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Measurement of transfer of learning from personal-use typewriting to vocational on the secondary level

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MEASUREMENT OF TRANSFER OF LEARNING FROM PERSONAL-USE
TYPEWRITING TO VOCATIONAL ON THE SECONDARY LEVEL
A T h e s is
P r e s e n te d to
th e F a c u lt y o f th e S c h o o l o f E d u c a tio n
U n iv e r s i t y o f S o u th ern C a lif o r n ia
In P a r t i a l F u l f i l l m e n t
o f th e R eq u irem en ts f o r th e D egree
M aster o f S c ie n c e i n E d u c a tio n
by
C la r en ce W ilso n
A ugust 1941
UMI Number: EP54329
All rights reserved
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fx ^ -7 f~j
<y
T h i s thesis, w r i tt e n u n d e r the di rec tio n of the
C h a ir m a n of the c and id ate ’s G u i d a n c e C o m m i t t e e
a n d a p p r o v e d by all m e m b e r s of the C o m m i t t e e ,
has been p r e s e n t e d to a n d a c c e p t e d by the F a c u l t y
of the S c h o o l of E d u c a t i o n of T h e U n iv e r si t y of
So u t h e r n C a li fo r ni a in p a r t i a l f u lf i ll m e n t of the
re q ui r e m en ts f o r the d e g r e e of M a s t e r of Sc ien ce
in Ed u ca ti o n.
n„,„ August 30, 1941.............
Guidance C om m ittee
E, G-. Blacks tone
Chairman
C. C. Crawford
D. Welty Lefever
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I.
II.
PAGE
THE PROBLEM AND DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED
. .
1
The p r o b l e m ........................................................................
1
S ta te m e n t o f th e p r o b l e m .......................................
1
Im p ortan ce o f th e s t u d y .......................................
2
A n a ly z in g th e p r o b l e m ............................................
12
D e f i n i t i o n s o f term s u s e d .......................................
13
V o c a tio n a l t y p e w r it in g ............................................
13
P e r s o n a l- u s e t y p e w r it in g .......................................
14
Method o f p r o c e d u r e ......................................
14
O r g a n iz a tio n o f th e s t u d y .......................................
16
PERSONAL-USE AND VOCATIONAL TYPEWRITING
COMPARED AND CONTRASTED............................................
18
S i m i l a r i t i e s ...........................................
20
M a stery o f m e c h a n ic a l o p e r a tio n o f th e
m achine
....................................................................
S p a c in g r u l e s
. .
S y lla b ic a tio n
.
Use o f th e e r a s e r
20
.................................................
20
.....................................................
21
..............................
21
V e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l c e n t e r in g and
t a b u l a t i o n .......................................................... ....
.
22
..........................................................
23
A d d r e s sin g e n v e lo p e s .................................................
23
L e t t e r s tu d y .
CHAPTER
PAGE
D iffe r e n c e s
, .........................................................................
23
..........................................................
23
O b j e c t iv e s
Type o f s u b j e c t - m a t t e r . . . . . . . . . .
24
L en gth o f c o u r s e ....................... '..................................
25
Speed r e q u i r e m e n t ......................................................
27
A ccu racy req u ire m en t .................................................
27
Method o f m o t iv a tio n
............................................
28
Y ear in w h ich p r e s e n t e d .......................................
29
M ethod o f p r e s e n t in g th e k eyboard and
d e v e lo p in g s k i l l
......................................................
Method o f p r e s e n t in g th e s u b j e c t - m a t t e r
S t y l e s o f l e t t e r s em p h asized
.
30
30
.........................
32
Composing a t th e m a c h i n e .......................................
32
D egree o f t a b u l a t i o n d i f f i c u l t y
33
....................
D r i l l s used t o d e v e lo p or a c q u ir e sp eed
and m a in ta in a c c u r a c y .......................................
III.
33
EXPLANATION AND RESULTS OF FIRST SEMESTER
TESTS
.
..............................................................................
B a s is o f c o m p a r i s o n ............................
34
. 34
E q u a liz in g th e g r o u p s ................................................
34
Types o f t e s t s u s e d ................... ..................................
35
C o r r e c t s p a c in g
.....................................................
37
S y l l a b i c a t i o n ...................................................................
37
.
iv
CHAPTER '
PAGE
V e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l c e n t e r in g o f
a r tic le s
. • .
.................................
41
V e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l c e n t e r in g o f an
a r t i c l e ................................................
IV .
42
S t r a ig h t - c o p y m a t e r i a l .................................................
46
S t r a ig h t - c o p y m a t e r ia l....................................................
49
Summary o f f i r s t s e m e s te r t e s t s
53
.........................
EXPLANATION AND RESULTS OF SECOND SEMESTER
TESTS
-.
56
T ypes o f t e s t s .............................................................. . .
56
............................
56
T a b u l a t i o n ..............................................................................
61
L e t t e r in fo r m a tio n .
.................................................
65
...............................................................
67
A d d r e s sin g e n v e lo p e s ......................................................
71
A d d r e s sin g e n v e lo p e s
........................
74
• • . ........................
76
T a b u la tio n arran gem en t • • • •
B u s in e s s l e t t e r
B u s in e s s l e t t e r
S t r a ig h t - c o p y m a t e r ia l ....................................................
81
Rough d r a f t .........................................................................
83
Rough d r a f t
.
87
.........................................
87
S t r a ig h t - c o p y m a t e r ia l •
......................................
B u s in e s s l e t t e r ....................................................
90
Summary o f seco n d se m e s te r t e s t s
94
. . . . . .
V
CHAPTER
V.
PAGE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONSAND RECOMMENDATIONS . . .
S u m m a r y ..................................................................................
The problem
98
.................................................
98
Method o f p r o c e d u r e .................................................
98
R e s u l t s ..............................................................................
99
C o n c lu s io n s
. . .
98
•«
R ecom m endations
. . . . . .
.......................................
. . . .
100
101
BIBLIOGRAPHY...........................................
103
APPENDIX .
110
.................................................................................
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE
PAGE
I.
P e r s o n a l- u s e and V o c a tio n a l T y p e w r itin g
Compared and C o n t r a s t e d ..
II.
..................................
19
A c t i v i t i e s o f P e r s o n a l- u s e and V o c a t io n a l
Groups th e F i r s t S em ester . . . . . . . .
III.
Com parison o f I . Q . ’S and S c o r e s o f
S tu d e n ts in Each Group
• • • • • • • • •
IV .
Com parison
o f S c o r e s on C o r re ct S p a c in g .
V.
Com parison
o f S c o r e s on S y l l a b i c a t i o n
V I.
Com parison
o f S c o r e s on V e r t i c a l and
H o r iz o n t a l C e n te r in g
V II.
.
38
40
• • • • • • • • • •
43
Com parison o f N et Words on V e r t i c a l
. . . . . . . .
44
Com parison o f S c o r e s on V e r t i c a l and
H o r iz o n t a l C e n te r in g
IX .
36
. . .
and H o r iz o n t a l C e n te r in g
V III.
26
• • • • • • • • • •
47
C om parison o f N et Words on V e r t i c a l
and H o r iz o n ta l C e n te r in g
. . . . . . . .
48
X#
Com parison
o f N et Words on S t r a ig h t Copy
.
-50
X I.
Com parison
o f N et Words on S t r a ig h t Copy
.
52
X II.
X III.
Summary o f F i r s t S em ester T e s t s
54
Com parison o f S c o r e s on T a b u la tio n
Arrangem ent •
XIV.
. . . . . .
...........................................
Com parison o f N et Words on T a b u la tio n
59
v ii
TABLE
PAGE
A r r a n g e m e n t ....................................................................
XV*
XVI.
X V II.
X V III.
XIX.
Com parison o f S c o r e s on T a b u la tio n . . . .
63
Com parison o f N et Words on T a b u la tio n
64
. . .
Com parison o f S c o r e s on L e t t e r
I n f o r m a t i o n ....................................................................
66
Com parison o f S c o r e s on a B u s in e s s L e t t e r .
69
C om parison o f N et Words on a B u s in e s s
L e t t e r ...........................................
XX.
XXI.
. .
70
E n v e l o p e s .........................................................................
73
Com parison o f N et Words on A d d r e s sin g
Com parison o f N et Vfords on A d d r e s sin g
E n v elo p e s •
X X II.
X X III.
.................................
75
Com parison o f S c o r e s on a B u s in e s s L e t t e r .
Com parison o f N et Words and E r ro r s
XXVI.
XXVII.
X X V III.
XXIX.
79
on
S t r a i g h t C o p y .......................................................... .. .
XXV.
78
C om parison o f N et Words on a B u s in e s s
L e t t e r ..............................................................................
XXIV.
60
C om parison o f S c o r e s on a Hough D r a ft . . .
Com parison o f N et Words on a Rough D r a ft
85
.
Com parison o f S c o r e s on a Rough D r a ft . . .
Com parison o f N et Words on a Rough D r a ft
82
86
88
.
89
S t r a i g h t C o p y ...............................................................
91
Com parison o f N et Words and E r r o r s on
viii
TABLE
XXX.
XXXI.
PAGE
Com parison o f S c o r e s on a B u s in e s s L e t t e r •
Com parison o f N et Words on a B u s in e s s
L e t t e r ...........................................................................
•X X X II.
92
Summary o f Second S e m e ste r T e s t s
• •
•
.•
93
95
CHAPTER I
THE PROBLEM AMD DEFINITIONS OF TERMS*USED
p e r s o n a l- u s e t y p e w r it in g c o u r se s in e d u c a t io n a l
c u r r i c u la h ave c r e a te d a q u e s t io n in th e m inds o f s tu d e n ts
t a k in g or c o n te m p la tin g ta k in g th e t r a i n i n g and a l s o
b u s in e s s e d u c a to r s r e g a r d in g th e t r a n s f e r o f t r a i n in g from
p e r s o n a l- u s e to v o c a t i o n a l t y p e w r it in g .
h ave been made as to th e p o s s i b i l i t i e s
A few s ta te m e n ts
o f su ch a t r a n s f e r ,
b u t as y e t no e x p e r im e n ta l e v id e n c e h a s been p r e s e n te d to
a s c e r t a i n w hat p r o b a b le s u c c e s s th e p e r s o n a l- u s e t y p e w r it in g s t u d e n ts have In tr a n sfe r r in g t o th e v o c a t i o n a l c l a s s .
I .
THE PROBLEM
S ta te m en t o f th e p ro b lem .
Today two m ajor aims are
s t r e s s e d in th e t e a c h in g o f t y p e w r it in g , th e v o c a t i o n a l and
th e p e r s o n a l - u s e .
T hese aim s are r e f l e c t e d in s y l l a b i and.
s u b j e c t m a tte r , in s tandard's ' o f a c h ie v e m e n ts , and in m ethods
o f t e a c h in g ; t h e r e f o r e ,
(1 ) i t was th e p u rp ose o f t h i s
s tu d y ,to m easure th e t r a n s f e r o f le a r n in g from p e r s o n a l- u s e
t y p e w r it in g t o v o c a t i o n a l t y p e w r it in g on th e se c o n d a r y l e v e l
(2 ) t o compare and c o n t r a s t th e s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s
o f p e r s o n a l- u s e and v o c a t i o n a l t y p e w r it in g ;
(3 ) t o a n a ly z e
th e kn ow led ge and s k i l l t e s t s g iv e n t o p e r s o n a l- u s e and
v o c a t i o n a l t y p e w r it in g groups th e f i r s t se m e s te r on m a t e r ia l
2
common t o b o th g ro u p s;
(4 ) t o a n a ly z e th e t e s t s g iv e n t o th e
groups th e se co n d s e m e s te r a c c o r d in g t o th e aim s and p u r­
p o s e s 5 o f se co n d s e m e s te r v o c a t i o n a l t y p e w r it i n g .
Im p ortan ce o f th e s t u d y .
M an e v e r y d a y a i d , ty p e ­
w r i t i n g h a s s o in c r e a s e d in v a lu e t h a t i t i s now w id e ly
c o n s id e r e d a n e c e s s a r y p a r t o f a l l s tu d e n t t r a i n i n g .
Surveys;
made i n 1936 and 1937 show th a t th e r e w ere more p u p ils i n
t y p e w r it in g c l a s s e s th an i n any o t h e r s u b j e c t . -*The r a p id ly i n c r e a s i n g b e l i e f t h a t a know ledge o f
t y p e w r it in g makes f o r f i t n e s s i n l i f e , i n s p i r e s many p u p i l s
t o a c q u ir e th e s k i l l f o r p e r s o n a l u s e .
O thers w ish the?
p e r s o n a l- u s e a b i l i t y b e c a u se th e y b e lie v e - t h a t e v e n t u a l ly
h a n d - w r itt e n m a t e r ia l may be c o n s id e r e d an i n t r u s i o n on
t im e , b o th f o r th e w r it e r .a n d th e r e a d e r .
W ith g r e a t e r d evelop m en t o f p e r s o n a l- u s e c o u r se s
many s t u d e n t s are e n r o ll e d f o r t h i s c l a s s e a r l y i n t h e i r
s c h o o l c a r e e r , n o t know ing what v o c a t io n th e y desire^ t o
fo llo w l a t e r .
They may ta k e p e r s o n a l- u s e t y p e w r it in g and
l a t e r d e c id e t o e n t e r the: v o c a t i o n a l c l a s s .
No s tu d y h a s
b een made t o m easure th e t r a n s f e r o f le a r n in g from p e r s o n a lu s e t o v o c a t i o n a l t y p e w r it in g ,
no su r v e y has; been made t o
d i s c o v e r how p r a c t i c a l i t w ould be t o b e g in a l l t y p e w r it in g
i C. f . H a m ilto n , ^ B u sin ess E d u c a tio n F a c ta and T rends
in new J ersey ,* * J o u r n a l o f B u s in e s s E d u c a tio n , 8 s l 8 , J u n e,
1938.
“
3
t r a i n i n g w it h a c o u r s e i n p e r s o n a l- u s e ty p in g and l a t e r
e n r o l l th o s e who a r e b e s t a d ap ted t o b u sin e ss: c a r e e r s in
v o c a tio n a l c la s s e s ;
or w h eth er or n o t th o s e who w is h t o
e n t e r b u s in e s s f i e l d s b e a d v is e d out o f p e r s o n a l - u s e c l a s s ­
es
«
d e c i s i o n h a s b een made as t o t h e a d v i s a b i l i t y o f
juo
g i v in g a l l s t u d e n t s v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g and th e n l e t th o s e
who want th e know ledge f o r p e r s o n a l- u s e o n ly , drop out and
f u r t h e r t r a i n t h e s m a ll p e r c e n ta g e n eed ed f o r t y p i s t s i n
o ffic e s :.
The b e s t m ethod o f p ro ced u re i s as y e t u n c e r t a in ;
th e t r e n d , h o w ev er, seem s t o be toward w id e n in g c o u r s e s i n
p e r s o n a l- u s e t y p e w r it i n g .
T h e r e fo r e , i t
seem s1 v i t a l l y im­
p o r ta n t t o measure: th e t r a n s f e r o f le a r n in g from th e
p e r s o n a l- u s e c l a s s t o t h e v o c a t i o n a l .
Some l i m i t a t i o n s and p o s s i b i l i t i e s ; o f th e t r a n s f e r
h ave been p o in te d ou t by s e v e r a l o f th e le a d in g b u s in e s s
e d u c a to r s *
Howe i n s p e a k in g o f s o c i a l - a p p r e c i a t i o n and p e r s o n a lu s e v a lu e s o f s u b j e c t s s a i d , ,fT y p e w r itin g f o r p e r s o n a l u s e
w ould be d e s i r a b l e i f n o t begun t o o e a r l y and i f i t
can b e
r e l a t e d t o o th e r t y p e w r it in g c o u r s e s . ^
The t r a n s f e r o f t r a i n i n g from p e r s o n a l- u s e ty p in g t o
s k i l l t y p in g p r e s e n te d no g r e a t h a n d ic a p , and th e change
2 C lyde E!. Rowe, %ew Com m ercial E d u c a tio n t o Meet
C hanging C o n d i t i o n s ,,f5 B u sin ess: E d u c a tio n D i g e s t , 1 f 30* March,
1937*
-------- -------------------------------------
4
was; r e l a t i v e l y e a s y t o make a c c o r d in g t o B la c k s to n e and
S m ith .*5
In t r a n s f e r i n g p e r s o n a l t y p in g from th e e ig h t h grade
t o v o c a t i o n a l ty p in g in th e t e n t h grade th e y s t a t e d t
. . . W hile the' gap b etw een th e e ig h t h and th e t e n t h
grade i s a c o n s id e r a b le o n e , i f th e s t u d e n t s h ave u se d
t h e i r ty p in g i n th e m ean tim e, th e y w i l l p r o b a b ly be
a b le t o a d j u s t th e m s e lv e s s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . T h e ir sp ee d
may h ave s u f f e r e d i n t h e in t e r im ; b u t , s in c e th e y a r e
a c q u a in te d w ith th e b u sin ess? fo r m s , l e t t e r s , and e n v e l ­
o p es commonly ta u g h t in th e se co n d s e m e s t e r , th e y may
h a v e e x t r a tim e t o d e v o te t o r e g a in in g any sp ee d or
a c c u r a c y th e y may have l o s t .
As a m a tte r o f f a c t , i t
i s d o u b t f u l i f th e y w i l l be ty p in g e i t h e r s lo w e r or
more in a c c u r a t e ly .^
F o sb e r i n a d e m o n s tr a tio n l e s s o n i n t y p in g s a i d ,
d e v e l o p sp e e d from th e f i r s t term o n . • • . Speed d o e s n o t
ta k e care- o f i t s e l f ,
n o th in g e v e r t a k e s c a r e o f i t s e l f w ith
a maximum o f good outcom es i n a minimum o f time*®®
F o ster* 5
d is c o u r a g e d b e g in n in g o f arrangem ent prob lem s u n t i l a p r a c ­
t i c a l t y p in g sp eed on s t r a i g h t copy was a t t a i n e d .
P ro b a b ly
he w ould d isco u ra g e ; th e p e r s o n a l- u s e c o u r se a s b e in g to o
l a c k in g i n sp eed t r a i n i n g t o make a s u c c e s s f u l t r a n s f e r t o
v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . . He seem s t o b e l i e v e th e y are two
5 E . G. Blackffitone and S . L. S m ith , Improvement o f
I n s t r u c t i o n i n T y p e w r itin g (wew York:: P r e n t i c e - H a l l In cT ,
1 9 5 6 }, p . 57•
4 M £*
c it*
® W illia m R. F o s t e r , d e m o n s t r a t io n L esso n i n Type­
w r i t i n g , * B u s in e s s E d u c a tio n D i g e s t , 2 t 3 2 , May, 1 9 3 8 .
6 W illia m R . F o s t e r , ^Comments on Mr C arver*s A r t i c l e
- - & Few f lo t e e on t h e T y p e w r itin g A p p roach ,* B u s in e s s
E d u c a tio n W orld, 1 9 * 2 7 6 , D ecem ber, 1 9 3 8 .
---------------
r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f l e a r n i n g , two r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r ­
e n t t y p e s o f p ro ced u re a r e t h e r e f o r e n e c e s s a r y , e a ch con ­
f l i c t i n g w ith th e o t h e r .
T h is v ie w i s n o t sh a re d by W e lle r , he s a i d , ®Teach
f o r s o c i a l v a l u e s f i r s t , th e n f o r th o s e who a re f i t t e d f o r
advance work f o r v o c a t i o n a l o u t l e t W e l l e r
f e e l s c o n f id e n t
t h a t when th e fu n d a m e n ta ls o f ty p in g are m a stered p r o p e r ly
c o n tin u e d p r a c t i c e u n d er p ro p er s u p e r v is io n p r o d u c e s r e s u l t s
t h a t become v o c a t i o n a l i n v a lu e a t any tim e d u r in g l i f e
if
needs b e .
M. c o n f l i c t i n g o p in io n o f W e lle r *s; v ie w i s S m ith 1s
i d e a t h a t ty p in g s k i l l d o e s n o t r e s u l t m e r e ly th rou gh
p a s s a g e o f tim e or th rou gh m ediocre! m ethods o f p r a c t i c e b u t
is
o b ta in e d th rou gh a ®Happy Com bination® o f th e v e r y b e s t
m ethods o f l e a r n i n g .
He d o u b ts i f many ty p in g s t u d e n t s i n
th e f i r s t s e m e s te r h ave s u f f i c i e n t s k i l l t o a tte m p t a r t i s ­
t i c l e t t e r arran gem en t.®
S in c e e i g h t out o f te n s t u d e n t s e n r o ll e d i n t y p in g
Q
do n o t c o n tin u e i n t o the: se co n d y e a r ty p in g c l a s s K laus
7 C a rl G. W e lle r ,
P r i n c i p a l s View o f B u s in e s s
E d u c a tio n ,® B a la n c e S h e e t , 1 8 r2 7 0 , F eb ru a ry , 1 9 3 7 .,
* 8 H arold H. s m it h , nComments on th e T y p e w r itin g Ap­
p r o a c h ,w B u s in e s s E d u c a tio n W orld, 1 9 ;2 7 7 , D ecem ber, 1 9 3 8 .
9 M ild red K la u s, ^ P e r so n a l T y p e w r itin g ,® J o u r n a l o f
B u s in e s s E d u c a tio n , 1 1 ; 2 1 , A p r i l , 1 9 3 6 .
6
s u g g e s te d t h a t th e one y e a r c o u r se in c lu d e a stu d y w ide
enough so s t u d e n t s may u s e t o th e b e s t p o s s i b l e ad van tage
th e s k i l l s le a r n e d .
I t i s B la c k s to n e f s o p in io n t h a t i f
p e r s o n a l- u s e and v o c a t i o n a l t y p e w r it in g a re combined i t
w ould be no d is a d v a n ta g e t o v o c a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s b u t i t
m ig h t t o th e s t u d e n t s who want o n ly p e r s o n a l- u s e t y p in g ,
b e c a u se th e y w ould be r e q u ir e d t o le a r n e le m e n ts o f v o c a ­
t i o n a l u se th e y w ould n o t need or u s e .- ^
I t i s assum ed by many t h a t v o c a t i o n a l s tu d e n ts have
a g r e a t e r sp ee d r a te a t th e end o f th e f i r s t y e a r ’ s work
th a n those? t r a i n i n g f o r p e r s o n a l- u s e t y p in g , b u t th e r e a re
no r e c o r d s y e t t o show t h a t th e y do g a in e i t h e r a h ig h e r
r a t e o f sp eed or a b i l i t y t o ty p e more a c c u r a t e l y a t th e end
o f any c e r t a i n p e r io d o f tim e*
E t h e l Wood s a i d , ^The o n ly r e c o r d s I h ave e v e r had
w h ich show a s t e a d y s t r o k in g g a in w it h a b s o l u t e l y no O ff Days
and t h e i r accom paning drop in r a te h a v e been r e c o r d s made by
s t u d e n t s i n n o n - v o c a t io n a l c l a s s e s .
12
Q uinette>
q u e s t io n e d th e a d v i s l b i l i t y o f d iv id in g
th e t y p e w r it in g c o u r se i n t o two s e p a r a te and d i s t i n c t
10 E a r l G • B la c k s t o n s , ^Tw ins, ff> r m tio n a l B u s in e s s
E d u c a tlo n Q u a r t e r ly , 7 * 6 , D ecem ber, 1 9 3 8 .
11 E t h e l Wood, ^ P e rso n a l T y p e w r it in g ,11 B a la n ce S h e e t ,
1 9 * 1 5 3 , D ecem ber, 1 9 3 7 .
1® A lfr e d H. Q u in e t t e , ^ B u sin e ss E d u c a tio n and I t s
R e la t io n t o P u p i l s , n B a la n c e S h e e t , 2 0 * 3 4 0 , A p r i l , 1 9 3 9 .
7
c l a s s e s , b e c a u se to o many o n e -s e m e s te r s t u d e n t s d e c id e a f t e r
l e a v i n g s c h o o l t o u s e th e t r a i n i n g r e c e iv e d i n th e p e r s o n a luse- c l a s s in b u s i n e s s o f f i c e s #
Me c o r d in g t o Mr# Q u in e t t e ,
i f th e t r a i n i n g r e c e iv e d i n th e p e r s o n a l- u s e c o u r se w ould
be u sed o n ly i n a p e r s o n a l- u s e w ay, th e n th e r e w ould be a
j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r th e s o - c a l l e d p e r s o n a l- u s e co u r se#
It is
h i s o p in io n t h a t th e r e q u ir e m e n ts sh o u ld be th e same f o r a l l
who ta k e th e f i r s t y e a r t y p e w r it in g c o u r s e , or t h a t o n ly
v o c a t i o n a l m ethod be u s e d .
Prom an econ om ic v ie w p o in t the- f i n d in g s o f Mary D.
Wbbb,*^ show t h a t i n many sch ools* w here v o c a t i o n a l t y p in g
w as t a u g h t , tw ic e a s many stu d e n ts; co u ld h ave been t r a in e d
i n p e r s o n a l- u s e ty p in g w it h th e same c o s t and equipm ent b e ­
c a u se o f th e d i f f e r e n c e in tim e d e v o te d t o th e two c l a s s e s *
Some b u s in e s s ed u cators; a r e opposed t o th e m ethods
em ployed in t e a c h in g p e r s o n a l- u s e t y p e w r it in g .
T h e ir v ie w s
w ou ld seem t o m in im ise th e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f t r a n s f e r i n g the:
le a r n in g o f p e r s o n a l- u s e t y p e w r it in g t o v o c a t i o n a l .
M c h o ls d ou b ted th e b e n e f i t s r e c e iv e d from a c o u r se
i n p e r s o n a l- u s e t y p e w r it in g when h e sa id ::
wI f t h e s e same
u s e f u l v o c a t i o n a l s u b j e c t s a re revamped t o m eet consum er
n e e d s , a s a g a in s t p r o d u ce r n e e d s , th e y w i l l b u t im p e r f e c t ly
13 Mary D . Hfebb, ^ T y p e w ritin g f o r E very P u p i l , w
B u s in e s s E d u c a tio n D i g e s t , 3 r l 4 5 , May, 1 9 3 9 .
m i n i s t e r t o th e r e q u ire m en ts o f e i t h e r g r o u p . N i c h o l s :
fe e ls * t h a t t y p e w r it in g I sh o u ld be o r g a n iz e d on th e b a s i s
o f v o c a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s 1 needs: and p e r m it p e r s o n a l- u s e
15
s t u d e n t s t o ta k e i t .
The tr e n d tow ard o f f e r i n g * t y p e w r it i n g f o r p e r s o n a l
u s e t o as: many stu d e n ts; a s p o s s i b l e i s
s c h o o ls .
c o n tin u in g i n th e
There i s a te n d e n c y tow ard r e q u ir in g p e r s o n a l- u s e
t y p e w r it in g o f a l l p u p ils in th e n in t h g r a d e .
s c h o o ls i t i s ta u g h t i n th e s e v e n th g r a d e .
I n some
The problem
r e c e i v e s r e a l im p o r ta n c e due t o t h i s t r e n d .
O d e ll and S tu a r t
1 a.
in c o n s id e r in g p e r s o n a l- u s e ty p e ­
w r i t i n g i n th e n in t h grade s a id th e y c o u ld s e e no j u s t i f i ­
c a t io n t o o f f e r a t r a i n i n g th e r e t h a t w ould be c o n s id e r e d
as a p a r t o f a com m ercial c o u r s e , n o r , i t s aim i n any s e n s e
d i r e c t l y p r e p a r a to r y t o any s e n i o r h ig h com m ercial c o u r s e .
The a u th o r s a r e o f th e o p in io n t h a t t h e n in t h grade c o u rse
s h a l l be b a sed upon th e p e r s o n a l- u s e aim , and th o s e s t u d e n t s
who e x p e c t t o pursue- a com m ercial c o u r se in s e n i o r h ig h
s c h o o l sh o u ld be c o u n s e le d ou t o f th e ju n io r t y p e w r it in g .
3-4 p . g . N i c h o l s , ”What i s 1 a S'ound P h ilo s o p h y o f
B u s in e s s E d u c a tio n ? ” B u s in e s s E d u c a tio n W orld , 1 6 * 4 4 6 ,
F eb ru a ry , 1 9 3 9 .
3-5 j . M a r sh a ll Hanna, ^Fundam ental Is su e s ; in B u sin ess;
E d u c a t io n ,” Monograph 48 (S o u th -W e ste rn P u b lis h in g Company,
A p r i l , 1 9 4 0 ) , p . 4&.
3-5 O d e ll and S t u a r t , t y p e w r i t i n g in th e J u n io r G rad es,
N a t io n a l B u s in e s s E d u c a tio n Q u a rterly ]); 7*3-7, O ctob er, 1 9 3 8 .
9
B la c k s to n e and Y e ria n
17
em p h asized th e m a t e r ia l g a in
r e c e iv e d i f s t u d e n ts who w is h a v o c a t i o n a l l e v e l o f ty p in g
a b i l i t y w ould ta k e th e f i r s t s e m e s te r w ith th e p e r s o n a l- u s e
t y p is t s : in th e n in t h g r a d e .
The t y p i s t s w ould be a b le t o
u se th e t y p e w r it e r f o r t h e i r own p e r s o n a l u se d u r in g th e
n in t h and t e n t h grades>, and w ould be s u f f i c i e n t l y c a p a b le
t o f i t i n t o th e seco n d s e m e s te r o f th e v o c a t i o n a l c l a s s .
18
Graham
m a in ta in s t h a t th e o f f e r i n g s in th e t e n th
y e a r sh o u ld in c lu d e i n t r o d u c t io n t o t y p e w r it in g , i f n o t
ta k en i n th e j u n io r h ig h s c h o o l .
S tu d en ts: sh o u ld h o t be
r e q u ir e d to r e p e a t th e f i r s t s e m e s te r o f th e v o c a t i o n a l
c o u r se i f t h e y have ta k e n th e p e r s o n a l- u s e c o u r s e .
In c o n s id e r in g th e arran gem en t o f th e s u b j e c t - m a t t e r
i n th e p e r s o n a l- u s e c o u r s e , Wanoua s t a t e d t h a t much o f th e
work co m p leted p r o v id e d th e n e c e s s a r y background f o r s t u ­
d e n ts who in te n d e d t o e n t e r th e v o c a t i o n a l c l a s s th e seco n d
se m ester .
He s t a t e d , " P e r so n a l l e t t e r s w ould le a d t o b u s i ­
n e s s l e t t e r s , c o p y in g a l i s t
o f s p e l l i n g demons w ou ld le a d
i n t o sim p le t a b u l a t i o n , s e t t i n g up a- t a b le o f c o n te n ts would
1*7 E .. G. B la ck s to n e and C. T. Y e r ia n , T y p e w r itin g
f o r P e r s o n a l Use ("mew Y orki Gregg P u b lis h in g Company,
1937)", p . i i •
3-8 J e s s i e Graham, "How Much B u s in e s s E d u c a tio n S h ou ld
Be U n d erstood i n S eco n d a ry S c h o o ls ? ,f jM ational B u s in e s s
E d u c a tio n Q u a r te r ly , 7r:5, March, 1 9 3 8 .
le a d i n t o t a b u la t io n s w ith l e a d e r s .
„19
B earrangem ent o f th e te a c h in g p r o c e d u r e s i n t r a i n in g
t y p i s t s h as ca u sed c o n s id e r a b le comment and c r i t i c i s m . In
20
t r a i n i n g t y p i s t s f o r b u s in e s s o f f ic e s ; Sm ith
c o n s id e r s a
p r a c t i c a l sp eed o f f o r t y t o f o r t y - f i v e w o r d s-a -m in u te w ith
r e a s o n a b le a c c u r a c y n e c e s s a r y b e f o r e b e g in n in g arrangem ent
problem s;.
I t i s h is
o p in io n t h a t t y p i s t s In o f f i c e s would
b e much b e t t e r o f f i c e w o r k e rs had a much l a r g e r p o r t io n o f
t h e i r c o u r s e s been d e v o te d t o a d e f i n i t e r o u t in e o f r e s u l t g e t t i n g on tim ed s t r a i g h t copy p r a c t i c e .
P o s t e r f e e ls - t h a t th e e a r l y p r e s e n t a t io n o f l e t t e r s
or a r t i c l e s in t y p in g c o u r s e s f o r b u s i n e s s u s e a backward
s t e p ; b a sed on w hat sh o u ld com p rise a w e ll-r o u n d e d c o u r se
in te n d e d t o d e v e lo p t y p in g s k i l l t o th e h i g h e s t d e g r e e o f
w h ich e a ch p u p il i s
c a p a b le .
He m a in ta in e d "W hile c o p y in g
sp ee d a lo n e may n o t be a d e s i r a b l e y a r d s t ic k to m easure ty p in g
a b i l i t y , a p r a c t i c a l ty p in g sp ee d on ! s t r a i g h t c o p y 1 sh o u ld be
21
a t t a i n e d b e f o r e t a c k l i n g arrangem ent p r o b le m s .115
In a s tu d y o f p e r s o n a l- u s e t y p e w r it in g i n th e sm a ll
n ig h S c h o o ls o f t h e U n ite d S t a t e s C o lv in f s summary sta te d ::
3.9 Sv. J . W anous, ^Symposium o f Problem s o f T each in g
T y p e w r it in g ,1® n a t i o n a l B u sin ess; E d u c a tio n Q u a r t e r ly , 8 : 2 0 ,
March, 1 9 4 0 .
20 H arold H. S m ith , ^Trends in T y p e w r itin g , m n a t io n a l
B u s in e s s E d u c a tio n Q u a r t e r ly , 8 : 5 5 , March, 1 9 4 0 .
21 W illia m B. P o s t e r , o p . c i t . , p . 2 7 6 .
11
One hundred and e ig h t y - o n e ou t o f 2*79 P r i n c i p l e s w h o w ere c o n ta c te d s a i d t h a t in th e s m a lle r h ig h s c h o o ls
th e r e was c o n s id e r a b le i n t e r e s t i n p e r s o n a l- u s e t y p in g .
F i f t y p e r c e n t a d v ic e a l l s tu d e n ts t o ta k e a c o u r se in
p e r s o n a l- u s e t y p in g . F o u r te e n p e r c e n t r e q u ir e a c o u r se
i n p e r s:o n a l-u se t y p in g . 22
23
In a s tu d y made by F i s h e l
i n w h ich h e .tra c ed th e
e v o lu t io n o f b u s i n e s s e d u c a tio n in th e p u b lic h ig h s c h o o l ,
h e recommended t h a t em p h a sis be p la c e d on t y p in g f o r p e r s o n ­
a l - u s e i n b e g in n in g c o u r ses', and s t r e s s g iv e n v o c a t i o n a l
p r a c tic e s ; o n ly i n th e advanced c o u r s e s .
24
S m ith
b e l i e v e s t h a t th e r e i s a grow ing r e c o g n i t io n
t h a t w h a te v e r kn ow led ge one gains; i n ty p in g must be so
p r a c t i c a l a s t o be an ad v a n ta g e f o r w h a te v e r th e y w ish t o
d e v e lo p i n t o , and t h a t th e b e n e f i t s o f b a s ic s k i l l are as
v a lu a b le f o r one c o u r se as f o r th e o t h e r .
S la u g h te r b e l i e v e s a l l s u b j e c t s i n th e b u sin ess:
e d u c a tio n c u r r ic u lu m m ust be u n d e r s to o d and ta u g h t i n th e
2S
r e l a t i o n s h i p th e y b e a r t o th e w h ole o f l i f e .
22 a . 0 . C o lv in , nA Summary o f B u s in e s s E d u c a tio n i n
a C r o s s - S e c t io n o f th e S m a lle r H igh S c h o o ls o f th e U n ite d
S t a t e s , n n a t i o n a l B u s in e s s E d u c a tio n Q u a r te r ly , 5 * 3 8 , March,
19377 •
“
C arl T. F i s h e l , wThe E v o lu t io n o f B u s in e s s E duca­
t i o n In th e P u b lic H igh S c h o o l,^ (U n p u b lish ed M a ste r ! s t h e s i s ,
.U n iv e r s i t y o f S o u th ern C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s , 1 9 3 5 ), p .8 0 .
24 H arold H. S m ith , o p . c i t . , p). 3 5 .
25 E o b er t E . S la u g h t e r , ^L ost H o rizo n s and B u s in e s s
E d u c a tio n , m n a t i o n a l B u sin e ss. E d u c a tio n Q u a r te r ly , 7*41
O cto b er , 193^7
12
B ecau se o f s o many c o n f l i c t i n g id e a s and b e l i e f s i t
seem s n e c e s s a r y t o make an i n t e n s i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o th e
su b je ct.
*1116 problem o f f i n d in g
out what d e g r e e o f su ccess;
p e r s o n a l- u s e s tu d e n ts h ave in t r a n s f e r i n g t o v o c a t i o n a l ty p e
w r i t i n g h a s r e a l im p o r ta n c e .
A n a ly z in g th e p ro b lem .
The problem was a n a ly z e d
by th e f o l lo w in g q u e s t io n s :
1.
How d o es th e c o n te n t o f s u b j e c t m a tte r in p e r so n ­
a l - u s e t y p e w r it in g d i f f e r from v o c a t io n a l?
2.
How d o es th e c o n te n t o f s u b j e c t m a tte r in p e r ­
s o n a l- u s e t y p e w r it in g c o rresp o n d to v o c a t io n a l?
3.
How i s th e s u b j e c t m a tte r f o r th e p e r s o n a l- u s e
c o u r se p r e s e n te d ?
What t r a n s f e r o f le a r n in g t o th e v o c a ­
t i o n a l c o u r se may be e x p e c te d ?
4.
What t e s t s
c o u ld be u sed to m easure a d e q u a te ly
th e o b j e c t i v e s o f th e p e r s o n a l- u s e and v o c a t i o n a l c o u r se s ?
5.
What a re th e a c h ie v e m e n ts i n th e f i r s t se m e s te r
v o c a t i o n a l c o u r s e , and i n th e f i r s t s e m e s te r p e r s o n a l- u s e
c o u r se ?
6.
I s th e r e a b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e b etw een th e s k i l l
r e q u ir e d in o p e r a tin g th e t y p e w r it e r in s k i l l ty p e w r it in g
and in p e r s o n a l- u s e t y p e w r itin g ?
7.
How can th e s k i l l s
and k n ow led ges o f p e r s o n a l-
u s e t y p e w r it in g be compared w it h th o s e o f v o c a t i o n a l t y p e -
13
w r it in g ?
8-
What are th e r e s u l t s ?
What are th e aim s and p u rp o se s o f se co n d s e m e s te r
v o c a t i o n a l ty p e w r itin g ?
9.
What are- th e m ost ad eq u ate ways- o f t e s t i n g v o c a ­
t i o n a l t y p e w r it in g w it h r e f e r e n c e t o th o s e aim s1 and p u rp o se s?
10.
is ts
How w e l l do th e f i r s t s e m e s te r p e r s o n a l- u s e t y p ­
f o l lo w th e se co n d s e m e s te r o f th e v o c a t io n a l co u r se?
In what w ays do t h e y e x c e l or f a l l sh o r t?
11.
What c o n c lu s io n s and recom m endations can be made
as t o th e t r a n s f e r o f t r a i n i n g from th e p e r s o n a l- u s e c l a s s
t o th e v o c a t io n a l?
II.
DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED
V o c a tio n a l ty p in g and p e r s o n a l- u s e ty p in g are
s i m i l a r i n t h a t t h e y u s e th e same m a ch in e, w ith th e
same f i n g e r i n g , and t h a t e a c h r e q u ir e a d e g r e e o f sp eed
and a c c u r a c y , b u t a f t e r t h a t th e s i m i l a r i t y c e a s e s . 26
V o c a tio n a l t y p e w r it i n g .
By v o c a t i o n a l t y p e w r it in g
was1 m eant a c o u r se d e s ig n e d t o p rep a re p u p ils; t o do i n t e l l i ­
g e n t l y , e f f i c i e n t l y , and w ith d is p a t c h th e k in d o f work
a c t u a l l y r e q u ir e d o f t y p i s t s in b u s in e s s o f f i c e s ; .
The i n ­
s t r u c t i o n w a s c l o s e l y a l l i e d w ith th e a c t u a l d u t i e s o f th e
t y p i s t i n th e o f f i c e , su ch a s :
w r it in g , b u s i n e s s l e t t e r s a r ­
ranged i n d i f f e r e n t fo r m s, t e l e g r a p h i c m e s s a g e s , t a b u l a t i o n s ,
26 E a r l G. B la ck s t o n e , nT w i n s , N a t i o n a l B u sin e ss;
E d u c a tio n Q u a r t e r ly , 7 : 6 , D ecem ber, 1938*
rough d r a f t s , I n v o ic e s :, sta te m e n ts:, and l e g a l d ocu m en ts.
The c r i t e r i a u se d f o r m ea su rin g th e r e s u l t s o f t e a c h in g w as
b a sed on c o m p o site job r e q u ir e m e n ts o f th e b u s i n e s s o f f i c e *
The a c h ie v e m e n ts and a b i l i t i e s o f th e s t u d e n t s w ere m easured
by th e amount and q u a l i t y o f u s a b le work produced i n a g iv e n
t im e .
P e r s o n a l- u s e t y p e w r it i n g *
The im m ediate o b j e c t i v e
o f th e p e r s o n a l- u s e t y p e w r it in g c o u r se was to te a c h i n a
minimum o f tim e th o s e u s e s o f th e t y p e w r it e r e v er y o n e sh o u ld
know f o r s c h o o l , home, and o th e r p e r s o n a l u s e s *
The c o u r se
w as o f f e r e d n o t m e r e ly as: a s k i l l s u b j e c t , b u t a s a m ost
im p o r ta n t e d u c a t io n a l d e v ic e *
The p e r io d o f le a r n in g w as
s h o r te n e d t o m eet th e n eed s o f th e i n d i v i d u a l .
d id n o t f o l l o w a p r e -d e s lg n e d s e q u e n c e .
The m a t e r i a ls
The work was i n ­
tro d u c ed a s i t c o r r e la t e d w it h t h a t o f o th e r c l a s s e s , or th e
i n t e r e s t o f th e s t u d e n t s , su ch a s t
a fr ie n d ly l e t t e r , in ­
v i t a t io n s , l e t t e r s o f a p p lic a tio n , a l i s t
o f s p e l l i n g demons
i n t a b u l a t i o n form , m in u te s o f s c h o o l m e e t in g s , th em es, h e a d ­
ings; and t i t l e
p a g e s , ta b le s- o f c o n t e n t s , m a n u sc r ip ts i n
d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s ' , book review s-, book r e f e r e n c e s w r i t t e n on
ind ex: c a r d s , rough d r a f t s , a f o l d e r c o n t a in in g program s and
m enus, r e c i p e s , g r o c e r y l i s t s ,
and m odel t y p e w r it t e n c h e c k s ,
r e c e i p t s , and p r o m isso r y n otes;;
III.
METHOD OP FHOCEDUKE
15
The n a tu r e o f th e problem l im i t e d th e p ro ced u re to
e x p e r im e n ta l d a t a .
L ib r a r y r e s e a r c h f u r n is h e d th e n e c e s s a r y
background i n p la n n in g and c h o o sin g th e b e s t s u b j e c t m ater­
i a l s and th e m ost u p - t o - d a t e and a d eq u a te t e s t i n g m ethods t o
be u sed in th e e x p e r im e n t.
In o r d e r t o p r o c u r e an a d eq u a te sa m p lin g th e e x p e r i­
m ent was; c a r r ie d out in th r e e s c h o o l s .
The f i r s t se m e s te r
t y p e w r it in g s t u d e n t s w ere d iv id e d i n t o two g ro u p s i n each
s c h o o l*
H en non -ju elson, wT fests o f M en tal A b i l i t y — Form A
G rades 7 - 1 2 , w fu r n is h e d th e b a sis; f o r a r r a n g in g and e q u a l i z ­
in g th e groups; i n e a ch sich ool a c c o r d in g t o t h e i r i n t e l l i ­
g en ce r a t i n g s ,
Hie p e r s o n a l- u s e stu d e n ts: w ere r e f e r r e d t o a s t h e
e x p e r im e n ta l g r o u p .
V o c a t io n a l s t u d e n t s w e r e r e f e r r e d t o
a s t h e c o n t r o l group*
B oth groups c o n tin u e d work f o r a
p e r io d o f e ig h t e e n w e e k s .
In e a ch s c h o o l b o th c l a s s e s had
e q u a l o p p o r tu n ity a s t o th e tim e e le m e n t .
t o r ta u g h t b o th c l a s s e s .
The same i n s t r u c ­
In e a ch s c h o o l th e one c o u r se w as
d e s ig n e d as s t r i c t l y p e r s o n a l- u s e t y p e w r it in g and th e o th e r
a s s t r i c t l y v o c a tio n a l.
Throughout th e s e m e s te r t e s t s w ere
g iv e n t o d e ter m in e th e ach ievem en ts: o f th e p u p i l s .
These
t e s t s ; w ere g iv e n a f t e r p la n n ed t e a c h in g o f th e d i f f e r e n t
s k i l l s and know ledges: c a l l e d f o r i n th e t e s i t s .
D ata w ere
t a b u la te d in t a b le form to show a d e t a i l e d p ic t u r e o f th e
a c h ie v e m e n ts o f th e grou p s*
At th e end o f th e e ig h t e e n t h week th e p e r s o n a l- u s e
o b j e c t i v e c e a s e d , and th e v o c a t i o n a l v iew d om in ated th e r e ­
m a in in g e ig h t e e n w eeks o f s t u d y .
P a r t I I o f th e same v o c a ­
t i o n a l t e x t th a t was u sed by th e v o c a t i o n a l groups th e f i r s t
s e m e s te r was s t u d ie d by b o th groups th e seco n d s e m e s t e r .
Many d i f f e r e n t ty p e s o f t e s t s w ere g iv e n i n d e te r m in in g th e
a b ilitie s
o f th e s t u d e n t s .
R e s u lt s w ere ta b u la te d i n t a b le
form t o a s c e r t a i n th e p o s s i b i l i t y o f t r a n s f e r from p e r s o n a lu s e t o v o c a t i o n a l t y p e w r it i n g .
A ccu ra te and d e t a i l e d r e c o r d s
w ere k e p t to e n a b le anyone t o t e s t th e v a l i d i t y o f th e s t u d y .
ORGANIZATION OP THB STUDY
C h apter I I compares and c o n t r a s t s th e s i m i l a r i t i e s
and d i f f e r e n c e s o f p e r s o n a l- u s e and v o c a t i o n a l t y p e w r it i n g .
C hapter I I I a n a ly z e s th e kn ow led ge and s k i l l t e s t s
g iv e n t o p e r s o n a l- u s e and v o c a t i o n a l groups th e f i r s t sem­
e ste r .
The r e s u l t s a re g iv e n f o r p e r s o n a l- u s e and v o c a t i o n a l
t y p e w r it in g i n th e d i f f e r e n t s c h o o ls s t u d ie d d u r in g th e f i r s t
se m ester .
C o n c lu s io n s are drawn as t o p o s s i b l e t r a n s f e r .
C h apter IV a n a ly z e s th e t e s t s g iv e n to th e g rou p s
a c c o r d in g t o th e aims and p u rp o se s o f se co n d s e m e s te r v o c a ­
t i o n a l t y p e w r it i n g .
R e s u lt s o f th e t e s t s and th e manner i n
w h ich th e y w ere con d u cted and sc o r e d are g i v e n .
T a b le s w ere u se d m aking com p arison s o f th e p e r s o n a lu s e stu d e n ts- w ith th e v o c a t i o n a l i n seco n d se m e s te r
17
v o c a t i o n a l t y p e w r it i n g .
In C hapter V are g iv e n th e f i n d i n g s , c o n c lu s io n s ,
and recom m en d ation s.
The c l a s s i f i e d b ib lio g r a p h y c o n ta in s a l i s t
o f b o o k s,
t y p e w r it in g t e x t b o o k s , p e r i o d i c a l r e fe r e n c e s :, and u n p u b lish e d
th e s is •
The a p p en d ix c o n t a in s c o p ie s o f th e t e s t s g iv e n th e
f i r s t and seco n d se m e ste r s:.
CHAPTER I I
PEBSONAL-USE AND VOCATIONAL TYPEWRITING
COMPARED AND CONTRASTED
I t was th e purpose o f t h i s c h a p t e r t o compare and
c o n t r a s t th e s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s o f p e r s o n a l - u s e
and v o c a t i o n a l t y p e w r i t i n g i n s c h o o l c u r r i c u l a .
The s i m i l a r i t i e s
o f th e two c o u r s e s are few i n number
and are r e f l e c t e d i n th e f o l l o w i n g :
m a ste r y o f th e m e c h a n ic a l
o p e r a t i o n o f th e m ach in e, p r o p e r s t r o k i n g t e c h n i q u e , s p a c in g
r u le s :, s y l l a b i c a t i o n , u s e o f e r a s e r , v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l
c e n t e r i n g , l e t t e r s t u d y , a d d r e s s in g e n v e l o p e s , and t a b u l a t i o n
a r r a n g e m e n t.
W hile th e c o n t e n t o f l e t t e r s t u d y i n th e two
courses' i s d i f f e r e n t , i t i s s i m i l a r as t o p la c em e n t and p a rts;.
The m a t e r i a l u s e d i n i l l u s t r a t i n g t a b u l a t i o n i s d i f f e r e n t ,
y e t th e p r o c e d u r e s f o r s e c u r i n g th e arrangem ent are s i m i l a r .
The d i f f e r e n c e s o f th e c o u r s e s are more numerous and
are found i n th e g e n e r a l o b j e c t i v e s , ty p e o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r ,
l e n g t h o f c o u r s e , sp ee d r e q u ir e m e n t, a c c u r a c y r e q u ir e m e n t,
method o f m o t i v a t i o n , y e a r i n w h ich p r e s e n t e d , method o f
p r e s e n t i n g th e keyboard and d e v e l o p i n g s k i l l , method o f
p r e s e n t i n g th e s u b j e c t m a t t e r , s t y l e s
o f l e t t e r s e m p h a siz e d ,
e n v e lo p e s t y l e s e m p h a siz e d , com posing a t th e m a ch in e , d e g r e e
of ta b u la tio n d i f f i c u l t y ,
and m a in t a in a c c u r a c y .
and d r i l l s u s e d t o d e v e lo p sp eed
19
TABLE I
PERSONAL USE AND VOCATIONAL TYPEWRITING
COMPARED AND CONTRASTED
S im ila r itie s
1 . M a stery o f th e m e c h a n ic a l
o p e r a t i o n o f th e machine
(a.) P a r t s o f machine
(b ) R e t u r n in g th e
c a r r ia g e
B. P rop er s t r o k i n g t e c h n iq u e
( a ) P o s i t i o n o f th e
hands
(b ) P o s i t i o n o f body
( c ) Method o f s t r i k i n g
th e keys
D iffer en ce s
1 . G en eral o b j e c t i v e s
3 . Type o f s u b j e c t m a tte r
3 . L en g th o f c o u r se
4 . Speed r e q u ir e m e n t
5 . A ccu racy req u ire m en t
6 . Method o f m o t i v a t i o n
7 . Year i n w h ich p r e s e n t e d
3 . S p a c in g r u l e s
4 . S y l l a b i c a t i o n o f words
8 . Method o f p r e s e n t i n g th e
k eyboard and d e v e lo p in g
sk ill
5 . Use o f e r a s e r .
6 . V e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l
c en te rin g
7 . L e tte r stu dy
( a ) P a r t s •o f th e
le tte r
(b ) P la cem en t and
arrangem ent
(e) S ty le s of le t t e r s
8 . A d d r e s s in g e n v e lo p e s
(a ) P la c em e n t and
arrangem ent
(b ) S t y l e s o f
addresses
9 . T a b u la t io n arrangem ent
(a ) Column s e t - u p
(b ) V e r t i c a l and
h o r izo n ta l p la c e ­
ment
9 . Method o f p r e s e n t i n g the
s u b j e c t m a tt e r
10* S t y l e s o f l e t t e r s em­
p h a s iz e d
: ( a ) S i n g l e and double
sp a c e d in d e n te d
(b ) S i n g l e sp a ce d b lo c k
1 1 . E n v elo p e s t y l e s s t r e s s e d
( a ) S i n g l e and double
sp a c e d in d e n t e d
( b ) S i n g l e sp a ce d b lo c k
1 3 . Composing a t the machine
1 3 . D egree o f t a b u l a t i o n d i f ­
fic u lty
1 4 . D r i l l s used t o d e v e lo p or
a c q u i r e sp ee d and m a in ta in
accuracy
20
SI MI LABI TIES
T ea ch in g o f th e b a s i c s k i l l s was s t r e s s e d i n b o th
eourses.
Eaeh c o u r se
p la c e d im p o r ta n c e on th e m a ste r y o f
m e c h a n ic a l o p e r a t i o n ,
th orou gh l e a r n i n g o f fu n d a m e n ta ls ,
and a e o r r e c t know ledge o f s t r o k i n g t e c h n i q u e ,
Bach c o u r se
em p h asized c o r r e c t p o s i t i o n o f body and h a n d s , p r o p e r method
o f s t r i k i n g k e y s , a u t o m a t i z a t i o n , r i g h t method o f making
c a p i t a l l e t t e r s , p r o p e r c a r r i a g e r e t u r n , and b e s t p o s i t i o n
o f book or c o p y .
M astery o f m e c h a n ic a l o p e r a t i o n o f th e m a c h in e .
In
th e ord er o f t h e i r u s e and im p o rta n ce th e m e c h a n ic a l p a r t s
o f th e t y p e w r i t e r were ta k e n up i n a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n i n e a ch
course.
The p a r t was
rea d y t o u s e i t .
n o t i n t r o d u c e d u n t i l th e s t u d e n t was
Each p a r t was t i t l e d and
u s e was n e c e s s a r y t o do th e work r e q u i r e d .
i l l u s t r a t e d as i t s .
For e x a m p le, i n
i n s e r t i n g th e p a p er th e s t u d e n t was r e q u ir e d t o become f a m i l ­
i a r w i t h th e f o l l o w i n g o p e r a t i n g p a r t s :
d e r , p ap er g u i d e , and c y l i n d e r k n o b s .
p ap er r e s t ,
c y lin ­
In s t r a i g h t e n i n g th e
p a p er he was r e q u ir e d t o a s s o c i a t e w i t h th e o p e r a t i o n th e
c a r r i a g e , l i n e s c a l e , and p a p er r e l e a s e l e v e r .
S p a c in g r u l e s ,
T y p e w r itin g a u t h o r i t i e s have drawn up
a d e f i n i t e s e t o f r u l e s f o r th e number o f s p a c e s t h a t f o l l o w
and eome b e f o r e a l l th e marks^ o f p u n c t u a t i o n .
T h erefore,
th e c o r r e c t s p a c in g b e f o r e and a f t e r a l l p u n c t u a t io n m arks,
a b b r e v i a t i o n s , f i g u r e s , s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r s , and b etw een p a r a ­
graphs o f s i n g l e and d o u b le a p a c e , was; i n ac co r d a n ce w it h th e
p r e s c r i b e d r u l e s i n t h e p e r s o n a l - u s e and v o c a t i o n a l c l a s s *
S y l l a b i c a t i on *
E n g l i s h u sa g e h a s e s t a b l i s h e d a s e t
o f r u l e s t h a t l u s t be f o l l o w e d when d i v i d i n g a word a t th e
end o f a l i n e , s o o f c o u r se th e i n s t r u c t i o n s i n s y l l a b i c a ­
t i o n i n th e two t y p e s o f c l a s s e s were i n a c co r d a n ce w it h
those r u l e s .
F or
a l i n e th e hyphen
sy lla b le *
ex a m p le, i n d i v i d i n g a word a t
th e end o f
i s alw ays p la c e d a t th e end o f a com p lete
S y lla b ic a tio n —not d e r iv a tio n — i s
be f o l l o w e d i n word d i v i s i o n .
th e sta n d a r d t o
One s y l l a b l e words; or w ords
pronounced as one
s y l l a b l e are n o t d i v i d e d .
n o t be c o m p l e t e ly
typ ed a t th e end o f a l i n e th e
i s c a r r i e d o v e r t o th e n e x t l i n e .
I f th e word can­
e n t i r e word
The s t u d e n t i n e i t h e r th e
p e r s o n a l - u s e or th e v o c a t i o n a l c l a s s was r e q u ir e d t o a s s o c i a t e
d i v i s i o n o f a word w i t h t h e s e r u l e s , and i n a l l i n s t a n c e s
where th e d i v i s i o n o f a word was n e c e s s a r y e a ch c o u r se p r e ­
s e n t e d s i m i l a r i n s t r u c t i o n on how t o d i v i d e i t
Use o f the e r a s e r *
c o r r e c tly .
B u s i n e s s e d u c a t o r s have d i f f e r e n t
i d e a s as t o when th e c o r r e c t t e a c h i n g o f th e e r a s e r sh o u ld
be g i v e n or w h eth er i t
in g ty p e w r itin g .
sh o u ld be p r e s e n t e d a t a l l when t e a c h ­
Sm ith says;, ^The s t u d e n t , d u r in g th e c o u r se
o f h i s t r a i n i n g , s h o u ld be t o l d about th e w ide sp re a d d i f f e r ­
e n c e o f o p in io n w i t h r e s p e c t t o when and where th e e r a s e r i s
22
p e r m issib le * ^
Even though t h e r e i s a d i f f e r e n c e o f o p i n io n ,
a l l t e a c h e r s o f p e r s o n a l - u s e and v o c a t i o n a l t y p e w r i t i n g w i l l
a g r e e t h a t th e s t u d e n t s h o u ld a t some tim e d u r in g th e c o u r se
be c o r r e c t l y i n s t r u c t e d i n th e p r o p e r method t o u s e th e
e r a s e r on b o th o r i g i n a l and carbon copies;*
T h e r e f o r e , th e
t e c h n iq u e t o u s e i n o r d e r t o s e c u r e th e b e s t r e s u l t s when
e r a s i n g was ta u g h t i n a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n i n b o th th e p e r s o n a l u s e and v o c a t i o n a l c l a s s .
E r a s in g was p r e s e n t e d e a r l i e r and
u s e d more o f t e n i n th e p e r s o n a l - u s e c o u r s e .
V e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l c e n t e r i n g and t a b u l a t i o n *
S i m i l a r i n s t r u c t i o n s were g i v e n i n b o th c o u r s e s as t o v e r t i ­
c a l and h o r i z o n t a l c e n t e r i n g — p l a c i n g or c e n t e r i n g any l e n g t h
o f l i n e on th e page s o t h a t th e r i g h t and l e f t m argin s were
e q u a l — p l a c i n g v e r t i c a l l y a l i n e or an a r t i c l e
on a page s o
th e b ottom and to p s p a c e s w ere o f e q u a l l e n g t h , . u s i n g on eh a lf,
t w o - t h i r d s , or a f u l l p a g e — t y p i n g a r t i c l e s on a
page s o th e l e f t and r i g h t margins, were about th e same
w i d t h , u s i n g a m achine h a v in g p i c a or e l i t e
ty p e.
S tu d en ts
o f b o th c l a s s e s were ta u g h t t o e x e r c i s e m a th e m a tic a l c a l c u ­
l a t i o n s b e f o r e p l a c i n g a s t a t e m e n t c o n t a i n i n g many columns
on a s h e e t s,o th e page w o u ld , as n ea r as p o s s i b l e , have th e
ap p earan ce o f a p i c t u r e w i t h i n s. frame*
1 H arold H. S m ith , ^B outine f o r T y p i s t s , fT B u s in e s s
E d u c a tio n W orld, 2 0 : 5 6 7 , March, 1 9 4 0 .
23
L etter stu d y.
S i m i l a r i n s t r u c t i o n s were g i v e n i n p r e ­
s e n t i n g parts: o f a l e t t e r ,
The s t u d e n t s i n b o th c l a s s e s
were r e q u ir e d t o p l a c e th e l e t t e r on a s h e e t s o th e page
would as n e a r aa p o s s i b l e , have a p i c t u r e - l i k e a p p e a r a n c e ,
M d r essin g e n v e lo p e s,
A ccu racy o f name and a d d re ss
was g i v e n e q u a l im p o rta n ce i n e a c h c o u r se and th e c o r r e c t
method o f p l a c i n g th e v a r io u s' p a r t s o f a d d resses; w ere sim ­
i l a r l y e x p la in e d .
Four addresss s t y l e s : are i n u s e i
d o u b le -
sp a ce d in d e n t e d , s i n g l e - s p a c e d i n d e n t e d , d o u b le - s p a c e d b l o c k ­
e d , and s i n g l e - s p a c e d b l o c k e d .
F or e v e r y t y p e o f a d d r e ss
t y p i s t s i n e i t h e r s tu d y group were r e q u ir e d t o know how t o
p l a c e th e a d d r e ss c o r r e c t l y on th e e n v e l o p e ,
diffsebjmces
O b je ctiv es,
The im m ediate o b j e c t i v e o f th e p e r s o n a l -
u s e t y p e w r i t i n g c o u r se was t o t e a c h i n a minimum o f tim e
t h o s e u s e s o f th e t y p e w r i t e r e v e r y o n e sh o u ld know f o r s c h o o l ,
home, and o t h e r p e r s o n a l n e e d s .
The c o u r se was o f f e r e d n o t
m e r e ly as a s k i l l s u b j e c t , b u t as- a m ost im p o r ta n t e d u c a t i o n ­
a l d e v ic e .
The o b j e c t i v e o f th e v o c a t i o n a l c o u r se was t o
p r e p a r e s t u d e n t s f o r o c c u p a t io n s i n th e realm o f commerce;:
t o t e a c h i n th e t y p e w r i t i n g c l a s s a l l p h a s e s o f m achine w r i t ­
i n g an o f f i c e w orker would be e x p e c t e d t o know; and t o
d e v e lo p s k i l l i n d o in g i t .
24
Type o f s u b j e c t - matfcer.
The s u b j e c t - m a t t e r o f th e
p e r s o n a l - u s e c o u r se was- d e s ig n e d t o g i v e enough form work
t o m eet th e n eed s o f th e i n d i v i d u a l s
own s c h o o l work, e x t r a
c u r r i c u l a a c t i v i t i e s , s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s , and home a c t i v i t i e s ] .
For t r a i n i n g as an a id t o s c h o o l work th e t y p i s t was asked
t o w r i t e themes;, book r e v i e w s , l i b r a r y r e a d in g n otes;, s p e l l ­
in g l i s t s ,
o u t l i n e s f o r n o te books and a v a r i e t y o f m a t e r i a l
t h a t would i n c l u d e a l l s c h o o l needs;.
The e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r
lessjons; r e q u ir e d th e w r i t i n g o f a r t i c l e s f o r th e s c h o o l
p a p e r , d e c la m a to r y c o n t e s t p a p e r s , t a k i n g o f minutes- o f
o r g a n i z a t i o n m eetin g s;, n o t i c e s f o r th e b u l l e t i n b o a r d , t y p ­
i n g p a r t s o f p l a y s f o r d r a m a t i c s , notes; f o r debate- s p e e c h e s ,
and o t h e r m a t e r i a l n e c e s s a r y t o g i v e th e s t u d e n t a w e l l
rounded e x p e r i e n c e *
The s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s i n c lu d e d i n s t r u c t i o n s
to w r ite g u est l i s t s ,
and a c c e p t a n c e n o tes-.
on how
c lu b program s, i n v i t a t i o n s , thank y o u ,
The home a c t i v i t y s t u d y ta u g h t th e
s t u d e n t t o w r i t e su ch m a t t e r s as; p e r s o n a l l e t t e r s , i n d i v i d ­
u a l ’ s own b u sin e ss - l e t t e r s ,
l e t t e r s of a p p lic a tio n , p o s ta l
c a r d s , r e c i p e s , p e r s o n a l c h e c k s , notes- and r e c e i p t s , and
h o u s e h o ld budgets-.
The p e r s o n a l - u s e c o u r se c o n t a in e d a w id e v a r i e t y o f
m a te r ia l.
The l e s s o n s were d e s i g n e d t o d e v e lo p p e r s o n a l
a p p l i c a t i o n s r a t h e r th an m a n i p u l a t iv e s k i l l .
The v o c a t i o n a l
c l a s s so u g h t t o g e t th e s t u d e n t t o produ ce th e ty p e o f work
25
a c t u a l l y r e q u ir e d i n b u s i n e s s o f f i c e s a s r
b u sin ess l e t t e r s ,
rough d r a f t s i , s t a t e m e n t s , i n v o i c e s , t a b u l a t i o n a r r a n g e m e n ts,
p a y r o l l s , m a n u s c r ip t s , t e l e g r a m s , p o s t cards and l e g a l d ocu ­
m ents’*
T ab le I I summarizes’ th e f i r s t s e m e s t e r a c t i v i t i e s
of
t h e p e r s o n a l - u s e and v o c a t i o n a l t y p e w r i t i n g groups-.
Length o f c o u r s e .
n o t a l l b u s i n e s s educators; are
a g r e e d as t o th e e x a c t tim e need ed t o produce th e m ost
e f f e c t i v e r e s u l t s i n e i t h e r th e p e r s o n a l - u s e or th e v o c a ­
t i o n a l ty p e w r itin g c o u r se .
They g e n e r a l l y b e l i e v e , h o w ev e r,
t h a t t h o s e stu d e n ts- r e q u i r i n g s k i l l and know ledge f o r p e r ­
s o n a l - u s e o n ly can be t r a i n e d t o f i l l t h e i r n ee d s i n much
l e s s tim e th an t h o s e b e i n g t r a i n e d f o r o f f i c e w ork .
u s u a l v o c a t i o n a l c o u r se is- f o u r s e m e s t e r s i n l e n g t h .
The
S in c e
s t u d e n t s m ust be t r a i n e d f o r c a p a c i t y o u tp u t on d i f f e r e n t
ty p es of o f f i c e
j o b s , th e tim e r e q u ir e d t o m a s te r th e su b ­
j e c t i s c o n sid er a b ly lo n g e r .
B la c k s t o n e and Y e r ia n are among t h o s e who a g r e e t h a t
p e r s o n a l - u s e t y p e w r i t i n g can be s u c c e s s f u l l y ta u g h t i n one
sem ester.
I n c o n s i d e r i n g th e l e n g t h o f th e p e r s o n a l - u s e
c o u r se t h e y s t a t e d %
. . . The l e n g t h o f th e c o u r se may be one s e m e s t e r ,
or two s e m e s t e r s f o r t h o s e who have t h a t much tim e a v a i l ­
a b le and who d e s i r e t o d e v e lo p g r e a t e r s k i l l and l e a r n
more o f th e u s e f u l forms o f t y p i n g than can be ta u g h t i n
TABLE I I
26
ACTIVITIES OF PERSONAL USE AND
VOCATIONAL GROUPS THE FIRST SEMESTER
A c tiv ity
P e r so n a l-u se
L e a r n in g th e keyboard
P u n c tu a tio n
f i n g e r g y m n a s tic s
C e n t e r in g
T a b u la t in g f o r a paragraph
L o ck ed -k ey d r i l l
Timed t e s t s
R e p e titio n p r a c tic e
R em ed ial d r i l l s
Error a n a l y s i s
S y lla b ic a tio n
T ech niqu e d r i l l s
P e r s o n a l n o t e s and l e t t e r s
B u sin e ss l e t t e r s
Composing a t th e m achine
E r a s in g
T yp in g p e r s o n a l l e t t e r h ead s
Carbon c o p i e s
Crowding o r s p a c i n g i n l e t t e r s
A d d r e s s in g e n v e lo p e s
T a b u l a t io n s
Making an o u t l i n e
T yp in g themes
T yp in g c l a s s s c h e d u l e ca rd s
Composing and t y p i n g p o s t a l - c a r d s
Speed s e n t e n c e p r a c t i c e
P r e p a r in g m in u te s o f m e e t in g s
T yp in g p l a c e c a r d s
A lp h a b etic sen ten ce p r a c tic e
C o r r e c t i v e d r i l l p a ragra p h s
T yp in g b r id g e s c o r e c a r d s
T yp in g games and jo k e s
T yp in g i n v i t a t i o n s and an sw ers
T yp in g d i a r i e s , r e c i p e s , g r o c e r y l i s t s
Typing book r e f e r e n c e s
T yp in g t a b l e s o f c o n t e n t s
T yp in g m enus, p o s t e r s , t i t l e p a g e s
T yp in g p rogram s, p o e t r y , m a n u s c r ip ts
T yp in g p l a y d i a l o g u e
V o c a t io n a l
=
0
*
=
0
1
—
I
-
0
-
.
1
-
f
mm
*
*
I
0
-
0
-
4*
0
1
-
1
I
f
t
*
*
0
—
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
*
f
t
t
f
I*
N o te : E qual t r a i n i n g =; More t r a i n i n g
No t r a i n i n g o; Some t r a i n i n g -
o
0
o
0
0
0
0
27
p
one sem ester.**
Speed r e q u ir e m e n t.
Speed t r a i n i n g was a l a r g e p a r t
o f th e v o c a t i o n a l c o u r s e , and t h e p r o g r e s s o f th e s t u d e n t
was m o s t l y d e te r m in e d by th e number o f n e t words he was
a b le t o w r i t e , n o t from s t r a i g h t - c o p y , bu t from b u s i n e s s
l e t t e r s and rough d r a f t sr.*
From a s t u d y made by Oldham o f norms f o r t y p e w r i t i n g
s t u d e n t s , she s t a t e s , ^Students; o f f i r s t y e a r t y p e w r i t i n g
s h o u ld be a b le t o w r i t e n o t l e s s th an t w e lv e words p er min­
u t e a t th e end o f th e y e a r on b u sin e ss : l e t t e r s ? . ^
There was no sp ee d r eq u ire m en t i n th e p e r s o n a l - u s e
t y p i n g c o u r s e , r a t h e r th e s t u d e n t s w ere l e f t t o d e v e lo p th e
sp ee d needed f o r t h e i r own u s e *
A ccuracy r e q u ir e m e n t .
In c o n s i d e r i n g a c c u r a c y r e ­
q u ire m en ts i n t y p e w r i t i n g c o u r s e s , S c h n e id e r s a i d s
Modern t y p e w r i t i n g t e a c h e r s who are i n s t r u c t i n g s k i l l
c l a s s e s are b r e a k in g w i t h th e t r a d i t i o n a l fp e r f e c t c o p y 1
req u irem en ts;. In p e r s o n a l - u s e t y p e w r i t i n g , h o w ev e r, th e
t e a c h e r s must even go f u r t h e r , a c c u r a c y may r i g h t l y be
c o n s id e r e d as an outcome o f p r o p e r i n s t r u c t i o n a l
% E . G. B la c k s t o n e and C. T. Y e r ia n , T y p e w r itin g
f o r P e r s o n a l Use • (jMew York?; Gregg P u b l i s h i n g Company,
1937), p . i i .
3 Grace Oldham, ^Colorado Speed worms: f o r T y p e w r itin g
Students; o f t h e ,S e c o n d and F o u rth S e m e s t e r , n ( u n p u b lis h e d
M a s t e r f s t h e s i s , C olorado S t a t e C o l l e g e , G r e e l e y , C o lo r a d o ,
193 6), p . 107.
28
tec h n iq u es; and p r o p e r p r a c t i c e p e r i o d s . I t has- alw ays
seemed t o th e w r i t e r t h a t s t u d e n t s have a d e s i r e t o
w r i t e t h e i r l e s s o n s w i t h as- few m istakes- as p o s s i b l e .
Hie problem o f a c c u r a c y i s ta k e n care o f i f t h i s t e n ­
d en cy i s p r o p e r ly d e v e l o p e d . ^
Method o f m o t i v a t i o n .
To in d u c e th e v o c a t i o n a l s t u ­
d e n t t o d e v e lo p sp e e d and accuracy^ th e c o u r se s t r e s s e d th e
need o f h i g h e f f i c i e n c y on th e p a r t o f a t y p i s t who w ish ed
t o compete f o r a p o s i t i o n i n th e b u sin ess: f i e l d .
I n r e s p e c t t o th e a c t u a l d u tie s ; o f th e t y p i s t s i n th e
b u sin e ss - o f f i c e s Gamer s t a t e d ;
The c o n c e p t sh o u ld be b u i l t t h a t i t i s an ev er y d a y
o f f i c e o c cu re n c e f o r an em p loyer t o s a y t o a t y p i s t ,
’W i l l you copy t h i s and have i t on my d e sk i n te n
m i n u t e s ? ’ or ’L et me have f i v e copies: o f t h i s m a n u sc rip t
b e f o r e you l e a v e t o d a y . ’ The em ployee who f a i l s t o meet
su ch demands i s a so u r c e o f annoyance and d is a p p o in tm e n t
t o h i s em p loyer and u l t i m a t e l y th e r e s u l t s ; are u n f a v o r ­
a b le t o h i m s e l f .5
The p e r s o n a l - u s e s t u d e n t s were s t i m u l a t e d by a c o u r se
w h ich d e v e lo p e d i n t e r e s t and provoked th o u g h t and w h ich
p e r m it t e d them t o b e g in p u t t i n g t h e i r t h o u g h t s on p ap er as
so o n as: th e keyboard was l e a r n e d .
Wood, i n s p e a k in g o f
m o t i v a t i o n r e c e i v e d from d o in g th e ty p e o f work i n th e
p e r s o n a l - u s e c o u r s e , s a i d , ftThose s t u d e n t s wanted t o typ e
4 A. E . S c h n e i d e r , %ew V iew points; on th e P e r s o n a l
T y p e w r itin g C o u r s e , J o u r n a l o f B u s i n e s s E d u c a t i o n , 1 4 ; 2 1 ,
J a n u a ry , 1939*
5 A d e lin e Gamer, nA p p r e n t ic e s h ip i n T y p in g , n B u s in e s s
E d u c a tio n W orld, 2 0 r 3 7 5 , J a n u a ry , 1 9 4 0 .
29
le tte r s,
term p a p e r s , and c l a s s n o t e s .
S u b c o n scio u sly th ey
r e s e n t e d th e d r i l l s and th e te c h n iq u e e x e r c i s e s
More freedom and i n v e n t i v e power c o u ld be e x e r c i s e d
by th e c la s s r o o m t e a c h e r i n th e p e r s o n a l - u s e c o u r se than by
th e v o c a t i o n a l t e a c h e r , s i n c e much o f t h e “s u b j e c t - m a t t e r o f
t h e p e r s o n a l - u s e c o u r se i s
itie s
c o n n e c te d w i t h th e p r e s e n t a c t i v ­
o f th e s t u d e n t * s e v e r y day l i f e .
Year i n w h ich p r e s e n t e d .
The m ost e f f e c t i v e y e a r t o
p r e s e n t th e p e r s o n a l - u s e or th e v o c a t i o n a l c o u r se i s y e t a
d e b a t a b le s u b j e c t .
The tr e n d seems t o be toward o f f e r i n g
th e p e r s o n a l - u s e c o u r se e a r l y i n th e s t u d e n t ’ s s c h o o l l i f e
and t o p o stp o n e th e v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g u n t i l th e s t u d e n t
i s more m atu re, or t o p r e s e n t i t a t su ch a tim e t h a t the
s t u d e n t w i l l co m p lete th e c o u r se j u s t b e f o r e he i s read y
f o r em ploym ent.
O d e ll and S te w a r t i n c o n s i d e r i n g t y p e w r i t i n g i n th e
ju n io r h ig h sc h o o l m a in ta in e d 5
T y p e w r itin g h a s no j u s t i f i c a t i o n i n th e n i n t h grade
as d i r e c t v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g and i s t h e r e f o r e n o t r i g h t ­
f u l l y a p a r t o f a v o c a t i o n a l com m ercial c o u r s e , nor
s h o u ld i t s aim be i n any s e n s e d i r e c t l y p r e p a r a to r y t o
any s e n i o r h i g h com m ercial c o u r s e . The o b j e c t i v e of
th e n i n t h grade c o u r se s h a l l be b a s e d upon th e p e r s o n a l u s e aim , and t h o s e s t u d e n t s who e x p e c t t o p u r s u e a com­
m e r c i a l c o u r se i n s e n i o r h i g h sh o u ld be c o u n s e le d out o f
6 E t h e l Wood, ^ P e r s o n a l T y p e w r it in g , n B a la n c e S h e e t ,
19 * 1 5 2 , December, 1 9 3 7 .
ju n io r ty p e w r itin g .
7
I n some s c h o o l s p e r s o n a l - u s e t y p e w r i t i n g i s ta u g h t
i n th e s e v e n t h grade and t h e r e i s a tr e n d toward making i t
a r e q u ir e d s u b j e c t i n one o f th e j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l g r a d e s .
Method o f p r e s e n t i n g th e keyboard and d e v e l o p i n g s k i l l .
I n th e p e r s o n a l - u s e c o u r se th e home p o s i t i o n was f i r s t
t a u g h t ; th en th e f i r s t f i n g e r s f and
p r a c tic e d .
w@re in t r o d u c e d and
M. b la n k keyboard c h a r t was g i v e n and new k e y s
were i n t r o d u c e d and l e f t on th e c h a r t u n t i l th e e n t i r e k e y ­
board was: i n t r o d u c e d .
Ih e p o s i t i o n o f each new l e t t e r was;
l e a r n e d i n r e l a t i o n t o i t s home k e y , and w i t h th e one e x c e p ­
t i o n o f th e l e t t e r a , th e keyboard was le a r n e d from th e c en ­
t e r outwards], th e s t r o n g e s t fin g e r s : b e in g u sed f i r s t .
Three and sometimes, f o u r new l e t t e r s were i n t r o d u c e d i n one
le sso n .
I n th e v o c a t i o n a l c o u r s e , as soon as the s t u d e n t
had e s t a b l i s h e d th e home k e y p o s i t i o n , he began t o w r i t e
w o r d s, th e em phasis b e in g on words r a t h e r than s t r o k e s .
A
b la n k k eyboard was shown, i l l u s t r a t i n g th e c o r r e c t f i n g e r
rea c h e s;.
I n o r d e r t o a c q u ir e th e p r o p e r r ea c h and s t r o k e
a l o c k e d - k e y d r i l l was u s e d f r e q u e n t l y .
Method o f p r e s e n t i n g th e s u b j e c t - m a t t e r .
Ih e
O d e ll and S t u a r t , ^ T y p e w ritin g i n th e J u n io r G r a d e s ,”
B ia tio n a l B u s in e s s E d u c a tio n Q u a r t e r l y , 7 : 3 7 , O cto b er , 1 9 3 8 .
31
d i f f e r e n c e i n th e method o f p roced u re o f th e two c o u r s e s was
in te r e stin g .
The p a th s t o t y p in g power ta k e n i n th e c o u r s e s
a f t e r th e keyboard was le a r n e d seldom met and n e v e r c r o s s e d .
In th e p e r s o n a l - u s e c o u r se i n t e r e s t i n g m a t e r i a l s were i n t r o ­
duced as so o n as th e p u p i l s had s p e n t t h r e e weeks l e a r n i n g
th e k eyboard*
The m a t e r i a l d id n o t f o l l o w a p r e - d e s i g n e d
s e q u e n c e , r a t h e r i t was in tr o d u c e d as i t
work o f o t h e r c l a s s e s .
c o r r e l a t e d w i t h th e
I n th e v o c a t i o n a l c o u r se t h e r e was
a ste a d y c o n tin u a l d r iv e f o r g r e a te r s k i l l , g r e a te r accu ra c y , g r e a t e r c o n s i s t e n c y o f perform ance*
I n th e v o c a t i o n a l p roced u re th e work was o r g a n iz e d
a lo n g d e f i n i t e w o rk -o u t assig n m en ts, and c o n t a in e d many s k i l l
d e v e lo p m en t d r i l l s
and tasks;:;
m a n ip u la t iv e d r i l l s ,
correc­
t i v e d r i l l s e n t e n c e s , memorized s e n t e n c e s and p a ra g ra p h s
composed o f a l p h a b e t i c paragraphs e m p h a s iz in g a p a r t i c u l a r
l e t t e r , and a g r e a t d e a l o f p r a c t i c e m a t e r i a l e s p e c i a l l y d e ­
s i g n e d and cou n ted f o r tim in g p u rp o ses*
In th e p e r s o n a l - u s e c la ss: th e e x e r c i s e s were s h o r t ,
o n ly one o f th e f i r s t tw e n ty c o n t a i n i n g as many as n in e l i n e s .
Some m a t e r i a l was p r o v id e d f o r tim ed w r i t i n g i n t h e l a t t e r
h a l f o f th e book b u t the em phasis th r o u g h o u t was on p e r s o n a l ,
a p p l i c a t i o n s r a t h e r than s k i l l d e v e lo p m e n t.
I n th e p e r s o n a l
method o n l y one ty p e o f work was i n c lu d e d i n a l e s s o n , th e
a s s ig n m e n t s v a r i e d i n l e n g t h , and t h e r e were few fo rm a l
d r ills* .
32
The v o c a t i o n a l sy s te m hammered s k i l l d evelop m en t and
th e o t h e r c o u r se p e r s o n a l a p p l i c a t i o n .
S t y l e s o f l e t t e r s e m p h a s iz e d .
I n th e p e r s o n a l - u s e
c o u r se o n ly th e p o p u la r s t y l e s o f l e t t e r s were g i v e n — th e
.
s i n g l e - s p a c e d i n d e n t e d , d o u b le - s p a c e d i n d e n t e d , and s i n g l e sp a ce d b l o c k e d .
I n th e v o c a t i o n a l c o u r s e th e s t u d e n t was
r e q u ir e d t o know a l l o f th e above s t y l e s and th e v a r i a t i o n s
of le t t e r s t y le s .
He a l s o was: r e q u ir e d t o u s e and p l a c e
e f f e c t i v e l y any it e m c o n n e c te d w it h th e i n s i d e a d d r e ss or
o t h e r p a r t s o f th e l e t t e r .
The p e r s o n a l - u s e c o u r s e so u g h t
t o t e a c h th e s t u d e n t t o u se a few s t y l e s f o r h i s p e r s o n a l
a p p l i c a t i o n , w h il e th e v o c a t i o n a l aim was t o t e a c h th e
s t u d e n t t o m easure up t o th e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f th e b u s i n e s s
o ffic e .
Composing a t th e m a c h in e .
To t h i n k and compose a t
th e machine was t a u g h t i n th e p e r s o n a l - u s e c o u r s e , w h il e
th e v o c a t i o n a l c o u r se d e v e lo p e d th e a b i l i t y t o ty p e a c c u r ­
a t e l y and r a p i d l y th e ty p e o f work r e q u ir e d i n th e b u s i n e s s
o ffic e .
Throughout th e p e r s o n a l - u s e c o u r s e th e s t u d e n t was
a sk ed t o compose l e t t e r s : ,
and n o t e s a t t h e m achine i n order
t o h a b i t u a t e him t o th e p r a c t i c e o f t h i n k i n g and composing
as he typ ed so he would n o t n eed t o w r i t e out h i s p a p e r s i n
longhand and th e n copy them on th e m a c h in e .
33 •
D egree o f t a b u l a t i o n d i f f l o u l t y .
I n th e p e r s o n a l -
u s e c o u r se a l l t a b u l a t e d m a t e r i a l was r e l a t e d t o home or
school a c t iv it ie s
or was o f g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t .
b a s k e tb a ll sc h e d u le, a l i s t
There was a
o f p o s i t i o n s o b ta in e d by g r a d ­
u a t e s o f c o l l e g e s , and s e v e r a l t y p i c a l tim e budgets? o f boys
and g i r l s ' .
B ecau se o f l a c k o f tim e th e t a b u l a t i o n s were o f
a s im p le t y p e .
Toward th e end o f th e v o c a t i o n a l c o u r se th e
t a b u l a t i o n a ss ig n m e n ts were o f a somewhat complex: n a tu r e
su ch
as th e making o f a p a y r o l l .
D r i l l s . used t o d e v e lo p or a c q u ir e sp eed and m a in t a in
accuracy.
I n th e p e r s o n a l - u s e c o u r se th e e x e r c i s e s were s h o r t
o n ly one o f th e f i r s t tw e n ty c o n t a in e d a s many as n in e l i n e s .
The e x e r c i s e s ; i n th e v o c a t i o n a l c o u r se c o n ta in e d a few l i n e s
i n th e f i r s t e x e r c i s e s ; , b u t towards; th e se co n d week o f th e
f i r s t s e m e s t e r th e e x e r c i s e s w ere lo n g i n v o l v i n g num erals and
s y m b o ls .
d r ills;,
The v o c a t i o n a l c o u r s e employed many m a n ip u la t iv e
c o r r e c t i v e d r i l l s e n t e n c e s , and memorized sentences?
and a l p h a b e t i c paragraphs; e m p h a s iz in g a p a r t i c u l a r l e t t e r .
I n th e v o c a t i o n a l c o u r se much o f th e p r a c t i c e m a t e r i a l was
c o u n ted f o r tim in g p u r p o s e s , b u t i n th e p e r s o n a l - u s e c o u r se
some
m a t e r i a l was p r o v id e d f o r tim ed
w r itin g in th e l a t t e r
h a lf
o f th e b o o k . M. s e t o f r e m e d ia l d r i l l s ; was
g i v e n i n th e
p e r s o n a l - u s e c o u r se i n v o l v i n g a s e t o f e x e r c i s e s ' c o n t a i n i n g
e a ch l e t t e r o f th e a l p h a b e t .
a ly sis
I n b o th c o u r s e s an e r r o r an­
c h a r t was u s e d f o r r e c o r d in g e r r o r s #
CHAPTER I I I
EXPLANATION AND RESULTS OF FIRST SEMESTER TESTS
I t was th e purpose o f t h i s c h a p t e r t o compare th e
a c h ie v e m e n ts o f th e e x p e r im e n t a l and c o n t r o l c l a s s e s on
m a t e r i a l s common t o b o th g ro u p s; t o i l l u s t r a t e and d e s c r i b e
th e manner i n w h ich th e t e s t s were g i v e n ; t o a n a ly z e th e
know ledge and s k i l l t e s t s g iv e n t o th e e x p e r im e n t a l and con­
t r o l g r o u p s , and t o draw c o n c l u s i o n s as t o p o s s i b l e t r a n s f e r .
B a s i s o f c o m p a r is o n .
in th ree s c h o o ls .
The e x p e r im e n t was c a r r ie d out
The s c h o o l s h e r e a f t e r w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o
as S c h o o l A, S c h o o l B, and S c h o o l C.
I n S c h o o l A and S c h o o l
B th e s t u d e n t s were a l l o f e l e v e n t h grade l e v e l ; i n S c h o o l
C t h e y w ere o f t w e l f t h grade l e v e l .
S c h o o l A met f i v e t im e s
a w eek, f i f t y - t h r e e m in u te s ea ch day f o r one hundred and
se v e n ty -fiv e days.
S c h o o l B met f i v e t i m e s a w eek, f o r t y -
f i v e m in u tes each day f o r one hundred and s e v e n t y - f i v e d a y s .
S c h o o l C met f i v e t im e s a w eek, f o r o n ly o n e - h a l f h o u r each
day f o r one hundred and s e v e n t y - e i g h t d a y s .
E q u a l i z i n g th e g r o u p s .
At th e b e g i n n in g o f th e
s c h o o l y e a r i n o r d e r t o e q u a l i z e th e groups i n e a ch s c h o o l
an i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t was g i v e n .
^Henmon-Nelson T e s t s o f
M ental A b i l i t y , ** e s p e c i a l l y d e s ig n e d t o m easure th e m en ta l
a b i l i t y o f s t u d e n t s i n j u n i o r and s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s or i n
35
g r a d e s s e v e n t o t w e l v e , f u r n i s h e d th e b a s i s f o r e q u a l i z i n g
and a d j u s t i n g th e r e s p e c t i v e groups*
Q u e s tio n s o f s u f f i c i e n t
v a r i e t y t o m easure v a r io u s t y p e s o f a b i l i t i e s were c o n t a in e d
i n th e t e s t .
The tim e l i m i t was t h i r t y m i n u t e s .
S c o r in g was done
by th e Clapp-Young s e l f - m a r k i n g d e v i c e , w h ich was c o n v e n ie n t
and e a s y t o f o l l o w .
T able I I I summarizes th e i n t e l l i g e n c e r a t i n g s o f th e
s t u d e n t s a s s i g n e d t o th e v a r io u s groups.*
I t was a p p a r e n t
t h a t one group m ight h av e a somewhat h i g h e r median and I . Q .
th an th e o t h e r g r o u p .
P re c a u tio n s; were ta k e n t o s e e t h a t
t h e m edians and I . Q . f s o f e a ch group i n th e s c h o o l v a r i e d
b y n o t more th an two or t h r e e p o in t s '.
I t was th e aim o f
th e i n v e s t i g a t o r t o a d j u s t th e groups w i t h i n th e s c h o o l
and e q u a l i z e , as n e a r l y as p o s s i b l e , a l l e x p e r im e n t a l and
c o n tr o l groups.
Types o f t e s t s u s e d .
JHt th e l a t t e r p a r t o f th e
f i r s t s e m e s t e r s e v e r a l t e s t s were g i v e n t h a t would f u r n i s h
some i d e a as t o th e a b i l i t y o f th e e x p e r im e n t a l and c o n t r o l
groups t o do f i r s t s e m e s t e r w ork.
e r i a l s common t o b o th g ro u p s*
The t e s t s were on mat­
S p a c in g r u l e s , s y l l a b i c a t i o n ,
v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l c e n t e r i n g o f a r t i c l e s , and s t r a i g h t copy m a t e r i a l were t e s t e d .
t h e s e t e s t s , are unknown.
The r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y o f
I t was i m p o s s i b l e to f i n d a v a r i e t y
TABLE I I I
COMPARISON OP I . Q . » S AND SCORES OP STUDENTS IN EACH GROUP
I .Q .
E
School A
S
I.Q . S
I
C
C
129
110
107
106
106
106
105
104
104
103
102
102
102
93
93
91
90
89
89
87
85
78
76
68
74
61
61
54
60
60
58
53
56
54
52
52
52
41
41
39
38
36
36
33
30
20
18
11
114
113
110
109
106
105
103
102
101
101
101
99
98
98
98
97
97
97
96
94
93
93
91
91
64
63
60
62
50
51
53
51
50
50
48
48
48
46
45
47
41
44
44
43
38
36
39
39
I .Q .
E
School B
S
I .Q . S
E
C
C
109
107
106
105
105
104
104
102
102
102
102
101
99
98
98
98
98
97
93
93
90
90
90
89
89
85
82
74
65
62
57
57
57
56
49
48
52
51
52
48
48
46
45
46
47
43
41
41
37
38
38
36
34
27
25
16
125
111
108
106
106
104
103
101
101
101
99
98
98
98
94
94
94
94
92
90
90
88
87
87
86
86
78
65
60
59
56
53
53
48
48
50
48
47
46
47
42
42
42
43
40
37
38
35
34
31
32
32
I.Q .
‘ I
122
109
107
107
106
105
105
105
103
103
103
102
102
102
102
99
98
98
99
98
98
98
94
94
93
93
91
90
90
86
84
83
81
I .Q . - S c h o o l A E x p e r im e n ta l s 1 0 0 .8 3 C o n t r o l s
w
t»
"
9 8 .3 3
B
*?
"
9 8 .3 5 7
C
School C
S
I.Q . S
E
C
C
75
65
62
62
60
58
58
58
53
54
54
53
51
52
52
48
47
47
48
47
48
47
43
43
41
41
39
37
38
32
28
27
23
122
115
113
110
108
107
106
106
105
105
104
103
103
103
102
102
101
99
98
98
97
96
94
93
93
94
90
90
88
87
84
83
74
9 9 .3 7 5
9 6 .0 0
1 0 0 .5 0
*N ote: The d a ta r e p r e s e n t th e " I . Q . ’ s** and s c o r e s
f o r e a ch o f t h e d i f f e r e n t groups a f t e r th e n e c e s s a r y
a d ju s tm e n ts were made t o e q u a l i z e th e groups*
75
69
68
66
63
.61
58
58
58
58
55
53
54
53
52
52
49
48
47
48
47
44
44
41
41
43
38
38
35
34
28
26
16
37
o f t e s t s w i t h th e r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y e s t a b l i s h e d .
C orrect s p a c in g ,
l i f t e r p la n n ed t e a c h i n g , a f a l s e and
t r u e t e s t on c o r r e c t s p a c i n g was g i v e n .
The s t u d e n t was
i n s t r u c t e d t o draw a c i r c l e around th e T im m e d ia te ly p r e c e d ­
i n g th e s t a t e m e n t i f i t were t r u e , and t o draw a c i r c l e
around th e F i f I t were f a l s e .
Twenty q u e s tio n s : c o v e r in g
c o v e r in g p u n c t u a t io n m arks, i n d e n t i n g f o r a p a ra g ra p h , s p a c ­
i n g o f a r t i c l e s and s i g n s on th e to p row o f k e y s o f t h e
t y p e w r i t e r com prised th e t e s t .
T ab le IV c o n t a i n i n g th e r e s u l t s
o f T e s t I shows t h a t
s t u d e n t s i n b o th th e e x p e r im e n t a l and th e c o n t r o l groups had
b een e q u a l l y w e l l s c h o o le d on s p a c in g d r i l l s 1.
The e x p e r i ­
m e n ta l s t u d e n t s from S c h o o ls A. and B s l i g h t l y e x c e e d e d th e
r a t i n g s made by t h e c o n t r o l groups -
In S ch o o l C th e c o n tr o l
group s l i g h t l y e x c e e d e d th e e x p e r im e n t a l g r o u p .
The d i f f e r ­
e n c e i n combined s c o r e s b etw een th e e x p e r im e n t a l and c o n t r o l
groups was- o n ly *2S and t h e c r i t i c a l r a t i o
*70.
T h is d i f f e r ­
en c e o f c o u r se was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t s i n c e i n a l l t h r e e s c h o o l s
t h e d i f f e r e n c e was s o s m a l l t h a t no group i n d i c a t e d any ad­
v a n ta g e o v e r th e o t h e r .
S y lla b ic a tio n .
A f t e r c o n s i d e r a b l e i n s t r u c t i o n s on
th e r u l e s f o r th e c o r r e c t d i v i s i o n o f w ord s, a c o m p le tio n
t e s t was g i v e n .
T e s t I I was s e l e c t e d from D. D. L e s s e n b e r r y ! s
m
TABLE IY
COMPARISON OF SCORES ON CORRECT SPICING
Scores
20-E l
18 -1 9
1 6 -1 7
1 4 -1 5
■12-13
1 0 -1 1
8- 9
6- 7
4- 5
2- 3
0- 1
School A
E
C
7
8
8
2
1
6
3
9
1
2
1
1
T o t a l s 25
24
Mean 16*28 1 5 . 5 0
3 .3 2
S .D . 2 . 6 4
D.
.7 8
R a t io
.9 1
School B
E
C
4
9
6
3
2
3
8
9
4
1
24
1 5 .8 4
2 .3 0
25
1 5 .6 4
2 .0 2
.2 0
.3 2
Combined
1
C
School C
1
C
2
12
12
6
1
3
14
11
1
2
2
2
23
29
20
4
2
2
4
23
22
19
7
5
1
1
33
1 7 .4 8
1 .8 4
33
1 7 .5 4
2 .4 8
.0 6
.1 1
82
1 6 .6 4
2 .3 6
82
1 6 .3 6
2 .8 2
.2 8
.7 0
*N ote: The d a ta a r e th e number o f q u e s t io n s
c o r r e c t ou t o f a p o s s i b l e tw enty*
39
C o l l e g e T y p e w r itin g Text."*"
Q u e s tio n s r e q u i r i n g th e m a ste r y
o f r u l e s f o r d i v i s i o n o f words were c o n ta in e d i n th e t e s t *
The s t u d e n t s ’ were i n s t r u c t e d t o h y p h e n a te tw e n ty words;,
assum ing t h a t th e b e l l would r in g on the f i r s t l e t t e r o f
words c o n ta in e d i n group one* o n - t h e s i x t h l e t t e r o f words
i n group tw o, and on t h e f o u r t h l e t t e r o f words i n group
th ree•
T able V brings,’ t o v iew s i g n i f i c a n t p o i n t s w o rth y o f
c o n sid e r a tio n ;
(1 ) i n a l l s c h o o l s b o th groups r e c e i v e d a
r e l a t i v e l y low mean; (2 ) th e h i g h e s t s c o r e s ’ w ere made i n th e
same s c h o o l .
T able V shows i n T e s t I I th e e x p e r im e n t a l group e x ­
c e l l e d th e c o n t r o l group from S c h o o l A.
2 . 0 8 and th e r a t i o 2 . 3 1 .
The d i f f e r e n c e was
A ga in , i n S c h o o l C th e e x p e r im e n t a l
group e x c e e d e d th e c o n t r o l group w i t h a d i f f e r e n c e o f 1 .6 0
and a r a t i o o f 2 . 2 5 .
These d i f f e r e n c e s though n o t s i g n i f i ­
c a n t , n e v e r t h e l e s s , a r e a lm o st r e l i a b l e .
o p p o s i t e was fo u n d .
m e n ta l g r o u p .
I n S c h o o l B th e
The c o n t r o l group e x c e l l e d th e e x p e r i ­
The d i f f e r e n c e was 2 . 5 0 and th e r a t i o 3 . 0 0 .
T h is d i f f e r e n c e was r e l i a b l e .
The combined s c o r e was s l i g h t ­
l y b u t n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r f o r th e e x p e r im e n t a l g r o u p s .
S i n c e a l l groups r e c e i v e d a r e l a t i v e l y low grade on
1 D. D. L e s s e n b e r r y , C o l l e g e T y p e w r itin g ( C i n c i n n a t i :
S o u th -W e ste rn P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1 9 3 6 ) , p . 6 8 .
TABLE V
COMPARISON OF SCORES ON SYLLABICATION
Scores
School A
1
C
2 0-21
1 8 -1 9
1 6 -1 7
1 4 -1 5
1 2 -1 3
1 0 -1 1
8- 9
6- 7
4- 5
2- 3
0- 1
5
8
5
3
1
2
1
7
3
5
3
4
1
T o t a l s 24
24
Mean 1 3 ,5 8 1 1 .5 0
3 .3 2
S .D , 2 .9 2
D.
2 .0 8
R a t io
2 .3 1
School B
E
C
1
1
6
7
4
4
1
24
8 ,6 6
2 .8 4
1
1
1
4
9
5
3
24
1 1 .1 6
2 .8 8
2 .5 0
3 .0 0
School C
1
C
1
2
3
8
7
11
1
33
9 .6 6
2 .8 2
3
4
11
7
4
2
1
32
8 .0 6
3 .4 8
1 .6 0
2 .2 5
Combined
E
C
6
11
9
17
15
17
5
1
81
1 0 .5 0
3 .5 0
*N ote: The d a ta a r e th e number o f q u e s t io n s
c o r r e c t o u t o f a p o s s i b l e tw e n ty .
1
2
8
10
18
19
14
5
2
1
82
1 0 .0 2
3 .3 6
.4 8
.89
41
th e c o r r e c t s y l l a b i c a t i o n o f w o rd s, i t would seem th e c o u r se
o f s tu d y f o r b o th th e p e r s o n a l - u s e and v o c a t i o n a l c l a s s e s
s h o u ld c o n t a i n more l e s s o n s t o i n c r e a s e th e s t u d e n t ’ s a b i l i t y
in th is resp ect.
V e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l c e n t e r i n g o f a r t i c l e s .
im p o r ta n t it e m s were ta k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n :
Two
th e p l a c e ­
ment o f th e a r t i c l e 1, and t h e tim e r e q u ir e d t o co m p lete i t .
A mimeographed book o f t e s t s from E . G. B la ck s t o n e ’s p r i v a t e
l i b r a r y p r o v id e d th e b a s i s f o r s c o r i n g and g r a d in g T e s t s I I I ,
and IV .
For p la c em e n t s c o r i n g o f T e s t I I I ,
on v e r t i c a l and
h o r i z o n t a l c e n t e r i n g o f an a r t i c l e , an onion s k i n k e y was;
p la c e d s q u a r e l y o v e r th e s t u d e n t ’ s p a p er and checked f o r
errors.
I f any m argin or m a rg in s w ent beyond th e i n n e r l i n e
( to p or b o tto m , e i t h e r s i d e or b o th ) f i v e p o i n t s were d e ­
d u c te d ; i f beyond th e o u t e r l i n e , t e n p o i n t s were d e d u c te d ;
i f th e paragraphs w ere n o t in d e n te d f i v e s p a c e s , one p o i n t
f o r each e r r o r was deducted;; i f th e h e a d in g was n o t i n c a p i ­
t a l l e t t e r s - two p o i n t s were d e d u c te d ; i f th e a r t i c l e was n o t
d o u b le s p a c e d , two p o i n t s were d e d u c t e d .
d u c te d f o r each poor e r a s u r e .
One p o i n t was d e ­
A l l e r r o r s were t o t a l e d and
d e d u c te d from a p o s s i b l e s c o r e o f t w e n t y .
M l o p e r a to r s s t a r t e d a t th e same s i g n a l .
The t e a c h e r
p la c e d th e tim e on th e b la c k b o a rd a t t h e end o f each q u a r t e r
42
o f a m i n u t e ► When th e o p e r a to r f i n i s h e d , he lo o k e d a t th e
b la c k b o a r d t o f i n d th e tim e he to o k t o w r i t e th e t e s t .
H is
t y p i n g r a t e was found by u s i n g th e I n t e r n a t i o n a l R u les f o r
T y p e w r itin g e x c e p t t h a t th e l a s t d i v i s o r u sed was th e tim e
it
to o k him t o com p lete th e t e s t .
&L1 s t u d e n t s were p e r ­
m i t t e d t o f i n i s h r e g a r d l e s s o f th e tim e r e q u ir e d t o do s o .
Poor e r a s u r e s were p e n a l i z e d and co u n ted as e r r o r s .
Prom th e d a t a c o n t a in e d i n T able VI w h ic h g i v e s th e
r e s u l t s o f t h e a c c u r a c y o f p la cem en t f o r T e s t I I I , i t was
found t h a t th e combined s c h o o l s c o r e s were s l i g h t l y i n f a v o r
o f th e e x p e r im e n t a l g r o u p s .
r a tio 1 .0 7 .
The d i f f e r e n c e was .9 4 and th e
The v a r i a t i o n from th e mean was about th e same
f o r each g r o u p .
T h is d i f f e r e n c e was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t .
In
e xa m in in g th e sp e e d r a t i n g s f o r T e s t I I I i n T able V I o f the
combined s c h o o l s , i t shows t h a t th e c o n t r o l groups s l i g h t l y
b u t n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y e x c e e d e d th e e x p e r im e n t a l groups;.
The
d i f f e r e n c e was 2 .4 4 n e t w ord s p e r m in u te , and th e r a t i o
2 .4 9 .
V e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l c e n t e r i n g o f an a r t i c l e .
The
c o n t e n t f o r T e s t IV was s e l e c t e d from D. D. L e s s e n b e r r y fs
o
C o l l e g e T y p e w r itin g T e x t .
The i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r s c o r i n g
th e sp ee d r a t i n g s and th e a c c u r a c y o f p la c e m e n t o f T e s t IV
were e x a c t l y th e same as t h o s e f o r T e s t I I I .
2 I b i d . , p . 92
TABLE VI
COMPARISON OF SCORES ON VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL CENTERING
Scores
20-21
1 8 -1 9
1 6 -1 7
1 4 -1 5
1 2 -1 3
1 0 -1 1
8- 9
6- 7
4- 5
2- 3
0- 1
School A
E
C
9
6
5
3
School B
1
C
10
2
5
1
2
2
5
1
10
2
2
2
1
3
T o t a l s 25
22
Mean 1 8 . 2 0 1 7 .1 0
S .D . 3 . 0 0
4 .0 6
D.
1 .1 0
R a t io
1 .0 6
26
9 .4 6
4 .3 8
2
4
13
2
1
3
1
2
26
9 .5 4
3 .9 4
.0 8
.07
School C
1
C
6
4
6
4
1
3
3
2
1
2
32
1 2 .4 4
5 .5 0
2
3
6
6
4
3
2
3
1
3
33
1 1 .3 0
5 .5 4
1 .1 4
.8 3
Combined
E
C
9
12
9
14
5
13
5
5
4
2
5
83
1 3 .2 4
5 .6 4
12
5
15
7
19
7
3
6
2
5
81
1 2 .3 0
5 .5 6
.9 4
1 .0 7
*N ote: The d a ta a r e th e number o f p o in t s c o r r e c t
o u t o f a p o s s i b l e tw e n ty .
TABLE V II
COMPARISON OF NET WORDS ON VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL CENTERING
Net
Words
School A
TP
C
School B
B
C
School C
1
C
Combined
1
0
3 5 -3 9
1
1
3 0 -3 4 .
1
1
2 5 -2 9
2
1
1
2
1
3
4
20-24
3
3
1 5 -1 9
9
6
3
3
2
4
14
13
1 0-14
8
9
10
15
1
6
19
30
5- 9
4
2
12
6
27
6
43
14
0- 4
1
1
2
1
14
3
16
26
26
32
32
83
83
9 .0 0
1 1 . 67
7 .7 7
6 .67
9 .4 8
1 1 .9 2
5 .4 8
5 . 04
1 .4 9
5 .59
3 .6 1
3 .0 9
T o ta ls
25
25
Median 1 4 .6 9 1 5 .0 8
Q*D.
3 .7 0
4 .7 8
D.
.39
2 .67
1 .1 0
2 .4 4
R a t io
.1 8
.99
.5 8
2 .49
45
The s t u d e n t was i n s t r u c t e d t o s e t th e m a r g in a l s t o p s
f o r a s i x t y - s p a c e l i n e and to s e t th e s t o p s f o r a f i v e - s p a c e
paragraph i n d e n t a t i o n .
He was i n s t r u c t e d t o typ e th e t i t l e
o f th e theme i n c a p i t a l l e t t e r s , t o c e n t e r i t h o r i z o n t a l l y
and t o t r i p l e - s p a c e betw een th e t i t l e
th e theme*
and th e f i r s t l i n e o f
The rem aind er o f th e a r t i c l e was typed d o u b le
sp aced.
T able V III summarizes th e a c c u r a c y r a t i n g o f the
p la c e m e n t, and T able IX shows th e sp e e d r a t i n g s on th e t e s t .
I n exam in in g t h e s c h o o l s c o r e s , a g a in th e e x p e r im e n t a l
groups e x c e e d e d th e c o n t r o l groups on the a c c u r a c y o f p l a c e ­
m en t.
*79.
The d i f f e r e n c e on T e s t IV was o n l y *70 and th e r a t i o
On T e s t I I I ,
th e f i r s t c e n t e r i n g t e s t g i v e n , th e d i f f e r ­
en ce was .9 4 and th e r a t i o 1 .0 7 i n f a v o r o f th e e x p e r im e n t a l
groups..
T h erefo re, T ests I I I
and IV seemed t o i n d i c a t e
th at
th e e x p e r im e n t a l groups had a b e t t e r know ledge o f th e a r t o f
c e n t e r i n g than th e c o n t r o l g r o u p s .
The sp eed ratings^ showed t h a t th e e x p e r im e n t a l groups
e x ic e lle d th e c o n t r o l g r o u p s .
wnrds p e r m in u te .
r e lia b le .
The d i f f e r e n c e was 4 . 6 0 n e t
The r a t i o was 3 * 5 1 .
T h is d i f f e r e n c e was-
T e s t IV showed th e e x p e r i m e n t a l groups had g a in e d
5*94 n e t words p e r m inute s i n d e T e st I I I . .
rem ained abou t th e same as t h e y w e r e .
m en ta l groups g a in e d i n sp eed
The c o n t r o l groups
A lthou gh th e e x p e r i ­
t h e y were n o t as a c c u r a t e
p la c em e n t i n T e s t IV as t h e y w ere i n T e s t I I I .
on
In S c h o o l A t e s t IV showed th e e x p e r im e n t a l group
had g a in e d 3 . 3 7 n e t words p e r m in u t e .
The c o n t r o l group
rem ained ab ou t th e same as t h e y w ere i n T e s t I I I .
I n T e st
I I I th e e x p e r im e n t a l group e x c e l l e d bn th e a c c u r a c y o f
p la c e m e n t, b u t , t h e c o n t r o l group typ ed th e a r t i c l e f a s t e r .
In T e s t IV a f t e r f u r t h e r s t u d y o f c e n t e r i n g th e e x p e r im e n t a l
group n o t o n ly ty p e d th e a r t i c l e f a s t e r , but c e n t e r e d i t
more a c c u r a t e l y .
On T e s t IV i n S c h o o l B t h e r e was j u s t th e o p p o s i t e .
The c o n t r o l group s t i l l c o n t in u e d t o le a d i n b o th sp e e d and
accuracy.
However, n e i t h e r group showed any g a i n i n e i t h e r
sp eed or a c c u r a c y i n T e s t IV o v e r t h a t o f T e s t I I I .
I t was;
s u r p r i s i n g t h a t a f t e r f u r t h e r s t u d y o f th e a r t o f c e n t e r i n g ,
n e i t h e r group i n d i c a t e d any g a i n i n sp ee d or a c c u r a c y .
On T e s t IV i n S c h o o l C th e e x p e r im e n t a l group e x c e l l ­
ed th e c o n t r o l group on th e a c c u r a c y o f p la c e m e n t .
d i f f e r e n c e was 1 . 7 6 and th e r a t i o 1 . 2 1 .
On T e s t I I I
The
the
d i f f e r e n c e was 1 . 1 0 and th e r a t i o 1 .0 6 i n f a v o r o f th e e x ­
p e r im e n t a l g r o u p .
Even though t h e s e a p p a ren t d i f f e r e n c e s
ar e n o t d e c i s i v e o f tr u e d i f f e r e n c e s : , t h e y seem t o i n d i c a t e
th e e x p e r im e n t a l group had a s l i g h t l y b e t t e r know ledge o f
th e a r t o f c e n t e r i n g than th e c o n t r o l g r o u p s .
S t r a l g h t - copy m a t e r i a l .
str a ig h t-c o p y t e s t ,
At th e c o n c l u s i o n o f each
th e i n s t r u c t o r read th e t e s t , e a c h
TABLE V I I I
COMPARISON OF SCORES ON VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL CENTERING
Scores
2 0 -2 1
1 8 -1 9
1 6 -1 7
1 4 -1 5
1 2 -1 3
1 0 -1 1
8- 9
6- 7
4- 5
2- 3
0- 1
School A
E
C
11
4
8
School B
E
C
8
2
8
2
1
2
1
T o t a l s 25
22
Mean 1 7 .4 8 1 6 .5 4
4 .7 0
S .D . 3 . 8 8
.9 4
D.
.7 4
R a t io
School C
E
C
1
2
3
1
10
3
1
3
2
2
7
2
11
1
25
9 .0 0
4 .0 8
4
6
2
5
2
6
1
1
3
26
1 0 .8 4
3 .7 6
1 .8 4 .
1 .67
28
1 0 .6 4
5 .2 5
1
4
5
3
7
2
4
2
5
33
8 .8 8
5 .3 6
.7
6
1
1 .2 1
Combined
1
C
12
2
4
17
3
15
7
7
4
2
5
8
3
4
15
9
15
8
2
8
2
7
78
1 2 .3 0
5 .7 0
81
1 1 .6 0
5 .6 0
.7 0
.79
*N ote; The d a te a r e th e number o f p o i n t s c o r r e c t
o u t o f a p o s s i b l e tw e n ty .
48
TABLE IX
COMPARISON OF NET WORDS ON VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL CENTERING
Net
Words
School A
E
C
3 5 -3 9
1
School B
E
C
30-34
1
2 5 -2 9
1
1
20-24
7
3
1 5 -1 9
9
5
3
10-14
3
6
5- 9
2
0- 4
2
T o ta ls
25
School C
E
C
Combined
E
C
5
5
1
1
1
1
2
3
2
10
5
3
12
1
24
9
8
13
5
9
16
28
2
11
9
1
12
14
23
4.
3
1
2
8
7
13
25
26
28
33
78
81
Median l S . i 06 1 4 . 17
9 .3 2
1 1 .1 5
1 7 .5 0
8 .5 4
1 5 .4 2
1 0 .8 0
5 . 37
2 .7 5
2 .8 0
3 .8 3
6 .2 7
5 .0 1
3 .9 2
ft.D*
22
4.:LO
D.
3 .8 9
1. 83
8 .9 6
4 .6 0
R a t io
1 .4 8
1. 27
3 .6 8
•3 .5 1
49
s t u d e n t c h e c k in g h i s own p a p e r .
Jk thorough re c h e c k in g o f
th e t e s t was made by th e i n s t r u c t o r from th e d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l s .
$11 t e s t s r e c o r d e d i n th e t a b l e s were r e c h e c k e d a g a in by the
e x p e r im e n t e r .
The f i r s t s t r a i g h t - c o p y t e s t r e c o r d e d i n th e t a b l e s
was g i v e n d u r in g th e l a s t week o f .November, or a f t e r , tw e lv e
weeks o f s t u d y .
The t e s t was t e n m in u te s -lo n g .
^Student
T y p e w r itin g T e st f o r O ctob er, 1 9 3 7 , ” was u s e d .
T able X shows t h a t on T e s t V i n a l l s c h o o l s e x c e p t
one th e c o n t r o l groups were s l i g h t l y bu t n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y
b e t t e r i n b o th sp eed and a c c u r a c y on th e s t r a i g h t - c o p y t e s t .
The c o n t r o l groups typ ed th e t e s t 3 . 2 9 n e t words p e r m inute
f a s t e r th an th e e x p e r im e n t a l g r o u p s .
The s c o r e s f o r tw e n ty -
two s t u d e n t s from th e e x p e r im e n t a l groups w ere i n th e lo w ­
e s t i n t e r v a l as compared w i t h o n ly s i x from th e c o n t r o l
groups.
Two s t u d e n t s from th e c o n t r o l groups reach ed th e
30-34 i n t e r v a l .
The h i g h e s t i n t e r v a l r ea ch ed by any s t u ­
d e n t from th e e x p e r i m e n t a l groups was 2 5 - 2 9 .
The r e s u l t s
show th e c o n t r o l groups were r e a p in g the b e n e f i t s o f sp eed
d r i l l s g iv en p r e v io u s ly .
S t r a i g h t - copy m a t e r i a l .
The seco n d s t r a i g h t - c o p y
t e s t r ec o rd ed i n th e t a b l e s was g i v e n a t th e end o f the
f i r s t s e m e s t e r ( e i g h t e e n weeks o f s t u d y ) .
t e n m in u te s l o n g .
The t e s t was
^ T y p e w r itin g T e s t s ” p u b l i s h e d by L. C.
50
TABLE X
COMPARISON OF NET WORDS ON STRAIGHT COPY
Net
Words
School A
S
C
School 3
C
E
30-34
1
1
2 5 -2 9
1
20-24
5
1 5 -1 9
School C
E
C
Combined
G
E
2
2
1
2
1
5
2
4
2
2
3
5
10
11
8
4
3
5
3
3
14
12
10-14
4
9
6
10
4
9
14
28
5- 9
5
4
4
6
12
10
21
20
0- 4
2
11
1
9
5
22
6
28
26
33
33
86
81
13 .0 0
8 .1 3
10 .8 3
9 .2 1
1 2 .5 0
6 .4 6
5 .0 5
4 .8 1
8 .6 7
7 .1 3
T o ta ls
22
25
Median 1 5 .9 4 13 .9 0 8 . 7 5
Q,.D.
D.
R a tio
7 .2 9
4 .27 5 . 9 1
2 .0 4
4 .2 5
2 .7 0
3 .2 9
.6 4
1 .3 5
1 .4 1
1 .4 5
51
Sm ith and Corona T y p e w r ite r Company, iviovember, 1 9 3 0 , f u r ­
n is h e d th e b a s i s f o r comparing th e groups*
By th e end o f November, th e c o n t r o l groups were
t y p i n g 3 . 2 9 n e t words p e r m inute f a s t e r on s t r a i g h t - c o p y
th an th e e x p e r im e n t a l groups bu t a t the end o f t h e f i r s t
s e m e s t e r T able X" shows on T e s t VI t h e y were t y p i n g o n ly 1 . 8 2
n e t words p e r -m in u te f a s t e r than th e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s .
Or by th e end o f th e s e m e s t e r , th e e x p e r im e n t a l groups had
a g a in o f 7 . 1 0 n e t words p e r m in u te , w h i l e th e c o n t r o l groups
had g a in e d 5 .6 3 n e t words p e r m inute s i n c e th e November
test.
On T e s t VI T able XI shows e i g h t s t u d e n t s from th e
e x p e r im e n t a l groups p la c e d i n th e l o w e s t i n t e r v a l as com­
pared w i t h tw e n ty -tw o f o r th e November t e s t .
One s t u d e n t
from th e e x p e r i m e n t a l groups r ea ch ed th e 3 5 - 3 9 i n t e r v a l .
One s t u d e n t from th e c o n t r o l groups rea c h e d th e 4 0 -4 5 i n t e r ­
v a l , and e i g h t p la c e d i n th e l o w e s t i n t e r v a l ,
Even though
t h e s e ap p aren t s u p e r i o r i t i e s are n o t s i g n i f i c a n t , i t i n d i ­
c a t e s th e c o n t r o l groups had s l i g h t l y b e t t e r sp ee d r a t i n g s
on s t r a i g h t - c o p y m a t e r i a l ; and t h a t t h e y were 3ho?d.ng th e
r e s u l t s -of th e fo rm a l sp eed d r i l l s g i v e n th r o u g h o u t th e
s e m e s t e r , h o w e v e r , a t th e end o f th e s e m e s t e r th e d i f f e r e n c e
i n s c o r e s was n o t as pronounced as i t was i n th e November
T est.
TABLE XI
COMPARISON OF NET WORDS ON STRAIGHT COPY
N et
Words
School
E
A
0
School
E
B
C
School
1
4 0 -4 5
C
C
Combined
E
C
1
3 5 -3 9
1
1
3
2
5
3
6
8
4
1
30-34
1
3
2 5 -2 9
2
4
20-24
10
2
2
8
3
9
15
19
1 5-19
4
5
7
10
5
9
16 ’
24
10-14
4
3
5
5
8
3
17
11
5- 9
1
1
7
1
5
3
13
5
.0-4
2
3
2
3
6
8
8
26
27
33
33
83
78
Median 2 0 . 5 0 20 ...00 1 3 .0 0
17 .7 5
1 5 .5 0
17 .5 0
1 6 .3 1
18 .1 3
3 .5 1
7 .7 3
6 .6 7
6 .4 0
4 .8 0
T o ta ls
q.x>.
18
24
4 .8 8
4 .8 0
2
2
1
5 .8 5
D.
.5 0
4 .7 5
2 .0 0
1 .8 2
R a tio
»18
1 .9 1
.6 0
1 .1 9
53
SUMMARY OF FIRST SEMESTER TESTS
Table XII summarizes th e r e s u l t s
o f a l l th e t e s t s ,
com bining th e means and m edians o f th e t h r e e s c h o o l s .
By th e end o f th e f i r s t s e m e s t e r , th e e x p e r im e n t a l
groups i n d i c a t e d a s l i g h t l y b e t t e r know ledge o f c o r r e c t
s p a c i n g , s y l l a b i c a t i o n , and a r t o f c e n t e r i n g th an th e con­
t r o l groups.
The stu d e n ts- i n th e e x p e r im e n t a l, c l a s s e s were
more a d j u s t a b l e t o v a r i e t y t e s t s than th e c o n t r o l s t u d e n t s .
The c o n t r o l s t u d e n t s showed th e r e s u l t s
d r ills.
o f t h e sp eed
T h e ir p r o d u c t io n r a t e was s l i g h t l y b u t n o t s i g n i ­
f i c a n t l y h i g h e r on b o th s t r a i g h t copy t e s t s than th e r a t e
o f th e e x p e r im e n t a l g r o u p s .
The c o n t r o l groups w ere h i g h e r a l s o i n n e t words p er
m inute on c e n t e r i n g T e s t I I I , but t h e i r a c c u r a c y o f p l a c e ­
ment was n o t as c o r r e c t as t h a t o f th e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s .
On T e s t IV , th e e x p e r im e n t a l groups were s u p e r i o r i n
sp e e d and s l i g h t l y b e t t e r on a c c u r a c y o f p la c e m e n t th an the
c o n t r o l g r o u p s , th e o n ly t e s t o f th e s i x g i v e n th e f i r s t
s e m e s t e r i n w h ich th e e x p e r im e n t a l grou p s e x c e e d e d ' th e sp ee d
ratin gs* o f th e c o n t r o l g r o u p s .
R e s u l t s o f T e s t V, s t r a i g h t - c o p y m a t e r i a l , were i n
f a v o r o f th e c o n t r o l groups by a m argin o f 3 . 2 9 n e t wordsp e r m in u te .
However, th e r e s u l t s o f T e s t V I, g i v e n s i x
weeks l a t e r were l e s s i n f a v o r o f th e c o n t r o l g r o u p s .
By
54
TABLE X II
'SUMMARY OF FIRST SEMESTER TESTS
T est
E x p e r im e n ta l
C o n tr o l
C orrect sp a cin g T est I
1 6 .6 4
1 6 .3 6
S y lla b ic a t io n T est I I
1 0 .5 0
1 0 .0 2
P la c em e n t T e s t I I I
1 3 .2 4
1 2 .3 0
9 .4 8
1 1 .9 2
P la cem en t T e s t IV
1 2 .3 0
1 1 .6 0
N et p la c e m e n t words ner m inu te
T e s t IV
1 5 .4 2
1 0 .8 0
9 .2 1
1 2 .5 0
1 6 .3 1
1 8 .1 3
N et p la c em e n t words p er m inute
T est I I I
S tr a ig h t-co p y
N et words p e r m inute
November T e s t V
S tr a ig h t-co p y
N et words p e r m in u te
In d o f f i r s t s e m e s t e r
T e s t VI
- *N ote: The d a ta r e p r e s e n t t h e means and m ed ians o f
t h e combined s c h o o l s c o r e s f o r th e r e s p e c t i v e g r o u p s .
55
t h e n , t h e i r m argin was o n ly 1 . 8 2 n e t words p e r m inute b e t t e r
than th e r a t i n g s o f th e e x p e r im e n t a l g r o u p s .
The p e r c e n t a g e
o f g a i n i n sp eed s i n c e th e November T e s t was h i g h e r f o r th e
e x p e r im e n t a l g r o u p s •
CHAPTER IV
EXPLANATION AND RESULTS OP SECOND SEMESTER TESTS
The pu rp ose o f t h i s
c h a p te r was t o a n a ly z e th e t e s t s
g i v e n t o th e v o c a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s t h e seco n d s e m e s t e r ; t o
d e s c r i b e th e manner i n w h ich th e t e s t s were con d u cted and
s c o r e d ; and t o d e te r m in e th e t r a n s f e r o f l e a r n i n g by compar
i n g th e r e s u l t s o f th e e x p e r im e n t a l and c o n t r o l groups on
th e e l e v e n t e s t s g i v e n .
Types o f t e s t s .
E lev en d i f f e r e n t v o c a tio n a l t e s t s
were u s e d t o m easure and compare th e a b i l i t i e s
o f secon d
*
sem ester s tu d e n ts .
s t y l e s of l e t t e r s ,
were g i v e n .
T a b u l a t i o n s , a d d r e s s in g e n v e l o p e s ,
rough d r a f t s , and s t r a i g h t - c o p y t e s t s
These t e s t s seemed t o th e i n v e s t i g a t o r t o mea­
su r e a d e q u a t e l y v o c a t i o n a l t y p i n g a b i l i t y .
However, th e
r e l i a b i l i t y , and v a l i d i t y o f t h e s e e l e v e n v o c a t i o n a l t e s t s
are unknown.
I t was i m p o s s i b l e t o f i n d a v a r i e t y o f t e s t s
w i t h th e r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y e s t a b l i s h e d .
T a b u la t io n a r r a n g e m e n t.
For T e s t V I I , t h e stu d en ts-
were i n s t r u c t e d t o arran ge a group o f words on a page so
t h a t th e columns w o u ld , as n e a r l y as p o s s i b l e , h ave th e
ap p earan ce o f a p i c t u r e w i t h i n a fr a m e ,
. A l l o p e r a to r s s t a r t e d a t th e same s i g n a l .
The t e a c h
e r p la c e d th e tim e on th e b la c k b o a r d a t th e end o f ea ch
57
q u a r t e r o f a m in u te .
When th e o p e r a to r f i n i s h e d he d e t e r ­
mined from t h e b la c k b o a r d th e tim e i t to o k him t o w r i t e th e
test.
H is t y p i n g r a te was found by u s i n g th e I n t e r n a t i o n a l
B u ie s f o r T y p e w r it in g , e x c e p t t h a t th e l a s t d i v i s o r u sed was
th e tim e i t
to o k him t o co m p lete th e t e s t .
A l l stu d en ts; were
p e r m it t e d t o co m p lete th e t e s t r e g a r d l e s s o f tim e r e q u i r e d .
A mimeographed book o f t e s t s from E . G. B l a c k s t o n e ’s
p r i v a t e l i b r a r y f u r n i s h e d th e b a sis; f o r s c o r i n g and g r a d in g
a l l t a b u l a t i o n s : , l e t t e r s ; , and rough d r a f t s .
Two im p o r ta n t
items; were ta k en i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n , t h e p la c em e n t o f th e
t a b u l a t i o n s , and t h e tim e r e q u ir e d f o r c o m p le t io n .
F or s c o r i n g p la c em e n t T e s t VII on t a b u l a t i o n a r r a n g e ­
m ent, an o n io n s k i n k e y .was p la c e d s q u a r e l y o v e r th e s t u d e n t ’s
pap er and checked f o r e r r o r s l i s t e d .
g i n s went beyond th e i n n e r l i n e
I f any m argin or mar­
( t o p or b o tto m , e i t h e r s i d e
or b o th ) f i v e p o i n t s w ere d e d u c te d ; i f beyond t h e o u te r l i n e ,
t e n p o i n t s were d e d u c te d ; i f th e l o n g e s t l i n e i n each column
was n o t c e n te r e d f i v e p o i n t s were d e d u c t e d ; i f
th e t a b u l a t i o n
was n o t s i n g l e sp a ced one pfrint was d e d u c t e d ; i f h e a d in g s
were n o t c e n t e r e d one p o i n t was d e d u cte d f o r e a c h .
e r a s u r e s w ere p e n a l i z e d and counted e r r o r s .
Poor
A l l e r r o r s were
t o t a l e d and d e d u c te d from a p o s s i b l e s c o r e o f t w e n t y .
T able X III summarizes; th e a c c u r a c y r a t i n g o f th e
p la c em e n t and T ab le XIV shows th e sp e e d r a tin g s; on th e ta b u ­
la tio n t e s t .
58
T h is was th e f i r s t t e s t o f a s t r i c t l y v o c a t i o n a l na­
t u r e g i v e n t o th e g r o u p s .
The d i f f e r e n c e i n s c o r e s b etw een
th e two groups from S c h o o l A on th e a c c u r a c y o f th e p l a c e ­
ment was n o t ' s i g n i f i c a n t .
However, the e x p e r im e n t a l group
s l i g h t l y e x c e e d e d th e c o n t r o l as i n d i c a t e d by th e m eans.
T h is was n o t a r e l i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e .
The d a t a i n T able XIV
shows th e c o n t r o l group was s l i g h t l y b u t n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y
fa ster.
By comparing th e r e s u lts ? o f th e groups? from S c h o o l B
on T e s t V I I , i t . w a s found t h e r e was an ob served d i f f e r e n c e
o f 3 . 2 6 and a r a t i o o f 1 .8 0 i n f a v o r o f t h e e x p e r im e n t a l
group on the a c c u r a c y o f th e p l a c e m e n t .
The sta n d a r d d e v i a ­
t i o n from th e mean was a l s o l e s s f o r th e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p .
T h is d i f f e r e n c e was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t as can be s e e n i n T able
X III.
The sp ee d r a tin g s : o f th e groups were p r a c t i c a l l y th e
s ame •
I n S c h o o l C i t was a g a in found th e e x p e r im e n t a l group
e x c e l l e d th e c o n t r o l group on th e a c c u r a c y o f p la c e m e n t.
The d i f f e r e n c e was 2 . 7 2 and th e r a t i o 2 . 1 6 .
T h is ap p aren t
s u p e r i o r i t y cannot be c o n s id e r e d d e c i s i v e b e c a u se th e c r i t i ­
c a l r a t i o h a s t o be t h r e e or more i n o r d e r f o r th e r e s u l t s
t o be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t .
The sta n d a r d d e v i a t i o n ,
from th e mean was l e s s f o r th e e x p e r im e n t a l g r o u p .
T able
XIV shows th e sp ee d r a t i n g s on T e st VII were p r a c t i c a l l y th e
same f o r th e groups?.
59
TABLE X I I I
COMPARISON OF SCORES ON TABULATION ARRANGEMENT
Scores
2 0 -2 1
1 8 -1 9
1 6 -1 7
1 4 -1 5
1 2 -1 3
1 0 -1 1
8- 9
6- 7
4- 5
2- 3
0- 1
- School
E
7
3
5
2
2
2
1
1
A
C
3
5
5
2
2
2
2
School
E
B
C
School
E
12
3
3
1
7
4
6
1
1
9
1
1
3
7
4
1
12
1
-2
1
1
22
T o t a l s 24
Mean 1 6 .0 0 1 5 .6 4
4 .3 2
S .D . 5 . 1 0
D.
.3 6
R a tio
.2 6
1
27
1 6 .9 2
4 .6 8
26
1 3 .6 6
6 .2 0
3 .2 6
1 .8 0
27
1 6 .8 6
2 .3 8
C
C
6
5
7
1
2
2
1
1
1
2
28
1 4 .1 4
6 .2 2
2 .7 2
2 .1 6
Combined
E
C
26
10
9
15
3
10
2
2
16
14
5
9
3
13
5
2
5
1
3
1
78
1 6 .6 2
4 .3 2
76
1 4 .3 8
5 .8 2
2 .2 4
2 .7 0
* N ote: The d a ta a r e th e number o f p o in t s c o r r e c t
o u t o f a p o s s i b l e tw e n ty .
60
TABLE XIV
COMPARISON OF NET WORDS ON TABULATION ARRANGEMENT
N et
Words
School A
E
C
20-24
1
1
1 5 -1 9
1
6
10-14
IB
8
4
5- 9
7
5
19
0- 4
3
£
T o ta ls
£4
££
S
School B
C
E
School C
C
E
Combined
C
1
1
3
1
4
7
3
4
19
12
20
11
15
37
40
4
6
10
8
17
16
27
26
£7
28
78
76
Median 1 0 .8 3 1 2 .5 0
7 .5 0
6 .7 5
6 .5 9
7 .0 0
7 .9 7
7 .7 8
4.B 0
1 .7 4
1 .0 6
3 .1 4
2 .47
2 .8 5
2 .5 2
Q.D.
D.
R a tio
3 .5 7
1 .6 7
.6 8
.41
.8 2
.7 7
.4 1
.1 9
•
24
61
I n e xam in in g th e combined s c o r e s on th e a c c u r a c y
p la c em e n t o f th e t a b u l a t i o n th e e x p e r im e n t a l group e x c e l l e d
w i t h a d i f f e r e n c e o f 2 .2 4 and a r a t i o o f 2 . 7 0 .
&gain, th e
d i f f e r e n c e i s not s i g n i f i c a n t , but n e v e r t h e le s s , i t i s
p a r e n t , b e in g a lm o st r e l i a b l e .
ap­
The sta n d a r d d e v i a t i o n
from th e mean was l e s s f o r th e e x p e r im e n t a l g ro u p .
The med­
ia n sp e e d r a t i n g s f o r th e ’ combined groups w ere p r a c t i c a l l y
th e s ame •
T e s t V I I , th e f i r s t v o c a t i o n a l t e s t g i v e n th e groups
t o d e te r m in e t h e i r a b i l i t y t o arran ge a t a b u l a t i o n g i v e n i n
one column i n t o two t a b u l a t e d colu m ns, r e v e a le d t h a t th e e x ­
p e r im e n t a l s t u d e n t s would have no d i f f i c u l t y w it h t a b u l a t i o n
problem s when t r a n s f e r i n g t o th e c o n t r o l c l a s s .
The r e s u l t s
o f T e s t VII would d e c i d e d l y p l a c e th e e x p e r im e n t a l groups
on par w i t h th e c o n t r o l g rou p s*
T a b u la tio n .
F or T e s t V I II s t u d e n t s were i n s t r u c t e d
t o make an e x a c t copy o f an a r t i c l e ,
c en te rin g i t v e r t i c a l l y
and h o r i z o n t a l l y on th e p a g e , and d o u b le s p a c in g b etw e en th e
main h e a d in g and th e co lu m n s.
The i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r s c o r i n g th e sp eed r a t i n g s and
th e a c c u r a c y o f p la c em e n t on T e s t V I I I were e x a c t l y th e
same as th o s e g i v e n f o r T e s t V I I .
T able XV summarizes th e a c c u r a c y r a t i n g o f th e p l a c e ­
ment and T able XVI shows.1 th e sp ee d r a tin g s ' on th e t e s t .
62
In S c h o o l A, a f t e r th e groups had r e v ie w e d t a b u l a t i o n ,
th e a c c u r a c y o f p la cem en t was s t i l l i n f a v o r o f th e e x p e r i ­
m e n ta l group by a d i f f e r e n c e o f *48 and a r a t i o o f ♦SO.
c o u r se t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i s n o t im p o r t a n t .
g a in e d i n s p e e d .
Of
Both groups had
Ih e c o n t r o l group was s t i l l s l i g h t l y but
not s i g n i f i c a n t l y fa s te r *
k d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n i s i n d i c a t e d i n S c h o o l B.
By
t h i s t im e , a f t e r f u r t h e r s tu d y o f t a b u l a t i o n t h i s s c h o o l
showed n o t as much V a r i a b i l i t y as i n T e s t V I I .
In T e s t VII
t h e r e was a d i f f e r e n c e o f 3 .2 6 and a r a t i o o f 1 .8 0 i n f a v o r
o f th e e x p e r im e n t a l g r o u p , w h il e i n t e s t V I I I t h e r e was o n ly
a d i f f e r e n c e o f .4 6 and a r a t i o o f .3 2 i n f a v o r o f th e con­
t r o l gr o u p .
I n l i g h t o f th e sp ee d r a t i n g s c o n t a in e d i n
T able XVI, n e i t h e r group had g a in e d i n s p e e d .
The r e s u l t s
s t i l l were n e a r l y th e same.
In S c h o o l C th e e x p e r im e n t a l group e x c e e d e d t h e con­
t r o l group w i t h a d i f f e r e n c e o f 1 .1 4 and a r a t i o o f .9 7 on
t h e a c c u r a c y p la c e m e n t ,
i h e speed r a t i n g s o f T e s t v m
a l s o i n f a v o r o f th e e x p e r im e n t a l g r o u p .
were
I n s t u d y in g th e
q u a r t i l e range th e d a t a shows t h a t i n th e c o n t r o l' group
t h e r e was l e s s sp rea d o f s c o r e s .
I t was s i i r p r i s i n g t o the
i n v e s t i g a t o r t h a t th e e x p e r im e n t a l group had made so much
p r o g r e s s i n sp e e d and s t i l l s l i g h t l y e x c e e d e d th e c o n t r o l
group on th e a c c u r a c y o f p la c e m e n t .
In exam in in g th e combined s c o r e s g iv e n i n T able XV
63
TABLE XV
COMPARISON OF SCORES OH TABULATION
Scores
School A
1
C
School B
1
C
School 0
E
C
Combined
E
C"
-
BO-21
1 8 -1 9
16 -1 7
1 4 -1 5
1 2 -1 3
1 0 -1 1
8- 9
6- 7
4- 5
2- 3
0- 1
8
4
4
3
2
1
6
7
2
2
1
1
1
2
12
7
12
3
2
2
1
2
1
4
1
15
11
1
2
1
5
2
35
22
D
7
3
4
2
1
2
29
17
2
9
4
3
2
2
1
1
2
26
1 7 .9 2
4 .3 4
1 .1 4
.97
82
1 7 .8 4
4 .3 8
70
17 .4 2
4 .7 4
.4 2
.5 3
11
7
1
2
1
T o t a l s 23
22
Mean 17 .3 0 16 .82
4 .5 0
S .D . 3 .8 4
D.
.4 8
R a t io
.3 0
1
28
1 7 .0 0
5 .1 6
22
1 7 .4 6
4 .9 2
.4 6
.3 2
31
1 9 .0 6
3 .8 2
*N ote: The d a ta a r e th e number o f p o i n t s c o r r e c t
o u t o f a p o s s i b l e tw e n ty .
64
TABLE XVI
COMPARISON OF NET WORDS ON TABULATION
N et
Words
School A
1
C
School C
E
C
Combined
1
C
30-34
1
1
2 5 -2 9
3
1
3
'1
1
4
2
4
3
8
6
13
12
20-24
School B
E
C
1 5 -1 9
7
6
10-14
7
10
4
3
6
10
17
23
5- 9
3
4
17
16
6
6
26
26
i
o
6
1
7
3
3
1
16
5
23
22
28
22
31
26
82
70
7 .0 6
7 .5 0
1 7 .3 1
13 .0 0
1 0 .2 9
10 .8 7
2 .0 6
1 .7 2
5 .6 0
3 .7 5
4 .9 5
3 .4 2
T o ta ls
Median 1 1 .3 6 1 3 .0 0
q .B .
D.
R a t io
5 .5 5
3 .0 0
1 • 64
. 44
4 .3 1
.5 8
.6 3
.5 1
1 .8 6
.5 4
65
it
i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e th e d i f f e r e n c e i s
ra tio
o n ly . 4 2 and th e
.5 3 i n f a v o r o f th e e x p e r im e n t a l group on th e a c c u r a c y
o f p la c e m e n t .
T able XVI shows th e m edian sp e e d r a t i n g s t o
be abou t e q u a l f o r b o th g r o u p s , as was th e c a se i n t e s t
seven .
Though th e d i f f e r e n c e was s l i g h t th e e x p e r im e n t a l
groups d id i n d i c a t e an adva n ta ge i n a c c u r a c y on t h e t a b u l a ­
tio n t e s t .
T h e ir p r e p a r a to r y c o u r s e p r o b a b ly c o n t a in e d m at­
e r i a l o f s i m i l a r t a b u l a t i o n p r o b le m s.
C e r t a i n l y , t h e methods
u s e d and p r o c e d u r e s f o l l o w e d th e f i r s t s e m e s t e r , p la c e d th e
e x p e r i m e n t a l groups a t no d is a d v a n t a g e i n c o p in g w i t h t h e
c o n t r o l groups th e se c o n d s e m e s t e r .
L e tte r in fo rm a tio n .
T e s t IX c o n t a in e d t w e n t y - f o u r
f a l s e and t r u e and c o m p le tio n q u e s t i o n s on c o r r e c t a d d r e s s e s ,
s a l u t a t i o n s , s i g n a t u r e s , i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s , and l e t t e r s p a c i n g .
I n t h e c a s e o f S c h o o l £ , th e d i f f e r e n c e was o n ly .5 8 and th e
r a tio
.6 5 i n f a v o r o f th e e x p e r im e n t a l g r o u p .
T h is group
s t i l l c o n tin u e d t o l e a d i n S c h o o l C w i t h a d i f f e r e n c e o f .2 4
and a r a t i o o f . 2 5 .
I n S c h o o l B j u s t th e o p p o s i t e was fo u n d ,
t h e c o n t r o l group h a v in g a s l i g h t advan tage w i t h a d i f f e r e n c e
o f .3 6 and a r a t i o o f . 5 1 .
T ab le XVII, r e s u l t s o f T e s t IX, r e v e a le d no marked
d i f f e r e n c e , th e c r i t i c a l r a t i o was n o t as g r e a t as i t was
i n th e t a b u l a t i o n t e s t s .
The v a r i a b i l i t y i n th e l e t t e r
66
TABLE XVII
COMPARISON-OF SCORES ON LITTER INFORMATION
Scores
2 4 -2 5
2 2 - S3
2 0 -2 1
18 -19
1 6 -1 7
1 4 -1 5
1 2 -1 3
1 0 -1 1
8-'9
6- 7
4- 5
2- 3
0- 1
School A
E
C
1
8
9
2
2
1
1
2
6
5
4
1
2
2
T o t a l s 24
22
Mean 2 0 ,7 6 2 0 .1 8
3 .4 8
S ,D . 2 . 7 8
.5 8
D.
R a t io
.6 5
School B
E
C
3
11
5
4
2
2
12
8
3
2
School C
E
C
7
9
6
5
4
2
1
26
1 7 .3 0
3 .0 4
27
1 7 .6 6
2 .0 4
.3 6
.5 1
33
1 9 .2 4
3 .0 2
Combined
I
C
2
3
6
8
2
1
1
1
15
21
19
12
9
5
4
9
13
24
11
6
5
1
1
1
1
1
25
1 9 .0 0
4 .2 0
.2 4
.2 5
83
1 9 .0 8
3 .2 4
*N ote: The d a ta a r e t h e number o f q u e s t io n s
c o r r e c t o u t o f a p o s s i b l e tw e n t y - f o u r .
74
1 8 .8 4
3 .4 8
.2 4
.4 2
i n f o r m a tio n s c o r e s was n o t as pronounced as i t was i n th e
case of t a b u la t io n .
But th e t e s t s c o r e s i n d i c a t e d c l e a r l y
th e e x p e r i m e n t a l groups knew how t o h a n d le in f o r m a t io n t h a t
was p e r t i n e n t t o a b u s i n e s s l e t t e r as w e l l as th e c o n t r o l
groups.
I f a l e s s e r v a r i a b i l i t y c o u ld be i n d i c a t e d i t would
be among th e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s .
A g a in , th e d a t a g i v e n i n
t h e t a b l e s shows th e e x p e r im e n t a l groups c o u ld measure up
t o r a t i n g s made by th e c o n t r o l groups;' and th e methods: u s e d
and th e p r o c e d u r e s f o l lo w e d t h e f i r s t s e m e s t e r were v / e l l
p la n n ed when c o n s i d e r i n g t r a n s f e r t o t h e c o n t r o l c l a s s .
B u sin e ss, l e t t e r .
This t e s t was s e l e c t e d from D. D.
L e s s e n b e r r y *s C o lle g e T y p e w r itin g T e x t . ’*’
The s t u d e n t was:
i n s t r u c t e d t o u s e a f o r t y sp a ce l i n e and open p u n c t u a t io n ?
in d e n t p aragraphs f i v e s p a c e s ; u s e a s i n g l e - s p a c e d in d e n t e d
form th r o u g h o u t th e l e t t e r ;
th e o f f i c i a l t i t l e
typ e th e d i c t a t o r s name w i t h
as a s i g n a t u r e ; s e t t a b u l a t o r s t o p s so
t h a t h e c o u ld q u i c k l y and a c c u r a t e l y i n d e n t f o r a l l l in e s ;
n o t b e g i n n in g a t th e l e f t m a rg in .
The i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r s c o r i n g th e sp ee d r a t i n g s f o r
T e s t X were e x a c t l y th e same as th o s e g i v e n f o r T e st VII
and th e i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r s c o r i n g and g r a d in g th e a c c u r a c y
o f p la c em e n t w ere s i m i l a r .
A copy o f th e t e s t w it h th e
**- D. D. L e s s e n b e r r y , C o lle g e T y p e w r i t in g , ( C i n c i n n a t i
3-outh-W estern P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1 9 3 6 ) , p . 8&T
68
d i r e c t i o n s f o r s c o r i n g and g r a d in g i s
c o n t a in e d i n th e
appendix;.
T able XVIII summarizes th e a c c u r a c y r a t i n g s o f th e
p la c em e n t and T able XIX shows th e sp eed r a t i n g s on th e
le tte r test*
T h is was th e f i r s t t e s t g i v e n t o th e groups on th e
arrangem ent o f a b u s i n e s s l e t t e r .
On T e s t X i n S c h o o l A
th e e x p e r im e n t a l groups e x c e l l e d w i t h a d i f f e r e n c e o f 2 . 7 8
and a r a t i o o f 1 .5 5 on th e a c c u r a c y o f p la c e m e n t .
dard d e v i a t i o n was th e same f o r b o th groups;.
The s t a n ­
A c r itic a l
r a t i o o f t h r e e d e n o t e s s t a t i s t i c a l c e r t a i n t y , t h e r e f o r e th e
r e s u l t s i n a c c u r a c y o f p la c e m e n t o f t h e b u s i n e s s l e t t e r can­
n o t be assumed t o prove a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n f a v o r
o f th e e x p e r im e n t a l g ro u p .
I n r e s p e c t t o th e sp e e d r a t i n g s
on T e s t X th e e x p e r im e n t a l group from S c h o o l A s l i g h t l y e x ­
ceed ed th e r a t i n g s made by th e c o n t r o l g r o u p .
The q u a r t i l e
d e v i a t i o n from th e median shows th e e x p e r im e n t a l group had
s lig h tly le ss v a r ia b ility .
In th e c a s e o f S c h o o l B on th e a c c u r a c y o f p la c e m e n t,
th e e x p e r i m e n t a l group had a s l i g h t s u p e r i o r i t y i n th e mean
a c o re and i n the s m a l l n e s s o f th e sta n d a r d d e v i a t i o n .
How­
e v e r , th e c r i t i c a l r a t i o was o n ly *88 w h ich i n d i c a t e d a
v e r y s m a ll d i f f e r e n c e .
The c o n t r o l group s l i g h t l y b u t n o t
s i g n i f i c a n t l y e x c e e d e d th e e x p e r im e n t a l group on sp ee d
r a tin g s.
69
TABLE X m i
COMPARISON Of SCORES ON A BUSINESS LETTER
Scores
2 4 -3 5
2 2 -3 3
2 0 -2 1
1 8 -1 9
16 -1 7
1 4 -1 5
1 2 -1 3
1 0 -1 1
8- 9
6- 7
4- 5
2- 3
0- 1
School A
E
0
School B
E
0
4
8
3
2
3
1
3
6
8
3
2
3
2
5
2
4
2
6
1
1
1
1
2
7
4
2
3
3
2
3
1
1
T o t a l s 24
22
Mean 1 9 .5 0 1 6 .7 2
8 .D . 6 .0 8
6 .1 0
D.
2 .7 8
R a tio
1 .5 5
School C
1
C
6
11
3
2
2
2
2
1
29
1 9 .1 4
4 .9 2
13
25
14
7
7
6
4
1
1
3
1
7
15
9
11
6
10
3
1
1
1
1
5
20
1 8 .9 0
5 .2 0
1 .5 0
1 .0 8
83
1 9 .7 0
5 .2 2
68
1 8 .1 4
6 .0 6
1 .5 6
1 • 81
6
5
4
1
2
1
1
2
26
1 8 .7 6
6 .5 8
• 38
• 88
30
2 0 .4 0
4 .2 0
Combined
E
C
*N ote: The d a ta a r e th e number o f p o i n t s c o r r e c t
out o f a p o s s ib le tw e n ty -fiv e .
70
TABLE XIX
COMPARISON OF NIT WORDS ON A BUSINESS LETTER
N et
Y/ords
School A
E
C
School B
C
E
S<ohool C
C
E
Combined
r\
1
Kj
1
1
30-34
1
1
1
1
20-24
5
2
5
2
7
2
15
9
6
7
2
1 0-14
15
7
12
14
7
9
34
30
5- 9
1
6
13
11
6
4
20
21
2
2
2
1
4
1
8
4
24
22
29
26
30
20
83
68
9 .0 3
10 .3 6
1 3 .5 7
1 2 . 77
1 1 .9 8
1 1 .5 0
2 .9 0
3 .27
3 .2 7
3 . 75
3 .4 5
3 .0 8
i
1 5 -1 9
o
2 5 -2 9
T o ta ls
Median 1 3 .0 0 1 2 . 1 4
Q.D.
2 .0 0
4 .0 8
D.
.8 6
1 .3 3
.8 0
.4 8
R a t io
.4 8
.8 5
.4 2
.49
71
In S c h o o l € a g a in th e e x p e r im e n t a l group e x c e l l e d on
T e s t X w i t h a d i f f e r e n c e o f 1*50 and a r a t i o o f 1 , 0 8 on th e
p la c em e n t o f th e b u s i n e s s l e t t e r and showed a s l i g h t but
n o t s i g n i f i c a n t sp eed s u p e r i o r i t y *
By e xa m in in g t h e combined s c o r e s on th e a c c u r a c y o f
th e p la c em e n t o f th e b u s i n e s s l e t t e r th e e x p e r im e n t a l
groups’ e x c e l l e d w i t h a d i f f e r e n c e o f 1 . 5 6 and a r a t i o o f 1 . 8 1 .
A g a in , t h e d i f f e r e n c e i s n o t s i g n i f i c a n t , b u t n e v e r t h e l e s s ,
i t is; a p p a r e n t .
The sta n d a r d d e v i a t i o n was l e s s f o r th e
e x p e r im e n t a l g r o u p s .
The sp ee d r a t i n g s g i v e n i n Table XVIII
show th e groups were p r a c t i c a l l y th e sam e.
S i n c e th e c o n t r o l groups seemed t o i n d i c a t e a s l i g h t l y
p o o r e r r a t i n g on th e p la c em e n t i t may be i n f e r r e d t h a t t o o
much u n r e l a t e d m a t e r i a l had been em p hasized and n o t enough
p r o d u c t io n w ork.
The e x p e r im e n t a l groups seemed t o have th e
a d van ta ge o f a w id e r know ledge and e x p e r i e n c e i n t y p in g a
b u sin ess l e t t e r .
A d d r e s sin g e n v e l o p e s .
T e s t XI c o n t a in e d many d i f f e r ­
e n t ty p e s o f problem s i n c o n n e c t io n w i t h a d d r e s s in g e n v e l o p e s .
The a d d r e s s e s were g i v e n i n s t r a i g h t - c o p y form w i t h strok es:
counted a t th e end o f each l i n e .
The s t u d e n t was i n s t r u c t e d
t o a d d r e ss e n v e lo p e s o f l e g a l s i z e .
He was i n s t r u c t e d t o
u s e th e e r a s e r and c o r r e c t any e r r o r s b e f o r e rem oving th e
e n v e lo p e from th e m a ch in e .
A l l s t u d e n t s were p e r m it te d t o
f i n i s h th e t e s t r e g a r d l e s s o f th e tim e r e q u ir e d *
t o r s s t a r t e d a t th e same s i g n a l *
$11 o p e r a ­
The t e a c h e r p la c e d th e
tim e on th e b la c k b o a rd a t th e end o f each q u a r t e r m inute*
When th e o p e r a t o r f i n i s h e d , he d e te r m in e d from th e b l a c k ­
board t h e tim e i t
took him t o w r i t e th e t e s t *
H is s c o r e
was found by u s i n g the I n t e r n a t i o n a l B u ie s f o r T y p e w r itin g
e x c e p t th e l a s t d i v i s o r u s e d was th e tim e i t
to o k him t o
c o m p lete th e t e s t *
B e s u lt s : o f T e st XI found i n T ab le XX show th e ty p e
o f t r a i n i n g r e c e i v e d i n th e f i r s t s e m e s t e r seemed t o g i v e
th e e x p e r im e n t a l s t u d e n t s a s l i g h t a d van tage*
In a l l t h r e e
s c h o o l s th e e x p e r im e n t a l groups w ere s l i g h t l y f a s t e r a d d r e s s ­
in g e n v e l o p e s .
The q u a r t i l e d e v i a t i o n from th e median f o r
th e combined s c o r e s was s l i g h t l y l e s s f o r the e x p e r im e n t a l
groups•
I t would seem th e c o n t r o l groups sh o u ld i n d i c a t e a
b e t t e r sp e e d r a t i n g on t a b u l a t i o n s , b u s i n e s s l e t t e r s ,
a d d r e s s in g e n v e l o p e s .
and
T h is was n o t t h e c a s e , h o w ev e r, and
can be s e e n from th e t e s t s *
I t was s u r p r i s i n g t o t h e i n ­
v e s t i g a t o r t h e c o n t r o l groups c o u ld n o t ty p e t h e s e t e s t s as^
f a s t as th e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s .
The d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e
sp ee d r a t i n g s i n th e f o u r t e s t s was s o s l i g h t t h a t i t
c o u ld
n o t be judged a r e a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , n e v e r t h e l e s s , th e d i f f e r ­
en ce i s a p p a r e n t .
g iv en i t
I n th e l i g h t o f th e e v id e n c e so f a r
c o u ld be i n f e r r e d th e methods o f t e a c h i n g the
73
TABLE XX
COMPARISON OF NIT V^fORDS ON ADDRESSING ENVELOPES
N et
Words
School A
C
1
School B
E
C
School C
E
C
Combined
1
C
1
1
20-24
1 5 -1 9
1
1
1 0 -1 4
7
6
3
5- 9
14
15
0- 4
1
1
2
2
3
1
6
5
16
12
14
13
17
9
45
37
12
13
1
8
14
21
22
29
27
25
25
77
74
Median 8 .7 5
8 .6 6
5 .8 9
5 .0 2
8 .3 8
7 .5 0
7 .7 2
7 .1 6
Q.D.
2 .2 1
2 .7 3
2 .5 9
2 .0 4
3 .9 2
2 .1 4
2 .6 2
T o ta ls
23
2 .4 6
D.
.09
.87
.8 8
.56
R a t io
.07
.6 2
.5 4
.7 8
74
c o n t r o l groups In th e f i r s t s e m e s t e r d id n o t appear t o ben­
e f i t th e stu d e n ts; i n t h o s e groups; as i t
A d d r e s sin g e n v e l o p e s .
sh o u ld .
The i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r g i v i n g
and s c o r i n g T e s t X II were th e same as t h o s e i n T e s t X I,
e x c e p t f o r a d i f f e r e n c e i n th e s i z e o f t h e e n v e lo p e and a
v a r i a t i o n i n a d d r e s s in g problems-.
The e n v e lo p e s f o r t h i s
t e s t were o f l e t t e r s i z e *
T e s t XII was s e l e c t e d from P r i c e f s: ^Comprehensive
T e s t i n g Program i n T y p e w r i t i n g . ^
Table XXI shows t h a t a f t e r f u r t h e r s t u d y o f a d d r e s s ­
in g e n v e lo p e s a l l groups g a in e d i n s p e e d .
was made by th e c o n t r o l g r o u p s .
The most p r o g r e s s
The d a ta p r e s e n t e d In
Table XXI shows th e c o n t r o l groups e x c e e d e d th e e x p e r im e n t a l
groups i n r a t e o f s p e e d .
A stu d y o f th e q u a r t ! l e ranges
shows t h e r e was l e s s sp rea d o f n e t words i n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p .
E x c ep t f o r T e s t XII th e e x p e r im e n t a l s t u d e n t s have
seemed t o show more a b i l i t y t o h a n d le se co n d s e m e s t e r v o c a ­
t i o n a l work than th e c o n t r o l g r o u p s .
A g a in , th e d i f f e r e n c e
i n sp ee d r a t i n g s was s o s l i g h t n e i t h e r group c o u ld be r e ­
garded s u p e r i o r .
T e s t XII was s i m i l a r t o T e s t X I, and d id
n o t c o n t a i n as many d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f e n v e lo p e a d d r e s s in g
p r o b le m s .
Perhaps; b e c a u se o f t h i s f a c t th e c o n t r o l groups
^ Hay G. P r i c e , rtA Com prehensive T e s t i n g Program i n
T y p e w r it in g ,^ B a la n c e S h e e t , 2 0 j 2 4 5 , F e b r u a r y , 1 9 3 9 .
75
TABLE XXI
COMPARISON OF NIT WORDS ON ADDRESSING ENVELOPES
N et
Words
School A
E
C
School B
C
E
School C
C
E
Combined
C
E
1
1
2 5 -2 9
20-24
1 5 -1 9
1
3
1 0-14
13
12
9
5- 9
10
7
0- 4
T o ta ls
22
24
Median 1 0 .7 7 1 1 .6 6
Q.D.
2 .5 4
2 .5 1
3
4
4
7
10
9
8
31
30
16
11
12
8
38
26
3
5
3
2
6
7
28
26
27
23
79
71
8 .4 4
8 .6 4
9 .3 9
1 0 .9 4
9 .4 1
1 0 .4 1
2 .4 3
3 .0 3
3 .1 3
- 3 .5 9
2 .8 2
3 .1 5
D.
.89
.2 0
1 .5 5
1 .0 0
R a t io
.6 0
.1 4
.87
1 .1 1
76
i n d i c a t e d a b e t t e r sp ee d r a t i n g .
In a l l t e s t s t h e c o n t r o l
groups i n d i c a t e d a b e t t e r perform ance when t h e r e was no r e ­
a r r a n g in g r e q u i r e d ,
The e x p e r im e n t a l groups i n d i c a t e d a b e t t e r p e r f o r ­
mance on T e s t s V I I , V I I I , IX, X, and X I .
T h is would d e ­
c i d e d l y show th e d e g r e e o f t r a n s f e r o f l e a r n i n g from d o in g
s i m i l a r problem s i n th e f i r s t s e m e s t e r .
B u s in e s s l e t t e r .
F or T e st X I I I i n s t r u c t i o n s were
t o ty p e t h e l e t t e r a c c o r d in g t o th e f o l l o w i n g form*
u se a
f i f t y - f i v e sp a c e l i n e open p u n c t u a t i o n , b lo c k th e i n s i d e
a d d r e s s , s i n g l e s p a c e th e i n s i d e a d d r e s s , i n d e n t t h e p a r a ­
graphs f i v e s p a c e s , d o u b le s p a c e th e body o f t h e l e t t e r ,
ty p e th e s i g n a t u r e rea d y f o r s i g n i n g ,
and p u n c t u a t e th e
l e t t e r c o r r e c tly .
T e s t X I II was s e l e c t e d from P r i c e l s wComprehensive
T e s t i n g Program i n T ypew riting.**’^
The i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r
s c o r i n g t h e sp e e d r a t i n g s were th e same as t h o s e g i v e n f o r
T e s t X e x c e p t t h a t one e r r o r was charged f o r e a ch p u n c tu a ­
t i o n mark i n c o r r e c t l y i n s e r t e d or l e f t o u t .
The i n s t r u c t i o n s
f o r s c o r i n g and g r a d in g th e a c c u r a c y o f p la c em e n t were s i m i ­
l a r t o t h o s e g i v e n f o r T e s t VII and V I I I .
Table XXII summarizes th e a c c u r a c y o f p la c em e n t and
T able XXIII g iv es- th e speed r a t i n g s f o r T e s t X I I I .
5 I b id . , p. 246.
A ll
77
groups f e l l q u i t e low on t h e t e s t due t o t h e i r i n a b i l i t y t o
p u n c tu a te t h e b u s i n e s s l e t t e r c o r r e c t l y *
h a n d ic a p p ed when i t
The s t u d e n t s w ere
came t o a p p ly in g th e r u l e s f o r p u n c tu a ­
t i o n t o an a c t u a l b u s i n e s s p rob lem , d e s p i t e th e f a c t t h a t
s e v e r a l l e s s o n s were g i v e n t o p r e p a r e th e s t u d e n t s f o r t h i s
type o f t e s t .
Prom t h e in f o r m a t io n c o n ta in e d i n Table XXII, w h ich
g i v e s th e r e s u l t s o f th e a c c u r a c y o f p la c em e n t f o r T e s t X I I I ,
th e c o n t r o l group from S c h o o l Jk e x c e l l e d th e e x p e r i m e n t a l
group w i t h a d i f f e r e n c e o f 2 . 0 4 and a r a t i o o f 1 . 5 0 .
The
sic o r e s showed t h a t c o m p e t i t i o n was v e r y keen b etw een t h e
groups.
T able XXIII shows t h e groups were q u i t e e v e n l y
matched i n s p e e d .
I t was found a g a in i n S c h o o l B t h a t th e c o n t r o l group
e x c e l l e d t h e e x p e r im e n t a l group on t h e p la c e m e n t .
The d i f f ­
e r e n c e i n t h i s s c h o o l was .8 0 i n f a v o r o f th e c o n t r o l g r o u p ,
and th e r a t i o was . 6 1 .
T h is d i f f e r e n c e i s n o t g r e a t enough
t o show any s u p e r i o r i t y , b u t i t d id show improvement on t h e
p a r t o f th e c o n t r o l g r o u p .
The groups were q u i t e e v e n l y
matched i n sp e e d as shown i n T able X X III .
I n S c h o o l C th e c o n t r o l group e x c e l l e d th e e x p e r i ­
m e n ta l group on th e p la c e m e n t, w i t h a d i f f e r e n c e o f .7 5 and
a r a tio of .4 7 .
The sta n d a r d d e v i a t i o n from th e mean was
i n f a v o r o f th e e x p e r im e n t a l g r o u p .
Of c o u r s e , t h i s d i f f e r ­
e n c e was n o t r e l i a b l e , b u t i t d id show
improvement on t h e
78
TABLE XXII
COMPARISON OF SCORES ON A BUSINESS LETTER
Scores
£4-25
£ 2 -2 3
2 0 -2 1
1 8 -1 9
1 6 -1 7
1 4 -1 5
1 2 -1 3
1 0 -1 1
8- 9
6- 7
4- 5
2- 3
0- 1
School A
C
E
1
1
2
3
4
6
1
1
1
1
1
2
7
4
2
2
2
1
T o t a l s 20
22
Mean 1 0 .6 0 1 2 .6 4
4 .8 6
S .D . 4 . 2 0
D.
2 .0 4
R a t io
1 .5 0 .
School B
C
E
1
2
6
2
4
2
10
27
6 .3 4
4 .9 6
1
1
1
3
4
5
3
6
4
28
7 .1 4
4 .8 0
.8 0
.6 1
School C
C
E
1
2
1
3
4
2
3
4
2
2
2
1
2
29
1 3 .0 0
5 .2 0
4
1
4
4
1
3
1
2
1
1
2
24
1 3 .7 5
7 .4 4
.7 5
.4 7
Combined
E
C
4
1
2
1
4
6
4
8
14
10
6
3
4
13
76
1 0 .0 0
6 .1 2
2
6
7
9
10
3
4
9
6
7
7
74
1 1 .2 2
6 .7 0
1 .2 2
1 .1 7
*N ote: The d a ta a r e th e number o f p o in t s c o r r e c t
out o f a p o s s ib le ' tw e n ty -fiv e .
79
TABLE m
i l
COMPARISON OP NET WORDS ON A BUSINESS LETTER
N et
Words
S c h o o l. A
E
0
School B
E
C
School C
E
C
Combined
E
C
30-54
3
3
£5-29
1
1
20-24
15 -19
2
2
4
2
2
3
8
7
1 0 -1 4
8
6
9
8
7
6
24
20
5- 9
5
10
12
12
13
5
30
27
0- 4
5
4
2
6
7
6
14
16
20
22
27
28
29
24
76
74
Median 1 0 .0 0 8 . 50
9 .7 9
8 .3 3
7 .8 8
1 0 . 83
9 .0 0
8 .8 9
4 .0 7 4 . 15
3 .2 5
3 .2 3
3 .0 8
5 . 33
3 .6 0
3 .8 2
T o ta ls
Q.D.
D.
R a t io
1 .5 0
1 .4 6
2 .9 5
.1 1
.5 8
1 .1 2
1 .29
.1 0
80
p a r t o f th e c o n t r o l g r o u p .
In T e st X th e d i f f e r e n c e was
1 .5 0 and th e r a t i o 1 . 0 8 i n f a v o r o f th e e x p e r i m e n t a l group,
w h i l e i n T e s t X I I I th e d i f f e r e n c e was o n ly *75 and th e r a t i o
.4 7 i n f a v o r o f th e c o n t r o l g ro u p .
On T e st X I I I , Table
XXIII shows th e c o n t r o l group had a s l i g h t a d van ta ge In s p e e d .
However, t h e q u a r t i l e d e v i a t i o n was l e s s f o r th e e x p e r im e n t a l
group*
Table X V III, r e s u l t s o f T e s t X, shows th e ex p erim en ­
t a l group was s l i g h t l y b e t t e r i n sp eed w it h a d i f f e r e n c e o f
i8 0 *
However, Table XXTII, r e s u l t s
of T est X I I I , g iv en a
month l a t e r i n th e s c h o o l y e a r , shows t h e c o n t r o l group was
2 . 9 5 n e t words b e t t e r i n s p e e d .
A f t e r T e s t s X and XI were g i v e n , m a t e r i a l s i m i l a r t o
t h a t c o n t a in e d i n th e t e s t s was r e t a u g h t and r e v ie w e d b e f o r e
T e s t X II and X I II were g i v e n .
same as T e s t s X and X I .
These t e s t s w ere a b o u t th e
The c o n t r o l groups seemed t o be
ahead on th e t e s t s g i v e n a f t e r the r e v i e w , i n d i c a t i n g t h e i r
f i r s t s e m e s t e r work may h a v e p la c e d to o much emphasis: on
apeed and n o t enough on th e w h ole a c c e p t a b l e j o b , or had
g i v e n them l e s s a c t u a l e x p e r i e n c e a lo n g t h i s l i n e than t h e
e x p e r im e n t a l c o u r se o f f e r e d .
The r e s u l t s o f t h e s e f o u r t e s t s show t h e e x p e r im e n t a l
groups were more f a m i l i a r w i t h r e a r r a n g in g problem s th a n the
c o n t r o l groups-.
The c o n t r o l groups cou ld do s l i g h t l y b e t t e r
an e x e r c i s e t h a t was In s e t - u p form than th e e x p e r im e n t a l
groups.
81
S t r a i g h t - copy m a t e r i a l *
f o r Ju n e, 1 9 3 5 , was g i v e n .
^'Student1s T y p e w r itin g T e s t ff
The t e s t was t e n m in u tes l o n g .
T able XXIV summarizes th e r e s u l t s o f th e s t r a i g h t - c o p y T e s t
XIV.
I t was I n t e r e s t i n g t o th e i n v e s t i g a t o r t o f i n d t h a t
though a t th e end o f th e f i r s t s e m e s t e r th e c o n t r o l groups:
w e r e t y p i n g s l i g h t l y f a s t e r than t h e e x p e r im e n t a l groups
t h r e e months l a t e r when T e s t XIV was g i v e n th e groups' were
t y p i n g w i t h ab ou t th e same sp ee d and a c c u r a c y .
On s t r a i g h t - c o p y m a t e r i a l th e c o n t r o l groups showed
a s l i g h t l y b e t t e r r a t e , b u t on th e f i r s t t e s t s g i v e n th e
secon d s e m e s t e r on t a b u l a t i o n s , a d d r e s s in g e n v e l o p e s , and
b u sin ess l e t t e r s
th e e x p e r im e n t a l grou p s were s l i g h t l y b e t t e r .
$ g a i n , th e i n v e s t i g a t o r f e e l s t h a t t h i s d i f f e r e n c e was th e
r e s u l t , a t l e a s t i n p a r t , t o th e f a c t t h a t th e e x p e r im e n t a l
groups had p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e i n w r i t i n g m a t e r i a l t h a t
w?as c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o a c t u a l o f f i c e r e q u ir e m e n ts w hereas
th e c o n t r o l groups had been made t o em p hasize sp eed r a t h e r
th an w h o l e - a c c e p t a b l e job p e r fo r m a n c e .
I n S c h o o l & t h e c o n t r o l group was s l i g h t l y f a s t e r ,
and more a c c u r a t e .
Table XXIV shows th e q u a r t i l e d e v i a t i o n
from th e m edian was l e s s f o r th e c o n t r o l g r o u p .
S in c e th e
s t r a i g h t - c o p y t e s t g i v e n a t th e end o f th e f i r s t s e m e s t e r
th e grou p s had made about th e same p r o g r e ss :.
On T e s t XIV i n Sichool B t h e r e was a d i f f e r e n t
82
TABLE XXIV
COMPARISON OF NET, WORDS .AND, ERRORS ON STRAIGHT COPY
N et
Words S c h o o l A
and
E C
E rrors N E N E
5 5 -6 0
50-54
45 -4 9
40-44
3 5 -3 9
30-34
£ 5 -2 9
£0-24
15 -1 9
1 0 -1 4
5- 9
0- 4
School B
E C
N 1 N E
School C
E C
N E N E
1
1
1
6
5
1
3
£
2
4
4
8
1
£
1
1
5
4
3
3
1
1
4
2
9
4
T o t a l 19 19 20 20
N.M. 2 3 .5 0 2 3 .7 5
E rror 1 0 .6 3 8 . 3 3
Q..D.
9 . 0 7 4 .9 7
D.W.
.25
D .E .
2 .3 0
R a t io
.0 6
2
1
3
1
4 1 3
5 £ 5
8 2 11
3 11 3
1 10
1 1 2
1
4
8
9
4
1
27 27 27 27
2 0 . 5 0 1 8 .8 7
1 1 . 1 4 1 4 .7 2
5 .8 6 4 . 2 3
1 .6 3
3 .5 8
.6 3
1
1
5
6
8
2
4
1
1
1
2
7
8
7
£
1
1
1
1
1
3
5
5
4
1
1
1
1
3
9
8
.2
28 28 24 24
2 4 .3 8 2 6 .0 0
1 2 .8 1 1 1 . 1 1
5 . 0 0 9 .1 7
1 .6 2
1 .7 0
.4 2
Combined
E
C
N E N E
1
2
2
9 3
16 £
18 4
10 13
4 23
8 25
4 4
1
1
1
3
4' 1
0 1
13 1
9 5
19 15
10 20
1 21
4 7
74 74 71 71
£ 3 . 0 6 2 0 .8 3
1 1 . 7 4 1 1 .8 7
6 .1 7 6 .8 0
2 .2 3
.1 3
1 .1 0
*N o te: N.M. = N et m edian words; D.W. - d i f f e r e n c e
i n median n e t w ords; D .E . = d i f f e r e n c e i n m edian e r r o r s ;
r a t i o s on n e t m edian w o r d s .
83
p ic tu r e*
a te.
group.
The e x p e r im e n t a l group was f a s t e r and more a c c u r ­
The q u a r t i l e d e v i a t i o n was i n f a v o r o f th e c o n t r o l
S i n c e th e f i r s t s e m e s t e r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group
had made more p r o g r e s s i n sp e e d and a c c u r a c y .
The c o n t r o l group from S c h o o l C s t i l l e x c e l l e d th e
e x p e r im e n t a l group i n n e t median words p e r m inu te on t h e
str a ig h t-c o p y m a te r ia l.
They w ere more a c c u r a t e and showed
s l i g h t l y b e t t e r sp ee d r a t i n g s .
o n ly 1 . 6 2 , and th e r a t i o
Hough d r a f t .
However, th e d i f f e r e n c e was
.4 2 .
The s t u d e n t was i n s t r u c t e d t o ty p e th e
d r a f t a c c o r d in g t o t h e f o l l o w i n g d i r e c t i o n s :
Use a s i x t y
sp a c e l i n e open p u n c t u a t i o n , b l o c k th e i n s i d e a d d r e s s , i n ­
d e n t th e paragraphs f i v e s p a c e s , s i n g l e sp ace th e l e t t e r ,
ty p e th e com p lim entary c l o s e i n in d e n t e d form , and copy th e
accom panying rough d r a f t w i t h a l l i n d i c a t e d c h a n g e s .
The i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r s c o r i n g th e sp ee d r a t i n g s were
th e same as t h o s e g i v e n f o r T e s t X, e x c e p t t h a t o n ly f i v e
words were d e d u cte d from t h e g r o s s words f o r each e r r o r .
I t was th o u g h t b e t t e r t o d e d u c t f i v e words i n s t e a d o f t e n
f o r e a ch e r r o r b e c a u s e o f t h e g r e a t e r d i f f i c u l t y o f th e
work as compared w i t h th e s t r a i g h t - c o p y t e s t s .
The i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r s c o r i n g and g r a d in g th e a c c u r ­
a c y o f p la c em e n t f o r T e s t XV were s i m i l a r t o t h o s e g i v e n f o r
T e st X, and X I I I .
84
T able XXV shows th e p la cem en t and T ab le XXVI th e
sp ee d r a t i n g s ,
M. c o m p o site l i s t
o f the t h r e e s c h o o l s i n d i c a t e d th e
groups were p r a c t i c a l l y th e same on th e a c c u r a c y o f p l a c e ­
m ent, and sp eed r a t i n g s .
On T e s t XV, i n S c h o o l Ml on th e a c c u r a c y o f p la cem en t
o f th e d r a f t , th e e x p e r im e n t a l group was s l i g h t l y b e t t e r ,
w i t h a d i f f e r e n c e o f 1 , 8 4 and a r a t i o o f 1 , 0 1 , w hich a g a in
was n o t r e l i a b l e .
The s ta n d a r d d e v i a t i o n was i n f a v o r o f
th e e x p e r im e n t a l g r o u p .
On th e sp eed r a t i n g f o r th e t e s t
th e c o n t r o l group i n d i c a t e d a s l i g h t l y b e t t e r p erform an ce;
a lth o u g h th e q u a r t i l e d e v i a t i o n was l e s s f o r th e e x p e rim en ­
t a l group.
I n S c h o o l C t h e r e was j u s t th e o p p o s i t e .
The c o n t r o l
group i n d i c a t e d a b e t t e r r a t i n g on th e p la c e m e n t , and th e
e x p e r im e n t a l group a s l i g h t ad van tag e i n s p e e d .
On th e
p la c em e n t th e d i f f e r e n c e was 2 .9 4 and th e r a t i o 1 . 7 3 .
c o u r se t h i s
was n o t c o m p l e t e ly r e l i a b l e ,
th e e v e n n e ss o f
Of
but i t d id show
th e groups a t t h a t l a t e d a t e i n the s c h o o l
year.
In S c h o o l B th e r e s u l t s were abou t t h e same f o r b o th
groups•
From
can -b e s e e n
th e d a ta c o n t a in e d i n T a b le s XXVand XXVI i t
th e e x p e r im e n t a l grou p s were
a b l e t o h a n d le t h i s
ty p e o f m a t e r i a l w i t h as much e f f i c i e n c y as th e c o n t r o l
85
TABLE XXV
COMPARISON Of SCORES ON A ROUGH DRAFT
Scores
School A
E
C
School B
E
C
2 4 -2 5
2 2 -2 3
2 0 -2 1
1 8 -19
1 6 -1 7
1 4 -1 5
1 2 -1 3
1 0 -1 1
8- 9
6- 7
4- 5
2- 3
0- 1
2
1
3
4
3
2
1
2
2
1
1
2
6
4
5
4
2
1
3
3
3
1
2
1
3
2
1
2
1
22
T o t a l s 22
Mean 14,.38 1 2 ,.54
6 ,.36
S .D . 5,,56
D.
1 ..84
R a t io
1 ..01
1
2
5
4
5
School C
E
C
1
2
4
6
5
2
1
3
3
27
1 6 .3 4
5 .4 6
2
8
1
2
2
1
1
1
11
3
1
1:
2
27
24
26
15,.58 16 .5 6 19,.50
7,.28 . 5 .3 0
7,.02
.7 6
2 ,. 94
1 ,.73
.4 2
Combined
1
C
1
6
11
13
14
9
5
5
2
5
1
3
1
76
15 .8 2
5..5 6
12
2
10
15
8
1
3
1
8
2
1
5
4
'
72
15,.72
7,.04
.1 0
.09
*N ote: The d a ta a r e th e number o f p o in t s c o r r e c t
out o f a p o s s ib le tw e n ty -fiv e .
86
TABLE XXVI
COMPARISON OF NIT WORDS ON A ROUGH DRAFT
N et
Words
School A
1
C
School B
1
C
School C
E
C
Combined
“1
C
4 0 -4 5
1
1
3 5 -3 9
1
1
30-34
1
2 5 -2 9
2
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
4
2 0-24
3
4
2
1
4
5
9
10
1 5 -1 9
8
6
6
9
9
3
23
18
10-14
9
9
16
11
10
8
35
28
5- 9
1
2
1
3
3
6
4
0- 4
1
2
1
4
2
27
24
27
26
76
72
Median 1 5 .0 0 1 6 .6 6 1 3 .5 9
14 .09
1 5 .2 9
1 5 .0 0
1 4 .7 5
15 .0 0
2 .6 9
2 .9 3
3 .5 9
6 .2 3
T o ta ls
Q,.D.
D.
R a t io
22
22
3 .1 9
4 .4 0
3 .2 7 ’
4 .1 0
1 .6 6
.5 0
.29
.2 5
.77
.3 4
.1 1
.2 2
87
stu d en ts.
The rough d r a f t was s i m i l a r t o th e b u s i n e s s
l e t t e r s , w hich would p r o b a b ly a c c o u n t f o r t h e e v e n n e s s o f
t h e groups on t h i s t e s t .
The s c o r e s i n m ost c a s e s were to o
c l o s e t o i n d i c a t e any a p p a ren t d i f f e r e n c e .
Hough d r a f t ,
'A fter f u r t h e r s t u d y o f rough d r a f t s th e
groups were g i v e n T e s t XVI.
The i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r - s c o r i n g t h e sp e e d r a t i n g s were
e x a c t l y th e same as t h o s e g i v e n f o r T e s t XV, and th e d i r e c ­
t i o n s f o r s c o r i n g and g r a d in g th e a c c u r a c y o f th e p la cem en t
w ere s i m i l a r .
T able XXVII sum m arizes th e a c c u r a c y o f p la c e m e n t, and
Table XXVIII shows th e sp ee d r a t i n g s .
I n ex a m in in g th e combined s c o r e s i t was found th e
groups were v e r y e v e n , and n e i t h e r group i n d i c a t e d any
su p e r io r ity .
W hile th e c o n t r o l groups* made a s l i g h t l y
b e t t e r r a t i n g on p la c e m e n t , th e e x p e r im e n t a l groups were
b e t t e r on s p e e d .
S t r a i g h t - copy m a t e r i a l .
l a s t week o f th e s c h o o l y e a r .
len g th .
T e s t XVII was g i v e n the
The t e s t was t e n m in u tes i n
^ T y p e w ritin g T e s t s ft p u b l i s h e d by L. C. Sm ith and
Corona T y p e w r ite r Company, A p r i l , 1 9 3 0 , f u r n i s h e d th e b a s i s
f o r comparing th e g r o u p s .
I n a l l t h r e e s c h o o l s th e c o n t r o l groups s t i l l h e l d
th e l e a d i n th e s t r a i g h t - c o p y t e s t .
I n t h r e e out o f th e
88
TABLE XXVII
COMPARISON OF SCORES ON A ROUGH DRAFT
Scores
School A
E
C
24-25
22-23
2 0 -2 1
1 8 -1 9
1 6 -1 7
1 4 -1 5
1 2 -1 3
1 0 -1 1
8- 9 *
6- 7
4- 5
2 -3
0- 1
3
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
4
1
2
1
2
School B
E
C
School C
E
C
2
1
5
6
3
4
1
3
2
3
6
3
1
1
8
1
4
1
2
1
1
3
1
1
2
2
1
1
2
27
1 3 .6 6
6 .2 8
.1 8
.1 0
24
1 6 .0 8
5 .7 8
1
3
2
5
1
1
2
1
1
1
3
T o t a l s 21
21
Mean 1 2 .7 2 1 3 .5 7
7 .0 4
S .D . 7 .7 6
.8 5
D.
R a tio
.37
1
2
4
8
1
1
3
.2
1
1
4
29
1 3 .4 8
6 .7 4
3
23
1 7 .0 0
8 .3 8
.9 2
.4 2
Combined
1
C
4
6
4
9
13
8
6
* 2
6
3
4
3
6
9
2
9
7
15
3
3
5
1
6
2
1
8
74
1 4 .1 2
6 .9 0
71
1 4 .9 2
7 .4 6
.8 0
.1 9
89
TABLE XXVIII
COMPARISON OF NET WORDS ON A ROUGH DRAFT
Net
Words
School A
'1
C
School B
1
0
School C ’
1
C
30-34
Combined
1
C
3
2 5 -2 9
1
20-24
1
4
1
1 5 -1 9
10
7
6
10-14
5
6
3
1
5
5
7
9
3
7
5
23
15
19
19
8
. 5
32
30
3
4
3
3
6
7
1
1
2
5
7
29
27
24
23
74
71
Median 1 5 .7 5 15 .3 6 1 3 .0 3
1 2 .2 4
1 5 .0 0
16 .5 0
1 4 .0 6
1 3 .5 8
3 .7 8
4 .0 2
5 .75
3 .2 8
3 .7 0
5- 9
0 -4
T o ta ls
Q,.D.
4
4
21
21
2 .5 6
4 .3 4
4 .3 6
D.
.39
.79
1 .5 0
.4 8
R a t io
.19
.3 8
.5 6
.4 4
90 .
f o u r s t r a i g h t - c o p y t e s t s g i v e n th r o u g h o u t th e s c h o o l y e a r
t h e c o n t r o l groups typed s l i g h t l y f a s t e r .
However, a t th e
end o f th e y e a r , i n a l l . s c h o o l s i t was found th e d i f f e r e n c e s i n sc o re s' were s o s l i g h t t h a t n e i t h e r th e e x p e r i m e n t a l or
th e c o n t r o l group c o u ld h a r d l y be s a i d t o h a v e an a d v an tag e
o v e r th e o t h e r .
T e s t V g i v e n i n jMovember gave th e c o n t r o l groups a
m argin o f 3 . 2 9 n e t words p e r m in u te o v er th e e x p e r im e n t a l
g r o u p s , b u t by t h e end o f th e s c h o o l y e a r th e d i f f e r e n c e was
o n ly 1 .4 5 n e t words p e r m inu te i n f a v o r o f th e c o n t r o l
groups.
The c o n t r o l groups had d ou b led t h e i r sp e e d r a t i n g
b etw een November and t h e l a s t o f th e s c h o o l y e a r or advanced
from 1 2 .5 0 t o 2 4 .6 4 n e t words p e r m in u te .
The e x p e r im e n t a l
groups showed a b e t t e r g a i n i n sp eed r a t i n g s and advanced
from 9 . 2 1 t o 2 3 .1 9 n e t words p e r m in u te .
W hile a t th e end
o f th e s c h o o l y e a r th e c o n t r o l groups were t y p i n g s l i g h t l y
f a s t e r th an th e e x p e r im e n t a l g r o u p s , th e d i f f e r e n c e was n o t
s u f f i c i e n t t o o f f s e t t h e i r l a c k o f e x p e r i e n c e , or t h e i r
s l o w i n g up i n sp ee d on th e v a r i e t y w ork.
B u s in e s s l e t t e r .
T a b le s XXX and XXXI summarizes th e
r e s u l t s f o r th e a c c u r a c y o f p la c em e n t o f th e l e t t e r and th e
sp e e d r a t i n g s •
The i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r s c o r i n g t h e sp eed r a t i n g s were
e x a c t l y th e same as t h o s e g i v e n f o r T e s ts X and X I I I .
The
91
TABLE XXIX
COMPARISON OF NET WORDS AND ERRORS ON STRAIGHT COPY
School B
E
C
N E N E
50-54
4 5 -4 9
40-44
3 5 -3 9
3 0 -3 4
8 5 -2 9
2 0 -2 4
15*19
1 0 -1 4
5- 9
0- 4
1
3
1
1
2
8
4
6
2
1
1
1
1
1
7
6
2
.
1
2
1
4
2
2 11
2 2
1
4
1
5
5
2
3
1
1
3
5
6
5
T o t a l 23 23 21 21
N.M. 2 3 .7 5 2 5 .5 0
E rror 9 . 3 2 9 . 5 8
5 . 5 8 6 .6 7
q .D .
D.W.
1 .7 5
.2 6
D.E
.7 1
R a t io
3
1
7
9
3
6
1
2
1
3
4
5
3
3
4
Sic h o o l C
E
N E N
. r£>
lo
Net
Yfords S c h o o l A
E
C
and
E rrors N E N E
1
2
1
5
5
6
5
4
29 29 26 26
2 0 . 9 4 2 3 .0 0
1 3 .0 6 1 3 .3 3
6 .6 7 7 .8 3
2 .0 6
.27
.6 3
1
1
6 1
6
8 1
5 7
1 10
7
2
1
2
7
4
2
4
2
6
1
9
9
28 28 25 25
2 5 . 0 0 2 5 .3 6
1 2 .5 0 6 . 9 3
5 . 1 0 7 .0 9
.3 6
5 .5 7
.1 1
Combined
C
E
N E N E
1
5
3
8
15
22
11
8
4
3
2
5
3
18
21
21
10
1
4
2
6
6
16 2
14 12
7 9
10 20
6 20
9
80 80 72 72
2 3 .1 9 2 4 .6 4
1 2 .1 5 1 1 .7 5
5 .3 6 8 .0 3
1 .4 5
.4 0
.69
*N ote: N.M. s N et m edian w ords; D.W. « d i f f e r e n c e
i n m edian n e t w ords; D .E . * d i f f e r e n c e i n median e r r o r s ;
R a t io s on n e t m edian w o r d s.
92
TABLE XXX
COMPARISON OF SCORES ON A BUSINESS LITTER
Scores
24-25
22-23
2 0 -2 1
1 8 -1 9
1 6 -1 7
1 4 -1 5
1 2 -1 3
1 0 -1 1
8- 9
6- 7
4- 5
2 -3
0- 1
School A
1
C
5
6
5
3
2
4
2
3
5
4
2
1
1
1
1
22
T o t a l s 23
Mean 20*13 1 9 .2 7
4 .1 0
S .D . 5*78
D.
.8 6
R a t io
.7 7
School B
E
C
1
2
2
4
5
3
4
1
6
28
7 .7 9
5 .1 0
2
3
4
3
2
1
3
5
23
7 .5 4
4 .8 4
.2 5
.19
School C
E
C
4
1
3
1
1
4
3
2
4
2
25
1 3 .4 0
6 .6 0
4'
3
3
2
3
2
1
1
1
6
26
1 4 .7 8
8 .9 6
1 .3 8
• 66
Combined
E
C
5
10
6
7
3
3
6
7
7
8
4
1
9
8
5
6
7
7
6
5
5
4
2
1
4
11
76
1 3 .3 8
8 .0 2
71
1 3 .8 2
7 .9 0
.4 4
.3 2
93
TABLE XXXI
COMPARISON OF NET WORDS ON A BUSINESS LETTER
N et
Words
School A
E
C
School B
E
C
S c h o o l. C
E
C
Combined
E
C
3 5 -3 9
2
2
30-34
1
1
2 5 -2 9
1
.2
1
1
2
3
20-24
2
4
3
4
5
8
1 5 -1 9
12
12
3
1
13
3
28
16
10-14
7
4
6
8
6
3
19
15
5- 9
1
10
6
2
6
13
12
9
8
6
9
14
28
23
25
26
76
71
7 .5 0
7 .9 2
1 6 .7 3
1 1 . 66
1 4 .4 4
1 3 .1 6
3 .8 9
4 .2 2
2 .8 8
8 . 23
7 .0 1
• 8 .4 8
0- 4
T o ta ls
22
23
Median 1 6 .4 6 1 7 .9 1
Q,.D.
2 .7 3
2 .5 0
D.
1 .4 5
.4 2
5 .0 7
1 .2 8
R a t io
1 .0 1
.2 0
1 .5 9
.7 1
94
i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r s c o r i n g and g r a d in g th e a c c u r a c y o f th e
p la c em e n t were s i m i l a r
Both groups had
nessl e t t e r .
most
to th o se g iv en f o r T est
a lm o st e q u a l a b i l i t y t o ty p e a b u s i ­
T h e ir s c o r e s f o r sp ee d and p lacem en t
I d e n tic a l.
VII and V I I I .
A f t e r s t u d y i n g th e r e s u l t s o f
were a l ­
a l l th e b u s i ­
n e s s l e t t e r t e s t s i t was o b v io u s th e f i r s t s e m e s t e r e x p e r i ­
m e n ta l c o u r s e had b een ad eq u a te i n t h i s ty p e o f t r a i n i n g .
I n T e s t s X, X I I I , and XV th e e x p e r im e n t a l groups were s l i g h t ­
ly fa ste r .
I n T e st X t h e y were more a c c u r a t e on th e p l a c e ­
ment o f th e l e t t e r .
SUMMARY OF SECOND SEMESTER TESTS
T ab le XXXII summarizes- th e r e s u l t s
o f a l l th e t e s t s
g i v e n th e se co n d s e m e s t e r , com bining th e means and m edians
o f th e t h r e e s c h o o l s .
T h is c h a p t e r h a s r e v e a le d th e r e s u l t s - o f th e secon d
s e m e s t e r s t u d e n t s on m a t e r i a l t h a t was s t r i c t l y o f a v o c a ­
t io n a l n atu re.
The f i r s t s e m e s t e r , one group i n each s c h o o l
was t r a i n e d from m a t e r i a l t h a t was s t r i c t l y o f a p e r s o n a l u s e n a t u r e , and th e o th e r o f a v o c a t i o n a l .
The se co n d
s e m e s t e r b o th groups s t u d i e d v o c a t i o n a l m a t e r i a l .
These t e s t s were g i v e n t o determ ine- w h ich o f th e two
groups^ e x c e l l e d a t th e end o f t h e y e a r i n sp eed and a c c u r a c y
in t e s t s
o f v o c a t i o n a l t y p e ; . t o d e te r m in e i f th e groups who
s t u d i e d e x p e r im e n t a l or p e r s o n a l - u s e t y p in g i n th e f i r s t
TABLE XXXII
SUMMARY OF SECOND SEMESTER TESTS
T est
E x p e r im e n ta l
95
C o n tr o l
T a b u la t io n T e s t V II
P la cem en t
N et words p er m in u te
.1 6 . 6 2
7 .9 7
1 4 .3 8
7 .7 8
T a b u la t io n T e s t V I I I
P lacem en t
Net words p e r m in u te
1 7 .8 4
1 0 .2 9
1 7 .4 2
1 0 .8 7
L e t t e r in f o r m a t io n T e s t IX
1 9 .0 8
1 8 .8 4
B u sin ess l e t t e r T est X
P la cem en t
N et words p e r m in u te
1 9 .7 0
1 1 .9 8
1 8 .1 4
1 1 .5 0
E n velo p e a d d r e s s i n g T e s t XI
N et words p e r m in u te
7 .7 2
7 .1 6
E n velop e a d d r e s s i n g T e s t X II
N et words p er m in u te
9 .4 1
1 0 .4 1
B u sin e ss l e t t e r T est X III
P la cem en t
N et words p e r m in u te
1 0 .0 0
9 .0 0
1 1 .2 2
8 .8 9
S t r a i g h t - c o p y T e s t XIV
N et words p er m in u te
2 3 .0 6
2 0 .8 3
Rough d r a f t T e s t XV
P lacem en t
N et words p er m in u te
1 5 .8 2
1 4 .7 5
1 5 .7 2
1 5 .0 0
Rough d r a f t T e s t XVI
P la cem en t
N et words p e r m in u te
1 4 .1 2
1 4 .0 6
1 4 .9 2
1 3 .5 8
S t r a i g h t - c o p y T e s t XVII
N et words p e r m inu te
2 3 .1 9
2 4 .6 4
B u s i n e s s l e t t e r T e s t XVIII
P la cem en t
N et words p er m in u te
1 3 .3 8
1 4 .4 4
1 3 .8 2
1 3 .1 6
* N o te ’: The d a ta a r e th e means and m edians o f the
com bined s c h o o l s c o r e s f o r th e r e s p e c t i v e g r o u p s .
96
s e m e s t e r were a t any d is a d v a n ta g e i n c o p in g w i t h stu d en ts;
whose f i r s t s e m e s t e r work was c o n t r o l or v o c a t i o n a l t y p i n g ;
to see i f
t h e y m ight r a t e lo w e r b e c a u se o f l a c k o f sp eed
and fo r m a l d r i l l s *
The i n v e s t i g a t o r k e p t i n mind, i n r e v ie w in g th e t e s t
r e s u lt s * , a c c o m p lis h m e n ts . o f th e d i f f e r e n t groups; i n th e
f i r s t s e m e s t e r and was i n t e r e s t e d t o n o t e how n e a r l y e q u a l
were th e scores; o f th e g r o u p s , or how e v e n l y e i t h e r f i r s t
s e m e s t e r c o u r se had p rep ared th e stu d e n ts; f o r v o c a t i o n a l
work i n th e se co n d se m e s te r *
i n th e sc o re s; t h a t i t
There was s;o l i t t l e
v a r ia tio n
c o u ld n o t be s a i d one group e x c e l l e d
w it h any v a l u a b l e m argin o v e r th e o th e r*
On s t r a i g h t - c o p y m a t e r i a l th e c o n t r o l groups typ ed
s l i g h t l y f a s t e r , b u t t h e y were s l o w e r and l e s s a c c u r a t e on
m ost ta b u la tio n s * , a d d r e s s in g e n v e l o p e s , and b u s i n e s s l e t t e r s .
The c o n t r o l groups showed t h e i r b e s t p erform ance when t h e r e
was no r e a r r a n g in g n e c e s s a r y t o g e t th e f i n i s h e d product*
Taking th e t e s t s as a w hole th e e x p e r im e n t a l group cou ld
c e r t a i n l y be c o n s id e r e d e q u a l t o th e c o n t r o l group i n b o th
sp ee d and a c c u r a c y *
They had d e f i n i t e l y n o t b ee n h a n d i ­
capped b e c a u se o f s t u d y in g th e p e r s o n a l - u s e m a t e r i a l the
f i r s t sem ester.
For i f th e d i f f e r e n c e i n th e r e s u l t s were
s i g n i f i c a n t enough t o g i v e one group a m argin over th e
o th e r i t w ould be i n f a v o r o f th e e x p e r i m e n t a l groups;.
W hatever th e e x p e r i m e n t a l groups; la c k e d i n sp e e d on s t r a i g h t
97
copy tests.; t h e y made up on o th e r t e s t s b e c a u s e o f t h e i r
v a r i e t y o f e x p e r i e n c e on p r o d u c t i v e w ork.
CHAPTER V
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS'
I .
The p rob lem *
SUMMARY
The pu rp ose o f t h i s s t u d y was t o mea­
su r e th e t r a n s f e r o f l e a r n i n g from p e r s o n a l - u s e t o v o c a t i o n ­
a l t y p e w r i t i n g ; t o compare and c o n t r a s t th e s i m i l a r i t i e s
and d i f f e r e n c e s o f p e r s o n a l - u s e and v o c a t i o n a l t y p e w r i t i n g ;
t o a n a ly z e th e know ledge and s k i l l t e s t s g i v e n t o p e r s o n a l u s e and v o c a t i o n a l t y p e w r i t i n g groups th e f i r s t s e m e s t e r on
m a t e r i a l s common t o b o th g r o u p s; t o a n a ly z e th e t e s t s g i v e n
t o th e groups th e seco n d s e m e s t e r a c c o r d in g t o th e aims and
p u rp o se s o f seco n d s e m e s t e r v o c a t i o n a l t y p e w r it i n g *
Method o f p r o c e d u r e .
In o r d e r t o p rocu re adequ ate
i n f o r m a t i o n an e x p e r im e n t w?as c a r r ie d out i n t h r e e s c h o o l s *
The f i r s t s e m e s t e r t y p e w r i t i n g s t u d e n t s were d i v i d e d i n t o
two groups i n each s c h o o l*
One c o u r se was d e s ig n e d as
s t r i c t l y p e r s o n a l - u s e t y p e w r i t i n g and t h e o t h e r as s t r i c t l y
v o c a tio n a l*
w eek s.
Both groups f o l l o w e d th e s t u d y f o r e i g h t e e n
I n each s c h o o l b o th c l a s s e s had e q u a l amount o f
tim e f o r s t u d y .
The same i n s t r u c t o r ta u g h t b o th c l a s s e s .
D uring th e f i r s t s e m e s t e r s i x t e s t s were g i v e n t o
d e te r m in e th e achievem ents- o f s t u d e n t s on m a t e r i a l s common
t o b o th g r o u p s .
At th e end o f th e e i g h t e e n weeks th e
99
p e r s o n a l - u s e c o u r se was d i s c o n t i n u e d and a l l s t u d e n t s
s t u d i e d v o c a t i o n a l t y p e w r i t i n g f o r th e r em a in in g e i g h t e e n
weeks o f th e s c h o o l y e a r .
E le v e n d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f v o c a t i o n a l t e s t s were
g i v e n t o d e te r m in e th e t r a n s f e r o f l e a r n i n g by comparing'
th e r e s u l t s o f th e e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l g r o u p s .
R e su lts.
By th e end o f th e f i r s t s e m e s t e r , th e e x ­
p e r im e n t a l groups had a s l i g h t l y b e t t e r know ledge o f c o r r e c t
s p a c i n g , s y l l a b i c a t i o n and a r t o f c e n t e r i n g th an th e c o n t r o l
groups.
T h e ir know ledge was b ro a d e r than t h a t o f th e con­
t r o l groups and t h e y were b e t t e r p r e p a r e d f o r v a r i e t y t e s t s
th an th e c o n t r o l c l a s s e s .
The p r o d u c t io n r a t e o f th e c o n t r o l c l a s s e s was h i g h e r
on b o th s t r a i g h t copy t e s t s and showed r e s u l t s o f sp ee d
d r ills.
However, th e e x p e r im e n t a l groups made a b e t t e r and
more s t e a d y g a in i n n e t words' p e r m in u te , and by the. end o f
th e y e a r th e d i f f e r e n c e i n th e p r o d u c t io n r a t e o f th e two
groups was v e r y s l i g h t .
I n th e secon d s e m e s t e r t h e r e was l i t t l e
th e r e s u l t s
o f th e t e s t s .
v a r ia tio n in
The e x p e r im e n t a l and c o n t r o l
groups h a n d le d th e work w i t h a lm o st e q u a l e f f i c i e n c y , and
a t no tim e c o u ld one group be c o n s id e r e d s u p e r i o r o v e r th e
o th er.
On s t r a i g h t - c o p y m a t e r i a l th e c o n t r o l groups s t i l l
ty p ed s l i g h t l y f a s t e r , but th e y were some s lo w e r and l e s s
100
a c c u r a t e on t a b u l a t i o n a n d - b u s in e s s l e t t e r s .
m e n ta l groups showed l e s s
The e x p e r i ­
c o n f u s io n when c o n fr o n t e d w i t h any
u n f a m i l i a r ty p e o f work, and th e y c o u ld make a q u ic k e r
m e n ta l p la n o f t y p in g m a t e r i a l on a page t o g i v e a n e a t
app earance than th e c o n t r o l g r o u p s .
-They a l s o made n e a t e r
c o r r e c t i o n s on a l l m a t e r i a l t e s t e d .
II.
CONCLUSIONS
Prom th e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s e x p e r im e n t th e f o l l o w i n g
c o n c l u s i o n s were drawn;
1.
The methods u s e d and t h e p r o c e d u r e s f o l l o w e d th e
f i r s t s e m e s t e r p la c e d th e s t u d e n t s who had s t u d i e d p e r s o n a l u s e t y p e w r i t i n g a t no d is a d v a n ta g e i n h a n d l i n g th e v o c a t i o n a l
work th e se co n d s e m e s t e r .
2.
The f i r s t s e m e s t e r p e r s o n a l - u s e c o u r se f u r n i s h e d
an e x c e l l e n t t y p in g f o u n d a t i o n .
3’.
The t r a n s f e r from th e f i r s t s e m e s t e r p e r s o n a l - u s e
s t u d y t o th e v o c a t i o n a l p r o ced u re p r e s e n t e d no d i f f i c u l t y .
£.
Net words p e r m inute on s t r a i g h t - c o p y m a t e r i a l
d o es n o t m easure a s t u d e n t s a b i l i t y t o do a c t u a l v o c a t i o n a l
w ork.
5.
The s t u d e n t s who had s t u d i e d p e r s o n a l - u s e t y p in g
were a t no d is a d v a n t a g e b e c a u se o f t h e i r l a c k o f sp ee d d r i l l s
th e f i r s t s e m e s t e r f o r by th e end o f th e s c h o o l y e a r th e
d i f f e r e n c e i n th e r a te o f sp eed o f th e two c l a s s e s was to o
s l i g h t t o be c o n s id e r e d im p o r ta n t ,
6,
A c tu a l e x p e r i e n c e o f p e r s o n a l - u s e t y p i s t s th e
f i r s t s e m e s t e r i n a d d r e s s in g e n v e l o p e s , t y p i n g l e t t e r s and
a r r a n g in g t a b u l a t i o n s gave them a n o t i c e a b l e ad van tage over
th e v o c a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s i n the secon d s e m e s t e r t e s t s ,
7,
E a r ly t r a i n i n g o f p e r s o n a l - u s e s t u d e n t s ’ i n t y p in g
u s a b l e m a t e r i a l , r a t h e r th an form d r i l l s
e n a b le d them t o
tu r n i n n e a t e r t e s t pap ers than th e s t u d e n t s i n th e c o n t r o l
c la s se s „
8,
In a d d itio n ,
s t u d e n t s who s t u d i e d p e r s o n a l - u s e
t y p i n g th e f i r s t s e m e s t e r had a d v a n ta g es i n t r a i n i n g t h a t
the v o c a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s d id n o t r e c e i v e , su ch a s r
w r itin g
th em es, making o u t l i n e s o f s c h o o l work, com posing a t th e
m a ch in e, crow ding and s p r e a d in g l e t t e r s w i t h o u t th e a l t e r ­
a t i o n b e in g t o o c o n s p i c i o u s , t y p in g p o s t a l c a r d s , p r e p a r in g
m in u tes o f m e e t i n g s , t y p in g p l a c e card s and b r id g e c a r d s ,
t y p i n g games f o r p a r t i e s ,
d ia r ie s,
j o k e s , i n v i t a t i o n s and a n s w e r s ,
r e .6 ip e s , g r o c e r y l i s t s , menus, program s, t i t l e
p a g e s , p o s t e r s , p o e t r y , book r e f e r e n c e s , book r e v i e w s ,
t a b l e o f c o n t e n t s and m a n u s c r i p t s ,
III.
EECOMMENDATIONS
From th e s t u d y th e f o l l o w i n g recom m endations seem
a d v isa b le:
1,
A l l s t u d e n t s sh o u ld be p e r m it t e d t o ta k e
102
p e r s o n a l - u s e t y p e w r i t i n g th e f i r s t year*
2.
A one s e m e s t e r c o u r se f o r p e r s o n a l - u s e t y p e w r i t ­
i n g would he a d e q u a te , hut i t sh o u ld he g i v e n e a r l y i n th e
se c o n d a r y s c h o o l*
3.
I n s c h o o l s where equipm ent . i s i n s u f f i c i e n t and
t h e r e i s a need f o r c u r t a i l i n g e x p e n s e s th e i n t r o d u c t o r y
c o u r se he p e r s o n a l - u s e and l i m i t e d t o one s e m e s t e r i n o rd er
to accom odate more s t u d e n t s .
4.
That th e t y p e w r i t i n g p e r io d s he c u t t o o n e - h a l f
hou r each day f i v e tim es a week when n e c e s s a r y t o p erm it
more s t u d e n t s t o ta k e th e c o u r s e .
5*
That a l l s t u d e n t s be urged t o a c q u ir e some know­
le d g e o f t y p i n g b e c a u se o f th e added a d v a n ta g e s t y p i n g o f f e r s
i n s c h o o l , home and s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s .
6.
That a l l t y p e w r i t i n g t r a i n i n g b e g in w i t h a c o u r se
i n p e r s o n a l - u s e t y p in g and l a t e r e n r o l l t h o s e who a r e b e s t
ad ap ted t o b u s i n e s s c a r e e r s i n v o c a t i o n a l c l a s s e s .
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Q u i n e t t e , A lf r e d H ., ° B u s in e s s E d u c a tio n and I t s R e l a t i o n
t o P u p i l s , 0 B a la n c e S h e e t , 2 0 : 3 4 0 - 4 4 , A p r i l , 1 9 3 9 .
R e y n o ld s , H e le n , ° A c h ie v in g S ta n d a r d s i n T y p in g ,0 B u s in e s s
E d u c a tio n W orld, 1 6 : 7 7 3 - 8 0 , J u n e , 1 9 3 6 .
Rowe, Clyde E . , °New Commercial E d u c a tio n t o Meet Changing
C o n d i t i o n s , 0 B u s i n e s s E d u c a tio n D i g e s t , 1 : 2 8 - 3 0 , March,
1937.
S c h n e i d e r , A. E . , °New V ie w p o in ts on th e P e r s o n a l T y p e w r itin g
C o u r s e ,0 J o u rn a l o f B u s in e s s E d u c a t i o n , 1 4 : 2 1 - 2 2 , Janu­
ary, 1939.
S l a u g h t e r , R obert E . , ° L o st H o r iz o n s and B u s in e s s E d u c a t i o n , 0
N a t i o n a l B u s in e s s E d u c a tio n Q u a r t e r l y , 8 : 4 1 , O ctob er,
1939."
Sm ith , H arold H ., °Comments by Our R e a d e r s , 0 B u s in e s s Educat i o n W orld, 1 9 : 7 7 8 , May, 1 9 3 9 .
~
________ , 0Comments on th e T y p e w r itin g A p p r o a ch ,0 B u s in e s s
E d u c a tio n W orld, 1 9 :2 7 7 , Decem ber, 1 9 3 8 .
, ° H a lf Truths and M i s s t a t e m e n t s , 0 B u s in e s s E d u c a tio n
W orld, 1 9 : 8 2 0 - 8 2 2 , June, 1 9 3 9 .
108
________ , ^ T ra in in g Boutin© f o r T y p i s t s , * B u s in e s s E d u c a tio n
W orld, 2 0 : 5 6 8 , March, 1 9 4 0 .
________ , *Trends i n T y p e w r i t in g ,* n a t i o n a l B u s in e s s E d u c a tio n
Q u a r t e r l y , 8 : 3 5 , March, 1940.,
S t u a r t , Mary, *Trends o f I n s t r u c t i o n i n B u s in e s s S u b j e c t s
and New Curriculum M a te r ia ls - ,* B a la n c e S h e e t , 1 9 : 5 - 8 ,
S e p tem b er, 1 9 3 7 .
S p e n c e r , B . W., * S a n e ly P r o g r e s s i v e , * N a t i o n a l B u s in e s s
E d u c a tio n Q u a r t e r l y , 6 : 1 0 - 1 1 , A u g u st, 1 9 3 7 .
Tonne, H e r b e r t , ^ T y p e w ritin g i n Lower L e v e ls o f the S e c o n ­
d ary S c h o o l s , * J o u r n a l o f B u s i n e s s E d u c a tio n , 1 5 : 7 ,
March, 1 9 4 0 .
Wanous, S . J . , ^Symposium o f Problem s o f T ea ch in g T y p e w r it­
i n g , * N a t i o n a l B u s in e s s E d u c a tio n Q u a r t e r l y , 8 : 2 0 - 2 1 ,
March, 1 9 4 0 .
Webb, Mary D . , ^ T y p e w ritin g f o r E very P u p i l , * B u s in e s s Edu­
c a t i o n D i g e s t , 3 : 1 4 5 - 4 6 , May, 1 9 3 9 .
I f e l l e r , C arl G ., *A P r i n c i o a l ’ s View o f B u s in e s s E d u c a t i o n ,*
B a la n c e S h e e t , 1 8 : 2 7 0 - 7 1 , F e b r u a r y , 1 9 3 7 .
W ilm in g to n , *G uiding P r i n c i p l e s and S u g g e s te d C u r r ic u lu m ,*
N a t i o n a l B u s in e s s E d u c a tio n Q u a r t e r ly , 7 : 1 5 , December,
1937
Wood, E t h e l , ^ P e r s o n a l T y p e w r i t in g ,* B a la n ce S h e e t , 1 9 : 1 5 2 5 3 , December, 1 9 3 7 .
W y c o ff, J . E . , ^Typing f o r P e r s o n a l U s e ,* B u s in e s s E d u c a tio n
W orld, 1 7 : 1 6 - 2 0 , S ep tem b er, 1 9 3 6 .
Z e l l i o t , E r n e s t A ., * O b j e e t i v e s i n High S c h o o l B u s i n e s s Sub­
j e c t s , * B u s in e s s E d u c a tio n W orld, 1 9 : 8 4 5 , Ju n e, 1 9 3 9 .
C.
PABTS OF SERIES
Hanna, J . M a r s h a ll, Fundam ental I s s u e s i n B u s in e s s E d u c a t i o n .
Monograph F o r t y - E i g j i t . C i n c i n n a t i : S o u th -W estern
P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1 9 4 0 . 56 p p .
109
D.
PUBLICATIONS OP LEARNED.ORGANIZATIONS
H a r r i s , S . M., "Typing P ro c ed u r es and C lassroom T e s t s , "
N a t i o n a l Commercial T each ers F i f t h Y earb oo k . D e t r o i t :
N a t i o n a l Commercial T each ers F e d e r a t i o n , 1 9 3 9 . Pp 2 6 9 - 7 4 .
Q u in la n , Mrs. J . H ., "Comments on Typing A b i l i t y T e s t ,"
Tenth Y earbook, E a s t e r n Commercial T ea ch ers A s s o c i a t i o n .
P h i l a d e l p h i a ”:' E a s t e r n Commercial T each ers A s s o c i a t i o n ,
1 9 3 7 . pp . 2 6 9 - 7 1 .
E.
UNPUBLISHED MATEEIALS
B e n n e t t , E l s i e , "Trends i n th e T ea ch in g o f T y p e w r itin g as
I n d i c a t e d by an A n a ly s i s o f R ecent L i t e r a t u r e . " Unpub­
l i s h e d M a s t e r ’ s t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e rn C a l i ­
f o r n i a , Los A n g e l e s , 1 9 3 7 . 110 pp .
B l a i r , D orothy Mae W h ite , "A C r i t i c a l A n a l y s i s o f th e Mea­
s u r i n g D e v ic e s Used i n T y p e w r itin g C l a s s e s i n Secon d ary
S c h o o l s . " U n p u b lish e d M a s t e r ’s t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y
o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s , 1 9 3 4 . 103 pp.
C rary, A n n a b e lle , R . , "A C r i t i c a l A n a ly s i s o f th e L i t e r a t u r e
i n th e F i e l d o f S e c r e t a r i a l S t u d i e s
U n p u b lish ed
M a s t e r ’ s t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a ,
Los A n g e l e s , 1 9 3 5 .
123 pp.
E n g b erg , E . R . , "A S tu d y o f the P o s s i b i l i t i e s o f I n t e g r a t i n g
Cither S u b j e c t M a tte r i n t o th e T e a ch in g o f T y p e w r itin g i n
th e J u n io r High S c h o o l ." U n p u b lish e d M a s t e r ’ s t h e s i s ,
The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s ,
1 9 3 3 . 117 pp.
F i s h e l , C arl T ., "The E v o l u t i o n o f B u s in e s s E d u c a tio n i n the
P u b li c High S c h o o l . " U n p u b lish ed M a s t e r ’ s t h e s i s , The
U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e l e s , 1 9 3 5 . 98pp.
Oldham, G race, "Colorado Speed Norms f o r T y p e w r itin g S t u ­
d e n t s o f th e Second and F ourth S e m e s t e r ." U n p u b lish ed
M a s t e r ’ s t h e s i s , C olorado S t a t e C o lle g e ,. G r e e l e y ,
C o lo r a d o , 1 9 3 6 .
114 pp.
T a y lo r , E l s i e A n n ie, "A S tu d y o f M a t e r i a l S u i t a b l e f o r a
Course i n P e r s o n a l T y p in g ." U n p u b lish e d M a s t e r ’ s t h e s i s ,
The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s , 1 9 3 8 .
102 pp .
APPENDIX
2 law, 3 .
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
54.
55.
56
57.
58.
59.
60.
61.
62.
63.
64.
65.
1
i 1 is to I— ! as \~l 1 is to:
1 Nlfi,
2 ^P\,
3 j— 1,
41— l, 51 1.........................................................................0 0 0 0 0
On an addition test a boy got 1 2 problems right, giving
him an accuracy of 75%. How many problems did he
miss? (1) 8 , (2) 9 , (3) 6 , (4) 4 , (5) 3 ...........................0 0 0 0 0
The United States entered the World War in: (1) 1 9 1 4 ?
(2) 1 9 1 5 , (3) 1 9 1 6 , (4) 1 9 1 7 , (5)1 9 1 8 ...........................0 0 0 0 0
Which word does not belong with the others? 1 rostrum,
2 structure, 3 cathedral, 4 edifice, 5 building................ 0 0 0 0 0
Circle is to ellipse as square is to: 1 oval, 2 cube, 3 curve,
4 circle, 5 diamond............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0
“Les Miserables” was written by: 1 Hugo, 2 Faguet,
3 Moliere, 4 Martin, 5 Daudet.........................................0 0 0 0 0
Napoleon said a French soldier was equal to 3 Austrians
or to 5 Russians. A dozen Austrian soldiers were equal
to how many Russians? (1) 2 0 , (2) 6 , (3) 1 5 , (4) 6 0 ,
(5) 3 6 .................................................................................. 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
67. hit,- oCiemp*^ aumiifc(j taste he
or his artistic
was If the™ words were aiiaxiged to make a
sentence,, wi a,u would be the word after “artistic”?
1 taste, 2 *• >mired. 3 .m.dfic, 4 k rr,Tl^ ^ . 5 w as.. 0 [2] 0 0 0
74.
2 7 , 9 , 3 , 1 , 1/ 3 ,
. .., . . . . What two numbers should
come next? (1) 2 / 3 and 1/ 3 , (2) 2 / 3 and 1 / 9 , (3) 1 / 9
and 1 / 2 7 , (4) 1 / 9 and 1 / 1 8 , (5) 1 / 6 and 1 / 9 .....0 0 0 0 0
75. Tyrol is a mountainous province in the (1 ) Alps,
(2) Pyrenees, (3) Rockies, (4) Andes, (5) Himalayas.
78. “ It is indeed an ill wind that blows no one good” means
about the same as: 1 Birds of a feather flock together.
2 Correspondence is half a presence. 3 Patience is the
key of glory. 4 The calamities of one nation turn to the
benefit of another. 5 The tongue is the neck’s enemy . . 0 0 0 0 0
79. The beginning of the abolition movement created a, . . . .
in the South. A word for the blank is: 1 casual, 2 orator,
3 furor, 4 colony, 5 prevalence..........................................0 0 0 0 0
80. Asbestos is a product of: 1 trees, 2 petroleum, 3 mines,
4 wool, 5 cotton...................................................................0 0 0 0 0
81. /S . is to
as N
is to:
1
< ],
2
Z ,
3 M,
M.A..
M ark in the square th a t you think should be marked,
you should have m arked in the square num bered 4.
Practice Exercise 3.
is to O
O
as □
is to :
T he right word is “ going,” so
l ^ \ , 2 d ] ,
3 d ], 4 \ 7 ,
Copyright, 1931, by V. A. C. Henmon and M. J. Nelson
"'[J............................................................ 0 0 S 0 0
D IR E C T IO N S TO T H E S T U D E N T : T he three Practice Exercises in the next column
a t the right are given so th a t you m ay see how to do the test. Read each one carefully
and m ark the answer th a t you think is right.
The answer, of course, is num ber 3 , since a circle is to a sm aller circle as a square is to
a sm aller square.
If you find th a t you have made a m istake and m arked in the wrong square, do not erase,
but simply draw a circle around it and then m ark in the right square.
9.
10.
11.
4 P, 5 Z 1 ........................................................................... 0 0 0 0 0
82. Subsequent means: 1 small, 2 attached, 3 following,
4 irregular, 5 important...................................................... 0 0 0 0 0
12.
83. Occult affairs are: 1 religious, 2 open, 3 optical, 4 secret,
5 eight-sided.........................................................................0 0 0 0 0
84. A mediator is one who: 1 intervenes, 2 judges, 3 legis­
lates, 4 computes, 5 punishes........................................... 0 0 0 0 0
85. “ Wise men learn by other men’s mistakes; fools by
their own” means about the same as: 1 Misfortune is a
cheap teacher. 2 We learn to do by doing. 3 Experi­
ence is a dear teacher. 4 A good seaman is known in
bad weather. 5 Mistakes occur in the best regulated
fam ilies................................................................................ 0 0 0 0 0
8 6 . An obvious fact is: 1 assumed, 2 hateful, 3 clear, 4 hid­
den, 5 doubtful................................................................... 0 0 0 0 0
87. A recreant individual is: 1 young, 2 reborn, 3 smug,
4 happy, 5 cowardly..........................................................0 0 0 0 151
8 8 . Fear is to anticipation as regret is to: 1 memory, 2 hope,
3 sorrow, 4 hate, 5 forget..................................................0 0 0 0 0
89. Superfluous is the opposite of: 1 certain, 2 essential,
3 ambiguous, 4 petite, 5succinct.................................... 0 0 0 0 0
13.
90. A minion is: 1 upright, 2 contrary, 3 servile, 4 poor,
5 impudent
............................................................... 0
Practice Exercise 2. I a m
down town. A word for the blank is: 1 able, 2 see,
3 country, 4 going, 5 color....................................................................................... 0 0 0 0 0
H ig h S ch ool E x a m in a tio n . G rades 7-12
By Y. A. C. H enm on, P h .D ., C hairm an of the D epartm ent of Psychology,
U niversity of Wisconsin, and M. J. Nelson, Ph.D ., D ean of the
F aculty, Iow a S tate Teachers College
0 0 0 0 0
76. How many feet are there in one rod and one and one-half
yards? (1) 1 2 , (2) 1 8 , (3) 1 9 , (4) 2 1 , (5) 3 6 ...0 0 0 0 0
77. Sorrow is to misfortune as joy is to: 1 grief, 2 happiness,
3 hatred, 4 success, 5 pride..................................0 0 0 0 0
00000
You are to m ark in the square which has the same num ber as does the word th a t tells
what it is boys like to play. This word is “ ball.” You make a m ark like this X in the
square th a t contains the i, because the num ber of the word “ b a ll” is 1 .
THE HENMON-NELSON TESTS
OF MENTAL ABILITY-Form A
Score
68. A certain kind 01 ", juu Id as heavy as water. Iron is
about 7 times as heavy as water. lion is how many
times as heavy as cne woe-1? (1 2 _nos, (2) 7 times,
(3) 3 i times. ^ *4 lima, (5) 7 ^ times............. 0 0 0 0 0
69. Prc _arm
10 nappiness as adversity
_j: 1 success,
2 sorrow, 3 fun, 4 rage, 5 joy.............................0 0 0 0 0
70. A jade is: 1 worthless, 2 insulting, 3 clowr'*’ , 1 prl. vely,
0 0 0 0 0
5 cowardly........................................
71. 3 , 6 , 8 , 1 6 , 1 8 , 3 6 , . . . ,
c +""" ■ fibers should
come next? (1) 3 8 and
{'Z) 3 8 ? s
fit) 3 9 and 4 1 ,
(4) 3 9 and 7 8 , (5) 3 8 and 7 6 ........................................ - 0 0 0 0 0
72. If a franc were worth 2-|c, how many francs wouU one
receive for $100.00? (1) 2 5 0 0 , (2) 4 0 0 , (3) 4 0 ,0 0 0 ,
(4) 2 5 0 , (5) 4 0 0 0 .................................................... 0 0 0 0 0
73. Anger is to violence as love is to: 1 caressing, 2 hate,
3 tempter, 4 hope, 5 happiness............................0 0 0 0 0
Boys like to play: 1 ball, 2 state, 3 dust, 4 never, 5 blue
Also Licensed under U .S. Patent 1,586,628
E dited by Frank L. C lapp, Professor of E d u cation
U n iversity of W isconsin
G rade
46.
Patented March 19, 1929.
Age
45.
Practice Exercise 1.
THE CLAPP-YOUNG SELF-MARKING TESTS
g-
B irthday
44.
, to | as / is to: 1 ___, 2 / ,
3 |,
4 □,
j _
0 0 3 0 0
Better
implements
tn . . . .
of advance . i civiliza­
tion. A word for the b' pk is: 1 era, 2 im
Taent,
3 epicure, 4 ino.'
escape.......................................0 0 0 0 0
An inaccessible place cannot be: 1 reached, 2 seen,
3 described, 4 pierced, 5 carried....................................0 0 0 0 0
A book of the Old Testament is: 1 Matthew, 2 Luke,
3 Psalms, 4 Revelation, 5 Corinthians...........................0 0 0 0 0
A silver shekel is worth about 60A How many shekels
could one buy for $204.00? (1) 3 4 , (2) 3 4 0 , (3) 1 2 8 4 ,
(4) 3 4 0 0 , (5) 1 2 8 ............... .............................................. 0 0 0 0 0
involved in recent the
nations war many wereIf these
words were arranged to make a good sentence, what
would be the first letter of the word before “nations”?
l i , 2 n, 3r, 4 m, 5 t ....................................................... 0 0 0 0 0
810, 270, 90, 30, ....
What number should come next?
(1) 1 0 , (2) 1 5 , (3) 2 0 , (4) o, (5) 5 ................................ 0 0 0 0 0
A cymbal is used in: 1 gardening, 2 surgery, 3 painting,
4 sculpture, 5 music......................................................... 0 0 0 0 0
A penitent person is always: 1 sorry, 2 carefree, 3 ill,
4 showy, 5 idiotic.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0
Imitate is to copy as invent is
originate, .
3jnygati£d!r4 IhacuinG, 5 workTT.................................. 0 jjj 0 0 0
fruit children good cereals are for and If these words
were arranged to make a good sentence, what would be
the second word? 1 fruit, 2 children, 3 good, 4 cereals,
5 and......................................................................................0 0 0 0 0
A wheel always has: 1 an axle, 2 circumference, 3 paint,
_ ^
4 a tire, 5 spokes..................................................................0 0 0 0 0
The uncle of my father’s grandson is my: 1 nephew,
2 cousin, 3 grandfather, 4 brother, 5 son
............. 0 0 0 0 0
6 , 4 , 7 , s. 8 , 6 , 9 , __
What number should come next?
( 1 ) 7 , (2) 1 0 , (3) 8 , (4) 6 , (5) 1 1 ....................................0 0 0 0 0
Which word does not belong with the others? 1 appara­
tus, 2 foundation, 3 equipment, 4 device, 5 appliance. . 0 @ 0 0 @
Inconsequential means about the same as: 1 sorry, 2 incorrect, 3 useful, 4 unimportant, 5 necessary................0 0 0 0 0
ament, 4
14.
15.
School
is
sL ,i
>ay, 5 moi:
0000B
“Bet+er
aim
at
a
.cU
than
ch*
.
down
a
,vell;
you’ll
hit
40
^gher” means about x’ „ same as: 1 Hasty climbers
have sudden falls, z A'
v^ e tb° ■•ark to hit the
mark. 3 “ Almost” 1
m?'
iste makes
waste. 5 Might is not ~ w .................................. ......... 0 0 0 0 0
41. Accumulate is the opposite of: 1 wnl, 2 accommodate,
3 dissipate, 4 trust, 5 sew
0 0 0 0 0
t2 . \ genius always has: 1 ability, 2 fr5' •**, 3 inventions,
loney, 5 fame..............
.................................... 0 [H 0 0 0
Zi
Which word does not belong with the others? 1 Ida,
2 Paul, 3 Lucy, 4 Janet, 5 Joyce.................................... 0 0 0 0 0
Better is to good as worse is to: 1 very good, 2 medium,
3 bad, 4 much worse, 5 best.............................................0 0 0 0 0
i, 6 , ii, 1 6 , .. ., . .., 3 1 . What two numbers should
be 011 the dotted lines? (1 ) 21 and 2 6 , (2 ) 1 7 and 2 5 ,
(3) 2 6 and 2 9 , (4) 2 2 and 2 7 , (5) 2 0 and 2 5 ................. 0 0 0 0 0
It was raining too hard t o
out. A word for the
blank is: 1 comment, 2 gather, 3 venture, 4 summon,
5 render............................................................................... 0 0 0 0 0
1 , 4 , 7 , 1 0 , . . ., . . ., 1 9 . What two numbers should be
on the dotted lines? (1) 11 and 1 4 , (2) 1 5 and 1 7 , (3) 12
and 1 6 , (4) 13 and 1 6 , (5) 12 and 1 7 ..........0 0 0 0 0
If the letters d g r e n a a r were arranged properly, they
would spell: 1 renegade, 2 degenerate, 3 nagging,
4 arranged, 5 managed..................................................... 0 0 0 0 0
2 5 , 25 , 21 , 2 1 , 17, 17, ..., ... .
What twonumbers
should come next? (1) 15 and 1 5 , (2)17 and 1 1 , (3) 13
and 1 3 , (4) 12 and 1 2 , (5) 17 and 1 3 ..........0 0 0 0 0
Stagnant water is: 1 motionless, 2 fresh, 3 rapid,
4 clear, 5 foaming................................................................0 0 0 0 0
My sister’s daughter is my father’s ........... 1 niece,
2 cousin, 3 granddaughter, 4 sister-in-law, 5 aunt. . . . 0 0 0 0 0
512, 256, 128, 64, 3 2 , ..., ....
What two numbers
should come next? (1) 8 and 4 , (2) 3 1 and 3 0 , (3) 3 3
and 3 4 , (4) 1 6 and 8 , (5) 2 4 and 1 6 ................................. 0 0 0 0 0
If the letters n i p i c 1 a r p were arranged properly, they
would spell: 1 appliance, 2 purchase, 3 impatient, 4 ca­
pacious, 5 principal............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0
of term for is president a four the elected years If these
words were arranged to make a good sentence, what
would be the next to the last word? 1 years, 2 elected,
3 president, 4 four, 5 term................................................ 0 0 0 0 0
The daughter of my uncle has a son. My father is her
son’s
1 cousin, 2 grandfather, 3 great-uncle,
4 great-grandfather, 5 brother........................................... 0 0 0 0 0
3 7 , 3 3 , 2 9 , . . ., . .., 1 7 . What two numbers should be
on the dotted lines? (1) 2 8 and 1 9 , (2) 2 5 and 1 9 , (3) 2 6
and 2 0 , (4) 2 5 and 2 1 , (5) 2 5 and 2 0 ............................... 0 0 0 0 0
A drizzling rain fell without ........... A word for the
blank is: 1 beginning, 2 opposite, 3 intermission,
4 length, 5 moisture............................................................0 0 0 0 0
3 □ , 4 _L_,
is t o: 1 O ,
16. 0 is to O as
5 T ....................................................................................... 0 0 0 0 0
17. My mother’s daughter’s daughter is my daughter’s
1 aunt, 2 nephew, 3 cousin, 4 mother, 5 niece 0 0 0 0 0
A word for the blank is:
18. Water seeks its o w n
1 money, 2 weight, 3 cold, 4 level, 5 length................. 0 0 0 0 0
as DU is to: 1 kp,
19. (J) is to
4 up,
5
Boston
•
N ew York
•
Chicago
to the tourists every climate the brings many summer
mountains If the above words were arranged to make a
good sentence, what would be the word before “ brings”?
1 every, 2 mountains, 3 tourists, 4 the, 5 climate. . . . 0 0 0 0 0
21. If the letters l e c r e a were arranged properly, they
would spell: 1 reclaim, 2 earnest, 3 actual, 4 cereal,
5 leather...............................................................................0 0 0 0 0
22. “ Many cooks spoil the broth” means about the same as:
1 A good fire makes a good cook. 2 Every cook praises
his own broth. 3 Two captains sink the ship. 4 Civil­
ized man cannot live without cooks. 5 All lay loads on
the willing horse................................................................. 0 0 0 0 0
C
23. 3 is to
as □ is to: 1 W , 2 C , 3 I I, 4 0
5
..........................................................................0 0 0 0 0
24. 5 , 9 , 1 3 , 1 7 , 2 1 , 2 5 , . . ., . . . . What two numbers should
come next? (1) 2 9 and 3 0 , (2) 2 9 and 3 1 , (3) 2 9 and 3 3 ,
(4) 2 5 and 2 7 , (5) 2 7 and 2 9 ............................................ 0 0 0 0 0
C
25. hid is to Ld as lildild is to: 1 Lj, 2 Ld, 3 Ldd, 4 -d,
5 *-J.................................................................. ............... 0 0 0 0 0
26. Truth is to falsehood as pride is to: 1 fear, 2 crime,
3 honor, 4 humility, 5 truth...........................................0 0 0 0 0
27. 2 4 0 , 1 2 0 , 6 0 , 3 0 , . . . . What number should come next?
(1) 2 0 , (2) 1 5 , (3) 1 0 ,(4) 2 5 , (5) 4 0 ................................0 0 0 0 0
28. [] is to □
as
0
is to:
1
□,
O,
2
3
O , 4 Q,
00000
5O.
29. Which word does not belong with the others? 1 solarium,
2 academy, 3 seminary, 4 college, 5 university
0 0 0 0 0
30. 9 8 , 8 7 , 7 6 , . .., . . ., 4 3 . What two numbers should be
placed on the dotted lines? ( 1 ) 6 6 and 4 4 , (2 ) 6 5 and 5 3 ,
(3) 6 5 and 5 4 , (4) 5 0 and 4 5 , (5) 6 0 and 5 0 ...................0 0 0 0 0
31. Ice is to water as water is to: 1 steam, 2 cold, 3 river,
4 thirst, 5 land.................................................................... 0 0 0 0 0
32. AHA is to \— / as
is to: 1 \ 7, 2 D>, 3 O ,
4 A , 5 0 ...................................................................... 0 0 0 0 0
33. Which word does not belong with the others? 1 novice,
2 accomplice, 3 partner, 4 associate, 5 helper. .-..........0 0 0 0 0
3 4 . 2 9 , 3 3 , 3 4 , 3 8 , 3 9 , 4 3 , 4 4 , ■• ■, • • •• What two numbers
should come next? (1) 4 5 and 4 6 , (2) 4 5 and 4 9 , (3) 4 7
and 4 8 , (4) 4 6 and 5 0 , (5) 4 8 and 4 9 ...................................0
0 0 0 0
35. Which word does not belong with the others? 1 vertical,
2 parallel, 3 horizontal, 4 vernacular, 5 perpendicular. 0 0 0 0 0
36. Energetic means about the same as: 1 sorry, 2 sleepy,
3 forceful, 4 happy, 5 brave.............................................. 0 0 0 0 0
37. o
5
3 L-U
rjr..........................................................................0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
263 : 3 : 40
2O ,
20.
is to
<3
as O
is to:
1
□ ,
2
O .
3
0
. 4
00000
H i .......
38. Expand is the opposite of: 1 intake, 2 propound, 3 con­
tract, 4 impound, 5 dead.................................................. 0 0 0 0 0
HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY
P R IN T E D IN T H E U .S .A .
Dallas
Atlanta
San Francisco
f
f>7 □
To find the score, count the
squares that are marked out,
omitting those that are
circled.
40 0
41 J
0S£]
420
69 □
r-f
43 0
70 Q
44 0
71 □
45 0
72 Q
46 0
73 □
47 0
740
.
22. □
48 0
75O''
49 0
76 0
300
77 □ -
510
■52n "
78 0
yj
r•<
><
•53 n
70 0
51 □
; 80 □
.55 [ _
810
56 □
82 0
•57 □
83 0
ss n
84Q
59 n
60 □
85 0
61 □
86Q
87 0
62 □
.
63 □
8.8 0
64 n
89 0
io n
on r~j
65 □
TEST I
FALSE AND TRUE TEST
"CORRECT SPACING"
For each o f th e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s t h a t i s t r u e , draw a c i r c l e
around th e nT" im m e d ia te ly p r e c e d in g th e s t a t e m e n t ; f o r ea ch o f th e
f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s t h a t i s f a l s e , :draw a c i r c l e around t h e nFn
im m e d ia te ly p r e c e d in g th e s t a t e m e n t .
T
F
1.
A f t e r a comma you s h o u ld sp a ce o n c e .
T
F
2.
I f a q u e s t i o n mark, a p e r i o d , or an e x c la m a t io n mark
I n d i c a t e s th e end o f a s e n t e n c e , you s h o u ld s p a c e o n c e .
T
F
3..
I f a p e r io d i n d i c a t e s an a b b r e v i a t i o n w i t h i n a s e n t e n c e ,
you s h o u ld s p a c e o n c e .
T
F
4*
For ea ch p aragraph you s h o u ld i n d e n t f i v e s p a c e s , s t a r t i n g
th e w r i t i n g on t h e s i x t h sp ace*
T
F 5 . One sp a c e
T
F 6 . You a lw a ys sp a c e b e f o r e but n o t a f t e r
T
F 7 . One sp a ce
T ■F
T
F
8 . You sp a ce
9.
alw ays f o l l o w s a hyphen#
th e f i r s t p a r e n t h e s i s .
comes b e f o r e th e p e r c e n t a g e s i g n .
once a f t e r a d o l l a r s ig n #
An a p o str o p h e has one sp a c e b e f o r e and a f t e r i t w i t h i n a
word.
T
F 1 0 . The pound s i g n (# ) has one sp a c e b etw een i t and
t h a t accom pan ies i t .
T
F 1 1 . When a q u o t a t i o n mark comes a t th e b e g in n in g o f
s e n t e n c e one sp a c e f o l l o w s i t .
T-
F 1 2 . One sp a ce f o l l o w s a b e g in n in g q u o t a t io n mark*
th e number
th e
»
T
F 1 3 , When q u o t a t io n marks a r e u s e d t o r e p r e s e n t f e e t or se c o n d s
you s h o u ld sp a c e a f t e r bu t not b e f o r e th e m arks.
T
F 14* A f t e r a s e m ic o lo n you s h o u ld sp a ce o n c e .
T.
F 1 5 . Two s p a c e s a lw a y s f o l l o w a o o l o n .
T
F 1 6 , When a q u e s t i o n mark o c c u r s w i t h i n a s e n t e n c e two s p a c e s
f o l l o w th e mark.
T
F 17# I f a q u e s t i o n mark o c c u r s a t th e end o f a s e n t e n c e one
' space fo llo w s i t ,
T
F 1 8 . There i s no sp a c e b e f o r e or a f t e r a d a sh .
T
F 1 9 . I f you w r i t e an a r t i c l e or l e t t e r s i n g l e sp a c e d
l e a v e a sp a ce b etw een p a r a g r a p h s .
T
F 20# When an e x c la m a t io n mark o c cu rs w i t h i n a s e n t e n c e one
sp a c e f o l l o w s th e mark.
you s h o u ld
TEST I I
SYLLABICATION TEST
D i r e c t i o n s : Assume t h a t y o u are w r i t i n g a tim ed t e s t and t h a t
th e b e l l r i n g s f o r t h e end o f th e l i n e w h il e y o u 'a r e w r i t i n g
each o f th e words g i v e n b e lo w ; I n d i c a t e where you would
•d iv id e th e word w i t h a hyp hen. W rite th e l e t t e r p r e c e d in g
113
th e hyphen, th e hyphen, and th e l e t t e r f o l l o w i n g th e hyphen,
show ing where th e d i v i s i o n would be made.. I f a word cannot
be d i v i d e d , p l a c e a z e r o (0 ) w i t h i n th e p a r e n t h e s e s *
E xam p le:
p ro test(
o-t
)
B e l l r i n g s on th e t y p i n g o f th e f i r s t l e t t e r o f each word:
1.
A bout(
2.
M is s in g (
3.
P r o p e r ly (
4.
P r e p a r a tio n s(
5.
E d u c a tio n (
)
)
)
)
B e l l r i n g s on th e t y p i n g o f th e s i x t h l e t t e r o f each w o r d :
6.
C o n stitu tio n
7.
E x p e r ie n c e d (
8.
In te r p r e ta tio n (
9.
M en tio n ed (
10.
)
)
)
)
S e lf-c o n c e it(
)
B e l l r i n g s on th e t y p in g o f th e f o u r t h l e t t e r o f each word :
11.
necessary(
12.
ju s tific a tio n
13.
i n t e l l i g e n c e (•
14.
p u n c t u a t io n (
15.
e o n d itio n (
16.
n o tic e a b le (
17.
c la s s ific a tio n (
18 .
occurrence(
19.
a c co r d in g (
20.
d istr ib u tio n (
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
T E ST -III
D ir e c tio n s:
S e t th e margin s t o p s f o r a f i f t y - s p a c e l i n e ,
S e t a t a b u l a t o r s t o p f o r a f i v e - s p a c e paragraph i n d e n t i o n .
Type th e t i t l e
o f th e a r t i c l e i n c a p i t a l l e t t e r s ,
in g i t h o r i z o n t a ll y .
cen ter­
Type th e a r t i c l e w i t h d ou b le s p a c i n g .
C enter i t v e r t i c a l l y and h o r i z o n t a l l y .
The Chains o f H a b it
The c h a in s o f h a b i t
t i l l t h e y are to o s t r o n g
c o r r e c t h a b i t s t o us are
t h a t keep us
in sla v e ry
are g e n e r a l l y t o o s m a ll t o be f e l t
t o be b r o k e n . The c h a in s t h a t b in d
e q u a l l y as s t r o n g as th e c h a in s
t o bad h a b i t s .
Of some
c h a in s we may be p r o u d , a s i s th e Lord Mayor o f
London, who c h e r i s h e s th e g o ld e n c h a in o f o f f i c e about h i s
neck,
Of o t h e r c h a i n s , i f we are e v e r t o amount t o any­
t h i n g , we s h o u ld be ashamed, f o r t h e y a r e h e a v y , r u s t e d , and
th e s i g n s o f ig n o r a n c e or an a b j e c t l a c k o f th e z e a l t o w in .
In t h i s c la s s r o o m , n o w --e v e n as you make e a c h s t r o k e and
t h i n k ea ch t h o u g h t - - y o u a r e f o r g i n g h a b i t s .
Good or bad,
t h e y are b e in g w eld ed i n t o
c h a i n s — c h a in s t h a t
w i l l su p p o r t
you n o b ly i n
your a tte m p ts t o e x c e l and
t o w in th r o u g h , or
c h a in s t h a t w i l l dog your s t e p s , w e ig h you down, and h in d e r
your p r o g r e s s . You a lo n e can p r o v id e th e a n sw e r.
(177 words i n a r t i c l e )
114
115
/ v
" ~THE CHAIMS OFlfABlT"
19
^
The c h a in s o f - h a b i t are g e n e r a l l y too s m a ll
;t o bo f e l t t i l l
64
t h e y a r e t o o s t r o n g to be broken#
The c h a i n s t h a t b in d c o r r e c t h a b i t s t o u s a r e
115
i. J
162
;
211
e q u a l l y as s t r o n g as th e c h a i n s t h a t keep u s i n
j
j s l a v e r y to bad h a b i t s #
!
-
Of some c h a i n s we may bo p r o u d , a s i s
" ■
!
235
278
th e
[Lord Mayor o f London, who c h e r i s h e s t h e g o ld e n
j
326
!c h a in o f o f f i c e ab ou t h i s heck*
•
376
Of o t h e r c h a i n s ,
Ii f we a r e e v e r to amount to a n y t h in g , w© sh o u ld be
42 8
'ashamed, f o r t h e y a r e h e a v y , r u s t e d , and th e s i g n s '
480
io f I g n o r a n c e or an a b j e c t l a c k o f th e g o a l to win* 1
533
In t h i s c la s s r o o m , now— oven as you make e a c h
t
•
_ ■
|
;s tro k o and t h i n k each th o u g h t— you are f o r g i n g
579
j
627
677
[h a b its *
Good o r bad, t h e y a r e b e i n g w e ld e d i n t o
i
»
’c h a i n s — c h a i n s t h a t w i l l s u p p o r t you n o b ly i n your
729
a t t e m p t s to e x c e l and to w in th r o u g h , o r c h a i n s
' 778
830
t h a t w i l l dog your s t e p s , w eig h you down, and h i n ­
/
d er your p r o g r e s s *
an sw e r.
877
You a lo n e can p r o v i d e th e .
■
886
TEST I I I
INSTRUCTIONS FOR SCORING AND GRADING
116
Two im p o rta n t ite m s sh ou ld be ta k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a ­
t i o n , th e placem ent o f th e a r t i c l e , and tim e r e q u ir e d t o
com p lete i t .
To s c o r e the p la cem en t o f a r t i c l e , p l a c e t h e ' k e y
s q u a r e l y o v e r th e s t u d e n t 1s paper and ch eck f o r e r r o r s l i s t ­
ed b e lo w . I f you cannot s e e th e dark l i n e s , h o ld b o th p a p ers
up t o a l i g h t .
I f any m argin or m argins go beyond the
i n n e r l i n e ( t o p or bottom e i t h e r s i d e , or b o th ) d e d u ct 5
p o i n t s ; i f beyond o u t e r l i n e , d ed u ct 10 p o i n t s . That i s ,
you cannot cou n t o f f more than 10 p o i n t s e v en i f th e m argin s
do go beyond more th an one o u te r l i n e .
T otal a l l erro rs
and d e d u c t ,fr o m a p o s s i b l e s c o r e o f 2 0 . T h is i s th e s t u ­
d e n t 1s s c o r e f o r t h i s u n i t .
I f the d e d u c t io n s t o t a l more
th a n 2 0 , c a l l th e s c o r e z e r o . D is r e g a r d a l l t y p i n g e r r o r s
i f t h e y have been n e a t l y c o r r e c t e d .
P o i n t s to check f o r e r r o r s :
10
(1)
P lacem en t to o h ig h
5 or
(2)
P la c em e n t to o lo w
5 or 1 0
( 3 ) P lacem ent t o o f a r t o th e l e f t
5 or
( 4 ) P lacem en t t o o f a r t o the r i g h t
5 or
( 5 ) Paragraphs n o t in d e n t e d 5
s p a c e s — 1 p o i n t f o r each
(6)
H eading n o t i n c a p i t a l s
( 7 ) Not d o u b le * sp a c e d
(8)
U n f i n i s h e d — f o r e a c h l i n e o m it te d
( 9 ) Poor e r a s u r e s — f o r e a ch
(10)
Words n o t d i v i d e d c o r r e c t l y —
fo r each
CD
(2)
10
10
(3)
1
2
2
1
(5)
1
(9)
2
(10)
(4 )
(6)
(7)
(8)
To s c o r e th e tim e r e q u ir e d t o com p lete t h e a r t i c l e ,
c o r r e c t i t i n th e same way you would a r e g u l a r s t r a i g h t copy sp ee d t e s t .
The c l a s s w i l l s t a r t t o g e t h e r i n the same
manner as when a r e g u l a r s t r a i g h t - c o p y sp e e d t e s t i s g i v e n .
The tim e w i l l be p la c e d on th e b la ck b o a rd a t th e end of
ea ch q u a r te r m inute by th e t e a c h e r . As ea ch s t u d e n t f i n i s h e s ,
he w r i t e s th e tim e on th e paper on w hich he to o k t h e t e s t .
P o or e r a s u r e s a r e c o u n te d a s e r r o r s . The r a t e p e r m in u te
i s fo u n d i n th e same way a s i t i s f o r a s t r a i g h t - c o p y sp eed
t e s t e x c e p t t h a t th e l a s t d i v i s o r w i l l be t h e tim e i t to o k
t o c o m p lete th e t e s t . Record the A r t i c l e P la c em e n t s c o r e
and n e t r a t e s c o r e on the bottom o f th e s t u d e n t ’ s t e s t p a p e r .
TEST IV
D ir e c tio n s:
S e t th e m argin s t o p s f o r a s i x t y - s p a c e l i n e .
S e t a t a b u l a t o r s t o p f o r a f i v e - s p a c e paragrap h in d e n t io n *
Type th e t i t l e
o f th e theme i n c a p i t a l l e t t e r s ,
h o r iz o n ta lly .
T r i p l e - s p a c e betw een th e t i t l e
l i n e o f th e them e.
c en te rin g i t
and th e f i r s t
Type th e theme, w i t h d o u b le s p a c i n g .
C en ter i t v e r t i c a l l y and h o r i z o n t a l l y .
TOBACCO
The p r i c e men pay f o r to b a c c o i s not t o be
r eck o n ed by th e c o i n s t h a t p a s s ov e r th e c o u n t e r . ■
From th e r o l l i n g o f a p l a n t - b e d i n c o l d m idF ebruary t o th e s t r i p p i n g and th e t i e i n g i n t o hands
i n the w i n t e r , t h e r e i s n o t h in g but e n d l e s s ,
b a c k b r e a k in g , d i r t y work.
As a boy I h a te d i t , but t h a t f e e l i n g , so
th e n e ig h b o r s s a i d , was due j u s t t o l a z i n e s s .
My
f a t h e r alw ays needed a l l h a n d s0 I dropped p l a n t s
w h ile my o l d e r b r o t h e r and th e t e n a n t s s e t them. '
My b ig b r o t h e r knew how I h a te d t h a t work.
One
day he q u i e t l y s a i d t o me, “You must go away t o
s c h o o l and l e a r n how t o work w it h your m in d .”
Soon a f t e r t h a t I l e f t th e farm, but he s t a y e d on.
I saw him l a s t summer*
Drought had p arch ed h i s
f i e l d s o f t o b a c c o , and h i s l a s t y e a r ’ s crop had
s o l d f o r t h i r t e e n c e n t s a pound.
S t i l l , he
d i d n ’ t c o m p la in u He s a i d t h a t th e market i s c e r t a i n
t o be h ig h e r n e x t y e a r .
The p r i c e men pay f o r t o b a c c o i s t o be reckon ed
not by th e c o i n s t h a t p a s s over th e c o u n t e r , but by
th e b a c k b re a k in g work and h e a r t b r e a k in g d i s a p p o i n t ­
ments o f th e farm er who s a y s t h a t to b a c c o w i l l s e l l
f o r a h ig h e r p r i c e "next y e a r ."
(235 words i n a r t i c l e )
117
-/ 0
'
TOBACCO
118
' “
The p r i c e men pay f o r t o b a c c o i s n o t t o be r ec k o n ed by
64
t h e c o i n s t h a t p a s s o v e r t h e c o u n t e r . , Prom th e r o l l i n g o f a
126
p l a n t - b e d in c o l d m id -F eb ru ary t o th e s t r i p p i n g and th e t i e ­
■1 9 2
in g i n t o hands i n .th e w i n t e r , t h e r e i s n o t h i n g but e n d l e s s , ;
253
b a c k b r e a k in g * d i r t y work.
320
377
As a b oy I h a t e d i t , b u t t h a t f e e l i n g , so t h e n e ig h b o r s
My f a t h e r alw a y s n ee d e d a l l
;439
I dropped p l a n t s w h i l e my o l d e r b r o t h e r a n d ' t h e t e n ­
502
s a i d , was due j u s t t o l a z i n e s s .
hands.
a n t s s e t them .
My b i g b r o t h e r knew how I h a t e d t h a t work.
562
One day he q u i e t l y s a i d to me, ffYou- must go away t o s c h o o l
■
!622
‘ 681
. 739
;
796
and l e a r n how t o work w i t h your m in d .w. Soon a f t e r t h a t Ile ft
th e farm , b u t he s t a y e d on .
I saw him l a s t summer.
Drought had parched h i s f i e l d s o f t o b a c c o , and h i s l a s t
y e a r ’s c ro p had ' s o l d f o r t h i r t e e n c e n t s a pound.,
' d i d n ’t c o m p la in .
S t i l l , he.
He s a i d t h a t th e, market i s c e r t a i n t o be
Ih ig h e r n e x t y e a r .
i
The p r i c e m e n p a y f o r t o b a c c o i s t o be r e c k o n e d n o t by!
; 857
' 917
; 936
‘ 992
J t r e c o i n s t h a t p a s s o v e r t h e c o u n t e r , b u t by t h e b a c k b r e a k ­
O
1053
i n g work a n d h e a t b r e a k i n g d i s a p p o i n t m e n t s o f t h e f a r m e r v/ho
1115
s a y s t h a t t o b a c c o w i l l s e l l f o r a h i g h e r p r i c e ”n e x t y e a r . 11,,
'1176
7 6
TEST 17
INSTRUCTIONS FOR SCORING AND GRADING
119
Two im p o r ta n t ite m s s h o u ld he ta k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n ,
th e p la c em e n t o f th e them e, and time r e q u ir e d t o com p lete i t .
To s c o r e the p lacem en t o f the them e, p l a c e th e k e y
s q u a r e l y o v e r the s t u d e n t ’ s paper and check f o r e r r o r s l i s t ­
ed b e lo w . I f you cannot s e e the dark l i n e s , h old b o th
p a p er s up t o a l i g h t .
I f any m argin or margins go beyond
t h e in n e r l i n e ( t o p or b o tto m , e i t h e r s i d e , or b o th ) d ed u ct
5 p o i n t s ; i f beyond o u t e r l i n e , d e d u c t 10 p o i n t s . That i s ,
you can n ot cou n t o f f more th an 10 p o i n t s even i f t h e m argin s
do go beyond more th an one o u t e r l i n e .
T o ta l a l l e rr o rs
and d e d u ct from p o s s i b l e s c o r e o f 2 0 . T h is i s th e s t u d e n t ’ s
score fo r th is u n it.
I f the d e d u c t io n s t o t a l more th a n 2 0 ,
c a l l th e s c o r e z e r o . D is r e g a r d a l l t y p i n g e r r o r s i f t h e y
have b ee n n e a t l y c o r r e c t l y .
P o i n t s t o check f o r e r r o r s :
(1 ) P la c em e n t to o h ig h
5 or 10
(1 )
(2 ) P la c em e n t t o o low
5 or 10
(2)
(3 ) P la c em e n t to o f a r to th e l e f t
5 or 10
(3 )
(4 ) P la c em e n t t o o f a r to th e r ig h t
5 or 10
(4 )
(5 ) P aragraph s n o t in d e n te d 5
s p a c e s — f o r each
1
(5)
( 6 ) Heading not i n c a p i t a l s
2
(6 )
(7 ) Theme n o t d o u b le sp a ced
2
(7 )
( 8 ) Not f i n i s h e d — f o r e a c h l i n e
o m itte d
1
(8)
( 9 ) Poor e r a s u r e s — f o r ea ch
1
(9)
2
(10)
(1 0 ) Words n o t d i v i d e d c o r r e c t l y —
f o r each
To s c o r e th e tim e r e q u ir e d to c o m p lete th e them e, c o r ­
r e c t i t i n th e same way you would a r e g u l a r s t r a i g h t - c o p y
sp e e d t e s t .
The c l a s s w i l l s t a r t t o g e t h e r i n th e same manner
a s when a r e g u l a r s t r a i g h t - c o p y sp e e d t e s t i s g i v e n . The
tim e w i l l be p la c e d on the b la c k b o a rd a t t h e end o f e a ch
q u a r t e r m in u te by t h e t e a c h e r . As ea ch s t u d e n t f i n i s h e s , he
w r i t e s th e tim e on th e paper on w h ich he to o k the t e s t . Poor
e r a s u r e s are cou n ted a s e r r o r s . YTords i n c o r r e c t l y d i v i d e d
a t t h e end o f a l i n e a r e c o n s i d e r e d . The r a t e p er m in u te i s
found i n th e same way a s i t i s f o r a s t r a i g h t - c o p y sp eed t e s t
e x c e p t t h a t the l a s t d i v i s o r w i l l be th e tim e i t to o k t o com­
p l e t e the t e s t . Record th e Theme P la c em e n t s c o r e and n e t r a t e
s c o r e on th e botto m o f the s t u d e n t ’ s t e s t p a p e r .
TEST V
S tr o k e s
1758
1815
1868
1928
1985
2045
2090
2140
2199
2314
2371
2431
2494
2549
2605
2660
2717
2 788
2840
2901
3020
30 84
3146
3205
3260
3715
3771
38 33
3893
to
O
3946
4003
4046
4101
4158
oj
0
0
. 4214
4272
4327
4387
4 442
4496
4542
45 98
4653
Cn
O
4712
4771
4827
4889
CTr
O
4 94 6
5009
5064
5 119
5176
5195
i
printed In U. S. A.
-or
O
123456
f
r—»
O
123456789
2956
3655
123456789
2776
3 593
123456789
2255
3 53 9
123456789
(S t a r t fr o m the beg inning i f com pleted in less th a n fifte e n m in u te s )
1640
1697
3 48 4
123456789
33 74
i5 8 4
3432
123456789
3313
im proved in q u ality of th o u g h t as well as in appearance.
T here is th a t essay which seemed good enough in its
w ritten form, b u t which palled beside th e ty p e d page.
W hen it was ty p ed , m an y errors were found, p a rts were
rew orded entirely, an d th e final paper is a cause for pride.
Those C lub letters look so m uch b e tte r in th eir n eat, ty p ed
form, and so m uch m ore is said on th e single ty p ed page
th a t th e appeal is a successful one. A nd th ey are certain to
be read in th e easier, clearer form. T h a t school new spaper
w ould never have been read if it h ad appeared in th e
w riting o f th e tw enty-odd contributors, b u t in its ty p ed
dress it is a delight to fellow students.
These are all views by th e w ayside on th e tra il to th e
office desk. B u t n o t all tak e this p a th , and some reach
o ther goals. T hey tak e a b y p a th where th e pictures are
quite different. Still, a large portion o f them have a re­
cu rren t them e— the ty p ed page. H ere is th e m an u scrip t
of an au th o r, legibly typed. T here is th e report of a sales­
m an. Invoices and letters of a small shop, personally
owned, are seen along one way. T he pictures v a ry b u t
th e ty p e d page appears in scene after scene.
These pictures ab o u t th e office desk are th e visions of
th e stu d en t as he learns each stage which leads him to
his goal. Soon he m eets th e realities, as the ty p ed page, .
th e ty p e d letter, th e ty p e d report, lie w ithin his range.
Some m ay n o t use th e ty p ew riter as a wage earning tool,
b u t all will have to w rite w ord after w ord, page after page.
“P u t it in w riting” is an o ft h eard phrase. R eliance on
th e spoken w ord or explanation is less an d less satisfactory.
T he penned w ord is n o t m uch m ore acceptable—it is too
a p t to be m isread. So everyw here th ere is a growing d e ­
m and for th e clear and concise page which th e ty p ist and
his m achine create.
1527
123456789
worldwide in use.
,
■
;
T h a t is th e picture behind the work of th is office staff
who reach o u t to th e peoples of all nations and help to
m eet th eir needs. A nd no prophet is required to see a vision of th e future. W hen th e .present staff has m oved to its
place in th e long line of p a st history, w h a t then? Will
th e hum m ing m achinery in th e p lan t, th e clicking typew riters in th e office, th e y ib ra n t m otors of the tru ck s hauling th e products to th eir m arket, be still? T he picture
unreels itself to show the yo u th and child o f to d a y sittin g
a t those desks, using even b e tte r m achines.
'
T h a t new generation of workers m ust be read y w hen
th eir tim e comes. So th ey are learning to read, to w rite,
to u n d erstan d th e needs of th e peoples of th e w orld and
th e m eaning of th eir activities. Those who will soon ta k e
th eir places a t those desks are already clicking keys a t
rows of school desks, are now doing school lessons th a t are
as nearly like th eir future office tasks as they/can be m ade.
T he oncom ing generation is being prepared to do an efficient jo b so th ey m ay n ot have to stan d in sham e before
th e achievem ents o f those th a t have gone before them .
T he stream of th e fu tu re grows wider and wider, reaching
down to th e scores of children a t th eir first grade tables
an d desks.
These pictures are clear, b u t th e y are n o t th e only
ones in th a t long view from the office desk to th e stu d en t.
M an y others can be seen on th e road to th a t place in ind u stry . H ere is a le tter Sent to a brother, a sister, a p a re n t
or'friend. I t is a th ing of b eau ty and a jo y to its recipient,
for th e ty p ew riter is a precise tool and the ty p is t a careful
stu d en t. A t One point is th a t book rep o rt w hich was first
w ritten b y hand, b u t which was later ty p e d because th e 1
penned page no longer pleased When the ty p ed one was
possible. In typing it, ideas were added an d th e rep o rt was
S tr o k e s
TEST V
TEST V
S t'u d e n t ’s T
TYPEW RITER
100
EAST
y p e w r it in g
EDUCATIONAL
FORTY-SECOND
RESEARCH
STREET
•
T
es
;t
BUREAU
NEW
YORK
S tr o k e s
T he sight is a common o n e : long rows of desks lined
up straig h t across th e room , ty p ew riters showing above
th e ir open tops. T his is p a rt o f a large, busy office. H ere
are prepared th e letters w hich represent to th e w orld an
old, well know n m anufactu rin g firm. A t those desks are
ty p ists, secretaries and clerks whose ty p e d w ords answ er
th e questions of th e host of m en and wom en who use th e
things this fam ed concern m akes and sells.
T his is w h at is seen b y th e eye, b u t a m o m en t’s
th o u g h t surrounds these desks and th e ir occupants w ith ,a
thro n g o f hum an beings. A t th eir sides are m en in th e mill
who m ake th e things w hich are so ld , a sales force w hich is
in te n t upon bringing those things to th e consum er, engineers who labor tow ard new and b e tte r products, executives who are responsible for all of these duties and who
depend on th e help of th e ir staff.
Is th is all th a t is in view? T his large, m odern office,
like alm ost all of its kind, has a long and varied force of
w orkers behind th e office desk. As one goes back in to histo ry , there is found in each generation a group of inventors, salesm en, laborers, executives and clerks, who have
spent a t least a p a rt of th e ir lives in building these products, th is p lan t, and this office w ith its staff of workers.
As history takes one fa rth e r and fa rth e r in to th e p ast, th e
stream dwindles until, a t its source, th ere are only one or
tw o m en in a rough shed or shop, settin g up in its crude
early sta te the idea which is to develop into a p ro d u ct
53
108
170
227
283
340
395
439
487
544
604
663
716
768
829
865
922
982
1040
1096
1154
1213
1275
1335
1395.
1452
1508
TEST VI
121
■f
I
i
TYPEWRITING TESTS
P U B L IS H E D
L
C
Smith
&
M ONTHLY
Corona
BY
T ypew riters
Inc
School D epartm ent—Syracuse N ew Y ork
NOVEMBER—1930
PROBLEMS
By D . D . L e s s e n b e r r y , Head, Department of Commercial Education,
School of Education, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa?
Strokes
If problem s are th o u g h t of as opportunities there will
ss
be fewer attem p ts to evade them , for opportunities offer
112
the m eans of growth. For all of us there are daily prob169
lem s to be m et. How we m eet them tells a great deal of
22s
the growth we have attained and of th e future we are
m
likely to achieve. These daily problem s com e in m any . 332
form s, som e disguised as incidents of irritation, others
389
as events of big proportions. No m atter w hether the
442
problem is trivial or great, the fact th at there is a probsoi
lem to solve indicates th a t there is a solu tion whicht
555
m ay be found.
569
In the long ago and far away tim es of Galileo, the
620
concept of the world as.flat w ith a sun m oving from east
en
to w est presented no problem to the un th in k in g m asses.
732
To Galileo th e problem contained w ithin itself th e seed
788
of its solution, and he th ou gh t it through. Those who
843
scoffed a t him have dropped into oblivion, b u t th e fam e
899
of the thinker lives on.
924
Marconi saw th e problem of space. He wanted to
972
build a bridge across the distances so th at th o u g h t m igh t
1030
span all space and bring all people closer together.
1083
Through thin king, working,! overcom ing, and perfecting
1137
he was able finally to an n ih ilate space and m ake the
1190
world his debtor.
1208
A few years ago if a m an had gone before a group of
1260
people and said th a t th e tim e would com e w hen one
1310
could turn a little knob here and another there and then
1367
get m usic from th e air, he would have been labeled as a
1423
queer dreamer, or, worse, a crank. Today th e radio is a
1480
TEST VI
121
t
Strokes
household com m onplace and Ih e problem s it presented
in its early beginnings are largely forgotten.
The refusal to evade a problem is th e first step in its
solution.t As dense fog vanishes before th e su nlight, so
m an y seem ing problems vanish before the vigor of a face
to face attack. M any of us fail to solve our problems because we are like th e boy who rings a doorbell and runs
away; we im p atien tly dem and th e solu tion yet lack th e
stab ility to see it through. Sticking to a problem has its
reward.
The story is told of Napoleon th a t he tackled a certain problem in m athem atics w hich no pupil or teacher
had been able to solve. Napoleon locked h im self in his
room and refused to adm it defeat. He worked seventy- 1
two hours w ith ou t sleep and w ith little food before he
reached th e correct solution to the problem . T hat m ay
have been foolish for he was endangering his health and
his future, yet the will and the force of character th a t
m ade possible sticking to the problem u n til it was solved
later changed the m ap of Europe.
Power to do thin gs is one of the outcom es of solving
problem s. There is no m erit in the problem itself. The
value com es from the lessons it teaches us, and these
problem s m u st be repeated u n til th e lessons are learned.
This needless repetition ist b u t a cluttering up of our
days w ith debris th at should have no place in our lives.
We should live in the atm osphere of achievem ent, and
th is we can do if we face squarely th e difficulties th a t
com e to us, if we think through the problem s th at are
ours.
It has always seem ed to m e th a t it would be an easy
th in g for a genius to hold his th ou gh t steadfastly to the
finding of a solution to his problem s. The very bigness
of th e th in gs he has to do m akes him m aster of the im pulse to turn aside to som e thin g t else. You and I,
th ou gh , have the problem of doing th e countless little
1532
1579
1635
1692
ms
1806
1862
1916
1976
1984
2036
2090
2146
2199
2254
2309
2365
2422
2480
2513
, 2566
2623
2677
2734
2789
2846
2899
2956
3010
3016
3068
3126
3183
3237
3288
3343
things, th e petty m iscellaneous work of every day, and
y et we m u st do these thin gs w ith ou t losing the purpose
of our lives. If we can m eet and solve th is problem , we
will n ot long be caught in a routine of m otions, b u t we
will attain an in sigh t which will lead us in to con stan t
progress.
I have talked w ith hundreds of typing pupils about
their learning problem s. The m ost com m on la m en t is,
“ I have plenty of speed bu t too m any errors.” T hat is a
problem, b u t it ist n o t an analysis of th e problem . The
difficulty lies in an awkwardness of hand m ovem ent, a
fau lty sense of speed w hich encourages typing beyond
control, or in the failure to build in to th e typing technique the few sim ple rules which are foundation stones
on w hich typing skill is developed.
You who are now studying typing have set up for your
goal th e developm ent of typing power. There is no shortcu t to this goal. It cannot be produced by a m agician’s
wand. No secret form ula can be invoked to give the
desired result. The skill will com e only if yout em ploy
the discipline of accurate thinking and if you hold yourself to a thorough m astery of each lesson. T his is a m ajor
problem ; its solu tion is possible, and its opportunities
are m any. 32
(t)
Stroke*
3398
3453
3510
3566
3622
3632
3683
3736
3793
3849
3903
3956
4013
4068
4104
4157
4214
4271
4323
4379
4436
4496
4553
4562
This mark at each 100 words in the copy adapts this m aterial fo r shorthand dictation.
DRILL PRACTICE
By D. D. Lessenberry
Mar'gins, 10 and 75.
rfvf ujmj qaza p;/; tfbf yjnj wsxs ol.l gfbf hjnj edcd ik,k
4f*f 7j&j 2s”s 91(1 5f%f 6j_j 3d#d 8 k ’k 0;);
(p words)
papers people prompt proper spring placed please pretty prices
(q words)
quarrel quicken quarter quandary quibble quality qualify querist
(r words)
real very fair form were pray sure poor from here ever fear
(s words)
short state stock sweet style shown still serve story sheet
(t words)
taking thirty strong talked thanks twenty writer wanted twelve
TEST VII
TABULATION TEST
D ir e c tio n s: '
-L<£^
1.
A l l o p e r a to r s s t a r t a t th e same s i g n a l .
2.
The t e a c h e r p l a c e s th e tim e on th e b la c k b o a r d a t th e end
o f e a ch q u a r te r m inute*
3 . When an o p e r a to r f i n i s h e s , he g l a n c e s a t th e b la c k b o a r d •
to
f i n d th e tim e w hich he to o k t o w r i t e th e t e s t ;
4 . He f i n d s h i s s c o r e
by u s i n g th e I n t e r n a t i o n a l R u le s ,
e x c e p t t h a t th e l a s t d i v i s o r u s e d i s th e tim e i t t o o k him
t o c o m p lete th e t e s t i n s t e a d o f some tim e d e s i g n a t e d by th e
in str u c to r .
Type th e f o l l o w i n g l i s t o f words i n two columns w i t h
s i n g l e s p a c i n g . Use a main h e a d in g and a s u b h e a d in g .
T r i p l e - s p a c e b etw een t h e main h e a d in g and th e su b h e a d in g ;
d o u b l e - s p a c e b etw een th e su b h ea d in g and th e co lu m n s.
C enter
th e h e a d in g s and th e l o n g e s t l i n e i n each column* Make f u l l
u se o f th e t a b u l a t o r m echanism . Use th e e r a s e r t o c o r r e c t e r r o r s
WORD STUDY
Words F r e q u e n t ly M i s s p e l l e d
accommodate
acknowledgment
addressed
a u x ilia r y
b e lie v in g .
carb u retor
c lie n te le
c o r r o b o r a te
d istr ib u to r
em barrass
e n c o u r a g in g
e q u a liz a tio n
exa g g era te
e x c e lle n t
e x iste n c e
governor
in d e p e n d e n t
in o c u la te
in siste n c e
judgment
la b o r a to ry
lic e n se
m isc e lla n e o u s
occurrence
personnel
p ossessor
p r iv ile g e
q u e stio n n a ir e
r e c e iv in g
recom m endation
r e p e titio n
r e sista n c e
su p erin ten d en t
tr a n sm iss ib le
unnecessary
v isu a liz e d
123
i^ w whfe-u» 1111.Wmm/'B ^ i
WORD STUDY
/
0
W ords"F r e q u ^ n tly M i s s p e l l e d
accommodate ;..., ■;;
acknowledgment
a d d r e s s e d :y -. '
D
e
l
i
e
y
i n
g
:
...„;
.■;
carb uretor
I; c l i e n . t e l e , .
c o r r o b o r a te
d istr ib u to r
em barrass •
e q u a liz a tio n
e x c e lle n t
e x iste n c e
g o v ern o r
in o c u la te
in s is te n c e
judgment •
lic e n se :
m isc e lla n e o u s
O cclirrence U' ;
possessor
q u e stio n n a ir e v
r e c e iv in g
recom m endation
r e p e titio n
r e sista n c e ' * su p e r in te n d en t
tr a n sm iss ib le ;
unnecessary
v isu a liz e d .
•
TEST V II
INSTRUCTIONS FOR SCORING
124
Two im p o r ta n t ite m s s h o u ld be ta k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n
t h e p la cem en t o f the t a b u l a t i o n , and tim e r e q u i r e d t o
c o m p lete i t .
To s c o r e the p la c em e n t o f th e t a b u l a t i o n , p l a c e the
k e y s q u a r e l y o v e r th e s t u d e n t ’ s paper and ch eck f o r e r r o r s
l i s t e d b e lo w . I f you can n ot s e e th e dark l i n e s , h o ld b o th
p a p e r s up t o a l i g h t .
I f any m argin o r m argin s go beyond
t h e in n e r l i n e ( t o p or b o tto m , e i t h e r s i d e , or b o th ) dedu ct
5 p o i n t s ; i f beyond t h e o u t e r l i n e , d ed u ct 10 p o i n t s .
That
i s , you cannot count o f f more than 10 p o i n t s e v en i f the
m a rg in s do go beyond more th an one o u t e r l i n e . T o t a l a l l
e r r o r s and d ed u ct from a p o s s i b l e s c o r e o f 2 0 . T h is i s
th e s t u d e n t ’ s s c o r e f o r t h i s u n i t .
I f th e d e d u c t io n s
t o t a l more th a n 2 0 , c a l l th e s c o r e z e r o . D is r e g a r d a l l t y p ­
i n g e r r o r s i f t h e y have b een n e a t l y c o r r e c t e d .
P o in ts
t o ch eck f o r e r r o r s :
( 1 ) P la cem en t
to o h ig h
5 or
10
(1 )
( 2 ) P la cem en t
to o low
5 or
10
(2 )
( 3 ) P la c em e n t
t o o f a r t o the
5 or
10
(3)
(4 ) P la cem en t t o o f a r t o
le ft
the r i g h t
(5 ) T a b u la t io n n o t s i n g l e sp a ce d
5or 10
(4)
1
(5 )
( 6 ) Words n o t i n d i r e c t l i n e — f o r
each ( i n column)
1
(6)
( 7 ) H eading not c e n t e r e d
2
(7 )
(8 ) Not f i n i s h e d — f o r e a c h l i n e
o m itte d
1
(8 )
( 9 ) Poor e r a s u r e s — f o r e a c h
1
(9)
To s c o r e the tim e r e q u i r e d t o c o m p lete the t a b u l a t i o n ,
c o r r e c t i t i n . t h e same way you would a r e g u l a r s t r a i g h t - c o p y
speed t e s t .
The c l a s s w i l l s t a r t t o g e t h e r i n th e same
manner a s when a r e g u l a r s t r a i g h t - c o p y sp e e d t e s t i s g i v e n .
The tim e w i l l be p la c e d on the b la c k b o a r d a t th e end of
e a ch q u a r te r m in u te by th e t e a c h e r . As each s t u d e n t f i n i s h e s
he w r i t e s th e tim e on th e paper on w h ich he to o k th e t e s t .
P oor e r a s u r e s a r e c o u n te d a s e r r o r s . The r a t e p er m in u te
i s fou n d i n th e same way a s i t i s f o r a s t r a i g h t - c o p y sp ee d
t e s t e x c e p t t h a t t h e l a s t d i v i s o r w i l l be th e tim e i t to o k
t o c o m p lete t h e t e s t . R ecord t h e t a b u l a t i o n p la c e m e n t s c o r e ,
and t h e n e t r a t e s c o r e on th e bottom o f the s t u d e n t ’ s t e s t
paper.
D ir ec tio n s :
Type th e f o l l o w i n g l i s t
columns w it h s i n g l e s p a c in g *
h e a d in g and th e colu m n s.
h o r iz o n ta lly *
125
TABULATION TEST
TEST V I I I
o f words i n two
Double sp a c e b etw een th e main
C en ter th e l i s t
v e r t i c a l l y and
>
Make f u l l us< o f th e t a b u l a t o r mechanism* *' Use
th e e r a s e r t o c o r r e c t e r r o r s *
JOINED WITH A HYPHEN
make-up
m o t h e r - in - la w
tim e-ta b le
trad e-m a rk
tra d e-u n io n
w eek-end
b y -p r o d u c t
fo llo w -u p
fo rty -fo u r
se lf-c o n fid e n c e
se lf-sta r te r
th ree-q u a rters
a b se n t-m in d e d
a ll-r o u n d
brand-new
b u ilt-in
c le a r -s ig h te d
fa r -a w a y
fir st-c la ss
o ld -fa sh io n e d
o n e-sid ed
p ast-d u e
ready-m ade
sa fe -d e p O sit
seco n d -h a n d
secon d -rate
S o -c a lle d
fo u r -in -h a n d
126
j.-
■5 \.= A
i i 5
‘ I V'1 ^ v: , >
4a
J o in e d
'.make-up \
j m o th er-in -la w
| time.-table;..
\ trad e-m a rk
{ t r a d e - u n io n
| ,weefe-emd;A'^:"'
i/b y - p r o d u c t
1 fo llo w -u p
?;f o r t y - f o u r
y
| se lf-c o n fid e n c e
i se lf-sta r te r
| th ree-q u a rters
I a b sen t-m in d e d
! a ll-r o u n d
with a hyphen
brand-new •
b u ilt-in
;
c l e a r - s i ghtedf
fa r -a w a y
1
fir st-c la ss
I
o l d - f ashioriedf
o n e -sid e d
’ I
p a s t - d u e ; '; ;S
'ready-made
J
's a f e - d e p o s i t ; , 1
se co n d -h a n d
j
seco n d -ra te
i
so -c a lle d
j
f o u r - in - h a n d
•!
48
70.
9fe
138
159
179
197
2 lfe
27,0
29!6
320
340
TEST V III
$m m m tm
127
Two im portant Items should bo taken in t o c o n sid e r a tio n
the placement o f th e ta b u la tio n , and t i m rep a ired to
c o m p le te I t *
To soar© tbs plaoement o f t h e ta b u la tio n , p la ce th e
key sq u a rely over the student*© paper and check fo r er r o r s
H a te d below* I t you cannot see' the dark l i n e s f bold both
papers up t o a lig h t * I f any margin or margins go beyond
th e in n e r .lin e ( to p or bottom , e it h e r a l i a , or both) deduct
5 point© | i f beyond th e o u ter l i n e , deduct 10 p o in ts* That
i s , you cannot count o f f more than 10 p o in ts even i f the
margins do go beyond more than one o u te r lin e*. T o ta l a l l
er r o r s and deduct from a p o s s ib le sc o re o f SO*- This i s
the s tu d e n t1© sc o r e fo r t h i s u n it* I f the d ed u ction s
t o t a l m ore'than 0 0 , c a l l th e sc o re z e ro* D isregard a l l typ­
in g e r r o r s i f th ey haws been n e a tly co rrected *
P o in ts to check f o r e r r o r s :
Cl) Placement to o high
5 or 10
U)
(8 ) Placement to o low
6 or 10
IE)
(3 ) Placem ent to o fa r t o the l e f t
3 or 10
13)
Sor 10
(4 )
(5> T ab u lation n o t s i n g l e spaced
1
(5 )
(6) Words n o t in d ir e c t l i n e —fo r
each ( in column)
1
{6}
0
(?)
{65 Hot fin lB h cd —fo r each line
om itted
1
i&)
Poor e r a su r e s—fa r each
1
(9)
U) Placement to o f a r to the r ig h t
m
m
Heading not cen tered
To sco re the tim e req u ired to com plete the ta b u la tio n ,
c o r r e c t i t in the same way you would a reg u la r s tr a ig h t-c o p y
speed te a t* th e c l a s s w i l l s t a r t to g eth e r in the same
manner a s when a re g u la r s tr a ig h t-c o p y spaed t e s t I s given*
The time w i l l be p laced on the blackboard a t the end o f
each quarter m inute by the teacher* A b each stud en t f i n i s h e s
he w r ite s th e tim e on the paper on which he took the t e s t *
Poor era su res a re counted a s errors* The r a t e per m inute
i s found in th e same way a s i t i s fo r a. s tr a ig h t-c o p y speed
t e s t ex c ep t th a t th e l a s t d iv is o r w i l l be the tim e i t took
t o com plete th e t e s t * le c o r d th e ta b u la tio n , placem ent s c o r e ,
and th e n e t r a ta sc o r e on th e bottom o f the student* s t e s t
paper*
TEST IX
Type th e c o r r e c t t i t l e t h a t s h o u ld be u sed i n l e t t e r
a d d r e s s e s f o r th e f o l l o w i n g :
1.
f o r a man
2.
f o r two or more men
2
3.
f o r a m arried woman
3
4.
fo r a d octor
4
Type c o r r e c t l y s a l u a t i o n s b e lo w :
5*
dear s i r
5
6 ..
my dear s i r
6
7.
my dear Mr. jo n e s
'7
8.
my dear p r o f e s s o r sm ith
8
9.
dear mr. sm ith
9'
10 .
my dear m iss Jones
10 ‘
11.
dear madam
11
12.
dear m iss jo n e s
12
13.
f o r a f ir m o f men
13
14.
f o r a fir m o f women
F i l l In th e p rop er s i g n a t u r e :
14
15.
Mrs, A lex Sm ith
15
16.
M iss jane w r ig h t
16
17.
p r o f e s s o r jan e john son
17
18.
Jones & R obinson
18
Type th e I d e n t i f i c a t i o n marks f o r th e f o l l o w i n g :
19.
T y p is t’s i n i t i a l s
JC, D i c t a t o r ’ s i n i t i a l s
20.
D i c t a t o r ’ s •i n i t i a l s
21.
T y p is t W illia m S m ith ,. D i c t a t o r R. G. White
RG
19
T y p i s V s I n i t i a l s RG
20
21
Answer "F alse" or "True".
22.
You n e v e r u s e b l o c k s t y l e i n a d o u b le sp a ced
lette r
22.
23*
There are two s p a c e s b etw een th e i n s i d e
a d d r e ss and th e s a l u a t i o n
23
24*
In a f u l l b l o c k l e t t e r each l i n e i n th e body o f th e
l e t t e r i s p l a c e d f l u s h e d w i t h th e l e f t m argin
24
128
TEST X
129
THE BUSINESS LETTER PROBLEM
D i r e c t i o n s ; You a r e to make" one a t t e m p t , DO NOT STOP AND
START AGAIN, Type th e l e t t e r a c c o r d in g t o th e f o l l o w i n g
su g g e stio n s:
Use a 40 sp a ce l i n e and open p u n c t u a t io n
In d e n t th e p a ragrap h s 5 s p a c e s
Use a s i n g l e - s p a c e d in d en ted ' form th ro u g h o u t th e l e t t e r
Type th e d i c t a t o r s name w i t h th e o f f i c i a l t i t l e as a s i g n a t u r e
S e t t a b u l a t o r s t o p s s o t h a t you can q u i c k l y and a c c u r a t e l y
In d e n t f o r a l l l i n e s n o t b e g in n in g a t th e l e f t margin*.
2665 J e f f e r s o n Avenue D e t r o i t ^ M ichigan A p r i l 1 6 , 1*940.
Mr* C h a rle s J* W ebster 2831 Beeqhwooa Avenue D e t r o i t , M ichigan
Dear S i r ;
(P) We know you a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n h a v in g a l l s u r p lu s
funds work f o r you*. We h o w ever, r e a l i z e t h a t you want t o be
a s s u r e d o f th e s a f e t y and o f th e so u n d n ess o f an in v e s tm e n t*
(P) The e n c l o s e d f o l d e r w i l l i n t e r e s t y o u , we are s u r e , as i t
w i l l h e l p t o s o l v e t h i s problem o f f i n d i n g a s a f e in v e s tm e n t
f o r your money* I f t h e r e i s any f e a t u r e c o n c e r n in g t h i s i n ­
v e stm en t t h a t you w is h t o have e x p l a i n e d , i n q u i r e by l e t t e r or
t e le p h o n e and th e i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be s e n t t o you w it h o u t d ela y*.
Yours t r u l y ,- SHIELDS & COMPANY ( D i c t a t e d by John E* Lane)
Manager
-
IV
—
130
>7
21
39
54
2665 J e f f e r s o n Avenue
'T
D e t r o i t , M ichigan
A p r i l 1 6 , 1940
’
j
96
118
136
j
148
i \ : We know you are i n t e r e s t e d i n
Shaving a l l s u r p l u s fu n d s work f o r y o u .
|We h ow ever, r e a l i z e t h a t you want to be
■assured o f t h e s a f e t y and o f th e soundjn ess o f an i n v e s t m e n t .
v
:
{
j
j.
|
180
219
250
290
313
The e n c l o s e d f o l d e r w i l l i n t e r e s t
'iyou, we a r e s u r e , a s i t w i l l h e l p t o
1s o l v e ’t h i s problem o f f i n d i n g a s a f e i n v e stm e n t f o r your money.
I f there i s
any f e a t u r e c o n c e r n in g t h i s in v e s t m e n t
"jthat you w ish to have e x p l a i n e d , i n q u i r e
hy l e t t e r o r t e l e p h o n e and th e ih fo r m a j t i o n w i l l be s e n t to you w i t h o u t d e l a y .
,
{
I
■
348'
385v
426
464
503
544
580
620
! l r . C h a r le s J . W ebster
;. *
2831 Beechwood Avenue
I
D e t r o i t , M ichigan
_
'Dear S i r :
;
Yours t r u l y ,
I
SHIEDDS
634
COMPANY
John S . Lanev
Manager
J
653
669
677
.moa
682
CSnclosure.
693
-
/O'
TEST X
INSTRUCTIONS FOR SCORING
To s c o r e th e p lacem en t o f the l e t t e r , p l a c e the key
s q u a r e l y o v e r th e s t u d e n t 1s paper and check f o r e r r o r s l i s t ­
ed b e lo w . I f you cannot s e e the dark l i n e s , h o ld b o th p a p er s
up t o a l i g h t .
I f any m argin or m argin s go beyond the
in n e r l i n e ( t o p or b o tto m , e i t h e r s i d e , or b o th ) dedu ct 5
p o i n t s ; i f beyond the o u t e r l i n e , d e d u c t 10 p o i n t s . That i s ,
you cannot count o f f more th an 1 0 p o i n t s even i f the m argin s
do go beyond more th a n one o u t e r l i n e . T o t a l a l l e r r o r s
and dedu ct from a p o s s i b l e s c o r e o f 2 5 . T h is i s t h e s t u d e n t ’ s
sco re for t h is u n it .
I f th e d e d u c t io n s t o t a l more than 2 5 ,
c a l l th e s c o r e z e r o . D is r e g a r d a l l t y p i n g e r r o r s i f t h e y
have been n e a t l y c o r r e c t e d .
P o i n t s to check f o r e r r o r s :
(1 )
(2 )
(3 )
(4 )
(5 )
(6 )
(7)
(8 )
(9)
(1 0 )
(11)
(1 2 )
(1 3 )
(1 4 )
(1 5)
(1 6 )
(1 7)
(18)
(1 9 )
(2 0 )
(2 1 )
5
P lacem en t t o o h ig h
P lacem ent t o o low
5
P la cem en t t o o f a r t o t h e l e f t
5
P la c e m e n t t o o f a r t o th e r i g h t
5
Date o m it t e d
Date a b b r e v i a t e d
I n s i d e a d d r e s s n o t s i n g l e sp a c e
and i n in d e n t e d form
P aragraph s n ot in d e n t e d 5 s p a c e s —
f o r ea ch
No dou b le s p a c in g b e t w e e n p ara grap h s
Body o f l e t t e r n ot s i n g l e sp aced
Com plim entary c l o s e not i n in d e n t e d form
S i g n a t u r e s n o t i n in d e n te d form
Company’ s s i g n a t u r e n o t i n c a p i t a l s
John E . Lane o m itte d from s i g n a t u r e l i n e
Manager not in d e n te d
L e s s than f o u r s p a c e s betw een Company’ s
s i g n a t u r e and John E. L an e’ s
I d e n t i f i c a t i o n s o m it te d
Not open p u n c t u a t i o n — f o r each mark i n ­
serted
U n f i n i s h e d — f o r each l i n e o m itte d
P oor e r a s u r e s — f o r each
Complimentary c l o s e o m it te d
or
or
or
or
10
10
10
10
1
1
(i)
(2 )
(3 )
(4 )
(5 )
(6 )
2
(7 )
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
(8 )
(9 )
(10)
(11)
(12)
(13)
(1 4 )
(1 5 )
1
2
(1 6 )
(1 7 )
1
1
1
2
(1 8 )
(1 9 )
(2 0 )
(2 1 )
To s c o r e the tim e r e q u ir e d t o c o m p le te the l e t t e r ,
c o r r e c t i t i n t h e same way you would a r e g u l a r s t r a i g h t - c o p y
sp eed t e s t .
The c l a s s w i l l s t a r t t o g e t h e r i n th e same manner
a s when a r e g u l a r s t r a i g h t - c o p y sp ee d t e s t i s g i v e n . The tim e
w i l l be p l a c e d on th e b la c k b o a rd a t the end o f each q u a r te r o f
a m inu te by th e t e a c h e r . As ea ch s t u d e n t f i n i s h e s , he w r i t e s
t h e “tim e on the pap er on w h ich he to o k th e t e s t . Poor e r a s u r e s
a r e co u n te d a s e r r o r s . The r a t e p er m in u te i s found i n th e
same way a s i t i s fo r a s t r a i g h t - c o p y sp e e d t e s t e x c e p t th a t
the l a s t d i v i s o r w i l l be the tim e i t to o k t o c o m p lete the t e s t .
Record t h e l e t t e r p la c e m e n t s c o r e and n e t r a t e s c o r e on the
bottom o f the s t u d e n t ’ s t e s t p a p e r .
TEST XI
D ir e c tio n s;
Use th e f o l l o w i n g a d d r e s s e s f o r a t e s t i n a d d r e s ­
s i n g e n v e lo p e s o f l e g a l s i z e . Use an e r a s e r and c o r r e c t
any e r r o r s b e f o r e you remove th e e n v e lo p e from th e m a ch in e .
1.
A l l o p e r a t o r s s t a r t a t th e same s i g n a l .
2.
The t e a c h e r p l a c e s th e tim e on th e b la c k b o a r d a t th e end
o f e a ch q u a r t e r m in u te .
3 .
When an o p e r a t o r f i n i s h e s , he g l a n c e s a t th e b la c k b o a r d
t o f i n d th e tim e w h ich he to o k t o w r i t e th e t e s t .
4.
He f i n d s h i s s c o r e by u s i n g th e I n t e r n a t i o n a l B u i e s ,
e x c e p t t h a t th e l a s t d i v i s o r u sed i s th e tim e i t to o k
him t o co m p lete th e t e s t i n s t e a d o f some tim e d e s i g n a t e d
by th e i n s t r u c t o r .
ENVELOPE ADDRESSING TEST
Mr. B . F . T ucker, c / o R an dal Company, J o n e s B u i l d i n g , F u l t o n ,
K entucky; Mrs. A. A. R e c t o r ,
(AIR MAIL) 401 S t r a i g h t Avenue,
6l
122
Grand R a p id s , M ich igan ; M iss E s t e r C. F o r b e s , 65 5 West P o lk
184
S t r e e t , C h ic a g o , I l l i n o i s ; M is s e s Jane and Grace G le a s o n ,
240
167 J e ffe r s o n S tr e e t,
300
Ogden, U tah; W ils o n - C la r k , N a t i o n a l
A u d it & A p p r a is a l Company, 6 1 0 - l J t h S t r e e t , Los A n g e l e s ,
358
C a l i f o r n i a ; P r e s i d e n t G. S . Snow, D i x i e J u n io r C o l l e g e ,
415
S t . G eo rg e, Utah; Dean H* V. H o y t, Brigham Young U n i v e r s i t y ,
478
P r o v o , U tah; P r o f e s s o r E v e r e t t e L e ig h H ansen, Utah A g r i c u l t u r a l
C o l l e g e , Logan, U tah ; D r. C. R. N e l s o n , 600 G a t e s , B l d g . ,
603
Kansas C i t y , M i s o u r i 5 R everend J o s e p h L. Morton, 215 Court
66l
S t r e e t , Lynn, M a s s a c h u s e t t s ; Rabbi S te p h e n S . M o r le y , 6 3 8
721
Broad S t r e e t , B ro o k ly n , New York; H is Em inence, P a t r i c k
779
C a r d in a l H a yn es, 5 8 9 M e l v i l l e A venue, Roanoke, V i r g i n i a ;
837
Mother M. B a p t i s t e , S u p e r i o r , 3001 G reen vale S t r e e t , D e t r o i t ,
M ich ig an ; The P r e s i d e n t , W ash ington D. C . ; A t t e n t i o n o f Mr.
9^2
James P . W eston, W e sto n -R ic k b er g & Company, 1462 S t e v e n s o n
1024
S t r e e t , San F r a n c i s c o , C a l i f o r n i a ; The Honorable A. L. J e n k i n s ;
Mayor o f S a l t Lake C i t y , S a l t Lake C i t y , U tah; H is E x c e l l e n c y
The G overnor, L a n s in g , M ic h ig a n ; S e c u r i t y Warehouse No. 1 ,
1212
S p ea r and Folsom S t r e e t s , San F r a n c i s c o , C a l i f o r n i a ;
1266
TEST XII
D ir e c tio n s:
Use the f o l l o w i n g a d d r e s s e s f o r a t e s t i n
a d d r e s s in g e n v e lo p e s o f 3 5 / 8 by 6 1 / 2 s i z e . Use an e r a s e r
and c o r r e c t any e r r o r s b e f o r e you remove th e e n v e lo p e from .
t h e m a c h in e .
1.
A l l o p e r a t o r s s t a r t a t th e same s i g n a l .
2.
The t e a c h e r p l a c e s th e tim e on th e b la c k b o a rd a t th e end
o f ea ch q u a r t e r m i n u t e .
3.
When an o p e r a to r f i n i s h e s , he g l a n c e s a t th e b la c k b o a r d
t o f i n d th e tim e w h ich he to o k t o w r i t e th e t e s t .
4.
He f i n d s h i s s c o r e by u s i n g th e I n t e r n a t i o n a l R u l e s ,
e x c e p t t h a t th e l a s t d i v i s o r u sed i s th e tim e i t to o k
him to c o m p lete th e t e s t i n s t e a d o f some tim e d e s i g n a t e d
by th e i n s t r u c t o r .
ENVELOPE ADDRESSING TEST
George P . A t l a s , .3 6 1 Union A v en u e, P i t t s b u r g h ,
P e n n s y lv a n ia ;
The A l l i s o n Hardware Company, 682 Main S t r e e t ,
B a ltim o r e ,
60
119
Maryland; J oh n son and J o h n so n , 3042 C la r k so n B o u le v a r d ,
176
O akland, C a l i f o r n i a ; The p r o g r e s s P a ck in g Company, 2 7 I E a s t
237
F ro n t S t r e e t , C h ic a g o , I l l i n o i s ; Mr. A. W. I n s l e y , P r e s i d e n t , 3 0 0
S im p le x Paper Company, H a m ilto n , West V i r g i n i a ; M iss
354
D orothy Cameron, F l o r i d a Township H igh S c h o o l ,
R o s e d a le ,
412
I n d ia n a ; The Atwood C o r p o r a tio n , U nion C e n t r a l B u i l d i n g ,
470
L e x in g t o n , K entucky; Mr. Harvey N. J a c k s o n , 1724 Linwood
529
P l a c e , A u s t i n , T e x a s; Logan S e r v i c e S t a t i o n , M adison and
587
Oak S t r e e t , B r o o k ly n , New York; Mr. R o b e r t A. Thompson,
644
641 Grant S t r e e t , B o s t o n , M a s s a c h u s e t t s ; H eat Wave C oal
701
Company, A d d iso n B u i l d i n g , S t . P a u l , M in n e so ta ; Dr. Fred
759
N a i l , M e th o d is t H o s p i t a l , N a s h v i l l e , T e n n e s s e e ; B r ig g s and
819
S t a c y , 4 9 6 3 Compton A v en u e, D e t r o i t , M ich iga n ; Mrs. A l i c e T.
88l
L oom is, S e c r e t a r y , Highway Car Company, 444 H a l l S t r e e t ,
939
J a c k s o n , M i s s i s s i p p i ; Mr. W illia m G. G oin g, 1 7 0 T a f t Road,
999
L i v i n g s t o n , Alabama; J e w e l l I c e Company, 42 E a s t Monroe
1056
S t r e e t , P r o v i d e n c e , Rhode I s l a n d ; Mr. L. 0 . R o s s , 2 7 1 3
1112
P a r i s Avenue, Kansas C i t y , M is s o u r i
1149
TEST X III
THE BUSINESS LETTER'PROBLEM
D ir ec tio n s:
You a r e t o make one a ttem p t# DO HOT STOP
AND START AGAIN. Type th e l e t t e r a c c o r d in g t o th e
fo llo w in g su g g e stio n s:
Use a 55 sp a c e l i n e and open p u n c t u a t i o n
B lo c k the- i n s i d e a d d r e s s
S i n g l e sp a c e th e i n s i d e a d d r e s s
I n d e n t th e p arag ra p h s 5 s p a c e s
D ouble sp a c e th e body o f th e l e t t e r
Type t h e s i g n a t u r e read y f o r s i g n i n g
may 1 1 9 3 & mr jo h n p matthews kraemar shoe company
9 2 1 3 broadway avenue s c r a n t o n P e n n s y lv a n ia my d e a r mr
m atthew s u n d o u b te d ly mr b la k e h as d i s c u s s e d w i t h you our
l e t t e r o f march 2 c o n c e r n in g your c r e d i t r a t i n g w i t h us
yo u r r e p o r t t o him i s e x a c t l y r i g h t th e m erch an d ise was
sh ip p e d and i n v o i c e d on th e t e n t h o f fe b r u a r y th e b i l l
w i l l n o t be due t h e r e f o r e u n t i l th e t e n t h o f a p r i l a
s u b s t i t u t e c l e r k c a r e l e s s l y p o s t e d th e march ite m t o th e
fe b r u a r y a c c o u n t th e e r r o r was n o t n o te d by th e c r e d i t
manager hen ce th e l e t t e r to mr b la k e we r e g r e t th e annoy­
ance we have ca u sed you your f u t u r e b i l l i n g w i l l be
h a n d le d more c a r e f u l l y w on?t you g i v e us an o p p o r t u n it y to
p r o v e t h i s s i n c e r e l y y o u r s th e hannah sh oe company m t
thompson o f f i c e manager
19
135
11
m & 7 rrvzm
jMr* John P*- Matthews \ ■
-Kraemar Shoe Company ' ,
&213-'Broadway Avenue
.
34
;
*’
; 66
ryxy
—
Scranton, P en nsylvania
100
l.lr dear Mr* M a t t h e w s . ! *,
|
-
/jjidoufcfcediy* Mr* Blake h a s d l s c u a s e d w lt h you. our ■!
■ letter. n i‘ haTch' 2; concerning "^our' c r e d it -'ratin g .w ith
-i
'f
" ■
?
■.■'.■■
.
’' '
’ '' '
■bay’ " to u t r e p o r t ;£:0 ".him id' e x a c t l y r i g h t ; th e m erchant ■'
175
229
im
"■
d i s e w as;'sh ip p e d and - in v o ic e d '-o n t h e t e n t h , .of ■February^
t h e ’" h i l l w i l l n o t be due * t h e r e f o r e , . - u n t i l ...the t e n t h of-;-;
1
342
i ■
. «
»
■
407
f
460
?
}■■:'"
A s u b s t it u t e c le r k ■Garelessly:;..p0s te d th e March, item;
ft.o,,the feb ru a ry account*.
,The'-error.'.wits-not /noted, :-by -:the\.,
c r e d it manager;- •hence 'the l e t t e r to "Mr*Blake#
318
le i
’. ’. We "regret the" amoy*rc@ we h a v e caused -you*.- Tour
jsfttfcur# h i l l i n g w ill- b e handled., more-. c a r e fu lly *
Won’t.
.,i
K
y ou gi¥®' Us. an O p portu n ity. to prove t h is ?
S in c e r e ly yours* '
> ~
to
816
.'
'10
834
"’■THE HAI1IAH SHOE' CGKFM Y
859
M.*. T* Thompson
■O f f i c e "Manager
877
89 2
TEST X III
INSTRUCTIONS FOR SCORING
136
To s c o r e th e p la cem en t o f l e t t e r , p l a c e th e k e y
s q u a r e l y o v e r th e s t u d e n t ’ s paper and ch eck f o r e r r o r s l i s t ­
ed b e lo w . I f you ca n n o t s e e th e dark l i n e s , h o ld b o th p a p er s
up t o a l i g h t .
I f any m argin or margins go beyond th e in n e r
l i n e ( t o p or b otto m , e i t h e r s i d e , or b o th ) d ed u ct 5 p o i n t s ;
i f beyond the o u t e r l i n e , d e d u ct 10 p o i n t s . That i s , you can
n o t count o f f more th an 1 0 p o i n t s ev en i f t h e m arg in s do go
beyond more than one o u t e r l i n e . T o t a l a l l e r r o r s and d ed u ct
from a p o s s i b l e s c o r e o f 2 5 . T h is i s th e s t u d e n t ’ s s c o r e f o r
th is u n it.
I f. th e d e d u c t io n s t o t a l more than 2 5 , c a l l th e
s c o r e z e r o . D is r e g a r d a l l t y p i n g e r r o r s i f t h e y have been
n e a tly co rrected .
P o i n t s t o check f o r e r r o r s :
(1 )
(2 )
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6 )
(7)
(8 )
(9 )
(1 0 )
(11)
(12)
(13)
(1 4 )
(1 5 )
(1 6 )
(1 7 )
(18)
(1 9 )
(2 0 )
P la cem en t t o o h ig h
5
P la cem en t t o o low
5
P la c em e n t to o f a r t o th e l e f t
5
P la cem en t t o o f a r t o th e r i g h t
5
D ate o m itte d
D ate a b b r e v ia t e d
I n s i d e a d d r e ss not s i n g l e sp a c e
and i n b lo c k form
P aragraph s n o t in d e n t e d
Body o f l e t t e r n ot d o u b le sp aced
Com plimentary c l o s e n o t i n b lo c k form
S i g n a t u r e s n o t i n b lo c k form
Company’ s s i g n a t u r e n o t i n c a p i t a l s
M. T. Thompson o m it te d from s i g n a t u r e l i n e
L e s s th an f o u r s p a c e s betw een Company’ s
s i g n a t u r e and M. T. Thompson’ s
I d e n t i f i c a t i o n s o m it te d
I d e n t i f i c a t i o n s i n wrong o r d e r , un­
a c c e p t e d form or in c o m p le t e
U n f i n i s h e d — f o r e a ch l i n e o m it te d
Poor e r a s u r e s — f o r each
Com plim entary c l o s e o m itte d
P u n c t u a t io n and c a p i t a l s — f o r each
i n c o r r e c t l y i n s e r t e d or l e f t ou t
or
or
or
or
10
10
10
10
1
1
(1 )
(2 )
(3)
(4 )
(5 )
(6)
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
i7?
(8 )
(9)
(10)
(1 1 )
(12)
(13)
1
2
(14)
(15)
1
1
1
2
(16)
(1 7 )
(18)
(19)
1
(2 0 )
To s c o r e the time r e q u ir e d to c o m p le te the l e t t e r ,
c o r r e c t i t i n th e same way you would a r e g u l a r s t r a i g h t - c o p y . sp ee d t e s t .
The c l a s s w i l l s t a r t t o g e t h e r i n th e same manner
a s when a r e g u l a r s t r a i g h t - c o p y sp eed t e s t i s g i v e n . The tim e
w i l l be p la c e d on the b la c k b o a rd a t th e end o f ea ch q u a r te r o f
a m in u te by the t e a c h e r . As ea ch s t u d e n t f i n i s h e s , h e w r i t e s
t h e tim e on t h e paper on w h ich he to o k t h e t e s t . Poor
e r a s u r e s a r e cou n ted a s e r r o r s . The r a t e p e r m in u te i s found
i n th e same way a s i t i s f o r a s t r a i g h t - c o p y sp ee d t e s t e x ­
c e p t t h a t th e l a s t d i v i s o r w i l l be th e tim e i t to o k t o
c o m p le te th e t e s t .
Record th e l e t t e r p la c em e n t s c o r e and
n e t r a t e s c o r e on th e b o tto m o f th e s t u d e n t ’ s t e s t p a p e r .
TEST XIV
137
1'
S tro ke s
1624
But when we turn to that other great use-value,
the value of time, we find a different story. Here there
is no distinction in sex aptitudes. Here we are all equal
sinners. Here all of us are constantly cutting the hole
1672
1448
i 865
'
If we apply the moral in the case of the writing
machine we can go back very far; almost to the beginning. The story reminds us of one of the early typewriter inventors whose work was well known in his
day. This man m ight have been the inventor of the
first practical typewriter if he had not been possessed
from first to last with a m ost unfortunate idea. He
believed that five dollars was about the m ost that
anyone would pay for a typewriter, and in his vain
effort to build such a machine he wasted a great inventive 'talent.
1914
machine is to save time. W e also know that it saves
time through its greater speed. It follows that, the
speedy typist saves th$ m ost time. True enough. But
the work must be accurate. Any typist who strives
for speed at the expense of accuracy is cutting the hole
to fit the patch.
1966
2018
2068
2119
2175
2228.
2279
2330
2384
2398
W e know that one of the purposes of the writing
The proof is found merely by computing the time
cost of errors. W hen errors compel the rewriting of a
page the proof is clear. But the minor errors, the
single-stroke errors, the errors that can be corrected,
also take a heavy time toll. And even when the cor­
2710
(S ta r t from th e beginning if com pleted in less th an fifteen m inutes)
2497
2552
2604
2761
3024 £
3079
3098
3149
3200 to
O
3252
3309
3360
3369
3417 °
3470
3523
, 3577 ^
3628 °
3685
3704
3752
0*1
3807 O
3859
3915
3966
CT:
4020 o
4074
4127
4183
4203
Printed in U. S. A.
O
123456
2659
rections are made the work is still not perfect. The
moral suggested by the, story of the patch is to avoid
patchy typewriting. Strive for accuracy. Speed w ith­
out a proper degree of accuracy has no value at all and
thus is sheer waste.
2445
2973
123456789
It is easy for us to see how he reasoned. The
writing tool best known in his day was a penny pen,
and five dollars meant five hundred pennies. That was
as much as he thought buyers would pay for any kind
of writing implement. The point he overlooked was the
value of the time the machine would save. W e know
today that the value of the time saved by a modern
1789
2921
123456789
to fit the patch.
*730
2866
123456789
1846
main interest must always be in the present and the
things of the present. So viewed, it is easy to see how
this moral applies to the daily work of the modern
typist.
2815
123456789-123456789
to women.
1292
1340
1393
typewriter during its life is worth a great deal more
than the price of the machine itself. It may seem
strange that a man of vision could have missed a point
so obvious. But such are the facts, and they prove
that none of us is immune from such blunders. One
and all, we are ever prone to sacrifice the greater to
the lesser value.
But it will profit nothing to pin the moral of our
story upon a person long since dead and gone. Our
123456789
1503
1555
1613
1235
123456789
the subject of the tale. W e can hardly imagine a little
girl doing such a thing, and as for a big girl, the idea
is unthinkable. The average woman always knows
more about material values than the average man ever
does, and for the best of reasons. W omen are the real
buyers of the world. Read the advertisements of goods
in almost any current magazine of newspaper and you
will discover that the greater part of them are addressed
Strokes
i
J
TEST XIV
S t u d e n t ’s T y p e w r i t i n g T e s t
TY PE W R ITE R
100
EAST
EDUCATIONAL
F O R T Y - S E C O N D
RESEARCH
BUREAU
S T R E E T . N EW
YORK
Strokes
H ow many of you have heard the story of the little
5i
boy who tried to mend a hole in the seat of his pants?
107
He had a piece of brand new cloth which looked far
158
better to him than the cloth in his very old breeches.
214
He thought that the more of that new cloth he could
266
get into those breeches, the better they would look. So
323
he didn’t cut the patch small enough to fit the hole.
378
He did the other th in g : he cut the hole large enough
432
to fit the patch.
451
1
The small boy meant well, but his sense of values
was bad.
soi
Those breeches were worth more with a
549
small patch in them than with a large one. W hen he
601
cut the hole to fit the patch he sacrificed the greater
657
to the lesser value.
679
There is a moral in this story that applies to all the
734
values of life. But to get at the real point of the moral
793
we must distinguish between the different kinds of
844
values.
If we exclude the ethical and the emotional
897
values, we shall find that nearly all the other values
952
come under the head of use-values. Of these there are
1007
two kinds: the value of goods or things, and the value
1063
of time.
1073
The story of the patch clearly refers to the value
of things.
This explains w hy a little boy appears as
1124
H 78
TEST XV
THE HOUGH DRAFT TEST
D ir ec tio n s;
START AGAIN.
You a r e t o make one a t t e m p t .
DO NOT STOP AND 3-3©
Type th e Rough D r a f t a c c o r d in g t o th e f o l l o w ­
in g in s t r u c t io n s ;
Use a 6 0 sp a c e l i n e ,
open p u n c t u a t i o n
B lo c k th e i n s i d e a d d r e s s
I n d e n t th e p a ra g ra p h s 5 s p a c e s
S i n g l e sp a c e th e l e t t e r
Type th e com p lim entary c l o s e i n in d e n t e d form
E r a s u r e s are p e r m i t t e d and n o t c o n s id e r e d a s e r r o r s i f
p r o p e r ly made, s i n c e th e l e t t e r s are t o be c o p ie d i n m a i l a b l e
fa sh io n .
Copy th e accom paying rough d r a f t t e s t w i t h a l l i n d i c a t e d
ch a n g es made.
A f t e r you have f i n i s h e d th e t e s t mark th e tim e i t t o o k you
t o co m p lete th e d r a f t , and c o r r e c t y o u r p a p er j u s t l i k e you
w ould a s t r a i g h t - c o p y sp e e d t e s t , e x c e p t t h a t o n ly f i v e
words a r e d e d u c te d from th e g r o s s number o f words f o r ea ch
e r r o r i n s t e a d o f t e n a s i n th e s t r a i g h t - c o p y t e s t s .
R ecord y o u r s c o r e a t th e to p o f th e s h e e t .
C u rren t Date
15
Mr. Thomas H anlon, J r .
48
80 0 Larchwood Avenue
71
P h i l a d e l p h i a , P e n n s y lv a n ia
100
Dear S i r :
2 ^n t h i s
«
day c f sp eed y t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ^ th e o v e rp o w er in g
b e a u t i e s o f N a t i o n a l and S t a t e Parks and F o r e s t s th rou gh ou t)
e 1 S* Iy
/
t h e U n ite d S t a t e s a r e y a c c e s s i b l e to m i l l i o n s o f t o u r i s t s «/
Growing a p p r e c i a t i o n o f A m e r ic a ! s n a t u r a l b e a u t i e s i s e v i j'/V
d e n c e d i n t h e y c r e a s i n g numbers o f v i s i t o r s t o N a t i o n a l P a r k s .
ou r
Today, t h a n k s t o t&s- e x c e l l e n t s y s te m o f h ig h w a y s , t h e s e
/ n c r e t 1 Kic\ l \
parks a re v a c c e s s ib le .
The m otor t o u r i s t can s t a r t w i t h AcadB
114
133
197
301
362
428
487
565
f
Na-hlcnal Park i n M aine, go s o u t h t o t h e G reat Smoky M o u n tain s, 6 3 4
r Ve /
*f; O
and t h e n -gp... a lo n g th e E a s t e r n 'Seaboard t o F l o r i d a adaea&e thene-T 6 9 4
terdihe E v e r g la d e s P ark .
From t h e r e he can t r a v e l a c r o s s th e
751
G u lf S t a t e s t o New M ex ico , th e n c e t o Grand Canyon N a t i o n a l .
817
Park i n A r i z o n a < and on i n t o C a l i f o r n i a , -w ith -dts:-jnany:--parksi }; i<; p 0 1 N t ~'
From rhe-re he has a c h o i c e o f C r a ter P ark , i n Oregon; Mount
930
i n W ashington; I n t e r n a t i o n a l P eace P a rk , i n M on tana;
997
Y e l l o w s t o n e , i n Wyoming; Rocky M ountain P ark , i n C o lo ra d o ;
*vy? a. V> y
and
p a rk s i n o t h e r s t a t e s .
&c/
Our new a i r - c o n d i t i o n i n g T r a n s - C o n t i n e n t a l T r a i l e r p r o -
10c2
R an ter,
1100
1159
v i d e s th e h e i g h t o f e a s e and co m fo rt f o r a t r i p o f t h i s s o r t . 3 2 2 1
Our l a t e s t m odel e f f e c t i v e l y combines th e g r e a t e s t lu x u r y
1280
w i t h th e g r e a t e s t economy— g i v i n g you r f a m i l y a l l th e com-
1339
f o r t s o f home, and m ore.
1364
Yours v e r y t r u l y ,
1J84
-THE
1418
AUTO-BUS CORP
4 S PClCSrS— j
1
/—S a l e s Manager
14-37
O ctob er 1 0 , 1940
Mr. Thomas H anlon, J r .
<800 Larchwood Avenue
P h i l a d e l p h i a , P e n n sy lv a n ia
52
/?9 •
!
90
Dear S i r :
The o v e rp o w er in g b e a u t i e s o f N a t i o n a l and S t a t e Parks
and F o r e s t s th r o u g h o u t th e U n ite d S t a t e s are e a s i l y a c c e s s i ­
b l e t o m i l l i o n s o f t o u r i s t s i n t h i s day o f sp eed y t r a n s ­
p o r ta tio n .
Growing a p p r e c i a t i o n o f A m erica ’ s n a t u r a l
b e a u t i e s i s e v id e n c e d i n th e i n c r e a s i n g numbers o f v i s i t o r s
t o N a t i o n a l P ark s.
145
206
263
318
378
397
Today, th an k s t o our e x c e l l e n t sy s te m o f h ig h w a y s, t h e s e
parks ar e i n c r e a s i n g l y , a c c e s s i b l e .
The motor t o u r i s t can
s t a r t w i t h A cadia N a t i o n a l Park i n M aine, go so u th t o th e
Great Smoky M ou n tain s, and th e n t r a v e l a lo n g th e E a s te r n S e a ­
board t o F lo r id a t o E v e r g la d e s Park,
From t h e r e he can
t r a v e l a c r o s s t h e G ulf S t a t e s to New M exico, th e n c e to Grand
Canyon N a t i o n a l Park i n A rizon a and on i n t o C a l i f o r n i a .
From
t h i s p o i n t he h as a c h o i c e o f C r a te r Park, i n Oregon; Mount
R a n ie r , i n W ash ington; I n t e r n a t i o n a l Peace Park, i n Montana;
Y e l l o w s t o n e , i n Wyoming; Hocky Mountain Park, i n C olorad o;
and many o t h e r parks i n o t h e r s t a t e s .
Our new a ir - c o n d it io n e c T T r a n s - C o n t i n e n t a l T r a i l e r
p r o v id e s t h e h e i g h t o f e a s e and c o n f o r t f o r a t r i p of t h i s
so rt.
Our l a t e s t model e f f e c t i v e l y com bines th e g r e a t e s t
lu x u r y w it h t h e g r e a t e s t economy— g i v i n g your f a m ily a l l t h e
c o m fo r ts of home, and more.
455
513
571 '
633690
750
812
872
933
992
1030
j
j
j
j
1081
1140
1198''
1259
1287
Yours v e r y t r u l y ,
1306
THE ACME AUTO-BUS CORP
1330
S a l e s Manager
1347
TEST XV
INSTRUCTIONS FOR SCORING
To s c o r e t h e p la c em e n t o f th e l e t t e r , p l a c e the k ey
s q u a r e l y o v e r th e s t u d e n t s paper and check f o r e r r o r s l i s t ­
ed b e lo w . I f any m argin or m argin s go beyond the in n e r
l i n e ( t o p o r b o tto m , e i t h e r s i d e , or b o th ) d ed u ct 5 p o i n t s ;
i f beyond t h e o u t e r l i n e , d ed u ct 10 p o i n t s . That i s , you
can n o t cou n t o f f more th a n 1 0 p o i n t s , even i f th e m argin s
do go beyond more th a n one o u t e r l i n e .
T otal a l l errors
and dedu ct from p o s s i b l e s c o r e o f 25# T h is i s th e s t u d e n t ’ s
s c o r e f o r t h i s u n i t o f the t e s t .
I f the d e d u c t i o n s t o t a l
more th an 2 5 , c a l l the s c o r e z e r o . D is r e g a r d a l l t y p i n g
e r r o r s i f t h e y have b e e n n e a t l y c o r r e c t e d .
P o i n t s t o ch eck f o r e r r o r s :
P lacem en t to o h ig h
P la cem en t to o lo w
P la c em e n t to o f a r t o th e l e f t
P la c em e n t to o f a r t o th e r i g h t
Date o m it t e d
D ate a b b r e v i a t e d
I n s i d e a d d r e s s n o t i n b lo c k form
P a ra grap h s n o t in d e n te d
Body o f l e t t e r n o t s i n g l e sp a c e d
Complimentary c l o s e not in d e n t e d
Company’ s s i g n a t u r e n o t i n c a p i t a l s
L e s s th a n f o u r s p a c e s betw een Company’ s
s i g n a t u r e and S a l e s Manager.
f 13) C o r r e c t i o n s n o t made— f o r ea ch
( 1 4 ) P oor e r a s u r e s — f o r each
(1 )
(2 )
(3 )
(4 )
(5)
(6 )
(7)
(8 )
(9)
(10)
(11)
(12)
5
5
5
5
or
or
or
or
10
10
10
10
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
(i)
(2 )
(3)
(4 )
(5 )
(6 )
(7)
(8 )
(9 )
(1 0 )
(11)
1
(12)
(13)
(14)
5
1
To s c o r e t h e tim e r e q u ir e d t o co m p lete the l e t t e r ,
c o r r e c t i t i n th e same way you would a r e g u l a r s t r a i g h t copy sp ee d t e s t .
The c l a s s w i l l s t a r t t o g e t h e r i n the
same manner a s when a r e g u l a r s t r a i g h t - c o p y sp eed t e s t i s
g i v e n . The tim e w i l l be p la c e d on t h e b la c k b o a rd a t th e end
o f e a c h q u a r te r m in u te by the t e a c h e r . As each s t u d e n t
f i n i s h e s , he w r i t e s the tim e on the paper on w h ich he to o k
the t e s t .
Poor e r a s u r e s are cou n ted a s e r r o r s . The r a t e
p er m in u te i s found i n the same way a s i t i s fo r a s t r a i g h t copy sp e e d t e s t e x c e p t t h a t o n l y f i v e words a r e d e d u cte d
from the g r o s s number o f w ord s f o r ea ch e r r o r i n s t e a d o f
t e n a s i n the s t r a i g h t - c o p y t e s t s .
TEST XVI,.
D ir ec tio n s:
Type th e f o l l o w i n g l e t t e r i n th e s e m ib l o c k e d , s i n g l e - s p a c e d s t y l e . Use t o d a y ’s d a te and th e
f o l l o w i n g a d d r e s s : Mr. J . C. Coe, P r e s i d e n t Second
N a t i o n a l Bank Y o n k ers, New York.
Use a 60 sp a c e l i n e .
142
Dear S i r :
^
■
t i ie
I t a p p ea r s t h a t a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f ^ d r a f t s r e c e i v e d a t
$o r c o Ii £ c 11
— ----------------------~ v,.-- - ^ ^
t h i s p o i n t are^drawn'Svith c o l l e c t i o n c h a r g es, and (exchange^
and th e p a r t i e s on who t h e s e d r a f t s a r e draw i^/refuse) a l „
'
^ 0
-
:
m ost i n v a r i a b l y ^ t o pay t h e i r ex ch an g^ . We are th u s fo r c e d #
/ kJ
/
t o r e t u r n ^ a t l e a s t t h r e e - f o ^ t h s o f a l l d r a f t s r e c e iv e d ^ un­
p aid ) a t our own e x p e n se th e r e b y c a u s i n g ^ l o s s a g g r e g a t i n g
h u nd reds o f dollars/^. jpWe can s e e no good r e a s o n why we J
s h o u ld be o b l i g e d t o a c t a s c o l i e c t j i o n a g e n t s f o r w h o l e s a l e
i0 /
m erch an ts o f th e t r a d i n g c e n t e r s i n h e l p i n g them t o c o l l e c t
t h e i r ^jasae^i due a c c o u n t s a t a l o s s t o o u r s e l v e s and w i t h -
/v<-'7u
y yjA JC
our^ c o m p en sa tio n for^ s e r v i c e s .
We have t h e r e f o r e , a d o p ted
th e f o l l o w i n g r u l e s r e g a r d in g c o l l e c t i o n s , t o w hich we s h a l l
s t r i c t l y adhere a f t e r t h i s d a te £ ^ ;
H ule 1 .
On a l l ite m s w h eth er drawn^with ex ch a n g e^ o r
w i t h exch an ge and c o l l e c t i o n x o r notj'a c o l l e c t i o n charge o f
one-^tenth o f one p e r c e n t w i l l be made and d e d u c te d from
th e r e m i t t a n c e . /p R u le 2 .
On ite m s r e t u r n e d unpaid f o r any
c a u se ^ a ch arge o f $ . 2 ^ w i l l be made to ^ o v e r th e c o s t o f
^ p r e s e n t i n g , stamps,~Trecording), e t c . p R u le 3 .
Item s s e n t
f o r a c c e p t a n c e and r e t u r n must be accom pan ied by a f e e o f
$ . 25 $ f o r s e r v i c e s , s t a t i o n e r y , p o s t a g e , e t c .
Your c a r e f u l o b se r v a n c e o f t h e s e r u l e s i n t h e f u t u r e
w i l l be a p p r e c i a t e d .
R e sp e c tfu lly yours,
H e r b e r t A. Sm ith
( 2 9 9 words i n d r a f t )
HAS:JE
145
November 2 , 1940
16'
Mr. J . C. c o e , P r e s i d e n t
{Second N a t i o n a l 'Bank
'Yonkers, New York
44
65
83
jDear S i r :
93'
1 ,
/ ‘
1
I t ap p ears t h a t a l a r g e p r o p o r t io n o f th e d r a f t s
j r e c e i v e d a t t h i s p o i n t are f o r c o l l e c t i o n drawn "w ith e x l__^->ehange and c o l l e c t i o n c h a r g e s , 11 and th e p a r t i e s on who t h e s e
' d r a f t s are drawn a lm o st i n v a r i a b l y r e f u s e t o p a y , t h e i r e x - ,
^change or c o l l e c t i o n c h a r g e . We are th u s f o r c e d t o r e t u r n
un paid a t l e a s t t h r e e - f o u r t h s o f a l l d r a f t s r e c e i v e d a t our
own e x p e n se t h e r e b y c a u s i n g a l o s s am ounting to hundreds o f
d o l l a r s ea ch y e a r .
q
0
43201
261
320
379
439
499
I
We can s e e no good r e a s o n why we sh o u ld be o b l i g e d to
a c t as c o l l e c t i o n a g e n t s f o r w h o le s a l e m erchants o f t h e
t r a d i n g c e n t e r s i n h e l p i n g them to c o l l e c t t h e i r p a s t due
a c c o u n t s a t a l o s s t o o u r s e l v e s and w it h o u t j u s t c o m p en sa tio n
f o r our s e r v i c e s . We h a v e , t h e r e f o r e , a d o p te d th e f o l l o w i n g
r u l e s r e g a r d in g c o l l e c t i o n s , t o which we s h a l l s t r i c t l y ad ­
here a f t e r th is d a te ;
5.72
•639
687*
749 .
810 :
:870
*892-
Rule 1 .
On a l l ite m s w h eth er drawn " w ith exchange" or
" w ith exchange and c o l l e c t i o n c h a rg es" or n o t , a c o l l e c t i o n
ch arge o f o n e - t e n t h o f one per c e n t w i l l be made and *deducted
from the r e m i t t a n c e .
957
■1016
1078 ■'
1099
Rule 2 . On it e m s r e t u r n e d un p aid f o r any c a u se w h a tev er
a ch a rge o f $ . 2 5 / w i l l be made to c o v e r the c o s t o f r e c o r d ­
i n g , p r e s e n t i n g , sta m p s, e t c .
13:57
1217
1270
Rule 3 .
Item s s e n t f o r a c c e p t a n c e and r e t u r n must be
accom panied by a f e e o f $ . 2 5 / f o r s e r v i c e s , s t a t i o n e r y ,
p ostage, e t c .
.
‘
;
*
■
1302 •
1357
1371
i
Your c a r e f u l o b s e r v a n c e of t h e s e r u l e s i n the f u t u r e
w i l l be a p p r e c i a t e d .
1425
1446
R e sp e c tfu lly yours,
1467
H er b e rt A. Sm ith
1487
HAS:JE
1496
.0
TEST XVI
INSTRUCTIONS FOR SCORING
144
Tos c o r e t h e p la c em e n t o f
th e l e t t e r , p l a c e th e key
s q u a r e l y ov e r the s t u d e n t ’ s paper and check f o r e r r o r s
lis t­
ed b e lo w .
I f you cannot s e e th e dark l i n e s , h o ld b o th
p a p er s up t o a l i g h t .
I f any m argin or m argins go beyond
th e in n e r l i n e ( t o p or b o tto m , e i t h e r s i d e , or b o th ) d e d u ct .
5 p o i n t s ; i f beyond th e o u t e r l i n e , d ed u ct 10 p o i n t s . That
i s , you cannot cou n t o f f more than 1 0 p o i n t s , even i f th e
m argins do go beyond more th an one o u t e r l i n e .
T o tal a l l
e r r o r s and d ed u ct from a p o s s i b l e s c o r e o f 2 5 . T h is i s th e
s t u d e n t ’ s s c o r e f o r t h i s p a r t o f the t e s t .
I f th e d e d u c t io n s
t o t a l more than 2 5 , c a l l th e s c o r e z e r o .
D is r e g a r d a l l
t y p i n g e r r o r s i f t h e y have been n e a t l y c o r r e c t e d .
P o i n t s t o check f o r e r r o r s :
P la cem en t t o o h ig h
P la cem en t t o o lo w
P lacem en t to o f a r t o th e l e f t
P la c em e n t to o f a r t o th e r i g h t
Date o m itte d
Date a b b r e v ia t e d
I n s i d e a d d r e s s n o t i n b lo c k form
P aragraph s n o t in d e n te d
Body o f l e t t e r n o t s i n g l e sp aced
Complimentary c l o s e not in d e n te d
L e ss th a n fo u r s p a c e s b etw een c o m p li­
m entary c l o s e and H erb ert A. Sm ith
( 1 2 ) C o r r e c t io n s n o t made— f o r each
( 1 3 ) Poor e r a s u r e s — f o r ea ch
( 1 4 ) R e f e r e n c e I n i t i a l s i n wrong o r d e r
(1 )
(2 )
(3)
(4)
(5 )
(6 )
(7 )
(8 )
(9)
(1 0 )
(1 1 )
5
5
5
5
or
or
or
or
10
(i)
10
(2 )
10
(3)
10
(4)
(5 )
1
(6 )
1
2
(7 )
(8 )
1
2
(9 )
1 (1 0 )
1 (1 1 )
5 (1 2 )
1 (1 3 )
1 (1 4 )
To s c o r e th e tim e r e q u ir e d t o co m p lete the l e t t e r ,
c o r r e c t i t i n th e same way you would a r e g u l a r s t r a i g h t copy sp ee d t e s t .
The c l a s s w i l l s t a r t t o g e t h e r i n th e same
manner a s when a r e g u l a r s t r a i g h t - c o p y sp eed t e s t i s g i v e n .
The tim e w i l l be p la c e d on the b la c k b o a r d a t t h e end o f e a c h
q u a r te r o f a m inute by th e t e a c h e r . As each s t u d e n t f i n i s h e s ,
he w r i t e s th e tim e on th e paper on w hich he to o k t h e t e s t .
Poor e r a s u r e s a r e counted a s e r r o r s . The r a t e p e r m inu te
i s found i n th e same way a s i t i s f o r a s t r a i g h t - c o p y sp eed
t e s t e x c e p t t h a t o n ly f i v e words a r e d ed u cte d from t h e g r o s s
number o f words f o r ea ch e r r o r i n s t e a d o f t e n a s i n t h e
str a ig h t-c o p y t e s t s .
TEST XVII
144
Strokes
Strokes
of the world’s work; you m u st have the power to th in k
things, for only in th a t way can you grow; you m u st have
the power to feel things, for th is is life itself. All learning
m u st be tested in term s of these three outcom es and n o t
in term s of one of them only.
The school is one of th e earliest agencies through
w hich pupils seek education. All too frequently the a ttitude of th e pupil is th a t education is locked up w ith in
th e school building and the pupil m u st go to the building
to gW th at-ed u cation . Educational leaderst are now trying to get even th e youngest grade school pupils to understand th a t education cannot be bestowed b u t m u st be
achieved and th a t it is th e fu n ction of th e school to guide
pupils in achieving their education. The school is m erely
one of life ’s laboratories in w hich pupils are learning to
do things, to th in k things, and to feel things.
School work should always stren gthen for the work
w hich is to be done. A college boy said to m e a short tim e
ago th a t he does n ot see th a t there are m any opportunities
left for h im . He pointed tot th e large num ber of graduates from high schools going in to business, and, like
Alexander of old, he wailed th a t there will be no more
worlds for h im to conquer.
The very successful Mr. Charles M. Schwab, however,
thinks th a t you th never had such an opportunity to w in
success as is offered today. He said recently, “ If you are
young today, look around. Use your head and keep your
eyes open. Study your present job. Do to th e best of your
ability whatever you do. T his is education w hich fits for
the opportunities open to you. America today has th ou sands oft m ore great, w ide-open opportunities for her
youth to rise to leadership th an th is country ever had
when I was young. A nything th is world can offer is yours
if you are big enough to take hold of it and keep hold of it
after you have taken hold. Your only lim it is death.
T hat has to com e. N othing ou gh t to be able to stop you
u n til it does com e.” Too m any young people do n ot w ait
1648
1705
\m
im
18S6
1907
i%s
2021
2079
2135
2193
2245
2305
2364
2423
2471
2521
2581
2640
2695
2749
2804
for death to stop them from fighting upward, b u t they
give up m erely in order to avoid th e struggle.
Listen to th e vigorous counsel oft th is self-m ade success
who, as a boy of twelve, drove a stage coach in Pennsylvania, at the age of eighteen clerked in a grocery store for
$10 a m on th , at n in eteen worked for a steel m ill for a
dollar a day dragging chains for a surveying crew, and
who today leads th e world’s second biggest steel com pany.
“ Keep on going to school every day of your life, and
When you have learned som ething, bank on it, bu t n o t
blindly. There is no su b stitu te for using your brains.
When you have*knowledge and jud gm en t, use th em ; you
w on’t go far wrongt, th en . And rem em ber th is: w hen
you pu t a lim it in your own m ind on w hat you are going
to do, you have usually p u t a lim it on w hat you can do.
I don’t know w hat hum an lim its are.”
May we, w ith Mr. Schwab, learn never to know w hat
hum an lim its are. May we also learn early in our careers
th at education is a continu ous never-ending process,
and th a t our success in life is in proportion to our ability
to receive new ideas and adapt them to our own needs.90
3673
3720
3777
3833
3894
3949
4004
4062
4115
4168
4224
4277
4329
4384
4440
4477
4527
4585
4638
4699
4752
(T urn to first page and begin to rewrite, if T est is completed in less than 15 minutes.)
( t ) T his mark at each 100 words in the copy adapts th is m aterial for shorthand dictation.
2830
im
Special D rills
2937
By D. D.
2997
3052
L essen b erry
Margins, 8 and 7 8 .
3112
3171
3226
aq ;p az ;/ sw lo sx 1 . de ki dc k, fr ju fv jm ft jy fb jn fg jh
h e i n s o w a t v c l y r b p m x j z u d f ,
. g k q ? ; : 4 @
13 49 20 56 78 21 42 65 73 49 10 19 82 31 45 42 36 70 10 60 91 80
3279
3334
3392
3453
3507
3563
3619
Sentence Practice
The man who learns to take orders will make a successful employee
Life is short, you know.
You can’t afford to waste a minute.
When you play, play hard; when you work, do not play at all.
The thing for you to do is to decide quickly and act quickly.
They are never alone who are accompanied "by noble thoughts.
TEST XVII
144
AWARD TESTS FOR TYPING
P U B L IS H E D
M ONTHLY
L C Sm ith & C orona
BY
T y p e w r ite r s Inc
School D epartm ent—Syracuse N ew Y ork
APRIL — 1930
CONTINUOUS EDUCATION
By D . D . L e s s e n b e r r y , Pittsburgh, Pa.
Strokes
If you ask a high school boy w hy he is going to school,
he is likely to tell you th a t it is because he w ants to get an
education. J u st w hat gettin g an education m eans is n o t
very clear to him , perhaps, b u t he thinks th a t it has
som ething to do w ith gettin g passing grades in his studies,
and he is very sure th a t it has a lo t to do w ith g ettin g a
diplom a a t th e end of four years spent in school.
G etting an education is a w orthy am b ition for an y
boy or girl. G etting a diplom a is merelyt one of th e in cidental outcom es of school life; it is n ot the goal a t all.
M ost pupils can get their high school diplom as a t th e end
of four years, bu t, w hen it is righ tly understood, education is a continuous process. Each day offers new problem s to be solved and presents new challenges to be m et.
It is in th e solving of these problem s th at growth, w hich
is education, com es.
Along w ith th is new conception of continu ous education has com e a new understanding of w hat is educative. Today we are n ot talking in term s of certain su bjects as being exclusively educativet and saying th a t
others are purely vocational. We now know th a t bookkeeping m ay be as educative as geom etry, th a t appreciation m ay be as definite an outcom e of the work of the
advanced shorthand class as it is an outcom e of th e stu d y
of Latin.
T hat study educates w hich gives to you the power to
do things, the power to th in k thin gs, and the power to feel
th in gs, whether th a t stu dy is a part of a school day or a
part of an office routine. You m u st have th e power to
do things, for th a t is your way o f taking upt your share
56
119
175
229
289
348
398
448
506
565
623
680
736
793
851
872
921
974
1030
1083
1136
1191
1245
1303
1313
1365
1425
1483
1538
1594
TEST XV I I I
THE BUSINESS LETTER PROBLEM
D ir e c tio n ^ :
START AGAIN.
You are t o make one a t t e m p t .
DO NOT STOP AND
Type th e l e t t e r a c c o r d in g t o th e f o l l o w i n g
145
su g g e stio n s:
Use a 60 sp a ce l i n e and open p u n c t u a t i o n
S in g le -sp a c e d ; F u ll-b lo c k e d s t y l e
Type th e s i g n a t u r e r e a d y f o r s i g n i n g
2664 adams avenue ogden Utah march 9 1940 n a t i o n a l su p p ly
company s c o t t b u i l d i n g ' in d - ia n a p o lis in d ia n a a t t e n t i o n
w i l l i a m g d a v i s g e n tle m e n we ar e s o r r y t h a t i t h as b ee n
n e c e s s a r y f o r us t o d e l a y th e payment o f th e b a la n c e o f
$ 4 6 1 . 9 0 w h ich i s p a s t due on our a c c o u n t w i t h you / s e v e r a l
months a g o , a s you p r o b a b ly know, a s t r i k e was c a l l e d
o f a l l s t o n e masons and b r i c k l a y e r s i n f o r t wayne f o r a
p e r i o d o f f i f t e e n weeks i t h as b e e n a b s o l u t e l y i m p o s s i b l e f o r
u s t o p r o c e e d w i t h b u i l d i n g o p e r a t i o n s a s a r e s u l t our i n ­
come h as b e e n s h a r p l y c u r t a i l e d , and i t h a s b e e n i m p o s s i b l e
f o r us t o ta k e ca re o f our o u t s t a n d in g o b l i g a t i o n s / w i l l
you g r a n t us p e r m i s s i o n t o pay our a c c o u n t w i t h you i n th e
f o l l o w i n g manner / we*11 ar ra n g e t o sen d you now our ch eck
f o r $ 6 1 . 9 0 and an i n t e r e s t - b e a r i n g n o te f o r $ 4 0 0 you w i l l
t h e n be a b l e t o d i s c o u n t t h a t n o t e a t y o u r 'b a n k and have th e
u s e o f th e fu n d s / tomorrow th e mayor h a s a r ra n g ed a m e e tin g
b e tw e e n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e c o n t r a c t o r s and o f th e b u i l d i n g
t r a d e s w orkers we are h o p e f u l t h a t th e c o n f e r e n c e w i l l r e s u l t
i n an e a r l y s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e s t r i k e and a c o m p lete resum pt i o n o f b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t i e s / p l e a s e w r i t e us a s s o o n a s
p o s s i b l e and l e t us know w h e th e r th e p l a n s u g g e s t e d f o r th e
s e t t l e m e n t o f our a c c o u n t m ee ts w i t h y o u r a p p r o v a l / v e r y
t r u l y y o u r s howard & O l i v e r thomas r O li v e r t r o : h u
JL462664 Adams Avenue
Ogden, U tah
March 9 , 1940
17
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78
99
I n a t io n a l S u p p ly Company
I S c o t t B u il d i n g
j I n d i a n a p o l is , I n d ia n a
[ A t t e n t i o n W illia m G. D a v is
125
I G en tlem en:
135
We are s o r r y t h a t i t h a s been n e c e s s a r y f o r us to d e l a y t h e
(payment o f t h e b a la n c e o f § 4 6 1 .9 0 w h ich i s p a s t due on our
: account w ith you,
194
[25 2
1 269.
' s e v e r a l months a g o , as you p r o b a b ly know, a s t r i k e was c a l l e d
, o f a l l s t o n e masons and b r i c k l a y e r s i n P o rt Wayne, For a
p e r io d o f f i f t e e n weeks i t h a s been a b s o l u t e l y I m p o s s ib le f o r
/.us to p r o c e e d w i t h b u i l d i n g o p e r a t i o n s . As a r e s u l t our i n ; come h a s been s h a r p l y c u r t a i l e d , and i t h as been i m p o s s i b l e
f o r u s to take c a r e o f our o u t s t a n d i n g o b l i g a t i o n s .
i
W i ll you g r a n t u s p e r m is s io n to pay. our a c c o u n t w it h you i n
the f o l l o w i n g mannert
330
, 387
I 448/
508J
, 56 7j
J 618j
i 677 j
jj 698
i; 755:I
W e ' l l a rra n ge to send you now our c h e c k f o r § 4 1 .9 0 and an
i n t e r e s t - b e a r i n g n o te f o r § 4 0 0 . You w i l l then be a b le to d i s - i
.c o u n t t h a t n o t e a t your bank and have th e u s e o f the f u n d s .
8171
8761
)
Tomorrow the mayor h a s a r ra n g ed a m e e t in g betw een r e p r e s e n t a - i
t i v e s o f th e c o n t r a c t o r s and o f t h e b u i l d i n g t r a d e s w o r k e r s . ,
jWe are h o p e f u l t h a t the c o n f e r e n c e w i l l r e s u l t i n an e a r l y
, ,
i s e t t l e m e n t o f th e s t r i k e and a c o m p le te r e s u m p t i o n ' o f b u i l d i n g
a c tiv itie s.
r
i
I 9 5?
.1 990]
fl.0471
H110!
f l l 21
P l e a s e w r i t e u s as soon as p o s s i b l e and l e t us know w h eth er
(th e p la n s u g g e s t e d f o r th e s e t t l e m e n t . o f our a c co u n t m e e ts
w i t h your a p p r o v a l.
i
1180)
12381
1257j
Very t r u l y y o u r s ,
i
HOWARD & OLIVER
!
12741
. t
1289
jThomas R. O l i v e r
1305
TR0;HY
1311
4
TEST X V III
INSTRUCTIONS FOR SCORING
To s c o r e the p la cem en t o f t h e l e t t e r , p l a c e th e k ey
s q u a r e l y o v e r the s t u d e n t s paper and check f o r e r r o r s l i s t ­
ed b e lo w . L i s t th e e r r o r s on t h e s t u d e n t ’ s pap er and t h e
c o r r e sp o n d in g p e n a l t i e s .
T o t a l a l l e r r o r s and d ed u ct from
a p o s s i b l e s c o r e o f 2 5 . T h is i s th e s t u d e n t ’ s s c o r e f o r
t h is u n it.
I f th e d e d u c t io n s t o t a l more th a n 2 5 , c a l l th e
s c o r e z e r o . D is r e g a r d a l l t y p i n g e r r o r s i f t h e y have been
n e a tly c o rrected .
P o i n t s t o check f o r e r r o r s :
(1 )
(2 )
(3 )
(4 )
(5 )
(6 )
(7 )
(8 )
(9 )
(10)
(11)
(1 2 )
(1 3 )
(1 4 )
(1 5 )
(16)
(1 7 )
(18)
(1 9 )
(20 )
(2 1 )
(22)
(2 3 )
P la c em e n t t o o h ig h
5 or
5 or
P lacem en t t o o lo w
P la c em e n t to o f a r to the l e f t
5 or
P lacem en t to o f a r to the r i g h t
5 or
Date a b b r e v i a t e d
Date o m it te d
I n s i d e a d d r e s s n o t i n b lo c k form
A t t e n t i o n p h r a s e not s t a r t e d a t l e f t
m argin
P a ra grap h s n ot i n b lo c k form
No d o u b le s p a c in g betw een p a ragra p h s
D ouble sp a ce d
Com plim entary c l o s e n ot i n b lo c k form
S i g n a t u r e s n o t i n b lo c k form
Company’ s s i g n a t u r e n o t i n c a p i t a l s
Thomas R. O l i v e r o m itte d from s i g n a t u r e l i n e
L e s s than f o u r s p a c e s betw een Company’ s
s i g n a t u r e and Thomas E. O l i v e r ’ s
I d e n t i f i c a t i o n s o m it te d
I d e n t i f i c a t i o n s n o t i n b lo c k form
I d e n t i f i c a t i o n s i n wrong o r d e r , un­
a c c e p t e d form or in c o m p le te
Not open p u n c t u a t i o n — f o r each mark i n s e r t e d
U n f i n i s h e d — f o r each l i n e o m it t e d
Poor e r a s u r e s — f o r e a ch
Com plimentary c l o s e o m it te d
10
10
10
10
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
(1
(2
(3
(4
(5
(6
(7
(8
(9
(1 0
(1 1
(1 2
(13
(1 4
(1 5
1
2
1
(16
(17
(1 8
1
1
1
1
2
(19
(2 0
(2 1
(2 2
(23
To s c o r e the tim e r e q u ir e d t o com p lete the l e t t e r ,
c o r r e c t i t i n the same way you would a r e g u l a r s t r a i g h t copy sp ee d t e s t .
The c l a s s w i l l s t a r t t o g e t h e r i n the same
manner a s when a r e g u l a r s t r a i g h t - c o p y sp e e d t e s t i s g i v e n .
The time w i l l be p la c e d on the b la c k b o a rd a t th e end o f each
q u a r te r o f a m in u te by the t e a c h e r . As each s t u d e n t f i n i s h e s ,
he w r i t e s th e tim e on the paper on w hich he tock the t e s t ' .
Poor e r a s u r e s a r e cou n ted a s e r r o r s . The r a t e per m in u te i s
foun d i n the same way a s i t i s f o r a s t r a i g h t - c o p y sp eed
t e s t e x c e p t t h a t the l a s t d i v i s o r w i l l be th e tim e i t to o k
t o com p lete th e t e s t . A l l s t u d e n t s a r e p e r m it te d r e g a r d ­
l e s s o f th e tim e r e q u i r e d . R ecord th e l e t t e r placem ent
s c o r e and t h e n e t r a t e s c o r e on the botto m o f th e s t u d e n t ’ s
t e s t paper.
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