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An investigation of the housing and equipment of instrumental music departments in the high schools of the San Joaquin Valley

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an in v e s t ig a t io n of the h o u sin g and equipm ent
OF INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC DEPARTMENTS IN THE
HIGH SCHOOLS OF THE SAN JOAQUIN VALLEY
A T h e s is
P r e s e n te d t o
t h e F a c u l ty o f t h e S c h o o l o f E d u c a tio n
U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a
In P a r t i a l F u lf illm e n t
o f t h e R e q u ire m e n ts f o r th e D eg ree
M a s te r o f S c ie n c e In E d u c a tio n
by
J a c o b F ra n k W iens
A u g u st 1941
UMI Number: EP54325
All rights reserved
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UMI EP54325
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§^*UfV|,4-7
T h i s thesis, w r i t t e n u n d e r the d ir e c t io n o f the
C h a i r m a n o f the c a n d id a t e ’s G u i d a n c e C o m m i t t e e
a n d a p p r o v e d b y a l l m e m b e r s of the C o m m i t t e e ,
has been p r e s e n t e d to a n d a c c e p t e d b y the F a c u l t y
o f the S c h o o l o f E d u c a t i o n o f T h e U n i v e r s i t y of
S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t of the
r e q u ir e m e n t s f o r the d e g r e e o f M a s t e r o f S c ie n c e
in E d u c a ti o n .
D ate January 3 1 , 1941
Guidance C om m ittee
P aul Fi sher
Chairman
L o u is P . Thorpe
D. W elty L e fe v e r
/* ■
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I.
PAQE
THE PROBLEM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1
S ta te m e n t o f t h e p ro b le m . . . . . . . . . .
2
A n a ly s is o f t h e p ro b le m
2
L im ita tio n o f th e
.*
................................
s tu d y . . . . .
.....................
J u s t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e p ro b le m . • • • • • • •
M ethod o f p r o c e d u r e
.
3
.
11
D e f i n i t i o n o f te rm s u s e d . . • • • • • • • •
13
I n s t r u m e n t a l m usic . . . . . . . . . . . .
13
..........................................
.
13
• • • . • • • • • .......................
.
14
H o u sin g
E q u ip m en t
O r g a n iz a tio n o f s u b s e q u e n t m a t e r i a l
II.
3
. . . .
REVIEW OF RELATED INVESTIGATIONS . . . . . . . .
14
16
P u b lis h e d r e p o r t s on m u sic h o u s in g an d
e q u ip m e n t
• • . . • • • . • • • • • • • •
16
U n p u b lis h e d r e p o r t s on m u sic rooms an d
e q u i p m e n t .................................. .................................
III.
22
SCIENTIFIC STANDARDS OF HOUSING- AND EQUIPMENT
OF AN INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC DEPARTMENT
Main r e h e a r s a l room
L o c a tio n
. . . . .
24
• • • • • • • . • • « • •
24
............................
24
S iz e « • • • • • • • • • • • • . • • • • • •
26
A c o u s t i c a l t r e a t m e n t an d s o u n d - p r o o f in g
28
• .
iv
CHAPTER
PAGE
L i g h t i n g , h e a t i n g , an d v e n t i l a t i o n
A u x i l i a r y rooms
. . . . .
30
. . . . . . . . ....................... . .
31
E nsem ble p r a c t i c e rooms
« • • • • • • • . .
32
• » • « • • • • •
32
• • • • . • • • • • • • •
33
I n d i v i d u a l p r a c t i c e rooms
D ire c to r* s o f f ic e
L ib r a r y
• . . . • • • • • • • • • • • • . .
I n s tr u m e n t s t o r a g e room
-
• • • • • • • • • •
37
U n ifo rm s t o r a g e room • • . . • • • • • • • •
39
Work sh o p
40
S ta g e
• • • • • • • • • • • • « • • . •
. . ............................
41
M is c e lla n e o u s s t o r a g e r o o m .......................
42
R e st rooms an d d r i n k i n g f o u n t a i n • » . . . .
42
D r e s s in g r o o m s ...............................................
42
P ra c tic e f i e l d • • • • • »
F u r n i t u r e and e q u ip m e n t
F u rn itu re
. . . .
43
• • • • • • • • » • •
44
............................
M u s ic a l e q u ip m e n t
. . ............................
44
*
A d m i n i s t r a t i v e e q u ip m e n t • * • • • • • • • •
IV .
35
FINDINGS OF THE SURVEY............................
47
50
52
C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f s c h o o ls
52
Types o f s c h o o ls
53
G row th o f s c h o o ls
#
................... * .......................
53
G rowth o f b a n d s an d o r c h e s t r a s • • • « • • •
56
E n sem b les
62
V
CHAPTER
PAGE
M ethod o f t e a c h i n g « « • • • • • • • • • * •
Rooms u s e d f o r i n s t r u m e n t a l m u sic c l a s s e s
62
•
64
A c c e s s i h i l i t y o f t h e m u sic rooms t o o t h e r
p a r ts o f th e sc h o o l
• • • • • • • • • • *
66
Number o f d i f f e r e n t k in d s o f rooms . • . . •
68
A dequacy o f m usic rooms w ith r e g a r d s t o
s o u n d - p r o o f in g , a c o u s t i c s , l i g h t i n g , h e a t ­
i n g , an d v e n t i l a t i o n • * * • * • • * • • •
70
I n s tr u m e n t s t o r a g e • , • • • • » * • • * • •
72
U n ifo rm s t o r a g e
, . * » . » • » • • * • • •
74
L ib r a r y s t o r a g e
• • • . . * * • • • • • • •
77
S to r a g e o f m is c e lla n e o u s e q u ip m e n t
77
B la c k b o a rd s a n d b u l l e t i n b o a r d s
80
• • • • « *
R i s e r s • • • • • • * * . ........................ ....
. . .
80
U t i l i z a t i o n o f m usic rooms • • • • • • • * ,
81
P r e s e n t ag e an d f u t u r e b u i l d i n g p ro g ram o f
m usic rooms
« • • • • • • • • • * • » * •
61
S c h o o l owned in s t r u m e n ts
U sage o f s c h o o l in s t r u m e n ts
E q uipm ent
82
• * . * . » * *
84
•
84
P o l i c y o f f u r n i s h i n g in s t r u m e n t s u p p l i e s and
a c c e s s o rie s to s tu d e n ts
• . .
...................
P la c e an d eq u ip m en t u s e d i n m a rc h in g d r i l l
Number o f s c h o o ls ow ning u n if o rm s
86
•
89
89
vi
CHAPTER
PACE
U n ifo rm c u s to d ia n s • .
.........................
I n s tr u m e n t c u s t o d i a n • • • • •
91
................................
91
M inor r e p a i r s oh m u sic in s tr u m e n ts done a t
school • • • • • • • • • • • • • » • * • .
M ethods u s e d t o s t e r i l i z e in s t r u m e n ts
• . .
P la n s u s e d i n p u r c h a s in g m usic • • • • • • •
V.
94
96
96
A COMPARISON OF THE HOUSING- AND EQUIPMENT OF
INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC DEPARTMENTS IN THE HIGH
SCHOOLS OF THE SAN JOAQUIN VALLEY WITH SCIEN­
TIFIC STANDARDS..........................................
99
Main r e h e a r s a l rooms .
99
......................
L o c a tio n
• • • •
S iz e
100
101
A c o u s t i c a l t r e a t m e n t an d s o u n d - p r o o f in g
• .
101
L i g h t i n g , h e a t i n g , an d v e n t i l a t i o n • . • . . .
103
A u x i l i a r y rooms
. . . . .
..........................................
E nsem ble rooms . ........................
. . . . . . . .
104
• • • • • • • • •
105
• • • • • • • • • • • • •
105
............................................................
106
I n d i v i d u a l p r a c t i c e rooms
D ire c to r’s o f fic e
L ib r a r y
I n s tr u m e n t s t o r a g e room
U n ifo rm s t o r a g e room .
Work sh o p
• • • •
S t a g e .......................
104
• • • • • • • • • •
.........................
.....................................
106
108
108
109
v ii
CHAPTER
PAGE
M is c e lla n e o u s s t o r a g e room , • • • • • • • •
109
R e s t rooms a n d d r i n k i n g f o u n t a i n s
109
. . . * •
D r e s s in g rooms •
110
P ra c tic e f ie ld •
F u r n i t u r e and e q u ip m e n t
V I.
110
• . • • • • • • • . .
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
. . .
Summary
APPENDIX . . . . . .
114
114-
C o n c lu s io n s an d reco m m en d a tio n s
BIBLIOGRAPHY
110
• • • • • •
......................................................................
...............................................................
119
125
128
LIST OP TABLES
TABLE
I.
II.
PAGE
C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f S c h o o ls A c c o rd in g t o S iz e
. .
54-
Number o f T h re e an d F o u r Y ea r H igh S c h o o ls and
Number o f J u n i o r .H igh S c h o o ls an d J u n i o r
C o lle g e s H oused i n H igh S c h o o ls . . . . . . .
III*
IV*
G row th o f Bands and O r c h e s t r a s .................................
VI*
V II*
V III.
IX*
58
P e r C e n t o f S c h o o l E n r o l l e d in Bands an d
O r c h e s tr a s
V.
55
.
.......................
60
Number o f P r e p a r a t o r y I n s t r u m e n t a l C la s s e s
• •
61
* .
63
M ethod P r e f e r r e d
. 65
Number o f E n sem b les i n M usic D e p a rtm e n ts
M ethod o f T e a c h in g U sed an d
.
Kooms U sed f o r I n s t r u m e n t a l M usic C la s s e s . . .
67
A c c e s s i b i l i t y o f th e M usic Rooms t o O th e r P a r t s
o f th e S chool « * • • * * • • • • • • • • • •
X.
Number o f D i f f e r e n t K inds o f Rooms U sed b y I n ­
s t r u m e n t a l M usic D e p a rtm e n ts
XI*
69
. . . . . . . .
71
A dequacy o f M usic Rooms w ith R eg ard s t o S ound­
p r o o f i n g , A c o u s t i c s , L i g h t i n g , H e a tin g , an d
V e n tila tio n
X II.
........................... * . . .
XIV*
XV*
73
Rooms U sed f o r S to r a g e o f .I n s t r u m e n t s , U n ifo rm s ,
L i b r a r y , an d M is c e lla n e o u s E q u ip m en t
X III*
*
• •
• •
75
M ethods U sed f o r S to r a g e o f I n s tr u m e n ts . . . .
76
M ethods U sed f o r S to r a g e o f U n ifo rm s
78
. . . . .
M ethods U sed f o r S to r a g e o f t h e L ib r a r y . * . .
79
l3C
TABLE
XVI *
PAGE
P r e s e n t Age o f an d F u tu r e B u i ld in g P ro g ram
..................................
83
Number o f S c h o o l Owned I n s t r u m e n t s ...................... .
85
o f M usic Booms . . . . . . .
X V II.
X V III.
E q u ip m en t U sed o r N eeded b y t h e I n s t r u m e n t a l
M usic D ep a rtm en t
XIX.
87
S c h o o ls F u r n is h in g I n s tr u m e n t S u p p lie s an d
A c c e s s o r ie s t o S tu d e n ts
XX.
• • • • • • . . • •
88
P la c e an d E q u ipm en t U sed i n M a rc h in g D r i l l . .
90
Number o f S c h o o ls Owning U n ifo rm s
. . . . . .
92
X X II.
U n ifo rm C u s to d ia n s . . • • . . . • . • » • • •
93
X X III.
I n s tr u m e n t C u s to d ia n • • * • • • . • • • • • •
95
XXI.
XXIV.
M inor R e p a irs on M usic I n s tr u m e n ts Done a t
School . . . . . .
XXV.
.........................................................
M ethods U sed t o S t e r i l i z e
I n s tr u m e n ts
• *• •
97
98
CHAPTER X
THE PROBLEM
The p a s t d e c a d e o f e d u c a tio n h a s w itn e s s e d a tre m e n d o u s
g ro w th i n t h e f i e l d o f i n s t r u m e n t a l m usic#
T h is su d d e n i n ­
t e r e s t i s n o t i c e a b l e , n o t i n o n e , b u t many l e v e l s o f e d u c a ­
tio n .
The e le m e n ta r y s c h o o l , t h e j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l , t h e
s e n i o r h ig h s c h o o l , t h e c o l l e g e an d u n i v e r s i t y , an d a d u l t
e d u c a tio n as w e l l , h a v e a l l p a r t i c i p a t e d t o some d e g re e i n
t h i s new p o p u la r it y #
N e i t h e r do i n d i c a t i o n s i n t h e movement
p o i n t to w a rd s an y p l a t e a u w h ich m ig h t be r e a c h e d , b u t r a t h e r
f o r a s p r e a d in g o f th e i n t e r e s t i n t o many r e l a t e d b u t new
c h a n n e ls #
The u n i v e r s a l p o p u l a r i t y o f i n s t r u m e n t a l m usic i s
r e v e a le d in t h e demands made upon i t .
T h is i s t r u e e s p e c i a l ­
ly o f such o r g a n iz a tio n s as th e band, o r c h e s tr a , o r s m a lle r
i n s t r u m e n t a l en sem b le o f a w e ll e s t a b l i s h e d i n s t r u m e n t a l
d e p a rtm e n t o f t h e h ig h s c h o o ls #
Many an d v a r i e d a r e t h e
f u n c t i o n s a t w hich t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s a p p e a r#
Many a t e a c h e r
o f a w e ll t r a i n e d h ig h s c h o o l i n s t r u m e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i s
c a l l e d upon t o p r e s e n t h i s g ro u p s a t f i f t y t o one h u n d re d
an d f i f t y
f u n c t i o n s d u r in g t h e y e a r .
I n c lu d e d i n s u c h a p p e a r r
a n c e s a r e th e s c h o o l a s s e m b l i e s , p l a y s , a t h l e t i c c o n t e s t s ,
c o n c e r t s , and p u b l i c p r e s e n t a t i o n s , c i v i c m e e ti n g s , p a r a d e s ,
f r a t e r n a l , an d c h u rc h a c t i v i t i e s .
The h o u s in g an d e q u ip p in g o f t h i s d e p a rtm e n t h a s n o t
k e p t p a c e w ith t h i s g ro w th .
A d e q u a te p r o v i s i o n s h a v e n o t
b e e n made f o r p r o p e r r e h e a r s a l o r s u p e r v i s i o n o f t h e t e a c h ­
in g o f t h e s e s u b j e c t s .
M usic “ i s s t i l l an o rp h a n a s f a r a s
p r o p e r c la s s r o o m s a r e c o n c e r n e d ." ^
Many a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and
s c h o o l b o a r d s , i n t r y i n g t o s o lv e t h e p ro b le m , h a v e made
im p ro v em en ts w ith o u t u n d e r s ta n d in g f u l l y t h e s c i e n t i f i c
q u ir e m e n ts o f su c h p r o v i s i o n s .
re­
T h is h a s r e s u l t e d i n much
random g u e s s w ork an d c o n s e q u e n tly many c o s t l y e r r o r s h a v e
s in c e been d e te c te d .
To more s c i e n t i f i c a l l y a t t a c k t h i s p ro b le m ,
r e v e a l s t h e u n d e r l y i n g aim o f t h i s s t u d y .
S ta te m e n t o f t h e p ro b le m .
T h is s tu d y was an i n v e s t i ­
g a t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e h o u s in g an d eq u ip m e n t o f i n s t r u ­
m e n ta l m usic i n f i f t y h ig h s c h o o ls o f t h e San J o a q u in V a l l e y ,
C a l i f o r n i a , i n te rm s o f s c i e n t i f i c s t a n d a r d s a s h a s b e e n
d e te r m in e d from a u t h o r i t i e s i n t h e f i e l d o f s c h o o l b u i l d i n g s
a n d m usic e d u c a ti o n .
A n a ly s is o f t h e p ro b le m .
The p u rp o s e o f t h i s i n v e s ­
t i g a t i o n was f i r s t , t o f i n d c e r t a i n s ta n d a r d s and t r e n d s
f o r h o u s in g an d eq u ip m en t o f i n s t r u m e n t a l d e p a rtm e n ts o f
7
h ig h s c h o o ls a s c o u ld b e d e r iv e d from l i t e r a t u r e o f r e s e a r c h e s
1 L. C. M ohr, " L e t Us Have M u s ic ," N a tio n 1s S c h o o l.
2 0 : 5 0 ,xN ovem ber, 1 9 3 7 .
and reco m m en d atio n s o f e m in e n t a u t h o r i t i e s ; s e c o n d , t o a s ­
c e r t a i n t h e p r e s e n t s t a t u s o f t h e h o u s in g an d eq u ip m e n t o f
i n s t r u m e n t a l d e p a rtm e n ts o f c e r t a i n San J o a q u in V a lle y h ig h
s c h o o ls ; t h i r d , to e v a lu a te th e p r e s e n t p r a c t ic e s in th e l i g h t
o f s c i e n t i f i c s t a n d a r d s ; an d f o u r t h , from t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s
r e s e a r c h , t o p r e s e n t p la n s and reco m m en d a tio n s t h a t m ig h t
*
s e r v e a s a c r i t e r i a f o r a f u t u r e b u i l d i n g an d p u r c h a s in g o f
e q u ip m e n t p ro g ram i n t h e f i e l d o f i n s t r u m e n t a l m u s ic , w hich
m ig h t be o f a i d t o m u sic t e a c h e r s , s u p e r v i s o r s , a d m i n i s t r a ­
to rs
,
an d a r c h i t e c t s .
L im ita tio n o f th e s tu d y .
s e v e ra l re s p e c ts .
The s u r v e y was l i m i t e d i n
F i r s t , t h e sc o p e o f t h e s tu d y was n a rro w e d
t o i n s t r u m e n t a l m u s ic , o n ly one p h a se o f t h e m u sic d e p a r tm e n t,
w hich i s o f t e n t a u g h t b y one p e r s o n .
S e c o n d , o n ly f i f t y
h ig h s c h o o ls in s i x c o u n t i e s o f t h e San J o a q u in V a l l e y , nam ely
K e rn , T u l a r e , K in g s, F r e s n o , M adera, an d M erced , w ere u s e d ,
b ecau se o f a c c e s s i b i l i t y to th e i n v e s tig a to r .
J u s t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e p ro b le m .
V ery l i t t l e
r e s e a rc h in
t h e g e n e r a l f i e l d o f s c h o o l b u i l d i n g an d p h y s i c a l eq u ip m e n t
h a s b ee n a t te m p te d .
T , C. H o ly , c h a irm a n o f t h e C om m ittee
on t h e S c h o o l P l a n t , o f t h e N a ti o n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c i a t i o n ,
u rg e s t h a t re s e a rc h in t h i s
f i e l d b e u n d e r ta k e n .
He p o i n t s
o u t t h a t a p p r o x im a te ly 2 5 p e r c e n t o f t h e c o s t o f p u b lic
e d u c a tio n i n t h e U n ite d S t a t e s i s d e v o te d t o c a p i t a l o u t l a y
4
an d i n t e r e s t c h a rg e s o f t h e b u i l d i n g p ro g ra m .
He f i n d s a
l a c k o f r e s e a r c h i n t h i s f i e l d an d com m ents, " i t i s t h e r e f o r e
s u r p r i s i n g t o f i n d t h a t so l i t t l e h a s b e e n done in t h e f i e l d
p
o f s c h o o l b u i l d i n g s an d p h y s i c a l e q u ip m e n t.1*
A fte r con­
s i d e r a b l e r e s e a r c h , h e comes t o t h e f o llo w in g s i g n i f i c a n t
c o n c lu s io n w h ich p u ts ev en g r e a t e r j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r s u c h a
s tu d y .
"On t h e w hole i t seem s a s a f e a s s u m p tio n t h a t t h e r e
i s a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p b etw een t h e q u a l i t y o f s c h o o l and
t h e ty p e o f b u i l d i n g . " ^
I n th e w ords o f H enry S m ith " r e s e a r c h
p ro m is e s t o b e one o f t h e m ost im p o r ta n t f a c t o r s in t h e d e ­
t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e f u t u r e o f s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n a l an d b u i l d i n g
p ro g ra m I. . 4
In c o n s i d e r i n g t h e s p e c i f i c f i e l d o f m usic b u i l d i n g s ,
t h e M usic E d u c a tio n R e s e a rc h C o u n c il u r g e t h a t r e s e a r c h a lo n g
t h i s f i e l d be e x te n d e d .
The n e e d f o r a s tu d y o f t h e p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s
n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e u nham pered c o n d u c t o f m usic c l a s s e s
o f v a r i o u s ty p e s i s r e a d i l y a p p a r e n t t o anyone v i s i t i n g
m usic c l a s s e s a n y w h e re . On e v e ry h a n d we f i n d e x ­
p e n s i v e l y c o n s t r u c t e d new s c h o o l b u i l d i n g s i n w hich
2 T. C. H o ly , "N eeded R e se a rc h i n t h e F i e l d o f S c h o o l
B u ild in g s an d E q u ip m e n t," Review o f E d u c a tio n a l R e s e a r c h .
5 :4 0 6 , O c to b e r , 1935.
^ Ib id . , p. 408.
^ H en ry L e s t e r S m ith , " P la n n in g t h e S c h o o l B u ild in g s
t o S a t i s f y R e c e n t C hanges in th e S c h o o l P ro g ra m ," N a ti o n a l
C o u n c il on S c h o o l H ouse C o n s t r u c t i o n . P r o c e e d i n g . 1 9 3 d .
p . 22.
p r o v i s i o n f o r m usic c l a s s e s i s f a r from s a t i s f a c t o r y . - ^
No r e s e a r c h o f t h e h o u s in g an d e q u ip m e n t p ro b le m o f
an y e d u c a t i o n a l f i e l d c o u ld o v e r lo o k t h e u s a g e o f t h e s c h o o l.
"The c u r r i c u l a o f th e s c h o o l d i c t a t e s t h e ty p e o f c la s s r o o m
n e e d e d .’
W ilso n w ould go ev en so f a r a s t o d i s c r e d i t a
s u r v e y o f t h e p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n s o f h o u s in g from th e e d u c a ­
tio n a l s id e .
" R e s e a rc h i n s c h o o l b u i l d i n g p l a n n i n g , on t h e
e d u c a t i o n a l p ro g ra m , s h o u ld s t a r t w ith s t u d i e s o f e d u c a t i o n a l
p ro g ra m , an d n o t w ith s t a t u s s t u d i e s o f b u i l d i n g s , n o t s c i e n ­
t i f i c a l l y p la n n e d , n o r u t i l i z a t i o n s t u d i e s o f su c h b u i l d ­
in g s . "7
To j u s t i f y a r e s e a r c h o f h o u s in g an d e q u ip m e n t th e n
w ould mean t h a t a s tu d y o f t h e m u sic o f f e r i n g s an d e x p a n d in g
c u r r i c u l a o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l d e p a rtm e n t m ust be m ade.
Such
r e s e a r c h e s h a v e b een made a n d f i n d i n g s o f t h e same t o g e t h e r
w ith a d d i t i o n a l f i n d i n g s o f t h i s
in v e s tig a tio n have been
ta k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n .
5 M usie E d u c a tio n R e se a rc h C o u n c il, "M usic Rooms and
E q u ip m e n t," B u l l e t i n No. 17 (C h ic a g o : M usic E d u c a to r ’ s
N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e , 193277 P . 3 .
^ C e c i l D. H a r d e s ty ," P r o b le m s an d P r a c t i c e s i n H o u sin g
t h e J u n i o r C o lle g e P ro g ram i n C a l i f o r n i a , " ( u n p u b lis h e d
D o c to r ’ s d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a ,
Los A n g e le s , 1 9 3 3 ), p . 2 8 .
7 W. K. W ils o n , " T e c h n iq u e s f o r D e te rm in in g H o u sin g
R e q u ire m e n ts i n E le m e n ta ry , J u n i o r an d S e n i o r H igh S c h o o ls ,"
Review o f E d u c a tio n a l R e s e a r c h . O c to b e r , 1 9 3 5 .
6
H ow ever t h a t th e m a t t e r o f h o u s in g an d eq u ip m en t c a n ­
n o t be o v e r lo o k e d i s a p t l y su m m arized by J e s s e Newlon i n t h e
f o llo w in g s t a t e m e n t .
W hile b r i c k s and m o r ta r an d l a n d an d e q u ip m e n t w i l l
n o t make a s c h o o l , th e p h y s i c a l p l a n t n e v e r t h e l e s s w i l l
d e te r m in e i n l a r g e m e a su re t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f th e
s c h o o l . Mark H op k in s on one en d o f a l o g an d a s t u d e n t
on t h e o t h e r make a b e a u t i f u l an d s e n t i m e n t a l p i c t u r e .
B u t no one w ith a g r a i n o f e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e l l i g e n c e
w ould c o n te n d f o r a moment t h a t su c h a s i t u a t i o n w i l l
make an e f f e c t i v e m odem s c h o o l . The e d u c a ti v e p r o c e s s e s
w i l l n o t go on e f f e c t i v e l y u n l e s s t h e r e be p r o v id e d b u i l d ­
in g s an d e q u ip m e n t d e s ig n e d w ith aim s an d m ethods o f
m odern e d u c a tio n .®
The p ro b le m o f h o u s in g th e i n s t r u m e n t a l d e p a rtm e n t
b e g a n w ith t h e f i r s t o r c h e s t r a s a n d i n s t r u m e n t a l g r o u p s , and
h a s grown w ith t h e e v e r i n c r e a s i n g m u sic p ro g ram o f f e r i n g o f
th e p r e s e n t d ay h ig h s c h o o l s .
The su d d e n g ro w th o f t h e s c h o o l
b a n d , th e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f i n s t r u m e n t a l c l a s s e s , an d t h e many
new o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n d e v e lo p m e n t o f i n s t r u m e n t a l m usic h av e
o n ly i n t e n s i f i e d t h e p ro b le m .
M usic in t r o d u c e d r e l a t i v e l y
r e c e n t was g iv e n a s p a r e room and su c h l i m i t e d eq u ip m e n t a s
t h e s c h o o l c o u ld a f f o r d o r j u s t i f y .
O fte n no p r o v i s i o n s f o r
s o u n d - p r o o f in g o r t r e a t i n g t h e room a c o u s t i c a l l y w ere m ade.
Where im p ro v em en ts w ere m ade, p la n n in g f o r f u t u r e g ro w th was
n o t a d e q u a te ly c o n s i d e r e d .
C h u rc h , i n com m enting on a q u e s ­
t i o n n a i r e s t u d y , f i n d s " t h a t m usic d e p a r tm e n ts h av e i n m ost
® J e s s e H . N ew lon, "The I n t r o d u c t i o n . 11 A r th u r B.
M oehlman, P u b lic S c h o o l P l a n t P ro g ram (C hicago.: Rand M cN ally
and Company, 1 9 2 9 ) , p . x i l i .
7
c a s e s a l r e a d y o u tg ro w n t h e i r q u a r t e r s , w ith t h e r e s u l t t h a t
w o rk in g c o n d i t i o n s f o r m u sic a r e a g a in u n s a t i s f a c t o r y .
In r e c o u n t in g a c e n t u r y o f p r o g r e s s i n s p e c i a l i n ­
s t r u c t i o n a l ro o m s, N o f f s i n g e r comes t o t h e f o llo w in g c o n c lu ­
s io n ;
"The m o st o u t s t a n d i n g d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n t h e s c h o o l
b u i l d i n g o f 1900 and th o s e o f to d a y l i e s i n t h e p r o v i s i o n
f o r s p e c ia l r o o m s S t u d i e s
made by W h i s t l e r
,^
Bray,-*-2
Goods e l l , ^*3 an d R i g h te r 1^ r e v e a l t h a t no u n if o rm c o n d i t i o n s ,
r e g a r d i n g h o u s in g o f i n s t r u m e n t a l d e p a r t m e n ts , p r e v a i l .
Where some a r e v e r y p r o g r e s s i v e , h a v e some o f t h e f i n e s t
s e p a r a t e b u i l d i n g s , w ith t h e b e s t e q u ip m e n t, o t h e r s c h o o ls
9 No m a n L. C h u rc h . “P r o v i s i o n s f o r M u s ic a l A c t i v i ­
t i e s i n New H ig h S c h o o ls , A m erican S c h o o l an d U n i v e r s i t y .
1 9 3 2 -3 3 , p . 2 2 2 .
F . R. N o f f s i n g e r , “A C e n tu ry o f P r o g r e s s i n S p e c i a l
I n s t r u c t i o n a l R oom s,11 A m erican S c h o o l B o ard J o u r n a l . 9 7 ;4 3 ,
O c to b e r , 1 938.
•*■3* H arv ey Sam uel W h i s t l e r , “The O r g a n iz a tio n a n d Ad­
m i n i s t r a t i o n o f li&isic D e p a rtm e n ts i n S e c o n d a ry S c h o o ls ,"
( u n p u b lis h e d M a s t e r 's t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a ,
Los A n g e le s , 1 9 3 5 ) , 260 p p .
M a r jo r ie E . B ra y , “A S u rv e y o f I n s t r u m e n t a l M usic
T e a c h in g i n K ern C o u n ty ,” ( u n p u b lis h e d M a s t e r 's t h e s i s ,
U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s , 1 9 3 8 ),
148 p p .
•*•3 G i l b e r t O sc a r G o o d s e ll, “The H o u sin g o f E x t r a C u r r i c u l a r A c t i v i t i e s in t h e S e n io r H igh S c h o o l," (u n p u b ­
l i s h e d M a s te r 's t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a ,
Los A n g e le s , 1 9 2 8 ) , 82 p p .
C h a r le s S . R i g h t e r , “W is c o n s in Makes a S u r v e y ,"
M usic E d u c a t o r 's J o u r n a l . 2 4 :3 5 - 3 8 , O c to b e r, 1 9 3 7 .
an d d i s t r i c t s h a v e made v e r y l i t t l e
p r o v i s i o n f o r m u s ic .
R i g h te r c o m p la in s t h a t
. • . many g ro u p s a r e h a n d ic a p p e d i n t h e i r w ork by
t o r e h e a r s e i n rooms w h ich a r e to o s m a l l , o r w h ich
a c o u s tic a lly f a u lty .
I t I s p r a c t i c a l l y im p o s s ib le
o b t a i n s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s u l t s i n a room i n w h ich th e
r e v e r b e r a t e s , th u s c a u s in g a c o n tin u o u s d is s o n a n c e
in g t h e r e h e a r s a l . 3-5
h a v in g
are
to
so u n d
d u r­
Com m enting on t h e a u d ito r iu m a s a p l a c e f o r i n s t r u ­
m e n ta l r e h e a r s a l s , h e c o n t in u e s t h a t th e y " a r e u n s u i t a b l e
f o r r e h e a r s a l s b e c a u s e o f p o o r a c o u s t i c s , im p r o p e r ly a r r a n g e d
l i g h t s , an d d r a u g h t s " . ^
I f w hat R i g h t e r fo u n d i s t r u e , th e n
th e fin d in g s o f o th e r re c e n t s tu d ie s a re d e p lo ra b le .
I n t h e l i g h t o f t h e above s t u d i e s ta k e n c h r o n o lo g i­
c a l l y o v e r a p e r i o d o f t e n y e a r s , i t i s o f i n t e r e s t t o n o te
t h e i n c r e a s i n g p r o v i s i o n s made f o r im p ro v ed c o n d i t i o n s in
t h e h o u s in g and e q u ip m e n t o f m usic b u i l d i n g s .
No t r u e com­
p a r i s o n can b e made o f t h e s e f i n d i n g s f o r th e y w ere made by
d i f f e r e n t r e s e a r c h e r s , c o v e r in g d i f f e r e n t a r e a s , an d u s i n g
d i f f e r e n t m e th o d s, n e v e r t h e l e s s c e r t a i n c o n t r a s t s can be s e e n .
G o o d s e ll in 1928 fo u n d o n ly one s e p a r a t e b u i l d i n g u n i t f o r
m usic in a s tu d y o f f o u r t e e n Los A n g ele s h ig h s c h o o l s .
i s r a t h e r l a m e n t a b l e ," h e c o m p la in s , " to s e e m o st o f o u r
h ig h s c h o o ls h o u s in g t h e i r m u sic i n t h e i r m ain c la s s r o o m
!5 I b id . , p. 38.
"It
9
b u ild in g " • ^
He to o fo u n d t h a t in m o st i n s t a n c e s t h e b an d
an d o r c h e s t r a i n s t r u c t i o n was g iv e n i n t h e a u d i to r i u m .
In
1 9 3 5 , W h i s t l e r fo u n d i n a s t a t e w ide s u r v e y o f C a l i f o r n i a
s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s , t h a t 2 5 . 1 p e r c e n t o f t h e m u sic d e p a rtm e n ts
h a d a s e p a r a t e m usic b u i l d i n g . ’1'®
B ra y , in a s u r v e y made o f
K ern C o u n ty i n 1 9 3 6 , fo u n d 2 5 p e r c e n t o f t h e m usic d e p a r t 19
m ents h o u s e d i n s p e c i a l b u i l d i n g s .
The M usic E d u c a tio n
R e s e a rc h C o u n c il r e p o r t t h a t
. . . many o ld b u i l d i n g s h a v e b e e n r e c o n s t r u c t e d t o
p e r m it o f b an d an d o r c h e s t r a r e h e a r s a l s , p r i v a t e i n s t r u c ­
t i o n , a n d a d e q u a te h o u s in g f o r l a r g e and s m a ll c h o r u s .
. . New b u i l d i n g s n o t i n f r e q u e n t l y h a v e a s p e c i a l f l o o r
f o r m u sic g r o u p s , e i t h e r a t t h e to p o f t h e b u i l d i n g , o r
in a w ing som ew hat s e p a r a t e d from t h e o t h e r rooms so
t h a t t h e r e i s a minimum o f so u n d c a r r i e d from m usic
g ro u p s i n t o o t h e r c l a s s r o o m s .
I n a num ber o f s c h o o ls
d e f i n i t e p r o v i s i o n i s made f o r i n d i v i d u a l p r a c t i c e rooms
so t h a t s t u d e n t s may d u r i n g t h e i r s tu d y p e r i o d s , go t o a
p r a c t i c e room f o r i n d i v i d u a l w ork upon v o ic e o r i n s t r u m e n t.20
In a p r o p h e t i c s t a t e m e n t o f t h e g e n e r a l h o u s in g p r o b ­
le m , I t t n e r f e e l s t h a t t h e “t r a d i t i o n a l c la s s r o o m s w ith t h e i r
row s o f f i x e d s e a t s w i l l p a s s i n t o h i s t o r y an d in t h e i r p la c e
w i l l a p p e a r l a r g e rooms i n th e o r d e r o f a sse m b ly h a l l s f o r
W G o o d s e ll, o p . c i t . , p . 3 7 .
W h is tle r, op. c i t . , p . 112.
^
B ra y , o p . c i t . , p .
^ M usic E d u c a tio n R e s e a rc h C o u n c il, “M usic i n S e n i o r
H igh S c h o o ls ," M usic E d u c a to rs J o u r n a l s 2 3 :2 4 , D ecem ber, 1936.
10
m u s ic , a r t , E n g l i s h , and t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s *
T h a t o p in io n s an d f i n d i n g s r e g a r d i n g h o u s in g p r a c t i c e s
h a v e c h a n g e d c a n r e a d i l y h e s e e n i n s t a t e m e n t s made hy Maddy,
th e one p u b lis h e d i n 1926 and t h e o t h e r i n 1932*
In d i s ­
c u s s in g a p la c e f o r th e o r c h e s t r a r e h e a r s a l i n th e e a r l i e r
r e p o r t , h e s t a t e s t h a t “th e s t a g e o f a n a u d ito r iu m i s t h e
id e a l p la c e f o r in s tru m e n ta l r e h e a rs a ls
tific
22
I n a more s c i e n ­
r e s e a r c h o f t h e M usic E d u c a tio n R e s e a rc h C o u n c il, w here
h e a c t e d a s c h a irm a n o f t h e C om m ittee on M usic Rooms an d
E q u ip m e n t, h e r e f u t e s h i s e a r l i e r s t a t e m e n t p a r t i a l l y i n d i s ­
c u s s i n g some o f t h e m ost common e r r o r s w ith r e g a r d t o r e ­
h e a r s a l s o f m u sic c l a s s e s , a s an “a u d ito r iu m d e s ig n e d w ith
due r e g a r d f o r b e a u ty b u t e n t i r e l y l a c k i n g i n s e r v i c e a b i l i t y
from t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f a c c o u s t i c s " * 2^
W ith t h e f a s t c h a n g in g p r o g r e s s i v e e d u c a t i o n , new i n ­
o v a t io n s e v e r b e in g in t r o d u c e d and b eco m in g a p a r t o f t h e
s c h o o l p ro g ra m , t h e i n c r e a s e d demands o f a f a s t g ro w in g i n ­
s t r u m e n t a l d e p a r tm e n t, no s u r v e y ca n a d e q u a te ly s e t down any
h a r d an d f a s t la w s , b u t m e re ly show a t r e n d o f t h e c o n d i t i o n s
21 W illia m B. I t t n e r , “Our S c h o o l A r c h i t e c t u r e o f T om o rro w ,“ A m erican S c h o o l B o ard J o u r n a l . 8 7 :4 0 , A u g u s t, 1933*
pp
J . E . Maddy an d T . P . G id d in g s , I n s t r u m e n t a l
T e c h n iq u e ( C i n c i n n a t i : W i l l i s M usic Company, 1 9 2 6 ), p . 6 3 .
23 M usic E d u c a tio n R e se a rc h C o u n c il, “M usic Rooms and
E q u ip m e n t,11 B u l l e t i n No* 1 7 . p . 3 .
11
an d f a c t s as th e y e x i s t a t t h e tim e o f th e i n v e s t i g a t i o n .
I t i s h o p e d t h a t t h i s r e s e a r c h may c o n s i d e r t h e s t a t u s o f
t h e p r e s e n t d ay h o u s in g a n d e q u ip m e n t p ro b le m o f in s tr u m e n ­
t a l m usic i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e t r e n d s o f more p r o g r e s s i v e
s c h o o ls an d s c i e n t i f i c f i n d i n g s o f n a t i o n a l l y r e c o g n iz e d
a u t h o r i t i e s in t h i s f i e l d .
M ethod o f p r o c e d u r e .
A su rv ey o f th e l i t e r a t u r e in
t h e f i e l d o f h o u s in g a n d e q u ip m e n t o f i n s t r u m e n t a l m u sic
d e p a r tm e n ts was m ade.
From a u t h o r i t a t i v e s o u r c e s s u c h a s
th e M usic E d u c a tio n R e s e a rc h C o u n c il,
0 4
N a t i o n a l C o u n c il on
S c h o o l H ouse C o n s t r u c t i o n , 2 ^ S t r a y e r an d E n g e l h a r d t , 2^
P r e s c o t t a n d G h i d e s t e r , 2 ^ D o n o v an ,2 ^ an d H i g g i n s , 2 ^ an d
I b i d . , 5 1 PP.
2 ^ N a ti o n a l C o u n c il on S c h o o l H ouse C o n s t r u c t i o n , “F a c ­
t o r s P e r t i n e n t t o S c h o o l B u i ld in g P l a n n i n g , 11 N a t i o n a l C o u n c il
on S c h o o l H ouse C o n s t r u c t i o n . P r o c e e d i n g s . 1 9 3 5 , P* 1 0 2 .
26
G eorge D. S t r a y e r an d N ie k o la u s L . E n g e l h a r d t , S ta n d ­
a r d s f o r H igh S c h o o l B u i ld in g s (New Y o rk : B u re a u o f P u b l i c a ­
t i o n s , T e a c h e rs C o l le g e , C olum bia U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 2 4 ), 95 PP.
27
G e ra ld R. P r e s c o t t an d L aw rence W. C h i d e s t e r , G e tt in g
R e s u lts w ith t h e S c h o o l Band (New Y o rk : C a r l F i s h e r I n c . , and
M in n e a p o lis : P a u l A. S ch m id t Company, 1 9 3 8 ), p p . 1 6 5 -2 2 4 .
2 ® Jo h n J o s e p h D onovan, A M ethod o f P ro c e d u r e an d
C h e c k in g S c h e d u le s f o r P la n n in g S c h o o l B u ild in g s an d T h e i r
E qu ip m en t (New York.: The B ru ce P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1 9 3 2 ) ,
p p . 1 1 7 -2 6 .
2 ^ Thomas L . H ig g in s , “A C heck L i s t f o r S e n i o r H ig h
S c h o o ls ," A m erican S c h o o l B o ard J o u r n a l , 8 6 :5 4 - 5 , M arch, 1933.
12
f i n d i n g s and reco m m en d atio n s o f a n u m b er o f m u sic e d u c a t o r s ,
w ere d e r iv e d s c i e n t i f i c s t a n d a r d s f o r h o u s in g an d eq u ip m e n t
o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l m usic d e p a r tm e n t.
An i n t e r v i e w e r s c h e c k
l i s t q u e s t i o n n a i r e ^ 0 was f o r m u la te d .
(T h is q u e s t i o n n a i r e
31
was s u b m itte d t o a c o m m itte e
o f t h r e e h ig h s c h o o l b an d an d
o r c h e s t r a d i r e c t o r s , t o one u n i v e r s i t y b a n d d i r e c t o r , t o tw o
h ig h s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , an d one u n i v e r s i t y s p e c i a l i s t
in th e f i e l d o f e d u c a tio n , f o r c r i t i c i s m
an d c o r r e c t i o n .
A f t e r a few a l t e r a t i o n s , t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r i n t e r v i e w s
was c o m p le te .)
A s c h e d u le f o r i n t e r v i e w s an d v i s i t a t i o n s o f th e
v a r i o u s m usic d e p a rtm e n ts in t h e h i g h s c h o o ls t o be s u r v e y e d ,
was th e n p r e p a r e d .
A l e t t e r o f i n t r o d u c t i o n t o g e t h e r w ith
t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e an d a r e t u r n p o s t c a r d was th e n m a ile d
t o t h e m usic i n s t r u e t 6 r s o f t h e s c h o o ls t o b e v i s i t e d a b o u t
one week p r i o r t o t h e s c h e d u le d d a y , a s k in g f o r a n a p p o in tm e n t.
The s c h o o ls w ere th e n v i s i t e d and t h e i n t e r v i e w w ith t h e i n ­
s t r u c t o r c o m p le te d .
In few i n s t a n c e s t h e i n t e r v i e w c o u ld n o t
b e o b t a i n e d , b u t t h e p l a n t s w ere v i s i t e d f o r t h e s t u d y , and
g e n e r a l l y t h e c o m p le te d q u e s t i o n n a i r e was r e t u r n e d by th o s e
te a c h e rs .
See A p p e n d ix , p p . 1 3 3 -1 3 8 .
See A p p e n d ix , p . 1 3 2 .
13
The s c h o o ls w ere d iv id e d i n t o t h r e e c l a s s e s a c c o r d in g
t o t h e i r e n r o llm e n t *
The p r e s e n t s t a t u s an d t r e n d s o f t h e
h o u s in g an d e q u ip m e n t was th e n a n a ly z e d , b a s e d p r i m a r i l y upon
t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , an d s u p p le m e n te d by t h e
in f o r m a ti o n from th e v i s i t an d i n t e r v i e w .
From t h e s e com­
p l e t e f i n d i n g s , c e r t a i n reco m m en d a tio n s f o r p r o p e r h o u s in g
an d e q u ip m e n t o f h ig h s c h o o l i n s t r u m e n t a l m u sic d e p a rtm e n ts
w ere made w h ich m ig h t s e r v e as c r i t e r i o n f o r a p ro g ram o f
f u t u r e b u i l d i n g an d p u r c h a s in g o f e q u ip m e n t.
D e f i n i t i o n o f te rm s u s e d .
The f o llo w in g te rm s a r e
u s e d w ith t h e s e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s an d m e a n in g s.
1.
I n s t r u m e n t a l M u sic .
The te rm i n s t r u m e n t a l m usic
r e f e r s t o t h e m usic p ro d u c e d by b a n d , o r c h e s t r a , o r s m a l l e r
e n sem b le o f in s tr u m e n ts u s e d in b a n d an d o r c h e s t r a .
The
t r a i n i n g , t e a c h i n g , an d s u p e r v i s i n g o f t h e p r a c t i c e o f t h e s e
in s t r u m e n ts i n d i v i d u a l l y o r c o l l e c t i v e l y , a s w e ll a s p r e s e n t a ­
t i o n o f t h e same in p u b l i c p e r f o rm a n c e , a r e c o n s id e r e d among
t h e d u t i e s o f t h e t e a c h e r o f t h i s d e p a r tm e n t.
T r a i n i n g upon
p i a n o , f r e t t e d i n s t r u m e n t s , p ia n o a e c o r d i a n , an d s i m i l a r
in s t r u m e n ts i s n o t c o n s id e r e d a s p a r t o f t h i s s t u d y , o n ly i n
so much a s t h e i n s t r u m e n ts m ig h t b e a p a r t o f t h e o r c h e s t r a
o r b a n d , o r one o f i t s
e n s e m b le s , i n some o f t h e s c h o o ls
s tu d ie d .
H o u s in g .
By h o u s in g i s m eant t h e l o c a t i o n ,
14
a r r a n g e m e n t, an d f l o o r p la n o f th e m u sic room o r u n i t .
Just
a s i n o r d i n a r y c l a s s r o o m s , v e n t i l a t i o n , h e a t i n g , an d l i g h t i n g
m ust h e c o n s i d e r e d .
The n a t u r e o f t h e c l a s s e s i n t h e m usic
d e p a rtm e n t w ould n e c e s s i t a t e t h e i n c l u s i o n o f so u n d p r o o f in g
an d a c c o u s t i e a l t r e a t m e n t i n a s tu d y o f h o u s in g .
3*
E q u ip m e n t.
The eq u ip m e n t o f a m usic d e p a rtm e n t
i s l o g i c a l l y d i v i d e d i n t o t h a t w hich i s m e re ly p h y s i c a l an d
t h a t w h ich i s m u s i c a l .
I n c lu d e d i n t h e p h y s i c a l e q u ip m e n t
a r e t h e c h a i r s , s t a n d s , r i s e r s , s t e e l f i l e s , t a b l e s , and
lo c k e rs .
U n ifo rm s an d u n ifo rm c a b i n e t a r e c o n s id e r e d i n t h i s
m eaning a s w e l l .
By m u s ic a l e q u ip m e n t i s m ean t i n s t r u m e n t s ,
so u n d e q u ip m e n t, and t h e m u sic l i b r a r y .
O r g a n iz a tio n o f s u b s e q u e n t m a t e r i a l .
I n C h a p te r I I
r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e i n t h e f i e l d o f h o u s in g an d e q u ip m e n t i n
g e n e r a l , i n t h e f i e l d o f m u s ic , a s w e ll a s i n o t h e r s u b j e c t
f i e l d s , h a s b e e n s u r v e y e d , an d t h e m a jo r f i n d i n g s l i s t e d .
From t h e r e a d in g s i n t h e r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e , from
many a r t i c l e s a n d f l o o r p l a n s , from i n t e r v i e w s an d c o n s u l t a ­
t i o n s , an d from s t a n d a r d c h e c k l i s t s , s c i e n t i f i c s t a n d a r d s ,
f o r a m u sic b u i l d i n g an d i t s
eq u ip m e n t h av e b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d
i n C h a p te r I I I .
The f i n d i n g s o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e w ere p r e s e n t e d i n
C h a p te r IV .
g re a t d e ta il.
T h ese r e s u l t s h a v e b e e n c a r e f u l l y t a b u l a t e d i n
15
E v a lu a tio n an d a p p r a i s a l o f th e p r e s e n t s t a t u s o f
h o u s in g an d e q u ip m e n t. o f i n s t r u m e n t a l m usic d e p a rtm e n t h a s
b e e n made i n C h a p te r V*
T h ese c o m p a ris o n s h a v e b e e n made
i n te rm s o f t h e s ta n d a r d s a s s p e c i f i e d i n t h e t h i r d c h a p te r *
I n C h a p te r VI t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e c o m p le te i n v e s t i g a ­
t i o n h a v e b e e n b r i e f l y sum m arized*
The reco m m en d a tio n s made
a r e b a s e d on c o n c lu s io n s f o r m u la te d from t h e sam e.
CHAPTER I I
REVIEW OF RELATED INVESTIGATIONS
V ery l i t t l e
l i t e r a t u r e i n t h e f i e l d o f h o u s in g an d
eq u ip m e n t o f i n s t r u m e n t a l m usic d e p a rtm e n ts i n h ig h s c h o o ls
h as been p u b lis h e d .
T hose s u r v e y s w h ich h a v e a p p e a r e d i n th e
form s o f books o r p a r t s t h e r e o f , r e p o r t s , o r m ag azin e a r t i ­
c l e s h a v e b e e n made by c o m p e te n t a u t h o r i t i e s o r o r g a n i z a t i o n s ,
e i t h e r on t h e s c h o o l p l a n t , o r i n th e f i e l d o f m usic e d u c a ­
tio n .
T h ese r e s e a r c h e s h a v e g e n e r a l l y in c lu d e d c h e c k l i s t s
o r reco m m en d a tio n s f o r m u sic rooms w ith t h e i r f i n d i n g s .
A s e c o n d s o u r c e o f r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e was t h a t w hich
h a s b e e n r e p o r t e d i n f i n d i n g s o f r e s e a r c h e s c a r r i e d on i n
c o n n e c tio n w ith t h e s i s o r d i s s e r t a t i o n r e p o r t s .
T h ese a r e
fo u n d u n p u b lis h e d i n t h e l i b r a r i e s o f v a r i o u s u n i v e r s i t i e s .
T hose re v ie w e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r c a n be fo u n d a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y
o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a L i b r a r y .
In many i n s t a n c e s b o th o f t h e s e ty p e s o f l i t e r a t u r e
g e n e r a l l y i n c lu d e th e s tu d y o f t h e m usic rooms an d e q u ip m e n t
o n ly a s i n c i d e n t a l t o t h e b r o a d e r r e s e a r c h r e p o r t e d .
P h a se s
o f t h e p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s o f i n s t r u m e n t a l m u sic w ere r e ­
v ie w e d an d fro m them w ere g le a n e d p e r t i n e n t d a t a .
P u b lis h e d r e p o r t s on m u sic h o u s in g an d e q u ip m e n t.
M usic E d u c a tio n R e s e a rc h C o u n c il, a s a r e s u l t o f i t s
The
a tta c k
17
upon t h e s u b j e c t o f "M usic Booms an d E q u ip m e n t11, ^ h a s s e t
u p s t a n d a r d s p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r p la n n in g an d b u i l d i n g m u sic
rooms o r b u i l d i n g s and a d e q u a te ly f u r n i s h i n g them*
O b se rv a ­
t i o n s h a v e l e d t o t h e c o n c lu s io n t h a t many s c h o o ls h a v e made
o r a r e m aking one o f many common e r r o r s w h ich w ere fo u n d
p re v a le n t.
Among t h e s i x m o st common, t h e f o llo w in g a r e
l i s t e d by t h e C o u n c il*
(1 )
O rd in a r y c la s s r o o m s a r e a s s i g n e d
f o r m usic s e r v i c e w ith o u t c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f s p e c i a l r e q u i r e ­
m ents n e c e s s a r y f o r s u c c e s s f u l m u sic te a c h in g *
(2 ) O rd in a ry
c la s s r o o m s h av e b e e n r e m o d e lle d f o r u s e a s m u sic rooms w ith ­
o u t r e g a r d f o r c o n v e n ie n c e , i n t e r f e r e n c e w ith o t h e r c l a s s ­
room s, a c o u s t i c s , o r h e a l t h .
(3 ) E x p e n s iv e ly c o n s t r u c t e d
m usic rooms c a n o f t e n n o t b e u s e d b e c a u s e some f a c t o r h a s
o f t e n b e e n o v e r lo o k e d a t t h e tim e t h e b u i l d i n g was c o n s t r u c t e d ,
s u c h a s in a d e q u a te i n s u l a t i o n , common a i r d u c t s , o r r e s i l i e n t
w a lls an d c e i l i n g .
(4 ) M usic c la s s r o o m s , m usic l i b r a r y ,
in s t r u m e n t s t o r a g e rooms an d a u d ito r iu m s t a g e a r e o f t e n to o
w id e ly s e p a r a te d *
(5 ) A u d ito riu m s a r e o f t e n d e s ig n e d w ith
due r e g a r d f o r b e a u ty b u t e n t i r e l y l a c k i n g i n s e r v i c e a b i l i t y
from t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f a c o u s t i c s *
(6 ) Gymnasiums p la n n e d t o
s e r v e a l s o as m u sic ro o m s, h a v e no a c o u s t i c a l t r e a t m e n t .
N in e g e n e r a l r e q u ir e m e n ts w hich s h o u ld be c o n s id e r e d
M usic E d u c a tio n R e s e a rc h C o u n c il, "M usic Rooms a n d
E q u ip m e n t,11 B u l l e t i n No* 1 7 . 3 1 p p .
18
i n p la n n in g th e m u sic rooms a c c o r d in g t o t h e C o u n c il a r e
b r i e f l y su m m arize d ,
( l ) B eca u se o f th e f u n c t i o n o f m usic
c l a s s e s , so u n d p r o o f i n g o r i s o l a t i o n m ust be p r o p e r so a s
n o t to d is tu r b o th e r c la s s e s ,
(2 ) B e ca u se o f t h e n e c e s s a r y
ty p e o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n r e q u i r e d o f t h e m u sic s t u d e n t , t h a t o f
s e e i n g t h e m u s ic , w ords an d d i r e c t o r , t e r r a c e d f l o o r s , f a c i n g
th e d i r e c t o r a r e recom m ended,
(3 ) A d eq u a te an d s a f e s t o r a g e
s h o u ld b e p r o v id e d a d j a c e n t t o th e r e h e a r s a l rooms o f th e
band an d o r c h e s t r a f o r s c h o o l a s w e ll a s p r i v a t e owned i n ­
s tr u m e n ts ,
(4 ) M usic rooms s h o u ld b e w e l l v e n t i l a t e d , b u t
c a r e s h o u ld be ta k e n n o t t o c o n n e c t a i r d u c ts w ith o t h e r
c la s s r o o m s ,
(5 ) The m usic rooms s h o u ld b e l o c a t e d n e a r t h e
a u d ito r iu m s t a g e .
(6 ) L i g h t i n g s h o u ld be so a r r a n g e d a s t o
a v o id e y e - s t r a i n .
The l i g h t s h o u ld come from b e h in d t h e
p u p ils ,
(T) A s p a c e a l l o t m e n t o f a t l e a s t 240 c u b ic f e e t
p e r member i s recom m ended f o r m usic rooms t o a llo w f o r t h e
volum e o f so u n d p ro d u c e d by t h e s e c l a s s e s .
Rooms s h o u ld be
a c o u s tic a lly tr e a te d to le s s e n re v e rb e ra tio n s .
(9 ) P r o p e r
c a r e o f t h e m u sic l i b r a r y i s e s s e n t i a l .
In a r e s e a r c h o f “M usic i n S e n io r H ig h S c h o o l s , ” '
th e Ifcisic E d u c a tio n R e se a rc h C o u n c il fo u n d t h a t many s c h o o ls
w ere p la n n in g a more a d e q u a te h o u s in g p ro g ram f o r th e m usic
2
f c s i c E d u c a tio n R e se a rc h C o u n c il, “M usic i n S e n io r
H igh S c h o o l s , ” M usic E d u c a to r s J o u r n a l . 2 3 :2 4 , D ecem ber, 1 9 3 6 .
19
d e p a rtm e n t*
O ld B u ild in g s w ere b e in g r e c o n s t r u c t e d an d new
b u i l d i n g s p la n n e d so t h a t t h e m u sic c l a s s e s m ig h t f u n c t i o n
u n d e r b e t t e r c o n d i t i o n s w ith o u t i n t e r f e r i n g o r a n n o y in g t h e
w ork i n o t h e r c la s s r o o m s .
D e f i n i t e p r o v i s i o n s w ere b e in g
made i n a num ber o f s c h o o ls f o r i n d i v i d u a l p r a c t i c e ro o m s.
C h u rc h , i n r e p o r t i n g on t h e P r o v i s i o n s f o r M u s ic a l
A c t i v i t i e s i n New H igh S c h o o l s , f o u n d t h a t m usic rooms
i n many s c h o o ls h a d o u tg ro w n t h e i r p r e s e n t q u a r t e r s b e c a u s e
o f la c k o f v is i o n .
From t h i s h e recom m ended t h a t i n p l a n ­
n in g f o r a new u n i t , g ro w th o f t h e d e p a rtm e n t s h o u ld be
a c c u r a te ly c o n s id e re d .
F o u r rooms w hich h e c o n s id e r e d e s s e n ­
t i a l i n a w e ll f u n c t i o n i n g m u sic d e p a rtm e n t in c lu d e d a r e ­
h e a r s a l room , a g e n e r a l room , a n in s t r u m e n t room , an d i n d i v i d u a l
p r a c t i c e ro o m s.
I n p la n n in g t h e s i z e o f a r e h e a r s a l room ,
w ith v i s i o n o f t h e u l t i m a t e g ro w th o f t h e d e p a rtm e n t i n m in d ,
th e fo rm u la o f tw e n ty s q u a r e f e e t p e r p e r s o n in t h e l a r g e s t
g ro u p t o u s e t h e room , s h o u ld be u s e d .
Ten p r a c t i c e rooms
n e a r t h e r e h e a r s a l room w ere c o n s id e r e d a d e q u a te .
He com­
m en ts t h a t t o k e e p in s t r u m e n ts i n p r o p e r p i t c h , t h e room s
i n w h ich in s t r u m e n ts a r e s t o r e d and p la y e d s h o u ld b e k e p t
a t a te m p e r a tu r e o f s i x t y - e i g h t d e g r e e s , F a h r e n h e i t .
5 Norman L. C h u rc h , P r o v i s i o n s f o r M u s ic a l A c t i v i t i e s
i n New H ig h S c h o o l s , 11 A m erican S c h o o l a n d U n i v e r s i t y . 1 9 3 2 -3 3 - ,
p . 2 2 2 -2 6 .
( r e t t i n g R e s u lts w ith t h e S c h o o l Band^ hy P r e s c o t t an d
C h i d e s t e r , I s t h e r e s u l t o f w ide l i b r a r y r e s e a r c h and many
y e a r s o f e x p e r ie n c e an d o b s e r v a t i o n s o f t h e a u t h o r s .
C h a p te r s
d e a l i n g w ith h o u s in g and e q u ip m e n t o f t h e b an d a r e su m m arized
in th e s e s i g n i f i c a n t c o n c lu s io n s .
F i r s t , c r i t e r i a f o r p u r­
c h a s in g o f s c h o o l in s t r u m e n ts d ep e n d s on ( l ) t h e a b i l i t y o f
t h e b a n d c u r r ic u lu m t o a b s o r b t h e n e e d e d i n s t r u m e n t s ,
(2 )
t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e com m unity t o a b s o r b th e b an d a s a m u s ic a l
o rg a n iz a tio n ,
(3 ) th e a b i l i t y o f t h e b a n d l e a d e r t o l o c a t e
u s e d in s t r u m e n ts o f a s u p e r i o r o r f i r s t g r a d e , a n d (4 ) t h e
tim e a l l o t m e n t t o r e a c h t h e f i n a l g o a l .
S e c o n d , c a r e s h o u ld
be ta k e n t h a t l o c k e r s n o t o n ly p r o t e c t i n s t r u m e n t s , b u t a l s o
p ro m o te th e u s e o f t h e sam e.
T h i r d , u n ifo rm s s h o u ld be
p u r c h a s e d f o r t h e b an d o n ly a f t e r m u sic an d in s tr u m e n ts h a v e
b een s u p p lie d *
F o u r th , m u sic s h o u ld be s t o r e d i n s t e e l
f i l i n g c a b in e ts o f th r e e s i z e s .
F i n a l l y , t h e minimum r e q u i r e ­
m ents f o r th e h o u s in g o f m u sic s h o u ld in c lu d e a l a r g e r e h e a r ­
s a l room w ith in s tr u m e n t s t o r a g e f a c i l i t i e s , a d i r e c t o r * s
s t u d i o w h ich c o u ld be u s e d f o r e n se m b le o r i n d i v i d u a l p r a c ­
t i c e , a l i b r a r y w h ich a l s o c o u ld be u s e d f o r i n d i v i d u a l
r e h e a r s a l , and t h r e e p r a c t i c e ro o m s.
H in d s le y d e a ls w ith t h e m u sic p l a n t a n d e q u ip m e n t in
^ G e ra ld R. P r e s c o t t an d L aw rence W. C h i d e s t e r , G e t t i n g
R e s u lts w ith t h e S c h o o l B an d , p p . 1 6 5 -2 2 4 .
21
p a r t o f h i s S c h o o l Band a n d O r c h e s t r a A d m i n i s t r a t i o n The
minimum r e q u i r e m e n t s o f f l o o r s p a c e an d a c o u s t i c a l t r e a t m e n t
a re c o n sid e re d .
A s u g g e s t i o n f o r m a rk in g t h e f l o o r f o r l o c a ­
t i o n o f s t a n d s an d c h a i r s i s g i v e n .
space f o r in stru m e n ts i s p o in te d o u t.
The n e e d f o r s t o r a g e
O th e r p r o v i s i o n s w hich
s h o u l d he i n c l u d e d a r e a l i b r a r y , h an d u n if o r m s t o r a g e , o f f i c e
s p a c e , an d i n d i v i d u a l an d s e c t i o n a l p r a c t i c e ro om s.
A fe a sib le
m ethod o f h a n d l i n g e q u ip m e n t an d t h e l i b r a r y i s o u t l i n e d ,
Donovan, t h e a r c h i t e c t , i n d e v i s i n g A Method o f P r o c e d u r e an d C h e c k in g S c h e d u le f o r P l a n n i n g S c h o o l B u i l d i n g s
r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e s i z e o f a b an d o r o r c h e s t r a room s h o u l d be
a t l e a s t 15*3 s q u a re f e e t p e r p erso n in f l o o r sp ace f o r la r g e
g ro u p s o f e i g h t y o r m o re , an d f o r s m a l l e r g r o u p s , t h e s q u a r e
f o o t a g e p e r i n s t r u m e n t s h o u l d be i n c r e a s e d .
He f u r t h e r p o i n t s
o u t t h a t one o f t h e c r i t e r i a f o r a m usic room i s t h a t t h e
c e i l i n g s h o u l d be a t l e a s t one a n d one h a l f s t o r i e s i n h e i g h t .
F l o o r s , w a l l s , an d c e i l i n g s , i n t h i s d e p a r t m e n t s h o u l d be
d e a d e n e d an d d o o r s h o u l d be so u n d p r o o f .
A s e v e n by t e n room
i s s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e f o r a p r a c t i c e room.
5 Mark H. H i n d s l e y , S c h o o l Band an d O r c h e s t r a Adm in 1 s t r a t i o n (New Y ork : B oosey an d Hawkes, I n c . , 1 9 4 0 7 ,
107 p p.
6
Jo h n J o s e p h D onovan, A Method o f P r o c e d u r e an d
C h e c k in g S c h e d u le f o r P la n n i n g " S c h o o l B u i l d i n g s an d T h e i r
E q u ip m e n t. p p . 1 1 7 - 2 6 ,
22
U n p u b lis h e d r e p o r t s on m u sic rooms a n d e q u i p m e n t.
G o o d s e l l* s s u r v e y o f “The H o u sin g o f E x t r a - C u r r i c u l a r A c t i v i ­
tie s
i n t h e S e n i o r H igh School*1^ was made i n 1 9 2 8 .
In th e
f o u r t e e n Los A n g e le s h i g h s c h o o l s , h e fo u n d t h a t h an d a n d
o r c h e s t r a i n s t r u c t i o n was g e n e r a l l y g iv e n i n t h e a u d i t o r i u m .
Only i n one i n s t a n c e d i d h e f i n d a s e p a r a t e m u sic b u i l d i n g .
I n a s t u d y c o v e r i n g a l a r g e num ber o f C a l i f o r n i a s c h o o l s
by W h i s t l e r , “The O r g a n i z a t i o n an d A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f Music
o
D e p a rtm e n ts i n S e c o n d a ry S c h o o l s , 1 t h e f o l l o w i n g f i n d i n g s
w ere n o t e d .
O nly 2 5 .1 p e r c e n t o f t h e s c h o o l s h a d s e p a r a t e
m u sic b u i l d i n g s , w h ile i n 5 7 * 5 p e r c e n t o f t h e s c h o o l s , t h e
o r c h e s t r a p i t i n t h e a u d i t o r i u m was u s e d f o r b an d c l a s s e s .
The p e r c e n t a g e o f s c h o o l s owning some m u s i c a l i n s t r u m e n t s was
9 3 . 9 , an d 46 p e r c e n t o f t h e s c h o o l s owned b a n d u n i f o r m s .
B ray h a s r e v e a l e d i n *'A S u rv e y o f I n s t r u m e n t a l Music
T e a c h in g i n Kern C o u n ty 11^ t h a t t h e p r o p e r c l a s s r o o m e q u ip m e n t
i n an i n s t r u m e n t a l c l a s s s h o u l d i n c l u d e p i a n o , p h o n o g r a p h ,
7 G i l b e r t O s c a r C ro o d se ll, “The H o u sin g o f E x t r a C u r r i c u l a r A c t i v i t i e s i n t h e S e n i o r H igh S c h o o l , ” (u n p u b ­
l i s h e d M a s te r * s t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a ,
Los A n g e le s , 1 9 2 8 ) , 82 p p .
8
H a rv e y Samuel W h i s t l e r , “The O r g a n i z a t i o n an d Admin­
i s t r a t i o n o f MUsic D e p a rtm e n ts i n S e c o n d a ry S c h o o l s , “ (u n ­
p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r 's t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a ,
Los A n g e le s , 1 9 3 5 ) , 260 p p .
^ M a r j o r i e E. B r a y , “A S u rv e y o f I n s t r u m e n t a l Music
T e a c h in g i n Kern C o u n ty ," ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ’ s t h e s i s ,
U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s , 1 9 3 8 ) , 147 p p .
r a d i o , m usic f i l e s , b u l l e t i n b o a r d , b o o k c a s e s , s to r e r o o m
o r c a b i n e t f o r i n s t r u m e n t s , s to r e r o o m f o r b a n d u n i f o r m s , and
p r a c t i c e room s.
Only t w e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f t h e , s c h o o l s
s u r v e y e d i n t h i s r e p o r t met t h e s e r e q u i r e m e n t s .
She f u r t h e r
fo u n d t h a t t w e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f t h e s c h o o l s h a d s e p a r a t e
m usic b u i l d i n g s , t h i r t y - s e v e n an d f i v e - t e n t h s p e r c e n t h a d
c l a s s r o o m s r e m o d e lle d f o r i n s t r u m e n t a l m u s i c , w h i l e t h e r e ­
m a in d e r u s e d e i t h e r a u d i t o r i u m , gym nasium , o r c l a s s r o o m f o r
a r e h e a r s a l room.
CHAPTER I I I
SCIENTIFIC STANDARDS OF HOUSING- AND EQUIPMENT OF' '
AN INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC DEPARTMENT
The o u t l i n e o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s d i v i d e d i n t o s e v e r a l
p a rts,
A m usic b u i l d i n g s h o u l d p r o v i d e f o r t h e v a r i o u s
n e e d s o f a m u sic d e p a r t m e n t , t e a c h i n g o r s u p e r v i s i o n r e q u i r ­
in g a p la c e f o r r e h e a r s a l, e i t h e r f o r la r g e g ro u p s, sm a ll
g r o u p s , o r i n d i v i d u a l s , and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o r m anagem ent,
r e q u ir in g s to r a g e space f o r l i b r a r y , in s tru m e n ts , u n ifo rm s,
a n d o t h e r e q u ip m e n t, a n d a p l a c e w here t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e
f u n c t i o n s o f t h e d e p a r t m e n t c a n b e p erfo rm e d *
Each o f t h e s e
w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d u n d e r s e p a r a t e d i v i s i o n s .
I.
MAIN REHEARSAL ROOM
Inasm uch as t h e m ain r e h e a r s a l room i s t h e m ost im­
p o r t a n t p a r t o f a m usic u n i t , i t h a s been c o n s i d e r e d i n much
d e ta il.
O th e r room s, c o n s i d e r e d a s a u x i l i a r y ro o m s, h a v e
b ee n t r e a t e d l e s s m i n u t e l y .
I t m u st b e rem em bered t h a t s u c h
f a c t o r s as l i g h t i n g , h e a tin g , v e n t i l a t i o n , so u n d p ro o fin g , and
a c o u s t i c a l t r e a t m e n t , a r e s i m i l a r i n t h e v a r i o u s ro o m s, an d
c o n s e q u e n t l y h a v e b een d e s c r i b e d i n f u l l o n ly i n t h e m ain
r e h e a r s a l room.
L o c a tio n .
The p r o p e r l o c a t i o n o f an i n s t r u m e n t a l
m u sic u n i t o r b u i l d i n g i s a v e r y i m p o r t a n t m a t t e r .
The
25
f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s m ust "be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e
room :
( l ) i s o l a t i o n from r e g u l a r c l a s s rooms * an d ( 2 ) a c c e s ­
s i b i l i t y to p la c e o f p erfo rm an ce, i . e . , th e a u d ito riu m s ta g e ,
t h e gymnasium, o r t h e p r a c t i c e f i e l d .
The Music E d u c a tio n
R e s e a r c h C o u n c il s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e m usic room m ig h t be l o c a t e d
a d j a c e n t t o an d on t h e same f l o o r l e v e l w i t h t h e a u d i t o r i u m
s t a g e , o r on a f l o o r ab o v e t h e b a l a n c e o f t h e b u i l d i n g , as
c l o s e as p o s s i b l e t o t h e a u d i t o r i u m s t a g e . ^
C hu rch p o i n t s
o u t th e need o f i s o l a t i o n and a c c e s s i b i l i t y to th e s ta g e w ith
o
r e g a r d s t o t h e m usic room s.
The a d v a n t a g e s o f l o c a t i n g t h e
room w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o t h e f o o t b a l l f i e l d
i s shown by D e l v i n . ^
Many s c h o o l s a r e l o c a t i n g t h e i r m u sic b u i l d i n g d i r e c t l y
in back o f , o r a t th e s id e of th e a u d ito riu m s ta g e .
New
b u i l d i n g s , o r o l d b u i l d i n g s re m o d e le d , s h o u l d b e p l a c e d i n
t h e m ost a d v a n ta g e o u s l o c a t i o n a v a i l a b l e t o f i t t h e ab o v e
needs.
^ Music E d u c a t i o n R e s e a rc h C o u n c i l , B u l l e t i n No, i i ,
Music Rooms a n d E quipm ent (C h ic a g o : Music E d u c a t o r s N a t i o n a l
C o n f e r e n c e , 1 9 3 2 , 193& ), p . 5 .
^ Norw al C h u rc h , ’’P r o v i s i o n s f o r M u s ic a l A c t i v i t i e s
i n New H igh S c h o o l s , ” A m erican S c h o o l and U n i v e r s i t y . 1 9 3 2 -3 3 ,
p. 222.
^ M adison D e l v l n , " F a c t o r s G-ovem ing S u c c e s s i n Be­
g i n n i n g Group I n s t r u m e n t a l Music I n s t r u c t i o n , " ( u n p u b l i s h e d
M a s te r s t h e s i s . , U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a , Los
A n g e l e s , 1 9 3 6 ) , p . 60.
26
S iz e .
I n p l a n n i n g f o r t h e s i z e o f a m usic b u i l d i n g ,
s u f f i c i e n t room s h o u l d b e a l lo w e d f o r g ro w th o f t h e m u s i c a l
o rg a n iz a tio n s.
Most i n s t r u m e n t a l d e p a r t m e n t s a r e g r o w in g .
The Music E d u c a tio n R e s e a rc h C o u n c i l p o i n t s o u t “t h a t t h e
s t a n d a r d h i g h s c h o o l o r c h e s t r a .numbers 90 p l a y e r s , a s d o es
t h e s t a n d a r d h i g h s c h o o l b a n d , an d a l l s c h o o l s a r e s t r i v i n g
ii 4
t o m eet t h i s s t a n d a r d .
D o u b tle s s many s c h o o l s w i l l n e v e r
a t t a i n t h i s g o a l , w h ile o t h e r s a l r e a d y h a v e l a r g e r o r g a n i z a ­
t i o n s th a n t h o s e s u g g e s t e d .
The s i z e o f t h e r e h e a r s a l room s h o u l d be d e t e r m i n e d by
a llo w in g a t l e a s t 250 c u b ic f e e t o f a i r sp a c e p e r p e rso n
w ith a t l e a s t n in e sq u a re f e e t o f f l o o r sp ace p e r p e rs o n .
C h u rc h , i n c o n s i d e r i n g f l o o r s p a c e o n l y , s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e
/r
a v e r a g e p l a y e r n e e d s tw e n ty s q u a r e f e e t *
A c c o rd in g t o D onovan,
l a r g e g ro u p s n e e d a t l e a s t 1 7 .3 s q u a r e f e e t p e r p e r s o n , and
t h a t w i t h s m a l l e r g r o u p s , more s q u a r e f o o t a g e p e r i n s t r u m e n t
b e a l l o w e d , and t h a t t h e c e i l i n g be a t l e a s t one and one h a l f
s t o r i e s h i g f r .^
Maddy ad d s t h a t more c u b i c f o o t a g e s h o u l d be
^ Music E d u c a tio n R e s e a rc h C o u n c i l , o p . c i t . , p . 6 .
5 L o c. c i t .
^ .C h u rc h , op. c i t . . p . 224.
7 Jo h n J . Donovan, A Method o f P r o c e d u r e an d C heck­
i n g S c h e d u le f o r P l a n n i n g S c h o o l B u i l d i n g s a n d T h e i r E q u ip ­
m ent (New Y ork: The B ru c e P u b l i s h i n g Company, 19327,
p . 118.
27
a l l o w e d f o r b an d rooms t h a n f o r o r c h e s t r a b e c a u s e o f t h e
Q
i n c r e a s e d v o lu m e .
“The minimum s i z e o f a room f o r an o r g a n i z a t i o n o f
5 0 s h o u l d b e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 24 f e e t by 3 6 f e e t ,
a n d f o r an
o r g a n i z a t i o n o f 1 0 0 , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3 0 f e e t by 48 f e e t , 11
a c c o rd in g to H in d s le y .^
The N a t i o n a l C o u n c il on S c h o o l House
C o n s t r u c t i o n h a v e recommended t h a t " t h e s i z e o f t h e room
(m usic rooms) be n o t l e s s t h a n 22 f e e t t o 24 f e e t by 3 0 f e e t
t o 34 f e e t , s u b j e c t t o s u c h m o d i f i c a t i o n s a s l o c a l s i t u a ­
t i o n s may r e q u i r e ".-*-0
Mich g r e a t e r minimum r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e
s e t f o r t h by P r e s c o t t an d C h i d e s t e r , when t h e y recommend a
room 3 0 f e e t by 64 f e e t .
11
T h ese minimum r e q u i r e m e n t s s h o u l d be n o t e d , b u t t h e
h e i g h t o f t h e room and a c o u s t i c a l t r e a t m e n t o f t h e room
a r e d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e s i z e o f t h e room.
I n t h e m ain
a room s l i g h t l y l a r g e r t h a n t h e minimum r e q u i r e m e n t s w ould
b e recommended.
® J o s e p h Maddy, "M usic Booms an d E q u ip m e n t , 11 N a t i o n a l
S o c i e t y f o r S tu d y o f E d u c a t i o n . V o l. 3 5 , P a r t 2 , p . 1 7 0 .
^ Mark H. H i n d s l e y , S c h o o l Band an d O r c h e s t r a Admin­
i s t r a t i o n (New Y o rk : B oosey and Hawkes , I n c . , 1 9 4 0 ) , p . 3 5 .
•**° N a t i o n a l C o u n c il o f S c h o o l House C o n s t r u c t i o n ,
" F a c t o r s P e r t i n e n t t o S c h o o l B u i l d i n g P l a n n i n g , 11 N a t i o n a l Coun­
c i l on S c h o o l House C o n s t r u c t i o n . P r o c e e d i n g s . 1 4 :1 1 2 , 1 9 3 6 .
•*••*• G e r a ld B. P r e s c o t t an d L aw rence W. C h i d e s t e r , G e t­
t i n g R e s u l t s w i t h S c h o o l Bands (New Y ork: C a r l F i s h e r , I n c . ,
1 938), p. 202.
28
S c h o o ls w hich a r e l a r g e enough t o w a r r a n t more t h a n
one r e h e a r s a l room w i l l n a t u r a l l y p l a n f o r s u f f i c i e n t t o
m eet t h e i r n e e d , p o s s i b l y one f o r b an d a n d a n o t h e r f o r o r c h e s ­
t r a , o r one f o r e a c h t e a c h e r .
A c o u s tic a l tr e a tm e n t and sound- p r o o f in g .
The room
sh o u ld be a c o u s t i c a l l y t r e a t e d and p r o p e r ly s o u n d -p ro o fe d .
A c o u s t i c a l t r e a t m e n t i s n e c e s s a r y t o e l i m i n a t e much e c h o .
H in d sle y c o n s id e r s t h i s s u b j e c t in th e fo llo w in g la n g u a g e .
T h e re m ust be enough a i r s p a c e o r o t h e r medium t o
a b s o r b t h e volum e o f so u n d p r o d u c e d w i t h o u t e x c e s s r e ­
v e r b e r a t i o n . P l a y i n g o u t o f d o o r s away from b u i l d i n g s
w i l l i l l u s t r a t e t h e h i g h e s t d e g r e e o f a b s o r p t i o n . Com­
p l e t e a b s o r p t i o n i s n o t e n t i r e l y i d e a l , f o r t h e r e m u st
b e j u s t enough r e f l e c t i o n - t o k e e p t o n e s a l i v e an d e n ­
a b le p la y e r s to h e a r each o th e r in p ro p e r p r o p o r tio n .
H ow ever, p l a y i n g o u t o f d o o r s i s much p r e f e r r e d t o
p l a y i n g i n a s m a l l room w here i t t a k e s s e v e r a l s e c o n d s
f o r t h e to n e t o d i e away a n d w here any volum e o f so u n d
p r o d u c e s a ju m b le a n y t h i n g b u t m u s i c a l . A c o u s t i c a l
a u t h o r i t i e s p r o p o s e t h a t a s m a l l room be l i v e enough t o
s u s t a i n th e to n e f o r a p e r io d o f 1 .1 seconds a f t e r r e ­
l e a s e by t h e p l a y e r s , an d a l a r g e room o r a u d i t o r i u m 1 . 8
s e c o n d s ; any t im e bey on d t h e s e p e r i o d s i s e x c e s s i v e an d
w i l l r e s u l t in d i s t o r t i o n o f th e m u sic a l e f f e c t .
A s c i e n t i f i c s c h e d u l e o f r e v e r b e r a t i o n h a s b ee n g iv e n
by t h e Music E d u c a t i o n R e s e a rc h C o u n c i l .
The s c h e d u l e a n d
i n t r o d u c t i o n l e a d i n g t o t h e same i s c i t e d .
A c o u stic a l tre a tm e n t c o n s is ts in s u rfa c in g th e c e i l ­
i n g , w a l l s a n d / o r f l o o r w i t h m a t e r i a l s w hich a r e c a p ­
a b l e o f a b s o r b i n g so u n d waves t o a g r e a t e r o r l e s s d e ­
g r e e , t h e r e b y r e d u c i n g t h e p e r i o d o f so u n d r e v e r b e r a t i o n
^
H in d sle y , lo c . c i t .
29
t o a p o i n t w here i t c e a s e s t o be a n n o y in g t o t h e o c c u ­
p a n ts.
I t is p o s s ib le to p r a c t i c a l l y sto p a l l re v e rb e ra ­
t i o n s b u t t h i s i s c o n s i d e r e d u n d e s i r a b l e . The f o l l o w ­
i n g s c h e d u l e h a s b ee n a d o p t e d by a c o u s t i c i a n s a s m ost
d e s i r a b l e f o r s p e a k i n g a n d m usic rooms o f v a r i o u s s i z e s :
The tim e o f r e v e r b e r a t i o n s means t h e l e n g t h o f tim e s i t
t a k e s f o r a g iv e n so u n d ( f r e q u e n c y 512 v i b r a t i o n s p e r
second) to fad e t o i n a u d i b i l i t y .
SCHEDULE OF REVERBERATION12
Cubage
Below
7 ,0 0 0
7 ,0 0 0 to
2 0 .0 0 0 t o
2 0 ,0 0 0
Time o f r e v e r b e r a t i o n
1 S eco nd
1 . 1 S eco nd s
4 5 ,0 0 0
1.2
4 5 .0 0 0 t o
8 5 ,0 0 0
8 5 .0 0 0 t o 1 4 5 ,0 0 0
1 4 5 ,0 0 0 t o 2 2 5 ,0 0 0
1.3
1*4
1*5
P r a c t i c a l in fo rm a tio n co n c e rn in g a c o u s t i c a l tr e a tm e n t
has a ls o been p re s e n te d .
A m a t h e m a t i c a l f o r m u la t o d e t e r m i n e
t h e num b er o f a b s o r p t i o n u n i t s n e c e s s a r y f o r p r o p e r a c o u s t i c s
i s g iv e n .
T a b l e s o f a b s o r p t i o n u n i t s o f common m a t e r i a l s a r e
lis te d .^
The room s h o u l d b e s o u n d - p r o o f e d so t h a t r e h e a r s a l s
w i l l n o t d i s t u r b t h e w ork o f o t h e r c l a s s r o o m s o r p r a c t i c e
ro o m s.
L o c a t i o n o f t h e room w i t h r e s p e c t t o o t h e r roo m s,
l o c a t i o n o f t h e w indow s, u s e o f d o u b le d o o r s an d w indow s,
p r o v i s i o n f o r a i r s p a c e b e tw e e n l a y e r s o f w a l l , c e i l i n g an d
f l o o r m a t e r i a l s , a l lo w a n c e f o r s e p a r a t e v e n t i l a t i n g d u c t s ,
an d u s e o f a b s o r b i n g m a t e r i a l s , w i l l g r e a t l y a i d t o make
a room s o u n d - p r o o f .
12
W atson p o i n t s o u t t h a t e a c h room m ust
Jiiuslc E d u c a tio n R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l , o p . c i t
13 I b id ., p . 1 1 -1 3 .
30
be in s u l a t e d as a u n i t .
T it
He a l s o r e f e r s t o t h e u s e o f
H am lin s o u n d - p r o o f d o o r s a s “a h e a v y d o u b le d o o r w ith a
o n e - i n c h t h i c k n e s s o f h a i r f e l t i n t h e c e n t e r s ' 1, an d t o t h e
u s e o f d o u b le w i n d o w s . ^
L i g h t i n g , h e a t i n g , an d v e n t i l a t i o n .
b e made f o r a d e q u a te l i g h t i n g .
P ro v is io n sh o u ld
Windows s h o u l d b e p r o v i d e d
a t a r a t i o o f 16 t o 20 p e r c e n t o f t h e f l o o r s p a c e .
~l£Z
K oos,
H u g h es, H u ts o n , an d R e a v i s , l i s t t e n s p e c i f i c a t i o n s r e g a r d ­
i n g w indow s.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5*
6.
7.
8.
9.
Y o rk :
The room s h o u l d be u n i l a t e r a l l y l i g h t e d .
The l i g h t i n g a r e a s h o u l d b e p l a c e d on t h e lo n g a x i s
o f t h e room.
The u p p e r s a s h s h o u l d be s i x o r l e s s i n c h e s b elo w
th e c e ili n g .
The lo w e r s a s h s h o u l d n o t b e l o w e r t h a n t h e p l a n e
o f v i s i o n o f p u p i l s s e a t e d n e a r e s t t h e window.
The r a t i o o f g l a s s a r e a t o f l o o r a r e a s h o u l d be
b e tw e e n o n e - f o u r t h an d o n e - s i x t h , d e p e n d in g on t h e
in te n s ity o f illu m in a tio n .
E ast-a n d -w est f e n e s tr a tio n i s p r e f e r a b le to n o r th a n d -so u th .
The w id th o f a u n i l a t e r a l l y - l i g h t e d c l a s s r o o m s h o u l d
n o t b e more t h a n t w i c e i t s h e i g h t , w hich i s n o r m a l l y
12 f e e t .
The l e n g t h o f t h e c l a s s r o o m s h o u l d be d e t e r m i n e d by
th e d e s ire d s e a tin g c a p a c ity .
The w a l l s o f t h e c l a s s r o o m s h o u l d b e o f a c o l o r
w ith a l i g h t r e f l e c t i n g f a c t o r o f n o t le s s th a n 30
p e r c e n t an d n o t more t h a n 5 0 p e r c e n t .
F lo y d Rowe W atson , A c o u s t i c s o f B u i l d i n g s
Jo h n W ile y an d S o n s , 1 9 3 0 } , p . 125 .
15 I b i d . , p . 12 9 .
D onovan, o p . c i t .
(New
31
10.
The c e i l i n g o f t h e c l a s s r o o m s h o u ld be o f a c o l o r
w ith a l i g h t r e f l e c t i n g f a c t o r o f n o t l e s s t h a n
7 0 p e r c e n t . 1?
A r t i f i c i a l l i g h t i n g sh o u ld be i n d i r e c t .
R ecent u ses
o f th e r h e o s ta t to a u to m a tic a lly c o n tr o l th e a r t i f i c i a l
l i g h t i n g s h o u l d p r o v e v e r y v a l u a b l e i n m usic ro o m s, w h ere
th e b e s t lig h t in g is e s s e n t i a l .
P ro p er v e n t ila tio n is very n e c e ssa ry in th e r e h e a rs a l
room a s i t i s anyw here e l s e .
H e a tin g i s
j u s t as e s s e n t i a l .
The t e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e room s h o u l d re m a in c o n s t a n t b o t h
w i n t e r and summer, f i r s t f o r t h e h e a l t h o f t h e s t u d e n t , an d
s e c o n d , t o k ee p t h e i n s t r u m e n t i n t h e b e s t c o n d i t i o n an d i n
th e b e s t p i t c h . A
te m p e ra tu re o f s i x t y - e i g h t d eg rees
F a h r e n h e i t i s commonly s u g g e s t e d .
C a re m ust b e t a k e n t o a r ­
r a n g e t h a t t h e h e a t i n g a n d v e n t i l a t i n g s y s te m s do n o t c o n d u c t
t h e n o i s e s from t h e room e l s e w h e r e .
XI.
AUXILIARY ROOMS
Inasm uch a s a u x i l i a r y rooms a r e n o t a s e s s e n t i a l a s
t h e m ain r e h e a r s a l room , t h e y w i l l b e t r e a t e d i n l e s s d e t a i l .
Some o r a l l may b e co m bined w here f a c i l i t i e s a r e l a c k i n g ;
h o w e v e r, w here i t i s p o s s i b l e , a s many as c a n f e a s i b l y b e
in c lu d e d , sh o u ld be p ro v id e d f o r in th e p la n s .
Where
3-7 L e o n a rd V. K o o s, James M. H ug hes, P e r c i v a l W. H u ts o n ,
W i llia m C. R e a v i s , A d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e S e c o n d a ry S c h o o l (New
Y ork: A m erican Book Company, 1946")," p p . 5 0 7 - 5 0 8 .
^
C hurch, op. c i t . , p . 2 2 5 .
32
a u x i l i a r y rooms a r e t o b e c o m b in e d , t h e s i z e o f t h e room
s h o u l d be i n c r e a s e d .
A l l rooms s h o u l d b e l o c a t e d n e a r t h e
m ain r e h e a r s a l room.
C a re s h o u l d b e t a k e n t h a t a l l rooms
a r e p r o p e r l y l i g h t e d , h e a t e d , an d v e n t i l a t e d , an d t h a t t h o s e
w h ich a r e t o b e u s e d f o r p r a c t i c e p u r p o s e s , b e p r o p e r l y so u n d ­
p ro o fe d and t r e a t e d f o r a c o u s t i c s .
The f o l l o w i n g a u x i l i a r y
rooms a r e c o n s i d e r e d .
E nsem ble p r a c t i c e ro o m s.
S e v e r a l rooms s h o u l d be
p r o v i d e d f o r en sem b le o r g ro u p p r a c t i c e .
T h ese m ig h t v a r y
i n s i z e from t e n by tw e l v e t o t h e s i z e o f a r e g u l a r c l a s s ­
room.
The rooms may b e u s e d f o r s m a l l e n s e m b le o r s e c t i o n a l
re h e a rsa ls.
I t w ould be w e l l t o p l a n f o r a t l e a s t t h r e e
s u c h rooms so t h a t t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e m ain p r a c t i c e room , a l l
f o u r s e c tio n s o f th e o r c h e s tr a c o u ld re h e a rs e sim u lta n e o u sly
when t h e n e e d a r o s e .
an d c h a i r s a v a i l a b l e .
The rooms s h o u l d h a v e s u f f i c i e n t s t a n d s
I t w ould b e w e l l t o h a v e a p ia n o i n a t
l e a s t one o f t h e s e ro o m s, a n d d e s i r a b l e t o h a v e one i n e a c h .
T h e re s h o u l d b e a d o u b le g l a s s window b e tw e e n t h e p r a c t i c e
room and t h e m ain r e h e a r s a l room, so t h a t t h e d i r e c t o r can
b e t t e r s u p e r v i s e t h e i n d i v i d u a l o r en se m b le p r a c t i c e .
The
room s h o u l d l e n d t o an a tm o s p h e r e w hich i s c o n d u c iv e t o good
work*
I n d i v i d u a l p r a c t i c e ro o m s.
A row o f s i x t o t e n o r
m ore i n d i v i d u a l p r a c t i c e rooms a l o n g one s i d e o f t h e r e h e a r s a l
33
room o r i n a c o r r i d o r n e a r b y , becomes v e r y h e l p f u l t o a
m usic d e p a r tm e n t*
H ere s t u d e n t s c a n do t h e i r home p r a c t i c e
o r work o u t some p a r t i c u l a r p r o b le m .
A room s i x by e i g h t
f e e t o r e i g h t by t e n f e e t w i l l accomm odate two o r t h r e e s t u ­
d e n ts *
Only t h e n e c e s s a r y c h a i r s an d s t a n d s a r e ' n e e d e d .
It
w ou ld b e w e l l t o h a v e a m i r r o r i n t h e room t o h e l p s t u d e n t s
c o r r e c t o r check t h e i r p o s it io n s .
C e r t a i n c h a r t s , s u c h as
f i n g e r i n g c h a r t s , w o uld be h e l p f u l t o t h e s t u d e n t s .
Myron
has th e fo llo w in g to say in d is c u s s in g th e v a lu e o f th e
e n se m b le an d i n d i v i d u a l p r a c t i c e room s,
" i n d i v i d u a l an d
en se m b le p r a c t i c e im m e d ia te ly w ent t o a new h i g h o nce t h e
new s o u n d - p r o o f e d q u a r t e r s becam e a r e a l i t y
. . .
a t le a st
7 5 p e r c e n t more work i s b e i n g done an d w i t h f a r l e s s n e r v o u s
a n d p h y s i c a l f a t i g u e 11
I n m aking a r e p o r t o f a m usic u n i t ,
L ang w orthy p o i n t e d o u t t h a t "on e i m p o r t a n t o m is s io n h a s o c c u r r e d .
The s c h o o l was n o t p r o v i d e d s p a c e f o r p u p i l s t o t a k e p r i v a t e
le sso n s d u rin g schoo l h o u rs.
t h e . * . m usic p r o g ra m " .
D ir e c to r 's o f f i c e .
T h is w i l l be t h e n e x t s t e p i n
20
The d i r e c t o r ' s o f f i c e s h o u l d b e
a d j a c e n t t o t h e r e h e a r s a l room.
The o f f i c e s h o u l d b e e q u ip p e d
^ J . P . Myron, " I n t h e Mood f o r I & is ic ," N a t i o n 's
S c h o o l . 2 2 : 5 0 , O c to b e r , 1938.
2 0 H. W. L a n g w o rth y , " J u n i o r H igh S c h o o l Music U n i t , "
J u n i o r - S e n i o r H igh S c h o o l C l e a r i n g H o u s e . 4 : 2 1 6 , D ecem ber, 1 9 2 9 .
34
w ith a d e s k , s e v e r a l c h a i r s , s h e l v e s , a n d c a b i n e t s , t o m eet
th e re q u ire m e n t o f th e d i r e c t o r .
P r o p e r e q u ip m e n t t o a d e ­
q u a t e l y p e r f o r m t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a n d c l e r i c a l work o f t h e
d e p a r t m e n t m ig h t i n c l u d e a t y p e w r i t e r , d u p l i c a t o r o f some
k i n d , t e l e p h o n e , and f i l e s , w h ere r e c o r d s c a n be k e p t , d e ­
p e n d in g on t h e n e e d o f t h e d e p a r t m e n t .
P r o f e s s i o n a l b o ok s
an d r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l s h o u l d b e n e a r a t h a n d .
I f th e o f f i c e i s u se d as a s t u d i o , i t sh o u ld be
p r o p e r l y s o u n d - p r o o f e d an d t r e a t e d f o r a c o u s t i c s .
A fu ll-
s i z e d m i r r o r s h o u l d be a f i x t u r e , so t h a t s t u d e n t s c o u l d be
shown t h e i r m i s t a k e s .
Where p r o v i s i o n f o r a s e p a r a t e so u n d
c o n t r o l e q u ip m e n t i s d e s i r a b l e , i t c o u l d b e p e r m a n e n tly
lo c a te d h e re .
C e n t r a l so u n d s y s t e m s , w i t h tw o-w ay communica­
t i o n p o s s i b l e t o t h e v a r i o u s p r a c t i c e rooms o f t h e b u i l d i n g
h a v e b e e n r e p o r t e d b y H a r p e r ^ a n d H a ls e y 2 2 .
P r o v i s i o n s h o u l d be made f o r a c l o s e t t o h a n g t h e
d i r e c t o r s u n i f o r m , t o p c o a t , and o t h e r c l o t h i n g .
At L o d i,
C a l i f o r n i a , H ig h S c h o o l, a p r i v a t e s h o w e r a n d r e s t room
a re p ro v id e d n e x t to th e d i r e c t o r ’s o f f i c e .
23
The s i z e o f t h e o f f i c e s h o u l d b e a t l e a s t t e n b y
2 3* J . C. H a r p e r , “B u i l t f o r t h e B a n d , 11 N a t i o n ’s S c h o o l .
2 3 : 6 4 , A p r i l , 1 93 9.
2 2 S . A. H a l s e y , “L o d i , C a l i f o r n i a , U nion H igh S c h o o l
B u i l d s f o r M u s i c , ” The S c h o o l M u s i c i a n . 1 0 : 2 1 , A p r i l , 19 39.
25 I b i d . . p . 2 2 .
35
tw elv e f e e t o r l a r g e r .
L ib ra ry .
The l i b r a r y s h o u l d h o u s e a l l t h e m usic
l i t e r a t u r e o f th e d e p a rtm e n t.
I t s f u r n is h in g s sh o u ld i n ­
c l u d e l a r g e s t e e l f i l i n g c a b i n e t s t o f i l e t h e s h e e t m u s ic ,
b u i l t i n p ig e o n h o l e d c a b i n e t s t o f i l e c o l l e c t i o n s , - c a b i n e t s
t o s t o r e p h o n o g ra p h r e c o r d s , an d s h e l v e s t o be u s e d f o r an y
m a g azin es, b o o k s, o r o th e r l i t e r a t u r e a v a ila b le f o r s tu d e n t
c irc u la tio n .
O th e r f u r n i s h i n g s s h o u l d i n c l u d e a s o r t i n g r a c k ,
r u b b e r s t a m p s , c a r d in d e x f i l e s , a t a b l e o r tw o , an d a f o l d e r
c a b i n e t on w h e e ls , t o be moved i n t o t h e m ain r e h e a r s a l room
b efo re p r a c tic e .
S t e e l f i l i n g c a b i n e t s may b e p u r c h a s e d i n
t h r e e s i z e s , t h e r e g u l a r s i z e o f 1 0 ” b y 1 2 ” t o f i l e m arch es
a n d o c t a v o m u s ic , t h e l e g a l s i z e , 1 0 -§-M by 1 5 ” t o f i l e t h e
l a r g e A m erican p u b l i c a t i o n s , a n d t h e jumbo s i z e , 1 4 ^ 11 b y
1 8 ” f o r f o r e i g n p u b l i c a t i o n s . 2^
The s i z e o f t h e m usic l i b r a r y w i l l v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l y
w i t h t h e s i z e an d num ber o f m u s i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and t h e i r
g e n e ra l m u sical a b i l i t y .
I t o u g h t t o i n c l u d e g ro u p b e g i n n i n g
m e th o d s , t e c h n i c a l s t u d i e s , b o t h e l e m e n t a r y an d a d v a n c e d ,
g r a d e d c o l l e c t i o n s from e a s y t o d i f f i c u l t m u sic i n s e v e r a l
s i z e s , a n d q u i t e an a s s o r t m e n t o f s e p a r a t e o r c h e s t r a t i o n s
a n d b a n d - s t r a t i o n s f o r b a n d and o r c h e s t r a .
Oh
T h ese s h o u ld be
^ P r e s c o tt and C h id e s te r , o£. c i t . . p . 169.
36
g r a d e d i n s u c h a m an ner t h a t p r o p e r p r o g r e s s a n d g ro w th c a n
ta k e p la c e in a l l o r g a n iz a tio n s o f th e d e p a rtm e n t.
In c lu d e d
in th e in d iv i d u a l o r c h e s t r a t i o n s sh o u ld be m a rc h es, w a lt z e s ,
o v e r t u r e s , s e l e c t i o n s , m e d le y s , n o v e l t y p i e c e s , a c c o m p a n i­
m en ts t o s o l o s , s u i t e s , a n d many o t h e r t y p e s o f m u s ic .
A s id e from t h i s ,
i n d i v i d u a l m eth od s and s o l o s f o r
v a r i o u s i n s t r u m e n t s o u g h t t o b e a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e an d
s u p p le m e n t a r y m a t e r i a l .
Music f o r v a r i o u s e n s e m b le s s h o u l d
a ls o be in c lu d e d in t h e l i b r a r y o f m u sic .
A l l t h e m usic s h o u l d
b e c a t a l o g u e d a n d in d e x e d .
" I t i s f u n d a m e n ta l t h a t t h e b a n d l e a d e r d e c i d e upon
th e u ltim a te in s tru m e n ta tio n f o r h is band and p u rch ase a l l
m usic a c c o r d i n g l y . " 2 -*
M a g a z in e s , b o o k s , b u l l e t i n s , c a t a l o g s , and o t h e r
l i t e r a t u r e o f i n t e r e s t to th e s tu d e n t, sh o u ld be f i l e d h e r e .
T h is l i t e r a t u r e s h o u l d b e made a v a i l a b l e f o r e a s y d i s t r i b u ­
tio n .
P h o n o g ra p h r e c o r d s i n t h e l i b r a r y s h o u l d i n c l u d e s t a n d ­
a r d b a n d a n d o r c h e s t r a m u s i c , some o f t h e p i e c e s w hich t h e
o rg a n iz a tio n s a re stu d y in g , v a rio u s so lo s o f d if f e r e n t o r­
c h e s t r a l a n d b a n d i n s t r u m e n t s , s t a n d a r d t e s t s , an d r e c o r d i n g s
o f th e m u sical o rg a n iz a tio n s o f th e s c h o o l.
T h re e t y p e s o f f o l d e r s s h o u l d b e p r o v i d e d f o r t h e
2 ~* I b i d . , p . 165*
37
m u s ic .
In t h e f i r s t p l a c e , m u sic i n t h e l i b r a r y s h o u l d b e
p l a c e d i n f o l d e r s f o r f i l i n g ; s e c o n d l y , m usic i n d a i l y u s e
s h o u l d b e k e p t i n l a r g e f o l d e r s ; a n d t h i r d l y , m u sic t a k e n
home b y s t u d e n t s , s h o u l d b e p l a c e d i n s p e c i a l f o l d e r s f o r
p ro te c tio n .
I n s t r u m e n t s t o r a g e room .
I t i s recommended t h a t t h e
i n s t r u m e n t s t o r a g e room b e l o c a t e d n e a r t h e p r a c t i c e room.
T h is e n c o u r a g e s b e t t e r c a r e o f i n s t r u m e n t s .
Where t h e r e h e a r ­
s a l room i s n e x t t o t h e a u d i t o r i u m , t h e Music E d u c a t o r s Re­
s e a r c h C o u n c il s u g g e s t t h a t t h e i n s t r u m e n t room b e p l a c e d
b e tw e e n t h e t w o . 2 ^
The room s h o u l d b e l o n g e r t h a n i t i s w id e ,
a b o u t f i f t e e n b y tw e n ty f e e t , an d p r o v i d e s t o r a g e a l o n g t h e
two w a l l s . 2*^ Windows may b e p l a c e d a t t h e ends o r a l o n g one
sid e o v er th e lo c k e rs .
f o r a l l in stru m e n ts.
I n d i v i d u a l l o c k e r s s h o u l d be a v a i l a b l e
L o c k e rs s h o u l d b e o f v a r i o u s s i z e s ;
t h o s e s m a l l enough t o s t o r e f l u t e , o b o e , c l a r i n e t , c o m e t ,
an d t h e l i k e , t h e n t h o s e l a r g e r f o r tr o m b o n e , v i o l i n , v i o l a ,
a n d s a x o p h o n e , an d t h e n t h o s e l a r g e en ou gh f o r t h e b a r i t o n e ,
f r e n c h h o r n , u p r i g h t b a s s e s , and d ru m s.
C e llo s and s t r i n g
b a s s e s s h o u l d be i n an u p r i g h t p o s i t i o n , p r e f e r a b l y h u n g by
t h e i r s c r o l l from a s t r a p .
S o u sa p h o n e s c a n e i t h e r be p l a c e d
l&isic E d u c a to r s R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l , o p . c i t . . p . 4 .
I b id . . p . 9.
38
i n c a b i n e t s o r h u n g from h o o k s on t h e w a l l s .
A sp e c ia l
c a b i n e t , p r e f e r a b l y on r o l l e r s , c o u l d be u s e d t o s t o r e a l l
t h e m i s c e l l a n e o u s drum e q u ip m e n t.
Ample c o n s i d e r a t i o n m ust
b e g iv e n f o r t h e p r o b a b l e g ro w th o f t h e d e p a r t m e n t , so t h a t
t h e s t o r i n g f a c i l i t i e s w i l l b e a d e q u a t e f o r t h e f u t u r e as
w e ll as f o r th e p r e s e n t.
I t i s a d v i s a b l e t o h a v e some o f t h e s e l o c k e r s b u i l t
i n t o t h e m ain r e h e a r s a l room t o s t o r e s u c h i n s t r u m e n t s as
t y m p a n l, b a s s drum , h a r p , c h im e s , and o t h e r b u lk y i n s t r u ­
m en ts w hich a r e d i f f i c u l t t o move.
L o c k e rs n e e d n o t b e l o c k e d i f t h e i n s t r u m e n t room I s
p ro p e rly s u p e rv is e d .
A c u s t o d i a n m ig h t c h e c k a l l i n s t r u ­
m en ts i n and o u t e a c h p e r i o d .
I f , h o w e v e r, t h e room i s
a c c e s s i b l e t o a l l s t u d e n t s , an d t h e room c a n n o t b e o b s e r v e d
by t h e s u p e r v i s o r , i t i s a d v i s a b l e t o h a v e l o c k s .
A lth o u g h
i n s t r u m e n t s m ig h t n o t b e s t o l e n , t h e y m ig h t be damaged by a
c u r i o u s p e r s o n , o r p a r t s m ig h t b e t a k e n , o r more f r e q u e n t l y ,
t h e i n s t r u m e n t u s e d w i t h o u t t h e o w n e r ’s p e r m i s s i o n , w hich
c o n s titu te s p o ssib ly th e b ig g e s t o ffen se to school o r p riv a te
owned i n s t r u m e n t s .
C a re s h o u l d b e t a k e n t h a t t h e t e m p e r a t u r e be k e p t a s
c o n s t a n t a s p o s s i b l e i n t h e i n s t r u m e n t s t o r a g e room an d t h a t
p r o p e r v e n t i l a t i o n be m a i n t a i n e d , t o k ee p t h e i n s t r u m e n t s
in th e b e s t c o n d itio n .
U n ifo rm s t o r a g e room *
The u n if o r m s t o r a g e room s h o u l d
h o u s e a l l u n if o r m s o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l d e p a r t m e n t i n a d u s t p r o o f and i f p o s s i b l e i n a e e d a r i z e d m o th - p r o o f c l o s e t .
The
c a b i n e t a l o n g one o r two w a l l s , s h o u l d b e l a r g e eno ug h t o g i v e
s u f f i c i e n t room f o r a l l u n if o r m s w i t h o u t crow ding*
C o a ts,
c a p e s , an d t r o u s e r s , may be h un g from h a n g e r s , w h ile c a p s c a n
b e s t o r e d on s h e l v e s , i n d r a w e r s , o r b e t t e r y e t , i n i n d i v i ­
d u a l p ig e o n h o l e c o m p a r tm e n ts .
The room m ig h t c o n t a i n s e v e r a l
d r e s s i n g b o o t h s , w here u n if o r m s c o u l d be t r i e d o n , a f u l l s i z e d m i r r o r , to check th e f i t , a c le a n f l o o r , p r e f e r a b l y
c a r p e t e d , a l a r g e t a b l e , a n d a lo n g b a r o r t u b i n g , upo n w hich
t h e u n if o r m s on h a n g e r s c o u l d be h u n g f o r s o r t i n g , c h e c k i n g ,
and v e n t i l a t i o n .
I t w ould be w e l l t o h a v e a v a i l a b l e i n t h i s
room a c l o t h e s b r u s h , s p o t re m o v e r, moth b a i l s and s p r a y , a
m e a s u r in g t a p e , n e e d l e a n d t h r e a d , an d e x t r a b u t t o n s .
A c h a ir,
t a b l e , an d m a t e r i a l n e c e s s a r y f o r r e c o r d s s h o u l d n a t u r a l l y b e
a t th e d isp o s a l of th e c u sto d ia n s.
The num b er and t y p e o f t h e u n i f o r a s w i l l d ep e n d on
t h e s i z e o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n t o b e o u t f i t t e d , and t o t h e
funds a v a i l a b l e .
P r e s c o t t an d C h i d e s t e r d i s c u s s t h r e e t y p e s
o f u n i f o r m s a n d s u g g e s t s e v e r a l ways in w h ich fu n d s f o r t h e i r
p u r c h a s e m ig h t b e r a i s e d .
28
A l l b a n n e r s and f l a g s o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s s h o u l d b e
P r e s c o t t an d C h i d e s t e r , o p . c i t . , p . 2 0 7 - 1 1 .
s to r e d h ere as w e ll.
Work s h o p .
A w ork sh o p s h o u l d he p r o v i d e d r e a r t h e
d i r e c t o r ’ s o f f i c e o r t h e i n s t r u m e n t room i n many i n s t a n c e s .
W h e th e r t h i s h e a s e p a r a t e room o r p a r t o f a n o t h e r room i s
n o t e s s e n t i a l , h u t p r o v i s i o n s h o u l d he made f o r m in o r r e ­
p a irs.
H ere em erg en cy r e p a i r s t o i n s t r u m e n t s c o u l d h e made,
s u c h as p u t t i n g i n a p a d i n a c l a r i n e t o r s a x o p h o n e , t a k i n g
o u t a m o u th p ie c e o r s l i d e from a h r a s s i n s t r u m e n t , o r s e t t i n g
a so u n d p o s t i n t h e s t r i n g I n s t r u m e n t .
Many d i r e c t o r s , b e ­
c a u s e o f t h e i r d i s t a n c e from c o m p e te n t r e p a i r s h o p s , h a v e t o
m e et many o f t h e s e e m e r g e n c ie s w i t h o u t p r o p e r f a c i l i t i e s ,
an d t h e s e e m e r g e n c ie s h a v e t h e h a h i t o f g e n e r a l l y o c c u r i n g
j u s t b e fo re a p erfo rm an ce.
B a re n d s e n e x p r e s s e d t h i s a s
fo llo w s;
The p ro b le m o f k e e p i n g s c h o o l owned i n s t r u m e n t s i n
good r e p a i r h a s b e e n d i f f i c u l t one i n l o c a l i t i e s w here
an e x p e r t r e p a i r man i s n o t a v a i l a b l e . Many m u s i c i a n s
do n o t know t h a t m ost o f t h e r e p a i r s t o s t r i n g e d i n s t r u ­
m e n ts , a n d many o f t h o s e common t o woodwin an d h r a s s
i n s t r u m e n t s , c a n h e made i n an o r d i n a r y w orkshop by
any on e w i t h m e c h a n i c a l a b i l i t y .
Many good i n s t r u m e n t s
a r e l a i d a s i d e b e c a u s e t h e m usic s u p e r v i s o r o r s c h o o l
a u t h o r i t i e s do n o t know t h a t t h e y ca n be s a t i s f a c t o r i l y
r e p a i r e d . . . w ith v e ry l i t t l e e x p e n se . ^
T h is room s h o u l d be e q u ip p e d w i t h a l o c k e d t o o l c a s e
w i t h t h e minimum num ber o f i n s t r u m e n t r e p a i r t o o l s , a w ork
29 a . L. B a r e n d s e n , i n J . E. Maddy a n d T. P, G -id d in g s,
I n s t r u m e n t a l T e c h n iq u e ( C i n c i n n a t i : W i l l i s Music C o ., 1 9 2 6 ) ,
P. 203.
b e n c h w i t h a v i s e , a s i n k , a b u n so n b u r n e r o r g as p l a t e , a n d
a lc o h o l to be used f o r s t e r i l i z a t i o n o f in stru m e n ts.
The
num ber o f t h e t o o l s w i l l d ep e n d on s u c h f a c t o r s as a v a i l a ­
b i l i t y o f a good r e p a i r man a n d num ber a n d k in d o f i n s t r u ­
m e n ts .
The r e p a i r t o o l s m ig h t i n c l u d e r e e d tr im m e r s f o r
c l a r i n e t an d s a x o p h o n e s , so u n d p o s t s e t t e r s , sc re w d r i v e r s ,
s p r i n g h o o k p l i e r s o f s e v e r a l s i z e s , hammer, f i l e , oboe r e e d
m aking k i t , k n i f e , s o l d e r i n g i r o n , m e t a l r e p a i r clam p s an d
th e lik e .
I t i s a d v i s a b l e t o h a v e a p a i n t b r u s h , p a i n t , and
a s t e n c i l o f t h e d e p a r t m e n t , s o t h a t s c h o o l i n s t r u m e n t s can
b e m arked f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n .
An e l e c t r i c e n g r a v i n g n e e d l e
may b e u s e d t o mark b r a s s i n s t r u m e n t s a n d m o u t h p i e c e s .
T h is
work c o u l d b e managed by a c o m p e te n t boy w i t h some s h o p a s
w e l l a s m u sic e x p e r i e n c e , u n d e r t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f t h e t e a c h e r .
S ta g e .
A sm a ll s ta g e in th e f r o n t o f th e r e h e a r s a l
h a l l w o uld b e an a s s e t t o t h e d e p a r t m e n t i f s u f f i c i e n t room
is a v a ila b le .
S t r a y e r an d E n g e l h a r t recommend t h a t a " s t a g e
o r p l a t f o r m s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d i n t h e f r o n t o f t h e room
s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e t o h o l d two p i a n o s " .^ 0
I t n e e d n o t be
l a r g e o r e l a b o r a t e , b u t i t w ou ld g i v e c o n f i d e n c e t o t h e
s o l o i s t o r e n se m b le t o p r a c t i c e on i t when a p p e a r i n g b e f o r e
3 0 <jeorge p # S t r a y e r a n d N ic k o la u s L . E n g e l h a r d t ,
S t a n d a r d s f o r H igh S c h o o l B u i l d i n g s (New Y o rk: B u re a u o f
P u b l i c a t i o n s , T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , C o lu m b ia , 1 9 2 4 ) , p . 6 4 .
42
th e c l a s s , te a c h in g a ls o such th in g s as p r o p e r s ta g e e n tra n c e ,
m a n n e r s , an d e x i t s .
N e c e s s a r y f i x t u r e s w ould i n c l u d e f o o t ­
l i g h t s , o v e r - h e a d l i g h t s an d a c u r t a i n i n t h e f r o n t o f t h e
sta g e .
The m ain r e h e a r s a l room c o u l d i n t h i s m an n er be
u se d as a sm a ll r e c i t a l h a l l .
M i s c e l l a n e o u s s t o r a g e room .
S t o r a g e rooms a r e n o t
a r e q u i s i t e , b u t c a n b e u s e d t o good a d v a n t a g e , e s p e c i a l l y
i f t h e d e p a r t m e n t h a s p r o p e r t i e s f o r p e r f o r m a n c e s , s u c h as
m ovable r i s e r s ,
e x t r a s t a n d s an d c h a i r s , o r c h e s t r a l i g h t s ,
m e g ap h o n es, an d odds a n d e n d s .
S e v e ra l l a r g e c a b in e t s sh o u ld
b e b u i l t i n t o s u c h a room w i t h s h e l v e s a r r a n g e d t o s t o r e
t h o s e a r t i c l e s w h ich t h e d e p a r t m e n t m ig h t w is h t o k e e p t h e r e .
T hese p r o p e r t i e s c a n b e s t o r e d e l s e w h e r e , b u t i f t h e s p a c e
i s a v a i l a b l e , one room f o r odds an d en d s i s a d v i s a b l e .
R e s t rooms an d d r i n k i n g f o u n t a i n .
L a v a to rie s f o r
b o y s , g i r l s , a n d f a c u l t y members s h o u l d be w i t h i n c l o s e
p r o x i m i t y o f t h e r e h e a r s a l room*
A d r in k in g f o u n ta in sh o u ld be lo c a te d j u s t i n s i d e o r
o u t s i d e o f t h e m ain r e h e a r s a l room.
D r e s s i n g ro o m s.
Where s t u d e n t s d r e s s i n t o t h e i r
b a n d u n if o r m a t s c h o o l im m e d ia te l y b e f o r e a c o n c e r t o r
p a r a d e , an d c h a n g e b a c k i n t o t h e i r s t r e e t c l o t h e s a f t e r ­
w a r d s , d r e s s i n g rooms n e a r t h e u n i f o r m room s h o u l d b e
p la n n e d *
They s h o u l d h a v e c l o t h e s h o o k s a l o n g t h e w a l l ,
h a v e a c a r p e t e d f l o o r , an d h e s u p p l i e d w ith c h a i r s *
How­
e v e r , w i t h many o t h e r a u x i l i a r y rooms a v a i l a b l e , some o f
t h e s e o t h e r rooms c o u l d be u t i l i z e d f o r t h i s p u r p o s e .
Many o f t h e above m e n tio n e d rooms c o u l d be u s e d f o r
s e v e ra l p urposes.
N e a r ly a l l c o u l d b e u s e d f o r s m a ll p r a c ­
t i c e o r e n s e m b le room s.
b e com bined*
The l i b r a r y an d o f f i c e m ig h t e a s i l y
The s e v e r a l s t o r a g e rooms c o u l d be co m b in ed .
The w ork sh o p m ig h t b e a p a r t o f t h e o f f i c e o r i n s t r u m e n t
s t o r a g e room.
III.
PRACTICE FIELD
A p r a c t i c e f i e l d s h o u l d be a t t h e b a n d ' s d i s p o s a l
f o r m a rc h in g and p a r a d e p r a c t i c e .
A fo o tb a ll f ie ld , lin e d
e v e r y f i v e o r t e n y a r d s , w i t h f i f t e e n y a r d l i n e from t h e
s i d e o f t h e f i e l d , i s one o f t h e b e s t p l a c e s f o r m a rc h in g
p ra c tic e .
A rra n g e m e n ts s h o u l d be made w i t h t h e p h y s i c a l
e d u c a tio n d ep artm en t f o r a r e g u l a r sc h e d u le o f th e f i e l d .
The f i e l d s h o u l d be l o c a t e d so t h a t a r e h e a r s a l on i t w i l l
n o t a t t r a c t t h e a t t e n t i o n from o t h e r c l a s s e s .
P ro v is io n s
a r e made f o r a s p e c i a l b a n d f i e l d i n some s c h o o l s .
Where
s u c h i d e a l c o n d i t i o n s do n o t e x i s t , e f f o r t s h o u l d be made
t o u s e some t y p e o f l e v e l p l a y g r o u n d , p r e f e r a b l y one w i t h
a g rass tu r f .
44
IV.
F u rn itu re .
FURNITURE AND EQUIPMENT
The rooms s h o u l d he e q u i p p e d w i t h s u f ­
f i c i e n t c h a i r s a n d s t a n d s t o accom m odate t h e l a r g e s t g r o u p
e n r o l l e d a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , w i t h a few t o s p a r e .
A u th o ri­
t i e s d i f f e r as t o w h e t h e r c h a i r s s h o u l d h e c o l l a p s i b l e o r
n o n - c o l l a p s i h l e , m ost o f them f a v o r i n g t h e l a t t e r .
A ll c h a irs
m ust he m ovable an d t h e y s h o u l d h e b o u g h t f o r c o m f o r t a s w e l l
as f o r u t i l i t y .
C a re m ust he t a k e n t h a t c h a i r s a r e n o t n o i s y
when t h e y a r e moved o r u s e d by t h e s t u d e n t s .
S ta n d s s h o u l d h e a d j u s t a b l e , b o t h t o h e i g h t an d a n g l e ,
an d h a v e a h e a v y m e ta l b a s e .
T h e a tre l i g h t s ought to be
a v a i l a b l e f o r them a n d e a s i l y a t t a c h e d when n e c e s s a r y .
The
c o n d u c t o r s h o u l d h av e a symphony m odel s t a n d , a p o d iu m , a
s m a l l t a b l e n e a r h i s s t a n d , and a s t o o l made t o f i t h i s
h e ig h t.
S t o o l s s h o u ld a l s o be a v a i l a b l e f o r b a s s p l a y e r s
an d drummers who m ust s t a n d d u r i n g t h e r e h e a r s a l .
R i s e r s , b u i l t s e m i - c i r c u l a r o v e r a 180 d e g r e e a n g l e ,
a r e recommended by many a u t h o r i t i e s f o r t h e m ain r e h e a r s a l .
11A l l m u sic c l a s s p u p i l s m ust w a tc h t h e i r d i r e c t o r c o n s t a n t l y
w h ile r e h e a r s in g o r p e rfo rm in g in a d d i tio n t o re a d in g t h e i r
m u s ic .
T hro ug h means o f r i s e r s , s t u d e n t s c a n s i t i n a
more n a t u r a l p o s i t i o n t o s e e t h e c o n d u c t o r an d a l s o h e a r
Music E d u c a t o r s R e s e a rc h C o u n c i l , o p . c l t . . p . 15.
each o th e r.
R i s e r s may "be p o r t a b l e o r p e r m a n e n t.
For d u ra b ility
i t w ould be b e t t e r t o b u i l d i n t h e v a r i o u s e l e v a t i o n s .
R i s e r s f o r i n s t r u m e n t a l m usic s h o u l d b e from f i v e t o e i g h t
i n c h e s h i g h an d s i x t y in c h e s w id e .
The l a s t o r h i g h e s t e l e ­
v a t i o n s h o u l d be from 7 2 t o 96 i n c h e s w ide t o g i v e am ple
room f o r t h e l a r g e r i n s t r u m e n t s . ^52
One d i s a d v a n t a g e o f r i s e r s i s t h e l i m i t i n g o f t h e u s e
o f t h e room f o r o n ly one p u r p o s e .
The room m ig h t o t h e r w i s e
s e r v e a s a s o c i a l room f o r t h e m u sic c l a s s e s o r o t h e r d e p a r t ­
m en ts o f t h e s c h o o l , o r ev e n i n m i n i a t u r e , as an i n d o o r
p r a c t i c e f i e l d f o r t h e m a rc h in g b a n d t o w ork o u t c e r t a i n
p ro b le m s.
W ith o u t r i s e r s t h e room c o u l d a l s o be m arked o f f
i n t o t h e s i z e o f t h e stag©55 o r o r c h e s t r a p i t a n d r e h e a r s a l s
c o u l d b e h e l d u n d e r t h e e x a c t s e a t i n g c o n d i t i o n o f t h e p la n n e d
p erfo rm an ce.
B l a c k b o a r d s s h o u l d be a p a r t o f t h e m ain room .
C hurch
f e e l s t h a t t h e y s h o u l d be m ovable t o a v o i d a p p e a r a n c e o f o r ­
d i n a r y c l a s s r o o m s , an d a l s o t h a t t h e y can be p l a c e d i n t h e
*34
m o st a d v a n ta g e o u s a n g l e f o r t h e e n t i r e c l a s s . ^
Due t o t h e
Ib id . , p. 6 .
55 l . 0 . Mohr, “L e t Us h a v e M u s ic ," N a t i o n * s S c h o o l .
2 0 ; 5 0 , November, 1 9 3 7 .
^
C h u rc h , o p . c i t . , p . 2 2 4 .
46
l i m i t e d s i z e o f a m ovable b l a c k b o a r d , a l a r g e r one s h o u l d b e
m ounted i n t h e f r o n t o f t h e room.
A b u l l e t i n b o a rd sh o u ld
be p l a c e d n e a r t h e f r o n t o f t h e room o r a t t h e m ain e n t r a n c e
t o t h e room an d i f p o s s i b l e , a s e c o n d one j u s t o u t s i d e o f
t h e room.
Due c o n s i d e r a t i o n s h o u l d a l s o be g iv e n t o p r o v i d e
f o r sp a ce a lo n g th e w a lls f o r c h a r t s and p i c t u r e s .
The
N a t i o n a l C o u n c il on S c h o o l House C o n s t r u c t i o n i n c l u d e d i n
t h e i r reco m m en d a tio n " t h a t a s e c t i o n o f t h e s i d e an d f r o n t
w a l l b e r e s e r v e d f o r p i n n i n g s p a c e an d b u l l e t i n b o a r d s an d
t h a t a b l a c k b o a r d s e c t i o n b e p e r m a n e n tly s t a f f e d 11
Where
a b a n d m ust p r e s e n t . m an euv ers on a f o o t b a l l f i e l d , i t i s
a d v i s a b l e t o h av e a p e rm a n e n t d ia g ra m o f t h e f i e l d i n m i n i a ­
t u r e on one b l a c k b o a r d , so t h a t t h e y c a n be d e s c r i b e d and
d ia g r a m e d .
I f no i n s t r u m e n t room i s a v a i l a b l e , l o c k e r s s h o u l d
b e p l a c e d a l o n g t h e w a l l s o f t h e room f o r s t o r a g e o f i n s t r u ­
m e n ts .
Even i f a room i s s e t a s i d e f o r t h i s p u r p o s e , u n l e s s
i t i s v e r y a c c e s s i b l e , c e r t a i n s t o r a g e s p a c e s h o u l d be p r o ­
v i d e d f o r s u c h l a r g e i n s t r u m e n t s a s ty m p a n i, b a s s drum , a n d
h arp.
What I s t r u e o f i n s t r u m e n t s t o r a g e i s a l s o t r u e o f
t h e l i b r a r y , u n if o r m s t o r a g e , an d d i r e c t o r ^
o f f ic e as w e ll.
Where o n l y one room i s a v a i l a b l e , i t m u st accommodate t h e
N a t i o n a l C o u n c il on S c h o o l House C o n s t r u c t i o n , l o c . c i t .
47
ab o v e m e n tio n e d p h a s e s o f t h e d e p a r t m e n t .
Such m a t e r i a l s an d e q u ip m e n t a s t u n i n g b a r s , m e t r o ­
nome, s t a f f l i n e r s , m u sic d i c t i o n a r y , an d t h e l i k e s h o u l d
n o t be o v e rlo o k e d .
The f i n i s h o f t h e m ain room a s w e l l a s a l l rooms
c o n s i d e r e d s h o u l d b e p l e a s i n g a n d su c h as w i l l c r e a t e t h e
rig h t s p i r i t .
Donovan e x p r e s s e s h i s o p i n i o n i n t h e f o l l o w ­
i n g la n g u a g e *
I t w ould b e a m iss an d b a r r e n o f r e s u l t s i f some c o n ­
s t r u c t i v e t h o u g h t an d t a l e n t w ere n o t g i v e n t o c r e a t e
good d e s i g n an d good t a s t e t o t h e e n t i r e m u sic d e p a r t m e n t ,
a n d e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e t r e a t m e n t o f t h e c h o r a l an d b an d
ro o m s. I f t h i s i s done s a t i s f a c t o r i l y , more i n t e r e s t
w i l l p r e v a i l an d p o s s i b l y r e a l i n s p i r a t i o n s f o l l o w .
T h is d e p a r t m e n t d e s e r v e s more t h a n j u s t p l a i n w a l l s an d
c e i l i n g s .36
P r o p e r d e c o r a t i o n s t o c r e a t e a tm o s p h e r e w ould i n ­
clu d e p i c t u r e s o f m u sical o r g a n iz a tio n s , m u s ic ia n s , b u s ts
o f m u s i c i a n s , c h a r t s , an d o t h e r p i e c e s o f a r t o f i n t e r e s t .
M u s ic a l e q u i p m e n t.
C h i e f o f t h e m u s i c a l e q u ip m e n t
a re th e in stru m e n ts a v a i la b le .
I t i s g e n e ra lly th e p o lic y
o f s c h o o l s t o own some o f t h e l a r g e r and more e x p e n s iv e
in stru m e n ts.
The Music R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e
f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u m e n t s s h o u l d b e owned b y t h e s c h o o l .
S t r i n g b a s s e s . - one f o r e a c h t e n members o f t h e
o rc h e stra
36 D onovan, 0 £ .
G it.,
p# 117*
48
Tl*ka s - one f o r e a c h t e n members o f t h e b a n d .
( c ) B ass drum - one l a r g e b a s s drum f o r e a c h b a n d an d
o r c h e s t r a n u m b e rin g 2 0 o r more p l a y e r s .
(d ) Tympani - one p a i r o r d i n a r y k e t t l e drums f o r e a c h
o r c h e s t r a o r b a n d n u m b e rin g 40 o r more p l a y e r s .
( e ) B a sso o n - one f o r e a c h b a n d o r o r c h e s t r a o f 50 p l a y e r s ;
two f o r b an d o r o r c h e s t r a o f 80 o r more p l a y e r s .
( f ) F rench h o rn - f o u r f o r each band o r o r c h e s t r a o f
3 5 o r more p l a y e r s .
C e l l o s - one f o r e a c h f o u r v i o l i n i s t s i n t h e o r c h e s t r a .
V i o l a s - one f o r . e a c h f o u r v i o l i n i s t s i n t h e o r c h e s t r a .
Oboes - one f o r an o r c h e s t r a o r b a n d o f 50 p l a y e r s , two
f o r s i x t y o r more p l a y e r s *
H arp - one o r two f o r an o r c h e s t r a o f 80 o r more p l a y e r s .
C e l e s t e - one f o r an o r c h e s t r a o f 85 p l a y e r s .
Cymbals - one p a i r f o r an o r c h e s t r a o r b an d o f 50 o r
more p l a y e r s .
C o n t r a b a s s o o n - one f o r an o r c h e s t r a o f 9 0 p l a y e r s .
A l t o c l a r i n e t - one f o r e a c h 8 Bb c l a r i n e t p l a y e r s .
B ass c l a r i n e t - one f o r e a c h 8 Bb c l a r i n e t p l a y e r s .
P i c c o l o - one i n D - f l a t f o r a b a n d o f 40 o r more p l a y e r s .
B ass sa x o p h o n e - one f o r a b a n d o f 50 o r more p l a y e r s .
Chimes - one s e t f o r a b a n d o f 60 o r more p la y e r s . 37
P r e s c o t t and C h i d e s t e r l i s t t h e f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u m e n t s
a s p o s s i b l e i n v a r i o u s s c h o o l s , b o u g h t on an e i g h t - y e a r p r o ­
gram f o r s m a l l b a n d s , a v e r a g e b a n d s , an d c o m p le te b an d s*
The a v e r a g e y e a r l y e x p e n s e f o r t h e s m a l l b a n d i s a b o u t $ 4 5 0 ,
t o t h e a v e r a g e b a n d a b o u t $7 5 ° , a n d f o r t h e c o m p le te b a n d
a b o u t $ 1 0 0 0 .^ ^
In stru m e n ts
P ic c o lo in C
Eb C l a r i n e t .
O boe.................
E n g l i s h Horn
B a s s o o n .. . . .
^
S m a ll
S i z e o f Band
A verage
C o m p lete
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
2
Music E d u c a t i o n R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l , o p . c i t . . p . 1 4 -1 5
P r e s c o t t a n d C h i d e s t e r , op* c i t . . p . 18 3 .
A l t o C l a r i n e t .......... ..................... ____
B ass C l a r i n e t ............................... ____
T e n o r S ax o p h o n e.................
B a r i t o n e S a x o p h o n e ............
....
B ass S a x o p h o n e ............................
. . ..
A l t o H o rn .............................
____
F re n c h H o r n . .............................
F l u e g e l H o r n . ...............................
B a r i t o n e . ......................................... ____
B ass Trom bone. ................. .. • • • • . . . .
Eb T u b a ............................................. ____
BBb T u b a ................... .......................
S t r i n g B a s s ................... ..
S n a r e Drum ( 6 4 x 1 5 ) ..................
____
S t r e e t Drum (12x16
S c o tc h Drum (8x28
C o n c e r t B ass Drum............
Tympani ( p a i r ) ............................. . . . .
Cymbals ( p a i r ) ............................. . . . .
O r c h e s t r a B e l l s . ................. ......
T ra p s ( p u r c h a s e d a s n e e d e d )
1
1
1
2
4
1
1
2
1
1
2
2
1
1
2
5
2
1
1
5
1
1
4
1
1
1
2
1
2
2
1
1
1
4
6
2
2
1
2
6
2
1
6
2
1
1
2
1
Where a drum an d b u g l e c o r p s i s a p a r t o f t h e p r o g ra m ,
n e c e s s a ry in s tru m e n ts f o r th e o r g a n iz a tio n sh o u ld be added
t o t h e above l i s t s *
Some s c h o o l s w i l l d o u b t l e s s h a v e many
more t h a n t h e s e i n s t r u m e n t s , w h ile o t h e r s c h o o l s w i l l f i n d
i t d i f f i c u l t an d u n p r a c t i c a l t o buy t h o s e s u g g e s t e d .
O ases, l y r e s , e x t r a m o u th p ie c e s, s h o u ld be in c lu d e d ,
a n d i n many i n s t a n c e s s t r i n g s , r e e d s , drum s t i c k s , m u t e s ,
s p e c i a l s t a n d s , a n d o t h e r e q u ip m e n t i s f u r n i s h e d a s w e l l .
S e v e ra l p ia n o s , eq u ip p ed w ith l a r g e r u b b e r c a s t e r s , sh o u ld
be a t th e d is p o s a l o f th e in s tr u m e n ta l d e p a rtm e n t.
One s h o u l d
p e r m a n e n tly be p l a c e d i n t h e m ain r e h e a r s a l room , w h ile one
o r more s h o u ld b e a v a i l a b l e i n t h e e n se m b le o r i n d i v i d u a l
p r a c t i c e room s.
A r a d i o an d p h o n o g r a p h , p r e f e r a b l y w i t h a two s p e e d
50
m o to r a n d c a p a b l e o f p l a y i n g s i x t e e n in c h r e c o r d s , s h o u l d
be in c lu d e d in th e d e p a rtm e n t.
I f t h e s e a r e n o t p e r m a n e n tly
p l a c e d t h e r e , t h e y s h o u l d b e a v a i l a b l e f o r u s e from o t h e r
d e p a r t m e n t s t o g e t h e r w i t h a p u b l i c a d d r e s s s y s te m an d a
r e c o r d i n g m a c h in e .
"A" a n d "Bb” t u n i n g b a r s a s w e l l a s a
m etronom e s h o u l d b e p l a c e d i n t h e m ain r e h e a r s a l room.
Admin i s t r a t iv e e q u i p m e n t .
a l r e a d y b e e n m e n tio n e d .
C h a irs and s ta n d s have
I f t h e b a n d do es much t r a v e l i n g ,
i t i s a d v i s a b l e t o h a v e a f u l l s e t o f f o l d i n g s t a n d s an d e v e n
f o l d i n g c h a i r s w here n e c e s s a r y , a s w e l l a s c o l l a p s i b l e r i s e r s .
S u f f i c i e n t t h e a t r e lam ps w hich c a n q u i c k l y b e a t t a c h e d t o t h e
s t a n d s , w i t h s u f f i c i e n t e l e c t r i c c o r d s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n
th e p r o p e r ty o f th e d e p a rtm e n t.
M otion p i c t u r e p r o j e c t o r , p r e f e r a b l y a so u n d p r o j e c ­
t o r , l a n t e r n s l i d e s , m o tio n p i c t u r e c a m e r a s , an d a s c r e e n
a re a l l a id s to te a c h in g i f p r o p e r ly u s e d , and c o n s e q u e n tly
sh o u ld be l o c a t e d in th e sc h o o l and e a s i l y a v a i l a b l e to th e
d ep a rtm e n t.
A ty p e w r ite r , te le p h o n e , f i l e s ,
r a n g i n g from t h e c a r d
in d e x s i z e t o t h e l a r g e jumbo s i z e , a d e s k , e x t r a t a b l e s ,
an d r u b b e r sta m p s o f t h e d e p a r t m e n t a r e e s s e n t i a l t o good
a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e w o rk .
B a to n s f o r t h e d i r e c t o r and
drum m a j o r , w h i s t l e , m egaphone, c h a l k l i n e r s , m i r r o r s , and
s p e c i a l m u sic p en s a r e d e s i r a b l e a n d make t h e w ork o f t h e
51
t e a c h e r more e f f i c i e n t f o r r e h e a r s a l i n s i d e a n d o u t .
A s id e from t h e u n if o r m s owned by t h e s c h o o l , m e a s u r in g
t a p e s , c l o t h e s b r u s h , and c l e a n i n g f l u i d s s h o u l d b e e a s i l y
a v a ila b le to th e c u s to d ia n o f u n ifo rm s.
R e p a i r t o o l s n e c e s s a r y f o r m in o r r e p a i r s s h o u l d be
a t th e d is p o s a l o f th o s e in ch arg e o f th e in s tru m e n ts .
CHAPTER IV
FINDINGS OF THE SURVEY
The p u r p o s e o f t h i s c h a p t e r was t o show t h e r e s u l t s
o f t h e s t u d y , b a s e d p r i m a r i l y on t h e a n a l y z a t i o n o f t h e
q u e stio n n a ire .
F i f t y s c h o o l s o f s i x c o u n t i e s o f t h e San
Jo a q u in V a lle y in C a l i f o r n i a had been s e l e c t e d f o r th e s tu d y .
F o r t y - n i n e o f t h e s e s c h o o l s w ere v i s i t e d .
The m usic i n s t r u c ­
t o r s o f f o r t y - t h r e e s c h o o l s w ere p e r s o n a l l y i n t e r v i e w e d o r
h a d r e t u r n e d t h e i r c o m p le te d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s .
C la s s ific a tio n of sc h o o ls.
The s c h o o l s w ere d i v i d e d
i n t o t h r e e g e n e r a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , b a s e d on t h e i r e n r o l l m e n t
so t h a t t h e y c o u l d be com p ared w i t h e a c h o t h e r .
T hese c l a s s !
f i e a t i o n s w ere s i m i l a r t o t h o s e g iv e n by t h e N a t i o n a l B and,
O r c h e s t r a , an d V o c a l A s s o c i a t i o n s , an d a r e a s f o l l o w s :
C l a s s A. S c h o o ls w i t h an e n r o l l m e n t o f 750 o r more
i n g r a d e s 9 t o 12 i n c l u s i v e , o r 10 t o 12 i n c l u s i v e
(w here so o r g a n i z e d ) .
C l a s s B. S c h o o ls w ith an e n r o l l m e n t o f 2 5 0 t o 750
i n g r a d e s 9 t o 12 i n c l u s i v e , o r 1 0 t o 12 i n c l u s i v e
(w here so o r g a n i z e d ) .
C l a s s C. S c h o o ls w i t h an e n r o l l m e n t u n d e r 2 5 0 i n
g r a d e s 9 t o 12 i n c l u s i v e , o r 1 0 t o 1 2 i n c l u s i v e (w here
so o r g a n i z e d ) .
^ N a t i o n a l Band A s s o c i a t i o n , N a t i o n a l O r c h e s t r a
A s s o c i a t i o n , N a t i o n a l V o ca l A s s o c i a t i o n , S c h o o l Music Com­
p e t i t i o n — F e s t i v a l s M a n u a l. 1941 ( C h ic a g o : N a t i o n a l Band,
O r c h e s t r a , an d V o ca l A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 9 4 0 ) , p . 1 3 .
53
F o u r t e e n o f t h e s c h o o l s o r 28 p e r c e n t w ere i n t h e
C lass A d iv is io n #
I n c l u d e d i n C l a s s B w ere tw e n t y s c h o o l s
o r 40 p e r c e n t , w h ile s i x t e e n o r 32 p e r c e n t w ere C l a s s C
s c h o o ls #
S c h o o ls from w hich c o m p le te r e p o r t s w ere f i l e d ,
a n d w h ich o n ly w ere c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r I n c l u d e d
e l e v e n i n C l a s s A, e i g h t e e n i n C l a s s B, an d f o u r t e e n i n
C l a s s C.
(See T a b le I , p a g e 5 4 ) .
T ypes o f s c h o o l s .
T h i r t y - f i v e o f th e sc h o o ls s tu d ie d
w ere f o u r y e a r h i g h s c h o o l s , w h ile e i g h t w ere t h r e e y e a r
h i g h s c h o o ls #
F iv e s c h o o l s h a d j u n i o r c o l l e g e s h o u s e d i n
t h e same b u i l d i n g , w h ile a s i m i l a r num ber h a d j u n i o r h i g h
s c h o o l s i n t h e same b u i l d i n g .
The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e t h r e e
an d f o u r y e a r h i g h s c h o o l s was r a t h e r e q u a l among t h e v a r i o u s
c la ssific a tio n s#
Of t h e t h r e e y e a r s c h o o l s , t h e r e w ere two
i n C l a s s A, f o u r i n C l a s s B, a n d two i n C l a s s C, t h e o t h e r s
a l l b ein g fo u r y e a r s c h o o ls .
Four of th e ju n io r c o lle g e s
w ere i n C l a s s A s c h o o l s , w h i l e one was i n a C l a s s B s c h o o l .
T h re e o f t h e j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l s w ere i n C l a s s B s c h o o l s a n d
one e a c h i n t h e C l a s s A an d C s c h o o l s .
G-rowth o f s c h o o l s .
(See T a b le I I , p a g e 5 5 ) .
The s c h o o l s h a v e a l l w i t n e s s e d an
i n c r e a s e i n t h e i r e n r o l l m e n t d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d fro m 1 9 3 6 t o
1940#
C l a s s A s c h o o l s h av e shown t h e b i g g e s t g ro w th w i t h
an a v e r a g e g ro w th o f 1 2 9 .6 p e r c e n t#
C lass B s c h o o ls have
i n c r e a s e d 118#3 p e r c e n t , w h i l e C l a s s C s c h o o l s show t h a t
54
TABLE I
CLASSIFICATION OF SCHOOLS ACCORDING- TO SIZE
C lass
of
School
S iz e
Number P e r c e n t
R e p o r t e d R e p o r te d
Number T o t a l T o t a l
not
in
Per
R e p o r t e d S tu d y c e n t
C lass A
O ver 750
11
2 5 .6
3
14
28
C lass B
250 - 750
18
4 1 .9
2
20
40
C lass C
L ess t h a n
250
14
3 2 .5
2
16
32
55
TABLE I I
NUMBER OF THREE AND FOUR YEAR HIGH SCHOOLS AND NUMBER
OF JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS AND JUNIOR COLLEGES
HOUSED IN HIGH SCHOOLS
Type
of
School
G la s s A
Num- P e r
her
cent
C la se \ B
Num­ P e r
ber
cent
G la s s G
Num­ P e r
ber
cent
T h re e y e a r s c h o o l s
2
1 8 .2
4
22 *2
2
1 4 .3
F our y e a r sc h o o ls
9
8 1 .8
14
7 7 .B
12
8 5 .7
J u n io r h ig h sc h o o ls
1
9 .1
3
1 6 .7
1
7 .1
J u n io r c o lle g e s
4
27. 3
1
5 .5
0
.0
56
t h e i r e n r o l l m e n t was 1 1 9 .4 p e r c e n t l a r g e r o v e r t h e same
p e rio d .
E s t i m a t e s o f c o n t i n u e d i n c r e a s e w ere made by t h e
m u sic t e a c h e r s f o r t h e f o u r y e a r p e r i o d from 1940 t o 1 9 4 4 ,
b a s e d on t r e n d s .
T hese e s t i m a t e s show ed a g a i n o f 1 1 4 .7 p e r
c e n t f o r C l a s s A, 1 1 1 .8 p e r c e n t f o r C l a s s B, an d 1 1 8 .6 p e r
c e n t f o r C lass C s c h o o ls .
G-rowth o f b an d s a n d o r c h e s t r a s .
The b a n d s o f t h e
s c h o o l s s u r v e y e d h a v e a l l e x p e r i e n c e d a g ro w th o f a b o u t t h e
same p r o p o r t i o n as t h e g e n e r a l i n c r e a s e o f t h e e n r o l l m e n t
o f t h e s c h o o l s d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d from 1936 t o 1 9 4 0 .
C lass
A b a n d s showed an a v e r a g e m em bership o f f i f t y - n i n e m u s i c i a n s
in 1940.
T h is was 1 2 2 .9 p e r c e n t g r e a t e r t h a n t h e i r a v e r a g e
s i z e o f f o r t y - e i g h t in 1936.
Band d i r e c t o r s a n t i c i p a t e d a
s t i l l f u r t h e r g ro w th o f 1 1 6 . 9 p e r c e n t t o an a v e r a g e b a n d
o f s i x t y - n i n e by 1 9 4 4 .
The b a n d s i n C l a s s B s c h o o l s h a d i n
1940 a n a v e r a g e o f f o r t y - s i x m em bers, an i n c r e a s e o f 1 1 7 .9
p e r c e n t o v e r th e t h i r t y - n i n e in 1 9 3 6 , and th e y a n t i c i p a t e d
an a v e r a g e m em bership o f s i x t y - o n e by 1 9 4 4 , an i n c r e a s e o f
1 3 2 .6 p e r c e n t .
C la ss C bands had e x p e rie n c e d a s l i g h t l y
s m a l l e r g ro w th o f 1 1 1 . 8 p e r c e n t s i n c e 1936 when t h e y a v e r a g e d
bands of t h i r t y - f o u r p ie c e s .
They h a d i n 1940 an a v e r a g e
o f t h i r t y - e i g h t members an d a n t i c i p a t e d an i n c r e a s e o f 1 3 4 ,2
p e r c e n t o r f i f t y - o n e members by 1 9 4 4 .
I n t h e o r c h e s t r a s , t h e f i g u r e s show an a c t u a l d e c l i n e
i n s i z e i n C l a s s A s c h o o l s fro m 1 9 3 6 when t h e a v e r a g e o r c h e s ­
t r a h a d f o r t y - f o u r m em bers, an d i n 1940 o n ly t h i r t y - n i n e
o r 8 8 ,7 p e r c e n t .
O rc h e s tra d i r e c t o r s in th e s e sc h o o ls
h o w e v e r lo o k e d f o r w a r d f o r an i n c r e a s e o f 1 0 7 , 7 p e r c e n t t o
o r c h e s tr a s a v e ra g in g f o rty -tw o by 1944,
C lass B s c h o o ls have
i n c r e a s e d fro m t h i r t y members i n 1 9 3 6 t o t h i r t y - t w o i n 1940
o r 1 0 6 ,7 p e r c e n t an d a n t i c i p a t e d f u r t h e r g ro w th t o o r c h e s ­
t r a s a v e r a g i n g t h i r t y - e i g h t p i e c e s by 1944 o r 1 1 8 ,7 p e r c e n t .
I n C l a s s C s c h o o l s h a v i n g o r c h e s t r a s , a g ro w th o f 1 2 6 ,7 p e r
c e n t was shown from g r o u p s a v e r a g i n g f i f t e e n i n 1 9 3 6 t o
n in e te e n in 1940,
A n o th e r 1 3 1 . 6 p e r c e n t g ro w th was a n t i ­
c i p a t e d t o o r c h e s t r a s o f t w e n t y - f i v e by 1 9 4 4 .
(See T a b le I I I ,
p ag e 5 8 ) .
Bands an d o r c h e s t r a s w ere a p a r t o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m
i n m ost o f t h e s c h o o l s w i t h r e g u l a r tim e b e i n g a l l o t e d f o r
p ra c tic e .
I n some o f t h e s m a l l e r s c h o o l s s p e c i a l tim e r a t h e r
t h a n a r e g u l a r p e r i o d was p r o v i d e d f o r b an d s an d o r c h e s t r a s
so t h a t more s t u d e n t s c o u l d b e b e n e f i t e d .
I n m ost o f s u c h
i n s t a n c e s a p ro g ra m o f i n s t r u m e n t a l c l a s s e s was o f f e r e d so
t h a t each s tu d e n t co u ld g e t in d iv id u a l o r c l a s s i n s t r u c t i o n
on h i s
in stru m e n t.
Bands i n m ost s c h o o l s w ere more p o p u l a r t h a n w ere
o rc h e s tra s.
The e x c e p t i o n seem ed t o b e o n ly i n a few s m a l l
s c h o o l s w here no b a n d e x i s t e d .
58
TABLE I I I
G-ROWTH OF BANDS AND ORCHESTRAS
C lass A
S i z e o f b an d
1936
1940
1944
P e r c e n t o f g ro w th
1 9 3 6 -4 0
1 9 4 0 -4 4
S iz e o f o r c h e s tr a
1936
1940
1944
P e r c e n t o f g ro w th
1 9 3 6 -4 0
1 9 4 0 -4 4
48
59
69
C la ss B
39
46
61
1 2 2 .9
1 1 7 .9
1 1 6 .9
1 3 2 .6
44
39
42
8 8 .7
1 0 7 .7
30
32
38
1 0 6 .7
1 1 8 .7
C lass C
34
38
51
1 1 1 .8
1 3 4 .2
15
19
25
1 2 6 .7
1 3 1 .6
59
Band a n d o r c h e s t r a m em bership was n a t u r a l l y g r e a t e r
p r o p o r ti o n a te ly in sm a ll s c h o o ls th a n in th e l a r g e r o n e s .
C la s s G sc h o o ls had e n r o lle d 2 0 .2 p e r c e n t o f t h e i r e n t i r e
e n r o l l m e n t i n t h e i r "bands a n d 1 0 . 1 p e r c e n t i n t h e i r o r c h e s ­
tra s .
C l a s s B s c h o o l s h a d 1 0 .6 p e r c e n t i n "bands a n d 7 . 3
p e r c e n t i n o r c h e s t r a s , w h ile o n l y 4 . 4 p e r c e n t o f C l a s s A
s c h o o l s w ere e n r o l l e d i n "bands an d o n ly 3 . 0 p e r c e n t i n
o rc h e s tra s.
(See T a b le IV , p a g e 6 0 ) .
T h ese f i g u r e s a r e n o t an a c c u r a t e c r i t e r i o n a s a
"basis o f f u d g in g t h e t o t a l num ber o f p u p i l s s e r v e d b y t h e
m u sic d e p a r t m e n t s .
T h e re was i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e a g r e a t e r
d u p l i c a t i o n o f members o f m u s i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t h e s m a l l e r
s c h o o l s , an d s e c o n d l y , t h e l a r g e r s c h o o l s , w ith h i g h e r s t a n ­
d a r d s p o s s i b l e b e c a u s e o f t h e s e l e c t i v i t y o f t h e i r m em bership
i n t h e m usic o r g a n i z a t i o n s , h a d more an d b e t t e r g r a d e d p r e ­
lim in a ry tr a in i n g c o u rse s.
In C la s s A s c h o o ls f i v e h ad
i n t e r m e d i a t e b a n d s , f i v e b e g i n n i n g b a n d , two i n t e r m e d i a t e
o r c h e s t r a s , f o u r b e g in n in g o r c h e s t r a s , and f o u r in s tr u m e n ta l
c la sse s.
N ine C l a s s B s c h o o l s h a d i n t e r m e d i a t e b a n d s , s i x
had b e g in n in g b a n d s, f iv e in te rm e d ia te o r c h e s t r a s , f iv e
b e g in n in g o r c h e s t r a s , and e ig h t in s tr u m e n ta l c l a s s e s .
C lass
C sc h o o ls had th r e e in te rm e d ia te b a n d s, f iv e b e g in n in g b an d s,
no i n t e r m e d i a t e o r b e g i n n i n g o r c h e s t r a s , b u t i n s t r u m e n t a l
c l a s s e s i n tw e l v e i n s t a n c e s .
(S ee T a b le V, p age 6 1 ) .
60
TABLE IV
PER CENT OF SCHOOL ENROLLED IN BANDS AND ORCHESTRAS
C lass
Per een t of school e n ro lle d in :
S c h o o l_____________________________Band_______ O r c h e s t r a ______
A
4 .4
3 .0
B
1 0 .6
7 .3
C
2 0 .2
1 0 .1
61
TABLE V
NUMBER OF PREPARATORY INSTRUMENTAL CLASSES
Type
0f
C lass
C lass A
NumPer
ber
cent
C lass B
Num- P e r
ber
cent
C la ss C
NumPer
ber
cent
In te rm e d ia te band
5
4 5 .5
9
5 0 .0
3
2 1 .4
B e g in n in g b a n d
5
4 5 .5
6
3 3 .3
5
5 5 .7
In te rm e d ia te o r c h e s tra
2
1 8 .2
5
2 7 .8
0
.0
B e g in n in g o r c h e s t r a
4
3 6 .4
5
2 7 .8
0
.0
In stru m e n ta l c la s s
4
3 6 .4
8
4 4 .4
12
8 5 .7
62
E n s e m b le s .
T h e re was o n ly one r e g u l a r drum a n d b u g l e
co rp s a c tiv e in th e sc h o o ls and t h i s
in a C l a s s A s c h o o l .
Of t h e e n s e m b l e s , t h e woodwinds w ere s l i g h t l y more p r e d o m in a n t
w i t h s e v e n i n t h e C l a s s A s c h o o l s , n i n e i n C l a s s B, and f o u r
i n C l a s s C.
The num ber o f b r a s s e n s e m b le s w ere s i x , s e v e n ,
an d fo u r* from t h e l a r g e s t t o t h e s m a l l e s t c l a s s e s r e s p e c t i v e l y .
F iv e C l a s s A s c h o o l s h a d s t r i n g g r o u p s , w h i l e t h e r e w ere f o u r
i n C l a s s B s c h o o l s an d t h r e e i n C l a s s C s c h o o l s .
s c h o o l i n C l a s s B h a d a p e r c u s s i o n e n s e m b le .
Only one
F o u r C l a s s A,
f o u r C l a s s B, an d t h r e e C l a s s C s c h o o l s h a d d a n c e b a n d s , w h ile
o n ly one C l a s s A, f i v e C l a s s B, a n d two C l a s s C s c h o o l s h a d
p ep o r German b a n d s*
S a lo n o r c h e s t r a s w ere p r e s e n t i n one
C la s s A s c h o o l and f o u r C lass B s c h o o ls .
F i v e C l a s s A, n i n e
C l a s s B, an d f i v e C l a s s C s c h o o l s f e a t u r e d i n d i v i d u a l s o l o i s t s .
Most o f t h e e n s e m b le s met o n ly o c c a s i o n a l l y , a l t h o u g h t h e r e
was a te n d e n c y f o r t h e o n es i n t h e l a r g e r s c h o o l s t o m eet
more r e g u l a r l y and i n some i n s t a n c e s t h e y w ere s c h e d u l e d c l a s s e s .
(See T a b le V I, p ag e 6 3)*
Method o f t e a c h i n g .
The n a t u r e o f t h e c l a s s e s some­
w hat p r e s c r i b e d t h e m ethod o f t e a c h i n g u s e d , r a t h e r t h a n b e ­
came a r e s u l t o f i t *
T e a c h e r s o f t e n u s e d more t h a n one
m ethod i n t e a c h i n g , an d a l s o g a v e p r e f e r e n c e t o s e v e r a l k i n d s .
I n a l l t h r e e c l a s s e s o f s c h o o l s , f i g u r e s show ed t h a t t e a c h e r s *
p r e f e r e n c e s i n t e a c h i n g w ere s i m i l a r , w h ile t h e m eth od s u s e d
63
TABLE V I
NUMBER OF ENSEMBLES IN MUSIC DEPARTMENTS
Type
of
E nsem ble
C la a a A
C la a a B
C la ss C
Drum an d b u g l e c o r p s
1
0
0
Woodwind
7
9
4
S trin g
5
4
3
B rass
6
7
4
P ercu ssio n
0
1
0
Dance b a n d s
4
4
3
(xerman o r p ep b a n d s
1
5
2
S a lo n o r c h e s t r a
1
4
0
In d iv id u a l s o lo is ts
5
9
5
64
v a rie d but s lig h tly .
N ine t e a c h e r s i n G l a s s A s c h o o l s u s e d
h e t e r o g e n e o u s m ethod o f t e a c h i n g , w h ile f i v e u s e d t h e homo­
g en e o u s m ethod an d n on e t a u g h t i n d i v i d u a l l y .
O nly t h r e e
o f th e s e te a c h e rs p r e f e r r e d h etero g en eo u s w h ile s i x p r e f e r r e d
t h e hom ogeneous m ethod an d f o u r t h e i n d i v i d u a l m e th o d .
In
C la ss B f i f t e e n te a c h e rs ta u g h t h e tero g en eo u s c l a s s e s , f iv e
hom ogeneous o n e s , an d t h r e e i n d i v i d u a l l y .
T h e ir p re fe re n c e
was two f o r h e t e r o g e n e o u s c l a s s e s , f o u r t e e n f o r homogeneous
g r o u p s , an d f i v e f o r i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s .
The h e t e r o g e n e o u s
m etho d was u s e d by n i n e G la s s C t e a c h e r s , w h i l e f o u r t a u g h t
homogeneous c l a s s e s a n d t h r e e i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s .
On t h e
o t h e r h a n d , f o u r w ould h a v e p r e f e r r e d t o t e a c h h e t e r o g e n e o u s
g r o u p s , e i g h t homogeneous o n e s , an d f i v e i n d i v i d u a l p u p i l s .
(See T a b le V I I , p age 6 5 ) .
Booms u s e d f o r i n s t r u m e n t a l m usic c l a s s e s ♦
The a u d i ­
t o r i u m s t a g e o r p i t was s t i l l t h e p l a c e u s e d t h e m ost num ber
o f i n s t a n c e s f o r r e h e a r s a l s o f i n s t r u m e n t a l m u sic g r o u p s .
T h re e C l a s s A, f i v e C l a s s B, an d f i v e C l a s s C s c h o o l s u s e d
t h e a u d i t o r i u m f o r m u sic r e h e a r s a l s .
Music b u i l d i n g s h a d
b e e n b u i l t i n f o u r C l a s s A an d f i v e C l a s s B s c h o o l s , w h ile
s p e c i a l m usic u n i t s i n o t h e r b u i l d i n g s w ere p r o v i d e d i n one
C l a s s A s c h o o l , one C l a s s B s c h o o l , a n d f i v e C l a s s C s c h o o l s .
C l a s s r o o m s , re m o d e le d f o r m usic r e h e a r s a l s w ere f o u n d i n one
C l a s s A, f o u r C l a s s B, an d two C l a s s C s c h o o l s , w h ile two
65
TABLE V I I
METHOD OF TEACHING- USED AND METHOD PREFERRED
Method
of
T e a c h in g
H e te r o g e n e o u s
U sed
P referred
C lass A
Num- P e r
her
cent
C la s s l B
Num­ P e r
cent
ber
9
3
6 4 .3
2 3 .4
15
2
5
3 5 .7
4 6 .2
5
14
3
5
Homogeneous
Us ed
P referred
6
In d iv id u a l
Used
P referred
0
0 .0
4
3 0 .7
6 5 .2
C la ss C
Num- P e r
her
cent
9 .5
9
4
5 6 .3
2 3 .5
2 1 .8
4
2 5 .0
6 6 .7
8
4 7 .1
1 3 .0
3
5
1 8 .7
2 9 .4
2 3 .8
66
C l a s s A, two C l a s s B, an d one C l a s s C s c h o o l s p r o v i d e d o n ly
r e g u l a r c l a s s roo m s.
One C l a s s B m usic d e p a r t m e n t
reh earsed
in
t h e gym nasium , an d one C l a s s G m usic d e p a r t m e n t
was h o u s e d
in
an A m erican L e g io n H a l l .
6 7 ).
(See T a b le V I I I , p ag e
A c c e s s i b i l i t y o f t h e m usic rooms t o o t h e r p a r t s o f
th e s c h o o l.
Most o f t h e m usic d e p a r t m e n t s w ere f a i r l y a c ­
c e s s i b l e t o t h e r e s t o f t h e s c h o o l a s a w h o le .
Only 9 . 1 p e r
c e n t o f t h e C l a s s A s c h o o l s , 1 1 .1 p e r c e n t o f C l a s s B s c h o o l s ,
an d 1 4 .3 p e r c e n t o f C l a s s C s c h o o l s r e p o r t e d p o o r a c c e s s i ­
b i l i t y to th e r e s t o f th e s c h o o l.
A c c e s s ib ility to s p e c if ic
p a r t s o f t h e s c h o o l was much l o w e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e s c h o o l
a s a w h o le .
W ith r e g a r d s t o t h e a u d i t o r i u m , 45*5 p e r c e n t
o f C l a s s A, 2 7 . 8 p e r c e n t o f C l a s s B, an d 1 4 .3 p e r c e n t o f
C l a s s C s c h o o l s r e p o r t e d u n f a v o r a b l e c o n d i t i o n s , w h i l e 5 4 .5
p e r c e n t , 4 4 . 4 p e r c e n t , an d 7 . 1 p e r c e n t o f C l a s s A, B, and
C r e s p e c tiv e ly re p o rte d p o o r a c c e s s i b i l i t y to th e a t h l e t i c
fie ld s .
The p e r c e n t o f s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g a d e q u a t e a c c e s s i ­
b i l i t y t o t h e r e s t o f t h e m usic d e p a r t m e n t f o r C l a s s e s A, B,
an d C, w ere 7 2 . 7 , 8 3 * 3 , an d 8 5 . 7 p e r c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y .
A c c e s s i b i l i t y t o t h e r e s t rooms i n C l a s s A s c h o o l s was s a t i s ­
f a c t o r y o n ly i n 6 3 . 6 p e r c e n t f o r t h e b o y s , 7 2 . 7 p e n c e n t
f o r th e g i r l s , and 4 5 .5 pen c e n t f o r th e f a c u l t y .
In C la ss B
s c h o o l s t h e p e r c e n t s w ere 7 7 . 7 f o r b o y s , 7 2 . 2 f o r g i r l s ,
a n d 6 6 . 7 f o r t h e f a c u l t y m em bers.
S lig h tly h ig h e r p e r c e n ts
67
TABLE V I I I
ROOMS USED FOR INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC CLASSES
G la ss i A
Num­ P e r
cent
ber
G la s s B
Num- P e r
ber
cent
C la ss G
Num- P e r
ber
cent
0
0 .0
1
5 .5
0
0 .0
A u d ito r iu m s t a g e o r p i t 3
2 7 .3
5
2 7 .8
5
3 5 .7
Music “b u i l d i n g
4
3 6 .3
5
2 7 .8
0
0 .0
M usic u n i t i n o t h e r
b u ild in g
Rem odeled c l a s s r o o m
1
9 .1
1
5 .5
5
3 5 .7
1
9 .1
4
2 2 .2
2
1 4 .3
R e g u la r c la ssro o m
2
1 8 .2
2
1 1 .1
1
7 .1
O th e r
0
0 .0
0
0 .0
1
7 .1
G-ynmas ium
w ere fo u n d i n C l a s s C s c h o o l s , when 7 8 . 6 f o r b o t h b o y s a n d
g i r l s a n d 6 4 .3 f o r f a c u l t y r e p o r t e d f a v o r a b l e a c c e s s i b i l i t y .
D r i n k in g f a u c e t s w ere f a i r l y a c c e s s i b l e i n 8 1 . 8 p e r c e n t o f
C l a s s A s c h o o l s , ? 2 . 2 p e r c e n t o f C l a s s B, a n d 7 8 . 6 p e r c e n t
o f C lass C s c h o o ls .
S i n k s , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , w here i n s t r u ­
m en ts m ig h t be w a sh e d , w ere a c c e s s i b l e o n ly i n 5 4 .5 p e r c e n t
o f C l a s s A, 5 5 .5 p e r c e n t o f C l a s s B, a n d 6 4 .3 p e r c e n t o f
C lass C s c h o o ls .
(S ee T a b le IX , p ag e 6 9 ) .
Number o f d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f ro o m s .
S c h o o ls v a r i e d
g r e a t l y i n t h e num ber o f rooms w hich w ere u s e d by t h e i n s t r u ­
m e n ta l m usic d e p a r t m e n t s .
A l l s c h o o l s h a d a t l e a s t one room
f o r r e h e a r s a l o f t h e i r l a r g e g r o u p s , an d some h a d two room s,
a l t h o u g h i n many i n s t a n c e s i t was t h e a u d i t o r i u m s t a g e o r
p it.
Two C l a s s A an d two C l a s s C s c h o o l s h a d two l a r g e
r e h e a r s a l ro o m s, w h ile f i v e C l a s s B s c h o o l s h a d two l a r g e
ro om s.
I n C l a s s A s c h o o l s two h a d en se m b le ro o m s, s e v e n
h a d i n d i v i d u a l p r a c t i c e rooms v a r y i n g from t h r e e t o tw e lv e
f o r a t o t a l o f t h i r t y - n i n e , two h a d a l i b r a r y room, s e v e n
i n s t r u m e n t ro o m s, one h a v i n g tw o , f o u r h a d u n if o r m ro o m s, one
a m i s c e l l a n e o u s s t o r a g e room, s e v e n h a d o f f i c e s , t h r e e s t a g e s ,
a n d one a d r e s s i n g room .
I n C l a s s B s e v e n s c h o o l s h a d one o r
more en se m b le rooms f o r a t o t a l o f e l e v e n , a n d t e n h a d from
one t o s i x t e e n i n d i v i d u a l p r a c t i c e room s, f o r a t o t a l o f
fifty -se v e n .
S ev en s c h o o l s h a d l i b r a r y ro o m s, t h i r t e e n i n s t r u ­
m ent roo m s, e i g h t u n i f o r m s t o r a g e roo m s, f o u r m i s c e l l a n e o u s
69
TABLE IX
ACCESSIBILITY OF THE MUSIC ROOMS TO OTHER
PARTS OF THE SCHOOL
C la ss A
Num- P e r
her
cent
C lass B
Num- P e r
her
cent
10
1
9 0 .9
9 .1
16
2
88 • 8
1 1 .1
12
2
8 5 .7
1 4 .3
A u d ito r iu m
Yes
No
6
5
5 4 .5
4 5 .5
13
5
7 2 .2
2 7 .8
12
2
8 5 .7
1 4 .3
A th le tic f ie ld
Yes
No
5
6
4 5 .5
5 4 .5
10
8
5 5 .5
4 4 .4
13
1
9 2 .9
7 .1
R e s t o f m usic d e p t*
Yes
No
8
3
72*7
2 7 .3
15
3
8 3 .3
1 6 .7
12
2
8 5 .7
1 4 .3
School
Yes
No
R e s t Rooms
Boys
Yes
No
G irls
Yes
No
F a c u lty
Yes
No
C lass C
Num- P e r
her
cent
7
4
14
4
11
3
8
3
13
5
11
3
5
6
12
6
9
5
13
5
11
3
10
8
9
5
D rin k in g f a u c e t
Yes
No
9
2
S in k
Yes
No
6
5
81*8
TO
s t o r a g e , e i g h t h a d o f f i c e s , f o u r s t a g e s , one a work s h o p , an d
s e v e n d r e s s i n g room s.
F iv e o f t h e C l a s s C s c h o o l s h a d fro m
two t o f i v e p r a c t i c e rooms f o r a t o t a l o f t w e n t y - f i v e .
T h e re
w ere t h r e e l i b r a r y ro o m s, t h r e e u n i f o r m ro o m s, t h r e e m i s c e l ­
l a n e o u s s t o r a g e room s, f i v e s t a g e s , and f o u r s c h o o l s w i t h
d r e s s i n g ro o m s.
(See T a b le X, p a g e 7 1 ) .
A dequacy o f m usic rooms w i t h r e g a r d s t o so u n d p r o o f ­
i n g . a c o u s t i c s . l i g h t i n g , h e a t i n g , and v e n t i l a t i o n .
M usic
rooms a s a w h o le , w ith t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h o s e c o n s t r u c t e d
l a t e r , w ere n o t a d e q u a t e w i t h r e g a r d s t o s o u n d - p r o o f i n g a n d
a c o u stic s.
S ix C lass A s c h o o ls r e p o r te d ad e q u a te s o u n d -p ro o f­
in g i n t h e m ain r e h e a r s a l room, w h ile o n ly t h r e e s c h o o l s h a d
t h e o t h e r rooms u s e d by t h e m usic d e p a r t m e n t so u n d p r o o f e d .
S ev en C l a s s A r e h e a r s a l rooms h a d good a c o u s t i c s an d o n l y s i x
r e p o r t e d t h e same f o r t h e o t h e r ro o m s.
I n C l a s s B, t w e l v e
s c h o o l s r e p o r t e d a d e q u a te s o u n d - p r o o f i n g a n d t h i r t e e n good
a c o u s t i c s i n t h e m ain r e h e a r s a l ro o m s, w h ile o n ly s e v e n r e ­
p o r t e d t h e same f o r t h e o t h e r ro o m s.
In C lass C sc h o o ls
good s o u n d - p r o o f r e h e a r s a l rooms w e re r e p o r t e d i n f i v e i n ­
s t a n c e s an d s i x rooms h a d good a c o u s t i c s , w h ile i n s i x s c h o o l s
t h e o t h e r rooms w ere s o u n d - p r o o f e d an d i n f o u r , a c o u s t i c a l l y
tre a te d .
L i g h t i n g an d v e n t i l a t i o n was r e p o r t e d good i n n i n e
C l a s s A r e h e a r s a l rooms a n d h e a t i n g i n t e n , w h ile i n t h e
71
TABLE X
NUMBER OF DIFFERENT KINDS OF ROOMS USED
BY INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC DEPARTMENTS
G la s s A
G la s s C
C lass B
No* o f T o t a l No. o f T o t a l No. o f T o t a l
s c h o o l s rooms s c h o o l s rooms s c h o o l s rooms
h av in g
h av in g
h av in g
R e h e a r s a l rooms
Main room
E nsem ble
In d iv id u a l
S t o r a g e rooms
L ib ra ry
In stru m e n ts
U n ifo rm s
M is c e lla n e o u s
18
7
11
2
13
7
39
10
57
2
2
8
7
13
10
8
10
2
23
11
14
5
7
16
6
25
4
7
4
4
1
1
4
7
3
9
3
3
O ffic e
7
8
8
10
6
6
S ta g e
3
3
4
4
5
5
Work sh o p
0
0
1
1
0
0
D r e s s i n g rooms
1
1
7
12
4
7
15
10
3
3
72
o t h e r rooms l i g h t i n g a n d h e a t i n g were a d e q u a t e i n n i n e s c h o o l s
an d v e n t i l a t i o n i n f o u r .
G la s s B s e h o o l s r e p o r t e d s i x t e e n
rooms a d e q u a t e l y l i g h t e d and h e a t e d a n d s e v e n t e e n rooms p r o ­
p e r l y v e n t i l a t e d , w h i l e i n o t h e r rooms t h e a d e q u a c y f o r l i g h t ­
i n g , h e a t i n g , an d v e n t i l a t i o n was f i f t e e n , f o u r t e e n , a n d t h i r ­
te e n r e s p e c tiv e ly .
A l l G la s s C s c h o o l s r e p o r t e d good l i g h t i n g
a n d h e a t i n g i n a l l t h e i r rooms a n d p o o r v e n t i l a t i o n i n o n ly
one main r e h e a r s a l room an d two o f t h e o t h e r m usic room s.
(S ee T a b le X I , p a g e 7 3 ) .
In stru m e n t s t o r a g e .
I n s t r u m e n t s w ere s t o r e d i n t h e
main r e h e a r s a l room i n f i v e G la s s A s c h o o l s , w h ile i n f i v e
o t h e r s t h e y w ere s t o r e d i n a s p e c i a l i n s t r u m e n t room.
In
one s c h o o l t h e l i b r a r y room was u s e d f o r s t o r a g e , w h i l e a
p r a c t i c e room i n a n o t h e r .
a n o th e r in s ta n c e .
L o c k e rs i n t h e h a l l w ere u s e d i n
In th r e e o f th e s e s c h o o ls , i n d iv i d u a l
l o c k e r s w ere u s e d f o r s t o r a g e , w h i l e f o u r u s e d g ro u p l o c k e r s ,
s e v e n s h e l v e s , a n d one s t o r e d i n s t r u m e n t s on t h e f l o o r .
I n G la s s B s c h o o l s , t h i r t e e n p r o v i d e d i n s t r u m e n t rooms
f o r t h e i r s t o r a g e , f o u r u s e d t h e m ain r e h e a r s a l room, two
u s e d p r a c t i c e room s, an d one t h e o f f i c e , an d a n o t h e r a m is ­
c e l l a n e o u s s t o r a g e room .
S ix o f th e s e sc h o o ls p ro v id e d in d i­
v i d u a l l o c k e r s f o r s t o r a g e , f o u r g ro u p l o c k e r s , an d t h i r t e e n
had s h e lv e s .
The p r o v i s i o n o f s p e c i a l i n s t r u m e n t s t o r a g e rooms was
73
TABLE X I
ADEQUACY OF MUSIC ROOMS WITH REGARDS TO SOUND-PROOFING,
ACOUSTICS, LIGHTING, HEATING, AND VENTILATION
* C la ss A
C lass B
Main
O t h e r Main O t h e r
room
rooms room rooms
C lass C
Main O th e r
room rooms
S ou n d -p ro o f
Yes
No
6
5
3
7
12
10
5
9
6
6
A co u stic s
Yes
No
7
4
6
4
13
5
10
7
6
8
4
7
L ig h t
Yes
No
9
9
1
16
15
2
14
0
11
2
9
1
16
2
14
3
14
0
11
1
9
4
17
1
13
3
13
1
2
H eat
Yes
No
V e n tila tio n
Yes
No
10
2
6
2
7
5
0
0
9
74
n o t e d i n e i g h t C l a s s C s c h o o l s , w h ile i n f i v e i n s t a n c e s t h e
m ain r e h e a r s a l room was u s e d f o r s t o r a g e .
An en se m b le room,
an i n d i v i d u a l p r a c t i c e room, a m i s c e l l a n e o u s s t o r a g e room,
an d t h e o f f i c e was e a c h u s e d i n one s c h o o l f o r i n s t r u m e n t
s t o r a g e , w h i l e i n two i n s t a n c e s th e y w ere s t o r e d i n t h e h a l l .
O nly one o f t h e s e s c h o o l s was e q u i p p e d w i t h i n d i v i d u a l l o c k e r s ,
a n o t h e r w i t h g r o u p l o c k e r s , w h ile t h i r t e e n u s e d s h e l v e s f o r
th e s to ra g e o f in s tru m e n ts .
w ere s t o r e d on t h e f l o o r ,
I n one s c h o o l t h e i n s t r u m e n t s
(See T a b le s X I I a n d X I I I , p a g e s
75 a n d 7 6 ) .
U n ifo rm s t o r a g e .
The p r o v i s i o n o f s p e c i a l s t o r a g e
rooms f o r u n if o r m s was r e p o r t e d i n f o u r G l a s s A s c h o o l s , w h ile
t h r e e u s e d t h e m ain r e h e a r s a l room, two i n d i v i d u a l p r a c t i c e
ro o m s, an d one a d r e s s i n g room.
A c e d a r c l o s e t was p r o v i d e d
i n one s c h o o l , w h i l e f i v e u s e d o r d i n a r y c a b i n e t s , an d f o u r
u s e d h a n g e r s on a b a r i n t h e room.
The u n if o r m s o f s e v e n C l a s s B s c h o o l s w e re s t o r e d
i n u n if o r m ro o m s, w h ile i n t h r e e t h e y w ere s t o r e d i n t h e
m ain r e h e a r s a l room, i n f o u r i n a m i s c e l l a n e o u s s t o r a g e room,
an d one e a c h i n an e n se m b le room, t h e o f f i c e , a d r e s s i n g room,
an d a f a c u l t y r e s t room.
C e d a r c l o s e t s w ere u s e d i n two
s c h o o ls , w h ile sev en u se d o r d in a r y c a b i n e t s , sev en u sed
h a n g e r s on a l o n g b a r i n t h e room , a n d two u s e d m ovable c a s e s .
T h re e C l a s s C s c h o o l s h a d u n if o r m ro o m s, two u s e d
75
TABLE X II
ROOMS USED FOR STORAGE OF INSTRUMENTS, UNIFORMS,
LIBRARY, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT
Storage
rooms
(0
g
m
0
Class
school
Storage
equipment
§
2
g
®
£
S
^
."3
l>
0> *H
m
e fWl C
e ?-d
a
M
Instrument
Uniforms
LibraryMiscellaneous
equipment
t
<*j
I
I
£
1
5
1
2
3
3
1
2
13
4
3
6
Instruments
Uniforms
Library
Miscellaneous
equipment
5
1
9
4
1
1
M
«
.3
o < d w
. Hb o c o
<
h - PG
O .
C O P
1
1
2
1
1.
7
1
4
4
1
1
6
1
1
4
1
1
2
1
1
8
1
1
1
1
1
§
3
<d
4/ 1
2
1
4
»
g
o
o
o
4
1
1
1
0
Ph - P ' H O
x)
v).
• H WG
C£ 0-hr H^cn
P
5
3
5
Instruments
Uniforms
LibraryMiscellaneous
equipment
)
3
Other
Storage
Rehearsal
rooms
5
3
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
76
TABLE X I I I
METHODS USED FOR STORAGE OF INSTRUMENTS
G la s s [ A
Num­ P e r
ber
cent
G la ss B
Num- P e r
her
cent
G la s s , C
Num­ P e r
ber
cent
In d iv id u a l lo c k e rs
3
2 7 .4
6
3 3 .3
1
7 .1
G-roup l o c k e r s
4
3 6 .4
4
2 2 .2
1
7 .1
S h e lv e s
7
6 3 .6
13
7 2 .2
13
9 2 .9
F lo o r
1
9 .1
0
.0
1
7 .1
77
m i s c e l l a n e o u s s t o r a g e ro o m s, w h ile one e a c h u s e d t h e m ain
r e h e a r s a l room , a p r a c t i c e room, t h e i n s t r u m e n t room, a d r e s ­
s i n g room, and t h e g i r l s sh o w e r room.
I n tw o s c h o o l s u n i ­
fo rm s w ere h u n g i n c a b i n e t s , i n s e v e n , h a n g e r s w ere u s e d on
a b a r , w h ile m ovable c a s e s w ere u s e d i n tw o i n s t a n c e s .
(See
T a b le s X I I an d XIV, p a g e s 75 a n d 7 8 )#
L ib ra ry s to r a g e .
The m usic l i b r a r y o f f i v e G la s s A
s c h o o l s was k e p t i n t h e m ain r e h e a r s a l room , o f f o u r i n t h e
o f f i c e o f t h e d i r e c t o r , one i n t h e l i b r a r y , a n d one on t h e
sta g e .
I n t h r e e i n s t a n c e s f i l e s w ere u s e d t o s t o r e m u s ic ,
w h i l e s h e l v e s w ere u s e d i n s i x s c h o o l s a n d c a b i n e t s i n f i v e .
S i x G la s s B s c h o o l s s t o r e d t h e i r l i b r a r y i n t h e m ain r e h e a r ­
s a l room , one i n an e n s e m b le room , two i n t h e l i b r a r y , f o u r
i n a m i s c e l l a n e o u s s t o r a g e room , a n d s i x i n t h e d i r e c t o r ’ s
o ffic e .
F iv e d i r e c t o r s u s e d f i l e s f o r s t o r a g e o f m u s i c , n i n e
u se d s h e lv e s , and f o u r t e e n , c a b i n e t s .
In C l a s s C s c h o o l s ,
n i n e o f t h e l i b r a r i e s w ere h o u s e d I n t h e m ain r e h e a r s a l room,
one i n t h e l i b r a r y , two I n an o f f i c e , an d one i n a d r e s s i n g
room .
F i l e s w ere u s e d i n f o u r s c h o o l s , s h e l v e s i n e i g h t ,
and c a b in e t s i n n i n e .
(See T a b le s X I I a n d XV, p a g e s 75 a nd
79).
S t o r a g e o f m i s c e l l a n e o u s e q u i p m e n t.
The m i s c e l l a n e o u s
eq u ip m e n t was s t o r e d i n many d i f f e r e n t ro o m s.
In t h r e e
C l a s s A s c h o o l s , t h e m ain r e h e a r s a l room was u s e d , i n t h r e e ,
78
TABLE XXV
METHODS USED FOR STORAGE OF UNIFORMS
C lass A
Num- P e r
ber
cent
C lass B
Num- P e r
ber
cent
C lass C
Num- P e r
ber
cent
C e d a r c l o s e t o r room
1
9 .1
2
11*1
0
.0
C a b in e t
5
4 5 .5
7
3 8 .9
2
1 4 .3
H a n g e r i n room
4
3 6 .4
7
3 8 .9
7
5 0 .0
Movable c a s e s
0
.0
2
1 1 .1
2
1 4 .3
79
TABLE XV
METHODS USED FOR STORAGE OP THE LIBRARY
C lass A
Num- P e r
her
cent
C la ss B
Num- P e r
her
cent
C la s s i C
Num­ P e r
ber
cent
F ile s
3
2 7 .3
5
2 7 .8
4
2 8 .6
S h e lv e s
6
5 4 .5
9
5 0 .0
8
5 7 .1
C a b in e ts
5
4 5 .5
14
7 7 .7
9
6 4 .3
80
i n d i v i d u a l p r a c t i c e ro o m s, i n tw o , t h e u n i f o r m room , a n d in
one e a c h , t h e i n s t r u m e n t room, t h e m i s c e l l a n e o u s s t o r a g e room,
and th e o f f i c e .
G la s s B s c h o o l s i n f o u r i n s t a n c e s s t o r e d
t h i s e q u ip m e n t i n t h e o f f i c e an d i n f o u r i n t h e m ain r e h e a r ­
s a l room.
An i n d i v i d u a l p r a c t i c e room, t h e l i b r a r y , t h e
i n s t r u m e n t room , t h e m i s c e l l a n e o u s s t o r a g e room, a n d a d r e s ­
s i n g room, was e a c h r e p o r t e d once#
F our C lass C s c h o o ls u sed
t h e m ain r e h e a r s a l room and f i v e u s e d t h e i n s t r u m e n t room,
w h i l e o n e , an i n d i v i d u a l p r a c t i c e room, o n e , a m i s c e l l a n e o u s
s t o r a g e room , a n d o n e , t h e o f f i c e f o r t h i s s t o r a g e .
(See
T a b le X I I , p a g e 7 5 ) .
B lack b o ard s and b u l l e t i n b o a r d s .
B lack b o a rd s and
b u l l e t i n b o a r d s were d e c i d e d l y l a c k i n g i n a b o u t 3 0 p e r c e n t
o f t h e m usic rooms#
little
Many rooms w ere p r o v i d e d o n ly w i t h v e r y
b la c k b o a rd o r b u l l e t i n b o ard sp a c e , i n s u f f i c i e n t f o r
th e need .
Only 6 3 .6 p e r c e n t o f C l a s s A s c h o o l s h a d b l a c k ­
b o a r d s an d 7 2 . 7 p e r c e n t h a d b u l l e t i n b o a r d s , w h ile 8 3 . 3 p e r
c e n t o f C l a s s B s c h o o l s r e p o r t e d h a v i n g b l a c k b o a r d s a n d 6 6 .7
p e r c e n t h av in g b u l l e t i n b o a rd s .
Only 5 7 . 1 p e r c e n t o f C l a s s
C s c h o o l s h a d b l a c k b o a r d s a n d 50 p e r c e n t h a d b u l l e t i n b o a r d s .
R ise rs.
Only one G la s s A a n d two C l a s s B s c h o o l s h a d
p e r m a n e n t r i s e r s b u i l t i n t o t h e r e h e a r s a l room .
One C l a s s B
s c h o o l h a d te m p o r a r y r i s e r s w h ic h c o u l d be moved a b o u t , a s
d i d one C l a s s C s c h o o l a l s o .
81
U t i l i z a t i o n o f m u sic r o o m s .
The m u sic rooms o f t h e
l a r g e r s c h o o l s w ere u s e d more by t h e m usic d e p a r t m e n t s t h a n
t h e y w ere i n s m a l l e r s c h o o l s .
The a v e r a g e num ber o f h o u r s
p e r week i n w h ic h t h e m u sic room was u s e d f o r i n s t r u m e n t a l
m usic i n G la s s A s c h o o l s was t w e n t y - e i g h t .
C lass B i n s t r u ­
m e n t a l m usic t e a c h e r s u s e d t h e i r rooms t w e n t y - f o u r h o u r s and
tw e n t y m in u te s a w eek, w h i l e i n C l a s s C s c h o o l s t h e tim e was
o n ly e i g h t e e n h o u r s an d t h i r t y - f i v e m i n u t e s .
I n o n ly 2 7 . 3
p e r c e n t o f C l a s s A s c h o o l s was t h e room u s e d f o r o t h e r
p u r p o s e s , w h ile i t was 2 7 . 8 p e r c e n t i n C l a s s B an d 5 1 .7 p e r
c e n t in C lass C s c h o o ls .
The u s a g e f r e q u e n t l y was b y o t h e r
members o f t h e m usic d e p a r t m e n t .
P r e s e n t ag e a n d f u t u r e b u i l d i n g p ro g ra m o f m u sic
room s.
T h ere h a s b e e n a d e f i n i t e t r e n d to w a r d b u i l d i n g o r
r e m o d e lin g o f rooms f o r m u sic d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d from 1 9 3 0 t o
1940.
Only 2 7 . 3 p e r c e n t o f C l a s s A s c h o o l s , 3 3 . 3 p e r c e n t
o f C l a s s B, a n d 3 5 . 7 p e r c e n t o f C l a s s C s c h o o l s h a v e n o t
b u i l t o r re m o d e le d t h e i r m usic room d u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d .
In
m ost o f t h e s e s c h o o l s t h e a u d i t o r i u m - o r a c l a s s r o o m was u s e d
f o r m usic r e h e a r s a l .
D u rin g t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h a t p e r i o d ,
from 1 9 3 0 t o 1 9 3 5 , 4 5 . 5 p e r c e n t o f C l a s s A, 5 . 5 p e r c e n t o f
C l a s s B, an d 1 4 .3 p e r c e n t o f C l a s s C a d d e d t o t h e i r m usic
h o u s i n g f a c i l i t i e s , w h i l e d u r i n g t h e l a s t o f t h e p e r i o d , from
1936 t o 1 9 4 0 , 2 7 . 3 p e r c e n t o f C l a s s A, 6 1 . 1 p e r c e n t o f C l a s s B,
82
an d 50 p e r c e n t o f C l a s s C p r o v i d e d some " b u ild in g o r r e m o d e l­
i n g t o t h e i r m usio roo m s.
The f u t u r e b u i l d i n g p ro g ra m d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d from
1941 t o 1945 o f 4 5 . 5 p e r c e n t o f C l a s s A s c h o o l s , 3 8 . 9 p e r
c e n t o f C l a s s B s c h o o l s , an d 1 4 .3 p e r c e n t o f C l a s s C s c h o o l s ,
i n c l u d e s some p r o v i s i o n f o r m u s i c .
One s c h o o l i n e a c h c l a s s
g ave no d e f i n i t e p e r i o d f o r a d d i t i o n s t o o r b u i l d i n g o f a
m u sic u n i t a l t h o u g h p r o v i s i o n s w ere i n c l u d e d i n t h e b u i l d i n g
p la n o f each of th e s c h o o ls .
T h is c o n d i t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t
ev e n i n s e v e r a l i n s t a n c e s w here b u i l d i n g s h a d b e e n b u i l t
d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d from 1930 t o 1 9 4 0 , f u r t h e r b u i l d i n g was
b e i n g c o n t e m p l a t e d f o r t h e p e r i o d from 1941 t o 1 9 4 5 , sh o w in g
t h a t t h e b u i l d i n g s h a d become i n a d e q u a t e w i t h i n t e n y e a r s .
(See T a b le XVI, p ag e 8 3 ) .
S c h o o l owned I n s t r u m e n t s .
A l l s c h o o l s owned and
l e n t some i n s t r u m e n t s t o t h e i r s t u d e n t s .
In C lass A s c h o o ls ,
an a v e r a g e o f s e v e n t y - s i x i n s t r u m e n t s , n o t i n c l u d i n g t h e
s m a l l e r p e r c u s s i o n i n s t r u m e n t s , w ere owned by t h e m usic d e ­
p a r t m e n t , r a n g i n g fro m f o r t y - f o u r i n one s c h o o l t o one h u n d r e d
and s i x t y - f i v e i n a n o th e r .
A range o f tw e n ty - f iv e sc h o o l
owned i n s t r u m e n t s i n one s c h o o l t o n i n e t y - e i g h t i n a n o t h e r
was r e p o r t e d i n t h e C l a s s B s c h o o l s f o r an a v e r a g e o f 5 9 .5
in stru m e n ts p e r s c h o o l.
I n C l a s s C t h e r a n g e was from n i n e ­
t e e n i n s t r u m e n t s i n one s c h o o l t o s i x t y - t h r e e i n a n o t h e r ,
83
TABLE XVI
PRESENT AGE OF AND FUTURE BUILDING
PROGRAM OF MUSIC ROOMS
C lass A
Num­ P e r
ber
cent
Y ear o f c o n s tr u c tio n o r
r e m o d e lin g o f p r e s e n t
b u i l d i n g o r room
B e f o r e 1930
3
1 9 3 0 -1 9 3 5
5
1 9 3 6 -1 9 4 1
3
F u t u r e b u i l d i n g p ro g ra m
1 9 4 1 -1 9 4 5
5
In d e fin ite
1
C la s s i B
Num­ P e r
cent
ber
2 7 .3
4 5 .5
2 7 .3
C la s s i C
Num­ P e r
ber
cent
6
1
11
3 3 .3
5 .5
6 1 .1
5
2
7
3 5 .7
1 4 .3
7
1
3 8 .9
5 .5
2
1
1 4 .3
7 .1
50.0
*
4 5 .5
9 .1
84
f o r an a v e r a g e o f 3 4 . 6 i n s t r u m e n t s p e r s c h o o l .
T h e r e w ere more c l a r i n e t s
owned i n s c h o o l s t h a n a n y
on e o t h e r i n s t r u m e n t , f o r a t o t a l o f 1 0 7 i n C l a s s A , 1 2 1 i n
C l a s s B , and 6 5 i n C l a s s C.
h a ss in str u m e n ts,
A l l s c h o o l s owned c e r t a i n d r u m s ,
and p i a n o s .
-The t o t a l num ber o f i n s t r u ­
m en ts owned by s c h o o l s o f e a c h c l a s s
is
show n i n T a b le X V I I ,
page 8 5 .
Usa&e o f s c h o o l I n s t r u m e n t s .
Many s c h o o l i n s t r u m e n t s
are u sed tw ic e o r th r e e tim es d a i l y by d i f f e r e n t s t u d e n t s .
O n ly i n fe w s c h o o l s w e re t h e i n s t r u m e n t s a s s i g n e d t o on e s t u ­
d en t.
The maximum u s e f o r s t r i n g ,
m e n ts i n one d a y was f i v e .
w o o d w in d , o r b r a s s i n s t r u ­
T eachers in C la ss A rep o rted a
r a n g e o f from 1 0 0 p e r c e n t i n tw o s c h o o l s t o 2 7 3 p e r c e n t i n
a n o th e r , o f u s a g e o f t h e above in s t r u m e n t s .
C la ss B r e p o r ts
sh o w e d a r a n g e fr o m 1 0 0 p e r c e n t t o 2 1 8 p e r c e n t , and C l a s s C
from 1 0 0 p e r c e n t t o 2 3 2 p e r c e n t .
In C la s s A s c h o o l s ,
60
p e r c e n t r e p o r t e d u s i n g t h e i n s t r u m e n t s fro m 1 2 0 t o I 6 5 p e r
c e n t d a i l y , w h ile 5 ° p e r c e n t o f C la s s B and 6 2 .5 p e r c e n t
o f C l a s s C sh o w e d s i m i l a r c o n d i t i o n s .
E q u ip m e n t .
The t y p e o f e q u ip m e n t o f v a r i o u s n a t u r e
a s u s e d o r n e e d e d b y t h e m u s ic d e p a r t m e n t v a r i e d g r e a t l y i n
th e s c h o o ls s t u d ie d .
Some e q u ip m e n t u s e d b y t h e m u sic d e ­
p a r t m e n t was ow ned b y t h e d e p a r t m e n t , w h i l e i n o t h e r c a s e s
it
was a v a i l a b l e
from o t h e r d e p a r t m e n t s .
A l l s c h o o ls had
85
TABLE X V II
NUMBER OF SCHOOL OWNED INSTRUMENTS
In stru m en t
V io lin
V io la
C e llo
S trin g bass
Db P i c c o l o
C P ic c o lo
C F lu te
Oboe
B a sso o n
Eb C l a r i n e t
Bb C l a r i n e t
A C la rin e t
A lto C l a r i n e t
B ass C l a r i n e t
Bb S o p . Sax
Eb A l t o Sax
C T e n o r Sax
Bb T e n o r Sax
B a r i t o n e Sax
B ass Sax
S arru so p h o n e
C om et o r
tr u m p e t
F le u g a l h o rn
A lto h o rn
T o ta l In str u ­
m en ts i n C l a s s
A~
B
C
.2 5
26
34
30
6
3
18
13
11
6
107
14
5
10
3
9
0
11
10
1
0
88
26
36
30
12
2
34
15
10
11
121
7
7
8
5
15
4
14
16
1
1
28
10
21
13
2
1
14
5
6
6
65
0
2
1
0
9
0
7
5
0
0
41
0
35
60
3
57
37
1
28
In stru m en t
T o ta l In str u ­
m e n ts i n C l a s s
A
B
C
28
F re n c h h o r n
Bb Trombone
37
2
B ass tro m b o n e
20
B a rito n e
Eb S o u sa p h o n e 10
BBb S o u sap h o n e 25
Eb Tuba
9
BBb Tuba
. 3
20
S n a r e drum
F i e l d drum
57
B ass drum
9
S c o tc h drum
5
22
Tympani
1
T e n o r drum
21
Cymbals
B e ll ly r e
9
O rc h e stra b e l ls 8
X y lo p h o n e o r
m arim ba
2
0
V ib ra -h a rp
2
Chimes
S o p ra n o b u g l e 32
0
T enor b u g le
B a rito n e b u g le 2
P ia n o
29
* O n ly 10 C la a a A s c h o o l s I n c l u d e d .
25
56
3
37
8
33
9
5
42
61
19
9
28
6
49
15
14
8
29
1
19
4
12
11
0
21
15
15
1
8
0
33
5
9
4
1
0
2
10
4
52
0
0
0
0
0
0
33
86
m u sic s t a n d s , a l t h o u g h n o t a lw a y s i n s u f f i c i e n t q u a n t i t i e s .
The a v e r a g e nu m b er o f s t a n d s i n s i x C l a s s A an d e l e v e n C l a s s
B s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g was 32 i n e a c h , w h i l e s e v e n C l a s s C
s c h o o l s r e p o r t e d an a v e r a g e o f 19 s t a n d s .
Sound an d v i s u a l
a i d e q u ip m e n t was i n m o st s c h o o l s a v a i l a b l e i n o t h e r d e p a r t ­
m ents , a l t h o u g h a n u m b e r o f s c h o o l s w ere b a d l y i n n e e d o f
a d d i t i o n a l e q u ip m e n t.
C e r t a i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e e q u ip m e n t, su c h
a s t y p e w r i t e r s and d u p l i c a t o r s , was g e n e r a l l y o b t a i n a b l e ,
w h i l e o t h e r e q u i p m e n t , s u c h as f i l e s , d e s k s , an d t a b l e s , v/as
r e g u l a r f u r n is h in g s o f th e d e p a rtm e n t.
Much e q u ip m e n t,
t y p i c a l o f m usic d e p a r t m e n t s , s u c h a s t u n i n g b a r s , m e tro n o m e s,
an d s p e c i a l i n s t r u m e n t s t a n d s , was f r e q u e n t l y a v a i l a b l e i n
t h e m u sic d e p a r t m e n t , a l t h o u g h many d i r e c t o r s
o f t h i s t y p e o f e q u ip m e n t.
re p o rte d needs
T a b le X V I I I , p a g e 8 7 , g i v e s a
c o m p le te p i c t u r e o f t h e e q u ip m e n t w h ich was u s e d o r n e e d e d
in th e sc h o o ls o f th e th r e e c l a s s e s .
P o lic y o f f u r n i s h i n g in s tru m e n t s u p p li e s and a c c e s ­
s o r ie s to s tu d e n ts .
S c h o o ls v a r i e d c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t h e p o l i c y
o f f u r n i s h i n g s t u d e n t s w i t h s u p p l i e s an d a c c e s s o r i e s f o r
m u sical in s tru m e n ts .
Some s c h o o l s s u p p l i e d v e r y l i t t l e ,
o th e rs su p p lie d e v e ry th in g .
w h ile
Many s c h o o l s s u p p l i e d s u c h t h i n g s
a s s t r i n g s f o r t h e s t r i n g b a s s e s an d c e l l o s , r e e d s f o r oboes
a n d b a s s o o n , a n d s t i c k s f o r d ru m s.
The c o m p le t e l i s t o f
a c c e s s o r i e s a s s u p p l i e d b y s c h o o l s i s shown i n T a b le XIX, p a g e 8 8 .
87
TABLE X V I I I
EQUIPMENT USED OR NEEDED BY THE
INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC DEPARTMENT
E q u ip m e n t
R ecorder
R adio
P h o n o g ra p h
P u b l i c a d d r e s s s y s te m
Sound m o tio n p i c t u r e
p ro je c to r
C e n t r a l so u n d s y s te m
L a n te rn s l i d e
S creen
M o tio n p i c t u r e ca m era
T y p e w rite r
D u p lic a to r
P h o to sta t
T e le p h o n e
D esk
T a b le s
F ile s
Music p e n s
E n g r a v in g n e e d l e
D e p a rtm e n t s t e n c i l
D e p a rtm e n t sta m p
11A" T u n in g b a r
“Bb" T u n in g b a r
Metronome
C o n d u c to r’ s b a to n
Drum m a jo r b a t o n
C h a lk l i n e r
R e p a ir to o ls
S p e c ia l in stru m e n t sta n d s
S t r a p s an d h a r n e s s e s
W h istle
Megaphone
T h e a tre l i g h t s
M irro r
C lo th e s b ru sh
M e a s u rin g t a p e
Owned b y
D e p a rtm e n t
C lass
A
B
C
A v a ila b le
E ls e w h e r e
G la s s
A
B
C
1
3
5
1
2
1
4
10
10
7
2
4
5
6
4
5
7
8
5
7
3
9
6
3
8
4
3
6
N eeded
C lass
A
B
C
1
1
1
4
5
3
10
9
6
1
5
6
4
1
4
5
8
1
4
4
10
1
6
5
6
2
4
7
3
2
2
4
2
1
2
1
1
7
1
6
9
2
10
9
1
1
3
16
11
11
4
1
5
9
8
6
10
12
15
11
8
8
15
12
7
8
7
7
5
2
9
8
7
2
8
8
3
5
7
1
4
13
1
14
14
6
11
11
8
8
1
1
1
3
2
1
P
2
2
3
1
4
2
1
3
4
1
2
2
1
1
4
3
4
2
1
1
3
1
1
1
6
2
2
2
3
1
1
2
2
3
4
10
11
5
4
6
13
9
2
5
3
2
3
1
1
1
5
1
2
2
5
2
1
1
3
3
4
2
3
3
1
3
4
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
4
5
1
2
7
1
1
1
2
2
4
1
3
2
1
88
TABLE XIX
SCHOOLS FURNISHING INSTRUMENT SUPPLIES AND
ACCESSORIES TO STUDENTS
a
O
co
Violin strings
Viola strings
Cello strings
Bass strings
3
3
6
7
Oboe reeds
Bassoon reeds
Clarinet reeds
Saxaphone reeds
s
-p
|-P
-Ip
•33
-9'd
H °
h
H °
8 -p
©
rH
H
m
03 CJ
©
r H
H
3
3
0
0
2
3
3
4
4
4
2
2
1
1
2
2
Lyres
Cornet mutes
Trombone mutes
Extra mouthpieces
3
1
1
1
Drum sticks
Practice pads
5
5
O
Class C schools
co a
S
©
o -p
- C
O
S
O
C
©
-9
rH
H
©
o
a
O
^
O
co
co a
2
2
3
4
5
3
2
1
4
6
6
6
3
1
4
4
3
2
2
2
2
1
3
4
3
3
2
2
5
7
2
2
3
2
6
6
4
2
0
0
1
0
3
3
0
0
3
1
0
2
1
1
1
0
Q
1
4
1
1
4
5
4
1
4
5
2
2
2
2
3
2
3
2
1
1
3
4
1
0
1
2
1
1
0
2
0
2
1
7
7
3
1
3
2
6
1
2
0
1
0
r
cooi
only
Supplies and
accessories
Class B schools
ments
Class A schools
89
P l a c e an d e q u ip m e n t u s e d i n m a r c h in g d r i l l .
s c h o o ls r e p o r te d u s in g b o th th e a t h l e t i c
f o r m a rc h in g d r i l l .
Many
f i e l d an d s t r e e t
Ten C l a s s A s c h o o l s u s e d t h e a t h l e t i c
f i e l d , s e v e n u s e d t h e s t r e e t , w h i l e one u s e d a s p e c i a l f i e l d .
I n C l a s s B s i x t e e n b a n d s made u s e o f t h e a t h l e t i c f i e l d ,
e l e v e n , t h e s t r e e t , an d o n e , a s p e c i a l f i e l d f o r m a rc h in g
d rill.
tic
The nu m b er o f C l a s s C s c h o o l s w h ich u s e d t h e a t h l e ­
f i e l d s was e l e v e n , w h ile s e v e n u s e d t h e s t r e e t .
The e q u ip m e n t u s e d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h m a rc h in g d r i l l s ,
a s i d e from b a t o n a n d w h i s t l e , i n c l u d e d i n C l a s s A s c h o o l s ,
one u s i n g a p u b l i c a d d r e s s s y s t e m ; f o u r , m eg ap ho nes; tw o ,
m im eog raph ed i n s t r u c t i o n s ; o n e , m o tio n p i c t u r e s ; tw o , m a rc h ­
i n g m a n u a ls ; an d tw o , b l a c k b o a r d s .
Two C l a s s B s c h o o l s u s e d
p u b l i c a d d r e s s s y s t e m s ; f i v e , m e g ap h o n es; f o u r , m im eographed
i n s t r u c t i o n s ; o n e , m o tio n p i c t u r e s ; e i g h t , m a rc h in g m a n u a ls ;
and one, a b la c k b o a rd .
T h is was c o n t r a s t e d in C l a s s C w here
two made u s e o f m e g a p h o n e s; one o f m im eog rap hed i n s t r u c t i o n s ;
one o f a c a r d s y s t e m , one o f m o tio n p i c t u r e s ; an d f o u r o f
m a rc h in g m an uals*
(S ee T a b le XX, p ag e 9 0 ) .
Humber o f s c h o o l s ow ning u n i f o r m s .
owned b a n d u n i f o r m s .
Most o f t h e s c h o o l s
I n C l a s s A 9 0 .9 p e r c e n t o f t h e s c h o o l s
r e p o r t e d h a v i n g an a v e r a g e o f 6 9 .5 u n i f o r m s p e r b a n d .
F u lly
100 p e r c e n t o f t h e C l a s s B s c h o o l s owned on t h e a v e r a g e o f
44 b a n d u n i f o r m s .
The b an d s i n 7 1 . 4 p e r c e n t o f C l a s s C
90
TABLE XX
PLACE AND EQUIPMENT USED IN MARGHIN& DRILL
C lass A
P la c e o f d r i l l
A th le tic f ie ld
S p e c ia l f i e l d
S tre e t
E q u ip m e n t f o r d r i l l
P u b l i c a d d r e s s s y s te m
Megaphone
M im eographed i n s t r u c t i o n s
M o tio n p i c t u r e s
M anuals
B lack b o ard
C a rd s y s te m
G la ss B
C lass C
10
1
7
16
1
11
11
0
7
1
4
2
1
2
2
0
2
5
4
1
8
4
0
0
2
1
1
4
0
1
91
s c h o o l s w ere e q u i p p e d w ith an a v e r a g e o f 4 4 . 5 u n i f o r m s .
A s id e from t h i s , one G la s s A s c h o o l owned u n i f o r m s f o r t h e
drum an d b u g l e c o r p s , an d i n C l a s s B s c h o o l s , u n if o r m s f o r
t h e d a n c e b a n d , f o r drum a n d b u g l e c o r p s , f o r a n e n s e m b le ,
a n d f o r a n o v e l t y g ro u p w ere r e p o r t e d , e a c h i n one s c h o o l .
(See T a b le XXI, p ag e 9 2 ) .
U n ifo rm c u s t o d i a n s .
S tu d e n ts , as w e ll as t e a c h e r s ,
s h a re d in th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s
of c a rin g f o r u n ifo rm s.
In
s i x C l a s s A, e i g h t C l a s s B, and t e n C l a s s C s c h o o l s , t e a c h e r s
w ere r e s p o n s i b l e .
I n one C l a s s C s c h o o l t h e t e a c h e r was from
t h e home ec o n o m ic s d e p a r t m e n t .
S t u d e n t s assu m ed p a r t o r a l l
r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n f i v e s c h o o l s o f C l a s s A, t w e l v e o f C l a s s
B, a n d f o u r o f C l a s s C s c h o o l s , f o r u n i f o r m c a r e .
Only i n two C l a s s A s c h o o l s an d one C l a s s B s c h o o l d id
t h e s t u d e n t s g e t p a i d f o r t h i s w o rk , w h i l e i n one C l a s s A
s c h o o l , a n d two C l a s s B s c h o o l s , s t u d e n t s r e c e i v e d e x t r a
c re d it.
H ig h e r g r a d e s w ere g iv e n a s r e m u n e r a t i o n i n two
C l a s s B s c h o o l s a n d one C l a s s C s c h o o l , w h i l e s p e c i a l m e r i t s
o r h o n o r s w ere g iv e n i n e a c h o f two C l a s s B an d C l a s s C
sc h o o ls.
F o u r s c h o o l s i n C l a s s B a n d on e i n C l a s s C r e p o r t e d
t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s r e c e i v e d n o t h i n g f o r t h i s w o rk .
(See
T a b le X X II, p ag e 9 3 ) .
In stru m e n t c u s to d ia n .
T e a c h e r s g e n e r a l l y assum ed
th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f in s tru m e n ts .
I n n i n e C l a s s A, e i g h t
92
TABLE XXI
NUMBER OF SCHOOLS OWNING UNIFORMS
Type
of
u n ifo rm
G la s s A
Num­ P e r
cent
ber
C lass B
Num- P e r
ber
cent
Band
10
9 0 .9
18
1 0 0 .0
10
7 1 .4
Dance b a n d
0
0 .0
1
5 .5
0
0 .0
Drum a n d b u g l e c o r p s
1
9 .1
1
5 .5
0
o•
o
E nsem ble
0
0 .0
1
5*5
0
0 .0
N o v e lt y
0
0 .0
1
5 .5
0
0 .0
A v e ra g e num ber o f b a n d
u n ifo rm s p e r s c h o o l
69*5
44
C lassi c
Num­ P e r
ber
cent
4 4 .5
93
TABLE XXII
UNIFORM CUSTODIANS
C lass A
C lass B
C la ss C
*
C u sto d ia n
Teacher
S tu d e n t
C o u n c il
6
4
1
8
11
1
10*
4
0
R e m u n e ra tio n f o r s t u d e n t s
P ay
E x tra c r e d i t
H ig h e r g rad e
S p e c ia l m e rit
None
2
1
0
0
0
1
2
2
2
4
0
0
1
2
1
-*One o f t h i s g r o u p i s a t e a c h e r , o u t s i d e o f m u s i c .
94
C l a s s B, and t h i r t e e n C l a s s C s c h o o l s , t h e t e a c h e r s a c t e d
as i n s t r u m e n t c u s t o d i a n s , w h i l e o n ly i n one C l a s s A, e i g h t
C l a s s B, and t h r e e C l a s s C s c h o o l s w ere s t u d e n t s a s s i g n e d
t o t h i s work*
I n one C l a s s B s c h o o l , t h e w if e o f t h e
d i r e c t o r d i d t h i s w o rk .
O nly t h e one s t u d e n t i n t h e C l a s s A s c h o o l r e c e i v e d
p a y , w h i l e i n C l a s s B t h r e e r e c e i v e d e x t r a c r e d i t , two a
h i g h e r g r a d e , two s p e c i a l m e r i t , an d two r e c e i v e d n o t h i n g
f o r t h i s w o rk.
One C l a s s C s c h o o l r e p o r t e d g i v i n g s p e c i a l
m e r i t f o r t h i s w o rk.
(See T a b le X X I I I , p ag e 9 5 ) .
M in o r r e p a i r s on m u sic i n s t r u m e n t s done a t s c h o o l .
N e a r ly a l l o f t h e d i r e c t o r s fo u n d t h e n e c e s s i t y o f m aking
some m in o r r e p a i r s t o i n s t r u m e n t s o c c a s i o n a l l y , e s p e c i a l l y
w here no m usic s t o r e was
i n to w n .
In te n of th e C lass A
s c h o o l s , s i x t e e n C l a s s B s c h o o l s , an d e l e v e n C l a s s C s c h o o l s ,
some r e p a i r work was d o n e .
One C l a s s B an d t h r e e C l a s s C
s c h o o l s d i d no r e p a i r work an d t h e o t h e r s c h o o l s d i d n o t
re p o rt.
The t e a c h e r i n s i x C l a s s A, e i g h t C l a s s B, an d
n in e C la ss C sc h o o ls d id
th e
r e p a i r w o rk .
One C l a s s A, t h r e e
C l a s s B, and one C l a s s C s c h o o l s s e n t r e p a i r work t o
sc h o o l shop.
th e
J a n i t o r s o r s p e c i a l r e p a i r men, em p lo yed b y
t h e s c h o o l , d i d t h e w ork i n two C l a s s A a n d one C l a s s C s c h o o l s .
To t h e q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r t h e f a c i l i t i e s w ere a d e q u a t e t o
make m in o r r e p a i r s , one C l a s s A r e p o r t e d y e s , w h i l e f i v e
95
TABLE X X I I I
INSTRUMENT CUSTODIAN
C la ss A
C la ss B
C u sto d ia n
T eacher
A ssista n t
S tu d en ts
9
0
1
8
1
8
13
0
3
R e m u n e r a t io n f o r s t u d e n t s
P ay
E xtra c r e d it
H ig h e r grade
S p e c ia l m e r it
None
1
0
0
0
0
0
3
2
2
2
0
0
0
1
0
C la s s G
96
r e p o r t e d n o ; f i v e C l a s s B s c h o o l s r e p o r t e d y e s an d s e v e n ,
n o ; a n d one C l a s s C s c h o o l r e p o r t e d y e s , a n d s i x , n o .
(See
T a b le XXIV, p a g e 9 7 ) .
M ethods u s e d t o s t e r i l i z e
in stru m e n ts.
A lc o h o l was
u s e d m ost f r e q u e n t l y f o r s t e r i l i z a t i o n o f i n s t r u m e n t s , b e i n g
r e p o r t e d by t h r e e C l a s s A, s e v e n C l a s s B, a n d t h r e e C l a s s C
s c h o o ls.
H ot w a t e r was u s e d by f o u r C l a s s B an d t h r e e C l a s s C
sc h o o ls.
One C l a s s A a n d t h r e e C l a s s C s c h o o l s u s e d o t h e r
d i s i n f e c t a n t s , w h ile two C l a s s A a n d one C l a s s C d i d n o t
m e n tio n t h e t y p e o f d i s i n f e c t a n t u s e d .
s e n t away f o r s t e r i l i z a t i o n
one C l a s s C s c h o o l s .
The i n s t r u m e n t s w ere
i n one C l a s s A, tw o G la s s B, and
(See T a b le XXV, p ag e 9 8 ) .
P la n s u se d in p u rc h a s in g m u s ic .
Many s c h o o l s b o u g h t
m u s i c , a l l o w i n g f o r g ro w th o f t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n s .
Only
1 8 .2 p e r c e n t o f s c h o o l s i n C l a s s A, 4 4 . 4 p e r c e n t i n C l a s s
B, a n d 5 7 .1 p e r c e n t i n C l a s s C b o u g h t t h e i r m u sic w i t h t h e
o r g a n i z a t i o n s a s t h e y e x i s t e d a t t h e tim e i n m in d .
The g ro w th
o f t h e m u s i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h i n a few y e a r s was
c o n sid e re d
in 3 6 .4 p e r
B, a n d
c e n t o f C l a s s A, 2 7 . 8 p e r c e n t o f C l a s s
2 1 . 4 p e r c e n t o f C l a s s C s c h o o l s i n p u r c h a s i n g m u s ic , w h ile
in 4 5 .5 p e r
c e n t o f C l a s s A, 2 7 .8 p e r c e n t o f C l a s s
p er cent of
C l a s s C, t h e maximum g r o w th o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s
was c o n s i d e r e d i n o r d e r i n g m u s ic .
B a n d 1 4 .3
97
TABLE XXIV
MINOR REPAIRS ON MUSIC INSTRUMENTS DONE AT SCHOOL
C lass A
C la ss B
C la ss C
10
16
11
S c h o o ls n o t m ak in g r e p a i r s
0
1
3
P e r s o n m aking r e p a i r s
Teacher
Shop
J a n i t o r o r r e p a i r man
6
1
2
8
3
0
9
1
1
A dequacy o f f a c i l i t i e s
Yes
No
1
5
5
7
1
6
S c h o o ls m aking m in o r r e p a i r s
98
TABLE XXV
METHODS USED TO STERILIZE INSTRUMENTS
C lassi A
Num­ P e r
cent
ber
C la s s i. B
Num­ P e r
ber
cent
C la s s i C
Num­ P e r
cent
ber
A lc o h o l
3
2 7 .3
7
3 8 .9
3
2 1 .4
H ot w a t e r
0
0 .0
4
2 2 .2
3
2 1 .4
O th e r d i s i n f e c t a n t
1
9 .1
0
0 .0
3
2 1 .4
S e n t away
1
9 .1
2
H
.
H
HI
1
7 .1
Method n o t named
2
1 8 .2
0
O
«
O
1
7 .1
CHAPTER V
A COMPARISON OF THE HOUSING* AND EQUIPMENT OF INSTRUMENTAL
MUSIC DEPARTMENTS IN THE HIGH SCHOOLS OF THE
SAN JOAQUIN VALLEY WITH SCIENTIFIC STANDARDS
The c o m p a r i s o n s w h ic h h a v e "been s e t
fo r th in t h i s
c h a p t e r a r e b a s e d on t h o s e s t a n d a r d s w h ic h h a v e b e e n p r e ­
s e n t e d in C h ap ter I I I *
The o u t l i n e
o f th a t c h a p te r has been
adhered to in th e p r e s e n ta tio n o f th e f o llo w in g m a te r ia l.
A ll f i f t y
o f th e sc h o o ls
fo rty -th ree
in th e stu d y ,
r a th e r th an th e
a n a l y z e d i n C h a p t e r IV , w e re c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s
c h a p te r as f a r as a v a ila b le
I.
d ata p e r m itte d .
MAIN REHEARSAL ROOMS
The t y p e o f rooms v a r i e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e v a r i o u s
s c h o o l s fro m e x c e l l e n t l y b u i l t m u s ic h a l l s
t o p o o r crow ded
c l a s s r o o m s , and from l a r g e a nd m o d e m a u d i t o r i u m s t o o l d
w ood en h a l l s .
The p r a c t i c a b i l i t y o f e a c h m u s ic u n i t was c o n
s i d e r e d in one s e n s e as
th e s c h o o l,
s c ie n tific
it
f i t t e d t h e p u rp o se s and n eed s o f
and i n a n o t h e r a s i t m et c e r t a i n
stan d ard s o f
s c h o o l h o u sin g .
I n C l a s s A s c h o o l s t h e r e w ere tw o w i t h e x c e l l e n t
h e a r s a l room s, a n o th e r f o u r o r p o s s i b l y f i v e
The f i v e
re­
w h ic h w e r e g o o d
s c h o o l s w h ic h u s e d a u d i t o r i u m s f o r m u s ic
r e h e a r sa l,
v a r i e d from g o o d t o p o o r , m o s t o f them i n t h e l o w e r b r a c k e t s
100
I n g e n e r a l t h e a u d i t o r i u m p i t s w e r e t o o s m a l l t o accommo­
d a t e t h e p r e s e n t m u s i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , w h i l e t h e s t a g e s w e re
o f t e n u s e d b y d r a m a t i c and o t h e r g r o u p s , n e c e s s i t a t i n g much
m o v in g o f e q u i p m e n t .
One s c h o o l m u s ic room was p o o r and
a n o t h e r was d e p l o r a b l e .
C l a s s B h a d f o u r e x c e l l e n t m u s ic u n i t s ,
w h ic h w e r e v e r y g o o d .
to r iu m s,
room .
and two more
Of t h e s e v e n s c h o o l s w h ic h u s e d a u d i ­
o n l y tw o o r t h r e e h a d g o o d c o n d i t i o n s w i t h s u f f i c i e n t
One s c h o o l , u s i n g a c o m b i n a t i o n g y m n a s i u m - a u d i t o r i u m ,
h a d a g o o d r e h e a r s a l room .
One o f t h e o t h e r s c h o o l s h a d a
g o o d r e h e a r s a l room , f o u r h a d f a i r c o n d i t i o n s ,
and o n e was
poor.
T here w ere t h r e e s c h o o l s i n C la s s C w it h e x c e l l e n t
m u s ic r o o m s .
T h r e e m u s ic rooms w ere g o o d .
One g y m n a siu m -
a u d ito riu m co m b in a tio n o f f e r e d good f a c i l i t i e s
d i d one a u d i t o r i u m a s w e l l .
f o r m u s ic , as
The a u d i t o r i u m s u s e d i n f o u r
s c h o o l s f o r m u s ic w ere o n l y f a i r , w h i l e ore was p o o r .
The
t h r e e o t h e r m u s ic rooms w e r e o n l y f a i r .
L o c a tio n .
I n g e n e r a l t h e m u s ic room s l o c a t e d i n
t h e a u d ito r iu m w ere b e s t l o c a t e d as f a r a s a c c e s s i b i l i t y
to
t h e r e s t o f t h e s c h o o l was c o n c e r n e d , a l t h o u g h n o t from t h e
sta n d p o in t o f i s o l a t i o n
f o r sou nd .
Some o f t h e l a r g e r m u s ic
b u i l d i n g s w ere i s o l a t e d t o o f a r from t h e s c h o o l f o r p r a c t i ­
c a l c o n v e n ie n c e .
The b e s t c o n d i t i o n s e x i s t e d i n o n l y a fe w
101
i n s t a n c e s , w h ere t h e m u s ic u n i t was l o c a t e d n e a r t h e a u d i ­
t o r i u m s t a g e , w i t h w ind ow s away fr o m t h e r e s t o f t h e s c h o o l .
A c c e ss ib ility
to
o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e l a r g e r s c h o o l s was a
b i g g e r p r o b le m t h a n i n t h e s m a l l e r s c h o o l s b e c a u s e o f s i z e
o f t h e ca m p u s.
S iz e .
s u ffic ie n tly
A l l b u t tw o G l a s s A s c h o o l s h a d m u s ic rooms
l a r g e e n o u g h when t h e p r e s e n t m u s i c a l o r g a n i z a ­
t i o n s and c u b i c
f o o t a g e w ere c o n s id e r e d .
s e a t in g c a p a c ity
o f a room on t h e o t h e r h a n d , a num ber o f
C l a s s A and B s c h o o l s ,
e s p e c i a l l y th o s e in a u d ito riu m p i t s
o r s t a g e s , had crow ded c o n d i t i o n s .
grow th ,
o n ly f i v e
In c o n s id e r in g
or s i x sc h o o ls
In c o n s i d e r i n g f u t u r e
i n G l a s s A, a b o u t s e v e n i n
G l a s s B , a n d e i g h t i n C l a s s G, h a d a l l o w e d s u f f i c i e n t s p a c e .
A c o u s t i c a l t r e a t m e n t and s o u n d - p ro o f i n # .
T h is was
t h e o u t s t a n d i n g w e a k n e s s o f t h e m u s ic b u i l d i n g s s t u d i e d .
E v en some o f t h e more r e c e n t l y c o n s t r u c t e d b u i l d i n g s h a d
p o o r a c o u s t i c a l tr e a tm e n t and w ere n o t a d e q u a t e ly so u n d ­
p ro o fed .
I n one i n s t a n c e t h e m a s o n i t e p a n e l s h a d b e e n p u t
on b a c k w a r d s , w h i l e i n a n o t h e r ,
a h ard p l a s t e r had i g n o r a n t ly
b e e n p l a c e d o v e r t h e a c o u s t i c a l t r e a t m e n t , m a k in g i t
le ss
fo r a c o u stic s.
w orth ­
On t h e o t h e r h a n d , some m u s ic rooms
had su ch s o f t a c o u s t i c a l p l a s t e r th a t i t
c o u ld be d e n te d w ith
t h e thu m b, and c o n s e q u e n t l y was c r u m b l i n g t o t h e f l o o r , w h er e
s t u d e n t s h a d ru b b ed a g a i n s t t h e w a l l s .
102
The b e s t c o m b i n a t i o n s e e m e d t o b e a h a r d e r t y p e o f
a c o u s t i c a l t r e a t m e n t on t h e w a l l s
seven f e e t h ig h ,
fro m t h e f l o o r t o a b o u t
and th e n s o f t e r m a t e r i a l up t o and i n c l u d ­
in g th e c e i l i n g .
D o o rs s e e m e d t o b e t h e b i g g e s t w e a k n e s s i n t h e s o u n d ­
p r o o f i n g o f m u s ic r o o m s .
I n many i n s t a n c e s
a r e g u la r s i n g le
d o o r was u s e d i n c o n n e c t i n g tw o r o o m s , w h ic h was v e r y p o o r .
In a f e w s c h o o l s tw o d o o r s w ere i n s t a l l e d ,
t h e s i t u a t i o n , b u t p r o v e d awkward.
d o o r s l e d o u t o f one s e t
w h ic h im p r o v e d
I n one i n s t a n c e f o u r
o f p r a c tic e
room s, a lm o st c o n f u s in g
a p e r s o n when l o o k i n g a t t h e m .
A s p e c i a l l y c o n s tr u c te d d o o r, w ith f e l t
d e a d e n i n g m a t e r i a l im b e d d ed i n i t
sa tisfa c to r y .
p r o v e d t o b e t h e m o st
T h ese d oors h ave a t r i p
l e v e r w h ic h s e a l s
a i r s p a c e b e t w e e n t h e f l o o r and d o o r , v/hen i t
A n oth er s a t i s f a c t o r y
o r some o t h e r
is
th e
c lo se d .
d o o r was t h e s c r e w i n g t o g e t h e r o f tw o
r e g u l a r d o o r s i n t o one t h i c k o n e , w i t h a f e l t
The l o c a t i o n o f t h e m u s ic u n i t ,
s t r i p b etw een .
and t h e d i r e c t i o n
in
w h ic h t h e w ind ow s f a c e d , w e re tw o o t h e r i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s
s o u n d - p r o o f i n g m u s ic u n i t s .
in
B e s t c o n d i t i o n s e x i s t e d w h er e
t h e w in d ow s f a c e d away from t h e r e s t o f t h e s c h o o l , a n d w h ere
t h e y w e re n o t d i r e c t l y b e n e a t h o r a b o v e some o t h e r s e t
of
w in d o w s .
W a ll c o n s t r u c t i o n t o o was a f a c t o r c o n s i d e r e d i n
s o u n d - p r o o f i n g , e s p e c i a l l y w h er e m u s ic rooms w e re c o n n e c t e d
103
w ith each o t h e r ,
o r t o o t h e r r o o m s , b y a common w a l l *
d ea d en in g q u a l i t i e s
The
o f c e r t a i n a c o u s t i c a l t r e a t m e n t , dead
a i r sp a c e b etw een th e w a l l s ,
and s t a g g e r e d s t u d s , w e r e f o u n d
s u c c e s s fu l in c e r ta in s c h o o ls .
L i g h t i n g , h e a t i n g , and v e n t i l a t i o n .
M ost o f t h e more
r e c e n t r e h e a r s a l rooms w e r e p l a n n e d w e l l f o r l i g h t *
n a tu ra l lig h t
sk y lig h ts.
fro m t h e w in d ow s was o c c a s i o n a l l y a u g m e n te d b y
I n som e i n s t a n c e s , h o w e v e r , t h e w in d ow s w e re t o o
lo w , c a u s in g a g la r e *
sea ted ,
The
I n o n e o r tw o c a s e s ,
fa c in g th e l ig h t .
s t u d e n t s w ere
The a r t i f i c i a l l i g h t
o f m ost o f
t h e n e w e r u n i t s was a v e r y g o o d i n d i r e c t l i g h t o f s u f f i c i e n t
b r ig h tn e ss.
The p o o r e s t l i g h t i n g s i t u a t i o n
was g e n e r a l l y f o u n d i n
t h e o l d e r a u d i t o r i u m s , w h er e n a t u r a l l i g h t was o f t e n i n a d e ­
q u ate.
p it,
The c e i l i n g l i g h t s ,
used to
illu m in a te
th e o r c h e str a
w e r e f r e q u e n t l y t o o d im , c a u s i n g e y e s t r a i n t o t h e m u sic
stu d en ts.
The p r o b le m o f h e a t i n g was f a i r l y g o o d i n m o st s c h o o l s ,
a l t h o u g h c o n t r o l l i n g t h e am ount o f h e a t was d i f f i c u l t t o
i n some s c h o o l s .
do
W h ile h e a t i n g t h e m a in r e h e a r s a l rooms was
o f t e n i n g o o d c o n d i t i o n , t h e p r o b le m was g e n e r a l l y g r e a t e r
in th e p r a c tic e
room s, w here t h e m a t t e r o f s o u n d - p r o o f in g
had t o be c o n s id e r e d as w e l l .
V e n tila tio n
o f f e r e d an e v e n g r e a t e r p r o b le m i n t h e
104
p r a c tic e
r o o m s , w here w indow s a n d d o o r s h a d t o h e k e p t c l o s e d
f o r so u n d -p r o o fin g .
I n one i n s t a n c e a w h o le row o f p r a c t i c e
rooms w ere p r a c t i c a l l y u s e l e s s
because o f poor v e n t ila t io n .
f o r t h e i r in te n d e d p u rp ose,
In sta lla tio n
o f proper v e n t ila ­
t i o n s y s t e m s i n many i n s t a n c e s c a l l e d f o r a g r e a t e r e x p e n s e
t h a n many s c h o o l s w ere a b l e t o a f f o r d .
II.
AUXILIARY ROOMS
A l l b u t one o r tw o s c h o o l s s t u d i e d w e r e e q u i p p e d w i t h
o n e o r more a u x i l i a r y
rooms f o r i n s t r u m e n t a l m u s i c .
HJhere
o n l y o n e o r tw o e x t r a rooms w e r e a v a i l a b l e , t h e y w e r e g e n ­
e r a l l y a l l around u t i l i t y
room s, u s e d f o r s t o r a g e o f i n s t r u ­
m e n ts o r u n i f o r m s , o r f o r p r a c t i c e p u r p o s e s .
h a n d , s e v e r a l s c h o o l s h a d n u m erou s
ta in pu rp oses.
On t h e o t h e r
r o o m s, e a c h u s e d f o r c e r ­
G l a s s B s c h o o l s w e re much b e t t e r e q u i p p e d
w i t h num ber a n d t y p e s o f a u x i l i a r y
rooms t h a n w ere t h e s c h o o l s
o f th e o th e r c la s s e s .
E n se m b le r o o m s .
E n se m b le rooms r a n g i n g i n s i z e
e i g h t f e e t by t e n f e e t t o t h o s e e i g h t e e n
f e e t by t w e n t y f e e t ,
w ere foun d i n abou t 3 0 p e r c e n t o f th e s c h o o l s .
s o n w i t h t h e g r o w i n g num ber o f e n s e m b l e s
an d w i l l p r o v e i n s u f f i c i e n t ,
e sp e c ia lly
from
In co m p a ri­
in s c h o o ls , t h i s
is
in th e C la ss A s c h o o ls .
Many now u s e t h e m ain r e h e a r s a l room o r som e o t h e r room f o r
t h e s e g r o u p s , b u t a d e f i n i t e n e e d f o r s u c h a room o r rooms
105
was a p p a r e n t i n many s c h o o l s .
I n d i v i d u a l p r a c t i c e ro o m s.
o f t h e s c h o o l s h a d p r a c t i c e room s.
More t h a n 50 p e r c e n t
In s e v e r a l o f th e s e i n ­
s t a n c e s t h e y w ere p o o r l y b u i l t f o r a c o u s t i c s , s o u n d - p r o o f ­
i n g a n d v e n t i l a t i o n , b u t t e a c h e r s i n g e n e r a l made much u s e
o f t h e s e ro o m s.
S c h o o ls h a v i n g t h e s e rooms a v e r a g e d a b o u t
f i v e t o s i x p e r s c h o o l , w h ic h p r o v e d i n many i n s t a n c e s s u f ­
f i c i e n t f o r th e need.
More i n d i v i d u a l a t t e n t i o n was p o s s i ­
b l e i n t h e s e c a s e s , a n d e s p e c i a l l y w ere t h e s e u s e d a d v a n t a ­
g e o u s l y i n t h e s m a l l e r s c h o o l s w h ere t e a c h e r s u s e d t h e i n d i ­
v i d u a l m ethod i n t e a c h i n g .
Many t e a c h e r s e x p r e s s e d a d e s i r e
t o h a v e u s e d t h i s m e th o d , b u t t h e l a c k o f s p a c e f o r i n d i v i ­
dual p ra c tic e f a c i l i t i e s
d id n o t p e rm it.
P r a c t i c e rooms i n n e a r l y a l l s c h o o l s w ere l o c a t e d w i t h ­
i n o r a d j a c e n t t o t h e m ain r e h e a r s a l room o r i n n e a r b y h a l l s .
From t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f s u p e r v i s i o n , t h o s e l o c a t e d a d j a c e n t
t o t h e r e h e a r s a l room o r o f f i c e p r o v e d m ost s a t i s f a c t o r y ,
w h i l e t h o s e a l o n g a h a l l w a y n e a r t h e m usic room w ere s u p e r i o r
when s o u n d - p r o o f i n g was c o n s i d e r e d .
N e a r ly a l l d o o r s i n t o
p r a c t i c e rooms h a d windows i n th e m , u s e d f o r o b s e r v a t i o n an d
su p e rv isio n .
D i r e c t o r 1s o f f i c e .
s c h o o ls , p r iv a te
I n many i n s t a n c e s
In n e a r ly 5 ° p e r c e n t o f th e
o f f i c e s w e r e p r o v i d e d f o r t h e m u s ic t e a c h e r s .
it
was a p r a c t i c e
room o r a s t o r e
room w i t h
106
t h e t e a c h e r * a d e s k a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e e q u ip m e n t i n i t .
V ery
f r e q u e n t l y i t h o u s e d t h e m usic l i b r a r y an d was a m i s c e l l a n e o u s
s t o r a g e room a s w e l l .
T h a t t e a c h e r s d e s i r e d o f f i c e s was r e ­
v e a l e d i n s u c h f a c t s t h a t t h e y o f t e n h a d s e t up any odd -room
n e a r t h e r e h e a r s a l room as an o f f i c e , i n w hich a d m i n i s t r a t i v e
m a t t e r s w ere c a r e d f o r , a n d w here c o n f e r e n c e s c o u l d be h e l d .
L ib ra ry .
A bout 2 5 p e r c e n t o f t h e s c h o o l s h a d a
s p e c i a l room t o s t o r e t h e m usic l i b r a r y .
in C lass B s c h o o ls .
Most o f t h e s e w ere
F re q u e n tly in th e o th e r s c h o o ls , th e
l i b r a r y was c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e o f f i c e o r some o t h e r room ,
a l t h o u g h i n t h e g r e a t e s t i n s t a n c e s i t was s t i l l h o u s e d i n
t h e m ain r e h e a r s a l room.
F i l e s an d p ig e o n h o l e d c a b i n e t s w ere fo u n d t o b e t h e
m o st s a t i s f a c t o r y an d b e s t a p p e a r i n g m ethod o f f i l i n g m u s ic .
Good c r o s s i n d e x e s w ere f o u n d i n o n ly a few s c h o o l s , a l t h o u g h
d i r e c t o r s w ere w e l l a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t h e i r l i b r a r y .
S c h o o ls
w ere g e n e r a l l y s u p p l i e d w i t h a w ide v a r i e t y o f m u s ic , a l ­
th o u g h t h e s i z e o f t h e l i b r a r i e s v a r i e d g r e a t l y .
I n s t r u m e n t s t o r a g e room .
A num ber o f s c h o o l s , e s ­
p e c i a l l y t h o s e u s i n g a u d i t o r i u m s , h a d i n s t r u m e n t ro o m s,
g e n e r a l l y an o l d r e m o d e le d d r e s s i n g room.
Most o f t h e s e
rooms h a d s h e l v e s o r g r o u p l o c k e r s t o t a k e c a r e o f t h e n e e d .
O f t e n l o c k e r s o r s h e l v e s w ere p l a c e d i n t h e m ain r e h e a r s a l
room .
T h is t y p e o f s t o r a g e was u s u a l l y more e f f i c i e n t , b u t
107
s e l d o m a s n e a t a s t h e u s e o f a n o t h e r room .
The b e s t m eth od o f i n s t r u m e n t s t o r a g e was o b s e r v e d i n
one s c h o o l w h e r e i n d i v i d u a l l o c k e r s , e q u i p p e d w i t h c o m b in a ­
tio n
lo c k s
w i t h m a s t e r k e y , w e r e u s e d f o r a l l s m a l l and
medium s i z e d i n s t r u m e n t s .
The l a r g e r i n s t r u m e n t s w e r e s t o r e d
in in s tr u m e n t room s.
I n s t r u m e n t rooms w i t h a d e f i n i t e
p la c e f o r each in s t r u ­
m ent w e r e t h o s e o f t h e n e a t e s t a p p e a r a n c e .
I n some s c h o o l s
c u s t o d i a n s o n l y w e r e a l l o w e d i n t o t h e s e rooms t o h a n d l e i n stru m en ts.
.
H a lf d o o r s , u s e d i n su eh room s, g r e a t l y f a c i l i ­
t a t e d th e a d m in is t r a t io n o f in str u m e n t h a n d lin g .
G roup l o c k e r s ,
foun d in s e v e r a l s c h o o l s ,
proved to
b e a v e r y g o o d m eth o d o f s t o r i n g p e r c u s s i o n i n s t r u m e n t s , b a s s e s ,
c e llo s ,
and s i m i l a r l a r g e r i n s t r u m e n t s .
S ou sap h on es w ere
m o s t a d v a n t a g e o u s l y h u n g on s p e c i a l h o o k s from a w a l l o r l e f t
on s o u s a p h o n e s t a n d s and c o v e r e d .
One s c h o o l h a d p u t r o l l e r s
on t h e t y m p a n i s t a n d s , a i d i n g g r e a t l y
f o r p l a y i n g an d s t o r a g e .
com p artm en ts, h o o k s ,
i n m o v in g them a b o u t
S m a ll i n d i v i d u a l s p e c i a l l y b u i l t
and d r a w e r s p r o v i d e d i n on e s c h o o l , p r o v e d
t o b e t h e b e s t s t o r a g e s y s t e m f o r much s m a l l e q u i p m e n t .
Crowded c o n d i t i o n s w e r e e v i d e n t i n many i n s t r u m e n t
room s.
Too l i t t l e
room h a d b e e n a l l o t e d f o r t h e i r s t o r a g e ,
and w i t h t h e r a p i d g r o w th o f m u s ic d e p a r t m e n t s ,
fa c ilitie s
h a v e b ecom e i n a d e q u a t e i n many s c h o o l s .
A f i n e m e th o d o f c h e c k i n g o u t i n s t r u m e n t s was o b s e r v e d
108
i n on e s c h o o l w h er e t a b s w e r e t r a n s f e r r e d from o n e b o a r d t o
a n o th er,
to g iv e th e n e c e s s a r y in fo r m a tio n .
U n ifo r m s t o r a g e room .
N e a r ly a l l s c h o o l s had lo n g
b a r s i n a c a b i n e t o r room , w h ic h w ere u s e d f o r u n i f o r m s t o r a g e .
C e d a r ize d c a b in e t s
O ften a p r a c t i c e
f o r u n ifo r m s.
or c lo s e ts
w e re f o u n d i n t h r e e s c h o o l s .
room h a d b e e n made o v e r i n t o a s t o r a g e room
A g a in h e r e ,
a s i n th e in s tr u m e n t room s, h a l f
d oors in s p e c i a l u n ifo rm room s, a id e d g r e a t l y
and c o l l e c t i n g o f u n i f o r m s .
in r o ll i n g c a b in e ts
fa c ilita te
in h a n d in g o u t
S e v e r a l s c h o o l s had th e u n ifo rm s
o r r a c k s , w h ic h c o u l d b e m oved a b o u t t o
q u ick er d i s t r i b u t io n .
I n one s c h o o l t h e u n i f o r m s ,
a f t e r b e i n g h u n g on a r a c k , w e re drawn t o t h e c e i l i n g
p r a c tic e
of a
room b y m eans o f a p u l l e y , t h u s c o n s e r v i n g s p a c e .
S p e c i a l m o v a b le c a s e s
s t o r e u n ifo r m s.
w ere u s e d I n fe w s c h o o l s t o
T hese c a s e s w ere ta k e n a lo n g w it h t h e band
to v a r io u s f u n c t io n s ,
s o t h a t u n i f o r m s c o u l d b e c h a n g e d im ­
m e d i a t e l y b e f o r e and i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r p e r f o r m a n c e s .
H a t s w ere g e n e r a l l y p l a c e d on s h e l v e s ,
a lth o u g h in a
f e w i n s t a n c e s t h e y w e r e h u n g on h o o k s on s p e c i a l m o v a b le
r a c k s , w h ic h se e m e d v e r y e f f i c i e n t .
Work s h o p .
S c h o o ls in
g e n e r a l w e re v e r y p o o r l y
e q u i p p e d t o make m i n o r , b u t e s s e n t i a l ,
r e p a ir s
to in str u m e n ts.
O nly one s c h o o l h a d n e e d e d t o o l s and e q u ip m e n t f o r s u c h w o r k ,
h a v i n g s i n k s , w ork t a b l e ,
g a s h e a t , h o t a n d c o l d w a t e r , and
109
and t o o l c a b i n e t s a s w e l l a s t o o l s .
T hese w ere l o c a t e d
one c o r n e r o f t h e v e r y s p a c i o u s r e h e a r s a l room .
in
In m o s t
s c h o o l s no p r o v i s i o n was made f o r t h i s .
S tage.
O n ly two s p e c i a l b a n d a n d o r c h e s t r a rooms w e r e
e q u ip p e d w ith a s p e c i a l s t a g e .
H o w e v e r , t h e many s c h o o l s
w h ic h s t i l l u s e d t h e a u d i t o r i u m , h a d t h i s a d v a n t a g e i n t h e i r
fa v o r.
Groups a n d i n d i v i d u a l s d e f i n i t e l y d e r i v e v a l u e
from
s t a g e work i n f r o n t o f a u d i e n c e s .
M i s c e l l a n e o u s s t o r a g e room .
was s t o r e d i n a v a r i e t y
o f room s.
M i s c e l l a n e o u s e q u ip m e n t
I t was g e n e r a l l y p l a c e d
i n rooms w h ere t h e m o st s p a c e was a v a i l a b l e ,
p r a c tic e
sto ra ge
o ffic e
a lth o u g h a
room was f r e q u e n t l y u s e d o n l y f o r t h e s p e c i a l
o f t h e odd e q u ip m e n t*
F r e q u e n tly th e d i r e c t o r ' s
was u s e d f o r s u c h e q u i p m e n t .
R e s t room s a n d d r i n k i n g f o u n t a i n s .
Too o f t e n r e s t
rooms w e r e n o t c o n v e n i e n t l y l o c a t e d w i t h r e g a r d s t o m u s ic
u n its.
The b e s t s i t u a t i o n was f o u n d w h er e r e s t rooms w e r e
lo e a te d in h a lls
n e a r t h e m u s ic room , a n d d r i n k i n g f a u c e t s
j u s t o u t s i d e t h e d o o r o f t h e r e h e a r s a l room .
no p r o v i s i o n h a d b e e n made f o r r e s t
ta in s
U n fo r tu n a te ly ,
rooms o r d r i n k i n g f o u n ­
i n some o f t h e s e p a r a t e m u s ic b u i l d i n g s , w h ic h was
rep o rted as d e c id e d ly in c o n v e n ie n t.
1X0
D r e s s i n g ro o m s.
A lth o u g h a num ber o f s c h o o l s h a d
d r e s s i n g ro o m s, th e y w ere g e n e r a l l y u s e d f o r o t h e r p u r p o s e s .
P r a c t i c e rooms a s w e l l a s o t h e r t y p e s o f rooms w ere f r e q u e n t l y
u s e d b y s t u d e n t s i n c h a n g i n g i n t o u n i f o r m s , an d o f t e n s t u ­
d e n t s u s e d r e s t rooms f o r t h i s p u r p o s e .
The n e e d was n o t
s e r i o u s l y f e l t by d i r e c t o r s .
III.
P R A C T I C E F I ELD
N e a r l y a l l b an d s u s e d e i t h e r t h e a t h l e t i c
s t r e e t f o r m a rc h in g d r i l l .
fie ld or a
TlJhile t h e f o r m e r i s l a r g e r an d
was u s e d e s p e c i a l l y f o r m a n e u v e r s , t h e l a t t e r h a d a s m o o t h e r
s u r f a c e and was u s e d d i r e c t l y i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r p a r a d e s .
S c h e d u lin g th e u se o f th e a t h l e t i c
f i e l d , w i t h o u t t o o much
i n t e r f e r e n c e b y t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , was a p ro b le m
i n some s c h o o l s .
D an gers from t r a f f i c h a d t o b e c a r e f u l l y
g u a r d e d a g a i n s t by t h o s e b a n d s w h ic h u s e d s t r e e t s f o r d r i l l
w o rk .
Only i n few s c h o o l s w ere t h e b a n d s a s s i g n e d t o s p e c i a l
f i e l d s f o r m a rc h in g d r i l l s .
IV .
FURNITURE AND EQUIPMENT
A l l s c h o o l s w ere e q u i p p e d w i t h m usic s t a n d s .
Many,
h o w e v e r , h a d a n i n s u f f i c i e n t n u m b e r, and q u i t e f r e q u e n t l y ,
t h e y w ere o f a p o o r , n o n - a d j u s t a b l e k i n d .
Many home-made
s t a n d s w ere b u i l t f o r t h e w rong h e i g h t o r a n g l e f o r many
s t u d e n t s u s i n g th e m .
C h a i r s on t h e o t h e r h a n d w ere g e n e r a l l y
I ll
much more satisfactory.
Only four schools had risers in the rehearsal room.
Directors in many schools expressed no particular desire for
them, while others felt that they would he an asset to the
room.
Without risers, the hand and orchestra room, usually
one of the largest in the school, and hest treated for acous­
tics, could he used for other purposes.
Often social func­
tions were scheduled in these rooms, such as parties, dances,
banquets, and receptions.
Music rooms having permanent risers,
were seldom used for anything hut music rehearsals.
Only 70 per cent of the main music rooms were equipped
with "blackboards or bulletin hoards.
without this equipment,
same.
Teachers in schools
generally expressed a need for the
Especially was this true in the auditoriums.
Occasion­
ally schools used movable blackboards, and some had both
movable and mounted boards.
Doors and panels were fre­
quently used to post notices and announcements, where bulle­
tin boards were lacking.
Nearly all band and orchestra rooms were equipped with
a piano, and in some instances several were available, es­
pecially where a piano or vocal department was housed in the
same building.
The lack of radio, phonograph, and other types
of sound equipment in instrumental rooms, was very evident.
In many instances, however,
where in the school.
such equipment was available else­
A great per cent of schools were equipped
112
with visual aids which were available to the music depart­
ment.
The instrument is the tool with which the student
must work, was the feeling which was apparent in the school
policies of those surveyed,, so consequently, many instruments
¥/ere being furnished to students.
All schools owned instru­
ments, one as few as 19 while another as many as 165*
Glass
A schools on the whole, owned more instruments than did the
other schools.
The type of instruments supplied by schools
included nearly every kind from the smallest to the largest.
Schools generally bought those instruments which they gen­
erally lacked in their instrumentation.
As a result, bands
and orchestras have improved considerably in their instru­
mentation over a period of ten years.
Chief of the instru­
ments still lacking in many bands or orchestras in quantity,
were the French horns, where mellophones often were substi­
tuted, and alto and bass clarinets.
Only a few schools
owned C piccolos although many had Db piccolos.
Instruments
such as fleugal horns, bass trombones, and bass saxophones,
for which music
is being written in modern orchestration,
were found in very few schools only.
No schools had harps,
celeste, eontra-bassoon, or English horn, although two re­
ported having chimes.
D i r e c t o r s w o u ld n o t com m it t h e m s e l v e s on a.ny s p e c i f i c
p la n f o r t h e p u r c h a s e o f a d d i t i o n a l i n s t r u m e n t s ; h o w e v e r ,
113
they generally planned a program of adding the less common
instruments and replacing their present stock.
All teachers were equipped with certain administra­
tive aids such as desks or tables.
Many* however, were
handicapped in not having certain equipment such as typewriter,
telephone, especially in buildings away from the central
office, department stamps, or files.
Several schools had
excellent equipment for mending music.
A number of schools had a rather complete stock of
instrument supplies which were given to students according
to certain established policies.
Two schools had excellent
shelves, properly l o c a t e d , ’with disinfectants and equipment
on them, which encouraged daily sterilization of instru­
ments .
Equipment which teachers frequently mentioned as
needing, included engraving needle, department stencil and
stamp, mirrors, tuning bars, and metronome.
CHAPTER V I
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Summary.
This study was an investigation and evalua­
tion of housing and equipment of instrumental music in fifty
high schools of the San Joaquin Valley,
*1^
in terms of scien-
O '
tific standards as has been determined from authorities in
the field of school buildings and music education.
The past decade has witnessed a tremendous growth in
the field of instrumental music, noticeable especially in
the schools.
The housing and properly equipping of instru­
mental music departments in schools has not kept pace with
this fast growth.
Music classes were frequently assigned to
a spare room or an auditorium, with little thought being
given to such factors as proper acoustics or sound-proofing
of rooms.
Studies by authorities in the field of music edu­
cation revealed that many mistakes were frequently being
made in construction of new music buildings.
From an intensive study of available literature in
the field of housing and equipment of instrumental music
departments, scientific standards were derived whereby the
music rooms of this study could be evaluated.
Following
are these standards.
The main rehearsal room has been considered as of
•primary importance.
In considering the location of the same
115
the factors of isolation and accessibility were discussed.
The room should be sufficiently large enough, not only for
present groups, but for future growth of the department as
well, allowing about twenty square feet or 240 cubic feet
per person of the largest anticipated group*
It is essen­
tial that the room be properly treated for acoustics and sound
proofing, and that lighting, heating, and ventilation be ade­
quate.
All other rooms were considered as auxiliary rooms.
These include from one to three ensemble rooms, a number of
individual practice rooms, director1s office, library,
in-
strument storage room, uniform storage room, work shop, stage,
miscellaneous storage room, rest rooms and drinking fountain,
and dressing rooms.
Rooms may be combined for several uses.
A football field was considered as the most satisfactory place
for marching and parade practice.
The necessary furniture
and equipment should include chairs and stands, musical
equipment such as instruments, radio, phonograph, tuning
bars, and accessories, and administrative equipment such as
desk, files, typewriter, and telephone.
Much of it should be
permanently located in the music department, while the other
should be easily available.
The schools studied were classified into three groups
according to their enrollment.
Eleven schools having more
than 750 students were in Class A, eighteen schools having
from 2 5 0 to 750 students were in Class B, and fourteen
116
schools having less than 250 students, were in Class C.
Thirty-five of these schools were four y ear high schools.
Five h a d junior colleges and five had junior high schools
housed in the same buildings.
The enrollment of the schools
has increased in all class of schools during the period from
1936 to 1940.
The size of hands has increased in about the
same proportion as the general school growth during the same
period, and anticipated growth of the bands in most instances
is even greater for the period from 1940 to 1944.
have not shown as much increase.
Orchestras
In Class A schools,
orches­
tras have actually decreased in size over the period from
1936 to 1940.
Aside from bands and orchestras, various p r e ­
liminary work was a part of the instrumental music program,
with schools offering intermediate and beginning band,
inter­
mediate and beginning orchestra, and instrumental classes.
Ensembles were being developed in many schools.
Whereas the
majority of teachers actually teach heterogeneous classes,
more would prefer to teach homogeneous groups and indivi­
dual students.
Three Class A, five Class B, and five Class C schools
used the auditorium for music rehearsals.
Sixteen music de­
partments were provided with special buildings or specially
constructed rooms in some other building.
classrooms, gymnasiums, and halls.
Others used various
Only five schools re­
ported general poor accessibility to the rest of the school,
117
but to specific parts of the campus, poor accessibility
was frequently reported with regards to auditorium, athle­
tic field, and rest rooms.
Schools varied greatly with the
number of rooms, all reporting at least one main rehearsal
room, many having several types of storage rooms, and others
having either ensemble or individual practice rooms.
one schools had offices for the music teacher.
Twenty-
Most schools
reported adequate lighting, heating, and ventilation, although
complaints frequently came from those using auditoriums.
Only
twenty-three schools reported sound-proof music rooms, while
twenty-six had good acoustical treatment.
The main rehearsal
room was used more for storage than any one other room.
In­
strument rooms, uniform rooms, and offices were frequently
Jb-
used for storage.
Instruments were stored on shelves in
more than 60 per cent of the schools.
Blackboards and bulletin boards were lacking in about
30 per cent of the music rooms.
Only four schools had risers.
Music rooms were utilized more by music teachers in Class A
schools than they were in the other schools.
There has been a definite trend toward building or
remodeling music buildings during the period from 1 9 3 0 to
1940, withthirty-one schools having made some provision
during that period.
Future building programs in fourteen
schools included addition to music housing.
All schools owned some instruments,
ranging from
118
n i n e t e e n i n one s c h o o l t o 165 i n a n o t h e r .
A l l s c h o o l s owned
c e r t a i n d ru m s, b a s s i n s t r u m e n t s , an d p i a n o s .
The i n s t r u m e n t s
w ere i n d a i l y u s e fro m 100 p e r c e n t i n s e v e r a l s c h o o l s t o
273 p e r c e n t i n a n o t h e r s c h o o l .
S c h o o ls v a r i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y
i n t h e p o l i c y o f f u r n i s h i n g s t u d e n t s w i t h s u p p l i e s an d a c c e s ­
s o r i e s f o r i n s t r u m e n t s , from g i v i n g v e r y l i t t l e
to su p p ly in g
a l l n e e d s'.
The football field and street were both used for march­
ing drill.
Chief equipment used in these drills aside from
batons and whistles included megaphone, mimeographed instruc­
tions, blackboard, and marching manuals.
Thirty-eight schools owned band uniforms.
uniforms for other smaller groups.
Few had
Teachers and students
shared the responsibility in caring for uniforms.
Students
seldom received pay for this work, but frequently some other
kind of remuneration was accorded them.
Teachers generally assumed the responsibility of being
instrument custodian.
Only in a few schools were students
assigned to this work.
Only one student was paid for the work.
Minor repairs to instruments too were cared for in most cases
by the teachers, who reported facilities for the same in most
instances as inadequate.
Alcohol was the most widely used
method for sterilizing instruments.
In eighteen schools directors bought music with their
existing organizations in mind, while in the others the growth
119
of the groups was taken into consideration.
Class B schools
in general had the "best housing con­
ditions, with good rehearsal rooms and a sufficient number
of auxiliary rooms, while Class A schools had the poorest
conditions.
There were nine schools in all classes with ex­
cellent music units, while eleven or twelve had good condi­
tions.
The others ranged from fair to very poor.
Many schools
had not allowed sufficiently for future growth of their organi­
zations, and in many instances were in crowded conditions.
Class A schools were usually better equipped with regards to
instruments, supplies, and equipment.
Conclusions and recommendations.
The following con­
clusions and recommendations have been made as a result of
the s t u d y .
1.
The size of the school has very little to do with
the type of music rooms or building of the school.
2.
The number of students in the music departments
was proportionately much greater in the smaller schools than
in the larger schools.
More attempt should be made in larger
schools to serve more of their students in music.
3.
A few schools have very poor music
rooms.
They
should make every effort to.improve this situation.
4.
High school trustees and administrators occasionally
plan music buildings or rooms without consulting the music
120
t e a c h e r r e g a r d in g s p e c i a l n e e d s .
T h is f r e q u e n t l y
r e s u lts
i n m is t a k e s - w h ic h o t h e r w i s e m ig h t h a v e b e e n a v o i d e d .
5.
Architects and contractors should be well chosen
before the construction or remodeling of music rooms.
They
should understand, beside the regular qualifications of good
contractors or architects, the special acoustical needs and
factors which effect sound-proofing of music rooms.
6.
More provision for the growth of music departments
should be made in planning music buildings.
Conditions in
many schools indicated that all extra rooms had already been
utilized, and crowded conditions existed v/ithin ten years
after the music room h a d been built or remodeled.
7.
Care should be made in the selection of acoustical
materials for music rooms.
Materials on the walls up to
about seven feet high, should be sufficiently firm to avoid
crumbling.
8.
One or more rooms should be provided for ensemble
rehearsal in most schools, since ensembles are becoming more
important in the music program.
Schools not having indivi­
dual practice rooms, should plan to add them to their present
facilities.
9.
Practice rooms adjacent to the main rehearsal
room offer be t t e r opportunity for supervision, than do those
along adjacent halls, but the latter are more satisfactory
from the standpoint of being sound-proof.
121
10#
rooms.
Doors are an important factor in sound-proofing
Much care should be taken to have them as nearly
sound-proof as possible.
11.
Provision should be made for a proper heating
and ventilating system in practice rooms, and yet the rooms
should be sound-proof.
12.
Schools planning to build new music buildings
should make provision for rest rooms and drinking fountains.
13.
room.
Only a few schools have risers in the main music
If the room is to be used for other purposes such as
group meetings, social functions, or banquets, risers should
not be built in.
14.
More provision should be made for blackboards
and bulletin boards, especially in those schools where it
is entirely lacking.
15.
Music directors vary in judgments as to adequacy
of music rooms*
One would report complete satisfaction,
while another would report inadequacies in very similar
conditions.
16.
The best method for the storage of instruments
is to provide lockers of various sizes, equipped with com­
bination locks that can be opened by a master key, in a
hall n ea r the music room, for all of the smaller and medium
sized instruments.
An instrument room, or cabinets in the
main room, with either individual or group lockers, should
122
be provided for the larger instruments.
17.
Steel or wooden drawer files and pigeon-holed
cabinets offer the best method of storing music.
18.
Some schools should buy additional instruments.
Where an instrument is used up to five times a day, home
practice becomes virtually impossible, and secondly, students
assume less responsibility in the care and up-keep of the
instruments.
19#
Many teachers are handicapped by not having c e r ­
tain equipment such as files, typewriter, department stamp,
or stencil, engraving needle, tuning bars, metronome, mirror,
repair tools, mending equipment, and telephone.
Such equip­
ment should be purchased and placed in the instrumental
music department in such schools.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
BIBLIOGRAPHY
A.
BOOKS
Donovan, John Joseph, A Method of Procedure and Checking
Schedule for Planning School Buildings and Their Equip­
m e n t . New York:
The Bruce Publishing Company, 1932.
3 6 1 pp.
Hindsley, Mark H . , School Band and Orchestra Administration.
New York:
Boosey and H a w k e s , I n c ., 1940.
107 pp.
K o o s , Leonard V. , James M. Hughes, Percival W. Hutson, and
William C. Reavis, Administering the Secondary S c h o o l .
New York:
American Book Company, 1940^
678 p p .
Maddy, Joseph, and T. P. Giddings, Instrumental T e chnique.
Cincinnati:
Willis Music Company, 1926.
203 pp.
Moehlman, Arthur B., Public School Plant Program.
Rand McNally and Company, 1929.
New York:
Music Education Resea,rch Council, Music Rooms and E q u i p m e n t .
Bulletin No. 17.
Chicago:
Music Educators National
Conference, 1932, 1938. 31 pp.
National School Band Association, National School Orchestra
Association, National School Vocal Association, School
Music Competition- Festivals. Manual, 1 9 4 1 . Chicago:
National School Band, Orchestra, and Vocal Association,
1940.
128 pp.
Prescott, Gerald R . , and Lawrence W. Chidester, Getting
Results with School B a n d s . New York and Minneapolis:
Carl Fisher Inc., and Paul A. Schmidt Company, 1938.
237 P P.
Strayer, George D . , and Nickolaus L. Engelhardt, Standards
for High School Buildings. New York:
Bureau of Publi­
cations, Teachers.College, Columbia, 1924.% 95 PP.
Ward, Sylvan Donald, The Instrumental Directors H a n d b o o k .
Chicago:
Rubank Incorporated, 1940.
95 P P .
125
B.
PERIODICAL ARTICLES
(3-illiland, F. H. , “Devils Lake New High S c h o o l , 14 American
School Board J o u r n al, 97 0 7 - 4 0 , October, 1938.
Halsey, S. A., “Lodi, California, Union High School Builds
for Music,” The School Musician. 10:20-21, April, 1939.
Harper, J. C., “Built for the Band,” Nations S c h o o l . 23:64,
April, 1939.
Hayward, C. S., “The House that Music Built,” Music Educa­
tors J o u r n a l . 24:48-50, September, 1937*
Higgens, Thomas J., “A Check List for Senior High School
Buildings," American School Board J o u rnal. 86:51-52,
28, 54, January, February, March, 1933.
Holy, T. C ., “Needed Research in the Field of School Building
and Equipment," Review of Educational Research. 5:406-11,
October, 1935.
Ittner, William B., “Our School Architecture of Tomorrow,"
American S c h o o l -Board J o u r n a l . 87:40, August, 1933. Langworthy, H, W . , “Junior High School Music Unit," JuniorSenior High School Clearing H o u s e . 4:214-16, December,
_________, “La Salle Peru Township High School’s Masic Plant,”
The School Musi c i a n. 10:16-18, May, 1939.
Mohr, L. C., “Let Us Have Music,” Nations S c h o o l . 2 0 : 5 0 - 5 1 ,
November, 1937.
Music Education Research Council, “Music in Senior High
Schools,” Music Educators Journal. 23:21-24. December.
1936.
Myran, P. J . , “in the Mood for Music," Nations S c h o o l . 22:49-50,
October, 1938.
Noffsinger, F. R . , “A Century of Progress in Special Instruc­
tional Rooms .“-.American School Board J o u r n a l . 97*41-43,
October, 1938.
Righter, Charles S., “Wisconsin Makes a Survey," Music E d u cators J o u r n a l , 24:35-38, October, November, 1937.
126
Ruddick, J . Leon, ‘'Cataloging School Owned Instruments,"
M u sic E d u c a to r s J o u r n a l « 22:46-49, M arch, 1936.
Wilson, W. K . , "Technics for Determining Housing Requirements
in Elementary, Junior, and Senior High Schools," Review
of Education Research. 5*337-343, April, 1935*
C.
PUBLICATIONS OF LEARNED ORGANIZATIONS
Church, Norman L . , "Provisions for Musical Activities in
New High Schools," American School and University. 193222., PP* 222-26.
Maddy, J. E . , "Music Rooms and Equipment," Thirty-Fifth Year­
book of the National Society for the -Study of Educa­
t i o n . Part I I .
pp. 167-171.
Music Education Research Council, "Music in Senior High
Schools," Music Educators Conference Y e a r b o o k . 1 9 3 6 .
pp. 5 8 - 0 6 .
National Council on School House Construction, "Factors
Pertinent to School Building Planning," National Council
on School House Construction Proceedings for 1 9 3 5 . pp.
54-102.
Perring, H. G-., "Acoustics in the School," Arnerican School
and U n l v e r s i t y . 1 9 3 7 . pp. 35-38.
Smith, Henry Lester, "Planning the School Buildings to Satisfy
Recent and Anticipated Changes in the School Program,"
National Council on School House Construction Proceed?
ings for 1 9 3 6 . pp. 1 6 -2 3 .
Sopkin, Henry, "Report of the Committee on Junior and Senior
High School Orchestras," Music Educators National Con­
ference Yearbook for 193.8, pp. 314-315.
D.
UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS
Bray, Marjorie E . , "A Survey of Instrumental Music Teaching
in Kern County."
Unpublished Master's thesis, Uni­
versity of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1938.
147 PP.
127
Delvin, Madison, “Factors Governing Success in Beginning
(xroup Instrumental Music Instruction.“ Unpublished
Master*s thesis, University of Southern California,
Los Angeles, 1936.
121 pp.
Goodsell, Gilbert Oscar, “The Housing of Extra-Curricular
Activities in the Senior High School.*1 Unpublished
Master*s thesis, University of Southern California,
Los Angeles, 1929*
82 pp.
Hardesty, Cecil D . , “Problems and Practices in Housing the
Junior College Program in California,” Unpublished
Doctor*s dissertation, University of Southern C a l i f ­
ornia, Los Angeles, 1933244 pp.
Leedke, William Howard, “A Survey of the Musical Organiza­
tions in Southern California.11 Unpublished Master* s
thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles,
1936.
137 PP.
L u n d e , Millard Orlo, “A Study of Methods of Caring for and
Adjusting School -Orchestra and Band Instruments.” U n ­
published Master*s thesis, University of Southern
California, Los Angeles, 1938.
90 pp.
Whistler, Harvey S . , “The Organization and Administration
of Music Departments in Secondary Schools.” Unpub­
lished Master*s thesis, University of Southern C alif­
ornia, Los Angeles, 1935.
260 pp.
Wright, George W . , “The Present Status of Band Organiza­
tion and Administration in High Schools.” Unpublished
Master*s thesis, University of Southern California,
Los Angeles, 1934.
Ill pp.
APPENDIX
LIST OF SCHOOLS INCLUDED IN THIS INVESTIGATION
CITY
SCHOOL
Auberry . . . . . . . . . .
Avenal
Sierra Joint Union High School
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bakersfield * ..............
.
Avenal High School
East Bakersfield High School
Bakersfield * ............. . . Kern County Union High School
Caruthers
Chowchilla
Clovis
. . . . . . . . . . .
..................
Caruthers Union High School
Chowchilla Union High School
. . • • • • . • • . • • •
Clovis Union High School
Coalinga
. . . . . . . . . . .
Coalinga Union High School
Corcoran
. . . . .............
Corcoran Union High School
Delano
. * * .............
Delano Joint Union High School
Dinuba
. . . . . . . . . .
Dinuba Joint Union High School
Dos Palos
• • • • • • . .
Dos Palos Joint Union High School
Exeter
• • • . . • • . . • • • .
Exeter Union High School
Fowler
« • • • . . • • • • . . .
Fowler Union High School
Fresno
• • • • • • . • • • • . .
Central Union High School
-Fresno
....................... Edison Technical High School
Fresno
. . . . . . .
Fresno
• • • . • • • • • . .
Fresno
• • • • • • . . . .
Fresno
. . . . . . . . . . .
Gustine
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hanford . . . . . . . . . .
Fresno Senior High School
Fresno Technical High School
Theodore Roosevelt High School
Washington Union High School
Gustine Union .High School
Hanford Joint Union High School
130
•C I T Y
SCHOOL
Hilmar
. . . . . . .
. . . . . .
Hilmar Union High School
Kerman
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Kerman Union High School
Kingsburg
............. Kingsburg Joint Union H igh School
Laton . . . . . . . . . . . .
Le G-rand
Lemoore
Laton Joint Union High School
. . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . .............
Lindsay .......................
Livingstone . . . . .
Los Banos
Madera
Le G-rand Union High School
Livingstone Junior-Senior High Sehool
* • • . • • • • • . .
. . . . . . .
West Side Union High School
Madera Union High School
Maricopa Junior-Senior
McFarland . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Merced
...........
High School
McFarland High School
Merced Union High School
Orosi
Orosi Union High School
Parlier
...........
Parlier Union High School
Porterville • • • . . • • • •
Heedley .
Riverdale
Sanger
High School
. . . . . Lindsay High School
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maricopa
Lemoore
............. ..
. . . . . . . .
Porterville Union High School
Reedley Joint Union High School
Riverdale Joint Union High School
• • • • • • • . . . • • •
Selma . . . . . . . . .
...........
Shafter . .
Strathmore
Sanger Union High School
Selma U nion High School
Shafter
• • • . • • • . .
Taft
Tranquility . ..............
High School
Strathmore Union High School
Taft U n ion High School
. Tranquility Union High School
131
CITY
Tulare
SCHOOL
• • • . • • . . • • • • •
Tulare Union High School
Visalia . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Visalia Union High School
Wasco » • • » • • • • • • • • . . .
Woodlake
. . . . . . . . . . .
Wasco Union High School
Woodlahe Union High School
132
COMMITTEE ASSISTING- IN FORMULATING- QUESTIONNAIRE
Airs, G-ordon, Instrumental Music Director, Fort Collins High
School, Fort Collins, Colorado,
Conn, P. C,, Band Director, University of Southern California,
Los Angeles, California,
Fisher, Paul, Ed, D , , Education Department, University of
Southern California, Los Angeles, California,
Neighbor, Jacob L , , Principal, Hanford Joint Union High
School, Hanford, California,
Nelson, Winston, Vice-principal,
Oceanside High School,
Oceanside, California,
Weatherly, Albert,
Instrumental Music Director, Tulsa High
School, Tulsa, Oklahoma.
White, Cyral, Instrumental Music Director, Tulare Union High
School, Tulare, California.
133
AN INVESTIGATION OF THE HOUSING AND EQUIPMENT OF INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC
DEPARTMENTS IN THE HIGH SCHOOLS OF THE .CENTRAL SECTION OF
P THE CALIFORNIA-WESTERN MUSIC EDUCATOR* S CONFERENCE
INTERVIEWER* S QUESTIONNAIRE
What i s the enrollm ent?
<_____ ■
What was the approximate enrollment in 1936? ____________________________
Based on present trends, what will be the approximate enrollment in
1944? _______________________ _______ ____________________________________ __
I s the high sch o o l a th r e e , fo u r, or s i x year high school? _____________
I s a ju n io r high sch o o l housed in th e same b u ild in g?
I f so., what i s th e enrollm ent? 1940
. 1936,
« 1944 _ _
I s th ere a separate ju n io r high sch ool music teacher? _ _ _ _ _ _
Do they have access to the Senior high school instrumental music pro­
visions?_________________________ .
__________ ' •
_______________________ _
I s a ju n ior c o lle g e housed in th e same b u ild in g?
I s th ere a separate ju n io r c o lle g e music teacher? _______________________
Do they have access to the senior high school music provisions? _ _ _ _ _
What i s th e enrollm ent o f J , C.? 1940
Kindly in clu d e a schedule o f a l l c la s se s*
, 1936
,1944___ ______
134
In d ic a te th e enrollm ent o f th e fo llo w in g groups which you have in your
sc h o o l, which you had four years ago, (1 9 3 6 ), and based on p resen t pros­
p e c ts , th a t you a n tic ip a te in having by 1944* In d ic a te whether each i s
a scheduled c la s s , a regu lar e x tr a -c u r r ic u la r a c t i v i t y , or on ly an o c ea.s:£onal a c t i v i t y . In d ic a te th ose in which ju n ior c o lle g e or ju n io r
high sch ool stu d en ts p a r tic ip a te .
O rganization
sched.
c la s s •
1940-41
reg.
e x -c .
occ.
sch.
e ls .
1936-37
reg.
e x -c .
pcc
-sch.
1944-4!
reg . pcc.
Advanced Band
Concert
Parade
Combined
Interm ediate Band
Beginners Band
Advanced Orchestra
Interm ediate Orchestra
Beginners Orchestra
Instrum ental C la sses
Drum and Bugle Corps
Woodwind Ensemble
S tr in g Ensemble or Q uartette
Brass Ensemble
P ercu ssion Ensemble
Dance Band
German or Clown Band .
Salon O rchestra or
Mixed Ensemble
In d iv id u a l Students
S o lo is t s
Drum Majors and
M ajorettes
Which method o f teach in g do you u s e , which method would you p refer i f
your f a c i l i t i e s were adequate?
Method
Heterogeneous grouping
(mixed a l l instrum ents)
Homogenious grouping
(o n ly one type o f instrum ent)
In d iv id u al
Method Used
Method P referred
135
J3UILDING
Where do th e instrum ental groups rehearse?
(Underscore)
Gymnasium, Auditorium s ta g e , Auditorium p i t , Music u n it or b u ild in g ,
Remodelled classroom , Regular classroom , _____________________ ______ _
In d ica te th e r e la t iv e l o c a l i t y o f th e music room or rooms*
Main b u ild in g , wing, f i r s t f lo o r , second f lo o r , basement, wing, back o f
auditorium , some other b u ild in g , main f lo o r , second f l o o r , ______________
I t i s c o n v en ien tly lo c a te d in r e la tio n to the r e s t o f the sc h o o l
auditorium
?a t h le t ic f i e l d ____________
In the fo llo w in g q u estio n , d iff e r e n t types o f rooms used in some in s tr u ­
m ental departments are l i s t e d a cross th e top o f th e c h a r t. Q uestions
concerning the same as th ey might e x is t in your sch ool are found in the
le ft-h a n d column. In most in sta n c e s a l l o f th e se rooms w i l l not e x is t in
ev ery sc h o o l. In d ic a te th e proper answer to each q u estio n as i t might
p e r ta in any o f th e rooms. (The fo llo w in g code i s used to d esig n a te the
v a rio u s rooms. R ehearsal room—-R, Music o f f i c e —0 , Music lib r a r y —L,
Instrument sto r a g e —I , Uniform storage—M, Ensemble p r a c tic e room—E,
In d iv id u a l p r a c tic e room—P, Stage in th e room—S, Work shop—W, D ressing
rooms—D)
Q uestion
How many o f each do you have?
Which rooms are sound proof?
Which rooms are a c o u s t ic a lly
trea ted ?
Are rooms adequately lig h te d ?
Are rooms adequ ately heated?
Are rooms adequ ately v e n tila te d ?
In which rooms are instrum ents
stored?
Where are uniforms stored?
Where i s th e lib r a r y stored?
Where i s m iscellan eou s
equipment stored?
How many square f e e t o f b lack­
board space i s there?
How much b u lle t in board space?
How many hours per week are
th ey used by the in s tr u ­
mental department?
How many hours per week do
o th ers use th e rooms?
Are rooms a ttr a c tiv e ?
R.
0.
L.
I.
U.
M.
E.
P . -S.
W. -D.
136
Are th e variou s rooms c o n v en ien tly lo c a te d in r e la tio n s h ip w ith
one another?
_____ ___________________________________
Are lavatory facilities conveniently located with relationship to
for faculty
music unit for boys?__._________ for girls?_____
members?________________________________________________________
Is a drinking fountain conveniently located to music room?_______
Are sink facilities to wash instruments near?
How are instruments stored?
group lockers, shelves.
How is music stored?
(underscore)
Individual lockers,
Files, cabinets, shelves,__________________
How are phonograph records stored?(_______ ________________________
Describe uniform storage.
Are there risers in practice room?
Are they permanent?
__________________ ________
______________
Indicate the approximate year in which the present music room or
building was built or remodeled.
_ _ _
Does the building program of the school include the addition to
or alteration of the present housing facilities of instrumental
music?_____________ .
___________ When?:___________________________ ;
What i s in clu ded in th e plans? (underscore) C onstruction o f a
new music b u ild in g , rem odeling o f th e p resen t one,______________
I f so are b lu e p r in ts or f lo o r plan a v a ila b le ? __________________
What i s - t h e flo o r plan o f th e present music rooms? Include the
h eigh t o f th e room in th e dim ensions. Use another sheet*
137
-INSTRUMENTS
-Indicate by number, the correct answer to each question in the space
opposite each instrument listed. In the first column indicate the number of
school owned instruments, in the second the number of students using the same
instruments, in the third the present instrumental buying plan for the next four
years, in.the fourth-the present band instrumentation, and in the fifth, the
present orchestra instrumentation.
Instrument
Violin
Viola
Cello
String bass
Harp
Db Piccolo
C Piccolo
Db Flute
Eb Flute
C Flute
Oboe
English horn
Bassoon
Eb Clarinet
Bb Clarinet
A Clarinet
Alto clarinet
Bass clarinet
Bb Sop. sax
Eb Alto sax
Bb Tenor sax
Baritone sax
Bass sax
Bb Cornet
Trumpet
Fleugal horn
Alto horn
French horn
BB trombone
Bass trombone
-2
^Instrument
Trombonium
Baritone
Eb Tuba
BBb Tuba
Eb Sousaphone
BBb Sousaphone
Snare drum
Field drum
Scotch drum
Tenor drum
Tympaai
Cymbals
Bell lyre
Orchestra bell
Vibra-harp
Xylophone or
Marimba
Chimes
Celeste
Herald trumpets
Soprano bugles
Tenor bugles
Baritone bugles
Fifes
Plano
Organ (kind)
Temple blocks
Wood blocks
Triangle
Gong
.1
_2
138
Jl list of possible equipment used by the department is given below. Indi­
cate those that are in the department (in first column), those that are
available from other departments (second column), those that are needed
(third column).
-1
-Equipment or
Facility
Equipment or
Facility
Theatre lights
Duplicator
Typewriter
Telephone
(note if to outside)
Desks
Tables
Files
(no. of diff. sizes)
Conductor1s baton
Drum major baton
Chalk liner
Music pens
Music stands perma­
nent____________
collapsable
Repair tools (list)
Radio
Phonograph
Public address Syst
Remote broadcast
hookup
Sound motion pic­
ture projector
Lantern slide
Screen
Motion picture
camera
"A" Tuning bar
uBbw Tuning bar
Metronome
Mirror
Clothes brush
Measuring tape
Engraving needle
Department stencil
Department stamp
Whistle
Megaphones
Straps and
harnesses (list)
Films (pictures)
Special instrument
stands (list)
How many of the following accessories are furnished to students?
Accessories
Violin strings
Viola strings
Cello strings
Bass strings
Oboe reeds
Clarinet reeds
Saxophone reeds
Bassoon reeds
Lyres
Drum sticks
Practice pade
Extra mouthpieces
Mutes, cornet
Mutes, trombone
mi
Some
School instru­
ments only
1
None
■>
139
Check the following classification of music in the music library.
Beginning group methods
Easy technical studies
Warm up collections
Orchestra collections
Orchestra sheet music
Solos-
* Individual methods
i Advanced technical studies
» Band collections
i Band sheet music
» Ensemble music
# List any other classifications
3
hi ,
______
_
■
.
3
.. 3
3
.
Phonograph records
Music magazines
, Books
, Other literature
Do you buy your music (underscore) with the present organization in mind,
with the growth of the organization within the next few years, or for an
anticipated maximum organization in some distant future,_____________ '
Indicate the number of school owned uniforms for each of the following
organizations* Band
orchestra
drum and bugle corps___
dance orchestra
novelty groups
ensemble_______other______
Where does the band d r i l l fo r marching, a t h le t ic f i e l d , s p e c ia l f i e l d ,
._______ _____
s t r e e t , _____ ._______
Check th e equipment which i s used in connection w ith the d r i l l ,
P. A. System
, Megaphone
, Mimeographed in s t r u c t io n
Motion p ic tu r e or s lid e s
, Marching manuels
, o th er_________
Bat on________ , ( l i s t o th e rs) _____________________________ ._____ _______
How are instruments sterilized?____________________________________ _
Are minor repairs to instruments made at your school?
By whom
Are facilities adequate?__________
Who has charge of uniforms?
If student, does he receive remuneration, extra credit, higher grade?
Who has charge of instruments?____________ .
If student, does he receive remuneration, extra credit, higher grade?
What room decorations are there?
What other materials do you have for programs, parades, or exhibitions?
•
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