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A study of the effects of teacher-tenure legislation on permanent and probationary teachers in the elementary schools of Ventura County, California

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A STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF TEACHER-TENUHE LEGISLATION
ON PERMANENT AND PROBATIONARY TEACHERS IN THE
ELEMENTARY SC BOOIS OF VENTURA COUNTY, CALIFORNIA
A T h e s is
P r e s e n te d to
th e F a c u lty o f th e S c h o o l o f E d u c a tio n
U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a
In P a r t i a l F u lfillm e n t
o f th e R e q u ire m e n ts f o r th e D eg ree
M a s te r o f S c ie n c e i n E d u c a tio n
by
E l l s w o r t h T. P a t t e r s o n
J u l y 19^1
UMI Number: EP54281
All rights reserved
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O '
Th is thesis, w ritten under the direction of th e^ ^ ^ ^ J^
.
.
.
/V\ £
Chairman of the candidate’s Gui dan ce C o m m it te e
and a p p r o v e d by all membe rs of the C om m it te e ,
has been pr ese nte d to and a c ce pt e d by the Faculty
of the Sc h o o l of E du c atio n in pa rt ia l fulfillment
of the requirements f o r the degree of M a s t e r of
Science in Education.
*
..................
Guidance C om m ittee
..Louis...P. ...Thorpe..................
Chairman
E. E. Wagner
0 . R. H ull
\
\
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I.
PACE
■THE PROBLEM AND DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
The p ro b le m .
. . . . . . . . . . .
USED. . .
....................
1
1
S ta te m e n t o f th e p ro b lem . . . . . . . . .
1
Im p o rta n c e o f th e s tu d y ................................
2
D e f i n i t i o n s o f te rm s u s e d ............................
4
T en u re ................................................................................
4
T u r n o v e r .......................
4,
E le m e n ta ry s c h o o l ........................................................
4
P erm an e n t t e a c h e r . ............................. . . . . .
4
P r o b a t i o n a r y t e a c h e r .......................
4
In -s e rv ic e tr a in in g .
4 r
. . . . . . . . . . .
A. D. A . .......................
L i m i t a t i o n s o f th e i n v e s t i g a t i o n - .
4
. . . . .
5
Scope o f t h e s t u d y ....................................................
5
W eak n esses o f th e p ro b le m ............................
5
Terms o f t h e p r e s e n t C a l i f o r n i a
T en u re Law
.....................................
5
O r g a n iz a tio n o f th e r e m a in d e r o f
th e t h e s i s
II.
..........................................
REVIEW OF PREVIOUS RELATEDST U D IE S..........................
7
8
L i t e r a t u r e o n th e o p e r a t i o n o f te n u r e i n
th e s t a t e o f C a l i f o r n i a . .......................
8
iii
CHAPTER
PACE
L i t e r a t u r e on t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t e n u r e
o u t s i d e t h e s t a t e o f C a l i f o r n i a ........................
III.
15
L i m i t a t i o n s o f p r e v io u s s t u d i e s * * • ^ * .
.
18
METHOD OP PROCEDURE AND SOURCES OF DATA * . .
.
21
.
21
M ethod o f p r o c e d u r e ................... ........................... ..
S e l e c t i n g t h e m a t e r i a l f o r th e
q u e s t i o n n a i r e . . . . . . .............................. •
C o n s t r u c t i o n o f th e w r i t t e n in s tru m e n t*
21
. .
22
A d m in is te r in g and s c o r i n g th e
q u e s tio n n a ire . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
23
S o u rc e s o f d a t a
23
The s c h o o ls p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n th e s tu d y . .
*
23
The n a t u r e o f t h e co m m u n itie s r e p r e s e n t e d
h y th e s e d i s t r i c t s *
V e n tu ra . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . .
........................ . ............................
24
S a n ta P a u la . . ...................................................* * *
24
O x n ard . •
25
S c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n ....................................................
25
S u m m a ry .....................................
25
The q u e s t i o n n a i r e
IV .
23
RESULTS OF THE INVESTIGATION
......................................
26
*
32
...........................................
32
P r o f e s s i o n a l b o o k s r e a d ...............................................
36
T eacher t r a v e l.
40
U n i v e r s i t y w ork ta k e n *
iv
CHAPTER
PACE
Summary o f f i n d i n g s o n p r o f e s s i o n a l
im p r o v e m e n t.......................................................................
43
C om pulsory r e t i r e m e n t . .............................. . . *
43
O p tio n a l y e a r t o y e a r em ploym ent. . . . . . .
47
R e a c tio n t o th e p r e s e n t te n u r e la w . . . . . .
50
A t t i t u d e o f l o c a l b o a r d s o f e d u c a ti o n . . . .
53
T en u re p o l i c y o f l o c a l b o a r d s o f
e d u c a t i o n ........................................... . . . . . . .
55
Summary o f t h e f i n d i n g s o f t e a c h e r o p i n i o n
o f th e p r e s e n t o p e r a t i o n o f th e
t e n u r e l a w . ..............................................
Home o w n e r s h ip .
57
...........................
58
M em bership i n c i v i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s . . . . . .
59
M em bership i n f r a t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . . . .
63
M em bership i n a r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n . . . .
66
T e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n com m unity
c o m m itte e s .
. . . . . . . . . .
........................
68
Summary o f t h e f i n d i n g s on t e a c h e r
p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n com m unity a c t i v i t i e s . . .
T each er p ro p o s a ls
V.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
. . . . .
............................
Summary
R e c o m m e n d a tio n s .........................
............................
•• •
70
74
78
79
82
V
CHAPTER
PAGE
BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . ........................................................
APPENDIX
.................................................................
84
.
88
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE
I*
PAGE
D i s t r i b u t i o n o f T e a c h e r R e p lie s a s t o
U n i v e r s i t y Work T aken O ver a T h re e Y ear P e r io d . . . ........................................................
II.
33
D i s t r i b u t i o n o f T e a c h e r R e p lie s a s t o
P r o f e s s i o n a l Books Read D u rin g t h e
Y e a rs 1 9 3 7 - 1 9 4 0
III.
37
D i s t r i b u t i o n o f T e a c h e r R e p lie s t o t h e
Q u e s tio n , ” To What P la c e s Have You
T r a v e ll e d D u rin g th e P a s t T h ree Y e a r s ? ” . *
17.
41
D i s t r i b u t i o n o f T e a c h e r R e p lie s t o th e
Q u e s tio n , ”Do You F av o r C om pulsory
R e tir e m e n t? 1*. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
V.
45
D i s t r i b u t i o n o f T e a c h e r R e p lie s t o t h e
Q u e s tio n , ”Do You F av o r a n Age A f t e r
W hich Employment- Would Be on a n O p tio n a l
Y ear to Y e a r B asis?**.
V I.
.......................
48
D i s t r i b u t i o n o f R e p lie s a s t o T e a c h e r
R e a c tio n t o t h e P r e s e n t T en u re Law. . . . .
V II.
.
51
D i s t r i b u t i o n o f T e a c h e r R e p lie s to th e
Q u e s tio n , ” l n Y our O p in io n , Which o f th e
F o llo w in g D oes Y our B oard o f E d u c a tio n
F a v o r? ” ................................................................................
54
v ii
TABLE
V III*
PAGE
D i s t r i b u t i o n o f T e a c h e r R e p lie s a s to
T h e ir O p in io n o f th e P o lic y o f L o c a l
-B o a rd s o f E d u c a tio n i n t h e A p p l i c a t i o n
o f t h e T en u re
IX*
Law • • • • • . • • • . . . •
D i s t r i b u t i o n o f T e a c h e r R e p lie s t o t h e
Q u e s tio n , “Do You Own Y our Own Home?“
X.C iv ic O r g a n iz a tio n s
• .
60
61
F r a t e r n a l O r g a n iz a tio n s t o W hich
T e a c h e rs B e lo n g ed
X II.
.
t o Which T e a c h e rs
B elonged* . . . . . . ..............................................
X I.
56
...........................................
64
D i s t r i b u t i o n o f T e a c h e r R e p lie s t o t h e
Q u e s tio n , “A re You a n A c tiv e Member o f a
R e l i g i o u s O r g a n iz a tio n ? 11. .
X III.
.............................
67
D i s t r i b u t i o n o f T e a c h e r R e p lie s t o t h e
Q u e s tio n , “ i f Not a n A c tiv e C hurch Member
Do You P a r t i c i p a t e i n th e A c t i v i t i e s o f a
R e lig i o u s O r g a n iz a tio n ? 11. . . . . . . . . . .
XIV.
69
D i s t r i b u t i o n o f T e a c h e r R e p lie s a s to
Community A c t i v i t i e s i n W hich They h ad
P a r t i c i p a t e d D u rin g t h e P e r io d 1 9 3 7 -1 9 4 0 . .
XV.
71
D i s t r i b u t i o n o f T e a c h e r S u g g e s tio n s f o r
t h e Im provem ent o f th e T en u re S i t u a t i o n
i n V e n tu ra C o u n ty , C a l i f o r n i a . . . . . . .
75
LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE
I*
PAGE
D iagram o f t h e Number o f S e m e s te r U n its o f
U n i v e r s i t y Work T aken by F i f t y - T h r e e
P e rm a n e n t an d F ifty -T w o P r o b a tio n a r y
T e a c h e rs O ver a T h re e -Y e a r P e r i o d ...............................
2.
34
D iag ram o f t h e Number o f P r o f e s s i o n a l Books
Read b y F i f t y - T h r e e P erm an en t and F ifty -T w o
P r o b a tio n a r y T e a c h e rs O ver a T h re e -Y e a r
P e rio d .
3.
. .....................................
38
D iagram o f t h e Number o f J o u r n e y s T aken by
F i f t y - T h r e e P erm an e n t an d F ifty -T w o
P r o b a tio n a r y T e a c h e rs O ver a T h re e -Y e a r
P e r i o d ............................
4.
42
D i s t r i b u t i o n o f R e p lie s o f F i f t y - T h r e e
P erm an e n t an d F ifty -T w o P r o b a tio n a r y T e a c h e rs
a s t o S u g g e s te d Ages b y W hich C om pulsory
R e tir e m e n t S h o u ld B e g in ....................................................
5-
46
D i s t r i b u t i o n o f R e p lie s o f F i f t y - T h r e e
P erm an en t an d F ifty -T w o P r o b a tio n a r y T e a c h e rs
a s to S u g g e s te d A ges A f t e r W hich Employment
Would b e o n a n O p tio n a l Y ear t o Y ear B a s i s . . .
49
CHAPTER I
THE PROBLEM AND DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED
C a l i f o r n i a t e a c h e r te n u r e l e g i s l a t i o n h a s h e e n th e
s u b j e c t o f s e r i o u s s t u d y an d th o u g h t o n t h e p a r t o f e d u ­
c a t o r s and lay m en f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s .
C e rta in in d iv id u a ls
w ould e i t h e r a b o l i s h t h e p r e s e n t te n u r e law o r m o d ify i t s
e s s e n tia l fe a tu re s .
On t h e c o n t r a r y many t e a c h e r s ,
e s p e c i a l l y th o s e who h a v e a c q u ir e d p erm a n en cy , a r e i n f a v o r
o f e a c h p r o v i s i o n o f th e law a s i t now s t a n d s .
i s a sa fe g u a rd o f p r o f e s s io n a l s e c u r ity .
To them i t
Among th o s e who
w ould a b o l i s h o r a l t e r th e law a r e c e r t a i n g ro u p s o f s c h o o l
d i s t r i c t t r u s t e e s , s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , and some t e a c h e r s
who h a v e n o t y e t a t t a i n e d t e n u r e , and who h a v e b e e n u n a b le
to g a i n t h e s t a t u s o f perm anency t e a c h e r s .
T h u s, i t w ould seem t h a t t h e r e I s i n C a l i f o r n i a a n
im m ed ia te an d v i t a l p ro b le m o f t e a c h e r t e n u r e .
I.
THE PROBLEM
S ta te m e n t o f t h e p ro b le m .
I t was th e p u rp o s e o f
t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n t o make a s tu d y o f t h e e f f e c t s o f t e a c h e r t e n u r e l e g i s l a t i o n o n p erm a n e n t and p r o b a t i o n a r y t e a c h e r s i n
t h e E le m e n ta ry S c h o o ls o f V e n tu ra C o u n ty , C a l i f o r n i a .
In
t h i s s tu d y d e t a i l e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n was g iv e n t o t h e f o llo w in g
q u e s tio n s *
2
X.
What I s t h e e f f e c t o f t h e t e n u r e law o n i n s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g o f p erm an en t and p r o b a tio n a r y
te a c h e rs ?
2.
What i s t h e e f f e c t o f th e t e n u r e law o n com­
m u n ity p a r t i c i p a t i o n b y e a c h g ro u p o f t e a c h e r s ?
3*
What a r e t h e p r e s e n t t r e n d s c o n c e r n in g th e
a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e t e a c h e r t e n u r e law i n t h e
e le m e n ta r y s c h o o ls o f V e n tu ra C ou n ty ?
4.
What a r e t h e t e a c h e r r e a c t i o n s t o th e p r e s e n t
o p e r a t i o n o f t h e t e n u r e law ?
5*
What c o n c lu s io n s c a n b e d ra w n , and w hat reco m ­
m e n d a tio n s c a n be made a s a r e s u l t o f t h e f i n d ­
in g s o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n ?
Im p o rta n c e o f th e s t u d y .
A th o u g h t c o n s t a n t l y
p r e s e n t i n t h e m in ds o f s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and b o a r d s o f
e d u c a t i o n i s t h e r e l a t i v e g a i n o r l o s s w h ich w i l l b e in c u r r e d
b y t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t and com m unity i f t e n u r e i s o r i s n o t
g r a n te d t o w o rth y t e a c h e r s .
T h ere a p p e a r s t o b e l i t t l e
p ro o f
i n V e n tu r a C o u n ty , C a l i f o r n i a , a s t o w h ich i s o f g r e a t e r
s e r v i c e t o t h e s c h o o l and com m unity, th e p erm a n e n t o r p r o ­
b a tio n a ry te a c h e r.
I t seem s im p o r ta n t to know w h e th e r p erm a n e n t o r
p r o b a t i o n a r y t e a c h e r s make t h e g r e a t e r e f f o r t a t s e l f im provem ent w h ile i n s e r v i c e .
Does t h e p erm a n en t t e a c h e r
3
c o n tin u e t o im p ro v e a f t e r g a in in g t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f t e n u r e ,
o r i s t h e r e a te n d e n c y to ig n o r e a d d i t i o n a l t r a i n i n g and
c o n tin u e a lo n g a s e t p a t t e r n a f t e r g a i n in g t h i s s e c u r i t y ?
I s t h e p r o b a t i o n a r y t e a c h e r m ore a l e r t t o o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r
s e lf - im p r o v e m e n t t h a n t h e p erm a n e n t t e a c h e r ?
I t i s t h e d e s i r e o f a lm o s t a l l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and
s c h o o l h o a r d s t h a t t h e i r t e a c h e r s assum e a n a c t i v e r o l e
i n com m unity a c t i v i t i e s and l e a d e r s h i p .
A se c o n d p u rp o s e
o f t h i s s tu d y was th u s t o d e te r m in e w h ich o f p erm a n en t
,and p r o b a t i o n a r y t e a c h e r s h a v e b e e n more s u c c e s s f u l i n
f i t t i n g th e m s e lv e s i n t o th e l i f e o f t h e i r com m unity.
Know­
le d g e c o n c e r n in g s u c h t e a c h e r a c t i v i t i e s s h o u ld b e o f v i t a l
I n t e r e s t an d v a l u e t o a l l c o n c e rn e d w ith t h e h i r i n g o f
sc h o o l p e rs o n n e l.
The f i n a l q u e s t o f t h i s r e s e a r c h was th e p r e s e n t
p o l i c y o f t h e V e n tu ra C i t y , O x n ard , and S a n ta P a u la
e le m e n ta r y s c h o o ls i n r e g a r d to t e n u r e .
The r e a c t i o n s and
o p in io n s o f t e a c h e r s i n s e r v i c e i n t h e s e e le m e n ta r y d i s ­
t r i c t s t o v a r i o u s p h a s e s o f t e n u r e I n t e r p r e t a t i o n w as a l s o
o b ta in e d .
T h is i n f o r m a t i o n sh o u ld be o f v a lu e to a d m i n i s t r a t o r s
and b o a r d s o f e d u c a t i o n i n d e te r m in in g a d e f i n i t e p o l i c y f o r
th e r e t e n t i o n o f te a c h e r s a f t e r th e p ro b a tio n a ry p e rio d .
II.
T e n u re .
DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED
The te rm 11t e n u r e ” i s u se d h e r e i n t o s i g n i f y
t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f perm anency f o r t e a c h e r s i n o f f i c e a f t e r
c o m p le tio n o f a p r o b a t i o n a r y p e r i o d .
T u rn o v e r .
The w ord " t u r n o v e r ” i s u se d t o mean th e
num ber o f t e a c h e r s le a v i n g a s c h o o l who a r e a c t u a l l y r e ­
p la c e d .
E le m e n ta ry s c h o o l .
E le m e n ta ry s c h o o l i n t h i s s tu d y
r e f e r s t o s c h o o ls w i t h i n w h ich g r a d e s one t o e i g h t a r e
I n c lu d e d .
P erm an en t t e a c h e r .
I h i s te rm a p p l i e s t o th o s e
t e a c h e r s who h a v e s e r v e d t h e r e q u i r e d p r o b a tio n a r y p e r io d
and a r e u n d e r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f th e
te n u re a c t.
P r o b a tio n a r y t e a c h e r .
As u se d i n t h i s s tu d y th e
te rm " p r o b a t i o n a r y t e a c h e r " a p p l i e s t o a l l t e a c h e r s who a r e
n o t s e r v i n g u n d e r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e te n u r e a c t .
In - s e rv ic e tr a in i n g .
T h is te rm i s ta k e n t o m ean th e
e d u c a t i o n a l Im provem ent o f t e a c h e r s w h ile i n a c t i v e s e r v i c e
A. D. A.
I n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n t h e s e l e t t e r s s ta n d
f o r a v e ra g e d a i l y a t te n d a n c e o f a s c h o o l o r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t
5
III.
LIMITATIONS OF THE INVESTIGATION
S cope o f t h e s t u d y *
T h is s tu d y d e a l s w ith o n ly os©
c o u n ty , n a m e ly , V e n tu r a C o u n ty , C a l i f o r n i a -
W ith in V e n tu ra
C ounty t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was c a r r i e d o u t i n t h e e le m e n ta r y
s c h o o ls o f V e n tu r a , O x n ard , and S a n ta P a u la -
O nly i n t h e s e
t h r e e s y s te m s i s t h e A. D. A. s u f f i c i e n t f o r t e n u r e t o be
o p e ra tiv e .
T h ese t h r e e d i s t r i c t s h a v e a c e r t i f i c a t e d p e r s o n n e l
o f one h u n d re d an d f o r t y w ith a n A- D. A. o f 3> 5^1*67.
A l l o t h e r e le m e n ta r y s c h o o ls w i t h i n th e C ounty a r e u n d e r
th e 8 5 0 A. D. A- t e n u r e r e q u ir e m e n t, and so do n o t a u t o ­
m a t i c a l l y come u n d e r th e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e t e n u r e a c t .
W eak n esses o f t h e p ro b le m .
One w eak n ess o f t h i s
i n v e s tig a tio n l i e s in th e i n a b i l i t y to se c u re a l a r g e r
s a m p lin g .
As a r e s u l t o f th e r e s t r i c t e d a r e a c o v e re d
an y c o n c lu s io n s o r rec o m m e n d a tio n s m ust be c o n s id e r e d a s
p e r t i n e n t t o V e n tu r a C ounty a l o n e .
A se c o n d w eak n ess i s
d u e t o th e f a c t t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n ta in e d a num ber
o f s u b je c tiv e q u e s tio n s .
A lth o u g h th e d a t a s e c u r e d h a v e
b e e n t a b u l a t e d o b j e c t i v e l y th e y m ust be c o n s id e r e d a s
in v o l v i n g s u b j e c t i v e ju d g m e n ts .
IV .
TERMS OF THE PRESENT CALIFORNIA TENURE LAW
A c c o rd in g to t h e p r e s e n t C a l i f o r n i a t e n u r e a c t :
6
1.
2♦
S c h o o l d i s t r i c t s a r e c l a s s i f i e d i n t o two
d iv is io n s :
a*
T hose h a v in g a n a tte n d a n c e o f 8 5 0 A* B. A.
o r m o re .
b.
T hose h a v in g a n a t te n d a n c e o f l e s s th a n
850 A. B. A.
(1 )
I n t h e f i r s t d i v i s i o n i t i s m an d ato ry
up o n b o a r d s o f e d u c a ti o n an d t r u s t e e s
t o c l a s s i f y t e a c h e r s who h a v e t a u g h t
t h r e e y e a r s and who w ere r e e l e c t e d f o r
t h e f o u r t h y e a r a s p e rm a n e n t t e a c h e r s .
(2 )
I n t h e se co n d d i v i s i o n th e c l a s s ! f i c a t l o n o f t e a c h e r s who h a v e ta u g h t
t h r e e y e a r s and who w ere r e e l e c t e d f o r
th e f o u r t h y e a r i s p e r m i s s i b l e b u t n o t
m a n d a to ry .
A c e r t i f i c a t e d em p lo y ee h a v in g g a in e d t h e s t a t u s
o f a p e rm a n e n t t e a c h e r may b e d is m is s e d o n ly f o r
an y o f th e f o llo w in g r e a s o n s :
a.
P ro v e d im m oral c o n d u c t.
b.
P ro v e d u n p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n d u c t.
c.
P ro v e d co m m issio n o f a c t s o f c r i m i n a l
s y n d ic a li s m .
d.
P ro v e d a i d i n g o r a d v o c a tin g a c t s o f c r i m i n a l
s y n d ic a li s m .
e.
P ro v e d s e d i t i o u s u t t e r a n c e s .
f.
P ro v e d m em bership i n s y n d i c a l i s t o r g a n i z a t i o n .
g.
P ro v e d d i s h o n e s t y .
h.
P ro v e d In c o m p e te n c y .
i.
P ro v e d e v i d e n t u n f i t n e s s f o r s e r v i c e .
j.
P ro v e d r e f u s a l to obey s c h o o l
C a lifo rn ia .
law s o f
7
k.
3.
V.
P ro v e d r e f u s a l to obey r e a s o n a b le r e g u l a ­
t i o n s p r e s c r i b e d f o r th e g o v ern m e n t o f th e
p u b l i c s c h o o ls .
No p e r s o n em ployed i n a n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r
s u p e rv is in g p o s itio n , re q u ir in g c e r t i f i c a t i o n ,
i s p e r m i t t e d t o b e c l a s s i f i e d a s a p e rm a n e n t
em p lo y ee o t h e r th a n a s a c la s s r o o m t e a c h e r .
ORGANIZATION OF THE REMAINDER OF THE THESIS
S e v e r a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s w ith aim s somewhat s i m i l a r
t o th o s e o f t h e p r e s e n t s tu d y h a v e b e e n m ade.
re v ie w e d i n C h a p te r I I .
T hese a r e
The m ethods o f p r o c e d u r e and a
d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e c o m m u n itie s and s c h o o ls w h ich f u r n i s h e d
th e d a t a a r e g i v e n i n C h a p te r I I I .
C h a p te r IV r e p o r t s t h e
f i n d i n g s o f t h e s tu d y a s d i s c l o s e d by th e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n
o f th e q u e s tio n n a ir e .
C h a p te r V p r o v id e s a summary o f th e
s t u d y , and s u b m its c o n c lu s io n s r e s u l t i n g fro m a n i n t e r ­
p r e t a t i o n o f th e f i n d i n g s .
CHAPTER I I
REVIEW OF PREVIOUS RELATED STUDIES
Many I n v e s t i g a t i o n s h a v e b e e n made r e l a t i v e t o th e
o p e r a t i o n o f t e a c h e r t e n u r e la w s , n o t o n ly i n C a l i f o r n i a ,
h u t i n th e n a t i o n a s a w h o le .
T hese s t u d i e s h a v e b e e n
c o n d u c te d f o r t h e p u rp o s e o f d e te r m in in g t h e a d v a n ta g e s
o r d is a d v a n ta g e s o f t e n u r e a s i n t e r p r e t e d i n e a c h s i t u a t i o n .
A b r i e f summary o f t h e m ore s i g n i f i c a n t t e n u r e i n v e s t i ­
g a t i o n s i s g iv e n i n t h i s c h a p t e r .
L i t e r a t u r e o n th e o p e r a t i o n o f t e n u r e i n th e s t a t e
of C a lifo rn ia .
S t o n e , 1 i n a q u e s t i o n n a i r e s tu d y d e s ig n e d
to e v a l u a t e t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , a d m in is ­
t r a t i o n , an d o p e r a t i o n o f t e a c h e r t e n u r e l e g i s l a t i o n i n
th e s t a t e o f C a l i f o r n i a , h a s m easu red t h e e f f e c t s o f th e
te n u r e law i n te rm s o f e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e s .
T h is i n v e s t i ­
g a to r s tu d ie d te a c h e r d is m is s a l, te a c h e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ,
la y p u b l i c I n t e r p r e t a t i o n , an d th e l e g a l a s p e c t s o f t e n u r e .
He a l s o p r e s e n t e d e x h a u s tiv e c la im s f o r , and t h e d i s ­
a d v a n ta g e s o f , t h e p r e s e n t t e n u r e l e g i s l a t i o n .
The r e l a t i v e
v a l u e o f t h e s e c o n t r a s t i n g c la im s h a s le d t o a summary o f
1 Seym our I . S to n e , "The C a l i f o r n i a T e a e h e r T en u re
L aw ,w ( u n p u b lis h e d D o c t o r 's d i s s e r t a t i o n , Los A n g e le s ,
C a l i f o r n i a : U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a , 193 ^ ) .
9
h is c h ie f fin d in g s :
1 . T en u re p r o t e c t s t e a c h e r s fro m a t t a c k by p r e s s u r e
g ro u p s.
2.
The p r o f e s s i o n i s s t a b i l i z e d by t e n u r e , a lth o u g h
th e d i s m i s s a l o f p r o b a t i o n a r y t e a c h e r s i s a c c e l e r a t e d .
3.
fo rc e .
T en u re Im p ro v e s th e m o ra le o f t h e t e a c h i n g
4.
T h ere I s no e v id e n c e t h a t d e m o n s tr a te s t h a t
t e n u r e e i t h e r p ro m o te s o r r e t a r d s p r o f e s s i o n a l g ro w th
and Im p ro v em en t.
5* Ho c o n v in c in g e v id e n c e i s p r e s e n t a s t o w h e th e r
th e law t e n d s t o lo w e r o r im p ro v e t h e ty p e o f s e r v i c e
ren d ered .
6 . T h ere i s no e v id e n c e t o i n d i c a t e t h a t te n u r e
Im p e ls th e em ploym ent o f a h i g h e r q u a l i t y o f t e a c h e r s
and t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f t h e u n f i t p r o b a t i o n a r y t e a c h e r .
7 . P erm an e n t t e a c h e r s te n d t o become a n I n t e g r a l
p a r t o f th e com m unity i n w hich th e y a r e em p lo y ed .
8.
The t e n u r e law makes d i f f i c u l t th e d i s m i s s a l
o f many In c o m p e te n t and u n f i t p e rm a n e n t t e a c h e r s and
so a r o u s e s p u b l i c f e e l i n g a g a i n s t t h e t e a c h i n g
p ro fe s s io n .
9- The law t e n d s to w ork a h a r d s h ip o n many p r o ­
b a tio n a ry te a c h e r s .
1 0 . Few p e rm a n e n t t e a c h e r s r e l a x p r o f e s s i o n a l
e f f o r t as a r e s u l t o f te n u re .
1 1 . C e r t a i n p r o c e d u r e s n eed s i m p l i f i c a t i o n and
c la r if ic a tio n .2
3
R ath b o n e an d R ees c o n d u c te d a q u e s t i o n n a i r e s u rv e y
2 Ib id .
^ A. J . R a th b o n e and J a c k D. R e e s, "Do We Have Good
T e n u r e ," S i e r r a E d u c a tio n a l Hews. 3 7 • 1 7 , J a n u a r y , 1941.
to g a i n f a c t u a l d a t a o n t h e o p e r a t i o n o f te n u r e l e g i s l a t i o n
i n th e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s o f C a l i f o r n i a -
R e p o rts w ere r e ­
c e iv e d fro m 2 ,2 2 3 d i s t r i c t s w ith 4 1 ,1 0 4 c e r t i f i c a t e d
e m p lo y e e s an d a n A- P* A. o f 9 7 9 *9 6 6 -
T h ese r e p r e s e n t e d
e i g h t y - n i n e p e r c e n t o f t h e c e r t i f i c a t e d p e r s o n n e l o f th e
s t a t e and n in e ty - t w o p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l A. P* A*
The m ost p e r t i n e n t f i n d i n g s o f R ath b o n e and R ees
w ere s
1- Of t h e c e r t i f i c a t e d e m p lo y e e s , 68*92 p e r c e n t
h a v e pe rm a n e n t c l a s a I f i c a t io n .
2.
Out o f 124 d i s t r i c t s o v e r 850 A* D* A. r e p o r t ­
i n g , tw e n ty - o n e , o r 16*95 P@n c e n t h a v e a p o lic y o f
n o lo n g e r g r a n t i n g t e n u r e , w h ile f o u r t e e n r e p o r t t h a t
t h e i r p o l i c y i s d o u b t f u l . I n th e tw e n ty -o n e d i s t r i c t s
n o t g r a n t i n g t e n u r e , 1 ,1 3 4 c e r t i f i c a t e d em p lo y ee s a r e
e ffe c te d .
3* The d i s t r i c t s n o t g r a n t i n g t e n u r e h a v e 6 9 7
p r o b a t i o n a r y e m p lo y e e s who a r e d is m is s e d a t th e end
o f th r e e y e a rs o f s e rv ic e T h is m eans t h a t o n e - t h i r d ,
o r 2 3 2 o f th e m , a r e t r a n s i e n t
te a c h e rs each y e a r.
4.
E i g h t y - f i v e , o r 71*77 p e r c e n t o f t h e d i s t r i c t s
o v e r 850 A* P . A. h a v e a p o l i c y o f g r a n t i n g t e n u r e .
T h ese d i s t r i c t s em ploy 2 9 ,3 8 8 c e r t i f i c a t e d te a c h e r s *
5sev en ,
I n d i s t r i c t s u n d e r 100 A* p . A. r e p o r t i n g , o n ly
o r .4 5 p e r c e n t , g r a n t te n u re *
6 . O ut o f 2 8 ,3 3 9 p e rm a n e n t em p lo y ee s I n th e
d i s t r i c t s c o v e r e d , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s r e p o r t e d t h a t 738
w ere u n s a t i s f a c t o r y an d w ould b e d is m is s e d w ere I t n o t
f o r t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s o f r e m o v a l.^
From t h i s s tu d y t h e f o llo w in g c o n c lu s io n s w ere draw n
4
Ib id .
11
1. The t e n u r e la w s a r e n o t o p e r a t i n g o n a b ro a d
en o u g h b ase* ■„ T h e re a r e no t e n u r e b e n e f i t s f o r 2 2 .7 0
p e r o e n t o f t h e A. D. A. and 2 7 .0 6 p e r c e n t o f th e
c e r t i f i c a t e d e m p lo y e e s r e p o r t e d .
2 . D is m i s s a l s a r e to o d i f f i c u l t , a s e v id e n c e d by
7 3 8 u n s a t i s f a c t o r y e m p lo y e e s , and o n ly s i x t y - n i n e
d is m is s a ls in f iv e y e a rs .
3.
The t e n u r e la w s a r e p r o t e c t i n g 2 7 ,5 9 2 good
t e a c h e r s who a r e r e n d e r i n g s a t i s f a c t o r y s e r v i c e t o
7 3 0 ,7 5 8 c h i l d r e n . 5
An i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f th e e f f e c t s o f t h e C a l i f o r n i a
te n u r e law o f 1 9 2 7 , known a s The C larem o n t S t u d i e s , was
made a t t h e C la re m o n t C o lle g e s *
T h is s tu d y c o n s i s t e d o f
t h r e e r e l a t e d s u r v e y s t h a t w ere made a t th e r e q u e s t o f
t h e C a l i f o r n i a C om m ission f o r t h e S tu d y o f E d u c a tio n a l
P ro b le m s ,
6
w h ich h a d b e e n a p p o in te d by t h e G o v ern o r t o
s u r v e y t h e s c h o o ls o f t h e s t a t e .
The f i r s t o f th e s e
7
s t u d i e s was made i n 1931 by M i l l e r .
The p ro b le m i n v e s t i ­
g a t e d b y M i l l e r was t o a s c e r t a i n th e e f f e c t s o f t e n u r e on
te a c h in g a s re p o rte d by te a c h e rs .
5 Ib id .
6
The C a l i f o r n i a C om m ission f o r t h e S tu d y o f Edu­
c a t i o n a l P ro b le m s w as a p p o in te d by th e G o v ern o r o f
C a l i f o r n i a i n 1929* The C om m ission w as c r e a t e d by s p e c i a l
l e g i s l a t i v e e n a c tm e n t an d w as d i r e c t e d t o s u r v e y t h e p u b l i c
s c h o o ls o f th e s t a t e .
S u sa n M. D o rs e y , fo rm e r s u p e r i n t e n d ­
e n t o f s c h o o ls o f Dos A n g e le s , a c te d a s c h a irm a n .
^ F e r n E . M i l l e r , " E f f e c t s o f t h e T en u re law i n
C a l i f o r n i a a s R e p o rte d b y t h e T e a c h e r s ," (u n p u b lis h e d
M a s t e r 's t h e s i s , C la re m o n t C o l le g e s , C la re m o n t, C a l i f o r n i a ,
1931)*
12
Two p h a s e s o f t h e p ro b le m w ere s t u d i e d by M i l l e r :
f i r s t , t o d e te r m in e how t h e a c t o f 1927 h ad e f f e c t e d
t e a c h e r t u r n o v e r ; s e c o n d , t o d e te r m in e how th e law h ad
a f f e c t e d th e w ork o f t h e t e a c h e r s -
The c o n c lu s io n s w ere
b a s e d u p o n 1 ,4 0 0 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s r e t u r n e d .
M ille r con­
c lu d e d t h a t w h ile t h e t e n u r e law a p p a r e n t l y I n c r e a s e d
t e a c h e r t u r n o v e r i n r u r a l d i s t r i c t s , t h e r e was a d e c r e a s e
i n u rb a n d i s t r i c t s .
M o reo v e r, sh e fo u n d t h a t a lth o u g h
r u r a l t e a c h e r s w ere a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d b y th e a c t , th e y
w ere i n th e m i n o r i t y com pared w ith th e g r e a t e r p e r c e n ta g e
o f u r b a n t e a c h e r s who h a d b e e n p r o t e c t e d by th e law .
M i l l e r a l s o c o n c lu d e d t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l im provem ent and
e f f i c i e n c y i n t e a c h i n g on t h e p a r t o f th e l a r g e m a j o r i t y
o f t e a c h e r s h a d n o t b e e n l e s s e n e d , b u t h ad b e e n i n c r e a s e d ,
due t o th e f e e l i n g o f p r o f e s s i o n a l an d econom ic s e c u r i t y
w h ic h th e law p r o v id e d .
I n h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n , H u n te r
Q
o b ta in e d t h e o p in io n s
o f t e a c h e r s w i t h r e s p e c t to th e q u a l i t y o f t e a c h i n g p e r ­
s o n n e l and t o t h e f u n c t i o n i n g o f t h e law i n p r o t e c t i n g t h e
good t e a c h e r an d e l i m i n a t i n g t h e u n f i t . . She fo u n d t h a t
s c h o o ls s t a f f e d by p e rm a n e n t t e a c h e r s w ere th o u g h t t o r a n k
h i g h e r t h a n th o s e s t a f f e d b y p r o b a t i o n a r y t e a c h e r s .
8
F lo r e n c e L e ig h H u n te r , "The T enure Law i n
G a l i f o r n l a ; O p in io n s - o f T e a c h e r s ," ( u n p u b lis h e d M a s t e r 's
t h e s i s , C la re m o n t C o l l e g e s , C la re m o n t, C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 1 )-
I n 1932 P r i c e
s tu d ie s .
9
c o m p le te d th e t h i r d o f t h e C la re m o n t
He p a r a l l e l e d th e i n q u i r i e s o f H u n te r and M i l l e r
by s e n d in g q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t o d i s t r i c t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s , c i t y
s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s , and members o f g o v e r n in g h o a r d s .
From th e
d a t a o b ta in e d , h e c o n c lu d e d t h a t t h e r e a c t i o n o f b o th
a d m i n i s t r a t o r s an d members o f th e g o v e r n in g b o a r d s was
u n f a v o r a b le t o t h e t e n u r e la w , a s t h e n o p e r a t i n g .
The
a n ta g o n is m was m ore p ro n o u n c e d among t h e m a j o r i t y o f b o a rd
members th a n among th e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s .
Where a d m in is ­
t r a t o r s f a v o r e d a m o d i f i c a t i o n o f th e la w , t r u s t e e s f a v o r e d
a b o litio n .
R ic e
10
made a s tu d y o f t h e e f f e c t s o f t e n u r e on
t e a c h e r t u r n o v e r i n V e n tu ra C o u n ty , C a l i f o r n i a , f o r th e
p e r i o d fro m S e p te m b e r, 1 9 2 3 to S e p te m b e r, 1 9 3 2 , i n c l u s i v e .
T h is I n v e s t i g a t i o n , made by m eans o f a s tu d y o f c o u n ty
d i r e c t o r i e s , f i l e s i n t h e o f f i c e o f t h e c o u n ty s u p e r i n t e n d ­
e n t , an d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s s e n t t o t e a c h e r s , p r i n c i p a l s , and
s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s , r e v e a l e d t h a t 3 5 * 8 p e r c e n t o f th e t e a c h e r s
f a v o r e d a f o u r - y e a r c o n t r a c t o v e r any o f t h e o t h e r e n u m e ra te d
9
J o h n 0* P r i c e , A S tu d y o f T e a c h e r T en u re i n
C a l i f o r n i a , ” ( u n p u b lis h e d M a s t e r 's t h e s i s , C la re m o n t
C o l le g e s , C la re m o n t, C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 2 )•
^ M e rto n N. B ic e , " T e a c h e r T u rn o v e r i n th e E le m e n ta ry
an d H ig h S c h o o ls o f V e n tu ra C o u n ty ,” ( u n p u b lis h e d M a s t e r 's
t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s ,
1933)*
14
m eth o d s o f em ploym ent u n d e r th e te n u r e la w .
R ic e c o n c lu d e d
t h a t t h e s i x m o st v i t a l m ethods o f d e c r e a s i n g tu r n o v e r
w ere s
1*
More c a r e I n s e l e c t i o n o f t e a c h e r s .
2.
R e p e a l o f t e n u r e law .
3*
P ay p r o g r e s s i v e l y .
4.
Im proved t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g .
5*
B e tte r s u p e rv is io n o f te a c h e rs in s e rv ic e .
^
C o n s o lid a t e s c h o o ls i n r u r a l d i s t r i c t s .
6.
11
An I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f th e e x t e n t and c a u s e s o f t e a c h e r
tu r n o v e r i n t h e h i g h s c h o o ls o f Los A n g e le s C ounty fro m
S e p te m b e r, 1923 to S e p te m b e r, 1 9 2 8 , i n c l u s i v e , was made by
S o b ey .
12
I n a d d i t i o n t o a s tu d y o f r e c o r d s an d r e p o r t s
f o r t h i s f i v e - y e a r p e r i o d , sh e s e n t q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t o a l l
p r i n c i p a l s o f h i g h s c h o o ls i n Los A n g e le s C o u n ty .
H er
c o n c l u s i o n s w ere t h a t th e a v e ra g e p e r c e n t o f t u r n o v e r
f o r a l l c o m m u n itie s s t u d i e d was 1 4 .6 3 p e r c e n t , and t h a t
t h r e e c a u s e s w e re r e s p o n s i b l e f o r m ore t h a n f i f t y p e r
c e n t o f th e e n t i r e tu rn o v e r.
The c a u s e s w e r e :
tra n s fe r,
p r o m o tio n , an d m a r r ia g e .
11
12
Ib id .
C h r l s t e l L. A* S o b ey , f,T e a c h e r T u rn o v e r i n H ig h
S c h o o ls o f Los A n g e le s C ounty fro m S e p te m b e r, 1923 to
S e p te m b e r, 1 9 2 8 , I n c l u s i v e , w ( u n p u b lis h e d M a s te r ’s t h e s i s ,
U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s , 1929)*
15
L ite r a t u r e on th e o p e r a tio n o f te n u r e o u t s id e th e
13
s t a t e o f C a l if o r n i a * E ls b re e
made a q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n ­
v e s t i g a t i o n o f t e a c h e r t u r n o v e r i n t h e c i t i e s and v i l l a g e s
o f New Y ork S t a t e .
D a ta w ere o b ta in e d fro m a l l c i t i e s
e x c e p t New Y ork and B u f f a l o .
They w ere p r o c u r e d fro m
f i f t y - s e v e n c i t i e s an d s i x t y - e i g h t v i l l a g e s .
Some o f t h e
s i g n i f i c a n t c o n c lu s io n s w e re :
1 . T h ere w as no e v id e n c e I n t h i s s tu d y t o show
t h a t s t a t e t e n u r e l e g i s l a t i o n t e n d s to r e d u c e t u r n ­
o v e r . A c o m p a ris o n o f t h e tw e n ty - s e v e n c i t i e s u n d e r
t e n u r e and t h e l a r g e s t v i l l a g e s w ith o u t te n u r e shows
no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n th e r a t e o f t u r n o v e r ,
o r in th e r a t e o f d is m is s a l.
2.
In g e n e r a l th e p er c e n t o f tu r n o v e r te n d s to
v a ry in v e r s e l y a c c o r d in g t o th e s i z e o f th e community.
3* T u rn o v e r i s h i g h e r among h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s
t h a n among e l e m e n ta r y t e a c h e r s .
4.
D is m is s a l r a n k s t h i r d a s a c a u s e o f t e a c h e r
tu rn o v e r.
The two p rim a ry r e a s o n s w ere r e s i g n a t i o n
t o ta k e a . b e t t e r p o s i t i o n , and r e s i g n a t i o n t o b e
m a r r i e d . 14
H o lm s te d t1 ^ made a n e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e New J e r s e y
s t a t e t e n u r e la w , w i t h r e f e r e n c e to i t s e f f e c t upon
^ W i lla r d S* E l s b r e e , T e a c h e r T u rn o v e r i n P i t l e a
and V i l l a g e s i n New Y ork S t a t e (New Y o rk : New Y ork B ureau
o f P u b l i c a t i o n s , T e a c h e rs C o lle g e , C olum bia U n i v e r s i t y ,
1928).
14
Ib id *
15 R a le ig h W. H o lm s te d t, A S tu d y o f t h e E f f e c t s o f
t h e T e a c h e r T en u re Law i n New J e r s e y C T each ers C o lle g e
C o n t r i b u t i o n s t o E d u c a tio n , No. 525. New Y o rk : T e a c h e rs
C o l le g e , C o lu m b ia U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 3 2 ).
16
d i s m i s s a l s , t u r n o v e r , p r o f e s s i o n a l im p ro v em en t, a d m in is ­
t r a t i v e p o l i c i e s , a n d a t t i t u d e s o f t e a c h e r s and a d m in is ­
tra to rs *
B ased on d a t a f o r 1 ,6 9 5 t e a c h e r s i n s e v e n ty - n in e
Hew J e r s e y s c h o o l s y s te m s , and 1 ,7 1 2 t e a c h e r s i n f i f t y - o n e
c o m p a ra b le C o n n e c tic u t s c h o o l s y s te m s .
He fo u n d t h a t th e New J e r s e y t e n u r e law h ad n o t
a p p r e c i a b l y r e d u c e d t h e am ount o f d is m is s a l*
Its
s t a b i l i z i n g e f f e c t w as m o s tly c o n f in e d t o t e a c h e r s h a v in g
f i f t e e n to tw e n ty y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e .
The law p ro v e d
e f f e c t i v e i n p r o t e c t i n g m a r r ie d t e a c h e r s , e s p e c i a l l y
w h ere a d e f i n i t e p o l i c y e x i s t e d a g a i n s t t h e i r em ploym ent*
The d i f f i c u l t y o f d i s m i s s i n g u n s a t i s f a c t o r y t e a c h e r s was
in c re a s e d .
No e v id e n c e was fo u n d t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t e n u r e
t e a c h e r s w ere l e s s I n t e r e s t e d i n p r o f e s s i o n a l Im provem ent
th a n n o n - te n u r e t e a c h e r s .
16
B e tts
c o n d u c te d a q u e s t i o n n a i r e s u rv e y o f s u p p ly
and demand i n s t a t e s h a v in g d i f f e r e n t ty p e s o f t e n u r e
le g is la tio n .
I t to o k i n t o a c c o u n t s u c h f a c t o r s a s p l a c e ,
s o u r c e o f s u p p ly , an d r e a s o n f o r v a c a n c i e s .
The e f f e c t o f s ta te w id e a n d p a r t i a l l y a p p l i c a b l e
t e n u r e la w s was m a in ly c o n f in e d t o c o m m u n itie s below
l6
G i l b e r t L. B e t t s , wThe I n f l u e n c e o f T e a c h e r
T en u re Laws o n S u p p ly and D em and,11 J o u r n a l o f E d u c a tio n a l
R e s e a r c h . 2 8 :1 1 8 - 3 1 , 1 7 5 -8 6 , O c to b e r, Novem ber, 1934.
XT
2 ,5 0 0 p o p u l a t i o n .
I t w as i n d i c a t e d h e r e t h a t s t a te w id e
la w s w ere m ore e f f e c t i v e i n r e d u c in g t e a c h e r t u r n o v e r ,
it
was fo u n d t h a t t e n u r e an d t h e accom panying s e c u r i t y te n d s
t o make te a c h i n g m ore a t t r a c t i v e an d w i l l l e s s e n t h e d e ­
c r e a s e o f te a c h i n g l o s s e s th r o u g h r e s i g n a t i o n an d d i s ­
m i s s a l , and d e c r e a s e t r a n s i e n c y i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n .
IT
S c o tt
u n d e r to o k a n I n v e s t i g a t i o n t o d i s c o v e r t h e
n e c e s s a r y p r o v i s i o n s o f a n a d e q u a te t e n u r e law and t h e
f u n d a m e n ta l p r i n c i p l e s w h ich s h o u ld h e c o n s id e r e d i n
s e c u r in g p r o t e c t i o n f o r t e a c h e r s , c h i l d r e n , a n d s o c i e t y .
The a u t h o r a n a ly z e d th e t e n u r e l e g i s l a t i o n o f
tw e lv e s t a t e s and t h e D i s t r i c t o f C o lu m b ia, b y m eans o f
r e p o r t s t u d i e s , s tu d y o f s c h o o l c o d e s an d a p p e a l c a s e s .
The c r i t e r i a u s e d w e r e :
1.
C o m p re h e n siv e n e ss o f t h e law .
2 . W h eth er t h e law a s s u r e d c o m p e te n t e d u c a t i o n a l
p e rs o n n e l.
3 . W h eth er a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e p e r s o n n e l was
fa c ilita te d .
4 . W h eth er t e a c h e r s w ere g u a r a n te e d J u s t t r e a t ­
m e n t.18
S c o t t 's f i n d i n g s w e re :
^ C e c i l W. S c o t t , I n d e f i n i t e T e a c h e r T en u re
(T e a c h e rs C o lle g e C o n t r i b u t i o n s to E d u c a tio n , Ho. d l 3 .
New Y o rk : T e a c h e rs C o l le g e , C olum bia U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 3 4 ).
18 I b id .
18
1* O nly s i x t y p e r c e n t o f t h e law s w ere c o m p le te
a s t o w o rd in g an d c l a r i t y *
2 . O ver t w o - t h i r d s o f th e c la im s made f o r t e n u r e
a r e u n t e n a b l e , and t h e s e , a lo n g w i t h th e v a l i d o n e t h i r d c o n s t i t u t e a s e r i o u s problem *
3* l o c a l b o a r d s o f t e n r e f u s e t e a c h e r s p e rm a n e n t
s t a t u s a t t h e end o f th e p r o b a tio n a r y p e r i o d .
4.
T e a c h e r s a r e d is p o s e d o f by t r a n s f e r s and
r e q u e s t e d r e s i g n a t i o n s i n c e r t a i n e a se s *
5* P ro b le m s h a v e a r i s e n a s a r e s u l t o f th e
r e l a t i o n s h i p i n v o lv i n g te n u r e an d r e t i r e m e n t and
s a l a r y p o l i c i e s , d i f f i c u l t i e s w ith m a r r ie d women
t e a c h e r s , and r e s t r i c t e d a p p l i c a t i o n . ^9
The a u t h o r c o n c lu d e d t h a t w is e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and
a p p l i c a t i o n o f a t e n u r e s t a t u t e c a n do m ore t h a n a n y th in g
e l s e t o make te n u r e f u n c t i o n i n p r a c t i c e so a s t o p ro m o te
t h e good o f a l l c o n c e r n e d .
L i m i t a t i o n s o f p r e v io u s s t u d i e s *
I n g e n e r a l , th e
i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f t e a c h e r t e n u r e w h ich h a v e b e e n sum m arized
abo v e h av e d i s c l o s e d th e f a c t t h a t th e p r e s e n t law i s
n a rro w i n s c o p e .
They h a v e shown t h a t t e n u r e i s a c a u s e
o f te a c h e r tu rn o v e r.
I t h a s b e e n p ro v e d t h a t th e r e a c t i o n
o f m o st g o v e r n in g b o a r d s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i s a n t a g o n i s t i c
t o th e t e n u r e law a s i t o p e r a t e s a t p r e s e n t .
T hese s t u d i e s
r e v e a l e d t h a t w h ile t e n u r e h a s a s t a b i l i z i n g e f f e c t , i t
a l s o i n c r e a s e s t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f d is m is s in g u n s a t i s f a c t o r y
19 I b id .
19
te a c h e rs .
They h a v e shown t h a t a s e r i o u s p ro b le m i s
p r e s e n t b e c a u s e many o f th e c la im s made f o r te n u r e a r e
u n te n a b le .
Though t h e s e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s h a v e a l l h ad somewhat
s i m i l a r aim s t o t h e p r e s e n t o n e , t h i s s tu d y d i f f e r s fro m
m ost o f th e o t h e r s in ' t h r e e s i g n i f i c a n t a s p e c t s :
1#
T h is r e s e a r c h i s b e in g made a t a tim e when
p o p u la r i n t e r e s t i n t e a c h e r t e n u r e i s a t a
h ig h le v e l.
More and m ore b o a r d s o f e d u c a ti o n
i n th e s m a l l e r s c h o o l s y s te m s a r e r e f u s i n g t o
g r a n t p e rm a n e n c y , and a r e u s in g th e t h r e e - y e a r
p r o b a t i o n a r y p e r io d a s a d e f i n i t e tim e l i m i t
o f te a c h e r s e rv ic e .
T h is c o n d i t i o n was n o t so
p r e v a l e n t a t th e tim e when m ost o f th e p r e v io u s
s t u d i e s w ere c o n d u c te d .
2.
None o f th e p r e v io u s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s h a s b e e n
made w i t h t h e s p e c i f i c p u rp o s e o f d e te r m in in g
th e e f f e c t o f t e n u r e o n t e a c h e r s .
and Rees*
20
R athbone
s tu d y o f C a l i f o r n i a t e n u r e
c o n d i t i o n s g iv e s o n ly a g e n e r a l p i c t u r e o f t h e
p r e s e n t o p e r a t i o n o f t h e law th r o u g h o u t th e
s ta te .
PQ
The C larem o n t s t u d i e s by M i l l e r ,
R ath b o n e and R e e s , o p * c i t .
M ille r, o£. c i t .
21
H u n t e r ^ an d P r i e © ^ d e a l t more w i t h th e e f f e c t
o f te n u re on tu rn o v e r, a d m in is tra tiv e ' a s p e c ts
an d g e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n s -
T h is s tu d y i s l i m i t e d
t o a d e f i n i t e c o m p a ris o n o f p e rm a n e n t and
p r o b a t i o n a r y te a c h e r s *
The f a c t u a l d a t a p r e s e n t e d h e r e i s i n s u c h fo rm
a s to b e o f v a l u e w here th e q u e s t i o n o f th e
r e l a t i v e m e r i t s o f p e rm a n e n t and p r o b a t i o n a r y
te a c h e rs a ris e s *
T hese d a t a p r e s e n t t a n g i b l e
e v id e n c e a s -to th e e f f e c t s o f th e p r e s e n t
o p e r a t i o n o f th e law w i t h i n th e e le m e n ta r y
s c h o o ls o f V e n tu ra C o u n ty .
H u n te r , o£* c i t *
P ric e , o£. c i t *
CHAPTER I I I
METHOD OF PROCEDURE AND SOURCES OF DATA
T h is c h a p t e r d e s c r i b e s t h e p r o c e d u r e f o llo w e d i n
th e i n v e s t i g a t i o n .
S in c e th e n a t u r e o f t h e s c h o o l
p o p u l a t i o n and t h e ty p e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e s c h o o ls
p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e s tu d y h av e a b e a r i n g o n t h e r e s u l t ,
a b r i e f comment i s made c o n c e r n in g t h e co m m u n itie s an d th e
o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s s e h o o ls .
I.
METHOD OF PROCEDURE
S e le c tin g th e m a te r ia l f o r th e q u e s tlo n n a lr e .
F or
t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i t was n e c e s s a r y t o o b t a i n in f o r m a t i o n
fro m a l l t e a c h e r s i n t h e e le m e n ta r y s c h o o ls o f V e n tu r a ,
S a n ta P a u la , an d O x n ard .
T h is was e f f e c t e d by means o f a
q u e s tio n n a ir e s e n t to te a c h e rs i n th e s e a r e a s .
The i n ­
v e s t i g a t o r was d e s i r o u s o f o b t a i n i n g d e f i n i t e s t a t e m e n t s
o f c o n d i t i o n w h ic h c o u ld be o b j e c t i v e l y e v a l u a t e d , r a t h e r
th a n i n d i v i d u a l o p in io n s *
F or t h i s r e a s o n i t was n e c e s ­
s a r y , a s f a r a s p o s s i b l e , t o u s e o b j e c t i v e ty p e m a t e r i a l s
in th e q u e s tio n n a ir e .
To g a i n e q u a l r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e
r e s p o n s e s o f b o th p e rm a n e n t and p r o b a tio n a r y t e a c h e r s ,
t h e m a t e r i a l I n c lu d e d i n th e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was su c h t h a t
an y v a r i a b l e i n g ro u p r e p l i e s w ould o f n e c e s s i t y b e c a u s e d
b y t h e p e rm a n e n t o r p r o b a tio n a r y s t a t u s o f t h e g ro u p .
One
22
p a r t o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was c o n c e rn e d w ith th e o p in io n s
and r e a c t i o n s o f b o t h c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f t e a c h e r s t o t h e
p r e s e n t o p e r a t i o n o f t h e t e n u r e la w .
I t i s o b v io u s ly
n e c e s s a r y t h a t t h i s s e c t i o n be s u b j e c t i v e i n n a t u r e a l th p u g h t h e r e s u l t s w ere o b j e c t i v e l y t a b u l a t e d and p r e s e n t e d .
C o n s tru c tio n o f th e w r i tte n in s tru m e n t.
To o b t a i n
a c o m p a ris o n o f th e e f f e c t o f t h e o p e r a t i o n o f th e t e n u r e
law o n b o th p e rm a n e n t an d p r o b a t i o n a r y t e a c h e r s , t h e
m a t e r i a l s e l e c t e d f o r t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e w as I n c o r p o r a te d
i n t o a c o m b in a tio n b e s t- a n s w e r and c h e e k form o f o b j e c t i v e
te s t.
I n a n e f f o r t t o in c lu d e a l l n e c e s s a r y m a t e r i a l s th e
I n v e s t i g a t o r c o n f e r r e d w ith a num ber o f t e a c h e r s and
a d m i n i s t r a t o r s so t h a t a more c o m p re h e n siv e v iew o f t h e
p ro b le m m ig h t b e o b t a i n e d .
The r e t u r n s o n a q u e s t i o n n a i r e u s u a l l y a r e i n d i r e c t
r a t i o t o i t s s i m p l i c i t y and e a s e o f r e p l y .
T h is f a c t
p ro m p ted t h e u s e o f a b e s t- a n s w e r c h e c k ty p e o f q u e s t i o n .
The g r e a t e s t d i f f i c u l t y e n c o u n te r e d i n c o n s t r u c t i n g th e
q u e s t i o n n a i r e was t h e p h r a s in g o f id e a s i n t o t e r s e c o n c is e
p h ra se s o r s e n te n c e s .
Many o f t h e i d e a s p r e s e n te d do n o t
le n d th e m s e lv e s t o b r i e f d e f i n i t i o n .
Upon c o m p le tio n o f t h e I n s tr u m e n t i t w as a d m in is ­
t e r e d to t e a c h e r s an d a d m i n i s t r a t o r s w ith a r e q u e s t f o r
r e a c t i o n s an d s u g g e s t i o n s .
W ith t h e s e s u g g e s tio n s i n m ind
23
th e m a t e r i a l was r e o r g a n iz e d and a tim e r e q u ir e m e n t o f n o t
m ore t h a n f i v e m in u te s e s t a b l i s h e d .
Adm lni s t e r in g an d s c o r i n g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e *
A fte r
a p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w w i t h t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s o f V e n tu r a ,
S a n ta P a u la , an d O xnard C ity E le m e n ta ry S c h o o ls th e
q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w ere m a ile d to 140 t e a c h e r s i n t h e s e
d is tric ts .
One h u n d re d and f i v e r e p l i e s , o r s e v e n t y - f i v e
p e r c e n t o f th o s e m a ile d , w ere r e t u r n e d .
T hese r e p l i e s w ere t a b u l a t e d and re d u c e d to p e r ­
c e n t a g e s , t e a c h e r a v e r a g e s , o r f re q u e n c y o f c h o i c e .
For
c o m p a r a tiv e p u r p o s e s t h e r e p l i e s o f p e rm a n e n t an d p r o ­
b a t i o n a r y t e a c h e r s w ere l i s t e d s e p a r a t e l y .
II.
SOURCES OF DATA
The s c h o o ls p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e s t u d y *
The
q u e s t i o n n a i r e u se d w as g iv e n t o t h e t e a c h e r s i n th e
t h i r t e e n e le m e n ta r y s c h o o ls o f V e n tu r a , S a n ta P a u la , an d
O x n ard .
T h ese co m bined s y s te m s h av e a c e r t i f i c a t e d p e r ­
s o n n e l o f 1 4 0 , w ith a n A. D. A. o f 3 > 5 4 l.6 7 «
The n a t u r e o f t h e co m m u n ities r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e s e
d is tric ts *
The t h r e e c i t i e s s t u d i e d l i e w i t h i n th e
b o u n d a r ie s o f V e n tu ra C o u n ty , C a l i f o r n i a .
T h is C ounty i s
a r i c h a g r i c u l t u r a l an d o i l d i s t r i c t l o c a t e d i n S o u th e r n
C a l i f o r n i a b e tw e e n Los A n g e le s and S a n ta B a rb a ra C o u n tie s .
24
I t i a c h i e f l y a r u r a l a r e a , t h e to w n s e x i s t i n g m a in ly t o
s e r v e t h e w o rk e rs o f t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l and o i l i n d u s t r i e s *
The m a j o r i t y o f t h e p u p i l s come fro m t h e c i t y a r e a s a l ­
th o u g h many l i v e o n a d j a c e n t f a r m s .
D u rin g t h e h a r v e s t i n g o f s e a s o n a l c r o p s , th e c h i l d ­
r e n o f t r a n s i e n t l a b o r f i l l th e r a n k s o f t h e e le m e n ta r y
s c h o o ls .
The p e r c e n ta g e o f t h i s i n f l u x v a r i e s w ith
s e a s o n a l h a rv e s ts *
V en tu ra*
V e n tu r a , th e c o u n ty s e a t o f V e n tu ra
C o u n ty , i s l o c a t e d o n t h e C o a st R o u te , s e v e n ty m ile s n o r t h
o f Los A n g e le s and t h i r t y m ile s s o u th o f S a n ta B a r b a r a .
O il i s th e c h i e f i n d u s t r y , p lu s a d d i t i o n a l l a r g e a r e a s o f
c i t r u s f r u i t s , n u t s , lim a b e a n s , and g e n e r a l a g r i c u l t u r e *
The V e n tu r a E le m e n ta ry S c h o o ls , w ith a n A. D. A*
o f 9 0 1 . 0 2 , h a v e a n e n r o llm e n t draw n l a r g e l y from w e l l
e s t a b l i s h e d h i g h ty p e homes*
T h e re i s , h o w e v e r, a c e r t a i n
p e r c e n ta g e o f M ex ican an d t r a n s i e n t p o p u l a t i o n w hich v a r i e s
w ith th e h a r v e s t s e a s o n s .
S a n ta P a u l a *
S a n ta P a u la , l o c a t e d i n th e h e a r t o f
t h e S a n ta P a u la V a l l e y , i s t h i r t e e n m ile s e a s t o f V e n tu r a .
I t i s t h e c e n t e r o f th e lem on I n d u s t r y and i s a l s o a
g e n e r a l a g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a i n w h ic h v e g e t a b l e s , lim a b e a n s ,
a n d w a ln u ts a r e g ro w n .
The S a n ta P a u la s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n , w ith a n A. D. A.
25
o f 1,54-1*50, l a made u p o f w h ite and M exican c h i l d r e n .
B ecau se o f t h e w id e s p r e a d o f c i t r u s i n d u s t r y t h e r e i s a
c o n s t a n t l y l a r g e s h i f t i n g M exican p o p u l a t i o n .
O x n a rd .
O x n a rd , th e t h i r d o f th e c i t i e s i n w h ich
t h e s u r v e y was c o n d u c te d , i s lo c a t e d o n th e C o a s t R o u te
midway b e tw e e n S a n ta M onlea and S a n ta B a rb a ra *
I t i s th e
huh and t r a d i n g c e n t e r f o r th e a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c ts o f
th e a re a *
O xnard i s c h i e f l y a s u g a r b e e t and lim a b e a n
g ro w in g t e r r i t o r y *
The O xnard s c h o o l e n r o l l m e n t , w ith a n A. D. A. o f
1 ,0 9 9 * 1 7 , i s made up c h i e f l y o f w h ite and M ex ican c h i l d r e n .
School o rg a n lz a tio n *
I n e a c h o f th e c o m m u n itie s
s t u d i e d t h e s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n i s s i m i l a r , b e i n g com posed
m a in ly o f w h ite an d M ex ican c h i l d r e n .
The p e r c e n ta g e
o f M exicans i s p r o b a b ly h e a v i e s t i n S a n ta P a u la and
l i g h t e s t i n V e n tu r a .
The e le m e n ta r y s c h o o ls i n V e n tu ra e x te n d th r o u g h
t h e s i x t h g r a d e , w h ile b o th S a n ta P a u la and O xnard u s e th e
8 -4 p la n .
I n e a c h o f t h e s e t h r e e s y s te m s a f l e x i b l e an d
v a r i e d p ro g ra m i s c a r r i e d o u t to ac co m o d ate th e w id e r a n g e
i n a b i l i t y , s o c i a l d e v e lo p m e n t, and p h y s i c a l m a t u r i t y , to
b e fo u n d w h e re v e r t h e r e i s a s h i f t i n g s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n .
Summary.
T h is c h a p t e r h a s d e s c r ib e d th e p ro c e d u r e
26
f o llo w e d I n c o n s t r u c t i n g th© q u e s t i o n n a i r e , and i n m aking
t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n r e p o r t e d i n t h i s s tu d y .
A b rie f d es­
c r i p t i o n o f t h e s c h o o ls and c o m m u n itie s s t u d i e d was a l s o
I n c lu d e d .
III.
THE QUESTIONNAIRE
The q u e s t i o n n a i r e , a s f i n a l l y r e f i n e d and p r e s e n t e d ,
a p p e a r s b e lo w :
27
QUESTIONNAIRE
Nam©
A d d re ss
S chool D is tr ic t
S chool
P l e a s e p l a c e a ( J ) i n th e p r o p e r s q u a r e .
1.
A re you a p e rm a n e n t (
) p r o b a t i o n a r y (___ ) t e a c h e r ?
2.
A re you m a r r ie d (____) s i n g l e
(
)?
I
3*
4.
Do you f a v o r :
a.
R e ta i n in g t e n u r e a s i t now s t a n d s * . . . .
b.
U n c o n d it io n a l r e p e a l o f t h e te n u r e a c t
c.
Amendment o f t h e t e n u r e a c t r a i s i n g th e
A .D .A . r e q u ir e m e n t to 2 ,0 0 0 o r m o r e . . . . _______
d.
U n i v e r s a l t e n u r e ( a law e q u a l l y a p p l i c a b l e
t o a l l s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n V e n tu ra C o u n t y ) . . . . __ ( ___ )
Do you f a v o r c o m p u lso ry r e t i r e m e n t . . .Y es
(___ >
)
(____)
No (
)
5* - I f you f a v o r c o m p u ls o ry r e t i r e m e n t c i r c l© t h e ag e
a t w h ic h you t h i n k su c h r e t i r e m e n t s h o u ld b e g i n .
55 56 57 58 59 6 0 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 6 9 70
6.
7*
Do you f a v o r a n ag e l i m i t a f t e r w h ich em ploym ent fro m
y e a r t o y e a r s h a l l b e o p t i o n a l w ith t h e l o c a l B oard
o f E d u c a t i o n . .................................. . . . . . . . Y e s (
) No (____)
I f you f a v o r s u c h o p t i o n a l em ploym ent c i r c l e th e
y e a r a t w h ich s u c h em ploym ent s h o u ld b e g i n .
55 56 57 58 59 6 0 6 1 62 6 3 64 6 5 66 6 7 68 6 9 7 0
8.
I n y o u r o p i n i o n i s y o u r B oard o f E d u c a tio n :
a.
F a v o r a b le t o t h e t e n u r e a c t a s i t now s ta n d s * •__ (___ )
b.
F a v o r a b le t o t h e t e n u r e a c t i f i t i s a m e n d e d ..__ (___ )
28
c.
F a v o r a b le t o th e r e p e a l o f t e n u r e * . . . ....................
(__)
9* I n y o u r o p i n i o n t o w h ic h o f t h e f o llo w in g p o l i c i e s
does your sc h o o l d i s t r i c t a d h e re :
a.
Make t h e h i g h e s t 10 p e r c e n t o f p r o b a t i o n a r y
t e a c h e r s p e rm a n e n t................................................................
b.
Make t h e b e s t 2 5 p e r c e n t o f t e a c h e r s
p e rm a n e n t
v . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............
c.
Make t h e b e s t 50 p e r c e n t o f t e a c h e r s
p e rm a n e n t
................................................................
d.
Make e v e r y t e a c h e r p e r m a n e n t ............................ ..
e.
Make a n o c c a s i o n a l t e a c h e r p e rm a n e n t......................
f*
Make no t e a c h e r p e r m a n e n t ..................... .......................
1 0 . P le a s e l i s t , w h at i n y o u r o p in io n c o u ld b e done
t o Im prove t h e t e n u r e s i t u a t i o n i n t h e e le m e n ta r y
s c h o o ls o f V e n tu ra C o u n ty .
a ................................................................... ..............................................
b ........................................................................................ ........................
c ................................................................
................................................
1
II.
P l e a s e i n d i c a t e y o u r a n sw e r to t h e f o llo w in g b y
p l a c i n g a ( J ) o r p r o p e r num ber i n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e
sq u a re .
1 1 . P la c e s to w h ic h you h a v e t r a v e l e d th e p a s t t h r e e y e a r s
P la c e
1 9 3 7 -3 8
a.
N ear E a s t . . . . . ...................
b.
O r i e n t ..................................
c.
P a c ific N o rth w e s t....
d.
C a n ad a......................................
(
)
(
1 9 4 0 -4 1
(____)
(___ ).
(
)
(___,)
)
(____)
(__ j^)
)
(■
(___ )
(_)
(
1 9 3 9 -^ 0
)
29
P la c e
12 .
1 9 3 7-38
. ...................
(
1 9 3 9 -4 0
)
e.
A la s k a
f.
S o u th A m e r ic a .................
(____ )
(____ j
(____ j
g.
M e x ico
.......................
(____ )
<_____ j
(
)
h.
E a s t e r n U n ite d S t a t e s
{_____)
(____ )
(
)
i.
N a ti o n a l P a r k s . . . . . * .
~(_
.)
(-
(____)
_)
(
j.
E u ro p e ......................... ..
(
k.
Any O t h e r ............................
(____ )
(
)
1940 -4 1
(
)
)
(____ )
(
j
)
(____ )
S e m e s te r u n i t s o f U n i v e r s i t y w ork ta k e n th e p a s t t h r e e
y e a rs
Y e a rs
U n its
1 9 3 7 -1 9 3 8 ................................... .............. ..........................................(____ .)
1 9 3 8 -1 9 3 9 .......................................................................................... .. (____)
1 9 3 9 -1 9 4 0 ........................................... ................................................ (____ )
13.
P r o f e s s i o n a l h o o k s you h av e r e a d t h e p a s t t h r e e y e a r s
F i e l d s o f E d u c a tio n
Number
a*
T e a c h in g m e th o d s ____________________
•'(____)
b.
Y our s p e c i a l s u b j e c t . . . . _________
._(____)
e.
C u rric u lu m s t u d i e s ..................................................................(___ )
d.
P s y c h o lo g y ........................
e.
E d u c a tio n a l th e o r y .
(___ )
............
(____)
III.
P le a s e p la c e
14.
a (J
) i n th e p r o p e r s q u a r e .
Do you own y o u r own h o m e ? ...................Yes
(___ )
No (___ .)
30
15*
16.
C iv ic o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o which, you b e lo n g :
a-
R o t a r y ........................................................
b.
L io n * s
e.
K iw a n ia ....................... . . . . . ...................................................
d.
E xchange C lu b . . . ..........................
e.
O p tim is t C lu b ............ ........................... ................................
f.
Chamber o f Commerce
g.
C iv ic C h o r a l C ro u p
h•
Women1s Cl u b ......................................................................... . .
1.
P r o f e s s i o n a l Women’ s C l u b . . . ......................................
j.
Any o t h e r .
.. * ...................................
. ...........
...............................
..........................................
............ ............................................................
F r a t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o w h ich you b e lo n g :
- a.
17.
. ......................
*
M asonic L o d g e.................. ........................... .......................
b.
E lk s L odge...................... ........... ...................... .......................
c.
S h r ln e Temp l e
d.
R e b e c c a s ..................................... ............................................ . .
e.
Odd F e llo w s ................................................................. ..
f.
E a s t e r n S t a r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . # ....................................
g.
E a g l e s .......................................... ....................................... ..
h.
K n ig h ts o f C o lu m b u s.. .................... ......................... ..
i.
K n ig h ts T e m p la r s .........................................................
J.
O rd e r o f F o r e s t e r s . . . . . . . . . ...................................... ..
k.
Any O t h e r s ........................ ......................................................
........................... . ..............................
A re you a n a c t i v e member o f a r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n ?
Xea (
)
No (____)
31
18.
I f you ar© n o t a member do you p a r t i c i p a t e i n th e
a c t i v i t i e s o f an y r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n ?
Yes (____)
No (____)
19.
P le a s e l i s t an y com m unity c o m m itte e s o r a c t i v i t i e s
o n w h ich you a r e a c t i v e o r up o n w h ich you h av e
s e r v e d w i t h i n th e p a s t t h r e e y e a r s .
a ................... .............................................. ............. .........................................
b.
c
................................................ ................................ ....................
CHAPTER IV
RESULTS OF THE INVESTIGATION
A d e t a i l e d t a b u l a t i o n o f t h e f i n d i n g s o f th e i n ­
v e s t i g a t i o n i s i n c lu d e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r .
A c o m p a r a tiv e
a n a l y s i s o f th e r e p l i e s o f p erm a n en t and p r o b a t i o n a r y
t e a c h e r s i n t h e e le m e n ta r y s c h o o ls o f V e n tu r a , S a n ta P a u la ,
and O xnard a s t o i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g , t e a c h e r r e a c t i o n t o
th e p r e s e n t t e n u r e la w , and com m unity a c t i v i t i e s a r e
p re s e n te d .
U n i v e r s i t y w ork t a k e n .
An e x a m in a tio n o f t h e r e s ­
p o n s e s o f t e a c h e r s c o n c e r n in g t h e i r e n d e a v o r s to im prove
th e m s e lv e s p r o f e s s i o n a l l y was m ade.
The f i r s t ite m c o n ­
s i d e r e d i n t h i s g ro u p was t h e num ber o f s e m e s te r u n i t s o f
u n i v e r s i t y w ork c o m p le te d d u r in g th e y e a r s 1 9 3 7 -3 8 , 1 93 8 39, 1939- 4 0 .
The t o t a l , a s w e ll a s t h e a v e r a g e number o f
u n i t s e a r n e d b y b o t h t h e p e rm a n e n t and p r o b a t i o n a r y t e a c h ­
e r s , was t h e n co m puted a n d t h e r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d i n T a b le I
and F ig u r e 1 , p a g e s 33 and 3 4 .
I t was r e v e a l e d t h a t f o r
e a c h o f t h e t h r e e - y e a r p e r i o d s , m ore u n i t s h a d b e e n com­
p l e t e d by p e rm a n e n t t h a n b y p r o b a t i o n a r y t e a c h e r s .
The
a v e r a g e g a i n s p e r t e a c h e r f o r t h e p e rm a n e n t g ro u p w eres
1 9 3 7 -3 8
1 .4 0 u n i t s
1 9 3 8 -3 9
1 .4 5
M
33
TABLE X
DISTRIBUTION OF TEACHER REPLIES AS TO UNITERS ITT
WORK TAKEN OVER A THREE YEAR PERIOD
Year
S em ester
U n its
Permanent
N - 53
T eacher
A verage
S em ester
U n its
P ro b a tio n a r y
N = 52
T eaoher
Average
D if f e r e n c e
1937-1 9 3 8
192
3 .6 3
116
2 .2 3
-76
1938-19 3 9
220
4 .1 5
140
2 .7 0
-8 0
1 9 3 9 -1 9 4 0
239
4 .5 1
209
4 .0 2
-3 0
T o ta l
651
1 2 .4 7
465
9 .5 2
-1 8 6
J939l=
P r o b a t io n a r y
OWE
M
i l
^-I-FTY--1?WO+PHOBA^-iOm-R-YTEACHERS OYER x t '
YEAR- -PEBIOD
NO.
6103.
JESSE
RAY
MILLER.
LOS
ANGELES
35
1 9 3 9 -4 0
.4 9 u n i t s
A summary o f t h e t h r e e - y e a r p e r io d show s a t o t a l o f
661 u n i t s t a k e n h y t h e p e rm a n e n t g ro u p f o r a t e a c h e r a v e ra g e
o f 1 2 .4 7 , w h ile t h e p r o h a t i o n a r i e s c o m p le te d 4 6 5 u n i t s f o r
a n a v e ra g e o f 9 * 5 2 .
H e re t h e m a rg in o f s u p e r i o r i t y f o r th e
p e rm a n e n ts was 196 u n i t s , an d a t e a c h e r a v e ra g e g a i n o f
2 .9 5 f o r t h i s p e r i o d .
T h is c o n c l u s i o n v a r i e s fro m t h a t o f S to n e who
sum m arized h i s f i n d i n g s i n r e g a r d to w ork ta k e n i n t h i s
s ta te m e n t t
The a v e ra g e num ber o f s e m e s te r u n i t s e a r n e d by
s e v e n ty - tw o p r o b a t i o n a r y t e a c h e r s i s 1 0 .8 6 an d by 4 8 9
p e rm a n e n t t e a c h e r s i s 9 .0 6 .
The d i f f e r e n c e , 1 .8 0 ,
a l th o u g h i n d i c a t i v e o f a w e ig h in g i n f a v o r o f
p ro b a tio n a ry te a c h e r s , i s n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i ­
f ic a n t.!
I t i s t h e o p i n i o n o f th e i n v e s t i g a t o r t h a t th e
r e s u l t s o b ta in e d h e r e a r e s i g n i f i c a n t when i t i s c o n s id e r e d
t h a t t h e r e i s a g r e a t e r I n c e n t i v e f o r th e p r o b a t i o n a r y g ro u p
to c o m p le te u n i v e r s i t y w o rk .
Many t e a c h e r s i n t h i s g ro u p
n eed u n i t s t o o b t a i n c o m p le te c l e a r a n c e I n c e r t i f i c a t i o n o r
to o b t a i n d e g r e e s im m e d ia te ly n e e d e d i n s e r v i c e .
N o tw ith ­
s t a n d i n g t h i s f a c t , i n t h i s s tu d y t h e p erm a n e n t g ro u p h a v e
shown a g r e a t e r e n d e a v o r t o im prove th e m s e lv e s p r o f e s s i o n a l l y
Seym our I . S t o n e , ”The C a l i f o r n i a T en u re L aw ,"
( u n p u b lis h e d D o c to r * s d i s s e r t a t i o n , l o s A n g e le s , C a l i f o r n i a :
U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 4 ), p . 187*
36
th r o u g h t h e means o f f o rm a l t r a i n i n g .
P ro fe s s io n a l hooks re a d *
The se c o n d ite m i n v e s t i ­
g a te d u n d e r t h e h e a d in g o f i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g w as th e
num ber o f p r o f e s s i o n a l b o o k s r e a d by e a c h group*
They w ere
a s k e d t o s t a t e t h e am ount o f su c h r e a d i n g f o r t h e p e r io d
o f 1937-194-0 i n th e f i e l d s o f te a c h i n g m e th o d s, t h e i r
s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s , c u r r ic u lu m s t u d i e s , p s y c h o lo g y , and e d u ­
c a t i o n a l th e o ry *
The r e t u r n s , a r r a n g e d f o r b o th t e a c h e r
g ro u p s a c c o r d in g t o t h e s e f i e l d s , a r e t a b u l a t e d i n T a b le I I
and F ig u r e 2 , p a g e s 37 and 3 8 .
I n e a c h o f t h e r e a d i n g a r e a s t h e r e w as a d e f i n i t e
m a rg in o f s u p e r i o r i t y f a v o r i n g t h e p e rm a n e n t t e a c h e r s .
T a b le I I i n d i c a t e s t h e f o llo w in g g a i n s i n th e a v e ra g e
num ber o f b o o k s r e a d by t h i s g ro u p o v e r t h e t h r e e - y e a r
p e rio d .
T e a c h in g m eth o d s
2 .6 1
S p e c ia l s u b je c ts
1 .7 1
C u rric u lu m s t u d i e s
1 .9 8
P s y c h o lo g y
2*08
E d u c a tio n a l th e o ry
2 • 61
A summary o f t h e t o t a l r e a d i n g c o m p le te d by e a c h g ro u p
showed f i f t y - t h r e e p e rm a n e n t t e a c h e r s r e a d i n g 1 ,2 7 0 b o o k s f o r
a n a v e ra g e o f 2 3 *9 6 , w h ile f i f t y - t w o p r o b a tio n a r y t e a c h e r s
r e a d 7 2 3 b o o k s f o r a n a v e ra g e o f 13*90*
T h is i n d i c a t e d a n
37
TABLE I I
DISTRIBUTION OF TEACHER- REPLIES AS TO PROFESSIONAL
BOOKS READ DURING THE YEARS 1 9 3 7 -1 9 4 0
F ie ld s o f e d u c a tio n
Number
of
b ooks
Permanent
I ? 53
T eacher
Average
Number
of
books
P r o b a tio n a r y
N * 52
Teacher
A verage D if f e r e n c e
T each in g m ethods
280
5 i 28
139
2 .6 7
-1 4 1
Your s p e c i a l s u b j e c t
326
6 .1 5
217
4 .1 7
-1 0 9
C urriculum s t u d i e s
263
4 .9 6
150
2 .8 8
-1 1 3
P sy c h o lo g y
187
3 .5 3
96
1 .8 5
-9 1
E d u c a tio n a l t h e o r y
214
4 .0 4
121
2 .3 3
-9 3
1270
2 3 .9 6
723
1 3 .9 0
-547
T o ta l
38
5a
lo c a i
lESQfl
n
m ta
:900
SDp
TOG
I!
50
! I
Ii
“4'Q
TOG
II
BOG
It
00
0
P ro b a
bito:nary
p ig :DfiE
BGQKSfRM-l)
s® JUJSSS,
OVER
NO.
6103,
JESSE
RAY
MILLER.
LOS
ANGELES
T-wrnv-Lr
PR03ATIOUAHY| TEACpKS
3K±EEHXCm
39
a d v a n ta g e o f 547 b o o k s , and a t e a c h e r a v e ra g e g a i n o f
1 0 .0 6 i n f a v o r o f t h e p e rm a n e n ts .
T h is g a i n may h e c o n s id e r e d a s a c o r r e l a r y o f t h e
a d d i t i o n a l u n i v e r s i t y w ork ta k e n hy t h i s g r o u p .
T h is g a i n
i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t due t o th e la c k o f p r e s s u r e
f o r s u c h r e a d i n g o n a p erm a n en t g ro u p .
One e x p l a n a t i o n
m ig h t w e l l h e t h a t i n c e r t a i n d i s t r i c t s w h ere p r o b a t i o n a r y
t e a c h e r s know t h a t t h e r e i s no p o s s i b i l i t y f o r t e n u r e , th e
d r i v e o r u r g e f o r s e lf - im p r o v e m e n t i s n o t so k e e n ly f e l t .
T h ese d a t a d i f f e r fro m th o s e o f S c o t t who sum m arized
h i s f i n d i n g s a s to p r o f e s s i o n a l im provem ent o f p erm a n en t
and p r o b a t i o n a r y t e a c h e r s i n t h i s s t a t e m e n t :
T en u re may te n d t o s t a b i l i z e t h e p r o f e s s i o n , t o i n ­
c r e a s e i t s d ra w in g p o w er, and t o i n c r e a s e t h e i n t e r e s t
o f t e a c h e r s i n p r o f e s s i o n a l im p ro v em en t, y e t p r o o f to "
t h i s e f f e c t h a s s t i l l t o b e p r o d u c e d .2
H o lm s te d t, i n summing up h i s f i n d i n g s a s t o i n s e rv ic e tr a in i n g o f b o th te a c h e r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s in
C o n n e c tic u t an d Hew N e r s e y , came t o t h i s c o n c l u s i o n :
11I t seem s r e a s o n a b l e , t h e r e f o r e , t o c o n c lu d e t h a t t e n u r e
has l i t t l e
e f f e c t o n th e am ount o f t r a i n i n g i n s e r v i c e
m3
s e c u r e d by a l a r g e g ro u p o f t e a c h e r s .
2 C e c i l W. S c o t t , I n d e f i n i t e T e a c h e r T en u re { T e a c h e rs
C o lle g e C o n t r i b u t i o n s t o E d u c a tio n , No. 613* New Y o rk :
T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , C o lu m b ia U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 3 4 ), p . 6 8 .
3 R a le ig h W* H o lm s te d t, A S tu d y o f th e E f f e c t s o f th e
T e a c h e r T en u re Law i n New J e rs e .v ( T e a c h e r s C o lle g e C o n t r i ­
b u t i o n s t o E d u c a tio n , No. 526. New Y o rk : T e a c h e rs C o lle g e ,
C olum bia U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 3 2 ), p . 65-
40
T eacher t r a v e l *
The f i n a l ite m o f th e te a c h e r s *
r e s p o n s e s . c o n s id e r e d i n r e l a t i o n to p r o f e s s i o n a l g ro w th and
im provem ent w as t r a v e l *
From t h e f o llo w in g l i s t t e a c h e r s
w ere a s k e d t o c h e c k p l a c e s v i s i t e d d u r in g th e p e r io d o f
I 9 3 7 -1 9 4 0 :
N ear l a s t , O r i e n t , P a c i f i c N o rth w e s t, C a n a d a ,
A la s k a , S o u th A m e ric a , M ex ico , E a s t e r n U n ite d S t a t e s , The
N a ti o n a l P a r k s , E u ro p e , H a w a ii, and I n t e r - c o a s t a l a r e a s *
The r e p l i e s w ere t a b u l a t e d a s t o f re q u e n c y f o r e a c h g ro u p
and t h e r e s u l t s a s s e m b le d i n T a b le I I I and F ig u r e 3 , p a g e s
41 and 4 2 .
F i f t y - t h r e e p e rm a n e n t t e a c h e r s r e p o r t e d 133 v i s i t s
made t o t h e t r a v e l a r e a s l i s t e d , and f i f t y - t w o p r o b a t i o n a r i e s i n d i c a t e d 138 s u c h j o u r n l e s h ad b e e n m ade.
A d e fin ite
d e c r e a s e i n th e t r a v e l a c t i v i t i e s o f e a c h g ro u p was shown
f o r t h e y e a r 1 9 3 9 -4 0 .
T h is c o u ld h a v e b e e n d u e to th e
u n s e t t l e d m i l i t a r y c o n d i t i o n p r e s e n t a t t h a t tim e*
T h ere was n o t s u f f i c i e n t d i f f e r e n c e r e g i s t e r e d i n th e
t r a v e l b a c k g ro u n d o f t h e tw o g ro u p s t o h a v e an y s t a t i s t i c a l
v a lu e .
S t o n e ’ s f i n d i n g s i n r e g a r d t o t e a c h e r t r a v e l w ere
sum m arized i n th e s ta te m e n t s
F o u r o u t o f f i v e o f a l l p e rm a n e n t t e a c h e r s r e s p o n d ­
in g h a v e d o n e much t r a v e l i n g d u r in g th e l a s t t h r e e
y e a rs.
Among p r o b a t i o n a r y t e a c h e r s th e p r o p o r t i o n was
seven o u t of te n .
T h is r e p r e s e n t s a p r e p o n d e ra n c e o f
p e rm a n e n ts o v e r p r o b a t i o n a r i e s o f n i n e t e e n p e r c e n t . 4
^ S to n e ,
cit.,
p p . 1 9 3 -4 .
41
TABLE IXr
DISTRIBUTION OF TEACHES REPLIES TO THE QUESTION,
"TO WHAT PLAGES HAVE YOU TRAVELLED DURING
THE PAST THREE YEARS'?"
P la o e
193 8 -1 9 3 9
1 9 3 7 -1 9 3 8
Perman- P rob a- Perman- P robaen t t io n a r y
e n t t io n a r y
N s 53 N a 52 N. = 53 N s 52
Number Number Number Number
1939 -1940 .
Pe rman- Proba­
en t t io n a r y
N = 53 N = 52
Number Number
N ear E a st
1
0
0
2
0
1
O rien t
1
1
0
0
0
0
P a c i f i c N orth w est
9
11
6
9
6
2
Canada
6
5
5
4
6
2
A la slca
1
1
0
0
0
0
S outh America
0
0
1
1
0
0
M exico
2
7
5
9
1
4
E a s te r n U n ited
S ta te s
12
10
12
9
6
9
N a tio n a l Parks
21
18
21
17
8
15
Europe
0
0
0
1
0
0
H aw aii
2
0
0
0
0
0
New York v i a
Panama C anal
0
0
1
0
0
0
55
53
51
T o ta l
T o ta l d if f e r e n c e
-2
52
4-1
27
33
+6
42
o u rn e y
DL93j”
3:938
1938
939
33a
19j40
'Permanent
Lp'rolDatxona
nm m
TSpjmfNL
{TlISIM lM BJlH
BY -PI-Frf-S
PROBM-lpN
ktiPEBB
NO.
6103,
JESSE
RAY
MILLER.
LOS
ANGELES
J0UHK3SB
Summary o f f l a d i n g s o n p r o f e s s i o n a l Im p ro v em en t.
The f i n d i n g s o n t h e p ro b le m o f p r o f e s s i o n a l im provem ent may
h e g iv e n i n t h e f o llo w in g s ta te m e n ts *
T h ere was a s i g n i ­
f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n p e rm a n e n t and p r o b a t i o n a r y t e a c h ­
e r s a s t o t h e num ber o f s e m e s te r u n i t s o f u n i v e r s i t y w ork
co m p leted *
P e rm a n e n t t e a c h e r s showed a d e f i n i t e s u p e r i o r ­
i t y o v er th e e n t i r e th r e e - y e a r p e rio d .
T h ere a l s o was a
d e c id e d a d v a n ta g e show n b y t h i s g ro u p a s to th e am ount o f
p r o f e s s io n a l re a d in g done.
was l i t t l e
In th e m a tte r o f t r a v e l th e r e
t o c h o o s e b e tw e e n th e tw o g ro u p s*
The c o n ­
c l u s i o n i s t h a t t h e r e i s a d e f i n i t e m a rg in o f s u p e r i o r i t y
i n p r o f e s s i o n a l g ro w th and im provem ent f a v o r i n g th e
p e rm a n e n t t e a c h e r s i n t h e a r e a s s t u d i e d .
T h is c o n c l u s i o n v a r i e s fro m t h e f i n d i n g s o f H o lm s te d t
who s t a t e d t h e c o n c l u s i o n s o b ta in e d fro m h i s s tu d y o f t h i s
p ro b le m i n t h e f o llo w in g p a r a g r a p h :
The d a t a su m m arized do n o t r e v e a l an y m arked e f f e c t
o f t e n u r e o n th e im provem ent o f t e a c h e r s i n s e r v i c e .
I f t e n u r e c a u s e s t e a c h e r s t o becom e l a x i n k e e p in g up
w ith t h e p r o f e s s i o n , th e d e f i c i e n c i e s o f su c h i n d i ­
v i d u a l s a r e b a la n c e d by th e more p r o g r e s s i v e t e a c h e r s .
The r e s u l t i s t h a t t h e a v e ra g e o f t h e g ro u p i s m a in ­
t a i n e d a t a c o m p a r a tiv e ly h ig h l e v e l . ^
C o m p u lso ry r e t i r e m e n t .
An e x a m in a tio n o f t h e r e p o r t s
o f t e a c h e r s a s t o t h e i r r e a c t i o n to t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f th e
5
H o lm s te d t, o £ . c l t . . p . 7 5 .
p r e s e n t t e n u r e law was n e x t m ade.
The f i r s t Ite m c o n ­
s i d e r e d w as th e q u e s t i o n o f c o m p u lso ry r e t i r e m e n t .
The
r e p l i e s o f th e t e a c h e r s to th e q u e s t i o n , ”Do you f a v o r
c o m p u lso ry r e t i r e m e n t ? ” a r e t o b e fo u n d i n T a b le IV and
F ig u r e 4 , p a g e s 4 5 and 4 6 .
Of th e f i f t y - t h r e e p erm a n e n t
t e a c h e r s r e p l y i n g , 38 p e r c e n t w ere i n f a v o r o f s u c h r e t i r e ­
m e n t, 6 0 p e r c e n t w ere a g a i n s t i t , w ith 2 p e r c e n t n o t
g iv in g a r e p ly .
F ifty -tw o p ro b a tio n a ry te a c h e r s in d ic a te d
69 p e r cen t fa v o ra b le ,
c e n t u n d e c id e d .
1 9 P©r c e n t u n f a v o r a b l e , and 12 p e r
F i f t y - f o u r p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l o f 105
t e a c h e r s r e p l y i n g w ere i n f a v o r o f c o m p u lso ry r e t i r e m e n t
and 4 0 p e r c e n t w ere u n f a v o r a b le .
A m a j o r i t y o f t h o s e p e rm a n e n t t e a c h e r s i n f a v o r o f
c o m p u lso ry r e t i r e m e n t s u g g e s te d th e ag e o f s i x t y - f i v e a s
t h e m o st d e s i r a b l e tim e f o r su c h r e t i r e m e n t t o b e g i n .
T h is
ag e w as lo w e re d t o s i x t y i n th e s u g g e s tio n s o f t h e p r o b a tio n a rle s .
I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t o n o te t h a t th e m a j o r i t y o f th e
p r o b a t i o n a r y t e a c h e r s f a v o r e d a lo w e r r e t i r e m e n t ag e th a n
d id t h o s e who w ere p e rm a n e n t.
T h is i s u n d e r s ta n d a b le s i n c e
th e a v e r a g e ag e o f t h e l a t t e r g ro u p i s h i g h e r , a n d , t h e r e ­
f o r e , c l o s e r t o an y tim e s e t f o r r e tir e m e n t..
B o th c l a s s i ­
f i c a t i o n s o f t e a c h e r s w ere i n f a v o r o f th e e s t a b l i s h i n g o f
a d e f in it e re tire m e n t ag e.
T h is tr e n d was m ore p ro n o u n ced
in th e r e p l i e s o f th e p r o b a tio n a r ie s .
T h is was t o b e
45
TABLE IV
DISTRIBUTION OF TEACHER REPLIES TO THE QUESTION,
"DO YOU FAVOR COMPULSORY RETIREMENT?"
R e p lie s
T o ta l
Permanent
P r o b a tio n a r y
N = 105
N s 52
N s- 53
Number Per ce n t
Number P er c e n t Number Per c e n t
D if f e r e n c e
Yes
20
38.
56
69.
+16
56
54.
NO
32
60.
10
19
-2 2
42
40.
1
2.
6
12.
+5
7
6.
53
100.
52
100.
105
1 00.
U ndecided
T o ta l
S3 1 3 0 NV son ‘aaniw xvy assar *coi9 *on
nBEfHSjaiitairara
tiy ^ ^ § i5 is § d ti3 d § 4 ii.
io s S o S ^ S p ^ lq ^ p ffi
r^-'!TOTlrT3siH'iTf~CSD
(ffitamfi-
i f Tm~r a s
09
OS®
47
e x p e c te d , h o w e v e r, s i n c e th e y a r e n o t i n a p o s i t i o n t o b e
a f f e c t e d by an y s u c h l e g i s l a t i o n a t t h i s tim e*
Many o f
t h e p e rm a n e n t g ro u p h a v e r e a c h e d su c h a n ag e a n d , t h e r e ­
f o r e , w ould b e v o t i n g th e m s e lv e s o u t o f a jo b .
O p tio n a l y e a r t o y e a r em p lo y m en t.
T eacher r e p lie s
t o th e q u e s t i o n , "Do you f a v o r a n ag e l i m i t a f t e r w h ich
em ploym ent fro m y e a r t o y e a r s h a l l b e o p t i o n a l w ith t h e
l o c a l b o a r d o f E d u c a tio n ? " w ere g ro u p e d a s t o Y es o r No
u n d e r b o th t e a c h e r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , and t h e r e s u l t s shown
i n T a b le V.
T h is t a b u l a t i o n i n d i c a t e d 68 p e r c e n t o f th e
p e rm a n e n t t e a c h e r s i n f a v o r , and 24 p e r c e n t a g a i n s t su c h
a r e g u l a t i o n , w i t h 8 p e r c e n t b e i n g u n d e c id e d .
S e v e n ty -
n in e p e r c e n t o f t h e p r o b a t i o n a r y r e p l i e s w ere c h e c k e d
Y es, w ith 21 p e r c e n t i n d i c a t i n g No.
F ig u r e 5» page 4 9 ,
g iv e s th e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e p l ie s o f f i f t y - t h r e e
p erm a n e n t an d f i f t y - t w o p r o b a tio n a r y t e a c h e r s a s to
s u g g e s te d a g e s a f t e r w h ic h em ploym ent w ould be o n a n
o p tio n a l y e a r to y e a r b a s is .
T h ere w as a g e n e r a l a g re e m e n t o f b o t h g ro u p s i n
fa v o r o f such a p la n .
m a rg in .
T h is was p ro v e n b y a t h r e e t o one
T h is f e e l i n g i s i n d i c a t i v e o f th e f a c t t h a t a l l
t e a c h e r s r e a l i z e t h a t a f t e r a c e r t a i n ag e t e a c h i n g
e f f i c i e n c y i s lo w e re d -9 and t h a t r e t e n t i o n s h o u ld b e b a s e d
on t h e m e r i t s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r .
48
TABLE V
DISTRIBUTION OB' TEACHER REPLIES TO THE QUESTION, . "DO
YOU FAVOR AH AGE AFTER WHICH EMPLOYMENT WOULD
BE OH AH OPTIONAL YEAR TO YEAR-BASIS?"
R e p lie s
Permanent
P r o b a tio n a r y
T o ta l
H r 53
H r 52
N = 105
Humber P er c e n t Humber P er c e n t
Humber Per c e n t
D if f e r e n c e
Yes
35
68.
41
79.
+5
.77
73
Ho
13
24.
11
21.
-2
24
23
U ndecided
4
8.
0
0.
-4
4
4
T o ta l
53
100,
52
100.
105
100.
BR
m
TO
M i:
SO
mt
'T H i p m
NO.
6103.
JESSE
RAY
MILLER,
LOS
ANGELES
t M
---------------
50
O p in io n s o f t h e t h i r t y - s i x p e rm a n e n t t e a c h e r s
f a v o r i n g su c h a p l a n w ere e v e n ly d i v i d e d a s t o th e ag e
t h i s s h o u ld becom e e f f e c t i v e .
F i f t e e n i n d i c a t e d 60 y e a r s ,
-i
and s i x t e e n c h e c k e d 65*
The f o r t y - o n e p r o b a t i o n a r y t e a c h ­
e r s f a v o r i n g th e p l a n c h o s e 55 and 60 a s t h e b e a t tim e
f o r s u c h an a r r a n g e m e n t t o go i n t o o p e r a tio n *
B oth t e a c h e r
g r o u p s , by f a v o r i n g su c h a p l a n , i n d i c a t e d a s i n c e r e d e s i r e
to o p en th e way f o r th e r a i s i n g
c ie n c y
o f th e s ta n d a r d o f e f f i ­
w i t h i n th e p r o f e s s i o n b y m aking i t p o s s i b l e t o
i n j e c t new b lo o d i n t o th e s c h o o l i n c a s e s w here a d v a n c in g
ag e h a s c u r t a i l e d t e a c h e r u s e f u l n e s s .
R e a c tio n t o t h e p r e s e n t t e n u r e la w .
P erm an en t and
p r o b a t i o n a r y t e a c h e r s w e re a s k e d t o c h e c k t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e
t o one o f t h e f o l l o w i n g s u g g e s t i o n s :
1.
R e t a i n i n g t e n u r e a s i t now s t a n d s .
2.
U n c o n d it io n a l r e p e a l
o f th e te n u re a c t .
3*
Amendment o f th e th e
t e n u r e a c t r a i s i n g th e
A. D. A. t o tw o th o u s a n d o r m ore.
4.
U n iv e rs a l te n u re .
T a b le VI g i v e s a summary o f t h e s e r e p l i e s .
Of th e f i f t y - t h r e e r e p l i e s s u b m itte d by p erm a n en t
t e a c h e r s 2 3 p e r c e n t w ere i n f a v o r o f t e n u r e a s i t now
s t a n d s , 4 p e r c e n t w ere f o r u n c o n d i t i o n a l r e p e a l , 23 p e r
c e n t f a v o r e d r a i s i n g t h e A. D. A. t o two th o u s a n d , 35 p e r
51
FABLE VI
DISTRIBUTION OF REPLIES AS TO TEACHER REACTION
• TO THE PRESENT TENURE LAW
Do you fa v o r
Permanent
P r o b a tio n a r y
T o ta l
N s 53
N = 52
N = 105
Number Per o en t Number Per c e n t
Number Per c e n t
D iffe r e n c e
R e ta in in g te n u r e
a s i t now s ta n d s
12
23.
7
13.
-5
19
18
2
4.
10
19.
+8
12
11
R a is in g A .D .A .
req u irem en t t o
2 ,0 0 0 or more
12
23.
23
44.
+11
35
33
U n iv e r s a l te n u r e
19
35.
10
20 .
-9
29
28
8
15.
2
4.
-6
10
10
53
100.
52
R ep eal o f th e
ten u re a c t
No r e p ly
T o ta l
100
105
1 00.
52
c e n t w ere f o r u n i v e r s a l t e n u r e , w h ile 15 p e r c e n t made no
re p ly .
The r e p l i e s o f t h e p r o b a t i o n a r y g ro u p showed 44
p e r c e n t i n f a v o r o f r a i s i n g th e A* P . A. t o two th o u s a n d ,
13 p e r c e n t w an te d t o r e t a i n t e n u r e I n i t s p r e s e n t fo rm ,
20 p e r c e n t f a v o r e d u n i v e r s a l t e n u r e , and 20 p e r c e n t
In d ic a te d a d e s ir e f o r th e r e p e a l o f th e a c t .
S u m m arizin g t h e r e s u l t s i t was fo u n d t h a t th e f i r s t
c h o ic e o f t h e p e rm a n e n t g ro u p was u n i v e r s a l t e n u r e , w ith
th e two a l t e r n a t e s o f r a i s i n g th e A. P . A. o r r e t a i n i n g t h e
law a s now o p e r a t i n g .
T h is f e e l i n g i s u n d e r s ta n d a b le when
i t i s r e a l i z e d t h a t any d e c id e d ch a n g e w ould f i r s t o f a l l
a f f e c t t h i s g ro u p .
The r e p l i e s o f t h e p r o b a t i o n a r y g ro u p
w ere o v e rw h e lm in g ly i n f a v o r o f r a i s i n g t h e A. D. A. t o
two th o u s a n d o r m o re.
T h is a l s o w as a n a t u r a l r e a c t i o n
s i n c e a f o llo w in g o f t h i s p o l i c y w ould a u t o m a t i c a l l y rem ove
e a c h o f t h e d i s t r i c t s s t u d i e d fro m te n u r e i n f l u e n c e .
It
w ould a llo w t e a c h e r s t o b e r e t a i n e d a s lo n g a s th e y w ere
s a tis fa c to ry .
T h is w o u ld g iv e a n o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t e a c h e r s
who a r e now i n th e p r o b a t i o n a r y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n to re m a in
beyond th e a r b i t r a r y t h r e e - y e a r p r o b a t i o n a r y p e r i o d .
R ic e , i n h i s s tu d y o f t h e r e a c t i o n s o f a l l V e n tu ra
C ounty t e a c h e r s t o t h e t e n u r e la w , s t a t e d , f,0 f a t o t a l o f
4 l6 a n s w e rin g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , 1 4 9 , o r 35*8 p e r c e n t ,
f a v o r e d a f o u r - y e a r c o n t r a c t o v e r an y o f t h e e n u m e ra te d
53
m eth o d s o f emp lo y m e n t.
„6
As a r e s u l t o f h i s f i n d i n g s i n t h i s same s t u d y ,
R ie e made t h e f o llo w in g re c o m m e n d a tio n , nR e p e a l o f t h e
p r e s e n t t e n u r e law w ith s u b s t i t u t i o n o f a f o u r - y e a r c o n t r a c t
7
a f t e r a two o r t h r e e y e a r p r o b a t i o n a r y p e r i o d . **
A ttitu d e o f l o c a l b o ard s o f e d u c a tio n .
T e a c h e rs w ere
a s k e d to I n d i c a t e w h a t, i n t h e i r o p i n i o n , was t h e a t t i t u d e
o f t h e i r l o c a l b o a r d o f e d u c a t i o n t o th e p r e s e n t t e n u r e law .
One o f th e
f o llo w in g p o s s i b i l i t i e s was to b e c h e c k e d :
1.
S chool
b o ard
f a v o r a b l e to t e n u r e a s i t now s t a n d s .
2.
S chool
b o a rd
f a v o r a b l e t o t e n u r e i f am ended.
3.
S c h o o lb o a rd
fa v o ra b le
t o th e r e p e a l o f t e n u r e .
The f r e q u e n c y o f t h e r e p l i e s f o r e a c h p o s s i b i l i t y , f o r e a c h
c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t e a c h e r , was i n d i c a t e d i n T a b le V I I .
The
r e p l i e s fro m b o th g ro u p s was i n d i c a t i v e o f a r e t i c e n c e o n
t h e p a r t o f t h e t e a c h e r t o make a d e f i n i t e s t a t e m e n t , and
a l a c k o f an y u n i f o r m i t y o f o p in io n i n r e g a r d to t h e m a t t e r .
Of t h e 1 0 3 r e p l i e s r e c e i v e d from b o th g r o u p s , t h i r t y - s e v e n ,
o r 35 p e r c e n t , made no c h o i c e ; tw e n ty - s e v e n , o r 26 p e r c e n t ,
f e l t t h a t t h e s c h o o l b o a r d s w ere f a v o r a b l e t o t e n u r e a s i t
6
M e rto n N. R ic e , ''T e a c h e r T u rn o v e r i n t h e E le m e n ta ry
and H ig h S c h o o ls o f V e n tu r a C o u n ty ,1* ( u n p u b lis h e d M a s te r ’ s
t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s ,
1 9 3 3 ), P.. 1X5.
7 I b id . . p . 1 1 6 .
54
table
VII
DISTRIBUTION OF TEA0HER REPLIES TO THE QUESTION,
11IN YOUR OPINION, WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING
DOES YOUR BOARD OF EDUCATION FAVOR?”
Permanent
P r o b a tio n a r y
T o ta l
Your board fa v o r s
N s 53
N = 52
N s 105
Number Per c e n t Number Per c e n t
Number Per c e n t
D if fe r e n c e
Tenure a c t a s i t
now s ta n d s
Tenure a c t i f
amended
R ep ea l o f te n u r e
No r e p ly
T o ta l
17.
18
35.
+9
27
26
13
25m
10
19.
-3
23
22
7
3.
11
21.
+4
18
17
24
45.
13
25 •
-11
37
35
53
100.
52
100.
105
100
9 .
now s t a n d s ; t w e n t y - t h r e e , o r 22 p e r c e n t , f e l t t h a t t h e
h o a r d w ould he f a v o r a b l e t o t h e amendment o f th e t e n u r e
la w ; w h ile e i g h t e e n , o r 17 p e r c e n t , i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e i r
h o a r d s w o u ld , i n t h e i r o p i n i o n , f a v o r th e r e p e a l o f
te n u re .
T h ese r e s u l t s a r e n o t s u f f i c i e n t l y c o n c lu s iv e t o b e
i n d i c a t i v e o f a d e f i n i t e t r e n d o f o p in io n .
A d e s i r e was
i n d i c a t e d f o r a m ore d e f i n i t e s ta te m e n t o n t h i s q u e s t i o n
by lo c a l h o a rd s o f e d u c a tio n .
T en u re p o l i c y o f l o c a l b o a r d s o f e d u c a t i o n .
A
r e q u e s t f o r t e a c h e r o p i n i o n a s to th e p o l i c y o f t h e l o c a l
h o a r d s o f e d u c a t i o n i n th e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e t e n u r e law
w as made.
A l l t e a c h e r s w ere a s k e d to e h e c k w h ich o f t h e
f o llo w in g p o l i c i e s w as m ost c l o s e l y fo llo w e d b y t h e v a r i o u s
.b o a rd s o f e d u c a t i o n .
1.
Makes t h e h i g h e s t t e n p e r c e n t o f p r o b a t i o n a r y
t e a c h e r s p e rm a n e n t.
2.
Makes t h e b e s t 25 p e r c e n t p e rm a n e n t.
3.
Makes t h e b e s t 50 p e r c e n t p e rm a n e n t.
4.
Makes e v e r y t e a c h e r p e rm a n e n t.
5*
Makes a n o c c a s i o n a l p erm an en cy .
6.
Makes no t e a c h e r p e rm a n e n t.
T h ese f i n d i n g s a r e t a b u l a t e d i n T a b le V I I I .
E i g h t e e n , o r 34 p e r c e n t , o f th e f i f t y - t h r e e
TABLE V III
DISTRIBUTION OF TEACHER REPLIES AS TO THEIR
OPINION OF THE POLICY OF LOCAL BOARDS OF
EDUCATION IN.THE APPLICATION OF THE TENURE LAW
P o lic y
P r o b a tio n a r y
T o ta l
Permanent
N. = 52
N = 105
N = 53
Number Per c e n t
Number P er c e n t Number Per c e n t
D iffe r e n c e
0
Make b e s t tw e n ty
f i v e p e r cen t
permanent
1
1
2.
+1
1
1.
2.
6
11.
+5
7
7.
12
23.
3
6.
-9
15
14.
1
2.
0
0.
-1
1
1.
Make an o c c a s io n a l
perm anency
’ 15
24.
23
44.
+10
Make no teach er*
perm anent
8
15.
13
25.
18
34.
6
12.
Make b e s t f i f t y
p er c e n t p e r ­
manent
Grant perm anency
to a l l
No r e p ly
o
o
•
Make, h ig h e s t t e n
p er c e n t p e r ­
manent
36 1
34.
+5
21
20.
-1 2
24
23.
105
100.
i
T o ta l
53
100.
52
100.
57
p e rm a n e n t t e a c h e r s made no r e p l y t o t h i s q u e s t i o n .
T h i r t e e n , o r 24 p e r c e n t , f e l t t h a t i t was th e b o a r d p o l i c y
to make o n ly a n o c c a s i o n a l t e a c h e r p e rm a n e n t.
The re m a in d e r
o f t h e r e p l i e s w ere d i s t r i b u t e d among t h e o t h e r p o s s i b i l i ­
tie s .
The r e s p o n s e s o f th e f i f t y - t w o p r o b a t i o n a r y t e a c h e r s
w ere s i m i l a r I n n a t u r e .
T h i r t y ~ f o u r p e r c e n t o f th e t o t a l g ro u p o f 105 t e a c h ­
e r s f e l t t h a t o n ly a n o c c a s i o n a l p erm an en cy was m ade, w i t h
t h e r e m a in in g r e p l i e s b e in g d i s t r i b u t e d o v e r th e o t h e r
s u g g e s te d p o s s i b i l i t i e s .
A sum m atio n o f t h e s e showed t h a t
f i f t y - f o u r p e r c e n t o f a l l a n s w e rin g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s
f e l t t h a t t h e i r b o a r d e i t h e r made no o n e p e rm a n e n t, o r a t
-m o st j u s t a n o c c a s io n a l te a c h e r .
S in c e a n a d d i t i o n a l 23
p e r c e n t made no r e p l y , i t was o b v io u s t h a t a t l e a s t 77 p e r
c e n t o f th e te a c h e r s f e l t t h a t lo c a l b o ard s o f e d u c a tio n
w ere n o t a llo w in g t e n u r e t o o p e r a t e .
T h is w ould i n d i c a t e
t h a t t e n u r e o p p o r t u n i t i e s on any b u t t h e m ost m eag er s c a l e
a r e b e in g d e n ie d t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e e le m e n ta r y t e a c h e r s
w ith in th e a re a s o f t h i s in v e s tig a tio n .
Summary o f t h e f i n d i n g s o f t e a c h e r o p i n i o n o f th e
p r e s e n t o p e r a t i o n o f t h e t e n u r e la w .
The f i n d i n g s o n t h e
p ro b le m o f t e a c h e r r e a c t i o n t o t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e t e n u r e
law c a n b e summed up i n th e f o llo w in g s t a t e m e n t s .
A
m a j o r i t y o f p r o b a t i o n a r y t e a c h e r s w ere i n f a v o r o f c o m p u lso ry
58
r e t i r e m e n t a t a n ag e o f s i x t y o r s i x t y - f i v e *
n e n t t e a c h e r s w ere a g a i n s t s u c h a p l a n .
The p erm a­
An o v erw h elm in g
m a j o r i t y was r e g i s t e r e d by a l l t e a c h e r s f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h ­
in g o f a n ag e a f t e r w h ic h em ploym ent s h o u ld b e on a n
o p t i o n a l y e a r t o y e a r b a s is *
The s u g g e s te d a g e s a t w h ich
s u c h a n a r r a n g e m e n t s h o u ld ta k e e f f e c t w ere f i f t y - f i v e
and s ix t y .
The m a j o r i t y o f a l l e le m e n ta r y t e a c h e r s a n s w e rin g
t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e w e re i n f a v o r o f e i t h e r r a i s i n g t h e
A. D. A. r e q u ir e m e n t t o two th o u s a n d o r m o re , o r o f h a v in g
u n iv e rs a l te n u re .
L e ss t h a n o n e - f i f t h i n d i c a t e d a d e s i r e
t o r e t a i n t e n u r e a s i t now s ta n d s *
More t h a n o n e - t h i r d
o f th o s e r e p l y i n g w ere u n w i l l i n g t o e x p r e s s a n o p in io n a s
t o t h e a t t i t u d e o f t h e l o c a l b o a r d o f e d u c a t i o n to w a rd s
t h e t e n u r e la w .
The r e m a in in g t w o - t h i r d s h a d no s p e c i f i c
p o i n t o f a g re e m e n t i n t h i s m a t t e r .
B o th t h e p e rm a n e n t
and p r o b a t i o n a r y groups e x p r e s s e d t h e o p i n i o n t h a t t h e
l o c a l b o a r d o f e d u c a t i o n e i t h e r made no one p e rm a n e n t o r
o n ly g r a n t e d t e n u r e i n i s o l a t e d c a s e s .
Home o w n e r s h ip .
The f i n a l p o r t i o n o f t h i s i n v e s t i ­
g a t i o n d e a l s w ith t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t e n u r e l e g i s l a t i o n
and th e t e a c h e r s ' i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h and s e r v i c e t o t h e i r
com m unity.
T e a c h e r s w ere a s k e d t o i n d i c a t e a r e p l y to
t h e q u e s t i o n , MDo you own y o u r own hom e?11
T h ese r e p l i e s
59
w ere c l a s s i f i e d u n d e r p e rm a n e n t and p r o b a t i o n a r y g r o u p in g s
and t h e f i n d i n g s a r e i n d i c a t e d on T a b le IX.
Two o u t o f t h r e e o f a l l p e rm a n e n t t e a c h e r s r e s p o n d ­
in g owned t h e i r own hom es.
Among p r o b a t i o n a r y t e a c h e r s
th e p r o p o r t i o n was one o u t o f f i v e .
T h is r e p r e s e n t s a
p re p o n d e r a n c e o f p e rm a n e n ts o v e r p r o b a t i o n a r i e s o f 48 p e r
c e n t.
T h is i s m o st s i g n i f i c a n t when s t u d i e d fro m t h e
s t a n d p o i n t o f com m unity p r o g r e s s and a c t i v i t y .
T h ese f i n d i n g s a r e s i m i l a r to th o s e o f S to n e i n
h i s s t u d i e s o f t e n u r e and home o w n e rs h ip .
He sum m arized
h i s r e s u l t s In th e fo llo w in g s ta te m e n t:
S even o u t o f t e n s u p e rin te n d e n ts b e lie v e th a t th e
i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t e a c h e r s w ith t h e com m unity th r o u g h
th e o w n e rs h ip o f p r o p e r t y i s e n c o u ra g e d by th e te n u r e
la w . T h is o p i n i o n p r e v a i l s among th o s e e x e c u t i v e s
i n c o m m u n itie s o f a l l s i z e s and i n e v e r y s e c tio n .®
M em bership I n c i v i c o r g a n l z a t i o n s .
A l i s t o f c iv ic
o r g a n i z a t i o n s w as p r e s e n t e d and t e a c h e r s w e re a s k e d to
c h e c k th o s e i n w h ic h t h e y h e l d a c t i v e m em b ersh ip .
The
t o t a l num ber o f s u c h m em b ersh ip s was t a b u l a t e d f o r b o th
t h e p e rm a n e n t and p r o b a t i o n a r y g r o u p s , an d th e r e s u l t s
i n d i c a t e d i n T a b le X, p a g e s 61 and 6 2 .
H ere i t w as shown t h a t t h e 53 p erm a n e n t t e a c h e r s
h e l d a t o t a l o f s i x t y - t h r e e s u c h m e m b e rsh ip s.
8
S to n e , o £ . c i t . . p . 2 0 7 .
F o r ty
60
TABLE IX
DISTRIBUTION OP TEACHER REPLIES TO THE
QUESTION, "DO YOU OWN YOUR OWN HOME?"
R e p lie s
Permanent
N = 53
Number Per o en t
P r o b a tio n a r y
T o ta l
N = 52
N - 105
Number Per c e n t
Number Per c e n t
D if fe r e n c e
Yes
36
68.
10
19.
-2 6
46
44.
NO
17
32.
42
81.
+25
59
56.
53
100.
T o ta l
52
100.
105
100.
61
TABLE X
CIVIC ORGANIZATIONS TO WHICH TEACHERS BELONGED
O r g a n iz a t i o n s
P ro b a tio n a ry
P e rm a n e n t
T o ta l
N = 105
N = 52
N = 53
Number P e r c e n t Number P e r c e n t Number P e r c e n t
R o ta ry C lu b
0
0.
1
2 .5
1
.9
L io n ’ s C lu b
0
0.
1
2 .5
1
.9
K iw an is C lub
0
0.
0
0.
0
0.
E xchange C lub
0
0.
0
0.
0
0.
O p tim is t C lub
0
0.
0
0.
0
0.
22
36.
13
3 2 .5
35
34.
C iv ic C h o r a l
G roup
3
5.
7
1 7 .5
10
9 .7
Woman’ s C lub
13
21.
5
1 2 .5
18
1 7 .4
P ro fe s s io n a l
Women’ s C lub
14
22.
11
27* 5
25
2 4 .6
Chamber o f
Commerce
S p a n is h War
V e te r a n s
1
1 .4
0
0.
.1
•9
A m eric an L e g io n
A u x ilia ry
3
5-
0
0.
3
2 .9
A s s o c ia te d
C h a ritie s
1
1 .4
0
0.
1
.9
T o a s tm is tre s s
C lub
1
1 .4
0
0.
1
•9
Stamp C lub
1
1 .4
0
0.
1
•9
Red C ro s s
2
3*
1
2 .5
3
2 .9
1 .4
0
0.
1
•9
S o r o p to m is t C lu b 1
~
62
TABLE X (c o n tin u e d )
CIVIC ORGANIZATIONS TO WHICH TEACHERS BELONGED
O r g a n iz a tio n s
P e rm a n e n t
P r o b a tio n a r y
T o ta l
N=53
N = 52
' N = 105 .
Number P e r c e n t Number P e r c e n t Number P e r c e n t
S a tu r d a y
R e a d in g C lub
1
1*4
0
0.
1
*9
2 0 -3 0 C lub
0
0,
1
2 .5
1
*9
63
100.
40
T o ta l
'
T o ta l d if f e r e n c e
-2 3
100.
103
100.
63
m e m b ersh ip s w ere h e l d b y t h e 52 p r o b a t i o n a r y t e a c h e r s .
I n s e v e r a l c a s e s o n e t e a c h e r b e lo n g e d t o m ore t h a n one
o r g a n i z a t i o n , th u s c a u s i n g t h e t o t a l num ber o f m em b ersh ip s
t o b e g r e a t e r t h a n t h e num ber o f t e a c h e r s .
T hose o r g a n i ­
z a t i o n s to w h ic h t h e g r e a t e s t num ber b e lo n g e d w e re , Chamber
o f Com merce, C iv ic C h o r a l C ro u p , Woman’ s C lu b , P r o f e s s i o n a l
Women's C lu b , and t h e A m erican L e g io n A u x i l i a r y .
In a d d itio n
t o t h e s e t h e r e w ere s c a t t e r e d m em b ersh ip s i n t h i r t e e n o t h e r
o rg a n iz a tio n s .
The q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s u l t s r e v e a l e d t h a t o n e -
t h i r d m ore m e m b ersh ip s w ere h e l d by t h e p e rm a n e n t g r o u p .
T h is a d v a n ta g e , w h ile n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t , d o e s
i n d i c a t e t h e e n c o u ra g e m e n t b y t e n u r e o f com m unity a c t i v i t y
on th e p a r t o f th e te a c h e r .
M em bership i n f r a t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s .
From a l i s t
o f f r a t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s p r e s e n te d i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e ,
t h o s e r e p l y i n g w ere a s k e d t o c h e c k i n d i v i d u a l m em b ersh ip .
The f r e q u e n c y an d p e r c e n ta g e f o r th e p e rm a n e n t an d p r o ­
b a t i o n a r y g ro u p s w e re d e te r m in e d and th e r e s u l t s a p p e a r i n
T a b le X I.
T w e n ty -s e v e n , o r 53 P©** c e n t o f t h e p e rm a n e n t t e a c h ­
e r s h e l d m e m b e rsh ip s, w h ile tw e n ty - o n e , o r 41 p e r c e n t o f
th e p r o b a tio n a r ie s in d ic a te d lik e w is e .
T h is i n d i c a t e d a n
a d v a n ta g e o f 12 p e r c e n t I n f a v o r o f t h e p e rm a n e n t g r o u p ,
and w h ile n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , i t
is an in d ic a tio n
64
TABIE XI
FRATERNAL ORGANIZATIONS TO WHICH TEACHERS BELONGED
O r g a n iz a t io n s
P e rm a n e n t
P r o b a t lo n a r y
T o ta l
N = 52
N = 105
N = 53
Number P e r c e n t Number P e r c e n t Number P e r c e n t
0
0.
2
4.
2
1 .9
E l k s 1 Tem ple
0
0.
2
4.
2
1 .9
S h r in e Temple
0
0.
1
2.
1
•9
R ebeccas
0
0.
0
0.
0
0.
Odd F e llo w s
0
0.
0
0.
0
0.
13
24 •
6
1 1 .5
19
18.
E a g le s
0
0.
0
0.
0
0.-
K n ig h ts o f
Colum bus
0
0.
0
0.
0
0.
K n ig h t's
T e m p la rs
0
0.
0
0.
0
0.
O rd e r o f
F o re s te rs
2
4.
0
0.
2
1 .9
D e l t a Kappa
Gamma
3
6.
0 .
0.
3
2 .8
V e te r a n s o f
F o r e ig n W ars
1
2.
0
0.
1
.9
A m eric an A s s o c i
a tio n of
U n iv e rs ity
Women
8
in
6
1 1 .5
N a ti o n a l
B u s in e s s and
P ro fe s s io n a l
Women* s
S o ro rity
0
0,
1
2.
E a s te rn S ta r
Hi
M asonic Lodge
14
1
13-
1 .9
65
TABLE XI ( c o n t i n u e d )
FRATERNAL ORGANIZATIONS TO WHICH TEACHERS BELONGED
O r g a n iz a tio n s
P e rm a n e n t
P r o b a tio n a r y
T o ta l
N = 53
N = 52
N = 105
Number P e r c e n t Number P e r c e n t Number P e r c e n t
Sigm a Tau Gamma
0
°*
1
2*
i
1 .9
A lpha D e l t a C h i
0
0.
1
2.
i
1 .9
27
51.
21
4 i;
48
4 8 .9
T o ta l
T o ta l D if fe re n c e
-6
66
o f t h e ad d ed s t i m u l u s o f t e n u r e o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n com­
m u n ity a c t i v i t i e s .
The f i n d i n g s r e c o r d e d h e r e a g a i n a r e s i m i l a r t o
th o s e o f S to n e who r e p o r t e d :
F i f t y - t w o p e r c e n t o f f i v e h u n d re d p e rm a n e n t t e a c h - .
e r s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y w ere members o f c i v i c o r
f r a te r n a l o rg a n iz a tio n s .
The r e s p o n s e from th e one
h u n d re d an d t h i r t e e n p r o b a t i o n a r y t e a c h e r s was 46 p e r
c e n t.9
M em bership i n a r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n .
I n T a b le X II
a r e r e c o r d e d t h e r e s u l t s o f a t a b u l a t i o n o f t h e r e p l i e s to
th e q u e s t i o n , f,A re you a n a c t i v e member o f a r e l i g i o u s
o rg a n iz a tio n ? *
S i x t y - e i g h t p e r c e n t o f t h e p e rm a n e n t, and
23 p e r c e n t o f th e p ro b a tio n a ry te a c h e r s r e p ly in g checked
Yes to t h i s .
T h ere w as a 4 5 p e r c e n t m a rg in o f s u p e r i o r i t y
f a v o r i n g th e p e rm a n e n t g r o u p .
A ll te a c h e r s d id n o t r e p ly
t o t h i s q u e s t i o n a s t h e s t a t u s o f some came u n d e r th e n e x t
c l a s s i f i c a t i o n w h ic h h a s t o do w ith c h u r c h p a r t i c i p a t i o n
a s i d e fro m a c t i v e m e m b ersh ip .
The 19 p e r c e n t m a rg in o f s u p e r i o r i t y f a v o r i n g t h e
p e rm a n e n t t e a c h e r s i n t h e m a t t e r o f c h u r c h m em bership i s
i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e s t a b i l i z i n g e f f e c t o f t e n u r e , and th e
e n c o u ra g e m e n t a f f o r d e d t o t e a c h e r s i n b eco m in g e s t a b l i s h e d
members o f a com m u n ity .
I b id . . p . 2 1 2 .
67
TABLE X II
DISTRIBUTION OF TEACHER REPLIES TO THE QUESTION,
"ARE YOU AN ACTIVE MEMBER OF A
RELIGIOUS ORGANIZATION?"
R e p lie s
Yes
No
T o ta l
Pe rmane n t
N = 53
Number P er c e n t
Pr obat i onary
Tot a l
I s 52
N = 105
Number Per c e n t
Number Per ce n t
D if fe r e n c e
35
66*
12
23.
-2 3
47
45.
6
11.
I?
S3.
+11
23
22.
41
77.
29
56.
70
67.
A e o r r e l a r y o f t h e q u e r y a s to c h u rc h m em bership
was t h e q u e s t i o n , wI f you a r e n o t a n a c t i v e c h u r c h member
do you p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f a r e l i g i o u s
o r g a n i z a t i o n ? 11
The r e p l i e s t o t h i s i n q u i r y a r e i n d i c a t e d
i n T a b le X X II.
T w e n ty - th r e e p e r c e n t o f th e p e rm a n e n t and
44 p e r c e n t o f t h e p r o b a t i o n a r y t e a c h e r s i n d i c a t e d Y es i n
r e s p o n s e to t h i s q u e s t i o n .
H ere a s l i g h t m a rg in o f a d ­
v a n ta g e f a v o r s th e p r o b a t i o n e r s .
T h is may be a c c o u n te d f o r
by th e f a c t t h a t I n c a s e s w here th e t h r e e - y e a r p r o b a t i o n a r y
p e r io d a u t o m a t i c a l l y t e r m i n a t e s a t e a c h e r ’ s a c t i v i t i e s i n
a com m u n ity , many w i l l be fo u n d who a r e w i l l i n g to p a r t i ­
c i p a te in c h u rc h a c t i v i t i e s , b u t choose to c a r r y t h e i r
p r e v io u s c h u r c h m em b ersh ip u n t i l su c h tim e a s th e y c a n
becom e p e r m a n e n tly e s t a b l i s h e d i n a com m unity.
The m a rg in o f a d v a n ta g e i n c h u r c h m em bership b y t h e
p e rm a n e n t g ro u p i s g r e a t e r h e r e th a n t h a t fo u n d by S to n e
i n h i s s tu d y o f t h e e f f e c t o f t e n u r e o n c h u r c h m em b ersh ip .
H is f i n d i n g s a r e summed up i n t h i s s t a t e m e n t :
F i f t y - n i n e p e r c e n t o f t h e p e rm a n e n t t e a c h e r s
s t a t e d t h a t th e y w e re a c t i v e members o f s u c h o r g a n i ­
z a t i o n s , w h ile f i f t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f th e p r o b a t i o n a r y
t e a c h e r s made t h e same r e s p o n s e . 3*°
T e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n o n com m unity c o m m itte e s .
t e a c h e r r e p l i e s t o t h e q u e s t i o n , M0 n w h at com m unity
The
69
TABLE X I I I
DISTRIBUTION OF TEACHER REPLIES TO THE QUESTION,
"IF NOT AN. ACTIVE CHURCH MEMBER DO YOU PARTICIPATE
IN THE ACTIVITIES OF A RELIGIOUS ORGANIZATION?"
R e p lie s
Yes
No
T o ta l
Permanent
I s 53
Number P er o e n t
P r o b a tio n a r y
T o ta l
N = 52
N s 105
Number Per c e n t
Number Per c e n t
D if fe r e n c e
12
23*
23
44.
+11
35
33.
0
0.
0
0.
0
0
0.
23.
23
12
44
35
33.
70
c o m m itte e s o r i n w h at a c t i v i t i e s h a v e you b e e n a c t i v e
d u r in g t h e p a s t t h r e e y e a r s ? ” w ere t a b u l a t e d and t h e d a t a
r e c o r d e d i n T a b le XIV.
A c c o rd in g t o t h e s e d a t a , f i f t y -
t h r e e p e rm a n e n t t e a c h e r s h ad b e e n a c t i v e o n 44 com m unity
c o m m itte e s , w h ile f i f t y - t w o p r o b a t i o n a r y t e a c h e r s h ad
s e r v e d u p o n a t o t a l o f 35 s u c h c o m m itte e s .
The m a rg in
o f d i f f e r e n c e i s so s m a ll a s t o p r e c l u d e an y s i g n i f i c a n t
c o m p a r is o n s , o r t h e d ra w in g o f d e f i n i t e c o n c l u s i o n s .
The t e n c i v i c c o m m itte e s on w h ich t h e g r e a t e s t
num ber o f t e a c h e r s h a d s e r v e d w ere*
G i r l S c o u ts
Boy S c o u ts
Cham ber o f Commerce c o m m itte e s
C iv ic O r g a n i z a t i o n c o m m itte e s
Bed C ro s s
Camp F i r e Q -irls
C h u rch r e c r e a t i o n
L i t t l e T h e a te r g ro u p s
2 0 - 3 0 C lu b C o m m ittees
May F e s t i v a l s
S c a t t e r e d v o t e s w ere r e c o r d e d f o r tw e n ty o t h e r su c h com­
m itte e s *
Summary o f t h e f i n d i n g s o n t e a c h e r p a r t i c l p a t l o n
i n com m unity a c t i v i t i e s .
The f i n d i n g s o n t h e q u e s t i o n o f
71
TABUS XIV
DISTRIBUTION OF TEACHER REPLIES AS TO COMMUNITY
. ACTIVITIES IN WHICH THEY HAD PARTICIPATED.
DURING- THE PERIOD OF 1 9 3 7 -1 9 4 0 ,
A c tiv ity
P e rm a n e n t
P r o b a tio n a r y
T o ta l
N = 52
N = 105
N = 53
Number P e r c e n t Number P e r c e n t Number P e r c e n t
G i r l S c o u ts
4
7 .5 5
6
1 1 .5 5
10
Boy S c o u ts
2
3 -7 7
6
1 1 .5 5
8
Women’ s C h o ru s
0
0.
1
1 .9 2
1
• 95
V e n tu ra C ounty
V o c a tio n a l
G u id a n c e
C om m ittee
0
0.
1
1 .9 2
1
• 95
V e n tu ra C o u n ty
S o c ia l S tu d ie s
C om m ittee
0
0.
2
3 .8 5
2
1 .9
V e n tu ra C o u n ty
P h y s i c a l E du­
c a t i o n C om m ittee 1
1 .8 8
1
1 .9 2
2
1 .9
2 0 - 3 0 C lub
2
3*77
1
1 .9 2
3
2 .8 5
E lk s ’ H arv est
F e s tiv a l
0
0.
3
5 .7 6
3
2 .8 5
May F e te
4
7 .5 5
2
3 .8 5
6
5 .7 0
M u s ic ia n ’ s G u ild
0
0.
2
3 -8 5
2
1 .9
F i r s t A id C lub
0
0.
2
3 .8 5
2
1 .9
Chamber o f
Commerce
C o m m ittees
0
0.
2
3 .8 5
2
1 .9
V e n tu ra L i t t l e
Symphony
0
0.
1
1 .9 2
1
9 -5 2
7 .6
• 95
72
TABLE XIV (c o n tin u e d )
DISTRIBUTION OF TEACHER REPLIES AS TO COMMUNITY
.. ACTIVITIES IN. WHICH THEY HAD PARTICIPATED.
DURIH3-. THE PERIOD OF 1 9 3 7 -1 9 4 0
A c tiv ity
P e rm a n e n t
P r o b a tio n a r y
T o ta l
N = 53
N = 52
N = 105
Number P e r c e n t Number P e r c e n t Number P e r c e n t
T h e a te r O roup
0
0.
2
3*85
2
1 .9
C hurch
R e c re a tio n
1
1 .8 8
3
5*76
4
3*6
M o th er* s Day
P ro g ram s
2
3*77
0
0.
2
1 .9
Red C ro ss
C o m m ittees
6
1 1 .3 1
0
0.
6
5 .7 0
E b e l l C lub
Work
2
3*77
0
0.
2
1 .9
K iw an is
A c tiv itie s
1
1 .8 8
0
0.
1
.9 5
C ity R e c r e a t i o n
C om m ittee
1
1 .8 8
0
0.
1
.9 5
Camp F i r e
E x e c u tiv e
B oard
5
9*4
0
0.
5
4 .7 6
C ounty Stam p
C luh
1
1 .8 8
0
0.
1
.9 5
V e n tu ra C o u n ty
V i s u a l A id s
C om m ittee
3
5* 64
0
0.
3
2 .8 5
V e n tu ra C o u n ty
L anguage
C om m ittee
3
5 .6 4
0
0.
3
2 .8 5
73
TABLE XIV (c o n tin u e d )
DISTRIBUTION OF TEACHER REPLIES AS TO COMMUNITY
. . ACTIVITIES IN WHICH THEY HAD PARTICIPATED,
DURING THE PERIOD OF 1 9 3 7 -1 9 4 0
A c tiv ity
P r o b a tio n a r y
P e rm a n e n t
T o ta l
N = 52
. N = 53
N = 105
Number P e r c e n t Number P e r c e n t Number P e r c e n t
V e n tu ra G ounty
C om m ittee on
P aren t S chool
H a la tio n s
1
1*88
0
0.
1
• 95
S t a t e C om m ittee
o n H e a lth and
R e c re a tio n
1
1* 88
0
0.
1
.9 5
C o n s titu tio n
C om m ittee o f
P ro -A m e ric a
1
1 .8 8
0
0.
1
.9 5
C o o r d in a tin g
C o u n c il
1
1 .8 8
0
0.
1
.9 5
J u n i o r A udubon
C lub
1
1 .8 8
0
0.
1
• 95
C iv ic Im p ro v e m ent C om m ittee
1
1 .8 8
0
0.
1
.9 5
44
8 2 .8 5
35
79
7 4 .6 8
T o ta l
T o ta l d i f f e r e n c e
-9
6 7 .3 2
74
t h e e f f e c t o f t e n u r e o n t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n com m unity
a c t i v i t i e s may b e su m m arized i n t h e f o llo w in g s t a t e m e n t s .
T h ere w as a t h r e e to o n e m a rg in o f a d v a n ta g e f o r th e
p e rm a n e n t t e a c h e r i n t h e m a t t e r o f home o w n e r s h ip .
The
p e rm a n e n t g ro u p a l s o show ed a much l a r g e r m em bership i n
c i v i c an d f r a t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s .
I n c h u r c h m em b ership
t h e p e rm a n e n t t e a c h e r s a l s o h e l d a s i g n i f i c a n t a d v a n ta g e ,
w h ile t h e r e was l i t t l e
to c h o o s e b e tw e e n th e two g ro u p s a s
t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n o n com m unity c o m m itte e s .
E ven h e r e , how­
e v e r , a s l i g h t a d v a n ta g e was h e ld by th e p e rm a n e n t g r o u p .
*T h is summary o f t h e f i v e m a jo r ite m s in c lu d e d i n
t h i s p a r t o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n w ould seem t o i n d i c a t e t h e
s t i m u l a t i n g e f f e c t o f t e n u r e on t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n
g e n e r a l com m unity a c t i v i t i e s .
T eacher p ro p o s a ls .
The e le m e n ta r y t e a c h e r s i n t h e
t h r e e s c h o o ls i n w h ic h t h i s I n v e s t i g a t i o n was c a r r i e d o u t ,
w ere a s k e d t o I n d i c a t e w h a t, i n t h e i r o p in io n , c o u ld b e
d o n e to im p ro v e t h e t e n u r e s i t u a t i o n i n V e n tu ra C o u n ty .
The r e p l i e s r e c e i v e d w e re t a b u l a t e d a s to f r e q u e n c y ,
i r r e s p e c t i v e o f t h e p e rm a n e n t o r p r o b a t i o n a r y s t a t u s o f
th e t e a c h e r .
The r e s u l t s a r e to b e fo u n d i n T a b le XV.
T h i r t y - f i v e t e a c h e r s , o u t o f th e 105 r e p ly in g ,
s u g g e s te d t h a t t h e A. D. A. t e n u r e r e q u ir e m e n t b e r a i s e d
t o two th o u s a n d o r m o re.
Ten w ere i n f a v o r o f t e n u r e b e in g
75
TABLE XT
LISTRIBUTION OE TEACHER SUGGESTIONS EOR THE
IMPROVEMENT OE THE TENURE SITUATION
IN VENTURA COUNTY, CALIFORNIA
S u g g e s tio n s
~"To£aI----Number 105
Number
R a ise t h e A*L*A. req u irem en t t o 2 ,0 0 0 or more
35
G ive te n u r e t o - a l l s u p e r io r t e a c h e r s
10
Com pulsory r e tir e m e n t
10
E d u cate h o a rd s o f e d u c a tio n t o th e v a lu e
o f g r a n t in g perm anency
8
C le a r e r s ta te m e n t o f the te n u r e la w ,
5
I s s u e lo n g term c o n t r a c t s
.5
G rea ter ca re in te a c h e r s e l e c t i o n
5
A cquaint community w ith th e ten u r e s i t u a t i o n
4
A b o lish , ten u r e and a llo w t e a c h e r s t o rem ain
a s lo n g a s s a t i s f a c t o r y
4
Arrange fo r t e a c h e r ex ch a n g es
3
B e t t e r s u p e r v is io n o f p r o b a tio n a r y t e a c h e r s
3
R e v ise e x i s t i n g te n u r e .law s
2
Uniform s a la r y sc h e d u le
2
Have u n iv e r s a l ten u r e
1
More cu rr icu lu m c o r r e l a t i o n
1
B e t t e r u n d e r sta n d in g o f te a c h in g problem s by
th e l o c a l b oard s- o f e d u c a tio n
1
76
TABLE XV (c o n tin u e d )
DISTRIBUTION OS' TEACHER SUGGESTIONS FOR THE
IMPROVEMENT OF THE TENURE SITUATION
IN VENTURA COUNTY, CALIFORNIA
S u g g e s tio n s
T o ta l ~
Number 105
Number
S ch o o l b o a rd s f o llo w th e im p lic a t io n s o f
th e te n u r e law
1
Teacher t o be. judged on a b i l i t y o n ly
1
R ig id te a c h e r h e a lt h ch eck
1
M ental h y g ie n e ch eck f o r t e a c h e r s
1
E ducate t e a c h e r s t o be p r o f e s s i o n a l about te n u r e
1
D ism iss u n s a t i s f a c t o r y tea .ch ers b e fo r e th e end
o f th e p r o b a tio n a r y p e r io d
1
R a ise t h e p r o b a tio n a r y p e r io d t o f i v e y e a r s
1
77
g i v e n t o a l l s u p e r i o r t e a c h e r s , and t h a t t h e r e h e com­
p u ls o ry re tire m e n t*
" E d u c a te o u r b o a r d s o f e d u c a t i o n to
t h e v a l u e o f p e rm a n e n c y ," was t h e s u g g e s t i o n o f s e v e r a l .
O th e r s recom m ended t h a t t e n u r e be a b o l is h e d an d t e a c h e r s
b e a llo w e d t o r e m a in a s lo n g a s s a t i s f a c t o r y , w h ile s t i l l
o t h e r s w an te d t h e t e n u r e law s r e v i s e d .
T h ese w ere o n ly a
few o f a t o t a l o f tw e n t y - n in e s u g g e s t i o n s show n i n t h e
re p lie s .
A g r e a t m a jo rity o f th e te a c h e rs in d ic a te d a d e s ir e
t h a t so m e th in g b e d o n e a b o u t th e t e n u r e s i t u a t i o n *
D is ­
s a t i s f a c t i o n w ith i t s p r e s e n t o p e r a t i o n i s o b v io u s b y t h e s e
s u g g e s tio n s f o r c h a n g e s.
I n h i s s tu d y o f t e a c h e r tu r n o v e r
i n V e n tu ra C o u n ty , R ic e s e c u r e d a s i m i l a r r e a c t i o n i n h i s
s tu d y o f t e a c h e r r e a c t i o n s to w a rd s t e n u r e .
He h a s summed
up t h e s e r e s p o n s e s i n t h e s t a t e m e n t :
As t o t h e m eth o d o f d e c r e a s i n g t u r n o v e r , "m ore c a r e
i n th e s e l e c t i o n o f t e a c h e r s , " was c h e c k e d by 260 o u t
o f 4 1 6 ; " r e p e a l o f t h e t e n u r e la w ," r a n k e d s e c o n d ,
w ith 171 a d v o c a ti n g th e r e p e a l o f th e p r e s e n t l a w . 11
I t I s o b v io u s from th e q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e p l i e s r e c e i v e d
from t h e e le m e n ta r y t e a c h e r s o f V e n tu r a , S a n ta P a u la , and
O x n a rd , t h a t th e y a r e aw are o f th e p ro b le m s p r e s e n t e d by
t h e p r e s e n t o p e r a t i o n o f th e t e n u r e law i n V e n tu ra C o u n ty ,
and a r e d e s i r o u s t h a t r e m e d ia l m e a s u re s b e t a k e n .
11
R i c e , o £ . c i t . , p . 115*
CHAPTER V
SUMMARY AHD COHOHJSIONS
T h is i n v e s t i g a t i o n was a q u e s t i o n n a i r e s tu d y o f t h e
e f f e c t s o f t e n u r e o n p e rm a n e n t and p r o b a t i o n a r y t e a c h e r s
i n th e e le m e n ta r y s c h o o ls o f V e n tu r a , S a n ta P a u l a , and
O x n ard , C a l i f o r n i a .
area s:
The s tu d y was c o n d u c te d i n t h r e e m a in
( l ) te a c h e r in - s e r v ic e tr a in i n g ;
(2 ) te a c h e r r e ­
a c t i o n - to t h e p r e s e n t o p e r a t i o n o f t h e t e n u r e la w ; and
( 3 ) t e a c h e r com m unity a c t i v i t y .
The d a t a f o r t h i s
s tu d y w ere o b ta in e d fro m t h e 105
r e p l i e s t o t h e 140 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s s e n t t o th e e le m e n ta r y
te a c h e rs in th e s e a r e a s .
The in f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d i n t h e
q u e s t i o n n a i r e s was o b ta in e d a f t e r e x t e n s i v e c o n f e r e n c e s
w ith t e a c h e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s .
When c o m p le te d , th e
w r i t t e n i n s t r u m e n t w as a d m in is t e r e d t o t e a c h e r s f o r t h e i r
s u g g e s tio n s .
I t was t h e n r e v i s e d t o i n c o r p o r a t e th e s e
s u g g e s t i o n s , and p r e s e n t e d to t h e t e a c h e r s i n f i n a l fo rm .
From t h e 140 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s p r e s e n t e d , r e p l i e s w ere r e ­
c e i v e d ' fro m f i f t y - t h r e e p e rm a n e n t and f i f t y - t w o p r o b a t i o n ­
a ry te a c h e r s .
T h ese r e p l i e s w ere t a b u l a t e d f o r e a c h t e a c h ­
e r g ro u p and c o m p a ris o n s m ade.
C o n c lu s io n s and recom m end­
a t i o n s w ere b a s e d o n t h e e v id e n c e p r e s e n t e d .
The s c o p e o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was n o t s u f f i c i e n t
f o r th e e s t a b l i s h i n g o f a m e a su re o f r e l i a b i l i t y , o r to
79
ju s t if y a ll-in G lu s lv e g e n e ra liz a tio n s .
The i n f o r m a t i o n
g a t h e r e d fro m t h e 1 0 5 t e a c h e r s i n th e e le m e n ta r y s c h o o ls o f
V e n tu r a , S a n ta P a u l a , and O x n ard , C a l i f o r n i a was u s e f u l i n
d e t e r m in in g t h e p ro b le m o f t e a c h e r t e n u r e i n V e n tu ra C o u n ty .
T h is s tu d y r e p r e s e n t e d a co m p ariso n o f r e a c t i o n s , o p i n i o n s ,
and a c t u a l c o n d i t i o n s b e tw e e n p e rm a n e n t and p r o b a t i o n a r y
te a c h e rs in t h i s a re a .
The summary and c o n c lu s io n s w i l l
a p p ly o n ly t o t h i s s p e c i f i c g ro u p o f t e a c h e r s and t h i s
s p e c ific a re a .
Summary.
A s tu d y o f th e q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e p l i e s o f
f i f t y - t h r e e p e rm a n e n t an d f i f t y - t w o p r o b a t i o n a r y t e a c h e r s
i n t h e e le m e n ta r y s c h o o ls o f V e n tu r a , S a n ta P a u la , and
O x n a rd , f o r t h e p e r i o d 1937-194-0, r e v e a l e d t h e f o llo w in g
fa c ts :
1.
P e rm a n e n t t e a c h e r s c o m p le te d 6 6 l u n i t s o f
u n i v e r s i t y w ork f o r a t e a c h e r a v e ra g e o f 1 2 .4 7 u n i t s , w h ile
p r o b a t i o n a r y t e a c h e r s c o m p le te d 4 6 5 u n i t s f o r a n a v e ra g e
o f 9*52 u n i t s .
T h is show ed a t e a c h e r a v e ra g e m a rg in o f
s u p e r i o r i t y o f 2 .9 5 u n i t s f a v o r in g t h e p e rm a n e n t g ro u p .
2.
The p e rm a n e n t g ro u p r e a d 723 p r o f e s s i o n a l b o o k s
f o r a t e a c h e r a v e r a g e o f 2 3 .9 6 a s a g a i n s t 547 b o o k s , o r a n
a v e ra g e o f 13*90, f o r th e p r o b a tlo n a r ie s .
H e re th e
p e rm a n e n t t e a c h e r a v e r a g e m a rg in o f s u p e r i o r i t y was 1 0 .0 6
b o o k s.
80
3*
A c o m p a ris o n o f t h e t r a v e l a c t i v i t i e s o f th e two
g ro u p s d i s c l o s e d no a p p r e c i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e .
4.
Of t h e p e rm a n e n t g r o u p , 6 0 p e r c e n t w ere a g a i n s t
c o m p u lso ry r e t i r e m e n t , 3 8 p e r c e n t f a v o r e d i t , an d 2 p e r
c e n t d id n o t r e p l y , w h ile 6 9 p e r c e n t o f t h e p r o b a t i o n a r y
g ro u p f a v o r e d t h i s p l a n , w ith 19 p e r c e n t b e in g a g a i n s t i t ,
and 12 p e r c e n t n o t g i v i n g a r e p l y .
5*
B o th t e a c h e r g ro u p s w ere o v e rw h e lm in g ly i n f a v o r
o f a n ag e a f t e r w h ic h em ploym ent w ould b e o n a n o p t i o n a l
y e a r to y e a r b a s is .
S e v e n ty - s e v e n p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l
g ro u p w ere f o r s u c h a p la n w ith 2 3 P e r c e n t b e in g a g a i n s t
it.
6.
T h i r t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f th e p e rm a n e n t t e a c h e r s
w ere i n f a v o r o f u n i v e r s a l t e n u r e , 2 3 p e r c e n t w an ted t o
r a i s e t h e A. D. A. t o tw o th o u s a n d o r m o re , and 12 p e r c e n t
i n d i c a t e d a d e s i r e t o r e t a i n t e n u r e a s i t now o p e r a t e s .
?.
F o r ty - f o u r p e r c e n t o f a l l p ro b a tio n a ry te a c h e rs
w ere i n f a v o r o f r a i s i n g t h e A. D. A. t o two th o u s a n d o r
m o re, 20 p e r c e n t d e s i r e d u n i v e r s a l t e n u r e , 19 p e r c e n t
w ere f o r r e p e a l o f t h e t e n u r e a c t , an d 13 p e r c e n t v o te d
t o r e t a i n t e n u r e a s i t now o p e r a t e s .
8.
Many t e a c h e r s
(3 3 p e r c e n t ) , w ere u n w i l l i n g t o
v e n t u r e a n o p i n i o n a s t o th e a t t i t u d e o f t h e l o c a l b o a r d s
o f e d u c a tio n i n re g a rd to te n u re .
Those who d id a n sw e r
h ad a d i s t r i b u t i o n o f o p in io n s t o th e e x t e n t t h a t no
81
s i g n i f i c a n t c o n c l u s i o n s c o u ld b e d ra w n .
9•
A m a j o r i t y o f b o th t e a c h e r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s h e l d
t h e o p i n i o n t h a t t h e l o c a l b o a rd o f e d u c a t i o n p o l i c y w a s:
( l ) make no t e a c h e r p e rm a n e n t; ( 2 ) make o n ly a n o c c a s i o n a l
t e a c h e r p e rm a n e n t.
10.
I n t h e p e rm a n e n t g ro u p 6 8 p e r c e n t s a i d t h a t
th e y owned t h e i r own h o m es, w h ile o n ly 19 p e r c e n t o f th e
p r o b a t i o n a r y t e a c h e r s w ere home o w n e rs.
11.
T h ere w ere s i x t y - t h r e e C iv ic C lub m em b ersh ip s
among t h o s e t e a c h e r s h a v in g t e n u r e , b u t o n ly f o r t y s u c h
m em b ersh ip s w ere i n d i c a t e d among t h e p r o b a t i o n a r y g ro u p .
12.
M em bership i n F r a t e r n a l O r g a n iz a tio n s was e v e n ly
d i v i d e d b e tw e e n t h e tw o g r o u p s , w ith j u s t a s l i g h t 1 0 p e r
c e n t a d v a n ta g e t o t h e t e n u r e t e a c h e r s .
13*
S i x t y - s i x p e r c e n t o f a l l p e rm a n e n t t e a c h e r s
w ere a c t i v e m em bers o f a r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n , w h ile
2 3 p e r c e n t o f t h e p r o b a t i o n a r y t e a c h e r s h e l d s u c h member­
s h ip .
14.
Of t h o s e who w ere h o t a c t i v e c h u r c h members
44 p e r c e n t o f t h e p r o b a t i o n a r y g r o u p , and 2 3 p e r c e n t o f
t h e p e rm a n e n t t e a c h e r s i n d i c a t e d t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n
th e a c t i v i t i e s o f a r e lig io u s o rg a n iz a tio n .
15.
F o r t y - f o u r p e rm a n e n t and t h i r t y - f i v e p r o b a t i o n ­
a r y t e a c h e r s h ad b e e n members o f com m unity c o m m itte e s
d u r in g t h e p a s t t h r e e y e a r s .
82
K eco m m en d atio n s.
T h ese re c o m m e n d a tio n s w ere made
a f t e r c a r e f u l l y s tu d y i n g t h e r e s u l t s r e v e a l e d h y a com­
p a r a t i v e s tu d y o f t h e e f f e c t , o f t h e t e n u r e law o n p e rm a n e n t
and p r o b a t i o n a r y t e a c h e r s i n t h e e le m e n ta r y s c h o o ls o f
V e n tu r a , S a n ta P a u l a , an d O x n ard , C a l i f o r n i a .
They c o n s t i ­
t u t e th e re c o m m e n d a tio n s o f t e a c h e r s and t h e w r i t e r
p r e s e n t e d f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n by a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and b o a r d s
o f e d u c a t i o n i n t h e s o l u t i o n o f l o c a l t e n u r e p ro b le m s .
They may b e su m m arized a s :
1*
T h a t s i n c e i n e a c h c a s e o f a c o m p a ris o n o f i n -
s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g a n d com m unity a c t i v i t y b e tw e e n p e rm a n e n t
and p r o b a t i o n a r y t e a c h e r s r e v e a l e d t h a t g r e a t e r p r o g r e s s
h a d b e e n made b y t h e p e rm a n e n t g r o u p , i t w ould seem a d ­
v i s a b l e t h a t th o s e t e a c h e r s show ing e v id e n c e o f g r e a t e s t
a b i l i t y d u r in g t h e t h r e e - y e a r p r o b a t i o n a r y p e r i o d be
a llo w e d t o g a i n p e rm a n e n t s t a t u s .
2.
T h a t c o m p u lso ry r e t i r e m e n t s h a l l o p e r a t e a t t h e
ag e o f s i x t y - f i v e .
3.
T h a t t e n u r e s h a l l c e a s e a t th e ag e o f s i x t y ,
and em ploym ent b ey o n d t h a t tim e be o n a n o p t i o n a l y e a r t o
year b a s is .
4.
T h at t h e A. D. A. r e q u ir e m e n t f o r t e n u r e be
r a i s e d t o two th o u s a n d o r m ore.
5*
T h at t o b e e l i g i b l e f o r t e n u r e r i g h t s th e
t e a c h e r m ust k ee p a l i v e a t e a c h e r e l i g i b i l i t y c r e d e n t i a l
83
c e r t i f y i n g t h a t h e h a s p r e s e n t e d p b j e c t i v e e v id e n c e o f
p r o f e s s i o n a l im p ro v e m e n t.
S a id c r e d e n t i a l m ust h e ren ew ed
a t re a s o n a b le i n t e r v a l s , e . g . , e v e ry f iv e y e a r s .
6.
T hat
t h e r e b e m ore c a r e i n t h e s e l e c t i o n
of
te a c h e rs .
7-
T hat b e t t e r s u p e rv is io n o f p ro b a tio n a ry te a c h e r s
w ould p r o v id e a m ore a d e q u a te b a s i s f o r d e te r m in in g th e
in d iv id u a l te a c h e r ’s f itn e s s f o r te n u re .
8.
T h at
t e a c h e r s b e ju d g e d o n a b i l i t y o n ly .
9*
T hat
t h e r e b e a s i m p l i f ic a ti o n " o f th e d i s m i s s a l
p r o c e d u r e i n p e rm a n e n t c a s e s o f o b v io u s u n f i t n e s s f o r
s e rv ic e .
10.
T h a t a n a rra n g e m e n t b e made w h ereb y t e a c h e r s
n o t g iv e n t e n u r e c o u ld h a v e th e a d v a n ta g e o f a d i s t r i c t
exchange.
11.
T h a t t h e l a y p u b l i c b e in fo rm e d a s t o t h e e f f e c t
o f t e n u r e o n c o m m u n i t y - s t a b i l i t y and a c t i v i t y .
12.
T h a t l o c a l b o a r d s o f e d u c a t i o n b e e d u c a te d a s t o
t h e v a l u e o f t h e p e rm a n e n t t e a c h e r t o t h e s c h o o l and to th e
com m unity.
13*
la w .
T h a t t h e r e b e a c l e a r e r s ta te m e n t o f th e t e n u r e
BIBLIOGRAPHY
85
A.
BOOKS
E l s b r e e , W i lla r d S - , T e a c h e r T u rn o v e r i n P i t i e s and
V i l l a g e s o f New Yo r k S t a t e . New Y o rk : T e a c h e rs C o l­
le g e * C o lu m b ia U n i v e r s i t y , New Y ork B u reau o f P u b l i c ­
a t i o n s , 1 928.
188 p p .
H o lm s te d t, R a le ig h W ., A S tu d y o f t h e E f f e c t s o f th e T e a c h e r
T en u re Law i n New J e r s e y . T e a c h e r s C o lle g e C o n t r i ­
b u t i o n s t o E d u c a t i o n , No. 4 2 6 . New Y o rk : T e a c h e rs
C o l l e g e , C o lu m b ia U n i v e r s i t y , 1932. I l l p p .
S c o t t , C e c i l W ., I n d e f i n i t e T e a c h e r T e n u re . T e a c h e rs
C o lle g e C o n t r i b u t i o n s to E d u c a tio n , No. 6 1 3 . New Y o rk :
T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , C o lu m b ia U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 3 4 . 155 PP*
B.
PERIODICAL ARTICLES
A lm ack, J . D ., “The P ro b le m o f T e a c h e r T e n u r e ,” A m erican
S c h o o l B oard J o u r n a l . 6 3 :2 9 - 3 ° , N ovem ber, 1921.
B e s s a c , H a r r y , ‘’How t h e T en u re Law i s W o rk in g ,” S i e r r a
E d u c a t i o n a l . News. 2 4 :1 6 , D ecem ber, 1 9 2 8 .
B e t t s , G - llb e r t L . , “ The I n f l u e n c e o f T e a c h e r T en u re law s
o n S u p p ly and D em an d ,” J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h .
2 8 :1 1 8 - 3 1 , 1 7 5 -8 6 , O c to b e r , N ovem ber, 1934.
B u ts c h , L. C . , “T e a c h e r T e n u r e ,” Review o f E d u c a tio n a l
R e s e a r c h , l : 1 1 8 - 2 1 , A p r i l , 1931*
C a r r , W illia m G-., “T e a c h e r T en u re i n C a l i f o r n i a , ” S i e r r a
E d u c a tio n a l News. 2 4 : 2 1 - 4 , S e p te m b e r, 1928. ,
C om m ittee o n T e n u re , “R e p o rt to th e C a l i f o r n i a C o u n c il o f
E d u c a t i o n , ” S i e r r a E d u c a t i o n a l News. 2 9 * 2 6 -3 5 , J a n u a r y ,
1933*
C lo u d , Row W ., “T e a c h e r T e n u r e ,” S i e r r a E d u c a t i o n a l News.
3 0 :1 3 , F e b r u a r y , 1934.
C o u ch , E . B . , “The T e n u re S i t u a t i o n , ” Los A n g e le s S c h o o l
J o u r n a l . 1 5 :1 4 - 1 5 , M arch 2 8 , 1932.
'
“The E f f e c t o f P erm an e n t T en u re Upon S c h o o l
E f f i c i e n c y , ” E d u c a t i o n a l R ev iew . 6 6 :2 8 5 - 6 , D ecem ber,
1923 -
86
________ , " H ig h e r S ta n d a r d s an d t h e T en u re P ro b le m ,"
A m e ric a n S c h o o l B o ard J o u r n a l , 7 7 * 7 0 , J u l y , 1928.
G lo v e r , H . B . , "T e n u re and t h e C a l i f o r n i a T e a c h e r s A s s o c i­
a t i o n , 11 S o u th w e s te r n C la ssro o m T e a c h e r , i s 1 2 - 3 , May 2 9 ,
1930.
_______ , wThe Movement f o r I n d e f i n i t e T e n u r e ,11 S i e r r a
E d u c a t i o n a l News, 3 4 * 3 5 -6 , May, 1928.
________ , "T e n u re o f P r o f e s s i o n a l P e r s o n n e l , " C a l i f o r n i a
S c h o o l s . 4 :3 1 2 , O c to b e r , 1933*
K e r s e y , V i e r l i n g , "M ajo r P ro b le m s C o n f r o n tin g P u b lic Edu­
c a t i o n i n C a l i f o r n i a , ” C a l i f o r n i a Sc h o o l s . 4 :2 5 4 ,
A u g u s t, 1933*
R a th b o n e , A. J . , a n d J a c k D. R e e s , "Do We Have T e a c h e r
T e n u re ? ” S i e r r a E d u c a t i o n a l News. 3 7 * 1 7 , J a n u a r y , 1941.
C.
PUBLICATIONS OF LEARNED ORGANIZATIONS
C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e D e p a rtm e n t o f E d u c a tio n , B i e n n i a l R e p o rt
f o r t h e S c h o o l Y e a rs E n d in g J u n e 3 0 . 1 9 3 1 . and J u n e 3 0 .
1 9 3 2 . S a c ra m e n to , C a l i f o r n i a : S t a t e P r i n t i n g O f f i c e ,
1 933. 4 4 4 p p .
H u n te r , F re d M ., " P ro b le m s o f T e a c h e r T e n u r e ,” R e p o rt o f
t h e C o m m ittee o f One H u n d re d . N a t i o n a l E d u c a tio n
A s s o c i a t i o n . A d d r e s s e s and P r o c e e d i n g s . 6 2 :2 5 4 . 1 9 2 4 .
________ , " T e a c h e r T e n u re I n t h e U n ite d S t a t e s , ” N a tio n a l
E d u c a tio n A s s o c i a t i o n . A d d re s s e s an d P r o c e e d i n g s .
6 4 :2 0 2 - 2 0 , 1926 ^
:
D.
UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS
D ic e , C# 0 . , " L e g a l S t a t u s o f P u b lic S c h o o l T e a c h e r s .”
U n p u b lis h e d M a s t e r ’ s t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e r n
C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s , 1931*
H u n te r , F lo r e n c e L e ig h , "The T en u re Law i n C a l i f o r n i a , "
U n p u b lis h e d M a s t e r 's t h e s i s , C la re m o n t C o l le g e s ,
C la r e m o n t, C a l i f o r n i a , 1931*
87
M i l l e r , F e r n E . , " E f f e c t s o f th e T en u re Law a s R e p o rte d
b y t h e T e a c h e r s . 11 U n p u b lis h e d M a s te r ’ s t h e s i s ,
C la re m o n t C o l l e g e s , C la re m o n t, C a l i f o r n i a , 1931*
P r i c e , J o h n C . , "A S tu d y o f T e a c h e r T en u re i n C a l i f o r n i a . "
U n p u b lis h e d M a s t e r ’ s t h e s i s , C la re m o n t C o l l e g e s ,
C la re m o n t, C a l i f o r n i a , 1932.
R i c e , M e rto n N ., " T e a c h e r T u rn o v e r i n th e E le m e n ta ry and
H ig h S c h o o ls o f V e n tu r a C o u n ty ." U n p u b lis h e d M a s te r ’ s
t h e s i s . U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s ,
1933.
S o b e y , C h r i s t e l L. A . , " T e a c h e r T u rn o v e r i n t h e H ig h S c h o o ls
o f Los A n g e le s C o u n ty fro m S e p te m b e r, 1923> t o S e p te m b e r,
1 9 2 8 , I n c l u s i v e . " U n p u b lis h e d M a s te r ’ s t h e s i s ,
U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s , 1929*
S to n e , Seymour I . , "The C a l i f o r n i a T en u re L aw ." U n p u b lis h e d
D o c t o r ’ s d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f - S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a ,
Los A n g e le s , C a l i f o r n i a , 193^-*
APPENDIX
89
2373 F a lo m a r
V e n tu r a , C a l i f o r n i a
A p r i l 1 4 , 1941
D ear
I am c o n d u c tin g a n i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e T e a c h e r T en u re
s i t u a t i o n i n t h e e le m e n ta r y s c h o o ls o f V e n tu r a C o u n ty and
n ee d y o u r h e l p t o make t h i s r e s e a r c h a u t h e n t i c .
The i n f o r m a t i o n you g iv e w i l l h e g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e d
and w i l l h e h e l d i n s t r i c t e s t c o n f id e n c e .
No names w i l l
a p p e a r i n th e s t u d y .
A c c o rd in g to a c h e c k th e e n c lo s e d
q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i l l t a k e a p p r o x im a te ly f i v e m in u te s o f y o u r
t i m e , and i t i s h o p ed t h a t i t w i l l f u r t h e r th e c a u s e o f
e d u c a t i o n i n V e n tu r a C o u n ty .
The r e s u l t s o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i l l a p p e a r i n a
r e s e a r c h h e i n g c o n d u c te d i n t h e S c h o o l o f E d u c a tio n a t th e
U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a .
I s h a l l he g la d to
se n d you a summary o f t h i s s tu d y i f you so d e s i r e .
A sta m p e d s e l f - a d d r e s s e d e n v e lo p e I s e n c lo s e d f o r
y o u r c o n v e n ie n c e .
Thank you f o r y o u r c o u r te o u s c o o p e r a t i o n .
V ery t r u l y y o u r s ,
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