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Teachability of hobbies in the seventh grade

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TEACHABILITY OF HOBBIES IN THE
SEVENTH GRADE
A T h e s is
P re se n te d to
th e F a c u lty o f th e S c h o o l o f E d u c a tio n
U n iv e rs ity
o f S o u th e rn C a lif o r n ia
In P a r tia l F u lfillm e n t
o f t h e R e q u ire m e n ts f o r t h e D eg ree
M a ste r o f S c ie n c e i n E d u c a tio n
by
May H o d g e N e g l e y
A ugust 194L
UMI Number: EP54271
All rights reserved
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Dissertation ftjMisMng
UMI EP54271
Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author.
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ProQuest LLC.
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P.O. Box 1346
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o
ill
Th is thesis, w rit te n under the direction of t h e ' ^ f * ^
Chairman of the candidate’s Guid an ce C o m m i t t e e
an d a p p r o v e d by all membe rs of the C om m it te e ,
has been pr e s e n te d to an d a c ce p te d by the F ac u lt y
of the S c h o o l of Ed uc atio n of T h e University of
Southern California in p a r ti a l fu lfillme nt of the
requirements f o r the degree of M a s t e r of Science
in Education.
Date.. A ugtis t . 3 0 , 19 4 1
Dean
Guidance Committee
C. C. Crawford
Chairman
D. W elty L efever
Louis P . !Thorpe
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I.
PACE
NATURE AND PURPOSE OF THE INVESTIGATION . . . .
1
S t a t e m e n t o f t h e p r o b l e m .............................. ......
1
J u s t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s t u d y .............................................5
T re n d s an d a im s i n t e a c h i n g u s e o f l e i s u r e .
R e la te d
IX .
in v e s tig a tio n s.
. 15
.................................................. 16
PROCEDURE........................................................................................ 30
P r e p a r a tio n and a d m in is tr a tio n o f th e a d u lt
q u e stio n n a ire
•
..................................................................31
P r e p a r a tio n and a d m in is tr a tio n o f i n i t i a l
lo w s e v e n g r a d e q u e s t i o n n a i r e
...............................
S e t- u p o f e x p e r im e n ta l and c o n t r o l g ro u p s
III.
RESULTS OF QUESTIONNAIRES .
.
32
. 35
........................................... 3 ?
R e s u l t s ©fid t a b u l a t i o n s o f a d u l t
q u e s t i o n n a i r e s .............................................................
R e s u l t s and t a b u l a t i o n s o f lo w s e v e n g r a d e
q u e s t i o n n a i r e s * * ........................................................
TV.
DEVELOPMENT OF THE TEACHING PLAN.
.
37
. 68
...................... 89
T he p l a n a s t a u g h t ................................................................ 89
P r e p a r a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f f i n a l
su rv e y o f s e v e n th g rad e h o b b ie s
........................... 12 0
C o m p a r i s o n a n d t a b u l a t i o n o f r e s u l t s ................. 1 2 1
iii
CHAPTER
PACE
V . CONCLUSIONS AND RECQMMENDATIONS’ ..................................... 1 4 5
C o n c l u s i o n s ................................................................................. .1 4 5
R e c o m m e n d a ti o n s
..........................................................1 4 7
BIBLIOGRAPHY...................................................................................................1 5 0
A P P E N D IX ................................................................................
170
L IS T OF TABLES
TABLE
PAGE
I . R a n g e o f A d u l t H o b b i e s ................................................................. 3 8
II.
S p e c i f i c A d u lt H o b b ie s L i s t e d a s A t h l e t i c s
a n d S p o r t s ..................................................................
III.
S p e c i f i c A d u lt H o b b ie s L i s t e d
.
.
. . 39 .
as A r ts and
C r a f t s ..................................................................................................... 4 1
IV .
S p e c i f i c A d u lt H o b b ies L i s t e d a s C o l l e c t i o n s
.
. 42
V. S p e c i f i c A d u l t H o b b i e s L i s t e d a s M i s c e l l a n e o u s
• 43
V I. A d u l t s ’ A n sw ers t o
Q u e stio n ,
" A v e r a g e Number o f
H o u r s P e r Week S p e n t o n A v o c a t i o n s ? " .........................46
V I I . A d u l t s ’ A n s w e rs t o
Q u e stio n ,
"A t W hat A g e W ere
H o b b i e s B e g u n ? " .................................................................................4 8
V I I I . A d u lts ’ R e p lie s t o Q u e stio n ,
"C o n d itio n s o f
B e g i n n i n g ? " .........................
50
I X . A d u l t H obby C l u b s ...........................................
X.
51
J u v e n ile O r g a n iz a tio n s S po n so red by A d u lts
. . .
53
X I . T y p e s a n d R a n g e o f O c c u p a t i o n s C o m p il e d f r o m
A d u lt Q u e s tio n n a ir e s
.................................................. 55
X II. D e t a i l e d L i s t o f A d u lt O c c u p a tio n s L i s t e d
as
P r o f e s s i o n s ........................................................................................... 56
X III. S p e c ific
A d u lt O c c u p a tio n s L is te d a s S a le s .
.
. 57
XIV. S p e c i f i c A d u l t O c c u p a t i o n s L i s t e d a s S e c r e t a r i a l 58
V
■TABLE
XV.
PAGE
S p e c i f i c A d u lt O c c u p a tio n s L i s t e d a s C l e r i c a l
59
X V I, S p e c i f i c A d u l t O c c u p a t i o n s L i s t e d a s
E x e c u t i v e a n d M a n a g e r i a l .................................................. 60
X V II* M i s c e l l a n e o u s O c c u p a t i o n s B e lo w P e r c e n t a g e
R e c o g n itio n .
•
. . . . . . . .
X V III* C o m p a r i s o n o f A d u l t s ’ A n s w e rs t o
61
’’P e t H o b b i e s
D u r i n g A d o l e s c e n c e , ” t o P r e s e n t Low S e v e n
G r a d e .........................
.
.
.
. . .
63
X IX . A d u l t s ’ A n s w e r s t o S c h o o l T r a i n i n g ..............................64
XX. A d u l t s ’ A n s w e r s t o W i l l i n g n e s s t o b e V i s i t e d
. 66
X X I. A d u l t s ’ A n s w e r s t o W i l l i n g n e s s t o T a l k t o
C la ss
. . .
67
X X II. C o m p a riso n o f T y p e s , R a n g e , and P e r c e n t a g e s
o f A d u lt and
Low S e v e n G r a d e H o b b i e s . . . .
X X III. S p e c if ic
P u p i l A n sw ers
XXIV. S p e c i f i c
P u p i l A n sw ers
t o A r ts and C r a f t s .
P u p i l A n sw ers t o
C o lle c tio n s.
XXV. S p e c i f i c
70
t o A t h l e t i c s a n d S p o r t s 71
. . . .
.
•72
73
XXVI. C o m p a r i s o n o f A d u l t a n d Low S e v e n T im e
S p e n t o n L e i s u r e T im e P u r s u i t s
. . . . . . .
75
X X V II. C o m p a r i s o n o f A d u l t a n d Low S e v e n G r a d e
E x p e n d itu re s
...............................
.7 6
X X V I I I . P u p i l s ’ A n s w e r s a s t o W h ere T h e y Becam e
I n t e r e s t e d ......................................................................................78
XXIX. C l u b M e m b e r s h ip o f Low S e v e n G r a d e . . . . . .
79
vi
T ab le
Page
XXX. D e t a i l e d C l a s s i f i c a t i o n
o f Low S e v e n G r a d e ’ s
C l u b M e m b e r s h i p s . .................................................
XXXI. A d d i t i o n a l H obby I n t e r e s t s
80
i n t h e Low
S e v e n G r a d e .................................................................................8 1
X X X II. R e a s o n s G i v e n f o r Ho C l u b M e m b e r s h i p ......................... 83
X X X I I I. A n s w e r s t o
Q u e stio n ,
L ik e t o H ave?".
"W hat H o b b y W ould You
....................................................85
XXXIV. R e a d i n g C h o i c e s o f t h e Low S e v e n G r a d e .
. . .
86
XXXV. M a g a z i n e C h o i c e s o f t h e Low S e v e n G r a d e . . .
88
XXXVI* B o o k s E x a m in e d a n d R e a d b y E x p e r i m e n t a l
..................................................
G ro u p
XXXVII. M a g a z i n e s E x a m in e d b y E x p e r i m e n t a l G r o u p .
.1 9 5
• .1 0 2
X X X V III. R e v i s e d L i s t o f A d u l t H o b b i e s I n c l u d i n g A d!
d i t i o n a l R e p o r ts o f E x p e r im e n ta l G ro up.
• .1 0 7
XXXIX. A d d i t i o n a l A d u l t H o b b i e s R e p o r t e d b y
E x p e r i m e n t a l G r o u p ...............................................................1 0 8
XL. A d u l t O c c u p a t i o n s R e p o r t e d b y E x p e r i m e n t a l
G ro u p
..............................................
.1 0 9
X L I. G r a n d T o t a l o f A d u l t O c c u p a t i o n s ................................ 1 1 0
X L II. C o m p ariso n T ypes and R ange o f L e i s u r e
A c t i v i t i e s o f th e C o n tro l and E x p e rim e n ta l
G r o u p s ..............................................................................................1 2 6
X L I I I . C o m p a riso n o f F i n a l A nsw ers
> -
' o f T im e E x -
p e n d e d b y C o n t r o l a n d E x p e r i m e n t a l G ro u p s
w i t h A d u l t s ............................................................................ . 1 2 8
vii
TABLE
PAGE
- XLTV. O r g a n i z a t i o n s a n d C l u b s J o i n e d b y Low
S evens S in c e E n te r in g ,
.................................................. 1 5 2
XLV. A n s w e r s t o A d d i t i o n a l H o b b i e s i n Low S e v e n
G r a d e * ................................................................................................ 1 5 4
XLVT. A n s w e r s t o Q u e s t i o n ,
" I f You S t i l l Do N o t
B e l o n g To a n y C l u b , T e l l W hy"........................................ 156
XLVTI* C o m p a r i s o n o f T y p e s a n d R a n g e o f L e i s u r e
A c tiv itie s
o f th e C o n tro l and E x p e rim e n ta l
G r o u p s ................................................................................................ 15 7
X L V III*
A n sw ers t o Q u e s t i o n ,
"W hat H o b b i e s W o uld You
L i k e t o H a v e ? " ............................................................................15 9
XL I S . A n s w e r s t o Q u e s t i o n ,
"W hat K i n d s o f B o o k s
H a v e You Become I n t e r e s t e d
i n S i n c e C om ing
t o T h i s S c h o o l ? " .......................................................................1 4 1
L. A n sw ers t o
Q u e s t i o n , i_,tW hat m a g a z i n e s H a v e You
Becom e i n t e r e s t e d
i n S i n c e C om ing t o T h i s
S c h o o l ? " ........................................................................................... 1 4 5
L IST OF FIGURES
FIGURE
PAGE
1 . A d u l t s ’ A n sw ers t o Q u e s t i o n ,
"A verage
F i n a n c i a l E x p e n d i t u r e P e r Y e a r On
A v o c a tio n s? ".
£♦
.
.
.................................................. .
.
.
47
C o m p ariso n o f I n i t i a l an d F i n a l
A n sw e r o f
E x p e r i m e n t a l G ro u p w i t h
T o t a l H o b b i e s • 123
A d u lt
3# C o m p a r i s o n o f New H o b b i e s B e g u n , C o n t r o l w i t h
E x p e r im e n ta l G roup.
.........................................................129
4# P l a c e o f O r i g i n o f New H obb y I n t e r e s t s ........................ 1 3 1
CHAPTER
I
NATURE AND PURPOSE OF THE INVESTIGATION
F o r m e r l y t h e r e w as b u t a s m a l l l e i s u r e c l a s s w h i c h
was a m e n a c e ;
now we h a v e a l l j o i n e d i t .
The p ro b le m
i s a m ass o n e , b u t m u st b e s o lv e d i n d i v i d u a l l y .
— G eorge B a r to n C u t te n , P r e s i d e n t o f C o lg a te
U n iv e rs ity .
T h e p r o b l e m o f how t o u s e l e i s u r e p r o f i t a b l y b e ­
com es i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t w i t h t h e g r e a t e r am ount o f
s p a re tim e f o r c e d o r b ro u g h t upon s o c i e t y ,
ju v e n ile .
The c u r s e s o f i t s
ill
b o th a d u lt and
u s e , and th e b l e s s i n g s
b ro u g h t by tim e w e ll u sed b o th t o th e
i n d i v i d u a l and to
s o c i e t y a t l a r g e h av e c r e a t e d t e a c h i n g p ro b lem s w o rth y o f
s t i l l g r e a te r c o n s id e r a tio n th a n have y e t been so lv e d .
I.
THE STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
S in c e p r e p a r a tio n f o r a w o r th ie r u se o f l e i s u r e
h a s b eco m e o n e o f t h e m a j o r o b j e c t i v e s
i n m odern e d u c a t i o n ,
v a r i o u s p h a s e s o f t h e t e a c h i n g p rogram have b een s t u d i e d
fo r th e purpose o f in c o rp o ra tin g le i s u r e
T he e x p l o r a t o r y f i e l d
s t i l l te m p ts th e
in th e c u rric u lu m .
in v e s tig a to r to tr y
new m e a n s w h i c h may i n f l u e n c e b o y s a n d g i r l s
come c o n s c i o u s o f t h e
e a rly to be­
im p o rta n c e o f l i v i n g t h e i r l e i s u r e
h o u rs «to g r e a t e r a d v a n ta g e th a n h a p h a z a rd w a s tin g o f tim e ,
o r s p e n d i n g w i t h o u t a im o r d i r e c t i o n o r i n t e l l i g e n c e t h o s e
2
h o u rs w h ic h a r e n o t f i l l e d w i t h d i r e c t e d a c t i v i t i e s n e c e s ­
s a r y t o s c h o o l a n d home l i f e .
C an t h e s e v e n t h g r a d e p u p i l p r o f i t b y s t u d y i n g ,
first
handiji h o b b i e s i n t h e a d u l t w o r l d a b o u t h im ?
to o young to
c i a t e m o re f u l l y h i s
own l e i s u r e h o u r s ?
I t was t h e p u rp o s e o f t h i s
i n v e s t i g a t i o n t o m ake a s u r v e y o f
t h e ra n g e and t y p e s o f
a d u lt h o b b ie s o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c i t i z e n s
of th e c it y o f
S a n D i e g o , t o m ak e a c o m p a r a b l e s u r v e y o f l e i s u r e
of th e
of
C an h e b e i n f l u e n c e d t o a p p r e ­
S ta te m e n t o f th e p ro b le m .
itie s
I s he
g r a s p t h e m e a n in g o f a c u l t u r a l l e i s u r e ,
r e - c r e a t i o n th ro u g h p la y ?
at
in c o m in g lo w s e v e n g r a d e
a c tiv ­
in one ju n io r h ig h
-
s c h o o l, and to d is c o v e r to w hat e x te n t a d i r e c t c o n ta c t
stu d y of a d u l t s ’ l e i s u r e
tim e p u r s u i t s m ig h t in c r e a s e th e
k n o w le d g e o f and d e s i r a b i l i t y
a c tiv itie s
of c u ltu ra l le isu re
tim e
i n t h e lo w s e v e n g r a d e .
Range and ty p e s o f a d u l t h o b b i e s .
was so d e s ig n e d
,a s t o
re a s o n a b ly b ro ad f i e l d
in c l u d e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from a
of a c tiv e
w hose i n t e l l i g e n c e and i n t e r e s t s
of p o sitiv e b e n e fit.
The a d u l t s u r v e y
s e r v i c e , am ong c i t i z e n s
c o u ld be r e l i e d
T he d i s c o u r a g e d ,
upon as
th e w eak, th e un­
e m p lo y e d w o u jd f u r n i s h a c h a p t e r f a r t o o e x t e n s i v e t o b e
in c lu d e d in th e sco p e o f
of g re a te r b e n e fit
t h e p r e s e n t p r o b l e m , a n d w o u ld b e
i f u n d e r t a k e n i n a m ore m a tu re d g r o u p ,
3
p r e f e r a b l y i n s e n i o r h ig h sc h o o l*
M uch o f t h e c h i l d r e n * s e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h t e x t b o o k s
i m p r e s s e s t h e m a s f a r a w a y o r l o n g ago*
to b u ild
its
own t e x t f r o m t h e
T h i s s t u d y a im e d
im m e d ia te l i v i n g f i e l d
am ong t h e a c t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c i t i z e n r y * w h o s e v o c a t i o n s
an d a v o c a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s m ig h t b e co m prehended*
i t m ay b e s a i d
In f a c t ,
i n t h e w o rd s o f Jo h n Dewey, t o r e d u c e t h e
c o m p l e x i t i e s o f m odern l i f e
u h d e r s ta n d , and t o
t o s u c h t e r m s a s t h e c h i l d m ay
i n t r o d u c e h im d i r e c t l y t o t h e l i v i n g
c u l t u r e a b o u t him*
The s u r v e y o f t h e a d u l t h o b b y f i e l d n e c e s s a r i l y
i n c lu d e d d i v e r g e n c i e s fro m t h a t o f c h i l d r e n , y e t t h e s e
v e ry d iv e r g e n c ie s f u r n is h e d c r i t e r i a w o rth y o f r e c o g n itio n
and
a n a ly sis.
C o m p a ra tiv e i n t e r e s t s
te n d to w a rd g r e a t e r
e n t h u s i a s m a n d s a t i s f a c t i o n am ong c h i l d r e n ;
t h a t t h e i r own L h a f l k e r i n g s a n d l e i s u r e
s to o d and a p p r e c i a te d b y grow nups.
th e y d isc o v e re d
a c tiv itie s
a re u n d er­
T h a t s o m any a d u l t s
d o som e s i m p l e , a n d o f t e n c h i l d i s h t h i n g s f o r p u r e p l e a s u r e ,
a s w e l l a s s p e n d t im e m ak in g a l i v i n g , was a v i t a l
in t h is p la n o f stu d y .
e le m e n t
C o -o p e ra tio n , th e k e y n o te o f s u c c e s s
i n a s tu d y o f t h i s k in d p ro v e d o f p a ra m o u n t i n t e r e s t and
im p o rtan c e *
Range and t y p e s o f l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e
lo w s e v e n g r a d e .
in co m in g
L e is u r e a c t i v i t i e s o f c h i l d r e n a r e so
4
v a r i e d and c h a n g e a b le , l i s t i n g
t h e s e a l o n e w o u ld n o t s e r v e
a s a s u f f i c i e n t b a s is f o r c o n d u c tin g t h i s
e x p e rim e n t.
r e la te d to p ie s as th e c h ild re n ’s o r ig in a lity ,
o f o t h e r s , home s i t u a t i o n s c o n d u c i n g t o
o f in d iv id u a l e f f o r ts
s i r e s and c r a v in g s , a l l m $st be re c o g n iz e d
o f th e c o u rse .
e ste d
in ,
th e in flu e n c e
th e encouragem ent
t o am use t h e m s e l v e s ,
s u f f ic ie n t f a c ts about th e
Such
in d iv id u a l de­
in c o m p ilin g
in d iv id u a ls a t th e b e g in n in g
In b r i e f , w hat th e y a r e , w hat th e y a re
in te r­
a n d how t h e y h a p p e n t o b e t h a t w ay w i l l g i v e a
b r o a d e r b a s i s fro m w h ic h t o fo rm ju d g m e n ts l a t e r
in th e
e x p e rim e n t.
I n c r e a s e d k n o w le d g e an d a p p r e c i a t i o n o f l e i s u r e
a c tiv itie s
c re a te a b ro ad er f ie ld
a rb itra rily ,
th a n m e re ly e s t a b l i s h i n g ,
som e m e c h a n i c a l a c t i v i t y w h i c h m ay p r o v e b u t
te m p o ra ry and la c k th e e s s e n c e o f l a s t i n g
w ith
to
its
c u ltu ra l b e n e fit,
ex p en d ed i n t e r e s t s , w h ic h t h i s p ro b le m w as d e s ig n e d
in tro d u c e .
D isc o v ery o f th e e x te n t o f in c re a s e d d e s i r a b i l i t y
and a p p r e c ia tio n o f c u l t u r a l l e i s u r e
d ir e c t c o n ta c t w ith a d u lt h o b b ie s.
one o f th e
w o rld .
tim e a c t i v i t i e s by
P e rso n a l c o n ta c t i s
s e c re ts o f su cce ss e s ta b lis h e d in th e b u sin e ss
I t s v a lu e i n e d u c a tio n i s p ro v e d no l e s s a s u c c e s s
in th e le a rn in g p ro c e ss .
The i n t e r e s t t o b e d e r i v e d i n
5
t h i s m eth o d o f i n t r o d u c i n g an d s t u d y i n g l e i s u r e h o ld s
in fin ite p o s s ib ilitie s .
To d i s c o v e r t h e s e i n t e r e s t s ,
p o s s i b i l i t i e s and r e a c t i o n s c r e a t e th e answ er to th e
o r i g in a l q u e s tio n p ro p o sed in t h i s
How t o
stu d y .
i n c o r p o r a t e t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e tw o p r e v i o u s
su rv e y s and e s t a b l i s h s o u rc e s f o r th e p la n o f s tu d y b e­
come t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f t h e p r o b l e m p r o p o s e d , n a m e l y :
to
w hat e x t e n t a d i r e c t c o n ta c t s tu d y o f a d u l t h o b b ie s m ig h t
te a c h and in c r e a s e
tim e a c t i v i t i e s
-th e d e s i r a b i li t y o f c u ltu r a l le is u r e
am ong c h i l d r e n o f t h e s e v e n t h g r a d e .
II.
JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY
W h ile e c o n o m is ts a n d t e c h n o l o g i s t s s t r u g g l e w i t h
t h e o r e t i c a l s o l u t i o n s o f t h e p r o b l e m s o f e c o n o m ic a n d
in d u s tr ia l re o rg a n iz a tio n
in our n a tio n ,
becom e c o n c e rn e d w i t h d e v e l o p in g f e a s i b l e
w h ic h w i l l
e d u c a to rs have
c o u rse s o f stu d y
in te g r a te le i s u r e p u r s u its in s u b je c ts a lre a d y
a d o p te d .
A r t h u r N e w to n P a c k w r i t e s :
I t b e c o m e s j u s t a s i m p o r t a n t t o p l a n a new s t a n d a r d
o f l i f e * s v a lu e s f o r la b o rin g c la s s e s and f o r th e
s u p e r - g i f t e d g r o u p s o f t h e u p p e r s t r a t a a l i k e ..............
E d u c a tio n m ust be d i r e c te d to t h i s end.
L e isu re a c tiv ­
i t i e s m u st be d e v e lo p e d , n o t j u s t a s p l e a s a n t tim e
co n su m ers o r e v en h e a l t h b u i l d e r s , d e s i r a b l e a s th e s e
m ay b e , b u t t h e y m u s t p o s s e s s t h e a d d e d g o a l o f s u p p l y ­
i n g d e f i n i t e o u t l e t s f o r e x c e s s e n e r g i e s a n d f o r com­
p e t i t i v e i n s t i n c t s . ”1
6
The c o n s t a n t r e v i s i o n
c u rric u lu m to
o f an a lr e a d y o v er-cro w d ed
a d j u s t t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l th em e, g r a d u a l
r e c o g n itio n o f hobby i n t e r e s t s
a c tiv itie s,
e v id e n t.
and hobby f a i r s
in c la ss ro o m s and s c h o o l
a r e b e c o m in g m o r e a n d m o re
T e a c h e r-sp o n so re d c lu b s and o u t- o f - s c h o o l a c t i v ­
i t i e s h a v e h a d t h e i r a t t e n t i o n ; t h e s c h o o l s h a v e acknow ­
le d g e d th e v a lu e o f a d u lt-s p o n s o re d l e i s u r e - ti m e a c t i v i t i e s ,
and have l i s t e n e d w ith c r i t i c a l
a tte n tio n to
ju d g m e n ts
b a se d on th e e x p e rie n c e s o f su c h c o - o p e r a t i v e ,
c itiz e n s .
generous
The n a t u r e o f t h i s p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n p u r ­
p o s e f u l l y ack n o w le d g es t h e s c h o o l* s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o
f o s t e r r a t i o n a l p l a n s w h i c h m ay b r i n g new i n t e r e s t s
le isu re p u rsu its,
in
th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and c o -o p e ra tio n
o f a d u lt s n o t d i r e c t l y co n cern ed w ith e d u c a tio n a l
in te re s ts ,
and th e c o n s e q u e n t v a lu e s t o th e c h il d r e n and t e a c h e r s in
d e v e lo p in g t h e o r i e s
i n l i n e w i t h m o dern e d u c a t i o n a l p r i n ­
c ip le s .
B e s p o n s ib ility o f th e sc h o o l.
c h ild re n fo r th e ir p re s e n t l i f e
The t r a i n i n g o f
as w e ll a s th e s e ttin g o f
s t a n d a r d s b y w h i c h t h e y m ay g u i d e t h e i r own d e s t i n i e s h a s
l o n g b e e n t h e a im o f t h e s c h o o l .
T hat th e l a s t g e n e ra tio n
^ A r t h u r N e w to n P a c k , T h e C h a l l e n g e o f L e i s u r e .
(New Y o r k :
T he M a c m i l l a n C o . , 1 9 3 6 ) , p . 6 6 .
7
h a s s u f f e r e d from an o v e r - p r o d u c tio n o f th e e d u c a tio n
f o r m a k in g a l i v l i h o o d h a s becom e e v i d e n t *
A r t h u r N e w to n P a c k f u r t h u r s t a t e s ;
E d u c a ti o n * .* , h a s te n d e d t o r e s t r i c t and d i s r e g a r d
e v e r y t h i n g t h a t d o e s n o t l e a d t o w a r d some d e f i n i t e
e n d , an end u s u a l l y c o n n e c te d w ith e a r n in g a l i v e l i ­
hood o r w ith t h e m a iiita in a n c e o f p u r e ly a r t i f i c i a l
sta n d a rd s.
E d u c a t i o n h a s b e e n t o o m uch p r e o c c u p i e d
w i t h t h e p r o b l e m o f how t o m ak e a l i v i n g a n d n o t
e n o u g h w i t h t h e f a r m o r e i m p o r t a n t p r o b l e m o f how
l i f e s h o u l d b e l i v e d .*3
To t a k e c o g n i z a n c e o f t h e f a i l u r e
o f o th e rs has
t h e one v a l u e o f sh o w in g t h a t m eans m u st b e d e v i s e d w h e re ­
b y y o u t h m ay e s c a p e t h e p i t f a l l s a n d r e g r e t s b r o u g h t u p o n
o l d e r m en a n d w om en.
Ig n o ra n c e and to o l i t t l e
have le d t o u n h a p p in e ss , d is c o n te n t,
p e rc e n ta g e o f th e c rim e s.
ity
o rig in a lity
and an a s to u n d in g
To s e t p a t t e r n s
of rig h t a c tiv ­
e a r l y by p r e s e n t i n g p o s i t i v e e x a m p le s a r o u s e s w i t h i n
c h i l d r e n new i n t e r e s t s a n d d e s i r e s t o
o r e x p e rim e n t i n l e g i t i m a t e f i e l d s
in v e s tig a te ,
Im ita te ,
o f e n d eav o r.
T he s t u d y o f l e i s u r e f i n d s r e c o g n i t i o n a s a s o c i a l
p ro b le m i n th e s e c o n d a ry s c h o o ls .
th e age o f re a s o n in g .
a l l boys and g i r l s ,
L e isu re is
It
a common p o s s e s s i o n o f
and c a n be a n a ly z e d i n d i v i d u a l l y a s
a p e r s o n a l p ro b le m , w h ic h , h o w ever,
to th e
s o c i a l w h o le .
i s th e b e g in n in g o f
is re la te d
c lo s e ly
Some h a v e a l r e a d y b e e n g u i d e d w i s e l y
g
A r t h u r N e w to n P a c k , T h e C h a l l e n g e o f L e i s u r e .
(New Y o r k :
T he M a c m i l l a n 6 0 . , 1 9 3 6 J , p7 STS’.
8
a t home a n d u s e t h e i r l e i s u r e w e l l ;
lo t,
and r a r e l y
o rd er.
th e irs
i s th e happy
do t h ^ r c o n s t i t u t e a n y m e n a c e t o t h e s o c i a l
O th e r s , n o t so f o r t u n a t e , m u st be g iv e n i n s p i r a t i o n
t o d e v e lo p l a t e n t d e s i r e s and c a p a b i l i t i e s .
h id d e n t a l e n t s and th e encou rag em ent o f
D isc o v e ry o f
t h e i r te n d e n c ie s
t o b r o a d e n o u t a n d i n v e s t i g a t e f o r t h e m s e l v e s m ay b e c o n ­
s id e re d an im p o rta n t phase o f t h i s s tu d y .
c h ild re n can be i n s t i l l e d
p o s s ib ilitie s ,
w ith th e c o n sc io u sn e ss o f g r e a te r
n ew i n t e r e s t s ,
o f o t h e r s 1 a tte m p ts t o u t i l i z e
fo r th e
A ll ty p e s o f
and in c re a s e d a p p r e c ia tio n
l e i s u r e tim e a g g r e e a b ly ,
s a k e o f c u l t u r a l v a l u e s d i s t i n e t f r o m p u r e l y m one­
t a r y w o rth o f th e a c t i v i t i e s .
R e sp o n sib ility of a d u lts .
Why d o e s n f t t h e home
c a r e f o r t h e c h i l d r e n #s l e i s u r e h o u r s ?
reco rd s,
s o c i a l w orkers*
Ju v e n ile c o u rt
i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , and g o v ern m en t
s u r v e y s b u l g e w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e d e c l i n e
a n d t h e r i g h t home a t m o s p h e r e .
o f t h e home
T h i s may b e p a r t i a l l y
due
to s o c i a l u n r e s t , b u t s o c i a l d e g ra d a tio n b ro u g h t about by
i n d u s t r i a l a n d e c o n o m ic c o n d i t i o n s p l a y a m u ch l a r g e r p a r t .
T h o u g h t h e s c h o o l s a r e s t r i v i n g t o r e a c h t h e h o m es t h r o u g h
t h e m ed iu m o f i n s p i r e d e d u c a t i o n , p a r e n t - t e a c h e r o r g a n i z a ­
tio n s ,
summer p l a y g r o u n d a n d B i b l e c l a s s a c t i v i t i e s ,
and
p u b l i c i t y m o v e m e n ts i n t h e f o u n d i n g o f p l a y - t i m e c l u b s ,
t h e tim e i s n o t y e t w hen c u l t u r a l c a r r y - o v e r i s
enough to c o n tr o l a l l
tim e .
stro n g
of th e h o u rs o f th e c h ild re n * s fre e
9
T h e m a j o r i t y o f o u r a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n h a s m o re l e i s u r e
and p l a y tim e t h a n e v e r b e f o r e i n A m e ric a n h i s t o r y ;
m an y
have d e v is e d w ith o u t g u id e o r i n s t r u c t i o n o r s c i e n t i f i c ,
p r e p a r a t i o n w o rth y o r i g i n a l p r o j e c t s and h o b b i e s , m eth o d s
of liv in g th e ir le is u re
c re d ita b ly , to
th e m se lv e s and
t h e i r c o m m u n i ty , a n d a n i n s p i r a t i o n t o n e i g h b o r s a n d
frie n d s.
T h i s new f a c t o r ,
th e a d u lts*
e x te n d e d l e i s u r e ,
e o u p le d w i t h t h e i r g e n e r o s i t y and e n th u s ia s m , h a s in a
f e w s h o r t y e a r s won w o r l d r e c o g n i t i o n t h r o u g h c o - o p e r a t i o n
i n s u c h w o r t h y j u v e n i l e m o v e m e n ts a s t h e S c o u t s , G i r l
R e s e rv e s , C a m p fire, and k in d re d o r g a n iz a tio n s d e sig n e d t o
t a k e up t h e
sla c k
in c h i l d r e n ’s u n o rg a n iz e d h o u rs .
S a n fo rd B a te s a b ly w r i t e s :
T h e s c h o o l a n d t h e home c a n n o t , h o w e v e r , e x t e n d
s u p e r v i s i o n t h r o u g h o u t t h e w h o le o f t h e c h i l d ’ s ex ­
iste n c e .
X t i s d u r i n g h i s s p a r e h o u r s t h a t m an y
o f t h e d e l e t e r i o u s i n f l u e n c e s o f t h e c o m m u n ity a r e
b ro u g h t t o b e a r on y o u t h . • • •
We a r e j u s t i f i e d i n o u r
a s s u m p t i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , n o t o n l y o f o u r ow n,
b u t o t h e r p e o p l e ’ s c h i l d r e n w h e n i t com es t o a n i n ­
t e l l i g e n t c o n c e r n f o r t h e w ay t h e y u s e t h e i r l e i s u r e
t im e . . . . .
The r e a l i t y o f t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s b e g i n n i n g
t o daw n u p o n t h e A m e r i c a n p e o p l e . . . . L e i s u r e t i m e among
c h i l d r e n i s n o th in g new , . . . . b u t t h e l e i s u r e p e r i o d ,
t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f w h i c h i s c o m p e te d f o r b y s o m an y
d e v a s t a t i n g a l l u r e m e n t s , i s a d e v e lo p m e n t o f o u r m odern
c iv iliz a tio n . 3
3 S a n f o r d B a t e s , W hat Y o u t h N e e d s i n t h e Way o f
L e a d e r s h i p f r o m B u s i n e s s a n d L ab o r"! ( T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e
R e c o r d , 4 0 : 6 2 7 , M ay, 1 9 4 0 ) .
10
T hese s p le n d id o r g a n i z a t i o n s , S c o u ts , N a tu re c r a f t s
a n d m an y o t h e r s ,
d e v is e d f o r c h a r a c te r b u ild in g and f i l l i n g
th e l e i s u r e h o u rs of c h ild r e n , have i n t r i n s i c
v a lu e *
The
s c h o o l s a n d t h e c o u n t r y c o - o p e r a t e w i t h th e m i n t h e i r
g ro w th *
T h e l e a d e r s who g i v e o f t h e i r t i m e so w i l l i n g l y
a r e ack n o w le d g ed b e n e f a c t o r s , w i t h h u m a n i t a r i a n i n s t i n c t s .
Y e t , v d .th a s m uch a s h a s a l r e a d y b e e n a c c o m p l i s h e d , t h e y
have n o t re a c h e d a l l th e c h ild r e n ,
and p e rh a p s n o t a t a l l
t h o s e who m ay b e i n m o s t d e s p e r a t e n e e d o f w i s e g u i d a n c e *
U n t i l t h e s c h o o l s c a n i n c o r p o r a t e t r a i n i n g b y w h ich a l l
m ay b e a f f e c t e d ,
th e p ro g ram s and c u r r i c u l a w i l l s t a y open
f o r m ore p l a u s i b l e s u g g e s t i o n s and p la n s *
W hat t h e s e a d u l t s h a v e a c c o m p lis h e d t h r o u g h e n e r g y
and tim e s p e n t on su c h w o rth y e n d e a v o rs s h o u ld f i n d a c o u n te r ­
p art
in o t h e r ’ s p re s e n ta tio n
or e x p o sitio n o f t h e i r p e r­
so n a l re c o rd s o f p ro d u c ts of l e i s u r e ,
n a m e ly , c o n c r e t e
e x a m p le s o f h o b b i e s , w h ic h s e r v e a s i n s p i r a t i o n s an d e s ­
t a b l i s h b o n d s o f common i n t e r e s t s am ong a d u l t s a n d c h i l d r e n *
A p p r e c i a t i o n m ay w e l l b e e x p e c t e d t o
a re e sta b lish e d
am ong t h o s e o f l i k e
fo llo w ;
frie n d sh ip s
t a s t e s and s y m p a t h i e s .
The c h i l d r e n l i s t e n w i t h g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n t o w h o ev er h a s
i d e a s a l o n g t h e l i n e s o f t h e i r own i n c l i n a t i o n s .
C o m ra d -
s h i p b e tw e e n y o u th and a d u l t s c a n u s u a l l y b e fo u n d w hen
th e y d is c u s s p la y ,
and t h i s
f o r m o f t e a c h i n g m ay s e r v e
11
in a m easu re to
en co u rag e th e s p i r i t o f sy m p a th e tic
u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d c o - o p e r a t i o n s o m u ch n e e d e d i n a l l
th e w o rld to d a y .
D r. O v e r s t r e e t w r i t e s :
tim e a c t i v i t i e s
is
"T he s i g n i f i c a n c e
of fre e
t h a t i t p l a c e s u s i n a s h a r i n g m ood,
th e f in e a r t o f l i v i n g ." 4
Though t h e a t t i t u d e s o f t h e c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s
m ay
he d iv e rg e n t in
re sp e c t to th e ir
ages and s i t u a t i o n s ,
t h e s u b j e c t o f h o b b i e s f i n d s th e m o n common f o o t i n g a n d
n e e d s no p r o lo n g e d i n t r o d u c t i o n .
V a lu e t o
a t th e
th e c h ild r e n .
th re s h o ld o f
The s e v e n t h g r a d e r s a r e
a new e n v i r o n m e n t ,
a n d e n c o u n t e r m an y new e x p e r i e n c e s ,
jo rity ,
a d o le sc e n c e .
j u n io r h ig h sc h o o l,
i n c l u d i n g f o r t h e ma­
They a re exposed to f in d in g s c o u r s e s ,
and th e y e x p lo r e th e a r t s and c r a f t s .
They a r e s t i l l
h ero w o rs h ip e rs .
P a u l M cP herson w r i t e s :
A w areness o f s e l f i s e x c e p t i o n a l l y s t r o n g d u r in g
a d o l e s c e n c e . . . .A n o th e r a d o l e s c e n t te n d e n c y i s to w a rd
h e ro w o rs h ip .
Y o u n g s te rs te n d to c h o o se p e rs o n s to
whom t h e y a t t a c h h a l o s a n d s t r i v e t o i m i t a t e . ®
They a r e b e g in n in g t o
g e t a ro u n d and l i s t e n w ith
^ H a r r y A l l e n O v e r s t r e e t , A G u id e t o C i v i l i z e d
L e isu re .
(New Y o r k : W. W. N o r t o n a n d C o . I n c . , 1 9 3 4 ) , p . 2 0 .
5P a u l M c P h e r s o n ,
"A d o le sc e n t I n t e r e s t s
S c h o o l M u s i c , " A r i z o n a T e a c h e r . M ay, 1 9 4 0 , p .
and P u b lic
271.
m ore u n d e r s t a n d i n g t o w h a t o l d e r p e o p le h a v e t o s a y .
Many a m o t h e r h a s c o m p l a i n e d t h a t t h e S c o u t M a s t e r ’ s
w o rd f o r a t h i n g c a r r i e d m o r e w e i g h t t h a n h e r ow n, a
p r o d u c t o f t h e c o m p a n io n s h ip d u r i n g h o u r s / o f r e c r e a t i o n
and l e i s u r e .
C h ild re n ’s use of t h e i r l e is u r e
sig n ific a n t.
a t t h i s age is
San D ie g o ’ s P o l i c e D e p a rtm e n t r e c o r d s
in th e
j u v e n i l e b u r e a u sh o w t h a t t w e n t y - t w o p e r c e n t o f j u v e n i l e
d e lin q u e n c y r e a c h i n g t h e s e r i o u s n e s s o f c rim e o c c u rs a t
fifte e n
y ears of age, a r e s u l t, u s u a lly ,
o f tw o o r t h r e e
y e a r s ’ p r a c t i c e s o r la w le s s te m p ta tio n s due to n e g le c te d
d i r e c t i o n o f th e p re v io u s y e a r s in ap p ro v ed ty p e s o f l e i s u r e
p u rsu its.
T hese form s o f d e lin q u e n c y a r e n e a r l y one
h u n d red p e r c e n t p e r p e t r a t e d
d u rin g th e c h ild r e n ’s f r e e
tim e .
S a n fo rd B a te s a g a in w r i t e s :
The f u t u r e o f t h e y o u th o f A m e ric a i s i n e x t r i c a b l y
bound up w ith t h e p ro b lem o f t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e i r
l e i s u r e tim e .
E v ery in q u ir y i n t o th e e ti o lo g y o f
c rim e u n m is ta k a b ly d e m o n s tra te s t h a t y o u th f u l de­
lin q u e n c y , w h ic h i s a l l to o o f t e n th e p r e lu d e to
c rim e , h a s i t s in c ip ie n c y d u r in g th e u n o c c u p ie d h o u rs
o f o u r boys and g i r l s .
I t i s w h ile th e boy i s n o t
in
sch o o l th a t he g e ts in to tr o u b le . 6
Jn
J u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l c h i l d r e n a r e b e c o m in g c o n s c i o u s
o f th e
c o m p l e x i t i e s o f t h e b u s i n e s s w o r ld a b o u t th e m ,
g
S t a n f o r d B a t e s , "W hat Y o u t h N e e d s i n t h e Way o f
L e a d e rs h ip from B u s in e s s and L a b o r ,"
T e a c h e rs C o lle g e
R e co rd , 4 0 :6 2 7 .
15
w h i e h t h e y do n o t u n d e r s t a n d , a n d t h e y a l s o s t a n d som e­
w h a t i n awe o f t h e b u s i n e s s s i d e o f t h e b u s i n e s s man*
T h e common d e n o m i n a t o r , h o u r s o f p l a y ,
is a t le a s t a
t i m e w hen t h e y s p e a k a common l a n g u a g e *
W h at b e t t e r t i m e
can th e r e be to a c q u a in t sch o o l c h ild r e n w ith a f r i e n d l y ,
s y m p a th e tic p u b l i c , w h ereb y m u tu a l i n t e r e s t s
le isu re p u rsu its,
b e tte r
in p la y ,
a n d h o b b i e s m ay b e a n O pen S e s a m e t o
c o m p re h e n s io n o f t h e a d u l t w o r ld a b o u t th em ?
d isc u ssio n s ab o u t le is u r e ,
of liv in g ,
a
The
i n fo rm a s i m p l i f i e d m anner
c a n n o t h e lp b u t com pel a t t e n t i o n t o
th e c u l t u r ­
a l l y b e t t e r w ays o f l i f e .
T h e ir l a t e r
c a r e e r in h ig h sc h o o l g iv e s c h ild r e n
o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o m e e t t h e b u s i n e s s m an i n t h e b u s i n e s s
c a p a c ity .
How m uch m o r e e f f e c t i v e t h i s w i l l b e m ad e i f
y o u t h s h a v e come t o kn o w h im a s a c o m p a n io n i n h i s l e i s u r e
in te re s ts .
T h e i n f o r m a l w ay o f m e e t i n g a d u l t s t h r o u g h t h e i r
m u tu a l i n t e r e s t s
in l e i s u r e p u r s u its
is
im p o rta n t to
c h ild r e n in th r e e w ays:
(1 ) I t w i l l te n d t o b ro a d e n t h e i r
d e sire s
in te re s ts
in
t o m ak e o t h e r w o r t h y c o n t a c t s .
(&) I t w i l l t e n d t o b r e a k down t h e a l l t o o common
c o n c e p tio n t h a t a l l
e ffo rts
: o f a n y k i n d s h o u l d b e rem un­
e r a t i v e o r e s t i m a t e d f r o m a n e c o n o m ic v a l u e .
The A m erican
14
c u l t u r a l a s p e c t, th e p u re jo y o f d o in g , h as b een o b sc u re d :
first,
b y t h e e a r l y b e l i e f t h a t u n p r o d u c t i v e l a b o r w as
sin fu l,
and se c o n d ,
p o p u la r a t t i t u d e ,
i t h a s b e e n i n m odern t im e s t h e
" I t woifrt m ak e y o u a n y m o n e y . "
(5) I t s m o r a l w o rth i s e v i d e n t .
The b u s y c h i l d r e n
a r e t h e h a p p y c h i l d r e n , w h e n b u s y w i t h t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s
t h a t th e y a re
o th e rs*
s u re have th e a p p ro v a l and u n d e rs ta n d in g o f
A c o n s c io u s n e s s t h a t t h e r e i s a p p ro b a tio n and
sy m p a th y t e n d s t o t u r n e v e n t h e te m p te d fro m d e s i r e s t o
o v e rste p our p re s e n t m o ral co d es.
Hew a n d e x p a n d e d i n t e r ­
e s t s w i l l b u i l d l i b e r a l th o u g h t*
The v a lu e t o t h e t e a c h e r *
p re se n te d in t h i s
Ho c o u r s e o f t h e k i n d
s t u d y h a s y e t b e e n m ad e a v a i l a b l e a s a
p r o j e c t o r m e th o d o f i n t r o d u c i n g l e i s u r e
a c tiv itie s
to
t h e s e v e n t h g r a d e t h r o u g h t h e m ed iu m o f t h e E n g l i s h c l a s s *
L ittle
lite ra tu re
o f a p e d a g o g ic a l ty p e h a s y e t b e e n fo rm u ­
la te d ,
so th e c o u rs e a s ta u g h t h o ld s u n iq u e p o s s i b i l i t i e s *
The t e a c h e r ’ s w i l l i n g n e s s t o l e a r n w i t h t h e g r o u p , t o k e e p
a n open m in d , t o b e e v e r a l e r t t o b e t t e r m e th o d s s u g g e s te d
o r new a n d u n e x p e c te d m a t e r i a l s p r e s e n t e d , a c k n o w le d g m e n t
o f e r r o r s a n d c h a n g e s a d v i s a b l e m ay a l l b e c a r e f u l l y e v a l ­
u a te d
in b u i l d i n g a f u t u r e p la n w h e re in te a c h in g th e w o rth y
u s e o f l e i s u r e m ay s t i l l b e t h e c h i e f aim *
15
III.
TRENDS AND AIMS IN TEACHING USE OF LEISURE
An a c t i v i t y p r o d u c i n g s a t i s f a c t i o n
in a c c o m p lish ­
m e n t, th o u g h n o t i n te rm s o f p e r f e c t s c o r e s ,
d e v e lo p s
s e l f a s s u r a n c e , t h e s p i r i t o f c o m p a n io n sh ip ,
and c o - o p e r ­
a t i o n r a t h e r th a n j e a l o u s i e s and c o m p e te tiv e h a tr e d s ;
le isu re
is free ,
and an i n d i v i d u a l ’ s a t t i t u d e
g e n e ra lly in to a s ta te
tu rn s
o f f r i e n d l i n e s s and g e n e r o s ity ;
th e s e c a rr y th e e sse n ce of a p p re c ia tio n f a r fo rw ard .
c re ased a p p re c ia tio n of th e a r t s
in a l l f i e l d s d e v e lo p s
t h e c u l t u r e dem anded o f a p r o g r e s s i v e c i t i z e n r y
c o u n tr y and i t s
c iv iliz a tio n
and d em o cracy .
in e d u c a tio n .
T h e new t r e n d s i n
" te a c h c h il d r e n r a t h e r th a n s u b j e c t s ” te m p ts
one to w onder i f
d u rin g h is
th e c h ild
i s n o t m ore n e a r l y h i m s e l f
l e i s u r e tim e th a n a t any o t h e r ;
th is
t i m e i s h i s ow n, w h e n , t h e o r e t i c a l l y a t l e a s t ,
h im se lf,
i f th e
p e o p le a r e t o a s c e n d t o h ig h e r fo rm s o f
T h e new t r e n d s
e d u c a tio n to
In ­
in stru c ts,
tra in s,
le isu re
he p le a s e s
or o th e rw ise g r a t i f i e s h is
d e s i r e s and l o n g in g s d e n ie d d u r i n g o t h e r h o u r s .
An i n ­
fo rm a l y e t th o ro u g h p la n t o s tu d y a l l l e g i tim a t e
ty p e s o f
le isu re a c tiv itie s ,
th e tic a lly ,
p r e s e n t e d e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y a n d sy m pa­
can h a r d ly f a l l to b e n e f i t th e l e a s t p ro m is in g
16
ju n io r h ig h sc h o o l c h il d ,
a n d may s u g g e s t n o v e l i d e a s
f o r e n r i c h m e n t o f h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g a id a p p r e c i a t i o n o f
t h e s o c i a l w o r ld a b o u t h im .
lo o k on l i f e .
T h is w i l l b ro a d e n h i s o u t­
The a b s e n c e o f t e x t b o o k s a s s u c h and t h e
c o rr e s p o n d in g o m is s io n o f " f i n a l m arks i n t h e c o u r s e "
e l i m i n a t e sc h o o lro o m a tm o s p h e re .
T h e a im s i n t e a c h i n g u s e o f l e i s u r e .
a im e d t o
T h is c o u rs e
t e a c h i n f o r m a l l y t h e m o st m o dern t r e n d s
c re a tio n a l in te re s ts ,
a s u b j e c t b e in g a ck n o w led g ed a s
v i t a l th ro u g h o u t th e c o u n try .
and d e v e lo p l a t e n t t a l e n t s
and o r i g i n a l i t y
dem ocracy.
in r e ­
To b e a b e t t e r
c itiz e n
and e n c o u ra g e i n d i v i d u a l i t y
a r e t h e fu n d a m e n ta l p r i n c i p l e s
in our
To e n c o u r a g e t h e s e i n t h e m i d - w a y e d u c a t i o n a l
e x p e rie n c e s o f th e a v e ra g e sc h o o l c h i l d , w ith an eye to
th e ir c u ltu ra l b e n e fits ,
p re se n te d
is
a d m itte d ly th e u n d e rta k in g
in th e fo llo w in g p ag es.
IV .
RELATED IOTESTIGATIONS
S o c ia l p ro b le m s c r e a t e d by th e g r e a t e r l e i s u r e
have
b e e n a c k n o w l e d g e d t h r o u g h t h e l a s t tw o d e c a d e s , w i t h i n ­
c r e a s i n g dem ands t h a t e d u c a ti o n h e lp f i n d a s o l u t i o n .
The
sc h o o ls have a c c e p te d th e c h a lle n g e , and, as has been th e
e x p e rie n c e th ro u g h o u t th e h i s t o r y o f e d u c a tio n ,
e x p e ri­
m e n ta tio n and r e a d j u s t m e n t o f c u r r ic u lu m m eth o d s have
17
re s u lte d ,
even in th e fa c e o f c o n s ta n t c r i t i c i s m
as
e v i d e n c e d fcy S u p e r i n t e n d e n t W i l l C . C r a w f o r d o f t h e
San D ie g o c i t y
s c h o o l s when h e s t a t e s :
R e se a rc h and c e r t a i n v e ry e s s e n t i a l p h a se s o f
c e n tra l su p e rv isio n a re lim ite d by th e f a c t th a t
t h e p u b l i c i s w i l l i n g t o h a v e t h e s c h o o l s m ove a l o n g
t r a d i t i o n a l l i n g s , and m ak es l i t t l e o r no dem ands
fo r in n o v a tio n . 7
E x c e lle n t su rv ey s r e l a t i v e
to
th e r e s u l t s o f in ­
a d e q u a te e d u c a tio n , and p r o je c te d e x p e rim e n ta l te a c h in g
have been r e p o rte d
g a tio n .
in a l l f i e l d s o f en d eav o r and i n v e s t i ­
Among t h e s e m ay b e f o u n d m an y s c h o l a r l y r e p o r t s ,
d e v e lo p e d i n a v a r i e t y o f ways t h r o u g h o u t t h e s e c o n d a r y
sc h o o l program s,
a s w e l l a s e l e m e n t a r y p r o b l e m s , a n d com­
m u n ity p r o j e c t s and p ro b le m s o f p la n n in g f o r w o rth w h ile
a c t i v i t i e s o f a d u lt and ju v e n ile c i t i z e n r y .
T h e c h i e f p u b l i c a t i o n s o f t h e l a s t m e n t i o n e d m ove­
m e n ts a r e t h e b u l l e t i n s
is s u e d by th e N a tio n a l R e c re a tio n
A s s o c i a t i o n , w h ic h c a r r y a w e a lth o f m a t e r i a l o f w hat h a s
a l r e a d y b e e n done a n d t h e
i n c r e a s i n g n e e d s f o r m ore e d u c a ­
t i o n am ong t h e p u b l i c f o r
c o m m u n ity r e c r e a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g .
R e c r e a t i o n , a m a g a z in e d e d ic a t e d ,
th is p a rtic u la r fie ld ,
n
as i t s
name i m p l i e s , t o
c o n ta in s h ig h ly v a lu a b le m a te ria l
" E d u c a tio n a l R e se a rc h by T e a c h e r s ,"
School Jo u rn a l,
E le m e n ta ry
18
oil h o b b i e s a n d l e i s u r e - t i m e a c t i v i t i e s
tio n .
o f ev ery d e s c rip ­
P o p u la r m a g a z in e s su c h a s P o p u la r S c ie n c e , P o p u la r
M e c h a n ic s. H o b b ie s, and L e i s u r e , a r e
to a c t iv i t ie s
in d is p e n s ib le g u id e s
f o r l e i s u r e tim e p u r s u i t s .
The A m e ric a n and
S a tu r d a y E v en in g P o s t have c o n t r i b u t e d v a lu a b le a r t i c l e s
a p p e a l i n g t o I j to p u la r t a s t e s .
a r t i c l e by B o ris B la i,
One p a r t i c u l a r l y f i n e
" I t f s I n Y our H a n d s," 8 i n
th e
A m e r i c a n d e s e r v e s s p e c i a l c o m m en t h e r e .
A s e a r c h t h r o u g h a m e d i c a l l i b r a r y p e r i o d i c a l ro o m
re v e a le d hobby and l e i s u r e - ti m e a c t i v i t i e s
h i g h l y reco m ­
m e n d e d b y e m i n e n t m e d i c o s who w r o t e e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y f o r
g re a te r re c re a tio n f a c i l i t i e s ,
p e u tic v a lu e .
se ttin g
fo rth th e ir th e ra ­
D r s . D. D. C a m p b e l l a n d J .
p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h . t h i s th e m e i n a n a r t i c l e
1 . D a v is d e a l t
title d ,
R esearch
and E x p e rim e n ta tio n in E x e r c is e s and R e c r e a t io n a l T h e ra p y ,
w h e re in th e y s t a t e
Q
t h a t r e c r e a t io n th ro u g h a c tiv e p la y i s
a v i t a l c o u n te r b a la n c e t o w ork;
s u b je c t o f R e c re a tio n . I t s
D r . A. K ann w r o t e o n t h e
T h e r a p e u t i c V a l u e . 10 a n d d i s c u s s e s
t h e p ro b le m fro m th e s c i e n t i f i c
p o in t o f v ie w , s t r e s s i n g
8 B o r i s B l a i , " I t ' s i n Y0u r H a n d s , " T h e A m e r i c a n
M a g az in e , J a n u a ry , 1940, p p . 5 1 -5 2 .
9
D.
D. C a m p b e l l a n d J . E . D a v i s , " R e s e a r c h a n d
E x p e rim e n ta tio n in E x e r c is e s and R e c r e a tio n a l T h e ra p y ,"
A m erican J o u r n a l o f P s y c h i a t r y . 9 6 :9 1 5 - 3 3 , J a n u a r y , 194 0 .
1 0 A* E a n n , " R e c r e a t i o n , I t s T h e r a p e u t i c V a l u e , "
O c c u p a tio n a l T h e ra p y , 1 9 :2 3 7 - 4 5 , A u g u s t, 1940.
19
th e n erv o u s e n e rg ie s r e c u p e ra te d .
c o m m eric al p i c t o r i a l ,
m o n th ly i s s u e s .
11
th o u g h a
f e a t u r e s h o b b ie s in each o f i t s
T he C h e v r o l e t Company h a v e b e c o m e w i d e l y -
kn o w n f o r t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s
D e rb ie s;
F rie n d s.
i n s p o n s o r i n g B o y s ’ S o a p Box
a fe a tu re a r tic le
The F a m ily C i r c l e .
o f such a c t i v i t i e s ap p ea re d in
ip
’’D o w n h i l l D e r b y , "
The l a s t -
m e n tio n e d m a g a z in e , a n o th e r c o m m erc ial o rg a n f o r p u b l i c i t y
of a c h a in s to r e ,
c a r r i e s m an y f i n e a n d i n s t r u c t i v e a r t i c l e s
on v a l u a b l e and i n t e r e s t i n g h o b b ie s and s u g g e s t i o n s f o r
u se o f l e i s u r e tim e .
P r o b l e m s f o r t h e s c h o o l a r e s e t f o r t h b y tw o a b l e
w r i t e r s , L . D . C o f f m a n a n d Alma G a u l t :
th e
fo rm er,
in
Y o u th P ro b le m s and L e i s u r e p e r t i n e n t l y d e s c r i b e s t h e c o n d itio n s
to be m e t,
13
and th e l a t t e r ,
in L e is u r e C h a lle n g e s
t h e S c h o o l , s u g g e s t s m e t h o d s f o r a c t u a l c l a s s ro o m p r a c t i c e .
E . S . G oudy t r e a t s
s i m i l a r l y on s c h o o l w ith i t s
14
home r e l a ­
tio n s h ip
i n H o b by H i d i n g a t Home a n d S c h o o l , t o u c h i n g o n
15
home r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .
I t w o u ld h a r d l y be n e c e s s a r y i n
a d isc u ssio n lik e
t h i s t o go v e r y d e e p l y i n t o
t h e w ork o f
^ F r ie n d s . (D e tro it:
M o to r C i t y P u b l i s h i n g C o . ) ‘
IP
S t e w a r t R o b e r ts o n , " D o w n h ill D e r b y ,"
T he F a m i l y
C i r c l e , (T h e F a m i l y C i r c l e M a g a z i n e , I n c . , O c t o b e r 1 3 , 1 9 3 9 ) ,
p p .1 6 -1 1 , 19, 3 1 -2 2 .
- ^ L . D. C o f f m a n , " Y o u t h P r o b l e m s a n d L e i s u r e , "
E d u c a tio n a l R e c r e a tio n , Ja n u a ry , 1939, pp. 5 -9 .
20
th e Jo u rn a l o f th e N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n a l A s s o c ia tio n , as
e v e ry e d u c a to r
is
f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e m an y f i n e
e d ito ria ls
and s u b m itte d w r i t i n g s f o r p r o g r e s s i v e p la n n in g and l e i s u r e
e d u c a tio n *
The J u n i o r S c h o l a s t i c . a m a g a z in e f o r
h i g h s c h o o l and h i g h s c h o o l r e a d e r s r u n s ,
Ju n io r
o c c a sio n a lly ,
s p e c i a l hobby e d i t i o n s and te m p tin g ly d is p la y e d l o g i c a l
h o b b ie s and a c t i v i t i e s w ith in th e p r a c t i c a l ra n g e o f ju ­
v e n ile s .
A d d itio n a l hobby m ag a z in e s d e s ig n e d p r i m a r i l y
f o r d e v e lo p in g h o b b ie s have fo u n d p la c e on th e r a c k s o f
th e ju n io r h ig h sc h o o l l i b r a r y :
H o b b ie s, and L e is u r e .
W. E . W i l e y i n h i s t r e a t i s e , R e c r e a t i o n , A Home
16
Town P r o b l e m , m e e t s t h e c h a l l e n g e w i s e l y .
M e tro p o lita n L ife In su ra n ce r e c e n tly
issu e d a
B u l l e t i n f o r T e a c h e r s a d m i t t i n g t h a t t h e m an w i t h a h o b b y
i s g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d a good r i s k *
E t h e l P e y s e r *s F u n w i t h a H o b b y
Home I n s t i t u t e
17
ap p eared in th e
t o a t t r a c t m an y t o w o r t h w h i l e u s e s o f l e i s u r e
14
Alma G a u l t , " L e i s u r e C h a l l e n g e s t h e S c h o o l , "
S i e r r a E d u c a t i o n a l N ew s. O c t o b e r , 1 9 3 5 , p p . 5 2 - 3 .
^ 5E . S . G o u d y , "H obby R i d i n g a t Home a n d S c h o o l , "
C h i l d S t u d y , D e c e m b e r , 1 9 3 5 , pp* 7 5 - 8 .
16 W. E . W i l e y , " R e c r e a t i o n , A Home Town P r o b l e m , "
C a l i f o r n i a J o u r n a l o f E l e m e n t a r y E d u c a t i o n , M ay, 1 9 3 8 ,
pp. 248 -5 3 .
17
E t h e r P e y s e r , " F u n w i t h a H o b b y , " Home I n s t i t u t e ,
I n c . , Los A n g e le s ,E x a m in e r, 1938, p p . 3 4 .
I
21
tim e , a s d id a ls o h e r a r t i c l e
a p p e a rin g in th e C h r is tia n
S c i e n c e M o n i t o r , C u l t u r e i s G r o w th i n T i n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d
is
T o le ra n c e .
T r o w , Z a p f , a n d McKown c o l l a b o r a t e d oti a
s tu d y g ro u p p a m p h le t f o r s c h o o l u s e , R e c r e a t i o n and L e is u r e .^ - 9
U n d e r t h e a u s p i c e s o f I . W. S t u d e | > a k e r , U. S . Com­
m is s io n e r o f E d u c a tio n ,
a p p ea re d a b u l l e t i n
e n t i t l e d , Y o u th ;
L e i s u r e f o r L iv in g , w h ic h s e t s f o r t h t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s
20
o f e d u c a tio n .
S i n c e t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e y e a r 1 9 4 1 , tw o e x c e l l e n t
new b o o k s h a v e come t o t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e w r i t e r :
F o s t e r R hea D u lle s * A m e ric a L e a r n s t o P l a y , a f a s c i n a t i n g
v o lu m e o f t h e h i s t o r y o f r e c r e a t i o n and t h e p o s s i b i l i t y
of its
d e v e lo p m e n t;
21
t h e s e c o n d , E . D e A lto n P a r t r i d g e
a n d C a t h e r i n e M ooney s e t f o r t h m o s t e n t e r t a i n i n g l y a t e x t
pg
o f v a lu a b le hobby and l e i s u r e tim e a c t i v i t i e s . ^
A b u lle tin
prep ared
i n W ash in g to n fro m K a th e r in e G lo v e r ’s L e i s u r e f o r
• ^ M a rjo rie S h u le r, " E th e l P e y se r O ffe rs a R e c ip e f o r
R ic h e r U s e s o f L e i s u r e , " The C h r i s t i a n S c ie n c e M o n ito r ,
S e p te m b e r,1 7 , 1940•
19
W i l l i a m C l a r k T r o w , R o s a l i n d M. Z a p f , a n d H a r r y
C . McKoawn, R e c r e a t i o n a n d L e i s u r e .
(New Y o r k : M cGrawH i l l Book C o . , 1 9 4 0 .
2 0Y o u t h . L e i s u r e f o r L i v i n g . B u l l e t i n 1 9 3 6 , N o . 1 8 - 1 1 ,
O f f ic e , o f E d u c a t i o n , U. S . D e p a rtm e n t o f t h e I n t e r i o r ,
W a s h i n g t o n , D. C.
Y ork:
^ F o s t e r R hea D u l l e s , A m e ric a L e a r n s t o P l a y .
D. A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y C o . , I n c . , 1 9 4 0 1 , 3 7 3 p p .
(New
22
L iv in g
sh o u ld p ro v e in v a lu a b le to
le isu re
th em e.
any s tu d e n t o f th e
She w r i t e s :
H o b b ie s f i t i n t o t h e n ic h e w h ere e d u c a tio n and
r e c r e a t i o n m e e t, and c a n n o t w e l l be c l a s s i f i e d s o l e l y
under e ith e r c a te g o ry .
F or young p e o p le f i n d in g l e i s u r e tim e on t h e i r hands
a good w h o leso m e hob b y i s a n in v e s tm e n t t h a t p a y s
d iv id e n d s.
T h ese h o b b ie s w h ic h a r e a v o e a t i o n a l w i t h
p o t e n t i a l i t i e s a re m ost l i k e l y to be m ost s a t i s f y i n g ,
once th e " c o l l e c t i n g ag e" i s p a s t . . . .
The h o b b y w h e re
th e young p e rs o n does so m e th in g , c r e a t e s s o m e th in g ,
h a s a t a n g i b l e a n d c o n c r e t e a c c o m p l i s h m e n t t o sh o w
f o r h i s i n t e r e s t a n d w h |g e h e c a n m e a s u r e p r o g r e s s ,
i s th e m ost s a t i s f y i n g .
The c h a l l e n g e o f l e i s u r e
a tte m p tin g to m eet i t
in c re a s in g l i s t
fie ld s
a n d how t h e s c h o o l s a r e
can be p la in ly se en in th e e v e r-
o f u n p u b lis h e d r e c o r d s
o f e x p e rim e n ta tio n and te a c h in g .
a re th e
in th e a c tu a l
C h i e f am ong t h e s e
m any u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r s ’ t h e s e s , w h i c h h a v e b e e n
p r e s e n te d t o th e U n i v e r s i ty o f S o u th e rn C a li f o r n ia
sin c e
1933.
T h ro u g h a s t u d y m ade o f t h e
o f h i g h s c h o o l boys*
l e i s u r e tim e a c t i v i t i e s
Jo h n B e n ja m in B u e h le r
24
p re se n te d
22
E . D e A lto n P a r t r i d g e an d C a t h e r i n e M ooney,
L i v i n g w i t h L e i s u r e . (New Y o r k : A m e r i c a n B ook C o l , 1 9 4 1 ) ,
62 0 p p .
23
K a th e rin e G lo v e r, L e is u re fo r L iv in g . P u b lis h e d by
C o m m i t te e o n Y o u t h P r o b l e m s , W a s h i n g t o n , D. C . :
S u p e rin te n ­
d e n t o f D o c u m en ts, 1 9 3 6 .
pp. 96.
dent of
2 4 Jo h n B e n ja m in B u e h l e r , S tu d y o f L e i s u r e - t i m e A c t i v i t i e s o f H ig h S c h o o l B o y s, (u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ’ s t h e s i s ,
U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s , C a l i f o r n i a ,
1 9 3 7 , 227 p p .
S3
rec o m m e n d atio n s f o r h e l p f u l g u id a n c e th r o u g h t h e p h y s i c a l
e d u c a tio n program .
av erag e o f f i f t y
As i t h a s b e e n a s c e r t a i n e d t h a t a n
p e r c e n t o f b o th a d u lts and c h ild r e n
f i n d r e c r e a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s and h o b b ie s th ro u g h s p o r t s
and a t h l e t i c s ,
ju stifie d ,
th is
p a r t in t h e e d u c a ti o n a l program
a lth o u g h
a c tiv itie s ,
l a t e in th e tr a in in g
is
o f h a b it-fo rm in g
s e rv e as h e lp f u l g u id in g in th e te a c h in g .
25
C h a r l e s H. C a n n o n
m ad e a s u r v e y o f o n e h u n d r e d
and f o r t y
to
ju n io r h ig h sch o o l p u p ils , u sin g th e I.Q . as a
b a s is f o r stu d y in g s e le c tio n o f l e i s u r e
and i n t e r e s t s ,
tim e a c t i v i t i e s
and p r e s e n t i n g an a tte m p t t o l o c a t e th e
r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w i t h i n t h e s c h o o l sy ste m f o r d i r e c t i o n
of le isu re
in te re s ts .
T h is r e s u l t e d
in b e tte r
b e i n g m ad e u p o n t h e u n o r i g i n a l a n d u n i n i t i a t e d
and m ore s a t i s f y i n g
su rv ey of s e n io r h ig h sch o o l g i r l s
among 8 2 6 g i r l s ,
p h y sic a l a c tiv ity ,
of b e tte r
ways o f u s i n g l e i s u r e t i m e .
N ova C o r n e l i s o n f s
found t h a t ,
im p re ss io n s
(w h o s e c r a v i n g s w e r e f o r
d e sire fo r t h r i l l s ,
a n d h u n g e r f o r som e­
th in g d if f e r e n t)
t h e r e w a s m u ch n e e d f o r s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n 26
in g in sc h o o l tim e .
M iss C o r n e lis o n
p re se n ts fe a s ib le
25
C h a r l e s H. C a n n o n , S u rv e y o f L e i s u r e - t i m e A c t i v i t i e s
o n J u n i o r H ig h S c h o o l L e v e l . (unpubT T shed M a s t e r ’ s t h e s i s ,
U n i v e r s i ty o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o n r i a , Los A n g e le s , C a l i f o r n i a ,
1 9 3 6 ), 103 p p .
34
s u g g e s t i o n s o f w hat t h e s c h o o l m ig h t do a b o u t i t .
M a rjo rie F a rr
37
p r e s e n t s t h e h i s t o r y and d e v e lo p ­
m e n t o f s c h o o l r e c r e a t i o n a n d how t h e s c h o o l s a r e a d j u s t ­
in g th e c o u rs e s o f s tu d y to
in c lu d e t h is
a ll-im p o rta n t
th em e.
A l i c e R ose G e o rg ia
£8
s t u d i e d th e p ro b le m s o f ad­
ju s tm e n t o f in co m in g j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l p u p i l s , and
re c o m m e n d e d e q u i p m e n t w i t h i n t h e
sc h o o ls w ith such ex­
p l o r a t o r y e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t w o u ld p r o v i d e e d u c a t i o n a l
a n d s o c i a l g u i d a n c e ; t h i s w o u ld c o n t a i n a v a r i e t y o f
o p p o rtu n itie s to ap p eal to
t h e c h i l d s o c i a l l y and p ro v id e
c iv ic tr a in in g .
J e n n ie H a n lo n ,
itie s
o f a group o f
£9
i n a s tu d y o f l e i s u r e tim e a c t i v ­
ju n io r h ig h sc h o o l g i r l s ,
a s t u d y o f t h e n e e d s w as p r e r e q u i s i t e
a d e q u a te p l a n s f o r m e e tin g th em :
t o d e v e lo p m e n t o f
fu rth e rm o re ,
h e l d t h e b e l i e f t h a t t h e c o m m u n ity w a s
re a liz e d th a t
(is)
th e w rite r
lik e w ise r e ­
s p o n s ib le f o r y o u th d r a i n i n g , m ust re c o g n iz e th e v a lu e s o f
26N ova C o r n e l i s o n , S u r v e y o f L e i s u r e - t i m e A c t i v i t i e s
o f S e n i o r H ig h S c h o o l G i r l s , ( u n p u b l is h e d M a s t e r s t h e s i s .
W i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s, C a l i f o r n i a ,
1 9 3 4 ) , 78 p p .
£7
M a r j o r i e W. F a r r , H i s t o r y a n d D e v e l o p m e n t o f S c h o o l
R e c r e a tio n , (u n p u b lish e d M a s te r ’ s t h e s i s , U n iv e r s ity o f
S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s , C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 9 ), 143 p p .
35
such tr a i n in g ,
and a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e
in su ch p la n s
a s m i g h t c r e a t e w h o le s o m e a n d c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s
l e i s u r e t i m e am ong b o t h a d u l t s a n d c h i l d r e n .
30
T h e lm a H a r r i n
tu rn e d h er a tte n tio n to
fo r
th e gro u p
i n a c h u r c h - s c h o o l - c o m m u n i t y - c e n t e r , w i t h t h e a im t o d e v e l o p
le a d e rs of re c re a tio n a l
i n t e r e s t s who m i g h t a i d
in th e
d i s c o v e r y o f m ore c o n s t r u c t i v e and s a t i s f y i n g w ays f o r
p e o p le t o h e lp th e m s e lv e s to s o l u t i o n s .
R u th H e th e r in g to n
s ta te d
sh o u ld te a c h th e ty p e o f l e i s u r e
f i c i a l to th e s tu d e n t.
th a t
th e school
a c t i v i t i e s m ost b e n e ­
H er in v e s tig a tio n to o k p la c e
in
P h o e n ix J u n i o r H ig h S c h o o l, w h e re sh e fo u n d t h e r a n g e o f
h ig h sc h o o l i n t e r e s t s
and w h a t t h e c u r r i c u l u m d i d t o d i r e c t
28A l i c e R o s e G e o r g i a , P r o b l e m s o f A d j u s t m e n t o f
In c o m in g J u n i o r H ig h S& hool P u p i l s .
( u n p u b l i s h e d MasFEfer’ s
t h e s i s ’,’ u n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 9 } , 9 1 p p .
p9
' J e n n ie H a n lo n , S tu d y o f L e i s u r e - ti m e A c t i v i t i e s
o f a G ro u p o f J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l G i r l s ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r *s
t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s ,
C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 7 ), 101 p p .
30
T h e lm a H a r r i s , How t o Make C o n s t r u c t i v e U s e o f
L e i s u r e T im e , ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ’ s t h e s i s , t T n i v e r s i t y o f
S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , L o s A n g e l e s , C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 9 )-, 3 1 0 p p .
3 ^ R u th H e t h e r i n g t o n , E v a l u a t i o n o f I n s t r u c t i o n i n
L e i s u r e - t i m e H o b b ie s i n P h o e n ix J u n i o r H ig h S c h o o l , (unpub­
lis h e d M a s te r’ s t h e s i s , U n iv e rs ity o f S o u th e rn C a lif o r n ia ,
Los A n g e le s , C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 7 ), 148 p p .
26
t h e c h o ic e s and i n t e r e s t s .
d a ta
to
The r e s u l t s
in s t a t i s t i c a l
com pare f a v o r a b l y i n r e s p e c t t o o r i g i n a l i n t e r e s t s
t h i s p r e s e n t p ro b lem o f t e a c h a b i l i t y o f a d u l t h o b b ie s
t h r o u g h t h e m ed iu m o f a s e v e n t h g r a d e c l a s s ,
R oy W. M a y e r 3 2 m ade a n i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t i m e b u d g e t s
o f h i g h s c h o o l s e n i o r s w i t h t h e a im o f s e c u r i n g t a n g i b l e
d a ta w h ic h m ig h t s u g g e s t a r e m e d ia l p ro g ra m .
H is recom ­
m e n d a t i o n s sh o w e d t h a t h e b e l i e v e d a g r e a t e r v a r i e t y o f
a c tiv itie s
sh o u ld be sp o n so red by th e sc h o o l to
in stru c t
t h e y o u n g f o l k s how t o u s e s m a l l a m o u n t s o f l e i s u r e t i m e
c o n stru c tiv e ly .
John M e rk e ly
33
f i e l d w hen h e m ade h i s
lim ite d h is su rv ey to
a m o st w o rth y
in v e s tig a tio n o f u n d e rp riv ile g e d
boys in Los A n g e le s , and to w hat e x te n t t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s
c o n tr ib u te d to d e lin q u e n c y .
H is w as a u n iq u e ty p e o f
sc h o o l, p a r t i c u l a r l y c o n s tru c te d fo r th e s e boys,
in c re a s e t h e i r v a ry in g
in te re s ts
and t o
a lo n g c o n s tr u c tiv e l i n e s .
32
R oy W. M a y e r , I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f T im e B u d g e t s o f
H i g h S c h o o l S e n i o r s . (u n p u b 1 i s h e d M a s t e r f s t h e s i s , U n i v e r ­
s i t y o f ^ o u t h e rn C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s , C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 5 ),
10 3 p p •
3 3 J o h n L . M e r k e l y , A S u r v e y o f L e i s u r e T im e A c t i v i t j e s s
o f J u n io r H ig h S c h o o l B o y s, t u n p u b lis h e d M a s t e r f s t h e s i s ,
’
U n i v e r s i ty o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s , C a l i f o r n i a ,
1 9 3 3 ), 114 p p .
37
A d e len e P e a r s o n
34
ju n io r h ig h sc h o o l g i r l s
re c re a tio n a l in te re s ts
E d ith R i t t e r
35
m ad e a c a s e s t u d y o f s e v e n t y
to d i s c o v e r t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f
th r o u g h p l a y , g a m e s, and r e c r e a t i o n .
s tu d ie d th e g i r l s ♦ p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n
p ro g ra m , an d t h e w ays a r e c o n s t r u c t e d e d u c a t i o n a l p ro g ra m ,
a th le tic s
and r e l a t e d
in te re s ts
i n m o re l a s t i n g a n d b e n e f i c i a l a c t i v i t i e s .
E. L. R o b e rts
36
a c t i v i t i e s , m ig h t i n c r e a s e t h e g i r l s *
in h is
" In v e s tig a tio n of L e isu re
T im e A c t i v i t i e s o f F a c u l t y M e m b ers o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f
S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , " a im ed t o d i s c o v e r w h a t t h e p h y s i c a l
e d u c a tio n d e p a rtm e n t m ig h t do t o p r o v id e a d e q u a te f a c i l ­
itie s
fo r p h y sic a l e x e rc is e .
P a u l i n e L o y o la S l a t e r
37
s e t th e s ta g e f o r h e r d e v e lo p ­
m ent o f d e s ir a b le c h a r a c te r t r a i t s
i n a C a t h o l i c c o m m u n ity ,
34
A d e le n e P o n t i M c C a rty P e a r s o n , S tu d y o f t h e D e v e lo p
-m en t o f R e c r e a t i o n a l I n t e r e s t s o f S e v e n t y J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l
"G irT s» (u n p u b lis h e d M a s te r ’ s t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e rn
C a l i f o r n i a , L os A n g e le s , C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 6 $ , 118 p p .
f 2 r
E d i t h W elb o u rn e R i t t e r , T he R e l a t i o n o f L e i s u r e t o
The P h y s i c a l E d u c a ti o n P ro g ra m o f t h e S e c o n d a ry S c h o o l ,
(u n p u b lis h e d M a ste r* s t h e s i s , U h lv e r s ity o f S o u th e rn
C a l i f o r n i a , L os A n g e le s , C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 7 ) , 153 p p .
36
E . L . R o b e r t s , I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f L e i s u r e T im e
A c t i v i t i e s o f F a c u l t y M em bers o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n
Ca l i f o r n i a , " T u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r * s t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f
S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s , C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 6 ), 171 p p .
ZQ
w h e r e in s h e m ig h t d i s c o v e r t h e n e e d s and d e te r m i n e t h e
p la c e o f c re a tiv e
a c tiv itie s
on t h e l e i s u r e
tim e p ro g ram
in th e p la y g ro u n d o r g a n iz a tio n .
A. L . S t r o n g ’ s t h e s i s
of S tu d e n ts ,”
38
o n ’’L e i s u r e - t i m e A c t i v i t i e s
s e ts f o r th th e needs fo r tr a in in g
s tu d e n ts
t o u s e l e i s u r e tim e t o g r e a t e r e f f e c t and l e i s u r e - e n t e r ­
ta in m e n t,
a n d how i t m ay b e m e t t h r o u g h c r e a t i v e m u s i c ,
and w h a t m u sic d o e s i n t h e c u l t u r a l f i e l d s .
_
39
A lic e B la n c h e T a y lo r
s tr e s s e s th e needs fo r
in d iv id ­
u a l i n t e r e s t s b e in g c re a te d th ro u g h th e s c h o o l, p a r t l y
th ro u g h e x i s t i n g s u b j e c t s and l e i s u r e tim e a c t i v i t i e s .
40
P . L. W eaver
m ade a s t u d y i n r e s e a r c h o f t h e d e ­
lin q u e n c y in th e c i t y
o f S a n D ieg o a n d d i s c o v e r e d c o n d i t i o n s
p o i n t i n g to w a rd th e l a c k o f w e l l - d i r e c t e d
and s u f f i c i e n t
c o m m u n ity -p la n n e d l e i s u r e
a v a ila b le .
37
tim e a c t i v i t i e s
P a u l i n e L o y o la S l a t e r , D ev elo p m en t o f D e s i r a b l e
C h a r a c t e r T r a i t s T h r o u g h L e i s u r e T im e A c t i v i t i e s o f C r e a t i v e
T y p e . {u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ’ s t h e s i s , t r n i v e r s i t y o f T o u t h e r n
C a l i f o r n i a , L os A n g e l e s , C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 7 ) , 94 p p .
38
A. L* S t r o n g , L e i s u r e Tim e A c t i v i t i e s o f S t u d e n t s ,
(u n p u b lis h e d M a s te r ’s t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a ,
L o s A n g e l e s , C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 5 ) , 140 p p .
39
A l i c e B l a n c h e T a y l o r , An A n a l y s i s o f t h e R e l a t i o n ­
s h ip b e tw e e n C e r t a i n J u n io r H ig h S c h o o l S u b j e c t s and L e i s u r e
Tim e A c t i v i t i e s o f t h e S t u d e n t s .
(u n p u b lis h e d M a s te r ’ s
t h e s i s , U n iv e r s ity o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s,
C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 8 ), 111 p p .
29
T h ro u g h c a r e f u l p e r u s a l o f t h e f o r e g o i n g r e l a t e d
in v e s tig a tio n s ,
so f a r
i t has been a s c e rta in e d t h a t th e p r o je c ts
c a r r i e d o u t a r e a l l g i v i n g l i g h t on t h e new and
p e r h a p s g r e a t e r s u b j e c t o f t r a i n i n g f o r l e i s u r e b e i n g now
in c o rp o ra te d
in p ro g re s s iv e e d u c a tio n ;
a v e n u e s h a v e fey n o m e a n s b e e n e x h a u s t e d
to
t e a c h t h e y o u n g how t o p l a n t h e i r
lib e rty
to
fu rth e rm o re ,, a l l
in th e se e f f o r t s
own t i m e , w h e n a t
do a s t h e y p l e a s e *
I s th e s e n io r h ig h s c h o o l e a r l y enough to b e g in
some i n t e n s i v e
of th e
in stru c tio n
o f t h e s o c i o l o g i c a l dem ands
i n d i v i d u a l , b a se d on h i s
Has t h e f i e l d
on t h e
o u g h ly h a n d le d ?
c u ltu r a l a tta in m e n ts?
ju n io r h ig h sc h o o l le v e l been th o r ­
Have h a b i t s o f u s i n g tim e c r e d i t a b l y
b e e n e n c o u r a g e d e a r l y e n o u g h fey t h e
reach ed ?
S h a ll th e
tim e h ig h s c h o o l i s
sc h o o ls a s s o c ia te h o b b ie s w ith anycone
d e p a rtm e n t o r s u b je c t ta u g h t in th e p r e s e n t c u rric u lu m ?
The p r e c e d i n g i n v e s t i g a t i o n s h a v e n o t c o m p l e t e ly c o v e r e d
th e f i e l d ,
nor s a tis fie d
th e s e q u a n d a rie s.
F r e d r i c Lynn W eaver, D e lin q u e n c y C o n c e n t r a t io n s
i n th e C i t y o f S an D ie g o , (u n p u b lis h e d M a s te r* s t h e s i s ,
U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s , C a l i f o r n i a ,
1 9 5 3 ) , 70 p p .
CHAPTER
IX
PROCEDURE
The p u r p o s e o f t h i s
th e a c t i v i t i e s
i n v e s t i g a t i o n w as t o d i r e c t
o f an e x p e r im e n ta l g ro u p i n t h e lo w s e v e n
g rad e th ro u g h a s e m e s te r’ s c o u rse
le isu re
tim e p u r s u i t s ,
and
in te a c h in g a d u l t s ’
d e te rm in e w h e th e r o u t - o f ­
s c h o o l in f lu e n c e s o f p r e s e n t i n g a d u lt h o b b ie s m ig h t in ­
c r e a s e o r d e y e lo p e n th u s ia sm w ith in th e c h i l d r e n f o r a
d e s ire to use t h e i r
l e i s u r e t i m e m ore w o r t h i l y .
One r e q u i r e m e n t o f t h i s
te x t m a te ria l
c o u r s e was t o b u i l d
in p re p a ra tio n fo r th e f i n a l
its
a n a ly se s.
own
To
e s t a b l i s h a f o u n d a t i o n upon w h ic h t o b u i l d and b a s e s u b s e ­
q u e n t c o m p a ris o n s and a d v i s a b l e c h a n g e s , t h e m e th o d o f p r o ­
c e d u r e w as m apped o u t a s f o l l o w s :
p r e p a r a t i o n and a d m in is­
tra tio n
o f an a d u l t q u e s t i o n n a i r e , p r e p a r a t i o n an d a d m in is ­
tra tio n
o f a c o m p a ra b le q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o an e n t i r e
seven g rad e ,
lo w
and s e t up o f a n e x p e r im e n ta l g ro u p w i t h i n
t h e 'g r a d e .
I.
PREPARATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF THE ADULT
QUESTIONNAIRE
No o f f i c i a l s u r v e y o f a d u l t h o b b i e s
w as a v a i l a b l e .
D a ta o f a s p e c i a l n a t u r e
i n S an D ie g o
to f i t
in w ith
31
th e c o u rs e w ere e s s e n t i a l .
T h e s e tw o r e a s o n s m ad e t h e
q u e s t i o n n a i r e m eth o d n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e m a t e r i a l r e q u i r e d .
C h a ra c te r o f th e a d u lt q u e s tio n n a ir e .
tio n of th is
fa c ts
q u e stio n n a ire e n ta ile d
i d e n t i c a l in one p o r tio n
T he c o n s t r u c ­
a stu d y o f p e r tin e n t
of th e su rv ey to th o se o f
th e c o rr e s p o n d in g gro u p t o h e co m p ared .
P rim a rily ,
th e
r a n g e a n d t y p e s o f a d u l t h o b b i e s i n a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sa m p ­
lin g
o f t h e c o m m u n ity w e r e n e e d e d .
a d u lts*
w illin g n e ss to
c o -o p e ra te
An e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e
in th e p la n o f te a c h in g
w a s m ad e a s p e c i a l f e a t u r e am ong t h e r e p l i e s .
s t e p was t o c r e a t e a f i e l d
fu rn is h th e c la s s
o f l i v e m a t e r i a l w h ic h w o u ld
in th e e x p e rim e n ta l group in fo rm a tio n
o f how a d u l t s u s e t h e i r
le isu re
a d u lt s and c h il d r e n had l i k e
te n d e n c ie s
T h is i n i t i a l
tim e and t o w h at e x t e n t
ta s te s
and i n t e r e s t s and
i n t h e i r common p o s s e s s i o n ,
Types o f c i t i z e n s r e p r e s e n t e d .
le isu re .
San B ie g o h a s a
s a t i s f a c t o r y ra n g e o f o c c u p a tio n s and f a c i l i t i e s
v a t i o n and encouragem ent o f l e i s u r e
fo r c u lti­
tim e p u r s u i t s .
T he
s a m p l i n g w a s m ad e b y p r e s e n t i n g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t o r e p r e ­
se n ta tiv e
c itiz e n s
in p r o f e s s io n a l o c c u p a tio n s, s e rv ic e
m en, g o v ern m en t e m p lo y e e s, m e r c a n t i l e g r o u p s , shop and
f a c t o r y w o r k e r s , hom em akers, an d r e t i r e d
sa m p le o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e t i t l e d
c itiz e n s.
A
" S u r v e y o f A d u l t H obby
32
In te re sts
i n S a n S i e g o " w i l l b e f o u n d i n t h e A p p en d ix *
A sse m b lin g d a t a *
As t h e p r o b l e m o f m a k i n g c o n t a c t s
w i t h a d u ^ t g r o u p s a n d a s t i f f i c i e n t num ber o f i n d i v i d u a l s
to o k s e v e r a l w eeks, th e
d a t a was s lo w .
in th e
a sse m b lin g o f s u f f i c i e n t ,
An u n a n t i c i p a t e d e x p e r i e n c e w a s m e t w i t h
i n t e r e s t a n d g r o w i n g e n t h u s i a s m o f t h o s e who w e r e
a p p ro ach ed w ith th e q u e s tio n n a ir e .
th e p ro je c t to
th e se to
a tio n .
frie n d s,
T he e x p l a n a t i o n o f
b u sin e ss a c q u a in ta n c e s,
and th ro u g h
o th e rs in te r e s te d , b ro u g h t e n th u s ia s tic
A ll o f t h i s ,
begun f i r s t ,
g ree,
c o m p le te
co -o p er­
h o w e v e r, t o o k s e v e r a l w e ek s a n d was
b e f o r e s c h o o l w o rk had p r o g r e s s e d t o
and s e c u r e d i n tim e t o be r e a d y t o p r e s e n t
any de­
w hen
needed in th e c la ssro o m p ro c e d u re .
II.
PREPARATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF THE IN IT IA L
LOW SEVEN QUESTIONNAIRE
The o b j e c t i v e
in c re a se d
in te re s ts
in th is
e x p e r im e n t was t o d i s c o v e r
in le is u r e
tim e a c t i v i t i e s
o f lo w
s e v e n s b y a s t u d y p l a n w h e r e i n t h e y w o u ld becom e f a m i l i a r ­
iz e d w ith a d u lt hobby i n t e r e s t s
th ro u g h th e re c o rd e d d a ta ,
and d i r e c t c o n ta c t w ith in d iv id u a ls w i l l i n g t o g iv e a d v ic e
on p r e s e n t hobby i n t e r e s t s ,
th e ir
own a c t i v i t i e s
and to
te ll
c h ild re n about
d u rin g t h e i r l e i s u r e tim e .
T he s u c c e s s
33
or f a ilu r e
o f su c h an e x p e rim e n t r e q u i r e d a b a se by
w h ic h l a t e r
d e v e lo p m e n ts m ig h t b e
c o m p a red , and n e c e s s i ­
ta te d c o m p ila tio n o f m a te r ia l id e n tic a l
in p a r t to t h a t
o f th e a d u lt su rv e y .
C h a ra c te r o f th e
n a ire .
in itia l
lo w s e v e n g r a d e q u e s t i o n ­
D e fin ite f a c ts p e rta in in g
in te re s ts
co m p a rab le t o
a s one f i e l d
t o t h e lo w s e v e n g r a d e f s
th o s e o f t h e .a d u lts w ere n e e d e d
o f m a t e r i a l t o be u s e d in th e c o u r s e .
a c c u m u la te d fro m t h i s
q u e s t i o n n a i r e w o u ld s e r v e a l s o
p u rp o se o f a sp rin g b o a rd fo r th e
p e r i m e n t i n g was t o b e d o n e ,
in th e u n it o f te a c h in g .
in c lu d in g ra n g e and ty p e s o f l e i s u r e
tim e and f i n a n c i a l e x p e n d i t u r e s ,
in te re s ts ,
and c lu b a c t i v i t i e s .
th e a d u lts r e l a t i v e
It
in c o n stru c tio n to th a t
in te re s ts ,
In c o n tra s t to
th e
g r o u p u p o n whom t h e e x ­
was t h e r e f o r e p u r p o s e f u l l y s i m i l a r
a d m in iste re d to a d u lts ,
D ata
th e s p e c ia l
to th e
in c e p tio n of
in f o r m a tio n s o u g h t fro m
c o -o p e ra tio n o f th o se w illin g
t o f u r t h e r t h e p j ia n o f t e a c h i n g , w a s s u b s t i t u t e d
a se c tio n
n e e d e d f o r c la s s r o o m w ork i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p ,
n a m e ly ?
co u rse
l i b r a r y w ork an d ite m s t o b e c o n s i d e r e d
in th e
in re a d in g .
Types o f p u p i ls r e p r e s a n t e d .
g r a d e , 395 p u p i l s ,
fille d
out th e
The e n t i r e
lo w s e v e n
i n i t i a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e on
34
t h e sam e d a y ,
t h r o u g h t h e m edium o f t h e E n g l i s h c l a s s e s .
T h e s u r v e y w a s a d m i n i s t e r e d o n t h e s e c o n d M o nday o f t h e
s e m e s te r , tim e h a v in g h e en c o n s id e r e d f o r l a t e
and o r i e n t a t i o n .
a d u lts*
on t h e
itie s
I n c o m p a riso n t o t h e s a m p lin g o f t h e
ran g e o f o c c u p a tio n s,
t h e w o rk was t o h e b a s e d
c h i l d r e n o f tw o g r o u p s r e p r e s e n t i n g v a r y i n g a b i l ­
in a l l s c h o o l w ork.
e it h e r to
W ith o u t p r e v io u s e x p la n a t io n
t e a c h e r s or' c h i l d r e n a s t o
th e p u rp o se o f th e
s u r v e y , t h e a s s e m b le d d a t a w o u ld b e f a i r l y
re p re se n ta tiv e
o f th e
e n tire
a c c u r a t e and
e n ro llm e n t.
T he p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s
c la ss e s has i t s
rie d
e n tra n ts
sig n ific a n c e ,
in th e E n g lish
s i n c e t h e e x p e rim e n t was c a r ­
o n i n tw o E n g l i s h c l a s s e s
in c o n s e c u tiv e h o u rs o f
th e day under i d e n t i c a l c irc u m s ta n c e s,
as
w i l l be e x p la in e d
la te r.
A sse m b lin g d a t a .
The w ork o f a s s e m b lin g d a ta
in
t h i s p o r t i o n o f t h e p r o c e d u r e was l e s s d i f f i c u l t t h a n t h a t
of th e a d u lt q u e s tio n n a ire s ,
a n d m u ch m o r e r a p i d ,
as th e
e n t i r e 395 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w ere r e c o v e r e d a t t h e c lo s e o f
th e
sam e d a y .
A sa m p le o f t h e
w i l l be fo u n d i n t h e A p p e n d ix .
in itia l
lo w s e v e n s u r v e y
35
III.
SET -U P OF THE EXPERIMENTAL AM) CONTROL GROUPS
The p l a n s f o r t e a c h i n g t h e c o u r s e w e re la u n c h e d
s h o rtly b e fo re th e
c o m p le te t a b u l a t i o n s w ere r e a d y .
w a s p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d , tw o r e p r e s e n t a t i v e
As
c la sse s
m e e t i n g i n t h e sam e ro o m u n d e r i d e n t i c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s
w ere s e l e c t e d a s t h e e x p e r im e n ta l g ro u p , a t o t a l o f s e v e n ty tw o p u p i l s .
The t e a c h e r had no o t h e r E n g l i s h c l a s s e s , w h ic h
s e rv e d i n a m easu re to
tw o c l a s s e s
c o u n te rb a la n c e any ten d e n cy to fa v o r
a g a in st a th ir d .
The e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p .
T h e tw o E n g l i s h c l a s s e s
w e re com posed o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f a l l e le m e n t a r y s c h o o l s
c o n t r i b u t i n g t o th e e n r o llm e n t, and had r e c e i v e d r a t i n g s
on p ro m o tio n i n June p r e c e d in g e n t r y i n t o
sc h o o l o f h ig h and a v e ra g e a b i l i t i e s ;
was r e c o g n i z e d t o
fe ll
j u n io r h ig h
hom ogeneous g r o u p in g
a m o d e ra te d e g re e w h e re in t h e s e g ro u p s
in th e sv e ra g e -to -h ig h b ra c k e ts .
The c o n t r o l g r o u p .
T he c o n t r o l g r o u p c o n s i s t e d o f
t h e e n t i r e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e lo w s e v e n g r a d e a t t e n d i n g t h e
s c h o o l , 3S3 p u p i l s .
As i s g e n e r a l ,
c u sto m a ry ra n g e o f a b i l i t i e s
n o rm a l.
th e
school had th e
from b r i l l i a n t t o f a r b e lo w
Homes o f a l l t y p e s a n d s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s
re p re se n te d .
w ere
The c o n s e r v a t i v e g r o u p i n g by a b i l i t y was
36
rec o g n iz e d *
ta k e E n g lis h ,
A l l m e m b e rs o f t h e
g ra d e w ere r e q u i r e d t o
so t h e s e c l a s s e s seem ed a f a i r
m eans o f a s s u r i n g a v e ra g e r e s u l t s *
o f stu d y as s p e c if ie d
fo llo w e d by a l l
and j u s t
The r e g u l a r c o u r s e
i n t h e E n g l i s h d e p a r tm e n t was
o th e r te a c h e rs
in th e d e p a rtm e n t w ith o u t
r e f e r e n c e t o a n y th in g b e in g done in th e e x p e rim e n ta l
group.
CHAPTER
III
RESULTS OF QUESTIQNNAIRES
The m a t e r i a l i n th e
t h e a d u l t and
fo rm o f d a ta a c c u m u la te d fro m
i n i t i a l lo w s e v e n g r a d e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s
p ro v e d a i v a l u a b l e so u rc e o f s u p p ly f o r one p a r t o f th e
te a c h in g p la n .
have been
T he t a b l e s a n d f i g u r e s c o m p i l e d h e r e i n
fo rm u la te d in g r e a t d e t a i l ,
w as w o rth y o f m in u te s t u d y by t h e
in te n d e d .
r e s u l t s and ta b u la tio n s o f a d u lt
su lts
c l a s s e s f o r whom i t w a s
As t h e s t u d y p r o g r e s s e d ,
on dem and, i n th e o r d e r i n d i c a t e d
as th e m a te rie l
d a ta c o u ld be p r e s e n te d
in th is
c h a p t e r , n a m e ly :
q u e stio n n a ire s,
and r e ­
and t a b u l a t i o n s o f i n i t i a l lo w s e v e n g r a d e q u e s t i o n ­
n a ire s .
I.
RESULTS AND TABULATIONS OF ADULT QUESTIONNAIRES
Out o f f o u r h u n d red q u e s t io n n a ir e s p r e s e n te d t o
a d u l t s tw o h u n d r e d n i n e t y - f i v e w e r e r e t u r n e d ,
or p a rtia lly f ille d .
c o m p le te ly
T a b le I p r e s e n ts th e t o t a l
sco re o f
ra n g e and ty p e s o f a d u l t h o b b ie s in answ er to th e
q u e s tio n , p r e s e n t hobby o r a v o c a tio n a l
in te re s ts .
answ ers o f s e v e n te e n p e r c e n t re c o rd e d a t h l e t i c
a c tiv itie s .
as a th le tic s .
For b re v ity
A d e ta ile d
first
The
o r o u td o o r
in ta b u la tio n th e s e a re l i s t e d
lis t
is p re se n te d
in T a b le I I .
38
TABLE
I
RANGE OF ADULT HOBBIES
H o b b ie s
Number
a n sw e rin g
Per cen t
a n sw e rin g
A th le tic s
51
17
A rts
45
15
R e ad in g
42
14
G a rd e n in g .
38
13
M u s ic
31
11
C o lle c tio n s
17
6
M isc e lla n e o u s
15
5
P h o to g ra p h y
15
5
N a tu ra l sc ie n c e
12
4
(N one)
6
2
R a d io
5
2
S o c ia l p ro b lem s
5
2
T rav el
5
2
D ra m a tic s
4
1
S crap books
4
1
295
100
and c r a f t s
Totals
TABLE
II
S P E C IF IC ADULT HOBBIES LISTED AS
ATHLETICS AMD SPORTS
A t h l e t i c s and
sp o rts
Num ber a n s w e r i n g
A th le tic s
G o lf
6
T e n n is
6
H o rseb ack r i d i n g
4
H ik in g
3
B o w lin g
2
S p o rts
F is h in g
14
"S p o rts"
8
Y a c h tin g
3
H o rse r a c in g
2
G u n n in g
1
H u n tin g
1
M o to rin g
1
Total
51
By c o m p a r i s o n w i t h o t h e r s u r v e y s m ad e t h r o u g h o u t t h e
c o u n try ,
th e f ig u r e s
a sse m b le d i n t h i s
su rv ey fin d
c lo s e p a r a l l e l in th e m a jo rity of in s ta n c e s .
c ra fts,
second in p o p u la r ity ,
in g ,
A rts and
in c lu d in g h a n d c ra fts of
A d e t a i l e d l i s t w i l l be fo u n d in T a b le
m an y v a r i e t i e s .
III*
a
T h e se w e re f o llo w e d i n d e c r e a s i n g num bers b y r e a d ­
( w h i c h i n c l u d e d m an y s t y l e s o f ^ l i t e r a r y
c o n te n t;
g a rd e n in g ,
d e l i g h t ; m u sic
c o n c e rt-g o e rs*
i n w h ic h San D ie g a n s t a k e c o n s i d e r a b l e
in c lu d e d
in stru m e n ta lis ts, v o c a lis ts ,
C o lle c tio n s, l is te d
in T a b le 17,
an a sso rtm e n t o f o b je c ts o f p a r t i c u l a r
boys and g i r l s .
kodakery,
and s c i e n t i f i c
in c lu d e d
in te re s t to
P h o to g ra p h y in c lu d e d p o r t r a i t u r e ,
a n d 16 a n d 8 mm. f i l m s .
and
th e
g en eral
Q lx q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w e r e
r e t u r n e d u n s i g n e d , a d m i t t i n g no h o b b i e s , b u t i n e a c h c a s e
b e a r i n g c o m m en ts t h a t sh o w e d a n i n t e r e s t
in th e p r o je c t,
and p e r s o n a l re m a rk s o f r e g r e t o r a d iv c e t o
M o re w i l l b e s a i d
l a t e r re g a rd in g th e se
th e c h ild re n .
c o m m en ts u n d e r
d is c u s s io n o f q u e s tio n e le v e n .
M in o r h o b b y i n t e r e s t s w i l l b e n o t e d
A lth o u g h th e s e
la s t- m e n tio n e d h o b b ie s t r a i l e d
s m a ll nu m b ers, th e y p ro v ed h ig h ly v a lu a b le
c o u rs e , e i t h e r a s b e in g u n iq u e ,
p ra c tic a b ility
in T a b le V.
o f f to such
ite m s i n th e
or s u b s ta n tia tin g
th e
o f som e o f t h e h o b b y i n t e r e s t s o f t h e b o y s
41
TABLE
III
SP E C IFIC ADULT HOBBIES LISTED AS
ARTS AM) CRAFTS
H o b b ie s
W oodw ork
N um ber a n s w e r i n g
11
nH and c r a f t s ”
9
N e ed le w o rk
7
P a in tin g
7
D ra w in g
3
M e ta l w ork
Z
B lo ck p r i n t i n g
1
C lay m o d e lin g
1
D e sig n in g
1
E l e c t r i c a l e x p e rim e n ts
1
L e a th e r to o lin g
1
Shop w o rk
1
Total
45
4a
TABLE
IV
S P E C IFIC ADULT HOBBIES LISTED
AS COLLECTIONS
C o lle c tio n s
Num ber a n s w e r i n g
B o lla
2
O ld p r i n t s
2
S ta m p s
2
B ir d s ’ eggs
1
Books
(first
e d itio n s)
1
B rass
1
C a n c e lla tio n s
1
C o in s
1
C o o k in g r e c i p e s
1
G la ss
1
P e n c ils
1
S to rie s fo r c h ild re n
1
T e a p o ts
1
W ild flo w e rs
1
Total
17
43
TABLE
V
S P E C IF IC ADULT HOBBIES LISTED
AS MISCELLANEOUS
M isc e lla n e o u s
h o b b ie s
Num ber a n s w e r i n g
W ritin g
3
B rid g e
2
H isto ry -
2
B a k in g
1
C a lc u lu s
1
Camp c o o k e r y
1
M o u n ta in c a b i n
1
N a tu re
1
P e ts
1
P ro s p e c tin g
1
H e rp e to lo g y
1
T o ta l
15
44
end g i r l s ,
and o f f e r i n g
s u g g e s tio n s o f r e a l w o rth .
The f a c t t h a t o v e r a h u n d re d o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s
w e re n o t r e t u r n e d was n o t d i s c o u r a g i n g .
At l e a s t f i f t e e n
o f t h e a d u l t s w ere a p p ro a c h e d a se c o n d tim e to a s c e r t a i n
w hy t h e y h a d n o t f i l l e d
found, v e rb a lly ,
tim e $
th e
q u e stio n n a ire
o u t , and i t was
th e y h ad no h o b b ie s , o r had no l e i s u r e
Some w e r e n o n c o m m i t t a l , b u t f u r t h e r
q u e stio n in g - -
b ro u g h t o u t r e l u c t a n t an sw ers t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t t h e i r
le isu re
tim e p u r s u i t s w ere s u c h t h e y f e l t t h e y s h o u ld n o t
be l i s t e d
in any c h i l d r e n ’ s s tu d y p la n J
I t has been s ta te d t h a t ,
th e o re tic a lly ,
fiv e
or s ix
h o u r s a w e e k s p e n t o n a h o b b y m ay b e c o n s i d e r e d p r o f i t a b l e .
B o ris B la is has s a id :
I am n o t u r g i n g e v e r y o n e t o d e v o t e h i s l i f e t o t h e
a rts .
But ev ery on e sh o u ld spend f i v e o r s i x h o u rs a
w e e k a t som e c r e a t i v e t a s k .
C a ll i t a hobby i f you w i l l ,
b u t i t s h o u l d b e some m a n u a l h o b b y i n w h i c h y o u c a n
subm erge y o u r s e l f c o m p le te ly .
l e t i t be g a rd e n in g o r
p o t t e r y , w o o d c a rv in g o r m o d e l-m a k in g , p h o to g r a p h y ,
r a d i o b u i l d i n g , m a c h i n i s t ’ s w ork— one c o u ld l i s t
i n d e f i n i t e l y a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h r e l i e v e t e n s i o n i n human
l i v e s , p ro v id e a sen se o f s e lf -c o m p le tio n .
And i t ’ s
n e v e r to o l a t e t o s t a r t .
T he t h i n g t o re m e m b e r i s
t h a t m a n u a l , c r e a t i v e w o r k i s m o re e s s e n t i a l t h a n
la b o r.*
M r. B l a i s h a s t o u c h e d u p o n tw o s i g n i f i c a n t p o i n t s :
th e ty p e o f hobby,
and tim e s p e n t a g r e e a b ly and p r o f i t a b l y
B o r i s B l a i s , ’’Y o u r H a p p i n e s s i s i n y o u r H a n d s , ”
A m erican M a g a z in e , 1 2 9 :5 1 , J a n u a r y , 1 9 4 0 .
45
by any in d iv id u a l,
Q u e stio n 2,
a s k in g f o r a v e r a g e tim e
s p e n t p e r w eek on a v o c a t i o n s r e c e i v e d
sig n ific a n t to ta ls ,
in th e m a jo rity
249 a n s w e r s w i t h
in d ic a tin g f iv e h ours
a w eek c o u ld b e c o n s i d e r e d t h e g e n e r a l a v e r a g e .
T a b le VI
p re se n ts re su lts #
Q u e s tio n 3 w as r e g a r d i n g e x p e n d i t u r e s ,
s w e r e d b y 220 i n d i v i d u a l s .
In th e m a jo rity o f c ase s th e
f i g u r e s w ere e x tr e m e l y c o n s e r v a t i v e ,
and w it h in th e
a s F ig u r e 1 show s,
c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f t h e b o y s a n d g i r l s who
f i g u r e d o u t t h e i r own e x p e n d i t u r e s c a r e f u l l y .
la tio n does n o t
te m p t t o
and w as an ­
T h is ta b u ­
i n c l u d e t h e s e v e n t y - f i v e who m ade n o a t ­
a n s w e r , m an y o f whom w o u l d n o t c o m m it t h e m s e l v e s
t o a n y a m o u n t,
sin c e
th e y c o u ld n o t e s tim a te to any d e g re e
o f c e r t a i n t y w h a t t h e y m ay h a v e s p e n t i n d i v i d u a l l y o n s e v e r a l
hobby i n t e r e s t s .
Q u e stio n 4 , r e g a r d in g age h o b b ie s had been begun,
r e c e i v e d 284 a n s w e r s ,
o f w h ic h t h i r t y - s i x p e r c e n t s t i l l
h a v e t h e sam e l e i s u r e
i n t e r e s t s a s b e g u n b e tw e e n t h e
o f f iv e and te n y e a rs .
T a b le V II p r e s e n t s
T hese d a ta p re s e n te d an u n fo re se e n
ages
th e r e s u lts .
i t e m ; 1, w h i c h , h o w e v e r ,
keys in w ith in f lu e n c e s o f b e g in n in g h o b b ie s , d is c u s s e d
th e fo llo w in g p a ra g ra p h .
in
A g la n c e a t th e r e c o r d s w i l l sug­
g e s t t h e g e n e r a l a s s u m p t i o n t h a t n e w h o b b y i n t e r e s t s m ay b e
46
TABLE
VI
ADULTSf ANSWERS TO QUESTION, "AVERAGE
NUMBER OF HOURS PER WEEK
SPENT ON AVOCATIONS"
Number'
a n sw e rin g
Per cent
answ er m g
1 9 .9
18
7
10 t o 1 4 . 9
55
14
Num ber o f h o u r s
p e r. w eek
15 t o
5 to
9 .9
99
40
1 to
4 .9
97
39
249
100
T o ta ls
47
A verag e f i n a n c i a l
o u tla y p e r y ear
N um ber
a n sw e rin g
Per cent
a n sw e rin g
R e la tio n
1 4 9 .9 9
4
2
M
ilQ O .O O - 1 1 9 . 0 9
4
2
M
9 9 .9 9
12
6
MM
—
7 9 .9 9
18
8
MMMM
# 4 0 .0 0 -
0 5 9 .9 9
20
10
mmm
yMMMMMMMMMmmii
# 1 2 0 .0 0
# 8 0 .0 0
# 6 0 .0 0
# 2 0 .0 0
-
3 9 .9 9
65
28
#
mm
1 9 .9 9
97
44
220
100
0 .0 0
T o ta ls
FIGURE
1
ADULTS* REPLIES TO QUESTION, "AVERAGE FINANCIAL OUTLAY
PER YEAR ON AVOCATIONA?"
48
TABLE
V II
ADULTS* ANSWERS TO THE QUESTION, "AT WHAT AGE
WERE HOBBIES BEGOT?"
Age3 b e g u n
60 t o
N um ber
a n sw e rin g
69 y e a r s
55 t o 59
»t
50 t o 5 4
Per cent
a n sw e rin g
2
1
2
1
2
1
4 5 t o 49
»»
1
-
40 t o 44
*t
2
1
35 t o 39
it
5
2
30 t o 3 4
it
18
7
25 t o
29
n
25
9
20 t o
24
it
28
10
15 t o 19
»t
41
13
10 t o 14
it
54
19
9
it
104
36
284
100
5 to
Totals
49
a c q u ir e d a t any age fro m s i x t o s i x t y .
Q u e stio n 5 , r e g a r d in g
in flu e n c e s
of b e g in n in g t h e i r
h o b b i e s , w as re s p o n d e d t o b y 278 a d u l t s .
The r e p l i e s
f o r t y ^ f i v e p e r c e n t i n d i c a t e d th e y w ere i n t e r e s t e d
home e n v i r o n m e n t .
T a b le V I I I p r e s e n t s th e t o t a l s .
of
th ro u g h
Read
i n t h e m em ory o f t h e t h i r t y - s i x p e r c e n t o f t h o s e who s t i l l
h a d t h e sam e h o b b y i n t e r e s t s
of six
itie s
and t e n ,
a s t h e y d id b e tw e e n t h e y e a r s
i t w o u ld i n d i c a t e t h e h o m e - d i r e c te d a c t i v ­
o f th e younger y e a rs had g r e a t e f f e c t on s e l e c t i o n
of le isu re
tim e p u r s u i t s .
T h e se 278 a n s w e r s , a g a i n s t t h e
t w e n t y who g a v e n o n e a n d t h e h u n d r e d who d i d n o t r e t u r n
th e q u e s tio n n a ire s ,
p re se n te d
c l a s s e s when s t u d i e d
on th e answ er to
i n te r e s ti n g m a te r ia l fo r th e
i n c o m p a riso n t o
th e t a b u l a t i o n b ased
q u e s t io n 9 , w h ic h w i l l be s e e n l a t e r .
Q u e s t i o n 6 , a s k i n g f o r m e m b e rs h ip i n c l u b s an d
le isu re
tim e o r g a n i z a t i o n s ,
show ed t h a t o u t o f 295 t o t a l ,
s i x t y - f i v e p e r c e n t b e lo n g e d t o
none.
T a b l e IX p r e s e n t s
th e r e c o r d in g o f th e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , grouped u n d er c h a r a c te r
o f th e a c t i v i t i e s .
z a t i o n s and s p o r t s
hoped th e
It
is
to be n o te d t h a t m u s ic a l o rg a n i­
l e a d gy a b i g m a j o r i t y .
It
i s to be
i n v e s t i g a t o r c o v e r e d w id e eno u g h a f i e l d .
Few
o t h e r s th a n th o s e m e n tio n e d h e r e i n a r e p ro m in e n t i n t h e
c ity .
L odges and s e r v ic e
c lu b s w ere n o t e v id e n t i n th e
50
T ill
TABLE
ADULTS’ REPLIES TO THE QUESTION
"CONDITIONS OF BEGINNING?"
C o n d itio n s o f
b e g in n in g h o b b ie s
Num ber
a n sw e rin g
Home i n f l u e n c e
12 5
45
47
17
in te re s ts 4 0
14
S u g g e stio n s o f f r ie n d s
33
12
School stu d ie s
24
9
(A ll f iv e an sw ers)
6
2
Home a n d s c h o o l
3
1
278
100
S p e c ific p e rso n a l needs
C u rren t p o p u la r
T o ta ls
Per cent
a n sw e rin g
51
TABLE
IX
ADULT HOBBY CLUBS
C h a ra c te r of
c lu b s
Num ber
a n sw e rin g
Per cent
a n sw e rin g
197
65
M u sic a l o r g a n iz a tio n s
37
13
A th le tic
35
12
(N o n e )
P h o to g ra p h ic
7
4A
S c ie n c e and n a tu r e
5
2
A rt
4
1
S t u d y c o m m u n ity p r o b l e m s
4
1
B ook
3
1
G arden
3
1
Totals
295
100
52
reco rd s*
Q u e stio n 7 gave v a lu a b le d a ta
p la n fo r
c o m p a ris o n o f a d u lt s *
w ith th o se of th e
in th e g e n e ra l stu d y
a d d itio n a l hobby i n t e r e s t s
s e v e n t h g r a d e t o whom t h e c o u r s e
h o b b i e s was^ t a u g h t *
Of t h e 22 9 a n s w e r i n g ,
c e n t had fo u r a d d i t i o n a l hobby i n t e r e s t s ;
c la im e d t h r e e ;
fo u rte e n per cen t
one a d d i t i o n a l i n t e r e s t was r e c o r d e d
per c e n t,
and tw e n ty - f o u r p e r c e n t c la im e d
no a d d i t i o n a l h o b b ie s w o r th r e c o r d i n g .
T hese h o b b ie s f e l l
so c lo s e ly p a r a l l e l to th e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n
T a b le s I I ,
o n ly te n p e r
t h o s e who h a d tw o a d d i t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s n u m b e r ­
ed e ig h te e n p e r c e n t;
by th ir ty - tw o
in a d u lt
III,
se t fo rth
in
a n d IV , a n e x t r a t a b u l a t i o n a t t h i s p o i n t
seem ed u n n e c e s s a r y .
A n sw ers t o
th e q u e s tio n d e a lin g w ith sp o n s o rsh ip
o f ju v e n ile c lu b s , p re se n te d
i n T a b l e X, show ed a r e l a t i v e ­
l y sm a ll p e rc e n ta g e o f a d u l t s ta k in g a c t i v e p a r t
o rg a n iz a tio n s,
a n d t h o s e who d i d w e r e ,
in such
in th e m a jo rity ,
te a c h e rs o r p a re n ts o f a d o le sc e n t c h ild r e n .
e i g h t y - f i v e p e r c e n t gave no i n d i c a t i o n ,
A to ta l of
or d e fin ite ly
s t a t e d t h a t th e y t o o k no p a r t i n c h i l d r e n ’ s l e i s u r e
c lu b s .
S c o u ts and C a m p fire o r g a n i z a t i o n s ,
p e c te d ,
le a d th e l i s t .
tim e
as m ig h t b e e x -
In th e l ig h t of re c e n t in v e s tig a ­
t i o n s m ad e b y t h e N a t i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n ,
th e se
fig u re s are
but a
in d ic a tiv e , n o t of a la c k o f i n t e r e s t ,
53
TABLE
X
JUVENILE ORGANISATIONS SPONSORED BY ADULTS
N um ber
answ er in g
Ju v e n ile
c lu b
(N on e)
Boy S c o u t s
G i r l S c o u ts
C a m p fire G i r l s
G ir l R eserv es
Per cent
answ er in g
251
5
5
3
3
85
2
2
1
1
B oys1 a t h l e t i c c lu b s
C hurch
V e n tu re
A rts and c r a f t s
B oys’ r i f l e
3
3
3
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
B u sin e ss
C o m m e rcia l
F rie n d ly In d ia n s
G i r l s ’ f i s h a n d gam e p a t r o l
G ir ls ’ frie n d ly so c ie ty
1
1
1
1
1
.5
.5
.5
♦5
♦5
G le e c lu b
N ig h tin g a le
J u n i o r P an A m e ric an L eag u e
P h o to g ra p h y
Puppet
1
1
1
1
1
.5
.5
.5
.5
.5
R a d io
R id in g
T rav el
Y .M .C .A .
1
1
1
1
1
.5
.5
.5
.5
.5
Y .W .C .A .
• - w .....
T o ta ls
................. .......................
295
101
54
la c k o f c lu b s ,
and m eans o f e d u c a t i o n and e n c o u r a g e m e n t
of le a d e rs h ip •
The a n s w e r s t o q u e s t i o n 9 i n t h e a d u l t surveyc o v e r e d a w id e r a n g e o f o c c u p a t i o n s , p r e s e n t e d
21 u n d er c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s w h erev er p o s s ib le .
tio n
of
v ic e s.
An e x a m i n a ­
t h e S a n D i e g o C h a m b e r o f C om m erce l i s t i n g
o c c u p a tio n s f o r th e
lis t,
in T a b le
w ith s a le s
c ity
sh o w e d p r o f e s s i o n s f o u r t h
c o m in g f i r s t ,
of
in th e
fo llo w e d by m e c h a n ic a l s e r ­
H o w ev er, f o r p u r p o s e s o f t h i s
stu d y , th e p a r a l l e l
l i s t i n g s w o u ld h a v e b e e n w i t h o u t p a r t i c u l a r
s ig n ific a n c e ,
and a g o o d ly num ber o f l e a d i n g o c c u p a t i o n s i n t h e c i t y
te n d e d to
to
th e
e l e v a t e t h e c h a r a c t e r o f th e a d u l t s a n sw e rin g
q u e stio n n a ire ,
to be encouraged in
th e p r o j e c t u n d er
stu d y •
D e ta i le d l i s t i n g s w ere p r e p a r e d f o r th e c u r i o u s ,
and s e rv e d a good p u rp o s e i n s tu d y in g th e b u s in e s s s i d e
o f t h e b u s in e s s p e o p le in th e
th e fo llo w in g s ix t a b l e s ,
a n d X V II w e r e p r e s e n t e d ,
c o m m u n i ty .
T a b l e s X I I , X I I I , X IV , XV, X V I,
d isc u sse d ,
and, a s w i l l be e x p la in e d l a t e r ,
s e n ta tio n of th e
For th a t reaso n
d e fic ie n c ie s d isc o v e re d ,
re v is e d to
a fa ire r rep re­
o c c u p a t i o n s t o b e f o u n d i n t h e hom es o f
m an y o f t h e c h i l d r e n t h e m s e l v e s .
Q u e s t i o n 10 p r o d u c e d v a l u a b l e d a t a f o r
c o m p a riso n
o f a d u l t s 1 h o b b i e s d u r i n g t h e i r own a d o l e s c e n c e t o t h o s e
55
TABLE
XI
TYPES ARB RANGE OF OCCUPATIONS COMPILED FROM
ADULT Q.UESTIONRAIRES
O c c u p a tio n
N um ber
a n sw e rin g
Per cent
a n sw e rin g
P ro fe ss io n s
S a le s
S e c re ta ria l
C le ric a l
(M isc e lla n e o u s)
72
46
34
17
16
24
16
11
6
6
E x e c u t i v e 8c m a n a g e r i a l
H o u se w iv e s
G r a f ts and sh o p s
R e tire d
L a b o ra to ry te c h n ic ia n
15
12
11
9
8
5
4
3
3
3
Tax a s s e s s o r s
C o lle g e s tu d e n ts
C iv il se rv ic e
M u s ic ia n s
P o l i c e 8c p r o b a t i o n
8
6
5
5
5
3
2
2
2
2
B u ild in g c o n tr a c to r s
L ib ra ria n s
C u sto d ia n s
F ire m e n
Navy
4
4
3
3
3
1
1
1
1
1
N u rses
P rin te rs
R a d io
3
3
3
1
1
1
295
100
Totals
56
TABLE
X II
DETAILED L IS T OF ADULT OCCUPATIONS
LISTED AND PROFESSIONS
O c c u p a tio n s
N um ber
answ er in g
Per cen t
a n sw e rin g
T each ers
■42
14
E n g in e e rs
17
6
D o c to rs
7
2
A tto rn e y s
6
2
72
24
T o ta ls
57
TABLE
X III
S P E C IE IC ADULT OCCUPATIONS LISTED
AS SALES
Numb e r a n s w e r i n g
O c c u p a tio n s
S alesm e n
23
M e rc h a n ts
7
G ro cers
4
R eal e s ta te
and
in su ra n c e
4
A d v e rtis in g
3
Buyer s
3
F u rn itu re
1
S e rv ic e s ta tio n
1
Total
46
58
TABLE
XIV
SP E C IF IC ADULT OCCUPATIONS LISTED
AS SECRETARIAL
O c c u p a tio n
Num ber
a n sw e rin g
Per cent
a n sw e rin g
S e c re ta rie s
17
5
B o okkeepers
7
3
S te n o g ra p h e rs
6
2
A c c o u n ta n ts
4
1
34
11
Totals
59
TABLE
XV
SPE C IFIC ABULT OCCUPATIONS LISTED
AS CLERICAL
O c c u p a tio n s
N um ber a n s w e r i n g
C le rk s
7
A u d ito rs
3
Bank e m p lo y ee s
2
C re d it c le r k s
2
C a sh ie rs
2
S ta tistic ia n
1
Total
17
60
TABLE
XVI
S P E C IFIC ADULT OCCUPATIONS LISTED
AS EXECUTIVE AND MANAGERIAL
O c c u p a tio n
N um ber a n s w e r i n g
"M anage own ■ b u s i n e s s ”
4
D e p a rtm e n t m a n a g e rs
3
C o m m e rica l e x e c u t i v e s
3
C h i l d r e n ’ s home
2
A p a rtm e n t h o u se
1
B akery
i
C le a n in g and d y e in g
i
Total
15
61
TABUS
XVII
MISCELLANEOUS ADULT OCCUPATIONS BELOW
PERCENTAGE RECOGNITION
O c c u p a tio n
N um ber a n s w e r i n g
A ir c r a f t w o rk e rs
2
G ard en er
2
P lu m b ers
2
W rite rs
2
Army o f f i c e r
1
C o sm e tic ia n
1
Je w e le r
1
P a in te r
1
P h o to g ra p h e r
1
P o u l t r y m an
1
R e p o rte r
1
T ruck d r i v e r
1
Total
16
62
o f th e se v e n th g rad es i n t e r e s t s
a t th e
o u ts e t o f th e c o u rs e •
T a b l e X V III show s t h a t a t h l e t i c s a n d s p o r t s t o t a l e d t h i r t y tw o p e r c e n t , a c l o s e p a r a l l e l t o t h e u n g u i d e d a c t i v i t i e s
o f th e boys and g i r l s
tim e .
about to
stu d y th e u se of le i s u r e
S eco n d i n o r d e r w ere a r t s
snd h a n d ic r a f ts .
th o u g h l i m i t e d ra n g e o f l e s s e r hobby i n t e r e s t s
a s w i l l be se e n by r e f e r r i n g
fo llo w e d ,
to th e ta b le .
Q u e s tio n 11 i n t h e a d u l t s u rv e y r e v e a l e d
d a ta to be t a b u l a t e d and p r e s e n te d
th e c o u rs e .
im p o rta n t
d u rin g th e te a c h in g o f
T a b l e XIX r e c o r d s . t h e t o t a l s
to w a rd e a r l y ^ s c h o o l t r a i n i n g
th e
A fa ir,
of
th e a t t i t u d e s
i n t h e w o rth y u s e o f l e i s u r e ;
an sw ers o f s e v e n ty -s e v e n p e r c e n t in d ic a te d th e y b e lie v e d
t r a i n i n g w o u l d h a v e g i v e n th e m b e t t e r
th e ir le isu re
tim e s i n c e .
c o m m e n ts w e r e w r i t t e n
in ,
I n a few i n s t a n c e s a d d i t i o n a l »
such ass
th a t I needed school tr a in in g
I had had sc h o o l t r a i n i n g ,
tim e n o w ."
i d e a s o f how t o u s e
"I fe e l d e fin ite ly
i n how t o u s e t o o l s . "
"If
I c o u l d m ake b e t t e r u s e o f my
" S u c h a s u b j e c t w a s n o t t h o u g h t o f i n my t i m e .
I t w a s a l l how t o m ak e m o n e y , g e t a j o b , a n d h o l d o n . ”
"My t e a c h e r s a l l t a u g h t me how t o b e a f i n a n c i a l s u c c e s s .
T h e re was no tim e f o r
’f r i l l s *
a s som e c a l l e d
an sw ers o f s ix te e n p e r c e n t in d ic a te d
n o t h a v e h e lp e d th em .
b la n k s , one had w r i t t e n
th e m ."
The
s c h o o l t r a i n i n g w o u ld
Among t h e r e m a i n i n g s e v e n p e r c e n t
in ,
" D o n ’ t k now n o t h i n g a b o u t l e i s u r e
63
TABLE
XVIII
COMPARISON OF ADULTS* ANSWERS TO nPET HOBBIES DURING
ADOLESCENCE” WITH PRESENT LOW SEVEN GRADE
H o b b ie s
F re q u e n c ie s
A d u lts
Low s e v e n
g rade
P er c e n t fre q u e n c ie s
A d u l t s Low s e v e n
grad e
A t h l e t i c s and s p o r ts
93
167
32
42
A r ts and c r a f t s
42
65
14
16
M u s ic
35
10
12
3
R e a d in g
33
49
11
12
C o lle c tio n s
30
53
10
13
N a tu ra l sc ie n c e
18
3
7
1
M isc e lla n e o u s
11
,53
3
1
C a m p in g
7
-
2
-
(N o n e )
6
13
2
4
R a d io
6
2
2
-
A n im a ls
4
23
2
6
P h o to g ra p h y
4
4
2
1
D ra m a tic s
3
3
1
1
M in in g
3
—
1
-
Totals
295
395
IOC
100
64
TABLE
XIX
ADULTS’ ANSWERS TO THE QUESTION, "DO YOU THINK
EARLY SCHOOL TRAINING IN THE WORTHY USE OE
LEISURE MIGHT HAVE GIVEN YOU BETTER
IDEAS ON HOW TO USE YOUR LEISURE
NOW?"
A n sw ers
Num ber
a n sw e rin g
Per cent
a n sw e rin g
Yes
229
77
No
47
16
(No a n s w e r )
19
7
29 5
1 00
T o ta ls
65
n e v e r was t a u g h t w hen I w e n t t o
sc h o o l# n
Q u e stio n 12, re g a rd in g a d u l t s ’ w illin g n e s s to r e ­
c e iv e d e le g a tio n s ,
fo r
th e
fu rn ish e d b r ie f b u t e x p lic it
in v e s tig a to r.
T a b l e XX s h o w s t h a t ,
in fo rm a tio n
a l t h o u g h 140
i n d i v i d u a l s a n s w e r e d " N o , " t h e r e w e r e 1 1 2 who w e r e i n t e r ­
e ste d
in th e p la n ;
t h i s n u m b e r p r o v e d f a r t o o m an y t o b e
ta k e n a d v a n ta g e o f in th e l i m i t e d
tim e g iv e n to
t h i s phase
o f th e u n it of te a c h in g , b u t a g r a tif y in g ly la rg e v a r ie ty
of a c tiv itie s
fro m w h ich t o c h o o s e .
w i l l be d isc u sse d
la te r.
The f i n a l q u e s t i o n ,
lis t
o f c o -o p e ra tiv e
p u p ils
T hose c h o se n f i n a l l y
1 5 , w h ic h so u g h t t o
c o m p ile a
in d iv id u a ls w i l li n g to t a l k
in th e e x p e rim e n ta l g roups a t
t i c i p a t e d num ber fro m w h ic h t o
sc h o o l,
gave an unan­
choose r e p r e s e n ta t iv e s ,
t h e l i m i t e d num ber o f s p e a k e r s p o s s i b l e .
t h a t 125 p e o p le w e re w i l l i n g
to th e
and
T a b l e XXI s h o w s
t o t a k e th e tim e t o
come a n d
g iv e d e m o n s tra tio n s o f t h e i r h o b b ie s ,
of p rep are le c tu r e s
ab o u t th e v a lu e o f l e i s u r e w e ll-u s e d ,
and t h e a d v i s a b i l i t y
o f w is e p la n n in g e a r l y f o r u se o f f r e e tim e in t h e c h a n g in g
o rd er
i n t h e b u s i n e s s and s o c i a l w o r ld .
c o m m en ts w e r e w r i t t e n
in
in d ic a tin g doubt th e
and g i r l s m ig h t ta k e in c e r t a i n h o b b ie s ,
g e t up and t a l k t o
c a n ’t
One o r tw o a m u s i n g
i n t e r e s t boys
or a h e s ita n c y to
a c ro w d o f c h i l d r e n — " b u t w i l l ,
i f you
g e t anyone e l s e . ”
As s o o n a s t h e t a b u l a t i o n s w e r e c o m p l e t e d a n d t h e
66
TABLE
XX
ADULTS’ ANSWERS EXPRESSING WILLINGNESS TO BE
V ISITE D BY A DELEGATION OF SEVENTH
GRADE PU PILS
No
140
47
Yes
112
37
43
16
(No a n s w e r )
T o ta ls
29 5
100
67
TABLE
XXI
ADULTS* WILLINGNESS TO TALK TO CLASSES
ABOUT HOBBIES
A n sw ers
Num ber
a n sw e rin g
Per cent
answ er in g
No
140
47
Yes
125
43
30
10
(No a n s w e r )
T o ta ls
295
100
68
q u e stio n n a ire s
c o d e d , t h e nam es
and a d d re s s e s w ere r e ­
m oved a n d p l a c e d w h e re o n l y t h e
e x p e rim e n te r had a c c e s s
t o th em .
The s p e a k e r s c h o s e n fro m t h e l i s t w i l l b e d i s ­
cussed l a t e r .
The s h e e t s o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w e re t h e n c l i p p e d t o ­
g e th e r
a tio n
in p a r c e l s o f a p p ro x im a te ly tw e n ty p a g e s ,
fo r firs t-h a n d
s t u d y b y t h e m e m b e rs o f t h e c l a s s e s
w hen t h e g r a p h s w e re c o n s t r u c t e d
re s u lta n t
in te re s t
on th e b la c k b o a r d .
The
i n th e m a n d t h e c o n s e q u e n t d e l a p i d a t i o n
p ro v ed t h e i r u t i l i t y
II.
in p re p a r­
in th e stu d y p la n .
RESULTS AND TABULATIONS OF LOW SEVENT GRADE
QUESTIONNAIRES
The a d v a n ta g e o f p r e s e n t i n g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s
an e n t i r e
g rad e
i n c l a s s ro o m t i m e
is e v id e n t.
c e n t r e c o v e r y o f th e m g a v e a c o m p l e t e p i c t u r e
in te re s ts ,
The 100 p e r
of le is u re
o r l a c k o f th e m , o r u n c e r t a i n t y o f t h e m e a n in g
o f t h e te rm s a s s im p le a s t h e y w ere m ade.
b e r o f 395 b o y s and g i r l s
tw e n ty -fiv e per
T h e l a r g e r num­
gave a f a i r e r w o rk in g f i e l d
a s u r e r b a s i s o f c o m p a ris o n , when i t
reco v ered .
to
and
i s rem em bered t h a t
c e n t o f th e a d u lt q u e s t io n n a ir e s w ere n o t
T h is d i s c r e p a n c y w as c o m p e n sa te d f o r ,
as w i l l be seen in th e c o n tr ib u tio n s
th e u n it o f te a c h in g ,
ho w ev er,
of th e c h ild r e n
d e a lin g w ith th e
in
in te r v ie w s w h ic h th e y
69
m ad e a n d r e p o r t e d o n a d u l t h o b b i e s .
A c o m p a r a tiv e s t u d y o f f r e q u e n c i e s b e tw e e n a d u lts *
a n d lo w s e v e n s *
I n answ er to
hobby i n t e r e s t s
th e f i r s t
i s p re se n te d
q u e stio n i t
is
i n T a b l e XXIX.
to be n o tic e d
th a t
s p o r t s and a t h l e t i c s h e l d f i r s t p l a c e w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n
as w e ll as w ith a d u lts ;
th e t o t a l of fo rty -tw o p er cen t
com pared f a v o r a b l y w i t h t h e a d u l t s .
lis te d
X X III.
as a th le tic s
S p e c ific
and s p o r t s w i l l be fo u n d
A r ts and c r a f t s ,
lis te d
answ ers
in T ab le
i n d e t a i l i n T a b l e XXIV,
r e c e i v e d s i x t e e n p e r c e n t ; r e a d i n g was t h e c h o i c e o f t w e lv e
per c e n t,
a tu re .
a g a in ru n n in g c lo s e to
a d u lts* i n t e r e s t s
One m o r e i t e m s h o u l d b e m e n t i o n e d :
n o t be s a id to be p rim a r ily
in l i t e r ­
c o lle c tio n s
c h ild ish fe tis h e s
can­
to p ic k up any­
th in g and h o a rd a s an i n s t i n c t p re d o m in an t i n a d o le s c e n t
c h ild re n .
A l t h o u g h i n m an y i n s t a n c e s t h e o b j e c t s m ay b e
w o rth le ss,
a d u lts
c o l l e c t i n g g l a s s and I n d ia n a rro w h e a d s
h av e gone b u t a s h o r t s t e p fro m t h e i r
a s th e y w i l l a d m it.
S p e c ific
a d o le sc e n t te n d e n c ie s ,
ite m s l i s t e d
as c o lle c tio n s
a p p e a r i n T a b l e XXV, a n d sh o w r a t h e r c o n c l u s i v e l y t h a t t h e
m a j o r it y a r e w o rth y u s e s o f l e i s u r e tim e .
( T a b l e X X II p r e s e n t s a c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e c o m p l e t e l o w
seven ra n g e ,
ty p e ,
and d i s t r i b u t i o n
o r ig in a l a d u lt l i s t i n g
p re se n te d
o f h o b b ie s w ith th e
in T a b le I . )
70
TABLE
XXII
COMPARISON OF TYPES, RANGE, AND PERCENTAGES OF
ADULT AND LOW SEVEN GRADE HOBBIES
Hobb i e s
F re q u e n c ie s
Low s e v e n
A du^t g rade
S p o r ts and a t h l e t i c s i
51
A r ts and c r a f t s
P er cen t fre q u e n c ie s
I lo w Seven
A d u lt
g rad e
167
17
43
45 .
65
15
16
R ead in g
4£
49
14
12
G a rd en in g
58
-
13
-
M u s ic
31
10
11
3
C o lle c tio n s
17
53
6
13
(M isc e lla n e o u s)
15
4
5
1
P h o to g ra p h y
15
4
5
1
N a tu ra l sc ie n c e
1£
3
4
1
N on e
6
13
£
4
R a d io
5
£
£
-
S o c i a l p ro b le m s
5
-
£
-
T rav el
5
-
£
-
D ra m a tic s
4
3
1
1
S crapb oo ks
4
1
1
-
A n im als
-
£3
-
6
£05
505
100
100
Totals
71
t a b u : xxiii
SP E C IFIC PU PIL ANSWERS LISTED AS
"ATHLETICS AND SPORTS"
A t h l e t i c s and s p o r ts
Num ber a n s w e r i n g
B a se b a ll
41
F o o tb a ll ,
29
S w im m ing
24
B ic y c le r i d i n g
16
S k a tin g
13
B asket b a ll
12
S p o rts
8
T e n n is
8
V o lle y b a l l
4
D a n cin g
3
B a d m in to n
2
Games
2
H ik in g
2
A c ro b a tic s
1
B at b a l l
1
H o rseback r i d i n g
1
H u n tin g
1
Socker
1
Total
167
72
TABLE
XXIV
S P E C IF IC PU PIL ANSWERS LISTED AS
ARTS AND CRAFTS
Hobb i e s
N um ber a n s w e r i n g
M odel a i r p l a n e s
22
M o d e ls, t o y s ,
13
fo rts
S e w in g , e m b ro id e ry
9
D ra w in g
4
P u p p e ts
4
Soap c a r v in g
3
A r t w ork
S
D e sig n in g
S
C a rto o n in g
1
C ro c h e tin g
1
D e c o ra tin g
1
M a ch in e ry
1
P a in tin g
1
T y p e w ritin g
1
Wood c a r v i n g
1
Total
66
73
TABLE
XXV
S P E C IF IC LOW SEVEN HOBBIES LISTED
AS COLLECTIONS
C o lle c tio n s
Num ber a n s w e r i n g
17
S ta m p s
D o lls
7
M in ia tu re s
6
C o in s
5
M o v ie s t a r
p ic tu re s
3
M a tch h o l d e r s
2
P erfum e b o t t l e s
2
A u to l i c e n s e p l a t e s
1
B o ttle caps
1
B u tte rflie s
1
B u tto n s
1
S n a ils
1
M a rb le s
1
P o e try
1
R ocks and s h e l l s
1
Total
53
74
Q u e stio n 2 o f th e
i n i t i a l lo w s e v e n s u r v e y p r e s e n t s
s i m i l a r r e c o r d i n g s ,tb th o s e o f t h e a d u l t s ,
p r e s e n ts , w ith th e e x c e p tio n o f th e
a s T a b l e XXVI
change o f p la c e
in th e
tim e l i m i t s b e tw e e n one and f i v e h o u r s and a g a i n b e tw e e n
f i v e and te n .
answ ers a s
Round n u m b ers a r e u s e d t h a t i n c o r p o r a t e
"about seven or e ig h t ,"
o r,
such
"m aybe t h r e e o r f o u r , "
w h ic h o f t e n o c c u r r e d , an d f e l l w i t h i n t h e c o n f i n e s o f 5 t o
9 .9 ,
and 0 t o
4.*9 r e s p e c t i v e l y ,
As t h i r t y - t h r e e
per cent
ju d g e d t h e y s p e n t b e tw e e n f i v e and t e n h o u r s a w eek , t h e
a d u lts sco red s e v e ra l p o in ts h ig h e r.
The c h i l d r e n g av e
128 a n sw e rs a s a g a i n s t th e a d u lts *
b e tw e e n one h o u r and f i v e .
n in e ty -s e v e n ra n g in g
T h is c o n s e r v a tiv e and l i m i t e d
d a t a m ay i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n t h e m s e l v e s do n o t h a v e
a ll
t h e i r f r e e tim e g iv e n to p la y .
Q u e s tio n 3 , w h ic h a sk e d f o r f i n a n c i a l e x p e n d i tu r e s
on h o b b ie s r e c e i v e d 322 a n s w e r s , p r e s e n t e d
As m i g h t b e e x p e c t e d ,
h ig h e st p e rc e n ta g e s,
i n T a b l e XXVII#
t h e s m a l l e r am o u n ts r e c e i v e d t h e
and y e t ,
an a p p r e c i a b l e am ount w as e x ­
pended on su c h w o rth w h ile h o b b ie s a s a i r p l a n e m o d e ls, b o o k s,
to o ls ,
fees,
tio n e d .
tu re s ,
a n d m a t e r i a l s n e e d e d f o r v a r i o u s c r a f t s m en ­
C o m p ariso n o f t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e a d u l t s *
it
i s t 6 be n o ted t h a t n e i t h e r a d u l t s n o r c h il d r e n
e x p e n d l a r g e a m o u n ts oh l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s ,
is
e x p e n d i­
and th e ra n g e
com pact and l i m i t e d .
Q u e s tio n 4 , a s k in g w here i n t e r e s t
i n hobby w as b eg u n
75
TABLE
XXVI
COMPARISON OF ADULTSf AND LOW SEVENS’ TIME SPENT
OF LEISURE TIME PURSUITS
A v e rag e num ber o f
ho u rs sp e n t p er
w eek
20 t o 2 9 .9
F re q u e n c ie s
A d u l t Low s e v e n
grad e
—
5
% fre q u e n c ie s
A d u lt
Low s e v e n
g rad e
—
2
15 t o 1 9 . 9
18
16
7
6
10 t o 1 4 .9
35
32
14
12
5 to
9 .9
99
89
40
33
0 to
4 .9
97
128
39
47
24 9
270
100
100
T o ta ls
76
TABLE
XXVII
COMPARISON OF ADULTS’ AND LOW SEVEN
GRADES’ EXPENDITURES
A m ou nt p e r
year
expended
F re q u e n c ie s
A d u lts
Low s e v e n
g rad e
$ fre q u e n c ie s
A d u lts
Low s e v e n
g rad e
10
-
-
16
-
31
7
14
2
2 4 .9 9
32
\4
15
1
$ 1 5 .0 0 t o
1 9 .9 9
11
13
5
3
f 1 0 .0 0 t o
1 4 .9 9
24
5
11
2
# 1 0 0 .0 0 t o 1 5 0 .9 9
22
$ 5 0 .0 0 t o
9 9 .9 9
36
# 3 5 .0 0 t o
4 9 .9 9
# 2 0 .0 0 t o
#
5 .0 0 t o
9 .9 9
35
33
16
7
#
.5 0 t o
4 .9 9
19
160
38
40
#
.0 0 t o
.4 9
8
152
4
39
"2
21
1
6
2SO
395
100
100
U n c e rta in
Totals
77
b ro u g h t 345 a n s w e rs , p r e s e n t e d
i n T a b le X X V III.
a t h o m e" b r o u g h t f i f t y - s e v e n p e r c e n t ,
son t d
a d u lts*
" In te re ste d
a f a v o r a b l e c o m p a ri­
a n s w e r s t o t h e sa m e q u e s t i o n .
The s u b j e c t o f m e m b e rs h ip i n c l u b s ,
th a t of th e e n tir e
395 lo w s e v e n s ,
q u e s t i o n 5 , sh o w e d
203; o r f i f t y - f o u r p er
e e n t , b e lo n g e d to no ju v e n ile o r g a n iz a tio n s o f any k in d .
T a b l e XXIX p r e s e n t s t h e r e s u l t s , w h e r e i n t h i r t y - s i x p e r
c e n t h e l d m e m b e rsh ip i n one c lu b *
h i g h e r n um bers o f c l u b s
jo in e d ,
O th e r l i s t i n g s
sh o w e d
b u t some o f t h e s e m e n t i o n e d ,
a s w i l l b e s e e n i n a l a t e r d i s c u s s i o n , w ere v e r y e le m e n ta l
i n t h e i r d e s i g n s a n d w o u ld p r o b a b l y b e u n r e c o g n i z e d a s o r ­
g a n iz a tio n s o f any p r a c t i c a l o r p erm an en t v a lu e o r b e n e f i t ,
fro m t h e s t a n d p o i n t a t l e a s t o f g a i n i n g g r e a t e r k n o w le d g e
o f l e i s u r e tim e a c t i v i t i e s .
M any o f t h e m t o o , w i l l b e
re c o g n iz e d as a p p e a lin g t o th e h e ro ic s
in younger c h ild re n ,
and c o n s e q u e n tly abandoned d u r in g ju n io r h ig h a g e , p a r t i c u ­
la rly
c o m m e r c i a l l y e x p l o i t e d m e m b e r s h i p s g a i n e d w i t h a b;ox
to p and t e n c e n ts t o
on r a d i o b r o a d c a s t s .
in g s,
cover th e
c o s t o f m a i l i n g — s o common
T a b l e XXX p r e s e n t s t h e c o m p l e t e f i n d ­
g ro u p in g s m a ll n e ig h b o rh o o d c lu b s o f l i k e
The a n s w e rs t o
c h a ra c te r.
q u e s t i o n 6 , w h ic h a s k e d a b o u t a d d i t i o n a l
h o b b ie s t h a t any o f th e
r e c o r d e d i n T a b l e XXXI.
c h i l d r e n m ig h t h a v e , w i l l b e fo u n d
T h o s e h a v i n g no a d d i t i o n a l h e a d
t h e l i s t w i t h f o r t y p e r e e n t ; t h o s e who h a d o n e a d d i t i o n a l
TABLE
XXVTII
PUPILS* ANSWERS TO WHERE THEY BECAME INTERESTED
IN THEIR HOBBIES
P la c e i n te r e s t
w as b eg u n
N um ber
a n sw e rin g
Per cent
a n sw e rin g
A t hom e
197
57
O u tsid e o f sc h o o l
o r home
105
50
45
13
At scho ol
T o ta ls
345
100
f
79
TABLE
XKXX
GLUB MEMBERSHIP OF THE LOW SEVEN GRADE
C lu b
m e m b e rsh ip
N um ber
answ er in g
Per cent
a n sw e rin g
N one
20 3
54
One c l u b
1^8
36
35
8
9
2
395
100
Two c l u b s
T h re e o r m ore
T o ta ls
80
TABUS
XXX
DETAILED CLASSIFICATION OF LOW SEVEN
GRADE'*S CLUB MEMBERSHIPS
C lu b s and
o rg a n iz a tio n s
N um ber o f fm em b er s h i p s
G irl sc o u ts
m
A th le tic
29
c lu b s
Boy s c o u t s
25
Lone R an g er
25
A m erican E id s
23
C a m p fire
19
M u s ic a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s
16
L esser ra d io
16
c lu b s
A rt and s c u l p t u r i n g
5
4-H
2
S e w in g
2
Wood c r a f t
1
L e a th e r to o lin g
1
Total
203
81
TABLE
XXXI
ADDITIONAL HOBBY INTERESTS OF THE LOW SEVEN
GRADE
A d d itio n a l
h o b b ie s
N um ber
a n sw e rin g
Per cent
answ er in g
No a d d i t i o n a l
1 S4--1
40
One
1 2 6 "■
32
Two
72
18
T hree
24
6
F oot
17
4
393
100
Totals
82
h o b b y ' i n t e r e s t c o m p rise d t h i r t y - t w o p e r c e n t ;
th o s e h a v in g
t h r e e o r f o u r a d d i t i o n a l h o b b y i n t e r e s t s w e r e f o u n d am ong
a few o f t h e g i f t e d
and s u p e r io r c h ild r e n
c o m p risin g a sm a ll
p e rc e n ta g e *
The t a b u l a t i o n o f t h e a d d i t i o n a l
a c tiv itie s
in to
sh o w e d t h a t t h e
in te re s ts
c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f th em f a l l s
a b o u t t h e sa m e o r d e r a s p r e v i o u s l i s t i n g s
in te re s ts ,
in hobby
o f ju v e n ile
a s w i l l b e s e e n b y r e f e r r i n g t o T a b l e XXX*
Of th e
2 0 2 who a n s w e r e d t h a t t h e y b e l o n g e d t o n o
c l u b s , 195 c a n b e o r g a n i z e d a r b i t r a r i l y u n d e r s i x m ain
h e a d in g s a s re a s o n s .
T hese a re p re s e n te d
i n T a b l e XXXIX.
T he f i r s t , w i t h f o r t y - s i x a n s w e r s d i d n o t know o f a n y ;
" t o o y o u n g 1* r e c e i v e d f o r t y - t w o
an sw ers;
am ong t h e m i n o r
r e a s o n s w e r e tw o who s a i d t h e y d i d n o t l i k e
th e se
c lu b s .
As
i n d i v i d u a l s w e r e a m o ng t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p ,
was a s c e r t a i n e d l a t e r
it
t h a t th e y w ere b o th o f a n u n s o c i a l
n a tu re .
Q u e stio n 8 o f th e
was d e s ig n e d t o o b t a i n ,
i n i t i a l lo w s e v e n q u e s t i o n n a i r e
i f p o ss ib le ,
who h a d n o t a n s w e r e d t h e f i r s t
e sts.
re s u lts
an sw er;
som e r e a s o n s why t h o s e
q u e s t i o n h ad no hobby i n t e r ­
As o n l y t h i r t e e n w e re a f f e c t e d b y t h i s
are b r i e f :
of th e o rig in a l th ir te e n ,
q u e stio n , th e
e ig h t d id not
**I d o n ’ t h a v e t i m e , ” b r o u g h t tw o r e s p o n s e s ;
boy r e p l i e d t h a t he had to
s e ll p ap ers;
one s a i d ,
one
**I c a n ’ t
83
TABLE
XXXII
REASONS GIVEN FOR NO CLUB
MEMBERSHIP
R easons
N um ber
a n sw e rin g
Per cent
a n sw e rin g
D o n ’ t kn ow a n y
46
23
T oo y o u n g
42
22
Don’t w ant t o
41
21
(N ot a n s w e r in g )
39
20
W ork a f t e r s c h o o l
25
13
2
1
195
100
D on*t l i k e
Totals
c lu b s
84
seem t o f i n d t i m e , ” an d t h e l a s t d i d n o t w a n t o n e .
Q u e stio n 9 , r e l a t i n g to h o b b ie s to be d e s ir e d ,
p ro v ed q u ite
a hobby.
tio n
c o n c l u s i v e l y t h a t f e w k n e w m uch a b o u t c h o o s i n g
At th is
th a t la te
w as r e f e r r e d
th e f i r s t ,
M any o f
t i m e i t m ay n o t b e o u t o f p l a c e
in th e
to
co u rse t h i s ta b le
a g a in , a n a ly z in g th e
t o m en­
( T a b l e X X X I II )
ite m s, p a r t i c u l a r l y
t h e s e v e n t y - t w o p e r c e n t who " d i d n ' t k n o w . "
t h e m em bers o f t h e
c o n trib u te d to
th a t to ta l
e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p , who h a d
o r i g i n a l l y , w e re e a g e r t o m ake
e x p l a n a t i o n s a n d g i v e e v i d e n c e o f t h e i r n ew u n d e r s t a n d i n g
and k n o w le d g e .
They h a s t e n e d t o c a n c e l t h e i r o r i g i n a l
a n s w e r i n t h e f i n a l s u r v e y m ad e t o w a r d t h e e n d o f t h e
co u rse.
Q u e s t i o n 1G s o u g h t t o d i s c o v e r t y p e s o f r e a d i n g
chosen by th e
s e v e n t h g r a d e a t l a r g e , u n d i r e c t e d by E n g l i s h
o r an y sc h o o lro o m a c t i v i t y .
T a b l e XXXIV p r e s e n t s t h e r e a d ­
in g c h o ic e s of th e e n ti r e g ra d e .
M y s t e r y s t o r i e s w on s i x t y
p e r c e n t of th e an sw ers, w h e rea s,
th e b a i t hung o u t in
t o m ake a n d d o t h i n g s " r e c e i v e d
The f i n a l q u e s t i o n ,
in te re s ts
e e n t.
chosen in th e m a tte r o f r e a d in g
o f m ag a zin e m a t e r i a l ,
u n in flu e n c e d
a scant th irte e n per
"How
a g a i n a im e d t o d i s c o v e r
c h o ic e s o f th e boys and g i r l s
upon e n te r in g
a new s c h o o l w h e re l i b r a r y m a t e r i a l w as c o n s i d e r a b l y b r o a d e r
a n d m ore c o m p le te w i t h a g r e a t e r v a r i e t y o f m a g a z in e s t h a n
t o b e f o u n d g e n e r a l l y i n t h e g ra m m a r g r a d e s .
T a b l e XXXV
85
TABLE
XXXIII
ANSWERS TO QUESTION, "WHAT HOBBY WOULD YOU
LIKE TO HAVE?"
Hobby
N um ber
a n sw e rin g
Per cent
answ er in g
( D o n ’ t kn o w )
£8 3
78
C o lle c tio n s
18
5
H orseback r i d in g
16
4
C o in s
15
4
S tam p s
15
4
A i r p l a n e m o d els
7
£
W oo dcraft
7
2
E l e c t r i c a l e x p e rim e n tsi 5
1
D o lls fro m f o r e i g n
la n d s
4
1
P h o to g ra p h y
4
1
S k a tin g
3
1
M o d e l s i n b a l s a w ood
3
1
P ig e o n s
3
1
P e ts
3
1
586
100
Totals
86
TABLE
XXXIV
BEADING CHOICES OE THE LOW SEVEN GRADE PU PILS
C h o ice
N um ber
answ er in g
Per cent
an sw er in g
M y ste ry s t o r i e s
239
60
59
15
In v e n tio n & c o n stru c tio n 4 9
13
T r a v e l and a d v e n tu re
o$9
10
9
4
395
100
N a tu re s t o r i e s
(M ore t h a n o n e )
T o ta ls
87
p re s e n ts th e r e s u lts *
Many a n s w e r s o f d e f i n i t e m a g a z i n e s
w ere w r i t t e n
and g i r l s ’ ta k i n g p re c e d e n c e ;
in ,
boys*
t h e s e w ere f o llo w e d by c r a f t and m e c h a n ic a l p e r i o d i c a l s ,
or th e
"How t o m ake a n d d o t h i n g s " c o m i n g i n s e c o n d p l a c e
w ith tw e n ty -fo u r p e r c e n t; P o p u la r S c ie n c e and P o p u la r
M e ch a n ics w e re f a r
in th e le a d .
T hat th e l a s t
tw o q u e s t i o n s
in t h e lo w s e v e n s u r v e y
w ere a n sw e re d one h u n d re d p e r c e n t by t h e
su re b a sis fo r la te r
g rad e gave a
c o m p a ris o n s.
The c o m p le te t a b u l a t i o n s
s e v e n g ra d e w ere soon m ade; t h e
o f th e r e s u l ts
se ts
o f t h e lo w
of q u e stio n n a ire s o f
th e e x p e r im e n ta l and c o n t r o l g ro u p s w e re s e g r e g a t e d ,
show ed s u c h c l o s e c o r r e l a t i o n ,
little
but
c o u ld be g a in e d by
a n y s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e t o th e m a t a n y t im e t h r o u g h o u t t h e
te a c h in g o f th e c o u rse.
88
TABLE
XXXV
MAGAZINE CHOICES OF THE LOW SEVEN GRADE
M a g az in es
G i r l s ’ a id b o y s ’
N um ber
answ er in g
Per cent
a n sw e rin g
147
37
C r a f t and m e c h a n ic a l
94
24
O ld e r p e o p l e s ’
73
18
T rav el
10
N a tu re
33
8
(M o re t h a n o n e )
16
4
395
100
Totals
CHAPTER
IV
DEVELOPMENT OE THE TEACHING PLAN
W ith o u t d e f i n i t e
chosen f o r t h i s
g u id e
e x p e rim e n t,
in th e
fie ld
of a c tiv ity
i t w as n e c e s s a r y t o d e v e lo p a
p la n o f p ro c e d u re b e fo re th e se m e s te r began.
th e
c ity
A p p ro v al by
s u p e r in te n d e n t o f s c h o o l and th e p r i n c i p a l o f t h e
b u i l d i n g a t w h ic h th e t e a c h i n g p ro g ra m w as to
ta k e p ie c e
was g a ih e d upo n p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e o r i g i n a l o u t l i n e .
d e v e lo p su c h a te a c h in g p la n f o r f u r t h e r
r e c o r d s w ere k e p t and p l a u s i b l e
n o te d .
The p l a n f e l l
To
stu d y , d e ta ile d
c h an g e s to be d e s i r e d w ere
in to th re e
d iv is io n s ,
n a m e ly ;
th e
p la n a s t a u g h t , p r e p a r a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f th e f i n a l
lo w s e v e n g r a d e q u e s t i o n n a i r e ,
and c o m p a riso n and t a b u l a t i o n
of re s u lts .
I.
THE PLAN AS TAUGHT
S u c c e s s o f su c h a c o u r s e w o u ld d ep en d t o a l a r g e
d e g re e upon i t s
in c e p tio n .
b a se d on th e p r e c e p t t h a t
i t m ust be e x p e r ie n c e d ,
a d o p te d :
As p r o g r e s s i v e
a p p r e c i a ti o n c a n n o t be t a u g h t ,
t h e f o l l o w i n g p l a n o f a c t i v i t y w as
in tr o d u c tio n o f th e l e i s u r e
i n d i v i d u a l s on p r e s e n t l e i s u r e
p la n a tio n o f th e
e d u c a tio n i s
q u e stio n n a ire s
th em e, r e p o r t s fro m
a c tiv itie s ,
and t a b l e s
s tu d y and ex­
o f a d u l t h o b b ie s*
90
l i b r a r y w ork and r e a d i n g p r o g r a m ,
so n al in te rv ie w s ,
th e
in v ita tio n
p re p a ra tio n
to a d u lts
fo r th e p e r­
se le c te d to
c la s s a b o u t h o b b ie s and w ise u se o f f r e e
tim e ,
m e th o d s o f sh o w in g i n c r e a s e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e
ta lk
to
and
v a lu e
o f w e llS u se d l e i s u r e .
In tro d u c tio n
of th e le is u r e
th e m e .
W ednesday,
( c o m p o s i t i o n d a y ) , w a s s e t a s i d e a s H ob b y D a y .
O ral r e p o r ts
and w r i t t e n a s s ig n m e n ts w ere c a r r i e d on th r o u g h o u t th e
s e m e s te r on t h i s
day , a s w e ll a s b e in g s e t a s id e f o r th e
g u est sp eak ers.
On t h e f i r s t
day a d i s c u s s i o n was la u n c h e d a b o u t
t h e m e a n i n g s o f t h e w o rd l e i s u r e ,
h o b b ie s,
lo a fin g ,
and k in d re d
p la y tim e , r e c r e a t io n ,
su b je c ts.
T h is d i s c u s s i o n
p ro m p te d t h e m e a n in g o f sy n o n y m s, t h e s h a d e s o f m e a n in g ,
t h e p h a s e s r e c r e a t i o n m ig h t i n v o l v e , w h ic h p ro m p te d an
e n th u s ia s tic u se of th e
p o s s i b l e w ords r e l a t e d
d ic tio n a ry
to th e te rm .
and t h e n o t i n g o f a l l
T h is le d t o
in d iv id u a l
a n a l y s e s o f t h e c h i l d r e n ’ s own u s e o f l e i s u r e , so m e o f t h e
causes of c h ild re n g e ttin g
a s m ig h t be e x p e c te d ,
s e r io u s c rim e .
le a d in g
At t h i s
L aw es* 2 0 , 0 0 0 y e a r s
in to
tro u b le w ith th e p o lic e ,
in to
th e
deeper s u b je c t of
j u n c t u r e a n e x t r a c t fro m W arden
in S in g S in g w as r e a d t o
th em ,
sin g th e p o in t th a t n in e ty -se v e n p e r cen t o f th e
stre s­
in m a te s
and,
91
had no k n o w le d g e n o r t r a i n i n g
fo r le is u re .
T h e r e c o r d s o f S i n g S i n g sh o w t h a t n i n e t y - s e v e n
p e r c e n t o f o u r p r i s o n e r s w ere n e v e r a s s o c i a t e d w ith
any b o y s ' c lu b s , o r any o f th e j u v e n i l e a s s o c i a t i o n s
w h e r e b o y s l e a r n how t o s p e n d t h e i r l e i s u r e t i m e i n
w h o le s o m e r e c r e a t i o n .
S e v e n ty -fiv e p e r c en t o f our
p r i s o n e r s a r e n o t s k i l l e d o r le a r n e d in m e c h a n ic s o r
tra d e s.
The r e p o r t s o f t h e San D ieg o j u v e n i l e b u r e a u p o l i c e r e c o r d s
w e re g i v e n , w h e r e i n s t r e s s was l a i d
quency and i t s
causes.
v o lu n te e r ta lk s
shops,
and l i k e
A l i v e l y h a lf - h o u r en su ed w ith
o n home c o n d i t i o n s ,
common i n t e r e s t s
on th e a g e o f d e l i n ­
such as r a d io ,
a c tiv itie s
c h i l d r e n fs and a d u l t s '
c a m p in g , m o v ie s , g a r a g e -
a s s o c ia te d w ith fa m ily o r o ld e r
frie n d s.
N o t e s w e r e m ad e b y t h e
c h ild r e n on to p ic s d is c u s s e d
and f i l e d f o r f u t u r e n o t e book w ork an d w r i t t e n a s s ig n m e n ts .
F o r t h e n e x t " m e e t i n g " e a c h m em ber o f t h e c l a s s w a s t o b e
p re p a re d to d is c u s s h is p re s e n t l e i s u r e
ed i n th e
in itia l
a c t i v i t y a s answ er­
q u e stio n n a ire .
R e p o rts fro m in d iv i d u a ls on p r e s e n t l e i s u r e
itie s .
As t h e s e r e p o r t s w e r e g i v e n , t h e
f i c a t i o n w as g r a d u a l l y b r o u g h t i n t o
a c tiv ­
su b je c t of c la s s i­
th e w o rk , b a s e d on
^ L e w is E dw ard L a w e s, £ 0 .0 0 0 T e a r s i n S in g S i n g .
(New Y o r k : R . L o n g h a n d ,hR. R . S m i t h , S i c . , 1 9 3 2 ) , p p . 3 5 5 - 6 .
9£
E a r n e s t E lm o G a l k i n s ’ C a r e a n d F e e d i n g o f H o bb y H o r s e s :
d o in g t h in g s ,
( s p o r t s and a t h l e t i c s ) ; m ak in g th in g s ; ( c r a f t s ) ;
m u sic , s c ie n c e ,
tin g ,
and r e a d in g ,
(a c q u isitiv e ).
(in te lle c tu a l);
and c o l l e c ­
A d v a n tag e s w ere f r e e l y t a l k e d o v e r
o f h o b b i e s t h a t m ig h t co m b in e tw o o f t h e s e
c la ss ific a tio n s ,
o r m ore.
At th is
g a tin g th e
j u n c t u r e a s im p le t a b l e was c o m p ile d s e g r e ­
e x p e r im e n ta l s e v e n ty -tw o from th e re m a in d e r o f
c o m p risin g th e
sent s im ila ritie s
c o n tro l g ro u p ;
or d iffe re n c e s,
t h e p u rp o s e w as t o p r e ­
and f o r e s t im a t i n g
q u a l i t y and r a n g e o f a c t i v i t i e s w h ic h m ig h t b e d is c o v e r e d
i n t h e tw o c l a s s e s a s c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p .
The d i f f e r e n c e s w e re so s m a l l ,
s p e c i a l t a b l e h e r e was
deem ed u n n e c e s s a r y .
S tu d y and e x p la n a tio n o f q u e s t i o n n a ir e s and t a b l e s
o f a d u lt h o b b ie s.
p la n ,
In a n tic ip a tio n
of th is
p o rtio n o f th e
an e n la r g e d r e p r o d u c t i o n o f T a b le X w as p r e s e n t e d
on t h e b l a c k b o a r d ,
sp a c e b e in g a llo w e d f o r
in se rtio n of
t h e c o m p a r a tiv e r e s u l t s d e r i v e d fro m t h e lo w s e v e n g ra d e
q u e stio n n a ire .
H o rses,
105 pp.
An e x p l a n a t i o n w a s m ad e o f how t h e m a t e r i a l
^ E a r n e s t E lm o C a l k i n s , C a r e a n d F e e d i n g o f H obby
(New Y o r k : L e i s u r e L e a g u e o f A m e r i c a , 1 9 3 4 T ,"
93
had been c o lle c te d
a sse m b le d ,
and th e p u rp o s e f o r w h ic h i t had been
to g e th e r w ith a b r i e f o u tlin e o f th e p la n s f o r
t h e co m in g w e e k s .
The s m a ll a l l o t m e n t s
q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w ere c i r c u l a t e d
g iv e n .
In te n se
of a d u lt hobby
and e x a m in e d ,
and r e a c t i o n s
i n t e r e s t an d c u r i o s i t y w as a r o u s e d .
Re­
q u e s t s cam e i n f o r b l a n k q u e s t i o n n a i r e s f o r a d u l t s t o f i l l
in .
T h i s w as d i s c o u r a g e d t o som e d e g r e e ,
as th e c h ild r e n ’s
p a rt
i n t h e p l a n was t o m e e t and t a l k w i t h a d u l t s a n d b r i n g
in o ra l r e p o r ts o f in te rv ie w s fo r th e d i r e c t b e n e f it o f
th e
e n tire
q u e stio n s
c la ss ,
a la te r
d e v elo p m e n t i n t h e p ro g ra m ,
in th e l i s t w ere th o ro u g h ly d is c u s s e d ,
;j u .1
th e unusual
an sw e rs b e in g g iv e n s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n .
B u sin e ss t a c t i c s
w ere d i s c u s s e d
f r u i t f u l th e m e ,
o f th e p e rso n al
in fo rm a lly ,
F ro m t h i s
in te rv ie w ty p e
"S e e in g f o r y o u r s e l f " p ro v e d a
d e v e lo p e d a p e r io d o f
t a l k s w h ic h w ere v o l u n t e e r e d on i n t e r e s t i n g
a d u l t s whom t h e c h i l d r e n k n e w ,
sh o rt
h o b b ie s o f
A s i m p l i f i e d t a b l e was p u t
on t h e b o a rd fro m t h e s e r e p o r t s t o
show how t a b l e s
ap p ear­
in g l a t e r w ere c o n s t r u c t e d .
L i b r a r y w ork an d t h e r e a d i n g p ro g ra m .
lib ra ria n
lis ts
The s c h o o l
c o - o p e r a te d e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y and f u r n is h e d
o f hobby and l e i s u r e m a t e r i a l ,
f r e e re a d in g
h o u rs.
c o p io u s
su g g e stin g books f o r
G ood B o ok Week w a s c e l e b r a t e d b y t u r n ­
i n g t h e c l a s s ro o m i n t o
a m in ia tu re lib r a r y ,
a p p o in tin g
a stu d e n t lib r a r ia n .
Over a h u n d r e d b o o k s a n d k i n d s o f
m a g a z in e s w e re a sse m b le d fro m t h e s c h o o l ,
m a in and b r a n c h c i t y l i b r a r i e s .
by c o n trib u tio n s
T h ese w ere su p p le m e n te d
o f m an y p r i v a t e l y
by v a r io u s p u p i l s and i n t e r e s t e d
not re s tric te d
d isc o v e re d
to a d e fin ite ly
in th e l i s t i n g s
a s B ruce, C o l li n s ,
and fro m th e
owned v o l u m e s l o a n e d
a d u lts.
T h is l i s t w as
ju v e n ile ty p e ,
i n T a b l e XXXVL.
a s w i l l be
Such a u th o rs
F a u l k n e r , H ib b e n , L a m p la n d , p i l e d up
r e q u e s t s on t h e w a i ti n g l i s t .
w aded t h r o u g h P a c k ’ s
One o m n i v o r o u s y o u n g r e a d e r
’’C h a l l e n g e o f L e i s u r e , ” a n d j u d g i n g
fro m t h e r e p o r t g iv e n , had p r o f i t e d
g r e a tly by i t .
A
m inim um o f t h r e e b o o k s a n d o n e c o p y e a c h o f t h r e e m a g a z i n e s
was s e t a s a f a i r
num ber t o b e e x a m in e d by e a c h p u p i l ,
some com m ent m ad e on s e p a r a t e c a r d s f o r e a c h o n e .
w ere a t t h i s
c o m p lete th e l i t e r a t u r e
p a rtm e n t.
th e c la s s
at a la te r
re q u ire m e n ts o f th e E n g lish de­
in te re s tin g
ite m s a b o u t l e i s u r e ,
i n hobby i n t e r e s t s , b o th a d u lt and j u v e n i l e .
d u p lic a te d
d a te
T h e se p e r i o d s w ere e n jo y e d im m e n sely , d i s c o v e r ­
in g and r e p o r t i n g
itie s
R e q u e sts
t i m e m ad e f o r c h o i c e s o f t h e b o o k s t h e y w i s h e d
to r e a d c o m p le te ly and r e p o r t t o
to
and
in
some i n s t a n c e s
th e s is ,
a lis t
re p o rts
is p re se n te d
and a c t i v ­
Though
in th e B ib lio g ra p h y o f th is
o f t h e books u s e d by t h e c l a s s e s f o r m ak in g
i n T a b l e XXXVI.
95
TABLE
3QQCVT
BOOKS EXAMINED AHD BEAD BY EXPERMENTAL GROUP
A c k le y , E d ith E la e k
M a rio n e tte s
A d a m s, P e t e r
R a c in g y a c h t s done i n c o rk m o d els
A nd erso n , C a rl
How t o d r a w c a r t o o n s s u c c e s s f u l l y
B a i l e y , C a ro ly n S h e rw in
G ir ls * m ak e -at-h o m e t h i n g s
B a r t o n , F r e d B.
P h o to g ra p h y a s a hobby
B e a r d , D an C.
B oat b u ild in g and b o a tin g
B e a r d , L i n a a n d A d e l i a B.
How t o a m u se y o u r s e l f a n d o t h e r s
In d o o r and o u td o o r r e c r e a t i o n s f o r g i r l s
M o t h e r n a t u r e s ! j§ t o y s h o p
B eard , P a tte n
The c o m p le te p l a y book
B e c h d o lt, la c k
The m o d ern h an d y book f o r b o y s
B e l l , E n id
T i n - c r a f t a s a hobby
B la c k , John
Y a c h tin g w i t h m o d els
B ru c e , M a rjo ry
The b o o k o f c r a f t s m e n
B r e e n , M a ry I .
P a rtn e rs in p la y
(Continued on next page)
96
TABLE
XXXVI
(Continued)
BOOKS EXAMINED AMD READ BY EXPERIMENTAL GROUP
B u f s n o , Rfflmo
Be a p u p p e t show m an
B u l li v a n t, C e c il,H e n ry
E v ery b o y 's book o f b o b b ie s
C a l k i n s , E a r n e s t E lm o
C are and f e e d i n g o f hobby h o r s e s
C o ffin , Jeseph
O ur A m e r i c a n m o n e y
C o l e m a n , S a t i s N.
B e lls*
T h e ir h is to r y ,
l e g e n d s , m ak in g ,
C o l l i n s , A rc h ie F r e d e r ic k
C o l l e c t i n g sta m p s f o r fu n and p r o f i t
_________ , Home h a n d y b o o k
_________ , How t o r i d e
y o u r hobby
__________ , T he a m a t e u r e n t e r t a i n e r
__________ , P h o t o g r a p h y f o r f u n a n d m o n ey
C o n sig n e y , le a n M a rie
G a rd en in g f o r fu n
C o o lid g e , A lb e rt S p ragu e
B u ild in g a m odel r a i l r o a d
C u m m in g s, H e n r y I .
T e n n is as a hobby
De F a u b e r t , 1 . M.
E v ery g i r l ' s book o f h o b b ie s
D obbs, E lla V ic to r ia
F i r s t s t e p s i n w e a v in g
(Continued on next page)
and u s e s
97
TABLE
XXXVI
(Continued)
BOOKS EXAMINED AND READ BY EXPERIMENTAL GROUP
E a stm a n k o d a k com pany
How t o t a k e g o o d m o v i e s
F a rn h am , A l b e r t B.
Home t a x i d e r m y f o r p l e a s u r e
and p r o f i t
F a u l k n e r , H e r b e r t W*
W o o d -c arv in g a s a hobby
F ic k le n , B e s s ie A le x a n d e r
A handbook o f f i s t p u p p e ts
F o s t e r , E d n a A.
S o m e th in g t o d o , boys*
F r a s e r , C h e lse a
The b o y s ' b u s y book
G aba, L e s te r
On s o a p s c u l p t u r e
G ib b a rd , M abel K i t t y
H o b b ie s f o r g i r l s
H a l l , A. N e e l y
Home h a n d i c r a f t f o r b o y s
______ , T h e h a n d y b o y
H a m i l t o n , E d w in
B oy b u i l d e r ( t h e )
, H a n d ic ra ft fo r g i r l s
, Home c a r p e n t r y
, P o p u la r c r a f t s f o r boys
H i b b e n , T ho m as
The s o n s o f V u le a n
H o d g e , A. E .
V iv a riu m and a e q u a riu m k e e p in g f o r a m a te u rs
(Continued on next page)
98
TABLE
XXXVI
(Continued)
BOOKS EXAMINED AND READ BY EXPERIMENTAL GROXJP
H ubbar d , H eske t h
C o lo u r b lo c k p r i n t i n g
H u tc h in g , M abel T esgh
C re a tiv e h a n d ic ra fts
J a c k s o n , G. G i b b a r d
H o b b ie s f o r boys
J o r d a n , N i n a R*
Home m ad e d o l l s
in fo re ig n d ress
K aufm an, G e r a ld L y n to n
How’ s t r i c k s ?
K in g , E l i z a b e t h
Q u iltin g
9 The k n i t t i n g b o o k
L a m k in , N in a B.
Good t i m e s f o r a l l t i m e s
L a m p la n d , R u th
H o b b ie s f o r e v ery b o d y
L aP rad e, E rn e st
A lic e in o r c h e s tr a lia
Law son, A rth u r
How t o m a k e a n d p l a y
i n d o o r and o u t d o o r gam es
L eem in g , J o s e p h
Fun w i t h b o x es
______ , F u n w i t h s t r i n g
________ , M o d e l s a n y b o y c a n b u i l d
________ , M ore t h i n g s a n y b o y c a n m ak e
^
, T h in g s a n y b o y c a n m ake
(Continued on next page)
99
TABLE
XXXVI
(Continued)
BOOKS EXAMINED AND HEAD BY EXPERIMENTAL GROUP
L e s t e r , K a t h e r i n e M.
C la y w ork
L i p p i n e o t t , J o s e p h W. a n d G. J . R o b e r t s
N a tu re c ra ft c re a tu re s
L o o m i s , A n d re w
Fun w ith a p e n c il
L u k o w i t z , J o s e p h J".
55 New t i n - c a n p r o j e c t s
M c M ille n , W h e e le r
The y o u n g c o l l e c t o r
M a r r a n , R ay J \
F u n a t home
________, M a k in g m o d e l s o f f a m o u s s h i p s
. T a b le gam es
M a rs h a ll, P e rc iv a l (E d it. Z v o ls .)
C o m p le te ro m an ce o f m o d el c r a f t .
W o n d e rfu l m o d els
M ason, B e rn a rd S .
W o od craft
M a t h i e w s , F r a n k l i n K.
Boy S c o u t s B o o k o f i n d o o r h o b b y t r a i l s
________, Boy S c o u t s b o o k o f o u t d o o r h o b b i e s
M o o r e , H a r r i s W.
C h ip c a r v i n g
M organ, A l f r e d
T ro p ic a l f is h e s
a n d home a c q u a r i a
M u r r a y , W i l l i a m D. a n d F r a n c i s
Fun w ith p a p e r f o l d i n g
J". R i g n e y
P e r r y , Evadna K rau s
A rt a d v e n tu re s w ith d isc a rd e d m a te r ia ls
(Continued on next page)
100
TABLE
XXXVT
(Continued)
BOOKS EXAMINED AND READ BY EXPERIMENTAL GROUP
P e rry , F red J.
P e r r y on t e n n is
P r o c t o r , C h a r l e s N. a n d R o c k w e l l R . S t e v e n s
S k iin g
S now , B o n n i e E . a n d Hugo B . F r o e h l i c h
A h u n d r e d t h i n g s a g i r l c a n m ake
S t e w a r t , Lean
T h r e e h u n d r e d a n d o n e t h i n g s a b r i g h t g i r l c a n m ake
S ta rr, Ju lia n , Jr.
M ake i t y o u r s e l f
S t i e r i , E m an u ele
The hoo k o f in d o o r h o b b ie s
T e a l e , E d w in Way
The b o y s ’ b o o k o f p h o n o g ra p h y
T h o m a s , E d w a rd
W hat t o do a b o u t y o u r i n v e n t i o n
T u r n e r , John S te b b in s
L e t ’ s s t a r t a sta m p c o l l e c t i o n
W a tte r s o n , T. V ., J r .
P a lo m a r P i c t o r i a l
W h i t e , M a ry T a l b o t
How t o m ak e b a s k e t s
W ood, C a t h a r i n e M.
P a lo m a r fro m t e p e e t o t e l e s c o p e
W ood, E r i c ( E d i t )
H o b b ie s
W y a t t , E d w in M a t h e r
P u z z l e s i n w ood
B ack nu m b ers and c u r r e n t i s s u e s
as are lis te d
p u rp o se in
i n T a b l e X 2C X V II s e r v e d g e n e r a l l y t h e
c re a tin g a liv e ly
in te re s t
M e c h a n ic s, and o th e r c r a f t
t h e i r w ay i n t o
sam e
i n m an y m a g a z i n e s
w i t h w h i c h t h e g r o u p w as u n f a m i l i a r *
a rtic le s
o f su ch , m a g a z i n e s
C o p ie s o f P o p u la r
and t r a d e p e r i o d i c a l s
found
t h e c l a s s room , c o n t a i n i n g m i s c e l l a n e o u s
d e a lin g w ith c r a f t s
and m an u al a r t s
of p a rtic u la r
i n t e r e s t t o t h o s e who f o u n d t h e m , o r s u g g e s t e d t o o t h e r s
who m ay h a v e m ad e some r e q u e s t f o r t h e m .
T h ro u g h o u t t h e c o u r s e , r e a d i n g and r e p o r t i n g on
lite ra tu re
about in te re s tin g
encouraged.
le isu re
tim e p u r s u i t s w ere
P a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n w a s c a l l e d t o n ew b o o k
a r r i v a l s , w h i c h , when f i r s t r e a d y f o r c i r c u l a t i o n , w e re
g iv e n to t h i s
g ro u p f o r e s tim a te s o f t h e i r w o rth .
T h is r e a d in g and l i t e r a t u r e
d iv is io n
was c o n d u c te d on t h e r e g u l a r l i t e r a t u r e
o f th e p ro g ram
day, F rid a y of each
w e e k , f o l l o w i n g t h e Good B o o k Week e x a m i n a t i o n p e r i o d .
th e
s c h o o l r e q u ir e s th r e e book r e p o r t s
se m e ste r,
a
t h e hobby books w ere l i m i t e d as a r e q u ir e m e n t t o
one o f t h e t h r e e .
The m a j o r i t y , h o w e v e r, r e a d c o n s i d e r a b l y
o v e r t h e m in im u m , m a k i n g i n some c a s e s ,
th re e
from e a c h p u p i l
As
a s m any a s f i v e ,
o f th e m f r o m t h e h o b b y m a t e r i a l a n d e x t r a s f r o m t h e
r e g u la r l i b r a r y re a d in g sc h e d u le .
M ost o f th e
boo k s w e re e x a m in e d and g i v e n e s t i m a t e s
lo a
TABLE XXXVII
MAGAZINES EXAMINED BY THE
EXPERIMENTAL GROUP
M a g az in e
A ll-P e ts
Num ber o f c o p i e s
18
B u i l d i n g A m e ric a
6
F rie n d s
8
H o b b ie s
24
J u n i o r R e v ie w
6
Ju n io r S c h o la s tic
6
L e isu re
26
N a tu ra l H is to ry
1
N a t u r a l N a t u r e News
.1
P ig e o n J o u r n a l
15
R a b b it J o u rn a l
15
The Sky
1
S ta m p s
1
T rav el
12
Total
140
103
in th e
card f i l i n g
p u p ils .
p o site
T hese c a r d s w ere a sse m b le d ,
c ritic ism
c ritic ise d .
re v ie w e d ,
sp e c ific
w r i t t e n on a f r e s h
th e b e s t,
card ,
fo r
o r com­
each book
The r e v i s e d c a r d s w e re r e c l a s s i f i e d
o f h o b b ie s;
in to
ty p es
t h o s e b o o k s w h ic h w e re a b o u t m any h o b b i e s w e re
c h a p te rs l i s t e d
on f r e s h c a r d s t h a t d e a l t . , w i t h
h o b b i e s i n t h e new c l a s s i f i c a t i o n
in g a s e r i e s
to
sy ste m by a t l e a s t t h r e e d i f f e r e n t
o f c o m p ila tio n s
sy s te m , fo rm ­
in p re p a ra tio n fo r th e p o ste rs
b e m ade a n d d i s p l a y e d d u r i n g t h e h o b b y f a i r .
re a d in g phase of t h i s p la n ,
a s m ay b e e x p e c t e d ,
th e b e t t e r p a r t o f th e s e m e s te r,
The e n t i r e
covered
c o n d u c te d on i t s
sp e c ific
day, F rid a y .
P re p a ra tio n fo r
fo r th is ste p ,
in te rv ie w s.
To p r e p a r e t h e c h i l d r e n
th e te a c h e r had p la n n e d ahead w ith c e r t a i n
r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a d u l t s who h a d a n s w e r e d i n t h e a f f i r m a t i v e
as w illin g
to m eet a d e le g a tio n of th e
se v e n th g rad e .
D is­
c u s s i o n w as c a r r i e d on a b o u t t h e v a lu e o f t h e h o b b ie s
lis te d ,
p a rtic u la rly
s tr e s s i n g th e c u lt u r a l s id e
tra s te d
t o e c o n o m ic i m p o r t a n c e ;
o f p e rs o n a l a c h ie v e m e n t,
o n e 's d e s i r e s ,
i n t o tw o p a r t s :
F ro m t h e
th e v a lu e and s a t i s f a c t i o n
l e a r n i n g new t h i n g s ,
th e s o c ia l sig n ific a n c e ,
c o m p e titiv e b a rg a in in g .
th e
a c h ie v in g
and freed o m fro m
T h e p r o j e c t m ay h e r e b e s u b d i v i d e d
d e le g a tio n s,
a d u lts *
as con­
and th e
in te rv ie w s .
an sw ers to w i l li n g n e s s to r e c e iv e
104
d e le g a tio n s,
a v e ry l i m i t e d c h o ic e had to he m ade.
fo rtu n a te ly , a t th is
Un­
tim e t h e e p id e m ic o f i n f l u e n z a r e ­
duced sc h o o l a tte n d a n c e to su ch a d e g re e ,
i t w a s d e em ed
a d v is a b le to c u r t a i l t h i s
phase;
s e e w eav in g d e m o n s tr a te d ,
s h e l l c o l l e c t i o n s , w oodshop
e q u ip m e n t, t r o p i c a l f i s h ,
a d u lt e d u c a tio n e x h ib itio n of
c ra fts,
c o n se q u e n tly , t r i p s
and s e v e r a l o th e r w id e ly - s e le c te d s u b je c ts o r i g in ­
a l l y p la n n e d , had to be c a n c e lle d .
T he f i n a l f o u r d e c i d e d
on w ere a s w id e ly d i v e r g e n t a s w as p o s s i b l e
F irst,
tre e
a m in ia tu re h a n d ic ra ft e x h ib it;
to
c o n sid e r.
se co n d , C h ristm a s
and C h ristm a s d e c o r a tio n s — a y e a r round p r o j e c t o f
p r e p a r a t i o n by a f a t h e r and so n ; t h i r d ,
ta lk
to
on r a r e
u la te d
a g a rd e n t o u r and
and c o m p le te ly f o r e i g n t r e e s
in th e p a rk ;
a trip
a n d s h r u b s accu m ­
t o t h e T h o rn e c o l l e c t i o n o f
m i n i a t u r e boom s.
T h ese t r i p s w ere w i t h in s t r e e t c a r o r
w a lk in g d is ta n c e ,
and re d u c e d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p ro b le m s t o
a m in im u m .
O v e r la p p i n g t h e p l a n s f o r t r i p s , was t h e c o n c e r n o f
th e: p e rs o n a l in te rv ie w s .
in te rv ie w s th e m se lv e s:
be o f i n t e r e s t to
D is c u s s io n s w ere h e ld a s to th e
w h a t w as t o b e fo u n d o u t t h a t w o u ld
t h e w h o le c l a s s ; w h a t q u e s t i o n s t o
t h a t e v e r y b o d y w o u ld w a n t t o know a b o u t ;
ask
a n d how t o m ake
t h e p e r s o n in te r v ie w e d r e a l i z e t h a t h e w as d o in g t h e s c h o o l
a re a l se rv ic e .
The s u b j e c t o f l i s t i n g
d e fin ite
q u e stio n s
105
t o b e a n s w e r e d b y t h e a d u l t s w a s g i v e n m u ch t h o u g h t , a n d
f i n a l l y re a c h e d a b r i e f and sa n e l i s t ,
v ic e o f th e
a d u lt to
hobby and th e
w h ic h i n c l u d e d ad ­
th e r e p r e s e n ta tiv e
o f c h o o sin g a
im p o rta n c e o f le a r n in g e a r l y to u se l e i s u r e
tim e w e l l .
M a k in g a n d r e p o r t i n g
m em bers o f t h e
c la ss e s
in te rv ie w s.
I n m an y i n s t a n c e s
in te rv ie w e d p e rs o n a l f r i e n d s ,
each
o t h e r ’s p a r e n t s , n e ig h b o rs , and p a r e n t s ’ b u s in e s s a s s o c ia te s
and f r i e n d s n o t l i s t e d
in th e o r i g in a l a d u lt q u e stio n n a ire *
T h is p ro v ed an i n t e r e s t i n g p r o c e e d in g ,
and t h e p u p i l s c o u ld
s e e an d f i n d o u t t h i n g s f o r t h e m s e l v e s , m e e t new p e o p l e
w ith i n t e r e s ti n g h o b b ie s,
ric h m e n t of th e
and f u r n i s h m a t e r i a l f o r t h e en­
o r i g i n a l a d u lt c h a r t , b a se d on T a b le I ,
p re se n te d e a r l i e r
in th e
s e v e ra l c la s s d isc u ssio n ,
co u rse.
T hese r e p o r t s to o k
p e rio d s to c o m p le te .
They w e re
g iv e n a s so o n a s re a d y a t th e b e g in n in g o f an y c l a s s tim e
on a n y d ay o f th e w eek i n o r d e r t h a t th e
i n te r v ie w e r m ig h t
m ake t h e b e s t p o s s i b l e r e p o r t i n h i s f i r s t
th u s ia s m and b e f o r e h e m ig h t f o r g e t ,
re p lie s.
s ta g e s o f en­
o r l o s e h i s n o t e s on
Many v a l u a b l e h o b b i e s w e r e e n t r u s t e d t o t h e
c h ild re n
by e n th u s ia s tic f r i e n d s f o r e x h ib itio n ; m essages o f en co u r­
a g em en t- i n hobby a c t i v i t i e s ,
a c tiv itie s
f o r b e g in n e rs,
a d v i c e on p r a c t i c a l a n d sa m p le
and th e a v o id a n c e o f c o s t l y s e ­
l e c t i o n s w ere t h e c o n t i n u a l l y r e c u r r i n g m e ssa g e s g iv e n t o
106
th e c la s s .
A card f i l i n g
lis te d
hobby.
s y s te m was k e p t w h e r e in e a c h p u p i l
a d u lts f re p o rts,
i n c lu d in g o c c u p a tio n and ty p e o f
T h is added by th e
c l o s e o f t h e te r m 147 k d u l ts *
h o b b ie s and o c c u p a tio n s t o T a b le s I and T I r e s p e c t i v e l y ,
s e t t i n g t h e g r a n d t o t a l o f a d u l t s r e p o r t e d a t 442* a s
T a b l e 2 X 20/T II s h o w s .
Among t h e m o s t u n a n t i c i p a t e d c h a n g e s w e r e a r t s a n d
c ra fts,
i n c l u d i n g b o a t b u i l d i n g and m o d els w h ic h i n c r e a s e d
se v e n ty -th re e .
re a d ju ste d
The o r i g i n a l c h a r t s a n d t h e new f i n d i n g s
i n t h e new o r d e r ,
a s T a b l e XXXIX p r e s e n t s .
A rts
and c r a f t s and m o d el m a k in g , by t h e a d d i t i o n o f s e v e n ty t h r e e g a v e a new t o t a l o f 1 1 8 , o r t w e n t y - s e v e n p e r c e n t .
C o lle c tin g e sto p p e d
in to
second p l a c e .
A th le tic s and s p o r ts
s u f f e r e d m o st, w ith o n ly f i v e a d d i t i o n a l .
The a d d e d o c c u p a t i o n s ,
to ta lin g
1 4 7 , g iv e n i n T a b le
XL, g a v e a b r o a d e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e h o m e s f r o m w h i c h
m any o f t h e c h i l d r e n cam e t h a n h a d b e e n a v a i l a b l e
o r ig in a l a d u lt q u e s tio n n a ire .
in th e
The f i s h i n g and c a n n in g
i n d u s t r y in tr o d u c e d f i f t e e n n o t fou n d i n t h e o r i g i n a l
su rv ey .
The r e v i s i o n and g r a n d t o t a l
o f 442 gave t h e d a t a
f o r T a b le X L I, an d i t w i l l b e n o t i c e d , c o u n t e r b a l a n c e d t h e
num ber o f lo w s e v e n g r a d e o r i g i n a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s b y f o r t y seven.
The a d d i t i o n o f t h e 147 a d u l t s r e p o r t e d b y t h e
107
TABLE
XXXVIII
REVISED L IS T OF ADULT HOBBIES INCLUDING ADDITIONAL
REPORTS OF EXPERIMENTAL GROUP
A d u lt h o b b ie s
N um ber
a n sw e rin g
Per cent
a n sw e rin g
A r ts and c r a f t s
118
27
C o lle c tio n s
64
15
A th l e t i c s and s p o r ts
56
13
R e ad in g
44
10
G a rd e n in g
43
10
M u s ic
31
8
M isc e lla n e o u s
20
4
P h o to g ra p h y
19
4
N a tu ra l sc ie n c e
15
3
S o c i a l probL sm s
7
2
^6
2
A n im a ls
3
1
S c ie n c e
2
1
442
4.00
R a d io
Totals
108
TABLE
yyX TT
ADDITIONAL ADULT HOBBIES REPORTED
BY EXPERIMENTAL GROUP
H o b b ie s r e p o r t e d
A r t s and c r a f t s
b u ild in g )
N um ber a n s w e r i n g
(in c l*
C o lle c tio n s
boat
73
47
A t h l e t i c s and s p o r ts
5
C a rd e n in g
4
P h o to g ra p h y
4
A n im als
3
M isc e lla n e o u s
2
M u s ic
2
N a tu ra l sc ie n c e
Z
R e a d in g
Z
S o c ia l p ro b le m s
Z
R a d io
1
T o ta l
147
IC S
TABLE
XL
ADULT OCCUPATIONS REPORTED BY
EXPERBOTTAL CROUP
O c c u p a tio n
N um ber a n s w e r i n g
S a le s and d i s t r i b u t i o n
Navy
F is h in g and c a n n e rie s
30
16
15
H o u s e w iv e s
A ric ra ft
C r a f ts and shops
15
10
10
R e t i r e d a n d u n e m p lo y ed
S e c r e t a r i e s and b o o k k e e p e rs
C b lle g e s tu d e n ts
9
8
5
P ro fe ss io n a ls
C le ric a l
M anagers
5
4
4
Army
B oat b u ild e rs
C le rg y
3
2
2
N urse
P o lic e m e n
F ire m e n
2
2
1
M a id
T e rm ite c o n tr o l
W a re h o u s e m a n
1
1
1
W rite r
1
Total
147
110
TABLE
XLI
GRAND TOTAL ADULT OCCUPATIONS
O c c u p a tio n s
N um ber
a n sw e rin g
O c c u p a tio n s
Num ber
a n sw e rin g
P rofessions
77
L ib ra ria n s
4
S ales
76
C u sto d ia n s
3
S e c re ta ria l
42
P rin te rs
3
H o u se w iv e s
27
R a d io
3
C ra fts
21
¥r ite rs
3
C le ric a l
21
B oat b u ild e r s
2
M a n a g e ria l
19
C le rg y
2
N av y
19
G ard en ers
2
R e tire d
18
P lu m b e rs
2
F is h in g
15
C o sm e to lo g ist
1
A irc ra ft
12
Je w e le r
1
C o lle g e s tu d e n ts
11
Ma i d
1
L a b o ra tro y te c h .
8
Pa i n t e r
1
Tax o f f i c e r s
8
P h o to g ra p h e r
1
P o lic e & P ro b a tio n
7
P o u l t r y m an
1
M u s ic ia n s
5
R e p o rte r
1
N u rses
5
T e rm ite c o n tr o l
1
Army
4
T ru ck d r iv e r
1
B u ild in g c o n tr a c to r
4
W a r e h o u s e m an
1
F ire m e n
4
Total
and sh o p s
442
Ill
e x p e r im e n ta l group in c r e a s e d th e b u s in e s s f i e l d s
se n te d
rep re­
i n th e n e ig h b o rh o o d from w h ic h t h e s c h o o l d raw s
a c o n s id e ra b le e n ro llm e n t; th e bay f r o n t f i s h e r i e s
a tte n d a n t in d u s trie s
in m a rin e e n g in e e rin g s
p re c e d e n te d
in th e
in a f a i r
in c re a se
a irp la n e
a sso rtm e n t n o t a v a ila b le
th e p ro je c t e a r l ie r
In v ita tio n
and
and a n un­
in d u s try b ro u g h t
in th e b e g in n in g o f
in th e s c h o o l y e a r .
to a d u lts
to t a l k
on h o b b i e s .
T he n u m b e r
of a d u lts e x p re ss in g a w illin g n e s s to t a l k to c la s s e s
f a r exceeded th e p o s s ib le days a v a ila b le ,
by th e c la s s e s
p o s s ib le to
and te a c h e r to
i t was d e c i d e d
lim it th e f i e l d s
a s m uch a s
one r e p r e s e n t a t i v e u n d e r e a c h o f t h e o r i g i n a l
c la ss ific a tio n s .
v e n ie n c e o f th e
I n v i t a t i o n s w ere s e n t , and f o r th e con­
g u e s t s p e a k e r s c e r t a i n d a y s w ere r e s e r v e d ,
an d p l a n s m ade f o r p r e p a r i n g t h e
of e x h ib its
so
th e re
ro o m f o r w h a t e v e r t y p e s
sh o u ld be p r e s e n t e d .
U n fo rtu n a te ly th e
c o n tin u a n c e o f a s e v e r e e p id e m ic o f i n f l u e n z a and an o u t ­
b re a k o f c h i l d r e n 's c o n ta g io u s d is e a s e s cau sed a s e v e re
c u rta ilm e n t o f th e sp e a k e rs sc h e d u le d .
T h is r e s u l t e d
in
p r e s e n t i n g a s v a r i e d a gro u p a s w as p o s s i b l e
in th e s ix
w eeks a l l o t e d
The f i n a l l i s t
t o t h i s p h a se o f th e p rog ram .
chosen in c lu d e d :
le c tin g ,
m i n i a t u r e m a k i n g , W o rld War t r o p h y c o l ­
C h ristm a s d e c o r a tio n - p la n n in g ,
d e m o n s tra tio n , m a r io n e tte e r in g ,
p o t t e r y m ak in g
b a s te t-m a k in g , w ild flo w e r
112
c o l l e c t i n g and p r e s e r v i n g , b lo c k p r i n t i n g from lin o l e u m ,
w o rld t r a v e l i n g
so u v e n ir c o l l e c t i o n ,
le c tu re
o u t o f t r o u b l e , ” by S e rg e a n t o f P o lic e ,
o f th e
film s .
ju v e n ile b u reau ,
and a tr a v e lo g u e
on " k e e p in g
C h a rle s E. B ib b ,
in
s i x t e e n mm*
A q u e s t i o n p e r i o d was a ll o w e d a f t e r e a c h s e s s i o n
a n d c o m m e n ts a s w e l l a s q u e s t i o n s w e r e s o l i c i t e d .
w ere c a r e f u l l y k e p t on a l l s p e a k e rs *
ta lk s,
N o te s
and f a i t h f u l l y
r e l a y e d t o a b s e n t e e s w h en t h e y r e t u r n e d a f t e r h a v i n g m i s s e d
any o f th e a d u lts *
ap p earan ces.
M eth o d s o f sh o w in g i n d i v i d u a l i n c r e a s e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g
o f th e v a lu e of w e ll-u s e d l e i s u r e .
To d e t e r m i n e t h e
in c re a se
i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e th em e o f t h e w o r th y u s e o f l e i s u r e ,
t h e p e r s o n a l e l e m e n t h a d t o b e m ad e e f f e c t i v e .
p u r p o s e t h e f i n a l u n i t was s u b d i v i d e d
n a m e ly :
in to fo u r to p ic s ,
w r i t t e n w ork, n o te b o o k r e c o r d s ,
c h ild re n of s p e c ific
and p a r t i c i p a t i o n
le isu re
For t h a t
e v a lu a tio n by th e
i n t e r e s t s r e p o r t e d by a d u l t s ,
in a c t i v i t i e s
in p re p a ra tio n fo r th e
h ig h sev en g rad e hobby f a i r .
I n o r d e r t o m ake t h e p e r s o n a l e le m e n t e f f e c t i v e ,
o r i g i n a l th em es w e re w r i t t e n and p r e s e n t e d t o
such to p ic s
as:
"T h e V a l u e o f L e i s u r e , "
L earn ed a b o u t H o b b ie s ,"
H ave a H o b b y ,"
in g s, w ith th e
th e c la s s
on
"W hat I H a v e
"Why E v e r y Boy a n d G i r l S h o u l d
"Hdw t o C h o o s e a H o b b y , " a n d s i m i l a r h e a d ­
added in c e n tiv e t h a t th e
t e n b e s t fro m e g ch
113
o f t h e tw o c l a s s e s w o u l d b e p u b l i s h e d
p le m e n t t o
in th e s p e c ia l
sup­
t h e s c h o o l p a p e r w h ic h w o u ld b e i s s u e d a t t h e
tim e o f th e e x h i b i t .
The a b o v e l i s t o f t o p i c s e x p a n d e d
w i t h i n a few d ay s t o
S ta y Out o f F a i l ! "
in c lu d e :
" L e t ’ s H ave H o b b ie s and
" U n u s u a l H o b b i e s I H av e L e a r n e d A b o u t , ”
"Why Two H o b b i e s a r e B e t t e r T h a n O n e , ”
F o r C h ild r e n O n ly ”?
”A r e C o l l e c t i o n s
"Few A d u l t s H a v e E x p e n s i v e H o b b i e s , ”
" A v o c a t i o n s T h a t H a v e B ecom e V o c a t i o n s , " a n d "T h e T e n - H o u r
Week When X Am t h r o u g h S c h o o l . "
The c r i t i c i s m
th a t th e c la s s
ro o m n o t e b o o k b e c o m e s
a r e p o s i t o r y f o r a l l d ead s t u f f f i n d s no j u s t i f i c a t i o n
h ere.
The i n d i v i d u a l r e c o r d s w e re h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t a s
. t o th e end o f
a m e th o d o f c o m p a ris o n fro m t h e b e g i n n i n g
th e c o u rse .
The t a b l e o f c o n t e n t s a d o p te d a s a u n if o r m
p a t t e r n p r e s e n t e d t h e sum t o t a l o f t h e s e m e s t e r ’ s a c t i v i t i e s ,
and was a c c e p t e d a s t h e
h is E n g lish g rad e .
fo llo w in g ite m s :
f i n a l r e p o r t fro m e a c h p u p i l f o r
The t a b l e
o f c o n te n ts
c o n ta in e d th e
My B a y , a c h a r t o f e a c h c h i l d ’ s i n d i v i d ­
u a l re c o rd o f an a v erag e tw e n ty -fo u r p e rio d ,
to
be c o n t r a s t e d
t o a s i m i l a r p e r i o d o f a n a n c e s t o r 1 00 y e a r s a g o , k e e p i n g
in v ie w th e a s p e c ts o f l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s ;
w as a copy o f t h e f i r s t
of th e
ite m
s h o r t e ssa y d e a lin g w ith th e days
b e f o r e m a c h in e s, s t r e s s i n g
and th e b e l i e f
th e second
la c k o f la b o r-s a v in g d e v ic e s
"S in o f I d l e n e s s ."
re c o rd e d d ic tio n a r y te rm s,
The t h i r d
sy n o n y m s a n d v a r i a t i o n s
in g s o f t h e b a s i c w o rd s , w o rk and p l a y .
ite m
o f m ean­
The f o u r t h t o p i c ,
114
a n o th e r s h o r t c o m p o s itio n ,
d e a lt w ith th e u n d e rs ta n d in g
a t t h e b e g in n i n g o f t h e c o u r s e o f w h a t t h e m e a n in g s o f l e i s u r e
and h o b b ie s w e re .
T h i s w as f o l l o w e d b y a n e x p r e s s i o n o f
t h e u s e m ad e o f t h e c o m p i l a t i o n s o f a d u l t h o b b y q u e s t i o n ­
n a ire s,
and w h a t e a c h i n d i v i d u a l had l e a r n e d fro m th em .
N um ber s i x w a s a l i s t
h o b b ie s.
o f th e
in d iv id u a ls re p o rts
The s e v e n t h c o n t a i n e d an e x p r e s s i o n a s t o t h e
b e s t a d u lt hobby r e p o r t in th e c l a s s .
lis t
on a d u lt
Num ber e i g h t ,
a
o f b o o k s and m a g a z in e s p e r s o n a l l y e x a m in e d ; t h e n i n t h ,
an added l i s t
o f books and m ag a zin es r e a d and r e p o r t e d .
T h e t e n t h g a v e o n e - s e n t e n c e c o m m e n ts o f "O u r V i s i t i n g
S p e a k e rs ."
T h is w as f o l lo w e d , num ber e l e v e n , w i t h a copy
o f th e l e t t e r
o f th a n k s w r i t t e n t o w h a te v e r
sp e a k e r he chose
a s h a v i n g h e l p e d h im m o s t t o a g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f
how o r why l e i s u r e w e l l - H s e d i s
w as a l i s t
im p o rta n t.
The t w e l f t h
o f s o u r c e s fro m w h ic h ad d ed m a t e r i a l had b e e n
g a in e d ab o u t h o b b ie s o u ts id e
th e c la s s
ro u tin e .
To t h i s
w as a d d e d b y w ay o f a c o n c l u s i o n , t h e f i n a l th em e c h o s e n
o r su g g e ste d by th e to p ic s g iv e n e a r l i e r .
As t h e s e tw o c l a s s e s h a d b e e n s t u d y i n g s o c i a l s c i e n c e
to g e th e r , an i n t e r e s t
in th e s u b je c t o f m a c h in e s,
in c re a se d
l e i s u r e , m ass p r o d u c tio n , and th e c o n se q u e n t i n d u s t r i a l
re v o lu tio n ,
s h o r te r ho u rs o f la b o r ,
and k in d r e d p ro b lem s o f
t h e A m erican i n d u s t r i a l w o rld becam e v e r y r e a l t o
p r o m p t e d m any o f t h e
*t o p i c s f i n a l l y c h o s e n .
th em , and
M o tto e s w ere
115
fo rm u la te d ,
re a d in g ;
o r t a k e n fro m t h e c h i l d r e n ' s w id e r a n g e
an e x t r a c t from th e
in
J u n i o r R e v ie w e d i t o r i a l
of
S ep tem b er 1 6 , 1940 a p p e a le d s t r o n g l y ;
The e d i t o r s t a t e s ;
W h a t c a n y o u b u y w h en y o u s p e n d y o u r a l l o t m e n t o f
t i m e ? You c a n b u y m an y t h i n g s .
Y ou m ay b u y i n f o r m a t i o n ,
s k i l l, frie n d sh ip , re c re a tio n .
You c a n u s e i t t o
b ro a d e n y o u r i n t e r e s t s , to d e v elo p y o u r p e r s o n a l i t y , t o
p re p a r e f o r a s u c c e s s in a v o c a t i o n . . . . I t sh o u ld be
c l e a r , t h e r e f o r e t h a t th e m ost im p o rta n t th in g f o r a
y o u n g p e r s o n t o do i s t o l e a r n t o s p e n d h i s t i m e
w ise ly .
I t i s s u r p r i s i n g t h a t so l i t t l e t h o u g h t i s
g iv e n to t h a t n e c e s s ity .®
L i s t s o f n e w ly d i s c o v e r e d
i n t e r e s t s w ere g iv e n re c o g n itio n *
R e p o r ts on r a d i o p ro g ram s f e a t u r i n g h o b b y is ts w ere f r e q u e s t l y m ade; c l i p p i n g s fro m n e w s p a p e rs d e a l i n g
w ith
i n t e r e s t i n g h o b b i e s f o u n d t h e i r w ay t o t h e b u l l e t i n b o a r d
and th e n w ere t r a n s f e r r e d t o
•sta n c e s
th e
n o te b o o k s.
I n m an y i n -
i n g e n u i t y and o r i g i n a l i t y w ere e v id e n t i n d e v is in g
so u v e n ir b o o k le ts ,
som e i l l u s t r a t e d
h a n d m ade i l l u s t r a t i o n s
by c a rto o n s and o th e r
in k e e p in g w ith th e s u b j e c t .
q u e sts fo r t h e i r - r e t u r n a f t e r
Re­
t h e p r o j e c t was f i n i s h e d w e re
h o n o red .
E v a lu a tio n of s p e c if ic
a d u lt le is u r e
p u r s u i t s was
g iv e n e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g a t t e n t i o n th r o u g h d i s c u s s i o n s p ro m p te d
by ite m s fro m t h e a sse m b le d b o o k l e t s o f a d u l t q u e s t i o n n a i r e s .
T h is was k e p t i n a n i n f o r m a l s t a t e
o f p re a c h in g .
to e sc a p e th e ap p earan ce
Such t o p ic s f o r o r a l a ssig n m e n ts a ro s e a s ;
,fWhy s h o u l d a n o f f i c e w o r k e r c h o o s e a t h l e t i c s
fo r a hobby;
116
B u s i n e s s - a n d - g o l f ; Why t h e p o s t m a n w e n t f o r a w a l k o n h i s
day o f f ;
S a i l o r 's k n o ts and k n o ttin g h o b b ie s ;
T h e m an who
c r o c h e ts b e d s p re a d s ; B o a t s - i n - a - b o t t l e ; M o to rin g ,
or to
see th in g s ?
f o r speed
B o t t l e s AND BOTTLES; How T hom as E d i s o n
s p e n t h i s v a c a t i o n ; T h e b l i n d w o m a n 's s h e l l s .
^ H o bb y f a i r s
p o rte d .
a t o t h e r s c h o o ls w ere y i s i t e d
and r e ­
At one o f th e e le m e n ta ry s c h o o ls a j o i n t c h i l d r e n 's
and p a re n ts *
e x h ib itio n to o k p la c e ;
t h r e e d e l e g a t e s w ere
p re se n t,
and r e tu r n e d w ith r e p o r ts s p e c ia liz in g on th e
p a re n ts'
e x h i b i t s , h a v in g t a l k e d a t th e tim e o f th e f a i r
w ith p a re n ts p re s e n t in th e
in te re s ts
o f th e g roup,
and
r e c e i v i n g e n c o u ra g e m e n t f o r w h at w as b e in g a tte m p te d in
th e stu d y p la n .
One r e p o r t w a s v o l u n t e e r e d o f t h e n i g h t s c h o o l f o r
a d u lt e d u c a tio n
in c r a f t s ,
w o rth y e n t e r p r i s e .
t r a c t fro m D r.
a n d c o m m e n te d u p o n a s b e i n g a
T h is p ro m p te d t h e r e a d i n g o f a n e x ­
G eorge B a r to n C u t t e n 's C h a lle n g e o f L e i s u r e
w h e re in he s t a t e s :
B e o p le .. . .h a v e n o t b een ta u g h t to u se t h e i r e x tr a
h o u rs o f l e i s u r e w ith o u t i n j u r y t o th e m s e lv e s and
o th e rs.
T h a t i s w here t h e d a n g e r r e a l l y l i e s ; . . . .
we t a k e f o r g r a n t e d t h a t w i t h o u t t r a i n i n g o r g u i d a n c e
e v e r y o n e kno w s how t o u s e h i s l e i s u r e h o u r s b u t h e
m ust be t r a i n e d f o r h i s w ork.
W ith t h e t r a i n i n g f b r
1 3 :2 ,
W a l t e r E. M y er, ( E d i t o r i a l ) , The J u n i o r R e v ie w .
7, S e p te m b e r,1 6 , 1940.
117
t h e u s e o f m o s t m a c h i n e s now r e q u i r i n g l e s s t h a n t h r e e
d a y s, th e v e ry o p p o s ite i s th e case*
We n e e d m o re
t r a i n i n g f o r l e i s u r e t h a n f o r w o rk * * * . T he i m p r o p e r
s p e n d i n g o f m on ey c a n n e v e r h e a s d a n g e r o u s a s t h e
i m p r o p e r u s e o f t i m e , a n d w h§n b o t h a r e c o m b i n e d t h e
d a n g e r i s m o re t h a n d o u b l e d *
O th e r a d u l t l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s
c o u n try c lu b s and a e q u a td c s p o r t s ,
le ss
in c lu d e d , b e sid e
y a c h tin g , ro w in g ,
stre n u o u s s h u f f le b o a rd , c ro q u e t,
and
and o t h e r s d e s ig n e d
p r i m a r i l y f o r S a n D i e g o o l d s t e r s who s u n t h e m s e l v e s i n t h e
p a r k s ; m e n t i o n w a s m ade o f b a d m i n t o n , t e n n i s ,
fo r w h ic h re se rv a tio n
p ark b u ild in g s
E x p o sitio n *
and l i k e
and e q u ip m e n t w as e s t a b l i s h e d
in h e rite d
gam es
in th e
by t h e c i t y fro m t h e 1935 and 1936
T h e c h i l d r e n h a d b e co m e a l e r t t o how a d u l t s
p la y e d !
The i n t e r e s t
c lo s e
of th e
i n home ro o m m e m b e r s h i p h a d b y t h e
s e m e s te r becom e e s t a b l i s h e d *
a u g u ra te d fo r sp e c ia l fe a tu re s
P l a n s w ere i n ­
to be d e v e lo p e d a t th e
hobby f a i r *
A l l en co u rag e m en t and a d v ic e p o s s i b l e w ere g iv e n
m e m b e rs o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p u p o n s o l i c i t a t i o n *
p u p ils
b e rsh ip
The
c o m p r i s i n g t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p r e p r e s e n t e d mem­
in a l l te n
as a s s is ta n ts
o f t h e home ro o m u n i t s ,
and w ere d e le g a t e d
a n d u s h e r s a t t h e t i m e t h e f a i r w a s p u t on*
P o s t e r s f o r t h e e x h i b i t w ere
m ade, s e l e c t i n g
in each case
^Dr* G e o r g e B a r y o n C u t t e n , " C h a l l e n g e o f L e i s u r e , ”
M odern P ro b le m S e r i e s o f A m e ric a n E d u c a t i o n P r e s s ,
U n it
S t u d y B o o k l e t 1 0 , 1934*
118
b o o k s and c h a p t e r s o f lo n g e r v o lu m e s o r o t h e r r e f e r e n c e s
c o v e rin g ty p e s o f h o b b ie s p re su m a b ly to be e x p e c te d
c la ss ifie d
e x h i b i t s p la n n e d .
T h is n e c e s s i t a t e d
p re s e r v a tio n o f m a te r ia ls u n t i l th e l a t e r
a c tu a l p a rtic ip a tio n
sev en hobby f a i r
d a te .
i n th e w ork o f p u t t i n g
in th e
th e c a r e f u l
As t h e
on t h e h i g h
g oes beyond th e sc o p e o f t h i s
th e s is ,
m e n t i o n o n l y c a n b e m ade o f t h e t a n g i b l e
e v id e n c e o f th e
o r i g i n a l th em e o f t h i s p r o b le m , n a m e ly :
w h e th e r th e
co u rse
a s t a u g h t h a d sh o w n i n c r e a s e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a n d e n t h u sia m f o r a w o r t h i e r u s e o f l e i s u r e .
w ere c o m p le te d ,
e x h ib its
and p la c e d by s e l e c t i o n
as p la n n e d .
c h o se n from t h e
com posed
(in
T w e n ty -six p o s t e r s
U sh ers, m o n ito rs ,
and a s s i s t a n t s w ere
o r i g i n a l e x p e rim e n ta l g ro u p .
in v ita tio n
sty le )
se v e n ty -tw o h o b b ie s e x h ib ite d ,
A l e t t e r w as
b y o n e o f t h e m , t o b e m im eo ­
g r a p h e d a n d s e t home t o t h e p a r e n t s .
m e m b e rs o f t h e
am ong t h e c l a s s i f i e d
The f a c t t h a t ,
th irte e n
o f th e
c o n t r i b u t e r s w ere
l o w s e v e n e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p m ay o r m ay n o t
have w e ig h t, b u t
it
is
c e rta in th a t
if
c o g n iz a n c e i s
ta k e n
o f t h e 1 1 8 new s e v e n t h g r a d e p u p i l s who h a d e n t e r e d t h e
s c h o o l a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e new t e r m a n d who w e r e j o i n ­
in g th e hobby f a i r p r o j e c t ,
t h e f i g u r e s w o u ld i n d i c a t e t h a t
so m e th in g had h a p p e n e d .
A b r i e f t a b u l a t i o n may b e o f i n t e r ­
e s t w h e re in th e t h i r t e e n
c o n tr i b u ti n g a r e p r e s e n te d and th e
c h a ra c te r
o f th e hobby e x h ib ite d .
T hese c o n s t it u t e
e ig h te e n
119
p er c e n t of th e t o t a l .
G re tta ,
P erfum e b o t t l e s
and p o s tc a r d s
A rd e lla ,
T r in k e ts and p a p e r n a p k in s
R u th ,
C o in s
B u d d ie .,
S ilv e r
F ran ces,
M i n i a t u r e s and s h e l l s
Jam es,
M i n i a t u r e m o d e l s i n b a l s a wood
F ran k , I
M odel a i r p l a n e s
Jim m ie ,
P yro g rap h y
S ta n le y k
P y ro g rap h y
L o u is e ,
C ro c h e tin g and n e ed lew o rk
M a b e l,
S e w in g
Donna L e e ,
M a rio n e tte s
S y lv ia ,
D ress d e sig n s
spoons
A t o t a l o f t w e l v e home r o o m s r e p r e s e n t e d w o u l d
h ave i n d i c a t e d a s i x p e r c e n t a v e ra g e to b e e x p e c te d fro m
any g ro u p ;
o f t h e o r i g i n a l t e n home ro o m s w h o s e m e m b e r s h i p
w o u ld b e r e p r e s e n t e d
h o b b ie s,
th a t
th is
in th e f i n a l su rv ey o f se v e n th g rad e
a g re a te r p ro p o rtio n ,
g ro u p r e p r e s e n ts
home r o o m s c a n b e l a i d
home ro o m t e a c h e r ,
o r seven p e r c e n t.
a c ro ss se c tio n
t o no d i r e c t
nor th e
h ig h seven g ra d e .
of th e o rig in a l
i n f lu e n c e o f a n y one
e x p e rim e n te r, a s th e
g ro u p was b r o k e n up and s c a t t e r e d
The f a c t
e x p e rim e n ta l
a t th e b e g in n in g o f th e
120
IX .
PREPARATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF PINAL
SURVEY OF SEVENTH GRADE HOBBIES
The s e c o n d q u e s t i o n n a i r e ,
t o s e r v e a s a c h e c k on
a l l lo w s e v e n s , w as c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h b u t fe w c h a n g e s fro m
th e
i n i t i a l t e s t g iv e n a t th e b e g in n in g of th e
The d i v i s i o n s o f t h i s
tio n ,
p a r t o f t h e p r o c e d u r e w ere*
p rep ara­
and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .
The p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e f i n a l
p re p a rin g th e q u e s tio n n a ire ,
to th e p o s s i b i l i t i e s
e ste d
s e m e s te r.
q u e stio n n a ire .
In
due c o n s i d e r a t i o n w as g iv e n
o f a l l l o w s e v e n s b e c o m i n g m o re i n t e r ­
in th e s u b je c t o f le is u r e
a c tiv ite s .
th e e x p e rim e n ta l g ro u p had had a s f a i r
H ow ever,
ex p o su re to
as
such in ­
f l u e n c e s t h r o u g h t h e home r o o m s b y a s s o c i a t i n g w i t h m e m b e rs
o f t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p u n d e r t h e home ro o m t e a c h e r s *
g u id a n c e ,
th e f a c t o r o f i n c r e a s e w as c o n s id e r e d c o n s t a n t f o r th e en­
tire
g rad e.
A check a g a in s t t h e i r
own p r e v i o u s r e c o r d s
w o u ld be t h e o n l y s u r e m eans o f d e t e r m i n i n g c h a n g e s .
A
sa m p le o f t h e f i n a l s u r v e y o f s e v e n t h g r a d e h o b b ie s w i l l b e
fo u n d i n t h e A p p e n d ix .
A d m in is tra tio n o f th e f i n a l su rv e y .
T h is f i n a l
s u r v e y w as a d m i n i s t e r e d t o a l l lo w s e v e n E n g l i s h c l a s s e s ,
a s was t h e f i r s t ,
on a g iv e n day.
t h o s e who h a d t a k e n t h e f i r s t
C are w as t a k e n t h a t o n ly
t e s t sh o u ld p a r t i c i p a t e .
The
121
a v i d i t y w i t h w h i c h t h e tw o c l a s s e s
o f th e e x p e rim e n ta l
gro u p s e t
a n d t h e c o m m e n ts
in to
nt e s t t h e m s e l v e s " ,
m ad e b y m an y o f t h e m g a v e e v i d e n c e t h a t a m o re i n t e l l i g e n t
u n d e rs ta n d in g o f te rm s had been g a in e d i f n o th in g e ls e *
IH .
COMPARISON AND TABULATION OF RESULTS
T h is f i n a l d i v i s i o n
p e rtin e n t fa c ts
and r e s u l t s
o f C h a p t e r I I a im s t o p r e s e n t
d isc o v e re d in b rin g in g th e
e x p e r i m e n t a l g ro u p o f t h e lo w s e v e n g r a d e
in to d i r e c t
a s s o c i a t i o n w ith a d u l t s w hose m u tu a l i n t e r e s t s
p u r s u i t s m ig h t in c r e a s e
use of le is u r e
th is
in te re s ts
o f th e c h ild re n .
a n d k n o w le d g e o f w o r th y
The c o n c lu d in g ± p o r tio n o f
d i v i s i o n o f th e e x p e rim e n t f a l l s
c o m p a riso n o f i n t e r e s t s ,
in le is u r e
in to
tw o s u b d i v i s i o n s :
and t a b u l a t i o n s .
C o m p ariso n o f i n t e r e s t s
a c tiv itie s.
A
in th e r e s u l ts
ob­
in le is u re
f a i r d e g r e e o f a c c u r a c y m ay b e a s s u r e d
t a i n e d fro m b o th q u e s t io n n a ir e s .
No n a m e s w e r e s i g n e d ,
no t h r e a t s o r r e f e r e n c e s o r i m p l i c a t i o n s a b o u t m a rk s i n
s c h o l a r s h i p o r c i t i z e n s h i p w ere m ade.
F a i r and i m p a r t i a l
ju d g m e n t c o u ld n o t be c h a l l e n g e d .
A llo w in g f o r t r a n s f e r s and a b s e n c e s , 384 q u e s tio n ­
n a ire s,
or n in e ty -p e r c e n t o f th e t o t a l
w ere r e t u r n e d .
o rig in a l fin d in g s ,
The e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s fo u n d a c o r r e s ­
p o n d in g p e rc e n ta g e l o s s o f t e n ,
s ix ty - e ig h t o f th e o r ig in a l
122
se v e n ty -tw o
a n sw e rin g ;
As t h i s
w i t h t h e c o m p a riso n o f i n t e r e s t s
e ffe c tin g th e
ta u g h t,
s e c tio n o f th e p r o je c t d e a lt
in le is u r e
e x p e rim e n ta l g roup a f t e r th e
th e r e s u l t s
sh o w i n t e r e s t i n g
In answ er to th e f i r s t
a c tiv itie s
c o u rse had been
changes#
q u e stio n , u se o f le is u r e
s in c e e n tr y a t th e b e g in n in g o f th e y e a r ,
t a n g i b l e e v id e n c e
w as b ro u g h t o u t t h a t c h an g e s had ta k e n p l a c e ,
se n te d in F ig u re 2.
P h e n o m in e l c h a n g e s w o u ld h a v e t e n d e d
t o w e a k e n t h e i r own e n d s .
sta n d in g
as is p re ­
I t was n o t e d t h a t
a new u n d e r ­
(am ong t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p ) o f t h e m e a n i n g o f
hobby and l e i s u r e had b e en g a in e d b e c a u s e o f th e c a r e w ith
w h i c h t h e y s e t down t h e i r a n s w e r s .
The s i g n i f i c a n t d ro p
in th e e x p e rim e n ta l g ro u p ’s l i s t i n g
of a th le tic s
and s p o r ts
m ay b e f u r t h e r
e x p la in e d by t h e d i s c u s s i o n w h ic h to o k p la c e
w hen t h e f i n a l
c h a r t s w e re c o m p le te d on t h e b o a r d .
c h i l d r e n w ere pro m pt t o
account fo r t h e i r an sw ers.
; ’T he
S ev eral
v o lu n te e re d such re a so n s ass
" I d i d n ’ t kn o w i n t h e f i r s t
h o b b ie s w e r e .”
q u e s tio n n a ir e w hat
” 1 u s e my t i m e t o b e t t e r a d v a n t a g e n o w . "
**I s t i l l
lik e
a th le tic s ,
b u t n o t t h e sa m e t h i n g s . ”
" M o s t -good h o b b i e s d o n o t c h a n g e v e r y o f t e n , s o
su c h a t h l e t i c s a s f o o t b a l l , b a s k e t b a l l , and :
b a s e b a ll a re f o r o n ly a se a so n , and o th e r l e i s u r e
i n t e r e s t s a r e m ore i m p o r t a n t . ”
"Som e o f t h e o t h e r b o y s a n d g i r l s j u s t p u t down w h a t
th e y h a p p en t o be m o st r e c e n t l y i n t e r e s t e d i n , and
i n a few w eeks t h e y ’l l c h an g e a g a i n . "
1S3
A rts and
c ra fts
C o lle c tio n s
27
17
36
ooooooooooooooooo
iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii
15
13
6
ooooooooooooo
iiiiii
A t h l e t i c s 13
42
G arden­
in g
B e a d in g
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOGOOOOOOOOO
22
iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii
13
4
10
oooo
iiiiiiiiii
10
ooooooooooo
iiii
11
4
M u s ic
S c ie n c e
M isc e lla ­
neous
8
3
2
ooo
ii
5
2
1
oo
i
4
1
jm m r
o
;2
ii
A n im als
3
6
1
iffppr
oooooo
i
R a d io
2
2
2
wm
1
0
11
C lu b s
oo
ii
oooo
iiii
A d u lt g ro u p
In itia l
G r o w th ( f i n a l )
3 iii
Drama
M
ooo
1
3
0
S crap ­
books
W o r k in g
on h o b b y
11
0
3
If
iii
22
iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii
f
t
t
■rir
J
! _ _______ L
—scr
S&
s6
FIGURE 2
COMPARISON OF IN IT IA L AND FINAL ANSWERS OF EXPERIMENTAL GROUP
WITH ADULT TOTAL HOBBIES
124
The g r e a t r e d u c t i o n i n a t h l e t i c s
fo rty -tw o per cent to
in th e se a c t i v i t i e s ,
le isu re
fro m t h e i r
tw e n ty - tw o d e n o t e s no l e s s
o rig in a l
in te re s t
b u t a m ore s p e c i f i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f
and hobby a s d e f i n i t e
te rm s.
A g a in a s i n T a b le
X X III, a t h l e t i c s and s p o r t s w i l l be found i n a s i m i l a r
g ro u p in g o f p h y s ic a l a c t i v i t i e s ra n g in g s l i g h t l y
fie ld s
of f a ll
s p o r t s e n jo y e d i n th e p h y s i c a l e d u c a tio n
p rog ram s o f th e s c h o o l.
se v e n te e n to t h i r t y - s i x
causes:
first,
to
The i n c r e a s e
i n h a n d i c r a f t s fro m
p e r c e n t can be a t t r i b u t e d to
th re e
e x p e r i m e n t i n g w i t h new i d e a s p r e s e n t e d
o r in s p ire d by a d u lt h o b b y ists;
one boy in p a r t i c u l a r , who,
h a v in g e n l i s t e d h i s f a t h e r f s i n t e r e s t
C h ristm a s d e c o r a tio n schem e,
c o m p e titio n n e x t y e a r.
i n c r e a t i n g a w o rth y
s t a t e d h e w o u j d go i n f o r t h e
The s e c o n d c a u s e w as t h e
and d e m o n s tra tio n s o f p r a c t i c a l ,
v ie w s w ith a d u l t s o r r e p o r t s
su g g e stio n s
s im p le , and in e x p e n siv e
h o b b i e s e x h i b i t e d b y m em bers o f t h e
th ird
in to th e
c la ss a fte r
th e ir
o f t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s .
in te r­
The
c a u s e cam e a b o u t b y a g r e a t e r f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h l i t e r ­
a t u r e o h t h e m any p h a s e s o f l e i s u r e
p o rte d ,
and d is c u s s e d in th e
^w as n o t d e sig n e d d i r e c t l y to
a c tiv itie s
c la ss e s.
as read ,
re­
A lth o u g h t h e c o u r s e
d e v e lo p a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n
in a i n c r e a s e d n u m b ers o f h o b b i e s , m uch e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n w as
th e r e s u l t ,
a n d d e f i n i t e l y , m any new h o b b i e s w e re b e g u n .
H o w e v e r , t h e f r e e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e n ew e n t r i e s
in th e
125
r e v i s e d m a s t e r t a b l e p r o v e d t h a t m uch h a d b e e n l e a r n e d *
C ritic a l
ju d g m e n ts w ere p a s s e d a s t o
p ra c tic a b ility ,
e n tire s ,
fe a s ib ility ,
c h o ic e ,
a n d t r u e r e c r e a t i o n a l v a l u e o f t h e new
an e f f e c t o f w hat had been le a rn e d ab o u t a d u lt
a ttitu d e s ,
and t h e i r a d v ic e t o young p e o p le .
A c o m p a riso n o f t h e c o n t r o l and e x p e r i m e n t a l g ro u p s
in answ er t o t h e f i r s t
q u e s t i o n p r o v i d e d e v i d e n c e t h a t m o re
c a r e f u l s e l e c t i o n o f an sw ers and l e i s u r e p u r s u i t s e x is te d
in th e e x p e rim e n ta l g ro u p ,
T a b le X L II.
a s w i l l be fo u n d p r e s e n te d
in
The t h r e e m o st c o n s p ic u o u s c h a n g e s w e re i n
t h e c o n t r o l group& s f o r t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t i n s p o r t s and
a th le tic s ,
a slig h t
in c re a se ,
d ro p to tw e n ty -tw o p e r c e n t ;
p e r c e n t in th e
and th e
e x p e rim e n ta l group*s
a r t s and c r a f t s ,
fo u rte e n
c o n tr o l s g ro u p , w as l e s s th a n h a l f o f th e
c o rre sp o n d in g f i g u r e ,
th irty -fiv e
per cen t in th e e x p e ri­
m e n ta l; re a d in g found a te n p e r c e n t s c o re in th e
gro u p and d ropped a s a f i r s t hobby c h o ic e t o
in th e e x p e rim e n ta l g ro u p .
One n e w a n s w e r ,
c o n tro l
fo u r per cen t
’’W o r k i n g o n
my h o b b y , ” r e c o r d e d t h r e e p e r c e n t f o r t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p ,
and tw e n ty -tw o p e r c e n t f o r t h o s e
group.
H ad t h e s e
in th e e x p e rim e n ta l
answ ers b een check ed b ack and c l a s s i f i e d ,
p ro b a b ly th e s c o re u nder a r t s
an d c r a f t s , m o d e l m a k in g and
c o l l e c t i o n s w o u ld h a v e i n c r e a s e d .
The e le m e n t o f tim e s p e n t p e r w eek o n l e i s u r e
e s t s w as a f f e c t e d b y a m ore c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f
in te r­
12 6
TABLE
X L II
COMPARATIVE TYPE AND RANGE OF LEISURE A C T IV IT IES
OF CONTROL AND EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS
L e isu re
a c tiv itie s
F re q u e n c ie s
C o n tro l E x p e ri­
g ro u p
m e n ta l
group
S p o r ts and a t h l e t i c s
Per cent
C o n tro l E x p e ri­
group
m e n ta l
gro u p
136
15
43
22
A rtsa a n d c r a f t s
46
24
14
35
R e a d in g
35
2
10
4
(No a n s w e r )
17
-
6
-
M u s ic
15
1
5
1
C o lle c tio n s
15
4
5
6
M isc e lla n e o u s
11
2
3
4
9
1
3
1
S c ie n c e and p h o to g ra p h y 9
-
3
-
S c o u tin g
8
2
3
3
R a d io :
5
T
2
-
"W ork o n h o b b y "
3
15
1
22
S crap bo ok s
3
1
1
1
P u z z le s
3
1
1
1
316
68
100
10 0
A n im als
T o ta ls
127
a c tiv itie s not lis te d
p u re ly as p la y .
In c o n tr a s t to
t h e i r own o r i g i n a l r e c o r d w h i c h w a s a t v a r i a n c e t h e n w i t h
th e
c o n tr o l g ro u p , th e an sw ers o f th e
s h o w i n g m u ch g r e a t e r r a n g e ,
h o u rs above f i f t e e n
per c e n t.
e x p e rim e n ta l g rou p
p a rtic u la rly
i n t h e num ber o f
p e r w eek, w h ic h s h o t up fro m 4 t o
In th e f i n a l
9
s u rv e y , th e e x p e rim e n ta l group
a n s w e rs p ro d u c e d a c u rv e m ore n e a r l y p a r a l l e l t o t h e p a t t e r n
o f th e a d u lts th a n d id
fa llin g
th e c o n tro l.
W ith 38 p e r c e n t
b e tw e e n one a n d f i v e h o u r s , h a l f ,
o r 50 p e r c e n t
s p e n t b e tw e e n f i v e an d t e n h o u r s ; b e tw e e n t e n and f i f t e e n
r e c e i v e d b u t 1 1 p e r c e n t o f t h e a n s w e r s ; t h e r e © m in in g 1
per cent tra ile d
o ff to
h o u rs e x c e e d in g f i f t e e n p e r w eek,
th e c o n tr o l g rou p re m a in in g s t a t i c .
T a b le X L I1I p r e s e n t s !
th e r e s u l ts .
I n answ er t o th e t h i r d
q u e stio n of th e f i n a l su rv e y ,
r e g a r d i n g new h o b b y i n t e r e s t s ,
c o m p a riso n s i n F i g u r e 3
s h o w t h a t t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p , now c o n s i s t i n g o f 3 1 6 m e m b e r s ,
fo u n d no new hobby i n t e r e s t s
in f i f ty - f o u r p e r c e n t o f th e
n um ber, a s a g a i n s t tw e n ty -tw o p e r c e n t o f t h e e x p e r im e n ta l.
C o lle c tin g had r a i s e d
its
q u o ta in b o th g ro u p s, b u t a f i v e
p e r c en t ex cess in th e e x p e rim e n ta l g roup.
m ost i n t e r e s t i n g
The t h i r d
and
ite m p r e s e n t s th e s c o re o f t h i r t y - e i g h t
new h o b b y i n t e r e s t s
in a r t s
and c r a f t s
in th e e x p e rim e n ta l
group a s . a g a i n s t t e n p e r c e n t i n th e c o n t r o l .
128
TABLE
X L III
COMPARISON OF FINAL ANSWERS TO TIME EXPENDITURES OF
CONTROL AND EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS
T im e i n h o u r s
p e r w eek
20 t o 25
15 t o 1 9 . 9
h o u rs
C o n tro l
group
Per c en t fre q u e n c ie s
E x p e rim e n ta l
g ro u p
1
0
1
1
10 t o
1 4 .9
14
11
5 to
91 9
35
50
1 to
4*9
49
38
100
100
Totals
IB 9
Per cent
an sw erIn g
N one
54
B2
oooooooooooooooooooooo
C o lle c -2 3
tio n s
S8
oooooooooooooooooooooooooooo
C r a f t s 10
38
oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo
A th le tic s
6
5
ooooo
M isc e l- 3
la n e o u s 5
ooooo
B e a d i n g 2 MSI
. 5:0
S crap ­
books
2 m
•5 Jo
M u s ic
o,:, T
«5 O
Games
0
•5 O
316
68
MMUM C o n t r o l g r o u p
0000 E x p e r im e n ta l
g ro u p
S c ie n c e 0
.5 O
t
0
10
15
20
FIGURE
25
30
35
40
45
3
COMPARISON OF CONTROL AND EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS*
NEW HOBBIES BEGUN SINCE SEPTEMBER
50
t
55
The q u e s t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h w h e re i n t e r e s t s
in h o b b ie s
h a d b e e n a r o u s e d o r o r i g i n a t e d o r i n f l u e n c e d b r o u g h t n ew
re s u lts .
F i g u r e 4 p r e s e n t s t h e w id e d i v e r g e n c e .
Of t h e
c o n t r o l g ro u p f o r t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f t h e a n sw e rs i n d i c a t e
home i n f l u e n c e s e f f e c t i v e ;
in th e e x p e rim e n ta l,
c e n t s t i l l f e l t hom e i n f l u e n c e s s t r o n g e s t .
tw e n ty -s e v e n p e r c e n t o f th e
th irty
per
A lth o u g h
c o n tr o l g ro u p d id n o t a n sw e r,
i t was n e c e s s a r y t o r e c o r d t h e s e f i g u r e s ,
sin c e th e e x p e ri­
m e n ta l g r o u p f s q u e s t i o n n a i r e s p r e s e n t e d no b l a n k s .
i n t e r e s t s m ay b e h e r e p a s s e d o v e r ,
M in o r
t o ta k e up a g a in w ith
t h e hom e ro o m p r o g r a m , w h i c h h a d i n f l u e n c e d t h r e e p e r c e n t
o f th e c o n tro l g roup.
E n g lis h o r E n g lis h and s o c i a l s t u d i e s
c l a s s e s r e c e i v e d tw o p e r c e n t o f t h e a n sw e r i n t h e c o n t r o l
g ro u p , and f i f t y - t h r e e
fig u re s
p e r c e n t in th e e x p e rim e n ta l.
in d ic a te t h a t a s y m p a th e tic , d ir e c te d
T hese
te a c h in g p ro ­
g r a m m ay g u i d e t h e d e s t i n i e s o f a m u ch l a r g e r p e r c e n t a g e
o f o u r boys and g i r l s
in
c h o o s in g h o b b ie s and l e i s u r e
tim e
p u r s u i t s , w hen s u c h a p ro g ra m i s p u r p o s e f u l l y p l a n n e d .
Q u e s t i o n 5 i n t h e f i n a l s u r v e y show ed t h a t 225 p u ­
p ils
in th e c o n tr o l g ro u p , se v e n ty -o n e p e r c e n t, had jo in e d
n o c l u b s s i n c e e n t e r i n g t h e lo w s e v e n g r a d e ,
l i k e num ber i n t h e
and t h a t a
e x p e rim e n ta l g roup, se v e n ty p e r c e n t.
C lu b m e m b e rsh ip o f a d o l e s c e n t s a s i n d i c a t e d b y t h e t o t a l s
p re se n te d
i n T a b l e XLIV , c r e a t e s a p r o b l e m w o r t h y o f a
131
Per cent
fre q u e n c ie s
A t home
30
No a n s w e r
£7
O u tsid e
14
13
P h y s. Ed.
Home ro o m
7
3
oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo
ooooooooooooo
OOO
3
0
E n g lish
53
C y c le c o u r s e
ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo
£
1
o
*Tf
f t
—r
0~
5
10
t
15
FIGURE
t
£0
t
£5
t
30
4
PLACE OF ORIGIN OF HOBBY INTEREST
EEEE
oooo
C o n tro l group
E x p e rim e n ta l g ro u p
t
35
t
40
»
45
t
50
t
55
138
TABLE
XLIV
ORGANIZATIONS AND BLUBS JOINED BY LOW SEVEN GRADE
SINCE ENTERING
C lu b s jo in e d
sin c e e n te r­
i n g lo w s e v e n
fre q u e n c ie s
P er cen t fre q u e n c ie s
C o n tro l E x p er­
C o n tro l
E x p e rig ro u p
im e n ta l g roup
m en ta l
group
group
22 5
47
71
70
21
-
6
-
R a d io
17
6
5
10
B oy s c o u t s
16
3
5
5
M isc e lla n e o u s
15
2
5
3
H o bb y
10
2
3
3
G irl sc o u ts
8
6
2
10
M u s ic
5
1
1
1
C a m p fire
4
2
1
3
P h o to g ra p h y
4
-
1
-
A r ts and c r a f t s
2
3
—
5
316
68
(N o n e )
A th le tic
T o ta ls
c lu b s
100
100
133
se p a ra te s t u d y r e a c t i o n s
d isc u ssio n s
o b ta in a b le to
in th e c la s s e s d u rin g th e s tu d y o f th e s e
f i g u r e s p roved to be v e ry s im ila r to
ta in e d to
q u e s tio n 7 , g iv e n l a t e r .
u l a r s e e m s w o r t h y o f c o m m e n t:
sc o re d by th e c o n tr o l g ro u p .
th e a n sw e rs ob­
One i t e m
in p a r tic ­
th e e x p e rim e n ta l g ro u p * s
f i v e p e r c e n t m e m b e rsh ip i n a r t s
m e n tio n :
q u e s tio n s and
and c r a f t s
c lu b s , n o t
The c l u b s seem w o r th y o f
s c u l p t o r s and m o d e lin g c lu b s m a in ta in e d
i n B a lb o a
P a r k , and J u n i o r A r t G u ild tin d e r t h e a u s p i c e s o f t h e A r t
G u ild o f San D ie g o .
Q u e stio n 6 , s e e k in g in fo r m a tio n a b o u t a d d it i o n a l
h o b b ie s, re c e iv e d g en ero u s re s p o n se .
th e t o t a l s .
T a b l e 2XV p r e s e n t s
The c o n t r o l g r o u p f s a n sw e rs i n d i c a t e d t h e
f o r t y - s e v e n p e r c e n t had no a d d i t i o n o r n o n e a t a l l ;
e x p e r im e n ta l g rou p tw e n ty -o n e a n s w e r s , o r t h i r t y
th e
p er c e n t,
w h ic h , w hen a n a ly z e d fro m p r e v i o u s f i n d i n g s e o u ld b e r e a d
t o m ean d e f i n i t e l y no a d d i t i o n a l h o b b i e s ,
s i n c e ©11 h a d
/■
answ ered to th e f i r s t
le isu re
a c tiv ity .
in d iv id u a l
q u e s t i o n as h a v in g a t l e a s t one 1
The i n c r e a s i n g num ber o f h o b b i e s p e r
( i n d i m i n i s h i n g num bers) w ere fo u n d i n th e ex ­
p e rim e n ta l g ro u p .
Some o f t h e s e h a d w r i t t e n
in th a t
t h r o u g h n ew e n c o u r a g e m e n t t h e s e h a d b e e n l i s t e d ,
s e a s o n a l o r d o rm a n t,
or in th e f i r s t
ta tio n .
th e m s e lv e s f e l l so c l o s e l y
The e n t r i e s
sta g e s
b u t m arked
o f e x p e rim e n ­
in to
th e
134
TABLE
£LV
ANSWERS TO "ADDITIONAL HOBBIES** IN THE
LOW SEVEN GRADE
A d d itio n a l
F re q u e n c ie s
P er cen t fre q u e n c ie s
C o n tro l E x p e ri- C o n tro l
E xper i g ro u p
m en ta l
g ro u p
m e n ta l
group
g ro u p
(N ot r e p l y i n g )
149
£1
47
30
One a d d i t i o n a l
113
13
36
19
Two a d d i t i o n a l
35
16
11
23
T h ree a d d i t i o n a l
15
8
5
12
Hour a d d i t i o n a l
4
4
1
6
F iv e a d d it i o n a l
-
6
—
316
68
Totals
100
10
100
135
c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s a l r e a d y m ad e i n p r e v i o u s p a g e s , d e t a i l e d
lis tin g
seem ed u n n e c e s s a r y .
Q u e stio n 7 , r e l a t i n g
b e rsh ip ,
d e ta il
t o r e a s o n s f o r n o c l u b mem­
re c e iv e d an a sso rtm e n t o f an sw ers, re c o rd e d
i n T a b l e ZLVX*
T hese re c o rd s gave p e r t i n e n t d a ta
p ro v id in g p e r tin e n t m a te r ia l f o r
fe a sib ility
in
in v e s tig a tio n as to
o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d d e v e lo p m e n t o f m ore c l u b s
and l e i s u r e tim e a c t i v i t y p ro g ram s f o r g ro u p w o rk .
an sw ers as a re fo u n d l i s t e d
p rove th e need f o r g r e a te r
p la n n in g fo r c h ild r e n ’s le is u r e h o u rs.
R e a c tio n s to th e
q u e s t io n w ere b ro u g h t o u t i n t h e c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n s :
answ ers as a re n o te d
i n th e t a b l e w ere e l a b o r a t e d ;
h o b b y a t h o m e ," l i s t e d
Such
such
"H a v e
b y t h r e e m e m b e rs o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l
g r o u p s a i d t h e y c o u l d n o t w o r k on t h e i r h o b b y i n a c l u b ,
o r d id n ’t need c lu b m a c h in e ry , o r d id n ’ t f e e l th e need
o f any g e t- t o g e t h e r m o tiv e s y e t.
One s t r a y a n s w e r r e c o r d e d
in t h e c o n tr o l g ro u p w as w r i t t e n a c r o s s th e q u e s t io n n a ir e ,
"I lik e
t o m ak e my own c l u b . "
A lis t
o f a n s w e r s f r o m t h i r t y - f o u r m e m b e rs o f t h e
c o n t r o l g ro u p a s t o r e a s o n s f o r no h o b b ie s w e re p r e s e n t e d
in t a b u l a r fo rm f o r
c l a s s ro o m d i s c u s s i o n .
ite m
in th e e n tir e co u rse b ro u g h t
stic
re s p o n s e and i n d i c a t i o n o f p r o g r e s s
d id th e s e re a s o n s ,
P e rh a p s no one
t o l i g h t m ore e n t h u s i a ­
g i v e n i n T a b l e ZLVXI.
in th e
s tu d y th a n
The d i s c u s s i o n s
sh o w a c l e a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f w h a t h a d b e e n a c c o m p l i s h e d *
136
TABLE
XLVI
ANSWERS TO QUESTION, " I F YOU ST IL L DO NOT BELONG
TO ANY CLUB, TELL WHY"
R easons f o r
no c lu b s
N um ber
a n sw e rin g
Con*
Exp.
Per cent
a n sw e rin g
Exp.
Con.
!
(A lre a d y jo in e d )
96
28
31
40
(No a n s w e r )
90
11
28
16
Not in te r e s te d
46
4
14
6
T oo b u s y
23
8
7
12
N one I l i k e
20
5
6
7
D o n ’ t kn ow a n y
18
3
6
5
No c h a n c e
9
5
3
7
W ill jo in
8
1
6
2
D o n ’ t know
6
-
2
-
H a v e h o b b y a t home
-
3
-
5
316
68
100
100
T o ta ls
137
TABLE
XLVII
ANSWERS TO QUESTION, " I E YOU ST IL L DO NOT
HAVE A HOBBY, TELL WHY"
R easons fo r
no h o b b ie s
N um ber o f
an sw ers
H aven’ t g o t aro u n d to
D on’t
it
8
h av e tim e
7
Not i n t e r e s t e d
5
N o n e s u i t s me
3
W an t s o m e t h i n g d i f f e r e n t
2
H ave n o t b o t h e r e d
1
N ever a b le to b e g in
1
No m o n e y t o g e t t h i n g s
1
R a th e r re a d
1
Not w e ll enough a c q u a in te d
1
Don’t
1
lik e
H aven’t
to c o lle c t
found a n y th in g t o
do
1
G o i n g aw ay
1
’C au se I
1
Total
d o n ’t w ant no h o b b i e ’
34
138
i n t h e g r a s p i n g o f r e a s o n s a n d n e e d s f o r som e p l a n n e d a n d
th o u g h tf u l stu d y of l e i s u r e
a c tiv itie s ;
th e c h o ic e and
v a r i e i t i e s w h i c h c o u l d b e m ade b y a n y i n d i v i d u a l u n d e r
w h a te v e r c irc u m s ta n c e s , w ith a l i t t l e
s t a r t th e m o f f ,
d ire c te d tra in in g
to
sh o w e d a n i n c r e a s e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a s u b ­
j e c t e n t i r e l y n e w t o m an y o f t h e m e m b e r s o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l
g ro u p a t th e b e g in n in g o f th e p r o j e c t .
le g itim a te
answ ers to r e f u t e
Each p u p i l fo u n d
a l l e x c u s e s and a rg u m e n ts .
Q u e stio n 9 o f th e f i n a l su rv e y of th e s e v e n th g rad e
a im e d t o d i s c o v e r t o w h a t e x t e n t t h e
had g iv e n s e r i o u s th o u g h t.
to th e p ro b le m o f c h o o sin g a
hobby, h a v in g d is c u s s e d t h i s
th o ro u g h ly .
e x p e rim e n ta l group
p ro b lem a t
s e v e r a l tim e s q u ite
T a b l e X L V I I I sh o w s t h e r e s u l t s .
P e rc e n ta g e s
o f th e e n t i r e g r a d e , b o th c o n t r o l and e x p e r im e n ta l g ro u p s ,
w e r e i m p o s s i b l e , ; t h e r e w e r e s e v e r a l who g a v e m o re t h a n o n e
an sw er:
in th e
148 a n sw e rs in t h e
e x p e rim e n ta l.
F ro m t h e s e
d ev elo p m e n t o f i n t e r e s t s
p o n d in g c l o s e l y to
in th e
t h e p e r c e n t a g e s sh o w t h e
e x p e r i m e n t a l gro u p c o r r e s ­
th e answ ers to
su rv e y , w h e re in a t h l e t i c s
p la c e , and a r t s
c o n tr o l g roup and f i f t y - n i n e
chosen as a hobby f a l l s
and h a n d i c r a f t s
e s t in g answ ers w r i t t e n
q u e stio n 1 o f th e f i n a l
com es f i r s t .
Among i n t e r ­
i n w as "H ave w h a t 1 l i k e , ” i n v e s t i ­
g a t i o n h a v i n g b e e n m ade o f t h e s e a n s w e r s ,
t h a t th e y f e l l
to fo u rth
to th e
in th e g e n e ra l p a tte r n of a r t s
effect
and c r a f t s ,
139
TABLE
X L V III
ANSWERS TO, "WHAT HOBBIES WOULD YOU LIKE TO HAVE?”
F re q u e n c ie s
E x p e riC o n tro l
gro u p " m e n ta l
g ro u p
H o b b ie s
d e sire d
P er c e n t fre q u e n c ie s
C o n tro l
Exper i gro u p
m e n ta l
gro u p
C o lle c tio n s
73
16
50
27
A th le tic s
34
5
23
8
A r ts and c r a f t s
21
17
14
28
"H a v e w h a t I l i k e ”
8
11
6
20
M u sic ,
7
3
5
5
A n im als
4
1
2
2
S c ie n c e
1
6
-
10
148
59
100
100
T o ta ls
e tc .
140
c o lle c tio n s
and m o d el m a k in g .
t o show t h a t t h e
The d e t a i l e d
fig u re s
ten d
e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p h a d b e c o m e m o re c r i t i c a l
o f p r a c t i c a l i d e a s t h a t go t o m ak e u p t h e f r e e d o m o f c h o i c e
in le is u r e
o c c u p a tio n s.
S e le c tio n s f o r fre e re a d in g
d iv is io n
in th e lib r a r y
book
in t h e E n g lis h c l a s s u n d erw en t a change a l s o .
The c o n t r o l g ro u p r e m a in i n g n e a r l y s t a t i c ,
its
new r e c o r d s
s e r v e a s a r e a s o n a b le b a se f o r c o m p a riso n , as p r e s e n te d
T a b l e XLIX.
A ll c l a s s e s had had e q u a l a c c e s s to l i b r a r y
books and m a g a z in e s .
An i n i t i a l v i s i t t o t h e l i b r a r y
a l l in - c o m in g lo w s e v e n E n g l i s h c l a s s e s
th e sc h o o l; a l l c h ild r e n
in stru c tio n
in g t h e i r
in
of
i s t h e c u sto m o f
in th e g ra d e had been g iv e n e q u a l
in th e u se o f th e l ib r a r y ,
own r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l ,
t h e m e th o d s o f f i n d ­
re fe re n c e books, th e use
o f th e c a t a l o g u e , m ag a zin e r a c k s and bound v o lu m e s, and
file s
of sp e c ia l m a te ria l.
th e re fo re ,
The a n s w e rs t o q u e s t i o n 1 0 ,
sh o w t h e r e s u l t s
c a r e was t a k e n t o
of d ire c te d
in te re s ts
e x p la in th e p u rp o se of th e l i t e r a t u r e
p e r i o d a s one d e a l in g w ith b ro a d s e l e c t i o n s
i n m an y f i e l d s .
a lth o u g h
and i n t e r e s t s
H e ad in g and r e p o r t i n g hobby and l e i s u r e
b o o k s e x c l u s i v e l y was d i s c o u r a g e d , a n d e a c h c h i l d w as r e ­
q u i r e d t o r e p o r t a t l e a s t tw o b o o k s i n o t h e r f i e l d s t h a n
th e a fo re s a id
M y ste ry ,
in te re s ts .
a d v e n tu re ,
c h o ic e s o f f i f t y
per
T he r e s u l t s
and s p o r t s t o r i e s
are
in te re s tin g .
c la im e d th e f i r s t
c e n t o f th e c o n t r o l group' and o n ly
141
TABLE XLIX
ANSWERS TO QUESTION, "WHAT KINDS OF BOOKS HAVE YOU BECOME
INTERESTED IN SINCE COMING TO THIS SCHOOL?n
B ook i n t e r e s t s
F re q u e n c ie s
P er cen t fre q u e n c ie s
C o n tro l
E x p e ri C o n tro l
E x p e ri­
group
m e n ta l g roup
m e n ta l
g ro u p
g ro u p
M y s t e r y a n d a d v e n t u r e 146
13
50
19
N a tu re
50
4
17
6
T rav el
42
4
14
6
How t o m ak e a n d do
th in g s
32
23
11
34
H o b b ie s
13
23
5
34
8
1
3
1
291
68
100
100
A ll,
o r m ore t h a n one
Totals
14S
n in e te e n p e r c e n t o f th e
o th e r.
’♦How t o m ak e a n d do
t h i n g s , ” a g a i n a g e n e r a l t e r m , w as a n s w e r e d b y e l e v e n
p e r c e n t o f th e
c o n t r o l g ro u p and t h i r t y - f o u r p e r c e n t
o f th e e x p e rim e n ta l;
th e
h o b b ie s re c e iv e d f i v e p e r c e n t in
c o n tr o l , and a g a in t h i r t y - f o u r p e r c e n t
in th e e x p e r i­
m e n ta l g roup.
M a g az in e r e a d i n g c h o i c e s r a n p a r a l l e l t o l i t e r a t u r e
o f t h e s t o r y book fo rm and t e c h n i c a l l i t e r a t u r e
fo rm , as w i l l be d is c o v e r e d
m an y c h a n g e s .
in T a b le L.
The b i g i n c r e a s e
i n book
The r e s u l t s
sh o w
in th e e x p e rim e n ta l g ro u p ’s
c h o i c e s i n h o b b y m a g a z i n e s a n d how t o m ak e a n d do t h i n g s
can be d i r e c tl y
a ttrib u te d
th ro u g h th e stu d y p la n .
to t h e i r
in tro d u c tio n to
th e se
T he c o m p l e t e f i g u r e s m ay s e r v e t o
i n d i c a t e t h a t d i r e c t e d r e a d i n g a n d i n t r o d u c t i o n t o new t y p e s
o f m a g a z in e s r e l a t i v e
to th e
s p e c ia l stu d y o f t h i s
h e r e t o f o r e u n f a m ilia r to th e b o y s and g i r l s
co u rse
in th e e x p e ri­
m e n ta l g ro u p had had b e n e f i c i a l r e s u l t s .
T h e re seem s t o b e no e v id e n c e t h r o u g h o u t t h e l i s t i n g *
and stu d y o f r e s u l t s
and c o m p a ris o n s t h a t w o u ld i n d i c a t e
n e g a tiv e e f f e c t s o f th e p la n as ta u g h t.
M any w e a k s p o t s
a r e d e t e c t e d w h i c h c o u l d b e e r a d i c a t e d b y a r e v i s i o n o f some
o f th e m e th o d s, and r e t u r n t o
n o rm al c o n d itio n s o f a t t e n ­
d a n c e w h i c h w as u n a n t i c i p a t e d
in th e p la n n in g of th e c o u rs e .
If
t h e c o u r s e was o v e r t a u g h t i n an y o ne i n s t a n c e ,
it
143
TABLE
L
ANSWERS TO, "WHAT MAGA3INBS HAVE YOU BECOME
INTERESTED I N ? "
M a g az in e
in te re s ts
F re q u e n c ie s
Per cen t fre q u e n c ie s
C o n tro l E xper iC o n tro l E x p e ri­
gro u p
m e n ta l
gro u p
m e n ta l
group
group
B o y s ’ a itd g i r l s *
75
9
30
13
How t o m a k e a n d do
67
21
27
31
O ld e r p e o p l e ’ s
44
5
18
6
T rav el
28
3
10
5
M a tu re
19
3
8
5
H o b b ie s
10
22
4
32
6
5
3
8
249
68
100
100
A ll,
o r m ore t h a n o n e
Totals
144
w o u l d “be i n t h e e v i d e n t d r o p i n r e a d i n g a s a c h i e f l e i s u r e
p a stim e ; b u t a s th e se v e n th g rad e c h ild
'e n g a g e d
i n m any s u b j e c t s a t o n e t i m e ,
is r e a lly
t h i s m ig h t b e co n­
s id e r e d and a n a ly z e d as a k in to th e E n g lis h
m e n ts,
and sm a c k in g a l i t t l e
a c tiv e ly
c la s s re q u ire ­
to o s t r o n g l y as y e t o f r e ­
q u ire d r a th e r th a n r e c r e a tio n a l re a d in g .
CHAPTER
V
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMENBATIONS
We h a v e i n t h i s c o u n t r y o n e o f t h e m o s t
f a r r e a c h in g sy ste m s o f c h il d e d u c a t i o n ,i n th e w o rld .
We a l s o h a v e m i l l i o n s o f a d u l t s w i t h h u n d r e d s o f
t h o u s a n d s o f h o u r s o f l e i s u r e a t t h e i r com m and.
L e t u s b u i l d up o n t h e e d u c a ti o n o f y o u th a sy s te m
o r o rg a n iz e d e d u c a tio n and c u lt u r e t h a t w i l l s t r e n g th ­
e n , m o d ify , a d j u s t , v i t a l i z e , and i n c r e a s e c u l t u r a l
a t t a i n m e n t s i n t h e a d u l t s o t h a t we m ay b u i l d a n
o r d e r o f s o c i e t y w o r t h y o f f r e e m an a n d r e l a t i o n s a n d
a t t i t u d e s t h a t w i l l m ak e u s s e e U t o p i a a n d s e e i n g ,
s tr iv e to c re a te i t .
,^
C aro l A ro n o v ie i
T he t h r e e - f o l d
first,
e sts
to
pu rp o se o f t h i s
i n v e s t i g a t i o n w as:
e s t a b l i s h a b ack g ro u n d o f a d u lt l e i s u r e
in te r­
i n t h e c o m m u n ity , a s s e m b le d ^ y t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e
m e t h o d ; s e c o n d , t o m ake a c o m p a r a t i v e s u r v e y o f c h i l d r e n s
p a s tim e and l e i s u r e
a c tiv itie s;
to w hat e x te n t a d i r e c t ,
and t h i r d ,
to
d isc o v e r
c r i t i c a l stu d y o f a d u lt h o b b ie s
and l e i s u r e tim e p u r s u i t s m ig h t i n c r e a s e th e u n d e r s ta n d in g
of th e needs fo r
a c tiv itie s
i n t e l l i g e n t p la n n in g o f l e i s u r e
tim e
am ong s e v e n t h g r a d e p u p i l s .
I.
CONCLUSIONS
F rom t h e o b s e r v a t i o n o f a n e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p i n
^ C aro l A ro n o v ie i, " L e isu re and P r o g r e s s ,"
S p o k e s m a n , j 3 7 : Novemb e r , c l 9 2 5 . •
The
146
th e se v e n th g ra d e ,
o n e h o u r a w eek t h r o u g h o u t o n e s e m e s t e r ,
t h e f o llo w in g c o n c lu s io n s h av e b e e n draw n.
(1 )
The t e a c h a b i l i t y o f a d u l t h o b b i e s was e v i d e n t
in ev ery s te p o f th e
of th e
c o u rs e , by a g r e a t e r u n d e rs ta n d in g
a d u lt needs o f e d u c a tio n ,
o f th e boys and g i r l s
t o d e v e lo p a m ore i n t e l l i g e n t a p p r e ­
c i a t i o n and p a r t i c i p a t i o n
itie s .
and a d e s i r e on th e p a r t
in w o rth w h ile l e i s u r e
tim e a c t i v ­
The p u p i l s re s p o n d e d one h u n d re d p e r c e n t ,
ia s tic a lly ,
e n th u s ­
and e x p re sse d r e g r e t a t th e c lo s e o f th e te rm
t h a t t h e c o u r s e was f i n i s h e d .
(S) The p ro g ra m a s d e v e lo p e d p r o v i d e d a n e l a s t i c i t y
w h e r e b y t h e w e a k e s t , m o s t r e t i r i n g m e m b e rs o f t h e g r o u p
p a rtic ip a te d
s a tis fa c to rily
f o r t h e g o o d o f t h e w h o le a s
w e ll as g a in in g s e lf -c o n f id e n c e .
(3 ) The i n c r e a s e d
a t th e
in te re s ts
sam e t i m e m o r e c r i t i c a l
in h o b b ie s p ro d u ced
ju d g m e n ts o f t h e i r v a lu e s
i n d e v e l o p in g c h a r a c t e r f o r a m ore c u l t u r a l c i t i z e n s h i p .
(4) S e l f - a n a l y s i s
t e s t s used in c o n n e c tio n w ith
t h e c o u r s e s e r v e d t o m ake t h e p u p i l s m o r e c r i t i c a l
t h e i r own a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g t h e i r l e i s u r e
of
h o u rs.
( 5 ) T he s i g n i f i c a n t d r o p i n s p o r t s a n d a t h l e t i c s
as f i r s t
c h o ic e ,
tw e n ty p e r c e n t ,
and th e r i s e
show s no l e s s
o f n in e te e n
p er cen t in c re a tiv e
c ra fts
p h y sic a l a c t i v i t i e s ,
b u t a m ore i n t e l l i g e n t u n d e r s t a n d i n g
o f s e l e c t i o n o f m ore s a t i s f y i n g ,
th e in d iv id u a l.
c re a tiv e
an i n t e r e s t in
e x p re ss io n s o f
147
( 6 ) T h e d o m i n a n t f a c t o r o f home e n c o u r a g e m e n t o r
o f i n t e r e s t s d e v e l o p e d a t home c o m p a r e s f a v o r a b l y w i t h
a d u l t s ’ i n t e r e s t s and d a ta a s s e m b le d fro m l o c a l an d n a t i o n ­
w id e s u r v e y s .
(7 ) B r o a d e r o u t l o o k s on t h e w o r ld a t l a r g e t h r o u g h
th e p e rs o n a l in te r v ie w s , r a d i o , n e w sp a p ers, m a g a z in e s, and
t h e new l i t e r a t u r e
on th e s u b j e c t o f l e i s u r e w ere i n c r e a s ­
i n g l y e v i d e n t t h r o u g h t h e v o l u n t a r y r e p o r t s m ad e b y t h e
c la ss e s.
(8 ) The e x p e r i m e n t a l g ro u p s *
ran
a c lo s e p a r a l l e l to th e a d u lts*
le isu re
a c tiv itie s
a t th e end of th e te rm ,
i n a l l e le m e n ts s u b j e c t t o c o m p a ris o n , n a m e ly :
c a tio n ,
c la s s ifi­
tim e and m oney e x p e n d i t u r e s , a n d c lu b m e m b e rs h ip .
(9 ) The f i n a l s u r v e y g a v e e v id e n c e o f a m ore e x ­
p l i c i t k n o w le d g e o f t h e p ro b le m o f l e a r n i n g t o u s e tim e
w is e ly , expanded i n t e r e s t s th ro u g h c o n ta c ts w ith a d u lt s ,
and c o n s c io u s n e s s o f th e n e e d s o f i n d i v i d u a l g ro w th o f
i n t e r e s t s and a p p r e c ia tio n o f w o r th ie r u se s o f l e i s u r e .
II.
RSCOMMENBAT IONS
W hat h a s b e e n d o n e b y o t h e r e d u c a t o r s
p i o n e e r i n g w ork o f t r a i n i n g f o r
a m ore w o r th y u s e o f l e i s u r e
h a s b e e n k e p t i n m in d t h r o u g h o u t t h i s
p ro b lem
in th e f i e l d
in th e
in v e s tig a tio n .
o f te a c h in g can be is o la te d ,
No
and w ith
148
t h a t th o u g h t t h e f o l l o w i n g re c o m m e n d a tio n s a r e t e n t a t i v e l y
s u b m itte d *
(1 ) The s e v e n t h g r a d e ,
s c h o o l and l i f e
a sc ie n tific
e x p e rie n c e s,
a t th e th re s h o ld
is
o f new
a lo g ic a l p la c e to
in itia te
a p p r o a c h , t o t h e p l a u s i b l e u s e s o f f r e e tim e *
•The e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s h a v e b e g u n w i t h e n c o u r a g e m e n t o f
o u tsid e
in te re s ts ,
in c r a f t s ,
p e ts ,
o f e x h ib itin g a t hobby f a i r s .
se c o n d a ry * sc h o o ls a re
and l e i s u r e
g rad e,
in
and a c t i v i t i e s w o rth y
The u p p e r g r a d e s o f t h e
i n c o r p o r a ti n g th e p ro b le m s o f l a b o r
th e ir co u rses in
a t th e c ro s s ro a d s ,
and p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y t o
so c ia l liv in g .
The s e v e n t h
is w e ll s itu a te d p s y c h o lo g ic a lly
stu d y a t f i r s t hand th e
a d u lt w o rld
a b o u t th em , to to u c h u p o n , p e r s o n a l l y , t h e p ro b le m s and
re s u lts
o f b o th good an d b ad u se o f s p a r e tim e ,
consequences.
b rin g s ta n g ib le
A th ird
e ffe c t,
e v id e n c e o f
and th e
a n o u t g r o w t h f r o m t h e tw o
t h e n e e d s o f new e d u c a t i o n a l
su b je c ts.
(2 ) The " C o m p o s itio n d a y " o f a n E n g l i s h c l a s s
a n e x c e l l e n t m e d iu m f o r t h i s
d rill,
a rts
re la tiv e
o f e x p re ss io n ,
fie ld s
in an a c t iv i t y
(5)
serv es
ty p e o f s tu d y , s in c e v o c a b u la ry
te c h n iq u e s o f w r itin g s k i l l s
and
in r e a d i n g r e c e iv e d u n c o n sc io u s im p e tu s
e n jo y e d by th e e n t i r e g ro u p .
T e a c h e rs ev ery w h ere sh o u ld r e a l i z e
ta n c e o f t r a i n i n g f o r l e i s u r e ;
se v e n th g rad e p u p ils
a ll
t h e im p o r­
c la s s e s a tte n d e d by
can d i r e c t l y en co u rag e s p e c i f i c
149
in te re s ts
and t r a i n i n g , n a m e ly :
p h y sic a l e d u c a tio n ,
c o u rses.
and, th e
T h e ir u n ite d
m u sic , s c ie n c e ,
a rt,
s h o p s a n d home e c o n o m i c s
e f f o r t s can h e lp th e
in d iv id u a l
c h i l d f i n d h im s e lf and s y m p a th e tic u n d e r s ta n d in g .
(4) A l l t e a c h e r s s h o u ld h a v e b r o a d o u tlo o k s on
fie ld s
o f hobby i n t e r e s t s ,
sh o u ld r i d e , w ith e n th u s ia sm ,
a few th e m s e lv e s , an d b e w i l l i n g on t h e
c a tio n to p ra is e
s l i g h t e s t p ro v o ­
a n y w o r t h y ,fH o b b y n , w n o m a t t e r how w e a k
a n d w o b b l y h e m ay b e u p o n h i s l e g s a t b i r t h .
(5 ) W i l l i n g n e s s t o
c o -o p e ra te
in p u b lic a c t i v i t i e s
c a r r i e d o n t o d e v e l o p c o m m u n ity r e c r e a t i o n a l m o v e m e n t s ,
and an a c tiv e p a r t i c i p a t i o n
i n th em i s t o b e e n c o u ra g e d .
(6 ) P u b l i c i s i n g t h e t r e n d s ,
th ro u g h t a l k s
to
p a r e n t- te a c h e r g ro u p s and o th e r o r g a n iz a tio n s f r i e n d l y t o
p ro g re s s iv e e d u c a tio n w i l l sp re a d a b e t t e r u n d e rsta n d in g
o f w hat th e s c h o o ls a r e d o in g t o a c c e p t th e c h a lle n g e s
w h ic h a r e p la c e d a t t h e i r d o o r s .
T hese a c t i v i t i e s
a c c e p te d s e r io u s ly w i l l c r e a te g r e a te r
aw ake a n i n d i f f e r e n t p u b l i c .
if
sy m p a th ie s , and
They w i l l h e lp t o
sp read
th e g o sp e l th ro u g h th e r i s i n g g e n e r a tio n t h a t th ro u g h
t r a i n i n g f o r l e i s u r e and c o n s i d e r a t e u s e o f f r e e tim e
m ay b e d e v e l o p e d t h e n e w c u l t u r e w h i c h i s
still,
from
e v id e n c e s on e v e ry h a n d , s o r e l y n e ed e d t o t u r n th e t i d e s
aw ay f r o m e c o n o m ic a n d m o r a l d i s a s t e r .
BIBLIOGRAPHY
BIBLIOGRAPHY
A.
BOOKS
B r a i n a r d , D u d l e y S h a t t u c k , a n d L e s l i e D. Z e l e n e y ,
P r o b l e m s o f O u t T i m e s , New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l B oo k
C o . , ILog . , 1 9 3 5 . 1 9 2 p p .
O ur s o c i o l o g i c a l h e r i t a g e , a n d t h e n e e d s o f c o m m u n ity
p la n n in g and e d u c a ti o n t o m eet t h e p ro b le m s o f l e i s u r e .
B u t l e r , G e o r g e D . , I n t r o d u c t i o n t o C o m m u n ity R e c r e a t i o n :
P rep ared fo r th e N a tio n a l R e c re a tio n A s s o c ia tio n .
New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l B o ok C o . , I n c . , 1 9 4 0 .
515 p p .
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and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f n a tio n - w id e sc o p e ; a con­
s tr u c ti v e p r e s e n ta tio n o f w hat has b een , i s b e in g ,
and can b e d o n e , to b u i l d and e n la r g e t h e n a tio n * s
r e c r e a tio n p la n n in g .
C a l k i n s , E a r n e s t E lm o , C a r e a n d F e e d i n g o f H o b b y H o r s e s .
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B ib lio g ra p h y 57-1 0 5 .
c
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o u sly ; c o n ta in in g e x c e lle n t b ib lio g ra p h y
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88 p p .
New Y o r k :
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C o ., 1929.
348 p p .
L e is u re League o f
b u ild in g ,
New Y o r k :
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The M a c m illa n
P r e s e n t s t h e s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s r e s u l t i n g fro m m m a eh in e s
and t h e m e n ta l c o n s e r v a tis m due in p a r t fro m l a c k o f
p ro p er e d u c a tio n a l f a c i l i t i e s .
_______ , a n d F . J . S c h l i n k , Y o u r M o n e y f s W o r t h .
New Y o r k :
The M a c m illa n C o ., 1 9 2 7 .
275 p p .
A p l e a f o r m ore c a r e f u l . u s e o f t i m e ; w a s t e r o f t h e co n ­
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New Y0r k :
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287 p p .
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th e a u th o r s u g g e s ts r e c o v e r in g o n e* s s t r e n g t h by
r i d i n g a hobby, p r e s e n tin g tw e lv e f i e l d s , e x p la in in g
s u i t a b i l i t y and m eth o d s o f a p p ro a c h .
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C e n tu ry C o .,1 9 3 4 .
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C e n tu ry C o ., 1 9 3 8 .
313 p p .
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to house
D. A p p l e t o n -
P r e s e n t s m any t y p e s o f w e l l d i s t r i b u t e d i n t e r e s t s t o
s u it a v a rie ty of a b ilitie s .
P ra c tic a l c r a f ts , care­
f u l l y d e s c r i b e d m rith d i r e c t i o n s f o r d e v e l o p m e n t .
D u l l e s , F o s t e r H h ea, A m e ric a L e a r n s t o P l a y .
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373 p p .
New Y o rk *
P ro fu s e ly i l l u s t r a t e d h is to r y of p o p u la rly re c o g n iz e d
f o r m s o f s o c i a l p l a y , f r o m ^ B o w ls * i n 1©11 t o l a t e s t
a c k n o w l e d g m e n t o f p r o b l e m s o f t h e New L e i s u r e o f 1 9 4 0 .
E ddy, G eorge S h erw o o d , end K irb y P a g e , C r e a t i v e P i o n e e r s .
New Y o r k : A s s o c i a t i d n P r e s s , 1 9 3 7 .
161 p p .
P r e s e n t s i d e a l s f o r b u i l d i n g a new s o c i e t y t h r o u g h
a d v e n t u r o u s v o c a t i o n s and a v o c a t i o n s oft t h e f r o n t i e r s
o f i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s ; t h e p o l i t i c a l m o v em en t, f a c e
r e l a t i o n s , t h e c o - o p e r a t i v e m o v em en t, an d s o c i a l i z e d
re lig io n .
l l d r i d g e , S e b a , a n d C a r r o l l D. C l a r k , M a jo r P ro b le m s o f
D em ocracy.
New Y o r k : D. A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y C o . , 1 § 2 8 •
575 p p .
F ra n k ly and
be fac ed in
th e w o rth -w
th e sc h o o ls
fe a rle ssly
a c h a n g in g
h ile n e ss of
s h a ll p la y
s e t t i n g f o r t h th e p ro b le m s t o
c iv iliz a tio n .
P a rt Y p re se n ts
w ise u se o f l e i s u r e , w h e re in
a d e c isiv e p a rt.
153
F r a n k l , P a u l T . , M a c h in e - M a d e L e i s u r e .
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183 p p .
New Y o r k :
H arp er
/
L e is u re a s a l i f e n e c e s s i t y b ro u g h t in to p la y by w ise
p la n n in g , th ro u g h b e t t e r u n d e rs ta n d in g o f tr u e v a lu e s .
The e n t i r e v o lu m e t r e a t s t w i t h s o c i o l o g i c a l p r o b le m s .
F u r n a s , C l i f f o r d C ook, The N e x t H u n d red Y e a r s .
R eynal and H itc h c o c k , 1936.
408 pp.
New Y o r k :
A s c i e n t i f i c ap p ro ach to tre n d s o f th e s o c ia l
s t r u c t u r e o f th e f u t u r e w h e re in s c i e n c e , te c h n o lo g y and
p r o g r e s s a r e m ade o n e th r o u g h b e t t e r e d u c a t i o n a l
p la n n in g .
G r e e n b ie , M rs. M a r jo ry B a rs to w , The A r t s o f L e i s u r e .
New
Y o r k : T h e M c G r a w - H i l l B ook C o • , I n c • , 1 9 3 5 .
274 p p .
A c h a p t e r by c h a p te r e x p o s i t i o n o f v a r y in g fo rm s o f
l e i s u r e tim e p u r s u i t s , w i t h t h e a im o f g i v in g b e s t id e a s
o f how t o u s e l e i s u r e t i m e , a s a r t s .
G u lic k , L u th e r H a lse y , A P h ilo so p h y o f P la y .
C h a rle s S c rib n e r* s S o n s, 1920.
281 p p .
New Y o r k s
A s c h o la r ly t r e a t i s e o f m o ral n eed s o f th e n a tio n ,
t h r o u g h w e l l - d i r e c t e d r e c r e a t i o n a l k n o w le d g e and
e d u c a tio n f o r freed o m o f p u r s u i t s — th e t e s t o f th e
i d e a l D em ocracy.
H a m b r i d g e , G ov e J a y , T im e To L i v e .
B ook C o . , I n c . , 1 9 3 3 . ~ T 4 4 p p .
New Y o r k :
M c G ra w -H ill
S u g g e stio n s f o r a d v e n tu rin g in u s e s o f l e i s u r e tim e .
J a c k s , L a u r e n c e P e a r s a l l , E d u c a t i o n o f t h e W h o le M an.
New Y o r k : H a r p e r a n d B r o t h e r s , 1 9 3 2 .
154 p p .
P r e s e n ts a s y m p a th e tic a n a ly s is o f l e i s u r e i n i t s
m an y f o r m s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h m a n * s o t h e r n e e d s .
E d u c a tio n T hro u g h R e c r e a t i o n .
H a r p e r a n d B r o t h e r s , 19 3 2 1
155 p p .
New Y o r k :
A s c h o l a r l y a p p ro a c h t o th e p ro b lem s o f f u t u r e c i v i l i ­
z a tio n th ro u g h e d u c a tio n f o r l e i s u r e p u r s u i t s .
154
B o th o f t h e abo v e b o o k s p r e s e n t t h e t h e o r y t h a t edue
c a tio n i s th e key in d u s tr y o f c i v i l i z a t i o n in c lu d in g
th e s c ie n c e oand a r t o f l e i s u r e f o r th e f u t u r e .
L a i n g , G ra h am A . , " T o w a r d s T e c h n o c r a c y , * L o s A n g e l e s :
The L os A n g e le s P r e s s , 1 9 3 3 .
lO u p p .
P e r t i n e n t f a c t s o f e c o n o m ic , i n d u s t r i a l , and s o c i a l
p ro b le m s b r o u g h t a b o u t by i n c r e a s e i n m a c h in e p o w e r.
L a m p la n d , R u t h , ( e d i t e d ) H o b b ie s f o r E v e r y b o d y .
H arp er and B r o th e r s , 1934.
403 pp.
New Y o r k :
A c o ll e c t io n o f f i f t y h o b b y ists* c o n tr ib u tio n s r e p r e ­
s e n t a c r o s s s e c t i o n o f A m e ric an l i f e , a d i v e r s i t y
o f p r o f e s s i o n s a n d i n t e r e s t s , e a c h t e l l i n g how h e
cam e t o t a k e u p h i s h o b b y .
L a w e s, L e w is E d w a rd , T w en ty -T h o u s a n d Y e a r s i n S i n g S in g ,.
New Y o r k :
R. Long an d R. R. S m ith , I n c . , 1 9 3 2 .
412 p p .
V a lu a b le a s a w h o le o n ly
one v a lu a b le ite m d e a l in g
f o r w o rth y u se o f l e i s u r e
c e n t o f p r i s o n e r s , q u o te d
to s tu d e n ts o f c rim in o lo g y ;
w ith absence o f tr a in in g
am ong n i n e t y - s e v e n p e r
on p a g e s o f t h i s t h e s i s .
L i e s , E u g e n e T h e o d o r e , T h e New L e i s u r e C h a l l e n g e s t h e
S c h o o ls.
New Y o r k : T h e R a t i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n ,
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317 p p .
An o f t - q u o t e d a n d m o s t v i t a l l y i m p o r t a n t d i s s e r t a t i o n
upon th e n e e d s f o r a r e v o l u t i o n i z e d fo rm o f i n s t r u c t i o n
i n k e e p in g w ith t h e t r e n d s o f t h e tim e s to w a rd l o n g e r
l e i s u r e h o u r s , r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s and t r a i n i n g .
M a r s h a ll, F ra n k lam es, C hess in an H o u r.
L e is u re League
L i t t l e B o o k , New Y o r k ;
L e i s u r e L eague o f A m e ric a,
1937.
60 p p .
D i r e c t i o n s f o r l e a r n i n g t o p l a y , s t a t i n g th e charm ,
h i s t o r y , m o v e s , l a w s , a n d e t i q u e t t e o f t h e gam e o f C h e s s .
M e n a k e r , F r e d E . , How S m a r t A r e Y o u ?
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63 p p .
A handbook o f s i x t y - th r e e
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155
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474 p p .
The a c h ie v e m e n t o f s o c i a l e f f i c i e n c y n o t r e a c h e d i n
a n y co m m en su rate d e g r e e t o t h e m a c h in e - d e v e lo p m e n t;
th e n e x t g r e a t s te p m ust be e d u c a tio n f o r f r e e
a c t i v i t y , c r e a tio n , and s o c ia l e f f ic ie n c y .
O v e r s t r e e t , H a r r y A l l e n , A G u id e t o C i v i l i z e d L e i s u r e *
New Y o r k : W. W. N o r t o n a n d C o * , I n c . , 193 4*
223 p p .
A p r e s e n t a t i o n o f th e l i b e r a l v ie w s o f th e v a lu e o f
th e r ig h t use o f l e i s u r e ;
su g g e stio n s u n flin c h in g ly
and g e n e r o u s ly s e t f o r t h f o r p r o g r e s s iv e p o l i t i c a l ,
e c o n o m ic ,a n d s o c i a l r e g e n e r a t i o n by i n t e l l i g e n t p l a n ­
n i n g a n d u s e . o f t h e n ew l e i s u r e .
In sp ira tio n a l,
r e f r e s h i n g l y f r e e fro m p e d a g o g ic a l r e s t r a i n t .
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New Y o r k :
P r e s e n ts th e c a u se s o f th e g r e a te r l e i s u r e ; s o c i a l
a n d e c o n o m ic p r o b l e m s s e t u p ;
how w i s e u s e o f l e i s u r e
t h r o u g h e d u c a t i o n m ay e f f e c t u a l l y a i d i n t h e r e c o n ­
s t r u c t i o n o f o u r e c o n o m ic l i f e a n d s o c i a l b e t t e r m e n t .
P a n g h o r n , W eaver W e d d e ll, A d v e n tu r e s i n R e c r e a t i o n :
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P a r t r i d g e , E . D e A lto n , an d C a t h e r i n e M ooney, L i v i n g w i t h
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TKfee
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An e x c e l l e n t c o m p i l a t i o n o f l e i s u r e t i m e a c t i v i t i e s ,
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e x p l a n a t i o n , and in f o r m a tio n on h o b b ie s and in d o o r and
o u td o o r r e c r e a t i o n .
A v a l u a h l e v o lu m e f o r a d u l t o r
c h i l d , p l a y g r o u n d d i r e c t o r , camp g u i d e , o r p a r k a d ­
m in istra to r.
S t i e r i , i l m a n u e l e , T he B oo k o f I n d o o r H o b b i e s . Ne?^ Y o r k :
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P a rtic u la ry fo r th e c ity - d w e lle r : h a n d ic ra fts a t th e
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W indow g a r d e n i n g , c r a f t s , b l o c k p r i n t i n g —
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Hew Y o r k : M i n t o n , B a l c h , 1 9 2 4 .
205 p p .
H eeds f o r h o b b ie s p r e s e n te d ;
ty p e s of h o b b ie s l i s t e d
o f s u f f i c i e n t l y d i f f e r e n t k in d s to a f f o r d a r e a l c h o ic e
t o a p r o s p e c t i v e h o b b y i s t , a n d s u g g e s t new o n e s t o o t h e r s ,
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v a ria tio n .
A w id e a s s o r t m e n t o f p r a c t i c a l h o b b i e s .
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t h e c u l t u r e a s " s p a r e d fro m w o r k ," w h ic h e x i s t e d a s
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th e N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n . 1 9 : 1 4 5 - 7 ,
H ay, 1930.
An e a r l y e x p o s i t i o n o f t h e n e e d s o f e d u c a t i o n f o r
l e i s u r e a s s e e n b y t h e l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g am ong
a d u l t s o f how t o u s e l e i s u r e t i m e i n t e l l i g e n t l y — t o
b u ild a c o n stru c tiv e c itiz e n s h ip .
Ju n io r S c h o la s tic . P itts b u r g h :
2 : 1 - 1 5 , M ay, 1 9 3 8 .
S c h o la s tic C o rp o ra tio n .
T h is e n t i r e e d i t i o n i s g iv e n t o " P la y in g and Re­
c r e a t i n g , " p r e s e n tin g to young p e o p le th e v a lu e o f
c h o o s in g l e i s u r e tim e a c t i v i t i e s to h av e a good tim e .
A b u n d a n tly i l l u s t r a t e d .
159
__________ , E d i t o r i a l , "T h e C a r e a n d F e e d i n g o f H o b b y
H o rs e s ,"
( f e a t u r i n g E a r n e s t E lm o C a l k i n s ) , 2 5 : 3 , O c t o b e r ,
27, 1934.
T h is g iv e s th e a d v a n ta g e s o f e d u c a tio n th r o u g h w e l ly ^ chosen h o b b ie s.
The e n t i r e num ber i s g i v e n t o l e i s u r e
a c t i v i t i e s and h o b b ie s w o rth y o f t h e c a r e f u l s tu d y
f o r j u n io r and s e n i o r h ig h s c h o o l p u p i l s .
Bnnn, A ., " R e c r e a tio n , T h e ra p e u tic V a lu e ,"
T h e ra p y . 1 9 :2 5 7 - 4 5 , A u g u s t, 1 9 4 0 .
O c c u p a tio n a l
T aken a s an e x t r a c t fro m J o e l L. C o n n e lly ’ s l e c t u r e ,
i t s t a t e s t h a t s h o r t e r h o u r s o f l a b o r w i t h o u t c o m m u n ity
p la n n in g f o r r e c r e a t io n c a u se s g r e a te r a b se n te e ism
from w ork th a n an y o th e r f a c t o r ; n e ed o f h e a l t h p r o m o t i n g p l a y i s t h e g r e a t e s t c o m m u n ity p r o b l e m f o r
t h e n e x t few y e a r s , a s s e e n fro m t h e M e d ic o ’ s a n g le .
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The J o u r n a l o f
t h e N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n . 2 1 : 2 5 3 - 4 , N ovem ber,
1932.
T h is a r t i c l e was f i r s t g i v e n a s an a d d r e s s b e f o r e t h e
N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e o f S o c i a l W o rk , w h e r e i n t h e s c h o o l s
a r e g iv e n th e jo b o f d e v is in g m eans o f w is e g u id a n c e
in l e i s u r e - c r a f ts .
M a lle ry , O tto T . , " E d u c a tio n f o r L e i s u r e , "
J o u rn a l o f th e
N a t i o n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c i a t i o n . 2 4 :2 7 3 - 5 , D ecem ber, T 935.
R e p r in t o f an a d d re s s b e f o r e th e A nnual E d u c a tio n
C o n g re ss w h e re in he s t a t e s t h a t r e e r e a t i o n and e d u c a tio n
are in e x tric a b ly ta n g le d .
M cP herson, P a u l, " A d o le s c e n t I n t e r e s t and P u b l i c S c h o o l
M u s i c , " A r i z o n a T e a c h e r . 2 8 : 9 , M ay , 1 9 4 0 .
The w r i t e r o f t h i s a r t i c l e b e l i e v e s t h e r i g h t i n s t r u c ­
t i o n i n m u sic w i l l d e v e lo p c u l t u r a l i n t e r e s t s f o r
l i f e beyond th e s c h o o l.
M e y e r , O u id a R . , " L e i s u r e i n t h e New C u r r i c u l u m , "
T e a c h e rs ’ C o lle g e R e c o rd . 3 7 :5 8 8 , F e b ru a ry , 1936.
T h is a r t i c l e s e t s f o r t h t h e p r o s p e c t s o f a n e m e rg in g
c u ltu r e — th e p ro d u ct o f th e p re s e n t tre n d s o f s tu d ie s
b a s e d on l e i s u r e a s t h e i r th em e — an e s s e n t i a l c u l t u r a l
su b je c t.
160
M y e r , W a l t e r , E d i t o r i a l , "How Ho y o u S p e n d Y o u r T i m e ? "
J u n i o r R e v ie w . 1 3 : 7 , S e p te m b e r 1 6 , 1940*
A f in e e d i t o r i a l s e t t i n g f o r t h f o r ju n io r h ig h p u p ils
th e id e a o f l e a r n i n g t o spend tim e w is e ly *
M o r g a n , J o y E l m e r , E d i t o r i a l , " T h e L e i s u r e o f T o m o r r o w ,”
The J o u r n a l o f t h e N a t i o n a l E d u c a ti o n A s s o c i a t i o n ,
J a n u a r y , 1930*
The e d i t o r e n v i s i o n s t h e l i f e o f t o m o r r o w r e s u l t i n g
fro m w e l l - d i r e c t e d , i n t e l l i g e n t p l a n n i n g i n t e a c h i n g
l e i s u r e p u r s u its to d a y .
, " E d u c a tin g f o r L e i s u r e , ” The J o u r n a l o f t h e
R a tio n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia t io n .
: 1 9 4 , J u n e , 1930*
E s p e c i a l l y p r e p a r e d f o r A m e r i c a n E d u c a t i o n W eek,
g i v i n g a l i s t o f w ays t h e s c h o o l s e n r i c h l e i s u r e .
The s e v e n c a r d i n a l o b j e c t i v e s a r e h e r e i n s t a t e d *
My W e e k ly H e a d e r . C o lu m b u s : A m e r i c a n E d u c a t i o n P r e s s ,
In c * , 1 9 :8 2 , Jan u ary 2 7 -3 1 , 1941.
H ank t h e H o b b y h o rs e g i v e s e n c o u r a g i n g a d y i e e t o
young f o l k s , i n v i t i n g t h e i r c o n tr i b u ti o n s .
P a n g h o r n , f f e a v e r W ., " L e i s u r e a n d t h e S e v e n O b j e c t i v e s , ”
The J o u r n a l o f t h e N a t io n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c i a t i o n .
2 0 :1 2 1 , A p riT 7 1 9 3 1 .
The b e l i e f i s s e t f o r t h t h a t e d u c a t o r s w e re a s e a r l y
a s 1930 m o re an d m ore r e l a t i n g t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p ro g ram
t o r e a l l i f e — w h ic h m u st a ck n o w le d g e t h e s p a r e tim e
a g e n c ie s*
, " R e c r e a t i o n i n N e w a rk ,” The J o u r n a l o f t h e
N a t io n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c i a t i o n . 2 2 :2 4 6 , D ecem ber, 1 933.
T h is i s an e n l i g h t e n i n g a c c o u n t o f N ew ark’ s u n i f i e d
a c tio n to b e t t e r h e r r e c r e a tio n f a c i l i t i e s f o r th e
c itiz e n s of th e e n tir e a re a .
P e c k , G u s t a v , " L e i s u r e a s a n E c o n o m ic P r o b l e m s , ”
R e c r e a t io n . 2 7 :5 1 0 , F e b ru a ry , 1934.
A s h o r t a n d c o n c i s e s t a t e m e n t o f t h e e co n o m ic p r o b le m s
and i n d u s t r i a l c o n d i t i o n s , b e l i e v i n g th e g r e a t e s t
in d u s t r y o f t h e f u t u r e i s th e one p r o v id in g m ost
a d e q u a t e u s e o f l e i s u r e tim e *
161
P o p u la r S c ie n c e ,
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P o p u la r S c ie n c e P u b lis h in g
C o . , I n c . , 1 3 6 : 1 5 7 - 9 , M ay , 1 9 4 0 .
T h i s c o n t a i n s a b r i e f a r t i c l e a b o u t t h e C o m m u n ity
Home W o rk s h o p C l u b s o r g a n i z e d i n m an y c i t i e s t h r o u g h o u t
t h e c o u n t r y , i n c l u d i n g t h e S an D ie g o H o m e c ra ft C lu b ,
w h o s e f i f t y m e m b e rs i n c l u d e d o c t o r s a n d o t h e r p r o ­
f e s s i o n a l m en.
R o g e r s , Jam es E dw ard, " L e t ’ s H ave a H o b b y ," N a t i o n a l
P a r e n t s and T e a c h e r s , 3 2 :1 9 , D ecem ber, 1 9 3 7 .
P ro m a r e p o r t o n t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e W h i t e H o u s e
C o n feren ce:
th o u g h t l e i s u r e i s an a d u lt p ro b le m ,
t h e y o u th m u st be p r e p a r e d th r o u g h a w id e r e p e r t o r y .
S c o t t , H ow ard, " T e c h n o lo g y S m ash es t h e P r i c e S y s t e m ,"
H a r p e r ’ s M a g a z i n e , New Y o r k :
1 6 6 :1 3 0 -4 2 , J a n u a ry , 1933.
A f r a n k s t a t e m e n t o f t h e e c o n o m ic c h a o s i n t h e n a t i o n ,
w h ic h s t e p s upon th e t o e s o f "B ig B u s i n e s s ."
Shhm bach,
"P rep are fo r R e tire m e n t,"
J o u r n a l . 8 6 : 2 8 9 , M ay, 1 9 3 8 .
P e n n sy lv a n ia S ch o o l
S t e i n e r , J e s s e P . , " C h a l l e n g e o f t h e New L e i s u r e , "
R e c r e a tio n . 2 7 :5 1 7 -2 2 , F e b ru a ry , 1934.
A p le a f o r th e e s ta b lis h m e n t in hobby t r a i n i n g in
th e s c h o o ls d e s p ite th e p u b l i c ’ s la c k o f sy m p a th e tic
tind e r s t a n d i n g •
S t o r e y , C h a r l e s J . , "When Y ou R i d e A H o b b y . "
2 7 :5 1 3 -4 , F e b ru a ry , 1934.
R e c re a tio n ,
A good a r t i c l e p r e s e n t i n g th e change o f c o n c e p tio n o f
h o b b ie s fro m a s i l l y w a s te o f tim e t o t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g
t h a t th e y a re an im p o rta n t need in th e b a la n c e o f th e
l i f e o f m an.
S u z z a llo , H enry, " N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n ,"
The J o u r n a l o f t h e
N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia tio n , 1 9 :1 2 4 , A p r i l , 193 0.
P r e s e n t s s i x w a y s i n w h i c h t e a c h i n g o f l e i s u r e m ay
b e m ade e f f e c t i v e , n o t a s a c o m p e t i t o r o f p r o d u c t i v e
w ork, b u t a p a r t n e r to i t .
T a y l o r , P r a n k P . , " E v e ry b o d y ’ s W o rk s h o p ," R e a d e r ’ s D i g e s t .
3 7 :5 5 - 6 , S e p tem b er, 1940.
(A r e p r i n f t f r o m F o r b e s :
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T h r e s h e r , F r e d e r i c k M . , "T h e Y o u n g Man a n d H i s L e i s u r e , "
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A v e ry i n s t r u c t i v e s h o r t a r t i c l e a im in g t o h e lp t h e
y o u nger p r o p le r e a l i z e th e n eed f o r a d e q u a te p la n n in g
f o r l e i s u r e tim e .
Wayman, A g n e s R . , " P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n f o r t h e F u t u r e , "
J o u rn a l o f H e a lth and P h y s ic a l E d u c a tio n . 6 :3 - 6 ,
Ja n u a ry , 1935.
A g o o d a r t i c l e o n t h e p h y s i c a l p r o g r a m a n d how i t a im s
to d e v e lo p c h a r a c t e r and le a d e r s h ip f o r f u t u r e h a b i t s .
W e t z e l , W. A . , " L e i s u r e a n d t h e S c h o o l s , ”
2 6 :2 7 5 -6 , S e p te m b e r, 1932.
R e c re a tio n .
An a c k n o w l e d g m e n t t h a t m o d e r n e d u c a t i o n m u s t r e c o g n i z e
t h e d e m a n d s f o r l e i s u r e t i m e e m p lo y m e n t i n o t h e r t h i n g s
th a n h a p h a z a rd k i l l i n g o f tim e .
W h i t e , W. A . , " L e i s u r e T im e A c t i v i t y a n d C h a r a c t e r B u i l d i n g , "
M in d a n d B o d y . A p r i l , 1 9 3 3 .
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J o u r n a l o f E l e m e n t a r y E d u c a t i o n . 6 : 2 4 8 - 5 3 , M ay, l£ & 8 .
T he D i s t r i c t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f W h i t t i e r P u b l i c S c h o o l s
s t a t e s t h e n e e d s f o r new t r e n d s i n r e c r e a t i o n a l l i f e ,
b e s t e m p h a size d th r o u g h p r o p e r e d u c a tio n and g u id a n c e
in sc h o o l.
W i l l i a m s , W. A . , " L e i s u r e o n P a r a d e , "
1 1 :7 3 - 9 , D ecem b er, 1 9 3 8 .
C.
A d u lt E d u c a tio n .
BULLETINS AND PAMPHLETS
C h a m b e r lin , J o , " H o b b ie s C an P a y D iv id e n d s ,* ?
S c ie n c e
R e s e a r c h . ( N a t i o n 's B u s i n e s s ) , C h ic a g o :
R e p r i n t N o.
45^
~
A m onograph p a r t i c u l a r l y p la n n e d f o r s u g g e s t i n g t o
a d u l t s how t o e s c a p e b o r e d o m i n t h e i r own b a c k y a r d s .
163
C u t t e n , G e o rg e B a r t o n , " C h a lle n g e o f L e i s u r e , ” M odern
P r o b l e m S e r i e s , .A m e ric a n E d u c a t i o n P r e s s . C o lu m b u s ,
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19 p p .
U n it S tu d y B o o k le t 1 0 , g iv e s a c l e a r , c o n c is e
sta te m e n t o f th e s e r io u s s o c ia l r e s u l t s o f th e in d u s­
t r i a l r e v o lu tio n , th e u n p re p a re d n e ss to m eet le is u r e
p r o b le m s ; w h a t p a r t e d u c a t i o n m u st p l a y t o s o l v e th em .
G lo v e r, K a th e rin e , "L e isu re f o r L iv in g ,"
C o m m itte e on
Y o u t h P r o b l e m s . S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f B o c u m e n t s . W a s E T n g to n .
157737: 1 9 3 8 “.
A d v i c e t o y o u n g p e o p l e who f i n d
t o s e l e c t w h o leso m e a v o c a t i o n s .
le isu re
on t h e i r h a n d s,
H e a lth B u lle tin fo r T e a c h e rs. M e tro p o lita n L ife In su ra n ce
C o . , P r e s s , New Y o r k : ^ o l . 8 , J a n u a r y , 1 9 3 7 .
P re s e n ts a sp le n d id l i s t
l e i s u r e tim e .
of su g g e stio n s fo r use of
J o n e s , V ernon M ., " S y lla b u s i n t h e P s y c h o lo g y o f C h a r a c t e r , "
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The dem ands a r e s e t f o r t h t h a t g ro w th m u s t b e c o n t i n u o u s ,
f o r c h ild , te a c h e r , and s o c i e t y .
K e a f n e s , W. A . , TA n n u a l R e p o r t . P l a y g r o u n d a n d R e c r e a t i o n
D e p a rtm e n t, C i ty o f San D ie g o , C a l i f o r n i a , J u ly 1 , 1938June 3 0 , 1939.
An u n p u b l i s h e d b u l l e t i n g i v i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s
o f th e c i t y q u o te d .
L e isu re .
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16 p p .
" H o w 't o r u n a H o bb y Show " w a s p r e p a r e d b y R e a d e r s *
S e rv ic e B ureau, g iv in g s u g g e s tio n s f o r e x h ib itin g
h o b b ie s, o rg a n iz a tio n , p u b l ic ity , tr a n s p o r ta tio n ,
and c o m m itte e s.
L in d e m a n , E d u a rd C . , " L e i s u r e a N a t i o n a l I s s u e , "
New Y o r k :
A s s o c i a t i o n P r e s s , 347 M a d iso n A v en u e, A u g u s t, 1 9 3 9 .
An e x c e l l e n t s e t t i n g f o r t h o f p r o b l e m s a n d i s s u e s
to be c o n s id e r e d in n a t i o n a l p la n n in g t o m eet th e
n e e d s o f t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l m o v e m e n t.
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A s m a ll, v e s t - p o c k e t s i z e d p a m p h le t s e t t i n g f o r t h
b r i e f l y t h e p ro b le m s t o be f a c e d by s h o r te n e d h o u rs
o f w o rk , a n d g i v in g a l i s t o f s u g g e s t i o n s f o r s tu d y
o f th e p ro b le m s.
N a tio n a l R e c re a tio n A s s o c ia tio n .
New Y o r k :
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N a tio n a l
An e i g h t y - t h r e e p a g e b u l l e t i n , s e t t i n g f o r t h t h e
l e i s u r e h o u r s o f 5002 p e o p l e , w h a t t h e y d o , and w h a t
th e y w o u ld l i k e t o d o , f a c i l i t i e s p e r m i t t i n g .
,
" R e c r e a t i o n , 'a C o m m u n ity P r o b l e m , ”
1936.
A p a m p h le t g iv in g an sw ers to th e m a jo r i n q u i r i e s
a b o u t R e c re a tio n a s a P ro b le m , a n a t i o n a l i s s u e , an d
th e need f o r o rg a n iz a tio n .
<•
," T w e n t y - f o u r t h N a t i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n a l C o n g r e s s , ”
The r e p o r t s o f t h e p r o c e e d in g s b y t h e e n t i r e C o n g re ss
r e p r e s e n t i n g a l l a r e a s , by i n d i v i d u a l s , c o m m issio n s
and c i t i e s o f r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s th ro u g h o u t th e
n a tio n .
N a t io n a l S o c i e t y f o r S tu d y o f E d u c a tio n .
B lo o m in g to n ,
1 1 1 i n o i s , !Pub l i e Sc ho o l T u b 1 i s h i n g C o . , 1 9 2 6 , 13 p p .
C u rric u lu m m a t e r i a l t o be v a l i d a t e d by a n a l y s i s o f
a c t i v i t i e s b o th o f a d u l t s and c h il d r e n .
D a ta fro m
a d u lt l i f e h e lp s to d e te rm in e i n t e r e s t s o f c h ild r e n .
P e y s e r , E t h e l , " P u n w i t h a H o b b y , ” Home I n s t i t u t e ,
L os A n g e le s E x a m in e r, 1 9 3 8 . 34 p p .
^ n G .,
T h is p a m p h le t s e t s f o r t h th e id e a s t h a t a hobby,
f o r e n jo y m e n t, s h o u ld e x p re s s t h e i n d i v i d u a l , and
le a d to se lf-im p ro v e m e n t.
S t e i n e r , J e s s e L . , " D e v e l o p m e n t o f L e i s u r e T im e A c t i v i t i e s
i n A m e r i c a , ” P r e s i d e n t ’ s R e s e a r c h C o m m itte e o n S B ocla'l
S o c i a l T r e n d s , fro m A m e ric an s a t P l a y , Y o rk , P e n n s y l v a n ia :
T h e M a p l e P r e s s C o . , 1 9 3 3 , 1 9 6 pp#
166
T ra c e s th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s in a l l
a s p e c t s , and th e g r a d u a l change b e in g w rought to
l e s s e x p e n s i v e , m ore c u l t u r a l *
T h o r n e , Mrs* Ja m e s W a r d , " M i n i a t u r e R o o m s ,"
F re y C o ., San F r a n c i s c o , 1940.
S chw abacher-
T h is c h a rm in g c a t a l o g u e c o n t a i n s an i n t r o d u c t i o n o f
M rs. T h o rn e ’ s g i r l h o o d hobby d e v e lo p e d to a n a t i o n a l ­
l y r e c o g n iz e d h o b b y - e x h ib it, and i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f
som e o f t h e m o s t f a m o u s .
T r o w , W i l l i a m C l a r k , R o s a l i n d M. Z a p f , a n d H a r r y C . McKbwn,
" R e c r e a tio n and L e i s u r e , "
The J u n i o r C i t i z e n S e r i e s
f o r Home Rooms a n d G r o u p C o n f e r e n c e s , M c G r a w - H i l l B ook
C o . , I n c . , New Y o r k , 1 9 4 0 .
The p a m p h le t c o n t a i n s t w e n t y - s i x in f o r m a l q u e s t i o n answ er le s s o n s c h e c k in g p u p i l - i n t e r e s t s to s e r v e in
g u id a n c e p ro g ra m s.
W o r C h e s t e r , Wood F . , A n n u a l R e p o r t , P r o b a t i o n D e p a r t m e n t
o f S an D ie g o C o u n ty , C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 7 .
T h is in s u b s ta n c e g iv e s th e j u v e n i l e d e lin q u e n c y
o f t h e c o u n t y , w h i c h s e r v e d i n som e m e a s u r e a s b a s i s
o f s t a t i s t i c s in la u n c h in g th e c o u rse o f t h i s t h e s i s .
U. S . B u l l e t i n . 1 9 3 6 . No. 1 8 . D e p a rtm e n t o f t h e I n t e r i o r .
H a r o l d L . I c k e s , S e c r e t a r y , C o m m i t te e o n Y o u t h
P r o b l e m s , O f f i c e o f E d u c a t i o n , J . W. S t u d e b a k e r ,
C o m m issio n er o f E d u c a t i o n .
"Y o u th s
L e i s u r e f o r L i v i n g " , was p u b l i s h e d f o r t h e
p u rp o se o f a s s i s t i n g y o d th a g e n c ie s in r e a c r e a t i o n a l
n e e d s ; r e p o r t s o f c o u n try -w id e o r i g i n .
D.
UNPUBLISHED MASTER’ S THESIS
B u e h le r , Jo h n B e n ja m in , S tu d y o f L e is u r e - T im e A c t i v i t i e s
o f H ig h S c h o o l B o y s.
U n p u b lish e d M a s te r ’s t h e s i s ,
U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s ,
C a lif o r n ia , 1937.
227 p p .
A stu d y o f h ig h sc h o o l b o y s’ u se o f l e is u r e w ith th e
a im o f m a k i n g r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r h e l p f u l g u i d a n c e t o
th e p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n d e p a rtm e n ts.
C a n n o n , C h a r l e s H e a t o n , S u r v e y o f L e i s u r e T im e A c t i v i t i e s
on t h e J u n i o r H ig h L e v e l # U n p u b lis h e d M a s t e r ’ s t h e s i s ,
U n iv e r s ity o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s, C a li f o r n ia
1 9 3 6 , 103 p p .
A su rv e y a im in g t o a tte m p t l o c a t i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s
f o r d i r e c t i o n o f l e i s u r e tim e t r a i n i n g f o r c h a r a c t e r .
C o r n e l i s o n , N ova E . , S u r v e y o f L e i s u r e T im e A c t i v i t i e s o f
S e n i o r H ig h S c h o o l G i r l s .
tJn p u b lish e d ' M a s t e r ’ s t h e s T s ,
U n iv e r s ity o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s, C a l­
if o r n ia , 1934.
78 p p .
P r e s e n t i n g n e e d s am ong h i g h s c h o o l g i r l s f o r w i s e
g u id a n c e in l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s , and th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s
u p o n t h e s c h o o l s t o p r o v i d e w h o le so m e i d e a s .
F a r r , M a r j o r i e W ., H i s t o r y a n d D e v e l o p m e n t o f S c h o o l
R e c re a tio n .
U n p u b lish e d M a s te r ’ s t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i ty
o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s , C a l i f o r n i a , 1 939.
143 p p .
G e o r g ia , A l i c e R o s e , P ro b le m s o f A d ju s tm e n t o f In c o m in g
J u n i o r H ig h S c h o o l P u p i l s .
U n p u b lish e d E a s t e r ’ s t h e s i s ,
U n iv e r s ity o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s, C a li f o r n ia
1939.
91 p p .
W hat t h e j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l a i m s s h o u l d b e i n f i n d i n g s
c o u r s e s f o r e d u c a t i o n a l and s o c i a l g u id a n c e .
H a n l o n , J e n n i e , S t u d y o f L e i s u r e T im e A c t i v i t i e s o f a G ro u p
o f J u n i o r H ig h S c h o o l G i r l s .
U n p u b lish e d M a ste rTs t h e s i s
U n i v e r s i ty o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s , C a l i f o r n i a
1937.
101 p p .
How t h e s c h o o l s a n d c o m m u n ity m u s t t a k e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y
i n i n d i v i d u a l an d g ro u p a c t i v i t i e s f o r w o r th w h ile u s e s
of le isu re .
H a r r i s , T h e l m a , How To M ake C o n s t r u c t i v e U s e o f L e i s u r e .
U n p u b lish e d M a s te r ’ s t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i ty o f S o u th e rn
C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s , C a l i f o r n i a , 1939.
310 p p .
C h u r c h - s c h o o l c o m m u n ity g r o u p w i t h r e c r e a t i o n l e a d e r s
i n t e r e s t e d i n d i s c o v e r i n g m ore c o n s t r u c t i v e and s a t i s ­
f a c t o r y w ays t o u s e l e i s u r e — t o h e lp p e o p le f i n d
s o lu tio n s .
168
H e th e r in g to n , R u th L ., E v a lu a tio n o f I n s t r u c t i o n in L e is u r e
T im e H o b b i e s i n P h o e n i x J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l # U n p u b l i s h e d
M a s te r’s th e s T s , U n iv e r s ity o f S o u th e rn C a li f o r n ia ,
L o s A n g e l e s , C a l i f o r n i a , 19 3 7 *
148 p p .
I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f ra n g e and ty p e s o f h ig h s c h o o l
i n t e r e s t s and w h a t t h e s c h o o l i n i t s p r e s e n t c u r r i c ­
u l u m d o e s t o d i r e c t c h o i c e a n d i n s t r u c t them #
M a y e r , R o y W ., I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f T im e B u d g e t s o f H i g h S c h o o l
S e n io rs.
U n p u b lish e d M a s te r ’ s t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i ty o f
S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s , C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 5 .
10 3 p p .
A su rv e y to s e c u re d a ta n e c e s s a r y to p la n pro g ram to
i n s t r u c t s t u d e n t s how t o u s e s m a l l a m o u n ts o f l e i s u r e t i m e .
P e a r s o n , A d e le n e P o n t i M c C a rty , S tu d y o f t h e D e v e lo p m e n t o f
R e c r e a t i o n a l I n t e r e s t s o f S e v e n ty J u n i o r H ig h S c h o o l
G irls.
U n p u b lish e d M a s te r ’ s t h e s i s , U n iv e r s ity o f
S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s, C a l i f o r n i a , 1936.
118 p p .
A stu d y o f s e v e n ty g i r l s ’ r e c r e a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s w ith
p u rp o s e o f s t i m u l a t i n g i n t e r e s t s th r o u g h p l a y , gam es,
and r e c r e a t i o n .
R i t t e r , E d i t h W e lb o u rn e , The R e l a t i o n o f L e i s u r e t o t h e
G i r l s ’ P h y s i c a l E d u c a tio n P ro g ram o f th e S e c o n d a ry
S c h o o ls.
U n p u b lish e d M a s te r ’s th e s T s , U n i v e r s i t y o f
S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s , C a l i f o r n i a , 1937.
153 p p .
How p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s
l e i s u r e tim e i n t e r e s t s .
sh o u ld b e sp o n so re d to d e v e lo p
M e r k e l y , J o h n L . , A S u r v e y o f L e i s u r e T im e A c t i v i t i e s o f
J u n i o r H ig h S c h o o l B o y s . U n p u b lis h e d M a s t e r ’ s th e 's T s ,
U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s , C a l i f o n n i a ,
An i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f u n d e r p r i v i l a g e d b o y s a n d a c t i v i t i e s
u n d i r e c t e d , l e a d i n g t o d e lin q u e n c y , and w hat u n iq u e
t y p e o f s c h o o l m i g h t do f o r t h e m i n e x t e n d i n g t h e i r
i n t e r e s t s a lo n g t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l b e n ts in h e a lth y
c h a n n e ls .
169
R o b e r t s , B. L . , I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f L e i s u r e T im e A c t i v i t i e s
o f F a c u l t y M em b ers o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n
C a l i f o r n i a * U n p u b lish e d M a s te r ’s th e s T s , U n i v e r s i ty
o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , L o s A n g e l e s , C a l i f o r n i a , 1936#
171 p p .
A s u r v e y m ad e o f l e i s u r e t i m e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e f a c u l t y ,
and w h a t t h e d e p a rtm e n t o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a tio n a t t h e
u n i v e r s i t y m i g h t do t o p r o v i d e f a c i l i t i e s f o r p h y s i c a l
e x e rc ise .
S l a t e r , P a u l i n e L o y o la , D e v elo p m en t o f D e s i r a b l e C h a r a c t e r
T r a i t s T h r o u g h L e i s u r e T im e A c t i v i t i e s o f t h e
C re a tiv e
Type.
U n p u b lish e d M a s te r ’ s t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f
S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s , C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 7 .
94 p p .
P ro m o tio n s o f a p ia n t o d e v elo p c h a r a c t e r th ro u g h a
l e i s u r e tim e p ro g ram o f t h e c r e a t i v e ty p e in a y o u th
g ro u p i n o n eco m m u n ity i n L os A n g e l e s .
S t r o n g , A. L . , L e i s u r e T im e A c t i v i t i e s o f S t u d e n t s .
U n p u b lish e d M a s te r ’ s t h e s i s , U n iv e r s i ty of S o u th e rn
C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s , C a l i f o r n i a , 1935.
140 p p .
G ra n tin g n e ed s f o r l e i s u r e - t i m e t r a i n i n g , f o r l e i s u r e
e n t e r t a i n m e n t , a n d t h e p a r t m u s i c m ay p l a y i n f o r m i n g
th e c u l t u r a l b a ck g ro u n d to be d e s i r e d .
T a y l o r , E d i t h B l a n c h e , An A n a l y s i s o f t h e R e l a t i o n s h i p
B e tw ee n C e r t a i n d u n i o r H ig h S c h o o l ~ S u b j e c t s a n d
L e i s u r e T im e A c t i v i t i e s o f t h e S t u d e n t s .
U n p u b lish e d
M a s te r’ s t h e s i s , U n iv e r s ity o f S o u th e rn C a li f o r n ia ,
Los A n g e le s , C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 8 .
I l l pp.
W eaver, F r e d r i c L ynn, D e lin q u e n c y C o n e e n tr a tio n s i n th e
C i t y o f S an D ie g o . U n p u b lis h e d M a s t e r ’s th esT is,
U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s ,
C a lif o r n ia , 1933.
70 p p .
A r e s e a r c h p r o b l e m m ade t h r o u g h t h e c o u n t y p r o b a t i o n
o f f i c e a n d 350 b o y s a n d f i f t y g i r l s , s h o w i n g h i g h e s t
p e rc e n ta g e o f d e lin q u e n c y f o r boys aro u n d f i f t e e n
y e a r s , a n d g i r l s n e a r l y t h e sa m e, sh o w in g n e e d s f o r
r e c r e a t io n a l p la n n in g f o r l e i s u r e h o u rs.
APPENDIX
4 SURVEY OF ADULT HQHBY IImTSBFSTS XU SAU DIEGO
1.
What i s your c h o ic e o f l e i s u r e tim e a v o c a tio n s ?
2.
A verage number o f h o u rs sp e n t p e r week 0:1 a v o c a t i o n ?
3.
A verage f i n a n c i a l o u tla y p e r y e a r on a v o c a t i o n ?
H,
At what age begun?
5.
C o n d itio n s of b e g in n in g :
(Check one)
Home in f lu e n c e .
S u g g e stio n o f f r i e n d s .
__Current p o p u la r i n t e r e s t .
School s t u d i e s .
S p e c if ic p e r s o n a l n e e d s.
7.
I f you have a d d i t i o n a l h o b b ie s,
p le a s e namej____________________
_
h o u rs .
| ______________________
__ __________ y e a r s .
6.
I f you b elo n g to a hobby c lu b ,
_______
p le a s e name: ______
I f you sp o n so r any g i r l s ’ o r b o y s '
c l u b , p le a s e nam e:
Answers to q u e s tio n s below t h i s l i n e w i l l n o t o b lig a te you in any way.
However, you a r e u r g e n t ly re q u e s te d to c o n tr ib u te w hat you can to th e d a ta
needed in making, t h i s s u rv e y .
9.
What i s y our p r e s e n t o ccu p atio n ?
______________________
-
10.
What was y o u r p e t hobby d u rin g a d o le sc e n c e ?
11.
Do you th in k e a r l y sc h o o l t r a i n i n g in w orthy u s e of l e i s u r e m ight have
g iv e n you b e t t e r id e a s how to u se l e i s u r e now? Yes__________ ITo_________
12 .
Are you w i l l i n g to be v i s i t e d by a d e le g a tio n o f s e v e n th g ra d e p u p ils
i n t e r e s t e d in y o u r hobby? Yes_________Ho________
13.
Are you w i l l i n g to g iv e a t a l k ab o u t l e i s u r e tim e p u r s u i t s , o r ab o u t
y o u r hobby to a s e v e n th grade c l a s s , i f c irc u m sta n c e s p e rm it?
Yes
Ho
Your name s ig n e d t o t h i s q u e s tio n n a ir e w i l l be r e p la c e d by a code
number and u sed o n ly by th e i n v e s t i g a t o r in ca.se of a f f ir m a tiv e r e p l i e s to
q u e s tio n s 12 and 1 3 .
Name__________________________________________________
Code (
)
T elephone___________ A ddress________________________
172
INITIAL SURVEY OF SEVENTH GRADE HOBBIES
1.
What do you l i k e to do "best in y o u r p la y tim e? __________________________
2.
About how much tim e a week do you spend on i t ? _____________________ h o u r s .
3.
About
how much money do you spend on y o u r hobby in a y e a r? $
U, P u t check mark b e f o r e th e q u e s tio n to w hich y o u r answ er i s
YES.
(_____ ) D id you g e t i n t e r e s t e d in y o u r hobby a t home?
(_____ ) D id someone o u ts id e o f sch o o l o r home i n t e r e s t you?
(
) Did you g e t i n t e r e s t e d in y o u r hobby in sch o o l?
5-
Name any c lu b s o r o r g a n iz a tio n s you b e lo n g to
6.
I f you have more th a n one hobby* p le a s e name
7.
I f you do n o t b e lo n g to any c lu b , t e l l why.
%*
I f you do n o t have a hobby, t e l l why
9.
T e ll what hobby you would l ik o to have
10.
What kinds o f books do you l i k e b e s t?
(
(
(
(
11,
(Check one)
) M ystery s t o r i e s
) T ra v e l s t o r i e s
) N a tu re and anim al s t o r i e s
) How t o make o r do th in g s
What k in d a o f m agazines do you l i k e b e s t?
(
) B o y s1 and G i r l s ’ m agazines
(
) T ra v e l
(
) N atu re
(_____) How to make and do th in g s
(
) O ld er p e o p le ’s m agazines
(Check one)
_________
FINAL SURVEY OF SEVENTH GRADE HOBBIES
1.
What do you l i k e d o in g b e s t o u t o f sch o o l s in c e e n te r in g R o o se v e lt?
2.
How many h o u rs a week do you spend d o in g i t ? _______________________ h o u rs .
3*
I f you have s t a r t e d a hobby s in c e coming to R o o s e v e lt, p lee.se name i t .
h.
Check one q u e s tio n to w hich y o u r answ er i s 1ES.
D id you g e t i n t e r e s t e d i n y o u r hobby i n :
( ) Home room?
( ) E n g lish ?
(__ ) C ycle c o u rse s ?
( ) P h y s ic a l E d u catio n ?
(__ ) At home?
(__ ) O u tsid e p eo p le?
5.
Name any c lu b o r o r g a n iz a tio n you have jo in e d s in c e S eptem ber.
6.
i f you have more th a n one hobby, p le a s e name.
7.
i f you s t i l l do n o t b elo n g to a c lu b , t e l l why.
s.
i f you s t i l l do n o t have any hobby, t e l l why.
9.
T e ll what hobby you would l i k e to hove.
10.
'
What k in d s o f books have you become i n t e r e s t e d in s in c e coming to
R o o se v e lt?
(____) M ystery s t o r i e s
(____) T ra v e l
(___ ) N atu re and an im als
11.
(____ ) How to mako o r do th in g s
(
) H obbies
What m agazines have you become i n t e r e s t e d in s in c e com ing to
R o o se v e lt?
(___ ) G irls* and B oys1 m agazines
(___ ) T ra v e l
(___ ) N atu re
(___ ) How to make o r do th in g s
(
) O lder p e o p l e d m agazines
(___ ) Hobbies
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