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The improvement of reading abilities and habits in the secondary schools of California

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THE IMPROVEMENT OF READING A B IL IT IE S AND HABITS
IN THE SECONDARY SCHOOLS OF CALIFORNIA
A T h e s is
P re s e n te d to
t h e F a c u lty o f th e S c h o o l o f E d u c a tio n
U n i v e r s i ty o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a
In P a r t i a l F u lfillm e n t
o f t h e R e q u ire m e n ts f o r t h e D e g re e
M a s te r o f S c le n o e i n E d u c a tio n
by
M a r g a r e t H o e f n e r L aw so n
S e p te m b e r 1 9 4 1
UMI Number: EP54247
All rights reserved
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UMI EP54247
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This thesis, written under the direction of the
Chairman of the candidatefs Guidance Co m m itt ee
and approve d hy all members of the Com mittee,
has been presented to and accepted by the Faculty
of the Scho ol of Edu ca tio n of T h e University of
Southe rn California in partial fu lf illm en t of the
requirements f o r the degree of M a s te r of Science
in Education.
..
30j
...
1?41.....................................
Dean
Guidance Committee
P. J . Weersing
Chairman
Louis P. Thorpe
C. C. Crawford
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I.
PACE
NATURE AND PURPOSE OF THE ST U D Y .................................... '
The p r o b le m
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
l
S t a t e m e n t o f t h e p r o b l e m ..............................................
1
I m p o r ta n c e o f t h e p r o b l e m .........................
2
R e la te d
in v e s tig a tio n s *
.
.
Sum m ary o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n s
M e th o d o f p r o c e d u r e
II.
1
.
. ...............................
5
.........................................
12
.........................
12
O r g a n i z a t i o n o f r e m a i n i n g c h a p t e r s .....................
13
THE HISTORY AND PROCRESS OF R E A D IN G ..........................
17
...................................................
17
H is to r y o f re a d in g *
The h i s t o r y
.
o f re a d in g i s
th e h is to r y o f
e d u c a t i o n i t s e l f .............................................................
M o d e rn t r e n d s
i n r e a d i n g ...................................................
17
20
I n 1 9 2 5 t h e T w e n t y - f o u r t h Y e a rb o o k w as
p u b lis h e d
. . . . .
...................................................
P u rp o se o f th e T h i r t y - s i x t h Y e a rb o o k .
. . .
20
21
R e a d in g h a s b e c o m e m ore a n d m o re I m p o r t a n t
f o r c h il d r e n and a d u lt s f o r s o c i a l a s
w e l l a s e d u c a t i o n a l n e e d s ....................................
Im p r o v e m e n ts i n
t e a c h i n g m e th o d s ..........................
R e a d in g n e c e s s a r y f o r s u c c e s s i n
life
. . .
22
24
26
C h a n g in g s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s show n e e d o f
r e a d i n g f o r e v e r y o n e ...................................................
27
ill
CHAPTER
PAGE
C hanges i n e d u c a tio n a l th e o ry and
p r a c t i c e ..................................................................
29
R e a d in g s h o u l d h e c o n s i d e r e d a p r o c e s s
o f g r o w t h to w a r d d e s i r a b l e g o a l s
* .
. ♦
29
P r o b le m o f r e m e d i a l r e a d i n g a c o m p le x
III*
o n e ..................................................................................
31
S um m ary............................................................................
32
ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF
REMEDIAL R E A D IN G ........................................................
35
R e s p o n s ib ilitie s o f th e a d m in is tr a to r s . . .
36
A d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o b l e m s ....................................
R e a d in g s u r v e y
. . . . .
36
.........................................
40
A t t i t u d e o f a d m i n i s t r a t o r s to w a r d
" s p e c ia l c o u rse s"
...............................
S e le c tio n o f te a c h e rs .
. . . .
4?
....................................
53
...............................
53
c o n s i d e r a t i o n ............................................ .....................
55
A p p o in tm e n t o f t e a c h e r s .
.
Many p h a s e s o f c h i l d r e n n e e d
T e a c h e r m u s t b e i n g e n i o u s .......................... ....
E v ery t e a c h e r i s a t e a c h e r o f r e a d i n g .
F a c u lty m e e tin g s v a lu a b le .
...........
56
. .
60
...................
63
I n v a l u a b l e h e l p o f l i b r a r i a n .....................
67
C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f p u p i l s ..............................................
68
P ro v is io n f o r in d iv id u a l d iffe re n c e s . . .
69
iv
CHAPTER
PAGE
S u m m a r y ........................................................................
IV .
74
NATURE AND CAUSES OF READING D IFFICU LTIES
M e n ta l d e f e c t s I n r e a d in g
In a b ility
..
76
.........................................
77
to r e c o g n iz e w o rd s.
. . . . . .
77
Low g e n e r a l i n t e l l i g e n c e ...............................
78
Weak v o c a b u l a r y
L ack o f a b i l i t y
to re a d
.
80
in th o u g h t u n i t s .
80
P o o r c o m p r e h e n s i o n .................................................. .
F a u lty stu d y h a b its
.
.
81
..............................................
82
P h y s i c a l d e f e c t s .......................................................
V is u a l d e f e c ts .
84
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Poor h e a rin g
84
•
D e fic ie n c y i n a u d ito r y p e r c e p tio n
. . . .
90
S p e e c h d e f e c t s .........................................................
92
L a c k o f c o o r d i n a t i o n ............................................. .
E m o tio n a l d i s o r d e r s
. . . .
89
.
93
...............................
9^
S u m m a r y ...................................
V.
96
METHODS OF TEACHING REMEDIAL READING...........
98
I m p o r ta n c e o f r e m e d i a l r e a d i n g ................
99
T ypes o f p u p i ls In re m e d ia l r e a d in g
c la s s e s
. . • • . . • • • • • • • • • .
100
R e m e d ia l i n s t r u c t i o n .........................................
S i l e n t and o r a l r e a d i n g
C o n d u c t o f c l a s s e s ..............................................
105
•
•
107
110
V
CHAPTER
PAGE
M a t e r i a l s a n d d e v i c e s v a r y am ong t h e
d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l s .........................................................
F re e re a d in g p e rio d s .
V I.
. .
.........................................
112
120
S u m m a r y ..................................................................................
128
SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS........................................ .
129
S u m m a r y .......................... .
D a ta f o r t h e
.............................................................
s tu d y .
H is to ry o f re a d in g .
129
129
.....................................
130
O rg a n iz a tio n and a d m in is tr a tio n o f r e a d ­
in g p ro g ra m s in se c o n d a ry s c h o o ls
.
. .
R e a d in g d i f f i c u l t i e s .........................................................
T e a c h in g m e th o d s .
C om m ents o n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e ................................
R e c o m m e n d a tio n s . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1J 0
131
131
132
133
BIBLIOGRAPHY.......................................................................................................
137
APPENDIX................................................................................................................
147
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE
PAGE
I.
O r g a n i z a t i o n o f R e m e d ia l R e a d in g
C la s s e s
II.
....................................
. . . . . . . . .
38
M o st E f f e c t i v e Way o f O r g a n i z i n g
R e m e d ia l R e a d i n g C l a s s e s .........................................
III.
S e l e c t i o n o f P u p i l s f o r R e m e d ia l
R e a d in g C l a s s e s .
IV .
39
.....................................................
41
T e s t s a n d E q u ip m e n t U s e d i n C l a s s i f y i n g
E n t e r i n g P u p i l s Who H eed S p e c i a l
T r a i n i n g I n R e a d in g .
V*
.
.............................................
44
T e s t s a n d E q u ip m e n t U se d i n C l a s s i f y i n g
P u p ils
f o r P ro m o tio n o r A dvancem ent . . .
49
Num ber o f P u p i l s i n R e m e d ia l R e a d in g
C l a s s e s .............................................
IX .
46
Hum ber o f R e m e d ia l R e a d in g C l a s s e s i n
E a c h S c h o o l ........................................................................
V III.
42
P u p i l s I n P r o p e r G ro u p s W it h i n t h e
C la s s
V II.
.
T e s t s a n d E q u ip m e n t U se d i n C l a s s i f y i n g
'
V I.
. .
50
S p e c ia l C la s s e s f o r R e a d e rs o f S u p e rio r
\
A b ility
X.
..................................................................
51
Tim e A l l o t m e n t i n R e m e d ia l R e a d in g
C la s s e s
............................................................
. . . . .
52
v ii
TABLE
X I.
PAGE
N um ber o f F u l l Tim e T e a c h e r s f o r
R e m e d ia l R e a d i n g C l a s s e s . . . . . . . .
X II.
Num ber o f P a r t Tim e T e a c h e r s f o r
R e m e d ia l R e a d in g C l a s s e s
X III.
X IV .
XV.
58
....................................
59
S c h o o l s H a v in g R e a d in g C o u n s e l o r s ......................
61
T e a c h e rs I n te r e s te d
63
i n R e m e d ia l R e a d i n g .
.
K in d o f C r e d i t G iv e n t o R e m e d ia l
R e a d in g P u p i l s ...................................
X V I.
X V II.
X V III.
X IX .
XX.
X X I.
70
C r i t e r i o n f o r P r o m o t io n .
71
C a u se s o f R e a d in g D i s a b i l i t i e s . . . . . .
79
C a u s e s o f R e a d in g D i s a b i l i t i e s ....... ......................
85
V a lu e o f R e m e d ia l R e a d in g C l a s s e s .
. . . .
101
C o o p e r a t i o n o f S c h o o l s .......................................... .
A v e rag e I n t e l l i g e n c e Q u o tie n ts o f
R e m e d ia l R e a d in g P u p i l s .........................................
X X II.
T ypes o f P u p ils
XXV.
XXVI.
•
108
T ype o f R e a d i n g T a u g h t ...............................................
IO 9 .
C o n d u c t o f R e m e d ia l R e a d in g C l a s s e s .
111
B ooks A v a ila b le
♦ . •
f o r T h o se o f Low
R e a d in g A b i l i t y ..............................
X X V II.
106
M e th o d s U s e d i n T e a c h in g R e m e d ia l
R e a d i n g ..........................•
XXIV.
104
i n R e m e d ia l R e a d in g
C l a s s e s ..................................................................................
X X III.
102
W here B o o k s a r e A v a i l a b l e ..........................................
113
114
v iii
TABLE
X X V III.
PAGE
T e x tb o o k s U s e d i n T e a c h in g R e m e d ia l
R e a d in g .
XXIX.
* .
..................................................................
S u p p l e m e n t a r y R e a d in g M a t e r i a l s U se d
I n R e m e d ia l R e a d in g G l a s s e s
XXX.
...............................
121
M a g a z in e s R e a d b y R e m e d ia l R e a d in g
P u p ils .
XXXI.
117
. . . . . . . .
...............................
.
.
125
R e a d e r s o f N e w s p a p e r s ....................................................
126
CHAPTER I
NATURE AND PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
A fe w y e a r s a g o t h i s c o u n t r y b e c a m e c o n s c i o u s o f t h e
re a d in g d e f ic ie n c ie s o f i t s
p o p u la tio n *
I m m e d ia te ly t h e
s c h o o l s u n d e r t o o k t h e p r o b le m o f t e a c h i n g r e a d i n g t o p u p i l s
o n e v ery g ra d e l e v e l.
N a tu ra lly th e r e ta r d e d r e a d e r s o n ly
w e re c o n s i d e r e d a t f i r s t f b u t g r a d u a l l y i t w as s e e n t h a t
t h e r e a d i n g p r o g r a m s h o u l d b e c o m p r e h e n s iv e e n o u g h t o
e v e ry c h ild *
to u c h
A lth o u g h r e m e d ia l r e a d in g i s o f g r e a t im p o r t­
a n c e , d e v e lo p m e n ta l r e a d in g f o r th e a v e ra g e and a b o v e a v e r a g e p u p i l s i s b e i n g e m p h a s iz e d m o re a n d m ore*
T he t r e n d
i s now to w a r d t h e im p ro v e m e n t o f r e a d i n g a b i l i t i e s a n d
h a b its o f e v e ry sc h o o l c h ild .
I.
THE PROBLEM
S ta te m e n t o f t h e p ro b le m .
T he p u r p o s e o f t h i s
s tu d y
w a s t o d i s c o v e r how c e r t a i n s e l e c t e d s c h o o l s o f C a l i f o r n i a
w e re o r g a n i z i n g a n d c o n d u c t i n g c l a s s e s
th e re a d in g a b i l i t i e s
in o rd e r to
im p r o v e
and h a b its o f t h e i r p u p ils .
Some o f t h e q u e s t i o n s t o w h ic h a n s w e r s w e re s o u g h t
a re :
1.
How a r e r e m e d i a l r e a d i n g c l a s s e s o r g a n i z e d a n d
a d m in is te re d ?
2
2*
W hat m a t e r i a l s a n d d e v i c e s a r e u s e d i n t h e
te a c h in g o f re m e d ia l r e a d in g ?
3.
W hat a r e
t h e p h y s i c a l a n d m e n t a l d e f e c t s w h ic h
c au se re a d in g d i f f i c u l t i e s ?
4*
How i s
t h e t e a c h i n g o f r e a d in g c o n d u c te d i n th e
c u rric u lu m ?
Im p o rta n c e o f t h e p ro b le m .
G o v e rn m e n t s t a t i s t i c s
sh o w t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y f o u r m i l l i o n p e o p l e i n t h e U n i t e d
S t a t e s d o n o t know how t o r e a d o r w r i t e .
M any m i l l i o n s o f
p e o p l e r e a d h u t d o n o t u n d e r s t a n d o r c o m p re h e n d w h a t t h e y
rea d .
H e a d in g i s c o n s i d e r e d e f f i c i e n t o n l y i f m e a n in g s
a r e g r a s p e d , s e n s e d g o a l s a t t a i n e d , a n d k n o w le d g e o r g a n iz e d . 1
it
A s t u d y o f t h i s p r o b le m w i t h a l l i t s
ra m ific a tio n s ,
i s h o p e d , w i l l l e a d t o a m o re w i d e s p r e a d i n t e r e s t i n
re a d in g .
T he m o s t s e r i o u s c o n c e r n o f y o u n g p e o p l e i n
se c o n d a ry s c h o o ls i s
T h is i s
le a r n in g to re a d w ith u n d e rs ta n d in g .
t r u e b e c a u s e in f o r m a tio n a b o u t m o st o f th e th in g s
i n t h e w o r l d i s g a i n e d t h r o u g h r e a d i n g a b o u t th e m .
B e­
c a u s e t h e a m o u n t o f r e a d i n g m a t t e r h a s e n o r m o u s ly i n c r e a s e d
i n r e c e n t y e a r s , t h e n e c e s s i t y o f l e a r n i n g t o r e a d i s m o re
1 P a u l A . W i t t y a n d D a v id K o p e l, HC a u s a t l o n a n d
D ia g n o s is o f R e a d in g D i s a b i l i t y , * J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o lo g y .
2 : 1 8 7 , M ay, 1935*
u rg e n t th a n e v e r .
So v a s t i s t h i s c o n t i n u o u s l y g r o w in g
l i t e r a t u r e — n e w s p a p e r s , b o o k s , p a m p h le ts , m a g a z in e s ,
b u lle tin s ,
a n d m o n o g r a p h s — t h a t h e who c a n n o t r e a d r a p i d l y
a n d w e l l w i l l f i n d h i m s e l f s e r i o u s l y h a n d ic a p p e d f o r l i f e .
T he i m p o r t a n c e o f r e a d i n g i n t h e e a r l i e r g r a d e s h a s
a lw a y s b e e n r e c o g n i s e d b y s c h o o l s .
O n ly w i t h t h e new
I n t e r e s t i n r e a d i n g , h o w e v e r, h a v e th e s c h o o ls r e a l i s e d
th a t le a rn in g to re a d
i s a l o n g p r o c e s s a n d m u s t b e em ­
p h a s iz e d o n e v e r y g r a d e l e v e l a s lo n g a s th e c h i l d i s
s c h o o l*
A b ility
in
t o g e t m e a n in g f r o m p r i n t e d p a g e s r a p i d l y
a n d a c c u r a t e l y , a c q u i r i n g a m o re e x t e n s i v e v o c a b u l a r y , b e ­
c o m in g c a p a b l e o f f i n e r d i s t i n c t i o n s a n d m o re s u b t l e a p p r e ­
c i a t i o n s a r e b e i n g s t r e s s e d m ore a n d m ore i n t h e h i g h
s c h o o l*
C o n c e rn in g t h i s , U h l s t a t e s :
A f a l l a c y t h a t p e r h a p s h a s d i s r u p t e d A m e ric a n e d u c a ­
t i o n m o re s e r i o u s l y t h a n a n y o t h e r i s t h e a s s u m p t i o n
g e n e r a l l y m ade u n t i l r e c e n t y e a r s t h a t a t t n e e n d o f t h e
s i x t h g ra d e a n o rm a l c h i l d s h o u ld b e c o n s id e r e d f u l l y
an d c o m p le te ly to h av e le a r n e d to r e a d .
•
• * • • • •
+ » • .
•
•
»
* « • * » • • «
T oday, w hen o u r s c h o o ls j u n i o r and s e n i o r h ig h c o n ­
t a i n m any p u p i l s who t e n y e a r s a g o w o u ld h a v e l e f t
t h r o u g h l a c k o f a c a d e m ic i n t e r e s t , i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e
v a r i o u s s u b j e c t s h a s b e e n p e r c e p t i b l y s lo w e d dow n b e ­
c a u s e o f t h e i n a b i l i t y o f s t u d e n ts to m a s te r th e c o n ­
c e p ts p re s e n te d .
P o o r r e a d i n g a b i l i t y i n e v i t a b l y s lo w s
dow n t h e p r o g r e s s o f t h e w h o le g r o u p .
O fte n th e e n t i r e
s tu d e n t body I s r e ta r d e d to th e sp eed p o s s ib le o f
2
a t t a i n m e n t b y t h e p u p i l s o f l e s s t h a n m edium a b i l i t y .
2 W i l l i s L . U h l , "T h e M a t e r i a l s o f R e a d i n g . " T h e
T e a c h in g o f R e a d in g ; A S econd R e p o r t. T h i r t y - S i x t h Y e a r­
b o o k . N a t i o n a l 3 o c l e t y “ f or t h e S t u d y o f " E d u c a t i o n . P a r t I
( B lo o m in g to n , I l l i n o i s : “ T u b l i e S c h o o l P u b l i s h i n g C om pany,
1937), PP. 218-19*
4
R e a d in g s h o u ld h e t h e fu n d a m e n ta l r e q u ir e m e n t i n
a l l g ra d e s o f s c h o o l.
It
i s n e c e ssa ry fo r th e eye to see
t h e w o r d s a n d t h e m in d t o
i n t e r p r e t t h e w r i t t e n w o rd s a n d
g r a s p t h e m e a n in g o f t h e
s e n te n c e s .
Ho o n e c a n h e a
s u c c e s s i n s c h o o l o r i n l i f e w ith o u t r e a d in g a b i l i t y .
U n­
l e s s a p e r s o n I n c r e a s e s h i s sp e e d i n r e a d in g a n d h i s pow er
o f e n jo y in g and e v a lu a tin g w hat h e r e a d s , h e c a n n o t f u l l y
a p p r e c ia te th e s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w ith o t h e r s , n o r c a n
h e g e t th e m o st o u t o f l i f e .
T he s o l u t i o n o f t h e p r o b le m
r e s t s w ith a l l o f u s .
G r a y , a u t h o r i t y o n t h e s u b j e c t o f r e a d i n g , m ak e s
th e fo llo w in g s ta te m e n ts *
(1 ) I n t e l l i g e n t re a d in g i s in d is p e n s a b le to e f f e c t ­
i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n m o d e rn s o c i a l l i f e a n d s h o u l d b e
e m p h a s i z e d v i g o r o u s l y i n e v e r y p ro g r a m o f i n s t r u c t i o n *
(2 } T he a m o u n t o f r e a d i n g t h a t i s d o n e i s I n c r e a s i n g
ra p id ly .
C o n s e q u e n tly s c h o o ls s h o u ld u s e e v e ry e f f o r t
to f a m i l i a r i z e y o u n g p e o p le w ith th e s o u r c e s and v a lu e
o f d i f f e r e n t ty p e s o f r e a d in g m a t e r i a l an d s h o u ld
t r a i n th e m t o r e a d i n t e l l i g e n t l y a n d t o u t i l i z e t h e i r
r e a d i n g tim e w i s e l y .
( 3 ) T he a m o u n t r e a d v a r i e s
w id e ly i n d i f f e r e n t s e c t i o n s o f th e c o u n tr y and e v e n
w ith s m a ll g ro u p s .
We n e e d t o know m o re c o n c e r n i n g
th e c a u se s o f th e s e d if f e r e n c e s .
I t i s c l e a r , how ­
e v e r, t h a t e a c h s t a t e s h o u ld p r o v id e th e b e s t s c h o o ls
i t c a n a f f o r d and s h o u ld i n s i s t o n a ty p e o f i n ­
s t r u c t i o n t h a t r e s u l t s i n p e rm a n e n t h a b i t s o f i n t e l ­
lig e n t re a d in g .
( 4 ) I l l i t e r a c y i s w id e s p re a d a n d i s
d e c r e a s i n g a t a s u r p r i s i n g l y s lo w r a t e .
E a c h com ­
m u n it y s h o u l d l a u n c h a t o n c e a c a m p a ig n t o e l i m i n a t e
i l l i t e r a c y fro m i t s m i d s t .5
^ W i l l i a m S . G r a y , Sum m ary o f I n v e s t i g a t i o n s
R e l a t i n g t o R e a d in g ( S u p p l e m e n ta r y E d u c a t i o n a l M o n o g ra p h s ,
H o. 7 8 .
C h ic a g o :
T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o , 1 9 2 5 )»
P . 15*
T he f a c t t h a t d e v e l o p m e n t a l r e a d i n g f o r t h e a v e r a g e
and a b o v e -a v e ra g e p u p il I n se c o n d a ry s c h o o ls an d re m e d ia l
w o rk f o r t h e r e t a r d e d r e a d e r h a s b e e n f o u n d i m p e r a t i v e c a n
b e s e e n i n t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e m any s t u d i e s m ade i n t h i s
fie ld .
By p r e s e n t i n g t h e s t a t u s ,
tr e n d s , and e x te n t o f
t h e im p ro v e m e n t o f r e a d i n g a b i l i t i e s a n d h a b i t s , new p r o b ­
le m s w i l l b e d i s c o v e r e d f o r f u r t h e r i n t e n s i v e a n d c o m p r e ­
h e n s i v e s t u d y i n t h e r e a l m o f r e a d i n g im p ro v e m e n t*
When a m o v em en t i s new a n d h a s p r o v e d t o b e
v a lu a b le a s f a r a s i t h a s g o n e, i t
se e m e d a d v i s a b l e t o
s e a r c h f o r t h e fr a m e w o r k a s w e l l a s t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f s u c h
a m o v e m e n t.
The im p o rta n c e o f a s tu d y l i k e t h i s
lie s
in
th e f a c t s t h a t i t g iv e s a g e n e r a l u n d e rs ta n d in g o f c o n te n t
r e a d in g , a n a p p r e c ia tio n o f I t s v a lu e to th e p u p il, s c h o o l,
a n d c u r r i c u l u m , a n d a c o m p r e h e n s iv e i n s i g h t i n t o o p p o r ­
t u n i t i e s and p o s s i b i l i t i e s o ffe re d .
II*
RELATED INVESTIGATIONS
A l t h o u g h m uch h a s b e e n w r i t t e n o n s e v e r a l p h a s e s o f
th e
im p ro v e m e n t o f r e a d i n g a b i l i t i e s
and h a b i t s ,
th e re h a s
b e e n n o r e c e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n fro m t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f
o rg a n is a tio n .
T he i n v e s t i g a t i o n s r e v i e w e d h e r e a r e r e l a t e d
to th e p r e s e n t s tu d y i n t h a t th e y h av e a d i r e c t b e a rin g on
som e p a r t o f t h e p r o b l e m o f o r g a n i z a t i o n .
I n 1 9 5 1 G la d d e n c o m p l e t e d a s t u d y e n t i t l e d ,
"T h e
6
S t a t u s o f R e m e d ia l R e a d i n g i n J u n i o r a n d S e n i o r H ig h
h
S o h o o ls o f th e U n ite d S ta te s *
Ry u s e o f t h e q u e s t i o n ­
n a i r e G la d d e n a t t e m p t e d t o d i s c o v e r t h e f o l l o w i n g t
!•
T he d e v e l o p m e n t o f r e a d i n g o b j e c t i v e s *
2.
R e a d in g o b j e c t i v e s .
3*
S p e c if ic c a u se s o f re a d in g d i s a b i l i t i e s *
4.
G e n e ra l e v id e n c e s f o r th e n eed o f re m e d ia l
re a d in g *
5*
T ypes o f r e a d in g d e f ic ie n c ie s *
6.
O rg a n iz a tio n f o r in s tr u c tio n *
7*
M e th o d s o f i n s t r u c t i o n .
8*
M a t e r i a l s a n d d e v ic e s used *
T he w r i t e r fo u n d t h a t r e m e d ia l r e a d in g w as n o t
s t a n d a r d i z e d o r o r g a n i z e d e n o u g h t o m ake t h e s u b j e c t
fu n c tio n .
l a c k o f g o o d t e a c h e r s who w e r e we 1 1 - t r a i n e d ,
a n d i n s u f f i c i e n t t i m e f o r t h e s u b j e c t , se e m e d t o b e t h e
c h ie f d i f f i c u l t i e s .
A n e e d f o r m o re s u i t a b l e
t e x t s and
o t h e r s u p p le m e n ta ry te a c h in g m a t e r i a l s f o r b o th p u p i l s and
t e a c h e r s w as s e e n .
T h e r e w as n o d o u b t c o n c e r n i n g t h e
p r a c t i c a l v a lu e o f re m e d ia l re a d in g f o r p u p i ls , and th e
la rg e p o s s ib ilitie s
f o r s i g n i f i c a n t im p ro v e m e n t i n h i g h
^ A d e l a i d e L* G l a d d e n , "T h e S t a t u s o f R e m e d ia l R e a d ­
i n g i n J u n i o r a n d S e n i o r H ig h S c h o o l s o f t h e U n i t e d
S t a t e s , ” ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r 's t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f
S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , L o s A n g e l e s , 1 9 3 1 )» 1 8 6 p p .
7
s c h o o l r e a d i n g w as o n e o f th e o u t s t a n d i n g f i n d i n g s o f th e
s tu d y .
Some o f t h e q u e s t i o n s n e c e s s a r y I n t h e s t u d y m ade
i n 1931 a r e now , t e n y e a r s l a t e r ,
s tu d y o f th e
n e c e s s a ry I n th e p r e s e n t
Im p ro v e m e n t o f r e a d i n g a b i l i t i e s a n d h a b i t s
in th e se c o n d a ry s c h o o ls o f C a lif o r n ia .
For in s ta n c e , th e
p r e s e n t s t u d y w o u ld n o t b e c o m p l e t e w i t h o u t i n f o r m a t i o n
r e g a rd in g o r g a n iz a tio n and co n d u ct o f c la s s e s , c a u se s o f
r e a d in g d i f f i c u l t i e s , m a te r ia ls an d d e v ic e s u sed in
r e m e d ia l r e a d in g c la s s e s *
Q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e s e im ­
p o r t a n t t o p i c s w e re I n c lu d e d i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e u s e d i n
th e p re s e n t s tu d y .
S m i t h , ^ i n h e r m o n o g ra p h o n I n s t r u c t i o n i n E n g l i s h ,
m ade a s u r v e y f r o m 1 9 2 5 t o 1 9 3 2 o f t h e g e n e r a l t r e n d s I n
th e te a c h in g o f E n g lis h in se c o n d a ry s c h o o ls th ro u g h o u t
th e c o u n try .
H e r p u r p o s e w as t o p r e s e n t a n d i n t e r p r e t
t h e s e p r a c t i c e s , t r e n d s , a n d i n n o v a t i o n s i n s u c h a w ay
a s to be o f a id to
I n te r e s te d te a c h e r s and a d m in is tr a to r s .
S h e u s e d t h r e e s e p a r a t e m e th o d s o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n :
( l ) An a n a l y s i s o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c o u r s e s o f s t u d y
i n se c o n d a ry s c h o o l E n g lis h , p ro d u ce d i n v a r io u s
p a r t s o f t h e c o u n t r y fr o m 1 § 2 5 t o t h e p r e s e n t t i m e ;
(2 } E x t e n s i v e c l a s s r o o m v i s i t a t i o n d u r i n g t h e s c h o o l
D o ra V . S m i t h , I n s t r u c t i o n i n E n g l i s h ( N a t i o n a l
S u r v e y o f S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n , M o n o g ra p h N o. 2 0 , B u l l e t i n
1 9 3 2 , N o. 1 ? .
W a s h i n g t o n , D * G .: U n i t e d S t a t e s G o v e rn m e n t
P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 3 3 7 , 8 9 PP*
y e a r 193°~ 31 i n f i f t e e n w id e ly s e p a r a t e d S t a t e s f o r
th e p u rp o se o f s e e in g th e c o u rs e s i n o p e r a tio n ,
d i s c u s s i n g w i t h t e a c h e r s a n d s u p e r v i s o r s t h e m a jo r
p ro b le m s o f t h e t e a c h i n g o f E n g l i s h , an d o b s e r v i n g ,
f i r s t h a n d , s i g n i f i c a n t p r a c t i c e s i n s c h o o l s y s te m s
w h o se c o u r s e s o f s t u d y r e v e a l e d i m p o r t a n t i n n o v a t i o n s
i n e i t h e r s u b j e c t m a t t e r o r m e th o d ; ( 3 ) I n t e r p r e t a t i o n
o f th e f in d in g s i n te rm s o f th e p u rp o s e s o f se c o n d a ry
e d u c a t i o n a s a w h o le a n d o f t h e know n r e s u l t s o f
s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f th e te a c h in g o f E n g lis h
i n se c o n d a ry s c h o o ls
S m ith ’s f i n d i n g s w e re I m p o r ta n t t o e v e ry c o u r s e o f
s tu d y u n d e r th e g e n e r a l s u b je c t o f E n g lis h .
in g th e r e l a t i o n s h i p
v e s tig a tio n ,
o f th a t r e p o r t to
In c o n s id e r­
th e p r e s e n t i n ­
th e r e m e d ia l r e a d in g p h a se o n ly w i l l be
re v ie w e d .
I t w as fo u n d t h a t I n a b o u t o n e -h a I f o f t h e j u n i o r
c o u r s e s r e a d in g w as t a u g h t t o
t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l s w h o se
r e a d i n g s k i l l s w e re n o t s a t i s f a c t o r y .
T he g e n e r a l p r a c t i c e
o f g iv in g t e s t s a t th e b e g in n in g o f th e s c h o o l y e a r i n
o rd e r to d is c o v e r th o s e
p re v a ile d
In need o f re m e d ia l i n s t r u c t i o n
I n o n e - t h i r d o f t h e s c h o o l s , a n d i n som e s c h o o l s
t h i s i n s t r u c t i o n w as g iv e n i n a l l c o n te n t s u b j e c t s a s w e ll
a s i n E n g lis h .
S m ith b e l i e v e d t h i s l a t t e r p r a c t i c e w o u ld
b e c o m e I n c r e a s i n g l y common i n t h e f u t u r e .
in th e la r g e r c i t i e s
She fo u n d t h a t
r e m e d i a l p r o g r a m s w e r e q u i t e common
a n d w h o le s e c t i o n s o f t h o s e d e f i c i e n t i n t h e s u b j e c t w e re
g iv e n s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n .
T he g e n e r a l a lm s s t a t e d w e r e t o
i n c r e a s e s p e e d , c o m p r e h e n s io n a n d s k i l l i n r e a d i n g a n d t o
d e v e lo p th e p o w e rs o f im a g in a tio n an d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f a l l
m a t e r i a l re a d *
I n c o n c l u s i o n , S m ith s t a t e d :
On t h e w h o l e , h e l p s f o r t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f c o n t e n t
r e a d in g a r e p r a c t i c a l and i n a c c o rd w ith c u r r e n t
t h e o r i e s o f th e te a c h in g o f th e s u b j e c t , t h a t o n ly
o n e - t h i r d o f t h e j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l c o u r s e s s u b m itte d
d e a l w i t h t h e p r o b l e m s , h o w e v e r , sh o w s n e e d o f f u r t h e r
e d u c a tio n o f c u r r ic u lu m m ak e rs c o n c e rn in g i n d i v i d u a l
d e f i c i e n c i e s i n r e a d in g a b i l i t y a t th e ju n io r h ig h
school le v e l.»
An i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f m e th o d s i n r e m e d i a l r e a d i n g w as
r e p o r te d by B enner in h e r t h e s i s ,
R e a d in g M e th o d s i n H ig h S c h o o l*
h
8
MA S t u d y o f R e m e d ia l
T h e a im o f h e r i n v e s t i ­
g a t i o n w a s t o g a t h e r a n d p r e s e n t d e v i c e s w h ic h h a d b e e n
fo u n d t o b e s u c c e s s f u l i n te a c h in g r e m e d ia l r e a d in g o n th e
se co n d a ry le v e l.
The w r i t e r g a th e r e d in f o r m a tio n b y m eans
o f a s tu d y o f w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l i n th e f i e l d o f re m e d ia l
r e a d i n g s u p p le m e n te d by i n t e r v i e w s a n d o b s e r v a tio n s *
E v a l u a t i o n o f m e th o d s w a s n o t m ade b y t h e a u t h o r , b u t t h o s e
p r e s e n te d w e re a n n o ta te d a s t o t h e i r d e g r e e o f s u c c e s s o r
fa ilu re .
S e v e r a l p r o b l e m s w e r e c o n s i d e r e d , a n d n u m e ro u s
d e v ic e s w e re m e n tio n e d , f o r th e u s e i n s o lv in g e a c h p ro b ­
le m .
R e c o g n itio n and p r o n u n c ia tio n , v o c a b u la ry , u se o f th e
7 I b i d * « p . 63*
® B e s s i e B. B e n n e r , "A S t u d y o f R e m e d ia l R e a d in g
M e t h o d s ,” ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r * s t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f
S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , L o s A n g e l e s , 1 9 3 5 ) , 2 2 9 PP*
10
d i c t i o n a r y and e n c y c lo p e d ia , and m is c e lla n e o u s r e a d in g
s k i l l s w e re som e o f t h e p r o m i n e n t d i f f i c u l t i e s
re m e d ia l r e a d in g c la s s e s *
fo u n d i n
A n o th e r p h a s e o f t h e p ro g ram
w as I n tr o d u c e d b y t h e c h a p t e r o n r e a d i n g f o r p le a s u r e *
H e re i s a s u g g e s t i o n f o r th e c o m b in a tio n o f t h e p o p u la r
f r e e r e a d in g id e a a n d r e m e d ia l re a d in g *
s u g g e s tio n i t
is ,
to o ,
A v e ry p r a c t ic a l
f o r t h e r e i s n o t m uch r e w a r d f o r
l e a r n i n g t o r e a d u n l e s s o n e l e a r n s t© e n .lo v r e a d i n g a n d d e ­
s ir e s to se ek i t
o u t f o r h im s e lf*
A l t h o u g h t h e r e w a s n o a t t e m p t t o m ake a f i n a l e v a l u ­
a t i o n o f t h e d e v i c e s , an d t h e r e w e re no c o n c l u s i o n s , t h i s
i n v e s t i g a t i o n w a s v a l u a b l e f o r t h e n u m e ro u s m e th o d s a n d
s u g g e s t i o n s p r e s e n t e d w i t h t h e a c c o m p a n y in g r e m a r k s .
T he t h e s i s b y R u t h e r f o r d o n f,A S tu d y o f R e m e d ia l
R e a d in g o n t h e S e c o n d a r y L e v e l w i t h S p e c i a l E m p h a s is o n
R e a d in g D i s a b i l i t i e s ,
w as c o m p l e t e d i n 19 3 6 a n d c o n t a i n e d
som e e x c e l l e n t m a t e r i a l o n t h e h i s t o r i c a l b a c k g r o u n d o f
r e m e d ia l r e a d in g , th e re v ie w o f l i t e r a t u r e
on d i s a b i l i t i e s ,
and s u g g e s tio n s f o r r e m e d ia l tr e a tm e n t o f r e a d in g on th e
se c o n d a ry
le v e l.
T he p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y w as t o
s e t fo rth p e rtin e n t
9 V e ro n a B* R u t h e r f o r d , f,A S tu d y o f R e m e d ia l R e a d in g
o n t h e S e c o n d a r y L e v e l w i t h S p e c i a l E m p h a s is o n R e a d in g
D i s a b i l i t i e s , ” (u n p u b lis h e d M a s te r’ s th e s is * U n iv e r s ity o f
S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , L o s A n g e l e s , 1 9 3 6 ) , 126 p p .
11
i n f o r m a t i o n o n r e m e d i a l r e a d i n g a s a g e n e r a l p r o b le m a n d
t o p r e s e n t t h e d e f e c t s , e s p e c i a l l y t h e v i s u a l o n e s , w h ic h
c a u s e d p o o r r e a d i n g am ong s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l p u p i l s .
T h e re
w as in c lu d e d a p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e t r e a t m e n t o f th e s e
d is a b ilitie s *
The a u th o r p ro c e e d e d i n h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n
v i a t h e l i b r a r y r o u t e a n d , t h e r e b y , w a s a b l e t o g i v e som e
v a lu a b le d a ta o n th e h i s t o r y o f re m e d ia l r e a d in g i n r e ­
se a rc h .
T he s t u d i e s s e l e c t e d f o r r e v i e w w e r e t h o s e w h ic h
e m p h a s iz e d v i s u a l f a c t o r s i n t h e r e a d i n g p r o c e s s .
In th e su rv e y o f p e r tin e n t l i t e r a t u r e
i t w as f o u n d
t h a t t h e r e w e r e m any t y p e s o f d i s a b i l i t i e s w h ic h m ig h t
a f f e c t th e re a d in g p r o c e s s .
P h y s io lo g ic a l d i s a b i l i t i e s
w e re fo u n d t o b e e x tr e m e ly s e r i o u s i n l e a r n i n g t o r e a d ,
a n d t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t t o b e c o n s i d e r e d w as t h e im p r o p e r
fu n c tio n in g o f th e v i s u a l a p p a ra tu s .
I t w as a l s o f o u n d
t h a t a s t h e t e a c h e r p l a y s a n e x tre m e ly im p o rta n t r o l e
in
th e . r e m e d ia l r e a d i n g p ro g ra m , i t w as n e c e s s a r y f o r h e r t o
u se th e p s y c h o lo g ic a l a s w e ll a s th e e d u c a tio n a l a p p ro a c h
i n te a c h in g c h ild r e n to re a d and s tu d y .
B o th r e c r e a t i o n a l
a n d w o rk t y p e s o f m a t e r i a l s s h o u l d b e u s e d .
K u th e rfo rd s a i d :
I n a d d itio n to c o r r e c tin g th e p h y s ic a l and v is u a l
d i s a b i l i t i e s , i t i s fo u n d n e c e s s a ry to te a c h th e h ig h
s c h o o l s t u d e n t how t o s t u d y , a n d t o I n c o r p o r a t e i n
h i s re a d in g c o n s c io u s n e s s t h a t e f f i c i e n t re a d in g i s
a v i t a l c o n s i d e r a ti o n i n th e p r o c e s s o f h i s e d u c a tio n .
T e a c h e r s who a r e i n t e r e s t e d I n u n d e r t a k i n g i n d i v i d u a l
12
r e m e d i a l w o rk s h o u l d s t u d y t h e m e th o d s t h a t h a v e b e e n
u se d by c a se w o rk e rs in t h i s f i e l d .
W ith o u t s i m i l a r
d e f i n i t e i n f o r m a t i o n , t h e t e a c h e r i s h a n d ic a p p e d i n h e r
w o rk b e f o r e s h e b e g i n s .
I n te r e s te d s tu d e n ts In
r e m e d ia l r e a d in g dem ands I n t e r e s t e d t e a c h e r s . 10
Sum m ary o f l n v e s t i g a t i o n s «
v ie w e d a r e r e l a t e d
to
The I n v e s t i g a t i o n s r e ­
th e p r e s e n t s tu d y i n t h a t th e y h av e
a d i r e c t b e a r i n g o n v a r i o u s p h a s e s o f t h e p ro b le m s in v o lv e d
i n th e te a c h in g o f re m e d ia l r e a d in g ,
th e s e in v e s tig a tio n s
s t r e s s e d th e im p o rta n c e o f l e a r n in g t o e n jo y r e a d in g ,
th e y
sh o w ed t h a t t h e r e w e r e t r e n d s i n s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s t o w a r d
g iv in g re m e d ia l i n s t r u c t i o n
In E n g lis h a s w e ll a s in a l l
c o n te n t s u b j e c t s , a n d th e y s t r e s s e d t h e im p o rta n c e o f t h e
u s e o f r e c r e a t i o n a n d w o rk t y p e s o f m a t e r i a l s f o r p u p i l s ,
th e p u rp o s e o f th e p r e s e n t s tu d y , h o w e v er,
is to
show w h a t
p r o g r e s s i s b e i n g m ade i n t h e im p ro v e m e n t o f r e a d i n g
a b ilitie s
and h a b i t s
i n th e se c o n d a ry s c h o o ls o f C a li f o r n ia .
III.
HEfHOD OF PROCEDURE .
T he p r e s e n t s t u d y o f t h e im p r o v e m e n t o f r e a d i n g
a b i l i t i e s and h a b i t s i n th e se c o n d a ry s c h o o ls o f C a lif o r n ia
i s th e r e s u l t o f a s tu d y o f th e p e r t i n e n t m a te r ia l g a th e re d
fro m a s u r v e y o f a l l a v a i l a b l e l i t e r a t u r e o n t h e s u b j e c t .
In a d d itio n to
th is ,
10 I b id . , p .
d a t a w e re c o l l e c t e d b y t h e q u e s t i o n -
120.
13
n a i r e m e th o d a n d b y I n t e r v i e w s .
Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w e re s e n t
to 275 s e c o n d a ry s c h o o ls i n C a l i f o r n i a , an d a p p ro x im a te ly
133 u s a b l e r e s p o n s e s w e re r e c e i v e d .
An e f f o r t w as m ade
to s e l e c t s c h o o ls o f a la r g e ra n g e o f s iz e s and in a l l
p a r ts o f th e S ta te .
A g r e a t d e a l o f th o u g h t w as g iv e n to
t h e fo rm o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e a n d t h e t y p e o f q u e s t i o n s t o
be a sk e d .
In th e in te r v ie w s h e ld w ith te a c h e r s ,
and p u p ils ,
it
se e m e d t h a t t h e t e r m
school n u rse s,
" r e m e d i a l r e a d i n g 11
o f f e r e d a c h a lle n g e to e v ery o n e i n th e f i e l d
o f e d u c a tio n .
E v e r y o n e se e m e d t o b e c o n f u s e d a b o u t p r o c e d u r e s *
T hey
w o n d e re d w h e t h e r t o d o r e m e d i a l w o rk f o r s lo w r e a d e r s o r
p u p i l s o f lo w r e a d i n g a b i l i t y , o r t o c o n c e n t r a t e a l l e f f o r t s
o n t h o s e p u p i l s who d i d n o t show e n o u g h i n t e r e s t i n im p r o v ­
in g t h e i r r e a d in g a b i l i t y
a n d h a b i t s a l t h o u g h t h e y w e re
o a p a b l e o f d o i n g s u p e r i o r w o rk .
F o r th e p u rp o se o f t h i s
s tu d y q u e s t io n s w e re a s k e d i n th e i n te r v ie w s an d in th e
q u e s t i o n n a i r e w h ic h w o u ld r e s u l t i n a n s w e r s t o b r i n g o u t
i n f o r m a t i o n s h o w in g c o m p r e h e n s i v e l y w h a t p r o g r e s s i s b e i n g
m ade i n t h e Im p ro v e m e n t o f r e a d i n g a b i l i t i e s a n d h a b i t s
i n th e se c o n d a ry s c h o o ls o f C a lif o r n ia .
O r g a n iz a tio n o f re m a in in g c h a p t e r s .
In c o n s id e rin g
a l l a s p e c t s o f t h e im p r o v e m e n t o f r e a d i n g a b i l i t i e s a n d
h a b its i n th e se c o n d a ry s c h o o ls ,
i t w as fo u n d n e c e s s a r y
14
t o b e g i n w i t h t h e h i s t o r i c a l d e v e lo p m e n t o f t h e p r o b l e m ,
a s t h e f o u n d a t i o n s h o u l d a lw a y s b e l a i d b e f o r e t h e f r a m e *
w o rk I s e r e c t e d *
T h e r e f o r e , C h a p t e r I I c o n t a i n s in f o r m a *
t i o n r e g a r d in g th e h i s t o r y and p ro g re s s o f re a d in g .
a t t e m p t h a s b e e n m ade t o
An
show t h a t t h e r e a l w a y s h a s b e e n
a n d a lw a y s w i l l b e a c l o s e r e l a t i o n o f r e a d i n g t o t h e
e n tire
s c h o o l p ro g ram ; t h a t th e h i s t o r y o f r e a d in g i s th e
h is to r y o f e d u c a tio n i t s e l f .
I n C h a p te r I I I t h e r e i s
in fo rm a tio n re g a rd in g th e
o r g a n i z a t i o n an d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f r e a d in g p ro g ra m s i n th e
se c o n d a ry s c h o o ls o f C a lif o r n ia .
T h is c h a p t e r d e s c r i b e s
t h e v a r i o u s w ay s i n w h i c h r e m e d i a l r e a d i n g i s
p u p ils a re s e le c te d
t a u g h t , how
f o r t h e c l a s s e s , tim e a ll o t m e n t f o r
I n s t r u c t i o n , w hat k in d o f c r e d i t I s g iv e n th e p u p ils i n
th e re m e d ia l r e a d in g c l a s s e s , te a c h e r I n t e r e s t i n th e p ro *
g ram , th e num ber o f r e m e d ia l c l a s s e s i n th e s c h o o l an d
t h e num ber o f p u p i l s t o a c la s s *
I n C h a p t e r IV t h e n a t u r e a n d c a u s e s o f r e a d i n g d i f ­
f i c u l t i e s a re d is c u s s e d
in d e ta il.
M any f a c t o r s , b o t h
p h y s ic a l and m e n ta l, n e ed to b e c o n s id e re d to r e c o g n iz e
and d ia g n o s e r e a d in g d i f f i c u l t i e s *
T h i s c h a p t e r sh o w s
t h a t th e c lo s e r e l a t i o n o f re a d in g to th e e n t i r e
school
p r o g r a m c o n t i n u e s f ro m t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s t h r o u g h t h e
h ig h s c h o o ls and c o ll e g e s ;
g iv e n t o
th a t re c o g n itio n h a s been
th e im p o rta n c e o f e f f o r t s t o h e lp n o n - r e a d in g
c h i l d r e n m ake a d j u s t m e n t s ; t h a t m o re a t t e n t i o n i s to e in g
g iv e n to r e ta r d e d r e a d e r s .
I t a ls o
sh o w s t h a t r e a d i n g
s h o u l d toe c o n s i d e r e d a p r o c e s s o f g r o w th to w a r d d e s i r a b l e
g o a ls .
I t sh o w s t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r t h e t e a c h e r s o f r e m e d i a l
re a d in g to do t h e i r s h a re in p r o p h y la c tic , o r p re v e n tiv e ,
w o rk s o t h a t p u p i l s m ay toe s a v e d f r o m t h e e f f e c t s o f m a l­
a d ju s tm e n t and c h r o n ic d e f i c ie n c y .
T he t i t l e
o f C h a p te r V , M e th o d s o f T e a c h in g
R e m e d ia l R e a d i n g , w i n d i c a t e s t h e c o n t e n t s o f t h l e c h a p t e r .
T h is c h a p t e r p o i n t s o u t t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r t h e u s e o f t e a c h ­
i n g m e th o d s w h i c h w i l l to u ll d up t h e m o r a l e o f t h e p u p i l s
and i n s t i l l a n a t t i t u d e o f c o n fid e n c e and e a g e rn e s s .
a ls o
show s t h e
It
Im p o rta n c e o f i n c l u d i n g t h e m a s te r y o f
m e c h a n ic s an d s k i l l s w i t h r e c r e a t i o n a l r e a d i n g f o r a w e l l b a la n c e d r e a d in g p ro g ram .
o f re a d in g
is
It
i s e v id e n t th a t th e te a c h in g
t h e m o s t s e r i o u s p r o b le m I n e d u c a t i o n t o d a y .
I n C h a p t e r V I a sum m ary o f t h e s t u d y i s g i v e n .
T h is c h a p t e r p r o v e s t h a t r e a d in g p ro g ra m s a r e n e c e s s a r y
i n s e c o n d a ry a s w e ll a s e le m e n ta ry s c h o o ls ; t h a t r e a d in g
c l a s s e s s h o u l d toe o r g a n i z e d a n d c o n d u c t e d w i t h t h e c o ­
o p e r a tio n o f a d m in is tr a to r s and a l l te a c h e r s in th e s c h o o l
s y s te m w i t h t h e t e a c h e r s o f r e m e d i a l r e a d i n g .
G e n era l
r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a r e m ad e i n t h i s c h a p t e r .
The l e t t e r o f t r a n s m i t t a l an d th e q u e s t i o n n a i r e
s e n t t o t h e v a r i o u s s c h o o l s a r e i n t h e A p p e n d ix .
T he
16
A p p e n d ix a l s o c o n t a i n s a l i s t o f co m m en ts m ade 'by som e o f
t h e t e a c h e r s who a n s w e r e d t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s *
CHAPTER I I
THE HISTORY AND PROGRESS OF READING
F o r m any y e a r s t h e
to
im p o rta n c e o f r e a d i n g a s a n a i d
l e a r n i n g w as n o t g i v e n t h e a t t e n t i o n i t
P r o p e r r e c o g n i t i o n w as n o t g iv e n t o
e ffo rts
ju s tly d e se rv e d .
th e im p o rta n c e o f
to h e lp th e n o n -re a d in g p u p ils a c q u ir e th e a b i l i t y
to re a d and e n c o u ra g e th e p u p ils o f a v e ra g e o r s u p e r io r
a b ility
to
im p r o v e t h e i r r a t e o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g .
o f t h i s c h a p te r i s
T he p u r p o s e
t o g i v e a b r i e f sum m ary o f t h e h i s t o r y
and th e p r o g r e s s o f r e a d in g a b i l i t y
am ong p u p i l s a n d t h e
d e v e l o p m e n t s w h ic h h a v e t a k e n p l a c e i n e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r y
and p r a c t i c e .
I.
HISTORY OF READING
The h i s t o r y o f r e a d in g I s th e h i s t o r y o f e d u c a tio n
Its e lf.
Among t h e e a r l y p e o p l e s who u s e d a n a l p h a b e t ,
l e t t e r s re p re s e n te d
le tte rs .
so u n d s and c h ild r e n le a rn e d to re a d b y
I n m o re r e c e n t t i m e s t h e c h i l d w as t a u g h t t h e
c o m b in a tio n o f l e t t e r s
a n d w o rd s i n t o
in to s y lla b le s , s y lla b le s
s e n te n c e s .
o f a r e lig io u s n a tu re .
in to w o rd s,
T he e a r l i e s t s c h o o l r e a d e r s w e re
Some o f t h e e a r l y E n g l i s h p r i m e r s
c o n ta in e d p i c t u r e s a n d rh y m e s.
T he New E n g la n d P r i m e r ,
i n t r o d u c e d a b o u t I 6 9 O, c o n t a i n e d t h e a l p h a b e t , l i s t s
v o w e ls a n d c o n s o n a n t s ,
l i s t o f s y l l a b l e s , and l i s t s
o f th e
of
18
w o rd s f o r w p e l l i n g , r h y m e s , p r a y e r s a n d c a t e c h i s m s ,
b o o k w as u s e d i n
th is
th e s c h o o ls f o r o v e r a c e n tu ry .
N ex t i n o r d e r w as th e s p e l l i n g b o o k , th e n th e
r e a d e r s and p rim e rs .
A t f i r s t n o n e o f t h e s e b o o k s p la n n e d
i n a n y w ay t o o f f e r a d e f i n i t e m a n n e r o f t e a c h i n g p u p i l s
to re a d ;
th e y w e re n o t a d a p te d t o
th e n eed s o f th e p u p ils
a n d w e re n o t i n f o r m a t i v e .
E a rly in th e n in e te e n th c e n tu ry th e r e a d e r s began to
be g ra d e d and c la s s if i e d *
w h ic h a p p e a r e d i n
T he M c& u ffey s i x - b o o k s e r i e s ,
1 8 5 0 , c o v e r e d a w id e s c o p e o f s u b j e c t s *
T he w e l l c h o s e n s e l e c t i o n s w e r e v a l u a b l e i n t h e l i v e s o f
t h e m i l l i o n s o f c h i l d r e n who r e a d them *
T h e re w as l i t t l e
c h a n g e i n r e a d e r s fro m 1 8 6 0 t o
1880.
B e g i n n i n g i n 1 8 8 0 t h e r e a d e r s w e re c o m p i l e d w i t h s u b j e c t m a t t e r w h ic h w a s a g r e a t im p ro v e m e n t o v e r t h e e a r l i e r b o o k s ,
t h e c o n t e n t s o f w h ic h h a v e o f t e n b e e n r e f e r r e d
“ s c r a p s o f l i t e r a t u r e *n
to a s
T he n e w e r r e a d e r s w e r e r i c h
in
good l i t e r a t u r e , an d th e c u l t u r a l v a lu e o f th e c o n te x t w as
deep.
T h e r e I s no a c c u r a t e w ay o f m a r k in g h i s t o r i c a l
p e r io d s w ith d e f i n i t e b e g in n in g and e n d in g d a te s *
T h e re
i s a l w a y s o v e r l a p p i n g o r m e r g i n g , b u t t h e m e th o d o f t e a c h 1
i n g i n A m e ric a n s c h o o l s h a s a lw a y s b e e n a t e x t b o o k m e th o d
Y o rk s
1 H a r r y d r o v e W h e a t, T he T e a c h i n g o f R e a d in g
G in n a n d C o m p an y , 1 9 2 3 ) , p . 2 2 .
(New
19
w h ic h l a , o f c o u r s e , a r e a d i n g m e th o d .
t h a t t h e r e w as a c y c l e o f r e a d e r s .
w e re f o r th e f i r s t
H is to ry t e l l s
us
A t f i r s t th e r e a d e rs
s ix g ra d e s o f s c h o o l, th e n r e a d e r s f o r
th e s e v e n th , e i g h t h an d n i n t h g r a d e s w e re added*
Many o f
th e e a r l i e r r e a d e r s c o n ta in e d in s in c e r e and a r t i f i c i a l
ta le s ;
th e r e a d e r s w e re d u l l and u n i n t e r e s t i n g ; m ost o f
th e m w e r e w r i t t e n f o r d r i l l w o rk ; t h e y h a d n o r e a l i s t i c
n a r r a t i v e s a n d n o s t o r y m e th o d o f t e l l i n g
t h i n g s w h ic h
m ig h t h e f a m i l i a r a n d v a l u a b l e t o t h e p u p i l s .
T h e re w as no
e f f o r t m ade t o c u l t i v a t e
lin e s .
in te r e s t in d e s ira b le
At
t h e tim e th e b o o k s w e re b e in g u s e d t h e d e f e c t s w e re n o t
s e e n ; h e n c e t h e r e w a s n o Im p ro v e m e n t m a d e .
G o o d y k o o n tz
d e s c r ib e d th e u s e o f th e s e te x tb o o k s i n a n in im ita b le
s im ile t
T e x tb o o k s o f a h u n d r e d y e a r s a g o i n d i c a t e t h e
s iz a b le p la c e t h a t re a d in g h e ld i n th e s c h o o l c u r r i ­
c u lu m o f t h a t d a y .
I n h i s t o r y and g e o g ra p h y , f o r
i n s t a n c e , t h e m e a n s o f s t u d y i n d i c a t e d w as c l e a r l y
r e a d i n g a n d v e r b a t i m m em ory.
T he c u r r i c u l u m o f t h e d a y
w as a r e a d in g c u r r ic u lu m .
T he a c t i v i t y o f r e a d i n g
f i l l e d t h e c u r r i c u l u m i n a b o u t t h e sam e p r o p o r t i o n t h a t
pop f i l l s a pop b o t t l e .
W it h o u t p r e s s i n g t h e a n a l o g y
to o f a r , i t i s p r o b a b ly s a f e to assu m e t h a t th e r e c i t a ­
t i o n a f t e r t h a t s o r t o f c ra m m in g h a d som e o f t h e
e f f e r v e s c e n t q u a l i t y s o e v i d e n t w hen we p u l l t h e c a p
o f f t h e p o p b o t t l e , r e l e a s i n g c o n s i d e r a b l y m o re a i r a n d
l e s s s u b s ta n c e t h a n w as h o p ed f o r . 2
p
B e s s G o o d y k o o n tz , " R e l a t i o n o f R e a d in g t o t h e
S c h o o l C u r r ic u lu m ," R e c e n t T re n d s i n H e a d in g , P r o c e e d in g s
t h e C o n f e r e n c e o n R e a d i n g . U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o . V o l# I
T c J h ic a g o i U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o , 1 9 4 0 ) , p . 9 .
I n t h e o l d m e th o d o f i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e
s c h o o ls th e im p o rta n c e o f g ro u p e f f o r t a n d c o o p e r a tiv e
a c t i v i t y w as n o t c o n s i d e r e d ; h e n c e i t s
r e a liz e d by e d u c a to rs -
v a lu e w as n o t
T he i n a u g u r a t i o n o f t h e m e th o d o f
c l a s s t e a c h i n g t o g r o u p s o f s t u d e n t s w as c o n s id e r e d a n
advancem ent i n th e e d u c a tiv e p ro c e ss*
a g r e a t a d v a n c e m e n t;
I n som e w ay s i t w as
i n o t h e r s i t w as a d e tr im e n t to
th e
w e l f a r e a n d p r o g r e s s o f m any c h i l d r e n who d i d n o t f i t
e q u a l l y w e l l w i t h o t h e r s i n t h e sam e c l a s s r o o m *
v id u a ls
Many i n d i ­
s u f f e r e d ; m any w e r e d r i v e n o u t o f s c h o o l b e c a u s e o f
l a c k o f c o u r s e s o f s t u d y a n d c u r r i c u l a r a r r a n g e m e n t s w h ic h
w o u ld f i t a l l t y p e s o f s t u d e n t s *
II.
MODERN TRENDS IN READING
I n 1 9 2 5 t h e T w e n ty - f o u r t h Y e a rb o o k w as p u b l i s h e d I n 1925 le a d in g e d u c a to r s b eg an to r e a l i z e
th e s e rio u s n e s s
o f t h e s i t u a t i o n a n d m ade a n e f f o r t t o f i n d p r o c e d u r e s
w h ic h w o u ld p r o v e t o b e o f v a l u e t o t h e p u p i l s r e q u i r i n g
s o l u t i o n o f t h e i r p ro b le m s .
A c o n f e r e n c e o f e d u c a t o r s w as
h e l d i n 1 9 2 5 , f o l l o w i n g w h ic h F a r t I o f t h e T w e n t y - f o u r t h
Y e a rb o o k o f t h e N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r t h e S tu d y o f E d u 3
c a t i o n w as p u b l i s h e d .
■'
^ G uy M o n tr o s e W h ip p le , e d i t o r , " R e p o r t o f t h e
N a t i o n a l C o m m itte e o n R e a d i n g , * T w e n t y - f o u r t h Y e a r b o o k o f
t h e N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r t h e S tu d y o f E d u c a t i o n . F a r t I
(B lo o m in g to n , I l l i n o i s :
P u b l i c S c h o o l P u b l i s h i n g C om pany,
1 9 2 5 ), 335 PP .
21
I n t h i s Y e a rb o o k th e e s s e n t i a l o b j e c t i v e s o f
I n s t r u c t i o n I n r e a d i n g w e re p r e s e n t e d :
T he p r i m a r y p u r p o s e o f r e a d i n g i n s c h o o l i s t o e x ­
te n d th e e x p e r ie n c e s o f b o y s and g i r l s , to s tim u la te
t h e i r th in k in g p o w e rs, and to e le v a te t h e i r t a s t e s . * *
A seco n d o b je c tiv e o f re a d in g i n s t r u c t i o n i s to
d e v e lo p s tr o n g m o tiv e s f o r , an d p e rm a n e n t i n t e r e s t i n
re a d in g t h a t w i l l in s p ir e f o r p r e s e n t and f u tu r e l i f e
o f t h e r e a d e r a n d p r o v i d e f o r t h e w h o le so m e u s e o f
l e i s u r e tim e - . .
A t h i r d a im o f r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , i s t o
d e v e lo p th e a t t i t u d e s , h a b i t s , an d s k i l l s t h a t a r e
e s s e n t i a l i n th e v a rio u s ty p e s o f re a d in g a c t i v i t i e s in
w h ic h c h i l d r e n a n d a d u l t s s h o u l d e n g a g e ♦ . • *
T he R e p o r t o f t h e N a t i o n a l C o m m itte e o n H e a d in g
c o m p r i s i n g P a r t I o f t h e T w e n t y - f o u r t h Y e a rb o o k p r o v e d t o
be th e
" b e s t s e lle r®
o f E d u c a tio n *
f o r th e N a t io n a l S o c i e t y f o r t h e S tu d y
I t h a d a tr e m e n d o u s i n f l u e n c e o n A m e ric a n
e d u c a tio n a l th in k in g *
T he S e c o n d R e p o r t w as p u b l i s h e d i n
1937P u rp o s e o f t h e T h i r t y - s i x t h Y e arb o o k *
As d e f i n e d
b y t h e A d v i s o r y C o m m itte e , t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e new Y e a r b o o k
w as t h r e e f o l d ;
( a ) To t r a c e b r i e f l y t h e d e v e l o p m e n t s I n t h e f i e l d
o f re a d in g d u rin g th e l a s t d ecad e and to id e n t i f y th e
m a jo r p r o b l e m s t h a t s c h o o l s f a c e t o d a y ; ( b ) t o p r o v i d e
i n s p e c i f i c an d n o n - te c h n ic a i te rm s th e in f o r m a tio n
needed by te a c h e rs and sc h o o l o f f ic e r s in re o rg a n is in g
a n d i m p r o v i n g I n s t r u c t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y b y m a k in g
s p e c i f i c c o n s t r u c t i v e r e c o m m e n d a tio n s t h a t a r e s u p p o r t e d
^ i b i d , « pp* 9 -1 9
22
b o th b y e x p e r ie n c e and by th e r e s u l t s o f e x p e rim e n ts
r e p o r te d d u rin g th e l a s t d e c a d e ; and (c ) to p ro v id e ,
a s a g u id e in th e c a s e o f d e b a ta b le I s s u e s t e n t a t i v e
s u g g e s tio n s to b e fo rm u la te d a f t e r c a r e f u l an d
d e l i b e r a t e s tu d y b y a g ro u p o f q u a l i f i e d e x p e r t s *5
I n s t r u c t i o n i n r e a d i n g im p r o v e d t h r o u g h t h e y e a r s
f o l l o w i n g t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s Y e a rb o o k a n d e v e n g r e a t e r
im p ro v e m e n t w i l l b e s e e n i n y e a r s t o come*
B e ld in g s t a t e s :
To c o n s i d e r t h i s c u r r e n t e m p h a s i s o n r e a d i n g a s a
m e re f a s h i o n t h a t w i l l s o o n p a s s aw ay w o u ld b e t o m i s s
I t s tr u e s ig n ific a n c e *
A c t u a l l y I t i s a n a w a k e n in g
to r e a lity *
I t i s a v i v i d a w a r e n e s s o f t h e v a s t com ­
p l e x i t y a n d c e a s e l e s s c h a n g e o f m o d e rn l i f e *
I t may
h av e b e en s u f f i c i e n t , i n a re a s o n a b ly s t a t i c s o c ie ty
l i k e t h a t o f t h e n in e te e n th c e n tu r y , to im p a rt a
d e f i n i t e body o f f a c t s and s k i l l s to e v e ry c h ild and
l e a v e t h e m a j o r i t y o f c h i l d r e n e q u i p p e d w i t h h a l f w ay
a b i l i t y to re a d ,
to d a y th e r a p i d l y s h i f t i n g s c e n e ry
o f l i f e dem ands t h a t e v e ry g r a d u a te b e p ro v id e d w ith
th e m eans o f c o n s t a n t r e - o r i e n t a t i o n and r e - a d a p t a ti o n *
H ence th e c l e a r d u ty o f th e s c h o o ls to d e v e lo p I n e v e ry
p u p i l h i s a b i l i t y t o r e a d ; t o g i v e h im g e n e r o u s e x ­
p o s u r e t o g o o d a n d u s e f u l r e a d i n g ; t o t e a c h h im t o
w e ig h h i s r e a d i n g i n t e l l i g e n t l y ; a n d t o g i v e h im a
z e s t f o r r e a d i n g t h a t w i l l l a s t h im t h r o u g h o u t l i f e *0
H e a d in g h a s b e co m e m o re a n d m o re i m p o r t a n t f o r
c h ild r e n and a d u lts f o r s o c ia l a s w e ll a s e d u c a tio n a l n eed s *
I t h a s b e co m e n e c e s s a r y
t h a t e v e ry te a c h e r , no m a tte r w hat
s u b j e c t h e may t e a c h d i r e c t l y
s h o u ld b e a t e a c h e r o f r e a d ­
^ G uy M o n tr o s e W h ip p le , e d i t o r , *T he T e a c h i n g o f
R e a d in g : A S econd R e p o r t,
T h i r t y - s i x t h Y e arb o o k o f t h e
R a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r t h e S tu d y o f E d u c a t i o n , P a r t I
{ B lo o m in g to n , I l l i n o i s : P u b l i c S c h o o l P u b l i s h i n g C om pany,
1 9 3 7 ), PP. 1 -2 .
6 A n s o n W* B e l d i n g , rtB o o k e c to m y ,t? T he J o u r n a l p f
E d u c a tio n , 1 2 2 :4 5 , F e b ru a ry , 1939-
23
in g .
T he n e c e s s i t y
f o r t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f a p p r o p r i a t e
r e a d i n g h a b i t s a n d s t u d y t e c h n i q u e s w as n o t r e c o g n i z e d i n
th e p a s t*
E v e n now t h e r e
i s n e e d f o r a d d i t i o n a l Im p ro v e m e n t
i n r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s f o r u s e i n th e s c h o o ls *
s c h o o l s w h ic h r e c o g n i z e t h e
t i e s , book s e le c tio n ,
T he n u m b e r o f
im p o rta n c e o f l i b r a r y f a c i l i ­
i n t e g r a t i o n o f l i b r a r y and c la s s ro o m
a c t i v i t i e s , and in s tr u c tio n
in th e u se o f books i s
f a r to o
lim ite d *
E d u c a t o r s h a v e com e t o r e a l i z e
a s u b je c t;
it
th a t re a d in g i s n o t
I s a n e d u c a tio n a l t o o l to be u sed in g e ttin g
s u b je c t-m a tte r in a l l fie ld s *
S m ith s a y s :
T he n e w e r p h i l o s o p h i e s a n d p s y c h o l o g i e s a r e c a l l i n g
f o r a m o re f u n c t i o n a l t e a c h i n g o f r e a d i n g , a t y p e o f
i n s t r u c t i o n i n w h ic h r e a d i n g i s t a u g h t l a r g e l y a s i t
e n t e r s i n t o o r f o llo w s o u t o f c h i l d r e n 's i n t e r e s t s and
a c tiv itie s *
T he a d v o c a t e s o f t h i s p r o c e d u r e a r e
a t t e n t i v e t o th e p u p i l 's n e e d s in re g a rd to th e d e ­
v e lo p m e n t o f d i f f e r e n t r e a d i n g a b i l i t i e s , b u t th e y
w o u ld t e a c h r e a d i n g t o a s g r e a t a n e x t e n t a s p o s s i b l e ,
th ro u g h a c t u a l u se r a t h e r th a n th ro u g h p a g e -b y -p a g e
a s s ig n m e n ts i n r e a d in g te x tb o o k s * ’
A lth o u g h p s y c h o l o g i s t s , p h i lo s o p h e r s , an d s c i e n t i s t s h a v e
done a g r e a t d e a l to c o n trib u te to
th e s o lu tio n o f th e ed u ­
c a t i o n a l p ro b le m s i n g e n e r a l and t o r e a d in g i n p a r t i c u l a r
th e re i s
m uch ro o m f o r Im p ro v e m e n t i n t h e f i e l d
o f edu­
c a tio n f o r s e le c tio n o f re a d in g m a te r ia ls c lo s e to th e
T N i l a B a n to n S m i t h , A H i s t o r i c a l A n a l y s i s o f
A m e ric a n R e a d i n g I n s t r u c t l o n ~ ( New Y o r k : S i l v e r , B u r d e t t
a n d C om pany, 1 9 3 ^ ) , P* 2 9 2 .
24
n e ed a and I n t e r e a t a o f th e c h ild r e n o f re a d in g to
th e e n t i r e
T he c l o s e r e l a t i o n
s c h o o l p ro g ra m c o n ti n u e s fro m th e
e le m e n ta ry s c h o o ls th ro u g h th e h ig h s c h o o ls an d c o lle g e s *
P r a c t i c a l l y a l l s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s a r e r e l a t e d t o re a d in g *
W h e th e r a g r o u p s i t s
on a f ie ld
trip
i n a f o r e i g n la n g u a g e c l a s s o r g o e s
in a s c ie n c e c l a s s ,
th e s u c c e s s o f th e
s tu d y d ep en d s upon a p p r o p r ia te re a d in g m a tte r and th e
a b ility
to
in te rp re t i t
in te llig e n tly *
G o o d y k o o n tz a p t l y
s ta te s :
F in a ll y , a c c e p ta n c e o f th e c o n c e p t o f re a d in g
r e a d i n e s s h a s d o n e m uch t o im p r o v e r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n
o n th e p rim a ry le v e l*
Som eone now n e e d s t o d r a m a t i z e
th e need f o r re a d in g r e a d in e s s a t th e c o lle g e le v e l
a n d p o i n t s b e tw e e n *
R e a d in g I s t h e p r o c e s s o f g e t t i n g
m e a n in g o u t o f a c u r i o u s c o m b i n a t i o n o f b l a c k m a rk s o n
w h ite p a p er*
We n e e d n o t s t r e s s t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e
i s n o m e a n in g I n t h e b l a c k m a rk s p e r s e *
I t i s o n ly
w h en a r i c h a n d v a r i e d s t o r e o f e x p e r i e n c e s h a s
s u p p lie d th e r e a d e r w ith b a c k g ro u n d s f o r I n t e r p r e t a t i o n
o f t h e b l a c k m a r k s t h a t h e i s r e a l l y READY TO READT he r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e s c h o o l a t e a c h l e v e l f o r
s to c k in g t h i s e x p e rie n c e s to re h o u s e c a n n o t b e o v e r­
e m p h a s iz e d .®
I m p r o v e m e n ts i n
w e r e m ade i n
t e a c h i n g m e th o d s *
th e r e a d in g b o o k s th e m s e lv e s ,
A s im p r o v e m e n ts
Im p ro v e m e n ts
w e r e a l s o m ade i n t h e t e a c h i n g m e th o d s I n r e a d i n g *
1920 to
From
I 9 3 O m any i m p o r t a n t c h a n g e s w e r e m ade i n c l a s s r o o m
in s tr u c tio n to o f f e r g r e a te r o p p o rtu n itie s to
The fe w t e x t b o o k s r e l a t i n g
th e c h ild re n .
t o a l i m i t e d num ber o f t o p i c s
o
d o o d y k o o n t z , o p * c l t * * p* 1 5 .
w e r e r e p l e n i s h e d b y t h e a d d i t i o n o f w id e r e a d i n g o p p o r ­
t u n i t i e s i n m any f i e l d s *
in g and p r a c t i c a l l y
A c lo s e r e la tio n s h ip
b e tw e e n r e a d ­
e v e r y s c h o o l a c t i v i t y w as e s t a b l i s h e d .
T h ere w as a r e a l i z a t i o n
t h a t r a p id p ro g re s s i n e v e ry
s u b j e c t — h i s t o r y , m a th e m a tic s , s c i e n c e , and l i t e r a t u r e
d epended upon th e a b i l i t y o f p u p ils to re a d in d e p e n d e n tly
and i n t e l l i g e n t l y .
I t fo llo w e d t h a t good te a c h in g h a d to
p r o v i d e f o r t h e im p r o v e m e n t a n d a d v a n c e m e n t o f r e a d i n g
a t t i t u d e s , h a b it s , and s k i l l s .
O b v io u s ly , th e
im p ro v e m e n t
o f r e a d i n g i s a w h o l e - s c h o o l p r o b le m r e q u i r i n g a t t e n t i o n
to th e a v e ra g e and s u p e rio r a s w e ll a s to th e re ta rd e d
re a d e r.^
O o r r e c t a n d s a t i s f a c t o r y g u id a n c e o f e a c h c h il d
c a n n o t b e a c c o m p lis h e d u n l e s s t e a c h e r s ta k e a g e n u in e
I n t e r e s t i n e a c h c h ild * s h a p p in e s s an d a d ju s tm e n t.
T he
c r e a t i o n o f f a v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e s to w a rd r e a d in g a n d t h e
d e v e lo p m e n t o f v o l u n t a r y d a i l y h a b i t s o f r e a d i n g s h o u ld b e
a p a r t o f e v e ry t e a c h e r ’ s p ro g ram .
a b ility
w h ic h w i l l c a r r y o v e r i n t o
R e al g a in s I n re a d in g
life
o u ts id e and beyond
t h e s c h o o l ’ s p r o g r a m a r e t o b e s t r i v e n f o r a s a m ea n s o f
p ro d u c in g a t r u l y d e v e lo p e d p e rs o n .
^ R u t h S t r a n g , "T h e Im p ro v e m e n t o f t h e A v e r a g e a n d
t h e S u p e r i o r s t u d e n t . * T he E n g l i s h J o u r n a l . 2 9 : 4 6 4 , J u n e ,
1940.
26
R e a d in g n e c e s s a r y f o r s u c c e s s i n l i f e *
A s we c o u n t
In y e a r s i t h a s n o t b e e n v e ry lo n g ago t h a t t e a c h e r s o f
E n g l i s h I n h i g h s c h o o l s w o u ld h a v e b e e n a m a z e d a t t h e
s u g g e s tio n t h a t r e a d i n g a s w e ll a s c o m p o s itio n an d l i t e r a ­
tu r e be ta u g h t to
th e p u p ils *
G r a d u a lly i t w as u n i v e r s a l l y
r e c o g n i z e d I n t h e t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n t h a t t h e r e w as a
v e ry d e f i n i t e n eed f o r g iv in g I n s t r u c t i o n in re a d in g a t
a l l g ra d e le v e ls *
L ack o f r e a d i n g s k i l l becam e s u c h a
s e r i o u s p r o b le m t h a t i t
c ern *
d e v e lo p e d i n t o one o f n a t i o n a l c o n ­
The v e r y s t r u g g l e f o r e x i s t e n c e n e c e s s i t a t e s a n
I n c r e a s e i n r e a d i n g a b i l i t y a n d p r o f i c i e n c y am ong h um an
b e in g s *
T h is i s d u e i n
l a r g e m e a su re t o t h e i n c r e a s in g
r e a d i n g l o a d o f n e w s p a p e r s a n d m a g a z in e s *
It
Is g ra ti­
f y i n g t o n o t e t h a t m o re a n d m o re p e o p l e w e r e r e a l i z i n g
th e
i m p o r t a n c e o f r e a d i n g a n d t h a t e d u c a t o r s w e re d o i n g s o
m uch t o a d v a n c e t h e w o rk f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f a l l m an k in d *
T h e r e cam e a r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t a l l s c h o o l s , e l e m e n t a r y ,
h ig h s c h o o l, and e v e n th e c o lle g e s had d is re g a rd e d t h e i r
re s p o n s ib ility
f o r m a in ta in in g i n t e r e s t i n re a d in g .
I t becam e t h e c o n c e n s u s o f o p in io n o f a l l e d u c a to r s
th a t an in d iv id u a lfs su ccess in l if e
b y t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f h i s a b i l i t y
i s o f te n c o n d itio n e d
to r e a d ; t h a t s tu d e n ts
m u s t b e m ade r e a d i n g - c o n s c i o u s a n d b e m ade t o r e a l i z e t h a t
th e y c a n b u i ld
up b ro a d
I n t e r e s t s by in c r e a s in g t h e i r
k n o w le d g e a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e t h i n g s t h e y r e a d
27
re g a rd le s s o f age.
D u r i n g t h e d e c a d e 1 9 2 0 - 1 9 2 9 m any im ­
p r o v e m e n ts i n e d u c a t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s w e re d e v e l o p e d . 1 0 . Much
e m p h a s i s w a s p u t u p o n t h e s o - c a l l e d s c i e n t i f i c m e th o d .
s o -c a lle d
s c ie n tific
a p p ro a c h in c lu d e d e v a lu a tio n o f te a c h ­
e r s th ro u g h t h e c h a n g e s n o tic e d
te s ts .
i n c h i l d r e n 's r e s p o n s e s to
C u r r i c u l a w e re b u i l t s c i e n t i f i c a l l y .
g e n e ra l r e a liz a tio n
T h is
T h ere w as a
t h a t r e a d in g s k i l l s sh o u ld be c o n s ta n tly
im p ro v e d , t h a t r e a d i n g a p p r e c i a t i o n s h o u ld b e i n c r e a s e d f o r
s u p e r i o r p u p i l s a s w e l l a s t h o s e who w e re r e t a r d e d r e a d e r s *
C h a n g in g s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s show n e e d o f r e a d i n g f o r
ev e ry o n e .
R a p id ly c h a n g in g s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s fro m 1930 to
1 9 3 9 c r e a t e d new d e m a n d s f o r r e a d i n g .
fie d
T h e r e w as i n t e n s i ­
i n t e r e s t in th e te a c h in g o f re a d in g .
C u rric u la
e x p a n s io n becam e a n im p o r ta n t f a c t o r i n th e s c h o o l s .
N e c e s s a r y c h a n g e s w e r e m ade t o m e e t c o n t e m p o r a r y n e e d s a n d
i n s t r u c t i o n c o n tin u e d
to
D u r in g t h e f i r s t
im p ro v e *
fe w y e a r s o f t h e c a m p a ig n f o r r e a d ­
in g i n th e s c h o o ls t h e a c c e n t w as upon r e m e d ia l re a d in g *
T h e re l a t e r d e v e lo p e d a r e c o g n i t i o n o f th e
re s p o n s ib ility
to te a c h e v e ry c h ild
s c h o o l 's
som e p h a s e o f r e a d i n g .
The p u p i l s who c o u l d n o t k e e p u p w i t h o t h e r m em b ers o f t h e
c l a s s w e re g iv e n s p e o i a l h e l p .
E x p e rtly s e le c te d m a te r ia ls
1 0 P a u l A . W i t t y a n d D a v id K o p e l , R e a d in g a n d t h e
E d u c a t i v e P r o c e s s (New Y o rk * C ln n a n d C om pany, 1 9 3 9 )*
P* 3*
w e re u s e d an d a d a p te d t o
th e a b i l i t i e s o f th e p u p ils and
s y s t e m a t i c e n c o u r a g e m e n t a n d g u i d a n c e w e re g i v e n .
T h o se
p u p i l s who w e r e a v e r a g e o r a b o v e t h e a v e r a g e i n r e a d i n g
a b ility
n e e d e d s p e c i a l w o rk i n d e v e l o p i n g a b i l i t i e s o n
h i g h e r l e v e l s b y a g u i d e d p r o g r a m o f w id e v o l u n t a r y r e a d i n g
to
im p ro v e t h e i r r a t e
o f u n d e rs ta n d in g .
C o n s id e ra b le
p r o g r e s s h a s b e e n m ade i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c l a s s o r g a n la a tlo n to
ta k e c a r e o f g ro u p a n d i n d i v i d u a l n e e d s o f
p u p ils .
R e c o g n itio n h a s b e e n g i v e n t o t h e im p o rta n c e o f
e f f o r t s t o h e l p t h e n o n - r e a d i n g c h i l d r e n m ake a d j u s t m e n t s ;
m o re a t t e n t i o n h a s b e e n g i v e n t o
re ta rd e d
in re a d in g .
t h e o l d e r c h i l d who i s
M any s c h o o l s h a v e com e t o r e a l i s e
th e im p o rta n c e o f r e a d in g a s a n a i d t o
le a rn in g .
O ra l
re a d in g and v i s u a l e d u c a tio n a re n o t u sed e x c lu s iv e ly a s
w a s t h e c a s e a fe w y e a r s a g o .
T he i m p o r t a n c e o f w e l l -
b a la n c e d r e a d in g p ro g ra m s h a s b e e n s t r e s s e d d u r in g r e c e n t
y e a rs;
th e p ro g ra m s in c lu d e t h e w o rk -ty p e o f r e a d in g an d
11
re a d in g f o r r e c r e a t io n and a p p re c ia tio n .
S m ith p o i n t s o u t t h e n e w e r w ay o f c r e a t i n g r e a d i n g
In te re s t:
. . . i n s e l e c ti n g m a te r ia ls f o r c h ild r e n to r e a d ,
we m ake u s e o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f c h i l d r e n * s i n t e r e s t s ,
b u t i n s t e a d o f r e l y i n g t o o e x t e n s i v e l y u p o n th e m f o r
T w e n ty - f o u r t h Y e a r b o o k , o p . c i t . , p p . 4 - 8 .
29
g u i d a n c e , we p r o v i d e c h i l d r e n w i t h a w id e v a r i e t y o f
ty p e s o f r e a d in g m a te r i a ls and s t r i v e e s p e c i a l l y to
c u l t i v a t e t h e i r I n t e r e s t s i n d e s i r a b l e l i n e s w h e re we
f i n d i n t e r e s t l a c k i n g *1 2
C hanges i n e d u c a tio n a l th e o ry and p r a o tlo e .
As
s o c i a l c h a n g e s h a v e b e e n m ade c o r r e s p o n d i n g d e v e l o p m e n t s
h av e ta k e n p la c e i n e d u c a tio n a l th e o ry and p r a c tic e *
T hese
d e v e lo p m e n ts h a v e g r a d u a l l y b u t p e r s i s t e n t l y a f f e c t e d t h e
c o n t e n t a n d m e th o d s o f r e a d i n g i n m any w a y s d u r i n g t h e p a s t
decade,
d r a y p o i n ts t h i s o u t i n th e T h i r t y - s i x t h Y earb o o k t
I f re a d in g i s to se rv e i t s la r g e s t fu n c tio n in
s o c i a l l i f e , t e a c h e r s f a c e r e a l p ro b le m s a n d r e s p o n s i ­
b i l i t i e s ; t h e y m u s t p r o m o te c l e a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d
d is c r im in a tin g in s ig h t i n e a c h o f th e b ro a d e r p h a se s
o f c o n te m p o ra ry l i f e ; f a m i l i a r i z e y o u n g p e o p le w ith
p e r s i s t e n t s o c i a l I s s u e s an d c u r r e n t p ro b le m s ; i n t r o ­
d u c e th e m e s a n d I s s u e s a t a p p r o p r i a t e l e v e l s o f s c h o o l
p r o g r e s s ; d e v e lo p h a b i t s o f a c c u r a t e , p r e c i s e c o m p re ­
h e n s io n and I n t e r p r e t a t i o n , In c lu d in g c r i t i c a l
e v a l u a t i o n ; p r o m o te g r e a t e r p o w e r i n a p p l y i n g t h e
c o n te n t o f w hat i s r e a d , th u s c o n tr ib u tin g to i n t e l ­
lig e n t s e l f - d i r e c t i o n and s o c ia l r e c o n s tr u c tio n ;
s tim u la te i n t e r e s t s th a t w i l l c o n tr ib u te b o th to th e
w h o le s o m e u s e o f l e i s u r e t i m e a n d t o t h e s o l u t i o n o f
p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l p ro b le m s ; a n d p r o v id e a b ro a d
common c u l t u r e t o I n s u r e a n a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e f i n e r
e l e m e n t s i n c o n t e m p o r a r y l i f e . *3
R e a d i n g s h o u l d b e c o n s i d e r e d a p r o c e s s o f g r o w th
to w a r d d e s i r a b l e g o a l s .
m e m o riz a tio n o f f a c t s ,
R a t h e r t h a n l e s s o n s t o p ro m o te
t h e r e s h o u ld b e a p r o c e s s o f g ro w th
12 S m ith , o £ . o l t . , p . 2 9 8 .
3-3 T h i r t y - s i x t h Y e a r b o o k ,
o p.
e lt. . p.
13*
to w a r d u n d e r s t a n d i n g , m a t u r i t y a n d a n a p p r e c i a t i o n o f c h i l d
i n t e r e s t and n e e d s , i n sc h o o l and o u t o f s c h o o l.
T he
h i s t o r y o f r e a d i n g sh o w s t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s a r e m o re
a n d m o re c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t t h e t e a c h i n g o f r e a d i n g s h o u l d
p r o m o te g r o w t h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e l e a r n e r ; t h e l e a r n e r ’ s
l e v e l o f d e v e l o p m e n t s h o u l d h e b u i l t up*
n e i t h e r b e a s k e d n o r e x p e c te d to
th a t have l i t t l e
T he l e a r n e r s h o u l d
s tu d y re a d in g m a te r ia ls
s i g n i f i c a n c e t o h im o r t h a t w i l l b e t o o
d i f f i c u l t f o r h im t o
c o n s id e r e f f e c t i v e l y .
Im p ro v e d p l a n s
f o r c l a s s i f y i n g a n d p ro m o tin g p u p i l s h a v e b e e n d e v e lo p e d ;
i n s t r u c t i o n h a s b e e n a d a p te d to
th e v a ry in g c a p a c itie s o f
c h il d r e n and lo n g e r p e r io d s h av e b e e n p ro v id e d f o r c o n ­
tin u o u s s u c c e s s fu l p ro g re s s .
G ro w th i n r e a d i n g , a s g r o w t h
i n a l l t h i n g s * s h o u ld b e g r a d u a l, b u t c o n tin u o u s f o r
e f f i c i e n t l i v i n g i n o u r c h a n g in g c i v i l i z a t i o n .
m e n ts i n r e a d i n g a c t i v i t i e s
ric h in g .
T he a s s i g n ­
s h o u ld b e c h a lle n g i n g a n d e n ­
I n som e w a y s t h e c o n t i n u a l g r o w th o f n o r m a l
c h i l d r e n i s m o re i m p o r t a n t t h a n t h e r e m e d i a l t r a i n i n g o f
14
th e h a n d ic a p p e d .
F o r m any y e a r s t h e f a c t o r s t h a t i n f l u e n c e d t h e
d iffic u lty
o f re a d in g m a te r ia l f o r p u p ils o f th e h ig h e r
g r a d e s w e re n o t I d e n t i f i e d .
I n c o m p a ra tiv e ly r e c e n t y e a r s
^ C a r o l H o v i o u s , ’’W hat S h o u ld Be D one A b o u t R e a d ­
in g i n S e c o n d ary S c h o o ls ,” C a li f o r n ia J o u r n a l o f S e c o n d a ry
E d u c a tio n * l i t 1 8 , J a n u a r y , 19W *
31
th e r e h a s b e e n a g r e a t ad v an cem en t i n re m e d ia l r e a d in g
p r o c e d u r e s w h ic h h a s h e e n e x t r e m e l y s i g n i f i c a n t .
T h e re h a s h e e n a n i n c r e a s e th ro u g h th e y e a r s i n th e
num ber o f r e m e d ia l r e a d i n g te x tb o o k s i n t h e u p p e r g r a d e s
o f th e C a lif o r n ia s c h o o ls .
T he L i s t o f H ig h S c h o o l T e x t -
b o o k s , c o m p i l e d b y t h e D i v i s i o n o f T e x tb o o k s o f t h e S t a t e
D e p a rtm e n t o f E d u c a ti o n , i s p u b lis h e d an d d i s t r i b u t e d
in
a c c o r d a n c e w i t h C a l i f o r n i a S c h o o l C ode s e c t i o n 6 . 4 2 1 .
F o l l o w i n g sh o w s t h e n u m b e r o f t e x t b o o k s o n r e a d i n g s k i l l s
c o n ta in e d i n th e l i s t s
1935
4
1936
6
1937
S
1938
13
1939
15
1940
17
1941
28
fro m 1935 t o
1941:
P r o b le m o f r e m e d i a l r e a d i n g a c o m p le x o n e .
s c h o o ls m u st c o n tin u e to p la y th e c h ie f r o l e
in g o f c h il d r e n
p ro g ram s.
The
i n th e t r a i n ­
i n r e a d in g by p ro p e r r e m e d ia l r e a d in g
The s c h o o ls m ust n o t l o s e s i g h t o f t h e f a c t
t h a t t h e p ro b le m o f r e m e d ia l r e a d i n g i n t h e e d u c a ti o n
p r o c e s s w i l l a l w a y s b e a c o m p le x o n e*
The t e a c h i n g o f
re m e d ia l r e a d in g i s a t a s k , a fo rm id a b le t a s k .
I t is a
32
p r o b le m w h ic h I s r e l a t e d
o f life *
to
th e g e n e ra l c u l t u r a l p a tte r n
I n th e te a c h in g o f re m e d ia l r e a d in g i t
is n eces­
s a ry to c o n s id e r p h y s i c a l , m e n ta l, e m o tio n a l, s o c i a l , and
e d u c a tio n a l f a c to rs *
E ac h c h i l d m u st h e c o n s id e r e d a
u n iq u e p e r s o n a l i t y ; e a c h c h i l d n e e d s i n d i v i d u a l a d a p t a t i o n
o f r e m e d i a l r e a d i n g t e a c h i n g m e th o d s*
in g s h o u ld c o n tin u e to
c a to rs *
Im p ro v e m e n t i n r e a d ­
c h a lle n g e th e b e s t e f f o r t s o f e d u ­
G ra y s t a t e s *
T he e v i d e n c e a v a i l a b l e j u s t i f i e s t h e c o n c l u s i o n
t h a t th e n e e d f o r re m e d ia l te a c h in g a t th e h ig h e r
l e v e l s c a n b e g r e a t l y re d u c e d I n t h e f u t u r e th ro u g h
c a r e f u lly - p la n n e d p ro g ram s o f d e v e lo p m e n ta l t r a i n i n g
i n r e a d i n g i n w h ic h t h e r e i s m ade a d e q u a t e p r o v i s i o n , <f o r i n d iv i d u a l n e e d s a t th e e le m e n ta ry -s e h o o l le v e l* 5
Sum m ary«
A lth o u g h t h e r e i s
no a c c u r a t e w ay o f m a r k ­
in g h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d s w ith d e f i n i t e -b e g in n in g an d e n d in g
d a te s , th e re
i s a l w a y s o v e r l a p p i n g o r m e r g in g *
s tu d y o f th e h i s t o r y o f re a d in g i t
T h ro u g h a
i s p o s s ib le to tra c e
th e h i s t o r y o f e d u c a tio n I ts e lf *
From a s t u d y o f t h e e a r l i e s t s c h o o l r e a d e r s w h ic h
w e re m a in ly o f a r e l i g i o u s n a t u r e , o n th ro u g h th e r e a d e r s
w h ic h w e re g r a d e d a n d c l a s s i f i e d ,
te re s tin g ,
th o u g h d u l l an d u n i n ­
to th e p r e s e n t day re m e d ia l re a d in g te c h n iq u e s
we c a n t r a c e t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e m e th o d s o f I n s t r u c t i o n i n
re a d in g .
^
T h ir ty - s ix th Ife a rb o o k . o p * c l t ♦, p .
21.
33
T he p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e T w e n ty - f o u r t h Y e a rb o o k i n
1 925 an d t h e T h i r t y - s i x t h Y e arb o o k i n
1937 b y th e N a t io n a l
C o m m itte e o n R e a d i n g o f t h e N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r t h e S t u d y
o f E d u c a tio n b ro u g h t t o
th e a t t e n t i o n o f e d u c a to rs th e
r e a l i z a t i o n o f th e s e rio u s n e s s o f re a d in g d i s a b i l i t i e s
am ong c h i l d r e n .
T h e se p u b l i c a t i o n s h a d a tre m e n d o u s i n ­
f l u e n c e o n A m e r ic a n e d u c a t i o n a l t h i n k i n g .
re a d in g
In s tru c tio n in
Im p ro v e d a n d e d u c a t o r s b e g a n t o r e a l i z e t h e i m p o r t ­
a n c e o f d e v e lo p in g s t r o n g m o tiv e s f o r an d p e rm a n e n t
i n t e r e s t in re a d in g .
R a p id ly c h a n g in g s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s fro m 1930 to
1939 c r e a te d
new d e m a n d s f o r r e a d i n g .
As s o c i a l c h a n g e s
w e r e m ade c o r r e s p o n d i n g d e v e l o p m e n t s t o o k p l a c e i n e d u ­
c a t io n a l th e o ry and p r a c t i c e .
T h e r e w as a n i n t e n s i f i e d
i n t e r e s t in th e te a c h in g o f re a d in g .
D u r in g t h e f i r s t few
y e a r s o f t h e c a m p a ig n f o r im p ro v e m e n t i n t h e t e a c h i n g o f
r e a d i n g i n t h e s c h o o l s t h e a c c e n t w as u p o n r e m e d i a l r e a d ­
in g .
T he p u p i l s who c o u l d n o t k e e p u p w i t h o t h e r m em b ers
t
o f t h e c l a s s w e re g i v e n s p e c i a l h e l p .
T he p u p i l s who w e r e
a v e r a g e o r s u p e r i o r i n r e a d in g a b i l i t y w e re g iv e n e n c o u r a g e ­
m ent to d e v e lo p a b i l i t i e s
w as a d a p te d t o
on h ig h e r l e v e ls .
In s tru c tio n
th e v a ry in g c a p a c itie s o f th e c h ild re n .
We
now know b e t t e r t h a n e v e r b e f o r e t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c h i l d ,
t h e w id e r a n g e o f r e a d i n g c a p a c i t i e s I n c h i l d r e n a n d t h e
n e c e s s ity o f a d a p tin g th e t r a i n in g to
th e n a tu re and
34
a b ility
o f th e in d iv id u a l c h ild -
H i s t o r y h a s sh o w n t h a t
g ro w th i n r e a d i n g , a s g ro w th i n a l l t h i n g s , s h o u ld b e
g ra d u a l, b u t c o n tin u o u s , f o r e f f i c i e n t
c h a n g in g c i v i l i z a t i o n .
liv in g
in our
CHAPTER I I I
ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION
OF REMEDIAL READING
T he o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f r e m e d i a l 1
r e a d in g p ro g ra m s i s o f t h e u tm o s t im p o rta n c e i n a l l
se co n d a ry s c h o o ls .
T h is c h a p te r i s
th e r e s u l t o f re a d in g
an d s tu d y in g m a t e r i a l s o n v a r io u s p h a s e s o f re m e d ia l r e a d ­
in g , r e t u r n s fro m q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , and c o n fe re n c e s w ith
t e a c h e r s r e g a r d i n g r e m e d i a l r e a d i n g p r o g r a m s w h ic h h a v e
h e e n fo u n d t o b e t h e m o st e f f e c t i v e w hen e v o lv e d g r a d u a l l y
o v e r a p e rio d o f y e a r s .
sum m ary o f t h e h i s t o r y
T he p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r g a v e a b r i e f
o f th e p ro g re s s o f re a d in g a b i l i t y
am ong p u p i l s a n d som e d e v e l o p m e n t s w h ic h h a v e t a k e n p l a c e
in e d u c a tio n a l th e o ry and p r a c tic e .
T he p u r p o s e o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o
show w h a t t h e
r e a d i n g p r o b l e m s a r e a n d w h a t e f f o r t s a r e b e i n g m ade b y
a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a n d s u p e r v i s o r s t o m ake i t e a s y f o r t e a c h e r s
o f r e m e d i a l r e a d i n g t o d o s u c c e s s f u l w o rk -
T h is c h a p t e r
c o n ta in s t a b l e s g iv in g in fo rm a tio n r e g a rd in g e f f e c t i v e
m e th o d s o f t e a c h i n g r e m e d i a l r e a d i n g , m e th o d s o f s e l e c t i n g
p u p i l s f o r t h e c l a s s e s w w i t h l i s t s o f t e s t s a n d e q u ip m e n t
u sed In c la s s if y in g p u p ils .
w h ic h show o t h e r d e t a i l s
T a b le s a r e a ls o
in c lu d e d
i n c o n n e c tio n w ith t h e o r g a n iz a tio n
and c o n d u c t o f re m e d ia l re a d in g c la s s e s *
36
I.
R E SP O N S IB IL IT IE S OF THE ADMINISTRATORS
A d m ln is t r a t i v e
p ro b le m s *
O r g a n iz a tio n and a d m in is ­
t r a t i o n o f r e m e d i a l r e a d i n g c l a s s e s m ean a g r e a t d e a l t o
th e w e lfa re o f th e p u p ils ,
g e n e ra l.
th e s c h o o l, and s o c ie ty I n
T he c h i e f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y
f o r th e o r g a n iz a tio n o f
re m e d ia l r e a d in g c l a s s e s r e s t s upo n th e a d m i n i s tr a to r s .
The m a in te n a n c e o f t h e h i g h s t a n d a r d s o f a n y s c h o o l d e p e n d s
upon th e r e s u l t s o b ta in e d *
Y o ak am , I n t h e T h i r t y - s i x t h
Y e a rb o o k o f t h e N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r t h e S tu d y o f E d u c a tio n ,
s ta te s :
W it h o u t d o u b t a t t e n t i o n w i l l b e d i r e c t e d d u r i n g t h e
n e x t d e c a d e t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f new w a y s o f g u i d i n g
c h i l d r e n i n r e a d i n g , new m e th o d s o f a d a p t i n g
i n s t r u c t i o n t o i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s , new c o r r e c t i v e
a n d r e m e d i a l m e a s u r e s , new w a y s o f s e c u r i n g e f f e c t i v e
r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n i n a l l s u b j e c t f i e l d s , a n d new
m e th o d s o f a p p r a i s i n g i n s t r u c t i o n i n r e a d i n g . 3*
P ro g ra m s s h o u ld b e so a r r a n g e d a s t o a r o u s e i n d i ­
v id u a l and p u b lic
o f c h ild re n .
d is a b ilitie s
i n t e r e s t i n th e w e ll- b e in g and e d u c a tio n
T he u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p r o b l e m s o f r e a d i n g
n e e d s to b e b ro ad en ed and d eep en ed by th e
d e v e lo p m e n t o f e d u c a t i o n a l a n d c h i l d p s y c h o lo g y .
A p ro g ram
may b e a d o p t e d , a n d d u r i n g a p e r i o d o f t r i a l a n a p p r a i s a l
c a n b e m ade o f i t s
a p p a re n t e ffic a c y .
A ll p h a se s o f th e
” T he T e a c h i n g o f R e a d i n g , * T h i r t y - s i x t h Y e a r b o o k
th e N a tio n a l S o c i e t y f o r t h e S tu d y o f E d u c a tio n . P a r t I
iB lo o m ln g to n , I l l i n o i s s
P u b l i c S c h o o l P u b l i s h i n g C om pany,
1937 ),
P+
^25 *
37
p ro g ram w i l l n e e d o lo a e
new m e th o d s *
s t u d y w h ic h m ay i n t u r n r e s u l t i n
T h e r e m e d i a l r e a d i n g p r o g r a m s s h o u l d h e m ade
f l e x i b l e e n o u g h t h a t t h e m e n t a l l y d e f i c i e n t c h i l d m ay h a v e
a g r e a t e r p r o s p e c t o f h a p p in e s s and u s e f u ln e s s i n th e w o rld ,
and th e c h ild o f a v e ra g e o r b e tte r th a n a v e ra g e re a d in g
a b ility
c a n im p r o v e s o t h a t h e m ay r e a c h h i g h e r l e v e l s *
T e a c h e r s , who a r e n o d o u b t am ong t h e b e s t j u d g e s o f c h i l d re n ,
c a n h a v e a v e r y d e f i n i t e k n o w le d g e o f w h a t a r e t h e
i m p o r t a n t sy m p to m s o f r e a d i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s am ong t h e p u p i l s *
A d m i n i s t r a t o r s who d i r e c t a n d g u i d e t h e w o rk o f t h e
t e a c h e r s c a n d e te r m in e w h a t s t e p s s h o u ld b e t a k e n f o r
e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f m e th o d s f o r im p r o v e m e n ts i n t h e p r o c e d u r e s
o f t h e te a c h in g o f r e m e d ia l re a d in g *
An a tte m p t s h o u ld b e
m ade t o a d a p t t h e s c h o o l p r a c t i c e s t o t h e r e a d i n g a b i l i t i e s
o f th e p u p ils *
By s t u d y i n g T a b l e s X a n d I I ,
p o s s ib le to
p a g e s 3B a n d 39* i t
s e e how r e m e d i a l r e a d i n g i s
is
t a u g h t I n m ost
s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s a n d how t e a c h e r s t h i n k t h e s u b j e c t s h o u l d
be ta u g h t.
R e a d in g i s t a u g h t I n c i d e n t a l l y w ith E n g lis h a n d
a s a s e p a ra te
s u b j e c t I n tw e n ty -o n e j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o ls *
T h e s e tw o m e th o d s a r e a l s o t h e m o s t p o p u l a r w a y s o f t e a c h ­
in g re m e d ia l r e a d in g i n h ig h s c h o o ls and ju n io r c o lle g e s *
T e a c h e rs I n a l l th e s e c o n d a ry s c h o o ls b e l i e v e , h o w e v e r,
t h a t re m e d ia l r e a d in g ta u g h t a s a s e p a r a te s u b je c t i s th e
m o s t e f f e c t i v e m e th o d .
T h is p o i n t I s
illu s tra te d
in
38
TABLE I
ORGANIZATION OF REMEDIAL READING CLASSES
J u n io r
H ig h
S c h o o ls
H ig h
S c h o o ls
J u n io r
C o lle g e s
14
34
4
3
5
3
21
34
7
In o r ie n ta tio n c o u rse s
0
10
1
T h ro u g h a r e a d i n g c l i n i c
0
0
1
M e th o d s
I n c id e n ta lly w ith E n g lis h
I n c id e n ta lly w ith o th e r
s u b je c ts
As a s e p a r a t e s u b j e c t
TABLE I I
MOST EFFECTIVE WAY OF ORGANIZING REMEDIAL
READING CLASSES
J u n io r
H ig h
S c h o o ls
M e th o d s
H ig h
S c h o o ls
J u n io r
C o lle g e s
I n c id e n ta lly w ith E n g lis h
2
9
0
I n c id e n ta lly w ith o th e r
s u b je c ts
2
5
1
As a s e p a r a t e
7
27
4
s u b je c t
T a b l e X I, p a g e 3 9
R e a d la g s u r v e y .
A r e a d i n g s u r v e y o f a s c h o o l m ay b e
m ade b y m e a n s o f t e s t s .
T h is w i l l p r o v id e a b a s i s f o r c o n ­
s i d e r i n g w a y s t o im p r o v e r e a d i n g h a b i t s a n d s k i l l s o f t h e
p u p ils .
T a b l e 1 1 1 s h o w s how p u p i l s a r e s e l e c t e d
re m e d ia l r e a d in g c l a s s e s .
fo r
I n m o st s c h o o ls p u p ils a r e c h o se n
f o r re m e d ia l re a d in g c l a s s e s , p la c e d
in th e p ro p e r g ro u p s
w i t h i n t h e c l a s s , a n d p r o m o te d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e r e s u l t s o f
t e s t s an d a t a t e a c h e r 's s u g g e s tio n .
T e s ts a r e th e m ost
e f f e c t i v e m e th o d , b e c a u s e t h e y a r e o b j e c t i v e a n d show t h e
c o m p a ra tiv e l e v e l o f t h e p u p ils *
T a b l e s IV , V, a n d V I , p a g e s 4 2 t o 4 6 I n c l u s i v e ,
g i v e t h e t e s t s a n d e q u ip m e n t u s e d i n c l a s s i f y i n g p u p i l s .
It is
i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t t h e Io w a S i l e n t R e a d in g
T e s ts ra n k f i r s t
i n a l l se c o n d a ry s c h o o ls r e p o r tin g .
The
New S t a n f o r d R e a d i n g T e s t s a n d t h e S a n g re n -W o o d y T e s t s a r e
a l s o u s e d i n a g r e a t m any s e c o n d a r y s e h o o l s o f C a l i f o r n i a .
S i n c e t h e r e a r e m any d i f f e r e n t f o r m s o f t h e s e s t a n d a r d i z e d
te s ts ,
th e y c a n b e u se d f o r a l l le v e ls o f se c o n d a ry s c h o o ls .
As s t a t e d
a t t h e b e g in n in g o f t h i s c h a p t e r , th e
o r g a n iz a tio n and a d m i n i s t r a t io n o f r e m e d ia l r e a d in g p r o ­
g ra m s i s o f t h e u tm o s t Im p o rta n c e i n a l l s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s .
A s t u d y s h o u l d b e m ade o f p r e s e n t p r o c e d u r e s i n t h e s c h o o l s ,
an d s p e c i f i c g o a ls s h o u ld b e s e t .
G ra y h a s s e t f o r t h som e
41
TABLE I I I
SELECTION OF P U PIL S FOR REMEDIAL READING CLASSES
J u n io r
H ig h
S c h o o ls
H ig h
S c h o o ls
J u n io r
C o lle g e s
R e s u lts o f t e s t s
2?
33
5
T e a c h e r 's s u g g e s t i o n
22
17
2
A ll p u p ils ta k e c o u rse
a t som e t i m e
0
2
1
P u p i l 's c h o ic e
0
0
1
M eth o d o f
s e le c tio n
42
TABLE IV
TESTS AND EQUIPMENT USED IN CLASSIFYING
ENTERING PUPILS WHO NEED SPECIAL TRAINING
IN HEADING
I u n lo r
H ig h
S c h o o ls
H ig h
S c h o o ls
A u d io m e te r
G
1
2
D e t r o i t R e a d in g T e s t s
0
1
0
G e n e ra l I n te llig e n c e T e s ts
3
15
2
H a g g a rty R e a d in g E x a m in a tio n
0
4
0
H e n n o n - N e ls o n R e a d i n g T e s t s
0
1
0
I n g l ls T e s ts o f E n g lis h
V o c a b u la ry
0
3
2
I n g ra h a m -C la rk D i a g n o s t ic
R e a d in g T e s ts
0
1
0
lo ir a S i l e n t R e a d i n g T e s t s
8
24
5
L os A n g e le s P r o g r e s s iv e
R e a d in g T e s ts
0
5
0
M o n ro e D i a g n o s t i c R e a d i n g T e s t s
1
1
0
13
13
0
O tis - B ln e t I n t e l li g e n c e T e s ts
1
1
0
O t i s S i l e n t R e a d in g T e s t s
0
3
0
S a n g re n -W o o d y R e a d i n g T e s t s
5
3
0
S i l e n t R e a d in g T e s ts - G a te s
5
5
0
S ta n d a r d iz e d O r a l R e a d in g
P a ra g ra p h s
1
2
0
Name o f t e a t s
New S t a n f o r d R e a d i n g T e s t s
J u n io r
C o lle g e s
*3
TABLE IV ( c o n tin u e d )
TESTS AND EQUIPMENT USED IN CLASSIFYING
ENTERING PUPILS WHO NEED.SPECIAL TRAINING
IN READING
Name o f t e s t s
J u n io r
H ig h
S c h o o ls
H ig h
S o h o o ls
J u n io r
C o lle g e s
S u l l i v a n T e a ts o f M e n ta l
M a tu rity
0
1
0
T e rm a n G ro u p T e s t s
2
5
0
T ie g s -C la rk P r o g r e s s iv e
A c h ie v e m e n t H e a d i n g T e s t s
7
12
1
T r a x l e r S i l e n t H e a d in g T e s t s
0
5
0
T h o m a s-M c C a ll H e a d in g T e s t s
1
0
0
U n iv e rs ity o f C a lif o r n ia
E n g lis h A T e s t
0
0
1
V is io n T e s ts
1
1
2
T e a c h e r* s S u g g e s tio n
8
21
3
44
SABLE V
TESTS AND EQUIPMENT USED IN CLASSIFYING- PUPILS
IN PROPER GROUPS WITHIN THE CLASS
Name o f t e s t e
J u n io r
H ig h
S c h o o ls
H ig h
S c h o o ls
J u n io r
C o lle g e s
A u d io m e te r
0
0
1
B e tts *
1
0
0
G e n e ra l I n te llig e n c e T e s ts
0
5
1
G la ro m e te r
1
0
0
H a g g e rty R e a d in g E x a m in a tio n
0
3
0
H e r m o n - N e ls o n R e a d i n g T e s t
0
1
0
H o v io u s 9 t e s t s
0
3
0
I n g lls T e s ts o f E n g lis h
V o c a b u la ry
0
3
0
In g ra h a m -G la rk D i a g n o s t ic
R e a d in g T e s t s
0
1
0
Io w a S i l e n t R e a d i n g T e s t s
5
14
2
L e t 9s R e a d T e s t s
0
2
0
M e C a ll - C r a b b s S t a n d a r d T e s t
L esso ns
1
0
0
New S t a n f o r d R e a d i n g T e s t s
5
7
0
O t i s R e a d in g T e s ts
0
1
0
P r o g r e s s i v e A c h ie v e m e n t R e a d in g
T e s ts
4
5
0
S a n g re n -W o o d y R e a d i n g T e s t s
5
2
0
S c o to m o g r a p h
1
0
0
T e le h in o c u la r Eye T e s t
45
TABLE V ( c o n tin u e d )
TESTS AND EQUIPMENT USED IN CLASSIFYING PUPILS
IN PROPER GROUPS WITHIN THE CLASS
J u n io r
H ig h
S c h o o ls
Name o f t e a t s
S i l e n t R e a d in g T e s t s
* G a te s
H ig h
S c h o o ls
J u n io r
C o lle g e s
1
6
0
S ta n d a r d iz e d O r a l R e a d in g
P a ra g ra p h s
1
6
0
T e rm a n G ro u p T e s t s
0
2
0
T h o r n d ik e - M e C a l l R e a d i n g S e a l e s
2
0
0
T r a x l e r S i l e n t R e a d in g T e s t
0
4
0
T e a c h e r’s S u g g e s tio n
6
18
1
46
TABLE V I
TESTS AND EQUIPMENT USED IN CLASSIFYING PUPILS
FOR PROMOTION OR ADVANCEMENT
Nam© o f t e s t s
_________
A u d io m e te r
J u n io r
H ig h
___________________Sofaoo 1 b_-
0
H ig h
S c h o o ls
1
J u n io r
C o lle g e s
1
C ra y *s O r a l C h e c k T e s t
1
3
H a g g e rty R e a d in g E x a m in a tio n
0
3
0
0
I n g lis T e s ts o f E n g lis h
V o c a b u la ry
0
3
0
Io w a S i l e n t R e a d in g T e s t s
5
16
1
L o s A n g e l e s P r o g r e s s i v e R e a d in g
T est
0
1
1
M e C a ll- C r a b b s S t a n d a r d i z e d T e s t
L essons
1
0
1
New S t a n f o r d R e a d i n g T e s t s
0
0
8
0
0
10
S a n g re n -W o o d y R e a d i n g T e s t s
4
3
S e o to m o g r a p h
1
0
S i l e n t R e a d in g T e s ts - O a te s
2
3
T e le b in o c u la r
1
0
T erm an O ro u p T e s t s
0
2
T ie g s - C la r k P r o g r e s s iv e A c h ie v e ­
m en t R e a d in g T e s t s
3
5
T h o r n d y k e - M c C a ll R e a d i n g S e a l e s
1
0
0
0
V an W ag en en a n d D v o ra k D i a g n o s t i c
E x a m i n a t i o n o f S i l e n t R e a d in g
0
1
0
V is io n T e s ts
0
0
1
T e a c h e r* s S u g g e s tio n
7
24
0
M o n ro e D i a g n o s t i c R e a d i n g T e s t s
M onroe S i l e n t R e a d i n g T e s t s
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
T r a x le r S i l e n t R e a d in g T e s ts
47
in te re s tin g
s ta tis tic s :
A d e l i b e r a t e s t u d y o f t h e f a c t s sh o w s c l e a r l y t h a t
th e v a lu e s a c h ie v e d th ro u g h r e a d in g to d a y a r e in a d e ­
q u a te to m eet c u r r e n t needs*
F o r e x a m p le , a s u r ­
p r i s i n g l y l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f young p e o p le an d a d u l t s
a r e a t p r e s e n t n o t e q u i p p e d t o r e a d a t e v e n a m inim um
l e v e l o f c o m p re h e n s io n t h e g r e a t m ass o f t h e p r i n t e d
m a t e r i a l now a v a i l a b l e .
In s u p p o rt o f t h i s s ta te m e n t
r e f e r e n c e may b e m ade t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e a v e r a g e
p e rs o n in th e U n ite d S ta te s ra n k s a b o u t s i x t h g ra d e
in re a d in g a b i l i t y an d th a t a d u lt re a d in g m a te ria l
ra n k s o n th e a v e ra g e a b o u t s e v e n th g ra d e in d i f f i c u l t y .
F u r t h e r m o r e , e x p e r i e n c e t e a c h e s t h a t m any who a r e a b l e
t o r e a d w e l l e n o u g h t o m e e t r e q u i r e m e n t s Im p o se d b y
s c h o o ls a r e u n a b le t o r e a d w ith th e i n s i g h t , d i s ­
c r im in a tio n , and b re a d th o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n e s s e n t ia l
in l i f e o u ts id e o f s c h o o l.2
A t t i t u d e o f a d m i n i s t r a t o r s to w a rd " s p e c i a l c o u r s e s . "
th e a t t i t u d e
o f th e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i s a n im p o rta n t c o n ­
s i d e r a t i o n i n th e o r g a n iz a tio n o f r e m e d ia l r e a d in g c l a s s e s .
H is a t t i t u d e m u s t, o f n e c e s s i t y , b e c o n s t r u c t i v e and h e l p ­
fu l.
T ru e , th e a d m in is tr a to r i s r e s p o n s ib le to
p a y e rs f o r b u d g e ta ry ite m s , e s p e c i a l l y
c o u rs e s ."
th o s e f o r
th e ta x ­
" s p e c ia l
th e s e l e c t i o n and p u rc h a se o f m a te r ia ls f o r th e
re m e d ia l re a d in g c l a s s e s c an e a s i l y
be j u s t i f i e d
w hen t h e
im p o rta n c e o f t h e r e m e d ia l r e a d i n g p ro g ram i s b r o u g h t t o
th e a tte n tio n o f th e g e n e ra l p u b lic .
new s u b j e c t s o r new f i e l d s ,
As I s t r u e w i t h a n y
th e m a tte r o f o r g a n iz a tio n i s
o n e o f t h e m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t p ro b le m s *
2 W illia m S . G ra y , " t h e N a tu re a n d E x te n t o f t h e
H e a d in g P r o b l e m i n A m e r ic a n E d u c a t i o n , " E d u c a t i o n a l R e c o r d .
1 9 * 8 9 , J a n u a r y , 1938*
Among t h e f a c t o r s t o tee c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e o r g a n i z a ­
t i o n o f r e m e d ia l r e a d in g c o u r s e s a r e t h e num ber o f c l a s s e s
t o tee f o r m e d , t h e n u m b e r o f p u p i l s i n a c l a s s a n d t h e a d ­
v is a b ility
o f e s t a b l i s h i n g c l a s s e s f o r s lo w r e a d i n g p u p i l s
o f s u p e rio r a b i l i t y ,
re a d in g c la s s e s *
th e a llo tm e n t o f tim e f o r r e m e d ia l
T a b le V II r e v e a l s t h e f a c t t h a t m o st
s c h o o l s h a v e o n l y o n e o r tw o c l a s s e s i n r e m e d i a l r e a d i n g ,
w h ile i n T a b le V I I I , p a g e 5 0 , i t
is
sh o w n t h a t t h e num teer
o f p u p i l s t o a c l a s s r a n g e s fro m s i x t o
fo rty .
T a b l e IX ,
p a g e 5 1 , i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e a r e v e r y fe w s c h o o l s w h ic h
h a v e s p e c i a l c l a s s e s f o r s lo w r e a d e r s o f s u p e r i o r a b i l i t y .
Tim e a l l o t m e n t i n r e m e d i a l r e a d i n g c l a s s e s
i s g iv e n i n
T a b le X, p a g e 5 2 .
A d m i n i s t r a t o r s a r e a w a r e t h a t a n y m o v em en t f o r r e ­
o r g a n iz a tio n o f s e c o n d a ry s c h o o l c u rric u lu m
I s p a r t o f th e
g e n e r a l r e o r g a n i z a t i o n m o v em en t o f t h e e n t i r e
s c h o o l s y s te m .
se c o n d a ry
E v e ry t e a c h e r m u st h a v e a c e r t a i n d e g re e
*o f i n t e r e s t i n ch an g es i n any f i e l d o f e d u c a tio n .
It
is
a w e l l know n f a c t t h a t w h a te v e r a f f e c t s o n e p a r t o f an y
s e c o n d a ry s c h o o l c u rric u lu m
of It.
i s bound to a f f e c t a l l p a r ts
New p r o c e d u r e s r e q u i r e new m e t h o d s , a p p r o p r i a t e
m a t e r i a l s , an d s p e c i a l i z e d w o rk .
R e g a rd in g t h i s s i t u a t i o n ,
H a rris re m a rk s:
P u t t i n g a new p l a n i n t o a c t i o n i n v o l v e s a p e r i o d o f
re a d ju s tm e n t f o r th e te a c h e r s .
I t t a k e s tim e to g e t
u s e d t o new p r o c e d u r e , a n d d u r i n g s u c h a p e r i o d m any
TABLE V II
NUMBER OF REMEDIAL READING- CLASSES
IN EACH SCHOOL
Num ber o f
c la s s e s
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
a
9
10
11
12
J u n io r
H ig h
S c h o o ls
H ig h
S c h o o ls
J u n io r
C o lle g e s
9
10
3
2
0
3
0
1
0
0
0
0
17
5
1
3
5
2
0
0
0
0
0
1
4
2
2
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
NOTE: T h i s t a b l e s h o u l d b e r e a d a s f o l l o w s :
n in e
ju n io r h ig h s c h o o ls r e p o r te d one c la s s o f re m e d ia l re a d in g ;
s e v e n te e n h ig h s c h o o ls r e p o r te d one c l a s s o f re m e d ia l r e a d ­
in g ; f o u r J u n io r c o l l e g e s r e p o r te d one c l a s s o f re m e d ia l
re a d in g .
TABLE V I I I
NUMBER OF PUPILS IN REMEDIAL
READING GLASSES
N um ber o f
p u p ils
6 -1 0
7
8
9
10
12
1 2 -3 0
15
1 5 -2 0
1 5 -2 1
16
18
20
2 0 -3 5
2 0 -3 0
21
2 2 -3 5
24
25
26
2?
28
30
3 0 -3 5
35
38
40
J u n io r
H ig h
S c h o o ls
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
2
3
0
0
2
1
0
0
1
2
0
0
0
0
5
0
0
1
2
H ig h
S c h o o ls
0
2
1
0
1
3
0
1
0
0
1
1
10
0
1
1
0
0
5
1
0
1
3
0
0
0
0
J u n io r
C o lle g e s
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
2
0
1
4
5
0
0
NOTES T h i s t a b l e s h o u l d b e r e a d a s f o l l o w s : o n e
j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l r e p o r t e d fro m s i x t o t e n p u p i l s i n a
r e m e d i a l r e a d i n g c l a s s ; tw o h i g h s c h o o l s r e p o r t e d s e v e n
p u p ils in a re m e d ia l r e a d in g e l a s s ; o n e ju n io r c o lle g e
r e p o r t e d f ro m t w e l v e t o t h i r t y p u p i l s i n a r e m e d i a l r e a d i n g
c la s s .
51
TABLE IX
SPECIAL CLASSES FOR READERS
OF SUPERIOR ABILITY
C la s s e s
S p e c ia l c la s s e s
No s p e c i a l c l a s s e s
J u n io r
H ig h
S c h o o ls
H ig h
S c h o o ls
J u n io r
C o lle g e s
2
5
2
30
87
12
ROTE: T h i s t a b l e s h o u l d b e r e a d a s f o l l o w s :
tw o
J u n io r h ig h a e h o o ls r e p o r te d s p e c ia l c l a s s e s f o r r e a d e r s
©f s u p e r i o r a b i l i t y ; t h i r t y J u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s r e p o r t e d
no s p e c i a l c l a s s e s f o r r e a d e r s o f s u p e r i o r a b i l i t y *
5a
TABLE X
TIME ALLOTMENT IN REMEDIAL READING CLASSES
Tim e
■\
R e g u l a r o l a 88 f i v e d a y s
a w eek
J u n io r
H ig h
S c h o o ls
H ig h
S c h o o ls .
J u n io r
C o lle g e s
22
28
2
R e g u l a r c l a s s tw o o r t h r e e
d a y s a w eek
5
4
5
In d iv id u a l in s tr u c tio n
1
2
0
T h ro u g h a r e a d i n g o l l n l e
0
0
1
One h o u r a w e e k
0
0
1
53
t e a c h e r s e x p e r ie n c e f e e l i n g s o f b e w ild e rm e n t and
fru s tra tio n *
I f th e p la n i s to su c c e e d , th e te a c h e rs
m u s t h e g i v e n a s m uch h e l p a s p o s s i b l e i n p u t t i n g i t
in to e ffe c t*
T he c h a n g e s t o b e i n t r o d u c e d s h o u l d b e
c l e a r l y d e f in e d a n d e x p la in e d *
T he t e a c h e r s s h o u l d
b e g i v e n o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o l e a r n t h e new t e c h n i q u e s
th ro u g h c o n fe r e n c e s , l e c t u r e s , e x h ib itio n s o f m a te r ia ls
an d te a c h i n g a i d s , and e s p e c i a l l y th ro u g h o p p o r t u n i t i e s
to o b s e rv e and d is c u s s d e m o n s tra tio n le s s o n s • * •
A llo w a n c e s h o u l d b e m ad e f o r t h e e x t r a t i m e a n d e f f o r t
t h a t a new m e th o d r e q u i r e s o f a t e a c h e r . 3
II*
SELECTION OF TEACHERS
A p p o in tm e n t o f t e a c h e r s .
T he a p p o i n t m e n t o f t e a c h ­
e r s f o r r e m e d i a l r e a d i n g w o rk i s a p r o b le m o f c h a l l e n g i n g
im p o rta n c e *
T he o r g a n i z a t i o n o f r e m e d i a l r e a d i n g c l a s s e s
i n s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s c a n b e t h e m e a n s o f e s t a b l i s h i n g new
g o a ls to b e a c h ie v e d
i n e d u c a t i o n a n d a new m e th o d o f
re a c h in g d e s ir e d g o a ls .
B ecau se th e s u b je c t o f re m e d ia l
r e a d i n g I n s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s I s a c o m p a r a t i v e l y new d e ­
p a rtu re ,
it
i s o b v i o u s t h a t m any p r o b l e m s d o a r i s e c o n c e r n ­
in g re m e d ia l r e a d in g p ro c e d u re s .
A p u b lic a tio n o f th e
C h i l d r e n ’s F o u n d a tio n g i v e s e x c e l l e n t a d v i c e :
T h o s e o f u s who a r e s o m e tim e s i m p a t i e n t w i t h
p r o g r e s s i n o u r R e p u b l i c s h o u l d re m e m b e r t h a t t h e
v e r y t h i n g w h ic h p r o v o k e s o u r i m p a t i e n c e p r o t e c t s
u s f r o m r a s h a n d p r e c i p i t a t e a c t i o n w h ic h m ig h t
in c u r d i s a s t e r .
O u r A m e r ic a n p u b l i c s c h o o l s y s te m
l i k e o u r g o v e rn m e n t, i s a n i n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e p e o p le ,
by th e p e o p le , and f o r th e p e o p le .4
3 A l b e r t J * H a r r i s , How t o I n c r e a s e R e a d in g A b i l i t y
(L o n d o n :
L o n g m a n s, O r e e n , a n d C om pany, 1 9 4 0 ) , p . 6 .
* M. ¥ . O ’ S h e a , e d i t o r , T he C h i l d : H i s N a t u r e a n d
H i s N e e d s (New Y o r k :
T he C h i l d r e n ’ s F o u n d a t i o n , 1 9 2 5 )*
p . 3 2 SZ
54
I n m a k in g a s e l e c t i o n o f a t e a c h e r o f r e m e d i a l r e a d i n g t h e
a d m in is tra to r ta k e s in to
fic ie n c y
in re a d in g i s
d e a l o f a tte n tio n to
c la s s e s *
c o n s id e ra tio n th a t p u p ils ' d e ­
s e r io u s enough to w a rra n t a g r e a t
t h e p ro g ram f o r th e r e m e d ia l r e a d i n g
B o th t h e n a t i v e a n d t h e d e v e l o p e d t a s t e s o f h i g h
sc h o o l p u p ils a re a t a r e la tiv e ly
T he t e a c h e r s e l e c t e d
re a d in g
lo w l e v e l . ^
f o r th e te a c h in g o f re m e d ia l
s h o u l d h e o n e who i s e v e r c h e e r f u l , o p t i m i s t i c ,
and c o n fid e n t.
T he a t t i t u d e o f t h e t e a c h e r to w a rd t h e
p u p i l s w ith r e a d in g d i s a b i l i t i e s m ust h e su c h t h a t th e
o th e r p u p ils in
as th e ir
th e
in fe rio rs .
s c h o o l w i l l n o t c o n s id e r th e fo rm e r
It
I s n e c e s s a r y t o m ake a n e f f o r t t o
le a r n a b o u t th e p u p i l ’ s n a tu r e and n e e d s to g e th e r w ith a
th o ro u g h s tu d y o f a l l o f t h e a s p e c t s o f t h e r e m e d ia l r e a d ­
i n g p r o g r a m a s t h e y m ay a f f e c t t h e l e a r n e r .
T he t e a c h e r
w i l l n e e d t o a p p l y a l a r g e n u m b e r o f a p p r o a c h e s a n d m e th o d s
ab o u t re a d in g d i s a b i l i t i e s .
T he I n s t r u c t i o n a n d g u i d a n c e
o f p u p i l s who a r e r e t a r d e d r e a d e r s w i l l b e r e f l e c t e d
e f f e c t and in f lu e n c e o f h i s b e h a v io r.
i n th e
An e v a l u a t i o n b y t h e
t e a c h e r o n g r o w t h a n d im p ro v e m e n t i s m uch m o re i m p o r t a n t
th a n m e a s u rin g a c t u a l a c h ie v e m e n t.
A th o ro u g h a n a l y s i s o f
^ R u th B y r n s a n d V . A . 0 . H en m an , " R e a d i n g I n t e r e s t s
o f H i g h S c h o o l S e n i o r s , M E n g l i s h J o u r n a l (H . S . e d i t i o n )
2 5 :6 2 , J a n u a ry , 1956.
55
re a d in g d i s a b i l i t i e s
o f th e in d iv id u a l p u p ils w i l l b rin g
o u t m any a b i l i t i e s , s k i l l s ,
a n d i n t e r e s t s o f p u p i l s w h o se
r e t a r d a t i o n h a s p r e v e n t e d t h e t e a c h e r fro m a s c e r t a i n i n g
and a p p ra is in g
th e s e im p o rta n t a b i l i t i e s ,
s k i l l s , and
i n te r e s ts p re v io u s ly .
Many p h a s e s o f c h i l d r e n n e e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n .
m a tu re a t d i f f e r e n t r a t e s ,
C h ild re n
t h e i r m e n ta l g ro w th v a r i e s
ju s t
a s t h e i r p h y s i c a l g ro w th d o e s , a n d th e y v a ry a g r e a t d e a l
in in n a te a b i l i t i e s
and a p titu d e s .
E m o tio n a l r e a c t i o n s
th e in d iv id u a l p u p ils a r e im p o rta n t.
in
Ho p u p i l s h o u l d b e
a llo w e d t o becom e d is c o u r a g e d o r t h i n k h i s c a s e i s a h o p e ­
le s s one, o r th a t he is
n o t b eco m e a n t a g o n i s t i c .
of h is
in c o m p e te n t.
A bove a l l ,
h e s h o u ld
As s o o n a s a p u p i l b e c o m e s a w a r e
i m p r o v e m e n t, h e w i l l e x p e r i e n c e a s a t i s f a c t i o n
w h ic h m ay s e r v e t o d e v e l o p s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e .
s u c c e e d s l i k e o b s e r v e d s u c c e s s .* *
d e v e lo p r e s o u r c e f u l th in k in g .
N o th in g
He w i l l b e e n c o u ra g e d t o
P ro p e r g u id a n c e o n th e p a r t
o f th e te a c h e r o f re m e d ia l re a d in g ta k e s a g r e a t d e a l o f
tim e b u t i t
i s w o rth i t .
T he t e a c h e r o f r e m e d i a l r e a d i n g
m u st b e u n u s u a lly c o m p e te n t.
h er re s p o n s ib ility
th ro u g h h e r a b i l i t y
in
She i s r e q u ir e d to r e a l i z e
in c r e a s in g e d u c a tio n a l v a lu e s
t o m ake c o m m e n d a b le p r o g r e s s to w a r d
^ A . I . C a t e s , Im p ro v e m e n t i n R e a d i n g (New Y o r k s
The M a c m i ll a n C om pany, 1 9 2 7 ) , P • 35*
56
m e e t i n g t h e d e m a n d s o f t h e a im s a n d f u n c t i o n s i n t h e
te a c h in g o f re m e d ia l r e a d in g .
T e a c h e r m u st b e In g e n io u s .
su c c e ssfu l c la s s
T he m a i n t e n a n c e o f a
i n re m e d ia l re a d in g w i l l ta x th e in g e n u ity
o f th e a b le s t te a c h e r .
S h e m u st m ake a s t u d y o f t h e
p u p il’ s re a d in g e x p e rie n c e ;
she h a s th e ta s k o f s tu d y in g
th e p ro b le m s a n d e x p e r i e n c e s o f t h e c h i l d r e n t o d i s c o v e r
t h e i r re a d in g
In te re s ts .
She m u st I n v e s t i g a t e w h at b o o k s
a r e ow ned, w h at b o o k s th e s e c h i l d r e n l i k e m o s t,
a c tiv itie s
th e y p a r t i c i p a t e .
re c re a tio n p u rs u its ?
in te re s te d
in ,
if
any?
How d o t h e y a c t i n p l a y a n d
W hat v o c a t i o n s o r c a r e e r s a r e t h e y
No m a t t e r w h e r e t h e t e a c h e r s t a r t s
in th e c u rric u lu m , r e a d in g I s c lo s e ly r e l a t e d
v o l v e d i n a l l o t h e r w o rk o f t h e s c h o o l .
c la s s e s c an be c o n s id e re d
s c h o o l.
in w hat
to and i n ­
R e m e d ia l r e a d i n g
lik e any o th e r c la s s
in th e
T ea ch e rs o f o th e r s u b je c ts can s tim u la te p u p ils
w ith re a d in g d i s a b i l i t i e s
lib ra ria n
T he
c a n b e o f g r e a t h e lp i n th e e le v a t i o n o f s ta n d ­
a rd s o f re a d in g .
d e v e lo p e d .
to b e tt e r re a d in g h a b its .
A h ig h le v e l o f e f f ic ie n c y c an be
I f an e v a lu a tio n o f re m e d ia l re a d in g c o u rs e s
i s m ade, p l a n s c a n b e fo r m u la te d an d p r o c e d u r e s fo llo w e d
s o t h a t new g o a l s m ay b e r e a c h e d i n a n e f f i c i e n t a n d
e c o n o m ic a l w ay.
P u p ils c an be e n c o u ra g e d to e v a lu a te
t h e i r own w o r k .
T he l i k e s a n d d i s l i k e s o f r e a d i n g
57
m a te r ia ls can be c o n s id e re d and m a te r ia ls can be changed.
I t i s th e d u ty o f th e re m e d ia l re a d in g te a c h e r to combine
h e r id e a s w ith th o s e o f th e o th e r te a c h e r s to g e t s a t i s ­
f a c to r y r e s u l t s .
She needs a b ro ad c o n c e p tio n o f th e
minimum th e c o u rse sh o u ld ac co m p lish .
Most o f a l l she
needs th e c o o p e ra tio n o f th e a d m in is tr a to r s and th e o th e r
te a c h e r s .
Monroe s t a t e s :
T each ers a r e o fte n tim e s ex p e cted and encouraged
. to do re m e d ia l work w ith t h e i r poor r e a d e r s , b u t no
p r o v is io n I s made f o r t h i s work a d m i n is tr a tiv e ly .
R em edial work i s c o n sid e re d i n c i d e n t a l , and i s g iv e n
o n ly a t odd moments. Such odd moments, how ever, come
- in f r e q u e n tly i n a busy sch o o l day f o r most te a c h e rs
and poor r e a d e r s g e t v e ry l i t t l e suoh h e lp . I f
re m e d ia l work i s e x p e c te d o f t e a c h e r s , an ad eq u ate
p r o v is io n must be made f o r th e work in th e sch o o l* s _
program a t d e f i n i t e , r e g u l a r , and s y s te m a tic p e r i o d s .'
A ccording to th e q u e s tio n n a ir e re s p o n s e s ta b u la te d
i n T ab les XI and X II, pages 58 and 5 9 > th e r e a re n o t many
re m e d ia l re a d in g te a c h e r s i n our secondary sch o o l sy stem s.
Four ju n io r h ig h s c h o o ls and s i x h ig h sc h o o ls re p o rte d
t h a t e a c h had one f u l l tim e te a c h e r f o r re m e d ia l re a d in g
c la s s e s .
One ju n io r h ig h sch o o l r e p o r te d f i v e f u l l tim e
te a c h e rs .
The ju n io r c o lle g e s re sp o n d in g showed no f u l l
tim e te a c h e r s .
F o u rte e n ju n io r h ig h s c h o o ls , f i f t e e n h ig h
sc h o o ls and s i x J u n io r c o lle g e s s t a t e d t h a t th e r e was one
^ M arion Monroe, "D ia g n o stic and Rem edial P ro ced u res
in R e a d in g ," E d u c a tio n a l-R ecord. 1 9 * 1 0 6 , J a n u a ry , 1 9 3 8 .
58
TABLE X I
NUMBER OF FULL TIME TEACHERS FOR
REMEDIAL READING CLASSES
J u n io r
H ig h
S c h o o ls
H ig h
S c h o o ls
J u n io r
C o lle g e s
1
4
6
O
5
1
0
0
N um ber o f
te a c h e rs
59
TABLE X II
NUMBER OF FART TIME TEACHERS FOR
REMEDIAL READING CLASSES
N um ber o f
te & e h e rs
J u n io r
H ig h .
S c h o o ls
H ig h
S c h o o ls
J u n lo r
C o lle g e s
1
14
15
6
2
6
4
2
3
2
4
0
4
2
1
0
5
0
1
0
6
0
2
0
60
p a r t tim e te a c h e r i n ea ch school*
Most o f th e te a c h e rs
answ ering th e q u e s tio n n a ir e commented on th e la c k o f
re m e d ia l re a d in g te a c h e r s and p o in te d o u t t h a t t h i s was due
to th e f a c t t h a t te a c h e r s were n o t p r o p e r ly tr a in e d f o r
t h i s workT able X I I I shows t h a t a v a s t m a jo rity o f sc h o o ls do
n o t have re a d in g c o u n s e lo r s .
In some o f th e sc h o o ls th e
g u id an ce re g a rd in g re a d in g d i f f i c u l t i e s i s done hy th e
sc h o o l c o u n s e lo r.
I t would seem t h a t i f s u f f i c i e n t tim e
were a l l o t t e d , th e te a c h e r s o f re m e d ia l re a d in g could do
th e g u id an ce work e f f i c i e n t l y enough f o r th e re a d in g p ro ­
grams in th e seco n d ary s c h o o ls .
Every te a c h e r i s a te a c h e r o f r e a d in g .
There i s a
c lo s e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f re a d in g to th e e n t i r e sc h o o l program*
Every te a c h e r n eed s to r e a l i z e th e im portance o f re a d in g a s
an a id to le a r n in g .
The p u p ils in th e f o r e ig n language
c l a s s , a s w e ll a s th o s e in th e m athem atics c l a s s , need d e­
f i n i t e re a d in g h a h i t s and s k i l l s to s u c c e s s f u lly c a rry on
th e work i n t h e i r c l a s s e s .
Even p u p ils i n woodshop c la s s e s
can acco m p lish v e ry l i t t l e i n t h e i r work u n le s s th e y can
re a d i n t e l l i g e n t l y th e I n s tr u c ti o n s w hich a re to he
fo llo w ed i n th e p la n s and s p e c if i c a t io n s f o r th e b u ild in g
p r o j e c t s a s s ig n e d f o r g e n e ra l c l a s s work.
in g i n s t r u c t i o n 1b an a l l - s c h o o l a c t i v i t y .
R em edial r e a d ­
T his means
61
TABLE XXXI
SCHOOLS HAVING READING COUNSELORS
C o u n s e lo rs
H e a d in g C o u n s e l o r s
No H e a d in g
C o u n s e lo rs
J u n io r
H ig h
S c h o o ls
H ig h
S c h o o ls
J u n io r
C o lle g e s
2
6
2
25
84
10
62
t h a t a l l t e a c h e r s s h o u l d m ake a n e f f o r t t o h e I n t e r e s t e d
i n r e m e d ia l re a d in g *
T a b l e XIV sh o w s t h a t m o s t t e a c h e r s o f s u b j e c t s o t h e r
t h a n E n g l i s h a n d r e m e d i a l r e a d i n g d o n o t show i n t e r e s t i n
re m e d ia l re a d in g c la s s e s *
I f th e p u p il I s
In te re s te d
i n a r t , m u s ic , s e w in g ,
o r w e a v in g a n d p l a n s o n e o f t h e s e s u b j e c t s f o r a l i f e
c a r e e r , h i s r e a d i n g a b i l i t y w i l l d e c id e t h e a c h ie v e m e n t o f
h i s a m b itio n .
Ih lle
s u c c e ss in th e sc h o o l s u b je c t i t s e l f
may n o t b e i n f l u e n c e d b y r e a d i n g a b i l i t y ,
can n o t be a tta in e d
a m a s te ry o f i t
u n le s s th e c h ild c a n b ro a d e n h i s ra n g e
o f k n o w le d g e b y e x t e n s i v e a n d c o m p r e h e n s iv e r e a d i n g .
The t e a c h e r s o f m a th e m a tic s , s c i e n c e , an d o t h e r
c o u rs e s th a n E n g lis h ,
c a n im p re s s upo n t h e i r p u p i ls th e
im p o rta n c e o f l e a r n i n g t o u s e a d i c t i o n a r y e f f i c i e n t l y ;
p u p ils can be en co u rag e d to
t i o n and l e a r n to
u s e th e m .
se e k good s o u r c e s o f in fo rm a ­
E v ery p u p i l h a s p a r t i c u l a r
n eed to
" g e t t h e i d e a 11 I n a f i r s t r e a d i n g a n d t o c h e c k t h e
o
d e ta ils by re -re a d in g .
E a c h p u p i l c a n s t u d y h i s own
h a b i t s o f r e a d i n g , a n a l y z e th e m t o t h e b e s t o f h i s a b i l i t y ,
th e n w ith a w e ll- o r g a n ! z e d , s y s te m a tic e f f o r t on th e p a r t
M* L* H a r t u n g a n d H . 0* T r i m b l e , * T y p e s o f R e a d ­
i n g G u id a n c e E s s e n t i a l i n M a t h e m a t i c s , H R e c e n t T r e n d s i n
R e a d in g ( C h ic a g o , I l l i n o i s :
U n i v e r s i t y o f C h ic a g o , 1 9 3 9 ),
p* 2 6 4 7
63
TABUS XIV
TEACHERS INTERESTED IN REMEDIAL READING*
T each ers
J u n io r
H igh
S chools
High
S chools
J u n io r
C o lle g e s
A ll te a c h e rs
8
9
2
T e a c h e r s o f n o n -a c a d e m ic
s u b je c ts
0
1
0
R e m e d ia l r e a d i n g t e a c h e r s
o n ly
7
8
2
T e a c h e rs o f E n g lis h
13
15
3
T e a c h e rs o f o th e r
a c a d e m ic s u b j e c t s
9
8
64
o f a d m in is tra to rs and a l l te a c h e rs s a tis f a c to r y r e s u l ts
c a n he e c o n o m ic a lly and e f f i c i e n t l y
The c h i l d m u st b e t r a i n e d
m ust l e a r n
to re a d J
o b ta in e d .
to be a s o c i a l b e in g .
He
L e a rn in g t o r e a d a b o u t h i s t o r i c a l
e v e n t s w i l l h e l p a p u p i l t o u n d e r s t a n d m o d e rn s o c i e t y a n d
h e l p h im a d a p t h i m s e l f t o
w i l l b e co m e i n t e r e s t e d
it.
I n a s tu d y o f g e o g ra p h y h e
i n m any p a r t s o f t h e w o r l d , n o t J u s t
t h e s t r e e t o r to w n i n w h ic h h e h a p p e n s t o
need to r e a l i z e
th e
liv e .
T e a c h e rs
I m p o rta n c e o f I n s t r u c t i n g p u p i l s i n
r e a d i n g s k i l l s w h ic h a r e I m p o r ta n t i n
v a rio u s sc h o o l s u b je c ts .
th e s tu d y o f t h e i r
E v e n a fe w m i n u t e s e v e r y d a y b y
e a c h t e a c h e r w i l l h e l p p u p i l s d e v e l o p w h o le s o m e a t t i t u d e s
to w a r d r e a d i n g .
It
I s n e c e ssa ry th a t a l l te a c h e rs b e a r in
m in d a t a l l t i m e s t h a t a g r e a t d e a l c a n b e d o n e i n a n y
c la s s ro o m t o h e lp r e t a r d e d r e a d e r s ;
and i n t e l l e c t u a l e le m e n ts e n te r i n to
t h a t b o th e m o tio n a l
th e f i e l d
T h e c h i l d m u s t c o m p re h e n d w h a t h e i s
o f re a d in g *
re a d in g o r
t h e r e c a n b e n o a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e s u b j e c t - m a t t e r f o r h im .
M a te r ia ls u se d m u st b e in a c c o rd w ith th e
c a p a c itie s .
le a r n e r ’s
T he c h i l d m u s t b e a b l e t o r e c o g n i z e w o rd s a n d
a t t a c h m e a n in g t o
th e m .
A c h i l d w h o se r e a d i n g a b i l i t y
is
s u c h t h a t s c i e n c e a n d m a th e m a tic s a r e a b o v e h i s m e n ta l
c o m p r e h e n s io n s h o u l d b e p l a c e d i n c l a s s e s o f J u n i o r b u s i ­
n e ss tr a in in g and l ik e
h a s been in c re a s e d to
s u b je c ts u n t i l h i s re a d in g a b i l i t y
th e p ro p e r le v e ls .
T e a c h e rs c a n
65
a s s i s t p u p i l s t o e x t r a c t m e a n in g s f ro m w o rd s t h e y r e a d ,
a n d t h e p u p i l s c a n b e l e d i n t o m o re i n t e r e s t i n g
e n d e a v o r*
It
is
fie ld s o f
th e d u ty o f e v e ry te a c h e r i n th e sc h o o l
to e n c o u ra g e a r e ta r d e d
p u p i l w h e r e v e r p o s s i b l e t o m ake
h im f e e l t h a t h e h a s a d e f i n i t e
p la c e i n th e w o rld .
T each­
e r s o f o t h e r s u b j e c t s c a n do a g r e a t d e a l f o r t h e r e t a r d e d
r e a d e r s by h o ld in g c o n fe re n c e s w ith th e te a c h e r o f r e m e d ia l
r e a d in g r e g a r d in g th e p u p i l 's r e a d in g d i f f i c u l t i e s .
F a c u I ty m e e tin g s v a lu a b le .
T he a d m i n i s t r a t o r c a n
c a l l f a c u l t y m e e tin g s f o r th e d i s c u s s i o n o f r e a d in g d i f f i ­
c u ltie s
o f p u p i l s w h ic h r e t a r d
c la s s e s *
t h e i r p ro g re s s in v a rio u s
I f e a c h t e a c h e r w o u ld m ake a r e p o r t o f r e a d i n g
d i f f i c u l t i e s h e h ad e n c o u n te re d
in h is c la s s e s , a g re a t
d e a l c o u ld b e d o n e b y t h e t e a c h e r s o f r e m e d ia l r e a d in g t o
c o r r e c t re a d in g d i s a b i l i t i e s
lig e n c e .
o f p u p i l s b e lo w a v e r a g e i n t e l ­
T h ey c o u l d a l s o d o a g r e a t d e a l t o w a r d i n s p i r i n g
th e p u p il o f a v e ra g e o r b e t t e r th a n a v e ra g e I n te llig e n c e
t o d o b e t t e r w o rk a n d e n c o u r a g e h im t o w o rk t o h i s c a p a c i t y .
M a te r ia ls n eed to b e o f a n a tu r e to c h a lle n g e
of a ll
th e p u p ils *
s u b je c ts ,
th is
to u n d e rta k e to
a th le tic
fie ld
b ro u g h t to
I f p u p ils have d is lik e s
th e th in k in g
fo r c e rta in
i s a p r o b le m f o r t h e r e m e d i a l r e a d i n g t e a c h e r
s o lv e .
Any I m p r o p e r a t t i t u d e s o n t h e
o r in e x tr a - c u r r ic u la r a c t iv i t ie s
can be
th e a t t e n t i o n o f th e re m e d ia l re a d in g te a c h e r .
66
I n th e o r g a n iz a tio n o f re m e d ia l r e a d in g c la s s e s th e
can ta k e
in to
e s t d e fe c ts to
c o n s id e r a tio n th e d i f f i c u l t i e s
th e m ost s e v e re d i s a b i l i t i e s .
te a c h e r
fro m t h e m i l d ­
A d m in is tra to rs ,
s u p e r v i s o r s , and te a c h e r s can l e a r n to p ro c e e d w ith a
d ia g n o s is th e
sam e a s a n y p r o f e s s i o n a l d i a g n o s t i c i a n .
S im p le , c o n v e n ie n t,
a n d e c o n o m ic a l w ays c a n b e d e v is e d
to
d e c r e a s e t h e w o rk a n d i n c r e a s e t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e t e a c h ­
in g o f r e m e d ia l r e a d in g .
T he t e a c h e r o f r e m e d i a l r e a d i n g
s h o u l d b e a n e x p e r t i n e d u c a t i o n a l m e a s u r e m e n ts , a n d w i t h
t h e c o o p e r a t i o n o f a l l t h e t e a c h e r s c o u l d m ake im p r o v e m e n ts
o f p e rm a n e n t s i g n i f i c a n c e .
W itty an d K o p el s a y :
I t c a n n o t b e t o o s t r o n g l y e m p h a s iz e d t h a t a l l t e a c h ­
e r s s h o u ld s h a r e th e o b l i g a t i o n s i n th e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n
o f poor re a d e rs.
A l l s h o u l d a t t e m p t t o o f f e r sy m p a ­
t h e t i c o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r Im p ro v e m e n t i n e v e r y t a s k
w h ic h dem ands r e a d i n g s k i l l *
In d e e d , th e e n t i r e sc h o o l
s i t u a t i o n s h o u l d b e s o a l t e r e d t h a t g a i n s fro m r e m e d i a l
i n s t r u c t i o n w i l l be c a p i ta l iz e d and u sed in e v e ry a re a
i n w h ic h r e a d i n g p r o f i c i e n c y i s d e m a n d e d .9
A ll o f th e te a c h e r s can a s s i s t in th e e v a lu a tio n o f
th e p r e s e n t p ro c e d u re s i n th e s c h o o l p ro g ram , a l l o f th e
s u b j e c t - m a t t e r w h ic h i s
o f f e r e d , a s w e ll a s th e r e s u l t s
a c c o m p lis h e d w ith v i s u a l e d u c a tio n w o rk .
T hen, w ith th e
c o o p e r a tio n o f th e a d m in is tr a to r s , th e te a c h e r s and
lib ra ria n s ,
p
t h e p r o p h y l a c t i c , r e m e d i a l a n d r e s t o r a t i v e w o rk
P a u l W i t t y a n d D a v id K o p e l, R e a d in g a n d t h e E d u ­
c a t i v e P r o c e s s (New Y o r k : G in n a n d C om pany, 1 9 3 9 )» P* 137*
67
can be c a r r i e d on a d v a n ta g e o u sly and p r o f i t a b l y .
Each
te a c h e r can do h i s s h a re i n tr y i n g to acco m p lish th e
p u rp o se s o f e d u c a tio n in p re p a rin g th e p u p ils to fa c e th e
problem s o f l i f e *
The p u p ils can be made to r e a l i z e t h a t
th e r e must be a firm fo u n d a tio n l a i d f o r th e com prehension
o f re a d in g i f th e r e i s to be su c c e ss i n l i f e .
The im p o rt­
ance o f th e improvement i n re a d in g a b i l i t y cannot be o v e r­
em phasized.
G uidance i n re a d in g i s t r u l y an a l l - s c h o o l
program*
In v a lu a b le h e lp o f l i b r a r i a n *
The l i b r a r y in th e
seco n d ary s c h o o l can be a p la c e where th e p u p ils r e a l l y
liv e .
The l i b r a r i a n I s f a m il ia r w ith th e ty p e o f re a d in g
and th e stu d y p ro c e d u re s f o r each s u b je c t ta u g h t in th e
s e h o o l.
She can o b se rv e what th e p u p ils re a d i n th e
l i b r a r y , r e p o r t to th e re m e d ia l re a d in g te a c h e r s what th e
p u p ils seem to be I n t e r e s t e d i n and what t h e i r a t t i t u d e s
a r e in th e l i b r a r y .
She i s in a p o s i t io n to make n o te o f
m en tal and e m o tio n a l a b n o rm a litie s *
She can d i r e c t th e
p u p ils in s k i l l f u l u se o f new spapers a s w e ll a s in th e
p ro p e r s e l e c t i o n o f books and m agazines.
The books i n th e
seco n d ary se h o o l l i b r a r y a r e n a t u r a l l y s u ite d to th e d i f ­
f e r e n t s ta g e s o f m a tu r ity o f th e p u p il s .
The l i b r a r i a n can
eneo u rag e th e p u p ils how t o re a d a s w e ll a s what to r e a d .
Some b o o k s, w h ile n o t e s s e n t i a l , can be o f g r e a t
68
value#
A p u p i l , f o r exam ple, may be i n t e r e s t e d i n music
and can be en co u rag ed to re a d th e l i v e s o f g r e a t m u sic ia n s.
The l i b r a r i a n ca n become a c q u a in te d w ith th e p u p il w ith
re a d in g d i f f i c u l t i e s and d e f i c i e n c i e s ; she can win h i s
c o n fid e n c e , d is c o v e r h i s in d iv id u a l t a s t e s and i n t e r e s t s .
She can en co u rag e him to re a d ab o u t th in g s in which he i s
i n t e r e s t e d and b ro a d en h i s f i e l d o f i n t e r e s t .
A p u p il
k e e n ly i n t e r e s t e d i n a v i a t i o n can be encouraged to re a d
d e s c r i p ti o n s o f p la c e s and th in g s seen from th e a i r .
Improvement in re a d in g t a s t e s and a b i l i t i e s i s
bound to le a d to b e t t e r s ta n d a rd s o f l i v i n g .
A ll a p a th y
tow ard re a d in g can be d i s p e l l e d i f p u p ils a r e ta u g h t t o use
th e l i b r a r y p r o p e r ly .
f i e d w ith d ru d g e ry .
O fte n tim e s re a d in g becomes i d e n t i ­
T h is a t t i t u d e can be changed i f th e
l i b r a r i a n and th e te a c h e r s w i l l make an a tte m p t to co n n ect
th e p a s t e x p e rie n c e s o f th e p u p ils w ith t h e i r p re s e n t day
problem s in p r e p a r a t i o n f o r a f u tu r e o f f u l f i l l m e n t o f
t h e i r hopes and a m b itio n s .
III.
CLASSIFICATION OF PUPILS
The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f p u p ils f o r th e re m e d ia l r e a d ­
ing c l a s s e s , one o f th e im p o rta n t r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f th e
a d m i n i s tr a t o r , can be done i n c o o p e ra tio n w ith a l l th e
te a c h e r s .
C h ild r e n d i f f e r so w id ely i n t h e i r re a d in g
a b i l i t i e s t h a t i t i s n e c e s s a ry to ad a p t th e sc h o o l program
69
to
f i t th e v a rio u s ty p e s o f p u p ils .
I n t h e w o rd s o f
La B r a n t :
* . . th e p o in t i s th a t th e d u l l o r a v e ra g e c h ild
h a s s tr o n g i n t e r e s t s , and t h a t th e y a r e n o t n e c e s s a r i l y
f a i n t s h a d o w s o f t h e i n t e r e s t s o f m o re s c h o l a r l y
c h ild re n ,
T hey a r e r e a l and i n d i v i d u a l an d d e s e r v e
c o n s i d e r a t i o n o n t h e i r own m e r i t s . 10
P ro v is io n fo r in d iv id u a l d if f e r e n c e s .
o f th e m e n ta lly d e f i c i e n t c h ild
T he e d u c a t i o n
s h o u l d h e o f t h e sam e
g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r a s t h a t o f th e n o rm a l c h i l d , h u t f o r t h e
la tte r
th e te a c h e r i s
e x p e c t e d t o m ake a d j u s t m e n t s .
In
T a h l© XV t h e k i n d s o f c r e d i t g i v e n t o r e m e d i a l r e a d i n g
p u p ils a re
is
lis te d .
I n m o st o f th e s c h o o ls t h e c r e d i t g iv e n
t h e sam e a s t h a t f o r a r e g u l a r E n g l i s h c o u r s e .
ju n io r h ig h s c h o o ls ,
c o lle g e s re p o rte d
f i v e h ig h s c h o o ls , and f iv e
th a t th e p u p ils in
F iv e
ju n io r
th e r e m e d ia l r e a d in g
c l a s s e s a r e g i v e n c r e d i t to w a r d g r a d u a t i o n .
E ig h t ju n io r
h ig h s c h o o ls , th r e e h ig h s c h o o ls gave c r e d i t e q u iv a le n t to
o th e r s u b je c t c r e d it.
E ig h t ju n io r h ig h s c h o o ls , e le v e n
h i g h s c h o o l s , a n d tw o j u n i o r c o l l e g e s g a v e n o c r e d i t t o
p u p ils I n re m e d ia l re a d in g c la s s e s .
T he c r i t e r i o n
page 7 1 .
f o r p ro m o tio n i s
sh o w n I n T a b le X V I,
T he m a j o r i t y o f t h e s c h o o l s u s e i n d i v i d u a l
1 0 L . L . La B r a n t , "T h e F a l l a c y o f M o d i f i e d C o u r s e s , "
E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h B u l l e t i n . 1 5 * 1 4 2 , M ay, 1936*
70
TABLE XV
KINS OF CREDIT GIVEN TO REMEDIAL
READING PUPILS
J u n io r
H ig h
S c h o o ls
H ig h
S c h o o ls
T hat f o r r e g u la r E n g lis h
c o u rse
13
24
3
C r e d i t to w a rd g r a d u a t i o n
5
5
5
E q u iv a le n t to o th e r
s u b je c t c r e d it
8
3
0
Ho c r e d i t
8
1
2
C re d it
‘
J u n io r
C o lle g e s
71
TABLE XVT
CRITERION FOR PROMOTION
C rite rio n
T im e
(s e m e s te r, e t c . )
J u n io r
H ig h
S c h o o ls
H ig h
S c h o o ls
J u n io r
C o lle g e s
12
7
5
In d iv id u a l p ro g re s s
14
20
3
O b je c tiv e t e s t s
11
4
4
72
p ro g re s s a s th e c r i t e r i o n f o r p ro m o tio n .
Next in o rd e r i s
tim e w hich means t h a t p u p ils a re advanced a t th e end o f a
se m e ste r o r y e a r .
O b je c tiv e t e s t s ranked t h i r d a s a
c r i t e r i o n f o r p ro m o tion i n th e ju n io r and s e n io r h ig h
schools*
The ju n io r c o lle g e s r e p o r te d t h a t tim e (s e m e s te r,
e t c . ) i s th e u s u a l c r i t e r i o n f o r advancem ent.
With th e s c h o o ls u sin g in d iv id u a l p ro g re s s a s a
c r i t e r i o n f o r p ro m o tio n th e te a c h e r must make p r o v is io n f o r
in d iv id u a l d i f f e r e n c e s among p u p il s .
In th e r e g u la r c l a s s ­
e s a ssig n m e n ts can p ro v id e f o r in d iv id u a l d if f e r e n c e s o f
p u p i l s , and th e te a c h e r s can c h a lle n g e th e b e s t e f f o r t s o f
th e s u p e r io r p u p ils and y e t p ro v id e f o r th e slow er p u p i l s .
In th e re m e d ia l r e a d in g c l a s s e s , how ever, g r e a t c a re must
be ta k e n to s e l e c t p u p ils a f t e r c o n s id e r a tio n h as been
g iv e n to t h e i r i n t e r e s t s , s k i l l s , a m b itio n s , p e c u l i a r i t i e s ,
l i k e s , and d i s l i k e s .
A tte n tio n sh o u ld be g iv e n a ls o to
th e s e x , r a c e , s o c i a l , and economic background, g e n e ra l
i n t e l l i g e n c e , and o p p o r tu n ity f o r re a d in g a t home.
O ther
Im p o rtan t p h ase s to c o n s id e r a r e v is io n a r y and h e a rin g
d e f e c t s , any m a la d ju stm e n ts i n th e s c h o o l, th e b e h a v io r o f
th e c h ild a s i t i s r e f l e c t e d i n h i s a c t i v i t i e s and i n ­
te rs st s .
P e rs o n a l in te r v ie w s w i l l r e v e a l u n d e rsta n d in g o f
f a v o r i t e l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s , h o b b ie s , p la y p r e f e r e n c e s ,
p e r s o n a l p ro b lem s, home problem s,
In s h o r t , ev e ry f a c t o r
73
which may c o n tr ib u te to f a i l u r e must be c o n s id e re d .
C en ter p r e d i c t s :
I f I may r i s k a p r e d ic ti o n , th e tim e i s n ea r when
ea ch sc h o o l w i l l have a re a d in g c l i n i c and a re a d in g
s p e c i a l i s t p re p a re d to d e a l w ith th e problem s o f
re a d in g i n s t r u c t i o n on ev e ry sc h o o l l e v e l . I t i s
th e p a r t o f wisdom f o r te a c h e rs to p re p a re f o r th e
demand o f t h i s k in d o f s e r v ic e .
And I p r e d i c t a ls o t h a t th e tim e i s n e a r a t hand
when each sc h o o l system w i l l have a re a d in g c l i n i c
to w hich s c h o o ls may send extrem e c a se s f o r d ia g n o s is ,
and t h a t a d i r e c t o r o f re a d in g w i l l have ch arg e o f
th e re a d in g c l i n i c and g iv e s u p e rv is io n to re m e d ia l
I n s t r u c t i o n co n d u cted in th e s c h o o ls .
As th e re m e d ia l re a d in g te a c h e r becomes w e ll i n ­
formed c o n c e rn in g th e s p e c i f i c d i f f i c u l t i e s e n c o u n te red by
th e p u p ils in re a d in g she can p la n f o r o r i e n t a t i o n o f th e
p u p ils to each o t h e r , to th e s u b je c t , and to th e te a c h e r .
She must r e a l i z e t h a t re a d in g must meet th e re q u ire m e n ts
o f th e p r e s e n t from problem s r i s i n g o u t o f th e p a s t .
The
c la ssro o m , th e l i b r a r y , and th e a t h l e t i c f i e l d must be
m oral and c u l t u r a l f o r c e s .
I n fa c in g th e f u t u r e , e d u c a to rs
must r e a l i z e t h a t th e c h a r t f o r th e p la n n in g o f re m e d ia l
r e a d in g p ro c e d u re s i n seco n d ary sc h o o ls w i l l need e n d le s s
a d ju s tm e n ts In p re p a rin g th e youth f o r i t s r o l e o f good,
e f f e c t i v e , and w orthy c i t i z e n s .
A d m in is tra to rs must p ro -
S t e l l a S. C e n te r, "The S ig n if ic a n c e o f th e Head
in g C l i n i c , " The E n g lis h J o u rn a l <H. S. e d i t i o n ) , 2 7 * 3 8 7 ,
May, 1938.
74
v id e v ig o ro u s le a d e r s h ip in r e o rg a n iz in g and im proving
te a c h in g .
12
Summary.
O rg a n iz a tio n o f re m e d ia l re a d in g c l a s s e s
sh o u ld be such t h a t I n d iv id u a l and p u b lic i n t e r e s t w i l l be
a ro u se d f o r th e w e ll-b e in g and p ro g re s s o f th e c h ild re n *
The re m e d ia l re a d in g program s sh o u ld be made f l e x i b l e
enough t h a t th e m e n ta lly d e f i c i e n t c h ild may have a g r e a t e r
p ro s p e c t o f h a p p in e s s and u s e fu ln e s s in th e w orld and th e
c h ild o f av e rag e o r b e t t e r th a n av e rag e re a d in g a b i l i t y can
improve so t h a t he may re a c h h ig h e r le v e ls *
The s u c c e ss o f th e re m e d ia l re a d in g program depends
on th e c o o p e ra tio n o f a d m in is tr a to r s and a l l th e te a c h e r s
i n th e s c h o o l w ith th e te a c h e r s o f re m e d ia l r e a d in g .
It
i s n e c e s s a ry f o r th e a d m in is tr a to r s to assume r e s p o n s i­
b i l i t y f o r ap p o in tm en t o f re m e d ia l re a d in g te a c h e r s , f o r
o r g a n iz a tio n o f c l a s s e s , f o r th e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f p u p i l s ,
and th e s e l e c t i o n and p u rc h ase o f re m e d ia l re a d in g te a c h ­
in g m a t e r i a l s .
A re a d in g su rv ey o f th e sc h o o l w i l l p ro v id e
a b a s i s f o r Im proving re a d in g h a b i t s and a b i l i t i e s .
The
te a c h in g o f re m e d ia l re a d in g i s a s p e c ia liz e d work.
The
re m e d ia l re a d in g te a c h e r must be com petent and w e ll tr a in e d
1 2 W. S. Gray and G ertru d e W hipple, Im proving
I n s t r u c t i o n in H eading (Supplem entary E d u c a tio n a l Mono­
g ra p h s. C hicago: U n iv e r s ity o f C hicago, 1 9 3 3 )» P- 2 0 7 .
75
i n th e f i e l d
o f re a d in g .
s c h o o l s h o u l d com e t o
is
n e c e ssa ry
te a c h e rs
in th e
a r e a l iz a t i o n th a t re a d in g a b i l i t y
fo r su ccess
f o r e i g n la n g u a g e o r sh o p
a c c o rd w ith th e
A ll o f th e
i n an y c o u r s e w h e th e r i t
is
a
w o rk . M a t e r i a l s u s e d m u st b e
in
l e a r n e r * s c a p a c i t i e s b u t m ust b e o f a
n a tu re to c h a lle n g e
th e th in k in g o f th e p u p il.
If a ll of
th e te a c h e r s w i l l h o ld c o n fe re n c e s w ith th e re m e d ia l r e a d ­
in g t e a c h e r s ,
in te re s tin g
th e p u p ils
fie ld s -
T he
c a n b e g r a d u a l l y l e d i n t o m o re
sc h o o l l ib r a r ia n can p la y an
Im p o r ta n t p a r t i n th e r e a d in g p ro g ra m .
w hat th e p u p ils a re
in te re s te d
re m e d ia l r e a d in g te a c h e r .
She c an o b se rv e
i n and r e p o r t t h i s
to
th e
T he l i b r a r i a n c a n d o a g r e a t
d e a l t o e n c o u r a g e p u p i l s i n how t o r e a d a s w e l l a s w h a t t o
rea d .
W ith t h e p r o p e r c o o p e r a t i o n t h e t e a c h e r o f r e m e d i a l
r e a d i n g c a n m ake im p r o v e m e n ts o f p e r m a n e n t s i g n i f i c a n c e .
W ith t h e h e l p o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a n d a l l o f t h e t e a c h ­
e r s and th e l i b r a r i a n ,
r e s to ra tiv e
th e p r o p h y la c tio , re m e d ia l, and
w o rk i n r e a d i n g c a n b e c a r r i e d o n a d v a n t a g e o u s ­
ly and p r o f i t a b l y .
G u id a n c e i n th© r e a d i n g p r o g r a m i s
tr u ly an a ll- s c h o o l fu n c tio n .
CHAPTER XV
NATURE AND CAUSES OF READING D IFFIC U LTIES
Th© p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r e x p l a i n e d t h a t t h e w o rk o f t h e
r e a d in g p ro g ra m i s
tru ly
to th e re m e d ia l r e a d in g
d iffic u lty
an a ll- s c h o o l fu n c tio n .
A re p o rt
te a c h e rs re g a rd in g any re a d in g
n o te d by an y te a c h e r i n th e s c h o o l w i l l r e s u l t
In p ro p h y la c tic ,
r e m e d i a l a n d r e s t o r a t i v e w o rk i n r e a d i n g
t h a t w i l l be a d v a n ta g e o u s and p r o f i t a b l e
A th o ro u g h s tu d y o f th e p u p ils *
f o r a l l c o n c e rn e d .
r e a d i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s m ust
b e m ade s o t h a t t h e p u p i l s may b e s a v e d fro m t h e e f f e c t s
o f m a la d ju s tm e n t an d c h r o n ic d e f i c ie n c y .
In s tu d y in g th e c a u s e s o f re a d in g d i f f i c u l t i e s e a c h
t e a c h e r c a n b e m o re h e l p f u l w i t h t h e p u p i l s who h a v e m e n t a l
d e f e c t s t h a n w i t h t h o s e who a r e d e f e c t i v e p h y s i c a l l y .
la tte r
u s u a lly r e q u ir e
s p e c i a l c l i n i c a l w o rk .
T he
W ith c a r e ­
f u l an d c o n s c i e n ti o u s i n s t r u c t i o n m o st o f th e m e n ta l c a u s e s
o f re a d in g d i f f i c u l t i e s
o f tim e *
c a n b e c l e a r e d up I n a s h o r t s p a c e
P ro m p tn e s s i n c o r r e c t i n g a d e f i c i e n c y
f a c t o r to b e c o n s id e r e d by t h e t e a c h e r .
is a g re a t
T h e re fo re ,
I t Is
m o st im p o r ta n t t o b e a b l e t o r e c o g n i z e d e f e c t s an d
d i a g n o s e th e m .
fo rth as c le a rly
It
Is
th e p u rp o se o f t h i s
a s p o s s ib le
c h a p te r to
set
th e a n a ly s is o f th e n a tu re
and c a u s e s o f r e a d in g d i f f i c u l t i e s .
77
I*
In a b ility
MENTAL DEFECTS IN READING
to re c o g n iz e w o rd s*
la c k o f flu e n c y and f a c i l i t y
T he p u p i l sh o w s a
i n re a d in g *
E v id e n c e s o f t h i s
may b e s e e n b y h i s f r e q u e n t h a l t s a n d h e s i t a t i o n s d u r i n g
o r a l r e a d i n g w h ic h i n d i c a t e
th a t th e re
p o w e r o f w o rd a n a l y s i s o r t h a t t h e r e
s i g h t w o rd s*
N ot in f r e q u e n tly ,
is
little
o r no
i s a lo w s u p p l y o f
e s p e c ia lly
i n re a d in g
n o v e l o r d i f f i c u l t m a t e r i a l o r i n r e a d i n g m o re r a p i d l y
th a n u s u a l,
th e p u p i l 's
fo rm s r e s u l t s
l
th o u g h t.
w e ak n e ss f o r p e r c e p t i o n o f w o rd -
i n m o re o r l e s s s e r i o u s m u t i l a t i o n o f t h e
A n o th e r e v id e n c e o f t h i s
fre q u e n t re q u e s tin g
ty p e o f d i s a b i l i t y
is
th e
f o r h e l p o n s i m p l e a n d common w o rd s i n
o r a l o r s i l e n t re a d in g .
T h is i s
cau sed by e it h e r f a i l u r e
t o a c c u m u la te s i g h t v o c a b u la r y a s a b y -p r o d u c t o f r e a d in g
e x p e r ie n c e s o r i n s u f f i c i e n t t r a i n i n g o n s i g h t w o rd s.
a re s u lt o f th is d is a b ility
th e c h ild
As
can n e v er le a r n to
e n j o y r e a d i n g u n l e s s c o r r e c t i v e w o rk i s d o n e *
W a sh b u rn e
say s:
W hen a c h i l d t r i e s t o r e a d a b o o k t h a t I s t o o
d i f f i c u l t , h e l o s e s i n t e r e s t and becom es d is c o u ra g e d .
W it h o u t a n a l y z i n g t h e c a u s e h e b e g i n s t o d i s l i k e n o t
o n ly th e p a r t i c u l a r b o o k , b u t r e a d in g I t s e l f *
N ot
* A* I . G a t e s , Im p ro v e m e n t i n R e a d in g (New Y o r k :
T he M a c m i ll a n C o m p an y , 1 9 2 7 )» P* 1 3 ^ .
78
lik i n g to r e a d , h e r e a d s l e s s and f a i l s to g e t t h a t
f l u e n c y w h ic h c o m e s fr o m m uch r e a d i n g a n d i s n e c e s s a r y
t o t h e e n jo y m e n t o f r e a d i n g .
T he I m p o r t a n c e o f t h i s
X V II.
d i s a b i l i t y may b e n o t e d o n T a b l e
B o th h i g h s c h o o l s a n d j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s r a n k e d
in a b ility
t o r e c o g n iz e w o rd s f i r s t
a s a cau se o f re a d in g
d is a b ility .
Low g e n e r a l i n t e l l i g e n c e .
T h ere i s d e f i n i t e l y a
h ig h c o r r e l a t i o n b e tw e e n r e a d i n g a b i l i t y
in te llig e n c e .
A l t h o u g h m any o t h e r f a c t o r s may d e t e r m i n e
re a d in g a b i l i t y ,
th e r e a d in g ag e s h o u ld r e a c h a p p ro x im a te ly
th e l e v e l o f th e m e n ta l a g e .
o f d ia g n o s tic
and g e n e r a l
s tu d y
is
If I t
in d ic a te d .
fa lls
lo w e r t h e n e e d
M any a u t h o r i t i e s
t h a t an im p o rta n t s o u rc e o f d i f f i c u l t y r e s u l t s
p r e s e n t d a y p r a c t i c e o f m ass t e a c h i n g .
s c h o o ls
is
s u ite d
show
fr o m t h e
T h is p ro g ra m i n
to a n a p p re c ia b ly h ig h e r i n t e l l e c t u a l
l e v e l t h a n t h a t p o s s e s s e d b y m o a t m em b ers o f a c l a s s .
P u p i l s w ho a r e n o t o n t h i s h i g h e r l e v e l m u s t h a v e s p e c i a l
w o rk , and th e y m u st b e a d ju s te d a c c o rd in g to
v id u a l n eed s.
lis tin g
th e ir in d i­
T a b l e X V II sh o w s t h e i n c i d e n c e o f s c h o o l s
lo w g e n e r a l i n t e l l i g e n c e a s a c a u s e o f r e a d i n g
d is a b ility .
2 C a r l e t o n W a s h b u r n e , " R ip e n e s s ,* * P r o g r e s s i v e
E d u c a t i o n , 13 5 1 2 6 , F e b r u a r y , 1 9 3 6 .
79
TABLE XVII
CAUSES OF READING- DISABILITIES
J u n io r
H ig h
S c h o o ls
M e n ta l
d is a b ilitie s
In a b ility
w o rd s
H ig h
S c h o o ls
J u n io r
C o lle g e s
to re c o g n iz e
20
26
5
Low g e n e r a l I n t e l l i g e n c e
10
25
6
W eak v o c a b u l a r y
21
30
9
11
25
7
P o o r c o m p re h e n s io n
17
24
7
F a u lty s tu d y h a b it s
16
23
8
L ack o f a b i l i t y
th o u g h t u n i t s
to re a d in
NOTE: T h is t a b l e should be re a d a s fo llo w s ; tw en ty
ju n io r h ig h s c h o o ls r e p o r te d I n a b i l i t y to re c o g n iz e words
a s on® o f th e o u ts ta n d in g m en tal d i s a b i l i t i e s o f re m e d ia l
re a d in g p u p i l s .
80
Weak v o c a b u l a r y *
Many p u p i l s h a v e d i f f i c u l t y
r e a d i n g b e c a u s e o f a w eak v o c a b u l a r y .
s e rio u s d i s a b i l i t y
as
p ro p e r in s tr u c tio n .
it
T h is i s n o t a
can b e c o r r e c te d e a s i l y w ith th e
T h is ty p e o f p u p i l c a n b e r e c o g n iz e d
b y h i s m ii s p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f w o r d s a n d b y h i s
s u p p ly in g w ith
a m u t i l a t i o n o f m e a n in g t h e w o rd s n o t i n t h e t e x t .
th is
la tte r
in
In
case th e re h as n o t been s u f f ic ie n t a tte n tio n
p a i d t o w o rd m e a n i n g s .
T h ere s h o u ld b e d e v e lo p e d a n a p p r e ­
c i a t i o n o f th e v a lu e o f a good v o c a b u la ry a s a t o o l f o r
c le a r th in k in g .
I n g lls has s a id :
. . . w i t h t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f la n g u a g e u s e i t becam e
a n i n s t r u m e n t n o t o n l y f o r t h e c o m m u n ic a tio n o f t h o u g h t
b u t a ls o fo r th in k in g I t s e l f .
C re a te d p r im a r ily f o r
th e p u rp o s e o f a c q u a in tin g o t h e r s w ith th e m e n ta l
s t a t e s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l , l a n g u a g e h a s b e co m e t h e m ean s
b y w h ic h t h e i n d i v i d u a l ’ s ow n m e n t a l l i f e i s f u n d a ­
m e n ta lly c o n d itio n e d .3
A c c o rd in g t o
th e
th e q u e s tio n n a ire re s p o n se s a l l o f
s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g b e l i e v e t h a t w e ak v o c a ­
b u l a r y w as t h e g r e a t e s t c a u s e o f r e a d i n g d i s a b i l i t y .
See
T a b l e X V I I, p a g e 7 9 L ack o f a b i l i t y
is
to re a d
in th o u g h t u n i t s .
f r e q u e n t l y f o u n d am ong p o o r r e a d e r s .
T h is la c k
I n re a d in g th e
p u p il w i l l b re a k up s e n te n c e s w ith o u t d ue r e g a rd to p ro p e r
w o rd g r o u p i n g .
c a tio n
He w i l l h a b i t u a l l y d i s r e g a r d c o n t e x t c u e s
A le x a n d e r I n g l l s , P r i n c i p l e s o f S e c o n d a ry E du­
( B o s t o n s H o u g h t o n , M i f f l i n C o m p a n y , 1918T7 P* 4-25*
81
and re a d
In a s t i l t e d
m a n n e r c a l l i n g o f f w o rd s m e c h a n i c a l l y
o r r e a d i n a J e r k y m a n n e r , w o rd b y w o r d .
D u r in g s i l e n t
re a d in g h e w ill re a d w ith v o c a liz a tio n o r l i p
A ll o f t h i s
in d ic a te s th e
m o v e m e n t.
la c k o f f a m i l i a r i t y w ith t y p ic a l
s e n te n c e s t r u c t u r e s a n d la n g u a g e fo rm s; th e i n a b i l i t y
p r o f i t by p u n c tu a tio n m ark s.
re s tric te d
a tte n tio n
o f m e a n in g .
I n som e c a s e s t h e r e
to
is a
s p a n , w ith a n in a d e q u a te a n t i c i p a t i o n
Bus w e l l s t a t e s :
T he u l t i m a t e g o a l o f r e a d i n g i s t o s e c u r e m e a n in g
fro m t h e p r i n t e d p a g e i n l a r g e th o u g h t u n i t s .
T he
s m a ll e s t p o s s i b l e u n i t o f th o u g h t i s th e w o rd , w h ile
t h e m o s t common u n i t s a r e p h r a s e s .
As l o n g a s a
r e a d e r i s u n a b le to g r a s p th e s e th o u g h t e le m e n ts i n a
s i n g l e r e c o g n i t i o n h i s m e n ta l p r o c e s s e s a r e i n t e r ­
ru p te d by th e n e c e s s ity o f p ie c in g to g e th e r th e
m a t e r i a l t o m ake u p m e a n i n g f u l e l e m e n t s . 4
T a b l e X V II, p a g e 7 9 ,
in
th o u g h t u n i t s
is
sh o w s t h a t t h e l a c k o f a b i l i t y
to re a d
an im p o rta n t c a u se o f re a d in g d i s a b i ­
lity .
P o o r c o m p re h e n s io n .
a p p a re n t f a c i l i t y
c o m p re h e n s io n .
in a b ility
Some p u p i l s who c a n r e a d w i t h
f a i l i n c o u rs e s o f s tu d y b e c a u s e o f p o o r
T he f o l l o w i n g a r e
som e o f t h e p r o b l e m s :
to re p ro d u c e th e s u b s ta n c e o f th e m a t e r i a l re a d
w ith o r a l f lu e n c y ,
o ra l fa c ility
but in a b ility
to answ er
G. T. B u sw ell, Fundam ental R eading H a b its : A
Study o f T h e ir Development (C hicago: The U n iv e r s ity o f
C hicago, 1 9 2 2 ), p . 102.
82
q u e s tio n s o f f a c t b a se d on th e m a te r ia l r e a d , i n a b i l i t y
f o r f o r m J u d g m e n ts o n t h e m a t e r i a l r e a d , a n d i n a b i l i t y
to
s e l e c t im p o rta n t id e a s o r se e r e l a ti o n s h i p s .
one h a s th e a b i l i t y
to e v a lu a te th e w o rth o f m a t e r i a l
r e a d , r e a d in g , a s th in k in g , c a n n o t ta k e p la c e .
r e q u ir e s th e a b i l i t y
U n le s s
to
R e a d in g
s e e r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x i s t i n g b e tw e e n
f a c t s th e m s e lv e s an d th e r e l a t i o n s h i p
th e s e f a c ts b e a r to
t h e p u r p o s e f o r w h ic h you a r e r e a d i n g . ^
I n t h e s e c a s e s t h e r e a r e m any f a c t o r s c a u s i n g t h i s
tro u b le .
T h e r e m ay b e e i t h e r a n o v e r - e m p h a s i s o n m e c h a n i c s
o f w o r d - r e c o g n itio n an d o r a l r e n d i t i o n o r an u n d e r-e m p h a s is
o n m e a n in g o r t h o u g h t - g e t t i n g .
c e n tiv e
A c h i l d m ay h a v e no i n ­
t o r e a l e f f o r t a n d r e a d s f o r a p p r o v a l o f m e re
re n d itio n .
A p p e a rin g i n
b u tio n o f s c h o o ls l i s t i n g
T a b l e X V II, p a g e 79» i s
th e d i s t r i ­
p o o r c o m p re h e n s io n a s a c a u s e o f
re a d in g d i s a b i l i t y .
F a u lty stu d y h a b i t s .
I n a b i l i t y to g e t te x tb o o k
assig n m en ts i s a fr e q u e n t f a u l t y h a b it o f p u p i l s .
There
may be lan g u ag e h a n d ic a p s c a u sin g t h i s ; i n C a lif o r n ia th e r e
a r e many p u p ils w ith th e J a p a n e s e , P o rtu g u e s e , o r M exican
background.
I n d i r e c t c a u se s e n te r i n to t h i s d i f f i c u l t y
5 jgary E. P e n n e ll and A lic e M. Cusack, How to Teach
R eading (B ostons H oughton, M if f lin Company, 1924), p . 4 1.
83
when th e a ssig n m e n ts a r e vague o r when hooks a r e too d i f f i ­
c u lt.
The common c a u s e s , how ever, a r e an i n s u f f i c i e n t
background o f e x p e rie n c e s and m eanings and in a d e q u a te
fu n d am en tal r e a d in g h a b i t s .
There a r e many s p e c i f i c stu d y h a b i t s w hich impede
a p u p i l 's p r o g r e s s .
The i n a b i l i t y to o u t l i n e , o rg a n iz e ,
s e l e c t id e a s , o r p erfo rm any o f th e o th e r a c t i v i t i e s i n ­
v o lv ed i n s tu d y i n r e g u la r sch o o l work o r on in fo rm a l t e s t s
may be cau sed by two t h i n g s :
(1 ) dependence on in c i d e n t a l
l e a r n in g , o r g e n e r a l h a b i t s ; (2 ) In a d e q u a te p ro v is io n s f o r
s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g i n p r e p a r a tio n f o r th e a c t u a l n ee d s.
Many p u p ils can n o t fo llo w p r in te d o r w r i t t e n d i r e c ti o n s
and can n o t f in d an sw ers t o q u e s tio n s .
H a b itu a l dependence
on o th e r s f o r s u g g e s tio n o r d i r e c t i o n som etimes i s a t th e
r o o t o f th e problem .
In o th e r c a s e s , th e r e i s a f a i l u r e ,
w h ile r e a d in g , to th in k in term s o f what i s t o be done —
a narrow a t t e n t i o n sp an and d e f i c i e n t c o n c e n tr a tio n .
No
com prehension o f t y p i c a l se n te n c e s t r u c t u r e and f a i l u r e to
r e a l i z e p h ra se m eanings a s u n i t s and to o rg a n iz e meanings
w h ile re a d in g w i l l o f t e n cause g ro s s m isc o n c e p tio n s and
m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f re a d in g m a tte r .
T able XVII, page 79»
shows th e number o f sc h o o ls r e p o r tin g f a u l t y stu d y h a b i t s
a s a cau se o f re a d in g d i s a b i l i t y .
84
II.
PHYSICAL DEFECTS
P h y s ic a l d e f e c t s a s c a u se s o f re a d in g d i f f i c u l t i e s
ap p ear to he le g io n .
I t i s n o t n e c e s s a ry f o r th e te a c h e r
to make th e e l a b o r a t e and d e t a i l e d form o f a n a ly s is which
I s c a r r i e d o u t i n th e c l i n i c o r la b o r a to r y .
I t i s th e
f u n c tio n o f th e la b o r a to r y to su p p ly th e ty p e o f te c h n i c a l
r e s e a r c h w hich can n o t be a tte m p te d In th e cla ssro o m .
For
th e p u rp o se o f d ia g n o s is o f re a d in g d i f f i c u l t i e s , how ever,
i t i s d e s i r a b l e t h a t th e te a c h e r have a t l e a s t a g e n e ra l
id e a o f th e v a r io u s d i f f i c u l t i e s to be e n c o u n te re d .
The
en su in g pages w i l l e x p la in some o f th e p h y s ic a l d e ­
f i c i e n c i e s t h a t c a u se poor re a d in g h a b its *
V is u a l d e f e c t s .
F ig u rin g p ro m in e n tly among th e
p h y s ic a l d e f e c t s c a u s in g re a d in g d i f f i c u l t i e s a r e th o s e
o r i g i n a t i n g i n h a b i t s o r work p e r c e p tio n and eye movements.
More c o r r e c t i v e work sh o u ld be done alo n g t h i s l i n e , b e ­
cau se th e r e I s e v id e n tly a g r e a t need f o r i t .
T able XVIII
shows t h a t f i f t e e n ju n io r h ig h s c h o o ls , tw e n ty -fo u r h ig h
s c h o o ls , and f i v e j u n io r c o lle g e s r e p o r te d v i s u a l d e f e c ts
a s th e g r e a t e s t p h y s ic a l d e f e c t c a u sin g re a d in g d i s a b i l i t y .
There a r e s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t ty p e s o f d e f ic ie n c i e s
o f th e s e n so ry a p p a ra tu s -
Monroe0 l i s t s t h r e e .
The f i r s t
^ M arian Monroe, C h ild re n Who Cannot Read (C hicago:
U n iv e r s ity o f C hicago P r e s s , 1 9 3 2 ) , p p . 7 9 -1 1 0 *
85
TABLE X V III
CAUSES OP READING D IS A B IL IT IE S
J u n io r
H ig h
S c h o o ls
H ig h
S c h o o ls
J u n io r
C o lle g e s
V is u a l d e f e c ts
15
24
5
P oor h e a rin g
10
17
1
D e fic ie n c y i n a u d ito r y
p e rc e p tio n
4
11
3
Speech d e fe c ts
5
10
1
L ack o f c o o r d i n a t i o n
12
14
4
E m o tio n a l d i s o r d e r s
14
17
4
P h y s ic a l
d is a b ilitie s
NOTE: T h i s t a b l e s h o u l d h e r e a d a s f o l l o w s :
f i f t e e n J u n io r h ig h s c h o o ls re p o rte d v is u a l d e f e c ts a s one
o f th e o u ts ta n d in g p h y s ic a l d i s a b i l i t i e s o f re m e d ia l r e a d ­
in g p u p ils *
86
I s th e
la c k o f c l e a r - o u t r e t i n a l Im ag e s, due to d e f e c t s
th e r e f r a c t i v e
c h ild
m e c h a n is m s o f t h e e y e -
I n o th e r w o rd s, a
m a n if e s ts e y e s t r a i n and c o n fu s e s s i m i l a r l y
le tte rs
in
a n d t h u s m i s r e a d s w o rd s c o n t a i n i n g t h e s e
I n som e c a s e s t h e r e t i n a l Im ag e i s b l u r r e d
shaped
le tte rs .
c a u s in g d e f e c ts
i n v i s u a l a c u i t y , a n d t h e c h i l d m ay c o n f u s e s i m i l a r p a t t e r n s
of le tte rs .
A n o t h e r c a u s e o f p o o r r e a d i n g a s s u g g e s t e d b y M o n ro e
i s m ix e d e y e a n d h a n d d o m in a n c e .
She p o i n ts o u t t h a t t h e r e
i s a s l i g h t te n d e n c y f o r l e f t - e y e p r e f e r e n c e to be a s s o c i ­
a te d w ith r e v e r s a l e r r o r s
in r e a d in g and t h a t r e a d in g -
d e fe c t c a se s r e p o r t a la rg e
and o f le f t- h a n d e d n e s s .
in c id e n c e o f ch an g ed h a n d e d n e ss
She s t a t e s :
T he c h i l d who p r e f e r s h i s l e f t e y e m ay a d j u s t m o re
e a s i l y to o b je c ts on th e l e f t s id e o f th e v is u a l
f i e l d t h a n o n t h e r i g h t s i d e , a n d may t e n d t o m ove
h i s e y e s in th e d i r e c t i o n o f th e p r e f e r r e d f i e l d . . .
T he d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e p r o g r e s s i v e l y t o t h e r i g h t
m o v e m e n ts d e m a n d e d i n r e a d i n g may b e m o re d i f f i c u l t
f o r th e l e f t- e y e d th a n f o r th e r ig h t- e y e d c h ild b e ­
c a u se o f th e o b s t r u c ti o n o f th e v i s u a l f i e l d by th e
b r i d g e o f t h e n o s e i n th e fo rm e r c a s e .*
p
D e arb o rn
fiv e
fo u n d t h a t o n e - t h i r d o f h i s f i r s t
c a s e s w e re l e f t - h a n d e d .
tw e n ty -
He r e m a r k s :
7 I b id ., p. 84.
® W. F . D e a r b o r n , L . C a r m i c h a e l , a n d E* E . Ix > rd ,
S p e c i a l D i s a b i l i t i e s I n L e a rn in g to R ead an d W rite
( H a r v a r d M o n o g ra p h s i n E d u c a t i o n , N o. 6 .
C a m b r id g e :
G ra d u a te S c h o o l o f E d u c a tio n , H a rv a rd U n i v e r s i ty , J u n e ,
1 9 2 5 ), 76 p p .
87
T he w ay i n w h i c h l e f t - h a n d e d n e s s m ay p o s s i b l y
o p e r a t e a s a n i n i t i a l h a n d ic a p i n r e a d i n g m u s t a s i t
h a s b e e n sh o w n t o b e i n j w r i t i n g , i s s u g g e s t e d b y t h e
fo llo w in g o b s e r v a tio n s .
T he o u t g o i n g m o v em en t o f t h e
l e f t h a n d i s fro m t h e c e n t e r o f t h e b o d y t o t h e l e f t .
T he l e f t - h a n d e d p e r s o n p o s s i b l y b e c a u s e h e w a t c h e s
w hat h i s p r e f e r r e d hand d o e s and th u s e s t a b l i s h e s th e
h a b i t may show a p r e f e r e n c e f o r t h i s sam e d i r e c t i o n i n
h i s e y e m o v e m e n ts .
T he r e a d i n g o f " s a w 1* a s " w a s " i s a
v e r y com m only o b s e r v e d e r r o r a l t h o u g h i t i s b y n o
m eans c o n f in e d t o t h e l e f t - h a n d e d r e a d e r . 9
G a t e s 1 ^ f o u n d o n l y " f o u r o r fiv e * * c a s e s o f m a rk e d
l e f t - h a n d e d n e s s am ong s i x t y - s i x c a s e s o f s e r i o u s r e a d i n g
d iffic u ltie s
checked w ith r e s p e c t to h a n d e d n e ss.
He s t a t e d
t h a t " a l l t h e s e , h o w e v e r , sh o w ed a d i s p o s i t i o n s t r o n g e r
t h a n t h a t f o u n d f o r t h e a v e r a g e o f t h e w h o le s i x t y - s i x t o
»11
m ake e r r o r s o f t h e r e v e r s a l t y p e .
S in c e t h e r e
is
s o m uch c o n f l i c t i n g d a t a c o n c e r n i n g
t h i s p ro b le m no d e f i n i t e
s ig n ific a n c e o f th is
s t a t e m e n t c a n b e m ade a b o u t t h e
ty p e o f r e a d in g d i f f i c u l t y .
th© a u t h o r i t i e s d o a g r e e , h o w e v e r , t h a t i f
a b e g in n in g
r e a d e r d o e s t e n d t o w r i t e w o r d s f ro m r i g h t t o
m lrro rw is e , p e r c e p tu a l h a b its a r e
A ll o f
le ft or
s e t w h ic h i n t e r f e r e w i t h
n o r m a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f r e a d i n g s k i l l a n d w h ic h t e n d t o p r o ­
duce r e v e r s a l e r r o r s .
9 Ib id . . p .
G a te s ,
11 I b i d .
o p.
3c l t . . p p . 3 4 2 -5 *
A th ird
“d e f e c t s i n d i s ip
c r i m i n a t i o n o f c o m p le x v i s u a l p a t t e r n s * 19
T he c h i l d may
d is c rim in a te
d e f e c t c i t e d fcy M o n ro e i s
s im p le p a t t e r n s
su ch a s l e t t e r s h u t n o t he
a b l e t o d i s c r i m i n a t e c o m p le x p a t t e r n s
i s m o re com m only r e f e r r e d
s i t u a t i o n w ith r e f e r e n c e
to
th e
lo s s o f a b i l i t y
a n d M c B r id e 1 ^ i n
a s “e s s e n t i a l l y
th e ir
su c h a s w o rd s.
to a s w o rd -b lin d n e s s .
T h is
The
to w o rd -b lin d n e s s o r a le x ia d ue
to re a d i s
s u m m a riz e d b y W e is e n b u r g
s t u d y o f “A p h a s i a .* '
T hey d e f i n e i t
a d is o r d e r in th e p e rc e p tio n o r u n d e rs ta n d ­
in g o f l e t t e r -
o r w o r d - f o r m s , e x i s t i n g a p a r t f ro m a n y o t h e r
14la n g u a g e o r a g n o s ic d i s t u r b a n c e s . n
An I n ju r y to th e
b ra in
s o m e tim e s c a u s e s t h i s
an d th o u g h a c h i l d
s u ffe rin g
f r o m t h i s d i s o r d e r m ay b e a b l e t o d i s c r i m i n a t e s i m p l e
p a tte rn s
such a s l e t t e r ,
h e c o n f u s e s c o m p le x p a t t e r n s s u c h
a s w o rd s.
T he d a t a c o n c e r n i n g b r a i n f u n c t i o n i s
s t i l l in a d e ­
q u a t e , h o w e v e r , a n d m any c o n t r o v e r s i e s e x i s t o v e r t h i s
th e o ry .
T h e re seem s to b e g e n e r a l a g re e m e n t t h a t th e
p rim a ry c a u s e o f a c q u ir e d a l e x i a i s
a b r a i n l e s i o n w h ic h
I n t e r f e r e s w i t h t h e c o m p le x f u n c t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n r e a d i n g .
12
M o n ro e , o p . c i t . « p . 8 1 .
13 T h e o d o r e W e is e n b u r g a n d K a t h e r i n e M c B rid e ,
A p h a s i a (New Y o rk s H u m p h rey M i l f o r d , 1 9 3 5 ) , 6 3 4 p p .
14 I b i d . , p. 65.
89
lih e th e r o r n o t o th e r d i s a b i l i t i e s accompany th e re a d in g
d e f e c t w i l l depend upon th e l o c a tio n and e x te n t o f th e
le s io n *
Poor h e a rin g *
re s u lts
in a c h i l d 's
s c ie n tific
D e f e c t s o f h e a r i n g m ay h a v e s e r i o u s
re a d in g a b i l i t y .
T e rm a n i n a
s t u d y c o n c l u d e d t h a t f r o m 10 t o 2 0 p e r c e n t o f
s c h o o l c h i l d r e n d o n o t h e a r n o r m a lly a n d l e a r n i n g o f fro m
2 to
5 per cen t is
v e ry s e rio u s ly
q u e s tio n n a ire re s p o n s e s te n
I m p a ir e d .^
In th e
ju n io r h ig h s c h o o ls ,
se v e n te e n
h ig h s c h o o ls and one ju n io r c o lle g e ch eck ed p o o r h e a rin g
a s one o f th e p h y s ic a l d i s a b i l i t i e s
o f re m e d ia l r e a d in g
p u p ils .
th e a l e r t te a c h e r can
e a s ily
S e e t a b l e X V I I I , p a g e 85*
lo c a te p u p ils w ith d e fe c tiv e h e a rin g .
There a r e many ty p e s o f t e s t s d esig n ed to d eterm in e
th e e x a c t a u d ito r y d i f f i c u l t y o f a c h i l d .
lin e d th e v a r io u s d i f f i c u l t i e s to be fo u n d .
B e tts
h as o u t­
A u d ito ry
a c u it y i s th e term u sed to d e s ig n a te k een n ess o r power o f
h e a r in g .
T h is can be d iag n o sed by th e use o f w h isp er and
lo w -v o ice t e s t s .
Some c h ild r e n ap p ear to have a v ery
15
Lewis M. Terman and Jo h n C* Almaok, The H ygiene
o f th e S chool C h ild (B o sto n : H oughton, M if f lin Company,
1 9 2977 505 p p .
1 /T
E m m e tt A . B e t t s , T he P r e v e n t i o n a n d C o r r e c t i o n
o f R e a d in g D i f f i c u l t i e s (E v a n s to n , I l l i n o i s :
Row, P e t e r s o n
a n d C om pany, 1 9 3 5 ) , 4 6 2 p p .
90
n a rro w a u d i t o r y fre q u e n c y r a n g e .
V ,
a n d wt "
sounds in to
Sounds lik e
c a u se tr o u b le , fo r th e c h ild
" f ” , "v",
c a n n o t fu s e th e
w o r d s w h en h e c a n n o t p e r c e i v e th e m .
A u d ito ry
s p a n a n d a u d i t o r y f u s i o n a r e tw o o t h e r d i f f i c u l t i e s
lis te d
b y B e t t s a n d f o r w h ic h t e s t s h a v e b e e n d e s i g n e d .
P o o r a u d i t o r y t r a i n i n g i s t h e c a u s e o f m any d l f f i 17
c u ltle s .
B o n d 's
i n t e r e s t i n g s tu d y g a v e c l e a r e v id e n c e
th a t th e
i n d i s c r i m i n a t e u s e o f t h e p h o n e t i c a n d o r a l m e th o d
w ill cau se a la rg e p ro p o rtio n o f p u p ils to
i n g —p u p i I s who c a n b e r e a d i l y
to
th e ir
lim ita tio n s .
fa il
in re a d ­
ta u g h t by p ro g ra m s s u i t e d
T h i s f a c t i s m o re s i g n i f i c a n t t o
th e e le m e n ta ry te a c h e r i n o r d e r t h a t th e p rim a ry r e a d in g
p r o g r a m may b e b u i l t i n t e r m s o f I n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s .
A l l t e a c h e r s , h o w e v e r , s h o u l d b e a r i n m in d t h a t o n e o f
th e c h ie f e r r o r s
in
th e te a c h in g o f p h o n ic s i s
th e e m p h a s is
on th e a u d ito ry a s p e c t.
D e fic ie n c y i n a u d ito r y p e r c e p tio n .
A u d ito ry p e r ­
c e p t i o n may b e d e f i n e d r o u g h l y a s m e n t a l a w a r e n e s s o f
s o u n d s .^
le a rn e d
B e fo re a s s o c i a t i n g a so u n d w ith a p r e v i o u s l y
so u n d o r t h e v i s u a l fo rm , t h e
l e a r n e r m u st b e a b le
^ G uy L . B o n d , T he A u d i t o r y a n d S p e e c h C h a r a c t e r ­
i s t i c s o f P o o r R e a d e r s (New Y o r k :
C o lu m b ia U n i v e r s i t y ,
B u r e a u o f P u b l i c a t i o n s , T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , 1 9 3 5 ) , 4 8 PP*
B e tts , o£. e l t . . p.
19^.
91
to p e rc e iv e , o r h e a r ,
th e
so u n d .
The a b i l i t y
t o m ake
a u d i t o r y d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s b e tw e e n w o rd s o u n d s i s
f o r s p e l l i n g a c h ie v e m e n t.
im p o rta n t
I f a u d ito ry p e rc e p tio n i s p o o r,
t h e p u p i l c o n f u s e s s i m i l a r w o rd s i n b o t h s p e e c h a n d r e a d i n g
w ith o u t r e c o g n iz in g th e e r r o r .
M o n ro e 1 ^ b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e
l a c k o f a u d i t o r y d i s c r i m i n a t i o n o f w o rd s may b e a s p e c i a l
d e fe c t in h e a rin g
J u s t a s c o lo r-b lin d n e s s i s
a s p e c ia l
d e fe c t in v is io n .
It
g iv e n .
I s a d v is a b l e t o h a v e a t e s t w ith a n a u d io m e te r
I f h e a rin g i s
fo u n d to be n o rm a l,
t h a t th e c h ild h a s n o t le a rn e d to
n o tic e
i n th e so u n d s o f t h e E n g lis h la n g u a g e .
It
i s p o s s ib le
fin e d iffe re n c e s
T h is I s q u i t e
f r e q u e n t l y t r u e o f c h i l d r e n b r o u g h t u p i n h o m es w h e r e
f o r e i g n la n g u a g e s a r e
spoken.
T hey o f t e n h a v e t r o u b l e w ith
E n g lis h so u n d s t h a t do n o t o c c u r i n th e f o r e i g n la n g u a g e .
I f a c h i l d 's p r o n u n c ia tio n and e n u n ic a tlo n i n o r a l re a d in g
a r e g o o d , h o w e v er, t h e r e
i s u s u a l l y no n e e d t o b e c o n c e r n e d
ab o u t h is h e a rin g o r a u d ito ry p e rc e p tio n .
S p e c ia l t e s t s
c a n b e g i v e n t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e a b i l i t y ~ o f c o m b in in g
Is o la te d
a b ility
sounds in to w o rd s, th u s a u d ito ry p e rc e p tio n
i s d e te rm in e d .
T a b l e X V I I I , p a g e 85# sh o w s t h e
num ber o f s c h o o ls c i t i n g
a b ility
d e fic ie n c y
in a u d ito ry p e rc e p tio n
a s one o f th e c a u se s o f re a d in g d i s a b i l i t y .
^
M o n ro e , o £ .
c i t . . p* 95*
92
Speech d e f e c t s .
L earning to re a d in v o lv e s speech
and language a s w e ll a s v i s i o n and h e a r in g .
D e fe c tiv e
sp eech I n t e r f e r e s w ith le a r n in g , b ecau se th e c h i l d 's f i r s t
re a d in g e f f o r t s c o n s i s t o f pronouncing words e i t h e r alo u d
o r to h im s e lf .
C o n fu sio n in re a d in g i n b o th m echanics and
com prehension r e s u l t s when he h e a r s words spoken by o th e r s
i n one way and spoken by h im s e lf i n a n o th e r way.
The
norm al c h i l d u s e s h i s e y e s , e a r s , and m uscles s im u lta n e o u s ­
l y to r e i n f o r c e one a n o th e r ; i f a p u p il i s d e f e c tiv e i n any
o f th e s e t h r e e r e s p e c t s , he becomes a n o n -re a d e r.
Bond2 ^
found t h a t 35 p e r c e n t o f th e c a s e s s tu d ie d who were r e ­
ta r d e d i n o r a l re a d in g b u t were good s i l e n t re a d e rs had
sp eech d e f e c t s .
T here a r e many k in d s o f sp eech d e f e c t s , among which
s t u t t e r i n g , l i s p i n g , s l u r r i n g , and g e n e r a lly i n d i s t i n c t
sp eech a r e common.
Speech d e f e c ts a r e a p t to produce
em barrassm ent i n o r a l re a d in g and a co n seq u en t d i s l i k e f o r
re a d in g I f o r a l re a d in g i s s t r e s s e d .
In h ig h sc h o o l r e ­
m ed ial sp eech work w ith em phasis on s i l e n t re a d in g sh o u ld
be c a r r i e d on a s soon a s any sp eech d e f e c t i s d ia g n o se d .
A ppearing i n T able X V III, page 8 5 , i s th e number o f sc h o o ls
r e p o r t in g sp eech d e f e c t s a s a p h y s ic a l d i s a b i l i t y o f r e ­
m ed ial r e a d in g p u p i l s .
20
«
Bond, o p . c i t • , p p . 3 7 -9 *
93
L ack o f c o o r d i n a t l o n .
L ack o f c o o r d i n a ti o n i s
s e l f - e v i d e n t and s h o u ld b e e a s i l y re c o g n iz e d by te a c h e r s
o f re m e d ia l r e a d in g c la s s e s *
c h ild
C lu m s in e s s a n d s lo w n e s s i n a
s h o u ld b e o b s e rv e d c a r e f u l l y , and i f
th e re is
an
i n c o o r d i n a t i o n o f t h e a p p e n d a g e s , r e m e d ia l tr e a tm e n t m ust
b e in a u g u ra te d *
D e fic ie n c ie s in
th e f u n c tio n o f th e eye
m u s c le s an d t h e v a r i o u s c o m b in a tio n s o f e y e a n d h a n d
d o m in a n c e r e s u l t i n g
s e rio u s *
in a la c k o f c o o rd in a tio n a re v e ry
T hese d i s a b i l i t i e s h av e b e e n d is c u s s e d
p re v io u s s e c tio n o f t h i s
in a
c h a p te r.
I n c o o r d in a tio n o f th e lim b s , a rm s, h a n d s , and
f in g e rs have l i t t l e
to do d i r e c t l y and s p e c i f i c a l l y w ith
t r o u b l e s i n r e a d i n g th o u g h th e y e x e r t a n i n f l u e n c e i n ­
d ire c tly
by in c r e a s in g
s e lf-c o n s c io u s n e s s o r by c o n tr i­
b u tin g to d e f e c t in th e r e l a t e d
s u b je c t o f s p e llin g
w h ic h f l u e n t a n d a c c u r a t e w r i t i n g
in g p r o c e s s .
p*i
m uch c r i t i c i s m
c h ild
i s a f a c t o r i n th e
In
le a rn -
A w k w a rd n e ss o f m o v em en t a lw a y s p r o v o k e s
and r e s u l t s
i n e m o tio n a l d i s o r d e r s .
The
t h u s a f f e c t e d b y p o o r m o to r c o n t r o l p l u s s e l f -
c o n s c io u s n e s s i s
a c h ild
i n n eed o f r e m e d ia l tre a tm e n t*
M o n roe a n d B a c k u s f o u n d i n t h e i r
s tu d y th e f o llo w in g to
be tr u e ,
e n c o u n te re d a t th e h ig h
"T h e c h i e f d i f f i c u l t i e s
s c h o o l l e v e l w e re th e
s e lf - c o n s c io u s n e s s an d e m b a rrassm en t
2 1 G a t e s * o£* c l t * . p p . 3 9 7 - 8 .
94
o f o ld e r s tu d e n ts o v e r t h e i r p o o r r e a d in g .*
Op
T e a c h e rs s h o u ld o b t a i n a m ea su re o f th e p r e c i s i o n
o f m o to r c o n t r o l n e c e s s a r y i n r e a d i n g a n d c o m p a re t h e
r e a d in g - d e f e c t c a s e s w ith th e good r e a d e r s
iv e c o r r e c tio n c an ta k e p la e e .
th e
T a b l e X V I I I , p a g e 8 5 , sh o w s
im p o rta n c e o f t h i s d i s a b i l i t y
c id e n c e o f s c h o o ls r e p o r t i n g
so t h a t e f f e c t ­
as th e re
i s a h ig h i n ­
la c k o f c o o r d in a tio n a s a
cau se o f re a d in g -d e fe c t c a se s.
E m o tio n a l d i s o r d e r s *
The g r e a t
im p o rta n c e o f
e m o tio n a l f a c t o r s i n re a d in g d i s a b i l i t y
c ase s h as been in ­
c r e a s in g ly re c o g n iz e d
E v id e n c e o f t h i s
in re c e n t y e a rs.
c a n b e s e e n o n T a b l e X V I I I , p a g e 85*
a s a cau se o f re a d in g d i s a b i l i t y
E m o tio n a l d i s o r d e r s
w as c h e c k e d o n th e
q u e s tio n n a ir e b y th e m a jo r ity o f s c h o o ls r e p o r t in g .
p u p i l ’s b e h a v io r and a t t i t u d e
e m o tio n a l d i s o r d e r .
o fte n
T he c l a s s r o o m
ro o t o f th e d i f f i c u l t y
A
s u g g e s t som e t y p e o f
t e a c h e r may g e t a t t h e
by p r e p a r in g a c a s e s tu d y o f th e
p u p i l ' s hom e b a c k g r o u n d a n d s c h o o l r e c o r d .
T u lc h in 2^ h a s l i s t e d s e v e r a l d is o r d e r s t h a t may
c r e a t e o r a g g ra v a te re a d in g d i f f i c u l t i e s .
Some o f them
M arian Monroe and B e r tie B ackus, Remedial Read­
in g (New Yorks H oughton, M if f l in Company, 1 9 3 7 )> P • 1 3 7 •
S . H . T u l c h i n , " E m o t i o n a l F a c t o r s i n R e a d in g
D i s a b i l i t i e s i n S c h o o l C h ild r e n ," J o u r n a l o f E d u c a tio n a l
F s y o h o l o g y , 2 6 : 4 4 4 , J u n e , 1935*
95
a re g e n e r a l e m o tio n a l i n s t a b i l i t y ,
re s is ta n c e
b e h a v io r,
to a u t h o r i t y ,
f e e l i n g s o f in a d e q u a c y ,
in fa n tile
u n s u c c e s s fu l r i v a l r y w ith b r o th e r s o r s i s t e r s ,
and o v e r - s e n s it i v i t y
ta in
flig h ty a tte n tio n ,
to
c ritic is m .
Many a u t h o r i t i e s m a in ­
t h a t t h e o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n o f t h e c h i l d am ong s i b l i n g s
o f te n in flu e n c e s re a d in g .
D iffe re n t c h ild re n r e a c t to
d i f f e r e n t w ay s.
fe e lin g s o f f a ilu r e
in
Some a t t e m p t t o c o m p e n s a te f o r t h e i r
s h o rtc o m in g s by b o a s t i n g , b l u f f i n g ,
and e x a g g e ra tin g .
O th e r s go t h e o p p o s i t e e x tre m e an d d e v e lo p a m eek , t im id
a ttitu d e .
N e r v o u s h a b i t s a r e d e v e l o p e d a n d som e e v e n
c o m p la in o f p h y s i c a l i l l n e s s
c la s s fre q u e n tly .
i n o r d e r t o b e e x c u s e d fro m
T h e m e a n in g o f t h e i r b e h a v i o r c a n b e
u n d e r s t o o d b y t e a c h e r s who a r e w i l l i n g
to
lo o k f o r th e
r e a s o n s b e h in d t h e i r b e h a v io r b e f o r e ta k in g d i s c i p l i n a r y
m e a su re s.
K irk s t a t e s :
C h i l d r e n who h a v e c o n t i n u a l l y f a i l e d i n r e a d i n g
c a n b e s t becom e m o tiv a te d i f th e y a r e p r e s e n t e d
m a t e r i a l s w i t h w h ic h th e y c a n s u c c e e d .
S u ccess i s
p r o b a b ly th e m ost im p o r ta n t m o tiv a tin g f a c t o r f o r
su ch c h ild r e n . ^ '
U n d o u b te d ly t h e r e i s
sh o w e m o t i o n a l I n s t a b i l i t i e s
a g r e a t n u m b e r o f p u p i l s who
i n o n e w ay o r a n o t h e r .
It
i s d i f f i c u l t t o d e te r m i n e , h o w e v e r, w h e th e r t h e r e a d in g
24
C h ild re n
p. lS 7-
S a m u e l A . K i r k , T e a c h i n g R e a d in g t o S lo w - L e a r n i n g
( B o s t o n : H o u g h t o n , M i f f l i n C om pany, 1 0 0 ) ,
96
d e f e c t i s cau sed “by u n fa v o ra b le b e h a v io r o r p e r s o n a l i t y ,
o r v ic e v e r s a .
Monroe s t a t e s :
A c h i l d may be r e s i s t a n t to le a r n in g th ro u g h
n e g a tiv is m and u n fa v o ra b le e m o tio n a l a t t i t u d e s . In
such a c a s e re a d in g would und o u b ted ly s u f f e r alo n g
w ith o th e r s c h o l a s t i c ac h ie v em en ts. On th e o th e r hand,
and p ro b a b ly more f r e q u e n tly , a c h ild may d ev elo p th e
e m o tio n a l and p e r s o n a l i t y problem s a s a r e s u l t o f
f a i l u r e i n le a r n in g to re a d . The e m o tio n a l a t t i t u d e
may d ev e lo p th ro u g h th e c h i l d ’s f a i l u r e and th e n , i n
t u r n , may a g g ra v a te s t i l l f u r t h e r th e r e t a r d a t i o n in
r e a d in g .
Summary.
A r e c o g n itio n and d ia g n o s is o f re a d in g
d i f f i c u l t i e s i s e s s e n t i a l i f s u c c e s s f u l p r o p h y la c tic , r e ­
m ed ial and r e s t o r a t i v e work I n re a d in g program s I s to be
c a r r i e d o u t a d v a n ta g e o u sly and p r o f i t a b l y .
W ith c a r e f u l
and c o n s c ie n tio u s i n s t r u c t i o n many o f th e m en tal ca u ses
o f re a d in g d i f f i c u l t i e s can be c le a r e d u p.
P u p ils whose
re a d in g d i s a b i l i t i e s a r e a t t r i b u t e d to p h y s ic a l d e f e c ts
r e q u ir e s p e c i a l c l i n i c a l work.
M ental d e f e c ts r e s u l t in
i n a b i l i t y to re c o g n iz e w ords, la c k o f a b i l i t y to re a d in
th o u g h t u n i t s and poor com prehension o f th e s u b je c t- m a tte r .
F a u lty stu d y h a b i t s and a weak v o c a b u la ry a r e a l s o p ro b ­
lems f o r th e re m e d ia l re a d in g te a c h e r to c o r r e c t .
The
p u p ils who have low g e n e r a l i n t e l l i g e n c e r e q u ir e in d iv id u a l
a t t e n t i o n a s th e y m ust have s p e c ia l work and th e y must be
a d ju s te d a c c o rd in g to t h e i r in d iv id u a l n e e d s.
M o n ro e , qp>. c l t • , p .
105.
These p u p ils
97
n e ed e n co u rag e m en t to
p la c e
in th e w o rld .
m ake th e m f e e l t h e y h a v e a d e f i n i t e
T h e y n e e d g u i d a n c e s o t h a t t h e y may
a c q u ire s e lf -c o n f id e n c e .
T he p h y s i c a l d e f e c t s o f p u p i l s a r e m o re r e a d i l y
d is c e rn ib le
t h a n som e o f t h e m e n t a l d e f e c t s *
Among t h e
p h y s ic a l d e f e c ts e n c o u n te re d a r e d e f e c tiv e v i s i o n ,
" h a n d e d n e s s , " w o r d - b l i n d n e s s , w h ic h i s
an in ju ry
to
s o m e tim e s c a u s e d b y
th e b r a in , p o o r h e a rin g , d e fic ie n c y
in a u d i­
t o r y d i s c r i m i n a t i o n b e t w e e n w o rd s o u n d s , s p e e c h d e f e c t s ,
l a c k o f c o o r d i n a t i o n , a n d m any e m o t i o n a l d i s o r d e r s .
A th o ro u g h s tu d y o f th e p u p ils *
re a d in g d i f f i c u l t i e s
m u s t b e m ade s o t h a t t h e p u p i l s may b e s a v e d f r o m t h e
e f f e c t s o f m a la d ju s tm e n t and c h ro n ic d e f ic ie n c y .
n e s s i n re c o g n iz in g and c o rr e c tin g a d e fic ie n c y
P ro m p t­
is a g re a t
f a c t o r to b e c o n s id e re d by th e re m e d ia l re a d in g te a c h e r .
*
CHAPTER V
METHODS OF TEACHINC REMEDIAL READING
An e f f o r t was made in C hapter IV to a n a ly z e th e
n a tu re and c a u se s o f re a d in g d i f f i c u l t i e s .
I t was p o in te d
o u t t h a t among th e m e n ta l d e f e c ts to be ta k e n i n to con­
s i d e r a t i o n a r e i n a b i l i t y to re c o g n iz e w ords, low g e n e ra l
i n t e l l i g e n c e , weak v o c a b u la ry , la c k o f a b i l i t y to re a d i n
th o u g h t u n i t s , p o o r com prehension and f a u l t y stu d y h a b i t s .
P h y s ic a l d i s a b i l i t i e s were a ls o e x p la in e d .
They In c lu d e
v i s u a l d e f e c t s , p o o r h e a r in g , d e f ic ie n c y i n a u d ito r y p e r ­
c e p tio n , sp eech d e f e c t s , la c k o f c o o r d in a tio n , and em o tio n ­
a l d is o rd e rs .
The p u rp o se o f t h i s c h a p te r i s to g iv e a g e n e ra l
d e s c r i p t i o n o f th e m ethods o f te a c h in g re m e d ia l re a d in g .
The c h i l d r e n o f to d a y have a g r e a t e r o p p o rtu n ity f o r su c c e s s
in l i f e th a n many i n form er g e n e r a tio n s h ad .
Newer and
b e t t e r m ethods o f te a c h in g re a d in g a r e em ployed, and r e ­
s e a rc h i s c o n tin u o u s ly d e v e lo p in g new f a c t s w hich a r e con­
t r i b u t i n g to a r i c h e r l i f e .
In f a c t , th e te a c h in g o f r e a d ­
in g i s th e most s e r i o u s problem i n e d u c a tio n to d a y .
B ecause i t i s re c o g n iz e d a s b ein g o f prim e im p o rtan ce many
b e lie v e th e problem i s so lv e d .
D u r r e ll t e l l s us how
e rro n e o u s i s t h i s b e l i e f :
The p re v a le n c e o f s p e c ia l d i f f i c u l t i e s i n re a d in g
99
. . . I n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e p r o b l e m may n o t b e l i g h t l y
b ru sh e d a s id e E v en i n th e m o st h ig h ly m o tiv a te d
l e a r n i n g s u c h a s we f i n d i n t h e v a r i o u s s p o r t s , f a u l t y
h a b i t s a n d l a c k o f im p ro v e m e n t a p p e a r .
T h e re i s
a p p a r e n t l y n o p a n a c e a i n a n y f i e l d w h ic h w i l l a s s u r e
u n ifo rm g ro w th i n r e l a t i o n to c a p a c i t y .
W h ile som e
e d u c a t i o n a l e n t h u s i a s t s may f e e l ”a l l i s p e r f e c t* * i n
t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r t y p e o f a p p r o a c h , t h e m o re r e a l i s t i c
e d u c a t o r s r e c o g n i z e t h a t we a r e i n t h e b e g i n n i n g
s t a g e s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e lo p m e n t an d t h a t n e e d f o r ^
r e m e d i a l i n s t r u c t i o n w i l l b e w i t h u s f o r m any y e a r s .
Im p o rta n c e o f r e m e d ia l r e a d i n g .
T he f i r s t
s te p
in
th e r i g h t d i r e c t i o n h a s b e e n m ade, h o w e v er, w ith t h i s
w id e s p re a d a w a re n e s s o f th e f a c t t h a t r e a d in g h o ld s a n
i n c r e a s i n g l y p ro m in e n t p l a c e i n th e p ro g ram o f g e n e r a l
e d u c a tio n .
A d m in is tr a to r s and t e a c h e r s a l l o v e r th e c o u n tr y
a re c o o p e ra tin g
re a d and to
in a u n ite d e f f o r t to
te a c h e v e ry c h ild
c o m p re h en d w h a t h e d o e s r e a d .
to
T he d e v e l o p m e n t
o f re a d in g and s tu d y pow er on th e se c o n d a ry l e v e l c a n n o t
s a fe ly be l e f t
to h a p p e n s ta n c e .
If
it
s p e n d a fe w t h o u s a n d d o l l a r s y e a r l y t o
I s im p o rta n t to
te a c h p u p ils to h i t
t h e h o o p o n a gym f l o o r , how m uch m o re i m p o r t a n t i t m u s t b e
to
t e a c h th e m t o h i t
th e r e a d in g an d s tu d y b u l l 's e y e .
T he r e s u l t s o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e
show t h a t t h e
im p ro v e m e n t
1 D o n a ld B . D u r r e l l , Im p ro v e m e n t o f B a s i c R e a d in g •
A b i l i t i e s (New Y o r k :
W o rld Book C om pany, 1 9 4 0 ) , p p . 3 1 o ~
17*
^ P a u l W. M c C ra c k e n a n d W i l l i a m J . B a i r d , ”We T e a c h
H ig h S c h o o l R e a d i n g , ” E n g l i s h J o u r n a l (H . S* e d i t i o n ) ,
2 9 : 6 2 5 *6 , O c t o b e r , 1 9 ^ 0 .
100
g ain ed i n te a c h in g r e a d in g i s s u f f i c i e n t to w a rra n t th e
c o n tin u a tio n o f re m e d ia l re a d in g c l a s s e s i n th e schools*
See T ab le XIX.
Types o f p u p i l s i n re m e d ia l re a d in g c l a s s e s .
Many
ty p e s o f p u p ils w i l l be found i n th e re m e d ia l re a d in g
c l a s s , and th e w ise te a c h e r w i l l o b ta in in fo rm a tio n ab o u t
ea ch p u p il* s b ack g ro u n d , en jo y m en ts, d i s a b i l i t i e s , and
p h y s ic a l h a n d ic a p s .
L ife I n t e r e s t s and problem s o f c h i l d ­
r e n s p rin g from i n d i v id u a l d if f e r e n c e s i n e x p e r i e n t i a l
b ac k g ro u n d s, c a p a c i t i e s , and fundam ental d r i v e s .
H ence,
th e y le a d to many l e v e l s o f u n d e rsta n d in g and to d iv e rs e
re a d in g n e e d s.
These f a c t o r s a r e so im p o rta n t t h a t a
te a c h e r c a n n o t s u c c e s s f u ll y p la n any te a c h in g te c h n iq u e s
w ith o u t f u l l know ledge o f ea ch c h i l d 's h i s t o r y .
C o n fer­
e n c e s w ith th e e le m e n ta ry sc h o o l te a c h e r s I s o f in v a lu a b le
h e lp I n g a in in g much o f th e In fo rm a tio n .
T able XX, page
102, shows t h a t a g r e a t m a jo rity o f sc h o o ls f in d t h i s a
p r a c t i c a b l e id e a .
The d i s c r i m i n a t i n g te a c h e r i s v i t a l l y i n t e r e s t e d in
th e e d u c a tiv e r o l e and e m o tio n a l s ig n i f ic a n c e o f re a d in g
i n th e c h i l d 's l i f e .
I t i s f u l l y re c o g n iz e d t h a t th e m ost
Im p o rtan t f u n c tio n o f th e te a c h e r i s to g e t th e p u p ils to
want to r e a d .
To a c c o m p lish t h i s she must r e - e s t a b l i s h
t h e i r m o ra le .
E m otions have been found to p la y such a
101
TABLE XIX
VALUE OF REMEDIAL READING GLASSES
J u n io r
H igh
S ohools
Yes No
I s th e Improvement shown
s u f f i c i e n t to w a rra n t
th e c o n tin u a tio n o f
re m e d ia l r e a d in g c l a s s e s
i n your s c h o o l?
50
0
H igh
S chools
Yes -No
81
1
J u n io r
C o lle g e s
Yes No
10
l
102
TABLE XX
C00FERATI0H OF SCHOOLS
J u n io r
H ig h
S c h o o ls
Y es Ho
Do y o u t h i n k i t w o u ld h e
p r a c tic a b le f o r re m e d ia l r e a d ­
in g t e a c h e r s i n t h e h ig h
sc h o o l to c o n s u lt w ith te a c h ­
e r s o f th e e le m e n ta ry s c h o o ls
o f t h e sam e d i s t r i c t r e g a r d i n g
re a d in g r e ta r d a tio n o f p u p ils ?
23
1
H ig h
S c h o o ls
Y e s No
33
2
J u n io r
C o lle g e s
Y e s No
6
0
103
d e fin ite ly
la rg e p a r t
in in flu e n c in g
th e c h i l d 's a t t e n t i o n -
sp a n , c o n c e n tr a tio n , p e rs e v e ra n c e , and m o tiv a tio n t h a t
th e r e a d e r ’ s a t t i t u d e
fro m th e s t a r t i s o n e o f f a i l u r e
h o p e le s s n e s s — o f i r r i t a t i o n
and f r u s t r a t i o n
and i t
s p e ll fa ilu re
is
a lm o s t c e r t a i n t o
and
to w a rd r e a d i n g ,
to
l e a r n to rea d *
P a tte rs o n sa y s :
A m o tiv e m u s t h e p r o v id e d i f g e n u in e i n t e r e s t i s
to h e a ro u se d *
P u p i l s s h o u ld n o t h e a sk e d to f a c e
p r i n t e d s y m b o ls w i t h o u t a f e e l i n g t h a t r e a d i n g i s a
v a lu a b le a c tiv ity *
A ttitu d e h a s a g r e a t d e a l to do
w ith s u c c e s s .*
F a ilu re
to
le a rn to
r e a d m eans f a i l u r e
M o st p u p i l s a s s i g n e d
in te llig e n c e
t o r e m e d i a l r e a d i n g c l a s s e s h a v e a lo w
q u o t i e n t , a s sh o w n i n T a b l e X X I; b u t a s t h e i r
re a d in g a b i l i t y
h ig h e r.
im p ro v e s, t h e i r i n t e l l i g e n c e r a t i n g
T h u s, th e
s tro n g ly .
To e n s u r e p r o g r e s s
th e p u p i l 's a t t i t u d e
and e a g e rn e s s *
is
is
Im p o rta n c e i n l e a r n i n g t o r e a d w e l l
c a n n o t b e e m p h a s iz e d to o
re a d in g
in o th e r s u b je c ts *
in th e re m e d ia l r e a d in g c l a s s ,
m u st be ch an g ed t o one o f c o n fid e n c e
He m u s t b e m ade t o r e a l i z e
th e m ost im p o r ta n t t h i n g
in h is
th a t su ccess in
life *
S m a ll
c h i l d r e n c a n n o t a lw a y s b e e x p e c te d t o u n d e r s ta n d t h e m ean­
in g o r v a lu e o f w h at i s
r e q u i r e d o f them *
H ig h s c h o o l
s tu d e n ts , h o w e v e r, a r e o ld enough to u n d e rs ta n d th e s e
S a m u e l W h ite P a t t e r s o n , T e a c h i n g t h e C h i l d t o H ead
(New Y o r k : D o u b l e d a y , D o ra n a n d C om pany, 1 9 3 ° )» P* 1 2 .
104
TABLE XXI
AVERAGE INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENTS OF
REMEDIAL READING PU PILS
In te llig e n c e
q u o tie n t
J u n io r
H ig h
S c h o o ls
H igh.
S c h o o ls
J u n io r
C o lle g e s
M edium
15
10
3
Low
12
22
5
3
6
2
V e r y lo w
105
v a lu e s , and i t
is
g i v e th e m t h i s
u n d e rs ta n d in g b e fo re th e y a re
a n y new s u b j e c t .
t h e i r d u e t h a t som e e f f o r t b e m ade t o
A.
A p p e a r i n g i n T a b l e X X II i s
b u tio n o f re s p o n s e s to
o f p e rs o n a litie s
th e d i s t r i ­
th e q u e s tio n s on a t t i t u d e s and ty p e s
fo u n d i n r e m e d ia l r e a d in g c l a s s e s .
R e m e d ia l i n s t r u c t i o n .
d e s ig n e d to
la u n c h e d o n
R e m e d ia l i n s t r u c t i o n i s
c o rre c t d is a b ilitie s
and in a p p r o p r ia te h a b i t s .
M e th o d s o f t e a c h i n g r e m e d i a l r e a d i n g s h o u l d f o l l o w
t h e sam e
g e n e r a l p r i n c i p le s u sed i n th e te a c h in g o f o th e r s u b je c ts ,
b u t th e re
s h o u ld be o c c a s io n a l d e p a r tu r e s t o m eet p a r t i c u l a r
ty p e s o f n e e d s .
M o s t t e a c h e r s p l a n t h e i r ow n r e m e d i a l r e a d ­
in g p ro g ra m s a c c o r d in g t o
th e g ro u p and i n d iv i d u a l n e e d s .
E m p h a s is u p o n t h e e f f i c a c y o f s p e c i f i c
m e th o d s o f
i n s t r u c t i o n h a s b e e n g e n e r a l l y a b a n d o n e d a n d s e ld o m d o we
fin d d is c rim in a tin g
te a c h e rs s ta tin g ,
X m e th o d o r t h e Z m e t h o d . 11
*We a r e
u s in g th e
S in c e t h e p o o r r e a d e r p r e s e n t s
h i s u n iq u e c o m b in a tio n o f d i f f i c u l t i e s ,
i n s t r u c t o r m u s t now b e p r e p a r e d t o
t h e c o m p e te n t
u s e a v a r i e t y o f m e th o d s
— a n y m e th o d o r d e v i c e a p p r o p r i a t e f o r m e e t i n g a c h i l d * s
in d iv id u a l n e ed s.
^ E . F . N i d a y , lfIm p ro v e m e n t o f R e a d i n g A b i l i t y i n a n
O r i e n t a t i o n L a b o r a to r y ," (u n p u b lis h e d M a s te r ’ s t h e s i s ,
U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , L os A n g e l e s , 1 9 3 6 ) .
^ P a u l A . W i t t y a n d D a v id K o p e l, " E v a l u a t i n g R e a d i n g
a n d R e m e d ia l R e a d i n g ,
E n g l i s h J o u r n a l (H . S . e d i t i o n ) ,
2 6 : 4 5 0 , J u n e , 1937*
106
TABIE XXII
TYPES OF PU PILS IN REMEDIAL
READING- CLASSES
T ypes o f p u p ils
J u n io r
H ig h
S c h o o ls
X e i“ Uo
H ig h
S c h o o ls
te a
No
J u n io r
C o lle g e s
te a
No"'
1* A re t h e p u p i l s
g e n e r a lly p o p u la r w ith
th e o th e r p u p ils o f
th e s c h o o l?
23
4
24
9
6
1
2 . Do t h e p u p i l s l i k e
s c h o o l?
21
4
25
9
5
1
3
21
3
32
6
0
3* I s t h e r e a n y a p p a r e n t
r e s e n t m e n t sh o w n h y
th e p u p ils a s s ig n e d to
re m e d ia l r e a d in g
c la s s e s ?
1C7
T he r e t u r n s o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o r r o b o r a t e t h e
a b o v e I d e a o f W itty a n d K o p e l* s .
p o rtin g u se a t le a s t
o f re a d in g .
lis t,
A ll o f th e
s c h o o ls r e ­
tw o d i f f e r e n t m e th o d s i n t h e t e a c h i n g
I n d iv id u a l i n s t r u c t i o n ra n k e d h ig h in th e
a s r e m e d i a l w o rk s h o u l d b e c o n c e i v e d
s p e c ia l n eed s o f th e
in d iv id u a l.
i n te rm s o f
S ee T a b le X X III.
C om m ents o n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e v e a l e d , h o w e v e r , t h a t o n e
o f th e g r e a te s t d i f f i c u l t i e s
re a d in g
is
th e
in th e te a c h in g o f re m e d ia l
la c k o f tim e f o r i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t i o n .
S ile n t and o r a l re a d in g .
S i n c e t h e r e d o e s n o t se e m
t o b e a n y s p e c i a l p r o g r a m w h ic h h a s p r o v e d m o re e f f e c t i v e
th a n an y o t h e r ,
fin d
th e a l e r t re m e d ia l r e a d in g te a c h e r w i l l
s u c c e s s f r o m s t u d y i n g t h e n u m e ro u s h a n d b o o k s a n d
m a n u a ls w h ic h d e s c r i b e d e v i c e s a n d p r o c e s s e s f o r t h e t e a c h ­
in g o f r e a d in g .
T h e r e a r e a few t e c h n i q u e s w h i c h m o s t
te a c h e r s u s e , a c c o rd in g
to
th e q u e s tio n n a ir e re s p o n s e s .
B o th s i l e n t a n d o r a l r e a d i n g a r e t a u g h t i n t h e m a j o r i t y o f
s c h o o ls .
S e e T a b l e XXIV, p a g e 1 0 9 .
T he c o m m e n ts e x p l a i n e d
t h a t t h e e m p h a s is w as o n s i l e n t r e a d i n g .
s tr iv e s to
The te a c h e r
g u id e h e r p u p i ls i n s i l e n t r e a d in g
d is c rim in a tin g
ta s te
a firm e r g ra s p o f i t s
in
th e
t o a m o re
s e le c tio n o f re a d in g m a tte r,
m e a n in g , im p r o v e d s p e e d , a n d a m o re
e f f i c i e n t h a n d l i n g o f r e f e r e n c e w o r k s w h ic h w i l l l e a d t o
b e tte r
s tu d y h a b i t s .
108
TABLE X X I I I
METHODS USED IN TEACHING REMEDIAL READING
J u n io r
H ig h
S c h o o ls
H ig h
S c h o o ls
J u n io r
C o lle g e s
P a r t o f r e g u la r te x tb o o k
a s s ig n m e n t
9
22
3
L e c tu re s
0
2
4
15
31
9
9
10
3
19
31
6
1
0
0
M e th o d s
P r a c t i c e ty p e
P r o j e c t m e th o d
In d iv id u a l I n s tr u c tio n
D rills
109
TABLE XXIV
TYPE OF HEADING TAUGHT
Typo o f
re a d in g
J u n io r
H ig h
S c h o o ls
H ig h
S c h o o ls
J u n lo r
C o lle g e s
O ra l
0
0
0
S ile n t
8
11
7
18
31
3
Bo t l i
1X0
T h o u g h s i l e n t r e a d i n g may seem a t t i m e s t o h e t h e
d o m in a n t i n t e r e s t ,
o r a l r e a d in g sh o u ld n o t h e n e g le c te d .
O r a l r e a d i n g e x p o s e s f a u l t s w h ic h m ig h t n e v e r h a v e b e e n
d is c o v e re d o th e r w is e .
T oo, g r e a te r e a s e and flu e n c y w i l l
h e im p o rta n t g o a ls i n o r a l r e n d i t i o n , and i n t e l l i g e n t
e x p re s s io n b e fo re an I n te r e s te d
im p o rta n t.
a u d i e n c e may e q u a l l y h e
O 'B r i e n s t a t e s :
N o t t h a t o r a l r e a d i n g , w o rd p r o n u n c i a t i o n a n d
p h o n i c a n a l y s i s a r e t o b e n e g l e c t e d — f o r t h e p e n d u lu m
m u s t n o t s w in g t o t h e o p p o s i t e e x t r e m e — b u t t h a t som e
e f f o r t m u s t b e m ade t o t r a i n t h e p u p i l s i n t h a t k i n d
o f r e a d i n g w h i c h t h e e x i g e n c i e s o f m o d e rn l i f e r e q u i r e
th e m t o u s e d a i l y , t h e e f f e c t i v e s i l e n t u n l o c k i n g o f
t h e p r i n t e d k e y s t o t h o u g h t a n d m e a n in g . 6
C onduct o f c l a s s e s .
O th e r te c h n iq u e s i n
th e c o n d u ct
o f c l a s s e s a g r e e d u p o n b y t e a c h e r s m ay b e s e e n i n T a b l e XXV.
The g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f s c h o o l s r e p o r t e d
t h a t t h e r e w as a
m ix tu re o f g ro u p an d in d iv i d u a l i n s t r u c t i o n i n a r e m e d ia l
re a d in g c la s s .
T h e r e a r e n u m e ro u s w a y s t o
a c c o m p lis h t h i s
and th e te a c h e r , w ith a l i t t l e
e f f o r t on h e r p a rt,
m ake a s u c c e s s o f a c l a s s
th is .
lik e
W ith t h e
can
la c k o f tim e
i n s c h o o ls to d a y f o r c o m p le te i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t i o n , t h i s
m e th o d o f c o n d u c t i n g a c l a s s
S c h o o ls a l s o r e p o r t e d
6
Pedagogy
P* 3 7 .
is
p e rh a p s th e b e s t.
th a t th e p u p ils p la y an
J o h n A . O 'B r i e n , R e a d i n g :
I t s P s y c h o lo g y an d
(New Y o rk a n d L o n d o n :
T he C e n t u r y C om pany, 1 9 2 6 ) ,
1X1
TABLE XXV
CONDUCT OF REMEDIAL READING GLASSES
J u n io r
C onduct o f
c la s s e s
!•
I s th e r e a m ix tu re o f
g ro u p and in d iv id u a l
in s tru c tio n ?
S c h o o ls
T e a No
31
S c h o o ls
Y es No
80
J u n lo r
C o lle g e s
Y e s No
9
0
9
0
2 . A re p u p i l s g iv e n a n
o p p o rtu n ity to o f f e r
c r itic is m s and
s u g g e s tio n s ?
29
3* I s t h e r e g r o u p d i s ­
c u s s io n o f re a d in g
m a te r ia ls in th e
c la s s ?
29
81
9
0
28
79
9
0
4.
I s th e r e g ro u p d i s ­
c u s s io n o f th in g s o f
g e n e ra l In te re s t?
112
im p o rta n t p a r t i n th e re m e d ia l re a d in g p ro g ra m , f o r th e
re s p o n se s to
t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e show t h a t p u p i l s a r e g i v e n
an o p p o r tu n ity to o f f e r c r it ic is m s and s u g g e s tio n s ,
th e re
is
th a t
g ro u p d i s c u s s i o n o f r e a d in g m a t e r i a l s i n th e
c l a s s , and t h a t th e r e
i s g ro u p d i s e u s s l o n o f t h in g s o f
g e n e ra l in te r e s t.
M a t e r i a l s a n d d e v i c e s v a r y am ong t h e d i f f e r e n t
s c h o o ls .
U n t i l a fe w y e a r s a g o t h e r e w a s a n i n a d e q u a c y
o f te x tb o o k a n d r e f e r e n c e e q u ip m e n t, an d i n m o st s c h o o ls
th e
lib ra ry
e q u ip m e n t w as p a t h e t i c a l l y m e a g e r.
R e p o rts
s h o w , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e r e h a s b e e n a d e c i d e d im p ro v e m e n t
in th e
la s t
fe w y e a r s .
M o re a n d m o re t e x t b o o k s a n d
s u p p le m e n ta ry b o o k s f o r r e m e d ia l r e a d in g h a v e b e e n w r i t t e n .
R e m e d ia l e x e r c i s e s a r e f o u n d i n w o rk b o o k s a n d m a n u a ls b u t
a re n o t la b e le d a s to
s i x t h g r a d e w o rk ,
th e f a c t th a t th e y a r e f o u r th o r
T h is e l i m i n a t e s a n y u n d e s ir a b le a t t i ­
t u d e w h ic h m i g h t a r i s e
w e re g iv e n t o
re tu rn s
if
fo u rth o r s ix th g ra d e re a d e rs
se c o n d a ry sc h o o l p u p ils .
show t h a t t h e r e
fo u n d i n b o th l i b r a r y
is
The q u e s t i o n n a i r e
a s u f f i c i e n t num ber o f b o o k s
an d c la s s ro o m .
S e e T a b l e s XXVI a n d
X X V II, p a g e s 1 1 3 a n d 1 1 4 .
T h e re s h o u ld b e a ra n g e o f d i f f i c u l t y
and a f u l l ­
n e s s o f tr e a tm e n t i n th e te x tb o o k s and c o l l a t e r a l r e a d in g s
c o m m e n s u r a te w i t h t h e r a n g e i n r e a d i n g a b i l i t y
fo u n d i n
113
TABLE XXVI
BOCKS AVAILABLE FOR THOSE OF
LOW READING* ABILITY
Ju n io r
Q u a n tity o f
Few
S u ffic ie n t
Many
H ig h
S c h o o ls
H ig h
S c h o o ls
J u n io r
C o lle g e s
9
16
5
11
21
5
6
6
O
114
TABLE X X V II
WHERE BOOKS ARE AVAILABLE
L o c a tio n
J u n io r
H ig h
S c h o o ls
H ig h
S c h o o ls
J u n io r
G o lie g e s
In c la s s ro o m s
4
12
O
In sch o o l lib r a r y
2
5
T
20
26
3
B o th
1X5
th e re m e d ia l r e a d in g c la s s e s *
M any t e a c h e r s h a v e o n e o r
tw o t e x t b o o k s w h ic h a r e u s e d a s a b a s i s f o r t h e r e a d i n g
c o u r s e , b u t n u m e ro u s i n n o v a t i o n s a n d t e c h n i q u e s a r e u s e d
s id e by s id e w ith th e r e g u l a r te x ts *
T he g o o d r e a d e r
a b le
i s o n e who r e a d s r a p i d l y a n d i s
to u n d e rs ta n d and i n t e r p r e t w hat he r e a d s .
p ro v e m e n t o f s p e e d a n d c o m p re h e n s io n I n r e a d i n g
T he im ­
i s th e
g e n e r a l th e m e o f a l l r e m e d i a l r e a d i n g t e x t b o o k s i n u s e t o ­
day*
T he b o o k s c o n t a i n v a r i o u s e x e r c i s e s a n d d e v i c e s w i t h
w h ic h t h e
T h is i s
s tu d e n t p r a c tic e s
in o rd e r to
a t t a i n h i s g o a l*
p e r h a p s t h e b e s t t e c h n iq u e f o r im p ro v in g r e a d i n g
a b ilitie s
and h a b i t s .
M ost o f t h e I n e f f i c i e n t r e a d i n g
in o u r s c h o o ls i s d u e to
la c k o f p r a c tic e
in r e a d in g .^
D r i l l s a n d e x e r c i s e s t e a c h t h e p u p i l how t o
v o c a b u l a r y , how t o r e a d
in c re a s e h is
i n t h o u g h t u n i t s , how t o r e c o g n i z e
w o r d s , a n d m any o t h e r t e c h n i q u e s w h ic h c o n t r i b u t e t o
fa c to ry
s p e e d a n d c o m p re h e n s io n i n r e a d i n g .
T he m o s t w i d e l y u s e d t e x t b o o k s i n C a l i f o r n i a ,
in g to
s a tis ­
a c c o rd ­
t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s p o n s e s , a r e H o v io u s * b o o k s ,
F ly in g t h e P r i n t w ays an d F o llo w in g P r i n t e d T r a i l s , an d th e
R o b e r ts an d R and s e r i e s ,
L e t 1s R e a d *
T h e r e a r e m any m o re
e x c e l l e n t t e x t b o o k s w h i c h a r e o n t h e sam e o r d e r a s t h e
7 W i n i f r e d W ln n a r d , "H and Y o u r C l o t h e s o n a H l o k o r y
L im b ," E n g l i s h J o u r n a l (H . S . e d i t i o n ) , 2 9 :6 6 3 - 4 - , O c t o b e r ,
1940.
1X6
b o o k s m e n tio n e d ab o v e#
The te x tb o o k s m e n tio n e d I n th e
q u e s tio n n a ire re s p o n s e s a re l i s t e d
T h e re a r e
m a te ria ls in
te x tb o o k s .
i n T a b l e X X V III.
a g r e a t m any m o re s u p p l e m e n t a r y b o o k s a n d
th e re m e d ia l re a d in g f i e l d
th a n th e re a re
T h ese a r e u se d i n th e s c h o o ls to
s u p p le m e n t
th e m a te r ia l in th e te x tb o o k s and in f r e e re a d in g p e r io d s .
T h e re a r e w o rk b o o k s w h ic h c o n t a i n d r i l l s
m a g a z in e s , c h a r t s , a n d g r e a t s t o r i e s
and e x e r c is e s ,
s im p lifie d
lik e
L o r n a Do o n e . R i p V an W i n k l e , a n d T r e a s u r e I s l a n d .
tw o m e n t i o n e d s t o r i e s
is
a re
T he l a s t
f o u n d i n S i x G r e a t S t o r i e s . w h ic h
p r a i s e d b y W i t t y a n d K o p e ls
T h i s v o lu m e u t i l i z e s r e a l l y w o r t h - w h i l e l i t e r a t u r e
i n a p p ly in g a b a s ic p r i n c i p le o f s u c c e s s f u l re m e d ia l
re a d in g p ro c e d u re to th e n e ed s o f r e ta r d e d a d o le s c e n t
re a d e rs*
A n a t t e m p t i s m ade t o f u r n i s h b o y s a n d g i r l s
w ith l i t e r a t u r e t h a t i s in l i n e w ith t h e i r i n t e r e s t s
a s w e ll a s t h e i r a b i l i t y . °
T he a v e r a g e r e t a r d e d r e a d e r i s
a b l e t o go t h r o u g h t h e s e
b o o k s s m o o t h ly a n d w i t h p l e a s u r e , t h i n k i n g o f t h e s t o r y
r a t h e r t h a n o f t h e w o r d s ; h e i s a b l e t o g r a s p t h e m e a n in g
e a s ily .
S tra n g e a s i t
may s e e m , t h e d i c t i o n a r y a s a s u p p l e ­
m en t i n r e a d i n g c l a s s e s w as m e n tio n e d b y o n ly o n e s c h o o l .
T he u s e o f t h e d i c t i o n a r y
i s o f in e s tim a b le v a lu e i n a
c o u r s e w h e re g e n e r a l p r o g r e s s i s e x p e c te d fro m a v a r i e t y
8
W itty and K o p e l, o £ . c l t . . p .
256.
117
TABLE XXVIII
TEXTBOOKS USED IS TEACHING REMEDIAL READING
T e x tb o o k s
J u n io r
H ig h
S c h o o ls
H ig h
S c h o o ls
J u n io r
C o lle g e s
A d v e n tu re s i n S p o r t
0
1
0
A m e r ic a n E d u c a t i o n P r e s s
W o rk b o o k s
2
15
1
B e t t e r W ork H a b i t s
1
2
0
C h i ld r e n ’ s B o o k s h e lf
1
0
0
C o lle g e an d L if e
0
0
1
D e s e r t G o ld
0
1
0
D e se rt T re a su re
1
0
0
D e v e lo p m e n ta l R e a d e r
1
1
G
E n g l i s h a t W ork
0
1
0
E x p e rim e n ts i n R e a d in g
0
1
0
14
28
0
F o llo w in g P r i n t e d T r a i l s
3
34
0
F resh m an R e a d in g s
0
G
1
G ro w th i n R e a d i n g
3
3
0
H ig h w a y s a n d B yw ays
1
0
0
H obo T a l e s a n d T r a v e l
1
0
0
How t o R e a d R a p i d l y a n d W e ll
0
0
1
How t o
0
0
1
I m p r o v in g Y o u r R e a d i n g
2
4
0
I m p r o v in g Y o u r S p e e c h
1
0
0
F ly in g th e P rin tw a y s
S tu d y
1X8
TABLE X X V III ( c o n t i n u e d )
TEXTBOOKS USED IN TEACHING REMEDIAL READING
J u n io r
H ig h
S c h o o ls
H ig h
S c h o o ls
J u n io r
C o lle g e s
0
A
W
0
«
Xt
1
A
U
L e a r n in g t o H ead
a
0
0
L e t* s H ead
9
31
1
M a k in g S e n s e
0
1
0
New H o r i z o n s
0
1
0
P e rilo u s Jo u rn e y s
1
0
0
P r a c t i c e s i n H e a d in g a n d
T h in k in g
0
a
0
Q u est
0
i
0
R e a d a n d C o m p re h e n d
0
2
0
H e a d in g f o r S k i l l
0
3
0
H e a d in g f o r U n d e r s t a n d i n g
0
2
0
H e a d i n g i n H ig h G e a r
0
3
0
H e a d in g i s
1
3
0
H e a d in g t o L e a r n
3
5
0
H e a d in g w i t h C lu e s
0
1
G
H o a d s t o H e a d in g
0
1
0
H oads to T ra v e l
0
1
0
S e lf
0
1
0
2
2
0
T e x tb o o k s
Im p r o v e m e n t o f S t u d y H a b i t s
L e a r n i n g How t o
L ea rn
Fun
I m p ro v e m e n t i n H e a d in g
S ix G re a t S to r ie s
119
TABLE* X X V III ( c o n t i n u e d )
TEXTBOOKS USED IN TEACHING- REMEDIAL READING
J u n io r
H ig h
S c h o o ls
T e x tb o o k s
H ig h
S c h o o ls
J u n io r
C o lle g e s
T e s t L e s s o n s i n R e a d in g
3
o
o
W a s h in g to n t o
1
o
0
0
o
1
L in d b e rg h
W r i t i n g Good E n g l i s h
120
of p ra c tic e s •
m e re d i c t i o n a r y
Though l i t t l e
s tu d y a lo n e , a d ic tio n a r y
re a d ily a v a ila b le ,
be e n c o u ra g e d .
p r o g r e s s c a n b e e x p e c te d fro m
and th e h a b it o f i t s
s h o u ld a lw a y s b e
f r e q u e n t u s e s h o u ld
D o ra n g i v e s som e g o o d a d v i c e :
B u t a b o v e a l l a n d a t a l l t i m e s , m ake c o n s t a n t
re fe re n c e to th e d ic tio n a r y .
T he s t u d e n t s h o u l d n e v e r
a llo w th e d i c t i o n a r y to g e t b ey o n d h i s r e a c h a s h e
s i t s a t h i s s tu d y t a b l e .
H ave a good s t a n d o r t a b l e
e s p e c i a l l y f o r i t a n d a lw a y s k e e p i t o p e n a n d i n t h e
m o st a c c e s s i b l e p o s i t i o n .
Form t h e “D i c t i o n a r y h a b i t *1
e a r ly in l i f e ; in l a t e r l i f e one w i l l have su ch a
s t o r e h o u s e o f w o r d s o n e w i l l n o t n e e d i t s o m u c h .9
T a b l e XXIX l i s t s
th e s u p p le m e n ta ry m a t e r i a l s u s e d
by th e v a r io u s h ig h s c h o o ls i n t h e i r re m e d ia l r e a d in g
c la s s e s *
th e
T h is lo n g l i s t
sh o w s t h a t t e a c h e r s t o d a y r e a l i z e
s o u n d l o g i c o f H u e y 's s t a t e m e n t :
T he a b s u r d i t y o f c o n f i n i n g t h e c h i l d ' s r e a d i n g t o
t h e v e r y l i m i t e d t e x t s o f t h e g ram m ar s c h o o l c o u r s e
I s m o st e v id e n t i n th e s e v e n th and e i g h t h g r a d e s and
i n t h e lo w e r h i g h s c h o o l c l a s s e s .
T he s t u d i e s u p o n
t h i s e a r l y a d o l e s c e n t p e r i o d n o t o n l y show t h a t i t i s
u s u a l l y m a rk e d b y a m a n ia f o r r e a d i n g , b u t t h e y i n d i ­
c a te th e u n f i tn e s s o f t h i s a g e , in i n t e r e s t and
c a p a c i ty , f o r th e u s u a lly in te n s iv e a n a l y ti c s tu d y o f
a fe w s t a n d a r d s e l e c t i o n s . 1 0
F re e re a d in g p e rio d s .
T he i n c r e a s i n g a m o u n t o f
s u i t a b l e re m e d ia l r e a d in g m a te r ia ls i s
a g r e a t boon to th e
9
E . W. D o r a n , " S t u d y o f V o c a b u l a r i e s , " P e d a g o g i c a l
S e m in a ry . 1 4 :4 3 0 , D e c e m b e r, 1 9 0 7 .
1 0 Edm und B u r k e H u e y , T he P s y c h o lo g y a n d P e d a g o g y
o f R e a d i n g (New Y o r k :
T he M a o m illa n C o m p an y , 1 9 0 8 7 #
P.
fpr.
121
TABLE XXIX
SUPPLEMENTARY READING MATERIALS USED
IN REMEDIAL READING GLASSES
H e a d in g m a t e r i a l s
J u n io r
H ig h
S c h o o ls
A c tio n s S peak
A d v e n t u r e B ound
A m e r ic a n E d u c a t i o n P r e s s W o rk b o o k s
A n im a l S t o r i e s
A tta c k , T h e, an d O th e r S t o r i e s
B ehave Y o u r s e lf
B est S h o rt S to r ie s
B ig B e a r , T h e , a n d o t h e r S t o r i e s
B io g ra p h ie s
B u s in e s s o f L if e
G a l l o f t h e W ild
C a p ta in s C o u ra g eo u s
C h a rts
C h i l d r e n ’ s B o o k s h e l f , T he
C h r i s t i a n S c ie n c e M o n ito r
C o m ra d e s o f t h e D e s e r t
C ow boys o f A m e r ic a a n d
B u ffa lo B i l l
C u r r e n t E v e n ts
D e se rt T re a su re
D e v e lo p m e n ta l R e a d e r
D ic tio n a ry
D is n e y , W a lt, S t o r y Book
D re w , N a n c y , s t o r i e s
E asy E n g lis h E x e r c is e s
E v e r y W eek
F ly in g th e P rin tw a y s
F o llo w in g P r i n t e d T r a i l s
F o r t y F am ous S t o r i e s
G e t t i n g t h e M e a n in g
G o ld e n S t a t e S p e l l e r
G ro w th i n H e a d i n g
H a rd y B oys S e r i e s
H id d e n T r e a s u r e s i n L i t e r a t u r e
I m p r o v in g Y o u r R e a d i n g
I n L i t t l e A m e r ic a w i t h B y rd
I n t e l l i g e n t R e a d in g
K id n a p p e d
L e t 's R ead
H ig h
S c h o o ls
J u n io r
C o lle g e s
0
O
6
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
1
1
3
4
0
2
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
G
1
0
1
0
1
2
2
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
G
0
1
0
0
3
1
1
0
0
1
1
5
2
0
3
1
1
0
0
2
1
0
1
6
0
G
0
0
0
1
G
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
G
0
0
1
0
0
A
122
TABLE XXIX (c o n tin u e d )
SUPPLEMENTARY READING MATERIALS USED
IN REMEDIAL READING CLASSES
R e a d in g m a t e r i a l s
L i t t l e W ise O n e , T he
L iv in g T h ro u g h B io g ra p h y
L o rn a D oone ( s i m p l i f i e d ;
M a g a z in e s
M a k e rs o f A m e r ic a
M an u al o f H e a d in g E x e r c i s e s
M a te ria l p re p a re d by i n s tr u c to r
M o d e rn O r e a t A m e r i c a n s
M o d e rn P i o n e e r s
My W e e k ly R e a d e r
New H o r i z o n s
N e w sp ap e rs
On t h e T r a i l w i t h L e w is a n d C l a r k
One H u n d re d N a r r a t i v e P o e m s
P l a y i n g t h e Came
P e rilo u s Jo u rn e y s
P e t e r an d N ancy s t o r i e s
P o s te rs
P r a c t i c e L e s s o n s i n R e a d in g
Q u est
R e a d a n d C o m p re h e n d
R e a d e r’ s D ig e s t
R e a d in g i s F un
R e a d in g T e s t s a n d E x e r c i s e s
R e a d in g t o L e a rn
R e w a rd s
R o b in s o n C ru so e
S c h o la s tic
S ch o o l L ib ra ry books
S c ie n c e D ig e s t
S e c r e t C a rg o
S h o rt s to r ie s
S i l a s H a rn e r
S ix -G re a t S to r ie s
S p o r t i n g G e s t u r e , T he
S ta n d a rd iz e d T e s t L e sso n s i n
R e a d in g
S ta n fo rd S p e lle r
S t o r i e s o f X in g
J u n io r
H ig h
S c h o o ls
H ig h
S c h o o ls
J u n lo r
C o lle g e s
1
1
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
8
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
3
10
1
0
4
1
1
2
2
2
1
1
2
1
1
0
4
2
4
13
2
1
1
2
0
8
9
1
1
0
1
2
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
2
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
G
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
123
TABLE XXIX ( c o n tin u e d )
SUPPLEMENTARY READING MATERIALS USED
IN REMEDIAL READING CLASSES
R e a d in g m a t e r i a l s
S to ry E ssa y s
S tu d y F e r io d E x e r c i s e s
T h i s New A ge
T h o r n d i k e 1s V o c a b u l a r y T e s t
To H e a d a n d To A c t
Tom S a w y e r
T oo Many B e a r s
T w e n ty - tw o S h o r t S t o r i e s o f
A m e r ic a
V e n tu re s
V o c a tio n a l books
When W a s h i n g t o n D a n c e d
W ord M a s t e r y
Y o u n g A m e r ic a
Y o u th T o d a y
J u n io r
H ig h
S o h o o ls
H ig h
S c h o o ls
J u n io r
C o lle g e s
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
4
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
3
1
3
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
124
f r e e re a d in g p e rio d s and I n d iv id u a liz e d in s tr u c tio n .
T h ere
a r e m any b o o k s w h i c h m e e t t h e c h i l d w h e re h e i s - - b o o k s
w hose c o n t e n t s a r e
lin k e d w ith h i s
I n te r e s ts and d e s i r e s ,
a r e w e l l - w r i t t e n b u t s e v e r a l y e a r s b e lo w h i s a g e i n v o c a b u ­
la ry .
In te re s tin g
s t o r i e s a r e m o re i m p o r t a n t a t f i r s t .
B o th b o y s a n d g i r l s a r e m uch m o re c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e c o n ­
t e n t th a n w ith th e s t y l e
o r fo rm o f th e b o o k s r e a d . - ^
Some m a g a z i n e s a p p e a l t o r e t a r d e d p u p i l s .
R e a d e r *s D i g e s t a r e
L ife and
t h e tw o m o s t p o p u l a r m a g a z i n e s , a c c o r d ­
in g to th e q u e s tio n n a ir e re s p o n se s*
L ife a t t r a c t s
th e
a t t e n t i o n o f m a t u r e p u p i l s who a r e m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d b e c a u s e
o f th e p i c t o r l a l l y
illu s tra te d
a p p e a ls b e c a u se i t
c o n ta in s
d e n s e d fo rm .
a r t i c l e s ; R e a d e r’s D ig e s t
in te re s tin g a r tic le s
in con­
O t h e r m a g a z i n e s w h ic h w e re m e n t i o n e d b y t h e
s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g m ay b e f o u n d i n T a b l e XXX.
N e w sp ap e rs,
on th e o th e r h a n d , a re n o t g e n e ra lly re a d by re ta rd e d
re a d e rs,
a s sh o w n b y T a b l e XXXI, p a g e 1 2 6 .
s e c tio n s a re
T he c o m ic
th e o n ly i n t e r e s t in th e n e w sp a p e rs.
W ith g o o d b o o k s a n d m a g a z i n e s a v a i l a b l e
th e r e ­
m e d i a l r e a d i n g t e a c h e r m ay s u c c e s s f u l l y e s t a b l i s h f r e e
re a d in g p e rio d s .
in g p e r io d s
F r e e r e a d i n g , w h ic h m e a n s s i l e n t r e a d ­
i n w h ic h e a c h p u p i l i s r e a d i n g
s o m e th in g t h a t
E v a n g e l i n e C . M a lc h o w , " R e a d i n g I n t e r e s t s o f
J u n i o r H ig h S c h o o l P u p i l s , " S c h o o l R e v ie w . 4 5 : 1 8 2 , M a rc h ,
1937-
125
TABU! XXX
MAGAZINES READ BY REMEDIAL READING PU PIL S
Name o f m a g a z i n e
A m e r ic a n Boy
A m e r ic a n G i r l
B o y s’ L ife
C o llie rs
E v e r y W eek
F i e l d an d S tre a m
F u n n ie a ( n e w s p a p e r)
F u n n ie s (h o o k s )
H a rp e r’s B azaar
J u n i o r R e v ie w
L ife
L ook
N a tio n a l G e o g ra p h ic
P o p u la r A v ia tio n
P o p u l a r M e c h a n ic s
P o p u la r S c ie n c e
R e a d e r’ s D ig e s t
S c h o la s tic
T ru e C o n f e s s io n s
T ru e S to r y
W e e k ly R e a d e r
**Wes t e r n s ”
Y ou n g A m e r ic a
Y o u th
Y o u th T o d a y
No m a g a z in e
J u n io r
H ig h
S c h o o ls
2
2
0
0
0
1
0
2
0
0
5
0
3
0
6
2
2
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
6
H ig h
S c h o o ls
3
1
1
1
1
0
2
3
2
1
16
0
0
1
4
0
13
3
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
19
J u n lo r
C o lle g e s
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
G
0
1
1
0
G
0
0
3
0
0
G
0
0
0
0
0
2
NOTE:
T h i s t a b l e s h o u l d h e r e a d a s f o l l o w s : tw o
j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e A m e r ic a n Boy m a g a z i n e
r e c e i v e d t h e m o st a t t e n t i o n fro m t h e p u p i l s ; t h r e e h i g h
s c h o o l s r e p o r t e d t h e A m e r ic a n Boy m a g a z in e r e c e i v e d t h e
m o st a t t e n t i o n fro m t h e p u p ils *
126
TABLE XXXI
HEADERS OF NEWSPAPERS
J u n io r
H ig h
S c h o o ls
Y e s No
A re t h e p u p i l s r e a d e r s o f
n e w s p a p e r s a t hom e a n d a t
s c h o o l?
9
17
H ig h
S c h o o ls
Y e s No
10
22
J u n io r
C o lle g e s
Y e s No
5
3
127
la© h a s s e l e c t e d
fo r h im s e lf,
i s a n o u t s t a n d i n g m e th o d o f
in d iv id u a liz in g
in s tru c tio n .
T hese r e a d in g p e r io d s a r e
3 u s t a s i m p o r t a n t a s t h e p e r i o d s d u r i n g w h ic h p u p i l s
th e m e c h a n ic s o f r e a d i n g .
le a rn
R in e h a rd t s t a t e s :
A l t h o u g h we d e v o t e a g r e a t d e a l o f t i m e a n d e f f o r t
to th e te a c h in g o f r e a d in g , th e e f f e c tiv e n e s s o f our
i n s t r u c t i o n i s open to q u e s tio n .
A re we t e a c h i n g
c h i l d r e n m e r e l y t o d e c i p h e r w o rd s o r a r e we a l s o
i n s p i r i n g th e m w i t h a n i n s a t i a b l e d e s i r e t o r e a d ?
M a s te ry o f t h e m e c h a n ic s o f r e a d i n g i s f u n d a m e n ta l
a n d m u st n o t b e n e g l e c t e d , b u t i t i s o n ly a m eans t o
a n end an d n o t a n end i n i t s e l f .
I f c h ild re n f a l l
to a c q u ir e a n i n t e r e s t in re a d in g o u r e f f o r t s a re
l a r g e l y i n v a i n . 12
If
th e
te a c h e r
f i r s t r e a d a lo u d
s to rie s
e s t a b l i s h e s a m o tiv e
s e lv e s .
v is ta s
re a d e r,
sh e s h o u ld
th a t h av e a g e n e r a l a p p e a l.
f o r th e c h ild r e n to re a d
W hen t h e y r e a l i z e
T h is
f o r th e m ­
t h a t b o o k s o p en up f a s c i n a t i n g
a n d e x p e r i e n c e s , w h ic h t h e y c a n n o t know u n l e s s t h e y
le a r n to re a d ;
a b ilitie s
c h ild re n
ly ,
is an in te r e s tin g
th e y w i l l be e a g e r to
and h a b i t s .
A fte r th is
im p r o v e t h e i r r e a d i n g
i n te r e s t h a s b een a ro u se d ,
s h o u l d b e g i v e n t i m e i n w h ic h t o r e a d
b u t w ith g u id a n c e .
in d e p e n d e n t­
T he f r e q u e n c y o f d i r e c t e d r e a d i n g
d ay s w i l l depend upon th e
ty p e o f p u p i ls
th e k in d and num ber o f b o o k s a v a i l a b l e .
in th e c la s s and
No s e t r u l e s c a n
b e m ade f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l r e a d i n g .
TO
Emma R i n e h a r d t , " R e a d in g f o r A p p r e c i a t i o n , 11
J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n . 2 2 : 5 6 , F e b r u a r y , 1939*
128
I n a n y r e a d i n g p r o g r a m d i f f e r e n t m e th o d s m ay b e
u sed a s th e o c c a s io n s a r i s e .
te a c h e r to
fo llo w
is
The b e s t p ro g ra m f o r a n y
o n e w h ic h i s
a d a p te d t o h e r p u p i l s ,
m akes e f f i c i e n t u s e o f h e r m a t e r i a l s , an d I s
a b ilitie s
s u ite d
to h e r
a s a te a c h e r.
S u m m ary .
In th e
te a c h in g o f r e m e d ia l r e a d in g
it
is
n e c e s s a r y t o u s e a v a r i e t y o f m e th o d s t o m e e t I n d i v i d u a l
n eed s.
S u f f i c i e n t tim e s h o u ld b e a l l o t t e d
in s tru c tio n .
is
to
fo r in d iv id u a l
T he m o s t i m p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n o f t h e t e a c h e r
g e t th e c h ild
to w ant to re a d ;
a fte r
a ro u s e d c o n s ta n t g u id a n c e i s n e e d e d .
In te re s t is
E m p h a s is m u s t b e
p la c e d o n c o m p re h e n s io n i n o r a l a s w e l l a s s i l e n t r e a d i n g
m e th o d s .
E m o tio n s h a v e b e e n fo u n d t o
p la y su ch a la r g e
p a r t in In flu e n c in g a c h ild * s a tte n tio n - s p a n ,
tio n ,
to
p e rs e v e ra n c e , and m o tiv a tio n ,
e m p h a s iz e t h a t
h a b its
th a t i t
is
c o n c e n tra ­
n e c e ssa ry
im p r o v e m e n t i n r e a d i n g a b i l i t i e s
and
s h o u ld becom e o n e o f t h e m o st im p o r ta n t t h i n g s
a p u p i l 's
in
life .
Some o f t h e m o re p r o g r e s s i v e m e th o d s a r e p a r t o f
th e r e g u la r te x tb o o k a s s ig n m e n t,
p r o j e c t m e th o d , d r i l l s ,
le c tu r e s , p ra c tic e
and in d iv id u a l i n s tr u c ti o n .
F re q u e n t u se o f th e d ic tio n a r y
is v ita lly
p l e n t i f u l s u p p ly o f te x tb o o k s ,
lib ra ry
m e n ta l m a t e r i a l i s
c la s s e s .
ty p e ,
im p o rta n t.
A
books and s u p p le ­
r e q u ir e d f o r s u c c e ss In a l l re a d in g
CHAPTER VI
SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS
I.
T he p u r p o s e o f t h i s
SUMMARY
s t u d y w as t o d i s c o v e r how t h e
s e c o n d a ry s c h o o ls o f C a l i f o r n i a w e re o r g a n i z in g an d c o n ­
d u c t i n g t h e i r w o rk i n o r d e r t o
and h a b it s o f t h e i r
im p o rta n c e o f t h e
p u p ils .
p ro b le m .
im p r o v e t h e r e a d i n g a b i l i t i e s
T h e re w as no q u e s t i o n a b o u t th e
It
i s a w e l l know n f a c t t h a t
in f o r m a tio n r e g a r d in g m ost th in g s
th ro u g h r e a d in g
a b o u t th e m .
sch o o l o r in l i f e
in c re a s e s h is
i n th e w o rld I s g a in e d
No o n e c a n b e s u c c e s s f u l i n
w ith o u t re a d in g a b i l i t y .
sp eed
U n le s s a p e r s o n
i n r e a d in g and h i s pow er o f e n jo y in g
and e v a lu a tin g w hat h e r e a d s , he c a n n o t f u l l y
th e
a p p re c ia te
s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w ith o th e r s , n o r can he g e t th e
m o st o u t o f l i f e .
D a ta f o r t h e
s tu d y .
T he d a t a w e r e c o l l e c t e d b y t h e
q u e s t i o n n a i r e m e th o d , b y i n t e r v i e w s w i t h t e a c h e r s an d
s c h o o l n u r s e s a n d c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f c o m m e n ts m ade b y p u p i l s
who w e r e s t r i v i n g
to
o v e rc o m e r e a d i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s .
th e c o u rse o f th e
s tu d y r e l a te d
i n v e s t i g a t i o n s w e re r e ­
v i e w e d , a n d a s u r v e y w a s m ade o f a l l a v a i l a b l e
on th e s u b je c t o f re a d in g .
D u rin g
lite ra tu re
H is to ry o f r e a d in g *
A c h a p te r on th e h i s t o r y and
p r o g r e s s o f r e a d in g w as in c o r p o r a te d
e f f o r t to
tra c e
th e
in th is
s tu d y i n a n
im p o rta n c e o f r e a d in g a s a n a id t o
l e a r n i n g fro m t h e tim e o f t h e e a r l i e s t s c h o o l r e a d e r s to
th e p r e s e n t and to
p la c e
show , t h e d e v e l o p m e n t s w h i c h h a v e t a k e n
i n e d u c a ti o n a l th e o r y and p r a c t i c e .
r e a d i n g show s t h a t
in s tru c tio n
a n d t h a t e d u c a t o r s now r e a l i z e
i n r e a d i n g h a s im p ro v e d ,
th e im p o rta n c e o f d e v e lo p in g
s tr o n g m o tiv e s f o r p e rm a n e n t i n t e r e s t
se c o n d a ry
to
s c h o o ls .
c h a lle n g e
T he h i s t o r y o f
in re a d in g
Im p ro v e m e n t i n r e a d i n g
in a l l
s h o u ld c o n tin u e
th e b e s t e f f o r t s o f e d u c a to rs .
In th e c o u rse
o f th is
s tu d y th e w r i t e r becam e a w a re o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e
h is to ry
o f re a d in g
is
th e h i s t o r y o f e d u c a tio n i t s e l f .
O r g a n iz a tio n an d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f r e a d in g p ro g ram s
in
se c o n d a ry s c h o o ls .
th e fo llo w in g :
p u p ils
s tu d y d e s c r ib e s
v a r i o u s w a y s i n w h ic h r e m e d i a l r e a d i n g
t a u g h t , how p u p i l s a r e
c la s s e s ,
C h a p te r I I I o f t h i s
s e le c te d
f o r th e re m e d ia l re a d in g
tim e a l l o t m e n t , w hat k in d o f c r e d i t i s
In th e re m e d ia l re a d in g c l a s s e s ,
p ro m o tio n , te a c h e r i n t e r e s t
is
g iv e n th e
c rite r io n fo r
in th e r e m e d ia l r e a d in g p r o ­
g ram , th e num ber o f r e m e d ia l r e a d in g c l a s s e s
In th e s c h o o l,
a n d th e num ber o f p u p i l s t o a c l a s s .
T he t e a c h i n g o f r e a d i n g i s a s p e c i a l i z e d w o r k .
s u c c e s s o f th e r e m e d ia l r e a d in g p ro g ram i n a n y s c h o o l
The
131
d ep en d s on th e c o o p e r a tio n o f a d m in is tr a to r s and a l l th e
te a c h e rs
in g .
in th e
sc h o o l w ith th e te a c h e r s o f re m e d ia l r e a d ­
The s c h o o l l i b r a r i a n
can p la y a n im p o rta n t p a rt in
t h e r e a d i n g p r o g r a m b y g u i d i n g p u p i l s i n how t o r e a d a n d
w hat to re a d .
G u id a n c e
i n th e r e a d in g program i s a n
a ll-s c h o o l fu n c tio n .
H e a d in g d i f f i c u l t i e s .
in g d i f f i c u l t i e s
The n a t u r e a n d c a u s e s o f r e a d ­
a re d isc u sse d in d e ta il .
show n t h a t t h e c l o s e r e l a t i o n o f r e a d i n g t o
I t has been
th e e n tir e
s c h o o l p ro g ra m c o n t i n u e s from t h e e le m e n ta r y s c h o o l s th r o u g h
th e h ig h sc h o o ls and c o lle g e s ;
g iv e n to
th a t r e c o g n itio n h as been
th e im p o rta n c e o f e f f o r t s
c h i l d r e n m ake a d j u s t m e n t s ;
to h e lp th e n o n -re a d in g
t h a t r e a d in g sh o u ld be c o n s id e re d
a p r o c e s s o f g ro w th to w a rd d e s i r a b l e g o a ls .
been p o in te d o u t th a t
it
I t has a ls o
i s n e ce ssa ry fo r th e te a c h e rs o f
re m e d ia l re a d in g to do a g re a t d e a l o f p ro p h y la c tic , o r
p r e v e n t i v e , w o r k s o t h a t p u p i l s may b e s a v e d f r o m t h e e f f e c t s
o f m a la d ju stm e n t.
A r e c o g n i t i o n and d ia g n o s is o f m e n ta l and
p h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t i e s w h ic h c a u s e r e a d i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s
e ss e n tia l i f
p rog ram s i s
are
t h e r e m e d i a l an d r e s t o r a t i v e w ork i n r e a d i n g
to be c a r r i e d o u t a d v a n ta g e o u sly and p r o f i ta b ly .
R e a d in g s h o u ld b e c o n s i d e r e d a p r o c e s s o f g ro w th to w a rd
d e s ira b le g o a ls .
T e a c h in g m e th o d s.
T e a c h in g m eth o d s w h ic h w i l l b u i l d
132
up t h e m o r a l e o f t h e p u p i l s a n d i n s t i l l a n a t t i t u d e
c o n fid e n c e and e a g e rn e s s a re e s s e n t i a l f o r th e
of
su ccessfu l
te a c h in g o f re m e d ia l re a d in g i n seco n d ary s c h o o ls .
The
r e m e d i a l r e a d i n g p ro g ra m s h o u ld b e f l e x i b l e e n o u g h so t h a t
t h e m e n t a l l y d e f i c i e n t c h i l d m ay-have a g r e a t e r p r o s p e c t
o f h a p p in e s s and u s e f u ln e s s
i n th e w o rld , and th e c h i l d
of
a v e ra g e o r b e t t e r t h a n a v e ra g e r e a d i n g a b i l i t y w i l l im p ro v e
s o t h a t h e may r e a c h h i g h e r l e v e l s .
A p p ro p ria te m a t e r i a ls and d e v ic e s a re n e c e s s a ry
fo r
c l a s s i f y i n g p u p i ls f o r p la c e m e n t i n re m e d ia l r e a d in g c l a s s ­
e s and f o r th e co n d u ct o f th e c l a s s e s .
It
is e s s e n tia l to
u s e a v a r i e t y o f t e a c h i n g m e th o d s t o m eet i n d i v i d u a l n e e d s .
T he m o s t i m p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n o f t h e t e a c h e r i s t o g e t t h e
c h ild
to w ant to r e a d .
E m p h a sis m ust b e p la c e d o n co m p re ­
h e n sio n i n o r a l a s w e ll a s s i l e n t re a d in g .
m eth o d s o f t e a c h i n g r e m e d i a l r e a d i n g a r e s
r e g u la r te x tb o o k a s sig n m e n ts,
p r o j e c t m e th o d , d r i l l s ,
p a r t o f th e
p ra c tic e
ty p e ,
and I n d iv id u a l i n s t r u c t i o n .
quent use o f th e d ic tio n a r y
v ita lly
le c tu re s,
Some o f t h e
F re­
i n r e m e d i a l r e a d i n g w ork i s
im p o rta n t.
C om m ents o n t h e
q u e stio n n a ire .
t o w r i t e c o m m e n ts o n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e .
m en ts r e c e i v e d a r e
lis te d
in
T e a c h e rs w ere a s k e d
Some o f t h e com ­
th e a p p e n d ix o f t h i s
stu d y .
One c o m m en t w h i c h w a s o f s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t t o t h e w r i t e r
133
is as fo llo w s,
wYou h a v e a h u g e t a s k a h e a d a n d y o u r f i n d ­
in g s h o u ld b e o f g r e a t b e n e f i t t o s c h o o l p e o p le *
P le a se
a c c e p t o u r good w ish e s f o r a s u c c e s s f u l s t u d y . ”
The w r i t e r
s u c c e s s f u l stu d y
sin c e re ly
fe e ls
fo r h e rse lf*
th a t
th is has been a
She h a s g a in e d a g r e a t d e a l
o f i n f o r m a t i o n an d i n s p i r a t i o n w h ic h w i l l b e h e l p f u l i n
r e m e d i a l r e a d i n g w o r k i n h e r own c l a s s e s .
o f th e stu d y w ill be
”o f g r e a t h e l p t o
th e w r ite r w i l l c o n s id e r th e
II.
I f th e r e s u l t
sch o o l p e o p le ,”
ta s k w e ll and h a p p ily done.
RECOMMENDATIONS
R e c o m m e n d a tio n s r e s u l t i n g
fro m th e a n a l y s i s o f th e
r e s u l t s o f th e p re s e n t in v e s tig a tio n In c lu d e th e fo llo w ­
in g s
1.
a b ilitie s
a ll
S p e c i a l c l a s s e s f o r t h e im p ro v em en t o f r e a d i n g
and h a b i t s
sh o u ld be in e lu d e d
i n th e p rogram s o f
seco n d ary s c h o o ls .
2.
M e th o d o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f p u p i l s
i n any
s p e c ia l re a d in g c la s s
sh o u ld be su ch a s to p re v e n t o r
e lim in a te any d is lik e
fo r re a d in g .
3.
R e m e d ia l r e a d i n g c l a s s e s
sh o u ld be o rg a n iz e d
a p riv ile g e
4*
In seco n d ary sc h o o ls
so t h a t th e p u p ils w i l l c o n s id e r i t
t o b e a m em b er o f t h e c l a s s .
The r e m e d i a l r e a d i n g p ro g ra m s i n t h e
s c h o o l s s h o u l d b e m ade f l e x i b l e
seco n d ary
enough t h a t th e m e n ta lly
134
d e f i c i e n t c h i l d may h a v e a g r e a t e r p r o s p e c t o f h a p p i n e s s
and u s e f u ln e s s i n
b e tte r
th e w o rld , and th e c h ild o f a v e ra g e o r
th a n av erag e re a d in g a b i l i t y
h e may r e a c h h i g h e r
5.
w i l l im p ro v e so t h a t
le v e ls .
M o re t i m e s h o u l d b e a l l o t t e d
w e ll a s g ro up i n s t r u c t i o n
fo r in d iv id u a l as
in re m e d ia l re a d in g c la s s e s o f
seco n d ary sc h o o ls.
6.
R e m e d ia l r e a d in g p ro g ram s i n th e s e c o n d a ry
s c h o o ls sh o u ld b e a d ju s te d
to f i t
th e
in d iv id u a l c h i l d ’s
c a p a b i l i t i e s and p r o g r e s s ♦
7*
e v a lu a te
The s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s h o u ld
fro m tim e t o
tim e t h e w ork t h a t i s b e i n g d o n e i n
th e re m e d ia l re a d in g c la s s e s and p la n f u tu r e
fo r th e p u p ils ,
8.
Im p ro v em en ts
th e te a c h e r s , and th e sc h o o l.
T h e re s h o u ld b e a s m a ll num ber o f p u p i l s
in
e a c h re m e d ia l re a d in g c la s s o f th e seco n d ary s c h o o ls .
( T h e f o l l o w i n g c o m m e n t w a s m ade b y a t e a c h e r :
c la ss
in re m e d ia l re a d in g
*T he i d e a l
i s m ade u p o f o n e p u p i l a n d a
te a c h e r. ” )
9.
in g c la s s e s
M e th o d s o f c l a s s i f y i n g p u p i l s f o r r e m e d i a l r e a d ­
i n s e c o n d a r y s c h o o ls n eed t o be im p ro v e d .
10.
T each ers o f re m e d ia l re a d in g i n seco n d ary
s c h o o ls sh o u ld have c o n fe re n c e s w ith te a c h e r s o f th e
e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s o f t h e sa m e d i s t r i c t r e g a r d i n g r e t a r d a ­
tio n o f p u p ils .
The s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s c o u ld u t i l i z e
th e
135
re s u lts
o f th e fo u n d a tio n la id
i n th e e le m e n ta ry sc h o o l
fo r a c o n tin u a tio n p ro c e ss.
11.
of te s ts
T here s h o u ld he p e r io d ic and s y s te m a tic u se
i n s e c o n d a ry s c h o o ls f o r c l a s s i f y i n g and p ro m o tin g
m e m b e rs o f r e m e d i a l r e a d i n g c l a s s e s .
12.
M ore t e x t b o o k s ,
m en tary m a t e r i a l s
l i b r a r y b o o k s, and s u p p le ­
sh o u ld be p ro v id e d f o r use i n th e re m e d i­
a l re a d in g c la s s e s o f seco n d ary s c h o o ls.
13*
The t e a c h e r s o f r e m e d i a l r e a d i n g
seco n d ary sc h o o ls
sh o u ld be w e ll t r a i n e d
in th e
in th e te c h n iq u e s
o f te a c h in g re a d in g .
14.
fo r th e
tra in in g
secondary
fie ld
sh o u ld hav e c o u rs e s
o f s tu d e n ts to te a c h re m e d ia l re a d in g i n
sc h o o ls.
R e m e d ia l r e a d i n g
is a sp e c ia liz e d
o f w ork.
15*
ary
C o lle g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s
In th e re m e d ia l re a d in g c la s s e s o f th e seco n d ­
sc h o o ls th e p u p ils
s h o u l d b e a l l o w e d t h e sam e c r e d i t
to w a rd g r a d u a t i o n a s t h e y w o u ld r e c e i v e
in any o th e r c la s s .
P u p i l s o f t e n r e s e n t t h e i r p la c e m e n t i n a re m e d ia l r e a d in g
c l a s s b e c a u s e t h e y g e t no a c a d e m ic c r e d i t f o r t h e w ork t h e y
do.
I n o rd e r to g ra d u a te p u p ils need c r e d i t s .
re n a re p rim a rily
o b je c t to
16.
in te re s te d
in g ra d u a tin g
S in c e c h i l d ­
th ey n a tu r a ll y
a n o n -c re d it co u rse.
R e c o g n itio n and d ia g n o s is o f p h y s ic a l and
m e n ta l d i s a b i l i t i e s
w h ic h c a u se r e a d in g d i f f i c u l t i e s
are
13 6
im p o rta n t o b lig a tio n s o f a l l te a c h e rs in seco n d ary s c h o o ls .
17*
A ll o f th e te a c h e rs in ev ery secondary sc h o o l
s h o u l d sh o w a n I n t e r e s t i n t h e r e m e d i a l r e a d i n g c l a s s e s
and c o o p e ra te w ith th e te a c h e r s o f th e s e c l a s s e s .
a b ility
is
n ecessary
R e a d in g
fo r su ccess o f p u p ils in any s u b je c t.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
138
A.
BOOKS
B e t t s , E m m e tt A l b e r t , T he P r e v e n t i o n a n d C o r r e c t i o n o f
R e a d in g D i f f i c u l t i e s .
E v a n sto n , I l l i n o i s :
Row
P e t e r s o n a n d C o m p an y , 1 9 3 6 .
402 p p .
A su m m ary /an d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f r e s e a r c h d a t a o n r e a d ­
in g d i f f i c u l t i e s o f th e r e ta r d e d read er*
B ond, F . F r a s e r , G iv e Y o u r s e l f B a c k g ro u n d .
W h i t t l e s e y H o u s e , 1937*
2 lS pp.
New Y o r k :
D e a ls w ith th e a c q u i s i t i o n o f a b ack g ro u n d by r e a d in g
and l i s t e n i n g to a n a d v a n ta g e .
C o n ta in s a good
c h a p t e r o n r e a d i n g p u r p o s e s and m eth o d s.
B o n d , G-uy L . , T he A u d i t o r y a n d S p e e c h C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f
Poor R e a d e rs.
New Y o r k :
B ureau o f P u b l i c a t i o n s ,
T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y , 1935*
48 pp.
A stu d y o f th e a u d ito r y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s
a n o m a lie s o f p o o r r e a d e r s .
and sp e e c h
B u s w e l l , G-. T . , F u n d a m e n t a l R e a d i n g H a b i t s : A S t u d y o f
t h e i r D e v e lo p m e n t.
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T he U n i v e r s i t y o f
C h ic a g o , 1 9 2 2 .
150 p p .
An a n a l y s i s o f t h e e l e m e n t s o f g r o w t h i n r e a d i n g w i t h
an e x p la n a tio n o f th e v a rio u s s i t u a t i o n s .
C o le , L u e l l a , The Im p ro v em en t o f R e a d in g .
New Y o r k :
F a r r a r and R in e h a r t, I n c . , 1938.
338 p p .
A v e r y p r a c t i c a l book c o n ta in in g s u g g e s tio n s and p la n s
f o r d ia g n o s is and re m e d ia l tre a tm e n t o f r e ta r d e d
read ers.
Good f o r t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r .
D u r r e l l , D o n a ld D . , Im p ro v em en t o f B a s ic R e a d in g A b i l i t i e s .
Y o n k e r s - o n - H u d s o n , New Y o r k :
W o rld Book C o m p an y , 194u*
407 p p .
A p r a c t i c a l handbook c o n ta in in g p la n s , m a te r ia ls , and
m eth o d s f o r e f f i c i e n t r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n .
G a t e s , A. I . , Im p ro v em en t i n R e a d in g .
6^8 pp.
M a c m illa n Com pany, 1 9 2 ? .
New Y o r k :
T he
139
An e x h a u s t i v e t r e a t i s e o n d i r e c t i o n s f o r d i a g n o s i n g
and c o r r e c t i n g d e f e c t s i n re a d in g in th e f i r s t e ig h t
g rad es.
H a r r i s , A l b e r t J . , How t o I n c r e a s e R e a d i n g A b i l i t y .
New
Y orks
L o n g m a n s , G r e e n a n d C om pany , 1 9 4 0 .
403 pp.
A v a lu a b le t e x t t r e a t i n g s u b s t a n t i a l l y and s a t i s ­
f a c t o r i l y th e im p o r ta n t t o p i c o f d i a g n o s t i c and
r e m e d ia l m eth o d s o f r e a d i n g .
H o v io u s, C a r o l, S u g g e s tio n s f o r T e a c h e rs o f R e a d in g .
New Y o r k : D . C. H e a t h a n d C om pany , 1939*
111 p p .
A c o n c is e and in fo rm a tiv e b o o k le t w ith e x c e ll e n t
su g g e stio n s fo r te a c h in g re a d in g in g rad es V II to
X II.
H u e y , Edmund B u r k e , T h e P s y c h o l o g y a n d P e d a g o g y o f R e a d i n g .
New Y o r k s
T h e M a c m i l l a n C om pany, 1 9 6 6 .
4 6 9 PP«
A re v ie w o f th e h i s t o r y o f r e a d in g and w r itin g a s w e ll
a s a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e p s y c h o lo g y , m e th o d s a n d h y g ie n e
in re a d in g .
I n g l i s , A le x a n d e r, P r i n c i p l e s o f S eco n d ary E d u c a tio n .
B o sto n s
H o u g h t o n , M i f f l i n C o m p any , 1 9 lS *
741 pp.
A d e t a i l e d t r e a t i s e o n a l l ty p e s o f p ro b lem s i n
seco n d ary e d u c a tio n .
K i r k , S a m u el A . , T e a c h in g R e a d in g t o S lo w - L e a r n in g C h i l d r e n .
B o s t o n : H o u g h t o n , M i f f l i n C om pany, 1 9 4 0 .
2 2 5 PP*
A p r a c t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e many p r o b l e m s c o n c e r n i n g
th e te a c h in g o f r e a d in g to m e n ta lly r e t a r d e d c h ild r e n .
M o n r o e , M a r i a n , C h i l d r e n Who C a n n o t R e a d .
C h ic a g o :
U n i v e r s i t y o f C h ica g o P r e s s , 1932.
205 p p .
A t h o r o u g h s t u d y o f m any r e t a r d e d r e a d e r s w i t h a n
a n a l y s i s o f t h e i r d i s a b i l i t i e s and th e u se o f
d ia g n o s tic t e s t s in th e in s tr u c tio n o f th e s e c a s e s .
M on roe, M a r ia n , a n d B e r t i e B a c k u s, R e m e d ia l R e a d in g .
New Y o r k : H o u g h t o n , M i f f l i n C o m p an y , 1937*
1 7 1 PP*
D e s c r i p t i o n o f a n a l l - c i t y r e m e d ia l r e a d i n g p rogram i n
e le m e n ta ry , j u n i o r , and s e n io r h ig h s c h o o ls o f
W a s h in g to n , D .C .
140
O ’B r i e n , J o h n A . , R e a d i n g s I t s P s y c h o lo g y a n d P e d a g o g y *
New Y o r k s
T h e C e n t u r y C o m p an y , 1 9 2 6 .
306 pp.
A p r e s e n t a t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f th e s c i e n t i f i c
in v e s tig a tio n s in to th e p s y c h o lo g ic a l n a tu re o f th e
re a d in g p rocess*
O ’ S h e a , M. V #, e d i t o r ,
N eeds.
New Y o r k s
F o u n d a tio n , 1 9 2 5 .
The C h i l d ; H i s N a t u r e a n d H is
C o n t r i b u t i o n o f t h e C h i l d r e n 1s
5 1 3 pp*
A s u r v e y o f t h e k n o w le d g e c o n c e r n in g c h i l d n a t u r e an d
th e p ro m o tio n o f t h e w e ll- b e in g and e d u c a tio n o f young
p e o p le .
P a t t e r s o n , S a m u e l HSfhite, T e a c h i n g t h e C h i l d t o R e a d .
New Y o r k s
D o u b l e d a y , D o r a n a n d C o m p an y , I n c . , 1 9 3 0 .
524 p p .
A book w h ic h u n i t e s b o th th e o r y and p r a c t i c e
te a c h in g o f re a d in g .
in th e
P e n n e l l , M ary E . , a n d A l i c e M. C u s a c k , How t o T e a c h R e a d i n g .
B o sto n s
H o u g h t o n , M i f f l i n C o m p an y , 1 9 2 ? T 2 9 8 p p .
D e v e lo p s and s t a t e s t h e p s y c h o l o g ic a l p r i n c i p l e s i n ­
v o lv e d i n r e a d in g f o r th e u se o f th e c la ss ro o m t e a c h e r .
G rlves p r a c t i c a l s u g g e s t i o n s f o r I m p r o v i n g r e a d i n g
a b ilitie s *
S m ith , N i l a B a n to n , A H i s t o r i c a l A n a l y s i s o f A m e ric an R e a d ­
i n g I n s t r u c t i o n * New Y o r k s
S i l v e r , B u r d e tt and
C o m p an y , 1 9 3 4 .
3 0 9 PP*
An e x c e l l e n t r e v i e w o f t h e h i s t o r y o f r e a d i n g i n s t r u c ­
t i o n f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g s t h r o u g h 1 9 3 °*
T e r m a n , L e w i s M . , a n d J o h n C. A l m a c k , T he H y g i e n e o f t h e
School C h ild .
B o sto n s
H o u g h t o n , M i f f l i n C om pany,
1929*
5 0 5 PP*
A u s e f u l te x tb o o k f o r th o se te a c h in g e d u c a tio n a l
h y g ie n e .
W e is e n b u rg , T h e o d o r e , a n d K a t h e r i n e E . M c B rid e, A p h a s i a *
New Y o r k s
H um phrey M i l f o r d ; L ondons
O xford
U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1935*
634 p p.
An I n t e n s i v e s t u d y o f m o s t o f t h e a s p e c t s o f a p h a s i a
b a sed on a n e x a m in a tio n o f 234 p a t i e n t s .
l4 i
W h e a t, H a r r y G r o v e , The T e a c h in g o f R e a d in g *
G in n a n d C om pany, 1 9^ 3 !
346 p p .
New Y o r k s
P r e s e n ts th e u n d e r ly in g p r i n c i p l e s , a im s, and im p o rta n t
o u tc o m e s o f a c o u r s e o f s tu d y i n r e a d i n g f o r th e
e le m e n ta ry g ra d e s a s b ased on th e s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s
o f s c i e n t if i c in v e s tig a tio n s o f re a d in g .
W i t t y , P a u l , and D av id K o p e l, R e a d in g and t h e E d u c a tiv e
P ro cess.
New Y o r k s
G i n n a n d C o m p an y , 1 9 3 9 ^
374 p p .
P r e s e n ts th e r e s u l t s o f e x te n s iv e stu d y and e x p e r i­
m e n ta tio n in th e s u b je c t o f re m e d ia l re a d in g .
A lso
d e s c r i b e s a n d e v a l u a t e s t h e v a r i o u s common t y p e s o f
r e m e d ia l p ro g ram s*
B.
PERIODICAL ARTICLES
B a r r y , L i n d a , a n d M a r j o r i e P r a t t , rtA R e m e d i a l R e a d i n g
P ro g ra m i n a P u b l i c H ig h S c h o o l , ” S c h o o l R e v ie w .
4 5 : 1 7 - 2 7 , J a n u a r y , 1937*
A r e p o r t o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l w ork d o n e i n a r e m e d i a l
r e a d i n g p ro g ra m i n S horew ood J u n i o r - S e n i o r H ig h
S c h o o l.
B e l d i n g , A n s o n W ., f,B o o k e c t o m y , " T h e J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n .
1 2 2 : 4 5 - 6 , F e b r u a r y , 1939*
P o i n t s o u t t h e n e c e s s i t y o f i n c r e a s i n g t h e num ber o f
books f o r p u p ils to a id i n d e v e lo p in g t h e i r a b i l i t i e s
to re a d .
B y r n s , R u t h , a n d V. A. C. H e n m an , ’‘R e a d i n g I n t e r e s t s o f
H i g h S c h o o l S e n i o r s , ” E n g l i s h J o u r n a l (H . S . e d i t i o n ) ,
2 5 : 6 1 - 4 , J a n u a r y , 1936*
D a t a o n r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t s o f tw o t h o u s a n d h i g h s c h o o l
g r a d u a t e s sh o w in g t h e l a c k o f a t a s t e f o r f i n e
lite ra tu re .
C e n t e r , S t e l l a S . , ”The S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e R e a d in g
C l i n i c , ” E n g l i s h J o u r n a l (H . S . e d i t i o n ) , 2 7 2 3 8 0 - 8 8 ,
M ay, 1 9 3 8 .
T he a u t h o r ’ s c o n c e p t i o n o f a r e a d i n g c l i n i c w i t h
v a lu a b le s u g g e s tio n s f o r th e o r g a n iz a tio n and a d m in is ­
tra tio n of i t .
142
D o r a n , E . W ., " S t u d y o f V o c a b u l a r i e s , 11 P e d a g o g i c a l
S e m i n a r y . 1 4 : 4 0 1 - 3 8 , D e c e m b e r , I 9 G7 .
A stu d y o f th e e f f e c t on v o c a b u la ry o f su ch f a c to r s a s
s e x , n a t i o n a l i t y , and c lim a te .
G ra y , W illia m S . , "The N a tu r e an d E x te n t o f t h e R e a d in g
P ro b le m i n A m e ric a n E d u c a ti o n ," E d u c a tio n a l R e c o rd .
1 9 :8 7 -1 0 4 , J a n u a ry , 1 9 3 8 .
P o in ts out th e need f o r th e te a c h in g o f re a d in g in th e
sc h o o ls to d a y .
H o v i o u s , C a r o l , "W h at S h o u l d Be D one A b o u t R e a d i n g i n
S eco n d ary S c h o o ls ," C a li f o r n ia J o u r n a l o f S eco n d ary
E d u c a t i o n . 1 1 : 1 7 - 2 1 , J a n u a r y , 1936*
A b r i e f o u t l i n e o f t h e H o v io u s p l a n f o r t e a c h i n g r e a d ­
in g to h ig h s c h o o l stu d e n ts *
M a lc h o w , E v a n g e l i n e C . , " R e a d i n g I n t e r e s t s o f J u n i o r H i g h
S c h o o l P u p i l s , " S c h o o l R e v i e w . 4 5 : 1 7 5 - 8 5 , M a r c h , 1937*
A r e p o r t o f w hat ju n io r h ig h sc h o o l p u p ils re a d and
why.
A v a lu a b le a n a ly s is a s a b a s is fo r te a c h e r
re c o m m e n d a tio n s•
M c C r a c k e n , P a u l W ., a n d W i l l i a m J . B a i r d , "We T e a c h H i g h
S c h o o l R e a d i n g , " E n g l i s h J o u r n a l (H. S . e d i t i o n ) ,
2 9 :6 2 0 - 6 , O c to b e r, 1940.
R e p o rt o f a r e a d i n g p ro g ram i n a m o u n ta in s c h o o l.
M o n ro e, M a r ia n , " D i a g n o s t ic and R e m e d ia l P r o c e d u r e s i n
R e a d in g ," E d u c a tio n a l R e c o rd . 1 9 : 105- 1 3 , J a n u a r y , 1938.
A good a r t i c l e on th e d ia g n o s tic and re m e d ia l p h ase
o f te a c h in g re a d in g .
R i n e h a r d t , Emma, " R e a d i n g f o r A p p r e c i a t i o n , " J o u r n a l o f
E d u c a t i o n . 2 2 : 5 6 - 7 , F e b r u a r y , 1939*
P o i n t s o u t th e Im p o rta n c e o f l e a r n i n g
e n jo y m e n t and a p p r e c i a t i o n .
to read fo r
S t r a n g , R u t h , "The Im p ro v e m e n t o f t h e A v e ra g e a n d t h e
S u p e r i o r S t u d e n t , ” E n g l i s h J o u r n a l (H* S . e d i t i o n ) ,
2 9 : 4 5 7 - 6 4 , J u n e , 19%0~
143
A c o n s id e ra tio n o f th e s e v e ra l f a c to r s r e la te d to
re a d in g e f f i c i e n c y o f th e a v e ra g e and s u p e r io r s tu d e n t.
T u lc h in , S . H ., " E m o tio n a l F a c to r s i n H e ad in g D i s a b i l i t i e s
i n S ch o o l C h ild r e n ," J o u r n a l o f E d u c a tio n a l P sy c h o lo g y .
2 6 :4 4 3 -5 4 , J u n e , 1935.
A d i s c u s s i o n o f th e e m o tio n a l p ro b lem s o f c h i l d r e n i n
r e l a ti o n to re a d in g .
C o n ta in s v a lu a b le c a s e s t u d i e s .
W a sh b u rn ® , C a r l e t o n , " R i p e n e s s , 11 P r o g r e s s i v e E d u c a t i o n .
1 3 :1 2 5 -3 0 , F e b ru a ry , 1936.
S how s t h a t s c h o o l s e r r o n e o u s l y u s e t h e c a l e n d a r a g e
i n ju d g in g th e tim e to te a c h th e s k i l l s u b j e c t s .
W in n a rd , W i n i f r e d , "H ang Y our C l o t h e s o n a H i c k o r y L im b ,"
E n g l i s h J o u r n a l (H. 3 . e d i t i o n ) , 2 9 : 6 6 3 - 7 , O c t o b e r ,
1940.
A s m a ll e x p e rim e n t i n te a c h in g r e a d in g by a c la s s ro o m
t e a c h e r w i t h a m inim u m o f m a t e r i a l s .
W it t y , P a u l A ., an d D a v id K o p e l, " C a u s a t i o n an d D ia g n o s is
o f R e ad in g D i s a b i l i t y , " J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o lo g y . 2 :1 6 1 9 1 , M ay , 1 9 3 5 An e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e c a u s e s and a t e c h n i q u e f o r
d i a g n o s is o f r e a d i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s s e t f o r t h i n te rm s
o f th e v a r ie d n eed s o f t y p i c a l c la ss ro o m s.
_________, " E v a l u a t i n g R e a d i n g a n d R e m e d i a l R e a d i n g , "
E n g l i s h J o u r n a l (H. S . e d i t i o n ) , 2 6 : 4 4 9 - 5 8 , J u n e ,
1937*
A g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n o f r e m e d ia l r e a d i n g w i t h ways and
m eans o f e v a l u a t i n g a c o r r e c t i v e r e a d i n g p ro g ra m .
C.
PUBLICATIONS OF LEARNED ORGANIZATIONS
U h l, W i l l i s L . , "T he M a t e r i a l s o f R e a d i n g ," T h i r t y - s i x t h
Y earb o o k o f t h e N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r t h e S tu d y o f
E d u c a tio n . P a r t I .
B lo o m in g to n , I l l i n o i s :
P u b lic
S c h o o l P u b l i s h i n g C o m p an y , 1937*
Pp. 2 1 8 -2 0 .
E x p la in s th e need f o r m a s te rin g re a d in g
a c h ie v e s u c c e s s in seco n d ary s c h o o ls .
in o rd er to
144
W h i p p l e , Guy M o n t r o s e , e d i t o r , " R e p o r t o f t h e N a t i o n a l
C o m m itte e o n R e a d i n g , " T w e n ty - f o u r t h Y e a rb o o k o f t h e
N a tio n a l S o c i e t y f o r th e S tu d y o f E d u c a tio n . P a r t I .
B lo o m in g to n , I l l i n o i s :
P u b lic School P u b lish in g
C o m p an y , 1925*
3 3 5 PP*
A r e p o r t o f th e n a t i o n a l c o m m itte e ’ s s tu d y o f im p o rta n t
p ro b le m s i n r e a d i n g and re c o m m e n d a tio n s b a s e d o n e x ­
p e r i m e n t a l e v id e n c e an d o n e x p e r t o p in io n *
. "The T e a c h in g o f R e a d in g : A S e c o n d R e p o r t , "
T h i r t y - s i x t h Y earbook o f th e N a tio n a l S o c ie ty f o r th e
S t u d y o f E d u c a t i o n . P a r t I*
B lo o m in g to n , I l l i n o i s :
P u b l i c S c h o o l P u b l i s h i n g C o m p any, 1937*
315 pp.
A r e p o r t o f th e d e v e lo p m e n ts i n r e a d in g s in c e
p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e T w e n ty - f o u r t h Y e a r b o o k .
C o n ta in s
v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n on r e o r g a n i z i n g an d Im p ro v in g
i n s t r u c t i o n i n r e a d in g and s e t s f o r t h c o n s t r u c t iv e
rec o m m e n d a tio n s.
D*
MONOGRAPHS
D e a r b o r n , W. F . , L . C a r m i c h a e l , a n d E . E* L o r d , S p e c i a l
D i s a b i l i t i e s i n L e a r n in g t o R ead a n d W r i t e .
H arv ard
M o n o g r a p h s i n E d u c a t i o n , N o. 3 7 C a m b r i d g e : H a r v a r d
U n i v e r s i t y , 1925*
76 pp.
Two c a s e s t u d i e s o f w o rd b l i n d n e s s a n d m i r r o r w r i t i n g
a n d a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e e t i o l o g y o f c o n g e n i t a l w o rd
b lin d n e ss .
G o o d y k o o n tz , B e s s , " R e l a t i o n o f R e a d in g t o t h e S c h o o l
C u rric u lu m ," R e c e n t T ren d s i n R e a d in g .
P ro c e e d in g s o f
th e C o n fe re n c e on R e a d in g h e ld a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f
C h ic a g o , V o l. I .
S u p p le m e n ta ry E d u c a ti o n a l M o n o g rap h s,
N o. 4 9 .
C h ic a g o :
T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o , 1939*
Pp. 9 -1 5 .
A v a lu a b le a r t i c l e on th e n e c e s s ity o f c o n s id e rin g
re a d in g in th e c u rric u lu m p la n n in g .
G ra y , W illia m S . , an d G e r tr u d e W h ip p le , Im p ro v in g
I n s t r u c t i o n i n R e a d in g * S u p p le m e n tary E d u c a tio n a l
M on o g raph s.
C h ic a g o :
U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o , 1933*
226 p p .
145
An e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d y o f tw o g r o u p s o f e l e m e n t a r y
s c h o o ls to im p ro v e th e te a c h in g o f r e a d in g th ro u g h th e
s tu d y and th e a p p l i c a t i o n o f th e r e s u l t s o f s c i e n t i f i c
in v e s tig a tio n s r e l a t i n g to re a d in g .
. Sum m ary o f I n v e s t i g a t i o n s R e l a t i n g t o R e a d i n g .
S u p p l e m e n t a r y E d u c a t i o n a l M o n o g r a p h s , Ho. 7 8 .
C h ic a g o :
T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o , 1925*
283 p p .
A v a l u a b l e su m m ary a n d e v a l u a t i o n o f many i n v e s t i ­
g a tio n s in re a d in g .
H a r t u n g , M. L . , a n d H. C. T r i m b l e , “ T y p e s o f R e a d i n g G u i d ­
a n c e E s s e n t i a l i n M a t h e m a t i c s , 11. R e c e n t T r e n d s i n R e a d ­
i n g , S u p p l e m e n t a r y E d u c a t i o n a l M o n o g r a p h s , N o .~ ¥ 9 *
S h ic a g o :
The U n i v e r s i t y o f C h ic a g o , 1939i>P* 2 8 0 - 7 .
A p a p e r d e v o te d to r e a d in g d i f f i c u l t i e s
a n d how t o o v e r c o m e t h e m .
i n m a th e m a tic s
La B r a n t , L . L . , “ T he F a l l a c y o f M o d i f i e d C o u r s e s , 0
E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h B u l l e t i n , H o. 15*
C o lu m b ia , O h io :
T h e O h io S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , M ay, 1 9 3 6 .
Pp. 14 1 -3 .
An a p p e a l f o r s u i t a b l e c o u r s e s o f s t u d y f o r t h e d u l l t o
av erag e c h ild .
S m i t h , D o r a V . , “ I n s t r u c t i o n i n E n g l i s h , 1* N a t i o n a l S u r v e y
S eco n d ary E d u c a tio n .
M o n o g ra p h H o . 2 0 .
B u lle tin
T 9 3 2 , N o. l y .
W a sh in g to n , D .C .: U n ite d S t a t e s G o v ern ­
m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1933*
8 9 PP*
A su rv ey o f th e o u ts ta n d in g p r a c tic e s in th e te a c h in g
o f E n g lis h i n seco n d a ry sc h o o ls in th e U n ite d S t a te s .
In c lu d e s a b r i e f a n a ly s is o f re m e d ia l re a d in g p ro g ram s.
E-
UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS
B e n n e r , B e s s i e B . , “A S t u d y o f R e m e d i a l R e a d i n g M e th o d s i n
H ig h S c h o o l .M U n p u b lish e d M a ste r* s t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i ty
o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , L o s A n g e l e s , 1933*
229 p p .
A c o m p re h e n s iv e s tu d y o f d e v ic e s i n im p ro v in g r e a d i n g
h a b i t s o f p u p ils on th e secondary l e v e l.
146
G l a d d e n , A d e l a i d e L . , f,T he S t a t u s o f R e m e d i a l R e a d i n g i n
J u n i o r an d S e n io r H ig h S c h o o ls o f t h e U n ite d S t a t e s . ”
U n p u b lish e d M a s te r ’s t h e s i s , U n iv e r s ity o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a , L o s A n g e l e s , 1 931*
1 B6 p p .
A su rv e y o f th e f i e l d o f re m e d ia l re a d in g i n a l l
p h a s e s t o show t h e t r e n d a n d r e p o r t t h e s t a t u s *
its
N id a y , E . F . , "Im p ro v em en t o f R e a d in g A b i l i t y i n an
O r i e n t a t i o n L a b o r a to r y ." U n p u b lish e d M a s te r ’s t h e s i s ,
U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , L o s A n g e l e s , 1937*
149 p p .
An e x p e r i m e n t c o n d u c t e d a s a p a r t o f t h e o r i e n t a t i o n
la b o r a to r y in P asadena J u n io r C o lle g e .
T e s tin g and
f o r m u l a t i o n o f a p l a n t o im p ro v e r e a d i n g a b i l i t y o f
h ig h sc h o o l p u p ils .
R u t h e r f o r d , V e r e n a B . , f,A S t u d y o f R e m e d i a l R e a d i n g w i t h
S p e c i a l E m p h a sis on R e a d in g D i s a b i l i t i e s . "
U n p u b lish e d
M a s te r’ s t h e s i s , U n iv e r s ity o f S o u th e rn C a li f o r n ia ,
L o s A n g e l e s , 1 936 *
126 p p .
G iv e s i n f o r m a ti o n o n r e m e d ia l r e a d i n g w i t h s p e c i a l
e m p h a sis on v i s u a l d i s a b i l i t i e s and p r e s e n t s i n v e s t i ­
g a t i o n s I n r e m e d ia l r e a d i n g p ro b lem s* -
APPENDIX
148
M iss M a rg a re t H o e fn e r
R a n d s b u rg H ig h S c h o o l
R an d sb u rg , C a lif o r n ia
D ear C o-w orker:
As a t e a c h e r o f r e m e d i a l r e a d i n g t h e w r i t e r i s
In te re ste d
i n k n o w in g w h a t o t h e r t e a c h e r s a r e d o in g
to w a rd t h e Im p ro v em en t o f r e a d i n g a b i l i t i e s
and h a b i t s
i n seco n d ary sc h o o ls .
I am a s k i n g y o u f o r a b r i e f r e p o r t o f y o u r
e x p e rie n c e s in th e b e l i e f
v a lu e
th a t
i t w i l l be o f d e f i n i te
i n a s tu d y o f r e m e d ia l r e a d in g p ro b lem s and
m e th o d s f o r t h e i r
s o lu tio n .
K in d ly s e n d a n y s u g g e s t i o n s w h ic h you t h i n k w i l l
be h e lp fu l.
v e n ie n c e .
S ta m p e d e n v e l o p e i s e n c l o s e d
fo r your con­
Thank you f o r y o u r a s s i s t a n c e .
Y ours v e ry t r u l y ,
O c to b e r 2 1 ,
1940
149
THE IMPROVEMENT OF READING A B IL IT IE S AND
HABITS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
T h is l i s t i s p a r t o f a n e x te n s iv e stu d y o f th e c u r r e n t
tre n d s in re m e d ia l re a d in g i n seco n d ary sc h o o ls.
I sh a ll
a p p r e c i a t e i t v e r y m u ch i f y o u w i l l g i v e me a s a c c u r a t e a n d
d e f i n i te in fo rm a tio n as i s p o s s ib le .
P le a s e i n d i c a t e w h e th e r
you w is h a copy o f th e r e s u l t o f th e s tu d y .
Name o f S c h o o l
A d d ress o f S chool
A p p ro x im ate e n r o llm e n t o f y o u r sc h o o l,
I.
ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION.
A.
C h e c k t h e w ay i n w h i c h r e m e d i a l r e a d i n g i s u s u a l l y
ta u g h t in your sc h o o l.
U n d e r s c o r e t h e way w h i c h y o u
t h i n k i s m ost e f f e c t i v e i n any s c h o o l.
1.
I n c i d e n ta l ly w ith E n g lish
2.
I n c id e n ta lly w ith o th e r s u b je c ts
)
As
a s e p a ra te su b je c t
3*
4.
) In o r ie n ta tio n co u rses
) Not a t a l l
5.
6•
) O t h e r w a y s (nam e th e m )
B.
How m any r e m e d i a l r e a d i n g c l a s s e s a r e t h e r e i n y o u r
s choo1?
A p p r o x i m a t e l y how m any p u p i l s t o a c l a s s ? .
A re t h e r e s p e c i a l c l a s s e s f o r r e a d e r s o f s u p e r i o r
a b i l i t y ? _______________________________________
C.
C h e c k t h e w ay b y w h i c h p u p i l s a r e s e l e c t e d f o r
re m e d ia l re a d in g c la s s e s .
1.
( ) R e su lts o f te s ts
2.
( ) T e a c h e r^ su g g e stio n
3.
( ) A l l p u p i l s t a k e c o u r s e a t som e t i m e
4.
( ) C h o se n a t random
P.
C heck th e tim e a llo tm e n t i n r e m e d ia l r e a d in g c l a s s e s
1.
( ) R e g u l a r c l a s s f i v e d a y s a w eek
2.
( ) R e g u l a r c l a s s tw o o r t h r e e d a y s a w eek
3* ( ) O t h e r t i m e a l l o t m e n t s
E.
W hat k i n d o f c r e d i t i s g i v e n :
1.
( ) T hat f o r r e g u la r E n g lish c o u rse
2.
( ) E q u iv a le n t to o th e r s u b je c t c r e d i t
3*
( ) C r e d i t to w a rd g r a d u a t io n
150
4.
5-
II.
( ) No c r e d i t
( ) O th e r (w h a t? )
F.
C heck c r i t e r i o n f o r p ro m o tio n fro m r e m e d ia l r e a d in g
c la ss e s:
1.
( ) T im e ( s e m e s t e r , e t c . )
2.
( ) In d iv id u a l p u p il p ro g ress
3*
( ) O b je c tiv e t e s t s
4.
( ) O t h e r __________________________
Cr.
How m any f u l l t i m e r e m e d i a l r e a d i n g t e a c h e r s a r e
t h e r e i n y o u r s c h o o l ? ______________________________________
H.
How m any p a r t t i m e r e m e d i a l r e a d i n g t e a c h e r s a r e
th e r e in y o u r sc h o o l?
I.
Do y o u h a v e a r e a d i n g c o u n s e l o r i n y o u r s c h o o l ?
J .
Do t h e t e a c h e r s i n y o u r s c h o o l show a n i n t e r e s t i n
th e p ro g re s s o f th e p u p ils in th e re m e d ia l c la s s e s :
1.
( ) A ll o f th e te a c h e rs
2.
( ) T e a c h e r s o f n o n -a c a d e m ic s u b j e c t s
3( ) O n ly t h o s e t e a c h e r s c o n d u c t in g t h e r e m e d i a l
re a d in g c la s s e s
4.
( ) T ea ch e rs o f E n g lish
5*
( ) T e a c h e r s o f o t h e r a c a d e m ic s u b j e c t s
MATERIALS AND DEVICES.
A.
W hat t e x t b o o k s d o y o u u s e i n t e a c h i n g r e m e d i a l r e a d ­
i n g ? ______________________________
_ _ _
B.
P l e a s e l i s t s u p p le m e n ta ry r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s w h ic h
you have found h e lp f u l i n th e re m e d ia l re a d in g
c l a s s e s . _____________________________________________________
C.
Name t e s t s
1.
a n d e q u ip m e n t w h ic h you u s e i n :
C l a s s i f y i n g e n t e r i n g p u p i l s who n e e d s p e c i a l
tr a in in g in re a d in g .
151
III.
2.
C la s s ify in g p u p ils
th e c la s s *
in p ro p e r g ro u p s w ith in
3*
C la s s ify in g p u p ils
m en t.
f o r p ro m o tio n o r a d v a n c e ­
CAUSES OF READING D IF F IC U L T IE S .
I n t h e l i s t b e l o w p l e a s e c h e c k t h e m o re i m p o r t a n t
c a u s e s o f r e a d i n g d i s a b i l i t y am ong t h e p u p i l s i n y o u r
sc h o o l.
(
{
(
(
(
(
)
)
}
)
)
)
P h y s ic a l D e fe c ts
V isu a l d e fe c ts
Poor h e a rin g
D e fic ie n c y i n a u d ito ry p e rc e p tio n
Speech d e fe c ts
Lack o f c o o r d i n a t i o n
E m o tio n a l d is o r d e r s
M e n ta l D e f e c ts
( ) I n a b i l i t y t o r e c o g n i z e w o rd s
( ) Low g e n e r a l i n t e l l i g e n c e
(
) W eak v o c a b u l a r y
(
)Lack o f a b i l i t y to r e a d i n th o u g h t u n i t s
(
)P oor c o m p re h e n sio n
(
)F a u lty stu d y h a b it s
IV .
TEACHING METHODS.
A.
C heck t h e m e th o d you u s e i n t e a c h i n g r e m e d i a l
re a d in g .
1.
( 7 P a r t o f th e r e g u l a r te x tb o o k a ssig n m e n t
2. ( ) L e c tu re s
3 . ( ) P r a c t i c e ty p e
4 . ( ) P r o j e c t m eth o d
5.
( ) In d iv id u a l in s tru c tio n
6.
( ) O th e r m eth o d s ( d e s c r i b e )
B.
A r e b o o k s f o r t h o s e o f lo w r e a d i n g a b i l i t y
a b le in your sc h o o l:
1 . ( ) Few
2 . ( ) S u f f i c i e n t num ber
3 . ( ) Many
C.
W h ere
1. (
2. (
3* (
a re th e s e books fo u n d :
) In c la ss ro o m s
) In sch o o l lib r a r y
) B o th
a v a il­
152
D-
W h ic h t y p e o f r e a d i n g i s
1.
( ) O ral
2.
( ) S ile n t
3*
( ) B o th
S.
Conduct o f c la s s e s :
1.
I s t h e r e a m ix tu re o f gro u p and i n d i v i d u a l
i n s t r u c t i o n i n e a c h r e m e d i a l r e a d i n g c l a s s ? ____
2.
A re p u p i l s g i v e n a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o o f f e r
c r i t i c i s m s a n d s u g g e s t i o n s ? ____________ *
3*
I s th e r e g ro up d is c u s s io n o f r e a d in g m a t e r i a ls
I n t h e r e m e d i a l r e a d i n g c l a s s e s ? __________________
4.
I s th e r e g ro u p d is c u s s io n o f th in g s o f g e n e r a l
i n t e r e s t ?________________________________________________
5«
I n y o u r o p i n i o n I s t h e i m p r o v e m e n t sh o w n
s u f f i c i e n t to w a rra n t th e c o n tin u a tio n o f r e ­
m e d i a l r e a d i n g c l a s s e s i n y o u r s c h o o l ? __________
F.
T ypes o f p u p i l s i n re m e d ia l r e a d in g c l a s s e s :
1.
A re t h e p u p i l s i n t h e r e m e d i a l r e a d i n g c l a s s e s
g e n e r a lly p o p u la r w ith th e o th e r p u p ils o f th e
s c h o o l ?________________________________________
2.
A re t h e p u p i l s i n t h e r e m e d i a l r e a d i n g c l a s s e s
r e a d e r s o f n e w s p a p e r s a t home a n d a t s c h o o l ?
3.
4.
5*
6.
?•
V.
stre sse d :
Do t h e p u p i l s i n t h e r e m e d i a l r e a d i n g c l a s s e s
l i k e s c h o o l ? _____________ .
I s th e a v e r a g e I.Q . o f t h e p u p i l s i n t h e r e ­
m e d ia l re a d in g c la s s e s
( ) M edium
( ) Low
( ) V e r y lo w
I s t h e r e a n y a p p a r e n t r e s e n t m e n t sh o w n h y
p u p i l s a s s i g n e d t o r e m e d i a l r e a d i n g c l a s s e s ? ____
H a v e y o u f o u n d a n y ONE m a g a z i n e t h a t f r e q u e n t l y
g e t s t h e a t t e n t i o n o f m a t u r e p u p i l s who a r e
r e t a r d e d r e a d e r s ? ________________________ ______________
Name o f m a g a z i n e ______________________________________ _
F ro m y o u r e x p e r i e n c e d o y o u t h i n k i t w o u l d b e
p r a c t ic a b l e fo r re m e d ia l re a d in g te a c h e rs i n
th e h ig h sc h o o l to c o n s u lt w ith te a c h e r s o f th e
e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s o f t h e sam e d i s t r i c t r e g a r d ­
i n g r e a d i n g r e t a r d a t i o n o f p u p i l s ? _______________
EVALUATION.
A.
W h at d o y o u c o n s i d e r t h e g r e a t e s t d i f f i c u l t y
te a c h in g o f re m e d ia l re a d in g ?
in th e
153
1.
F ro m t h e
te a c h e r ’s sta n d p o in t.
2.
F ro m t h e
p u p il’s s ta n d p o in t.
B.
F ro m y o u r e x p e r i e n c e w o u ld y o u re c o m m e n d t h a t
re m e d ia l r e a d in g c o u rs e s be r e q u ire d i n a l l
s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s ? _________________________________________
0.
P l e a s e l i s t a n y t e c h n i q u e s w h ic h you h a v e fo u n d to
be s u c c e s s f u l i n your sc h o o l i n th e te a c h in g o f
re m e d ia l r e a d in g .
D.
A ny c o m m e n ts w h i c h y o u may w i s h t o m ak e w i l l b e
a p p re c ia te d :
154
COMMENTS ON THE QUESTIONNAIRE
Our w o rk I n r e m e d i a l r e a d i n g i s y e t i n
sta g e s--a
to
its
e a rly
f a c t w h i c h a c c o u n t s f o r so m e o f t h e a n s w e r s g i v e n
th e q u e stio n s *
M ost o f o u r c l a s s e s
m u ch
t o o l a r g e a n d we
In re m e d ia l re a d in g have been
a r e n o t a llo w e d enough f r e e tim e
fo r
p re p a ra tio n .
T h is I s
been o ffere d
th e f i r s t
y e a r t h a t re m e d ia l re a d in g h a s
in our sc h o o l.
show a m u ch g r e a t e r
We s t a r t e d
We f e e l t h a t n e x t y e a r w i l l
im p ro v e m e n t.
o u r w ork l a s t f a l l
so a r e
to o i n e x p e r i ­
e n c e d i n t h e w o r k t o m ake c o n s t r u c t i v e c o m m e n t s .
a p p re c ia te re c e iv in g your r e s u lts o f th is
may b e h e l p
1*11
su rv ey .
T h ere
fo r us.
A ny r e m e d i a l r e a d i n g w o rk we d o h a s t o b e d o n e i n
our r e g u la r E n g lish c la s s e s .
V ery e l e m e n t a r y w o rk i s b e i n g g i v e n t o g i v e t h e
p u p ils
new ,
tra in in g
we c a n ’ t
in
sa tis fie d
b u t we b e l i e v e
As t h i s
is
s a y how i t w i l l w o r k o u t .
I w o u ld l i k e
We a r e n ’ t
t h e m e c h a n ic s o f r e a d i n g .
a
copy o f th e r e s u l t o f t h i s
stu d y .
t h a t w e ’v e i r o n e d o u t t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s
t h a t re m e d ia l E n g lis h h a s h e lp e d th e
E n g lis h c u rric u lu m
and th e s c h o o l i n g e n e r a l.
T he w r i t e r b e l i e v e s t h e
a r e h a n d ic a p p e d by th e
stu d e n ts
in re a d in g c la s s e s
f a c t t h a t t h e y go fro m a c l a s s i n
155
w h ic h th e y h a v e r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l c h o s e n f o r t h e i r
a b ility
to c la s s e s
le v e l of
I n w h ic h t h e t e x t s dem and n o r m a l o r
su p e rio r a b il i ty .
We c a l l o u r c o u r s e s wD e v e l o p m e n t a l R e a d i n g ” i n s t e a d
o f re m e d ia l r e a d in g ,
a n d we b e l i e v e
p r o b a b ly becom e a b e t t e r r e a d e r .
d e fin itio n of re a d in g ,
th a t any re a d e r can
We a l s o
a d ju s tm e n t to a n e n t i r e
I t h i n k o n e h a s m ade a d e f i n i t e
d ire c tio n
if
fa v o r a b ro ad
ste p
one h a s s u c c e s s f u lly i n s t i l l e d
t h e m in d o f t h e
situ a tio n .
in th e r ig h t
th e
id e a
in
in d iv id u a l re a d e r th a t re a d in g i s n o t a
b o re n o r w a ste o f l e i s u r e
he h im s e lf th in k s
it
is
t im e , b u t a n e n jo y m e n t, an d w hen
fu n .
When t h i s
c o n c e p tio n i s
re a c h e d h i s p r o g r e s s becom es e v id e n t.
X w o u ld l i k e
a copy o f th e r e s u l t o f your stu d y .
R e m e d ia l r e a d i n g c l a s s e s p e rfo rm a m ost im p o r ta n t
f u n c tio n i n d e v e lo p in g o r d e r l y b e h a v io r p a t t e r n s and good
stu d y h a b i t s - - s o
T h is i s
about i t
th a t
o f t e n l a c k i n g i n lo w r e a d e r s .
such a b ig f i e l d
a n d I f e e l I know s o l i t t l e
I f e a r my a n s w e r s a r e n o t a s h e l p f u l a s t h e y
sh o u ld b e .
W h e n e v e r we a r e
we s e e k t o h e l p
aw are o f a t r u e r e a d i n g d i s a b i l i t y
th e in d iv id u a l.
We t r y
to
p e o p le to re a d a l i t t l e
and w r ite a l i t t l e
g u id a n c e and d i s c i p l i n e
and e n c o u ra g e m e n t.
te a c h th e se
under p re ssu re ,
A ll of th e
p u p i l s m ake som e d e g r e e o f a d v a n c e m e n t u n d e r a t e a c h e r who
156
is
u n d a u n te d when h e r p ro b le m s a r e c o m p lic a te d *
Our p ro g ra m w i l l b e e x p a n d e d n e x t y e a r .
The g r e a t e s t p r o b le m i s
t o do i n t e n s i v e w ork i n
re m e d ia l re a d in g and n o t n e g le c t th e E n g lis h tr a in in g
e s s e n t i a l to
fit
th e
s tu d e n ts fo r r e g u la r E n g lish c o u rse s.
T he i d e a l c l a s s
in re m e d ia l re a d in g i s
m ade up o f
one p u p il and a t e a c h e r .
I m ake e v e r y e f f o r t
p u p ils .
t o g e t w e l l a c q u a i n t e d w i t h my
I e n c o u r a g e t h e m t o t e l l me t h e i r
d iffic u ltie s .
p ro b le m s and
I f r e q u e n t l y f i n d a c h i l d w hose d i f f i c u l t i e s
a r e p u r e l y m e n t a l a n d who n e e d s f r i e n d s h i p
and a c c e p ta n c e
w ith h i s fe llo w b e in g s r a t h e r th a n re a d in g
le sso n s.
W ould t h a t m o r e t e a c h e r s w o u l d l e a r n how t o t e a c h
th e s u b je c t.
T here sh o u ld be c o n s i s t e n t s t r e s s on te c h n iq u e s .
The h i g h s c h o o l i s
c l o g g e d w i t h s t u d e n t s who c a n n o t
read .
W h ile o u r f a c u l t y d o e s a l l i t
tra in e d
v ery
fo r
little
s u c h w ork
tim e to
can none o f us i s
( a s r e m e d i a l r e a d i n g ) a n d we h a v e
g iv e to
it.
PLEASE s e n d c o p y o f t h e r e s u l t s
am v e r y i n t e r e s t e d
in
t h i s w h o le l i s t .
o f your stu d y .
May I know t h e
re s u lts ?
It
ta k e s tr a in in g
re m e d ia l re a d in g .
a n d e x p e r i e n c e f o r w ork i n
S m a ll c l a s s e s m ust be s t r e s s e d .
I
157
I sh o u ld be e x tre m e ly i n t e r e s t e d
you r e c e i v e and c a n p a s s on-
i n any s u g g e s tio n s
T he r e p l i e s
to
th is
so rt of
q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i l l b e p a r t i c u l a r l y v a l u a b l e t o m e , a new
te a c h e rc o n trib u te
I hope th a t in
s o m e th in g ,
th e f u tu r e
I may b e a b l e t o
m y se lf*
You h a v e a h u g e t a s k a h e a d a n d y o u r f i n d i n g
be o f g re a t b e n e fit to
s c h o o l p e o p le *
good w is h e s f o r a s u c c e s s f u l s tu d y .
sh o u ld
P le a se accep t our
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