American Sociological Society, the
American Anthropological Association, and the American
Psychological Association, are closely related in that all
three contribute to international understanding in a general
way by cooperative research in past and present social
There are.a number of other organizations
and publications of a social character which do a good work
in attempting to clarify international social problems, but
because of their number and limited scope, they are not
mentioned here.
The American Political science Association
must be brought into any discussion of internationally
minded organizations, because of the research activity of its
members on current international questions involving all
phases of diplomacy, international law, and comparative
The Learned Societies have a parallel group of
organizations which are quite similar to the societies,
except that the membership of the latter is less definitely
composed of those engaged in teaching.
to, is known as the academic group.
The group referred
These organizations have
contributed to international understanding in much the same
manner as the Societies, in the respect that their contri­
butions h£ve consisted mainly of research reports in the .
several academy publications.
In this classification is
found the Academy of Political and Social Science, the
Academy of Political Science, and the Academy of World
Closely related to the Learned Societies and the
Academics, are several University groups interested in
foreign problems.
Probably the two outstanding bodies in
this connection are those at Harvard and Radcliffe College,
and at the University of California at Berkeley*
These are
known respectively as the Bureau of Internation Research of
Harvard University and Radeliffe College, and the Bureau of
International Relations of the University of California at
The work of these two Bureaus is largely one of
research and reporting regarding such problems as Soviet
rule in Russia, the South American attitude toward the
United States, and the Chinese Revolution.
In addition to permanently established Bureausj a
groining number of schools are holding conferences and
institutes on questions of international import;
is this true of summer sessions.
The number' of colleges and
universities engaging in this type of work is so large that
bare mention of them is too lengthy for this discussion.
A detailed list may he had by referring to the previous
mentioned study by Edith Ware.
Many universities, aside from partially extra­
curricular work in international relations, maintain
regular departments in the instruction of foreign affairs.
The Walter Hines Page School of International Relations at
Johns Hopkins1 University is typical in this respect.
Departments of similar nature are found at the University
of Southern California, Georgeto?m University, George
Washington University, and many others.
Organizations which promote International under­
standing in the schools.
k few of the organizations which
have been discussed in the preceding pages regarding their
general contributions, also publish materials for use in the
lower schools.
The office of Education of the United States
Department of the Interior, has prepared a list, which may
be had on request, of all groups engaged in this type of
Chief among organizations, which operate both in the
8 Ibid4, pp* 123-126.
9 United States Department .of Interior, Office of
Education, Some Organizations which Publish Materials
Relating to International Understanding, 1937, 7 pp.
schools and out, is probably the Foreign Policy Association,
which in addition to its general activities already
mentioned in this chapter, publishes study aids for use in
junior and senior high schools,
‘The association also sends
free leaflets on international affairs to teachers on
The American Association of University Women is
another organization which produces material for use in the
public schools.
The association has made a list of fifty
books designed to build international attitudes in children,
as well as a "Kit of Classroom Projects” for use in con­
junction with regular curricular activities.
The American Bed Cross publishes materials on inter­
national good will for use with regualr units of school work"The Junior Bed Gross News” for the lower grades, and the
nJunior Journal” for the secondary school.
"American Junior
Bed Cross— A program of activities," as its name implies,
furnishes projects and activities of an international nature
for each month of the school year.
The American School Citizenship League, founded in
1908 as the American School Peace League, has as its platform
world justice through education.
Ia pursuance of this
-*-0 Bessie Louise Pierce, Citizens Organizations and .
the Givic Training of Youth
(New York: Charles Scribner’s
Sons, 1933), p* 79.
platform, the League sponsors prize essay and declamation
contests on international good will.
A group of members in
the teaching profession have also prepared a series of
lessons called *4 Course in Citizenship," which runs from
the third year through the sixth.
These lessons stress good
will and neighborly relations, and are still widely used in
the schools
The National Council for the Prevention of War,
organized in 1921 by representatives of seventeen national
organizations, has greatly aided the instruction of inter­
national understanding in the schools by making available a
great quantity of material dealing with practically every
phase of the peace problem.
Bibliographies, posters,
declamatory materials, films, slides * songs, and materials
for debates on international questions are furnished on
In like manner, the National Peace Conference carries
its work directly into the schools through the unit "Building
World-Minded Attitudes in High School Students."
This unit
correlates with the regular school subjects in all grades of
the secondary school.
The National student Forum on the Paris Pact also
operates in Junior and Senior high schools through the
11 Ibid., pi 80.
publication of projects for the study of the Paris Pact, and
by sponsoring inter-pupil correspondence with other nations.
The League of Nations Association Inc. of New York
Gity, hot only publishes material dealing with international
affairs, but in addition encourages the formation of model
"League Assemblies" in all of the secondary schools. *
It would be possible to list a great number of other
organizations which exert an influence on the schools by
publication of units of work, or other material relating to
international understanding, but for the purposes of this
discussion, those already listed are sufficient to illus­
trate the growing interest in education as a main avenue for
the introduction of world amity on a permanent basis.
Anyone desiring further information, such as the addresses
of organizations listed, or information on the work of
organizations not mentioned, will find the United States
Office of Education Publication on the subject, ample for
ordinary requirements. It is apparent from the background discussion up to
John Eugene Harley r "Leading Organizations Pro­
moting the Study of International Relations in the United
States," Thirty-Sixth Yearbook of the National Society For
the Study of Education, Part II~TB1comington, Illinois:
Public School Publishing Company, 1937), p. 309.
United States Department of Interior, Office of
Education, Some Organization Ifhi eh Publishes Material
Relating to International Understanding, 1937
this point, that the work of organizations, either political
or social, cannot be ezactly defined in terms of present
achievement, nor can the contributions of any one group be
nicely separated to determine its ultimate effect on the
promotion of international understanding in the schools.
As the following discussion will shoif, all of these factors
have influenced the course of w orld friendship in the schools,
though frequently in a manner not easily analyzed.
Early developments in education.
The importance of
movements outside the field of education upon the course of
educative procedure has already been duly emphasized.
further case on this point is found in the obvious influence
of the first Hague meeting upon later developments in the
Immediately following this step in the inter­
national political realm, far sighted educators in the
United States gave voice to their conviction that this
movement should be felt in the schools.
Lecturers in
teachers1 colleges and contributors to professional periodicals
began to dwell more and more upon the part which the schools
should play in the promotion of amicable international deal­
The idea of world comity, and the subsequent emphasis
upon respect for humanity, appealed to most writers of this
time, as being particularly applicable to the public school
The coneern of leading educators on the subject of
international understanding gradually filtered down to a
sufficient number of the rank and file to produce what might
be called the beginnings of a movement.
These beginnings
achieved their first solid expression by 1908 in the
formation of the American school Peace League,
This organi­
zation, composed of teachers and educators from all parts of
.the country, proposed to institute a program in the schools
designed to guide the young toward the ideals of inter­
national understanding and p e a c e . ^
The educators who later founded the American School
Peace League had already proposed the establishment of an
annual good will day to be observed in all the schools of
the United States.
to this proposal,
Though there was no active opposition
the customary lag between leaders and
followers, so characteristic of the sprawling educational
system in this country^ combined with lack of publicity to
largely defeat the early spread of these observances.
Nevertheless, on the anniversary of the first Hague
Fannie Fern Andrews, "The Teacher an Agent of
Goodwill," School and Society, 19: 312-318, July 30, 1927.
15 Ibid., p. 122.
Conference, at Bloomington, Indiana, the first good will
day observance was held (May, 18th).
In December of 1906
Dr. Elmer Ellsworth Brown, the United States Commissioner of
Education, in a report to the Secretary of the Interior,
achieved some status for the movement by the following
in the celebration of this anniversary day, and in
the instruction of the schools throughout the year, the
effort be made to promote an insight into the true aims
and aspirations of our nation and of the other n a t i o n s
with which we are to work together in the making of a
higher world Civilization.17
In the same year that the above report was given,
seven State Superintendents of Public Instruction recommended
that Good Will Day observances be held in their respective
The following year, (1907), the National Education
Association supported the Good Will Day idea by a resolution
endorsing the objectives of the observances.
As the spread of the good will program became more
pronounced, the requests from teachers for related materials
Since no materials of this nature were immediately
available, Dr. Philander P. Claxton instituted the preparation
of a number of government bulletins dealing with the
observance of Good Will Day, and with the teaching of
16 Ibid., p. 122.
17 Ibid., p. 123.
appreciation of other peoples.
These bulletins were
released in 1912 and 1913 under the direction of Dr. Claxton
as United States Commissioner of Education.
Following the
lead of the Federal department, many state departments began
publishing international understanding materials in their
regular bulletins.
This material, for a number of years
following its publication, formed the nucleus for world
friendship instruction in the schools of most of the states.
The greatest part of the materials just mentioned
were largely designed to serve as outlines for the observ­
anceof special good will
exercises, and it was not until
that any coherent long range course of study for the
entire year appeared.
In that year the Massachusetts
branch of the American School Citizenship League prepared a
graded course of study with emphasis on international under­
standing entitled "A Course in Citizenship and Patriotism.”
This course has been ifidely used, and is still in use in
As the
and several other states.
increase of instruction in international under­
standing maintained itself, it became apparent to educators
that some d'efinte application of this idea to the curriculum
was necessary.
The State Teacher's Associations, and a
18 Ibid.. p. 124.
19 Ibid.. p. 124.
growing number of independent leagues and' organizations were
issuing materials, but the movement being comparatively new,
revealed a lack of direction and coordination.
For this and
other obvious reasons, the organization of world friendship
in terms of the existing school program became increasingly
Attention was first centered on history as the
most likely "carrier.”
The extremely nationalistic trend in
the history texts of the time made integration with inter­
national understending practically impossible.
To remedy
this difficulty the .American School Citizenship League ap­
pointed several outstanding historians to undertake the
writing of a history text from an international point of
Consequently, in 1919 appeared the first text on
United States History to definitely portray the dependency
of the nation on other countries and cultures.
This text
was published in 1919 under the name, "An American Citizen­
ship Course in United States History."20
The growth of the movement for international under­
standing in the schools of the United States was influenced
by similar movements in other countries, and in turn had
some effect on other countries in like manner.
In 1912
United States Commissioner of Education, P. P. Claxton,
suggested to the government of the Netherlands that an
20 I M d * «
P* 125.
international conference of education called by that nation
could be productive of considerable benefit to international
Accordingly the Dutch government sent invitations
to the educators of all the civilized nations to meet at the
The first invitations were sent in 1913 and final
invitations in 1914.
Fannie Fern Andrews of the United
States visited the capitals of various countries in Europe
to explain the purposes of the meeting.
The Netherlands
meanwhile relied on the United States for the success of the
venture *
All of the major nations except Germany agreed to
attend the conference, but unfortunately the World War
intervened and the meeting was not held.
Shortly before the
war, the educational representatives of several interested
countries attempted to establish an international bureau of
education, but these efforts were likewise nullified by the
outbreak of hostilities in 1914*2^
The neutrality of the United States, and its efforts
in a political way to end hostilities in Europe, was
paralleled in edueation by continued attempts at international
The annual meeting of the National Education
Association during the Panama-Pacific International
Exposition at Oakland in 1915 emphasized the importance of
good will between nations.
21 r b i a * . p.- 126.
At the invitation of the
National Education Association this meeting was attended by
educators from thirty different countries*
At this gathering
the promotion of international understanding was discussed
at length, and a number of resolutions involving further
efforts in this direction were adopted*
The following
quotation from the declaration of principles indicates a
thorough grasp of the problem on the.part of those leaders
in attendance*
Of all the institutions working for the unification
of mankind and the improvement of the social welfare,
the school stands first, and in consequence, the im­
portance of the stand to be taken by those who direct
public education and those who teach in the school can
hardly be overestimated. What our civilization will
be a quarter of a century hence, will depend very
largely upon the attitude assumed toward these new
questions of international relations by those who are
responsible for the direction of public education in
all lands and nations.22
The spread of the war after the 1915 meeting of the
National Education Association had a depressing effect on
the World Friendship movement, but did not smother it
In 1918 after American entrance into the war, the
United States Commissioner of Education called a conference
for the discussion of international understanding during the
meeting of the Department of Superintendence at Atlantic
The fact that the country was at war produced cn
conflicting ideas regarding the responsibility of teachers to
22 Ibid., p. 127.
teach international good will.
Consequently, little solid
contribution was made by this meeting-* though its very
calling acted as a sustaining influence upon the movement in
International understanding since the w a r .
Out of the
burden and suffering of the war came a great clamor for
cooperation and understanding in both the political and
educational fields.
At the Paris Peace Conference in 1919,
the United States Board of Education was represented, and
strove for the endorsement of an International Bureau of
lhis and other coordinated efforts were finally
successful, and later, in conduction with the formation of
the League of Nations, the Bureau was created*
Following the adjustments and projects immediately
surrounding the post-war treaties and other aftermath
conferences, international' cooperation went rapidly ahead.
At least in terms of meetings, resolutions, and good wishes,
the movement was thoroughly underway.
An important link in
this chain of progress was the World Conference on Education
held in San Francisco in 1935.
Similar to the National
Education Association conference at Oakland in 1915, this
meeting was attended by representatives of other nations in
order to
23 Ibid., p. 137.
afford opportunity for educators of various nations
to agree upon principles and plans for the promotion of
goodwill and mutual understanding which are universal in
their application^ and which can be adopted as a definite
program to be carried out in schools throughout the
In addition to the passing significant resolutions,
the San Francisco conference produced a concrete result in
the formation of the World Federation of Education Associ­
And in 1985 the first Biennial Conference of the
World Federation of National Education Associations met in
Edinburgh with its object "to secure international co­
operation in educational enterprises, to foster dissemenation
of information concerning progress on education in all its
forms among nations and peoples, to cultivate international
good will, and to promote the interests of peace throughout
the world.*25
*?he second meeting of the Federation was held
at Toronto in 1927.
To further develop international understanding in the
schools, a San Francisco philanthropist, Raphael Hermann, in
1925 offered twenty-five thousand dollars as a prize for the
best educational plan to increase international understanding.
Many outstanding educators participated in this contest which
was won by Dr. David Starr Jordan o f 'Stanford University with
24 Ibid.. p-. 128.
25 ibid.. p. 129.
a manuscript entitled A Plan of Education to Develop International Justice and Friendship.
This treatise was well
received by other educators as being particularly meritorious.
It contained chapters on the teaching of history and patriot­
ism, and a particularly thought provoking chapter on the
standing incentives to war.
Since 1927 the teaching of international understanding
has received greater impetus every year.
I n '1 9 2 6 *3usan M.
Dorsey, superintendent of schools in Los Angeles, appointed
a committee of fifteen to "plan ways of increasing inter­
national understanding and good will on the part of boys and
girls in the Los Angeles schools."
This committee, and
another appointed later published three world friendship
books which integrated the activities of the schools with
international understanding.
With the advent of the general curriculum revision
movement in the thirties, great strides were made in the
teaching of world friendship.
It is only necessary to pick
up a few social studies curricular outlines to realize ho?*
greatly the idea has been expanded to the present time.
Los Angeles, Boston, Denver, St. Paul, St. Louis, and a host
of other cities have made special courses of study on inter­
national understanding**^
26 ©are,
However no complete survey has
eit., pp. 3 1 5 - 3 1 6 i
been made on a nation-wide scale to determine just how the
schools in the country as a whole are handling the problem*
Begardless of just how far the movement has gone in
actual practice, there has lately been a flood of ideas from
competent educators on what should be done in the schools in
this respect, and any teacher interested in the subject will
not be at a loss for reasons or procedure for teaching if he
has access to a good professional library*'
The National
Society for the Study of Education, in its yearbook for 1937,
has accumulated a mass of materials on the philosophy and
practice of world friendship instruction which should serve
as a guide for anyone desiring such information,
The next
chapter will be largely concerned with these leading ideas.
Children today are born into a world in which two
problems must be solved or the people perish.
One is
the problem, of labour;
the other is the problem of
international relations.
The need for international understanding.
The above
quotation is representative of the feelings of a majority of
American educators in regard to the importance of solving the
problem of international relations.
Though the world as a
whole is far from-accepting any proposed solution of inter­
national difficulties, it is apparent from a survey of
contemporary investigations that thinking people almost
unanimously agree to the thesis that a cardinal objective of
modern civilization should be the development of a greater
understanding between peoples of the earth.^
The responsibility of education in the promotion of
^ Eileen Power, "The Teaching of History and World
Peace," The Evolution of World Peace (E. S. Martin, editor;
London: The Oxford University Press, 1921), p. 180.
Henry L. Smith and Leo M. Chamberlain, "An Analysis
of the Attitudes of American Educators and Others toward a
Program for ?/orld Friendship and Understanding," Bulletin of
the School of Education, Indiana University (Bloomington,
Indiana: Bureau of Cooperative Research, July, 1929),
pp. 39-40.
world friendship*
While acceptance of the idea of inter­
national cooperation is practically unanimous among educators
and others there exists some difference of opinion on the
question of whether or not the public schools can or should
assume the responsibility of nurturing the state of mind so
essential to international tolerance and sympathy.
difference of opinion, though existent, does not represent a
serious cleavage on the subject in the ranks of educators.
Particularly is this true among the leaders.
William C.
Bagley and Margaret Kiely^ in the course of an investigation
on international understanding published in the Thirty-gixth
Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education,
report that some educators, in answering a questionnaire on
the subject of teaching international understanding, stressed
the futility of achieving any appreciable result through the
public school program.
It is significant, however, that
this instance stands as the most notable disagreement with
the position that international cooperation can be aided by
the educative process in the lower schools.
The maximum
divergence among members of the teaching profession hinges
on the subject of how the desired objective can be achieved,
3 William C. Bagley and Margaret Kiely, ftThe
Preparation of Teachers,” Thirty-Sixth Yearbook of the
National Society for the Study of Education, Part II
(Bloomington, Illinois: Public School publishing Company,
1937), p. 295.
rather than whether it can be achieved through the public
In defense of the position that international eo^operation can be aided by the educative process in the
lower schools, an abundance of authoritative opinion is
found, both in and out of the ranks of educators.
G. Wells?
in a paper on peace circulated among the teachers of England,
urges all those who are responsible for the molding of public
opinion, to work toward the creation of a world state.
Mr'. Wells, however, goes further in his estimate of what
educative forces should try to do, than do others more
closely related to the public schools^by advocating the
practical dissolution of national political units, while
educators who have expressed any opinion at all on the
subject, voice strenuous opposition to the injection of
political considerations into programs for the production of
international understanding.5
Paul Monroe insists that international understanding
4 H. Gi Wells, "An Apology For a World Utopia," The
Evolution of World Peace (E. 8. Martin, editor; London: The
Oxford University Press, 1921), p. 178.
5 I* L. Kandel, "Intelligent Nationalism in the
Curriculum," Thirty-Sixth Yearbook of the National Society
for the Study of Education, Part Il”TBloomington, Illinois:
The Public School Publishing Company, 1937), p. 436.
can be most efficiently promoted if it is handled to strictly
produce understanding rather than political union.
The most
significant point in his position is that disarmament of the
mind is the prime essential of future i?orld betterment, and
he further insists that only through education can this
desired disarmament be established.
The answer is that disarmament of the mind depends
upon good will to all other people;
that this in turn
depends upon the understanding of other peoples— their
character, their situation, their ambitions, their
objectives, and their needs; ... It may be posited
further that all this can be obtained and established
only through the process of education.
Esther C-. Brunauer and Daniel A. Prescott? follow the
same thought further by accepting the thesis that the
fundamental objective of world friendship efforts is the
development of attitudes; that these attitudes can best be
acquired through education, and further; that the school has
a definite obligation to make this possibility a reality.
The methods by which these attitudes may be instilled
in the young will be treated later.
of outlining'
For the present purpose
the ideas of educators on the responsibility of
6 Paul Monroe, Nationalism, Patriotism, Informed
Citizenship and International Understanding,” Thirty-Sixth
Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education
(Bloomington, Illinois: The Public School Publishing
Company, 1937), p. 14.
? Esther C, Brunauer and Daniel A. Prescott, ”The
Development of International Attitudes,” Thirty-Sixth Year­
book of the National. Society for the Study of Education,
Part II (Bloomington, Illinois: The Public School Publishing
Company, 1937), p. 32.
education, further quotations from leaders in the field are
George E. Partridge says:
If internationalism has come to stay, it will need
and it must have powerful support from all educational
It will need something more than support;
education must produce creative habits of mind, which
shall make and nourish new relations in the world, a u d ­
it must make people intelligent, so that they can
understand what the new and larger relations mean and
what must be accomplished by them.©
Likewise placing emphasis on the development of
intelligent understanding by educative forces, Stephen Duggan9
feels that education can and should contribute to inter­
national understanding by bringing a realization of things as
they are, and not by sentimentality as has sometimes been
done in the past.
He gives strength to this position by
adding that education of the best sort is truth, and truth
leads to understanding in any field.
national understanding can best be served by portrayal of the
unaltered facts, and that is the true function of education*
k number of leaders in education not only believe
that the schools should be considered as one of the agencies
for good will, but are convinced that they are the predominant
agent in that respect.
Harold Bugg speaks for this group
8 George I. Partridge, The Psychology of Nations
(New York: The Macmillan Company, 1 9 1 9 ) pT 163.
9 Stephen Duggan, "Education the Means of International
Understanding," The Journal of the National Education
Association, 25:276, December, 1956.
when'he says:
Educational leaders in every country of the world are
coming to accept the dictum that organized education is
the only agency equipped for social regeneration, the
only agency that can possibly avert a world catastrophe.*1-0
In the same vein Constance Morley insists that, "educators
have a predominant part to play in the moulding of a new
world." 3 - A remarkably large number of educators hold this
view, apparently because of the amount of time children
spend in school, and the elastic nature of the curriculum in
regard to the possibilities of injecting ideas of world
Henry L. Smith,3*2 one of .the outstanding
exponents of good will instruction in the schools, and an
authority on methods of teaching international understanding
That world wide peaee and understanding must come
finally through the process of education seems to many
educators so obvious that there should be no need for
special arguments, apologies, or propaganda.
Another question of significance is the importance Of
international understanding in relation to the other objectives
Harold 0* Bugg, "Education and International Under­
standing," Progressive Education^ 8:294, April, 1931.
Constance Morley, "The Work of the International
Bureau of Education," School and Society, 29:283, March 2, 1929.
12 Henry L* Smith, "Immediate use of the schools in
Promoting International Understanding," Hew York State
Education, 25:528, April, 1938*
of public school curricula.
In regard to this problem,
educators emphasize the similarity of outcomes which are
generally expected from two or more courses of action.
teaching outcomes which are sought in a civic training eourse
are closely related to the results desired for instruction
in international understanding.
Good will toward others,
cooperation in mutual undertakings, and sympathetic under­
standing of the rights and needs of others, are the chief
outcomes expected in both cases.
George 3. Counts includes
them both in his general statement of the major purpose of
The great purpose of the public schools therefore
should be to prepare the coming generation to participate
actively and courageously in building a democratic
industrial society that will cooperate with other nations
in the exchange of goods, in the cultivation of the arts,
in the advancement of knowledge and thought, and in
maintaining the peace of the world. A less catholic
purpose would be certain, sooner or later, to lead the
world to disaster. 3
Charles A. Beard follows this train of thought when
he discusses the international nature of present day society.
It is not only in and through certain domestic
institutions political, economic, and social, that the
citizen lives and discharges his obligations. American ■
society operates on a world stage. Civic instruction
must reckon with that reality.
13 George s. Counts, The Social Foundations of
Education (New York: Gharles Scribner’s Sons, 193477 P* 544.
Charles A. Beard, A Charter for the social Studies
(New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, T9BIT), P»
Beard then outlines the function of education in
preparing America for her role on this world stage:
Social education cannot help a given society attain
its just ends unless it lays hare the structure of
international relations and emphasizes the importance
of the kind of national behavior essential to the
rational conduct of international affairs.
In other
words the domestic scene raust be firmly fitted into the
world scene.
This same authority further contends that the
integration of nations^ so invaluable to the peaceful
conduct of international relations* is a problem which by
the shape of things as they are, and by the law of the land,
becomes a direct obligation to the teachers of social
It would be possible
to quote
number of other educators in support
from a considerable
of the contention that
international good will education has a place in the school
program, and a very important place as well, but in view of
the fact that this section has been done to show general
trends rather than to constitute an exact scientific analysis
of all data available, and since practically no opposing
data are in evidence, the remainder of the chapter will be
concerned with questions of how this objective'of inter­
national understanding can best be achieved in the schools.
Ibid., p; 50.
16 ibid., Pi 52.
International understanding in the curriculum.
is considerable unanimity of opinion among the leaders in
education concerning the importance of international under­
standing as an objective of public education.
In regard to
the place understanding should occupy in the curriculum,
this agreement continues#
The two points of view which have
any measure of authoritative support are; that international
understanding deserves a special course in the secondary
school in which all facets of the problem should be brought
before the students, and'that international understanding
should be advanced through the regular course work from the
first grade through the twelfth.
There is so little support
for the former plan that it can hardly be listed as possessing
any following.
In support of a special course in international
relations S. H. Bailey^-7 in International Studies in Modern
Education lists tfa series of special lessons” during a
semester as one of the methods by which pupils can be lead
to a. sympathetic understanding of other peoples.
In the
same chapter * however, he .insists that the promotion of
international understanding can best be carried on, if
properly handled, through the media of existing subjects.**-8
1? S. Hi Bailey, International Studies in Blodern
Education (London: The Oxford University Press * 1938), p . 147.
18 Ibid.» p. 148.
Obviously this instance then, cannot be eonsidred as positive
support for special curses in international understanding
but only as the listing of a possible method.
Regardless of
general lack of support, separate courses have been used in
a number of schools, and consequently, must have been
considered workable by those who tried them.19
The very fact
that so many educators decry the use of special courses
seems to> indicate that someone, at sometime or other,
advocated their use, though this investigator has been unable
to find a .single such opinion in a survey of the literature
on the subject.
In opposition to separate courses in international
understanding and in favor of world' friendship through
existing subjects stand the great majority of writers and
teachers in the field.
Henry L. Smith and L. M, Chamberlain
in a study of the ideas of other educators on the teaching
of international understanding do not hold that special
courses are entirely useless but feel that other methods are
probably better.
While there is apparently some justification for a
special course dealing ?/ith world friendship and under­
standing, .the instruction will probably be more satis­
factory if, in the beginning, desireable material is
19 gdith E. Ware, editor, The Study of International
Relations in the Uni ted States (Hew York: Columbia University
Press, 1934J, p. 317.
presented in connection wi th the work in sub jects now
appearing in the curriculum of our schools, and more
particularly so if a manual or text is provided for the
guidance of the teacher.
And Bailey, who listed, the use of a separate course
in international understanding as possibly beneficial says:
There is almost universal agreement amongst the
teaching profession and educational authorities that any
teaching provided for should be given within the frame­
work of existing subjects and not as a separate subject.21
William G.
C a r r 22
agrees that internationalism should
be advanced through present courses, and more specifically
states that, since citizenship is an established objective
of all school work, this framework already in existence can
be used as a foundation for additional world friendship
He also feels that because of this objective the
social studies should be the heart of the curriculum.
That social studies, in the narrow use of the term,
can be the only carrier of international understanding in
the present school curriculum, is not found to be the opinion
of most educatorsi
The Thirty-Sixth Yearbook of the National
Society for the Study of Education, Part II, was published
for the purpose of showing the teachers of all subjects just
20 Smith and Chamberlain, o£. cit., p. 65.
21 Bailey, o p . cit., p. 145.
22 William G. Carr, Education for World Citizenship,
(Palo Alto, California: Stanford University press, 19285,
p. 9.
how each one in his particular field could use the material
at his command to promote international understanding.
subjects covered by this publication; mathematics, english,
history, geography, science, modern languages, the classics,
music, fine arts, and physical education practically complete
the curriculum of any given school.
And the treatment
accorded each subject by the expert assigned to it, is very
convincingly in favor of the ability of that subject to
convey worthwhile lessons in world friendship.
However, the
facts of international relations still remain in the social
studies, while the other subjects are mainly valuable as
vehicles of appreciation.
I. L. Kandel^S emphasizes the
importance of social studies in this respect by stating that
history, geography, civics, and economics are especially
adaptable to world friendship instruction, and can have more
direct meaning to this end than other subjects in the
curriculum, but as chairman of the committee for the
publication of the yearbook just mentioned, he says:
The thesis around which this yearbook has been
organized is that the development of international under­
standing, is the concern of every teacher of every
subject in every grade of the school, and that inter­
national understanding can only grow out of a proper
teaching of nationalism.24
Apparently, then, from preceding quotations on the
23 Kandel, o n . cit., p. 39
24 Ibid.. p. 39.
ideas of educators, the belief in the ability of existing
school courses to convey international understanding is
particularly strong among the leaders,
After placing
international understanding in the curriculum, however, it
is necessary to determine the main ideas and areas which
should be covered by the teacher in order to best promote the
attitudes and appreciations which are the rational outgrowth
of this understanding.
The content of international understanding instruction.
The content areas through which attitudes and proper
perspectives of other peoples may be developed are obviously
distributed over a wide range with the social studies in the
center of that range.
This latter suggestion regarding the
social studies is made with some authority because of the
apparent unanimity of opinion among those who have written,
or otherwise made public, their opinions in this respect.
JY T* Shotwell,25 in outlining the keys to understanding in
international relationships, contends that the two areas most
productive of benefits in understanding world interchange are
science and history.
First, science remakes human relations
25 j. t . Shotwell, ”International Understanding and
International Interdependence,” Thirty-Sixth Yearbook of the
national Society for the Study of Education, Part II
(Bloomington, Illinois: The Public School Publishing Company,
1937), pp. 4-5.
on a non-prejudiced basis and places no emphasis on color,
raee, or international position.
In turn the study of the
facts of science, such as the common heritage of mankind in
the evolutionary process* and the cooperative atmosphere in
which scientific knowledge has accumulated, serve to instill
a regard for the contributions of others, and to mitigate
previously acquired bias toward other peoples in the student’s
Secondly, history, by revealing that the dynamic
forces of science are conditioned by the past and by laying
out the facts surrounding the past interrelationships of
nations* leads to the de-emotionalization of international
contacts, and to the production of a sane fact-based outlook
on the present situation.
Consequently, Shotwell aptly
It follows, therefore, that the study of inter­
national relations must include a study of the nation’s
concerned, of their chief interests and characteristics
as revealed in their history, as well as of the specific
influences which bring them into contact.
Paul Monroe,**7 similarly feels that the content of the
school subject is especially important, and that the nature
of the material included should be. such that an understanding
of peoples--rttheir character, their situation, their
ambitions, their objectives, and their needs;” be achieved.28
26 Ibid., p. 5.
27 Monroe, 0£. cit.» pp. 14-15.
28 Ibid*, p. 14.
This quintuple objective can be served admirably in the
social sciences, as well as in literature study.
In general,
The present day curriculum should contain a vast
amount of material dealing with the* social, economic,
political, and cultural problems and characteristics
not only of our own people but also in a lesser degree
of various other peoples, so that a comprehensive,
intelligent, and sympathetic attitude toward other
peoples'may be developed in school children.29
To specifically implement his idea of desireable
content, Monroe advocates a course of study, "appropriate to
their stage of intellectual development," for all pupils in 4
all grades, dealing in detail with international problems,
international relations, and with the machinery developed by
mankind to better these relations and solve these problems.30
This proposed series of areas would necessarily include such
facts as:
The League of Nations, The Paris Pact, economic
rivalries, and many others in the nature of problems or
solutions to problem’s.
In addition to this type of content,
which is generally found in the social studies field, there
is considerable content in other fields, and particularly in
literature, which is adaptable to the promotion of inter­
national understanding.
Henry Neumann outlines the ways by ?<?hich it is possible
Ibid., p . 19.
30 Ibid., p. 20.
to use literature in the promotion of understanding.
In other wordsj the way to displace a less worthy
emotion is to supplant it by a higher one. Here
literature, properly taught, is eminently useful.
word itself-has an artificial sound. What it really,
deals with is human life in the light of its most
appealing possibilities*
Its chief subject matter is
people— men, women, children— and what they find good
and lovable, noble and admirable.
It comes out of the
heart and addresses itself to the heart.
Because it
is not literature unless it is beautiful, what it has
to say carries home with all the more power because of
its beauty.
It enriches our understanding by putting before us
living persons, individuals with names of their own,
and yet at the same time typical persons.
It makes us
see Holland in terms of the Hans Brinkers who dwell
there, China in the pages of Pearl Buck.31
The general character of the contribution which
literature may make by its stories and poems of other
peoples is fairly well understood by all, and it may be
argued with considerable justification that insofar as it
concerns other people— their aspirations, and cultural
leanings--it falls in the social studies field.
language content as well, by its illustration of the mode of
expression of others, contributes to international under-
Henry Neumann, "English Literature in the
Elementary School," Thirty-Sixth Yearbook of the National
Society for the study of Education, Part II (Bloomington,
Illinois; The Public School Publishing Company, 1S37),
p* 57,
standing in muck the same way that literature does by its
promotion of appreciation.
In concluding this section on the content of inter­
national understanding instruction, perhaps no more complete,
yet brief, statement has been made regarding that content,
than the one by Prescott, in giving the implications of his
'study on international understanding in.the schools of
Prescott says:
(a) This orientation of the individual in society
implies particularly giving him the awareness of the
major problems faced by society.
(b) It also implies giving him all available inform­
ation about possible solutions of these problems*33
The statement, "giving him all available information,"
may be considered by some to be too broad for use in
determining content, but since all statements given by
writers on the subject appear to be gerS?al, and since
practically all authorities agree on the superiority of the
informational-factual method over the vaguely emotional
approach, it is considered appropriate for the present purpose.
It is possible to see from this idea, and.from the preceding
ideas of other educators, that the content of international
understanding should consist of information on the lives,
character, ambitions, geographical situation, and cultural
33 Daniel k . Prescott * Education and International
Relations (Cambridge, Massachusetts,* Harvard University
Press, 1930), p. 1£7.
foundations of other peoples, and on the changes occasioned
by scientific progress and otherwise, which bring them into
friendly or frictional contact, as well as the ways by which
mankind the world over has attempted to adjust himself,
peaceably or by force, to conditions arising from inter­
national relationships*
There is no denying the importance of content and its
bearing on subsequent attitudes in children, but it is
readily conceivable that perfect subject matter, if such were
possible, could be presented in such a way as to destroy its
ultimate benefits*
In regard to the problem of how material
may best be presented, very little has been written in the
literature on international understanding.
Methods, techniques, and devices in the teaching of
international understanding.
In books, periodicals, and
bulletins much has been said about the necessity of using
proper methods in the formation of internationally cooperative
attitudes in the classroom, but on close analysis the greater
part of this material is so general as to be practically
meaningless to one interested in finding actual techniques
for personal use.
W. G-. Eiromel expresses this difficulty so
exactly that further elucidation is unnecessary.
A survey of the pedagogical literature dealing with
instruction in international affairs, and world peace
at the secondary-school level reveals a large amount of
general material couched usually in terms of wishfull-
fillment; it includes many hints as to the organization
of content., combined with few attempts to select and
organize that content in a systematic manner.
In all,
there is a paucity of suggestions concerning methods,
techniques, and devices. The courses of study, like. wise, furnish few suggestions.34
Kiramel attempts to remedy this lack of concrete
evidence in the matter of classroom procedures, by listing a
number of possible methods and devices drawn from his own
experiences and from the experiences of competent teachers.35
For a more or less regular type of classroom procedure, the
laboratory method involving the use of various books on
international affairs, the analysis and synthesis of these
materials with the aid of a teacher-prepared guidance out­
line to show relationships between facts, is recommended.
This method leaves ample room for variations in recitation
such as written reports * special oral reports, and general
socialized discussions of facts discovered through pupil
Plenty of time for recitation after the pupils have
gained a command of materials is considered essential.
order that pupils may present facts and figures in simplified
form, certain visual aids are particularly helpful.
preparation of charts> graphs, and pictograms, on comparative
34 W. G. Kimmel, "Social Studies in the Senior High
School," Thirty-sixth Yearbook of the National Society for the
Study of Education, P a r t I I (Bloomingtonj Illinois: The
Public School Publishing Company, 1957), p. 148.
35 i M i * .
p* 14 8 *
data of different countries is considered necessary for the
manageable presentation of salient facts, and in addition
provides interest and variety to pupil research,
pamphletsj and m a g a z i n e s a r e ideal sources for such visual
The ability to master techniques for the inter­
pretation of this type of data is an essential skill in the
social studies.
Maps of various sorts also lend themselves
readily to visual portrayal of facts, and to the clarifications
of comparative geographical features of different countries.
The uses to which maps raay be put vary greatly with the
maturity of the group and the resourcefulness of the
Aside from classroom procedures, there are the socalled extra-curricular activities which can do much to
promote international good will if properly motivated and
Chief among these are clubs and leagues of various
International relations clubs, league of nations
assemblies, world friendship leagues, and organizations of an
international nature such as Boy Scoutsj Girl Scouts, and the
Junior Red Cross.
In addition to these organizations, the
international essay contests sponsored in the schools by
international organizations act frequently to popularize
good will information in the schools participating*
36 Ibid., pi 149.
programs are also highly regarded as a means of good ?/ill
Brunauer and Prescott^Q offer some additional methods
of aiding international understanding in the schools; namely,
the use of foreign children present in the classroom to
furnish international contacts for those not of foreign
extraction, and the encouragement of pupils to read fiction
about the lives and customs of other peoples.
The importance of the teacher in international under­
Because of the general agreement among all people
engaged in anyway with the conduct of public education on
the question of the teacher’s importance in the pursuit of
all educational objectives, it is hardly illuminating to
bring forth additional evidence to support that agreement.
The teaching of international understanding, however, is
comparatively young in the educational scheme, and the
question of the preparation of teachers in this field is a
live one.
Practically all experts who have v/ritten any- ‘
thing on international understanding give a number of opinions
on other parts of the problem, and come to the conclusion
that all other efforts are vain if the teacher is not
3? Ibid., ppi 150-52.
38 Brunauer and Prescott, 0£. cit., p. 30.
prepared, or is not inclined to properly present the subject*
In emphasizing the importance of the teacher in the
promotion of world friendship Bailey says:
It is generally agreed that while the content of the
curriculum and the nature of the materials are of great
importance, the teacher is in a position to be the last
resort the dominating influence in the practice of
Paul Monroe, in discussing the extent to which inter­
national understanding can be promoted through the teaching
of nationalism, patriotism, and informed citizenship,
concluded as follows:
The answer is that there are two factors involved in
the development of these attitudes on the part of
children* The first is that of the content
subject; the second, that of attitudes and character of
the teacher.40
&ny discussion of the relative importance of the
teacher in contrast with subject matter, is largely futile
because of the interdependent nature of their relationship.
Howeveri that both teacher and subject or content are
indivisible, does not alter the position of the teacher with
respect to the success of international understanding in the
Nor does excellence of material form a guarantee of
even minimum resultsj unless the type of usage which that
material recieves is sufficient to secure the promotion of
Bailey, op . cit., p. 133.
4° Paul Monroe, on. ci-t., p. 18.
attitudes toward international cooperation*
smith and
.Chamberlain give this idea authoritative support in their
'study of the attitudes of educators on international under.standing.'
Authorities questioned in the study agreed to the
following thesis:
If children are to receive such instruction as will
make them a part of a generation possessed of an inter­
national conscience and an international morality, they
must be guided by teachers as ably trained in the command
of these concepts as the best efforts of our teacher
training institutions can produce*41
If teachers should be trained for the teaching of
international understanding, as many educators believe, the
significance of determining the nature of that training is
The following section gives a summary of leading
ideas on the training of teachers in world friendship concepts.
The training of teachers in international understand­
The problem of teacher training for the promotion of
international understanding resolves itself into two main
The question of whether this training can be
accomplished by regular general cultural courses in.teacher
training institutions, or whether special courses of an
intensive nature in international relations must be given to
assure adequate preparation for subsequent teaching, consti­
tute the two viewpoints*
The two most widely known studies
Smith and Chamberlain* op. cit., p. 40.
which have attempted to sound out professional opinion on
international understanding are those by Smith and Chamberlain,,
and Bagley and Eiely.
cited in this study.
Both of these have been previously
In the former study we find the
educators, whose opinions were solicited, in positive agree_
ment on the proposition of whether or not teachers should
have some sort of training for international understanding
before being released for active professional
inspection, this proves to contain no specific stipulation
for methods of securing proper training.
The study by
Bagley and Eiely, however, contains numerous specific methods
for assuring international attitudes, and an understanding of
international affairs, on the part of prospective teachers.
The opinions which Bagley and Eiely received were in
reply to an inquiry sent to two hundred and fifty-six teacher
training institutions with the purpose of finding opinions
on, and practices in, the preparation of teachers in inter­
national understanding.
To properly analyze the results, a
portion of the inquiry is quoted, as follows:
1* Has your school or college given explicit and
or official recognition to an understanding and apprec­
iation of international relationships as part of the
equipment of the prospective public-school teacher?
so, in what way,
What is your opinion regarding the desirability
of such a study.
42 Ibid., p. 40.
If any member (or members) of your staff*
especially in the social studies, base (or have) con­
victions regarding this problem* will he or she or they
be good enough to write to me.4^
In reply to these last two questions a number of
opinions of significance to the present study ?/ere received.
Their importance lies in their bearing on the advisability
of giving special, or direct, courses on international under­
A few advocate this type of procedure, while the
majority reveal a preference for the more indirect type of
instruction as given in the fields of geography, comparative
education, history, socialogy, and the social studies in
g e n e r a l . I n regard to direct instruction, one college
dean of education says:
I believe an understanding of international relation­
ships is an essential part of a teacher’s preparation.
The more directly it is given, the greater is the danger
that it will degenerate into a form of propaganda.45
From a teacher’s college president comes a similar
It is my judgement that this problem should not be
handled as a separate course in our curriculum, but that
emphasis should be given upon it in connection with all
courses whenever it can be done without seeming to drag
the topic into a classroom discussion.46
Bagley and Kiely, 0£. cit., pp* 293-94.
Ibid i. p.
45 Ibid.j pi 295.
p. 297.
The greatest number of replies received were of the
same gerfral opinion regarding direct instruction*
investigators observed that this skepticism "regarding the
influence of formal courses in anything that approaches a
modification of conduct expresses faithfully enough some of
the basic tenets of educational theory.”47-
Their conclusions
on what should be done in teacher preparation for inter­
national understanding are particularly significant in that
they emphasize;
1* The basic importance of the institutional spirit,
which should reflect the basic ideals of sound scholar­
ship and scholarly tolerance.
2. That colleges preparing teachers provide rich
courses in geography suited to the abilities and interests
of students on the collegiate and university levels.
3, That such colleges require at least one course in
comparative education that would be in effect a course
in comparative cultures.
4* That in elective programs courses in comparative
literature be provided *
5. That in an appropriate course the latest findings
of scientific investigation regarding racial differences
be reported.
6. That in an appropriate course typical methods of
propaganda be concretely illustrated, such, for example,as were practiced in the World War*
7. That the materials in these and other courses be
made the subjects of discussion and evaluation in study
and discussion g r o u p s . 48
4? Ibid., p. 301.
48 ibid.. pp. 301-02
k general summation of the ideas of a majority of our
educators and the problem of education for international
understanding reveals, that, according to them, our plan of
action should do 'the'following things; (1) recognize the
real responsibility of education in regard to international
(2) include provision for international
understanding in all courses, particularly in the social
studies group, and not in a single direct course, (3) provide
a large amount of information on other lands and peoples with
particular emphasis on the problems generated in the inter­
national environment,
(4) make use of certain procedures and
devices of proven merit, such as, the laboratory method of
research, the reading of appropriate fiction, the various
visual aids, and the proper use of extra-curricular activities,
(5) recognize that the teacher can make or break any program
in the schools,
(6) include in the teacher training program,
definite courses in comparative education, geography, and
inter-racial relationships*
Since the primary object of this entire study has been
to determine the extent to which educational practices in the
state of Texas coincide with the ideas of educators in the
field of international understanding, the next chapter will
consist of varied da'ta concerning the status of world
friendship instruction in that area.
The gap between leading ideas and
common practice is generally of considerable width in any
The gauging of that width in a given area assumes
some importance in relation to the problem of determining
the adequacy of practices in the same area.
Chapter III
consisted largely of a delineation of the theory of ?;orld
friendship instructioni as seen by those educators who have
been active through research and teaching, in the field of
international understanding.
The present chapter is an
attempt to portray, by the presentation of sufficient data,
a cross section of practices used in the social studies
division of the secondary schools ©f Texas to promote inter­
national understanding;
The chief agent through which data
were accumulated was a questionnaire sent to one hundred
social studies teachers in widely-separated schools over the
Further data were gathered through an examination
of the main texts used, and of the state course of study for
the social studies.
1 Questionnaire and names of schools in Appendix,
pp. 130-33.
International understanding in the curriculum.
section of the inquiry blank on which*this part of the study
depends was composed of questions designed to answer two
more basic questions:
Namely, do Texas schools in general
make purposeful provision for international understanding
through the social studies?
And, in cases where such
provision is made, what is the nature of the plan through
which the desired state of mind on the part of the pupil is
to be achieved?
To determine the answer to the first of
these questions it was necessary to gather information about
the last question, because of the direct interdependence of
the two*
The existence of plans for world friendship
instruction in a given school as checked on the question blank
was assumed to mean that the school in question had a specific
program for international understanding, even though the
listed plan might have been inadequate for the intended
purpose i
The possible channels through which specific plans
for international understanding might operate were considered
likely to be among the following:
(1) A written course of
study for the individual school, (2) the use of the state
course of study , (3) the use of a basic text.
It was assumed
that the same school might easily use more than one of these
general outlines*
For example, the local course of study
may be constructed with the state course of study as a base,
while the actual classroom work is carried on with only one
book as material. , It was conceivable, then, that a teacher,
who checked all three of the above items on the question
blank may possibly have taught international understanding
only as it appeared in the text which was issued to the
students in his classes.
This overlapping of general
just as anticipated, appeared in the questionnaire
returns, but since it was also possible for a given school
to use one plan to the exclusion of the others, all of the
plans were listed.
Table I clearly illustrates the extent to which over­
lapping of usages occurred.
Twenty, or 37 per cent of the
schools followed a :course of study of their own making;
thirty-one, or 49 per cent, followed the state course of
study; and fifty-one, or 81 per cent, answered that they
usually followed the texts provided by their schools *
there were only sixty-three schools involved in the study,
while 102 positive answers were received, it appears that
the schools on the average used more than one plan to the
The overwhelming number of teachers who admittedly;
lean heavily on one text; makes reasonable the assumption
that a majority of the social studies teachers in Texas do
not follow the courses of study provided by their respective
Schools using
each plan
Per cent
of total
using each
Follow own course of study
Follow state course of study
Follow basic text
International Understanding
a recognized objective
schools or by the State Department of Education, except in­
sofar as the ideas outlined in those courses of study
coincide with the material contained in. the texts which have
been issued-to their classes,
A study of these texts has
been reserved for another part of this chapter.
At present
the question of whether or not the schools in the study
openly recognize international understanding as one of the
major objectives of the social studies, regardless of ho?/ the
curriculum is organized, is an important one.
It was assumed that only those schools having a
written course of study of their own or else using some
other course of study such as the one provided by the state,
would have ample means of giving international understanding
a recognized status.
Those schools not possessing any
particular agency for the organization of the social studies
work could hardly be listed as more than incidental
supporters of any given objective, and furthermore, it is
quite reasonable to suppose that, lacking organization of
any other nature,
the teachers of such schools rely heavily
on the class text as an outline for their teaching effort.■■
One very significant fact shown by the figures in Table I is
the apparent close relationship between the number of schools
which have a locally provided course of study and the number
which recognize international understanding as a major
objective of the social studies.
The 32 per cent of the
schools which have their own courses of study closely
approximates the one-third which specifically recognize the
importance of international understanding in the curriculum,
and the school-by-school tabulation from which Table I was ■
assembled bears out this proximity with the same degree of
On the other hand the eighty-one per cent of
teachers who rely on the textbook indicates that at least
a third of the teachers in schools where a written course
of study is provided, use their class textbook as a determi­
ning factor curriculum organization.
Thus it would seem
that less than a third of the corresponding schools really
recognize the importance of international understanding in
a manner sufficient to insure proper treatment of the
There are factors other than stated objectives*
however, which operate negatively or positively upon the
actual unfolding of the curriculum.
Begardless of the foundational method of curricular
organization, whether through a course of study, or through
a basic text, there are certain divisions into which either
one may be separated*
In regard to the instruction of
international understanding* these divisions of curricular
organization could be the following:
Separate courses in international relations.
Special units of an internation nature*
The integration of internationalism with all of
the social studies work,
Courses considered especially adaptable to ideas
of world friendship such as world history or civics.
It is possible for a school to use more than one of these
methods at the same time;
The figures in Table II indicate the same duplication
of method that was found in Table I.
The sixty-three
schools show acceptance of one hundred seventy-two usages,
which averages 2*7 (two and seven tenths) methods for each
Of the possible methods which ?/ere listed in Table II,
the separate course in international affairs was the least
Hot one school, out of the sixty-three which were
questioned, found it advisable to include such a course in
their social studies'curriculum.
The reason for this
wholesale rejection of a separate course in internationalism
could be attributed to a number of things*
A shortage of
teachers, an antipathy to special courses on the part of
administrative heads, or the belief that the objectives of
such a course could best be served by existing subjects, are
all factors which may have operated against special courses.
The other methods of curricular practice fared much better
in the questionnaire returns.
The use of special units on internationalism was found
to be the practice in thirty-five of the sixty-three schools.
Number of schools
using each plan
Per cent of
total using
' Q
Special units
With World History
With National Civics
Separate course
The so-called integrated course with international under­
standing woven into, and all through, the social studies
work found adherents in thirty-eight schools, but of these
thirty-eight, thirty-three had also checked separate units
as a practice in the schools*
This leads to the conclusion
that the use of these two methods are closely related in
situations inhere either is found to be employed.
relation seems to imply either a misconception of the term,
integration, or else a misunderstanding of the questionnaire.
For the very process of separating internationalism into
isolated units is a practice in direct opposition to the
accepted meaning of integration.
The schools for which the
integrated procedure was checked, would naturally teach
international understanding in connection with all of the
social studies courses, providing that their understanding
of integrated procedure be adequate.
This expected inter­
relation between the integrated course and the two specific
social science subjects listed at the bottom of Table II,
was duly borne out by the returns.
Not all of the schools teaching world friendship
through either world history or national civics used the
integrated plan,, as the figures in Table II show, but all of
those using integration as a general method, cheeked the
teaching of world friendship through both world history and
The object of including this apparent duplication
in the inquiry blank was to determine the number of schools
whose only effort in behalf of international understanding
amounted to incidental treatment in connection with courses
especially adaptable to world affairs.
World history would
naturally be considered a course of this type, and the
returns as listed show that it is used for the promotion of
world friendship more than any other course.
civics, on the other hand, while not generally regarded as
particularly adaptable to world friendship instruction,
ranks next to world history in actual school practice*
usage of civics as a base for international understanding
suggests a radical departure from the original concept of
that subject as strictly a vehicle for facts about American
federal government.
That there are other courses in
secondary social studies which may easily convey inter­
national attitudes is obvious.
In order to determine the breadth of the curriculum
in terms of subjects especially adaptable to the inculcation
of international viewpoints, a part of the curriculum
section of the inquiry gave opportunity for the correspondents
to list all of the social studies courses offered in their
Table III is a composite tabulation of the courses
as listed*
From a glimpse at this table it becomes immediately
apparent that the three courses, ameriean history, civics,
Community civics
American history
Ancient history
Modern history
World history
Texas history
Civics (advanced)
Economic geography
and world history dominate the soGial studies curriculum in
the schools from which the'returns were gathered.
extensive use of American history and national civics is
explained- by the fact that a state law requires the teaching
of these two subjects in the secondary school.
The former
subject is not generally considered to be as adaptable to
world friendship instruction as the latter, because of the
innumerable international comparisons made possible by the
nature of any civics course.
World history., the third leading
social studies subject, and the second in frequency of usage,
is particularly helpful in the teaching of internationalism,
and the large number of schools offering the course in the
ninth and tenth grades suggests that ample opportunity is
provided for world friendship instruction in these grades,
whether or not the possibilities are realized in actual out­
comes .
Other courses which offer considerable foundation for
building world friendship attitudes are not so well represented
in Table III.
Economics, economic geography, and sociology
are used by only ten, one, and six schools respectively *
Since these three courses are highly regarded as carriers of
internationalism, their infrequent use in the curriculum is a
significant factor with respect to determining the adequacy
of the program for international understanding in the schools#
The possibilities for sympathetic understanding
contained in occupations, ancient history, and Texas history,
are not great.
This statement, of course,‘does not apply to
modern history which generally parallels world history in
material and emphasis.
However * the statement that the
courses have no meaning in the teaching of internationalism
is not intended.
Any, and all courses, particularly in the
social studies, may, in a measure, promote understanding of
other nations.
In summary, the extent to which the cumulative
curricula of the schools in this study make allowance for
the generation of international understanding as an outcome
of secondary social studies can be judged by the usages
observed in the discussion up to this point.
one-third of the schools officially recognize international
understanding as a major objective of the social studies
Slightly less than a third of the schools have
a written course of study.
Nearly 81 per cent lean
heavily on a basic text for outline of work and material.
The large majority of the schools use world history and
civics as the chief vehicles for international understanding.
Special courses on internationalism are not used in any
of the schools, and the purpose of such a course is served
instead by special units and by the integration of world
friendship with existing social studies courses.
history, civics, and American history dominate the social
studies curriculum,
A number of courses especially
adaptable to world friendship objectives are used little, or
not at all.
In addition to these points, it may be added that a
general characteristic of the questionnaire returns as seen
in Tables I and II, reveal a duplication of methods regarding
courses of study usage, and curricular organization in
This duplication is also paradoxical in a great
number of the schools *
For example, fifty-one schools claim
to follow either their own or the state course of study, then
the same number insist that their teachers depend on the class
texts for organization and material.
While a study of curricular organizations is a major
point in determining the extent to which a given number of
schools recognize a certain objective, no real idea of the
scope of such an objective in actual process of fulfillment
can be established without some investigation into the content
through which the desired outcomes are realized.
The content of international understending.
The form
and scope of the content portion of the investigation leaves
much to be desired, but in view of the limitations of the
questionnaire method of gathering data a more inclusive type
of inquiry was not considered practicable.
The type of
information which would be the most productive of results with
respect to content, would actually require the submission of
complete course outlines for all the social studies work by
the schools under investigation*
In order to determine the
scope of content regarding international understanding without
resorting to such involved procedure, definite areas contain­
ing material adaptable to the promotion of international
attitudes were listed on the inquiry blanks sent to the
schools, and the teachers were requested to cheek those areas
which received treatment in their classes at some time during
the semester*2
The weakness of this approach lay in the faet
that the breadth of treatment and the amount of time accorded
to each area, could hardly be given by the correspondents
without considerable explanation; thus}leaving the adequacy
of coverage an open question*
Therefore, the results
obtained under the limitations cited, have been used to
ascertain the fullness of the content as judged by the
number of topics touched upon, and not by the quality or
length of treatment given*
In Table IY the frequency with
which the selected topics were used in the sixty-three schools
investigated, are given. •
The first area, how the world uses its productive
resources, was touched upon by fewer teachers than any of
the others listed.
But even so, the percentage of use is
2 See sample form in Appendix,
pp. 131-32.
quite high in comparison with an 88 per cent average use for
all of the topics*
That a lower percentage of schools touch
upon this topic, is possibly due to the fact that it is a
subject generally related to geography*
Because of the
compartmental subject organization evident in Table III,
such an area is less likely to be touched upon than many of
the others*
The third topic in Table IT 'was almost unanimously
included in the social studies courses of the schools.
one school, out of the sixty-three, failed to check its use*
This area* how nations are interdependent economically, is
obviously an important one in the teaching of international
understanding, and the fact that it is so widely treated in
the schools evidences some possibility that world friendship
attitudes are being taken into account.
The remainder of the topics come in between the first
and third areas with rates of usage ranging from 84 per cent
to 95 per cent.
These comparatively high percentages of use
are surprising, in view of the returns on other sections of
the inquiry.
But, while the utilization of such favorable
topics for world friendship is encouraging, no conclusions
regarding adequacy can be drawn from the data as it stands*
The data in Table IV does show, however, that there
is ample room for effective presentation of ideas on world
friendship within the scope of the content material on
How the world uses its resources
How problems arise in exchange of goods
How nations are economically interdependent
Working and living conditions elsewhere ■
Past examples of international cooperation
Evils of international disharmony
How we have profited frcm others
The effects of World War I on United States
How science has brought the world together
How geography affects the lives of nations
Number of schools
covering each area
Per cent of
total using
Average per cent of use 88.4
which the schools profess to treat, and that if the teachers
within the schools are equipped and inclined to properly
cover the content which is available to them in their text­
books and courses of study, outcomes favorable to the
objectives of world friendship education may be expected.
On the other hand, one weakness regarding content, which
becomes apparent upon examining Table IV is this:
If all
of the areas in the table were treated fully by a single
teacher in a single course * little time would be left for
other types of subject matter.
Since the majority of the
teachers did check all of the areas on the list, we may
reasonably hold that the presentation, of at least some of
them, might have been sketchy and incomplete.
Before the
completeness of international understanding areas can be
estimated with any degree of confidence * however, another
very important factor must be taken into consideration.
world is made up of nations, and international understanding,
be its very name, suggests the understanding of other nations
their customs, traditions, geography, history, culture, and
their national aspirations.
The areas listed in Table IV
are abstractions, and it is only when the various aspects of
living nations are woven through them that these abstractions
are likely to assume shapes which are meaningful in terms of
international understandings.
In order to gather data sufficient to establish some
idea of the number of nations touched upon by social studies
teachers of the schools in the study, a portion of the inquiry
blank contained the names of twenty nations, or geographically
related areas, with instructions for the teacher in receipt
of the inquiry to mark plus for fairly full treatment of a
given nation or area, minus for sketchy or partial treatment,
and zero for no treatment.
Of necessity * the degree of
coverage, in each instance, was left to the judgement of the
individual teacher.
The results of this effort are shown
in Table V.
One of the most significant things revealed in column
two of Table V is the comparatively few cases in which nations
are fully covered in the social studies program.
possible treatments of the different nations total 1,265.
The 278 times that any of the nations are covered fully is
less than one-fourth of that total.
This situation seems to
suggest that the majority of the schools in the study mainly
touch upon the lives of other nations in a casual and sketchy
Furthermore, a glance at column three strongly supports
this observation.
We see there.that 775 of the countries
are only touched upon, and not fully treated.
This figure
constitutes 61 per cent of the possible total, and strongly
indicates that a general practice in secondary social studies
courses of the schools under investigation, is to give the
student a brief and incomplete picture of the countries
Nations and
Low countries
Near East
British Dominions
Central America
South America
trea tment
included in his work.
On the other hand* several countries are well treated
in comparison with the others.
In column two- of Table V
we see that England, France, and Germany, get a third of all
the full coverages listed*
Russia and Italy round out the
first five countries in this column.
With the exception of
Russia, whose presence in this group is distinctly surprising,
the heavy treatment accorded these leading countries show
the continuation of a practice long decried by leading
social studies workers; the consideration of those nations
which have been active in military matters or in the
establishment of empires, and the slighting of smaller, or
supposedly less consequential nations.
In the group of nations which have been too briefly
treated in regard to their relative importance to us, we
find Canada, Mexico, and the Central and South American
Since the schools in the investigation are all
Texas schools, and since a large part of the commerce of
central United States with Central and South America goes
over Texas borders, or out of Texas ports, this lack of full
consideration for these countries assumes some degree of
But perhaps the worst point revealed in Table ¥,
in view of Texas geographic position, is the light study of
Out of sixty-three schools, only fourteen give a
complete study of Mexico, while forty-nine teach little or
nothing about her.
Other nations of importance, such as
Japan and China, are too lightly covered, in view of the
importance of their relations with the United States.
of the sixty-three schools give little or no information on
China, while Japan is given the same incomplete treatment by
forty-nine schools *
One encouraging sign revealed by Table Y is that,
with the exception of the ocean islands (Oceania), all of
the countries are treated in some manner, much more frequently
than they are totally disregarded.
On the whole, however,
the tabulation indicates that the majority of the schools
give only fragmentary information about most of the nations
of the world.
\¥hen the data contained in Table Y are combined with
the practices revealed in Table IY, a significant fact
Though Table IY indicates that a number of subject-
matter areas helpful to international understanding are
covered by the schools in the investigation, the revelations
of Table Y bring out the probability that the sketchy
coverage which the great majority of nations receive, may
not vitalize the subject areas to the extent that is
necessary if sympathetic understandings are to be produced.
Thus, in summing up the investigation regarding content in
the international understanding field, it may be said that
the schools involved in the inquiry cover a number of
subject-matter areas concerning world friendship, and cover,
in a general way, a great number of the nations of the
The benefit of content material involved in the study
of other nations depends in some measure on the methods,
techniques, and devices by which it is presented to the
Therefore, the determining of methods of work,
visual aids, and motivating devices used by the teacher in
the development of international understandings, was held
by the investigator to be pertinent to the purposes of the
Methods * .techniques, and devices.
The purpose of
determining the most common practices in the presentation
of world friendship material, was to form some basis for
judgement regarding the adequacy of these practices in terms
of usages held to be good by experts in the social studies
The questionnaire blank listed some commonly used
ways of presenting content * some methods outlined in the
Thirty-Sixth Yearbook of the National Society for the Study
of Education, some common and less common visual aids, and
certain specific devices for motivating international under,standing gathered from a number of sources and constituting
the most informed opinion available.
The results from this
section of the inquiry are seen in Table VI.
According to the data in Table VI the most common
method of recitation is oral recitation on facts following
either a course of study or a basic text.
three schools use this method.
All of the sixty-
The unanimity of usage in
this respect is not surprising, neither does it furnish
basis for judgement by itself.
An important factor
preceding recitation, is the question of how the facts
involved in the recitation are gotten by the student.
Eighty-seven per cent of the teachers corresponding,
ask their students to gather materials from books other
than the basic text, and 68 per cent set up problems and
have the students try to solve them on their own initiative
through reading outside materials.
Since both of these per­
centages are well over half the total correspondents, it
appears safe to assume that supplementary reading, and
problem development, with due regard for pupil initiative,
are common practices in the majority of the schools.
Another practice found in the social studies classes
of the schools is the use of current happenings as found in
the newspapers, or elsewhere, as a basis for discussion.
Only eight teachers out of the total sixty-three regard
current events as not useful, while fifty-five use current
events daily, thirty-three do so weekly, and three have no
set time, but bring in current happenings at appropriate
times during classes.
Methods or procedures
Oral recitations on course of study
Oral recitations on text material
Supplementary reading
Problem development through reading
Current events
Map construction
Slides on different countries
Motion pictures
Charts, graphs, pictograms
Reading of historical fiction
Dramatizing International events
Making use of foreign children
Number of
schools using
each method
Per cent
In addition to methods whieh are used with great
regularity, and which form the core of procedure, there are
certain aids which serve to vitalize or clarify the content
material in the mind of the student.
Maps, charts, graphs,
pietograms, movies, and slides, are the main aids generally
placed in this category.
Table VI shows that 7 6 per cent
of the teachers answering the inquiry have their students
make maps of various countries.
Only II per cent use slides
on other nations, while 56 per cent use educational motion
pictures to give their students some understanding of other
Charts, graphs, and pietograms, which are all very
similar, are used by nearly 54 per cent.
411 of these
figures together leave the impression that many of the
teachers are alive to the benefits of visual aids, but the
percentage of use of all the aids combined is more than half
of the situations under inquiry.
This figure may partly be
ascribed to lack of equipment, since the two least used
visual aids, motion pictures, and slides, entail considerable
In addition to the strictly visual aids,
there are
other motivating factors which may be used to enliven daily
The reading of historical fiction, and in this
study historical fiction which emphasizes international
understanding, is a widely accepted means of gaining interest
pursuant to the establishment of suitable international
Fifty-three, or 84 per cent, of the teachers
questioned assign or encourage reading of this type, aside
from the regular class text.
Another well known motivating
agent in social studies procedure is the dramatization of
events by class members*
Only eleven of the sixty-three
teachers checked this type of usage.
The last motivating
practice mentioned in Table VI, the using of foreign children
in the class to produce interracial sympathy, is a type of
procedure which can be used only in certain localities.
Many of the teachers, in reference to this device, wrote
that they had no foreign children in their classes, and of
the nineteen who answered in the affirmative, seventeen were
teachers from schools in the vicinity of the Mexican border.
G-eography thus played .some part in the emphases of class­
room procedure.
In drawing together the high points regarding methods,
procedures, or devices eraplyed by teachers in the sixtythree schools answering the inquiry, several things stand
Oral recitation on pupil knowledge of historical
facts in a unanimous practice.
The gathering of
materials by supplementary reading is the practice in nearly
nine-tenths of the cases.
Discussion of international
current events is a majority practice*
Yisual aids
such as the making of maps, charts, graphs, and pictogramsi
all of which involve no great expense, are widely used*
The reading of historical fiction is a more frequently
used motivating device than the dramatization of inter­
national events, and the using of foreign children in the
classroom as concrete experience for the other pupils*
Closely related to classroom devices for presenting
experiences contributory to the formation of desireable
international attitudes are those activities commonly placed
in the extra-curricular group*
Extra-curricular activities,
Many 'activities used
in the schools under the title of extra-curricular activities
are branches of national organizations, or are sponsored by
organizations which are national in scope,
None of these
organizations having outside affiliation are greatly used
in the Texas schools*
The League of Nations assemblies
sponsored by the League of Nations, Bivision of Intercourse
and Education, are found in only three schools*
friendship leagues, sponsored by the World Peace Foundation
are used in two schools, and International Relations clubs,
sponsored by the Carnegie Foundation appear in four schools.
Thus, only nine schools take advantage of the opportunities
afforded by outside organizations for the promotion of inter­
national understanding*
The essay contests on phases of
international relations sponsored yearly by the American
School Peace League, had thirteen participants among the
International Relations Club
Foreign Language Clubs
Assembly programs
League of nations assembly
?/orld Friendship League
Inter-pupil correspondence
International Essay Contests
Junior Red Cross
Number of
schools using
Per cent of
using each
Related to activities sponsored by organizations
with definite objectives of world peace and internationalism,
is the junior Red Cross, which springs from the main Red
Cross organization, and carries on a program for inter­
national understanding in connection with its other work.
Five of the schools participate in the work of this
organization as an extra-curricular activity.
Out of a total of 130 activities listed in fable VII,
102 or 78 per cent, ?/ere activities growing out of the
regular school program.
Thirty-three, or 52 per cent of the
schools, had foreign language clubs dedicated largelj?- to the
understanding of the people using the language studies.
Thirty-seven, or 59 per cent of the schools, used the
assembly period, at some time during the year to promote
international neighborliness.
And thirty-three, or 52 per
cent of the schools, encouraged pupils in the social studies
classes to correspond with pupils of other countries.
A significant point regarding extra-eurricular
activities could not be shown in Table VII, but the result
of the questionnaire on a school by school basis clearly
indicates that the schools which make provision for inter­
national understanding in their extra-curricular program,
use more than one activity for this purpose.
Of the entire
130 activities listed, thirty-five schools were responsible
for 119, leaving only eleven activities to be distributed
among the twenty-eight remaining schools.
Of these twenty-
eight schools, twenty-two made no provision whatsoever for
international understanding in their extra-curricular
The remaining six schools, with the exception of
one, had two activities each.
This condition leads to the
assumption that those schools which support world friendship
through extra-curricular activities do so on a wide scale,
while the schools which are lagging in this respect do
nothing at all.
The status of international understanding
in the extra-curricular activities of the schools, then,
seems to be clear.
Fifty-five per cent of thirty-five
schools conduct three activities per school.
Five schools,
or 8 per cent, conduct two activities per school.
school, or nearly 2 per cent, conducts one activity.
one, or 33 per cent of the schools, have no provision for
internationalism in their extra-curricular -program.
The success of both the extra-curricular, and the
curricular programs, depends in a large measure upon the
quality of understanding possessed by the respective
teachers i¥ho have them in charge.
Thus, in order to better
establish the status of world friendship education in the
schools which were kind enough to answer the inquiry, a
section on the various aspects of teacher preparation was
Teacher preparation for international understanding.
The attempt to determine the amount and nature of teacher
preparation in the social studies field in general, and in
v/orld friendship background in particular, was considered to
be a question of determining total semester hours in the
social studies, with a further breakdown of these hours into
course material specificalljr related to the establishment
of international attitudes on the part of the teacher.
addition to questions on curricular preparation, inquiry
concerning outside activities pertaining to international
relations was included in the questionnaire.
The purpose
of this inquiry was to gauge, in a measure, the interest of
the teacher in international affairs during his under­
graduate years.
In regard to the total number of semester hours in
college social studies, the teachers in the study rated
quite high.
The range in hours per teacher was rather wide*
The lo?/est teacher had twenty-four hours, while the highest,
in number of hours, had ninety-two hours.
Altogether, the
sixty-three teachers presented a grand total of 2,871
semester hours in the social studies.
This total averages
forty-five hours per teacher, which in view of the twentyfour hours required for an undergraduate major, is unusual.
The breakdown of the total number of hours into
courses particularly applicable to an understanding of
Semester hours
of all
hours per
Contemporary European History
International La?<r and Relations
History of Central and so. America
Comparative Education
Commercial and Political Geo.
Modern World History
History of the Far East
international relations is shown in Table VIII,
Thus, it
can be seen that of the 2,871 semester hours of general
social studies, 1,428 are in courses of a nature conducive
to the establishment of international understanding.
particular significance in this respect, is the relatively
high number of hours in comparative education, International
Law and Relations, and in Sociology.
These courses are
outstanding vehicles for international understanding.
the other hand, the low rating of commercial and political
geography, with an average of slightly over one hour per
teacher, reveals a significant weakness in this phase of
teacher preparation.
As might be expected,, the semester
hour average of world history is higher than any other
World history, of course, includes all other
history courses not specifically mentioned in the Table,
with the exception of American History.
One low point is
registered in the poor showing of Far Eastern History, with
an average per teacher of one and six-tenths hours*
Semester hours in courses of an international nature,
though indicative of some concrete result in the thinking
and teaching of the classroom teacher, are not guarantees
of proper attitudes in subsequent professional activity.
The interests and inclinations of the future educational
worker may be gauged to some extent by the interests
manifested during undergraduate years.
In this respect,
the choice of extra-curricular activities during this time
.can be considered as indicative of personal trends.
Of all
of the teachers answering the questionnaire, nine belonged
to organizations interested in international affairs,
thirty-four were members of other extra-curricular
organizations, while twenty engaged in no organized type of
outside activity thatsoever.
Thus, 14 per cent of the
teachers manifested considerable interest in international
affairs during preparation for teaching.
In bringing together all of the data on teacher
preparation, several significant facts affecting the
determination of status are apparent.
First, the number of
semester hours per teacher in college social studies is
extremely high.
Second, the number of semester hours per
teacher in subjects directly related to international
understanding is high in some respects, but low with
reference to commercial and political geography.
the teachers have more background in general forId History
than in any other phase of the social studies..
In all of
the courses regarded as beneficial in the formation of
proper international attitudes, actual outcomes in the way
of future teacher action toward world friendship must be
regarded as greatly dependent upon the attitudes and
efficiency of the college teachers who conduct the respective
411 of the chapter to this point has been built
around data taken from the questionnaire study*
important factors bearing upon the nature and amount of
content material given could not be determined by the
questionnaire technique.
Thus, an examination of the texts
used in the social studies classes of the schools corre­
sponding, and an examination of the state course of study
for the social studies, was conducted in order to determine
the amount of emphasis placed on the promotion of inter­
national attitudes in both of these material sources.
results of these examinations follow*
World friendship material in the leading texts.
judgement of the texts most widely used by the schools
involved in the study, was based on a thorough examination
of each text in regard to the number of pages devoted to
material conducive to international understanding, and with
special attention to the manner in which the material was
presented by the author.
By manner of presentation, is
meant the quality of sympathy and understanding manifested
by the author through inference or connotation.
Because of the wide variance of subject-grade
placement in the different schools, it would be impossible
to judge one book for each grade*
For Instance, some of
the schools teach World History in the eighth grade, while
others teach a similar course with the same text in the
eleventh grade*
Therefore, the examination of texts
disregarded grade levels and was instead based on courses
taught in practically all of the schools.
The most widely used text in World History was
found to be The Making of Today1s World, by E. 0. Hughes.3
Thirty-three, or 52 per cent of the schools, use this book
as a main text in World History.
With reference to the
number of pages given to world friendship material, Hughes*
text is rather weak.
Aside from general World History, as
found in all texts of similar subject, Hughes includes onl.y
twenty-eight pages of material directly aimed at an under­
standing of the problems and actions of the nations of the
The chapter, "Rebuilding Civilization**, extending
from page 7 63 to page 791* deals with the aftermath of the
war, and in so doing, presents a good case for greater
understanding betpjeen peoples.
As near as the investigator
was able to judge, the manner of treatment of international
problems throughout the book was sympathetic and objective.
The chief criticism which could be substantiated by thorough
3 R. 0. Hughes, The Making of Today1s World (Boston;
Aliya and Bacon, 1938), 807 pp.
examination of the hook, is an apparent lack of emphasis on
world friendship commensurate with the position of that
subject as a major objective of secondary social studies.
Next to Hughes’ text in frequency of use as a text
for World History is M a n ’s Great Adventure, by Edwin W.
Twenty-one of the sixty-three schools use this
book as basic material in World History.
It is an
exceptionally attractive book in arrangement and appearance,
and is different from the majority of World History texts
in its disregard for chronological development of historical
events in the usual way.
Instead, the author covers his
subject by movements which are closely related.
In unit
number seven, entitled, ’’Science and democracy travel far
though they are not sure where they are going,” there is a
great mass of material covering 226 pages, which is all
quite adaptable to the promotion of international under­
The manner of treatment of international affairs
is at the same time fair in judgement and sympathetic in
Though American History is not nearly so adaptable
to world friendship instruction as is World History, there
is room for the inclusion of considerable material on inter-
^ Edx^in W. Pahlow, Man* s Great Adventure (Boston:
Ginn and Company, 1938) , 734 pp.
national affairs without seeming to drag it in by main force.
Harold V. Faulkner’s, America Its History and P e o p l e which
twenty-one schools use as a basic text for American History,
takes due cognizance of this possibility for world friend­
ship teaching*
Units five and six covering 200 pages, treat
fully of America’s role as a world power, and of her
responsibility as an important member of the family of
The manner of presentation is admirable and
particularly free from partisan or nationalistic opinions*
The leading civics text, American Government, by
Frank A. McGruder6 is a more unanimous choice than any text
of any other course*
Forty-seven, or approximately three*-
fourths of the schools, use it as a civics text.
there is a brief chapter at the end of the book on ’’Foreign
Problems of the United States’’ which covers twenty-six pages,
practically all of the book concerns the internal organization
of the United States*
The chapter on foreign affairs is
brief and chiefly describes the colonial problems of the
United States;
One blanket criticism of all of the texts which have
° Harold Underwood Faulkner, America Its History and
People (Hew York: Harper and Brothers Publishers, 1938),
866 pp.
6 Frank a . McGruder, American Government (Boston:
Allyn and Bacon, 1938), 527 pp.
been considered, is their unfailing tendency to put inter­
national relations at the end of the book.
This arrangement
frequently brings international understanding on the scene
near the close of the school semester, and leaves room for
doubt regarding adequate coverage.
there is a
unanimous tendency to compartmentalize material on inter­
national understanding rather than to include it as it
rightfully belongs,
through the entire course.
On the
whole, however, the four books examined reveal a trend in
textbook writing, away from bias and nationalistic presen­
tation, and toward the ideal of objective and .sympathetic
treatment of international problems and relations.
Another factor which affects the status of world
friendship instruction in the schools is the course of
study prescribed by the state for subsequent development in
the classroom.
Accordingly the Texas course of study for
the Social Studies was examined for world friendship ideas,
and the results of that examination follow.
World friendship in the Texas course of study.
judgement of the state course of study for the social Studies
was based on an examination of the State Bulletin entitled,
Teaching Social Studies ^ with the purpose of determining
? State Department of Education of Texas, Teaching
Social Studies, Bulletin 592, 1937, 273 pp.
the number of listed topics concerning international under­
standing in the courses for the ninth, tenth, eleventh, and
twelfth grades•
Due to the division of the state social
studies course into two parts, alternate and revised, and
because of the fact that any school in the state is free to
follow either one, each division was examined separate^.
The revised division of the state bulletin for the
social studies reveals a very clear attempt on the part of
the framers to give complete implementation to the idea of
international understanding as a major objective of the
social studies.
The course for the ninth grade has five
units out of the seven on world problems of the past and
All seven of the units for the tenth grade are
on world problems.
"How production is affected by the
problems of other nations," is an example of the unit
In the eleventh year the great emphasis is
placed on the American scene and the problems generated
therein, but of the four unit headings given, two concern
the American scene in regard to the v/orld scene.
The entire
five units prescribed for the twelfth year are filled with
opportunities for world friendship education.
Though the
twelfth year outline is partly a national civics course,
emphasis in all of the outline headings is placed on how
society organizes for control, giving comparisons of other
national society organizations with our own.
Thus, in
counting up unit treatment for the last four years of the
social studies outline, we find that nineteen out of a
twenty-three unit total, are aimed toward the establishment
of proper international attitudes in the young.
The alternate course of study largely follows the
more conventional organization of secondary social studies
with elementary American History in the eighth, World History
in the ninth, and Civics or advanced American History inter­
changeably in the tenth and eleventh grades.
From the
questionnaire returns already outlined, it is apparent that
nearly all of the schools who answered the inquiry follow
this alternate course*
The seven units of the eighth year
reveal little material for international understanding.
the ninth year the course outline composed of nine main
historic and social movements, is adaptable for world
friendship instruction in its entirety.
The twelve unit
course in the tenth grade gives over two units to America
in world affairs.
In the eleventh year, one out of
thirteen units contains material on international under­
Thus, in the alternate course for the social
studies, only twelve of a total of forty-one units, deal
expressly with material helpful to international understand­
Both of the state courses of study for the social
studies, and the main texts used in the schools under
investigation, reveal a growing tendency to give more time
and attention to international understanding in the social
studies of the secondary schools of the state.
And in view
of the countless other objectives constantly clamoring for
recognition, world friendship receives a relatively fair
degree of emphasis.
Furthermore, insofar as the state and
textbook outlines influence classroom activity, the cause
of proper internationalism may be considered well advanced.
It has been the function of this entire chapter to
determine the state of advancement of international under­
standing in the schools of Texas * as judged by questionnaire
returns, and by the examination of material sources.
next chapter will endeavor to eompare these findings with
the ideas of experts as outlined in Chapter III.
Chapter IV, through varied data,
attempted to portray the present status of international
understanding in the state of Texas.
The present chapter
brings together the practices as found in Texas schools,
and the opinions of experts as to how the program for
international understanding should be carried on.
based on these comparisons are then drawn.
Following the
conclusions are certain recommendations by the investigator,
which seem to be significant in view of the findings of the
The responsibility of the schools regarding inter­
national understanding.
The educators v/hose ideas were
presented in Chapter III, were overwhelmingly in favor of a
specific program in the schools to bring about wholesome
international attitudes on the part of the student.
as the sixty-three schools included in this investigation
are representative of Texas schools in general, it appears
that the schools of the state do not make ample provision
for the presentation of ideas conducive to the production
of world friendship.
The data on curricular organization
gives some evidence of a trend toward the inclusion of
international understanding as a major, objective of the
social studies, hut the absence of a course of study in the
majority of schools renders proper recognition of the
problem impossible.
On the other hand, the state course of
study is very strong in material for international under­
standing, but because of the great nimfoer of teachers who
lean on a class text for material and organization, there is
room for doubt regarding the wide spread use of the state
Thus, it seems apparent that though beginnings
have been made in the proper direction,' the schools of the
State of Texas as a whole do not give recognition to the
problem of international understanding to the extent that
leading educators recommend.
The position of international understanding in the
While the educators and writers quoted in this
study are emphatically in favor of a specific program for
international understanding in the schools,
they are
equally positive in their opposition to specific courses
in the curriculum set apart for the sole purpose of
encouraging international' attitudes.
Rather* they insist
that the subjects now in the curriculum, if properly
organized and presented, can do more to promote world
friendship than can any number of separate courses.
Texas schools agree in practice with this philosophy,
according to the data on curricular organization, none of
the schools represented, use a separate course in inter­
national affairs.
All efforts to promote international
understanding are carried on through the media of existing
Thus in regard to the place of international
understanding in the curriculum, we find Texas schools
closely paralleling in practice,*the theories advanced by
leaders in the field.
This does not infer, however, that
things are as they should be in other respects..
■Cont.ent for promoting international understanding.
Since the experts on international problems hold that,
international understanding should be developed through the
media of existing■school subjects, it logically follows that
they would consider the content of these same subjects
adequate to meet the need for world friendship instruction.
The majority opinion is that the social studies are the
logical carriers for the larger part of the content bearing
on the establishment of international attitudes.
more, .they believe that no direct instruction for world
friendship should be given, but rather that the facts of
history, geography, civics, and the like, should be
presented objectively to the student for his own judgement.
In brief * they hold tha t the giving of all possible
Information on the character, history, and cultural
foundations’ of peoples, will more nearly produce under­
standing on the part of the student than any other type of
content or any other method of approach.
In this respect
the schools in the investigation do not quite measure up.
In the main, they do not cover fully all of the nations of
importance, as the data in Chapter IV have shown, and the
fact that the large part of the material on other nations
is crowded into kaleidoscopic course in world history,
leaves the impression that complete presentation of all
available information about various peoples of the earth is
not possible under the circumstances.
Furthermore the
curricular offerings in sociology and geography, are
practically non-existent in secondary social studies, and
the importance of these subjects in the understanding of
other peoples cannot be denied.
The study of American
History and Givics constitute fifty per cent of the social
studies courses offered in the secondary schools, and the
majority of the teachers who answered the questionnaire
seem to touch too briefly on America’s role In world affairs,
as well as America’s indebtedness to other nations through­
out her development.
Thus, the content for international
understanding in the schools under investigation is weak
because of the incomplete study of other nations, the
tendency to emphasize the history and culture of four or
five major nations to the detriment of less powerful but
equally significant nations, and the tendency to crowd all
information on other nations into a one year course on
World History.
Methods and procedures in presenting world friend­
ship i
On the subject of how to properly present content
material for international understanding little authori­
tative opinion is found.
Such opinion as can be gathered,
stresses the laboratory method of research as basic pro­
cedure for social studies development.
This procedure
involves the use of numerous references for student
research rather than the following of a single text*
addition, various other aids and devices are recommendedi
Among these are the visual aids such as motion pictures
and slides on other lands and peoples.
Motor-visual aids,
graphs, charts, and pictograms, current events of an
international nature, the dramatization of international
problems and events, the reading of historical fiction
sympathetic to other peoples, and the use of whatever
foreign children are in the classroom as a base for concrete
emotional experiences with people of other lands, are all
acceptable in the presentation of world friendship material.
The teachers in the sixty-three schools investigated,
furnish information which leads to the belief that the
laboratory method of procedure is not greatly used in Texas
Forty-three teachers use oral recitations on
material from a basic text as core procedure, while in the
twenty schools which have a. written course of study, the
same basic method is used in reference to the content out­
lines of the courses of study.
Though a great majority of
the teachers assign supplementary reading, the fact that an
even greater number admittedly follow a single text,
indicates that the outside reading is not pursued in the
manner prescribed for the proper use of the laboratory
In the matter of using aids and devices to promote
world friendship attitudes,
the schools show great irregu­
Current events are used in nearly all of the
The reading of parallel fiction is also widely
But aside from the making of maps, charts,
graphs, and similar seat-work activities, the audio-visual
aids are somewhat neglected*
The two main methods of
furnishing concrete emotional experiences, dramatizing
international events and utilizing foreign children in the
classroom, are used very infrequently.
Taken altogether
then, methods of presenting material in the schools, do not
closely parallel the ideas of procedure advocated by the
Aids to international understanding outside regular
classroom work are considered to be helpful.
Of the
extra-curricular aids recommended, clubs of an international
nature predominatei
In addition to clubs and extra­
curricular organizations, international essay contests,
inter-pupil correspondence betx?een countries, and assembly
programs on other countries and cultures are held to be
In regard to these activities the school results
show favorable trends.
"Jell over 50 per cent have foreign
language clubs, give international assembly programs, and
carry on inter-pupil correspondence with other countries.
Teacher preparation for international understanding.
Great unanimity exists among educators on the question of
the relative Importance of the teacher in the educative
They insist that the teacher in the final analysis,
is the chief determining agent in the formation of attitudes,
and therefore must be properly trained for the task.
training should be acquired indirectly, through adequate
foundations in the social studies subjects most adaptable
to sympathetic understanding of the national' problems of ■
other peoples.
Commercial and: Political Geography,
Comparative Education, Sociology, International Law and
Relations, and a thorough understanding of the histories
and cultures of the nations of the world, are all considered
essential in the preparation of teachers for adequate
In some respects the backgrounds of the teachers in
this study go beyond the requirements suggested by the
The semester hour total in college social
studies is exceedingly high.
The hours per teacher range
from twenty-four to ninety with an average of forty-five
Another encouraging factor in teacher preparation
is the high number of hours in subjects which act as
foundations for aesireable attitudes toward international
Comparative Education, International Law
and Relations, and Sociology, are all well represented in
the scale of teacher preparation.
Contrary to this
encouraging position, the low number of semester hours per
teacher in Commercial and Political Geography indicates a
significant weakness in teacher foundation, because of the
great importance of these subjects in presenting the
economic and geographic problems of nations through
objective data.
Another weak point in teacher preparation
for international understanding, is shown by the low number
of teacher-hours in the history of the Far East,
geographical area is of prime importance to the United
States, and some knowledge of the nations in the area is
indispensable to a proper understanding of the present-day
wor ld.
Altogether then, teacher preparation for international
understanding apparently goes to extremes in two directions,
The number of hours of preparation in some desireable
subjects is highly encouraging, but the lack of foundations
in others equally important, denote a weakness in back­
ground on the part of a majority of teachers.
The data involved in the comparisons outlined in this
chapter make possible certain conclusions regarding the
status of the instruction of international understanding in
the social studies program of the schools which cooperated
in the investigation.
These conclusions, based on the
information presented in Chapters III and ■IV, follow.
Before presenting the conclusions arrived at through
this investigation, it is well to clarify the areas which
they cover.
The investigation was conducted in the social
studies division of the secondary schools of Texas.
findings of the investigation apply, in a strict sense,
only to the sixty-three schools from whieh questionnaire
returns were received.
Only insofar as the practices of
these, schools are representative of usages existing in
other schools in the state, do the following conclusions
generally apply to the social studies situation in Texas
schools as a whole.
Specific program for world friendship.
In view of
the number of schools which consider international under­
standing a major aim of the social studies in secondary
schools, it would be incorrect to say that no programs for
world friendship exist.
But because of the larger number
which do not purposefully strive for desireable attitudes
toward other nations, and because of the lack of definite
organization of content material to that end in the majority
of the schools, it appears commensurate with the facts at
hand to conclude that a specific program for international
understanding does not exist in the schools as a whole.
Position of world friendship in the curriculum.
place which international understanding occupies in .the
curricula of the schools under investigation, closely
parallels the plan advised by authorities in education.
theory of organization advanced by the experts in the field,
stresses the futility of separate courses in internationalism,
and advises the integration of world friendship material
with existing social studies courses.
This type of world
friendship approach is employed in all of the schools.
'it appears that the schools of Texas follow currently
accepted ideas on the placement of world friendship areas
in the curriculum.
Content for international understanding.
The ideal
for content designed to promote international understanding,
is the giving of all available information on the peoples
of the earth.
The content presented in the schools of
Texas falls far short of this ideal.
The following of
material in a basic.text is widely practiced.
This practice,
combined with the crowding of nearly all international
information into one year of World Historyj leads to the
conclusions that the content on other peoples is quite
inadequate for the production of desireable international
attitudes on the part of the student.
Methods, techniques, and devices for international
The lack of extensive opinion on the part
of educators in regard to the best ways .of presenting world
friendship material, renders a conclusion in this respect
less valuable.
-But, basing the conclusion on available
opinion, it is evident that the teachers in the schools
contributing to the investigation, still largely folio?/ the
formal assignment-*oral-recitation method as basic procedure,
thus showing a backward tendency in pedagogical attack which
is incompatible with more widely accepted procedures.
activities for international understanding outside the
regular classroom, there is a more room for optismism.
Nearly all of the schools carry on some extra-curricular
activity dedicated to the promotion of sympathetic inter­
na tionalisnu
•Teaoher preparation for international understanding.
The status of teacher preparation in relation to the best
type of preparation,as advocated by teacher training experts,
is two sided.
The teachers in Texas schools seem to have a
more than ample number of semester hours in college social
studies, and their backgrounds in courses which give
foundation to proper understanding of other peoples is quite
adequate in some respects.
On the other hand, certain areas
of vital importance are missing from the pre-teaching
preparations of a majority of teachers.
Thus, the present
status of teacher preparation is neither bad nor good, but
reveals definite room for improvement.
In the light of the foregoing conclusions the need
for certain remedial measures is obvious.
The following
recommendations outline briefly, some ideas which to the
investigator appeared timely.
Curricular organization of international' understanding.
All of the social studies courses in the secondary schools
are adaptable in some degree to the advancement of an
understanding of other peoples.
But unless definite provision
is made in each school, for the integration of world friend­
ship material with other aspects of the separate courses,
very little benefit is likely to accrue.
Possibly the best
way to Insure proper recognition of international under­
standing is through a written course of study.
In this way
world friendship concepts can he coordinated hy those who
fully understand the nature of the problem instead of being
left to hit or miss procedure on the part of the individual
The content of International understanding.
Understanding of other peoples necessitates a knowledge of
their modes of living, and a knowledge of all the conditions
which generate their respective national problems.
a majority of American young people are to be turned out of
our secondary schools without sufficient background for
'international understanding, more material concerning the
problems of international relationships must be included in
the content of our existing school subjects.
Under our
present methods of educational procedure the most likely
way to achieve this aim is to furnish the schools with texts
which cover all the factors involved in the lives of nations.
Our textbooks, in the main, are still too largely given
over to the chronological development of the various
national histories, and leave out major considerations in
geographical and sociological relationships.
The present
practice of giving one year of world history in the
secondary school crowds too much material in too small a
space, or else touches only, the high points.
At least two
years should be given over to this subject if our youth are
to ever become understanding citizens of America and of the
Methods, techniques and devices.
Too much of our
present social studies procedure is given over to oral
question-and-answer recitation.
Each social studies class­
room should be equipped with a small library having a wide
range of materials such that the student can accumulate
information on his own initiative.
This library should
contain stories of other lands presented in such a way that
the student is able to gain an insight into the lives of
other peoples.
In addition, current newspapers, pamphlets,
and magazines containing material on current international
problems might well prove useful.
In brief, understanding
requires information about what is to be understood, and
information of this nature can be gathered m o r e .meanfully
through the laboratory procedure just described.
Teacher preparation for international understanding.
ATI other painstaking efforts toward the promotion of inter­
national understanding in the schools are futile if the
teacher is not able to adequately present the subject.
Because of the importance of international cooperation, and
because of the responsibility of education in the achievement
of that cooperation,
the teacher as the chief determining
factor in the efficiency of educative procedure, is
obligated to prepare himself for the teaching of international
In order to insure proper teacher foundations in
international relationships, certification for all teachers
should have as a requirement the completion of a certain
number of semester hours in subjects which contribute to a
knowledge of the problems of other nations.
Bailey, S. H . , International Studies in Modern Education.
London: The Oxford University Press, 1938* .309 pp*
Beard, Charles A . , A Charter for the Social Studies.
New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1932*
122 pp.
*, The Nature of the Social Studies.
Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1934.
238 pp.
Hew York:
Carr, William G . , Education for World Citizenship.
Palo Alto, California: Stanford University Press, 1928*.
2£5 pp.
Gounts, George S., The Social Foundations of Education.
Hew York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1934. 579 pp.
Dowling, Evaline, editor, World Friendship. Los Angeles:
Manual Arts High School Press, 1928. 271 pp.
Faulkner-, Harold
, America Its History and People.
Hew York: Harper and Brothers-Publishers, 1938. 866 pp.
Hughes, R. 0., The Making of Today’s World.
Allyn and Bacon, 1938. 807 pp.
Martin, 1. S., editor, The Evolution of World Peace.
London: The Oxford University Press, 1921.
192 pp.
McGruder, Frank A., American Government.
Bacon,;1938. 527 pp.
Boston: Allyn and
Murphy, Albert J , , Education for World Mindedness.
The Abingdon Press, 1931.
366 pp.
Pahlow, Edwin W., M a n ’s Great Adventure.
Company, 1938. 807 pp.
Hew York:
Boston: Ginn and
Partridge, George E . , The Psychology of Nations.
The Macmillan Company, 1919.
333 pp.
Hew York:
Pierce, Bessie Louise, Citizens Organizations and the Civic
Training of Youth. Hew York: Charles Scribner’s Sons,
428 pp.
Prescott, Daniel A., Education and International Relations.
Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press,
168 pp.
Ware, Edith E . , editor, The Study of International Belatlons
in the United States. Hew YorIT Columbia University
Press, 1934. 503 pp.
Andrews, Fannie F . , "The Public Schools and World Peace,"
Religious Education* 19:312-18, October, 1924.
_______ ., "The Teacher an Agent of Goodwill," School and
Society, 26:121-30, July 30, 1927.
Bartholomew, Bertha M*, "Public School Activities Designed
to Develop Wholesome Nationalism and International
Understanding," Journal-of Educational sociology,
9:408-10, March, 1936.
Davis, Rachael, "Developing Sympathetic Attitudes Toward
Peoples," Journal of Educational Sociology, 9:387-96,
March, 1936.
Duggan, Stephen, "Education the Means of International
Understanding," The Journal of the National Education
Association, 25:276-7, December, 1936.
Gell, Kenneth E., "What the Rochester Schools are Doing
About Internationalism," Journal of Educational
Sociology, 9:397-407, March, 1936*'
Ironer, Frances ¥•., "International Understanding in our
Secondary Schools," New Yorh State Education, 25:536-37,
April, 1938,
Morley, Constance, "The Work of the International Bureau
of Education," School and Society, 29:283-85, March 2,
19 29 •
Price, Maurice T., "Our Amateurishness in Promoting
Goodwill," The Social Studies, 26:361-70, October,
International Understan&ing in the Public School Curriculum,
Thirty-Sixth Yearbook of the National,Society for the
Study of Education, Part II* Bloomington, Illinois:
The Public School Publishing Company* 1937.
4-06 pp.
Smith, Henry Lester, and Leo M. Chamberlain, "An Analysis,
of the Attitudes of-American Educators and Others
Toward a Program for World friendship and Understanding","
Bulletin of the School of Education, Indiana University.
Bloomington, Indiana: Bureau of Cooperative Research,
Indiana University, "V, Uuly, 1929.
109 pp.
United States Department of the Interior, Office of
Education, Some Organizations Which Publish Materials
Relating to International Understanding, 1937.
7 pp.
State Department of Education of Texas, Teaching Social
Studies, Bulletin 392, 1937.
273 pp.
Answer as indicated.
Please list any
plans or practices you use but which are not mentioned in
the questionnaire on the backs of the sheets.'
_____ ___________
Name of college or university attended
Were you a member of the international relations club?__
To what other clubs of an international character did
you belong?
_______ .
__________ ;
___________________ ________
• 4.
How many hours of college social studies have you had?__
Give the number of semester hours in the following fields.
___________ a. Comparative education
b. Commercial and political geography
c * Modern world history
__________ d* History of the far east
-e. Contemporary European history
f. International law and relations
__________ g. Central and South American history
___________ h. Sociology
Does your school have a written course of study in the
social studies?___________
a. Is international understanding listed as a main
b. If no course of study does your school folio?/ the
state course? •
c. Do social studies teachers in your school follow a
basic text?
Check all of the following plans used in your school.
______ _ _ a * A separate course in international affairs
b. Special units of an international nature
_ _ ______ c. Internationalism through the entire social
studies course
__________ d. International understanding in conjunction
with world history
___________ e . International understanding in conjunction
with national civics
What social studies courses are offered in your school?
Give main texts.
9 th.
10th. "
12 th.
Which of the above courses do you teach?__________
Do you follow the organization of the listed text?
Chech all of the following areas which you cover in a
_______ a. How the world utilizes its productive resources
_________ b. How problems arise in exchanging the worlds
c. How nations are interdependent economically
d. Why working and living conditions vary in
different countries
_ _ _ _ _ _ e. How peoples of the world have cooperated in
the past
_______ f * How evils have resulted from international
__ g. How our country has profited from other cultures
~ h. How World War I affected our national life
i. How science has'brought the world together
j. How geography has affected the lives of
different peoples
Mark as follows those countries or areas where specific
information on geography, customs, and history is given
during the semester:
x for full treatment, - for partial
treatment, and0 for no treatment.
a. England
h. Italy
o* Canada
b. France
i. Scandanavia
p. Oceania
e* Low countries
j. Balkans
q. Mexico
C hina
Hear east
r. Central America
s .south America
t. Greece
British Dominions
Check any of the following procedures you generally use.
_ _ _ _ _ a. Oral recitation on facts following.the course
of study
_______ b. Oral recitations on facts following a basic
________ c. Assigned readings from several sources
_____ d, Problems developed through pupils own
e. Discussion of international current events.
____ Weekly?_______
__ f. Map construction on countries involved in
s tudy
g. Slides on the geography and customs of
countries studied
__ h. Motion pictures on- various countries and
_______ i. Preparation of charts, graphs, and pictograms
on foreign countries
_______ j. Motivation of pupils to read historical
________ k. Dramatization of international events by
_______ 1. Utilization of foreign children present to
promote understanding
Check all of the following-activities used in your school;
________ a. International relations club
__ b. Foreign language clubs
c. Assembly programs on other countries
_ _ _ _ _ _ d. League of nations assembly
_____ e. World friendship league
_______ f . Inter-pupil correspondence with schools in
other countries
______ __ g. Participation in international essay contests
h. Junior Bed Cross
■If you wish to give- your name use the following
_________________ _
Do you wish a summary of the findings of the investigations?
Gulf Coast
North East
West Plains
Beaumont (French)
Big Spring
West Central
West Central
North West
Canyon .
South East
IFest Central
North Central
last Central
Peer Park
South East
North Central
Rio Grande Yalley
Eagle Pass
West Rio Grande
Rio Grande Valley
El Campo
South East
Fort Worth (Masonic Home)
North Central
Gulf Coast
South Central
South Central
Goose Creek
South Central
South last
North Central
ffest Central
La Grange
South Central
North East
North West
North West
West Central
Qua nail .
Rio Grande Valley
North East
South Central
Sugar Land
South last
Central '
North last
South Central
Rio Grande- Valley
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