A SURVEY OF THE CURRICULA OF THE INDIAN HIGH SCHOOLS OF THE UNITED STATES A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the School of Education The University of Southern California In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Science in Education by Gladys Whitmore May 1941 UMI Number: EP54153 All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion. Dissertation Publishing UMI EP54153 Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author. Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 48106- 1346 L ft* T h is thesis, w r it t e n u n d e r the d ir e c t io n o f the C h a ir m a n o f the ca n d id a te ’ s G u id a n c e C o m m itte e a n d a p p r o v e d by a l l m em bers o f the C o m m itte e , has been pre se n te d to a n d accepted by the F a c u lt y o f the S c h o o l o f E d u c a t io n in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f the re q u ire m e n ts f o r the degree o f M a s t e r o f Science in E d u c a tio n . .......... Guidance C om m ittee ............ C hairm an W. G. Campbell D. W. Lefever ATa/'f" M-U?. TABLE OP CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I. THE NATURE AND PURPOSE OP THE PROBLEM .... Statement of the p r o b l e m ................ 1 Definition of terms u s e d ................ 1 Importance of the s t u d y ................ . . 2 Delimitations of the s t u d y ......... 2 . . . . . . 3 Procedure Organization of the study II. III. 1 . THe pr ob l e m ............................... 1 4 A BASIS FOR EVALUATING THE CURRICULA OP THE INDIAN HIGH S C HO OL S....................... 5 History of the high school curriculum. . . . 5 Standards for judging a curriculum........ 6 THE CURRICULUM OP SHERMAN I N S T I T U T E ........ 10 History . ................... 10 Curriculum..................... . . . . . 11 Vocational subjects .............. ... Related academic curriculum......... English .................. Social science .............. Science . . . . . . . . Music .......... • ........ . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 15 15 17 18 19 Student government . . . . . . . . . 20 Athletics . . . . . . . 20 .......... iii CHAPTER PAGE Religious training ................. .... 21 The social program............................ 21 The club program IV. ........................ 22 The guidance progr am .......... 22 Curriculum evaluation ................. 23 CURRICULUM OP THE FLANDREAU INDIAN VOCATIONAL HIGH S C H O O L ......................................25 H i st or y ......... 25 Curriculum................................... 26 Vocational subjects ................... 27 Related academic curriculum . . 28 .......... E n g l i s h ................................. 28 Social sciences ....................... 30 Physical and biological sciences ........ 32 Mathematics........................... 33 Business training ....................... 34 Agriculture............................. 35 M u s i c ................... V. .36 Student government..................... 36 Athletics............................... 36 Interest clubs and organizations ........ 37- Religious prog ra m............. 38 Curriculum evaluation ....................... 38 THE CURRICULUM OF HASKELL I N S T I T U T E .......... 41 Hi st o r y ................................... 41 CHAPTER PAGE Curriculum . .......... . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Vocational courses . • • • • • » . . . * . . 43 Academic courses . • • . • • • . . • • • • • 43 English ......... Social science . . . . . Mathematics Physical education Science 44 ............ . ............. 49 ........... 49 ............... . 50 Student government . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Athletics • . . . • . * . • • • • • • * • 52 Interest clubs and organizations . . . . 52 Religious program 53 Guidance program ......... Social program .............. CURRICULUM OF THE SANTA FE INDIAN SCHOOL . . . History Curriculum 54 54 Curriculum evaluation VI. 48 55 57 57 ........... 59 Vocational curriculum . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Academic curriculum • • • • • • . . . . • • . 61 English ..................... Mathematics . . . . . . . . . . 62 ........ 62 Social science ......................... 63 Science .63 ............... V CHAPTER PAGE Physical education . .......... ..... M u s i c ................................. 64 Assemblies............................. 64 Clubs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Athletics............................. 65 Student government. . . . . . . . . . . 65 Guidance............................. 65 Religious training.................. VII. 63 . 66 Social p r o g r a m ....................... 66 Evaluation of the curriculum............. 66 THE CURRICULUM OP THE INDIAN VOCATIONAL SCHOOL AT ALBUQUERQUE........................... 69 Histo ry ................................. 69 The curriculum......................... 70 General curriculum.................. • Vocational curriculum................ English 70 72 ......................... 72 Social science..................... 72 Scien ce............... 74 Mathematics . . 75 ............... . . • M u s i c ............................... 75 Home economics............... 75 Student government................ Athletics......................... . 76 76 CHAPTER v PAGE Interest clubs ....................... 77 Guidance........... 77 Religious p r o g r a m ................... 77 Social program • 77 Curriculum evaluation...................... 78 VIII. THE CURRICULUM OP THE CHILOCCO INDIAN AGRICUL TURAL HIGH S C H O O L ......................... History................................. 81 . Curriculum............................... 81 82 Vocational curriculum................... 82 Related academic curriculum .............. 84 Home economics English. ♦ . . . . . . 84 85 Social science......... 85 Mathematics....................... • * • 86 S c ie nc e ........... 87 Physical education . • . :.Religious activities .................. Music . 87 88 ....................................89 C l u b s ....................... 89 Social program • • • . 89 .............. 'Guidance........................... . 90 Athletics........................... 90 The National Guard 90 Evaluation of curriculum.................. 91 vii CBAPTER IX. PAGE S U M M A R Y ......... . . .. ....................... History ............................... Curricula........... Evaluation ofctirricula . 92 92 93 .................... 96 General recommendations..................... 96 BIBLIOGRAPHY....................................... 98 LIST OF TABLES TABLE X. PAGE Course and Time Requirements I’or Sherman Institute, 1939-1940 . . . . . . . . . . . II. Course and Time Requirements for Flandreau Indian Vocational High School, III. 1939-1940 . 29 Course and Time Requirements for Haskell Institute, 1939-1940 ................... IV. 16 45 Course and Time Requirements for Altmquerque Indian Vocational High School, 1939-1940 . 73 CHAPTER I i THE NATURE AND PURPOSE OP THE PROBLEM The Indians are a fast growing segment of the popula tion in the United States today. Some tribes have vastly increased their wealth, while others hold lands or fishing rights vital to the conservation program of the government. The administration of wealth or conservation requires ade quate education. In Alaska where half the population is native, educators are very concerned with what is being done on the secondary level by the Indian schools wdown b e low.11 I. THE PROBLEM Statement of the problem. It was the purpose of this study to find (1) what academic subjects were included (2) how the content of the academic subjects was organized, (3) what vocational subjects were offered, time was allotted to each subject, (4) how much (5) what the teaching methods were, (6) what club and social opportunities were available, and (7) how well the school programs fitted into the community needs. Definition of terms. By curriculum was meant all the means of education, which include subject matter, shop 2 and classroom procedures, social and cultural opportunities, athletics and all other activities sponsored by the school. Community needs included tribal culture, as well as economic factors. Importance of the study. center of much emphasis today. Secondary education is the Educators are measuring, revising, extending and experimenting upon secondary curri cula. The public is criticizing and in some cases obstruct ing education. Indian schools are being attacked by those who insist that money is wasted educating a native who only reverts to the blanket. The Division of Education in the Office of Indian Affairs is active in seeking the best pro cedures for the 24,441 children who were in their schools 1 last year (1939). Delimitations of the study. clude the seventh and eighth grades. This study did not in It only included the six non-reservation accredited high schools which enrolled no pupils under the seventh grade. Only the four-year high school curricula were surveyed, because In Alaska and in the United States most of the children have the opportunity of finishing the eighth grade in their native villages. Those who desire further training attend the boarding high 1 “Indian Education in the U.S.,11 School and Society, 51:7775-6, June 29, 1940. 3 schools. Seventh and eighth grades are appended to these high schools to take care of orphan children who would have no supervision otherwise. The matter of teaching qualifications and certifi cation was not included in this survey. Teacher load was also not considered, since it is the practice to have all the teachers in the Indian schools on duty eight hours a day. II. PROCEDURE The method used was mainly that of library research, supplemented by correspondence with the superintendents of the six schools and with the Office of Education for Indian Affairs at Washington, D.G. The six schools are: (1) Sher man Institute at Riverside, California; (&) The Flandreau Indian Vocational High School at Flandreau, South Dakota; (3) Haskell Institute at Lawrence, Kansas, (4) Santa Fe Indian School at Santa Fe, Hew Mexico; (5) Albuquerque Indian School at Albuquerque, Hew Mexico; and (6) the Chilocco Agricultural High School at Chilocco, Oklahoma. Visits were made to Sherman Institute at Riverside, Cali fornia, and to the schools at Santa Fe and Albuquerque, Hew Mexico. A thorough study of the latest literature in curriculum construction was made in order to obtain a standard for evaluation. 4 III. ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY t / The second chapter is devoted to a basis for evaluating the curricula of the Indian high schools. The next six chap ters contain analyses and discussions of each s c h o o l ^ curri culum. Chapter IX presents the conclusions and summarizes the findings of this study. CHAPTER II A BASIS FOR EVALUATING THE CURRICULA OF THE INDIAN HIGH SCHOOLS History of the high school curriculum. A history of the high school curriculum shows that .it grew up as a result 1 of the laissez-faire attitude that attended text book pro duction. Text books made the subjects. Men wrote the text books; enterprising salesmen sold them; and thus the curri culum was built up. For more than a century this process went on until some high schools were offering thirty or more subjects. The next thing to happen was an organization of these subjects into sequences which froze down into the Mrigid 2 mold of academic compartments.11 College entrance requirements helped to hold the curriculum in this form. The curriculum usually dictates the method and so for a hundred years memory skill was chiefly cultivated in our high schools. As new subjects made their appearance they were cast into the mental discipline category regardless of their content. lum. Thus at the end of 120 years, we still find 1 Harold Rugg, American Life and The School Curricu (New York: Ginn and Company, 1936), p. 130. 2 Ibid., p. 135. 6 the American secondary school lagging behind the current social and economic scene. This gap between school and life may be caused by the national peculiarity of separating intellectual concerns from 3 everyday concerns; also text book writers and publishers are interested in maintaining the old system. Teacher training schools have been slow to change their methods, thus the gap continues between the concerns of education and the in terests of daily life# The gap has not been without its challengers. John Dewey is one who has consistently pointed out a new path for education. Gradually the high school curricula have been transformed. Because the Indian high schools have emerged since this transition began, they have largely escaped the effects of tradition. ed from too much change. Perhaps they have suffer Economic and social conditions have shifted so fast for the Indian population that the schools may have reflected this change rather than have guided it. Standards for .judging a curriculum. Before the prob lem of the curriculum in the Indian high schools was con sidered, a search was made to find a standard of judgment 3 Ibid., pp. 159-160. as to what constitutes an acceptable curriculum today. battles are raging over this subject* Many We find educators grouped under such banners as (1) Education for Democracy, (2) Progressive Education, and (3) Theme Concepts of Modern Culture, et cetera. Ho entirely definite outlines for the new curriculum appear in this smoke of controversy. The probable result will be that a definite curriculum is a thing of the past, and that school offerings in the future will be more variable than ever before. Practical educators will probably agree with the principles for curriculum revision set up in Texas in 1936 by W* A. Stigler, as follows (1) The curriculum shall provide educative experience adapted to the fundamental needs of each child. . . . (2) The curriculum shall provide educative exper iences for effective participation in social life and which will serve to perpetuate and inspire the ideals and practices of our democracy. (3) The curriculum shall be conceived as a body of dynamic experiences. (4) The curriculum shall be conceived as a program of study and activity subject to teacher guidance. (5) The curriculum revision program shall be con ceived as an experimental program. (6) The curriculum shall not be subverted to special interests. 4 4 W. A. Stigler, nEandbook for Curriculum Development,” Bulletin of State Dept, of Education, Ho# 354, Feb., 1936, p . is: 8 5 Dix outlines the following guide for the new curricu lum: In design American education must be (1) general, (2) comprehensive, and (3) coherent. In spirit American education must be (1) modern, (2) functional, lectual, (3) practical, (4) cooperative, (5) intel (6) unifying, and (7) socially integrative. In practice American education must be (1) personal, (2) integrative, (3) active, (4) adventurous, and (5) devel opmental . In emphasis American education must seek balance in (1) capacities, (4) creation, (2) experience, (3) self-reliance, (5) enjoyment, and (6) vernacular competence. According to the Manual of the Cooperative Study 6 of Secondary School Standards, the evaluation of an educa tional program should be made in terms of six principal elements: (1) the curriculum and course of study, (2) pupil activities, (3) the library, (4) guidance, (5) instruction, and (6) the outcomes of instruction. Since all the Indian high schools are small, it is well to include in this discussion some factors to be con~ 5 Lester Dix, A Charter for Progressive Education (Hew York: Teachers’ College Columbia University, 1939), p. 42. 6 flHow to Evaluate a Secondary School,” A Manual of the Cooperative Study of Secondary School Standards (Washington* D.C.l 744 ’Jackson Place, 1940), p . 9. sidered in judging the curriculum of a small school. factors stand out: Six (1) constants should consist of only those courses which meet the need of all students, (2) there should toe a balance between electives and constants, (3) the year placement should toe determined toy the purpose each course is to serve, (4) some courses in vocations‘ should serve the vocational opportunities of the community, (5) each course should serve a specific function, and (6) some survey courses into the main fields of human know7 ledge should toe provided. Among all the suggestions for curriculum improvement, none is so encouraging as that one which declares that most of the oppressive and old-fashioned forces on the curriculum could toe routed toy an aggressive attack on the part of the 8 faculty. 7 R. Emerson Langfitt, Prank W. Cyr, and N. William Newsom, The Small High School at Work (New York: American Book C ompany, 1936), p p • £66-213. CHAPTER III THE CURRICULUM OP SHERMAN INSTITUTE This chapter on the curriculum or Sherman Institute at Riverside, California, was divided into three sections: (1) the history of the school, (2) the curriculum, and (3) the evaluation of* the curriculum. Most of the investigation was done on the school campus. Classrooms were visited and teachers or supervisors interviewed before and after the classes convened. I. HISTORY The corner stone was laid for the first building at Sherman Institute July 18, 1901. The buildings were com pleted March 1, 1902, at a total cost of $150,000. The school was named for Hon. James S. Sherman, a New York state Congressman and chairman of the Committee on Indian Affairs, who was active in securing the appropriation for the school. In 1850 Hon. B. D. Wilson in a report on the Cali fornia Indians said that their treatment could be summed up in the statement: "All punishment and no reform under 1 the rule of Spain, of Mexico and of the United States.1* 1 J. M. Guinn, A History of California, Vol. I. (Los Angeles, Calif.; Hxstoric Record Company, 1907), p.147. 11 It was not until 1892 that steps were taken to found an In dian school on the Pacific coast similar to the one at Carlisle* A site six miles south of Riverside, California, v/as purchased and buildings erected with the $75,000 appro priation made by the Fifty-fifth Congress. How much our conception of Indian education has changed can be seen from this quotation from Guinns The only hope of rerorm for the Indians of Southern California is the removal of the young from the evil environment of the reservations and an industrial training in schools such as the Sherman Institute is intended to be. The Institute has fulfilled the expectations of its founders. It has been well patronized since its founding. A number of new build ings have been added to it. The school has an ex cellent brass band, made up entirely from pupils in the school. It also has a football team that has won victories over some of the best teams In the state.2 II. CURRICULUM Vocational curriculum. Though footballs and bands can still be found at Sherman Institute, the historian of today can present more vital material. Today it is an accredited vocational high school offering a complete general and industrial education in four different divi sions, according to the needs and the abilities of the 2 Ibid., p. 497. 12 seven hundred fifty students who attend« Twenty-one vocation al and six related academic courses are offered. The purpose of the school is to prepare the Indian youth of California to make a better life with the opportunities at hand, A few are trained for industrial life in the large cities; some are trained to live as successful laborers in the small town; and others are educated for subsistance agricul ture on their small reservations. The following vocational subjects are offered to boys 3 in the agricultural division: Animal Husbandry Beef and Range Management Dairying Gardening General Farming General Farm Mechanics Subsistance Enterprises (for the individual and for partnerships) For rural community living the following subjects are given: Animal Husbandry Auto, Truck and Tractor Use and Repair Blacksmithing Carpentry Concrete Work Farm Electricity Farm Plumbing Gardening General Farming Painting 3 Annual of Sherman Institute, Purple and Gold (River side, California: Associated Students, 1940), p. 104. 13 Boys who desire industrial training may elect courses Auto Mechanics Baking Barbering Carpentry C ooking Concrete and Plaster Electrical and Sheet Metal Work General Metals and Welding Mill and Cabinet Work Painting and Decorating Plumbing Stationary Engineering Four different types of vocational training are open to girls. For those interested in Rural Homemaking the fol lowing subjects are given: Child Care Home Care and Upkeep Laundrying Landscaping Home Mechanics Home Cooking and Canning Home Sewing and Mending Home Gardening, Orchard and Berry Raising Home Poultry and Livestock For girls interested in and capable of Applied Home Economica the following subjects are taught: Arts and Crafts Clothing Dietetics Foods Home Nursing Practice Home Training Textiles Sewing 14 For girls who expect to earn their living in special vocational occupations, opportunities are given for training in cosmetology, cafeteria service, dressmaking, laundry work, and production sewing. For girls who expect to enter domestic service in the towns and cities, a special course is given in home and maidcraft. This training in general housekeeping is given with the latest type of gas and electrical equip ment. Laundry and cleaning techniques are stressed. Fancier cooking with more complicated menus is a feature of this course. All vocational courses are given under as natural conditions as possible. industry. The shops are comparable to any in The farming is done with the tools the Indian is likely to own at the start in subsistance farming. The girls in the subsistance homemaking course work in a one-room cabin which is furnished with equipment the girls have made. ovens. They use outdoor cooking and baking They learn to make garden and take care of poultry and domestic animals. The girls are taught how to use primitive facilities with proper sanitation. They learn what to grow in the garden and how to combine available foods to the best advantage. 15 Related academic curriculum* The related academic curriculum includes courses in English* social science, science, mathematics, music and physical education. Table I shows the course and time requirements at Sherman Institute. A description of the various academic subjects follows: The content of all the English courses is chosen to give experience to the student in reading, writing, and speaking. Some of the English classes are really remedial reading classes. Others give training in letter writing and ordering from the catalog. Those in the college preparatory group study literature and do the composition assignments found in the ordinary high school preparatory course for students belonging to the white race. A library course is given in all lour divisions for four years. In this course the student is taught how to use the library, and his reading is supervised. Dramatics is' studied in a class scheduled separately from the English time allotment. Ninth and tenth grade students study dramatics one semester for two forty-five minute periods per week. Miss Wilma E. Wilcox of the Eng lish staff at Sherman Institute in a personal conference 16 TABLE I COURSE AND TIME REQUIREMENTS FOR SHERMAN INSTITUTE 1939-1940 Subject TECHNICAL Grade ♦Periods No. of per wk. weeks English » n Drama ii Library « « « Civics Economics Family Re lations History American In stitutions Senior Prob lems Phys. Ed. * « Voc. Sci. & Physiology Gen. Sci. & Physiology Voc. Sci. & Gen. Sci. Biology Bio.or Agri. Voc. Sci. Physics Chemistry Arithmetic 9 10 11 9 10 9 10 11 12 9 10 5 5 5 2 2 2 2 4 or ♦ ♦ m 4 or £1 3 3 36 36 36 18 18 36 36 36 36 36 36 INDUSTRIAL Periods No.of per wk. weeks 5 5 6 2 2 4 4 4 or E L 4 or El 3 3 36 36 36 18 18 36 36 36 36 36 36 AGRICULTURE Periods No. of per wk. weeks 5 & 6 2 2 4 4 4 or HI 4 or EL 3 3 36 36 36 9 9 36 36 36 36 36 36 SPECIAL Periods No. of per wk. weeks 36 5 36 5 36 5 9 2 9 2 36 4 36 4 36 4 or £1 36 4 or Ml 36 3 36 3 11 11 2 5 36 36 2 5 36 36 2 5 36 36 3 3 36 36 12 4 36 2 36 2 36 4 36 12 9 10 3 3 4 36 36 36 3 3 4 36 36 36 3 3 4 36 36 36 2 3 4 36 36 36 9 5 36 1 36 2 36 2 36 2 36 9 10 2 36 5 10 10 6 11 36 6 11 36 5 12 2 9 ii 2 10 36 9 3 Algebra « 36 3 10 36 3 12 Geometry 18 2 2 9 Music * 18 2 2 10 18 36 9 18 Vocations t 18 36 18 10 n 18 36 18 11 ii 18 & 16 &1 36 18 12 ♦Periods were 40 minutes long. ♦♦Si means elective• 36 2 6 36 36 36 36 2 2 36 36 2 2 36 36 18 18 36 36 36 36 2 2 18 18 18 18 & 16 El 18 18 36 36 36 36 2 2 18 18 18 & 16 £1 18 & 16 SSL 18 18 36 36 36 36 36 - 17 said that the aim of the English courses was to make the Indian student able to read and write effectively for his purpose; therefore a wider range of materials and practices are found in their English courses than in the schools for white pupils where the background is different. Social science. Civics is the social science taught to all ninth graders in the four divisions. It is very elementary and teaches the foundations of American citizen ship . Economics and guidance make up the social science course for the tenth graders in all sections. Conservation with the teachers in this department revealed that the main emphasis was upon Indian opportunities and how the Federal laws and rulings affect the Indian1s economic future. General labor conditions in the United States and general economic conditions are reviewed with special reference to the Indian. Various text books and pamphlets are used in this course. In the eleventh grade all students study American history. It is a chronological study and not much differ ent from the usual text book treatment given in the tradi tional high school. Eleventh graders also study first aid, Indian cul ture, youth psychology and household budgeting in a course called Family Relations* Nine weeks is devoted to the study of each of these subjects. In the twelfth grade all students take a course in American Institutions. This is really an advanced civics course combined with an objective view of white American civilization. All four sections also take a course called Senior Problems which includes these four units: of the Sick, (2) Domestic Relations, 4 and (4) House Planning. Science. (1) Care (3) Youth Problems, Vocational science and physiology are given to ninth grade students in the technical11 (general high school course), agricultural and special sections. Students in the industrial section take general science and physiology. This vocational science is a special study of the scientific phenomena observed in the shops and the application of scientific principles. The physiology is a study of structure and function in its application to human health. In the tenth grade biology and genetics are offered to the technical section, biology alone to the industrial 4 Registration cards for Sherman Institute (River side, California: Sherman Press, 1940) 19 section, biology or agriculture to the agricultural section and vocational science and genetics to the special section (composed of students irregular in grade or whose I. Q. placement is low). In the eleventh grade students in the technical sec tion take physics, while those in the other three groups study vocational science. In the twelfth grade only those in the technical section take science. They study chemistry, which is the usual college preparatory course, modified to meet their interests arising from the wider experiences in the shops and laboratories. Music. Vocal or instrumental music is offered twice a week for thirty minutes to all students in the ninth and tenth grades, and is elective in the eleventh and twelfth grades. The band is a regular musical organization of the school and has a regular practice period of one hour on 5 each Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday evening. It furnishes music for all athletic events and gives special concerts. 5 Annual of Sherman Institute, op. cit., p. 27. The orohestra practices two hours a week and supplies music for general assemblies and special occasions* The dance band is organized to play for school dances and small gather ings. From the membership of the band boys and girls are selected for a chorus in which they learn to do solo and group singing* A junior band is organized each fall to locate and train younger musicians for the regular school band. Student government* The students in the various living quarters elect a council to help in the administration of house government. This council elects a cabinet of four teen members, each of whom is sponsored by a faculty member. The cabinet members, called commissioners, consider such matters as finance, athletics and civic duties and make recommendations which go before the Student Body House of Representatives. This group is composed of all the class and club officers. Athletics. It was found that athletics were thoroughly organized on both an interscholastic and on an intra-mural basis. Varsity football is played under the elegibility rules which obtain for all senior high schools in California. The boys who are too old for regular high school competition are organized as an all-star team and play against suitable groups* A regular junior high foot ball team is organized for the younger boys who play against the junior high sohool teams of the vicinity. Basketball is organized on the same plan. is one of the major sports. Wrestling The Sherman wrestling team competed in fourteen matches, ten dual meets, and four tour naments in 1940. Baseball is recognized as a regular inter school sport. The Lettermanfs Club, composed of men who have won recognition in athletics, cooperates with the school authorities in planning a good physical education program. Religious training. Sherman Institute follows the practice generally found in the government boarding schools of setting aside Thursday evening for the various denomina tional groups to receive instruction. A Sunday School is conducted on the campus on Sunday mornings and students are urged to attend the downtown church of their choice. Clubs are also organized for students to study the religious problems in which they are interested. Social program. Boys and girls are allowed to eat at the same tables in the dining room. They may visit to gether on the campus after: school hours until dark. The various Glasses and clubs have regularly scheduled dances and parties which §re -under staff approval. An all school assembly twice a month gives the students an opportunity .to present programs and enjoy school spirit. The club program. Aside from student government, music and athletic organizations, sixteen interest clubs were in operation at Sherman Institute. Each of the clubs alms to broaden the experience of the student and provide an avenue for the cultivation of better personal and school spirit. The organizations for boys ares Agricultural Club Craftsman1s Club Junior Lions Dramatics Club Catholic Club Y.M.C.A. Boy Scouts (2 troups) The organizations for girls are: 4 E Clubs Home Economics Clubs Lion Tamers Dramatics Catholic, Club Y.W.C.A. Girl Scouts (2 troups) Guidance program. Most of the guidance is done upon entering the school for the first time. ment tests are given. Mental and achieve Conferences with students along the 23 line of their interests are used in placing students in the proper divisions. The teachers and the residence hall deans are ready to help students in any type of problem that arises. The vocational courses are expected to fur nish practical guidance to the students. The entire educational program at Sherman Institute is really a guidance program. Students are moved from division to division as their needs and capacities become apparent. III. CURRICULUM EVALUATION A curriculum exists to provide a method for attaining the objectives of a school. In his message to the graduat ing class of 1940, Mr. D. H. Biery, the superintendent, stated that the training and development received at Sherman were designed to help the student meet the difficulties and confusion of today*s work and equip him to do his part in making Sherman Institute, Indians, and America improve and 6 advance. Most of the students are California Indians, which means that they come from small Indian communities situated generally in the poorest parts of California for agriculture. Many come from the elementary schools established for white 6 Annual of Sherman Institute, loc. cit. 24 children and have failed to achieve the educational objec tives there, because of ill health, poverty, or social discrimination. Many of the students are from broken homes. This places a tremendous burden upon the schoolfs curricu lum. Sherman Institute is striving to meet its objectives in vocational competence, in social and economic insight, and in cultural advancement. An evaluation based upon the six elements recommended 7 by the Cooperative Study of Secondary School Standards shows Sherman Institute to excel on curriculum, library and guidance. instruction. It is about average on pupil activity and There are not enough data to rate it on out comes of instruction. Commercial subjects are not offered, except begin ning typewriting, which is considered a tool for those who elect journalism instead of chemistry and geometry in their senior year, and as a tool for letter writing in the indus trial section. No cultural survey Gourses are offered. A history of culture to precede the senior course in American institu tions would greatly strenghen the background of the superior students in the technical section. 7 "How to Evaluate a Secondary School," A Manual of the Cooperative Study of Secondary School Standards' (Washing ton, D.C., 1 7 7 Jackson Place, 1940), p. 9. CHAPTER IV CURRICULUM OF THE FLANDREAU INDIAN VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL This chapter on the curriculum of the Fiandreau Indian Vocational High School at Fiandreau, South Dakota, was divided into three sections: (1) history, (2) curri culum, and (3) curriculum evaluation. The material was largely gathered from the excellent publications of the school. These sources were supplemented by correspondence with the superintendent of the school and with the Division of Education in the Office of Indian Affairs, Washington, D.C. I. HISTORY The Fiandreau Indian Vocational High School had its 1 origin in an Indian mission church built in 1871. It con tinued as a mission school for two years and then was purchased by the United StatesT government. site was selected in 1892. given this boarding school. The present Riggs1 Institute was the name Riggs was a pioneer missionary to the Dakota Indians. ^ Bow and Arrow (Fiandreau, South Dakota: Senior Class of the Fiandreau Indian Vocational High School, 1939), pp. 7-8. At first the school was ungraded and most of the teaching was done by charts and pictures. Progress was rapid and hy 1898 the first class of twelve was graduated from the ninth grade. Although an industrial teacher had heen sent to the school in the beginning and a domestic science teacher in 1908, it was not until 1924 that the institution really became an industrial school* Since that time there has been a steady enrichment and extension of the curriculum into the industrial fields. The academic work has been more closely related to the vocational needs. At present the school is under the supervision of the Department of the Interior, Office of Indian Affairs, T/ashington, D.C. The student body for the year 1940-41 consisted of 254 boys and 291 girls under the direction of a staff of 70. The school is fully accredited to the Department of Public Instruction of the State of South Dakota. Forty buildings, suited to the school1s program, make up the physical plant. II. CURRICULUM The emphasis of the school is upon vocational competence. A study of the curriculum shows that the edu cational philosophy behind the program is that competence depends upon theoretical understanding, coupled with train ing in manual activities, wherever possible. Twenty voca tional and nine related academic courses are offered. These courses are organized into lour general divisions of five years each, except the college entrance division, which is four years in length. These four divisions are agricultural, trade, homemaking and college entrance. The following vocational subjects are offered: Agriculture Baking Barbering hairy Electrical Work Farming Highway Engineering Masonry Mechanical Drawing and Drafting Metal Work Stationary Engineering Transportati on Woodwork Homemaking I, II, III Home Management Arts and Crafts Child Development Commercial Foods Commercial Sewing ■ Cosmetology Library Science Matron* s Work The vocational courses include instruction of a practical and theoretical nature. This instruction may be given in the shop or under field conditions and is given at the place and time when it is most effectively learned. 28 In addition to the vocational subjects there is a department known as the related academic. . The following subjects are taught in this department: Agriculture Biological Sciences Business Training Subjects English Health Mathematics Music Physical Sciences Social Sciences The course and time requirements for Fiandreau Indian Vocational High School are shown in Table II. Since the vocational subjects are essentially what their names imply, it was not thought necessary to discuss the content of each one* With the related academic subjects there is such a variation of content possible that a des cription of each one was considered necessary. English. Four courses are given in English. Eng lish I and II provide experiences in speaking, writing, and reading English. Recreational and purposeful reading on the part of the pupils are encouraged. English III consists of speaking, writing, and reading with some grammar and bio graphies of writers and speakers. English IV deals with creative writing and with American and English literature. Partial alternates or electives to take the place of the regular work in English are dramatics, journalism, 29 TABLE II COURSE AND TIME REQUIREMENTS FOR FLANDREAU INDIAN VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL 1939-1940 Agriculture Hours Yrs. per wk. Homemaking Hours Yrs. per wk. Trade College Entrance Yrs. Hours Y r s . Hours per wk. per wk • English 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 Soc. Sci. 5 3 5 1 5 3 5 3 Vocations 15 5 15 5 15 5 15 3 Mathematics 5 2 5 2 5 2 5 2 Phys. E d . 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Science 5 3 5 3 5 3 5 3 Institu10 tional work 1 10 1 10 1 10 1 * For 1‘il‘th year students only. 30 public speaking, and debate. Public speaking may take the place of one lull year in the English course. Social sciences. There are eleven subjects taught in the social science department. These are ancient history, medieval and modern history, American history, anthropology, economics, international relations, American government and citizenship, sociology, parliamentary law, minority group problems, and commercial and economic geography. In the ancient history course the social, industrial, commercial, religious and literary angles are emphasized. In medieval and modern history the emphasis is placed chronologically on human progress, showing relationship to contemporary problems. American history treats of the origin and development of the Indian race, the early Indian and European relations, the growth of the Indian service, the development of the West and the Indian con flict, the reservation system, the Dawes Act and the allotment policy, changed conditions for the Indian since 1900, colonial America, the making of the American nation, national development, territorial expansion, division and conflict, the industrialization of the United States, imperialism and world relations, and the United States in the twentieth century. Anthropology deals with man as a social being and with problems relating to his origin* The races, languages, and cultures found .in different localities and following each other in the course of time, furnish the material for this study. Special stress will be placed upon the Indian and his relation to anthropology* Economics deals with the basic laws of supply and demand in reference to labor, land, rents, money, and vari ous commodities. The International Relations course aims to inform the student and make him able and willing to share in the' solution of world problems. American Government and Citizenship includes the usual subject matter. The structure of the federal consti tution and of the South Dakota state constitution receives great emphasis. The theoretical and practical services of government, as well as of citizenship, are stressed. In Sociology the students study the traditional subject matter organized from the viewpoint of society in general, rather than from the individual and community viewpoint• Parliamentary Law deals with the rules, practices, and customs which regulate the procedure of deliberative assemblies* The following four principles are stressed: (1) justice to all, (2) consideration of one principle at a time, (3) majority rule, and (4) the safeguarding of the rights of the minority. The course, Minority Group Problems, deals with the various problems of minority groups with particular stress placed upon the problems of the Indian— his educational opportunities, social and economic possibilities under Indian self-government, intelligent citizenship, and his political parties and elections. Commercial and Economic Geography deals with world production and world markets, and seeks to enlighten the student in reference to his own economic future. The physicai and biological sciences. In the physical and biological sciences the following five subjects are taught: chemistry, physics, biology, health education, and general science. The Chemistry course meets college entrance require ments, but is approached through individual vocational problems from the shop courses. In Physics the content and treatment are tradition al. A survey of the known physical forces is presented from a logical point of view. The Biology course presents biological facts and principles primarily as factors in human health and hygiene. 33 The course in health education covers the following: (1) camp leadership to train girls for scout leaders and to manage camp work; (2) co-recreation for reservations which prepares girls to organize recreational groups and to make simple play equipment; (3) folk dances of the various nations with special emphasis on native Indian dances; and (4) a study of health education and hygiene to promote a program of health knowledge and good health habits. The general science is modern in content and in treatment. The radio* the airplane and television are adequately treated. Scientific method is stressed and open mindedness emphasized. Mathematics. offered. Six different mathematics courses are The course in general mathematics is open to all first-year students. The object . . . is to give the student a working knowledge of ratio, proportion, percentage, interest, commercial problems, equations, powers, roots, plane figures, and shop problems for b o y s . Similar . . . problems of the household will be stressed for girls ?~ The business arithmetic is organized to help the student to manage his own finances on an efficient basis. ness and accuracy are aims of the course. Quick Algebra is taught for those whose aim is college entrance. 2 Student Handbook, 1940-41, Fiandreau Indian Voca tional High School, p. 29. 34 The mathematics for girls "provides the basic fundamentals, as well as the specialized practical applications of mathematics, necessary for homemaking, the trades, and in- 3 dustrial occupations open to women." -The geometry is traditional in content, and designed primarily for those seeking college entrance. The trigometry is mainly for highway engineering students, and is adapted for their special needs. Business training. Four subjects are taught in the business training department: law, typewriting and shorthand. covers the basic principles. bookkeeping, commercial The bookkeeping course The commercial law deals with rents, labor laws, cattle branding regulations, irrigation rights, and contracts, all of which are of local application, as well as the law governing sales, negotiable instruments, partnerships, and private corporations. The typewriting is a "practical course training for personal use, and a preparatory course for students who desire to continue 4. in commercial work." 8 Ibid., p. 30. * -Ibid., p. 27. In shorthand, Gregg is the system 35 studied, The course is mainly concerned with mastering the theory of Gregg shorthand. Exercises in reading, dictation, and transcription are given as time permits. Agriculture. Pour courses are given in agriculture. Agriculture I is presented from the scientific viewpoint. The chemistry, physics, and biology of soils and the science of growth in plants and animals are studied. "Agriculture II is a study of land utilization, in which the following units of work will be offered: erosion con trol, irrigation, grazing, forestry, gardening, fishing, dairying, animal husbandry, poultry, field crops, horti5 culture, landscaping, and services related to agriculture." The two courses in Agriculture III and IV deal with farm management and marketing. They cover the financing of farms, analyzing farm incomes, balancing farm business, selecting a farm, planning homesteads, efficient use of labor, equipping a farm with machinery, leasing a farm, keeping farm records and developing technical knowledge in the marketing of agricultural products. 5 Ibid., p. 26. 6 Ibid., p. 31. 36 Music. In music opportunity Tor participation in band, orchestra, vocal groups, and music appreciation classes is offered. Work in the vocal groups consists of standard choral arrangements, idealized arrangements of Indian melodies, good current popular music, and operettas. Student government. Training in citizenship is further emphasized at the Fiandreau School through a n thoroughly organized and active student government. The school constitution-sets up a commission type of government which has the responsibility of promoting and supervising all student activities with the advice and consent of the faculty. Two commissioners each serve for finance, home, school, athletics, social, civic duties, and labor, or a total of fourteen. A president and secretary also serve with this council. The nominating committee is composed of the b o y s 1 advisor, girls1 advisor, two members from the council, and a boy and a girl selected by the student body president, who is the president of the council. Athletics. In 1939 athletic activities were % Ibid., pp. 42-50. football, basketball, boxing and track* Nine inter-school football games and fifteen games of basketball were played The Fiandreau School won the championship of the South Dakota Class A high schools in basketball. Sixty boys were active in boxing with twenty entering inter-school competition. They won the eight bouts they entered. There are eight intra-mural clubs in the school which have athletic activities, as well as other interests. The Letterman*s Club fosters good sportmanship and interests prospective athletes in the school. Girls* athletics are under the direction of the Girls* Athletic Association. played. No out-of-school games are Their objective is a sport for every girl and a girl for every sport. Interest clubs and organizations. est clubs are in operation. Seventeen inter Nearly every student is a member in one, because such membership is a requirement for participation in intra-mural athletic contests. club membership is limited to thirty. are: Each The girls* clubs G.A.A., Hobby Club, Home Economics Club, Economics Club, Current Events Club, Knitting Club, Travel, and Hiking. The boys* clubs are: Gentlemen of Riggs (house club), Racketeers, Lions, Wildcats, Coyotes, Aces, Royal Knights, and Vikings. Other student organizations are 58 the Drama Club, Future Farmers of America, Trade and Indus tries Club, St, J o s e p h s Club, Little Chiefs, Hi-Y, Y.W.C.A., St, Theresa’s Sodality, the Letterman’s Club, Big Brothers, Big Sisters, and the Tekawetha Club, Religious program. upon religious interests. Four of the clubs are based The members of the several denominational groups meet weekly. Classes in religious instruction are offered and may be elected as regular ’’credit courses.11 Attendance at town churches is encouraged. j III. CURRICULUM EVALUATION A curriculum exists for the student. Before evaluat ing the curriculum, some mention must be made of the economic and social background of the Indian student. Though some Indians were educated before 1900, the vast majority of the high school population today comes from homes where the parents are poorly educated. The swift economic and social changes of the last forty years have more completely upset the Indian than the white man. The result is that Indian youth today h a w need for a specially strong education that will fortify them economically, morally and socially. The young people who attend Fiandreau Indian Vocational High School come from the wind-denuded prairies of the Dakotas and the middle Northwest. Boverty is the rule. Therefore 59 Fiandreau specializes in agriculture and ranching courses for this semi-arid region* It offers enough trade courses to enable the students to improve their physical living conditions. It emphasizes cultural social values and seeks to cultivate in the student a desire to make a worthy contribution to American life. Bourne states as follows.with reference to evaluat ing a curriculum: (1) The objectives of the curriculum must be met. (2) The needs of the student are paramount. (3) The schools must articulate with life demands. (4) The curriculum must embody the content of the social need. 3 (5) Principles of growth should be evident. The Fiandreau School appears to have met these five criteria very creditably. Economic, social, and moral competence is the main objective of the school. The vocational and aca demic courses are organized to prepare the student to live on the prairie and to be master of the environment there. Because the student has more than economic needs, a strong social and cultural program is offered. The curriculum and course of study is only one of the 8 W. R. Bourne, "Contribution to Education," George Peabody College for Teachers, Vol. 16 (Nashville, Tennessee, 1925)p p . 1-143. 40 six items considered for evaluation by the Cooperative Study 9 of Secondary School Standards. Pupil activity is another. The strong club, athletic, musical, and social program offered at Fiandreau reinforce the classroom activities. Guidance is centered in the health department, but all teachers and staff members are expected to aid the student in the most effective way. The opportunities given for religious training are a part of the guidance program. The outcomes of instruction are fully seen when a comparison is .made between the older generation and the present one on such points as vital statistics, number of livestock on the range, increase in the value of personal property, and increase in optimism toward the future. Thus it is apparent that the Fiandreau Indian Vocational High School is fully justified in its curriculum and that it is discharging its obligations to the Sioux and related tribes. 9 r,How to Evaluate a Secondary School,” A Manual of the Cooperative Study of Secondary School Standards (Washington, D.C., 1940), p. 9. CHAPTER V THE CURRICULUM OP HASKELL INSTITUTE This chapter on the curriculum oi* Haskell Institute at Lawrence, Kansas, was divided into three sections: (1) history, (2) curriculum, and (3) curriculum evaluation. The method used was library research, supplemented by correspondence with the superintendent of the school and with the Division of Education in the Office of Indian Affairs at Washington, D. C. I. HISTORY Unlike Plandreau Indian Vocational High School, Haskell Institute was never a mission school. It was founded by Congress in 1883 as one of three non-reserva tion schools devoted to agricultural and industrial training for Indians. It was located at Lawrence, Kansas, on 280 acres of land contributed by the town. Today the school has one thousand acres of land with one hundred buildings. 1 The school opened with fourteen boys. After a 1 Student Publication, The Indian Leader, 17:4, May, 1940. 42 few weeks five girls and three more hoys enrolled. The faculty consisted of a principal with four women teachers. At first the school was ungraded. Learning to work and learning the English language were the main features of the curriculum. By 1894 the student body numbered six hundred sixty with six hoys and three girls graduating from the eighth grade. Gradually high school subjects were added and by 1926 Haskell Institute became accredited with the Kansas State Board of Education. All grades below the eighth were eliminated and two years of junior college subjects were added. In 1931 the peak enrollment of twelve hundred was reached. Vocational and academic work were both stressed at that time. In 1939-1940 the enrollment was seven hun dred twenty-one. One hundred eighty-three students were full bloods, one hundred thirty-eight were three-fourths degree, while the rest were of varying mixtures. II. CURRICULUM Today Haskell accepts the challenge of the future. Its program must be flexible and elastic to meet the changing demands of society. The present program attempts to develop well-rounded personalities capable of making 43 necessary social adjustments, well trained in the rudiments 2 of health, and equipped to make a living and a home. Therefore, the curriculum is arranged so that the first two years give a broad general foundation and the last two emphasize vocational skill. Twenty vocational and seven related academic courses are offered. ' The courses are organized into two general divisions of four years each. for boys and homemaking for girls. These are vocations Neither agricultural nor college entrance subjects are given at Haskell. Beyond the high school level a two-year commerce course is given, but it does not fall within the scope of this study. The following academic courses are given: English, mathematics, music, physical science, life sciences, social science, and physical education. The vocational courses for boys are: Auto Mechanics Baking Blacksmithing and Welding Carpentry Electrical Work Gardening Leathercraft and Shoe Repair Masonry 2 Ibid., p. 16. Painting and Decorating Plumbing Power Plant Operation Printing Related Drafting Hobby work in metals, leather, wood, etc. For girls the vocational offerings are: Arts and Crafts Child Care and Development Clothing Foods Design Weaving Home Management A summary of course and work requirements appears in Table III. All vocational courses include instruction of both a practical and a theoretical nature in regular classes which are carried on in modern shop and classrooms with the aid of excellent equipment.1* The vocational courses are what their names imply, but a description of the academic courses is necessary because of the variation of content possible in each. English. The philosophy and method back of the English courses at Haskell, as stated by Mr* Solon G. Ayres, the principal, in material sent out in November of 1940 are as follows: 3 Haskell Institute Bulletin (Lawrence, Kansas: Student Printing Apprentices of Haskell Institute, 1937), p. 19# TABLE III _GGURSE AND TIME REQUIREMENTS FOR HASKELL INSTITUTE 1939-1940 Homemaking Grades 9 & 10 ♦Periods Yrs. per wk. English Bus. Eng. Soc. Sci. Vocations Grades 11 & 1Z Periods Yrs. per wk. 5 Z 5 1 1/2 5 Z z z 13 60 5 9 Vocations Mathemat ice 5 Voc. Math. Music 1 Phye. M . 2 Science 5 Institutional 1/4 day work z z z 2 5 5 1 1/2 5 1 2 1/2 10 5 1 1 1 1 2 5 1 1 2 1 1/2 z Grade 9 Periods Yrs. per wk. 1/4 day Grade 10 Periods Yrs. per wk. 5 5 Grade 11 Periods Yrs. per wk. Grade 12 Periods Yrs per wk. 1/4 1 31 1 5 1 2 5 1 1 44 1 44 1 1 1 1 * Periods were 45 minutes long. CJ1 In September, 1940, a definite reading program was adopted at Haskell Institute. This program is more than a remedial attempt. The plan is based upon the principle that reading is a means to an end— education. If a student learns to read well, he has the principal tool with which to acquire an education. Thus, If a person is a good reader, he is in position to get an education. In fact, he has gained considerable educa tion in this accomplishment. Thus, reading is, in fact, an end as well as a means to an end. The objectives of the Haskell reading program are as follows: 1* To stimulate the child to enjoy and to do voluntary reading 2. To improve interpretation 3. To help the child gain command of the mechanics of reading 4. To establish the reading habits and the use of special reading techniques essential to efficient study. The remedial instruction consists of the following factors: 1. 2. 3. 4. Word recognition Word meaning Gaining the exact meaning (1) Discovering the central idea (2) Answering specific questions Remembering what is read. All ninth and tenth grade students are scheduled for regular reading courses which meet three times a week. These students are grouped according to their reading ability. This ability was. determined by a standardized reading test which was given at the beginning of the school year. Students in the lov/er levels are being given remedial instruction. Students in the upper levels do supervised reading and are given any help that is necessary. All students are encouraged to read for pleasure, as well as for educational purposes. Definite improvement is already evident in both quality and quantity of reading. 4? In English I reading, speaking and writing receive the major emphasis. Interest in reading is stimulated through radio and visual education. The text hooks Tor the course are Essentials of Everyday English, published by Laidlaw Brothers, Chicago: and Literature and Life (Book I), published by Scott, Foresman Company, Chicago. In English II the emphasis is on the elimination of speech errors. Special units on vocabulary building, troublesome verbs, punctuation, capitalization, diction, use of the library, subject and verb agreement, and words frequently confused are included. Reading for comprehen sion and appreciation are phases of the course. The text books are Correct English (Introductory Course), published by Ginn and Company, Chicago: and Western Prose and Poetry, published by Harper and Bros., New York. English III is a fusion with economic and vocational materials. A review of the first two years is included. The text books used are English for Success and Exercise for Services, both of which are written by Walsh and Walsh and published by McCormick-Mathers, Wichita, Kansas. English XV is a half-year course devoted to gram mar review, business letter writing, and to writing articles for the Indian Leader, which is a semi-monthly student publication. The fftextn designated for the course is The American Observer (Weekly News). Social Science. Three courses are included in the field of social science. The first course is American History for Indians, which is designed first, to stimulate within the individual student a desire for cultural development through his inquiry into contemporary life; and second, to'place at the student1s command a knowledge of where and how effectively to study and to evaluate the political, social, economic, and civic questions confronted 4 in life. The second course is Social Civics given in the eleventh grade. The three text hooks used indicate the tone of this subject. These texts are (1) My; Worth to the World by Capen and Melchior, published by the American Book Co.; (2) Social Civics by Monroe, published by Macmillan; and (3) Principles of Social Civics by Williamson and IFesley, published by D. C. Heath and Co., all of Chicago, Illinois. The third course is one on the United States con stitution and is designed for the eleventh or twelfth grade. The two texts used ares (1) American Government by Macgruder, published by Allyn and Bacon, Chicago; and (2) Know Your Constitution by Prank, published by McCormick-Mathers, Wichita, Kansas. 4 Ibid., p. 16. 49 Mathsmatica. Aside from the strictly trade mathematics, two general courses are offered. The one for the ninth grade ?tprovides for drill in the fundamental processes, problems involving home budgeting and community expense, graphs, and other mathematical applications to everyday 5 life. The text is Living Mathematics by Ruch, Knight and Hawkins, published by Scott, Foresman Company. Integrated Mathematics is the course for the tenth grade. nThis course emphasizes the application of mathematics to the personal, 6 social, business, and vocational needs of a student.” Physical Education. aspects. The health program has three Physical education classes are required of all ninth and tenth grade students. Eleventh and twelfth grade girls are required to take the classes, but the boys are not, because their vocational work requires so much physical exertion. Also many of the boys are in intra mural and interscholastic sports. The school physician is scheduled for regular talks to the student body. in hygiene is offered to freshman girls. Definite health instruction is emphasized in the science courses. 5 Ibid., p. 15. 6 Loc. cit. A course -• 50 Science. More science of a general nature is offered to girls than to hoys at Haskell, There is so much science in the vocational courses for hoys that only two years- of academic science is required of them. General science for the ninth grade is the usual collection of units of health, food, shelter, industry, commerce, astronomy. transportation, communication, sanitation and One objective of the course is counteraction of superstitutions. The text is Everyday Problems in Science by Peiper and Beauchamp, published by Scott, Foresman Company of Chicago. Natural science (life science) for the tenth grade is based upon vocational needs. The girls study substances and reactions in order to understand such basic principles as food changes, digestion, cleaning, laundering, and dyeing. The boys study natural resources such as raw materials and their treatment to produce the necessary products of industry. From the student’s own questions, aroused by his voca tional experiences in life situations, he is guided*in his investigations.' The four text books used are: (1) Living Things and You, by Downing and McAtee,' published by Lyons and Carnahan, Chicago, Illinois; (2) Everyday Biology* Curtis Caldwell, and Sherman, Ginn and Company, Chicago; (3) Dynamic Biology, Baker, Mills and Connor, Hand, McNally and Co., Chicago; 7 Haskell Institute Bulletin, lop., cit. 51 (4) New General Biology, Smallwood, Reveley and Bailey, Allyn and Bacon,Chicago, Chemistry for senior girls is the usual general chemis try, hut at Haskell special emphasis is placed on the food and organic chapters of the texts, which are Practical Chemis try hy Black and Conant and Senior Science by Ptacek and Kovats. The American Book Company of Chicago is the publisher of both these texts. Physics for junior and senior girls is a half-year course designed to give a better understanding of the prin ciples of common household appliances. The text is Home Mechanics for Girls, which is published by the McCormickMathers Company of Wichita, Kansas. Student government. Student government is not as well developed as at Flandreau Indian Vocational High School. Haskell has a student council of six boys and six girls, 8 representing the four dormitories. To be a counselor, a student must have served one year as a dormitory (lodge) officer and have an excellent record both in school and out. flThe duties of the Council are to act as a go-between for students and advisors, and to assist in the formation of 9 rules and regulations pertaining to the student body.” 8 Some Interesting Facts About Haskell (publication of the Guides1 Club of Haskell Institute, March, 1940), p. 14. 9 Lo g . cit. 52 Athletics. Athletic activities were football, basket ball, boxing and track. To the outside world Haskell has always been prominent in sports. attain All-American status. It has had some students But within the school itself the purpose of athletics is to build sportsmanship among the students. A lettermanfs club fosters good sportsmanship. All games are played under the rules of the Kansas and Missouri Athletic Association. Extensive intra-mural athletics were on the program. Besides the regular athletic program, Haskell has a cavalry troop composed of 64 boys in the peace-time quota and 90 under the war-time quota. Haskell boys composed 50 per cent of the Honor Guard at the New York World!s Pair. Interest clubs and organizations. In a bulletin sent out by Solon G.Ayres, the principal* November 6, 1940, it is stated: Extra-curricular activities occupy an important position in the educational program of Haskell Institute. These activities give a student an oppor tunity to exert himself according to his individual interest. If .individual' interests are properly guided and encouraged, they can be made important factors in the educational process. All clubs meet once a week from 4:15 to 5:00 p.m. at various places on the campus. The following twenty-five interest clubs were organized for the year 1940-1941: 55 Science Club Tumbling Club Arts and Crafts Discussion Club Bridge Club Quiz Club Girl Scouts Home Economics Club Junior Bed Cross Boy Scouts Hi-Y Club Guides Club Bible Club Indian Club Pep Club I Pep Club II Y.W.C.A. Violin Club Dancing Archery Woodwork Camera Club Dramatic Club Music Clubs Athletic Clubs Religious program. On the Haskell campus every Sunday morning at 9:50 the Sunday School meets, as well as the lour 10 religious clubs. groups meet. On Thursday evenings six denominational Students are urged to attend the church of their choice in Lawrence every Sunday. A full-time religious director with twenty-one Haskell staff members are engaged in sponsoring the many religious activities. Sixty per cent of the students take an active part in the religious program. 3-0 Some Interesting Facts about Haskell, o p . cit., p. 9 54 Guidance program. In all the literature published “by Haskell Institute no reference to guidance, as such, was made, but attention was called to their new program of supervised study. This program provides time in the regular class period for preparation of the assignments. pose is (1) to teach the student how to study, his study, The pur (2) to direct (5) to encourage him to study, and (4) to give him a definite time to study. In the principals bulletin, November 6, 1940, Mr. Ayers said* • Supervised study is believed to have special signi ficance in Indian schools for two reasons? First, because of their background, culture, and retiring nature, many Indian students need direction and encouragement . . . . They are quite willing to study if they know how to proceed. It is the teacher1a responsibility to show them the way. Second, Haskell students do not have as much time for study as the average pubxic school student.” Social program. The social program offered at Haskell consists of the following: 1. Weekly Saturday night dances sponsored by the students of the rour dormitories in their turn. 2. Saturday night parties in the dormitory recreation rooms. 3. Bi-weekly motion picture shows in the campus auditorium. 4. Sunday afternoon picture shows in the theaters of Lawrence. 55 5. Special dances and parties at irregular intervals throughout the year, such as the get-acquainted parties at the beginning of the school year, the Halloween and New Year parties, the Junior-Senior Prom, and the alumni.banquet and d a n c e . H III. CURRICULUM EVALUATION As stated in Chapter IV, it is necessary to consider the general background and economic status of the Indian student in evaluating any curriculum designed for him. Students from twenty-two states and Alaska attend Haskell. Oklahoma leads with 284; Wisconsin is second; and South Dakota, North Dakota, and Minnesota all have large repre- 12 sentations. The students at Haskell, like those at the Flandreau Indian Vocational High School, are from homes generally lacking in educated parents and from localities where economic opportunities are limited. Haskell Institute is a vocational trade school. At one time it was also agricultural, but Chilocco Indian Agricultural High School at Chilocco, Oklahoma, specialized in agriculture and, since both serve the Middle West, Haskell dropped agriculture as a vocational course. The Haskell curriculum is designed to prepare its boys to make a living 11 An account written by a student, November 6, 1940, under the direction of the principal, Mr. Solon G. Ayres. S°me Interesting Facts about Haskell, op. c i t ., p. 4. 56 with their manual skills and its girls to he intelligent consumers and homemakers. More cultural and generalized knowledge courses are offered to girls than to hoys. The home economics course is very complete, as are all the vocational trade courses, course. Haskell has no college entrance The academic subjects are closely related to the vocational problems which arise in the shop and laboratory experiences of the pupils. 15 Bourne’s five criteria for judging a curriculum are met acceptably at Haskell Institute. The objectives of the school are vocational competence and well-adjusted citizenship. As has been shown in section II, the curriculum is fitted to these objectives. The students are learning how to make a living and how to be intelligent consumers. In order to be well adjusted, the students need to know more than how to earn a living. enjoy life. They need to learn how to Therefore at Haskell a varied recreational and social program is provided. A study of the school catalogs showed how Haskell had changed its curriculum to meet the changing needs of different times. The organization and teaching methods of the school are now in process of further improvement. Principles of growth are evident. 13 W. R. Bourne, ’Contribution to Education,,r George Peabody College for Teachers, Vol. 16 (Nashville, Tennessee, 1925) pp. 1-143. 57 The library is one of the six principal elements to consider in judging an educational program, according to 14 the Cooperative Study of Secondary School Standards. Haskell has a library of 6000 volumes and opportunity is given for the students to make efficient use of it. 15 Guidance is another element which should be considered. Haskell has no separate guidance organization. is supervised. All study Students are carefully classified at the time of registration; othervd.se no special guidance is given. The outcomes of instruction, also listed by the 16 Cooperative Study, are difficult to evaluate in an indus trial school, because of the recent upsets in the indus trial world. The Division of Education in the Office of Indian Affairs at Washington, D.C. is conducting an econo mic survey of the work of its schools, but the findings are not yet available. Because the future is uncertain and change is certain, Haskell gives a broad general education in the first two years and emphasizes vocational skill in the last two years. 14 tfHow to Evaluate a Secondary School,11 A Manual of the Cooperative Study of Secondary School Standards (Washing ton, D .C., 1940), p. 9. 15 l»oc * c i t . 16 Loc. cit. CHAPTER VI CURRICULUM OP THE SANTA PE INDIAN SCHOOL Tills chapter on the curriculum of the Santa Pe Indian School was divided into three sections: (1) history, (2) curriculum, and (3) curriculum evaluation. Most of the investigation was done on the school campus. The superintendent, the principal, and the teachers were interviewed. Classes in session were visited and con ferences held with students or teachers before and after class sessions. The school publications were studied. library and art studios were visited. The Dining rooms, kitchens, living rooms, study halls, and residence halls were observed for their part in the total school program. I. HISTORY The Santa Pe Indian School at Santa Fe, New Mexico, began as a mission school but was turned over to the govern1 ment in 1886. It was a one-room school with forty pupils. Quarters were so inadequate that the Federal State House was taken to house the school until a permanent site was purchased. Congress appropriated $25,000 for buildings and the City of Santa Pe gave 106 acres of land. 1 T. Wilkerson, “History of the Santa Pe Indian School” (unpublished article prepared under N. V. Brannon for this study, Santa Pe, New Mexico, Jan. 3, 1941), pp. 1-7. 59 The new school was completed in 1890* the enrollment went to 177. In two years All students received academic instruction and vocational training. Brickmaking was the main vocation at the school in 1895. By 190& the student body numbered 350. In 1906 on the sixteenth annual com mencement five received diplomas. Of ail the Indian schools surveyed, this one had the largest percentage of full blood Indians and ranked fifth in average attendance. The school has grown rapidly. The curriculum has been steadily modified in trying to meet the needs of the individual pupils. II. CURRICULUM The best approach to the study of the curriculum was found in the annual announcement of the Santa Pe Boarding School for the year 1935-1934. It states as follows; Around Santa Fe are located Indian groups whose art, culture, and traditions have survived association with white people for over three centuries. The desire of the school is to offer pupils an opportunity to understand and appreciate those good things which their people have or have had. At the same time it is hoped that they will borrow from white civilization, but only in those things which offer improvement and to the extent that the improvement can be adjusted to the lives of pupils after leaving school.2 2 Annual Announcement Santa Fe Indian Boarding Schoibl (Santa Fe, New Mexico: Department of Interior, 1935-34^, pY I. 60 From time immemorial the Indians of the Southwest have been subsistance farmers. Their land feeds them. Agriculture is a part of the lives of the people, and it ‘ 5 is a part of the life of the school.11 Surveys of the graduates and ex-pupi'ls show that they returned to their reservations in large numbers, no matter what schools they attended or what courses they studied. Their agricultural life leaves much free time, and it is felt that in their free time lies the contribution that the Santa Fe School can make. It is felt that this free time is the key to fuller material and spiritual rewards through the revival and encouragement of native arts and crafts towards which end this school is working. All pupils parti cipate and have their appreciation of the beautiful nourished and enlarged through an acquaintance with that which is their own.4 Vocational curriculum. The Santa Fe Indian School is not just another high school. and crafts. Its emphasis is on arts The pupil studies painting in oil and water colors, design, carding, spinning, navajo weaving, dyeing, embroidery, tanning, leather work, beadwork, basketry, pottery making, and Indian songs and games. 3 Ibid., p. 2 4 Loc . c i t . The pre- 61 vocational and vocational studies include: Auto Repair Baking Carpentry Cleaning and Pressing Cement Work Cooking Dairying Electricity Farming Gardening Greenhouse Heating Home Nursing Home Planning Laundry Painting Plumbing Sewing Silver smithing Shoe Repair Tailoring Welding Pupils are in the school room half of each working day. The other half is spent in shop, field or studio. In grade nine the student works and studies in various places on the campus to find what crafts or vocations he likes best or for which he is best fitted. These he follows with the related academic curriculum. Pupils of suitable age with unusual interest and ability are allowed to spend full time in arts, crafts, or vocations. Academic curriculum. day in the classroom. A student spends half of each All the required work of each year is taught by one teacher, so subject lines may verge accord ing to the interests of the class or the ability of the 62 teacher in correlation. Those who desire preparation for college attend for a fifth year when special subjects are given. Those who want to prepare for teaching the arts and crafts must stay two years above high school and specialize in the art or craft they desire. They must also take practice teaching and typing. English. English is required in all four years. Some literature is studied, but for three years much emphasis must be given to public speaking and for two years much stress must be put upon the fundamentals of composition, which means special drill is given in spelling and vocabulary. Mathematics. ninth grade. Vocational mathematics is given in the This involves a review of the fundamental processes in arithmetic with problems related to the arts and crafts. required. In the tenth grade business mathematics is This course includes some simple bookkeeping, some budget work, and problems dealing with the particular needs' of the group in marketing their craft and buying supplies. It also includes installment buying, farm weights and measures, costs of grain and feeding, and profit and loss. In the eleventh and twelfth grades students may elect a course in individual mathematics. In this course what the student studies depends entirely upon his need. Algebra or geometry may be included. 63 Social science, Social science for the ninth grade is a consideration of New Mexican and Indian history. Tenth graders study American history from the hook hy Harold Rugg, called American Civilization. Original units suitable to Indian life in New Mexico are added to the course. The eleventh grade studies American government and American cul ture as it affects the Indian. The twelfth grade is concerned with American problems in culture and government. An origin al unit is added on Indian contribution to culture and his tory of New Mexico is repeated again. Science. In the ninth grade ail the boys take Agricultural Science and the girls study Vocational Home Economics. In the tenth grade Vocational Home Economics and Biology are offered. The Biology stresses the simple prin ciples and emphasizes the control of disease and sanitation. Related Physics is the science offered to the eleventh grade. It is really the physics contained in the general science course of the white high .school with special reference made to machine and household problems. The Chemistry of the twelfth grade is related to sanitation, to cooking, and to dyes used in the arts and crafts. Physical education. are required for four years. Health and physical education These courses aim to make the 64 student health, conscious and to provide him with skills for recreational resources when he goes home. Music. Music is an elective for all four years. Individuals may study piano hut it is not encouraged, "be cause very few Navajo or Pueblo homes have pianos. The Navajo and Pueblo children excel in rhythm, but not in vocal tone quality. Their great artistic sense is in color and line, rather than in musical tone. Orchestra, bands and glee clubs are part of the musical opportunity. and appreciation of music are given. History Special encouragement is given to those who wish to prepare for research in Indian music.and to those who plan to do original composition. Assemblies. Assembly programs are presented on three Sunday evenings of every month. They are considered the birth place of school spirit, the welding shop of school loyalty, the power plant of school pep. The assembly is where school customs and traditions are kept alive; where worthy achievements both group and individual are given public recognition, where special talents are developed in new performers, and discriminating tastes cultivated in those before whom they perform.5 The school administration insists that the assembly program be dramatic, interesting, timely, original, and inspiratlona.1. 5 Santa Fe School Calendar for 1940. p. 2, 65 Clubs. Clubs meet once a week for fifty-five minutes. Membership is voluntary and so is faculty sponsorship. The clubs are: Dramatics Club Boy Scouts (two troups) 4 H Clubs (3 for girls, 1 for boys) Girl Scouts (2 troups) Woodcarving National Home Economics Literary Club Tumbling Club Quotation Club Girls Athletic Clubs Indian Club (to foster and promote Indian dances, etc) Athletics. Inter-school and intra-mural activities are organized for football, basketball, baseball, track and tennis. Student government. Student government follows the commission form used in the other Indian schools. residence halls each have a house council. The The student body elects fourteen commissioners who deliberate with staff representatives on finance, athletics, civic duties, scholar ship, and home responsibilities. Guidance. as counselor. There is no one special person designated Ail teachers, officials and employees are expected to be alert to the personal needs of the students. Vocational guidance is checked upon by representatives from the Federal Bureau who constantly survey the economic con ditions on the reservations. The vocational program is 66 always changi ng• Religious training. for all the denominations. to each group. in session. Thursday night is church night Religious instruction is given On Sunday morning a small Sunday School is Mass is held on the campus for the Catholic group. Social program. School assemblies, which all students are required to attend; class and club parties, school dances, athletic events; and residence hall affairs give each boy and girl ample opportunity to. gain poise and confi dence in society. XXI. EVALUATION OP THE CURRICULUM The curriculum of the Santa Pe Indian School is specially adapted to the needs of the Navajo and Pueblo peoples. Agriculture furnishes their living and handicrafts their cash. their lives. Art and handicraft give spiritual meaning to Therefore the school must furnish training to enrich these three phases of their experience. is not just another high school. The school It is a place where the needs of the students' lives are the objectives of the curriculum. Based upon the curriculum standards reviewed in Chapter II of this study, the Santa Pe Indian School meets all the requirements for a high rating. In the 67 Manual of the Cooperative Study of Secondary School Standards the following is stated concerning the evaluation of a curriculum: It must he emphasized that education is concerned with more than the accumulation of knowledge, the development of. skills and the improvement of the understanding. The emotional elements in human nature generally determine the use or application that is made of knowledge, understanding and skills, and also deter mines whether these are useful merely to their possessor or are also useful to society.6 The Santa Fe School trains the emotions through wide use of two art studios, through the shops where crafts are mastered, in the classrooms where the intellect is nurtured, and in the general activities of the school where the pupils1 social conscience is refined. 7 Mekeel, in writing on Indian education, suggested that an education which succeeds from the viewpoint of the white man completely disintegrates the Indian and puts him out of rapport with his own group and community and leaves him with no other to fit into. Successful education must he community education, not individual education. Social institutions cannot be changed by individual education alone. 6 f,How to Evaluate a Secondary School,” A Manual of the Cooperative Study of Secondary School Standards (Washington, D.C.: 744 Jackson Place, 1940), P* 9. 7 Scudder Mekeel, rfAn Anthropologist1s Observation on Indian Education,” Progressive Education, 13:15;-I59, March, 1936. 68 The curriculum at Santa Fe Indian School is aimed toward the elevation of the entire community and is succeed ing in improving the general health and in reducing the mortality rate. The amount of trichoma is decreasing and tuberculosis is being brought under control. Community and individual pride in worthy achievement is taking the place of bewilderment in the face of an oncoming white civilization. CHAPTER VII THE CURRICULUM OP THE INDIAN VOCATIONAL SCHOOL AT ALBUQUERQUE This chapter on the curriculum of the Indian Vocation al School at Albuquerque * New Mexico, was divided into three sections: (1) history, (2) curriculum, and (5) curri culum evaluation. The greater part of the investigation was made on the school campus. viewed. Faculty members and pupils were Inter Classes were visited, as well as principal parts of the physical plant. The school*s publications were studied carefully and were supplemented by library research. I. HISTORY The Indian Vocational School at Albuquerque was opened by the Presbyterian Mission Board under the leader ship of Sheldon Jackson in 1881. It was understood in the beginning that the United States government would operate the school as soon as a suitable permanent site could be obtained. The City of Albuquerque purchased an excellent tract of land in the Rio Grande Valley two and a half miles from the center of town. They gave this land to the United States government for the school site. complete charge of the school in 1886. The government took 70 During the first year the average attendance was forty, the second year it was seventy, and hy the time the first buildings on the site were erected there were 150 students. In numbers and in influence the school has con tinuously grown until today the student body number 600 under the direction of a staff of eighty-five. five buildings on the campus. There are thirty- Prom the first vocations and and related subjects have been designed principally to help the Indians of New Mexico and Arizona. II. THE CURRICULUM There are two curricula: tional. the general and the voca The general curriculum offers work in the following: English Social Studies Mathematics Science Arts and Crafts Home Economics Leadership Red Cross Health and Physical Education Athletics Group Games Clubs Mus ic Community Extension . Camping and Recreation The general vocational course is carried on for the purpose of preparing students for home and community improvement and constructive participation in community life. Agri 71 culture, farm shop, building, woodworm, model home, car and truck driving, iron work, leather work, baking, cooking, mending, home economics, community extension, art, crafts, related courses, and various courses listed under general 1 curricula are essential to this course. The vocational courses prepare for specific jobs in the pueblos, reservations and adjacent towns. These courses are home economics, art, crafts, agriculture, building trades, metal trade, leather work, wood working, baking, and cooking. It is desired to unify and relate the courses, activities, and school life to help the stu dents use constructively, with confidence and efficiency, their experiences, knowledge, and skills in school, in their communities and homes, and in their work. The motto of the school is to help the pupils learn to do better the things they will probably do. The policy of the school is to "encourage them to continue to respect their heritage, their race, their culture, and their arts and crafts, and to strive for the continuance and improve2 ment of things that are good." ^ Annual Report of the United States Indian Vocational School, Narrative Section (Albuquerque, New Mexico: Indian School Office, 1935), p. 4. 2 Ibid., p. 5. 72 The general and vocational curricula are organized on a four-year basis. A two-year course is offered to the graduates in the teaching of arts and crafts. For those who plan to attend college a fifth year of preparatory training is offered. The vocational courses are: Baking Carpentry Cleaning and Pressing Cooking Electricity Farming Gardening General Mechanics Harness Making Heating Home Nursing Home Planning Painting Plumbing Sewing Shoe Repairing Silver smithing Tailoring Table IV shows the time and course requirements. English. English is the only required subject for all pupils at all times. Conversation, letter writing, reading, speaking, and current events are stressed in all four years of English. Literature is not a feature. as an aid to letter writing. Typing is taught Each teacher keeps a record of student reading on a special form which tabulates word recog nition, appreciation, comprehension, and organization. Special forms for appropriate checking are provided in oral composi- 73 TABLE IV COURSE AND TIME REQUIREMENTS FOR ALBUQUERQUE INDIAN VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL 1939-1940 Grades Offered English Mathematics Social Science Biology Vocations Physics Chemistry Music Band Orchestra Red Cross Auto Driving Periods per wk. 4-12 5 4-12 4-12 10 4-12 12 11 4-12 4-12 4-12 11 12 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 2 2 Required of all students. 4b :- Required of all students. ■jhhs* Required of all hoys. Length of period in minutes 45 45 45 45 90 45 45 10 60 60 45 45 N o . of weeks No* of years 36 4 36 18 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 4 4 1 4 1 1 4 4 4 1 1 74 tion and spelling, A check list is given each student so that he may mark his own reading improvement. The school paper published once a month is the special project of the eleventh grade English class. Social science. Social science is a six-year course which is started in the seventh grade and is built around a definite geographical, historical, and economic orientation pattern. The seventh grade studies the school; the eighth grade the Hew Mexico-Arizona region; and the ninth grade the background, history, and development of the Southwest. Climate and geography are part of the background knowledge. The history of the Pueblo Indians is included. In the tenth grade the student studies the entire United States according to the same pattern and relates the whole to the Southwsst. The eleventh and twelfth grades study social problems which touch on vocational opportunities, economics, Indian village problems, and special problems in specific communities. - Science. Biology is taught to the tenth grade on the unit plan with special emphasis on health and sanitation. Everyday applications are made. The physics offered to the twelfth grade is really a general science course devoted to shop and household problems. Chemistry emphasizes common shop and home applications with special attention to food. The standard Red Cross First Aid course is given in the 75 eleventh grade and each student is required to qualify for the Certificate in First Aid, Mathematics. Four years of mathematics are offered. This is all arithmetic with problems devoted to shop, home, and farm. Simple bookkeeping and business practice are included. Music. All classes have ten minutes of recreational singing every day. The Indians of the Southwest excel in rhythm, but have relatively poor singing voices. Glee club and chorus organizations are not outstanding, but band and orchestra are. Students enrolled in band and orchestra practice one hour every day. This practice period is a part of the daily school schedule. Home Economics. The work in homemaking has been put on the most practical basis possible. Each teacher has six individual kitchens, one equipped with a gas range, one with a fireplace, and the remaining four with small coal and wood stoves of various types. Each little kitchen has been furnished to represent a one-room home. . . . The furniture has been made by the Indian girls.3 Out-of-doors *the girls have built a number of fireplaces and ovens. In these kitchens the science of foods is studied. 3 Ibid., p. 6 76 Clothing, pottery making, and weaving are all important branches of the home economics work. ment receive attention. Child care and develop Home nursing is taught on the voca tional basis. Student government. uFundamentally, student govern ment indirectly means student control and any program of student government should include the entire life of the 4 student in the school.” To this end the following organi zation is aimed. One boy and one girl are elected at large by the student body to be commissioners of health, finance, social activities, and athletics. The students are also organized by tribes and the elected tribal leader acts as sponsor for local tribal publicity. He also acts as an aid to building supervisors when a member of his tribe fails to live up to expectations. Each residence building has a student organization working with the deans and matrons to take care of study hours, dining room, door bells, bed checking, and social affairs. Athletics. A complete intra-mural program in sports is organized for both boys and girls. Inter-school contests In football, basketball, baseball and track are played by 4 News item in The Sandpainter, December, 1940. (Albuquerque, New Mexico: student publication of the Indian Vocational School), p. 5. 77 by the boys. The boy scouts have added swimming to their sports program. Interest clubs . Time is allowed after school hours or after dinner on Tuesdays for club meetings. Students are encouraged to identify themselves with the clubs of their choice. The following clubs are now in operation: Girl Reserve, Girlfs Glee Club, Boy Scout Troops, Science Club, Pep Club, Home Economics Club, Lettorman*s Club, and Dancing Club. Dramatics are on the basis of a school activity and not as a club. Guidance. Every staff member is considered to have responsibility for student guidance. Such important matters as thrift, courtesy, personal care, and grooming are emphasized. Studying is done in the residence halls. Some classes study in their own rooms and some in the public rooms. Religious program. at Albuquerque. Thursday evening is church night Each denominational group has its own meeting for inspirational and instructional purposes. Attendance at town churches on Sunday morning is encouraged. Social program. Class and club parties and >danc;es^ residence hall social affairs, and school assemblies provide 78 varied social opportunities. School assemblies are held twice a month on Sunday evening. They are required to be inspirational, timely, original, and largely by students. A special trip of educational value is provided once a year for members of the senior class. In January, 1941, they were the guests of the Mexican government on a tour of Mexico City. Transportation was by the school buses• III. CURRICULUM EVALUATION The curriculum exists for the benefit of the student and must take him where he is and fit him to live a better life where he will be. Albuquerque is a vocational and agricultural school which aims to educate the student for pueblo and reservation life in the Southwest where rainfall is light and water for irrigation scarce. There are no large cities and few industries, except those connected with tribal life. The vocations are farming, herding, pottery, weaving, and silversmithing. The vocational courses emphasize training in these lines and the subjects in the general curriculum aim to widen the horizons and to increase the appreciations of the students. The trade courses are. not for fitting the students to enter industry at some far away place, but to increase their efficiency as homemakers and community members on the reservation or in the pueblo. 79 Previously in this study the five points for curri5 culum evaluation have been noted: (1) (2) (5) (4) (5) The The The The The objectives must be met. student needs are paramount. school must articulate with life. social needs must be met. principles of growth must be evident. The objective of the Albuquerque school is stated in its motto, which is to help the student do better the things he will probably do anyway. The things he will probably do are connected with his home life on the reservation or in the pueblo. He needs vocational training and it is provided at the Albuquerque School. His present social needs are met by a strong social and recreational program while in school. His future social needs are provided for in the training received and attitudes developed in athletics, clubs, music, and art courses. The principles of growth are evident. In conversation with Miss Lilian MeKenney, principal of the school, it was found that the curriculum has been under intensive study for some time and that a laboratory approach to more subjects would be instituted in 1941. The work in agriculture will be placed upon a more technical and scien tific basis, which is necessary for successful farming in arid regions. 5 W. R. Bourne, "Contribution to Education," George Peabody College for Teachers, Vol. 16 (Nashville, Tennessee, 1925) p p . 1-143. An ©valuation based upon the six element recommended 6 by the Cooperative Study of Secondary School Standards showed Albuquerque Indian Vocational High School to rate above average in curriculum* library, and guidance. Insufficient observation of pupil activity made it impos sible to give a rating on pupil activity and instruction. The outcomes of instruction are being studied by a com mittee from the Education Office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Their findings are not yet available. Evaluated on the basis of principles suggested by 7 Stigler, the school rated high in general. The academic science courses probably rated the lowest in providing a dynamic body of experiences for the learner. The social science courses were the best and provided a complete survey of economic and social problems in the United States both from the viewpoint of the Indian and the white man. 6 "How to Evaluate a Secondary School,” A Manual of the Cooperative Study of Secondary School Standards (Washing ton, D . C ,: 744 Jackson Place, 1940), p. 9• 7 W. A. Stigler, "Handbook for Curriculum Development Bulletin of Texas State Department of Education, #354, Feb., 1936. CHAPTER VIII THE CURRICULUM OP THE CHILOCCO INDIAN AGRICULTURAL HIGH SCHOOL This chapter on the curriculum of the Chilocco Indian Agricultural High School at Chilocco, Oklahoma, was divided into three sections; (1) history, (2) curriculum, and (3) curriculum evaluation. The material for the survey of the curriculum was obtained largely through library research. Correspondence with the superintendent of the school and with the Division of Education in the Office of Indian Affairs at Washington, D. C. supplied information not adequately given elsewhere. I. HISTORY Chilocco Indian Agricultural High School at Chilocco, Oklahoma, was one of three Indian schools founded 1 by Act of Congress in 1883. The school opened its doors to one hundred children in January, 1884. The first superinten dent, Mr. J. M. Hadley, was a Quaker who had worked among the Indians for many years. The second superintendent, Dr. Henry J. Minthorn, was the uncle and foster father of 1 Student Handbook, Chilocco--The School of Oppor tunity for Indian Youth (Chilocco, Oklahoma; School Printing Department, 1938), pp. 5-7. 82 former President Hoover. In 1894 six "boys and nine girls were graduated from the eighth, grade. By 1927 twelve grades were taught, and in 1932 the high school “became accredited under the Oklahoma State School Law. Today the school owns 8,640 acres of land, has 44 main buildings, and has an average enrollment of 600. From the beginning Chilocco has been a genuine 2 agricultural school, but in 1923 practical courses in agricultural were introduced with the vocational aim defin itely in view. II. CURRICULUM Vocational curriculum. The vocational curriculum is divided into the agricultural section, the building trades, and the miscellaneous trades. Chilocco is agriculture. The main vocation taught at The purpose of the course is to instruct the pupil in the fundamentals of successful farming. These include soil, fertility, water, crop rotation, heredity, and plant and animal selection. The course aims to stimulate the future farmer to attain economic independence. Farm management, including such topics as marketing, buying of supplies, and farm rentals is emphasized. 2 Ibid., p. 33. 83 Boys In the ninth, grad© are given an opportunity to explore the various branches of agriculture in order to obtain actual experience with poultry, dairying, farm shop, and field crops* A boy who does well is advanced to the tenth grade level with no reference to semester or class room divisions* In the tenth, eleventh and twelfth grades the boys must select a cooperative project which includes three or more units such as hogs, poultry, and grain farm ing. The boys receive one-fourth of the income from grain and one-eighth of the increase in stock. Eighty acres is the individual allotment in grain farming. Other agricultural subjects such as dAiry produc tion, poultry production, vegetable gardening, and orchard production are part of the course in vocational agriculture. Teaching is done in the classroom or in the field, depending upon the type of job. In some subjects both places are used. The trade courses fit the boy for an apprentice ship that will quickly advance him into his chosen trade. During the ninth grade a boy spends six weeks in each shop so that he may discover the trade for which he has the most aptitude. his choice. The last three years are spent on the trade of The school comprises such a large farm that ample opportunity is offered to practice the trades in a useful and helpful way. The building trades give training 84 in carpentry, painting, masonry, and plumbing. The mechani cal trades offer opportunity in general mechanics and farm machinery. In addition to these, the student may study electrical work, steam plant operation, printing, baking, shoe repair, harness making, dry cleaning, and barbering. Related academic curriculum. In the related aca demic curriculum all the courses offer instruction in direct relationship to the aims of the school. Field trips, group discussions, reference reading, dramatics, and laboratory work are used as they are suited to instructional needs. The content of the related academic subjects is given briefly below. Home economics. The work in home economics is organized to teach family relationships is such a manner that homes become happy places in which all members share the joys and responsibilities .that are involved. The girls are taught the proper methods of doing work in a home; a liking for home life; to'analyze and solve household problems; and to form judgments of qualities, conditions and situations that lead to good selections of the essentials of correct living. The ninth grade girls study home nursing, arts and crafts, clothing and foods. Tenth graders study foods, clothing, home management, poultry raising, gardening, and arts and crafts. In the eleventh grade the girls study roods, clothing, family finance, home decoration, and arts and crafts. They take some of their training in the practice house. The twelfth grade girls study foods, clothing, child training, nursery school, family relationships, and arts and crafts. English. First and second year English ,fstresses remedial reading, oral and written composition, letter writing, sentence recognition, improvement of diction, and vocabulary study with special emphasis on individual pro- 3 gress.1* In English III and IV there are further opportunities to develop reading tastes, and to review, through practice, the language skills and personality qualifications required for effective speech. Dramatizations, pantomines, panel discussions, debates, and choral reading are a part of the class work in both of the advanced years. Rural magazines are evaluated, and extensive reading is done on vocational topics. Writing for student publications is also a part of the work in English III and IV. Social science. course: There are four subjects in this (1) Indian history, (2) citizenship, history, and (4) American problems. (3) American Indian history is given to the ninth grade and is tfdeslgned to give pupils a better 3 Ibid., p. 27. 86 understanding of Oklahoma with reference to the political, 4 economic and social institutions of the state.” Current history from the newspapers is given considerable emphasis. Laws affecting Indian welfare and current legislation are included in the course. tenth grade. Citizenship is studied in the This course stresses safety, occupations of the state, rural and small town life, current events, and problems of local and state government. A study of the communities represented by members of the class is part of the instruction in community leadership. American history for the third-year students is taught through the study of present-day problems. The constitution with its changing form and interpretations is an answer to problems which arise. American problems is given in the senior year. Different groups select problems and present them to the class for discussion. The general objective is to familiar ize the student with social and economic problems in a democracy. Mathematics. The mathematics courses offer instruction in the kind of problems Indians will likely face. The first- year course stresses the mastery of fundamental processes. The student must collect his own problems for the shop mathe matics courses. A unit in geometry is included when needed. 4 Ibid., p. 2 9 • 87 The senior course in money and banking is really an economics course with emphasis on business arithmetic and record keep ing. Science. All the science courses are adapted to meet the problems which arise in the real lire of the students. The ninth grade studies personal health and hygiene with . emphasis on the recognition of common diseases, simple first aid, afreets of alcohol and tobacco, and the sanitary dis posal of garbage and waste. The third year science deals with testing water for purity, proper drainage, location of a farm well,soils, and soil fertility. Topics relating to better housing are correlated with this course and developed in a study of home site, methods of improving home property, and inexpensive home equipment that contributes to better sanitation. The twelfth grade science class is devoted to health problems, associated with family organization, marriage, mental hygiene, heredity, plant and animal reproduction, and veneral diseases. The school physician supplements the regular class instruction by special lectures and demonstrations. education. The purposes of physical education at Chilocco are enjoyment and development. - Physical education is required of all students. The program includes the tra ditional gymnasium drills, dancing, swimming, games, and 88 and organizations have parties and dances throughout the year. An all school picnic is held twice a year. are given on the campus. Lyceum programs Up-to-date moving pictures are shown on alternate Saturday nights in the school auditorium. Students are admitted Tree of charge. Religious activities. The various religious organiza tions and clubs on the campus provide religious training for the students. The Y.W.C.A. for the senior high school girls creates fellowship, develops character, serves others, strives for a world-wide viewpoint, and gives the girls the opportunity to become the cultured women of tomorrow. Hi Y Club does the same things for the boys. The The Methodist and Baptist churches are represented on the campus through their young peoples1 clubs where Christianity is deepened and the students receive training for religious leadership. Catholic instruction is given to all students of that faith. Mass is said on the campus each Sunday morning. S tudent government. Chilocco, in common with other schools under the Bureau of Indian Affairs, had military discipline for many years. In 1933 a b o y s 1 council was organized and in 1935 a girls1 council. has been in operation since 1936. from the student body at large. A combined council The members are elected Their main service is to advise on campus problems and to institute projects for 89 corrective gymnastics. The hoys and girls have separate gymnasiums. Music. zations. Music is taught in the various musical organi Orchestra rehearsals are held twice a ween and band rehearsals four times a week. The choir is the outstanding vocal organization and furnishes music for the Sunday morn ing church service and for all patriotic and special pro grams. The Christmas, Easter and Commencement concerts are especially noteworthy, ,fFew schools can be round any where with a higher degree of musical talent than can be 5 found at Chilocco.n Clubs. The club activities have as their aim the teaching of the worthy use of leisure time. vide outlets for youthful enthusiasm. They also pro The club program varies a little from year to year, but the following types persist: hobby clubs, trade clubs, agricultural clubs, home economics clubs, dramatic clubs, literary societies, and pep clubs. Social program. Every other Saturday night school dances are held for the student body. 5 Ibid., p. 6. The various clubs 90 better citizenship. They are official hosts to new students entering school in the fall. Guidance. .In the official publication of the school nothing was said about guidance, but a careful study of the printed materials reveals that guidance is definitely in the philosophy of education at Chilocco. Pertinent quota tions showed that the student is expected to make his own decisions in the light of the accepted codes of the school. Suggestions and recommendations abound in the handbook, but there are no printed rules. A self-analysis 'chart for character rating appears in the handbook. A student must have a satisfactory record in personal conduct in order to graduate. School and home citizenship are considered in giving class promotions. Athletics. Inter-school athletics for boys consist of boxing, basketball and baseball contests. The intra mural organization is based upon many groups which compete for school championship in football, baseball, soft ball, tennis, track, archery, badminton, croquet, horseshoes, table tennis, volley ball, swimming, and row boating. The National Guard. Company ’’C 11 of the 180th Infantry has been stationed at Chilocco for seventeen years. Over 600 boys have profited physically and financially from this 91 organization. The members encamp at Port Sill, Oklahoma, for fifteen days in August each year. Two-third of the pay received by the boys is spent for their school clothing. The purpose of the unit is to help boys over eighteen with a good 'School record finance their education. III. EVALUATION OF CURRICULUM Chilocco is !,a school that strives to train Indian young people in all the phases of life necessary to make 6 them self-sustaining citizens.” Ten years after the school was founded the first class graduated and since then a class has gone out every year. Members of these groups make up the Alumni Association, the purpose of which is to keep the administration in touch with the changing needs of Indian young people. The greatest stress of the curriculum is on agricultural and home techniques. Trades are important for some students, but most Oklahoma Indians make their living from the soil; therefore Chilocco is an agricultural school. A survey of the curriculum as a whole showed it to measure high on the basis of standards set up and dis cussed in Chapter II. The subject matter of the various courses was found to be dynamic, practical, interesting, and presented to the students through as many senses as possible. The students learn by doing. 6 Ibid., p. 7. CHAPTER IX SUMMARY The six Indian schools considered in tliis survey were: (1) Sherman Institute, Riverside, California; ;(2)cFIandreau Indian Vocational High School, Flandreau, South Dakota; (3) Haskell Institute, Lawrence, Kansas; School, Santa Fe, Hew Mexico; (4) Santa Fe Indian (5) Indian Vocational School, Albuquerque, Hew Mexico; and (6) Chilocco Indian Agricultural High School, Chilocco, Oklahoma. The history of each school was given, each school*s curriculum was analyzed, and each curriculum was evaluated according to the standards set forth in Chapter II. In this chapter the history of the schools, the curricula analyses, and curricula evaluations were briefly summarized and general recommendations made as a result of the survey. I. HISTORY These six major Indian schools were all organized in the eighties. They all began with a curriculum based upon scrub brushes, brooms, pictures, and the English alphabet. They all made progress in fitting their curricula to the needs of the students and the students for an 11on-going” society. They have consistently followed this policy so that today they are in advance of most high schools in the United States. 93 Tiie philosophy of education emphasized so much in the Indian schools* publications and in conversation with the school officials does not differ in theoretical statements from that of the best progressive high schools for whites, but it does differ greatly in being directly applied to all phases of the school program. A greater effort seems to have been made to plan the curricula for students* needs and to work these plans after they were made. II. CURRICULA The curricula of all six schools were alike in putting the emphasis on vocations and home making. All modified the academic instruction to furnish the theoretical and cultural background for successful vocational participation in modern American economic life. All six schools seemed to have been aware that the stenographic field is over-crowded and not suited to Indian youth. Not one gave a commercial course on the high school level. Haskell is the only one to have a commercial course for the junior college student. Flandreau is the only one to have made provision for fully meeting college entrance requirements on its campus. All six schools have made an effort to preserve elements of Indian culture which have a valuable cont±ibution to make towards American civilization as a whole and to keep alive those racial skills which mean much to Indian psychology. 94 Tii© English, courses still stress English reading, writing and speech. English and American literature received scant attention. The social science courses were judged the best in any of the curricula. These courses seek to orient the Indian student in.reference to his own culture and to the dominant white society. They give the theory behind the strong vocational emphasis in all six schools• The mathematics courses were found to be extremely practical. The fundamental processes, simple bookkeeping, and budgeting comprised most of the subject matter. Algebra and geometry were taught only to those students who were definitely preparing for college entrance or who needed them in their vocation. The science courses were designed to meet the needs of the students in the shops and on the reservations. Health and sanitation were the aspects most emphasized. Physical education was taught in organized classes in five of the six schools. Free play and games, as well as organized athletics, were found in all six schools* Both vocal and instrumental music received great emphasis at Flandreau and Haskell. In the other four schools vocal music received less attention, because tribal and climatic conditions have limited the vocal capacity of the students. These schools were superior in instrumental 95 music, for the students excel in rhythm. In all six schools student government was well developed. The training of citizens was in the motto of every school. The guidance program had gone through the phases of the guidance movement. All the schools had had formal classes at one time in personal and vocational guidance and all had discontinued them. Individual and group guidance was put back into every classroom and dor mitory with every teacher and matron expected to give direction when needed. The spirit of the student body testified to the efficiency of the guidance program. Happy, well-adjusted students were the rule. In all six schools students were divided into three or four groups with a curriculum suited to their needs, interests and capacities. Club programs were extensively offered in all six schools and were operating on various levels of satisfac tion and efficiency. Club sponsors in most cases were too busy to properly direct the clubs. The need for religious and moral training was recogniz ed and adequately provided for in all six schools. The social program was adequate and designed to give the student poise and pleasure in group activities. All six schools offered twenty or more vocational courses and gave more time to vocational training than to 96 academic work. Ail six schools had specially trained v o cational teachers and were equipped with modern shops and materials. In each school one certain vocation was stressed, according to the locality served. III. EVALUATION OP CURRICULA The results of this survey show that the curricula of the six schools studied were organized to serve the youth of the area in which each school was located. The economical and social needs of the students were the hasis of the development and extension of the curriculum. The educational program of each school sought to develop balance in the students in regard to capacities, experiences, self-reliance, creativeness, enjoyment, and vernacular competence. This study shows that the education offered to the Indian student by the government of the United States is modern, challenging, and developmental. IV. GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS In the Indian high schools every effort is made to equip the student to live happily and successfully in his particular after-school environment. This aspect of educa tion seems to receive less emphasis in the high schools for white pupils than in those for Indians. Since no educational system is fully justified which does not train students to * 97 cope with the economic, social, and civic problems which they must face after they leave school, it appears that greater emphasis could profitably be placed on this aspect of education in all our high schools, A study of Indian education as part of every teacher*s preparation for teaching in high schools designed for white students would greatly enhance sensitivity to minority groups in our schools. It would also lead to a truer understanding of American history and destiny. The cause of democracy would be furthered and the general cultural hori zon of America would be broadened. BIBLIOGRAPHY 99 Ammon, S. A., 11History and Present Development of Indian Schools." Unpublished Master1s thesis. The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1935. 104 pp. Annual Announcement Santa Fe Indian Boarding School. Santa Fe, New Mexico: Santa Fe Indian Boarding School, 1934. 6 pp. Annual Report of the United States Indian Vocational School Narrative Section, 1935. Albuquerque, New Mexico: Indian School -Office, 1935. 15 pp. Blauch, Lloyd E., "Educational Service for Indians," The Advisory Committee on Education, #18. Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office, 1939. 137 pp. Bourne, W. R., "Contribution to Education," George Peabody College for Teachers, Vol. 16. Nashville, Tennessee: 1925. 143 pp. Bov/ and Arrow. Flandreau, South Dakota: Senior Class of tEe Flandreau Indian Vocational High School, 1939. 79 pp. Chilocco--The School of Opportunity for Indian Y o u t h . Chilocco, Oklahoma: School Printing Department, 1938. 60 pp. Dix, Lester, A Charter for Progressive Education. Teachers1 College, Columbia University, 1939. New York: 107 pp. Douglass, Harl Roy, Secondary Education for Youth in Modern America. Washington, D. C.Y American Council on Education, 1937. 137 pp. Education for American Life, The Regents’ Inquiry. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1938. 167 pp. New York: Frederick, 0. I., "The Curriculum in the Light of Research,11 School Review, 47: 578-79, October, 1939. Guinn, J. M . , A History of California, Vol. I., Los Angeles, California: Historic Record Company, 1907, 498 pp. Haskell Institute Catalog. Lawrence, Kansas: tute Printing Office, 1938. 98 pp. Haskell Insti "How to Evaluate a Secondary School," A Manual of the Cooperative Study of Secondary School Standards. 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