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A survey of the curricula of the Indian high schools of the United States

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A SURVEY OF THE CURRICULA OF THE INDIAN HIGH SCHOOLS
OF THE UNITED STATES
A Thesis
Presented to
the Faculty of the School of Education
The University of Southern California
In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Master of Science in Education
by
Gladys Whitmore
May 1941
UMI Number: EP54153
All rights reserved
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a note will indicate the deletion.
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UMI EP54153
Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author.
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unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code
ProQuest LLC.
789 East Eisenhower Parkway
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L ft*
T h is thesis, w r it t e n u n d e r the d ir e c t io n o f the
C h a ir m a n o f the ca n d id a te ’ s G u id a n c e C o m m itte e
a n d a p p r o v e d by a l l m em bers o f the C o m m itte e ,
has been pre se n te d to a n d accepted by the F a c u lt y
o f the S c h o o l o f E d u c a t io n in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t
o f the re q u ire m e n ts f o r the degree o f M a s t e r o f
Science in E d u c a tio n .
..........
Guidance C om m ittee
............
C hairm an
W. G. Campbell
D. W. Lefever
ATa/'f"
M-U?.
TABLE OP CONTENTS
CHAPTER
PAGE
I. THE NATURE AND PURPOSE OP THE
PROBLEM
....
Statement of the p r o b l e m ................
1
Definition of terms u s e d ................
1
Importance of the s t u d y ................ . .
2
Delimitations of the s t u d y .........
2
. . . . . .
3
Procedure
Organization of the study
II.
III.
1
.
THe pr ob l e m ...............................
1
4
A BASIS FOR EVALUATING THE CURRICULA OP THE
INDIAN HIGH S C HO OL S.......................
5
History of the high school curriculum. . . .
5
Standards for judging a curriculum........
6
THE CURRICULUM OP SHERMAN I N S T I T U T E ........
10
History .
...................
10
Curriculum..................... . . . . .
11
Vocational subjects ..............
...
Related academic curriculum.........
English
..................
Social science
..............
Science . . . . . . . .
Music ..........
•
........
. .
. . . . . . . . . .
12
15
15
17
18
19
Student government . . . . . . . . .
20
Athletics . . . . . . .
20
..........
iii
CHAPTER
PAGE
Religious training .................
....
21
The social program............................ 21
The club program
IV.
........................ 22
The guidance progr am ..........
22
Curriculum evaluation .................
23
CURRICULUM OP THE FLANDREAU INDIAN VOCATIONAL
HIGH S C H O O L ......................................25
H i st or y .........
25
Curriculum...................................
26
Vocational subjects ...................
27
Related academic curriculum . .
28
..........
E n g l i s h .................................
28
Social sciences
.......................
30
Physical and biological sciences ........
32
Mathematics...........................
33
Business training .......................
34
Agriculture.............................
35
M u s i c ...................
V.
.36
Student government.....................
36
Athletics...............................
36
Interest clubs and organizations ........
37-
Religious prog ra m.............
38
Curriculum evaluation .......................
38
THE CURRICULUM OF HASKELL I N S T I T U T E ..........
41
Hi st o r y ...................................
41
CHAPTER
PAGE
Curriculum . ..........
. . . . . . . . . . .
42
Vocational courses . • • • • • » . . . * . .
43
Academic courses . • • . • • • . . • • • • •
43
English
.........
Social science . . . . .
Mathematics
Physical education
Science
44
............ .
.............
49
...........
49
............... .
50
Student government . . . . . . . . . . .
51
Athletics • . . . • . * . • • • • • • * •
52
Interest clubs and organizations . . . .
52
Religious program
53
Guidance program
.........
Social program
..............
CURRICULUM OF THE SANTA FE INDIAN SCHOOL . . .
History
Curriculum
54
54
Curriculum evaluation
VI.
48
55
57
57
...........
59
Vocational curriculum . . . . . . . . . . .
60
Academic curriculum • • • • • • . . . . • • .
61
English
.....................
Mathematics . . . . . . . . . .
62
........
62
Social science .........................
63
Science
.63
...............
V
CHAPTER
PAGE
Physical education . ..........
.....
M u s i c .................................
64
Assemblies.............................
64
Clubs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
65
Athletics.............................
65
Student government. . . . . . . . . . .
65
Guidance.............................
65
Religious training..................
VII.
63
.
66
Social p r o g r a m .......................
66
Evaluation of the curriculum.............
66
THE CURRICULUM OP THE INDIAN VOCATIONAL SCHOOL
AT ALBUQUERQUE...........................
69
Histo ry .................................
69
The curriculum.........................
70
General curriculum..................
•
Vocational curriculum................
English
70
72
.........................
72
Social science.....................
72
Scien ce...............
74
Mathematics . .
75
............... . . •
M u s i c ...............................
75
Home economics...............
75
Student government................
Athletics.........................
.
76
76
CHAPTER
v
PAGE
Interest clubs .......................
77
Guidance...........
77
Religious p r o g r a m ...................
77
Social program •
77
Curriculum evaluation......................
78
VIII. THE CURRICULUM OP THE CHILOCCO INDIAN AGRICUL­
TURAL HIGH S C H O O L .........................
History.................................
81
.
Curriculum...............................
81
82
Vocational curriculum...................
82
Related academic curriculum ..............
84
Home economics
English.
♦
. . . . . .
84
85
Social science.........
85
Mathematics....................... • * •
86
S c ie nc e ...........
87
Physical education
. • .
:.Religious activities ..................
Music .
87
88
....................................89
C l u b s .......................
89
Social program • • • .
89
..............
'Guidance...........................
.
90
Athletics...........................
90
The National Guard
90
Evaluation of curriculum..................
91
vii
CBAPTER
IX.
PAGE
S U M M A R Y ......... . . .. .......................
History
...............................
Curricula...........
Evaluation
ofctirricula
.
92
92
93
....................
96
General recommendations.....................
96
BIBLIOGRAPHY.......................................
98
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE
X.
PAGE
Course and Time Requirements I’or Sherman
Institute, 1939-1940 . . . . . . . . . . .
II.
Course and Time Requirements for Flandreau
Indian Vocational High School,
III.
1939-1940 .
29
Course and Time Requirements for Haskell
Institute, 1939-1940 ...................
IV.
16
45
Course and Time Requirements for Altmquerque
Indian Vocational High School,
1939-1940 .
73
CHAPTER
I
i
THE NATURE AND PURPOSE OP THE PROBLEM
The Indians are a fast growing segment of the popula
tion in the United States today.
Some tribes have vastly
increased their wealth, while others hold lands or fishing
rights vital to the conservation program of the government.
The administration of wealth or conservation requires ade­
quate education.
In Alaska where half the population is
native, educators are very concerned with what is being
done on the secondary level by the Indian schools wdown b e ­
low.11
I.
THE PROBLEM
Statement of the problem.
It was the purpose of
this study to find (1) what academic subjects were included
(2) how the content of the academic subjects was organized,
(3) what vocational subjects were offered,
time was allotted to each subject,
(4) how much
(5) what the teaching
methods were, (6) what club and social opportunities were
available, and (7) how well the school programs fitted into
the community needs.
Definition of terms.
By curriculum was meant all
the means of education, which include subject matter, shop
2
and classroom procedures, social and cultural opportunities,
athletics and all other activities sponsored by the school.
Community needs included tribal culture, as well as economic
factors.
Importance of the study.
center of much emphasis today.
Secondary education is the
Educators are measuring,
revising, extending and experimenting upon secondary curri­
cula.
The public is criticizing and in some cases obstruct­
ing education.
Indian schools are being attacked by those
who insist that money is wasted educating a native who only
reverts to the blanket.
The Division of Education in the
Office of Indian Affairs is active in seeking the best pro­
cedures for the 24,441 children who were in their schools
1
last year (1939).
Delimitations of the study.
clude the seventh and eighth grades.
This study did not in­
It only included the
six non-reservation accredited high schools which enrolled
no pupils under the seventh grade.
Only the four-year high
school curricula were surveyed, because In Alaska and in the
United States most of the children have the opportunity of
finishing the eighth grade in their native villages.
Those who desire further training attend the boarding high
1 “Indian Education in the U.S.,11 School and Society,
51:7775-6, June 29, 1940.
3
schools.
Seventh and eighth grades are appended to these
high schools to take care of orphan children who would have
no supervision otherwise.
The matter of teaching qualifications and certifi­
cation was not included in this survey.
Teacher load was
also not considered, since it is the practice to have all
the teachers in the Indian schools on duty eight hours a
day.
II.
PROCEDURE
The method used was mainly that of library research,
supplemented by correspondence with the superintendents of
the six schools and with the Office of Education for Indian
Affairs at Washington, D.G.
The six schools are:
(1) Sher­
man Institute at Riverside, California; (&) The Flandreau
Indian Vocational High School at Flandreau, South Dakota;
(3) Haskell Institute at Lawrence, Kansas,
(4) Santa Fe
Indian School at Santa Fe, Hew Mexico; (5) Albuquerque
Indian School at Albuquerque, Hew Mexico; and (6) the
Chilocco Agricultural High School at Chilocco, Oklahoma.
Visits were made to Sherman Institute at Riverside, Cali­
fornia, and to the schools at Santa Fe and Albuquerque,
Hew Mexico.
A thorough study of the latest literature in
curriculum construction was made in order to obtain a
standard for evaluation.
4
III.
ORGANIZATION
OF THE STUDY
t
/
The second chapter is devoted to a basis for evaluating
the curricula of the Indian high schools.
The next six chap­
ters contain analyses and discussions of each s c h o o l ^ curri­
culum.
Chapter IX presents the conclusions and summarizes
the findings of this study.
CHAPTER II
A BASIS FOR EVALUATING THE CURRICULA
OF THE INDIAN HIGH SCHOOLS
History of the high school curriculum.
A history of
the high school curriculum shows that .it grew up as a result
1
of the laissez-faire attitude that attended text book pro­
duction.
Text books made the subjects.
Men wrote the text
books; enterprising salesmen sold them; and thus the curri­
culum was built up.
For more than a century this process
went on until some high schools were offering thirty or more
subjects.
The next thing to happen was an organization of these
subjects into sequences which froze down into the Mrigid
2
mold of academic compartments.11 College entrance requirements
helped to hold the curriculum in this form.
The curriculum usually dictates the method and so for
a hundred years memory skill was chiefly cultivated in our
high schools.
As new subjects made their appearance they
were cast into the mental discipline category regardless of
their content.
lum.
Thus at the end of 120 years, we still find
1 Harold Rugg, American Life and The School Curricu
(New York:
Ginn and Company, 1936), p. 130.
2 Ibid., p. 135.
6
the American secondary school lagging behind the current
social and economic scene.
This gap between school and life may be caused by the
national peculiarity of separating intellectual concerns from
3
everyday concerns; also text book writers and publishers are
interested in maintaining the old system.
Teacher training
schools have been slow to change their methods, thus the
gap continues between the concerns of education and the in­
terests of daily life#
The gap has not been without its challengers.
John
Dewey is one who has consistently pointed out a new path
for education.
Gradually the high school curricula have
been transformed.
Because the Indian high schools have
emerged since this transition began, they have largely
escaped the effects of tradition.
ed from too much change.
Perhaps they have suffer­
Economic and social conditions
have shifted so fast for the Indian population that the
schools may have reflected this change rather than have
guided it.
Standards for .judging a curriculum.
Before the prob­
lem of the curriculum in the Indian high schools was con­
sidered, a search was made to find a standard of judgment
3 Ibid., pp. 159-160.
as to what constitutes an acceptable curriculum today.
battles are raging over this subject*
Many
We find educators
grouped under such banners as (1) Education for Democracy,
(2) Progressive Education, and (3) Theme Concepts of Modern
Culture, et cetera.
Ho entirely definite outlines for the
new curriculum appear in this smoke of controversy.
The
probable result will be that a definite curriculum is a
thing of the past, and that school offerings in the future
will be more variable than ever before.
Practical educators
will probably agree with the principles for curriculum
revision set up in Texas in 1936 by W* A. Stigler, as follows
(1) The curriculum shall provide educative experience
adapted to the fundamental needs of each child. . . .
(2) The curriculum shall provide educative exper­
iences for effective participation in social life and
which will serve to perpetuate and inspire the ideals
and practices of our democracy.
(3) The curriculum shall be conceived as a body of
dynamic experiences.
(4) The curriculum shall be conceived as a program
of study and activity subject to teacher guidance.
(5) The curriculum revision program shall be con­
ceived as an experimental program.
(6) The curriculum shall not be subverted to special
interests. 4
4 W. A. Stigler, nEandbook for Curriculum Development,”
Bulletin of State Dept, of Education, Ho# 354, Feb., 1936,
p
. is:
8
5
Dix outlines the following guide for the new curricu­
lum:
In design American education must be (1) general,
(2) comprehensive, and (3) coherent.
In spirit American education must be (1) modern,
(2) functional,
lectual,
(3) practical,
(4) cooperative,
(5) intel­
(6) unifying, and (7) socially integrative.
In practice American education must be (1) personal,
(2) integrative,
(3) active,
(4) adventurous, and (5) devel­
opmental .
In emphasis American education must seek balance in
(1) capacities,
(4) creation,
(2) experience,
(3) self-reliance,
(5) enjoyment, and (6) vernacular competence.
According to the Manual of the Cooperative Study
6
of Secondary School Standards, the evaluation of an educa­
tional program should be made in terms of six principal
elements:
(1) the curriculum and course of study,
(2) pupil activities,
(3) the library,
(4) guidance,
(5) instruction, and (6) the outcomes of instruction.
Since all the Indian high schools are small, it is
well to include in this discussion some factors to be con~
5 Lester Dix, A Charter for Progressive Education
(Hew York: Teachers’ College Columbia University, 1939), p. 42.
6 flHow to Evaluate a Secondary School,” A Manual of
the Cooperative Study of Secondary School Standards (Washington*
D.C.l 744 ’Jackson Place, 1940), p . 9.
sidered in judging the curriculum of a small school.
factors stand out:
Six
(1) constants should consist of only
those courses which meet the need of all students,
(2) there should toe a balance between electives and constants,
(3) the year placement should toe determined toy the purpose
each course is to serve,
(4) some courses in vocations‘
should serve the vocational opportunities of the community,
(5) each course should serve a specific function, and
(6) some survey courses into the main fields of human know7
ledge should toe provided.
Among all the suggestions for curriculum improvement,
none is so encouraging as that one which declares that most
of the oppressive and old-fashioned forces on the curriculum
could toe routed toy an aggressive attack on the part of the
8
faculty.
7 R. Emerson Langfitt, Prank W. Cyr, and N. William
Newsom, The Small High School at Work (New York: American
Book C ompany, 1936), p p • £66-213.
CHAPTER III
THE CURRICULUM OP SHERMAN INSTITUTE
This chapter on the curriculum or Sherman Institute
at Riverside, California, was divided into three sections:
(1) the history of the school,
(2) the curriculum, and
(3) the evaluation of* the curriculum.
Most of the investigation was done on the school
campus.
Classrooms were visited and teachers or supervisors
interviewed before and after the classes convened.
I.
HISTORY
The corner stone was laid for the first building at
Sherman Institute July 18, 1901.
The buildings were com­
pleted March 1, 1902, at a total cost of $150,000.
The
school was named for Hon. James S. Sherman, a New York state
Congressman and chairman of the Committee on Indian Affairs,
who was active in securing the appropriation for the school.
In 1850 Hon. B. D. Wilson in a report on the Cali­
fornia Indians said that their treatment could be summed
up in the statement:
"All punishment and no reform under
1
the rule of Spain, of Mexico and of the United States.1*
1 J. M. Guinn, A History of California, Vol. I.
(Los Angeles, Calif.; Hxstoric Record Company, 1907), p.147.
11
It was not until 1892 that steps were taken to found an In­
dian school on the Pacific coast similar to the one at
Carlisle*
A site six miles south of Riverside, California,
v/as purchased and buildings erected with the $75,000 appro­
priation made by the Fifty-fifth Congress.
How much our conception of Indian education has
changed can be seen from this quotation from Guinns
The only hope of rerorm for the Indians of Southern
California is the removal of the young from the evil
environment of the reservations and an industrial
training in schools such as the Sherman Institute
is intended to be. The Institute has fulfilled the
expectations of its founders. It has been well
patronized since its founding. A number of new build­
ings have been added to it. The school has an ex­
cellent brass band, made up entirely from pupils in
the school. It also has a football team that has won
victories over some of the best teams In the state.2
II.
CURRICULUM
Vocational curriculum.
Though footballs and bands
can still be found at Sherman Institute, the historian of
today can present more vital material.
Today it is an
accredited vocational high school offering a complete
general and industrial education in four different divi­
sions, according to the needs and the abilities of the
2 Ibid., p. 497.
12
seven hundred fifty students who attend«
Twenty-one vocation
al and six related academic courses are offered.
The purpose
of the school is to prepare the Indian youth of California
to make a better life with the opportunities at hand,
A
few are trained for industrial life in the large cities;
some are trained to live as successful laborers in the
small town; and others are educated for subsistance agricul­
ture on their small reservations.
The following vocational subjects are offered to boys
3
in the agricultural division:
Animal Husbandry
Beef and Range Management
Dairying
Gardening
General Farming
General Farm Mechanics
Subsistance Enterprises (for the individual and
for partnerships)
For rural community living the following subjects
are given:
Animal Husbandry
Auto, Truck and Tractor Use and Repair
Blacksmithing
Carpentry
Concrete Work
Farm Electricity
Farm Plumbing
Gardening
General Farming
Painting
3 Annual of Sherman Institute, Purple and Gold (River­
side, California: Associated Students, 1940), p. 104.
13
Boys who desire industrial training may elect courses
Auto Mechanics
Baking
Barbering
Carpentry
C ooking
Concrete and Plaster
Electrical and Sheet Metal Work
General Metals and Welding
Mill and Cabinet Work
Painting and Decorating
Plumbing
Stationary Engineering
Four different types of vocational training are open
to girls.
For those interested in Rural Homemaking the fol­
lowing subjects are given:
Child Care
Home Care and Upkeep
Laundrying
Landscaping
Home Mechanics
Home Cooking and Canning
Home Sewing and Mending
Home Gardening, Orchard and Berry Raising
Home Poultry and Livestock
For girls interested in and capable of Applied Home
Economica the following subjects are taught:
Arts and Crafts
Clothing
Dietetics
Foods
Home Nursing
Practice Home Training
Textiles
Sewing
14
For girls who expect to earn their living in special
vocational occupations, opportunities are given for training
in cosmetology, cafeteria service, dressmaking, laundry work,
and production sewing.
For girls who expect to enter domestic
service in the towns and cities, a special course is given
in home and maidcraft.
This training in general housekeeping
is given with the latest type of gas and electrical equip­
ment.
Laundry and cleaning techniques are stressed.
Fancier cooking with more complicated menus is a feature of
this course.
All vocational courses are given under as natural
conditions as possible.
industry.
The shops are comparable to any in
The farming is done with the tools the Indian is
likely to own at the start in subsistance farming.
The girls in the subsistance homemaking course work
in a one-room cabin which is furnished with equipment the
girls have made.
ovens.
They use outdoor cooking and baking
They learn to make garden and take care of poultry
and domestic animals.
The girls are taught how to use
primitive facilities with proper sanitation.
They learn
what to grow in the garden and how to combine available
foods to the best advantage.
15
Related academic curriculum*
The related academic
curriculum includes courses in English* social science,
science, mathematics, music and physical education.
Table I shows the course and time requirements at
Sherman Institute.
A description of the various academic
subjects follows:
The content of all the English courses is
chosen to give experience to the student in reading, writing,
and speaking.
Some of the English classes are really
remedial reading classes.
Others give training in letter
writing and ordering from the catalog.
Those in the
college preparatory group study literature and do the
composition assignments found in the ordinary high school
preparatory course for students belonging to the white
race.
A library course is given in all lour divisions for
four years.
In this course the student is taught how to
use the library, and his reading is supervised.
Dramatics is' studied in a class scheduled separately
from the English time allotment.
Ninth and tenth grade
students study dramatics one semester for two forty-five
minute periods per week.
Miss Wilma E. Wilcox of the Eng ­
lish staff at Sherman Institute in a personal conference
16
TABLE I
COURSE AND TIME REQUIREMENTS FOR
SHERMAN INSTITUTE
1939-1940
Subject
TECHNICAL
Grade ♦Periods No. of
per wk. weeks
English
»
n
Drama
ii
Library
«
«
«
Civics
Economics
Family Re­
lations
History
American In­
stitutions
Senior Prob­
lems
Phys. Ed.
*
«
Voc. Sci. &
Physiology
Gen. Sci. &
Physiology
Voc. Sci. &
Gen. Sci.
Biology
Bio.or Agri.
Voc. Sci.
Physics
Chemistry
Arithmetic
9
10
11
9
10
9
10
11
12
9
10
5
5
5
2
2
2
2
4 or ♦ ♦ m
4 or £1
3
3
36
36
36
18
18
36
36
36
36
36
36
INDUSTRIAL
Periods No.of
per wk. weeks
5
5
6
2
2
4
4
4 or E L
4 or El
3
3
36
36
36
18
18
36
36
36
36
36
36
AGRICULTURE
Periods No. of
per wk. weeks
5
&
6
2
2
4
4
4 or HI
4 or EL
3
3
36
36
36
9
9
36
36
36
36
36
36
SPECIAL
Periods No. of
per wk. weeks
36
5
36
5
36
5
9
2
9
2
36
4
36
4
36
4 or £1
36
4 or Ml
36
3
36
3
11
11
2
5
36
36
2
5
36
36
2
5
36
36
3
3
36
36
12
4
36
2
36
2
36
4
36
12
9
10
3
3
4
36
36
36
3
3
4
36
36
36
3
3
4
36
36
36
2
3
4
36
36
36
9
5
36
1
36
2
36
2
36
2
36
9
10
2
36
5
10
10
6
11
36
6
11
36
5
12
2
9
ii
2
10
36
9
3
Algebra
«
36
3
10
36
3
12
Geometry
18
2
2
9
Music
*
18
2
2
10
18
36
9
18
Vocations
t
18
36
18
10
n
18
36
18
11
ii
18
&
16 &1
36
18
12
♦Periods were 40 minutes long.
♦♦Si means elective•
36
2
6
36
36
36
36
2
2
36
36
2
2
36
36
18
18
36
36
36
36
2
2
18
18
18
18 & 16 El
18
18
36
36
36
36
2
2
18
18
18 & 16 £1
18 & 16 SSL
18
18
36
36
36
36
36
-
17
said that the aim of the English courses was to make the
Indian student able to read and write effectively for his
purpose; therefore a wider range of materials and practices
are found in their English courses than in the schools for
white pupils where the background is different.
Social science.
Civics is the social science taught
to all ninth graders in the four divisions.
It is very
elementary and teaches the foundations of American citizen­
ship .
Economics and guidance make up the social science
course for the tenth graders in all sections.
Conservation
with the teachers in this department revealed that the main
emphasis was upon Indian opportunities and how the Federal
laws and rulings affect the Indian1s economic future.
General labor conditions in the United States and general
economic conditions are reviewed with special reference
to the Indian.
Various text books and pamphlets are used
in this course.
In the eleventh grade all students study American
history.
It is a chronological study and not much differ­
ent from the usual text book treatment given in the tradi­
tional high school.
Eleventh graders also study first aid, Indian cul­
ture, youth psychology and household budgeting in a course
called Family Relations*
Nine weeks is devoted to the
study of each of these subjects.
In the twelfth grade all students take a course in
American Institutions.
This is really an advanced civics
course combined with an objective view of white American
civilization.
All four sections also take a course called
Senior Problems which includes these four units:
of the Sick,
(2) Domestic Relations,
4
and (4) House Planning.
Science.
(1) Care
(3) Youth Problems,
Vocational science and physiology are
given to ninth grade students in the
technical11 (general
high school course), agricultural and special sections.
Students in the industrial section take general science
and physiology.
This vocational science is a special
study of the scientific phenomena observed in the shops
and the application of scientific principles.
The
physiology is a study of structure and function in its
application to human health.
In the tenth grade biology and genetics are offered
to the technical section, biology alone to the industrial
4 Registration cards for Sherman Institute (River­
side, California: Sherman Press, 1940)
19
section, biology or agriculture to the agricultural section
and vocational science and genetics to the special section
(composed of students irregular in grade or whose I. Q.
placement is low).
In the eleventh grade students in the technical sec­
tion take physics, while those in the other three groups
study vocational science.
In the twelfth grade only those in the technical
section take science.
They study chemistry, which is the
usual college preparatory course, modified to meet their
interests arising from the wider experiences in the shops
and laboratories.
Music.
Vocal or instrumental music is offered twice
a week for thirty minutes to all students in the ninth and
tenth grades, and is elective in the eleventh and twelfth
grades.
The band is a regular musical organization of the
school and has a regular practice period of one hour on
5
each Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday evening.
It furnishes
music for all athletic events and gives special concerts.
5 Annual of Sherman Institute, op. cit., p. 27.
The orohestra practices two hours a week and supplies music
for general assemblies and special occasions*
The dance
band is organized to play for school dances and small gather­
ings.
From the membership of the band boys and girls are
selected for a chorus in which they learn to do solo and
group singing*
A junior band is organized each fall to
locate and train younger musicians for the regular school
band.
Student government*
The students in the various
living quarters elect a council to help in the administration
of house government.
This council elects a cabinet of four­
teen members, each of whom is sponsored by a faculty member.
The cabinet members, called commissioners, consider such
matters as finance, athletics and civic duties and make
recommendations which go before the Student Body House of
Representatives.
This group is composed of all the class
and club officers.
Athletics.
It was found that athletics were
thoroughly organized on both an interscholastic and on an
intra-mural basis.
Varsity football is played under the
elegibility rules which obtain for all senior high schools
in California.
The boys who are too old for regular high
school competition are organized as an all-star team and
play against suitable groups*
A regular junior high foot­
ball team is organized for the younger boys who play against
the junior high sohool teams of the vicinity.
Basketball is organized on the same plan.
is one of the major sports.
Wrestling
The Sherman wrestling team
competed in fourteen matches, ten dual meets, and four tour­
naments in 1940.
Baseball is recognized as a regular inter­
school sport.
The Lettermanfs Club, composed of men who have won
recognition in athletics, cooperates with the school
authorities in planning a good physical education program.
Religious training.
Sherman Institute follows the
practice generally found in the government boarding schools
of setting aside Thursday evening for the various denomina­
tional groups to receive instruction.
A Sunday School is
conducted on the campus on Sunday mornings and students are
urged to attend the downtown church of their choice.
Clubs
are also organized for students to study the religious
problems in which they are interested.
Social program.
Boys and girls are allowed to eat
at the same tables in the dining room.
They may visit to­
gether on the campus after: school hours until dark.
The
various Glasses and clubs have regularly scheduled dances
and parties which §re -under staff approval.
An all school
assembly twice a month gives the students an opportunity
.to present programs and enjoy school spirit.
The club program.
Aside from student government,
music and athletic organizations, sixteen interest clubs
were in operation at Sherman Institute.
Each of the clubs
alms to broaden the experience of the student and provide
an avenue for the cultivation of better personal and school
spirit.
The organizations for boys ares
Agricultural Club
Craftsman1s Club
Junior Lions
Dramatics Club
Catholic Club
Y.M.C.A.
Boy Scouts (2 troups)
The organizations for girls are:
4 E Clubs
Home Economics Clubs
Lion Tamers
Dramatics
Catholic, Club
Y.W.C.A.
Girl Scouts (2 troups)
Guidance program.
Most of the guidance is done upon
entering the school for the first time.
ment tests are given.
Mental and achieve
Conferences with students along the
23
line of their interests are used in placing students in
the proper divisions.
The teachers and the residence hall
deans are ready to help students in any type of problem
that arises.
The vocational courses are expected to fur­
nish practical guidance to the students.
The entire
educational program at Sherman Institute is really a
guidance program.
Students are moved from division to
division as their needs and capacities become apparent.
III.
CURRICULUM EVALUATION
A curriculum exists to provide a method for attaining
the objectives of a school.
In his message to the graduat­
ing class of 1940, Mr. D. H. Biery, the superintendent,
stated that the training and development received at Sherman
were designed to help the student meet the difficulties and
confusion of today*s work and equip him to do his part in
making Sherman Institute, Indians, and America improve and
6
advance.
Most of the students are California Indians, which
means that they come from small Indian communities situated
generally in the poorest parts of California for agriculture.
Many come from the elementary schools established for white
6 Annual of Sherman Institute, loc. cit.
24
children and have failed to achieve the educational objec­
tives there, because of ill health, poverty, or social
discrimination.
Many of the students are from broken homes.
This places a tremendous burden upon the schoolfs curricu­
lum.
Sherman Institute is striving to meet its objectives
in vocational competence, in social and economic insight,
and in cultural advancement.
An evaluation based upon the six elements recommended
7
by the Cooperative Study of Secondary School Standards
shows Sherman Institute to excel on curriculum, library
and guidance.
instruction.
It is about average on pupil activity and
There are not enough data to rate it on out­
comes of instruction.
Commercial subjects are not offered, except begin­
ning typewriting, which is considered a tool for those who
elect journalism instead of chemistry and geometry in their
senior year, and as a tool for letter writing in the indus­
trial section.
No cultural survey Gourses are offered.
A history
of culture to precede the senior course in American institu­
tions would greatly strenghen the background of the superior
students in the technical section.
7 "How to Evaluate a Secondary School," A Manual of
the Cooperative Study of Secondary School Standards' (Washing ton, D.C., 1 7 7 Jackson Place, 1940), p. 9.
CHAPTER IV
CURRICULUM OF THE FLANDREAU INDIAN
VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
This chapter on the curriculum of the Fiandreau
Indian Vocational High School at Fiandreau, South Dakota,
was divided into three sections:
(1) history,
(2) curri­
culum, and (3) curriculum evaluation.
The material was largely gathered from the excellent
publications of the school.
These sources were supplemented
by correspondence with the superintendent of the school and
with the Division of Education in the Office of Indian
Affairs, Washington, D.C.
I.
HISTORY
The Fiandreau Indian Vocational High School had its
1
origin in an Indian mission church built in 1871.
It con­
tinued as a mission school for two years and then was
purchased by the United StatesT government.
site was selected in 1892.
given this boarding school.
The present
Riggs1 Institute was the name
Riggs was a pioneer missionary
to the Dakota Indians.
^
Bow and Arrow (Fiandreau, South Dakota: Senior
Class of the Fiandreau Indian Vocational High School, 1939),
pp. 7-8.
At first the school was ungraded and most of the
teaching was done by charts and pictures.
Progress was
rapid and hy 1898 the first class of twelve was graduated
from the ninth grade.
Although an industrial teacher had heen sent to the
school in the beginning and a domestic science teacher in
1908, it was not until 1924 that the institution really
became an industrial school*
Since that time there has
been a steady enrichment and extension of the curriculum
into the industrial fields.
The academic work has been
more closely related to the vocational needs.
At present the school is under the supervision of
the Department of the Interior, Office of Indian Affairs,
T/ashington, D.C.
The student body for the year 1940-41
consisted of 254 boys and 291 girls under the direction
of a staff of 70.
The school is fully accredited to the
Department of Public Instruction of the State of South
Dakota.
Forty buildings, suited to the school1s program,
make up the physical plant.
II.
CURRICULUM
The emphasis of the school is upon vocational
competence.
A study of the curriculum shows that the edu­
cational philosophy behind the program is that competence
depends upon theoretical understanding, coupled with train­
ing in manual activities, wherever possible.
Twenty voca­
tional and nine related academic courses are offered.
These courses are organized into lour general divisions
of five years each, except the college entrance division,
which is four years in length.
These four divisions are
agricultural, trade, homemaking and college entrance.
The following vocational subjects are offered:
Agriculture
Baking
Barbering
hairy
Electrical Work
Farming
Highway Engineering
Masonry
Mechanical Drawing and Drafting
Metal Work
Stationary Engineering
Transportati on
Woodwork
Homemaking I, II, III
Home Management
Arts and Crafts
Child Development
Commercial Foods
Commercial Sewing
■ Cosmetology
Library Science
Matron* s Work
The vocational courses include instruction of a
practical and theoretical nature.
This instruction may be
given in the shop or under field conditions and is given
at the place and time when it is most effectively learned.
28
In addition to the vocational subjects there is a
department known as the related academic. . The following
subjects are taught in this department:
Agriculture
Biological Sciences
Business Training Subjects
English
Health
Mathematics
Music
Physical Sciences
Social Sciences
The course and time requirements for Fiandreau Indian
Vocational High School are shown in Table II.
Since the vocational subjects are essentially what
their names imply, it was not thought necessary to discuss
the content of each one*
With the related academic subjects
there is such a variation of content possible that a des­
cription of each one was considered necessary.
English.
Four courses are given in English.
Eng­
lish I and II provide experiences in speaking, writing, and
reading English.
Recreational and purposeful reading on the
part of the pupils are encouraged.
English III consists of
speaking, writing, and reading with some grammar and bio­
graphies of writers and speakers.
English IV deals with
creative writing and with American and English literature.
Partial alternates or electives to take the place
of the regular work in English are dramatics, journalism,
29
TABLE II
COURSE AND TIME REQUIREMENTS FOR
FLANDREAU INDIAN VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
1939-1940
Agriculture
Hours
Yrs.
per wk.
Homemaking
Hours
Yrs.
per wk.
Trade
College Entrance
Yrs.
Hours Y r s . Hours
per wk.
per wk •
English
5
4
5
4
5
4
5
4
Soc. Sci.
5
3
5
1
5
3
5
3
Vocations
15
5
15
5
15
5
15
3
Mathematics
5
2
5
2
5
2
5
2
Phys. E d .
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
Science
5
3
5
3
5
3
5
3
Institu10
tional work
1
10
1
10
1
10
1
* For 1‘il‘th year students only.
30
public speaking, and debate.
Public speaking may take the
place of one lull year in the English course.
Social sciences.
There are eleven subjects taught
in the social science department.
These are ancient history,
medieval and modern history, American history, anthropology,
economics, international relations, American government and
citizenship, sociology, parliamentary law, minority group
problems, and commercial and economic geography.
In the ancient history course the social, industrial,
commercial, religious and literary angles are emphasized.
In medieval and modern history the emphasis is placed
chronologically on human progress, showing relationship
to contemporary problems.
American history treats of the
origin and development of the Indian race, the early
Indian and European relations, the growth of the Indian
service, the development of the West and the Indian con­
flict, the reservation system, the Dawes Act and the
allotment policy, changed conditions for the Indian since
1900, colonial America, the making of the American nation,
national development, territorial expansion, division and
conflict, the industrialization of the United States,
imperialism and world relations, and the United States in
the twentieth century.
Anthropology deals with man as a social being and
with problems relating to his origin*
The races, languages,
and cultures found .in different localities and following
each other in the course of time, furnish the material for
this study.
Special stress will be placed upon the Indian
and his relation to anthropology*
Economics deals with the basic laws of supply and
demand in reference to labor, land, rents, money, and vari­
ous commodities.
The International Relations course aims to inform
the student and make him able and willing to share in the'
solution of world problems.
American Government and Citizenship includes the
usual subject matter.
The structure of the federal consti­
tution and of the South Dakota state constitution receives
great emphasis.
The theoretical and practical services of
government, as well as of citizenship, are stressed.
In Sociology the students study the traditional
subject matter organized from the viewpoint of society in
general, rather than from the individual and community
viewpoint•
Parliamentary Law deals with the rules, practices,
and customs which regulate the procedure of deliberative
assemblies*
The following four principles are stressed:
(1) justice to all,
(2) consideration of one principle at
a time, (3) majority rule, and (4) the safeguarding of the
rights of the minority.
The course, Minority Group Problems, deals with the
various problems of minority groups with particular stress
placed upon the problems of the Indian— his educational
opportunities, social and economic possibilities under
Indian self-government, intelligent citizenship, and his
political parties and elections.
Commercial and Economic Geography deals with world
production and world markets, and seeks to enlighten the
student in reference to his own economic future.
The physicai and biological sciences.
In the
physical and biological sciences the following five subjects
are taught:
chemistry, physics, biology, health education,
and general science.
The Chemistry course meets college entrance require­
ments, but is approached through individual vocational
problems from the shop courses.
In Physics the content and treatment are tradition­
al.
A survey of the known physical forces is presented from
a logical point of view.
The Biology course presents biological facts and
principles primarily as factors in human health and hygiene.
33
The course in health education covers the following:
(1) camp leadership to train girls for scout leaders and
to manage camp work;
(2) co-recreation for reservations
which prepares girls to organize recreational groups and to
make simple play equipment;
(3) folk dances of the various
nations with special emphasis on native Indian dances; and
(4)
a study of health education and hygiene to promote a
program of health knowledge and good health habits.
The general science is modern in content and in
treatment.
The radio* the airplane and television are
adequately treated.
Scientific method is stressed and open
mindedness emphasized.
Mathematics.
offered.
Six different mathematics courses are
The course in general mathematics is open to all
first-year students.
The object . . . is to give the student a working
knowledge of ratio, proportion, percentage, interest,
commercial problems, equations, powers, roots, plane
figures, and shop problems for b o y s . Similar . . .
problems of the household will be stressed for girls ?~
The business arithmetic is organized to help the student
to manage his own finances on an efficient basis.
ness and accuracy are aims of the course.
Quick­
Algebra is
taught for those whose aim is college entrance.
2 Student Handbook, 1940-41, Fiandreau Indian Voca­
tional High School, p. 29.
34
The mathematics for girls "provides the basic fundamentals,
as well as the specialized practical applications of
mathematics, necessary for homemaking, the trades, and in-
3
dustrial occupations open to women." -The geometry is
traditional in content, and designed primarily for those
seeking college entrance.
The trigometry is mainly for
highway engineering students, and is adapted for their
special needs.
Business training.
Four subjects are taught in
the business training department:
law, typewriting and shorthand.
covers the basic principles.
bookkeeping, commercial
The bookkeeping course
The commercial law deals
with rents, labor laws, cattle branding regulations,
irrigation rights, and contracts, all of which are of local
application, as well as the law governing sales, negotiable
instruments, partnerships, and private corporations.
The
typewriting is a "practical course training for personal use,
and a preparatory course for students who desire to continue
4.
in commercial work."
8 Ibid., p. 30.
* -Ibid., p. 27.
In shorthand, Gregg is the system
35
studied,
The course is mainly concerned with mastering the
theory of Gregg shorthand.
Exercises in reading, dictation,
and transcription are given as time permits.
Agriculture.
Pour courses are given in agriculture.
Agriculture I is presented from the scientific viewpoint.
The chemistry, physics, and biology of soils and the
science of growth in plants and animals are studied.
"Agriculture II is a study of land utilization, in which
the following units of work will be offered:
erosion con­
trol, irrigation, grazing, forestry, gardening, fishing,
dairying, animal husbandry, poultry, field crops, horti5
culture, landscaping, and services related to agriculture."
The two courses in Agriculture III and IV deal with farm
management and marketing.
They cover the financing of
farms, analyzing farm incomes, balancing farm business,
selecting a farm, planning homesteads, efficient use of
labor, equipping a farm with machinery, leasing a farm,
keeping farm records and developing technical knowledge
in the marketing of agricultural products.
5 Ibid., p. 26.
6 Ibid., p. 31.
36
Music.
In music opportunity Tor participation in
band, orchestra, vocal groups, and music appreciation
classes is offered.
Work in the vocal groups consists of
standard choral arrangements, idealized arrangements of
Indian melodies, good current popular music, and operettas.
Student government.
Training in citizenship is
further emphasized at the Fiandreau School through a
n
thoroughly organized and active student government. The
school constitution-sets up a commission type of government
which has the responsibility of promoting and supervising
all student activities with the advice and consent of the
faculty.
Two commissioners each serve for finance, home,
school, athletics, social, civic duties, and labor, or a
total of fourteen.
A president and secretary also serve
with this council.
The nominating committee is composed
of the b o y s 1 advisor, girls1 advisor, two members from the
council, and a boy and a girl selected by the student body
president, who is the president of the council.
Athletics.
In 1939 athletic activities were
% Ibid., pp. 42-50.
football, basketball, boxing and track*
Nine inter-school
football games and fifteen games of basketball were played
The Fiandreau School won the championship of the South
Dakota Class A high schools in basketball.
Sixty boys
were active in boxing with twenty entering inter-school
competition.
They won the eight bouts they entered.
There are eight intra-mural clubs in the school which
have athletic activities, as well as other interests.
The
Letterman*s Club fosters good sportmanship and interests
prospective athletes in the school.
Girls* athletics are under the direction of the
Girls* Athletic Association.
played.
No out-of-school games are
Their objective is a sport for every girl and a
girl for every sport.
Interest clubs and organizations.
est clubs are in operation.
Seventeen inter
Nearly every student is a
member in one, because such membership is a requirement
for participation in intra-mural athletic contests.
club membership is limited to thirty.
are:
Each
The girls* clubs
G.A.A., Hobby Club, Home Economics Club, Economics
Club, Current Events Club, Knitting Club, Travel, and
Hiking.
The boys* clubs are:
Gentlemen of Riggs (house
club), Racketeers, Lions, Wildcats, Coyotes, Aces, Royal
Knights, and Vikings.
Other student organizations are
58
the Drama Club, Future Farmers of America, Trade and Indus­
tries Club, St, J o s e p h s Club, Little Chiefs, Hi-Y, Y.W.C.A.,
St, Theresa’s Sodality, the Letterman’s Club, Big Brothers,
Big Sisters, and the Tekawetha Club,
Religious program.
upon religious interests.
Four of the clubs are based
The members of the several
denominational groups meet weekly.
Classes in religious
instruction are offered and may be elected as regular
’’credit courses.11 Attendance at town churches is encouraged.
j
III.
CURRICULUM EVALUATION
A curriculum exists for the student.
Before evaluat­
ing the curriculum, some mention must be made of the economic
and social background of the Indian student.
Though some
Indians were educated before 1900, the vast majority of the
high school population today comes from homes where the
parents are poorly educated.
The swift economic and social
changes of the last forty years have more completely upset
the Indian than the white man.
The result is that Indian
youth today h a w need for a specially strong education that
will fortify them economically, morally and socially.
The
young people who attend Fiandreau Indian Vocational High
School come from the wind-denuded prairies of the Dakotas
and the middle Northwest.
Boverty is the rule.
Therefore
59
Fiandreau specializes in agriculture and ranching courses
for this semi-arid region*
It offers enough trade courses
to enable the students to improve their physical living
conditions.
It emphasizes cultural social values and
seeks to cultivate in the student a desire to make a
worthy contribution to American life.
Bourne states as follows.with reference to evaluat­
ing a curriculum:
(1) The objectives of the curriculum must be met.
(2) The needs of the student are paramount.
(3) The schools must articulate with life demands.
(4) The curriculum must embody the content of the social
need.
3
(5) Principles of growth should be evident.
The Fiandreau School appears to have met these five criteria
very creditably.
Economic, social, and moral competence is
the main objective of the school.
The vocational and aca­
demic courses are organized to prepare the student to live
on the prairie and to be master of the environment there.
Because the student has more than economic needs, a strong
social and cultural program is offered.
The curriculum and course of study is only one of the
8 W. R. Bourne, "Contribution to Education," George
Peabody College for Teachers, Vol. 16 (Nashville, Tennessee,
1925)p p . 1-143.
40
six items considered for evaluation by the Cooperative Study
9
of Secondary School Standards.
Pupil activity is another.
The strong club, athletic, musical, and social program
offered at Fiandreau reinforce the classroom activities.
Guidance is centered in the health department, but all
teachers and staff members are expected to aid the student
in the most effective way.
The opportunities given for
religious training are a part of the guidance program.
The outcomes of instruction are fully seen when a
comparison is .made between the older generation and the
present one on such points as vital statistics, number of
livestock on the range, increase in the value of personal
property, and increase in optimism toward the future.
Thus it is apparent that the Fiandreau Indian Vocational
High School is fully justified in its curriculum and that
it is discharging its obligations to the Sioux and related
tribes.
9 r,How to Evaluate a Secondary School,” A Manual of
the Cooperative Study of Secondary School Standards (Washington, D.C., 1940), p. 9.
CHAPTER V
THE CURRICULUM OP HASKELL INSTITUTE
This chapter on the curriculum oi* Haskell Institute
at Lawrence, Kansas, was divided into three sections:
(1) history,
(2) curriculum, and (3) curriculum evaluation.
The method used was library research, supplemented by
correspondence with the superintendent of the school and
with the Division of Education in the Office of Indian
Affairs at Washington, D. C.
I.
HISTORY
Unlike Plandreau Indian Vocational High School,
Haskell Institute was never a mission school.
It was
founded by Congress in 1883 as one of three non-reserva­
tion schools devoted to agricultural and industrial
training for Indians.
It was located at Lawrence, Kansas,
on 280 acres of land contributed by the town.
Today the
school has one thousand acres of land with one hundred
buildings.
1
The school opened with fourteen boys.
After a
1 Student Publication, The Indian Leader, 17:4,
May, 1940.
42
few weeks five girls and three more hoys enrolled.
The
faculty consisted of a principal with four women teachers.
At first the school was ungraded.
Learning to work and
learning the English language were the main features of
the curriculum.
By 1894 the student body numbered six hundred
sixty with six hoys and three girls graduating from the
eighth grade.
Gradually high school subjects were added
and by 1926 Haskell Institute became accredited with the
Kansas State Board of Education.
All grades below the
eighth were eliminated and two years of junior college
subjects were added.
In 1931 the peak enrollment of twelve hundred was
reached.
Vocational and academic work were both stressed
at that time.
In 1939-1940 the enrollment was seven hun­
dred twenty-one.
One hundred eighty-three students were
full bloods, one hundred thirty-eight were three-fourths
degree, while the rest were of varying mixtures.
II.
CURRICULUM
Today Haskell accepts the challenge of the future.
Its program must be flexible and elastic to meet the
changing demands of society.
The present program attempts
to develop well-rounded personalities capable of making
43
necessary social adjustments, well trained in the rudiments
2
of health, and equipped to make a living and a home.
Therefore, the curriculum is arranged so that the first two
years give a broad general foundation and the last two
emphasize vocational skill.
Twenty vocational and seven related academic
courses are offered. ' The courses are organized into two
general divisions of four years each.
for boys and homemaking for girls.
These are vocations
Neither agricultural
nor college entrance subjects are given at Haskell.
Beyond the high school level a two-year commerce course
is given, but it does not fall within the scope of this
study.
The following academic courses are given:
English,
mathematics, music, physical science, life sciences, social
science, and physical education.
The vocational courses
for boys are:
Auto Mechanics
Baking
Blacksmithing and Welding
Carpentry
Electrical Work
Gardening
Leathercraft and Shoe Repair
Masonry
2 Ibid., p. 16.
Painting and Decorating
Plumbing
Power Plant Operation
Printing
Related Drafting
Hobby work in metals, leather, wood, etc.
For girls the vocational offerings are:
Arts and Crafts
Child Care and Development
Clothing
Foods
Design
Weaving
Home Management
A summary of course and work requirements appears
in Table III.
All vocational courses include instruction of both
a practical and a theoretical nature in regular classes
which are carried on in modern shop and classrooms with
the aid of excellent equipment.1* The vocational courses
are what their names imply, but a description of the
academic courses is necessary because of the variation
of content possible in each.
English.
The philosophy and method back of the
English courses at Haskell, as stated by Mr* Solon G.
Ayres, the principal, in material sent out in November
of 1940 are as follows:
3 Haskell Institute Bulletin (Lawrence, Kansas:
Student Printing Apprentices of Haskell Institute, 1937),
p. 19#
TABLE III
_GGURSE AND TIME REQUIREMENTS FOR
HASKELL INSTITUTE
1939-1940
Homemaking
Grades 9 & 10
♦Periods Yrs.
per wk.
English
Bus. Eng.
Soc. Sci.
Vocations
Grades 11 & 1Z
Periods
Yrs.
per wk.
5
Z
5
1 1/2
5
Z
z
z
13
60
5
9
Vocations
Mathemat ice
5
Voc. Math.
Music
1
Phye. M .
2
Science
5
Institutional
1/4 day
work
z
z
z
2
5
5
1
1/2
5
1
2
1/2
10
5
1
1
1
1
2
5
1
1
2
1 1/2
z
Grade 9
Periods Yrs.
per wk.
1/4 day
Grade 10
Periods Yrs.
per wk.
5
5
Grade 11
Periods Yrs.
per wk.
Grade 12
Periods Yrs
per wk.
1/4
1
31
1
5
1
2
5
1
1
44
1
44
1
1
1
1
* Periods were 45 minutes long.
CJ1
In September, 1940, a definite reading program
was adopted at Haskell Institute.
This program is more
than a remedial attempt. The plan is based upon the
principle that reading is a means to an end— education.
If a student learns to read well, he has the principal
tool with which to acquire an education.
Thus, If a
person is a good reader, he is in position to get an
education.
In fact, he has gained considerable educa­
tion in this accomplishment.
Thus, reading is, in
fact, an end as well as a means to an end.
The objectives of the Haskell reading program
are as follows:
1* To stimulate the child to enjoy and to do
voluntary reading
2. To improve interpretation
3. To help the child gain command of the mechanics
of reading
4. To establish the reading habits and the use
of special reading techniques essential to efficient
study.
The remedial instruction consists of the following
factors:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Word recognition
Word meaning
Gaining the exact meaning
(1) Discovering the central idea
(2) Answering specific questions
Remembering what is read.
All ninth and tenth grade students are scheduled
for regular reading courses which meet three times a
week. These students are grouped according to their
reading ability.
This ability was. determined by a
standardized reading test which was given at the
beginning of the school year. Students in the lov/er
levels are being given remedial instruction. Students
in the upper levels do supervised reading and are
given any help that is necessary. All students are
encouraged to read for pleasure, as well as for
educational purposes. Definite improvement is
already evident in both quality and quantity of reading.
4?
In English I reading, speaking and writing receive
the major emphasis.
Interest in reading is stimulated
through radio and visual education.
The text hooks Tor the
course are Essentials of Everyday English, published by
Laidlaw Brothers, Chicago: and Literature and Life (Book I),
published by Scott, Foresman Company, Chicago.
In English II the emphasis is on the elimination
of speech errors.
Special units on vocabulary building,
troublesome verbs, punctuation, capitalization, diction,
use of the library, subject and verb agreement, and words
frequently confused are included.
Reading for comprehen­
sion and appreciation are phases of the course.
The text
books are Correct English (Introductory Course), published
by Ginn and Company, Chicago: and Western Prose and Poetry,
published by Harper and Bros., New York.
English III is a fusion with economic and vocational
materials.
A review of the first two years is included.
The text books used are English for Success and Exercise
for Services, both of which are written by Walsh and
Walsh and published by McCormick-Mathers, Wichita, Kansas.
English XV is a half-year course devoted to gram­
mar review, business letter writing, and to writing
articles for the Indian Leader, which is a semi-monthly
student publication.
The fftextn designated for the course
is The American Observer (Weekly News).
Social Science.
Three courses are included in the
field of social science.
The first course is American
History for Indians, which is designed first, to stimulate
within the individual student a desire for cultural
development through his inquiry into contemporary life;
and second, to'place at the student1s command a knowledge
of where and how effectively to study and to evaluate the
political, social, economic, and civic questions confronted
4
in life.
The second course is Social Civics given in the
eleventh grade.
The three text hooks used indicate the
tone of this subject.
These texts are (1) My; Worth to
the World by Capen and Melchior, published by the American
Book Co.; (2) Social Civics by Monroe, published by
Macmillan; and (3) Principles of Social Civics by
Williamson and IFesley, published by D. C. Heath and Co.,
all of Chicago, Illinois.
The third course is one on the United States con­
stitution and is designed for the eleventh or twelfth
grade.
The two texts used ares
(1) American Government
by Macgruder, published by Allyn and Bacon, Chicago; and
(2) Know Your Constitution by Prank, published by
McCormick-Mathers, Wichita, Kansas.
4 Ibid., p. 16.
49
Mathsmatica.
Aside from the strictly trade mathematics,
two general courses are offered.
The one for the ninth
grade ?tprovides for drill in the fundamental processes,
problems involving home budgeting and community expense,
graphs, and other mathematical applications to everyday
5
life.
The text is Living Mathematics by Ruch, Knight and
Hawkins, published by Scott, Foresman Company.
Integrated
Mathematics is the course for the tenth grade.
nThis course
emphasizes the application of mathematics to the personal,
6
social, business, and vocational needs of a student.”
Physical Education.
aspects.
The health program has three
Physical education classes are required of all
ninth and tenth grade students.
Eleventh and twelfth
grade girls are required to take the classes, but the boys
are not, because their vocational work requires so much
physical exertion.
Also many of the boys are in intra­
mural and interscholastic sports.
The school physician is
scheduled for regular talks to the student body.
in hygiene is offered to freshman girls.
Definite health
instruction is emphasized in the science courses.
5 Ibid., p. 15.
6 Loc. cit.
A course
-•
50
Science.
More science of a general nature is offered
to girls than to hoys at Haskell,
There is so much science
in the vocational courses for hoys that only two years- of
academic science is required of them.
General science for the ninth grade is the usual
collection of units of health, food, shelter, industry,
commerce,
astronomy.
transportation, communication, sanitation and
One objective of the course is counteraction
of superstitutions.
The text is Everyday Problems in
Science by Peiper and Beauchamp, published by Scott, Foresman Company of Chicago.
Natural science (life science) for the tenth grade
is based upon vocational needs.
The girls study substances and reactions in order to
understand such basic principles as food changes,
digestion, cleaning, laundering, and dyeing. The boys
study natural resources such as raw materials and their
treatment to produce the necessary products of industry.
From the student’s own questions, aroused by his voca­
tional experiences in life situations, he is guided*in
his investigations.'
The four text books used are:
(1) Living Things and You,
by Downing and McAtee,' published by Lyons and Carnahan,
Chicago, Illinois;
(2) Everyday Biology* Curtis Caldwell,
and Sherman, Ginn and Company, Chicago;
(3) Dynamic Biology,
Baker, Mills and Connor, Hand, McNally and Co., Chicago;
7 Haskell Institute Bulletin, lop., cit.
51
(4) New General Biology, Smallwood, Reveley and Bailey,
Allyn and Bacon,Chicago,
Chemistry for senior girls is the usual general chemis­
try, hut at Haskell special emphasis is placed on the food
and organic chapters of the texts, which are Practical Chemis­
try hy Black and Conant and Senior Science by Ptacek and
Kovats.
The American Book Company of Chicago is the publisher
of both these texts.
Physics for junior and senior girls is a half-year
course designed to give a better understanding of the prin­
ciples of common household appliances.
The text is Home
Mechanics for Girls, which is published by the McCormickMathers Company of Wichita, Kansas.
Student government.
Student government is not as well
developed as at Flandreau Indian Vocational High School.
Haskell has a student council of six boys and six girls,
8
representing the four dormitories.
To be a counselor, a
student must have served one year as a dormitory (lodge)
officer and have an excellent record both in school and out.
flThe duties of the Council are to act as a go-between for
students and advisors, and to assist in the formation of
9
rules and regulations pertaining to the student body.”
8 Some Interesting Facts About Haskell (publication
of the Guides1 Club of Haskell Institute, March, 1940), p. 14.
9 Lo g . cit.
52
Athletics.
Athletic activities were football, basket
ball, boxing and track.
To the outside world Haskell has
always been prominent in sports.
attain All-American status.
It has had some students
But within the school itself
the purpose of athletics is to build sportsmanship among the
students.
A lettermanfs club fosters good sportsmanship.
All games are played under the rules of the Kansas and
Missouri Athletic Association.
Extensive intra-mural
athletics were on the program.
Besides the regular athletic program, Haskell has
a cavalry troop composed of 64 boys in the peace-time quota
and 90 under the war-time quota.
Haskell boys composed
50 per cent of the Honor Guard at the New York World!s Pair.
Interest clubs and organizations.
In a bulletin
sent out by Solon G.Ayres, the principal* November 6, 1940,
it is stated:
Extra-curricular activities occupy an important
position in the educational program of Haskell
Institute. These activities give a student an oppor­
tunity to exert himself according to his individual
interest.
If .individual' interests are properly guided
and encouraged, they can be made important factors
in the educational process.
All clubs meet once a week from 4:15 to 5:00 p.m.
at various places on the campus.
The following twenty-five
interest clubs were organized for the year 1940-1941:
55
Science Club
Tumbling Club
Arts and Crafts
Discussion Club
Bridge Club
Quiz Club
Girl Scouts
Home Economics Club
Junior Bed Cross
Boy Scouts
Hi-Y Club
Guides Club
Bible Club
Indian Club
Pep Club I
Pep Club II
Y.W.C.A.
Violin Club
Dancing
Archery
Woodwork
Camera Club
Dramatic Club
Music Clubs
Athletic Clubs
Religious program.
On the Haskell campus every Sunday
morning at 9:50 the Sunday School meets, as well as the lour
10
religious clubs.
groups meet.
On Thursday evenings six denominational
Students are urged to attend the church of
their choice in Lawrence every Sunday.
A full-time religious
director with twenty-one Haskell staff members are engaged
in sponsoring the many religious activities.
Sixty per cent
of the students take an active part in the religious program.
3-0 Some Interesting Facts about Haskell, o p . cit.,
p. 9
54
Guidance program.
In all the literature published
“by Haskell Institute no reference to guidance, as such, was
made, but attention was called to their new program of
supervised study.
This program provides time in the regular
class period for preparation of the assignments.
pose is (1) to teach the student how to study,
his study,
The pur­
(2) to direct
(5) to encourage him to study, and (4) to give
him a definite time to study.
In the principals bulletin,
November 6, 1940, Mr. Ayers said* •
Supervised study is believed to have special signi­
ficance in Indian schools for two reasons?
First,
because of their background, culture, and retiring
nature, many Indian students need direction and
encouragement . . . .
They are quite willing to
study if they know how to proceed.
It is the teacher1a
responsibility to show them the way. Second, Haskell
students do not have as much time for study as the
average pubxic school student.”
Social program.
The social program offered at Haskell
consists of the following:
1.
Weekly Saturday night dances sponsored by the
students of the rour dormitories in their turn.
2.
Saturday night parties in the dormitory recreation
rooms.
3.
Bi-weekly motion picture shows in the campus
auditorium.
4.
Sunday afternoon picture shows in the theaters
of Lawrence.
55
5.
Special dances and parties at irregular intervals
throughout the year, such as the get-acquainted
parties at the beginning of the school year, the
Halloween and New Year parties, the Junior-Senior
Prom, and the alumni.banquet and d a n c e . H
III.
CURRICULUM EVALUATION
As stated in Chapter IV, it is necessary to consider
the general background and economic status of the Indian
student in evaluating any curriculum designed for him.
Students from twenty-two states and Alaska attend Haskell.
Oklahoma leads with 284; Wisconsin is second; and South
Dakota, North Dakota, and Minnesota all have large repre-
12
sentations.
The students at Haskell, like those at the
Flandreau Indian Vocational High School, are from homes
generally lacking in educated parents and from localities
where economic opportunities are limited.
Haskell Institute is a vocational trade school.
At
one time it was also agricultural, but Chilocco Indian
Agricultural High School at Chilocco, Oklahoma, specialized
in agriculture and, since both serve the Middle West, Haskell
dropped agriculture as a vocational course.
The Haskell
curriculum is designed to prepare its boys to make a living
11 An account written by a student, November 6, 1940,
under the direction of the principal, Mr. Solon G. Ayres.
S°me Interesting Facts about Haskell, op. c i t ., p. 4.
56
with their manual skills and its girls to he intelligent
consumers and homemakers.
More cultural and generalized
knowledge courses are offered to girls than to hoys.
The
home economics course is very complete, as are all the
vocational trade courses,
course.
Haskell has no college entrance
The academic subjects are closely related to the
vocational problems which arise in the shop and laboratory
experiences of the pupils.
15
Bourne’s five criteria for judging a curriculum
are met acceptably at Haskell Institute.
The objectives
of the school are vocational competence and well-adjusted
citizenship.
As has been shown in section II, the curriculum
is fitted to these objectives.
The students are learning
how to make a living and how to be intelligent consumers.
In order to be well adjusted, the students need to know
more than how to earn a living.
enjoy life.
They need to learn how to
Therefore at Haskell a varied recreational and
social program is provided.
A study of the school catalogs
showed how Haskell had changed its curriculum to meet the
changing needs of different times.
The organization and
teaching methods of the school are now in process of
further improvement.
Principles of growth are evident.
13 W. R. Bourne, ’Contribution to Education,,r George
Peabody College for Teachers, Vol. 16 (Nashville, Tennessee,
1925) pp. 1-143.
57
The library is one of the six principal elements
to consider in judging an educational program, according to
14
the Cooperative Study of Secondary School Standards.
Haskell has a library of 6000 volumes and opportunity is
given for the students to make efficient use of it.
15
Guidance is another element which should be considered.
Haskell has no separate guidance organization.
is supervised.
All study
Students are carefully classified at the
time of registration; othervd.se no special guidance is
given.
The outcomes of instruction, also listed by the
16
Cooperative Study, are difficult to evaluate in an indus­
trial school, because of the recent upsets in the indus­
trial world.
The Division of Education in the Office of
Indian Affairs at Washington, D.C. is conducting an econo­
mic survey of the work of its schools, but the findings are
not yet available.
Because the future is uncertain and
change is certain, Haskell gives a broad general education
in the first two years and emphasizes vocational skill in
the last two years.
14 tfHow to Evaluate a Secondary School,11 A Manual of
the Cooperative Study of Secondary School Standards (Washing­
ton, D .C., 1940), p. 9.
15 l»oc * c i t
.
16 Loc. cit.
CHAPTER VI
CURRICULUM OP THE SANTA PE INDIAN SCHOOL
Tills chapter on the curriculum of the Santa Pe Indian
School was divided into three sections:
(1) history,
(2) curriculum, and (3) curriculum evaluation.
Most of the investigation was done on the school
campus.
The superintendent, the principal, and the teachers
were interviewed.
Classes in session were visited and con­
ferences held with students or teachers before and after
class sessions.
The school publications were studied.
library and art studios were visited.
The
Dining rooms, kitchens,
living rooms, study halls, and residence halls were observed
for their part in the total school program.
I.
HISTORY
The Santa Pe Indian School at Santa Fe, New Mexico,
began as a mission school but was turned over to the govern1
ment in 1886.
It was a one-room school with forty pupils.
Quarters were so inadequate that the Federal State House was
taken to house the school until a permanent site was purchased.
Congress appropriated $25,000 for buildings and the City of
Santa Pe gave 106 acres of land.
1 T. Wilkerson, “History of the Santa Pe Indian School”
(unpublished article prepared under N. V. Brannon for this
study, Santa Pe, New Mexico, Jan. 3, 1941), pp. 1-7.
59
The new school was completed in 1890*
the enrollment went to 177.
In two years
All students received academic
instruction and vocational training.
Brickmaking was the
main vocation at the school in 1895.
By 190& the student
body numbered 350.
In 1906 on the sixteenth annual com­
mencement five received diplomas.
Of ail the Indian
schools surveyed, this one had the largest percentage of
full blood Indians and ranked fifth in average attendance.
The school has grown rapidly.
The curriculum has
been steadily modified in trying to meet the needs of the
individual pupils.
II.
CURRICULUM
The best approach to the study of the curriculum was
found in the annual announcement of the Santa Pe Boarding
School for the year 1935-1934.
It states as follows;
Around Santa Fe are located Indian groups whose
art, culture, and traditions have survived association
with white people for over three centuries. The
desire of the school is to offer pupils an opportunity
to understand and appreciate those good things which
their people have or have had. At the same time it is
hoped that they will borrow from white civilization,
but only in those things which offer improvement and
to the extent that the improvement can be adjusted to
the lives of pupils after leaving school.2
2 Annual Announcement Santa Fe Indian Boarding Schoibl
(Santa Fe, New Mexico: Department of Interior, 1935-34^, pY I.
60
From time immemorial the Indians of the Southwest
have been subsistance farmers.
Their land feeds them.
Agriculture is a part of the lives of the people, and it ‘
5
is a part of the life of the school.11 Surveys of the
graduates and ex-pupi'ls show that they returned to their
reservations in large numbers, no matter what schools they
attended or what courses they studied.
Their agricultural
life leaves much free time, and it is felt that in their
free time lies the contribution that the Santa Fe School
can make.
It is felt that this free time is the key to fuller
material and spiritual rewards through the revival
and encouragement of native arts and crafts towards
which end this school is working. All pupils parti­
cipate and have their appreciation of the beautiful
nourished and enlarged through an acquaintance with
that which is their own.4
Vocational curriculum.
The Santa Fe Indian School
is not just another high school.
and crafts.
Its emphasis is on arts
The pupil studies painting in oil and water
colors, design, carding, spinning, navajo weaving, dyeing,
embroidery,
tanning, leather work, beadwork, basketry,
pottery making, and Indian songs and games.
3 Ibid., p. 2
4 Loc . c i t .
The pre-
61
vocational and vocational studies include:
Auto Repair
Baking
Carpentry
Cleaning and Pressing
Cement Work
Cooking
Dairying
Electricity
Farming
Gardening
Greenhouse
Heating
Home Nursing
Home Planning
Laundry
Painting
Plumbing
Sewing
Silver smithing
Shoe Repair
Tailoring
Welding
Pupils are in the school room half of each working
day.
The other half is spent in shop, field or studio.
In grade nine the student works and studies in various
places on the campus to find what crafts or vocations he
likes best or for which he is best fitted.
These he
follows with the related academic curriculum.
Pupils of
suitable age with unusual interest and ability are allowed
to spend full time in arts, crafts, or vocations.
Academic curriculum.
day in the classroom.
A student spends half of each
All the required work of each year
is taught by one teacher, so subject lines may verge accord
ing to the interests of the class or the ability of the
62
teacher in correlation.
Those who desire preparation for
college attend for a fifth year when special subjects are
given.
Those who want to prepare for teaching the arts
and crafts must stay two years above high school and
specialize in the art or craft they desire.
They must also
take practice teaching and typing.
English.
English is required in all four years.
Some literature is studied, but for three years much
emphasis must be given to public speaking and for two years
much stress must be put upon the fundamentals of composition,
which means special drill is given in spelling and vocabulary.
Mathematics.
ninth grade.
Vocational mathematics is given in the
This involves a review of the fundamental
processes in arithmetic with problems related to the arts
and crafts.
required.
In the tenth grade business mathematics is
This course includes some simple bookkeeping,
some budget work, and problems dealing with the particular
needs' of the group in marketing their craft and buying
supplies.
It also includes installment buying, farm weights
and measures, costs of grain and feeding, and profit and
loss.
In the eleventh and twelfth grades students may
elect a course in individual mathematics.
In this course
what the student studies depends entirely upon his need.
Algebra or geometry may be included.
63
Social science,
Social science for the ninth grade
is a consideration of New Mexican and Indian history.
Tenth
graders study American history from the hook hy Harold Rugg,
called American Civilization.
Original units suitable to
Indian life in New Mexico are added to the course.
The
eleventh grade studies American government and American cul­
ture as it affects the Indian.
The twelfth grade is concerned
with American problems in culture and government.
An origin­
al unit is added on Indian contribution to culture and his­
tory of New Mexico is repeated again.
Science.
In the ninth grade ail the boys take
Agricultural Science and the girls study Vocational Home
Economics.
In the tenth grade Vocational Home Economics and
Biology are offered.
The Biology stresses the simple prin­
ciples and emphasizes the control of disease and sanitation.
Related Physics is the science offered to the eleventh grade.
It is really the physics contained in the general science
course of the white high .school with special reference made
to machine and household problems.
The Chemistry of the
twelfth grade is related to sanitation, to cooking, and to
dyes used in the arts and crafts.
Physical education.
are required for four years.
Health and physical education
These courses aim to make the
64
student health, conscious and to provide him with skills for
recreational resources when he goes home.
Music.
Music is an elective for all four years.
Individuals may study piano hut it is not encouraged, "be­
cause very few Navajo or Pueblo homes have pianos.
The
Navajo and Pueblo children excel in rhythm, but not in
vocal tone quality.
Their great artistic sense is in color
and line, rather than in musical tone.
Orchestra, bands
and glee clubs are part of the musical opportunity.
and appreciation of music are given.
History
Special encouragement
is given to those who wish to prepare for research in
Indian music.and to those who plan to do original composition.
Assemblies.
Assembly programs are presented on three
Sunday evenings of every month.
They are considered the
birth place of school spirit, the welding shop of school
loyalty, the power plant of school pep. The assembly is
where school customs and traditions are kept alive;
where worthy achievements both group and individual are
given public recognition, where special talents are
developed in new performers, and discriminating tastes
cultivated in those before whom they perform.5
The school administration insists that the assembly program
be dramatic, interesting, timely, original, and inspiratlona.1.
5 Santa Fe School Calendar for 1940. p. 2,
65
Clubs.
Clubs meet once a week for fifty-five minutes.
Membership is voluntary and so is faculty sponsorship.
The
clubs are:
Dramatics Club
Boy Scouts (two troups)
4 H Clubs (3 for girls, 1 for boys)
Girl Scouts (2 troups)
Woodcarving
National Home Economics
Literary Club
Tumbling Club
Quotation Club
Girls Athletic Clubs
Indian Club (to foster and promote Indian dances, etc)
Athletics.
Inter-school and intra-mural activities
are organized for football, basketball, baseball, track and
tennis.
Student government.
Student government follows the
commission form used in the other Indian schools.
residence halls each have a house council.
The
The student body
elects fourteen commissioners who deliberate with staff
representatives on finance, athletics, civic duties, scholar­
ship, and home responsibilities.
Guidance.
as counselor.
There is no one special person designated
Ail teachers, officials and employees are
expected to be alert to the personal needs of the students.
Vocational guidance is checked upon by representatives from
the Federal Bureau who constantly survey the economic con­
ditions on the reservations.
The vocational program is
66
always changi ng•
Religious training.
for all the denominations.
to each group.
in session.
Thursday night is church night
Religious instruction is given
On Sunday morning a small Sunday School is
Mass is held on the campus for the Catholic
group.
Social program.
School assemblies, which all students
are required to attend; class and club parties, school
dances, athletic events; and residence hall affairs give
each boy and girl ample opportunity to. gain poise and confi­
dence in society.
XXI.
EVALUATION OP THE CURRICULUM
The curriculum of the Santa Pe Indian School is
specially adapted to the needs of the Navajo and Pueblo
peoples.
Agriculture furnishes their living and handicrafts
their cash.
their lives.
Art and handicraft give spiritual meaning to
Therefore the school must furnish training to
enrich these three phases of their experience.
is not just another high school.
The school
It is a place where the
needs of the students' lives are the objectives of the
curriculum.
Based upon the curriculum standards reviewed
in Chapter II of this study, the Santa Pe Indian School
meets all the requirements for a high rating.
In the
67
Manual of the Cooperative Study of Secondary School Standards
the following is stated concerning the evaluation of a
curriculum:
It must he emphasized that education is concerned
with more than the accumulation of knowledge, the
development of. skills and the improvement of the
understanding.
The emotional elements in human nature
generally determine the use or application that is made
of knowledge, understanding and skills, and also deter­
mines whether these are useful merely to their possessor
or are also useful to society.6
The Santa Fe School trains the emotions through wide use
of two art studios, through the shops where crafts are
mastered, in the classrooms where the intellect is nurtured,
and in the general activities of the school where the pupils1
social conscience is refined.
7
Mekeel, in writing on Indian education, suggested
that an education which succeeds from the viewpoint of the
white man completely disintegrates the Indian and puts him
out of rapport with his own group and community and leaves
him with no other to fit into.
Successful education must
he community education, not individual education.
Social
institutions cannot be changed by individual education
alone.
6 f,How to Evaluate a Secondary School,” A Manual of
the Cooperative Study of Secondary School Standards (Washington, D.C.:
744 Jackson Place, 1940), P* 9.
7 Scudder Mekeel, rfAn Anthropologist1s Observation
on Indian Education,” Progressive Education, 13:15;-I59,
March, 1936.
68
The curriculum at Santa Fe Indian School is aimed
toward the elevation of the entire community and is succeed­
ing in improving the general health and in reducing the
mortality rate.
The amount of trichoma is decreasing and
tuberculosis is being brought under control.
Community
and individual pride in worthy achievement is taking the
place of bewilderment in the face of an oncoming white
civilization.
CHAPTER VII
THE CURRICULUM OP THE INDIAN
VOCATIONAL SCHOOL AT ALBUQUERQUE
This chapter on the curriculum of the Indian Vocation­
al School at Albuquerque * New Mexico, was divided into
three sections:
(1) history,
(2) curriculum, and (5) curri­
culum evaluation.
The greater part of the investigation was made on
the school campus.
viewed.
Faculty members and pupils were Inter­
Classes were visited, as well as principal parts
of the physical plant.
The school*s publications were
studied carefully and were supplemented by library research.
I.
HISTORY
The Indian Vocational School at Albuquerque was
opened by the Presbyterian Mission Board under the leader­
ship of Sheldon Jackson in 1881.
It was understood in the
beginning that the United States government would operate
the school as soon as a suitable permanent site could be
obtained.
The City of Albuquerque purchased an excellent
tract of land in the Rio Grande Valley two and a half miles
from the center of town.
They gave this land to the United
States government for the school site.
complete charge of the school in 1886.
The government took
70
During the first year the average attendance was
forty, the second year it was seventy, and hy the time the
first buildings on the site were erected there were 150
students.
In numbers and in influence the school has con­
tinuously grown until today the student body number 600 under
the direction of a staff of eighty-five.
five buildings on the campus.
There are thirty-
Prom the first vocations and
and related subjects have been designed principally to help
the Indians of New Mexico and Arizona.
II.
THE CURRICULUM
There are two curricula:
tional.
the general and the voca­
The general curriculum offers work in the following:
English
Social Studies
Mathematics
Science
Arts and Crafts
Home Economics
Leadership
Red Cross
Health and Physical Education
Athletics
Group Games
Clubs
Mus ic
Community Extension .
Camping and Recreation
The general vocational course is carried on for the purpose
of preparing students for home and community improvement
and constructive participation in community life.
Agri­
71
culture, farm shop, building, woodworm, model home, car
and truck driving, iron work, leather work, baking, cooking,
mending, home economics, community extension, art, crafts,
related courses, and various courses listed under general
1
curricula are essential to this course.
The vocational courses prepare for specific jobs
in the pueblos, reservations and adjacent towns.
These
courses are home economics, art, crafts, agriculture,
building trades, metal trade, leather work, wood working,
baking, and cooking.
It is desired to unify and relate
the courses, activities, and school life to help the stu­
dents use constructively, with confidence and efficiency,
their experiences, knowledge, and skills in school, in
their communities and homes, and in their work.
The motto of the school is to help the pupils learn
to do better the things they will probably do.
The policy
of the school is to "encourage them to continue to respect
their heritage, their race, their culture, and their arts
and crafts, and to strive for the continuance and improve2
ment of things that are good."
^ Annual Report of the United States Indian Vocational
School, Narrative Section (Albuquerque, New Mexico:
Indian
School Office, 1935), p. 4.
2 Ibid., p. 5.
72
The general and vocational curricula are organized
on a four-year basis.
A two-year course is offered to the
graduates in the teaching of arts and crafts.
For those
who plan to attend college a fifth year of preparatory
training is offered.
The vocational courses are:
Baking
Carpentry
Cleaning and Pressing
Cooking
Electricity
Farming
Gardening
General Mechanics
Harness Making
Heating
Home Nursing
Home Planning
Painting
Plumbing
Sewing
Shoe Repairing
Silver smithing
Tailoring
Table IV shows the time and course requirements.
English.
English is the only required subject for all
pupils at all times.
Conversation, letter writing, reading,
speaking, and current events are stressed in all four years
of English.
Literature is not a feature.
as an aid to letter writing.
Typing is taught
Each teacher keeps a record of
student reading on a special form which tabulates word recog­
nition, appreciation, comprehension, and organization.
Special
forms for appropriate checking are provided in oral composi-
73
TABLE IV
COURSE AND TIME REQUIREMENTS FOR
ALBUQUERQUE INDIAN VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
1939-1940
Grades
Offered
English
Mathematics
Social Science
Biology
Vocations
Physics
Chemistry
Music
Band
Orchestra
Red Cross
Auto Driving
Periods
per wk.
4-12
5
4-12
4-12
10
4-12
12
11
4-12
4-12
4-12
11
12
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
2
2
Required of all students.
4b :- Required of all students.
■jhhs* Required of all hoys.
Length of
period in
minutes
45
45
45
45
90
45
45
10
60
60
45
45
N o . of
weeks
No* of
years
36
4
36
18
36
36
36
36
36
36
36
36
36
4
4
1
4
1
1
4
4
4
1
1
74
tion and spelling,
A check list is given each student so
that he may mark his own reading improvement.
The school
paper published once a month is the special project of the
eleventh grade English class.
Social science.
Social science is a six-year course
which is started in the seventh grade and is built around a
definite geographical, historical, and economic orientation
pattern.
The seventh grade studies the school; the eighth
grade the Hew Mexico-Arizona region; and the ninth grade the
background, history, and development of the Southwest.
Climate and geography are part of the background knowledge.
The history of the Pueblo Indians is included.
In the tenth
grade the student studies the entire United States according
to the same pattern and relates the whole to the Southwsst.
The eleventh and twelfth grades study social problems which
touch on vocational opportunities, economics, Indian village
problems, and special problems in specific communities.
-
Science.
Biology is taught to the tenth grade on the
unit plan with special emphasis on health and sanitation.
Everyday applications are made.
The physics offered to the
twelfth grade is really a general science course devoted to
shop and household problems.
Chemistry emphasizes common
shop and home applications with special attention to food.
The standard Red Cross First Aid course is given in the
75
eleventh grade and each student is required to qualify for
the Certificate in First Aid,
Mathematics.
Four years of mathematics are offered.
This is all arithmetic with problems devoted to shop, home,
and farm.
Simple bookkeeping and business practice are
included.
Music.
All classes have ten minutes of recreational
singing every day.
The Indians of the Southwest excel in
rhythm, but have relatively poor singing voices.
Glee club
and chorus organizations are not outstanding, but band and
orchestra are.
Students enrolled in band and orchestra
practice one hour every day.
This practice period is a part
of the daily school schedule.
Home Economics.
The work in homemaking has been put
on the most practical basis possible.
Each teacher has six individual kitchens, one equipped
with a gas range, one with a fireplace, and the remaining
four with small coal and wood stoves of various types.
Each little kitchen has been furnished to represent a
one-room home. . . . The furniture has been made by the
Indian girls.3
Out-of-doors *the girls have built a number of fireplaces
and ovens.
In these kitchens the science of foods is studied.
3 Ibid., p. 6
76
Clothing, pottery making, and weaving are all important
branches of the home economics work.
ment receive attention.
Child care and develop­
Home nursing is taught on the voca­
tional basis.
Student government.
uFundamentally, student govern­
ment indirectly means student control and any program of
student government should include the entire life of the
4
student in the school.” To this end the following organi­
zation is aimed.
One boy and one girl are elected at large
by the student body to be commissioners of health, finance,
social activities, and athletics.
The students are also
organized by tribes and the elected tribal leader acts as
sponsor for local tribal publicity.
He also acts as an aid
to building supervisors when a member of his tribe fails to
live up to expectations.
Each residence building has a
student organization working with the deans and matrons to
take care of study hours, dining room, door bells, bed
checking, and social affairs.
Athletics.
A complete intra-mural program in sports
is organized for both boys and girls.
Inter-school contests
In football, basketball, baseball and track are played by
4 News item in The Sandpainter, December, 1940.
(Albuquerque, New Mexico:
student publication of the Indian
Vocational School), p. 5.
77
by the boys.
The boy scouts have added swimming to their
sports program.
Interest clubs .
Time is allowed after school hours
or after dinner on Tuesdays for club meetings.
Students are
encouraged to identify themselves with the clubs of their
choice.
The following clubs are now in operation:
Girl
Reserve, Girlfs Glee Club, Boy Scout Troops, Science Club,
Pep Club, Home Economics Club, Lettorman*s Club, and Dancing
Club.
Dramatics are on the basis of a school activity and
not as a club.
Guidance.
Every staff member is considered to have
responsibility for student guidance.
Such important matters
as thrift, courtesy, personal care, and grooming are
emphasized.
Studying is done in the residence halls.
Some
classes study in their own rooms and some in the public
rooms.
Religious program.
at Albuquerque.
Thursday evening is church night
Each denominational group has its own
meeting for inspirational and instructional purposes.
Attendance at town churches on Sunday morning is encouraged.
Social program.
Class and club parties and >danc;es^
residence hall social affairs, and school assemblies provide
78
varied social opportunities.
School assemblies are held
twice a month on Sunday evening.
They are required to be
inspirational, timely, original, and largely by students.
A special trip of educational value is provided
once a year for members of the senior class.
In January,
1941, they were the guests of the Mexican government on
a tour of Mexico City.
Transportation was by the school
buses•
III.
CURRICULUM EVALUATION
The curriculum exists for the benefit of the student
and must take him where he is and fit him to live a better
life where he will be.
Albuquerque is a vocational and
agricultural school which aims to educate the student for
pueblo and reservation life in the Southwest where rainfall
is light and water for irrigation scarce.
There are no
large cities and few industries, except those connected with
tribal life.
The vocations are farming, herding, pottery,
weaving, and silversmithing.
The vocational courses
emphasize training in these lines and the subjects in the
general curriculum aim to widen the horizons and to increase
the appreciations of the students.
The trade courses are.
not for fitting the students to enter industry at some far
away place, but to increase their efficiency as homemakers
and community members on the reservation or in the pueblo.
79
Previously in this study the five points for curri5
culum evaluation have been noted:
(1)
(2)
(5)
(4)
(5)
The
The
The
The
The
objectives must be met.
student needs are paramount.
school must articulate with life.
social needs must be met.
principles of growth must be evident.
The objective of the Albuquerque school is stated in its
motto, which is to help the student do better the things
he will probably do anyway.
The things he will probably do
are connected with his home life on the reservation or in
the pueblo.
He needs vocational training and it is provided
at the Albuquerque School.
His present social needs are met
by a strong social and recreational program while in school.
His future social needs are provided for in the training
received and attitudes developed in athletics, clubs,
music, and art courses.
The principles of growth are evident.
In conversation with Miss Lilian MeKenney, principal of the
school, it was found that the curriculum has been under
intensive study for some time and that a laboratory approach
to more subjects would be instituted in 1941.
The work in
agriculture will be placed upon a more technical and scien­
tific basis, which is necessary for successful farming in
arid regions.
5 W. R. Bourne, "Contribution to Education," George
Peabody College for Teachers, Vol. 16 (Nashville, Tennessee,
1925) p p . 1-143.
An ©valuation based upon the six element recommended
6
by the Cooperative Study of Secondary School Standards
showed Albuquerque Indian Vocational High School to rate
above average in curriculum* library, and guidance.
Insufficient observation of pupil activity made it impos­
sible to give a rating on pupil activity and instruction.
The outcomes of instruction are being studied by a com­
mittee from the Education Office of the Bureau of Indian
Affairs.
Their findings are not yet available.
Evaluated on the basis of principles suggested by
7
Stigler,
the school rated high in general.
The academic
science courses probably rated the lowest in providing a
dynamic body of experiences for the learner.
The social
science courses were the best and provided a complete
survey of economic and social problems in the United States
both from the viewpoint of the Indian and the white man.
6 "How to Evaluate a Secondary School,” A Manual of
the Cooperative Study of Secondary School Standards (Washing
ton, D . C ,: 744 Jackson Place, 1940), p. 9•
7 W. A. Stigler, "Handbook for Curriculum Development
Bulletin of Texas State Department of Education, #354, Feb.,
1936.
CHAPTER VIII
THE CURRICULUM OP THE CHILOCCO INDIAN
AGRICULTURAL HIGH SCHOOL
This chapter on the curriculum of the Chilocco
Indian Agricultural High School at Chilocco, Oklahoma, was
divided into three sections;
(1) history,
(2) curriculum,
and (3) curriculum evaluation.
The material for the survey of the curriculum was
obtained largely through library research.
Correspondence
with the superintendent of the school and with the Division
of Education in the Office of Indian Affairs at Washington,
D. C. supplied information not adequately given elsewhere.
I.
HISTORY
Chilocco Indian Agricultural High School at
Chilocco, Oklahoma, was one of three Indian schools founded
1
by Act of Congress in 1883. The school opened its doors to
one hundred children in January, 1884.
The first superinten
dent, Mr. J. M. Hadley, was a Quaker who had worked among
the Indians for many years.
The second superintendent,
Dr. Henry J. Minthorn, was the uncle and foster father of
1 Student Handbook, Chilocco--The School of Oppor­
tunity for Indian Youth (Chilocco, Oklahoma; School Printing
Department, 1938), pp. 5-7.
82
former President Hoover.
In 1894 six "boys and nine girls were graduated
from the eighth, grade.
By 1927 twelve grades were taught,
and in 1932 the high school “became accredited under the
Oklahoma State School Law.
Today the school owns 8,640
acres of land, has 44 main buildings, and has an average
enrollment of 600.
From the beginning Chilocco has been a genuine
2
agricultural school, but in 1923 practical courses in
agricultural were introduced with the vocational aim defin­
itely in view.
II.
CURRICULUM
Vocational curriculum.
The vocational curriculum
is divided into the agricultural section, the building trades,
and the miscellaneous trades.
Chilocco is agriculture.
The main vocation taught at
The purpose of the course is to
instruct the pupil in the fundamentals of successful farming.
These include soil, fertility, water, crop rotation, heredity,
and plant and animal selection.
The course aims to stimulate
the future farmer to attain economic independence.
Farm
management, including such topics as marketing, buying of
supplies, and farm rentals is emphasized.
2 Ibid., p. 33.
83
Boys In the ninth, grad© are given an opportunity
to explore the various branches of agriculture in order to
obtain actual experience with poultry, dairying, farm shop,
and field crops*
A boy who does well is advanced to the
tenth grade level with no reference to semester or class­
room divisions*
In the tenth, eleventh and twelfth grades
the boys must select a cooperative project which includes
three or more units such as hogs, poultry, and grain farm­
ing.
The boys receive one-fourth of the income from grain
and one-eighth of the increase in stock.
Eighty acres is
the individual allotment in grain farming.
Other agricultural subjects such as dAiry produc­
tion, poultry production, vegetable gardening, and orchard
production are part of the course in vocational agriculture.
Teaching is done in the classroom or in the field,
depending upon the type of job.
In some subjects both
places are used.
The trade courses fit the boy for an apprentice­
ship that will quickly advance him into his chosen trade.
During the ninth grade a boy spends six weeks in each shop
so that he may discover the trade for which he has the most
aptitude.
his choice.
The last three years are spent on the trade of
The school comprises such a large farm that
ample opportunity is offered to practice the trades in a
useful and helpful way.
The building trades give training
84
in carpentry, painting, masonry, and plumbing.
The mechani­
cal trades offer opportunity in general mechanics and farm
machinery.
In addition to these, the student may study
electrical work, steam plant operation, printing, baking,
shoe repair, harness making, dry cleaning, and barbering.
Related academic curriculum.
In the related aca­
demic curriculum all the courses offer instruction in direct
relationship to the aims of the school.
Field trips, group
discussions, reference reading, dramatics, and laboratory
work are used as they are suited to instructional needs.
The
content of the related academic subjects is given briefly
below.
Home economics.
The work in home economics is
organized to teach family relationships is such a manner
that homes become happy places in which all members share
the joys and responsibilities .that are involved.
The girls
are taught the proper methods of doing work in a home; a
liking for home life; to'analyze and solve household problems;
and to form judgments of qualities, conditions and situations
that lead to good selections of the essentials of correct
living.
The ninth grade girls study home nursing, arts and
crafts, clothing and foods.
Tenth graders study foods,
clothing, home management, poultry raising, gardening, and
arts and crafts.
In the eleventh grade the girls study roods,
clothing, family finance, home decoration, and arts and crafts.
They take some of their training in the practice house.
The
twelfth grade girls study foods, clothing, child training,
nursery school, family relationships, and arts and crafts.
English.
First and second year English ,fstresses
remedial reading, oral and written composition, letter
writing, sentence recognition, improvement of diction, and
vocabulary study with special emphasis on individual pro-
3
gress.1*
In English III and IV there are further opportunities
to develop reading tastes, and to review, through practice,
the language skills and personality qualifications required
for effective speech.
Dramatizations, pantomines, panel
discussions, debates, and choral reading are a part of the
class work in both of the advanced years.
Rural magazines
are evaluated, and extensive reading is done on vocational
topics.
Writing for student publications is also a part of
the work in English III and IV.
Social science.
course:
There are four subjects in this
(1) Indian history,
(2) citizenship,
history, and (4) American problems.
(3) American
Indian history is given
to the ninth grade and is tfdeslgned to give pupils a better
3 Ibid., p. 27.
86
understanding of Oklahoma with reference to the political,
4
economic and social institutions of the state.” Current
history from the newspapers is given considerable emphasis.
Laws affecting Indian welfare and current legislation are
included in the course.
tenth grade.
Citizenship is studied in the
This course stresses safety, occupations of
the state, rural and small town life, current events, and
problems of local and state government.
A study of the
communities represented by members of the class is part of
the instruction in community leadership.
American history
for the third-year students is taught through the study of
present-day problems.
The constitution with its changing
form and interpretations is an answer to problems which
arise.
American problems is given in the senior year.
Different groups select problems and present them to the
class for discussion.
The general objective is to familiar­
ize the student with social and economic problems in a
democracy.
Mathematics.
The mathematics courses offer instruction
in the kind of problems Indians will likely face.
The first-
year course stresses the mastery of fundamental processes.
The student must collect his own problems for the shop mathe­
matics courses.
A unit in geometry is included when needed.
4 Ibid., p. 2 9 •
87
The senior course in money and banking is really an economics
course with emphasis on business arithmetic and record keep­
ing.
Science.
All the science courses are adapted to
meet the problems which arise in the real lire of the students.
The ninth grade studies personal health and hygiene with .
emphasis on the recognition of common diseases, simple first
aid, afreets of alcohol and tobacco, and the sanitary dis­
posal of garbage and waste.
The third year science deals
with testing water for purity, proper drainage, location of a
farm well,soils, and soil fertility.
Topics relating to
better housing are correlated with this course and developed
in a study of home site, methods of improving home property,
and inexpensive home equipment that contributes to better
sanitation.
The twelfth grade science class is devoted to
health problems,
associated with family organization, marriage,
mental hygiene, heredity, plant and animal reproduction, and
veneral diseases.
The school physician supplements the
regular class instruction by special lectures and demonstrations.
education.
The purposes of physical education
at Chilocco are enjoyment and development. - Physical education
is required of all students.
The program includes the tra­
ditional gymnasium drills, dancing, swimming, games, and
88
and organizations have parties and dances throughout the year.
An all school picnic is held twice a year.
are given on the campus.
Lyceum programs
Up-to-date moving pictures are
shown on alternate Saturday nights in the school auditorium.
Students are admitted Tree of charge.
Religious activities.
The various religious organiza­
tions and clubs on the campus provide religious training for
the students.
The Y.W.C.A. for the senior high school girls
creates fellowship, develops character, serves others,
strives for a world-wide viewpoint, and gives the girls the
opportunity to become the cultured women of tomorrow.
Hi Y Club does the same things for the boys.
The
The Methodist
and Baptist churches are represented on the campus through
their young peoples1 clubs where Christianity is deepened
and the students receive training for religious leadership.
Catholic instruction is given to all students of that faith.
Mass is said on the campus each Sunday morning.
S tudent government.
Chilocco, in common with other
schools under the Bureau of Indian Affairs, had military
discipline for many years.
In 1933 a b o y s 1 council was
organized and in 1935 a girls1 council.
has been in operation since 1936.
from the student body at large.
A combined council
The members are elected
Their main service is to
advise on campus problems and to institute projects for
89
corrective gymnastics.
The hoys and girls have separate
gymnasiums.
Music.
zations.
Music is taught in the various musical organi­
Orchestra rehearsals are held twice a ween and band
rehearsals four times a week.
The choir is the outstanding
vocal organization and furnishes music for the Sunday morn­
ing church service and for all patriotic and special pro­
grams.
The Christmas, Easter and Commencement concerts
are especially noteworthy,
,fFew schools can be round any­
where with a higher degree of musical talent than can be
5
found at Chilocco.n
Clubs.
The club activities have as their aim the
teaching of the worthy use of leisure time.
vide outlets for youthful enthusiasm.
They also pro­
The club program
varies a little from year to year, but the following types
persist:
hobby clubs, trade clubs, agricultural clubs,
home economics clubs, dramatic clubs, literary societies,
and pep clubs.
Social program.
Every other Saturday night school
dances are held for the student body.
5 Ibid., p. 6.
The various clubs
90
better citizenship.
They are official hosts to new students
entering school in the fall.
Guidance. .In the official publication of the school
nothing was said about guidance, but a careful study of the
printed materials reveals that guidance is definitely in
the philosophy of education at Chilocco.
Pertinent quota­
tions showed that the student is expected to make his own
decisions in the light of the accepted codes of the school.
Suggestions and recommendations abound in the handbook, but
there are no printed rules.
A self-analysis 'chart for
character rating appears in the handbook.
A student must
have a satisfactory record in personal conduct in order to
graduate.
School and home citizenship are considered in
giving class promotions.
Athletics.
Inter-school athletics for boys consist
of boxing, basketball and baseball contests.
The intra­
mural organization is based upon many groups which compete
for school championship in football, baseball, soft ball,
tennis, track, archery, badminton, croquet, horseshoes,
table tennis, volley ball, swimming, and row boating.
The National Guard.
Company ’’C 11 of the 180th Infantry
has been stationed at Chilocco for seventeen years.
Over
600 boys have profited physically and financially from this
91
organization.
The members encamp at Port Sill, Oklahoma,
for fifteen days in August each year.
Two-third of the pay
received by the boys is spent for their school clothing.
The purpose of the unit is to help boys over eighteen with
a good 'School record finance their education.
III.
EVALUATION OF CURRICULUM
Chilocco is !,a school that strives to train Indian
young people in all the phases of life necessary to make
6
them self-sustaining citizens.” Ten years after the school
was founded the first class graduated and since then a class
has gone out every year.
Members of these groups make up
the Alumni Association, the purpose of which is to keep the
administration in touch with the changing needs of Indian
young people.
The greatest stress of the curriculum is on
agricultural and home techniques.
Trades are important for
some students, but most Oklahoma Indians make their living
from the soil; therefore Chilocco is an agricultural school.
A survey of the curriculum as a whole showed it to
measure high on the basis of standards set up and dis­
cussed in Chapter II.
The subject matter of the various
courses was found to be dynamic, practical, interesting,
and presented to the students through as many senses as
possible.
The students learn by doing.
6 Ibid., p. 7.
CHAPTER IX
SUMMARY
The six Indian schools considered in tliis survey were:
(1) Sherman Institute, Riverside, California; ;(2)cFIandreau
Indian Vocational High School, Flandreau, South Dakota;
(3)
Haskell Institute, Lawrence, Kansas;
School, Santa Fe, Hew Mexico;
(4) Santa Fe Indian
(5) Indian Vocational School,
Albuquerque, Hew Mexico; and (6) Chilocco Indian Agricultural
High School, Chilocco, Oklahoma.
The history of each school
was given, each school*s curriculum was analyzed, and each
curriculum was evaluated according to the standards set
forth in Chapter II.
In this chapter the history of the
schools, the curricula analyses, and curricula evaluations
were briefly summarized and general recommendations made
as a result of the survey.
I.
HISTORY
These six major Indian schools were all organized in
the eighties.
They all began with a curriculum based upon
scrub brushes, brooms, pictures, and the English alphabet.
They all made progress in fitting their curricula to the
needs of the students and the students for an 11on-going”
society.
They have consistently followed this policy so
that today they are in advance of most high schools in the
United States.
93
Tiie philosophy of education emphasized so much in the
Indian schools* publications and in conversation with the
school officials does not differ in theoretical statements
from that of the best progressive high schools for whites,
but it does differ greatly in being directly applied to
all phases of the school program.
A greater effort seems
to have been made to plan the curricula for students* needs
and to work these plans after they were made.
II.
CURRICULA
The curricula of all six schools were alike in putting
the emphasis on vocations and home making.
All modified the
academic instruction to furnish the theoretical and cultural
background for successful vocational participation in
modern American economic life.
All six schools seemed to
have been aware that the stenographic field is over-crowded
and not suited to Indian youth.
Not one gave a commercial
course on the high school level.
Haskell is the only one
to have a commercial course for the junior college student.
Flandreau is the only one to have made provision for fully
meeting college entrance requirements on its campus.
All
six schools have made an effort to preserve elements of
Indian culture which have a valuable cont±ibution to make
towards American civilization as a whole and to keep alive
those racial skills which mean much to Indian psychology.
94
Tii© English, courses still stress English reading,
writing and speech.
English and American literature
received scant attention.
The social science courses were
judged the best in any of the curricula.
These courses
seek to orient the Indian student in.reference to his own
culture and to the dominant white society.
They give the
theory behind the strong vocational emphasis in all six
schools•
The mathematics courses were found to be extremely
practical.
The fundamental processes, simple bookkeeping,
and budgeting comprised most of the subject matter.
Algebra
and geometry were taught only to those students who were
definitely preparing for college entrance or who needed them
in their vocation.
The science courses were designed to meet the needs of
the students in the shops and on the reservations.
Health
and sanitation were the aspects most emphasized.
Physical education was taught in organized classes in
five of the six schools.
Free play and games, as well as
organized athletics, were found in all six schools*
Both vocal and instrumental music received great
emphasis at Flandreau and Haskell.
In the other four
schools vocal music received less attention, because tribal
and climatic conditions have limited the vocal capacity of
the students.
These schools were superior in instrumental
95
music, for the students excel in rhythm.
In all six schools student government was well
developed.
The training of citizens was in the motto of
every school.
The guidance program had gone through the
phases of the guidance movement.
All the schools had
had formal classes at one time in personal and vocational
guidance and all had discontinued them.
Individual and
group guidance was put back into every classroom and dor­
mitory with every teacher and matron expected to give
direction when needed.
The spirit of the student body
testified to the efficiency of the guidance program.
Happy, well-adjusted students were the rule.
In all six
schools students were divided into three or four groups
with a curriculum suited to their needs, interests and
capacities.
Club programs were extensively offered in all six
schools and were operating on various levels of satisfac­
tion and efficiency.
Club sponsors in most cases were too
busy to properly direct the clubs.
The need for religious and moral training was recogniz­
ed and adequately provided for in all six schools.
The
social program was adequate and designed to give the student
poise and pleasure in group activities.
All six schools offered twenty or more vocational
courses and gave more time to vocational training than to
96
academic work.
Ail six schools had specially trained v o ­
cational teachers and were equipped with modern shops and
materials.
In each school one certain vocation was stressed,
according to the locality served.
III.
EVALUATION OP CURRICULA
The results of this survey show that the curricula of
the six schools studied were organized to serve the youth
of the area in which each school was located.
The economical
and social needs of the students were the hasis of the
development and extension of the curriculum.
The educational
program of each school sought to develop balance in the
students in regard to capacities, experiences, self-reliance,
creativeness, enjoyment, and vernacular competence.
This study shows that the education offered to the
Indian student by the government of the United States is
modern, challenging, and developmental.
IV.
GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS
In the Indian high schools every effort is made to
equip the student to live happily and successfully in his
particular after-school environment.
This aspect of educa­
tion seems to receive less emphasis in the high schools for
white pupils than in those for Indians.
Since no educational
system is fully justified which does not train students to
*
97
cope with the economic, social, and civic problems which
they must face after they leave school, it appears that
greater emphasis could profitably be placed on this aspect
of education in all our high schools,
A study of Indian education as part of every teacher*s
preparation for teaching in high schools designed for white
students would greatly enhance sensitivity to minority
groups in our schools.
It would also lead to a truer
understanding of American history and destiny.
The cause of
democracy would be furthered and the general cultural hori­
zon of America would be broadened.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
99
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60 pp.
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